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' Ne al soh ne al les Jiat leod-scopes singe^\' — Lajamox 



PR _ 




















The Middle-English Romance of King Horn exists in three IMS, 
copies, (i) MS. Harleian, 2253, British Museum, London (L); (2) 
MS. Laud, ]Misc. 108, Bodleian Library, Oxford (O) ; and (3) MS. 
Gg. iv. 27. 2, University Library, Cambridge (C). L, a vellum book 
measuring 30 x 18 centimetres, consists of two distinct MSS. bound 
up together. The first, executed in England towards the end of the 
thirteenth century, contains religious pieces in Anglo-French prose 
and verse ; a translation of Vitas Patrum ; La passiun nostre Seignour 
(being an extract from the Bible of Herman de Valenciennes) ; De 
Tiberio sanato with the Legend of S. Veronica added ; Lives of 
S. John Evangelist, S. John Bapdst, S. Bartholomew, and Passioun 
seint Piere. All these pieces except the first are in MS. Egerton, 
2710'. The second IMS. begins at f. 49, and ends with f. 142: it 
has lost two leaves after f. 52, and again after f. 140, and there is 
a f. 67 * after f. 67. Its eighty-six articles, written in English, Anglo- 
French, and Latin, cannot be described here in detail. They comprise 
forty English lyrics printed in Boddeker, Altenglische Dichtungen, in 
Wright, Political Songs (Camden Society), and Specimens of Lyric 
Poetry (Percy Society) ; nine similar pieces in French, and one of 
French and Latin mixed, printed in Wright, Specimens ; two satirical 
poems in French, De coniuge non ducenda, in Wright, Poems attri- 
buted to Walter Mapes, and The Order of Bel-Eyse, pjrinted in the 
Political Songs ; six fabliaux (for which see Ward, Catalogue of 
Romances, i. pp. 328, 813); The Harrowing of Hell (ed. IMall, 
Breslau, 1871) ; Debate of Body and Soul, in Wright, Mapes ; Legend 
of Marina ; Maximion, and the Proverbs of Hendyng, all printed in 
Boddeker and elsewhere. Among the Latin pieces are three lives of 
saints: at f. 53 r the life of S. Ethelbert, patron saint of Hereford 
(comp. Malmesbury, Gesta Pontificum, p. 305); at f. 140 v the 
martyrdom of S. Wistan, who was connected with Evesham and 
Worcestershire (Malmesbury, pp. 297-8. Chronicle of Evesham, ed. 

* Bulletin de la Societe des Anciens Textes rran9ais, 1875, p. 52 ; 18S9, pp. 82, 
83, 88, 92-94. 


Macray, pp. 325-37), and at f. 132 r the Legend of S. Etfrid of 
Leominster, missionary from Northumbria to the West Mercian king, 
IMerwald, son of Penda, and builder about 660 a. d. of the first 
religious house at Leominster (Leland, Collectanea, ii. p. 169 ; 
Itinerary, iv. p. 72 ; Dugdale, Monasticon, iv. p. 51. See also 
Wharton, Anglia Sacra, i. pp. 695, 6). All these hel<Sng to West 
Mercia, and the presence of the last-mentioned, a purely local tradi- 
tion, makes it highly probable that the MS. ' was written by some 
secular clerk connected with the priory of Leominster' (Wright, 
Specimens, p. vii.). Possibly in the word dhnprest, written on the 
margin of f. 66 r in the same hand as the MS., we have the name of 
the compiler. The date of the MS. can be determined within narrow 
limits. It cannot be prior to 1307 a. d., as it contains an elegy on 
the death of Edward the First. If, as is most probable, the prophecy 
of Thomas of Ercildoune on f. 127 r", 'When bambourne ys donged 
wy]3 dede men,' is a reference to Bannockburn (see T. of E. ed. 
IMurray, E. E. T. S. No. 61, pp. xviii , xix.), it must be put after 1314 
A.D. '. On the other hand, the writing cannot be put later than 1320 
A. D. The IMS. may then be dated between 1314 and 1320 a. d. 
King Horn, which runs from f. 83 r to f 92 v, is written in long line, 
containing two lines as printed in this edition, although the scribe 
often divides his page elsewhere into two or even three columns. The 
handwriting is fairly clear, but ;/ and «, e and 0, c and ^,y and/" are not 
always easily distinguishable. The letter j/ is regularly dotted, and 
i is occasionally marked with a stroke. The use of the accents over 
eere, 1. 316 ; beer, 11. 1108, 1113, 1131, is noteworthy; it occurs also 
in C 1396. At 11. 661, 663, 1 142, 1 143, the head of the double long 
s in fyjjh is prolonged over the end of the word, as also in dyjjh, 
1. 1 145, possibly indicating a final e. The first line at the top of the 
folio often has the loops of the letters prolonged above and rubricated. 
There are no illuminated or large-sized initials, and few capitals, 
rubricated small letters doing duty for them for the most part ; these 
latter are represented in the text by thick capitals. 

O, a small folio measuring 27 x 18 centimetres, written on parch- 
ment, has been described by Dr. Horstman in Leben Jesu, Munster, 
1873, pp. 1-7, and in Archiv fiir d. Sludium der n. Sprachen, xlix. 
PP- 395-41 4- It is, in my opinion, a composite manuscript. The first 
MS., imperfect at the beginning, ends with f. 203 v, where a leaf 

' The Chronicle of England in MS. Reg. 12, c. xii. B. M., which ends with the 
death of Gaveston in 131 2 a.d., is the work of the same scribe. 


probably blank has been cut out. From f. 23 r to f. 198 r extends 
a collection of Legends of the Saints, printed by Horstman in the 
Early South-English Legendary, E. E. T. S., No. 87, where at pp. i, 
483 will be found the titles of the remaining articles of the IMS. Its 
date is about 1290 a. d. The orthography is strongly influenced by 
Anglo-French usage : the scribe has a series of peculiarities not found 
in the copy of King Horn which follows, such as ij for i {Jijf, sijk, 
ivij/), u in final syllables for e {bropur, opur, nopiir, watuf), ui, uy for 
A.S.J', the z-umlaut of u {briiydale, kuyride, luyiel), gu for g before 
e, I in Teutonic words {guod, lo}igue,Ji7tguer), ie to represent A.S. e, eo 
{liet, qm'ene, fierde, hiet), and others detailed in Horstman, Leben Jesu, 
pp. 8-14. The second IMS. begins at f. 204 r; it consists of three 
gatherings of twelve leaves each, with guards at folios 214 v and 226 v. 
A leaf has been cut out between folios 211 and 212. The IMS. has 
been reduced in height, and the title of the first piece partly shorn 
away. Its contents are : 

f. 204 r. Havelok . the Dane. Edited by Sir Frederick Madden for the Rox- 
burghe Club, and by Professor Skeat for the Early English Text Society. 

f. 219 V. King Horn. 

f. 22S V. Vita &: passio sancii Blayij martixis. 

f. 230 V. Vita & passio sancfe Cecilie \irginis & martir/j'. These two lives are 
printed in the Early South-English Legendaiy, pp. 485-496. 

f. 233 V. Vita cuiz^jdam saticti \in nomine Alex, optima vita. This life of 
S. Alexius is printed in Herrig's Archiv, li., pp. loi-iio, and in E. E. T. S. 
No. 69. 

f. 237 r. Here bi g}TineJ) somer soneday. This poem was probably inspired 
by the deposition of Richard the Second : it is printed in Reliquiae Antiquae, ii. 
PP- 7~9- Then follow some scraps, including eight lines lamenting the prevalence 
of faithlessness in friendship. 

All after f. 228 is in a hand of the end of the fourteenth or the 
beginning of the fifteenth century ; what precedes is by most autho- 
rities assigned to the last twenty years of the thirteenth century, but 
I venture to think it not earlier than 13 10 a. d. The original -manu- 
script from which Havelok was copied had twenty lines to the page 
(Zupitza in Anglia, vii. 155); the same may be inferred for this copy 
of Horn from the transposition of O 1462-81. It is therefore prob- 
able that both poems were copied from the same manuscript, and that 
of 2^ format such as a wandering minstrel would possess. The hand- 
writing is square and solid, the letters are crowded and fused together, 
and the spaces between the words narrow. The initial letter of each 
line is separated from the rest by a space, and is accordingly printed 
here as a capital. Large coloured capitals also occur, sometimes 


marking the beginning of a paragraph, but mostly to adorn the hero's 
name. The letters/ and j' differ little in shape, but the latter is often 
dotted; c and / are often undistinguishable. The use of the long 
_/ greatly predominates ; it occurs even at the end of words, especially 
in the inflections of nouns. Short s is confined almost e^fclusively to 
the final position ; it occurs a few times at the beginning, never in the 
middle of words. The combination ih appears only a few times at 
the end of words like with^ seih, deth, golh, poncuth, nouth, ith ; p is 
employed everywhere else. The scribe had the OE. p before him in 
his original at 1. 449, but he does not use it anywhere. He made 
not only a peculiar use of the symbols, but distinguished himself by 
the wavering and inconsistency of his orthography. A dispropor- 
tionate part of the Glossary is taken up with the recording of the 
variant spellings in O. 

C was formerly bound up with IMS. Gg. iv. 27 ; it consists of 
fourteen folios written in double columns throughout on parchment 
of unequal lengths, measuring about 25 x 16 centimetres. The 
initial of each line is written apart and rubricated ; though mostly 
small letters they are here printed as capitals. Two lines are often 
written as one ; they are usually divided by : or ; as each single line 
usually ends with a full stop. There are large red and blue capitals, 
and paragraph marks are casually added, twice (11. 582, 1322) in the 
middle of a line. The handwriting is sharp and clear, but sometimes 
rather crowded in the effort to save space, and for the same reason 
additions above the line are common. The manuscript is the work 
of an Anglo-French scribe about the year 1 260 a. d. Its contents are : 

f. I r'. Fragment of Floris and Blauncheflur, printed in Lumby's edition of 
King Horn, pp. 51-74. See also Dr. Hausknecht's edition of the romance, p. 94. 

f. 6 r^. King Horn. 

f. 13 v'. Assumpc/ozm de xxostxe. dame, printed in Lnmby, pp. 44-50. Compare 
the version in Cursor Mundi, 11. 20065-20304, and the Introduction, pp. 42*, 43*. 
The piece is imperfect at the end of the MS. on f. 14 v-. 

The texts in this edition are intended for close reproductions of the 
MSS. in every detail except that already mentioned. Contractions 
are expanded in italics, and only obvious blunders are corrected, 
always with mention of the original in the foot-notes. The text of 
C, to which the commentary generally refers, is punctuated, and the 
other versions are arranged parallel to it so as to show the variants, 
and facilitate the investigation of the relationship between the MSS., 
a problem of some complexity. It is convenient for reference to state 
my views at the outset in a tabular form, as follows : 


,/3 C 

A represents the common original of our three versions. It is not 
necessarily the primitive form of the story, but may, as INIr. Ward 
suggests (Catalogue, i. p. 448), have added the King IMody episode, 
and thus duplicated Horn's disguises and rescues of Rimenhild. a is 
a descendant of A through a sufficient number of copies to allow for 
a considerable corruption of the original text. 

There is a noteworthy difference in the length of the three versions, 
O having twenty-three lines more than L, and forty-five more than C, 
if the epilogue, 11. 1525-30, in tlae latter be left out of the reckoning 
as a later addition. O contains a number of couplets and a single 
line entirely unrepresented in the other versions, viz. 11. 123, 124; 
241; 373> 374; 383. 384; 425, 426; 491, 492; 521, 522; 613, 
614; 724. 725; 1076, 1077; 1282, 1283; 1296, 1297. These 
consist mainly of lines repeated out of their proper context (comp. 
123, 124 with O 231, 232; 241 with O 560; 383, 384 with C 1107, 
1 108), or of repetitions in another shape of ideas already expressed 
(e. g. 11. 425, 426 ; 1076, 1077), or of phrases which form the common 
stock of the romance writers (e.g. 11. 491, 492). With the possible 
exception of 11. 425, 426, where C is plainly defective, none of these 
passages can claim to be original, that is descended from A. They 
mark a distinct and late stage in the evolution of the O text, and are 
probably due to the minstrel from whose twenty-line IMS. e O was 
copied. They can hardly have originated with the writer of O, who 
seems to have been a mere copyist, and a not very intelligent one ; 
especially noteworthy is the way in which he has carried into his text 
^t II- 373> 374 an attempt at recasting the unsatisfactory 11. 379, 380 
made on the margin by his predecessor. 

L has one couplet peculiar to itself, 11. 267, 268 ; it is also un- 
original, and arises from an attempt by the writer of L, or possibly of 
8, to recast 1. 266 so as to bring it into better syntactical relation to the 
preceding lines. Of the lines which occur in C only, 11. 379, 80; 876 
are original; 11. 879,880; 1065, 1066; 1113, 1114; 1265, 1266; 
i439> 1440 are later additions probably due to /3, and 11. 361, 362; 
1103, 1104; 1435, 1436 are doubtful. L 891-920 and O 910-921 


are independent expansions of the brief original represented by C, 
which has, however, lost two lines before I. 893. 

But besides these places where the MSS. show a complete indepen- 
dence of one another, there is a considerable number of passages 
where the corresponding lines have little in common, as L 449, 450, 
O 465, 466, C 445, 446 ; L 552, O 570, C 554 ; L 571, 572, O 587, 
588, C 573, 574; L 1377, 1378, O 1406, 1407, C 1369, 1370; or 
where the same idea is very differently expressed, as L 299, 300, 
O 304, 305. C 293, 294 ; L 371, 372, O 379, 380, C 367, 368; 
L 483, 484, O 499, 500, C 479, 480; L 1057, 1058, O 1092, 1093, 
C 1049, 1050; L 1222, O 1257, C 1214; L 1273, O 1306, C 1263; 
L 1294, O 1329, C 1286 ; L 1353, 1354, O 1382, 1383, C 1343, 
1344 ; L 1483, 1484, O 1510, 1511, C 1463, 1464 ; L 1543, 1544, 
O 1566, 1567,0 1521, 1522. Of these variations the former are due 
to an attempt to mend a corrupt or defective original a, the latter 
mostly to the avoidance of rhymes which are impossible in the scribe's 
dialect. At L 1377 all the readings are reminiscences; comp. C 86, 
87 ; L 1227, 1228 ; O 619, 620. Elsewhere 7, the common original 
of LO, has avoided difficult expressions preserved by C, as at L 571, 
572 ; L 1353, 1354. Not seldom the readings of all three MSS. are 
unsatisfactory, comp. L 552, L 1057, 8; otherwise C seems to have 
best preserved the original readings. 

These divergences throw no light on the relationship of the MSB., 
unless so far as their number and importance make it improbable that 
any one of them is the direct source of any other. More instructive 
is the class of passages where the same idea occurs in all three MSS., 
but with small variations in the turn of the expression. It will be 
found that, while O and C are occasionally more nearly alike and L 
and C more frequently, in the great majority of cases L and O exhibit 
the closer resemblance. Thus on pp. 86, 87 of the texts LO agree 
at L 1491, L 1493, L 1494, L 1496, L 1498, L 1502, L 1504, 
L 1506; LC at L 1503, L 151 8, and OC at O 1 5 1 9. It is, of course, 
unsafe to lay much stress on what may often be casual coincidences. 
The scribes handled their texts with great freedom whenever they 
thought they could improve on the sense or metre of their original. 
Using a common stock of tags and conventional phrases, it is no 
wonder if two of them now and then independently hit on similar 
expressions. Still, after all deductions, there is strong evidence in this 
concurrence of LO that they have a more intimate connexion than 
L and C or O and C, and form a manuscript-group representing 


a single ]\IS. y. And it is greatly strengthened by observation of those 
cases in which two of the MSS. exhibit passages which are absolutely 
unrepresented in the third, or agree in a form of expression quite 
different from that of the remaining IMS. LO have in common 
thirty-two passages, as at L 17, i8 ; L 75, 76 ; L 147, 148 ; L 159, 
160, which are wanting in C ; LC twenty-eight passages, as L 145, 
146; L 241 ; L 435, .436, which are not in O; OC twenty-three 
passages, as O loi, 102 ; O 225, 226 ; O 268, which are absent from 
L. There is at first sight no great numerical majority in favour of the 
combination LO. But the last two results are greatly modified by 
taking into account the conditions of transmission of the manuscripts. 
O or e is the work of an extremely careless copyist ; he leaves out 
without reason lines corresponding to L 501, L 682, and passages as 
at L 1247-1250, displaces couplets (comp. L 1109, mo with O 383, 
384 ; L 1243, 1244 widi O 1048, 1049), repeats words out of pre- 
ceding lines, as at L 241, O 244, and where the repeated word 
is initial remodels the passage as at O 473. On the other hand, 
L often fails to agree with O because it or its predecessor S has been 
carefully edited by a man who aimed at pure rhymes, smooth rhythm, 
delicacy of expression and consistency of sense. Passages in OC 
which are corrupt or difficult, like O 268; O 666; O 1311, 1312; 
O 1362, 1363, are simply omitted by him; defective rhymes are 
avoided in the same way at O 413, 414 ; O 553, 554, or by com- 
pression of four lines into two, as at O 407-410; O 623-626; 
considerations of taste dictate the omission of O 225, 226; O 952- 
955 ; and, having once admitted the couplet L 17, 18, he consistently 
leaves out the original represented by C 95, 96, which is altered in 
O loi, 102. Though some deduction must be made from the list of 
agreements of LO, as at L 405; L 407-410; L 411, 412, where C 
is manifestly defective, the net result places the combination LO far 
ahead of the other two in point of numbers. Still more conclusive 
is a qualitative examination of the passages themselves. The great 
majority possessed in common by LC and by OC are beyond doubt 
original, that is, descended from a, and there is not one of them which 
may not be so, while a large proportion of those in which LO agree 
are plainly later additions. Thus L 17, 18 ; L 864 ; L 1041, 1042 ; 
L i389> 1390; L 1526 are mere tags; L 75, 76; L 147, 148; 
L 663, 664; L 889, 890; L 1143,1144; L 1183, 1184; L 1305, 
1306 are expansions of preceding lines ; L 715, 716 is a reminiscence 
of L 585, 586; L 131 3, 1314 is suggested by L 1321. Now it is 


clear that, while any two of the MSS. may agree in exhibiting 
lines derived from the original MS., if two of them coincide in 
a considerable number of subsequent additions they must have a 
common source in some intermediate MS. 

A comparison of the passages where two of the MSS. concur in 
a form of expression widely different from that of the third yields the 
same result. Here also all possible combinations of the manuscripts 
are found, and the original is preserved sometimes by LO, as at L 495, 
496, sometimes by OC, as at O 133, 134, often in LC, as at L 174, 
L 199, L 278. But the combination LO differs from the others in 
exhibiting a series of readings, as at L 49 ; L 335, 336; L 562; 
L 579 ; L 644; L 651; L 694; L 885; L 1399, which contain 
mistakes such as are not likely to have arisen independently. 

To sum up the results: (i) None of the INISS. is the source of 
either of the others. (2) All three have rewritten, generally with poor 
effect, passages which have been corrupted in process of transmis- 
sion to the common source a from the original A. (3) LO form a 
manuscript-group descended from an intermediate manuscript y. (4) 
O has been derived mediately through a twenty-line IMS. e, which is 
responsible for considerable independent additions appearing in O. 
(5) L may have passed through a IMS. 8, which has substituted Allof 
for Murry as the name of Horn's father, and has subjected y to an 
extensive revision, or the writer of L may be responsible for these 
alterations. (6) C approaches the original more nearly than L or O : 
a consensus of L and C, or of O and C, in doubtful passages gives the 
text of the original. 

Wissmann's views are widely different. Perplexed by the curious 
interweaving of the MSS., and thinking that in certain places L pre- 
serves the original against a consensus of OC, and O likewise against 
LC, he fell back on a theory of oral transmission, which gets no support 
from what we know of the history of all other Middle-English romance 
texts. Even a theory of contamination, as, for instance, that L is an 
edited text based on manuscripts of the O and C classes, would 
present less difficulty. The strength of Wissmann's argument centres 
in those passages which he adduces to show that both O and L pre- 
serve the original reading against a consensus of the other two MSS. 
These passages are not convincing, in some cases because they show 
only trifling variations or additions which may well have been written 
down by two scribes quite independently, in others because the editor's 
judgement as to the original reading is open to question. The passage 


which tells most strongly for his view is O 1368, 1369, where O is 
undoubtedly right. But the reading in which LC concur is a very 
natural blunder, and such as may have been made by two scribes quite 
independently. A similar place is L 1 146, where, in my opinion, L is 
right, but Wissmann adopts the reading of OC. Here the reading of 
L is an obvious correction made over an erasure. 

L was the first of the texts to be printed: it occupies pp. 91-155 
in vol. ii. of Ritson's Ancient Engleish IMetrical Romancees, published 
in 1802. At p. 221 of vol. iii. he gives the readings of the MS. which 
he has altered in his edition, and at pp. 439, 440 some corrections. 
C appeared for the first time along with the variants of L and O in 
Francisque Michel's Bannatyne Club book, Horn et Rimenhild : 
Recueil de ce qui reste des poe'mes relatifs a leurs aventures, published 
in 1845. It was edited for the Early English Text Society in 1866 
by J. Rawson Lumby\ and by Morris in his Specimens of Early 
English, 1867, ^nd two subsequent editions. Finally, it was included 
by Matzner in his Altenglische Sprachproben, Erster Band, published 
at Berlin in 1867, ^^'i^h elaborate and very useful notes. O was printed 
by Dr. Horstman in Herrig's Archiv, vol. 1., for 1872. Dr. Theodor 
Wissmann in 1881 issued as the forty-fifth volume of Quellen und 
Forschungen a critical edition-, containing an introduction on the 
relationship of the I\ISS. and the metre, a text with all the variants, 
twenty-eight pages of notes, and a glossary extending to forty-three 
pages. He had previously published in 1876, as the sixteenth volume 
of the same series, an introductory volume with the title, King Horn, 
Untersuchungen zur Mittelenglischen Sprach-und Litteraturgeschichte^ 
dealing w-ith the language of the poem and the relationship of the 
different versions of the legend. In his Studien zu King Horn, which 
appeared in 1880, in Anglia, iv. pp. 342-400, he added some further 
remarks on the latter subject and an elaborate study of the social 
conditions described in the romance. His contributions to the 
elucidation of King Horn are as valuable as they are extensive, and 
I have found them very helpful. 

* Reviewed by P. ]M. in Revue Critique, 1S67, No. 233, pp. 358-363. 

^ Reviewed by Zupitza in Anzeiger fiir Deutsches Alterthum, ix. pp. 1 81-192, 
by Stratmann in Englische Studien, v.' pp. 40S, 9, by A. Brandl in Litteratur- 
blatt fiir Germanische und Romanische Philologie, 1S83, No. 4, pp. 132-5, and by 
R. W. in Litterarisches Centralblatt, 1883, No. 2, p. 61. Kolbing, Bemerkungen 
zu Wibsmann's Ausgabe des King Horn, appeared in Englische Studien, \-i. 

PP- 153-7- 

' Re\'iewed by Zupitza in Anzeiger, iv. pp. 149-53, by A. Stimming in 
E. Studien, i. pp. 351-62, and by C. j. in Revue Critique, 1876, No. 240. 


This section deals mainly with the Phonology and Accidence of 
the three texts: in Syntax the use of the Subjunctive Mood is treated 
for its bearing on Accidence. The object of the investigation is to 
present a general view of the sounds and inflections of the texts by 
a comparison with the corresponding West Saxon (mostly E. VV. S.) 
forms as given in Sweet's Dictionary. The occurrence of forms con- 
trolled by rhyming with words which do not admit of variation is 
specially noted by subjoining the controlling rhyme as helping, when 
undoubtedly original, to determine the dialect and home of the 
original A. On the other hand, the dialect of each scribe is to be 
inferred from the general colouring of the language of his text 
wherever he was free to make it conform to his own practice. 

1. Correspondences of O. E. short vowels and diphthongs. 

a before m — a. Ex.: fram, 72, O 78; game, L 206 f * ; nam, O 547, 585; 
name, L 205 f, 1266, rhymes with blame (not original) : = 0. Ex. : from, L 78 ; 
nome, L 219 (nom, L 5S3, O 597 = A.S. nom or *nom). a before n = a. 
Ex. : bigan, 117, O 125, L 753 ; gan, L 388 f ; canst, 1206, O 1248 ; man, L 793 1. 
lemman, 433, O 453, L 574, wimman, O 76, 418; mani, 1070, O 1215; wan, 
O 200; = 0. Ex. : bigon, L 140 ; gon, L 247, con, L 302 ; const, L 1213 ; mon, 
L 324 ; monnes, L 871 ; lemmon, L 679, wymmon, L 552 ; mon {pron.) L 250 ; 
moni, L 1076; on {adv.) L 849 f ; vpon, L 34, On, 44, r. w. s/oii. a before nd 
= a. Ex.: answered, 106S, O 1109; land, L 601 : = in all other cases, as 
fond, L 39 1 ; fonde, O 380, r. w. wefide ; fonde, L 734 f ; honde, L 64 1, O 1 172, fonde; londe, L 701 ; onsnerede, L46; sonde, 809, O 14S8 ; sonde, L 271 +; 
stonde, L 399 f ; stronde, L 39 f ; schonde, L 702 f ; wonde, 337, L 343, O 763. 
a before tig, nk = a. Ex.: ancre, L 1024; drank, O 1 148; lang, 494; sang, 3; 

^ "I" after a reference to L means that the same form occurs in the parallel line of 
O and of C. Numbers without a letter refer to C. Variations of spelling without 
significance are neglected. Only one reference to each text is given as a rule for 
any form, the glossary supplying others : where a reference to any of the texts is 
not given it may be inferred that the form does not occur in that text. Thw^ fram 
occurs ten times in C, thirteen times in O, but not at all in L; frotn ten times in L, 
but not in C or O. 

GRAMMAR. xvii 

sprang, 124: = 0. Ex.: among, L 230 f ; dronk, L Ii56t; long, L 100 1; 
longest, 1310; songe, L iioif; sprong, L 1229 f; strong, L 99t; t'onkede, 
L 510; fongc, L 721 f; wrong, 1062. a before other consonants remains un- 
altered, as in habbe, L 76, O 76 ; adune, 1488; krake, O1118; tale, L 478 f ; warne, 
6S9, O 708 ; latten, L 937 : exceptions are help, O 918 (= A. S. halp), found else- 
where in S. English (see Bulbring, Geschichte des Ablauts, p. 79) ; leten,929, and 
lette, O 972, influenced in form by Icetan and l§ttan ; weme, L 691, representing 
A. S. ■wearnian, and wreche, L 1292 f, due to the oblique case wraece. For keste, 
O 677, O. N. kasta, see Morsbach, Mittelenglische Grammatik, § 87, anm. 2. 
a + ^ produces aiv, aj. Ex. : dawes, O 970, L 1303 ; drawe, L 1297, O 1473, 
draje, 1289; laje, 11 10, lawe, L 1112, O 1147; plawe, L 1094, r. w. felawe = 
*plaga, Kluge, Grandriss, I. p. 875. 

se = a. Ex. : after, L 364 1 ; at, L 676 t ; «as, L 13 f ; nas, 18, O 925 ; bar, 
1 109; bad, O 235, 273; bad, 79, L 85, 1069; bispac, O 205; blake, L i2iot, 
r. w. /aie, L 1331 f, r. w. forsake; brae, L 683 f ; fader, L 881 f ; faste, L 122, 
O 126; fasste, 119; glad, O 1273, 1527; glas, L 14 f ; gras, L I34t; habbe, 304, 
O 315, L 408; hauede, O 9, 48 ; hadde, L 21 f ; hauene, 751 ; lache, O 678; 
lappe, L 1209, O 1244 ; masse, 799, L 805, 1382 ; maste, L 1023 f ; pa[je, O 1447 
(A. S. psej) and pap) ; quaj), 127 ; quad, O 686; amde, 1231 ; sale, 1107, L 1109, 
r. w. a/e; sat, 653 ; spac, 159, L 179, O 342 ; })at, L 27 f (A. S. Jjset and pat) ; 
water, 142, L 146, O 150 ; whanne, O 151, 915 ; what, 39, L 771, O 854 : = e. 
Ex. : efter, L 527 ; awrek, L 900 ; wes, L 5 ; nes, L 204 (see Biilbring, p. 62) ; 
ber, L iiii, O 1146 ; beme, 690, O 709; bernde, L 1240 ; forberne, L 692 ; bed, 
L 1075, O 1227, r. w. ded; bispek, O 95; heuede, L 52, hede, L 472; hedde, 
L 1 169, r. w. adredde; messe, O826, O 1055 ; set, L 835, O 856; spec, L 95, 329, 
O 145 ; when, L 366; whet, L 43, L 177, L 950 ; wet, L 597 ; sumwet, L 6S3, r. w. 
7iet. O has palle (A. S. psell), O 413, r. yf.fulle, and pelle (A. S. pell", O 151 1, 
r. w. felle, C, pelle, 401, r. yt.fuHe. A. S. togesdere is in C togadere, 52, 1354, 
togare (?), 848 ; in L togedere, L 56, L 856 ; in O togydere, O 56, O 875 ; for it 
and quo)), L 131, L 1219, see Morsbach, M. G. p. 131. ee +g = at. Ex. : day, 
L 31 t ; fair, 94, L427, O 1173; lay, 658, L. 1315; hylay, O 1346; may, L 32 f; 
maiden, 947; mayde, L 278, O 990; navies, L 238 t ; saide, L 789; yslaye, 
L 572 : = ei. Ex. : dey, O 513 ; feir, L 258, 385, O 986 ; feyr, L 911, r. w. keyr ; 
seide, L 232, 1269, r. w. bitraide; seyde, O 283, r. w. mede, O 936, r. w. rede, 
L 1257, r. w. wreyede, O 1288, r. w. bywreyde, seydest, L 1280, but seydes, O 554, 
r, w. dedes : = azu, aj in slawe, L 868, O S87, r. w. wifdrawe ; aslaje, 860, r. w. 
7vtJ>draje, representing geslagen. ae +/« = aj, ah in lajte, 243, r. w. tajte; lahte, 
L 249, r. w. (ahte, L 664, r. w. bycahte : - au in bylaucte, O 681 ; laucte, O 254, r. w. 
taucie; oflaucte, O 914. 

ea before //, Ik = a everywhere, as in al, L 388 \ ; falle, L 786 f \ walke, 1088 ; 
walked, L 961, O 996; but hes, 1066. ea before Id =■ e. Ex.: belde, 602; 
bihelde, L 854t, r. w. y^/(/(j ; elde, 1391, O 1440; held, O 1417; helde, L 314, 
O 319, 902 ; helde, O 502 ; kelde, L 1150, chelde, 1148 ; quelde, 988, r. w. felde\ 
aquelde, L 881, O 900, r. w. shelde, L 998, r. vf.afelde', telde, O 487 ; welde, 
L 4S5 t, r. w. jelde in L C, r. w. felde, L 426 : = 0. Ex. : bold, L 17, O 17 ; 
biholde, L 599, O 617 ; old, L 18, O 18 ; olde, L 1407 ; hold, L 380 + ; kolde, 
O 1185 ; tolde, 467, L 471 ; wolde, 308 := a once in bald, 90 ; O 96 has baud. 
At O 1074 hylde seems dictated by the rhyme with Reymylde. In the forms repre- 
senting A. S. scealt a is invariable, ea before r + another consonant = a every- 
where, as in arme, L 705 t ; bare, 891 ; jare, 467, O 1396 = gearo from *garwa 
(but see Sievers, Angelsachsische Grammatik, § 104, anm. i) ; harde, L S72 fi 


xviii GRAMMAR. 

scharpe, L 23S f ; except ert, 109S ; herpe, O 1508 ; harpen, O 244, r. w. semen. 
Brende, O 1275, represents bsernde in form with meaning of beam, a confusion 
helped by O. N. brenna. ea before k appears as e in fette, L 1398; wexe, 
O loi, 441, as a in waxe, 95, L 445; waxej), O 991 (= weaxep, not wiexS). 
A. S. seab, i and 3//. s. of seen is in C sa?, 125, sau3, 167, sej, 1083; in L seh, 
L 1 75 ; in O say, O 1 77, say, O 61 1 (see Blilbring, p. 67). The forms corresponding 
to A. S. meaht, meahtest, &c., neaht, later miht, niht all have i or j, so myhte, 
L 1413, r. w.fyhtv, L 1342, O 1373, both r. w.fyhtc ; nyht, L 127 f , r. w. lyht. ea 
as M-umlaut ie a. Ex. : ale, O 384, 1108, L 1 1 10 ; brudale, 1032, L 1267 ; bridale, 
O 1073, O 1300 ; care, L 269, O 274, 1244. ea after palatals is regularly a. Ex. : 
gate, 1078, O 1088; 5ate, 1043, O 11 14; jates, L 1246; 5af, 640, O 1439; 
schame, 327, L 334, and the representatives of A. S. sceal. But L has jef only 
for A. S. 5eaf (Blilbring, p. 66). 

^ = ^ regularly. Ex. : adrenche, 105 ; areche, L 668 ; beste, L 29+, r. \v. werste ; 
quelle, L 65 f, r.vf. telle; sette, L 385 f, r. w. grette; stede, 257, r. w. drede. 
Exceptions are vacche, L 1228, r. w. cacche ; strongeste, L 831 (but strengeste, 823, 
O 852) and stant, O 1007, the two latter due to the influence of the nasal : in 
nycke, L 1248, r. \\. J>icke, the substitution of ^ for ^ is due to a lowering of 
i towards e, which is equally attested by such rhymes as dwelle, 373, O 3S8, r. w. 
stille, telle, L 370 f. r. w. 7mne, 944, r. w. willc. e is also regularly e, but on the 
same principle lowered z is written for it in snille, O 217, r. w. hulle; blisse, O 596, 
r. w. kusse (read blesse : kesse, but the possible influence of A. S. bliSs is not to 
be overlooked) : blisse, O 571, r. w. pruesce, and snelle, 1463, with wille (comp. 
Morsbach, § 114). The abstract termination nes is always nesse, so feirnesse, 
L 2 2 1 . The prefix be becomes bi, by ; ge is mostly 2 in C , j in L, and y or hy in 
O. § z.ndQ+g=ei, ey. Ex.: leye, L 1139, ileie, 1139; pleie, 23, pleye, 
L O 25 ; rein, 11, reyn, LO 11 ; seil, 1013, seyl, L 1023, O 1052 ; selj) = s§ge8, 
L 773, seyt,0 772, and the imperative forms seie, sei, sey = seje ; treyde, O 1313 ; 
weie, 759, r. w. tweie, 1236, r. w. preie ; weye, L 765, r. w. tueye, O 1049, r. w, 
preye; veie, O257. Exceptionally ai, ay occur in sail, 188 ; say, L 157, L 177, 
L456 ; way, 1304. L has always a;eyn, ajeynes, tojeynes for ongegn, togegnes, 
while OC have ajea, ajenes, tojenes, 5en, representing ongen, togenes, gen. 
A. S. If ogan appears as leggen, L. 902, legge, L 1065 f, r, w. nigge, rigge, O 1446, 
O 1502, both r. w. brigge; leie, leye, L 308 f, r. w. tweie : A. S. sgcgan as seie, 
seye, L77ot, r.vf. preie ; sf oge as seie, 895, 1265: wi'Bsfogan as wi])segge, 
1276, wytsigge, O 1319, wij)sugge, L 1284, all r. w. ligge = licgan. 

i§ as 2-umlaut of ea is e in deme, O 1382, werne, 1404, both r. w. jerne = 
georne ; werne, O 374, r. w. Home, O 724, O 908, both r. w. jerne = iernan, 
L 889, r. w. erne; gestes, O 541, r. y/.feste, L1225, r. v/.festes; geste, 1217, r. w. 
fcste: but wurne, 1086, r. w. jerne. Sturne, L 704, r. w. turne, 877, r. w. vrne 
= yrnan (BUlbring, p. 78). For A. S. hlighhan, O has leyhe, O 366. ie as 
j-umlaut of eo is also e, as jerne, 915, L 1419, O 1436, all r. w. iverne; jerne, 
O 724, O 908, both r. w. xverne; sexte, O 961, r. w. nexte; and probably 
erne, L 889, O 906. But sixe, 391, O 959, six, L 926, have i. Words 
which in E. W. S. contain the group luier, as wiersa, wiersta, wierst, 
wierf), have in L, W. S. %oyr, wur, and in their M. E. development conform to 
the class of words having^; they are accordingly placed under y. Ifulde, 148S, 
descends from a by-form fyllan. ie arising from e after palatals regularly gives 
e, sojelde, 482, L 486 bothr. w. welde, jeld, L 1000 f; jeue, L 164 f, 581, L 919; 
forjef, 349, L 355 ; sheld, L 515 f, r. vf.felJ. But i,y appears in jiue, 15S, 414, 
438, 5yue, O 436; forjyf, O 361 : shillej), O 220, represents A.S. scilp. 


eo before r + consonant is preserved unaltered in feor, 769, 1135, 1146, 1177; 
heorte, 263, 1148 ; heonene, L 1546. It is e in berwe, O 951, r. w. serue; derkc, 
L 1451 t; er])e, O247; fer, L 775, O 798; jeme, 1085, O 1383; herte,Lii98 f ; 
kerue, 233, L 241, both r. vv. se7-ue ; smerte, L 1504 \ ; steriie, L 781 f, r. w. serue \ 
swerd, L 634 f ; werke, L 1452, but it appears as in sworde, L 462, r. w. worde, 
L 1508, r. \v. horde, and suerde, L 619 f, r. w. orde, O 1535, r. w. horde. 
L has horte, L 380, but also writes huerte, L 2S1, L 886, just as he has huere 
( = heora), L 9, L 1 16, L 178, &c. ; huem ( = hecm), L 54, an Anglo-French pecu- 
liarity (see Morsbach, p, 36) ; and u appears in jurne, L 1384, r. w. hurtte. eo + ht 
produces ijt, iht. Ex. : dailijt, 124, lyht, L 128, both r.w. nijl; fijte, 514, fyjte, 
O 874, r. w. dyjcte ; lijte, 1003, L 1014 ; bryhte, L 1449 f, r. w. nyhte, L 384, r. w. 
ryhte. In other combinations eo generally appears as e, so ber, 1 11 2, r. w. squier, 
beere, L 1113, r. w. skyetie, bere, O 1148, r. \y. squiere ; bitwex, 346, O 1453, 
r. w. wexe ; clepen, O 235, clepe)), L 231 ; heuene, L 420, 1524, O 1569 ; henne, 
L 50 1 ; seluer, 459, L 463; swere, L 1072 f, r. w. c/iere, L izii f, r. w. dere. 
Apparent exceptions are clupede (A. S. clypian), 225; hanne, O 332, influenced 
by hwanne and panne, and siluer, O 477 (A. S. silofr) : am, 149, O 158, 
icham, L 1134, represent earn, not eom. For A. S. geong in the singular L has 
SjTige, L 131, r. w. tydynge, L 285, r. w. bringe, L 377, r. w. kinge, L 610, r. w. 
rynge : O 5enge, O 463, r. w. swohiiige, O 583, O 630, r. w. riitge, O 290, r. w. 
bringe, and 5onge, O 1056, O 133c, both r, w. J^ynge, Oie^^^, r. w. ry^ig : C also 
5onge, 279, r. w. bringe, 566, r. w. ringe. In the plural alL three MSS. have 
jonge, L 545, r. \v. yspronge, L 1390, r. w. s/onge; O 563, r. w. hysprotige, 
O 141 7, r. w. stonge; 127, r., w. tipinge, 547, r. w. isprunge. L has also 
5ungemen, L 1366. For, O 1 183, is a scribe's mistake {or fer. 

i is represented by i, rarely by _y in C, in L O j is predominant, but i is not 
uncommon. Where i appears to have given rise to e, this is generally explained 
by the existence of variant A. S. forms, so 5ef, 87, L loi, ef, 537, 1142 = A. S. 
gef, geof ; her, L 920 = A. S. Mere ; sej)]jen, L 1158 = A. S. seo'8?an. The 
e of schepede, O 1013, and weste, L 1484, seems due to influence of labials, so 
probably suemme, O 1469, suemne, O 199, helped by confusion with the causal 
swemman. By the side of forms with i there occur, mostly in C, the following 
with u which rest on A. S. variants in y\ hure {pron.), 963, 1165, 1198 = hyre ; 
hure {adj.), 288 = hyre ; muchel, 83, L 523, muche, L 89, 1050, O 1438 = mycel 
(see under y) ; schup, 132, 1437 = scyp ; suj^e, 178, 375 = swype ; su))})e, 1078, 
1156 = sy'BISan; fuder, 1424 = Jjyder; ulke, 1199, hulke, O 496, O 1240 = 
ylca ; wulle, 542 (see gloss, for other forms) = wylle ; probably the influence of 
•w has helped in the change. L O write wolle, &c., with usual substitution of 
for 71, but L has also ichulle. 

O appears regularly as 0, excepting the usual changes in prefixes, as adrede = 
ondrsedan, arewe = ofhreowan^ and inflections as flotterede = floterode. 
Springing from A. S. by-forms are serewe, L 412 (see Morsbach, § 120, anra. i) ; 
Jiene, L 153, ])en, L 158 = A. S. IJeene : sherte, L 935 = A. S. sceort, rhymes 
with derste, a form apparently quite isolated for the fourteenth century, and 
possibly influenced by the 2 pr. s. ind. dearst, in Lajamon, disrsi and derst. 
Besides the normal dorste in all three texts, durste, L 724, durst, O 725, L 1420 
also occur ; the tt is due to the influence of the durron. o + ^ = (j/i in L, 
as abohte, dohter, wrohte ; = oj in C, as bojte, dojter, wrojte; = ou in O, as 
aboute, O 1433, bowten, O 923, douter, wroute. 

U is represented by u or by its graphic variant 0, while ou is used to indicate 
lengthening before certain combinations of consonants. The scribe of C shows 

b 2 


a strong preference for u, but he has o in com, come, icomen eighteen times, and 
in anonder, comynge, dronken, fonde, gomes, honde, louede, ouercome]), someres, 
sone, sones, soneday, welcome, mostly where m or « follows : on occurs only in 
founde, 1301, and yfonnde, 773. On the other hand predominates in L O, but 
L has sixteen words with « and O nine. L O write on very regularly before nd, 
except in fonde, O 380, O 548 (= funde, Sievers, § 386, anm. 2) ; fonden.L 131 1 ; 
fonde, O 141 (=fundian); grunde, O no, &c. ; hundes, O 91, &c. ; ponde, 
O 1173; stunde, O 766, and with a liquid in the following syllable, hundred, 
O 632, &c. ; bonder, L 1339 ; vnder, L 325, O 581 ; bonder, O 32S ; vnderfonge, 
L 335 ; honderfonge. O 947 ; vnderstond, L 245 ; honderstonde, O 1307 ; wonder, 
L 284, O 289 ; but OH does not occur before ng, nk, and there is no instance in 
our texts of tt before mb. Representing u before rn, O has hy5ouren, O 1183 
(= ge -urnen), mourne, mourninde, mome, and spume (A. S. has spurnan and 
spornan) ; L murne and mourninde. The form J)ourh, L 886, is noteworthy; 
O 1418 has ])oru, C 875 })ure5, both = Jjuruh ; coupe, L 242, is O. F. coupe, 
n + Jit = ujt in C ; fujten, 1375; l^ujte, 278: in O otU, as fouten, O 1414; in 
L we find fyhten, L 1385, r. w. ohtoun, the former corrupt and the latter quite 
isolated. For A. S. fugol, C has fo5el, O fojeles and foules, L foul, foules. The 
form pende, L 1138, r. w. hende (- gehfnde) would imply a theoretical *pynd 
(pynding, a dam, is found): fletten, L 763, r. w. setten, appears to be a case of 
the plural preterite with the ablaut of the singular: dore, O 1018, L 1496, repre- 
sents A. S. dor, not dure which is seen in dure pin, 973. 

A. S. y is mostly the z'-umlaut of w, but a few words in our texts where the A. S. 
form substitutes y for ie, as furst, wurst (fyrest, wyrrest), or y for E. W. S. 
i, as churche, dude, muchel, shuUe (cyrice, dyde, mycel, .scyl) and turne, O. F. 
torner, show the same development in M. E. as those resulting from stable/, and 
are so included with them here. 

y = e. Ex. : brenye, O 605 ; cherchen, O 1423, cherches, O 65 ; cleppe, 
O 1393, r. w. steppe ; cle[p]ten, O 142S, r. w. wenten; kende, O 443, r. w. welde, 
O 1420, r. -w.fende (fynd, dat. s. of feond") ; kenne, 144, L 184, r. w. suddenne, 
O 614, r. w. maune, L 630, O 648, r. w. nienne ; kesse, 431 , r. w. ywisse, 584, r. w. 
blesse, L 1216, r. w, Westnesse\ kes, 738; keste, L 1195, r. w. reste\ denie, 592, 
denye, O 606; dede, O 345, deden, O 194; dent, 152; dcntes, 857; euel, L 335, 
euele, L 336, heuele, O 340; felle, L 1157, r. w. telle \ felle, 1254, r. w. belle', 
ferste, L 661, O 1232, both r. w. berste; leste, 473, L 477, both r. w, beste ; leste, 
862, L 870, both r. w. 7-este ; iment, 795 ; merie, O 608, 1386, r. vv. ? serie, merye, 
L T400, O 1431, both r. w. wer'ie; meche, O 269, O 865 ; of|)prste, O 1155; 
of])enche, L no, r. w. adrenche; sterye, L 147, r. w. derie ; werchen, O 1422; 
werke, O 933 ; werse, O 120, werste, L 30 +, r. w. heste ; werst, L 72 ; verst, O 72 ; 
teme, O 686, O 1480, r. w. sterne, ytemed, O 460. y = t,y. Ex.: abygge, 
O 1116; brigge, 1076, O 1117; brymme, 190, r. w. szvymtue; kyrke, O 932; 
chirche, L 905, 1380, chyrche, L 1392 ; kinne, O 152, O 894, r. w. sodenne ; kyn, 
633, r. w. men; kiste, O 417, L 12 17 ; dide, O iroi ; fulfille, L 1264, r. w. belle \ 
firste, O 122, L 1197, r. w. berste; girde, O 517, r. w. herte, gyrte, O 1512, r. w. 
schirte ; list, L 343 ; liste, O 424, r. w. reste ; lyste, L 410, r. w. reste, L T218; 
mynt, O 824; mikel, O 289, miche, O 89, O 693, michel, O 75, O 339, O 965 ; 
rigge, 1058, O iioi, both r, w. legge ; stirie, O 149, r. w. derie ; J^ynke, L 11 53 f. 
r. w. drynke, J)inke)), O 1371 ; of))inke, O 112, r. w. adrinke, L 980, r. w. adrynke, 
1056, r. w. drinke, O 1099, r. w. drynke, ofl)ynke, L 1064, r. w. drynke, of f'inche, 
106, r. w. adrenche, O 1015, r. w. drenche. The following have an invariable 
i Qx y. king, kyng, r. w. singe, L 4 +, which descends from a by-form cining ; 


words with y+///, as dri3te, 1310, r. w. Ujte\ f1i5te, 1398, r. w. lijte; flyhte, 
L 1414, r. vv. 7/iyhte, and pink)), 1309. y = Ji. Ex.: abugge, 1075, L 1081 ; 
^'■"fag"-'. L 10S2 ; brunie, 591, L 719; brunye, L 849; buriede, L 906; burden, 
892 ; yclupten, L 1217 ; churchen, 62 ; cunde, 421, r. w. buiide, 1377, r. w. ende\ 
kunde, L 425 ; cunne, L 186; kunne, S65, O 1563, l)oth r. w. Snddenne, O 1309; 
cure, L 1446 ; cusse, L 43s;, r. w. unsse, L 581, r. vv. bksse, 1208, r. w. IVestenicsse ; 
kusse, O 595, r. w. blisse (bletsian), O 1251, r. w. esttiesse; custe, L 403, 405, 
739, 1 189, r. w. reste ; kuste, O 1230, r. w. 7-este, O 1252, custen, L 743, O 1428, 
kusten, O 766, cus, L 74a ; dude, L 1017 f, &c., duden, 180 ; dunt, O 904; dunte, 
609, O 625, both r. w. wente, O 891, r. w. hente ; duntes, 673, L 865, O 884 ; fulle, 
403, r. w. felle, 1155, O 1192, both r. w. telle ; fullen, O 1295, r. w. bellen, fulle, 
O414, r. vf./alle; fulde, L 1122+; furste, 114, L 118, O 625, L 885, r. w. 
huerte, O 904, r.w. herte, 661, O679, 1191 all r. w. berste, 1119, O 1154; gurden, 
L I486; hulle, 208, O 218, r. w. sjiille (snell) ; hurne, L 1383, r, w. jtirne 
(georne) ; knutte, L 850; luste, O 493, 1263, both r. w. beste, lust, 337, luste)), 
O 835 ; luste, L403 1, O 889, r.w. reste,0 1254; muchel, 83, L523, muche, L 89, 
1050, O 1438 ; munt, L 801 ; murie, 521, L 592, murje, O 1432 ; ofJ)urste, 11 20, 
afurste, L 1 1 20 ; rugge, L 1066, r.w. legge; schuUe, 207; sture, L 1445 ; wurche, 
1379, L 1391 ; wurs, 116, wurst, 68, wurste, 648; wurj), 460, wurstu, 324; 
})uncbe]), L 1321, L 1340; turne, 703, r. w. mume, L 703, r. w. sttime, O 1114, 
r. w, spume, L 973 f, r. w. mume ; tome, O 722, r. w. mourne. For tt, some- 
tinaes occurs, as wors, L 120; worJ)est, L 332, worstu, O 337. y + cg-ei in 
abeie, no, r. w. dete, abeye, O 116, r. w. deye, beye, L 114, r. w. deje. Come, 
530, is derived from O. N. kvdma (Kluge, Giundriss, I. p. 790). 

2. Correspondences of O. E. long vowels and diphthongs. 

a in prefixes is regularly a. a final = 0. Ex. : flo, L 92 (O. N. fld) ; fro, 367, 
O951 (O.N.frfi); mo, 808,0837; slo,L9i (O.N. sl4) ; so, Li8ot; J70, L52t; 
to, L 606 ; two, 49, tuo, L 37, tvo, O 37 ; who, L 1492 ; wo, L 281 f , r. vv. do ; 
weylawey, L 1500, O 1527 (wa la wa) is influenced by O. N. vei. a before c is 
a in vvedlak, 1254, L 1264: in strokes, O 915 (comp. stracian). a before d is 
mostly 0, so rod, L 34t ; kni5thod, L 543, 545, 126S ; J)ralhod, 439 ; nabod, 720. 
But feyrhade, L 89, fayrhede, O 89, rhyme with made. The suffix in fairhede, 
83, r. vv. makede, 797, L 803, r. vv. spede ; falssede, L 1256, r. w. hede, O 1287, 
r. vv. makede; Jiralhede, L 443, O 459 does not represent -had, but an umlauted 
by-form *li8ed (Kluge, Grundriss, I. p. 874'). a before f is regularly 0, so drof, 
L 123 +, r. w. Perof; louerd, L 441, O 531, lord, 511. a before / occurs only in 
hoi, L 1351 t, and holy, O 932 ; before m only in hom, L 225 f' a before « is 
also 0, as anon, L 49 f ; bone, L 916 ; gon, L 50 f ; non, L 1502 f ; stone, L 79 f; 
won, L906 (^O.N.vd.n); ymone, 834, L842, mone, 528, O 861. For the A. S. strong 
form of the numeral adjective an, LOG have on, one, an, a ; L C o; O ane, 
L en (senne, occasional ace. s. m.), while the weak form ana, alone, is one, onne. 
a before / is seen only in stirop, 758, and probably slape, L 1315, r. w. y shape, 
1417, r. w. rape, a before r is regularly 0, so lore, L 1531 f ; more, L 680, 
r.w. jere; ore, L 653 f, 1509; sore, L 75, O 75 ; %ok {adv.), L73t, L1091; 
sorewenesse, L 930 f- a before s, si is 0, as ros, L 847 f ; aros, L 1325 f ; agros, 
L 1326, O 1355 (*agras) ; before sc is a in askede, L 43, O 615, axede, 39. 
a before/ is in bote, L 210 f ; hot, O 624 ; bote, L 773 f ; hoten, L 27, ihote, 201 ; 
smot, L 507 t : a in smatte, 607 (*smatode) ; hatte, 60S ^hatode) ; before P is 

xxii GRAMMAR. 

invariably o, so boJ)e, L 1 204 f (O. N. bitSir) ; loJ)e, L 1068 f ; o]>e, L 353 1, 450, 
r. w. soJ>e\ wroJ)e, L 354 f. a before ly is <? in bicnowe, L 993, O 1028; 
blowe, L I38it; iknowe, L 1213, 1372; nowhar, 257, nowar, 955; soule, 
L 1196, O 1231 ; ])rowe, 1490, L 1512, but a in saule, 1190. })rewe, O 1539, r. w. 
areive (on rsewe), represents a by-form ^Jreewan with the vowel of the 2, 3 pr, s. 
The a forms of (ge)seon which occur are (i) sawe, 2 //. s. ; (2) sawon, //.//. ; 
(3) sawe, /A J. j?<i^". They develop through later ssege, sffigon. For (1) L has 
seje, L 1159, r. w. le^e (leage), O seye, O 1194, r. w. leye (leage), C isije, 1157, 
r. w. lije (licgan) ; for (2) L has yseyjen, L 756, r. w. ey^en (eagan), O seye, 
O 779, r. w. /lej/e (eage), C isije, 756, r. w. zje (cage) ; (3) is in L seje, L 985, 
seye, L 130, in C isije, 976, r. w. i^e (eage). Comp. Biilbring, Ablaut, pp. 72, 
73. a+^ (/?) = 0^ in C, as 05ene, oje; Jroje, 336, woje, 970; in L O = 07i', as 
owe (for agan and agen see gloss.) ; ])rowe, L 342, O 349 ; wowe, L 982, O 1017 : 
L 418 has ohte. 

re. 86 = Kentish and Anglian e is regularly represented by e. Ex. : adrede, 
L 297, adredde, L1170, r. w. hedde, ofdrede, 291, O 302, adred, L 1436, r. w. bed\ 
dedes, 537, O 553, r. w. seydes; ete, L i26Sf, r. w. stiete, heten, O 1280; euen, 
L 407 ; eue, L468 f, r- w. Icue ; fere, O 1285 ; gredde, L 1202, r. w. bedde; grete, 
8S9, O 928 ; mysrede, L 298 f ; nower, O 268, L 804 ; rede, L 833 f, r. w. dede ; 
rede, L 192 +, O 1394, r. w. made ; slepe, O 1346 ; slepe, L 656, O 674 both r. w. 
wepe, slepest, 1308, L 1320 both r. w. kipcst; aslepe, 658, r. w. -wepe; speche, 
L 1380 + ; pere, L 525 f, r. w. jere, J)erin, 1241, r. w. ferin; wede, L 1060 f; 
wete, L 970 ; wher, 416, L 1458; ymete, O 1347. The only exceptions are J)rall, 
L 423 (O. N. prsell), r. w. wipal, J^ralle, 419, O 441 both r. w. bifalle and the 
compound, pralhede, J)ralhod. Some of the words cited have double forms in O C 
but not in L, as dradde, 120, 1166, ofdradde, O 1205, r. w. hadde, ofdrad, 573 
(ofdreedd), r. w. aviad, where a represents » shortened before a doubled con- 
sonant, and slape, L 1315, r. w. yshape, 1417, r. w. rape, representing A. S. slap : 
of forms answering to A. S. pser, hwser, nahwser, nower, L has per, Jiere, wher, 
wer, werefore, nower; O, Jier, nower, nowere; C, ))er, Jjere, wher (once), while the 
by-forms par, hwar, nahwar are represented in L by pare, L 471, L 1365, r. w. 
yfare, pore, L 1090, r. w. so7-e, L 1531, r. w. lore; in O by par, pere, O 485, r. w. 
Jiyfare, pore, O 1556, r. w. sore, whar, war, quare, warfore, noware ; in C by pare, 
par, whar, nowhar, nowar. May, L955 = mceg has been influenced by msegden. 
» is in other cases generally e, so bileue, 742, L 746, both r. w. Icue ; cleche, L 963 
= *cl8lcan (Luick, Untersuchungen, § 550) ; herst, O 562 = Srest ; lesten, O 6, 
r. w. weslen, yleste, L 6, r. w. xveste; leste, L 612, r. w. beste, lest, O 499, r. w. 
inakedest ; lede, 293, r. w. ^ede, 908, O 949, r. w. bede, 1393, r. w. spede, L 1546+, 
r. w. dede\ ofreche, 1283,0 1326, porhreche, L 1291, all r. w. wreche; s[l]ette, 
L 714, r. w. Jlette; sprede, 716, r. w. stede, and many others. But a = a in 
felauiade, L 174, r. w. made, verade, 166, r. w. makcde (read made) ; lafte, L 616 ; 
laste, 6, r. w. weste', ilaste, 660, r. w. caste; spake, L 535, speke, O 555, both 
r. w. take ; ware, O 38, O 94, r. w. nere. Of words which have a, 0, v instead 
of ^, ani, L 324, any, O 14, ony, O 329, represent ani ; are, 448, ar, 546, or, 553, 
are influenced by O. N. dr ; arowe, 1489, L 1511 = on rawe, rowe, L 1086 f, r. w. 
lowe; vch, L 218, L 1094, eueruch, L 673, eueruche, L 942, eueruchen, L 898, 
euerich, O 226, &c., represent yle ; gop, L 215, O 217, owes its vowel to that of 
the pres. plaral; ladde, L 2 2t, r. vj. hadde, ladden, L 598, r. w. hadden, lasse, 
800, L 806, have a as shortening of se before a doubled consonant; laste, 616, 
leste, O 632 both r, w. haste = Isesest; lade, L 1409, r. w. made, should probably 
be referred to hladan; most, L 254, descends from mast; sytten, O I26i,is 

GRAMMAR. xxiii 

a weak form with the vowel of the present ; to brake, 1077, r. w. gate; spake, 
L 535. speke, O 555, both r. w. take, represent forms without umlaut (^Biilbring, 
p. 5S) ; J)an, 624 = '5am, and warn, O 1235, O 1362, wham so, 352, L 358 = 
hwam. a +^ is seen in leye, L 1 262, r. w. bytreye, laic, 1 252, r. w. bitraie, leyen, 
O 1293. r. w. l)y,i'r€yeti : » + /^ in tahte, L 250, r. w. lahte, ta3te, 244, r. w. lajte, 
laucte, O 254, r. w. taucte (A.S. has both tShte and tahte). 

ea is preser^-ed in earen, L 969, tearen, L 970. Otherwise it is generally e, so 
bed, L soS f ; byreued, L 618 f ; dede, L 834 f, r. w. rede, 1546 f, r. w. Icde ; 
eere, L 316, r. w. were; flet, L 197; jere, L 736 f, r. w.pere, O 1174, r. w. here, 
96, r. w. more; jeuen, 1498, L 1518; leue, L 467 f, r. w. eite, 741, L 745 both 
r. w. bileue ; nere, L 966, r. w. h^re; ner, L 368, O 376 ; shewe, L 1481, r. w. 
felawe; slen, L 104 1; streme, L 1526, r. w, reme; teres, O 696, 890, teires, 
L 67S; teren, O 1005, and many others. But the adverb geara is 5are, 1356 (as 
if from * gara), r. w.fare, and sore, L 1366. Brid, 1257, is probably a false form, 
a corruption of bridale, but it may belong to the i = ea forms explained later. 
Beside the normal flen, 86, and fle, 1370, slen, L 104 f, and sle, L 602, O 1407, 
we find flo, L 92 = O. N. fid, and slo, L 91 = O. N. sl^, flon, O 92, and slon, 
L 47 t, r. w. on, upon, perhaps a new formation from the preceding (but the ninth 
century Kentish gloss, occidendus, to ofslanne, Haupt's Zeitschrift, xxi. p. 37, casts 
doubt on this), and slein, L 1203, imitative of the past part, slsegen or slggen 
(Biilbring, p. 96). Streume, O 1551, is apparently influenced by O. N. straumr. 
C has i for ea in dijes, 640, di))e, 58, 1252; y])e, 57; ire, 309, r. w. were, ires, 
959 ; tires, 676, 960 ; nir, 364 : also ie for ea in tieres, 654, and nier, 771 (just as 
two MSS., neither Kentish nor South-Eastem, of the Poema Morale, write dief and 
iej>e, Lewin, p. 18), as well as e for ea in teres, 890. The last spelling represents 
the same sound as if in teren, O 1005, and the survival ea in tearen, L 970 : and 
the scribe's ie is a well-known Anglo-French spelling with precisely the same 
value. The evidence on this point is unusually clear. The first nde in 
Orthographia Gallica, ed. Stiirzinger, p. 2, gives ie as the p«-oper symbol for 
e ' stricto ore pronunciatam ' in an accented syllable, and the editor collects in 
a note, p. 39, from Anglo-French texts a convincing array of examples. The use 
of ie for e was a survival, the passage from ie to e had already taken place in 
Anglo-French, and the spelling had lagged behind the pronunciation for some 
scribes, while others used €e (comp. Meyer-Liibke, Grammaire des Langues 
Romanes, I. p. 173, and see Nyrop, Grammaire Historique de la Langue 
Francaise, I. § 166, for a similar interchange of e, ie in other French dialects). 
But further, the Anglo- French scribes frequently substituted ?' as a purely graphic 
variant for ie; comp. for examples, Slimming, Boeve de Haumtone, Bibliotheca 
Normannica, vii. p. 202, and Behrens, Zur Lautlehre der Franzosischen Lehnworter 
im Mittel-englischen, pp. 148-151. So it comes about that the scribe of C ex- 
presses one sound by three symbols, ie, i which represent his own practice, and e 
which he copies from his original, just as he writes both miste and mijte (see note 
on 1. 249). ea-i-^. For eage, eagan, leage, L has eje, ey;en, L 755, r. w. 
yseyjen; lese, L 1160, r. w. se^e: O, eye, heye, O 778, r. w. seye; leye, O 1195, 
r. w. seye: C, ise, 755, r. w. isije. eSL + h. Heah, neah, peah are in L heh, 
neh : in O, heye, ney, ]>t\, ])jy: in C, hije, ne3, Jej. L has besides Jiah, L 325, 
descended from pseh, and O, ))ou, O 1293, which represents O. N. * J?oh (Kluge, 
Grundriss, I. p. 789). The i of hije, ije in C is probably not a graphic variant 
of e, but a raising of e to i before g and k characteristic of the dialect of C. 

eo. L C have beoj?, cheose, beo ; L has code, eoden, lleon, fleoten, forleose, 
teon, teonc; L 355, r. w. quetw. C, beon, beo, feci, feoUe, jcode, Icose, kof, seon, 


J)eof, J)reo, weop ; there is no instance in O. Otherwise eo generally appears as 
e. Ex. : bede, L 466 f, r. w. spede; ben, 8, O 10, be, L 10 ; chesen, O 799 ; dere, 
L 679 t, r. w. here; felle, 858, L 896; fende, O 1421, r. w. kende ; flette, O 786, 
r. w. sette ; forlese, O 683 ; lef, O 1 57, L 332 ; schete, 939, r. w. imete, L 947, r. w. 
mete; seek, L 278, sech, O 1226; stere, 1373, r. w. baftere; swere, L 748, r. w. 
fere; tene, L 685+, r. vf.ysene; ]>&i, L 331, O 336; |)re, L 62 f; I>rettene, L 171, 
and others. But L has 7ce for eo in buen,'L 508, bue]), L 183, dnere, L 228, L 437, 
hue, L 76, and C has u in bu]?, 807, and in Jirottene, 163, an uncommon form 
which occurs in MS. B. of Robert of Gloucester, while Lajamon has for preo, ])ro, 
C 3872. In sik, 272, 1 185, i represents the sound oi e. L differs from OC in the 
development of initial eo ; for eode, eodon, eow, eower the former has code, 
ede, eoden, ou, onre, ore, the latter jede, 50U, joure, &c., always with initial 
y except ower, 908 (see Heuser, Anglia, xvii. p. 72). Final eo yields in LOG 
be, he, in L O hy, in L G heo, kne, in L hue, in O hye, kne(s), sche, in C 
beo. eo+g is seen in dreje, L 1047, r. w. eje, dreye, O 1078, r. w. eye, adrije, 
1035 ; lie, 1451, lye, O I49S both r. w. twie : %0 + h in lijt, 493, lyhte, L 497, 
li5te, 1309, r. w. drijte. bO + iv = eu in bleu, L 1302 f ; akneu, L 1340, knens, 
O 347, aknewes, L 385, knewelyng, 781; yknewe, L 646, kneu, 1149, L 1151 ; 
knewe, L 1459 1, r. w. newe, O 1566; rewe, 378, O 392; rew})e, 409, O 693, 
reuj)e, L 675, &c. ; J>reu, L 1164, trewe, L 381 f, L 749, r. w. newe. Exceptions 
are ru]ie, 673; tnij)e, 674, trouJ>e, L 674; foure, L ii66t, r. w. botire (see Sweet, 
H. E. S. § 684) and the forms of the second personal pronoun in the plural. 

e is regnlarly e, so bihet, L 474 1; biseche, 453, L 457, r. w. speche; grette, 
L 386 1, r. 'w. sette and many others. Softe, O 945, is the adverb form softe; 
weopen, L 160 = wepan, seems written for the rhyme to the eye vfhh^eoten; 
weop, 69, 675, &c., in G as preterite corresponds to A. S. weop, and is a 
characteristic Southern spelling (Biilbring, p. 106) ; do}), 682, 702 = detJ, has the 
vowel of its plural, e+g = ei, ey, as tweie, 24, tueye, L O 26. 

ie, the ?-umlaut of ea, yields e, so bileue, 1321, r. w. rcue, leue, O 1362, 
r. w. reiie, yleue, L 559; fleme, 1271, O 1315; here, L 680 f. r. w. ^r^, herde, 
L 693 t ; nede, L 52 f, r. w. stede, L 473, r. w. niede ; scene, O 97, L 98, both r. w. 
ke7ie ; stere, 434, O 454, both r. w. dere. But G has lunej), 44, and nixte, 392, 
r. w. sixe. ie +^ appears in deje = *diegan, L 113, r. w. beye, L 1192, r. w. 
preje, deie, 109, r. w. abeie, deye, O 115, r. w. abeye. ie from other sources. 
giet is 5et in L O, 5ute and 3ut in G : for the forms corresponding to the plural hie 
of the third personal pronoun, see glossary. L has mostly hue. 

i is regularly i, for which L O generally write j : O has once tyime, O loio. 
To ri(g)iian corresponds reyne, On, perhaps influenced by O. N. regna : niwe is 
nywe, 1432, 1442, r. w. knewe : newe, 746, r. w. trewe, L 1460, O 1487, both r. w. 
knewe = Anglian neowe ; so also hewe, L 98 = heow. Stuard, 275, points to 
*sty ward. \ + g appears in hije, S80 ; hijede, 968. 

6 is unchanged. Gam, 586, L 794 f = c(w)6m, probably follows nam = L. W. S. 
nam; neme, 60, may = *nSmon (see Biilbring, p. 76): &wek, L 1435 = awoc, 
appears quite isolated, it has perhaps been influenced by awehte, preterite of 
awf ccan : fout, 134, for fot is noteworthy: ojt represents owiht, by-form of 
awiht. o + k. L has ])ohte, bi])ohte, brohte, loh, sloh = sloh ; O, ])oute, 
J)Oucte, bi])onte, bijioucte, broute, broucte, &c. ; G, J)o3te, bi])05te, bro5te. 5 + ^ 
is regularly oj in G, so boje, 1227 ; droje, 1006 ; swojning, 444 ; wo5e, 546 ; ow 
in L O, as bowe, L 1235, O 1270 ; drowe, L 1016, O 1047 ; swowenynge, L 448 ; 
wowe, L 544, O 562 ; lowe, L 1502, O 1529, but ouj in louje, 1480, r. vi. yswoje. 
Swohinge, O 464, represents geswogung. 


U is regularly u in C, on generally, ow occasionally in L O. C has once pou, 
237, and ore, 192; L O, vp, vs; L, vppe, vpspringe, vre, vr ; O, bute and but, 
oneku}) (= unciaj)), \>u, foruuth, tune, hus, wituten. u + ^/ = wi^ in Ujtcn, 1376, 
r. w. /listen ; oujt in oujten, r. w. fouten. u + ^ is «;> in bu5e, 427 ; (tm in 
vnbowe, L431. u = ^in abote, O 290, bote, L69, O 69, bot, O 761 ; J)o, O 386, 
O 552, O 8SS; ohtoun, L 13S6 (perhaps influenced by O. N. i ottu) ; op, O 1354, 
oppe, O 456, OS, O 535. 

y the j-unilaut oiu = e. Ex. : herde, L 758, O 7S1 both r. w. ferde, O 871 ; 
prede, O 143S, r. w. luede; reme, 1272, r. \i.Jlenie\ schrede, O 739, r. w. stede, 
shrede, L 718, r. w. i'/(?«/^,schredde, O 603, r. vi.fedd<:, sredde, L 5S9, r. w.fedde, 
shredde, L848t, r. w. bedde. y = i,y. Ex.: bridale, O 1073; bride, 1049, 
bn.'d, O 1093 ; drye, O 1488, r. w, weye; keyte, O S84 ; litel, 336, O 349, lite, 
^ 654, 932, O 975, both r. w. write, 1131, r. w. white, lyte, L 940, r. w. write. 
y = M. Ex. : brudale, 1032, L 1267; bnide, L 1058 ; hudde, 1196, r. w. bedde; 
hurede, 752, r. w. ferde; lutel, L 342, lute, L 507, lut, L 616 ; lujere, 498, r. \v. 
yfere; schiudde, I464, schnrde, O 1511. 

3. Correspondences of O. E. Consonants. 

h initial is omitted in aue, O 1215 ; ast, L 790 ; abbe, O 1397 ; e, O 331 ; is, 
L 529, ys, L 772; ith, O I565 = hit; yclupten, L 1217. It is lost in the com- 
binations nast, L 712, nastu, 11 93; nadde, 863; beryt, O 471 ; haddit, O636; 
settit, O 637; drinkyt, O 1161, and in hi, hn, hr, whether initial or in compounds 
like arewe, L 382 — ofhreowan. For hofe, O writes 5oue, O 1310. liw initial 
appears as wh in L C, but L has exceptionally wer, werefore, wat, wet, sumwet, 
and C wat, wanne, wi, wile. O has regularly w, with exceptions whare, whit, 
whyjt, O 784 = hwi]3a, quare, qwat, van, O 95 -hweenne. An inorganic h is seen 
in hat, O 559 = ac; herst, O 562=Eerest; hes, io66»eallswa; hich, O 211, hyc, 
O 1176 = 10; hy, O 407=ig; white, L i47i=wite; sleh, L 823 = slea, sleh, 
L 82i=slean. For A. S. eow, O has once hou, O 358. h, medial is almost 
always representative of A. S. ht ; whatever the preceding vowel, ht generally 
persists in L and becomes jt in C. In O the h often combines with the preceding 
vowel. Thus A. S. oht, oht is in L oht, in C 03t, in O out, owt, ouct ; A. S. seht 
in L aht, in C ajt, in O auct ; A. S. uht in L yht, in C ujt, in O out ; A. S. ahte 
gives ohte, L 418. But A. S. eoht, ieht, eaht, iht, yht are represented in L by 
yht, in C by ijt, in O by ict, yet, yjct, ijct, yjt, iyjt ; A. S. feahte is fette, L 1398, 
r. w. grette ; for A. S. nilit, vriht, L has niht, wiht; O, nijte, with, in addition to 
their usual forms. A. S. awiht is contracted into awt, O 1194; owiht into 031, 
976. For nauht, O has nouth, O 325, O 392. In O, ll is occasionally lost, as 
knyt, knjthede, rit, rjt, daylyt, fyten. C has st as a graphic variant for ht (ijt, 
ojt), in misle, 10 ; plist, 410 ; doster, 249 (see note), li medial also occurs in leyhe, 
O 366 = hliehhan ; it is lost in fayrede, O 93; falsede, O 1287; falssede, L 1256: 
in oJ)er, L 44 f = ohweeper, and or, O 114. h. final after a vowel remains un- 
changed in L, becomes 5 in C and combines with the vowel in O ; so neh, L 868, 
ne3, 252, ney, O 991. A. S. purh, Jjviruh, becomes ])ure3, 875, and ])oru, O 1418 ; 
Jjurh ut, Jjoruout, O 224, while L has J)ourh, ])urh out. 

J) initial is assimilated in alte, 1043, O io88 = 8et p£rQ ; mitte, L 624 + = mid 
pe, and lost in ate, O 760; mide, L 1203 = mid py, and combinations of )ju like 
canstu, 1206; hauestu, 724, O 749; nastu, 1193; schaitu, 46, 916; sechestu, 942 ; 
wepestu, 656; wiltu, O 493; worstu, O 337, wurstn, 324, 708. It is represented 
by d in dorte, 3S8, durj), L 390, possibly a dialectic variation (Kluge, Grundriss, 

xxvi GRAMMAR. 

I. p. 852), or perhaps due to confusion with dorste, durron. /is substituted for p 
in afnrste, L ii20 = ofpyrst (see Vamhagen, in Anzeiger, ix. 179; Zupitza, Guy, 
1. 346 note): similar is forh, L io35 = forJ). p medial becomes d before / in 
lodlike, O 1360, is assimilated in Suddene, and lost in syj^e, O Ii93 = sip]?an, 
o})at, L i28 = o})}j8et, and or, O 114. The assimilation in blisse goes back to 
A. S. bliss beside blips. Keyte, O 884, descends through cydde from eypde ; 
clade, O 176, represents A. S. *gecl8eJ)od ; sijte, 385, syhte, L 387, gesiht, a 
by-form of gesihjj, why3t, O 784, hwipa. p final is lost in inflection, as be, L 321, 
O 327 = beo]j; becomes d in ded, O 340, under the influence of the adj. dead; 
quad, O 686, qwad, O 215, influenced by the plural cwffidon (but comp. Sweet, 
H. E. S. § 732), and the contracted stond, L 972. O shows a leaning for i in the 
contracted hat, O 1174; stant, O 1007; tyt, O 1385 (L has also tit, L 1352) ; in 
det, O 116 ; qwat, O 453 ; wit, O 230, and its compounds wytdra we, &c. (but wiht, 
wyjt, whit, &c., also occur), and sittet, O 404. Probably 2 in comez, O 468, is 
a graphic variant of this /, as it undoubtedly is in the poem printed in Reliquiae 
Antiquae, i. p. 89, where we find comz, wiz (=wij)), havez beside havet, springet, 
but no J> final. In some Anglo-French texts i is found as a substitute for z = is 
(Boeve de Haumtone, p. 230), and a French scribe might readily interchange them 
in copying an English MS. But the scribe of the Legends in the earlier half of O 
writes indifferently z and/, not ^, in this inflection (Horstman, Leben Jesu, p. 12). 
The use of ^ for/ in deje, L 1378, and wuUej, 603, I take for a slip of the pen. 

S initial is unchanged. SC initial is very regularly s/i in L, sck in C, and gener- 
ally sc/i in O. But O has sharpe, O 243, and shelde as well as scheld, scene, O 97, 
and schene, O 1 74, scyp and schip, besides forms with simple s, as sal, said, solen, 
suldes, seld = scield. From screawa comes srewe, O 60, from scrydde, sredde, 
L 589 ; but scripp = 0. N. skreppa, produces scrippe, L 1069 f. sc medial and 
final is j-j- in O C, ss/i in L ; but O has fis, fys, londische as well as londisse, and 
the forms fy5sse, O 11 80, r. w. di'sse, fyjssere, O 1169, pointing to *ficsian. From 
asoian comes askede, L 43, O 615, from acsian, acsede, O 43, axede, 39, L 1492. 
The spelling laste, L 660, r. w. casi€, for laschte, is exceptional in L. Agesce, 
O 1222, r. w. IVestnesse, seems to descend from O. N. gizka, but sc is more prob- 
ably a French spelling for ss, as in pruesce, O 572 ; L C have agesse, gesse. SS 
final becomes s. 

f initial before a vowel is v in vacche, L 1228, vecche, L 1378 ; vurste, L 1119 ; 
vele, 56; verde, 625; and in biualle, 172; biuore, 506; biuo, 869; J)aruore, loi ; 
vnderuonge, 239. But L has also fecche, furste, and C fele, ferde, bifalle, bifore, 
vnderfonge, the spelling with / being purely historical, and the sound regularly 
voiced in L C. O has always /. With the exception of ofer, O 1117, f inter- 
vocalic is always u, so also leuedy, L 341, O 348; steuene, L 1365, O 1396; 
sweuene, L 668 f, for A. S. hlSfdige, stefn, swefn. f of the prefix of is lost 
in arewe, L 382 ; adred, L 124; afurste, L 1120, as also in o, L 574, ojie, L 237 
for of, of pe, in lord and leman, O 568, in hade, L 59, hede, L 472, L 1255, r. w. 
falssede: it is assimilated in hadde, L 21 f, and in lemman ; wimman is A. S. 
wimmann. f final is unaltered. 

n final is lost in eue, L 468 f ; felaurade, L 174, verade, 166 ; game, L 206 f, 
r. w. name; maide, 272, L 278, r. w. seide, but euen, L 407 ; maiden, 947, L 1538, 
also occur. For an, nan, min, pin all three MSS. have forms with and without 
n. The termination an of adverbs and prepositions loses m in aboute, L 349 f, 
r. w. doute; bituene, L 352, O 446 ; bitwen, O 358; tofore, 1436, but double 
forms occur in bifore, 456, L 496; biforn, L 532 f, r. w. Horn; bihynde, 192, 
L 200, bihinden, O 302, x.yi.lnnde; sujjpe, 1078, sy])e, O1193, se}>J)en, L 1 1 58 ; 

GRAMMAR. xxvii 

wi))ute, i88, L 413, O 256, wi])Outen, L 353 1- Ilenne, L 50 f, represents A. S. 
heonane. For inflectional n see Accidence, nn regularly loses one n, as bigan, 
in {adv.), man, and its coniponnds, J)in, wan ; ma ( = mann) occurs at O 400, and 
the pronoun me at 366, L 906 ; but n is doubled in stonnde, O 109. n medial is 
lost in done ( = to donne), L 790 f, r. w. sone ; soneday, 966, O 1054 (but sonne- 
day, L 958) ; Jane, 13, J)an, 116, O 120, ))en, L 13 (but also J)anne, O 13, 68, 
L 72, J)enne, L 141, O 461) ; whane, 359, whan, 793, when, L 366, &c. (but 
also whanne, 915, wanne, O 151). A. S. on morgne is amorewe, L 407, amorwe, 
O 421, amoreje, 645. 

