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Full text of "The Kindergarten-Primary Magazine"

The Motessori Method jJSt^lSZ^^ 




SEPTEMBER, 1912 



INDEX TO CONTENTS 

Editorial Notes, ...-..- 

How to Apply Kindergarten Principles and 

Methods in Village and Rural Schools, Dr. Jenny B. Merrill, 
The School Master and the Cabbages, R. M. Bean, 
The Montessori Method and the Kinder- 



garten, - - • 

A Year in the Kindergarten, 
A Church Playground, 
Being Well Born, 

Report of Committee of Investigation, 
Woman and the Ballot, 
Directing Native Impulses, 
Teach About Sexes of Animals, 
The Committee of the Whole, 
The Black Nicks and the White Nicks, 
What the Drug Habit Means, 
A Prayer, - 

Booklet Designs, 
Knots and Stitches, 
Upon Presenting the First Gift Balls to a 

Baby, 
Kindergarten Growth, 
Calendar for September, 
New Kindergarten Games and Plays, 
little Pieces for Little People, 
A Program for Columbus Day, 
Hints and Suggestions for Rural Teachers, Grace Dow, 
Educational News, ..... 

Training School Items, .... 

Personal Mention, - - - - 



W. N. Hailmann, Ph 
Harriette McCarthy, 
Dr.JennjyB. Merrill, 
David Starr Jordan, 
Nina C. Vandewalker, 
Dr. Luther H. Gulick, 

Prof. C. H. Henderson, 

Dr. Mary Blount, 

Bertha Johnston, 

Susan Plessner Pollock 
Charles R. Tovvne, 

Marguerite B. Sutton, 



2 
4 

D., 6 



Bertha Johnston, 

Marguerite B. Sutton, 
Laura Rountree Smith, 
Laura Rountree Smith, 



10 
10 
11 

14 
14 
14 
15 
17 
17 
17 
18 
19 

20 
21 
21 
22 
23 
24 
26 
27 
28 
28 



Volume XXV, No. 1. 



$1.00 per Year, 15 cents per Copy 



RELIABLE TEACHERS' AGENCIES OF AMERICA 



The TEACHERS' EXCHANGE of Boston 

Recommends Teachers, Tutois and 
Schools. No. 120 Boylston street. 



THE PRATT TEACHERS' AGENCY 

Recomends college and normal gradu- 
ates, specialists, and other teachers to 
colleges, public and private schools, in 
all parts of the country. Advises pa- 
rents about schools. 

WM. O. PRATT, Manager 
70 Fifth Avenue New York 



MIDLAND SPECIALISTS AGENCY 

Station A. Spokane, Wash. 

We will have openings for a large num- 
ber of Primary and Kindergarten teach- 
ers. No enrollment fees. Blank and 
booklet for the asking. 



REGISTER WITH US. 

We need Kindergarten Teachers, Supt. 

Principals. Teachers of Science, Math- 

ematics and Language. 

OHIO VALLEY TEACHERS' AGENCY 

A. J. JOELY. Mtfr. MENTOR, KY. 



We wantKindergarten, Primary ,Ru: 
and otherteachers for regularor spec 
work. Highest salaries^ Send for 1 
erature and enroll for the coming year. 

P. Wendell Murray, Manager 



Unemployed Teachers 

IF FOR ANY REASON YOU HAVE 
NOT ACCEPTED WORK FOR THE 
SESSION OF 1912-1913 WRITE ME. 
MANY UNEXPECTED VACANCIES 
OCCUR ALL DURING THE FALL 
AND WINTER. THEKE ARE ALSO 
MANY SCHOOLS WHICH DO NOT 
OPEN UNTIE LATE IN THE FALL. 
OVERFLOW TEACHERS ARE CON- 
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WHERE. IF OPEN, WRITE FOR 
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W. H. JONES, Mgr. and Prop. 
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310-311 PROVIDENCE BUILDING 
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HOME OCCUPATIONS 

FOR BOYS AND GIRLS 

By BERTHA JOHNSTON 

"Mother finds some happy work for 
idle hands to do," is the idea that 
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Literature Building Evanston. Illinois 

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I 



American Primary Teacher 

Edited by A. E. WINSHIP 

Published Monthly Except July and Autfust 
An up-to-date, wide awake paper for the grades. Illustrated 
articles on Industrial Geography. New Work in the Grades, 
Drawing, Fables in Silhouette and other school room work. 
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6 BEACON STREET, BOSTON 



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The best school journal published in the South, the 
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THE EDUCATIONAL EXCHANGE 

BIRMINGHAM, ALA. 

Get in touch with the New South, learn something of 
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Magazine. 



RELIABLE KINDERGARTEN TRAINING SCHOOLS OF AMERICA 



Miss Whcelock's Kindergarten 
Training School 



134 NEWBURY ST. 
Boston, Mass. 



Regular course of two years. Special 
course of one year for post graduates. 
Students' Home at Marenholz. For cir- 
culars address, 

LUCY WHEELOCK 



KINDERGARTEN TRAINING SCHOOL 

H2 St. Stephen Street, Boston. 

Normal Course, two years. 

For circulars address 

Miss Lucy Harris Symonds 



Kindergarten Normal Department 

of the Kate Baldwin 

Free Kindergarten Association 
Savannah, Georgia. 

For Information, address 

HORTENSE M. ORCUTT, Principal of 

the Training School and Supervisor of 

Kindergartens, 326 Bull Street, 

Savannah, Georgia. 



Springfield Kindergarten 

Normal Training School 



HATTIE TWICHELL, 

«PR!NC,Firci.l>— LOKOMRADOW, MASS' 



Kindergarten Normal Department 

Ethical Culture School 

For information address 

MISS CAROLINE T. HAVEN, Principal, 

Central Park West and 63d St. 

NEW YORK 



Atlanta Kindergarten 

Normal School 



Two Years' Course of Study. 
Chartered 1897. 
For particulars address 

WILLETTE A. ALLEN, Principal, 
G39 Peachtree Street, ATLANTA, GA 




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ALICE E. FITTS, Director 

Year of 1913-13 opens Sept. 30. 



The Tenth Gift 



Stick Laying in 
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With this book and a box of sticks any 
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The work is fully illustrated. 
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KINDERGARTEN COLLEGE 



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MRS. WILLIAM McCRACKEN, Secretary, 

3439 Fifth Avenue, Pittsburgh, Pa. 



THE NEWYORK KINDERGARTEN 
-ASSOCIATION- 

UNUSUAL ADVANTAG 
GRADUATE STUDY 

Season of 1912-1913 

PUBLIC LECTURES 

Hamilton \V. Mabie; Prof. Arthur \V. 

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GRADUATE COURSES 

Games Playground 

Great Literature Program 

Kindergarten Gilts / Psychology 
Mother Play - Supervision' 

Kindergarten Occupations 

TUITION FREE 
Apply for Prospectus to 

Miss Laura Fisher 



TRAINING SCHOOL 



The Buffalo Kindergarten Association 

Two Years' Course. 

Vor ps.rtieulars address 

MISS ELLA C. EUDER, 
x<» I>e!:«»:ue 4vpnue, - Buffalo. N. T. 



GRAND RAPIDS KINDERGAR- 
TEN TRAINING SCHOOE 

CERTIFICATE, DIPLOMA AND 

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CLARA WHEELER, Principal 

MAY L. OGiLBY. Registrar 

ttiooard Building, - 23 Fountain St. 

OR AND RAPTDS, MICH. 



■CLEVELAND. 



Kindergarten Training School 

IN AFFILIATION WITH Til E 

National Kinderg-arten Colleg-e 
2050 East 96th Street, Cleveland, Ohio 

Founded in 1894 
Course of study under direction of Eliz- 
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Cleveland, leading to Senior and Nor- 
mal Courses in the National Kinder- 
garten College. 

MISS NETTA FARRIS, Principal 



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Get them for the asking. 

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Southern Teachers' Ag-ency 3 

Columbia, South Carolina. 



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Directors: Mrs. Ethel Roe Lindgren, 

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For circulars apply to Chicago Kindergarten Institute, 54 Scott St. 



Teachers College 

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Accredited by State Board of Educa- 
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Special classes in Public School Draw- 
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Send for catalogue. 

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23rd and Alabama Street, 

INDIANAPOLIS, IND. 



Mice Harfc TRAINING SCHOOL 

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3600 Walnut Street. Philadelphia 
Junior, Senior, Graduate and Normal 
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For particulars address 

MISS CAROLINE M. C. HART 
The Pines, Rutledtfe. Pa. 



OHIO, TOLEDO, 2313 Ashland Ave. 

THE MISSES LAW'S 



Medical supervision. Personal attention. 
Thirty-five practice schools. 
Certificate and Diploma Courses. 
MART E. LAW, M. D., Principal. 



Miss Cora Webb Peet 

KINDERGARTEN NORMAL TRAINING 
SCHOOL 

Two Tears' Course. 
For circulars, address 

MISS CORA WEBB PEET, 
16 Washington St., East Orange. N. 3. 



PESTALOZZI-FKOEBEL 

Kindergarten Training 
School 

509 S. Wabash Ave., Opposite Auditorium 

Mrs Bertha Holer Hegner, Superintendent 
Mrs. Amelia Hofer Jerome, Principal. ■ 

FIFTEENTH YEAR. 
Regular course two years. Advanced 
courses tor Graduate Students. A course 
In Home Making. Includes opportunity to 
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equipment. Forclrculars and Information 

MRS. BERTHA HOFER-HEGNEB, 

West Chicago, 111. 



KINDERGARTEN TRAINING SCHOOL 

Resident home for a limited number o! 

students. 

Chicago Free Kindergarten Association 

H. N. Higinbotham, Pres. 
Mrs. P. D. Armour, Vice-Pres. 



Northwestern and Chicago 1'niversities. 
For particulars address Eva B. Whit- 
more, Supt., 6 E. Madison St., cor. Mich 
ave., Chicago. 



The Adams School 
Kindergarten Training Course 

• (Two Years) 

Nine months' practice teaching dur- 
ing course. Address, 

The Misses Adams 

26 So. Clinton St., East Orange, N. J. 



THE RICHMOND TRAINING SCHOOL 

for Kindergartners 
Richmond, Va. 

Virginia Mechanics' Institute Building, 
Richmond, Virginia. 
Two years' training In Theory and 
Practice of Froebelian Ideals. Post- 
Graduate Course, also Special Classes for 
Primary Teachers. 

LUCY S. COLEMAN, Director. 
MRS. W. W. ARCHER, Sec. and Treas. 



1874— Kindergarten Normal Institutions— 191 1 

1816 Colombia Road N. VV., WASHINGTON D. C. 

The citizenship of the future depends on the children of today. 

Susan Plestner Pollok, Principal. 

Teachers' Training Course — Two Years. 

Bummer Trailing Classes at Mt. Chatauqua — Mountain Lake Park — 
Garrett Co., Maryland. 



THE HARRIETTE MELISSA MILLS 
KINDERGARTEN TRAINING SCHOOL 

In Affiliation with New York University 

For information address 

MISS HARRIETTE M.MILLS, Principal 

New York University Building 

Washington Square, New York City. 

Kindergarten 

Courses given for credit at 

New York University Summer School 



Oakland Kindergarten 

TRAINING SCHOOL 

2119 Allston Way, Berkeley, Calif. 

Grace Everett Barnard, 

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THE KINDERGARTEN 



-PRIMARY- 



MAGAZINE 



Published on the first of each Month, except July and Aug- 
ust at Manistee, Mich., U. S. A. Subscription price, $1.00 per 
Annum, postpaid in U. S., Hawaiian Islands. Phillipines, Guam, 
Porto Rico, Samoa, Shanghai, Canal Zone, Cuba, Mexico. For 
Canada add 20c, and all other countries 30c, for Postage. 

J. H. SHULTS. Manager. 




Volume 25, No. 1 

EDITORIAL NOTES. 

A monstrosity. A frivolous, irreverlant wo- 
man trying to fill the place of a kindergartner. 



WE are pleased to announce that Honorable 
P. P. Claxton, U. S. Commissioner of Education, 
has promised to write one or more articles for this 
magazine during the coming year. 



The Montessori Method is on trial. Its value 
has not yet been demonstrated. It can never be 
a substitute for the kindergarten, but may 
accomplish efficient supplementary work. 



The need of kindergarten propagation is great 
at this time. The vast majority of the people do 
not fully comprehend what the kindergarten 
stands for— the physical, mental, and spiritual 
development of the child. 



The N. E. A. meeting at Chicago proved one 
of the most successful educationally in the history 
of the organization. The Chicago papers quite 
naturally emphasized very little except what was 
termed by rhem, "Educational Politics." While 
there was a spirited contest it did not very serious- 
ly interfere with the great educational work in 
hand which was so successfuly accomplished. 

We are glad to note that the Executive Board 
of the I. K. U. and a committee appointed by the 
N. E. A. have unanimously favored a plan to 
hold a section meeting or round table of kinder- 
garten supervisors and training teachers at the 
annual meeting of the Department of Super- 
intendence which will be held for the current 
school year at Philadelphia, February 22, 1912. 
This meeting should result in bringing school 
superintendents in closer touch with kinder- 



September, 1912 

gartners, their ideals and purposes, and can hard- 
ly result otherwise than beneficial. 

The U. S. Bureau of Education, Washington, 
D. C, has issued a bulletin on The Montessori 
System by AnnaTulman Smith which can be had 
free on application. The Bureau deserves praise 
for this able issue which clearly and fairly sets 
forth the new infant method. We are glad to see 
the Kindergarten Magazine, June, 1912, listed 
in the bibliography connected with the bulletin, 
but credit was not given for the first articles on 
the subject published in the Kindergarten 
Magazine for Dec, 1909, Jan., Mar. and June, 
1910, and a synopsis of these four in Dec. 191 1. 
Apparently the first articles on the subject publish- 
ed in this country were overlooked. We feel a 
just pride in having so early reviewed this inter- 
esting method for our readers. We mean to keep 
a look-out for the best everywhere in primary 
education. We can commend heartily "The 
Normal Child and Primary Education"— Gesell, 
recently issued. Mrs. Gesell, who isjoint author 
with her husband, Prof. Gesell of Yale, brings 
practical experience to bear on many problems. 
The most novel treatment is given to hand-writ- 
ing. The beginnings are quite in opposition to 
Montessori writing lessons. Both of these views 
should be made the subject of experimentation. 
Let two earnest teachers in the same school, test 
the methods and report results not in the spirit of 
rivalry but in the spirit of scientific study. Or 
let one teacher try one method one year and the 
other a second year. Both methods will yield 
good results. The children will not be sacrificed 
to experimentation. They will be benefited and 
so will the teacher who does not stagnate but 
becomes a scientific investigator. 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



HOW TO APPLY KINDERGARTEN 

PRINCIPLES AND METHODS IN 

VILLAGE AND RURAL SCHOOLS. 

By Dr. Jenny B. Merrill 

Out of Door Life — Walks and Excursions. 

A friend recently sent me an address given 
to the Parents' Association of the Francis W. 
Parker School in Chicago. This address was 
given as an interpretation of the principles 
of education in which Col. Parker believed. 

It was that truly great educator who said 
that kindergarten principles are not confined 
to little children, but should govern school 
and university and "reach even up to the gates 
of heaven." Their application must vary 
with conditions, times and places. 

Miss Flora J. Cooke, who gave the address 



and in most cases good results would be se- 
cured pleasantly. 

Colonel Parker stales the principle back oi 
such discipline in these words, "Social motives 
generate social interests." 

"I cannot speak" turns my attention uncom- 
fortably to myself, and becomes an ever pres- 
ent suggestion to do the thing forbidden. 

"To help others by keeping as quiet as nec- 
essary" is a social motive. It turns attention 
away from self to others and tends to generate 
social interests. 

Kindergarten discipline as presented by 
Froebel is to be guided by these positive prin- 
c'ples whenever children are not already very 
perverted. Froebel recognizes that at times 
when the child has been badly misgoverned at 
home, he may need severity. 







to which I have referred, said: "In this 
school we are not following Colonel Parker's 
methods and devices — at best these are only 
suggestive to us — but we are applying, as best 
we can, the principles which governed his 
educational work." 

• Herbert Spencer explains the value of prin- 
ciples by an apt illustration: "Between a 
mind of rules and a mind of principles, there 
exists a difference such as that between a con- 
fused heap of materials and the same ma- 
terials organized into a complete whole with 
all its parts bound together." 

Suppose you should visit a country school 
or any other school and find within, as T once 
did, this rule at the top of a blackboard frown- 
ing down upon everyone : "No one can speak 
in this room." What would be your feeling? 
What would be the atmosphere created? 

Suppose, now, a far-reaching ethical prin- 
ciple is substituted in place of the rule. It 
might be stated as follows: "Consider before 
you speak whether you will disturb anyone." 
A reflective turn of mind would be fostered 



One excellent principle which Froebel offers 
us is, "Cive the child time to find himself." 
This plan followed would often prove the 
"ounce of prevention which is worth a pound 
of cure." 

To make the best use of kindergarten ma- 
terials, one must first understand kindergarten 
principles. 

The first great law or principle of the kin- 
dergarten recognizes that a child develops by 
means of his own natural, God-given self-ac- 
tivity. So remarkable is this activity, so insa- 
tiable is it that it taxes the ingenuity of the 
best mother and the best teacher. At times it 
must be held in check but if the "steam" gen- 
erated is put to good use there will be few ex- 
plosions. 

It is usually when the natural activity of a 
child is pent up unduly that it forces its way 
out, into mischief. , 

Froebel freights self-activity with the high- 
est possible significance. He says, "God ere 1 
ated man in his own image, therefore man 
should create and bring forth like God. This 



L 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



is the high meaning', the deep significance, the 
great purpose of work and industry, of pro- 
ductive and creative activity.'' Furthermore 
he adds, "The domestic and scholastic educa- 
tion of our times leads children to indolence 
and laziness. A vast amount of human power 
remains undeveloped and is lost." 

To help put this foundation principle of self- 
activity into practice Froebel invented ways 
and means. We believe he found some of the 
very best occupations for the hands of the little 
children. Of these we will write at another 
time. 

Let us in this first article of our series see 
how Froebel applied this principle of activity 
out-of-doors, for this series is to be written 
especially for rural schools; therefore is it not 
sensible first to consider that Froebel's school 
was essentially a rural school, ungraded and 1 to 
a great extent "peripatetic." In short, to come 
to the point, Froebel often walked out-of-doors 
with his little (lock and taught them "on the 
road." 

You thus see that teachers in rural schools 
have a great advantage over others, for being 
near to nature, they may the more easily fol- 
low the footsteps of Froebel. 

"Taking a walk" should be the first innova- 
tion in the adoption of kindergarten methods 
in rural school or city school. Call "Taking a 
walk" "a weekly excursion" if young and old 
go together. "Excursion" is a more dignified 
term ! 

Froebel once thought of calling his school 
"A self-teaching institution." 

Little ones and big ones' too can teach them- 
selves a great deal by observation on these 
walks with a suggestion or two before starting 
out. Be content to let them prove self-teach- 
ers by means of their self-activity. There will 
be many unexpected lessons, but let there be 
one definite point decided upon before N start- 
ing, and occasionally require oral or written 
reports upon returning or upon the following 
clay. Let the little ones be free in their ob- 
servations, but gradually hold them to a par- 
ticular result, but not too strenuously. 

Let me digress here to say that more and 
more are we coming to see in our city schools 
and kindergartens that we have lost by too 
close grading. 

Young children learn much from the older 
pupils consciously and unconsciously. The so- 
cial life of an ungraded school is more natural, 
more like the social life for which we are pre- 
paring in the community. All advantages are 
not to be found in closely graded schools. 



Number of Excursions. 

How often should there be a school excur- 
sion? Froebel advises at least once a week. 
Ehis in reality must depend upon the locality 
and capability of the teacher in conducting 
them. 

If there are several teachers, the younger 
children may at times walk short distances 
every day, as in the early springtime, when 
watching eagerly for the first spring flowers, 
or again to observe and report upon the devel- 
oping buds of a particular tree or upon 
the arrival of the first bluebird. 

Miss Grace Ketcham, in the Kindergarten 
Magazine of April, 1900, names a very good 
list of topics used as the centralizing thoughts 
for her walks with kindergarten children dur- 
ing one year. She says: "In our program the 
excursions come under the heading "Sources of 
Experience." [Keep this thought well in 
mind, for we shall expand upon it in another 
article. Meanwhile think it over.] 

I quote also from another suggestive para- 
graph : "With the needs of the children in 
mind, I go over the ground myself before tak- 
ing them with me. Some walks are repeated 
many times. Thus in the fall the children 
gather leaves and nuts under a particular 
horse-chestnut tree. Later in the early spring 
they go to the same tree to see the bare 
branches with their queer markings and large, 
well-protected buds. Later in the spring they 
watch the tiny leaves unfold and before the 
summer vacation they have seen the tree 
with its blossoms and have stood beneath its 
shade." This is progressive observation and 
is more educational than random trips. 

Again the paragraph upon seed gathering is 
very suggestive : "They have come to know- 
maple wings and milkweed pods. Taking one 
of the milkweed pods into the open air we set 
the contents free, and finally watch them dis- 
appear as the wind carries them away to sow 
next season's plants. Our eyes are opened for 
seeds of all kinds, of all shapes, seed's in queer 
pods, on high bushes and on low plants — seeds 
that stick to our clothing as well as seeds that 
fly away." [We can well imagine some self- 
activity over the flying seeds.] 

Miss Ketcham further suggests a walk with 
trowels and pails for earth to re-pot plants o«- 
for wild flowers for the wild-flower box in- 
doors. 

Bees, caterpillars, cocoons are topics 01 in- 
terest in turn. 

The flight and return of birds is noted. A 



THE KINDERGARTEN -PRIMARY MAGA7INE 



timely hint for each month and season will 
readily suggest itself and be modified by lo- 
cality. 

Is this all familiar to the average country 
child? To many but not to all, and let those 
who know rejoice in being leaders of those 
who do not. The boy who fails in study in- 
doors may shine here. 

Those who have kept their file of Kinder- 
garten magazines since 1909, will be repaid 
to read every word of Miss Ketcham's de- 
scription, and if they do, let them add two 
words to the last line, which were accident- 
ally omitted. The whole closing paragraph 
reads: "Some of the happiest times are 
when the children are allowed to wander (al- 
ways within calling distance). Then all sit 
down on the grass under the shade of a tree 
and talk over the treasures found. * * * 
We eat our lunch and go home tired but 
happy." 

"But happy" are the words that were 
omitted, but they are very important ! 

Is it worth while? Children enjoy this 
"roaming together" out-of-doors even though 
as country children they may find and know 
many of these simple treasures nearer their 
own homes. 

Ruth McEnery's "Sonny" was a born nat- 
uralist. You may find one among your own 
pupils who will lead all on where few would 
go alone. 

[For further suggestions refer to Kg. Mag., 
Nov., 1909, to an article entitled "Echoes from 
Indian Stories."] 

The primitive life of man will suggest topics 
from time to time for the weekly excursion. 
Let the children themselves suggest and occa- 
sionally take a vote. 

Note to Teachers. 

In case any objection is raised by parents to 
field excursions, teachers-are advised: 

(1) To have trips monthly instead of 
weekly. 

(2) To visit parents and explain that this 
educational magazine and many others urge 
them, and that the experiences will be used in 
composition work, geography and science. 

(3) To ask for written consent of the par- 
ents at the beginning of the term, or for each 
walk if deemed expedient. A printed blank 
might be sent requiring only the parent's sig- 
nature, as ; 



Dear Sir or Madam : 

I give my consent for my son or daughter 
to accompany you and his class upon an ob- 
servation trip tomorrow. 

(Signed) , 



Parent. 

(1) This precaution would also prevent 
trouble in case any accident should occur. 

Some parents might object afterwards in 
case of mishap who would not ordinarily. The 
written consent becomes a protection to the 
teacher and also adds to the dignity of the oc- 
casion. It may also be a means of reward or 
punishment. 

(5) If there is more than one teacher in the 
school, leave those whose parents prefer it at 
work in school. Do not argue the point. 

(6) If there are many objections, make the 
trips on a holiday or after school hours. 



THE SCHOOLMASTER AND THE 
CABBAGES. 

R. M. DEAN, OBERLIN, OHIO. 

In a country far across the sea by the side 
of a great forest, there stands a tiny house. 
Its one window and one door look out toward 
a garden filled with vegetables and beds of 
bright flowers. All day the sun shines down 
upon the spot, but as evening comes on the 
shadows of the trees fall heavy across the 
tiny house and garden, making it twilight in 
the house even before the sun has set behind 
the great forest. 

In this house there once lived an old school- 
master and his wife — at least the man had 
been a schoolmaster for many years of his 
life, but now that he was old very few boys 
came to his school. Indeed, I fear that if it 
had not been for the sale of the cabbages that 
grew in the little garden, the schoolmaster 
would often have gone hungry. 

In the spring of my story the old couple 
had planted their seeds as usual ; the sun had 
shone on the garden, the rain had watered it, 
the schoolmaster had kept the ground free 
from weeds, and the cabbages had grown 
larger and finer than ever before. But as 
fall came on and it was time to pull the cab- 
bages and put them in the cellar, the poor 
schoolmaster grew ill with a disease called 
rheumatism. Now when one has rheumat- 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



5 



ism, it is very hard to move about, partic- 
ularly to bend down to the ground, and it 
really seemed as though the schoolmaster's 
cabbages must stay all winter in the garden. 
He had no money to hire any one, and his 
wife, who would gladly have helped him, had 
rheumatism too and could scarcely cook their 
simple meals. 

As the season grew later and the weather 
colder the rheumatism became worse and 
worse, until the poor old people could scarcely 
hobble about. September passed, and the 
days went on until the very last day of Oc- 
tober, the day before Hallowe'en, had come. 
As the old man stood looking out of the win- 
dow at the cabbages, he shook his head and 
said sadly, "Ah, that the good days might 
come again when fairies lived in the forest 
and could come to the help of weak men ! 
But the fairies have been gone these many 
years, and alas! there is none to help the old 
schoolmaster !" 

Now the schoolmaster had forgotten that 
that very night was Hallowe'en ; and I am 
sure he did not hear a sly chuckle by the 
door. 

But in the middle of the night something- 
waked the schoolmaster — he could not have 
told what. He hobbled to the window, and 
there in the moonlight he saw the strangest 
sight! The garden was full of queer little 
men, not larger than little John here, all 
laughing and jumping, playing leap-frog, 
turning handsprings, and trying every trick 
that boys and brownies know. 

The schoolmaster rubbed his eyes, but still 
— there they were ! He pinched himself to 
make sure that he was awake, but still the 
little men did not vanish. Then he called his 
wife, and her eyes, too, saw the same strange 
sight. 

As the two old people looked closely at 
these funny folk, they saw that right in the 
midst of their play the brownies were doing 
something to the cabbages. Sometimes two 
together would take hold of a cabbage and 
pull and pull with all their strength, just as 
you have seen a robin pull at a worm. Sud- 
denly the cabbage would loosen its hold and 
the two tiny men would roll over backward, 
with the cabbage on top of them. But 
brownies do not mind a bump, and up they 
would jump, shake off the dirt, strip away 
the outer leaves of the cabbage, and then, — ■ 
hippety, skippety ! away they would roll it 
toward the open cellar door. 

By and by all of the cabbages had dis- 



appeared down the stairway, and with many 
a somersault and merry prank the band of 
little people danced away into the forest, 
singing as they went something which 
sounded like : — 

'AVe brownies dearly love a joke, 

We are a merry band ; 
But most of all and best of all 
We love to lend a hand." 

When the music had died away and the 
garden was dark and still, with only the 
moonlight shining down upon it, the school- 
master and his wife crept back to bed and 
slept until the sun was high in the sky. 

For a long time as they went about their 
work neither of them spoke of what they 
had seen. But at last the schoolmaster said : 
"It was a dream!" "Surely it was a strange 
dream," repeated the wife. But when they 
looked in the garden the cabbages were gone ! 
"Some evil person might have stolen them !" 
said they both together. 

Then, although the rheumatism was very 
painful, they must hobble and creep down 
the cellar stairs; and there, all snugly packed 
away in their bin, ready for the buyer 
who would soon come for them, were the 
cabbages ! 

Now, at last, the schoolmaster remembered 
that the night before had been Hallowe'en, 
and that Hallowe'en is the time when boys 
and brownies creep out to do all manner of 
helpful things in funny ways. 

When winter came and the snow lay in 
great drifts above the garden there was 
never any lack of food in the tiny house by 
the great forest ; and although the shadows 
of the pines fell dark and heavy across the 
snow, there was plenty of sunshine in the 
hearts of the old schoolmaster and his wife. 



There are three great virtues to which 
every one should be dedicated — the virtue of 
civilization, which is politeness; the virtue 
of morality, which is conscientiousness; the 
virtue of religion, which is humility.— Martin 



Better the chance of shipwreck on a voyage 
of high purpose than expand life in paddling 
hither and thither on a shallow stream to no 
purpose at all.— Miss Sedgwick. 



Look not mournfully into the past, it comes 
not back again; wisely improve the present, it 
is thine ; go forth to meet the shady future 
without fear and with a manly heart. — Long- 
fellow, 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 




THE MONTESSORI METHOD AND 

THE KINDERGARTEN. 

W. N. Haiuiann.Th. D. 

In view of the stir caused by announce- 
ments of the achievements of Dr. Montessori 
in sense-training and in teaching her Italian 
children the arts of writing and reading, 
coupled with her denunciation of certain 
phases of Froebel's work, disquietude has 
come to a number of earnest kindergartners 
as to the influence of this movement upon 
the institution they have learned to cherish. 

Even a running perusal of Dr. Montessori's 
book will convince readers with fair apprecia- 
tion of what has been and what is, that there 
is no occasion for dismay. Under the guid- 
ance of the great progressive principle, 'Prove 
all things and hold fast that which is good,' 
implying also the rejection of what does not 
reach the standard, they will find much to 
strengthen faith in the laws on which Froe- 
bel's new education rests. Tested by these, 
some of her devices will be welcomed; others, 
perhaps in view of her fine enthusiasm, re- 
gretfully rejected. 

To a limited extent I have already indi- 
cated this in a previous article; but conversa- 
tions with earnest teachers and letters from 
eager kindergartners impel me to lay addi- 
tional stress upon a few features of the work 
pointed out in these communications. 

The chief emphasis in her didactic material 
is upon sense-training. Her excessive atten- 
tion to this and its narrow and shortsighted 
use in the education of the children are obvi- 
ously due to her antecedents. She gained her 
pedagogic enthusiasm in connection with the 
training of defectives in an insane asylum. 



Here, following suggestions by Dr. Seguin, 
she gained "surprising" results and even 
brought some idiots to write and read — an 
achievement, however, by no means new. 
This, when she came to take charge of the 
education of normal children in the Children's 
Houses, led her to attempt the application of 
the methods for defectives to the education 
of normal children between the ages of three 
and six and to formulate the specious maxim : 
"The same didactic material with defectives 
renders education possible, and with normal 
children stimulates auto-education." 

Now, while it is unquestionably true that, 
as Dr. Seguin expresses it, "the physiological 
education of the senses is the royal road to 
the education of the intellect," it is essential 
that in traveling this road, at least with 
normal children, we should not stop where it 
enters the domain of intellect. Rather, we 
should be solicitous to afford the children 
opportunity and stimulus to apply new sen- 
sory acquisitions in intellectual activities. 
Each new acquisition should become a true 
inner possession, should enrich the child's 
intellectual life and render it more flexible, 
should stir his imagination, reach his pur- 
pose-life and culminate in varied forms of 
self-expression, individual and social. 

Of all this there is little indication in the 
account of Dr. Montessori's work. There is 
no connection among the exercises; each one 
stands alone, begins abruptly, ends abruptly, 
finds little subsequent application in sponta- 
neous play-work, is not used except, perhaps 
incidentally, when the children employ the 
sense of touch in determining the degree of 
smoothness of the visitors' clothes or in a 
few sense-games. As to the color exercises 
proper, the child seems satisfied when in 
triumph it cries out: "I know the colors!" 
Subsequently it may happen that it paints the 
outline cow green, and the outline lien red. 
In short, throughout, sense-training is the 
essential and all else is incidental, until writ- 
ing is reached in which the cultivation of the 
muscular sense culminates. 

Moreover, in the exercises child and teach- 
er are — perhaps properly so in view of the 
purpose — as mute as possible and social in- 
terest is reduced to a minimum. Each child 
is intent upon the exercise chosen; only occa- 
sionally some neighbors laugh in derision 
when a little one blunders. The teacher 
names the sensation and leaves the child to 
its own resources. Later she tests the child's 
comprehension with "Show me" or "Give 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



me" the rough or smooth, the red or blue. 
If the child reacts correctly, the experiment is 
closed. If the child errs, the directress car- 
essingly suggests another experiment, never 
correcting or leading the child to discover the 
blunder, for fear this might disturb the nat- 
ural condition for subsequent observation of 
the child on the teacher's part, as it would 
"force" the child to understand. 

Many of these and other shortcomings in 
the work of the Children's Houses, as viewed 
from the standpoint of the kindergarten, prob- 
ably result from the ultra-scientific attitude 
of their founder. The leader in charge, she 
holds, should be above all else an experi- 
menter and observer, never teaching or giv- 
ing, but directing stimulus and noting re- 
sults ; not, as we should say, sympathetically 
living with the children, but rather living 
above them and applying successive tests of 
their ability and growth in their manufac- 
tured world. 

There are, indeed, a few opportunities in 
which the children may use their sense-per- 
ception in collective games — blind man's 
game, color game, etc. — in which a number 
of children share. Yet, there is in the.^e little 
true social intro-ordination, always a crowd 
and an individual and, consequently, much 
opportunity for the laughter of derision. 

At every point we miss stimulus and oppor- 
tunity for the adequate exercise of the imag- 
ination in constructive and creative self- 
expression. This is the case even in what is 
labeled as constructive work, in design and in 
clay modeling which ends with the fashioning 
■ of pots and vases and of small bricks to be 
used in building walls. Everywhere, to use 
Froebelian terms, undue stress upon forms of 
knowledge and neglect of forms of beauty 
and even of life. 

The occupations of the kindergarten, so 
largely stimulating to the imagination and to 
creative self-expression, are rejected. Only 
clay modeling is retained. Partly, I infer, 
this is due to the fact that they invite "col- 
lective" and social work and render active 
"living with the children" necessary, thus 
disturbing the natural condition for the ob- 
servation of the individual child. 

Similarly, language plays a subordinate 
part, as already indicated, in the Children's 
Houses. In the first morning hour, there is 
some talk about what was done the previous 
day, the children listen to moral exhortation 
and engage in common prayer. There are, 
too, during the second hour "short object 



lessons," apparently confined, however, to 
"nomenclature." But the "silly stories" of 
the kindergarten and of the Salle d'Asyle are 
rejected. Their socializing value, their influ- 
ence upon the child's imagination, upon his 
sympathies, upon his purpose life, etc., are 
ignored. There seems to be almost exclusive 
attention to sense-perception and nomencla- 
ture. The "mechanism of language" ever has 
the right of way, and "logical language" must 
wait, a procedure wholly averse to natural 
development. Naturally, the child has a 
deeper interest in events and meanings, in the 
sympathetic and logical side of speech than 
in its mechanism and even in sense^percep- 
tions. It wants to live before it analyzes the 
tools of life. 

That neglect of this fact results in arrested 
development was illustrated in the reference 
to the story-book incident in my previous 
article. This is not offset by evidences of 
happiness and eagerness on the children's 
part upon which Dr. 'Montessori places stress. 
Children will find these things in the narrow- 
est environment that affords opportunity for 
the exercise of the instinct of activity and 
permits the "feeling of being master of one's 
own actions." The problem is not so much 
to make the children happy and eager — al- 
though this is much — but to do this and at 
the same time to afford opportunity and stim- 
ulus for the self-unfoldment of their being, 
individual, social and spiritual. And in this 
the Children's Houses fail. 

In spite of these shortcomings and others 
that I omit, there are in the work of Mon- 
tessori many devices that may prove service- 
able in the kindergarten and, more especially, 
in the primary school. There is above all 
else her fine enthusiasm in behalf of rational 
discipline, of freedom and self-help on the 
children's part. But the kindergarten will 
stand and grow. 

In his classical Report on Education, re- 
published in extended form in 1880, Dr. 
Seeuin as U. S. Commissioner on Education 
and from whom Dr. Montessori derives so 
much of her inspiration, advocates for little 
children the "Physiological Infant School" as 
"resulting from the union of the kind training 
of the Salle d'Asyle and the joyous exercises 
of the kindergarten with the application of 
Physiology to education." It is a pity that 
Dr. Montessori neglected the first two of 
these factors and substituted for them the 
school for idiots and the questionable devices 
of antiquated primary schools. 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINF 



A YEAR IN THE KINDERGARTEN. 

Harriette McCarthy. 

Kindergarten Director, Oklaliama City Public Schools. 

SEPTEMBER, 

FIRST WEEK 

SONGS— Choice of the following: 

Good Morning -o You, Patty Hill. 

Father We Thank Thee, Walker and Jenks. 

This is the Mother Good and Dear, Walker and 
Jenks. 

Here'a a Ball for Baby, Emily Poulsson. 

Happy Monday Morning, Patty Hill. 
Monday 
Circle — Family ties. What is mother doing today. Show 

pictures of animal family life. Cats washing kittens, 

and birds fetl in nest. 
Rhythm — Here we go 'Round the Mulberry Bush. 
Game — Drop the Handkerchief. 
Gift — First Gift. Emphasize the color red. 
Occupation — Drawing posts with clothes line and clothes 

hanging on it. Cut wash tubs, etc. 
Tuesday 
Circle — How mother's work is divided. How all the trades 

are dependent on each other. Trace all back to the 

Creator. 
Rhythm — Dramatize washing and ironing. 
Gift — First Gift. Show colors in prism and see if ch Idren 

can pick out color in balls. Pay particular attention 

to circular motion. 
Game — Same as yesterday. 
Occupation — Cut out clothes that I ang on the line. 

Towels with fringe, skirts, aprons with string-, etc. 

Wednesday 
Circle — Continue division of mother's work. Monday 

washing, Tuesday ironing, Wednesday mending. 
Story — The Lark and her Younj; Ones. 
Rhythm — Marching. 
Gift — Second Gift. Compare with first. 
Game — Hide the button. 

Occupation— String Hailmann's beads, as spools that mother 
uses. 

Thursday 

Circle — Division of mother's work of previous days. Thurs- 
day, baking day. 

Rhythm — Rhythms reviewed. 

Gift — Third Gift. Compare with second gift. Notice the 
cracks on the top face by which the gift is divided. 

Game— Hide the button. The squirrel. 

Occupation — String Hailmann's beads, ball anil cyli der. 
Friday 

Circle — Review work in home for each day. 

Friday, sweeping day, Saturday, baking day, Sunday, 
going to church. 

Rhythm — Imitate washing, ironing, mending, sweeping 
baking, etc. 

Gift— Sticks. 

Occupation — Unfinisl ed work. 

SECOND WEEK 

Songs— Thumbs and Fingers Say Good Morning. 
The Blacksmith. (Blue Jenks.) 



Busy is the Carpenter. 
The Shoemaker. (Gaynor No. I.) 
Monday 
Circle— What father does during the week. 
Rhythm — Sk pping alone and with partners. 
Gift — Color exercise with first gift. 
Game— The Squirrel. Fly, Little Bird, Fly 'Round the 

Ring- 
Occupation— Painting from the object. Suggestion, ball. 

Tuesday 
Circle— Follow acorn from seed to sawmill. Ask children 
to touch t'u'ngs in the room mace of wood. Talk on 
the work of the carpenter. 
Rhythm — Skipping. 

Gift— Build with third gift table, chair, bed, bench, flow- 
er-stand. 
Game— Dramatize circle talk. One child tells what father 

does, all children dramatize the occupation. 
Occupation — Cut from outline hammers and nails. 

Wednesday 
Circle— Talk about father's occupation especially the coal 

man. 
Rhythm— Skipping and marching. 
Gift — Peg boards. Play pegs are soldiers. 
Game — Dramatize occupation of coal man. 

When We're Playing Together. (Blue Jenks.). 
Occupation— Make lanterns. 

Thursday 
Circle— Talk of coalman continued. Slvbw pieces of coal 
and tell uses. 

Story — Dog and his Shadow. (Aesop.) 
Rhythm — Skipping. 
Gift— Make coal-bin with third gift. 
Game — Dram tize digging coal. Now the Time has 

Come for Play. 
Occupation- Sewing cards of coal hods. 

Friday 
Circle — Summary of week's work. 
Rhythm —Review those used. 
Gift — Peg boards, long and short lines. 
Game — Those played. 
Occupation — Unfinished work . 

THIK1> WEEK 
Songs— Oh! Lovely Ball of Golden Light. Holiday Songs 
Little Squirrel Living Here. Finger Plays, Emily 

Poulsson. 
Good Bye to the Flowers, Blue Jenks. 
Where do the Daisies Go? Blue Jenks. 
Monday 
Circle — Nuts and seeds. Nuts grow in cradles or cases. 
Children bring all kinds of nuts to school. 
(Autumn Plan Book. Page 246.) 
Rhythm — Marching and Skipping. 
Gift — First Gift. Emphasize three colors red. orange i 

yellow. 
Game — The Squirrel. Jack be Nimble, Jack, be Quick. 
Occupation -Go out into the woods for a walk. 

Tuesday 
Circle — Nuts, name each shape and color. 

Story. The Thrifty Squirrel. (In the Child's World 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



Rhythm — Skipping. 

Gift — Fourth Gift. Make ladders to gather nuts. 
Game —Med cine Ball. Little Ball Pass Along, Blue Jenks. 
Occupation — Make chains of things found in woods. 
Wednesday 

Circle— What kinds of nuts can you buy at the grocery 
s ore? Talk of where and how they grow. 

Rhythm- Shaking trees to bring down the nuts. 
Dramatize gathering nuts-. 

Gift— Third gi't. Divide into eight cubes. 

Game — Rig-a-jig-jig. In my Hand a Ball I Hold. 

Occupation— Make picture of nuts with crayola. 
Thursday 

Circle— Provide chest-nut burr. What causes nuts to fall 
to the ground. 

Story. The Opening of the Chest-nut Burr. Morn- 
ing Talks, Sarah Wiltes. 

Rhythm— Feeding nuts to the squirrels. Squirrel storing 
nuts. (Half the children representing squirrels, half 
feeding.) 

Gift — Build third and fourth gifts in sequence. 

Game — Sense game. Tell the name of nut by the touch. 

Occupation — Peas and straws. Make ladders. 
Friday 

Circle — Summary of week's work. 

Rhythms — Ones used. 

Gift — Use two inch and four inch sticks to make fences. 

Games — Free choice. 

Occupation — Have a Peanut Hunt. 

FOTJ ' TH WEEK 

Songs — Little Lamb so White and Fair, Blue Jenks. 

Sewing Song, Blue Jenks. 

Here we go 'Round the Mulberry Bush. 
Monday 
Circle — Cleanliness. 

Story. The Pig Brother. Golden Windows. 
Rhythm — Dramatize, washing hands, brushinghair, button- 
ing clothes, brushing clothes, etc. 
Gift— Second gift. 

Game — Dramatizing The Three Little Pigs. 
Occupation — Blow soap bubbles. Have children notice 

rainbow colors in bubbles. 

Tuesday 
Circle — Teach right and left hand. 
Rhythm — Skip to the right, and skip to the left. 
Gift— Build with third gift. 
Game — Looby-Loo . 
Occupation — Take a walk. 

Wednesday 
Circle — Where, when and how do we wash our face and 

hands. 

Story. Story of Tom. Kingsley's Water Babies. 
Rhythm — I See You. 
Gift— Build with fourth gift. 
Game — Sense game of sight. (Boys are reds and girls blues. 

Have yard stick wrapped one end red the other blue. 

When the blue end is raised girls stand, when the red 

end, the boys.) 
Occupation — Weave linen mats. 
Thursday 

Circle — Animals, how do they wash themselves. 
Show picture of mother cat washing kittens. 
Rhythm — Cross skip. 
Gift — Build with fourth gift. 
Games — Drop the Handkerchief. 
Occupation — Parquetry border with squares. 

Friday 
Cirle — Review past circle talks on cleanliness. 

Retell one story of week chosen by children. 
Rhythm -Review those of the week. 
Gift — Third and fourth combined. 
Games — Free Choice. 
Occupation — Unfinished work. 



Discuss butterflies and grass- 
of animals, birds, 



OCTOBER, 

FIRST WEEK 

Songs — Song of the Bee. 

Grasshopper Green. 

The Caterpillar. Finger Plays, Emily Poulsson. 

The Counting Lesson. Finger Plays, Emily 

Poulsson. 

Monday 
Circle — Out door life. Nature's creatures. 

Whatwelove. Butterflies, grasshoppers, birds, etc. 
Rhythm - Imitate sound of different things spoken 

of in the circle. 
Gift — Color lesson with first gift. Balls may be birds, 

butterflies, grasshoppers, etc. 
Game — The Squirrel Game. 
Occupation — Making daisies. 

Tuesday 

Circle — Continue talk of birds, butterflies, bees, grass- 
hoppers. Introduce bird's nest and cat-tails. 
Story. A Queer Place for a Bird's Nest. Morn- 
ing Talks. Sarah Wiltes. 

Rhythm — Imitate butterflies and bees. 

Gift — Second gift. Free play. 

Game — Hopping birds. Squirrel Game. 

Occupation — Make chains of the daisies made on 
previous day. 

Wednesday 
Circle — Retell story. 

hoppers. 
Rhythm — Imitate movements 

butterflies. 
Gift — Give sequence play with third gift suggested by 

one child. 
Game — Testing the senses. Hearing. Locating sound. 
Occupation — Sewing cards. Design ball. 

Thuesday 
Circle — More about grasshoppers. 
Story. Grasshopper and Ant. 
Rhythm — Imitate grasshoppers, butterflies and flow- 
Gift — Introduce fourth gift. 
Games — Sense games. Squirrel game. 
Occupation — Cut butterflies and color. 

Fkiday 
Circle — Review talk on insects, butterflies, birds. Free 
choice of stories told during the week. 

Rhythm — Imitate grasshoppers, butterflies and birds. 
Gifts— Sticks. Lay rake, square, cross, etc. 

Compare sticks as to length. Let children invent. 
Games— All games played during the week. 
Occupation— Make colored chains. 



Books referred to in these programs are the following: 
STORIES 
Golden Windows— Laura E. Richards, 
Kelley's Short Stories. 

Siories and Morning Talks— Sarah Wiltse. 
Huston Collection of Kg. Stories. 
In the Chi Id's World — KmilvPoulson. 
Primary Plan Book— Marion George. 
Kindergarten Book— Jane Hoxie 

SONGS 
Songs and Gamasfor Little Ones— Walker and Jenks. 
Small Songs for Small Singers— Nielinger. 
Songs of the Child World (laynor. 
Songs-Patty Hill. 
Finger Plays— Emily Ponlson. 
Song Hook— Brown and Emerson. 
Plays and (James. 
New Kindegarten Songs— Ilalsey. 
Child's Garden of Song— Tomlins. 
Merry Song- and Games— Mrs. Hubbard. 
River, ide Song Hook— Lawrence. 
Songs in Season— George. 
Songs for Little Children-Eleanor Smith. 
Old and New Singing Gamf s— Hoffman. 
Songs of Life and Nature— Eleanor Smith. 
Merry r .Songs and (lames- Ilailman. 
Primary Song Book— Smith and Weaver. 
Songs, Games and Rhymes— Hailman 



io 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



A CHURCH PLAY-GARDEN. 
Br Jenny B. Merrill 
Custom and tradition have led us to see some- 
thing sacrosanct in the churchyard — children are 
apt to be shooed out if they noisily invade these 
precincts. But a church in upper Broadway invites 
them to enter. Dr. Jennie B. Merrill, supervisor of 
New York kindergartens, tells us, in The Continent 
(Chicago), that in her fifty years of residence in 
New York she has never before seen such a sign 
as the following on the Chapel of the Intercession, 
Trinity Parish: 



THIS CHURCH 

Invites the Mothers of the Neighborhood 

to Use its Little Children's 

Play-Garden 

The Public Welcomed to These Grounds 

Especially Mothers and Children 



Here is her description of the church play-garden: 

"It is simply a wide path extending around two 
sides of the church edifice, bordered with a grass 
plot and railing. On the third side the space in- 
creases considerably. Settees are on the inner side 
of the path and mothers occupy them while babies 
sleep in their carriages in the sunshine and the 
fresh air. An invalid or convalescent may also be 
seen enjoying the sunshine. Older children roll 
their dolls back and forth. An active little one tries 
to scrape or dig here and there. No one stops him 
and he really does no harm to the path, while he 
gratifies his native instinct and keeps himself happy, 
gathering a tiny mound. 

"Why should it seem, why should it be, such an 
unusual sight to see the neighborhood folk enjoy- 
ing the outside of a church? 

"Is it not a most natural use? Why not extend 
such a sensible plan, especially in the suburbs where 
many churches have a little extra ground? 

The wearisome march of mothers and nurses 
back and forth in the street should be broken by 
the opportunity to rest while the children play. 
There is nothing much more tiresome to a little 
child than the unbroken walk — I have in mind a 
child who threw herself down on the sidewalk in 
sheer fatigue and was punished for her naughtiness! 

"Play has its beauties. A walk is too stately 
and continuous for a young child. I urge kinder- 
gartners to develop this idea of church-gardens. If 
the neighborhood is one where mother can not 
leave home, could not a kindergartner gather the 
children of a block and pilot them to such quiet 
play-gardens? 

"I do not ask for swings or paraphernalia of any 
kind. Children can amuse themselves with each 
other; they are phy-material in and of themselves. 
Kindergartners sometimes fail to realize this. Fresh 
air soothes children's nerves; the outside world 
holds them in check. Not a naughty child, and 
only one crying child, did I note in this rnothers' 
retreat during a visit of two hours. 



"There are dolls, dolls' carriages, picture-books, 
and sewing all in evidence. There come now some 
boys with wagons and here is a group with tiny 
little pails and shovels. Here is a box full of paper 
dolls and two little girls chatting about them. Here 
is at last one crying child with a fussy mother. 'Off 
they go. Ha, here is a four-year-old studying the 
fence and no one afraid he will fall! It is really a 
children's paradise. This climb was too ideal. 

" 'Get down, my little man,' and our brave climb- 
er's venture is over. 

" 'How many children can be accommodated in 
this church play-garden?' I hear some one ask. I 
have counted fifty, but there is' room for fifty more." 

The settees are filled with adults. "No sexton or 
janitor is in evidence. There is no bossing." 

"Toys do not abound. There is plenty of fresh 
air and sunshine. I never have seen such a number 
of sensible, quiet mothers. Scarcely in an hour 
have I heard any one speak, much less scold' a child. 
Is it a miracle of goodness? Not at all. It is sim- 
ply the natural result of healthy play in the open 
air without too much exciting stimulus in the way 
of apparatus and toys, without unnecessary inter- 
ference on the part of mothers and nurses, yet with 
sufficient stimulus to prevent listlessness and to in- 
cite to healthful activity. 

"Older children require more varied and more 
active competitive games, but this is a playground 
mainly for children under five years of age. 

" 'This church invites the mothers of the neigh- 
borhood to use its little children's play-garden.' 
Which church? Yours and mine?" — Literary Digest. 



BEING WELL BORN. 
David Starr Joedan 

Eugenics is the science or the art of being well 
born. It is the sum of knowledge of conditions of 
beginning life with sound heredity. If we know 
ourselves well, we know our parents also. The in- 
fluence of the parents is equal. On an average one- 
fourth of our peculiarities come from the father, 
one-fourth from the mother, one-sixteenth from 
each grandparent. The rest come from still further 
ancestors. 

Each of us had 8,594,592 ancestors in the time of 
William the Conqueror, and 870,672,000,000 in the 
time of Alfred the Great. There were never more 
than 1,500, 000, COO people on earth at one time. All 
of us are of royal lineage, a hundred lines leading, 
if we could trace them, to the Plantagenets. 

The breeding of supermen is quite humanly pos- 
sible along lines of selection, but not a possibility 
through state action. Scientific breeding would lose 
the two choicest results of natural selection, love 
and initiative. The best choose their own mates for 
their own reasons. The most that can be done is 
to diffuse knowledge of truth, and to eliminate 
through wise charity, those delinquent, defective, 
and incapable through bad heredity. There is al- 
ways room for the man of force and he makes room 
for many. — Excerpt from Address. 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



if 



REPORT OF COMMITTEE OF INVESTI- 
GATION. 

Madam President and Members of the International 
Kindergarten Union: 

The committee appointed to inquire into, the present 
status of the kindergarten in the United States can 
only present a report of progress, not a report of a task 
completed This is due in part to the magnitude of 
the task itself, and in part to the delays that are un- 
avoidable in any task which requires the coperation of 
thousands of people. The work of the committee falls, 
naturally, into two parts: First, that of collecting the 
facts concerning the present status of the kindergarten 
in the different states; and second, that of compiling 
the returns, and putting these into form for reference 
and use. The first part has been attempted the present 
year, and will be nearly, if not wholly, completed. 
The second will require careful work after the return? 
are in— work which in part should be done by an ex- 
pert. 

The correspondence necessary to the organization of 
the committee's work resulted in the formulation of 
the questionaire given below. Three thousand of these 
were printed in November, and copies sent to the com- 
mittee members for distribution to their respective state 
chairmen, with an accompanying letter of directions 
as to the methods of procedure. As soon as the state 
chairmen reported the number of questionaires need- 
ed in their respective states, these were sent to them 
for distribution according to their judgment. Nearly 
two thousand questionaires have been sent out, and 
more will be needed as the work in several states is 
not yet fully organized. From many of these, no re- 
plies have been received. It is the slowness of people 
in replying that has caused the delay in the commit- 
tee's work. 

International Kindergarten Union Inquiry into 
the Status of the Kindergarten in the United 

States. 

At the Cincinnati meeting of the I. K. U. the Executive 
Board appointed a Committee of Investigation to in- 
quire into the present status of the kindergarten in the 
United States. The committee has formulated this 
questionaire for the purpose of securing the desired 
information concerning the different phases of kinder- 
garten work, It hereby asks for the co-operation of 
every kindergartner and school officer to whom the 
questionaire may come, that its difficult and important 
work may be promptly and successfully completed. 

The committee is composed of the following women: 
Nina C. Vandewalker, Milwaukee, Chairman; Mary C. 
Shute, Boston, Mass ; Anna H. Littell, Dayton, Ohio ; 
Mrs. Orietta S. Chittenden, Omaha, Neb.; Marion S. 
Hanckel, Charleston, S. C; Alma L. Binzel, Winona, 
Minn.; Julia Boten, Helena, Mont.; and Mary E. Hannan 
and Geneva L. Bower, Milwaukee, Wis. 

The work of the committee has been organized as 
follows: Each member has been assigned a given 
number of states. These members will send to some 
one in each state in their respective groups, designated 
as the state chairman, as many questionaires as are 
needed in that state. These questionaires the state 
chairman will send out to the educational authorities in 
the cities that have or are supposed to have kinder- 
gartens. The returns from a given state should be sent 
to the state chairman for that state, and forwarded by 
her to the committee member from whom she received 
them. Upon receiving- these returns from the state 



chairman the committee members should make certain 
compilations for the states in their respective groups, 
and then send all the returns with their compilations to 
the general chairman, Miss Vandewalker, for the final 
compilations. 

Inquiry for the State of 

Returns to be sent to , 

State Chairman. Kindly write replies in spaces allowed 
for the same on the questionaire. 
I. Legal school age? (To be answered by state 

chairman only.) 
II. Laws relating to the establishment of kindergar- 
tens: (To be answered by state chairman only.) 

1. When passed? 

2. Provisions of law? 

III. The history of the kindergarten in the State of . . . . 

(To be answered by the state chairman only.) 

1. When and where was the first kindergarten in 

the state opened? 

2. When and where were the two or three succeed- 

ing ones opened? 

3. To what influences was the opening of these 

kindergartens due? 

4. What facts of special interest are there in 
connection with the beginnings of the movement in 

your state? 
(Questions IV and V are to be answered by the per- 
sons most able to answer in the cities to which the 
questionaire is sent.) 
IV. The status of the kindergarten in the city of 

with reference to: — 

1. Private kindergartens. 

a. How 7 many are there? 

b. What is the approximate attendance in 

these? 

2. Free or charitable kindergartens. 

a. How many are there? 

h. What is the approximate attendance? 

c . By what agency are they supported? 

3. Public kindergartens. 

a. Attendance and organizations: 

(1) How many kindergartens are there in 
your city? 

(2) What is the total number of children 
enrolled in them? 

(3) Have they one session per day or two? 

(4) If the latter, do the same or different 
children attend? 

b. Cost of material. 

( 1 ) At what do you estimate the cost of 
material needed to equip a new kinder- 
garten, exclusive of tables, chairs, piano, 
desk, and other material equally need- 
ed in any schoolroom? 

(2) At what do you estimate the cost per 
kindergarten of the consumable mat- 
erial used each year? 

c. Salaries. 

(1) What is the minimum salary for assist- 
ants? 

The maximum? 

(2) What is the minimum for directors? 
The maximum? 

d. Qualifications. 

(t) What qualifications are required of 

assistants? 
(2) Of directors? 

e. Supervision and meetings. 

(1) What supervision by kindergarten ex- 
perts do your kindergartens have? 

(2) What by school principals and grade 
supervisors? 

(3) What meetings for professional ad- 
vancement do kindergarteners hive 
during the year? 



12 



THE KINDERGARTEN -PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



(4) -Under whose direction? 

(5) Are mothers' meetings an organized 
part of the work? 

V. What kindergarten training schools are there in 
your city? 

1. Private. 

a. What is the name of the institution? 
h. What is the length of the course? 

c. What are the qualifications for entrance? 

d. What is the approximate number of stud- 

ents each year? 

e. What is the average number graduated 

each year? 

2. Association or charitable training schools. 

a. What is the name of the institution? 
b What is the length of the course? 
c. What are the qualifications for entrance? 
;/. What is the number of students enrolled 

each year? 
e. What is the average number graduated 

each year? 
/. By what agency is the school supported? 

3. Public kindergarten training school. 

a. What is the name of the institution? 
h. What is the length of the course? 

c. What are the qualifications for entrance? 

d. What is the number of students enrolled 

each year? 

e. What is the average number graduated 

each year? 
/. By what agency is the school supported? 

The money required for the committee work was 
provided by the following contributions: From Milwau- 
kee Normal School Kindergarten Association, $35.00; 
from the Milwaukee Froebel Union, $10.00; from 
the Chicago Kindergarten Club, $10.00; from the Kate 
Baldwin Kindergarten Association, Savannah, Georgia, 
$5.10. These contributions were made before the cur- 
rent school year opened. Since that time, the Kate 
Baldwin Kindergarten Association has contributed an 
additional $5.00; Miss Fannibelle Curtis, $10.00 and 
Miss Mary C. Shute, $12 07. This makes a total of $87.17 
that has passed thru the committee's hands. In 
addition to this, several contributions have been made 
that have not gone thru the chairman's hands. The 
Kindergarten Club of Helena, Montana, furnished 
Miss Baten with $1.00, the amount needed to send out 
questionaires in the eight states in her group. The 
kindergartners of Ohio have contributed the amount 
needed to carry on the inquiry in that state; and the 
state chairmen in New Jersey and Delaware have been 
offered the funds needed for the work in their re- 
spective states, but thus far have made no requests for 
money for that purpose. 

The expenditures thus far have been as follows: 
For printing questionaires - - - - $10.00 

To Miss Shute, Committee member 

for the New England States - - - 8 10 

To Dr. Jenny B. Merrill, State 
Chairman for New York, 
stamped envelopes 8.54 

To Miss Binzel, Committee member 
for Michigan, Indiana, 
Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota, and 
Utah - - • 10.08 



To Mrs. Eliza A. Blaker, State 

Chairman for Indiana - - - 2 

To Miss Alice N. Parker, State 

Chairman for Pennsylvania - - - 4. 

To Miss Hanckel, Committee 
member for the 16 states in 
the Southern Kindergarten 
Association 10. 

To Mrs. Chittenden, Committee 
member for Nebraska, Kansas, 
Colorado, Arizona, New Mexico, 
and California - - - 3. 



Postage, exj 
etc. 



'ss charges, 



Total 72.85 

Balance 14.32 

Additional expenses incurred 
by Committee members, not yet 
paid, $6.76 and $1.20 which will 
leave $5.86 

The work involved in securing the data desired, but 
part of which has as yet been received, may be in- 
ferred in part from the number of letters that have 
been written by the committee members. These num- 
ber nearly five hundred. Of these, the chairman of 
the committee has written about 200, and at least an 
additional 100 will need to be written before the work 
is completed. Miss Shute has written 120, Miss 
Hankel 96, Miss Binzel 30, Miss Baten 20, Miss Bower 
and Miss Hanna each ten or more, Miss Littell 30 
and 'Mrs. Chittenden about 50. In addition to this 
the state chairmen must have written as many more, 
of which the general committee has no record. The 
work of the state chairmen has been very heavy, and 
it is to their co-operation that the success of the 
committee's effort is in a large measure due. 

The committee would have been glad to be able to 
report that the returns from all the states were in, and 
that the first phase of its work had been completed. 
This was soon recognized as impossible, however, lie- 
cause of the unavoidable delay in organizing the work 
in several states. Because the papers given at the Cin- 
cinnati meeting on kindergarten conditions in the 
South and West had familiarized the public some- 
what with the conditions in these sections of the 
country, it seemed best for the committee to con- 
centrate its efforts upon getting the returns from the 
New England States, the Middle States, and those of 
the Central West, -seventeen in number. Thus far, how- 
ever, returns have been received from but sixteen, 
— the New England States, New York, New Jersey, 
Illinois, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Ohio, Minnesota, 
Indiana and Wisconsin. The returns from the sixteen 
Southern States were the second to come in, however, 
and since the compilation of the report was begun par- 
tial returns have come in from all the Western states 
with the exception of South Dakota, Wyoming, Ne- 
vada and Kansas. The committee has made no effort- 
to compile the returns except upon three points. 
These are: 

1. Number of cities having kindergartens. 

2. Number of kindergartens of different kinds. , 

3. Number of children attending. 



THE KINDERGARTEN PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



»3 



The returns on these points are as follows: 
NEW ENGLAND STATES 



>|0. Of CITIES NO. DF KINDER- NO.OFCHIL- 

HAVING KIN- GARTENS IN DfE^lATTEHD- 

1ERGARTENS. THE STATE ING KINDER- 

GARTENS. 



.Maine - - - - 13 


35 


1,312 


Rhode Islaml - - 8 


67 


2,522 


Connecticut - - 34 


ISO 


8,340 


Vermont - - -5 


7 


218 


Massachusetts - 55 


368 


17.247 


New Hampshire - 10 


33 


1.1 10 


Total 125 


690 


30,767 


NEW YORK. 




1 Number of cities having- k 


ndergar- 





tens 40 

Number of villages having kinder- 
gartens 44 

Number of cities having public 

kindergartens - - 36 

Number of villages having public 

kindergartens - 1 



57 



2. Number of kindergartens of all 

kinds 1,571 

Number of public kindergartens - 1,233 

3. Number of children enrolled in kinder- 

gartens of all kinds. - - - 51,373 

Number of children enrolled in public 

kindergartens - - - 42,509 

NEW JERSEY. 

1. Number of cities having kindergartens - 47 

" " " " public kinder- - 

garlens .... 47 

2. Number of kindergartens 324 

Number of public kindergartens - - - 304 

3. Number of children enrolled in all - - 17130 
Number of children in public kinder 

garlens --.-----.--- 16287 

DELAWARE 

1. Number of cities having kindergartens - 3 

2. Number of kindergartens 10 

3. Number of children enrolled in all - - 350 

ILLINOIS 

1. Number oi cities having kindergartens 

of any kind - - 38 

Number of cities having public kinder- 
gartens - ----- 22 

2. Number of kindergartens of all kinds: 

Private 55 

Free or charitable 43 

Public 193 



3. Number of children attending kindergartens: 

Private 1,791 

Free 1,037 \ . '.-,,i;:::i 

Public 25,511 



NO, Of CITIES N1. OF KINDER- NO. 0FCHIL- 
HAVING KIN- GARrENSINTHE DRENATTEND- 

DERGARTENS. ST-JE. ING KINDER- 

GARTENS. 

Wisconsin 100. . . .325 (Approx ) 20,000 (Approx.) 

Minnesota 38.... 159 5,S?8 (7 kinder- 
gartens did not report attendance) 

Iowa 25 ... 85 4,000 

Ohio 17.... 202 14,880 

Pennsylvania... 47 491 (Approx.) 18,000 

Indiana 6 71 4,828 

SOUTHERN STATES 
So. Carolina.... 10.... 30 (heard, from) 711 

Missouri 11.... 303 12,178 

West Virginia. . 3 138 

Mississippi 12 12 244 )Nos. in 

all not reported..) 

North Carolina. 17 612 

Alabama 9 37 1,4 L4 

Oklahoma 8.... 38 1,705 

Georgia 13 ... 54 2,001 

Texas 13.... 49 ...... 1,413 

Kentucky (Not desig.) 46 2,526 (Not com- 
plete.) 

Florida 9.... 20 695 

Tennessee 3 . . . . 17 ' . . . 392 

(Memphis has 2 kindergartens, but not heard from) 

Louisiana 8 11 3,499 (Approx) 

Virginia 7 28 895 (Approx) 

Maryland 4 ... 29 3,739 

Arkansas 6 7 146 

Dist. of Columbia 75 2,950 



Totals... 119 823 



N. Dakota 1 

Montana 2 

Idaho 3 

Washington . . 4 

Oregon 1 

Nebraska (p'rt'l) 5 

Colorado 8 

California 16 

N. Mexico 3 

Utah 3 

Arizona 4. 



WESTERN STATES. 
1.... 1 



33.703 



100 
470 
300 
,820 
s 455 
,915 
65 
,827 
233 



Total 18,000 (Approx) 

Total, all states, 823 5,374 271,737 

A knowledge of the facts concerning the kindergar- 
ten which these returns show cannot fail to be of great 
value to the kindergarten movement. The value of the 
facts would be still greater, however, if the present 
status could be compared with that of an earlier period 
since the progress of the movement could then be 
measured. Some basis for such a comparison is afford- 
ed by the inquiry made in 1903 by Miss Clara L. Ander- 
son and published in the Kindergarten Annual of that 
year. This gives the names of the cities that had kin- 
dergartens, the kind of kindergartens in each — private, 
charitable or public-the training schools and the names 
of the kindergartners nearly ten thousand in number. 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



The list of cities having kindergartens in 1903 will afford 
the opportunity for the comparison needed, altho it 
alone will not be sufficient to show kindergarten pro- 
gress or the opposite. Even if there had been time to 
make such a^coniparison at present it would have been 
unfair to draw conclusions since the returns from many 
states are still so incomplete. A cursory glance shows, 
however, that kindergarten progress during the past 
nine years has been by no means as marked as the 
friends of the movement would wish or as many of 
them suppose. It is apparent that good progress has 
been made in some states, that the.movement has been 
at a standstill in many that should have shown growth 
and that it has positively retrograded in others. Those 
who have thecause of kindergarten advancement at 
heart, therefore, need not only to continue their'efforts 
but to increase them. They need, in fact, to realize that 
propagatory work of the right kind is needed now more 
than ever before. Those who have worked on or with 
the committee as members]or state'ehairmen realize as 
others cannot, how feeble a hold the kindergarten has 
as yet and how much it needs organized effort for its ad- 
vancement if Jt is to render to] the children of the 
United States the servicejof which it is capable. 

As chairman of the committee, I wish to express my 
warm appreciation of the admirable support of the 
committee members and in^their behalf to thank the 
state chairmen for their efficient cooperation, without 
which the work done, though still incomplete, could 
never have been accom Jul i shed. The committee wishes 
to thank all those who contributed to the success of 
its work by contributions and answering questionaires, 
and last but not least, the National Kindergarten Asso- 
ciation for the leaflets which it provided to send out 
with the questionaires showing the need of kindergar- 
ten extension throughout the country. 

Respectfully submitted, 

.Nina C. Vandewalker, 

Chairman. 



WOMAN AND THE BALLOT. 

Dr. Luther H. Gulick. 

"Woman is as sure to have the suffrage as the 
tide is to rise," said Dr. Gulick, "not because she is 
as wise, as strong, as skillful as man is, nor because 
she, like him, is a human being, nor for any other 
reason of likeness or duplication at all, but because 
she is different, because she can do what he cannot, 
because the world needs her peculiar and special 
abilities. 

"It is because she is different, because these dif- 
ferences are fundamental World needs, that it is 
necessary that she shall bring these differences to 
the service of the world. This fact, whether woman 
wants it or no, the suffrage will force inevitably 
upon her. We insist that she must speak but be- 
cause she is different and not because she is like. 
The vote is no end in itself. 

"Many of the psychic functions of motherhood 
she is discharging in the school. She is making 
play grounds for children, healthier conditions in 
schools, fairer conditions for the work of men, 



women, and children in farm, store, factory, shop, 
and mine. The ideal is that of universal mother- 
hood — all the women being responsible that every 
child is loved, cared for, and given a fair chance. 
She is beginning to see that she is responsible for 
much of the municipal housekeeping." — Excerpt 
fro. 11 address. 



DIRECTING NATIVE IMPULSES. 

Prof. H. C. Henderson, State Normal School, 
Milwaukee. 

If rightly viewed, the native impulses of children 
constitute our chief educational stock in trade. Ed- 
ucation itself may be regarded as nothing more than 
the direction of the impulses toward ends that are 
valuable by means of appropriate material. The 
training of children's impulses leads to the forma- 
tion of useful habits, to the acquisition of dynamic 
knowledge, and to the gaining of right ideals of 
conduct. 

If this is true of the normal child, it applies with 
equal, if not with greater force, to the education of 
children physically or mentally defective. Interests 
follow the lead of impulses and there is a wide dif- 
ference between educating a child in accordance 
with his nature and in attempting to educate him 



TEACH ABOUT SEXES OF ANIMALS. 

Dr. Mary Blount. 

There is need for teaching the sexual reproduc- 
tion of animals without any reference to disease. 
The purpose of such teaching is educational; to 
take the subject out of the mist of ignorance, emo- 
tion and superstition, and put it in clear light 
where people can think about it sanely as they think 
about other natural phenomena. 

The subject should be a part of common school 
education, and as legitimate a subject for examina- 
tion for teacher's certificate as is digestion, or fresh 
air, or sanitary water supply. Boys and girls have 
responded with wholesome interest to the scientific 
teaching of the subject. 



LITTLE BLACKBOARD SKETCHES. 

I use often a small hanging blackboard (4x5 feet, 
which can be taken down and rolled up when not in 
use), on which I sketch rapidly with white or col- 
ored chalks before the morning circle — while we 
talk — the scenes and objects under discussion, also 
illustrating different stages of growth and develop- 
ment in plants, insects — tadpoles and other things, 
in our nature work — getting suggestions from the 
children, and letting them aid in illustrating, when 
possible, but, we visit the real scenes, and have the 
real object as often as we can. — Elizabeth G. Hay- 
wood, in North Carolina Educator. 



Lives of great men all remind us 
We can make our lives sublime. 



-Longfellow, 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINF 



WASTE AND EFFICIENCY IN SCHOOL. 
By W. 11. Elson, Former Superintendent of Schools 
of Cleveland, Ohio. 
New Criteria of efficiency turns the center of ad- 
ministrative interest from the needs of the few and 
the strong to the needs of the majority. 

The failure of the school to hold its pupils is one 
of the great sources of educational waste. In a typi- 
cal city it was found that for a ten-year period but 
48 per cent of all the children enrolled in the first 
grade reached the sixth, but 30 per cent reached the 
seventh, and that but one pupil in four attained the 
eighth grade. In a word, taking the records for ten 
years as a basis of judgment, it was found that only 
one child in two ever advanced in the elementary 
school beyond the fifth grade. 

In the high school the records show similarly large 
losses from withdrawals. It was found that for a 
ten-year period one child out of every three withdraw 
before the second year, one out of every two with- 
draw before becoming a junior, and two out of every 
three failed to graduate. 

Nor do the records show that these losses within 
the school are due to its breaking down in recent years, 
for taking the first half of the ten-year period the per 
cent of those graduating from high school or com- 
pleting the eighth grade is a trifle less than for the last 
half of the period, thereby showing a slight gain in 
holding power on the part of the school. 

When the life history of ten graduating classes of 
high school is made the basis of judgment, the losses 
within the school from withdrawals are surprisingly 
large. Broadly speaking, it seems reasonable to con- 
clude that of those entering the first grade, 05 per 
cent leave without finishing the high school, 50 per 
cent withdraw before reaching the sixth grade and 
75 per cent before attaining the eighth grade; while 
of those entering the high school one-third leave be- 
fore the second year, two-thirds drop out before grad- 
uating. This is fairly typical of the country at large. 
It reveals enormous waste due to withdrawals from 
schools. Naturally the question arises to what extent 
is the school itself in organization, instruction, course 
of study, standards of value, or otherwise responsible 
for those losses and for its own lack of holding power. 
Vocational high schools have a marked influence in 
tending to keep children longer at school. 

But losses by withdrawals are affected also by re- 
tardation. In a typical city the records show that 
exclusive of all special schools, one-fourth of all ele- 
mentary pupils were retarded one to four years. 

From data available it seems reasonable to conclude 
that of all money spent on public education in Ameri- 
can cities one-tenth to one-eighth is spent in taking 
children over the work a second time, an enormous 
loss considered from any point of view. As a money 
tax due to the maladjustment of study-courses and 
promotion scheme to the abilities of children it is ex- 
cessive. When the school is tested for efficiency by 
its ability to carry children through its course on 
time it shows great waste. 

The maladjustment of the work of the school to 



the capacities and interests of children is expressed in 
terms of withdrawals, retardation, repetition and non- 
promotion. The thoughful student of educational 
waste cannot fail to reach the conclusion that the 
school is addressing itself to the stronger group, and 
setting its standards of attainment beyond the range, 
of the average children. 

Methods and standards of promotion must also be 
made more flexible. 

There is urgent need for standardizing subjects, de- 
partments and schools. 

A study of educational waste forces the conclusion 
that in the collection and use of data to guide in 
measuring the efficiency of the school and in determin- 
ing administrative action a mere beginning has been 
made; that if the efficiency of the school is to be 
definitely measured careful record of school losses must 
be kept to the end that study-courses and promotion- 
schemes may be adapted to the abilities, needs and 
interests of all the children, and the school itself be 
thereby enabled to check its own waste. 



PRELIMINARY REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON 
RURAL SCHOOL EDUCATION- 
NEEDED CHANGES. 

(at n. e. a.) 

Rendered by E. T. Fairchild. State Superintendent of 
Public Instruction. 

AN ENCERPT. 

It is conceded that the rural school is the one lag- 
gard in the educational procession. Of the 12,000,000 
rural school children less than 25 per cent is completing 
the work of the grades. The teaching is immature 
and lacks proper training. Terms are too short. 
School buildings are poor, unsanitary and ill-equipped. 
The school enrollment is constantly decreasing. The 
supervision is wholly inadequate. High school privi- 
leges are denied to the great majority of these boys 
and girls. The strong, virile rural school of a gener- 
ation ago has gone, and in its place is a primary school 
weak in numbers and lacking in efficiency. The coun- 
try boy and girl of this strenuous and complex twen- 
tieth century are not afforded equal educational op- 
portunities. 

The best efforts of many of the wisest and most in- 
fluential people of our country have been constantly 
devoted to the betterment of the high school, college 
and university, while the rural school during this 
period has been sadly neglected. Although these 
schools serve directly the interests of the greatest per 
cent of our population, and although they are admit- 
tedly the most inefficient part of our entire educational 
system, yet nowhere is there an organized and nation- 
wide effort to make them fully serve the needs of the 
new civilization under which we are now living. This 
material is national. The country school needs assist- 
ance. It needs the help of the educational expert; it 
needs the help of the philanthropist and business man; 
it needs the help of the press; it needs the assistance 
of all institutions of higher learning and the union of 
all social forces for its betterment. 



He is rich enough who does not want. — Italian. 





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(£4 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



THE HEALTH OF SCHOOL CHILDREN. 

ROBERT J. ALEY, PRESIDENT OF THE UNIVERSITY OF 

MAINE, ORONO, ME. 

Excerpt from Address 

What shall it profit a child if he gain the whole 

world of knowledge and lose his own health? — G. 

Stanley Hall. 

Those who have given thought to the matter are 
agreed that health is a valuable asset. In the hurry 
and competition incident to the development of this 
new world of ours, the importance of the care and 
development of health has been largely overlooked. 
There has been a very marked tendency to treat the 
individual as we have treated our material resources. 
In a general way profit has resulted from the growth 
and work of men. The immediate economic result has 
blinded us to the importance of human conservation. 
The sacrifice of the life and health of many indi- 
viduals has counted for but little. The supply of 
brawn seemed unlimited. We have not been working 
on this plan long enough to realize that the children 
and grand children pay the price of excesses and lack 
of care. * * * * * * * * * 

We are told that a child's best inheritance is a 
mother who knows how to keep him well, being as- 
sured that the healthy child grows to manhood and 
womanhood capable of resisting contagion and de- 
fying disease. Does not the neglect of the health 
of these children amount to race suicide as truly 
as does the direct reduction of the birth-rate? 

Luther Burbank, in an article on "The Training 
of the Human Plant," says: 

The curse of modern child life in America is over- 
education, over-confinement, over-restraint. The 
injury wrought to the race by keeping too young 
children in school is beyond the power of anyone 
to estimate. The work of breaking down the nerv- 
ous systems of the children of the United States is 
well under way. Every child should have mud pies, 
grasshoppers, and tadpoles, acorns and pinecones, 
trees to climb, and brooks to wade in, and every 
child who has been deprived of these has been de- 
prived of the best part of his education. 

But not every child can have these blessings of 
the country, and so to the educator falls the double 
task of supplying the want from the limitless 
realms of the land of Make-Believe. 

Upon the sun-parched sands of the familiar city 
school grounds with no more shade than is af- 
forded by the school building itself, much out-of- 
door work may be done, and here again the kinder- 
gartner will soon surprise herself with her own in- 
ventive powers. The matter of removing the kin- 
dergarten furniture is a simple one: each little tot 
delights to carry his own chair; tables, too, may be 
removed to the yards if desirable, by reversing 
them, feet up, to avoid the danger of throwing 
these tiny helpers, and the incidental lesson in help- 
fulness and the improvement of existing conditions 
is not to be discounted. The man is but the boy- 
grown tall, and these little occasions for assisting 
and being made to feel an individual responsibility 
in perfecting the scheme of the whole, are steps in 



promoting a future American citizenship, which, 
while free and independent, would scorn the spirit 
of arrogance. 

Millions of dollars are being spent annually in 
the erection of palatial public school buildings, and 
in the establishment and maintenance of expensive 
educational systems, and yet it is a sad fact that, 
save as housed within these majestic walls, the chil- 
dren of today are forgotten, crowded out in the 
steady march of the business man, from all that 
once constituted their rightful share of God's uni- 
verse, without playground or park, without even the 
safety of their own home streets which once formed 
their private realm of mystery, of safety, and of 
delight. 



Home, in his Pcychlogkal Principles of Education, 
says : 

The correct order of educating religiously is, first 
the action and feeling, then the idea and thought. The 
child is primarily a doer, not a thinker. He abides in 
the region of the concrete, not the abstract. Children 
can do right and so feel rightly, before they can think 
rightly. It is through obedience to the commands of 
God and feeling our dependence upon God that chil- 
dren come to think rightly about God. The same prin- 
ciple also holds true with adults: Whoever is willing 
to do the will of God, shall know of the doctrine. 
The trouble at this point is that in religious education 
as in all types of education we have begun with chil- 
dren on the intellectual, abstract, passive side of life 
rather than on the practical, concrete, and active side. 



Just as we know the true significance of things by 
the use to which they are put, so we learn the signifi- 
cance of moral principles through our acts which give 
rise to them. To love is to know the full meaning of 
love, which no oral or written description could im- 
part. To pray fervently is to know the sweetness of 
intimate communion with our Father. To give is to 
know the joys of giving. To do unto others as we 
would that they should do to us is to know the doc- 
trine to be divine. Happily the course necessary to 
get the knowledge also creates a desire to put it into 
practice and thus the "yoke becomes easy and the 
burden light." 

The home, the church, and the school are the three 
great forces which society depends upon for moral 
and religious results. 

In order that there may be wholesome physical, so- 
cial, and moral environment and the best examples of 
true manhood and true womanhood set before the 
children, it is imperative that the management of 
public schools be freed from petty personal and party 
politics to the end that the best schools may be 
selected to manage and govern the public schools. 
Such management will secure honest, progressive, and 
efficient administration and result in the employment 
and retention of the best teachers available. 



Hope springs eternal in the human breast, 
Man never is, but always to be blest. 

—Pope. 



THE KINDERGARTEN- PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



•5 



1 




THE COMMITTEES THE WHOLE 

CG1TJDUGTED BY DERTHA JOHNSTON 

THIS COMMITTEE OF THE WHOLE, of which all Subscribers to the Kin- 
dergarten-Primary Magazine are members, will consider Ihose various prob- 
lems which meet the practicing Kindergartner— problems relating to the 
School-room proper. Ventilation, Heating, and the like; the Aesthetics of 
School-room Decoration; Problems of the Physical Welfare of thethild, in- 
cluding the Normal, the Defective, and the Precocious; questions suggest- 
ed by the use of Kindergarten Material, the Gifts, Occupations. G: mes. Toys, 
Pets; Mothers-meetings; School Government; Child Psychology; the relation 
of Home to School and the Kindergarten to the Grades; and problems re- 
garding the Moral Development of the Child and their relation to Froebel's 
Philosophy and Methods All Questions will be welcomed ard also any 
suggestions of ways in -which Kindergartners have successfully met the 
problems incidental to kindergarten and primary practice. All replies to 
queries will be made through this department, and not by correspondence. 
Address all inquiries to 

MISS BERTHA JOHNSTON, EDITOR, 

1054 Cergen St., Brooklyn, N. Y. 







To the Editor of the Committee of the Whole: 

I would like to ask you a few questions relative 
to the subjects of the First Year Primary: 

1. Shall I teach writing first or reading? 

2. Shall I teach the names of letters first or their 
sounds? 

3. 'Shall I begin with print letters or script? 

4. Shall I use the blackboard first or books? 

5. Is any one way right? 

J. B ,M., New York. 

We will reply to the last of these question first, 
by quoting the old saw "live and learn." Until we 
have studied the child for a longer time and with 
more sympathy, intelligence and wisdom, it is not 
safe to claim that any one way is the right way to 
educate, train and instruct him. To be a true dis- 
ciple of Froebel we must be faithful and loving ob- 
servers of children — observing their natural likes 
and dislikes, their natural interests, and the natural 
ways by which their bodies, minds and hearts de- 
velop. As we learn more and more the natural 
means of growth we will know by what methods to 
best help them to further development. 

1. In the average school we would say that read- 
ing and writing might best be taught simultaneous- 
ly. That is to say, the new word or words learned 
each day may be copied by the child on blackboard 
or paper, during the "busy time" period. This work 
will of course be crude at first unless the child may 
have acquired certain muscular control of his fin- 
gers in the drawing exercises of the kindergarten. 

2. It will often be found that after a few weeks it 
will not be necessary, to teach the names of the 
letters didactically. If the children have practice 
each day in phonetics as the new words are learned, 
and if the teacher as a casual matter of fact calls the 
letters by their names as she uses them, the child 
will incidentally and more or less unconsciously 
learn their names. After the names are learned, the 
children should be drilled in the alphabetical order 
of the letters, so that when they have recourse to 
the dictionary or encyclopedia they will know in 
what part of the book to look for words beginning 
with a certain letter. The usual alphabet charts, 



and the little Mother Goose song will help fix the 
order in the child mind. 

3. It is easier for the child to make the script 
letters than the printed ones, and as he seldom or 
never needs to use the printed letter in correspond- 
ence it seems a wast of time to have him practice 
the print form. The general resemblance of the 
script and print forms make it easy for him to make 
the transition to the printed page. 

4. The reply to this question depends somewhat 
upon the answer to the one preceding, or vice versa. 
If the blackboard be used first the teacher is free 
to employ the script letters. Few books give the 
frequent repetition and review desirable in work 
with beginners, and for several weeks at least it 
may be well to restrict oneself to blackboard work. 

It may be that the experience of different teach- 
ers leads them to disagree with the verdicts given 
above, and if so we hope they will give our readers 
the benefit of their knowledge. 

We have spoken with the average public and pri- 
vate school in mind. But the last word upon this 
subject has by no means been said and the results 
claimed for the Montessori system in teaching read- 
ing and writing are such as to make one feel how 
very inadequate has been the observation of devel- 
opment in childhood, and therefor we would refer 
those interested in this subject to those pages in 
which the Italian educator describes her methods 
and material for teaching reading and writing, the 
preparatory exercises for securing muscular con- 
trol, and the establishment of visual-muscular im- 
ages and muscular memory. 
To the Chairman, Committee of the Whole: 

Is it possible to conduct a kindergarten without a 
piano? A piano is so expensive! T. S. 

This question recalls the reply made some years 
ago to an examination query, "What place should 
the piano hold in the kindergarten?" To which one 
of the examined replied, "It should be placed where 
it will receive a good light." 

In reply we would say, that a piano is not abso- 
lutely essential if the kindergartner have a good ear 
for music and be able to sing and carry an air cor- 



10 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



rectly. We know one capable kindergartner who 
conducted a kindergarten for months without a 
.musical instrument, but she could hum distinctly and 
correctly, and clap in good time, for marching, and 
was able to hum and then sing the words of the 
songs she wanted to teach. Singing correctly her- 
self, she was able also to pick out those among the 
children who sang truly, to give volume and assist 
those whose musical hearing was less accurate. 

It is somewhat surprising, considering the expense 
of a piano, that more kindergartners do not learn to 
play the violin or some other instrument. We recall 
reading of a kindergartner in some German town 
who led her group in the march, playing the violin 
at the same time; and in other foreign countries 
the zither has 'been employed. Probably the piano 
is regarded most highly in the United States because 
nearly every girl has had piano lessons and as each 
tone is fixed by its particular white or black key 
there is less chance of inaccuracy than with a 
stringed instrument. Will not the training teachers 
write a few lines upon this subject? Our columns 
are open to all. 

To the Editor the Committee of the Whole: 

Have there ever been any men who have been kin- 
dergartners since the days of Froebel himself? 

' J. S. R., Phila. 

At an anniversary meeting of the Kraus Alumnae 
Association some years ago Ossian Lang, editor of 
the Barnes & Company publications, told of taking 
the kindergarten course and having charge for a 
time, as a youth, of kindergarten children, assisting 
some friend or relative, and being very happy in the 
work. He stated then that he thought it too bad 
there were not men with the mother instinct, now 
and then, to take up the course. And we have our- 
selves occasionally lamented the fact that there were 
no present-day masculine disciples of Froebel in the 
practical kindergarten field. In view of this ques- 
tion the following paragraph, taken from a late re- 
port of the International Kindergarten Union, is 
most interesting and inspiring: 

"I visited a colored kindergarten in Savannah a 
short time ago, and was surprised to find it being 
conducted by a man. He was the pastor of a col- 
ored church, whose wife was a kindergartner. They 
had been training two girls to help them, but the 
wife was now ill, and the girls had been obliged to 
seek other positions that paid them better. 

"However, that man's enthusiasm for the cause 
was keeping the kindergarten together until he could 
get someone to take it. I felt as if the spirit of 
Froebel shone from that man's heart, and that with 
such faith the work would live in spite of every- 
thing." 

What is more beautiful than the Christ spirit, 
which, for the sake of childhood, is willing to be- 
come even as a little child. 

To the Editor the Committee of the Whole: 

What do you think of the value of giving the chil- 
dren a luncheon in the middle of the forenoon? 
S. T., Brooklyn, 1912. 



In many neighborhoods it is extremely desirable 
that little people should be given something to eat, 
since many of them go to kindergarten having had 
little or no breakfast, and often what they have had 
has contained a minimum of nutriment. A break- 
fast of fried cakes (crullers) and coffee is not a good 
foundation for a morning of either work or play. 
An illy-nourished body does not permit the mind to 
exercise with the freedom and concentration that 
leads to desired results. Think of the effort re- 
quired to keep your own mind upon your studies 
when you are hungry being kept waiting for your 
regular meal, and you can partly realize what the 
grade teacher has to contend with who daily con- 
fronts a class whose hungry cravings are never 
really satisfied. It is a marvel that the children 
keep as good-natured and accomplish as much as 
they do. Many schools are working at the problem 
of giving one free meal to poorer children in such 
a way as not to humiliate them, or lessen their self- 
respect. In many kindergartens a cracker or so is 
given each day to the children; and in others this 
is supplemented by a cup of good milk for each. 
The simple repast affords opportunity for teaching- 
gracious manners in passing napkins, and in other- 
wise serving each other. In many well-to-do neigh- 
borhoods the children bring little luncheons and 
here again is opportunity for helping, and learning 
how to entertain in kindly fashion. In settlement 
kindergartens the pennies the children bring each 
day help pay for the luncheon, and so keep alive 
the spirit of self-respect in the parents. 
To the Editor the Committee of the Whole: 

What do you think of the necessity of vaccinating 
a roomful of scared young children every year at a 
time when there is no epidemic present and no like- 
lihood of one? I wish this question could be dis- 
cussed in your pages. A. 'B. D. 

The editor wishes so, too. Will not practicing 
kindergartners tell of some of their experiences, and 
if there are any experts ready to give their opinions 
pro or con our pages are open to them. Perhaps 
some parents will give us their views and thus fur- 
ther illuminate this important subject. 



A kindergarten teacher, in speaking of the attack 
made on "baby talk" by one of the Tufts College in- 
structors, said: "Of course, we all know that 'baby 
talk' is a poor substitute for the real language, but 
we know also that it is the result of first effort. It 
will always exist, and, thank heaven for it! The 
people who hate it are those who are too matter-of- 
fact to be motherly. No mother teaches her baby 
'baby talk' any more than she teaches it to crawl 
and to adopt the Tufts method. And to curb the 
lisping prattle of the baby, which is usually intelli- 
. gible to the mother only, would be like forcing the 
youngster to stand when it can only creep. To 
mothers and women who know children the effort 
to check 'baby talk' is only another of the question- 
able steps toward making children 'grown ups.' " — 
Lincoln (Neb.) Journal. 

No real kindergartner can be content to remain in ig- 
norance relative to the Montessori method. An oppor- 
tunity is now presented to secure Dr. Montessori's own 
book, latest edition, price $ 1.75, and the Kindergarten- 
Primary Magazine one full year, both for $2.10, but the 
conditions are such that the offVr may be withdrawn at 
any time. Why not renew your subscription now even 
though it has not yet expired? Postage on book, 15c. 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



THE BLACK NICKS AND THE WHITE NICKS. 

A Translation by Frieda. 

It was Saturday evening, but Tapa and Mamma 
were still busy and Grandma, where was she? Oh, 
Grandma was knitting, but she did not call that 
work. The two children, Herman and Gertrude, sat 
on the grass by the roadside, Lizzie, the doll, rested - 
beside them on a low bush. Nicks, the rabbit, and 
Lambkin pulled sweet grass blades near by, while 
the dogs Hactor and Andy frolicked about, as usual;/ 
when suddenly the sound of carriage wheels and. 
the tramping of horses- was heard! "Mr. Pes- 
sumehr!" cried out the children and ran forward. 
The two dogs also sprang into the road and barked 
loudly around the horses' feet. This did not please 
the horses — they jumped to one side of the road. 
Ah, me, it was the side where Nicks and Lambkin 
were standing. The -children screamed loudly, for 
one of the horses' hoofs had struck the little black 
Xicks and sent him rolling in the grass. 

Mr. Pessumehr heard the scream and told the 
coachman to stop the horses. Just then the father 
of the little ones, Herman and Gertrude, came out 
of the house and told Mr. Pessumehr what had 
happened. He was very sorry, but said he must 
now drive on. 

Poor old Nicks was in a bad plight surely! His 
nice straight wired ears were bent together, while 
his black fur coat was torn from his head to his 
little rabbit bob tail, so that all the wood of which 
he was made showed thru. Poor little Nicks! Ger- 
trude wrapped him in her apron and rocked him in 
her arms. "When Dora and Andy cake the milk to 
town tomorrow morning, they must take Xicks to 
the Doctor!" said Herman, but mamma said she 
thought she could find salve and plaster to cure lit- 
tle Xicks at home. As soon as possible, she brought 
her instruments, a needle, a thimble and a spool- 
of black cotton, and sewed little Mr. Rabbit's fur 
skin so nicely together, that no one could tell where 
the stitches were, then she bent the wire in his 
ears straight and covered the fur over U, so that 
in a short time Mr. Nicks looked as well as if he 
had never met with an accident. He had not ut- 
tered a sound, and had held so still he had not made 
a bit of trouble, so he received a clover leaf for his 
supper. 

"Did you sjse Mr. Pessumehr when little Xicks 
got hurt, children?" said Grandma. "No," they an- 
swered. "The carriage drove past so quickly, and 
then poor old Nicks got into so much trouble, we 
never once saw Mr. Pessumehr." 

On Monday came a messenger from Castle LerUm 
who brought a package. When it was opened, there 
stood a new Nicks before the eyes of the astonished 
children, a truly magnificent animal, not black, but 
white, snow-white, with pink eyes and not a thing 
the matter with him! Mr. Pessumehr had sent the 
new Nicks. "Oh, the good Mr. Pessumehr!" but 
there was a surprise they had not yet found out. 

The white Nicks stood on the table under the oak 
tree. Quickly Herman brought old black Nicks 



and stood him also on the table. Now they must 
lie friends and roll along together, side by side, for 
both were on rollers — then came the surprise — each 
time he moved — the new white Xicks shook his ears 
and his tail! The black Nicks and the woolly Lamb- 
kin looked their astonishment, but Herman and Ger- 
trude really shouted, while the two big dogs, Hector 
and Andy, came frisking and barking to join in the 
fun, and Miss Kitty-cat swung her tail slowly 
around and around, in a big circle, to see if she 
could not be a surprise too, but the most astonish- 
ed one must have been doll Lizzie, for she fell out 
of the bush where she had again been resting — and 
rocking, when the wind blew. 

"Now I suppose old Xicksy will rest in the cor- 
ner," said i'apa jokingly! "Our dear Xicks in the 
corner. Oh, that would be a shame," said Herman 
very tenderly. "My old mended pet Xicksy!" and 
took him in his arms and pressed him to his heart. 
That night when he went to bed, as the rabbits 
stood with Lambkin and doll Lizzie in the play- 
room, Herman took the black Xicks up and carried 
him with him to his bed, to show him that he loved 
him. just as he always had, if he was not so wise 
and could not shake bis ears and his tail. 



WHAT THE DRUG HABIT MEANS. 

(From Charles • B. Towns' "The Peril of the Drug- 
Habit" in the August Century.) 

Whether a man has acquired the habit knowingly 
or unknowingly, its action is always the same. Xo 
matter how conscientiously he wishes to discharge 
his affairs, the drug at once begins to loosen his 
sense of moral obligation, until in the end it brings 
about absolute irresponsibility. Avoidance and neg- 
lect of customary duties, evasion of new ones, extra- 
ordinary resourcefulness in the discovery of the 
line of least resistance, and finally amazing cunning 
and treachery — this is the inevitable history. 

The drug habit is no respecter of persons. I have 
had under my care exemplary mothers and wives 
who became indifferent to their families; clergymen 
of known sincerity and fervor who became shop- 
lifters and forgers; shrewd, successful business men 
who became paupers, because the habit left them 
at the mercy of sharpers after mental deterioration 



A PRAYER. 

God make my life a little light, 

Within the world to glow; 
A little flame that burnetii bright, 

Wherever I may go. 

God make my life a little flower, 

That giveth joy to all, 
Content to bloom in native bower, 

Although its place be small. 

God make my life a little song, 
/That comforteth the sad; 
That helpeth others to be strong, 
•And- makes the' singer, glad. 

— Selected. 



The Monfessori Method, Maria Montessori's own 
book, latest edition fully illustrated, and the Kinder- 
garten-Primary Magazine one full year, both for on- 
ly $2.10, Postage, 15c. extra. We reserve the right to 
withdraw this remarkable offer at an)- time without no- 
tice. Renew your subscription now and get the book. 



1 8 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



BOOKLET DESIGNS tem of Fi £- lll > u P on stiff cardboard by means of tissue 

paper. Draw in the features of the cat lightly upon the 
Margaret B. Sutton, Danville, N. Y. front ^^ and then tint u with water colors and gilt 

Directions for makintf Kitten Booklet. paint. The inside sheets are made of note paper or 

Materials — Stiff cordboard, note paper, water colors, any kind of thin paper, and lines for the words to be 




F;, 



.V c< 



tissue paper, gold paint, pen, ink, pencil, eraser, shears, written or printed on the inside sheets can be clotted in 

etc. lig-htly with ink. The back cover need not be decorated. 

For the outside cover of the booklet trace off the pat- These booklets can be cut out on the outlines. The 




InsiJe 5pA.U!hi sHecX' 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



19 



children enjoy making- the booklets, and rural and pri- 
mary teachers especially will be able to fill in many busy 
work periods profitably with them. They can be used 
as spelling books, or invitations to parties or meetings. 
If to a Hallo'een party they should be painted black. 

The following' is given as a suggestion of suitable 
words for spelling or language lessons; — 

1. kitten. 2. cat. 3. claws. 4. scratch. 5. play. 6. 
hate. 7. dogs. 8. bell. 

Kindergartnen; can make use of these booklets in 
many ways, including invitations to mother's meetings, 
etc. 



KNOTS AND STITCHES. 

Very youmg children can be taught how to tie knots. 
We give a few simple illustrations. Many of these 
knots are useful in construction work with reeds and 
raiHa, and other material. 

No. 1 shows one of the simplest knots and is known 
as the overhand knot. It is familiar to all. 

No. 2 is a knot possessing no holding qualities what- 
ever, unless placed around an object, as shown in the 
illustration. 

No. 3 shows a combination of No. 1 and No. 2, con- 
stituting a substantial knot that will hold. 




Fi'j. rrx. 
Pattern. 



It is always looked on as a good investment for a young 
woman to take a teachers' training course, for this not only 
secures to her a desirable means of support, but extends her 
general culture and often rounds out her education. Of 
none is this truer than the kindergarten training course. It 
provides all that is required for a professional, certified 
teacher, and at the same time develops the student in a most 
acceptable way along cultural and social lines. In the ma- 
jority of citise the kindergarten i a part of the public school 
system, so that salaried positions are usually available with 
salaries ranging from $60 to $100 a month. — Christian 
Science Monthly, Boston. 



"Do not look for wrong and evil, 
You will find them if you do; 
As you measure for your neighbor 
He will measure back back to you. 

Look for goodness, look for gladnes 
You will find them all the while; 
If you bring a smiling visage 
To the glass, you meet a smile. 



hows a slip knot with excellent holding qual- 




Knot No. 1 No. i No. 2 No. 3 

No. 5 is same as No. 1 tied around an object. 
No. 6 shows a slip knot tied in connection with ; 




No. 6. No. 5. No. 7. 

No. 7 shows No. 1 tied with a double cord. 



20 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



No. 8 shows the manner of making the button hole 
stitch used very largely in making baskets, and bind- 
ing the edges of mats and baskets, etc. 
- The manner of making- these knots is clearly indi- 
cated by the illustrations. They are doubtless familiar 




No. 8 Buttonhole Stitch. No. 9, Fart of twine bag 

to every teacher. Other and more difficult knots v 
be illustratsd in a future issue. 




lowing manner of tying strands of raffia around 
in beginning the work of making twine bag. 

now take up the construction of objects us- 
;:nots and stitches. 




made as follows, using 17 strands of raffia for tying, 
and six strands for braiding, and a long lead pencil. 
Hold pencil in left hand, fold each strand of raffia, knot 
over pencil, as shown in ill. No. 10. Place strands 
about one-fourth inch apart. For second row of knots, 
take the strands of raffia nearest one another and tie, 
proceeding along the row. About one-half inch below 
tie another row of knots, and continue until about VI 
rows of knots have been tied, depending on the size of 
the ball of twine to be used in bag. Slip off the pencil 
knot the two loose strands at the top, and continue un- 
til all are tied. Find inside of ball of twine, 'place in 
bag, allowing end ro come out at bottom, as with an 
ordinary twine holder, and tie the raffia tightly at bot- 
tom, cut off ends and fringe. Braid strips of raffia 
and run in at top and tie ends. No. 11 shows the 
twine bag complete. 



UPON PRESENTING THE FIRST GIFT BALLS 
TO A BABY. 

Bertha Johnston. 

Six little balls of rainbow hue. 

Of soft lamb's wool — I've made for you. 

What do Baby's fingers feel 

That the pretty balls reveal? I 

Elasticity and form; 

Softness; woolly texture warm. 

What perceive our Baby's eyes 

-That he should these playmates prize? 

Tints of fruit and sky and flovfer; 
• Shape;' and movement — sign of power. 

How with these can Baby play, 

Helping him to grow each- day? 

Games of hiding, tossing, whirling; 

Guessing, counting, matching, twirling; 

Bird in nest: chipmunk in tree; 
' Puppy springing 'round in glee; 

Hop of rabbit, creep of mouse; 

Kitten running through the house i 

Plums, grapes, lemons, in the store, 

Brought from far to Baby's door; 

Swing of pend'lum; bell in tower, 

Tolling every passing hour, 

Bringing body, -mind, and soul, 

Health and power and'self-control, — 

Mirroring to this Babe of thine, 

Nature, Self and Power Divine. 

These six balls of rainbow hue 

Uncle Froebel planned for you. 

Baby's playmate, Mother's friend,— 

With my love to you I send. 



Showing completed Twine Bag. 



JWINE HOLDER. 

Fig. 9 shows portion of a raffia twine bag, which 



New times demand new men and new measures. 
The new times are surely here. The profession that 
meets the demand of these times will be the leading 
American profession, and education can meet these 
demands better than law, medicine, and the 'minis- 
try.— Dr. A. E. Winship. 

There is not in nature 
A thing that makes a man so deform'd, so beastly, 
As doth intemperate anger. 

— Webster's Duchess of Malp. 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



21 



KINDERGARTEN GROWTH 

|X< »TE:— Under this heading we shall nive from time to 
time such items ascotne toour notice relative tothe estab- 
lishment of new kindergartens as well as articles or state- 
ments in the public press or from noted educators favor- 
able to the kindergarten cause. 



Almeda, California. 
The Hist Public School Kindergarten in the history of 
Almeda opened Angust 26th, for children from four to six 
years of age. 

Helena, Montana. 

The Board of Education are advertising for bids for the 
erection of a new kindergarten building and heating plant 
at the Hawthorn School, in this city. 

Soochow, China. 
A Kindergartei Association has been formed here, and it 
has been decided to send four Chinese girls to some Kinder- 
garten Training school, probably in America. Upon com- 
pleting the course the girls are to return to Soochow and 
open free kindergartens. 

San Francisco, California. 

A new kindergaten building is to be built at the corner 
oi 22nd and Bartlett Streets. Mayor Rolph, with the mem- 
bers of the Board of Education, met on the site of the new 
building, August 8th and the Mayor turned the first spade- 
ful of eaith for the foundation. A very large crowd of child- 
ren were on hand and, the Mayor gave as a reason why he 
could not handle a spade as deftly as others, that he had just 
been called upon to sign 5,000 city bonds, which gave him 
writei's cramp. The building will also accommodate the 
Mothers' Club of the neighborhood. It adjoins the Agassiz 
School. 



The Manufacturer and the Kindergarten 

G. F. Holmes,' treasurer of the Plymouth Cordage 
Co., North Plymouth, Mass., writes: "We believe 
the kindergarten meets a child's physical need, trains 
him mentally and nourishes him morally. That it 
is the ideal environment for a child, and that this 
influence touching the home widens indefinitely. It 
is the foundation for a thorough equipment in the 
world's service." 

Ellison A. Smyth, president of the Pclzer Manu- 
facturing Company, Pelzer, South Carolina, says: 
"We maintain a free kindergarten at Pelzer for the 
children of our employes, having done so for ten 
years, and consider it a very valuable preparation 
for our public schools and a great help and bless- 
ing to the younger children of our community." 

Walter Morritt, Ph. D., superintendent of the 
Colorado Fuel and Iron Company, Pueblo, Col., 
writes: "We feel that in mining communities like 
those of the Colorado Fuel and Iron Company, the 
kindergarten is a decided benefit. Not only is one 
year added to the school life of the miner's child, 
but the other years of its too brief educational life- 
are made more effective because of kindergarten 
training." 

From Belton Mills, Belton, South Carolina: "The 
Belton Mills have maintained a free kindergarten for 
the children of our employes since the organization 
•of the mill in L900, and we consider it a most valua- 
ble adjunct to our public school system." 

From the Maryland Steel Company, Sparrows 
Point, Md.: "We believe that kindergartens are in- 
stitutions for forming the character of children. 
Children trained in neatness, gentleness, truthful- 
ness, reverence and order will naturally develop hab- 
its of industry." 




22 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



NEW KINDERGARTEN GAMES 
AND PLAYS 




Conducted by LAURA ROUNTREE SMITH 



iting the 



A SEPTEMBER GAME. 

By Laura Rountree Smith. 
(Book Rights Reserved.) 

The children choose Jack Frost, who stands in 
front of the school with a basket. 

He names the children for various flowers, repeat- 
ing the name of a flower, whenever he wishes. 

Jack Frost now says: "I want flowers for my 
basket, I will choose the Asters to-day." The chil- 
dren he has named "Asters" run up to the basket 
and pretend to put flowers in. He calls for various 
flowers and other children run up to help fill the 
basket, and back to their seats. This may continue 
until all the children have had a chance to run up 
and return to their seats. 

As a surprise Jack Frost may face about and take 
from inside his coat enough flowers to fill the bas- 
ket and march out with the basket full. 

This is a pleasant rest exercise and the game may 
be varied, by having Jack Frost say there will be 
a pic-nic, and then the basket is filled with "sand- 
wiches," "apples," "pickles," etc., the children being 
given these names. 



GAME OF TELLING TIME. 

(Book Rights Reserved.) 
By Laura Rountree Smith. 

An older child is the Clock-Maker. The 
stand in a circle round him. 

The Clock-Maker names the children fro 
twelve, repeating the numbers, if more th: 
children are in the circle. 

They ail sing. Tune, "Yankee Doodle." 

Oh we will learn to tell the time, 
Upon this cloudy morning, 
The busy clocks begin to strike, 
We give you all fair warning. 
(Now each child calls his number beginning with 



one to 
twelve 



jne, two, three, etc., up to twelve 

striking clock.) 
Chorus: 

When the big hand stands at twelve, 

Then the hour is ringing, 

And the small hand tells the hour, 

A FINGER PLAY. 

By Laura Rountree Smith. 
(To be given by four children standing in front 
if the class. They point to eyes, ears, etc.) 
1st: 

Two little, eyes to see all day, 
Happy children at work and play, 

2nd: 



Two little e 
How very t; 



ear you knov 

d may grow, 



Jne little mouth to smile, you see, 
low very happy a child may be. 



What do you suppose is the use of a nose, 
But to smell the fragrance of lily and rose? 

All (in concert) : 

Eyes, and ears' and mouth and nose, 

Are quite useful, we suppose, 

We often bow in company. 

To show how polite a child may be! 



MISS SEPTEMBER. 

By Laura Rountree Smith. 

(Miss September stands in front of the class car- 
rying autumn leaves and golden-rod. The children 
stand in the aisles and recite in concert.) 

You are welcome, Miss September, 
We have come to meet you. 
All the boys and girls in schqot, 
Bow to-day to greet you. 

(A'liss September): 

Welcome children back to school, 
I am Miss September, 
I have opened lesson books, 
As long as 1 remember! 

TWO LITTLE HANDS. 

By Laura Rountree Smith. 

(To be recited in concert by children, who go 
thro motions suggested by the verse.) 

We have two hands, the left and right, 
Hold them up high so clean and white, 
Clap them softly, one, two, three, 
Clean little hands are good to see. 

Wave the left hand, kiss with the right, 
Clasp them both for the prayer at night, 
Then shake them briskly if you please, 
Like foreign children o'er the seas! 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



23 



LITTLE PIECES FOR 
LITTLE PEOPLE 



GLAD SEPTEMBER. 

Glad September comes again, 
All the bells arc ringing, 
Glad September comes again, 
The children all are singing, 
Bells arc ringing loud and long, 
Glad September comes with sonj 

THE CLOCK'S SONG. 

Sixty seconds make a mmute, 

Tick, tick, lock, 

Tell me what can you do in it? 

Tick, tick, tock, 

Tho I am hut a child at play, 

I'll do some kindness every day, 

Sixty seconds slip away, 

Tick, tick, tock. 



WHAT SEPTEMBER SAID. 

What was it September said 
As she tossed her pretty head? 
Golden-rod lit up the land 
With a torch in either hand. 

"A'l the leaves of red and brown, 
I will gayly scatter down. 
Overhead the leaves turn red." 
That is what September said! 



GOOD BYE. 

Birds, birds, what do you sing? 

In the fall and in the spring, 

We sing dear child "Good bye, good bye, 

To the sunny Southland we will fly. 

Birds, birds, what do you see? 
From your nests in the leafy tree, 
We see the daisies nod and sigh, 
Dear little girl "Good bye, good bye." 



THE SCHOOL ROOM CLOCK. 

(Children wave the right arm to and fri 
tate the swinging of the pendulum.) 
Tick, tock, tick, tock, 
Busy school-room clock; 
Early rising is the rule, 
We must not be late to school, 
Tick, tock, tick, tock. 
Busy school-room clock! 

Tick, tock, tick, tock, 
Happy school-room clock! 
I'll be happy all the day, 
In my work and in my play, 
Tick, tock, tick, tock, 
Happy school-room clock! 



SUN-BONNET BABY DRILL 

Have a Sun-Bonnet Baby Drill. Let children en- 
ter in pink and blue sun-bonnets. Let them carry 
the bonnets at first. Line up, swing them right and 
left, up and down, place on their heads. Stand so 
every other one wears pink and blue, recite.) 
Six Wearing Blue Bonnets: 

Little girls were made for play, 

And to wear sun-bonnets full half the day. 

Six Wearing Pink I Sonnets: 

We hope you remember. 
School starts in September! 

Six in 'Blue Bonnets: 

When little girls are very shy. 
They hide their faces from passers by. (Face in) 
Six in 1'ink Bonnets: 

We hope you remember. 
School starts in September! 
Six in Blue Bonnets: 

We like our bonnets, but wh 
Are the prettier ones, the bin 

Six in Fink Bonnets: 

We hope you remember, 
School starts in September! 

(A 1x11 rings sof'.lv, all recite in concert and 
march off.) 

Whether we are at work or play, 

We will wear our sun-bonnets every day, 

We all will bow and courtesy low, 

The bells are ringing, to school we go. 



you think 
pink? 



A JAPANESE PLAY. 

(To be given by two children; one carries a fan, 

one a parasol.) 

1st: 

If I lived in Japan I'd carry a fan, 
Like Aliss Ah, Loo, from over the sea, 

2nd: 

If 1 livid in Japan a parasol gay, 

I would carrj each day if you please. 

Both (sitting down) : 

I I we lived in Japan we would sit on the door. 
And leave our red slippers outside the door. 

(rise) 
1st: 

If 1 lived in Japan, 1 would fan to and fro (fan) 
Slowly without any doubt. 