C initial before eo, i, ea = ck, as cheose, 664, L 666 ; chesen, O 799; chese, 
O 6S4; child, L 1350 1; chirche, L 905, 13S0, cherchen, O 1423 ; chelde, 1148. 
Keruen, L 241, kerue, 233, owe k to the influence of corfen, kyrke, O 932, to that 
of O. N. kirkja; care, L 269, kare, O 274, 1244, go back to caru ; calle (L. W. S. 
ceallian from O. N. kalla), L 907, and kelde, L 1150, kold«, O 1185, derive from 
forms having Anglian a for W. S. ea before /+ consonant. Initial c = k,c before 
«. 0, u, I, y, y, ^F( = W. S. e) in canst, O 1248, const, L 1213, konne, O 582; 
cole, L 58S t ; corn, 1385 ; come, L 1416 f ; cuppe, O 245, 449 ; kenne, L 150 ; 
cunde, 421, L 425, kende, O 443 ; kenne, 144, L 184, O614; cure, L1446; 
cusse, L435, O 595, kesse, 431; keyte, O 884 ; kene, 91, L 97, O 98 ; kep, 
L 750 1. Initial c is preserved in the combinations cl, en, cr, civ. en is always 
written kn, except in cniue, O 114 ; bycnowe, O 1028 ; cr appears as kr once in 
krake, O 11 18 ; czv is invariably represented by the French spelling qu, occasionally 
in O hyqw. O has neyj, O 1186, for A. S. (ge)cneow. c medial after a mutated 
vowel is regularly eh, as adrenche, 105, L 109, drenche, O 1014, drenched, 
O 1023; areche, 1220, ofreche, O 998, 1283, J)orhreche, L 1291 ; benche, 
Liio7t; blenche, 1411, O 1466 ; ouerblenche, L 1429; clenche, L 1498 = 
(be)cl§ncan; drenche, O 1199, L1164; shenche, L 374t; seche, Lii82t, 
byseche, L 318, 579; pench, L 1163, Jienchest, L 574; teche, L 390 f, teching, 
1508, L 1530; byteche, L 577, O 591 ; werchen, O 1422, wurche, 1379, L 1391 : 
CC in the same position produces ech, ch, as areche, L 668 ; fecche, 351, L 357 ; 
feche, O 363 ; recche, 366, reche, O 378, recchi, L 370, yrecche, L 358. But 
CC not preceded by mutated vowel is ck, as in necke, 1240, nycke, L1248 ; ])icke, 
L 1247, ])ikke, 1239. Confusion of p^ncan and pynean gives rise to J)enke, 576, 
from the former, and to forms with ch, as ])unche)), L 1321, L 1340 ; of])inche, 106, 
O 1015, ofl^enche, L no, from the latter. Werke, O 933, is due to the influence 
of A. S. weorc. O has also seke, O 983, sekest, O 985, for which see Sweet, 
H. E. S. § 741. A. S. Iseccan with the group secc appears as lache, O 678, and 
latchen, O 662, vtrreeee with eec as wreche, L 1292, sp(r^£ece as speche, L 1380 f, 
but sake, L 1474 f = ssece and saee is probably influenced by O. N. sok. The 
group ice appears regularly as ich\e), so chirche, L 905, 1380; michel, O 75, 
muchel, 83, L 523 ; riche, L O 20, kingeriche, 17; riche, O 283, 314, L 906. 
Under the same head fall words with the termination lice, as loueliche, 454, L 45S ; 
rewlich, O 1092; sweteliche, 384, L 386; unbicomelich, 1065, and the representa- 
tives of eelc ( = *agelic), gelic, swelc ( = *swalic) ; pile (=f>yllic), eche, O 219, 
1087, vch, L218; ilich, 1066; yliche, L O 19 ; swiche, O 585, suche, L 569, 
571, swihc, 166. Exceptionally forms with k occur in mikel, O 289 = 0. N. mikil; 
lodlike, O 1360; ilik, 502 ; swilk, O 581, while pile (=-pyllic), se ilea ( = *ilica) 
have only ])ilke, L 676 ; ilke, S55, L 1238, ulke, 1199, hulke, O 496. A. S. 
gelica gives iliche, 18, yliche, LO 19, ylyche, O 300, but Hike, 289. The mono- 
syllable ie is ich, O 3, L 32, ihc, 3 ; i, 631, y, O 136, L 175 represent ig, as reuly, 
L I0o7> points to *hreowlig, O. N. hryggiligr. Quic, 86, has c, being from cwigu. 

xxviii GRAMMAR. 

C medial before back vowels is k, c, so all parts of strong verbs with preterite ending 
in c, as asoke, forsoke; brouke ; drinke, adrinke; biswike, swike ; bitake, oftok; 
sike, speke, strike, walke, and the nouns make, L 1427 ( = gemaca) ; derke 
( = deorcan), all weak verbs of the type macian = *mako-jan, as loke, rake, 
wakede, thankede, mislike, and the loan-word anker, 1014, O 1053. Noteworthy 
is the spelling adronque, L 9SS = adruncen. c medial is lost in the contracted 
adrent, 977 = adj:§nced, and made, L 90, O 175. C final is, with the exceptions 
already mentioned, regularly c or k. But ac, beside ac, 523. O 860, appears also 
as at, 116, O 854, hat, O 559; and seoc is seek, L 278, sik, 272 : sech, O 1226, 
is apparently a scribe's mistake. 

ge prefix is i in C, occasionally y, regularly y in L, y, hy in O with rare i, so 
ifere, 1129, yfere, 242, L 1129; iwis, 196, O 1319, ywis, 517; ymete, O 1347; 
hygraue, O 583. It is lost in make, L 1427 f = gemaca ; hende, L 375 t^-ge- 
h§nde ; mone, =;28, O 861 ; sijte, 385, L 387; verade, 166, and others, g initial 
= Germ.y is lost in if, 107, ef, 537, yf, O 113; elsewhere it is j for which O 
occasionally writes _)', as jare, 1356, jore, L 1366; 5e, L 1367 f, ye, O 109; jeie, 
L 736 t, yere, O 544; 5et, L 74; 5ef, 87, 5if, O 93, L 349: 3ynge, 5end, and 
others, g initial before e, e, ea, ea, ie, eo, is j, in O occasionally y, as ajeyn, 
L 580 ; to5eynes, L 820; jen, O 1470, ajen, 582, O 594 ; tojenes, 56 ; 5are, 467, 
O 1396; 5ate, 1043, yate, O 1114, jateward, L 1073 ; jelde, 482, L 486 ; jerne, 
L 1419, O 1436, jerne, 1085, O 1383; jurne, L 1384; jeue, L 919, 1530, yeue, 
O 166 ; 5af, 640, 56f, L 865 ; jeuen, 1498, L 1518. A. S. gierne is heme, O 956. 
The forms gate, 1078, O 1088; gateward, 1067, O 1108, perhaps reflect the A. S. 
alternation in geat, pi. gatu (Sweet, H. E. S. § 748) : gestes, O 541, L 1225, geste, 
1217, are influenced by O. N. gestr : ginne, 546, gynnej), L 729, O 752 ; agynne, 
L 1285, O 1320, biginne, 1277, have the ^of the preterite and participle: toga- 
dere, 52, togedere, L 56, togydere, O 56, owe g to forms with a, as togadore, 
eetgadre. g initial before a, a, 0, u, y, mutation of u, ce, mutation of a, is g, so 
game, L 206 t ; gan, 1047,0 1090, gon, L 1055; girde, 0517, gyrte, O 1512, 
gurden, L i486; gode, L33t; golde, L 463 t ; gomes, L 24 f I gon, L5ot; 
go)), L 215, O 217; igon, 187. But for (be)gan, begunnen, L has also con, 
L 302, connen, L 187. g initial + consonant is always g, as gle, gripe, &c. g 
medial is lost in drye, O 1488 = drygan ; stirop, 758 ; stiward, L 233 f , and in the 
contracted li]), 695, lyht, L 697 ; seij), L 773, seyt, O 772 : most frequently it 
combines with a preceding vowel to form a diphthong, as described under the 
vowels: it becomes w in berwe, O 951, r. w. sente; amorwe, O 421, amorewe, 
L 407, to morwe, O 497, to morewe, L 825; sorewe, L 408, sorwe, O 422; 
sorewej), L 9,^6 ; sorwenesse, O 965, L 930. C has sorwe, 911, once, but elsewhere 
j, as amoreje, 645, 837, to moreje, 476 ; sor3e, 838, soreje, 261, except sorinesse, 
922, with total loss of ^. eg medial generally yields^, as brugge, Hgge, &c., but 
lije, 1158 ; abeie, beye, seie also occur, ng medial and final remains unchanged, 
so bringe, L 286-t'; ring, 561 f- O has strenc])e, O 1084. g final is lost in the 
termination ig, ige, as ani, mani, holy, lefdi, murie, and in the pronoun i, y, hy 

= ig. 

t is lost before st in beste, L 29 f, tt becomes t in syte, O 834. t is assimilated 
in blesse, L 582 f ; blessing, 156, and doubled in latten, L 937 ; lette, O 972 = 
latian, under the influence of Ifttan ; in flette, O 786 = fleotan, under that of 
Jlitten. For t, d occurs in bidere, 960; scald, O loi, O 107 ; said, O 50, but 
prede, O 1438, represents the by-form pryde ; th appears in J)oruuth, O 219, 
Jjoruouth, O 226; ith, O 1033. 

d medial is lost in answerede, O 46, 1068, onsuerede, L 46, and in the contracted 

GRAMMAR. xxlx 

presents tit, L 1352, tyt, O 1385 ; stant, O 1007 ; biit'stond, L 972. It becomes 
t in the preterites gyrte, 01512, r. w. sc/iirie ; lefte, 647, lafte, L616 ; rente, 725, 
toreute, O 750; scholte, 906; schente, 322; sente, O 406, 525, senten, L 1347; 
wente, L 77, 472, O 665, biwente, 321, L 329 ; but girde, O 517, r. w. herte, 
gurdcn, L i486 ; lefde, 1378; rende, L727; scholde, 395, O947; shulde, L 1104; 
shende, L 330, O 335, sende, L 271 f; wende. 367, O 373, L 528, biwende, 
O 334, also occur. O has wente, O 626, r. w. dunte = wgndan. The M. E. trende, 
O 452 ; trente, L 434, shows the same exchange of i. d. d is assimilated in hatte, 
6o8 = hatode; smatte, 6o7 = *sinatode, and doubled in wedde, O 311. d final 
often becomes / in L, so amiddewart, L556 ; towart, L I488 ; ant, L 7 (the invari- 
able form for and in \S\ ; forewart, L552 ; jent, L 1181 =geond; );ousent, L327 : 
it is lost in an, O 104, O915 ; chil, O 550 ; bonder, L 1339 ; stron, O 107 : ywed- 
de]>, L 1470, owes its/ to the following \\. Forms corresponding to A. S. tidung 
are tidinge, O 136, tidynge, L814; to O. N. titJindi are ti)^inge, 128, tyjiyng, 
S06, &c. 

For w initial O has v in Teie, O 257 ; vel, O 723 ; vente, O 77 ; verst, O 72 ; 
vistes, O 247 : vel occurs at C 445 also : bij)inne, 1042, 1295 ; bi))ute, 1242, with b 
for w. are characteristic of C. A. S. wite is white, L 1471 ; •weorjjs, wr)ie, L ^^. 
Initial w is lost in nas, 18, O 925, nes, L 204 ; nere, L93t; ichuUe, L 540 
(mostly in L, see gloss.) ; nolde, L 1049 f ; nuste, 276, L 282. Initial diu, siv, tw 
mostly retain w in O C with occasional u, but L has mostly «. A. S. swilc is 
such in all three texts, but also swilk, O 581, swihc, 166 : for swipe, L O C write 
swij^e, LC sui])e, and C sul)e four times: swa is so, L 180 + ; eallswa, also, 
L 102 f, ase, as, &c. w medial is lost in bare, 891 =bearwe ; ojier, L 44 1, or 
O 114; o;t, 976; stuard, 275: for forms descending from nawjjer see gloss, 
under notiPer. For eo + w see the former: in gleynge, L 1490; knelyng, L 787, 
w is lost. 

4. The Romance Element. 

All the Romance words of the three texts are here arranged under their tonic 
vowels in Anglo-Norman. 

a. age, L 1334 1 (in O. F. aage) ; armes, L 485 f ; bamage, O 1544, baronage, 
1282, L 1517; blame, 1265, r. w. name; cacche, L 1227, r. \v.vacche\ fable, 
L 716, O 737 ; grace, L 569 t, r. w. place; haste, 615, r. w. laste; heritage, 
L I289t; homage, 1497; lace, L 7i9t; page, L 1290, O 1325; passage, 
L 1333 + ; passe, L 759, r. w. VVestnesse ; place, L 570 f ; scapede, 886 ; stable, 
L 586 t ; table, L 585 f ; trewage, 1498, truage, L 1518, O 1545 : probably also 
fals, L 645, false, 1248, with the hybrid compound falsede, O 1287, falssede, 
L 1256. The e of keche, O 1262, r. w. teche ; kecche, L 1377, r. w. vecche, is due 
to the analogy of verbs like reche (r»can\ teche (tScan) with preterites similar 
to that of cacchen. For the rhyme haste, O 631 : leste, see Morsbach, p. 119. 
a'a = 0. F. anasal. Chambre, L982 ; chaungen, O 1095, chaungi, 1052, chaunge, 
L 1060; geant, O 617, geaunt, L 810 + ; grante, 508, graunte, O 528 (in O. F. 
graanter). a + /. reaume, O i.sso, r. w. streume, but reme, L 1525, r. w. streme, 
shows contraction of e + a and total loss of /: amyraud, O 95, admira(l)d, 89, 
r. w. bald, admyrold, L 95, descend from L. L. admiraldus. Unaccented a is 
lost in ryuen, O 1223, &c. ; riuede, O 1550 ; bleine, O 701. Kestel, O 14S6, may 
represent A. S. *c8Bstel, Anglian cestel (Pogatscher, § 184). Chayere, L 1271 ; 
cheyere, O 1304, owe the diphthong to O. F. cheiere: chaere, I26i,is A. N. chaere. 
Oryue, L 615, is probably due to the phrase on ryiie, 132. 


e. castel, L i488t; chaere, 1261, chayere, L 1271, cheyere, O 1304, all r. w. 
here; chapel, L 1392, chapeles, 1380, O 1423 ; damesele, 1169, damysele, O 1208, 
damoisele, L 11 73; felle, O 15 10, r. w.pclle; fjste, 477, L 807, O 828, r. w. beste; 
geste, L 482 t ; grauel, L 1487 f; payen, L 45, paens, 807 ; pruesse, L 554, 556, 
pruesce, O 572 ; rente, 914, O 955, both r. w. zuente ; seraen, L 242, r. w. keruen, 
O 245, serue, 234, r. w. kerue; solempnite, L 504. e is lost in pains, 59, payns, 
L 63, 85. Unaccented e is lost initially in scapede, 886; stordy, O 893, and in 
words beginning with esc, esp, est, as squier, spuse, stable, medially in pelryne, 
A. N, pelryne (pilegrym, 1154, O 1191, is M. H. G. pilgrim) : final e is lost in 
chapel, L 1392 ; sclauin, 1222, sclaueyn, L 1062, O 1265. An inorganic e separates 
two consonants in iogelers, L 1494, O 1521, as w in A. N. jugulurs. 

i. aryne, L 784 f , ryue, L 136 f, both r. w. lyiie ; bigile(n), L 328 f, r. w. mile ; 
compaynye, 879, r. w. hije; cosin, 1444, cosyn, L 1464, O 1491 ; deuise, 930, 
O 973, deuyse, L 938, all r. w, wise ; enemy, O 995, enemis, 952, L 960 ; enuye, 
687, L 689, envie, O 706 ; fine, 262, O 271, both r. w. pine, fyne, L 264, r. w. 
pyne ; folye^ L 690 f ; hardy, L 1346 ; yle, L 1330, O 1359, r. w. while, ille, 1318 ; 
matynes, L 1025 ; paynime, O 832, paynyme, 803, L 811, all r. w. rime; peynlms, 
O 87 ; pilegrym, 11 54, pylegrim, O 1191, r. w. win ; pelryne, L 1156, r. w. wyne ; 
rime, 1363, O 1402, both r. w. time, ryme, 804, L 1373, r. w. time; scruice, 
L 1000, seruyse, O 1031, seruise, 990, all r. w. wise; sire, 1506, syre, O 1552 
(L. senior, through *aeior) ; striue, L 413, O 429, r. w. wtue, strif, 407, r. w. wif; 
striue (verb), L.729, O 752, both r. w. driue; yre, O 1553; wiket, 1074, wyket, 
L 1079, O 1 1 15. e + \ gives preie, 763, r. w. seie ; pre5e, L 1192, r. w. de^e, preye, 
L 769, O 792, r. w. seye, where A. N. has prier (see Behrens, p. 99), but the normal 
i in ginne, 1456, r. w. inne, gynne, L 1476, r. w. ynne (A. N. engin) ; pris, 898. 
i nasal has generally developed like simple i, so sclauyne, 1054, O 1096, sclauin, 
1222, but sclaueyn, L 1062 (A. N. esclaueyne). 

= 0. F. g. botes, O 522, r. \f.fotes; robe, L 1061 ; roche, L 79 f. 

tl = 0. F. Q gives on, less frequently u and occasionally &. burdon, 1061, bur- 
doun, O 1 104, bordoun, L 1069 '■> colour, L 16, colur, 16, O 16 ; corune, O 495, 
r. w. toune, croune, L 1041, coroune, L 479, both r. w. toune; coupe, L 242, 
coppe, L 453, r. w. vppe, O 469, r. w. oppe, cupe, 234; curt, O 256, 592, courts 
L 251, O 606; doute, O 587; dubbe, 458, dobbe, L494, O510, so dubbing, &c. ; 
flour, LO 15, flur, 15; gaJun, 1123, O 1158, galoun, L1123; gigonrs, 1472 
(O. F. gigeor) ; glotoun, Lii24t; harpurs, 1471 (O. F. harpeor) ; jogelours, 
O 1521 (O. F. jogleor) ; but iogelers, L 1494, has either English term, ere or 
may be O. F. joglere =*jocularem ; posse, loi i, r. w. Westernesse ; puste, L 1079, 
r. -w.Jluste; soune, L 217, O 220, r. w. toune; sune, 209; spuse, O 943, 995, 
spouse, L 1005, O 1036; stordy, O 893, sturdy, L 874 ; traytour, L 1280 ; tur, 
1453) tour, L 1473, ture, 1091, r. w. put-e, tonre, O 1132, r. w. poure. XL nasal 
has the same development as u- For tume, &c., see p. xx. 

•ji. auenture, 650, r. w. biire, O 666, r. w. boure ; couerture, 696, r. w. bure, 
O 715, r. w. boure, couertoure, L 698, r. w. boure ^ mesauenture, O 339, r. w. 
boure, mesauentur, 326, r. w. bur, messauenture, 710, r. w. bure. 

ai is mostly ai, ay, but also, as in A. N. ei, ey. asayle(n'), L 863, O 882, 
assaille, 637; bataille, 855, batayle, O 588; bitraie, 1251, r. w. laie, bytreye, 
L 1261 ; bitraide, 1270, r. w. seide; boneyres, O 939, r. w. heyres ; faille, 638, 
fayle, O 652, faylen, L 864; lay, L 1499 f, ''• '^- "^dyla'^ey; meyster, O 635 ; 
palais, 1256, r. w. his, paleyse, L 1266, r. w. eyse, O 1299, r. w. hcyse; seint, 665, 
L 1179, seynt, O 1214. Maister, L 868, mayster, O 887; maisteres, 621, may 
descend from A. S msegester. ai unaccented gives normally ai, ay, as com- 

GRAMMAR. xxxi 

paynye, 879, parn, 41, payen, L 45, paiens, L 892, pa}Tiime, O 832, paynyme, 
803, L 811, and ey in peynims, O 87. But a represents ai in pacne, 147, paens, 
807 = A. X. paen. 

ei. bleine, O 701, r. w. seyne ; eyse, L 1265, heyse, O 1298 ; galeie, 185, r. w. 
pleie, galeye, L 193, r. w.pLye; heirs, 897, heyres, O 938, heyr, L 912, r. w. 
feyr; ley, O 69; preie, 1235, preye, O 104S, L 1243, A. N. prei ; rengne. 901. 
Lay, L 1544, r. w. ay, shows a characteristic A. N. interchange of at for ei. Un- 
accented ei normnlly gives e, as in damesele, 1 169; but damysele, O 1208 ; damoi- 
sele, L 1 1 73 = A. N. damisele, damoisele. 

e = 0. F. ie. banere, 1374, r. w. stere ; chere, L 401 f , r. \v. suere, L 901, r. w. 
bere, O 1 126, r. vf.'dere ; manere, L 548 f ; mestere, L 235 f ; palmere, L 1037 f ; 
porter, L loSr, O 1116; riuere, 230, ryuere, L 236. ie is preserved in squier, 
liii, r, w. ber, squiere, O 1149, r. w. bere, skyere, L 1114, r. w. beere, skuyeres, 

L 365- 

Tie, later oe, appears twice with the characteristic A. N. eo in deol, 1048 ; deole, 
1050, r. w. sore, other^vise it gives 0, as dole, L 1057, O 1092 ; proue, L 543 f, 
r. w. ivowe, woje, L 1278, r. w. houe ; proued, O 131 1, r. w. joiie, 1267, r. w. 

Oi. crois, 1309, L 1321, cro)3, L 1314; ioie, 1353, L 1371, O 1394, ioye, 
O 436, L 1363. 

The consonants in the Romance words call for little conament. The doubled 
letters ss in assaille, 637, messauentuie, 710 : bb in dubbe, &c. : sc for ss in pruesce, 
O 572, r. w. blisse: c for j in service, L 1000, r. w. wyse'. the parasitic / in 
solempnite, L 504 : gi for giti in bigile, &c., are all found in A. N. texts. The 
A. N. tendency to change liquefied n into simple n is seen in compaynye, 879, but 
C has rengne, 901. L once uses ^ for in croyj, L 1314 = A. N. croiz : O adds k 
in heyse, O 129S, as often in English words: ille, 1318, is a variant spelling of 
O. F. isle also found in A. N. texts. 


The Verb. The Strong Verbs are here classified as in Biilbring. The parts 
recorded are : (i^ Infinitive (with all the examples in «) ; imperative ; first person 
sing. pres. indicative (this list is not exhaustive) : (2) Second and third person 
sing. pres. indicative: (3) Past indicative sing, third or first person: (4) Past 
indie, plur. ; second person sing, past indie. ; past subjunctive : (5) Present 
participle : (6) Past participle. Weak forms are put in brackets. 

la. A. S. e (i) — se — » — e and ie — ea — ea — ie. 1, liggen, O 1343, lyggen, 
O 1331, Hje, 115S, r. w. isije; speken, L isSof; jeue, L 919; seon, L 724, 1345, 
sen, 650, O 743, se, L 1355; jef, 914, L 1062, 3yf, O 955; forjef, 349, L 355, 
forjyf, O 361 : 2. \\]>, 695 ; lyht, L 697; sitte}), 904, syt, O 945; seth, O 134: 
3. awrek, L 900; bad, 79, L 85 ; bed, L 1075, O 1227, r. w. ded; bispac, O 205, 
bispek, O 95 ; lay, 1303, r. w. way, L 131 5, hylay, O 1346; qua>, 127, qwat, 
O 453 ; q"o]), L 131 ; sat, 653, set, L 835, O 856 ; spac, L 179 f, spek, O 145, 
L 600 ; 5af, 466, O 1439, 5ef, L 86.; ; saj, 125, say, O 645, sauj, 167, se3, 13.^6, 
seh, L 595, sey, O 611 : 4. bede, 907, r. w. lede ; ete, L I268f, r. w. sitete, 
heten, O 1280, r. w. leten ; laie, 1252, leye, L 1262, leyen, O 1293 ; seten, L 305 ; 
sete, L 1253, L 1496, O 1523, all r. w. lete, [sytten, O 1261] ; spake, 535, L 535, 
speke, O 555^ all r. w. take ; seuen, 1498, L 1518 ; seye, O 779, r. w. hcye, O 1194. 

xxxii GRAMMAR. 

r. w. leye, seje, L 1159, r- w. hje; isije, 756, r. w. ije, yseyjen, L756, r. w. eyjen, 
isi^e, 1157, r. w. lije, 976, r. w. ije: 5. liggynde, L 131 2 ; sittende, O 667 ; sit- 
tinde, 1443, sittynde, L 649 : 6. leye, L 1139, ileie, 1139. 

lb. A. S. e — se — el — o. 1. here, L 479 f ; comen, O 278, L 1475, come, 
L 1416 t : 2. comest,L 149, O 1071, comes, O i5i,comez, O468, ouercome]), 815 : 
3. ber, L iiii, O 1146, bar, 1109; brae, L683, O 700, brak, 681 ; com, L 229 t, 
cam,L794t; nam, O 547, 585; nom, L583, O597 : 4. comen, L 1383 f, come, 59, 
L 63, icom, 1318 (for icome); name, 60, nomen, L 64, O 64; tobrake, 1077, 
r. vi. gate: 6. bore, O 441, bom, L 10 fj r. w. Horn; comen, O 541, icomen, 
202, yeomen, L 170, ycome, L 198, r. vj.ylome, come, I^ 136, O 140, 

I c. A. S. i — a — u — u. 1. berwe, O 951, r. w. seme ; fyten, O 534, fijte, 514 ; 
5eme, O 724 ; vme, 878 ; jelde, 482, L 486, both r. w jvelde ; keruen, L 241, kerue, 
233; sinken. Olio; sterue, L 781 f, r. w. ^■^rwg ; spume, O 1115 ; syngen, O 1425 : 
2. biginnes, O 588 ; gynne}), L 729, O 752 ; shille)), O 220 : 3. bigan, 117, O125, 
L 753, bygon, L 121 ; gan, L 388 \ ; gon, L 247, con, L 302 ; drank, O 1148, 
drone, L 1113, dronk, 1154, O 1191 ; fond, L 39 f ; help, O 918; sprang, 124; 
sprong, L 1229 1; wan,02oo; wrong, 1062 : 4. bigonne, L 887, bygonne, O 1460, 
bigunne, 1433 > dronken, 1112 ; fu3ten, 1375, r. w. ujten ; fouten, O 1414, r. w. 
oujten, fyhten, L 1385 (a false form); funden, 851, founden, L S59, O 878, 
founde, 1301, O 1342, fonden, L 1311 ; gunnen, 850 ; gunne, 51, gonnen, O 65, 
L 858, gonne, L O 55 ; gon, O 141 {iox gonne) ; connen, L 187 ; spronge, O 513, 
sprunge, 1026 ; stonge, L 1389, O 1416 : 5. mominde, O 592, mourninde, L 578 ; 
wringende, O 1 1 8 ; wringinde, 1 1 2 ; wryngynde, L 1 1 6 ; 6. adronque, L988; bunde, 
422, r. w. cunde, ibunde, 11 16, bounde, O 1151, ybounde, L 1116 ; birimne, 654, 
bironne, O 670, byronne, L 652 ; founde, O 1000, yfounde, L 779, ifonnde, 773, 
ifunde, 955 ; yjolde, L 464, hy5olde, O 478, ijolde, 460, all r. \i.golde ; iorne, 1146, 
yorae, L 1148, hyjonren, O 1183; snnge, 1260, songe, L 1270, O 1303, ysonge, 
L 1026, hysonge, O 1055; spronge, O 1065, sprunge, 1015, hyspronge, O 564, 
O 1054, yspronge, L 546, isprange, 548; isterue, 1167. To this class conforms 
ringe, with pt. pi. ronge, L 1263, runge, 1253, rongen, O 1294, and//, irunge, 1016, 
yronge, L 1025. 

II. A. S. i — a — i — i. 1. abiden, 728 ; flyten, L 855 ; riden, O 241 ; smiten, 
L856; syken,L43o; teon, L 723, L 888, ten, O 742, and others with ?,_y : 3. nabod, 
720; agros, L 1326,0 1355, gros, 1314; aros,Li325t; drof, L I23t, r. w.>w/; 
rod, L 34 t ; ros, L 847 f ; smot, L 507 f , O 623, r. w. hot : 4. aryse, L 1454, 
O 1461 ; drinen, 870, dryae, L 1279 ; riden, O 37, ryde, L 37 ; smiten, L 1385, 
smyten, 53, L 57, O 1414; striken, L 1023, O 1052, strike, 1013. To this class 
belongs striue, L 729, O 752, O. F. estriver. Ariue, O. F. ariuer, has strong 
//., aryue, O 633, r. w, lyue, L 1458, r. w. alyue, oryue, L 615, riue, O 189. 

III. A. S. eo, u — ea — u — o. 1. adrije, 1035, r. w. ije ; dreje, L 1047, r. w. 
eje ; dreye, O 1078, r. w. eye ; arewe, L 382, r. w. trewe: rewe, 378, O 392, both 
r. w. trewe ; bede, L 466 t, r. w. spede ; cheose, 664, L 666, chesen, O 799, chese, 
O 684; fleon, L 887 ; fleoten, L 159, r. w. 7veopen ; flete, O 161, r. w. wepe, flette, 
O 786, r. w. sette\ forleose, L 665, forlese, O 683, leose, 663 ; lie, 145 1, r. w. 
twie, lye, O 1498, r. w. twye ; schete, 939, shete, L 947, both r. w. mete; vnbowe, 
L 431, r. w. yswotve: 3. bed, L 508 f ; flet, L 197 : 4. [fletten, L 763, r. w. 
settett] : 6. forloren, 479. 

IV. A. S. a — o — 6 — a. 1. draje, 1289, T.vr./e/aje(s) ; drawe, L 1297, O 1473, 
both r. w. felawe, so todraje, wij)drawe; flen,86, fle, 1370, flon, O92, flo, L92; 
leyhe, O 366 ; slen, L 104 t, sle, 604, L 602, O 1407, slon, L 47 f, r. w. on, vpon, 
slo, L 91, slein, L 1203 ; steppe, O 1392 ; stonde, L 399 f, 597, r. w. konde = 

GRAMMAR. xxxiii 

hundas, stonnde, O 109, r. w. grunde : 2. farest, L 799, O 822, faist, 793 ; stant, 
O 100;, stond, L 972, stonde}), 962 : 3. atstod, L 1455; awek, L 14,^5, wok, 
1417 ; dro3, 872 ; [ferde, L 757 f, r- w. hcrdc-, verdc, 625] ; loh, L 361 ; lowe, 
O 367 (for loio); oftok, L 1241, O 1276, ouertok, 1233; schok, 591, O 605 ; sloh, 
L611; slo3, 615, slow, O 631 ; stod, 529, r. w. ^(jrf ; tok, L40of : 4. asoke, 65 ; 
forsoken, O 69, forsoke, L 69, L 751 f, r. w. loke ; bitoke, L 1103, O 1140, r. w. 
loke\ token, O 70 ; droje, 1006, r. w. inoje ; drovve, L 1016, O 1047, both r. w. 
ynowe, so to dr03e, wijjdroje, &c. ; houe, 1267, L 1277, Joue, O 1310, r. v^. proue, 
proued; lowe, L' 1502, O 1529, both r. w. yswowe, louje, 1480, r. w. yswoje; 
slojen, 181 ; slowen, L 1S9, O 1376, sloje, 1327, slowe, O 191, L 892 ; stode, 
O 916, r. w. gode ; sworen, 1249, O 1288, suoren, L 1257, suore, L 1259: 6. 
aslaje, 88 ; aslajen, 897; slawe, L 868, O 887, yslawe, L 913, r. w. dawe, yslaye, 
L 57a; drawe, O 1344, ydrawe, L 1313, both r. w. lazve; fare, 1355, O 1397, 
ifare, 468, yfare, L 472; forsake, O 570; igraue, 566, O 583; igrauen, 1 164, 
O 1203. [ygraued, L 563, L 1168] ; yshape, L 1316; take, L 1428, O I465, itake, 
1410, all r. w. make. 

V. A. S. ea— eo — eo — ea and a— e — e— a. 1. blowe, L 1381 f; falle, L786t, 
r. w. hallc; bifalle, O 105, byfalle, L 103, both r. w. alle; biualle, 172 ; flowen, 
L 121, O 125, flowe, 117; holden, 670, holde, 307, O 390, L 673, helde, L314, 
O 319, 902 ; bihelde, 601, L 1149, 846, r. w. felde, byhelde, L 854, O 873, both 
r. w. felde, biholde, L 599, O 617 ; knowe, 670, L 672, O 1248, all r. w. oive ; 
iknowc, 1372 ; J)rowe, L 981, O 1016, both r. w. 'vowe, 1490, ])rewe, O 1539 ; 
to hewe, 1312, L 1324, both r. w. schezve; walke, 1088, r. w. halke\ waxe, 95, 
L445, wexe, 441, O loi, r. w. nexte, O 1452, r. w. hytivexe ; welde, 481, L485, both 
r. w. jelde, O 501, L 425, r. w. felde, wolde, 308; weopen, L 160, r. vr.fleoien, 
wepe, O 162, r. w. flete ; adrede, L 297 ; ofdrede, 291, O 302 ; fonge, L 721 f, 
r. w. louge ; honge, L 336, anhonge, 328, onhonge, O 341 ; bote, L 773 t, r. w. 
bote; leten, O 1281, r. w. keten, lete, L 1495, O 1522, r. w. seie, 890 ; late, 1044, 
1473, r. w. jaie ; forlete, L 224 f, r. w. sttcte ; rede, L 1059 f, r. w. wede, O 1395, 
x.yr.made; mysrede, L 298 t ; slepe, L 410, O 424 : 2. wepest, L 654, wepes, 
O 672; slepest, 1308, L 1320; waxe]), O 991; wepej), L 1058 f : 3. bleu, 
L 1302 t; fel, L 340 t, vel, L 509, feol, 428, [felde, L 425] ; kneu, 1149, L 1151, 
Dey3, O 1186; >reu, 1076, L 1162 ; J)rew, L 10S2, O 1197; wex, O 263; wep, 
73, L 677, 1406; weop, 69, &c., [wepte, L 1424; adredde, L 1170, ofdiadde, 
O 1205 ; dradde, 1166 ; gredde, L 1202, r. w. beddc'] ; het, 7, 9 ; hihte, L9 ; bihet, 
L 474 t ; let, L 678 t, [lette, L 902, L 907, L 1391 ; schedde, O 920] : 4. felle, 
858, L 896 ; feolle, 421 ; knewe, L 1459, O ^48^> ^- ^- "■^^^i 1441. r. w. ny7ve; 
yknewe, L 646, r. w. untrewe; [adred, O 128 (for adredde), dradde, 120] ; leten, 
136; lete, 1246; threwe, L ii76t, r. w. trewe: 5. wepende, 668, wepinde, 
L1091, wepynde, L650, wepinge, 1085 : 6. bifalle, 420, O442, both r. vf.fralle; 
byflowe, O 612, byflowen, L 628, r. vv. 7-ozve, rowcn ; helde, O 502, hylde, O 1074, 
r. w. Reymylde ; biknowe, L 993 ; bycnowe, O 102S ; walke, 953, [walked, L 961, 
O 996] ; ofdrad, 573, r. w. aniad, adred, L i 24, L 1436, r. w. bed; hoten, LO 27 ; 
bote, O 211, ihote, 201, yhote, L 209, all r. w. bote ; iswoje, 428, yswowe, L432, 

The flexion of the strong verbs may be seen in the following examples : Ind. 
pr. s. I. wepe, 2. wepest, 3. wepe];; //. sitte)). s. i. come, 2. come, 3. 
falle; pi. slen, sle. s. i. com, 2. come, 3. com ; //. comen, come. SubJ. 
pt. s. I. does not occur, 2. come, 3. come ; //. forsoken, asoke. Imp, s, com ; p/. 
singe, syte (both in O only). Part. pr. sittinde ; pt. icomen, icome, come. 
Variations are in ind. pr. s. i. com, O 1073, O 1074 : 2. biginnes, O 5S8 ; comes, 


xxxiv GRAMMAR. 

O 151 ; wepes, O 672, and contracted farst, 793 : 3. comez, O 468, and contracted 
li]), seth, syt, stant, &c. : //. sittet, O 404: hid. pt. s. 3. fonde, O 380; toke*, 
L 289, L 467 : subj. p7-. s. i. sleh, L 823 : several imperatives singular in e, as site, 
805 ; bere, L 568 ; fonge, L 741 f ; awa^e, L I3i8t : participles present inynde ^L) 
and ende (O), with isolated wepinge, 1085. 

The Weak Verbs are classified as in Sievers. The parts recorded are : (i) 
Infinitive (with all in n) ; imperative ; first person sing. pres. indicative : (2) 
Second and third person sing. pres. indicative ; pi. pres. indicative : (3) Past 
indicative singular : (4) Past indicative plural : (5) Past participle. Under each 
head are given one or two examples of normal forms, followed by all noteworthy 

la. 1. leggen, L 902, legge, L 1065 + ; denie, 592, denye, O 606, both r. w. 
brenye ; sterye, L 147, stirie, O 149, but sture, L 1445, r. w. cure, were {imp. s,), 
L 567, 569: 3. leide, 1121, leyde, L 694, O 711 ; sette, L 505 f : 4. setten, 134, 
L 764, sette, L 138, O 142 ; leyden, O 930 : 5. leyd, O 1237 ; set, L 142 1, but 
bysette, O 1445, is strong. 

1 i>. 1. fullen, O 1295, fuUe, O 414, felle, 1254; leren, L 247, O 252, lere, 
L 234t; bywreyen, O 1292; lust {imp. s.), 337, list, L 343; grete, O 153, but 
kesse, L 1216 f ; luste, 1263, leste, 473, L 477 ; reste, L S69, O 888 ; stere, 434 ; 
wende, L 1118, 11 18, 372 ; luste]) (zw/. //.), O 835 ; reste, 861 ; here {1 pr. s.), 
Li33t: 2. kepest, 1307, L 1319; leuest, L 1322, O 1351, bileuest? O 803 ; 
wenest, 1133, L 1133, but wenst, O 1168; bisemej), 486, L 490; quemej), L 489,' 
wene]), 1439 ; wuniej), 1325 ; wone]), L 1335, O 1366 ; but contracted tit, L 1352, 
tyt, O 1385 : 3. custe, L 403, 405, kiste, O 417; herde, L 693 f; lefte, 647, but 
leuede, O 634; wendest, 1273, L 1281, wendes, O 1316 : 4. custen, L 743, 
O 1428, custe, 1209, O 1252, kyste, L 1217 ; burden, 892, but buriede, L 906 ; 
leuede, O 1421 : 5. drenched, O 1023 ; woned, L 36 f, but adrent, 977 ; ikept, 
iioi ; munt, L 801, mynt, O 824, iment, 795; isent, 978, and {ad/.) amad, 574, 
clade, O 176. 

Ic. 1. bringen, O 62, L 344, bringe, L 286 f ; latchen, O 662; sechen, 
L 943 ; tellen, O 32 ; werchen, O 1422 ; bring {imp.), O 370 ; telle, 1156, L 1158, 
r. w. /e/k, fidle, but tel, L 317, O 322 ; J)ench, L 1163, but seche, O 1198, r. w. 
drenche; telle (i pr. s.), L 132 f : 2. sekest, O 985, sechest, 942; Jjenchest, 
L 574, JiynkeJ), O 1350, J)unche)>, L 1321, but JiinkJ), 1309 : 3. bro5te, 466, 
brohte, L 470, browte, O 4S4 ; fette, L 1398 : 4. bowten, O 923, bo5te, 884; 
brojte, 40, brohten, L 44, broucten, O 190, broucte, O 44 ; sowten, O 1418 : 5. 
ybroht, L 914, but brouten, O 1419. 

II. 1. clepen, O 235 ; fissen, 1136, fisse, 1143 ; harpen, O 244; latten, L 937, 
leten, 929, lette, O 972 ; maken, 348, O 360, make, L 1473 1; r. w. sake ; mislyken, 
L 429 ; wedden, 1430, O 1561, wedde, L 957 t. r. w. bedde; wowen, L 799, 
awowen, O 822 ; loke {imp. 5.), 748, O 775 ; make, 792, make, 1527 ; wise, 237, 
but herkne, 806, L 814; clep, O 911 ; mak, O 821 ; funde (i pr. s.), 1280, founde, 
O 756, L 1288; wonde, 337 : 2. lokest, L 573; longest, 1310; luuej), 1343; 
bihouej), 478, L 482, but bihoued (probably for bihoiiet), O 498. 3. makedest, 
1271, makedest, O 500, O 1314; flotterede, L 129 (so herkenede, with e final 
elided, O 1506); hopede, 1394; makede, 355, O 367,1065 ; talede, O 4S5; Jjonkede, 
L510; wipede, 1203, L 1210; answered, O 1 109 ; loked, O 1122 ; wiped, O 1245, 
but answarede, 42, r. w. ofherde, answerde, 199, r. w. herde, onsuerede, L 46, 
r. w. yherde, L 1074; askede, L 43, O 615, acsede, O 43, axede, 39, L 1492 ; 

' The dot under a vowel indicates that it is elided or not pronounced. 


hurede, 753, herde, L 758, O 781, all x.vr.ferde', hatte (= hatode), 608; louede, 
L 254 1; treyde (= tregode), O 1313, r. w. seyde; made, L 90, r. \i, feyrhade, 
O 1 75, r. w. clade ; made must also be put for makede at 84, O 420, O 1 286, where 
the rhyming words ^xtfairhcdc, seyde, fahede: 4. loueden, O 258, 1522, L 1544, 
louede, L253, O 1567, luuede, 247 ; makeden, 1210, L 1490, makede, 1234, 1353: 
5. ibl^ssed, 1364, yblessed, L 1374, hyblessed, O 1403; yloued, O 315, loued, 
L 310, luued, 304 ; maked, L 451 ; wedded, O 1496 (yweddej), L 1470, is due to 
following/?), but made, O 90, mad[e], L 1532 ; ywedde, 1449. 

III. 1. habben, O 430, habbe, L 76, O 76, haue, L 1005 +, han. L 576 ; 
libbe, L 67 fj r. w. sibbe ; seie, 764, seye, L 770, O 793 ; haue {i7np. ^.), L 144 i* ; 
seie, 147, sey, L 153, O 155 ; seie {, 169, say, O 179, say, L 177 ; habbe 
(i fr. s.), 304, O 315, L 408, haue, L 310, O 423, 1268, aue, O 1215; lyue, 
O 426; seie, 895; wijjsegge, 1276, wi])sugge, L 1284, wytsigge, O 1319: 2. 
hauest, L 726, O 735, 795, hauez, O 813, hast, O 529, L 537, 539, ast, L 790; 
hauej), L 515, O 1474, habbej), L 1421, haj5, L 217, 513, hat, O 1174; lyuej), 
L 1370 t; seij), L 773, seyt, O 772 ; habbe (//.), I355, L 1366, abbe, O 1397 
(all followed by je) : 3. hauede, O 9, 48, haue[d], O 274, heuede, L 52, hadde, 
L 21 1 ; hade, L 59, hede, L 472, hedde, L 1169 ; liuede, 74; saide, L 789, seyde, 
O I35> L 316, sede, 285, seden, 941 (false form) : 4. hadden, L 597, hadde, 9, 
O 615 ; lyueden, L 1543 ; seyden, L 306, O 888, sede, 863. It will be seen that 
the weak verbs have the same inflections in the present indicative as the strong 
verbs, with characteristic variations as hauez, bihoued, hat, seyt, in O. Nor do 
they differ in the subjunctives present and past. The isolated //. imperative, 
luste]), O 835, is to be noted. The participle present does not occur. 

Noteworthy M. E. infinitives are, knisten, 490, knyhten, L 640, knicten, O 658, 
knijti, 480, 644; syjen, O 1171; toggen, L 237. Infinitives in en from verbs of 
Romance origin are, ryaen, O 1223 ; asaylen, O 651, L 863 (also asayly, L 633) ; 
bigilen, L 32S ; chaungen, O 1095 ; faylen, L 864 (fayly, L 634) ; seruen, L 242, 
O 245. The//, proue, L 127S, r. w. houe, is apparently a strong form ; yterned, 
O 460, shows the English prefix. For the preterite-present and other minor 
groups of verbs, see the glossary xmder witen, owe, canst, par, dorste, schal, mai, 
mot, ben, wille, don, gon. Peculiar to O C is the p7-es. pi. ind. ben ; O has also 
wilen, willen : wulle, woUe, followed by je, occur in L C. The dative infinitive 
lingers in to done, L 488, O 504, 784 ; to gone, L 607, 611. 

In connexion with the personal endings it is important to determine the extent 
to which the subjunctive mood is used in our texts, since upon it depends whether 
forms like yly})e, L 2, lyjie, 2, r. w. bli}e, stonde, L 514, r. w. londe, are to be con- 
sidered subjunctives or Midland plural indicatives. The classification used is that 
of Matzner; words in spaced type are subjunctives in form. 

I. Subjunctive in Principal Sentences. 1. Expressing {a) wish or prayer, 
as rede, L 1059 f ; wisse, L 1477 1 : {p) command or exhortation, as sle, O 912 ; 
drawe, L143S; make, 1527: (c) concession, yknewe, L 646. 2. With virtual 
hypothetical clause, feolle, 421 ; were, L 427 f ; nere, 479 ; possibly byseme, 
O 506. 

II. Subjunctive in Dependent Clauses. 1. In substantive clauses {a) where 
the clause is real subject of the verb in the principal sentence constructed with 
formal it, that or impersonal, so were, L 1171 +. But leuest, L 1322, O 1351 ; 
longest, 1 310 ; come]), L 1341 f; rod, L 658, O 676, are indicative, and so are 
probably shuie, L 104, ride, O 560 : (1^) in an object clause expressing will, 
prayer, &c., as were, O 86; beo, 80, 1440; come, 267, L 273; falle, 455, 
L 459 ; bidde, 457 ; make, L 484 ; wolde, O 658, r. yi.yolde ; weude, O 718 ; 

C 2 

xxxvi GRAMMAR. 

so spille, L 202 t, r. w. wille. Indicatives are, makedest, O 500, r. w, lest ; 
woldest, L 640, 644, r. w. jolde : (c) in indirect questions, &c., telle, Lsyof, 
r, w. wille ; wolde, O 408, r, w. schulde; be, L 398 ; were, 398, O 410, r. w. 
here, L772-t', r.^.J)ere; se5e, L 985, isije, 976, r.vf.ije; toke, Lii42f, 
r. \v. loke; so seche, L 177 1> r. w. speche. Indicatives are, is, L 205 f, O 1199 ; 
woldest, 396, r. w. scholde ; bed, bad, L ii54t; Jjreu, L 1164; kepest, L 1319, 
1307; slepest, L 1320, 1308 ; wes, L 1458, was, O 1485, and probably wonde, 
337> L343; noma, L 11 77+; come, L ii78t: id) in dependent statement or 
command, were, L 303 t, r. w./^y-^; holde, 452, L 456 ; murne, L 974 f, r. w. 
turne; so be, L ii33t. But indicatives are, am, 149, O 158; schal, L 157 t; 
wes, L 278, L 994, L 1280, was, O 283, 984, O 1029 ; lai, 272 ; woldest, L 351, 
and probably seyde, L 693 f ; leyde, L 694 f; bitraide, 1270 ; treyde, O 1313. 2. 
in adverb clauses, [a) of time, as seye, L 130; aryse, L 366 f, r. w. wyse; be, 
L 36S t ; spronge, O 513, r. w. longe ; sitte, O 552 ; bitide, L 541, r. w. ride ; 
take, L 551, 553 ; make, L 552 ; do, L 702, O 721 ; sterue, 910, L 922, r. w. 
serue \ wiJ)drowe, L 1415, r.w.ynowe; aryse, L 1454, O 1461; so founden, 
O 913 ; ende, 912. Indicatives are, sprong, L 128 f, L 497, sprang, 493 ; seth, 
O 134, saj, 125; comes, O 151, com, O 639; farest, farst, L 799 t; was, L 1403 ; 
wes, O 1434; gan, 1427; ros, 1434: {l>) place. No subjunctives. Indicatives 
are, hast, L 801, hauest, O 824, and probably hopede, 1394 > nii5te, 936, mylite, 
L944: (f) conditional, forsoke, L69; toke, L 70; nere, L93t; mote, 97, 
L loi ; bifalle, 99, r. w. alle ; were, 107, L iii, L 349 f ; come, O 113, 143 ; 
beo, 193, 943, be, O 203, O 553, L 560, r. w. J>e; leste, O 425 ; loke, 575 ; 
])enke, 576; flette, L 713, r. w. sette, O 732, r. w. hette \ flitte, 711, r. w. 
anhitte ; felle, O 842 ; leste, 862, L 870, luste, O 889, all r. w. reste; wolle, 
L 1323, wule, 1311 ; schewe, O 1352 ; and so sleh, L 821, L 823, slen, 813 ; 
fellen, O 844 ; nere, L 909 j forsoken, O 69, asoke, 66, and others. Indicatives 
are, mictest, O 103; comest, L 149; is, L 201, L 1143, O 1178, L 1351 f ; art, 
537; lokest, L 573 ; ))enchest, L 574 ; ouercome}), 815: (</) concessive, were, 
L 325 t, 1040, L 1052 ; yrecche, L 358, reche, O 364, recche, 352, all r. w. 
fecche; be, L 422, O 438, beo, 416; nere, O1083; leye, L 1262, laie, 1252, 
r. w. bytreye, so leyen, O 1293. The indicative does not occur: {e) consecutive, 
wr]je, L 86; were, L 438, r. w. dtiere ; knyhty, L 462; dubbe, O 475; 
wonde, L 740, O 763, r. w. hosebonde ; blynne, L 1002, lynne, O 1033, linne, 
992, all r. w. wyntie \ come, 1072 ; driue, L 1343, O 1374, both r. w. liue\ 
misse, L I478t, r. w. wisse. Indicatives are, wex, O 263 ; gan, 252 ; was, O 624 : 
(/) final, 3eue, L 442 f : {g) modal, were, L 315 +, r. w. eere, 652, O 1065, 
L 1090 1; sprunge, 1026. But sprong, L 1036, and probably scholde, O 933, 
are indicative: {h) reason, was, L i46of, nes, L 525, are indicative. 3. la 
adjective clauses {a) definitive, wiste, 236, r. w. liste; libbe, L 324 f, r. w. 
ribbe ; mislyke, L 670, mislike, 668, both r. w. byswyke, O 688, r. w. swike; 
lowe, L 1502 f, r. yT.yswowe ; so ly])e, 2, yly})e, L 2, r. w. blipe; keime, L 150, 
r. w. Sudentie ; stonde, L 514 1> r. w. londe. But indicatives are numerous, buej), 
L 170, beo]), 162 ; sittej), L 394-1" ; spac, 602 ; wes, L 676 f ; brae, L 683 f, &c., 
none of them, however, in rhyme: (^,1 indefinite, conne, L 566, cunne, 568, both 
x.yf. Sonne; were, 1128. Indicatives are, leuej), L48f ; wystest, L 240, vistes, 
O 247 ; cam, L 794+, r. w. man. It would thus appear that the subjunctive has 
still an extensive and varied use in KH., and that it occurs most consistently 
where the rhyme has defended it from change. Now it is significant that all the 
words in dispute, with one exception, fellen, O 844, also occur in rhyme, and as 
a parallel subjunctive use is proved in each case, there is no reason to consider them 

GRAMMAR. xxxvii 

as other than snbjunctives. That the scribes' practice was more modern than that 
of their original is sliown by such rhymes as jolde : woklest, L 639, L 640, 643, 
644; scholdc : woldest, 395, 396: doubtless they are responsible for many other 
internal changes to the indicative which have sometimes impaired the rhythm. 

The IToun. o stems. The normal inflection is, singular vom,, ace. knijt : 
gen. knijtcs : Jat. knijte : plural 11., g., d., a. knijtcs. Inorganic e is seen in 
sing. n. of the neuters, cole, L 588 f, r. w.fole; jere, L 1140; ryhte, L 5i8t> 
r. w. knyhte, and of the masculines, sonde, 271, L 277 (influenced by sand, g. e) ; 
kinge, O 33 ; knyhte, L 439, r. w. viyhie; ])ralle, O 441, r. w. bifallc, and wynde, 
O 1374 (possibly //«;'«/). A. S, gamen produces game; heued and hed both 
occur ; meegden is both maiden and mayde. Sing, genitives in e are bodie (pro- 
nounced bodye), 900; boure, O 730; heuene, 414, L 420 (due to heofone, g. 
an); flexionless are scyp, O 1412 ; swerd, O 1471 ; lyf, L 914, The dative 
termination presents special difficulty. Our texts were copied at a time when 
uncertainty and confusion as to the O. E. constructions of the prepositions pre- 
vailed', and the inflection was itself losing ground (comp, L 932 + with L 536+). 
The scribes omitted the final e not only where it suffered elision, as in lond, 757; 
dunt, O 904 ; blod, L 916, but even where it seems indispensable for the metre, as 
in word, O 121 ; bur, 325; dissh, L 1146; scheld, O 1344. Its absence is often 
characteristic of the remodelled line, as in ber, 1112, or the added passage, as in 
ston, L 905. It is probable that most monosyllabic nouns in the original possessed 
it in all declensions where the O. E. form had it, and so flexionless forms which 
are easily accounted for by elision or otherwise are here ignored. Hom, 647, is 
A. S. ham. Hus, 226, hous, L1522, O 1549, all r.\y. AJ>ell>rus] lif, 122, O 130; 
knijthod, 440, knythod, L 1278 ; styward, L 455 f, r. vi.foreward, are clear cases 
of the dative without e. Bridel, L 778 f, represents A. S. bridle ; finger, 570, 
fynger, L 568, fingre ; ro])er, L 196 f, ropre; water, L 141 2, is syncopated 
wsetere. O 174 has bodi beside bodie, 164, bodye, L 172 ( = bodi5e). Dri5te, 
1 310, seems as if from *dryht, the A. S. form being dryhtene ; msldene is 
represented by maiden and mayde. Accusatives in e are, dore, O 1018 (influenced 
by duru) ; fere, O 1285, r. w. Aylmere (comp. O 526, L 1251, O 1543) ; londe, 
L 130; maste, 1013, r. w. caste; sonde, L 271, r. w. honde ; sore, L 75, O 75, 
r. w. more (influenced by M. E. sorvve) ; weye, O 1489, r. w. drye; so alle weie=i 
ealne weg. \Viue, O 576, O 773, occurs in corrupt passages. Ancre, L 1024, 
ankere, 1014, correspond to ancra ; similar is sweuene, L 668 f. A plural 
nominative in e is knyhte, L 1221, r. w. lyhte: folc, O 1566, jer, 524, have the 
flexionless A. S. plural, but seres, 912, and sere, L 526, O 544, both r. w. /<?;v, 
occur. Plural accusatives in e are, dunte, O 891, r. w. hente ; 5ere, L 736 f, r, w. 
pere; geste, 1217, r. w.feste; lyue, O 1281; sy])e, O mi ; worde, 254, O 265, 
O 857 (required by the rhyme also at 82S, L 836). Hunde should be written at 
881, but the consonantal form also occurs as hounden, O 912. Hundred, 1329, 
bonder, L 1339, are unchanged. Plural datives in e are, ;ere, 96, yere, O 102; 
hounde, L 596, honde, 598 ; knyhte, L 522, knicte, O 540 (to be restored also at 
L 820 t, 885, O 1256), but tearen, L 970, teren, O 1005, are consonantal. 

jo stems. Words with original long stem syllable have sing. n. a. in e, as 
fissere, erende (but herdne, O 480) ; those with short syllable have consonantal 
ending, as net, 1137+, L 659 f (but kinne, O 152, r. w. sodcnne). The dative 
ends in e, as ende, L 737 f ; ribbe, L 323 f (but bed, L 1435, r. w. adred, O 1236, 

* The term dative is applied conventionally in the glossary to any form governed 
by a preposition. 

xxxviii GRAMMAR. 

r. w. leyd; euen, L 407, eue, L 468 f, r. w. leiie) : the genitive has es, as kunnes, 
L 964; beggeres, L 1086 f (possibly //«^ra/). The plural of all cases has es, 
but n. fyjjelers, L 1494 ; harperis, L 1493 ; d. hulle, 208, O 218 (to be restored at 
L 216) also occur. At 633, 634, kin[ne], men[ne] are to be read. 

wo stems. Examples are, sing. n. a. ale, bridale : d. brudale, hewe, kne 
( = crieo) : plural d. knes. Akneu, L 340, represents on cneow, so//, d. kneus, 
O 347, aknewes, L 385 (on cneowum). 

a stems. Excepting the verbal nouns in ing, the sing. n. a. d, of both long and 
short stems regularly end in e, so fuUe, shame, tale, leue, lore, wunde. The only 
nominatives sing, of long stems recorded are, mede, O 283 ; sorwe, O 270, soreje, 
261, sorewe, L 263; streng])e, 215, streg])e, O 225 ; wile, 643, mostly with elision 
oi e. Halle, 1474, L 1496, O 1523, is a genitive singular in e : the adverb phrase, 
fe whiles, also occurs. Wund, 1342, is a solitary dative singular without e, and 
foreward, L 456 t, forewart, L 552, are isolated accusatives singular. The plural 
forms which occur are, datives, dounes, L 161 ; wundes, 1423 ; wondes, L 1441 : 
accusatives, glouen, L 800, O 823 ( = gl6fan), gloue, 794 ( = gl6fa, glofe) ; niilen, 
L 327, mile, 319, O 332, 1176. The verbal nouns in ing occur with and witiiout 
final e in all cases of the singular ; a plural is weddinges, O 969. 

ja stems. These have regularly e in sing. n. a. d. The dative blys, O 1277, and 
the accusative blis, 1234, are the only exceptions. No case of the plural occurs. 
This class includes the compounds of nes, as faimesse, meoknesse, sorinesse, and 
of rSden, as felaurade, L 174 (= -r«dene); verade, 166 ( = geferr8edene). wa 
stems are not represented. 

i stems have also sing. n. a. d. generally in e, so cunde. Other nominatives are, 
come ; fairhede ; I)ralhede (compounds of * ; brude, bride ; glede ; nede ; 
quene, but bryd, O 1093, quen, 7; accusatives, drench, L 1164; quen, 146, O 154 
(doubtful) ; wiht, L 507 t> and dative myht, L 483, also occur. A genitive 
singular is speres, L 13S9, O 1416 : the only plurals are n. wijte, 886, and d. 
dedes, 537, O 553. The wi stem sS gives sing. n. a. se, see, possibly see, 
L 1099; d. se, see and see, 1396 (= Sffiwe) ; g. se, see in se brinke, see side, &c. 

u stems. Examples are, sing, n. sone; g. someres ; d. felde (but feld, 514, 
L 516); flore ; honde (but bond, A. S. bond, L 312); a. hon[d], O 1446; 
sone, 9. Genitives in e are, dure, 973, wode, L 1235 \. Plural n. sones; a, sones, 
hondes (but honde, L 116 f, r. w. stronde), 192, L 200, and honden, O 202 ; winter, 
O 18, wynter, L 18. 

n stems have e in all cases of the singular. Genitives are, chyrche, O 1076 ; 
prime, L 857 f ; sonne, L 826, O 847 ; sunne, 1436. A. S. hleefdige gives lefdi, 
leuedi, leuedy, L 356, L 397, but apparently leuedy, L 341, O 348 ; lilie is lylye, 
L 15, and lili, O 15; hwipa, whyjt, O 784; hiisbondan, hosebonde, L 421 f, 
L 739 t' O writes both er])e and ere]), O 176. An archaic ace. sing, survives in 
V5ten, 1376, ohtoun, L 1386, oujten, O 1415. Plural nominatives in es are, gomes, 
L 24 t, r. w. sones, but 161, r. w. icu??ie : in en, feren, L 102 f, O 123, O 231, 
both r. w. dere ; gomen, L 169, r. w. icomejt : in e, ifere, 102, r. w. stere, 221, 
r. w. dere, yfere, L 227, r. w. dtiere, L 394, r. w. here. Plural datives in es, ires, 
959, r. w. tires; spures, 500: in en, earen, L 969, r. w. tearen, eren, O 1004, 
r. w. teren; eyjen, L 755, r.vr. yseyjen; feren, L 88+, L 1250, r. w. weren; 
ferin, 1242, r. w. feriti: in e, fere, L 501, r. -w.ywere; yfere, 497, r. w. luj>ere; 
schrewe, L 60 fj r. w. ferue. Accusatives in es are, belles, 1381 ; cherches, O 65 ; 
masses, 1382; spores, O 522: in en, bellen, O 1294, r. vf.fullen; cherchen, 
O 1423, r. w. werchen, churchen, 62 ; feren, L 21 f, L 248, O 253, both r. w. 
leren\ feiren, 237 : in e, belle, L 1393, chirche, 1380, r. w. wtirche ; yfere, 242, 

GRAMMAR. xxxlx 

r. w. !ere; tj-me, 1070, L 1076. Altogether L has es once; en, fifteen times; 
e, six : O has es three times ; en, fifteen ; e, twice : C has es six times ; en, ten ; 
e, seven. The rhymes with one exception point to e as the original termination. 
The genitive phiral does not occur. 

The monosyllabic consonant stems have sing. n. a. d. with the same consonantal 
ending, so man, lemman, fot. But niht and its compounds conform to the i 
stems in the dative, and nijte, 492, appears to be accusative. The only genitive is 
mannes, O S61, monnes, L S71, Plural n, men : g. mannes, 2r, menne, L 23: 
d. fote, 1240, L 124S, fotes, O 521, fet, L 460 ; manne, O 613, menne, L 1376 f, 
men, 634, O 1044 ; wimmenne, O 71, wymmanne, 67, L 71. The r stems have r 
throughout the singular, so g. fader, no, L 114, O 1299; moder, 648, O 664, 
L 1395, but faderes occurs once, O 116. There arc no plurals. The sing. J, fende, 
O 1421, is the only form of the nd stems. Child has sing, d. childe, child: 
fluraln. a. children, and n. childre, O 117. Of the loan words may be noticed, 
sing. n. a. felavve ; plural n. a. d. felajes, felawe ; //. n. grome, O 171, r. w. 
ycome; sing. g. shurte, L 1209, schirt, O 1244. The plurals of adjectives used 
as nouns have regularly e, as broune, L 1122, O 1157 ; olde, L 1407, helde, 
O 1440; fremede, L 68 f, but held[e], O 1417. Vocatives are, lef, 655, luef, 
L 653. Of M. E. nouns the most noteworthy are, n. a. pine, reuj)e; a. drede ; 
d, derke (A. S. adj. deorca). 

Nouns of Romance origin have usually in sing. n. a. d. the form of the French 
accusative, but sire, 1506, &c., is a nominative form. The termination, whether 
vocalic or consonantal, of the French oblique case prevails in all three cases, but 
the nominative inflection occurs once in enimis, L 960. When the case ends in e, 
that termination has the value of a syllable, as chayere, L I27it, r. w. yhere ; 
compaynye, 879, r. w. hije; galeie, 185, r. w.pleie; pelryne, L 1156, r.w. zuyne; 
pruesse, L 554 f, r. w. blesse ; rente, 914, r. w. -uente. The following nominatives 
and accusatives diverge from their French originals, deole, 1050, dole, L 1057, 
O 1092 (deol); soune, L 217, O 220 (son), possibly plurals; sclauin, 1222 
(esclavine) ; peynim, O 45 (paennime) ; chapel, L 1392 (chapele). Palmere 
(palmier) has graphic e everywhere, so damoisele : maister, mayster, represent 
maistre : sire as vocative is generally monosyllabic. Datives with final e like 
English words are ginne ; paleyse, L 1266, O 1299, r. w. eyse; pelrjiie, L 1156, 
r. w. uyjie ; spuse, 995, spouse, L 1005 (espus) ; squiere, skyere ; striue ; ture, 
toure, but tour, L 1095. Castele, L 1488 ; granele, L 14S7, have graphic e. 
Apparently we must pronounce reaume, O 942, O 1550 ; mesauenture, O 339, 710, 
mesauentur[e], 326. The genitive is usually the same as the other cases, so castel, 
L 1054; chambre, L 982 ; roche, 1384, but maisteres, 621 ; squieres, 360, O 371, 
skuyeres, L 365, have English termination. The plural «. a. d. have es, s, as 
armes; enimis; heirs, he}Tes; mat}Ties ; paens, payenes, L 84, L 91, L 187: 
ryme, 804, L 812 ; soune, L 217, O 220, may be plurals. 

The Adjective. The termination is e in all cases, singular and plural of both 
strong and weak declensions when the A. S. strong form has vocalic ending (mostly 
jo and -wo stems), so blij)e, dere, fre, jare, hende, isene, kene, lujiere, murie, 
mama, newe, queme, riche, swete, trewe, vntrewe, vnome, wilde, ymete. But 
rich, O 23 ; \-nom, 330, 1526 ; wild, 252, O 263, also occur, and mild (= milde) 
is the invariable form, though milde might be read everywhere. Others with 
vowel ending are, one ( = ana), fele, fewe, ilke, mo. The comparatives waver, as 
betere; more; fairer, fajTore, L 323, feyrore, L 8, L 10. The superlatives have 
all final e, as beste, faireste, nexte, strongeste, except fayrest, O 1S3; wisest, 
O 1S4. A. S. wiersa is werse, O 120, wurs, 116, wors, L 120 ; wiersta, wurste, 


648, werste, L 30 f, ^vurst, 68, werst, L 72, verst, O 72, the short forms being 
derived from A. S. adverbs. Adjectives vi^hich in A. S. terminate in ig have i, y 
in all cases, as ani, any; blody ; hendy, 1336 (=-h§ndig); holy; mani, mony 
{dat. pi. monie, L 60) ; modi, mody, redi ( = *rffidig), worJ)i : so too reuly (see 
p. xxvii) beside rewlich, O 1092. Other adjectives with consonantal termination 
in A. S. have mostly consonantal ending in sing. n. a. of the strong declension, as 
al, bold, glad, hoi, red, whit; the e in cristene, L 1329 f, heuele, O 340, is only 
graphic. But nominatives in e are briycte, O 466; longe, O 977, L Ii02f ; 
sounde, L 1351, O 1384; yliche, O 19, and accusatives, faire, 387, 403, fayre, 
O 399, O 415, feyre, L 401 ; foule, L 1071 ; loJ)e, 1197; longe, O 514; loude, 
L 217 (perhaps plural). The words lute, lite, muche, &c., show loss of final /: 
agen gives ojene, 249, oune, OAvne. An archaic accusative is godne, 727, L 731. 
The dative singular occurs with and without e, so al, alle ; god, gode ; gret, 
grete ; whit, white ; cristene, L 185 + ; ojjere, 238, 257, 551, 671 ; euele, L 336, 
heuele, O 341. The plural has e throughout, with exception of al, O 919, O 1175, 
1489; cristen, 832 ; ded, L 910; lef, O 124, O 232 ; quic, 1370 ; rich, O 23 ; in 
some of these the e would, if written, have been elided. OJ)er, 813, is probably 
a mistake for oure. 

The weak declension has e everywhere, but bryht, L 918 ; 5cng, O 1229, 5yng, 
L 214, which all follow the noun they qualify, are uninflected. 

Among the few adjectives of Romance origin may be noted the nom. sing. 
boneyres, O 939, and the dat. sing, false, 1248. The comparison of adjectives 
presents no feature of special interest. Both the mutated form, strengeste, 823, 
O 852, and strongeste, L 831, occur. 

The numeral an gives nom. an, a, on, o; dat. one (= anum), on; ace. ane, 
O 494, en, L 1037 ( = 8enne), on, one, a, o, while the weak form ana, alone, 
produces one, onne, the former once, O 358, with a //. ace. pronoun. Twegen is 
tueie, tweyne ; twa, two, &c., without distinction of gender, so too beyne, bo as 
well as boJ)e (O. N. batSir) ; pri, preo, is once Jireo, 815, and J)re ; fif, generally 
flue (=fife), but fif, O 102; siex, sixe, but once six, L 926; seofon, seue ; 
twelf, twelf and twelue; Jjreottiene, J)rettene, ))rottene; fiftiene, fiftene. The 
forms fiue, sixe, twelue, generally follow their noun. The ordinals have regularly 
fina^.^, but seue])e, L 927, L 1140, seuen);e, O 960. 

The Adverb, i. Adjectival. Corresponding to A. S. adverbs in e from 
adjectives ending in a consonant are, bitere ; faire (= faegre) ; eueneliche, L 100, 
Oioo; fule ; jerne; harde ; rajjc ; sweteliche ; wide, &c. ; so schuUe, M. E. 
derivative of scyl ; snille. From h^fige comes heuie, 1408 ; hard, 1068, O 1109, 
is uninflected: bitterly, L 1058, is a solitary form in ly. A. S. adverbs in e 
coinciding with adjectives in e, are represented by dere; hende, L 1137; iriurye 
( = myrige); ficke: derne, stille, trewe are M. E. formations of this class. From 
A. S. adverbs in a descend jare, 1356, 5ore, L 1366 ; jute, 70 ; more ; sone ; twie, 
and analogically ofte : betere, latere, L 1030 f, lasse, lesse are neuters of the com- 
parative adjective. A. S. gearo, through gearwe, gives jare, 467. A genitive 
form is elles, 246 ; datives, euene, 94 ( = efnum) ; often (?) : accusatives, afterward, 
iwis, wis, litel, lute, wel. From combinations with prepositions come arijte, 457 
(A. S. ariht) ; anon; oueral, L 252 (=ofer eall), but oueralle, O 1426; toga- 
dere, &c. The comparative leng, 728, 742, 1103, represents long ; er, aire, O 554, 
ffir : the superlatives, mest, most, are uninflected forms of the adjective, ii. Sub- 
stantival. These are mostly combinations of prepositions with nouns ; they end 
regularly in e, as adune, afelde, amorwe, &c. But adun, dun, awei, also occur. 
Cases of nouns are, accusatives, awt, ojt, naut, noJ)ing, na, no ; datives, eke, euer, 


euere, L I105, O 1142. eiire, 236, neure, neuer, neuere, L 1106, O 1143; instru- 
mental, sore, iii. Pronominal. These generally correspond closely to their A. S. 
originals, so hider, hu, nu, |)ider, whi. But both her and here, L 233 f; par and 
J)are (^^Jjara"), L 471, 1493, occur : O has noware, O 1292, nowere, O 1 129, whare, 
O 438, quare, O 710 : ]janne is represented by J)anne, ])enne, and Jian, O 359 ; so 
too whanne, whan. Loss of final n is noted on p. xxvi. iv. Prepositional. Those 
ending in A. S. an have e, as abute, bihynde, or en, as abouen, anouen, ouen : 
upon represents uppon. Nere, L 966 = near, has positive meaning. 

Adverbs of ScandinaAian origin are, ay, L 1543 = ei ; ille ; loje, lowe. 

The Fronouu. For details and references the glossary should be consulted. 
The pronoun of the first person is in L O, ich, ych, y ; O, hich, yich, hyc, hy ; 
C, ihc, i ; L O C, me, we, vs; O, hus, os; L, ous : of the second, LOG, J)ou; 
OC, fu ; O, Jo ; L O C, |)e, 5e {, 30U {dat. ace.) ; O, hou (once) : of the 
third niasc. s. «., L O C, he ; O, hey, hye, e ; C, hei ; dat. ace, LOG, him, hym ; 
ace, G, hine (once) ; L, hyne (twice) : fe/n. s. «., L G, heo ; L O, he, hy ; L, hue ; 
O, hye, sche (once); dai. ace, LOG, hire; L O, hyre ; G, hure mostly with 
silent e : neut. s. n., L O G, hit ; L O, hyt ; O, ith ; ace, LOG, hit ; O, hyt, ith, it : 
//. «., L G, hy ; O G, he ; L, hue, heo ; O, hye ; O G, Jiei (once each) ; O, >e, \o ; 
pl.g., L, hure, huere; O, here, >ere (once) ; //. dat. ace, LOG, hem ; L, huem. 
In the possessive adjectives, mi, \>\, exist beside the longer forms in nearly all cases : 
vre, oure, prevail, but L has vr once, and G ore once: the//, ace 30ur, 815, 
should also be noted. 

The definite article is usually Jie throughout, but there are traces of older forms. 
pat is used in the itotn. ace sifig. eighteen times in the three texts before such A. S, 
neuter nouns as ship (seven times), child, folk, thing, and twice before others. The 
ace. sing, is >ene, Jen, once each in L; for the dat. sing., L has >en once, G \2.-a. 
once and f-are once, with ^tfem. tru|)e, 674. The demonstrative adj. is sing., J)at; 
//., \o : the corresponding pronoun occurs only in the singular J)at. It also serves 
regularly as the relative, but O has twice warn, s. d., and J)e may be relative at 
O 1421. The compound demonstrative ^es is generally Jiis throughout, but in 
addition L has sing. dat. Jisse ; ace J)es, Jeose, >ise ; //. dat. ])ise ; //. ace pes, 
J>eose, while O has sing. dat. Jise ; //. ace jjyse, and G, sing, ace pes. Sum has 
//. sume, summe, &c. ; mani, monie. The dative form ofere is regularly 
syncopated. The other pronominal words are without special interest. 


The material available for the determination of the dialect of 
the original A is scanty, owing to the extensive alterations made in 
the texts by the copyists. Generally speaking, we must rely on the 
evidence of forms and sounds controlled by rhymes in passages 
clearly original, and, since the decision as to what is original often 
rests on subjective grounds, it is safest to draw no decided conclusions 
from passages where the texts diverge. 

The flexion gives less help than usual, but, so far as it goes, it 
points generally to the South. If it has been established (pp. xxxv, 
xxxvi) that such forms as lyj?e, 2, stonde, L 514 1, &c., are subjunctives, 

xlii GRAMMAR. 

the present indicative plural does not occur in rhyme. The present 

singular is found only in kepest, r. w. slepest, 1307, 1308, L 1319, 

L 1320, which is without significance. Syncopated forms of the 

third singular present indicative, though fairly common in all the 

texts, never appear in rhyme, and the present participle only in such 

combinations as sittynde, r. w. wepynde, L 649, L 650; sittende, r. w. 

wepende, O 667, O 668. The second person singular past of the weak 

verb is found once in rhyme, makedest, r. w. lest, O 499, in a passage 

not original. But the other personal endings of the past singular 

are regularly preserved, while the plural shows the Southern loss of 

n, as ete, L i268t, r. w. sueie-, to-brake, 1077, r.w. gale; drowe, 

L ioi6t, r.y^. ynmve; knewe, L 1459 1, r.w. newe. The perfect 

participle is, as in the South, without «, as icume, 162, r.w. gume{s); 

ybounde, L 1 1 16 t, r. w. grounde; byronne, L 652 +, r. w. somie; take, 

L 14281-, r.w. 7nake,8ic. Exceptions are forloren, 479, r.w. horn 

(probably not original), and born, L 10 1, L 512 t, r.w. horji, such 

rhymes with proper names being of little significance. On the other 

hand, certain examples of the infinitive with 71, characteristic of the 

Southern dialects, are few (those which occur, slon, L 47 t, r.w. on, 

vpOTi'j gon, L 5ot, L 292 t, r.w. anon; bene, L 1542 t, r.w. queue, 

are all found in the South IMidland Genesis and Exodus), while the 

infinitive in e is well established by the rhymes. In this deviation 

from Southern usage the dialect agrees with that of the undoubtedly 

Southern romances ascribed to Thomas Chestre (Libeaus Desconus, 

ed. Kaluza, p. Ixxxx), which belong to the South-East bordering on 

Kent. The forms werie, L 1399, O 1430 ; serie, 1385, all r.w. merie, 

are Southern: derie, L 792 t, r.w. werie', sterye, L 147, r.w. derye; 

stirie, O 149, r.w. derie, are also, by inference from them, original. 

The tense forms of the strong verbs are fully consistent with the 

results established for the South by Biilbring, the A. S. ablaut of the 

singular and plural past being well preserved : characteristic of early 

Southern are the plurals spake, L 535 1, r. w. take (O has speke") ; 

to-brake, 1077, r.w. gale (Bulbring, pp. 57, 59). Peculiar to the 

South is the contrast in the development of A. S. seg in ssege, ssegon, 

and in Isege, Isegon, preterite forms of seen and licgan, as shown 

by the rhymes on pp. xxii, xxiii, the representatives of the former 

rhyming with monophthongal descendants of eag, ig ^, those of the 

latter with the diphthongal French ei. The infinitives byhelde, 

^ It is an open question whether lije, 11 58, r. w. isi^e, is a non-Soi;them form 
from licgan, or simply representative of ISage, parallel with C's ije, hije. 

GRAMMAR. xliii 

L 854+, x.w./elde; welde, 481, L 485, r.w. jdde, are also Southern 
(Biilbring, p. 104). Consistent too with a Southern origin are the 
large remnant of the weak declension of nouns, especially of plurals 
in e with loss of final n ; the considerable number of strong nouns 
with plurals in e, partly due to the influence of the weak declension ; 
the extensive remains of the inflections of adjectives and pronominal 
words and the frequent survival of the prefix ge, especially in the 
past participle of verbs, as i, y, where the metre shows it to be 
original. Still the fact that this prefix is often wanting, or appears 
as a superfluous addition of the scribes, militates in so early a text 
against an unmixed Southern origin, and the other phenomena 
mentioned in the last sentence are purely quantitative tests as between 
the South and the southern parts of the INIidland dialectic area. And 
the second singular past indicative sedes, 538,seydes, O 554, both r. w. 
dedes, which though missing in L appears to be original, points to 
IMidland influence. 