2nd: 

II I lived in Japan, my parasol gay, 

1 would open to keep the sun out. (opens it) 

Both (be wing low) : 

If we lived in Japan 

We would bow on both knees, 

.And greet you politely 

Like real Japanese. 



-4 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



A PROGRAM FOR COLUMBUS DAY. 

NOTE— In some states the statutes require observance 
of Columbus Day, Oct. 12, in all schools. Thus far but 
little has been offered for primary and kindergarten teach- 
ers. It is believed the following by Laura Kountree Smith 
will prove helpful: 

The Voyage. 

(Book Rights Reserved.) 

By Laura Rountree Smith. 

Part I. ('Columbus walks about and meets many 
boys.) 

Columbus: Oh dear, what shall I do? The three 
vessels are ready but no one will sail with me. 

(He mets several boys.) 

Columbus: Will you sail with me on my voyage 
of discovery? 

1st 'Boy: I dare not sail with you; how do you 
know you will ever return? 

2nd: I do not dare to sail, I am afraid of sea- 
monsters. 

3rd: I do not dare to sail, either; we might roll 
off the edge of the earth, for we still believe the 
earth is flat! 

4th: We would never see Spain again if we went 
with you. 

Columbus: Where will I get my sailors? I will 
go again to Queen Isabella, it may be she can help 
me again. 

(Exit Columbus.) 

1st Boy: What did 'Columbus mean when he said 
Queen Isabella might help him again? 

2nd: Didn't you know Queen Isabella sold her 
jewels to help him pay for the ships? 

3rd: I wonder if Columbus will really sail? 

4th: How can he go without any sailors? 

(Enter 5th boy calling out "Great news"). 

All: Tell us the news! 

5th Boy: Queen Isabella has ordered many pris- 
oners set free so they may sail with Columbus! 

All: What did the prisoners say? 

5th Boy: They would rather stay in prison, so 
would I ! 

All: Let them go, they will not return. 

Part II. (Three ships are drawn on the black- 
board forming a suitable background for Columbus 
and the Sailors. The Sailors may be in costume or 
not as desired. Columbus carries a flag of Spain.) 

Columbus: 

Our ship, she is a tidy craft, 
She'll weather many a gale, 
So, say farewell to friends on land, 
'Tis time that we set sail! 

Sailors: 

Then wave the flag of proud old Spain, 
We fear we'll not see land again! 
(All wave hats, 'Columbus waves flag and they 
start on the voyage.) 

Columbus: Go to your work, my men, I will ob- 
serve the stars. 

1st Sailor: We are all afraid of the sea. 
2nd: Let us go back to Spain! 



3rd: Columbus will never let us turn back. 

4th: We will throw Columbus overboard, tHen. 

5th: Columbus is crazy; he says the earth is 
round! 

6th: We all want to go back to Spain. 

Columbus: What are you all talking about? 

All: Please let us turn back. 

Columbus: Be patient a while longer and we 
will see land. In the meantime let us sing a Sailor 
Song. 

Song. Tune, 'Comin' Thro the Rye." 

W T e will sail across the ocean, 

Merry sailors we, 

For we like the water's motion, 

So we sail the sea, 

Up the masts we all are going (hand over hand) 

And we sing ye-ho! 

High up the masts we'll go. (hand over hand) 

Merry, happy hearted sailors, 

1st: I see sea-weed floating in the water. 
2nd: I see birds flying! 
3rd: I see drift-wood floating. 
4th: We must be near the land. 
All: Land! land! land!' 

Columbus: You are right, my men, in a few 
more hours we will see the land; let us sing again, 

Up the masts we all are going (hand over hand) 

Merry sailors we, 

What care we tho gales are blowing, 

When we sail the sea, 

We know how to drop the anchor, 

When we reach the land, 

We set sails when winds are blowing, 

Now you understand. 

All: Land! land! land! 
. 1st: There are people on the land! 

2nd: I can see they have dark skins! 

3rd: The people seem afraid of us! 

All: Land! land! land! 

(They all step on land, kneel, Columbus takes 
possession of the land in the name of the King and 
Queen of Spain. He places his flag, as it were, on 
the earth, and the little Play is ended.) 



LITTLE PROGRAM FOR COLUMBUS DAY. 

(Book Rights Reserved.) 
I. Recitation by three boys, bearing American 
flag, Spanish flag, and drum. 
1st. 

We are jolly little sailors, 

Join us as we come, 

We'll bear the flag of proud old Spain, 

And we will beat a drum! 



2nd. 



We are jolly little sailors, 

And we pause to say, 

We raise the bonnie flag of Spain, 

Upon Columbus Day! 

We arc jolly little sailors, 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



Raise the red, the white, the blue, 
Tho we honor brave Columbus, 
To our- own flag we are true. 

All (beat drum and wave flag). 
Salute the banners one and all, 
Oh raise them once again, 
Salute the red, the white,, the blue, 
Salute the flag of Spain! 
For countries old and countries new, 
We will wave the red, the white, the blue! 

II. Recitation by 8 girls carrying banners that 
bear the letters that spell the word "Columbus." 

C. Columbus sailed o'er waters blue, 

O. On and on to countries new. 

L. Long the ships sailed day and night, 

U. Until at last land came in sight. 

M. Many hearts were tilled with fear, 

B. But the land was drawing near. 

U. Upon the ground they knelt at last, 

S. So their dangers all were past. 

All: 

Wave the banners bright and gay, 
We meet to keep Columbus Day. 



COLUMBUS DAY SONGS AND RECITATIONS. 

By Laura Rountree Smith. 
Tune, "Lightly Row." 



Son;, 



All: 



IN FOURTEEN NINETY-TWO. 

A Recitation by Four Boys. 

Columbus sailed across the sea 
He found America for me. 

It was a splendid thing to do 
In fourteen hundred ninety-two! 

In three ships they sailed away, 
Oe'r the waters many a day. 

It was a splendid thing to do. 
In fourten hundred ninety-two! 

Then at last you understand. 
He placed a flag upon the land. 

It was a splendid thing to do, 
In fourteen hundred ninety-two! 

What is there left for you and me? 
We can't discover land or sea! 

I think we'll all run under cover, 
Nothing is left now to discover! 
(They run out.) 



MY LITTLE SHIP. 

Once I made a little ship, 

Down beside the sea, 

And I said, "Come now dear winds, 

And blow it back to me!" 

Oh little ship that sails the sea. 

Oh wind that blows it back to me! 



Wave the flags, wave the flags, 
We are sailor boys at play, 
Wave the flags, wave the flags, 
On Columbus Day. 
O'er the waters we will go, 
Singing, singing, as we row, 
Wave the flags to and fro, 
On 'Columbus Day. 

(Children wave Flags.) 

Cross the flags, cross the flags, 
With their pretty colors gay, 
'Cross the flags, cross the flags, 
On Columbus Day, 
We would like to sail 'tis true, 
O'er the waters bright and blue, 
So we cross flags for you, 
On Columbus Day. 

(Children cross flags.) 



THE NINA, THE PINTA, THE SANTA MARIA. 

(A recitation by three little boys.) 

The Nina, the Pinta, the Santa Maria 

Set sail from' Spain one day, 

The Nina, the Pinta, the Santa Maria 

Sailed and sailed away, 

'Sea-weed they found, you understand, 

It meant that they were nearing land! 

The Nina, the Pinta, the Santa Maria 

All in the harbor lay. 

The Nina, the Pinta, the Santa Maria, 

Columbus knelt to pray, 

He placed the flag upon the ground, 

Of the new country he had found. 

The Nina, the Pinta, the Santa Maria 
All set sail again, 

The Nina, the Pinta, the Santa Maria 
At last returned to Spain, 
Columbus discovered this land, 'tis true 
In fourteen hundred ninety-two! 
All: 

We greet Columbus with vessels three, 
We are very glad that he sailed the sea. 



SONG— THE FLAG OF SPAIN. 

Tune, "Long, Long Ago." 

There was a flag that waved over all Spain, 
Long, long ago, long, long ago, 
And many sailors had gone forth in vain, 
Long, long ago, long ago. 
Then came the ships and Columbus set sail, 
Proudly the vessels withstood every gale, 
Then came the cry, "Blessed land, land we hail,' 
Long, long ago, long ago. 
(Additional Columbus matter next month.) 



26 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



HINTSandSUGGESTIONS for rural teachers 

CONDUCTED BY GRACE DOW 

DEAR RURAL TEACHER —In undertaking this department I trust that my somewhat extended experience in 
rural schools and my subsequent normal training and city scl 1 work may assist me in making it practically 

helpful to you in your work with the little children. I understand the tremendous tax upon the time of any rural 
teacher who is trying to do good work, the wide range of studies, the constant temptation to neglect the little ones 
for the apparently more pressing need of the older classes and the lack of equipment necessary for the best work. 
My hope is to assist you to secure better r. suits with the small children and I shall unhesitatingly recommend the 
intelligent use of kindergarten material as likely to produce the best results with least expenditure of time. How 
,o use this material, w hat to select, wl 



it Mibstitutt 



in these. 



"WELL BEGUN IS HALF DONE." 

Theme for the month — Truthfulness. 
"Nothing can need a lie; 
A fault which needs it most 

Grows two thereby." 
"The truth itself is not believed 
From one who often has deceived." 

Put time and thought upon morning exercises. 
Always start the day with a song; the hardest heart 
is often softened by music. Vary the exercises — 
occasionally read choice bits of literature. A tough 
street boy once said of the superintendent of the 
Chicago schools, "We like to have the superinten- 
dent visit our room and read to us. He makes us 
think of God." 

Ask the children to give short current events, re- 
cite memory gems, or give their ideas with refer- 
ence to honesty, respect for elders, kindness to- 
wards animals. The latter may become a valuable 
aid in discipline, as children generally value the 
good opinion of their associates above that of their 
ciders. 

It is not enough to teach, but we must see that 
our pupils learn. 

"The duller the subject, the greater the need of 
life in the teacher." 

Aim to secure prompt and cheerful obedience, no 
other kind is beneficial to the child. 

Discipline should be just— there should be no 
favorites and must be no victims of injustice. 

What to do with the beginners is the most dif- 
ficult problem of the rural teacher. A series of 
most effective devices for aiding the teacher of 
crowded school-rooms is termed "busy-work." It is 
the duty of every teacher to see that some of this 
material finds its way into the school room. The 
"good old times" are past when the wee ones were 
placed upon high seats to dangle their feet and en- 
tertain themselves for six hours as best they could 
with a primer and a slate. 

In the use of kindergarten material two objects 
should be constantly in view — first, to keep the chil- 
dren busy; and, second, to begin the training which 
will lead them to work, to enjoy work, and to work 
steadily and systematically. 

Modeling. 
One of the earliest modes of expression is the 
use of this device, and there is no better time of the 
year to begin this form of self-development. 

In fact, long before the child entered school, he 
worked in sand and soft clay; modeling a little 



world of his own of mountains, fields, and rivers. 
You can guide this play instinct to make school 
work attractive, as he may be led easily and gently 
from play to work. 

Give each child a piece of clay or plasticine, start 
him in his movements by the words, "Roll the 
hands, roll the hands so softly." After working 
some time, put a few quick questions: Children, 
what are you making? They will all say a ball, 
and then give them the word "sphere." Have them 
test its shape on their slates or desks by discover- 
ing that it will roll in every way. 

After the sphere ask them to model a number of 
small round nuts, grapes, apples, etc. 

Many similar objects may be modeled and the work 
correlated with the lessons. . 

Clay modelling trains the hand and'eye, furnishes 
the best method for teaching form, and develops 
creative power in the child. 

Stick-laying is an introductory step toward paint- 
ing and designing. Give them a few sticks, and 




66. (,7. ■ <-V 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



±r 




have them make as many different designs as possi- 
ble, using two sticks for each, then three or four. 
Let them make objects referred to in their reading 
or language lesson. 

A few simple designs are given. 

ROLL OF HONOR. 

Place upon the blackboard, or a sheet of card- 
board, the names of all pupils who have been neith- 
er absent nor tardy during the month. Each month 
add the names of all who have a perfect record 
for the month, and place stars after each name to 
indicate the number of months of perfect attendance. 

The value of alphabet cards in teaching spelling and 
reading cannot be over-estimated. Place upon the 
blackboard a list of familiar words, such as cat, rat, 
dog, man, boy, etc. Give to each pupil sufficient 
letters to make these words, and they will spend 
much time in arranging them. Later sentences may 
be formed in a similar manner. 

Do not fail to make use of the calendar as a 
drawing and painting lesson for the entire school. 

"Constant occupation prevents temptation." 

As stated in the June number, in all the larger 
schools, kindergarten material is furnished by the school 
board, but in many rural districts, where its value \~. 
not fully understood, some boards of education are 
not willing to do this, and while it is true that most 
primary teachers buy the material at their own ex- 
pense, there is really, in many cases no good reason 
why they should do this. The following plan has 
worked successfully: 

The teacher buys a small lot of goods, and takes the 
bill to the director or secretary, and asks him to kindly 
reimburse her for the amount paid. If he objects to 
presenting the bill to the board, she requests for per- 
mission to appear before the board and explain the 
matter. This is always granted, and then it is the 
teacher's part to convince the board that the material 
is necessary in her work with the children, which is 
not a difficult task for any one who understands its 
value. In most cases the bill will be allowed, but if not 
let the teacher make a request that one-half be paid by 
the district, and this is very apt to be granted. When 
a school board has once begun to purchase kinder- 
garten material, there is usually very little trouble 
thereafter. 



EDUCATIONAL NEWS 

All patrons of the magazine are cordially invited to 
use these columns for announcing lectures, recitals or 
entertainments of any kind of interest to kindergart- 
ners or primary teachers. Reports of meetings held, 
and miscellaneous news items are also solicited. 
In writing please give your name and address. 



Mason, Nevada 
A new kindergarten has been established here. 

Boston, Mass. 

The Boston Kindergarten Association has reorganized 

aider the name of the Boston Froebel Club. 

Milwaukee, Wis. 

Miss Eliza Utz who, when a child in Switzerland, was 

pupil of Froebel, died at her home here a short time 

Winchester, N. H. 

An effort is being made to establish a public school 
kindergarten in the Maynard building, which is likely 
to prove successful although deferred for the present. 
San Francisco, Calif. 

The Golden Gate Kindergarten Association has pre- 
sented a petition to the Board of Education asking 
them to take over the kindergartens already established 
in the Noe Valley and Glen Park Schools. 
Waltiiam, Mass. 

The Waltham vacation schools closed August 15th 
with a play festival on the Commons. The children 
marched from the school building through the streets 
to the Commons, where the exercises were given. Folk 
dances by kindergarten pupils proved a very attractive 
feature. 

Indianapolis, Ind. 

The children of the city kindergartens had a very 
enjoyable time at the Hume-Mansur roof garden Aug- 
ust 13th. Refreshments were served, and an entertain- 
ment consisting of songs, etc., was given. Prominent 
among those in charge was Mrs. Eliza A. Blaker, of 
Teachers' College, who is always interested in anything 
relating to kindergarten work in this city. 
New York, N. Y. 

Columbia University, New York, selected a committee 
sometime since to visit Rome and study the Montessori 
Method. On their return the committee reported 
against the adoption of the system in New York. 

Upon invitation of Mr. Harlan M. Bisbee, presi- 
dent of the New Hampshire State Teachers' Asso- 
ciation, and Miss Bertha A. Colburn, president ol 
the New Hampshire State Kindergarten Associa- 
tion, Dr. Jenny B. Merrill will give an address on 
"The Montessori Principles and Methods," at Man- 
chester, N. H., October 21. Dr. Merrill will con- 
tinue her New England trip to Portland, Maine, 
where, upon invitations from Miss Nellie E. Brown 
and Miss Jane P. Roberts, she will address the kin- 
dergartners of the state convention, October 25, 
upon "The Relation of the Principles of the Kin- 
dergarten to the Montessori Method." She will also 
give an address to the Maine kindergartners upon 
"Program-Making." Dr. Merrill may accept a few 
other engagements en route. 



28 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



TRAINING SCHOOLS 

News Items from Training Schools are Solicited 



Philadelphia, Penn. 
Miss Hart's Kindergarten Training School will open 
for the year October first. 

Gband Rapids, Mich. 
The summer term of the Grand Rapids Kindergarten 
Training School proved the most successful in the 
history of the institution. 

Toledo, Ohio. 
The Law Froebel Training School and School of Cul- 
ture for Young Women, reopens September 9th, at 
2313 Ashland Ave. Lectures on the Montessori Method 
will be given. 

Brooklyn, N. Y. 
The Pratt Institute School of Kindergarten Training 
will reopen September 30th for the year. 

The Brooklyn Training School for Teachers gave a 
delightful entertainment in June under the direction of 
Miss Fanniebelle Curtis. There were 200 kindergartners 
present. 

Chicago, III. 

The Chicago Kindergarten College closed a most 
successful summer term August 9th. 

The Thirtieth Anniversary of the Chicago Free Kind- 
ergarten Association was celebrated June 7, and a most 
excellent program was rendered, and we regret that 
space does not permit us to give it in full. Among 
those taking part were: Thirza Riggs, Louise Goodhue, 
Henrietta Roos, Ruth M. Burke, Annie Pope, Alma 
Beach, Dorothy Ahrens, Estelle Taylor, Mrs. George 
W. Eggers, Elizabeth Port, Margaret Haynes, Mrs. 
Mabel Phillips, Mrs. Mary Buckley Van Inwegen, and 
Mildred Van Inwegen. 

. New York. 

The Training Schools of the New York Kindergarten 
Association open in September. Among the lecturers 
are Hamilton W. Mabie; Prof. Arthur W. Dow, Teach- 
er's College; Miss Susan E. Blow. 

At the annual social meeting of the New York Kinder- 
garten Association held May 22. the following program 
was given: 

I. Welcome, Miss Waterman. 
II. Mother's Hymn (audience). 

III. Piano solos, Mile. Ethel Gurovitch. 

IV. Address, Mothers, the Makers of Men, Dr. Ed- 
ward W. Stitt. 

V. Violin solo, Miss Marie J. Kreutz. 

VI. America (audience). 

Dr. Stitt referred to the six helps in the making of 
men, viz.: Mechods, Obedience, Trust, Home, Educa- 
tion, Religion. 

The Kindergarten Department of the Summer 
School of the New York University has a larger 
enrollment year by year. The six courses offered 
by Miss Harriette Melissa Mills are comprehensive 
and may be taken for university credit 



This is an honor to the department, which was 
established about ten years ago under the leadership 
of Madam Kraus-Boele. The leadership passed 
from, her to Dr. Merrill, who retained it until last 
year. 

Miss Mills has associated with her Miss Willette 
Allen, of the Atlanta Training 'School, and Miss 
Elsie Merriman in music. 

The class is honored this year by having as a 
member of the class on "Mother Play," one of the 
members of the Summer School faculty, Dean Barr, 
of the School of Education of Drake University, Des 
Moines. 

At a social gathering recently on the lawn, after 
listening to several stories by members of the class, 
Miss Wu sang a Chinese song, illustrating so 
graphically with gesture that- we readily followed 
the song story. In conversation with Miss Wu, we 
were assured that Chinese fathers love their daugh- 
ters, notwithstanding our views to the contrary, and 
she remembers how as a little child she often tried 
to play upon his sympathy by her tears. 

The pleasure of meeting teachers and students 
from many sections of the country is no small item 
in summer school gatherings. In New York Uni- 
versity the numbers are never so large as to hinder 
genuine social life. We are especially glad to have 
a representative from China in these days when 
the Orient is honoring women with suffrage! 

PERSONAL MENTION 

Miss Mabel MacKinney has been spending the sum- 
mer in Ireland. 

Miss Mary A. Wright has been elected as a kinder- 
gartner in the Hawthorne Kindergarten, Philadelphia. 

Miss Elizabeth Hammers, Champaign, 111,, is the 
new principal of the Fort Worth Kindergarten Training 
' School, which opens in September, 

Miss Julia C. Lathrop of Hull House, Chicago, has 
been placed in charge of the Childrens' Bureau of the 
Department of Commerce and Labor, which was organ- 
ized July 1. 

Change of Residence 
Ada McCormack from Lyons, Nebr., to Lancaster, Wis. 
Pauline R. Shay from Cleveland, Ohio; to Berea, Ohio. 
Dora Andrus from Fairbury, Nebr., to Boulder, Colo. 
Bertha L. Morey from Ely, Minn., to Winona, Minn. 
Ainta Basset from Chicago, 111., to Fontana, Wis. 
Esse C. Teich from Wayne, Neb., to Bancroft, Neb. 
Theresa Kaufman, from Athens, Ga., to Columbus, Ga. 
Bessie Henderson from Grandin, Fla., to Madison, Fla. 
Mrs. Harold Lloyd from Mt. Vernon, N. Y., to Yonker, 

N. Y. 
Mrs. Geo. J. Baldwim fron Savannah, Ga., to Flat Rock, 

N.Car. 
Mrs. Viola E. Harris from Albany, Ore., to Corvallis, Ore. 
Miss L. E. Warrinerfrom Jacksonville, Fla., to Hender- 

sonville, N. C. 
C. E. Ferguson from Monmouth, Ore., to Manila, P. I. 
Helen F. Laskey from Toledo, O., to Los Angeles, Calif. 
Irene N. O'Flaherty from Stratford, Ont., Can., to Dau- 
phin, Manitoba, Can. 



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3o 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



BOOK NOTES 

First Year in Number. By Franklin S. Hoyt and 

Harriet E. Peet. Cloth, 128 pps., 5^x7 3-4 ins. 

Published by Houghton, Mifflin &Co., Boston, New 

. York, and Chicago. 

The book is based upon the familiar experiences and 

activities of childhood following as directly as possible 

the child's own method of acquiring new knowledge and 

skill. Each topic is developed concretely in connection 

with some interest of childhood, and the new facts are 

established through games andexercises. Kindergarten 

material is made use of to some extent in these exercises. 

The Dutch Twins. By Lucy Fitch Perkins. Cloth, 

194 pps., 5^x7 3-4 ins. Published by Houghton, 

Mifflin & Co., Boston, New York, and Chicago. 

A book of stories about KitandKat, the Dutch Twins. 

Kit is the boy, and Kat is the girl, and their real names 

are Christopher and Katrine, but being such a short 

pair of twins, the long names wouldn't fit, you see, and 

the stories are all about the experiences of Kit and Kat 

while they are growing tall enough to fit their long 

names. 

The Handicraft Book, Comprising Methods of Teach- 
ing Cord and Raffia Constructive work, Weaving, 
Basketry and Chair Caning in Graded Schools. By 
Anne L. Jessup and Annie E. Logue. Cloth, 125 
pps., 6 l-4x9j^ ins. Published by A. S. Barnes ( lorn- 
pany, New York. Price SI. 00. Postage, 9c. 

This book is the outcome of many years' experience 
in teaching and supervising in public schools. The 
teaching of hand work to large classes is often a diffi- 
cult problem, and the solution lies in the proper meth- 
od of conducting the lessons. The Handicraft 'Book 
furnishes the solution, by giving clear directions illus- 
trated by a large number of diagrams. The hand work 
is planned for a three years' course and connects kin- 
dergarten activities with the more advanced construc- 
tion of the primary grades, forming a foundation for 
sewing and garment making for the girls and a training 
for the more difficult forms of hand work for the boys. 

Work and Play with Numbers. By George Wentworth 

and David Eugene Smith. Illuminated cloth, 144 

pages, 5 3-4x754 ins. Publishedby Ginn & Co., 

Boston and Chicago. Price 35 cents. 

There has long been a question as to the number work 

that should be attempted in the first tw r o years that the 

child spends in school. Since he delights in counting 

and in simple number relations quite as much as in any 

other subject of study during this period, it has been 

the consensus of opinion since the days of Pestalozzi 

that a certain amount of this work should be undertaken 

as soon as the child enters the school. 

This book leads the child into the domain of number 
with the same delight that he enters upon the study of 
reading, of nature, and of art, and therefore fills a de- 
finite demand in modern education. 

Ab, The Cave Man. A Story of the Time of the Stone 
Age. Adopted for Young Readers from the Story 
of Ab; By William Lewis Nida, Superintendent of 
Schools, River Forest, 111. Cloth; 166 pages 5;^x7>^. 



Price 50c. Published by A. Flanagan Company, Chi- 
cago. 
The books contain twenty seven of these famous 

stories adapted for young readers, with many colored 

and plain plates. 

The Primary Plan Books for September and October. 
By Marion M. George; paper, 128 pages each, 6x8^. 
Price 25c each. Published by A. Flanagan Company, 
Chicago. These Plan Books, have been revised by 
the publishers, and brought up to date. 

Daily Lesson Plans in Language. By R. Lena H Guing- 
rich, paper, 74 pages, 5^x7^. Price 25c. Published 
by A. Flanagan Company, Chicago. A book of daily 
lesson plans in language for the second and third years 
of elementary schools. The plans cover a period of 
eight months, with detailed work foreach day, and 
will prove very beneficial to teachers in these grades. 

Graded Drawing and Construction Books; a progress- 
ive course of eight numbers; paper, 40 pages, l l 4x$i{. 
Price 15c. Published by A. Flanagan Company, Chi- 
cago. 
Contains several colored and many plain plates, with 

suggestive designs for drawing, adapted to the grade 

under consideration. We unhesitatingly advise every 

teacher to examine a copy. 

Cheap and Excellent Books 

SONG KNAPSACK, 142 songs for schools, 10c; $1 
dozen. 

"PAT'S P' -., 124 pp. All the music to the KNAP- 
SACK songs. Sweetest, sanest, jolliest song 
book made. Cloth, 50c. 

PRIMER OF PEDAGOGY, by Prof. D. Putnam. 
Just what the times demand. Cloth 122 pp. 25c. 

MANUAL OF ORTHOGRAPHY AND ELEMEN- 
TARY SOUNDS, by Henry R. Pattengill. Up-to- 
date. 104 pp., 25c. 

CIVIL GOVERNMENT OF U. S., by W. C. Hewitt. 

118 pp., complete, new, cloth, 25c; $2.40 per doz. 
MEMORY GEMS, 1000 GRADED SELECTIONS, by 

H. R. Pattengill. 143 pp., linen morocco finish, 

25c. 

MORNING EXERCISES AND SCHOOL RECREA- 
TIONS, by C. W. Mickens. New, 267 pp., 50c. 

PRIMARY SPEAKER FOR FIRST AND SECOND 
GRADES, by Mary L. Davenport. Fresh, 
elegant. 132 pp., 25c. 

OLD GLORY SPEAKER, containing 80 of the 
choicest patriotic pieces written. 126 pp., 25c. 

HINTS FROM SQUINTS, 144 pp. Hints comical, 
hints quizzical, hints pedagogical, hints ethical, 
hints miscellaneous. Cloth, 50c. 

SPECIAL DAY EXERCISES, 165 pp., 25c. 

Best medicine ever to cure that "tired feeling" 
in school. 

HENRY R. PATTENGILL, Lansing, Mich. 



THE 



MONTESSORI 
METHOD 

Of Scientific Pedagogy, as applied to child education in the "Children's Houses' 
By MARIA MONTESSORI, M. D. 



With important revisions and additions by the author. Translated by Anne E. Georg-e, 
Introduction by Prof. Henry W. Holmes of Harvard University. 

A complete, authorized translation of Dr. Montessori's famous book, expounding her 
educational philosophy, and explaining fully her method of child education. Prof. Holmes 
calls the system "remarkable, novel, and important," and says "for years no educational 
document has been so eagerly expected by so large a public, and not many have better mer- 
ited general anticipation." 

From "EDUCATIONAL REVIEW" 

"The most important contribution to educational thought that has appeared 
in many years. . . . The great body of intelligent, alert teachers in this 
country will find in the book a treasure-trove of wisdom and a manual of 
education. Never before, I believe, has such a combination of genius, 
inheritance, training, and experience been united as in this woman. 
If American teachers will read this book in the spirit of broad-mind 
ed fairness in which it is written they can get inspiration and illu- 
mination as from no other that I know of." (Reviewed by Miss 
Ellen Yale Stevens, Principal, Brooklyn Heights Seminary.) 

F. A. STOKES CO. 

With many illustrations from photographs / 443-449 fourth ave. 

<E1 nc j <£-. nrv / NEW YORK city 

3)1.75 net; postpaid $1.90. / 

Please send me full descrip- 

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Method. 

FREDERICK A. 8TOKES COMPANY 
Publishers New York 




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Report Cards. — 1, 4 or 10 months, 

per 100, 25c, postage 5c 

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6x3 Ft $175 Postage 14c 

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THE TEACHERS HELPERS 

The Teachers' Helpers sre without question the finest 
PLAN BOOKS for teachers published. They are 
edited by tome of the ablest and most practical teach- 
ers In the country. They give programs, methods, 
song*, drawing, and devices for each month In the 
year, and are beautifully and profusely illustrated. 
Four books In the aeries; named Autumn, Winter, 
String, and Summer respectively. The Summer 
number cover* work for the whole year and Is larger 
than the others. Cover design* done in beautiful 
three-color work. Money refunded to any purchaser 
who I* not more than satisfied. • 
PRICES: Each Number(except Summer) $ .39 
Summer No. [larger than other* J .50 
Send today for capy or ask for further Informa- 
tion. Addresa 

Teachers' Helper, 

Department •, Minneapolis, Minn. 



OCTOBER, 1912 



The Montessori Method 



In our last issue we offered to send Dr. 
Montessori's Dew book, "The Montessori 
Method" and the Kindergarten-Primary Mag 
_ azine one full year, both for $2.10, with 15c 
r\er iir- it r\ » TaTl extra, if the book was to be sent by mail 

Offer Withdrawn UCt. lUtb. This was a "snap," that kindergartners ap 

reciated. We soon received a letter from the publishers asking us to withdraw it, as it interfered with 
the book store contracts. We hold that it is only fair to our readers to give a slight notice at least ol 
the withdrawal, and therefore have decided that we will accept all orders sent us not later than October 
10th, at $2.10. If the letter is mailed after October 10, we shall have to return the money, except in case 
of foreign orders, where ten days longer will be granted. 




INDEX TO CONTENTS 



Editorial Notes, 

How to Apply Kindergarten Principles in 



Dr. Jenny B. Merrill, 
Dr. Jenny B. Merrill, 
Dr. W. N. Hailmann, 



Mrs. Mary Bradford, 
P. P. Clapton, 

Miss Margaret Trace, 
E. G. Cooley, 
Oscar C. Helming, 



Rural and Village Schools, 
Planning a Kindergarten Exhibit, 
Natural Instruction in Drawing, 
The Kindergarten and its Relation to Re- 
tardation, 
Need for Education, 
Some Devices, 

Native Tendencies in Education, 
Extending the Compulsory School Age, 
Vocational and Character Training, - 
Quaifications Necessary for a Kindergartner, 
The Modern Peril, - - E. G. Cooley 

A Year in the Kindergarten, - Harriette McCarthy 

Kindergarten Games and Plays, - Laura Rountree Smith, 

The Birds Nest Game for Wee Bovs and 

Girls, .... Henrietta B, Eliot, 

Crowning Columbus, 

The Flags, --•-..- \ 

Columbus Recitation, - - - Laura Rountree Smith, 

Little Pieces for Little People, • Laura Rountree Smith, 

The Committee of the Whole, - Bertha Johnston, 

Hints and Suggestions for Rural Teachers, Grace Dow, 

October Spelling Booklets, - - Marguerite B. Sutton, 

Educational News, ...... 

Personal Mention, ....... 

Calendar for October, ..... 

Book Notes, --..-'-'--- 



31 

32 

36 
37 

39 
41 
■i\ 
43 
-M. 
44 
4 i, 
45 
46 
49 

50 



51 
52 
53 

55 
56 
57 
58 

59 
59 



Volume XXV, No. 2. 



$1.00 per Yeai% 15 cents per Copy 



RELIABLE TEACHERS' AGENCIES OF AMERICA 



The TEACHERS' EXCHANGE of Boston 

Recommends Teachers, Tutors and 
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cidents from the author's experience with his own children, and his suggestions 
will prove of great value to young parents and kindergartners. 

If you cannot get this book at your bookstore, order it direct from us. Price 
$1.00. Send us the name of your bookdealer and we will see that he is supplied 
with our publications. 
We publish a very interesting catalogue of some very interesting books. Write today. 

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Miss Wheelock's Kindergarten 



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For information address 

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Two Years' Course of Study. 
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PRATT INSTITUTE 

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KINDERGARTEN COLL EGE 

ALICE N. FnRKER, Superintendent. 

Regular course, two years. Special ad- 
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MRS. WILLIAM McCRACKEN, Secretary, 
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THE NEWYORK KINDERGARTEN 
ASSOCIATION 

UNUSUAL ADVANTAG 

GRADUATE STUDY 

Season of 1912-1913 

PUBLIC LECTURES 

Hamilton W. Mabie; Prof. Arthur W, 

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GRADUATE COURSES 

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Great Literature Program 

Kindergarten Gifts Psychology 
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Kindergarten Occupations 

TUITION FREE 
Apply for Prospectus to 

Miss Laura Fisher 

DIRECTOR, DEPARTMENT OF GRADUATE STUDY 

521 West 42nd Street. New York City. 



TRAINING SCHOOL 



The Buffalo Kindergarten Association 

Two Years' Course. 
Vor particulars address 

MISS ELLA C. ELDER, 
86 Delaware Avenue, - Buffalo, N. S. 

GRAND RAPIDS KINDERGAR- 
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CERTIFICATE, DIPLOMA AND 
NORMAL COURSES. 

CLARA WHEELER, Principal 

MAY L. OGILBY. Registrar 

Jhepard Building:, - 33 Fountain St. 

GRAND RAFIDS. MICH. 



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IN AFFILIATION WITH THE 

National Kinderg-arten Colleg-e 
2050 East 96th Street, Cleveland, Ohio 

Founded in 1894 
Course of study under direction of Eliz- 
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garten College. 

MISS NETTA FARRIS, Principal 



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For circulars, address 

MISS CORA WEBB PEET, 
IB WiiHhlnirlon St., EaBt Orange. N. J 



FESTALOZZI-FROEBEL 

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School 

509 S. Wabash Ave., Opposite Auditorium 

Mrs Bertha Holer Hegrner, Superintendent 
Mrs. Amelia Hofer Jerome, Principal. 

FIFTEENTH YEAR. 
Regular course two years. Advanced 
courses for Graduate Students. A course 
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equipment. For circulars and information 
write to 
MRS. BERTHA HOFER-HEGNER, 

West Chicago. 111. 



KINDERGARTEN TRAINING SCHOOL 

Resident home for a limited number of 
students. 
Chicago Free Kindergarten Association 
H. N. Higinbotham, Pres. 
Mrs. P. D. Armour, Vice-Pres. 
SARAH B. HANSON. Principal. 
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Northwestern and Chicago I Diversities. 
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The Adams School 
Kindergarten Training Course 

(Two Years) 

Nine months' practice teaching dur- 
ing course. Address, 

The Misses Adams 

26 So. Clinton St., East Orange, N. J. 



THE RICHMOND TRAINING SCHOOL 

for Kindergartners 
Richmond, Va. 

Virginia Mechanics' Institute Building, 
Richmond, Virginia. 
Two years' training in Theory and 
Practice of Froebellan Ideals. Post- 
Graduate Course, also Special Classes for 
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MRS. W. W. ARCHER. Sec. and Treas. 



1874— Kindergarten Normal Institutions— 191 1 

1516 Columbia Road N. VV., WASHINGTON D. C. 

The citizenship of the future depends on the children of today. 

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Teachers' Training Course — Two Years. 
Bununer Training Classes at Mt. Chatauqua — Mountain Lake Park — 
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THE HARRIETTE MELISSA MILLS 
KINDERGARTEN TRAINING SCHOOL 

In Affiliation with New York University 

For information address 

MISS HARRIETTE M.MILLS, Principal 

New York University Building 

Washington Square, New York City. 

Kindergarten 

Courses given for credit at 

New York University Summer School 



Oakland Kindergarten 

TRAINING SCHOOL 

2119 Allston Way, Berkeley.Calif . 

Grace Everett Barnard, 
principal. 



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THE KINDERGARTEN 



-PRIMARY- 



MAGAZINE 



Published on the first of each Month, except July and Aug- 
ust at Manistee, Mich., U. S. A. Subscription price, §1.00 per 
Annum, postpaid in U. S., Hawaiian Islands, Phillipines, Guam, 
Porto Rico, Samoa, Shanghai, Canal Zone, Cuba, Mexico. For 
Canada add 20c, and all other countries 30c., for Postage. 

J. H. SHULTS. Manager. 




EDITORIAL NOTES. 

We will club the Kindergarten Primary Mag- 
azine at a reduced rate with any periodical in the 
United States. Write us stating the publication 
you wish, and we will quote prices. 



Susan Peessner Pollock, of Washington, 
D. C, who is now sojourning in Germany, will 
contribute a series of stories for the Kindergarten- 
Primary Magazine, beginning with the January 
number. 



In estimating the value of sense training with 
little children that is not associated with imagi- 
native and constructive activity it is well to con- 
sider just now much of this sense training will 
without any formal instiuction whatever, come 
to the child in the natural way. 



It is well to remember in estimating the value 
of an educational method that the ideals and 
enthusiasm of the inventors can hardly be taken 
into account. The real test comes in the working 
out of the method in the hands of the ordinary 
teacher, or kindergartner; and all methods which 
secure anything like general adoption must 
sootier or later stand this test if they are to survive. 



WE announced in our last issue that we would 
send the Kindergarten-Primary Magazine one 
year, and Dr. Montessori's new book, "The 
Montessori Method, " both for $2.10, or for $2. 25, 
if we sent book postpaid. We made the price so 
low that it conflicts with a contract ot the pub- 
lishers, and we are requested to withdraw it. 
Any orders that reach us not later than October 
10, will be filled. In all other cases money will 
be returned. 



Many boards of education do not seem to com- 
prehend that the kindergarten stands for the all- 



around spiritual, mental and physical develop 
ment of the children, and that reading, writing 
and numbers are merely incidental with children 
of the kindergarten age. To apply the test of 
the three R's in estimating the value of the kinder- 
garten is grievous error. 



In the death of Miss Caroline T. Haven, of 
New York, the world has lost a true woman and 
the kindergarten cause a sincere, earnest and effec- 
tive supporter. In a letter to Dr. Jenny B. Merrill 
a writer voices the following, which will' be re- 
cognized as an expression of the truth, by all who 
knew Miss Haven: 

Germantown, Ohio, Sept. 12-12. 
Dear Miss Merrill: 

I feel a deep sense of loss to-day which is almost over- 
powering-. Dear Miss Haven has gone to her reward, 
and we are left behind to fight our battles and carry for- 
ward the good work of educating little children and 
teachers of the little ones. I feel a deep sense of obliga- 
tion to you for you led me to her — and the E. C. S. 
You remember you advised me in her favor when I 
wrote asking your advice about the training schools of 
New York. 

She was a staunch loyalist in every sense of the word, 
uncompromising, sincere, both progressive and conserva- 
tive, true to her trust and her friends. Her Scotch- 
Puritan ancestry made her seem a bit unsympathetic at 
times, but that was only on the outside. Her heart 
was warm and she grew mellow and sweeter as the years 
passed. Her heroic battle for health was superhuman. 
She was never ill; it was only her body. Her mind and 
soul were strong and well always. 

I wrote her last Sunday evening. It must have been 
about the same hour she was passing through the 
valley and shadow of death. I am sure it was a trium- 
phant journey for her life and heart were in harmony 
with divine law and love. 

Blessed be her memory; that shall remain fresh and 
fragrant in the hearts of hundreds of young women and 
children and older men and women. None knew her 
but to honor her and be helped by her strong, vigorous 
womanhood, M. F. S. 



32 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



HOW TO APPLY KINDERGARTEN 

PRINCIPLES IN RURAL AND 

VILLAGE SCHOOLS. 

II. 

The Kindergarten Building Blocks. 

Considered as a Whole. 
Dr. Jenny B. Merrill 
The kindergarten building blocks are known 
as the third, fourth, fifth and sixth gifts. 
They stand for the principle of constructive- 
ness. Even the second gift has become 
material for building, although its original 
use did not call so distinctively to the instinct 
for construction. We will consider the sec- 
ond gift separately in a later article. 
(vSee note at conclusion of this article ) 
I wish to have these gifts thought of as 




THE THIRD GIFT. l UK FOURTH GIFT. 

material to be used actively by the children 
in expressing their own impressions. Many 
impressions have been received through ob- 
servation of houses, barns, mills, bridges, 
household furniture and other familiar objects 
of the environment. 

Children instinctivelv love to build. Out- 



r— 



of-doors they build with sticks and stones. 
They may use mud for plaster and leaves 
for thatching. Indoors they are pleased with 
more finished materials which more or less 
resemble those used in ordinary construction. 





Given a number of blocks of any kind, al- 
most any child will begin to pile one upon 
another. It is supposed that many children 
have had ordinary building blocks at home 
before coming to school or kindergarten. 
Alas, many have not, but even those who 



initiative and dictation in the societv of other 






-/—/ 


/ 

/ 






/ 
/ 


1 


V 



children. They do not need much direction. 
Let them build freely. 

A few simple designs are given. 

We will consider more in detail the specific 



A 



P 




value of each of the Froebelian building gifts 
in other articles, but in the present number 
we wish to urge all teachers of little children 
in rural and village schools to insist upon 
supplies of these gifts, even if one only of 
each be procured at first.* They can be 








added to from time to time. It depends upon 
the size of the desks and the numbers of 
children whether the enlarged blocks be used 

"Children in rural schools will be of several ages. Hence 
the whole s:t of kindergarten blocks can be used at the same 
time. Give the 3rd gift to the youngest, and so on. Do not 
hesitate to experiment. Details will be given later on. Build- 
ing is not an unheard of occupation for children venture. 



THE KINDERGARTEN- PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



33 



or the regulation size. If there is opportunity 
to build upon the floor, the larger blocks are 
preferable. If the children are very young 
and a small ante-room can he utilized, it 
is excellent recreation to build upon the floor. 
The stooping and bending rests the whole 
physical frame after sitting. If the desks are 
small and the room pretty full, the large 
blocks may be in the way. The children 
will, of their own accord, use the boxes and 
Hie box-lids to help them express the mental 



first, indeed in using any material, let the 
first period, or possibly several periods, be 
given to experimenting. Do not be too par- 
ticular about just how the box is opened, or 
even how it is packed. Let the right and 
best way be discovered gradually. In our 
attempts at order we sometimes overdo and 
succeed in putting the child in a frame of 
mind not calculated to produce active creative 
work which is the kindergarten aim. He be- 
comes afraid to do anything his own way. 




images that crowd sometimes. Let them by 
all means do so. If the boxes are in the way 
at times, let one child collect them and build 
with them one large form on the floor as a 
bridge or train or monument. 

In the Italian infant schools, conducted by 
Dr. Maria Montessori, the children are furn- 
ished with mats and are frequently found 
working upon the floor. There are even 
spaces where they practice writing upon the 
floors. It may be that we are cramping our 
little folk by insisting upon the constant use 
of the desk. If the day is long in rural 
schools, and the children young, do not fail 
to consider building upon the floor as a pos- 
sible valuable relief. 

In giving the child any box of blocks at 



In schools where the teacher is in charge 
of several grades, the children must be gov- 
erned by the simple rule "not to disturb" 
which he instinctively understands. If he 
does not, he soon will, if his material is 
quietly removed without a word of reproof, 
and he is left alone to watch others busily 
employed. 

After the child is familiar with what the 
box contains and has experimented a few 
days, the teacher may quietly build a form 
herself before handing the boxes to the chil- 
dren and ask all to try to imitate hers. If 
she is free to go to individual children, she 
may ask a few questions as they build. If 
she sees a child who builds well, she may 
set his model for all to copy. Children learn 



54 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



well from each other. Teachers often fail to 
understand this, and urge children not to 
look at their neighbor's work. This is los- 
ing a great opportunity. We cannot begin 
to measure how dependent we all are upon 
imitation of our fellows. Imitation then 
should follow experimenting as a second 
method. 

After a time, a simple suggestion may take 
the place of imitation. Shall we try to build 
bridges today? or, possibly, let us make 
such things as we see in the kitchen, perhaps 
a stove or the closet. Then the children 



rial to his own thought, to his own will, has 
the greatest educational value. 

After ideas have been gained by (1) exper- 
imenting, (2) by imitating, (3) by suggest- 
ing* (4) by dictating, then return again to 
free building, and it will be found how much 
has been gained in the improved building of 
the children. 

These five points of method are so useful 
to bear in mind that I will now recapitulate 
them to help the beginner. 

First, the child tries for himself. Second, 
the teacher sets a copy. Third, the teacher 









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work away alone and take delight to tell you 
what they have made, or you may guess. 

Some day you suggest that all count their 
blocks, place them two by two, or three by 
three; another day, you may suggest making 
them into two towers, a high wall, arranging 
them as stepping stones, etc., counting each 
time. 

A fourth method to be used is definite dic- 
tation which should be applied especially to 
number work and to designing. Unusual 
and difficult building forms may be occasion- 
ally dictated as incentives to greater effort, 
but it is the ability of the child to express 
his own mental image for which we are to 
aim in building. This bending of the mate- 



suggests, Fourth, the teacher dictates or 
gives specific directions. Fifth, the child 
builds freely to express his own mental im- 
ages^ 

It is well to have one or two of these points 
in mind in each lesson. For example, there 
may be time given for copying a model, then 
all may build what they please. 

In another lesson, all may build what they 
please and the lesson may close by all copy- 
ing the best model. 

Where it is impossible for the teacher to 
give any individual attention to such work 
because of the pressure of higher grades, the 
children will soon learn much by simply 
copying each other or working freely. It is 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINF 



33 



always well to insist upon naming the form 
built. This helps to greater definiteness, and 
also is a language lesson. 

Often the children just happen to get a 
result. They do not aim to build a set ob- 
ject. 

Later they must set the aim and then seek 
to accomplish it. The first, making then 
naming, is not as intellectual an exercise as 
naming to make. 

As experience is gained, the brighter chil- 
dren will want more material and will instinc- 
tively turn to each other, and if permitted 
will soon love to work in groups of two and 
three. 

Occasionally all the blocks may be united 
in a long wall, a high tower, a lighthouse, a 
garden fence. 

The village may be laid out on the floor 
or in the sand table if there be one, as there 
should. 

I will remember seeing a village street 
well laid out in a kindergarten on Staten Is- 
land. 

The children pointed out each house, tell- 
ing me who lived there, the roads, the school, 
the stores, etc. 

The testimony of a few kindergartners is 
at hand in old reports that came to me as 
supervisor which I will add as strongly cor- 
roborative of what I have aimed to say in 
this article. They show the climax to be 
reached rather than the successive steps, but 
with a goal ahead, with the children eager, 
the teacher in sympathy, very little instruc- 
tion is needed to secure good building. Let 
no one hesitate to begin. 
Reports. 

1. With the fifth gift the children worked 
together in groups of four, making a city 
built up with houses, stores, schools, churches, 
blacksmith shop, a station and a train 

With the second gift they made a forest of 
trees, using the cylinders for trees, chopping 
them down, placing them upon a sled made 
from the cubes, the balls serving as horses ! 
The boxes were made to represent the saw- 
mill where the logs were cut into boards. 

At the sand table some made a bridge with 
the fourth gift, pushing the sand away from 
the bottom to represent the river flowing 
under the bridge. M. R. 

2. We always have group work in the kin- 
dergarten, but during the month of January 
we paid particular attention to construction 
in connection with the trades. With the sixth 
gift we made the blacksmith's shop, using 



also slats and rings. With the fifth gift we 
made the shoemaker's window, the lighthouse, 
train, boathouses, forts, etc. J .C. 

3. The kindergarten is divided into two 
groups according to age and skill. The 
children build together, often suggesting dif- 
ferent parts for each child to do. A. I. A. 

4. After the gift lesson, the children en- 
joying walking around to examine each oth- 
er's work. T. C. 

(This is a very commendable practice.) 

5. The children like group work with the 
blocks. We built a lighthouse in the sand 
with the fifth gift (enlarged) and also used 
the cubes of the third gift for rocks. 

We made the shoemaker's shop and the 
blacksmith's shop in groups. M. B. 

In closing, let me suggest the building of 
fences during the months of April and May, 
enclosing possible gardens. The fourth gift 
blocks alone may be used, or they may be 
alternated with the cubes of the third gift, 
appropriate colors for a special bed of flow- 
ers. It is well to be definite with children 
and insist on nomenclature whenever you can. 

Another day build in the enclosed space a 
see-saw, a sliding board and steps to jump 
from, thus suggesting the simple gymnastic 
apparatus that you perhaps own and perhaps 
long for. Blocks can be arranged to repre- 
sent these objects or to approach them in 
appearance. Let the child's imagination be 
depended upon to make up for deficiencies. 
A twig or a piece of green paper fringed may 
be upheld between two cubes to represent 
the school tree, which let us hope was planted 
last Arbor-Day. 



The Third Gift, regulation size, consist of eight one 
inch cubes. The enlarged size contains eight two inch 
cubes. 

The Fourth Gift, regulation size, consists of eight 
oblong blocks, two inches long, one inch wide, and 
half an inch thick. The enlarged size consists of eight 
blocks four inches long, two inches wide, and one inch 
thick. 

The Fifth Gift, regulation size, consists of a three 
inch cube made of twenty-one whole inch cubes, six 
half inch cubes, and twelve quarter inch cubes. The 
enlarged size consists of the same, with two inch cubes 
as the basis. 

The Sixth Gifth, regulation size, consists of a three 
inch cube, made up of eighteen blocks two inches 
long, one inch wide, and a half an inch thick, and three 
more blocks divided lengthwise, and six similer blocks 
divided cross wise. The enlarged set consists of a six 
inch cube, made up of blocks as above, but on a basis 
of four inches long, two inches wide and an inch thick. 

NOTE.— The fifth gift is an extension of the third gift. 
The sixth is an extension of the fourth, 



36 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



PLANNING A KINDERGARTEN 
EXHIBIT. 

Dr. Jenny B. Merrill 

A young kindergarten friend of mine ex- 
claimed after her June exhibit had been pre- 
pared, "Next year I am going to begin to 
get ready for my year's exhibit in September. 
I shall save the children's work and mount a 
chart each month, and then it won't be such 
hard work in June." 

Forethought is certainly a good thing, and 
the method suggested by my young friend is 
not a bad one under certain conditions. One 
condition would be, the possibility of caring 
for the separate charts so that they would be 
fresh and fair to see in June. Closet accom- 
modations are often very meager. Charts 
18x20 are trying to store. Why not plan a 
panorama for the year's showing? 

A strong paper of neutral tint must be 
chosen of a width which must depend upon 
the space on your wall where it will finally 
be mounted on exhibition day. 

Possibly you can plan to mount above the 
blackboards on three or even four sides of 
the room as a frieze. Measure each side of 
the room, and plan to have by the end of the 
year three or four long strips, one for each 
season or great central topic. The paper 
strips being pliable can be rolled and un- 
rolled after the work is mounted each month 
or season. The roll may be used occasion- 
ally as a picture-book or panorama for a 
morning talk, thus helping the children in 
relating and reviewing the various topics. 
The principle of continuity so vital in kin- 
dergarten procedure as in all good teaching 
will thus be kept strongly before your own 
mind, and your work will be affecf >.d favor- 
ably. 

I remember visiting Miss Katherine Clark's 
kindergarten on one occasion when such a 
long strip of paper had been in process oi 
preparation for some time. It was not a 
panorama of children's work, but one illus- 
trating animal life. The children were in 
raptures as the roll gradually unrolled and 
the many pets they had talked about, came 
to view. The pictures had been cut from 
discarded toy-books. 

There is a pleasure in "hide and seek" 
which the panorama seems to provide. 

It is quite possible if one has a little in- 
genuity and two wooden rollers to attach the 
ends of the long strips of paper so as to roll 
it back and forth upon the cylinders. 

A miniature panorama in a box has been 



similarly arranged by some kindergartners 
with mounts of the children's work which 
they delight to roll and unroll. A door in 
one end of the box brings one picture or 
form in sight at a time. 

A treasure box gives much pleasure in a 
kindergarten. It may be a treasure box of 
children's work to be exhibited to mothers at 
the monthly meeting. It is not always nec- 
essary to mount exhibits. 

At a mother's meeting let the treasure-box 
be produced, and one by one as you draw 
from the box some simple specimen of child- 
ish make, mother's eyes will glisten as she 
recognizes an object similar to one Johnny 
brought home. You place on a table before 
you each object in good position, not helter 
skelter, so that at the close of your talk, in 
which you have gradually related the objects 
found in the treasure box to the life of the 
kindergarten you have arranged a little tell- 
tale exhibit. It may have more meaning than 
an exhibit over which you may have spent 
hours and hours in mounting and hanging. 

It is a pleasure to see things move, and 
form into a connected whole before your own 
eyes. 

I have suggested the possibility of a 
monthly exhibit and of a yearly. 

The mothers' meeting will always be helped 
by the presence of children's hand-work. 
Think ahead through the year and select a 
particular kind of work for exhibit each 
month, as of drawing, or paper-cutting, or 
clay-modeling, making your talk with the 
mothers an explanation of the value of this 
particular kind of hand-work. 

The exhibit of one kindergarten in its own 
room is the most valuable kindergarten ex- 
hibit. 

It is helpful to the child, to the mother, 
to the supervising principal, to the primary 
teacher who is invited to look in, and cer- 
tainly to the kindergartner herself. 



It is a good and safe rule to sojourn in 
every place as if you meant to spend your life 
there, never omitting an opportunity of doing 
a kindness, or speaking a true word, or mak- 
ing: a friend. — Ruskin. 



A man's country is not a certain area of 
land, of mountains, river and woods, — but it is 
a principle; and patriotism is loyalty to that 
principle. — G. W. Curtis. 



Good the more communicated, the more 
abundant grows. — Milton. 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



37 



Natural Instruction in Drawing 
Dr. W. N. Hailmann 

I find the following suggestive article in 
Blaettet fuer Deutsche Erziehung; a de- 
lightfully progressive educational periodical 
edited by Arthur Schulz. The author, 
Helen Christaller, an exceptionally earnest 
mother, gives an account of her children's 
work in drawing under her guidance. I am 
sure your readers will enjoy it and gain from 
it many valuable hints: 

"When I began to instruct my two older 
children, I became strongly impressed with 
the difficulties which a child of six or seven 
years meets in learning to read and write. 
All went relatively well, for the children were 
well gifted but the unnatural, abstract char- 
acter of the ordinary elementary instruction 
seemed to me so unreasonable for this age, 
that I tried another way with the next two 
children; indeed, the the two little pupils 
showed me the way. 

"One clay, while digging in our large 
garden, they discovered a bed of clay and 
began to form with the plastic material all 
sorts of shapes. This clay interested them so 
intensely that they could scarcely be induced 
to come to their meals, but when they had 
been gathered in, quite soiled by their 
work, they glowed with pride and told of 
their achievements all four at once. It was 
joy to look into their radiant faces. 

"I gave full rein to the children's fancy and 
indulged only sparingly in criticism of finished 
work, suggesting occasional improvements. 
They imitated everything that came into 
their horizon. Erica, then four years old, 
was chiefly engaged in making birds' nests 
with eggs and birds in them. Gertrude, six 
years old, showed surprising skill in represent- 
ing animals in motion. Walter, seven years 
old, liked to put together whole villages; and 
Louise, nine years old, undertook even human 
figures. 

" In the winter, when the clay was frozen, 
I transformed this play into work of instruc- 
tion. The children, indeed, still looked upon 
it as play; only now mother played with 
them. I purchased brown plastiline and let 
them indulge freely in modeling at pleasure 
with their hands with small wooden spatul- 
as, hair-pins and other occasional tools. We 



modeled from nature, from memory, after 
pictures. In time we gained in skill. The 
legs of animals and human forms were stead- 
ied with the help of wires; inlaid black plasti- 
line brought pleasing variety into the forms. 

"Gradually, the figures were fashioned 
with a fixed purpose. The bible stories 
stimulated the imagination. Thus the story 
of creation led the young artists to represent 
paradise. Little Erica had the task to model 
snakes and birds; the oldest had to supply 
Adam and Eve for which brother and sister 
furnished the models, when her memory 
failed. The remaining two children were 
busy with the four-footed animals. Paradise 
was then represented finely with sprays ol 
boxwood, cypress and moss; even small wax 
apples were not forgotten. Certainly a hun- 
dred such plays followed, and even now after 
four years the play is not exhausted; but has 
deepened and become more extended. Suc- 
cessively there came Noah's ark, the perse- 
cution of the Christians, a hunting expedition; 
Indian life, a menagera, a gypsy camp, all 
sorts of fairy tales, etc. 

"Already in the first winter I had them 
also drawing with pencil in order to ac- 
custom the little fingers to this art. They 
did not practice drawing straight lines and 
geometrical figures, but a flower was placed 
in a tumbler in the center of the table and 
this they imitated. At another time, I fast- 
ened a spray of ivy on a piece of paper and 
had them cop}' it. Small objects of daily use, 
such as cups, vases, inkstands, were not 
favored so much. Flowers and fruits proved 
most interesting. With animals, which ap- 
pealed most to Gertrude, I first had recourse 
to pictures, but, later on, her powers of obser- 
vation enabled her also to make ready 
sketches from nature, e. g. chickens, a cat 
waiting for a mouse, a rabbit eating, a flying 
dove, a salamander. 

"Sometimes we practiced memory draw- 
ing. With a few lines they were to represent 
an object as characteristically as possible. 

This led to a kind of dictation drawing, e. 
g. cat, violet, ivy leaf, bell, anemone, open 
umbrella, closed umbrella, etc.; perhaps 
twenty such sketches were rapidly produced. 

One day the two smaller children began to 
write Indian letters, i. e. they expressed in 
pictures certain thoughts and the others were 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



to guess what they meant. Then I began to 
introduce seven-year-old Gertrude and a year 
later, her younger sister to the mysteries of 
the alphabet. With surprising rapidity, they 
understood and distinguished the forms, be- 
cause their drawing plays had sharpened 
their powers of perception. The hand was 
trained, obeyed the eye. Reading presented 
little difficulty. 

Drawing was carried on as a separate 
exercise, and the children progressed well. I 
never draw or correct a line for them. If I 
happen to be near, I direct their attention to 
faults. If they cannot change it, it must 
stand. The two little ones still prefer to 
draw plants and animals at rest; butthe older 
ones aremore devoted to landscapes for which 
our locality affords fine stimulus. Occasion- 
allv colors, too, are used, water-colors for 
flowers and colored crayons for landscapes. 

"On afternoons we frequently go to the 
woods for drawing. The two little ones then 
try their skill with a single tree, bu?h or cabin. 
The others, respectively twelve and thirteen, 
show already appreciation for color effects: 
the evening sky, mountains under haze, blue 
shadowsin winter landscapes, etc. Often this 
is expressed awkwardly, but I am aware 
what observation has determined the choice 
of color. 

"It may be objected that not all children 
are gifted with sense for forms and that not 
all children can become painters. The value 
of the first of those objections I am inclined 
to question. Also it is to ba noticed that all 
our four children could scarcely be specially 
talented with regard to form. I believe that 
they have only average talent and have noidea 
to make artists of them. Nevertheless their 
skill in drawing, their accuracy in character- 
istic form-expression far exceeds that of the 
average of children oftheir age. Weak form-ap- 
preciation may be strengthened, as is also the 
case with poor musical appreciation. 

Not that the children might later on find 
it easier to become painters or other artists 
is the purpose of this instruction; but that 
they may learn to see and to observe. The 
difference in this respect between abstractly 
and naturally instructed children is enor- 
mous. I can notice this in the contrast be- 
tween my children as compared with myself 
and my husband. They know every bird 



with its characteristic difference between the 
male and the female; they draw from memory 
the leaves and blossoms of every fruit-tree, 
which I can distinguish only by their fruit. 
Their observation of process in nature which 
they reveal in their compositions are so de- 
tailed, that they often tell me things of which 
I was ignorant or which I had not observed. 

"I am inclined to account for this on the 
basis oftheir former habit to see things as 
they are, then to reproduce them, instead of 
memorizing abstract formulas which at the 
time had no meaning for them. 

"Every teacher knows how much more 
readily a child learns under interest than he 
does under compulsion, and also what a 
difference it makes for the instructor, whether 
he looks into radiant eyes or into timid, 
wearied, dull eyes." 

Referring' to the affiliation of the National Congress 
of Mothers with the International Kindergarten Union 
Elizabeth Harrison said in part: "Let. us have ready 
our great and inspiring world-view of God, for upon that 
depends the real significance of the kindergarten. Let 
us be ready to show them how to lead a child rightly to 
a consciousness of his selfhood and yet avoid develop- 
ing morbidness or self-consciousness. Let us be ready 
to help the young, immature mind without hampering 
or hindering its birthright of self-expressions. Let us 
prove to them that every child has within him unmeas- 
ured psychic powers, and that handicapped and defec- 
tive children can be educated if the spirit within is awak- 
ened. Let us be ready to explain what we mean by 
the 'educational values' of our work and play, how each 
and all connect definitely with the great factors that 
have made Christian civilization and are not haphazard 
experiments on our part — not merely the vaerue myster- 
ies of an old German pedagog. Let us be ready to lead 
them to see what things in their daily lives are 'trivial' 
and what are 'important. ' The first is to develop in the 
young life a deep and genuine religious faith, a sense of 
responsibilities for relationships, be they of the family 
civic, society, the state, or all humanity, and adueamount 
of self-reliance and right desire to be of use in this world. 
These things, together with a well body, a cheerful mind 
and a love of beauty are the really great gifts that any 
mother can give to her children without money or with- 
out price; if she knows how to call forth a response from 
the inner world, the phychic life of her child. It is thi s 
inner life that makes a human being human and nota 
mere animal. These things, we can help the National 
Congress of Mothers bring to each and every mother in 
all our broad land, who may look to them or to us for 
help. Let us then rejoice in the door opened to us. for 
it beckons into a larger and fuller life." 



rJeauty, 
perfume. 



flow< 



without 
-Keats. 



The Kindergarten and its Relation to Retarda- 
tion. 

Mrs. Mary Davison Bradford 
N. E. A.. Chicago, 111.. July 6-12, 1912. 

According- to the law of my state, Wisconsin, a child 
there may beg-in his education at public expense at the 
age of four years. He is required to go to school from 
the seventh to the fourteenth year, unless he has com- 
pleted the elementary course berore he is fourteen. At 
fourteen he may withdraw to work at certain sorts of 
employment, provided he has completed the fifth . 
grade; but if he does so, he must attend for five hours 
a week until he is sixteen, a special industrial school 
provided for such children. 

Further details of this law are not needed here; 
enough has been given to show that Wisconsin is en- 
deavoring to help the many children, who here, as in 
other states, end their regular schooling with the fifth 
grade. In the country at large this number is said 
to be 50 per cent. 

It is the consideration of these children that causes 
two problems to assume dominating importance. 

First, how to make those first five grades the most 
profitable possible for all boys and girls, but especially 
on account of those, who entering late, will, as soon as 
the fifth grade is completed, be snatched away from 
school, provided they have attained their fourteenth 
birthday, or it can be made to appear that they have 
reached it. 

Second, how to bring a larger proportion of children 
beyond the fifth grade before their fourteenth birthday 
is reached and thus help to lay a broader and a better 
foundation for intelligent citizenship. 

I cannot deal with the first problem here, but will 
say in passing that I believe it will be largely solved 
when the courses in these lower grades and the teachers 
who administer them have been more thoroughly kind- 
ergartenized; that is, when there is more general recog- 
nition of the educational value of play and of the domi- 
nance of the constructive instinct in human nature. 
When the great psychological truth is better appreci- 
ated that through these early years eyes and finger-tips 
are the nourishing points of intellect, and when the 
idea of motivation of all school activities has taken bet- 
ter hold of school practices. 

It is with the second problem that this paper deals; 
namely, that of helping and insuring the progress of 
children in school; so that their fourteenth birthday 
will find a larger proportion of them in sixth, seventh 
and eighth grades. In the solution of this problem, 
also, I believe the kindergarten to be an important 
factor, 



In December, 1910, it became necessary for me to de- 
fend the kindergartens of the system of schools of 
which I have charge, from a movement attempted by 
the mayor and some of the aldermen. The need of a 
new school building in a rapidly growing city was felt. 
The school board was urging an appropriation for the 
purpose. His Honor visited some of the schools and 
reported as an argument against the movement that 
the schools were taking in babies that should be at 
home with their mothers, and that I was hiring nurses 
at seventy dollars a month to take care of them. His 
proposition was to turn out the kindergarten children 
and thus make room for the others and obviate the 
need of a new building. 

The thing- wasn't done, of course, for effective means 
of defense were within reach and were immediately 
used; namely, an appeal to the voting fathers of the 
five hundred little children who would be affected by 
the mayor's proposed action; and, most important of 
all, a daily paper willing to publish my appeal. (By 
the way, I have found out that when an educational 
cause gets mixed up with politics, the phrase ''voting- 
fathers" is a shot that does great excution.) 

My public contention has been, as it had repeatedly 
been at other times, when urging communities to estab- 
lish kindergartens That since by ^he law of Wisconsin 
a parent may demand education at public expense for 
his four and five year old children: that since a" child 
cannot profitably be started in what is commonly 
regarded as regular school work before the age of six 
years, and that to attempt this work before that age is 
a waste of time, if not a positive detriment later; there- 
fore, it is necessary that these young children be pro- 
vided with a sort of education adapted to their age and 
needs. This sort of education the kindergarten affords. 

My further contention has been, that in a city like 
Kenosha where 11.8 per cent of the public schoolchild- 
ren are born across the ocean, and where 52 per cent of 
them come from homes where one or both parents are 
foreign born, and in a large number of wdiich homes a 
foreign language is spoken, the kindergarten serves an- 
other very important purpose. Before a child can be 
taught to read English he must be taught to' under- 
stand and to speak English, and this the kindergarten 
can most readily do. It puts children at an early age 
in command of the English language, so that when 
they are old enough to be taught to read they can go 
right ahead with it. 

Thus I explained to these "voting fathers" why I 
wanted kindergartens for all little children and why I 
am, therefore, especially covetous of every little Italian, 
Bohemian, Russian, Polish, Lithuanian, and Croation 
child of four and five years;, for by gathering these for a 



40 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



half day for two years under the care of trained teach- 
ers, they will at six years of age understand English 
and be ready to begin to read; they will have quickened 
powers of perception, will be able to make with the 
hands, and express with the tongue, will be trained to 
self-control and respect for the rights of others, and be 
given such a start that their fourteenth birthday will 
find them well up in the grades, where a broader and 
better ioundation for intelligent citizenship may be laid. 
This has been my plea and my reasons for it. Last 
year had some hard headed taxpayer called for evidence 
that six years was the best age for beginning first grade, 
or proof that the kindergarten start was an accelerator 
of school progress, and a saver of retardation, I could 
not then have produced the proof. 

Since that time, however, there has come to us the 
convincing result of the wide study made by Leonard 
P. Ayres of the Education Division of the Russell Sage 
Foundation, one important phase of which was the in- 
vestigation of the relation between entering age and 
subsequent progress among school children. It is a 
study of the membership of the eighlh grades of 29 
cities and involves 13,807 children. The conclusion he 
reaches after a most careful weighing of his data is that 
six years is the best age for a child to begin his grade 
work. 

With that question settled for me by a scient : fically 
handled investigation, I undertook to find out by a 
study of the Kenosha school system whether the kinder- 
garten really did for us the other things claimed; 
whether those who come to the first grade at six years 
with kindergarten training make more rapid progress 
than those who enter without it. In short, I undertook 
to make an efficiency test of the kindergartens of Ke- 
nosha. 

Questions were sent out to all first, second, third 
fourth and fifth grade teachers. Those of higher grades 
than the fifth were not brought into this study because 
of the fact that in Kenosha the kindergartens have not 
been in operation sufficiently long or so generally 
throughout the city as to have representatives in the 
higher grades in sufficient numbers for comparison. 

The teachers were asked to classify their pupils as slow, 
average, and bright according to general ability and prog- 
ress, and then to classify under these heads the number of 
their pupils who started with kindergarten training, and the 
number without it. 

Second, they were asked to give the average age, June 
30th, in years and months of the children of these two classes 
in each of the three groups, slow, average, and bright. 

Third, to give the average number of years in school since 
entering the first grade of those with and without kindergarten 
training in each of three groups. 

The total number of children involved in this study is 1663 
of which 925 did and 738 did not start with the kindergarten. 
According to the judgment of the forty-three teachers entering 
into this investigation and reporting on their respective cla ses, 
26 per cent, of the children are slow, 46 percent, are average 
and 28 per cent, are bright. 

Since as I have already stated, the kindergartens have not 
been sufficiently general or sufficiently long established in onr 
city to catch all these children as beginners, and since child- 
ren of grade age from other places are constantly entering 



school it was expected that each of the three groups in each 
grade would have its portion of those with and these without 
the kindergarten training. In the slow and average groups 
these children are found to number respectively 54 per cent, 
and 46 per cent, of all. 

In the bright group or those making most rapid progress, 
kindergarten children are 60 percent., and those without 40 
per cent. 

This fact, that children with kindergarten training form a 
larger portion of the rapid group than of the average and 
slow, seems to indicate that they were better equipped for the 
race, and so outdistanced in larger numbers their fellows. 

Next, taking up the statistics in regard to ages of the child- 
ren in each of these three groups, a careful figuring of results 
shows that in each of the groups, slow, average, and bright, 
in all of the five school grades the kindergarten children are 
younger than the others. The difference in average age 
varies from grade to grade, the total average difference for all 
grades being 8.4 months. This means that all the children 
with kindergarten training wherever found in the first five 
grades have an average age which is 8.4 months below that 
of all the children without such training. 

Another question related to average number of years since 
beginning the first grade. In view of the importance which 
recent school investigations are attaching to retardation, this 
part of my study has not the degree of reliability that is des- 
irable. The card system necessary for correctness in such 
investigations which system provides a convenient record of 
the school histories of all school children, has not been in 
operation long enough to furnish the authent c data needed, 
consequently in some instances, the teachers were obliged to 
to rely upon the memory of the child or the statement of the 
parent. For the greater number, however, especially in the 
three lower grades, the averages reported by teachers are 
essentially true. 

Assuming that the normal rate of progress is one grade a 
year, that at the end of June, 1912, each child completing the 
first grade should have been in school a year, and each child 
completing the second grade s ould have been in school two 
years, and so on up the line, the average error, or amount of 
time over this standard, for the children in each grade was 
computed, the two classes, those with and those without kinder- 
garten framing, being kept separate as before. From this, an 
average for all grades was computed. 

This average retardation was found to be forty-two hund- 
redths (.42) of a year for all children with kindergarten train- 
ing and fifty-nine hundredths (.59) of a year for all children 
without such a start. From this it was readily reckoned that 
the 925 children of the former class were ahead of where they 
they would have been without kindergarten training by atotal 
of 151 years and that the 738 children without the training 
lost a total of 121 years by being thus deprived. 

When this saving and loss in years is expressed in money 
cost it takes on more concrete significance, especially with 
school boards. Here is a situation, as Mr. Ayres says, where 
"time" is money. 

The average cost per year of children in the Kenosha 
schools is about $23. From this unit cost it is found that by 
providing children kindergarten training, the city has saved 
$3,489 on 925 such children involved in this count; and that 
it has lost, through the greater retardation of the 738 children 
who have missed such training, a total of $2,783. 

Here then are my two arguments in favor of kindergartens. 
First, that it is the right of every little child to have the best 



t HE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



4* 



possible educational start, and hence the dvity of school officials 
to see that kindergarten privileges are afforded to all. 

Second, that it is the right of taxpayers that there be wise 
and economic expenditure of school money, and that, there- 
fore, all means for diminishing retardation, and conseque itly 
for lessening the cost of education should be employed, one of 
these means being the kindergarten. A school board absolute- 
ly indifferent to the former of these arguments may feel some 
power of appeal in the latter, especially when the figures and 
dollar sign are produced. 

My inquiry also contained thesedirections: Compare child- 
ren with and those without kindergarten training in these 
respects: 

1. Ability and willingness to sing. 

2. Ability to draw, construct and write. 

3. Freedom in language expression. 

4. Self-control and ease to discipline. 

The limits of this pjper will not permit me to give results 
except the general statem;nt that the majority of judgments 
favored the pupils with kindergarten training. 

As a fitting close, I use an idea derived from Mr. Caf- 
fin's new book on "The Relation of A.rt to Life." which 
I have recently been privileged to read in manuscript. 
The author takes the varying abilities of an individual 
like Michael Angelo, Franklin, Lincoln, or some lesser 
person, and shows how each of his powers may be like- 
ened to a circle concentric with others about the indivi- 
dual self, some with longer, some with shorter radii. He 
then shows the analogy of this to the collective genius 
of mankind. Each human constituent of society has 
its individual capacity, cuts its own circle upon its own 
radius about a common centre. "The scheme" says 
Mr. Gaffin, "presents an infinity of concentric circles, 
embracing efforts, and ideals of all imaginable varieties 
of scope, each of which w measured by the radiating 
individual capacity while all the diverse energies of the 
individual men and women have their centre in a 
common inventive and constructive instinct." 

This truth, which Mr. Caffin has enabled us better to 
imagine, the kindergarten recognizes, and until courses 
of study above the kindergarten, and the teachers who 
administer them come to a fuller realization of this, 
there will be retardation — and retardation worse than 
that which means failure to complete a prescribed 
course — but retardation in the more important sense of 
failure in children to reach their greatest possibilities- 
retardation which means the dwarfing of the radius of 
individual efficiency. 



NEED FOR EDUCATION. 

By P. P. Claxton. 
U. S. Commissioner of Education. 

That education of the masses is the real solution of 
the industrial problem; only through education can a pro- 
per enforcement of law or other progress toward a solution 
of national problems be expected. There are hundreds 
of laws upon the statute books of every state which are not 
enforced. The governor of a state is not its real exec- 
utive. The real executive is the popular will. The 
governor can call outthestate militia, but he cannot force 
that body of men to fire a single shot. There has been 
many instances in which the militia has been called to 
uppress riots and the men refused to obey the com- 



mand of their officers. Without a right public sentiment 
wise and just legislation is useless. In a land where the 
masses rule, or are supposed to, as in the United States, 
a high educational standard for the voter is required. 
One man may think of wdrat is best for the common- 
wealth and cast his ballot according to hisconvictions. 
Dozens of others, who have not the power to think for 
themselves, and who vote at the dictation of a boss, in- 
validate the ballots of the thinking citizen. The labor 
question is one of a lack of education. With the man 
commonly called the "hired hand" educated to make 
use of his skill, the power of production would be great- 
ly increased. "When the men of capital have the pro- 
per education they will be brought to see that the labor- 
er is entitled to afairshareof his earnings. Thus univer- 
sal education will do much to clarify the labor situation. 
In Denmark the citizens were forty years ago ranked 
as poor men. Today, since every citizen can read and 
write, Denmark, a mere sand dune thrust out into the 
North Sea, has become one of the most prosperous 
nations in the world. — Excerpt from Address. 



SOME DEVICES. 

A Window Box. 
Get at the grocer narrow boxes that will rest on the 
window cills. The depth should be about six inches. 
Place small stones in the bottom and cover with small 
roots of grass, etc. Then fill the boxes nearly full of 
rich earth. Then let the children sow the seeds under 
your direction, and svacer them daily, which they will 
be very willing to do, and will be delighted when the 
first tiny shoots apear. A border of mignonette all 
around the box will prove very attractive and sweet 
peas running on colored twine will look fine. The boxes 
can be painted a dark green or other suitable color. 

Book Covers. 
Book covers can be purchased very reasonable, but 
sometimes are not at hand. They can be easily made 
from newspapers or better from wrapping paper. Cut 
the paper about two inches larger than the books when 
open, and then turn up corners, and fasten on inside. 

Mother was invited to a party and Dorothy, five years 
old, was in mother's room while she was dressing. 

"Where are you going?" asked Dorothy. 

"I'm going to a surprise party, dear" replied the 
mother. 

"Are we goin' with you?" 

"No, dear; you're not invited." 

The little girl was thoughtful for a moment. Then 
she said: 

"Say, mother, don't you think they'd be lots more 
surprised if you did take us." 



A Poor Beginning. 
The young teacher looked around at the little assem- 
blage that constituted the slum kindergarten of which 
she had taken charge, and began in sweet gurgling tones 
supposed to express intense interest in her subject, 
"Now, I wonder how many little children here thismorn- 
ing can tell me whether the little kitty wears fur or fea- 
thers?" A dirty-faced urchin rolled his eyes ceiling- 
ward and groaned, audibly; "Gee! ain't she never seen 
a cat," 



4-' 



THE KINDERGARTEN- PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



NATIVE TENDENCIES IN EDUCATION 

Miss Margaret Trace of Cleveland, Ohio, in discussing 
the paper by Dr. Irving King at the I. K. U. meeting in 
Des Mqines, said in part: 

The natural desire or native tendencies are the 
starting point for all true education and the edu- 
cator must utilize them as a working basis for 
achievement of human ideals, but one of the great- 
est problems lies in the practical working out of 
this theory. What the child spontaneously or in- 
stinctively tends to think or feel or do at any age 
is not always what he should do according to the 
social standard, so 

"How are we to lead from what is to what ought 
to be and retain a spontaneous playful attitude of 
mind? We may know about impulse containing the 
germ of universal activity; and we may know about 
human ideals, but how are we to harmonize these 
two opposites? In the effort to bridge the dis- 
tance, there has resulted two tendencies, either of 
which is dangerous: 

(a) There has been emphasis upon what ought 
to ±>e (the human ideal) and this has given rise to 
the formal prescriptive method, which modern ed- 
ucators . would eliminate on the ground that it ar- 
rests child development, because it violates the 
principle of growth through self-activity by thrust- 
ing something upon the child which finds no cor- 
responding experience within. 

(b) The emphasis when placed upon what is 
brings a resulting tendency toward absolute free- 
dom, with its accompanying danger of caprice and 
also of retarding child development by relying too 
exclusively upon those acts which the child himself 
originates. Just how far will these natural spon- 
taneous interests lead the child? 

I should say until he comes upon a limit, meets 
some obstacle, exhausts ideas or materials. Then 
he turns to something else, hence the tendency is, 
in the last analysis for the child to follow the path 
of least resistance, unless the educator interrupts 
the natural spontaneous activity by suggesting cer- 
tain definite improvements which would not come 
naturally from the child. External or some form 
of prescriptive education, then, is necessary in order 
to arouse the child to put forth an effort to perfect 
what he has done, and to lead him to a higher state 
of consciousness. 

Prescribed work through abuse has won for itself 
a had name. It does not necessarily mean some- 
thing forced, external, or foreign to the child. It 
does mean control, limitation, a directing in such 
a way that better results may be obtained with a 
less aimless and useless expenditure of energy. The 
directions given may not be in keeping with the 
child's natural tendencies, but is this educational in- 
terference not preferred on the ground that it is 
developing self-control, perseverance, power, ap- 
plication, and all those fundamental mental qualities 
which make for efficiency and which are lacking in 
our schools today, because the emphasis on spon- 



taneity or natural interests has blinded us to the 
fa-ct that spontaneity alone is not sufficient? 

We are preparing the child for a society that 
demands for the success of its individuals, strength 
of will, and power of self-control, which never come 
from following the line of least resistance. 



Miss Alma Bingell, Winona, Minn., brought out 
the following points in discussion: The conceptions 
that are gaining a greater hold in our general edu- 
cational theory and that have been consciously 
accepted, though not necessarily fully comprehended 
nor similarly worded in so-called kindergarten 
theory. 

Let us think of life as a series of situations act- 
ing upon a human being so as to evoke changes in 
him, his environment, or both. At once we see 
that the process by which man rose from lower to 
higher levels of existence was one of ceaseless pro- 
duction and prevention of changes whose purposes 
were the satisfaction of wants experienced by man. 
These wants were and are varied, were and are 
capable of modification in quality and number. The 
means of satisfying the wants were and are like- 
wise various and modifiable. The great change 
which lias been growing steadily out of the num- 
berless ones of the many ages is that of the civil- 
izing, humanizing, spiritualizing of man. The goal 
of this onward, upward-lifting change is that of 
"peace on earth, good will toward, men," with its 
accompanying elimination of strife, fear, ignorance, 
misery, ill-health. 

Under the guise of education we are attempting 
■to hasten the time when the good things only shall 
prevail. Some one has* found that if. one thinks 
of all the ages past in terms of a day of twenty- 
four hours and of the date .at which .conscious di- 
rection of changes began, one finds that such edu- 
cational efforts were 'initiated two and one-half min- 
utes ago. Small indeed is this fraction of time in 
which man has considered the improvement of his 
wants and ways of satisfying them through the me- 
dium of education! Yet it has been long enough 
for him to see that his work is> a fivefold one. 

First, that of distinguishing between desirable 
and undesirable changes. This has given him the 
problem of the aim of education. Second, that of 
studying the material to be modified. This has made 
necessary a study of man's original nature: its 
physical mechanism, impulses, arid capacities. Third, 
that of seeking the means by which the desired 
changes are to be produced and others prevented. 
Here arise the problems of the course of study and 
the teacher. Fourth, that of determining the ways 
through which material and means can be brought 
in contact, so that the aims of education are real- 
ized'; this involves the question of method. Fifth, 
that of testing the results of such contact in order 
that the effectiveness of any means or method upon 
any given material may be accurately measured. 

Those of you who have read Dr. E. L. Thorn- 
dike's latest, book, Education, will recognize a fa- 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



4 3 



miliar quality about the foregoing. My reasons for 
giving it are : 

First, to offer for your consideration another 
book which supports the general position of Dr. 
King's paper, which is ,that the doctrines usually 
attributed to Froebel forecast the nature and are 
in harmony with the trend of the Vital educational 
thought of today. 

Second, to indicate another source to which we 
may turn for the acquisition of that newer knowl- 
edge of the factors in educative process which will 
render our own efforts still more rational and val- 
uable. 

Third, to emphasize the fact that one of the in- 
creasingly pressing problems in the general educa- 
tional held is that of experimentation with, and dis- 
covery of, methods by means -of which may be 
tested more accurately the effects of school pro- 
cedure. 

Fourth, to stimulate active efforts along line of 
measurements in the ages between four and six and 
with reference to kindergarten means and methods. 

There are many of us who look with satisfaction 
upon the fact that philanthropy, the church, etc., 
have come to recognize the social welfare value of 
the kindergarten. But we look upon it much as 
the business man looks upon those products which 
carry the prefix "by." Valuable as they are, they 
are not the chief aim of his activities. 

Should not kindergarten theories and practices 
be put to the final test of educational value from 
the standpoint of the school, so that it may be 
shown that the kindergarten is as necessary to first 
grade as the latter is to the second, and each suc- 
ceeding one to its successor? Since reading Dr. 
Thorndike's book, hearing the Binet-Simon test 
rediscussed, studying Dr. Montessori's book I real- 
ize that we lost in our own school this year some 
opportunities for securing some definite evidence 
of the value of kindergarten training for the child 
from the standpoint of the modern primary school. 
Several non-trained kindergarten children entered 
the first grade. After a short time it was discovered 
that each needed either to be demoted to the kinder- 
garten or else to have a special teacher detailed for 
making up deficiencies. This teacher would have 
seen that these children had opportunities for that 
direct experiencing with things and processes, and 
the indirect experiencing through words in story, 
song, and conversation which constitute the nature 
of kindergarten education and which the first grade 
critic teacher has come to rely upon as one very 
important contribution of the kindergarten to the 
equipment of the child for his grade work. Had we 
measured those children at the beginning and at 
the close of time spent in the kindergarten, I be- 
lieve we would have had data with scientific value. 
This 1 believe we must increasingly strive for, for 
that deeper appreciation of our own work which 
will enable us to prune and to graft where needs 
for same are manifested. 

Without it the kindergarten will be pressed hard 



by the Montessori system which will, more easily 
than the kindergarten, appeal to the average school 
man upon whose influence the establishment and 
continuance of the kindergarten in a given locality 
so often depends. 

Flere the theory of the by-product holds good 
also. Valuable as will Lie the support of this aver- 
age school man, our primary aim should be the 
gathering of evidence which will bear an inspec- 
tion in the educational laboratory. It is such data 
and the co-operation of those in the laboratories 
which will yield much to the cause of the kinder- 
garten and that is simply a synonym for the cause 
of childhood. 



BISHOP DEFENDS SCHOOLS. 

Bishop Fallows defended the American public 
school from the charge that it is the cause of crime 
and vice, as contributors to magazines have inferred 
in recent articles. Replying to Richard Grant White 
and other critics of the nation's school system the 
bishop said in part: 

"The arguments affirming that our common 
schools are the cause of crimes are fallacious 
through, and through. From the statistics carefully 
gathered' by the bureau of education and revealed 
in the history of our reformatories and penal insti- 
tutions, we learn that one-fifth of all criminals are 
totally uneducated and that the other four-fifths are 
practically uneducated. 

"We also learn that the proportion of criminals 
from the illiterate classes is eight fold as. great 
as the proportion from those having some educa- 
tion; and in proportion to the higher education re- 
ceived in our own country does criminality de- 
crease. 

"The causes of crime are not education or the 
common school, but unfortunate ante natal condi- 
tions, bad homes, unhealthy infancy and childhood, 
overcrowded slums, promiscuous herding together, 
industrial and social injustice and intemperance. 

"Religion is a failure if the common school is a 
failure. Neither is a failure. Of course, it goes 
without saying that it is not because of but in spite 
of the common school and of religion that crime 
prevails." 

Bishop Fallows urges the need in the public 
schools of selections from the Bible "which teach 
the fundamentally religious and moral truths that 
are believed: by the overwhelming majority of the 
people of the United States. 



Speak little and well. — From the French. 



Thrice is he arm'd, who hath his quarrel just. — 
Shakespeare. 



Cowards fear to die: but courage stout, 

Rather than live in snuff, will be put out. — Sir 

Walter Raleigh. 



And lives there a man, with soul so dead 
Who never to himself hath said — 
This is my own, my native land! 



44 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



EXTENDING THE COMPULSORY SCHOOL 
AGE. 

E. G. Cooley, Chicago. 

The home is disintegrating and the state and so- 
ciety must take its place to prevent great demorali- 
zation. The great industries swallow up the chil- 
dren after they leave school, and many of the par- 
ents, themselves engrossed in the problem of earn- 
ing the daily bread, are unable to give the boys and 
girls the needed attention. 

A fundamental defect in our present school sys- 
tem results from our custom of terminating com- 
pulsory school education at 14 years of age. 

Our school training is not carried far enough at 
the present time to reach its real aim, to provide 
instruction and training necessary for the solution 
of the problems- of everyday life. The youth who 
leaves school at 14 loses and wastes almost the en- 
tire results of his eight years' elementary schools 
before he is of age. 

The necessity for carrying forward the school 
instruction beyond the years of compulsory attend- 
ance is becoming more and more urgent. The home 
has ceased to exercise the educational power which 
characterized it in the past. It has ceased to be 
the workshop of the parents; the father and often 
the mother are frequently taken from the home by 
their daily work. The old work-community of par- 
ents and growing children has disappeared. 

The great cities and the great industries now take 
the youth almost immediately after the completion 
of the elementary school period. It is clear that 
great demoralization will take place if the care of 
society and the state does not take the place for- 
merly occupied by the home, the parents, or the 
master in the trades. Society must take charge of 
the vocational education of all classes and not ig- 
nore the changes modern life has produced in the 
education furnished by the home — Excerpt from Ad- 
dress at N. E. A. 



VOCATIONAL AND CHARACTER TRAINING. 

Oscar C. Helming. 

"The growing demand is for a conception of 
democracy, and 'a system of education, which shall 
take the common man and his children into ac- 
count first of all; but which shall, at the same time 
leave room for every son and daughter of the peo- 
ple to enter the highest fields of learning and of 
service. 

"The working man has a right to expect that the 
community shall provide means to train his chil- 
dren to make their living in the most intelligent 
and efficient way. In a democracy like ours meth- 
ods of vocational training should be worked out 
with greatest care; and no ancient tradition of 'lib- 
eral education' should be allowed to stand in the 
way. Such a process, however, need not interfere 
with any sound conception of that broader and 
deeper culture which has done so much, and which 
ought to do still more, to enrich human nature. 

"From whatever angle we approach the question 



we shall be agreed that the final end of education 
is the development of personal character. No 
democracy can be worthy or enduring without 
strong and enlightened character in its people. The 
industry and faithfulness of the working man; the 
loyal conduct of the citizen; the moral and mental 
fitness of the people to rule, all these depend upon 
character. 

"The school, therefore, should teach every child 
by precept, by example, and by every possible illus- 
tration, that the supreme attainment for any indi- 
vidual is vigor and loveliness of character. Fur- 
thermore, the pupils should be taught that what is 
virtue in one human being is virtue in any group 
of human beings, large or small; that the ethical 
principles which govern an empire or a corporation 
are precisely the same as those which should gov- 
ern an individual. 

"The task of education is the noblest there is. It 
is also the most difficult. It demands co-operation 
on the part of every citizen. The work of the 
teacher, well done, ought to command the highest 
salaries in the public budget." 



QUALIFICATIONS NECESSARY FOR A KIN- 
DERGARTNER. 

A girl who goes into this work should have good 
health, should be full of the play spirit, have keen 
insight, a sympathy for little children, and ability to 
sing, play and draw. Her training covers a four- 
year high school course and a two-year course in a 
kindergarten training school. There are private 
normal kindergarten courses and also excellent 
courses in the public city and state normal and 
training schools. 

The knowledge and personality of the kindergart- 
ner count for much. The home-visiting, which is 
an important part of the kindergartner's work, calls 
for tact and judgment. 

Graduate kindergartners may find positions in the 
public schools, in the free or mission kindergartens, 
in the private kindergartens or in private homes. 
They may open kindergartens of their own. In the 
larger cities of the country the kindergartens of the 
entire city are placed under the direction of a super- 
visor. Such a position commands a salary of $3,500. 
The regular kindergartner receives in the city pub- 
lic service from $600 to $1,500. The salaries in pri- 
vate schools are somewhat less. — Ex. 



That language and literature in country schools 
can be interestingly and effectively taught through 
agriculture and domestic science is the contention 
of Professor M. A. Leiper, of the Western Ken- 
tucky State Normal School, in a bulletin just issued 
for free distribution by the United States Bureau of 
Education. Mr. Leoper believes that the chief pur- 
pose of the rural school, aside from teaching the 
traditional rudiments, "is to develop a deep and 
reverend appreciation of nature, and to give a 
fundamental knowledge of that body of facts by 
which man may make nature yield the greatest pos- 
sible amount of food and clothing for sustenance 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



45 



and comfort." Language work is to deal as much 
as possible throughout the course with the life of 
the rural community. The memorizing of poems 
and literary gems; debates on subjects of farming 
and country life; verse writing; keeping a diary; 
talking from outlines before the whole school on 
country-life topics; these are some of the steps sug- 
gested in the plan of teaching language in a rural 
school. 

What is the money value of an education? The 
average reduced to individual cases, would be some- 
thing like this: Two boys, age 14, are both inter- 
ested in mechanics. One goes into the shops, the 
other into a technical school. The boy in the shops 
starts at $4 a week, and by the time he is 18 he is 
getting $7. At that age the other boy is leaving 
school and starting work at $10 a week. At 20 the 
shop-trained young fellow is getting $9.50 and the 
technical graduate $15; at 23 the former's weekly 
wage is $11.50 and the latter's $20; and by the time 
they are both 25 the shopworker finds $12.75 in his 
pay envelope while the technically trained man 
draws a salary of $31. These figures are based on 
a study of 2,000 actual workers made by the Mass- 
achusetts Commission for Industrial and Technical 
Education. 

The rising national spirit of Chile is indicated by 
a movement in the National Educational Associa- 
tion of that country to emphasize in the school his- 
tories the distinguishing characteristics of Chilean 
history and of the constitution of the Republic as 
compared with other nations, particularly those of 
North America and Europe. 

Swimming and life-saving will be taught to teach- 
ers of rural schools and pupils in normal schools 
in Sweden by the Swedish Life-saving Society. The 
government has paid a subsidy for the work and it 
is the intention eventually to make swimming com- 
pulsory in all the schools. 

Better decoration of schoolrooms is one of the 
aims of an association for national culture recently 
formed in Italy. 

In European countries children attending private 
schools or being educated at home are obliged to 
pass a State examination identical with that pre- 
scribed for children in the public schools at the end 
of the course. 

Nearly one-fourth of the boys and girls who enter 
the American public schools reach the high school. 
This, too, when the work of the high school of to- 
day is almost as advanced as that of the college of 
a few years ago. 

Holland, like most European countries, insists 
upon religious training in the public schools, but 
her system is described as "omnidenominational." 
Definite religious instruction is given, but the chil- 
dren are not allowed to be sparated according to 
"confessions." Sectarian schools exist, but they are 
essentially private institutions, and make no claim 
on the state for support. 

The international exchange of children for short 
periods between France and neighboring countries 



steadily increases. During the current year there 
were 184 such exchanges between France and Ger- 
many; 86 between France and England; and 4 be- 
tween France and Spain. The total number of chil- 
dren represented by the exchanges was 554, of 
whom 430 were boys and 124 girls. By this system 
the children of one country are placed in families of 
the other for the purpose of acquiring practical use 
of the foreign language. The exchange is carefully 
supervised and a strict report kept for each case. 

Improvised historical plays form part of the his- 
tory lesson in a London school. Children nine and 
ten years old act the battle of Hastings, boys rep- 
resenting William the Conqueror and King Harold 
leading parties of Normans and Saxons, respect- 
ively. Rulers serve as swords, and the armies ad- 
vance and withdraw realistically. When the chil- 
dren take their seats after the combat, the teacher 
asks them historical questions about the battle and 
the characters they portrayed. Among other plays 
presented are: "The Siege of Calais" and "The In- 
troduction of Printing into England." In the latter 
play the King visits Caxton to see the printing 
press and have the process explained. Interest is 
maintained at high pitch despite the fact that there 
is no costuming and no stage setting, the printing 
press being represented by a plain wooden box. 



THE MODERN PERIL. 

E. G. Cooley, Chicago. 

Great demoralization will take place if the care of so- 
ciety and the state does not take the place formerly oc- 
cupied by the home, the parents or the master in the trades 
An increasing attention to the spiritual interests during 
these years must be provided if the life of the modern la- 
borer is not to be utterly demoralized and degraded by the 
sensual allurements of the modern city life. Extension 
f compulsory public education is the only stay against im- 
pending ruin of society today. The increasing demands 
and the complexities of modern life make the training 
gained by the child up to the present legal limit of four- 
teen years inadequate. The progress of educational 
methods in the effort to keep pace with civilizations' de- 
mands, by which training is becoming less and less 
the work of the home or of the trade master, more and 
more the duty of the state and its institutions. We 
are now permitting boys and girls to leave school at the 
very age when they most need guidance. The youth who 
leaves school wastes the results of his eight years of ele- 
mentary work. The necessity for carrying forward the 
school instruction beyond the years of compulosry atten- 
dance is becoming more aud more urgent. The transfor- 
mation of the social body, the rapid transition of our peo- 
ple from country life to city life, the development of the 
industries and commercial activities demand more from 
the schools than they did in the past. The home has 
ceased to exercise the educational powerwhich character 
ized it in the past. It has ceased to be the workshop of 
the parents; the father and often the mother are frequent 
ly taken from the home by their daily work. The old 
work community of parents and growing children has 
been broken up. 



46 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



A YEAR IN THE KINDERGARTEN 

Harriette McCarthy 
Kindergarten Director, Oklahoma City Public Schools. 

OCTOBER 

FIRST WE1K 

Songs- 
Song of the Bee. 
Grasshopper Green. 
The Caterpillar. (Finger Plays, Emily Pouls- 

son.) 
The Counting Lesson. (Finger Plays, Emily 

Poulsson.) 

MONDAY. 

Circle — Outdoor life. Nature's creatures. What 
we love. Butterflies, grasshoppers, birds, etc. 

Rhythm — Imitate sound of different things spoken 
of in the circle. 

Gift — Color lesson with first gift. Balls may be 
birds, butterflies, grasshoppers, etc. 

Game — The Squirrel Game. 

Occupation — Making daisies. 

TUESDAY. 

Circle — Continue talk of birds, butterflies, bees, 
grasshoppers. Introduce bird's nest and cat- 
tails. 

Story: A Queer Place for a Bird's Nest. (Morn- 
ing Talks. Sarah Wiltes.) 

Rhythm — Imitate butterflies, and bees. 

Gift — Second gift. Free play. 

Game — Hopping Birds. Squirrel Game. 

Occupation — Make chains of the daisies made on 
previous day. 

WEDNESDAY. 

Circle — Retell story. Discuss butterflies and grass- 
hoppers. 

Rhythm — Imitate movements of animals, birds, but- 
terflies. 

Gift — Give sequence play with third gift suggested 
by one child. 

Game — Testing the senses. Hearing. Locating 
sound. 

Occupation — Sewing cards. Design ball. 

THURSDAY. 

Circle — More about grasshoppers. 

Story. Grasshopper and Ant. 
Rhythm — Imitate grasshoppers, butterflies and 

flowers. 
Gift — Introduce fourth gift. 
Games — Sense games. Squirrel game. 
Occupation — Cut butterflies and color. 

FRIDAY. 

Circle — Review talk on insects, butterflies, birds. 
Free choice of stories told during the week. 

Rhythm — Imitate grasshoppers, butterflies and 
birds. 

Gifts- — Sticks. Lay rake, square, cross, etc. Com- 
pare sticks as to length. Let children invent. 

Games — All games played during the week. 

Occupation — Make colored chains. 

SECOND WEEK 

Songs — 

The Weather Song. (Walter and Jenks.) 
Come Little Leaves. (Walter and Jenks.) 
Which Way Does the Wind Blow (Walter and 
Jenks.) 



MONDAY. 

Circle — The wind. What it does. The direction it 
comes from. Kinds of wind. Story, The North 
Wind and the Sun. (Boston Collection of Kg. 
Stories.) 

Rhythm — Imitate the trees and leaves swaying in 
the wind. 

Gift — First gift. Emphasize green as you think 
best. Review colors already emphasized. 

Game — Fruit Game. The Windmill (Walker and 
Jenks.) 

Occupation — Make pin wheels. 

TUESDAY. 

Circle — Subject of winds continued. Can you see 
the wind? Can you hear the wind? Give the 
sound of the wind. 

Rhythm — Keeping time to music. 

Gift — Third gift. Building chair sequence. Grand- 
father chair, grandmother chair, fireplace, castle 
with two towers, and wall. 

Game— In the Fall. (Adapt game "In the Spring," 
using fall occupations, as raking leaves, popping 
corn.) 

Occupation— Walk in the woods and gather leaves. 

WEDNESDAY. 

Circle — How can you tell that the wind is blowing? 
How many kinds of wind are there? Story, 
The Discontented Weather Cock. (Boston Col- 
lection of Kg. Stories.) 

Rhythm — Represent windmills by swinging arms. 

Gift — Third gift building sequence. 

Game — Hansel and Gretzel Dance. (Hoffman's Old 
and New Games.) 

Occupation — Making fans. 

THURSDAY. 

Circle — Classify leaves, and talk of leaves found 

during walk. 
Rhythm — Keeping time to music. 
Gift— Fourth gift. 
Games — King of France. (Hoffman's Old and New 

Singing Games.) 
Occupation — Draw leaves and color with crayola. 

FRIDAY. 

Circle — Review circle talks of the week. 

Rhythm — Those used. 

Gift — Second gift. Use second as a street roller. 

Game — Free choice. 

Occupation — Unfinished work. 

THIRD WEEK 

Songs — 

Good Morning, Merry Sunshine. 

Lady Moon. (Walker and Jenks.) 

Once There Was a Little Kitty. (Walker and 

Jenks.) 
Twinkle, Twinkle, Little Star. (Walker and 

Jenks.) 

MONDAY. 

Circle — Talk on spiders. Story, Bruce and the 

Spider. 
Rhythm — One child weaves in and out among the 

other children in the circle. 
Gift — Play fruit game with first gift, add purple 

grapes. 
Game — Sense game of sight. One child leaves the 

circle, other children tell which one has left. 

I Spy. 
Occupation — Paper folding, book cover, window 

lights. 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



47 



TUESDAY. 

Circle — More about spiders. Retell story, Bruce 

and the Spider. 
Rhythm — Same as day before but more difficult. 
Gift — Second gift. Emphasizing edges of the cube. 
Game — Bouncing ball, rolling ball. 
Occupation — Pasting circles in designs. 

WEDNESDAY. 

Circle — Continue talking of spiders. Use of web. 

Speak of persistency of spiders. 
Rhythm— Dramatize Miss Muft'et. 
Gift— Third gift. 
Game — Still Pond. 
Occupation — Sew spider web on sewing card. 

THURSDAY. 

Circle — More about spiders. Story, Arachme. 
Rhythm — Side skip. 

Gift — 'Build in sequence, forms of life with third gift. 
Game — I Spy. 

Occupation — Cut out Miss Muffet, spider and tuffet 
from black silhouette paper. 

FRIDAY. 

Circle — Continue talk of spiders, and retell story. 

Rhythm — Those used. 

Gift — Outline face of cube with sticks. 

Game — Free choice. 

Occupation — Mount Miss Muffet on cardboard. 

FOURTH WEEK 

Songs — 

The Flowers' Lullaby (Patty Hill.) 

Clouds of Gray Are in the Sky (Patty Hill.) 

MONDAY. 

Circle — Getting ready for winter. In and out of 
doors. Animals getting rea'dy for winter. Peo- 
ple getting ready. Buds and seeds getting 
ready. Story, The Baby Bud's Winter Clothes. 
(In the Child's World.) 

Rhythm — Marching. 

Gift — Second gift. Use cylinder as barrel of apples. 

Game — Free choice. 

Occupation — Make paper barrels. 

TUESDAY. 

Circle — Talk on wool. Where it comes from and 

its use. 
Rhythm — Marching in cross. 
Gift— Third gift. Build forms of life. 
Game — Round and Round the Village. (Hoffman's 

Old and New Singing Games.) 
Occupation — Cut out sheep. 

WEDNESDAY. 

Circle — Cotton, where grown. What used for. 

Rhythm — I Am a Young Musician (Hoffman's Old 
and New Singing Games.) 

Gift — Third gift. Repeat forms of life built day be- 
fore. 

Game — Free choice. 

Occupation — Sewing cards. 

THURSDAY. 

Circle — Compare wool and cotton. Story,. Wool and 
the Birds (Morning Talks, Sarah Wiltse.) 

Rhythm— Marching by 2's, 4's, 8's. 

Gift — First gift. Have balls represent fruit and 
vegetables. 

Game — Would You Know How Does the Farmer 
(Walker and Jenks.) 



Occupation — Cut trees. 

FRIDAY. 

Circle — Review morning circles. 

Rhythm — Marching. 

Game — Free choice. 

Gift — Color work with first gift. 

Occupation — Unfinished. 

NOVEMBER 

FIRST WEKK 

Songs — 

The Sunshine Fairies (Child's Garden of Songs.) 

Sweet Fairy Bell (Brown and Emerson Song 

Book.) 

The Brownies (Gaynor No. 1.) 

The Fairy (Eleanor Smith.) 

MONDAY. 

Circle — What fairies and brownies are. What they 

do. Where they live. 
Rhythm — Marching as brownies. 
Gift — First gift. Name colors of balls. Sense game 

with balls. 
Game— In My Hand a Ball I Hold (Walker and 

Jenks.) 
Occupation — Sewing cards. 

TUESDAY. 

Circle — Continue fairies and brownies (Plan Book, 
page 200). Story, The Brownies. (Kg. Book, 
Jane Hoxie.) 

Rhythm — Marching as fairies. 

Gift — Second gift. Tell form by feeling. 

Game — Over and Back (Walker and Jenks.) 

Occupation — Peanut hunt. 

WEDNESDAY. 

Circle — Speak of different kinds of brownies. Re- 
tell Brownie story. 

Rhythm — Marching. Boys as brownies, girls as 
fairies. 

Gift — Third gift. Talk of the edges, corners and 
faces of the cube. 

Game — Browne Game (Gaynor No. 1.) 

Occupation — Make Jack-o'-lanterns. 

THURSDAY. 

Circle — Review all about the fairies. Retell story 
of Brownies. New story, Kid Would Not Go. 

Rhythm — Keeping time to music. 

Gift — Lay borders with eighth gift tablets. 

Game — Brownies (Gaynor No. 1.) 

Occupation — Cut furniture from furniture catalogue, 
and paste in scrap-book. One page to represent 
•parlor, one page dining-room, etc. 

FRIDAY. 

Circle — Review fairies and brownies. Retell stories. 

Rhythm — Marching. 

Gift — Sticks. Children invent. 

Game — Free choice. 

Occupation — Hallowe'en Party. 

SECOND WEEK 

Songs — 

The Mill (Finger Plays, Emily Poulsson.) 
Making Bread (Finger Plays, Emily Poulsson.) 
How the Corn Grew (Finger Plays, Emily 

Poulsson.) 
A Little Boy's Walk (Finger Plays, Emily 
Poulsson.) 

MONDAY. 

Circle — The miller and how he helps. Where the 
wheat comes from. 



48 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



Rhythm — Marching as a wheel. 

Gift — First exercise to teach rainbow colors. 

Game — Jolly is the Miller (Hoffman's Old and New 

Singing Games.) 
Occupation — Finish sewing cards, and color with 

crayola. 

TUESDAY. 

Circle — Further talk about wheat. How the farmer 
gets the ground ready for planting. Parable of 
the Sower (Bible.) Story, The Little Red Hen. 

Rhythm — Marching as wheel. Imitate farmers car- 
rying bags on their back. 

Gift — Build mill with third and cylinder of second. 

Game — Would You Know How Does the Farmer 
(Walker and Jenks.) 

Occupation — With crayola draw oranges. 

WEDNESDAY. 

Circle — Last two days' work reviewed, and story of 

Three Pigs begun. 
Rhythm — Marching as before with bags on back. 
Gift — Peg boards. Form a square, also teach color. 
Game — The Mill (Walker and Jenks.) 
Occupation — Cut out trees. 

THURSDAY. 

Circle — Trace grain of wheat from grain to bread. 

Rhythm — Cross skip. 

Gift — First gift. Review colors used. Color games 
already played. 

Game — Scatter corn on the table, and the child get- 
ting the most wins. 

Occupation — Cut out furniture. 

FRIDAY. 

Circle — Review of morning circles. Retell story. 

Rhythm — Those used. 

Gift— Build with third. 

Game — Free choice. 

Occupation — Cut and paste furniture. 

SECOND WEEK 

Songs — 

Hiawatha's Lullaby. 

Good Morning to the Sunshine Bright. 

Good Morning, New Day (Walker and Jenks.) 

MONDAY. 

Circle — Introduce subject of Indians. 

Rhythm — Ten Little Indians. 

Gift — Sticks for wigwam, and blocks for houses. 

Game — Medicine ball. Free choice. 

Occupation — Cut canoes and paste. 

TUESDAY. 

Circle — Read Hiawatha's Childhood (Plan Book, 

page 23.) 
Rhythm — Using bows and arrows. 
Gift — Make bows and arrows with slats. 
Game — Bean-bag. 
Occupation — Sew star. 

WEDNESDAY. 

Circle — Clothing of Indians. Food and travel. 

Rhythm — As above. 

Gift— Build with fourth gift. 

Game — Soldier boy. 

Occupation — Cut wigwam and canoe of black paper. 

THURSDAY. 

Circle — More about the Indians. Story of Hiawatha 

continued. 
Gift — Second gift. Test knowledge of form. 
Rhythm — Marching like Indians. 
Game — Hare in the Hollow. 
Occupation— Cut out furniture. 



FRIDAY. 

Circle — Review all past morning circles. Talk more 

of Indians. 
Rhythm — Review. 
Gift — Pegboards. Outline on pegboard ball, cube 

and cylinder. 
Game — Free choice. 
Occupation — Paste furniture in book. 



Books referred to in these programs are the following: 
STORIES 
Golden Windows— Laura E. Richards, 
Kelley's Short Stories. 

Stories atid Morning Talks— Sarah Wiltse. 
Boston Collection of Ks;. Stories. 
In t he Child's World— Emilv Poulson. 
Primary Plan Book— Marion George. 
Kindergarten Book— Jane Hoxie 

SONGS 
Songs and Gamas for Little Ones— Walker and Jenks. 
Small Sonus for Small Singers— Xielinger. 
Songs of the Child World— Gaynor. 
Songs — Patty Hill. 
Finger Plays— Emily Poulson. 
song Book— Brow« and Emerson. 
Slays and Games. 
New Kimlrgarten Songs— Halsey. 
Child's Garden of Song— Tomlins. 
Merry Song- and Games— Mrs. Hubbard. 
Riverside Song Book— Lawrence. 
Songs in Season George. 
Songs for Little Children— Eleanor Smith. 
Old and New Singing (James— Hoffman. 
Songs of Life and Nature— Eleanor Smith. 
Merry Songs and < lames- Hailman. 
Srimarv Song Book— Smith atid Weaver. 
Songs, Games and Rhymes— Hailman 



Grand Rapids, Mich. 

The winter term of the Grand Rapids Kindergarten 
Training school opened Sept. 15th. A number ofchanges 
in the faculty and lecturers have been made. Among 
the new instructors are Miss L. EstelleAppleton of Chi- 
cago, who will conduct classes in child study, psychol- 
ogyj history of education and primary methods. Miss 
Theodra Arentson, a graduate of a three year course of 
training in Sheboygan, Wis., will have charge, of kinder- 
garten and methods of teaching. Miss Fiances Louise 
Clark, Miss Agnes Douglas, and Miss Ida Childs of last 
year's faculty will continue to direct work in special 
methods and musicand drawing, Interestinglecturesand 
field classes in nature study have been arranged, and 
will be conducted by Miss Francis Sterns and Miss Grace 
Ellis, of the local high school. In connection with the 
regular kindergarten course of study, special class work 
for playground supervision will be provided, which will 
include several special lectures by Charles Howard Mills, 
city supervisor of recreation centers. 
Elmira, N. Y. 

The Elmira Kindergarten Training School opened 
October 1. Those who wish to enter should make defi- 
nite application at once. Beside the regular technique 
of the the kindergarten, there will be classes in psy- 
chology, history of education, sociology, games, music, 
folk dancing, art and ethics. In connection with the 
training school a kindergarten will be opened for child- 
ren from three to six years of age. 
Bridgeport, Conn. 

Miss Mary A. Mills, principal of the Froebel Normal 
Kindergarten and Primary Training school, who has been 
spending the summer at Eagle Mere, Pa., has resumedj 
her activities as the head of a very successful schoo 
again. 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



49 



NEW KINDERGARTEN GAMES 
AND PLAYS 




Conducted by LAURA ROUNTREE SMITH 



APPLE GAME. 

The children choose the Gardener. 

He asks the children to form a circle around him. 

He points to a group of children and says, "You 
are the red apples." He points to another group and 
says, "You are the green apples." etc. Or if pre- 
ferred he may give the children names of various 
aoples as "Greenings," etc. The Gardener says, 
"The red apples are falling from the trees." 

The children rcpresnting the red apples sit down 
in the circle. 

The Gardener says, "The green apples are falling 
from the trees." he children who represent the 
green apples sit down. 

The Gardener says, "The sweet apples are fall- 
ing," "The yellow apples are falling," etc. Each 
time several children sit down. This continues un- 
til all the children are seated in the circle. 

After each group of children sit down the follow- 
ing verse is sung. It is sung again at the close of 
the game when all the children are seated: 

Tune, "Lightly Row." 