The sounds show in the main the characteristic features of the 
Southern dialect. Thus A. S. a is, with one or two possible exceptions, 
regularly in rhyme. In a Southern text of the first half of the 
thirteenth century there would perhaps be nothing remarkable in 
knawe (the text has knoive), r.w. fehive, 1089, but in any case the 
passage is corrupt in all three IMSS. So, too, we may look on more, 
95, r. w. jere (for which Brandl, Literaturblatt, 1883, p. 135, suggests 
mare ; jare), as a doubtful passage or an impure rhyme. A. S. ea 
before Id becomes e everywhere in rhyme. Though this representa- 
tion is occasionally found in Northern texts, the regularity of its 
occurrence here points strongly to the Eastern South, while the 
absence of ea excludes Kent. To the same quarter belongs the 
almost invariable e for the t umlaut of u, u. But once more there 
is evidence of Midland influence in the z'of kisse, 431 {kesse in text), 
r. w.ywisse, L 435 {cusse in text), r. w. wi'sse ; J>ynke, L 1153 t, r.w. 
drynke; ofjjynke, L 10641, r.w. drytike; hulles, L 216, r.w. stille. 
It is true that the irreducible e : i rhymes, wille : telle, L 369 t, 943 ; 
stille : dwelle, 373, O 387 (the Wiltshire S. Editha has dwelle : 
wille, 1027; stylle : wylle, 483); J^icke : nycke, L 1247, ]?ikke: 
nekke, 1239, have been held to support the originality of the rhyme 
kesse : ywisse (IMorsbach, § 132, anm. i). But they have equally 
been used as an argument in favour of the Midland i in such rhymes 
as kyn : men, 633; liste : reste, O 424; fulfille : belle, L 1264 
(Brandl, Literaturblatt, 1883, p. 135, Anzeiger, xiii, pp. 97-102). It 


seems however preferable, while recognizing that i lay sufficiently 
near to e to make i : e rhymes tolerable, not to add to their number 
unnecessarily, where a perfect rhyme can be restored. The rhymes 
litel, lite : write, white (p. xxv) are not significant, as litel is the 
regular form in the Ayenbite. Lastly, A. S. y is represented by ?/, 
characteristic of the Middle South, in turne, L973t, r. w. murne; 
cunde, 421, r. w. bunde. The regular representation of A.S. eo by e 
in rhyme points once more to the Midlands, while the wavering 
between a and e as the equivalent of A. S. 0B excludes Kent. The 
form jing for A. S. geong, required everywhere by the rhymes, is 
generally considered Northern, but it appears to be common property 
of the romance writers in all parts. The Northern biforn is found in 
rhyme with horn, L 532 t, and fro with/^?, 367 ; they are foreign to 
the dialect of the writer. 

It follows that A does not belong to a district with a well-defined and 
consistent dialect, but to a border land. It must be placed somewhere 
in the South-Eastern area outside Kent, near enough to the Midland 
border to account for a considerable admixture of Midland character- 
istics, and at the same time so near the Middle South as to be in 
some small degree affected by its peculiarities. North-West Surrey 
may possibly satisfy the conditions. 

The dialect of the scribe of L, which was probably written at 
Leominster, is in basis South- Western, but modified by proximity to 
the West Midland border. It has Southern present plurals in ep, as 
sitte]?, beo]?, bef?, bue]?; present participles in i7ide, as liggynde, mourninde, 
wepinde ; imperative jef (also in C) against Midland jyf in O ; prete- 
rite singular seh (= seah). It represents A.S. y by //, but it has also 
the Midland i nine times. The South-Eastern e also occurs, but, with 
three exceptions, euel, euele (also found in R. of Gloucester), werste 
(R. of Gloucester has often the analogous verst = fyrrest), only in 
rhyme, and so probably borrowed. It is distinguished from South- 
Eastern by the infinitive se, by u for i§, as sturne, and for eo, as 
5urne, and by the form wij^sugge; and from Middle South by its 
development of initial eo (see p. xxiv), and probably by its frequent 
ue for medial and final eo, as buen, bue|3, duere, hue. To West 
.Midland influence is probably due the preponderant representation 
of A. S. a before m, n by (also characteristic of the Katherine group), 
and the impartial use of a and e for A. S. 8B. C belongs to the east 
of the Middle South. It is more purely Southern than the original 
A or the other MSS. Thus A. S, eo, eo are often preserved (pp. xix, 


xxiii), notably in seon, and it has chelde for cealdian, against kcldc 
in L, kolde in O. Still traces of Midland influence are not wanting, 
such as the plural present ben beside bee]-', Anglian saj, sauj beside 
Southern se5 for seah, and a few cases (brigge, brymme, chirche, kyn) 
of i for A.S. y. But the regular representative of y is ti, and there 
is in addition a considerable number of forms in e. Characteristic 
are frequent u for i (p. xix), u in su}7e (= swyjje), jut, jute, luue)?, 
&c. ; b for initial w in bij?inne, bij^ute, forms found, so far as I know, 
only in a Winchester document (English Gilds, pp. 349, 355). The 
dialect of C has much resemblance to that of the Poema Morale, but 
it is more Eastern ; we shall probably be near the mark in placing it 
in Hampshire. A comparison of the O text of King Horn and 
Havelok written by the same scribe shows him to have been 
a mechanical copyist who made no consistent attempt to substitute 
his own dialect for that of his original. Thus in KH he writes 
uncontrolled by the rhyme, brenye, cherchen, kyrke, werchen, jenge, 
jonge, heuele, in Havelok, brini, kirke, wirchen, yung, iuele, yuel ; 
in KH, kunne, kusse, dude, dunt, muche, in Havelok, kin, kisten, 
dide, dede, dint, michel ; in KH, sche, hye, were, ware, berne, lete, 
in Havelok, scho, sho, woren, brennen, late. In KH, his represen- 
tation of A. S. y is about equally divided between u, e, and i, the two 
former due to his Middle South original, the last mainly to his own 
dialect, which appears to be East Midland with much resemblance to 
that of Robert of Brunne. 


It is impossible to discuss here the conflicting views on the origin 
and structure of the verse in which King Horn is written. A guide 
to the literature on the subject will be found in Paul's Grundriss, ii, 
pp. 1004, 1007: among later works should be specially mentioned 
the Studien zum Germanischen Alliterationsvers, edited by INI. Kaluza. 
The position here adopted is based on the views of Schipper as 
expressed in his Englische Metrik and Grundriss der Enghschen 
INIetrik, and of Luick in Paul's Grundriss, ii, pp. 994 ff. 

The verse of King Horn is native, being a natural development of 
the Old English alliterative metre greatly accelerated in its later stages 

xlvi METRE. 

by the strong influence of French prosody. The direction of this 
development is from the Old English four-stressed long line, divided 
by a central pause, but bound together by alliteration, with rare and 
casual rhyme, and that often imperfect, to a Middle English short 
line, with two principal stresses and one or two secondary stresses, 
bound in pairs by more or less perfect end-rhyme, alliteration sur- 
viving either in traditional combinations or being added as an 
occasional ornament. Internally the loose recitative structure of the 
O. E. verse, which admits of considerable variety in the number of 
light syllables between the stresses and even of their absence, gives 
place gradually to a stricter alternation of stressed and light syllables, 
one or more of the light syllables taking a secondary stress. The 
progress of these changes may be observed in the chronological series 
of examples given by Schipper, Grundriss, pp. 112, 113. Lajamon's 
Brut is an important landmark on the way : he shows a steady pro- 
gressive change in his versification, so that the contrast between the 
beginning and end of his long poem is marked. The C text of King 
Horn represents a further step towards a regular syllabic metre, but 
still with abundant survivals of the older system of prosody, while 
L and O present a still smoother and more regular versification. The 
following account of the metre refers to the more difficult C. The 
lines indicated by numbers only conform exactly to the specimens 
under which they are ranged 3 examples involving elision, hiatus, and 
other complications of the verse are not admitted till these have been 
explained, otherwise the lists are fairly exhaustive in most cases. 

The prevailing type (I) of verse has three stresses, the last stress 
being followed by a light syllable. The first stress in this, as in the 
other types, may fall {a) on the first syllable of a line, or {b) may be 
preceded by a prelude (aiifiakt) of one or two light syllables metrically 
negligible, and a line with prelude may be paired with one which 
begins abruptly. Examples are {a) King he was bi wdste, 5 ; A]?ulf 
was ]3e b^ste, 27; Sw^rd hi gvinne gripe, 51 ; Wiirst was Godhild 
J?anne, 68 ; Horn, \\x art wel kene, 91, 99, &c. : (<5) So longe so hit 
laste, 6; In none kinge riche, 17; Hy sm/ten vnder schdlde, 53; 
So fele mijten J?]?e, 57, 61, 64, 71, 92, 96, 100, &c. Next in im- 
portance is (11) a four-stressed line with the fourth stress on the last 
syllable, as {a) For he niiste what to do, 276 ; R^^menhild gan wbxe 
wfld, 296, 368, 429, 443, 529, 816, 896, 948, 1233, 1526 : ib) At neure 
wurs ]?an him was \6, 116 ; pe s^ J?at schup so fasste drbf, 119, 285, 
286, 452, 648, 728, 782, 826, 898, 1450, 1528. 

METRE. xlvii 

A variant of the first type has (III) three stresses, of which the 
last falls on the last syllable of the line, as G6dhild hht his qu(5n, 7 ; 
Payns him wblde sl^n, 85, 93, 509 : {I/) pat ihc am h61 & fer, 149; & 
In to halle cam, 586, 700, 820. There is also a variety of the second 
type (IV) with four stresses, the last being followed by a light syllable, 
as (a) Alle riche mannes s6nes, 21 ; Gr^t J^u wh\ of myne kdnne, 
144, 191, 293, 425, 512, 535, 589, 590, 627, 644, 659, 783, 825, 841, 
845. 958, 980, 1207, 1227, 1257, 1388, 1389, 1405, 1410, 1429, 
1469 : (d) pat hbr to 16nde beb]? icume, 162 ; Ne schaltu haiie bute 
game, 198, 294, 566, 568, 570, 571, 572, 784, 826, 861, 1248, 1447, 
1458. Further (V), the old two-stressed verse is plainly recognizable 
in. Hi wdnden to wfsse, 121; In h6rnes ilike, 289; Heo sat on l^e 
sunne, 653; Hi riinge pe bdlle, 1253; Hi sl63en & fu5ten, 1375; pe 
ni3t & ]3e vjten, 1376. Wissmann's attempt to reduce the marked 
varieties of the verse to the standard of the first and second types is 
a failure : he acknowledges the existence of an intractable remnant. 

In the preceding examples of types I-IV the stresses fall on 
syllables which in natural speech are subject to emphasis, and they 
occur in regular alternation with light syllables after the fashion of 
foreign metres constructed on the syllabic principle. But there is 
also a considerable number of lines where the secondary stresses fall 
on naturally light syllables, and where stressed syllables come together 
without any intervening light syllable. These peculiar rhythms have 
been shown by Luick to be identical with the characteristic types of 
La3amon's verse, and ultimately traceable to the five types into which 
the Old Germanic alliterative verse has been analysed by Sievers. 
For his demonstration, which involves the history of the metre at large, 
the student must be referred to his article in the Grundriss. It will 
be more helpful here to arrange all deviations from the normal syllabic 
verse as variants of the types given above. 

A. Light Syllables stressed. I. (a) A'lle beon he bli})e, i ; Nas non his 
iliche, iS, 23, 63, 66, 217, 255, 868, 899, 902, &c. : {i) A sang ihc schal 50U singe, 
3; Ariued on his londe, 36, 62, 122, 154, 181, 259, 704, 772, 1183, &c. II. (a) 
Rose red was his coliir, 16; Also Ihc 50U tdle may, 30, 195, 226, 974, 11 12, 
1256: (i) Ne schaltu to dai henne gon, 46; pe stiiard was in herte wo, 275, 514, 
573,574,1502. III. (rt) To my lord J)e king, 437, 32 ; Kni^tes and squier, iiii: {d) 
Of wordes he was bald, 90 ; Nis he no5t so vnom, 330, 451, 761, 1033. IV. {a) 
W'i^ his feren of pe londe, 82 ; 3ef ]iu cume to Suddenne, 143, 161, 187, 1S9, 197, 
541, 569, 660, 7S3, 922, 959, 1073, 1338, 141S : {d) Ne nowhar in non 6j)'re stede, 
257; pe knaue ))ere gan adrinke, 971, 11 27, 1356, 1428. 

B. Absence of the Light Syllable. This may occur after any stress falling 
on a long syllable. I. A'l in to bure, 269; Wham so hit recche, 352, 370, 435, 

xlviii METRE. 

463, 561, 695, 1062, 1 106, 1 187, 1235, 1266, 1326: Of Murry pe kinge,4; He fond 
bi >e stronde, 35, 41, iiS, 166. 168, 177, 231, 270, 272, 383, 387, 410, 418, 420, 
483, 547, 602, 615, 635, 650, 705, 738, 757, 759, 769, 808, 910, 1059, 1069, 1 102, 
1179, 1221, 1269, 1276, 1296, 1407: Bi \>e se side, 33; Schipes fiftene, 37, 
141, 163, 203, 350, 519, 608, 846, 954, 998, 1041, 1196, 1214, 1230, 1319, 1385, 
1496: f>at to my song lype, 2 ; Wij) sarazins kene, 38, 67, 171, 173, 175, 199, 229, 
455, 550, 582, 597, 610, 631, 679, 719, 721, 750, 776, 804, 828, 850, 855, 911, 
1021, 1022, 1080, 1095, 1118, 1172, 1178, 1197, 1239, 1294, 1308, 1335, 1351. 
1374, 1377, 1382, 1453: Payns ful ylle, 1316; Horn let vvurche, 1379; & ]>\ 
fairnesse, 213. II. A'ilmar him J)U5te lang, 494 : f>i lond folk we schiille slon, 43 ; 
And ]>e selue ri3t anon, 45, 647, 1341 : He was brijt s6 ]>e glas, 14 ; He was whit 
so ]>e fiiir, 15, 219: pat on him het haj^ulf child, 25; pat ne? heo g^n wexe 
wild, 252, 295, 532, 634, 1232, 1313 : He him spac to horn child, 159 ; Til J)e 
liBt of day sprang, 493, 505, 533, 563, 564, 1314, 1508, 1520: I wis he nas no 
Ni])ing, 196 ; & horn mid him his fiindyng, 220, 423, 438, 504, 699, 1150, 1359 • 
O'Jier ^1 quic flen, 86 ; and al quia hem i\6, 1370; Til hit sprang dai lijt, 124: & 
herkne Jiis tyj)yng, 806. IV. Lemman, he sede, d^re, 433 ; Horn sede, leiie fere, 
941, 515, 1000, 1158 : Ne sau3 ihc in none stunde, 167 : and for horn jiite more, 70 ; 
Jef his fairnesse nere, 87, 353, 399, 470, 471, 536, 539, 931 : Ne schaltu me hire 
werne, 916 : Muchel was his fairhede, 83; 0*r he eni wlf take, 553, 462, 771, 848, 
979, 1114, 1152, 1247, 1336, 1357: pe king him rod an hiintinge, 646 ; Ne schal 
]>e neure wel spede, 798, 1225, 1309, 1422 : Schi'ip, bi J^e se flode, 139; Horn g^n 
his swerd gripe, 605, 1251 : For Miirri heo weop sore, 69; Heo sa3 R^menild 
sitte, 651 ; & ihc am a fissere, 1134: To kdpe Jiis passage, 1323 : God knijt he 
schal selde, 482: Horn sat on chaere, 1261; and ))er6f is wunder, 1330. The 
last three lines might be scanned as type I. Of HI and V there are naturally no 
examples. A'fter his comynge, 1093, seems a solitary instance of a stressed short 
syllable followed immediately by another stress ; possibly A'fter his comynge. 

C. . Doubling of Light Syllable. I. O'f er to londe brojte, 40 ; Horn was in 
paynes honde, 81, 131, 194, 200, 234, 338, 359, 394, 472, 600, 702, 703, 729, 879, 
929, 1098, 1241, 1259, 1281, 1423: Tojenes so vele schrewe, 56; Ne schal hit us 
nojt of }<inche, 106, 202, 297, 304, 365, 378, 456, 457, 542, 593, 611, 664, 724, 
747, 785, 885, 907, 1032, 1176, 1212, 1327, 1378, 1383, 1420: We schup is on 
ryue, 132 ; Daies haue [)u gode, 140, 192, 204, 237, 254, 260, 315, 333, 473, 487, 
507, 549, 559, 744, 800, 807, 811, 824, 857, 961, 1038, 1072, 1074, 1091, 1263, 
1274, 1278, 1298, 1318, 1398, 1406, 1452, 1506: To schiipe schiille 5e funde, 103; 
pe children jede to tune, 153, 172, 417, 496, 546, 560, 587, 625, 639, 657, 669, 
7", 777, 795. 864, 881, 930, 1018, 1076, 1135, 1141, 1143, 1164, 1194, 1228, 1290, 
1300, 1321, 1339, 1419 : 0'])er ]>n schalt haue schonde, 714; 3ef i ne come ne sende, 
734, 1311 : Ajenes \>e paynes forbode, 76; pe children hi brojte to stronde, iii, 
235, 404, 1057, 1078- H. Fairer ne miste non beo born, 10; Hennes J)u go, J)u 
fule peof, 323 : Ne wiirstu me neure m6re leof, 324 ; To day haj) ywedde fikenhild, 
1449 : jef ])u mote to Hue gb, 97 ; Horn, heo sede, wi])ute strif, 407, 819, 978 : pat 
cure 5ut on ]>i londe cam, 788 : Horn is fairer Jiane beo h6, 331 ; For he is ]>e 
faireste man, 787. III. Murri ]>e gode king, 31 ; Wordes })at were mild, 160, 341 : 
Hy metten wi}) almair king, 155 ; He smot him a litel wijt, 503, 506, 513, 1067, 
1154, 1303 : He schal knijten himself, 490 ; E'f Jjuloke peran, 575, 534, 1255, 1304: 
& pine feren also, 98; pe children dradde perbf, 120, 502, 925, 981: Faire ne 
mijte non ben, 8. IV. Whane ])e Hjt of daye springe, 818 : Janne sede t^e king so 
dere, 789; Bute whanne ]>e se v/ip droje, 1399, 1310, 1427, 1509: For \>i me 
stondej) pe more rape, 554 : Rymenhild, for3ef me ]>i tene, 349 ; Fikenhild me hajj 

METRE. xlix 

idon vnder, 1421, 1492, 1499: J?e paens )'^t er \v6re so sturne, 877. All the 
examples of V (see ]-i. xlvii) have a doubled light syllable after the first stress, 
B combined with C. I. Twelf fcrcn he hadde, 19; Men g(l)n in Jie londe, 126, 
278, 283, 325, 4S6, 595, 709, 713, 843, 997 : >e pains come to londe, 59 ; Til II6rn 
sa5 on I'e stronde, 125, 34S, 5S8 (home with graphic c), 661, 999, 1161, 1200, 1 223 : 
I'n to a galeie, 1S5 : Went vt of my bur[e], 325, 709, 713 : Hi leten Itat schup ride, 
136. II. And alle fat Crist luue}' vp6n, 44: 5ut lyue]) ])i midcr Godhlld, 1360 : 
To day after mi dubbing, 629. III. I went in to knijt h6d, 440. IV. King after 
king A'ylmare, 1494. 

D. The Two-syllable Prelude. The prelude is usually monosyllabic, being 
either an article, adjective, pronoun, preposition or such word as usually receives 
no stress, sometimes, too, a proper name or title, as Horn, Crist, God, King, or the 
first imemphatic syllable of a longer word, as at 56, 76, loi, 176, 1S8, 214, &c. 
Clear cases of two-syllable prelude are, So i | rod on ml plclng, 630; Awei | vt, he 
sede, fule Jieof, 707 ; Of a | Maide Rymenhlld [J)e 5lng], 1034 ! I i^e | may no leng 
hure kepe, 1103; For heo | wcnde he were a glotoun, 1124; ]?anne | schal 
Rymenhllde [pe jinge], 12S7. So may also be scanned 11. 20, 26, 49, 89, lio, 137, 
I59> 193, 31S, 330, 347> 470. 480- .-'2, 554, 659, 672, 716, 751, S23, 947, 1077, 
1226, 1246, I2.;6, 1265, 1310, 1314, 1410, 141S. But in all these cases the line 
will admit an additional stress, and as there is abundant evidence of light syllables 
stressed at the beginning of the line, e.g. 33, 40, 52, 66, 113, 130, 232, 236, &c., there 
seems no reason for assuming the licence. Luick sees in 11. 294, 366, a three- 
syllable prelude. I prefer to scan, And into bure \v\]> him jede (comp. 1. 586) ; 
AYtcr ne recche ihc what me telle (comp. 11 70). Similarly dubious is, For J)l me 
stonde}' ))e more rape, 554. 

Some general features of the prosody remain to be noticed. 

E. Elision. The vowel which suffers elision is the weak final e before a word 
beginning with a vowel or before the pronoun of the third person and its adjectives; 
once before her, 1053; hu, 1355, and heirs. 897; possibly once before Horn, 1435. 
A clear case before any part of habben does not occur. There is naturally no 
question of elision in the case of the words already described in the Grammar as 
written with a graphic final e : to them should be added are, 448, ase, fikenylde, 28, 
J)aruore, loi, welcome. The frequently recurring hire, hure, &c. ( = her, of her) is 
monosj'llabic everywhere except at 265, 916, 933, 980, 1162, 1165 (here = their 
is disyllabic, as at 112, 122, 1327, 1468) : so the imperative seie except at 1307, 
and make, 1527. The e of such words as he, me, ])e, ne, ofte is never elided. 

It is difficult to delimit the spheres of elision and hiatus in a verse which admits 
of the licences described under B and C. Bearing in mind the direction of the 
evolution of the verse, we should probably recognize in each case whichever of the 
two makes for the normal syllabic metre of alternate stressed and light syllabic, 
or, in other words, whichever avoids the occurrence of B and C. Elision is certain 
in the following lines where otherwise three light syllables would come together : 
I. In Siiddene he was ibom, 138; He sette him a knewelyng, 781 ; His b611e of 
a galun, 1123 ; pe kyng al^te of his st^de, 47 ; A'fulf s^de on hire (re, 309 ; Horn, 
haue of me rewj)e, 409 ; So he scholde in to place, 718 ; Cutberd heo ladde in to 
halle, 779; Sore wepinge & jeme, 1085; Rym'nhild sede at J;e fiirste, 1191 ; He 
wip'de Jiat blake of his swere, 1203 : IV. Giinne after hem wel swij)e hl3e, 8S0 ; 
and j^arto mi treu])e ijie pli;te, 672; Rymenhlld he makede his quene, IB^9- 
Doubtful is, Ne mijte he no leng bilene, 742. 

F. Hiatus. The disyllabic past tense of weak verbs often maintains its 
e, as sende, 265, 933, nolde, 320, ;cde, 3S1, 14S5, sette, 401, tolde, 467, sede, 469, 



1125, 1363, nolde, 527, 1292, hadde, 622, ferde, 649, mijte, 1035, founde, 1301, 
grette, 1352, wolde, 1414, schrudde, 1464, dude, 1515. Other verbal forms with 
unelided e are ihote, 1045, haue, 449, make, 792, sende, 1332, bringe, 1334 ! the last 
three somewhat doubtful. Adjectives plural are sume, 54, alle, 221, glade, 1527 : 
adverbs, faire, 1028, 1186, sore, 1220 : nouns singular, oblique, spuse, 995, depe, 883, 
while, 1354, see, 1396, harpe, 1461 ; nominative, wille, 518, and possibly sunne, 
12, 1436. Romance nouns are ioie (Muche ioie hi mak'de J)ere), 1353, 1361, 
feste, 1433. The pronoun hure ( = her) occurs once, 1165, and the conjunction 
wanne at 913. Elision rules in all other possible cases. 

G. Syncopation. This occurs mostly in the trisyllabic past tenses of weak 
verbs where the light e before inflectional d is lost in scansion, so luu'de, 24, &c., 
answar'de, 42, hau'de, 48, seru'de, 75, 77, mak'de, 84, 1234, ax'de, 599, 1470, 
hiir'de, 752, scap'de, 886, won'de, 917, mak'den, 1210, loii'den, 1522. So, too, 
ouercom']), 815, wen'st, 1133. Elision of the final e saves the preceding one, as 
For]) he clupede A'])elbrus, 225 ; liuede, 74, wakede, 444, &c. The proper name 
Rym'nhild is disyllabic at 287, 523, 727, 740, 919, 921, 984, 991, 1083, 1099, 
1105, 1275, 1413, 1479, so Fyk'nliild, 687. Slurring. A partial syncopation, 
where the vowel is nearly lost, occurs often in conjunction with r, as, someres, 29, 
togadere, 52, 6l;ere, 238, &c., sorcje, 261, 1104, amoreje, 645, S37, r. w. sorjt, to 
moreje, 817, squieres, 360, forloren, 479, iboren, 510, maisteres, 621, ankere, 1014, 
watere, 1019, latere, 1020, beggeres, 11 20, 1128 (but beggere, 11 33); also in eiiene, 
94, fojeles, 129, Cristenemen, 182, sweteliche, 384, heuene, 414, 1529, Steuene, 
C65, sweuene, 666, enemis, 952, maidenes, 72, 1162, 65ene, 249, 1340 : but 
heuene, 1524. 

H. Crasis. Examples of the fusion of to with its infinitive are, tp abide, 854 
(comp. tabide, 1446), t9 agrise, 867. Apparently the article is subject to it, We 
schulle Jie hi'mdes teche, 1367. 

The following lines illustrate these peculiarities in various combinations: 
I. Bringe hem Jire to dl])e, 58; Bute hi here laje asoke, 65; Hire s6r'3e ne hire 
pine, 261 ; Sume hi were lujj^re, 498; Of alle I)at were aliue, 619; f>at horn ne 
luu'de no3t lite, 932; To horn come inoje, 1005; He sette him wel lose, 1079; 
Heo fidde hire horn wi]) wyn, 11 53; Bijiiite his twelf ferin, 1242 ; He dude hem 
alle to kare, 1244 ; Hi dude adun ])r6we, 1490. II. He hadde a sone ])at het horn, 
8 ; Fairer nis non J)ine he was, 13 ; Luu'de men horn child, 247 ; Dude him on mi 
lokyng, 342 ; Bitwexe a Jiral and a king, 424 ; Wakede of hire swosnlng, 444 ; 
& Jjenke vpon \\ l^mman, 576 ; To day after mi dubbing, 629 ; Rym'nhild, haue 
wel godne day, 727 ; \>q fond heo })e knaue adrent, 977. HI. Aslajen be]) mine 
heirs, 897. IV. & makede hem alle knijtes, 520; >er nls non betere anonder 
sunne, 567; & Jiojte on Rimenllde [j^ejinge], 614 ; Beggere ])atweres6 kene, 11 28; 
He sede, ihc haue ajenes my wille, 1315 : Childre, he sede, hu habbe 5e fare, 1355. 
Accentuation. Of the proper names with more than one syllable A'])elbrus, 
Ailbrus, Alrld, llarild, Irisse, Modi, R^ynes, Sarazins, Westernesse, Westene are 
invariable. Rimenhlld and Fikenhild have two accents or are syncopated, 
Rim'nhild, Fik'nhild, with one. The others vary greatly, as A'Jjulf, 25, 27, 284, 
755, 931, A'pulf, 577, A])ulf, 285, &c. ; Aylmar, 685, 703, Aylmar, 506, A'ylmir, 
219, 494, A'ylmare, 1243; Arnoldin, 1443, 1493, A'rnoldin, 1498; B^rild, 763, &c. 
Berild, 762, Berild, 821; Cutberd, 767, 779, 820, Cutberd, 827, &c., Cutberdes, 
797; Godhild, 7, &c., Godhild, 1360; Murry, 4, 69, Murri, 31, 1335; R^ynlld, 
1516, R^ynild, 903; Suddene, 138, 127S, Suddenne, 143, &c., Suddenne, 175, 866, 
986 ; )7urston, 981, purston, 819 ; Yrlonde, 1513, Y'rlonde, 1002. Sufficient guidance 
as to other words has already been given. 


The adventures of Horn also form the subject of an Anglo-French 
romance, Horn et Rimenhild (HR), extant in three ]\ISS., all 
imperfect. Of these the best and most considerable is Ff. 6. 17 of 
the University Library, Cambridge; the next, Douce 132 of the 
Bodleian, Oxford; the most imperfect is Harley 527, British 
Museum, London. They are all the work of French scribes 
towards the end of the thirteenth century. A full description of them 
by Dr. Brede, with a discussion of their relation to one another, will be 
found in vol. iv. of Ausgaben und Abhandlungen aus dem Gebiete der 
Romanischen Philologie. The poem was first edited by Francisque, 
Michel in the Bannatyne Club book already referred to on page xv : 
his text is pieced together out of the IMSS. without due regard 
to the superiority of C. All three INISS. have been printed by Brede 
and Stengel under the 'title Das Anglo-Normannische Lied vom 
wackern Ritter Horn, as vol. viii. of Ausgaben und Abhandlungen, 
preparatory to a critical edition ^ 

The poem extends to 5,250 alexandrines rhymed in tirades. The 
author calls himself IVIestre Thomas ; he begins by an allusion to 
a previous work in which his audience has heard how Aaluf, father of 
Horn, came by his end, and he winds up with the announcement that 
the deeds of Hadermod, Horn's son, will be treated by his son, Gillimot. 
By some scholars, including the latest editors of the poem, he has 
been identified with the Thomas mentioned at 1. 862 of the frag- 
mentary Tristan in octosyllabic couplets printed by IMichel, Tristan, 
i. ii. p. 41. But it has been shown by Dr. W. Soderhjelm (Sur 
I'identitd du Thomas, auteur de Tristran, et du Thomas, auteur de 
Horn, Romania, xv. pp. 575-596) that the poetical temperament and 

^ Other literature on the subject is, Grober, Grundriss der Romanischen 
Philologie, ii. Band, i. Abteilung, pp. 573, 574, 776; Histoire Litteraire de la France, 
tome xxii. pp. 551-568; Brede, Ueber die Handschriften der Chanson de Horn, 
Diss. Marburg, 1882; Mettlich, Bemerkungen zu dem anglo-normannischen Lied 
vom wackern Ritter Horn, Miinster, 1890 (reviewed inEng. Studien, xvi. pp. 306- 
308); Nauss, M., Der Stil des anglonormannischen Horn, Halle, 1885 ; Rudolph, 
G., Der Gebrauch der Tempora und Modi im anglonormannischen Horn, 
Braunschweig, 1885. 



the conception of character displayed in the two poems is so widely 
different as to make a common authorship highly improbable. There 
is an elaborate analysis of HR in Wissmann's Untersuchungen 
pp. 66-94, and another in Michel's edition, pp. xiii-xxxv. 

Yet another treatment of the story is extant in Horn Childe and 
Maiden Rimnild (HC) of the Auchinleck MS., Advocates' Library, 
Edinburgh, of which a description will be found in Eng. Studien, vii. 
pp. 1 78-1 9 1. This poem was printed first by Ritson in the Metrical 
Romances, iii. pp. 282-320, then by Michel in Horn et Rimenhild, 
pp. 341-389, and by Dr. J. Caro in Eng. Studien, xii. pp. 351-366, 
with a valuable Introduction on the relationship of the different versions 
of the story, the dialect, metre and style of HC. It will also be found 
in the appendix to this book, printed so as to represent the MS. 
closely in every detail except punctuation. According to Caro, HC is 
a copy made by a Southern scribe in the first quarter of the fourteenth 
century from an original written in the Northern area near the East- 
IMidland border. Lastly, there are eight fragmentary versions of 
a ballad founded on the story, which are printed with introduction 
under the title of Hind Horn in Child, The English and Scottish 
Popular Ballads, Part i. pp. 187-208. 

The relationship of these versions has been much discussed. 
Wissmann held that KH in a modified form akin to L was the source 
of HR, that HC sprang from HR or its source, and that the ballads 
derived from HC. This view was successfully combated by Stimming 
(see p. XV, footnote), who suggests that the story, much older than any 
of the extant versions, has been subjected to extensive popular variation 
in different localities, and that all the four forms have sprung from 
distinct and divergent redactions. Child agrees with him in thinking 
there is no evidence of filiation. Dr. Caro concludes, as the result of 
an exhaustive analysis of the agreements and divergences of the 
versions, that KH is derived direct from popular tradition, and, 
assuming three redactions equally springing from tradition, that HC 
comes from redactions I and 11, while HR springs from I and III 
combined with KH. 

Some light may be thrown on the problem by noting [a) the names 
of the personages common to any two of the versions, and (i) their 
treatment of the leading moments of the story. The following table 
selects the names which are significant in their differences : — 












Aaluf, Aalof 









1 Fadeiof 






Wigard Sc Wikel 



















Riginel, Rimel 




























Moging, Moioun 

From this comparison it may be inferred that (i) no one of the versions 
is a slavish adaptation of any other. (2) HC lies nearer HR than 
does KH. (3) The scribe of L or his immediate predecessor was 
acquainted with HR and adopted the names of Allof and Godmod 
from it (comp. L 1345 where Mury is kept and the context suitably 
altered). (4) KH is probably not derived from HR, since English 
romances regularly keep the names of their French originals. 

The evidence under (3) has been so carefully collected and 
marshalled by Dr. Caro as to make it unprofitable to traverse the 
same ground. It may suffice to state the result, that, when the broad 
outline of the story and the incidents common to all the versions have 
been isolated, there remains a very significant series of parallels in 
incident and treatment common to KH and HR, but not in HC, and 
another set common to HR and HC, but not in KH. At the same 
time HC never agrees with KH against HR, for the play on Horn's 
name, C 207-210, HC 385, 386, instanced by Caro, is only a chance 
and distant resemblance. Each of the versions contains important 
moments not found in the others. The results again point to the 
absence of any direct dependence between the versions and to the 
closer relationship between HR and HC. 

More convincing, if more subjective, than these mechanical tests is 
the impression produced by the general handling of the story in each 
version, KH is essentially English, a plain impersonal tale, picturing 
a simple state of society and full of primitive touches centuries older 
than its language, written in a metre which is a natural development 
of old English prosody. It cannot possibly have been derived from 


HR. HC, though more artificial in metre, is at times even more 
popular in tone than KH, and differs fundamentally in its setting from 
both KH and HR. It has borrowed from Sir Tristrem, and possibly 
from Amis and Amiloun. HR is quite modern by the side of the 
others: courtly, feudal, theological, it reflects the feeling of the 
thirteenth century and bears the strong impress of its author's 
personality. It is in the highest degree improbable that its author 
by weaving together incidents derived now from KH, now from HC, 
should produce anything so totally different in^ feeling and style 
from both. 

The following scheme may satisfactorily account for the phenomena. 
The story is based on events which actually occurred in the south-west 
of England during the English conquest. It is represented in direct 
line, though transferred to another period and much enlarged by 
subsequent accretions, by the Southern version, KH. It was carried 
to the North somewhere about the time when the Norsemen of the 
Continent combined with their allies from Ireland to harry the north 
country, and was strongly modified to suit the local circumstances. 
HC is the direct representative of this Northern version, while the 
ballads are a branch of the same stem. HR is founded on a lost 
redaction made by a man who was acquainted with both streams of 
tradition and combined them. The peculiar talent of Master Thomas 
has completely transformed the simple tale of adventure, embellishing 
it with the details and investing it with the atmosphere of a French 
romance of chivalry. 

If this view of the relations of the versions be correct, it follows 
that we must rely on KH in any attempt to trace the genesis of the 
legend. This poem, as we have it, is a story of the Danish raids on 
the south coast of England. It is, in the main, Teutonic in spirit and 
details : the names of the persons and places are mostly Teutonic or 
assimilated to Teutonic forms. Two later accretions may be separated 
from it. The second rescue of the bride by the hero and his frieftds 
in minstrel disguise is genuinely old English, possibly British. It has 
been duplicated in the first rescue, the central incident of which, the 
motive of recognition by a ring, is probably not older than the crusades 
(Ward, Catalogue, i. p. 448). Further, as Mr. Ward also suggests, 
Rimenhild is a duplication of the Irish princess Reynild, who in HC 
and HR falls in love with Horn, but in KH has receded into the 
background in favour of an English princess. Accordingly Rimenhild 
and Aylmar and his court on the banks of the Dorsetshire Stour are 


English additions to the original story, and the real Westernesse 
is Ireland. Then all the localities and surroundings arc Celtic. 
Murry, with whom may be compared IMerof, duke of Cornwall in 
Guy of Warwick, 1. 8563 and note, is king of Suddene, the country 
of the Southern Damnonii, that is, of Cornwall. It is noteworthy in 
this connexion that in the Gesta Herwardi, to which the episode of 
the bride's deliverance has been bodily transferred, the lady is the 
daughter of Allef, a Cornish prince (Gaimar, Rolls Series, i. pp. 344- 
353). The banished Horn finds shelter at the court of an Irish king, 
with Irish troops and accompanied by an Irish page he recovers his 
father's kingdom. His rival is a Breton prince, Modi, king of Renncs. 
These indications point to the conclusion that the story is originally 
a British tradition, arising out of some temporary success in which 
the Cornish, aided by the Irish, checked the westward progress of the 
English invader. It was annexed by some English poet, and recast 
to suit the similar position of his countrymen resisting the attacks of 
the Danes. Finally, it emerged at a much later date in the shape 
of the extant versions under the impulse of the rising spirit of the 
English people recovering from the Norman Conquest, which found 
its peculiar literary expression in a whole cycle of outlaw and exile 
stories in verse and prose, such as the Gesta Herwardi, Fulk Fitz- 
Warine, Wistasse le IMoine, the Robin Hood ballads. 

The last transformation which the story underwent is of special 
interest as countenancing the theory of similar adaptation at an earlier 
stage. A French writer of the first half of the fifteenth century, 
finding material to his hand in HR, rewrote it, fitting it with new 
characters, and so produced, in glorification of the family of Tour 
Landry and of his contemporary Ponthus de la Tour Landry in 
particular, the prose romance of Ponthus et Sidoine. This work 
enjoyed a great popularity ; it was copied into the splendid MS. Royal 
15. E. vi. of the British Museum, which was a present to Margaret of 
Anjou in 1445 a. d. from the first Earl of Shrewsbury, and was 
frequently issued by the early French printers. There is an English 
translation of it, made about the middle of the fifteenth century, in 
IMS. Digby 185 of the Bodleian Library: it has been edited in the 
Publications of the Modern Language Association of America for 
1897 by Dr. F. J. Mather, with an introduction containing valuable 
bibliographical information. Another early translation was printed by 
Wynkyn de Worde in 1511 a.d. 

The literary interest of King Horn may be characterized in few 


words. It is probably the earliest of the English romances, but as a 
specimen^ of the purely narrative sort it has great merit. In swift 
succession of brief and incisive speeches it tells a simple story elTec- 
tively without distraction of elaborate description or reflective comment. 
But the characters are very simply conceived, the female element is 
slight, and lovemaking is quite subordinate to fighting. Although 
picturesque and even poetic situations, such as Horn's farewell to his 
boat, are not wanting, the language is bald and unimaginative. 
A certain epic simplicity and energetic directness of expression, to 
which the short verse lends itself, are the main merits of its style. 

To the authorities of the Clarendon Press I feel under a special 
obligation for the patient consideration they have shown me during 
the slow progress of this book. While it was in preparation two 
distinguished scholars, who displayed a kindly interest in my work, 
were taken away in the plenitude of their powers and activity. 
Every student of English is under the deepest debt to Eugen Kolbing 
and Julius Zupitza, and I for my part cannot refrain from expressing 
the desire to associate the present work with their memory in grateful 
recognition of what they have taught me and of much personal 

The Hulme School, 
Manchester, August i, 1901. 


P. 109, 1. 6. Read More he. 

P. 1 29, 1. 28. For O read L, for L read O. 

P. 154, 1. 39. A'ffl'^ Remensis archiepiscopi. 

P. 170, 1. 19. ReadW. 1367, 8. 

P. 174, 1. II. Read vprist. 



MS. Harleian, 2253. 
British Museum, London. 

Her bygynnel? j^e gefte of 
Kyng Horn 

C Alle heo ben bly>e [f. 83 r] 

J)at to my fong yly)?e 
a fong ychulle ou finge 
of AUof ))e gode k>Tige 4 

k^Tig he wes by wefle 
\ie whiles hit ylefle 
ant godylt his gode quene 
no feyrore myhte bene 8 

ant huere fone hihte horn 
fe>Tore child ne myhte be bom 
for reyn ne myhte by rjTie 
ne fonne myhte fhyne 12 

fe>Tore child J;en he was 
br}-ht fo euer eny glas 
so whit fo eny lylye flour 
so rofe red wes his colour 16 

He wes feyr & eke bold 
ant of fyftene wynter old 
Nis non his yliche [f. 83 v] 

in none kinges ryche 20 

tueye feren he hadde 

'pat he wij) him ladde 

alle richemenne fones 

& alle fuyjie feyre gomes 24 

vry]> him forte pleye 

mefl he louede tueye 

pat on wes hoten Athulf chyld 

& pat o)jer ffykenyld 2S 

MS. Laud, Misc. 108. 
Bodleian Library, Oxford. 


lie ben he bli))e [f.2igv'] 
pat to me wile;/ Wpe 
A fong ich wille you fu/ge 
of mor}-e pe kinge 4 

King he was bi weflen 
Wei ))at hife dayef leflcn 
And godild hife gode quene 
Feyrer non micte bene 8 

Here fone hauede to name horn 
Feyrer child ne micte ben bom 
Ne reyn ne micte upon reyne 
Ne no fornie by fchine 12 

Fayrer child jja^zne he waf 
Brict fo eu^re any glas 
Whit fo any lili flour 
So rofe red was hyf colur 16 

He waf fa>T and eke bold [f 219 v-] 
And of fiftene winter hold 
Was noma// him yliche 
Bi none kinges riche 20 

Xij- feren he hadde 

pat he mid him ladde 

And alle rich ki/?gef fones 

And alle {\\\pe fayre gomes 24 

Mid hym forto pleye 

But mefl he louede tueye 

pat on was hoten ayol child 

And ^at oJ)er fokenild 28 

L. Title in a later hand ? 

L. 3. oufmgd over an erasure MS. 

MS. Gg. 4. 27. 2. 

University Library, Cambridge. 



[f, 6 r'] j^ lie beon he blij)e 

J)at to my fong lyjie : 

A fang ihc fchal 50U finge 

Of Murry pe kinge. 4 

King he was biwefle 

So longe fo hit lafle. 

Godhild het his quen, 

Faire ne mijte non ben. 8 

He hadde a sone ]>at het horn, 

Fairer ne mifle non beo bom. 

Ne no rein vpon birine, 

Ne fu«ne vpon bifchine : 1 2 

Fairer nis no« J)ane he was, 

He was brijt fo ]>e glas, 

He was whit fo J)e flur, 

Rofe red was his colur. 16 

In none kinge riche 

Nas no« his iliche. 

Twelf feren he hadde 

pat he alle wi}) him ladde ; 20 

Alle riche ma/znes fones 

& alle hi were faire gomes, 

WiJ7 him for to pleie, 

& mefl. he luuede tweie ; 24 

Pat on him het haj)ulf child, 
& \a\. o\er ffikenild : 

C. 20. he omit. MS. 

B a 


Athulf wes }je befte 

ant fykenyld \>e werfle 

Hyt was vpon a fomeres day 

alfo ich ou telle may 32 

Allof \>e gode kyng 

rod vpon ys pleyjyng 

bi ))e fee fide 

\>er he was woned to ryde 36 

wijj him ne ryde bote tuo 

al to fewe hue were \>o 

he fond by \>e flronde 

aryued on is londe 40 

shipes fyftene 

of sara3ynes kene 

he afkede whet hue fohten 

o]>eT on is lend brohten 44 

a payen hit yherde 

&. fone him onfuerede 

])y lond folk we wolle)) slon 

jjat euer cr/(l leuef) on 48 

& Jje we wolle)) r)ht anon 

fhalt })Ou neuer henne gon 

Jje kyng lyhte of his flede 

for J)o he heuede nede 52 

ant his gode feren tuo 

mid y wis huem wes ful wo 

swerd hy gonne gripe 
Sc to gedere fmyte 56 

hy fmyten vnder fhelde 
]>at hy fomme yfelde 
C! \>Q kyng hade to fewe 

ajeyn fo monie fchrewe 60 

so fele myhten e\>e 

bringe \>re to defie 

jje payns come to londe 

& nomen hit an honde 64 

J)e folk hy gonne quelle 

& farajyns to felle 

\er ne myhte libbe 

))e fremede ne \>e sibbe 68 

bote he is lawe forfoke 

& to huere toke 


Ayol was ]>e befte 
And fokenild })e werlle 

it was \n one fome;'ef day 
Alfo ich nou telle;/ may 32 
pat morye |)e gode kinge 
Rod on hif pleyhinge 
Bi pe fe fyde 

per he waf woned to ryde 36 

With him nden bote tvo 
Al to fewe ware ]>o 
He fond bi ^e flronde 
Ariued on hif londe 40 

Schipes -xv- 
Of farazines kene 
He acfede wat he fowte 
0|)er to londe broucte 44 

A peynym it yherde 
And fone anfwerede 
pi lond folc we wile;/ flon 
And al ])at god leuet on 48 

And j^e we folen fone anon 
Said |)ou neuere henne gon 
pe king licte adoun of hif ftede 
For J)o he hauede nede 52 

And hife gode knictes -ii- 
But ywis hem was ful wo 

Swerdes )>e go;me gripe 
And to gydere fmyte 
He foute;/ an ondt'r felde 
Some of hem he felde 
He weren al to fewe 
Ayen fo fele srewe 
Sone mictew alle \>e 
Bri«gen ))re deye 
pe paynimes come/? to londe 
And nome;/ hyt al to honde 
Cherches he go;/ne;/ felle 
And folc he go;/ne quelle 
per ne micte libbe 
pe fremde ne }je fibbe 
Bote he here ley forfoken 
And to here token 



[f. 220 r^] 


O. 33. mo}ye\ moye MS. 

O. 39. stionde\ r above line MS. 



A|iulf was \>e befle 

& fikcnylde \>e werfle. 28 

Hit was vpon a fom^res day, 

Alfo ihc 50U telle may, 

Murri \>e gode king 

Rod on his pleing -2 

Bi \ie fe fide, 

Afe he was woned ride : 

He fo«d bi J?e ftr^^nde 

ariued on his lo;/de ^6 

Schipes fiftene 

wi|) sarazins kene. 

He axede what ifojte 

Oper to londe brojte. 40 

APayn hit ofherde 
& hym wel fone answarede : 
'pi lo«d folk we fchulle flon 
[f. 6 r-] And alle \>cjt CriR luue)) vpon 44 

And |)e felue rijt anon, 
Ne fchaltu todai henne gon.' 
pe kyng ali3te of his ftede, 

For \>o he hauede nede, 48 

& his gode knijtes two ; 

Al to fewe he hadde ]>o. 
Swerd hi gunne gripe 

& togadere smite; 52 

Hy fmyten vnder fchelde 
pat fume hit yfelde. 
pe king hadde al to fewe 

Tojenes fo vele fchrewe; 56 

So fele mi3ten yj)e 
Bringe hem pre to d\pe. 
IF pe pains come to londe 

& neme hit in here honde : 60 

ipat folc hi gu«ne quelle 

& churchen for to felle. 

per ne mofle libbe 

pe fremde ne pe sibbe, 64 

Bute hi here la^e afoke 

& to here toke. 

O. 61. /e] J> with an erasure of one letter MS. C. 36. /ns] s above line MS. 


of alle wymmanne 
werfl wes godyld Jeanne 72 

for Allof hy \vepe|) fore 
& for horn jet more 
Godild hade fo muche fore 
put habbe myhte hue na more 76 
hue wente out of halle 
from hire maidnes alle 
vnder a roche of flone 
\>er hue wonede al one 80 

fier hue feruede gode 
ajeyn ))e payenes forbode 
pev hue feruede cri'ii 
\>at \)e payenes hit nufl 84 

ant euer hue bad for horn child 
pat end him \vr})e myld 
C Horn wes in payenes bond 

mid is feren of pe lond 88 

muche wes pe feyrhade 

pat ihesu cn'H him made 

payenes him wolde flo 

& fumme him wolde flo 92 

5yf hornos feyrneffe nere 

yllawe p\» children were 

))o spec on Admyrold 

of wordes he wes fwy|je bold 96 

horn ])0u art Uvype kene 

bryht of hewe & fhene 

J;ou art fayr & eke flrong 

& eke euenehche long 100 

jef f>ou to lyue mote go 

ant J)yne feren al fo 

})at ymay byfalle 

pat 56 fhule flen vs alle 104 

}>are fore })ou shalt to flreme go [f. 84 r] 

[)ou ant jiy feren al fo 

to shipe 5e fliule founde 

& fmke to pe grounde 108 

pe see pe shal adrenche 

ne Ihal hit vs of j^enche 

Of alle wi;«menne 

Verfl: was godyld o;zne 72 

For mory he wep fore 

And for horn wel more 

Godild hauede fo michel fore 

Micte no wimma« habbe moie 7f> 

pe vente hout of halle 

Fram hire maydenes alle 

In to a roche of flone 

par he wonede allone 80 

per he feruede god 

Ayenes pe houndes forbod 

per he fi?ruede cr/fle 

pat paynimes ne wifle 84 

And eu£'re bed for horn child 

pat ihesu cri'd him were mild 

Horn was in peynims honde 

Mid his feren of pe londe 88 

Miche was his fayrhede 

So ihesu him hauede made 

po hundes wolde slon 

And fome him wolde flon 92 

3if homes fayrede nere 

pe child yflawe ware 

Uan bi fpek him amyraud 
Of wordes he was fwij^e baud 
Horn J)ou art fwijse scene 97 

And follyche fwijje kene 
pou art fayr and eke flrong 
pou art eueneliche long 100 

pou fcald more wexe 
In J)if fif yere pe nexte 
3if pn to Hue Mictefl go 
An J)ine feren al fo 104 

pat micte fo bi falle 
pou fuldef flen uf alle 
pe for ))0U fcald to flron go [f. 220 r^] 
And ])ine feren alfo 108 

To schip ye fchulew fto;/nde 
An {inken to pe grunde 
pe fe pe fal adrinke 
Ne fal hit uf of fjinke 1 1 2 

L. Si. after /lue r erased MS. 

L. 91. payenes] payenos MS. 



Of alle wymmanne 

W'urft was godhild ))annc ; 68 

For Murri heo weop fore 

& for horn 5ute more. 

He wentcn vt of halle 

Fram hire Maidenef alle ; 72 

Vnder a roche of flone, 

per heo liuede alone, 

per heo st'.'uede gode 

Ajenes \>e paynes forbode ; 76 

per he s^ruede c;-/fle 

P^t no payn hit ne wifle : 

Eure heo bad for horn child 

pat Jefu crz'fl him beo myld. 80 

Horn was in paynes honde 

\Vi|) his feren of \>e londe. 

Muchel was his fairhede, 

for iht'ju cr/fl. him makede 84 

[f. 6 v'] Payns him wolde slen 

Oper al quic flen, 

3ef his fairneffe nere, 

pe children alle ana3e were. 88 

pa;me fpak on Admirad, 

Of wordes he was bald, 

'Horn, J)u art wel kene, 

& \>at is vvel ifene; 92 

pu art gret & firing, 

fair & euene lo;/g ; 

pu fchalt waxe more 

Bi fulle feue 3ere : 96 

3ef \>u mote to Hue go 

& })ine feren alfo, 

3ef hit fo bi falle 

5e fcholde lien vs alle : too 

paruore \>u mofl to ftere, 

pu & ])ine ifere ; 

To fchupe fchulle je funde 

& sinke to f)e grunde, 104 

pe se 50U fchal adrenche, 

Ne fchal hit us no^t of))inche ; 

O. 73. mory'] moy MS. O. 1 10. An'\ A MS. 




for 5ef ))0u were alyue 

\vi|) suerd oj^er wi|) knyue 

we fhulden alle de5e 

]>y fader de\> to beye 

\>e children ede to ]>e fironde 

wryngynde huere honde 1 1 6 

ant in to fhipes borde 

at );e furfle worde 

ofte hade horn be wo 

ah neuer vvors J^en hi;« wes ]>o 120 

C {je see bygon to flowen 
& horn fafle to rowen 
ant pat ship wel fuy|)e drof 
& horn wes adred \>er of 
hue wenden mid y wiffe 
of huere lyue to miffe 
al ]>e day & al \>e nyht 
o ]^at fprong ]>e day lyht 
fBotterede horn by ]>e fironde 
er he feye any londe 
feren quo)) horn pe 5ynge 
ytelle ou tydynge 
Ich here foules finge 
& fe \)e grafes fpr/nge 
bly))e be je alyue 
vr ship is come to ryue 
of fhipe hy gonne founde 
& fette fot to grounde 
by ])e fee fyde 
hure fhip bi gon to ryde 
|)enne spec him child horn 
in sudenne he was yborn 
nou ship by ]>e flode 
haue dayes gode 
by ]>e see brynke 
no water ]>t adrynke 
fofte mote ])ou flerye 
])at water ]>e ne derye 










For yf )70u come to liue 

With fuerdes or with cniue 

We fholde alle deye 

pi fad^res det abeye 1 1 6 

pe childre yede to fironde 

Wringende here honde 

Ofte hauede horn child be wo 

Bute neu^re werfe ]>an po 120 

Horn yede in to J)e fhipef bord 

Sone at }>e firfle word 

And alle hife feren 

pat ware him lef and dere 

pe fe bigan to flowen- 

And horn fafle to rowen 

And here fchip fwi|)e drof 

pe children adred ]>er of 

pei vvende« alle wel ywif 

Of here lif haued ymif 

Al \>e day and al ]>e nict 

Til him fprong pe day lyt 

Til horn bi J^e fironde 

Seth men gon alonde 

Feren he feyde fmge 

Y telle 50U a tidinge 

Ych here foulef fmge 

And fo J)e gr(7S him fpr/nge 

BliJ)e be we oliue 

Houre fchip hys come ryue 

Of fchip ]>e gon fonde 

An fette fot on grunde 

Bi pe fe fide 

Here fchip bigan to glide 

pa;me fpek pe chi/d horn 

In fodenne he waf yborn 

Go nou fchip by flode 

And haue dawes gode 148 





Softe mote J^ou flirie 
No wat^r pe derie 

O. 121. Horti] Horns MS. 

O. 138. sprhige\fcpHige MS. 



For if ))u were aliue, 

WiJ) swerd o]>er \\n\> kniue, io8 

We fcholden alle deie 

& yi fader dep abeie.' 

PC children hi brojte to ftwnde 
Wringindc here honde 112 

In to fchupes horde 
At |)e furfle worde. 
Ofte hadde horn beo wo 
At neure wurs J)an him was \)0. 116 

pe se bigan to flowe 
& horn child to rowe ; • 
pe fe ])at fchup fo faffte drof 

pe children dradde jjerof. 120 

Hi wenden to wiffe 
of here lif to miffe, 
Al pe day & al pe ni3t, 

Til hit fprang dai lijt 1^4 

IF Til Horn faj on pe iironde 
Men gon in pe londe. 
*Fere?^' quap he 'jowge, 

Ihc telle 50U ti^jinge, 128 

[f. 6 V-] Ihc here fojeles finge 

& pat gras him fpringe. 
Bli))e beo we on lyue, 

Vre fchup is on ryue.' 132 

Of fchup hi gu«ne funde 
& fetten fout to grunde, 
Bi pe fe fide 

hi lete« pat fchup ride. 136 

fanne fpak him child horn, 
In suddene he was iborn, 
' Schup, bi pe fe flode 

Daies haue |)u gode : 140 

Bi pe fe brinke 
No water pe nadr/nke. 

O. 145. c/n/d} chid US. 




5ef |)ou comefl to fudenne 
gret hem \>ai me kenne 
gret wel pe gode 
quene godild mi moder 152 

ant fey Jjene he|5ene kyng 
ihesa crz'des wytherlyng 
pat ich hoi & fere 
ill londe arj^uede here 156 

ant say pat he shal fonde 
Jjen de]> of myne honde 
C pQ ship bigon to fleoten 

& horn child to weopen r6o 

by dales Sc by dounes 

pe children eoden to tounes 

metten hue Eyimer pe kyng 
cr/fl him jeue god tymyng 164 
kyng of weftneffe 
end him myhte bleffe 
he fpec to horn child 
wordes fuy))e myld 168 

whenne be je gomen 
J)at bue}) her a londe yeomen 
alle J)rettene 

of bodye fuy))e kene 172 

by god J)at me made 
fo feyr a felaurade 
ne feh yneuer flonde 
in weftneffe londe 176 

say me whet 5e feche 
horn fpec huere fpeche 
C Horn fpac for huem alle 

for fo hit mofle byfalle 180 

he wes pe wyfefte 

& of wytte pe befte 

we bue)) of fudenne 

ycome of gode kenne 184 

of cr/ftene blode 

of cunne f\vyj)e gode 

payenes J)er connen aryue 

and cr/ftine brohten of lyue 188 

Wa«ne J)ou comef to fodenne 

Gret wel al mi kinne [f. 220 v^] 152 

And grete wel pe gode 

Ouen godild my modt'r 

And fey |)at he|)ene king 

Ih^ju c;7ftes wi))erling 156 

pat ichc lef and dere 

On londe am riued here 

And fei ))at he fhal fo«ge 

pe deth of mine honde 160 

po fchip higan to flete 

And horn child forto wepe 

pe children yede to towne 

Bi dales and bi downe 164 

Metten he with aylm^r king 
God him yeue god timing 
King of westneffe 
God him yeue bliffe 168 

For he fpek to horn child 
Wordes wel fwi|)e mild 
Wenne be ye fayre grome 
pat here to londe ben ycome 172 
AUe -xiij- 

Of bodi (wipe fchene 
Bi ihcsu j>at me made 
So fayre on evep clade 176 

Ne fay neu^re ftonde 
In al weftneffe londe 
Sey me wat ye feche 
Horn fpak here fpeche 180 

Hor;2 fpak for hem alle 
So hit mofte by falle 
For ]?at he was fayreft 
And of witte wifeft 184 

We ben of fodenne 
Ycomew of godeme/zne 
Of cr/ftene blode 
And of fwi})e gode 188 

Paynims j^er were riue 
And brouctew men of liue 

L, 166. crt/l] est MS. 

iSi. pe corrected out of/_y MS. 
O. i^i.Honi] //or MS. 



3ef I'll cume to Suddenne, 

Gret pu wel of myne ke;me, 144 

Gret pu wel my moder, 

Godhild quen j^e gode ; 

& feie ))e paene kyng, 

Jcfucrifles \vij)ering, 148 

pat ihc am hoi & fcr 

On j)is lond ariucd her; 

And feie ])at hei fchal fonde 

pe dent of myne hbnde.' 752 

pe children jede to Tune 
Bi dales & bi dune. 
Hy metten w\]> almair king, 

Crifl 5eue« him his bleffmg. 156 

King of Weft^meffe, 
Crift jiue him Muchel bliffe. 
He him fpac to horn child 

Wordes ]?at were Mild: 160 

' Whannes beo je, faire games, 
pat her to londe beo]) icume, 
Alle ))rottene 

Of bodie fwi|)e kene ? 164 

Bigod pat me makede, 
A swihc fair verade 
Ne fauj ihc in none flunde 

Bi weflene londe: 168 

Seie me wat ^e feche.' 
Horn fpak here fpeche, 
He fpak for hem alle, 

vor fo hit mofle biualle ; . 172 

[f. 7 r'] He was pe fairefle 

& of wit pe befle. 
% ' We beo|) of Suddenne, 

Icome of gode kenne, 176 

Of Criflene blode 

& kynges fu))e gode. 

Payns |)er gu«ne ariue 

& duden hem of lyue : 180 

O. 1 88. s-u'i/e] sidiipe US. O. 189. riue] riiud MS. 

C. 149. erasure of one letter, apparently k, before am MS. 



slowen & to drovve 
cr/flinemen ynowe 
fo cr/fl me mote rede 
ous hy duden lede 192 

In to a galeye [f. 84 v] 

\vi)> ]>e see to pleye 
day is gon & o))er 
wi|) oute seyl & rojjer 196 

vre fhip flet for]) ylome 
& her to londe hit ys ycome 
Nou J)ou myht vs slen & bynde 
oure honde vs bihynde 200 

ah 5ef hit is J)i wille 
help vs \)at we ne spille 
C ]>o spac J)e gode kyng 

he nes neuer nyj^yng 204 

sey child whet is py name 

fhal pe tide bote game 

pe child him onfuerede 

fo fone he hit yherde 208 

Horn ycham yhote 

ycome out of \>\s bote 

from ])G see fide 

kyng wel pe bitide 212 

horn child quo)) J>e kyng 

wel brouc J)ou ]>y nome jyng 

horn him goj) so flille 

bi dales & by huUes 216 

horn ha)) loude foune 

))urh out vch a toune 

fo fhal ))i nome fpr/nge 

from kynge to kynge 220 

ant ]>i feirneffe 

aboute weflneffe 

horn J)0u art fo fuete 

ne shal y pe forlete 

Hom rod Aylmer ]>e kyng 

& horn wi)) him his fundlyng 






He flowe and to drowe 

Crzflene men hy nowe 

So god me mote rede 

Vs he deden lede 

In to falyley 

Wit \>e fe to pleye 

Day igo and o))er [f. 220 v'] 

Wit ute« feyl and ro])er 

And hure fchip fuemne gan 

And he to londe it wan 

Nou men uf binde 

Oure hondew uf bi hinder 

And yf it be ]>i wille 

Help uf ))at we ne fpille 

po bifpac aylmer king 

Was he neui?re ny|)ing 

Sey me child wat if pi name 

Ne fchal pe tide bote game 208 

pat child him anfwerede 

Sone fo /le hit herde 

Horn hich am hote 

Ycome out of pe bote 212 

Fram pe fe fyde 

King wel pe bi tyde 

Ho;!! child qwad pe king 
wel brouke ))ou ))i naming 
Horn him goth fnille 217 

Bi dales an bi hulle 
And ))oruuth eche toune 
Horn him shille)) foune 220 

So Ihal ))i name fpringe 
Fram kinge to kinge 
And ))i fayrneffe 
poruout weflneffe 
And llreg))e of ))ine honde 
poruouth eu^Hch londe 
Horn ))u art fo fwete 
No schal y))e for lete 
Hom rod him aylmer king 
And wit horn pe fweting 



L. 197. ship'\p over an erasure MS. 
O. 198, roperl r above the line MS. O. 204. Help\ Helps MS. 


Hi slo5en Sz todroje 
Criflenemen inoje. 
So crifl me mote rede 

Vs he dude lede 184 

In to a galeic, 
\vi|) |)e fe to plcie, 
Dai hit is igon & o|)er ; 

Wi})ute sail & roJ)er 188 

Vre fchip bigan to swymme 
To })is londes brymme. 
Nu J)u mi5t vs ilen & binde. 

Ore honde bihynde, 192 

Bute jef hit beo J)i wille, 
Helpe ]>at we ne fpille.' 
II panne fpak j^e gode kyng, 

Iwis he nas no Ni])ing: 196 

* Seie me, child, what is j;i name, 

Ne fchaltu haue bute game.' 

pe child him anfwerde 

Sone fo he hit herde : 200 

' Horn ihc am ihote, 

Icomen vt of pe bote 

Fram ]>e fe side : 

Kyng, wel mote \>e tide.' 204 

panne hym fpak pe gode kyng, 

' Wel bruc pu |)in eueni;/g, 

Horn ))u go wel fchulle 

Bi dales & bi hulle ; 208 

Horn |ju lude fune 
Bi dales & bi dune. 
So fchal j)i name fpringe 

Fram kynge to kynge, 212 

& p'\ fairneffe 
Abute Weiierneffe, 
[f. 7 r^j pe ftrengl^e of ))ine honde 

In to Eurech londe : 216 

Horn, J)u art fo swete 

Ne may ihc pe forlete.' 

Horn rod Aylmar pe kyng 

& horn mid him his fundyng 220 

O. 210. he om. MS. O. 211. //or/:] //or 'MS. 

O. 215. //ornl //oh MS. 



& alle his yfere 

])at him were so duere 228 

J)e kyng com in to halle 

among his knyhtes alle 

for}) he clepe)) A))elbrus 

his ftiward & him feide Jjus 232 

fliward tac ))0U here 

my fundhng forto lere 

of \>me meflere 

of wode & of ryuere 236 

ant toggen o])e harpe 
wi)) is nayles fharpe 

ant tech him alle ]<e lifles 

]>at J)ou euer vvyflefl 240 

byfore me to keruen 

& of my coupe to feruen 

ant his feren deuyfe 
w\\> ous o))er feruife 244 

horn child |)0u vnderflond 
tech him of harpe & of song 
C Athelbrus gon leren 

horn & hyfe feren 248 

horn mid herte lahte 

al )jflt mon him tahte 

wij) inne court & \v\]> oute 

& oueral aboute 252 

louede men horn child 

& mofl him louede rymenyld 

J)e kynges oune dohter 

for he was in hire })ohte 256 

hue louede hbn in hire mod 

for he wes feir & eke god 

& \>a.h. hue ne dorfle at bord 
mid him fpeke ner a word 260 
ne in }ie halle 
among ))e knyhtes alle 

And alle hyfe feren 

pat weren lef and dere 232 

pe king com in to halle 

Amo?/g hife knictef alle 

He bad clepen aybrous 

pe heye fliward of hif hous 236 

Stiward haue J)OU here 

Horn chil forto lere 

Of J)ine meflere 

Of wode and of felde 240 

To riden wel wit fhelde 

Tech him of ]>e harpe [f. 221 r'] 

Wit his nayles fharpe 

Biforn me forto harpen 244 

And of ])e cuppe feruen 

And of alle ])e lilies 

pat })ou on er))e villes 

Hif feren deuife 248 

Of ofier feruife 

Horn child J)Ou vnder fonge 
Tech him of harpe and fo;zge 
And aylbrous gan leren 252 

Horn and hife feren 
Horn in herte laucte 
Al ))at men him taucte 
Wit hi;me ])e curt and wit oute 
And alle veie aboute 257 

Men louede« alle horn child 
And mefl him louede rimenild 
pe kinge owne dout^r 260 

He was eu^re in I'oute 

So hye louede horn child 

pat hye wex al wild 

Hye ne micte on borde 264 

Wit horn fpeken no worde 

Nol'er in ]>e halle 

Among ]>e k«/ctes alle 

L. 259. kzie'] h corrected out of some other letter MS. 



& alle his ifere 
\>at were him fo dere. 
IT pe kyng com in to halle 
Among his kni3tes alle : 224 

ForJ) he clupede aj)elbrus, 
pat was ftiward of his hus : 
' Stiward. tak nu here 

Mi fundlyng for to lere 228 

Of yme meiicre, 
of wude & of riu^re ; 

& tech him to harpe 

Wi|> his nayles fcharpe, 232 

Biuore me to kerue 
& of Jse cupe ferue ; 
pu tech him of alle \>e lifle 

pat f)u eure of wifle, 236 

In his feiren |)Ou wife 
In to o|)ere st'^'uife : 
Horn J)u vnderuonge 

& tech him of harpe & fonge.' 240 

1 Ailbrus gan lere 
Horn & his yfere : 
Horn in herte lajte 

Al })at he him ta5te. 244 

In pe curt & vte 
& elles al abute 
Luuede men horn child, 

& mefl him louede Rymenhild, 248 

pe kynges o5ene dofler, 
He was mefl in Jjojte : 

Heo louede fo horn child 

pat ne5 heo gan wexe wild: 252 

For heo ne mijte at borde 

Wi)) him fpeke no worde, 

Ne no3t in \>e halle 

Amo«g J)e kni5tes alle, 256 

O. 252. Before leren him MS. O. 267. kinctes MS. 



hyre forewe ant hire pyne 
nolde neuer fyne 
bi daye ne by nyhte 
for hue fpeke ne myhte 


wi)> horn \>at vves fo feir & fre 
\>o hue ne myhte wip him be 268 
In herte hue hade care & wo 
& ]>us hue bi))ohte hire \>o 
Hue fende hyre fonde 
Athelbrus to honde 272 

J)at he come hire to [f. 85 r] 

& alfo shulde horn do 
in to hire boure 

for hue bigon to loure 276 

& j:e fonde sayde 
]!at feek wes ]>& mayde 
&. bed him come fuy))e 
for hue nis nout bly])e 280 

^ ]>e fliward wes in huerte wo 
for he nufle whet he fhulde do 
what rymenild byfohte 
gret wonder him ))ohte 284 

aboute horn ]>e jinge 
to boure forte bringe 
he J)ohte on is mode 
hit nes for none gode 288 

he tok^ wi)) him an o])er 
a))ulf homes bro))er 
Athulf quo]) he ryht anon 
J)Ou shalt wi|) me to boure gon 292 
to fpeke wi{> rymenild ftille 
to wyte hyre wille 
)50u art homes yliche 
J)0u fhalt hire by suyke 296 

fore me adrede 
])at hue wole horn mys rede 

Ne nower in no flede 268 

For folc ]>er waf fo meche 
Hire forwe and hire pyne 
Nolde he neu^re fine 
Bi day ne bi nicte 272 

Wit him fpeke ne micte 

In h^rte hye haue kare and wo 

puf he hire bi Jjoucte ]>o 

He fende hire fonde 276 

Aylbrous to honde 

And be he fchold hire come;; to 

And alfo fcholde horn do 

In to hire boure 280 

For hye gan to loure 

And yfoude feyde 

Wei riche was ]>e mede 

And bed him come;; hvipe 284 

For hye naf naut bli|) 

pe fliward was in hefte wo 

He ne wifle wat he micte do [f.22ir^] 

Wat reymnyld wroute 288 

Mikel wonder him ])Oute 

Abote horn ]>e 5enge 

To boure forto bringe 

He J)oucte on hif mode 292 

Hit naf for none gode 

He tok wit him ano|)er 

pat was hornef wed bro))er 

Ayol he feyde ryt anon 296 

pou fhalt wit me to boure gon 

To fpeke wit reymyld ftille 

And witen al hire wille 

In homes ylyche 300 

pou fchalt hir^ bi fvvike 

Wei fore y me of drede 

pat hye wile horn mif rede 

L. 273, 4. over an erasure MS. 
L. 277. sayde over an erasure MS. 
L. 295. yliche\y corr. out of i. 


[f. 7 V ] Ne nowhar in non o]>ere flede 

Of folk heo hadde drede : 

Bi dale ne bi nijte 

WiJ) him fpeke ne nii^te ; 260 

Hire foreje ne hire pine 
Ne nii3te neure fine : 

In heorte heo hadde wo, 

& })us hire bi})03te \>o, 264 

Heo fende hire fonde 

Alielbrus to honde 

pat he come hire to, 

& alfo fcholde horn do 268 

Al in to bure, 

ffor heo ga.n to lure ; 

& l^e fonde feide 

pat fik lai \)at maide, 272 

& bad him come fwifie, 

For heo nas nof)ing hhpe, 

pe ftuard was in herte wo, 

For he nufle what to do ; 276 

Wat Rymenhild hure J)05te 

Gret wunder him fjujte, 

Abute horn J)e jonge 

To bure for to bringe ; 280 

He ^o5te vpon his mode 

Hit nas for none gode. 

He tok him ano|)er, 

Athulf, homes bro})er. 284 

' A|)ulf,' he fede, ' ri^t anon 

pu fchalt wi^ me to bure gon. 

To fpeke wi)) Rymenhild flille 

& witen hure wille. 288 

In homes ilike 

j>u fchalt hure bifwike : 

Sore ihc me ofdrede 

He wolde horn mifrede.' 292 

O. 269. For'] For for MS. 

O. 278. After he, erasure of one or two letters, perhaps bed. 

O. 303. hye'\ y corr. out of 0. 




Athelbrus & Athulf bo 

to hire boure hep ygo 300 

vpon Athulf childe 

rymenild con waxe wilde 

hue vvende horn it were 

])at hue hade j^ere 304 

Hue feten adoun ftille 

ant feyden hure wille 

In hire armes tueye 

Athulf he con leye 308 

horn quo)) heo wel longe 

y haue loued )7e flronge 

J)Ou fhalt })y treu{)e plyhte 

in myn hond wif) ryhte 312 

me to fpoufe welde 

& ich ))e louerd to helde 

so ftille fo hit were 

athulf feyde in hire eere 316 

ne tel })ou no more speche 

may y f;e by feche 

]>i tale gyn ))ou lynne 

for horn nis nout her ynne 320 

ne be we nout yliche 

for horn is fayr & ryche 

fayrore by one ribbe 
Jien ani mon ))at libbe 324 

J)ah horn were vnder molde 
& opev elle wher he fholde 
hennes a f)oufent milen 
ynulle him bigilen 328 

^ rymenild hire bywente 

ant athelbrus jjus heo fhende 

Athelbrus ))ou foule J^ef 

ne wor))efl ))ou me neuer lef 332 

went out of my boure 

(hame ])e mote by fhoure 

ant euel hap to vndeifonge 

& euele rode on to honge 336 

Ne fpeke y nout wi{) borne 

nis he nout fo vnorne 

Aylbrous and ayol him myde 304 

Bo))e he to bour^ jede 

Opon ayol childe 

Reymyld was naut wilde 

Hye wende horn hit were 308 

pat hye hadde ]>ere 

Hye fette him on bedde 

With ayol he gan wedde 

In hire armes tweye 312 

Ayol he gan leye 

Horn hye feyde fo longe 

Ich habbe y loued ]>e flronge 

pou fchalt me treujje plyjte 316 

In mine honde wel ryhcte 

Me to fpoufe welde 

And ich \>e louerd to helde 

And feyde in hire here 320 

So ftille fo it were 

Ne te/ ))ou more fpeche 

Sum ma« \)e wile bi keche 

pi tale bi gyn to lynne 324 

For horn nif nouth her i«ne 

Horn his fayr and riche 

Be we naut yliche 

Fayror hond(?r ribbe 328 

pan ony man l^at libbe 

pei horn were hondi?r molde 

OJ^er elles qwere e wolde 

Hanne ou^r a J)oufond mile [f.221 v'] 

Ne fchulde ich him bigile 333 

Reymyld hire bi wende 

pe fliward fone he fchende 

Aylbrous ]>u foule ]>ei 336 

Ne worflu me neu^re lef 

Wend out of mi hour,? 

Wyt michel mefaue;;ture 

Heuele ded mote ))ou fonge 340 

And on heuele rode onhonge 

Spak ich nou with horn 

His he nowt me biforn 

L. 305, 6. Written over an erasure, except wille. 



AJ^elbrus gan A})ulf lede 
& in to biire vvij) him 5ede. 
Anon vpon Aj'ulf child 

Rymenhild gan wexe wild : 296 

He wewde ]>at horn hit were 
])tn heo hauede J)ere. 
[f. 7 V-] Heo fette him on bedde ; 

Wi)) Aliulf child he wedde. 300 

On hire amies tweie 
AJiu'if heo gan leie. 
' Horn,' qua]) heo, * wel longe 

Ihc habbe \>e luued fironge. 304 

pu fchalt ))i trew|)e plijte 
On myn bond her ri^te 
Me to fpufe holde, 

& ihc ]>e lord to wolde.' 308 

^ A))ulf fede on hire ire 
So ftille so hit were : 

* pi tale nu \>u lynne, 

For horn nis no3t her \nne. 312 

Ne beo we nojt iliche : 

Horn is fairer & riche, 

Fairer bi one ribbe 

pane eni Man ]>at libbe : 316 

pej horn were vnder Molde 
0]>er elles wher he wolde 
OJjer henne a J)ufe«d Mile, 

Ihc nolde him ne }ie bigile.' 320 

H Rymenhild hire biwente 
& Af)elbrus fule heo fchente, 
' He«nes J)u go, ))U fule J)eof, 

Ne wurflu me neure more leof; 324 

Went vt of my bur 
Wi|) muchel mefauentur. 
Schame mote ]>u fonge 

& on hije rode anhonge. 328 

Ne fpek ihc nojt wi)) horn 
Nis he nojt fo vnom ; 

O. 322. ief\ te MS. 
C % 



CL \>o Athelbrus aflounde 
fel akneu to grounde 
ha leuedy myn owe 
me lyjje a lutel J)rowe 
ant lifl were fore ych wonde 
to bringen horn to honde 
for horn is fayr & riche 
nis non his ylyche 
Aylmer ]>e gode kyng 
dude him me in lokyng 
5if horn pe were aboute 
fore ich myhte doute 
Wif) him ]jou woldefl pleye 
bituene ou feluen tueye 
))enne fhulde wij) outen o]>e 
]>e kyng vs make wrojje 
Ah forjef me ]>i teone 
my leuedy ant my quene 
Horn y fhal ]>e fecche 
wham fo hit yrecche 
rymenild jef heo cou))e 
con ly|)e wi[) byre mou|)e 
heo loh & made hire bly))e 
for wel wes hire olyue 
go })ou quo}) heo fone 
& fend him after none 
a skuyeres wyfe 
when J3e king aryfe 





[f. 85 v] 



he fhal myd me bileue 
))rtt hit be ner eue 
haue ich of hiw mi wille 
ne recchi whet men telle 
C Athelbrus gof) wiJ) alle 
horn he fond in halle 



He his fayror of Hue 
Wend out he«ne bilyue 
po aylbrous a ftounde 
On kneuf fel to grunde 
A leuedy min howe 
LyJ)e a litel |)rowe 

To bringe ]>e horn to honde 
Horn hys fayr and riche 
His no man hyf liche 
And aylmer \>e gode king 
Dede him in Mi loking 
5yf horn ]>e were aboute 
Wel fore ich me doute 
pat ye fchulde^ pleye 
Bitwen hou one tweye 
pan fcholde wit outew o}>e 
pe king hus maken wrojje 
For 5yf me \>'i tene 
My leuedi and my quene 
And horn ich wolle feche 
Warn fo hit eu^re reche 
Reymyld jyf hye cow})e 
Gan leyhe wyt hire mou])e 
Hye lowe and makede blyjjc 
Wel was hire fwij)e 
Go hye feyde fone 
And bring him aft^r none 
In a fq/^/eref wife 
Wan pe king aryfe 








He wende forj) to borne 

Ne wolde fche him werne 

He fchal mid me bi leue 

Til hyt be ner heue [f. 221 v] 376 

Had ich of hym my wille 

Ne reche y wat men telle 

Aylbrous fram boure wende 

Horn \n halle he fonde 380 

L. 360. /lyrel hy corrected out of ly MS. 
O. After 373. He wende fgrp MS. 


Hor« is fairer f)ane beo he : 

Wi)> muchcl fchame mote \>u deie.' 333 

H A))elbrus in a flunde 

Fel anon to grunde : 

' Lefdi Min o^e, 

Lipe me a litel })ro5e. 336 

[f. 8 r'] Luft whi ihc wonde 

Bringe Ipe horn to honde. 