Falling down, falling down, 
See the apples falling down, 
Round and sweet, good to eat, 
Apples falling down, 
Apples falling from the trees, 
Shaken by the gentle breeze, 
Hear the sound, apples round, 
Falling, falling down. 

For a rest, the children may represent birds sit- 
ting in their seats. The teacher will give them 
names of birds. She may say at any time, "The 
Blue-birds are flying," "The robins are flying," etc. 
The children named will run up to the front of the 
room and back waving their arms. 

This is a pleasant recreation to use in any. Kinder- 
garten. 



MOTION PLAY— THE WINDS. 

(To Teach Directions.) 
1. 
Up from the south came a gentle breeze, 

(point south') 
It rocked the bird's nests in the trees, 

(wave both arms) 
It said. "The summer is almost over, 
Fly away birds, it is late October." (wave arms) 

2. 

Oh, ho, oh, ho, hear the west winds blow, 

(point west) 
The daisy-buds are nodding so, (nod heads) 

It said, "We'll shake the gay leaves down, 

(raise and lower arms) 
Leaves of red and yellow and brown." 



Up from the east came the wind again (point east) 
Down fell the gentle drops of rain (tap desks) 

It said, "We will water the thirsty flowers, 
For earth is refreshed by gentle showers." 



The north wind came with rollicking song, 
It shook the apple-tree, sturdy and strong, 

(shake with right hand) 
It said, "It is winter, ha! ha! ho! ho! 
Then down fell the feathery flakes of snow! 

(Raise and lower arms, gently shaking fingers) 



GAME OF THE FRUIT BASKET. 

The children stand in a circle. 

They choose four children to go inside the circle. 

These four children stand with hands clasped 
and form the Basket. 

The children in the circle clap hands, skip about 
the Basket and sing. 

Tune, "Lightly Row." 

Round and round, round and round, 

Round the basket we will go, 

Round and round, round and round, 

Clap in time you know, 

Who will choose a fruit today? 

For this is a jolly play, 

Round and round, round and round, 

Round the basket go! 

The children in the circle pause. 

One of the players who formed the Basket points 
to any child in the circle and says, "I will choose 
a peach." This child runs inside the basket. The 
four forming the basket skip round her, the rest in 
the circle also skip and sing as before. 

One of the players who formed the basket 
chooses another child, calling him "Apple" or 
"Pear" or any fruit. This child comes inside the 
basket etc. 

When the Basket is too full, the children chosen 
may stand around it, or run in and out while those 
forming the Basket hold their hands up high, 
clasped. 



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THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



The game may continue until all are in the basket 
or chosen, so no children stand in the circle outside. 
Then the children who formed the Basket say, 
Ha! ha' ha! it is merry October, 
We will tip the Basket over. 
The children all stoop down on hands and knees 
and then skip to seats. 

A BIRDS' NEST GAME FOR WEE BOYS AND 

GIRLS. 

Henrietta R. Eliot, Portland, Oregon 




Illustration No. 1. 

Mother's outstretched hand, palm up. 
Put your two little hands into one of mine. 
(Look, little one, this is the way. 
Close side by side, with the fingers up 
And each little fist fast shut at the top), 
And I'll show you the Birds' Nest Play. 




Illustration No. 2. 

Mother's hand holding baby hands as described 
first verse. 

My hand, we will play, is a nice round nest, 
And your little hands, side by side, 
Are the baby birds, held safe from harm; 
But they need a mamma to keep them warm, 
With wings spread soft and wide. 




Illustration No. 3. 

Mother's other hand spread over the baby's 
nestled fists. 

O here she is now! For my other hand 
Is the mother bird you see. 

And she spreads her wings close over the nest, 
And all night long the birdies will rest, 
As smug as snug can be. 




Illustration No. 4. 

Little fists uncovered and mother's hand movim 
away. 

Now morning has come, the birdies must eat, 
And the mother bird goes for their food, 
She flies far away on a willing wing, 
And breakfast for each, she soon will bring. 
As a good mother birdie should. 




Mother's hand returning, and little fists, palm 
upward, as first described, but open and with the 
fingers straight up and close to each other, but 
held apart from the thumb. 

Now hold all your fingers away from your thumbs 
Like two little hungry bills, 

For here comes the mother with food for each. 
And both little birds must eagerly reach, 
Till each waiting mouth she fills 




Illustration No. 6. 



THE KINDERGARTEN -PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



5< 



The thumb and forefinger of the mother's hand, 
dropping a hit of string into the open fists. 
Now the babies are grown, and must learn to fly, 
Away and away and away. 

Here flies birdie one — here flies birdie two — 
And I am just J and you are just you — 
We've played enough for today. 




Illustration No. 7. 
Mother's hand, on one side, sewing. Babies' 1' 
on the other, holding doll, or other toy. 

CROWNING COLUMBUS. 
(Columbus' picture stands on an easel, the 
dren crown him with evergreen, a flower-wi 
and flags.) 
1st: 

Crown him with a wreath of evergreen, 
The very fairest ever seen, 

Our brave Columbus. 
2nd: 

Crown him with flowers fresh and fair, 
We'll plaee them by his picture there, 
Our brave Columbus. 
3rd: 

Crown him with the flag of Spain, 
Columbus Day has come again. 
Our brave Columbus. 



4 th: 



Crown him with red, and white, and blue, 
Bring out the drum and banners too, 
Our brave Columbus. 



As we stand by his picture here, 
Columbus' name we all revere, 
Our brave Columbus! 



THE FLAGS. 

(Recitation for children carrying Spanish and 

American flags.) 

1st: 

Salute the flag of Spain today, 
Salute the flag with colors gay. 

2nd: 

We love the flag of bonnie Spain, 
Columbus Day has come again. 



::.•.!: 



6th 



8 th 



All 



Our flag is red and white and blue, 
Your flag is different it is true. 

Oh bonnie flag we gladly say, 
We meet to keep Columbus Day: 

Then to Columbus give the glory, 
Of the oft repeated story. 

And so the Spanish flag 'tis true, 

Made famous fourteen hundred ninety-two. 

Each nation loves its flag the best. 
The Spanish, flag stands with the rest. 

Bring out the flags, make a display, 
Upon this glad Columbus Day. 

The red and white and green of Spain, 
Makes a bonnie flag 'tis true, 

But little boys and girls love best, 
The red, and white, and blue. 



4 th 



8th 



COLUMBUS RECITATION. 

(For very little boys.) 

Columbus was a sailor bold, 

At least that's what I have been told. 

I would also like to sail the sea, 
If not too far from mother's knee. 

lie had three ships to sail the sea, 
One ship would be enough for me! 

In the Nina I would go, 

But what if stormy winds should blow? 

In the Pinta I'll set sail. 

That ship has weathered many a gale. 

The Santa Maria waits for me, 
Oh, how I love to sail the sea. 

At night we'll glide across the foam, 
But wish ourselves quite safe at home! 



Kind friends, I hope ycu understand, 
We are really happier far on land! 
Ml (join hands and run to seats): 

Then come, dear sailors, hand in hand, 
We'll run to seek the nearest land! 



52 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



LITTLE PIECES FOR 
LITTLE PEOPLE 



ORIGINAL RHYMES AND GAMES. 

(For October) 
By Laura Rountree Smith. 
(Book Rights Reserved.) 
GAY OCTOBER. 
Gay October's come to town, 
And she wears a pretty gown, 
All the leaves are falling down, 
Gay October's come to town. 

Glad September calls "Good bye," 
Overhead the trees all sigh, 
On the ground the apples lie. 
Glad September calls "Good bye." 



THE RED APPLE. 

A rosy, red apple hung up in a tree, 

In the month of October, 

And it was as rosy as rosy could be, 

In the month of October, 

A mischievous breeze came with scarcely a sound, 

The rosy red apple fell down to the ground, 

'Twas there that the rosy red apple I found, 

In the month of October. 



RECITATION— IN OCTOBER. 

In October, glad October, 
When the leaves are gay, 
In October, glad October, 
Comes Columbus Day. 
Like an army march along, 
Wave the flags and join our song. 

In October, glad October, 

Bring the flags of Spain, 

In October, glad October, 

Wave the flags again, 

Bring our own red, white and blue, 

To honor brave Columbus too. 



RECITATION. 

(By little boy holding ship.) 
Once I made a little ship, 
To sail upon the sea, 
And I hope that some bright day, 
It will sail back to me. 

I saw my little ship sail out, 
Upon the waters blue, 
And then I made a little wish, 
I hope it will come true. 

I wish I were a sailor boy, 
Like Columbus so long ago, 
And I would then sing merrily, 
"Ye-ho, my lads, ye-ho!" 



OCTOBER. 

(To be recited by children holding letters to spell 
the word "October.") 
O. October comes with smiles and laughter, 

Soon November follows after. 
C. "Come to the woods," the squirrels all call, 

"Come to the woods where autumn leaves fall." 
T. To the swing in the apple-tree I'll go 

Swinging, swinging high and low. 
O. Oh, October on Hallowe'en night 

We see many a funny sight! 
B. Brownies play on Hallowe'en night 

When the moon and stars are bright. 
E. Everywhere the leaves turn red, 

Squirrels chatter overhead, 
R. Rosy apples ripe and round 

On the ground in heaps are found. 
All: 

Of all the months the whole year through, 

We love best October with skies so blue. 



MILK WEED BABIES. 

Milk-weed Babies sailed away, 
On a bright October day, 
And I thought I heard them sigh, 
"Little girl, good bye, good bye," 
"As we sail out in the blue, 
We will call good bye to you." 

Empty cradles hang in air, 
Milk-weed Babies do you care 
If I rock them to and fro 
While the autumn breezes blow? 
Milk-weed Babies if you please, 
Your cradles rock now in the breeze! 



GREETING TO THE SUN. 

"Good morning, children, one and all," 
"Good morning," hear the bright sun call, 
We clap our hands and bow politely, 
When the sun is shining brightly. 

"Good evening," says the setting sun, 
"Good evening now to every one, 
'Tis time that you were safe in bed." 
So nods each little curly head. 



Clap the hands for gay October, 
We are glad you've come to town, 
See the autumn leaves are falling, 
Pretty leaves of red and brown. 



THE BONNIE BANNERS. 

(To be recited by a little girl who places a fli 
Columbus' picture.) 
Bring out the bonnie banners gay, 
And wave them on Columbus Day, 
What can the little children do, 
But wave the red, and white and blue? 

Tho long ago he sailed the sea, 
A true Discoverer was he, 
And so beside his picture here, 
I place the flag we all revere. 



by 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



53 




THE COMMiTTEE^THE WHOLE 

CONDUCTED BY BERTHA JOHNSTON 

THIS COMMITTEE OF THE WHOLE, of which all Subscribers to the Kin- 
dergarten-Primary Magazine are members, -will consider those various prob- 
lems which meet the practicing Kindergartner— problems relating to the 
School-room proper. Ventilation, Heating, and the like; the Aesthetics of 
School-room Decoration; Problems of the Physical Welfare of the Child, in- 
cluding the Normal, the Defective, and the Precocious; questions suggest- 
ed by the use of Kindergarten Material, the Gifts. Occupations. Games. Toys. 
Pats; Mothers-meetings; School Government; Child Psychology; the relation 
of Home to School and the Kindergarten to the Grades: and problems re- 
garding the Moral Development of the Child and their relation to Froebel's 
Philosophy and Methods All questions -will be welcomed and also any 
suggestions of -ways in -which Kindergartners have successfully met the 
problems incidental to kindergarten and primary practice. All replies to 
queries will be made through this department, and not by correspondence. 
Address all inquiries to 

MISS BERTHA JOHNSTON, EDITOR, 

1054 Bergen St., Brooklyn, N. Y- 



To the Chairman of the Committee of the Whole: 

Is it always necessary to insist (1.) that when the child 
is working out his own ideas he shall never borrow 
extra blocks from his neighbor or (2.) on the other hand, 
that he must use every single one of his own blocks in 
making a design? Neither kindergartner nor child 
should be bound by cast-iron rules. There should 
always be freedom under the law. But Froebel had 
an important end in view in naming these rules for 
the use of the Gifts and except under unusual circum- 
stances it is very well for the young kindergartner 
to abide by them. The average child has too many 
play things at a time in his own home and as much 
freedom in using them as is desirable. Too many blocks 
at a time are likely to confuse and scatter his ideas. He 
grows tired before accomplishing his purposes and ac- 
quires the giving-up habit. He starts with one idea 
and ends with another. He fails to realize all the pos- 
sibilities for original expression in certain playthings 
because new material is given him too soon? A certain 
degree of freedom is desirable and necessary for the 
child's development. To stop a creative child in the 
act of working out an idea is deadening, but the use of 
the kindergarten Gifts under prescribed rules will 
counteract the scattering effect of a surplus of home 
playthings and as they are employed for such a short 
time each day under intelligent direction, this limit- 
ation should not injure the creative impulse. The 
limiting the child to a certain amount and a certain 
kind tends to frame habits of foresight, economy of 
resources, the poWer of making much o.it of little, of 
"making a little go a great ways" as the phrase is. 
Later in life, when he meets with all kinds of obstacles 
and limitations in carrying out his life plans he will find 
the power thus acquired invaluable. Let me illustrate 
by one concrete example. 

A young women, after studying kindergarten for 
some time, finally decided to become an architect. 
She told the editor that she felt more than grateful to 
the kindergarten course for teaching and training her 
to make all her material count in working out a plan, 
and in making good use of material. The practice had 
been invaluable to her. When obliged to plan a kitchen 
for a fiat, with range and tubs and sink in small space, 
and with little money to spend for material, her ex- 



perience gained in kindergarten came well in hand. 
Such limitation aids to mas eery of self and environ- 
ment. Nevertheless, the kindergartner must be ob- 
servant of the child and if she deems it wise, if he is 
wholly absorbed in an idea that needs for its fulfillment 
an extra block or so, it may be well to foster the crea- 
tive spirit by letting him borrow from his nieghbor, 
thus helping the neighbor to realize his best self by 
yielding up his temporary belongings to help a friend 
express an idea. But it is well to do this very seldom; 
and then upon the kindergartner's own suggestion 
rather than the child's. 

Your second point will be replied to the next month. 
To the Editor of the Committee of the Whole: 

From an editor comes this query, Do the kinder- 
gartners adequately realize their responsibility for 
fitting their children for special success in the Primary 
Grades? and can any achievement in the kindergarten 
however great be of great permanent value unless it is 
utilized by the teachers of the Grades. 

Many young kindergarten graduates are so filled with 
a sense of the importance of the kindergarten principles 
and practice in themselves that they sometimes over- 
look the fact in their enthusiasm for the little child 
that the kindergartner is but one link in a development 
that is or should be, forever progressive. But many of 
the Training Schools now have courses which deal in a 
general way with primary grades so that students really 
have some conception of the work that is to center 
round the seed planted by them. It is well for a kind- 
ergartner to continually remind herself, however, that 
the grade teacher is likely to judge all kindergartens 
by the children that come to her hands from her kind- 
ergarten room. Are they attentive, obedient, wide- 
awake, observing, able to see accurately, to talk easily, 
to do instantly and intelligently what they are told to 
do? Are they helpful to the other children and to the 
teacher? Are they orderly and tidy? They will have 
learned in the kindergarten to count up to one hundred, 
and should be able to learn quickly to read and write 
because reading depends upon observation of differ- 
ences in certain small characters, and attention to what 
the teacher says. The kindergarten does not teach 
reading, writing, arithmetic, as such, but it prepares 
the way for all the future work of the grades. In the 



54 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



case of foreign children it should help the grade teacher 
to a marked extent by what it does in teaching the 
children to understand and to speak good English. It 
would be well for the kindergartner to frequently con- 
fer with the grade teacher, ask her in what respects the 
kindergarten product may not be quite up to expec- 
tations, and also help the grade teacher to understand 
just what the kindergarten is supposed to do and just 
what it does not purpose to attempt. Ready obedience 
on the part of the child, and attention to what is said 
or written on the blackboard, and quiet, orderly habits. 
free from any fear, will help win the teacher to belief in 
the merits of the kindergarten. 

To the Editor of the Committee of the Whole: 

I find myself in a kindergarten where, for the first 
time in my life, I find myself face to face with colored 
children. Please tell me what to do to overcome my 
feeling of strangeness and prejudice. I want to be just 
but I do feel queer, altho many of my group are white. 

Unhappy. 
Your feeling, under the circumstances, is a natural 
one but it will noon wear off. It is a survival of one of 
the most fundamental of instincts, which was undoubt- 
edly important (in the early days when man was first 
finding himself) in the preservation of race and clan 
solidarity, and the development of distinctive and val- 
uable racial characteristics. But less and less will the 
survival of the fittest be determined by force of arms; 
the fittest among nations will rather prove to be those 
most efficient, not in fighting their neighbors, but in 
nurturing the highest qualities in their own citizens; 
the intelligence, the integrity, the self-control and effi- 
ciency of each unit among the people. No chain is 
stronger than its weakest link. It is your privilege and 
your responsibility to acquaint yourself with the 
various capacities of your tittle black folk and nurture 
each as best you can so that the little twig, will from 
the beginning, have an upright start. The backward 
race of today is the advance one of tomorrow; what a de- 
velopment we will gain as individuals and as a nation, in 
thus recognizing and developing the highest traits in 
our humblestembryo citizens, white, black, yellow. Had 
St, Peter been untrue to his vision, the Christian mes- 
sage might never have reached the Gentiles. The 
Teutons and the British were barbarians when Roman 
civilization first penetrated into their forest homes. 
Russia has a problem curiously similar to ours in the 
relations of freed serfs to the other classes. We judge 
our own race by its noblest examples; we must judge 
other races by the same measure; if some colored people 
have become successful agriculturists, business men, 
bankers, poets, artists, musicians, educators, lawyers, 
editors, novelists, so may others; the teacher can help 
those who are fitted only to be cook, nurses, elevator- 
boys, to be efficient and honest in those employments. 
It is her business lo discover in those who have them 
possibilities for more advanced and complex service 
for the nation, to the end that the nation may be 
enriched thereby, and no high aspiration, no high 
capacity be lost through stupid unreasoning prejudice, 
for when one really begins to reason and study upon 
t he subject, prejudice slips away with other outgrown 
garments that once protected the growing child, 



To help you attain the broad and same standpoint 
that means happiness and added power for good, we 
suggest the following reading matter. 

Acts 10, 9-12. 

St. Luke 10, 27-37 

"Views of a Southern Woman," by Adelene Moffat 
(pamphlet, 2 cts; most interesting and illuminating. 

The Crisis (monthly, $1.00.) every citizen should "ake 
it. It is a record of the darker races, telling all hap- 
penings, economic, educational, political, music and 
art, social uplift, legal, etc., with important editorials 
and other articles. 

The Southern Workman, organ of Hampton Institute 
(§1.00,) also well worth the study each month of every 
citizens of our Republic. 

"Quest of the Silver Fleece," novel by Prof. Du Bois, 
A. C. McClurg, Chicago. 

"Social Efforts for Betterment among Negro Amer- 
icans." A Social Study made by Atlanta University, 75 
cts. 

"Half-a-Man, M. W. Ovington, $1.12. Very valuable 
study. 

"Curse of Race Prejudice" by Jas. F. Morton Jr. 
Essay, 27 cts. 

History of the Negro Race, Williams 

Exiles in Florida. Giddings 

Inter-Racial Problems. Spiller 

Negro in the New World, Sir Harry Johnston, §6.30. 

There are many others, all of which can be obtained 
by writing to The Crisis, 26 Vesey St,, New York City. 

To the Editor of the Committee of the Whole: 

Several times in the course of years of teaching 
School, and school and kindergarten visiting, the 
writer has been an admiring auditor of a schoolroom 
conversation of a sort that she has vainly striven to 
reproduce in her own work. The teacher sits quietly, 
and much as if she were hostess in her own parlor, 
skillfully guiding the conversation by an occasional 
suggestion or remark, the children express themselves 
freely but decorously, both advancing opinions on the 
subject in hand and commenting upon the the senti- 
ments expressed by their classmates. Only one speaks 
at a time. No one is interrupted or hurried. In short, 
the conversation, while holding the interest of the 
children, is governed by the courtesy of mature 
and refined society. In the writer's experience, 
while this condition may be occasionly secured, 
inevitably and shortly, there comes a season, when 
expression will be neither denied nor delayed, when 
remarks tumble over and neutralize one another, and 
when, to relieve the confusion, the teacher unwillingly 
has recourse to the time honored method of requiring 
the raised hand and definite permission to speak. This 
is a call for help from one who has labored for fifteen 
years on the problem and has failed to solve it. 

A. D. F., Oregon. 
The editor hopes that this call from the far West will 
reach the eye of some teacher who has found a never 
failing solution to this question. Will kindergartners 
please call it to the attention of their friends in the 
grades. Replies will be given in future numbers. 

To the the Editor of the Committee of the Whole: 

Are there any places in the United States where the 

children are not obliged to be vaccinated? Poor, scared 

youngsters? Is it a law in all States that they must be? It 

seems absurd in this age and generation. Gertrude S. 

Reply will be given in November. 

"Montessori Methods" offer withdrawn Oct. 

10. See front cover page. 



THE KINDERGARTEN- PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



55 



HINTS^SUGGESTIONS FOR RURAL TEACHERS 

CONDUCTED BY GRACE DOW 

DEAR RURAL TEACHER.— In undertaking this department I trust that my somewhat extended experience in 
rural schools and my subsequent normal training and city school work may assist me in making it practically 
helpful to you in your work with the little children. I understand the tremendous tax upon the time of any rural 
teacher who is trying to do good work, the wide range of studies, the constant temptation to neglect the little ones 
for the apparently more pressing need of the older classes and the lack of equipment necessary for the best work. 
My hope i9 to assist you to secure better results with the small children. and 1 shall unhesitatingly recommend the 
intelligent use of kindergarten material as likely to produce the best results with least expenditure of time. How 
\o use this material, what to select, what substitutes, etc. , will be discussed from month to month in these columns. 



OCTOBER 

"0, suns of skies and flowers of June, 

Count all your boasts together; 
Love loveth best of all the year 
October's bright blue weather." 
Courtesy— Theme for the month. 
Never be too busy to be courteous yourself, and never 
consider it a waste of time to teach courtesy, for some- 
times the school is the only place where the child even 
knows the meaning of kindness or courtesy. 

"Politeness is to do and say, the kindest things in the 
kindest way." 

Have the older pupils in your room share the respon- 
sibility of looking after the comforts of the younger 
ones. Now that cold weather is near at hand it is your 
duty to see that all pupils, but especially the younger 
ones, are comfortably wrapped before leaving the school 
room. 

Discipline. 
"Sow an act, and you reap a habit; sow a habit, and 
you reap a character; sow a character, and you reap a 
destiny." 

Punishment should never be greater than is needed 
to prevent the offense. In punishing it is better to err 
on the side of mercy rather than severity. 

Never assign a lesson to be learned outside of regular 
school hours as a punishment; it may be advisable in 
some instances to complete a regular lesson when its 
lack of completion is due to idleness. 

Temporary suspension is often resorted to as a means 
of punishment but this is only justifiable when the 
interests of the entire school render it necessary. It is 
generally an admission of failure on the part of the 
teacher, and it often deprives the vicious child of his 
only chance for amendment. 

Obedience. 
If you're told to do a thing, 
And mean to do it really; 
Never let it be by halves; 
Do it fully, freely. 

Do not make a poor excuse, 
Waiting, weak, unsteady; 
All obedience worth the name 
Must be prompt and ready. 

— Phoebe Cary. 
Stringing Steaws, Paper and Beads. 

This is an interescing form of busy work, and one 
greatly enjoyed by the little people. 

Squares or circles of colored paper, and short pieces 
of straw may be strung together. Very attractive strings 
may be made if the teacher selects the colors used, and 
gives some suggestions as to their arrangement. 

Some time may be spent in teaching the children to 
find the centre of the square or circle, and these may be 
strung alone at first. 

Colored button-molds may be used with large wooden 
beads in the same manner 

The most perfect strings and those showing the best 
taste may be used in decorating your school room. 
Perforating. 

Material — A perforating needle, a soft pad of felt or 
blotting paper, and a piece of cardboard, plain or checked. 

Sets of sewing cards may be purchased, and used only 
as samples in this work if desired, 





2 


..... 3 
















17 








21 



Netted or checked cardboard is preferable for begin- 
ners, as the lines are easily followed, and designs made 
by parallel lines or connected squares or oblongs. 






Beginners should be given cards with large perfora- 
tions at some distance apart as they are less trying upon- 
the eyes, and the sewing upon these is better done with 
zephyr. After some skill is shown give them more 
difficult designs to be worked with san silk or colored 
thread. 

School Room Decoration. 

Educators everywhere have recognized the close re- 
lationship of beauty to goodness and knowledge. 

An effort should be made to make the schoolroom as 
artistic as possible, and perhaps the first two requisites 
are neatness and order. Keep your own desk and cup- 
boards in order, and insist upon your pupil's doing the 
same. 

If it is necessary to hang the wraps in the room, have 
a place set apart for that purpose. . 

Care should be taken in selecting pictures to adorn 
the walls. They should appeal to the intellectual and 
the aesthetic in children. Some of the subjects should 
be within the experience of the little people, and in 
colors, rich but not gaudy. 

Portraits of statesmen, authors, musicians, educators, 
and explorers maybe used, also landscapes and pictures 
to commemorate some important event in history, and 
from the masterpieces in art the following are sug- 
gested: "The Horse Fair," "The Pilgrim Exiles," 
"Spring," "Landscape With Horsemen," "Sheep 
Shearing," "Study of Cats," "Harvest Time," "A Noble 
Charger," "An Old Monarch," "Angelus," "The 
Aurora," and "The Last Supper. 

A picture hung on the wall in the same place often 
loses its effectiveness, and a brief absence will restore 
its attractiveness. 

There should be collections of pictures for special 
occasions,— Christmas, Thanksgiving, etc., which are 
used only the week or month preceding the holiday, 
and then carefully packed away. 

Do not have cheap advertising cards pinned up about 
the room. Make use of children's work only for this 
lorm of decoration, 



56 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



Directions for Making October Spelling-pad. 

Materials: — Stiff cardboard, note-paper, watercolors, 
tissue paper, pencil, eraser, shears, etc. 

For the covers of the booklet trace off the pattern of 
Fig-. 1 upon stiff cardboard *by means of tissue paper. 
Draw in the features of the squash lightly upon the 
front cover, and tint it with watercolors, and outline the 
lettering with gold paint or dark watercolor. The inside 
sheets may be made of note paper or any thin paper, 
and the lines for the words may be dotted in with ink or 
pencil. The outside cover need not be decorated unless 
desired. Pages and covers are fastened together with 
narrow ribbon. This design may either be used for the 
spelling words, or as covers for invitations to the Nov- 
ember exercises. 





fiS. I. FrorvV Lorev: 



SAILOR BOYS AND GIRLS. 

Sailor Girls: 

Oh merry Sailor girls are we w 

Upon Columbus Day, 

We are a merry company, 

Upon Columbus Day, 

The happy children march along, 

We are indeed a merry throng. 

Oh, who will join us in our song, 

Upon Columbus Day! 
Sailor Boys: 

Oh merry Sailor boys are we, 

Upon Columbus Day, 

Tho we have never sailed the sea, 

Upon Columbus Day, 

We love the bonnie ocean's blue, 

We love the white ships sailing too, 

Upon Columbus Day. 

We're sailor boys, both brave and true, 




H 



jjX "pattern 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



57 



EDUCATIONAL NEWS 

All patrons of the magazine are cordially invited to 
U9e these columns for announcing lectures, recitals or 
entertainments of any kind of interest to kindergart- 
nerg or primary teachers. Reports of meetings held, 
and miscellaneous news items are also solicited. 
In writing please give your name and address. 



Boston, Mass. 

Great applause was; given to Dr. Franklin B. Dyer, su- 
perintendent of schools, when he spoke to the kindergar- 
ten teachers of the city a short time since. It was 
the first meeting ofthe superintendent with anybody of 
teachers. Miss Caroline D. Aborn, director of kinder- 
garten work, in the public schools, was the first one to 
secure Dr. Dyer's presence at a reception of teachers and 
was busy answering congratulations on her success. Dr. 
Dyer spoke to more than 300 teachers in the lecture hall 
ofthe public school. After his address Miss Aborn pre- 
sented the teachers to the superintendent. In his ad- 
dress Dr. Dyer exprssed his great interest in the develop- 
ment of the parent's associations connected with the 
kindergartens. He hopes that there may be some way 
arranged by which the kindergarten teachers may have 
the first grade child ten for three or four afternoons a week, 
and use with them in their advanced stage work of the 
same kind as that to which they have been accustomed 
before their graduation into "real schools." He believes 
that the kindergarten teacher, the mother and the teach- 
er ofthe primary class should form a strong co-alition 
which would help the child over the decided change in 
his habits and thoughts that come from five to seven 
years of age. Dr. Dyer said, if you can get your parents 
together in your districts you can count on me at any 
time to be with you. I am perfectly willing to promise 
you 20 to 30 afternoons during the year." Dr. Dyer al- 
so stated that he would like the teachers to arrange 
for some afternoon when he might meet them for dis- 
cussions. 

New Orleans, La. 
The announcement made by the Isadore Newman 
Manual Training School that the method of sense train- 
ing as developed by Dr. Maria Montessori, of Italy, is to 
be introduced into the kindergarten the coming school 
session is attracting attention and favorable comment, 
and is considered of the utmost importance in local ed- 
ucational circles. This will be the first school in the 
South to introduce the Montessori Method of instruc- 
tion, and speaks well for the progressiveness ofthe Man- 
ual Training School. During the summer Mrs. Julia 
Leach Anderson, of the kindergarten department ofthe 
Manua 1 Training School, has attended a special teachers 
course of instruction on the theory and practice of the 
Montessori method, given under theauspices ofthe Uni- 
versity of Virginia by Prof. Myron T. Scudder, the well 
known educator, who had spent considerable time in 
Italy making a special study of Dr. Montessori's work 
with the purpose in view of giving a teachers' course in 
Montessori's methods, so that they could be used in 
American kindergartens. 

New York 

One ofthe most prominent training teachers died last 
week: Miss Caroline T, Haven. She had been principal 



of the kindergarten department of the Ethical Culture 
School since 1884 until her death, and taken a prominent 
part in the councils of the kindergarten leaders. She 
was at one time president of the International Kinder- 
garten Union, and at the time of her death was a member 
ofthe committee of nineteen which is studying kinder, 
garten problems. In her death the kindergarten suf- 
fers a severe loss. 

East Hartford, Conn. 

There was an attendance of nearly one hundred vot« 
ers at the adjourned town meeting held last Thursday 
evening to consider and take action on the kindergarten 
question. The resolution offered for discussion was as 
follows: "Voted, that the town school committee be 
and it iu hereby instructed to establish kindergarten 
schools in the districts formerly known as the Second 
North School District, center Meadow, Union and Burn- 
side school districts and in such other districts as said 
committee deem necessary." This was amended by 
adding ' and that transporation from outlying territory 
or other schools be provided for by the committee," 
and was further amended to provide that children 4 and 
5 years old could be admitted. The resolution as 
amended was passed by a large majority vote. 
Hartford, Conn. 

Among several children's exibits at the state fair was 
one given by the kindergarten class of the Wilson street 
school. The majority of the clas?, numbering about 
thirty, in charge of Miss Marion P. Perkins, the princi- 
pal of the kindergarten and her assistant, Miss Pullar, 
marched into the binding about 10 o'clock in the morn- 
ing and took possession of the school room, fitted up 
for their convenience near the entrance. Here, as calm 
and unconscious as though they were in their own room 
at school, the youngsters proceeded with their regular 
day's work, furnishing a great deal of interest for the 
the onlookers. The session lasted until 12 o'clock, and 
a large number of people found time to get in and see 
them for a few minutes. 

St. Louis, Mo. 
Mrs Josephine J. George, of 135 South Elm Ave., Web- 
ster Grove, was accidentally poisoned with carbolic acid, 
Sept. 4. She had been a kindergarten teacher for the 
Wealthy families of Webster for the last five years, and 
had just accepted a position as instructor in the Web- 
ster Protestant Orphans Home. 

East Hartford, Conn. 

Three new teachers were appointed yesterday for the 
kindergarten and sub-primary work in the three schools. 
They are Miss Mable L. Bosworth and Miss Agnes Ca- 
hill of Hartford, and Miss Helen G. Wagg of Lewiston, 
Me. 

Saginaw, Mich. 

The Germania kindergarten will open at 8:30 o'clock 
in the morning hereafter so as to make it possible for 
the mothers to send their children with their older bro- 
thers and sisters who go to the public schools. 
Newburyport, Mass. 

Anexibit of kindergarten work done by the kindergar- 
ten and the industrial classes of All Saints' Mission 
was held in Saint John's Memorial hall, September 6. 



58 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



KINDERGARTEN GROWTH 

. [NOTE :— Under this heading we'shall give from time to 
time such items as come to our notice relative to the estab- 
lishment of new kindergartens as well as articles or state- 
ments in the public press or from noted educators favor- 
able to the kindergarten cause. 



"Montessori Methods" offer withdrawn Oct, 

10. See front cover page. 

Red Bluffs, Cal. 
Mrs. Hartte opened her kindergarten here Sept. 9th. 

Bridgeport, Conn. 
Miss Fannie A. Smith opened her kindergarten school 
on Sept 17. 

Harrisburg, Pa. 
A kindergarten was opened at 1919 North Second street 
on Sept 25 by Miss Elizabeth Hilleary and Miss Jane 
Scott. 

Peoria, III. 
Miss Gladys Torea has opened a kindergarten at the 
First Methodist church, under the auspices of the Pe- 
kin Woman's Club. Miss Edna Evans will be the as- 
sistant. 

Sheffield, Ala. 

Arrangements are being made by the Sheffield Kin- 
dergarten Association to reopen the Furnace Hill kinder- 
garten on October 1. This kindergarten is free to the 
citizens of Sheffield and has proven a very valuable as- 
set to the educational institutions of the town. 
Stratford, Conn. 

Miss Susan Bennetto of North Main street, one of the 
most popular young ladies of the town, will open a kin- 
dergarten Tuesday morning, October 1, in a portion of 
the Wilson residence on Main street. Miss Bennetto is a 
graduate of the Connecticut Froebel Normal school, 
Bridgeport. 

Danbury, Conn. 

A new kindergarten for the children of Danbury is to 
be opened on Monday, October 14. The need for such 
a school for young children has been long felt in this 
city, and it remained for the Opportunity club of the 
First Congregational church to takeaction towards bring- 
ing an up to date kindergarten into existence in Dan- 
bury. 

Columbus, Ohio. 

The free kindergarten which is maintanied by the St. 
John 's chapel, corner of Town and Avondale Avenue, 
reopened Sept. 3. This kindergarten is in co-operation 
with the public school kindergartens, under the direc- 
tion of the Kindergarten association. It "is intended to 
supplement the work of the school board which is un- 
able to locate a kindergarten in this neighborhood at 
this time. 

Rolands, Calif. 
Work is progressing rapidly on the new kindergar- 
ten building that is now being built on theColton Avenue 
side of the Franklin school. It will be a large one and 
will accommodate quite a number of pupils. The room 
is being built on the same plan as the other kindergarten 
rooms, with large windows that can be thrown open, 
making it practically an open air room. The open air 
kindergartens that were built last year were found to be 
a success and it was decided to build one at the McKin- 
ley school where there is quite a demand. A teacher 
for the kindergarten there will be selected later, 



The registration on the first day of the public school 
kindergartens of Springfield, Mass,, shows an increase 
over last year of nearly 24 per cent. 

Four new public school kindergartens were opened in 
Columbus, Ohio, one each in the Champion, Michigan, 
Fieser and Haye Avenue buildings. The Columbus, 
kindergarten association has opened a free kindergar- 
ten at St. John's chapel. 

Ella Flagg Young, superintendent of the Chicago city 
schools, in her annual report to the board of education, 
expresses the hope that it will be possible during the 
coming year to have a kindergarten, a manual training 
shop, and a cooking room in every school that has not 
already these things, 



PERSONAL MENTION 

Our readers are invited to send us items for this de- 
partment. Kindly give your name when writing. 



"Montessori Methods" offer withdrawn Oct. 

10. See front cover page. 

Miss Leola Hills, of Sacremento, Calif., is now en- 
gaged in kindergarten work at Berkeley. 

Jennie C. Taylor is now director of the Gardenville 
Public School Kindergarten, St. Louis, Mo. 

Miss Patty Smith Hill will read a paper at the annual 
meeting of the Nebraska Teachers' association. 

Olivia I. Frity, of St Louis, Mo., is nowdirector of the 
Emerson Public School Kindergarten in that city. 

Annie L. Ketchum of St. Louis, Mo., is now in charge 
of the morning kindergarten in the Blair public schools 
of St. Louis, Mo. 

Marjie McGrath, a St. Louis kindergartner, has be;_i 
placed in charge of the public school kindergarten in the 
Lyon school of that city. 

Miss Mary F. Ledyard, late of Los Angeles city schools 
is now in charge of a public school kindergarten system 
inaugurated in the Chinese Republic. 

Miss GeraldineO'Grady, formerly of Teachers College, 
Columbia University, N.Y., is now assistant principal of 
Brownell Hall, the well known College of Omaha, Neb, 

Mable E. Sloper of Pittsfield, Mass., has accepted a 
position as teacher in a a Westport kindergarten. She 
is a graduate of the Fannie A. Smith kindergarten train- 
ing school, of the class of 1912. 

Amost pleasant afternoon of the mothers teachers, and 
children of the free kindergarten was held on the lawn 
at the beautiful home of Mrs. W. H. Kaufman, 538 
Mamtnouth bo tlevard, yesterday in their annual picnic. 
Swings, cushions and chairs had been provided for the 
occasion and the day being an ideal one it was a treat for 
he little ones, 



Bangor, Maine. 
A very successful lair was held at the kindergarten on 
Wednesday afternoon and evening, and a large number 
attended. A grab-doll was well patronized, while dolls, 
fancy articles, ice cream, cake and candy were among 
the articles which found a ready sale. Strings of elec- 
tric lights and Japanese lanterns decorated the exterior 
of the building and the already attractive rooms. 

West Newberry, Mass. 
An exhibit of the work done by the kindergarten and 
industrial classes was given in St. John's Memorial Hall 
August 30. 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



59 




BOOK NOTES 

Their Yesterdays. By Harold Bell Wright. Cloth 311 
pps., Published by The Book Supply Co., Chicago, 
111. Price $1.50 
This new book, now at the front in all book stores, is 
a novel which compares well with some of his other 
works. It is a sweet, wholesome tho pathetic little rom- 
ance with plenty of strong and beautiful thoughts on the 
things worth while in life. The reader cannot but feel 
just a little lifted up for the reading, and will not soon 
forget this dreamy little fireside story. 

The Quest of the Silver Fleece. By W. E. B. DuBois. 

Cloth, 434 pages. Published by A. C. McClurg & Co., 

Chicago. Price §1.50. 

The silver fleece is the cotton, and the beauty of the 
cotton fields in all the stages of growth is pictured with 
rare power by one who passionately loves them. Written 
by a cultivated, college-bred scholar of the colored race, 
the thoughtful reader is made still more thoughtful by 
an illuminating glimpse into the racial problem as view- 
ed from the standpoint of the negro, a problem ever- 
present with his people. Viewed as a story alone it 
holds one to the end. There is much subtle character 
drawing. The New England teacher, true to her Puritan 
ideals through long weary years of isolation and struggle, 
wi 1 appeal to the kindergartner who so often must carry 
the miss'onary spirit into untried fields. ' We are let in- 
to the secrets of the cruel manipulation of the cotton 
market by the Northern financier, in a very powerful 
chapter; and the trial scene presents an interesting 
psychological study in its portrayal of the two leading 
men, each true to his own code of honor, tho it mean 
loss to himself; each unable to understand the others 
standpoint in a certain particular; each quite unaware 
of his own moral obliquity in the advantage he takes, 
the one in the great financial markets of the world, the 
other in the smaller local labor market. The book may 
hurt, in a measure our self-esteem; but it should increase 
our intelligent outlook upon the politics involved, the 



economics, the ethics, of a serious problem. There are 
evil tendencies, as there are noble possibilities, in the 
colored folk, as in every other people; they are distinct- 
ly human. The sooner we co-operate with them in their 
struggle toward a noble self-realization, the less of a prob- 
lem we leave for posterity. Some years ago race-pre- 
judice wreaked a terrible injustice upon a French Jew 
The closing lines of Edwin Markham in his great 
Dreyfus poem read thus, 

"Tis no avail to bargain, sneer and nod, 
And shrug the shoulder in reply to God." 

Princess R*gs and Tatters. By Harriet T. Comstock. 

Illuminated cloth, 111 pages. Illustrations in colors. 

Price, $ .75 net. Published by Doubleday Page Co., 

Garden City, New York. 

A charming tale forboys and girls of every age. Beau- 
tifully illustrated, with a delightful quality of appeal, 
which will find its way to the hearts of all young read- 
ers. 
Nixie Bunny in Manners-Land. By Joseph C. Sin- 

delar. Supplementary reader for second and third 

grades. Cloth, 144 pps. Published by Beckley-C'ar- 

dyCo., Chicago. Price 40c. postpaid. 

Is a volume well worth placing in the hands of pu- 
pils of the second and third grades. It is a precious 
gift to any child from five to ten years of age. 

The Seashore Book. By E. Boyd Smith. Illuminated 
cloth, 50 large pages. Published by Houghton Mif- 
flin Company, Boston, New York and Chicago. Price 
$1.50, net. 

Tells how Bob and Betty spend the summer at the 
seashore with an old sea captain, and learn many inter- 
esting things. 

The great feature of the book is the illustrations by 
the author. There are twelve full-page pictures in col- 
or, twenty-four text pictures in line, a pictorial cover in 
color, lining pages showing man's progress in naviga- 
tion, from a raft to the "Olympic," as well as an illust- 
rated title-page, and head and tail pieces. 



"T^pGyi^pictaPGS 



Order Columbus and 

ONE CENT EACH 



IgKm Pictures NOW. 

for 25 or more. 
Size 5,^x8 inches. 



Also Half-cent Size, Two-cent Size and Seven-cent Size. 

BIRD P CTURES IN NATURAL COLORS 

Two Cents Each for 13 or more. Size 7x9. 

LARGE PICTURES FOR FRAMING 

Size, including margin, 22x28. 75 cents each; 8 for $5.50. 

Portraits, §1.00 each. 

SEND TO-DAY 3 two-cent stamps for Catalogue of 1000 

miniature illustrations, 2 pictures and a colored Bird 

picture. Send 25 cents for 25 Art Subjects. 

THE PERRY PICTURES COMPANY 

BOX 278. MALDEN, MASS, 




Feeding Her Birds. 




WANTED-A RIDER AGENT 

IN EACH TOWVP2 and district tor-idea nil exhibit a sample Latest Model 
"Ranger" bicycle furnished by us. Our agents every where are making 
money fast. Write for full particulars and special offer atonce. 
NO RIONEY REQUIRED until you receive and approve of your 
1 lie vide. Wo ship to anyone any where in the U.S. v.-nlwut a cent depmit 
in advanc(>„ ww /ra e fct,aiMl allow TEN DAYS' FREE TRIAL during 
which time you may ride the bicycle and put it to any test you wish. 
If you are then not perfectly satisfied or do not wish to keep the 

bicycle, ship it hack lops at our expense illllljw will not be out one cent. 
FAfiTARV PRBHF^ Wo furnish the highest grade bicycles it is 
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her factory. W 
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I year. We sell the highest enido bicycles for 

-,:i re .- .-iti . :i.-rl u it hS l. mi pro 1 1 1 i \c factory cost. 

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ranging from S3 to $3 or $10. Pcseriptoo harnain lets mailed free. 

CflllCTCD-I|DA|fEC single wheels, imported roller chains ami pedals, parts, repairs and 
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The regularretail priceof these tin 
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THE TEACHERS HELPERS 

The Teachers* Helper* «r« without question the finest 
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edited by some of the ablest and most practical teach- 
ers In the country. They give programs, methods, 
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Teacher*' Helpar, 




NOVEMBER, 1912 



INDEX TO CONTENTS 



Caroline T. Haven, A Loving Appre 
ciation, 

Stringing Beads, 

The Place of the Kindergarten in Edu- 
cation, 

Kindergarten Results, 

from the University 



Hortense May Orcutt, 
Dr. Jenny B. Merrill, 

Lucy Wheelock, 
Henry W. Holmes, 



fyl 
H2 



63 
64 



The Kindergarten 

End 
Livestock in the Public Schools, 
Educating for Life, 
Educating Away from the Farm 
Teaching Agriculture, 
Rural Conditions in the Future, 
A Year in the Kindergarten, 
Mrs. Red-Bill, 
A Gay Family, 
The Montessori Method, 
Committee of the Whole, 
Knots and Stitches, 
Hints and Suggestions for Rural Teachers, Grace Don- 
Moving Pictures in German Education 
New Kindergarten Games and Plays, 
Little Pieces for Little People, 
Real Canning, 
Play Canning, - 
Educational News, 
Kindergarten Growth, 
Personal Mention, 
Training Schools 



Chas. T. Thwing, 66 

E. R, Downing, 67 

Grace C. Strachan, 67 

Warren H. Wilson, 67 

Frank W. Miller, 68 

Warren H. Wilson, 68 

Harriette McCarthy 69 

Susan Plessner Pollock, 71 

Mary Ellason Cot ting, 72 



Bertha Johnston, 



Laura Rountree Smith, 
Laura Rountree Smith, 
Dr. Jenny B. Merrill, 



73 

74 
75 
77 
78 
79 
80 
81 
81 
82 
84 
85 
86 



Volume XXV, No. 3. 



$1.00 per Year, 15 cents per Copy 



RELIABLE TEACHERS' AGENCIES OF AMERICA 



The TEACHERS' EXCHANGE of Boston 

Recommends Teachers, Tutois and 
Schools. No. 120 Boylston street. 



THE PRATT TEACHERS' AGENCY 

Recomends college and normal gradu- 
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MIDLAND SPECIALISTS AGENCY 

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No enrollment fees. Blank and 
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REGISTER WITH US. 

We need Kindergarten Teachers, Supt., 
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We wantKindergarten, Primary, Rural 
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HOME OCCUPATIONS 

fOR BOYS AND GIRLS 

By BERTHA JOHNSTON 

"Mother finds some happy work for 
idle hands to do," is the idea that 
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A PRACTICAL TREATISE ON THE TRUE RELA- 
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RELIABLE KINDERGARTEN TRAINING SCHOOLS OF AMERICA 



Miss Wheelock's Kindergarten 
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134 NEWBURY ST. 
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Students' Home at Marenholz. For cir- 
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LUCY WHEELOCK 



Miss Annie Coolidge Rust's 21st Year 

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TtfnrrnnT f!Tas<?p«i boston, mass. 

COPLEi SQ. 

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Kindergarten Normal Department 

of the Kate Baldwin 

Free Kindergarten Association 
Savannah, Georgia. 

For Information, address 

HORTENSE M. ORCUTT, Principal of 

the Training School and Supervisor of 

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Savannah, Georgia. 



Springfield Kindergarten 

Normal Training School 

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HATTIE TWICHELL, 
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Kindergarten Normal Department 

Ethical Culture School 



For Information address 

FBANKUN C. LEWIS, Superintendent 

Central Park West and 6ad »t. 

NF.W YORK 



Atlanta Kindergarten 

Normal School 



Two Years' Course of Study. 
Chartered 1897. 
For particulars address 

WIIXETTE A. ALLEN, Principal, 
839 Peachtree Street, ATLANTA, GA 




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PRATT INSTITUTE 

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Year of 1913-13 opens Sept. 30. 



Stick Laying in 

Primary and 

ural Schools. 

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The Tenth Gift S 

With this book and a box of sticks an; 
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The work is fully illustrated. 
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All limp cloth binding. Address, 

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PTTSBURGH AND ALLEGHENY 



KINDERGARTEN COLLEGE 

ALICE N. PARKER, Superintendent. 

Regular course, two years. Special ad- 
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Fou rteenth Yea r 
For catalogue address, 

MRS. WILLIAM McCRACKEN, Secretary, 
3439 Fifth Avenue Pittsburgh, Pa, 



THE NEWYORKKINDERGARTEN 
ASSOCIATION- 

UNUSUAL ADVANTAG 

GRADUATE STUDY 

Season of 1912-1913 

PUBLIC LECTURES 

Hamilton W. Mabie; Prof. Arthur W. 

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GRADUATE COURSES 

Games Playground 

Great Literature Program 

Kindergarten Gifts Psychology 
Mother Play Supervision 

Kindergarten Occupations 

TUITION FREE 

Apply for Prospectus to 

Miss Laura Fisher 

DIRECTOR, DEPARTMENT OF GRADUATE STUDY 

534 West 42nd Street. New York City. 



TRAINING SCHOOL 

OF 

The Buffalo Kindergarten Association 

Two Years' Course. 
Vor particulars address 

MISS ELLA C. ELDEB, 
86 Delaware Avenue, - Buffalo, N. Y. 



GRAND RAPIDS KINDERGAR- 
TEN TRAINING SCHOOL 

CERTIFICATE, DIPLOMA AND 
NORMAL COURSES. 

CLARA WHEELER, Principal 

MAY L. OGILBY, Registrar 

jhepard Building, - 23 Fountain St. 

GRAND RAPIDS. MICH. 



■CLEVELAND- 



Kindergarten Training School 

IN AFFILIATION WITH THE 

National Kindergarten College 
2050 East 96th Street, Cleveland, Ohio 

Founded in 1894 
Cotirse of study under direction of Eliz- 
abeth Harrison, covers t wo years in 
Cleveland, leading to Senior and Nor- 
mal Courses in the National Kinder- 
garten College. 

MISS NETTA FARRIS, Principal 



AH! A II a forty-page booklet 
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I Lflll in us trated folder, will 
give the enterprising- teacher a world 
of information about the demand for 
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RELIABLE KINDERGARTEN TRAINING SCHOOLS OF AMERICA 



Chicago 

Kindergarten 

Institute 



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Teachers College 

OF INDIANAPOLIS 

Accredited bv State Board of Educa- 
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23rd and Alabama Street, 

INDIANAPOLIS, IND. 



Mice Harf'c TRAINING SCHOOL 

IfllJJ lEUll 5 For KindergartDers 

3600 Walnut Street, Philadelphia 
Junior, Senior, Graduate and Normal 
Trainers' Courses. Five practice Kin- 
dergartens. Opens October 1st. 1912. 
For particulars address 

MISS CAROLINE M. C. HART 
The Pines, Rutledge, Pa. 



OHIO, TOLEDO, 2313 Ashland Ave. 

THE MISSES LAW'S 

FROEBEL KINDERGARTEN TRAIN- 
ING SCHOOL. 

Medical supervision. Personal attention. 
Thirty-five practice schools. 
Certificate and Diploma Courses. 

MARY E. LAW, M. D., Principal. 



Miss Cora Webb Peet 

KINDERGARTEN NORMAL TRAINING 
SCHOOL 

Two Tears' Course. 
For clrculais, address 

MISS CORA WEBB PEET, 
]« Washington St.. East Orange. N. J 



PESTALOZZI-FROEBEL 

Kindergarten Training 
School 

509 S. Wabash Ave., Opposite Auditorium 

Mrs Bertha Hofer liegner. Superintendent 
Mrs. Amelia Hofer Jerome, Principal. 

FIFTEENTH YEAR. 
Regular course two years. Advanced 
courses tor Graduate Students. A course 
In Home Making. Includes opportunity to 
become familiar with the Social Settle- 
ment movement at Chicago Commons. Fine 
equipment. For circulars and Information 
write to 
MRS. BERTHA HOFER-HEGNER, 

West Chicago, 111. 



KINDERGARTEN TRAINING SCHOOL 

Resident home for a limited number of 
students. 
Chicago Free Kindergarten Association 
H. N. Higinbotham, Pres. 
Mrs. P. D. Armour, Vice-Pres. 
SARAH E. HANSON. Principal. 
Credit at the 
Northwestern and Chicago Universities. 
For particulars address Eva B. Whit- 
more, Supt., 6 E. Madison St., cor. Mich 
ive.. Chicago 



The Adams School 
Kindergarten Training Course 

(Two Tears) 

Nine months' practice teaching- dur- 
ing course. Address, 

The Misses Adams 

26 So. Clinton St., East Orange, N. J. 



THE RICHMOND TRAINING SCHOOL 

for Kindergartners 
Richmond, Va. 

Virginia Mechanics* Institute Building, 
Richmond, Virginia- 
Two years' training In Theory and 
Practice of Froebelian Ideals. Post- 
Graduate Course, also Special Classes for 
Primary Teachers. 

LUCY S. COLEMAN, Director. 
MRS. W. W. ARCHER, Sec. and Treas. 



1874— Kindergarten Normal Institutions— 191 1 

1516 Columbia Road N. W., WASHINGTON D. C. 

The citizenship of the future depends on the children of today. 

Susan Plessner Pollok, Principal. 

Teachers' Training Course — Two Years. 

Hummer Trailing Classes at Mt. Chatauqua — Mountain Lake Park — 
Garrett Co., Maryiana 



THE HARRIETTE MELISSA MILLS 
KINDERGARTEN TRAINING SCHOOL 

In Affiliation with New York University 

For information address 

MISS HARRIETTE M.MILLS, Principal 

New York University Building 

Washington Square, New York City. 

Kindergarten 

Courses given for credit at 

New York University Summer School 



Oakland Kindergarten 

TRAiNING SCHOOL 

2119 Allston Way, Berkeley.Calif. 

Grace Everett Barnard, 

principal. 



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EDUCATIONAL SPECIALTIES. S P £- 

Game, 15c ; History Game, 15c ; 2750 Les- 
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THE KINDERGARTEN 



-PRIMARY 



MAGAZINE 



Published on the first of each Month, except July and Aug- 
ust at Manistee, Mich., U. S. A. Subscription price, $1.00 per 
Annum postpaid in U. S., Hawaiian Islands, Phillifines, Guam, 
Porto Rico, Samoa, Shanghai, Canal Zone, Cuba, Mexico. For 
Canada *cp 20c ■ »nd all other countries 30c, for Postage. 

J. H. SHULTS. Manager. 




CAROLINE; T. HAVEN. 
A Loving Appreciation. 

Hobtense May Oecutt. 

There is no profession that so feeds and de- 
termines the mind and spirit of youth as 
that of the teacher, and of all teachers no in- 
fluence is more direct, profound and inclusive 
than that of the kindergarten training teach- 
er. This is told in the very terms we use cur- 
rently to designate a kindergartner — "One of 
Miss Wheelock's girls," "One of Mrs. Put- 
nam's girls"— and it is as "one of Miss Ha- 
ven's girls" that I am writing now. Girl- 
hood passes into womanhood and that sense 
of spiritual daughterhood does not pass. 
Rather, it grows and deepens as life takes on 
new and richer meaning and the woman be- 
comes capable of a fuller interpretation of 
the noble teaching given to the girl; becomes 
more completely aware that "a spirit com- 
municated is a perpetual possession," that 
work like Miss Haven's passed beyond in- 
struction to the plane of art — it was herself 
and what was best in herself that she com- 
municated. 

Sweetness, sanity, balance, power; a quiet 
dignity and composure, born of a living trust 
in the conquering power of righteousness 
and truth; these she affirmed in her own char- 
acter, these she taught. That only he who 
is still learning can teach, was part also of 
her active creed and was answerable for that 
openness of mind, that steady growth of 
thought, that constantly broadening vision, 
of which one always became especially aware 
when returning to Miss Haven after long ab- 
sence. She allowed always a great freedom of 
personal opinion, respecting all such as were 
sincere, and so taught her girls how to hold 



a difference of opinion without animosity 

and with respect for one's opponent. 

Often it has seemed to me as if the way 

Miss Haven did her work expressed herself 

in- a very deep and complete sense, impelling 

all who came under her influence to follow 

its method, to seek its source of inspiration. 

She had learned that lesson from Nature 

which Matthew Arnold prayed to learn when 

he sang: 

One lesson, Nature, let me learn of thee, 
One lesson which in every wind is blown; 
One lesson of two duties kept at one 
Though the loud world proclaim their enmity — 

Of toil unsevered from tranquility; 
Of labor, that in lasting fruit outgrows 
Far noiser schemes, accomplished in repose, 
Too great for haste, too high for rivalry. 

Miss Haven was fortunate in being for 
twenty-eight years a part of a great ethical 
movement and of a school which was the 
living expression of that movement, which 
affirmed the truths by which she lived. The 
Ethical Culture School was equally fortu- 
nate in having at the head of its Kindergar- 
ten Department one who so transcendently 
interpreted its spirit to the hundreds of young 
women who came under her influence. She 
herself counted their number just a few 
months ago and wrote if down as "over five 
hundred." 

Miss Haven's native state was Massa- 
chusetts, and what we mean, in the finest 
and best sense, by the New England tempera- 
ment and character was always hers. The 
narrowness of the Puritan she transcended; 
the depth and earnestness of that nature 
was her birthright; and she was natively at 
home in an atmosphere of plain living and 
high thinking. 

(Continned on page 85.) 



6 2 



THE KINDERGARTEN- PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



STRINGING BEADS. 



Dr. J] 



M i;kki 



The child's fascination for stringing buttons 
and beads is well known to every intelligent 
mother and teacher. Froebel watched moth- 
ers' ways of occupying children in the home 
and adapted and expanded every simple occu- 
pation which he saw had educational value. 

His followers have been successful in de- 
veloping this occupation of stringing into 
making chains of many various materials. The 
children themselves, especially in rural life, 
learn in many instances from their playmates, 
elder brothers and sisters perhaps whom them 
may at first observe on walks or in the fields 
stringing berries on a stem, or making dande- 
lion and daisy chains, and even the pine-needle 
chain, although that is not so common and 
rather difficult and dainty. 

When the interest is once aroused, country 
children will find materials in seeds and 
flowers and leaves. The teacher's work as the 
children advance will be to suggest new de- 
signs. One suggestion may start an inventive 
mind and unforeseen possibilities will be forth- 
coming from the children themselves. 

Making a chain is at first the simplest kind 
of design, namely, the continuous repetition of 
a unit. The young child's mind is held by the 
succession of movements and the final result. 
He may exclaim, "See how long mine is!" 
Then later he wants to count the units. Repe- 
tition of similar units always tends to suggest 
counting. 

The child does not at first think of the 
beauty of design. The teacher may suggest 
alternation of color, or grouping by twos, 
threes, etc. If nature material is being used, 
the alternation of leaf and berry or flower and 
leaf will introduce a new thought and an added 
interest until the results vary more and more 
and comparison leads to such expressions as 
"Mine is prettier than yours."' Taste may be 
gradually developed in this simple occupation. 
Simple did I say? If intelligently and judi- 
ciously used, it may extend upward into the 
grades until stringing tiny beads with the use 
of two, three and even four strings and needles 
may be reached. I well remember my interest 
in the work of the blind, whose quick sense of 
touch has made bead work one of their occu- 
pations. 

The materials used and their size depend 
upon the age and ability of the child. 

Teachers who have not had the benefit of a 
regular kindergarten course will do well to 
review their own past experiences and recall 
whether at any age they were fascinated by 
this occupation of making chains. It should 
be allowed to develop naturally, invention in 
choice and combination of materials should be 



encouraged and the environment in securing 
materials considered. It is not necessary for 
all children to string the same things. Let us 
encourage initiative and variation, while the 
string, the cord, the stem, the wire, the thread 
which holds all together makes the occupation 
one wherever we work. 

I believe by thinking of the various kinder- 
garten occupations in this way that real unity 
of purpose will be encouraged. 

Those who have not the opportunity to take 
the regular kindergarten courses will at least 
see how naturally the kindergarten occupa- 
tions grew, and may in their own way re- 
invent them and develop others. 

Still it is true that we can often save time 
by calling the experiences of others to aid us. 
and I shall now proceed with a few detailed 
suggestions that have been gathered by the 
way during many years. 

I. THE HAILMAN BEADS. 

Realizing that ordinary beads are too small 
for children under six to handle, Mrs. Eudora 
Hailman years ago suggested an addition to 
kindergarten materials in the wooden beads 
which bear her name. Mrs. Hailman also con- 
ceived the idea of making these beads an ex- 
tension of the second kindergarten gift, and 
thus a continuous review of the three forms — 
the ball, cube and cylinder — was made possi- 
ble. She also planned to have the colors of the 
first gift reviewed in these wooden beads. In 
this way this new material is related to the 
first as well as the second gift. However, the 
beads are also obtainable in the natural color 
of wood and many prefer to use them uncol- 
ored to a considerable extent or alternate one 
strong color with the natural wood. 

These wooden beads are, undoubtedly, the 
simplest material for stringing which can be 
secured for school use. Even children of three 
and four enjoy the stringing by using a long 
shoe string or corset lace rather than needle 
and thread as with ordinary bead-stringing. 

A few years ago wooden beads of even 
larger size and of daintier colors were placed 
011 the kindergarten lists but they are too ex- 
pensive for general use though I can commend 
them heartily for size and beauty. 

It is singular to note that although larger 
building blocks are in use than formerly, the 




children show a tendency often to build with 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



63 



these tiny forms! They also enjoy using them 
in making miniature gardens and fences on 
the peg boards or in sand, stringing them to- 
gether upon a five or six-inch stick. They 




make little soldiers in this way also, a cube, a 
cylinder, a ball making a little man — who may 
have a blue coat and a yellow cap ! 

Inventiveness with material is always to be 
encouraged. The tendency to work collectively 
is giving way especially with young children 
to individual and to group work. 

This leads to freer invention and arouses the 
individual mind to act for itself rather than to 
imitate. Imitation is good, necessary, invalu- 
able, but the crudest original act may be the 
means of a greater mental advance than the 
most successful imitation work long continued. 

In using the Hailman beads, use a box lid 




for each child or a thin wooden plate, to save 
time and accident. Let each child go himself 
to the large box and take a handful with the 
privilege of returning to get more if he needs 
them. Let the colors be mixed at first. Chil- 
dren like riot in color ! It is good for them as 
a start. Gradually suggest alternation of 
color, one red ball, one ball of wood color, and 
so on. The children will take up the idea, and 
alternate different colors each day, for at first 
and with very young children, it is well to 
have the exercise daily. Too much variety in 
occupation material is not desirable. 

After alternation of color, suggest alterna- 
tion of forms — a ball, a cube, a ball, a cube, 
etc. The children will think of other changes. 
Let them think. 

Next suggest variation of design by number, 
as two balls, two cubes, or two red balls, two 
uncolored balls, etc. The children will begin 
to see the possibilities. Give them a chance 
to discover them. 

Praise judiciously and be interested in the 
comparisons they begin to make. "Mine is 
prettier than your's !" 

There is much simple number work possible 
in connection with these chains. By ones, by 
twos, by threes, fours, fives ; later by twos and 



ones, twos and threes, etc., until all the easy 
number groups are familiar. 

They make their own numeral frames! Then 
work, if the children do not, to ten, and then 
to two tens or twenty. It may be well to stop 
at twenty and work out all the combinations 
possible, but as children love to count on by 
ones, twos and threes, there is no objection to 
extending the chains to one hundred. This 
can be done by having several children unite 
their chains occasionally — even tying them to- 
gether. 

Measuring is a good concrete basis for num- 
ber work. Rousseau says, "Count, measure, 
weigh." The children will undoubtedly begin 
early to say "See, my chain is the longest;" 
take advantage, instead of checking this com- 
petition. Give out rulers to older children and 
let them try to find exact lengths. Make a 
few questions, as: How many beads does it 
take to cover an inch? How many on two 
inches? "A word to the wise is sufficient." 

In my next article, I will consider the use 
of paper in making chains, meanwhile I sug- 
gest the materials needed that orders may be 
prepared in case this work has not been intro- 
duced in previous years. 

Equipment for Paper Chains. 

Paper strips, white and colored. Engine 
colored and coated. One inch, one-half inch 
in width. 

Paper squares — 4x4, 5x5 (to be cut or torn 
into strips by children). 

Course needles and thread. 

Paste and tooth picks or splints. 

Scissors — blunt, 5-inch. 

Tissue paper — white and colored. 

Box lids collected or thin wooden butter 
plates. 

Small squares of muslin (for sticky fingers). 

Material for Making Beads. 
Clay. 
Paints. 

Note. — The children can make beads similar 
to the wooden beads, in true primitive Indian 
fashion. We will enlarge upon this later but 
give the hint here. Bracelets and necklaces 
can be thus made to wear. Sometimes the 
little ones are allowed to turn the chains of 
Hailman beads into necklaces for the day. but 
there follows the disappointment when they 
must be taken off the shoestring' and re- 
turned to the bag. On this account, many 
prefer not to suggest a necklace of Hailman 
beads, but the strings are collected, the ends 
tied together and the full bunch is hung up for 
the day in an appropriate corner of the room. 
There are advantages each way, but when the 
clay beads are made, they may be made into 
chains "to keep." "May I keep it?" is the 
little one's cry. "Yes, you may keep it." 



64 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



The following-illustrations will serve to sug- 
gest others. The figures can be made on strips 
of paper the same length as the chain. They 
should be placed side by side and will thus 
represent addition columns in the concrete 
and in the abstract. 



VALUE OF THE KINDERGARTEN 



8 8 



3 



Later Work 
Three plus three equals six 
Three plus three, plus three, equals nine 
Six plus three equals nine 
Nine minus three equals six 
Six minus three equals three 
Three minus three equals nothing' 
Use the arithmetical signs in writing the above. 

In making these number lessons we are of 
course working in the first primary grade. 
The children will teach themselves the addi- 
tion tables if you give them time in this regular 
exercise, and advance themselves gradually to 
longer columns. They will also get the 
thought back of the multiplication and division 
tables in this concrete form. 



NEW YORK. 

In public school No. 177 on the East Side 
of New York, a professional league has been 
established composed of teachers and friends 
of the school. The league's object is to furnish 
helps to elevate in every way the professional 
work of the teachers of the school and to de- 
part from the beaten educational path with 
the children and the parents within the school 
district. 

During the past year one hundred kinder- 
garten children have been taken by their 
teachers into the country for a week's experi- 
ence with glad nature in the perfect days of 
June. Baths, clean clothing, toothbrushing 
bees, acquaintance with birds, butterflies and 
flowers made the week an experience of funda- 
mental value in the lives of the little brothers 
.of the East Side. 

This was all made possible by gifts from the 
league members and others interested in the 
work of the school. 



Berlin is to have compulsory industrial and com- 
mercial continuation school for girls. 

Football is forbidden in the schools of Bavaria 
by a recent decree. 



Three Articles from three Successful 
Educators Relating to this Subject 



PLACE OF THE KINDERGARTEN 
IN EDUCATION. 

Lucy Wiieelock. 

The kindergarten is here and here to stay ; 
but it is not yet as firmly established as are 
the other parts of the school system. A wave 
of economy in any community may sweep it 
away. A superintendent who prefers to es- 
tablish a printing plant that may fit six or 
eight boys to earn a livelihood, or to install 
steam sewing machines for a few girls who 
shall thereby be enabled to cope better with a 
cold world, may discover that school funds are 
not sufficient to carry on the kindergartens. 

The mother of a highly organized and al- 
ready over-stimulated child may decide that 
the kindergarten is exciting. 

A college professor may meet students with 
little capacity for culture and weak fiber for 
which a few months or weeks of kindergarten 
are wholly responsible. 

Articles in popular journals or magazines of 
high repute may criticize inane songs and bad 
rhymes and foolish appeals to the imagination 
which would be condemned by any sane per- 
son whether a kindergartner or otherwise. 

A few primary teachers, wedded to the idols 
of militarism and passive docility, may find 
kindergarten children too lively. 

Those who prefer to keep "a little animal" 
rather than evolve "an heir of all the ages" 
may advocate the superiority of the back yard 
over a cultivated garden. 

And still the kindergarten will flourish be- 
cause the principles which guide it are forever 
and everywhere true in human development. 

Its exponents are not infallible. The weak- 
ness of their practice may perhaps be matched 
by equal failure to realize the perfected ideal 
in other grades. At any rate, they study their 
problems, and they study their children with 
an enthusiasm sometimes criticized as a fault. 
The most academic critic is compelled to admit 
that they have brought into the schools a cer- 
tain saving grace of love for their work, of 
zeal for education, which has leavened the 
system. 

When the kindergarten was first introduced 
in this country its methods were revolutionary 
and therefore suspicious. 

Why should children be sent to school to 
play? How foolish those lessons of "the wild 
bees' hiding place, of the wild flowers' time 
and place," when one should learn to read and 
write and cipher! 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



ft 



This was 30 years ago. Today the city 
fathers know that "the boy without his play- 
ground is father to the man without a job," 
and municipal playgrounds are provided in 
every town or city where there is a look to the 
future. 

Froebel's emphasis on sense training is to- 
day accentuated by the fresh presentation of 
its claims by Dr. Montessori. The Montessori 
apparatus, devised for the purpose, admirably 
supplements the Froebel materials, as does 
that employed by Dr. Fernauld and others in 
the training of subnormal children. 

The dramatic game, to which Froebel first 
gave form, as a means of developing initiative, 
freedom, sympathy and social feeling, may be 
seen in any primary school today, and "the 
spirit of the kindergarten" rules in these 
schools. 

The group work and play of the kindergar- 
ten, which calls for cooperation, helpfulness, 
self-subordination and obedience to law, is pro- 
jected into later school life under the name of 
social education. 

School gardens, care of pets and plants, 
walks and excursions and the blessedness of 
open air have always been cherished features 
of the kindergarten system, but imperfectly 
realized because opportunities have not been 
furnished by school administrators. 

In a scientific age and in a country which 
places a premium on height and size and speed 
and dollars, perhaps not the least of educa- 
tional values is that which attaches to a wise 
culture of the imagination. The poets who are 
to sing our songs, the builders of a City Beau- 
tiful, the makers of our literature, the prophets 
with a belief that "the best is yet to be" — 
these are all in our schools today. 

Who shall guide them? 
How are they to be trained? 
Shall they perish without a vision ? 

The kindergarten has made its contribution 
to education, in initiating these many lines of 
training, now working out daily in our school 
system. It will always be held as an essential 
part of the system by those who believe in edu- 
cation by development, by those who can see 
the oak slumbering in the acorn. The child 
is father to the man, and the promise of man- 
hood is held in the early years when tendencies 
and habits are formed and dispositions crys- 
tallize. 

The Spring is the time to plant gardens. 
The kindergarten period is the time of our 
school and community planting. 



KINDERGARTEN RESULTS. 
Heney W, Holmes. 
Among modern "muck-rakers" none is more 



certain of a hearing than the catch-phrase 
critic of our public schools. In America, edu- 
cation is like Government — everybody's busi- 
ness; and the teacher-baiting which is so tire- 
somely common in our magazines and on our 
platforms is a natural part of the present dis- 
content with most of our National faiths and 
works. As such, it may do more good than 
harm. The good it does is noteworthy when- 
ever it induces a parent to see for himself, in 
a spirit of fair inquiry, what his children are 
doing in the schoolroom. 

But too often the rash dogmatism of writers 
who generalize brilliantly from one or two ex- 
ceptional instances actually affects the policy 
of responsible School Committees and super- 
intendents. When, for example, a single 
school officer is likely to take seriously the 
assertion, made by a well-known doctor who 
writes on education and the hygiene of child 
life, that it is better to let our children play in 
•a sewer than send them to a kindergarten, 
those wdio know what kindergartens actually 
accomplish, have reason to grow uneasy, if nut 
indignant. Much of the current criticism of 
schools and colleges is equally perverted and 
may occasionally prove pernicious. 

In the case of the kindergarten we need to 
remind ourselves that it is easy to pick out one 
or two items in a day's program at school and 
condemn them as useless or injurious; easy, 
too, to prove that certain children do not profit 
by the program as a whole ; but an entirely 
different thing to prove that the kindergarten 
is not worth while as part of a school system, 
for "all the children of all the people." 

A few mothers may do at home what a 
kindergarten can do ; others may think that a 
governess or even a nursemaid may do as 
much or as well ; but most mothers know their 
own limitations of time, strength, patience and 
intelligence — and have no governess or nurse- 
maid. They welcome the aid of a good kinder- 
garten and find the results of the kindergarten 
course, as a whole, excellent. 

Those who write of the technique of kinder- 
garten instruction may speak of the prepara- 
tion of the children's minds for later scientific 
thinking, or of their hearts for ethical feeling, 
or of their imaginations for creative exercise 
of any sort. These matters we may leave to 
the expert, together with questions of sanita- 
tion, eye strain, muscle strain and over-stimu- 
lation of the infant intellect. Happily, we 
know that kindergarten leaders and kindergar- 
ten teachers are awake to their own problems 
and steadily progressive in the solution of 
them. On grounds of public policy kinder- 
gartens may be amply defended in a simpler 
way. 

The kindergarten takes children at 4 or 



THE KINDERGARTEN- PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



tiers, in language and in some of the simpler 
phases of school work. 

In doing these things it accomplishes these 
ends: It relieves the home, enlarges the lives 
of the children, eases the transition from home 
to school, and lays a foundation for the school 
to build on. 

Most children get from the kindergarten in- 
creased resources — they become better able to 
amuse and instruct themselves; increased read- 
iness and poise in handling their own bodies 
and the things about them ; a perceptibly 
clearer notion of what the world is like and 
what people are about ; and an appreciable in- 
crease in steadiness of judgment between good 
and bad, fit and unfit. 

But even if one or all of these results would 
seem to be lacking, the child at kindergarten 
is safe, happy, active and under wise guidance ; 
the mother is relieved ; and the school is get- 
ting some of its preparatory work accom- 
plished. 

Of course there are kindergartens and kin- 
dergartens — and if those in a given community 
are bad or indifferent, it is somebody's busi- 
ness to make them good. The inexpert ob- 
server who wants to know how to tell a good 
kindergarten when he sees it will find help in 
the pamphlets issued by the National Kinder- 
garten Association, 1 Madison avenue. New 
York. Meanwhile, the best testimony to take 
is that of mothers — preferably those of moder- 
ate means, without special theories of educa- 
tion to exploit, and with two or more children. 
— From the Boston Globe. 



THE KINDERGARTEN FROM THE 
UNIVERSITY END. 

Charles F. Thwing. 

The question of the kindergarten from the 
university end can be best considered by me in 
seeking to ask and to answer another ques- 
tion: "What is the kind of a boy or a girl the 
university likes to have come applying for ad- 
mission to its freshman class?" 

The university likes to receive students 
who know how to play. It finds its end in 
enjoyment. It realizes its completion and com- 
pleteness in itself. Work is done for an aim 
outside of, and beyond life. In this work-a- 
day and even work-a-year world, play is es- 
sential for the development of the youth, and 
also necessary as a method for the welfare of 
the same youth come to fullness of years. In- 
terested in the fact of development, and in the 
promise of the future, the university is inter- 
ested in the candidate for the freshman class 
as being a good player. 

The university also wants to receive the girl 
or boy who is a good worker. The good 



worker is one who can undertake labor, de- 
thereabout, at a time when they are eager for 
new experiences, able to acquire new informa- 
tion and accomplishments, and ready for a 
little formal training. It keeps them three 
hours a day in a larger company of mates than 
they find at home, under simple, natural and 
unobtrusive discipline. It trains them in the 
use of their senses and their muscles, in man- 
manding severe exertion, prolonged in time, 
and diverse in condition and force. Too many 
youths have no idea of what hard work is. 
Pampered have these darlings been from their 
rocking cradles. Hard work imposed on them 
by the college, proves to be an experience quite 
as new as is his first case of sea-sickness to a 
land lubber. Such weaklings the college does 
not want. If they come up weakly knocking 
at its doors, the college may be obliged to re- 
ceive them, but if it does receive them, its first 
duty is to lay upon them hard and heavy tasks. 



NKKH ENTHUSIASM. 



The university, moreover, likes to receive 
students who have enthusiasm. Students to 
whom life's pleasures form still a cup un- 
quaffed, in whom the emotions are more com- 
manding than the intellect, for whom the 
ordinary adjectives are unavailing, and who 
have a special liking for the superlative. The 
college, like all the rest of humanity, knows 
well that the philosophic mind, the reasoned 
intelligence, and seeing life sanely and soundly 
and seeing it whole, are sure to come ulti- 
mately to the true man. But the college is 
just as sorry to see this mind come to its too 
early dawn, as it is sorry to see a delay in its 
advent. Rather, the college wants freshmen 
who shall remind one that life is at its happy 
and glorious spring. 

There is a fourth and last answer which I 
wish to give to our question. It is that the 
college and university want students who are 
considerate of, and who are able to co-operate 
with others. At the beginning, each man is an 
individualist. He learns to be an altruist, a 
co-operator. If he continues to be an indi- 
vidualist, his life becomes bare and barren. If 
he lays aside selfishness, and lives in and 
works for others, he soon learns that their 
lives and characters enter into the treasure 
house of his own being. He, therefore, comes 
to live the largest life, and do the greatest 
work, and to enjoy the richest character. 

It is just at this point that the kindergarten 
emerges, for the kindergarten, as I understand 
it, seeks to train children into these four char- 
acteristics : Good players, good workers, 
hearty enthusiasts, and unselfish co-operators 
in all human concerns. Therefore the univer- 
sity has a keen and happy appreciation of the 
kindergarten. 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



67 







THE KINDERGARTEN=PRIMARY MAGAZINE 












CURRENT EDUCATIONAL THOUGHT 

FROM SUCCESSFUL AMERICAN EDUCATORS 



"LIVE-STOCK IN PUBLIC SCHOOLS." 

(Abstract.) 
By E. R. Downing. 

Delivered before the Kindergarten Branch of the 
N. E. A., Chicago, July, 1912. 

A generation ago the child was considered a little 
man or a little woman who only needed to grow 
bigger. Now we realize that the child is as differ- 
ent f-om the adult as the monkey is from the child, 
that the evolution to be accomplished by the child 
before he rear-hfs adult condition is a long and 
complicated process. We no longer try to foist on 
to the child our adult interests if we are wise peda- 
gogs, but endeavor to find out what the child's inter- 
ests are and utilize them in its development. 

Children are, as a rule, interested in animals. The 
teacher in the grades may well make use of them 
and it is my purpose to merely suggest how she 
may care for them most readily. I know from past 
experience that the average teacher thinks it a 
grave task to assume the care of an animal in the 
school room. But it is a relatively easy proposition 
as they thrive with little care and usually receive 
so much that they die of overfeeding or injudicious 
attentions. If Rosa Bonheur found it worth while 
to study the commonplace farm animals, or Land- 
seer found the association of his dogs worth while, 
or a Kipling or Thompson-Seton considers the ani- 
mal worth a place in literature, certainly it is not 
beneath the dignity of the kindergarten teacher and 
her children to study animals. The child comes to 
school from a world of out-door interests and it is 
wise to continue them in his school environment. 

The aquarium for the goldfish needs in it some 
aquatic plants. These can be bought with the fish 
or may be taken from almost any pond in which 
the water is clean. One or two small fish are 
enough for an aquarium that is 10 or 12 inches in 
diameter. The fish food bought of the dealer an- 
swers well. Rolled oats will be taken with avidity 
occasionally, but not too much food should be given. 
Only so much should be put into the aquarium as 
is promptly snapped up by the fish; and feeding 
once a week is quite enough. If the plant life is 
kept fresh the water of the aquarium does not need 
to be changed. 

Rabbits make admirable school room pets. A 
box 2x2x3 feet makes room enough for a pair. It 
may be covered with poultry netting, and a smaller 
box with a hole in it, to be used by the rabbits as a 
door, should be put into the larger box so they may 
crawl into this nest whenever they please. Some 
sawdust sprinkled in the bottom of the box will help 



to keep it tidy. The food should be of some dry 
material. Grain with an occasional bunch of green 
stuff makes the cage less objectionable than the 
odors that arise when a good deal of succulent food 
is fed. 

Guinea pigs are treated much in the same way. 
In a similar cage one can keep pigeons or n'ng 
doves in the school room and watch all stages of 
their life history. A smaller cage with finer netting 
will serve well for white rabbits. These can be fed 
on stale bread, and given plenty of old newspaper 
in which to burrow and make their nests. 



EDUCATING FOR LIFE. 

Grace C Strachan, New York. 
Children are educatedforlifeand not for college. The 
ill-tempered teacher has noplace in the public schools. 
In New York the schools have been made the temporary 
home; for the pupils, and love rules as r should in the 
homes. In our schools we have found it necessary to 
specialize with children. N 1 two children are alike, and 
some are p-oficient in one stud^ and weak in others. So 
in New York we have segregated the classes. We have 
classes for cripples, classes f~>r mutes anl classes for tu- 
bercular boys and girls. There 's soecia' instruction for 
the fore : gner just learning our language and for the over- 
age pupil who has for some reason been heldbackfrom at- 
tending school. But the great problem in our great citv, as 
in o'hers is to arrange the course of study so as to fit the 
average b">y and girl for life. Most p*op1e of the school 
will never go to college to fit the-nselves for their life 
work. Thus we have classes teaching the boys manual 
science and the girls househ ->ld arts. "These girls never 
will become college women, but they will eventually be- 
come wives and mothers, so we are aiming to prepare 
them for their future lives. In short, we are training boys 
and girls for lives — the college boy or girl is another story. 



Educating Away From the Farm. 

Warren H. Wilson, New York. 

The little red schoolhouse on the hill teaches the farm - 
er's son to be a 'gentleman,' but does not teach him to 
be a farmer. 

The country schcol trains in personality; it does not 
train in efficiency. 

The country school makes preachers and lawyers; it 
does not make armers. 

The farmer's son who should be the farmer of the next 
generation, goes into that little one room country school 
and returns to his home with his respect for the farm 
gone. The school is not a help to him. It does not 
train the farmer's son to be a farmer. It wants to make 
every boy a gentleman. 



THE KINDERGARTEN- PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



"So the farmer's boy, with this ill training- of the little 
red schoolhouse, goes back to his home with a call ring- 
ing out in his soul. It is calling him to the strangeness 
of that new place — the city — where every one is a 'gen. 
tleman.' The farm is deserted. The farmer, growing 
old, cannot realize a fair profit by tilling his land . He 
sells it or rents it, and the land, in the hands of year to 
year occupants, deteriorates. Its productivity de- 
creases. The land itself grows in value, but the pro- 
ductivity becomes less and subsequently the rate of in- 
come becomes less. 

There is a cure for this. Teach the farmer's son to 
till the, land well enough to keep its productivity up 
and its profit up to the rising price of land. Have the 
farmer's boy and the farmer's daughter live in the 
country until they are eighteen years old. 

Let them sleep in their own home. Let them eat at 
their own table. Let them learn how to farm. Let 
them learn to respect their father's occupation. Then 
you will have farmers that own the land they till. They 
will be interested in the productivity of their land. 
They will not be outlaws. They will build schools and 
churches that are worth while." 

The credit a farmer has because of the value of his 
land lends him the opportunity only for productive im- 
provement. The country's present agriculture is not 
profitable; grain exports have fallen off every year for 
ten years, despite the vast area of grain lands, and in a 
few years the country would be importing grain from 
nations that have tilled the soil for hundreds of years. 

Teaching Agriculture. 
Frank W. Miller, Ohio. 

The teaching of agriculture has done much to change 
the nature of the rural' school, which since the spirit of 
the farm has begun to permeate to the' school system, 
have come to have a distinctive character of their own 
instead of being weak imitations of city schools. The 
agricultural exibits of the schools have resulted in a 
new school spirit among the people — farmers are more 
generous in supporting schools which teach farm prin- 
ples, problems, and work. 

That the boys and girls take more interest in farm 
work after studying agriculture in the schools has been 
demonstrated. The teaching of agriculture has also 
tended to raise the social status of the country people 
by disclosing the wide range of knowledge necessary to 
become a successful farmer. This has resulted in great- 
er self-respect and greater respect for their own institu- 
tions and schools." 



Rural Conditions in the Future. 

Warren H. Wilson, New York. 

The farmers and land owners of the country districts 
of the United States are rapidly becoming outlaws, in 
a few years this country will be an import nation instead 
of an export nation at the present rate. There are no 
laws protecting the farmer, and the owner who lives in 
town has all the right because of the lack of such laws. 

The farmer has not enough annual income for social 
improvement. He has credit due to the increase in the 



price of land, but you cannot mortgage land for social 
improvement. 

The result is a lack of profit in the country. We have 
an increase of renters. In this state about one-half of 
the farmers are renters on one-year leases. They have 
no right to the land. If they fertilize the land, the land- 
lord can sell it at the end of a year and as a result the 
farmer loses the cost of the fertilizing. Consequently, 
the productivity of the land constantly is on the de- 
crease and because of the lack of productivity the United 
States is rapidly becoming an import country instead 
of an export country. It has been said that in 1913 our 
imports will exceed our exports. 

"In the whole country four farmers out of every ten 
are renters. On the best land the renters are increasing. 



At a recent lecture before parents and teachers 
of Baltimore on the Montessori System of Educa- 
tion by V. M, Hillyer, the head master of the Cal- 
vert School, Mr. Hillyer showed that many of the 
claims of the promoters and exploiters of that sys- 
tem were not only misleading, but absurd; that 
the system was neither new nor original and could 
only have been judged so by those ignorant of the 
history of educational theory and practice and that 
only the unsophisticated could ever suppose it 
would be revolutionary; that the principle of liberty 
advocated, if followed to its proper conclusion sim- 
ply meant anarchy and in trying to avoid this re- 
sult Madame Montessori contradicted herself. 

He declared that the apparatus originally intended 
for the feeble-minded or sub-normal child would 
hardly provide a month's worth-while occupation 
for a normal child; that the emphasis was laid on 
the development of a single sense whereas psy- 
chology taught that the summation of the senses 
made a much stronger all around appeal; that the 
method of reading and writing though suited to a 
phonetic language like the Italian, would be a step 
backward if adopted by English speaking teachers 
by whom it had been discarded years ago; that it 
would turn out poor spellers with phonetic bad 
habits that would have to be eventually uprooted; 
that whereas Italian children to the naive amaze- 
ment of Madame Montessori "exploded" into writ- 
ing in six weeks' time, American children taught 
by the best American methods began to write sen- 
tences and even compositions the very first day 
they went .to school. 

Mr. Hillyer went on to say that Madame Mon- 
tessori's book was interesting and well worth read- 
ing, but not more so than numbers of other edu- 
cational books, published every year, which, how- 
ever, were issued under less fortuitous circum- 
stances, did not receive the same publicity and were 
only read by the occasional teacher and practically 
never at all by the general public; that it contained 
much irrelevant matter, was lacking in proper pro- 
portion and arrangement, and was too emotional 
and sentimental at times to be trustworthy. 

Mr. Hillyer also pointed out that almost any 
idealistic system, no matter how impractical or 
even false in premises, in the hands of its origina- 
tors and his immediate disciples will show worthy 
results for the divine fire of even a false prophet 
will inspire tho^e in contact with it, but such a 
system when removed from the personality of its 
source will cease to bear the same fruit. 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



69 



A YEAR IN THE KINDERGARTEN 

Harriette McCarthy 

Kindergarten Director, Oklahoma City Public Schools 

[NOTE —Owing to the delay necessary to reach our for- 
eign subscribers, we have adopted the plan of printing the 
program for two or three weeks of the following month. 
Some of our American subscribers prefer the program to 
begin with the current month, and in order to accommo- 
date both, we republish in this issue that portion of the 
November program which appeared last mouth-] 

NOVEMBER 

FIRST WEEK 

Songs— 

The Sunshine Fairies (Child's Garden of Songs.) 

Sweet Fairy Bell (Brown and Emerson Song 

Book.) 

The Brownies (Gaynor No. 1.) 

The Fairy (Eleanor Smith.) 

MONDAY. 

Circle — What fairies and brownies are. What they 

do. Where they live. 
Rhythm — Marching as brownies. 
Gift — First gift. Name colors of balls. Sense game 

with balls. 
Game— In My Hand a Ball I Hold (Walker and 

Jenks.) 
Occupation — Sewing cards. 

TUESDAY. 

Circle — Continue fairies and brownies (Plan Book, 
page 200). Story, The Brownies. (Kg. Book, 
Jane Hoxie.) 

Rhythm — Marching as fairies. 

Gift — Second gift. Tell form by feeling. 

Game — Over and Back (Walker and Jenks.) 

Occupation — Peanut hunt. 

WEDNESDAY. 

Circle — Speak of different kinds of brownies. Re- 
tell Brownie story. 

Rhythm — Marching. Boys as brownies, girls as 
fairies. 

Gift— Third gift. Talk of the edges, corners and 
faces of the cube. 

Game — Browne Game (Gaynor No. 1.) 

Occupation — Make Jack-o'-lanterns. 

THURSDAY. 

Circle — Review all about the fairies. Retell story 
of Brownies. New story, Kid Would Not Go. 

Rhythm — Keeping time to music. 

Gift — Lay borders with eighth gift tablets. 

Game — Brownies (Gaynor No. 1.) 

Occupation — Cut furniture from furniture catalogue, 
and paste in scrap-book. One page to represent 
parlor, one page dining-room, etc. 

FRIDAY. 

Circle— Review fairies and brownies. Retell stories. 

Rhythm — Marching. 

Gift — Sticks. Children invent. 

Game — Free choice. 

Occupation — Hallowe'en Party. 

SECOND WEEK 

Songs — 

The Mill (Finger Plays, Emily Poulsson.) 
Making Bread (Finger Plays, Emily Poulsson.) 
How the Corn Grew (Finger Plays, Emily 

Poulsson.) 
A Little Boy's Walk (Finger Plays, Emily 

Poulsson.) 



MONDAY. 

Circle — The miller and how he helps. Where the 

wheat comes from. 
Rhythm — Marching- as a wheel. 
Gift — First exercise to teach rainbow colors. 
Game — Jolly is the Miller (Hoffman's Old and New 

Singing Games.) 
Occupation — Finish sewing cards, and color with 

crayola. 

TUESDAY. 

Circle — Further talk about wheat. How the farmer 
gets the ground ready for planting. Parable of 
the Sower (Bible.) Story, The Little Red Hen. 

Rhythm — Marching as wheel. Imitate farmers car- 
rying bags on their back. 

Gift — Build mill with third and cylinder of second. 

Game — Would You Know How Does the Farmer 
(Walker and Jenks.) 

Occupation — -With crayola draw oranges. 

WEDNESDAY. 

Circle — Last two days' work reviewed, and story of 

Three Pigs begun. 
Rhythm — Marching as before with bags on back. 
Gift — Peg boards. Form a square, also teach color. 
Game— The Mill (Walker and Jenks.) 
Occupation — Cut out trees. 

THURSDAY. 

Circle — Trace grain of wheat from grain to bread. 

Rhythm — Cross skip. 

Gift — First gift. Review colors used. Color games 
already played. 

Game — Scatter corn on the table, and the child get- 
ting the most wins. 

Occupation — Cut out furniture. 

FRIDAY. 

Circle — Review of morning circles. Retell story. 

Rhythm — Those used. 

Gift— Build with third. 

Game — Free choice. 

Occupation — Cut and paste furniture. 

THIRD WEEK 

Songs — 

Coasting Song (Walker and Jenks.) 

Chilly Little Chik-a-dee (Walker and Jenks.) 

The Sn.ow (Walker and Jenks.) 

Tiny Little Snowflakes (Walker and Jenks.) 

MONDAY. 

Circle— The Pilgrim Story . Plan Book p. 302. Tell 

about Dutch people. The Mayflower. 
Rhythm — Indian March. 

Gift — Build with fourth gift, forms of life. 
Game — Bean-bag. Round and Round the Village. 
Occupation — Draw vegetables and color. 

TUESDAY. 

Circle — Landing of Pilgrims. Their hardships. 
Story of Ruth Endicot (Plan Book p. 307.) 

Rhythm — Pilgrims marching with guns. 

Gift — Build log houses as Pilgrims, with sticks. 

Game — Dramatize Morning Circle, landing of Pil- 
grims. 

Occupation — Draw and color more vegetables. 

WEDNESDAY. 

Circle — Kindness of the Indians. Mutual helpful- 
ness (Plan Book p. 308.) 
Rhythm — Marching like Pilgrims and Indians. 



70 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINF 



Gift— Third gift. 

Game — Ten Little Indian Boys (Hoffman's Old and 

New Singing Games. 
Occupation — Cut and color turkeys. 

THURSDAY. 

Circle — How the Pilgrims had the first Thanksgiv- 
ing (Plan Book p. 309.) 

Rhythm — Marching as bears, Indians, and Pilgrims. 

Gift— Fourth gift. 

Game — Farmer in the Dell ( Hoffman's Old and 
New Singing Games.) 

Occupation — String ball, cube and cylinder. 

FRIDAY. 

Circle — Review morning circles. 
Rhythm — Bouncing ball. 

Gift — Use sticks four inch, two inch, and one inch. 
Game — Free choice. 

Occupation — Fold houses and paste in books. 
FOURTH WEEK 

Songs- 
Over the River and Through the Woods (Walk- 
er and Jenks.) 

Thanksgiving Song (Patty Hill.) 
The Harvest Song (Gaynor No. 1.) 

MONDAY. 

Circle — Talk more of Pilgrims and Indians. Tell 
more about the First Thanksgiving. 

Rhythm — Marching and hand clapping in time to 
music. 

Gift — Second gift. Emphasize fully difference of 
forms. 

Game — Neighbor, Neighbor Over the Way. 

Occupation — Cut cradles. 

TUESDAY. 

Circle — Compare the hirst Thanksgiving with the 

present Thanksgiving. 
Rhythm — Keeping time to music with feet and arms 
Gift — Third gift. Build dining table and chairs. 

Use paper for table cloth. 
Game — Free choice. 
Occupation — Cut cabins. 

WEDNESDAY. 

Circle — Tell about the community life of the Pil- 
grims. Busy life of Pilgrims (Man Book p. 
306.) 

Rhythm — Side-skip. 

Gift — Fourth gift. Build forms of life. 

Game — Would You Know How Doth the Farmer? 
(Walker and Jenks.) 

Occupation — Sewing cards. Peregrine. White's 
cradle (Plan Book p. 306.) 

DECEMBER 



Songs 



MUST HI EK 



Little Jack Frost Went Up the Hill (Walker 

and Jenks.) 

Winter Jewels (Walker and Jenks.) 

Once a Little Baby Lay (Walker and Jenks.) 

Shine Out. O Blessed Star (Walker and Jenks.) 

MONDAY. 

Circle — Thanksgiving experiences. Another Holi- 
day. Santa Claus, his presents, and how he looks. 
Rhythm — Marching. 

Gift — First and second compared. Note resem- 
blances and differences. 



Game — Free choice. 

Occupation — Present for mother. Sewing card cal- 
endar. 

TUESDAY. 

Circle— More about Santa Claus. The presents 
Santa brings. 

Rhythm — Marching. 

Gift — Third gift. An exercise to emphasize posi- 
tion of corners. 

Game — Tossing Game (Walker and Jenks.) 

Occupation — Present for mother. 

WEDNESDAY. 

Circle — Talk about Santa Claus. Santa loves us, 

and gives us presents. 
Rhythm— Marching. 
Gift — Sticks. 

Game — Dance the Virginia Reel. 
Occupation — Father's gift. Sewing card blotter. 

THURSDAY. 

Circle — Talk about Santa Claus, and Xmas pres- 
ents, for father and mother. 

Rhythm — Marching. 

Gift — Third and fourth combined. 

Game — Five Little Chick-a-dees (Walker and 
Jenks.) 

Occupation — Gift for father. Sewing card blotter. 

FRIDAY. 

Circle — Review morning talks. Story, Christmas 

in Other Lands (Plan Book p. 116.) 
Rhythm — Marching. 
Gift — Second and third. 
Game — Free choice. 
Occupation — Making father's present. 

SECOND WEEK 

Songs — • 
. The First Christmas (Walker and Jenks.) 
Merry Christmas Bells (Walker and Jenks.) 
O, Rang Glad Beils (Walker and Jenks.) 

MONDAY. 

Circle — The time there was no Christmas at all. 
No one ever heard of Christmas. Tell about 
the first Christmas Day (Plan Book p. 425.) 

Rhythm — Marching. 

Gift — First gift. Represent Christmas tree orna- 
ments. 

Game — Playing Santa Claus. 

Occupation — Making father's and mother's present. 

TUESDAY. 

Circle — Review yesterday's circle talk. The baby 
was born that grew to be a good boy and a 
kind man. Everybody noticed his goodness, 
and tried to do as he did. The boy's name was 
Jesus. Show picture of the Madonna. Story, 
The Bells. 

Rhythm — Marching. 

Gift — Lay eighth gift tablet Christmas trees. 

Game — Robin, Robin, Red Breast (Walker and 
Jenks.) 

Occupation — Working on father's and mother's 
present. 

WEDNESDAY. 

Circle — Jesus' life as a boy. The many ways He 
helped His Father in His carpenter work. His 
kindness to His mother. 
Rhythm— Marching. 
Gift— Third gift. 
Game — Santa Claus games, 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



7i 



Occupation — Fold stars for Christmas tree. 
THURSDAY. 

Circle — As Jesus grew to be a man, He loved to 
help people, to teach them kindness. Story, The 
Wile Log (Plan Book p. 117). 

Rhythm — -Marching. 

Cilt — Peg-board, free play. 

Game — 'ihe Toy-Shop. 

Occupation — Chains for Christmas tree. 

FRIDAY. 

Circle — People still hear and read of Jesus. We 
love Him so much that we celebrate His birth- 
day each year, and call it- Christmas. He loves 
us and so He is pleased that we show our love 
for one another on His day. 

Rhythm — Keeping time to music. 

Gift— Fourth gift. 

Game — Free choice. 

Occupation — Unfinished work. 

THIRD WEEK 

Songs— 

Joyfully, Joyfully (Walker and Jenks.) 

Children Can You Truly Tell (Walker and 

Jenks.) 

O, Ring Glad Bells (Walker and Jenks.) 

MONDAY. 

Circle — Story, Gretchcn and the Wooden Shoe 

(Morning Talks, Sarah Wiltse.) 
Rhythm — Front skip. 
Gift — Second gift. A general review. 
Game — Guessing game. 
Occupation — Make lanterns for Christmas trees. 

TUESDAY. 

Circle — Retell story. Begin story, The Night Be- 
fore Christmas. 

Rhythm — Side skip. 

Gift — Third gift. Build a fireplace from dictation. 

Game — Free choice. 

Occupation — Make green crayola Christmas trees; 
put in red candles. 

WEDNESDAY. 

Circle — Continue The Night Before Christmas. Tell 

about holly (Plan Book p. 93.) 
Rhythm — Cross skip. 
Gift — Fourth gift. Build chimney. 
Game — Bean-bag game, calling names. 
Occupation — Cut camel. 

THURSDAY. 
Circle — Retell stories. 

New story, The Lonely Fir Tree. 
Rhythm— Marching. 

There were four kindergartens opened in the pub- 
lic schools this year and there is no doubt the ex- 
periment will be so popular and the good done so 
manifest that other schools will be added in due 
time. This will necessitate trained kindergartners 
and it is highly necessary that they be forthcom- 
ing. This will increase the usefulness of the Colum- 
bus Kindergarten Normal Training School, which 
has done a good work in our midst for twenty 
years. It has proven a most worthy and efficient 
institution and will now have a further duty of 
preparing teachers for the coming public school 
kindergartens. The school has moved from its 
Broad street quarters to the corner of Eighteenth 
and Madison. It is one of Columbus' most praise- 
worthy institutions and deserves a hearty support. 
— Columbus (O.) State Journal, 



ORIGINAL KINDERGARTEN STORIES 

MRS. RED-BILL. 

Si san Ple.ssnjsr Pollock 
CHAPTER I. 

Where do you think Miss Pussy went walking 
one day? On the root; it was one of Miss Pussy's 
favorite walks — there, between the chimneys and 
the spout. 

"Mian!" she said, when she looked down and saw 
her two dog friends, Hector and Andy, below, look- 
ing up at her; she meant "Come here," but that 
they could not do, we know, because dogs cannot 
climb, so they only looked up and said "Rrrr," 

which meant . Who knows what it meant? 

But Miss Puss was not alone on the roof; doves 
and sparrows liked it there, too, but they did not 
care to have Miss Pussy come too near them, for 
no matter how polite Puss was, or how gently she 
swung her tail, or how friendly she seemed to be, 
when she arched her back to make a bow, she was 
not to be trusted, ami well they knew it. Puss 
mewed, the doves cooed, the sparrows piped, but 
they stayed a little distance apart; the minute Puss 
made a jump, that minute the company said "good- 
by" to Miss Pussy and away they Hew thru the 
air, — doves and sparrows — that we know Miss Puss 
could not do, if she could climb, for instead of 
feathers she wore a fur coat, and that made it hard 
to fly ; so there she stood with her mouth open and 
could only look after them as they flew far, far 
away. She always felt ashamed when this hap- 
pened, probably she blushed as do Herman and 
Gertrude when they are embarrassed, but that, no 
one can tell by cats, for they have such hairy faces. 
One day Pussy went onto the roof of the barn. 
She did not go there often, for it was too high to 
climb from the ground, as she so easily did, to the 
low roof of the house where she always went to 
rest and take the air, after she had played police 
and been mouse hunting, because little grey thieves 
are not wanted in the house, we know, but this day 
Puss climbed up the tall linden tree that stood by 
the barn, and with one spring, there she was on 
the great barn roof! Ah! there it looked very dif- 
ferently from the house roof, which was all tiled 
with terra cotta tiles; here the roof was covered 
with warm straw and there were no chimneys, and 
instead of the beautiful deer antlers, which were on 
one side of the Forester's house, here, on one side 
of the roof was built an enormous nest. Now for 
many years a stork family had lived here every 
summer, and each time when they came back from 
their long winter journey, and were ready to keep 
house here again, they built a new addition to their 
old home, a new piece of nest, one on top of the 
other, until, Papa said, "A strong wind would surely 
blow the wdiole tower nest down!" Puss stood 
perplexed before the building, she wondered what 
in the world that could be! She knew well enough 



72 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



how a birds' nest looked, but this giant mass of 
twigs she could never imagine was a birds' nest. 
She arched her back and bowed first one way and 
then the other, and stretched her neck as far as she 
could, to see what it was all about — but Puss, you 
have no swan's neck, your head sits close to your 
shoulders, you can only poke your nose onto the 
nest as high as you can reach with your head. 
Curious pussy, you must not be too curious, it will 
get you into trouble. Just then came a great noise 
from inside the nest — "Clapper-clapper-clapper- 
clap." My! how Puss jumped! Don't you wonder 
if she thot that clapper song came from a birdling, 
who would make her a good supper? No one knows 
that, but all of a sudden, with one spring there she 
stood, on top of the great nest! Pussy, what have 
you done? Mrs. Stork sat on the eggs: when Mrs. 
Stork sits on the eggs, then whew! Puss you have 
found out what mood Mrs. Stork is in then! The 
long red bill that can clapper so loud and is Mamma 
Stork's bill-mouth, came all at once towards Miss 
Puss and she found out she had not been invited 
to visit there, for it hit her so hard she tumbled not 
only off of the nest backward but rolled down the 
whole roof and, bang! there she lay in the court- 
yard! Now cats seldom get hurt when they fall; 
they almost always fall on their cushioned paws 
and can run and jump as well as ever, but this time 
the old Mamma Stork had pushed Puss so hard 
and so suddenly that Puss when she fell off of the 
roof, fell on her back and was badly hurt. 

My dear! what a howling and squealing there was 
there and then! The whole household came run- 
ning, the two dogs stood by, each with his tail be- 
tween his legs, as if they had done the mischief! 
Quickly the children made a soft bed in a basket, 
into which they put the poor invalid and covered 
her with a veil. She let them do as they pleased, 
only stretching her paws out straight before her, 
which looked very tragic. 

Mamma was so good, — she went down cellar and 
brought up some nice fresh milk, to refresh poor 
Puss, but she only moved her eyelids a little and 
looked sidewise at the good milk in the cup and 
never moved. What was to be done? "Pussy must 
be fed like a baby." We will give her a little bottle 
such as brother has," said Gertrude. "But," said 
Herman, "Pussy has no hands and cannot use a 
nipple-Dottle!" So Gertrude ran and got a teaspoon 
and fed Pussy, which pleased her so that she took 
one spoonful after the other. 

For a few days, the sick Kitty lay very quietly 
in her basket and took no notice of anything or 
anybody around her. Hector and Andy stood by, 
each wagging his tail in vain! She paid no atten- 
tion, but the good care of the children did won- 
ders for Puss. She got better and before long took 
her first walk, to be sure, only in front of the door, 
to and fro. Still when she saw that this had done 
her good, she grew bolder and again climbed onto 
the low roof, where were the doves and the spar- 



rows, but the Stork's nest she never visited again, 
and when Mrs. and Mr. Stork talked to each other 
by clapping their long bills together, as is their 
way of talking, Puss would jump for fright, until 
she again became accustomed to this kind of con- 
versation. 



A GAY FAMILY. 

By Mary Ellason Cotting. 

There were a great chattering, shaking of heads 
and waving of tails among the chipmonks of "The 
Knolls," for someone had come to live in the old 
house again. 

A mother-chippie said, "Maybe 'little soldier' and 
her baby sister have come back again." 

"No," said the father, "the people are strangers 
for I have seen them myself." 

"O, bad, bad, bad!" cried one of the young chip- 
pies as he hurried along the tree-trunk to join the 
others. "There's a dog fastened in the shed where 
I've hidden my very biggest nuts, and I do believe 
there's a cat, too, sitting at the long window." 

"Never mind, dear, the cat may be a home cat; 
in that case she will never come down to the shed. 
If the dog is tied he cannot harm us. You think 
he is tied, don't you?" 

"I'm not sure," answered the young chippie. "I 
was in a hurry to tell you about him, and I didn't 
notice carefully." 

"Well, I'll go and find out," said the father, "and 
the next time get the whole story before you come 
home." 

Away went Father Chippie with a hop, skip and 
a run. What he saw was a cloth cat, which must 
have belonged to a dear, little baby whose sunny 
face looked out from a frilled cap, and reminded 
Father Chippie of a daisy. 

The dog was big, and black, and old; and though 
he wasn't tied Father Chippie knew he would do 
no harm because of his gentle brown eyes, which 
blinked kindly as chippie whisked along the beams 
of the shed. 

Best of all, never a boy did chippie see, so the 
shed would still be a safe store-house for his fam- 
ily. Great joy was felt by all the chippies when 
• the father told his story, and in a moment they all 
scurried off to gather corn from the big pile on 
Farmer Merriman's barn-floor. 

Busier chippies there never were, and by night 
a great many kernels had been hidden in cracks 
and holes all through the barn and carriage-shed. 
Besides all the corn, they had stored a great pile 
of shag-barks and acorns, and hemlock cones. 

One dreary, cold day in the late fall when the 
mother came home at night, there was no real home 
for her, because the old, old apple-tree had been 
cut down while the family was at work. At last 
she found the opening and squeezing herself up, 
she crept into the nest. To her great delight she 
found all the family there snugly cuddled together. 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



n 



Thinking that this was the last of such comfort, 
she grew cross and scolded first one, then another, 
till the drowsy father sat right up and said, "Please 
do try to be quiet now! In the morning we'll move 
over to the "Brown House" attic. I've found a 
way to get down to the nuts in the shed without 
running down the ash-tree when it's icy and un- 
safe." 

"Nice place that will be," crossly answered the 
mother, as she settled down for the night. 

Next morning it was so gray, and cold, the father 
said, "I'm afraid we shall have snow soon, and as 
we do not know how long this tree will be left here, 
it would be better to move right over to the attic 
after we've had some breakfast. Now off with you 
all; but don't eat anything in the store-rooms. We 
shall need every bit of that food this winter. I 
think it will be a very cold one for my fur is thicker 
than it has been for years.'' 

"Ho! that's only because you've had such good 
eating all summer," said Mother Chippie. 

Father Chippie didn't notice for he knew she 
was homesick over the thought of leaving the tree 
in which they had lived so long. 

As the family started away he called to them to 
be at the ash-tree crotch as soon as they had eaten 
their breakfast. It wasn't very long before they 
were together again. 

"Be careful now," the mother said as they pre- 
pared for a leap from the branch-tips to the eaves 
of the house. 

"Look before you leap, and spread your tail to 
balance yourself well," squeaked the smallest 
chippie. 

"Isn't he bright, the little dear!" the father and 
mother said to each other. 

"Yes, he's the brightest of all the family. I think 
he takes after you, my dear," kindly replied Father 
Chippie. 

Mother Chippie smiled and said, "You've trained 
him so well, you know." 

Then they made a leaf to the eaves, and hopped 
through a hole into the attic. 

The attic was dry and snug; the branches of the 
ash-tree swayed and tapped against the roof, mak- 
ing a pleasant tune, and as soon as Mother Chippie 
had scratched about in the box of soft, clean rags 
she began to feel that after all, her family had 
found the nicest kind of a winter home. 

Soon after, when they all had made a good meal 
from the grape jell, which she had found in the 
closet, Mother Chippie was perfectly happy. 

Such a jolly time as that family had playing hide- 
and-seek, tag and leap-over along the beams and 
among the queer, old pieces of furniture. It was 
just too good a life for anything, until one day a 
queer noise made them all scamper out of sight. 

The door opened and in walked Sally, the cook. 
Tomorrow would be Thanksgiving day and Sally 
needed some jell to use in preparing the dessert. 
Wasn't she surprised when she found all but two 



of her glasses cleaned out as nicely as if she had 
done it herself! 

"What in the world did it?" she thought when a 
squeak made her jump — she was afraid it was a 
mouse — and when she turned round there were the 
merriest little- eyes peeping at her above the beams; 
then a tiny tail fluttered just a bit and Sally laughed. 

"O, you'd be wanting the rest, I do believe. 1 
don't know whatever the mistress will say," and 
off she went with the jell. 

One by one the chippies popped out of their hid- 
ing-places, and were just saying to one another, 
"Well, we still have their butternuts," when in 
walked the mistress, the nurse and the baby, who 
clapped her hands and shouted as the chippies 
hurried out of sight once more. 

"Well, it's too funny, Nurse! To think that chip- 
monks would eat our jell! We must have left the 
closet-door open." 

"O, no, for here's a place just large enough for 
.them to squeeze through. They must have gone 
this way to their feast," laughingly answered Nurse. 
"Shall I carry the nuts away?" she asked. 

"Never mind, Nurse, we'll leave the nuts for their 
Thanksgiving dinner, since we can't give them the 
rest of our jell." 

A very fat, tame family moved out of the attic 
in the spring, for Baby Louise and Nurse had fed 
the chippies during the long and very cold winter; 
and very well did the little creatures repay their 
friends by the funny pranks which they played up 
under the eaves! 



THE MONTESSORI METHOD. 

"Most of the accounts of the Montessori method 
school have been written by enthusiasts and not 
by educational experts and have thus formed the 
opinion of the public. Much lias been said in favor 
of the method of the wonderful Montessori school 
in Rome. The system is one of which we must 
take account at the present time, even if it can 
never take the place of the kindergarten, and it is 
doubtful whether it can ever usurp the educational 
system in our schools. Dr. Montessori is a woman, 
whose name and work have attracted the widest 
attention. She is a delightful woman to meet, a 
woman with a wonderful smile. While I do not 
agree with her on many of her versions on educa- 
tion, I agree that she has done something fine in 
her application of methods to normal children that 
originally were applied only to children of abnormal 
minds and health. * * * -I wish to warn the public 
against the dangers arising from the fact that some 
teachers go to Rome for a short stay, buy the ma- 
terials which give them the right to bring with 
them the name of Montessori, and thus introduce 
a system which differs from that of Dr. Montessori 
and cannot be as successful." — -Dr. F. H. Swift. 
University of Minnesota. 