For horn is fair & riche, 

Nis no whar his ihche: 340 

Ayhnar ]>e gode kyng 

Dude him on mi lokyng ; 

3ef horn were her abute, 

Sore y me dute 344 

Wi)) him 5e wolden pleie 

Bitwex 30U felue tweie : 

pawne fcholde wi^uten ojie 

pe kyng maken vs wrojie. 348 

Rymenhild, for3ef me ))i tene, 

Lefdi, my quene, 

& horn ihc fchal \>e fecche, 

Wham fo hit recche.' 352 

H Rymenhild jef he cuf)e 

Gan lynne wip hire Mufje : 

Heo makede hire wel bli|)e ; 

Wei was hire pat iipe : 356 

' Go nu,' qtiap heo, ' fone 

& fend him afti^r none, 

Whane |)e kyng arife, 

On a squieres wife, 360 

To wude for to pleie : 

Nis no« ]>tn him biwreie. 

He fchal wi}) me bileue 

Til hit beo nir eue, 364 

To hauen of him mi wille, 
Aft^r ne recchecche what me telle.' 
IT Aylbrus wende hire fro, 

Horn in halle fond he ))o 368 

C. 331. //or MS. C. 366. me might be read ine. 



bifore J>e kyng obenche 
wyn forte fhenche 

Horn quo)) he \o\x hende 

to boure gyn |)ou wende 376 

to fpeke wi|) rymenild J>e jynge 

dohter oure kynge 

wordes fuyjje bolde 

j)in horte gyn f'ou holde 380 

Horn be \o\x me trewe 

fhal j)e nout are we 

he eode for]> to ryhte 

to rymenild )>e bryhte 384 

aknewes he him fette 

& fuethche hire grette 

of is fayre syhte 

al \a\ bour gan lyhte 388 

he spac faire is speche 

ne durj) non him teche 

vvel })Ou fitte & fq/te 

rymenild kinges dohter 392 

ant \y maydnes here 

})at fitte}) Jiyne yfere 

Kynges flyward oure 

fende me to boure 396 

forte y here leuedy myn 

whet be wille ))yn 

rymenild vp gon ftonde 

& tok him by J)e honde 400 

heo made feyre chere 

& tok him bi \& fuere 

ofte heo him cufle 

so wel hyre lufte 404 

Welcome horn ))us fayde 

rymenild \a\. mayde 

Bi fom J>e king abenche 

Red win to fchenche 

And aftd'r mete flale 

Bo})e win and ale 384 

Horn he feyde fo hende 

To bour^ j)0 moft wende 

Aft^r mete ftille 

With reymild to dwelle 388 

Wordes fwi[)e bolde 

In h^rte gon \m holde 

Hor;z be me wel trewe 

Ne fchal it ^e nouth re we 592 


orn him we«de for})ricte 
To reymyld \& brycte 
Hon kneus he him fette 
And rimyld fayre grette 396 

Of ))at fayre wihcte 
Al J)e halle gan licte 
He fpak fayre fpeche 
Ne ))ar him no ma teche 400 

Wel })ou fitte and fofte 
Reymyld kinges dout^r 
With J)ine maydnes fyxe 
pat fittet J)e nexte 404 

pe k/nges fliward and hourf 
Sente me to boure 
With |)e hy fpeke fchulde 
Sey me wat J)Ou wolde 408 

Sey and ich fchal here 
Wat \\ wille were 
Reymild up gan flowde 
And tok him bij)e honde 4 1 2 

Sette he him on palle 
Wyn hye dide fulle 
Makede fayre chere 
And tok him by |)e fwere 416 

Often hye him kifle 
So wel hire lufle 
Wel come horn hye feyde 
So fayr fo god }>e makede 420 

L. 391. fofte] fopte MS. 

L. 392. Rj>meinld]y corrected out oi e MS. 



Bifore \)e kyng on benche 
Wyn for to fchenche. 

' Horn,' qua]) he, ' fo hende, 

To bure nu ]>u wende 372 

Aftt-r mete ftille 
Wij) Rymenhild to duelle : 
[f. 8 r^] Wordes fu|)e bolde 

In herte J)u hem holde : 376 

Horn, beo me wel trewe, 
Ne fchal hit J>e neure revve.' 
Horn in herte leide 

Al \>iit he him feide : 380 

He jeode in wel ri^te 
To Rymenhild \>e bri5te, 
On knes he him fette 

& sweteliche hure grette. 384 

Of his feire fijte 
Al |)e bur gan lijte. 
He fpac faire fpeche, 

Ne dorte him noman teche : 388 

'Wel J)u fitte & fofte, 
Rymenhild ])e brijte, 
WiJ) J)ine Maidenes sixe 

P<3t \>e fitte)> nixte. 392 

Kinges fluard vre 
Sende me in to bure 
Wijj \)e fpeke ihc fcholde ; 

Seie me what ]>u woldefl;, 396 

Seie & ihc fchal here 
What pi wille were.' 
% Rymenhild vp gan flonde 

& tok him bi ]>e honde : 400 

Heo fette him on pelle 

Of wyn to drinke his fulle : 

Heo makede him faire chere 

& tok him abate ]>e swere. 404 

Ofte heo him cufle 

So wel fo hire lufte. 

O. 387. After sii/le wit MS. O. 391. //or MS. O. 405 kn^es MS 



an euen & amorewe 
for pe ich habbe forewe 
\>ai y haue no refle 
ne slepe me ne lyfle 

horn |)ou (halt wel iwy\>e 
mi longe ferevve ly)>e 
)>ou fhah wyf) oute ftr/ue 
habbe me to wyue 
horn haue of me reu))e 
& plyht me pi treuf)e 
C horn J)o him byj'ohte 
whet he speken ohte 
cr/n quo}) horn ))e wiffe 
& 5eue pe heuene bhffe 
of J)ine hofebonde 
who he be a londe 

ich am ybore J)ral 
\>y fader fundlyng wif) al 
of kunde me ne felde 
]>e to spoule welde 
hit nere no fair weddyng 
bituene a ))ral & pe kyng 
po gon rymenild mis lyken 
& fore bigon to fyken 
armes bigon vnbowe 
& doun heo fel yfwowe 
Horn hire vp hente 
& in is armes trente- 
he gon hire to cuffe 
& feyre forte wiffe 
rymenild quoj) he duere 
help me put ych were 
ydobbed to be knyhte 
fuete bi al p\ myhte 
to mi louerd pe kyng 
pat he me ^eue dobbyng 









[f 86 r] 

An heue and amorwe [f. 222 r'] 

For pe ich ha^be forwe 

Haue ich none refle 

Slepe me ne lifle 

Lefte me |)is forwe 

Lyue hy nawt to morwe 

Horn J)ou fchalt wel (wipe 

My longe forwe Yipe 

pou fchalt wit ute/; flr/ue 

Habben me to wiue 

Horn haue on me revv})e 

And plyct {jou me |)i trew})e 

Horn child him bi })oute 

Wat he fpeke myjte 

God qwad horn pe wiffe 

And 3yue pe ioye and bliffe 

Of f)ine hofebonde 

Whare he be in londe 

Ich am hy bor^ to lowe 

Such a wyf to owe 

Ich am bori? Jjralle 

And fundlinge am bi falle 

Ich am nawt of kende 

pe to fpoufe welde 

Hit were no fayr wedding 

Bituene a ))ral and |>e king 

Reymyld gan to myf lyke 

And fore forto fyke 

Armes hye naw bo})e 

And doune he fel yfwowe 

Horfi hire ofte wende 

And in hys armes trende 

Le^/iman qwat he dere 
pin h^rte gyn |)ou to flere 
And he/p f)ou me to knicte 
Oppe J)ine my^te 
To my louerd pe kinge 
pat he me jyue dobbinge 










L. 4,30. to fyketi struck out before higoii. 
O. 422. habbe'] halbe Mb. O. 436 pe^p MS. Before bliffe bjll MS. 


* Horn,' hco fede, ' vvi})ute ftrif 

pu fchalt haue me to f)i wif; 408 

Horn, haue of me rew|)e 

& plifl me ))i trevv|)e.' 
IT Horn po him bi))05te 

What he fpeke mi3te. 412 

[f. 8 v'] 'Crift,' qua]> he, ' f e wilTe 

& jiue {le heuene bhlTe 

Of |)ine hufebonde 

Wher he beo \n lo«de. 416 

I he am ibore to lowe 

Such wiwma^i to knowe. 

Ihc am icome of ))ralle 

& fu«dli«g bifalle. 420 

Ne feolle hit ]>& of cuwde 

To fpufe beo me bunde : 

Hit nere no fair wedding 

Bitwexe a )>ral & a king.' 424 

IF po gan Rymenhild mis lyke 

& fore gan to fike : 

Armes heo gan bu3e, 

Adun he feol iswoje. 428 

TI Horn in herte was ful wo, 

& tok hire on his armes two : 

He gan hire for to keffe 

Wei ofte mid ywiffe. 432 

' Lawman,' he fede, ' dere, 

pin herte nu ]>u ftere. 

Help me to kni3te 

Bi al |)ine mi3te, 436 

To my lord \>e kiwg, 

\)at he me 3iue dubbi«g. 

O. 448. And] ^ above line. O. 4A1. J/or MS. O. 455. /i^/p] hep MS. 

C. 420. fundling] d above line MS. 



J)enne is my )>ralhede 

Al wend in to knyhthede 444 

y fhal waxe more 

& do rymenild })i lore 

po rymenild \>e jynge 

aros of hire fwowenynge 448 

Nou horn to fo))e 

yleue |;e by J)yn o\>e 

))ou shalt be maked knyht 

er |)en ))is fourteniht 452 

ber }>ou her pes coppe 

& J)es ringes \>er vppe 

to Athelbrus pe flyward 

& say him he holde foreward 456 

sey ich him bifeche 

wi|) loueliche speche 

\>at he for ]>e falle 

to \>e kynges fet in halle 460 

pat he wif) is worde 
\)e knyhty wij) fvvorde 
wi{) feluer & \vi)> golde 
hit wor)) him wel yjolde 
nou cr/{{ him lene fpede 

gy \>\n erndyng do bede 
Horn tokif is leue 
for hit wes neh eue 
Athelbrus he sohte 
& tok him pat he brohte 
ant tolde him pare 
hou he hede yfare 
he feide him is nede 
& him bihet is mede 
Athelbrus so blyj^e 
code in to halle swy))e 





And panne hys my ))ralhede 

Yterned in knyt hede 460 

And penne hy fchal wite more 

And don aft^;- })i lore 

po reymyl pe ^enge 

Com of hire swohinge 464 

And feyde horn wel ricte 

pou art fo fayr and briycte [f. 222 r '] 

pou fchalt worjje to knyte 

Hyt comez fone nyjte 468 

Nym J)ou here })is coppe 

And J)is ryng ))er oppe 

And beryt hour^ flyward 

And bid helde foreward 472 

Bid hym for pe falle 
To kinges fot in halle 

pat he dubbe pe to knicte 
Wyt hys fwerde fo bricte 476 

Wyt fduer and wit golde 
Hyt wor)) him wel hyjolde 

Horn god lene \>e wel fpede 
pi h^rdne forto bede 480 
Horn tok hys leue 
For it was ney eue 
Aylbrous he fowte 
And tok him J)at he browte 484 
He talede to him f)ere 
Hou he hauede hy fare 
He telde him of hif nede 
And bihet him his mede 488 

Aylbrous wel blij)e 
To halle he jede wel fwi})e 
And fette him on kneuling 
And grette wel pe king 492 

L. 447. jyn^e and 1. 448, except nynge, written over an erasure. 
Ii. 472. yfare\ f Q\tx erasure MS. 




pa«ne is mi ])ralhod 

I\ve//t \n to knijthod, ^±0 

& ifchal wexe more 
& do, le;;/ma«, ^i lore.' 
1' Rymenhild, \>in swcte ping 

Wakede of hire swojniwg : 444 

* Horn,' qt/ap heo, ' vel Tone 

\)at fchal beon idone : 

pu fchalt beo dubbed kni3t 

Are come feue nijt. 448 

Haue her |)is cuppe 

& Jiis Ryng per vppe 

To Aylbriif & fluard, 

& fe he holde foreward : 452 

Seie ihc him bifeche 

\\"\p loueliche fpeche 

P^t he adu;/ falle 

Bifore \>e king in halle, 456 

& bidde pe king arijte 

Dubbe pe to kni3te. 

WiJ) feluer & wij) golde 

Hit wurj) him wel ijolde. 460 

Crifl him lene fpede 

pin erewde to bede.' 
If Horn tok his leue. 

For hit was ne^ eue. 464 

A{)elbr//'j he fo3te 

& jaf him pat he brojte, 

& tolde hiw ful jare 

Hu he hadde ifare, 468 

[f. 8 v^] & fede him his nede, 

& bihet him his mede. 
IT A})elbrus alfo f\vi|;e 

\Ve«te to halle bliue : 472 

O. 469. Ayml y corr. out of e. 

O. 4S5. /ere^ the first e corr. out of MS. 



ant feide kyng nou lefle 

o tale mid ]>e befle 

))ou shalt here coroune 

to marewe in ))is toune 480 

to marewe is \>i fefte 

})e bihouej) gefte 

Ich ))e rede mid al my myht 

))(?t ))OU make horn knyht 484 

))in armes do him welde 

god knyht he shal ]>e jelde 

]>e kyng feide wel fone 

hit is wel to done 488 

Horn me wel queme}) 

knyht him wel byfemej) 

He fhal haue mi dobbyng 

& be myn oJ)er derlyng 492 

& hife feren tuelue 

he shal dobbe him felue 

alle y fhal hem knyhte 

byfore me to fyhte 496 

al ]>at \>e lyhte day sprong 

aylmere ))ohte long 

J;e day bigon to fpr/nge 

horn com byfore ]>e kynge 500 

wij) his tuelf fere 

alle per ywere 

horn knyht made he 

wi)) ful gret folempnite 504 

fette him on a ftede 
red fo eny glede 

fmot him a lute wiht 

& bed him buen a god knyht 508 

Athulf vel a kne ))er 

& {jonkede kyng Aylmer 

Syre he feyde wiltu lufle 

Ane tale wit \>e befle 

pou fchalt bere corune 

In })is hulke toune 496 

To morwe wor|)e ))i feflef 

Me by houed geftes 

Ich ]>e wolde rede ate left 

pat J)ou horn knict makedeil 500 

pi armes to him welde 

God knict he fchal be« helde 

pe king feyde fone 

pat hys wel to done 504 

Horn me wole ben queme 

To be knict him by feme 

He fchal habbe my dubbing 

And be my nowne derling 508 

And hif feren -xij 

Ich fchal dobbe My felue 

Alle ich hem fchal knicte [f. 222 v'] 

Bi for me to fyte 512 

Amorwe her \)e dey fp;7mge 

Aylm^'r king |>oute wel \onge 
^ pe day by gan to fpriwge 
Horn cam bi forn \>e kinge 516 

Wit fwerde horn he girde 

Rit bonder hys herte 
He fette him on flede 
Red fo any glede 


And fette on hif fotef 

Bof'C fpores and botes 

And fmot alitel with 

And bed him ben god knict 524 

Ayol fel on knes ]>ere 

By forn pe king aylmere 

And feyde king fo kene 

Graunte me my bene 528 

O. 517. girde\ d corr. out of / MS. 

O. 517, 518. In the margin opposite ore ejl horn adobbe. 


' Kyng,' he fede, ' })u lefle 
A talc mid ]>e befte ; 
pu fchalt here crune 

Tomore5e in ))is tune ; 476 

Tomoreje is pi fcRe : 
per bihouejj gefle. 
Hit nere 11051 for loren 

For to knijti child horn, 480 

pine armes for to vvelde, 
God kni3t he fchal jelde.' 
% pe ki//g fede fone, 

' pat is wel idone. 484 

Horn me wel iq;<'^me)), 

God kni^t hiw bifemef). 

He fchal haue mi dubbing 

& aftt'rward mi darling. 488 

& alle his feren twelf 

He fchal knijten him felf: 

Alle he fchal hem kni3te 

Bifore me f)is ni^te.' 492 

Til \>e lijt of day fprang 

Ailmar hiw f)U5te la/?g. 

pe day bigan to fpri;/ge, 

Horn co;« biuore ]>e ki«ge 496 

Mid his twelf yfere: 

Sume hi were luj)^;e. 

Horn he dubbede to kni5te 

\Vi|) swerd & fpures bri3te. 500 

He fette him on a flede whit 
per nas no kni3t hjon ilik. 

He fmot him a litel wi3t 

& bed him beon a god knijt. 504 

IT A))ulf fel aknes |)ar 
Biuore ]>e ki«g Aylmar. 
' King,' he fede, ' fo kene, 
Grante me a bene : 508 

O. 528. Before my d MS. 
C. 49:. />is] s above the line MS. C. 506. Biuore] re above the line MS. 



C Nou is knyht fire horn 

\>at in sudenne wes yborn 512 

Lord he is of londe 

& of vs J)at by him flonde 

J)in armes he hauej) & ]>y fheld 

forte fyhte in \>e feld 516 

Let him vs alle knyhte 

fo hit is his ryhte 

Aylmer feide ful ywis 

nou do ]>at J)i wille ys 520 

Horn adoun con lyhte 

& made hem alle to knyhte 

for muchel wes ]>e gefte [f. 86 v] 

& more wes \>e fefle 524 

\>at rymenild nes nout J^ere 

hire })ohte feue ^ere 

after horn hue fende 

horn in to boure wende 528 

He nolde gon is one 

Athulf wes hys ymone 

C rymenild welcome)? lire horn 

& a|)ulf knyht hhn biforn 532 

knyht nou is tyme 

forto fitte byme 

do nou ]>ai we spake 

to ))i wyf f)OU me take 536 

Nou |)0U haft wille ))yne 
vnbynd me of ))is pyne 
rymenild nou be ftille 
ichulle don al ]>y wille 
ah her hit fo bitide 
mid spere ichulle ryde 
ant my knyhthod proue 
er \)en ich ]je wowe 



pou haft knicted fire horn 
pat m fodenne waf hy born 
Louerd he hys in londe 
Of vs ))at bi him fto«de 
Mid fpere and wit fcelde 
To fyten in ]>e felde 
Let him of alle knicte 
So hyt hys hife ricte 
po feyde J)e king wel fone wis 
Do horn af hys wil hys 
Horn a down gan lycte 
And makede hem to knicte 
Comen were ]>e geftes 
Amorwe was )je fefte 
Reymyld was nowt fiere 
Hire ))oute feue yere 
Aftt'r horn hye fende 
Hor;^ to bour^ wende 1 





He naw his felawe i« hyf honde 
And fonde Reymyld m bour^ fto«de 

Welcome art )jou fire horn 
And ayol chil ]>e bi forn 
Knict nou it hif tyme 
pat \>o fitte by me 



Yf {jou be trewe of dedef 

Do ))at ))ou air^ feydef 

Do nou {)at we fpeke 

To wif J)ou fchalt me take [f. 222 v'-] 

Reymyld qwat horn be ftille 557 
Hy fchal don al ]>\ wille 
Hat firft hyt mote by tyde 
Mid fpere {'at ich ride 560 

Mi knicthede for to proue 
Herft here ich ])e wowe 

L. 522. knyhte\ k over an erasure MS. 
O. 546. Horn\ Hor MS. 



Nu is kni5/ fire horn 
\>(it in fuddc//ne was iboren : 
Lord he is of lo//de 

Ou^r us ])at bi h\m ftonde : 512 

pin armes he ha|) & fcheld 
To fijte wij) vpon f)e feld : 
Let him vs alle knijte 

For ]>(7X is vre ri3te.' 516 

1^ Aylmar fede fone ywis : 
' Do nu f)at f)i wille is.' 
Horn adun ]i5te 

& makede he;« alle kni3tes. 520 

Mune was ]>e fefte 
Al of faire gefles : 
Ac Rymenhild nas nojt )>er 

& \><n hire f)U5te feue jer. 524 

Aft^r horn heo fente, 
& he to bare we«te. 
Noldc he nojt go one, 
A})ulf was his mone. 528 

Rymenhild on flore ftod, 
Homes come hire ))U3te god, 
And fede, 'we/come, fire horn, 

& A})ulf kni5t ]>e biforn. 532 

[f. 9 r] Kni5t, nu is |>i time 

For to fitte bi me : 
Do nu })at })u er of fpake. 

To ))i wif |)ume take. 536 

Ef })u art trewe of dedes. 
Do nu afe ))u fedes. 

Nu ]>u haft wille J^ine, 

Vn bind me of my pine.' 540 

^ ' Rymenhild,' qua|) he, ' beo ftille ; 
Ihc wulle don al \>\ wille. 
Alfo hit mot bitide. 

Mid fp^'^e ifchal fur ft ride, 544 

(fe mi knijthod proue, 
Ar ihc pe ginne to wo3e. 

C. 509. kf/tj/'] kui^ M.S. C. 510. was] s above the line MS. 

C. 520. Ae alle above the line MS. C. 531. welcome] -we/come MS. 



we bue)) nou knyhtes 5onge 
alle to day yfpronge 
ant of J)e meflere 
hit is }>e manere 548 

wi)) fum oJ)er knyhte 
for his lemmon to fyf)te 
er ne he eny wyf take 
o|)er \vy^ wymmon forewart make 
to day so crz'fl me bleffe 553 

y fhal do prueffe 
for ]>i loue mid fhelde 
am id de wart ))e felde 556 

5ef ich come to lyue 
ychul \>e take to wyue 
knyht y may yleue \>e 
why ant j)ou trewe be 560 

C haue her ))is goldring 

hit is ful god to \>\ dobbyng 
ygraued is on \>e rynge 
rymenild J)y luef \>e jynge 564 

nis non betere vnder fonne 
pat enymon of conne 

fifor mi loue Jjou hit were 

& on f)y fynger jjou hit here 568 

|)e flon haue}) fuche grace 

ne fhalt J)ou in none place 

dej) vnderfonge 

ne buen yflaye wij) wronge 572 

5ef ))ou lokefl f)eran 

& jjenchefl o \>i lemman 

ant fire athulf }»i brof)er 

he fhal han en o))er 576 

Horn cr/ft y J)e byteche 

myd mourninde fpeche 

cr/fl ]>e jeue god endyng 

& found a5eyn fie brynge 580 

|ie knyht hire gan to cuffe 

& rymenild him to bleffe 

We be}) knictes yonge 

Alto day by fpronge 564 

Of ]>e meflere 

Hyt hys ]>e mani?;-e 

Wyt fom ojier knicte 

For hys lema« to fycte 568 

Her ich eny wif take 

per fore ne haue ich ]>e forfake 

To day fo god me bliffe 

Ich fal do pruefce 572 

P^or \>e lef wyt fchelde 

In mideward \>e felde 

And hy come to liue 

Ich take ]>e wiue 576 

Knict qwat reymyl pe trewe 

Yich wene ich may \>e leue 

Haue nou here ))is gold ring 

He his god to ))i dobbing 580 

Ne hys non fwilk vnder fo«ne 
pat man may offe konne 
Hy gr^me hys on \>e Ringe 
Rymyld pi lef pe yenge 584 

pe flon him hys of fwiche grcrce 
pat ))ou ne fchal \n none place 
Of none doute fayle 
per ))ou bigiwnes batayle 588 

And fire ayol ))i bro))er 

He fal haue a no))er 

Horn god hy pe bi teche 

Wit morninde fpeche 592 

God pe 3yeue god endynge 

An hoi pe a'^en bringe 

pe knict hyre gan to kuffe 

And reymyld him bliffe 596 

li. 580. /^]/er^ MS. 
O. 571. 6/tsse'] bilijDe MS. O. 579. pis\ s above line MS. 




We he\> kni5tes 30/; ge, 

Of odai al ifpr/znge, 5^8 

& of vre medere 
So is J)e man^;-e 
Wi)) fume o)>ere knijte 

Wei for his lemman fijte, 552 

Or he eni wif take : 
For ))i me ftondej) \>e more rape. 
Today, fo crifl me bleffe, 

I he wulle do prueffe 556 

For pi luLie in pe felde 
Mid fpere & mid fchelde : 
If ihc come to lyue 

Ihc fchal J)e take to wyue.' 560 

IT ' Kni5t,' qua)) heo, ' trewe, 
Ihc wene ihc mai ])e leue : 
Tak nu her J)is goldring, 

God him is pe dubbing ; 564 

per is vpon ]>e ringe 
Ig;-aue Rymenhild j^e ;onge. 
per nis nan bett're anonder fu/'/ne 
pat eni man of telle cu//ne ; 568 

For my luue ]>u hit were 
& on f)i finger pu him here : 
pe ftones beoj) of fuche grace 

P«t |)u ne fchalt in none place 572 

Of none du;7tes beon ofdrad, 
Ne on bataille beon amad, 
Ef |>u loke peran 

& penke vpon pi lew?man. 576 

IF And fire Apu\f, f)i broj-er, 
He fchal haue anofier. 
Horn, ihc J)e bifeche, 

Wi)) loueliche fpeche, 580 

Crifl 5eue god erndinge 
pe ajen to IT bringe.' 
[f. 9 r"] T pe kni3t hire gan keffe, 

& heo him to bleffe: 584 

O. 590. Before /a/;/ MS. 

O. -iyi. Before Ur/te lake MS. 




leue at hyre he nom 

& in to halle he com 584 

knyhtes code to table 

& horn eode to flable 

\>er he toe his gode fole 

blac fo euer any cole 588 

wi|> armes he him fredde 

ant is fole he fedde 

pe fole bigon to fpringe 

& horn niurie to fynge 592 

Horn rod one whyle 

wel more \>en amyle 

he feh a shyp at grounde 

wij) he|)ene hounde 596 

He afkede wet hue hadden 

o|)er to londe ladden 

an hound him gan biholde 

& fpek wordes bolde 600 

))is land we wolle)) wynne 

& fie \>f/t \>er bue|) inne 

Horn gan is fwerd gripe 

ant on is arm hit wype 604 

J)e farajy;; he hitte so 

]>(it is had fel to ys to 

f)o gonna pe houndes gone 

a5eynes Horn ys one 608 

He lokede on is lynge [f. 87 r] 

ant )johte o rymenyld pe jynge 

he sloh per of pe bafle 

an houndred at pe lefle 612 

ne mihte no mon telle 

alia pat ha gon quelle 

of })rt't ))er were oryue 

he lafta lut o lyue 616 

Leue at hire he nom 

And in to halla com 

pe knictes ^yade to table 

And horn v! to flable 600 

He tok for)) his gode fole [f. 233 r^] 

So blac fo any cole 

In armas he him fchradde 

And hys fole ha fedde 604 

Hyf fole fchok hys brenye 

pat al pe court gan denye 

Hys fole gan for)> fpr/nge 

And horn merie to fynge 608 

Ha rod one wile 

Wel more J)an a mile 

He fey a fchip rowe 

Mid wat^r alby flowe 612 

Of out londiffe manne 

Of sara^'ina kenne 

Hem afkede qwat he hadde 

0})er to londe ladde 616 

A geant him gan by holde 

And fpak wordes bolde 

pis lond we wile winne 

And flen al J)at ))ar ban h]nne 620 

Horn gan hys fward gripe 

And on his arm hyt wipe 

pa farazin fo ha fmot 

pat al hys blod was hot 624 

At pe furfle dunte 

Hys heued of gan wente 

po gonnen ))o hundef gon 

Ajanes horn alon 628 

Ha lokede on hyf gode ringa 

And J)oute on reymild pe yenge 

He flow ))ar on hafla 

An hundred at pe lefle 632 

Of J)at per were aryue 
Fewe he leuade on Hue 

L. 605. farajyit^farajy followed by hole in MS. and mark of contraction. 

O. 607. fcp^nge MS. 




Leue at hire he nam, 

& i« to halle cam. 

pe knijtes 5eden to table, 

& hornt' 5ede to ftable. 588 

par he tok his gode fole 

Alfo blak fo eny cole ; 

pe fole fchok |)e brunie 

pat al ))e curt gan denie, 592 

pe fole bigan to fpringe, 

& horn murie to fmge. 

Horn rod in a while 

More Jjan a myle. 596 

He fond o fchup flonde 
Wi}) he{)ene honde : 

He axede what hi fojte 

Oper to londe brojte. 600 

IF An huTzd him gan bihelde, 
pat fpac wordes belde : 
' pis lond we wullej wynne 

& fle pat \er is inne.' 604 

Horn gan his fwerd gr/pe, 
& on his arme wype ; 
pe sarazins he fmatte 

pat his blod hatte; 608 

At eureche dunte 
pe heued of wente. 
po gu«ne jie hu;zdes gone 

Abute horn al one : 612 

He lokede on J)e ringe, 
& {jojte or rimenilde. 
He flo; \er on hafle 

On hundred bi })e lafle 616 

Ne mijte noman telle 
P<2t fole pat he gan quelle : 
Of alle \at were aliue 
Ne mi^te J»er non J)riue. 620 

O. fioS. After /;<7r« ? MS. O. 612. wafir] w at 'SIS. 

O. 614. sarazinel sararuie MS. O. d})},. per\pe MS. 

D 2 



C Horn tok J^e maifler heued 
))at he him hade byreued 
ant fette on is fuerde 
abouen o})en orde 620 

he ferde horn to halle 
among \>e knyhtes alle 
kyng quo)) he wel })0U fitte 
& })ine knyhtes mitte 624 

to day ich rod omy pleyyng 
after my dobbyng 
yfond a fhip rowen 
in J)e found byflowen 628 

Mid vnlondiffhe menne 
of sara5ynes kenne 


to de)5e forte pyne 

\>e & alle )'yne 

hy gonne me afayly 

fwerd me nolde fayly 

y fmot hem alle to grounde 

in a lutel flounde 636 

pe heued ich pe brynge 
of ]>e maifler kynge 
nou haue ich ]>e jolde 
J)at JiQU me knyhten woldefl 
)je day bigon to fpr/nge 
J)e kyng rod on hontynge 
to ]>e wode wyde 



ant ffykenyld bi is fyde 
J)at fals was ant vntrewe 
whofe him wel yknewe 
^ Horn ne j^ohte nout him on 

ant to boure wes ygon 648 

he fond rymenild fittynde 
& wel fore wepynde 

so whyt fo ])e sonne 
mid terres al byronne 
Horn feide luef f)yn ore 
why wepefl ))ou fo fore 


pe meyfl<?r kingef heued 

He haddit him by reued 636 

He fettit on hys fwerde 

Anoven on J)e horde 

Til he com to halle 

Among ]>e knictef alle 640 

He feyde king wel mote f)Ou fitte 

An })ine knictes mitte 

per y rod on my pieying 

Sone hafter my dobbing 644 

Y fay a fchip rowe 

Mid wat^re al by flovve [f. 223 r'-] 

Of none londifche me«ne 

Bote farazines ke//ne 648 

To deye for to pyne 

pe and alle f)ine 

He gonnen me a faylen 

My fwerd me ne wolde fayle 652 

Ich broute he;« alto grunde 

In one lite flounde 

pe heued ich pe bringe 

Of pe meyft^r kinge 656 

Nou ich haue pe yolde 

pat l^u me knicte;? wolde 

Pe day bi gan to fpr/nge 
pe king rod on hunti;/ggt' 660 
To wode he gan wende 
For to latchen pe heynde 
Wyt hym rod fokenild 
pat al)5e werfle mod^r child 664 

And horn wewte in to boure 

To fen auenture 

He fond Reymild fittewde 

Sore wepende 668 

Whit fo eny fonne 

\\'it teres albi ronne 

He feyde lewzman ))in ore 

Wy wepes ))ou fo fore 672 

O. 647. 0/] (9/7 MS. 



Horn tok ]>e maifl^rcs hcucd, 
p(^t he hadde him bireued, 
& fctte hit on his swerde 

Anouen at ]jan orde. 624 

He verde horn in to halle 
Among Jje knijtes allt'. 
* Kyng,' he fede, * wel ]>u fitte 

Si alle J)ine knijtes mitte ; 628 

[f. 9 v'] To day, after mi dubbing, 

So irod on mi pleing, 
Ifond o fchup Rowe 
po hit gan to flowe, 632 

Al wif) sarazines kyn, 

& none londiffe Men, 

To dai for to pine 

pe & alle })ine. 656 

Hi gonne me affaille, 

Mi swerd me nolde faille, 

Ismot he/n alle to grunde 

OJ>er jaf hew di|)es wunde. 640 

pat heued i \>e bridge 

Of \>e maiftt'r ki;/ge. 

Nu is pi wile ijolde. 

King, pat )>n me knijti woldefl..' 644 

AMoreje po pe day gan fpr/nge 
^ pe king him rod an huwtinge ; 

At horn lefte ffikenhild, 

pat was pe wurfle moder child. 648 

Heo ferde in to bure 

To fen aue;/t/^re : 

Heo fa3 Rymenild fitte, 

Alfo he were of witte : 652 

Heo fat on pe funne 

WiJ) tieres al biru«ne, 

Horn fede, ' lef, |)inore, 

Wi wepeflu fo fore ? ' 656 



hue feide ich nout ne wepe 

ah yfhal er yflepe 656 

me ))ohte omy metyng 

]>at ich rod ofyffhyng 

to see my net ycafte 

ant wel fer hit lafle 660 

a gret fyffh atd? ^e ferfte 

my net made berfte 

]>at fyffh me so bycahte 

)>(it y nout ne lahte 664 

ywene yfhal forleofe 

j)e fyffh ]>at ywolde cheofe 
C[ cr/fl & feinte fleuene 

quo)> horn areche )>y fweuene 668 

no shal y J)e byfwyke 

ne do ))at ]>e mis lyke 

ich lake \>e myn owe 

to holde & eke to knowe 672 

for eueruch o)>er wyhte 

))erto my trouf)e yplyhte 

wel muche was J)e reu|)e 

]^at wes at ))ilke treu})e 676 

rymenild wep wel ylle 

ant horn let terres flille 

Lemmon quo)) he dere 

|)ou fhalt more y here 680 

})y fweuen shal wende 

fummon vs wole shende 

j)at fyffh \>at brae \>y net 

ywis it is fumwet 684 

\>at wol vs do fum tene 

ywys hit worj) yfene 
^ Ayhner rod by floure 

ant horn wes yne boure 688 

ffykenyld hade enuye 

& feyde ])eofe folye 

Aylmer ich J)e werne 

horn \>e wole forberne 692 

Ich herde wher he feyde 

ant his fuerd he leyde 

to brynge ]>e of lyue 

ant take rymenyld to wyue 696 

Hye feyde ich nawt ne wepe 

Bote ich fchal her ich flepe 

Me |)oute in my metynge 

pat ich rod on fifchinge 676 

To fe my net ich kefle 

Ne Mict ich nowt lache 

A gret fyf ate furfle 

Mi net he makede berfle 680 

pe fyf me fo by laucte 

pat ich nawt ne kaucte 

Ich wene ich fchal forlefe 

pe fyf ))at ich wolde chefe 684 

God and feynte fteuene 

Quad horn terne \>\ fweuene 

Ne fhal ich neui?re fwike 

Ne do ))at ))e mif like 688 

Ich nime \>e to my nowe 

To habben and to howe 

For euerich wyjte [f. 223 v'J 

parto my treuwj)e ich plicte 692 

Miche was |)at rew))e 

pat was at here trew|)e 

Reymyld taep wel flille 

And horn let teres fpille 696 

He feyde lewma« dere 

pou fchalt more here 

py fweuene ich fchal fchende 

pe fif l^at brae ]>\ feyne 700 

Hy wis hyt was fom bleine 

pat fchal us do fom tene 

Hy wis hyt worJ) hy fene 

pe king rod bi his toure 704 

And horn waf in j^e boure 

Fykenyld hadde envie 

An feyde hife folye 

Aylm^re king ich wole warne 708 

Horn chil \>e wile berne 

Ich herde qware he feyde 

And hys fwerd leyde 

To bringe ]>e of Hue 712 

And take rimenyld to wiue 

L. 685. iepne MS. O. 681. Before ^///MS. O. 695. zvej' omit. MS. 


Heo fcde ' nojt ine wepe, 
Bute afc ilay allcpe 

To \>e fe my net icafle, 

& hit nolde no3t ilafle ; 660 

A gret fiff at ]>e furfle 

Minct he gan to berfle. 

I he wene |)at ihc fchal leofe 

pe fiff pat ihc wolde cheofe.' 664 

IF ' Crifl,' qua\> horn, ' & feint steuene 
Turne )jine sweuene. 
Ne fchal \\>e bifwike, 

Ne do pat pe mishke. 668 

1 fchal me make ))inowe 
To holden & to knowe 
For eurech^ opere vvijte, 

& J)arto mi treu)?e \pe pli5te.' 672 

Muchel was pe ruj>e 
])at was at J)are tru})e : 
For Rymenhild weop ille, 

& horn let pe tires flille. 676 

I f 9 V*] ' Le>nma.n,' quap he, ' dere 

pu fchalt more ihere ; 
pi sweuen fchal wende, 

Oper fum Man fchal vs fchende. 680 

pe fiff pat brak pe lyne 
Ywis he do}) us pine, 
\)at fchal don vs tene, 

& wur|) wel fone ifene.' 684 

H Aylmar rod bi (lure, 
& horn lai \n bure. 
Fykenhild hadde enuye 

& fede |>es folye : 688 

' Aylmar, ihc pe warne, 
Horn pe wule beme ; 
Ihc herde whar he fede, 

& his swerd for}) leide, 692 

To bringe pe of lyue, 
& take Rymenhild to wyue. 

O. 707. In the margin hie cucusatuT horu. C. 684. /one above the line MS. 



He lyht nou in boure 
vnder couertoure 
by rymenyld ]>y dohter 
ant fo he do]j wel ofte 

do him out of londe 
er he do more fhonde 
C Ayhner gan horn turne 
wel mody & wel fturne 

[f. 87 v] 



he fond horn vnder arme 

in rj'menyldes barme 

go out quoj) aylmer \>e kyng 

Horn J>ou foule fundlyng 708 

forj) out of boures tlore 

for rymenild \>\n hore 

wend out of londe fone 

her nafl {)ou nout to done 

wel fone bote J)Ou flette 

myd fuert ylhal \>e fette 

Horn eode to liable 

wel modi for \>a.t fable 

he fette sadel on flede 

\vi}) armes he gon him fhrede 

his brunie he con lace 

so he shulde in to place 

his fuerd he gon fonge 

ne flod he nout to longe 

to is fuerd he gon teon 

ne durfle non wel him feon 





He feide lemmon derlyng 
nou ))ou hauefl py fweuenyng 
]>e fyffh \>at ))yn net rende 
from pe me he fende 728 

Nou he hys in boure 

Al hond(?r cou^?;ture 

By reymyld pi dout^^ 716 

And fo he hys wel ofti? 

Ich rede ))at ))u wende 

per J)ou myct him fchende 

Do him out of J)i londe 720 

Her /le do more fchonde 

Aylmer king hym gan torne 

Vel mody and wel Mourne 

To bour^ he gan jerne 724 

Durft hym noma« werne 

He fond horn wit arme 

In rimenyldes barme 

He«ne out qwad aylmer king 728 

He;me })ou foule wendling 

Out of boure flore 

Fram reymyld })i hore 

Sone bote pe flette 732 

Wit fwerd hy wole pe hette 

Hout of londe fone 

Here hauefl ])ou nowt to done 

Horn cam in to flable [f. 223 v-| 
Wel modi for pe fable 737 

He fette fadel on flede 
With armes he hym gan fchrede 
Hyf brenye he gan lace 740 

So he fcholde in to place 

po hyt J)er to gan ten 

Ne durft him nomaw fen 

Swerd he gan fonge 744 

Ne flod he nowt to lo«ge 

And jyede for|) ricte 

To reymyld pe bricte 

He feyde leman d^;eling 748 

Now haueflu |)i meting 

pe fyf })i net to rente 

Fram pe he me fente 

L. 712. After noia d MS. 

,21. he omit. MS. 



He lij) in bure 

X'ndcr coutvture 696 

By Rynitv/hild p\ dorter, 
& fo he do)) vvel ofte ; 
And ))idcr pu go al rijt, 

per \>u him finde mi^t ; 700 

pu do him vt of londe, 
0\)er he do]) J^e fchonde.' 
IT Ayhnar ajen gan turne 
Wei Modi & wel Murne. 704 

He fond horn in arme. 

On Ryme«hilde barme 

' Awei vt,' he fede, ' fule J)eof ! 

Ne wurflu me neuremore leof. 70S 

Wend vt of my bure 

W"\\> muchcl meffauentare. 

Wel fonc bute \>u flitte, 

W'i|) swerde ihc J)e anhitte. 7 1 2 

Wend vt of my londe 

O^er })u fchalt haue fchonde.' 

^ Horn fadelede his flede 

& his armes he gan fprede ; 716 

His brunie he gan lace 

So he fcholde in to place ; 

His fwerd he gan fonge, 

Nabod he nojt to longe. 720 

He jede for]) bliue 

To Ryme/zhild his wyue. 

He fede, ' Lewman derling, 

Nu haueflu ]>i sweuening. 724 

pe fiff ])at \>i net rente, 

Fram ]>e he me fente. 

O. 743. Aim] hire MS. C. 705. fondy r erased between and n Mb. 



\>e kyng wif) me gynne}) ftr/ue 
a wey he wole me drj'ue 
J)are fore haue nou godneday 
nou y mot founde & fare away 732 
In to vncou))e londe 
wel more forte fonde 
yfhal wonie \>ere 

fulle feue jere 736 

at ))e feue^eres ende 
5yf y ne come ne fende 
tac })0u hofebonde 
forme ])at pou no wonde 740 

In armes ))ou me fonge 
ant cus me swyj)e longe 
hy cuflen hem aflounde 
& rymenyld fel to grounde 744 
4J Horn toe his leue 
he myhte nout byleue 
He toe A|)ulf is fere 
aboute ])e fwere 748 

ant feide knyht fo trewe 
kep wel my loue newe 
\>ou neuer ne forfoke 
rymenild to kepe ant loke 752 
his flede he bigan flryde 
ant for)) he con hym ryde 
A|)ulf wep wi)) eyjen 
ant alle ))at hit yfeyjen 756 

Horn for|) him ferde 
a god fliip he him herde ' 
|)at him shulde paffe 
out of weflneffe 760 

J)e wynd bigon to flonde 

ant drof hem vp olonde 

to londe pal hy fietten 

fot out of ship hy fetten 764 

he fond bi ]>e weye 

kynges fones tueye 

pat on wes hoten A|)yld 

ant pat o))er beryld 768 

pe king gynne)) wiht me ftmie 752 

Awey he wole me driue 

Reymyld haue god day 

For nov ich founde awey 

In to onekuj) londe 75^ 

Wel more forto fonde 

Ich fchal wony J>ere 

Fulle feve jere 

Ate -vii 3eres hende 760 

Bot jyf hy come o))er fende 

Tac J)ou hofebonde 

For me J)at jiou wonde 

I armef ))ou me tonge 764 

An kuffe (wipe longe 

He kuflen one flunde 

And reymyld fel to gru«de 

Horn tok his leue 768 

For hyt was ney heue 

He nam ayol trewe fere 

Al aboute pe fwere 

And feyt knict fo trewe 772 

Kep Mi leue wiue 

So })ou me neuere forfoke 

Reymyl kep and loke 

Horn gan flede by flride 776 
And forj) he gan ride 
Ayol wep wit heye 
And alle |)at hym feye 
Horn chil for}) hym ferde 780 

A god fchip he him herde [f. 224 r'J 
pat hym fcholde wiffe 
Out of weflniffe 

pe whyjt him gan flo//de 
And drof tyl hirelonde 
To londe he gan flette 
And out of fchip him fette 
He mette by pe weye 
Kingges fones tweye 
pat on was hoten ayld 
And ))at oJ)er byrild 



O. 786. y?^//(j]/ above the line, / corrected out of/ MS. 



[f. lo r^J Rymenhild, haue wel godne day, 

No leng abiden ine may. 728 

In to vncujje londe, 

Wel more for to fonde ; 

Ifchal wune ]>ere 

Fulle feue jere. 7j2 

At feue jeres ende, 

3ef ine come ne fende, 

Tak J)e hufebonde, 

ffor me J)u ne wo«de ; 756 

In armes ]>u me fonge 

& kes me wel longe.' 

He cufle him wel a ftu«de 

& Rymenhild feol to grunde. 740 

Horn tok his leue, 

ne mi^te he no le«g bileue ; 

He tok Ajjulf his fere 

Al abute pe fwere, 744 

& fede, 'knijt fo trewe, 

Kep wel mi luue newe. 

pu neure me ne forfoke ; 

Rymenhild pu kep and loke 748 

His flede he gan biflrzde 

& for)) he ga« ride : 

To \>e hauene he ferde, 

& a god fchup he hurede, 752 

pat hwi fcholde \onde 
In weflene londe. 
IT Af)ulf weop wij) ije 

& al pat him ifi3e. 756 

To lo«d he him fette 

& fot on flirop fette. 

He fo«d bi \>e weie 

Kynges fones tweie : 760 

pizt on him het harild, 

& pat oper berild. 

C. 739. After zvel an erasure oi longe ? MS. C. 741. Horn] n above line MS. 

C. 742. bileue] leue above line MS. C. 760. Aynges] s above the line MS. 



beryld hym con preye 
|)at he shulde feye 

what he wolde ]>ere 

ant what ys noma were 772 

C Godmod he fei)) ich hote 

yeomen out of })is bote 

wel fer from by wefle 

to feche myne befle 77^ 

beryld con ner him ryde 

ant toe hiw bi ))e bridal 

wel be ])o\i knyht )^ounde 

wi)j ma J)ou lef aftounde 780 

al fo ich mote flerue 

pe kyng })ou shalt ferue 

na feh y neuer alyue 

fo fair knyht her aryue 784 

godmod ha ladde to halle 

ant he adoun gan falla 

Ant fette him a knelyng [f. 88 r] 

ant grette \>ene gode kyng 788 

\>o faide beryld wel fone 

kyng wif> him f)ou all done 

|)ilond tac him to waria 

ne fhal \>e nomon derye 792 

for he is ^e feyrefle man 

})at euar in |)is londa cam 
^ \>o feide J>e kyng wel dere 

welcome be |)OU here 796 

go beryld wel fwyj)e 

& make hym wel bly})e 

ant when j)ou fareft to wowen 

tac him \>'me glouen 800 

J)er jjou haft munt to wyua 

a way he Ihal pe dryue 

for godmodes feyrheda 

shalt j)ou no war spede 804 

hit wes at cr/ftefmaffa 

nou|)er more no laffe 

]>e kyng made felta 

of his knyhtes befte 808 

Byrild him gan preye 
pat he fcholde feye 
Wat hys name were 
And qwat he wolde \>eTt 



Cuberd he feyde ich hote 

Come// fram \)e bote 

Fer fram bi wefte 

To chefen mine befte 

Byryld him gan ryde 800 

And tok hym by \>e hrz'del 

Wel be )50U knict her^? founde 

Whyt me bilaueft a ftounde 

So ich ne mote derue 804 

pe kyng |)ou fchal (erue 

Ne fay ich nau^re on lyue 

So fayr knyt aryue 

Cub^rt he ledde to halle 808 

And a doun gan falle 

He fette hym on knewlyng 

And grette wel pe gode king 

po feyde byrild wel fone 812 

Whit hym /jou hauez to done 

Tak hym \>i lond to werye 

Ne fchal hym noma« darye 

Ha hys )>a fayrefte man 816 

pat eu^re in J)if londe cam 

po feyde J)e king fo dere 

Wel come be he here 

Go nov byryld fwy))e 820 

An mak him glad and bly))e 

Wan }>ou fareft awowan 

Tak hym ))ine glouen 

per )>ou haueft Mynt to wyue 824 

Awey he fchal \>e dryue 

Hyt was at cr/ftemeffe [f. 224 r'^J 
Na))er more ne leffe 
pe king hym makede a fefte 828 
Wyt hyfe knyctes befte 

772. 5 ill 75 over an erasure MS. L. 8c6. no might be read ne MS. 

O. 813. /oti omit. MS. hauesl z above line MS. 




Berild g^an him preie 

p<ft he fcholde him feie, 764 

What his name were 

& what he wolde \>ere. 

' Culherd,' he fede, ' ihc hote, 

Icomew vt of \>e bote, 768 

Wei feor fram biwefle 
To feche mine befle.' 
Berild gan him nier ride 

& tok him bi ]>e bridcl ; 772 

' Wei beo \>ii knijt ifounde ! 
Wij) me \>u lef aliunde : 
Alfo mote i fl<?rue, 

pe king \>u fchalt sefue ; 776 

[f. 10 r*^] Ne fa; i neure my lyue 

So fair kni^t arj'ue.' 
Cutb^;-d heo ladde in to halle, 

& he a kne gan falle : 780 

He fette him a knewelyng 
& grette wel ]>e gode kyng. 
pawne fede Berild fone : 

'Sire king, of him \>u hafl to done, 784 

Bitak him f)i lond to werie, 
Ne fcha/ hit noman derie ; 
For he is J)e fairefte man 

p(/t eurejut on pi londe cam.' 788 

fl pa/zne fede ]>e ki;/g fo dere : 
' Welcome beo pu here. 
Cio nu, Berild, swi))e, 

& make him ful bV\]>e ; 792 

And whan |)u farst to woje, 
Tak him ))ine gloue ; 
Ime;n \>u hauefl to wyue, 

Avvai he fchal pe dryue ; 796 

For Cutberdes fairhede, 
Ne fchal ]>e neure wel fpede.' 
It was at Criflefmaffe, 
Neil^er more ne laffe ; 800 


C. 7S6. fchal^Jchat MS. 

C. 793. farsl\ t above the line MS. 



]>er com in at none 
a geaunt fuy|)e sone 
y armed of paynyme 
ant feide J)ife ryme 
fite kyng bi kynge 
ant herkne my tidynge 
her bue}) paynes aryue 
wel more pen fyue 
her bejj vpon honde 
kyng in ]>ine londe 
on J)er of wol fyhte 
to jeynes ))re knyhtes 
5ef oure \>re sleh ure on 
we fhulen of ore londe gon 
5ef vre on sleh oure ]>re 
al ]>\s lond shal vre be 





to morewe shal be ]>e fyhtynge 
at ))e fonne vpfpr/nge 
C[ ]>o feyde pe kyng })urflon 

godmod shal be ]>at on 828 

beryld shal be ))at o))er 

)ie J>ridde A))yld is broj^er 

for hue buej) flrongefle 

ant in armes ]>e befle 832 

ah wat shal vs to rede 

y wene we bue)) dede 

Godmod fet at borde 

ant feide |)eofe wordes 836 

fire kyng nis no ryhte 

on wi)) J)re fyhte 

a^eynes one hounde 

pre cr/ftcne to founde 840 

ah kyng yfhal alone 

wif) oute more ymone 

wij) my fuerd ful epe 

bringen hem alle to depe 844 

\>e kyng aros amorewe 

he hade muche forewe 

per com ate none 

A geaunt fwi])e fone 

Armed of paynime 832 

And feyde in hys rime 

Syte knytes by pe king 

And luflej) to my tydyng 

Here hep paynyms a ryued 836 

Wel mo |)a«ne fyue 

By pe fe flronde 

Kyng on |)ine londe 

One ))er of wille ich fyjte 840 

A5en ))i J)re knyctef 

5yf {jat houri? felle ))yne )>re 

Al f)is lond fchal vre be 

3yf Jjyne J)re fellen houre 844 

Al ))ys lond panne be jyure 

To morwe fchal be pe fyjtyng 

At pe (onne op ryfyng 

po feyde pe king })urflon 848 

Cubert he fchal be j^at on 

Ayld chyld |)at o))er 

pe |)rydde byryld hyfe brojier 

Hye Jire bejj pe ftrengefle 852 

And in armes pe befle 

At wat fchal do to rede 

Ich wene we ben alle dede 

Cubert set on borde 856 

And feyde ))if worde 

Syre king hyt m's no ryjcte 

On wi)) ))re to fyjcte 

Ac wille ich alone S60 

With oute/? ma«nes mone 
Mid my fwerd wel hepe 
Bringew hem alle to de))e 
pe kyng ros a morwe 864 

And hadde meche forwe 

L. 821. ztre'] oure MS. All this line and the first four words of 822 written 
over an- erasure. 

O. 832. a;w^c/ might be read flm/^c/. 




p/fr cam in at none 

A Ceauwt {u]>e fone, 

larmed fram paynyme, 

And feide ]>es ryme : 804 

' Site ftille, fire kyng, 

& herkne J)is tyjiyng : 

Her buf) pae//s ariued 

Wei mo })ane fiue : 808 

Her beoj) on ]>e fo//de, 

K'uig, vpon |)i londe, 

On of hew wile fijte 

Ajew })re kni5tes : 812 

3ef o\>er \>re flen vre, 

Al p\s lo«d beo joure : 

3ef vre on ouercome}) jour ))reo, 

A] f)is lond fchal vre beo. 816 

Tomoreje be pe fijtiz/ge, 

Whane pe lijt of daye fpr/nge.' 
IF pawne fade ))e kyng ))urflon : 

' Cutb^rd fchal beo pat on, 820 

[f. 10 v'] Berild fchal beo pai o))er, 

pe })ridde Alrid his brof)er. 

For hi beo)) pe ftrengeRe 

& of armes pe befle. 824 

Bute what fchal vs to rede ? 

Ihc wene we be)) alle dede.' 
IT Cutbcrd fat at borde 

& fede ))es wordes : 828 

' Sire ki/7g, hit nis no rijte 

On wi)) pre to fijte, 

Ajew one hu;/de 

pre cn'fie/i men to fonde. S^i 

Sire, ifchal al one 

Wi))ute more ymone 

Wi)) mi swerd wel epe 

Bringe hem ))re to de))e.' 836 

T pe kyng aros amoreje 

pat hadde muchel forje. 

O. 858. After Syre kyre MS. nis omit. MS. 
C. 82S. pes\ s above line MS. C. 830. pre]}* MS. 



godmod ros of bedde 
wif) amies he him (hredde 848 
his brunye he on cade 
& knutte hit wel fafle 
ant com hi;« to ]>e kynge 
at his vp ryfynge 852 

kyng quo)) he com to felde 
me forte byhelde 
hou we shule flyten 
ant to gedere smiten 856 

C riht at przme tide 
hy gonnen out to ryde 
hy founden in a grene 
a geaunt fwy|)e kene 860 

his feren him bifida 
))at day forto abyde 

Godmod hem gon afaylen 
nolde he nout faylen 864 

He 5ef duntes ynowe [f. 88 v] 

\>e payen fel yfvvowe 
ys feren gonnen hem w'\]> drawe 
for huere maifler wes neh flawe 868 
he feide knyht })ou refle 
a whyle 5ef })e lefle 
y ne heuede ner of monnes bond 
fo harde duntes in non lond 872 
bote of J)e kyng Murry 
pat was f\vij)e flurdy 
he wes of homes kenna 
y lloh him in fudenne 876 

f[ Godmod him gon agryfe 
ant his blod aryfe 
byforen him he seh flonde 
|)at drof him out of londa 880 

ant fader his aqualde 
he fmot him vnder fhelde 
he lokeda on is rynge 
ant ))ohte o rymenild ]>e 5ynge 884 
mid god fuard at \)e furfla 
he smot him ))Ourh \>e huerte 

Cubart rof of badde 

Wyt armef ha hym fchradde 

Hys brenye on /te cafle 868 

Laceda hyt wel fafle 

He cam bi forn pe gode king 

At hyfe op ryfyng [f. 224 v'] 

He feyda king com to felde 872 

Me for to byhelde 

Hou wa fcholen fy5te 

And to gy'dere bus dy5cte 

Ry5t at prz'me tyde 876 

He gnnne ham out ryda 

He founden in a grane 

A gaant fwyba kene 

Armed with fwerd by fide 880 

pe day for to abyda 

Cubart him gan afayla 

Wolda he nawt fayle 

He keyte duntes ynowa 884 

pa gaant fal hy fwowa 

Hys faren gonnen hem wyt drawe 

po here mayft^r wa flawa 

Ha fayden knyct ])o rafla 888 

A wile 5yf \>e lufle 

Wa neuere ne hente 

Of man fo harde dunta 

Bute of Ipe king Mory 892 

pat was fo fwyj^e flordy 

He was of hornef kinna 

Wa flowe hym in fodanne 

Cubard gan a grzTe 896 

And hys blod a ryfa 

By for hym he fey flonde 

pat drof hym out of londe 

And hyf fa.der aqualde 900 

He fmot hym hondifr fchelda 

He lokeda on hys gode ringe 

And f)Oute on raymyld ]>e ■^onge 

Myd goda dunt ate furfla 904 

Ha fmot hym to \>e herte 

O. 868. Ae] ke MS. 

O. 870. He] Ke MS. O. 888. After rejle pt MS. 

O. 891. After man ?te/ hgnde MS. 


& Cutbt'rd ros of bedde 

Wif) amies he him fchredde ; 840 

Horn his brunie gan on cafle, 
& lacede hit wel fafle, 
& caw to ]>e ki;/ge 

At his vp rifinge. 844 

' Ki/zg,' he fede,. ' cw/i to feh/e 
For to bihelde 
Hu we fi5te fchulle, 

& togare go wuile.' 848 

Ri^t at prime tide 
Hi gu;/ne;/ vt ride, 
And {\inden on a grene 

A geauwt su})e kene, 852 

His feren hiw bifide 
Hore de)) to abide. 
U pe ilke bataille 

Cutb^rd gan affaille : 856 

He 5af de/ztes inoje, 

pe kni5tes felle ifwo^e. 

His dent he gan wifjdraje, 

For hi were nej aflaje : 860 

& fede, ' kni^tes, nu 36 refle 

One while ef 50U iefle.' 

Hi fede hi neure nadde 

Of kni5te dcntes fo harde ; 864 

He was of homes ku«ne, 
Iborn in Suddenne. 
IT Horn hi;;/ ga« to agr/fe, 

& his blod arife. 868 

Biuo hi;;/ fa5 he fl.o;/de 

])at driue;/ hi;;; of lo;;de, 

& \)at his fader {[o^ ; 

To hi;;/ his fwerd he droj, 872 

He lokede on his rynge 

& |;o3te on Rymenhilde, 

He fmot him |)ure5 J>e herte, 

O. 902. After /tys eg MS. 

C. %4,i. felde\fd IVIS. C. 85S, ifwoie\ e above line MS. 




]>e payns bigonne to fleon 
ant to huere shype teon 
to ship hue wolden erne 
godmod hena con werne 


\>e kynges fones tweyne 

]>e paienf flowe beyne 892 

J;o wes Godmod fwy))e wo 

ant ]>e payens he fniot fo 

]>at in a lutel flounde 

])e paiens hy felle to grounde 896 

godmod ant is men 

slowe ))e payenes eueruchen 

his fader de)? & ys lond 

awrek godmod \vi]> his hond 900 

])e kyng wi)) reuj)ful chere 

lette leggen is fonef on here 

ant bringen horn to halle 

muche forewe hue maden alle 904 


pe hondes gonnen at erne 
In to J)e fchypes flerne 
To fchip he woldew jerne 
And cubert he;;z gan werne 


And feyde kyng fo |)0u haue refle 

Clep nou for)) ofc ]>'} befle 

And fle we J)yfe hounden 9 1 2 

Here we he«ne founden 

pe houndcs hye of laucte 

An flrokes hye l^ere kaute 

Fafle a5en hye ftode [f. 224 V''] 916 

Ajen duntef gode 

Help nawht here wonder 

Cubert hem broute al bonder 

He fchedde of here blode 920 

And makede hem al wode 

To de|)e he hem browte 
Hyf fad^'r dcj) he bowten 

Of al J)e kingef rowe 
per naf Bute fewe flawe 
Bote hys fones tweye 
By fore he fey deye 
pe king bi gan to grete 
And teres for to lete 
Men leydew hem on here 
And ledde hew wel ))ere 



L. 887. Jleo7i\ I corrected out of e MS. 

L. 893. Godmod] G corrected out of h MS. 

O. iji^.Jlrokes] r above the line MS. 

wo over an erasure. 



\\n fore him gan to fmerte ; 876 

pe paens pat er were fo flurne, 
Hi gu«ne awei vrne. 

[f. 10 V-] Horn & his compaynye 

Gu«ne aftt'r hew wel f\vi|)e hije, 880 

& flojen alle \)e hundes 
Er hi here fchipes funde. 

To dejie he hew alle brojte, 

His fader dej) wel dere hi bo3te: 884 

Of alle pe kynges knijtes 

Ne fcapede per no wi3te, 

Bute his fones tweie 

Bifore him he faj deie. 888 

pe ki^/g h\ga.n to grete 

& teres for to lete : 

Me leide;^ hem in bare 

iS-^ burden hem ful 5are. 892 

O. 920. After /icre ho MS. 

O. 925. After uafnon hy MS. Bute] te above line MS. 

C. 886. per]J)Qx cr'Us.' C. S92. ^] j MS. 

E 2 



in a chirche of lym & flon 
me buriede hem wij) ryche won 
C ]ie kyng lette forj) calle 

hife knyhtes alle 908 

ant feide godmod jef ])0U nere 

alle ded we were 

J)OU art boJ)e god & feyr 

her ymake \)e myn heyr 912 

for my fones hue)) yflawe 

ant ybroht of lyf dawe 

dohter ich habbe one 

nys non fo feyr of blod ant bone g 1 6 

Ermenild J)at feyre may 

bryht so eny fomeres day 

hire wolle ich :5eue jie 

ant her kyng shalt Jou be 920 

he feyde more ichul ))e ferue 
kyng er ]>en |)ou flerue 

when y ]>y dohter ^erne 
heo ne shal me nojjyng weme 924 
CE godmod wonede \>ere 
fulle six 5ere 
ant pe feue))e 5er bygon 

In to holy kyrke 932 

So ma.n fcholde werke 

Pe king cam hom to halle 
Among ]>e kniyctes alle 
Do cubert he feyde 936 

Af ich ])e wolle rede 

Dede be)> myn heyres 

And ))Ou ))e boneyres 

And of grete flreng})e 940 

Swete and fayr of leng|)e 

Mi reaume |iou fchalt helde 

And to fpufe welde 

Hermenyl my douti^r 944 

pat fyt in bourf fofte 

He feyde king wit wronge 

Scholde ich hire bonder fonge 

ping \>at \>o\i me bede 948 

And |?y reaume lede 

At more ich wile ]>e (erue 

And fro forwe ]ie berwe 

py forwe hyt fchal wende 952 

Her ))is feue 5eref hende 

And wa;/ne he bej) wente 

Kyng ^y/ J)ou me my rente 

Wan ich J)i dout^r heme 956 

Ne fchalt J)Ou hire me werne 

Horn child wonede ]>ere 
Fulle fixe yere 
pe feucnjie })at cam J)e nexte 960 

After f-e fexte 

[f 225 r>] 

L. 917, 918. On the inner margin MS. O. 955. ^yf] ^y^MS. 

O. 961. MVa fexte yeref hcnde MS. 



% pe ki;/g cow ]/t to halle 
Amowg his knijtes alle. 
' Horn,' he fede, ' ifeie \>e, 
Do as ifchal rede )je. 896 

Aflaje/z hep mine heirs, 

& ]>u art knijt of muchel pris, 

& of grt'te (l;-t'ng))e, 

& fair o bodie lengj)e. 900 

Mi Re«gne \>\i fchalt vvelde, 
& to fpufe helde 
Reynild mi dorter, 

pat fitte}> on J)e lofte.' 904 

IT ' O fire ki«g, wij) wro«ge 
Scholte ihc hit vnd^rfo«ge, 
pi do-^ter pat je me bade, 

Ower rewgne for to lede. 908 

Wei more ihc fchal ]>e ferue, 
Sire kyng, or ]>u flerue ; 
pi sorwe fchal wende 

Or feue jeres ende; 912 

Wanne hit is wente, 
Sire king, jef me mi rente : 
Wha/me i J)i dojter 3eme 

Ne fchaltu me hire werne.' 916 

Cutbd^rd wonede pere 
Fulle feue jere, 

C. 894. kiiijies] s above the line MS. C. 908. /or above the line MS. 

C. 916. vjitrtie with e written above u MS. 



to rymynyld fonde ne fende he non 

rymenyld wes in weflneffe 929 

wi)> muchel foreweneffe 

a kyng ]>er wes aryue 

ant wolde hyre han to wyue 932 

at one were ]>e kynges 

of \>at weddynge 

]>e dayes were fo fherte 

ant rymenild ne derfle 936 

latten on none wyfe 

a wryt hue dude deuyfe 

A))ulf hit dude wryte 

j)at horn ne louede nout lyte 940 

hue fende hire fonde 

in to eueruche londe 

to fechen horn knyhte 

wher fo er me myhte 944 

Horn \eT of nout herde 

til o day ^at he ferde 

to wode forte fhete 

a page he gan mete 948 

Horn feide leue fere 

whet defl J)ou nou here 

Sire in lutel fpelle [f. 89 r] 

y may \>e fone telle 952 

Ich feche from weflneffe 

horn knyht of eflneffe 

ffor rymenild \>at feyre may 

forewej) for him nyht & day 956 

A kyng hire shal wedde 

a fonneday to bedde 

Kyng Mody of reynis 

]>at is homes enimis 960 

ich habbe walked wyde 

by ]>e see fide 

ne mihte ich hiw neuer cleche 

wi|) nones kunnes fpeche 964 

To Reymyld he ne we«de 
Ne to hyrt' fende 

Reymyld was in weflneffe 964 

Myd michel forweneffe 

A kyng fier was aryuede 

pat wolde hyre habbe to wyue 

At fone ware ]>e kynges 968 

Of hyre weddinges 

pe dawes weren fchorte 

And reymyld ne dorfte 

Lette in none wife 972 

A writ he dede deuife 

Ayol hyt dide write 

pat horn ne louede nawt lite 

And to eu^ryche londe 976 

For horn hym was fo longe 

After horn J)e knycte 

For ))at he ne Myjte 

Horn per of ne ))oute 980 

Tyl on a day })at he ferde 

To wode for to feche 

A page he gan mete 

He feyde leue fere 984 

Wat fekefl )jou here 

Knyt feyr of felle 

Qwat J)e page y wole })e telle 

Ich feke fram weflneffe 988 

Horn knyt of eflneffe 

For {)e mayde reymyld 

pat for hym ney waxe}» wild 

A kyng hire fchal wedde 992 

A foneday to bedde 

Kyng mody of reny 

pat was homes enemy 

Ich haue walked wide 996 

By j)e fe fyde 

Ich neuere myjt of reche 

Whit no londiffe fpeche 

L. 944. ll'ker] Whe MS. 

L. 949. After Horn two letters erased MS. 



\)at to Rymenild he ne fcnte 

Ne him Iclf ne wente. 920 

Rymenild was in Weft^vmeffe 
Wi]) wel muchcl forineffe. 
IT A king ])ir gan ariue 

pf^t wolde hire haue to wyue : 924 

Aton he was w\\> \>e k;i«g 

Of ]>at ilke weddi;/g. 

pe daies were fchorte, 

pat Rimtwhild ne dorfte 928 

Lete« in none wife ; 

A writ he dude deuife, 

AJ)ulf hit dude write 

pat horn ne hmede nojt lite. 932 

Heo fe;/de hire fo/zde 

To eutveche londe, 

To feche horn f)e kni3t 

ptr me him fi«de mijte. 936 

Horn no5t per of ne herde, 
Til o dai \)at he ferde 
[f. 1 1 r^] To wude for to fchete ; 

A knaue he gan imete. 940 

Horn fede«, ' leue fere, 

Wat fecheflu here ? ' 

'Kni3t, if beo J)i wille 

Imai \>e fone telle. 944 

I feche fraw biwelle 

Horn of Wederneffe, 

For a Maiden Rymenhild 

pat for him gan wexe wild. 948 

A ki«g hire wile wedde 

& bri;/ge to his bedde, 

Ki«g Modi of Reynes, 

On of homes enemis. 952 

I he habbe waike wide 

Bi ]>e fe fide ; 

C. 950. /its'] s above the line MS. 

C. 952. homes enemis] s, s both above the line MS. 



ne may ich of him here 
in londe fer no nere 

wey la way \>e while 
him may hente gyle 

41 Horn hit herde w\\> earen 
ant spec w\]> wete tearen 
so wel grom ]>e bitide 
horn flond by J)i syde 
a3eyn to rymenild turne 
& fey \>at hue ne murne 
yfhal be ]>er bitime 
a fonneday er pr/me 
\>e page wes wel bly|)e 
& shipede wel fuy|)e 
\>e see him gon adrynke 
\)at rymenil may of})inke 
pe see him con ded J)rowe 
vnder hire chambre wowe 

rymenild lokede wide 
by J)e see syde 
3ef heo feje horn come 
o))er tidynge of eny gome 
))o fond hue hire fonde 







adronque by |)e flronde 
|)at shulde horn brynge 
hire hondes gon hue wrynge 
^ Horn com to Jjurflon ]>& kynge 
ant tolde hun |)es tidynge 992 

ant )»o he was biknowe 
j)at rymenild wes ys owe 
ant of his gode kenne 
]>& kyng of sudenne 
ant hou he sloh afelde 
hi;« J)rtt is fader aquelde 


Nis he nower founde 
A weylawey })e flounde 


Reymyld wor|) by gile 

Weylawey ))e wile 

Horn hyt herde with eren 1004 

And wep with blody teren 

So wel ])e grom by tide [f. 225 r-] 

Horn flant by )>y fyde 

A5en to reymyld turne 1008 

And fey |)at he ne morne 

Ich fchal ben ))er by tyime 

A foneday by pr/me 

pe page was bly])e 1012 

And fchepede wel fwy))e 

pe fe hym gan to drenche 

Reymyld hyt My^t of })inche 

pe fe hym gan op J)rowe 10 16 

Hondt'r hire boures wowe 

Reymyld gan dore vn pynne 

Of boure ))at he was ynne 

And lokede for)) rijcte 1020 

Aft^r horn J)e knyte 

po fond hye hir^ fonde 

Drenched by ]?e flronde 

pat fcholde horn bringe 1024 

Hyre fingres hye gan wringe 

Horn cam to )>urflon \>q kinge 

And telde hym hys tydinge 

So he was by cnowe 1028 

pat reymyld waf hif owe 

L. ySi. see omit. MS. 



Nis he nowar ifu//de : 

Walawai \>e flu//cle ! 956 

Wailavvay |>e while ! 

Nu wurj) Rymenild bigiled.' 

Horn iherde wij) his ires, 

& fpak wi|) bidere tires; 960 

' Knaue, wel J)e bitide, 

Horn flo7?de|) \>e bifide ; 

Aje/? to hure \>u turne 

& feie }>at heo ne mume, 964 

For ifchal beo \>er bitime, 

A soneday bi pryme.' 

pe knaue was wel blij)e 

& hi3ede ajen bliue. 968 

pe fe bigan to ))ro3e 

Vnder hire wo5e. 

pe knaue |)ere gan adrinke : 

Rymewhild hit mijte ofJ)i;/ke. 972 

Rymenhild vndude ^e dure pin 

Of \>e hus per heo was in, 

To loke wij) hire i3e 

If heo ojt of horn ifije. 976 

po fo;/d heo pe knaue ad rent 
p(/t he hadde for horn ife«t, 

& pat fcholde horn bringe. 

Hire fingres he gan wri;?ge. 980 

1^ Horn cam to fiurflon pe kyng. 
& tolde him })is tif)ing. 
po he was iknowe 

pat Rim^;/h//(/ was hif oje, 984 

Of his gode ke;/ne, 
pe ki«g of Suddenne, 
& hu he flo3 in felde 
pat his fader q/z^lde. 988 

C. 967. />/i/>e] e above the line MS. C. y6S. a^oi above line MS. 

C. 970. o/"above line MS. C. 981. purJlon''\ r above line MS. 



ant feide Kyng fo wyfe 

jeld me my feruice looo 

rymenild help me to wjmne 

swyjie pat ])ou ne blynne 

ant yfhal do to houfe 

]>y dohter wel to spoufe 1004 

for hue shal to fpoufe haue 

AJ)ulf my gode felawe 

he is knyht mid \>e befle 

& on of pe trewefle 1008 

]>e kyng feide so ftille 

horn do al ]>i wille 

he fende \>o by fonde 

5end al is londe 1012 

after knyhtes to fyhte 

pat were men so lyhte 

to him come ynowe 

pat in to shipe drowe 1016 

C Horn dude hwi in pe weye 
in a gret galeye 

pe wynd bi gon to blowe 

in a lutel |)rowe 1020 

pe see bi gan wij) fhip to gon 

to weftneffe he?;? brohte anon 

hue flr/ken seyl of mafle 

ant ancre gonnen cafle 1024 

matynes were yronge 

& pe maffe yfonge 

of rymenild pe 5ynge 
& of Mody pe kynge 1028 

ant horn wes in watere 
ne mihte he come no latere 
he let is fhip ftonde 
ant com hi;;/ vp to londe 1032 
his folk he made abyde 
vnder a wode fyde 
C Horn eode forh al one [f. 89 v] 
so he sprong of pe flone 1036 

He feyde kyng fo wife 

3eld me my feruyl'e 

Reymyld me help to winne 1032 

pat J)ou ith nowt ne lynne 

And hy fchal to houfe 

py dout^;' do wel fpufe 

He fchal to fpoufe haue 1036 

Ayol My trewe felawe 

He hys knyt wyt pe befle 

And on of pe trewefle 

po feyde pe kyng fo ftille io-|o 

Horn do |)ine wille 

Horn fe«te hyf fonde 
In to eu^ryche londe 
After men to fy^te 1044 

Hyrifche men fo wy^te 
To hym were come hy nowe 
pat in to fchipe drowe 
Horn tok hyf pr.2ye 1048 

And dude hi/;/ in hys weye 

Here fcyp gan for J) feyle 

pe wynd hym nolde fayle [f. 225 v'J 

He flriken feyl of mafle 
And anker he go«ne kafle 
pe foneday was hy (pron^e 
And pe meffe hy fonge 



Of reymylde pe jonge 

And of mody pe kinge 

And horn was in watere 

Myjt he come no laXere 

He let fcyp flonde 1060 

And jede hym op to londe 

Hys folc he dide abyde 

Hond^r pe wode fyde 

He wende for)) alone 1064 

So he were fpronge of flone 

L, looi ^elp over an erasure MS. O. 1049, /n in added in the margin MS. 
O. 1050. forP\ r inserted under line MS. 


& feide : ' ki//g pe wife, 
3eld me mi St-mife, 
Rymcv/hild help mc \vi//ne, 

pat ]>u no5t ne li//ne : 992 

& ifchal do to fpufe 
pi do-^ter wel to hufe ; 
Heo fchal to fpufe hauc 

A|)ulf mi gode felaje, 996 

God knijt mid \>e bade 
& J)e tr^wefle.' 
pe ki;/g fede fo flille : 

' Horn, haue nu ))i wille.' 1000 

[f. II r] He dude writes fe«de 

In to yrlonde 
Aft^r knijtes lijte, 

Iriffe men to fi5te. 1004 

To horn come inoje, 
pr?t to fchupe droje. 

Horn dude him in J)e weie 

On a god Galeie. 1008 

pe luijid him gan to blowe 

In alitel |)ro5e. 

pe fe bigan to poffe 

Ri3t vi to Wefl^; neffe. 1012 

Hi flr/ke feil & made 

& Ankere gu«ne cafte. 

Or eny day was fpruwge 

0\cr belle iru«ge 10 16 

pe word bigan to fpr/nge 

Of Ryme«hilde weddi«ge. 

Horn was \n |)e wat^re, 

Ne mi3te he come no latere. 1020 

He let his fchup ftowde, 

& jede to londe. 

His folk he dude abide 

Vnder wude fide: 1024 

Hor« hiw jede alone, 

Alfo he fprunge of flone. 

O. 1054. /P^oiige\fp with erasure of two letters following MS. 
C. 992. ne above line MS. C. 1009. wuhi omit. MS. C. 1025. Horji] Ilor MS. 



en palmere he y mette 
& wi|) wordes hyne grette 
palmere ))ou shalt me telle 
he feyde of J»ine spelle 
so brouke J)ou ])i croune 
why comefl J)OU from toune 
ant he seide on is tale 
y come from a brudale 
from brudale wylde 
of maide remenylde 

ne mihte hue nout dre3e 
Jjrtt hue ne wep w'\\> eje 
hue seide pat hue nolde 
be spoufed wij) golde 
hue hade hofebonde 
))ah he were out of londe 

ich wes in \>e halle 
wi]) inne \>e caftel walle 







a wey ygon glide 
J>e dole ynolde abyde 
J>er worj) a dole reuly 
))e brude wepej) bitterly 

quojj horn fo cr/ft me rede 
we woUeJ) chaunge wede 
tac [;ou robe myne 
ant 3e sclaueyn jjyne 

To day yfhal ]>er drynke 
})at fumme hit shal of Jjynke 1064 
sclaueyn he gon doun legge 
& horn hit dude on rugge 
ant toe homes clo|)es 
\>a.t nout him were lo})e 
CE horn toe bordoun & fcr/ppe 
ant gan to wrynge is lippe 


A palmere he mette 

\\"yt worde he hym gr^'tte 

Palmare |)ou fchalt me telle 1068 

He feyde on J)ine fpelle 

So brouke ))ou \>\ croune 

Wi comefl \>o\i fram toune 

pe palmere feyde on hys tale 1072 

Hy com fram on bridale 

Ich com fram brode hylde 

Of Mayden reymylde 

Fram hondi?r chyrche wowe 1076 

pe gan louerd owe 

Ne miyjte hye hyt dreye 

pat hye wep wyt eye 

He feyde ])at hye nolde 1080 

Be fpoufed Myd golde 

Hye hadde hofebonde 

pcy he nere nawt in londe 

Mody Myd flrenc|)e hyrc hadde 

And in to toure ladde 1085 

In to a flronge halle 

Whit inne kaflel walle 

per ich was attegate 1088 

Mofle ich nawt in rake 

Awey ich gan glyde 

pe de)) ich nolde abyde 

per wor|) a rewlich dole 1092 

per \)e bryd wepe)> fore 

Palmare qwad horn fo god me rede 
Ich and J)ou willed chaunge« wede 

Tac ))0U me ))i fclauyne [f. 225 v'^J 
And haue ))ou cloJ)ef myne 1097 
To day ich fchal ])ere drynke 
Som man hyt fchal of ))inke 
pe fclavyn he gan doun legge 1 1 00 
And horn hyt dide on rigge 
pe palmere tok hyf clo})es 
pat ne weren hym nowt \o]>e 1 103 

Horn toe burdoun and fcr/ppe 
And gan wringe hyf lippe 



A palmtv-e he \>av mette, 

& faire hine grette : 1028 

' Palmare, \>u fchalt me telle 

Al of J)ine fpelle.' 