All who joy would win 
Must share it — 'happiness was born a twin. 

—Byron. 



74 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 




THE COMMITTEE^THE WHOLE 

CONDUCTED BY BERTHA JOHNSTON 

THIS COMMITTEE OF THE WHOLE, of which all Subscribers to the Kin- 
dergarten-Primary Magazine are members, -will consider those various prob- 
lems which meet the practicing Kindergartner— problems relating to the 
School-room proper. Ventilation, Heating, and the like; the Aesthetics of 
School-room Decoration; Problems of the Physical Welfare of the(hild, in- 
cluding the Normal, the Defec live, snd the Precocious; questions suggest- 
ed by theuseof Kindergarten Msterial. the Gifts, Occupations, G mes. Toys, 
pjts; Mothers-meetings; School Government; Child Psychology; the relation 
of Home to School and the Kindergarten to th ; Grades; and problems re- 
garding the Moral Development of the Child and their relation to Froebel's 
Philosophy and Methods All questions will be welcomed ard also any 
suggestions of ways in which Kindergartners have successfully met the 
problems incidental to kindergarten and primary practice. All replies to 
queries will be made through this department, and not by correspondence. 
Address all inquiries to 

MISS BERTHA JOHNSTON, EDITOR, 

1054 Be~gen St., Brooklyn, N. Y- 



Dear Editor: I am a graduate kindergartner with 
some experience. Will you be so kind as to give me 
some information as to how and where I may secure a 
position. Your advice will he much appreciated. 

G. C. Brooklyn. 

Ordinarily no attention is paid to communications 
which give neither full name nor address of the writer, 
so that the editor at least may know who the corres- 
pondent is and that the request is a bonafide one. But 
in this case we will infringe upon our rules as our quer- 
ist is evidently young and unacquanted with editorial 
practice. 

There are several ways of seeking a position, success 
depending largely upon the personality and profession- 
al equipment of the kindergartner. If she have trust- 
worthy credentials lrom her training school and is 
able to play the piano she will naturally have less 
difficulty than otherwise. Many training schools are 
able, to place their graduates in positions and the appeal 
should be made first to the graduate's training school 
asking if there be any known vacancies. If that fail, it 
may be possible to interest one's church or friends in 
starting a new kindergarten or in recommending the ap- 
plicant to other friends. Or it might be possible if home 
conditions warrant, to start a kindergarten in one's own 
home and branch out on a more extensive scale as cir- 
cumstances warrant, in the future. Or, last, but not 
least, in the advertising columns of the Kindergarten- 
Primary Magazine will be found the names of several 
teacher's agencies located in different parts of the coun- 
try and our correspondent could apply to one of these. 
If she will write to the editor again, giving full name and 
address, we will be pleased to give names of other agen- 
cies. Stamps for reply should be enclosed although as 
a rule the editor cannot reply personally to queries. 

REPLIES TO QUERIES IN OCTOBER NUMBER. 

We will group under one heading our replies to solne 
questions that appeared in the October number. 

A. D. P. Regarding courteous class room pedagogi- 
cal conversation and the raising of hands, the editor is 
not well equipped to speak from personal experience, 
as she has had little practice in grade work. The diffi- 
culty in maintaining strict order and courtesy during a 
recitation may be due te several causes. If children are 
naturally eager and interested in a subject it is hard to 



remember that the fellow class-mate must be given a 
chance to speak, although an appeal to the instinct for 
fair play may often have good results. But children are 
children and can we expect of ihem the restraint that 
we do not find in grown-ups? In business assemblies 
of adults it is found necessary to formulate and adhere 
to parliamentary rules in order that the matter under 
discussion may be fully threshed out without infringing 
upon anyone's rights or privileges. Parliamentary rules 
are the result of long years of experience in the con- 
duct of public business. Is not the raising of the hand 
with the children a simple and effective way of asking 
for the "privilege of the floor." It takes much less ime 
than for the child to say, "Miss Chairman, may I have 
the floor?" Perhaps a simple rising in place might be 
substituted for the old time procedure but would prob- 
ably add to the confusion. Good manners are a slow 
growth. Probably A. D. P's. class will remember and 
practice her admonitions better in the future than they 
do now. We cannot judge in fie present of the actual 
results of patient seed-sowing. Grade teachers are re- 
quested to send in statements of the means by which 
they have achieved such quiet, courteous "conversation- 
aires" as our correspondent desires to secure. 



Regarding the query of last month concerning the 
use of each one of the blocks of the building-gifts in 
carrying out an idea, we would say: That, inasmuch as 
the average child has absolutely free play with his toys 
at home, it can do him little if any harm for the short 
time that he plays each day in the kindergarten, to con- 
form to Froebel's rule in this particular, especially when 
we realize the large principle that underlies the pro- 
cedure. Without forcing upon the child mind a tre- 
mendous sociological truth, Ftoebel would, through his 
play, little by little help him to feel that nothing in life 
is unrelated to the whole, however remote in time or 
space. Long years of study and research on the part 
of the truth-seekers teaches us we are indeed, "mem- 
bers, one. of another," and in ways not previously 
dreamed of. We have learned that the clover-fields de- 
pend for continued reproduction upon the bee; we have 
learned that the apparently insignificant mosquito is 
responsible for the spread of dread diseases; and we 
know that the same law holds in the spiritual world. 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



75 



Hence, we find a deep purpose in the Froebelian scheme 
of play. When the child is making the fire-place of the 
home, and one block remains unused, the teacher's re- 
minder that here is a piece left over, hasn't that any 
place in the plan? Shall we let it be the clock on the 
mantel shelf? Helps the child to seek unconsciously 
for relationship. As when he is building a street-car 
and the remaining block is turned into the letterbox 
on the street-corner where a passenger remembers to 
mail a letter that will carry good news perhaps as far 
away as. we were about to say, as China, but to the 
little child living in New York, Chicago is as far away 
as the far East. 'This practice in school relationship 
will unconsciously influence his attitude toward life. 



The question relative to vaccination will be taken up 
in the December number, the editor merely stating now 
that it is a practice that for one reason and another is 
continually growing in disfavor. 



KNOTS AND STITCHES. 

In a late issue we gave a few illustrations of knots 
and stitches, concluding with instructions for making 
a twine bag We will now take up the construction of 
round or oval baskets, made either of reeds or raffia en- 
tire. In the latter case, wound raffia, or "raffia over 
raffia," is used. Cotton rope the size of an ordinary 
clothes line is also frequently used instead of reeds 
or raffia. 

Illustration No. 11 shows the beginning of a round 
basket. A shows the reeds, wound raffia, or cotton 
rope and the strand of raffia is shown threaded in an 
ordinary raffia needle. 

Take the reed, wound raffia, or rope, and begin about 
one-half inch from the end. and wind it to the encbwith 
the strand of raffia used with the needle. After this is 
done, bend the end of wound reed, raffia, or rope so as 
to form a hard center, as shown by illustration 12. 





EBB 




ILLUSTRATION 11 



ILLUSTRATION 



ILLUSTRATIONS 



DUTIES OF SUPERVISOR OF KINDER- 
GARTEN. 

In London, Ont., the duties of the public school 
kindergarten supervisor are designated as follows: 

She shall submit a monthly report to the board, 
through the inspector, upon the work of the kinder- 
garten. 

She shall purchase and distribute all kindergarten 
supplies under instructions from No. 1 committee. 

She shall direct the work of directors, assistants 
and substitutes in her department. 

She shall have charge of all students in training 
for kindergarten work, and shall prepare them for 
their department examinations. 

She shall make all promotions from the kinder- 
garten to the primary grades, subject to the final 
approval of the principal, inspector and No. 1 com- 
mittee. 

She shall recommend, through the inspector, all 
appointments to the staff. 

She shall do the work of a director during one- 
half of the day, the other half she shall devote to 
her duties as supervisor. 

She shall give instructions to primary and other 
teachers in kindergarten work and methods, sub- 
ject to the approval of the board. 

Let your speech be always with grace, seasoned 
with salt. — New Testament. 



Wind raffia once about the reed, and take a stitch to 
the center, bringing the strand of raffia up around the 
reed on the under side. Continue this until the first 
row is finished, after which the stitch is taken into the 
preceding row, instead of to the center. Thus continue 




ILLUSTRATION II 

until the bottom ofthe basket is of the diameter desired. 
To form the side of the basket, place the reed, wound 
raffia, or rope, on top of the preceding row, instead of 
along side, and continue to sew one above the other on 
these rows, just as you have for the bottom, until you 
get the basket of the desired height. A handle can be 
made in various ways, either of the reeds, wound 
raffia, etc., either colored or plain as desired. 

Oval baskets are made in the same way except that 
the center is started in the form of an oval instead of a 
circle. See illustration 13. Illustration 14 and 15 show 



76 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



the manner of sewing on the third and fourth rows, 
which continue throughout the work. 

In taking new strands of raffia as you proceed with 
work, the old strand is first fastened by running it un- 
derneath the finished work for a short distance and 
pulled tightly, and the new r one fastened in the same way. 

Illustration 16 shows the cross stitch, used in decor- 
ating a square mat. It can be used for other decorative 
purposes as well. 

Illustration 17 shows the manner of making a round 
mat. Take a piece- of pasteboard or similar material, 
cut it out. into a circle about one inch larger all around 
than you wish the mat to lie. Then mark out the card- 
board as shown by the illustration which shows the size 
of the completed mat; the cardboard to work with, 



DUBUQUE, IOWA. 

The following meetings for kindergartners, ar- 
ranged under the direction of Superintendent Har- 
ris, were held during October: 

Monday afternoon, Oct. 14 — Games and play in 
the kindergarten — aim of, nature of, physical and 
mental value of; demonstration — Miss Elsie Ibach 
and Miss Norma Schab. Story by Miss Frieda 
Goebelt. Question box. 

Monday, Oct. 28 — Nature study in the kindergar- 
ten, with a suggested program therefor — Miss Nel- 
lie Moser and Miss Helen Ross. Story and ques- 
tion box. 

Meetings in November- and December have been 




ILLUSTRATION 16 



ILLUSTRATION 17 



must be, as aforesaid, two inches greater in diameter. 

Thread a needle with raffia. Beginning at the center, 
take one stitch from the center to the circumference, 
then back again on the opposite side of the card, to the 
center. Continue this process until complete all round. 
This forms the warp, and there must be an odd number 
of strands, which is necessary in all weaving. Then 
beginning a the center weave under one and over one 
ro und and round, as shown by the illustration, until 
you reach about one-half inch from the circumference, 
then if desired complete the opposite side of the card 
in the same way. Then finish the edge withthe button 
hole stitch. Clip off the surplus cardboard, and the 
mat is complete. 



One's character will never rise higher than his 
aims. 



arranged for as follows: 

Monday, Nov. 11 — Comparison of the Montes- 
sori and Froebelian kindergarten — Miss Alvina 
Thedinga and Miss Anna Kennedy. Story told by 
Miss Rachel Roehl. 

Monday, Nov. 28 — Sense training in the kinder- 
garten — Paper by Mrs. Hollingsworth. Story told 
by Mrs. Voggenthaler. 

Monday, Dec. 9. — How the Kindergarten and first 
primary work may be more closely co-ordinated — 
Miss Marguerite Flick. Story told by Miss Mabel 
Martin. 

Monday, Dec. 16.— The nature of kindergarten 
discipline and its relation to the development of 
individual freedom— Miss Anna Thedinga. Story 
told by Miss Elsie Blinchmann. 



THE KINDERGARTEN- PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



77 



HINTS^KSUGGESTIONS FOR RURAL TEACHERS 

CONDUCTED BY GRACE DOW 

DEAR RUKAL TEACHER.— In undertaking this department I trust that my somewhat extended experience in 
rural schools and my subsequent normal training and city school work mav assist me in making it practically 
helpful to you in your work with the little children. I understand the tremendous tax upon the time of any rural 
teacher who is trying to do good work, the wide range of studies, the constant temptation to neglect the little ones 
for the apparently more pressing need of the older classes and tlie lack of equipment necessary for the best work. 
My hope is to assist you to secure better results with the small children. and I shall unhesitatingly recommend the 
jiilellijrent use of kindergarten material as likely to produce the best results w ith least expenditure ( f time. How 
,o use this material, what to select, what substitutes, etc. , will be discussed from month tomoi.Ui in those columns. 



NOVEMBER 

"November winds are bare and still, 
November days are clear and bright. 

Each noon burns up the morning's chill, 
The morning's snow is gone by night." 

Thankfulness — Theme for the month 

"He who waits for Thanksgiving Day to be thankful 
will not be thankful when it comes." 

Children should have much instruction along the 
line of thankfulness at all times. An effort should be 
put forth to free the children's minds of the. false im- 
pression which many have at the present, that Thanks- 
giving Day is a day of rest, pleasure and feasting. 

Even the youngest children may be brought to realize 
how much they are indebted for the common necessi- 
ties of life. Call attention to their relation to the Crea- 
tor and His thought and care for all. 

Develop the grateful side of child nature. 

"He who thanks in words thanks only in part. 

The full and free thanksgiving comes from the heart." 

SUGGESTIVE PROGRAM 

Quotations on Thanksgiving. 

Psalm C. 

Reading— Governor's Thanksgiving Proclamation. 

Reading— President's Thanksgiving Proclamation. 



Song — Home Sweet Home. 

Recitations or Readings. 

The Huskers-J. G. Whittier. 

The Corn Song and The Pumpkin— J. G. Whittier. 

Selections from Hiawatha— H.-W. Longfellow. 




Because He Didn't Think — Phoeba Cary. 

The Turkey — Alice Cary. 

Song — "Over the River and Through the Woods." 

Closing Song— America. 





s 








J 


—\ 







Recitation — Landing of The Pilgrims. - Mrs. Hem* 
Essay or Reading— Life of The Pilgrims, 
Story— Indian Child Life, 



SUGGESTIVE PICTURES 

'Pilgrim Exiles." 

The Harvest." 

'The Angelus." 

'John Alden and Priscilla." 

'The Pilgrims Going to Church." 

: The Gleaners," 



7§ 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



PAPER CUTTING AND FOLDING. 

No month in the year presents more suggestive de- 
signs for this form of busy work. 

Bristol hoard may be used for the table, chairs, stools, 
an Indian wigwam, canoe, cradle, etc. The ends of the 
canoe may be gummed or sewed with colored zephyr. 
A pair of paddles may be made to accompany the canoe. 

Many smaller designs may be cut out of paper and 
pasted upon card board. The turkey may be used as 
a design both for cutting and drawing, cups, pitchers, 
plates and various dishes suitable for table decoration 
may be cut, also a number of the most common veg- 
etables and fruits. 

The Indian with head feathers and hatchet, the Pil- 
grim baby's cradle, the Mayflower, Indian bow and 
arrow are also suggested as interesting designs. 



MOVING PICTURES IN GERMAN ED- 
UCATION. 

The use of moving- pictures in education has had 
a real impetus in German official circles, according 
to information recently received at the United 
States Bureau of Education. The Prussian Minis- 
try of Education is now considering the feasibility 
of employing cinematograph films in certain courses 
in higher educational institutions, and a number of 
film manufacturers are being given an opportunity 
to show the authorities what films they have that 
are adapted to educational purposes. 

A well-known philanthropist has recently donated 
two fully equipped moving picture machines to the 
schools of Berlin. One is to be used in the Con- 
tinuation Institute for Higher Teachers and the 





Clay modeling and mat weaving may be used to ad- 
vantage in connection with the work of this month. 
Tell the children about Indian mat weaving, and if 
possible show them pictures of Indian mats and bas- 
kets; this will inspire them to do better work. Then 
give them two or more colors to weave mats for a 
Thanksgiving table. 

Many of the designs given under paper cutting may 
be useful in the work of clay modeling. A bowl, cups, 
fruits, vegetables, etc., may be modeled. 

THANKSGIVING BOOKLETS 

The written work on the subjects suited to the theme 
of the month make very attractive booklets for the 
children to take home at Thanksgiving. Simple but 
pretty covers may be made of construction paper, and 
the pages tied together with colored ribbon or san silk. 

Much is added to the beauty and value of these book- 
lets by making use of the drawings in water color or 
crayon to decorate the covers. The work in this line 
may be more simple for the beginners consisting of 
a folder of two leaves, on the inside of which may be 
placed some of their best designs in paper cutting, and 
on the outside a simple drawing. 



Dr. Maria Montessori announces that she will es- 
tablish the first training course for teachers of the 
Montessori method of primary education, to be 
given under her personal supervision, in Rome, be- 
ginning January 75, 1913, and lasting four months. 



other in the high schools of greater Berlin. 

Moving picture films are now available in Ger- 
many for anatomical, biological, and bacteriological 
courses, and the manufacturers are confident that an 
enormous field for their products will be opened 
up when educators fully realize the value of moving- 
pictures in education. 



The Brockton (Mass.) Enterprise thus describes 
a kindergarten exhibit at the fair held in that city: 
There were chains, making really decorative neck- 
laces for the little workers, cut out apples, plums 
and bananas, that looked good enough to eat, cab- 
bages and carrots, just pulled from the ground. A 
bird house, mounted upon a pole, was just being 
taken possession of by some bluebirds. Some cut 
out narcissuses were especially good, as were the 
colored tulips. Sewing cards showed apples with 
leaves, sleds, butterflies and George Washington's 
hatchet. One ambitious work was a large rooster 
strutting toward a green tree. 



The October number of the School Arts Book 
comes to us clothed in a new cover, title and in en- 
larged form. As usual this magazine is brim full 
of practical helps for the art teacher from the kin- 
dergarten to the high -school. We congratulate the 
publishers of The School Arts Magazine upon the 
innovation and wish it the success it richly deserves, 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



NEW KINDERGARTEN GAMES 
AND PLAYS 




Conducted by LAURA ROUN TREE 'MITH 



TEN LITTLE LEAVES. 

(Ten children stand in front of the elass. They all 
carry sprays of autumn leaves.) 

All: 
There were ten little leaves on a tree this faH, 
Ten little leaves, let us count them all. 

(The children count from 1 to 10.) 
1st: 
One little gay leaf fluttered down, 
One little leaf in a rosy gown, 
(Sits down.) 
2nd: 
One little leaf rode away on a breeze, 
Up, high up it sailed over the trees. 

(Waves arms and runs to seat, and back.) 
3rd: 
One little leaf tried to fly like the rest, 
Rut it fell into an empty sparrow's nest. 

(Sits down, waving arms as tho falling.) 
4th: 
Then came a great wind with a shout if you please, 
And it shook all the other leaves off of the trees. 

All: 
Ten little leaves felt the snowflakes fall, 
Ten little leaves fell asleep one and all. 
(Fold arms, nod heads.) 



I THANK YOU. 

(To be given by three children.) 

"I thank you," said a lilt'e bird. 

fn a voice so low it was hardly heard, 

"I thank you," said a little flower, 
F"or the cool, refreshing shower." 

"1 thank you," said a child each day, 
"For children dear with whom to play. 

Xow as the hours speed along. 

We all will sing a "Thank You Song." 



LITTLE THANKSGIVING DAY. 
Clap the hands, clap the hands, 
One, two, three, 
Clap the hands, clap the hands, 
Shake with me, 

I lark! who comes in at the door? 
Rapping, tapping as before. 

(Enter November). 
I am little November, I hope you remember, 
I bring ice and snow wherever I go, 

(He shakes hands with all the children.) 

Wave the hands, wave the hands, 

Hold them high, 

Wave the hands, wave the hands, 

As birds fly, 

Hark! who comes in at the <ioor? 

Rapping, tapping as before. 

(Enter Jack Frost.) 
1 am Jack Frost, I never will freeze you, 
But little children I do like to tease .you! 

(He shakes hands with all.) 

Fold the arms, fold the arms, 

Nod your head, 

Fold the arms, fold the arms, 

God to bed, 

Hark! who comes in at the door? 

Rapping, tapping ?s before. 

(Enter Thanksgiving Day.) 
1 am little Thanksgiving Day, 
I must hurry, hurry away, 
Tho I have but few hours to stay, 
I am happy Thanksgiving Day. 

(Children clap hands and dance about him.) 



POP-CORN PLAY. 

(Children tap on desks or snap fingers for the 
popping, and hold hands together, fingers touch- 
ing to form pop-corn ball.) 
1. 

Who will shell the corn to-night? 

Pop, pop, pop, 

Put it o'er the fire bright, 

Pop, pop, pop, 

Hear the fairy voices call, 

Who will make a pop-corn ball? 

Who will pop the corn to-night? 

Pop, pop, pop, 

Oh, it is a merry sight, 

Pop, pop, pop, 

In the merry days of fall 

We will make a pop-corn ball. 

3. 
Who will eat the pop-corn sweet? 
Pop, pop, pop, 

For you and me it is a treat, 
Pop, pop, pop, 

'Tis jolly fun for one and all, 
We all can eat a pop-corn ball! 
(Hold hand to mouth.) 



8o 



THE KINDERGARTEN PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



LITTLE PIECES FOR 
LITTLE PEOPLE 

Consisting Chiefly of Original Verses for Little Chil- 
dren by Laura Rountree Smith 



ORIGINAL RHYMES AND PLAYS BY LAURA 
ROUNTREE SMITH. 

(Book Rights Reserved) 
NOVEMBER. 

Oh November, how we love you, 
With your merry sleigh, 
Oh November, how we thank you 
For Thanksgiving Day! 

MY GARDEN. 

If kind hearts are the gardens, 

We will plant kind seeds, 

If kind words are the flowers, 

We will do kind deeds, 

From an acorn small you know, 

Some day a great oak will grow! 



PILGRIM MAIDS. 

Thanksgiving Exercise. 
(Boys and girls dressed as Pilgrims may recite. - ) 
Pilgrim Maids 'till very lately, 
Used to bow to all sedately, 
In a garret old and gray, 
We found a spinning wheel to-day, 
Spin, spin, spin, 
Whir, whir, whir! 

(Wave arms round.) 
Pilgrim Maids wore kerchiefs white, 
And they were always most polite, 
Busily they worked away, 
At their spinning wheels all day, 
Spin, spin, spin, 
Whir, whir, whir! 

Pilgrim Maids wore caps you know, 

In the days of long ago, 

They had little time for play, 

But they worked and worked away, 

Spin, spin, spin, 

Whir, whir, whir! 



PILGRIM FATHERS. 

Pilgrim Fathers sowed the grain (sow grain) 
Then refreshed by sun and rain, 
There came the Harvest time again, 

And Thanksgiving day. 
Pilgrim Fathers worked 'tis true, 
Building houses strong and new, 
They invited Indians too, 

On Thanksgiving day. 

Many friendly Indians came, 
Sharing fruits and corn and game, 
Many more than we can name, 
On Thanksgiving day. 



JOLLY JACK O' LANTERN. 

(Recitation to be given by three little boys carry- 
ing lighted Jack O' Lanterns. As they recite last 
two lines of each verse they put hand to ear as 
tho listening, and at end of the verse they blow 
the Lanterns out and run off.) 



Jolly Jack O' Lantern 

Is a funny sight 

Jolly Jack O' Lantern, 

On Thanksgiving night, 

Hush! hush! hush! for somebody said, 

That he is only a Pumpkin head! 

Jolly Jack O' Lantern 

Standing on the post, 

Jolly Jack O' Lantern, 

You are like a ghost, 

Hush! hush! hush! don't have a fright, 

He shines because of candle-light! 



Jolly Jack O' Lantern 

Down the road we go, 

Jolly Jack O' Lantern, 

This is fun you know, 

Hush! hush! hush! without a doubt, 

The wind will blow his candle out! 



A REST EXERCISE. 

The children choose partners, they skip round 
the room two and two (each two represent a pair 
of horses.) 

They sing. Tune, "Yankee Doodle": 

Here we go riding o'er the hills, 
Upon Thanksgiving morning, 
And if we have a run-away, 
We hope you'll all take warning. 

Chorus: 

Tra, la, la, la, la, la, la, 
Merry -sleigh-bells ringing, 
We all love Thanksgiving Day, 
So we all are singing. 
(The teacher rings sleigh-bells softly and calls 
the names of any two children, who run to their 
seats. She may continue in this way, or at any 
time say, "Tip over the sleigh," and all run to seats. 



THE PUMPKIN PIE. 

By Laura Rountree Smith. 
I planted a little brown seed in the ground, 
A little flat seed so shining I found, 
Then I thought I heard the little seed sigh, 
"What have I to do with a Pumpkin Pie?" 

I saw a little vine grow and grow, 
It had green leaves on a stem you know, 
I thought I heard the little vine cry, 
"What have I to do with a Pumpkin Pie?" 

I saw a pumpkin so heavy and round, 
Grow each day as it lay on the ground, 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



I thought I heard it say, "By and by 
I may turn into a big Pumpkin Pie!" 

It was then that I said to our jolly old cook, 
"Here is my big pumpkin, oh come and look," 
The jolly old cook said, "Yes, yes, I will try. 
To make you a splendid, big Pumpkin Pie!" 

The seed and the vine and the pumpkin knew, 
The very best thing that they all could do, 
Was to grow together in sunshiny weather, 
HURRAH FOR THE PUMPKIN PIE! 

GOODBYE TO SUMMER 

I. 

Goodbye, goodbye, to summer 

'Tis fading fast away, 
The air is growing chilly 

The night crowds out the day. 
The leaves are turning golden, 

The flowers nod their heads. 
And soon, too soon, will scundly sleep 

Beneath their snowy beds. 

Chorus: 

Summer, sweet, sweet summer, 

'Tis sad to see you go. 
'Tis sad to see your leafy dress 

Change into one of snow. 
II. 
The north wind soon will whistle, 

'Twill call old jack frost out, 
And crimson, gold and yellow, 

He'll toss the leaves about. 
The robin, wren and swallow 

Will seek a warmer clime, 
And then, ah then, we'll miss their songs 

Thru all the winter time. 
Chorus. — G. F. 



This is the milk that baby loves, 
This is the cow, all brown and white, 
Who eats the grass at morn and night, 
That gives the milk that baby loves. 

This is the mi'k maid with heart so light, 
Who milks the cow all brown and white, 
Who eats the grass at morn and night, 
That gives the milk that baby loves. 

This is the cup so new and bright. 

For the milk from the cow all brown and white, 

Who ate the grass at morn and night. 

And was milked by the maid with heart so light, 

Who gives the milk that baby loves. 

— G. F. 



THE CUCKOO CLOCK. 

The Cuckoo clock hangs on the wall, 

Cuckoo — cuckoo — cuckoo, 

It does net mind the dark at all, 

Cuckoo, cuckoo, cuckoo, 

It says, "I'm company for you. 

Go on to bed. cuckoo, cuckoo!" 



REAL CANNING. 

It is customary in many kindergartens during the 
fall and just previous to Thanksgiving Day to in- 
terest the children in cooking or preserving in a 
simple way. Kindergartners have reported from 
time to time the following work in this direction: 

Making apple sauce. 

Making cranberry sauce. 

Preparing pumpkin or squash for pies. 

Popping corn. 

Making grape jelly. 

Making bread. 

Making cookies. 

Making candy. 

Even one such exercise is worth while as an ex- 
perience with "real things." Many instructive points 
appear incidentally that pave the way for later les- 
sons. They give experience-knowledge; they arouse 
enthusiasm; they connect home and school life; 
they humanize. 

Food and its preparation relates itself to civiliza- 
tion. Children love the kitchen and its activities. — 
J. B. M. 



"PLAY CANNING." 

You will be interested to hear how two of our 
little neighbor girls played all day at "canning." 
They were seated on a bench before a table in the 
yard with gingham aprons to protect from the water 
which they had in a dish pan before them. The 
fruit they were "canning" was tiny green apples 
they had picked up. These they washed and put 
in glass jars (they looked like olives). I noticed 
one had a knife. They played pouring hot water 
over them, etc. During this play a little boy, 
brother of one of them, played huckster, selling 
them his produce — plantain for lettuce, and some- 
thing else for spinach. 

It is the first time I had ever seen this particular 
play and could be recommended where small apples 
are to be picked up, as it is quite a chore to clear 
the ground of them. It seemed to be fun to play 
in the water, too. It certainly was an interesting 
sight. They played all morning and were at it 
after dinner.— M. E. R. 



PICTURES FOR THE KINDERGARTEN. 

The following are suggested: Landseer's "Shoeing 
a Bay Mare," Rosa Bonheur's "Sheep of Scotland," 
"Breakfast" by Trood, "And a Little Child Shall 
Lead Them" by Strutt, Defregger's "Madonna and 
Child," and Murille's "Holy Family," "Haying 
Time" by Dupre, "St. Bernard Dogs" by Deiker, 
"Sleeping Bloodhound" by Landseer, Pfann- 
schmidt's "Suffer Little Children" and others equal- 
ly good. 

Where there is no vision the people perish. Ideal 
America can be created only by a people with pro- 
phetic vision. — Susan E : Blow. 



He gives double who gives unasked. 



Beauty is truth, truth, beauty — that is all 
Ye know on earth, and all ye need to know. 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



EDUCATIONAL NEWS 



All patrons of the tnaga 
use the~e columns f 

iments 



iti-cl to 



e are cordial 

ncing lecturer, recitals or 
ifiiai.nin-riiaui.iiiy kind of interest to Uindergarr- 
>rs or primary teacners. Kep .rts of meetings held, 
id miscellaneous ne« s items are also s licited. 
In writing plea-e give your name and address. 



COUNCIL BLUFFS, IA. 

A meeting of the kindergarten, primary and sec- 
ond grade teachers, held in Superintendent J. H. 
Beveridge's office Wednesday afternoon, was inter- 
ested in a report on the Chicago kindergarten and 
primary instruction by Miss Lillian Cherniss of the 
Oak street school. It was decided by the teachers 
that the work should be taken up in some of the 
schools. The method described in the report in- 
volves the story telling exercise work. The child 
is asked to tell about an experience which he has 
had, acting out the parts as the tale is narrated. 
In this manner the pupil is taught the power of 
observation and the knack of story telling, with 
the exercise combined. 

OTTUMWA, IOWA. 

The Sixth Annual Congress of the Mothers and 
Parents Teachers Association, held here Oct. 8-10, 
was a decided success. Among the topics discussed 
were the following: 

Extension of Child Welfare Work. 

Child Welfare Campaign. 

Saving the Babies. 

Spiritual Development of Little Children. 

Kindergarten Training — A Basic Element for 
Motherhood and Social Work. 

Rural Child Welfare. 

Child Welfare Legislation. 

ROCK HILL, S. C. 

Winthrop College has established an experimen- 
tal rural kindergarten. A regular transportation 
wagon of the very best make has been purchased 
to convey the children from the country to the 
Experimental Rural School and from town to the 
kindergarten. The Experimental Rural School has 
attracted the favorable attention of many of the 
. leading educators all over the country and many 
noted visitors have come to Winthrop to inspect it. 
DES MOINES, IA. 

An original idea of the members of the Central 
Church of Christ was put into execution yester- 
day. In place of the children's room a kindergarten 
has been opened in the basement and teachers have 
been appointed to entertain and instruct the small 
children while their parents attend the morning 
services. 

SOCIALIZING THE PUBLIC SCHOOL. 

The board of education of Los Angeles, Calif., 
have established a complete system for uplifting 
and Americanizing a locality where within a small 
area are thousands of Russians, Jews, Spaniards, 
Mexicans, Portuguese and a sprinkling from several 
northern nations, as well as Americans. Most of 



them live in extreme poverty and have only half 
civilized ideas of home life and methods. 

The board of education, recognizing this, has pro- 
vided not only a good school building on ample 
grounds, but has erected auxiliary buildings for a 
kindergarten, a day nursery, and for model house- 
keeping instruction in a regular cottage so as to 
imitate ordinary family conditions. There is also 
one block away a maternity cottage, serving the 
same people, but not directly connected with the 
school. 

In a big bungalow is a modified form of day nur- 
sery. It is all in one room, save a small hall in 
one corner, and a bath and toilet room. In front 
is a porch and behind is an inclosed yard equipped 
with sandbox, swings, etc., for a playground. There 
are several beds, baby cabs, chairs, low tables, etc 
In the back hall are facilities for heating milk, 
sterilizing bottles, nipples and other like neces- 
saries. The Fellowship society and other interested 
philanthropists furnish the equipment of this plant 
and provide a trained worker. 

Many of the women in this part of the city must 
go out to work for the family's support. Where 
there are several children the older ones stayed at 
home to care for the little ones. Primarily this 
day nursery is to aid older children to attend school, 
by caring for the younger ones. Every school 
morning before 9 o'clock these children bring the 
little brothers and sisters, ranging from babies to 
4-year-olds, to the day nursery; at noon they take 
charge of them agiin for an hour, after which they 
put them in the nursery for the afternoon period. 
This has won for the school many children who 
would never otherwise have had its privileges. 

It was then found possible to do a little more 
general day nursery work, and so almost any work- 
ing mother in that section was helped in the care 
of her children during the day, if she needed it. 
Thus the building is now used to its full capacity 
nearly all the time. 

In the day nursery, as in all this work, the things 
actually done for the children are, while good in 
themselves, only a means to bring the social work- 
ers in touch with the people and the homes, and 
to bring to bear the uplifting influence of Chris- 
tian personality. This day nursery seems unique. 
The claim is made by the board of education that 
it is the only one in the country so ordered and 
maintained. 

Erected by the board of education on the school 
grounds is also the model cottage, or home. It is 
intended to furnish lessons in practical housekeep- 
ing for the girls of these poor families, who have 
seldom or never before seen how comfortable 
homes are furnished and kept. The bungalow is 
purposely small. It has three rooms and a pantry 
for" the storage of dishes, food and appliances. In 
front is a living room, which serves also for a 
dining room, a bed room and a well equipped 
kitchen. In front of the house is a small porch; 
behind a large one, on which much work is done. 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



83 



The furnishings are plain, but good, such as the 
average family might have, and show the touches 
that taste and culture give to even the plainest 
home. Here, to make the experiment real, two of 
the teachers live. 

Three groups of 10 girls each are assigned work 
at the cottage each day. The first begins at 9 
o'clock, and does the morning's work. Five sweep, 
dust, make the bed, place the furniture, etc., and 
the other five wash the breakfast dishes and ar- 
range them in the pantry and cupboards. The sec- 
ond group of 10 then comes on duty, and while 
five prepare lunch the others are taking a sewing 
lesson, hemming napkins, or towels, or mending 
clothing. Lunch is served to 11 teachers. The 
pupils are instructed in some of the niceties of such 
service. The third group clear away the lunch, 
wash the dishes and then receive also a lesson in 
sewing, mending or some other household duty. 

The teachers pay for their lunches and aid in the 
special instruction. It has not been difficult so 
far to find those who combine philanthropic spirit 
with housekeeping experience and ability. So there 
is a mingling of paid and charity work; of ordinary 
school duties and of the new effort to reach the 
homes of the poor by training the children in better 
ways. The furnishing of the model bungalow and 
the cost of the work are met by philanthropic peo- 
ple. The work is new. Yet it has already pro- 
duced favorable results. 

The model cottage plan of teaching domestic 
science is regarded also as something unique. It 
seems to be a success, and the parents and teachers 
are enthusiastic about it. 



The Ferrer Modern School. 

The Ferrer libertarian methods are portrayed by a 
teacher in the description of an elementary class of nine. 
The libertarian idea of attendance, for example, is come 
as you please, and this class of nine came on a certain 
Monday beginning with S o'clock and. ending with 11 
o'clock, when the last of the nine arrived. Each has a 
blank book, in which writing, arithmetic and occasional 
drawing are done. The teacher writes examples and 
problems in the books. "Whether they are done or not 
or when they are done is left wholly to the child. With 
occasional exceptions the children not only perform all 
of the examples, but ask for more. The teaching is, 
of course, individual. Others may participate if they 
like. When one is asked to read aloud none other is 
asked to follow. History is taught by making the 
children assume the roles, thus a boy may be Captain 
Smith, a girl Pocahontas, etc. 

This may look like pedagogical chaos. But it certain- 
ly is a most interesting as well as complete reaction 
from the machine methods with which the public 
schools are charged. It seems to be based, however, 
on a degree of leisure and an expenditure of money 
greater than even this country, with its devotion to 
what it at least thinks is education, could readily afford. 



one a former superintendent of schools and another a 
Harvard university professor, discuss the question, 
"Has the kindergarten come to stay?" They agreed 
that it has. It was pointed out that there are kinder- 
gartens and kindergartens and it is urged that, where 
the inefficient ones exist, there be correction instead of 
extinction. The special merits of the kindergarten, 
when properly conducted, is well stated by Caroline D. 
Aborn. She says: "It is rich in its opportunities for 
the beginning of manual training and the stirring of the 
artistic sense; in its training for grade work through the 
development of such mental powers as attention, obser- 
vation, judgment, concentration; in its emphasis on 
good habit formation; in its general insistence upon lov- 
ing service for each other and in the training of the 
imagination which sees a halo of possibilities around the 
common things of life." Two of these articles appear 
in this issue. 



MINNEAPOLIS, MINN. 

Three-year-old children will be admitted to the 
Minneapolis public school kindergartens, by adop- 
tion of some of the Montessori methods, as soon 
as the details can be worked out, it was arranged 
late yesterday at a conference of kindergarten 
teachers with Miss Elizabeth Hall, assistant super- 
intendent. 

"Children 3 years old will be taught how to lace 
their shoes, button their dresses and other things 
usually not taught to a child until it is 5 years old," 
said Miss Hall yesterday. "The Montessori system 
develops perception, activity and discrimination, 
leads to good reading and writing earlier than by 
other methods and does not jeopardize the health 
nor rob the child of a relish for liking later on." 

The Montessori system may be further devel- 
oped in Minnesota later, as Assistant Superintend- 
ent B. B. Jackson will visit Rome in February with 
the educational commission and spend a week in 
examining the operation of that system. 

Mrs. Fannie Fern Andrews, Secretary of the 
American School Peace League, is now lecturing 
in Europe. Her itinerary this year includes lec- 
tures in Geneva, Paris, Berlin, Munich, Heidelberg, 
Brussels, The Hague, Vienna, Budapest, London, 
and Rome. Her first engagement is at the Inter- 
national Peace Congress at Geneva. Mrs. Andrews 
is acting also in conjunction with the United States 
Bureau of Education, being a special collaborator 
of that office. Her chief mission will be to per- 
fect the plans initiated by the United States Gov- 
ernment and the Netherlands Government for the 
organization of an International Education Confer- 
ence. Mrs. Andrews carried with her letters from 
Dr. Philander P. Claxton, United States Commis- 
sioner of Education, and Secretary of State Phil- 
ander C. Knox. 



In a recent issue of the Boston Globe, four educators, 
two of them directly connected with kindergarten work 



Miss Mary Rossis conducting a very successful kinder- 
garten for colored children in the old Hughes High 
School Building which is supported by the Cincinnati 
Kindergarcen Association. 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



KINDERGARTEN GROWTH 

[NOTE:— TJnder this heading we shall give from time to 
time such items as come toour notice relative to the estab- 
lishment of new kindergartens as well as articles or state- 
ments in the public press or from noted educators favor- 
able to the kindergarten cause. 

MINNEAPOLIS. 

Opening of kindergartens in the Washington and 
Bremer schools has been found necessary to relieve 
crowded conditions. The kindergarten class at the 
Sumner school was reported to have eighty-six 
pupils, the Longfellow seventy-five and the Greeley 
the least, thirty-nine. The staff of thirteen kinder- 
garten teachers will be increased. 

More Kindergartens Wanted. — Although a half 
dozen new kindergartens were opened this fall, the 
attendance is far in excess of the accommodations 
and it will be necessary to organize new classes to 
provide facilities for all the pupils. 

SACRAMENTO, CALIF. 

Under the direction of the principal of the Oak 
Park primary school, Airs. Louise Gavigan, the kin- 
dergarten and the primary annex were opened for 
business. The primary annex is at Thirty-fifth and 
Park avenue, and the kindergarten is attached to 
the main building. The kindergarten is under the 
direction of Miss Edna Farley and the primary 
branch under the direction of Airs. Carter. 

SALT LAKE CITY, UTAH. 

New public school kindergartens have been estab- 
lished in the following school buildings: Emerson, 
Franklin, Grant, Hawthorne, Jackson, Jefferson, La- 
fayete, Lincoln, Lowell, Riverside, Sumner, Wa- 
satch and Whittier. 

Children living in districts where kindergartens 
have not yet been organized are permitted to en- 
roll in the kindergarten most conveniently located. 

CINCINNATI, O. 

A new kindergarten was recently opened in this 
city, in charge of Miss Marian Fitton. 

Rev. B. Fishbeck, superintendent of the nursery 
and kindergarten at 1311-13 Bremen street, has 
placed a contract with Builder John Heineman to 
remodel the kindergarten building and make inci- 
dental improvements that will greatly safeguard 
and strengthen the property. 

MILWAUKEE. 

There is no race suicide in the neighborhood of 
the Ninth street and the Detroit street schools, ac- 
cording to School Supt. Carroll G. Pearse. "We 
have found it necessary to install two kindergar- 
tens in both schools," explained Mr. Pearse. "The 
single kindergarten in each was overcrowded, with 
from fifty to sixty on the waiting lists." 
SPRINGFIELD, MASS. 

Brightwood school is experiencing a congested 
condition this fall, particularly in the kindergarten 
department where 90 little folks are enrolled, neces- 
sitating the placing of movable seats in the hall, 



Radiating from a beginning at the Settlement Asso- 
ciation, the kindergarten movement is constantly gain- 
ing headway in Houston, Texas. Such a class is now 
conducted in the Allen public school building. It is 
not sustained by public funds, however, but by month- 
ly endowments from liberal citizens and by tuition fees. 
The Cushman School in the South End has been doing 
successful kindergarten work since it was established. 
The Settlement Association maintains a free kinder- 
garten. Mrs. W. J. Kinkaid, who has been active for 
years in behalf of education in the city, has opened a 
kindergarten at 3119 San Gacinto. Thirty children' are 
already enrolled, this number being the limit that can 
be accommodated. The work is in charge of Miss Jean 
Kennedy of Knoxville, Teni., a graduate of the Chi- 
cago Training School. She is assisted by Miss AIuso- 
dora House. 

The Board of Education has decided to establish the 
first public kindergarten ever conducted here. A school 
building at Seventh and Bristol street has been chosen 
for the purpose and a teacher will be appointed at the 
next meeting of the Board. It has been the purpose of 
the Board to establish several kindergartens in the city 
but the work has always been hampered on account of 
a laxity of funds. At the present time there is but one 
kindergarten in the city and this is conducted under 
private management. — Berkeley, (Calif.) Exchange. 

The French kindergarten at the Grand Rapids, Mich., 
Conersvatory of Music at 147 East Island street will 
open Saturday for children below ten years of age. In 
charge of Miss Albertine Bernard Soule. 

The East Jacksonville, Fla,, kindergarten op ned 
Oct. 1, in the Guild hall, corner of Florida avenue and 
Duval streets. Miss Mai Cooper is director and Miss 
Laura Brownfield assistant. 

At Lowell. Afass., the attempt to abolish the position 
of supervisor of kindergartens on the ground that it 
is "unnecessary" is meeting with vigorous opposition 
on the part of the public. 

The Fairfield, Fla., kindergarten opened Oct. 1, in 
the Fairfield Improvement hall on Talleyrand avenue. 
Director, Miss Jean Somerville; assistant, Miss Ger- 
trude Barker. 

At Reading, Pa., the free kindergarten is so greatly 
appreciated that mothers have brought needed furni- 
ture from their homes in order that their children may 
attend. 

Miss Evangeline Prim has opened a kindergarten at 
Stoneham, Alass. A public entertainment by her little 
pupils will be given Nov. 8th. 

A kindergarten in charge of graduates of the Lucy 
Wheelock Kindergarten Training School, Boston, has 
opened at Somerville, Alass. 

Miss Talbot has opened a kindergarten at Christ 
Church ( Ihapel, corner Belknap and Russell, San An- 
tonia, Texas. 

Miss Mava Dilcher, of Allentown, has opened a kind- 
ergarten school in the Lehigh National Building, Eata- 
saugua, Pa. 

The Cady Lumber Co. of Glenm ore, La., is building 
a kindergarten for the children of its employes. 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



§5 



PERSONAL MENTION 

Our readers are invited to send US items for this de- 
partment. Kindly give your i:ame when writing. 



Sara Boyd is now the kindergarten director of the 
Lawrence school, Pittsburg, Pa. 

Lena Belknap has been appointed kindergarten direc- 
tor in the Pittsburg public schools. 

Miss Ida Hoyle has opened a kindergarten on West 
Washington street, Wheeling, W. Va. 

Irene Snyder of Pittsburg has been engaged as assist- 
ant kindergartner in the public schools of that city. 

Miss Edith Phelps of New Haven, Conn., has 
gone to Boston as a student in Miss Neal's training- 
school. 

The Misses Rose Carkeet and Emily Cheever are 
the kindergartners in the Natchez (Miss.) pub- 
lis chool kindergartens. 

Miss Genevra Strong has gone to Bingham pton, New 
York, where she has taken charge of the kindergarten 
department of a boarding school. 

Miss Margaret Somerville is director of the La Villa, 
Fla., Free Kindergarten, assisted by Miss Isabel Living- 
ston, Edith Livey and Emma Livingston. 

The following Pittsburg kindergartners are enjoying 
an advance in salary beginning with the present school 
year: IdaCalhoon AnnabelleMendenhall, Marion Stoiey. 

Dr. W. N. Hailmann of Cleveland, Ohio, will have a 
paper on the Montessori Method at the annual meeting 
of the Indiana State Teachers' Association in Decem- 
ber. 

Miss Fannie A. Smith, principal of the Bridge- 
port Kindergarten Training School, addressed a 
meeting of mothers and kindergartners at Danbury, 
Conn., Oct. 4th. 

Miss Annie Laws gave an interesting history of 
mothers' clubs and their work at the meeting of 
the general association of Mothers' Clubs in Cin- 
cinnati recently. 

Miss Mabel Foran, daughter of Thomas F. Foran, 
left on the 12th of October to teach in the kinder- 
garten school at Hull House, Chicago, having been 
chosen by Miss Jane Addams for the position. 

A reception was tendered Miss Grace Braniger of 
Burlington,I.owa, the new superintendent of the Thome 
Memorial Kindergarten, Galveston, Tex., at the Im- 
manuel Presbyterian church. Miss Braniger is a gradu- 
ate of the Chicago Free Kindergarien training school 
and comes highly recommended. 

Miss May L. Reed of New York, a well known kind- 
ergartner who recently became the director of the 
School of Mothercraft in that city is meeting with suc- 
cess. This institution provides information and practi- 
cal instruction in the home care and training of chil- 
dren, in eugenics and in the problems of the family, 
is the only institution of its kind in the United States 
and probably in the world. 

Class work in the school is arranged for young 



women, mothers, mothers' assistants, day nursery 
workers, trained nurses and kindergartners. Lectures 
and short practical courses are provided in the follow- 
ing subjects: Physical care of infants and young chil- 
dren, child hygiene and physical development, dietet- 
ics, children's cooking, laundry, sewing, home care of 
sick children, emergencies, hygiene for mothers, child 
psychology and mental hygiene, principles of child 
training and of the kindergarten, children's stories, 
games, songs, handwork, nature study, the family, its 
biology, psychology, sociology, ethics. 

Miss Reed started her study of mothercraft about 
eight years ago. She is a graduate of Clark university 
and has taken two postgraduate courses in other col- 
leges. 

Miss Ada Mae Brooks, principal of the Broadoaks 
School, Pasadena, Calif., made a tour during the sum- 
mer, visiting kindergartens and schools in different parts 
of the Central and Eastern states. Her school, which 
includes elementary grades and kindergarten, has an 
ideal environment, many of the classes being held out 
of doors under the trees and amid grass and blossoms. 

Miss Florence Ogden Padgett, who for the past two 
years and over, has been in Bingham ton, N. V.. has 
accepted a position in Ironwood, Mich., as director of 
the Froebel Kindergarten, and supervisor of the other 
kindergartens of the city. 

PROVIDENCE, R. I. 

The first regular meeting of the Rhode Island 
Kindergarten League was held at the Normal 
School Oct. 6, with Miss Preston in the chair. Plans 
for the winter were discussed and it was announced 
that a lecture course would be given by Miss Laura 
Fisher of New York and Miss Maxwell. At the 
close of the business session Miss Elizabeth C. 
Baker, supervisor of the kindergarten training de- 
partment of the Normal School, gave an interest- 
ing talk upon her experiences in Europe, includ- 
ing visits to an Italian kindergarten and the Froe- 
bel Pestalozzi House in Berlin. 

Caroline T. Haven--A Loving Appreciation 

(Continued from puge 61.) 

Through her work for the International Kindergarten 
Union, Miss Haven's influence was carried from Maine 
to Georgia, from Massachusetts to California, and 
across the seas to England, Germany, and China. In 
this wider service, as well as in the more intimate work 
of the Training Teacher, the strength and nobility and 
sincerity of her character carried its message. 

Over Miss Haven's desk in her office at the Ethical 
Culture School still hangs the illuminated card which 
her hands placed there, and it reads: 
"To keep my health, 

To do my work, 

To live to see it grow and gain and give" — 

The health of body was gone those last years, but the 
health of mind and spirit remained until the end. Un- 
til the end she held the controlling lines of her great 
work. She lived to see it grow and gain and give, and 
we like to believe that she knows now that, beyond any 
growing and gaining and giving that the mortal eye 
could see there is a growth and gain and giving of the 
spirit that shall pass her work on to the children of 
men, eternally. 

Savannah, Georgia, October 7, 1912. 



86 



THE KINDERGARTEN -PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



TRAINING SCHOOLS 

News Items from Training Schools are Solicited 



A half course in games will be given at the Brook- 
lyn Training School for Teachers, conducted by 
Miss Ella I. Cass, October 8 to February 14, in- 
clusive. This is for Brooklyn and Queens kinder- 
gartners. There is no tuition fee for any of these 
courses. 

Miss Fanniebelle Curtis spoke October 21st to 
the Kindergarten Alumnae at the Brooklyn Train- 
ing School for Teachers on the organization of kin- 
dergarten mothers clubs. 

The New York Kindergarten Association has in- 
cluded in its course of graduate study a half course 
on kindergarten occupations, conducted by Miss 
Julia L. Frame, from October 8 to February 14, 
inclusive. 

Kindergarten teachers and others interested are 
invited by the New York School Kindergarten As- 
sociation to attend its public meetings, to be held 
at the Normal College, Park avenue and Sixty- 
eighth street, Manhattan, at 4 o'clock on the fol- 
lowing dates: 

Nov. 20 — The Montessori methods, Dr. Myron 
Scudder, Scudder Normal, New York, and lecturer 
of education, Rutgers College. 

Jan. 15 — Games, Miss Harriett Melissa Mills, 
kindergarten department, New York University. 

Feb. 19 — -"Co-operation Between Public Libraries 
and Kindergarten Work," Miss Anna Tyler, New 
York Public Library. 

March 19 — "How and Where to Secure Nature 
Materials," Mrs, Alice R. Northrup. 

The attention of kindergartners is especially in- 
vited to the two following courses, arranged at the 
request of the association, at hours practical for 
teachers: 

The Kindergarten Programme — A course of lec- 
tures, discussions, and reports by Professor Hill, 
Miss Moore, and Miss Brown, at Teachers College, 
Saturday, mornings at 10 o'clock. 

Playground Work — A course of lectures by Dr. 
Myron Scudder, director of the Playground Asso- 
ciation, at the Scudder Normal. 



The Chicago Kindergarten Institute has organized 
this year a Home making School, realizing that the 
woman's life should be directed by the serious, scientific 
spirit that controls a man's business career, and that a 
knowledge of home-making is more important to society 
than the higher education, so-called. This new depart- 
ure includes a study of the following subjects: 

Simple Housekeeping, Cooking and Domestic service. 

Special courses for mothers. 

Problems relating to childhood, character develop- 
ment, hygiene, ethics in the family, etc. 

Field Work, observation of children in nurseries, kin- 
dergartens., hospitals, etc. 



Miss Laura Fisher, director of the department of 
graduate study of the New York Kindergarten Associa- 
tion, and Miss Curtis, director of kindergartens, are 
giving a special course on the kindergarten program 
Saturday mornings. 

The course is designed especially for graduate kinder- 
gartners who are seeking a more scientific basis for the 
program. It will be adapted to existing conditions in 
public school kindergartens. 

As a result of a growing sentiment in favor of 
kindergarten in California, during the past year, 
there has been an unprecedented demand for kin- 
dergarten teachers, and graduates of the Oakland 
Kindergarten Training School of Berkeley are now 
filling positions in many cities in this state. To 
Los Angeles, San Diego, Coronado, Modesto, Lind- 
say, Sacramento, Alameda, Oakland and Berkeley 
the training school graduates have gone to fill po- 
sitions in free, private and public schools. 

This appreciation is not limited to this state or 
this country, however, for from the Hawaiian 
Islands and the Orient calls have come for teach- 
ers, and young women have been sent out in re- 
sponse to this demand. 

The large number of young women who applied 
for admission to the Oakland school this fall to fit 
themselves for the work with little children, is 
another indication of the growing appreciation of 
this method of child training. 



YPSILANTI. 

The Kindergarten Department of the Michigan 
State Normal College opened October 1st with an 
enrollment of fifty-nine. 

Miss Edith Dixon, Director of the Kindergarten 
of Woodruff School, resigned to take a position at 
Winona, Minnesota, and Miss Bertha Schwable, for- 
merly of Winona, accepted the position left vacant. 
Miss Schwable has studied at Teachers College, 
New York, and has had experience in Greenville, 
Ohio; Horace Mann School, New York; and the 
State Normal College at Winona, Minn. 

The Senior Class entertained the Faculty of the 
Department and the Junior Class at an informal re- 
ception Wednesday afternoon, October 2nd. 



NEW YORK. 

Miss Fanniebelle Curtis, director of kindergartens, 
announces that under the direction of the city su- 
perintendent, and with the co-operation of Miss 
Fisher, director of the graduate department of the 
New York Kindergarten Association, an experi- 
mental class in the Montessori method will be con- 
ducted at the Maxwell Kindergarten House. Dur- 
ing the experiment the class will not be open to 
observation. "Until we can give you the results of 
this experiment and its relation to our kindergarten 
work we ask that the Montessori material be not 
introduced in any of our kindergartens," she said. 



The average monthly salary of American school 
teachers in 1870- was $38.54. It is now $61.70, 



THE KINDERGARTEN- PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



87 




TRAINING SCHOOLS 

Cincinnati, Ohio.— The Cincinnati Kindergarten 
Training School opened an experiment station as a part 
of the home economics course for the benefit of house- 
wives perspective and actual. A correspondent states 
that every detail of housekeeping will be taught there 
from darning socks to the proper way to arrange for a 
formal dinner. How to tell good eggs, how to buy meat 
and still have enough left for potatoes, how to do a 
week's washing and iron it and still remain cheerful, 
how to take care of the baby when he and his teeth 
disagree and how to sweep a room gracefully are all in- 
cluded in the course. The station is a model hat in a 
fashionable part of the city. Cincinnati manufacturers 
have been invited to help out in the furnishing of the 
fiat with model labor saving devices. 

San Antonio, Texas — The free kindergarten and 
kindergarten training school under the supervision of 
Miss Elizabeth Moore and Miss Rachel Plummer, prin- 
cipal, are meeting with great success. 

Grand Rapids, Mich. — Fifty-five students have en- 
rolled in the Kindergarten Training school during the 
last week. Twenty-seven former students have return- 
ed for the senior diploma course. Among interesting 
features of the opening week were two lectures on "Nat- 
ure Study," delivered Thursday and Friday by Miss 
Frances Stearns of Central High school and Miss Edith 
R. Mosher of the forestry department at Washington, 



D. C. Thursday night the senior class under the leader- 
ship of the class president, Miss Stella Stillson, gave an 
informal party in honor of the junior students. 

A lecture to the senior class was given the Monday 
evening following by Grace E. Ellis and on Tuesday 
afternoon Charles Mills delivered a lecture upon "Play- 
ground Supervision." 



The kindergarten school recently launched by Dr. 
C. A. Ridley as a part of the institutional work of the 
Central Baptist Church, Atlanta, Ga., is attracting con- 
siderable attention. Dr. Ridley reports that out of a 
large class of little ones which gather each day in the 
Sunday school room of the church there are only three 
whose parents are able to pay the small charge of $3 per 
month. 



Miss Mary Ledyard of Los Angeles, who is under ap- 
pointment to the Foo Chow (China), Kindergarten sys- 
tem, said in an address before the Woman's Board of 
Missions that the field in China of the missionary of 
the future must be with the child. "The hope of any 
nation is with the child," she said, "and to influence 
China we must start with the child. I believe there is 
great promise for a great nation in kindergarten work 
in China. 



Miss Peek of Pittsfield, Mass., is now engaged in 
kindergarten work in Boston. 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINF 



BOOK NOTES 

The Expression Primer, by Lillin E Talbert, 'Pri- 
mary Instructor, Berkeley, Cal. The purpose of the 
"Expression Primer" is to make the child's first year 
with the printed page a joy and a delight; to. awaken 
not only a love for the charm of story, but to create a 
desire to share with others the thought the story page 
reveals. The child of six lives in the world of imitation 
and imagination expressing himself in action. It is 
his desire'to to do, to be. The nearer we build our text- 
books to the child's development, the nearer do we 
come to a perfect fulfillment of the law of growth. So 
the "Expression Primer - ' has been prepared with the 
following objects in view: To provide interesting mate- 
rial within the scope of the child's experience. To bring 
into play he child's ability. To place in the hands of 
the child material permitting a wide variation for oral 
expression. To eliminate that self-consciousness so 
prevalent in the intermediate grades, the cause of 
which, if rightfully understood, is centered in the first 
and second years of school life. 

Art Quartette, Modern Masters. By Hed wig Levi. 

This attractive and instuctive game, modelled upon 
the well-known plans of authors is a successor to the 
previous one published by Miss Levi, which followed the 
Old Masters. The one now under consideration contains 
60 cards producing pictures by 15 modern artists, each 
artist being represented by four pictures The life and 
birth dates of the artists are given and the titles of the 
pictures in both English and French. They are repro- 
duced with permission of the Berlin Photographic Co., 
and each card is a little work of ait. Teachers would 
find them useful for busy work in various ways. 

A Valiant Woman. By M. E., Author of "The Jour- 
nal of a Recluse." Cloth. 303 pps. Published by 
Thomas Y. Crowell Co., New York. Price $1,00, 
net. Postage 10 cents. 
The sub-title of this live book is "A Contribution to 
the Educational Problem," and every up-to-date edu- 
cator, whether or not in agreement with the views ad- 
vanced, will find the work of greatest interest. 

Among the subjects which claim attention are the 
kindergarten movement and wherein it is lacking, with 
special paragraphs on Rousseau, Pestalozzi, Froebel, 
and Mme. Montessori. 

How England Grew Up. By Jessie Pope. Cloth. 
224 pps. Price 75 cents, net. Published by Hough- 
ton Mifflin Company, New York and Chicago. 
The book consists of stories relating to the history of 
England, told in such a way as to interest, while in- 
structing, younger children. There are fifty-four stories 
in all, with a large number of illustrations. 

Indian Sketches, Pere Marquette and The Last of 
the Pottawatomie Chiefs. By Cornelia Steketee 
Hulst. Cloth. 113 pps. Price 60 cents Published 
by Longmans, Green & Co., Chicago, New York, 
and London. 
This little volume of historical sketches relating to 
the Indians has been prepared for the purpose of sup- 
plying children with some of the most beautiful and 
heroic stories connected with Indian life in the North ■ 



west Territory. The theory that history for children 
should make biography prominent is accepted by the 
author, and the volume is written largely with that aim 
in view. The author anticipates the probable criticism 
that her pictures of Indian life may be considered too 
romantic and too rosy. She declares, however, that 
she has pictured the Indians as Marquette, Petit, Cat- 
lin, and others saw them. 

Billy Popgun. By Milo Winter. Illuminated boards. 
61 large pages. Price l?2.00 net. Published; by 
Houghton Mifflin Company, New York and Chi- 
cago. 
The book contains eight stories for little folks, beau- 
tifully illustrated. A feature of the book is the charm- 
ing harmony between the text and the illustrations-, by 
the author-artist, Milo Winter, who in the judgment of 
many has struck a new note in American illustration— 
a note reminiscent of Rackham and Dulac, yet with an 
individuality which is peculiarly his own. 
Their City Christmas. A Story for Boys and Girls. By 
Abbie Farwell Brown. Illuminated cloth. 87 pps. 
Published by Houghten, Mifflin Company, New 
York and Chicago. 
This story of the unique experiences of two children 
who come from the coast of Maine to spend the Christ- 
mas holidays with some young friends in the city is 
one of the best Miss Brown has written. 
Best Stories to Tell Children. By Sara Cone Bryant. 
Illuminated cloth. 18 L pps. Price $2.00 net. 
Published by Houghton, Mifflin Company. 
The book contains 29 stories for little children, told 
in a most interesting way. There are 16 full page illus- 
trations in color. A most excellent Christmas gift. 



Peace Prize Contest. 

Under the auspices of the American School League 
open to pupils of all countries. 

Two sets of prizes, to be known as the Seabury Prizes, 
are offered for the best essays on one of the following 
subjects; 

1. The Opportunity and Duty of the Schools' in the 
International Peace Movement. Open to Seniors in 
the Normal Schools of the United States. 

2, The Significance of the Two Hague Peace Confer- 
ences. Open to Seniors in the Secondary Schools of the 
United States. Three Prizes of Seventy-five, Fifty and 
Twenty-five Dollars will be given for the three best 
essays in both sets. 

This Contest is open for the year 1913, to the pupils 
of the Secondary and Normal Schools in all countries. 



Miss Willette Allen was hostess at an informal 
reception yesterday at the Kindergarten Normal 
School, inviting Atlanta kindergartens to meet Miss 
Marion Gladwin. The occasion was a happy one, 
introducing an expert kindergartner recently from 
Westfield, Mass., and a two years' tour around the 
world, during which she studied her specialty from 
every standpoint. Of delightful personality, she 
was most cordially greeted, and may make her 
home here. 



THE 



MONTESSORI 
METHOD 

Of Scientific Pedagogy, as applied to child education in the"Children's Houses' 



By MARIA MONTESSORI, M. D. 



With important revisions and additions by the author. Translated by Anne E. Georg-e, 
Introduction by Prof. Henry W. Holmes of Harvard University. 

A complete, authorized translation of Dr. Montessori's famous book, expounding her 
educational philosophy, and explaining fully her method of child education. Prof. Holmes 
calls the system "remarkable, novel, and important," and says "for years no educationa 
document has been so eagerly expected by so large a public, and not many have better mere 
ited general anticipation." 

From "EDUCATIONAL REVIEW" 

"The most important contribution to educational thought that has appeared / 
in many years. . . . The great body of intelligent, alert teachers in this / 
country will find in the book a treasure-trove of wisdom and a manual of / 
education. Never before, I believe, has such a combination of genius, / 
inheritance, training, and experience been united as in this woman. . / 
If American teachers will read this book in the spirit of broad-mind- / 
ed fairness in which it is written they can get inspiration and illu- / 
mination as from no other that I know of." (Reviewed by Miss X 
Ellen Yale Stevens, Principal, Brooklyn Heights Seminary.) / stokes co 

-, xr . , ... . . , , X 443-449 Fourth Ave. 

With many lllustra ions from photographs S new york city 

$1.75 net; postpaid $1.90. / . Please"V n d me full descrip : 



FREDERICK A STOKES COMPANY 
Publishers New York 



HERBART HALL 

INSTITUTE FOR ATYPICAL CHILDREN 
Founded April 1, 1900, by Maximilian P. E. Groszmann. 



Maintained by the 

NATIONAL ASSOCIATION FOR THE STUDY AND EDUCATION 
OF EXCEPTIONAL CHILDREN 

This Institution is one of the activities of the N. A. S. E. E. C. and is intended solely for the 
different" child, the difficult child, the handicapped normal child— whether boy or girl. 

No feeble-minded, degenerate or otherwise low cases are considered. 

The object of this Institution is to 
Train the EXCEPTIONAL CHILD 

Whether overbright or somewhat backward, to be able later to compete with the average normal child. 

In addition to the ordinary branches, the course of study includes physical training, nature study, 
manual and constructive work, etc. Methods and equipment are based upon the most modern pedagogic 
principles. Medical care is a prominent feature of the work. 

HERBART HALL is the pioneer institution in this line of education. The Association main- 
taining it lays emphasisupon the needs of the misunderstood normal child in contrast to the overstimulated 
interest in the feeble-minded and abnormal. 

"Watchung Crest," the home of HERBART HALL, comprises over twenty-five acres of land 
and is situated on Watchung Mountain, a spur of the Blue Ridge, five hundred feet above sea-level, 
(four hundred feet above Plainfield). 

For terms, catalog and other information, address 

WALDEMAR H. GROSZMANN 

PRINCIPAL 

"Watchung Crest," Plainfield, N. J. 



THE SCHOOL* 

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THE TEACHERS HELPERS 



The Teachers' Helpers are without question the finest 
PLAN BOOKS for teachers published. They are 
edited by some of the ablest and most practical teach- 
ers in the country. They give programs, methods 
songs, drawing, and devices for ea h month !n the 
year, and are beautifully and profusely illustrated. 
Four books In the series; named Autumn, Winter, 
Spring, and Summer respectively. The Summer 
number covers work for the whole year and is larger 
than the others. Cover designs done In beautiful 
three-color work. Money refunded to any purchaser 
whc is not more than satisfied. 
PRICES; Each N-mber(excent Summer) $ .35 
Sumoier No. [larger than others] .50 
Send today for cepy or ask for further informa- 
tion. Address 

Teachers' Kelpsr, 

Department _ Minneapolis, Minn 



■ ■'■ . 




DECEMBER, 1912 



INDEX TO CONTENTS 


| 


How to Make Paper Chains, 


Dr. Jenny B. Merrill, 


90 | 


Saving the Children, 


Dr. W. N. Hailmann, A. M. 93 


May All Children Be Delivered From- 


_ 


95 


The Purpose of Kindergarten, 


Caroline D. A born, 


96 I 


Municipal Recreation Centers, 


Guy L. Shipps, 


96 


Fingers and Toes, 


. 


99 


Directions for Making a Christmas 






Booklet, 


Marguerite B. Sutton. 


100 


Dr. Merrill's New England Trip, 


. 


101 


The Committee of the Whole, 


Bertha Johnston, 


102 1 


Morals and Manners, 


. 


104 J 


A Year In the Kindergarten, 


Harriette McCarthy, 


105 j 


New Kindergarten Games and Plavs, 


Laura Rountree Smith, 


107 


Rhymes and Plays for December, 


Laura Rountree Smith, 


108 


Value of the Kindergarten, 


Lora B. Peck, 


109 


A Christmas Game, 


J. B. M , 


110 


The Snow Man, Finger Play, 


Laura Rountree Smith, 


I 1 1 1 


Young Mr. Red-Bill, 


Susan Plessner Pollock, 


111 


Gray, .... 


Mary Ellason Cotting, 


112 


Only A Nigger Baby, 


Chas. H. Shinn, 


114 


Making Toys, 


J B. M. 


114 


Industrial and Household Arts, 


Kathenne L. Kellogg, 


115 


Notes From the Commissioner of Edi 


L- 




cation, 


. 


115 


Hints and Suggestions for Rural Teach 


- 




ers, - 


Grace Dow, 


116 


Educational News, 


. 


117 


Personal Mention, 


. 


118 


Training Schools, 


- 


118 



Volume XXV, No. 4. 



$1.00 per Year, 15 cents per Copy 



1— ^\ • D f\ II Q I O T |\ A A O KRIS KRIKGLE JINGLES. By Effle Louise Koogle. Song» 

H" If K l^# ^1 H I ^5 I I Vl /A ^J of ^ he 9 hristmas tlme for young and old. A versatile collectio D 

^^*« ' ^^ ■ ' ■ ■ ■ *-* ' ' * r * * m * embracing Songs of the Christ Child. Songs of Jolly Saint Nick 

Songs of the Yule Tide, many old favorites almost forgotten," 
etc. There are solos and choruses abundant. The book will 
furnish ample provision for the Church or School Entertain- 
ment, or for any other occasion. This is the only collection of 
Christmas songs of this character. $2.50 per dozen, postpaid 
Sample. 25 cents. " " 




Tide ~~ 



Christmas-tide. By Elizabeth Har- 
rison. This Look will help mothers and 
teachers to give their children the right 
Christmas spirit and also help them in 
the wise selection of presents for children. 
In addition to Miss Harrison's Christmas 
talks and stories it contains a reprint of 
Dickins' beautiful Christmas Carol. 
Price, $i. Postage. 7c. 



The Coming of the Christ-Child. The story of the com- 
ing of Christ and of the first Christmas, told in such a way 
as to acquaint the child with the faces that figure most prom- 
inently in Madonna and Holy Family pictures. Well illus- 
trated ; 32 pages. Third grade. Price, 6c. ; postage, 2c. 

NEW CHRISTMAS RECITATIONS, DIALOGUES, SONGS, ETC. 

Thirty New Christmas Dialogues and Plays. By Clara J. 
Denton. This is the up-to-date book. For all grades. 175pps. 
New f re9h material. It will please you. Price 30c. 

The New Christmas Book. Right up to date. Sixty recita 
tions, 10 dialogues and exercises, 4 drills, 10 songs, some with 
music, 5 tableaux, 4 pantomimes, 50 quotations and a novel 
entertainment. 165 pages, 30c. 



A C>ristmas Play for the Tiny Folks ; May Day Play ; Easter 
Exercise; Memorial Day Exercises; Bargains for Scholars- 
A Closing Exercise; Christmas Stories; The Vegetable Par 
ty at Roy's ; Lazy Kitty ; The Reward of the Cheerful Candle : 
Memory Gems; Rhyme for Free Hand Cutting [Drawing and 
Seed Laying; Rice only 6c. postage ic. 

Christmas Chimes, with Kindergarten Exercises, 6c. 

Feast ol Lights, for Primary Classes, 6c. 

Christmas Crowns, 6c. 

Christmas Recitations, 6c. 

Select Readings and Recitations (or Christmas, thirty-two choice 
readings and recitations, ioc, postpaid. 

Filmore's Christmas Recitations and Dialogues— Very satisfac- 
tory. Prepaid ioc 

Fin de Siecle Christmas Exercises— Great variety. Postp'd 15c, 

CHRISTMAS DIALOGS, GUPTIIX'S ORIGINAL. By Eliza- 
beth F. Guptill. Few persons have the ability to write dialogs 
as successfully as the author of this collection. Here are many 
of her choicest productions. The contents are not only In- 
tensely Interesting, but the dialogs can be given anywhere, and 
with few requirements. For children of all ages. 25 cents. 

CHRISTMAS DIALOGS AND PLAYS. A superb new collection 
of strictly original dialogs and plays, all expressly for Christ- 
mas. Written by the most successful authors, such as Jean 
Halifax, Faith Dennlson and Catherine Wentworth Rothsay. 
Original, clever, appropriate, delightful. 25 cents. 
Christmas Celebrations 

The matter in this book is all new. 
It is by far the largest, choiei-taud best 
arranged collection for Christmas pub- 
li-hed. Three parts. Part 1 for Pri- 
mary Grades contains 1 acrostic, 4 dia- 
logues and exercises. Waiting for 
Santa (drill), 29 recitations, new songs, 
and 16 primary quotations. Part II, In- 
termediate Grades, has 1 acrostic, 6 dia- 
logues and exercises, Stocking Drill, 
3 new songs, 9 quotations. Part III, 
Higher Grades, contains 1 dialogue. Ev- 
ergreen Drill, 17recitations, 3 new songs 
the origin of Christmas, a Christmas 
Prayer, and eight quotations. The book 
also contains 4 tableaux for all grades. 
Illustrated. 160 pages. Price, as cents. 
CHRISTMAS PLAYS 
THE HIGHWAY ROBBERS. A play for twelve boys, by 
Eleanor Allen Schroll. Nine of the boys have speaking parts. 
Three larger boys appear only in the first scene, but have no 
•peaking part. This is a thrilling play for boys, teaching a 
rood lesson Impressively. Time — 20 minutes. Price 10 cents. 

A CHRISTMAS RAINBOW. A play for four girls and four 
boys, six or seven years old, by Adaline Hohf Beery. The chil- 
dren play Sunday-school, and at the close represent the rain- 
bow in tableau, in colors, with appropriate recitations and 
action. Time — 12 or 15 minutes. Price 10 cents. 

HOW SANTA CAME TO THE HOME. A play fer small 
Children, by Lizzie De Armond. The characters are Santa 
Claus and Brownies (about ten boys in all); also Pollle, Jennie, 
Fannie, and nine other little girls, and Miss Bessie. Time- 
It or 15 minutes. Price 10 cents. 

THE ORPHANS* CHRISTMAS EVE. 

»trls and boys, by Elizabeth F. Guptill. 
—20 minutes. 

A very interesting story (or plot) of two orphan children, 
who start out to find their uncle's home. They not only find 
It, but many cousins who welcome them to their Christmas 
••lehratlon. An Ideal play for children. 
Address The J. H. Shults Company, Manistee, Mich. 




iQinisTMA* 




. A. HOM ^. F J? B THE CHRIST. A play for eleven boys, by 
Adaline Hohf Beery. In this play the boys each contribute his 
services and his talent toward fixing up a suitable home for the 
Christ. Time — 12 or 15 minutes. Price 10 cents. 

THE SHIRKERS. A play for ten or more small children. 
Six small boys and girls represent Mother Goose's children, 
and four or more boys represent little Moon Men, and Santa 
Claus, by Elizabeth F. Guptill. Time — 15 minutes. Price 10 

SENDING A CHRISTMAS BOX. A play for six girls and 
one boy, by John D. McDonald. In this play the girls plan to 
send a Christmas Box to the missionaries, and are compelled 
to call In a boy to help pack the box and address it. An inter- 
esting play. Time — 12 or 15 minutes. Price 10 cents 

WHY CHRISTMAS WAS LATE. A play for small children, 
by Lizzie De Armond. The characters are Santa Claus, Brown- 
ies, Northwind, Jack Frost, Elves and Gnomes. Time — 12 or 
15 minutes. Price 10 cents. 

THE BROWNIE'S VACATION. A play for boys from seven 
to ten years, by Elizabeth F. Guptill. The characters are 
Brownies, seven in number, and Santa Claus. Time — 16 min- 
utes. Price 10 cents. 

CHRISTMAS BOOKLETS, f\ These are 4x3 ins. in 
size, contain four pages If beautifully embos'd 
in many colors on a tine fj\, a grade of cardboard. 
Each in separate envel- ope. Price, each, 2c. 

Per dozen, 20c. Postage, Ic. Per dozen, 3c. Ask'for 
No. 120b. No. 120c. is a similar booklet but size 3%x 
3 inches. No. 120d is also similar but size about 4% 
x2%. All are furnished in assorted designs. 

No. 121b. CHRISTMAS BOOKLETS 1 These are similar to 
above but much larger, some be- /|r> ing nearly 4x5 ins. in 
size. Many have beautiful cut- *4I, # outdesigris. Similar 
Booklets are frequently sold at from 8 to 10c. Only 4c 

Postage, Ic. Per dozen, 4-Oc. Postage. 4c. 

Mo. 122b. CHRISTMAS BOOKLETS ry These 
are the regular 10c. goods. Con- |%|"> tain 8 
pages, usually tied with ribbon or III.- cord. 
Each, 6c. Postage, Ic. Per dozen, wv " 6 5c, 
Postage, 4c. All have greetings, poems, etc. 

No. 123b. Same as above but oblong in shape, 
(open end.) Prices same as for No. 122b. 
ASSORTED BOOKLETS, 3c. These are|madeup 
of regular 3c, 4c. and 5c. booklets. Extra values. 
MORE EXPENSIVE BOOKLETS, We have some big bargains 
m these, ranging in price from 10, 15. 20, 25 and 30c, each. Why 
NOT do this: Send us the amount of money vou want to in- 
vest, tell us how many cards or booklets vou wish to buy and 
leave the selection to us. Your money will be returned if not 
satisfied, or goods exchanged if you prefer. 

~~ Little Folk Series. Each book oontalns 

16 pages and cover, beautifully bound in board" 
every page illustrated and printed in colors, con- 
taining appropriate verses, etc. "Tales of all kinds 
. f .c r u Ll £ tl & Mmd! ! • 'Little Jokes for Litte Folks," 
Short Stories for Little Boys and Girls". "Tiny 
Tinkles and Little Jingles": Regular price 10c 
each, our price only 5c each, postage 3c. 

Dainty Series of Beautiful Books. A 

series of large, beautiful books, for boys and girls, 
attractively bound in boards, with floral decora- 
tions; the subjects include; Honor Bright, Voyage 
of Mary Adair, Story of Joseph, Golden Apple, 
Mother's Little Man, Big Temptation, Princess 
Token, Our Soldier Boy. Size 6*4* 8%, a regular 
25c book. Having purchased these in large quan- 

ties we offer them at 15c each, postage 6c. 

Address The J. H. Shults Company, Manistee. Mich. 




CAN YOU DRAW? 



Onr Graduates 
Are Filling High Salaried Positions 

EARN $25 TO $100 PER WEEK 

in easy, fascinating work. Practical, Individual Home 
Instruction. Expert Instructors. Superior equipment. 
Founded 1899. Twelve years' successful teaching. 
Financial Returns Guaranteed. 

Complete Courses in Commercial, Fashion, Magazine, 
Book and Advt. Illustrating Newspaper, Cartooning, Let- 
tering, Designing, Show Card, Architectural Perspective, 
Photo Retouching, Normal, Color, General Drawing, etc. 

CD CC ARTIST'S OUTFIT of fine Instruments and 
rlILL supplies to each student. 

Write for particulars 
and Hftndsome Art Book. 

SCHOOLol APPLIED ART 

K 18 FINE ARTS BLDG. 

^Battle Creek, Mich 




RELIABLE KINDERGARTEN TRAINING SCHOOLS OF AMERICA 



Chicago 

Kindergarten 

Institute 



' Diplomas tfranted for Regular Kinderjfarlen Course' (two years), 
I and Post Graduate Course (one year). Special Certificates for 
) Home-malinj Course, non-professional (one year). 



Credit in connection with the above awarded by the University of 
Chicago. 
Mrs. Mary Boomer Page, 
Directors: Mrs. Ethel Roe Lindgren, 
Miss Caroline C. Cronise, 
54 Scott St., CHICAGO. For circulars apply to Chicago Kindergarten Institute, 64 Scott St. 



GERTRUDE HOUSE, 



Teachers College 

OF INDIANAPOLIS 

Accredited by State Board of Educa- 
tion. Professional Training for all grades 
of teaching. Two, Three and Four Year 
Courses. 
This College specializes in Kinder- 
garten, Primary and Intermediate 
Grade Teaching. 
Special classes in Public School Draw- 
ing and Music, Domestic Science and 
Art. and Manual Work. 

Send for catalogue. 

MRS. [LIZA A. BLAKER, President 

The William N. Jackson Memorial 

Building. 

23rd and Alabama Street, 

INDIANAPOLIS, IND. 



Mice Hart'c TRAINING SCHOOL 

IllldJ IIUIl J For Kindergartners 

3600 Walnut Street, Philadelphia 
Junior, Senior, Graduate and Normal 
Trainers' Courses. Five practice Kin- 
dergartens. Opens October 1st. 1912. 
For particulars address 

MISS CAROLINE M. C. HART 
The Pines, Rutledtfe. Pa. 



OHIO, TOLEDO. 2313 Ashland Ave. 

THE MISSES LAW'S 



Medical supervision. Personal attention 
Thlrty-flve practice schools. 
Certificate and Diploma Courses. 

MARY E. LAW. M. D.. Principal. 



Miss Cora Webb Peet 

KINDERGARTEN NORMAL TRAINING 
SCHOOL 

Two Tears' Course. 
For circulars, address 

MISS CORA WEBB PEET, 
Jfl Washington St., East Orange. N. 3 



PESTALOZZI-FROEBEL 

Kindergarten Training 
School 

509 S. Wabash Ave., Opposite Auditorium 

Mrs Bertha Hofer Hegner, Superintendent 
Mrs, Amelia Hofer Jerome, Principal. 
FIFTEENTH YEAR. 
Regular course two years. Advanced 
courses for Graduate Students. A course 
In Home Making. Includes opportunity to 
hecorae familiar with the Social Settle- 
ment movement at Chicago Commons. Fine 
equipment. Forcirculars and Information 
write to 
MRS. BERTHA HOFER-HEGNER, 

West Chicago, 111. 



THE HARRIETTE MELISSA MILLS 
KINDERGARTEN TRAINING SCHOOL 

j In Affiliation with New York University 

For information address 
J MISS HARRIETTE M.MILLS. Principal 

New York University Building 

| Washington Square, New York City. 

Kindergarten 

Courses given for credit at 

New York University Summer School 



KINDERGARTEN TRAINING SCHOOL 

Resident home for a limited number of 
students. 
Chicago Free Kindergarten Association 
H. N. Higinbotham, Pres. 
Mrs P. D. Armour. Vlce-Pres. 
SARAH E. HANSON, Principal. 
Credit at the 
Northwestern and Chicago Universities 
For particulars address Eva B. Whit- 
more, Supt., 6 E. Madison St., cor. Mich 
ave.. Chicago 



The Adams School 
Kindergarten Training Course 

(Two Years) 

Nine months' practice teaching dur- 
ing course. Address, 

The Misses Adams 
26 So. Clinton St., East Orange, N. J. 



THE RICHMOND TRAINING SCHOOL 

for Kindergartners 
Richmond, Va. 

Virginia Mechanics' Institute Building, 
Richmond, Virginia. 
Two years' training in Theory and 
Practice of Froebelian Ideals. Post- 
Gradual e Course, also Special Classes for 
Primary Teachers. 

LUCY S. COLEMAN, Director. 
MRS. W. W. ARCHER, Sec. and Treas. 



1874— Kindergarten Normal Institutions— 191 1 

1516 Columbia Road N. W., WASHINUTOls D. C. 

The citizenship of the future depends on the children of today. 

Susan Plessner Pollok, Principal. 

Teachers' Training Course — Two Years. 

Bummer Training Classes at Mt. Chatauqua— Mountain Lake Park — 
Garrett Co.. Maryland. 



Oakland Kindergarten 

TRAINING SCHOOL 

2119 Allston Way, Berkeley.Oalif . 

Grace Everett Barnard, 



OWN A FARM 



Save while you earn. Invest your sav- 
ings in 

NUECES VALLEY 
GARDEN 

Lands in Sunny South Texas 

10 acres will make you independent. Pay 
by the month or in easy installments. 
Land will be sold to white persons only 
A postal'card will bring you particulars 
by addressing: 

W.R. EUBANK REATY Co. 

202-3 Merrick Lodge Bldg., 
Lexington, Ky. 



HOME OCCUPATIONS 



FOR BOYS AND GIRLS 

By BERTHA JOHNSTON 

"Mother finds some happy work for 
idle hands to do," is the idea that 
has been excellently carried out in 
this most excellent little volume. . . . 

16mo. Cloth. 50c, postpaid. 

GEORGE W. JACOBS & CO., 

Publishers. PHILADELPHIA 



RELIABLE KINDERGARTEN TRAINING SCHOOLS OF AMERICA 



Miss Wheelock's Kindergarten 
Training School 



134 NEWBURY ST. 
Boston, Mass. 



Regular course of two years. Special 
course of one year for post graduates. 
Students' Home at Marenholz. For cir- 
culars address, 



LUCY WHEELOCK 



Miss Annie Coolidge Rust's 2i s tYear 

Froebel School of Kindergarten 



COPIiEi SQ. 

Prepares for Kindergarten, Primary and 
Playground positions. Theory and practice 
ftrong. Special work under best educators, 
(iraduates are holding valuable positions. 
Circulars. 



Kindergarten Normal Department 

of the Kate Baldwin 

Free Kindergarten Association 
Savannah, Georgia. 

For Information, address 

HORTENSE M. ORCUTT, Principal of 

the Training School and Supervisor of 

Kindergartens, 328 Bull Street, 

Savannah, Georgia. 



Springfield Kindergarten 

Normal Training School 

Two Years' Course. Terras, $100 per year. 
Apply to 

HATTIE TWICHELL, 

""RINOFIELD — LONOMJBAnoW, M*SS 



Kindergarten Normal Department 

Ethical Culture School 



For Information address 

FRANKLIN C. LEWIS, Superintendent 

Central Park West and 63d est. 

NEW YORK. 



Atlanta Kindergarten 

Normal School 

Two Years' Course of Study. 
Chartered 1897. 
For particulars address 

WILLETTE A. ALLEN, Principal, 
s«9 Peachtree Street, ATLANTA, GA 




BOWLDEN BELLS 

FOR SCHOOLS 

From $8.00 to $25.00 

FOR CHURCHES 

From $-25.00 to $125.00 

Write for free 

catalogue. 

AMERICAN BELL & 

FOUNDRY CO. 

Nort.hvillG, Mich 



■CHICAGO- 



KINDERGARTEN 

COLLEGE 

SUMMER TERM 

June 18 Aug. 9 

KINDERGARTEN COURSE 



All Kindergarten subjects. Credits 
applied on Freshman and Junior years 
if desired, 



PRIMARY COURSE 

Primary Methods 

Handwork 

Art for Primary Grades. 

Credits applied on regular Primary 
course if desired. 

Send for folder giving full informa- 
tion. 

5-1200 MICHIGAN BLVD. 

CHICAGO, ILL. 



PRATT INSTITUTE 

Schoolof KindergartenTraining 

Brooklyn, N. Y. 



ners and Mothers. Froebel Educational 
Theories; Plays with Kindergarten Ma- 
terials; Games and Gymnasium Work, 
Outdoor Sports and Swimming; Child- 
ren's Literature and Story Telling; Psy- 
chology, History of Education, Nature 
Study, Music and Art, Model Kinder- 

6arten for Children; Classes for "Older 
hildren in Folk Games, Dances and 
Stories. 

ALICE E. FITTS, Director 

Year of 1912-13 opens Sept. 30. 



KINDERGARTEN DEPARTMENT 

PITTSBURGH TRAINING SCHOOL TOR 
TEACHERS 

formerly 
PITTSBURGH AND ALLEGHENY KINDER- 
GARTEN COLLEGE. 
ALICE N. PARKER, Director. 

Regular course, two vears. Post Grad- 
uate course, one vear. Twenty-first 
year began September 3, 1912. Address 

Mrs. Wm. McCracken 
Colfax B'.dg. William Pitt Blvd. Pittsburgh, Pa. 



Kindergarten Training School 

Of the Buffalo Kindergarten Association. 
Two Years' Course. For particulars ad- 
dress 

MISS ELLA C. ELDER 
86 Delaware Avenue, ■ Buffalo, N. V, 



Connecticut Froebel Normal 

Kindergarten Primary Training School 

Academic, kindergarten, primarvand 
plavground courses, Hoarding and day 
school. Extensive facilities for thor- 
ough and quick work. 14th vear. Book- 
lets. State certificates. Address. 

MARY C. MILLS, Principal. 
181 West avenue, Bridgeport, Conn. 



PTTSBURGH AND ALLEGHENY 



KINDERGARTEN COLLEGE 

Regular course, two years. Special ad- 
vantages for Post-Graduate work. 
Fourteenth Year 
For catalogue address, 
MRS. WILLIAM McCRACKEN, Secretary, 

3439 Fifth Avenue Pittsburgh, Pa. 



GRAND RAPIDS KINDERGAR- 
TEN TRAINING SCHOOL 

CERTIFICATE. DIPLOMA AND 
NORMAL COURSES. 

CLARA WHEELER, Principal 

MAY L. OGILBY. Registrar 

Ihepard Building, - 23 Fountain St. 

P.RAM) RAPIDS. MICH. 



■CLEVELAND. 



Kindergarten Training School 

IN AFFILIATION WITH THE 

National Kinderg-arten Colleg-e 
2050 East 96th Street, Cleveland, Ohio 

Founded in 1894 
Course of study under direction of Eliz- 
abeth Harrison, covers two years in 
Cleveland, leading to Senior and Nor- 
mal Courses in the National Kinder- 
garten College. 

MISS NETTA FARRIS, Principe! 



ADi 111 a forty-page booklet 
y\ A N and Our Wor shop, an 
I Lmi i]i us t r ated folder, will 
give the enterprising- teacher a world 
of information about the demand for 
teachers in the South, the field of the 
greatest promise in America to-day. 
Get them for the asking. 

W. H. JONES, Mgr. 

Southern Teachers' Ag-ency, 

Columbia, South Carolina. 



Valuable Helps for Teachers 

School Room Exercises, a book filled 
with hundreds of primary plans, pre- 
paid, only ... - 50c. 

With New Jersey School News, one 

year, only - - - 60c. 



New Geography Game with School 
News, one year - - 50j 



The School News, New Egypt, N. J. 



AGENCIES FOR KINDERGARTNERS AND PRIMARY TEACHERS 

'"THIS list of Teachers' Agencies is published for the benefit of our subscribers. It includes only those who claim to be able 

to secure positions for Kindergartners or Primary Teachers. We advise those in need of positions to write one or more 

of these agencies for particulars. Even though now employed you may be able to secure a position in a larger or better school. 



The TEACHERS' EXCHANGE of Boston 

Recommends Teachers, Tutois and 
Schools. No. 120 Boylston street. 



THE REED TEACHERS' AGENCY 

Can place Kindergarten and Primary 
Teachers in New York, New Jersey and 

H. E. REED, Manager, Syracuse, N. Y 
6*1 University Block. 



NORTHWESTERN TEACHERS' AGENCY 

310-311 PROVIDENCE BUILDING 
DULUTH, MINN. 



Kindergartners and Primary Teachers 

Are in constant demand in the South at 
good salaries. We can place both. 

The Teachers 3 Exchange 

P. O. Box 283, Nashville, Tenn. 



THE PRATT TEACHERS' AGENCY 

Recomends college and normal gradu- 
ates, specialists, and other teachers to 
colleges, public and private schools, in 
all parts of the country. Advises pa- 
rents about schools. 

WM. O. PRATT, Manager 
70 Fifth Avenue New York 



MIDLAND SPECIALISTS AGENCY 

Station A. Spokane, Wash. 

We will have openings for a large num- 
ber of Primaryand Kindergarten teach- 
ers. No enrollment fees. Blank and 
booklet for the asking. 



REGISTER WITH US. 

We need Kindergarten Teachers, Supt. 

Principals, Teachers of Science, Math 

ematics and "Language. 

OHIO VALLEY TEACHERS' AGENCY 

A. J. JOELY, Mgr. MENTOR, KY. 



ALBANY TEACHERS' AGENCY 

Provides public and private schools 
with competent teachers. 

Assists teachers and kindergartners 
in obtaining positions. 

SI Chapel Street. ALBANY. N Y. 



THIS IS THE TWENTY-FIFTH YEAR OF 

The ClARK TEACHERS' AGENCY 

Which proves conclusively its 

standing. Try them. Address, 

Steinway Hall, Chicago; Lincoln, Neb. 

Spokane, Wash. 



nUIADIE TCArUCnO ATClirV O ur OPPORTUNITIES for placing 

RELIABLE TEACHERS AGENCY Y dergar T an ^ Pr r ry Tea r hers 

exceed our supply. No charge until you 
id Kindergarten accept position. 

embership. " w'rTte to'-day er ~ i Lewis Teachers* Agency 

Majestic Building, 41 Lyman Block, Muskegon, Mich. 

Oklahoma City, Okla. I 



INTERSTATE Teachers' Agency CENTRAL TEACHERS* AGENCY 



501-503 Livingston Building. Rochester, 
N. Y. Gives special attention to plac- 
ing Kindergarten and Primary Teach- 
ers in all parts of the United Statefe. 
T. H. ARMSTRONG, Proprietor. 



SOUTHERN TEACHERS' AGENCY 

COLUMBIA, S C. 

There is an increasing demand for Pri- 
mary Teachers and Kindergartners 
throughout the South. Our agency is 
one of the largest and bej-t known in 
this splendid territory for teachers. Ask 
for booklet, A PLAN. 
W. H. JONES, Manager and Proprietor. 



We wantKindergarten, Primary, Rural 
and otlierteachers for regularor special 
work. Highest salaries. Send for lit 
erature and enroll for the coming year, 

P. Wendell Murray, Manager. 



The J.D.Englc Teachers' Agency 

MINNEAPOLIS, MINN. 
A Placing Agency for Teachers. Estab- 
lished 20 years. Register for Western 
Kindergarten-Primary positions. Send 
for circular 



DEWBERRY 

SCHOOL 
AGENCY 

1892-1912 



CPECIALLY trained Kindergarten and Primary 
^ teachers in demand in the best schools through- 
out the South and Southwest. Teachers interested 
should get in touch with us. 

Address, R. A. CLAYTON, Manager. 

BIRMINGHAM, ALA. 



TEACHERS WANTING POSITIONS 

In Colorado, New Mexico, Arizona, Californ'a, Nevada, Utah, Washington, Ida- 
ho, Montana, Wyoming, North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska, Kansas, Okla- 
homa or Texas should write us at once. Our calls come direct from school boards 
and Superintendents. We place most of our teachers outright. THE ROCKY 
MOUNTAIN TEACHERS' AGENCY, 328 Empire Building, Denver, Colo. 
WILLIAM RUFFER, A. B., Manager. 



BANKTON TEACHERS' AGENCY 

M. DALTON, Manager, 
Lexington, Ky. 

No enrollment fee. Careful and discriminating service. 



COLUMBUS. OHIO. 
A good medinm for trained primary 
teachers to use in securing promotion. 
Write to-day. E. C. ROGERS, M gr. 



Sabins' Educational Exchange 

(Inc.) DES MOINES. IOWA. 

Wants to hear from kindergarten or 

primary teachers desiring places west 

of Mississippi river. Write fully. Will 

answer frankly. 



AN AGENOY is valuable in 
j-^m nvabinv I proportion to 
its influence If it merely hears of va- 
cancies and tells TUAT is some- 
yon about them I n« I thing, 
but if it is asked to recommend a teach- 



you 



C. W, BARDEEN, Syracuse, N. Y. 



year. Some Kindergartners. No charge 

until teacher is located by us. Send for 

registration blank. A. H. Campbell, 

American Teachers' Agency 

Myrick Building. Springfield, Mass. 



with opportunity at that critical mo- 
ment when each is in search of the oth- 
er, is set forth in our forty-page booklet 
telling all about the South as a field for 
Primarv and Kindergarten teachers. 
Get it. 

Southern Teachers' Agency 

Columbia, S. C. 



The South and West 

Offer good opportunities for Primary 
and Kindergarteti teachers. For infor- 
mation write CLAUDE J. BELL, 
Bell Teachers' Agency, 

Nashville, Tenn. 



Stick Laying : n 

Primary and 

iralS ho -Is. 

Price . 



The Tenth Gift ^ 

With this book and a box of sticl s any 
teacher can interest the little children. 

The work is fully illustrated. 
Also Rintf Laying in Primary SchooN. 
15c. Peas and Cork Work in Primarv 
Schools, 15c. 
All limp cloth binding. Address, 

J. H. Shults, Manistee, Mich. 



WILL CARLETON'S 



MAGAZINE 



EVERY WHERE 



Contains each month the latest Poems, Sketches, 
Editorials, and Literary Talks of Will Carleton, author 
of "Farm Ballads", "Farm Legions ", "City Festivals", 
"Over the Hill to the Poorhouse", etc. Each one brim- 
full of the same qualities that have made him world- 
famous. 

Contains each month poems by the greatest .woman- 
poet Margaret E. Sangster. Alsosome of the best work 
of other distinguished poets, 

Contains best of additional literature by popular 
authors. 

Contains ten complete Departments, each ably and 
interestingly edited. Handsomely Illustrated, and fine- 
ly printed in clear type on super-calandered paper. 

Price, $1.00 per Year. 10 cents a copy. 
SPECIAL — To any one mentioning in his or her 
letter this advertisement, we will send Will 
Carleton's Magazine for Six Monfhs, on receipt 
of Twenty-Five Cents. Address, 



EVERYWHERE PUBLISHING CO. 



BROOKLYN. N. Y. 



REMARKABLE CLUB OFFERS 



FOR 



Standard Magazines 



No' 1 i Educatorjournal $1.00 

I Primary Education 1.25 



„( Educator-Journal, 
~ ( Popular Educator 



_5 Primary Education, 
d ( Popular Educator 



$2.2? Both for $1.63 

$1.00 
1.25 

$2.25 Both for $ 1 .63 

$1.25 
1.25 

$2.50 Both for J2.00 




I can 



Do Effective Work" 

—equipped with 

Webster* 
New International 

Why not give your pupils a like opportu- 
nity to gain accurate, concise, up-to-date 
information from the highest source — the 

MERRIAM WEBSTER? 

Consider the advantages from using this new 
creation which answers with final authority 
all kinds of questions in language, history, 
geography, fiction, biography, trades, arts, 
and sciences. The New International is 
more than a dictionary in fact, it is an en- 
cyclopedia, equivalent in type matter to a 
15-volume set. 

400,000 Words Defined. 2700 Pages. 

6000 Illustrations. Cost $400,000. 
The only dictionary with the NEW DIVIDED 
PAGE, —characterized as "A STROKE OP 
GENIUS." Effective work demands the Best 
equipment. 

WRITE for Suggestions on the use of the 
Dictionary. — FREE. Mention this Journal 
and we will include a set of Pocket Maps. 

G.& C. MERRIAM CO., Springfield, mass. 

For nearly 70 years publishers of the 
GENUINE WEBSTER DICTIONARIES. 



THE EDUCATOR-JOURNAL CO. 

a* S. Sheridan St. Indiampolis, Ind 



The Kindergarten-Primary Magazine 
and the Oklahoma School Journal, both 
one full year, for $1.50. Address 

KINDERGARTEN MAGAZINE CO. 

MANISTEE, MICH. 




MADONNA AND CHILD 
Gabriel Max 




THE PERSONAL WELFARE OF THE KIN- 
DERGARTNER AND PRIMARY TEACHER. 



This department is devoted to the personal welfare 
of kindergartners and primary teachers, the purpose 
being to give advice which may result in assisting them 
to better positions, in doing better work, and appreci- 
ating more fully the sacredness and importance of their 
calling. 

Aside from the home and church there is no influence 
so strongly effective for the weal or woe of little chil- 
dren as the kindergarten and primary schools. It is 
really hard to fully comprehend the importance and 
responsibility of this position, and while this has been 
said many times before, it is worth repeating if thereby 
even a single kindergartner or primary teacher is led 
to more fully comprehend just what her work means 
to the children in her charge. There are two things that 
you need more than anything else. First, right attitude 
at all times, every day, toward your work and toward 
the children; and second, a deep insight into child na- 
ture, and the problems which kindergarten culture 
involves. No matter how great your aptitude for the 
work, you must study, think, examine, compare, and 
learn to comprehend results and their full meaning. To 
this end not only read but study your educational 
papers. 

If you attend a convention, select from the program 
the addresses and exercises that are likely to help you 
most in your work with the children. Then be on 
time. Have note book and pencil. Write down every 
thought likely to prove helpful. Then preserve your 
note book and consult it from time to time. Sift every- 
thing that you hear, with a view to getting out of it 
that which can help you most. It is usually true that 
in educational meetings all of the theories advanced 
are not practical, at least in a general way. Your 
qualifications as a kindergartner or primary teacher 
will be greatly advanced when you can successfully sift 
out that which is good, and apply it to your work. 

Do not be discouraged because your work seems to 
fall so far short of the ideal, but be ever on the alert 
to know wherein you have failed to reach the standard, 
and try to determine what change is necessary to bring 
this desired result. Keeping "everlastingly at it," gain- 
ing just a little today, and a little tomorrow, falling 
back possibly some days, apparently, for the reason 



that no work with children in the hands of the ordinary 
teacher is likely to be continuously progressive. Dis- 
couragements will come, and the ability to remain hope- 
ful when hope seems hopeless, to do the work to the 
best of your ability when conditions and circumstances 
seem to indicate failure, is a quality that will help you 
over many hard places. 

As soon as you feel yourself qualified for a more 
responsible position, or one where you are likely to 
accomplish more, we should advise you to take up the 
work of securing one. If this position must come 
from some locality outside your immediate environ- 
ment we advise you to write to a reliable teachers' 
agency, a list of which will be found on another page, 
which is published for the special benefit of kinder- 
garten and primary teachers. They will perhaps require 
a percentage of your salary for a short time as com- 
pensation for their work, but an active teachers' agency 
has many opportunities for securing positions which is 
not likely to be open to you as a kindergartner or 
primary teacher, and if the new position commands a 
higher salary the charge of the agency may really 
prove a gain and not an expense. 

The demand is usually for experienced teachers, and 
every year of successful experience will improve your 
chances for a better position. 

Having secured a place involving a higher quality of 
work the important thing is to especially qualify your- 
self for taking it up. Get all the information you can 
relative to the position. Endeavor to comprehend just 
what the work involves, what will be expected of you, 
and what you must accomplish in order to succeed, and 
then bring every aid possible to your assistance. Be- 
fore the term opens, have your plans carefully thought 
out, which, however, should be subject to modification 
when experience indicates that this is advisable, and 
you are likely to succeed. 

In fact, if we were to look upon the profession of 
a kindergartner or primary teacher in a purely com- 
petitive way, we should be forced to admit that there 
are so many half efficient people in the school work, 
those whose interests are not fully given to it, who 
seem to have no real definite purpose, that success is 
almost certain to any kindergartner or primary teacher 
who possesses good health, and ordinary ability, and 
who really wants to succeed bad enough to fulfill the 
necessary conditions for success, as outlined above. 




THE KINDERGARTEN 



-PRIMARY- 



MAGAZINE 



Published on the first of each Month, except July and Aug- 
ust at Manistee, Mich., U. S. A. Subscription price, $1.00 per 
Annum, postpaid in U. S., Hawaiian Islands, Phillipines, Guam, 
Porto Rico, Samoa, Shanghai, Canal Zone, Cuba, Mexico. For 
Canada add 20c. *nd all other countries 30c, for Postage. 

J. H. SHULTS. Manager. 




VOLUME XXV, NO. 4. 

EDITORIAL NOTES 

Every kindergartner will be interested in 
the article by Dr. W. N. Hailmann, elsewhere 
in this issue. 



"Education, detection, control," should be 
the watchwords of the campaign against tu- 
berculosis, according to the Chicago Tubercu- 
losis Institute. 



So important has domestic science instruc- 
tion become in Germany that a special "Do- 
mestic Science Dictionary" has been issued 
for the use of teachers and others interested 
in education for the home. 



In the Public Schools of Stavenger, Norway, 
an American dental graduate has fitted up a 
dental clinic, and twice during the school year 
children have their teeth examined. If defects 
are found, the child is given a card which is 
taken home to the parents, asking their con- 
sent to treatment, which is done free of charge. 



"We need more doctors of public health 
than mere doctors of medicine," says Dr. F. 
B. Dresslar in a bulletin : "The duty of the 
State in Medical Inspection of Schools," just 
issued by the United States Bureau of Educa- 
tion. Dr. Dresslar pleads earnestly for the 
kind of medical inspection that seeks to pro- 
mote health rather than that which hunts for 
ill-health. "Our system of paying doctors to 
do something for us when we are sick ought 
to be largely discarded for the Chinese system 
of paying them to keep us from getting sick." 



"Yale in China," the collegiate school and 
hospital in Changsha, Hunan Province, China, 
intends to have its buildings representative of 
the best in western civilization. Particular 
attention is paid to hygienic and sanitary ar- 



DECEMBER, 1912 

rangements. Among suggestions that are re- 
ceiving careful consideration is one from the 
United States Bureau of Education. Experts 
in the Bureau have urged that the boys' dor- 
mitory be equipped throughout with outdoor 
sleeping-rooms. It is declared that in this 
way the school will not only be able to get ten 
per cent more work out of the boys than it 
would otherwise, but "it will proclaim to the 
Chinese youth and to the world at large the 
value of fresh air." 



"The laboratory method applied to the 
teaching of law," not unfairly describes the 
experiment of the Catholic University of 
Washington, D. C, where a real court room, 
with all the apurtenances : desks, railing, jury 
box, witness stand, etc., has been fitted up for 
holding moot courts. Attendance upon court 
is compulsory for all students in the law 
school. The presiding judge is a member of 
the faculty, but most of the officers of the 
court are students in the school. 



The Philippine government, through its bu- 
reau of education, has taken an important step 
in the industrial development of the people of 
the Islands. By establishing the School of 
Household Industries at Manila, the govern- 
ment hopes to introduce into the homes s-^v- 
eral industries which will add materially 
the income of thousands of families. Several 
hundred women from all parts of the Philip- 
pines receive instruction in special industries 
at the school. After finishing the course they 
return to their native towns and teach other 
women to make at home things for which 
there is a market. Embroidery and lace- 
making are receiving first attention, since the 
government sees most direct commercial ad- 
vantages in these two arts. 



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THE KINDERGARTEN- PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



HOW TO APPLY KINDERGARTEN PRINCIPLES AND 
METHODS IX VILLAGE AND RURAL SCHOOLS 

HOW TO MAKE PAPER-CHAINS. 

Dr. Jenny B. Merrill 
IV. 

The equipment for making chains of paper 
was stated in the preceding article. 

Let us imagine a little group of children ready 
for the first lesson. What materials should be 
given out? To each child one strip of paper an 
inch in width and five or six inches in length. 
The strips should be rather wide and long at first, 
but may vary with the age and ability of the 
children. Later half and quarter inch strips are 
used. 

Without any other material begin. The teacher 
takes up one strip, saying, "Look !" She forms 
a ring over her finger and holds it so all can see. 
"What is it?" She lets go of the ends and they 
fly apart. "How can I make the strip stay 
round in a ring?" "Pin it?" "No, paste it." 
The teacher very carefully with a splint takes a 
very small speck of paste and says, "Watch where 
I put the paste." She holds the ends for a few 
seconds without saying a word. Then she lays 
the ring down quietly, she makes another one, 
and possibly a third, not linking them. This les- 
son will be confined to making rings. The paste 
is now passed by an older child. A short splint 
or tooth pick lies on the card which holds the 
paste. 

At first the cards holding paste may be given 
out by one or two of the more responsible chil- 
dren. Still, it should ever be borne in mind that 
to learn to wait on yourself is an education, and 
a little more time given to such work will develop 
responsible children in the end. 

If classes are large, older children will be well 
pleased to help in getting the paste out ahead of 
time, but all should learn in turn. It it best to 
use well cut pieces of stiff paper or card to hold 
the paste, and to throw these away after each 
lesson. I prefer splints to tooth-picks, as it is 
hard for a child to work with too small a tool. 

Without further explanation say, "Children, 
make five rings with your strips and lay them in 
a row for me to see. when I come back. Each 
child may count out five more strips from the 
table. Keep them in your box lids." As children 
may get sticky fingers and wipe them upon their 
clothing or put them in their mouths, it is a wise 
precaution to furnish a small square of muslin, 
or even better, pieces of tissue paper for the pur- 
pose. 

I have analyzed this very simple lesson very 
closely for beginnings are important and much 
bungling will be saved by beginning carefully. 



Still we learn to do by doing, and let us leave 
this little group to make rings or to "make mis- 
takes." Those who are timid will watch the 
others, and one child may not even venture. 
Longer strips will make bracelets and crowns. 
Little children love to "dress up" even in paper. 
Continue for several days to make rings, larger 
and smaller, placing them on fingers, on wrists, 
on heads and also afterwards on the desks in 
rows, counting them, noting their colors. After 
the first day, let the children choose their own 
colors. Yellow for gold will prove the favorite 
for rings. Some teachers prefer to use coated 
paper, that is paper white on one side and colored 
on the other, while others think it easier for the 
child to use at first what is known as engine col- 
ored paper colored the same on both sides. Test 
it and see for yourself. The engine colored has 
the advantage of being cheaper. 

To recapitulate, the object of this lesson is to 
make rings, not yet to link them. That is more 
difficult and may be reserved for several days. 
The second object is to familiarize the children 
with the materials and with handling them. To 
enumerate, there are strips, paste, a splint, a 
cloth or piece of tissue paper. The lid or platter 
will save much needless anxiety by holding all 
together. 

To respect "the ounce of prevention" con- 
tributes to good habits and to good discipline. 

Do not proceed further until the children know 
the material, can help themselves and make rings 
and bracelets galore while working alone. 

Colors and sizes in variety will create sufficient 
interest for a week at least, using the materials 
every day. Many kindergartners are giving up 
the idea that a different occupation is needed 
every day ! 

Children have "spells" with their playthings. 
Top time, rope jumping time, kite flying, marbles, 
all lead to vigorous play in their season. Let us 
have a spell of "making chains" until we accom- 
plish something and perhaps weary a little too. 

A SECOND STEP. 

Linking the rings is a very decided advance, 
but children are quick to work by observing, by 
imitation. Talk little. Take two rings up and 
join them with a third strip. Do it several times. 
Train the children to make many rings and fast- 
en two with a third. There will be a subconscious 
number lesson on twos and threes. Perhaps some 
thoughtful child, -or an ambitious one, may ask if 
he can fasten two threes together, or you as teach- 
er may say,would you like to have a long chain? 
Work away until I return. They will waste time 
measuring and comparing length. Never mind. 
This too is an important lesson. 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



9 1 



Miss Luella Palmer tells of a happy day in her 
kindergarten when the children themselves sug- 
gested uniting in one long chain the yellow chains 
they had been making, and the room seemed 
verily full of the golden sunshine of love and co- 
operation. The children felt the joy of united 
work and danced holding the chain. Then comes 
the decoration of the room. 

THE THIRD STEP. 

There will come a day when the children may 
advance by preparing the strips for making 
chains. 



as well as pasting. It would delay the making 
of chains in variety and length. Teachers must 
judge for themselves which course to pursue. 
Length is a fascination to a child. 

HOW TO VARY CHAINS. 

After learning how to link the rings, the same 
variations in number may be made as were sug- 
gested with the Hailman beads, that is, the colors 
may be grouped in twos and threes, etc. This 
holds the attention closer in order to avoid errors 
in counting. It produces pretty defects. 

An interest is awakened by conforming colors 




Chains of graduated lengtl 
window. 

Our strips are all used up. How can we make 
more? Fold and cut some of our squares. 
The work will advance more slowly but it will be 
more genuinely the child's own chain because he 
has put more labor upon it. 

A four or five inch square is folded, cut or 
torn in half. Each piece again is folded length- 
wise and torn or cut in half. The torn edges are 
soft and more pleasing to the artistic eye than 
the hard cut edge. 

I have called this a third step, but some teach- 
ers prefer to begin with it. It has the advantage 
of being economical, for the paper lasts longer, 
furnishing lessons in folding, cutting or tearing 



used to decorate a window — 
Irawn back. 

to the holidays and seasons. Following the year, 
alternate yellow or orange with brown strips for 
the harvest chain decorations. Alternate green 
and red for the Christmas festival, the holly 
giving the colors suggestion. 

Make snow white chains in January and upon 
birthdays. Spring calls for dainty greens, violets 
and yellows as the flowers appear. Use red, 
white and blue for national holidays only. A 
rare treat will be a rainbow chain ! 

With paper chains the variations will be in 
color rather than in number, but if no Hailman 
beads are used, more number work may be intro- 
duced with these chains. In doing so, I suggest 



02 



THE KINDERGARTEN -PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



that one color as blue alternate with white. Color 
is distracting and should be subdued when num- 
ber is the main consideration. (Three white — 
ee blue ). 