He fede vpon his tale : 

'I come fram o brudale ; 1032 

I he was at o wedding; 

Of a Maidc Ryme«hild : 

Ne mi5te heo adrije 

])at heo ne vveop wij) ije : 1036 

Heo fede ]>at heo nolde 

Ben ifpufed \vi|) golde, 

Heo hadde on hufebonde 

pej he were vt of lo«de. 1040 

& \/t {irorxg halle, 

Bi|ii;me cartel walle, 

ptr iwas atte 3ate, 

Nolde hi me in late. 1044 

Modi ihote hadde 

To bure J)(?t me hire ladde. 

Awai igan glide, 

p^i't deol inolde abide. 1048 

pe bride wepe)) fore, 
& ]>at is muche deole.' 
IT Qua)) horn : ' so crt'R me rede, 

We fchuUe chau;/gi wede : 1052 

Haue her clo))es myne, 
& talc me |)i fclauyne. 

Today ifchal ))er drinke 

p^7t feme hit fchulle of)'] nice.' 1056 

His fclauyn he dude dun legge, 

& tok hit on his rigge : 

He tok horn his clo}-es, 

pat nere him nojt lojie. 1060 

Horn tok burdon & fcrippe, 

& wro;7g his lippe. 



he made foule ch&re 

& bicollede is fwere 1072 

he com to \t 5ateward 

^a\. him onfuerede frovvard 

horn bed vn do wel fofte 

moni tyme ant ofte 1076 

ne myhte he yvvynne 

forto come ))er ynne 

horn })e wyket pufle 

))at hit open flufte 1080 

J)e porter shulde abugge 

he })re\v him a doun f)e brugge 

j)at )>re ribbes crakede 

horn to halle rakede 1084 

ant fette him doun wel lowe 

in J)e beggeres rowe 

he lokede aboute 

myd is collede snoute 1088 

J)er feh he rymenild fitte 

afe hue were out of wytte 

wepinde fore 

ah he seh nower f)ore 1092 

A})ulf is gode felawe 

J)at trewe wes in vch plawe 

^ a|)ulf wes o tour ful heh 

to loke fer & eke neh 1096 

after homes comynge 

jef water him wolde brynge 

)je see he seh flowe 

ah horn nower rowe iioo 

he feyde on is fonge 

horn |)ou art to longe 

Rymenild ))ou me bitoke 

))at ich hire shulde loke 1104 

He makede a foul cher^ 
And kewede hys fwere 

He cam to \e gateward iioS 

pat hym anfwered hard 

He bed ondo wel fofte 

Fele {y^e and ofte 

My5te he nowt wynne 1 1 1 2 

For to come ))er i«ne 

Horn gan to ))e yate turne 

And })e wyket op fpurne 

pe porter hyt fcholde abygg.? 1 1 1 6 
He pugde hym ofer ))e hrigge 
pat hys ribbes go;men krake 
And horn gan in to halle rake 
He fette hym wel lowe 1120 

In beggeres rowe 
He loked al aboute 
Mid hys kelwe fnowte 
He fey Reymyld fytte 1124 

Al fo hy were of witte 
Wyt droupnynde chere 
pat was hys le;;zma« dere 

He lokede in eche halke 11 28 

Sey he nowere flalke 

Ayol hys trewe felawe 

pat trewe was and ful of lawe 

Ayol was op \n touri? 11 32 

Aboute for to pour^ 

Mter homes cominge 

5yf wat^r hym wolde bringe 

pe fe he fey flowe 11 36 

And horn nower rowe 

He feyde in hyf fonge 

Horn J)ou art to longe 

Reymyld ))ou me by toke 1140 

pat ich hyr^ fcholde loke [f. 226 r'] 

li. 1071. chere] che MS. 



He makcdc h\/n a ful chere 

& al bicolmcde his swere. 1064 

He makedc hiw vn bicomelich, 
Hes he nas neuremore ilich. 
^ He com to |)c gateward 

\^at hiw anfwerede hard. 1068 

Horn bad vndo fofte 
Mani tyme & ofte ; 
Ne mi3te he avvynne 

p^^t he come \)ernir\e. 1072 

[f. II v'] Horn gan to })e ^ate turne 

& |)i^t wikct vnfpurne ; 

pe boye hit fcholde abugge, 

Horn ))reu him ouer ))e brigge, 1076 

p<it his ribbes him to brake, 

& fu))}5e com in atte gate. 

He fette him wel loje 

In begg^res rowe ; 1080 

He lokede him abute, 

Wij> his colmie fnute. 

He fe5 Rymewhild fitte 

Afe heo were of witte 1084 

Sore wepinge & jerne : 

Ne mijte hure noman wurne. 

He lokede in eche halke, 

Ne fe; he novvhar walke 1088 

A])ulf his fclawe, 

p<?t he c\i\e knowe. 

Af)ulf was in J)e ture 

Abute for to pure 1092 

Afttv- his comynge, 

3ef fchup \\\/n wolde bridge. 

He fej |)e fe flowe 

& horn nowar rowe. 1096 

He fede vpon his fonge : 

' Horn, nu ))u ert wel longe. 

Ryme;zhild })u me toke 

p(;t ifcholde loke. iioo 

O. 1 1 13. /lei-] r above the line MS. 



I I 12 

Ich haue yloked euere 
& |)ou ne comefl neuere 

Rymenild ros of benche 

\>e bedr al forte shenche . 1108 

after mete in sale 

bo))e wyn & ale 

an horn hue ber an honde 

for f)rtt wes lawe of londe 

hue drone of ]>e b^ere 

to knyht & (kyere 

horn fet at grounde 
him fjohte he wes ybounde 11 16 
C he feide quene fo hende 
to me hydeward j)ou wende 
})ou shenh vs \vi]> \>e vurfle [ f. 90 r] 
\>e beggares bue|) afurfle 1120 

hyre horn hue leyde a doune 
ant fulde him of pe broune 
a boUe of a galoun 
hue wende he were a glotoun 1 1 24 
hue feide tac )>e coppe 
ant drync J)is ber al vppe 
ne seh y neuer y wene 
beggare so kene 1128 

horn toe hit hife yfere 
& feide quene so dere 
no beer nullich ibite 
bote of coppe white 11 32 

\>ou wenefl, ich be a beggere 
ywis icham a fyffhere 
wel fer come by wefle 
to feche mine befle 11 36 

Min net lyht her wel hende 
wij) inne a wel feyr pende 
Ich haue leye ))ere 
nou is J)is ]?e feue|)e 5ere 1140 

Ich haue hire yloked eu^re 
And )>ou ne comefl neutre 

Reymyld rof of benche 
pe knyjtes for to fchenche 


An horn hye ber on honde 
As hyt was lawe of londe 
Hye drank of ]>e. bere 1148 

To knyt and to fquier^ 

And horn fet on })e grunde 
Hym J)Oute he was bounde 
He feyde quen fo hende 
To meward gyn f)ou wende 
Schenk hus Myd |)e furfle 
pe beggeres be)) of })crfle 
pe horn hye leyde a doune 
And fulde hem of J)e broune 
A boUe of one galun 
Hye wende hye were a glotoun 

1 1 

1 1 56 

Nym ))ou )>e coppe 
And drinkyt al oppe 
Sey ich neuere ich wene 
Beggere fo bold and kene 
Horn tok \>e coppe hyf fere 
And feyde quen fo dere 
No drynk nel ich bite 
Bote of one coppe wite 
pou wenfl ich be a beggeri? 
For gode ich am a fy5ffer^ 
Hy come fram by wefle 
To fy3en an \)i fefle 
My net hys ney honde 
In a wel fayr ponde 
Hyt hat hy be here 
Al }>is feue jere 

1 160 

1 164 


1 172 

L. 1 107. benche'] b over an erasure MS. O. 1 1.^9. ivere corr. out of iaere MS. 



Ihc habbe ikept hure cure : 
Com nu o|)er ncure. 
Ine may no le;/g hure kepc, 

For fore^e nu y wepe.' 1104 

H Rymenhild Ros of benche 
Wyn for to fchenche, 
Aftt-r mete in (ale, 

bo))e wyn & ale. 1108 

On horn he bar anhonde, 
So laje was i« londe. 

Knijtes & fquier 

AUe dronke« of pe ber. 1 1 1 2 

Bute horn alone 
Nadde ]>ern{ no mone, 
Horn fat vpo« \>e grunde, 

Him ))U5te he was ibu;;de. 11 16 

He fede : ' qi^en fo he«de, 
Tomeward ]>u wende ; 
pu jef vs wi)) ]>e furfi.e, 

pe beggeres beo}) of|)urfi:e.' 11 20 

% Hure horn heo leide adun 
& fulde him of a brun 
His bolle of a galun, 

For heo vvende he were a glotoun. 1124 

He feide : ' haue ))is cuppe 
& |)is f)i;?g J)i?r vppe. 
Ne faj ihc neure, fo ihc wene, 

Beggere f)at were fo kene.' 11 28 

[f. II v'-] Horn tok hit his ifere, 

& fede : ' qucn fo dere, 
Wyn nolle ihc Muche ne lite 

Bute of cuppe white. 1132 

pu wenefl ibeo a beggere, 
& ihc am a fiffere, 
Wei feor icome bi efle 

For fiffen at \>i fefle : 11 36 

Mi net lij) her bi honde, 
Bi a wel fair ftronde, 
Hit ha)) ileie ]>ere 
Fulle feue jere. 11 40 

C. 1 1 1 2. dronken\ above line MS. C. 1 1 16. he above line MS. 



Icham icome to loke 

jef eny fyffh hit toke 

5ef eny fyffh is ])er inne 

J)er of l^ou shalt wynne 1144 

ffor icham come to fyffh 

drynke nully of dyffh 

drynkt' to horn of home 

vvel fer ich haue y orne 1148 

C Rymenild hi;// gan bihelde 

hire herte fel to kelde 

ne kneu hue noht is f)d"fhyng 

ne hi;// felue nof)yng 1152 

ah wonder hyre gan f)ynke 

why for horn he bed drynke 

hue fulde ])e horn of wyne 

ant dronk^ to J)at pelrj'ne 1156 

hue feide drync pi felle 

& fe))})en |70u me telle 

jef ))ou horn euer fe3e 

vnder wode le5e 1160 

^ Horn drone of horn aflounde 

ant ))reu is ryng to grounde 

ant feide queue J)ou f)ench 

what y freu in pe drench 1164 

^e quene code to boure 

mid hire maidnes foure 

hue fond jjat hue wolde 

]>e ryng ygraued of golde 1168 

^at horn of hyre hedde 

fol fore hyre adredde 

Jjat horn ded were 

for his ryng was }>ere 1172 

J)o fende hue a damoifele 

after |)ilke palmere 

palmare quo)> hue fo trewe 

Jie ryng pat Jjou yn J)rewe 1176 

J)OU fey wer J)ou hit nome 

ant hyder hou })ou come 

he feyde by feint gyle 

ich eode mony a myle 11 80 

Hyc am hy come to loke 1176 

3if any he toke 

3yf any fy5f hys |)erynne 

per of })ou winne 

Ich am hy come to fyjffe 11 80 

Drink to me of ]>y diffe 

Drynk to horn of horn 

For ich habbe hy 5ouren 

Reymyld hym gan by holde 11 84 

And hyrd? herte to kolde 

Ney5 he nowt hys fyffyng [f. 226r-] 

Ne hym felue no )>yng 

Wonder hyre gan |)ynke 1188 

Wy he hyre bed drynke 

He fulde horn ]>e wyn 

And dronk to ]>e pyleg/Vm 

Palmere })0u dr/nke ]>y fuUe 1192 

And fy))e fiou fchalt telle 

3yf )>ou horn awt feye 

Hond^'/' wode leye 

Horn drank of horn a ftounde 
and Jrew hys ryng to ])e 
grounde 1197 

He feyde quen nou feche 
Owat hys in py drenche 
Reymild 5ede to bour^ 1200 

Wyt hyre maydenef four^ 
He fond J)at he wolde 
A ryng hy grauen of golde 
pat horn of hyre hadde 1204 

Wei fore hyre of dradde 
pat horn child ded were 
For J)e ry«g was \>ere 
po fende hye a damyfele 1208 
Adoun aft^r ]>e palmare 
Palm,?re hye feyde fo trewe 
pe ryng |50u here J)rewe 
Sey war ))ou ith nome 121 2 

And hyder wi |)ou come 
He feyde by feynt gyle 
Ich aue hy go mani amyle 

L. 1142. Ki\.tx fyJJJi an erasure of two words, probably _y toke, MS. 

L. 1146. nkc null over an erasure MS. 

L. 1 147, 1156. drynke, dronke both with contraction for es MS. 



Ihc am icome to loke 
Ef eni fiff hit toke. 

Ihc am icome to fiffe : 

Dri«k to me of diffe, 1144 

Drink to horn of home : 

Feor ihc am i orne.' 

Rymewhild hi;« gan bihelde, 

Hire heorte bigan to chelde. 1148 

Ne kneu heo no5t his fiffing, 

Ne horn hym felue no|)ing : 

Ac wu«der hire gan ))inke 

Whi he bad to horn drinke. 1152 

Heo fulde hire horn \\''\\> wyn 

& dronk to \)e pilegrj'm. 

Heo fede : ' driwk ))i fulle, 

& fu})})e J)u me telle 1156 

If ])U eure ifije 

•Horn- vnder wude lije.' 

Horn dro;/k of horn a flu«de 

& ))reu ])e ring to gruwde. 1160 

pe quen 5ede to bure 

Wij) hire maidenes foure. 

po fo«d heo what heo wolde, 

A ri//g igrrtuen of golde 1164 

p(7t horn of hure hadde ; 

Sore hure dradde 

pat horn iflerue were, 

For ))e Ri«g was )>ere. 1168 

po fe«te heo a damefele 

Aft^r J)e palmare ; 

' Palm^'re,' qtra]) heo, ' trewe, 

pe ri«g ])at \>u jjrewe, 1 1 7 2 

pu feie whar j)U hit nome, 

& whi J)u hider come.' 

He fede : ' bi feiwt gile, 

Ihc habbe go mani Mile, 1176 

O. 1197. ^j's"] s above line MS. J>e'] e above line MS. 
1 143. jV<>wd above Ime MS. C. 1167. i/ierue'] ijltue l<\ii. 

F % 



wel fer 5ent by vvefle 
to feche myne befte 
Mi mete forte bydde 
for fo me ])o bitidde 1184 

ich fond horn knyht flonde 
to shipeward at flronde 
he feide he wolde geffe 
to aryue at vveflneffe 1188 

]>e fhip nom in to flode 
wi|) me & horn \>e gode 
Horn by gan be fek & deje 
& for his loue me preje 1192 

to gon wif) f)e rj^nge 
to rymenild J)e jynge 
wel ofte he hyne kefte 
cn'a jeue is foule refte 1196 

C Rymenild feide at ^e firfle 
herte nou to berfle 
horn worjj J)e no more 
})at haue)> ]>e pyned fore 1200 

Hue fel adoun a bedde [f. 90 v] 
ant after knyues gredde 
to slein mide hire kyng lo])e 
& hire felue bof)e 1204 

w[\> inne ))ilke nyhte 
come 5ef horn ne myhte 
to herte knyf hue fette 
horn in is armes hire kepte 1208 
his fhurte lappe he gan take 
& wypede a wey \>e foule blake 
\>aX wes opon his fuere 
ant feide luef fo dere 121 2 

ne confl ^ou me yknowe 
ne am ich horn J)yn owe 

Ich horn of weflneffe 
in armes J)0u me keffe 
yclupten & kyfle 
so longe fo hem lyfle 


Wel fer her by wefle 1216 

To feche my befte 

My mete for to bidde 

So hyt me by tidde 

pat fond ich horn child ftonde 

To fcyppeward on ftronde 1221 

He feyde he wolde agefce 

To ryuen in weftneffe 

pat fcyp hym 5ede to flode 1224 

Myd me and horn })e gode 

Horn was fech and ded 

And for his loue me bed 

To fchipe with me ]>e ring 1228 

To Reymyld quene Ipe jeng 

Ofte he me kufte 

God jyue hys foule refte [f. 226 v'] 

Reymyld feyde ate ferfte 1232 

Herte nou to berfte 

Horn ne wor}) me na more 

For warn hy pyne fore 

Hye fel adoun on ]>e bed 1236 

per hye hauede knyues leyd 

To flen hire louerd lo})e 

And hyre felue bo))e 

In pat hulke nyj^e 1240 

Bote horn come myjte 

Knyf to hyre h^rte hye fette 

And horn hire gan lette 

Hyffchirt lappe he gan take 1244 

And wiped awey ]>at blake 

pat was on hys swere 

And feyde quene fo dere 

Canft ^ou me nawt knowe 1248 

Ne am ich al J)yn owe 

Ich am horn of eftneffe 
In ))yn armes )?ou me kuffe 
Hye clepten and hye kufte 1252 
pe wile ))at hem lufte 

L. I [84. After/oJ) struck out MS. 

L. 1 208. After a?-mes erasure of one word MS. 

O. 1240. n}'j(e omit. MS. 



\^'cl feor bi jonde wefle, 
To fcche my befle. 

I fond horn child flonde 

To fchupeward in londe. 1 1 80 

He fede he wolde agcffe 
To ariue in weft^rneffe. 
pe fchip nam to \>e flode 

\\'\p me & horn \>e gode ; 1184 

[f. 12 r^] Horn was fik & deide, 

& faire he me prt'ide : 
"Go wij) ]>e ringe 

To Ryme;/hild J)e 5o;?ge." ir88 

Ofte he hit cufte ; 
God 5eue his faule refle.' 
H Ryme;/hild fede at pe furfle : 

' Herte nu ]>u berfle, 1192 

For horn naflu namore 

\)at J)e haj) pined \>e fo fore.' 

Heo feol on hire bedde, 

\)er heo knif hudde, 1196 

To fie wi)) ki«g lo|)e 

& hure felue boJ)e, 

In pat vlke ni3te, 

If horn come ne mijte. 1200 

To herte knif heo fette, 

Ac horn anon hire kepte. 

He wipede pat blake of his swere 

& fede: 'quen fo swete & dere, 1204 

Ihc am horn Jiinoje, 

Ne canflu me nojt knowe ? 

Ihc am horn of wefl.(?rneffe, 

In armes f)u me cuffe.' 1208 

Hi cufle hew mid ywiffe, 

& makeden Muche bliffe. 

C. 1 184. After IVzJ) an erasure of two letters MS. 
C. 1 192. ;/;</« above line MS. 
C. 1200. M« above line MS. 



Eymenild quoj> he ich wende 
doun to ]>e wodefende 1220 

for |>er bue|) myne knyhte 
worjji men & lyhte 
armed vnder cloJ)e 
hue shule make \vro))e 1224 

]>e kyng & hife gefles 
pat buef) at ))ife fefles 
to day ychuUe huem cacche 
nou ichulle huem vacche 1228 

%L Horn fprong out of halle 
ys brunie he let falle 
rymenild eode of boure 
a|)ulf hue fond loure 1232 

af)ulf be wel bly|)e 
& to horn go f\vy))e 
he is vnder vvode bowe 
wij) felawes ynowe 1236 

Ajjulf gon forth springe 
for J)i7t ilke tydynge 
efter horn he ernde 
him J)ohte is herte bernde 1240 

he oftok hi;-^ ywiffe 

ant cufte him \vi|) blyffe 

Horn tok is preye 

ant dude him in \>e weye 1244 

hue comen in wel fone 

f)e 5ates weren vndone 

y armed fui))e J)icke 

from fote to ]>e nycke 1248 

alia \)at per euere weren 

wij) oute is tr^we feren 

ant J)e kyng aylmare 

ywis he hade muche care 1252 

monie pat per fete 

hure lyf hy gonne lete 

Reymy Id qwad horn ich mofle we«de 

To pe wodef hende 

After mine knyjtef 1256 

Hyrifche men fo wyjte 

Armed hondi?r dope 

He fcholen maken wro))e 

pe kyng and hyfe geftes 1260 

pat fytten atte ferte 

To day we fchole hem keche 

Ry3t nou ich wolle hem teche 

HOrn fprong out of halle 1 264 
pe fclavyn he let falle 
And Reymyld wente to toure 
And fond Ayol lure 
Ayol be wel blyj)e 1268 

And go to horn iwype 
He hys hond^'r wode bowe 
And Myd hym felawe ynowe 
Ayol for)) gan fpringe 1272 

Wel glad for J)at tydyngge 
Fafle after horn he rende 
Hym J)oute hys h^rte brende 

Of tok he horn hy wys [f. 226 v-] 
And kufle hym wit blys 1277 

He com a^en wel fone 
pe gates weren ondone 

Hye ))at ate fefle heten 1280 

Here lyue he gonnen ))er leten 

And pe kyng mody 

Hym he made blody 

And pe king aylmare 1284 

po hauede myche fere 

L. 1 237. fortKl froth MS. 


IT 'Ryme/;hild,' he fede, 'ywende 

Adun to pe wudes ende ; 1212 

pt'r be{> myne knijtes 

Redi to fijte, 

larmed vnder cloJ)e ; 

Hi fchulle make wr<'f)e 12 r 6 

pe ki«g & his gefte, 

\)at come to f)e fede : 

Today ifchal he;« teche 

& fore hem areche.' 1220 

If Horn fpro^g vt of halle 

& let his fclauin falle. 

pe quen jede to bure 

& fond afjulf in ture. 1224 

'A))ulf,' heo fede, 'be bli)?e, 

And to horn ))U go wel iw'ipe. 

He is vnder wude boje, 

& wij) him kni3tes Ino^e.' 1228 

IF A})ulf bigan to fprznge 

For J)e ti})i«ge. 

Aft.?;- horn he arnde anon 

Alfo \>at hors mi3te gon : 1232 

He h\m ou^rtok ywis. 
Hi makede fui))e Muchel blis. 
Horn tok his preie 

& dude him in pe weie. 1236 

He cow in wel fone, 
pe 3ates were vndone, 
larmed ful pikke 

Yram fote to pe nekke. 1240 

[f. 12 r-] Alle pat were perin, 

Bi|)ute his twelf ferin 
& pe king Aylmare, 

He dude hew alle to kare. 1244 

p<at at pe fefle were, 
Here lif hi lete |)ere. 

C. 1 21 1. Erasure of je \xioTt ywende MS. C. 1234. * Muchel above line MS. 



Horn vnderftondyng ne hede 

of ffykeles falffede 1256 

hue fuoren alle ant feyde 

])at hure non him wreyede 

ant fuore o)>es holde 

})at huere non ne sholde 1260 

Horn neuer bytreye 

f)ah he on de]>e leye 

})er hy ronge ]>e belle 

))at wedlak to fulfulle 1264 

hue wenden horn wij) eyfe 
to \)e kynges paleyfe 
)jer wes \ie brudale fuete 
for richemen ]>er ete 1268 

telle ne mihte no tonge 
\>e gle {)at )>er was fonge 
C Horn fet in chayere 

& bed hem alle yhere 1272 

he feyde kyng of londe 
mi tale |)0u vnderflonde 

Ich wes ybore in sudenne 
kyng wes mi fader of kenne 1276 
))ou me to knyhte houe 
of knythod habbe y proue 

J)Ou drj'ue me out of pi lond 

& feydeft ich wes trcrytour strong 

J)ou wendefl })at ich wrohte 1281 

J)at y ner ne jjohte 

by rymenild forte lygge 

ywys ich hit w\]> fugge 1284 

Ne shal ich hit ner agynne [f. 91 r] 

er ich fudenne wynne 

f)ou kep hyre me aftounde 

f)e while ]>at ich founde 1288 

Horn no wonder ne makede 
Of fykenildef falfede 
He fworen alle and feyde 1288 
pat her<? non hym by wreyde 
And ofte he fwore« ho))ef holde 
pat J)ere non ne fcholde 
No ware horn by wreyen 1292 
pou he to def)e leyen 
He rongen J)e bellen 
pe wedding for to fuller 
Of horn ^at was fo hende 1296 
And of reymyld \>e jonge 
Horn ledde hyre horn wit heyfe 
To hyrt' fad^r paleyfe 
per was brydale fwete 1300 

Riche men ]>er hete 
Tellen ne Myjte no tonge 
pe joye J)at J)er was fonge 

Horn fet on hys cheyere 1 304 
And bed he fcholden aile 
He feyde kyng fo longe [here 

My tale })0u hond^'r flonde 

Hy was born in fodenne 1308 

Kyng waf My fad^r of kunne 
po me to knyjte f)ou joue 
My kny3t hede ich haue proued 
To \>e of me men feyde 1 3 1 2 

War for \>i h^;te treyde 
pou makedefl me to rewe 
po ])ou bede me fleme 

pou wendef J)at ich wroute 1316 

pat hy neu^re ne ))Oute 

Wyt Reymyld for ligge 

Iwys ich hyt wyt figge 

Ich ne fchal neu^re a gynne 1320 

Er ich fodenne wynne [f. 227 r'] 

Kep hire me a flounde 

pe wille ich he;mes founde 

O. 1296. /torn'] hor MS. O. 1321. The guard on f. 226 v has her ichfodetie wyne. 



Horn ne dude no wuwder 

Of ffike«hildes falfe tu//ge. 1248 

Hi sworew o})es holde 

])(it neure ne fcholde 

Horn neure bitr^ne, 

pej he at dif)e laie. 1252 

Hi Ru«ge \>e belle 

pe wedlak for to felle. 

Horn h'vn jede with his 

To ^e ki«ges palais. 1256 

per was brid & ale fuete, 
For riche men \er ete. 
Telle ne mi3te tu«ge 

p(it gle \a\. ]>er was fu«ge. 1260 

IT Horn fat on chaere 
& bad hew alle ihere. 
* Ki/zg,' he fade, ' ]>u lufte 

A tale mid ))e befte. 1264 

Ine feie hit for no blame, 
Horn is mi name. 

pume to knijte houe, 

& kni3thod haue pr^ued. 1268 

To j)e ki//g men feide 

p(7t i]>e bitraide : 

pu makedefl me fleme 

& J)i lo«d to reme : 1272 

pu we«defl ]>at iwro3te 

pat y neure ne [jojte, 

Bi Rym£'«hild for to ligge, 

& ^at i wi|) fegge. 1276 

Ne fchal ihc hit bigiwne, 

Til i fuddene wi/me. 

pu kep hure a flu«de, 

pe while ]>at ifunde 1280 

C. V z^'&. ffikcnhiUes J es above line MS. C. 1256. kinga^ s above line MS. 



In to myn heritage 
wij) j>is yriffhe page 

))at lond ichuUe ))orhreche 
& do mi fader wreche 1292 

ychul be kyng of toune 
& lerne kynges roune 
jjenne shal rymenild pe 5ynge 
ligge by horn ]>e kynge 1296 

C Horn gan to shipe drawe 
wi}) hyfe yriffhe felawe 

A|)ulf wi)) him his broj^er 

he nolde habbe non oj)er 1300 

)je ship by gan to croude 

f)e wynd bleu wel loude 

wy)) inne dawes fyue 

\>e ship bigan aryue 1304 

vnder fudennes fide 

huere fhip by gon to ryde 

aboute pe midnyhte 

horn eode wel rihte 1308 

he nom a))ulf by honde 

& ede vp to londe 

hue fonden vnder fhelde 

a knyht liggynde on felde r3i2 

ope shelde wes ydrawe 

a croy^ of ihesu crz'fles lawe 

pe knyht hi;;/ lay on slape 

in amies wel yfhape 13 16 

C Horn him gan ytake 
& seide knyht awake 
J)ou fei me whet ))0u kepefl 
& here whi ))ou slepeft 1320 

me J)unche)) by crois lifle 
pat ))0u leuefl on c;7fle 
bote J)Ou hit wolle shewe 
my fuerd fhal pe to he we 1324 
pe gode knyht vp aros 
of homes wordes hi;;/ agros 

In to myn hmtage 
Mid myn hiryfce page 


pat lond ich fchal of reche 

And do my {a.der wreche 

Ich fchal de kyng of tune r3 28 

And wite of kyngef owne 

penne fchal Reymyld pe jonge 

hyggen by horn pe kynge 

Horn gan to fchipe ryde 1332 

And hys knyjtef bi fide 

Here fchip gan to croude 
pe wynd hym bleu wel loude 

Hond^-r fode«ne fyde 1336 

Here fchip bigan to glide 

Abowte myd ni3te 

Horn hym yede wel ryjte 

Nam aj'ol on hys honde 1340 

And yeden op hon londe 

Hye founds bonder fchelde 

A knyt liggen in felde 

Op pe fcheld was drawe 1344 

A crowch of ihesu cridef lawe 

pe knyt hy lay on llepe 

In amies wel y mete 

Horn hym gan take 
And feyde knyt awake 


Me J)ynke}) by pe crowchef lyfte 

pat ))ou leuefl on cnfle 

Bote |)ou hyt raj)e fchewe 1352 

Wyt Mi fwerd ich fchal pe he we 

pe gode knyt op a rof 

Of homes wordef hym agrof 

O. 1328. de'] ke MS. O. 1329. Before oto;?^ erasure of one letter, apparently 

/or/MS. O. 1332. Horft] HorMS. O. 1337. yi:///^]y above line MS. 

O. 1347. Substituted for Hopt hym gq m MS. 



In to min heritage 

& to mi baronage. 
pat io«d ifchal ofreche 

& do mi fader wreche, 1284 

Ifchal beo ki;/g of tune 
& bcre ki//ges crune, 
pa//ne fchal Rymewhilde 

Ligge bi ]>e ki;/ge.' 1288 

IT Horn ga« to fchupe draje 
\\\]> his yriffe felajes, 

AJ)ulf wi]) hiw his brother, 

Nolde he no« o))er, 1292 

p<?t fchup biga« to crude, 

pe wind him bleu lude. 

Bi)>i/me daies fiue 

pat fchup gan ariue. 1296 

Abute middelni3te 

Horn hi;« jede wel ri3te. 

He tok a})ulf bi ho«de 

& vp he 5ede to lo//de. 1300 

Hi fouwde vnder fchelde 

A kni3t he«de in felde. 

pe kni3t him aflepe lay 

Al bifide \>e way. 1 304 

Horn hi;;/ ga.n to take 

& fede : ' kni3t, awake. 

Seie what ]>u kepefl, 

& whi J)U her flepeft ; 1308 

Me f)ink|) bijjine crois li3te 

pat ]>u lo;/geft to vre dr/3te. 

Bute ))u wule me fchewe, 

Ifchal ))e to hewe : ' 1312 

pe gode kni3t vp aros. 

Of \>e wordes hi;« gros. 

O. 1350. /<?]/ corr. out of c MS. O. 1354. i-n_yt] n above line MS. 

C. 1291. Ar above line MS. C. 1302. )&;«^/] / above line MS. 

C. 1314. wordes] s above line MS. 



he feide ich feruy ille 

paynes to jeynes mi wille 1328 

Ich was cr/flene fumwhile 

ycome in to ))is yie 

sara3yns lo|)e & blake 

me made ih^i-u forfake 1332 

to loke J)is paffage 

for horn ^at is of age 

\>at wone)) her by wefle 

god knyht mid \>e befle 1336 

hue flowe mid huere honde 

]>e kyng of \>iffe londe 

ant \v'i]> him mony honder 

\>er fore me |)unche)) wonder 1340 

\)at he ne come)) to fyhte 

god 5eue hiw J3e myhte 

]>at wynd hiw hider dryue 

to don hem alle of lyue 1344 

ant flowen kyng mury 

hornef cunefmon hardy 

horn of londe hue fenten 

tuelf children wij) him wenten 1348 

wip hem wes a))ulf J)e gode 

mi child myn oune fode 

5ef horn is hoi ant founde 
a|)ulf tit no wounde 1352 

he louede horn w'lp mihte 
& he him wi)) ryhte 
jef y myhte fe hem tueye 
))enne ne rohti forte deye 1356 
C! knyht be ))enne blyj)e 
mefl of alle (ypt 
AJ)ulf & horn is fere . 
boJ)e we be|) here 1360 

pe knyht to horn gan fkippe 
& in his armes clippe 


He feyde hy ferue ylle 1356 

Paynyms ajen My wille 

Ich was crzflene fom wyle 

And J)0 were come in to \>i( yle 

Sarazyns lodlike and blake 1360 

And dide me god forfake 

Bi god on warn y leue 

po he makede« me reue 

To loke ))is paffage 1364 

For horn pat hys of age [f 227 r'^] 

He wone)) alby wefle 

God knyt myd \>e befle 

He flow Mid hyf honde 1368 

pe kyng of ))ife londe 

And wyt hym men an hundred 

per fore me ))inke)) wonder 

pat he ne come)) fi^ycte 1372 

God yeue hym pe miyjte 

pat wynde hym driue 

To bringen hem of Hue 

He flowen pe kyng mory 1376 

Hornef (ader fo fl^ordy 

Horn to wat^r he fente 

xij- children Myd hym we??te 

per mong was ayol pe gode 1380 

Myn owe child myn owe fode 

He louede horn wel derne 

And horn hym alfo jerne 

3yf horn hys hoi and founde 1384 

Ayol ne tyt no wounde 

Bote ich nou fe hem tweye 

Iwys ich wolle deye 

Knyt be fwi))e bly))e 1388 

Mefl. of alle fy))e 

Ayol and horn yfere 

Bo))e he ben here 

pe knyt to hem gan ft^eppe 1392 

And in armef cleppe 

L. 1357. After knyht an erasure of about two letters MS. 
O. 1372. ne omit. MS. 



He fede : 'ihc haue a5enes my wiile 
Tayns ful yllc. 1316 

Ihc was cr/ftene a while ; 
po icom to J)is ille 
Sarazins blake 

p<n dude me forfake. 1320 

On crzst ihc wolde bileuc, 
On him hi makede Hme reue, 
[f. 12 v'] To kepe \>\s paffage 

Fraw horn pat is of age, 1324 

prtt wunie)) biefle, 

Kni3t wi}> \>e befle : 

Hi flo3e wijj here honde 

pe ki//g of J)is \onde, 1528 

& \\\\> him fcle hundred, 

& |)tvof is vvu;/der 

p(jt he ne come)) to fijte. 

God fewde hi;« \>e ri3te, • 1332 

& wi//d hi;« hider driue, 

To bridge hon of Hue. 

Hi slo3en kyng IMurry, 

Homes fader king hendy, 1336 

Horn hi vt of londe fente ; 

Tuelf fela5es wij) him wente, 

Amo«g hem ajiulf pe gode, 

Min 03ene child, my leue fode : 1340 

Ef horn child is hoi & fund, 
& A|)ulf bij)ute wund, 
He luuej) h'un fo dere, 

& is hiw fo ftere, i344 

Mi3te ifeo« hew tueie, 
For ioie ifcholde deie.' 
IT ' Kni5t beo panne bli})e 

Meft of alle dpe ; 1348 

Horn & A|)ulf his fere 

Bope hi heji here.' 

To horn he gan gon 

& gr^tte hi;« anon. 1352 

C. 1.^16. ful y Ik over an erasure of about seven letters longer MS. C. 131 8. 

/<(?;«] ioni above line MS. C. 1339. ^'^"' fl/«^ correction in darker ink over 

erasure MS. C. 1348. ^ above line MS. 



Muclie ioye hue maden yfere 

J)o hue to gedere y come were 1364 

He faide wi}) fleuene ))are [f. 91 v] 
jungemen hou habbe 5e ^ore yfare 

wolle 5e ^is lond wynne 

& wonie ))er ynne 1368 

he feide fuete horn child 

5et lyue)) |)y moder godyld 

of ioie hue ne mifle 

o lyue 5ef hue ]>e wifle 1372 

horn feide on is ryme 

ybleffed be ]>& time 

Icham icome in to fudenne 

wi)) fele yriffhemenne 1376 

we shule |)e houndes kecche 

& to Jje de^e vecche 

ant so we shulen hem teche 

to fpeken oure speche 1380 

C Horn gon is horn blowe 
is folk hit con yknowe 
hue comen out of hume 
to horn fwyfie jurne 

hue fmiten & hue fyhten 
\>e niht & eke \>e ohtoun 
J)e fara5yns hue flowe 
ant fumme quike to drowe 
mid fp^res ord hue flonge 
J)e olde & eke ]>e jonge 



^ horn lette fone wurche 
boJ)e chapel & chyrche 


pe Joie J»at he made 

Myjte no ma?i rede 

He feyde wit fteuene ^are 1396 

Children hou ai^be je fare 

Wolle 5e J)is lond wi?zne 

And wonye )>er inne 

He feyde leue horn child 1400 

3et Hue)) \>y mod^r godild 

Horn feyde on hys rime 

Hy bleffed be ))e tyme 

Ich am ycome to fode«ne 1404 

Wyt Myn hyryfce me^ne 

pis lond we fchollen wi«ne 
And fle al )'at ))ere ben i;?ne 
And fo we fcholen he/n teche 1408 
To fpeken our.? fpeche 

Horn gan hys horn blowe [i. 227 v'] 
pat hyf folc it gan knowe 
He come« out of fcyp fli?nie 1 4 1 2 
To horn ward wel jerne 

He fmyten and he fouten 
pe nyjt and eke ))e oujten 

Myd fperes hord he flonge 
pe held and eke pe. jonge 
pat lond he ))oru fowte« 
To de))e he hus brouten 
Sarazines kende 
pe leuede on ]>e fende 
Horn let sone werchen 
Chapeles and cherchen 



L. 1 38 1, is'] s corr. out of d MS. 
O. 1394. yoie] 2 above line MS. 
O. 1397. ad/'e} albe MS. 

L. 1390. Before /i? olde 4? MS. 
O. 1396. wit above line MS. 
O. 1405. Before menne m MS. 



Muche ioie hi makede pert 
pe while hi togadere were. 

' Childre,' he fede, * hu habbe 5e fare ? 
pr/t ihc 50U fe5 hit is ful jare. 1356 

WuUe je ))is lo;/d wi«ne 
& fie ]>at ]>efis i«ne ? ' 
He fede : ' leue horn child, 

5ut lyue|) ))i moder Godhild : 1360 

Of ioie heo mifte 
If heo fie aliue wifle.' 
IF Horn fede on his rime : 

' Iblcffed beo ])e time, 1364 

Ico/n to Sudde;/ne 
Wi]) mine iriffe me«ne : 

We fchulle ]>e hu«des teche 

To fpeke« vre fpeche. 1368 

Alle we hePH fchulle fle 

& al qui'c hem fle.' 

Horn gan his horn to blowe, 

His folk hit gan iknowe, 1372 

Hi come;? vt of fl^re, 

Fratn homes ban^re : 

Hi floje// & fu5te«, 

pe nijt & \>Q v;ten: 1376 

pe sarazi«s cu;/de 

ne lefde per now in pende. 

Horn let wurche 

chapeles & chirche. 1380 

O. 1406. Before we m MS. O. 1410. /lorn above line MS. 

C. 1364. duo above line MS. C. 1367. /lundes] s above line MS. 

C. 1368. vrd above Ime MS. C. 1374. hort!es\ s above line MS. 



he made belle rynge 
ant pr^fles maffe synge 
he sohte is moder halle 
in \>e roche walle 
he cufle hire ant grette 
ant in to ^e caftel fette 
Croune he gan werie 
ant make fefte merye 
Murie he ]>er wrohte 
ah Rymenild hit abohte 
C ))e whiles horn wes oute 
ffikenild ferde aboute 




))e betere forte fpede 
Jie riche he jef mede 
bojje jonge ant olde 
wi|) him forte holde 
ston he dude lade 
ant lyra })erto he made 


Caftel he made fette 

wif> water by flette 141 2 

\>at per yn come ne myhte 

bote foul wij) flyhte 

bote when ))e see w'\]> drowe 

))er mihte come ynowe 1416 

\>us fykenild gon by wende 

Rymenild forte shende 

to wyue he gan hire jerne 

J)e kyng ne durft hvn werne 1420 

ant habbe]) fet ]>e day 

fifykenild to wedde ^e may 

wo was rymenild of mode 

terres hue wepte of blode 1424 

J)ilke nyht horn fuete 

con wel harde mete 

of rymenild his make 

\>at in to shipe wes take 1428 

Bellen he dide ryngen 1424 

And parlies meffe fynge« 

He fowte hys mod^r ou^ralle 

Wit i«ne eu^'^iche walle 

He cuRen and hye clete;? 1428 

And in to halle wewten 

Croune he gonnen werie 

And makede feftef merye 

Murye he ))ere wroute 1432 

Reymyld hyt aboute 

Wile J)at horn waf oute 

Fikenyld ferde aboute 

To wiue he gan hire jerne 1436 

pe kyng ne dorft him werne 

Muche was hys prede 

pe ryche he jaf mede 

3onge and eke \>e helde 144° 

pat Mid hym fcholde helde 

Ston he dede lede 

And /ym ]>er to he made 

A kaftel he dude fefte 1444 

Wit water alby fette 

Mijt no ma« hon on legge 

By pa))e ne by brigge 

Bote wan pe /e wit drowe 1448 

per M/V^e come ynowe 

pis fykenild ga;? to we«de 

Reynyld for to wende 

L. 1418. Over an erasure MS. 
O. 1437. hinil hire MS. 

O. 1427. Repeated with wyt instead of ivit MS. 
O. 1 443. lyni\ hym MS . 



He let belles linge, 

& Maffes let fi^/ge. 

He cow to his Mod^r halle 

In a roche walle. 1384 

[f. 1 2 v"] Corn he let ferie 

& makede fefle merie. 

Mwrie lif he wro5te : 

Ryme;/hild hit dcre bojte, 1388 

^ fifikcnhild was prut on hcrte, 
& ^at him dude fmcrte. 

3o//ge he 5af & elde 

Mid hiw for to hclde. 1392 

Ston he dude lede 

per he hopede fpede. 

St?-OT)g caflel he let fette, 

Mid fee hi/;/ biflette. 1396 

per ne mi5te lijte 

Bute fojel \\\]> fli3tc. 

Bute whawne ^e fe wi|j droje 

Mi5te come men ynoje. 1400 

ffikcnhild gan we;/de 

Rym^«hild to fchewde. 

To wo5e he gan hure jerne, 

pe kyng ne dorfle him werne. 1404 

Rymewhild was ful of mode, 

He wep teres of blode. 

pat ni5t horn gan fwete, 

& heuie forto mete 1408 

Of Rymenhild his make, 

Into fchupe was itakc : 

O. 1448. y^ omit. MS. O. i^^g. /er J\/i/c/ie come ^IS. 

O. 1450. ~u'€nde'\ 'uedde MS. O. i4iii. for over an erasure, yi^r in margin MS. 





]>e fhip gon ouerblenche 
is lemmon shulde adrenche 
Rymenild mid hire honde 

fwymme wolde to londe 1432 

ffykenild ajeyn hire pylte 

mid his fuerdes hylte 

Horn awek in is bed 

of his lemmon he wes adred 1436 

AJ)iiJf he feide felawe 
to shipe nou we drawe 
ffykenild me haj) gon vnder 
ant do rymenild fum wonder 1440 
Crift for his wondes fyue 
to nyht J)ider vs dryue 
C Horn gon to shipe ride [f. 92 r] 
his knyhtes bi his fide 1444 

J)e ship bigon to flure 
wi]j wynd god of cure 

ant fykenild her J)e day fpnnge 

ferde to ])e kynge 

After rymenild \>e brhyte 

ant fpoufede byre by nyhte 

he ladde hire by derke 

in to is newe werke 

pe fefle hue bigonne 

er ])en aryfe ])e fonne 



pe day by gan to wexe 1452 

pat hem was by twexe 

Fekenyld her Ipe day gan fpr/nge [f- 

Ferde to aylm^r ])e kynge 

After reynyld \>e bry^te 1456 

And fpoufede hire by ni5te 

He ledde hyre horn i« derke 

To his newe werke 

pe fefles he by gonne 1460 

Her^ aryfe pe fo;/ne 

pat nyjt gan horn fwete 

And harde forto mete 

Of Reymyld hys make 1464 

pat in to fchype waf take 

pat fchip fcholde on hire blenche 

Hys lema;/ fcholde adrenche 

Reymyld wit hire honde 1468 

Wolde fuewme to londe 

Fykenyld hire 5en pulte 

Wit his fwerd hylte 

Ayol qwat horn trewe felawe 1472 

Into fchip go;me we drawe 

Fykenyld haue}) gon ond^r 

And don Reynyld fom wondtr 

KING HORx\. 83 


pc fchup bigan to blenche, 

His lewiuan fcholde adrenche. 1412 

Rymc//hild wij) hire honde 
Woldc vp to londe. 
fifikenhild ajen hire pelte 

Wi|) his fuerdcs hilte. 1416 

% Horn him wok of flape 

So aman J^at hadde rape. 

'Af)ulf,' he fade, ' fela5e, 

To fchupc we mote dra3e; 1420 

fifikenhild mc ha]) idon vnder 

& Rymenhild to do wunder. 

Crift, for his wuwdes fiue 

To ni5t me ))uder driue.' 1424 

Horn gan to fchupe Ride, 

His fere« him bifide. 

fifikenhild or J)e dai gan fpr/nge 

Al rijt he ferde to fie kinge, ' 1428 

Aft^r Rymenhild ]>e bri5te, 

To wedden hire bini^te. 

[f. 13 r^] He ladde hure bi })e derke 

In to his nywe werke ; 1432 

pe fefle hi bigu;/ne 
Er ])at ros pQ fu;me ; 

G 2 



Homes fhip atftod in floure 
vnder fykenildes boure 1456 

Nufle Horn alyue 

wher he wes aryue 

J)ene caflel hue ne knewe 

for he was so nevve 1460 

]>e fee bigon to wij) drawe 

|;o feh horn his felawe 

))e feyre knyht arnoldyn 

]>at wes a))ulfes cofyn 1464 

))at ]>er fet in ]>at tyde 

kyng horn to abide 

he feide kyng horn kyngeffone 

hider })ou art welcome 1468 

to day ha)) sire ffykenild 

yweddej) ]>\ wif rymenild 

white ]>e nou J)is while 

he haue)) do \>e gyle 1472 

f)is tour he dude make 

al for rymenildes fake 

ne may \>er comen ynne 

no mon wi)) no gynne 1476 

41 Horn nou cr/ii pe wiffe 
rymenild \>at ))ou ne miffe 
Horn couj^e alle ]>e liftes 
\>at eni mon of wifte 1480 

harpe he gon shewe 
ant toi; him to felawe 

God for hys wordef fiue 1476 

To ny5t uf ))yder driue 

Horn gan to Scype Ride 

And his kny5tef by fide 

Here fchip biga« to terne 1480 

By \>e wat^res flerne 

Hys fchip flod in flore 
Hond^r fikenildef bourt' 

Ne wifle horn on Hue 1484 

Whar^ he waf a Ryue 

pe keflel he ne knewe 

For he waf fo newe 

pe fond by gan to drye 1488 

And hyt hym makede weye 

He fond flonde arnoldyn 

pat was ayolles cofyn 

pat was J)ere in tyde 1492 

Horn for to abyde 

He feyde horn kyngef fone 

Wei be |>ou her^ to londe come 

Nou hat wedded fikenyld 1496 

py nowe lemma;? Reymyld 

Nele ich ])e nowt lye 
He hauej) ]>e gyled twye [f. 228r'] 
pis caflel he dude make 1500 

For Reymyldef fake 

per may no man on legge 

By pape ne by brigge 

Horn nou cr/fl pe wiffe 1504 

Of Reymyld |)at j;ou ne miffe 

Horn herkenede a\\>e lyfle 

pat any man of wifte 

To herpe he gan drawe 1508 

And wy3t hyf tweye felawe 

L. 1462. /lorn'] horns MS. 

Ii. 1482. toc\ tot MS. 



Er ))ane horn hit wifle, 

Tofore \e fu;;ne vprifle, 1436 

His fchup flod vnder ture 

At Rymenhilde bure. 

Rymenhild litel wene}) heo 

pat horn \>a.nne aHue beo. 1440 

pe caflel ))ci nc knewe, 
For he was so nywe. 

Horn fond fittinde Arnoldin 

p,?t was AJ)ulfes cofin 1444 

pert per was in ]>at tide 

horn for tabide. 

'Horn kni5t,' he fede, 'kinges fone, 

Wei beo ]>u to londe icome : 1448 

Today ha|) ywedde fikenhild 

pi swete le/wman Rymenhild. 

Ne fchal i\>e lie, 

He ha)) giled \>e twie 1452 

pis tur he let make 

Al for J)ine fake, 

Ne mai \>er come inne 

Noma« wi]) • none • gi;me. 1436 

Horn, nu crifl ))e wiffe 
Of Rymenhild ])<jt ]>u ne miffe.' 
IT Horn cu|)e al })e lifle ^_ 1 ^*t , • 

pat eni man of wifte. 1460 

Harpe he gan fchewe 
& tok felajes fewe, 

O. 1479. ^^yi^^f^ i corrected out of c MS. C. 1456. itotte above line MS. 



knyhtes of J)e befte 

})flt he euer hede of wefle 1484 

Guen o ]>e sherte 
hue gurden huem wi}) suerde 
hue eoden on J)e grauele 
towart Jje caflele 1488 

hue goiine murie finge 
& makeden huere gleynge 
\>at fykenild mihte y here 
he axede who hit were 1492 

men feide hit were harperis 
iogelers ant fyj^elers 
hem me dude in lete 
at halle dore hue fete 1496 

horn fette hi;;^ abenche 
is harpe he gan clenche 
he made rymenild a lay 
ant hue feide weylaway 1500 

C Rymenild fel yfwowe 
J50 nes ))er non ]:at lovve 
hit smot horn to herte 
sore con him smerte 1504 

he lokede on is lynge 
ant o rymenild ]>e 5ynge 
he eode vp to borde 
mid his gode fuorde 1508 

ffykenildes croune 
he fel Jjcr adoune 
ant alio is men arowe 
he dude adoun J)rowe 151 2 

ant made amoldyn kyng |)ere 

after kyng Aylmere 

to be kyng of Weftneffe 

for his mildeneffe 15 16 

))e kyng ant is baronage 

5euen him truage 

Knyhtes fvvy})e felle 

And fchurde hem in pelle 

Wyt fwerdes he hem gyrte 15 12 
Anouen here fchirte 

He wenden on ])e grauel 

Toward Jse caflel 

He go7me murye fynge 1516 

And makede here glewinge 

pat fykenild myjt yhere 

He ajkede wat hye were 

Men feyde hyt harperes 1520 

Jogelours and fifjeleref 

He dude hem in lete 

At halle dore he fete 

Horn fet on ]>e benche 1524 

Hyf harpe he gan clenche 

He makede Reymyld a lay 

And reynyld makede weylawey 

Reynyld fel y fwowe 1528 

po was J5er non J)at lowe 

Hyt 5ede to hornef herte 

Sore hym gan fmerte 

Hey lokede on hys gode Ryng 1532 

And Reymyld J>e jonge 

Hey jede op to borde 

Mid hys gode fwerde 

Fykenyldes crowne 1536 

He leyde ]>ere adowne 

And alle hys men arewe 

He dide adoun ]>rev/e 

po he weren alle yflawe 1540 

Fykenyld he dide to drawe 

He makede arnoldyn kyng \>ere 

After J)e kyng aylm^;-e 

pe knytes and \>e barnage [f. 228 r-] 
Dude hym alle /r//age 1545 

O. 1519. askede'] arkede MS. 
C. 1476. clenche above line MS. 

O. 1545. image'] iiirage MS. 
C. 1 48 1, to above line in darker ink MS. 


Of knijtcs fuij)e fnelle 

])at fchrudde hew at wille. 1464 

Hi jeden bi ]>e grauel 
Toward \>e caflel : 
Hi guwne m«rie finge 

& makede here gleowinge. 14^8 

•IT Rymenhild hit gan ihere 
& axede what hi were. 
Hi fede : ' hi weren harpurs, 

& fume were gigours.' 1472 

He dude horn in late 
Rijt at halle gate ; 
[f. 13 r'^] He fette hiw on \>e Ijenche 

His harpe for to clcnche. 1476 

He makede Rymenhilde lay, 

& heo makede walaway. 

Rymenhild feol j-fwoje, 

Ne was per non ])at louje. 1480 

Hit fmot to homes herte 

So h'ltere ]>at hit {menc. 

He lokede on \>e ringe 

& ])05te on Rymewhilde. 1484 

He jede vp to borde 

\Vi|> gode fuerdes orde. 

ffike;/hildes cr^ne 

\)er ifulde adune, 1488 

& Al his men a rowe 

Hi dude adun ])rowe. 

Wha;/ne hi were« afla5e, 

Fikc;diild hi dude todra'^e. 1492 

Horn makede Arnoldih })are 

K\ng afti?r k'uig Aylmare, 

Of al weflrmeffe 

For his meokneffe. 1496 

pe king & his homage 

3eue« Arnoldiw tmvage. 

C. 1484. on in darker ink over an erasure MS. 
C. I486, /uerdes] s above line MS. C. 1492. di^de above line MS. 



C Horn toe rymenild by honde 
ant ladde hire to ftnmde 1520 
ant toe \v'\\> hiw Aj:elbrus 
))e gode ftiward of hire fader hous 
))e fee bigan to flowen [f. 92 v] 
ant hy fafte to rowen 1524 

hue aryueden vnder reme 
in a wel feyr flreme 
kyng Mody wes kyng in pat lond 
]>at horn sloh \vij> is hond 1528 
A))elbrus he made f)er kyng 
for his gode techyng 

for fire homes lore 
he wes mad kyng J;ore 1532 

C. Horn code to ryue 

Jie wynd h'xm con wel dryue 

he aryuede in yrlonde 

\>er horn wo cou))e er fonde 1536 

he made j^er AJ-ulf chyld 

vvedde mayden ermenyld 

ant horn com to fudenne 

to is oune kenne 1540 

Rymenild he made ]>er is quene 

fo hit myhte bene 

In trewe loue hue lyueden ay 
ant wel hue loueden godes lay 1544 
Nou hue beoj) bojie dede 
criR to heouene vs lede AmeN. 

Horn tok rymyld by \)e hond 
And ledde hire by |)e fe flrond 
He tok hym fyre aylbrous 1548 
Stiward of J)e kyngef hous 

He riuede in a reaume 

In a wel fayr flreume 

per kyng mody was fyre 1552 

pat horn flow wyt yre 

Aybrous he makede ))er kyng 

For hys gode tydyng. 

For fyre homes lore 
He was kyng ])ore 


Horn ariuede in hyrelonde 

per he hadde woned fo longe 

per he dude ayol childe 1560 

Wedden mayden hi?nnenylde 

Horn wente to fodenne 

To hyf owe kunne 

Reynyld he makede quene 1564 

So ith Miyjte wel bene 

Alle folc hyt knewe 

pat he hem louede trewe 

Nou ben he alle dede 
God hem to heuene lede 
-Am— e — n- 




IF Horn tok Rymenhild bi \>e honde 

& ladde hure to ]>e flronde, i 500 

& laddc AviJ) him A})clbrus, 

pe gode (luard of his hus. 

pe fe bigaw to flowe 

& horn gan to Rowe. 1504 

Hi gu;/ne for ariue 

p^r kuig modi was fire. 

A|'elbr//'j he makede ]>er k'uig 

For his gode techi/;g : 1 508 

He jaf alio pe knijtes ore 

For horn knijtes lore. 

I S12 

Horn ga.n for to ride, 

pe wi;/d h\m bleu wel wide. 

He ariuede in yrlo^de. 

per he wo fo;;dcde, 

per he dude Al^ulf child 

Wedde;; maide Rcynild. 15 16 

Horn co/n to suddc//ne 

Amo;/g al his kenne. 

Rym^whild he makede his quene, 

So hit mi3te wel beon. 1520 

Al folk hew nii5te rewe 

pat louede« hem fo trewe. 

Nu hen hi bo))e dede ; 

Crifl to heucne hcf/i lede ! 1524 

Her ende)) pe tale of horn, 

pat fair was & • nojt • vnorn ; 

Make we vs glade Eure among, 

For J)us him ende}) homes fong. 1528 

Jefus pat is of heuene king 

3eue vs alle his fuete bleffwg ! Amen. 


C. 151 2. Tt/^/ above line MS. 
C. 1526. Tinas'} s above line MS. tio^i above line MS. 


\_Ntimhers ii<itJiout title or letter refer to the version of the Cambridge MS., those 
preceded liyJj or O to the London or Oxford versions. HC stands for Horn 
Childe ; Yi^for the French Roman de Horn.'] 

Line i . Alle beon he blijje. Good wishes for the attentive hearer are frequent 
in the romances, but there is nothing quite parallel to this, Comp. * Alle pat 
holdej) now stille hure steuenc | Ciyst graunte hem })e blisse ofheuene/ Arthour & 
Merlin, 304/673, 4 ; ' Now alle that hereth this talkyng | God gcve hem alle good 
endyng,' Kichard, 33, 4; ' And alle lystynes to my talkynge | God grant hem hys 
dere blesynge | And hevene to her mede,' E. E. Miscellanies (Warton Club), 1/4-6 ; 
' And gyve hym good lyve and long | That woU attend to my song,' id. 46/14, 5 ; 
' Allemyghty god in Trynytee | pat boughte mane on \>e Rode so dere | Lene ])ame 
grace wele for to thee | J)at lystenys me with mylde chere,' Archiv, Ixxiv. 327/1-4 ; 
' Jesu, Jiat was with spcre ystonnge | And for vs hard and sore yswonnge, | Glady 
both old and yonnge | With wytte honest | That wylleS a whyle ster her tonnge | 
And herkeny gest,' Octavian, 2/1-6 ; 'heuene blisse beo heore mede • J)at lustnej) 
me to ]ie endyng,' Gregorius, Archiv, Iv. 422/2 ; ' Jhesu Cryst, our savyour, | And 
hys modjT, that swete flowr, | Helpe hem at her nede | That harkeneth of a con- 
querour,' Lybeaus, 1-4 ; Ywain, 1-4. Often the courtesy of the audience is 
appealed to : ' For goddes loue in trinyte | Al pat ben hend herkeni)) to me,' Amis, 
1,2;' Lysines, lordyngys pat ben hende,' Athelston, 7 (with Zupitza's note). But 
the most frequent form is, ' Herken & je may here,' IIC. 2. For the phrase of 
the text used in another connexion, comp. ' Alle blipe mote pei be | pat folyes 
blepeliche wole fle,' Horst., S. A. L. 204/1, 2. 

11. 3, 4. Similarly, 'I shall you telle of a kjTige | A dowghty man with owte 
les)-nge,' Ipomydon, 3, 4 ; ' Off foure weddyd breperyn I wole 50W tel,' Athelston, 
10; ' al of a storie ichuUe ou rede • pat is sop wip outc lesyng,' Gregorius, 3; 
Isumbras, 7, 8. 

1. 5. biweste in the language of the romances is often merely formal ; comp. 
' Offeree y am feor by west,' Alisaunder, 3924; ' His home abowte his halse he 
caste I And went in to the waste,' Ipomadon, 591, 2 (with Kiilbing's note), 6582 ; 
' thow & I will, or wee goe, ] deale stroakes betweene vs tow | A litlc here by 
west,' Libius, 428/346-8 ; 'Sa wyde quhare wourscjp walkis be west,' Golagros, 
Anglia, ii. 419/419 ; ' Als did a gude man here bi west | That his son in the se kest,' 
S. Sages, 3479, 80; 881, 2; 'A forlang her be weste,' Lybeaus, 306; 'and 
ever they ryden west | In that wylde forest,' id. 544, 5 ; ' Wight men of pe west • 
neghed pam nerr,' Minot, x. 15 ; E, E. Poems, 118/1, 2. 


1. 6. So longe so hit laste, a favourite formula with Lajamon. Comp, * & 
])us he laedde his lif^ ]je while ])e hit ilaeste,' 7015, 6 ; 'J)e while \>at heom ilaste! 
}7at lif on heore breoste,' 27656, 7 ; and for similar uses of laesten, 11. 594, 5 ; 
6277, 8. But it is common elsewhere, comp. * Cadwal was al aboue • J)e wule it 
wolde ylaste,' Robert of Gloucester, 4932 ; * And bothe trebute and taxe whilles 
my tyme lastes,' Morte Arthure, 261 1 ; ' whil mi lif leste may,' Boddeker, 150/30 ; 

* pe while J)at hit lest,' id. 251/203 ; 134/232. 

I, 10. Comp. ' Feirore child miht non be bore,' K. of Tars V. 739 ; ' Was non 
so fayr under god | Non ])at euere moder here,' Havelok, 972, 4. Variants are, 

* A feyrer child myght no man see/ Ipomydon, 32 ; ' Fairer no myghte on grounde 
go,' Alisaunder, 2348 ; 'The fayrest that on fot myght go,' S. Sages, 14. Horn's 
beauty is often mentioned, see 11. 83, 87, 173, 313, 385, 778, 787, 797, 1526, &c. 

II. II, 12. The rain might not rain, the sun might not shine, on a fairer. Comp. 
'nis nan feirure wifmon f J>a whit sunne scineS on/ Lajamon, 31086, 7 ; 'pat wes 
J)e for-cuSeste mon ? J)et simne here scean on,' id. 28772, 3 ; 'pa sunne gon to 
seine J })e rein bigon to rine/ id. 31889, 90; 19745 ; 28303. In C the object of the 
verbs is supplied irova fairer of 1. 10 ; as the prefix bi makes them transitive, the 
addition of npott repeating and defining the prepositional relation already ex- 
pressed by that prefix is very noteworthy. Upon is here adverbial, meaning y^w 
aboz'e ; similar constructions with above and abojit are more evident, as, ' Hi let 
hem make a strong scip : & above it al bicaste | WiJ) bole huden,' St. Brendan, 
Archiv, lii. 20/95, 6; ' pa al islit wes Jje Jiong, | abuten he bilaedei muche del 
of londe,' Lajamon, 14221, 3, 4. In O the construction is quite normal ; ttpon 
reyjie and by schine express the transitive force by fixed preposition or prefix and 
both govern child of 1. 13. In L the by oi byrine belongs to shyne also, and the 
construction is the same as in O. 

1. 14. brijt so pe glas. Not a common phrase, but compare, ' Dame Edith bright 
as glas,' Langtoft, p. 95 ; ' On the tayle an hed ther wase | That bymyd Bryght 
as anny glase,' Torrent, 552, 3; ' He schone as bry3t as ane glace,' Guy, 132. 
Similarly, ' His wingges schon so pe glas,' Beues A. 2675 ; ' Se])])e cler as J)e glas/ 
Horst., S. A. L. 204/42. A common expansion of the phrase is seen in ' Tyll 
her that is off ble as bryght | As sonne that shynes Jrow glasse/ Ipomadon, 5021, 
2 ; Richard, 76 ; ' Brytter than evere schon sunne in glas,' Songs and Carols 
(Warton Club), 52/8. Other comparisons with bright are : ' bryht so eny 
someres day,' L 918 : ' That was bryght as someres day,' Emare, 192, 438 ; ' briht 
so sonne on Rouwel bon,' Gregorius, 634 ; ' Mayde meregrete : so bry5t so eny 
leme,' Archiv, Ixxix. 415/197; 'briht so blosme on brere,' Gregorius, 24; 

* bri5t so blosme on bouh,' id. 524; ' briht so blom/ id. 102 ; 'bright so day/ 
id. 145. 

11. 15, 16. He was whit so pe flur, Rose red was his colur. Comp. ' Heo 
beotJ so read so rose, so whit so Jie lilie,' O. E. Homilies, i. 193/53 ; ' Als lely 
like was hir coloure | Hirrode rede als rose flonre,' Rowland and Otuell, 619, 20; 
' In \q world was none here pere | Al so whyt so lylye flour | Red as rose off 
here colour,' Athelston, 69-71 ; ' Shee was as white as lilly in may | Or snow that 
falls on winters day ; | the blossorae nor the bryar, nor noe Kind of flower | it 
hath noe hue vnto her color ; | and the red Rose when it is new | to her rednesse 
hath noe hue,' Lambewell, 148/125-30 ; ' Rode ronne hit ys | As the rose in the 
ris I Wyth lylye in lere,' Degrevant, 518-20 ; ' Whyte as snowys hur colour | Hur 
rud radder Jien \& rose flour,' Erl of Tolous, 199, 200; 'Sche was whyte os blos- 
some on flowre | Mery and comely of colowre/ Tryamoure, 628, 9. All these 

NOTES. .93 

passages praise the beanty of women ; I have not found anything quite like it used 
of a hero of romance. ' White as lily flower,' L O 15, is about the commonest 
comparison in the romances; for the variation in C 15 comp. ' whyte as flowre,' 
Eglamour, 139; ' whyt so flour,' Richard, 13S ; 'white so flowre,' S. Sages, 
2956; 'whyte as flour,' Octavian, 3/40; 'whyte as flowre,' Florence, 194, 1343; 
' white as any floure,' Knight of Curtesy, 97 ; ' whyt as flour,' Launfal, 261 ; 
' whyte as flour on hylle,' Emare, 729; ' whyt as the flowyr in med,' Torrent, 457 ; 
'whj-te sche was as felde flowre,' Guy, 55. Other comparisons are : 'Whit so 
cny Sonne,' O 669; 'white so mylk,' Ywain, S19, &c. ; 'white so milkes rem,' 
Arthour, 1455 ; ' wyte ase melkys fom,' Ferumbras, 3956 ; ' whittore J)en J)e moren 
mylk,' Boddeker, 158/77; 'whyte as fome,' Emare, 497; ' whyegh as the seys 
fTame," Degrevant, 546 ; ' whyte os swan,' Eglamour, 1 293 ; ' whit so fej)er of swan,' 
K. of Tars, 12 ; 'whyte as whallys boon,' Eglamour, Soi ; 'whit as glas,' R. of 
Brunne, 74/2081 ; ' whyt as snow on downe,' Launfal, 241, 2 ; ' So faire jhe was 
& bri3t of mod | Ase snow vpon ]>e rede blod,' Beucs A. 521, 2 ; ' white as lake,' 
Gray Steill, 723; ' wyghtte as chalk,' Partonope fragment, 7/183; 'white so 
blosme on tre,' Gregorlegende, 166 ; ' paperwhyt,' Chaucer, iii. 125/1198. Comp. 
further with 1. 16, ' For my rad was raddur then rose of the ron,' Anturs of Arther, 
7/2 ; ' W}-th rode rede as rose on ryse,' Lybeaus, 1244 ; ' her rud was red as rose 
in raine,' Eger, 361/217; 'her rudd redder then the rose • that on the rise 
hangeth,' Death and Liffe, 59/66 ; ' Rose red was hur rode • full riall of schape,' 
Alisaunder fragment, 182/178; ' With rode red so blosme on brere,' K. of Tars, 
14; Le Morte Arthur, 8/179; Boddeker, 156/35, 6. 

L O 17, 18. In the Romances the fifteenth year is the conventional di\-iding 
line between youth .and manhood, and has more frequent mention than any other. 
For a collection of examples, see Fischer's note on 1. 10 of How the wyse man 
taught hys sone. Comp. for the present combination. ' And when sche was xv 
;er)s olde | Sche was feyre woman & bold,' Horst., A. L. n./. 236/67, 8 ; ' He 
was a fe}T chyld and a bold | Twenty \vj-ntur he was oold,' Erl of Tolous, 712, 3 ; 
' Faire child he was & bolde | He was boute seue winter olde | Whan his fader 
was ded,' Beues A. 52-4 ; 'Be fat he was seue winter old | He was a fair child 
and a bold | And of swete chere,' Reinbroun, 4/3-6 ; Guy, 8419, 20. Variations 
are, ' And whan ]>e child was seoue 3er old | He was fair and of speche bold/ 
Bellum Trojanum, 249, 50 ; ' Amoraunt wex strong & bold | Of fiftene winter 
was he old,' Amis, 1S28, 9; 'When he was seuyn winter aide | Of speche and 
bourding was he balde,' Seuyn Sages, 23, 4 ; ' He had a son was wise and 
balde | Of fully fiften winters aide,' id. 3495, 6 ; ' Be tyme he wase xviii yer old | of 
deddes of armys he wase bold,' Torrent, 19, 20. Here the phrase is a mere tag 
inserted at random by a scribe to the detriment of the story. As Mr. Ward puts 
it, ' this reading represents the usurpers as feeling pity for the rightful heir, and 
giving him a chance of escape when he is actually old enough to bear arms,' 
Catalogue, i. p. 45^. In HR, Horn and his companions are knighted at fifteen 
(O 19/423) or sixteen (C), in HC when 'ful fiftene' (1. 426). It is the usual age 
for that ceremony in the chansons de gesie. ' Dans nos chroniques, comma dans 
ces chansons de geste qui refletent si exactement la vie chevaleresque, nous trou- 
vons a cet egard des textes difficilement recusables. Ces textes nous prouvent 
qn'on pouvait etre fait chevalier a douze, a treize, a quatorze, h quinze, a dix-sept, 
a dix-neuf ans. Si j'avais a etablir une moyenne, c'est a quinze ans que je me 
tiendrais. Quinze ans : I'age de la majorite chez les Germains,' Gautier, La 
Chevalerie, p. 242. And the heroes of the English and French romances are 


usually ready for their career at or before that age. Comp. ' JJo ))ai were fiften 
winter old | He dubbed boJ)e ]>o bernes bold | To knistes in >at tide,' Amis, 163-5 > 
' Crowned after Kyng Harry | Thus was Rychard sykerly | That was in his xvth 
yere | He was a man of grete powere,' Richard, 241-4 ; ' Whan he was at xv yere 
of age I His wit M'axed somwhat sage | He felt him light and somdele strong | To 
know the world he thoght long,' Generides, 799-802 ; Octavian, 22/656-S; Egla- 
mour, 1 210, I ; Gowther, 139-41 ; * Oure king was wight himself to welde | & of 
fourtene jeres of elde | When he was tane wi}) })am to fyght,' Ywain, 3025-7 ; ' He 
was bote tweol yeir old | His dedis weore strong and bold,' Alisaunder, 790, i ; 
' Diloc a treis anz furent grant | Quinze ans aueit li iouenur,' Gaimar, 4620, i ; 
' Quant Bruns de la Montaigne ot age de -xv- ans | Et li temps fu venus qu'il fu 
damoissiaus grans,' B. de la Montaigne, 27S4, 5 ; ' Dame A. au gent cors honnore i 
Son effant voit grant et gros et forme | Li -xv. an furent acompli et passe,' Raoul 
de Cambrai, 374-6. So in Scandinavian legend, ' Quindecim annos natus [Sciol- 
dus] inusitato corporis incremento perfectissimum humani roboris specimen pre- 
ferebat,' Saxo Grammaticus, 11/34, 5 (quoted with other similar passages by 
Wissmann, Studien, p. 353). There are instances of the conferring of knighthood 
as early as the fifteenth year in England. At that age Geoffrey of Anjou and 
twenty-five companions were knighted by Henry the First, and David of Scotland 
by Henry the Second (Chroniques d' Anjou, i. pp. 233, 4; 341). And William of 
Malmesbury, de Gestis Regum, ii. p. 459, actually says of Robert, son of William 
the Conqueror, in his twelfth year, ' spectatae jam virtutis habebatur adolescens 
quando pater Angliam venit.' For feyr & eke bold, see 94. 

11. 17, 18. Comp. 289 and 'The kyng of Merkyneriche ] Nes ther non ys 
yliche,' Chronicle of E, 373, 4; ' Nas Jar no king his iliche,' Lajamon, 25378 ; 
' Ones it was a marchaunde riche | No whar nas non his liche,' A Penivvort) of 
Witte, 3, 4 (Eng. Studien, vii. p. 113), where t'/u/ie is constructed as a substantive. 
Usually it is an adjective with adverb or adverbial dative, as in, ' Nispernonfer to 
iliche I Ne be fele parti so riche,' Beues A. 2047, 8 ; ' Noon I se is founde ]'e liche | 
here in al my kynryche,' Cursor T. 4615, 6 ; ' Nis no wummon iborcn J)et Se beo iliche,' 
O. E. Homilies,' i. 191/23 ; ' In Jje world was non bym lyche,' Athelston, 57 (with 
a note on 1. 33 illustrating the use o^pere, mache, and aietiing as variants of iliche). 

11. 19, 20. Comp. ' viii knaue childer he soujt, | To Horn his sone he hem bitaujt | 
AUe were Jjai frely bom,' HC. 19-21 ; ' Od lui -xv- ualez ki erent de sun lin | Ni ot 
ne fust fiz de bon palain | Cume seignur serueint tuit horn le meschin,' HR. 1/9-11. 
But in 1. 1 131 of the Oxford MS. they are twelve. Horn describes them as ' ces 
enfanz | Ki od mei furent mis par lur apartenanz | Trestud pur mei seruir pur fere 
mes cumanz | Fiz de riches baruns e de cuntes asquanz,' 13/289-92. An incident 
recorded by Albricus Trium Fontium under date 1227 A. D. shows us a prince 
similarly attended. ' In Hungaria magister Robertus Vesprimiensis . . . factus 
fuerat archiepiscopus Strigoniensis (Gran). Eo igitur cruce signato et in procinctu 
itineris constitute, occurrit illi filius principis de Comania et ait : " Domne, baptiza 
me cum 12 istis et pater mens ad te veniet ultra sylvas in tali loco cum 2000 viris 
qui omnes desiderant de manu tua baptizari,' p. 920. References to the custom 
in English romances are indirect, as Alisaunder, 818, 9; Amis, 115, 6. Quite 
exceptionally King Ennones sends his son Ipomydon to a knight for his education, 
Ipomydon, 33-52. In French romance Alexander has three hundred attendant 
comrades, ' Environ lui aloient tel ccc baceler | Ni ot I ne soit fius a demaine 
u a per | U a prince de tiere que li rois dut amer,' Li Romans d'Alexandre, 10/2 ; 
' Trestos les filz as chevaliers | De son pais avoit od lui,' Durmars li Galois, 124, 5 



(references from Rust, Die Erziehung des Ritters, p. lo). Comp. also Gautier, 
La Chevalerie, pp. 1S5-S ; and Schultz, Das Ilofisclie Leben, i. p. 1 70, for M. H. G. 
texts bearing on the custom. Resort to the court of a king or suzerain as a school 
of chivalry about the twelfth year was usual throughout the Middle Ages wherever 
the feudal system prevailed. For the custom in very early times among the Kelts, 
see d'Arbois de Jubainvillc, Cours de I.ittcrature Celtique, vii. pp. 113-6. Keltic 
law placed the pupil on the footing of a son, id. p. 187. Comp. further, 'Interea 
cum progressior aetas ipsos (Edwin and Cadwallo) in adolescentiam promovisset, 
miserunt cos parentcs ad Salomonem regem Armoricanorum Britonum, ut in domo 
eius documenta militiae caetorarumque curialium consuetudinem addiscercnt,' 
Geoffrey of Monmouth, 163/22-6; 'Offris qui fu ses (Penda) aisnes fis | A la cort 
Cadualan noris,' Wace, Brut, 15069, 70. For Spain, Ducange wnAitr Domicclhcs 
quotes from Rodeiicus Toletanus, de rebus Hispaniae, ' Mos erat time temporis 
apud Gothos ut domicelli et domicellae, magnatum filii, in regali curia nutrirentur,' 
iii. 19 (Schott, Hispania illustrata, ii. p. 63) ; ' Nuniiis vero pater eius [Gundi- 
salui] fere ab omnibus Castellae militibus domicellos filios petiit nutriendos quos 
curialitate, affabilitate & bonis moribus sic instruxit, ut patres adolescentium de 
profectu filionim profiterentur se tali nutritio obligates, & ipsi adolescentes sic 
erant Gundisaluo Nunii dilectione coniuncti, ut eum quasi dominum sociarent, 
nee possent ab eius consortio vel ad modicum separari,' v. 2 (Schott, ii. p. 83). 
For evidence of the custom in Normandy before the Conquest, comp. the following 
passage from Ordericus Vitalis, ' Rodbertus de Grcntemaisnilio .... postquam 
annos adolescentiae attigit, spretis litterarum otiis ad armorum laborem cucurrit 
et Willcrmi ducis armiger v annis extitit. Deinde ab eodem duce decenter est 
armis adornatus et miles effectus pluribus exeniis nobiliter honoratus,' ii. 40. For 
England the following, all referring to Henry the Second, may be cited, * David 
autem . . . expetiit curiam Henrici regis Anglorum. Qui, dum intestina clades 
Scotos vexaret, et bcllica rabie in sua viscera impncabiliter armaret, curiae sororii 
sui inseparabilis inliaesit, et inter domesticos educatus pueros. crevit, regisque 
sapientis et potentis familiarem amicitiam promeruit,' Ordericus Vitalis, iii. 401, 2 ; 
' Eodem tempore Ludovicus juvenis permissu patris sui cum paucis sed sapientibus 
viris in Angliam transfreta\'it et rcgi Henrico spectabilis tiro servitunis ad curiam 
eius accessit,' id. iv. p. 195; ' Fouke le jeouene fust norry ou les iiij fitz Henre 
le roy,' Fulk Fitz-Warine, p. 62 ; ' quar le prince (LleweljTi of N. Wales) e sire 
Fouke e ces freres furent norys ensemble en la court le roy Henre,' id. p. 96. The 
earliest e\-idence is afforded by two passages in the de rebus gestis Aelfredi attri- 
buted to Asser, ' filios quoque eorum qui in regali familia nutriebantur, non minus 
propriis diligens, omnibus bonis moribus instituere, et litteris imbuere solus die 
noctuque inter cetera non desinebat ' [rex Aelfredus], M. H. B. p. 4S6 ; * Aethel- 
weard omnibus junior ludis literariae disciplinae . . . cum omnibus pene totius 
regionis nobilibus infantibus, et etiam multis ignobilibus sub diligenti magistrorum 
cuni traditus est,' id. p. 485. At Athelstan's court three future kings are said to 
have been educated. That the practice lasted far into the fifteenth century 
{1474A. D.") is shown by the Ordinances for the government of Prince Edward, 
son of Edward the Fourth, which contain rules for ' the sonnes of nobles, lords 
and gentlemen, beinge in houshoulde with our sayde sonne,' Household Books, 
p. 29*. 

1. 20. AUe should be omitted, it has been carried out of 1. 21. The insertion 
of he is due to Matzner ; the subject is indispensable in a relative clause. For 
other cases of its omission, see 260 and the note on 126S. Parallels to the phrase 



are, ' He ches hym tvvolue yuere • myd him vor to lede | Summe hi weren wyse • 
and duden al bi his rede,' O. E. Misc., 38/42, 3 ; 't>re men were slawe Jjat he j^er 
hadde | Jjat he wi]> him out ladde,' Beues A. 253, 4. Lumby makes _^a/ the subject 
and explains ladde = lead their lives, but leden in this sense requires as its comple- 
ment h/or lijlode. 