Kindergartners have been criticized for using 
festoons of paper chains too freely in their deco- 
rations and for keeping them up too long. Paper 
chains become dusty and are therefore unhygi- 
enic. Remove them after a week, possibly at the 
close of the week ; cut them in short lengths and 
give them to the children to take home as memen- 
toes of a festival. Chains of graduated lengths 
are pretty for curtains. 

A FOURTH STEP. 

As the year advances and the children have 
acquired power in different ways, other paper 
chains are sometimes made, as a chain of bells 
for Christmas. 

The bells are first made by the children from 
half or quarter circles. The cone shape of the 
bell can easily be made by overlapping the straight 
edges of the quarter circle. Bells are made of 
different colors and strung on worsted, pushing 
the bells a considerable distance apart. Training 
of the eye in judging equal distances becomes 
part of the exercise. 

These bell chains make pretty festoons over 
the blackboard or on the Christmas tree. 

As spring brings flowers, we often imitate as 
well as we can a few simple flowers, as the daisy, 
the morning glory or the violet, in paper, using 
twisted green tissue paper for the thread to hold 
the flowers, or green worsted. 

These chains are used in May day decorations 
and give much pleasure. We all recognize that 
nature's own flowers are more desirable, but 
why some kindergartens object to imitating 
nature in this way is a mystery to me. City 
children could rarely have flower chains, if 
at all, unless they make them in this way. I know 
the joy they give the city child and plead for 
them. 

A genuine artistic kindergartner can make the 
little fingers quite skillful in the use of tissue 
paper for violets and produce charming May 
baskets. Circular pieces of tissue paper can be 
crushed from the center to make several kinds of 
flowers. Use invention. 

I have said nothing of alternating short straws 
with paper circles and squares. This is a 
form of chain quite popular. Straw can 
easily be obtained in the country and cut 
into inch lengths. Parquitry paper is used for 
these chains. Daisies are also used effectively 
between these straws. Green straws add to the 
effect. A white circle with a small yellow circle 



pasted on one side and a small green one for the 
calyx on the reverse makes the daisy. The edge 
of the white circle may be slashed into petals. 
The green calyx was suggested by a kindergar- 
ten child. Such chains are rather nervous work 
for very young children, though light and pretty. 
Straw is a natural material and its glossy surface 
is shiny, smooth and beautiful. It is good for 
children to see and to touch it. To secure 
strength, coarser materials as maccaroni have 



been substituted, but they have no such charm 
as straw. I should avoid them. 

Cranberries and pop-corn are favorites for 
stringing. For a treat once in a season they are 
valuable especially if the children are allowed to 
pop the corn. Crushed balls of tissue paper in 
red and in white are sometimes used when pop- 
corn and cranberries cannot be secured and at a 
distance the resemblance is good if the color is 
well chosen for red. When the topic for the 
week is "time," the watch-chain will be an appro- 
priate accompaniment. 

On birthdays often a love-chain is made for the 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



93 



birthday gift, every child contributing a few links 
for his little friend. 

Once a little boy was kept home many weeks 
from kindergarten. It was a happy surprise to 
have a love chain made by his favorite playmates 
with their names written on a card attached. This 
chain is now over twenty years old ! 
LINKING CHAINS WITHOUT PASTE. 
Advanced Work. 

By using flat double links, chains can be made 
of many interesting patterns by older children in 
the grades. When the idea is once caught, the 
link forms may be varied into hearts, leaves, 
fruits, pendants, etc. A very interesting chapter 
entitled "Paper Jewelry," which fully describes 
and illustrates such work is to be found in 
Beard's "Little Folks Handy Book." This sug- 
gestion may be helpful in preparing dress up 
costumes for dramatic work. 



It will soon be possible for any city school 
to have a drawing exhibit of national signifi- 
cance practically without cost. Dr. Henry 
Turner Bailey and Mr. Royal B. Farnum are 
preparing for the United States Bureau of 
Education an exhibit of the best examples of 
drawing and art work in the elementary, high, 
and normal schools of the United States, as 
well as one or two of the art schools. The 
exhibit is to be sent to any city desiring it 
upon payment of the cost of transportation 
from the city last using it. The transportation 
charges will be small. It will be ready for 
shipment about January first, but cities desir- 
ing it should make application at once to the 
Commissioner of Education, Washington, D. 
C, in order that it may be dispatched to as 
many localities as possible with the least ex- 
pense to each of them. 

Educators and parents who are skeptical 
of the value of examination marks will draw 
encouragement from the experiment recently 
conducted by Supt. Harry L. Eby, of Alliance. 
Ohio. An arithmetic test was given in the 
eighth grade, and Mr. Eby sent one of the 
papers to all the teachers in his system, with a 
request that they grade it as if it were of a 
pupil in their own classes. The resulting per- 
centages ranged from 40 to 93. In the eighth 
grade alone, where uniformity might have 
been expected, four teachers marked the paper 
50, T.j, 89 and 90, respectively. In other words, 
one teacher would have failed the pupil out- 
right; a second estimated him as only fair; 
and two others considered him practically in 
the 90 class. 



SAVING THE CHILDREN. 

By W. N. Hailmann, A. M., Ph. D. 

Among the cheering signs of the times the 
most promising is the deep unrest of the social 
conscience in every phase of life. More and 
more clearly is the life attitude of man swayed by 
the conviction that the suffering, the weakness, 
the wretchedness, the turpitude of one affect the 
happiness and character of all ; that the efficiency 
and welfare of the whole depend on the efficiency 
and welfare of each; that a common mutual re- 
sponsibility binds the life of each human being to 
the life of society and, far off, to the unfolding 
life of humanity. 

Every relation of life, therefore, is under in- 
vestigation. Everywhere we meet the question : 
Are we doing the best in the interest of all con- 
cerned? Are we sacrificing the future to the 
present or the present to the past? humanity to 
men? the end to the means? the essence to the 
incident? the reality to shadows? 

The time-honored cry of distress and higher 
aspiration, "What shall I do to be saved?" is 
steadily yielding to a deeper and nobler unrest 
in the hearts of men and women. In matters of 
education this finds outlet in a fervent search for 
answer to the question, "What can we do to save 
our children?" Tentative replies come in many 
forms, in word and deed; in mothers' clubs and 
mothers' congresses, in children's aid societies, 
in dairy and milk associations, in associations for 
the study and prevention of infant mortality, for 
the establishment of playgrounds, of day nurser- 
ies and social centers, in the growing interest in 
the medical inspection of schools, in child labor 
and vocational training and a host of other wor- 
thy movements. 

The "Century of the Child" so passionately 
prophesied by Ellen Key seems to be indeed upon 
us. In a wider though not in a deeper sense 
Froebel's admonition to parents, "Come, let us 
live with our children," is reaching the heart of 
humanity. The sense of universal parenthood 
with its precious responsibilities is being stirred, 
and with increasing alacrity the social conscience 
is responding to the appeal in many directions. 

Let us hope that more and more effectively the 
movement will reach the school itself in its 
scope, its equipment, its work, for great, indeed, 
is the need of such awakening. Here, more glar- 
ingly perhaps than in any other public interest, a 
wasteful parsimony, coupled with stubborn tra- 
ditional prejudice, and consequent ill adjustment 
of means to ends hampers efficiency and retards 
the progressive development of humanity by sys- 



94 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



tematic retardation in the development of child- 
hood and youth. 

There are, it is true, many evidences of im- 
provement. Indeed, when we compare the public 
school of today with that of fifty years ago, we 
are in danger of being caught in the meshes of a 
complacent optimism that benumbs efforts for 
further advance and that in time may become a 
factor in new retrogression. It is well, therefore, 
that we should from time to time survey our 
achievements in the light not only of past failure, 
but also and more assiduously, perhaps, in the 
light of ideals of higher perfection. 

It is possible here to indicate this in only a few 
phases of the work involved. Even in these we 
must limit ourselves to the kindergarten and, 
more especially to the kindergarten as connected 
with our larger public schools. 

Obviously, the fact that the kindergarten has 
found a place in these larger school complexes 
is to be hailed as a distinct mark of progress. Its 
beneficent influence upon the work of subsequent 
grades is all but universally acknowledged. It 
has brought to the work of the primary school, at 
least, elements of freedom, good will and joy in 
the life of children and teachers that even the 
school machine cannot ignore. 

Now, it is a notable fact that in matters of 
education the public as a whole still is strangely 
parsimonous. This is manifest not only in the 
relatively larger aggregate sums expended for 
transient pleasures and in the indulgence of cer- 
tain habits of questionable value, but also in the 
relatively lower esteem accorded to education in 
our larger social organizations. At Washington, 
the official entrusted with the interests of public 
education still holds a poorly endowed subordin- 
ate position and has no place in the official family 
at the White House in which material interests 
rule supreme. Similar attitude prevails, sporad- 
ically in less degree, in state and city organiza- 
tions. 

Under the pressure of such parsimony, admin- 
istration finds itself compelled to have recourse 
to "system," to deadening uniformities, the very 
antithesis of life which, while obeying every- 
where the same fundamental laws, delights in 
variety. Under its sway, each child is called 
upon to absorb in a given time a maximum equal 
share of what the school can afford to offer. In 
order to secure such uniformity, the school is 
ed to slight individual capacity and need, to 
standardize every phase of its work on the basis 
of criteria inherent, not in the child but in the 
material to be absorbed. Unwieldy masses of 
children must move in gangs or sections. Every 
measured step is dictated in order to steer clear 



of inconveniences of spontaneity and originality. 
And in order to guide underpaid and supposedly 
ill-equipped teachers, a hierarchy of special direc- 
tors is created for the various departments and 
sections of the work involved who frequently fall 
into the error of judging teachers on the ground 
of servility in obedience rather than of tact and 
skill in free adjustment to local and individual 
need. 

I am aware that the naked statement of this 
fundamental obstacle to the self-unfoldment of 
both child and teacher in the school must seem 
unjust in a number of individual cases. It may 
be safely claimed, indeed, that no instance can 
be adduced in which more or less earnest effort is 
not made to save the teachers and, through them, 
the children from the disastrous influences of the 
"system." Thoughtful supervising officials and 
hundreds of devoted teachers there are who labor 
assiduously and often with gratifying success to 
mitigate its pressure; here and there parenthood 
is aroused and stirring; a new educational litera- 
ture is in the field ; and to these efforts is due a 
growing willingness on the part of the public to 
yield needed support to the cause they represent. 
But much remains to be done. Divine discontent 
still has its burdens. 

To us, as kindergartners, comes specifically the 
question : Has the school exerted upon the kin- 
dergarten an influence corresponding in benefi- 
cence to that which the kindergarten, as hinted 
above, has exerted upon the school ? Indeed, this 
question appeals to us with double force. For, if 
it should appear that the school has had a retard- 
ing influence upon the character and spirit of our 
work, it would behoove us, on the one hand, to 
resist further encroachment and, on the other 
hand, to regain lost ground by all the means in 
our power. 

The detailed discussion of this question re- 
quires much testimony. The observation of a 
number of kindergartens taken at random or even 
of the kindergartens of a few cities would 
scarcely justify the drawing of general conclu- 
sions, much less the suggestion of a universal 
remedy. However that may be, it seems to me 
preferable at this stage of the inquiry merely to 
suggest in a few more or less random questions 
the directions which such an inquiry would have 
to follow. 

These and similar questions each kindergartner 
may apply to her own case. Collectively, where 
the "system" permits such freedom, the answers 
may be discussed, the cause of possible short- 
coming determined, and remedy sought and 
found. Even where this might prove not feasible, 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



95 



lieve kindergartners and their leaders of the 
possible obsession that perfection has been 
reached ; and this in itself would furnish an un- 
failing factor of improvement. 

If, further on, impelled by the kindergartners, 
naturally nearest the heart of childhood, thought- 
ful women and men join them in urging the reme- 
dy, as they joined us in the early history of the 
kindergarten in securing its adoption, the vitaliz- 
ing influence of the educational principles so con- 
vincingly set forth by Pestalozzi and Froebel will 
gain new impetus, and the social conscience 
aroused to its responsibility will find its richest 
field of action in the work of "saving the chil- 
dren" in the generous uplift of public education. 

The questions follow without further comment. 
Replies from kindergartners and others will be 
welcomed and gratefully appreciated as furnish- 
ing light and guidance in thought and action. 

Do I find myself compelled to ignore the evi- 
dent need and legitimate interest of the child in 
obeying the requirements of the "system?" Do 
the requirements of the "system" interfere with 
due regard for local conditions and needs ? Does 
the program under which I am expected to work 
aid or hamper me in securing spontaneous and 
sustained interest in the children's play and 
work? Am I sufficiently free to encourage vari- 
ety in self-expression, or do I find myself forced 
to insist upon uniformitv in what thev say and 
do? 

In view of the number of children w'.th whom 
I have to deal, do I find myself sufficiently able 
to respect spontaneity, originality and free self- 
expression on the part of the children ? To what 
extent am I compelled to resort to repression and 
dictation in the work of my children? To what 
extent am I compelled to have recourse to hyp- 
notic suggestion, instead of giving aid in the at- 
tainment of spontaneous purpose? Is there suf- 
ficient opportunity for free social group-work in 
which each member of the group can test his 
value and contribute his relative best? 

To what extent am I compelled to have re- 
course to artificial devices in efforts to secure ex- 
ternal order in work or game? To what extent 
does verbal information-giving enter in morning 
talks, story, etc. ? To what extent does more or 
less compulsory "showing off" enter as a factor 
in my work? How much of the play-work of 
the kindergarten do the children take into their 
life in free play? Are we, the children and I, 
nervously exhausted or refreshed and strength- 
ened by the kindergarten period ? 

Does the fact that my kindergarten is connect- 
ed with a large public school and housed in the 



same building interfere with the required free- 
dom in its work ? Does it interfere with garden 
work and open air exercises, with free play in its 
in-door home, with the selection and succession 
of exercises, with opportunities for observing 
the things of nature and of life ? Am I expected to 
give more attention to the preparation of the 
children for their subsequent work in the school 
or to their natural and vigorous self-unfoldment 
in "freedom, good will, and joy?" 



MAY ALL CHILDREN BE DELIVERED 

From teachers who teach not themselves. 

From teachers who have forgotten their 
youth. 

From teachers who call curiosity cussed- 
ness. 

From teachers who do not take several 
educational journals. 

PYom teachers whose voices have but one 
key and but one inflection. 

From teachers whose zeal is not above 
refrigerator temperature. 

From teachers whose work is merely 
thought out, but never felt out. 

From teachers who see another's pros- 
perity through green spectacles. 

From teachers who have lost (or have 
never had) faith in God and little children. 

From teachers who tell themselves that 
the needs of their pupils are proportional 
to their salaries. 

From teachers who affirm that "morn- 
ing exercises" are unnecessary; that "rest 
periods" consume too much time; that 
"America" is worn threadbare; that the 
daily display of our country's flag renders 
it too common. 

— Exchange. 



"Beauty of achievement, whether in over- 
coming a hasty temper, a habit or exaggera- 
tion, in exploring a continent with Stanley, or 
guiding well the ship of state with Gladstone, 
is always fascinating; and whether known in 
a circle large as the equator, or only in a fam- 
ily circle at home, those who are in this 
fashion beautiful are never desolate, and some 
one always loves them. Beauty of reputa- 
tion is a mantle of spotless ermine in which, 
if you are but enwrapped, you shall receive 
the homage of those about you, as real, as 
ready, and as spontaneous as any ever paid to 
personal beauty in its most powerful hour." — 
Frances E. Willard. 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 







THE KINDERGARTEN=PRIMARY MAGAZINE 










CURRENT EDUCATIONAL THOUGHT 

FROM SUCCESSFUL AMERICAN EDUCATORS 



THE PURPOSE OF KINDERGARTEN. 

Caroline D. Aborn. 

More than fifty years ago there was introduced 
in America a system of education for children under 
school age — the kindergarten. During this time 
various educational theories have been emphasized, 
each having distinct merits yet none, to my mind, 
fulfilling the purpose of child training as well as 
the kindergarten. Changes and improvements have 
naturally been made, as we have gained a deeper 
knowledge of child-nature and its needs, but funda- 
mentally the kindergarten is in accord with the 
most advanced educational thought. 

The day nursery, where young children can be 
cared for — fed, amused, put to bed — is a great bless- 
ing to mothers who must help earn a living for 
their families. But the kindergarten does more 
than attend to the child's physical needs and amuse 
him. It offers opportunity and materials for the 
child to experiment with — blocks, sticks, paper, pen- 
cils, scissors, sand and clay, all of which appeal 
to children the world over. Playing with these 
objects, he discovers their possibilities and ways 
of expressing his own ideas and fancies. The kin- 
dergartner's part is to guide the child's play so that 
it may lead to something definite, instead of remain- 
ing desultory and capricious. And so it comes to 
pass that the child develops his muscles and his 
mind, through the exercise of h : s own powers, in 
play. 

The playground is becoming increasingly recog- 
nized as an essential and educational equipment for 
every city. The great lesson of "law as a means 
of freedom" is nowhere better taught than in well- 
d'rected and orderly play. The playground offers 
a splendid field for the child to realize for himself 
the value of law, and is a valuable means for pre- 
paring boys and girls for good citizenship. I feel 
that I am not claiming too much when I say that 
the playground, with its supervised play, is not a 
substitute for, but an outgrowth of the kindergarten. 

The Montessori method, it is cla'imed, "develops 
individuality, the mastery of self, the growth of 
independence, the recognition and use of the 
senses." There is no divergence here between the 
goal of the Montessori school and the kindergarten. 
The true kindergartner studies her individual child 
and opens the way for him to develop through cre- 
ative work. As he models in clay, as he draws 
freely in his attempts at representation, as he makes 
his own crude designs with paper, worsted and 
other material, his power to express his own ideas 



is increased, and he begins to see the world of 
objects in a new way. The kindergarten takes 
another step when it emphasizes the social, as well 
as the individual self. In the group work the child 
must, for a part of the time, subordinate personal 
whim and impulse to the common task. Through 
recognition of another's skill he is stimulated to 
better endeavor and self-mastery. 

The handling of objects of various sizes and 
shapes, noting their characteristics and the sorting 
of these objects in relation to color, form and size 
is, in itself, a training of the senses. Games which 
test the senses of touch, sight and hearing are also 
common in the kindergarten. 

In conclusion it seems to me that no system 
or method for the awakening and development of 
the innate powers of the little child has yet been 
discovered which is so all-round efficient as the 
kindergarten. It is rich in its opportunities for the 
beginning of manual training and the stirring of 
the artistic sense; in its training for grade work 
through the development of such mental powers 
as attention, observation, judgment, concentration: 
in its emphasis on good habit formation; in its 
gentle insistence upon loving service for each other 
and in the training of the imagination which sees 
a "halo of possibilities" around the common things 
of life. — Boston Globe 



MUNICIPAL RECREATION CENTERS.* 

BY GUY L. SHIPPS. 

We have in this country a strong young movement ad- 
vancing the cause of playgrounds. We have in aggre- 
gate a large amount of playground equipment. It is the 
purpose of this paper to set forth that the children's 
playgrounds, now a visible fact in this country, form a 
part of a larger movement for the getting together of 
all people'. 

The kindergartners are peculiarly the group of edu- 
cators that have attempted consciously to use natural 
play to assist the unfolding of the bodily and mental 
processes. The principle upon which the kindergartner 
acts consists merely of a recognition of the simplest 
facts. In order to collate these facts, it is necessary to 
explore the instinctive acts of the mother which tend 
to complement the instinctive acts of the child so that 
various powers develop and differentiate themselves. 

Just as the discoverers of this system of early educa- 
tion examine the instincts of the mother, so society 
as a whole, in order to interpret itself, and to find prin- 
ciples of education and the basis of social relations, may 

*Address given at I. K. U. meeting, Des Moines, Iowa. 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



97 



turn now to the simplest states of society and examine 
the deepest social instincts which have led to race de- 
velopment. It has been found that the tendency of the 
growing child to imitate the actions of his elders, to live 
over in advance the social acts of later life, is not merely 
characteristic- of the civilized nations, but exists in 
primitive races. Explorers have reported also the 
almost universal public ceremonies and festivities of 
primitive tribes. On these occasions, the pressure of 
individual struggle for the necessities of life is forgot- 
ten for a time and the tribe or community realizes itself 
as a whole in a common interest. 

History tells us of the congregations, tribal assem- 
blies, and social gatherings of the European peoples 
through the various stages of evolution of national life. 
From Caesar we hear of the tribal assemblies of the 
Celts and Germans. The Greeks consciously recog- 
nized the public games as a means of fitting for de- 
fense of the nation and of education for citizenship. 
The tournaments of the age of chivalry, the feast days 
of the peasants, were important in promoting the unity 
of national life and in their effect upon social relation- 
ships. The instincts which prompted these functions, 
from which social values were realized by primitive 
peoples and nations of early history, still survive. Many 
recent writers have pointed out, and notably Miss 
Addams in her book The Spirit of Youth and the City 
Streets, that all attempts to smother the desire for 
physical play, adventure, and social recreation of youth 
must end in disaster. 

We moderns collectively may have thought that we 
could afford to do without the public sports, may have 
thought that we could ignore the processes of body 
building that have conserved and added to the physical 
vitality of succeeding generations in the past centuries 
of the life of the now dominant races. We may have 
thought that we could afford to neglect providing for 
means and forms of social intercourse, as we have 
efficiently provided for transmission of intelligence, and 
for exchange of products, and refinement in manufac- 
ture. On the other hand, we have as individuals de- 
sired the experiences which as social bodies we have 
failed to consider. Each individual desired to secure 
leisure to be spent in satisfying the higher wants, culti- 
vation of mind and the esthetic sense, intelligent social 
intercourse with his peers. He has tried to accomplish 
this desire by activity in commercial industry. The love 
of creating increased the interest in industry. 

Out of this has come a condition in which the original 
ends are forgotten. The joy of creation has fallen into 
the hands of a small proportion of the population, and 
their energies are totally absorbed in the creative 
process. They cannot plan for enjoyment of social life 
and all-around human development of themselves, al- 
though they make spasmodic efforts to do so. The so- 
cial life of the commercially dominant classes does not 
therefore present as a whole a condition of advance 
commensurate with the advance of the same group of 
people in the organization of industry. On the other 
hand, a remarkable evolution of the system of distribu- 
tion of the products of industry has placed the majority 
of the people in the position of a struggle for existence 



which in turn has absorbed their energies, so that here, 
also, no advance could be made in social intercourse or 
in conscious human development. The result of all this 
is a social condition in which all people are overbur- 
dened by the exactions of the industrial machine. 

Society as a whole cannot find time to plan rational 
evolution of itself. Parents have not enough light to 
enable them to train their children for life because the 
social knowledge on this subject is not in keeping with 
conditions of the age. Society does not even know how 
to prepare the rising generation for the industrial life 
in which the generations have been absorbed. Even the 
specialists, the educators to whom mind training of the 
rising generation has been committed, cannot prepare 
the child for life, cannot prepare him even for industry. 
The captains of industry criticise the schools from ele- 
mentary to university for the inefficiency of their out- 
put, and if the children are not prepared for industry, 
which is the chief interest of the age, how much less 
likely are they to be prepared for social relations, a sub- 
ject to which society pays comparatively little attention. 
It is not meant that schools have not advanced in 
methods, but industrial changes, with tremendous effects 
on the structure of society, have come so fast that edu- 
cational practice has not been able to orient itself in the 
new situation. 

While society as a whole has become more and more 
absorbed in industrial organization, for the past cen- 
tury certain groups have struggled to introduce methods 
of education, conceived as a result of observation of 
the trend of social conditions. Froebel and his com- 
patriots were the founders of such a school, men who 
were forced to struggle and sacrifice for their ideas as 
earnestly as any group of people ever struggled to pre- 
serve the life of a nation. Some of the concomitants of 
this movement were, — recognition of the needs of 
physical education extending to adult life; gymnastic 
societies growing up in various countries of Europe; 
German school curriculum divided, one part devoted to 
the usual branches, the other to body training; attention 
to sports in the English schools, beginning at the ex- 
pensive private schools and the movement extending 
down to the board schools. In America we have, within 
the last twenty-five years, the playground movement, fed 
from one angle by the organized demand of pupils and 
students for school athletics, extending from universi- 
ties and colleges gradually down to the grades, and 
from another angle by the agitation for playgrounds for 
small children, set in motion by women's clubs, settle- 
ments, etc., partly as an outgrowth of the kindergarten 
movement. 

Let us look into the growth of this movement. As 
such playgrounds were usually located in the most 
crowded districts of cities, spaces were necessarily small. 
Equipment consisted of swings, teeters, and sand bins, 
and each playground was in charge of a school teacher, 
normal school student, or kindergartner. There was 
usually no definite study of surrounding conditions pre- 
ceding the placing of certain playgrounds. The founders 
proceeded with the theory that every point of dense 
population needs a playground. Children came as they 
will flock to any new form of entertainment. I have 



98 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



seen as many children clambering over the newly laid 
foundations and floor of an alley shed as I have ever 
seen within an equal area using playground apparatus. 
1 have seen as many on a pile of building sand in the 
street as I have ever seen on an equal area of sand in 
a sand court intended for their use. Therefore it was 
not necessarily the carefully worked-out plans and ex- 
cellent administration of the playgrounds that made it 
possible to register large attendance in the early play- 
grounds in American cities. And most American cities, 
perhaps we might say all, are in the early stages. It 
has been and is, rather, the tremendous need felt by 
every element of population that has forced the ex- 
pansion of playgrounds. This feeling gave rise to defi- 
nite thought and action on the part of organizations 
and individuals interested in civic welfare, teachers, 
ministers, juvenile court officers. It has urged to ex- 
pression that class of parents which plans consistently 
for the future welfare of the growing children. 

In the centers of congestion, where children mewed 
up in the tenements, from lack of air and activity, 
perish, parents were and are ready to grasp at any re- 
lief although not able to diagnose the difficulty, or plan 
a remedy. This partly active and partly passive but 
unusual public interest, is at the basis of the extension 
of public playgrounds. American business enterprise, 
quick to catch the drift of popular demand, attempted 
t i capitalize popular interest. As a result there are 
White Cities and amusement parks springing into exist- 
ence in every city. The set forms of amusement here 
supplied are neither fundamental nor beneficial. The 
amusement is passive. The senses are stimulated and 
nervous centers tickled, ;'. e., irritated. Vital processes 
are not aided as in activity. Sensations are not deeply 
pleasurable. Nevertheless the tremendous attendance 
at the amusement parks is significant of a great need. 

The establishment and maintenance of playgrounds 
through private endeavor, the efforts of settlements, 
women's clubs, playground associations, etc., could pro- 
ceed only at a rate far behind that of public demand. 
The promoters were therefore exceedingly anxious to 
turn the problem over to the public governing bodies. 
VI lermen and city officials who were cold or hostile 
toward the operation of the privately maintained 
grounds, later sought public favor by attempting to out- 
distance each other in promoting the establishment of 
playgrounds at public expense. Results to date are indi- 
cated in one hundred and seventy American cities in 
which the municipality through public appropriations 
functions in the establishment or maintenance of play- 
grounds. 

Most of the playgrounds privately financed have been 
rbced in congested neighborhoods, and as they have 
necessarily been small and poorly equipped, could not 
meet the needs of even the" immediately adjacent neigh- 
borhood. As a rule they met the needs of small chil- 
dren only. The tremendous public outcry in reference 
to "keeping the boy off the street" caused the planners of 
the municipal grounds, who were usually the same indi- 
viduals who had promoted the privately financed 
grounds and had profited by the experience, witli the 
larger resources now available, to provide for the en- 



tertainment of the boy between twelve and sixteen. A 
man director was employed and a baseball diamond was 
either provided as a part of each playground, or some 
connection was made with grounds in the vicinity which 
would enable baseball to figure as a part of playground 
activity. Also pits for high jumping and broad jumping, 
which occupy little space and were early found to give 
great entertainment, were included. In many cities open 
spaces in public parks were utilized as the first municipal 
playgrounds. In other cities school grounds were used. 
Grounds were sometimes leased or purchased-: 

This is the stage of development in which the major- 
ity of American cities which have playgrounds provided 
by public funds may be found to-day. Scattered over 
the city and located, not by carefully worked out plans 
taking into exact consideration such factors of growth 
and drift of population, distance to be traveled by users, 
capacity in relation to population to be served, but lo- 
cated by practical judgment and availability of space, 
are the sand court, swing and bean bag playgrounds for 
small children, with the athletic adjunct to care for the 
turbulent urchins who must be kept "off the street." 
What these playgrounds are accomplishing is the 
demonstration of the need of play space and the obliga- 
tion of the city to provide it. 

Although the ones who most obviously needed play- 
grounds were the small children and the boys of the In- 
dian and cowboy age, the later development 'of the play- 
ground plant has recognized wider needs. A glance at 
the equipment will show that new elements have been 
taken into consideration. It is now considered necessary 
in planning a public playground, to provide means of 
healthful recreation for all members of the community. 
To accomplish this there are frequently in one play- 
ground separate play spaces respectively for very young 
children, for older girls, and for older boys. 

The playground for small children may contain sand 
court, wading pool, baby swings, lawn swings and small 
rope swings, low apparatus for climbing and hanging, 
turf and open space for games; for the older girls there 
may be apparatus for climbing, hanging, and swinging, 
space for running games and for tennis, volley ball and 
similar games, and space for dancing; for the older boys, 
space and materials for team games, equipment for run- 
ning, jumping, and throwing weights, and gymnastic 
apparatus. There may also be space and equipment for 
games for men of the particular community, tennis, 
quoits, or whatever will appeal; seats at convenient 
points in each enclosure so that parents may overlook 
activities of children. Most important of all, there 
should be supervision of a kind that creates a clean, 
wholesome atmosphere, that insures safety of limbs, 
stimulates activity where it lags, and avoids direction 
of individuals and groups properly pursuing their own 
interests. The difference between supervision and no 
supervision and between very efficient supervision and 
less efficient supervision is seen in the number and 
active happiness of the persons accommodated. By ac- 
tive happiness is not meant necessarily happiness which 
runs and shouts in a game. The quiet absorption of 
the child who is discovering all by himself a new use 
for a piece of apparatus, or who describes farms and 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



9Q 



cities in the sand and equips and peoples them with all 
sorts of imaginary structures and beings, is just as im- 
portant and he must be guaranteed security in his oc- 
cupation. 

I have mentioned the forty or more children seen 
climbing over the newly laid shed floor. This active 
social use actually lasted only a few minutes when a 
group of monopolists drove away the unorganized ma- 
jority. Finally one boy stood alone in the center of the' 
platform, his attitude publicly announcing that any at- 
tempt on the part of any other individual to share the 
property would be attended with danger. The children 
drifted off in groups to find other playthings. This un- 
fortunate ending would not have occurred if there had 
been supervision by an older leader. The presence of 
efficient supervision guarantees the continuation of con- 
ditions under which social association may thrive. Un- 
der supervision may be included not only the service 
rendered by the trained playground director but also, 
and far more important, supervision by the neighbor- 
hood. 

Seating arrangements for parents have already been 
mentioned as included in equipment. The parents who 
are present of course supervise the activities of their 
own children. They form ideas as to proper conduct of 
the playground and discuss their observations with one 
another. These ideas are often presented to playground 
directors. In every locality there are fortunately a 
greater or less number of parents who wish to know 
where their children are and how they are occupying 
themselves at all times. They look very carefully into 
conditions before allowing the children to frequent the 
playground. They wish to have an understanding with 
the supervising persons as to hours, activities, and num- 
bers of such details. They note changes in personnel 
and discuss such changes with interest. I believe a 
change of playground directors is as a rule an event of 
much greater interest to the neighborhood as a whole 
than a change of teachers in the public school. 

In no one of the two hundred and fifty-seven or more 
American cities maintaining playgrounds has the prob- 
lem of adequate play facilities been solved. Chicago has 
been pointed out as a city which has met the playground 
problem squarely, but the Playground Association esti- 
mates that 400,000 Chicago children are not within reach 
of any of the thirty-five playgrounds in operation. Op- 
portunities for play can be greatly extended at com- 
paratively small cost by the operation of both school 
yard and park playgrounds, use of small spaces where 
large cannot be readily obtained, encouragement of 
street play under supervision, use of back yard and roof 
playgrounds in connection with tenements. Some of 
these advantages could be obtained at very slight ex- 
pense. They will come as a natural result of the growth 
of social consciousness of the need for playgrounds. 

The term Recreation Center has been applied to the 
school building or other specially constructed building 
used for recreational purposes by people of all ages. It 
appears, however, not entirely in place to apply the 
term "center" to an institution which supplies entertain- 
ment along stated lines for a small percentage of the 
young people of the neighborhood. An equipment de- 



signed for public recreation becomes a center when 
people of the same kind can find each other there, when 
the self-impelled grouping of people originates action 
looking to the carrying on of group interests, when 
people of diverse kinds meet and react upon each other. 
As has just been indicated, the playground may arouse 
the interest of the community to a remarkable degree. 
This interest has led to the construction of the play- 
ground along broader lines. 

The recreation center, where all people may congre- 
gate for all sorts of recreative activities, is the logical 
next step. In some places the playgrounds have been 
equipped with pretentious buildings containing meeting 
rooms, dance halls, reading rooms, etc. In thirty-one 
cities school buildings have been opened at night under 
supervision of special corps of teachers and directors 
for varied forms of recreational activity. Industrial 
classes, reading rooms, game rooms, social clubs, lec- 
tures, orchestras, singing societies, civics clubs, debat- 
ing societies, and dramatic societies are a few of the 
activities in progress in these centers. The most strik- 
ing equipment for these purposes is seen in the park 
centers of Chicago. Here sixteen buildings in as many 
parks have been constructed at a cost of over $1,000,000. 
A remarkable fact, however, as to the question of build- 
ings for accommodation of social centers is that the 
modern school plants have been found to be almost as 
easily applicable to the purpose as the specially con- 
structed buildings. 

As we follow the history of the playground up to its 
latest manifestation does it not appear as a real growth, 
a natural unfolding? It may be looked upon on the 
other hand as a recreation from industrialism, a spon- 
taneous desire of society to get joy out of life. It is 
contemporary with a democratic movement throughout 
the world. Undoubtedly it has something to contribute 
to that movement, this getting together of the people. 

FINGERS AND TOES. 

Such funny songs my grandma sings! 

She plays such funny games. 
And, oh! she calls a lot of things 

Such awful funny names! 
She raps my fingers, one by one, 

And says, "Now hear me tell 
Who picked the currants from the bun, 
And pinched the cat, as well! 
'T was, 

Tom Thumper, 
Ben Bumper, 
Long Larum, 
Billy Barnum, 

And little Oker-bell!" 

And when, at night, I've taken off 

My shoes, and stockings, too, 
She'll pat my feet, and frown, and cough. 

And say, "It wasn't you 
That kicked the pantry door, I s'pose, 

And scarred and scratched it so?" 
And then she'll laugh, and tweak my toes, 
And say, "I guess I know! 
'T was, 
Toetipe, 
TVnnywi^" 
Tommy Thistle, 
Jimmy Whistle. 
And Baby Trippingo!" 




DECEMBER 
DIRECTIONS FOR MAKING CHRISTMAS the thin paper for the inside spelling sheets. Cut out 

BOOKLET. the outlines of the bell from the diagram (Fig 11), and 




Materials: Stiff cardboard, water colors, pencil, thin lay it upon the cardboard for the covers. Draw around 

paper, baby ribbon, shears, etc. it, and then cut them out. The covers may be tinted 

Use the stiff cardboard for the outside cover6, and any delicate color, and the lettering traced in in gilt 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



ioi 



paint. The design in holly may be done in red and 
green or in gilt, as desired. Trace the inside sheets and 
cut them out to match the covers, marking in the dotted 
lines for the words. Fasten the sheets and covers to- 
gether with dainty ribbon. 

These little booklets make dainty souvenir programs 
of Christmas Exercises as well as the spelling pads, and 
the .children enjoy making them during the busy work 
periods. 

LIST OF SUGGESTED WORDS. 



1. 


Bell. 


8. 


Sled. 


15. 


Ride. 


2 


Holly. 


9. 


Tree. 


16. 


Country. 


3. 


Snow. 


10. 


Gift. 


17. 


Grandma. 


4. 


Skates. 


11. 


Child. 


18. 


Dinner. 


5. 


Run. 


12. 


Happy. 


19. 


Christmas. 


6. 


Hill. 


13. 


Cold. 


20. 


New. 


7. 


Slide. 


14. 


Jack 


21. 


Year. 



Dr. Merrill's New England Trip 

Dr. Merrill spoke at the State Teachers' Association 
of New Hampshire on "The Montessori Method." 
There was a very large audience. The doors were 
thrown open after the address had proceeded some min- 
utes, to admit three hundred belated teachers. Dr. 
Merrill said that we could not yet determine whether 
Dr. Montessori is a major or a minor prophet, but the 
"minor prophets" had great messages. The emphasis 
upon the old message of Comenims, who said, "I seek 
a method whereby the teacher shall teach less and the 
learner learn more," is in itself alone sufficient to lead 
us to give a listening ear to Dr. Montessori's plan for 
auto-education. 

At the Maine State Teachers' Association, convening 
in Portland, Dr. Merrill followed Miss Kennedy, of 
Providence, who gave the results of actual experiment 
in a private school. The first page of writing of a little 
girl was passed from hand to hand in the audience 
which filled a large church. Miss Kennedy's personal 
acquaintance with Dr. Montessori gave the teachers 
the benefit of several telling incidents. 

Dr. Merrill at the request of Miss Nellie E. Brown, 
chairman of the Kindergarten Section, followed with an 
address on "Froebel and Montessori Compared." 

Later in the month, Dr. Merrill addressed the kinder- 
garten associations and parents' clubs of Bangor and 
Augusta. 

In Bangor Dr. Merrill was entertained by Mrs. 
Samuel Prentiss, who is making an earnest appeal to her 
community for more "fresh-air class rooms" and "out- 
of-doors play" for kindergarten children. Mrs. Prentiss 
has established a camp for those needing fresh-air treat- 
ment, but is now most anxious for kindergartners and 
teachers to push preventive measures. She is urging 
the builders of the new High School in Bangor and the 
Board of Education to provide one room for a study 
hall to which children can repair at least one hour daily. 
Mrs. Prentiss has secured the co-operation of the physi- 
cians in her town, and one is about to examine every 
child in the parochial school, numbering a thousand, to 
decide whether tuberculin glands are present. 

Mrs. Prentiss urges that she is working not only for 



the afflicted but for those who may become victims. 

It is said that every patient well isolated may save 
fifteen others from inoculation. 

While in Portland, Dr. Merrill visited a public kin- 
dergarten in which she found such good work that she 
promises a description later. The kindergartner was 
Miss Mansel, a woman of rare spirit and long experi- 
ence. 

The kindergartners met Dr. Merrill at an afternoon 
reception and the parents in the evening. 

At Augusta, the State capital, Supt. Marshall and 
the Board of Education deserve special mention as they 
are the first in the State who have inaugurated a regu- 
lar public school Montessori experiment in one of their 
large public kindergartens. They sent a Wheelock kin- 
dergartner of experience to study at the Scudder 
School this summer, a Miss Hascall. They have equip- 
ped the class with a full set of material, which was ex- 
hibited at the meeting of teachers and parents, and ex- 
plained by Dr. Merrill. 

The county conventions in New Jersey under the able 
direction of State Commissioner C. N. Kendall, have 
also been studying Montessori methods. 

At Atlantic City,: Dr. Merrill spoke on "A Neglected 
Corner in Montessori," and on "The A B C of Things." 

Miss Myra Billings, supervisor of kindergarten and 
primary classes, presided, inviting the audience to ask 
questions. 

And now abideth faith, hope, charity, these three; 
but the greatest of these is charity. — I. Cor. 13:13. 

What a wonderful trinity of graces for the teacher! 
Faith in the least of our little ones, faith in the 
bad boy, faith in the giggling and self-conscious 
girl, faith in the fathers and mothers, faith in hu- 
manity, faith in God. Hope for that better day 
when the childhood that so taxed our patience and 
so tried our love shall have become the manhood 
and the womanhood our nation so much needs. 
Charity that covers with tolerance and love the 
foibles and failures, the seams and the scars, of poor 
human nature, and sees in every fellow human be- 
ing the image divine. May this trinity — faith, hope, 
charity— abide with us of the teaching fraternity for- 
evermore. — Progressive School Journal, Birm 

The original purpose of American colleges was mainU 
to train men for the ministry, but so it is no longer. Har- 
vard, founded chiefly to educate clergymen, now gives to this 
profession barely 2 per cent of her graduates; Yale, begun 
under similar impulses, now contributes a meager 3 percent. 
This and other interesting changes in the professions favored 
by college graduates are described in a bulletin by Bailey 
B. Burritt on "Professional Distribution of University and 
College Graduates," just issued by the United States Bureau 
of Education. 



You may keep yourself safe from fire but not 
from an evil companion. 

There never was a good war or a bad peace. — 
Franklin. 



We aim above the mark to hit the mark, 
son. 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 







THE COMMITTEE °fTHE WHOLE 

CONDUCTED BY BERTHA JOHNSTON 

THIS COMMITTEE OF THE WHOLE, of which all Subscribers to the Kin- 
dergarten-Primary Magazine are members, will consider those various prob- 
lems which meet the practicing Kindergartner— problems relating to the 
School-room proper. Ventilation, Heating, and the like; the Aesthetics of 
School-room Decoration; Problems of the Physical Welfare of the Child, in- 
cluding the Normal, the Defective, and the Precocious; questions suggest- 
tr b y the use of Kindergarten Material, the Gifts. Occupations. Games. Toys. 
lets; Motners-meetings; School Government; Child Psychology; the relation 
of Home to School and the Kindergarten to the Grades; and problems re- 
garding the Moral Development of the Child and their relation to Froebel's 
Philosophy and Methods All questions will be welcomed and also any 
suggestions of ways in which Kindergartners have successfully met the 
problems incidental to kindergarten and primary practice. All replies to 
queries will be made through this department, and not by correspondence. 
Address all inquiries to 

MISS BERTHA JOHNSTON, EDITOR, 

I054 Bergen St., Brooklyn. N. Y. 

f 






N It JL J \ 





To the Editor, The Committee of the Whole : 

When we actually enter the practice of the kinder- 
garten we are often confronted by opposition and 
obstructions for which our training schools may not 
have prepared us. Will you please help a pioneer by 
replying to the following questions: 

1. At what age should the kindergarten take the 
children who are to enter the First Grade, at six? 

2. Are there conditions in America in this century 
which justify the claim that the Froebelian ideals should 
be modified? 

3. Does the adaptation of the kindergarten to the 
"spirit of the times" make it more or less secure from 
attack ? 

Indiana. W. E. A. 

1. In an ideal kindergarten the children should range 
from three to six years of age, with an average attend- 
ance of 30, and one assistant so that there would be 
an average of fifteen or so at a table and 30 on the 
circle. In the public school kindergartens, however, 
this ideal condition rarely prevails and therefore to ac- 
complish the most good the ages should average be- 
tween four and six. There should be at least two full 
years of the kindergarten experience for the child. 
After he has passed the sixth birthday the average 
child has outgrown the activities and interests that 
characterize the genuine kindergarten environment, and 
he should pass on into the grades. One child who has 
outgrown the psychological plane of the kindergarten 
can be a source of continual trouble and perplexity to 
the kindergartner. An occasional coming together, 
however, of kindergarten and grade children is desir- 
able and enjoyable. In the Cook County Normal of 
Chicago, under Colonel Parker's regime, it was cus- 
tomary for the grade children, once a week, to visit the 
kindergarten during morning circle, and there was no 
prettier sight than to see boys and girls of twelve or 
older accepting the invitation of a wee three-year-old, 
to skip round the circle. The school was like one large 
family, the older children being the big brothers and 
sisters of the little ones. 

2. Whether or not the ideals of Froebel need modi- 
fication depends upon just what we mean by Froebelian 



ideals. Our modern civilization is far from reaching 
Froebel's ideals, but it may well be that with the ad- 
vance in scientific and psychological and physiological 
knowledge our practice and our methods may need 
modification. In harmony with such increased knowl- 
edge the occupation material and gifts have been en- 
larged since Froebel's day, and other changes have 
taken place, but we are now living in an age of such 
specialization that the spirit of the kindergarten with 
its varied activities and interests, is more than ever 
needed in the grades as well as in the child-garden. 
The child needs to have presented to him many and 
diverse experiences in the course of the two or three 
years that he is in kindergarten (not all at once, by 
any means, for that makes for confusion and "nerves"). 
But all too-soon he will have to concentrate upon one 
line of thought, and if he have not this varied environ- 
ment in kindergarten and the grades, when will he 
have it? The ideal of Froebel was an all-round human 
being, master of himself and his surroundings, living 
in harmony with nature, man his fellow and his Father 
in Heaven. In what respect does your kindergarten 
fail to approach toward this end? It would seem- to 
the intelligent observer that the kindergarten is the 
place par excellence where children are not only taught 
but trained how to live in a democracy. They practice 
democratic living in spirit and action every day. The 
methods by which this is achieved will, of course, need 
to be modified as we grow in knowledge. 

3. The remarks just expressed will apply in a meas- 
ure to your next question. A wise adaptation of kin- 
dergarten methods would doubtless make it more free 
from attack in certain quarters, but this does not mean 
that the subjects of the grades should be taught in the 
kindergarten, or that the teacher is to be given so many 
children that she must teach them in a mechanical way, 
by machine discipline, and so lose sight of the child's 
precious individuality. The Montessori system has 
doubtless something to offer the kindergartner, but 
modifications, if made at all should be by those thor- 
oughly familiar with kindergarten theory and practice 
and with child nature as well as with the newer system. 
The kindergarten is too precious a heritage to be 
lightly altered. 



THE KINDERGARTEN- PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



loj 



To The Editor : 

Will you please suggest some good kindergarten 
music for marches, skips, etc. 

White Plains, N. Y. A. S. T. 

We give herewith a list of classified music, all of 
which is good : 

Simple Marches — Sartoris, "Happy Outing ;" Gurlitt, 
"Playing Soldiers;" Parloa, "Soldier's March;" Gounod, 
"Low Faust" (Skip); Giese, "March;" Schumann, 
"Soldier's March ;" Schoenfield, "Children's Festival." 

More Difficult Marches — Jensen, "Little Songs and 
Dances ;" Jeffrey, "Gavot ;" "March Joyous ;" Meyer- 
beer, "May Wedding;" Pfefferhorn, "Kindergarten 
March;" Anderson, "Book of Rhythms." 

Skips — Kierchner, "Album Leaf;" Chaminade's "Vert 
Galant." 



To The Editor : 

I have Froebel's "Mother Play," "The Education of 
Man," and "The Pedagogics of the Kindergarten." 
Have any of his other works been translated? Is there 
any volume that tells anything about his movement 
games ? 

Albany, N. Y. B. G. S. 

Yes. In 1904, Miss Josephine Jarvis, who translated 
the well-known "Pedagogics of the Kindergarten," pub- 
lished her translation of what she calls the "Third and 
Last Volume of Friedrich Froebel's Pedagogics of the 
Kindergarten." This is an important contribution to 
Froebelian literature. It contains his appeal for the 
Foundation of Educational Unions, his speech at the 
opening of the first burgher's kindergarten in Ham- 
burg, and a description of the wonderful festival on 
the Altenstein, the precursor of the beautiful play- 
festivals that so many of our cities are inaugurating. 
Detailed accounts of some of the plays are given. 
Another chapter describes in full the four- fold festival 
day celebrated at Keilhau and Blankenburg, June 23, 
1840, including the speeches made upon that occasion. 
The average American may find it somewhat tedious 
reading, as the translation, like the original German 
sentences, is long and involved, but every kindergartner 
should be familiar with this little Volume. She should 
know the history of the great movement of which she 
is a part, and the Blankenburg festival especially, was 
an important link in the chain, as was the plan for 
founding a kindergarten in the year 1840 and a report 
for the year 1843. If we remember rightly the book 
retails for 75 cents. 



To The Editor: 

I am in a kindergarten where the children are nearly 
all of the Jewish race. How can I plan a Christmas 
festival for them? 

New York City. F. H. G. 

Several years ago, a Chicago kindergartner who had 
to face the same problem arranged a simple program 
based upon the Jewish Feast of Lights, which falls due 
about the same time. Get from your public library 
some book descriptive of Hebrew customs and tradi- 
tions, and stimulate your enthusiasm by reading the 
story of the re-dedication of the Temple 165 B, C. by 



Judas Maccabeus and the miraculous (?) finding of 
the flask of oil essential to the re-consecration (enough 
for the eight-day service). We give a brief rehearsal 
of the story, supposed to be recited by a Hebrew child. 

We, of the ancient Jewish faith also celebrated this 
season of the year by illumination with candles and 
by the giving of presents to the children of the house- 
hold, but whether our festival was originally a sun 
festival I cannot now say. History and tradition tell 
us this story: The wicked king Antiochus endeavored 
to force the Jewish people, by persecution and death, 
to deny their God and their religion, and worship the 
more degraded Greek gods. Judus Maccabeus, a brave 
but very young leader of the Jewish people, won vic- 
tory after victory from the Greek king, against great 
odds. 

The Jewish temple had been degraded and defiled 
while in possession of the Greek rulers, but in the year 
165 B. C. Judas Maccabeus rejoiced in being able to re- 
dedicate and re-consecrate it to the service of Jehovah. 
When they looked for oil with which to consecrate it 
they found one small flask, sealed with the seal of the 
High-priest, and containing just oil enough to last for 
one day, but when they came to use it, lo, there was 
enough to continue the service for the desired eight 
days. Hence, every year in commemoration of this 
tradition, we celebrate it for eight days. On the first 
we light one candle or lamp, and on the second day, 
two candles or lamps, and so on. And because of the 
youth of him who led our fathers to victory it is cus- 
tomary to give presents to the children of each home, a 
part of the celebration which we very much appreciate. 
Sometimes the candlesticks are crudely made of wood 
and sometimes of egg-shells. . 



Gertrude S. : In reply to your question in the Octo- 
ber number concerning vaccination. Since the time of 
Jenner the vaccination theory has had its opponents as 
well as its advocates. While it is true that the scourge 
has greatly abated since vaccination has been so widely 
introduced, its opponents claim that this is due to the 
increased knowledge and practice of sanitary living. 
Smallpox is a filth disease and is likely to spring up 
where unsanitary conditions prevail. We little know 
the unhygienic conditions under which the most en- 
lightened people of the past centuries lived. But oppo- 
sition to enforced vaccination has been steadily grow- 
ing, many physicians feeling that inoculation has little 
to do with the prevention of the disease and that the 
introduction of virus into the blood may lead to various 
unhealthy results. The question is being agitated now 
in various quarters. Citizens of Tompkinsville, L. I., 
have recently won their point against compulsory vac- 
cination. One father resident there, wrote to a New 
York paper as follows : "When I look at the bright 
eyes and fine complexions of my three children, I can- 
not possibly see how the injection of a nasty poison is 
going to increase their ability to resist a disease which 
is practically non-existent, there being but five or six 
deaths a year in New York State among a population of 
8,000,000 and less than half vaccinated." 

Again, 350 families were ready to move out of Mont- 



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THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



clair, N. J., if the local Health Board insisted that the 
"Blood-poisoning" should be continued in a town that 
had known no case of smallpox for a long time nor was 
likely to. The editor of a well-known comic weekly 
spoke with bitterness of the evil effects that his child 
suffered from for seven years, as a result of vaccination. 

One of our correspondents has this to say upon the 
matter : 

There was a time when people believed that the only 
way to protect themselves from contracting the dread 
disease of smallpox was to be vaccinated. From the 
time of its introduction into England from Constanti- 
nople in the early part of the eighteenth century, the 
practice of vaccination steadily gained in popularity 
until about 20 years ago, when people suddenly began 
to question its efficiency and to wonder if along with 
the vaccine virus which was introduced into the blood, 
there were not also introduced the germs of other dis- 
eases, some of them far more deadly in their effects 
than smallpox. Physicians began to investigate the sub- 
ject with the result that many of them prominent in 
their profession have gone on record as declaring that 
the fearful increase in cancer, tuberculosis and other 
diseases in late years in the United States is due to the 
practice of vaccination, which in many States of the 
Union has become compulsory. 

Some medical men have even gone so far as to state 
that the past hundred years of-universal vaccination has 
left a blighting curse upon the nation which will require 
many generations of right living to remove. Science 
has also discovered that the diseases considered as 
plagues by our forefathers on account of the devasta- 
tion wrought by them were what is now known as 
"filth" diseases and came from unsanitary living in 
crowded, unsanitary communities. Such a disease is 
smallpox and its steady decrease the past fifty years is 
not due to vaccination but to personal and civic cleanli- 
ness. 

"Men see badness," says the Homeopathic Recorder, 
"foolishness, poverty and squalor breeding disease and 
when bred, exclaim : 'Behold, the work of the germ !' " 

California. A. M. B. 

As evidenced by the references to Tompkinsville, and 
Montclair, opposition is beginning to crystallize. So 
much so that the Legislature of Pennsylvania has or- 
dered an inquiry into the subject by a specially appointed 
commission. The up-to-date kindergartner should follow 
the course of this investigation as the results are noted 
in the daily press and be ready to voice her views in- 
telligently when the proper time comes. As long as 
vaccination is compulsory, the kindergartner should be 
able to advise the anxious parents how to care for the 
wounded limbs so that no external germs may find en- 
trance. And it is incumbent upon all who believe that 
the day for compulsory vaccination is passing to do all 
that is possible to enforce the well-known laws of sani- 
tary living. The hygienic disposal of garbage and the 
sewage of a town or city, the destruction of the fly pest, 
the supervision of the water-supply, etc., etc., the de- 
struction of old unsanitary buildings and the substitu- 
tion of new and approved ones— all of these measures 
will tend to reduce the spread of contagious diseases of 



dl kinds; the insistence that doctors shall at once report 
cases of contagious diseases and the practice of quaran- 
tining such, has also had much to do with the controlling 
of the disease within narrow limits. Such is the power 
of fear, however, that when an epidemic rages the 
writer can see that vaccination may save some people by 
preserving them from fear. 

The editor once asked a New Thought practitioner 
now she accounted for the fact that, while on the one 
hand, some people nowadays insisted that there was no 
such thing as disease or evil of any kind, the scientists 
were finding, studying and reproducing the actual germs 
of different diseases. She replied, there are such actual 
physical germs and bacilli we cannot deny. But as no 
plant can grow in a soil unsuited to its particular needs 
and habits, so no disease germ can develop except in a 
soil that is congenial to it. If the human body be 
kept clean and wholesome and the human mind be 
kept sweet and pure and free from fear the germs can- 
not find a foothold. 

Here, then, we find our clue. Keep the individual 
body, and the social body, clean and sweet, and no vac- 
cination will be needed. 



Morals and Manners 

Questions for pupils to answer : 

1. What should you say when yon meet a friend in 
the morning? In the afternoon? 

2. What should you say when you part from a 
friend? 

3. What should you say when you receive a gift or 
a favor? 

4. What should you say when you wish to leave the 
table before the others? 

5. What should you say when you pass before an- 
other? 

6. What should you say when a friend thanks you? 

7. What should the boys do wdien they meet ladies 
and gentlemen on the street whom they know? 

8. What should you do when you have injured 
something belonging to another? 

9. What should you do when you have lost some- 
thing belonging to another? 

10. What should you do when a new pupil comes 
to school? 

11. What should you say when you ask a favor? 

12. How should you treat any schoolmates or any 
people who are lame, or have humpbacks, or other 
troubles from which they can never recover? 

Ans. — I should never mention these troubles to the 
people who have them, but by being very kind help 
the people to forget them. 

13. What should you do when anyone near you 
falls or gets hurt? 

14. What should you do when one of your class- 
mates makes a mistake? 

15. What should you do when you find something 
that belongs to another? 

16. How can you make yourself a pleasant visitor 
to a little friend? 

17. How can you make it pleasant for a little friend 
to visit you? 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



'OS 



A YEAR IN THE KINDERGARTEN 

Harriette McCarthy 

Kindergarten Director, Oklahoma City Public Schools 

[NOTE —Owing to the delay necessary to reach our for- 
eign subscribers, we have adopted the plan of printing the 
program for two or three weeks of the following month. 
Some of our American subscribers prefer the program to 
begin with the current month, and in order to accommo- 
date both, we republish in this issue that portion of the 
December program which appeared last month.] 

DECEMBER 

FIRST W. EK 

Songs — 

Little Jack Frost Went Up the Hill (Walker 

and Jenks.) 

Winter Jewels (Walker and Jenks.) 

Once a Little Baby Lay (Walker and Jenks.) 

Shine Out, O Blessed Star (Walker and Jenks.) 

MONDAY. 

Circle — Thanksgiving experiences. Another Holi- 
day. Santa Claus, his presents, and how he looks. 
Rhythm — Marching. 

Gift — First and second compared. Note resem- 
blances and differences. 
Game — Free choice. 

Occupation — Present for mother. Sewing card cal- 
endar. 

TUESDAY. 

Circle — More about Santa Claus. The presents 
Santa brings. 

Rhythm — Marching. 

Gift — Third gift. An exercise to emphasize posi- 
tion of corners. 

Game — Tossing Game (Walker and Jenks.) 

Occupation — Present for mother. 

WEDNESDAY. 

Circle — Talk about Santa Claus. Santa loves us, 

and gives us presents. 
Rhythm — Marching. 
Gift— Sticks. 

Game — Dance the Virginia Reel. 
Occupation — Father's gift. Sewing card blotter. 

THURSDAY. 

Circle — Talk about Santa Claus, and Xmas pres- 
ents, for father and mother. 

Rhythm — Marching. 

Gift — Third and fourth combined. 

Game — Five Little Chick-a-dees (Walker and 
Jenks.) 

Occupation — Gift for father. Sewing card blotter. 

FRIDAY, 

Circle — Review morning talks. Story, Christmas 

in Other Lands (Plan Book p. 116.) 
Rhythm — Marching. 
Gift — Second and third. 
Game — Free choice. 
Occupation — Making father's present. 

SECOND WEEK 

Songs — 

The First Christmas (Walker and Jenks.) 
Merry Christmas Bells (Walker and Jenks.) 
O, Ring Glad Bells (Walker and Jenks.) 

MONDAY. 

Circle — The time there was no Christmas at all. 
No one ever heard of Christmas. Tell about 
the first Christmas Day (Plan Book p. 425.) 

Rhythm — Marching. 



Gift — First gift. Represent Christmas tree orna- 
ments. 
Game — Playing Santa Claus. 
Occupation — Making father's and mother's present. 

TUESDAY. 

Circle — Review yesterday's circle talk. The baby 
was born that grew to be a good boy and a 
kind man. Everybody noticed his goodness, 
and tried to do as he did. The boy's name was 
Jesus. Show picture of the Madonna. Story, 
The Bells. 

Rhythm — Marching. 

Gift — Lay eighth gift tablet Christmas trees. 

Game — Robin, Robin, Red Breast (Walker and 
Jenks.) 

Occupation — Working on father's and mother's 
present. 

WEDNESDAY. 

Circle — Jesus' life as a boy. The many ways He 
helped His Father in His carpenter work. His 
kindness to His mother. 
Rhythm — Marching. 
Gift— Third gift. 
Game — Santa Claus games. 
Occupation — Fold stars for Christmas tree. 

THURSDAY. 

Circle — As Jesus grew to be a man, He loved to 
help people, to teach them kindness. Story, The 
Yule Log (Plan Book p. 117). 

Rhythm — Marching. 

Gift — Peg-board, free play. 

Game — -The Toy-Shop. 

Occupation — Chains for Christmas tree. 

FRIDAY. 

Circle — People still hear and read of Jesus. We 
love Him so much that we celebrate His birth- 
day each year, and call it Christmas. He loves 
us and so He is pleased that we show our love 
for one another on His day. 

Rhythm — Keeping time to music. 

Gift — Fourth gift. 

Game — Free choice. 

Occupation — Unfinished work. 

THIRD WEEK 

Songs — 

Joyfully, Joyfully (Walker and Jenks.) 

Children Can You Truly Tell (Walker and 

Jenks.) 

O, Ring Glad Bells (Walker and Jenks.) 

MONDAY. 

Circle — Story, Gretchen and the Wooden Shoe 

(Morning Talks, Sarah Wiltse.) 
Rhythm — Front skip. 
Gift — Second gift. A general review. 
Game — Guessing game. 
Occupation — Make lanterns for Christmas trees. 

TUESDAY. 

Circle— Retell story. Begin story, The Night Be- 
fore Christmas. 

Rhythm — Side skip. 

Gift — Third gift. Build a fireplace from dictation. 

Game — Free choice. 

Occupation — Make green crayola Christmas trees; 
put in red candles. 

WEDNESDAY. 

Circle — Continue The Night Before Christmas. Tell 
about holly (Plan Book p. 93.) 



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THE KINDERGARTEN PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



Rhythm — Cross skip. 
Gift— Fourth gift. Build chimney. 
Game — Bean-bag game, calling names. 
Occupation — Cut camel. 

THURSDAY. 
Circle — Retell stories. 

New story, The Lonely Fir Tree. 
Rhythm — Marching. 

Gift — Fourth gift. Build church and stable. 
Game — March. Follow the Leader. 
Occupation — Christmas tree. 

JANUARY 

FIRST WEEK 

Songs — 

Oh, I am the Little New Year (Walker and 
Jenks.) 

The Old Year and the New (Walker and Jenks.) 

Birthday Song. 

MONDAY. 
Circle — The New Year. Its days, weeks and months. 

The name of the new year. The names of the 

days of the week. How many. Story, The 
Great Bear and the Little Bear. 
Rhythm — Skating. 

Gift— Third gift. Build forms of life. 
Game — The Clock Game. 
Occupation— Free hand cutting to represent the 

days of the week. Mon., tub; Tues., iron; Wed., 

mop; Thurs., needle; Fri., broom; Sat., dish and 

spoon; Sun., church. 

TUESDAY. 
Circle — The names of the months. Time division 

in the day. 
Rhythm — Let your feet go tramp, tramp, tramp. 
Gift — With rings lay forms of bea.uty. 
Game — Cobbler, Cobbler, Mend my Shoe. 
Occupation — Clay modeling. 

WEDNESDAY. 
Circle — The new year facts reviewed. Review Bear 

Story. 
Rhythm — Review those used. 
Gift — Fourth gift. Build forms of life. 
Game — Sense game. Cuckoo, Cuckoo. 
Occupation — Freehand drawing of things brought 
to the Kindergarten. 

THURSDAY. 

Circle — Repetition of year's work. Story, Golden- 
hair and the Three Bears. 
Rhythm — Marching by twos and fours. 
Gift— Third gift. 
Game — -Farmer in the Dell. 
Occupation — Cut three bears. 

FRIDAY. 

Circle — Review week's work. 

Rhythm — Those used. 

Gift — Lay rings to make cat on fence. 

Game — Free choice. 

Occupation — Folding. 

SECOND WEEK 

Songs — 

The Snow (Walker and Jenks.) 
The Snow Man (Songs of the Child World.) 
Coasting (Songs of the Child World.) 
MONDAY. 

Circle — Holland week. The land of mills and dikes. 
All about the dikes. Story, A Leak in the Dike. 
Rhythm — Skip tag. 
Gift— Build windmill with third gift. 
Game — Have children guess what balls and children 

' are missing. 
Occupation— Clay modeling. 



TUESDAY. 
Circle — Wind sports, skating. More about the 

Dutch. 
Rhythm — Imitate skating. 
Gift — Third and fourth combined. Build forms of 

life. 
Game — Free choice. 
Occupation — Cut windmill. 

WEDNESDAY. 
Circle — Dress of Dutch. Love of flowers and pets 

(Plan Book, p. 699.) 
Rhythm — I See You. 
Gift— Fourth gift. Build dikes. 
Game — I Spy. 
Occupation — Make crayola tulips. 

THURSDAY. 
Circle — The Gretchen Xmas story retold. 
Rhythm — Marching. 
Gift— Third gift. 
Game — Pass the Ring. 
Occupation — -Cut out and color the Little Dutch 

Girls. 

FRIDAY. 
Circle — Review Holland. 
Rhythm — Those used. 
Gift— Sticks. Make square with two and four inch 

sticks. Invent. 
Game — Free choice. 
Occupation — Folding. 

1HIKD WEEK 

Songs — 

Lady Moon (Walker and Jenks.) 

Baby's Lullaby (Walker and Jenks.) 

Pussy's Dinner (Finger play, Emily Poulsson.) 

MONDAY. 

Circle — Japan, the country of sunshine and flowers. 
All about the queer little people that live across 
the sea. Their love for the chrysanthemum. 

Rhythm — -Teach Japanese bow. 

Gift— First gift. 

Game — Looby, Loo. 

Occupation — Making Japanese lanterns. 

TUESDAY. 
Circle— More about the Japanese. Their costumes. 

Story, The Wood-cutter's Sake (Japanese Fairy 

Tales.) 
Rhythm — Let Your Feet Go Tramp, Tramp, Tramp. 
Gift — Second. 
Game — Bouncing Ball. 
Occupation— Clay modeling of flower pot. 

WEDNESDAY. 
Circle — More of Japanese. Their love of rice and 

their manner of eating it. 
Rhythm — Marching. Bowing as Japanese. 
Gift— Third gift. 
Game— In My Hand a Ball I Hold (Walker and 

Jenks.) 
Occupation — Make Japanese fans. 
THURSDAY. 
Circle— Story, The Wonderful Teakettle (Japanese 

Fairy Tales.) 
Rhythm — Cross-Skip. 
Gift — Third and fourth combined. 
Game — Going to Jerusalem. 
Occupation — Making crayola lanterns. 

FRIDAY. 
Circle — Review stories and life in Japan. 
Rhythm — Review. 

Gift— Peg boards. Stick pegs in to outline square. 
Game — Free choice. 
Occupation— Folding. 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



107 



NEW KINDERGARTEN GAMES 
AND PLAYS 




Conducted by LAURA ROUNTREE SMITH 



All skip off. 

This will be a pretty way to distribute presents at 
Christmas time. 



SANTA CLAUS GAME. 

By Laura Rountree Smith. 
(Book Rights Reserved.) 
The children sit in a circle or in two lines facing 
each other. They sing to the chorus of "Old Oaken 
Bucket." 

Who's coming, who's com'ng, 
Who's coming this evening? 
Who's coming this evening? 
'Tis dear Santa Claus! 

(A little boy goes round the circle or thru lines, 
and pretends to scatter sand, singing): 

I'm coming, I'm coming, 

I'm coming this evening, 

I'm coming this evening, 

I am the Sandman. 
(The children close their eyes and nod their heads 
as tho asleep, and Santa Claus comes around the 
circle or between the lines). 
He says: 

Very quiet I must keep, 

For the children are asleep. 

The Sandman calls: 

Oh, ho, the children cannot hear, 
While the Sandman lingers near. 

Santa Claus now sings softly and puts a candy in 
the lap of each child. 

I'm coming, I'm coming, 

I'm jolly old Santa, 

I'm coming, I'm coming, 

I am Santa Claus. 
All, waking up, stand and sing: 

We're going, we're going 

To thank dear old Santa, 

We're going, we're going 

To thank Santa Claus! 



SANTA CLAUS. 

(To be recited by children holding up letters to 
spell the words "Santa Claus.") 
S. 

Some one came down our chimney, O, 
A. 

And he wore fur from top to toe! 

N. 

Never a sound was heard on the roof, 
T. 

Tho the reindeer stamped each tiny hoof. 

A. 

And Santa filled our stockings you know, 

C. 

Crowded them full from top to toe, 

L. 

Look at the beautiful Christmas tree, 

A. 

And all the presents for you and me! 

U. 

Up the chimney he scampered ho! ho! 

S. 

Suppose you ask who it was, do you know? 

All. 

Santa Claus! 



CHRISTMAS. 

(This exercise may be given by children holding 
red bells with white letters to spell the word 
"Christmas," or the letters may be pinned on stock- 
ings.) 

C. 

Come with evergreen and holly, 

Children everywhere are jolly. 
H. 

Hear the chime, the happy chime, 

Merry bells of Christmas time. 
R. 

Ring, sweet bells, so loud and clear, 

Christmas time is almost here. 
1. 

Into stockings who will peep, 

When the children are asleep! 

(whisper "Santa Claus.") 
S. 

Santa Claus rides o'er the snow, 

Down the chimney he will go. 
T. 

Twine the holly and mistletoe, 

Hang them up in the hall below. 
M. 

Making presents large and small, 

We are busy one and all. 
A. 

All the earth with snow is white. 

Bells ring out across the night. 
S. 

Sleep well now, for without warning, 

We'll wake early Christmas morning! 

(They go through a drill with the bells or sing- 
any familiar Christmas song and march out.) 



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THE KINDERGARTEN- PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



LITTLE PIECES FOR 
LITTLE PEOPLE 



RHYMES AND PLAYS FOR DECEMBER. 

By Laura Rountree Smith. 
(Book Rights Reserved.) 
MERRY CHRISTMAS! 

Hurrah! for the Merry Christmas Tree! 
Hurrah! for its branches tall! 
Hurrah! for jolly old Santa Claus! 
Merry Christmas one and all! 



Hear the bells of Christmas ringing. 
Sweetest carols we are singing, 
Glad the message we are bringing, 

Christ was born on Christmas Eve. 

Holly-berries brightly glowing, 
Merry winds of winter blowing, 
Carol softly, for 'tis snowing, 

Christ was born on Christmas Eve. 



MERRY CHRISTMAS! 

Child with a Silver Star: 

I am a Christmas Star, I see 
A very beautiful Christmas tree! 

Child with Red Bell: 

I am a Christmas bell, I ring 

While sweet songs the children sing. 

Child with Wreath: 

I am a Christmas wreath hung high, 
In the windows that you pass by. 

Child with Stocking: 

I am a Christmas stocking, empty because 
It soon will be filled by Santa Claus. 

All: 

"Merry Christmas," children call, 
"Merry Christmas," one and all! 



THE CHILD AND THE STAR. 



Star: 



I am a little Christmas Star, 

I send my light to shine afar! 
Child: 

Tell me, little star, what do you see? 
Star: 

I see a beautiful Christmas tree. 
Child: 

Tell me, little star, what do you hear? 
Star: 

I hear Santa's sleigh-bells drawing near! 
Child: 

What else do you see as you look down below? 

Star: 

I see five little stockings hung in a row! 



Child: 

What else do you hear, for the night is long? 
Star: 

I hear some one singing a Christmas song! 
Child: 

I am but a little child I know, 

But I love you, bright star, shining so! 

THE SAME OLD SANTA CLAUS. 

(Children carry the article mentioned in the verse. 
They may wear costume, or merely a card hanging 
from the neck, telling to what Nation they belong.) 

1st, American Child: 

I will hang my stocking up for so, 
Old Santa will fill it from top to toe! 

2nd, Holland Child: 

A stocking is a funny thing to choose, 
I will put out one of my wooden shoes! 

3rd, Russian Child: 

I will bring a bundle of hay this year, 
To feed old Santa's swift reindeer! 

4th, Austrian Child: 

I will light a little candle bright, 

To guide the Christ-child through the night. 

5th, French Child: 

Our Santa Claus carries a basket white, 
And he brings us presents in the night. 

6th, English Child: 

The Yule-log never burns so bright, 

As when we sing carols on Christmas night. 

All (in concert) : 
. Merry Christmas, one and all, 
Merry Christmas, children call, 
We are happy now because, 
He is the same old Santa Claus! 



SIX LITTLE CANDLES. 

(The children wear long white dresses and carry 
lighted candles.) 
1st: 

I am a candle bright you see, 

I hope to shine on a Christmas tree. 
2nd: 

I'd like to do that if I were able, 

But I have to shine on a kitchen table! 
3rd: 

I am a candle and make no mistake 

To shine on a little child's birthday cake! 
4th: 

I will light a little boy up to bed, 

"Ha! ha! you are bright," the little boy said. 
5th: 

I will shine in a miner's cap you know, 

Down into the dark mine he must go. 
6th: 

I will shine in the dim old hall, 

I can count the hours one and all. 
All: 

We are little candles shining bright, 

Tho each one gives a tiny light, 

We all will shine our best tonight. 

Six little Maids in gowns of white. 
Merry Christmas, one and all! 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



109 



KINDERGARTEN GROWTH 

[NOTE:— tender this heading we shall give from time to 
t-nie such items us come 10 our notice ielative to the estab- 
lish men t 1 if new kindergartens as well as articles or state- 
ments in the jmhlic press or from noted educators favor- 
able to the kindergarten cause. • • 



VALUE OF THE KINDERGARTEN. 

By Lora B. Peck, Public School Primary- 
Supervisor. 

Several years ago an incident occurred in a Bos- 
ton kindergarten that illustrates the value of kinder- 
garten training. The children played a game in 
which the one who could run the fastest became 
the big bear, and as such had special privileges. 
Charles, an only child of wealthy parents, 
wanted very much to be the big bear. He cried 
and whined when others won the race. At home 
he begged his mother to ask the kindergartner to 
let him be the big bear just once, even if he did 
not win. The indulgent mother felt that Charles 
was much abused, but she waited a few days to 
see if the director would not let him be the big 
bear. One day the little fellow ran home smiling 
and said: "Mother, I was almost the big bear to- 
day. Surely I can win tomorrow." The next day 
he flew to his mother and cried: "I was the big 
bear today, and I earned it, too." 

What a pity it is that so many men and women 
of today have not yet learned that they may be 
the big bear only when they have earned it. 

The kindergarten ring is one of the few places 
where absolute equality reigns, and happy is the 
child who can learn in a game to respect the rights 
of others. Under the direction of a good kinder- 
gartner each child learns to hold his own in work 
and play, and to yield help to any one needing it. 
This ability to work and to play with other people 
is of highest importance, for it is one of the essen- 
tial qualities for leadership. Often grown men and 
women say they would give anything if only they 
could understand people better. The child in the 
kindergarten is beginning in the right t:me and 
place to have those experiences that enable him to 
understand human nature, to adjust himself to his 
place in society. The kindergarten is worth all it 
costs if it helps the child to find his true relation 
to his fellow man. 

Often in these days the plea is made that the 
child is better off in the home and that the parents 
are the best teachers. Not even the most cultured 
parents, with the best intentions, can furnish even 
a poor substitute for the associations with other 
children; they seem to forget that children, like 
grownups, must live with their contemporaries, not 
with their ancestors. The time for children to begin 
living is in childhood; the time for them to learn 
their social relations is when they are young enough 
to be molded by their associations. The Catholics 
claim that the first seven years of a child's life are 
of vital importance for religious teaching. Let the 
kindergarten borrow a part of the wisdom of the 



Catholics, and in the years from 5 to 7 teach the 
child the principles of true social relations. 

AN EMPLOYE'S POINT OF VIEW. 

J. D. Massey: "Our purpose in maintaining a 
kindergarten is twofold: First, we think it incum- 
bent upon the artificial person known as a corpora- 
tion, just as it is incumbent upon the natural person, 
to devote a certain portion of time, thought and 
work to making this world a better place. Secondly, 
since all business depends upon people, naturally 
business thrives most when people are best and 
highest developed. We think that people are better 
developed when they are given training of head, 
hand and heart, and the way to get the biggest re- 
turns for the money spent is to take the young. We 
take little stock in attempts at reform made upon 
old people. In other words, it would have been a 
much easier job to keep the Colorado river in its 
proper channel than to turn that raging flood back 
to the channel after millions of damage had been 
done by the formation of the Salton sea." 

"It is fair to suppose that in the factory and work- 
shop of every description the kindergarten is bound 
to work incalculable results. Indeed, I sometimes 
wonder if the kindergartners themselves can quite 
realize how well they are building — can fully com- 
prehend the very great need in the working woman 
of the identical principles which they are so patiently 
and faithfully inculcating into the tender minds of 
these forlorn babies gathered up in the courts and 
alleys." 



The National Kindergarten Assoeiation in one of its 
circulars quotes a mannufacturer thus: "I am convinced 

that the child, rich or poor, who goes to kindergar- 
ten in his tender years has a better chance in life, 
all else being equal, than the child who does not. I 
have as yet found only one working girl who has 
had the benefit of such training in childhood. She 
was 'Lame Lena,' at Springer's box factory; and in 
spite of her deformity, she was the quickest worker 
and made more money than any other girl in the 
shop. 

" 'Lame Lena' brought to her sordid task a cer- 
tain degree of organizing faculty; she did the var- 
ious processes rhythmically and systematically. The 
other girls worked helter-skelter — without that co- 
ordination of muscular and mental effort which the 
kindergarten might have taught them. 

"Tersely put, and quoting her own speech, the 
secret was in 'knowing how to kill two birds with 
one stone,' and, again, 'makin' of your cocoanut save 
your muscle.' 

"The free kindergarten movement is not yet old 
enough to begin to show its effects to any percepti- 
ble degree in the factory and workshop. Henrietta 
Manners and little Angelina were born too soon; 
they did not know the joy of the kindergarten; they 
did not know the delight of sitting in a little red 
chair in a great circle of other little red chairs filled 
with other little girls, each and all learning the rudi- 
mentary principles of work under the blissful delu- 
sion that they were at play. 



no 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



A CHRISTMAS GAME. 



"Santa Claus was in the air, so the little kindergarten 
children very readily responded to the suggestion to be 
toys, for one of their number to select from. 

After playing this way a little while, up spoke Sam- 
uel. 'Oh ! shall I be Santa and take some clown the 
chimney to the children?' On being told he might, he 
proceeded to form a mantel of the children — two close 
together on each side with a space between, the center 
ones extending their arms to form a fire-place. 

"Santa" then started to make his selections, throw- 
ing his clasped hands over his right shoulder as each 
"toy" was in imagination deposited in the pack. 

When a crowd of "toys" had accumulated, "Santa" 
walked to the back of the mantel and creeping into 
the fire-place with the "toys" at his back, stood off while 
the "toys" crouched clown around the hearth "waiting 
for morning." 

Just after this a wonderful metamorphosis took place 
when the unselected "toys" changed back again into 
children and ran to the fire-place to find a "toy," taking 
it back to the circle and playing with it. If it was 
a horse it was trotted around; or if a doll, it was 
hugged, etc." 

The above description was written for me by Mrs. 
Ada Hess, on request. It seemed too good not to be 
shared. The spirit is hard to keep in the telling. It 
was an original game, and was developed after Christ- 
mas, I think, or at least more fully developed. Children 
love to play out their Christmas experiences after 
Christmas as well as before. The children, who repre- 
sented toys, put a hand on Santa's shoulder and fol- 
lowed him around, forming a sort of train behind. 

As the game grew from day to day, half of the 
children were at first chosen to "go to sleep" in their 
chairs, ready to "wake up" with the Christmas morn- 
ing greeting, "Merry Christmas." The room was dark- 
ened. All was hushed. The game meanwhile devel- 
oped so that Santa had his "reindeer" as well as his 
"pack of toys." 

One child was chosen to be the Christmas tree, and 
with uplifted arms stood by the fire-place. When the 
lively toys came down the chimney they clustered them- 
selves around the tree. Santa disappeared with his rein- 
deer to a retired corner. 

"Merry Christmas" — all the children in their seats 
"wake up" at mother's call. 

Johnnie finds a drum and marches around beating 
it. 

Annie finds a doll and holds it on her lap. 

Eddie finds a train, and you soon hear his choo-choo 
as he plays. 

Willie has a trumpet, and toots it well. 

It is a merry game indeed, and full of dramatic 
action. 

A word of caution may be needed for the young 
kindergartner. Having now the completed game in 
mind, she may teach it as a game. It is much more 
interesting to let it grow a little, day by day. If no 
child thinks of it as Mrs. Hess' Samuel did, the 
kindergartner may make one or two suggestions or 



ask a question. "Would you like to play 'Christmas 
Night?' How should we play it?" 

It may take a different course, but follow the children 
as far as possible in their suggestions. Work from 
within out. Thus you get the spirit. Thu= you see the 
children. Thus you "educate by development." Thus 
you give scope to the creative activity of the child. 
Thus he exercises his own imagination. 

T. B. M. 



THE SNOWMAN. 

(Finger Play.) 
Lauea Rountkee Smith 
Let us make a Snowman, 
From a ball of snow 

(hold hands together, fingers touching) 
We will roll it round and round (roll hands) 
Bigger it will grow 
Roll again the ball for so (roll hands) 
The jolly Snowman soon will grow. 

Let us give the Snowman 

Jolly eyes and nose (point to eyes and nose) 

And a funny crooked mouth (point to mouth) 

He'll need hands, I suppose (hold up hands) 

If he could talk to you and me, 

How very funny it would be! 

(hold right hand to ear, listening) 

At Christmas, play and make good cheer, 
For Christmas comes but once a year. 

— Trusscr 



"What means that star," the shepherds said, 
"That brightens through the rocky glen?" 

And angels answering overhead, 

Sang, "Peace on earth, good-will to men." 



Daily deed and daily thought, 
Slowly into habit wrought, 
Raise that temple, base or fair, 
Which men call our character. 
Build it nobly, build it well: 
In that temple God may dwell! 

— Edward W. Benson. 



Blazing fire and Christmas treat. 
And wild and sweet 
The words repeat. 
Of "Peace on earth, good-will to men.'' 

— Longfellozv 



Do not look for wrong or evil — - 
You will find them if you do; 

As you measure for your neighbor 
He will measure back to you. 

- — Alice Cary. 



True worth is in being, not seeming, 
In doing each day that -gees by 
Some little good, not in dreaming 
Of great things to do by-and-by." 

The Scriptures teach us the best way of living, 
the noblest way of suffering, and the most com- 
fortable way of dying.— Flavel. 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



in 



KINDERGARTEN STORIES 

YOUNG MASTER RED-BILL. 

Susan Plessner Pollock. 

Mrs. Stork did not sit any more on the eggs in the 
nest; the young storks had come out of their egg home 
and Mrs. Stork had had a great house-cleaning and 
every one of the egg shells were thrown out of the nest. 

It was a delight to watch Papa and Mama Stork when 
they fed their children; they brought their marketing 
from the meadow, and because they could not carry a 
bag with_them, or hang a basket on their arm, they 
brought the frogs and lizards with them in their long 
throat; then they stood up in the nest with their young 
family around them, and while they pressed up from 
their throat again, the good things they had brought, the 
young ones opened their red bills very widely and the 
parents put one mouthful after the other, down the 
long throat of each young stork. 

Very interesting it was also, to watch them when they 
had dancing lessons ; at these times Mama and all four 
of her children stood on the edge of the big nest, Mama 
sprang in front, the young ones after her. Hop and a 
jump in the air, again a jump and once more, in between 
a great clapping with her bill, by the Mama, who clapped 
sometimes scolding, sometimes praising. 

When the parents flew away from the nest, it was 
mouse still there, probably it was forbidden to try the 
dangerous dance when no one was there to take care of 
them. 

It must have seemed a long time to the stork children 
sometimes, for as soon as they saw their parents com- 
ing, even from a long distance away in the clouds, there 
began a great clapping and rejoicing. 

Stork children are, after all, perhaps not so different 
from boys and girls about being obedient, for I fear boys 
and girls do not always mind their father and their 
mother. Our stork children were disobedient, and what 
happened? One time the father and mother remained 
away a long time, and the young ones at home in the 
nest grew very tired of waiting and doing nothing, they 
raised their long necks upward and stretched their long 
bills in the air! Hops! there stood one rogue on the 
nest edge. Ah! naughty one, will you return this min- 
ute? But young Mr. Red-bill did not for a minute think 
of going back, not a bit of it, — for instead, he clapped 
so loudly with his long red bill that every one of his 
brothers and sisters followed his example and also 
climbed out onto the edge of the nest. There they all 
stood and looked about them, first up at the clouds, then 
at the trees, then down into the courtyard below. Ah, 
what was going on down there? Two little people tod- 
dled about, here and there to and fro; two dogs jumped 
about and tumbled somersets over and over each other. 

The young storks were very much interested, they 
would gladly have been much nearer, that they might 
better see what was going on down there. The naughty 
Red-bill, the tempter of his brothers and sisters, decided 
to go a little further, to the other end of the barn-gable! 
What could happen? To march with his long legs 
could surely not be difficult ; had he not already had 
some flying lessons and knew how one spread the wings 



and raised and closed them, to sail in the air? "Up and 
on then," he clapped with his bill and jumped off of the 
nest onto the roof; now he looked all around and was 
very proud of his bravery. 

Ah, thou naughty one, if Father and Mother saw 
thee, they would surely push thee back into the nest with 
their long bills, — but the old storks were gone to the 
meadow, so the young rogue remained undisturbed for 
he did not listen to the clapping of his brothers and sis- 
ters. Now he started to march forward, but that was 
after all, no so easy as it had seemed, for everything 
needs practice and he had never before been out of the 
nest. His red legs were to be sure, nice and long, — but 
still weak — he balanced unsteadily with his heavy body, 
first to the right side and then to the left, then he lifted 
one of his long legs and tucked it under his breast 
feathers and there he stood on his other leg like a tight- 
rope dancer. 

Whew! that was a magic performance; next, he drew 
his leg out again from under his wing, stretched it long- 
out and put it down. There, he had taken the first step. 
He turned his head and clapped to his brothers and 
sisters how delighted he was with himself. Now began 
the march forwards, tap, tap, tap over the straw roof 
until he had gone all the way across to the other end of 
the barn gable. There hung a swallow's nest on the barn 
eaves. The little birds peeped, Red-bill heard the sound, 
but he could not see a thing, for a swallow's nes: is 
tightly closed all around, except one very little door. 
This twittering that he heard was a new language for 
Red-bill, just the same as Greek is to you little folks. 
Red-bill only understood the clapping language. He was 
terribly curious and wanted so much to see what those 
unknown birds that did not clap, looked like! Pie 
stretched his neck, trying with one eye to get a glimpse 
into the door of the small nest, but it was impossible tc 
see a thing, for inside the little nest, it was as dark as 
night and the sun outside dazzled him. If one could 
enlarge the little door, make it bigger, thought the saucy 
mischief, and he crooked his neck and stuck his bill into 
the nest ; then there sounded in there a great screaming ; 
the happy, twittering had been interrupted and loud 
frightened peeps were heard instead. Swallow-papa and 
Swallow-mama had not been far away, they had been 
sitting in the linden tree looking for worms, now they 
came flying and when they saw that white monster by 
the little nest with his long red bill boring into it, they 
flew angrily at the mischief maker. Mr. Red-bill did not 
need to fear the weak little birds, he was ten times big- 
ger and stronger than they, but he had a bad conscience, 
and. when we have a bad conscience, we are afraid of 
everything and jump at every sound. Red-bill began to 
tremble, his thin legs shook, he grew dizzy and instead 
of spreading out his wings and holding himself in t ho 
air he did just exactly what the inquisitive Puss had 
done, he fell down, down into the court-yard below. 
Poor foolish fellow there he lay — he did not clap for he 
had broken one of his wings. Children, dogs, sparrows, 
pigeons, all came in a hurry to see what had happened 
to the unlucky stork ! 

Above, on the roof, a terrible clapping was going on, 
for just at that time Papa and Mama Stork had come 



112 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



back from the meadow, and the young storks were tell- 
ing about it and the old ones were scolding and mourn- 
ing! Poor disobedient, punished Rogue down there, 
what do you say to the sorrow of your parents? Ah! 
not a word said he, he lay very still, while the forester 
bound up his wing. He could not fly up on to the roof 
again ; he was lame and must remain down in the 
court-yard. 

It was a great good fortune that he found himself 
among good people, who took kind care of him. The 
forester knew how to mend a broken wing, that was a 
blessing for Red-bill; the good forester's wife took 
care to see that he was fed and given water every day, 




and the children with the help of Dorris, made him a 
comfortable nest in the corner of the cow stall for his 
new home. So he continued to live in the garden and 
court of the little house in the forest and became good 
friends with the dogs and Miss Puss, but often he 
looked longingly upward to where his parents and 
brothers and sisters were and how many clapper talks 
from the distance they had together. Touching was the 
love of the parents ; when they came from the meadow, 
they first flew in a great circle above the court and 
threw down to their unfortunate child a pair of frogs, 
after which, they divided the rest of what they had 
brought among the young ones in the nest. Time went 
on, the wing was healed, meanwhile the storks above 
in the nest had been taking dancing lessons and also 
flying lessons every day and they flew about over the 
roof and on to the linden tree. 

When their brother in the court below watched these 
flying times he was sad and hung his head. Herman 
and Gertrude tried to coax him to fly also ; they waved 
their arms up and down to show him how they played 



flying birds, but the poor fellow could not understand 
their language, for they could not clap with a bill, for 
they had none, and their waving with the arms could 
not have been the right way to teach him to fly, for he 
never once tried to imitate them. 

One day, however, there was a tremendous rustling 
in the air, the father and mother stork flew in great cir- 
cles around and around in the air, at first high, high up 
but each time they made a circle it grew smaller and the 
great birds came nearer and lower, flying around and 
around, until all at once, there they stood before their 
lost child ! Clapper, clapper, how they did talk to- 
gether; by and by the old birds spread their wings and 
sprang several times into the air, then the young stork 
spread his wings also and sprang several times into the 
air and down again — there ! — the parents have taken him 
between them in the middle and flown above. Ah ! what 
clapper rejoicing went on in the nest then, as the saved 
child was at home once more. 

Herman and Gertrude rejoiced with the happy stork 
family, but they had something else to make them 
happy; Red-bill came every day to the court and let 
them feed him, yes, and pet him ! 

When the Fall came, and he must, with the great 
gathering of storks which then assemble, go (migrate) 
for the Winter, to a warmer country, he flew down and 
said goodby to the forester's family. Farewell, fare- 
well, Stork, called all the family to him and he clapped. 

There fell down through the air some drops and one 
did not exactly know whether they were stork's tears 
or rain. — Translated from the German for the Kinder- 
garten and Primary Magazine by Frieda. 



GRAY. 

By Mary Ellason Cotting. 

One day, by accident, the sheep-dog hurt a gray 
squirrel, and Farmer Merriman took him home to 
stay until he was well again. 

Dorothy fed and petted Gray till he was so fat 
he didn't like to live in the bird-cage any longer; 
so one morning as he was frisking up Dorothy's 
sleeve, her father said it was time to let him go. 

They opened the window and put him on the 
sill, but he didn't seem to care much about going. 
After a while the cat came along and, as Gray 
didn't like Snooze, he jumped into the yard and 
ran across the woodpile. 

Such a long, high, thick pile of wood makes a 
fine playground for a squirrel, so Gray stayed there 
a long time. It was near the grain-house and the 
barn, and Gray very much enjoyed hunting for his 
own food once more. To be sure, he sometimes 
visited the pantry, and quite often Dorothy fed him 
with bread and milk mush. 

After a time he began to long for the woods and 
a wild life, so he said to himself, "I'll go to the 
woods tomorrow. I'd like one more good game 
with Jack. If Snooze goes to the meadow for 
moles, I'll enjoy myself here one more day, and 
then I'll be off." 

Snooze didn't go to the meadow, for she had a 
yellow-bird's young family to watch; but she was 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



H3 



out of Gray's sight. So when the sun shone high 
overhead he chattered at the house dog and invited 
him to play chase. 

You never could think how droll a game it was. 
Gray would poke his head out between the sticks 
of wood just over Jack's head and chatter at him. 
Jack would jump and caper and bark and feel sure 
that he was going to tag Gray, when out of sight 
Gray would scamper. Then Jack, thinking he had 
gone to the other side, would rush behind the wood- 
pile and find — no squirrel; for Gray, you know, 
would be at the end, high up among the sticks, 
making a funny noise as if he were laughing. 

Round Jack would hurry, and Gray would scurry 
off, thinking, "Oh, this is lovely fun. I've nearly 
the mind to never leave this jolly place." 

Then sly old Snooze would poke around a corner, 
and Gray, spreading his tail, would leap into a 
maple-tree near. Here he would be safe, for Snooze 
couldn't follow him to the tips of the branches; 
neither could she leap from tree to tree as he 
could. 

When Snooze saw Gray in the maple, she pre- 
tended to be fussy at Jack, who was standing on 
his hind legs rest'ng his fore paws on the maple 
trunk. Jack was so full of fun he didn't seem to 
know that there was danger for Gray; but when 
Gray shrieked he turned face to face with Snooze, 
whose looks invited him to mischief. 

Just what Gray hoped would happen did happen, 
for as soon as Snooze scolded, Jack dashed at her, 
and, while they- had their hurry-scurry, Gray went 
back to the woodpile. 

How he did dislike to leave Jack, but still he 
longed for the woods. Better for him if he had 
been content to stay about the farm, for in a few 
days he was caught in a box-trap and carried to 
a strange, new home. 

Here he was kindly treated, but he was kept shut 
up in a cage. Max, the boy that cared for him, 
loved and fed him well; but, oh, how Gray did miss 
Jack! He even longed to see Snooze. 

One sunny day his cage was left on the porch. 
He could hear the water lap and lap against the 
river bank, for a steamer was passing. The leaves 
swung gently, bees hummed in the garden, and a 
gay-colored butterfly fluttered by. 

"Oh if I only could be free," he sighed as he 
spread his tail and turned around. Click! his big 
bushy tail had struck the half-fastened door. In a 
moment Gray was whisking across the ground and 
away to the trees in the park. How he trembled 
as he crossed the road, for a great, big something 
was whizzing toward him. 

Right between the rails Gray stopped, sat up stiff 
and straight, and threw his tail along his back. 
Why he did such a thing he doesn't to this day 
know, but he does know now that each time before 
he crosses the street he must listen, for another 
time the motorman may be would not stop — maybe 
would not wait just to let a squirrel run along. 

When Gray reached the park gates he bounded 



into the shrubbery. All day long he went from tree 
to tree and in and out among the bushes. When 
night came he was tired and hungry, for he had 
only found some crumbs and an apple-core for his 
dinner. He had to be satisfied, though, and at last 
fell asleep in an old, deserted robin's nest. 

All summer he ran about, getting thinner and 
thinner, because he never had a good meal now; he 
even had to gnaw the bark of the trees to keep 
his teeth from growing too long. 

When cold fall weather came, some people scat- 
of the ash and maple trees, kept him from starving. 
tered grain for the birds, and this, with the keys 

As winter approached he tried to find his way 
back to the river, where there was a large oak, 
in the trunk of which he thought to make a winter 
home. 

Gray didn't find the oak tree; but, after a few 
days he found a wonderful place where he could 
get all he needed to eat. This strange place was 
a mill in which some people worked, and they 
were so glad to see the squirrel that they were 
glad to give him a share of their luncheons. A 
sweet young girl coaxed him into her hand one 
day, and they soon became such good friends that 
Gray would take nuts from her fingers, nibble off 
the sharp points and scurry away to hide them in 
the old culvert behind the mill. 

The north and west winds had blown so many 
leaves into the culvert that a nicer, cozier shelter 
couldn't have been found for a squirrel. After all 
of his troubles, Gray felt very thankful for such 
a good home, and he often wished that Jack and 
Snooze might know how happy he was at last. 



"ONLY A LITTLE NIGGER BABY." 

Late one Saturday afternoon the farmer and his 
son John came home tired and hungry from the 
field. But the keen-eyed farmer paused at the 
garden gate and looked down the slope along the 
lane to the main-traveled road. 

"My boy," he said, "there's something wrong 
out there with those people coining up the valley. 
They have been an hour poking along past this 
ranch. I guess their old white horse is most dead. 
Jump on the colt and help them out. Bring them 
right in for supper or to stay all night, and we'll 
feed up that plug." 

The youngster was used to such things. They 
happened on that farm at all hours of day or night. 
He leaped the barnyard fence, called his colt, who 
came running from the pasture, slipped a hacka- 
more on his head, sprang on, bareback, and galloped 
down to the big gate. Meanwhile, the farmer went 
in to supper, and told Mary, his wife, that some 
guests were likely to happen along. 

The boy found a miserable old horse, all skin 
and bone, dragging with frequent pauses a ram- 
shackle cart by a nondescript harness. In the cart 
a very old Negro sat holding the bit of rope which 
served for lines. Beside him was a young colored 
woman with a sick baby. They looked forlorn, 
v/orn-out, and utterly hopeless. 



H4 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



"Sar," asked the old Negro, "how far to Gunnel 
Batten's place?" 

"It's four miles, and a good deal up hill," the 
boy answered. 

"Lord, Rosy," the old fellow said to the woman 
at his side, "hit will take we tins most all n'ght." 
His voice fell away into a groan of weariness." 

"Look here, neighbors," said the boy. "Father 
and mother and I want you to have supper, and 
stay till to-morrow. Your horse needs it, and both 
of you look worn out." 

"The baby's awful sick," said the woman, lifting 
a dusty and tear-stained face. 

The boy opened the gate, jumped off Iris colt, 
pushed manfully at the old cart, and soon brought 
(he outfit to the garden gate. 

"So you are Virginians, too," said the boy, mak- 
ing conversation as they came up the road. 

"Law me, Massa, yes!" the old Negro replied. 
"This yere's my step-niece, an' I got a gran-darter 
up in the settlement at the Cunnel's." 

Then the farmer and his wife came out, carried 
in the baby, and put it on a cot-bed by the fire: 
took in the tired mother and the old Negro, set 
food before them, waited on them, spoke words 
of good cheer. The boy tied his colt to the fence, 
and took care of the ancient horse; then, he came 
in to supper, and wondered whether or not this 
very old Negro had ever seen General Lee, or 
Stonewall Jackson. 

The farmer's wife and the Negro mother sat 
by the sick baby, talked in low tones, tried to help 
the sufferer, and felt that the case was beyond their 
resources. 

"We will send for a doctor," the farmer's wife 
said, at last. "Our old family doctor, who has 
been here for years, and takes care of all your 
folks up at Colonel Batten's, is away on a vacation, 
but there's a new young doctor just settled in the 
village, and I've no doubt he's first rate." 
"Missus, we uns hain't no money." 
"That is all right, Rosy; you are going to be 
neighbors of ours, you know. When you get well, 
you can help me out some time. You don't know 
how glad I am that you came in to-night." 

The boy went out and saddled his colt; the 
farmer sat down and wrote a letter. It ran this 
way: 

"Dear Dr. Wyman — We have some guests here 
and there is a very sick baby. Come, prepared to 
stay all night if necessary, and come as soon as 
you can. Charge everything to me." 

The boy galloped off to the village, several nvi'es 
away, handed in the note, heard the doctor say, 
"Coming, soon as I can harness," got the mail and 
hastened home. The old Negro had been put to 
bed; the women were working over the baby; the 
farmer was smoking a peaceful pipe on the porch. 
In a few minutes the young doctor, who drove 
a fast nag, came in with his traveling case. 

"Go right in; the baby's by the lire." said the 
farmer, waving his pipe. The doctor went in. lie 



came out immediately, almost choking with sudden 
anger, and leaned over the farmer. 

"What sort of a creature do you call that— that 
— for a high-class practitioner to — to " 

The farmer interrupted, with a sweet seriousness: 

"My dear Dr. Wyman," he said, "that is merely 
a human baby — just the regular sort that human 
mothers bring into the world." 

"That thing!" shouted the young doctor, so 
loudly that the boy and the women heard him. 
"Why, that's nothing but a nigger baby. I con- 
sider this an insult, sir. I won't attend Indians, 
Chinese, niggers, dagos, and such cattle!" 

The farmer rose and put a strong hand upon the 
young man's shoulder. 

"Thee will listen to me," he said, dropping into 
the familiar speech of his boyhood. His wife, hear- 
ing, smiled to herself; she knew that it meant per- 
fectly controlled emotion, seldom wakened, but 
always irresistible. The neighborhood used to say 
that he "always swore in Quaker talk." 

"Thee will listen," he went on, low-voiced, in- 
tense. "Thee knows thee once did graduate. The 
state did educate thee. And thee didst take thy 
great Hippocratean Oath. Hast thou forgotten its 
meaning? Or didst never learn that thy knowledge 
is not thine to refuse? Go thou in the house and 
fight for that baby's life as if it were the white 
child of thine own brother." 

The young doctor shivered and colored, but he 
was not yet quite conquered. 

"But you got me here under false pretenses,"' 
he said; "why didn't you write me that it was a 
nigger baby?" 

A look of complete surprise crossed over the 
farmer's face. 

"So I ought, young man," he answered. "But 
the fact is, it never occurred to me. I noticed 
that the baby was black, and then I clean forgot 
it. ■ That was foolish, of course; but really, now, 
I supposed all there was to be said to a nice neigh- 
borly doctor was that it was a baby — and a mighty 
sick one." 

"Say no more!" the young man cried, and led 
the way back into the room, took hold of the case, 
staid all night, and pulled the baby through. 

After breakfast the young doctor stood with the 
farmer, while the boy put his horse into the sulky. 
He was awkward and troubled, but he came up to 
the scratch at last. 

"There isn't any charge," he told the farmer. 
"Please say to your wife that — that I regret the 
way I spoke about it. That confounded youngster 
suffered just like any other baby. And when we 
felt safe about it, the mother caught my hand, and 
she said: 'You is a good man, Doctor; God bless 
you, you is!' " 

The farmer shook hands with the young doctor. 
"You certainly are more of a fellow-traveler this 
morning than you were last night," he answered. 
"And I think you will do. Study our old Army 
doctor from Vermont when he comes back. He's 
wearing out, but he's a sa : nt and a hero. Work 
with him, and you'll gradually get ready to take 
his place. It's a miehtv bia- place to fill, too." 

CHARLES II. SIIINN, in The Public. 



Making Toys. 
Either before or after Christmas'let the children make sever- 
al toys of paper or cardboard. A toy corner ma) be arranged, 
or borders may be designed by alternating the ball, horn and 
drum. In one kindergarten the following toys were made: 
Ball, Horn, Drum, Doll, Cradle, Cart, Doll's House, Rock- 
ing Horse. Teddy Bear. j. b. m. 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



115 



INDUSTRIAL AND HOUSEHOLD ARTS. 
A Paper Bed. 

All little girls who love paper dolls are delighted to 
have beds for them, and I find that even little boys are 
often quite as enthusiastic about both dolls and beds, 
although they sometimes demand boy dolls. 

There are many ways of making paper beds, but I 
have found this one strong and not too hard for very 
small children. In fact the only hard part is the pasting, 
and with that an older person will probably have to help. 

Cut five-and-a-half or six-inch squares of strong- 
paper (heavy manila or bogus paper is good for the 
purpose). Two squares are required for each bed. 
Crease one square through the center and cut it in 



with crayons (see Figs. 6 and 7), but they should be 
done with great care, as erasing spoils these papers. The 
bolster should be the same width as the bed, and of the 
same color and pattern as the spread. Make a narrow 
roll of the paper by pasting the edges together, Fig. 8. 

When the bed clothes are placed on the bed, the top 
sheet should be folded a little way over the blanket, 
and all the clothes creased to hang over the sides of the 
bed. 

KATHERINE L. KELLOGG, 



1, 



Arts Magas 



I desire to call attention to the opportunities offered by 
the Bureau of Education to students of education and to such 
committees and commissions as are appointed by State boards 




halves. Turn each end of one half over, a quarter of 
an inch, and crease it. (See Fig. 1.) Fold the other 
half into eight small squares and smooth it out. Then 
cut as shown in Fig 2, by dotted lines. Fold the remain- 
ing square into sixteen small squares and smooth out. 
Cut one row of four small squares entirely off. This 
may be thrown away. Cut the remaining piece as shown 
in Fig. 3. Paste the three parts together. 

Older children can make different styles of beds using 
this as a foundation, by cutting legs, posts, etc. 

Use two white squares of folding paper for sheets, 
making machine-stitched hems at top and bottom of both 
sides with pencil dots. Use another white square for the 
blanket, drawing stripes at top and bottom with colored 
crayon, Fig. 4. Make the pillow of a double or single 
piece of paper not quite the width of the bed, and dot 
the hem with a pencil, Fig. 5. For the bed spread use a 
square of cutting paper of a delicate color to match the 
stripes on the blanket. These spreads are made much 
prettier if small all-over patterns are drawn on them 



of education and national, State, and local associations for 
the purpose of investigating particular phases of education. 
Here students and the representatives of such committees and 
commissions may find at once and without cost other than 
that of coming to Washington practically all that is now in 
print in pamphlets, books, or magazines on any subject of 
education, including educational legislation. The Bureau 
does not now have all the expert help it should have to put 
at the service of students and representatives of committees 
and commissions to csust them in working out their prob- 
lems, but it will gladly give them such assistance as it can, 
and a room in the Bureau has been set apart for their use. 
In a few days or weeks information can be obtained here 
which these committees and commissions frequently spend 
months oftime and hundreds of dollars in trying to collect by 
correspondence. When the Bureau has more money than is 
now appropriated for its use, it will be able to help more 
than it can at [resent by serving as a kir.d of working sub- 
committee for all the more important commissions of its kind. 
Yourd sincerly, 

P. P. Claxton, Commissioner. 



HINTS^SUGGESTIONS FOR RURAL TEACHERS 



CONDUCTED BY GRACE DOW 

In undertaking this department I trust that my somewhat extended experience in 



)EAR RURAL TEACHER. 
rural schools and my subsequent normal training and city school work may assist me 



making it practically 



teacher who is trying to do good work, the wide range of studies, the constant temptation to neglect 
for the apparently more pressing need of the older classes and the lack of equipment necessary for the best work. 
>Iv hope is to assist yon to secure better results with the small children. and I shall unhesitatingly recommend the 
intelligent use of kindergarten material as likely to produce the best results with least expenditure of time. How 
t o use this material, what to select, what substitutes, etc, will be discussed from month to month in these columns. 



CHRISTMAS PICTURES. 

Hoffman's Head of Christ. 

Madonna Adoring Infant Christ. 

Holy Family. 

Sistine Madonna. 

Cherubs. 

Angel's Heads. 

Jesus and John. 

The Christ. 

Madonna of the Chair. 

Holy Night. 

Christ and the Doctors. 

Mother and Child. 



We like the spring, with its fine, fresh air; 
We like the summer, with flowers so fair ; 
We like the fruits we in autumn share, 
And we like, too, old winter's greeting. 

—Selected. 



GIVING— THEME FOR THE MONTH. 

The true spirit of giving should be presented to the 
children. We should give because we love those to 
whom we give, and wish to make them happy. Wher- 
ever we find the true conception of Christ's teaching 
there we find men and women, boys and girls anxious to 
give; not with the desire to receive gifts in return, but 
because the giving in itself brings its own reward in a 
consciousness of well doing. We are taught that the 
final test of a noble character is service to man. If gifts 
are exchanged in school be sure that no child is over- 
looked. 

STAR BEAMS. 

While stars of Christmas shine, 

Lighting the skies, 
Let only loving looks 

Beam from your eyes. 

While bells of Christmas ring. 

Joyous and clear, 
Speak only happy words 

All mirth and cheer. 

Give only loving gifts, 

And in love take; 
Gladden the poor and sad, 

For love's dear sake. 



RAFFIA WORK. 

The artistic possibilities of raffia make it of especial 
use at this season of the year in making Christmas gifts. 

Raffia, dyed or colored, may be used with reed or 
hard wood slats. If necessary, old boxes, writing-pad 
backs, and mailing tubes may be utilized. 

To secure the best results wet the raffia, and allow 
it to become partially dry before using. 

Napkin Ring. — Make a ring of cardboard about one 
and a half-inches wide and two inches in diameter. 
Flatten the dampened raffia, and wind over and over 
until completely covered. Fasten the end on the inside 
with a large needle, and decorate with a ribbon bow. 

A Circular Picture Frame. — Cut a circle of cardboard 
about six inches in diameter, cut out of the center a cir- 
cle three inches in diameter, leaving a circular rim one 
and a half inches in width, Wind the rim carefully 



with the flattened raffia, sew a circular card upon the 
back to hold the photo, and attach ribbon for the hanger. 




Towel Rings. — If possible obtain large flat metal rings 
for the foundation. Wind several with the raffia, and 
hang with dainty colored ribbon. 

Other articles suggested are brush broom holder, 




stamp box, pin tray, pin ball, hair pin box, needle book, 
thermometer back. 



CHRISTMAS BOOKLETS. 

This should be a noticeable feature of this month's 
work. Ask your older pupils to write an original 
Christmas story, and allow the smaller ones to copy 
some appropriate selection. 

The covers may be made of Bristol board or con- 
struction paper, in colors red, green, or white, decorated 
with drawing's of holly or mistletoe. If preferred, a 
picture of the Madonna or head of Christ may be 
pasted upon the outside cover. Tie with green or red 
ribbon. 

JOHN G. WHITTIER. 

The Quaker poet, John G. Whittier, was born in Hav- 
erhill. Mass., Dec. 17, 1807. 

Of regular schooling he had what the country could 
give, a few weeks each winter in the district school, and 
when he was nineteen, a little more than a year in an 
academy in Haverhill. 

Following the regular custom at the time, the teacher 
"boarded around," and one of them brought into the 
home a copy of Burns' poems, which he read aloud to 
the family as they were seated around the fireside in 
the winter evenings. 

The boy received his first inspiration from hearing 
these poems, and the poetry within him found expression 
in verse when he was still a country school boy. 



fME KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



117 



His mother and his sister Mary encouraged him in 
his writing, but his father was a stern man, and also 
believed as many other Quakers of that time that writ- 
ing poetry was not in strict accordance with Bible 
teaching. 

His sister sent one of his poems, unknown to the au- 
thor, to a paper which had been recently started in a 
neighboring village. Imagine the boy's surprise when 
he caught the paper from the postman riding by the 
field where he and his father were at work and saw for 
the first time one of his poems in print. 

Through the interest shown by this editor he was en- 
couraged to attend the academy that he might have a 
better preparation for his chosen work. 

At the age of twenty-one he entered a printing office 
in Boston. Here he remained for a year and a half, and 
then returned to his father's farm, freeing it from mort- 
gage with the few hundred dollars he had saved from 
his salary. 

The death of his father in June, 1830, made it more 
necessary for him to earn his living since the care of the 
family fell upon him. 

No sketch can do justice to this kind and good man, 
we must study his character in his own words. It is in 
"Snow-Bound" where we learn the most of the associa- 
tions of his boyhood days. 

His childlike faith is beautifully shown in the follow- 
ing stanza: 

I know not where His islands lift 

Their fronded palms in air, 
I only know I cannot drift 
Beyond His love and care. 



QUAKERS. 

In the history classes call special attention to the 
Quakers, and the Quaker settlements in Pennsylvania. 
The children will be interested to hear about their quaint 
speech, their peculiar dress, and their mode of worship. 



LANGUAGE WORK. 

Many of the children will receive gifts that will re- 
quire a note or letter of thanks, and letter writing should 
be made a prominent feature of the language work of 
the month. 

Teach them the difference between a formal and in- 
formal letter, also letters of friendship and those per- 
taining to business. Give them some of the usually ac- 
cepted forms for notes of thanks, and also call attention 
to the difference in heading. 

Give them directions as to folding, placing in the en- 
velope, and also properly addressing, and correct place 
for the stamp with reason for the latter. 



PAPER CUTTING, ETC. 

The uses of Bristol board for Christmas gifts are 
without number, the following are a few suggested : 







The box in various shapes, cornucopia, stocking, basket, 
calendar pad, match-scratcher, work basket, envelopes 
to contain clippings, card case, broom holder, match 
safe, comb case, book mark, and candy boat. 



EDUCATIONAL NEWS 

All patrons of the magazine are cordially invited to 
use these columns for announcing lectures, recital < or 
entertainments of any kind or interest to kindergart- 
ners or primary teacliers. Reports of meetings held, 
and miscellaneous ne*\ s items are also solicited. 
In writing please give your name and address. 



Salt Lake City, Utah 

Educators of this city are greatly interested in the 
announcement that provided [satisfactory railroad rates 
can be secured, the next annual meeting of the National 
Educational Association will be held in this city, July 7 
11, 1913. 

Philadelphia, Pa. 