1. 21. For riche, see glossary. Comp. 'They were ryche menys sonnes | All 
they were feyre gromes,' Guy, 2017, 8; ' & wi]) him tventi god gomis | Kniates 
and riche baroun sonis,' Guy A. 707, 8 ; Lasamon, 28932, 3. The variant in O 23^ 
finds a parallel in ' Od lui out oscis trentre treis | Gentilz homes, tuz fiz a reis,' 
Gaimar, i. 1327, 8. 

1. 23. Comp. ' Wi}) him to play & lere to ride,' HC. 22, and see note on 32. 

I. 25. him, see note on 137. 

II. 29, 30. For this formula of transition comp. 799, and, ' Hyt was on a somers 
day I As y the sothe telle may,' Guy, 2319, 20 ; * At Whytsontyde felle a daye | As 
y yow telle may,' id. 143, 4; ' So it by felle appone a day | Now the sothe als 
I salle say | Mi lorde went hym to play,' Perceval, 2141-3; 'It felle so appone 
a daye | The knyghte went to the wode hym to playe,' Isumbras, 37, 8, 629 ; 'So 
it bifel vpon a dai | Als he went vpon his plai,' S. Sages, 2355, 6 ; ' So fat it byuel 
In a day : as our lordes wille was,' S. Brendan, 5 ; ' Erly in a someristide | y sawe 
in london as y wente,' Political, R., and L. Poems, i/i, 2 ; and for 1. 30, 'As ich 
ou telle may,' K. of Tars V. 897 ; ' as ich ow telle may,' Gregorius, 666, 700. 

1. 32. Comp. 23, 630, 646, and, 'William & Harald went l)am forto play] 
Tales togider J)ei tald, ilk on a gode palfray,' Langtoft, p. 68 ; ' The kinge gan on 
huntynge Ride | In to the foreste hym to playe,' Le Morte Arthur, 729, 30; 444, 5 ; 
516, 7 ; 'Yesterday yn the mornynge | Y wente on my playnge,' Lybeaus, 664, 5 ; ' He 
come one his playnge,' Perceval, 1850 ; ' as y me wende omy pleyjyng,' Boddeker, 
213/12 ; ' Aloon I wente in my playing,' Rom. of the Rose, 105; Emare, 77, 8 ; 
181, 3. 7"^ //aj almost regiilarly means to ride out by wood or water, like csl>aiioier 
in the French romances. Two passages in Emare closely resemble the present. 
' Every day wolde he go | And take with hym a sqwyer or two | And play hym 
by the see ; ] On a tyme he toke the eyr | With two knyghtes gode and fayr ; | The 
wedur was lythe of le. | A boot he fond by the brym,' 343-9, and 688-95. Lumby 
states that the usual phrase is on plemg without the possessive adjective. But the 
adjective is, as a rule, present, just as the verb is generally reflexive ; comp. note 
on Orfeo, 64. 

1. 36. See 809, 10. For on comp. ' Now ar thay Aryued on the stronde,' Le 
Morte Arthur, 2476. Other constructions with arivc are shown in, ' hue aryueden 
vnder reme,' L 1525 ; ' He riuede in a reaume,' O 1550, 8 ; ' At })e ry[v]e vppon ))e 
see strond,' Arthour, 279/D 82 ; ' pat such folc was ariued • as me sede vp his londe,' 
Robert of Gloucester, 362 ; ' f>ai aryued vp at Sandwyche,' R. of Brunne, 42 ; 
' And God of heuyn of his grete grace | Made him to riue vp in a place,' S. Sages, 
3549, 50; ' Hauen to aryue fey hym wylisette,' R. of Brunne, 2921 ; ' Hi gunne 
for ariue | ])er king modi was sire,' 1505, 6. See also note on 59. 

1. 37. Fifteen was a favourite round number with the romance writers ; see the 
passages collected in the note on Tristrem, 817. It generally implies an ample or 
even profuse supply. 

1. 38. See O 614, 623; 633, 1319 note, 1377, 598 note. Through the influence 
of the Crusades, Saracen became a general name for heathen of any sort. It was 
specially used of the Danes, comp. ' Vp him com a chaunce hard | Of Danmark 
Sarrazins,' Arthour, 2066, 7 ; ' Saracens fat were fer jut • bileued in engelonde | 

NOTES. 97 

In lincolne & in leycestre • & in derby ich vnderstondc | In Stafford & in 
notingham • he horn drof al to nojte | & cristine men aboutc • in hor studes 
bro;te,' R. of Gloucester, 5592-5. But it was also applied to Saxons, comp. 
R. of Gloucester, 4523, 4692 ; 'Be Saxounis als ye war ouer thrawin | Be lua 
borne chiftnnis of your awin, | And Germaneis in cumpany, ( All borne Sarajcnis 
vtterlie, | At come with llorsus and Ingest,' Early Pop. Poetry of Scotland, ed. 
llazlitt, i. 316/77-81. Besides the word is used quite vaguely for foreigner, 
alien ; the Philistines are Saracens in Cursor Mundi, 7589 ; the Emperor Trajan 
is a Saracen. Piers Plowman, B. xi. 151 ; in Evangelium Nicodemi, 205, 6 (Archiv 
liii. p. 395) Pilate addressing the Jews says, ' My wife, yhe wale wele, es no lew, | 
Scho es a sarizene.' 

L O ?>7, 8- These lines are displaced in C 49, 50. For the expression in L 38, 
comp. 55 and ' But ])e Bretons were al to fo,' R. of Brunne, 15358 ; ' pai were to 
mani & we to fewe,' Guy A. 423/53/7 ; ' And that es fully to fewe to feghte with 
theme alle,' Morte Arlhure, 2742 ; ' )7er weore feondes to feole,' Lajamon, 1286. 

11- .39- 4°- Comp. 599, 600. The following passage describing the first appear- 
ance of the Danes in England forms a good parallel. ' Regnante Byrhtrico rege 
piissimo super partes Anglorum occidentales .... advecta est subito Danorum 
ardua non nimia classis, dromones numero tres ; ipsa et advectio erat prima. 
Audito etiam, exactor regis, jam morans in oppido quod Dorceastre nuncupatur, 
equo insilivit, cum paucis praecurril ad portum, putans eos mngis negotiatores 
esse quam hostcs et praecipiens eos imperio, ad regiam villam pelli jussit : a quibus 
ibidem occiditur ipse et qui cum eo erant,' Ethelwerdi Chronicorum, lib. iii. 
(M. H. B. p. 509). The formula of inquiry is fairly common, comp. 'He esste 
hom wanen hi were • & wo him ])ider brojte | & vor wat encheson hii come • & 
wat J)ing hii sojte,' R. of Gloucester, 2407, 8 ; ' pen seyde fe kyng, " of whenne 
be 5e? | What haue 3e sought to ])is contre?"' R. of Brunne, 7315, 6 ; 'whonene 
3e beO icumene; & whet je her sohten,' Lajamon, 4615, 6 ; 6193, 4 ; Guy, 2716-9; 
'Gurgint enquist quel gent estoient | U aloient et que querroient,' \Vace, 3327, 8, 
806-8; 'Quer ge voil saveir tot de plein | Dunt il vienent & ou il vunl | E lor 
afaire e quel il sunt,' Guillaume le ^larechal, 6714-6. 

11. 43, 4. See 603, 4 note. 

1. 47. The alighting of the king and his companions to fight on foot is a primitive 
touch and in keeping with the English custom before the Conquest. ^Vhat little 
evidence there is in King Horn of fighting on horseback wears the look of a later 
addition. The sword is practically the only weapon used ; the spear is mentioned 
at 544 and in the corresponding lines of the other MSS., while its use is alluded to 
once at L 1389 and O 1416. Comp. ' doun on fote ]>e moste gan light | on fote 
J)ei renged l^am to fight,' R. of Brunne, 3507, 8 ; ' Of joure hors alijjte)' ? and vp 
5oure feot stonde)>,' Lajamon, 5862, 3 ; ' Weoren heo of Rome '. alle ridinde. | j^a 
odere (the Britons) a foten,' id. 5906-8 ; 25731, 2 ; 'Li miax de lor gent et li 
plus I Descendiient des chevax jus,' Wace, 3175, 6. In the later romances it is 
etiquette to dismount and continue the fight on foot, if the enemy has been thrown 
by the shock of the charge, comp. ' Adoun fell that sory syre. | Lybeauus adoun 
b'ght, I Afote for to fyght,' Lybeaus, 1902-4. 

1. 48. Comp. 'So J)at he neyjed his stede | For to him he hadde nede,' Guy A. 
57.^5> 6 ; ' And drogh him to his felourede, | For than he saw he had nede,' 
Generides, 4511, 2 ; • Gadred folk togider, als men ])at had nede,' Langtoft, p. 21. 

1. 51. See 605 note. 

1- 53- The variant of O 57 gives an easy meaning, they fought under cover of their 




shields. But in the other versions, as in L 882, O 901, it is not clear whether the 
smiter's or the smitten's shield is meant. Either view may be supported by 
parallel passages. Comp. ' And Surnagour wold haue smette | Vndyr the Shelde 
Partanope | Of that Stroke foule fayled he,' Partonope, 2031-3 ; ' Arthour smot 
ojainward | Vnder Riones scheld a dint hard,' Arthour, 261/9361, 2 ; 168/5978, 
9 ; ' He bar hym thorwgh and undjT the scheeld,' Richard, 5730 ; ' & smot him so 
aboue J)e scheld | ])at helme & heued fleyje in the feld,' K. of Tars A. 1191, 2 ; 
Arthour, 142/5035, 6 ; ' & smat hine buuen J)an scelde,' La3amon, 26563, and 
contrast with ' Partanope that day vndyr his Sheelde | Twenty hethen hat slayn in 
the feelde,' Partonope, 1151, 2 ; ' Wele dare they fyght vndyr Sheeld,' id. 581 1; 
'Vnder shelde he gan hym were,' Alisaunder, 5836 ; ' f'at wele coujje juste in feld 
I Wi]) stef launce vnder scheld,' Arthour, 89/3095, 6 ; ' Mony a mon fel vndir 
shelde,' Cursor T. 7661 ; K. of Tars V. 196, 7; Arthour, 113/3924. 

1. 54. So that some felt it. Comp. ' He smot Corineus harde inou • ])at he it 
stronge velde,' R. of Gloucester, 394. O 58 means, He felled some of them, 
with an awkward change of subject from the preceding line. In Ij 58 hy is in 
apposition to sonuiie (comp. 498), and the line means, That some of them felt. 

1. 55. See note on L 38. 

1. 58. Comp. S36, 883, O 1419 and ' He was to de))e nei? ybroujt,' Roberd 
of Cisyle, 201 with Nuck's note. In O 62 for deye Horstmann reads dcpe; 
brmgen deye might mean, cause to die, but the absence of to is a difficulty. 
See O 649. 

1. 59. come to londe. The same preposition as at 162, O 172, 1022, 1448, 
O 1495. Comp. also 'King aire kennest : ])at euere com to londe,' Lajamon 
O. 1 906 1. Other constructions with comeft and similar verbs of motion are, 
'a londe,' L 170; 'on londe,' 36, 788; 'in londe,' L 794, O 817; ' vpon londe,' 
O 1341 ; 'vp to londe,' L 1032, L 1310, O 1061, 1300. See 36 note. 

I. 60. in here honde, into their possession. Comp. 81. In this phrase the texts 
of Lajamon show the same variation as liere between in, to and on, the younger 
MS. generally having in, the older on and to. Comp. ' And faren 5end al Brut- 
lond 2 & nimen hit to (in O.) J^ire heonde,' C. 3806, 7 ; ' His moder nam to hire bond l 
al ])isne kinedom,' O. 6337, 8, 3789; ' J?e aldre seide J)at al [iis lond ! he wolde 
halden on (in O.) is ajere bond,' 3940, i ; ' f>reo & J)ritti kinelond i ich halde a (in 
O.) mire ajere bond,' 27312, 3. Other variants are seen in 'J)o were fel kinges in 
lond I f)at Costaunce wan vnder his bond,' Arthour, 7/153, 4; ' f>at he ne dede al 
engelond ] Sone sayse intil his bond,' Havelok, 250, 1. As these examples show, 
a possessive adjective or noun in the genitive is necessary in this phrase when 
possession is to be expressed : the corresponding readings in L & O mean. They 
took it in hand, proceeded to deal with the country. See also 338 note. 

II. 61, 2. See 181, 2, 1379, ^°' Comp. 'Sone swa heo a lond comen ' f>at folc 
heo (the Saxons) aslo;en | . . . heo velledden ))a castles ' ])at lond heo awaesten | 
Jia chirechen heo for barnden,' La5amon, 20955, 6, 69-71 ; ' Chirchen he velde al 
adoun • J^er ne moste non stonde,' R. of Gloucester, 181 2 ; ' Hii ne sparede prest 
ne chirche  ])at hii ne brojte to grounde,' id. 4640, 5988; Havelok, 2583, 4; 
' Mult volunters i firent mal | Musters destruistrent e maisons | Chapeles e 
religions,' Gaimar, 3130-2 (speaking of the Danes), 2165, 6; ' Mettent a flambe 
e a charbun | Plus tost eglise ke maisun,' Life of Edward the Confessor, 31/227, 8. 
The northern heathen behaved with peculiar barbarity to Christian clergy and 
buildings. The following entry is of a type frequent in the earlier chronicles : 
* Verum Majus Monasterium, quod non longe a Turonis erat, funditus eversum 

NOTES. 99 

centum viginti monachos, bis binos minus, ibidem gladio percusserunt, praelcr 
abbatem et viginti quatuor alios qui cavernis terrae latitantes evaserunt,' Chroniques 
d'Anjou, i. p. 49. Yorfor to in 1. 62 see 1272 note. 

I. 64. 'Neither strangers nor kinsmen' is used vaguely here for, no manner of 
men. It is a common phrase, see Matzner, Worterbuch, ii. pp. 205, 6. In a similar 
place Lajamon has ' no durste Jaer bilaeuen 2 na ])ae uatte no ^e laene,' 19444, 5, 
27221, 2. 

II. 65, 6. This formula with rhymes forsake, take is a favourite one. Comp. 
' and somme god forsoke 2 and to hejiensipe toke,' Lajamon 0.12113,4; 'for crist 
seolue he forsocl and to )^an wursen he tohc,' id. 29187, 8 ; ' That, and they vvelen 
cure scrvise forsake | And onliche to Jesu thanne hem take,' Arthour, 374/59, 60 ; 
' As );au5 J)e world heo hedde forsake | And to God hire al bitake,' Horst., S. A. L. 
50/571, 2 ; ' Vnto my law who sum sail take | His werldly gudes him bus forsake,' 
Horst., A. L., n.f. 27/191, 2 ; 43/47, S, and many other places, here, theirs, i. e. 
their law, faith. 

11. 69, 70. So, 'ffor Troell she weped sore | And for Ectour moche more,' Seege 
of Troye, 1541, 2 (.\rchiv, I.xxii, p. 48). The additional lines LO 75, 6 look as 
though they were originally meant to be substituted for this uncommon expres- 

1. 73. roche of stone. See 13S3, 4 and comp. ' pe kyng let make • a deop 
holet I In a Roche of ston • and him ])er set,' Horst., A. L. 223/591, 2 ; 'f>ou 
schuldest han ben hermyte or frere • in Roch of ston bi waters brinke,' Gregorius, 
591 ; ' Bring me to )-at roche of ston,' Gregorlegcnde, 919 and passim ; 'That 
safe and sownde broght hur ryght | Vn to the roche of stone,' Bone Florence, 
1918, 9 ; ' in a castel of roche of ston,' Arthour, 70/2435 (where the editor reads 
'& ston') ; 'He opened the rock of stone, and the waters flowed out,' Psalms, 
P. B. version, cv. 40; Ferumbras, 1332 ; Torrent, 2553 ; Orpheo, 345 ; Guy, 3725, 
9100; Cursor T. 9915. A curious use is seen in 'I lyue as ankre in stone,' 
Alexius, 39/420; 'Bot as an anker in a stone | He Ip'ed evere trew,' Degrevant, 
63, 4. Godhild retired to a cave, or perhaps, if any special force is to be given to 
the vnder of 73 and L 79, to some subterranean chamber like that found at 
Ro}'Ston last century. Jocelin in his Vita Patricii describes a like time. ' Tempus 
antem tenebrarum Hibemici illud autumant quo prius Gurmundus, ac postea 
Turgesius, Noruagienses principes pagani in Hibemia debellata regnabant. In illis 
enim diebus Sancti in cavernis et speluncis, quasi carbones cineribus cooperti, 
latitabant a facie impiorum qui eos tota die quasi ones occisionis mortificabant,' 
Colgan, Trias Thaumaturga, p. 104. 

1. 78. Comp. ' To the see he wende : toward Rome : that no man hit nuste,' 
Beket, 667. 

O 82. houndes, see 598. 

1. So. him beo myld, might be gracious to him. Comp. ' Forster, so Crist \& 
be milde, | Wiltow lete cristen \\% hej^en childe,' Beues A. 3733, 4 ; ' Now Crist 
of hevene be ous milde,' Sen}Ti Sages, 1046; 'godd J)e wurSe milde/ Lajamon, 

1. 81. in paynes bond, see 60 note. 

1. 84. L shows the best reading here. Comp. O 420 and ' Gorge ot bele et bien 
agensie | Que Dix me'ismes I'ot taillie,' Jehan et Blonde, 321,2; ' De si grant sen 
esteit ke deu li out done ] Far le pais esteit par icoe renome ( Pur sun sen ki iert 
grant • e pur sa grant beaute,' HR. 16/394-6 ; 'Mes Horn le(s) passa tuz de tutes 
beautez ] Si cum le uoleit Deus ki maint en trinitez,' id. 2/36, 7 ; ' " Ma dame," 

H 2 


said Ellious, " he is no man — he is an aungell. I sawe nener so fair an erthely 
creatur. Gode made hym with his aun hondes,"' Ponthus, 15/18-20. The 
expression seems without a parallel in the English romances. 

11. 85, 6. See 1369, 70. The phrase is formal. Comp. 'heo sculleS beon 
isla5ene' and summe quic iulajene,' Lajamon, 27376, 7 ; ' And afterward quyk the 
flen I And al thy folk with sweord slen,' Alisaimder, 1734, 5; 'and Caric of 
slaen ? and alle his cnihtes flan,' La5amon, 2904S, 9. 

1. 89. Admirad. Matzner supplied /, necessary for the rhjane. In O 95 the 
word is apparently taken for a proper name. For him, see 137 note. 

I. 90. Of wordes bald, a very uncommon combination, but comp. 375, 602 ; 
' {?e king was hoten aJ)elwold, | Of word, of wepne he was bold,' Havelok, 106, 7. 
Similarly Minot has, 'of wordes stout,' i. 28. The same idea of boastfulness is 
expressed in 601, 2; 'An hund him gan bihelde | ])at spac wordes belde ' ; '& 
he spac wordes swi})e held,' Arthour, 37/1216. The same construction of hold 
is seen in 'and of witte was waxe al bold,' Horst., S. A. L. 63/114 ; ' Sleije men 
and egleche: and of redes wise and bolde,' id. 14S/1. 

II. 91, 2. For kene, comp. ' Mani erl, baroun & knijt | Hardy & kene forto 
fijt,' Arthour, 14/405, 6 ; ' Vortimer pe 5unge king ; wes swi'Se kene Jiurhalle Jjing,' 
Lajamon, 14650, i : for the whole phrase, ' The Troyens were suythe kene | Ant 
that wes ther wel asene,' Chronicle of England, 43, 4; 'For ine the trowe death 
was kene | And that God made wgl ysene,' Shoreham, p. 163 : for 1. 92, a very 
common cheville, ' And Jiat was ))ere well seen,' Bone Florence, 1080 ; ' That was 
ther ful wel seen,' Richard, 5357 ; ' He hathe vs savyd and J)at is sene,' Ipomedon, 
200/7033 ; ' God hath ben wroth wid the world, and that is wel isene,' Wright, 
Pol. Songs, 340/379; 'Cristes help him was ney | & J)at was wel ysene,' Ale.\iu3, 
25/56, 7; Cursor T. 12093; Minot, viii. 79 note. For a variation of the phrase, 
see 684. 

11. 92, 3. Euene, quite equal to the average, with the meaning here of, tall, 
' fair o bodie lengpe,' 1. 900. Of William the Conqueror, R, of Gloucester says, 
' SuiJ'e ])ikke mon he was . & of grete strengjje | Gret wombede & ballede . & bote 
of euene lengj)e,' 7730, i, barely of average height, to the writer's mind, a defect, 
as shown by his description of Robert Curthose (curta ocrea), ' ])ikke mon he was 
inou . bote he nas nojt wel long | • . • 0])er lak nadde he non • bote he nas no5t 
wel long I He was quojnte of conseil • & speke & of bodi strong,' id. 8526, 34, 5. 
The heroes of the romances are mostly tall, ' Cniht he wes swiSe strong I Kene 
and custi, muchel and long,' Lajamon, 6365, 6; ' Hou he was bojje michel and 
long,' HC. 290 ; ' Hw he was fayr, hw he was long, | Hw he was with, hw he was 
strong,' Havelok, 1063, 4; 'In al ])is werd ne haues he per; | Non so fayr, ne non 
so long, I Ne non so mikel, ne non so strong,' id. 2241-3 ; ' Hys body, he J'Oght, 
was feyre and longe | And wele ymade to be stronge,' Guy, 77^5; 6; 'A fairer 
child neuer i ne sij | NeiJ^er a ling|)e ne on brade,' Beues A. 536, 7; Boddeker, 
253/253, 4. Richard the First, physically an ideal knight, is thus described by the 
author of the Itinerarium, ' Erat quidem statura piocerus, elegantis formae, inter 
rufum et flavum medie temperata caesarie, membris flexibilibus et directis, brachia 
productiora quibus ad gladium educendum nulla habiliora vel ad feriendum 
efficaciora ; nihilominus tibiaruni longa divisio, totiusque corporis dispositione 
congrua,' p. 144. 

L 98. bryht of hewe & shene, an unusual expression, comp. ' And of hys 
stewarde bryght of hewe | That was bothe gode and trewe,' Guy, 21, 2; ' Goode 
he was and bryjt of hewe,' id. 121 ; 'A doustter he had, brijth & shene,' Alexius, 


26 '154; 'And J'nt mniilc, Jiat was so sheene,' Beues S. 579; ' Wymmen bue]) so 
feyr on hcwe,' Boddeker, i67/.^7. 

1. 94. Combinations with /air are numerous, so, 'feyr & eke bold,' L 17; 
' fayr & eke strong,' L 99 ; ' feir & eke god,' L 258, L 91 1 ; ' feir & fre,' L 267 ; 
'fair & riche,' 339, 314 ; ' fayr and briycte,' O 466. 

1. 97. to liue go, escape death, continue to live, not, 'go away alive' (Morris). 
Go in this phrase has no sense of motion ; /iite is governed by io. Comp. ' Whel'er 
our to liue go | He ha)> anouj of Jis,' Tristrem, 1022, 3 ; 'And leten a Jief to lyue 
gon,' Vernon MS. i. 30S/254. In, ' Yif y late him Hues go | He micte me wirchen 
niichel wo,' Havelok, 509, 10, the construction is different. Other verbs used in 
the same way are seen in, 'For yf J)ou come to Hue,' O 113; 'If ihc come to 
lyue,' 559 ; 'And Jioujte, ;ef )ey come to lyue, | To vyl de)) J)ey schold him dryue,' 
Arthour, 28S/271, 2 (where another MS. has 'weren a lyue'); ' 5if auentour bitide 
euer more, | He com to liue and were a man,' Gregorlegende, 21/129, 3° I '3'^ 
auenture felle more • he com to Ijiie and wox a Mon,' Gregorius, 201 ; ' jit may 
God such grace sende | . . . ))at he may to lyue wende,' id. 257, 8 ; ' To lyue God 
him wolde bringe,' id. 269 ; ' To lyue non ne 5ode, but on was marinere,' Langtoft; 
p. 106; 'He wist if he to lif myjt stonde ] he shulde be kyng of his londe,' 
Cursor T. 7691, 2 ; ' fiat he ros fro dede So | vs to lif holden,' Bestiary, 2/45, 6. 
\Vith the passage generally comp. Beues A. 25/549-52. 

1. loi. stere, occurs again at 1373, 'Hi comen vt of stere,' where O has 'out 
of scyp Sterne.' Matzner e-xplains it as ' helm, rudder,' put for ' ship.' He does 
not support his view by other instances, and, so far as I know, the use is quite 
isolated. The word must be a noun, comp. ' Then fonde she wryten all the 
dede | How she moste ynto the see,' Emare, 624 : possibly it is meant for stoitre, 
see L 1455: Morris's explanation of to stere, 'to use the helm,' is untenable: 
auxiliary verbs are often enough followed by infinitives with to, as in ' We muste 
nede oon of the two | Othur to defende vs or to dethe go,' Guy, 1925, 6 (and 
note% but rarely, if ever, immediately. In O 107 stron is for strand. 

O 109. stonnde. Comp. 597 note and 1179. 

I. 104. grunde, bottom of the sea. See Minot, x. 4 for note on seegronde, and 
comp. for the special use here, ' J)er sunken to \zn grunde l fif 8c twenti hundred,' 
Lajamon, 21273, 4 ; ' Egypcienes fellen to Se grund,' Genesis and E.xodus, 3278 ; 
' Ne sonk hit no ))ing to grounde,' Gregorius, 261 ; ' Whan Beuys was at the 
wellys grounde,' Beues M. 2499. Hampole (?) translates mirabilia eius in pro- 
funda by, ' his woundirs in the grund,' Psalter, p. 383. 

II. 105, 6. The sea will be the cause of your death, not we, and so we shall 
have nothing to repent of. For in 1. 107 does not introduce a reason for the 
statement in 1. 106, but rather depends on a suppressed principal clause such as, 
'we must send yon adrift' : 11. 107-110 are simply a variation on 95-100. The 
action of the pagans in giving Horn and his companions, whose vengeance they 
fear, a chance for their lives may seem a fantastic feature of the story. But it is 
in accord with, or rather it is a peculiar developement of, a widespread primitive 
feeling. The great elemental power, water, especially in ocean or running stream, 
acts with perfect justice where man's judgement may be mistaken, and the 
responsibility of decision is accordingly put upon it. The emperor Julian tells 
us that the Kelt of the Rhine, if doubtful of the fidelity of his wife, placed the 
new-born child on his buckler in the river, and the Rhine, ' absolutely free from 
injustice towards Kelts,' rendered an infaUible judgement as the shield sank or 
swam (d'Arbois de Jubainville, Etudes sur le Droit celtique, pp. 26 ff.). On the 

102 , KING HORN. 

same principle it is better to send a person suspected or accused of an atrocious 
crime to sea in an ill-found craft or among the perils of the wild forest than to 
inflict the death penalty on one possibly innocent. The action of the pagans is 
really a modification of this way of thinking. The children are sackless and too 
young to bear arms, their murder would be a crime with a sure nemesis. They 
will not have much chance of escape ; if they are drowned, it will be the sea's doing. 
Instances of exposure in a boat occur in the romances elsewhere. Emare is thus 
sent to sea twice, 11. 265-79, 637-84, and Crystabelle with her son in Eglamour, S02- 
25. The sorrows of Desonelle (Torrent of Portyngale, 1813-42) are imitated from 
those of Crystabelle. Custance in Chaucer's Man of Lawe's Tale has the same 
hard fate as Emare ,11. 439-45, 865-9). S- Gregory was, when an infant, enclosed 
in a tun and sent adrift in a boat with the consolation that ' Al fat God wil haue, 
don Jian schal be,' Gregorlegende, 262. Sending away into the forest alone 
or with a single attendant occurs in Bone Florence, 1693-1700; in Octavian, 
10/263-290; in Tryamoure, 211-49, '^i'^ the significant lines, 'Ye schalle hur 
nother brenne nor sloo | For dowte of synne,' 21 2, 3. And in history, rather legend 
perhaps, there are some interesting records, ' fuere qui fratrem regis [Ethelstani] 
Edwinum insidiarum insimularent ; scelus horrendum et foedum quod sedulitatem 
fraternam sinistra interpretatione turbarent. Edwinus per se et per internuntios 
fidem germani implorans et licet sacramento delationem infirmans, in exilium actus 
est. Tantum quorundam mussitatio apud animum in multas curas distentum valuit, 
ut ephebum etiam externis miserandum, oblitus consanguineae necessitudinis, expel- 
leret ; inaudito sane crudelitatis modo, ut solus cum armigero navem conscendere 
juberetur, remige et remigio vacuam, praeterea vetustate quassam. Diu laboravit 
fortuna ut insontem terrae restitueret. Sed cum tandem in medio mari furorem 
ventorum vela non sustinerent, ille, ut adolescens delicatus et vitae in talibus 
pertaesus, voluntario in aquas praecipitio mortem conscivit. Armiger, saniori 
consilio passus animam producere, modo adversos fluctus eludendo, modo pedibus 
subremigando, domini corpus ad terram detulit angusto scilicet a Dorobeinia in 
Witsant mari,' Malmesbury, de gestis Regum Anglorum, i. p. 156 (the story is 
also found in Johannis Iperii Chronicon S. Bertini, printed in Martene, Thesaurus, 
iii. p. 547). The story of the punishment inflicted on Berno is best told in 
Matthew Paris. ' Tunc rex Eadmundus, diligenti de morte Lothebroci facta inquisi- 
tione, Bernum venatorem de opere nefando convicit, et jussit a militibus de curia 
sua adjudicari ac legis peritis, quid de homicida foret agendum ; at omnes in hoc 
pariter consenserunt, ut venator in ilia navicula, in qua saepe dictus Lothebrocus 
in Angliam applicuit, poneretur et in medio maris solus sine instrumento navali 
dimissus, probetur si ilium Deus velit a periculo liberare. Itaque venator, juxta 
quod sententiatum fuerat, in profunditatem maris dismissus, post dies paucos in 
Daciam est projectus,' Chronica Majora, ed. Luard, i. p. 395. (Comp. Chronicon 
Johannis Brompton, apud Twysden, p. 804.) The circumstances under which 
Cynethrith, afterwards wife of Offa, came to England are thus stated by an anony- 
mous writer : ' Diebus itaque sub eisdem Regnante in Francia Karolo Rege magno 
ac victoriosissimo, quaedam puella facie venusta, sed mente nimis inhonesta, ipsi 
Regi consanguinea, pro quodam quod patraverat crimiiie flagitiosissimo, addicta est 
judicialiter morti ignominiosae, verum ob Regiae dignitatis reverentiam, igni vel 
ferro tradenda non judicatur, sed in navicula armamentis carente apposita, victu 
tenui, ventis & mari eorumque ambiguis casilms exponitur condemnata. Quae diu 
variis procellis exagitata, tandem fortuna trahente, litori Britonum est appulsa, & 
cum in terra subjecta potestati Regis Offae memorala cimba applicuisset, conspectui 

NOTES. 103 

Regis protinus praesentatur,' Vita OfTae Secundi, in Wats' ed. of Matthew Paris, 
1640, p. 12. Even a criminal manifestly condemned by heaven has a chance of 
escape given him. ' Alter vero Rainerus nomine, praecipuus ecclesiarum effractor 
atque incensor, cum nxore sua transfretans, iniquitatum suarum pondere, in medio 
mari, navim qua vchebatur fecit immobilem. Quod cum maximo nautis et aliis 
qui simul vehebantur csset stupori, antiquo excmplo jacta est sors, et cccidit sors 
super Rainerum. Et ne forte hoc casu accidisse videretur, iterum et tertio sorte 
jacta et fideli inventa, judicium Dei declaratum est. Itaque ne universi cum ipso 
et propter ipsum pcrirent, expositus est in scapha cum uxore et pecunia male 
acquisita. Navis illico expedita est et cursu solito ferebatur. Scapha vero pon- 
dere peccatoris subsedit, fluctibusque absorpta est,' Chronicles of Stephen, i, 
p. 46. (See also Langtoft, p. 124.) And finally William of Malmesbury tells 
a legend of a boy castaway who came, like Horn, to great honour in the land to 
which the waves carried him. ' Iste (Sceaf) ut ferunt, in quandam insulam Gcr- 
maniae Scandzam, de qua Jordanes, historiographus Gothorum, loquitur appulsus, 
navi sine remige, puerulus, posito ad caput frumenti manipulo, dormiens, ideoque 
Sceaf nuncupatus, ab hominibus regionis illius pro miraculo exceptus, et sedulo 
nutritus : adulta aetata regnavit in oppido quod tunc Slaswic, nunc vero Haithebi 
appellatur,' de Gestis Regum, i. p. 121 (comp. Ethelwcrd, M. H. B. p. 512). 

O 113. come to liue, see 97 note. 

1. loS. This phrase is formal, comp. ' We ne majen J)e fond from us driue ' ne mid 
sworde ne mid kniue,' O. E. Homilies, i. 69/252, 3; ' Wyth swerd and wyth 
knyef | That y shalle faythly fyeght,' Degrevant, 540, 1 ; Gray Steill, 487. 
Variants are seen in, * Al men maden her acord | Wi]) axes, speres, kniif 8c 
sword,' Arthour, 12/335, ^ ; ' WiJ) swerd, knyf, staf or ston | Lei on faste and J)at 
anon,' E. Studien, viii. 266/376, 7; ' Wif/ sweord and long knyf | f>us pey raften 
him his lyf,' Bellum Trojanum, 16S7, S ; ' WiJ) sweord, spere and wip knyf,' 
id. 1 71 7; *& bringe]) here of lyue : wit swerd o])er wit spere,' Seint Margarete, 
Archiv, Ixxix. 418/328. 

1. 112. See 980. 

1. 113. In to is noteworthy ; to, on or »pon being the usual prepositions. IVithin 
also occurs, comp. ' Ar I be brou5t wi})inne schippes bord,' E. Studien, x. 252/S15 ; 
'To Bretayne the braddere within chippe burdez,' Morte Arlhure, 1699. 

I. 114. This phrase is apparently without parallel. Wissmann explains zt'^in/fi as 
' command.' But by the light of similar expressions this appears to mean,Without 
further talk about the matter, forthwith. Comp. ' So at last into a galey | Thes 
vii sages were put awey, | And bad here lodesman at a word | Shuld cast hem ouer 
the ship bord,' Generides, 361-4; 'the Bishopp bade the King "god night" att 
a word,' Percy Folio MS., i. 510/39 ; ' When ))e sewer comys \-nto ])e borde, | AUe 
J)e mete he sayes at on bare worde,' Babees Book, 324/763, 4 ; 321/656 ; ' To cure 
thy woundes and make hem clene | . . . Thou shalt be holpen at wordis fewe,' R. of 
the Rose, 2127, 9 ; 'The Sarezynes seygh wel her wendyng | And comen aflvT fast 
flyngj-ng | At schorte wordes, a gret joute,' Richard, 2791-3; ' Achilles dight him 
at wordis shorte,' Seege of Troy, 1603; ' Alisaunder dyed at worddis short,' id. 
1724. Similarly at pe fiirste. 661, L 8S5, O 904, means straightway, forthwith. 
In, ' A Cardinal J)er spac a mong • schortliche he seide at wordes Jjreo,' Gregorius, 
618, wordes has its ordinary meaning. 

II. 115, 6. The construction is. Woe often had been to Horn; Horn being 
dative, as him in 1. 116 shows. So, 'Oft Cleodalis was wo | Ac neuer wers ])an 
him was J)o,' Arthour, 175/6211, 2 ; ' Wawain was oft wele & wo | Ac neuer wers 


])an him was J)o,' id. 236/8467, 8; 'wel ofte him vveswa] neuer wurse ]>ene )ia,' 
Lasamon, 8677, 8. But the dative pronoun is not always expressed, ' wel oft wes 
Leir wa ! and neuere wurs Jianne \>a.' Lajamon, 3452, 3, and the noun was naturally 
taken for a nominative, as in ' The dewke Oton was full woo | That syr Gye was 
passyd soo,' Guy, 1 2 5 1 , 2 , where 7voo is treated as an adjective. Then the pronoun 
also appears in the nominative, comp. ' Ofte was that knyghte bothe wele and woo, | 
Bot never jitt als he was thoo,' Isumbras, 380, l, and the analogous, ' Offte was 
Saladyn wel and woo, | But nevyr soo glad as he was thoo,' Richard, 6521, 2. 
A age (Guy, 3474 note), sorrow and (ene (Ipomadon, 2223 note) are all similarly 
constructed as apparent adjectives. A variant is seen in, ' And often was he in 
wele and wo | But never so well as he was tho,' Squyr of L. D., 113, 4. The 
dative construction with an adjective occurs, ' Never him nas wers for nojiing,' 
Orfeo, 96. 

O 124. lef and dere, occurs again at O 157, O 232. Comp. also, 'Leofe faeder 
dure, Lajamon, 2971 ; ' 5e ere me lefe & dere,' Langtoft, p. 197 ; 44. 

11. 117, 8. Comp. 631, 2 ; 1095, 6 ; 1503, 4, and, ' J)e se bigan to posse,' ion. 
Floiven is illustrated by, ' \t se bigan to flowen : and J)e wawes for to arise,' 
Horst., S. A. L. 156/350 : the sense is much the same as in ' J)e se bigan to j^rose,' 
969, with which comp. ' })e schippemen \o gun fast rovven | & \& wawes ojain to 
Jjrovven,' Horst., S. A. L. 166/281, 2. Horn's boat was without sail or rudder 
(1. 188) ; the parallel stories usually deprive the castaways of oars also. 

I. 122. For ntissen constructed with of, comp. 1361 ; 1458; Minot, ix. 13 and 

II. 123, 4. Comp. ' aeuere heo uerden alle niht i ])at hit wes daei-liht,' Lajamon, 
19200, 1, and for 1. 124, comp. 493 ; 818 ; ' Til hit sprang )?e dayes lyght,' R. of 
Brunne, 3414; ' Til hit sprong ])e dai lijt,' Beues A. 2824 ; ' Wel heowardith heom 
bothe that nyght | Til heom sprong the day lyght,' Alisaunder, 909, 10 ; ' Wanne 
J)e day hym sprunge,' Ferumbras, 3532. ' Al J)at ])e lyhte day sprong,' L 497, is 
peculiar, but comp. ' Whan ])at \& lijte day was spronge,' Beues A. 3780; ' Be than 
spronge the light day,' id. M. 4182 ; ' And anoon it waxed lyght day,' Ponthus, 
1 1 2/3, 4. For pat = until, comp. L 368, L 497 ; ' J?e king leouede longe 1 Jiat hit 
com touward his ende,' Lajamon, 6072, 3 ; 'he ferde uord rihtes 1 mid (reom wise 
cnihtes | })at he com to Rome,' id. 11516-8 and the first quotation of this note. The 
formal subject it is very common in this phrase, comp. further, ' or it dawen the 
day,' Roland, 389 ; ' as it dawed lijt day,' W. of Palerne, 2218. 

11. 129, 30. For this formula, comp. ' To here fowles merely synge | And see feyre 
flowres sprynge,' Guy, 4263, 4, with Zupitza's note. In O 138 so is a scribe's mis- 
take for se or seo. Matzner inserts se before /r?/ in C 130, and Wissmann says it is 
indispensable. If se is inserted, /a/ should be left out: sco7t in our texts is not 
followed by an object clause introduced by that. Possibly the line as it stands is 
right ; Pat is occasionally used to represent, in the second of two co-ordinate sen- 
tences, the verb of the first, and it may here be used in place of se implied in the 
here of 1. 129. Somewhat similar is, ' And softely to hir right thus seyde he: | 
Mercy! And that 5e nat discovere me,' Chaucer, iv. 446/1941, 2. A bold 
elliptical use of that is seen in places like, ' ledej* hem by- fore iubyter : sacrefyse to 
do ; I & biTt he don sacrefise : wit stauis Jiat 5e hym bete,' Archiv, Ixxxii. 344/54, 5. 

1. 131. on lyue, in life, alive, as a living man. Comp. L 362 ; ')7a wes he swa 
bliSe ' swa he nes naeuer aer an liue,'La5amon, 12840, 1 ; 'for fie ic am swablifiei 
swa naes i naeuer aer on liue,' id. 2243, 4; ' wel wes him on liue,' id. 1378, 1254; 
* wa wes him on liue,' id. 3406 ; ' With alle Jje wo on lyue ] To ])e wod he went 

NOTES. 105 

away,' GawajTie & G. K. 1717,8; 'for J>ey nyste alyue : what l^ey myjten don,' 
Archiv, Ixxxii. 344/82; 397/168. 

1. 137. him. This peculiar use of the pronoun, mostly in the third person, and 
vith intransitive verbs, whicli has the effect of reinforcing the subject and some- 
times of giving a faint colouring of a middle voice, is common in all three texts. 
The verbs which admit of this pronoun in KH. are adrede, L 297 ; of drede, 291, 
O 302 : agnsc, S67, 1314, L 877, 1326, O 1355 : {beon), is, O 585 ; was, O 977 : 
W<77w,i294, 1512,0 1335: come, JjSc^i, 10^2: f/w/trw, 344, O 356 : enden, 1^,28: code, 
1025. 125-;, 1298, O io(>i, 1224, 1339  ff°> ^ 215; O 217 : Iioten, 25, 761 : Hgge, 
1303, L 131,^, O 1346 : ride, 646, O 229 : schillen, O220 : spekeii, 137, 159, L 141 ; 
Idspeken, O95: springe, 130, O 132, 138: penchen, 277, 494(7^: waken, 141 7. 
The essential feature of this construction is that the dative pronoun repeats and 
emphasizes the subject which it very regularly precedes or follows immediately like 
an enclitic. Contrast with the above examples cases of the reflexive proper as 
' Rymenhild hire biwente,' 321 ; ' Aylmer king hym gan tome,' O 722 ; ' Horn 
dude him in ]ie weie,' C 1007. Nor should it be confused with the 'ethic dative' 
as seen in ' He tok him anoI)er | Athulf, homes brother,' C 283, 4 ; ' f>e king hym 
makede a feste,' O 828. See also 486, 1081. The subject is repeated by a pronoun 
in the nominative case at 877, 8, 1427, 8 ; 1439, 40 ; O 270, i. In the line 'pat 
his ribbes him to brake,' 1077, him repeats and strengthens his. For a repeated 
accusative, see 375, 6. 

1. 140. A pleasant lot be thine : the plural daics gives a different sense from that 
of the ordinary formula of parting, 'have good day' (727 note), but at the same 
time suggests it. In HR. the boat, which was old, was shattered on the beach, 

5/" 3. 4- 

1. 144. of is probably a scribe's mistake for ofte, comp. ' grete wele Martha wel 
ofte • & my bro])er Lajarus | and grete wel ofte • ])e bisshop Maximus,' Archiv, 
Ixviii. 71/487, 8; ' Grete wel ofte thy fadur dere,' Guy, 7240. It might be taken as 
the sign of a partitive genitive, as in O 911 and 234; 'He schal beo mon of holy 
churche | Of grete wondres f-er inne worche,' Horst., S. A. L., 42/61, 2 ; 'Of smale 
houndes had she, that she fcdde,' Chaucer, iv. 5/145 ; ' Now he ha]) of hys felows 
lorne,' Guy, 1846, 1961. 

I. 149. hoi & fer, a phrase that frequently recurs. To the examples in Matzner 
under /^r« add, ' Als he hadde be hoi & fere,' R. of Brunne, 9650; ' For make ])e 
boJ)e hoi & fere,' Beues A. 717 ; 'Sir ya, he es bath hail and fere, | Ya, hail and 
sound wit outen were,' Cursor, 3829, 30 ; 'Or evir this wicht at heart be haill and 
feir,' Dunbar ^Laing), i. 33/51 (a late example). Variants are 'hoi and sund,' 
1341 ; 'hoi and schir,' Genesis & E. 1835; ' hal and haeil,' Lajamon, 12528; 
' hole & quyke,' R. of Brunne, 9665 ; ' hole and lyght,' Beues O. 2503 ; ' hooU and 
quarte,' Guy (Caius), 1713. For the variant in O 157, due to the scribe's careless- 
ness, see O 1 24. 

II. 151, 2. Of the three versions C has the common expression. Comp. ' ffor 
thow salle dye this day thurghe dynt of my handez,' Morte Arthure, 1073 ; ' Many 
dowghty es dede be dynt of his hondes,' id. 3024; ' Or do \tva deye wi]) dint of 
hond,' R. of Bnmne, 1606; ' Thore was no mane of hethene londe | That myghte 
a dynt stonde of his honde,' Octavian, 127/975, 6; '}at he ne dynnej hym to defe 
■with dynt of his honde,' Gawaine and G. K. 2105; Troy Book, 92 note, dint 
very often alliterates with de}, comp. ' Of dynt ne de}) had he no doute,' R. of 
Brunne, i 2844, 8542 ; ' Wi]) de^es dint & Hues lere,' Arthour, 225/8046, 247/8844 ; 
and this association may account for the xmcommon variation in O, with which 


I can parallel only, ' f>e dej) ]>ei scholde afonge,' K. of Tars V. 990. The meaning 
is, Tell him that he shall receive death from my hand. The construction in L is 
the same ; for the def. article with (ie/>, see N. E. D. iii. p. 73. 

O 162. YQxforto after to see 1272 note. 

1. 153. 3ede to Tune means merely, went their way. Comp. 'pa aestre wes 
ajonge' and Aueril eode of tune' (= departed), Lasamon, 24195, 6; 'and men 
gunnen spilienl J)at wes Maei at tune' (May had returned), id. 24199, 200; 'pa 
aestre wes ajeonge^ and sumer com to londe,' id. 24241, 2, where the younger 
MS. has 'com to toune.' It is a common tag. 

1. 154. See 208 note. 

L 164. tymyng, event, generally prosperous. Comp. 'Almigtin louerd, hegest 
kinge, | Su giue me sell timinge,' Genesis & E. 30, 31; 1244; 'Israel ] hadde 
heghere hond and timed wel,' id. 3392. The simple verb is used in the sense of, 
prosper, ' for luue of Josep migte he timen,' id. 2361. 

1. 160. mild, like ' wel softe,' L 1075. Comp. ' \o bispac Merlin childe | To 
J)e iustise wordes milde,' Arthour, 32/1039, 40; 'He spak to him with wordes 
milde,' S. Sages, 3576 ; ' The good wif answerede J>an | Word full mylde,' Octavian, 
14/419, 20 ; ' He vnswered wordes were vnmylde,' Cursor T. 1095. 

1. 162. See 59 note. 

1. 166. verade, L 174 felaurade. The same variation occurs in K. of Tars, 
' J»at was a feir ferred,' A. 1014, ' J)is was a feir felawrede,' V. 930, also at A. 1149 
and V. 1066. For the variant in O 176 comp. 416 note. 

I. 167. in none stunde. See 333 note. L and O have kept the better reading 
here: comp. 597. 

II. 171-4. Comp. ' Ehorn li ad tuit dit-ki ert meiz senez | Plus hardi deparler- 
e li mielz doctrinez,' HR. 2/32, 3; ' Cil ki parla pur tuz • ad le uisage cler,' id. 
6/179; 'Hangist qui grand et aisnes fu | For tos ensamble a respondu," Wace, 
Brut, 6887, 8. 

11. 176-8. Sprung from good family, from Christian people and from right good 
kings. Wissmann, less probably, takes 177, 8 as apposition to 176. In O 23, they 
are all rich kings' sons. O 188 means, And of very good blood ; cunne, L 186, 
is a feeble repetition of kenne, 184; the scribe need not have stuck at the kingly 
origin of the company. Comp. ' hire fadere & hire modere bo J) • comen of ryche 
kunne, | of kynges blode & queue also • of men of ryche wynne,' Archiv, Ixviii. 
52/23, 4 ; Horst., S. A. L. 148/23, 4 ; ' f>e maiden was bri3t and schene | And 
comen of kinges kinne,' HC. iti6, 9 : and fori. 176, ' Mark gan Tristrem calle | Was 
comen of riche kinne,' Tristrem, 566, 7 ; Guy, 84 ; ' Icomen a weoren of kunne 
gret,' Gregorius, 23. See also 419, 985. 

1. 180. Comp. 1334, L 1344, O 1375 and '& J)ai were of dawe ydon,' Arthour, 
173/6153; 'and idon of lif-da5en,' Lajamon, 21652, 9981 ; 'Thus he brittenyde 
the here, and broghte hyme olyfe,' Morte Arthure, 802 (under Alive in N. E. D.). 
olhie = dead, occurs in, ' Til ]>sX wende al same 1 f>e maiden were oliue,' Horst., 
A. L. n.f. 229/128. 

1. 181. todro3e, see 1492 note. 

1. 183. Comp. 1051 and the very similar, ' Crist Jie wisse,' 413, 1457 ; ' Lord, mi 
liif, me bihold | In world J)Ou wisse me | at wille,' Tristrem, 392-4; also 'Jesus 
Crist, heuen king, | ])e loke. Sir Ban, \e king,' Arthour, 100/3509, 10. The same 
variation in the sacred names occurs almost everywhere in O. 

O 195. salyley, is a sleepy scribe's confusion of suite see with galeye. Comp. 
' Huy schypeden in \q salte se,' Horst., S. A. L. 152/178. 


1. 186. Comp. '& into Jie see him caste i & bede pleye )>ere/ Fcrumbras, 2464 ; 
' And in a shippe al stcreless, god woot, | They han hir set, and bidde hir lerne 
sayle | Out of Siinye agaynward to Itayle,' Chaucer, iv. 142/439-41 ; Minot, 

V. 67, 8. 

1. 187. It is now two days ago. For oj^cr comp. 'a ))ene oOerne daeil he 
com to Denemarl<e,' Lajamon, 61 iS, 9. 

1. I SS. roper is noteworthy, but compare, ' Sche had neydur maste ne rothir,' 
Eglamour L. 883. The ordinary expression in such cases is seen from, ' In an eld 
schippetodon hem pore | Wi])outen seil, wipouten ore,' Horst.,S. A. L. 164/103, 4, 
but also, ' Huy weren in a schip ipult : withouten ster and ore,' id. 152/174 ; 'Now 
the lady dwelled thore | Wythowte anker or ore,' Emare, 275, 6 ; Tristrem, 677 ; 
' They sayled forthe wythowten ore,' Guy, 491. 

O 200. he is almost certainly a slip for her, here. 

1. 191. and. We might expect or as in, ' For yif ich hauede ]jer ben funden, | 
Hauede [he] ben slayn or harde bunden,' Havclok, 1427, 8 ; ' & chesej) whey])er 50 
wollij) him a sle : o))er him binde,' Archiv, Ixxxii. 376/388. With 11. 191, 2 comp. 
' and loke that j'e them bynde | All ther handys pern behynde,' Guy, 5441, 2 ; ' The 
king him lette bynde | His honden him byhynde,' Chronicle of Eng., 873,4; ' Ywol 
him nyme and faste bynde | His honden his rug byhynde,' Alisaunder, 2013, 4; 
' But let a serjeaunt him binde | His handes soone him behind,' Richard, 2431, 2 ; 
' Jesu ])olede for to binde | At vndren hise honden him bihinde,' E. Studien, 
ix. 45/199, 200 ; Guy A. 5704 ; E. E. Poems, 63/156. From those places it would 
seem that vs is necessary before bihynde in C. 

1. 193. A common tag, often with little force. Comp. 943 and 'And 5yf hyt be 
J)y wylle | Helpe me, lady, pat y ne spylle,' R. of Brunne, Handlyng Synne, 735, 6 ; 
' Syr, yeff hit beyoure wille | Thenkes that ye han done ylle,' Degrevant, 185, 6 and 
passim; 'He seid, "Sir, if youre wil be, | Wil ye doo noon harme to me?"' 
Generides, 6709, 10; 8389,90; R. of Brunne, 3673; K. of Tars A. 249; Awntyrs 
of A., 404; Vernon MS. 330/43. 

1. 197. See 765 note. 

1. 198. You shall have nothing but pleasure. Nothing that is unpleasant will 
befall you. Comp. ' For here schall ye haue no game,' Bone Florence, 266 ; ' They 
pat wer er pan agaste | Tho hadde game,' Octavian, 20/605, 6 ; ' There was sorowe 
and no game,' Beues M. 770. See also Minot, iv. 57 note, for the verb to game. 
With the form of the expression, comp. ' Who hauej seid pe ouwt bote god ? ' 
E. Studien, viii. 450/143 ; ' when theire ffreinds ought ayled but good,' Percy F. 
MS. ii. 527/14; ' Tyrrye schall eyle nopyng but gode,' Guy, 6184. 

1. 300. Comp. 483, 517. 

I. 206. Bear your name appropriately, i. e. let your fame be spread wide as is 
the sound of a horn. See N. E. D. under brook, i. p. 11 29, for sixteenth and 
seventeenth century examples ^this place is not quoted). Read pi neuening: the 
scribe has divided the words wrongly, misled possibly by evening, an equal, 
a match, name jyng in L 214 is a corruption of the uncommon nefnmmg, 

II. 207-10. While the reading of C presents no real difficulty, that of L and O 
gives the better sense, i. e. even as the horn is widely heard, so shall your fame 
spread wide. Possibly the poet had in mind the sound of the horn spreading from 
hill to dale, from town to town, as the people turned out to join the hue and cry 
after some criminal, ' clamorem super ilium statim levare debet cum coruu, 
vel cum ore, si cornu non habeat,' Ducange, under Huesiutn. In L 215, siille 


is impossible, snille in O 2 1 7 gives a fair sense, but C has undoubtedly the good 

1. 208. An uncommon combination, but comp. ' \Yeoren J)a hulles and J^a daeles t 
iwrijen mid J)an daeden,' Lajamon, 5 191, 2. The formula in 210 is the usual one : 
comp. 154 and ' Hom heo wendith by doune and dale,' Alisaunder, 1767, 5901 ; 
' So as I come let me fle, | By downs and by dal s,' E. E. Miscellanies, p. 3 ; ' By 
dounes & dales, by vvodes aywher,' R. of Brunne, 8578; Langtoft, 91/21, 2. 

1. 211. Expressions of the type, 'pe word of hire sprong ful wyde,' K. of Tars 
V. 19, are exceedingly common in the romances; see 1017. Outside them it occurs 
in, ' Of hym the wurde ful wyde sprong,' R. of Brunne, Hand. Sinne, 5447 ; ' welle 
wide sprong pas eorles word,' La3amon, 26242 ; ' Thi word shal wide springe,' Rel. 
Ant. i. p. 243 ; ' })e worde of ihesus sprong ful wyde,' Cursor T. 14000. For 7iatiie, 
comp. ' Hys name ys spronge wyde,' Lybeaus, 264 ; ' His name it sprong wel wide,' 
Tristrem, 22 ; Boddeker, 140/1 2. Other subjects to springen are ' fame,' Octavian, 
3/44; 'tidinge,' R. of Gloucester, 2847; ' los,' id. 3749 ; 'pyte,' Richard, 1313; 
' thyng,' E. of Tolous, 1 86. The following show verbs other than springen : ' ])e 
word of him walkes ful wide,' Minot, viii. 29 and note ; ' ]?e word of him ful wide 
it ran,' Guy A. 384/1/7 ; * Jien went his name full wyde,' Gowther, 192 and note ; 
* Gret word sal gang of \\ vassage,' Iwain, 2915 ; ' In all the worlde on every syde | 
The worde shulde be borne,' Emare, 257, 8 ; ' Grete worde of hym aroos,' Trya- 
moure, 135 ; ' great words of them there rose,' Triamore, 129 ; ' peword o ihesu 
was risen brade,' Cursor C. 14000. For a similar use in French, comp. ' E Hug. 
de Hamelincort | Dunt la renomee uncor cort,' Guill. le Marechal, 7199, 200. 

1. 215. Comp. * And wyth strenckyj) of owre hondys | Defende owre goodys and 
owre londys,' Guy, 3267, 8 ; 87. 

1. 218. Comp. ' He nolde ous naujt for lete,' Shoreham, p. 21 ; ' He bigon to 
loue him so | ])at myjte he no while him for go,' Cursor T. 3123, 4 ; ' Hir fader 
J)e kyng loued \o childre so | l)at he wild for no J)ing J^e sight of ])am forgo,' 
Langtolt, p. 108. 

O 230. hint must be inserted after wit. 

1. 223. See 893, 4 note. 

1. 226. Similarly in HR., Horn and a companion are entrusted to the care of the 
Seneschal Herland. But the other boys are given each to a baron to be brought up. 
' Mi barun naturel • si fetes mun cummant | Chascun de uus aurat a garder un 
enfant,' 15/347, 8. The choice of the steward of the king's household as preceptor 
is not paralleled elsewhere in English romance ; his part is usually that of the 
villain, comp. ' Now speke I wylle of ])o stuarde als | Few ar trew, but fele ar 
fals,' Babees Book, 316/521, 2 : his position as the economist of the household 
would not make him popular with minstrels. Comp., however, ' Seneschaz, co 
a dit li rois, | Molt estes sages et cortois, | Gardes mon fil et enseignies | Je vuel 
que ses maistres soies,' Durmars, 6/177-80 ; 'Dit li rois Cloovis : " Senechaul, 
9a venez. | Je vos commant ici Floovant a garder," ' Floovant, 2/48, 9. In the 
court of Edward the Fourth there is a special official for the duty : his office is 
stated as follows in the Liber Niger domus Regis : ' Maistyr of Henxmen, to 
shew the schooles of urbanitie and nourture of Englond, to lerne them to ryde 
clenely and surely ; to draw them also to justes ; to lerne them were theyre 
barneys ; to have all curtesy in wordes, dedes and degrees, dilygently to kepe them 
in rules of goynges and sittinges, after they be of honour (? according to their 
rank). Moreover to teche them sondry languages, and othyr lerninges vertuous, 
to harping, to pype, sing, daunce ; and with other honest and temperate behaviour 

NOTES. 109 

and patience,* Collection of Ordinances, p. 45. Passages dealing with education 
in detail are naturally rare in the romances, the business of whicli is adventures ; 
the following are the chief: ' Fiftene 3cre he gan him fede, | Sir Rohand, ))e 
trewe ; | He taujt him ich a lede | Of ich maner of glewe | And cuerich play in 
prede (playing ))ede, MS.^ | Old lawes and newe ; | On hunting oft he 3ede, | To 
swichc a lawe he drewe | Al ))us ; | Morehe cou])e of veneri, | })an cou])e Meri- 
anous,' (Manerious, MS.\ Tristrem, 2S7-97; ' Alisaundre wexeth child of mayn, | 
Maistres he hadde a dosayn: [ Some him taughte for to gon; | That othir his 
clothis doth him on ; | Theo thridde him taughte to play at bal ; | Theo feorthe 
afatement in halle ; | The fyve him taught to skyrme and ride, | And to demayne 
an horsis bridcl ; | The sevethen maister taught his pars | And the wit of the seoven 
ars : | Aristotel was on therof | . . . Now con Alisaundre of skyrmyng, | And of 
stedes disrayng, | And of sweordis turnyng, | Apon stede, apon justyng, | And 
'sailyng, of defendyng, | In grene wode of huntyng, | And of reveryng and of 
haukyng. | Of batail, and of al thyng,' Alisaunder, 656-66, 70-79 : ' Tholomew, 
a clerke he toke, | That taught the child vppon ]'e boke | Bothe to synge and lo 
rede, ( And after he taught hym other dede, | Aftirvvard to serve in halle | Bothe to 
grete and to smalle, | Before the kyng mete to kerve, | Hye and low feyre to 
serve, | Bothe of howndis & haukis game ; | Aftir he taught hym all & same | In 
se, in feld and eke in ryuere, | In wodde to chase the wild dere | And in the feld to 
ryde a stcde, | That all men had joy of his dede,' Ipomydon, 53-66. See also HC. 
37-48, 272-6 and the passage HR. 16/375-86 giving the results of the Seneschal's 
teaching. An interesting place outside the romances is, ' And hou he was to \>e 
Emperoure | ysent, to be Man of valoure | And lemon chiualrie, | Of huntyng & of 
Ryuere | Of chesse pleieyng & of tablere,' Alexius, 65/9S5-9. A typical passage 
for French romance is, 'Quant Tanfes ot -xv- anz et compliz et passez, | Premiers 
aprist a letres tant qu'il en sot assez, | Puis aprist il as tables et a eschas a joier; | 
II n'a ome an cest monde qui Ten peust mater. | Bien sot •!• cheval poindre et bien 
esperoner, | Et d'escu et de lance sot moult bien beorder,' Parise la Duchesse, 
29/964-9. Noteworthy is the absence of book-learning from Horn's curriculum : 
perhaps that part of his training had been completed in his earlier years, comp. ' in 
qua [Aelfredi] schola, utriusque linguae libri, Latinae scilicet et Saxonicae assidue 
legebantur: scriptioni quoque vacabant, ita, ut antetjuam aptas humauis artibus 
^•ires haberent, venatoriae scilicet et caeteris artibus quae nobilibus conveniunt, in 
liberalibus artibus studiosi et ingeniosi viderentur,' Asser, M. H. B., p. 485. 
Anyhow, it ranked in a knight's estimation far below courtly manners, physical 
strength and skill in the use of horse and arms. Contrast the passage, Li Romans 
de Dolopathos, 1 339-1 479, detailing the education of a king's son as a clerk. 
Schultz, Das Hotische Leben, i. pp. 155-180, and Gautier, La Chevalerie, 
pp. 130-204, treat the subject at length. 

1. 229. mestere, should mean, his craft as steward, but it is probably his know- 
ledge in general, his h'sie {}. 235). Comp. ' This child ye take to youre kepiug, | And 
help him wel in all thing ; | Of youre craft ye him teche, | To be curtes of dede and 
speche,' Generides, 895-S. 

1. 230. ■wTide . . . riuere, hunting and hawking. Comp. ' Sy))en was Merian, 
fa)T in chere, | He couje of wode & of ryuere,' R. of Brunne, 4005-6 ; ' He cou])e 
of chas & of ryuere,' id. 31 35 ; ' Brennes cuCe on hundes ' Brennes cuSe an hauekes,' 
Lajamon, 4895, 6 ; ' Et mult sot de chiens et d'oisiax ; | Mult sot de riviere et de 
bois,' Wace, Brut, 3740, i. For the variation in O 240, see N. E. D. under _fie/d, 
iv. p. 192 ; and with O 241 comp. 544. 


I. 232. Comp. 1476. Allusions to the use of the nails in playing the harp are 
rare in M.E. literature. An undoubted one is, 'For though the beste harpour 
upon lyve | Wolde on the beste souned loly harpe | That ever was, with alle his 
fingres fyve, | Touche ay o streng, or ay o werbul harpe, | Were his nayles poynted 
never so sharpe, | It shulde maken every wight to dulle, | To here his glee, and 
of his strokes fulle,' Chaucer, ii. 221/1030-6. In Sir Orfeo, 37, 8, ' Hymself loved 
for to harpe | And layde ])ereon his wittes scharpe,' wittes looks like a substitution 
for nayles. The O. E. hearptmegel was a plectrum or quill. Perhaps this use of the 
nails was specially British ; it is, at any rate, well established for the Welsh, Scotch 
and Irish. Vincentio Galileo, in his Dissertation on Ancient and Modern Music, 
A.D. 1582, after stating that the harp was brought from Ireland to Italy, continues, 
' The harps which these people use are considerably larger than ours, and have 
generally the strings of brass and a few of steel for the highest notes, as in the 
clavichord. The musicians who perform on it keep the nails of their fingers long, 
forming them with care in the shape of the quills which strike the strings of the 
spinnet' (quoted from Bunting, in Myvyrian Archaiology of Wales, p. 1240). 
O'Curry, On the Manners and Customs of the Ancient Irish, iii p. 365, speaks of 
the timpan, ' a kind of fiddle, played with the bow, but with two additional deeper 
strings struck with the thumb or thumb-nail.' Bunting, speaking of the harpers 
who met at Belfast in 1792, mentions that Hempson (Denis a Hampsy) was the 
only one ' who literally played the harp with long crooked nails, as described by 
the old writers. In playing he caught the string between the flesh and the nail ; 
not like the other harpers of his day, who pulled it by the fleshy part of the finger 
alone,' Ancient Music of Ireland, 1840, p. 73. Buchanan tells us that the natives 
of the Western Isles ' musica maxime delectantur : sed s>ii generis fidibus : quarum 
alijs chorde sunt aenee alijs e neruis factae quas vel vnguibus praelongis, vel 
plectris pulsant,' Rerum Scoticarum Historia, ed. 1582, liber primus, f. 9 r. 

II. 233, 4. Attendance at the table was an important part of the duties of 
a squire. The carving was done on the table opposite the person for whom the 
meat was intended. In the French romances the carver is sometimes represented 
as kneeling at his task. See also the Babees Book, 325/778, 9. The cupbearer 
presented the cup on one knee. Comp. ' And carf biforn his fader at the table,' 
Chaucer, iv. 4/100 ; 441/1773 ; ' For he was wonte there to serue | Before the Erie 
hys mete to carve,' Guy, 209, 10; ' })e child he made ech day: byfore him ben 
In halle,' Archiv, Ixxxii. 369/25 ; ' His name is Tristrem trewe | Bifor him scheres 
J)e mes, | ]?e king,' Tristrem, 601-3 and note ; ' Durmars va un cotel saisir | Si 
va devant le roi trainchier,' Durmars li Galois, 812, 3 ; ' Et s'est des ore mais 
bien tans | Qu'ele ait o li un escuier | Qui sache devant li trenchier,' Jehan et 
Blonde, 194-6: and for 1. 234, 'Take the kuppe of golde, sone, | And serve hym 
of the wyne,' Emare, 857, 8; 'Sir Cayous the curtaise that of the cowpe seruede,' 
Morte Arthure, 209 ; ' Of hys cowpe he seruj'd hym on a day,' Guy, 119 ; ' Of pe 
cuppe ye shall serue me,' Ipomydon, 295 ; ' Horn me seruira vi de ma cupe 
portant,' HR. 20/463, 471-4; 'et devant tons servy de la coupe,' Fulk Fitz- 
Warine, p. ili. Note that the construction with ^is invariable in this phrase. 

1. 237. In is a scribe's error due to the initial in of the following line : read 

L 245. With understond, receive, comp. * I wille ye haue hym to vndyrstand | 
And to teche hym in all manere,' Ipomydon, 46, 47 ; * Hauelok he gladlike 
understod,' Havelok, 1760. 

1. 243. in herte lajte, seized, grasped in his mind ; a phrase without any 


parallel known to me ; but compare the similar, 'dometrie het his fadir : J-at him 
to goodnesse taiijte | calston wcl him ondirstood : Jiat he in hertc caujte,' Archiv, 
Ixxxii. 32S 5, 6; ' ft'or so kene was his wit: ]iat al he hauej) I-caujt | Jiat eny 
mayster in boke : Jierin him haue)) I-taujt,' id. 337/19, 20; 349/49; * Et li enf^s 
tout retenoit ; | Ja -iii- foiz oir ne qucist | Chose ke ces mestres deist ; | A une foiz 
bicn le savoit,' Dolopathos, 13S4-7. See also 376 note. 

11. 245, 6. An uncommon expression, but comp. ' ]>ei shul haue ioye within 
& oute I And on vche side aboute,' Cursor T. 23609, 10 ; ' Bojie in house & 
wijioule I And ouer al J^e londe aboute,' id. 5933, 4 ; 'Y went in Jiys courte 
abowte | Bothe wythj-nne and wythowte,' Guy, 5933, 4; Perceval, 1997, 8. 
Similar phrases are seen in ' Pays and grace with ]>e beo : and Ioye ])e mote on 
falle I In hour and in halle : in field and in toun also, | In castel no})ur in boure : 
ne wor])e fe neuere wo, | In watur and in londe : and in alle stude | God fe 
fram harme schilde,' Early S. English Legendary, 474/413-7. O 257 apparently 
means, and in every direction around. 

1. 247 ft". Comp. for the general sense, ' Beues was ))er jer and oJ)er, | pe king 
him louede also his broJ)er, | And pe maide, fat was so slij : | So dede eueri man 
J)at him si;.' Beues, 27/577-80; Guy, 125, 6; Emare, 739-4T ; Amis, 197, S. 

1. 249. doster, for dohter: so miste for vii^te, 1. \o, plist lor plilit, 1. 410. This 
orthographic peculiarity occurs frequently in MSS. of the thirteenth century. 
Thus La;amon, MS. Otho, has driste-^drihte, 4 (see vol. iii. p. 437 for further 
examples) ; Floris and Blauncheflur, in the same Cambridge MS. as KH, rist = 
rijt, 663. The Five Joys (Reliq. Antiq. , i. pp. 48, 9) employs st everywhere: 
the Trinity College, Cambridge, MS. of the Proverbs of Alfred (Reliq. Antiq., 
i. p. 170") contains many instances of its use. As the same word is often, in the 
same MS., spelt now with st now with ht, jt (comp. mijte, 8), the peculiar 
spelling does not represent a difference of pronunciation. Lumby's opinion (pref. 
p. ix) that the interchange is ' a conclusive proof of a similarity in sound between 
the two letters,' is untenable. Ellis (E. E. Pronunciation, pp. 464, 5) cites one 
small piece of evidence which, at first sight, seems to tell in its favour. A 'very 
suspicious couplet of a poem full of bad spelling ' gives nyjt apparently rhyming 
with irysi (Fr. triste). He refuses to found a theory on a single instance of such 
small authority, and takes the combination for an assonance. The interchange of 
st with /// and ^t is a purely graphic variation, well explained by F. Holthausen 
in Archiv, Ixxxviii. p. 371. In French s before t began to degenerate from its 
original sound by the twelfth century. It passed to total loss in that position 
through an intermediate x sound, very like the sound of English h, j, gh, before t. 
(Comp. the statement in Orthographia Gallica, ed. Stiirzinger, p. 8, ' Et quant s 
est joynt [a la t'] ele avera le soun de h come est,plest serront sonez eght, pleght^') 
But the symbol st continued to be used for the altered sound, and a scribe 
accustomed to write French would naturally employ it to express the same sound 
in English. It is just possible that the writer of the couplet mentioned above 
pronounced tryst as tryght by analogy : the retention of the s in this word is due 
to learned influence. For another view, see Forster, Zur Geschichte der Engl. 
Gaumenlaute, Anglia, ^^i. Anzeiger, pp. 66, 68 ff., and Sarrazin, Engl. Studien, 
xxii. p. 331. The variations cniht, atipt ; mihte, viipte are on a quite different 
footing; they represent real differences of pronunciation, see Ellis, p. 477. 

1. 250. The meaning of L 256 is plain ; it gives the ordinary phrase. Comp. 
' So michel sche was in Ws J)ou;t, | \2X neve he was to dej) y broujt,* Guy A. 
24?) 6; 'Sho is mikel in mi ])outh,' Havelok, 122 ; 'She was so moche yn hys 


])oghte 1 Had he here, he ronjhte of noghete,' Handlyng Synne, 209, 10 : variations 
are seen in, ' Hauelok was bifore nbbe browth, | })at hauede for him ful mikel 
J)outh,' Havelok, 2052, 3 ; ' But on his squyer was all his thought,' Squyr of L. D. 
338 ; Amis, 243 ; ' So moche on hym sche thoght,' Octavian, 128/1086 ; ' & faire 
so his figure • is festened in mi pout,' W. of Palerne, 24/447. Wissmaun follows 
Matzner in referring he of O 261 and C 250 to Rimenhild. That seems the right 
view of the former place, and Wissmann's illustration, ' for my leof icham in grete 
Jjohte,' Boddeker, 179/7, is a pertinent parallel. But C 250 may very well mean, 
he was more in her mind than any other. The passage has been imitated in 
Amis, 472-80, 'On sir Amis, Jiat gentil knijt | Ywis hir loue was al ali3t | j?at 
no man mist it kijje : | Wher ])at sche seije him ride or go | Hir ]iou5t hir hert brae 
atvo I f>at hye no spac noujt wij) ])at bli])e ; | For hye no mi3t nist no day [ Speke 
wij) him, J?at fair may, | Sche wepe wel mani a sij^e.' 

I. 252. Comp. 296 note. 

II. 255, 6. See 893, 4 note. 

1. 257. opere is to be omitted. In O 269 the scribe has replaced some unfamiliar 
word, like vnride, enormous, by so ?neche. With 1. 258 comp. ' sche was day and 
nyght in grete thoght how sche myght fynd an way, with hir worschipp, to speke 
with hym, — for drede myche of speche of menu,' Ponthus, 13/7-9. 

1. 260. For omission of subject, see 1268 note. 

1. 261. sore59 . . . pine. Same combination in, 'Ofte heo haefde seorwe & 
pine,' Lajamon, 2515; 'And every wurde wyj) sorow and pyne,' Handlyng Synne, 
4476; 'And ofte in sorwe and pine ligge,' Havelok, 1374. Similar phrases are, 
' \Mthe sorwe and eke withe sore,' Shoreham, p. i ; ' sorwen & kare,' La5amon, 
6017; 'sorow & site,' Langtoft, p. 5 ; ' michel sorwe and michel tene,' Havelok, 
729 ; ' J)er was sorwe & deol ynou,' R. of Gloucester B, 2357 ; in all these the pairs 
of words are synonyms. 

1. 265. See 933. For 1. 266, see note on 338. 

O 278. The beginning of this line is probably due to O 2S4. be is, of course, 
a slip of the scribe for bed. 

O 282. ysoude is apparently meant for the name of the messenger. The 
divergence from the other versions in O 283 is noteworthy ; the meaning is that 
his reward for coming would be great. Comp. ' saueie sil uient lui ert guere- 
dunee,' HR. 23/501. 

I. 274. noping, not at all. For this adverbial use, comp. 1150, and ' J)at no 
bic5 he for pan watere J naSSing idracched,' Lajamon, 22048, 9 ; ' Mit thicke boje 
nothing blete,' Owl and Nightingale, 616. ' BliJ)e purhalle ping,' Lajamon, 14943, 
has the contrary meaning. For 1. 275 see 115 note. 

II. 277-80. The construction of these lines is by no means clear. Matzner takes 
ahiite as a preposition governing the infinitive for to bringe, with the sense, ' with 
reference to bringing young Horn to the bower,' and makes the phrase depend on 
J>ojie of 1. 277 or of 1. 281. But this construction of the prepositional infinitive as 
a noun with preposition is, so far as I know, without parallel ; later imitations 
of French in books translated from that language are not to the point. Perhaps 
the meaning is. It seemed to him a great marvel what R. felt (desired, L ; aimed 
at, O) with regard to young Horn to cause her to bring him to bower. A good 
sense would be obtained by a slight rearrangement, Abute for to bringe | To bure 
Horn pe jinge : abate would then mean, in her planning, designing. Comp. ' Satan 
is 5eorne abuten uorto ridlen fe ut of mine corne,' Ancren Riwle, p. 234; ' Euer 
thu were abuten | us bo for to spille,' Religious Songs, p. 74 ; and see Minot, 

NOTES. 113 

i. 30, note, for further illustrations of this use. For Jjo^te . . . pu5te see 
494 note. 

1. 281. vpon his mode, in his mind. Upon is noteworthy, comp. 1097 for a 
similar use. Fur the usual prepositions comp. ' Sanne Oogte eue on hire mod,' 
Genesis and Ex. 333 ; ' he j'oujte Jius in his mode | }),it I him sle hit is not gode,' 
Cursor T. 7631, 2 ; ' An thojte jome on hire mode,' Owl and Nightingale, 661 ; 
' Than sail yow fele in youre moode | Where such Japes may do yow goode,' 
Partonope of Blois, 5575, 6; Legends of the Rood, 117/319, 20; Ipomadon, 
8023; ' ])a com hit to mode J Ebrauc })on gode,' Lajamon, 2654, 5. With 282 
comp. 'him ))ou5t it nas for non gode,' St. Patrick's Purgatory, K. Stud., i. p. 104. 

1. 284. broper. O 295. wedbroper. Comp. ' send after mine sune Octa | & 
aefter enne o?er' Ebissa, his wed-bro5cr,' La;amon, 14467-9; 'J?ey swoor hem 
weddyd bre))cn,'n for euer mare, | In trew];e trewely dede hem bynde,' Athelston. 
23, 4, with note on 1. 10. Athulf is his ' sworn' brother, his pledged brother, 
' his fere,' 743, 1349, ' fclawe,' 996. The relation between them is like that of 
Amis and Amiloun (' tant s'entreamerent durement | Ke freres se firent par ser- 
ment,' Amis e Amiloun, 17, 8), of Guy and Tyrry (Guy of Warwick, 4698 ff.), of 
Roland and Oliver, of Garnier de Nanteuil and Berengier (Aye d' Avignon, 24\ 
of Boves and Gui ('juran si companhia, Ihi bauzo sus el mento | Can si foron 
juratz amdoy li companho,' Daurel et Befon, 11. 28, 9), and of many others. For 
historical instances of these associations, see Du Cange, Dissertations sur I'histoire 
de S. Louy?, no. xxi. 

I. 287. speke . . . stille. Comp. 310; 999, 1000. and 'The Erie spake to 
Gye stylle | Gye, he seyde, take all \y wylle, ' Guy, 453, 4; 'whan ayfier herd 
ojieres wille | And speken J)erof to gedre stille,' Alexius, 26/157, ^5 ' H^ 5ong 
mon answerid : wit speche wel stille | ^^'it ]^e T wille be leue : & be at J)y wille,' 
Horst, A. L. 134 '761. 2 ; 'Oft heo stilleliche spaekeS ? and spilieS mid runen,' 
Lajamon, 14101, 2, 3515, 27236, 7; ' WiJ) |^e porter J)ai speke stille,' Reinbroun, 
9/1; ' Jhesu crist seyde )?o : wit wordus swy])e stille,' Archiv, Ixxxii. 313/67; 
'The kyng answerd with wordes still,' Seege of Troye, Archiv, Ixxii. 21/369. 
The word in this connexion wavers between, privately or secretly, and, quietly 
or gently. 

II. 291, 2. Comp. ' saere we adrcdeS ? J)at heo him misraeden,' Lajamon, 

13I29> 30. 