The department of Superintendence of the N. E. A. 
will hold a meeting in this city, Feb. 25-28, 1913. The 
Bellevue-Stratford Hotel will be the headquarters. It 
is expected that the time limit of tickets will be ex- 
tended so that visitors may take in the inauguration 
ceremonies at Washington, the week following. 

Omaha, Neb. 

The forty-seventh annual meeting of the Nebraska 
State Teachers' Association was held in this city, Nov- 
ember 6-7-8. The exercises in the Primary and Kinder- 
garten Department consisted of songs by kindergarten 
and primary pupils, a group of songs by Fannie Meyers 
and Pearl Minnick of Omaha, and a paper on Dramati- 
zation in Connection with Primary Reading and Lan- 
guage, by Grace Miner of Omaha. 

Milwaukee, Wis. 

The annual meeting of the Wisconsin Teachers' Asso- 
ciation was held here November 7-9. In the kindergar- 
ten department there was an exhibit of hand work in 
charge of Miss Hood, also the Montessori System by 
Miss Anna E. Logan, of Miami University, Oxford, 
Ohio. A paper on Constructive Work in the Kinder- 
garten, by Miss Edna E Hood, of Kenosha, Wis., and 
one on the "Use of Materials in the Thanksgiving and 
Christmas Festivities" by Elizabeth D. Young, of the 
State Normal, and also a paper by Elizabeth K. Shaw, 
of Evanston, Illinois, subject: "Ideals of Scientific Ped- 
agogy and the Montessori Experiment," were features 
of the meeting, 

Topeka, Kansas 

The fiftieth annual session of the Kansas State Teach- 
ers' Association was held here November 7-8. There 
was an exhibit of the Montessori Material, also of the 
Froebel kindergarten Gifts, and an address on the Mon- 
tessori Method by Miss Florence Ward, of Cedar Falls, 
Iowa. A program consisting of talks, story telling, folk 
dances, and games, was given November 8, in which the 
following kindergartners took leading parts: Miss Gla- 
dys Johnson, Waverly; Miss Elsa Shoshusen, State 
Manual Training Normal, Pittsburg; Miss Pearl Phalp, 
Kansas City; Miss Frances Wheeler. Kansas City; Miss 
Lulu iVlcKee, Topeka; Miss Louise Alder, State Normal, 
Emporia; Pianist, Mrs. W. M. Mills, Topeka. 

Buffalo, N. Y. 

At the State Teachers' Association meeting held here 
November 25-27, Mrs. Jas. L. Hughes of Toronto, is 
expected to deliver an address on "Co-operation of the 
Mother and the Kindergarten." Other addresses will 
be "Practical Suggestions in Conducting Mothers' 
Clubs," by Mrs. Adelle Brooks, of Rochester; and 
"Stories a d Story Telling," by Mrs. Ada M. Loche, 
Froebel League, New York City; and "The Training of 
Kindergartners," by Miss Mary Jean Miller, of Roches- 
ter, N. Y. There will also be a round table discussion, 
and an exhibit of books for kindergartners, in charge 
of Miss Ella C, Elder, Buffalo, N. Y, 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



Columbus, Ohio 
At the annual meeting- of the Central Ohio Teachers' 
Association held here November 8-9, Miss Elizabeth 
Samuel, of the Kindergarten Normal School, Columbus, 
Ohio, gave an address on the "Eelation of the Kinder- 
garten to the Other Public School Work." 



Washington, D. C. 

The Commissioner of Education of the United. States 
is trying to make the library of the Bureau of Education 
a complete reference library on all phases of education. 
To assist in this he wishes to obtain, as soon as issued, 
two copies of all reports, catalogs, circulars of informa- 
tion, and all similar publications of State, county, and 
city departments of education, and of education associa- 
tions, boards and societies. All persons responsible for 
the distribution of any such matter are requested to 
send two copies to the library of the Bureau. If the 
postage would be considerable, the librarian should be 
notified by card, when free mailing labels will be sent. 

Address all communications to The Librarian, Bureau 
of Education, Washington, D. C. 



Mary I). Hill of Louisville, Ky., will conduct the round 
cable of the Department of Kindergarten Education, at 
1he, Southern Educational Association meeting, Nov. 
30. Discussious will be led by Miss Louise Diets, and 
Miss Caroline Bourgard. 

Dr. Caroline Geisel, of Battle Creek, Mich., spoke at 
the annual meeting of the Southern Educational Asso- 
ciation, on the subject, "The Need of Preparation for 
Parenthood." 



Mary C. Welles of Hartford will speak before the Hart- 
ford Froebel Club, Dec. 4. 



TRAINING SCHOOLS 

News Items from Training Schools are Solicited 



Indianapolis 

A mass meeting of the mothers from the Free Kiner- 
garten districts of Indianapolis was held November 19 
at Teachers College. 

The program included stories and songs by the stu- 
dentsof Teachers College. Mrs. Eliza A. Slaker. superin- 
tendent of the Free Kindergartens and President of the 
college, gave the principal address, "What Constitutes 
a Good Mother." 

The Annual Fair, given by the students of the Teach- 
hers College, was in the nature of a Dutch fair this year; 
windmills, tulips and dykes carried out this idea. The 
Fair was held in the Assembly ball of Teachers College, 
each class having charge of a booth. 



December 19th, at four o'clock. Memorial Exercises 
will be held in the Meeting-house. Central Park West 
and 64th Street, under auspices of the Society for Ethi- 
cal Culture, to commemorate the life and work of Car- 
oline T. Haven, who was for twenty-eight years in 
charge of the Kindergarten and Normal Departments of 
the Ethical Culture School, and actively indentified 
with progressive kindergavtrn.work throughout America. 
Addresses by Anna Garlin Spencer, Patty S. Hill, Anna 
M. Clark, Thomas E. Balliet, Felix Adler. 



PERSONAL MENTION 

Oi:rreade r s are invited to send ns items for this de- 
partment. Kijd.y j,ive your name wlieii writiug. 



At the annual meeting oi the Alumni Association of the 
Philadelphia Training School For Kindergartners an inter- 
esting program was given, including an address by Josiah H. 
Penniman, of the University of Pennsylvania. 



Dr. W. N. Hailmann of Cleveland has been invited to 
speak in the South on the Montessori Method. 

Laura Fisher is expected to lecture before the Rhode 
Island Kindergarten League in the near future. 

Harriette Melissa Mills will address a meeting of New 
York public school kindergartners, Jan. 15th. Subject: 
"Games " 

Miss Mary Jackson Kennedy of Boston spoke at the 
Maine State Teachers' Association on "Montessori 
Methods." 

Dk. Myron T. Scudder spoke on the Montessori system 
before the public school kindergartners of New York, 
Nov. 20th. 

Dr. A. Caswell Ellis, Director Dept. of Extension, 
Austin, Texas, spoke at annual meeting of the Southern 
Educational Association, Louisville, on the moral ed- 
ucation of the child. 

Mr. Carl R.Byoir, who is in charge of the Montessori 
interests in America, spoke at the Connecticut State 
Teachers' Association, on the "Montessori Method in 
the American Kindergarten." 

Miss Margaret Thick of Debuque, Iowa, will speak be- 
fore the Kindergarten teachers' meeting in that city 
Dec. 9; subject: "How the Kindergarten and First Pri- 
mary Work May be More Closely Co-ordinated." 

Dr. Merrill spoke at Brunford, Conn., recently in the 
Library Hall. She took charge of the primary section of 
an institute held at Atlantic City, N. J., speaking upon 
"A Neglected Corner in Montessori," and "The ABC 
of Things." 

City Supt. Maxwell is a great admirer of the writings 
of William James, so much so, in fact, that in a recent 
address to public school superintendents, principals, and 
directors he said that the chapter on "Habit" in "Psy- 
chology" is the finest sermon ever written, "with the 
exception of the Sermon on the Mount"— N. Y. Ex. 

James A, Barr of San Francisco, Secretary of the Cal- 
ifornia Teachers' Association and Manager of the Sierra 
Educational News, has been appointed Alanager of the 
Bureau of Conventions and Societies of the Panama-Pa- 
cific International Exposition. Mr. Barr is better 
known to the educational world through his educational 
work in Stockton, where he was City Superintendent of 
Schools for twenty years. Through his work the Stock- 
ton schools gained a national reputation, the methods 
employed being in such demand that a New York pub- 
lishing house (The Macmillan Company) issued a book 
known as "The Book of Stockton Methods." 

Miss Mary F. Schaeffer of Germantown, Ohio, recently 
gave an address at Columbus, on her visit to the Mon- 
tessori schools in Italy. 

Miss Schaeffer is an enthusiastic admirer of the work. 
She will lecture again in Columbus to the teachers of the 
Deaf and Dumb. One of Miss Schaeffer's subjects is, 
"The Relation of Montessori Method and Principles to 
the Kindergarten." 

Miss Schaeffer has had a broad experience, having 
taught in New York City, in California, and in Florida, 
as well as in her own home town. She can be secured 
for institutes. 

NurseGirl: "0, ma'am, what shall I do? The twins 
have fallen down the well!" 

Fond Parent: "Dear me! how annoying! Just go into 
the library and get the last number of The Modern 
Mother's Magazine; it contains an article on 'How to 
Bring Up Childern.' "—Town Topics. 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



H9 



BOOK NOTES 

Mother Goose in Holland. By Mary Audubon Post. Il- 
lustrated. Boards, 90 pages. Published by George W. 
Jacobs & Co., Philadelphia. $1.25 postpaid. 

Here we find the old, beloved Mother Goose rhymes, 
but it is a blue-eyed, wooden-shoed, white-capped Dutch 
little contrary Mary who rakes her garden of "gold 
and crimson" tulips and silver hyacinth bells. And the 
children who, under the green umbrella, ask the rain to 
go away, are Dutch folk, and little Jack Horner, we are 
sure, hails this time from Holland. Half a dozen of 
the large full-page pictures are in color. The remainder, 
and there are many, are in vigorous line drawings. Let 
the children get acquainted with these little Dutch 
friends. It will be an opportunity also for them to 
learn the distinction between the inhabitants of Germany 
and those from Holland. Too many people ignorantly 
confuse the two. 

"Art Quartette, Modem Masters." By Hedwig Levi. 

This attractive and instructive game, modeled upon 
the well-known plan of "Authors," is a successor to the 
previous one published by Miss Levi, which followed the 
Old Masters. The one now under consideration con- 
tains 60 cards reproducing pictures by 15 modern artists, 
each artist being represented by four pictures. The life 
and birth dates of the artists are given and the titles of 
the pictures in both English and French. They are re- 
produced with permission of the Berlin Photographic 
Co., and each card is a little work of art. Teachers 
would find them useful for busy work in various ways. 

The Story of the Discontented Little Elephant. By E. 
E. Somerville. Illuminated boards, 28 large pages. 
Price 60c. Published by Longmans, Green & Co., 
New York and London. 

A story in rhyme for little children about the little 
elephant who left his home in quest of a longer nose 
which he vainly sought on land and sea, finally glad to 
get home again alive, and the little nose he had bitten 
off. There is a moral. 

The Castle of Zion. By George Hodges. Cloth, illus- 
trated, 200 pages. Published by Houghton, Mifflin & 
Co., Boston, New York, and Chicago. Price $1.50 net. 

"The Garden of Eden," by Dean Hodges, which ap- 
peared some time since, met with hearty appreciation. 
The author retold in his very attractive way a series of 
stories from the first nine books of the Old Testament, 
ending with the death of Saul. "The Castle of Zion" 
begins at this point, and covers many of the most inter- 
esting and important episodes recorded in the other his- 
torical books of the Old Testament and in the Prophets. 
David and Solomon, Elijah and Elisha, Isaiah and Jere- 
miah appear in its pages, as well as the stories of the 
healing of Naaman, Belshazzar's Feast, the hanging of 
Haman, Daniel in the lion's den, and the adventures of 
Jonah. 

"Christbaumschmuck selbst Herzustellen." By Hedwig 
Levi. Boards, 42 pages. Published by Otto Maier, 
Ravensburg, Germany. 

This little German book gives directions for making 
61 Christmas-tree decorations, all of which are within 



the capacity of children of varying ages. It is fully il- 
lustrated with line drawings, full page plates from 
photographs, and one plate in color, as well as a large 
sheet showing details for cutting and folding some of 
the numerous objects. The illustrations are so definite 
and clear that those who do not read German would be 
able to make many of the decorations from a careful 
study of the pictures, and possible reference to a dic- 
tionary to learn what some of the German words mean. 
Here the parent will find suggestions for the happy em- 
ployment of the children for many weeks before the 
anticipated festival-day arrives. Much of the material 
used is such as is likely to be found in the average home 
and little expense is involved. Fraulein Levi's motto is 
a translation into German of Emerson's statement, "The 
secret of happiness is joy in the work of our hands." 

* * * 

Playtime Games for Boys and Girls. By Emma C. 
Dowd, author of "Polly of the Hospital Staff." Cloth, 
231 pages. Published by George W. Jacobs & Co., 
Philadelphia. Price 75 cents, net. 

No one will make a mistake in purchasing this little 
book as a Christmas gift to some child friend. The 
author describes, in story form, some seventy-two new 
games, either entirely original or some familiar one 
modified in a clever way to make it more interesting or 
instructive. One cannot but admire the ingenuity of 
the writer who has planned such a variety of entertain- 
ing plays for both indoors and outdoors. Many of them 
exercise the senses in an educational way, and teachers 
will find them helpful in supplementing of the training 
of observation and memory. The Aunt Ruth who in- 
troduces the games, and the children who play them, 
are very natural, happy individuals. 

* * * 

The Japanese Twins. — Lucy Fitch Perkins. Illuminated 
cloth, 178 pages, illustrated. Price $1.00, net. Pub- 
lished by Houghton, Mifflin Co., Boston and Chicago. 

This book is all about Taro and Take, the Japanese 
Twins, and the baby, and what a nice time they had liv- 
ing. Just the sort of a story that will interest the little 
children. A strong ethical purpose runs through it all. 
Would make an excellent Christmas gift for a child. 

* * * 

Wonder Tales of Old Japan. — By Alan Leslie White- 
horn. Illustrated by Shozan Obata. Illuminated 
cloth, 173 pages. Published by the Frederick A. Stokes 
Co., New York. 

Twenty-one stories relating to Japan, suited to young 
children, with twelve beautiful, full page illustrations in 
color. Suitable for a Christmas gift for a small child. 

* * * 

Nursery Rhymes, chosen by Louey Chisholm. Pictures 
by F. M. B. Blaikie. Illuminated cloth, 117 large pages. 
Published by Frederick A. Stokes Co., New York. 

The book is a beautiful Christmas volume. Contains 
109 colored pictures, and 200 black and white ones. All 
the old favorite nursery rhymes are included. Every 
page is filled with interest for little children. 

* * * 

Boys' Make-at-Home Things. — Carolyn Sherwyn Bailey. 
Illuminated cloth. 189 pages, fully illustrated. Price 
$1.25, net. Published by Frederick A. Stokes Co., 
New York. 

This book and its companion volume for girls are the 
outcome of long, practical work with children and fur- 
nish useful occupations at small cost. With a thorough 
kindergarten training, Miss Bailey devoted herself to 
working among the East Side settlements in New York, 
where she taught the children to amuse themselves by 
making their toys and belongings out of material at 
hand. Among other things, this book tells how to make 
a work-bench, turning-lathe, toy train, out-door toys, 
desk set, mission furniture, boats, toys, uniform, circus, 
school box, etc. The copious illustrations show the pro- 



lio 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



cesses and the finished products. Children will need no 

assistance in following the instructions. 

* * * 

Girls' Makc-at-Home Things. — Carolyn Sherwyn Bailey. 
Illuminated cloth. 211 pages, fully illustrated. Price 
$1.25, net. Published by Frederick A. Stokes Co., 
New York. 

This is a companion book to the volume for boys as 

outlined above; both follow similar lines. 

* * * 

How to Read and Declaim. — By Grenville Kliser. Cloth. 

12 mo. Price $1.25, postage 15c. Published by Funk 

& Wagnalls, London and New York. 

A course of instruction in reading and declamation 
which will develop graceful carriage, correct standing, 
and accurate enunciation, and will furnish abundant 
exercise in the use of the best examples of prose and 

poetry. 

* * * 

Syllabus of Complete Course in Oral English and Pub- 
lic Speaking. — Arranged by Grenville Kliser. Paper, 
96 pages. Published by Funk & Wagnalls, London 
and New York. 

This book consists of written outlines, relating to the 
volume above named, and also a work entitled "How to 
Speak in Public," by the same author, and is especially 

valuable to teachers. 

* * * 

Public and Private High Schools. — Bulletin No. 22, 
1912. Published by the United States Bureau of 
Education, Honorable P. P. Claxton, Commissioner 
of Education. 

This volume contains 375 pages of statistics and other 
valuable information relating to both public and private 

high schools of the United States. 

* * * 

A Comparison of Urban and Rural Common School 
Statistics.— Bulletin No. 21, 1912. Issued by the 
United States Bureau of Education, Honorable P. P. 
Claxton, Commissioner of Education. 

* * * 

The Golden Touch, told to the children by Nathaniel 
Hawthorne. Illustrated by Patten Wilson. Illumi- 
nated boards. 26 pages. Price 60c, net. Published 
by Houghton, Mifflin Co., Boston, New York, and 
Chicago. 

The publishers have reproduced this classic in a 
beautifully illuminated volume at a popular price, con- 
taining several full page illustrations in color. A most 

acceptable gift for any child. 

* * * 

The Gorgon's Plead, told to the children by Nathaniel 
Hawthorne. Illustrated by Patten Wilson. Illumi- 
nated boards. 34 pages. Price 60c net. 

This volume is similar in appearance to the one de- 
scribed above, containing this ever popular story by 
Nathaniel Hawthorne, and is equally valuable and at- 
tractive for a Christmas gift. 

The Beard Birds. — Adelia Belle Beard. Illuminated 
boards. Price $1.00, net. Published by the Frederick 
A. Stokes Co., New York. 

The Beard Birds are called Standing Alone Birds, be- 
cause they do stand up, and each bird stands in a posi- 
tion characteristic of that bird. This volume contains 
complete diagrams and instructions for coloring, cutting 
out, and putting together cardboard illustrations of the 
following birds; Robin, bluebird, red-winged blackbird, 



goldfinch, meadow-lark, scarlet-tanger, black-and-white 
creeper, oriole, grosbeak, yellow-breasted chat, -red- 
headed woodpecker, and the mockingbird. Material is 
also furnished. The work is endorsed by audubon so- 
cieties, and others interested in birds. 

The Stori/ of Bethlehem . A Christmas play with music. Ar- 
ranged and translated by Mari Ruef Hofer. Paper, four- 
teen pages, price 25c. Published by Clayton F. Summy 
Co., Chicago, 111. 
Something really good in the Christmas play line. 

The Francis W. Parker Year Book, Vol. I, by the faculty of 
the Francis W. Parker School, Chicago. 140 pps. Price 
25c. Press of the Francis W. Parker school, 333 Web- 
ster Avenue, Chicago, III. 

This volmme is devoted to the social motive in school 
work and consists of a number of reports dealing with pha- 
ses of handwork, music, dramatics, etc., in which the social 
motive predominates. It should be of immense practical value 
to every teacher. 



The Two-Storied Page of Webster's New Inter- 
national Dictionary. 

(G. & C. Merriam Co., Springfield, Mass.) 
The treatment of so great a bulk of material by the 
usual dictionary method would have made it almost in- 
accessible. By a stroke of genius the editors decided on 
a two- storied page, relegating to the lower part obso- 
lete words (gubbertushed, nawyse) , those defined only 
by cross reference (Lacy's knot), uncommon dialectic 
words (unco), rare scientific term» (lacturamic), abbre- 
viations (U. S. A.), and all except the most common 
scriptural names, names of fictitious persons and foreign 
phrases. This leaves to the upper part of the page all 
that a person ordinarily will wish to know; everything 
else iy in the bottom section. There is no mass of con- 
fusing appendixes to waste time over. 



The Christmas Century. 

The December Century is itself a Christmas tree — la- 
den with fine gifts for all that approach it. Pictures, of 
the kind for which The Century is fsmous; short fic- 
tion of unusual interest, reflecting the tenderess of the 
Christmas thought; Christmas verse, illustrated in col- 
or; articles of substantial interest— all combine to give 
this number a peculiar richness to befit the season. 
Lucy Furman's story, "The Christmas Tree on Clinch," 
shows how the Christmas idea ended a Kentucky feud. 
Virginia Yeaman Kemnitz's "The Miracle of Little 
Noel" is the Christmas romance of the bravest girl one 
could wish to read about. Louise Herrick Wall de- 
scribes "A Christmas Fete in California"— a true story to 
which the enchantment of the forest gives air of ro- 
mance. Some Will say that it reflects the real Christmas 
spirit better than do snow and reindeers and frosted 
panes. The "Christmas Echoes from Provence," by 
Edith M. Thomas, are illustrated verses that form a 
most attractive feature. In the "Lighter Vein" Depart- 
ment will be found humor appropriate to the season. 
"Lords Spiritual in Jerusalem" will tell Christmas readers 
of the peculiar conditons of Christmas worship in the 
Holy Land. 

There is a wealth of matter in this number that would 
be attractive at any season, but coming as it does at 
the outset of the Christmastide it adds to the enjoy- 
ability of a distinctively "Christmas" issue. 



American Primary Teacher 



Edited by A. E. W1NSHIP 

Published Monthly Except July and August 

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The Young Crusader— Temperance paper for boys and girls; profusely illustrated; and aside 
from stories it contains splendid ideas for entertainments and selections for recitation — help- 
ful alike to teacher and pupil. Published monthly, 25 cents per year. 

Toots— An illustrated book of stories by Anna A. Gordon. Price 60 cents postpaid. Send for 
latest bulletin. 

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A Vital Book for Every Parent 

A PRACTICAL TREATISE ON THE TRUE RELA- 
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A father or mother yourself you wrestle with the hundred 
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Are you certain of each move you make in directing the 

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Our Children 



By Dr. PAUL DARUS 

offers a unique contribution to pedagogical literature. The little book deals 
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will prove of great value to young parents and kindergartners. 

If you cannot get this book at your bookstore, order it direct from us. Price 
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with our publications. 
We publish a very interesting catalogue of some very interesting books. Write today. 

THE OPEN COURT PUB. CO., Wabash Avenue, Chicago, Illinois. 



HERBART HALL 

INSTITUTE FOR ATYPICAL CHILDREN 
Founded April 1, 1900, by Maximilian P. E. Groszmann. 

Maintained by the 

NATIONAL ASSOCIATION FOR THE STUDY AND EDUCATION 
OF EXCEPTIONAL CHILDREN 

This Institution is one of the activities of the N. A. S. E. E. C. and is intended solely for the 
"different" child, the difficult child, the handicapped normal child— whether boy or girl. 

No feeble-minded, degenerate or otherwise low cases are considered. 

The object of this Institution is to 
Train the EXCEPTIONAL CHILD 

Whether overbright or somewhat backward, to be able later to compete with the average normal child. 

In addition to the ordinary branches, the course of study includes physical training, nature study, 
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HERBART HALL is the pioneer institution in this line of education. The Association main- 
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For terms, catalog and other information, address 

WALDEMAR H. GROSZMANN 

PRINCIPAL 

"Watchung Crest," Plainfield, N. J. 



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The School Arts Magazine 



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*• i uc vrunni adtc m a r> a ?iMr g 

ft 
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>H? (formerly the School Arts Book) 4V, 

f ft 

I MAKES IMPORTANT ANNOUNCEMENT | 

^. IN response to a demand for more work suitable to the very youngest chil- c § 

^ 1 dren, pupils in the kindergarten and first year primary school, the SCHOOL f\ 

f ARTS MAGAZINE, Henry Turner Bailey, Editor, has restored its Kin- ft 

^ dergarten Section. ih 

^ 4\ 

£r We are especially happy to announce that the Boston Froebel Club has or- § 

^ ganized an Art Committee, under the chairmanship of Miss Lucy H. Maxwell, 



^ ! 25 Kent Street, Brookline, Massachusetts, who will have charge of this sec- f\ 
f tion ' ft 

V] The Kindergarten Section will present each month something appropriate ft 
si to the season, and approved by leading kindergartners. ft 

® f 

^ The Chairman will welcome contributions, with illustrations, from any ^ 
^ teacher who knows what is good for children under seven years of age. 'j\ 

f THE SCHOOL ARTS MAGAZINE, with its new kindergarten sec- ft 

\Jf tion and other splendid helps for all the grades, is the ideal teacher's magazine. ft 

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THE TEACHERS HELPERS 



The Teachers' Helpers are without question the finest 
PLAN BOOKS for teachers published. They are 
edited by some of the ablest and most practical teach- 
ers in the country. They give programs, methods 
songs, drawing, and devices for ea h month in the 
year, and are beautifully and profusely illustrated. 
Four books In the series; named Autumn, Winter, 
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JANUARY, 1913 



INDEX TO CONTENTS 




Editorial Notes, 


. 


:! 7 i i 


The Ball, .... 


Dr. Jenny B. Merrill, 


122 I 


A Neglected Corner in Montessori 






1 Method, 


Dr. Jenny B. Merrill, 


I 25 


The Kindergarten in Social Life, 


Annie Laws, 


1 25 ffi 


The Kindergarten in the United 






States, .... 


Mary Lee Williams, 


127 1 


The Committee of the Whole, 


Bertha Johnston, 


] 28 | 


Hints and Suggestions for Rural 






Teachers, .... 


Grace Dow, 


130 


Educational Notes, 




132 


Labeling Rural School Houses, 




133 


Department of Superintendence, 




133 


Training Schools. 




134 


Dainty Dear, ... 


Mary Ellason Cotting, 


136 


The Benefits of the Kindergarten as a 






Social Center, 


Jessie Davis, 


128 


Book Notes, 




■i 


New Kindergarten Games and 






Plays, .... 


Laura Rountiee Smith 


141 


Little Pieces for Little People, 


Laura Rountree Smith 


143 I 


A Year in the Kindergarten, 


Harriette McCarthy, 


144 1 



Volume XXV. No. 5. 



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(Thirty-fifth C. L. S. C. Year.) 
Social Progress in Coontemporary Europe. 

FredericAustiu Ogg. A. M., Ph. D., Assistant 
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Mornings with Masters of Art. H. H. Pow- 
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Travel, Boston. 185 illustrations. 

The Spirit of French Letters. Mabell S. C. 
Smith A M., Asst. Editor The Chautauquan 
Author "A Tarheel Baron" and "Studies in 
Dickens." 

Home Life in Germany. Mrs. Alfred Sidgwick. 
The Chautauquan Magazine (Monthly — Illus- 
trated, C. L. S. C. membership included if de- 
sired.)' Containing: 

European Rulers: Their Modern Signifi- 
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Better than Most and as Good as Any Pedagogical Magazine 

Stands for the highest ideals in the school and home, and meets the demands of the teacher, ai 
well as others engaged in educational work. 

What some well-known Educators say about this Journal : 

From California: 

' ig of the Virginia Journal of Educat 



< our magailni 

ools of Vir 
buildings 



lo publish your journal and I most heartily congratulate you and 1 
table periodical that you are able to give them . 

Prom Oregon? 



and the interiors of your 
hope you may long live 
rginiaforthe lively and credi. 



that come to roy dealt . 
Journal of Education with interest, and feel that it it one of the t 



r the most valuable publications r 



I journals in the country" 

few Jerse 
Mi&soarU 



From the Philippine Islands; 

"The variety of articles which appear in your paper each month, on school libraries, the decoration of school 
grounds and other topics, are of genera] interest. The Journal is well gotten up and appears to be doing 
good work". 

It is the official organ of the Virginia State Board of Education, and is an excellent medium 
for advertising. 

Subscription Price, $1.00 THE VIRGINIA JOURNAL OF EDUCATION, Richmond, Va. 



RELIABLE KINDERGARTEN TRAINING SCHOOLS OF AMERICA 



Chicago 

Kindergarten 

Institute 



GERTRUDE HOUSE, 

54 Scott St., CHICAGO. 



W Diplomas granted for Regular Kindergarten Course" (two years), # 
# and Post Graduate Course (one year). Special Certificates for 4 
« Home-maling Course, non-professional (one year). 4 



Mrs. Mary Boomer Page, 

Directors: Mrs. Ethel Roe Lindgren, 

Miss Caroline C. Cronise, 

For circulars apply to Chicago Kindergarten Institute, 54 Scott St. 



Teachers College 

OF INDIANAPOLIS 

Accredited by State Board of Educa- 
tion. Professional Training for all grades 
of teaching. Two, Three and Four Year 
Courses. 
This College specializes in Kinder- 
garten, Primary and Intermediate 
Grade Teaching. 
Special classes in Public School Draw- 
ing and Music, Domestic Science and 
Art, and Manual Work. 

Send for catalogue. 

MRS. ELIZA A. BLAKER, President 

The William N. Jackson Memorial 

Building. 

23rd and Alabama Street, 

INDIANAPOLIS IND. 



Mice Hart'c TRAINING SCHOOL 

IllldJ HUH 5 For Kindergartners 

3600 Walnut Street, Philadelphia 
Junior, Senior, Graduate and Normal 
Trainers' Courses. Five practice Kin- 
dergartens. Opens October 1st. 1912. 
For particulars address 

MISS CAROLINE M. C. HART 

The Pines, Rutledge, Pa. 



OHIO, TOLEDO, 2313 Ashland Ave. 

THE MISSES LAWS 



Medical supervision. Personal attention. 
Thlrty-flve practice schools. 
Certificate and Diploma Courses. 

MARY E. LAW, M. D., Principal. 



Miss Cora Webb Peet 

KINDERGARTEN NORMAL TRAINING 
SCHOOL 

Two Tears' Course. 
For circulars, address 

MISS CORA WEBB PEET, 
16 Washington St., East Orange, N. J 



PESTALOZZI-FKOEBEL 

Kindergarten Training 
School 

509 S. Wabash Ave., Opposite Auditorium 

Mrs Bertha Hofer Hegner, Superintendent 
Mrs. Amelia Hofer Jerome, Principal. 

FIFTEENTH YEAR. 
Regular course two years. Advanced 
courses tor Graduate Students. A course 
in Home Making. Includes opportunity to 
become familiar with the Social Settle- 
ment movement at Chicago Commons. Fine 
equipment. For circulars and information 
write to 
MRS. BERTHA HOFER-HEGNER, 

West Chicago, 111. 



KINDERGARTEN TRAINING SCHOOL 

Resident home for a limited number of 
students. 
Chicago Free Kindergarten Association 
H. N. Higinbotham, Pres. 
Mrs. P. D. Armour, Vice-Pres. 
SARAH E. HANSON, Principal. 
Credit at the 
Northwestern and Chicago ^Diversities. 
For particulars address Eva B. Whit- 
more, Supt., 6 E. Madison St., cor. Mich 
ave., Chicago. 



The Adams School 

Kindergarten Training Course 

(Two Years) 

Nine months' practice teaching dur- 
ing course. Address, 

The Misses Adams 
26 So. Clinton St., East Orange, N. J, 



THE RICHMOND TRAINING SCHOOL 

for Kindergartners 
Richmond, Va. 

Virginia Mechanics' Institute Building, 
Richmond, Virginia. 
Two years' training In Theory and 
Practice of Froebelian Ideals. Post- 
Graduate Coarse, also Special Classes for 
Primary Teachers. 

LUCY S. COLEMAN, Director. 
MRS. W. W. ARCHER, Sec. and Treas. 



1874— Kindergarten Normal Institutions— 191 1 

1516 Colombia Road N. W., WASHINGTON D. C. 

The citizenship of the future depends on the children of today. 

8uaan Plessner Pollok, Principal. 

Teachers' Training Course — Two Years. 

Hummer Trailing Clasiea at lit. Chatauqua — Mountain Lake Park — 
Garrett Co.. Maryian«. 



THE HARRIETTE MELISSA MILLS 
KINDERGARTEN TRAINING SCHOOL 

In Affiliation with New York University 

For information address 

MISS HARRIETTE M.MILLS. Principal 

New York University Building 

Washington Square, New York City. 

Kindergarten 

Courses given for credit at 

New York University Summer School 



Oakland Kindergarten 

TRAINING SCHOOL 

2119 Allston Way, Berkeley, Oalif. 

Grace Everett Barnard, 

principal. 



OWN A FARM 



Save while you earn. Invest'your sav. 
ings in 

NUECES VALLEY 
GARDEN 

Lands in Sunny outh Texas 

10 acres will make you independent. Pay 
by the month or in easy installments 
Land will be sold to white persons only. 
A postallcard will bring you particulars 
by addressing: 

W. R. EUBANK REAETY Co. 

202-3 Merrick Lodge Bldg., 
Lexington, Ky. 



HOME OCCUPATIONS 
FOR BOYS AND GIRLS 

By BERTHA JOHNSTON 

"Mother finds some happy work 
for idle hands to do," is the idea 
that has been excellently carried 
out in this most excellent little 
volume. 
16mo. Cloth. 50c, postpaid. 

GEORGE W. JACOBS & €0^ 

Publishers. PHILADELPHIA 



RELIABLE KINDERGARTEN TRAINING SCHOOLS OF AMERICA 



Hiss Wheelock's Kindergarten 
Training School 



CHICAGO- 



134 NEWBURY ST. 
Boston, Mass. 



Regular covirse of two years. Special 
course of one year for post graduates. 
Students' Home at Marenholz. For cir- 
culars address, 

LUCY WHEELOCK 



Miss Annie Coolidge Rust's 21st Year 

froek! School of Kindergarten 



COPLEY SQ. 

Prepares for Kindergarten, Primary and 
Playground positions. Theory and practice 
strong. Special work under best educators. 
Graduates are holding valuable positions. 
Circulars. 



Kindergarten Normal Department 

of the Kate Baldwin 

Free Kindergarten Association 
Savannah, Georgia. 

For Information, address 

HORTENSE M. ORCUTT, Principal of 

the Training School and Supervisor of 

Kindergartens, 326 Bull Street, 

Savannah, Georgia. 



Springfield Kindergarten 

Normal Training School 

Two Years' Course. Terms, $100 per year. 
Apply to 

HATTIE TWICHELL, 
«h»rtnoftki r» — i.ongmkadow. mass. 



Kindergarten Normal Department 

Ethical Culture School 



For information address 

FRANKLIN C. LEW" S, Superintendent, 

Central Park West and 63d St. 

NEW YORK. 



Atlanta Kindergarten 

Normal School 



Two Years' Course of Study. 
Chartered 1897. 
For particulars address 

WILLETTE A. ALLEN. Principal, 
629 Feacbtree Street, ATLANTA, GA. 




~E 



60MDEN BELLS 

FOR SCHOOLS 

From $8.00to$--!5.00 

FOR CHURCHES 

From $25.00 to $125.00 

Write for free 

catalogue. 

IMERICflN BELL & 

FOUNDRY CO. 
Nort.hville «jch 



KINDERGARTEN 



COLLEGE 

SUMMER TERM 

June 18 Aug. 9 

KINDERGARTEN COURSE 

All Kindergarten subjects. Credits 
applied on Freshman and Junior years 
if desired, 

PRIMARY COURSE 



Primary Methods 
Handwork 

Art for Primary Grades. 
Credits applied on regular Primary 
course if desired. 
Send for folder giving full informa- 



5-1200 MICHIGAN BLVD. 
CHICAGO, ILL. 



PRATT INSTITUTE 

SchooSof KindergartenTraining 

Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Kindergarten Normal Cou rs e, two 
years. Special Classes for Kindergart- 
ners and Mothers. Froebel Educational 
Theories; Plays with Kindergarten Ma- 
terials; Games and Gymnasium Work, 
Outdoor Sports and Swimming; Child- 
ren's Literature and Story Telling; Psy- 
chology, History of Education, Nature 
Study," Music and Art, Model Kinder- 
garten for Children ; Classes for Older 
Children in Folk Games, Dances and 
Stories. 

ALICE E. FITTS, Director 

Year of 1912 13 opens Sept. 30. 



KINDERGARTEN DEPARTMENT 

PITTSBURGH TRAINING SCHOOL fOR 
TEACHERS 

formerly 
PITTSBURGH AND ALLEGHENY KINDER- 
GARTEN COLLEGE. 
ALICE N. PARKER, Director. 

Regular course, two years. Post Grad- 
uate course, one year. Twenty-first 
year began September 3, 1912. Address 

Mrs. Wm. McCracken 
Colfax B'.dg. William Pitt Blvd. Pittsburgh, Pa. 



Connecticut Froebel Normal 

Kindergarten Primary Training School 

Academic, kindergarten, primary and 
playground courses. Boarding and day 
school. Extensive facilities for thor- 
ough and quick work. 14th vear. Book- 
lets. State certificates. Address. 

MARY C. MILLS, Principal. 
181 West avenue, Bridgeport, Conn. 



PTTSBURGH AND ALLEGHENY 



KINDERQAREN COLLEGE 

Regular course, two years. Special ad- 
vantages for Post-Graduate work. 
Fourteenth Year 
For catalogue address, 
MRS. WILLIAM McCRACKEN, Secretary, 

3439 Fifth Avenue Pittsburgh, Pa. 



GRAND RAPIDS KINDERGAR- 
TEN TRAINING SCHOOL 

CERTIFICATE, DIPLOMA AND 

NORMAL COCRSES. 

CLARA WHEELER, Principal 

MAY L. OGILBY. Registrar 

Aiepard Building, - 23 Fountain St. 

GRAND RAPIDS. MICH. 



■CLEVELAND- 



Kindergarten Training School 

IN AFFILIATION WITH THE 

National Kindergarten College 
2050 East 96th Street, Cleveland, Ohio 

Founded in 1894 
Course of study under direction of Eliz- 
abeth Harrison, covers two years in 
Cleveland, leading to Senior and Nor- 
mal Courses in the National Kinder- 
garten College. 

MISS NETTA FARP.IS, Crincipsl 



APS AN and Our Wot shop, 
I Lnil iu us t ra ted folder, will 
give the enterprising- teacher a world 
of information about the demand for 
teachers in the South, the field of the 
greatest promise in America to-day. 
Get them for the asking-. 

W. H. JONES, Mgr. 
Southern Teachers' Agency, 

Columbia, South Carolina. 



Kindergarten Training School 

Of the Buffalo Kindergarten Association. 
Two Years' Course. For particulars ad- 
dress 

MISS ELLA C. ELDER 
86 Delaware Avenue, ■ Buffalo, N. Y. 



Valuable Helps for Teachers 

School Room Exercises, a book filled 
with hundreds of primary plans, pre- 
paid, only ... - 50c. 

With New Jersey School News, one 
year, only - - - 60c. 

Primary Plans and School News 
both one year for - - $1 30 

New Geography Game with School 
News, one year - - 50j. 

Address 

The School News, New Egypt, N. J. 



AGENCIES FOR KINDERGARTNERS AND PRIMARY TEACHERS 

T'HIS list of Teachers' Agencies is published for the benefit of our subscribers. It includes only those who claim to be able 
x to secure positions for Kindergartners or Primary Teachers. We advise those in need of positions to write one or more 
of these agencies for particulars. Even though now employed you may be able to secure a position in a larger or better school. 



The TEACHERS' MANGE of Boston 

Recommends Teachers, Tutors and 

Schools. No. 120 Boylston street. 



THE REED TEACHERS' AGENCY 

Can place Kindergarten atul Primary 
Teachers in New York, New Jersey and 
Pennsylvania at good salaries. 

H. E. REED, Manager, Syracuse, N. Y. 
611 University Block. 



THE PRATT TEACHERS' AGENCY 

Recomends college and normal gradu- 
ates, specialists, and other teachers to 
colleges, public and private schools, in 
all parts of the country. Advises pa- 
rents about schools. 

WM. O. PRATT, Manager 
70 Fifth Avenue New York 



MIDLAND SPECIALISTS AGENCY 

Station A. Spokane, Wash. 

"We will have openings for a large num- 
ber of Primary and Kindergarten teach- 
ers. No enrollment fees. Blank and 
booklet for the asking. 



REGISTER WITH US. 

We need Kindergarten Teachers, Supt. 

Principals, Teachers of Science, Math 

ematics and language. 

OHIO VALLEY TEACHERS' AGENCY 

A. J. JOELY, Mgr. MENTOR, KY. 



AlBANY TEACHERS' AGENCY 

Provides public and private schools 
with competent teachers. 

Assists teachers and kindergartners 
in obtaining positions. 

SI Chapel Street, ALBANY: N Y. 



THIS IS THE TWENTY-FIFTH YEAR OF 

The CLARK TEACHERS' AGENCY 

Which proves conclusively its 

standing. Try them. Address, 

Steinway Hall, Chicago; Lincoln, Neb. 

Spokane, Wash. 



NORTHWESTERN TEACHERS' AGENCY 



310-311 PROVIDENCE BUILDING 



DULUTH, MINN. 



RELIABLE TEACHERS' AGENCY 



Trained Primary and Kindergarten 
Teachers needed. Good positions. Per- 
manent membership. Write to-day. 
612-013 Majestic Building, 

Oklahoma City, Okla. 



INTERSTATE Teachers' Agency 

501-503 Livingston Building, Rochester, 
N. Y. Gives special attention to plac- 
ing Kindergarten and Primary Teach- 
ers in all parts of the United States. 
T. H. ARMSTRONG, Proprietor. 



SOUTHERN TEACHERS' AGENCY 

COLUMBIA, S C. 

There is an increasing demand for Pri- 
mary Teachers and Kindergartners 
throughout the South. Our agency is 
one of the largest and best known in 
this splendid territory for teachers. Ask 
for booklet, A PLAN. 
W. H. JONES, Manager and Proprietor. 



WESTERN TEACHERS' AGENCY SJffiS 

We wantKindergarten, Primary, Rural 
and otherteachers for regularor special 
work. Highest salaries. Send for lit- 
eraUire and enroll for the coming year. 

P. Wendell Murray, Manager. 



The J.O.Engle Teachers' Agency 

MINNEAPOLIS, MINN. 
A Placing Agency for Teachers. Estab- 
lished 20 years. Register for Western 
Kindergarten-Primar y positions. Send 
for circular 



DEWBERRY 
SCHOOL 
AGENCY 

1892-1912 



SPECIALLY trained Kindergarten and Primary 
^ teachers in demand in the best schools through- 
out the South and Southwest. Teachers interested 
should get in touch with us. 

Address, R. A. CLAYTON, Manager. 

BIRMINGHAM, ALA. 



TEACHERS WANTING POSITIONS 

In Colorado, New Mexico, Arizona, Californ'a, Nevada, Utah, Washington, Ida- 
ho, Montana, Wyoming, North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska, Kansas, Okla- 
homa or Texas should write us at once. Our calls come direct from school boards 
and Superintendents. We place most of our teachers outright. THE ROCKY 
MOUNTAIN TEACHERS' AGENCY, 328 Empire Building, Denver, Colo. 
WILLIAM RUFFER, A. B., Manager. 



BANKTON TEACHERS' AGENCY 

M. DALTON, Manager, 
Lexington* Ky. 

No enrollment fee. Careful and discriminating service. 



Kindergartners and Primary Teachers 

Are in constant demand in the South at 
good salaries. We can place both. 

The Teachers 3 Exchange 

P. O. Box 283, Nashville. Tenn. 



QUR OPPORTUNITIES for placing 
Kindergarten and Primary Teachers 
exceed our supply. No charge until you 
accept position. 

ewis Teachers 3 Age n oy 

41 Lyman Block, Muskegon, Mich. 



CENTRAL TEACHERS' AGENCY 

COLUMBUS. OHIO. 

A good medinm for trained primary 
teachers to use in securing promotion. 
Write to-day. J5. C. ROGE RS, M gr. 



Sabins' Educational Exchange 

(Inc.) DES MOINES, IOWA. 

Wants to hear from kindergarten or 

primary teachers desiring places west 

of Mississippi river. Write fully. Will 

answer frankly. 



AN AGENCY is valuable in 

«m ««LIHV I proportion to 
its influence If it merely hears of va- 
cancies and tells 



i TUAT is some- 
[ I nf\ I t h in gi 
to recommend a teach- 



you that 

is more. Ours recommends. 

The School Bulletin Agency 

C. W. BARDEEN. Syracuse. N. Y. 



WF PI AHF Many Primary 
"C rLnvt Teachers each 
year. Some Kindergartners. No charge 
until teacher is located by us. Send for 
registration blank. A. H. Campbell, 
American Teachers' Ag-ency 
Myrick Building, Springfield, Mass. 



AD! AM Whereby the Teacher 
'LMIN is brought in touch 
with opportunity at that critical mo- 
ment when each is in search of the oth- 
er, is set forth in our forty-page booklet 
telling all about the South as a field for 
Primary and Kindergarten teachers. 
Get it. 

Southern Teachers' Agency 

Columbia, S. C. 



The South and West 

Offer good opportunities for Primary 
and Kindergarten teachers. For infor- 
mation write CLAUDE J. BELL, 
Bell Teachers' Ag-ency, 

Nashville, Tenn. 



The Tenth Gift 



Stick Laying in 
Primary and 
Rural Schools. 

Price 25c. 

With this book and a box of sticks any 
teacher can interest the little children. 

The work is fully illustrated. 
Also Ring Laying in Primary Schools, 
15c Peas and Cork Work in Primary- 
Schools. 15c. 
All limp cloth binding. Address, 

J. H. Shults. Manistee,Mich, 



KINDERGARTEN SUPPLIES 

Bradley's School Paints, Raphia, Reed, and all Construction 

Material 

WE ARE HEADQUARERS FOR ALL THE ABOVE. Send for catalogue. 

THOS. CHARLES CO. 125 Wabash Avenue., Chicago, UL 




Some Great Subscription Offers 

In Combination with the 

Kindergarten-Primary Magazine 
"A Study of Child Nature," &&E£$So 

And the Kindergarten-Primary Magazine one year, both fcr 
while our stock lasts. We have but a few copies on hand. 



4 'l HtS find I vrir« " °y A11 <-'e C. D. Riley and 
U1US dllu LyriCS., Jessie L.Gaynor $1.00, and 
The Kindergarten-Primary Magazine one year for 

The KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE with 

Needlecraft, regular price $1.25, our price 

The KTUDEEGABTEN-PBIMARY MAGAZINE with 

McCall's Magazine, regular price $1.50, our price 

The KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE with 

Housekeeper, regular price $2.50, our price 

The KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE with 

Home Needlework, regular price 51.75, our price 

The KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE with 

Health Culture, regular price $2.00, our price 

The KINDERGARTEN-PSIMARY MAGAZINE with 
Primary Education and School Arts Book, regular price 
$4.25, our price 

The KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE with 

Kindergarten Review, regular price $2.00, our price 

The KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE with 

Women's Home Companion, regular price $2.50, our price 

The KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE with 

Pictorial Review, Modern Priscilla and Ladies' World, re- 
gular price $3,25, our price 

The KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE with 
American Primary Teacher and School Century, regular 
price $3.25, our price 

Many other combinations. Give us the names of the Magazine* 
you want. Address J. H. SHULTS, Manistee, Mich. 



$1.10 

$1.50 

$1.15 

1.35 

in 

1.511 
1.611 

3.40 
1.70 
190 

2.15 

160 



KINDERGARTEN 

MATERIAL 

Of the Highest Grade at Lowest Prices 

Send for Price List 

American Kindergarten Supply House 

376-278-280 River Street. Manistee, Mieb, 



&UYSCt100LSUPPUES 

At Wholesale Prices 



Report Cards.— 1, 4 or 10 months, 

per 100, 25c, postage 5c 

U. S, Wool Bunting Flags 

6x3 Ft $175 Postage 14e 

8x4 Ft 2. 45 Postage 20c 

Class Recitation Records 
Each 15 cents. Postage 3 cents 
Set Primary Reading Charts 

Complete $4.75 

Set Primary Arithmetic Charts 

Complete $4.75 

Japanned Handle Scissors 

Per Dozen 45 cents 

I Alphabet Cards. Per Box 12 cents 



CATALOG-FffEEONREQmT 



Mctmyfcusie& 




THE TEACHERS HELPERS 



The Teachers' Helpers are without question the finest 
PLAN BOOKS for teachers published. They are 
edited by some of the ablest and most practical teach- 
ers in the country. They give programs, methods 
songs, drawing, and devices for ea h month in the 
year, and are beautifully and prefusely illustrated. 
Four books in the series; named Autumn, Winter, 
Spring, and Summer respectively. The Summer 
number covers work for the whole year and is larger 
than the others. Cover designs done in beautiful 
three-color work. Money refunded to any purchaser 
whc is not more than satisfied. 
PRICES; Each N»mber(except Summer) $ .35 
Summer No. [larger than others] .50 
Send today for c«py or ask for further Informa- 
tion. Address 

Teachers' Helpor, 
Department , Minneapolis, Minn. 




THE KINDERGARTEN 



-PRIMARY- 



MAGAZINE 



Published on the first of each Month, except July and Aug- 
ust at Manistee, Mich., U. S. A. Subscription price, $i.oq per 
Annum postpaid in U. S., Hawaiian Islands, Phillspsnes, Guam, 

For 

tage. 



Porto Rico, Samoa, Shanghai, Canal Zone, Cuba, &z.xico. 
Canada add 20c & nd all other countries 30c, for Pos 



J. H. £.HUL70. Manager. 




VOLUME XXV, NO. 5. 

EDITORIAL NOTES 
Write it 1913. ■ 

New Jersey is the first State where the leg- 
islature has provided for state wide special 
training for all subnormal children, retarded 
as well as defective. 

The common roller towel is specifically 
prohibited in the schools of Indiana and 
Kansas. The regulations in Kansas provide 
that "each pupil must have an individual 
towel, or sanitary paper towels shall be fur- 
nished." 

In urging the need of vocational training, 
the Indiana commission on industrial and 
agricultural education estimates that there 
are fully 25,000 boys and girls in that State 
between the ages of 14 and 16 who have not 
secured adequate preparation for life work in 
the schools and are now working at jobs 
which hold no promise of future competence 
or advancement. 

The University of Tennessee has just insti- 
tuted extension courses in geology especially 
designed for men engaged in the mining and 
quarry industries. The courses consist of a 
short session (six weeks) and correspondence 
work. The subjects of instructions will be: 
Physics, chemistry, mathematics, geology, 
mining and metallurgy, and mechanical engi- 
neering. The courses are described as especi- 
ally adapted to meet the need of the man "qn 
the firing line." 

Soldiers at Fort McPherson, Georgia, will 
have a school of practical business, if the re- 
ported plans of General Evans, in command 
of the department of the Gulf, are carried in- 



JANUARY, 1913 

to effect. Among the subjects of instruction 
will be: Intelligent reading, simple arithmetic, 
single-entry bookkeeping, legible writing, 
stenography, automobile and explosive gas 
engineering, and telegraphy. The idea is to 
furnish the enlisted man with schooling that 
will enable him to earn a good living at the 
expiration of his enlistment. The school is 
part of a plan to make the army more at 
tractive to young men. 



The new parcel post law, effective January 
first, promises to revolutionize transpor- 
tation of small packages. The following are 
some of the provisions: Postage rates vary 
according to distance, the United States being 
divided into eight zones of 50, 150, 300, 600, 
1000, 1400, and 1800 miles distance from 
the mailing post office. The weight limit is 
11 pounds, and size of package must not ex- 
ceed 72 inches in combined length and girth 
(in the thickest part). The rural route rate 
is 5 cents for the first pound and 1 cent for 
each additional pound, or 15 cents tor 11 
pounds. Hitherto the charge for mailing 
merchandise of like- weight would have been 
$1.76. In the first zone the rate is 5 cents 
for the first pound and 3 cents for each ad- 
ditional pound, and the price increases to the 
maximum, which is 12 cents per pound, for 
all territory beyond the 1800 mile zone. Nearly 
everything within the weight and size limit 
can be carried, except liquors, poisons, ex- 
plosives, matches, and articles liable to injure 
the mail sacks, emplo3 r ees, or of offensive na- 
ture. Milk, eggs, butter, and nearly all kinds 
of farm produce are mailable under the parcel 
post regulations. 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



HOW TO APPLY KINDERGARTEN PRINCIPLES AND 
METHODS IN VILLAGE AND RURAL SCHOOLS 

THE BALL. 

Dr. Jenny B. Merrill 
V. 

In the very first article of this series we 
sought to arouse an interest in one of the fun- 
damental principles of the kindergarten, name- 
ly, the principle of creative, self-activity. 
"Principles are great," exclaims the busy 
teacher, "but give us something definite to do." 
Hence in this series we have passed quickly 
to practical suggestions in the use of three 
kinds of kindergarten materials, namely, 
blocks, beads and paper strips. 

If any teacher will have a little confidence 
in her own ingenuity, and what is quite as im- 
portant, much confidence in the natural ac- 
tivity and creativeness of children, the second, 
third and fourth articles of this series will fur- 
nish work for many weeks, at least while we 
pause once more to consider principles. 

It is true that Froebel worked out very in- 
teresting details in his organization of work 
and play materials. We will soon proceed to 
examine these more closely. Meanwhile keep 
on experimenting with blocks and beads and 
chains, adding the ball for games and physical 
exercise. 

It is quite a different matter to plan work for 
a training class from what it is to help indi- 
vidual teachers already at work in the class 
room. We are trying to write for the many 
teachers all over our land who have not had 
the advantage of preliminary kindergarten 
training and who must at once furnish work 
for little hands. 

Hence our presentations must oscillate as 
it were, between details of method and prin- 
ciples. 

A principle is like good seed. If it is planted 
in a thoughtful mind, it will bear much fruit. 
It will make the thinker independent in a 
great measure of the devices of others. 

In writing this series, I am considering that 
in many village and rural schools, children and 
youth of widely differing ages are working to- 
gether in one room. This "working together" 
leads one to present next the social principle 
for which the kindergarten stands. 

The kindergarten, it is true, stands for the 
full recognition of the individual and for re- 
spect for individual rights, but for the indi- 
vidual as related to his fellows, to nature and 
to God. "No man liveth to himself." 



Dr. Mac Vannel has restated kindergarten 
principles in these words : 

The three principles fundamental to Froe- 
bel's educational theory may be given as : 

(a) The principle of organic unity. 

(b) The principle of interaction. 

(c) The principle of development. 

Now there is nothing difficult about all this 
for a teacher in a village or rural school, for 
is not such a school a little community where 
all the children can be readily known to each 
other and to each teacher? In such a small 
community, each member acts, reacts and in- 
teracts upon -all other members unconsciously 
all the time. This is shown by the fact that 
any one who is absent is at once missed. 
Their very nearness or proximity to each other 
brings this about. 

This condition which has sometimes been 
regarded as a handicap to the small school is 
now shown to be one of its valuable assets, a 
veritable blessing. 

Take courage in the thought that the very 
presence of younger and older children in the 
same room tends to create a more natural liv- 
ing atmosphere than in the large, closely 
graded school. It tends to a broadening of 
social sympathies. 

In the best of our graded schools efforts are 
being made to bring children of different ages 
together for general exercises and to create a 
school spirit. 

In one of Froebel's writings after having de- 
tailed all the various materials of the kinder- 
garten, he speaks broadly of the "playmate" 
as being the best material of play. We some- 
times lose sight of this insight of Froebel's 
and study only his gifts and occupations. The 
child needs the child. It is one of the real 
joys of school life just to meet other children 
and to live part of the day in their society, to 
work and to play with them. School life is 
real life. It is a present happy way for chil- 
dren to live as well as to prepare for future life. 
The practical lesson to be drawn just here is 
the teacher's duty and privilege to encourage 
a feeling of good-fellowship throughout the 
school. Expect the little ones to look up to 
the older ones as models and let the older ones 
feel their importance in consequence. It will 
help them to live up to higher ideals than 
they might without this stimulus. Let the 
older pupils assist the little ones and encour- 
age the little ones to take pride in not need- 
ing help. This may sound paradoxical but it 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



123 



is all included in our social principle of "in- 
teraction." 

Respect the children's friendships. As they 
advance in years encourage clubs and societies 
of all kinds. Let the little ones play and the 
older ones too in season. Encourage social 
living. "School and Society" is the title of 
Dr. John Dewey's simple but great book which 
has influenced widely the educational methods 
of today- In this book Dr. Dewey follows 
kindergarten principles which are in truth not 
confined to children as Col. Parker has said. 

Dr. Dewey organizes the school in such a 
way as to show its social side plainly and its 
bearings upon future society. Dr. Dewey in 
a very suggestive chart tries to illustrate how 
all the grades and all schools, high and low, 
may make the library a common center of 
interest, a center of unification. Is not this a 
simple and yet far-reaching idea? It will not 
only unify the school but lead on to life be- 
yond school and create a genuine love of good 
books that will last for life. 

From the smallest tot in the school to the 
oldest pupil, create an interest in the school 
library if it must be only one shelf of books. 
The little ones may go for readers of different 
names for picture and story books. Higher 
grades may seek helps to enlarge their knowl- 
edge in history and geography and science, 
not omitting books for recreation and amuse- 
ment. Children when work is finished may 
go to the shelves as in a public reading room 
and helping themselves, sit down quietly to 
read. Is this shocking anarchy? Will it 
injure discipline? Try it and see if the privi- 
lege and responsibility, the pride of keeping 
the school library in good condition, do not 
all aid in the moral uplift of many individual 
children. Those who do not rise to the social 
privilege at first may do so after finding it 
withdrawn for a few days. 

Do I seem to be wandering from the point? 
Not at all. The teachers of the rural school 
who is imbued with these fundamental kin- 
degrarten principles of unity and interaction 
will intelligently work out and will trust his 
pupils to work out in social groups many de- 
tails which otherwise he might dictate. 

Organization is important but is it not 
rather the working of the organizing princi- 
ple that will lead to development, rather than 
the exact formularies and dictations of any 
system? 

I sometimes think that if Froebel had writ- 
ten only his great book on principles, "The 



Education of Man," and left us to invent our 
own devices that we might have made greater 
progress. The kindergarten was at one time 
in danger of becoming stereotyped. 

If we retain our own individuality not being 
afraid of our own initiative nor that of our 
pupils, then we may also study the details of 
any system without injury, and, indeed, with 
positive help. 

We may then proceed to study closely how 
Froebel worked in his day and in his schools 
at Keilhau, Blankenburg and elsewhere with 
his little groups of boys and girls. 

How he walked and talked with his pupils 
in the woods and by the way, we have already 
seen in our first article. We are putting his 
plans in this respect into practice, are we not? 
How he encouraged the use of building blocks, 
borrowed from the well-known nursery toys, 
we have tried to explain in part in our second 
article and hope many children arc building 
even now with the third, fourth, fifth and 
sixth gifts. We have more to say about these 
valuable gifts, but, good teacher, continue to 
experiment with them. 

But first and foremost Froebel encouraged 
ball plays, naming a series of six colored wor- 
sted balls even for the child in his first year. 
We omitted this gift from our earlier articles 
because we are not writing directly for the 
home but for the older children. However, 
the ball is a unifying, social plaything loved 
by old and young. Let us glance at the 
FIRST GIFT. 

Here it is — carefully arranged in a long box 
six balls, red, orange, yellow, green, blue and 
violet with strings attached for swinging. The 
colors are an effort to catch the hint of nature 
in her beautiful rainbow — to hold them as it 
were for little hands to play with. 

Surely I need not say that ball playing illus- 
trates the very principle which has been pre- 
sented in this article. At any age the ball is 
beloved, so that it surely unifies and leads to 
interaction among play fellows. It is the fav- 
orite of the ages. 

The details of nursery play will be found in 
several guide books which should gradually 
be added to the school library. It is treated 
by Froebel himself in Pedagogies of the Kin- 
dergarten. The Paradise of Childhood and 
The Kraus Guide give many rhymes and 
games. For school use many now prefer rub- 
ber balls larger than the first gift balls. They 
are more hygienic. Gather a basket of balls . 
of all kinds and sizes. Some are better for 



I2 4 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMA&Y MAGAZINE 



rolling, some for bouncing, others for tossing 
and throwing. It is the motion, the life of the 
ball, that undoubtedly attracts more than even 
its form or color. Form, color, motion, are 
the topics suggested by this gift. The ball 
exhilarates. The blood flows more quickly and 
the child shouts and laughs and gradually 
grows earnest as he learns to make hand and 
eye work together with greater and greater 
accuracy. 

Making balls may follow. If there is no 
foot ball, make a large paper ball and bind it 
with cord. The leg needs vigorous exercise as 
well as the arm. 

Have a soap bubble party and so make airy, 
fairy balls and catch the rainbow tints in them. 

Begin clay modeling by making balls of 
clay. Make them the exact size of the balls 
of the first gift and color them too to match 
the six colors we have named. Modify balls 
into apples, oranges, lemons, cherries; into 
potatoes, onions, tomatoes and other fruits and 
vegetables. Make a Jack-o-lantern. 

Use the ball as an object for a drawing or a 
painting lesson. Draw and color one ball — 
another day two, then three and finally the six. 

In illustrative drawing ask the children to 
make a picture showing how they play ball. 
It is surprising what scenes they can draw 
with a little encouragement. While the 
younger ones paint and draw, the next grade 
will enjoy copying words that tell the forms, 
colors and motions of the ball they love. 
Select older children who have become the 
good penmen of the school to write simple 
words on slips and even sentences to distribute 
in the beginner's class. After reading silently, 
give the little ones permission to do what the 
sentences suggest: The following sentences 
and lists may prove suggestive: 

Find a red ball. 

Find an orange ball. 

Find a blue ball, etc. 

Roll the ball. 

Toss the ball. 

Bounce the ball. 

Throw the ball. 

Count the ball. 

The ball is round. 

The apple is round. 

The cherry is round. 

This seed is round. 

Thus: currants 
peaches, 
seed, 
the sun. 



Balls are made of wood. 

Balls are made of clay. 

Balls are made of paper. 

Balls are made of rubber. 

Balls are made of worsted. 

How many are two balls and one ball ? 

How many are three balls and one ball? 

How many are four balls and one ball? 

How many are five balls and one ball? 

1+1 are 2. 

2+1 are 3. 

3+1 are 4. 

4+1 are 5. 

5+1 are 6. 

3 




The Bureau of Education is making, with 
the help of the Library of Congress, a collec- 
tion of textbooks, printed in the English, 
French, German, Spanish, Italian, Scandina- 
vian, Dutch, and Greek languages within the 
last two centuries. It purposes making the 
collection as complete as possible on all the 
more common subjects of the elementary 
school, high school, and college, with a view 
to being able to put the collection on any 
subject at the disposal of any person who may 
wish to study the history of that subject as a 
school study or who may want to inform him- 
self fully in regard to what has been written 
before undertaking to prepare new textbooks. 

Already many thousands of such books have 
been collected and it is hoped that in the near 
future the collections in several subjects may 
be approximately complete. The Bureau will 
be glad to receive gifts of old or rare text- 
books. 

When this library is complete, it should be- 
come the Mecca of all students of this phase 
of education. The opportunity which text- 
book makers will then have of examining all 
or most of the textbooks already in existence 
on any subject should result in a marked im- 
provement in new textbooks. 



Thrice is he arm'd, who hath his quarrel just. — 
Shakespeare. 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



125 







THE KINDERGAKTENPEIMARY MAGAZINE 








CURRENT EDUCATIONAL THOUGHT 

FROM SUCCESSFUL AMERICAN EDUCATORS 



A Neglected Corner in Montessori 
Method 

Dr. Jenny B. Merrill 

The general interest aroused by the new set of didac- 
tic materials for young children prepared by Dr. Mon- 
tessori has been so great that a very important phase of 
work which she also strongly advocates appears to me 
in danger, of being over-looked. I refer to free illustra- 
tive drawing and clay modeling. 

I commend to all students of Dr. Montessori's book 
of method, pages 240-2, in which she presents her views 
on these two very important topics. 

Is it not interesting to find that they exactly corres- 
pond with the present practice in many of our kinder- 
gartens? 

For years progressive kindergartners, aided by our 
teachers of art, struggled against so-called kindergarten 
drawing upon a network of lines. Froebel's views, as 
suggested in "The Little Artist of the Mother Play" and 
in the second chapter of "The Education of Man," are 
more fully in consonance with approved methods in 
drawing. Gradually during the past fifteen years kinder- 
gartners have developed free illustrative drawing in our 
kindergartens along the lines of children's interests. 

The thousands upon thousands of children's drawings 
in our public kindergartens in iNew York city which it 
has been my privilege to inspect during these years have 
been indeed, as Dr. Montessori recognizes in her own 
experience, "revelations of child mind." Says she: "I 
give the child a sheet of white paper and a pencil (we 
prefer crayon), telling him that he may draw whatever 
he wishes to. Such drawings have long been of interest 
to experimental psychologists. Their importance lies in 
the fact that they reveal the capacity of the child for 
observing, and also show his individual tendencies." Dr. 
Montessori, it is true, does not speak fully of the value 
of such expressive drawing to the child, but mentions 
it more particularly as of value to the teacher; neverthe- 
less her recognition of such free drawing is to me one 
of the most valuable connecting links with our own kin- 
dergarten work. 

It is to the writings of Barnes, O'Shea, and Lukens 
upon this very subject of child study by means of free, 
expressive drawing, even more than the guidance of our 
art teachers, that we are indebted for our advance in this 
line, which was disputed inch by inch by the old school 
of kindergarten method. 

Dr. Montessori stands for child study, and for this 
reason, as well as others, her advocacy of free illus- 
trative drawing and clay modeling should not be over- 
looked in our eagerness to familiarize ourselves with the 
"tower," "rods," and "insets," all of which I approve. 



The work in clay which Dr. Montessori describes in 
her chapter on "Manual Labor," leading directly to 
pottery, is work which has been introduced in our 
schools also, but does it not belong- to the elementary 
grades higher up rather than to the child of rive? These 
little ones model "pots and pans, dishes and vases" 
rather because they see such forms in their homes; they 
are too young to realize their connection with any craft 
or to feel any interest in prehistoric relations. The his- 
toric sense comes later, and even fascinating stories can- 
not awaken it before its time. But is it not of interest to 
know that Dr. Montessori has also been testing the cul- 
ture epoch theory? Perhaps she is a little belated here, 
but to us it seems of great interest that she, too, has 
been working along these lines as an experimenter, even 
though she may not have gathered the last word from 
America. 

She should receive full credit, which she has not been 
given in lectures and articles as yet, for her appreciation 
that little children should be encouraged to express 
themselves in graphic language on paper and in clay, thus 
showing us their mental images. I think it would be valu- 
able to place an exhibit, among the more formal didac- 
tic materials, of free drawings and clay work. If we can- 
not actually see this work from Italy let us recall fre- 
quently that she writes: "I have in my possession some 
very remarkable pieces of clay work done by our little 
ones." She mentions "kitchen furniture, pots and pans 
and dishes, and a simple cradle containing a baby." 
She adds that later the children reproduce geometric 
solids. We are glad that it is "later," for a few kinder- 
gartners even yet begin with such forms! 

I am deeply interested in all that Dr. Montessori 
has written, and believe that she has "the voice of a 
prophet," especially in her views of discipline. 

We need new prophets from time to time, even though 
they voice old truths! ThisI am confident Dr. Montessori 
is doing, while at the same time she has shown genius 
in daring to offer a new orderly system of materials. 

The average man needs the genius to do this for him, 
but he retains his privilege to criticise! 

It may be true that the sense training is really motor 
training, as Professor Gesell of Yale points out. Our 
psychologists must make this point clear, but meanwhile 
we must not miss the uplift, the inspiration from this 
strong woman, who has brought unusual and peculiarex- 
periences to bear upon child study-Am. Prim. Teacher. 



The Kindergarten in Social Life 

By Annie Laws 

To one who for a number of years has kept in close 

touch with the kindergarten movement and has watched 



126 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



the development of various phases of this many-sided 
work, it is a matter of interest to note how closely allied 
to it are many branches of social work now exercising' a 
beneficent influence in various communities, and how 
many owe to it their inception or have been materially 
aided by trained kindergartners and workers ever ready 
to lend assistance to movements having for their object 
social uplift and welfare. 

The great emphasis placed, in the training of the kin- 
dergartner, upon the great relationships of life summed 
up in the four groups of the family, with its ideal of 
love and nurture and mutual consideration ; civil society, 
having as its basis reciprocal service; the state, with its 
principle of justice to safeguard the liberty of the indi- 
vidual and awaken in him a recognition of the dignity and 
responsibility of freedom; the church, with its emphasis 
placed upon the reverent attitude of mind and spirit 
towards the great eternal verities, putting aside minor 
differences, awakening a spirit of universal tolerance and 
an appreciation of the great abiding love and faith which 
are the real underlying, guiding ideals of humanity; the 
gathering together of all nationalities, sects, creeds, and 
races which has been so characteristic of the pioneer work 
of the kindergarten ; all of these have undoubtedly played 
an important part in the bringing together of socia' 
workers and in paving the way for a fuller realization of 
that Brotherhood of man and Fatherhood of God to- 
wards which all are striving. 

The close attention given to the child rather than to 
he instrumentalities of education has given an impetus 
to that child study which is rapidly becoming an e'ssential 
branch of preparation for those expecting to undertake 
any line of social work in a community. 

The study of great world poets, which has been one of 
the dominant features of many kindergarten training 
schools, tending to give students more definite self knowl- 
edge, a better understanding of their fellow men, keener 
insight into the trend of human events, and a clearer 
comprehension of the value of human institutions has 
undoubtedly been one of the helpful agencies in the 
growth and development of the library movement in 
many communities. It was of interest to note that, in 
several states where the traveling library was first intro- 
duced, some of the libraries had their first abiding place 
with groups of kindergarten students and workers re- 
moved from access to large libraries and eagerly availing 
themselves of the opportunity to secure small but se- 
lected set of books. Many of home li braries have been 
first placed in the homes of kindergarten mothers who 
have been awakened through the mothers' club to a re- 
alization of the value of good books and stories in stir- 
ring higher ideals of life, and who have seen the effect 
upon the little ones in the kindergarten, whose growth 
into self control and a childish realization of the relative 
value of life have come chiefly through the medium of 
the story. 

This use of the story for little ones had aided in the in- 
troduction of children's libraries and of the story hour 
into our city libraries. The story hour is also being large, 
ly introduced into children's homes and hospitals and 
other institutions for the care of dependent, delinquent 
or defective children, and with marked goed effect. One 
of the leading children's librarians said a short time ago 
that it was interesting to her to note that books that, 



were scarcely even taken from their shelves previously 
were frequently in great demand at the close of a story 
hour. 

Playgrounds, with attention paid to healthful recrea- 
tion under right conditions, the reconstruction of 
many of the street games into plays equally attractive 
but with the elimination of harmful' suggestion or atti- 
tude, the revival of the folk game and dance, have many 
times resulted from the searchlight thrown by the kind- 
ergarten on existing recreations, games, and dances, 
and the effort to provide something more adequate and 
more elevating to the thought and imagination of the 
child. 

Vacation schools, with their efforts to enlistthe interest 
and enthusiam of the child and thus lead him to become 
himself the strongest factor in his own education, have 
undoubtedly absorbed many of the kindergarten ideals. 
Frequently the vacation school becomes the experimen- 
tal field for the teacher with broad vision who, under the 
more elastic conditions of the vacation work, is enabled 
to try out plans and methods not so easy to accomplish 
under the fixed routine of established school custom. 

School and home gardens, now spreading so rapidly 
and transforming the hitherto unattractive and oftimes 
unsightly school yards and surroundings and tenement 
back yards into places of beauty, have frequently J'ound 
their beginnings in the kindergarten window box or little 
strip of ground in the vicinity of the kindergarten, which 
the kindergartner has eagerly converted into the much 
desired garden, no matter how tiny is the little seed 
plant which the child was allowed to take home after 
watching its planting and growth. 

Mothers' clubs, always a vital and necessary part of 
the kindergarten movement, have frequently developed 
into mothers' and teachers' associations, have paved 
the way for parents' and teachers' clubs, and eventually 
for the neighborhood improvement associations, where 
the combined efforts of many bring, oftimes, results of 
great benefit. 

-The school as a social center c omes as a natural out- 
growth from these efforts and is frequently much more 
successful when it is an evolution of this kind than when 
the effort is made to organize in somewhat wholesale 
fashion numbers of clubs, classes, lectures, meetings, 
and entertainments which, having proved successful 
elsewhere, are considered to be of similar value to every 
neighborhood or social center without regard to its in- 
dividual characteristics and needs. 

The following items were taken somewhat at random 
from the summary of work accomplished by the mo- 
thers' clubs affiliated with one kindergarten center dur- 
ing the past year, and shows something of the scope and 
influence attained by these organizations, most of 
which are kindergarten mothers' clubs, though a few are 
connected with schools, churches, and settlements. 

Some have organized classes in English, domestic 
science, home economics, and child study. 

Financial aid has been given by several to the visit- 
ing nurse association, the day nursery association, and 
the home for the bliud. 

Supplies of towels, linen, clothing, aprons, instru- 
ment cases, canned fruits, and jellies have been given 
to the visiting nurse and nursery associations. 

Some have provided pictures, pianos, statuary, stage 



137 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



settings, plants, athletic equipment, and books for 
kindergarten, school, or church of which they are a 
part. 

Some have provided means for taking children on 
excursions into the country. 

Some have been instrumental in having sanitary 
drinking fountains established. 

Several have succeeded in having branch libraries es- 
tablished in their vicinity. 

Several have secured playgrounds for their neighbor- 
hoods; others have procured vacant lots for school gar- 
dening. One reports a permanent circulating library 
established in the school. 

Many have made visits to places of civic interest and 
all have enjoyed a wide range of lectures, given for the 
most part by eminent specialists and frequently fol- 
lowed by helpful discussion. 

The attention paid by the kindergarten to fundamen- 
tal training in technical processes, hand industries, arts 
and crafts, and fine arts shows still another direction in 
which the kindergarten is a valuable social factor. 

Nature study in the kindergarten training is some- 
thing more than a study of dead nature and laboratory 
experimentation. It is a real introduction into the great 
world of nature outside the schoolroom and laboratory, 
dealing first hand with living plants, animals, birds, 
and insects. 

The emphasis laid in the kindergartern on the study of 
psychology and the first-hand knowledge of humanity, 
acquired by every conscientious kindergartner who tries 
to meet the needs of her little community of children, 
mothers, and homes, and who thus finds herself con- 
fronted with every phase of social life and work, tends 
to make the trained and experienced kindergartners 
much sought after in the social work of a community. 

Perhaps no expression has come into greater present 
day use than that of social service, and a new profession 
seems to have arisen in the guise of a social worker. 

Here again the kindergarten has given its quota of 
workers and trained assistants. 

The close association with the home life of her child- 
ren and mothers has made the kindergartner realize 
more fully the importance of the study of home econo- 
mics, and in some centers the experiment is being 
made of giving a certain amount of training in home 
economics to kindergarten students and of kindergar- 
ten training to home economic students. 

For the young girl just entering .upon life's duties 
and responsibilities a training in both these branches is 
indispensable whether she is to become the professional 
or non-professional worker, a home-worker, or a valua- 
ble social factor in her own community and in the lar- 
ger life of the world. 

Some one has &aid that ''the primary aim of the 
kindergarten is to create a miniature world which shall 
be to the child a faithful portrait of the greater world 
in its ideal aspects." 

If the kindergarten can bring to each and all of us its 
aid in helping us to create for ourselves a miniature 
world, which shall be a faithful portrait of the greater 
world in its ideal aspects; and if it can aid in making us 
content to give to our communities the service for 
which we are best fitted, and can teach us to so live 



that not so much social efficiency as social reciprocity 
shall be our aim and purpose, then we shall all agree 
to give to the kindergarten its true place as one of the 
most valuable factors of social life and social work of 
the present time, one worthy of our best thought and 
effort.— Address at I.K.U. Meeting, Des Moines. 

The Kindergarten in the United States 

By Mary Lee Williams. 

The kindergarten system was really evolved as a part 
of the psychological movement promulgated in Europe 
by Frederick Froebel, who maintained self-activity, 
properly guided, as the basis of a child's education. 

Other educators seemed to regard the child as a pas- 
sive thing, to which their principles should be applied, 
but Froebel insisted that the child, with his interests, 
experiences and activities, was the first thing to be con- 
sidered; and that in any rational system of education 
the child should be the starting point, and experiences 
with which he was familiar should be used as a means 
to an end. He insisted, also, upon improvement in 
the schools, and demanded that the spirit, purpose, at- 
mosphere and morals of the school should harmonize 
with the ideal environment of home life. 

The chief instrument upon which Froebel relied was 
the stimulation and proper guiding of a child's activities. 
He took the child's spontaneous actions as a starting 
point, at first gave them full play, then gradually but 
surely, led them, first to ideas, then to acts of volition 
in which the emotions also played a part, and strove for 
other emotional and volitional acts rather than intel- 
lectual results. It was upon the will rather than upon 
the intellect that Froebel worked. 

Miss Elizabeth Peabody of Boston was the instigator 
of the pioneer kindergarten movement in the United 
States. In 1859 she became interested in writings of Fro- 
ebel. In 1867 she studied in Germany with Froebel's 
widow, and upon her return to America in 1868 she 
took up her life work of disseminating the principles of 
Froebel's educational system. 

She first endeavored to enlist the sympathies of pa- 
rents; then philanthropists were induced to contribute 
to the financial support of the movement, and the first 
kindergartens in the United States were principally 
charity organizations. It was with some difficulty that 
the Boston school board was persuaded to permit the 
use of one of its buildings for an experimental course in 
kindergarten. This movement was supplemented by a 
periodical devoted to the education of the principals, 
which was conducted for a period of four years. Boston's 
public kindergarten, however, was short-lived, and was 
given up on the ground that the city could no longer 
bear the expensive movement. 

Miss Boelte conducted a kindergarten in New York 
for one year, at the end of which time she married Prof- 
John Kraus and has since established the Kraus-Boelte 
training school for kindergarten teachers. This is con- 
sidered one of the most important schools of its kind in 
the United States. 

The second public kindergarten opened in Brighton, 
Mass., in 1873, lived only one year, and was given up 
when Brighton was annexed to Boston in 1874. 

About the time the Brighton kindergarten opened 
(Continued on page 1SS.) 




THE COMMITTEES THE WHOLE 

CONDUCTED BY BERTHA JOHNSTON 

THIS COMMITTEE OF THE WHOLE, of which all Subscribers to the Kin- 
dergarten-Primary Magazine are members, will consider those various prob- 
lems which meet the practicing Kindergartner— problems relating to the 
School-room proper. Ventilation, Heating, and the like; the Aesthetics of 
School-room Decoration; Problems of the Physical Welfare of the Child, in- 
cluding the Normal, the Defective, and the Precocious; questions suggest- 
ed by the use of Kindergarten Material, the Gifts, Occupations, G; mes. Toys, 
Pets; Mothers-meetings; School Government; Child Psychology; the relation 
of Home to School and the Kindergarten to the Grades; and problems re- 
garding the Moral Development of the Child and their relation to Froebel's 
Philosophy and Methods All questions will be welcomed and also any 
suggestions of ■ways in which Kindergartners have successfully met the 
problems incidental to kindergarten and primary practice. All replies to 
queries will be made through this department, and not by correspondence. 
Address all inquiries to 

MISS BERTHA JOHNSTON, EDITOR, 

1054 Bergen St., Brooklyn, N. Y- 



To the Editor of the Committee of the Whole: 

I am not a kindergartner but am taking your 

magazine because I have two dear babies — girls — 

one three years old, the other nine months. 

A set of balls was given the three-year-old by a 

kindergartner, but I do not know how to use them. 

Can you tell me of a set of songs and games for 

the balls? What kind of work (kindergarten) 

ought a three-year-old to do? I wonder if you will 

suggest a sensible list of gifts for children the ages 

of mine? 

The big baby never tires of stories but I "ran 

out." What shall I tell her, and what finger plays 

can I use for baby? I am a musician and have 

seen something of kindergarten work, so with a 

few suggestions perhaps I can struggle along. 
* * * * 

I will greatly appreciate any suggestions you 
may make. 

A MOTHER. 

New York City, Dec. 1. 

It is always a pleasure to know that parents as 
well as kindergartners are subscribers to the KIN- 
DERGARTEN PRIMARY MAGAZINE, and as the 
questions put by our correspondent are very likely 
echoed by other teachers and mothers we will en- 
deavor to reply to them in a way to help all in- 
quirers, hoping that other readers will give the 
benefit of their experience as well. 

1. A set of verses, by the editor, suggesting how 
to use the First Gift Balls was published in a re- 
cent number of the KINDERGARTEN PRIMARY 
MAGAZINE, giving ideas for motion, color, form, 
guessing plays, etc. We know of no special set of 
songs and games for the balls but very many of 
the famil'ar kindergarten song-books contain, 
among other songs, those for use with the balls. 
Froebel's "Pedagogics of the Kindergarten" gives 
many suggestions as well as the philosophy which 
underlies the great educator's plan for the use of 
the various gifts. His style is involved and there 
is much repetition, in his effort to make himself 
quite clear. It is well if an earnest mother can 
find a group of parents to study him under the 
guidance of a trained kindergartner. 

A three-year-old should do work of the simplest 
kind and the parent must be very careful not to 
over-stimulate, The kindergarten balls, and the 



first, second, third and fourth gifts, especially those 
of the larger size, are suitable for a little child. 
Until familiar with the simpler forms and the'r 
various possibilities', it is advisable not to give the 
fifth and six building blocks. The peg-board and 
the beads for stringing are a source of great pleas- 
ure, and a little clay at one time and a small box 
of salt or sand at another, will happily occupy him, 
with a spoon and a small box or bottle to be al- 
ternately filled and emptied. The making of paper 
chains may be within the capacity of the three- 
year-old but not if it makes him nervous and over- 
fatigued. Ten-pins and other games that involve 
the use of a ball are suitable. Dolls and animal toys, 
little wagons to be loaded and unloaded, etc. The 
perfect mechanical toys soon lose their charm as 
they leave no opportunity for exercise of the imag- 
ination. Too many playthings given at once, con- 
fuse and fatigue. If many toys are given by ad- 
miring friends, put some aside and at intervals of 
weeks or months, or as a special treat on Sunday, 
bring them out. 

As for the stories, a conscientious mother is 
often tempted to overdo in this matter and to 
exhaust the supply before the child is old enough 
to read. Tell a few stories and these over and over 
again. The Mother Goose rhymes, of course, are 
a part of every child's legitimate heritage. The 
Finger Plays by Emilie Poulsson give songs, pic- 
tures and motions; the Mother Play Songs with 
Music and their important commentaries by Froe- 
bel (two volumes, by Susan E. Blow) are very 
valuable if not indispensable. 

Lear's Book of Nonsense with its absurd rhymes 
and quaint, crudely-drawn pictures are a source of 
fun to little folks and was most highly recom- 
mended by John Ruskin. Laura E. Richards' "Five 
Minute Stories," Clara D. Pierson's "Among the 
Farmyard People," "Household Stories" by Anna 
C. Klingensmith, "Little Black Sambo," "The Tale 
of Peter Rabbit" by Beatrix Potter, etc., are all to 
be recommended. There are, of course, many 
other books for children as they grow older. 

Among song books for little children, besides the 
Finger Play book by Poulsson and the Mother 
Play Songs by Blow and Eliot (Putnam's), we 
would mention the "Children's Messiah," by Ho- 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



129 



fer; "Merry Songs and Games for the Kindergar- 
ten," by Hubbard; "Nature Songs for Children," 
Knowhon; "Small Songs for Small Singers," by 
Neidlinger, with words, music, pictures; "Song 
Stories for the Kindergarten," by Patty and Mil- 
dred Hill; "Songs for Little Children," by Smith; 
all of which can be obtained of kindergarten supply 
firms. Millicent Shinn's "Biography of a Baby" 
would prove very interesting reading to any 
thoughtful mother. 

To the Editor of the Committee of the Whole: 

I have just become director of a kindergarten in 
a small town and have several recently-graduated 
assistants, who come from different cities and ac- 
cordingly from different training schools. What 
can 1 do to unify them and win a genuine spirit of 
co-operation? 

December, 1912. F. S. G. 

We would suggest to this correspondent that 
she help her assistants to forget any possible per- 
sonal or professional differences in their common 
interest in the children. Many directors find it 
helpful to hold a teachers' meeting every Friday, 
the kindergartners taking their lunch to kinder- 
garten so that they can conveniently remain to 
talk over their various problems. The director 
often finds it helpful to read some little inspira- 
tional bit from a poet or philosopher, and thus 
unify her little group. Then the needs of the dif- 
ferent children, and how to meet them, are dis- 
cussed. Perhaps this child is too aggressive; this 
one too obstreperous; this one needs holding back; 
this one is too self-conscious; perhaps the eyes of 
one needs treatment or another has adenoids; how 
can the parent be induced to have a medical ex- 
amination; one is slow and dull of perception; is 
it because he is ill-nourished or that he does not 
hear or see well? Such a discussion presupposes 
thoughtful observation and thought on the part of 
each teacher, helps them to be more serviceable 
to the children and assists the director in measur- 
ing up the fidelity and capacity of her subordinates. 
She talks over the subject and calls for the pro- 
grams which her assistants have planned for the 
ensuing week. These she takes with her for ex- 
amination and criticism, returning them the follow- 
ing Monday morning, if not before. Each has 
thus had the benefit of the thought and experience 
of the others. If desirable, the singing of any new 
songs may be rehearsed, and possible visits to the 
homes of some of the children arranged for, or a 
visit of one of the assistants to another kinder- 
garten. At least once a year, if not oftener, it is 
well for every kindergartner to visit some other 
kindergarten with open mind and heart. 



sional meetings of the first grade, and first grade 
teachers present at all professional meetings of the 
kindergartners. Cannot this be discussed in your 
pages? 

Boston. CO-OPERATION. 

Our pages are open to all, grade teachers, kin- 
dergartners, parents. May we not hear from some 
who have convictions upon this matter. 

EDITOR. 



To the Editor of the Committee of the Whole: 

I would very much like to hear what training 
teachers and grade teachers think of the advisa- 
bility or expediency of having the kindergartners 
present as spectators or otherwise at all profes- 



To the Editor of the Committee of the Whole: 

Will you not please tell me how to prepare the 
clay powder which is provided for the kindergar- 
tens, so that it will be in just the right condition 
for use at the time appointed? 

Brooklyn. p_ Q 5. 

Different kindergartners have tried and proved 
various ways of manipulating both the common and 
the prepared clay. One experienced training 
teacher writes: 

"Briefly, the clay powder must be moistened with 
water very much as one would moisten flour. I 
used to mix it with a large cooking spoon into a 
stiff mass. Empty this into a strong piece of cot- 
ton cloth and beat and knead it thoroughly until 
it is smooth and even in texture. Once prepared, 
the care needed is identical with that of any ordi- 
nary clay. This form of clay has, from my point 
of view, no material advantage over the common 
brick clay that must be crushed, moistened, and 
kneaded as above." 

The editor would add that, in kindergartens where 
there arc few children, and these well cared for so 
that there is no danger of infection and the clay 
can be safely used again and again, it may be put 
away after treatment thus: After the children have 
left kindergarten so that they do not witness the 
destruction of their handiwork, break the less 
worthy results of their efforts into small pieces, 
moisten and squeeze the different parts together 
compactly; place in a strong cloth as described in 
the above letter; moisten well and then tying the 
cloth or twisting it tightly, drop it from arm's 
length on floor or table; do this several times — 
this welds it together; open the cloth and punch 
with the finger small hollows here and there; fill 
these with water; tie cloth firmly once more and 
put away. If a long interval elapses before using 
take out day before and prepare. The editor will 
be pleased to receive other suggestions. 

A final summary of 37 representative colleges shows 
that teaching is now the dominant profession of col- 
lege graduates, with 25 per cent; business takes 20 per 
cent ; law, which took one-third of all the graduates at 
the beginning of the nineteenth century, now claims but 
15 per cent; medicine takes between 6 and 7 per cent, 
and seems to be slightly on the decline ; engineering is 
slowly going up, but still takes only 3 or 4 per cent ; 
while the ministry, with its present 5 or 6 per cent of 
the total, has reached the lowest mark for that profes- 
sion in the two and a half centuries of American college 
history. 



HINTSan°SUGGESTIONS for rural teachers 

CONDUCTED BY GRACE DOW 

DEAR RURAL, TEACHER.— In undertaking this department I trust that my somewhat extended experience in 
rural schools and my subsequent normal training and city school work may assist me in making it practically 
helpful to you in your work with the little children. I understand the tremendous tax upon the time of any rural 
teacher who is trying to do good work, the wide range of studies, the constant temptation to neglect the little ones 
for the apparently mure pressing need of the older classes and the lack of equipment necessary for the best work. 
My hope is to assist you to secure better results with the small children. and I shall unhesitatinglyrecommend the 
intelligent use of kindergarten material aslikely toproduce the best results with least expenditure of time. How 
t o use this material, what to select, what substitutes, etc. , will be discussed from month to month in Uiese columns. 



JANUARY. 
THEME FOR THE MONTH— WINTER. 

It is pleasant to think, just under the snow, 
That stretches so bleak and blank and cold, 

Are beauty and warmth that we cannot know, 
Green fields and leaves and blossoms of gold. 
— Selected. 

Interesting and profitable talks for morning ex- 
ercises may be given upon snowflakes, ice, frost, 
glaciers, icebergs; also upon the winter games of 
skating and tobogganing. 

Showing an interest in children's sports may be- 
come a valuable aid in discipline. 

Children will enjoy hearing about the snowshoes 
and the skis, and how useful the snowshoes were 
to the Indians in hunting their game in the early 
days before the white man came. 

Where are skis and snowshoes used mostly at 
the present time? 

THE ESQUIMO. 

While the children are interested in winter and 
winter sports is an excellent time to study the life 
of the Esquimo and also the Laplander. 

Let the children locate the country of the Esqui- 
mo on a globe, then by use of pictures take them 
on a journey to this land of ice and snow. The 



SUITABLE PICTURES. 

Winter Morning in the Barnyard. 

An Old Monarch. 

Monarch of the Glen. 

Winter. 

Leaving the Hills. (Sheep.) 

Sunset. 

Solitude. 

Day's Work Done. 

PARQUETRY. 

The material may be in the form of tablets or 
parquetry papers, and consists of squares, circles, 
half-circles, and different forms of the triangle. 
These are supplied in all the different colors and 
tints and afford an excellent opportunity to dis- 
play taste in the arrangement of color as well as 
of form. 

It is better to begin with the square, as it is more 
closely connected with the cube already studied. 
Later combine squares and circles, and squares and 
triangles. 

Following are a few designs suggested: 




ODOD 



r& 



D 



□ vv 



— 1 












-V V 






o o 



Esquimo's winter home is built of ice, and his 
summer home of skins. Why this change? 

Llis clothing is entirely of skins, even his shoes 
.are socks made from the skins of birds. 

Sand-table.— Cover with cotton batting and 
sprinkle with artificial snow. Pieces of glass may 
be used to represent ice. 

Make the hut with sticks and cover with the same 
material. 

Dress Esquimo dolls and place on the table near 
the hut. Make sleds, spears, Esquimo boat, and 
harness for their dogs, to complete the scene. 



O 



9 




Number may be taught with the parquetry pa- 
pers. Ask the children to make as many designs 
as possible, using four squares and two circles, or 
five squares and two triangles, etc., or combine 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



W 



different colors, as two blue squares with two 
cream-colored circles, etc. 

During the class recitation ask the pupils to 
tell a story about each design made, or tell them 
some simple story and have them illustrate it. 
WINTER JEWELS. 

A million little diamonds 

Twinkled on the trees; 
And all the little maidens said, 

'A jewel, if you please!" 

But, while they held their hands outstretched 

To catch the diamonds gay, 
A million little sunbeams came 

And stole them all away. 

■ — Selected. 

RING LAYING. 

We are taught that the curve line is the line of 
beauty, and as a preparation for this work call the 
child's attention to the curves in nature such as the 
round trunk of the tree, the stem of the flower, 
the curve of the leaf, and more especially the 
petals of the flowers. 



^9^)000 



Beautiful border designs can be constructed by 
combining colored sticks and rings. 





Curves are always restful to the eyes, and de- 
velop the spiritual side of the child's nature, and 
thus the value of this work is inestimable. 

The material used consists of whole rings, half 
rings, and quarter rings of iron or steel, put up in 
boxes containing 36 whole rings, 54 half rings, and 
36 quarter rings of various sizes. 

Paper rings in a variety of shades and tints may 
be used in this work instead of metal rings. 




SUGGESTIONS FOR THE NEW YEAR. 

Does every child learn something every day, not 
review something he has learned? 

Do not talk — talking is not teaching. Let your 
pupils talk. 

Short recitations bring the best results. 

Ask definite questions, not leading ones. 

Do not repeat the answers. It cultivates inat- 
tention. 

Know the lesson you wish to teach. 

Point out in advance the main facts in a lesson. 

Teach the children to think. Thinking is more 
important than remembering. 

Make arithmetic practical. Drill in making 
change. 

Show an interest in each individual pupil. 

Teach by example as well as by precept. 

"True worth is in being, not seeming, 
In doing each day that goes by 

Some little good, not in dreaming 
Of great things to do by and by." 

STATEMENT OF OWNERSHIP AND MAN- 
AGEMENT. 

of the Kindergarten-Primary Magazine, published 
monthly except July and August, at Manistee, Mich. 

Name of Postofnce Address. 

Editor — J. H. Shults, - - - - Manistee, Michigan. 
Managing Editor — Same as above. 
Business Manager — Same as above.. 
Publishers — The Kindergarten Magazine Co., Manistee, 

Michigan. 
Owners — (If a corporation, give names and addresses 

of stockholders holding 1 per cent or more of total 

amount of stock) : 
The Kindergarten Magazine Co., Manistee, Michigan. 

An informal corporation, all the stock of which is 

owned by J. H. Shults and Grace Dow. 
Known bondholders, mortgagees, and other security 

holders, holding-1 per cent or more of total amount of 

bonds, mortgages, or other securities : 
No bonds, mortgages, or other securities of any kind are 

outstanding against the Kindergarten Magazine Co., 

so far as known to the undersigned. 

Kindergarten Magazine Co. 
J. H. Shults, 
Business Manager. 



I3 2 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



EDUCATIONAL NOTES 

President Geo. E. Vincent, of the University of Min- 
nesota, inagurated a Traveling- University one year ago, 
and the experiment will be repeated this year. The 
plan is something- more than merely university exten- 
sion. To all intents and purposes a representative por- 
tion of the university — faculty, students and equip- 
ment — is temporarily detached and transferred to 
other parts of the State, thus actually extending the 
benefits of the State's costliest educational plant to a 
wider field than ever before. The plan is considered by 
the United States Bureau of Education an excellent 
device for bringing together for mutual profit a State 
university and the people who support it. What 
"University Week" really is may be seen from a typical 
program. Each day of the six is devoted to some spe- 
cial topic, with lectures and demonstrations during the 
day time and high-class entertainments at night. Thus: 
Monday is business men's day. There are lectures 
on all kinds of topics interesting to business men, from 
marketing problems to fighting forest fires, as well as a 
few talks of more general nature. In the evening there 
is a concert by the University Glee Club. Tuesday is 
art and literature day with lectures on librari es, child- 
ren's books, women's clubs, civic betterment, the dra- 
ma, and similar subjects. There in a reading hour in 
the afternoon, in charge of a trained elocutionist, and 
an industrial art exhibit; in the evening an illustrated 
lecture: "Art in Common Things." Wednesday is home 
welfare day. In the day sessions such problems as "The 
Human Beings of High-School Age," "Why Babies 
Die," rational living, kindergartens, and industrial edu- 
cation are considered, while at night a prominent edu- 
cator gives an illustrated lecture on "How Minnesota 
Educates Her Children." Thursday is public health day, 
with appropriate lectures and exhibits. In the evenings 
there is a dramatic recital of a modern play. Friday is 
farmers' day, and live questions of farm policy are dis- 
cussed by experts in agriculture. There is also an 
address on "The Social Possibilities of Rural Communi- 
ties," by an educator who has made special studies in 
this field. In the evenings professors from the univer- 
sity give a scientific demonstration of the gyroscope and 
liquid air. Saturday is town and country day, with "So- 
cial Life in Town and Country" as the leading topic. In 
the evening the University Dramatic Club appears in 
Shakspere's Merchant of Venice. 

There is an "Oriental Institute" for languages at 
Naples, Italy, with an attendance of 460. Seventy-eight 
students are taking Arabic, 16 Turkish, 32 Persian, 68 
Amharic (the court language of Abyssinia) , 85 Chinese, 
63 modern Greek, 81 Albanian, and 80 Japanese. Some 
of the students pursue two or more of these languages 

concurrently. 

* * * 

Ancient farm-houses have been gathered from all 
parts of Denmark and placed in the grounds of the fa- 
mous Danish National Museum at Lyngby, with a view 
to educating the people in their national history. There 
are gallaries filled with old furniture, antique coaches, 
hearses that belonged to diiferent guilds, with their fun- 
eral trappings, and other interesting relics of the past. 



Messrs. Houghton Mifflin Company announce that 
Mr. Franklin S. Hoyt has recently been made a Director 
of the Company. Mr. Hoyt joined the Educational De- 
partment of this Publishing House in 1907, as editorial 
advisor. He brought to this work an understanding of the 
needs of the schools acquired through a varied and suc- 
cessful experience in teaching and in supervisory work, 
in all grades from the kindergarten up through the Uni- 
versity and in some of the important school systems of 
the country. Beginning his career as a teacher in secon- 
dary schools in New Jersey and Pennsylvania, he became 
principal of the high school in New Milford, Connecticut, 
and afterwards was Principal of the Model Schools 
connected with the Normal School at New Haven, Con- 
necticut, and Supervising Principal in the New Haven 
public schools. His last position in school work was 
that of Assistant Superintendent in the Indianapolis 
public schools where he served for six years. 

Since his association with Houghton Mifflin Com- 
pany the educational list of this House has been greatly 
extended, especially along the lines of basal textbooks 
for the grades and the high school, and professional 
books for the teacher and the student of education. Mr. 
Hoyt's closer identification with this Publishing House 
is an indication of the increasing importance which it 
attaches to the building up of its Educational Depart- 
ment. It is one of a very few publishing houses to have 
in charge of its educational list a trained specialist in 
education. This guarantees the most careful preparatory 
work on every new educational publication issued by 
this House, and its close adaptation to the needs and 

conditions of the class room. 

* * * 

Nearly tw T o thousand titles of books and articles on 
children appear in the "Bibliography of Child Study, 
1910-11," compiled by the library of Clark University 
and just issued for free distribution by the United States 
Bureau of Education. Such topics of current interest as 
the Boy Scouts, Binet tests, exceptional children, crime 
among minors, infant mortality, eugenics, open-air 
schools, medical inspection, sex education, aDd vocation- 
al training are included in the titles listed. 

* * * 

Separate schools are necessary for the proper solution 
of the vocational school problem in the United States, 
according to Edwin G. Cooley, of Chicago, special inves- 
tigator of vocational education. These schools, says Mr. 
Cooley, must not be regarded as substitutes for the pres- 
ent schools, which are doing satisfactorily a necessary 
work, but as supplementary to them. 

* * * 

At the Ghent world's exposition in 1913 there will be 
a number of international congresses, including one of 
teachers of domestic science and one of women engaged 
in farming, the latter in connection with a general con- 
gress of agriculturalists. 

* * * 

A compulsory school-attendance law for Alaska is 
urged by Dr. P. P. Claxton, United States Commissioner 
of Education, who has charge of the schools for natives 
in the Territory. 

Two-thirds of the high schools in the United States 
now have complete four-year courses. 



THE KINDERGARTEN PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



133 



Labeling Rural School Houses. 

Labelling country schoolhouses so that every citizen 
may know whether his school is up to standard is the 
device of the Illinois State school authorities, according 
to information received at the United States Bureau of 
Education. 

The schools are inspected as to grounds, building, 
furnishings, heating, ventilation, library, water supply, 
sanitation, and qualifications of the teacher. 

If the essentials of a good school are found present 
a diploma is granted the district and a plate is placed 
above the door of the schoolhouse designating it as a 
"Standard School." Upon fulfillment of certain further 
requirements a higher diploma will be issued and the 
plate will read "Superior School." 

Already 657 of the 10,532 one-room schoolhouses in 
Illinois have earned the right to be called standard 
schools and to display the plate accordingly. 

This interesting device is part of a vigorous campaign 
waged by the State of Illinois in behalf of rural schools. 
Two experts on rural education, U. J. Hoffman and W. 
S. Booth, under the direction of Hon. F. G. Blair, 
State Superintendent of Public Instruction, are devoting 
their entire time to the country and village schools. 
Illinois does not merely ask that the schools be 
brought up to standard; the State tells how it can be 
done. In a bulletin sent to every teacher in the State 
the requirements for a standard school are set forth. 
Among the specifications are: An ample playground; 
good approaches to the school; convenient fuel houses; 
the building, sound, in good repair, and painted; im- 
proved heating arrangements — a jacketed stove in the 
corner of the room instead of an unprotected stove in 
the center; floor and interior of building clean and tidy; 
suitable desks for children of all ages properly placed; 
a good collection of juvenile books, maps, and diction- 
aries; a sanitary water supply; the school well organ- 
ized with regular attendance and at least seven months' 
schooling every year; the teacher must have not less 
than a high-school education, receive a salary of at 
least §360 per annum, and be ranked by the country su- 
perintendent as a good or superior teacher. 

The more ambitious districts, aspiriDg to the "Su- 
perior" diplomas, will have to meet the following addi- 
tional requirements: A playground of at least one-half 
an acre, level, covered with good grass, and provided 
with trees and shrubs; sanitary drinking appliance; 
separate cloak rooms for boys and girls; room lighted 
from one side or from one side and rear; adjustable win- 
dows fitted with good shades; heat provided by base- 
ment or room furnace, with proper arrangements for 
removal of bad air and admission of pure air; at least 
eighty library books, ten suitable for each grade; two 
good pictures on the wall; provision for instruction in 
agriculture, manual training, and domestic arts; the 
teacher to be a high-school graduate with normal-school 
training and to receive at least §480 per annum; the 
work outlined in the State course of study to be well 
done. 

A two years' course in forestry has been insti- 
tuted at the University of Wisconsin to meet the 
demand for trained forest rangers. 



Department of Superintendence. 

The meeting of the Department of Superintendence 
and other Associations held in connection therewith 
will begin February 24 and close March 1, 1913. Phil- 
adelphia was chosen as the place of meeting, and the 
Bellevue-Stratford will be the hotel headquarters. Most 
of the meetings will be held in the Central High School, 
which is conveniently reached by street car one block 
distant from both hotel and high school. 

The Trunk Line Association has granted a fare and a 
half round-trip ticket from points within its territory, 
tickets being on sale February 20 and thereafter. The 
New England Passenger Association and the Southeast- 
ern Passenger Association have agreed in this certificate 
plan agreement. It is probable that the Southwestern 
Passenger Association will also grant the same reduc- 
tion. The lines in the Central Passenger Association 
are already on a two-cent a mile basis, so that members 
living in that territory and wishing to avail themselves 
of the reduction in the other territories will be obliged 
to purchase a second ticket when they reach the border 
of the Central Passenger Associations's territory. Ar- 
rangement has been made under which the return trip 
may be started on Wednesday, March 5. This will give 
those who desire an opportunity to witness the inau- 
guration of President Wilson. 

In addition to the regular program of the Department 
of Superintendence, there will be meetings of the Nat- 
ional Council of Education, the Department of Normal 
Schools, the National Society for the Study of Education, 
the Society of College Teachers of Education, the Nat- 
ional Committee on Agricultural Education, the Edu- 
cational Press Association of America, the National 
Council of Teachers of English, Conferences of State 
Superintendents of Education, Conferences of Teachers 
of Education in State Universities, Conferences of 
Teachers in City Training Schools, and meetings of the 
American School Peace League, the International Kin- 
dergarten Union, and the National Association of School 
Accounting Officers. 



They do not allow working to interfere with going to 
school in Hammond, Indiana. Special arrangements are 
made whereby boys and girls may work half a day in 
certain commercial establishments and attend school the 
balance of the day. Hammond is a manufacturing com- 
munity, where the temptation to boys and girls is strong 
to leave school and earn a living. Supt. McDaniel's 
plan makes it possible for boys and girls to earn money, 
remain in school, and also make themselves more effi- 
cient industrially. 



The school farm movement in Wake County, 
North Carolina, which has attracted wide attention, 
is described by County Superintendent Judd in an 
illustrated bulletin just issued by the United States 
Bureau of Education. 



Two thousand one hundred and ninety women at- 
tended the University of Paris during the past year. 
Ninety-nine studied law, 570 medicine, 248 science, 
32 pharmacy, and the remainder were in the course 
in letters. 



134 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



TRAINING SCHOOLS 

News Items from Training Schools are Solicited 



REPORT FROM PHILADELPHIA. 

On the afternoon of November 23rd, the Alumnae 
Association of the Training School for Kindergart- 
ners met in the School of Industrial Arts, Broad 
and Pine streets, to hear a lecture on "The London 
of Shakespeare," delivered by Dr. Josiah Penniman, 
formerly Dean of the University of Penn. 

In the absence of Miss Marion Edith Penny- 
packer, president, Mrs. M. L. van oirk presided. 
The reports of various departments were read and 
accepted. 

Miss Fox, vice-president, stated that the clock 
presented by the association as a memorial to Miss 
Moseley now has a place in the Kent Day Nursery, 
1702 Vine street. It is a fitting location for it, as 
the nursery was one of the institutions especially 
dear and full of interest to our loved Miss Moseley. 
Mrs. van Kirk reported the death of one member 
this year. 

Dr. Penniman was then introduced by Mrs. van 
Kirk. He needed no formal introduction as those 
present remembered the delightful address on Dick- 
ens given before the association two years ago, 
quickening those who heard it with renewed in- 
terest and appreciation of that famous author. 

So in this address on Shakespeare. When in 
London Dr. Penniman made a careful study of 
Shakespeare's old haunts and had brought many 
interesting articles from various sources. These he 
kindly brought with him. There were copies of rare 
photographs, a most interesting one of Queen Eliza- 
beth as she appeared in Shakespeare's day, a famous 
old portrait of Shakespeare copied from a painting 
by the artist Richard Burchard, who knew the fa- 
mous dramatist. A fac-simile of a ring worn by 
him, diagrams of certain plays, coins in circulation 
at that time. 

These were viewed with much interest and seemed 
to bring the great ShsAespeare close to this twen- 
tieth century audience. 

A description was given of London as it appeared 
when Shakespeare first visited it. The theaters were 
located outside the city. Three great meeting places 
of those days were None-Such House on London 
bridge, Temple Bar and St. Paul's Church. So using 
the church as a social center to-day, we find is taken 
from an ancient custom. 

Life at that time was very unsafe. Streets were 
narrow, dark and badly lighted. Thugs abounded 
everywhere. Many were victims of poisoned wine. 
Such conditions we find preserved in many of the 
plays, and help us to realize the state of things at 
that time. 

The character of players and audiences were then 
considered. Many held the opinion in those days 
that the theatrical folk were made up of dissolute, 



unprincipled, loose vagabonds. People were cen- 
sured for attending the theater. Holding the same 
opinion, as is held by some to-day, that the theater 
is immoral. The audiences were made up of the 
citizen and courtier. Actors were eager to get 
themselves under the patronage of royalty, if pos- 
sible. No women were on the stage in those days, 
boys took the part of women characters. 

The next topic considered was the way the per- 
formance was conducted. The method of adver- 
tising was by placing notices on posts. The the- 
aters were built without a roof. Cost of admission 
was a penny, or two-pence for shelter' in case of 
storm. 

When ready to begin a flag was hung out then 
three blasts of a trumpet given. The stage was a 
movable one without scenery. This lack gives the 
reason for the many descriptive scenes found 
throughout the plays. To indicate the setting of 
the play a sign would be put up; for instance, a 
card bearing the word "Rome," and the imagina- 
tion of the audience was left to supply the scene. 
The definite thing in those days were the costumes. 
The stirring events of those times helped to stimu- 
late thought and develop the imagination. Shake- 
speare was quick to grasp these, and embodie? 
them in his wonderful way. 

At the conclusion of the lecture there was music, 
and dainty refreshments were served. A social time 
followed. Dr. Penniman received hearty congratu- 
lations for the interesting instructive lecture given. 

An important feature of the meeting was placing 
in the hands of each member a copy of the Consti- 
tution, Bylaws, and List of Officers and Members 
of the Association. Bound attractively in green and 
white (colors of the former training school, and 
now of the association), they will surely prove a 
valuable reference, and should promote greater in- 
terest and loyalty to the association. 
Respectfully submitted, 

ETTA H. STEELMAN. 



Growth of the Kindergarten at the Michigan 
State Normal College. 

EDITH E. ADAMS. 

To Dr. Daniel Putnam is due a great deal of credit 
for arousing, in the state of Michigan, a sympathetic 
feeling toward the Kindergarten and for its establish- 
ment in the Normal College. As far back as 1875 efforts 
and recommendations for the opening of a kindergar- 
ten in connection with the training school were made 
by Dr. Putnam. While the State Board looked with 
favor npon those suggestions and recommendations 
other matters connected with the Normal department 
itself so occupied their attention that no action was 
taken i or the actual opening of a kindergarten until 
1888. At this time the Michigan Stale Board of Educa- 
tion became interested in the valuable kindergarten- 
primary work done by Miss Vandewalker, then of Calu- 
met. Miss Vandewalker was engaged to come to Ypsi- 
lanti to prepare the way for the inauguration of the kin- 
dergatenwork in the Normal School and to act as critic 
of the primary grades. Miss Mary LocKwood, now 



THE KINDERGARTEN PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



i35 



Mrs, Millis ofYpsilanti, was chosen to organize the 
work; to act as director of the kindergarten, and to 
give a course of 20 weeks in kindergarten theory to 
students specializing in that department. Until 1892 
this course was only a one-year-course leading to a life 
certificate. The theory was extended to 40 weeks, and 
practice teaching was to be done in both kindergarten 
and primary grades. For a time a five-year certificate 
could be secured at the end of one year and later a 
three-year certificate at the end of one and one-half 
years. With the establishment of the pure kindergar- 
ten ctmrse, three years ago, only those are admitted 
who take the full two years, at the end of which time 
a life certificate is granted. 

When the kindergarten department was first organ- 
ized, the aim was not to send out full-fledged kinder- 
gartners, but to meet the needs throughout the state 
for sub-primary work, giving students an insight into 
the kindergarten methods and helping them to under- 
stand better the little child coming directly from the 
home with no chance for kindergarten training. This 
kindergarten-primary course was continued until 1909. 

Superintendents are beginning to see that children 
with a good kindergarten training are better prepared 
for first grade work than those having one year of sub- 
primary, consequently more kindergartens have been 
placed in the public schools of the state and there have 
been more calls for pure kindergarten teachers. To meet 
this demand, the special kindergarten course referred to 
.above was planned in 1909. Students entering this de- 
partment must show special adaptability for the work 
and are accepted on trial during the first term. The 
kindergarten theory has been extended from 36 weeks 
to 60 weeks and the teaching and observation from 48 
weeks in the kindergarten and primary grades to 72 weeks, 
or one full year, in the kindergarten alone. 

As has been stated, Miss Mary Lockwood was the 
first kindergarten director. She held the position for 
two years and was succeeded by Miss E. Maud Cannell 
in 1891. Miss Cannell remained until 1896. From 1896 
to 1907 the kindergarten was in charge of Miss Hester 
P. Stowe. In 1904 a second kindergarten was opened 
in the Woodruff School under the direction of Misa 
Lydia L. Herrick, Miss Stowe acting as supervisor. The 
same year Miss Grace Hammond was engaged to act as 
assistant to Miss Stowe in the Normal kindergarten. 
Miss Hammond was succeeded by Miss Helene Kneip 
in 1905. In 1906, Miss Lydia Herrick resigned as direc- 
tor of Woodruff kindergarten and the place was given 
to Miss Edith E. Adams. In 1907 Miss Stowe was grant- 
ed a year's leave of absence and Miss Adams acted as 
instructor and supervisor. Miss Kneip was made di- 
rector of the Normal kindergarten and Miss Edith D. 
Dixon, a Teachers' College graduate, was given the di- 
rectorship of the Woodruff kindergarten. This position 
she held until her resignation last summer. Miss Bertha 
Schwable of Teachers' College takes her place. The 
"leave of absence" was so much enjoyed by Miss Stowe 
that she decided not to return to Ypsilanti and Miss 
Adams was asked to continue as instructor and super- 
visor. Miss Stowe had served the Normal College for 
nine years and to her it owes a great deal for her faith- 
fulness and for the high standard she maintained. In 



1909 a third kindergarten was opened in the Prospect 
School. The first two years it was in charge of honor 
students under the direction of the supervisor. Last 
year Miss Frances Berry, a graduate of the School of 
Education, Chicago, was secured to act as director. Two 
years ago Miss Helene Kneip was granted a year's ab- 
sence, which she spent in Teachers' College, New York, 
her place being filled by Miss Minetta Sammis, a Tea- 
chers' College graduate. 

And so the kindergarten department at the Michigan 
State Normal College has grown from a kindergarten 
with one teacher to three kindergartens with a super- 
visor and instructor, and three directors. We are now 
planning on a fourth kindergarten which we expect to 
have as soon as the new central building is erected for 
the public schools. 

Ypsilanti, Michigan. 



DO IT BETTER. 

Do it better! 

Letting well enough alone never raised a salary 
or secured a better position. 

And what was well enough yesterday is poor 
enough today — do it better. 

Rescue that daily task from the maw of dull 
routine — do it better. 

Seek out that automatic act of habit — do it 
better. 

Put another hour on the task well done — and do 
it better. 

Strive not to equal yesterday's work — strive to 
surpass it. 

Do it better! — Timely Topics. 

FOR DISPLAYING WORK. 

The following plan has served my purpose ad- 
mirably: I tack up cloth between the windows, 
fastening it securely to the edge of the casing, 
which does no injury to the casing or wall. Then 
I attach sewing cards, drawings, paper cuttings, 
etc., to the cloth with a little bit of iron glue, which 
is easily done and as easily removed when new 
work is to be put up. 



TRAIN YOUR VOICE. 

A soft musical voice that pleases the ear and 
soothes the nerves is a valuable acquisition to any 
kindergartner or teacher. It can be acquired with 
practice and is well worth the effort. 



ASBURY PARK, N. J. 

The kindergartners of Asbury Park are: Harriet 
Hodge, Jeanette Sherwood, Sara B. Lewis, Mary K. 
Gould, Irene E. Hoyt, Susan R. Barnes, and Kath- 
erine T. Halsey. 



OLEAN, N. Y. 

The following are employed as kindergartners in 
this city: Abbie E. Peglar, Margery Hambleton, 
Aileen W. Stowell, Ethel Hogg, Alice Heywang, A. 
Louise Brown, Bina Noonan, and Marie Merrill. 



Company in distress makes trouble less. — 
French. 



136 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



DAINTY-DEAR.* 

Mary Ellason Cotting. 

On one of those glorious Fall days when all about is 
a riot of sunshine and color, Caterpillar Green left the 
garden bed and slowly, very slowly crawled upward on 
the side of the house. When his sleek, green body 
reached the window-sill he loitered across it, no doubt 
enjoying the comfortable warmth. 

Higher and higher up the woodwork he made his 
way until a perfect winter resting place was found. 
Here he settled, attaching himself firmly, and almost in- 
visibly by a silken girdle. 

The days went slowly by; the sun shone in upon a 
fading Caterpillar Green, and by and by only a rusty, 
dull-colored, hard chrysalis was to be seen where once 
had been a velvety insect grown plump on the aster- 
leaf fare below in the garden. 

Sometimes little fingers reached out to touch him, .but 
never a shiver, not even a quiver, came as answer. 

All through the cold, gray days of November and 
December the hard little chrysalis grew more and more 
dull-colored. Curious eyes watched each day to see if 
anything happened. Still — what could happen? Was it 
not the time for resting" Surely no well-regulated in- 
sect would leave a snug retreat in midwanter ! 

One day when it was time for the January thaw, the 
wild wind came instead, and drove the clouds on a mad 
race across the sky, and great, moist snowflakes swirled 
and whirled in the air. 

The chickadees and downy woodpecker, the winter 
robin and blue- jay that come each day for food were 
huddled away in some cozy place and dared not venture 
forth for their daily fare. 

The children, who could not go out to play, stood 
wonderingly watching the big snowflakes as they 
touched, melted and trickled down the window pane. 

All at once something brushed the rosy cheek of Dim- 
plekins and Bjg Sister called out : "O, a live snowflake ! 
O, mamma, dear, come quick !" 

Such a flake of beauty as it was, drifting from spot 
to spot on window sill and mantel to Golden Head, 
held motionless to make a safe resting place. 

"Dainty-dear," whispered the Sunshiney One, "you are 
so beautiful with your black dotted, delicate saffron 
wings, your slender body and tiny, tiny feelers. O, you 
dear, however have you grown from the green-green 
caterpillar that helped eat the juicy aster foliage! 
Aren't you glad to be out of that homely house up there 
on the window frame? 

"O, but we will love you while you stay; you shall 
have the sweet, white petunia blossoms to sleep upon to- 
night, and sweetened water for your fare," and breath- 
ing softly this Sunshiney One crooned : 

O, Dainty-dear ! O, Dainty-dear ! 
You've come when all is chill and drear; 
Come to bring us joy and cheer, 
And teach that beauty's ever near. 

*Pieris nahi-rar — oleracea. 



The Golden Rule of Three 

Three things to be — pure, just and honest. 

Three things to live— courage, affection and gentle- 
ness 

Three things to govern — temper, tongue and conduct. 

Three things for which to fight— honor, home aud 
country. 

Three things to cherish— the true, the beautiful and 
the good. 

Three things about which to think — life, death and 
eternity. 

Three things to despise — cruelty, arrogance and ingra- 
titude. 

Three things for which to wish — health, friends and 
contentment. 

Three things to attain— goodness of heart, integrity of 
purpose and cheerfulness of disposition. —Leadership. 



Greensboro, N. H. 
Miss Anna E. George, a graduate of Dr. Montessori's 
school in Rome, addressed the Kindergarten Section of 
the North Carolina Teachers' Assembly, Nov. 28. 

The Assembly passed following resolution in memory 
of the late Governor Charlie B. Aycook: 

Since the last meeting of our Teachers' Assembly, 
Charles Brantley Aycook, a man who magnified the 
teachers' function in society; who loved the humblest 
child made in the image of God that attended the ru- 
dest school, who wisely recognized that on no founda- 
tion but the foundation of intelligence can a democracy 
remain stable and progressive, who at convenient and 
inconvenient season, taught with convincing reason 
and subtle charm that no State can meet its responsibi- 
lities unless its voters are also its thinkers, has been 
called from the work to which he gave a large part of 
his life; therefore, be it- 
Resolved, by the North Carolina Teachers' Assembly, 
that in every way possible his name shall be venerated, 
his work honored, his virtues emulated, and his self- 
sacrificing patriotism commemorated. 

Little Rock, Ark., 

Miss Florence Ward addressed the primary teachers' 
section of the State Teachers Association, on he Mon- 
tessori Method, December 36. 

Miss Tatum, of Eldorado, Ark., had paper on "The 
Kindergarten." The discussion was led by Miss Nan- 
nie Roberts, of Pea Ridge, Ark. 



National City, California. 
Mrs. Kathryn L. Fleming will open a new kindergar- 
ten here about January first. 



More than a thousand school teachers in the 
Netherlands are banded together in an association 
for temperance work among their pupils. 



At a conference of Swedish teachers recently it 
was emphasized that instruction in domestic science 
in the schools must deal principally with the sub- 
stantial things, instead of the "caramel and tart" 
kind. 

A chair in social hygiene has been established in the 
University at Munich, Germany. 



Speak little and well. — From the French. 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIJ'ARY MAGAZINE 



■37 



The Kindergarten in the United States. 

(Continued from page 127) 
the Hon. William T. Harris, superintendent of the 
schools of.St. Louis, with the co-operation of Miss Blow 
succeeded in getting' experiments nude with a view to 
ascertaining how far it would be possible to incorporate 
the system as an introductory movement in elementary 
education. Miss Blow's enthusiasm for the cause led 
her to give St. Louis her gratuitous services as conduc- 
tor. 

A public experimental kindergarten was opened in 
1837. Dr. Harris resigned his position as superintendent 
inl880, but had the satisfaction of seeing his experiment- 
al work at St. Louis assume large proportions. There 
were then enrolled in the kindergarten schools of that 
city 7,828 children, and the system had become so firmly 
established that it has resisted all attacks and adverse 
arguments. 

Educators realize how much depended upon the suc- 
cess of the experiment in St. Louis. Had it failed, it is 
more than probable that the kindergarten movement 
would never hav^e taken a place in the public schools of 
the United States. It was indeed fortunate that the ex- 
periment had been made by one whose executive ability 
and profound sociological knowledge so eminently fitted 
him to direct this important work to a successful issue. 
Dr. Harris not only proved that the system did not re- 
quire expensive additional equipment, but showed con- 
clusively that the children trained in kindergarten made 
better grades in the elementary schools than those who 
had not received the kindergarten training. 

The first free kindergarten of a private nature was 
made possible by the generosity of Mr. S. H. Hill of 
Florence, Mass., and when assured of i!s success he sup- 
plemented his gift with a sum sufficient to continue 
and to extend the work. 

In 1878 in Boston, Mrs. Quincy A. Shaw becaame in- 
terested, and began her philanthropic work of support- 
ing free kindergartens for poor children. She continued 
her generous work for 14 years, and at one time was sup- 
porting 30 such institutions. 

In San Francisco, the Golden Gate Association trained 
more than 40,000 children, received and distributed en- 
dowments amounting to nearly a million dollars, and 
has published a great deal of valuable literature on the 
subject. 

Chicago, Pittsburg, Brooklyn, Cincinnati, Louisville 
and other large cities have supported kindergarten asso- 
ciations with most beneficial results. In every case, how- 
ever, the enterprises of a public character have been 
more productive than those of a private philanthropy 
it would have remained a privilege of the wealthy few. 

Following closely upon the establishment of public 
kindergartens, training schools for teachers were organ- 
ized, in recognition of the fact that she should practi- 
cally master all of the Froebel philosophy. 

It is held by many that the true Froebellian education- 
al movement consists in the application of his ideas 
and fundamental principles to the whole cycle of edu- 
cation, and while this has never been wholly accomp- 
ished, very many of the important changes that have 
been made in the higher grades of school work were 
actuated by the principles which Froebel introduced. 



It has been said that the sociological movement in 
education displayed two sides, one practical, of which 
Herbart, Froebel and Pestalozzi were the exponents; 
the second, abstract of theoretical, of wdiich the philoso- 
phy of Kant, Schelling, Hegel and Fichte were the sup- 
porters. 

Froebel's kindergarten is the only system that in- 
cludes the psychological, the scientific and the sociolog- 
ical. It is sociological in that he would have the school 
harmonize with the home and with the society; it is 
scientific, for he made strong use of mature study; its 
practical side is borne out by his recognition of hand- 
work, which he considered of distinctive value educa- 
tionally, and it was to this end that he made the great- 
est use of it.— Excerpt from address. 



WANTED— OLD TEXT-BOOKS. 

The government wants gifts of old or rare text-books 
— at least, the government Bureau of Education does. 
Government bureaus are so in the habit of giving away 
documents instead of receiving them that a request like 
this warrants attention. 

The point is that the United States Bureau of Edu- 
cation is endeavoring to get together the finest possible 
collection of text-books in English, French, German, 
Spanish, Italian, Scandinavian, Dutch, and Greek lan- 
guages published within the last two centuries, and 
hopes that possibly some of the many educators and in- 
vestigators' who have been recipients of the govern- 
ment's bounty by receiving valuable documents in the 
past may return the compliment now with an occasional 
text-book of by-gone days. An antiquated speller or a 
musty Xenophon may be just the book needed to fill an 
important gap in text-book history. The Library of 
Congress is aiding the task, and the Bureau would ap- 
preciate gifts from individuals as well. "When this li- 
brary is complete," says Commissioner Claxton, "it 
should become the Mecca of all students of this phase 
of education." 



OMAHA, NEB. 

There was an enrollment of 5,700 at the State 
Teachers' meeting — almost up to the Michigan rec- 
ord. Addresses were delivered by U. S. Commis- 
sioner of Education P. P. Claxton; Dr. Frank H. 
McMurry,' Teachers College, Columbia University, 
New York; Eugene Davenport, Dean and Director 
of the College of Agriculture, University of Illi- 
nois; Charles H. judd. Dean of School of Educa- 
tion, University of Chicago; James W. Crabtree, 
Fresident Xormal School at River Falls, Wiscon- 
sin; Dr. Wm. H. Kilpatrick of the Department of 
Education, Columbia University, Hon. William J. 
Bryan, and others. 

ANTIAGO, WIS. 

The kindergartners employed in this city are: 
Xeva Stewart, Anna Kelly, lone Babcock, Georgia 
Latta, Hulda Hahn, and Margaret Young. 



MADISON, IND. 

The public kindergartners of Madison, • Ind., are: 
Jessie Wood and Allie Martin. Elinor Wyatt con- 
ducts a private kindergarten here. 



i38 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



The Benefits of the Kindergarten as a Social 
Center 

Jessie Davis, Chicago, III. 

The following experiment was once tried in the second 
grade of a private school. The children were each given 
a notebook in which the teacher told them to draw a pic- 
ture of an Indian wigwam. On the opposite page they 
were to write down how many people they thought 
would be needed to make the wigwam . At first they 
thought two or three, but later decided that one Indian 
could make the wigwam if he took enough time. Then, 
on the next page, they each drew a picture of an Eski- 
mo's igloo. They again discussed how many people 
would be needed to make the igloo, and again decided 
that one Eskimo could do the work if he took the time. 

On the next page the children then drew a picture of 
the kind of house they lived in. Then they began to 
write on the opposite page how many people it would 
take to build the house we live in. As there were sev- 
eral houses going up in the neighborhood the children 
easily found the number of workmen engaged in the 
various processes of building. They began by writing 
on the list so many graders, so many masons, so many 
carpenters, until they had lists of over a dozen differ- 
ent kinds of workmen employed in building the house, 
with numbers varying from two or three to over twenty. 
They then added up their lists. On the following page 
they began writing the list of how many people it 
would take to prepare the materials with which the 
workmen built the house. This brought large guess 
numbers as, so many men in the iron mine, another 
large number employed in cutting down the trees, ano- 
ther large number in the saw mill, others making glass 
and so on, until the list grew up into the thousands. 
Then came the transportation, so many men working 
on the railroads, so many driving horses, so many men 
on the ships. And then came the list of the people who 
make the things to furnish our houses. They brought 
into the list the people in other countries, until fin- 
ally one child said, "Well, it looks as if it took all the 
people in the world to get our houses ready for us to 
live in," So, as the rest agreed, they all wrote down 
the following statement: "It takes all the people in the 
world to get our honses ready for us." Then teacher 
and children talked about the difference between savage 
and civilized people, and the children themselves ex- 
pressed the difference in these words which all wrote 
in their books: "Civilized people help one another 
more." Surely this is the real meaning of civilization, 
that the people have learned to help one another more. 
* * -;<- 

With the advancement of civilization there has come 
about a corresponding need for education. Thru edu- 
cation that which the race has gained is handed on to 
the children, who thus profit by the experience of their 
ancestors. The deepest experience which has been 
gained is the experience of the advantages of co-opera- 
tion. 

The school should therefore prepare the child to live 
with others, to enter into the life about him. Indeed, 
the strongest desire of the child is for just this social 



life. When he first starts to school he anticipates with 
far greater Interest the playmates he will meet than the 
books he will use. The most educative influence is not 
the first reader but the other children. 

Now it is this social training which forms the most 
important part of the kindergarten. The child entering 
kindergarten is brought into a little community in which 
he is given the opportunity to mingle with others, to 
develop his social nature. If we examine the various 
instrumentalities which have been planned for use in 
the kiudergarten, we will find that they all tend towards 
social development. All help the child to play his way 
into the life about him 

In the songs and stories the kindergarten employs a 
time-honored means for developing social participation. 
Music, particularly singing, has always been one of the 
best means for bringing people into sympathetic rela- 
tions with oneanother. Stories tell us about others. 
Stories of heroes inspire the child, as they always have 
inspired his ancestors with ideals of helpfulness and 
self-sacrifices. Even the gifts and occupations have their 
greatest use, not in the knowledge of form and materials 
they give, but in the opportunity they offer the child 
for participating in the work of the world. He is really 
playing at making the things which some day he may 
actually make out of larger and more permanent mate- 
rials. But it is in the games that the kindergarten uses 
the most complete form of social life. No one can play 
a game alone. Games are the child's social world. There 
is in the game a law which all must obey; one must 
"play fair." There is no greater training to fairness 
than the games. This is the very basis of social life. 
Without this "playing fair" society, nations could not 
exist. 

Thus the aim of all the instrumentalities of the kin- 
dergarten is the devolopment of the social nature of 
the child. 

The need of the school system for the kindergarten 
is just this need of the child for social development. 
The great problem of the primary teacher is, not the 
teaching of reading and writing, but the adjustment of 
the child to the social order of the school room. Her 
difficulties are social rather than mental. The child is 
more interested in the other children than in his books, 
and yet if this is his firste xperience of any kind of 
school life, he does not know how to get along with his 
playmates. The primary teacher has not the best means 
at hand to give her pupils this training, but the kinder- 
garten has, for it is a play-school, and that does not 
mean an idle school but a very busy school; for "play 
is the serious business of childhood." 
i! But most profoundly does the kindergarten begin 
training the child to become a member of the commu- 
nity. Every kindergarten is adittle community in which 
the children are living in play the ideal elements in the 
life of the larger community which surrounds them. 

The uplifting of the community must begin with the 
training of the individual who is to do the uplifting. 

And the foundation of ^this training must be laid in 
childhood, If in the little child there grows the feeling 
of sympathy with the home, some day he will do his 
share toward uplifting the home. If he is in sympathy 




with the law bscause he obeys it, some day he will help 
in making right laws. If some day he is to be a citizen, 
not merely of his own country but of the world, if he is 
to help bring about right relationships between nations, 
then the seeds of sympathy and love for humanity must 
be planted in the heart of the child. 

However widely kindergartners may differ on points 
of use of materials, on forms and size? of gifts, or forms 
of games, they are at one on this fundamental point of 
the importance of social development. It is the one aim 
underlying the whole kindergarten system, which has 
as its ideal end the development of a strong character, a 
complete personality. 



MICHIGAN CITY, IND. 

Kindergarten work in this city is in charge of the 
following: Myrtle Farnham. supervisor: Cecyle 
Ray, Kathryn Koch, Dorothy Armstrong, Mary 
Holden, Lucile Robinson, Florence Cowan, and 
Laura Wolff, kindergartners. 



SENDING WORK HOME TO PARENTS. 

There is no one little thing that a Kindergartner 
or teacher can do that will be more effective than 
the practice of sending the work of the pupils 
home to the parents. The children will be inspired 
to do their best, and even the most indifferent par- 
ent will soon become interested. 



NOTES. 

Miss Mary C. McCulloch has been re-elected president 
of the St. Louis Froebel society. 

Mr. Percival Chubb addressed the St. Louis Froebel 
Society on ' The Child as a Literary Personage." 

The Pittsburgh and Allegheny Free Kindergartners 
have been enjoying a series of lectures by Susan E. Blow. 

The National Kindergarten Association has selected 
Elizabeth Harrison, of Chicago, as a delegate to investi- 
gate the Montessori System at Rome. 

Miss Edith Adams of Ypsilanti has assisted in organi- 
zing Parents' Meetings in Iona, Mt. Clemens, and Ply- 
mouth, Mich. She spoke at the State Superintendents' 
Round Tabic in Detroit, Dec. 7, on the "Montessori Sys- 
tem and its Relation to the Kindergarten." 

Mr. Joseph Lee spoke before the Boston Froebel Club, 
November 19, on "Play." 



CONTENT. 

Enough is great riches. 

Enough is as good as a sackful. 

A contented mind is a continual feast. 

No tent so good to live in as content. 

Content is the true philosopher's stone. 

Contentment does not mean stagnation. 



When one has not what one likes, one must like 
what one has. — French. 



40 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



BOOK NOTES 

Tlie Seven Champions of Christendom. By Agnes R. Matth- 
ews. Cloth, 161 paoes, illustrated. Price 45 cents. Pub- 
lished by Ginn & Co., Boston. 

The seven champions are those semi legendary historical 
personages known as the patron saints respective'y of Eng- 
land, St. George; France. St. Denis; Spain, St. James; Italy, 
St. Anthoney; Scotland, St. Andrew; Ireland, St. Patrick; 
^ind Wales, St. David. The tales are curious mingling of 
pagan and Christian fairylore and romance, with a slight 
thread of historical fact to bind together the wonderful events 
related. Giants and dragons, oppressed maidens, magical 
weapons, terrible enchantments, figure here as in other fairy 
tales, and will interest young children from the story stand- 
point, while older boys and girls will be interested by the 
introduction which concisely yet competently explains the his- 
torical significance of chivalry, the education of youth of that 
period, the meaning of the heraldric terms, etc., and thus 
enables the child to read the following pages with some 
appreciation of the high ideals, of that romantich age and the 
meaning of noblesse oblige. We are told that this version of 
these knightly adventures is founded upon an old English ro- 
raa ce that appeared in Shakespeare's time. There are oc- 
casional referances that seem to indicate the survival of the 
sun-myth in these ancient stories which show plainly also the 
influences of the crusades upon the mind of mediaeval Europe. 

Partners For Fair, by Alice Calhoun Haines. Cloth. 232 
illustrated. Price $1.25 net. Published by Henry Holt & 

Co. N. Y. 

This delightful story will interest those who love boys, 
and those who love dogs, and will consequently give a double 
pleasure to those who are fond of both boys and dogs. Peter 
Prayle and his dog Peter Piper, are partners through many 
exciting experiences. These include a fire in the poorhouse 
where we first meet the two Peters; a short but fascinating 
period with an ideal travelling circus, in which a friendly ele- 
phant and two tiny bantams play special roles, a day and 
night alone in the desert, after being thrown from a train, 
and other wonderful adventures. Peter is a fine, manly boy 
whom any child will be benfietted to know, and his many 
painful adventures have the desirable happy ending. 
The author eveidently loves nature and her brief descriptions 
are charming word-painting. 



Work and Play for Little Girls. By Hedwig Levi. 
Cloth. 115 pages Published by Duffield & Co., New 
York, 

In our December number we reviewed a book by 
Miss Levi, which gives instructions in German for the 
making of Christmas-tree decorations. We are pleased 
to say that this small book has now been translated in- 
to English and in the same volume are two parts, one 
describing how to make a variety of gifts for parents, 
brothers or sisters, or friends, and a most enchanting 
chapter telling how to make match-box doll's house 
furniture. The doll's house provided with the objects 
herein described would be quite completely furnished, 
as there are more than fifty articles to be made. These 
include'tables of various kinds, broom-closet, flower- 
stand,' book-shelf, book-case, couch, screen, glass cabi. 
net, towel-rack, desk, waste-paper basket, hall-clock, 



pier-glass, laundry-basket, etc., etc, There are a num- 
ber of illustrations for each section of the book, A 
friend who has seen in London, the articles made of 
match boxes is most enthusiastic in his praise. Among 
the Christmas-tree decorations we would mention es- 
pecially the making of little waxen figures from the 
melted ends of candles The children receiving this 
little book, which is written in a happy, familiar style, 
that is very pleasing, will have suggestions for many 
hours of happy employment. The translator has made 
one mistake in translating "Bast" as "moss." The 
German word Bast (the inner fibre of the linden-tree) 
is not much used in America; its place is now supplied 
by raffia. 



The Magic Book, Adventures of Jack and Betty. By Clara 
Andrews Williams. Illuminated Cloth, 64 large pages. 
Published by the Frederick A. Stokes Co., New York. 

The story, running on left hand pages, tells how Jack 
and Betty got into strange new places by going through 
doors and apertures of various kinds. The right hand 
pages consist of colored pictures, each one including the 
door or aperture in question. By cutting out this section 
of the picture apart of the next one maybe seen, corres- 
ponding to the first glimpse the story-children got of 
the new surroundings. The book proves fascinating to 
children. 



The Moving Picture Glue Book. By A. Z. Baker. Illumi- 
nated Boards. 16 large pages. Price $1.00, postpaid. 
Published by The Frederick A. Stokes Co., New York. 

A new mechanical idea makes this book amusing for 
children. The pictures represent the following: An 
elephant standing on his hind legs, a mule kicking, a; 
man catching a ball, a flying machine, a boy scout wig- 
wagging, etc. Humorous verses accompany the pictures. 
The book will cause much amusement, and will in addi- 
tion represent in part the child's own handiwork. 



The Christmas number of the Ladies Home Journal 
has much Christmas material of value to teachers. 
There is a Christmas song, and a department especially 
for the child in church and school. Miss Georgene 
Faulkner has an article on "The Christchild in Picture 
and Song." There is a beautiful Christmas poem by 
Henry Van Dyke, and the decorative illustrations by 
Dugald S. Walker are very quaint and convey the spirit 
of ye old tyme Yuletide in a manner quite his own. 
These are in black and white; Mr. Walker has, how- 
ever, a special gift in materializing fairies, and the 
mythical inhabitants of sea and air, and those of us 
who have seen in his studio his pictures of these imagi- 
native spirits in color are more than charmed with 
them. 



The woman's law class at New York University 
is probably unique in that it is not intended to pre- 
pare women for the practice of law, but to give 
them sufficient legal knowledge to conduct the ad- 
ministration of trust estates and other forms of 
business. 



Twenty-one States in the Union have abolished 
the common drinking cup in schools. 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



Hi 



NEW KINDERGARTEN GAMES 
AND PLAYS 




Conducted by LAURA ROUNTREE SMITH 



LINCOLN GAME. 

The children all carry flags. They stand in two lines 
opposite each other. They all go forward and back 
singing : 



The two at opposite ends of the lines, now cross flags 
and march between the lines saying: 
February is here, 
We'll cross our flags for Lincoln dear. 

They march round the lines and return to their places. 

The song is repeated. 

The two children standing next the end, now cross 
flags, recite as before, and skip between the lines and 
back to their places. 

The game may continue until every couple has skipped 
between the lines and back to their places. The children 
then may form a circle, march round the circle singing, 
and to their seats. 

Later, to vary the game, after the verse is sung, a 
child from one line may choose any child from the op- 
posite line to cross flags and skip with him between the 
lines. This may continue until all the children have 
skipped through between the lines and the game end as 
before. 

This game may be played on Washington's Birthday 
by substituting the name "Washington" for "Lincoln 
dear." 

It should be played in a lively manner. 

THE ESKIMO. 

In the land of ice and snow 

Lives the Jolly Eskimo. j 



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Oh, Lincoln Dear. 



Oh, Lincoln dear, oh, Lincoln dear, 

We wave our flags so gay. 
Oh, Lincoln dear, oh, Lincoln dear, 

We're soldier boys at play. 
Then wave the flag and beat the drum, 
The merry soldier boys have come, 
Then wave the flag and beat the drum, 
The merry soldier boys have come. 



His house is round, the door is found (hands together) 
So very low, close to the ground. (Point down.) 
His sled is waiting, so let us go 
With Jolly Little Eskimo ! 

Clap the hands, rise and go (clap and rise) 
With Jolly Little Eskimo. 

Mother comes and says "No, no" (shake heads) 
We can't wear fur from top to toe! (Point to head and 
foot.) 



142 



THE KiNDERGARTEN-PRlMARY MAGAZINE 



Oh, see the Little Eskimo, 

He builds a funny sled, you know (hold hands out wide), 

His dogs will go across the snow (extend arms quickly), 

Tho' chilly winds of winter blow. 

Oh mother, dear, we would like to go 

And travel with the Eskimo ! 

Clap the hands, rise and go (clap and rise) 
With Jolly Little Eskimo ! 

Mother comes and says "No, no., (shake heads), 
We can wear fur from top to toe. (Point to head and 
foot.) 
(In connection with this take up a study of the 
Eskimo.) 



THE SNOWFLAKES (A FINGER PLAY). 

All : This is the way the snowflakes fall, 

Down they come dancing, one and all. 
(Raise and lower arms slowly.) 

1. Over the grasses the Snow Queen passes, 

Sleep, little flowers, sleep. 
(All nod heads.) 

2. I'll make the hill white, we'll coast to-night, 

The moon her watch will keep. 
(All hold hands together, fingers touching to 
make the moon.) 

3. We'll whirl about, we'll laugh and shout, 

Away in the air we go. 
(All whirl round.) 

4. Come make a snowman as soon as you can, 

While down fall the flakes of snow! 
(Motion of rolling snow-ball.) 

All : Falling down, falling down, 
Pretty flakes so white, 
Falling down, falling down, 
In the silent night. 
(All raise and lower arms.) 



A HAPPY NEW YEAR! 

Listen ! listen ! do you hear, 
Bells ring in the glad New Year? 
We will rise to greet him so (all rise), 
The glad New Year has come you know. 
Happy New Year, we greet you brightly, 
Happy New Year, we bow politely. (Bow.) 

Softly, softly, see the snow, 

Falling down on the earth below. (Raise and lower 

arms.) 
In the merry sleigh we'll ride, 
Tucked in safely side by side. (Wave right arm to left 

and right.) 
With clean hands and smiling face (hold up hands, 

touch face), 
Happy New Year, come take your place. (All sit.) 

He gives twice who gives in a trice. — Latin. 

Character is what we are in the dark. 



Malice drinketh its own poison. 



From the U. S. Commissioner of Education 

. I desire to call attention to the fact that the Bureau of 
Education has one of the largest and most complete 
libraries of education in the world and that this library 
is maintained not alone for the use of the employes of 
the Bureau, but for all teachers, school officers, and stu- 
dents of education in all parts of the country who care 
to use it. There is no printed catalogue of the library, 
but almost any book or report pertaining to education 
which any teacher, school officer, or student may want 
may be found on its shelves, which now contain about 
seventy thousand bound volumes and eighty thousand or 
more reports, pamphlets, and periodicals. The number 
is being increased at the rate of six or eight thousand 
volumes a year. Some of the books are constantly used 
by the employes of the Bureau and may not be sent out. 
Most of them may be had for short periods in either of 
the following" ways : 

1. Through a public, private, or institutional library 
at the borrower's home town, the library assuming the 
responsibility for the loan; 

2. Directly from the librarian of the Bureau of Edu- 
cation under the guarantee of a responsible school 
official or a deposit sufficient to cover the cost of the 
book if it should not be returned. 

Books are forwarded to borrowers by mail under 
government frank and may be returned in the same 
way. Ordinarily they may be retained for two weeks, 
subject to renewal. All requests for books should be 
sent direct to the Librarian, Bureau of Education, De- 
partment of the Interior, Washington, D. C. 
Yours sincerely, 

P. P. Claxton, 

Commissioner. 

EDUCATION IN ARKANSAS. 

That industrial training, often supposed to be a recent 
innovation in American education, was introduced into 
Indian schools in Arkansas eighty or ninety years ago, 
is shown by Stephen B. Weeks in a bulletin, "History of 
Public School Education in Arkansas," just issued by 
the United States Bureau of Education. The boys in 
these early schools were taught the elements of agricul- 
ture, the girls needlework and domestic science, and all 
were instructed in habits of industry, neatness, and or- 
der. At least one school was almost self-supporting. 
As early as 1840, Governor Yell sent a message to the 
assembly containing recommendations for agricultural 
and mechanical training that mark him as a pioneer in 
this significant phase of modern education. 

SCHOOLS AS EMPLOYMENT BUREAUS. 

Schoolhouses as employment offices is the most recent 
proposal in the movement for the wider use of the 
school plant, according to information received at the 
United States Bureau of Education. The use of schools 
as "social centers" has become familiar through the or- 
ganized movement of the last year or two, and more re- 
cently the use of the school buildings as polling booths 
and forums for political discussion has become known 
through the example of New York and Chicago. Now 
comes Professor John R. Commons, a member of the 
Wisconsin Industrial Commission, with a proposal to 
use the schoolhouse as a labor exchange. 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



143 



LITTLE PIECES FOR 
LITTLE PEOPLE 

Consisting Chiefly of Original Verses for Little Chil- 
dren by Laura Rountree Smith 



LITTLE BROTHER JANUARY. 

Little Brother January, 

We are glad you've come to town. 
Little Brother January 

Wears a pretty snow-white gown ! 

CHIC-A-DEE. 

Chic-a-dee, dee, chic-a-dee, dee, 

The winter has come with snow, you see, 

Chic-a-dee, dee, chic-a-dee, dee, 

Please throw out a few little crumbs for me ! 



A HAPPY NEW YEAR. 

Welcome every month and day, 
Welcome work and welcome play. 
Be thankful then, as children should, 
And make the days both glad and good. 
Try to be brave and kind and true, 
For each child has some work to do. 
Always mind your parents dear, 
And you will have a Happy New Year ! 



LITTLE NEW YEAR. 
Child : 

Little New Year came in last night, 
When all the bells were ringing. 

He danced in like a snowflake light, 
So many gifts he is bringing! 

What shall we give to you, New Year, 
While all the bells ring sweet and clear? 

New Year: 

When bright stars shine in the sky above, 
Little child, little child, oh give me love ! 



THE SNOWMAN. 

Let us make a Snowman 

From a ball of snow; 
We will roll it round and round (motion of rolling), 
Bigger it will grow. 
Roll again the ball, for so (motion of rolling) 
The jolly Snowman soon will grow ! 

Let us give the Snowman 

Funny eyes and nose (point to eyes and nose) 
And a crooked mouth (point to mouth) 
That he can never close ! 
If he should talk to you and me (point to self and 

neighbor) 
How very funny it would be! 

LITTLE TIME PLAY. 

1. Sixty seconds make a minute, 
Who can do the most good in it? 

2. Sixty seconds make an hour, 
Do the best work in your power. 



3. Seven days make up a week, 
Love, and truth, and honor seek. 

4. Some months have thirty days, 'tis true, 
Some months bring thirty-one to you. 

All: Twelve months all join to make a year, 

There is time for laughter and good cheer. 
(Teach the names of the days and months in connec- 
tion with this play.) 

THE CARPENTERS. 

(A Recitation for Boys, suiting action to the words.) 
Rap, a-tap, rap, a-tap, 

Carpenters are we, 
Rap, a-tap, rap, a-tap, 

Busy as you see, 
We will shingle house and stable 
Just as soon as we are able ! 

Rap, a-tap, rap, a-tap, 

Don't forget the doors, 
Rap, a-tap, rap, a-tap, 

Build the roof and floors. 
With saw and chisel, hammer and plane 
We will go and build a house again. 
(Encourage the boys to learn names of carpenter's 
tools.) 

THE WIND. 

Whither came you, oh, gentle wind, 

Blowing with all your might ; 
Come you from lands of ice and snow, 

Hastening here in the night ? 

Why art so merry, gentle wind, 

Singing with blustering gale ; 
Come you from ocean, meadow or lake, 

Mountain or hill or dale? 

Will you not tarry, gentle wind, 
Sighing with whispered tone; 
Where are you going, whither and why, 
Leaving me here all alone? 

Frances Thorpe, 
Conn. Froebel Normal, Junior Class, 
Bridgeport, Conn. 



SCATTER GLADNESS. 

If you have a word of cheer, 
Speak it where the sad may hear; 
Can you coin a thought of light? 
Give it wing and speed its flight; 
Do you know a little song? 
Pass the roundelay along; 
Scatter gladness, joy and mirth 
All along the ways of earth. 

— Progress Magazine. 

The tongue talks 
At the head's cost. 



They are never alone that are accompanied with 
noble thoughts. — Sidney. 



The tongue of the righteous is as choice silver. 



144 



ME IClNbEfcGARTEN-PklMARY MAGA21Nfi 



A YEAR IN THE KINDERGARTEN 

Harriette McCarthy 

Kindergarten Director, Oklahoma City Public Schools 

[NOTE— Owing to the delay necessary to reach our for- 
eign subscribers, we have adopted the plan of printing the 
program for two or three weeks of the following month. 
Some of our American subscribers prefer the program to 
begin with the current month, and in order to accommo- 
date both, we republish in this issue that portion of the 
January program winch appeared last month.] 

JANUARY 

FIRST WEEK 

Songs — 

Oh, I am the Little New Year (Walker and 

Jenks.) 
The Old Year and the New (Walker and Jenks.) 
Birthday Song. 

MONDAY. 

Circle — The New Year. Its days, weeks and months. 
The name of the new year. The names of the 
days of the week. How many. Story, The 

Great Bear and the Little Bear. 

Rhythm — Skating. 

Gift— Third gift. Build forms of life. 

Game — The Clock Game. 

Occupation — Free hand cutting to represent the 
days of the week. Mon., tub; Tues., iron; Wed., 
mop; Thurs., needle; Fri., broom; Sat., dish and 
spoon; Sun., church. 

TUESDAY. 

Circle — The names of the months. Time division 

in the day. 
Rhythm— Let your feet go tramp, tramp, tramp. 
Gift — With rings lay forms of beauty. 
Game — Cobbler, Cobbler, Mend my Shoe. 
Occupation — Clay modeling. 

WEDNESDAY. 

Circle — The new year facts reviewed. Review Bear 

Story. 
Rhythm — Review those used. 
Gift — Fourth gift. Build forms of life. 
Game — Sense game. Cuckoo, Cuckoo. 
Occupation — Freehand drawing of things brought 

to the Kindergarten. 

THURSDAY. 

Circle — Repetition of year's work. Story, Golden- 
hair and the Three Bears. 
Rhythm— Marching by twos and fours. 
Gift— Third gift. 
Game — Farmer in the Dell. 
Occupation — Cut three bears. 

FRIDAY. 

Circle — Review week's work. 

Rhythm — Those used. 

Gift — Lay rings to make cat on fence. 

Game — Free choice. 

Occupation — Folding. 

SECOND WEEK 

Songs — 

The Snow (Walker and Jenks.) 

The Snow Man (Songs of the Child World.) 

Coasting (Songs of the Child World.) 

MONDAY. 

Circle — Holland week. The land of mills and dikes. 
All about the dikes. Story, A Leak in the Dike. 
Rhythm— Skip tag. 



Gift — Build windmill with third gift. 

Game — Have children guess what balls and children 

are missing. 
Occupation — Clay modeling. 

TUESDAY. 

Circle — Wind sports, skating. More about the 

Dutch. 
Rhythm — Imitate skating. 
Gift — Third and fourth combined. Build forms of 

life. 
Game — Free choice. 
Occupation — Cut windmill. 

WEDNESDAY. 

Circle — Dress of Dutch. Love of flowers and pets 

(Plan Book, p. 699.) 
Rhythm — I See You. 
Gift — Fourth gift. Build dikes. 
Game — I Spy. 
Occupation — Make crayola tulips. 

THURSDAY. 

Circle — The Grelchen Xmas story retold. 
Rhythm — Marching. 
Gift— Third gift. 
Game — Pass the Ring. 

Occupation — Cut out and color the Little Dutch 
Girls. 

FRIDAY. 

Circle — Review Holland. 

Rhythm — Those used. 

Gift — Sticks. Make square with two and four inch 

sticks. Invent. 
Game — Free choice. 
Occupation — Folding. 

THIRD WEEK 

Songs — 

Lady Moon (Walker and Jenks.) 

Baby's Lullaby (Walker and Jenks.) 

Pussy's Dinner (Finger play, Emily Poulsson.) 

MONDAY. 

Circle — Japan, the country of sunshine and flowers. 
All about the queer little people that live across 
the sea. Their love for the chrysanthemum. 

Rhythm — Teach Japanese bow. 

Gift— First gift. 

Game — Looby, Loo. 

Occupation — Making Japanese lanterns. 

TUESDAY. 

Circle — More about the Japanese. Their costumes. 

Story, The Wood-cutter's Sake (Japanese Fairy 

Tales.) 
Rhythm — Let Your Feet Go Tramp, Tramp, Tramp. 
Gift — Second. 
Game— Bouncing Ball. 
Occupation — Clay modeling of flower pot. 

WEDNESDAY. 

Circle — More of Japanese. Their love of rice and 

their manner of eating it. 
Rhythm — Marching. Bowing as Japanese. 
Gift— Third gift. 
Game— In My Hand a Ball I Hold (Walker and 

Jenks.) 
Occupation — Make Japanese fans. 

THURSDAY. 

Circle — Story, The Wonderful Teakettle (Japanese 
Fairy Tales.) 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



145 



Rhythm — Cross-Skip. 
Gift — Third and fourth combined. 
Game — Going to Jerusalem. 
Occupation — Making crayola lanterns. 

FRIDAY. 

Circle — Review stories and life in Japan. 

Rhythm — Review. 

Gift — Peg boards. Stick pegs in to outline square. 

Game — Free choice. 

Occupation — Folding. 

FOURTH WEEK. 

Songs — 

Little Boy Blue. (Walker and Jenks.) 
, Ba, Ba, Black Sheep. 
Humpty Dumpty. 
There Was a Crooked Man. 

MONDAY. 

Circle — Mother Goose week. Let children repeat the 

Mother Goose Rhymes they know. 
Rhythm — Dramatize some Mother Goose Rhyme. 
Gift — Third. Forms of beauty, border patterns. 
Game — Jack be Nimble. 
Occupation — Make crooked man with round tablets and 

sticks. 

TUESDAY. 

Circle — More rhymes. Story. The House That Jack 

Built. 
Rhythm — Marching. 
Gift — Fourth. Forms of life. 
Game — Dramatize The Three Little Pigs. 
Occupation — Make Humpty Dumpty. 

WEDNESDAY. 

Circle — More Mother Goose Rhymes. Story. The 

Sleeping Beauty. 
Rhythm — Cross skip. 

Gifts— Third and' fourth. Forms of life. 
Game — Little Boy Blue. 
Occupation — Clay modeling. 

THURSDAY. 

Circle — Story. Cinderella. Review. The House That 

Jack Built. More Mother Goose Rhymes. 
Rhvthm — Keeping time to music. 
Gift— Peg board. 

Game — Round and Round the Village. 
Occupation — Draw second gift in crayola. 

FRIDAY. 

Circle — General review. Rhymes and stories. 

Rhythm — Review. 

Gift — Sticks. Lay bucket and bench. 

Game — Free choice. 

Occupation — Fold house and paste in book. 

Songs — 

The Little Eskimo. (George.) 

In the Land of the Eskimo. (Lawerence, Part I.) 

We're From Lapland. 

FIFTH WEEK. 

MONDAY. 

Circle— Eskimo life. The people that live in the north 

country, where it is always winter. Their homes. 
Rhythm — Marching as wheel. 
Gift— First. 
Game — Gig-a-gig. 
Occupation — Model iggloo. 

TUESDAY. 

Circle— Clothing of Eskimo. How secured. The hunt- 
ing of the father, for walrus, whale, bear, etc. 



Rhythm — Skipping. 

Gift — First and second combined. 

Game — Let Your Feet go Tramp, Tramp, Tramp. 

Occupation — Cut Eskimos and their homes from paper. 

WEDNESDAY. 

Circle — The mother Eskimo making their clothing and 
care of the dogs. An imaginary trip to" Eskimo 
Land. 

Rhy th m — Skip-tag. 

Gift— Third gift. Make border pattern. 

Game — The Eskimo. (Plays and Games. Parsons.) 

Occupation — Cut dogs from black paper. 

THURSDAY. 

Circle — Other things of interest concerning Eskimos. 

Rhythm — Running tag. 

Gift — Third and fourth. Free play. 

Game — Flying Birds. 

Occupation — Sew Eskimo house. 

FRIDAY. 

Circle — Review all about Eskimos. 
Rhythm — Hop-tag. 
Gift — Second gift. 
Game — Free choice. 
Occupation — Folding boat. 
Songs — 

Thumkins Says I'll Dance. (Walker and Jenks.) 
The Pigeon Song. (Walker and Jenks.) 

FEBRUARY 

FIRST WEEK. 

MONDAY. 

Circle — Speak of which month this is. Its length. Ask 
children if days are growing longer or shorter. 
Story. Betsy Ross and the First Flag. 

Rhythm — Marching. 

Gift — Build forms of life with fourth gift. 

Games — Soldier Boy, Soldier Boy. (Hofer's Old 
and New Singing Games.) 

Occupation — Make flag. 

TUESDAY. 

Circle — All about the Southland. The climate there. 

Introduce the little black child. 
Rhythm — Side-skip. 

Gift — Forms of life with third and fourth. 
Game — Going to Jerusalem. 
Occupation — Cut elephant. 

WEDNESDAY. 

Circle — Tell of animals that live in the Southland. How 

the black people brought to this country as slaves. 
Rhythm — Cross-skip. 
Gift— First gift. 
Game — Rig-a-Jig-Jig. 
Occupation — Crayola outlined bananas. 

THURSDAY. 

Circle — Tell of Lincoln, who freed the free black 
slaves. Tell of his early boyhood life. 

Rhythm — Marching by twos and fours. 

Gift — Seventh gift sticks. Build Lincoln's log cabin. 

Game — The King of France. (Hofer's Old and New 
Singing Games.) 

Occupation — Fold soldier's cap. 

FRIDAY. 

Circle — Later life of Lincoln. His birthday reviewed. 

Rhythm — Those used. 

Game — Free choice. 

Gift— Sticks. 

Occupation — Fold soldier tent. 



146 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



Song- 
Little Dove, "You Are Welcome. (Walker and 

Jenks.) 
The Pigeon. (Walker and Jenks.) 
The Carrier Dove. (Hailman.) 

SECOND WEEK 

MONDAY. 

Circle — Talk about St. Valentine's Day. Tell of kind- 
ness of St. Valentine, and how we remember the 
day. 

Rhythm — See-Saw. 

Gift — Second. 

Game — Sense games of smell and taste. 

Occupation — Make envelope for valentine. 



TUESDAY. 

Circle — More about St. Valentine. 

(Plan Book, p. 64.) 
Rhythm — Marching. 
Gift — Second and third. 
Game — The Postman. 
Occupation — Making valentines. 

WEDNESDAY. 



Story. The Dove. 



Circle — Story. Philip's Valentine. (In the Child 
World.) 

Rhythm — Side-skip. 

Gift— Third. 

Game — Free choice. 

Occupation — Have valentine box, and give out valen- 
tines. 

THURSDAY. 

Circle — Review all about St. Valentine. Story. Con- 
stant Dove. (In the Child's World.) 
Rhythm — Marching and See-Saw. 

Gift — Third and fourth. Illustrate Philip's Valentine. 

Game — Those played. 

Occupation — Cut out postman. 

FRIDAY. 

Circle — All about St. Valentine. 

Rhythm — Marching. 

Gift— Third gift. 

Game — Rig-a-Jig-Jig. 

Occupation — Making flags. 

Songs — 

America. 

Washington. (New Kg. Songs. Halsey.) 

Noble Washington. (Smith and Weaver.) 

THIRD WEEK 

MONDAY. 

Circle — Who George Washington was. He was a good 
child, brave man. When is his birthday? What do 
we do to honor his name? 

Rhythm — Soldier Boy. 

Gift — Third and fourth. 

Game— Rig-a-Jig-Jig. 

Occupation — Draw flags. 

TUESDAY. 

Circle — Why do we celebrate Washington's Birthday? 

What kind of a boy was Washington. Tell story 

of The Cherry Tree. 

Rhythm — See-Saw. 
Gift— Third and fourth. 

Game — Marching. Leader wearing continental hat. 
Occupation — Cut and color hatchets. 



WEDNESDAY. 

Circle — Tell story of happy farm life of George as a 
little boy. What a plantation is like. George's out- 
door life. 

Rhythm — Marching. Soldier Boy. 

Gift— Build a fort with fifth gift. 

Game — In-door hop-scotch. 

Occupation — Make red, white and blue badges. 



Holiday. 



THURSDAY. 



FRIDAY. 



Circle — Review all about Washington. 

Rhythm — Soldier Boy. 

Gift — Second and third. 

Game — Free choice. 

Occupation — Folding tents and soldier caps. 



FAMOUS BOOK COLLECTIONS IN AMERI- 
CAN LIBRARIES. 

One of the world's best collections of books on Tur- 
key and the Balkan states is in an American library. It 
is the famous Riant collection now in Harvard Univer- 
sity library, and is interestingly described in a bulletin 
just issued by the United States Bureau of Education. 
It was acquired by Harvard in 1899 and has since been 
added to, until to-day the section on the Ottoman Em- 
pire comprises about 4,000 volumes. 

American libraries have a very large number of valu- 
able special collections. What is probably the most im- 
portant Dante collection in existence is at Cornell, and 
the same institution has a collection on the French 
Revolution that experts say can hardly be surpassed even 
in France. The most remarkable set of Bibles in the 
world, comprising a large number of first editions and 
unique copies, is in the library of the General Theolog- 
ical Seminary in New York. New York City also has 
one of the most nearly complete collections of books on 
Hebrew subjects, that in the Jewish Theological Semi- 
nary, consisting of 33,000 volumes. One of the finest 
libraries of Japanese material to be found anywhere is 
at Yale University. In works on mystic subjects it 
would be difficult to duplicate in Europe the great col- 
lection in the Masonic Library at Cedar Rapids, Iowa, 
or the similar collection of books and manuscripts on 
ritual and ceremonial in the Massachusetts Grand Lodge 
of Masons at Boston. 

For a great collection of works on German socialism 
the expert need not look to Germany; he can find it in 
the United States. At the Wisconsin State Historical 
Library, at Madison, is the Schlueter collection, contain- 
ing many works not found even in the archives of the 
German Social Democracy in Berlin. 

In music the Newberry Public Library of Chicago 
has a conspicuous collection, especially rich in works 
on the history and theory of music by Italian authors. 

On the side of science, the Carnegie Library of Pitts- 
burgh contains about 40,000 volumes on the natural 
sciences and useful arts, and the Missouri Botanical 
Garden Library at St. Louis is especially rich in mono- 
graphs and floras. 

These are but a few of the many collections of world- 
wide significance that are in American libraries. The 
modern tendency in library-making, both among private 
and public collectors, is to concentrate on some one field 
or portion of a field, rather than to scatter. For this 
reason a list by subjects, showing just where the ma- 
terial on certain topics may be found, is peculiarly valu- 
able to the serious searcher after knowledge. The bul- 
letin "Special Collections in Libraries in the United 
States" was compiled for the Bureau of Education by 
W. Dawson Johnson and Isadora G. Mudge, of Co- 
lumbia University, and has been printed for free distri- 
bution. 



American Primar y Teacher 

Edited by A. E. W1NSHIP 

Published Monthly Except July and August 

An np-todate, wide awake paper for tbe grades, Illustrated 
articles on Industrial Geography. New Work in the Grades, 
Drawing, Fables in Silhouette and other school room work. 

Send for specimen copy. 

Subscription, $1.00 a Year 

NEW ENGLAND PUBLISHING CO 

6 BEACON STREET. BOSTON 



READ 



The best school journal published in the South, the 
land of opportunity, and one of the best in the Union 

THE EDUCATIONAL EXCHANGE 

BIRMINGHAM, ALA. 

Get in touch with the New South, learn something of 
its problems and how they are being solved. $1.00 for 
twelve issues, or $1.45 with the Kindergarten Primary 
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Books 

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Leaflets on Scientific Temperance Teaching 

Story Leaflets 

The Young Crusader— Temperance paper for boys and girls; profusely illustrated; and aside 
from stories it contains splendid ideas for entertainments and selections for recitation — help- 
ful alike to teacher and pupil. Published monthly, 25 cents per year. 

Toots— An illustrated book of stories by Anna A. Gordon. Price 60 cents postpaid. Send for 
latest bulletin. 



NATIONAL WOMAN'S CHRISTIAN TEMPERANCE UNION 



Literature Building 



Evanston, Illinois 




A Vital Book for Every Parent 

A PRACTICAL TREATISE ON THE TRUE RELA- 
TIONSHIP OF PARENT TO CHILD 
A father or mother yourself you wrestle with the hundred 
and one different problems which arise every day in your 
desire to bring your boy up to be a true man or your little 

girl a noble woman. 

Are you certain of each move you make in directing the 

conduct of your child? 

Our Children 

By Dr. PAUL DARUS 

offers a unique contribution to pedagogical literature. The little book deals 
with the rights of the child, the responsibilities of parenthood and with the first 
inculcation of fundamental ethics in the child mind and the true principles of 
correction and guidance. Each detail is forcefully illustrated by informal in- 
cidents from the author's experience with his own children, and his suggestions 
will prove of great value to young parents and kindergartners. 

If you cannot get this book at your bookstore, order it direct from us. Price 
$1.00. Send us the name of your bookdealer and we will see that he is supplied 
with our publications. 
We publish a very interesting catalogue of some very interesting books. Write today. 

THE OPEN COURT PUB. CO., Wabash Avenue, Chicago, Illinois. 



HERBART HALL 

INSTITUTE FOR ATYPICAL CHILDREN 
Founded April 1, 1900, by Maximilian P. E. Groszmann. 

Maintained by the 

NATIONAL ASSOCIATION FOR THE STUDY AND EDUCATION 
OF EXCEPTIONAL CHILDREN 

This Institution is one of the activities of the N. A. S. E. E. C. and is intended solely for the 
"different" child, the difficult child, the handicapped normal child — whether boy or girl. 

No feeble-minded, degenerate or otherwise low cases are considered. 

The object of this Institution is to 
Train the EXCEPTIONAL CHILD 

Whether overbright or somewhat backward, to be able later to compete with the average normal child. 

In addition to the ordinary branches, the course of study includes physical training, nature study, 
manual and constructive work, etc. Methods and equipment are based upon the most modern pedagogic 
principles. Medical care is a prominent feature of the work. 

HERBART HALL is the pioneer institution in this line of education. The Association main- 
taining it laysemphasis upon the needs of the misunderstood normal child in contrast to the overstimulated 
interest in the feeble-minded and abnormal. 

"Watchung Crest," the home of HERBART HALL, comprises over twenty-five acres of land 
and is situated on Watchung Mountain, a spur of the Blue Ridge, five hundred feet above sea-level, 
(four hundred feet above Plainfield). 

For terms, catalog and other information, address 

WALDEMAR H. GROSZMANN 

PRINCIPAL 

"Watchung Crest," Plainfield, N. J. 



KINDERGARTEN SUPPLIES 

Bradley's School Paints, Raphia, Reed, and all Construction 
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WE ARE HEADQUARERS FOR ALL THE ABOVE. Send foi catalogue. 

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Some Great Subscription Offers 

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E^ $1.10 

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The KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE with 
Kindergarten Review, regular price $2.00, our price 

The KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE with 
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The KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE with 

Pictorial Review, Modern Priscilla and Ladies' World, re- 
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price $3 . 25, our price 

Many other combinations. Give us the names of the Magi 
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Report Cards.— 1, 4 or 10 months 

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8x4 Ft 2.45 Postage 20c 

class Recitation Records 

Each 15 cents. Postage 3 cents 

Set r-rimary Reading Charts 

Complete....... ..$4.75 

Set Primary Arithmetic Charts 

Complete ..$4 75 

Japanned Handle Scissors 
Per Dozen ..... .45 cents 

Alphabet Cards. Per Box 12 cents 



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THE TEACHERS HELPERS 

Sl ,e »Tf a D 1 ?fi?^5 e i p * rl * re wlthout question the finest 
PLAN BOOKS for teachers published. They are 
edited by lome of the ablest and most practical teach- 
ers In the country. They «tfve .rograms, methods 
sonss. drawing and devices for ea h month !n the 
year, and are beautifully and profusely illustrated 
Four books In the aeries; named Autumn, Winter 
bpnnc. and Summer respectively. The Summer 
number over* work for the whole year and Is larger 
than the others. Cover designs dune in beautiful 
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whe is not more than satisfied. 

PRICES: Each Number(ejcept Summer) $ .35 
Summer No, [larger than itinera] .50 
Send today far capy or ask for further Informa- 
tion. Addresa 

Teachers' Helper, 

t>*P«rtOTe8«t » Minneapolis. Minn , 



STORIES FOR CHILDREN 

THE importance of good literature for children can hardly be overstated. There is an unlim- 
ited demand from teachers and parents for really good material of this kind. Much is put 

forth that has no claim other than its sale will benefit the publisher. Those who control the 
reading of the young should see that the best, most helpful and most interesting stories are pro- 
vided. The expense need not be great. The quality of the stories must be approved by the 
judgment of the best judges. 

We have just brought out at only 12 cents a copy ten books containing Ten of the best of the 
World's Famous Stories. Each is a "Classic," approved by the judgment of generations ol crit- 
ical readers. 

. They are edited by the late William T. Stead, formerly editor of the English Review of Re- 
vew 

Each volum e is fully illustrated with charming line drawings, a picture for almost every page. 
The illustrations speak to the child. They tell the story pictorially that is related in the text. 
The drawings allure the child to draw. They are simple and easy to imitate. 

The titles of the volumes are as follows; 

Alladin and His Lamp. Pilgrim's Progress. Stories from Chaucer, 

The Lady of the Lake. Travels of Baron Munchausen Aesop's Fables. 

Gulliver's Travels in Lilliput, Hawthorne's Wonder Tales. King Arthur and His 
Little Snow White and other Grimm's Fairy Tales. . Knights. 

Attractively bound in Decorated Covers, 12c. each. Postage 2c. 
For supplementary reading in the grades, and for home use, these stories cannot be surpassed. 

THE PALMER COMPANY, Publishers 

120 BOYL5TON STREET. BOSTON. MASS. 



WILL CARLETON'S 



MAGAZINE 

EVERY WHERE 

Contains each month the latest Poems, Sketches, 
Editorials, and Literary Talks of Will Carleton, author 
of "Farm Ballads", "Farm Legions", "City Festivals," 
"Over the Hill to the Poorhouse", etc. Each one brim- 
full of the same qualities that have made him world- 
famous. 

Contains each month poems by the greatest 'woman- 
poet Margaret E. Sangster. Also some of the best work 
of other distinguished poets, 

Contains best of additional literature by popular 
authors. 

Contains ten complete Departments, each ably and 
interestingly edited. Handsomely Illustrated, and fine- 
ly printed in clear type on super-calandered paper. 

Price, $1.00 per Year. 10 cents a copy. 
SPECIAL — To any one mentioning in his or her 
letter this advertisement, we will send Will 
Carleton's Magazine for Six Monf hs. on receipt 
of Twenty-Five Cents. Address, 

EVERYWHERE PUBLISHING CO. 

BROOKLYN. N. Y. 



REMARKABLE CLUB OFFERS 



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for latest list. Address 



H. C. MOORE. New Egypt, N. J. 







FEBRUARY, 1913 



INDEX TO CONTENTS 

How to Apply Kindergarten Principles 
and Methods in Village and Rural 
Schools— Ball Games, - Dr. Jenny B. Merrill, 

Paper Folding and Cutting. Suggestions for February, 

Directions for making Bunny Booklet, Marguerite B. Sutton, 

Drawing Suggestions for February, ' - 

What is the Best Next Thing Profes- 
sionally? - - A. E. Winship, 

The Committee of the Whole, - Bertha Johnston, 

Car Don'ts for Children, - 

Jack-in-the-Box and other Paper Cutting Suggestions, 



The Uninhabited Castle, 

The January Thaw and How it al 

Happened, 
Why the Dove Carried the Valentine, 
A Year in the Kindergarten, 
What Rural Schools are Doing, 
The Child and the Flag, 
Little Pieces for Little People, 
New Kindergarten Games and Plays, 
Hints and Suggestions for Rural 

Teachers, - - - 

Department of Superintendence, 
The Bunny Rabbit, 
Ironing Dav, 
The Pendulum, 

Kindergarten Teachers of Pittsbtirgh, 
Book Notes, 



Susan Plessner Pollock, 
I 

Mary Ellason Cotting, 
Laura Fen wick Ogborn, 
Harriette McCarthy, 



Laura Rountree Smith, 
Laura Rounttee Smith, 



Grace Dow, 



Volume XXV, N®. 6. 



$1.00 per Year, 15 cents per Copy 




A Vital Book for Every Parent 



A PRACTICAL TREATISE ON THE TRUE RELA- 
TIONSHIP OF PARENT TO CHILD 

A father or mother yourself you wrestle with the hundred 
and one different problems which arise every day in your 
desire to bring your boy up to be a true man or your little 

girl a noble woman. 

Are you certain of each move you make in directing the 

conduct of your child? 

Our Children 

By Dr. PAUL DARUS 

offers a unique contribution to pedagogical literature. The little book deals 
with the rights of the child, the responsibilities of parenthood and with the first 
inculcation of fundamental ethics in the child mind and the true principles of 
correction and guidance. Each detail is forcefully illustrated by informal in- 
cidents from the author's experience with his own children, and his suggestions 
will prove of great value to young parents and kindergartners. 

If you cannot get this book at your bookstore, order it direct from us. Price 
$1.00. Send us the name of your bookdealer and we will see that he is supplied 
with our publications, 
ry interesting catalogue of some very interesting books. Write today. 



THE OPEN COURT PUB. CO., Wabash Avenue, Chicago, Illinois. 



S0M|J0H00|JRnAmS 

Readings and Recitations 20 cts. 

Riffle Creek Papers and Little 

Sermons for Teachers 65 cts. 

Patrick's Pedagogics 135 cts. 

Patrick's Pedagogical Pebbles 25 cts. 
Grains of Wheat without the 

Chaff 20cts - 

Mathematical Geography 10 cts. 

A Summer of Saturdays 65 cts. 

Problems without Figures 10 cts. 

On orders amounting to $1.50 to 

one address, a reduction of ten 
per cent. 

S. Y. GILLAN 

MILWAUKEE,- WISCONSIN 



EDUCATIONAL SPECIALTIES. JXg- 

Game, 15c; History Game, 15c : 2750 Les- 
son Plans, 50c ; Educational Puzzle, 10c ; 
Year's Subscription to N. J. School 
News, 40c. W. C. JUOORE. PUB., New 
Egypt. N. J. 



THE VIRGINIA JOURNAL OF EDUCATION 

Better than Most and as Good as Any Pedagogical Magazine 

Stands for the highest ideals id the school and home, and meets the demands ol the teacher, ti 
well as others eDgaged in educational work. 

What some well-known Educators say about this Journal : 

From California: 

"I appreciate very much the coming ol the Virginia Journal of Education to our magaitne table. It is one of 
the best, most lively, interesting and enterprising publications ol the kind that I have had an opportunity to ex- 
amine. Certainly it must exercise a great iufiuence for good among the schools of Virginia. I am particularly 
pleased at your efforts to improve school conditions, the grounds, the buildings and the interiors of your 
country schools. We have been trying to work in that direction, too, in this State. I hope you may long live 
lo publish your journal and I most heartily congratulate you and the people ol Virginia for the lively and credi* 
tabic periodical thai you are able to give them' . 

From Oregon: 

"I have received as much inspiration and benefit from reading the Virginia Journal of Education as 1 have 
from reading any one of the numerous ones that come to roy dealt". 

From Kentncky: 

"I have been reading the Virginia Journal of Education with interest, and feel that it is one of the best educa- 
tional journals in the country". 



i received at this office" 



"We regard the Virginia Journal of Educational as among the most valuable 
From Missouri; 

"I have been receiving the Virginia Journal of Education for some time and have greatly enjoyed reading it. 
It is an excellent paper and should be read by every teacher in the State. It is worth far more than your sub- 

From the Philippine Islands: 

"The variety of articles which appear in your paper each month, o 
grounds and other topics, are ol general interest. The Journal 
good work". 

It is the official organ of the Virginia State Board of Education, and is an excellent medium 
for advertising. 

Snbscription Price, $1.00 THE VIRGINIA JOURNAL OF EDUCATION, Richmond, Va. 



BARGAINS IN CRAYONS 

We carry a complete line . -nd offer the 
be-t grades at lowest prices. 

We do not recommend the use of com- 
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of producing great bulk at little cost. 

If common crayons are to be used the 
Bay State box is handy, quarter gross, 5c. 




The ALPHA is the o'd re- 
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is more economical tba-l 
the common crayon as it 
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tory crayon, clean, lasting, san- 
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Common White Crayon, beat quality, per grora. X 
8t*— from factory. «Mt> 
AddressThe J. H. Shults Company, Manlttce, Mich. 



RELIABLE KINDERGARTEN TRAINING SCHOOLS OF AMERICA 



Chicago 

Kindergarten 

Institute 



GERTRUDE DOUSE, 

54 Scott St., Chicago. 



' Diplomas granted for Regular Kindergarten Course" (two years), W 
\ and Post Graduate Course (one year). Special Certificates for S 
> Home-maling Course, non-professional (one year). 6 

I •v^-v*-'V%^^ *%-*%"%%•'**'%%'%%'%%<'%%•'%%'%%'• 

Credit in connection with the above awarded by the University of 

Chicago. 

Mrs. Mary Boomer Page, 

Directors: Mrs. Ethel Roe Lindgren, 

Miss Caroline C. Cronise, 

For circulars apply to Chicago Kindergarten Institute, 54 Scott St. 



Teachers College 

OF INDIANAPOLIS 

Accredited by State Board of Educa- 
tion. Professional Training for allgrades 
of teaching. Two, Three and Four Year 
Courses. 
This College specializes in Kinder- 
garten, Primary and Intermediate 
Grade Teaching. 
Special classes in Public School Draw- 
ing and Music, Domestic Science and 
Art. and Manual Work. 

Send for catalogue. 

MRS. ELIZA A. BLAKER, President 

The William N. Jackson Memorial 

Building. 

23rd and Alabama Street, 

INDIANAPOLIS IND. 



Mice Harf CHAINING SCHOOL 

ITIlJJ SIGH 3 For Kindergartners 

3600 Walnut Street. Philadelphia 
Junior, Senior, Graduate and Normal 
Trainers' Courses. Five practice Kin- 
dergartens. Opens October 1st. 1912. 
For particulars address 

MISS CAROLINE M. C. HART 
The Pines, Rutledge, Pa. 



OHIO, TOLEDO, 2313 Ashland Ave. 

THE MISSES LAW'S 



Medical supervision. Personal attention 
Thirty-five practice schools. 
Certificate and Diploma Courses. 

MART E. LAW, M. D.. Principal. 



Miss Cora Webb Peet 

KINDERGARTEN NORMAL TRAINING 
SCHOOL 

Two Tears' Course. 
For circulars, address 

MISS CORA WEBB PEET, 
16 Washington St., East Orange, N. J 



PESTALOZZI-FROEBEL 

Kindergarten Training 
School 

509 S. Wabash Ave., Opposite Auditorium 

Mrs Bertha Hofer Hegner, Superintended 
Mrs. Amelia Hofer Jerome, Principal. 

FIFTEENTH YEAR. 
Regular course two years. Advanced 
courses tor Graduate Students. A course 
in Home Making. Includes opportunity to 
become familiar with the Social Settle- 
ment movement at Chicago Commons. Fine 
equipment. For circulars and Information 
write to 
MRS. BERTHA HOFER-HEGNER, 

West Chicago, 111. 



KINDERGARTEN TRAINING SCHOOL 

Resident home for a limited number of 

students. 

Chicago Free Kindergarten Association 

H. N. Higinbotham, Pres. 

Mrs. P. D. Armour, Vice-Pres. 



Northwestern and Chicago 1'nlversitles 
For particulars address Eva B. Whit 
more, Supt., 6 E. Madison St., cor. Mich 
ave ., Chicago. 



The Adams School 
Kindergarten Training Course 

(Two Years) 

Nine months' practice teaching dur- 
ing course. Address, 

The Misses Adams 

26 So. Clinton St., East Orange, N. J. 



THE RICHMOND TRAINING SCHOOL 

for Kindergartners 
Richmond, Va. 

Virginia Mechanics' Institute Building, 
Richmond, Virginia. 
Two years' training in Theory and 
Practice of Froebelian Ideals. Post- 
Graduate Course, also Special Classes for 
Primary Teachers. 

LUCY S. COLEMAN, Director. 
MRS. W. W. ARCHER, Sec. and Treas. 



1874— Kindergarten Normal Institutions— 191 1 

1516 Columbia Road N. W., WASHINGTON D. C. 

The citizenship of the future depends on the children of today. 



Susan Plessner Pollok, Principal. 



Teachers' Training Course — Two Years. 



Summer Trailing Classei at Mt. Chatauqua— Mountain Lake Park- 
Qarrett Co.. Maryl&na. 



THE BAR RIETTE MELISSA MILLS 
KINDERGARTEN TRAINING SCHOOL 

In Affiliation with New York University 

For information address 

MISS HARRIETTE M.MILLS. Principal 

New York University Building 

Washington Square, New York City. 

Kindergarten 

Courses given for credit at 

New York University Summer School 



Oakland Kindergarten 

TRAINING SCHOOL 

2119 Allston Way, Berkeley.Calif. 

Grace Everett Barnard, 
principal. 



OWN A FARM 



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by addressing: 

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202-1 Merrick Lodge Bldg., 
Lexington, Ky. 



HOME OCCUPATIONS 
rOR BOYS AND GIRLS 

By BERTHA JOHNSTON 

"Mother finds some happy work 
for idle hands to do," is the idea 
that has been excellently carried 
out in this most excellent little 
volume. 

16mo. Cloth. 50c, postpaid. 

GEORGE W.JACOBS HO., 

Publishers. PHILADELPHIA 



RELIABLE KINDERGARTEN TRAINING SCHOOLS OF AMERICA 



Miss Wheelock's Kindergarten 
Training School 

Regular course of two years. Special 
course of one year for post graduates. 
Students' Home at Marenholz. For cir- 
culars address, 

LUCY WHEELOCK 

Miss Annie Coolidge Rust's 21st Year 

Froebel School of Kindergarten 



COPLEY SQ. 

Prepares for Kindergarten, Primary and 
Playground positions. Theory and practice 
strong. Special worn under best educators. 
Graduates are holding valuable positions. 
Circulars. 



iaierg arten ormal Department 

of the Kate Baldwin 

Free Kindergarten Association 
Savannah, Georgia. 

For Information, address 

HORTENSE M. ORCUTT, Principal of 

the Training School and Supervisor of 

Kindergartens, 326 Bull Street, 

Savannah, Georgia. 



Springfield Kindergarten 

Normal Training School 



HATTIE TWICHELL, 
«PRIXOFIEM>_ LONGMEADOW. MASS. 



Kindergarten Normal Department 

Ethical Culture School 

For Information address 

FRANKLIN C LEWS, Superintendent. 

Central Park West and U3d ett. 

NEW YORK, 



Atlanta Kindergarten 

Normal School 



Two Years' Course of Study. 
Chartered 1897. 
For particulars address 

W1LLETTE A. ALLEN, Principal, 
GStt Peachtree Street, ATLANTA, GA 



Connecticut froebel Normal 

Kindergarten Primary Training School 

Academic, kindergarten, primarvand 

playground courses, Jloardingand day 

school. Extensive facilities for thor- 



MARY C. MILLS, Principal. 

181 West avenue, Bridgeport, Conn. 



■CHICAGO 



KINDERGARTEN 

COLLEGE 

SUMMER TERM 

June 18 Aug. 9 

KINDERGARTEN COURSE 

All Kindergarten subjects. Credits 
applied on Freshman and Junior years 
if desired, 

PRIMARY COURSE 

Primary Methods 

Handwork 

Art for Primary Grades. 

Credits applied on regular Primary 
course if desired. 

Send for folder giving full informa- 
tion. 

5-1200 MICHIGAN BLVD. 

CHICAGO, ILL. 



PRATT INSTITUTE 

SchoolofKindergartenTraining 

Brooklyn N. Y. 

Kindergarten Normal Course, two 
years. Special Classes for Kindergart- 
ners and Mothers. Froebel Educational 
Theories ; Plays with Kindergarten Ma- 
terials; Games and Gymnasium Work, 
Outdoor Sports and Swimming; Child- 
ren's Literature and Story Telling; Psy- 
chology, History of Education, Nature 
Study, Music and Art, Model Kinder- 
garten for Children; Classes for Older 
Children in Folk Games, Dances and 
Stories. 

ALICE E. FITTS, Director 

Year of 1912-13 opens Sept. 30. 



KINDERGARTEN DEPARTMENT 

PITTSBURGH TRAINING SCHOOL TOR 
TEACHERS 

formerly 
PITTSBURGH AND ALLEGHENY KINDER- 
GARTEN COLLEGE. 
ALICE N. PARKER, Director. 

Regular course, two years. Post Grad- 
uate course, one year. Twenty-first 
year began September 3, 1912. Address 

Mrs. Wm. McCracken 

Colfax Bldg. William Pitt Blvd. Pittsburgh, Pa. 



Kindergarten Training School 

Of the Buffalo Kindergarten Association. 
Two Years' Course. For particulars ad- 
dress 

MISS ELLA C. ELDER 
86 Delaware Avenue, . Buffalo, N. Y. 



Summer School 



New York Universit> . Univer«lty Heights 

New York City. 

July 1 to Aug. 11, 1913. 

Dr. James E. Lough, Director 

KINDERGARTEN DEPARTMENT 



Courses given for Kindergarten Train- 
ing 8chool and University credit. 
For information address, 

Miss H. VI. Mills, Principal of Department. 

New York University, Washington Square. 

New York City. 



MISS LAURA FISHER 



SUCCEEDED BY 



MISS HARRIET NIEL 

PRINCIPAL 

Training School for Kindergartners— 
Normal Course two years. Graduate 

and special courses. 
319 Marlborough street, Boston, Mass. 



PITTSBURGH AND ALLEGHENY 



K1NPER6ARTEN COLLEGE 

Regular course, two years. Special ad- 
vantages for Post-Graduate work. 
Fourteenth Year 
For catalogue address, 

MRS. WILLIAM McCRACKEN, Secretary, 
3439 Fifth Avenu« Pittsburgh, Pa. 



GRAND RAPIDS KINDERGAR- 
TEN TRAINING SCHOOL 

CERTIFICATE, DIPLOMA AND 
NORMAL COURSES. 

CLARA WHEELER, Principal 

MAY L. OGILBY. Registrar 

thepord Building, - 23 Fountain St. 

ORANO RAPIOS. MICH. 



•CLEVELAND- 



Kindergarten Training School 

IN AFFILIATION WITH THE 

National Kinderg-arten Colleg-e 
3050 East 96th Street, Cleveland, Ohio 

Founded in 1894 

Course of study under direction of Eliz- 
abeth Harrison, covers two years in 
Cleveland, leading to Senior and Nor- 
mal Courses in the National Kinder- 
garten College. 

MISS NETTA FARRIS, Principal 




THE KINDERGARTEN 



-PRIMARY- 



MAGAZINE 



Published on the first of each Month, except July and Aug- 
ust at Manistee, Mich., U. S. A. Subscription price, $1.00 per 
Annum postpaid in U. S., Hawaiian Islands, Phillipines, Guam, 
Porto Rico Samoa, Shanghai, Canal Zone, Cuba, Mexico. For 
Canada add' 20c - and all other countries 30c, for Postage. 

J. H. SHULTS. Manager. 




Twentieth annual meeting of the I. K. U. at 
Washington April 29 to May 2. 



the widest welcome will not be extended to every 
member at every meeting? 



Holland affords a good example of public- 
school progress in the important matter of atten- 
dance. In 1900 about 3 in every hundred children 
did not receive instruction; in 1904 the number 
had gone down to 2 in every thousand; in 1908 it 
was 1 to a thousand; and more recently the inspect- 
or at Nijmegen was able to announce that there 
were no children of 13 or 14 years who could not 
read and write. 



The South African Union has just awarded 
five goverment scholarships in agriculture for stu- 
dy abroad. The holders of these scholarship will 
receive $750 per year during the three or four years 
for which provision is made. The successful ap- 
plicants were obliged to pledge themselves to enter 
the service of the South African Union after 
completing their studies, and to remain in the 
service for at least three years at a salary not less 
than $1,500 per annum. Only sons of parents 
permanently domiciled in South Africa were eli- 
gible for the scholarships. 



The "closed sessions" at the I. K. U. meetings, 
time honored though they may be, savor not of 
things modern. While the seclusion and secret- 
iveness may in truth be more fanciful than real, 
yet why should the program lead any kinder- 
gartner or member of the Union to understand 
that there are sessions from which she will be 
barred, and that things are to be done in secret, 
hidden from all except the favored few. Star 
chamber sessions are not popular with the people, 
who have in many instances demanded their aban- 
donment. Is it not possible that we shall gain 
by clearing the program of every suggestion that 



It has been charged, with just how much un- 
truthfulness we are unable to state, that real 
hearty co-operation between the kindergartner 
and the public school has often been hindered by 
the "wiser than thou"attitude of kindergartners. 
Such an attitude suggests rebuilding on broader 
lines as essential to the kindergartner's highest 
development as an efficient educator. If over- 
confidence results from a clear conception of great 
educational truths let them remember that in the 
application of these principles to the development 
of little children, there will always be need for 
every aid that can be brought to their assistance, 
and that much can be learned through hearty co- 
operation by all co-workers. 



Years ago when the writer was endeavoring to 
teach an ungraded school, a problem presented 
itself in the shape of an over bright child, five 
years of age, whose parents insisted that she was 
competent to read in the fifth reader. A trial de- 
monstrated the fact that she could pronounce 
with some degree of correctness a majority of the 
words in her reading lesson, but she really could 
not read at all— simply called the words by name 
in the rotation in which they appeared in the book. 
She could also define many words, but the defi- 
nition really meant nothing whatever to her, ex- 
cept the substitution of one word for another, the 
real meaning of whichshe did not understand, as 
many of the words related to things entirely out- 
side of her experience. As has been frequently 
suggested, it seems quite probable that the read- 
ing acquired under the Montessori Method at 
such an early age may really prove of little value. 



T48 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



How to Apply Kindergarten Principles and 

Methods in Village and Rural Schools. 

ARTICLE VI. 

Dr. Jenny B. Merrill 

BALL GAMES. 

{Froebel's First Gift — Continued.) 

The First Gift of the Kindergarten may be) 
taken as a point of departure for many interest- 
ing ball games. Indeed, Froebel based many of 
his movement plays upon the child's interest in 
some common, every-day movement in the en- 
vironment, as the throwing of a ball, the ticking 
of a clock, the rolling of a wheel, or the ham- 
mering of a carpenter, or the turning of the 
windmill. 

Begin with what is near," he says. This com- 
monly accepted educational principle is one of 
our faithful guides, and with it we may hope to 
secure a firm foundation. As I have said, it is 
applicable to games as well as to subjects of 
study. 

The clock has attracted the little one from in- 
fancy and becomes of great interest to him when 
he enters school. Is it time to start? Is it time 
for recess? Is it time to go home? Are now 
all important questions. 

He wants to learn to tell time. He notes the 
steady swing of the pendulum and can imitate 
it with his ball, hence is developed the game, 

1. Tick Tock. One child at a time, later all 
the children swing a ball suspended by its string. 
If there is but one gift, six children may play at 
a time, choosing to whom each will hand a ball 
in the repeat, until all have swung a ball in imi- 
tation of the pendulum. The string may be held 
at the end or half length if the quicker movement 
of a short pendulum has been observed. Rhyth- 
mic motion is good for the child's nervous system; 
A rhyme may accompany the swinging motion 
of the balls — 

Tick, tock, 
Goes the clock; 
Tick, tick, tock. 

For other clock songs, consult Froebel's Mother 
Play ; also other Kindergarten song books. One 
which has become a great favorite is found in 
Neidlinger's "Small Songs for Small Singers," 
commencing, 

"The big, tall clock in the hall." 

Madame Kraus gives a very suggestive couplet 
in her "Kindergarten Guide" : 

"And whatever the ball can do, 
I can try, and so may you." 

Hence, this game of "Tick Tock" is to be re- 



peated as an exercise for the arm and the leg, 
hrst the right and then the left. Then the finger 
may be used, and, by contrast, the teacher may 
catch up a little child and swing his whole body. 
This will cause a laugh, and a laugh is a good 
thing. Finger exercises are many in the Kinder- 
garten world, for we wish to strengthen little 
hands for the writing exercises of the higher 
grades and for all useful purposes of holding 
and working. 

%. A Bell Game. The balls may be held over- 
head as if in a church tower, and swung to imi- 
tate the ringing. 
" in "bongs of a Little Child's Day," Miss 
Poulsson gives us a new song of the bell that may 
accompany this game : 

"Ding, ding, ding, 

From the high tower 
Hear the bells chime, 

Telling the hour; 
Fast flies the time, 
Ding,, ding, ding, ding." 

3. A Wheel Game. By twirling, a difficult 
motion for a young child, the circular motion of 
die wheel will be recognized. The wheel turns 
rapidly, then slower, slower, fast, faster, very 
fast. Skill is developed in this rotary motion, 
as it is an effort to hold on to the string to keep 
the ball from flying off. A social laugh follows 
if it is lost. 

4. A Second Wheel Game. As a later devel- 
opment from this circular motion, let the chil- 
dren join hands in several small rings and walk 
round and round, first slowly, then rapidly. 
Again, all make one big wheel. It will be harder 
to keep the circle. 

5. A Wind-mill Game. By swinging one arm 
round and round, always from front to back, 
then the other arm, then both arms, we may play 
each child is a wind-mill. 

"See the Wind-mill" is an old favorite. A re- 
cent twirling game, called 

6. Whirlabout, may also be developed. 

Like a leaf or feather 

In the windy, windy weather, 

We will whirl about 

And twirl about, 
Then all sink down together. 

— From Songs of a Little Child's Day. 

Note. — This is a good autumnal game in con- 
nection with the falling leaves and seeds of plants. 

7. The Nest. The two hands form a nest, 
and a child is appointed to drop a ball in each 
little nest. The ball is to be rolled round and 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



49 



round like an egg; then to be jolted to make it 
hop like a bird. Skill in securing the two mo- 
tions is acquired, while a little nature thought 
adds interest. "The little bird must not fall out 
of the nest" is an added incentive to skill. After 
the balls are collected the two thumbs may be 
turned down into the nest and the hopping mo- 
tion repeated to strengthen them. 

8. Color Games with the Balls. 

a. Throw all the balls into the center of the 
ring, enjoying the color effect with the children. 
Play it is a garden. Gather flowers. The teach- 
er names a color; the child finds a ball to corre- 
spond; tells a flower of that color, or vice versa. 
Later, children play without help of teacher. 

b. A child is chosen to place the six balls in 
a row at one end of the room or table, a foot or 
less apart. Six children are chosen, each to take 
a ball. They are told to find the ball of the same 
color on the line and to stand opposite to it. In 
turn, one at a time, or possibly later, all try at 
once to hit the ball of corresponding color. The 
children who are not playing clap hands if any 
ball is struck. Let this game continue until every 
child has a chance. Such a game the children 
can play alone if they are not noisy. It is desir- 
able to have the children play games alone, not 
only because other grades may demand attention 
but also to develop leaders and to give more 
practice. Children do not tire of a game, I no- 
tice, as quickly as an adult leader. We are in- 
clined to pass too quickly from one game to 
another. 

9. Hiding Games are possible with balls, (a) 
Place the six balls in a group or ring on the 
floor or table. Select a child to point to each 
ball, name its color, then to turn his face to the 
wall. Another child comes forward and takes 
away one ball. The first child is called and names 
the one gone. After practice, two may be re- 
moved at a time. If the child cannot name the 
color, the one who holds the ball brings it for- 
ward, and the sudden reappearance helps the lit- 
tle one who did not succeed to remember next 
time. Those who succeed are to be applauded, 
and are to have the pleasure of choosing a play- 
mate to succeed them in hiding. All these little 
details please children and also have an influence 
on moral development. 

(b) Another hiding game is to be accompa- 
nied with music. The children, seated in a ring 
on the floor or on their chairs, pass a ball from 
one to another while the one chosen is hiding his 
eyes. The song used is : 

"Little ball, pass along 
Gaily on your way, 



While we sing a merry song, 

You must never stay ; 
Till at last the song is done, 

Then we'll try to find 
In what pair of little hands 

You've been left behind." 

— Songs and Games for Little Ones." 
(Walker & Jenks.) 
The last child holding the ball now hides it. 
The one hiding returns and walks slowly around 
the ring, guided by the piano to the ball. The 
teacher plays loud for far away, and softly for 
near. 

10. A Counting Game. There may be rhyth- 
mic tossing or bouncing, accompanied by the fa- 
miliar rhyme : 

"My ball, I want to 

catch, 

bounce you, 
was 

Once, twice, three times, 
four times, five times, six times." 
(Same book.) 

11. Take Aim — Throw, (a) A ball game for 
training in accuracy in aiming is played by plac- 
ing a box or basket in the center of the ring. The 
children all clap if a ball reaches its mark. 

(b) Sometimes, instead of using a basket, a 
circle is drawn on the floor and the children try 
to roll the ball into it. This requires more judg- 
ment and care. Several concentric circles may 
be drawn on the floor as a variation. The child 
who gets a ball into the inner circle is leader in 
the next game. 

(c) A target may be drawn or made of dif- 
ferent colored papers and fastened upon the door 
or wall. The worsted balls may be aimed at it. 

(d) A large hoop may be secured and the 
balls thrown through it. Last year we saved a 
Christmas wreath to use in this way. 

12. Hat Ball, (a) A child in the center or 
the teacher at first rolls a ball to a child who is 
to play it is hot ball and quickly strike it away. 
This is kept up rapidly from child to child. It 
develops quick sight, rapid movement, ready 
touch and prompt thought. 

(b) Another variety of this game is played 
with a foot-ball. Several children are sent into 
the ring. A large ball is thrown in and the game 
is to jump out of its way. The children in the 
circle kick the ball if it comes near them, and so 
• keep up the fun. This is a very lively game and 
creates a fine spirit. A foot-ball, a basket-ball 
or a large rubber or home-made paper ball may 
be used. 



150 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



13. Competitive Games. It will be observed, 
as a rule that thus far there has been no regular 
competitive game, taking sides. With very young 
children, competition is unnecessary. The game 
itself is all they can attend to. The excitement 
of play is sufficient, but competition will grad- 
ually force its way into play. The target games 
are in a sense a beginning of competition. 

Six small circles may be drawn on the floor 
with chalk on one side of the room, and a ball 
placed in each. The class may divide into two 
lines, each side choosing a leader. Two larger 
circles are drawn on the floor on the opposite side 
of the room. The game is for each leader to run 
with a ball caught up from a small circle and 
place it in one of the larger circles ; then a second 
and a third ball is to be carried. The leader who 
gets the three balls in the large circle first wins 
for his side, and they applaud him. The game 
may be extended by replacing the six balls from 
the large circles back into the little ones. 

14. Pass Ball. This is another competitive 
game, though it may begin as a non-competitive 
game with the very young children. It trains 
them to be adroit in receiving, holding and pass- 
ing to another person any object without letting 
it fall. It requires quick sight, quick touch, quick 
muscular reaction. 

In its simplest form, the children, simply sitting 
in a circle or standing, pass the ball from one 
child to another. 

As an advance, they may pass the ball with 
hands above the head, or even behind them. One 
ball may be passed at a time ; then two, three or 
even more may keep them on the alert, turning 
first one way to receive, then the other to 
pass on. 

15. In higher grades a competitive game has 
been developed. Two or three lines of children 
form with an equal number in each line. Each 
line has its captain. All face front, standing one 
behind the other. At the word "Start," each 
leader passes a large ball overhead to the one 
behind him. All hands are instantly overhead 
to receive the coming ball. When it reaches the 
end of the line, the last player runs to the front 
and becomes captain, repeating the movements. 
This is done on each line until the original leader 
reaches his place in front. The line whose leader 
secures his place first wins the game. This game 
may be played with bean-bags as well as with 
balls. It is very exhilerating. 

15. Free Play with balls should be encouraged 
at recess. Many children do not have balls at 
home. Much practice is needed to become ex- 
pert in throwing, tossing, bounding and catching. 



Provide in the playground a hanging ball, 
rather heavy, which even the young children can 
swing back and forth, alone or with a partner. 

Provide a ball suspended from a pole, to be 
swung round and round. Looking up is good 
exercise for the neck and back so that the sus- 
pended ball should not hang too low but should 
require reaching to touch it. This will also pre- 
vent striking the face. 

We have taken Froebel's First Gift as a point 
of departure for ball playing. I recommend for 
the reference library "Games for the Playground, 
Home, School and Gymnasium," by Bancroft. 

This is a very comprehensive and well classi- 
fied selection of games and contains a fine chapter 
on ball games. On page 38 will be found a valu- 
able analysis of (1) Individual Bounding and 
Tossing Games; (2) Bounding and Tossing 
Games with Partners; (3) Bounding Against a 
Wall. 



We beheld brute life as essentially passive 
material at the mercy of environment, while man 
steadily rises superior to his environment, delib- 
erately and actively adjusting himself to its ne- 
cessities or adjusting it to his purposes and 
needs, himself the guiding factor in his progress- 
ive development. 

And the key to such progress is placed in his 
hands by helpless, dependent, teachable childi- 
hood and by the extension of this period over a 
great portion of individual life, enabling him to 
supplant blind heredity with, seeing history, for- 
tuitous variation with deliberate self-adjustment, 
unconscious instinct with conscious intelligence, 
national selection with rational choice. 

No better proof is needed to controvert the 
slander that "the child is only a little animal." 
Every living thing essentially is what it is meant 
to become. The potentialities of its germinal life 
determine its essence. Thus, too, the essential 
being of the child is found, not in transient ani- 
mal heredities or ante-cultural accretions, but in 
the potential humanity of him seeking conscious, 
masterful self-assertion. 

The child comes to us with the vast potentiali- 
ties of humanity re-born in pristine vigor, a reit- 
erated call to the conscience-stricken soul of us 
"to go and sin no more," a fresh sounding of the 
eleventh hour of humanity, the incoming of a 
"fifth generation," not to be weighted down by 
the sins of the fathers. It comes to us as a new 
asseveration of the supremacy of spirit over mat- 
ter, of essential tendency over superinduced hind- 
rance, as the reiterated prophecy of the ultimate 
victory of all things higher, as the renewed in- 
junction "to try again." 



Paper Folding and Cutting 
February 



THE KINDERGARTEN. PRIMARY MAGAZINE 
Suggestions for 



50a 



S^S^ 'Gun 



ieor\ 
house. 



Pos>br<wr\s P 
bag 




DIRECTIONS FOR MAKING BUNNY 
BOOKLET. 

Mabguebite B. Sutton 

Materials: Stiff cardboard, note-paper, water- 
colors, pen and ink, pencil, eraser, shears, tissue 
paper, etc. 

To make the outside covers, trace off the pattern 
of Fig. Ill upon stiff cardboard by means of tissue 
paper. The front cover may be tinted with water- 
colors after the bunny features have been lightly 




traced in. The inside sheets are made of note- 
paper, lightly ruled with pen and ink for the words. 
The back cover need not be decorated unless de- 
sired, and the whole booklet is fastened together 
with narrow ribbon. These may not only be used 
for spelling pads, but also are cute for invitations 
to the Easter exercises. 



CAMBRIDGE, OHIO. 

Public School Kindergartners: 

Miss Lucy Wells. 

Miss Nann Stitt. 

Miss Mattie McCartney. 

Miss Edna Longsworth. 

Miss Hatties Steele. ...Ji-A- 




Fig. JL Inside skee'T 

[Over] 



i5oa 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 




Drawing Suggestions for February 




<2& 



Logs oy> a. 5^oa»C- 







First American Flag 




Ubevty 



m 



Independence rtell 

Also the following: 
Lincoln's log cabin. 
Foi t. 

Postman at work. 
Betsey Ross making first flag. 




fcfcU 



THE KINDERGARTEN- PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



m 







the i/mncnr.inTEH nnssiinv miahimc 






II 


CURRENT EDUCATIONAL THOUGHT 

FROM SUCCESSFUL AMERICAN EDUCATORS 





WHAT IS THE BEST NEXT THING PRO- 
FESSIONALLY? 



A. E. Winship 
Editor Journal of Education. 

It would be easy to name many good next things 
professionally, to name the best next things in de- 
vices, in methods, in discipline, in equipment, in 
administration and in philosophy; that is, the best 
from one man's point of view. None of these is 
the most vital. They may be important, but they 
are not dominant. 

Isn't it time that the National Education Associ- 
ation grapples the b : ggest issues with those that 
are at the same time the most extensive and in- 
tensive? 

No one ever hits a target who does not aim 
above it, and the farther away it is the higher above 
it one must aim. 

Why should not this meeting of the National 
Education Association in its closing moments here 
highly resolve that education shall become the 
leading American profession? 

New times demand new men and new measures. 
The new times are surely here. The profession 
that meets the demand of these times will be the 
leading American profession. Education can meet 
these demands better than law, medicine or the 
ministry. It is more likely to meet them. 

Law, once the most eminent of the professions, 
will not meet the demand of the new times with 
a mission and message for the ennoblement of hu- 
manity unless it ceases to win its greatest triumphs 
in finding legal trap doors through which the guilty 
can escape justice. 

Medicine is not likely to meet the new demand 
until it ceases to think it more professional to kill 
a patient regularly than to have him restored to 
health irregularly. Health, not regularity, must be 
the professional aim. 

The coast is clear. Education can be the lead- 
ing profession of the century. Education is the 
only profession that can devote itself exclusively 
to the making of manly men and womanly women. 

Education is the only profession that can lead 
the present generation to virtue, integrity and no- 
bility through the influence of childhood. In the 
long ago it was said, "A Little Child Shall Lead" 
us into the millennium, and education can compass 
that highest of achievements. 

Education was the first profession; why may it 
not be the greatest. It is the only learned pro- 



fession whose leaders in scholarship have been 
called professors; and the one man who met all 
the needs of the times, the greatest of all men, 
was the great teacher, the founder of the profes- 
sion of education. 

But if education is to be the leading American 
profession, the profession of the country, there 
must be from the bottom to the top a complete 
transformation. If the teacher is to lead the 
preacher; the physician and the lawyer in the pro- 
fessional race, there must be a transfiguration. 

In these respects, from the lowest to the highest, 
there must be a new birth. We must think in 
larger units than they, we must be more dominant 
and less domineering, we must rise above self-con- 
sciousness and class consciousness and be more 
subconsciously dominant than they. 

We shall be measured by the size of the units 
with which we measure. A pencil may be meas- 
ured in inches, a door in feet, a room in yards, a 
field in rods, but distances must be measured in 
miles or furlongs. He who would give the dimen- 
sions of a field in inches needs no other judgment 
as to his size. 

The teacher must cease to measure a boy by any 
one act, even for the moment, by the mechanics 
of spelling, by the casts of the text. 

Some of us can remember when it was an edu- 
cational crime not to do well everything assigned 
in school, and more of a crime to do anything, 
however well, that was not assigned in school. A 
million boys have been thrashed for not knowing 
things not worth knowing, and another million for 
doing something well worth doing. All this must 
go, must go completely, and we must measure 
things, in school and out, by units large enough . 
to see the whole boy and his whole life. We must 
see him as he is, and as he is to be. 

If education is to be the profession of the coun- 
try, it must be dominant and not domineering. 
This will indeed be a great transformation, a trans- 
figuration. 

The law of dominance, as discovered by Mendell 
fifty years ago and re-discovered and magnified by 
De Vries fifteen years ago, is as true in the intel- 
lectual and moral world as in the physical. 

If from two well-established families of guinea 
pigs, one rough-coated and one smooth, you mate 
one from each, the four offspring will be rough- 
coated. That is dominant. But if you mate two 
of these rough-coated offspring, three will be 
rough-coated and one smooth. The recessive qual- 
ity in the second generation is one-fourth domi- 



152 



THE KINDERGARTEN- PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



nant, but thereafter it will appear so rarely that. 
it will soon disappear entirely. 

No one, not even the parent as a rule, has such 
an opportunity to dominate a child's life as the 
teacher. The great mission of the school is to 
dominate the child's thought, motive and spirit. 

Unfortunately the tendency has been to domineer 
rather than dominate. The ideal of obedience, of 
regulating the knowledge and the thinking of every 
child by the teacher's predilection and the profes- 
sional traditions, has led too often to a domineer- 
ing spirit. 

Dominance is good; domineering is bad. Domi- 
nance is a divine attribute; domineering is the char- 
acteristic of his Santanic majesty. 

A few years ago a serving woman in West Ches- 
ter, Pennsylvania, died, and at her funeral were 
five eminent men — brothers — one from the Harvard 
faculty, one from a theological seminary faculty, 
one from an eminent pulpit, one from fame in 
medicine, one with the wealth of a banker. One 
of them conducted the service, two others took 
part therein. It was probably the most distin- 
guished funeral service ever held in that city. They 
said that a faithful family servant had dominated 
their boyish life so wholesomely that they could 
but turn aside from their honors and opportunities 
of life to pay this tribute to a worthy humble 
woman. 

Think of the opportunities that come to a half- 
million teachers every year! 

Education must dominate if it is to be a noble 
profession, and it is an entirely easy matter if prop- 
erly approached. 

Finally our units of thought and our dominance 
must rise above self-consciousness and class con- 
sciousness, and must react upon the sub-concious- 
ness of individuals and communities, of industry 
and commerce, of civic and religious life. This 
will be exceedingly difficult of achievement. 

In the schools the relation of the teacher to the 
pupils on the one hand, and to supervisors, school 
boards and the public on the other, make self-con- 
sciousness almost inevitable. 

What all teachers need, what must be if educa- 
tion is to come to the head instead of staying at 
the foot of the professions, is a uniform and uni- 
versal effort to dominate the sub-consciousness of 
everybody. 

There is a sub-conscious purpose to provide good 
school buildings in cities. It is no longer neces- 
sary to campaign for new school buildings. There 
is coming to be a sub-conscious right attitude to- 
ward salaries, tenure and pensions in progressive 
cities. 

Let the good work go i >bly forward among our- 
selves and with the publ until all teachers think 
in large units, until edu ition dominates the sub- 
conscious life of pupils i d the public, then educa- 
tion will be the greatest profession. 

from Address-N. E, A, 



THE NOBEL PEACE PRIZE 

During the year just passed nothing- of sufficient 
merit has been done in the crusade for World Peace to 
justify the award of the Nobel Peace Prize by the com- 
mission, according to the decision of the Commission it- 
self. There has been considerable speculation in regard 
to wh"m the fortunate recipient of the prize may be in 
1913, and no little attention has been directed toward 
Miss Lucile Gulliver, whose book "The Friendship of 
Nations," recently published by Ginn & Company, 
has appeared within the last twelve morths. No less 
authority than Professor Dallas Lore Shary, of the Eng- 
lish department at Boston University, declares that Miss 
Gulliver's contribution places her in the front rank for 
the Peace Prize award. 

The leading advocates of World Peace have all con- 
tended that a most important function of any educational 
peace campaign must be the instruction of school child- 
ren. It is along these lines that Miss Gulliver, through 
her book, has directed her work, and it is of no little 
interest to know of the possibility that such a coveted 
award as the JNobel Prize may be placed in the hands of 
a young woman who has endeavored to contribute her 
hare toward the work for universal peace by making a 
ittle book for the young people in the schools. 

Miss Gulliver modestly disclaims any right to be con- 
sidered in connection with the winning of the Nobel 
Prize. She says: "I am heart and soul in the Peace 
Movement, however, and I intend to devote my time 
and efforts to it. 

"My book was ^written for young people because I 
feel that the hope of any new movement lies with the 
rising generation. If we can instill the peace idea into 
the minds of all the children, we will have a vast work- 
ing force for the movement when these children grow 
up." 

Miss Gulliver is the daughter of Mrs. Emma S. Gul- 
liver, Principal of the Dilloway District of the Boston 
Public Schools, and has spent most of her life in the 
Massachusetts capital. Not long ago she took an A. B. 
degree at Boston University. Before writing "The Friend- 
ship of Nations' ' she confesses to having been responsible 
for another book called "On the Nonsense Road." After 
this, just to counteract the effect, she says, she returned 
to Boston University and took an A. M. degree. 

The many friends of the Peace Movement and the host 
of teachers who have for years been contributing their 
share to the uplift of the world through the instruction 
of children, will earnestly hope that this young American 
woman may receive the large award and the considerable 
honors that are attached to the Nobel Peace Prize. 



MUSKEGON, MICH. 

Public School Kindergartners: 
Alice L, Wheeler, 101 Houston Ave. 
Lelia C. Parker, 52 Harrison St. 
Clara E. Kuizenga, 191 Spring St. 
Amy G. Brower, 22 Spring St. 
Irene V. Mason, 209 Ottawa St. 
Minnie Kregel, 5 W. Irwin St. 
Margaret L. Turner, 230 Sanford St. 
Caroline Sibley, 244 Webster Ave. 
Caroline L. Pew, 379 Jefferson St. 
Florence H. Rood, 59 Fifth St. 
Edna Wolkerson, 39 Yuba St. 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



153 







— 


THE COMMITTEE of THE WHOLE 

CONDUCTS® BY BERTHA JOHNSTON 

THIS COMMITTEE OF THE WHOLE, of which all Subscribers to the Kin- 
dergarten-Primary Magazine are members, will consider those various prob- 
lems which meet the practicing Kindergartner— problems relating to the 
School-room proper. Ventilation. Heating, and the like; the Aesthetics of 
School-room Decoration; Problems of the Physical Welfare of the Child, in- 
cluding the Normal, the Defective, and the Precocious; Questions suggest- 
ed by the use of Kindergarten Material, the Gifts, Occupations, Games, Toys, 
P^ts; Mothers-meetings; School Government; Child Psychology; the relation 
of Home to School and the Kindergarten to the Grades; and problems re- 
garding the Moral Development of the Child and their relation to Froebel's 
Philosophy and Methods All questions -will be welcomed and also any 
suggestions of ways in -which Kindergartners have successfully met the 
problems incidental to kindergarten and primary practice. All replies to 
queries will be made through this department, and not by correspondence. 
Address all inquiries to 

MISS BERTHA JOHNSTON, EDITOR, 

1054 Bergen St., Brooklyn, N. Y- 


1 




.'•■•■■. 




■i 



To the Editor of the Committee of the Whole: 

I have seen references in the papers recently to 
what is spoken of as "The Athenian Oath." Can 
you tell me just what this was? Is it anything 
that could be used in our primary schools? 

GRADE TEACHER. 

In schools where attempts at self-government of 
pupils is practiced a statement of this oath and an 
account of just when it was administered might 
prove both interesting to the children and of value 
in reinforcing the teacher in her efforts to instil a 
love for the city and a desire to make it more 
beautiful, more sanitary and more law-abiding. We 
give below a version of this sacred oath. We 
would not suggest that little children take any such 
oath but if, on the fourth of March, or some other 
such patriotic anniversary, a teacher should read 
in serious tone this solemn promise and explain its 
meaning, the impression made would be well worth 
the effort. 

"We will never bring disgrace to this, our city, 
by any act of dishonesty or cowardice, nor ever 
desert our suffering comrades in the ranks; we will 
fight for the ideal and sacred things of the city, 
both alone and with many; we will revere and obey 
the city's laws and do our best to incite a like re- 
spect and reverence in those above us who are 
prone to set them at naught." 

In this connection we give also the extract from 
Ruskin's Pledge of the Guild of St. George, which 
reminds us of the spirit of true obedience. 

"We will obey all the laws of our country faith- 
fully, so far as they are consistent with what we 
believe to be the divine laws; and when they are 
not so, or seem in any wise to need change, we 
will oppose them, not with violence, but deliber- 
ately and loyally." 

To the Editor of the Committee of the Whole: 

One of the children at my table is a restless, ir- 
responsible little chap, inattentive and inclined to 
be troublesome. When the Gifts are placed in po- 
sition and the boxes removed, he invariably starts 



at once to finger and disarrange the cubes without 
listening to instructions. How can I help him to 
habits of attent'on and orderliness, such as the 
other children exhibit? WORRIED. 

Before proceeding with any gift work, the next 
time you are at the table, try to gather yourself to- 
gether and to hold yourself in perfect quiet and 
peace of mind and so to hold in equal quiet each 
little unit. When all are quiet, begin slowly and 
distinctly, to give your directions, being sure that 
the little recalcitrant hears well and understands 
exactly what you mean. If he starts to interrupt 
by voice or action, stop at once what you are say- 
ing and without reproving or calling attention to 
him, wait again for silence. Then begin again to 
direct. If he starts again to handle the gifts be- 
fore directed to do, or in a way contrary to in- 
structions, do not reprove, but quietly and con- 
trolledly take the gift from him, place it in center 
of table or on floor near you and proceed to give 
directions to the other children. Do not humor 
his possible self-love by calling the attention of the 
other children to him. 

When the exerc'se is well under way you may 
ask him if he is ready now to help by following 
directions. Return the blocks and let him try 
again. But upon the slightest indication of forget- 
fulness or deliberate disobedience, remove them 
aga'n in the same quiet, silent way. In time he 
will learn that there is more pleasure and fun in 
helping than in hindering. This plan has been 
tried and found successful, but it may not be the 
remedy for your particular trouble. In whatevei 
you do, respect the individuality of the child. We 
do not wish slavish obedience. 



In our January number we gave some sugges- 
tions regarding the preparation of clay, in response 
to an inquiry from a practicing kgner. We g've 
a few additional ideas this month which may be 
of special help to grade teachers who have had no 
training in the use of clay. 

In the first place, the hands of the children must 



■54 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



be made clean before they are permitted to manip- 
ulate the clay. So much do the children enjoy 
using the clay that it has been discovered that the 
appointment ahead of a particular day and hour 
when it is to be brought forth, will put a stop to 
truancy. It is said that ordinary clay cannot be 
used; artists' clay is relatively clean but not so 
satisfactory as Plasticine, which is probably the 
best material. If this is used, it is always ready 
for use and retains its plasticity. It comes in vari- 
ous colors which adds to its attractiveness. If the 
dry artists' clay is to be used, it should be prepared 
as follows: Tie it up in a cloth, or place in a 
cloth bag. Soak in water for an hour and a half, 
then without removing the cloth knead thoroughly 
until the mass seems plastic and free from lumps. 
Open cloth from time to time while kneading and 
examine the clay. If too dry return to the water, 
and if too wet, allow to dry off. When properly 
kneaded, it will have a springy feeling, and when 
rubbed smooth will glisten as if oily. If too wet, 
it will be sticky. If too dry, it will feel hard to the 
touch. With a little practice the teacher can tell 
when it is just right. When once put in proper 
condition it can ordinarily be so kept by being 
wrapped in a wet cloth several layers in thick- 
ness, and placed in a covered jar or pail, but should 
be examined several hours before each exercise to 
allow time for the clay to dry off if it should be 
found too wet. 

If clay flour is used water must be added to pro- 
duce the desired consistency. 

■ After each exercise any remnants or broken ob- 
jects from previous exercises should be thoroughly 
wet and placed in the cloth with the other clay, to 
be subsequently kneaded, in order that nothing may 
be wasted. 

Before putting away it is often desirable to give 
the clay a sun bath. Break it, after use, into small 
fragments and expose these to sunlight, which is a 
great germ destroyer and disinfectant. Of course, 
no child known to have a contagious disease or 
whose skin is badly broken, should handle the clay 
that is ever used by another child. In some schools 
enough clay is provided so that it need never be 
used more than once. 

The instinct with most children when given clay 
to handle for the first time is to roll it into what 
they call "worms" or to put it into lumps and 
pound it. Let them make a series of "worms" and 
then show them how these can be made into snakes, 
rings, chains, bracelets, etc. This is not the place 
to go into any detailed description of the many 
things to be made that will suggest themselves to 
the teacher. Fruits, vegetables, etc, placques with 
crosses and other designs in relief, all lend them- 
selves to this work in des'gn. 

In some kgs. when clay is used, oilcloth is placed 
upon the tables first. This, when not in use, is kept 
rolled upon a pole, a bre omhandle, etc. Or, each 
child may be provided a small square of smooth 
wood upon which to mold the clay. 



To the Editor of the Committee of the Whole: 
This question has recently been propounded: will 

you k : ndly give what you consider a reasonable 

answer: 

"Is a heart belief in the essential principles — not 

the dogma — of the Christian religion an essential 

qualification for the best kindergarten work?" 

J. H. S. 

Before an enlightening debate can take place, or 
a quest : on be answered, it is important that the de- 
bators understand exactly what each means by the 
words used. Just what are essential principles of 
the Christian religion? To love God with all our 
heart, mind and soul, and our neighbor as ourself? 
Would that reply satisfy our querist as a basis for 
further discussion? We could all subscribe to that, 
surely. 

There are in the United States more than fifty 
different Christian sects — each thinking they have 
been given the essence of the Truth. 

Those who are familiar with the life of Froebel 
know that he was at heart, in spirit and in his self- 
sacrificing life, a most reverent Christian, and yet 
in his kindergarten plans he placed no particular 
stress upon Christian belief as such. His definition 
of education, in a nutshell, he gives us as follows: 

"Education consists in leading man, as a think- 
ing, intelligent being growing into self-conscious- 
ness, to a pure and unsullied, conscious and free 
representation of the inner law of Divine Unity, 
and in teaching him ways and means thereto." 

Froebel recognized in each child the germ of the 
Divine, and the true kindergartner sees nothing of 
caste or color, or race or religion, in the little ones 
in her care. Her desire is to develop the good and 
inhibit and destroy the evil; so helping bring the 
kingdom of heaven upon earth. 

In this connection it is interesting to recall that 
many years ago in Hamburg, Germany, some of 
the leading Christian and Jewish'women were trou- 
bled by the spirit of race and religious antagonism 
then manifesting itself, and decided to form a com- 
mon union in order to grow to know each other 
better and dissipate this uncivilized feeling. To aid 
in this object it was decided to start with the chil- 
dren and it was thus that the first kindergarten 
was established in Hamburg. The movement was a 
part of he general liberalizing spirit of 1848. 

We surely would not cut out from kindergarten 
ranks the many consecrated Jewish kindergartners 
who could not honestly subscribe to the doctrines 
of Christianity and yet make admirable teachers. 

We would remind our youthful kindergartners, 
however, that in claiming for each one the germ 
of the Divine, we do not mean to say that the child 
is necessarily an angel of perfection. The animal 
and the human are decidedly in evidence all through 
childhood and later; hers to nourish the good in 
each and help him to down the evil. 

If the kindergartner's faith in the possibilities of 
the child depends upon her faith in orthodox Chris- 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



155 



tianity then this faith is of course essential to good 
work. Assuming that she has this faith, she must 
also have good training in Froebelian theory and 
practice. 



To the Editor of the Committee of the Whole: 

There are such excellent daily plans for the kin- 
dergarten in the Kindergarten Primary Magazine. 

Do you know of plans worked out in a similar 
way for the Primary Grade? If so, will you be 
kind enough to give address where they can be 
gotten? R. T. A. 

Our correspondent will probably find her needs 
supplied by a very complete set of suggestions 
found in the "Month to Month" series, now pub- 
lished in a set of three volumes by the A. S. Barnes 
Company, New York City. They represent what 
has been accomplished in Nature Study during the 
first and second school years. Flowers fruit, in- 
sects and seeds, stars, the winds, etc., are studied 
with relation to society and to the State. The 
books are abundantly illustrated. There are pic- 
tures from the masters; stories and myths; songs 
and many poems each month to appeal to the 
child's esthetic sense. There are suggest : ons for 
busy work of various kinds, such as drawing on the 
blackboard, paper cutting, folding, weaving, the 
making of toys from nature materials. There are 
drawings for blackboard calendars, and exercises 
for the different special school celebrations, such 
as Arbor Day and the national hol'days. 