I. 293. Comp. ' Haderof apela • sil ad od lui mene. | A la chambre Rigmel • main 
amain sunt ale,' HR. 34/795, 6. 

I. 295, 6. See 252, 300, and 948. L avoids the expression everj'where but here. 
Comp. ' his monk was waxen to wyld,' Horst., S. A. L. 38 '221 : but '..vild is regu- 
larly accompanied by a qualifying phrase, as in, ' In hir hert she waxed wild | And 
than she thoght she wold assay | To gete his loue if she may,' Generides, 1072-4 ; 
' Whon J)e jonge in bote blood | Bigonne to waxe wylde of mod,' Horst., S. A. L. 
5/86, 7 ; ' and waxep forj) wi)) wylde blood,' id. 79/1031 ; ' Man or womman )>at 
haj) a chylde | J)at wyj; vn})ewys wexy]) wylde,' Handlyng Synne, 4851, 2 ; ' The 
emperowre was wylde of redd,' Bone Florence, 35. Comp. also, ' Opon ])at 
mayden he wax al mad,' R. of Brunne, 7604. If O 307 be not a scribe's mistake, 
it may be intended to mean. It was not Athulf that R. loved. 

1. 299. on bedde. The bed quite regularly served as a seat. See Wright, 
Homes of Other Days, pp. 272, 3, and comp. ' In at pe dore sho him led j & did 
him sit opon hir bed,' Ywain, 749, 50 ; 'To her chamber she hym lad | And sett 
Beues on her bed,' Beues M. S58, 9; Torrent, 1361, 2; Eglamour, 674; HC. 



370, I ; ' El le prist par la main • cuntie lui se dresca | luste lui sur sun lit • a seeir 
le roua,' HR. 22/533, 4. See also 401 note. 

11. 303-8. Comp. 407-10 ; Beues A. 1089-1104; Amis, 571-88. 

11. 305, 6. Comp. ' & ])u wnlle me an bond plihten,' La5amon, 13071 ; and for 
other prepositions, ' " Sir," he seyd, " bi treujie mine | f>at ich haue pli5t in bond 
J)ine,"' Guy A. 4687, 8 ; ' & swor bi bis bonden,' Lajamon, 13165 ; 'plihten mid 
honden,' id. 6572 : at 1. 2251, where MS. C. has '& he heo haefde i bond faest,' 
O. gives, 'and be hire bafde treou])e i-plipt.' her rijte, on the spot, immediately, 
like 'Jienne sayde ])e kyng anon ryjt,' Atbelston, 555; ' wel rijte,' 381, 1298; ' al 
rijt,' 699 ; ' ari5te,' 457 ; at 1332 one is tempted to read, ker rijte, iov,J)e rijte. 

11. 307, 8. LO have the usual phrase to spouse welde ; comp. L 426, O 444; 
' Ganbardine treu])e pli3t | Brengwain to wine weld,' Tristrem, 3134, 5. But 
C 308 presents no real difficulty, And I plight my troth to possess thee as my 
lord. Comp. 901, 2. For the prepositional infinitive to wohie preceded by the simple 
'holde, see 1272 note. 

I. 310. As quietly (or secretly) as might be. For so . . . so, comp. 406, O 420, 
O 602 ; for the shade of meaning expressed by the subj. were, 398, L 1492 ; 
another use is seen in 297. 

II. 313, 4. The same rhymes are seen in ' was he no fend ilyche | But as a mon 
feir and riche,' Vernon MS. i. 330/29, 30, and at 339, 40. fairer is an error for 

fair, due to 1. 315. 

11. 315, 6. A phrase apparently without parallel. Miitzner thinks the place 
corrupt, and, following O, suggests, Fairer hondred sijje. It is however quite right 
in LC : it means that Horn's beauty exceeds that of any other man as woman's 
beauty generally exceeds that of man. Comp. ' Mulier praefertur viro, scilicet : 
Materia: Quia Adam factus de limo terrae, Eva de costa Ade,' MS. Gg. i. i, 
Univ. Libr. Camb., quoted in Romania, vi. p. 501., xv. p. 321 ; ' Now is beere a 
skile wbi to asken weore whi ))at wymmen ben feirore ))en men bi kuyiide ; berto 
wol I onswere : for wommon was maad in paradis of Adames ribbe, and mon was 
maad of eorJ)e & of foul fen ; ))erfore is wommones fel cleror ))en monnes,' Ilorst., 
S. A. L. pp. 221, 2. The scribe of O, not understanding the allusion, has altered 
the phrase after the analogy of such expressions as ' goodly under gore,' ' under 
wede,' &c. 

1. 317. vnder Molde. Comp. ' He had leuyr then all hys golde | That he had 
been vndur ])e molde,' Bone Florence, 1945, 6; '& doluen depe vnder mold- 
mani day se})t"e,' W. of Palerne, 4210; Early Popular Poetry, i. 138/86; ' Als sone 
als he was laid in molde,' Ywain, 2749; ' O lajar ded laid under lam,' Cursor C. 
193. See 1249-52. 

I. 3r9. Comp. ' Never more his life wile | Thau he were an hondred mile | Bi- 
5ende Rome,' Dame Siriz, Miitzner, A. S. i. 107/103-5. 

II. 323-6. Repeated with slight variations at 707-10. For J>eof, scoundrel, 
comp. 'J)at wike treitour, J)at fule ))ef,' Beues A. 480; 'A ^'efis kinde, agenes 
lage,' Genesis and E., 538 ; ' Goth henne swije, fule j^eues,' Havelok, 1 780 ; Robert 
of Gloucester, 6339. The variant in L 334, by shoiire, in abundance, is a rare 
expression, but comp. 'Fulle bro))ely & brim he kept vp a trencheour | & kast 
it at Statin, did him a schamfulle schoure | His nese & his ine he carfe at mis- 
auentoure,' Langtoft, p. i65; ' Full swith redy seruis • fand l^ai }are a schowre,' 
Minot, ix. 43, and note. 

O 340. Comp. O 159, 60. Ii 335, 6 is awkward but defensible; to vnder- 
fonge and to honge being subjects to mote, 1. 334, just as shame is. O 342 is cor- 

NOTES. 1 15 

rupt : indeed all three MSS. just about this place present difficulties such as might 
arise from lame attempts to mend nn imjierfect or illegible original. O 344 is 
probably for ' lie is fayrest o Hue,' comp. ' pe fairest )>ing that is oliuc,' Ilavelok, 
3S65 ; though 0/ Hue, alive, need not be altered, since we find even of Hues, ' If 
hise breNere of lines ben,' Genesis and E. 2S34. C 331, a may have originally 
run, Horn is fairer I'ane he | Euele mote J)U J)e. }7e was suggested by VVissmann. 

1. 333. in a stunde, in a (little) while. Comp. ' So J)at he was al to ranced • 
pecemele in a slounde,' R. of CHoucester, 524. But the phrase with this meaning 
has almost always litcl, as O 654, IJ636, L 895 ; 'So J)at in a lute stounde • godc 
cornes horn grewe,' K. of Gloucester, 493 ; ' pat ))ei wore on a litel stunde | Grethet, 
als men mithe telle a pund,' Havelok, 2614, 5 ; 'Sone wi]) inne a lite stounde,' 
Heues, 60/1258 ; HC. 187, 211. Lajamon has both ' bi on lutel stunde,' and ' bi 
an stunde,' 1 1969, 28160. L and O have the better reading a stounde, for a (little) 
while; see 774, 1159, 1279, ^"^ comp. 'An stounde he gan abide • & is knistes 
rede,' R. of Gloucester, 7422; 'pat makej) ))at pe fondement • ne stont none 
stounde,' id. 2769. 'In none stunde,' 167, if correct, must mean, at no time, but 
the place is corrupt, and the scribe was probably thinking of the phrase ' in none 
stude.' ' In sely stounde,' in happy hour, occurs, The Pearl, 658 ; ' a ( = on) lutle 
stunde,' Owl and Nightingale, Soo. 

!• 338. to honde, comp. 265,6. The expression means, into the hands or pre- 
sence of the person put in the dative case. Comp. ' J?an com J)aa thre men him to 
hand,' Cursor C. 19S93. ' To be vpon hand,' L 817, is said of something which 
has to be dealt with, comp. ' An elde a wif he tok an honde,' Beues A. 25 ; 'He 
wyll me brynge warre on honde,' Guy, 944, 1407, 8 ; ' J?o was ther great merveile 
on honde,' Gower, i. p. 151 ; ' Fader, what harm es J)e on hand,' Legends of the Rood, 
62/13. An example which shows both uses is, ' Jewes heden thi sone an honde ] 
Judas soldim hem to honde,' Matzner, Sprachproben, i. 52/28, 9. ' On hys honde,' 
O 1340 ; ' in hys honde,' O 547, mean, along with him, in his company : comp. 
' Take fi wif now in J)i hand,' Cursor C. 947, 2364 ; ' To brynge Gye in my hande | 
Vf that he were lyueande,' Guy, 9025, 6 ; ' The God of Love, lolyf and light, j 
Ladde on his honde a lady bright,' Rom. of the Rose, 1003, 4 ; 11 29. 

1. 340. his iliche. See 1. 18, note, and comp. for the rhymes, ' That castle was 
strong and rjxhe | In the world was non it lyche,' Richard, 5899, 900. 

1. 347. wiputen oJ>e, assuredly, beyond doubt : perhaps the commonest of the 
many M.E. formulae used to strengthen a statement. Comp. ' " 5ea," qua]) Richard, 
" withouten o)< i y knowe him wel to wisse," ' Ferumbras, i 20 ; ' And wij) Jie pore 
monnes cloJ)us | He clojiud him self, wiJ) outen oJ)us,' Horst., A. L. 225/749, 50; 
Richard, 4259, 60; 'wi))outen ojies yswome,' Alexius, 46/573; ' wyth outyn othe 
to swere,' Ipomadon, 7964 ; ' wythowte othynge,' Guy, 6787. Other words used 
in the same way as o}e, mostly in rhyme, are asoyne, Eng. Studien, xiii. 150/6050, 
e/isozne, Beues A. 2569 ; mce, Cursor T. 19427 ; Mde, Cursor, 5609 ; blavie, Horst., 
S. A. L. 13S/1117; host, Eng. Stud., ix. 46/235; <-ar^, Guy, 8138 ; conquest, Langtoft, 
p. no ; crave , \xc^\\ , Ixxix. 439/418 ; crede, Shoreham, p. 145 ; ci-ye, id. p. 143 ; 
dejaivte, Guy, 4006; dene, Songs and Carols, p. 26; destaunce, Horst., S. A. L. 
128/347; distresse, Babees Book, 312/424 ; diswere, id. 313/436 ; dowte, Guy, 
3996; drede, id. 5739, dredys, id. 11 102; divelle, Horst., S. A. L. 1 34/542; 
fahull, Guy, 3254; fame, id. io8;/a;'/e:, id. 593 ; /aj'/j'j, Babees Book, 10/17; 
feyne, Guy, 3273; feyning, Generydes, 378; gabbe, Guy A. 4184; gyle, Babees 
Book, 312/432; hete, Gregorius, 303 ; hon. Cursor C. 19141; hope, Cursor T. 
2097; ? hornnes, Archiv, Ixxiv. 333/443 ; lakke, Babees Book, 15/S6 ; les, Horst., 

I 2 


S. A. L. 136/1000; lesyng, id. 136/995 ; let, Richard, 404; lye, Horst., S. A. L. 
129/384; mys, id. 135/885; naye, Archiv, Ixxiv. 328/50; rage, Horst., S. A. L. 
iZl^lh'^ ^konie {sho7-ne), Babees Book, 316/525; strif, 407; Generides, 7649, 
Minot, iii. 4, note ; siiike, Cursor C. 2097; thotijt, Babees Hook, 325/789 ; traytte, 
Trentalle S. Gregorii, 37/117; wene, Perceval, 2230; were, Cursor F. 20043; 
wrake, Gregorlegende, 182 ; unast, Babees Book, 300/26. 

1. 348. See 1216, 7, and comp. '56 us habbeS ofle imaked wraS,' Lajamon, 
12481 ; ' 5ef })e wantit met and clo])e | Hou J)ou nout to mac fe wrothe,' Anglia, 
iv. 184/15 ; ' Bot fori wil noght mak 5o\v wrath, | Yowre cumandment I sal fulfill,' 
Ywain, 136, 7; ' bot if god him helpe : wel wro)) men {lenkeji him dyjte,' Archiv, 
Ixxxii. 370/46; Ferumbras, 1033. I" ^^^ these places the context requires for 
wroth rather a passive sense of grieved, vexed, distressed, than the active wrathful, 
and the analogy of anger and angry, which originally meant, distress and distressed, 
is in favour of it. The same passive sense is required for ivode in O 921. For the 
ordinary use of the words, comp. ' Suan })e due of denemarch • \o he hurde of })is 
cas I Mad him wroth and wod ynou,' R. of Gloucester, 5978, 9. 

!!• 3.53j 4- lyiine. C has, I think, preserved the original reading ; comp. ' pi 
tale nu fu lynne,' 311. The word is used absolutely of being silent in the Surtees 
Psalter, xxxi. 3, 'For -I- Man, mine banes elded ai ' ( = 'quoniam tacui, invetera- 
verunt ossa mea,' of the Vulgate). 5ef he cupe, if she knew how, as she well 
could, though little more than a cheville, goes better with lynne than with the 
variants. For the phrase, comp. ' Spell yeit i wald spek, if I cuth, | War ani 
mirthes in mi muth,' Cursor C. 23945, 6; ' Knowe it, jiue je can,' Tristrem, 
725 ; ' Jhesu as best • pat bar J)e belle | Wold wite • riht a non | jif he cou])e • o 
J)ing telle,' Horst., A. L. 213/109-11. A similar phrase is seen in ' I wald 
noght spare for to speke • wist I to spede,' Minot, x. 1. 

L 362. See note on 131. For the corresponding line in C, see 115 note, and 
add, ' For wel is him alyue : J)at ha]) wele after wo,' Archiv, Ixxxii. 372/178. 

I. 360. This line should come before 359 : the other texts have the right order. 
Wissmann quotes Richard, 909-12, 'And aftyr soper, in the evenyng, | To my 
chaumbyr thou hym bryng, | In the atyr of a squyer : | Myselff thenne schal kepe 
hym ther ' ; and (Studien, p. 356) suggests that Horn does not bear the title of 
squire since he is to come to Rimenhild in the guise of one. The passage quoted 
is not a parallel : Richard of England, a knight, is a prisoner of the king of Almayn, 
and is brought to the chamber of the king's daughter in a squire's dress because it 
would not attract attention. Our passage means. Send Horn the squire after he 
has served at the king's mid-day dinner, ostensibly on an errand for you such as 
squires are often entrusted with ; no one will see anything strange or suspicious in 
his coming. For wise comp. ' Gij him dijt in a queynlise, \ & com to Paul in 
squier wise,' Guy A. 6103, 4; 'An almes monnes wisen,' Lajamon, 19641 ; 'And 
made, on a sarsynes wyse, | To Jubiter, sacrifise,' Alisaunder, 1561, 2 ; ' Quant Brun 
de la Montaigne ot le pie en I'estrier, | II monta sus la selle a loy d'un escuier,' 
Brun de la M. 3313, 4. aryse, rise from table, ' Demain uus amerrai • coe quavez 
demaunde \ Apres coe que mis sires • li reis auera mange,' HR. 28/651, 2. 
11. 361, 2 are a rather pointless addition ; the king's hunting is done in the morning, 
11. 645, 6. 

O 373, 4- These lines must be rejected, as interrupting Rimenhild's speech; 
they are probably an anticipation of 379, 80. For pat, L 368, see 124 note; for 
the phrase, 463, 4 note. 

II. 365, 6. L has the best reading here : recchecche is a lapse for recche the. 


!'• 3'^9' ro- See 234, 1105, d. Comp. '& heo gon scenchen^ on ).as kinges 
benche,' Lajamoii, 14962, 3; 'per he sact mid his scenche : an his kine-beiichc,' 
id. 9692, 3; 'swilche hit were of wine scenche,' id. 3529 ; ' je pat werietJ riche 
schrud I and sitteiS on oure benche | J)ah me kneoli ou bi uore | and mid win 
schenche,' O. E. Miscellany, 168/3-6 ; ' He made ther under a grene bench | And 
drank ther under mani a sscench,' S. Sages, 561, 2 ; ' No sire ne be J)e day so long • 
)ie wule hii sitte]) abenche • | & som of \>e nijt nimej) pev to • f-e drinke vor to 
ssenche,' R. of Gloucester, 2525, 6 ; ' He was up take of gentil men | And y set 
on hyghe benche, | Wyn and pyment gan they schenche,' Alisaunder, 7579-81. 
O 3S3. 4 fits ill here; it is in its right place at 1107, 8, where the right reading 
in sale occurs for stale ; an error due to association with the expression stale ale, 
i.e. old ale: comp. \Vright-\Vulker, Vocabularies, 659/12, sernicia deficata, K.'^ 
stale ale ; ' And notemuge to putte in ale, | Whether it be moyste ( = fresh) or stale,' 
Chaucer, iv. 191/1953, 4. 

1. 371. hende. Comp. ' Horn hende in halle,' HC. 381. 

1. 373. after mete. The phrase gave rise to a noun after-7nete (not in N.E.D.) 
like afternoon (of which it is a synonym), after-dinner, after-supper: comp. 'And 
gedered to gtdre alle J)e grete | Of Jiat citee on an aftur mete,' Horst., S. A. L. 

17/549, 50- 

1. 376. In herte . . holde, apparently means, suppress, give no utterance to. 
Comp. ' In hert stille helde his modir ay | Al J)at she herde him do or say,' 
Cursor T. 1 2641, 2 ; =' Et mater eius conservabat omnia verba haec in corde suo,* 
Lucie ii. 51). So also, ' Gye hyt on hys harte layde | And wolde hym not t'erof 
vpbrayde,' Guy, 3221, 2, where the Auchinleck version has, 'Ac no semblaunt 
ferof he no made, | No no ping to him seyde,' 3389, 90. in herte leide, 1. 379, 
seems however to mean merely, took note of, took to heart. For another shade 
of meaning, comp. ' For ))ai er swa wilde, when \z\ haf quert, ])at na drede J)ai 
can hald in hert,' Hampole, Pricke of Conscience, 10/326, 7; ' Abram helde |;is 
worde in J)05t,' Cursor F. 2575. For the chcville, ' In herte is noste for to layne,' 
Perceval, 143, see Kolbing's note on Tristrem, 166. R. of Brunne has, ' Men in 
hert it kast, J)at were of gode avis, | It myght not long last suilk werre & partis,' 
p. 225, with the sense, reflected on it, concluded. For "Wordes supe bolde, see 
90 note. Horn is to speak humbly of himself, as he does, 11. 419-24. In L 380 pin 
is a scribe's mistake for in, due to such a phrase as in 434, O 454. 

^- 377) 8. Comp. ' And ich founde })e f us trewe, | Jjou no schust it never rewe,' 
Orfeo, 568, 9 ; ' no seal hit eou reouwe nauere,' Lajamon, 32149. 

I. 382. brijte. Comp. 14, 390, O 747, L 918, 1429. The phrases which 
characterize Rimenhild are few and commonplace : ' pe 5ynge,' L 447 ; ' pat 
swete ])ing,' 443 ; ' ))at feyre may,' L 955. The French version is more detailed 
and varied, comp. ' Rigmel . . . od le uis colure | Nout taunt bele pur ueir • en 
la crestiente i Fille esteit dan hunlaf • al bon rei corune | Rigmel lille iert le 
rei • danzele de grant pris | Gent aueit mut le cors • e culore le uis | Nout nule 
taunt uaillant • en seisaunte pais,' HR. 16/405-10. 

II. 383, 4. See 779, 80 note. 

1^- 385, 6. ' De la belte de horn tute la chambre resplent | Tut quident ke 
CO fast angelin auenement,' HR. 47/1053, 4. Comp. what is said of Olympias, 
' Of theo brj-ghtnes of hire face, | Al aboute schon thes place,' Alisaunder, 281, 2 ; 
of an angel, ' for al )je cwarteme, of his cume | leitede o leie,' S. Katherine, 671, 2 ; 
' Sche was so fayr and so bryjt, | The chambur of her schon ly;t,' Trentalle 
S. Gregorii, 48/169, 70; Emare, 439, 40. Sometimes the hair gleams, 'cuius 


eciam insignem candore cesariem tantus come decor asperserat, ut argenteo crine 
nitere putaretur,' Saxo Giammaticus, 228/9-11. Fairies are similarly resplendent, 
' si que nos quidames que ce fust une fee, et que tos cis bos en esclarci,' Aucassin, 
26/32, 3- A bright light, ' so it were a blase of fir ' (1. 1255), issues from the moiTth 
of the sleeping Havelok, a token of future greatness. 

1. 387. spac . . speche. Comp. 170, 1368. faire. Other epithets are loueliche, 
454, 580, and motirninde, L 578. 

1. 388. dorte. Matzner after Lumby's suggestion corrects this into dorsfe, which 
does not give a good sense. It is more probably ior parte, past oi }>urfen\ forms 
with ^instead of/ are occasionally met with \njiarf\ comp. 'Ne dar he seche non 
oJ)er leche | J)at mai riht of })is water cleche,' Vernon MS. i. 373/733- For porte, 
needed, comp. ' Ne forte he nevre ful iwis | Wilne more of paradis,' Floris, 186/663, 
4 ; ' Ne thorte us have frijt ne fer that God ne wolde his blisse us sent,' Debate 
between Body and Soul, Mapes, p. 338 (from MS. Laud, loS). par, O 400, is 
a regular form = )>arf : durp, L 390, seems a mistake for purte or durte. Tiie 
meaning is, No man needed (needs) to teach him. 

1. 389. A form of address for which I can bring no parallel : see 1. 627. For 
sitte softe, comp. O 945 ; ' Vpo lofte | pe deuel may sitte softe,' Boddeker, 
107/26, 7 ; * And if ))ou be in place where good ale is on lofte, | Whe|)er l^at J)ou 
serue J)erof, or Jiat Jiou sitte softe,' Babees Book, 39/74, 5 ; ' and sette hym softe 
\2X he noght syle,' York Plays, 144/196; 'per he laei softe,' Lajamon, 4004 ; 
' Harde migte he ligge adoim : and harde sitte also,' Beket, 1481. The rhyme 
may be restored in 390 by reading, Rymenhild on lofte ; comp. 904. 

L 394. pyne yfere. The text gives a fair sense, who sit [as] your com- 
panions ; but it is possibly a scribe's error for in yfere, in company. 

1. 393. vre. For the possessive adjective placed after its noun, comp. 539 and 'for 
to worsschipen louerd oure,' E. Studien, viii. 452/393 ; ' \o\x chast ous, lord, wi)) 
wordes fine,' id. ix. 49/21. The Surtees Psalter abounds with examples. See also 
Matzner, E. Grammatik, iii^. p. 589. For the postponed numeral, see 37, 49, 391, 
489, 760; adjective, 38, 561, 746, 1171, 1257, 1319 ; pronoun, L 163, O 165, 328, 
9; preposition, 267, 532, 853, 1426. All these, except the pronouns, are in rhyme. 
1. 398. For were, see 310, and comp. ' Whar-of hit were, noting he nuste,' 
Vernon MS. i. 9/301. 

1. 401. pelle, the rich cloth covering the bed, comp. ' fJat leuedi fer sche lay in 
bed, I J7at richeliche was bi-schred | Wifgold & purpel palle,' K. of Tars A. 781-3, 
V. 358 ; ' on bedde . . . fat comelich was isprad wij) palle,' Gregorius, 523 ; ' wes 
fat kinewurfie bed 2 al mid palle ouer braed,' La5amon, 19044, 5 ; ' Sil asist sur 
sun lit • dunt la coilte est chiere | Dun paile alixandrin • bon en fu li oueriere,' 
HR. 36/814, 5, 48/1098, 9. See also 299 note. 
1. 402. See 1155 note. 

1. 403. C has a superfluous him here and at 1063. For illustrations of the phrase, 
see Zupitza's note to Athelston, 120, where references are also given to collections 
of the adjectives which go with chere. 

1. 404. Comp. 743, 4 ; ' The kyng toke him aboute the neke and kyssed hym,' 
Ponthus, 22/24. There is clearly a lacuna after 1. 406 in C, for 11. 407, 8 are much 
too abrupt for the beginning of Rimenhild's speech. It is noteworthy that the last 
three words of O 419 are the same as the first three of C 407 : probably the copyist 
of C began 1. 407 wrongly, and then, rather than make a correction, tacked on his 
false beginning to the next line that would go with it, and spoiled the metre of 1. 408 
in adapting it. 


O 420. See 84 note. 

O 421. ' Evening and morning,' that is, at all times. Comp. 'And seruc Jie, 
sire, at J>i wille, | Erli and late, loud and stille, | A morwe and eke an eue,' K. of 
Tars V. 460-2 ; ' pou Iceuest not riht a-fyn | On Aslrot ne on Jouyn, | On morwe 
nc on eue,' id. 553-5 ; ' ffor oure dej) ne may be so le})er : an eucn & ek amorwe,' 
Archiv, Ixxxii. 345/99 ; ' aniorwc & ek an eue,' id. 347/71 ; Chaucer, ill. 62/2 106 ; 
' Nou her-on thcnche, man, day and ny3t, | An even and a morwe,' Shorcham, 
p. 32 ; ' Four & tuenti wynter lasted ])is sorow, | If he had pes at euen, he had 
non at morow.' I.angtoft, p. 40. 

O 425. If this sorrow continue for me. With O 427, 8 comp. 'A king fai 
mosten haue svvi))e, | Al her sorwe for to lij)e,' Arthour, 10/241, 2, and for the same 
rhyme, ' The saut com so thikke and swithe, ] That no weryng ne myghte heom 
lithe,' Alisaunder, 2797, 8. 

1. 407. wipute strif. See 347 note, 

I. 410. For plist, see 249 note ; for the phrase, comp. 305 note, 672, 674. 

II. 411, 2. This is a favourite formula with Lajanion; ' Dunwale him bi-J)ohte: 
wat he done mihte,' 4176, 7; 1036,7; ' Tennancius hine bi-CoSte i hu he faren 
mihte,' id. 9000, i ; ' J)er-vore he hine bi-])Ouhte • hw he don myhte,' O. E. Miscellany, 

1. 413. See 183 note. 

1. 416. Wher ... in londe, wherever in the world; 'in londe fer no nere,' 
L. 966, comes near it in meaning. Comp. ' He wil ye take an husbond | Where so 
ye wil in ony lond,' Generides, S3S7, 8 ; ' To longe y lyue in londe,' Ferumbras, 
2793 ; ' Use blithe myjten hy be | That folwede Cryst in londe,' Shoreham, p. 19 ; 
'And be thou siker that mannes lyf | Is rijt a knijthod ine londe,' id. p. 13. 
Generally it is little more than a cheville, as in ' He was ful wise, y say, | f>at first 
5aue 5ift in land,' Tristrem, 626, 7 ; in Lajamon and elsewhere on dtcjeSe, onfolke, 
on work are used in the same indefinite way, as Madden points out, vol. iii. p. 437. 
Similar is ' So fayre on ere}) clade,' O 176 ; 'of body so gentille was non in erth 
wrouht,' Langtoft, p. 30. 

1. 418. See 670 note. 

I. 419. icome of pralle, see 176 note. Horn's statement that he is the son ol 
a thrall is dictated by caution and the desire not to compromise his master Athelbrus, 
who has told him to be careful and true to him (375-So). He keeps up the fiction 
by speaking oihisfralkod, 439; in other circumstances he declares, 'kyng wes mi 
fader of kenne,' L 1276, and he has already told the king Aylmar that he and his 
companions are come of a good stock and even of king's blood (176-8). W'iss- 
mann's remark that Horn, as a stranger cast on the coast, was in strict law the 
king's property, seems to me to have no bearing on this place. No doubt he is 
the king's chattel, but he does not say so. He excuses himself as low-born and 
owing all he is to the king. In the French version he is more exact : ' Pouere sui 
orphanin • nai de terre plein gant | Ici vine par werec • cum chaitif esgarant | 
Vostre perre mad fait • nurrir par sun comant | Cil len rende les grez • ki le mund 
fud formant | la ne li mesferai • taunt cum serai parlant | Nafiert a uostre oes • 
home de pouere semblant | \'us auerez un haut rei • si iert plus auenant,' HR. 
48/1 1 12-8. 

II. 421, 2. Nor would it become (befit) thee in respect of rank to be bound to 
me as a wife. For this use oi fallen = convenire, comp. 'Swete sire qua)) Seyii 
Juliane^ it ne ualle}) no5t to me | Bote pou were mon of more powers to be 
ispoused to ))e,' Juliana, 81/9, 10 ; ' For it falles to a mihty king, [ That messager 


word of him bring,' Metrical Homilies, p. 1 1 ; 'at J'e first ] ei kiste, as frendes felle 
to be,' Langtoft, p. 86; 'And graunte me soche beryng, | So fallith for a k}Tig,' 
Alisaunder, 4624, 5. The use of the past subjunctive here is noteworthy. The 
reading of L gives practically the same meaning, It would not become me in 
respect of rank to possess you as wife. In y\..\L. fallen (O.E. feallan) and fellen 
{(d^.fiellan) become confused, so that m felde here we have a form derived from 
the latter used in the sense of the former, just as in L 1^10 f el occurs where we 
might tyiTpect felde. Wissmann read selde (the MS. has felde), and took it as the 
M.E. representative of O.E. gesxlan with the meaning, befit. But the O.E. verb 
only means, to happen. See Zupitza in Anzeiger fiir deutsches Alterthum, ix. 
p. 186. Morris renders of cunde, of kind, naturally, properly, a meaning difficult 
to parallel ; it often means, by natural disposition, by inborn quality, as, ' every 
wight, but he be fool of kinde,' Chaucer, ii. 200/370. It is equally common in 
the sense, by race, stock, family, comp. ' of swiche kinde ar we kome • bi crist, 
as 56 arn,' W. of Palerne, 3136 ; O 443 ; and that gives a good meaning here. 
For to spouse welde, comp. L 313, O 318, O 943. 

11. 425, 6. Comp. 'For that word the King was wroth: that gan him evere 
mislike | Seint Thomas wep in his hurte : and sore gan to sike,' Beket, 535, 6. 
The expression in 426 is common : ' pe king gon siche sare,' Lajamon, 1 2772 ; ' Jio 
bigan godrich to sike,' Havelok, 291 ; ' Whan tliat Arcite had songe, he gan to 
syke,' Chaucer, iv. 45/1540. With the passage generally, comp. '))is godemon J)o 
he hurde {'is : sikynge made Inowe | & bigan to wepe in grete )'05te : & vel adoun 
iswowe. I Bitwene is armes s. brendan : })is holi mon up nom | & custe him & cride 
on him : vorte is wit ajen him com,' St. Brendan, Archiv, liii. 17/9-12 ; and with 
430, I, ' Kyng Richard gan hym in armes take | And kyste hym ful fele sythe,* 
Richard, 1604, 5 ; 'The maydyn jede to Gye thoo | And toke hym in hur armes 
two,' Guy, 323, 4. 

11. 427, 8. buje, bend, crook, may be right ; it can hardly mean, let hang down, 
as Matzner explains it. unbowe, L 431, would mean, relax. O 449 is corrupt, 
and r.ot easily accounted for, though boJ>e lurks under boJ)e. With 428 comp. 740, 
858, 1479 ; ' mid J^aere wraet>Se he wes isweued! ))at he feol iswowen,' Lajamon, 
3073, 4 ; ' l)at emperur fel swowe adoun,' Beues, 20/446 ; ' Aswon J)ai fel adoun 
to grounde,' Hoist., A. L. n.f. 249/320; ' Yswowe lie feol to grounde ryght,' 
Alisaunder, 4491. Other variants are seen in, '& fel doun on swowe,' W. of 
Palerne, 87 ; ' & ful oft fel sho down in swogh,' Yvvain, 824. 

1. 429. See 115 note. O 451 is unintelligible; its original was probably, Horn 
him efte wende, Horn turned him again. Comp. ' Rymcnhild hire biwente,' 321 ; 
'Siththe he wende him eft into the see,' Beket, 676. 

1. 434. stere, govern, control. Comp. 'Suffrea while and your hert stere | Til 
betre tithinges ye may here,' Generides, 55/1773, 4; 'The lady swowned and was 
full woo, I Ther myght no man hur stere,' Bone Florence, 824, 5 ; ' In yherde 
irened salt l)ou stere ]>&'{= Reges eos in virga ferrea), Surtees Psalter, ii. 9 ; ' They 
that gan the pype here | M3'ght not hemselfe stere,' E. E. Miscellanies, p. 59. 

1. 435. me to kni5te, to knight me. Wissmann takes knijte as a noun, but that 
construction would require knijthod, with a verb like help. In ' Horn he dubbede 
to knijte,' 499, 458; 'J)ou schalt worpe to knyte,' O 467 ; 'And makede hem to 
knicte,' O 540; ' Jiu me to knijte houe,' 1267, knijte is a noun: to knijte can in 
such cases be replaced by the simple noun in apposition, as in ' horn knyht made 
he,' L 503 ; comp. 'make hine to kinge' (= make him king), Laaamon, 11468. 

1. 436. For bi, comp. ' Teruagaunt & Apolin | Jie blessi and dijte | Be alle here 

NOTES. 121 

mijte,' Bcues A. 70/1380-2; ' Alle tlie lawes and custumes: we woleth holde bi 
oure mijte,' lieket, 433 ; ' bi al inync rnijte,' id. 1418. With is the usual preposi- 
tion, '})at louede Beues wi]) al hire mijl,' Beues A. 43/914; 'mid al hire mihte,' 
Lajamon, 28701; L 4S3. Others are seen in ' thurf al his myjte,' Beket, 179; 
'and {le lord Jiat J)at beist aght | Sal J)ar-for ansuer at his maght,' Cursor C. 6719, 
20, where MS. Fairfax has (0; ' clayme to hald at alle my myght,' Langtoft, p. 251, 
Oppe, O 456, is, in this phrase, apparently without parallel, but there are analogous 
uses, as, ' ]>e welisse king vpe is poer • dude him J)e seruage,' R. of Gloucester, 
6775 i ' '^ ^'P^ is poer destruede • & apeyrede cristendom,' id. 5657, where the 
sense, to the extent of, has developed out of the more usual, depending on, resting 
on, seen in ' ac vpe godes wille it is • wanne it ssal be,' id. 5137. 

I. 437. Wissmann makes to depend on /le/p with the force of wif/i, but it seems 
jireferable to regard it as an elliptical expression depending on a verb of asking 
implied in the context. So in 451, To Aylbrus does not depend on haue, 449 
(= possess), but on a verb, take, bear, or the like to be understood. See also 729. 

II. 439, 40. Then knighthood will do away with my servile condition. The 
thrall may not bear arms, and in early English law the delivery of the weapons of 
a free man constituted part of the ceremony of his enfranchisement. 'Si qui vero 
velit servum suum liberum facere, . . . ostendat ei liberas vias et portas et tradat 
illi libera arma, scilicet lanceam et gladium ; deinde liber homo efficitur,' Leges 
Willelmi Conquestoris in Schmid, Die Gesetze der Angelsachscn, p. 356 ; ' Qui 
seiTuni suum litjerat . . . lanceam et gladium vel quae liberoruni arma sunt in 
mariibus ei ponat,' Leges Henrici Frimi, id. p. 476. Conip, also Kemble, The 
Saxons in England, i. p. 221. Horn freed by the delivery of arms is a very 
primitive touch, which goes back in the history of the legend to the days spoken 
of by the laws of Ethelred, * We witan, J)Kt j^urh Godes gyfe \ivx\ wearS to J)egene 
and ceorl wearS to eorle, sangere to sacerde and bocere to biscope,' Schmid, p. 386. 
It is a survival out of keeping with its surroundings. There is nothing like it, so 
far as I know, either in thirteenth-century English history or the Romances, though, 
no doubt, rare instances occurred where a man of humble birth was knighted for 
a distinguished act of bravery, and the dignity was by no means confined to 
those who were descended from noble or knightly ancestors. In French romance, 
Varocher, a woodcutter, is made a knight, Macaire, 3123-9, and Simon le Voyer 
in Berte aux grans pies has the same good fortune. 

11. 441, 2. With the former line comp. 95 ; with 442, for the meaning, 896, 
and for the phrase, ' Niding, ]>o\\ aert al dead : buten ])ou do mine read | & J)i 
laeuerd al swa '. bote })u min lare do,' Lajamon, 690-3. O 462 has the more 
common construction, comp. ' & al heo iduden J efter hire lare,' id. 361 2, 3. Similar 
expressions are, ' biSenc a mire lare,' id. 5023, where the later version has ' bipench 
in mine lare'; ' jif ))u mine larei wel wult lusten,' id. 140S1, 2 ; ' & to his lores 
lij)e,' Tristrem, 25S ; ' Whi leue je at his lare,' Minot, vi. 22 and note. 

li 449, 50. The divergence of all three MSS. here is noteworthy : LO are 
alike unhappy, the reference to an oath in L 450 especially so. Perhaps its 
original was, be fe luef be ])e loJ)e, but comp. L 559. to sope, in sooth, truly ; 
comp. ' & ich sugge ]>t to sotJe,' Lajamon, 4667, 5752 ; ' heo seiden him to soCe i 
sorhfulle spelles,' id. 2177, 8 ; ' heo wende to soSe,' id. 9400 ; but in ' He wende 
hit to so]>e J sO(5 ))eh hit neore,' id. 602, 3, the phrase means, for a truth. 

O 465. wel ricte is like arijte, 457 ; it goes with seyde. See 305 note. 

O 46S. sone, a scribe's slip for soiie, seven. Comp. 'To dai a souenihtel 
briggej) me her riht,' Lajamon O. 5442, 3 ; ' sovenijt he bilevede ther,' Beket, 1 149 ; 


' seue nyght jit ne ha}) hit ben,' R. of Brunne, 5168. Tiie expression, which means, 
a week hence, is in form peculiar and, so far as I know, isolated. The subjunctive 
is usual, as in ' On Thursday next come seven night,' N. E. D. ii. p. 654. tor the 
formal subject, comp. 124 and 'In a ston stille he lai | til it kam Se dridde dai,' 
O. E. Miscellany, 2/42, 3 : with 448 comp. ' Er \>a.n come seuen nijtes ende,' 
Guy A. 6174. 

11. 449, 50. See 1125, 6 note. 

11. 451, 2. The scribe has written &■ for /t-. holde foreward, a common 
expression, comp. ' f>at ich J)is forward wuUe ! | fastliche halden,' Lajamon, 
23607, 8; 'King hald me forward,' id. 15893. The words cannot have their 
usual definite sense of keeping an agreement already made. 

1. 454. See 580 note. For 455, 6, see 779, 80 note. For 458, see 499 note, 
1. 459. Comp. ' mid golde ne mid seolure,' O. E. Homilies, series i. p. 127 ; 
' nere in none londe ^ mid seoluer and mid golde | cnihtes so iscrud,' Lajamon 
O. 25277-9 ; ' })at he solde to him come | for seoluer and for golde,' id. 18623, 4 ; 
1774; 1824; 'Or • e dras • e cheuaus • e argent muneie,' HR. 24/543. 

1. 461. Comp. ' And lene hym grace in that fyjt | Wei for to spede,' Degrevant, 
1599, 600; 'And len oure sir Edward • his life wcle to lede,' Minot, xi. 39. 
Lumby gives the reading of C as /eiie, but I take it as kne ; the two letters are 
almost alike. Icne, give, is in any case the word required in the construction. In 
illustration of the next line Matzner refers to, ' Bed min herdne to pharaon,' 
Genesis and E. 2073, where the form herdne as in O 480 is remarkable. Comp. also, 
' His oune erende wol he bede,' Vernon MS. i. 348/757, For erndyng, L 466, 
see 581 note. 

1. 464. See 364, and comp. ' The monekes songe compli : for hit was nej eve,' 
Beket, 2078; ' Yt drew nere hand nyght,' Torrent, 511, 1312 ; 'Fait est dit 
herlaund • ataunt prent le cungie | Si senuet alostel • kar pres iert auespre,' HR. 
28/657, 8. 

1. 46S. See 1355, 6. 

1. 469. nede, what he wanted. The phrase is formal, comp. 'heom fore ssede 
his neode,' A. S. Chronicle, p. 225 (Earle). The singular is uncommon in this 
sense ; two other instances are, ' Miself mai do mi nede,' Tristrem, 814 ; ' f>at he 
ne mijte noujt spede | Aboute hire nede,' Beues A. 1165, 6. The plural occurs 
with a variety of verbs ; ' f>i nedes tel ))ou me,' Tristrem, 846 ; ' And syne agayne 
to the gome he gaffe vp his nedys,' Morte Arthure, 85 ; ' Thy nedes this newe 
jere, I notifiede my selfene,' id. 522 ; 'Lat him come to the court hise nedes for 
to shevve,' Wright, Political Songs, 324/26; 'his oune neodes he gan mone,' 
Anglia, i. 72/212. Comp. also, ' Al roi de la terre parla | Son eslre et son 
besoing mostra,' Wace, Brut, 8403, 4. 

I. 471. also swipe, as quickly as possible, very quickly. The usual phrase is 
also {als) blive, comp. ' J?o kom her king al so blive,' Orpheo, 140, 529, 582 ; 
'pat barn as biliue bygan for to glade,' W. of Palerne, 351, which will account 
for the appearance of bliue instead of blipe in 1. 472. See 967, 8 for these words 
in assonance ; also smerte occurs in Guy, 1343, and in the note is given a number 
of similar phrases. 

O 491, 2, See 781, 2 note, 

II. 473, 4. See 1263, 4 note. For 475, 6, see 1285, 6 note. 

1. 478. geste. The meaning, guests, is unsuitable here and at 522 and L 523. 
The sense of the passage appears to be, Your feast takes place to-morrow, and 
it ought to be marked by some conspicuous act, such as the dubbing of Horn, 

NOTES. 123 

So in 522 ami L 523 the word means the manly sports accompanying the festival. 
Comp. ' Grete was the feste and the ioye and the grate sportes,' Ponthus, 13/4, 5 ; 
' Grete was the feste, the iustes and the dissportes and lasted to the sonne goyng 
doune,' id. 139/7, S- Not that jousts are to be thought of at Aylmar's feast ; the 
games would rather be those described as held at Havclok's dubbing ; ' Buttinge 
with sharpe speres, | Skirming with taleuaces, )>at men beres, | Wrastling with 
laddes, putting of ston, | Harping and piping, ful god won, | Leyk of mine, of 
hasard ok, | Romanz reding on ]>c bok ; | ]>er mouthe men here ])e gestes singe, ] ]>e 
gleymcn on )>e tabour dinge ; | )'er mouhte men so ]'e boles beyte, | And ])e bores 
with hundes teyte ; | J)o mouthe men se cueril gleu,' Havelok, 2322-32. In romance 
and history alike, feasting and games are mentioned as the main features of such 
occasions, comp. ' Alle ]>e ])re hexte dawes  laste J)is nobleye | In halles & in 
veldes • of mete & eke of pleye,' R. of Gloucester, 3971, 2; 'Now gynnith the 
geste of nobles : | At theo feste was trumpyng, | Pipyng and eke taboryng, | 
Sytoh-ng and ek harpyng, | Knyf pleying and ck syngyng, | Carolyng and 
turneieyng, | Wrastlyng and ek skirmyng,' Alisaunder, 1040-6; ' Quid plura ? dies 
ilia, tyrocinii honori et gaudio dicata, tota in ludi bellici exercitio et procuiandis 
splendide corporibus elapsa est,' Chroniques d'Anjou, i. p. 236. It is, indeed, 
difficult to parallel these meanings of ^cs/e, but they seem a natural development 
from the usual sense of ' deeds of arms,' • achievements.' O 498 is corrupt. 

11. 479, 80. To knight child Horn would not be losing your pains, i.e. it would 
be well worth your while. Comp. ' Nu is ]>\ wile Isolde, | King, J)at J)u me knijli 
woldest,' 643, 4. Forlesen used absolutely in this way is remarkable : in this sense 
it is regularly accompanied by a noun, as in, 'J)e weorreur of helle mei longe 
asailen ou, & forleosen al his hwule,' Ancren Riwle, p. 246 ; ' Hise swink ne 
hauede he nowt forlorn,' Havelok, 770. For to preceding the infinitive used as 
subject is not uncommon. Matzner, Grammatik, iii'-, p. 58, quotes, ' for to do 
sinne is mannish, but certes for to persevere longe in sinne is werk of the devel,' 
Chaucer, iv. 215 '2453; 'pat betere J)e is freondscipe to habben i J)ene for to 
fihten.' La5amon, 26203, 4. Comp. the ace. infinitive,/^;' /o lede, 908. 

1. 481. Comp. ' Armes to here, & wepne to welde,' R. of Brunne, 15518 ; ' But 
nou ich am up to Jiat hclde | Cumen, that ich may wcpne welde,' Havelok, I435, 6 ; 
' & alle })at suerd mot here, or o\tx wapen weld,' Langtoft, p. 187. In O 501 to is 
a slip for do, as in L 485. 

1. 482. L 486 has the best reading here : the meaning in LC is, He shall repay 
you a good knight, i.e. you will be repaid for your gift by getting a good knight, 
O 502 means, He shall be esteemed a good knight. 

1. 483. The phrase is formal. Comp. ' J)an seyd \t quen ful sone,' Horst., 
A. L. n.f. 250/329. 

1. 484. idone seems due to a reminiscence of 445, 6 ; it can hardly stand here, 
where the meaning required is. That would be a good thing to do (so L 488, 
O 504, where to done is the dative infinitive used predicatively in the sense of, 
proper to be done). Very probably the right reading is, He is wel idone ; comp. 
' ))et wes a riche mon ' pe wes swiSe wel idon ' ; ' J^a burh wes swiSe wel idon ' ; 
' uppen ure godd wel idon,' La-,amon, 909, 2029, 5405, where 'wel idon means 
splendid, excellent (comp. Madden's note, iii. p. 448). 

1. 486. This line may mean, He seems a good knight ; bisemej), properly, it 
befits, becomes, is often used in the sense of setncj), seems, just as se»iej> sometimes 
means, it becomes ; while the dative is quite regularly employed with both where 
the nominative might be expected. Comp. ' Here comyth an hardy bachelere, | 


Hym besemyth welle to ryde,' Octavdan, 118/932, 3 ; ' Bi his semblaunt and feir 
beryng | Hym semed wel a gret lordyng' (with variant, to be a), Vernon MS. i. 
2i7/747> 8 ; ' Ther was no prynce that day in felde | That was so semely undur 
schylde, | Nor bettur besemyd a knyght,' Tryamoure, 718-20. But this gives 
a poor sense ; probably there is a mixture of constructions : (i) God knijt he 
seme]), and (2) To be knijt him bisemej), or, Wel knijt him biseme}). Comp. 
'Full wele hym semeth a knyght to be,' Ipomydon, 512; '& well thou semed, 
soe god me speede, | To proue thy manhood on a stede,' Eger, P. F. MS. i. 
356/67, 8. 

I. 488. Matzner supplied be before mi. Perhaps the original reading was, 
& after wur]) mi derling : after occurs as adverb at 366. But O has the best 
reading; comp. ' Loue is goddis owne derlinge,' Hymns to the Virgin, 25/107; 
' Certys al ys for Clarioun kyng, | ])at was my fadres owe derlyng,' Ferumbras, 
3801 ; ' " Erie," seyde tho the kynge, | " Thou schalt be my darlynge," ' Guy, 
8325, 6; 'He was a derlynge to the kynge,' Ipomadon, 55. An ^imser dyrling 
is mentioned in the A. S. Chronicle under A.D. 1016 ; he is the Almarus Dilectus 
of Florence of Worcester, M. H. B., p. 591, the Aimer Derling of Henry of 
Huntingdon, id. p. 755. ' Lilla, minister regi amicissinuis ' is mentioned by 
Bede, H. E. ii. 9. 

II. 489-92. L has the best version of these four lines ; in C 489 alle is super- 
fluous, in 491 he makes the line a feeble repetition of the preceding, in 492 //j 
nijte is meaningless. 

1. 493. See 124 note for this formula, and for al pat, L 497. 

1. 494. The syntax is difficult. The verb in this phrase was originally always 
finkeii, O. E. f>yncan, impersonal with a dative of the person, as in ' long hit 
])uncheS us wrecchen | Vort ])u of J)isse erme Hue to '5e suluen us fecche,' O. E, 
Homilies, series i. 193/63, 4. Tiie order of the words here is against taking the 
line as. It seemed long to him Ailmar. The confusion in M.E. of the forms of 
O.E. J)enc-an, think, and Pyncan, seem, is abundantly illustrated in our texts 
(comp. L 284, L 526, &c.) ; it appears in this very phrase, ' fful lang here has vs 
thoght,' Archiv, liii. 417/1414; where the older MS. of Lajamon has /«/«/^, 
seemed, the younger has generally pohte in the same sense, comp. ' svva him best 
])uhte,' C. 770, with ' ])are liim best ])ohte,' O. 770 i^so also 4S6, 441 1, 526S, 15856, 
25761), though the older MS. once admits the confusion, 'feirest ])at heom ])ohte,' 
C. 1306, just like 'ase heom best Jjoht,' O. 25630; while the younger MS. some- 
times keeps the distinction, as, ' for wonder vs |^inche]) 2 wat Vortiger JjencheJ),' 
O. 13121, 2, just as in 277, 8 of our text. This admixture of forms paved the way 
for the substitution oi penkeit with a personal subject in the sense oiJ>iiike?i, comp. 
'Brutten J)utte sellic,' C. 10385, with 'Bruttes ])ohte sellich,' the reading of O. ; 
'and bringe hem of helle Jiat Jjouhte longe | ffor pyne,' Celestin, Anglia, i. 68/18, 
19 ; L 49S ; O 514. Our line seems to combine both constructions, (i) it seemed 
long to him, and (2) Ailmar thought long ; just the same wavering is seen in ' and 
bijjohten him enne raedi seoSSen he pohten him swi[Se] god,' La5amon, 30576, 7, 
meaning, it seemed to him very good, or he thought it very good. 

1. 498. For suine in apposition, comp. L 58, and see Morris, Outlines, p. 207. 
The expression is curious, for the story elsewhere speaks of a single traitor ; so of 
the twelve apostles it is said, ' Summe hi weren wyse • and duden al bi his rede | 
Ac on hyne bitrayede • J)at et of his brede,' O. E. Misc. 38/43, 4. L 502 is 

11.499-522. The knighting of Guy of Warwick as told in the fifteenth-century 

NOTES. 125 

version of the romance forms an interesting parallel to this passage, of which it is, 
indeed, a direct, if much amplified, imitation : ' Forthe then ycde hym Gye | And 
chase to hym squyers twenty. | Into a chaumbur Jiey be goon, | There J)ey schulde 
be dubbed ychone. | Kyrtyls they had oon of sylke | Also whyte, as any mylke. | 
Of gode sylke and of purpull palle | Mantels above they caste al. | Hosys ))ey 
had vppon but no schone ; | Barefote they were euerychone. | But garlondys 
\>ey had of precyous stones | And perlys ryche for the noones. | When Jiey were 
Jius ycledde, | To a chaumbur the Erie hym yede. | A squyer broght nevve 
brondys : | They toke )'e poyiitys in fer hondys. | They hangyd on euery swyrde 
hylte I A peyre of sporys newe gylte. | Before \c awtcr t)ey knelyd ychone, | Vnto 
mydnyght wtre all goone | The Erie come anm ryghtys | And wyth hym two 
odur knyghtys. | The Erie seyde : " lordyngys dere, | At thys nede helpe vs here." ] 
The knyghtys, ]>at were hende, | Knelyd to the awters ende. | The Erie, that was 
the thrydde, | Began all in the mydde. | At the furste to Gye he come, [ Of the 
swyrde })e spurres he nome. | He set the spurres on hys fote | And knelyd before 
hym, y wote, | And wyth the swyrde he hym gyrte | Ryght abowte at hys herte | 
And smote hym on Jie neck a lytuU wey;t | And bad hym become a good knyjt. | 
There were hys felowes eucrychon | Dubbed knyghtys be oon and oon,' Gny, 
385-422. Comp. also 'King Ermin po anon rijte | Dobbede Beues vn-to kni;te | 
And 5af him a scheld gode & sur | WiJ; ))re eglen of asur, | . . . Sife a gerte him 
wi{) Morgelay, | A gonfanoun wel stout and gay | losian him broujte for to here' | 
Sent of ])e scheld, y 50W swere. | Beues dede on is actoun, | Hit was wor)) mani 
a toun ; | An hauberk him broujte ]>at mai, | So seiden alle })at hit isai | Hit was 
wel iwroujt & faire, ] Non egge tol mijte it noujt paire. | After J)at jhe 5af him 
a stede,' Beues A. 969-72, 75-85. The ceremony of knighting Geoffrey of Anjou 
in 1127 A.D. is described with vividness and wealth of detail in the Chroniques 
d" Anjou. He was in his fourteenth or fifteenth year when he received the honour 
from his future father-in-law, Henry the First of England. 'Ex praecepto insuper 
regis exactum est a comite ut filium suum, nondum militem, ad ipsam imminentem 
Pentecosten Rothomagum honorifice mitteret nt ibidem, cum coaequaevis suis 
amia suscepturus, rogalibus gaudiis interesset. . . . Ex imperio itaque patris, 
futurus regis gener cum quinque baronibus . . . et viginti quinque coaetaneis suis, 
multo etiam stipatus milite, Rothomagum dirigitur. Illucescente die altera, bal- 
neorum usus, uti tyrocinii suscipiendi consuetude expostulat, paratus est. Com- 
perto rex a cubiculariis quod Andegavensis et qui cum eo venerant ascendissent 
de lavacro, jussit eos ad se vocari. Post corporis ablutionem, ascendens de 
balneorum lavacro, comitis Andegavorum generosa proles, Gaufredus bysso retorta 
ad camem induitur, cyclade auro texta supervestitur, chlamyde conchylii et muricis 
sanguine tincta tegitur, caligis holosericis calciatur, pedes eius sotularibus in super- 
ticie leunculos aureos habentibus muniuntur ; eius vero consodales, qui cum eo 
militiae suscipiendae munus exspeciabant, universi bysso et purpura induuntur. 
Talibus itaque, ut praetaxatum est, omamentis decoratus regius gener, quasi flos 
lilii candens roseoque superfusus rubore, cum illo suo nobili collectaneo comitatu, 
de secreto thalami processit in publicum. Adducti sunt equi, allata sunt arma, 
distribuuntur singulis prout opus est. Andegavensi vero adductus est miri decoris 
equns Hispanie.isis qui tantae, vt aiunt, velocitatis erat ut multae aves in volando 
to tardiores essent. Induitur lorica incomparabili, quae, maculis duplicibus intexta, 
nullius lanceae vel jaculi cujuslibet ictibus transforabilis haberetur; calciatus est 
caligis ferreis, ex maculis itidem duplicibus compactis ; calcaribus aureis pedes 
ejus astricti sunt ; clypeus, leunculos aureos imaginarios habeus, collo eius suspen- 


ditur ; imposita est capiti ejus cassis multo lapide pretioso relucens, quae talis 
temperaturae erat ut nuUius ensis acumine incidi vel falsificari valeret ; allata est 
ei hasta fraxinea, ferrum Pictavense praetendens ; ad ultimum allatus est ei ensis 
de thesauro regio, ab antique ibidem signatus, in quo fabricando fabrorum super- 
lativus Galaunus multa opera et studio desudavit,' i. pp. 234-6. In the Flores 
Historiarum, iii. pp. 131, 2, there is a striking picture of the incidents connected 
with the knighting of the Prince of Wales in 1306 A. D. by his father, Edward 
the First. Comp. also the parallel passage in HR. 62/1408-51. 

11. 499, 500. dubbede to kni5te. This is the regular construction, comp. ' to 
cnihte hine dubben,' Lajamon, 22497 > ' Vbbe dubbede him to knith, | With a swerd 
ful swijie brith,' Havelok, 2314, 5 ; ' He dubbede bojie ])o bernes bold | To knijtes 
in ])at tide,' Amis, 164, 5 ; HC. 452 ; Ootavian, 93/519. But the noun alone also 
occurs, comp. ' pe king me ha]) dobbed knijt | & Jeue me hors & amies bri5t,' 
Reinbroun, 652/64/7, 8 ; ' For])y, sire kyng, now pray y ]>e \ Dobbe me kny5t par 
charite, ] And jeue me armure scheld and spere | And stede god my body to 
beore,' Bellnm Trojanum, 1246-9; Octavian, 92/516. The words with swerd 
must not be understood of the accolade, but simply of girding on the sword as in 
O 517. This was regarded as the essential feature in the ceremony; all the other 
incidents had gathered round this primitive act of delivering arms to the young 
warrior. The current expressions for conferring or receiving knighthood in the 
chroniclers all bear witness to this : ' baltheo militari donare,' Matthew Paris, 
Chronica Majora, v. p. 267; ' militari cingulo decorare,' id. iv. p. 86; ' balteo 
cingere militari,' id. iv. p. 419 ; ' cingulo donare militari,' id. iv. p. 551 ; ' cingulum 
militiae suscipere,' Itinerarium Regis Ricardi, p. 9 ; ' balteo militari accingere,' 
Nangis, i. p. 396; 'militiae cingulum imponere,' Chroniques d'Anjou, i. p. 273; 
' cingulum militiae accipere,' Ordericus Vitalis, iii. p. 280 ; ' insignia militaria susci- 
pere.' Michel, Chroniques Anglo-Normandes, ii. p. 127; ' arma sumere,' W. of 
Malmesbury, de Gestis Regum, ii. p. 468. Nor is there any reason to suppose that 
the more or less of detail in the three versions differentiates them as belonging to 
distinct periods in the history of the rite : L is not more primitive than O. The 
sword, spurs, boots, and horse are all gifts to the young knights ; they were looked 
on as some reward for their services as squires. The practice was ancient in 
England; William of Malmesbury (de Gestis Regum, i. p. 145), quoting from an 
old writer in verse, says that Alfred knighted his grandson, Elhelstan, ' donatum 
chlamyde coccinea, gemmato baltheo, ense Saxonico cum vagina aurea.' Such 
gifts are often mentioned as a charge on the royal wardrobe, see Selden, Titles 
of Honour, ed. iii. pp. 640, i. For the romances comp. 'For)) jede Autor anon 
rijt I & sir Arthour made knijt | first he fond him clo]) & cradel, | \o he fond 
him stede & sadel, | Helme & brini & hauberioun, | Saumbers, quissers & 
aketoun, | Quarre scheld, gode swerd of stiel | & launce stef, biteand wel,' 
Arthour, 2971-8; '& made him knijt on the morwe • & mo for his sake | Of 
proude princes sones • doujti men toward, | Fulle foure schore • for williames 
loue, I & jaf hem hors & armes • as an head lord schold,' W. of Palerne, 1 100-3 ; 
' Hoe fond me palefrey and stede, | Helm and brunie and ojier wede, | And swerd 
and spere wel brijtte,' Horst., A. L. n. f. 218/358-60; 'and yaf hym armes 
bryght | Hym gertte wyth sweide of myght,' Lybeaus, 76, 7. 

O 517, 8. Comp. 'Kyng Phelip that was his lord | Gurd him with a god 
sweord | And gaf him the tole aryght | And bad he scholde beo god knyght,' 
Alisaunder, 813-6; 'Li Chamberlens Ii ceinst I'espee | Dunt puis dona nieinte 
colee,' Guillaume le Marechal, 821, 2; 2091, 2. I know of no parallel to the 


expression in 518 except that in tlie passage quoted from Guy of Warwick in the 
note on 499. 

L 504. ful is superfluous. Comp. ' J)e feste of 5ole to hold, with grcle 
solempnite,' Langtoft, p. 65 ; ' To London pei him brouht with grete solempnite,' 
id. p. 127; ' \\i\> Mur])e and gret solempnite,' Vernon MS. i. 141/75, 6; 
Torrent, 1330. 

L 506. Comp. 'And ]>ere on red rubyes • as red as any glede,' P. Plowman, B. 
31/12. Ipomydon has three steeds, white, red, and black, 645-9. 

O 521, 2. See the passage quoted from the Chroniqnes d'Anjou under 499. The 
putting on of the ' boots ' is rarely mentioned : it is of course found in L'Ordene de 
Chevalcrie, ' Apres li a cauchcs cauchies ( De saie brune et delijes,' 165, 6, and in 
formal descriptions such as that printed in Du Cange under Miles, and in Bissaei 
in Nicholaum Uptonum Notae, pp. 21-4. The king is strangely represented as 
putting on Horn the boots and spurs ; that was, in actual practice, done by other 
knights, not by the person who conferred knighthood. 

11. 503, 4. See Guy, 419, 20, in the passage quoted under 499, the only parallel 
to this place which I have found, litel wi5t is practically equivalent to, a little, 
comp. 'an lutel wiht maere,' Lajamon, 21991 ; 'There of he ete a lytelle wight,' 
Le Morte Arthur, 852 ; ' Y shal 50U telle a lytyl wyghte | How hyt befel onys of 
a kny5t,' Handlyng Synnc, 2221, 2; * No hadde }>ai stonden at ])e prisoun | Bot 
a litel wijtine stounde,' Horst., A. L. n.f. 249/317, S. The light blow struck on 
the nape of the neck with the hand is the coUc ox pauvtie (Gautier, La Chevalerie, 
pp. 2S2-7). Its significance is explained in L'Ordene de Chevalerie, 250-6 ; it is 
meant to make the young knight remember him who knighted him. 

1. 508. The first request of the new-made knight is usually granted. Comp. 
'Whan he was knyght imade, ( Anon a bone there he bad, | And seyde, My lord 
so fre, I In herte y were ryght glad, | That ferste fyghte yf y had, | That ony man 
asketh the. | Thanne seyde Artour the kyng, | I grante the thyn askyng,' Lybeaus, 
85-92. The request is, indeed, made here by Athulf, but the king's answer, 
518, is practically addressed to Horn. The knighting of Horn's comrades at the 
same time as himself is in accord with actual custom : the number of persons 
advanced with the distinguished personage varies with his rank. In 1252 Henry 
the Third knighted Alexander the Third of Scotland ' et cum eo tirones fecit 
viginti, qui omnes vestibus pretiosis et excogitatis, sicut in tarn celebri tirocinio 
decuit, ornabantur,' Matthew Paris, Chronica Majora, v. p. 267; in 1241 he 
dubbed Peter of Savoy 'cum quindecim aliis praeclaris juvenibus, ' iv. pp. 85,6; 
in 1245 Richard de Clare shared the honour with about forty companions, 
iv. pp. 41 8, 9. To the illustrations from the romances already given, add, 'to 
morow in al menes sight | I my self shal dubbe you knight, | And aftre you an 
hundredth moo | For youre sake, or that I goo,' Generides, 3299-302. Athulfs 
statement that it is the custom for a prince to dub his own followers is borne out 
by historical instances. ' Dominica qua cantatur Letare Jerusalem, filius regis 
Scocie (afterwards Alexander the Second) ... a rege Anglie (John) Londonie 
apud domum Hospitalis cingulo militari donatus est, et ipse 12 nobiles de Scocia 
fecit milites eodem die ' (i 2 r 2 a. d.), Liebermann, Anglo-Norm. Geschichtsquellen, 
p. 150; ' Princeps (afterwards Edward the Second) quippe propter turbam compri- 
mentem non secus, scd super magnum altare [in ecclesia \\ estmonasterii] divisa 
turba per destrarios bellicosos socios suos cinxit,' Flores Historiarum, iii. p. 132. 

1. 511. of londe. See 416 note, and comp. ' Nou pou hart louerd ol londe,' 
Lajamon O. 5059. 


I. 513. Comp. ' To |)erl ])an went Gij | & gret ))at kniji hardi | & seyd, sir, J)ine 
armes ich ax,' Guy A. 689-91. 

II. 521, 2. See 478 note. 

1. 524. pat is not very clear; it is apparently the feast Avhich has lasted so long. 
So in HR, but of another occasion, ' Li seruises ad dure • tresque none est sunee | 
Mut ennuia Rigmel • quil ad dure itant,' 32/757, 8. seue 5er, often used for 
a long time. Comp. 'Seoueniht he wes })aere^ hit })utte him seoue jere,' Lajamon, 
4434, 5 ; ' Ant })ohte o day seue 5er long, | )>at he ne may is dohter sen,' 
Boddeker, 257/28, 9 ; ' And ])ynken seven jer of a day, | t)at he bi \>e stod,' 
Anglia, iii. 288/101, 2. Similar phrases are, ' 5yf he of Godys wurde oghte here | 
]jerof hym Jiynke]) an hundrede jere,' Handlyng Synne, 4536, 7; ' )ie tyme hem 
Jiojte longe Inou? : ech vnche hem ])ci^te a sponne,' Horst., A. L. 66/40 ; Alexius, 
95/79, 80 ; 'En cele anee n'eut jours trois | Qu'il ne li samblaissent un mois,' 
Jehan et Blonde, 2167,8; 'of ech day ])at he is J)er: pat him penche pre,' Archiv, 
Ixxxii. 340/214; 'He Jat haj) a schrewe to wyue, | Of vche a day him pinkep 
fyue,' Vernon MS. i. 345/628, 9. 

O 547. in hys honde. See note on 33S. 

I. 530. Similar expressions are, 'Off hys comyng \>ey wer blyp,' Orfeo O. 5S1 ; 
Alisaunder, 5541; ' pe king of his cominge was blipe,' Arthour, 205/7328; 
'Joyful is heo of his come,' Alisaunder, 11 46; 'Off her comyng Richard was 
fawe,' Richard, 4624; 'for pine kime ich aem uaein,' Lajamon, 14310; 'Wei 
fagen he was of here come,' Genesis and E. 2267 ; 'Of his comyng hir hert was 
light,' Generides, 8086 ; ' me thought her coming did me good,' Eger, P. F. MS. 
i. 361/219. 

II. 531-60. The passage should be compared with its manifest imitation in 
Guy of Warwick : ' Gye hym went anon ryght | To Felyce that swete wyght. | He 
seyde : "lemman, for thy sake | Knyghtys ordur haue y take: | For \>e y am 
dubbyd knyght. | Do nowe as |)ou me hyght." | " Gye," sche seyde, "what wylt 
pou done ? 1 3yt haste pou not wonnen py schone. | Of a gode knyghtys 
mystere | Hyt ys the furste manere | Wyth some odur gode knyght | Odur to 
juste or to fyght," ' 429-40. The later poet has reversed the roles as more in 
accordance with the taste of his time. 

1.532. pe biforn. For the postponed preposition, see note on 393; and for the 
sense, comp. ' Wip him he brou5t pritti score j Wijt knijtes him bifore,' Arthour, 
89/3099, 100; ' With semly sergantes him biside,' Minot,viii. 28, and 1. 853. 

I. 539. wille pine. See note on 393. 

1. 540. For this combination comp. ' Yn alle hys lyfe shal he fynde | Oghte pat 
may hym of pyne vnbynde,' Handlyng Synne, 4317, 8 ; ' Oute of pyne pey wyl 30W 
viibynde,' id. 4527. The verb is joined with similar words: ' How myjt god me 
of care vnbinde,' Hymns to the Virgin, 97/53; ' Of pe sorewe ich am onbounde,' 
R. of Gloucester, 806/120; 'pre pynges mayst pou fynde | pat wyl pe oute of 
synne bynde,' Handlyng Synne, 11416, 7. Sometimes it is used absolutely: 'Ihesu 
crist hire may vnbynde,' Gregorius, 159. See also 11 16. 

1. 541. beo stille, restrain your feelings. Comp. ' " Dou5tur," he seide, "beo 
now stille," ' K. of Tars V. 67, 784 ; ' Al pat pou spekest hit is noujt : pow mi5test 
wel be stille,' Vernon MS. i. 349/780 ; ' And so hej man as thu ert : hit mi5te wel 
beo stille,' Beket, 785. With the next line, comp. 'Wilte don mi wille al,' 
Havelok, 528 ; L loio; O 1041, 288 ; ' IchuUe al don pat pi wille is,' Vernon MS. 

i- 369/535- 

1. 545. Comp. ' To prove thy man-hood on a steed,' Graystiel, 70. 



I. 548. o dai. LO have the better reading to day. isprunge, comp. ' Thogh 
thou and siicli fclows yong | That to knightes be late sprong,' Generides, 
4649, 50. 

II. 549-560. Comp. ' For and ye my love should wynne, ] With chyvalry ye 
nnist begynne, | And other dedes of armes to done, | Through whiohc ye may 
Wynne your slione,' Squyr of L. D. 171-4, where, however, it is tlie lady who 
urges the knight to distinguish himself. Arthur's knights were required to approve 
themselves three times, ' Facetae etiam mulicres . . . nullius amorcm habere 
dignabantur, nisi tertio in militia approbatus essct,' Geoffrey of Monmouth, 
i.'^4/40, I (Wace, Brut, 10791-6). A curious paralltl to the relations between 
Horn and Kimcnhild is found in the story of Regner and Swanhwita ris told by 
Saxo Grammaticus. Regner, son of Hunding, king of the Swedes, by the device 
of his step-mother has been reduced to the position of king's shepherd. He is 
sought out at his servile t.isk by the Princess Swanhwita. Though, like Horn, he 
proclaims himself a king's thrall, she declares that his face bears testimony to his 
royal descent, plights her troth to him and gives him a sword, wins for him the 
kingdom of the Swedes, and secures him as a husband. ' Qui licet tirocinium 
nupciis auspicari deforme e.xistimaret, servate salutis sue respectu provocatus 
promissum beneficio exsoluit,' Hist. Danica, pp. 42-5. The anxiety of the new- 
made knight to distinguish himself, if only in a tournament, is well illustrated by 
a passage in Matthew Paris: 'Tempore quoque sub eodem (1249 A.D.) captum 
fuit quoddam generale torneamentum apud Norhamptonam . . . sed rcgia pro- 
hibitione cum minis . . . remansit impeditum. Super quo dolentibus militibus, 
praecif)ue tironibus qui sitienter initialia certamina disciplinae militaris cupiebant 
exercendo experiri, significavit tiro novellus Willelmus de Valentiis ut . . . torneare 
non omitterent,' Chronica Majora, v. p. 54. 

1. 554. All three M.SS. differ here, and no one of them gives a really satisfactory 
reading. O has a weak repetition. L is obscure, but probably means, If for this 
reason I do not immediately fulfil my promise, still I do not repudiate thee. 
Comp. ' \Vhon he ha)) a wyf I-take, | He mai hire nou5t forsake,' Vernon MS. 
i. 345/626, 7. C means, as Lumby explains it, Therefore there is incumbent on 
me the more haste ; stondcj) rather means, exists ; a frequent use in such 
expressions as, ' J)erfore of ])y torment: ne stondij) me non eye,' Archiv, Ixxxii. 
325/105. See also 141 S note for rafe. 

I. 556. Comp. ' And seide fiey wolde do more pruesse,' R. of Brunne, 3342 ; ' ]>t 
prouesse J)at brut dede • no tunge telle ne may,' R. of Gloucester, 270; ' Feire 
prowes he ha]) me ido,' Beues S. 1222 ; HC. 41 1-4. 

^- 559- See note on 97. 

II. 563-76. Of wonder-working rings there is no lack in the romances. For 
those which give victory, comp. ' And I sal lene to 50W my ring, | pat es to me 
a ful dere thing : | In nane anger sal je be, | VVhils 5e it have and thinkes on 
me. I I sal tel to 50W onane | ])e vertu, J)at es in ])e stane : | . . . In batel tane sal 
5e noght be, | Whils 5e it have and thinkes on me ; | And ay, whiis 5e er trew 
of love, I Over al sal 3e be obove,' Ywain, 1527-32, 37-40; '"Mi sone," he 
sede, " have ))is ring, | Whil he is J)in ne dute nojiing, j JPat fur ])e brenne, ne 
adrenche se : | Ne ire ne stel ne mai J)e sle," ' Horis. 393-6 ; ' Y schalle geve the 
a gode golde rjnge, ] Wyth a fulle ryche stone ; | Whedur that ye be on water or 
on londe, | And that rynge be upon yowre honde, ] Ther schalle nothyng vow 
slon,' Eglamour, 617-21 ; ' Siche a vertue es in the stane, | In alle this werlde 
wote I nane | Siche stone in a 1 ynge ; | A mane that had it in were, | One his 



body for to here, | There scholde no dyntys hym dere, | Ne to the dethe brynge,' 
Perceval, 1858-64; 'Fader than haue thou this ryng | ... It is good in euery 
fight,' Torrent, 1999, 2002 ; 'here is another [stone] of suche bounte and vertue 
that he that bereth it can not be hnrte in armys, nor vanquesshyd by his enemyes,' 
Huon of Burdeux, 454/12-15. For examples from the ballads, see Child, i. p. 201 
note. Comp. also, ' Jo li durrai un bon anel, | Ki a besoin valt un chastel. | Celui 
ki en sun dei laurad, | Sil chet en mer, ne neierad. | Ne feu nel pot de rien 
damager | Ne nul arme nel pot nafrer,' Gaimar, 689-94. The virtue of the ring 
always resides in the stones set in it; comp. 571 and 'The stones therinne be ful 
bold,' Richard, 1632. The chief Victory Stone was the Alectorius; it is described 
by Pliny, who is the original source of mediaeval lore on this subject, as 'in 
venlriculis gallinaceorum inventus, crystallina specie, magnitudine fabae ; quibus 
Milonem Crotoniensem usum in certaminibus invictum fuisse videri volunt,' Hist. 
Nat. xxxvii. 54. Marbodus in the eleverth centur\' versified this : ' Inuictum reddit 
lapis hie quemcunque gerentem, | Extinguitque sitim patientis in ore receptus | Nam 
Milo Crotonias pugiles hoc praeside vicit. | Hoc etiam multi superarunt prelia 
reges,' de Gemmis, 8 1-4. Bartholomeus Anglicus gives a notice of it in his 
fifteenth book, de Lapidibus Preciosis : ' Allectoria sine allectorius est lapis qui 
invenitur in ventriculis gallinaceis • cristallo obscuro similis • cuius vltima magni- 
tude est ad fabe quantitatem . hie in certamine secundum magos creditur reddere 
homines insuperabiles et inuictos vt dicitur in lapidario." See also Pannier, 
Lapidaires Francais (Bibl. de I'ecole des hautes etudes, fasc. 52), p. 39. But 
other stones had the same power — the gagatromeiis, Marbodus, 403-9, a passage 
paraphrased in a French Lapidary thus, ' Mult est bone gagatromee | S'est une 
piere tachelee | Cume pel de chevrol sen faille | Si om la portet en bataille, | Ses 
inimis porra chiacer, | Ja nul ne I'osera tucher | Alchides sot bien sa vali'ir | Ki la 
porta en maint estiir ; | Tutes les ures ke il I'ot | Unkes vencuz estre ne pot, | E qant 
il sur sei ne I'aveit | En es le pas vencuz esteit,' Pannier, 54/573-84; and the 
beryl, ' cujus virtus est contra pericula hostium ac contra lites : redditque portantem 
invictum,' Upton, De Studio Militari, p. 104. Reference may be made to Grimm, 
Teutonic Mythology, p. 1219; Gervase of Tilbur}% ed. Eiebrecht, p. no; Archiv, 
Ixviii. p. 326 ; Romania, v, p. 76. In HC. 571-6, the virtue of the stone is 
different : if it waxes wan, then Horn may know that Rimenhild's sentiment is 
changed ; if red, that she has proved untrue to him. 

1. 564. Good is the decoration of it. dubbing, in the sense of ornamentation, 
is probably unique : the ordinary words, though they are rare, being dtibtnent and 
adiibment. It occurs in the sense of ornaments in, ' His corown and his kinges 
array | And his dubbing he did oway,' Legends of the Rood, 130/281, 2. For 
the verb, comp. ' His dyademe was droppede idowne, dubbyde with stonys,' Morte 
Arthure, 3296, 3609 ; 'A cloth all of clene gold, | Dubbit full of diamonds,' Troy 
Book, 6204, 5 ; passages which explain the ornament as the stones set in the ring. 
The other nouns mentioned are used in a less restricted sense, comp. ' For wern 
neuer webbej J)at wyjej weuen | Of half so dere adubmente,' E. E. Alliterative 
Poems, 3/71, 2. LO have turned the expression so as to substitute a common 
for a rare use of the word, him is the dative pronoun used to reinforce the 
subject, dubbing, but not, as mostly, next the word it emphasises; see 137 note. 
For the word order here, comp. ' God him was J)e gardiner, })at gan ferst ])e sed 
souwe : | Jiat was, Jesus, godes sone, \?X Jiare fore alyjte louwe,' Anglia, i. p. 393. 

I. 572. in none place, see 718 note. 

II. 573, 4. The divergence of all the MSS. here is noteworthy, and no one of the 



versions is free from difficulty. C seems to have the original reading:, and LO 
look like clumsy attempts to avoid the difTicult aniad. The meaning of L 571, 2 
is easy but poor : vudofovgc which usually means, to entertain as a guest, or, to 
accept, used iox fonf;e (see O 159'! is remarkable: wip wronge, for which see 
905, note, is curiously employed. O 587 may mean, never give way through fear, 
an attempt to put 573 in another form. But Ilorstmann gives the MS. reading 
as donU, a form very unlikely in itself and against the practice of the scribe who 
writes elsewhere <///;;/, dioitc, dutiies, five times. Of none diintefayle would mean, 
never miss your stroke, always get your blow home; like Malory's, 'He fayled of 
his stroke and smote the hors neck,' quoted in N. E. D. iv. p. 22, col. i. O/" is 
frequent with such verbs, comp. ' For pai haue failed of paire pray,' Minot, i. 38 ; 
' Bot now has sir Dauid . missed of his merkes,' id. ix. 13. amad, 574, properly, 
demented, has apparently taken the meaning oi amayed, dismayed. 

11. 577, 8. Wissmann finds these lines inapposite, the promise of a ring, presum- 
ably as virtuous, to Athulf diminishing the value of the gift to Horn. But Rimen- 
hild in her gift to Athulf simply recognizes the intimate relations which exist 
between sworn brothers who should share alike. 

1. 579. This might be joined with 5S1, giving the meaning, Horn, I pray for thee 
that Christ may grant &c. But LO have the better reading ; in both, however, 
Horn is superfluous. With loueliche, 580, comp. 454 and ' mid leofliche 
worden,' La5amon, 16542; 'Guy answerd full louely,' Guy C. 6021 ; 'No non 
so faire of face, ofspech so lufly,' Langtoft, p. 30; 'and loueliche him spac wi^),' 
La5amon O. 30155; 'The kyng lordelye hym selfe, of langage of Rome, | Of 
Latyne corroumppede alle. fulle louely hym menys,' Morte Arthure, 3477, 8. 