The sensible teacher will not, of course, try to 
use all the material under a given topic, for any 
one occasion. But both teachers and parents will 
find the volumes valuable as storehouses of sug- 
gestion, arranged so that one subject develops nat- 
urally from that preceding it. 

The authors are Sara H. Willis and Florence V. 
Farmer. 

We will be pleased to have others of our readers 
tell of programs that they have found helpful. Those 
who have found any assistance in these columns 
are requested to help others by asking questions 
and giving replies. 

The prices of these volumes in which Nature Study 
is correlated with reading, literature, language, art, 
drawing-lessons, etc., are as followe: 

Any one or more monthly volumes inpaper, each 35c. 
Set of ten monthly volumes in paper, $2.50; Spring vol- 
ume (cloth) §1.50; Autumn volume (cloth) $1,25; Win- 
ter volume (cloth) |1.25; Set of three (cloth) $4.00. 

We must once more ask our querists to always 
sign their full names and addresses when asking 
questions. These will not be printed in full if not 
desired. Initials or nom de plumes may be used 
as signatures in the text. But the editor holds 
herself justified at any time to withhold a reply if 
full name is withheld. 



Car Don'ts For Children. 

The American Museum of Safety is going to try to 
teach the children of this city to exercise more care 
when they are in the streets, so that there will be fewer ac- 
cidents. President Arthur Williams of the museum says 
that during May twenty-nine children were killed in the 
streets, to say nothing of the large number removed to the 
hospitals who were injured. The museum is at 39 
West Thirty-ninth Street, New York. 

When the children get to the museum they will see 
little trolley cars and dolls to teach them certain dangers, 
and how to get on and off a car. The children will also 
get a little text book of "Don'ts" that contains these 
cautions: 

Don't hang on behind the car. 

Don't stand on the car steps. 

Don't touch a wire, it may be a live one. 

Don't put your head or arms out of the car windows. 

Don't run across a car track in front of an approach- 
ing car, automobile, or wagon. 

Don't cross immediately behind a passing car; there 
may be another car or wagon approaching closely in the 
opposite direction. 

Don't jump on or off a moving car. 

Don't get off facing rear of car. 

Don't cross street without looking both ways for pass- 
ing automobiles and wagons. 

Don't fail, when leaving car, to look both ways for 
other vehicles. 

Don't play in the street where car tracks are. 

Don't cross a street except at a crosswalk. 

Don't take a chance. 

The museum folk are hoping to get the Interborough 
to carry the children to and from the museum free of 
charge. 



Jack-In-The-Box 

Construct a cube from a square of stiff cardboard 5x5 
inches. Fasten sides securely, leaving one square free 
for cover of box. 

Make a "Jacob's Ladder" from two pieces of glazed 
paper 1x24 inches. Paste one end of the ladder to the 
bottom ofthe box— paste aSanta Glaus head on the other 
end of the ladder and press down into the cube. 

Fasten a string around the box and tie cover down. 

Release this string to open the box and Jack will jump 
out. 

"Snow-Ball" Invitations. Snow-ball invitations to 
exercises or entertainments are simple yet very dainty. 

Use two-and-one-half-inch circles of white drawing 
paper, brushing them over on one side with a solution 
of gum arabic, and sprinkle with artificial snow. 

Make little booklets by tying the sparkling circles in 
twos with tiny knots of white satin baby ribbon. 

Fasten the small folded notes inside with dots of paste. 

Gum arabic is used instead of mucilage because, being 
colorless, it holds the diamond dust invisibly and is easy 
for the smallest fingers to manage neatlv. 

' C. G. D. 

Toy Train. Fold four-inch black folding papers on 
the diameter, forming what is known in the .kindergarten 
as the book. 

With the folded edge as the top, cut in for the smoke- 
stack and whistle. 

The wheels and cowcatcher are black parquetry cirles 
and triangles. 

Paste white oblongs on for the windows. Connect the 
cars with the pieces cut from the ends. 

A bit of white cotton may be used for smoke. 

— From School Arts Magazine. 



'56 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



KINDERGARTEN STORIES 

THE UNINHABITED CASTLE. 
By Susan Plessner Pollock. 

The master of the castle was on a journey. "How 
must Castle Lerum look without the Master Pessu- 
mehr?" said the children in the little house in the 
wood; he was really gone! Just after the Christ- 
mas holidays John, dressed in the castle uniform, 
had harnessed the coach horses to the great glass 
coach and driven his master to the nearest railroad 
station, from where the shrieking and whistling 
locomotive had hurried him away. All this was 
told to the children by Godmother Kranz, who, in 
the week between Christmas and New Year, had 
visited in the little house in the wood. Dora, too, 
went daily thro' the grounds, past the castle, when 
she and Nero, drew the sled, took the milk to 
town. Dora had told that all the window shutters 
in the castle were closed, she had said that as 
she went by, the castle looked as if it was asleep, 
and Nero had nodded with his head and softly 
growled; that was his way of saying "Yes, it is 
so." On New Year's morning father and mother 
walked to town to church; grandma got onto the 
sled, to which Dora harnessed Nero, and as the' 
road was frozen hard and smooth, he drew grand- 
ma; just look at the good dog how he wags his 
tail with pleasure, it was no small honor, instead 
of the milk cans to draw grandma. 

During church service, the children remained 
with a deaf neighbor of the Godmother Kranz, for 
they could not yet understand the preaching, so 
they were allowed to go to Frau Inspector, who 
had promised to guide them thro' the castle. Do 
any of you little people know what curiosity is? 
Yes? Then you can just imagine in what a hurry 
Herman and Gertrude sprang thro' the castle court. 
They nearly forgot to say "good-day" to John, who 
met them, and when Sultan from his dog kennel 
barked loudly at them, they tumbled so suddenly 
against each other for fright and surprise that they 
almost knocked each other down. Breathlessly 
they presented themselves before Frau Inspector, 
who said to them, "Now clrldren, rest yourselves"; 
but that was unnecessary, for how can anyone be 
tired, when one is curious? The inspector's wife 
put on a warm jacket, took the key out of her sec- 
retary, and now they all started. The key rattled 
in the lock, the big outside door creaked and there 
they stood in the hall. Ah! what was to be seen 
here? Nothing! It was perfectly dark. 

The inspector's wife opened one shutter a little. 
Now one could see enough to reach the salon door 
without bumping against anythng. The salon door 
opened and closed again behind the children. 
Everything was dark; the ceiling gave a great 
crack! bump! Grandfather's big chair rolled into 
the middle of the room over the waxed floor. Her- 
man had run against it. "Stand perfectly still, 
children," said the inspector's wife, "until I let in 



the daylight," and the children stood as still as 
marble columns. Now came a ray of sunlight 
thro' the opened shutter crack. It seemed like a 
little bridge of light, which stretched itself thro' 
the whole length of the salon and on it danced 
countless dust motes and feather bits. It was like 
the insect dance in the summer: one could recog- 
nize the objects around one, but they looked won- 
derful; the high-backed velvet settees (fauteilles), 
like those in the red room and the blue room of 
the President's White House in Washington, D. C, 
were all covered over with grey linen and their 
gilded legs were bandaged up, as if they belonged 
to invalids. The great chandeliers wore cloths 
wound about them, as if they had the headache; in 
front of the immense mirrors and the paintings 
with gold frames, hung curtains. Pretty, could no 
one call this masquerade of furniture, and at the 
same time it cracked here, it snapped there, the 
wind howled in the chimney — hark! what was that? 
"The books sneezed," said Gertrude; yes, she had 
heard it qu'te plainly, the sneeze came out of the 
bookcase, but no one had ever heard that books 
could catch cold! even if it was, to be sure, cold 
enough. But Airs. Inspector laughed over Ger- 
trude's remark and pointed out to the children the 
gardener's boy who had just passed by the win- 
dow and had perhaps had a pinch of snuff from 
his father's snuff-box. Every room in the castle 
looked alike in its lonely silence — all the furniture 
covered with dust protectors and hangings before 
all the pictures, that was somewhat monotonous. 
At last, however, Mrs. Inspector opened one more 
door and the children entered a large room into 
which they had never before been admitted. But 
what was in this room behind the library It must 
be something especial, for Mrs. Inspector, who had, 
everywhere else, only opened the shutters in cracks, 
here threw them all wide open — Herman and Ger- 
trude should see everything in this room, and with 
what aston'shment they gazed about them. They 
thought they must be in a toy-store, and where 
do you suppose they were? They stood in the 
playroom of Master Pessumehr when he was a 
little boy, in his own old playroom, but Master 
Pessumehr was a grown up man — well, why not? 
Herman and Gertrude would also be grown up 
some day; but once upon a time Master Pessumehr 
had also been a little child like Herman and Ger- 
trude. The Lerum castle had so many rooms that 
it had not been necessary to use the old playroom 
and so all the toys could be taken care of there. 

In one corner stood a beaut'ful tin coach and a 
freight wagon, a rocking horse and many boxes, 
but what to them was the most astonishing was a 
low table that stood in the middle of the room, 
on which stood built, a regular town, many streets, 
beautiful houses, and a castle. In the streets, tiny 
playmen and women were out for a walk (they 
were no larger than Gertrude's little finger). "That 
is Lerum," called out the children. "Oh! that is 
Master Pessumehr," shouted Herman, as he point- 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



*57 



ed to one of the tiny men, standing before the cas- 
tle. The whole town was covered with a fine grey 
powder; it was not snow (it looked like ashes), nor 
was it dust, for the whole table had been care- 
fully covered up and Mrs. Inspector had taken the 
cover off; it was moth powder; it was here to pro- 
tect the table from the little moths, which are 
always ready, where things are unused, to lay siege 
and bring them to earth again. The little toy peo- 
ple in Lerum town, who all seemed well dressed, 
would soon have looked like beggars, if the moth 
hordes had overtaken them, but Master Pessumehr 
looked almost like a chimney sweep and had a very 
troubled face; his black nose surely worried him. 
Mrs. Inspector took him up in her hand and blew 
a strong breath; there flew a cloud of moth powder 
from off the little figure; then he looked quite 
friendly and Gertrude declared he had nodded his 
head; still the little man looked quite pale, per- 
haps he was cold! for there was no wood there 
with which to make a fire. "We will gather some 
for him, in our forest," said Herman. That was a 
good thought, but the wood was not just now here. 
Gertrude took the little figure in her hand and 
breathed on it; the inspector's wife, however, took 
some cotton wadding from one of the plaything 
boxes and made a little mantle of it for him; from 
her pocket she took several pepper kernels and trod 
on them, then she scattered them over the mantle, 
saying, "There, that is as good as moth powder." 
After Lerum town had been looked at long enough 
that corner of the room where the boxes were must 
be visited and observed, especially the boxes in 
which the tin soldiers slept; but what was that? 
Suddenly it seemed to be very lively in Lerum 
town; what destruction! Were there earthquakes 
here? Toy houses and trees fell over each other; 
Master Pessumehr lay on his nose. An earth- 
quake it was not, but something much larger than 
Master Pessumehr, which he perhaps might have 
thought was an elephant, ran thro' the play streets 
of Lerum town and did the mischief. That small 
monster was as grey as an elephant, had also four 
legs, two eyes, two ears and a mouth, but no ele- 
phant's trunk. Husck! there Master Pessumehr's 
little elephant ran over Gertrude's foot and disap- 
peared, so that she screamed loudly. "Oh dear 
me," said Mrs. Inspector, "That is a visitor we do 
not care for! It will nibble on Master Pessumehr's 
nose and who knows what all, do for mischief! 
We put moth powder everywhere to keep the en- 
emy from Lerum. but against this little jumper 
from the fields, that will do no good; this is no 
moth, we must catch him!" The inspector's wife 
went back into her' house and brought a little wire 
cage, that on top had an opening on the roof and 
on the side was a little door. Inside she laid a 
small piece of fat meat and a bit of tallow candle 
and placed the cage in the middle of the Lerum 
castle court place. That was well done, for this 
kind of little elephants are very fond of eating 



tallow candle. There stood the little prison and 
smelled fine. 

The little toy people might have thought a soap 
refinery had been set down in their midst; how they 
did all stare at that strange looking building, that 
was almost as large as the castle of the tiny Master 
Pessumehr; he could have given a party in it. 
"Sh!" "Hsh!" "There rustles the little country 
trickster among some paper bits; may he just get 
caught, the rogue! think of it! what behavior that 
is, — to tumble houses over and without a word to 
knock Master Pessumehr down; such actions can- 
not be allowed by the police; to keep the peace is 
the first duty of all good citizens and here comes 
a furry stranger and turns everything upside down; 
that will never do! He probably does not know that 
strangers must have a passport when they come 
to foreign kingdoms; the little rascal surely had no 
passport, for where could he have carried it. One 
saw no pocket in his fur coat, nor had he a travel- 
ing bag with him, but come, children, we will seat 
ourselves in the corner that Mr. Mischief Maker 
may not be disturbed, in case he should go into 
the trap." 

It was only a little while and toy Master Pes- 
sumehr called out, he did not exactly speak, but he 
fell down again on his nose and that was a sign 
that the breaker of the peace was again there. 
Right! there he sat in the cage: foolish little fellow, 
it would have been better had you remained in your 
own home. "Ah! you precious little mousie," cried 
Gertrude, "I will keep you and take care of you 
like a little canary bird." Herman was also de- 
lighted over the little prisoner and the children left 
the playroom rejoicing, to go and show their father 
and mother and grandma their small grey treasure. 

THE JANUARY THAW, AND HOW IT ALL 
HAPPENED. 

By Mary Ellason Cotting, 
566 Main St., Waltham, Mass. 

Jack Frost and Nipsey Tingle were right close 
together early one morning skirmishing all over 
everywhere: finally Nipsey Tingle said, "We must 
take a little rest so as to be ready to attend to 
sending another big coverlet down from the snow- 
making place to help the seeds and bulbs and roots 
to be just right for growing when Mother Nature 
sets the frog-peepers to sending spring messages 
to everything and everybody. 

No wonder Jack Frost and Nipsey Tingle were 
tired, for they had worked very hard to cover a 
great many ponds with shining ice and painted the 
most beautiful pictures on the windows of so 
many, many houses and made so many ice-needles, 
and nipped a great number of children on the noses 
and pinched their cheeks till they were red as 
June roses. 

So Jack snapped a piece of thin ice till it cracked, 
and Nipsey Tingle blustered and blew and they 
started off together. 

The Who-oo-oo creature ruffled his feathers all 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



out till he was bigger than he needed to be, and 
he blinked his eyes and thought he'd peep out his 
window in the oak-tree trunk; but what good would 
that do, for he couldn't see in the daytime anyway 
— and — besides no one ever saw Jack Frost, or Nip- 
sey Tingle alone, or together — for as soon as any- 
one tries to find them they're gone; and if they are 
followed, why, they just swoop upon you and be- 
fore you know it they'll surround you and you'll 
feel so tingly and freezy you'll have to scamper 
into the house to get warm. Then they'll laugh 
and go on their blustering way om e more. 

The wise old owl said, "Su-oo-oo-oore, they're 
slying away and I'm guessing that Nipsey Tingle's 
cousin Softly Blow is stealing this way. O, I do 
hope she is coming, for then the snow will melt, 
and the ice will crack and break and go drifting 
on the water and all the little things under the 
ground will have such a splendid drinking time 
that they'll feel just like springing up pretty soon 
when Softest Breezes gently call to Gentle Show- 
ers to open the door for Springtime to really come 
to us." 

Then Wise Owl dropped his big, round face 
down against his soft feathers and dozed and dozed. 
For you know Jack Frost and Nipsey Tingle had 
not gone very far away — they'd not really started 
yet for Coldest Land. 

After a while Wise Owl heard a queer rustling 
and up went his round face again, and he listened 
a moment before he said, "O, that noise is in the 
big branch over my home — the squirrel family must 
have heard what Jack Frost and Nipsey Tingle 
were going to do. Very likely the mother squirrel 
is thinking of taking a run out on the oak-tree 
branches or along the stone-wall. Well, I shall 
"be glad indeed to see the snow melt off, so she 
can run about without chilling her toes, and I can 
go out to catch a little field-mouse. I don't love 
the snow one little bit!" 

Then he went to sleep once more, and so did the 
squirrel family too — there wasn't even the softest 
kind of a squeak that came from its home after 
that. 

All day long Softly Blow was watching his chance 
and when the little moon crept up in the sky he 
came softly creeping, creeping all over the ponds 
and brooks, and snow-covered fields, and yards and 
streets. 

When next morning got here and the sun shone 
forth the ice was growing thinner and thinner; the 
snow-men had lost their hats and heads, and pretty 
soon their arms and legs would vanish, and so 
would all the snow-drifts and banks too. 

O, I tell you. Nipsey Tingle's cousin was having 
the very best kind of a time sending little water- 
drips drip, drip, drip down into the earth. You 
know, it takes a good deal of time to turn so much 
snow into water-drips so Softly Blow was obliged 
to stay around ever so many days. He sent a mes- 
sage up — way, way up — into the air asking the 



clouds to send down some rain-drops — millions 
upon millions of them. 

Well, while the clouds were helping, Nipsey Tin- 
gle, who likes to make surprises better than any- 
thing in this world, whirled back again and froze 
those rain drops into tiny, tiny ice balls, and how 
they did batter-patter on the roofs and sidewalks 
and against the trees. 

When Nipsey Tingle had finished his fun-game 
he let Softly Blow have his rain-drops once more, 
and such a busy time as he had! 

In a week the ground was all bare and the squir- 
rels could run on the walls without getting their 
paws wet. 

Jack Bunny and Crafty Fox went out to run; all 
the roots and resting things under ground, the 
maple keys and acorns cuddled under the leaves 
that blew over them when West Wind was strip- 
ping all the branches, felt almost like rising right 
up. 

But Mother Nature whispered to them to keep 
snug in their places — for this was only the January 
Thaw, and down they snuggled to wait a little 
longer. 

It is very well they obeyed Mother Nature, for 
Softly Blow stole away one night and Nipsey Tin- 
gle and Jack Frost whisked back again, and got 
their heads so very close together that there was 
a great blowing and freezing; the great big snow- 
flakes came down and covered the earth again with 
a thick coverlet and the ice on the ponds was thick 
enough for skat : ng. 

Sound asleep all Mother Nature's tfeasures must 
stay until Softly Blow. Softest Breezes and Gentle 
Showers bring the real spring-time, and the breezy, 
freezy Nipsey and Jack go to make a long visit to 
Coldest Land. 



Why The Dove Carried The Valentine 

Laura Fenwick Ogbqrn 

It was Saint Valentine's Day. Little Lorraine had 
been very sick but she was better now and the nurse 
said she might sit up and watch the children go by to 
school. Nurse had promised her that after a few more 
days she migat go to kindergarten again. 

While Lorraine sat watching the children she wondered 
if any one would send her a valentine. She did not 
know who it would be but she hoped that some little 
f dry or some little cupid would bring her one. It would 
make her very happy, she thought, for the day was so 
cold that Lorraine must not go out of doors to play and 
she was feeling lonely for she had no brother or sister 
to play with her. 

Now while Lorraine sat by the window thinkingabout 
a valentine, all the little fairies in fairy land,andall the 
little cupids in cupid land, and all the little birdies in bird 
land were having a gay time. 

By and by one of the cupids said to one of the fa?ries, 

"Lorraine has been very sick; would it not be nice to 
send her a valentine?" 

"Oh, yes," said the fairy, "but who shall take it: it is 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



159 



such a long, long way to the north land and it is very 
cold." 

All the little cupids flapped their wings, and all the 
little fairies waved their wands and said: 

"Let us get a bird to carry a valentine to Lorraine." 

Then away they all went into bird land which was near 
by, to find a birdie to carry the message of love to the 
little girl in the far away north land. 

All the little cupids and all the little fairies began to 
wonder what bird they should ask to carry the valentine. 

"Shall we ask the robin?" said the cupids. 

"Oh, no," answered the fairies, "It is such a long, cold 
journey and it is not time yet for the robins to return 
to the north land. The robin could not go. We must 
find another bird to go." 

"Well," said the cupids, "shall we ask Jennie Wren 
to go for us?" 

"Oh, no, "answered the fairies, "it is such a long cold 
journey and it is not time yet for the wren to return to 
the north land. These little birds would freeze and die. 
We must find another bird to go for us." 

"Oh," said the cupids, "could we not ask the oriole 
or the meadow lark to carry our message? They sing 
so sweetly-." 

"Oh, no," answered the fairies, "it is such a long cold 
journey and it is not time yet for the orio'e and the mea. 
dow lark to return to the northland. They woulf never 
find Lorraine for they could not g > through the storms 
of the north land. We must find another bird." 

"Then," said all the cupids, "let us ask the dove to 
go and take our message." 

"Oh. yes," answered the fairies, "the dove can carry 
the valentine, for the dove is such a big stroDg bird. 
We will ask the dove to go for us." 

So the cupids and the fairies went to the dove to ask 
him 10 carry their love to Lorraine away off in the north 
land. And all the little cupids flapped their wings, and 
all the little fairies waved their wands and sang: 

"Go, pretty birdie, 

Go, pretty dove, 
Go, pretty messenger, 

Cany our love." 

"Oh," said the dove, "it is a very long journey to the 
north land and I shall get so tired." 

"Oh, no," answered the little fairies, "you will not get 
tired — you aie such a big, strong bird. You can cany 
the valentine for us." 

And all the little cupids flapped their wings, and all 
the little fairies waved their wands and sang: 

"Go, pretty birdie, 

Go, pretty djve. 
Go, pretty messanger, 

Garry our love." 

"Oh," said the dove, "it is such a long journey to the 
north land and I will get very cold." 

"Oh no," answered the little fairies, "you have nice 
warm feathers; you will not get cold. You can ca. ry 
the valentine for us." 

And all the little cupids flapped their wings, and all 
the little fairies waved their wands and sang: 



"Go, pretty birdie, 
Go, pretty dove, 
Go, pretty messenger, 
Carry our love." 
"Oh," said the dove, "it is such a long journey to the 
north land and I shall get so hungry before I get back." 
"Oh," said the little fairies, "you will not get hungry 
for Lorraine will feed you when she sees you." 

And all the little cupids flapped their wings, and all 
the little fairies waved their wands and sang: 
Go, pretty birdie, 
Go, pretty dove, 
Go, pretty messenger, 
Carry our love." 
"But," said the dove, "what shall my pay be if I carry 
the valentine to the far away north land?" 

"Oh," said the fairies and thecupids, "we do not pay 

f jr carrying valentines. When you make little children 

happy then you will be happy and that will be your pay." 

"Well," said the dove, "then I think I'll go and find 

Lorraine." 

So the cupids tied the valentine to the dove and the 
dove spread its great beautiful wings and flew up, up, 
high and higher, away towards the land of ice and snow 
while all the little cupids flapped their wings, and all the 
little fairies waved their wands and sang: 
"Go, pretty birdie, 
Go, pretty dove, 
Go, pretty messenger, 
Carry our love." 
Now it was a long cold hard journey to the north land 
and the dove had not gone many miles when a storm 
came upon him and he had to stop in a tall oak tree to 
rest a while. But by and by he said: 
"Now I must gj on and find Lorraine." 
So again he spread his great beautiful wings and flew 
away, away on and on until at last tired and hungry he 
reaehe 1 the north land, there to find Lorraine sitting by 
her window still wondering if anybody would send her a 
valentine. The dove s-topped right at the very window 
where Lorraine sat, eating her lunch, and she opened her 
window to let the dove rest on the window sill. Little 
Lorraine took the valentine and thanked the pretty dove. 
Then she gave him some nice crumbs from her lunch. 
When the dove was no longer tired or hungry Lorraine 
lifted him up 0:1 her hand and said: 

"Now go back home do bird land, pretty dove." 
And away he Hew back to fairy land, back to bird land, 
back tocupidlandand as he flew he sang this little song: 
"Coo-coo-coo-coo-coo." Whichmeant, "lam so happy 
because I made little Lorraine happy." 



LITTLE LAP. 



Hi! little Lap! Ho little Lap! 
May 1 have a ride on your sled? 
The little Lap says never a word, 
His reindeers prance on ahead. 

Hi! little Lap! Ho little Lap! 
Will you take dinner with me 
The little Lap says "Thank you, no, 
I have plenty of whale-oil, see!" 
(.What do Eskimo children and Laplanders eat?) 



i6o 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



A YEAR IN THE KINDERGARTEN 



Harriette McCarthy 



Kindergarten Director, OKI: 



City Public Schools 



[NOTE.— Owing to the delay necessary to reach our for- 
eign subscribers, we have adopted the plan of printing the 
program for two or three weeks of the following month. 
Some of our American subscribers prefer the program to 
begin with the current month, and in order to accommo- 
date both, we republish in this issue that porl ion of the 
February program which appeared last month.] 

FEBRUARY 

FIRST WEEK. 

Songs— 

Thumkins Says I'll Dance. (Walker and Jenks.) 
The Pigeon Song. (Walker and Jenks.) 

MONDAY. 

Circle — Speak of which month this is. Its length. Ask 
children if days are growing longer or shorter. 
Story. Betsy Ross and the First Flag. 

Rhythm — Marching. 

Gift — Build forms of life with fourth gift. 

Games — Soldier Boy, Soldier Boy. (Hofer's Old 
and New Singing Games.) 

Occupation — Make flag. 

TUESDAY. 

Circle — All about the Southland. The climate there. 

Introduce the little black child. 
Rhythm — Side-skip. 

Gift — Forms of life with third and fourth. 
Game — Going to Jerusalem. 
Occupation — Cut elephant. 

WEDNESDAY. 

Circle — Tell of animals that live in the Southland. How 

the black people brought to this country as slaves. 
Rhvthm — Cross-skip. 
Gift— First gift. 
Game— Rig-a-Jig-Jig. 
Occupation — Crayola outlined bananas. 

THURSDAY. 

Circle — Tell of Lincoln, who freed the free black 
slaves. Tell of his early boyhood life. 

Rhythm — Marching by twos and fours. 

Gift — Seventh gift sticks. Build Lincoln's log cabin. 

Game — The King of France. (Hofer's Old and New 
Singing Games.) 

Occupation — Fold soldier's cap. 

FRIDAY. 

Circle — Later life of Lincoln. His birthday reviewed. 

Rhythm — Those used. 

Game — Free choice. 

Gift— Sticks. 

Occupation — Fold soldier tent. 

Song- 
Little Dove, You Are Welcome. (Walker and 

Jenks.) 
The Pigeon. (Walker and Jenks.) 
The Carrier Dove. (Hailman.) 

SECOND WEEK 

MONDAY. 

Circle— Talk about St. Valentine's Day. Tell of kind- 
ness of St. Valentine, and how we remember the 
day. 

Rhythm — See-Saw. 

Gift — Second. 

Game — Sense games of smell and taste. 

Occupation — Make envelope for valentine. 



TUESDAY. 

Circle — More about St. Valentine. Story. The Dove. 

(Plan Book, p. 64.) 
Rhythm — Marching. 
Gift — Second and third. 
Game — The Postman. 
Occupation — Making valentines. 

WEDNESDAY. 

Circle— Story. Philip's Valentine. (In the Child 
World.) 

Rhythm — Side-skip. 

Gift— Third. 

Game — Free choice. 

Occupation — Have valentine box, and give out valen- 
tines. 

THURSDAY. 

Circle — Review all about St. Valentine. Story. Con- 
stant Dove. (In the Child's World.) 
Rhythm — Marching and See-Saw. 

Gift — Third and fourth. Illustrate Philip's Valentine. 

Game — Those played. 

Occupation — Cut out postman. 

FRIDAY. 

Circle— All about St. Valentine. 

Rhvthm — Marching. 

Gift— Third gift. 

Game— Rig-a-Jig-Jig. 

Occupation — Making flags. 

Songs- 
America. 

Washington. (New Kg. Songs. Halsey.) 
Noble Washington. (Smith and Weaver.) 

THIRD WEEK 

MONDAY. 

Circle — Who George Washington was. He was a good 
child, brave man. When is his birthday? What do 
we do to honor his name? 

Rhythm — Soldier Boy. 

Gift — Third and fourth. 

Game — Rig-a-Jig-Jig. 

Occupation — Draw flags. 

TUESDAY. 

Circle — Why do we celebrate Washington's Birthday? 

What kind of a boy was Washington. Tell story 

of The Cherry Tree. 

Rhythm — See-Saw. 
Gift — Third and fourth. 

Game — Marching. Leader wearing continental hat. 
Occupation — Cut and color hatchets. 

WEDNESDAY. 

Circle — Tell story of happy farm life of George as a 
little boy. What a plantation is like. George's out- 
door life. 

Rhythm — Marching. Soldier Boy. 

Gift— Build a fort with fifth gift. 

Game— In-door hop-scotch. 

Occupation — Make red, white and blue badges. 



Holiday. 



THURSDAY. 



FRIDAY. 



Circle — Review all about Washington. 

Rhythm — Soldier Boy. 

Gift — Second and third. 

Game— Free choice. 

Occupation — Folding tents and soldier caps. 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



161 



FOURTH WEEK. 

Song: 

The Knights. 

The Red, White and Blue. 

MONDAY. 

Circle — Story of the Knights. 

Rhythm — Front skip. 

Gift— Third and fourth. 

Game— How Do You Do, My Partner. 

Occupation — Cut castles. 

TUESDAY. 

Circle — Knights and good child. As in Mother Play. 

Rhythm — Side skip. 

Gift— Second Gift. 

Game — Little Duck. 

Occupation — Cut helmets and swords of cardboard. 

WEDNESDAY. 

Circle — Knights and the ill natured child. Story. 

How Arthur Became a Knight. 
Rhythm — Jump-ing Jack. 
Gift — Fifth. Build castle and castle wall. 
Game — Merry Go Round. 
Occupation — Make chain flag. 

THURSDAY. 

Circle — Retell story, How Arthur Became a Knight. 
Rhythm — High Stepping Horses. 
Gift — Build fort with third. 
Game — The Family. 

Occupation — Make parquetry border w'th circles 
and squares. 

FRIDAY. 

Circle — Review all about Knights. 

Rhythm — Marching by l's and 2's. 

Gift — Second and third. 

Game — Owl. 

Occupation — Painting from object a ball. 

MARCH 

FIRST WEEK 

Songs: 

In the Branches of a Tree (Wa'ker & Jenks.) 
Pussy Willow (Walker & Jenks) 
See Million of Bright Raindrops (Walker & 
Jenks.) 

MONDAY. 

Circle — The trees of the forest. Kinds and what 

used for. 
Rhythm — Swinging. 
Gift— Third gift. 
Game — Little Ducks. 
Occupation — Cut trees. 

TUESDAY. 

Circle — The woodman and the logging camp. Story. 

The Story of an Acorn. 
Rhythm — Bouncing ball. 
Gift — Third and fourth. 
Game — Owl. 
Occupation — Construct paper houses. 

WEDNESDAY. 

Circle — Name all articles : n the room made of 
wood. Speak of wood used as fuel. Story, 
The Discontented Fir Tree. 

Rhythm — Flying birds. 

Gift— Fifth gift. Invent. 

Game — How Do You Do, My Partner. 



THURSDAY. 

Circle — Speak of carpenter. The kind of wood he 

uses in building houses. 
Rhythm — Marching. 
Gift— Third gift. 
Game — Little Ducks. 
Occupation — Make crayola trees. 

FRIDAY. 

Circle — Review all about wood. 

Rhythm — Review. 

Gift — Peg board. Place pegs in triangular forms. 

Game — Free choice. 

Occupation — Paper folding. Double boat. 

SECOND WEVK 

Songs: 

Careful Gardener (Walker & Jenks.) 
Careful Gardner (Walker & Jenks.) 
Morning Hymn (Walker & Jenks. ) 
All the Little Sparrows (Walker & Jenks.) 

MONDAY. 

Circle— Talk about coal. What it is. Where found. 
Rhythm — Front and side skip. 
Gift — Second and third. 
Game — Rig-a-Jig-Jig. 

Occupation — Cut lire-places of black silhouette pa- 
per. 

TUESDAY. 

Circle — Talk about coal mines. Show picture of 

man in mine. Ask uses of coal. 
Rhythm — Flying Birds. 
Gift — Second and third. 
Game — Lads and Lassies. 
Occupation — Paint from object. Oranges. 

WEDNESDAY. 

Circle — Ask name of men who get mineral out of 
the earth. Name other things that are mined. 
Story, Little Black Sambo. 

Rhythm — Jump'ng Jack. 

Gift — Fourth, Border pattern. 

Game — Little Ducks. 

Occupation — Cut silhouette of coal man. 



THURSDAY, 
ith g 



oal and iron. 



Circle — Tell where bla 

Rhythm — Marching. 

Gift— Sticks. 

Game — Lads and Lassies. 

Occupation^Make crayola horse-shoes. 

FRIDAY. 

Circle — Review all about coal and coal miners. 
Rhythm — Review. 
Gift — Third and fourth. 
Game — Review. 

Occupation — Parquetry design of circles and half 
circles. 

THIRD WEEK 

Songs: 

All the Birds Have Come Again (Walker & 

Jenks.) 
The Blue Bird (Walker & Jenks.) 
The Alder by the River (Walker & Jenks.) 

MONDAY. 

Circle — The coming of spring. Free discussion. 
Rhythm — Side skip. 
Gift — Second and third. 
Game — Looby Loo. 



162 



THE KINDERGARTEN PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



Occupation — Fold kites. 

TUESDAY. 

Circle — More about the coming of spring. 
Story — The Morning Glory Seed. (Boston Collec- 
tion of Kg. Stories.) 
Rhythm — Flying birds. 
Gift — Third and fourth. 
Game — Swinging. 
Occupation — Cut and mount blackbirds. 

WEDNESDAY, 

Circle — More about spring. Name all the seasons 
of the year. Discuss weather in spring. 

Rhythm — High Stepping Horses. 

Gift — Sixth gift. Divide and replace. First in three 
equal parts then in six. 

Game — How Do You Do, My Partner. 

Occupation — Crayola. 

THURSDAY. 

Circle — All you can tell of spring. 

Story— A Surprise. (In the Child World.) 

Rhythm — Jumping Jack. 

Gift — Third and fourth. 

Game — Now With Your Hands Go Clap, Clap, Clap. 

Occupation — Weave a mat. 

FRIDAY. 

Circle — Review all about spring. 
Rhythm — Review. 
Gift — Second compared with third. 
Game — Free choice. 
Occupation— Fold a bat. 



What the Rural Schools are doing. 

There are signs that the rural schools are at last com- 
ing into their own. Long the neglected factor in Amer- 
ican education, they are now in progress of a regenera- 
tion that is as thoroughgoing as it is necessary. 

It is not merely that educators have turned their at- 
tention to the problem; it is not .merely that much is 
currently written on the subject (one-fourth of the bul- 
letins published in 1912 by the United States Bureau of 
Education deal directly with rural education) ; it is ra- 
ther that theory has given place to practice; that the 
work of rural education is actually under way. 

Teachers of experience armed with the essential facts 
of rural life, acquainted with the needs of.the commu- 
nities they serve, sincere in their faith in the country as 
the place to live in and build up citizenship, are doing 
for the rural districts what the pioneer teachers of for- 
mer generations did for the city and the town. 

These rural teachers are actually accomplishing the 
work that has so long been merely talked about. Old 
one-room ram-shackle schoolhouses are torn down to 
make way for attractive little buildings, not necessarily 
larger than the old, but built on sound principles of 
beauty and utility; or, frequently, the place of the dis- 
carded building has been taken by the more imposing 
structure of the consolidated school, symbol of educa- 
tional efficiency. 

Even the literature on rural education shows the ef- 
fects of the practical application of what were formerly 
only theories. Current bulletins of the Bureau of Edu- 
cation describe the training of rural school-teachers, 
not as something that might be done, but as something 
that has been done and is done every day. It is no 



longer the problem of knowing what ought to be done, 
but of doing it — the problem of disseminating the knowl- 
edge that is already available. 

The realization of the significance of rural education 
marks a turning point in American history. For the 
better part of a century American education developed 
one-sidedly — as a city and town matter. To live in the 
country was to be isolated from the better things of civ- 
ilization —including education. That the population 
of the United States was and is predominantly rural did 
not seem to enter the question. There was a feeling that 
the country could take care of itself; that the "little red 
school house" could accomplish everything with noth- 
ing; that there was an inexhaustible supply of school- 
teachers willing to handle an assortment of youngsters 
of varying ages and abilities, do janitor chores and per- 
form the numerous other duties of the old-time school- 
master, all for a few dollars per week, with utter disre- 
gard of the increased cost of living. 

The awakening from this state of blissful indifference 
toward country life and country education did not come 
until the drift from country to city had become one of 
the startling phenomena of the age. Then economists 
exhorted boys to "stay on the farm"; but the exhorta- 
tion came too late. What boy was going to stay on the 
farm when opportunity seemed to be everywhere else? 

There were no adequate educational facilities for him 
in the country; nothing to guide him in his desire to get 
along in the world. So he went to join the city throng 
and help diminish the producing power of the funda- 
mental class in society — the agriculturists. 

Rural education can not immediately and entirely re- 
verse this process, but it is the first essential step, Bet- 
ter rural schools will not only tend to equalize the ad- 
vantages of city and country in educational opportunity; 
they will meet the greatest economic need of our time 
by increasing the efficiency of the coming generation as 
producers on the land. 

THE CHILD AND THE FLAG. 

Lauea Rountree Smith 
(Recitation for two children, one holds flag.) 
1st: 

Tell me oh flag, that we wave to-day, 

Where did you get your colors gay? 
2nd: 

I got my red and white and blue, 

From the starry sky as I came through. 
1st: 

Where did you get your red so bright? 
2nd: 

From the rosy sunset one summer night! 
1st: 

Where did you get your stars of white? 
2nd: 

From a fleecy cloud in the sky so bright! 
1st: 

Where, oh where did you get your blue? 



2nd: 



From the* beautiful sky as I passed through! 

Oh beautiful flag red, white and blue, 
Wherever I go I will bow to you. 
(Bows low.) 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



163 



NEW KINDERGARTEN GAMES 
AND PLAYS 




Conducted by LAURA ROUNTREE SMITH 



RECITATION— HONOR. 

(By four boys carrying banners on which the 
word "honor" is printed.) 
1st: 

Oh Washington we proudly say, 

For you the bonnie banners sway. 
2nd: 

And Lincoln we will honor you, 

With bonnie flags red, white and blue. 
3rd: 

We'll honor men who brought us fame, 

With pride we speak Columbus' name. 
4th: 

We'll honor our parents here to-day, 

Who taught us to work, to love, to obey. 
All (waving banners) : 

All honor to our heroes, 

To brave, good men who died, 

All honor to our heroes, 

They were our country's pride;- 

All honor to the bonnie flag, 

We love each shining fold, 

We'll honor now the stars and stripes, 

As heroes did of old. 
(A child comes in front with a flag, and the four 
little boys salute it, and march off waving banners.) 



THE BONNIE FLAG. 

(Recitation for six boys and girls carrying flags.) 



All: 



Wave the bonnie banners gay, 
Wave them for Washington's Birthday! 
(All wave.) 

Hold the bonnie flags above, 
Oh Washington, your name we love. 
(Hold flags over heads.) 

Hold the flags half-mast to-day, 



For our L : ncoln has passed away. 
(All hold flags drooping.) 

3rd: 

Fold the flags, who could help be true, 
When he furls the red, and white, and blue? 
(All furl them.) 

4th: 

Unfurl and wave the flag with pride, 
For all the brave, good men who died. 
(Unfurl and wave.) 

5th: 

From every school-house let it sway, 

Our flag on Washington's Birthday. 

(All hold flags out, wave with both hands.) 

6 th: 

Hold them high as soldiers do, 

Then cross the flags, red, white and blue. 

(Hold out in right hand, cross with next child.) 

3rd: 

Wave the flags, salute them too, 
Goodbye, goodbye, goodbye to you! 
(Wave and pass out.) 



A VALENTINE GAME. 

The children stand in a circle. 

The Mother stands inside the circle. 

Any child in the circle says, "May I go send a 
valentine?" 

The Mother says, "Be careful now, your name 
don't sign." 

She nods her head. 

This first child chooses a second child and the 
two dance round the outside of the circle, singing, 
tune "Little Brown Jug:" 

Oh we will send a Valentine, 
And write upon it just a line, 
We will send it far away, 
You'll get a Valentine to-day! 

All in the circle go to the center of circle and 
back, clap hands and sing to chorus of the above 
tune: 

Ha! ha! ha! don't you see, 

The Valentine was meant for me, 

Ha! ha! ha! don't you see, 

The Valentine was meant for me! 

The first child now taps any child on the shoul- 
der, and she and the second child return to their 
places in the circle. The chosen one asks as be- 
fore, "May I go send a Valentine?" and the game 
proceeds as before. 

To vary the game, the Mother at any time may 
shake her head and say, in reply to 

"May I go send a Valentine?" 

"Come and accept this heart of mine!" 

The child when thus spoken to, changes places 
with the Mother, and the game proceeds by any 
child in the circle asking to send a valentine. 

The game may continue any length of time. 



i64 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



FEBRUARY PLAY. 

(The children wear or carry cards bearing their 
names.) 

February: I am little February, oh dear, I am 
so tired! I have so much to do 1 must hurry, 
hurry! 
Valentine's Day: 

Here I am with heart so true, 
I bear this message, "1 love you." 
February: Oh dear, I am so busy how can I ever 
celebrate all the birthdays? 

Lincoln's Birthday: Here I am I am Lincoln's 
Birthday, bring out the flags for me! 

Washington's Birthday: Here I am, Washing- 
ton's Birthday. I hope you have your Flag Songs 
ready! 

Longfellow's Birthday: I am Longfellow's Birth- 
day, the children always loved my poems, who can 
speak one now? 

(Recite if possible "The Children's Hour," Long- 
fellow.) 

February: That indeed was a pretty poem, but I 
still do not see how I can celebrate you all! 

Valentine Day: I have an idea, let all the chil- 
dren in the land help you. It is quite wonderful 
what children can do! 
That is a good idea, I will call the children. 
(February goes out, re-enters with children.) 
February: 

Bring out the flags, bring out the flags, 
And beat the drums to-day, 
Bring out the flags and wave them all, 
On Washington's Birthday! 
The children now form a circle round the days 
and sing, tune "Yankee Doodle:" 

Oh February Days are here, 
The flags we all are bringing, 
And of our honored Presidents 
To-day we all are singing. 
Chorus: 

Wave the bonnie flags to-day, 
Hear our voices ringing, 
Of the bonnie stars and stripes, 
Merrily we're singing. 
All pause. 
1st: 

Bring out the flags red, white and blue, 
For Washington and Lincoln too! 
2nd: 

A wreath of evergreen I send, 
To Longfellow, the children's friend. 
3rd: 

I bring a heart, for it is true, 
Dear February I love you! 
(They hand the flags, wreath, and heart, to Feb- 
ruary. 

February: 

Dear children cheer the world with song, 
Your gifts I will remember long, 
To the colors then be true, 
Wave on, wave on, red, white and blue! 
(All sing chorus of song, and march off.) 



LITTLE PIECES FOR 
LITTLE PEOPLE 

Consisting Chiefly of Original Verses for Little Chil- 
dren by Laura Rountree Smith 



ORIGINAL RHYMES AND PLAYS FOR 
FEBRUARY. 

By Laura Rountree Smith. 

(Book Rights Reserved.) 
February now reminds us 
Of wise men and great, 
For Washington and Lincoln 
We all will celebrate. 



THE SOLDIER BOY. 



(L'ttle boys carry drums and wear cocked paper 
hats. They recite singly or in concert, beating 
drums as they enter.) 

A rat, a tat, tat, a rat, a tat, tat, 

Make way for the soldier boy, 

A rat, a tat, tat, a rat, a tat, tat, 

Oh life is so full of joy, 

As we go marching up the street, 

A rat, a tat, tat, our drums we beat, 

We mind not cold, we mind not heat, 

A rat, a tat, tat, tat, tat! 

A rat, a tat, tat, a rat, a tat, tat, 
On Washington's Birthday, 
A rat, a tat, tat, a rat, a tat, tat, 
Drums beat and banners sway, 
As marching up the street we come, 
You'll hear the beating of the drum, 
Hurrah! for General Washington! 
A rat, a tat, tat, tat, tat! 



PATRIOTIC MAIDS. 



(Three little girls in sunbonnets, red, white and 
blue, recite.) 
1st: 

The red means "Be Brave," I heard you say, 
To honor the flag I wear this to-day. 

(She touches her red sunbonnet.) 
2nd: 

The white means "Be Pure," so my bonnet too, 
Makes you think of white stars in a field of blue. 

(She touches her white bonnet.) 
3rd: 

I have heard it said that the blue means "Be True," 
So to-day I wear a small bonnet of blue! 
All: 

Patriotic Maids are we 
And we bow politely, (bow) 
We wear the colors as you see, 
Of our banner waving brightly! | 



■65 



HINTS^SUGGESTIONS FOR RURAL TEACHERS 

CONDUCTED BY GRACE DOW 

DEAR RURAL TEACHER.— In undertaking this department I trust that my somewhat extended experience in 
rural schools and my subsequent normal training and city school work may assist me in making it practically 
helpful to you in your work with the little children. I understand the tremendous tax upon the time of any rural 
teacher who is trying to do good work, the wide range of studies, the constant temptation to neglect the little ones 
for the apparently more pressing need of the older classes and the lack of equipment necessary for the best work. 
My hope is to assist you to secure better results with the small children, and I shall unhesitatingly recommend the 
intelligent use of kindergarten material as likely to produce the best results with least expenditure of time. How 
t o use this material, what to select, what substitutes, etc -, will be discussed from month to month in these columns. 



Our Flag. 

This is an appropriate time to make a study of the Hag. 
and it may he used as a lesson in drawing and painting. 

Tell the children the story of Betsy Ross and the first 
flag, also have the smaller children count the stars and 
stripes, and give them the reason for the number of each 
found. 

All children are interested to know the meaning of the 
colors used: — Red signifies bravery, urges us to he of 
help to others. White is purity, — being clean through 
every bit of our minds and hearts, so that we never even 




think wrong things. Blue means truth, — never to tell 
a lie about anything, however hard it may be to be true. 

Salute to the Flag. — We give our heads, our hearts, 
and our hands to our country. One country, one lan- 
guage, one flag. 

After the flag salute the singing of "America" would 
be appropriate. 

The Flag. 
Cheer, cheer we the flag of the nation! 

On liberty's breezes unfurled; 
The glory of manhood's creation 

The pilot of peace to the world. 

Raise the flag that our fathers undaunted 

Proclaimed, when the nation was new, 
Should float for the freedom they planted, 

And be to the right ever true. 

—Selected 




Patriotism — theme for the month. 

There is no month during the school year better than 
February to emphasize patriotic thought, owing to the 
fact that the birthdays of our two greatest national he- 
roes occur at this time. 

No better method can be employed to inspire children 



with high ideals than by placing before them ideal char, 
acters. 

Interesting events in the lives of Washington and Lin- 
coln furnish topics for morning exercises. Do not dwell 
much upon the war in connection with their lives, but 
rather upon their bravery and courage in upholding tight 
and justice. 

Tell the stories of Washington and the hatchet, and 
Washington and his mother's favorite colt. Dwell upon 
his sense of truthfulness. Also tell why Lincoln was 
called "Honest Abe." 

The Good St. Valentine should receive attention, and 
give the reasons for sending valentines on the fourteenth 
of February. 

Have the pupils commit at least one of Longfellow's 
poems, as his birthday occurs February 27. 




Manners 

It is an easy matter to be courteous and kind to our 
friends and associates, but true politeness is best shown 
in our treatment of those less fortunate than ourselves. 

"I cannot afford to have my servants excel me in 
politeness," was the reply given by Washington when 
criticised for lifting his hat to a negro servant. 

"Good morning" is the golden link 
Which starts the day so bright we think. 

"I thank you, sir, and if you please," 
Make many burdens lift with ease. 

"I beg your pardon or excuse," 
For little blunders if you choose. 

And when the day of work we close, 
"Good-night" will bring a sweet repose. 

For wrong we've done forgiveness find 
In faith and trust and love divine. 



166 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



Devices for Teaching Number 
All the children form a circle around the teacher. 
The teacher asks questions like the following: — 8 and 1 
are how many? 2 and 2 make how many ? 9 is how many 
more than 8? etc., at the same time the question is given 
the ball is thrown to the one who is to answer. If he 
fails to answer correct^ he takes his place in the center 
of the circle. 

If the child within the circle can answer more quickly 
than the child to whom the next question is given the 
two change places. Thisisagood way to review all combi- 
nations of numbers taught during the week or mrnth. 



Busy Work Suggestions. • 

Paper cutting —Valentines, soldier cap, hatchet, tree, 
envelope, shield, sword, stars, soldier's tent, chair. 

Drawing — Draw and paint the flag, cherries, hearts, 
gua, Ore-place. 

Modeling — Make tubes of brown straw board or paper 
and paste together making a log cabin. 
Also model hatchet, gun, powder horn, cherries, the 
fire shovel on which Lincoln wrote and ciphered. 
Make use of sewing cards suitable for the month. 

Suggestive Program. 
Patriotic Quotations. 




"A Thinking Game." — A pupil stands before the 
class and says I am thinking of two numbers which 
make ten. What are they ? 

Pupils take turns guessing, giving various correct 
combinations. The child changes with the one giving 
what he had in mind. 

"Questions and Answers." — Make out two sets of 
large number cards on card or Bristol board, one set con - 
taining such as 4 and*3, 6 and 5, 5 less 3, etc., the other 
set containing only the answers to those given, 7, 11, 3> 
etc. 

Have a pupil come forward and hold up his card, and 
the one having the correct answer takes his place in line 
by his side, the second question comes forward in the 
same manner, followed by the answer; so continue till 
all are in line. Have them hold their cards in front 
while they close with a short familiar song. 

February- 
Lives of great men all remind us 

We can make our lives sublime, 
Arid departing, leave behind us 
Footprints on the sands of time. 

—Longfellow, 



Sayings of AVashington and Lincoln. 

Betsy Ross and the First Flag. 

Salute to the Flag. 

Song — "Columbia, the Gem of the Ocean.' 

Boyhood of Lincoln. 

Boyhood of Washington. 

George and the Hatchet. — Baldwin's Second Reader. 

Playing Soldier.— Graded Literature 1 

Lincoln— New Era First Reader. 

American History Stories. — Mara Pratt. 

Song — Star Spangled Banner. 

Flag Drill. 

Song — America. 

Appropriate Pictures. 

George Washington. 

Abraham Lincoln. 

HeDry W. Longfellow. 

Washington's Home,— "Mt. Vernon." 

Tomb at Mount Vernon. 

Washington Monument,— Washington, D. C. 

Liberty Bell. 

Independence Hall. 

FaneuiljHall. 

Bunker Hill Monument. 

Washington Crossing the Delaware, 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



167 



DEPARTMENT OF SUPERINTENDENCE. 
Philadelphia, Feb. 24, March 1. 
Program — Kindergarten Section. 

International Kindergarten Union. N. E. A. Com- 
mittee of the International Kindergarten Union. 
Lucy Wheelock, Principal, Kindergarten Training 
School, Boston, Mass, chairman. Patty, S. Hill, 
Stella L. Wood, Julia S. Bothwell, Nina C. Vande- 
walker, Alice O' Grady, Mary B. Page. 

Tuesday, Feb. 25—3:00 P. M. 

Topic: Comparison of Froebelian and Montessori 
Methods and Principles. Speakers: William Kil- 
patrick, Myron T. Scudder, Lightner Witmer, Anna 

E. Logan, Earl Barnes, P. P. Claxton. 

General Sessions 
First Meeting Wednesday morning, Feb. 26 
The following is a synopsis of the proceedings of the 
Annual Meeting of the Department of Superintend- 
ence and other educational associations at Philadelphia 
beginning February 24. The regular meeting of the 
Department of Superintendence will convene Wed- 
nesday morning, February 26. 

After the usual opening ceremonies, C. A. Prosser, 
secretary of the National Society for the Promotion of 
Industrial Education, will discuss the topic, "Team work 
between Schoolmasters and Laymen;" C. P. Cary, state 
superintendent of public instruction for Wisconsin, will 
discuss the topic, "Team Play between City Superinten- 
dents and City;" and Superintendent P. W, Horn of 
Houston, Tex., will discuss the topic, "Team Play with- 
in the System." In the afternoon, the general topics will 
be "Uniformity of Standards in School Administration," 
the leaders of the discussion being T. E. Finegan, third 
assistant commissioner of education for New York, and 

F. M McMurry, Teachers College, Columbia University, 
New York, N. Y. Wednesday evening, C. II. Judd, direc- 
tor of School of Education, University of Chicago, will 
present a paper on "Developing the Co-operation and 
the Initiative of Teachers." Joseph Lee, member of the 
school committee of Boston, will speak on "Rhythm in 
Education." Nathan C. Sehaeffer, state superintendent 
of public instruction for Pennsylvania, will discuss the 
topic, "The Limitations of Examinations.'' PhilanderP. 
Claxton, commissioner of education, Washington, D. C, 
will speak on "Attainable Ideals." 

Thursday morning, the general topic will be "Some 
Experiments in School Systems and their Outcome." 
The discussion will be participated in by C. S. Meek, 
superintendent of schools, Boise, Idaho; L. R. Alderman 
state superintendent of public instruction, Salem, Oregon , 
R.J. Condon, superintendent of schools, Providence, R. 
I.; and J. H. Francis, superintendent of schools, Los 
Angeles, Calif. The business meeting of the department 
will be held at 11:15 Thursday afternoon will be given 
overto round - tables— one forthesuperintendents of lar- 
ger cities which will be in charge of Associate City super- 
intendent Andrew W. Edson, New York, N. Y., one for 
superintendents of smaller cities, in eharge of Superin- 
tendent E. U. Graff, Omaha, Neb., and one for state 
and county superintendents in charge of State Superin- 
tendent Francis G.Blair, of Springfield, 111. It is expected 



that a speaker of national reputation will be secured for 
Thursday evening. 

Friday morning will be devoted to a discussion of the 
topic "The Teacher and the Cost of Living," the leader 
being Professor R. C. Brooks, secretary of the Committee 
on Teachers' Salaries, Tenure, and Pensions. Friday 
afternoon the general topic will be "Improving School 
Systems by Scientific Management," the speakers being 
Paul H. Hanus, professor of education, Harvard Univer- 
sity, Cambridge, Mass. , F. E. Spaulding, Superintendent 
of Newton School, Newtonville, Mass., W. C. Bagley, 
p-rofessor of education, University of Illinois, Urbana, 
111., and A. D. Young, of the University of Pennsylvania. 

The Council will hold its meeting, one on Monday 
evening, and three on Tuesday. 

The Normal School Department will hold its meetings 
Thursday afternoon and Friday evening. 



THE BUNNY RABBIT. 

The bunny rabbit came last night 

And laid some eggs for me; 

I made a nest down by the gate, 

He couldn't help but see — 

And when he laid the nest all full, 

He ran away and hid! 

I'm sure I saw the bunny come — 

At least I almost did! 



IRONING DAY. 
Second Gift. 

Come, now, my little flat iron, 

I have work for you to do; 
The clothes must all be ironed 

Before the day is through. 

So forward, backward you must go 

As busy as a bee; 
How much we have to do today 

You very well can see. 

Flat Iron's Reply. 

I'm willing to iron the clothes so smooth 

Because they are so clean; 
I never like to iron them, tho', 

When on them spots are seen. 
So forward, backward, I will go 

As long as you'll help me too, 
For I cannot do the work alone, 

But must ask some help of you. 



THE PENDULUM. 

First Gift Action Game. 

The pendulum's swinging 

My hand makes it swing; 

Tick-tock. 
By day and by night is the clock keeping time. 

Tick-tock! 
The clock has a face and two hands just like me, 
So I am a clock and keep time you see. 

Tick-tock, tick-tock, tick-tock. 



1 68 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



NEW YORK. 

The New York Public School Kindergarten Associa- 
tion announces the following lectures to take place at 4 
o'clock on the dates given at Normal college: 

Feb. 19 — Co-operation Between Public Libraries and 
Kindergarten Work — Miss Anna Tyler, New York Pub- 
lic Library. 

March 26 — How and Where to Secure Nature Mater- 
ial—Mrs. Alice It. Northrup. 

April 16— Election of Officers — Reception to new 
Executive Committee. 

May 28 — Mothers' Meeting — Miss Fannibelle Curtis, 
Director of Kindergartens of New York Public School 
will address the meeting. 



"The Playground Problem in New York," written by 
Mabel E. Macomber, President of the City Playground 
League of New York, and read by Rev. Dr. Bacchus, 
D. D., Rector of the Church of the Incarnation, Brook- 
lyn, N. Y., before the Convention of the City Federation 
of Women's Clubs, N. Y., Oct. 25, 1912. 

The City Playground League in its campaign of edu- 
cation has found an almost universal belief in play- 
grounds, yet an almost universal ignorance of play- 
ground supervision. Playground need is understood — 
but not playground needs. While extension of the sys- 
tem, until each child in the city shall have access to a 
playground, must be a difficult task in congested New 
York, yet this would be simplicity itself comparatively, 
were the question settled as to just which methods of 
supervision should be used, or by whom the system or 
systems would be best controlled. Some would place all 
playgrounds under the Department of Education; draw- 
ing an apparently logical deduction from the fact that 
this is educational work of the highest importance. 

In some cities this has seemed the best plan. But the 
Department of Education has already almost more than 
it can handle in its vast system of class instruction. Its 
formal teaching includes even dancing among the rec- 
reative lessons. What the child can learn in a class, 
the school is prepared to give him. Yet the child mast 
have real play to supplement his school education. The 
cry is "Keep the children off the streets." Yet the boy 
must have a substitute for the thrill he gets by his hair- 
breadth escapes while playing tag in a crowded thor- 
oughfare. The daring of primitive man, the initiative, 
the social instinct must be developed; and in the city 
we must not let these impulses lead the children to the 
lot, the alley or the dark stairs. We must provide them 
with attractive playgrounds that shall take the place of 
the old-fashioned back yard, with the mother at the 
window. Yet the city playground with its heterogeneous 
influx of children must be mothered and fathered by 
those trained for the work, with infinite resource, pa- 
tience, and strength of body and character, or the fam- 
ily will develop criminals through rough and unfair 
play. 

We are fronting the problem of a new education. 
Other cities are working it out — but many questions are 



still unanswered. Chicago has splendidly equipped play- 
grounds, athletic fields, wading pools, and field houses. 
New York with its congestion must study its own 
needs, and especially from the point of view of child 
character. 

The finest equipment is worse than wasted if placed 
at the disposal of children, unsupervised by experts in 
child character. Extension of playgrounds is occupying 
the attention of many societies, and the greater question 
of administration neglected. It would be as useless to 
add to our system as it now stands, as to increase a 
system of laboratories not in the hands of scientists — 
or to add more libraries if those in existence were 
poorly equipped, poorly managed, and poorly attended. 
Our Public Library system is another educational sys- 
tem in our city reaching the child individually just as 
the playground does where well supervised. A com- 
parison between a public playground and a public library 
would be well worth the study of our public spirited 
citizens. There is no reason why a playground should 
not be kept as clean, as well equipped, and manned as a 
library. A card index of incidents showing child char- 
acter would serve a more useful purpose than the card 
index of books borrowed. 

Madame Montessori has shown how well chosen play- 
things may be given for self-education. The play- 
ground where large and small may play together is a 
miniature world where all kinds of characters may learn 
to understand each other, bearing with one another's 
faults, so that later in the large world, the horrible mis- 
takes and sometimes even crimes due to misunderstand- 
ings of character may be avoided. 

But to achieve this end, playground supervision must 
be made an established branch of pedagogy. Until this 
is done and normal training required of all playground 
directors covering the theories of Froebel and Montes- 
sori and other educators, with supplementary instruc- 
tion in correlated subjects, -as well as practical training 
on a model ground, a course at least as comprehensive 
as that for trained nurses and teachers, the immense 
raising of the standard of efficiency in playgrounds 
sums spent in the name of playgrounds will not result 
as they should in a tremendous increase in the sturdiness 
of our citizens in body, mind, and character. Raising 
the standard of playground efficiency means raising the 
standard of citizenship. Therefore the City Playground 
League of New York, one of the affiliated clubs of the 
Federation, offers this resolution : 

Whereas, It is universally agreed that every city 
child should have access to a well supervised playground, 
and 

Whereas, The playground system should be developed 
as a special branch of education which development 
means a large and complex problem in the great city of 
New York, therefore be it 

Resolved, That the City Federation of Women's Clubs 
add to their standing committees a committee on play- 
grounds; this committee to have for its object, 1st, the 
supervision in all the boroughs of New York City, and 
2nd, the extension of the playground system. 

Note.— This resolution was adopted. 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



169 



KINDERGARTEN TEACHERS, PITTSBURGH. 

Allison, Lena, Director, 323 Evaline St. 
Anderson, Janet, Assistant, 147 Hall Ave., Wash- 
ington, Pa. 
Anderson, Lottie B., Director, 123 Grant Ave., 

Bellevue, Pa. 
Bailey, Frances M., Assistant, 1132 Fayette St., N. S. 
Barr, Viola B., Director, 221 Hilands Ave., Ben 

Avon, Pa. 
Bastian, Amy E., Substitute, 1008 Western Ave., 

N. S. 
Behen, Mary A., Director, Saybrook Apts., Craft 

Ave. 
Belnap, Lena, Director, 5437 Penn Ave. 
Blair, Nancy, Assistant, 374 Atlantic Ave. 
Boal, N. Marjorie, Assistant, 8th Ave. and 12th St., 

New Brighton, Pa. 
Bothin, Bessie, Assistant, 2nd and Kennedy Sts., 

Duquesne, Pa. 
Bower, Harriet, Assistant, 409 Oakland Ave. 
Bowman, M. Genevra, Assistant, Estella and Mich- 
igan Sts., Mt. Oliver, Sta. 
Brickner, Florence, Assistant, 1320 Termon Ave., 

N. S. 
Bruggeman, Clara, Assistant, 4302 Butler St. 
Burroughs, Inez I., Director, Athalia Daly Home, 

Gross St. 
Calhoun, Ida, Assistant, 1344 Sheridan Place. 
Cavitt, Asenath E., Director, 5600 Baum St. 
Christie, Helen, Director, 266 E. Beau St., Wash- 
ington, Pa. 
Clark, Helen D., Substitute, 5407 Friendship Ave. 
Clark, Sadie, 4740 Sylvan Ave. 
Cooke, Dorothy, Assistant, 6100 Jackson St. 
Crawford, Margaret E., Assistant, 16 St. Nicholas 

Bldg. 
Davis, Grace H., Director, 638 Maple Lane, 

Sewickley. 
Davison, Clara C, Director, 1317 Elm St., Wilkins- 

burg. 
Dean, Mildred, Director, 402 Chautauqua St., N. S. 
Dubar, Jessie, Substitute, Athalia Daly Home, 

Gross St. 
DuBois, Jessie, Director, 740 N. Beatty St. 
Dunbar, Florence, Assistant, 724 Kelly St., Winkins- 

burg. 
Duncan. Elizabeth G., Assistant, 707 13th St., Mun- 

hall, Pa. 
Dunlap, C. Mae, Assistant, 724 Kelly St., Winkins- 

burg. 
Earman, Virginia, Substitute, 124 Ulysses St. 
Eck, Mary, Assistant, 219 Collins Ave. 
Ecke, Cornelia K., Director, 94 Freemont Ave., 

Bellevue, Pa. 
Ecke, Margaret, Assistant, 94 Freemont Ave., 

Bellevue, Pa. 
Euwer, Florence C, Director, Parnassus, Pa. 
Everson, Grace R., Director, 200 N. Homewood 

Ave. 
Everson, Marian, Director, 438 Fairmount Ave. 
Filson, Margaret, Assistant, 413 Center St., Wilkins- 

burg, Pa. 
Floyd, Gertrude, Assistant, 815 St. James St. 
Forrest, Anne M., Assistant, 518 Tarleton Ave., 

N. S. 
Fox, Prudence M., Assistant, Athalia Daly Home, 

Gross St. 



Fishkorn, Irene A., Assistant, Ridge Ave., Ben 
Avon, Pa. 

Gillespie, Eleanor D., Assistant, 5226 Westminster 
Place. 

Gillespie, Helen, Assistant, 714 Summerlea St. 

Gilliland, Frances M., Director, 923 California Ave., 
Avalon, Pa. 

Gilliland, E. Laura, Director, 1511 Third Ave., 
New Brighton, Pa. 

Grace, Isabel, Assistant, 184 Allison Ave., Wash- 
ington, Pa. 

Haines, Anna M., Assistant, 114 S. Negley Ave. 

Hale, Laura, Director, 5130 Westminster Place. 

Hamill, Evelynn, Director, 323 Evaline St. 

Hamill, Jean, Assistant, 323 Evaline St. 

Hamilton, Anna, Assistant, 714 Summerlea St. 

Hammett, Elizabeth S., Assistant, 919 Heberton 
Ave. 

Hamington, Amy F., Director, Monterey Terrace, 
N. S. 

Hastie, Helen H., Director, 4901 Friendship and 
Millvale. * 

Haupt, Edith, Assistant, 7149 Westmoreland. 

Hay, Elizabeth G, Assistant, 937 Beech Ave,, N. S. 

Hays, Mavia, Assistant, 151 N. Craig St. 

Hefrernan, Elizabeth P., Director, 5220 Atherton 
Ave. 

Hemphill, Edna, Director, 573 Dawson Ave., Belle- 
vue, Pa. 

Houlette, Gladys, Assistant, Athalia Daly Home, 
Gross St. 

Hughes, Marian L., Director, 815 Florence Ave., 
Avalon, Pa. 

Humphrey, Constance, Assistant, 4636 Center Ave. 

Janion, Dorothy, Assistant, 1144 S. Negley Ave. 

Johnson, Hermine, Director, 4719 Wallingford St. 

Johnston, Clara, Assistant, 113 Laurel Ave., Ben 
Avon, Pa. 

Johnston, Emma, Director, Oakmont, Pa. 

Kallock, Mrs. Charlotte, Assistant, 352 Spahr St. 

Kann, Ruth M., Substitute, 156 Dithridge St. 

Kerr, Alice, Director, 138 Hawkins St., Edgewood 
Park, Swissvale P. O., Pa. 

Keyt, Jessie, Director, 233 Amber St. 

King, Mrs. Grace B., Director, 640 Hillsboro St. 

Kirkpatrick, Lida, Assistant, 527 Winebiddle Ave. 

Klaholz, Anne, Assistant, 1334 Decatur St., N. S. 

Kornhauser, Blanche, Assistant, 815 Hastings St. 

Kottman, Flora, Assistant, 503 Duquesne Ave., 
Edgewood, Pa. 

Kropff, Olga M., 6716 Thomas Blvd. 

Kunkle, Sarah, Assistant, Athalia Daly Home, 
Gross St. 

Lapp, Harriet, Director, 108 Mifflin Ave., Wilkins- 
burg, Pa. 

Leggate, Isabella R., McClintock Ave., N. S. 

Leitch, Isabella, Director, 265 Maple Ave., Edge- 
wood, Pa. 

Lentz, Anna B., Director, 4042 Perrysville Ave., 
N. S. 

Lingenfelser, Henrietta G., Assistant, 1140 S. Neg- 
ley Ave. 

Loesch, Mrs. Mary, Director, 4701 Ellsworth Ave. 

Looney, Elizabeth P., Assistant, 1106 King Ave. 

Luty, Estelle B., Director, 243 Chestnut St., Ava- 
lon, Pa. 



i7o 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



Lyons, Anna M., Director, 5552 Black St. 

Lytle, Alice Lee, Director, 5821 Nicholson St. 

Maclay, Jean R., Assistant, 414 Montview Place, 
Wilkinsburg, Pa. 

Mason, Endora B., Director, R. F. D. No. 1, Ver- 
ona, Pa. 

Matthews, Edna M., Assistant, 81 Parkview Ave. 

McConnel, Jessie, Director, 330 Third St., Beaver, 
Pa. 

McElroy, Margaret K., Director, 801 N. Lang Ave. 

McFarland, Elizabeth M., Director, 16 Dinsmore 
Ave., Crafton, Pa. 

McGarvey, Mrs. Elizabeth, Director, 389 Vermont 
Ave., Rochester, Pa. 

Mcllrath, Hazel A., Director, 5272 Butler St. 

McKee, Charline, Assistant, 714 Summerlea St., 
Summerlea Apts. 

McKee, Jessie, Director, 0712 Thomas Blvd. 

McKenzie, Mrs. Ida, Director, 1916 Buena Visia 
St., N. S. 

McMillen, Elizabeth, Assistant, 20 N. Euclid Ave., 
Bellevue, Pa. 

McSweeney^ Kathleen, Director, Box 442, Pitts- 
burgh, Pa. (Hays, Pa.) 

Menhenhall, Annabelle S.; Director, 307 Fiske Ave., 
Avalon, Pa. 

Miles, Gertrude E., Director, 204 Wallace Bldg., 
Highland and Center. 

Miller, Bessie B., Director, 53 Observatory Ave., 
N. S. 

Milligan, Grace, Assistant, Athalia Daly Home, 
Gross St. 

Moore, Blanche A., Director, 5447 Stanton Ave. 

Moore, Elizabeth S., Director, 113 Biddle Ave., Wil- 
kinsburg, Pa. 

Moore, Myrna L., Assistant, 257 Summit Ave., 
Bellevue, Pa. 

Mortland, Lillian S., Assistant, 205 Lafayette Ave., 
N. S. 

Munro, Edna, Director, Athalia Daly Home, Gross 
St. 

Murray, Helen N., Director, 5554 Avondale Place. 

Mussler, Charlotte, Assistant, 1127 Beaver Ave., 
N. S. 

Neville, Sylvia, Assistant, Athalia Daly Home, 
Gross St. 

Newell, Frances, Assistant, 109 Biddle Ave., Wil- 
kinsburg, Pa. 

Nicholson, Mary K., Assistant, Hawkins Sta., Brad- 
dock, Pa. 

Orr, Anna S., Director, 352 Spahr St. 

Palmer, Ethel P., Director, 1510 Fallowfield Ave. 

Parmely, Mary D., Director, 7113 Brighton Road, 
Ben Avon, Pa. 

Patterson, Eliza F,, Director, Wayne Sq., Beaver, 
Pa. 

Patterson, Helen, Director, Wayne Sq., Beaver, Pa. 

Patton, Jane, Director, 6311 Darlington Road. 

Phillips, Edna G., Assistant, 67 Amanda Ave., Mt. 
Oliver Sta. 

Pittock, Beatrice, Assistant, R. F. D. No. 1, Coraop- 
olis, Pa. 

Ralston, Jeanette, Director, 1502 Federal St., N. S. 

Rankin, Elizabeth, Director, 554 Neville St., Neville 
Apts. 

Reahard, M. Frances, Director, 5628 Margaretta St. 

Redman, Leila B., Director, 118 18th St., S. S. 



Reed, Hazel G., Substitute, 1114 Chislett St. 

Reed, Joanna, Substitute, 421 Hampton Ave., Wil- 
kinsburg, Pa. 

Rhoades, Jeanette M., Assistant, 212 Wilmot St., 
Duquesne, Pa. 

Rice, Effie J., Director, 225 Craig St. 

Riley, Helen M., Assistant, 318 McKee Place. 

Robinson, Grace E., Director, 405 Franklin St., 
Wilkinsburg. 

Rosenbauer, Florence E., Director, 203 Merrimac 
St. 

Russell, Mabel G., Assistant, Athalia Daly Home, 
Gross St. 

Saint, Dorothy L., Assistant, 1407 S. Canal St., 
Sharpsburg, Pa. 

Schmitt, Jean M., Assistant, 7202 Perrysville Ave., 
Ben Avon, Pa. 

Schrecongost, Amy, Assistant, 406 Whitney Ave., 
Wilkinsburg, Pa. 

Schreiner, Agnes, Assistant, Mt. Lebanon, Pa., 
R. F. D. No. 2. 

Schuchman, Elsie, Assistant, 555 Ninth Ave., Mun- 
hall, Pa. 

Scott, Agnes, Director, 1310 Elm St., Wilkinsburg, 
Pa. 

Shaw, Jean M., Assistant, 601 N. St. Clair St. 

Sherwood, Rose V., Director, 1159 Davis and Wal- 
ker, N. S. 

Smith, Gertrude, Director, 17 Maple Ave., Edge- 
worth, Pa. 

Snyder, Irene, Assistant, 1322 Main St., Sharpsburg, 
Pa. 

Spaulding, Mabel, Assistant, 122 North Ave., Mill- 
vale, Pa. 

Sproul, Helen, Assistant, 7317 Monticello St. 

Stahl, Minneola, Director, 839 Chislett St. 

Steele, Helen C, 5704 Baum St. 

Stevenson, Elizabeth S., Director, Library Place, 
Oakmont, Pa. 

Stewart, Eleanor W., Director, 6708 Thomas Blvd. 

Stockton, Edith R., Director, 6360 Amelia St. 

Stofeil, Mrs. Lillian, Director, 301 First Ave., Tar- 
entum, Pa. 

Story, Marion, Assistant, 7045 Hamilton Ave. 

Stubler, Mary, Assistant, 1434 N. Euclid Ave. 

Thumm, Emma D., Director, 311 Stratford Ave. 

Tomb, Mary Ellen, Director, 312 Locust St., Edge- 
wood, Pa. 

Van Kirk, Mary A., Assistant, 1232 Locust St., N. S. 

Varner, Nellie F., Director, 616 Wood St., Wilkins- 
burg, Pa. 

Vogel, Eva W., Assistant, 5121 Center Ave. 

Walker, Helen H., Assistant, Virginia Ave., Ben 
Avon, Pa. 

Walker, Jane E., Director, 306 Morsonia Ave., N. S. 

Walker, Maud J„ Director, 4632 Center Ave. 

Watson, Blanche E., Director, 5708 Forbes St., Hol- 
lywood Apts. 

Waugh, Edna, Assistant, 110 Crafton Ave., Crafton, 
Pa. 

Weatherby, Mrs. Edith, Assistant, 1000 Western 
Ave., N. S. 

Weaver, Ellen G., Assistant, 410 Franklin Ave., 
Wilkinsburg, Pa. 

Weidman, May, Director, 5438 Claubourne St. 

Welty, Helen B., Assistant, 4742 Sylvan Ave. 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



Wiley, Ethel, Assistant, Athaiia Daly Home, Gross 

St. 
Willetts, Kathryn, Assistant, 1237 Victoria Ave., 

New Kensington, Pa. 
Williamson, Mary R., Assistant, 129 W. 3rd St., 

Greensburg, Pa. 
Woodburn, Martha, Assistant, 822 Florence Ave. 

Avalon, Pa. 
Wooley, Louise A., Assistant, Athaiia Daly Home, 

Gross St. 

SUBURBAN KINDERGARTNERS. 

Miss Emma Charles, Munhall Public School, 707 
13th Ave., Munhall, Pa. 

Miss Frances Cluley, Edgewood Public School, 320 
Ophelia St., Pittsburgh. 

Miss Lenora Cox, Western Penna. Institute for the 
Blind, Belleiield Ave., Pittsburgh. 

Miss 'Wilhelmina Deylin. Sewickley, Pa. 

Miss Katharine Graham, 4000 Franklin Road, N. S., 
Pittsburgh. 

Miss Marguerite I. Jordan, 454 College Ave,, Bea- 
ver, Pa. 

Miss Florence McCullagh, 5624 Margaretta St., 
Pittsburgh. 

Miss Louise Orr, Box 576, Woodlawn, Pa. 

M'ss Edna Seager, 310 Hutchinson Ave., Edgewood, 
Pa. 

Miss Adella Schreiner, R. F. D. No. 2, Lebanon, Pa. 

Miss Mary Shaw, 430 Second St., Braddock Pa. 

Miss lone Stewart, Sewickley, Pa. 

Miss Mary L. Weisbrod, 215 S. Rebecca St., Pitts- 
burgh, 



Publ' 

Miss 
Miss 
Miss 
Miss 
Miss 
Miss 
Miss 
Miss 
Miss 
Miss 
Miss 
Miss 



BELOIT, WIS. 

; School Kindergartners: 

Sarah Smith, 410 Bluff St. 

Ella Lemmerhirt, 710 Euclid Ave. 

Mayme Bierman, 316 Locust St. 

Charlotte Ledell, 930 Oak St. 

Mildred Burch, 830 Harrson Ave. 

Ava Burlingame, 613 Prairie Ave. 

Marguerite Macumber, 751 Church St. 

Irene Bull, 820 Roosevelt Ave. 

Gertrude Morgan, 726 Church St. 

Nanette Merrill, 731 Prairie Ave. 

Agnes Foster, Milwaukee Rd. and Bushnell. 

Florence Eddy, Rockton, 111. 



NEW BRUNSWICK, N. J. 



Publ : c School Kindergartners: 
Angelina Wray, 98 Suydam St. 
Jessie Morrison, 10 Bartlett St. 
Ethel Sims, Stelton, N. J. 
Elizabeth Updike, 117 Bayard St. 



ALBION, MICH. 



Public School Kindergartners: 

Mab E. Elms, 108 W. Walnut St. 

Marie Gilpin Douglass, 1006 Michigan Ave. 

Frances J. Drew, 308 E. Erie. 

Erie Huckle, 709 Perry St. 

Merryl B. Sewell, 612 N. Clinton St. 



BOOK NOTES. 

A CHILD'S GUIDE TO LIVING THINGS. By 
Edwin Tenney Brewster. Cloth, 300 pages. Pub- 
lished by Doubleday, Page & Co., Garden City, 
N. Y. Price $1.20 net. 

Few books more interesting have recently come 
our way, altho our years outnumber those of child- 
hood. Many facts here told may not be new to the 
grown-up, but the presentation of them is both new 
and decidedly stimulating. To the child a world 
of interesting inquiry is opened up. Chapter one 
tells "How the chicken gets inside the egg," with 
nine illustrat'ons showing stages of development 
of the tiny chick. The next chapter informs about 
other kinds of eggs and we are told that the "jelly 
of frogs eggs is not 'white' because it is not meant 
for the little frogs to eat, but to keep other crea- 
tures from eating him." Other chapters tell in 
familiar conversationalist style about the growth 
of eggs and cells. "Why we grow at all" is the name 
of another chapter. We are told why we like to 
do certain hereditary things, and about certain stu- 
pidities of animals. "Where some animals do their 
thinking" and "Why our blood is salt." "Why most 
of us are right-handed is described and we are told 
about the five senses and the other five. A very 
great deal of information is given in these pages 
and in a way to make the child appreciate the won- 
ders of Nature, especially as manifested in h's own 
body; and indirectly he will learn many things 
about the proper care of his body. The parent will 
find the book helpful when the child arrives at the 
point of asking "Where did I come from?" Many 
pictures, in the text and full page, illustrate the 
valuable and curious information found in these 
Jascinating pages. 

EDUCATION AS GROWTH; OR THE CUL- 
TURE OF CHARACTER. By L. H. Jones, 
President of Michigan State Normal College, 
Ypsilanti. Cloth, 275 pages. Price $1.25 net. 
Ginn & Co., Boston. 

How to inspire the young with a desire for happy 
and useful living That is the great question which 
today' faces every conscientious parent and teacher, 
and this book, written by a man who has had forty 
years practical experience in doing just this thing, 
cannot fa'l to be helpful to other teachers and par- 
ents. After a general opening chapter upon the 
Point of View, the author elucidates his subject 
under the four comprehensive heads, Self-Activity, 
Self-Revelation, Self-Direction, and Self-Realiza- 
tion. Chapter one presents selfactivity as the char- 
acterist'c human endowment out of which all prog- 
ress is possible. In Chapter two the child is shown 
in the process of mastering the world of knowledge, 
external and internal, finding in this way the rev- 
elation of his own possibilities. Chapter three por- 
trays the child again co-ordinating his knowledge 
into ideals of life and conduct, and thus becoming 
a self-directive member of society. The last divis- 
ion of the work treats of the progress of a person 
in self-culture under the inspiration of his environ- 
ment in the school and home and the call of his de- 



72 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



veloping human nature. There is so much of sane 
and wholesome wisdom in the book; so much un- 
derstanding of the educational and vocational prob- 
lems of our national life, and such a helpful, liber- 
alizing spirit prevails throughout its pages that one 
can but believe that it will give inspiration and hope 
to innumerable reading-classes and normal groups 
as well as to individual parents and teachers of 
every grade. Teachers who find themselves en- 
slaved by the fixed routine of the school system 
will find emancipation here. 

The Dairy of a Free Kindergarten. By Lileen Hardy. 
Itroduction by Kate Douglas Wig-gin. Cloth. 175 
pps. Price $1,00, net. Published by Hougton Mif- 
flin Co., New York, Boston, and Chicago. 

Kate Douglas Wiggin says of this book: "Here is a 
modest, unpretentious record of the daily life of one 
Kindergartner, who is doing her little best to make the 
world a better place in which to live. You can hear the 
mother heart beating in every simple paragraph, and 
see the spirit of the teacher and the gladness of the 
pupils on every touching page. This 'mothering' is 
sorely needed by little creatures who grow up in homes 
where stern necessity provides a too chilling atmos- 
phere for the young plant. Do not think the attitude 
of the child gardner sentimental, but believe it to be 
true that out of the heart come the issues of life." 

DRAWING MADE EASY. By E. G. Lutz. Paper, 18 
pps. Published by the author, New York. Price, 25c. 
Contains a considerable number of simple drawings, 

with the process of producing them clearly illustrated. 
Instructor Literature Series. Published by the F. 

A. Owen Co., Danville, N. Y. Price 5c. each. These 

booklets usually contain 32 pages, with illustrated 



cover; and the series includes many of the classics as 
well as many subjects of special interest to the little 
children. We advise kindergartners and primary tea- 
chers to send for a list of these books. 
A Little Boqk Of Bird Songs. By Louise Murphy. Il- 
luminated boards, 40 pages, Price $1.00 net. Published 
by Longmans, Green & Co., London and New York. 
Sixteen childrens' songs about birds, with music. 
Several beautifully illustrated pages. 



This above all: To thine own self be true; 
And it must follow, as the night the day, 
Thou cans't not then be false to any man. 

— Shakespeare. 



Boston Teachers' News-Letter 



Official Org-an of the Boston 
Teachers' Club. 

Published monthly by the Teachers 
for the Teachers. 

Send for a copy and learn what the Teachers are do 
ing and saying. 

10c. per copy. 50c. per year- 

G. E. LINGHAM 

499 COLUMBIA ROAD 
BOSTON, MASS. 



Headquarters for Temperance Supplies 

Books 

Song Books 

Leaflets on Scientific Temperance Teaching 

Story Leaflets 

The Young Crusader— Temperance paper for boys and girls; profusely illustrated; and aside 
from stories it contains splendid ideas for entertainments and selections for recitation — help- 
ful alike to teacher and pupil. Published monthly, 25 cents per year. 

Toots — An illustrated book of stories by Anna A. Gordon. Price 60 cents postpaid. Send for 
latest bulletin. 

NATIONAL WOMAN'S CHRISTIAN TEMPERANCE UNION 



Literature Building 



Evanston, Illinois 



Valuable Helps for Teachers 

School Room Exercises, a book filled 
with hundreds of primary plans, pre- 
paid, only ... . 50c. 
With New Jersey School News, one 

year, only - - - 60c. 

Primary Plans and School News 

both one year for - - $1.30 

New Geotfraphy Game with School 

News, one year - - 50c. 

Address 

The School News, New Egypt, N. J. 



Afti k II a forty-page booklet 
I fi Hn and 0ur Workshop, an 
I Lflll i]i us t ra ted folder, will 
give the enterprising teacher a world 
of information about the demand for 
teachers in the South, the field of the 
greatest promise in America to-day. 
Get them for the asking. 

W. H. JONES, Mgr. 
Southern Teachers' Ag-enoy, 

Columbia, South Carolina. 




BOWLDEN BELLS 

FOR SCHOOLS 

From $8.00 to $25.00 

FOR CHURCHES 

From $25.00 to $185.00 

Write for free 

catalogue. 

AMERICAN BELL & 

FOUNDRY CO. 

Northvllle Mich 



AGENCIES FOR KINDERGARTNERS AND PRIMARY TEACHERS 

'"PHIS list of Teachers' Agencies is published for the benefit of our subscribers. It includes only those who claim to be able 

to secure positions for Kindergartners or Primary Teachers. We advise those in need of positions to write one or more 

of these agencies for particulars. Even though now employed you may be able to secure a position in a larger or better school . 



The TEACHERS' EXCHANGE of Boston 

Recommends Teachers, Tutois and 

Schools. No. 120 Boylston street. 



THE REED TAECHERS' AGENCY 

Can place Kindergarten and Primary 
Teachers in New York, New Jersey and 
Pennsylvania at good salaries. 

H. E. REED, Manager, Syracuse, N. Y. 

611 University Block. 



THE PRATT TEACHERS' AGENCY 

Recomends college and normal gradu- 
ates, specialists, and other teachers to 
colleges, public and private schools, in 
all parts of the country. Advises pa- 
rents about schools. 

WM. O. PRATT, Manager 

70 Fifth Avenue New York 



MIDLAND SPECIALISTS AGENCY 

Station A. Spokane, Wash. 
We will have openings for a large num- 
ber of Primary and Kindergarten teach- 
ers. No enrollment fees. Blank and 
booklet for the asking. 



REGISTER WITH US. 

We need Kindergarten Teachers, Supt. 
Principals, Teachers of Science, Math- 
ematics and Language. 

OHIO VALLEY TEACHERS' AGENCY 

A, J. JOELY, Mgr. MENTOR. KY. 



ALBANY TEACHERS' AGENCY 

Provides public and private schools 
with competent teachers. 

Assists teachers and kindergartners 
in obtaining positions. 

81 Chapel Street, ALBANY. N Y. 



THIS IS THE TWENTY-FIFTH YEAR OF 

The CLARK TEACHERS' AGENCY 

Which proves conclusively its 

standing. Try them. Address, 

Steinway Hall, Chicago; Lincoln, Neb. 

Spokane, Wash. 



NORTHWESTERN TEACHERS' AGENCY 



310-311 PKOVIDENCE BUIXDING 
DULUTH. MINN. 



RELIABLE TEACHERS' AGENCY 

Trained Primary and Kindergarten 
Teachers needed. Good positions. Per- 
manent membership. Write to-day. 
G12-613 Majestic Building, 

Oklahoma City, Okla. 



Kindergartners and Primary Teachers 

Are in constant demand in the South at 
good salaries. We can place both. 

The Teachers 3 Exchange 

P. O. Box 283, Nashville. Tenn 

QUR OPPORTUNITIES for placing 
Kindergarten and Primary Teachers 
exceed our supply. No charge until you 
accept position. 

Lewis Teachers 3 Agency 

41 Lyman Block, Muskegon, Mich. 



INTERSTATf Teachers' Agency CENTRAL TEACHERS' AGENCY 



501-503 Livingston Building. Rochester. 
N. Y. Gives special attention to plac- 
ing Kindergarten and Primary Teach- 
ers in all parts of the United States. 
T. K. ARMSTRONG, Proprietor. 



COLUMBUS, OHIO. 
A good medinm for trained primary 
teachers to use in securing promotion. 
Writeto-day. E. C. ROGERS. Mflr. 



SOUTHERN TEACHERS' AGENCY ^SSSStgSF 



COLUMBIA, S C. 

There is an increasing demand for Pri- 
mary Teachers and Kindergartners 
throughout the South. Our agency is 
one of the largest and best known in 
this splendid territorvfor teachers. Ask 
for booklet, A PLAN. 
W. H.JONES. Manager and Proprietor. 



WESTERN TEACHERS' AGENCY SEES 

We wantKindergarten. Primary .Rural 
and otherteachers for regularor special 
v\ork. Highest salaries. Send for lit- 
erature and enroll for the coming year. | 

P. Wendell Murray, Manager. 



The J.D.EngleTcachers T Agency 

MINNEAPOLIS, MINN. 
A Placing Agency for Teachers. Estab- 
lished 20 years. Register for Western 
Kindergarten-Primary positions. Send 
for circular 



(Inc.) DBS MOINES, IOWA. 

Wants to hear from kindergarten or 

primary teachers desiring places west 

of Mississippi river. Write fully. Will 

answer frankly. 

AN AGENCY is valuable in 
P\W MV3tlNV I proportion to 
its influence If it merely hears of va- 
cancies and tells TUAT is some- 
you about them • nrt ■ thing, 
but if it is asked to recommend a teach- 

fktfifl RECOMMENDS 

is more. Ours recommends. 

The School Bulletin Agency 

C. W, BARDEEN, Syracuse, N. Y. 



•ear. Some Kindergartners. No charge 
mtil teacher is located by us. Send for 
;gistration blank. A. H.Campbell, 
American Teachers' Agency 
Myrick Building, Springfield, Mass. 



DEWBERRY 

SCHOOL 
AGENCY 

1892-1913 



CPECIALLY trained Kindergarten and Primary 
^ teachers in demand in the best schools through- 
out the South and Southwest. Teachers interested 
should get in touch with us. 

Address, R. A. CLAYTON, Manager. 

BIRMINGHAM, ALA. 



API AN Whereby the Teacher 
' !— " ' " is 1 >rought in touch 
with opportunity at that critical mo- 
ment when each is in search of the oth- 
er, is set forth in our forty-page booklet 
telling all about the South as a field for 
Primary and Kindergarten teachers. 
Get it. 

Southern Teachers' Agency 

Columbia, S. C. 



TEACHERS WANTING POSITIONS 

In Colorado, New Mexico, Arizona, Californ a, Nevada, Utah, Washington, Ida- 
ho, Montana, Wyoming, North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska, Kansas, Okla- 
homa or Texas should write us at once. Our calls come direct from school boards 
and Superintendents. We place most of our teachers outright. THE ROCKY 
MOUNTAIN TEACHERS' AGENCY, 328 Empire Building, Denver, Colo. 
WILLIAM RUFFER, A. B., Manager. 



The South and West 

Offer good opportunities for Primary 
and Kindergarten teachers. For infor- 
mation write CLAUDE J. BELL, 
Bell Teachers' Ag-ency, 

Nashville, Tenn. 



BANKTON TEACHERS' AGENCY 

M. DALTQN, Manager, 
Lexington, Ky. 

No enrollment fee. Careful and discriminating service. 



International Teachers' 



-AGENCY- 



Operates in the " Fair Salary Belt," em- 
bracing territory from Michigan to the 
Pacific Coast. Increasing demand for 
competent Kindergarten and primary 
teachers at highest salaries paid. 
JAMES H. BATTEN, Manager 
Box 613, Grand Forks, North Dakota. 



HERBART HALL 

INSTITUTE FOR ATYPICAL CHILDREN 
Founded April 1, 1900, by Maximilian P. E. Groszmann. 

Maintained by the 

NATIONAL ASSOCIATION FOR THE STUDY AND EDUCATION 
OF EXCEPTIONAL CHILDREN 

This Institution is one of the activities of the N. A. S. E. E. C. and is intended solely for the 
"different" child, the difficult child, the handicapped normal child — whether boy or girl.. 

No feeble-minded, degenerate or otherwise low cases are considered. 

The object of this Institution is to 
Train the EXCEPTIONAL CHILD 

Whether overbright or somewhat backward, to be able later to compete with the average normal child. 

In addition to the ordinary branches, the course of study includes physical training, nature study 
manual and constructive work, etc. Methods and equipment are based upon the most modern pedagogic 
principles. Medical care is a prominent feature of the work. 

HERBART HALL is the pioneer institution in this line of education. The Association main- 
taining it lays emphasis upon the needs of the misunderstood normal child in contrast to the overstimu'.ated 
interest in the feeble-minded and abnormal. 

"Watchung Crest," the home of HERBART HALL, comprises over twenty-five acres of land 
and is situated on Watchung Mountain, a spur of the Blue Ridge, five hundred feet above sea-level, 
(four hundred feet above Plainfield). 

For terms, catalog and other information, address 

WALDEMAR H. GROSZMANN 

PRINCIPAL 

"Watchung Crest," Plainfield, N. J. 



KINDERGARTEN SUPPLIES 

Bradley's School Paints, Raphia, Reed, and all Construction 
Material 

WE ARE HEADQUARERS FOR ALL THE ABOVE. Send for catalogue- 

THOS. CHARLES CO. 125 Wabash Avenne., Chicago, III. 




Some Great Subscription Offers 

In Combination -with the 

Kindergarten -Primary Magazine 
"A Study of Child Nature," g^SSlSSS 

And the Kindergarten-Primary Magazine one year, both fcr 
while our stock lasts. We have but a few copies on hand. 

"I ilts and I vrlr«s " h ? Alice c - D - Riley a Qd 

Llllh dllU L,yriCa>, Jessie L. Gaynor $1.00, and 
The Kindergarten-Primary Magazine one year for 

The KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE with 

Needlecraft, regular price $1.25, our price 

The KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE with 

McCall's Magazine, regular price $1.50, our price 

The KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE with 

Housekeeper, regular price $2.50, our price 

Th« KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE with 

Home Needlework, regular price $1.75, our price 

The KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE with 

Health Culture, regular price $2.00, our price 

The KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE with 

Primary Education , and School Arts Book, regular price 
$4. 25, our price 

The KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE with 
Kindergarttn Review, regular price £2.00, our price 

The KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE with 

Women's Home Companion, regular price $2.50, our price 

The KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE with 
Pictorial Review, Modern Priscilla and Ladies' World, re- 
gular price $3,25, our price 

The KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE with 

American Primary Teacher and School Century, regular 
price $3.25, our price 

Many other combinations. Give us the names of the Magazine! 
you want. Address J. H. SHUI/TS, Manistee, Mich. 



$1.50 
$1.15 
1.35 
2.00 
1.50 
1.60 

3.40 
1.70 
190 

2.15 

2.60 



KINDERGARTEN 

MATERIAL 

Of the Highest Grade at Lowest Prices 

Send for Price List 

American Kindergarten Supply House 

275-278-380 River Street. Manistee. Mi«h. 



\BuySchoolSupplies 
At Wholesale Prices 



Report Cards.— 1, 4 or 10 months, 

per 100, 25c, postage 5c 

U. S, Wool Bunting Flags 

6x3 Ft... $175 Postage 14c 

8x4 Ft 2.45 Postage 20c 

Class Recitation Records 
Each 15 cents. Postage 3 cents 
Set Primary Reading Charts 

Complete. $4.75 

Set Primary Arithmetic Charts 

Complete. ... $4 75 

Japanned Handle Scissors 

Per Dozen 45 cents 

Alphabet Cards. Per Pox 12 cents 



Cmm-FRE&QfrREQUEM' 



nM&ffir^ 




THE TEACHERS HELPERS 



The Teachers' Helpers are without question the finest 
PLAN BOOKS for teachers published. They are 
edited by some of the ablest and most practical teach- 
ers in the country. They give programs, methods 
songs, drawing, and devices for ea h month in the 
year, and are beautifully and profusely illustrated, 
four books In the series; named Autumn, Winter, 
Spring, and Summer respectively. The Summer 
number covers work for the whole year and Is larger 
han the others. Cover designs done in beautiful 
hree-color work. Money refunded to any purchaser 
he is not more than satisfied. 
PRICES; Each N»mber(except Summer) $ .35 
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MARCH, 1913 



INDEX TO 


CONTENTS 




An Easter Suggestion, 


Alice N. Parker, 


174 


Program Suggestions for March, 


Bertha Johnston, 


176 


How to Apply the Second Gift of 
the Kindergarten Series, 


Dr. Jenny B. Merrill, 


182 


Counting Game, 





183 


A Devotional Exercise, 


. 


183 


Master Red and Mistress Yellow- 
Snooze, 


Mary Ellason Cotting, 


184 


A Little Knight, 


Lvnn Davis, 


185 


On a Summer Day, 


Mary Ellason Cotting, 


187 


New Kindergarten Games and Pla}-: 


;, Laura Rountree Smith, 


189 


Little Pieces for Little People, 


Laura Rountree Smith, 


190 


The Committee of the Whole, 


Be rt h a J oh n s ton , 


191 


Hints and Suggestions for Rural 
Teachers, 


Grace Dow, 


193 


A Year in the Kindergarten 


Harrietle McCarthy, 


195 


Suggestions for Drawing, Paper Cutting, Folding and Pasting 
for March, 


198 


How March Came and Went, 


. 


197 


Book Notes, 


- 


198 



Volume XXV, No. 7. 



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MISS NETTA FARRIS. Principal 



THE KINDERGARTEN PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



179 




CD 



£P 




cock can be outlined as shown below. Also 
a vane in shape of fish. 




Outline 
shapes — as arrows 
etc. 



PEAS WORK. 

weather-vanes o f d 



cock, 



fferent 
stiff little man, 



Build a skeleton signal tower growing" 
smaller toward the top and place at extreme 
top of small paper flag, thus. Build ladder 
for use with Sixth Gift. 




t 



OCCUPATIONS— PAPER. 

Cut out various garments, stockings, 
underclothing, sheets, napkins, to hang 
upon a line stretched across from one pole 
to another. (Poles may be made of Second 
Gift Beads placed one upon another with 



a stick running through to hold them to- 
gether). 

Cut small picture of kite, sail-boat, 
weather-vane, flag, etc., to paste in book. 
Weather signal pennants may be cut of 
colored paper or of white paper which the 
children may themselves color with paints 
or chalk. 

Cut and fold pinwheel. If at any time it 
should be impossible to obtain a stick to 
which to attach a pinwheel a substitute 
may be made by rolling a piece of paper 
tightly into an old-fashioned lamplighter 
and attaching wheel to this. This pin- 
wheel may also be attached to windmill. 
(See above.) 

Parachute — Cut a square of light-weight 
paper measuring about seven inches each 
way. Take four pieces of string eleven 
inches long and in the end of each make a 
large knot. Run the string through each 
corner of the paper, the knot preventing it 
from going entirely through. In the other 
end of each string make another knot. Run 
a pin through these last knots, thus joining 
them and then attach the pin to a small 
cork. This makes a light parachute which 
will hold its own in a breeze. 

Kite — A simple kite may be made by 
little children of newspaper or manilla 
paper. Give each child a square and direct 
as follows: Fold from lower edge to just 
meet the upper edge; crease and open. 
Fold upper edge down to just meet central 
crease; open. Fold right edge to just meet 
left edge ; open. Let the children see if 
they can tell where to crease now in order 
to give kite-form lines along which to cut. 
Then let them cut out the kite. 

Older children may fold and paste such a 
form upon a framework made of slats 
crossed. A model may be found in any 
little toystore. 

CARDBOARD. 

Cut a large fish, arrow, etc., of card- 
board to be used as a weather-vane. Run 
a slender stick up and down through the 
center and nail stick to a post or barrel- 
head or some object placed where the wind 
can blow upon it. Let the children tell each 
day from which way the wind blows. 

Make a windmill as follows: Take a 
piece of cardboard measuring 7x9 inches. 
Score from a-e, b-f, c-g, d-j, making thus 
four scores seven inches long. Cut the 



■ 8o 



THE KINDERGARTEN PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



top down i]A inches on each score giving 
four flaps. This scoring and cutting gives 
four sides of a windmill each two inches 
wide with an inch flap to paste over when 
bent into form. The four top flaps will 
make a flat roof, and the score-lines may he 
cut half an inch up from the base to make a 

h £ b e 



\ TT1 

I 

I 



for Wind mi' 



standard. To this structure may he at- 
tached a small pin-wheel. 

Older children may make a peaked roof 
by scoring oblique lines as shown in 
illustration and bending triangular flaps 
which may be pasted together. A tiny vane 
may be attached to apex of roof. 

OUTSIDE MATERIAL. 

With soap and water and penny pipes let 
the children make bubbles and blow them 
about the room or observe how the cur- 
rents of air affect them. Play in similar 
way with balloons. 

Let the children wash out the paste 
cloths and hang up in wind to dry. Cut 
pennants of cotton, color in Diamond dyes, 
blue, red and yellow and use for signaling. 

DRAWING. 

The children will be aide to draw inter- 
esting pictures of boys running with their 
kites flying aloft; ships in full sail; wind- 
mills, weather-vanes, etc. Also the clothes 
on the line dancing in the breeze. These 
pictures may be colored with chalk or 
paint. 

THE UNSEEN MUSICIAN. 

The wind among other things is an in- 
visible musician. Have you ever listened 
to him when he is using the telegraph wires 
as harp strings? What beautiful music he 
plays! Then, too, he sings lullabies in the 
tree-tops to the birds; how he roars around 
the corner of the house! How he whistles 
through the knot-holes, or the speaking- 
tube in the house! We make use of him 
with our wind instruments. What arc 
some of them? Yes, the trumpet, the oboe, 
the flute, the clarionet, the wonderful 



organ with all of its many pipes. How 
much joy and help the wind gives us when 
we learn how to ' work in harmonv with 
him! 

The kindergartner may read Walt Whit- 
man's poem, '"Proud Music of t lie Storm," 
page 310. 

In Parables From Nature, by Mrs. Catty, 
will be found a good weather-vane story. 
The Odyssey tells the story of Odysseus 
and the bag of winds; and in Aesop is the 
fable of the Wind and the Sun. 

Among the Wind songs are Stevenson's 
"I Saw You Toss the Kites on High;" this, 
with several other wind songs will be found 
in the Blow edition of the "Mother Play." 
Also, in the Jenks and Walker book is a 
little song which speaks of "the wind as a 
musician with anything for keys," etc. 

THE WIND.* 

BERTHA JOHNSTON. 

Around our vast world blows the wind fresh and 

free, 
We hear and we feel him but never can see — 
But — see how the arrow he turns 'round to show 
If sunshine is coming, fog, rainstorm or snow. 

The ambitious kite now is soaring en high — 
He tugs at the string, longing birdlike, to fly — 
The light wind uplifts him and bears him so far 
He feels he may soon reach the bright evening star. 

The family garments, both coarse ones and fine 
Droop heavy and wet on the taut laundry line — 
Till merry Wind cries out "Just dance now my 

dears! 
With Sunshine's kind help I will dry all your 

tears." 

The children are merry, the wind's blowing free, 
So sailing we'll go on the billowy sea. 
What joy 'tis to rise, rise, then clip in the wave 
So far we can see into Neptune's green cave. 

The miller is anxious — his great fans stand sti'.l 
Till Wind comes up briskly, with lusty good-will. 
He pushes the fans till they circle so fast 
They turn to a great giant circle at last. 

A fine moving picture show oft may be seen 
When Wind floats the cloud- films across the blue 

screen. 
Bears, camels, grand mountains, fair castles delight 
All children who like fairy pictures so bright. 

The Wind as musician with trombone's deep boom 
Announces the Storm-King's approach through the 

gloom ; 
He whistles in knot-holes; in tree-tops oft sings; 
Plays te'egraph. wires like sweetest harp-strings. 



*This may be turned into a recitation with 
shadow-pictures thrown on a sheet to illustrate 
each stanza. The cloud effect may be secured by 
cutting from large sheets a pattern enlarged from 
the one given here. 



THE KINDERGARTEN-PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



181 



WASHINGTON VIEWS 



id plays and he works with 



Oh! the wind sings 

ns too, 
As fast as we learn all the things he can do. 
We see his great works but himself ne'er can see 
Around our vast world so fresh-blowing and free. 




G STREET LOOKING EAST FROM ELEVENTH STREET 




tern for Cloud Effect in Wind Recitation. 

—Republished in part 



THE I. K. U. MEETING AT WASHINGTON. 



The program for the Twentieth Annual Meeting- of the 
International Kindergarten Union at Washington, April 
29 to May 2, appears on page 197. Among thejittract- 
ive features will be the following: 

A conference of Directors and Assistants exclusively. 

Three separate Round Tables on Stories, Games, and 
Gifts. 

A series of talks by well known kindergartners, includ- 
ing Susan E. Blow, Patty S. Hill, and Miss Stewart, 
founder of the I. K. U. 

The Montessori Methods and Principles are to be con- 
sidered at a meeting, and Dr. Myron T. Scudder, of the 
Scudder School, New York, will show a series of pictures 
of the Montessori Schools in Rome. Dr. Lightner Wit- 
mer, of the University of Pennsylvania, and Dr. Wm. 
Heard Kilpatrick, of Teachers College, Columbia Univer- 
sity, will speak at this meeting. 

A reception to visiting kindergartners, and a play fes- 
tival, by the children of the public kindergartens of 
Washington, on the National Museum lawn will be spe- 
cial features. 



I'ER PLANT, POTOMAC 



Miss Elizabeth Harrison, chairman of the joint com- 
mittee composed of representatives of the National 
Congress of Mothers and the I. K. U. has sent the fol- 
lowing inquiry to organizations and individuals: 

"The Joint Committee is desirous of obtaining all pos- 
sible information as to what the kindergartners of Amer- 
ica are doing in the line of classes, Clubs, or associations 
for the enlightenment of mothers concerning kinder- 
garten principles. Will you help us by sending such 
data as may be furnished by your community? The 
report is to be presented before the National Congress 
of Mothers which meet in Boston, May 15, 1913." 



" '•' ' " , 



gjj-j TO RECOGNIZE WORDS. 

: Tell the story of the little boy who was lost in 

-gjsli the woods and came to a wide brook, but there 

3p§p" was no bridge across it. He noticed some stones 

here and there and tried to walk across the brook 

H on the stones. Illustrate the brook and the stones 

E on the board, writing one of the new words on 

each stone. Who can get across the brook without 

falling off — missing a word. 



182 



THE KINDERGARTEN- PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



HOW TO APPLY KINDERGARTEN PRINCIPLES 

AND METHODS IN VILLAGE AND 

RURAL SCHOOLS. 

Article VII. 

The Second Gift of the Kindergarten Series: The 

Sphere, the Cube and the Cylinder. 

By Dr. Jenny B. Merrill 




SECOND CI 



In this second gift the child finds his old playmate, 
the ball, in a new dress, as it were. Froebel always 
aims at continuance and relation of a new gift to its 
predecessor. In this case the wooden sphere, less bril- 
liant in color, hard, smooth and noisy, is the connecting 
link. Miss Millicent Shinn, in her "Biography of a 
Baby," claims that the hard wooden ball is more fitting 
and more hygienic than the worsted balls for babies, and 
would omit the first gift. "Many men, many minds." It 
is certainly worth considering. 

Not only the principle of continuity, but that of con- 
trast and the connection of opposites is illustrated in 
this gift. The cube is presented as being the opposite 
of the sphere. 

The sphere is the symbol of motion, the cube of rest. 
The cube stands firm. It must be pushed even to slide 
and then quickly comes to rest unless upon an inclined 
surface. The cube has corners and edges and sides, 
while the sphere has none— it is round all over. The 
roller or cylinder is the connecting link between these 
two extremes. It rolls and slides. It stands well on 
either end. It has edges, but no corners. The adult 
mind naturally analyzes and is interested in stating all 
these new distinctions and contrasts. Not so with the 
child. He proceeds to play at once, to do something 
with the new blocks. In short, he experiments, and 
should be left alone for a time simply to see what is 
in his box, that is if he receives it as a whole gift in 
kindergarten or school. In babyhood, one form is given 
at first. 

There is really no first thing to do. Let each child 
do what he will. Stand aside and observe. The chil- 
dren will soon sense the differences and resemblance, 
but it will be a long time before they should be led to 
state them. They will learn the distinctive features of 
each form in using it. The use or function of a thing. 



what it can do. or what you can do with it makes the 
first appeal to the child. Yet nomenclature is important. 
Language must progress. The forms, therefore, should 
be named, incidentally, corners and edges mentioned as 
occasion arises, but need not be corrected for a long 
time. Even in the nursery use of this plaything. Froebel 
lays stress upon language, introducing many playful 
couplets or rhymes. He says "The stock of words* [to 
be introduced] embraces objects, actions and qualities " 
This gift gives "a point of support" for the development 
of speech in the child. He suggests the words up, down, 
here, there, where, as well as the more obvious nouns, 
verbs and adjectives. 

I dwell upon this point as the grade teacher does not 
always realize how much the kindergarten desires to do 
for language, and because the kindergartner sometimes 
forgets or neglects this side of her work. It is a good 
rule, which I may as well state here, for the kinder- 
gartner to ask one or two questions individually of each 
child as she passes to observe his hand work, of what- 
ever kind it may be. 

Language is spiritual. Tone and voice are human. 
They reach the spirit. Speak simply, looking into the 
child's eye and expecting, and if necessary inviting him, 
to look at you when he replies. 

While on this topic, although it may seem a digres- 
sion, let me suggest as I did in regard to the first gift 
that older children, who have played with it and who 
are reading, writing and learning to spell, be asked to 
write lists of words suggested by these fundamental 
forms, as a review : — 



edges 


standing 


round 


sphere 


spinning 


curved 


cube 


swinging 


straight 


cylinder 


twirling 


sharp 


corners 


hanging 


six 


faces 


'wooden 


eight 


surface 


hard 


twelve 


rolling 


smooth 


flat 


sliding 







We have referred to the nursery plays with this gift, 
They extend from the beginning of the second to the 
end of the third year. They will be found in Froebel's 
own writings, Pedagogics of the Kindergarten, in the 
Kraus Guide, in Paradise of Childhood, and in Harri- 
son's Building Gifts. 

Spinning and twirling are developed more fully in 
the second gift than in the first. Eyelets are inserted 
in these three forms for attaching strings. Children 
can be taught to twist the strings tight. They love to 
watch the suspended form take different shapes as the 
cord untwists. It is a puzzle, a mystery to see the old 
form disappear and re-appear. 

The surprises are many that may come to the children 
and even to adults. Pleasant ahs ! and ohs ! may be ex- 
pected and permitted for a certain amount of emotional 
expression is good for us all. We learn to inhibit grad- 
ually and there is danger in suppressing interest in 
school. Besides the strings, there are wooden axles 
provided that are to be inserted in different ways sug- 
gested by the holes which the children readily discover. 
If anyone knows children, it is not necessary for me to 
say they need no suggestion in regard to putting the 



THE KINDERGARTEN PRIMARY MAGAZINE 



183 



slender sticks into the holes, but they will need a little 
guidance in spatting them round and round to make 
them go faster and faster until the novel forms appear. 

See the corners of the cube chase each other around 
and round! Where are they now? Gone? Where are 
they hiding? Ah! Here they come back! The cube 
tried to turn into a cylinder — well — well—. Such simple, 
natural conversations will arouse interest in corners, 
edges and lead finally to counting them. 

When it is decided advisable to count them, let me 
suggest counting in groups, as four corners at the top, 
four corners at the bottom of the cube, "two fours." 
Later combine into "two fours are eight." 

Counting edges, we find four edges around the top, 
four edges around the bottom, and four standing up ! 
How many fours? Three fours. Later, combining, we 
have three fours are twelve. Let mathematics grow 
very gradually. Do not force this subject. Note any 
child who is mathematically inclined and help him along. 
He in turn will help interest his mates. 

If you can afford but one second gift, each child in 
turn can play with it, or possibly two or three in a small 
group, as social interest will arouse intellectual life. Oc- 
casionally let a child sit apart alone and enjoy it quietly. 
The child will learn to know these three fundamental 
forms which are the basic forms of animal, plant and 
mineral life by simply playing with them. 

BUILDING. 

Quite a series of building exercises have been evolved 
in some kindergartens with this gift, although at first 
sight it does not lend itself to building except to make 
the one little monument which is so often referred to, 
but which Froebel himself calls the child's dolly! The 
building is possible by permitting the children to use the 
box, the lid, the upright posts and the axles. Some 
child is quite sure to experiment, if only he is left alone! 
(a la Montessori). 

He may at first simply slide his cube up and down the 
lid, having placed it as an inclined plane without know- 
ing it as such. He may make a see-saw with lid and 
cylinder. Perh