1. 581. Christ grant success to your expedition, so that you may return. The 
only meaning given in the dictionaries for crndinge. i. e. intercession, is unsuitable 
here and in ' ]in emdjTig to (do, MS.) bede,' Ij 466. The closely related word 
ercjide, which properly means, mission, enterprise, takes the meaning of erndinge 
in such places as, ' Sche seyde, lady mary free, | Now thou haue mercy on me, | 
Thou faylyst me neuyr at nede ; | Here my errande as J)ou well may,' Bone 
Florence, 1 85 2-5 : and in our texts erndinge seems to be used in the sense which 
more properly belongs to crende. With the same meaning crndinge should be 
restored for )erny7ige in, ' And who dar do my jernynge, | And fro me here thys 
tyth}-nge,' Guy, 3543, 4. This explanation would make the present passage similar 
to, ' Horn, god lene J)e wel spede | f>i herdne for to bede,' O 479, 80, and, 'crist 
him 5eue god tymyng,' L 164. The peculiar use of the word would account for 
the alteration in LO to endyng, which may mean result, conclusion of an enter- 

1. 5S4. Forte, see 1272 note. 

I. 585. at is the usual preposition in such phrases, comp. ' At hire heo nomen 
laeue.' La5amon. 1271 ; ' Leaf he nom at fifing,' id. 4478 (in both places MS. O 
has ^ ; ' He toke Icue at Charles, & com tille ])is lond,' Langtoft, p. 14. For 5S6, 
see 893, 4 note. 

II. 589, 90. Comp. for the passage generally, ' To stable ]iey wcnte all yn fere | 
And segh \ia.i fole, | Ragged and hegh and long of swere | And blak as cole,' 
Octavian, 27/837-40. For fole = horse, comp. ' The faire fole fondred, and fel 
to the grounde,' Awntyrs of A. 541 ; ' As fayne of the foale as a freke might,' Troy 
Book, S341, and contrast, 'Mi stede by his was bot a fole,' Ywain, 426 ; ' my steed 
seemed to his but a fole,' Eger, P. F. MS., i. 358/120. With 590 comp. ' Al 
togyder cole black | Washys horse withoute lacke,' Richard 273, 4; ' Blak as cole 

K 2 


than was his hors,' Partonope, 1957; 'His armur, is steid was blacke colour,' 
Gowther, 412 and note. 

O 603, 4, L 5S9, 90. For the former line, see 840 note. O 604 contains 
a primitive touch ; Horn has apparently no squire to tend his horse : similarly 
he saddles his horse, 715, and laces his armour, 716, 7; 840-2, without 

1. 591. The covering of chain mail rattled with the movements of the restive 
horse. Defensive armour for the horse appears to have originated in the latter 
half of the twelfth century. A very early mention is that of Wace, ' Vint Guill. 
le filz Osber, [ Son cheual tot couuert de fer,' Roman de Rou, ed. Andresen, 75 r 1-2 
(written between 11 60 and 11 74 A. D.). Wace is, indeed, speaking here of a 
warrior present at the battle of Hastings, but the passage is only evidence for the 
current practice. We can date the time when the usage became common in 
England by comparing the Statute of Winchester (1285 a. d.) with the Statute of 
27 Edw. I (1298 A. D.). The former does not make any mention of armour for 
the horse, the latter makes it universally obligatory. See for further details 
Hewitt, Ancient Armour, i. pp. 169, 341-4; Schultz, Das Hofische Leben, ii. pp. 
100-5; Demay, Le Costume au Moyen Age d'apres les Sceaux, pp. 179-85; 
Du Cange, Eqiitts Vesti/its. 

I. 592. denie, resound, ring. This place explains the obscnre, ' Sir Comfort, that 
knight • wiien the court dineth,' Death and Liffe, 100. Comp. also, ' his hors he 
lette irnen ' fat fe eorSe dunede,' La5amon, 21229, 3° > 'J'^ ^i']'^ dunede vnder 
hom • vor stapes J)at harde were,' R. of Gloucester, 9416 ; ' ^t erjje dunede for J)eir 
cry,' R. of Brunne, 10877 ; ' The erthe doned like the thonder,' Generides, 3774; 
' Al the erthe donyd hem undyr,' Richard, 4975 ; ' so desgeli it denede • pat al 
\tx\e quakede,' W. of Palcme, 5014; ' [je erpe quook & dened ajeyn,' Cursor T. 
1770 ; ' alle the feelde ] Dened {in text demed) veryly of that stroke,' Partonope, 
1987, 8. From its associations, the meaning of the word tended to pass into that 
of quake : eartli-din means invariably, earthquake, as in, * An erth din far com 
pat scok I All thinges als sais J)e bok,' Cursor C. 20499, 50 ; 20985 ; ' Swilk ane 
erthdin bigan to be, | so fat grete partyse of fat cete | War knsten doun,' 
Horst., A. L. n.f. 48/249-51. For other similar phrases, comp. ' thies kene 
knyghtis to-gedir gan glide, | the Medowe tremlyde one aythir syde,' Rowland 
andOtuell, 451, 2; ' Ther they rede, al the erthe ] Under the hors feet it quoke,' 
Richard, 4440, 1 ; ' The eorthe quakid of hir rydyng,' Alisaunder, 3853. 

II. 593, 4. So Arcite in Chaucer, Knightes Tale, ' He on a courser, sterting as 
the fyr, | Is riden in-to the feeldes, him to pleye, | And loude he song ageyn the 
Sonne shene,' 1502, 3, 9. Comp. also, ' Beues rod hom & gan to singe,' Beues, 
51/1069; ' Gye, Harrowde and Tyrrye | Rode syngyng merelye,' Guy, 5419, 20; 
' He rode syngynge to grene wode,' Child, Ballads, v. 74/373 ; ' The messagers 
anon forht sprong, | I not bi waie yif thai song,' Seven Sages, 313, 4; 'They 
wentyn quyk, heom thoughte longe, | They songyn mony joly songe,' Alisaunder, 
1966, 7 ; ' Muche cry, mony a song, | The ost was twenty myle long,' id. 3217, 8 ; 


11- 595) 6. The rhyme is common, comp. ' ane lutle while ^ ne leaste hit na 
wiht ane mile,' Lajamon, 5818, 9 ; 'Ac fer after a litel while i Wele fe mountaunce 
of a mile,' Arthour, 200/7129, 30; ' P'or he was ded on ksse hwile | f'an men 
mouthe renne a mile,' Havelok, 1S30, i. With the reading of LO comp. 'Fro 
londe woren he bote a mile, | Ne were neuere but ane hwile,' Havelok, 721, 2. 
See also Guy, 2810 note, and Minot, i. 84 note. Multiples are, 'Ye haue sett 

NOTES. 133 

now this Iwo mylcvay j Ryght pcnsyfe,' Paitonope, 2884, 5 ! ' And heolcl up his 
hontles twoyii | J)e mountaunce of fyuc myle,' K. of Tars V. 584, 5 ; ' There 
tliey fauglit sore loijedcrc | Two myle way and well more,' Child, Ballads, 
V. 64/ 1 68. 

1. 597. stonde, at anchor. See L 175, O 177, 1021, 1437: the use of the word 
in 1179 is, no doubt, determined by the association with this phrase. Comp. ' ))er 
iieore scipen godei bi {icre sae stoden,' La5amon, 20921, 2; 'Jar |)e sipes stode,' 
id. O. 21526; ' pe yong men went to I'e see stronde | And segh per many schypys 
stonnde,', 13/3S5, 6. For O 61 1, see 118 note : the next line is repealed at 
O 646. at grounde, L 595, may mean, grounded, beached (for ^ru/id = hoitom 
of the sea, see 104 note', but it is more probably for, at the beach; comp. 134. 

I. 59S. hepene honde, a frequent expression of contempt: comp. ' Hej'ene 
hound he de.}) ))e calle,' K. of Tars V. 93, loSo, 10S2 ; 'pat hcjene dogge schal 
to grounde,' id. 1085 ; ' Saexisce men beoiS ! haeJ5e[ne] hundes,' Lajamon, 21901, 2 ; • 
20540 ; Roland, 376, 43S ; ' On Crist we schul hope & affyc | Ageyn ]>e houndes of 
Paynye,' R. of Brunne, 13433, 4; 'He was of Kaymes kunrede; | His men no 
kouthe speke, no grede, | Bote al, so houndes, grenne and berke,' Alisaunder, 
1933-5. Saracens apply it to Christians, comp. ' \>e jonge cristene hounde,' 
Bcues A. 621; ' Crystyn Dogges,' Sowdone of Babylone, 956; Richard, 6024. 
For 599, 600 see 39 note ; wet hue hadden, the variant in LO, what wares they 
had, assumes that they are merchants. For 601, 2 see 90 note. 

II. 603, 4. See 43, 4; 1357, 8, and comp. ' Engelond to bywynne, | Ant sle that 
thcr wcren ynne,' Chronicle of England, 465, 6 ; ' Brut lond heo wolden iwinnen,' 
Lajamon, 2194. With 604, comp. 1241, and such phrases as, ' ])nt was pan,' 
Guy, 1293; '])at Jiere wore,' id. 1278. 

11. 605, 6. See 51, 719, and comp. ' The Sarezynes with egre moode | Her wepnes 
begunne for to grype,' Richard, 4470, i; ' ArSur igrap his sweord riht: & he 
smat aenne Sexise cniht,' Lajamon, 21381, 2 ; ' & his wepnen he igrap,' id. 107 19, 
1S030, I. For the same rhyme as here, comp. ' Hys swyrde harde dud he grype | 
The hed of of oon he can wype,' Guy, 2905, 6. The wiping of the sword as a pre- 
liminary to its use is nowhere else in the romances; for the ballad literature 
comp. ' & he puld out his bright browne sword, ( & dryed it on his sleeue, | & he 
smote off that lither ladds head,' P. F. MS. i. 252/S9-91 ; ii. 505/101, 2. Child 
Maurice similarly dries his sword on the grass, id. 97, 8, and others wipe or whet 
it on straw, Child, Ballads, iii. p. 244. The object is not quite clear ; it may be 
noted that the wiping on the sleeve was a detail of the ceremony in the blessing 
of a newly created knight's sword, according to the rubric of the Roman Pontifical, 
* Ense igitur accinctus Miles no\iis surgit, & Ensem de vagina educit & evagina- 
tum ter viriliter vibrat, & super brachium sinistrum tergit, & in vaginam reponit,' 
Selden, Titles of Honor, ed. iii. p. 372. 

1. 607. sarazins : the singular, as in LO, fits bttter with 611. his, in 608, 
must refer to Horn ; in O the phrase is ambiguous. The meaning is like that of 
868, but the expression is without a parallel, so far as I know. Comp. ' hat ict 
heortan,' Codex Exon. 174/23; 'him ])ohte is herte bernde,' L 1240; ' Vp he lepe 
wij) chaufed blod,' Arthour, 200/7135; 'And hat is al Alisaundres blod,' Ali- 
saunder, 3270; ' Jjo king edmond ywraJ)J)ed was • & wijiinne hot,' R. of Gloucester, 
6278; 'On him J)ai schoten with gret hete,' id. 9/230; ' \Vra)i})e is a wikked 
)>ing : Hit mengej) J)e herte blod,' Vernon MS. i. 339/408 ; ' They foughte togedre 
with heorte wrothe,' Alisaunder, 7389. With L 605, comp. L 894 ; ' Some in the 
hals so hytte he, | That hed and helm fleygh into the see,' Richard, 2561, 2 : amid 


the wealth of expressions for striking off heads in the romances, I cannot find any 
parallel to 609, 10, and L 606. 

11. 611, 2. For similar attacks of many foes on one, comp. ' AUe abonten him 
))ai ben y-gon,' Guy A. 5778 ; ' Al aboute )7ai gonne ])ringe | And hard on him ];ai 
gonne dinge,' Beues, 29/625, 6 : Horn is more fortunate than his father, 55-8, 
or King Arthur, ' Vor J^at folc so Jikke com • pe wule he hor louerd slou | Aboute 
him in eche half • j^at among so mony fon | He aueng dej)es wounde • & wonder 
nas it non,' R. of Gloucester, 4580-2. For ys one, L 608, alone, by himself, see 
Matzner, Grammatik, i. p. 318 ; Kellner, Syntax, p. 164. 

11. 615, 6. on haste, speedily, promptly; for the variant in L, see 1264 note. 
bi pe laste, at the lowest estimate, comp. ' Hit was like, by the lest, as oure lord 
wold I With water haue wastid all pe world efte,' Troy Book, 7623,4: this rare 
use of the preposition seems an extension of its power of indicating measurement. 

11. 619, 20. alius, is possible: those not slain outright had wounds from which 
they could not recover. But LO have the better reading in aryue, which taken 
with 620 gives the meaning. Of all that had landed, none prospered in their 
purpose ; comp. ' With mani mody man J)at thoght for to thriue,' Minot, v. 42 
and note. 

I. 621. maisteres, comp. 642: the word is used absolutely for leader also in 
Octavian, 13/361, 38 1. 

II. 623, 4. The carrying of an enemy's head on a sword or spear point is 
a frequent incident in the romances, comp. ' And tok him be })e heued anon [ And 
strok hit fro ]>e scholder bon, | And on his spere he hit pijle,' Beues, 198/4237-9; 
' f>at heued Jiai han on a spere ysett,' Guy A. 4083 ; ' He tooke Sir Guys head by 
the hayre, ] And sticked itt on his bowes end,' Child, Ballads, v. 93/41 ; ' he 
smote of his hede and putt itt on his swerde poynte,' I'onthus, 21/23: so of 
a boar's head, ' And on a tronsoun of is spere | J^at heued a stikede for to bere,' 
Beues, 40/S27, 8, and of a dragon's, ' j?e dragonys hedd forgeteth he nojt, | Upon 
hys spere he hyt up bare,' Eglamour, 959, 60. At the battle of the Standard in 
1 1 38 A.D., the rout of the Scots was, according to Langtoft, due to the device of 
a squire, ' A hede ]>at was of smyten, J)at J)is squier fond, | Friue, ]>a.t non suld 
witen, in an orfreis it wond, | & sette it on a spere, in an orfreis vmbiweued | & 
said, " lo ! here I bere Dauid kyng heued," 'p. 117. 

11. 625, 6. See 893, 4 note. For 630, see 32 note: for 631, 117 note. 

I. 634. londisse : londische, O 647. For the same variation in the forms, 
comp. Irisse, 1004; Hyrische, L 1045. So too in Lajamon, the older MS. has 
Romavisce, Densce, Bruttisc, Briittisce, Irisce, against the Rot?iamsse, Dense, 
Brtittus, Briitlis, Brutesse, Iresse of the later MS., 5787, 6163, 6318, 7140, 
9777, 21825. 

O 649. deye is a scribe's slip for depe, as it probably is at O 62. 

II. 639, 40. This expression is formal ; comp. ' J?o nennyn adde J)is gode suerd • 
aboute he smot to grounde | Ech man ])at he J^er wi]) smot • he jef dejies wounde,' 
R. of Gloucester, 1143, 4; 'f>ere were mony felde to grounde | And mony fley 
wi]) dejies wounde,' Cursor T. 7591, 2 ; ' Syr Gylmyn he broght to grownde j And 
gaue hym the detlieys wownde,' Guy, 2881, 2 ; ' Mony of Grece he brou3te to 
grounde | And 5af heom wij) spere defes wounde,' Bellum Trojanum, 1725, 6: for 
variants of 639, comp. '& slou horn to gronde,' R. of Gloucester, 458; 'al 
Albanackes folk; foUe to grunde,' Lajamon, 2165, 6; 'when Jiou to grounde mi 
lyoun leide,' Guy A. 4380 ; ' And laiden al that folk to grounde,' Alisaunder, 
5893 ; with 640 comp. further, ' ])ai laiden doun wi{; de])es wounde,' Arthour, 

NOTES. 135 

197/7020; ' He 5af hem de))cs wounde,' K. of Tars V. 1044; Alisauiuler, 1627, 
h^s ' dedly wounde.' With L 635, 6 ; O 6-;3, 4, comp. L 895, 6 and ' So l)at in 
a lite stounde | Fiue hundred ]'ai broujte te gronde,' IJeues A. 4393, 4; ' )?at in 
a lyte stounde | Ethelfred was Islawe : & his men Ibroujt to grounde,' Archiv, 
Ixxxii. 372/171, 2; 'On bothe halve, in litel stounde, | Was mony knyyht laid to 
the grounde,' Alisaundcr, 957, S. See for further examples Beues, p. Ixii. 

1. 642. maister kinge. Similar combinations are not uncommon, comp. 
' maister spenser,' Cursor, 4530; 'maister wright,' id. 1666; 'maister jailere,' 
id. 4434; ' mayster J)ef,' Venion MS. i. 311/330; 'maister men,' Troy Book, 
1599; and of things, 'maister toppe,' (= main top\ Sowdone of Babylone, 127; 
'maister temple,' Chaucer, iii. 120/1016; ' maister strete,' id. 150/1965 ; ' meistcr 
banere,' Reinbroun, 647/50/5 ; ' le mestre tour,' Fulk Fitz-Warine, p. 136 ; 'maistre 
pont,' Guillaume le Marechal, 951; 'meistre dels,' Vie de S. Gile, 2861. In 
all these, master = principal ; here the line seems to mean, of the king their 

1. 643. wile, trouble. Comp. 479, So and ' J?e deuelle 3ald him his while • with 
an arowe on him slouh,' Langtoft, p. 123; 'Ant after trecherie ant gile | Me 
schal yelde the thy whyle,' Chronicle of England, 871, 2 ; '& in o})er cuntres serue 
y wile I per men wille jeld me mi while,' Guy A. 4421, 2 ; ' I'ilatus awaitede his 
poynt : and J)05te to sulde his while,' E. E. Poems, 111/17; ' Y have quyt the thy 
while,' Alisaunder, 735. Horn feels that he has done what is expected of a new- 
made knight. So it is said of Garnier in Aye d' Avignon that having been knighted, 
' Celui n'oblia mie, ainz prist a chevauchier | Avec lui maint baron, car il veut 
sormarchier j Les anemis le roi, confondre et abaissier,' 17-19. Comp. for the 
sentiment of the Scandinavians on this point, 'Nee pretereundum, quod olim 
in<Tessuri curiam proceres famulatus sui principia alicuius magne rei uoto principi- 
bus obligare solebant, uirtute tirocinum auspicantes,'Saxo Grammaticus, 57/31-4. 

1. 645. See 124 note. For him in 646 see 137 note. 

1. 647. The divergence of the MSS. here is noteworthy. C in all probability 
best represents the original version, but with the loss of a passage (somewhere 
after 6S4) describing Hkenild's joining the hunting party. For if Fikenild had 
not remained behind to spy upon Horn he could not speak so definitely as he 
does at 695-7, or invite the king to return with a view to testing his statement. 
The alterations in LO are due to a desire to avoid the abruptness of Fikenild's 
appearance in L 6S9, O 706. A comparison of the passage w-ith its manifest 
imitation in Guy, 3021-30, 63-5, is in favour of this view. 

1. 64S. moder child. The combination is ancient, for modor-cilduvi occurs in 
the A. S. Psalter, ed. Thorpe, as the equivalent of ' filiis matris meae,' Psalm Ixviii. 8. 
The present use in a popular sense of, born man, man alive, is comparatively rare 
in M. E. : comp. ' Mani was J^at moder child ] ))at for hir de> was wo,' Horst., 
A. L. n.f. 234/346 ; ' And \&x schal menie a moder child : go to licame,' E. FJ. 
Poems, 104/93: moder bern occurs in ' Jiat ha moste beon an of );e moder bern 
J)at so muche drohen for drihtin,' Seinte Marherete, p. 2. On the other hand, 
vioder sone is common, comp. ' luue iwile J)e, mi leue lif, moder sune feirest,' 
O. E. Homilies, series i. p. 269 ; ' And thoru fe grece ouercomyn ; | J7at mani 
modir son was feld,' Cursor C. 7060, i ; ' For many modir son ])ai marre • miat 
ellis haue bene safe,' Wars of Alexander, 4409 ; ' f>at })ai ner ded vpon pe grene, | 
Eueri moder sone, i wene,' Beues A. 4101, 2 ; 'he was a dreri Modur sone . whon 
he ]>e tables hedde in honde,' Gregorius, 490 ; ' and woundyt mony a moder son,' 
Child, Ballads, v. 98/27 ; 'That would hang us, every mother's son,' Shakspere, 



M. N. D. i. 2. 71. The writer of L has recast the whole passage, with poor 

I. 649. Heo, for which Miitzner substituted Horn, is a scribe's slip : 649, 50 are 
written as one in the MS. To sen aventure, if correct, points, as Matzner says, 
rather to the result of his visit than its purpose. Perhaps we should read. To seie 
aventure, to tell Rimenhild of his exploits of the previous day. 

II. 651, 2. These lines are repeated at 1083, 4, where see note. 

1. 653. on pe sunne, in the window seat of the solar as shown in Hudson 
Turner's Domestic Architecture in England, i. p. 160, plate 2 ; p. 170, plates 3, 4. 
Comp. ' Heo sat in seint peteres churche : biside \^ abbey jate | In a soler in ])e 
est side : & lokede out derate,' E. E. Poems, 56/339, 40 ; * At the window she was 
prest I To avvaite on him she loued best,' Generides, 2647, 8. 

I. 655. pin ore, grant me thy favour, apparently a courteous greeting merely, 
not, as usual, a prayer for mercy. Comp. ' And seide, " Lemman, ))in ore," ' 
Beues A. 7 1 3 ; ' Ysonde }>e nexst nijt | Grid : " Mark, \\ nore," ' Tristrem, 2003, 4 ; 
' ]3e good wyf seyde, " Syr, thyn ore," ' Octavian, 27/843. 

L 655, 6; O 673, 4, seem to mean, My sorrow is slight compared with what 
it will be when my dream comes true this very day. For L 658, see 630 and 
32 note. 

1. 660. ilaste, remain whole, i.e. it was rent by the fish, laste, L 66o = laschte, 
and I shot, cast, the net out a great way. Gomp. ' sone ])ai hem sei5e, on hem 
Jjai last; | >e squiers were armed & on hem dast,' Arthour, 231/8255, 6; sredde 
( = schredde) L 5S9 ; Horst., A. L. n. f. 220/29; selde ( = schelde) O 57; srewe 
( = schrewe), O 60. For at Jje furste, 661, see 114 note. 

L 663, 4. The fish so beguiled, deceived, me, that I failed to catch it. O 6S1, 2 
has the same meaning. These lines contain the central idea of the dream ; Horn 
is the fish that Rimenhild would fain catch, but he will prove false. 

1.666. turne, give a favourable fulfilment of. Gomp. 'let \\\ mi sweuen^ to 
sel])en iturnen,' Lajamon, 25573, 4! ' M hire sweuene ))at heo >ouhte | Schoide 
tome to good endynge,' K. of Tars V. 434, 5; '& godly be soujt god • to gode 
turne hire sweuen,' W. of Palerne, 2916; 'Now God J)at is heuene kyng | To 
mychel ioye tourne ))is nietyng,' A. Davy, 12/41, 2. The absolute use of the verb 
without any qualifying phrase here is peculiar. For the variant areche, interpret, 
comp. '])is sweuen hi areht i ase heom best ])oht,' Lajamon O. 25629, 30; ' ne 
sculde me nauere sweuen 2 mid sorjen arecchen,' id. G. 28096, 7, where O reads 
' to ha[r]me teorne ' ; ' and iosep rechede his drem wel rigt,' Genesis and E. 2124 ; 
' " Now god," quod he, " my swevene recche aright," ' Ghaucer, iv. 273/4086. 

1. 669, 70. For knowe, recognize, acknowledge as wife, comp. 418 and 'To 
knowe him lord & don omage,' Arthour, 119/4181 : the usual phrase is seen in, 
' Florent her weddede to hys wyf | To haue and to holde yn ryjt lyue,' Octavian, 
40/1267, 8; 'his dou5ter wedde to haue & holde,' Gursor T. 7636; Boddeker, 
J57/56; St. Katherine, 1867. O has the same variant as at 1. 440. For, 671, is 
taken by Matzner as, before, in preference to: it might be explained, in spite of, 
against, as in, ' This mayde shal be myn, for any man,' Chaucer, iv. 293/12, 9. 

I. 672. See 305 note, and comp. further, ' \zx to me treupe y fe plijte,' Beues, 

II. 673, 4. rupe, sorrow, from a sense of impending misfortune. The rhyme is 
a favourite one : comp. ' & bed him vor godes loue • abbe of him reu))e | & of is lend 
& f enche bet • of foreward & of treupe,' R. of Gloucester, 5006, 7 ; ' Alias for Sir 
Harald, for him was mikelle reuth | Fulle wele his awen suld hald, if he had kept 

NOTES. 137 

his treiith,' Langtoft, p. 71 ; 'At here departing was grete routhe | Bothe thei wept 
to say trouthe,' Genericles, 4505, 6. 

1. 675. weop ille, a peculiar phrase apparently without parallel. The usual 
adverbs are sare, comp. ' Thay wepede sare and gaffe thame i!le,' Isumbras, 93, i n 
and fiassirn; fasfc, comp. ' They weptyn faste and wrang ther hande," Kglamour, 
8 1 5. stille, fall in drops, is in IJradley-Stratmann referred to stillcn, to jjacify. 
It might be regarded as an adverb, quietly, qualifying the phrase, let teres = weep, 
as in, 'And his moder teres lete | ffourty sijies & fyue,' Alexius, 52/716, 7. For 
such a use of the adverb, comp. ' Sonc he gede ut and slille he gret, | Cat al his 
wlite wurS teres wet,' Genesis and E. 2287, 8. 

1. 679. wende, must mean either, turn to good ^comp. ttirue, 666), or pass away 
(see 911). Neither meaning suits the context. Perhaps we should read, p'\ sweuen 
schal raiswende, | Sum man vs schal schende ; | \>c fiss ])at brae ^i seine | Ywis hit 
was som bleine ; with the sense. There is trouble in store, your dream will have 
an evil fulfilment, some one will do us an injury; the fish which broke your net 
did not stand for me (the fish you desired), but was a malignant monster of the 
deep, an enemy of us both. O 699 is meaningless, and a line has been lost 
after it. 

I. 6S4. For the phrase, comp. 92 note. Perhaps for &= we should read hit, 
which is usual ; comp. LO and ' Thu hit shal wrthe wel i-sene,' Owl and N. 844. 

II. 6S9 fr. With the accusation, compare Morgadoure's charge against Guy of 
AVanvick, Guy, 3069-90, and that of Malachias against Generides, 2603-32. 

1. 692. And bared his sword, i.e. took an oath on his bare sword. This practice 
was of the highest antiquity among all the northern nations ; the texts may be 
seen in Grimm, Deutsche Rechtsalterthiimer, pp. 165, 6, 896, in Da Cange, under 
Juramenttim super Arnia, and Spatha, and in d'Arbois de Jubainville, Cours de 
Litterature Celtique, vii. pp. 72-4. The scribes of LO, by leaving o\it forp, show 
that they missed the meaning. For for]j, comp. ' Sire Geryn herde what he seyde | 
& turnde hym & his spere forj) leyde,' R. of Brunne, 12683, 4! 'Ten pound of 
florens wer for]) leyd,' Octavian, 26/788 ; ' Ryche tresoure now fur])e men leye, | 
And on J)e touj-er day hyt ys alle aweye,' Handlyng Synne, 9444, 5. For the 
opposite, comp. ' When pe masses be]) iseiid [ And ])e bokes up ileiid,' E. E. Poems, 

1. 693. See I So note. 

1. 696. The phrase is formal and the rhyme with hour usual. For parallel 
passages, comp. Kolbing's note on Beues A. 3183,4. 
1. 699. al rijt, see 305 note. 

I. 704. The combination is apparently without parallel; ' wro)) & morne' occurs, 
Arthour, 196/6978; ' sori & mume,' id. 240/8590; 'wel modi and wel breme,' 
Owl and Nightingale, 500; ' modi & bold,' Genesis & E., 2728. Mume, adjective, 
is a rare word, comp. ' bliSe an mode' Jiae aer weoren mume,' La5amon, 161 58, 9. 

O 724, 5. For the rhyme, comp. 915,6, 1403,4. F"or the form jerne, comp. 
' A sere jernes ful jeme,' Gawa}'ne & G. K. 498 ; ' & J)us jimej ])e jere in sister- 
daye5 mony,' id. 529. 

II. 707-10. See 323-6. fundlyng, L 70S, is in M. E. literature treacherous 
by nature, comp. ' And fals folke and foundlynges • faitours and lyers,' Piers 
Plowman C. 194/29S; 'And seide : Jiou traytur and fondelyng . whi hastou mi 
sone i bete?' Gregorius, 333; ' Foundelynges weore they two, | That htore lord 
by sayen so,' Alisaunder, 4604, 5 ; \V. of Palerne, 2075-8. 

L 712. Comp. ' JJou nast noujt to done her,' Horst., A. L. 21/580; 'There 



come meny another mon | That thought there to haue to done,' Torrent, 2446,7, 
and see 784 note. 

1. 716. The corresponding lines in LO are to be compared with 840; in them 
armes clearly means Horn's armour. But this gives no satisfactory sense for 0. 
Matzner suggests arms, upper limbs. A similar expression occurs in Lajamon, in 
the description of Hengist's capture by Aldolf, ' and his harmes spradde i and for)) 
mid him ladde,' O 1652 1, 2, which corresponds to '& mid aermen hine bispraedde' 
(= and encircled him with his arms) of the older version, and to Wace's ' A soi le 
traist, si I'embracha, | Par vive force I'emmena,' Brut, 8013, 4. But this throws 
no light on our passage. I take armes to mean the horse's covering of chain mail. 
Horn saddled the horse and spread on him his brinie; comp. 591 note. The 
plural form offers no difficulty, as it is often used vaguely of a single piece or 
weapon. It may, however, be that the scribe has corrupted an original hemes, 
trappings, horse fiimiture generally. With 717, comp. 841, 2 note. 

1. 718. As if he were setting out for a tournament. For the form of the expres- 
sion, comp. ' And whenne fey sholde in to a place . it seytli fuUe wele where, | Sythen 
aftur his lykynge . dwellede he pere,' Cheuelere Assigne, 12, 3 ; and for place = lists, 
'& many of oure J)ay habbe}) al so' y sleyn on many a plas,' Ferumbras, 1221 ; 

* For traitour \o\x worst euer iheld | When \om comest in place or feld,' Guy A. 
5967, 8 ; ' And were ich alse stij' in plas, | Ase euer Gii, me fader, was,' Beues A. 
613,4; ' Ps fairest ])at he fand, | In place to riden him by,' Tristrem, 787,8; 
' Coryneus first vp he stirt, | . . . & com & stod forth y \t place,' R. of Brunne, 
1803,6. In St. Katherine the phrase 'jef he come in[to] place,' 1309, means, if 
he enters the lists of argiiment. in none place, 572, may be taken as in the 
present passage, or generally, nowhere ; comp. ' And ynemai nojt undo his dede : 
je wire, in none place,' Beket, 1905. 

1. 720. The phrase is formal for anything done without delay; Nabod does not 
mean, did not stay, Matzner, but rather, wasted no time over it. Comp. ' He 
deide and come to Paradys, | Nabod he naU3t fort a-morwe,' Shoreham, p. 40; 

* Yonge to Cryste sche gan to fonge, | Wolde sche not dwelle to longe,' Horst., 
A. L. n. f. 260/7, 8 ; * Jesus ne bi lefte noujt to longe | \zX he ne gan with wordes 
strongue | Jiene Maister streite a posi,' Horst., A. L. 18/493-5 ; 'Ne dwelden huy 
noujt after ful longue,' id. 4/50 ; ' Jesus wuste al heore Jjoujt, | And to longue 
ne bi lefde noujt | )>at he to })at child ne cam,' id. 25/711-3; ' Hym thought he 
had taryed to longe,' Child, v. 26/81 ; Ipomydon, 45S ; E. Studien, viii. 453/417 ; 
' Retoma s'en a I'einz qu'il pot, | Car n'out talent de sejorner,' Guillaurae le 
Marechal, 16436,7. 

L 723.4; O 742, 3. The latter has best kept the original reading, with the sense. 
When it began to draw to that, no man would face him, i. e. when things turned 
in that direction, when Horn armed himself in wrath, none ventured to interfere. 
Possibly hyt is an error for he ; for the constniction in the phrase is generally 
personal ; comp. ' On ))e hille J)ai gun ten, | Arthour & his folk to sen,' Arthour, 
109/3839, 40; 'Nijt com hem on, J)ai mijt nou3t sen, | Ich to his ki}) gan to ten,' 
id. 229/8203, 4. The reading of L 723 is a feeble repetition of L 721. 

L 729,30. These lines are considered spurious by Wissmann, because Rymen- 
hild has already heard the words of banishment spoken by the king. But they 
seem a natural expansion of L 727,8. ' The fish that rent your net' meant the 
man who severs us ; that man is the king. 

11. 727,8. A common formula of parting; comp. 'Now, my dere sone, have 
good day, | For langer dwelle y ne may,' Trentalle S. Gregorii, 49/i97j8; 

NOTES. 139 

' Desonell, haue good day, | I mnste now on my jumay,' Torrent, 1393, 4 ; ' We 
wyll not dwelle, liaue gode day,' Guy, 706 ; ' Haue gode day, for y wyll goo,' 
id. 898. For other examples see Zupitza's note to Athelston, 497. The verb is 
exceptionally omitted in, ' And J)erfore, syr, good day,' Ipomadon, 3966 ; a variant 
is seen in, 'He bitaujt hem god and gode day,' Tristrem, 1297. With 728, 
comp. further, 'lenger here dar I noght lende,' Ywain, 2358; and with the variant 
in O 755, ' & also with my feres founde | Armes forto haunt a stownde,' id. 1495,6. 
With L. 732, comp. ' Hepyn when I sail founde and ffare,' Religious Pieces, 77/74. 
The readings of LO give a more obvious construction for the following line than 
C where 729 depends on a verb of motion implied in the preceding sentence; see 
437 note. 

11- 729>3o. Comp. ' 5if Jiou wilt nojt here be • ac wolt fonde more,' R. of 
Gloucester, 2S4. But /ofi<ie generally has a definite object, as 'Therfor I wolle 
into vncouth lond | To seke aventure I wil fond,' Generides, 1445,6; ' Owt of my 
cuntre y me dyght | Farre into vncowthe londe | Dedes of armes for to fonde,' 
Guy, 4350-2; 451,2; Degrevant, iiS; 'a knyght, | Jiat soght aventurs in ))at 
land I My body to asai and fande,' Ywain, 314-6; ' Vor \)o he adde moche in 
worre ibe • & ido gret maistrie | & him sulf moche ifonded,' R. of Gloucester, 
1726, 7; 4445,6; 'Nov Gij wende]) in to fer lond | More of auentours for to fond,' 
Guy A. 1063, 4. 

1. 732. Seven years is the regular period of a lover's probation in ballad and 
romance. Comp. 'And in your armure must ye lye, | . . . Til seven yere be comen 
and gone,' SqujT of L. D. 183,6; 'Yf yt be soo, | Ore vii yere be a-go, | More 
schall we here,' Torrent, 64-6 ; ' An before that seven years has an end, | Come 
back again, love, and marry me,' Child, ii. 464/9. It is often used of faithful 
service, see 918, and comp. 'y haue J)e serued 5ore ( In werre & eke in lond of 
pes 2 wel seuen jer & more,' Ferumbras, 268,9; 'He served the kyng her father 
dere, | Fully the tyme of seven yere,' Squyr of L. D. 5, 6 ; ' For ye maun serve me 
seven years,' Child, ii. 323/5 ; ' Seven lang years I hae served the king,' id. i. 255/1. 
Agreements are made for seven years, ' A forward fast Jai bond | ])at ich a man 
schul ioien his | And seuen 5er to stond,' Tristrem, 46-8. Seven years' trial and 
sorrow prepare for the sight of Paradise ; ' Vor wanne 5e habbe]) ipassed ])is seue 
3er : our lord 50U wole sende | An sijt of ]jat je habbe]) iso3t : ate seue jeres 
ende,' St. Brendan, 213,4. 

1. 739. wel a stunde, apparently means, quite a long time, see L 636 note. 
The usual expressions are less vague, comp. ' Here kissinge ilaste a mile, | And 
))at hem Jjujte litel while,' Floris, 929, 30; ' Quen Jai had kist a mile or mare,' 
Cursor, 5245. The plural pronouns in L give a better reading. For 740. see 
42S note, and comp. further, ' He fel aswon to J)e grounde | & oft he seyd, " Alias 
J/at stonnde," ' Amis, 2134, 5 ; ' He fell down in sowenynge | To the yrthe was he 
dyght,' Emare, 2S4, 5. For O 769, see 464 note ; for 743, 284 note; for 744, 404 

1. 749. For this typical expression, comp. 'f>at erl is hors began to stride,' Beues 
A. 199, and the collection of examples at p. liv of the introduction. 

^1- 755j 6. These lines are misplaced in C ; they should come after 750. weep 
wijj i^e occurs again at 1036 ; it is a very common expression, comp. ' f>er Elidur 
J)e king i weop mid his ejenen,' Lajamon, 6649, 5° > ' P^^ wepe wj) her eije,' 
Orfeo, 5S9 ; ' For him wepen lowe & heije | Swijje sore wij) her eije,' Arthour, 
79/2755, 6; Horst., S. A. L. 156/357; Guy, 1349; Guy A. 1768; Langtoft, 
p. 141 ; Richard, 2865. Similar expressions are, 'She moum'd and weeped with 


her face,' Roswall, 104 ; * As soone as the kynge him spyed with eye,' Squyr of 
L. D. 665 ; ' J>e Romayns wel myght hem se wyj) eye,' R. of Brunne, 3448 ; ' Wil 
5e mi fader se | WiJ? sijl,' Tristrem, 668, 9; ' Nou J)ou mijt se bi sijt,' E. Studien, 
■^'"•453/467; 'pat 36 ne ete ne dronke no5t: ne slepte nojt wij) our eie,' St. 
Brendan, 61. With loke wif) 156, 975, comp. ' And wyth ])er eyen lokyd wrathe,' 
Guy, 7742 ; 7735, 6. iherde wip ires, 959, the phrase which to Sir Hugh Evans 
seemed 'affectations' (Merry Wives of W. i. i. 150), is comparatively rare; comp. 
* So moche ioye to here wyj) eere,' Handlyng Synne, 4762 ; places like, ' and 
herkned wel wiJ) herte and ere,' Horst., S. A. L. 58/1028; ' AUe [jc oSere herc- 
neden | mid svviSe open earen,' St. Katherine, 11 27, S, are not quite parallels. 
With 354 and its variants in LO may be compared, ' Adam onswerde him \vi]} 
moujje,' Horst., A. L. k. f. 344/280; ' Mid muSen heo seiden,' Lajamon, 5726; 
'Ofalle nacions jiat speke wy}) tonge,' R. of Brunne, 4188; 'J?ous pai saiden alle 
wis tonge,' E. Studien, viii. 449/121 ; ' J7e miracles }>at first spronge | ... No clerk 
may telle \V\.\ tonge,' Gregorlegende, 1149, 51 (see also 1259 note); Minot, v. 
I (note) ; HC. 41. Of the same type is the common alliteration of verb with its 
noun, as in * Mar mijtis hauls ur lauerd wrost | Than ani man mai \\uc in thojt,' 
Cursor T. 21629, 30. 

Ij 761. stonde, used absolutely for, to blow favourably, is remarkable. The 
verb is common enough in this connection, but regularly with adverbial phrase or 
clause ; comp. * The wynde stode as her lust wore | The wether was lythe on le,' 
Emare, 833, 4 ; ' He suld take l^at way, if wynde wild with him stand,' Langtoft, 
p. 145 ; ' wind stond & J)at weder i after heore wille,' Lajamon, 20509, 10; 'Weder 
stod on willed wind wex an honde,' id. 25537, 8. 

1. 757. The reading of O is to be preferred. With 758, comp. ' He sterte tille 
his sterepe and stridez one lofte,' Morte Arthure, 916. But it was considered more 
correct to mount without the aid of the stirrup, comp. ' Into }>e sadel a lippte, | f>at 
no stirop he ne drippte,' Beues A. 1945, 6; ' WiJ) outen stirop \tx in stirten,' 
Arthour, 113/3986; 'And lepeu on sadel withouten stirope,' Alisaunder, 1958; 
' Taliter ergo armatus tyro noster, novus militiae postmodum fios futurus, mira 
agilitate absque stapia, gratia invelocitatis, equum prosilit,' Chroniques d'Anjou, i. 
p. 236. See also Gautier, La Chevalerie, p. 329. 

1. 765. See 197. There is nothing unusual in this abrupt question, comp. 
' " Child," he said, <' thy name tell me,'" Beues M. 415 ; ' Tell me what ys thy 
name, | and wher thou wer ybore,' Lybeaus, 653, 4 ; ' Code syr, what ys yowre 
name?' Eglamour, 1268; 'Telle ous now, what is J)i name,' Arthour, 38/1267; 
Tristrem, 530. According to the Boke of Curtasye there are three things to be 
found out about any chance companion, ' With woso men, boJ)e fer and negh, | The 
falle to go, loke J)ou be slegh | To aske his nome, and qweche he be, | Whidur 
he wille; kepe welle fes thre,' Babees Book, 308/299-302. For 766, see 39 

1. 768. Comp. 202. 

1. 770. See 1 178. The phrase means, to seek my advantage, to secure profitable 
employment, ' to win gold & fe,' HC. 643. Comp. ' Jiai most J^an scail and seke 
pair best,' Cursor, 2456 ; ' 0|)er half ;er we abbejj now • iwend wiJ) oute reste | In 
J)e grete se of occean • vorto seche oure beste,' R. of Gloucester, 939, 40 ; 'Si 
m'estuet aillors alerquere | Mon mieilz e ou ge puisse vivre,' Guillaume le Marechal, 
5824, 5. Similar is, '& byddem go purchace pern best, | To seke oJ)er lond & 
lede,' R. of Brunne, 7344, 5. In ' Lete vs j^enne go do our beste, | & seke vs land 
opon to rest,' R. of Brunne, 1231, 2 ; ' In odur stedde to do hys beste ] Wyth schelde 

NOTES. 141 

and sperc to fyj^ht preste,' Giiy, 3171, 2, the phrase has the same meaning of 
seeking one's advantage, not of exerting oneself to the utmost. 

1. 774. See 333 note. 

1. 775. Also mote i sterue, is apparently a formula of asseveration, meaning, 
as surely as I must die, as sure as death ; but it seems without parallel. 

I. 777. my lyue, in my life. The variants in LO are more usual : see 131 note. 

II. 779, 80. See 455, 6; 505, 6. The rhyme is very common ; comp. 'pe porter 
com into halle, | Bifore J)e kyng aknes gan falle,' Roberd of Cisyle, 109, no. 
For 7S0, comp. 'On kiieos heo gon biforen him falle,' K. of Tars V. 215; 
'hi fuUe adoun akneo,' Beket, 1931; 'when he came before that Lady fayer, | 
he fell downe vpon his knee,' P. F. MS. i. 189/191, 2 ; ' Whan he cam before the 
kyng I On knese he fell knelynge,' Cleges, 394, 5. 

11. 781, 2. See 383, 4 ; O 491, 2 ; 1028. The expression is typical ; comp. ' On 
her knees }»ei hem sett | And hendely ]>e kyng ]>ei grett,' Cursor T. 8091, 2 ; 
' Vppon his knees he hym sette | And the kyng full feyre he grette,' Ipomydon, 
1S7, 8 ; Seven Sages, 323, 4 ; 2973, 4 ; Richard, 1591, 2 ; Guy, 161, 2 ; 377, 8, and 
many other places. A variant is seen in ' Byfore hire on kneo he sat,' Alisaunder, 
2-;i; 'But doun on knees she sat anoon,' Chaucer, i. 280/106. For 782, comp. 
further, '& leofliche hine gret,' Lajamon, 3128; 'And the kyng ofte he grette,' 
Alisaunder, 7575 ; 'And greet hem wyth honour,' Lybeaus, 147. 

I. 784. The first two words are superfluous. The phrase means, 5'ou have busi- 
ness with him, you must secure his services. The usual preposition is 7vi//i as in 
LO, comp. ' Yiff thou have efft with hem to done, | They wole be the gladder 
efftsone,' Richard, 3763,4; 'That they were men with whom we haue a do,' 
Generydes, 2518 (see ado in N. E. D. i. p. 123). For of, comp. ' mani worde Jiai 
spoken sone ] pat y no haue nou;t of to done,' Arthour, 43/1431, 2 ; ' wat him 
were to donde' of one soche manne,' Lajamon, O 4769. 70, where C has di ; 'for 
of me & my ])0U5t: nastouj noujt to done,' Archiv, Ixxxii. 371/107; id. 379/22 ; 
R. of Brunne, 3056. The construction with di occurs in, ' Other me shal do 
bi the : as bi such a man is to done,' Beket, 1864. An absolute use is seen in 
' I schal seie ]>e, Joseph • I haue to done swijre' (=1 have some business to do), 
Joseph of .A.rimathie, 161. 

II. 787, 8 are like 777, 8. Comp. ' J)is weoren ]>a facreste men' ))at auere her 
comen,' La;amon, 13797, ^i ' Malgus ]>e reje | pat was fe faireste moni wiS uteu 
Adam & Absolon/ id. 28815-7. 

11. 793-7. The delivery of the glove has a variety of symbolical meanings such as 
(i) granting a request, comp. Roland, 4S2 : (2) offering or accepting a challenge, 
comp. Avowynge of Arther, 66/22-4 ! Amis, 845 ; R. of Brunne, 10828 : (3) sealing 
a reconciliation, comp. Richard, 1689, 90 : and (4) making a covenant, comp. 
' Theo glove he geveth heom byt^veone | Kyng Alisaundre for to slene,' Alisaunder, 
2033> 4- This last use gives a possible meaning here, When you go a wooing 
(with Cutberd as your companion, comp., for the custom, 528), make a bargain 
with him not to rival you. But the giving of a glove also betokens (5) investment 
of a deputy with authority, and Kolbing (E. Studien, vi. p. 156) accordingly 
explains, entrust him with your power in your absence, i.e. leave him behind you : 
or (6) renunciation of a right or claim, which Matzner adopts with the meaning, 
give your glove in token that you resign your pretensions to the lady. But he also 
points out (7) that messengers sometimes bear the sender's glove as a credential of 
their mission, and he suggests as an alternative explanation. Make him your 
messenger. Wissmann, adopting this view, sees a contrast between wo^c and wyue. 


When you 7C'oo, make Cutberd your messenger, for his beauty will make him 
welcome ; but when you think of iveddiug, he will oust you. ' Ne fai ja d'omme 
ton message | vers ta dame, se tu es sage,' says the author of La Clef d' Amors 
(9^5) 6). But 793, When you set out a wooing, is hard to reconcile with the idea 
of employing a messenger. Another explanation is suggested by a remarkable 
figurative passage in Political, Religious, and Love Poems, ' loke vnto myn handys, 
man! | thes gloues were geuen me whan I hyr sowght ; | they be nat white, but 
rede and wan, | embrodred with blode my spouse them bowght ; | they wyll not 
of, I lefe them nowght, | I wowe hyr with them where euer she goo,' 153/41-46. 
It would seem from this passage that an elaborately embroidered pair of gloves 
distinguished the wooer from his companion. So our place may mean. When you 
go a wooing, you may as well give Cutberd your gloves, for you cannot succeed 
where he is present. For pictures of existing mediaeval gloves see Beck, Gloves : 
Their Annals and Associations, and comp. ' His gloues gayliche gilte, and grauene 
by the hemmys, | With graynes of rubyes fulle gracious to schewe,' Morte Arthure, 
3462, 3. L has the best text ; the presence oiJ>cr in 801 greatly improves the sense. 

11. 799, 800; O 828, 9. See 29 note, and for the phrase comp. '}>is wes byfore 
seint bartholomeus masse, | J)at ffrysel wes ytake, were hit more ojier lasse,' 
Eoddeker, 129/105, 6. Just as Christmas was the most prominent of the crown- 
wearing festivals (see 1285, 6 note) at the English court, so it is the typical festival 
in the romances (comp. Beues A. 586 note). ' The heghe dayes of jole ' (Perceval, 
1803) extend into the new year, and frequently at the end there come into the 
hall, where the guests sit at table, messengers with a challenge, comp. Morte 
Arthure, 78 ff. ; an outrageous red knight who snatches a gold beaker from the 
table, comp. Perceval, 393, 603 ff. ; a mysterious green knight, comp. Gawayne & 
O.K. 136 ff.; or the like. 

1. 801. at none, comp. 358: it is clear from 827 that the king's guests are at 
table. It is the usual time for the appearance of messengers ; see the collection of 
examples in the note to Tristrem, 8 19, 

O 833. in hys rime, see 1363 note. 

1. 805. Site stille. See 389. The phrase is mostly used as a minstrel's address 
to his audience, comp. ' Listene]? now & sitte]) stille | Of Herhaud ich 50U telle 
wille,' Guy A. 3997, 8 ; ' Sitte)) alle stille & herknel> to me,' Boddeker, 98/1 ; 
* Herknied alle gode men | And stille sitte]) adun,' O. E. Miscellany, 186/1, 2 ; 
'Sitte]) alle stille more & les | And here]) now ))is merynes,' Cursor T. 20509, 10; 
' Sitte> stille with outen strif | And i wol tellen ou of a lyf | Of an holy Mon,' 
St. Alexius V. 20/1,2; ' Yef ye wolen sitte stille | P^ul feole y wol yow telle,' 
Alisaunder, 39, 40; 6512, 3; Ipomydon, 1373, 4; Assumpcio, 11; R. of 
Gloucester, 807/125. The simple verb is also used, 'Quod Bawdewyn, "And 
5e wille sitte, | I schalle do 50 wele to witte,"' Avowynge of Arther, 86/1, 2; 
' listen, Lords! & yee will sitt, | & yee shall heere the second ffitt,' P. F. MS. ii. 
67/256, 7. Variants are, ' Gyffe 50W sytte in 5our sette, Sowdane and other,' 
Morte Arthure, 1305; ' Herkynes me heyndly and holdys 50W stylle,' id. 15; 
'Site ])ou wcl stille, Cristofre seide,' E. South Eng. Legendary, 274/118; E. E. 
Poems, 63/119. 

1. 807. The rhyme may be restored by reading on riue as at 132. 808 appears 
to mean, In no ordinary number, just as 1295 may mean, After a brief voyage ; but 
I can bring no parallel. Comp. Tristrem, 914 note. For vpon honde, L 817, 
see 338 note. Her, 809, L 817, seems due to the beginning of the preceding line 
(807, 8 are written as one line in C), hi should be read instead. 

NOTES. 143 

11. 81 1-6. For the theory of the ' duel convcntionnel,' a single combat preceded 
by a contract such as that recited here, see d'Arbois de Jubainville, Cours de 
Litterature Celticjui', vii. pp. 36-64, where its primitive character and its essential 
difference from the mediaeval appeal to the judgement of God are well brought out. 
For similar encounters in Romance, where tlic slake is a kingdom, comp. 'He 
(AnlaP brouht with him a deuellc, a hogge Gcant, | Wele haf je herd telle, he 
hight Colibrant. | Anlaf sent messengers vnto Athelstan, | & bad him jcld ]>e iond 
or fyiid a noj'cr man | To fight with Colibrant, J'at was his champion : | Who felle 
to haf ])e Iond, on ))am it suld be don,' Langtoft, p. 31; Guy, 9951-66; 'A 
messenger anon they sente ; | To kyng Richard forth he wente, | And prayed yiff 
his wylle be, | Off balaylebetwen thre ; | Three off hem, and three off hys ; | Whether 
off hem that wynne the prys, | And who that haves the heyer hand, | Have the 
cyte and al her land, | And have it for evermore,' Richard, 5233-41 ; ' Byd hym 
sende a gode knyght | Wyth oon of yowres for to fyght, | Yf hyt may so betyde, | 
That yowrys haue ]>c bettur syde, | He let yow haue all yowre land | Wyth pees in 
yowre owne hande, | And yf hys knyght haue ])e maystry | And ouyrcome yowres 
wyth felonye, I For yowre lande ye schall do homage | And euery yere 5elde hym 
trewage,' Guy, 3503-12 ; ' Ac ye two, with ho:s and scheld, | Comen armed wel 
into the feld, | Gef he wynneth ther the maistrye, | Of us he have the seignory : | Gef 
thou him myght perforce aquelle, | His folk wolen don thy wille,' Alisaunder, 
7297-302; Partonope, 1589-1616; ' OuJ)er sende he to me hider | A mon J)at 
we may fijte to gider, | \N'he})er o]>ex ouer comej) in felde | pe to])eres folk al to 
him helde, | A mon of his ajein oon of oures : | If oure may wynne his in stoures | 
f>at fei be ouris & her heires; ] If j^ei wynne oures we be ])eires,' Cursor T. 7461- 
8 ; ' Tyl ArJ)ur he (Frollo) sente his sonde : | 3yf ^^t he wilde bytwyxt Jjem to | 
To-gedere fighte, wy))0ute mo, | & whilk of J)em were ouercome, | Or slayn, or 
wyf' force nome, I Tak hym ^e Iond til his wylle, [ So ])at ))e folk nought ne spille,' 
R. of Brunne, 10820-6. The story of the duel between Edmund Ironside and 
Cnut for the crown of England is told by Johannes de Oxenedes (p. 1 7), and other 
chroniclers. John of Marmoutier has a detailed account of a single combat be- 
tween Geoffrey of Anjou, father of Henry the Second of England, and a Saxon 
giant, Chroniques d'Anjou, i. pp. 239, 40 ; another writer in the same collection 
describes a similar encounter between Geoffrey Grisegonelle and a Danish giant, 
Ethelwulf, under the year 97S A.n., id. p. 324. 

I. 81S. See 124 note, vpspringe, L 826 = rising (of the sun), is not in Strat- 
mann, and do not know any other example of the word ; comp. vpriste, 
1436. For the verb, comp. 'Upon thy day, er sonne gan up-springe,' Chaucer, 

i- 323/14- 

II. S23, 4. Comp. 173, 4. 

1. 825. But what shall be to us for advisable, for the best; what is our best 
course ? Comp. ' Nuste he tho he miste hem : what him was to rede,' Beket, 50 ; 
' Lauerd crist, godes sone, | wat is me to rede,' O. E. Miscellany, 162/7, 8 ; ' The 
seli man bigan to grede, | Alias, wat schal me to rede,' S. Sages, 1473, 4; ' Louerd, 
wat shal me to rede,' Havelok, 118; 693. The pronoun of the person is often 
omitted, ' f>e feyre men seyde, " what ys to rede," ' Handlyng Synne, 5655 ; ' Lord- 
ynges, he sei)), what to rede,' K. of Tars V. 115. Similar expressions are common, 
comp. ' whae seal us nu raeden,' Lajamon, 13528 ; ' He nyste what was best to 
red,' R. of Brunne, 864 ; ' Do loke what rede is now at J'e,' K. of Tars A. 259. 
The rhyme rede . . . dedc often occurs, as in ' Ywys y kan no beter rede | Well 
y wot y schall be dede,' E. E. Miscellanies, 58/26, 7 ; ' penne seide goly, j-ou art 


but dcde, ] Danid seide, God be my rede,' Cursor T. 7575, 6 ; ' Alias, he sayde> 
what is ]>e beste rede? | Now i wote, i am but dede,' Tundale, 1181, 2 ; Trya- 
moure, 595, 6 ; ' her of J)u most raeden 1 oSer alle we beotS daeden,' Lajamon, 
14003, 4 ; Archiv, Ixxii. 54/1777, 8. 

1. 829. Comp. ' Me J)ynke]) hit were no vasselage | J)re til on ; hit were out- 
rage,' R. of Biunne, 12331, 2. The sentiment of the northern nations is expressed 
by Saxo thus, ' Duos siquidem cum uno decernere ut iniquum, ita eciam probrosuin 
apud ueteres credebatur. Sed neque uictoria hoc pugne genere parta laudabilior 
habita, quod pocius dedecori quam glorie iuncta uideretur. Quippe unum a duobus 
oppiimi ut nullius negocii, ita maximi ruboris loco ducebatur,' 1 1 1/39-112/4. 

O 861. Without man's companionship, i. e. without the assistance of any one. 
The phrase is used here in a quite exceptional context, comp. Seinte Marherete, 
p. 13; Shoreham, p. 118; E. Studien, viii. 449/55-7; Horst., A. L. 83/352; 
Horst., A. L. n.f. 261/117. 

1. 836. See 5S note. With 837, 8, comp. 'pe king Yuore him ros amorwe, | 
In his hertte was meche sorwe,' Beues, 194/4109, 10 ; ' The kyng hereof tok gret 
sorwe, I And went hom on the morwe,' Alisaunder, 516, 7. 

1. 840. See L 5S9, O 603, 716. Comp. generally, 'his armes he bryng}) him 
J)anne anon ' & Olyuer gan him schride, | v/ip is hosen of mayle he bygon ^ nolde 
he no leng abyde : | & suj)l)e an haberke al of steel i on is body he caste, | Garyn 
hur lacede faire & weel : & mad hur sitte faste,' Ferumbras, 234-7 ' ' ^ richcliche 
Jiai schred J)at knijt ] wij) helme & plate & brini brijt,' Amis, 1243, 4 ; ' In gode 
armes they gan heom schrede,' Alisaunder, 3572. Schrede is more commonly said 
of ordinary clothing, comp. ' WiJ) cloj) and wi]? bedde (? webbe) | His sone faire 
he sredde,' Horst., A. L. ;/./. 220/28, 9. 

I. 841. P'or caste, comp. ' J?e king arcs of bedde' and one bruiiie cast on 
rug[ge],' Lajamon O. 6718, 9 ; ' & sy])en ilkon ])er armure on kest,' R. of Bruiine, 
13316; 'And caste a brinie upon his rig,' Havelok, 1775; ' f>o mouthe men se 
J)e brinies brihte | On backes keste and laced (late MS.) rithe,' id. 2610, i ; ' Every 
man his armes on keste,' Richard, 4417; 'When he on Florent hacton caste,' 
Octavian, 116/878; ' And caste on his rugge '. swijie riche webbes,' Lajamon O. 
22583,4. Other verbs are seen in 1058; 'And he warp on him! one brunie of 
stele,' La5amon O. 2 11 29, 30; 'The armure he dude on his liche,' Alisaunder, 
3482. With 842, comp. 717 and ' ))ai helpid to lace him in his wede,' Ywain, 
2419. The exact meaning of 'lacing the brinie ' is not easy to make out. The 
brinie is, strictly speaking, a shirt of leather or thick cloth with rings or small 
plates of metal sewn thickly over it, or sometimes covered by bands of metal 
arranged trellis-wise (Demay, p. no), but it doubtless means here, as often, the 
hauberk or shiit of chain mail. It would appear from a solitary quotation, 'Par 
le flans le lacha,' Garin de Monglane, 84 c, given by Schulz, ii. p. 33 note, that 
the hauberk was sometimes laced at the sides. It was also drawn tight round the 
neck by a silken or leathern lace (id. p. 45), and the sleeve was sometimes secured 
at the wrist by a lace or strap (Hewitt, i. p. 233). Further the hauberk was often 
furnished with a continuous coif which was drawn over the head and laced round 
the face opening (Hewitt, i. p. 235). Any or all of these adjustments may be 
intended by the text. Reference is often made to lacing the helmet, comp. ' Ys 
helm on is head sone he caste, | And let him lacye well & faste/ Ferumbras, 
5309 ; ' II vest un auberc dublier | et laca I'iaume en son clef,' Aucassin, 11/7, 8. 

11. 847, 8. L has preserved the best reading. O 875 means, And array our- 
selves against each other. 

NOTES. 145 

1. S51. grene, field of battle, much like place, 718, Comp. 'Both \z lely and 
J)e lipard • suld gcder on .1 grene,' Minot, xi. 3. For sufte kene, see 91 note. 

1. 853. See 532 note and comp. further, ' he wod in to J)e water, his feren him 
bysyde, | to adienche,' Boddeker, 129/100, i ; ' theose riden him bysyde,' Ali- 
saunder, 4596. The confusion in C is noteworthy. The pagan giant first offers 
to fight three singlebanded, but Cutberd rejects the offer. He will alone bring 
three of them to death (836), and here the giant and apparently two companions 
engage Cutberd. Nothing is said of two champions associated with him, and 
indeed Berild and Alrid seem to perish in the general fighting which follows on 
the death of the heathen champion. L has a single slip into the plural in hem, 
863, otherwise it describes a single combat, as O does consistently throughout. 
In their case the fercn are simply the pagan host assembled to witness the fight ; 
they begin to retire in dismay when they see their champion getting the worst of 
it (L 867, O 886). 

1. S54. The sense is similar to that of the first quotation in the preceding note. 
They came into the field to meet their doom, as it proved. Lumby suggests dent 
for dcp, which would give a common expression, but alteration is unnecessary. 
LO mean, to sustain that encounter, to experience the fortune of battle ; it is 
practically the same as the common phrase, to abide battle ; comp. ' ])at bataile 
wald abide,' Tristrem, 1445 ; Minot, v. 40 note. 

L 864. See 63S. The meaning is, He would not omit to do it : it is the 
familiar expletive, wipouten fayle, in sentence form, used to emphasize the state- 
ment of the preceding line. I know of no exact parallel, but similar phrases are 
common ; comp. ' J?e messanger goth and hath nou3t forjete ; | And fint the knijt 
at his mete,' Lay le Freine, 43, 4; 'And at J)e last forgat pai noght, | f>e toun of 
Cane J^ai sett on fire,' Minot, vii. 67, 8 ; ' An hundred time sche cast hir sijt, | For 
no ))ing wald sche lete,' Amis, 695, 6 ; ' He smytyth J)e Almayns sare ; | For 
nothynge wolde he spare,' Guy, 1639, 4° > ' ^^ ^^'^^ sou;th of his kynne | ffor noujth 
wolde J)ai bl}Tine,' Alexius, 35/345, 8 ; ' JJus Amoraunt, as y 50U say, | Com to 
court ich day, | No stint he for no striue,' Amis, 1645-7 ; ' For no])ing wold sche 
wond,' id. 1611. ' Nabod he nojt to longe,' 720, ' J)at fu no5t ne linne,' 992, 
are in principle the same. Faile might, however, be here taken in its special sense 
of, miss his stroke, as in, ' Ac he failed wij) outen dout, | For he smot him forbi,' 
Arthour, 201/7166, 7. 

1. 857. Similar expressions are, ' })ar was many dunt ijeue,' Lajamon 0. 1 740 ; 
' duntes \tx weoren riue,' id. 227S0. For 858, see 427 note. 

1. 859. Horn refrained from striking. In illustration of the deliberate blow for 
blow style adopted in the Scandinavian duel, Wissmann quotes, ' Non enim anti- 
quitus in edendis agonibus crebre ictuum uicissitudiues petebantur, sed erat cum 
interuallo temporis eciam feriendi distincta successio, rarisque sed atrocibus plagis 
certamina gerebantur, ut gloria pocius percussionum magnitudini, quam numero 
deferretur,' Saxo Grammaticus, 56/14-19. It seems to me little to the point. We 
have here the frequently recurring pause in the combat, which is sometimes due to 
mutual consent of the combatants; comp. ' Thay foughten soo longe, J)at by assente | 
Thai drewe hem a litil bysyde, | A litil while thaym to avente, | And refresshed 
hem at J)at tyde,' Sowdone of Babylone, 1235-S ; 'The fyght betwene them was 
so long, I A while to rest bothe they gang | And on there swerdes they lenys,' 
Ipomadon, 7916-8. Sometimes one of the champions withdraws, as King Somogour 
in Partonope, 2014 ff., ' They had bothe nede hem to A brethe | Awhyle they rest 
hem on the hethe,' 201S, 9; and Cnnt in his fight with Edmond Ironside as told 



by R. of Gloucester, ' f)is knout bigan to reste • ]>o is asaut was ydo ] & bed 
edmond as in pes • a word hure ojier tuo | King edmond him grauutede • & somdel 
him wi]) drou,' 6296-8. But mostly, as in King Horn (taking the readings of 
LO as right), one asks the other to desist ; comp. ' Crysten man, vndurstande me : | 
The wedur ys bote, as })ou may see. | For the lordys loue, {?at })0u leuyste ynne, | 
And as he may forgeue J)e \)y synne, | Geue me leue to go stylle | To drynke of 
water but my fylle. | • • • Yf y for thurste ouyrcomen ware, ] Thou schuldyst be 
preysed neuer ]>e mare, | But schame therof Jiou schuldyst haue, | And thou warne 
me, that I craue,' Guy, 8105-10, 13-16; Libius, P. F. MS. ii. 468/1441-52 ; id. 
536/271-6; '& vernagu at fat cas, | So sore asleped was, | He no mijt fijt no 
more : | At rouland leue he toke, | JJat time, so seyt Jie boke, | For to slepe ])ore. | 
Roland jaf leue him, | For to slepe wele afin, | & rest him in })at stounde,' Rouland 
and Vernagu, 61 1-9; Gesta Romanorum, 566/29-33. Apparently it would be 
unknightly to refuse such a request. With 861, 2, comp. ' pe Bretons sawe ]>eT 
syde 5ede lowe, | pey rempede (? rumede) \>em to reste a J)rowe,' R. of Brunne, 
3491, 2. 

O 891. harde dunte. So, ' gode dunt,' O904; 'mid swi??e bitere duntes,' 
Lajamon, 26967; ' mid smarten heore dunten,' id. 27051 ; ' doujti dentes,' W. of 
Palerne, 1215; ' grete dintes,' Havelok, 1437; 'noble dent,' Richard, 2622. 
O 892, 3 seem almost necessary to the story, though not in C. 

11. 867, 8. agrise • • • arise. Rhymes between parts of these verbs are frequent ; 
comp. ' So sore hym gan agryse | That he ne myghte aryse,' Lybeaus, 2002, 3; 'A 
morwe J)o Ve prince aros | Of his sweuen sore him agros,' Horst., S. A. L. 165/203, 
4 ; ' But sone vp ageyn he rose ; | Of that stroke his hert agrose,' Generides, 79.'>9> 
60. With 868 comp. 608. The discovery, during the pause in the fight, of a 
mortal foe in one's opponent is a frequent incident in the romances ; thus Ferum- 
bras finds out that Oliver is the slayer of his imcle (Sowdone of B. 1259), Ameraunt 
that he is fighting with the slayer of many of his kin (Guy, 8231^ 

11. 869, 70. Comp. ' her stondetJ us biuoren ' vre ifan alle icoren,' Lajamon, 
21377, 8; ' But when Amerawnt vnduryode, | That Gye there before hym stode,' 
Guy, 8231, 2 ; 'Lo ! here byforn vs l^an ar Jio | pat ban vs wrought ful muche wo | 
Jiyse are Jiat han wasted our lond | pat riche was & farre vs fond | pise are f^at slowe 
our auncessours,' R. of Brunne, 10079-83. 

L 882. See 53 note. For L 8S5 see 114. 

1. 875. For parallels, see Beues, p. Iviii. With 1. 876 comp. L 1503, 4; 1390; 
' Sare it ])am smerted })at ferd out of ffrance,' Minot, v. 13 note ; ' pe sharpe swerd 
let [he] wade, | ])otw the brest unto J)e herte ; | ]>e dint bigan ful sore to smerte,' 
Havelok, 2645-7. 

Ii 887, 8. This rhyme with similar phrases is a favourite with Lajamon ; 
comp. ' pa gunnen his men fleon ' & ]>a. ofiere after teon,' 19146, 7 > ' & Aco Jiider 
]>e J)U fleo' heo ]?e wulleS after teon,' 16080, i ; ' Modred bi-gon to fleon i & his 
folc after teon,' 28354, 5 ! 8669, 70; 20527, 8. But it is found elsewhere; comp. 
' Ac alle Jat euer mijt flen | Swijie gun oway ten,' Arthour, 6635, 6. 

O 910, I. so pou haue reste, as thou mayest have rest. Comp. ' Also so 
god geue yow reste, ] Fylle the cuppe of the beste,' Guy, 6687, 8. Other forms 
of protestation will be found at 183, 555, 775, L 1041, 1051. forp, out; comp. 
' men wollej) wene Jiat hit be so]), | And clepe l>e for]) for heore euenyng,' Vernon 
MS. i. 333/158, 9: ofclepen occurs in the same sense in, 'And ofclepith his 
chaunselere,' Alisaunder, 1810. A curious use is seen in, ' Wei is the modir that 
may forth fede | Child that helpith hire at nede,' id. 1 1 29, 30. ofe pi beste, some 



of your best men. Comp. 144 note, and ' men him served of the beste,' Alisaunder, 
1098. See also 1264 note. 

O 915. kaute. The verb is used with a great variety of nouns in the sense of, 
get, receive. Comp. ' Al Jiat })ey ))ere araujt | Crete strokes perc ])eycau3t,' Amis, 
2467, 8. So lacchen, as in, ' pe kyng stode ouer nehi, J)e stroke he lauht so smcrte,' 
Langtoft, p. 94. 

O 916, 7. a^en, in 1. 916, is an adverb, practically forming a compound verb 
with stodc, meaning withstood, resisted. For the regular compound, comp. ' alle 
heo slowen i \Vi\. heom ajenstoden,' I.a;amon, 5916, 7. The separation of the words 
by the subject hyc is remarkable. In 917 a5en is, of course, a preposition ; comp. 
for the phrase, ' f>e bor stod stille ajen jie dent,' Beues A. 791 ; ' He stod ful harde 
agayn heore dunt,' Bellum Trojanum, 1655. For the usual adverb, comp. ' f>e 
paiens agcyn })am fulle stifely J)ei stode,' Langtoft, p. 17; 'And ther so feawe 
stondeth styf | To fytte ajenis senne,' Shoreham, p. 16. For O 918, 9 see 1421 
note : for wode, O 921, see 348 note. 

li S93. See 115 note. For 895, 6 see 639 note. A passage very similar 
is, ' WiJ) outen eni wordes mo | Beues Brademond hitte so | Vpon is helm in ])at 
stounde, | f>at a felde him flat to grounde,' Beues A. 1037-40. 

1. 8S3. See 58 note. With 884, comp. ' pai said it suld ful dere be boght,' 
Minot, i. 43 note ; ' Fulle dere it salle be bouht, bi Jhesu heuen kyng,' Langtoft, 
p. 158 ; ' Hit schal beo ful deore abouglit,' Alisaunder, 4154 ; Richard, 660. 

O 924. rowe, following of knights drawn up in line of battle. Comp. ' Mani 
stout bachilere broght he on raw,' Minot, v. 48 ; ' J?e princes ])at war riche on raw,' 
id. iv. 79 and notes ; ' Knyghtes semlyd on a Rowe,' Torrent, 817 ; ' The kuyghttes 
that were stro^vyd wyde, | To hym drawes on euery syde | Redy and on a rawe,' 
Ipomadon, 5798-800 ; ' For -xx- knijfes al a rawe | per he broujt o Hue dawe,' 
Arthour, 137/4821, 2. 

I. 886. Read, Ne scaj)ede were no wijte. Wissmaim gives, f>er sca])ed was no 

L 905. The jihrase has special point in a time when most buildings, ecclesias- 
tical and domestic, were of wood, or wood and clay. See Hudson Turner, 
Domestic Architecture, i. pp. xiii, xxii. Comp. ' ])er was a noble cherche I-made : 
of lim & of ston | here bodyis me beried J)ere : wit wel gret honour,' Archiv, 
Ixxxii. 377/4^6,7 ; *}7e pope Alexeries in his tyme I Made a chapel of ston and 
lyme,' Celestin, Anglia, i. 75/311, 2 ; 'pat O ffisschere was riche of weole • and 
hedde halles of lym and ston,' Gregorius, 295 ; ' And castels wroght with lyme 
and stane,' Ywain, 1447 ; ' Ichil a castel han ywroujt | Of wode & lime, morter & 
ston,' Arthour, 17/514, 5 ; ' Swych saw they never non | Imade of lyme and ston,' 
Lybeaus, 713, 3; ' Fyftene castels of stone and lyme,' Guy, 4482, 1529; Child, 
Ballads, vi. 430/3 ; R. of Gloucester, 2706; Archiv, Ixxiv. 332/403; ' Puis fist a 
Kardif un chastel | De pere e de chauz, fort et bel,' Michel, Chroniques Anglo- 
Normandes, 1. p. 105. See also 1393 note. With L 906, comp. 'They weore 
faire brought in eorthe,' Alisaunder, 1653, 46S7. 

O 932. 3. The usual phrase is seen in, 'And ledden hym in to holy chirche | 
Goddes werkes forto wirche,' Alexius, 44/496, 7 ; ' And als he was in holy 
chirche, | godes werkes for to wirche,' E. Studien, i. p. 99. For other examples of 
the rhyme see Athelston, 4 note. 

II. 893, 4. See 223, 4; 255,6 ; 586 ; 625, 6. The rhymes halle . . . alle are 
often used in similar formulae of transition ; comp. ' Theo messangers come into 
the halle, ] To-fore Pors and his barotms alle,' Alisaunder, 7285, 6 ; ' Kyng Phclip 

L 3 



sat in his halle, | Among eorles and barouns alle,' id. 802, 3 ; ' When Tryamowre 
come into the halle | He haylesed the kyng and sythen alle,' Tryamonre, 1138, 9 ; 
' pe soudan J)er he sat in halle | He cleped his knihtes biforen him alle,' K. of Tars 
V. 943, 4; ' Beffore Tanker in hys halle | Among hys erles and barouns alle,' 
Richard, 1705, 6 ; ' Bifore J)e kyng in to his halle | f>ere he sat wij) his knyjtis alle,' 
Cursor T. 5891, 2 ; S. Sages, 655, 6, A variant is, ' The chylde wente ynto the 
hall, I Amonge the lordes grete and small,' Emare, 862, 3. 

1. 896. The usual expressions have the noun, not the verb, as, ' je scholle do be 
mine rede,' Benes A. 2958 ; ' & dude al bi his rede,' Beket, 169 ; ' & Jjurh mine 
raede] don al }-ine daede,' Lajamon, 13069, 70. 

I. 898. of muchel pris. For the phrase, comp. ' Dame Marcye was mikel of 
pris,' R. of Brunne, 3705 ; ' loseph l^ou art mychel of pris,' Cursor T. 4613 ; ' And 
other lordys of myche pris,' Emare, 485 ; ' Kyng, no duyk, neo knygt of pris,' 
Alisaunder, 14; ' J)ei sauh {^e payens of pris,' Langtoft, p. 125, 127, 136, 137; 
' Ivains fu de mult grant valor, | De grant pris et de grant honor, | Et mult fn 
prisies,' Wace, Brut, 13604-6, 7450. But the absence of the rhyme shows that 
the line is corrupt. The usual rhyme to /leir in the romances is /ej'r ; we might 
read, & ])u art swi]^e feyr. Comp. ' Of his bodi ne hauede he eyr | Bute a mayden 
swijie fayr,' Havelok, no, i. Wissmann partly following O reads, aslasen he]> 
mine heires, | and ])u art knijt boneires ; treating the s of the last word as the sign 
of the French nominative singular, with a reference to eiieniis, L 960. O 939 
seems to me due to the carelessness of the scribe ; although boiicire is common 
enough, I take }>e as showing that his original had something like, And Jjou art 
deboneire (i.e. of good family, stock). For 899, 900, see 93, 4 note. 

L 913, 4. The rhpne is a favourite with La5amon ; comp. ' & fiftene J)usende ])er 
weoren islajen ] & idon of lif-daejen,' 11736, 7; 11294, 5; 19456, 7 ; 20697, 8, 
&c. For the verb, comp. ' Heo J^ojte if heo mijte bringe : J)at child of lyf- 
dawe,' E. E. Poems, 50/93 ; ' mani a bold bum • was sone broujt of dawe,' W. of 
Palerne, 3817. 

L 916. blod ant bone, an expression meaning the whole body. Comp. ' He is 
so big of bone & blood,' Torrent, 1714; ' Now god that Dyed appon a Rode | 
Strengithe hym bothe bone and blod,' id. 112, 3 ; ' with banrentis, barounis and 
bernis full bald, | Biggast of bane and blude, bred in Britane,' Anglia, ii. 410/5,6; 
* Ane bleithar wes neuer borne of bane nor of blude,' id. 418/384 ; ' Thane Marye 
blyssed hir sone both blode & bane,' Archiv, Ixxiv. 328/101 ; 335/620. For L 918 
see 14 note. 

II. 901, 2. See 307, 8 note, and comp. further, ' Who that may his bon be | Salle 
hafe this kyngdome and me | To welde at his wille,' Percival, 1338-40 ; ' He 
gaffe hym his syster Acheflour | To have and to holde,' id. 24, 5 ; ' As Mon J^at his 
wyf wol vndurfon ; to haue and holde at bord and bedde,' Gregorius, 475. 

1. 904. on pe lofte, in an upper room. See 653 note, and comp. ' Mury hit ys 
in hyre tour, [ Wyj? haj)eles & wy): heowes : ] so hyt is in hyre hour, | . . . ffayrest 
fode vpo loft, I my gode luef, y \q greete,' Boddeker, 179/23-5, 30, i ; 'Lordingis 
and ladyis in the castell on loft,' Anglia, ii. 433/1051 ; 'Then was that lady sett | 
Hye up in a garett | To beholde that play,' Tryainoure, 721-3 ; ' pe leuedi J^ar of 
oner \t. castel lai | . . . Beues to ))e castel gate rit | And spak to hire aboue him 
sit,' Beues A. 183 1, 5, 6 ; ' Je schal lenge in your lofte & lyje in your ese,' Gawayne 
and G. K. 1096 ; 'Forjjy })ow lye in Jjy loft & lach ])yn ese/ id. 1676; 'pe cwen 
stod eauer stille | on heh, & biheold al,' St. Katherine, 2023, 4. The phrase might 
mean, on the dais, at the high table, as will be seen from passages like, ' Ridus 

NOTES. 149 

to the he dese, before the rialle, | And hailsutte King Arthore hindely on hejte,' 
Antiirs of Arther, 13/20, i ; ' lie gart schir Gavvyne vpga, | His wife, his doghter 
alsua, I And of ]iat mighty na ma | War set at ]>e des,' Anglia, ii. 435/1 151-4 ; 
' On the hye deyse he hur sett,' Bone Florence, 1761 ; ' & praid them on the bench 
aboue | To giue him something for gods loue,' Arthour, 361/2035, 6. But the 
manners of the society described in the poem did not apparently permit of her 
presence in the hall ; thus Rymenhild is not at the feast which follows Horn's 
dubbing (523), and she could not have mistaken Athulf for Horn (303) if she had 
seen the latter daily at his service before the king. Nor do the purely formal 
lines 255, 6 furnish an argument to the contrary. 

I. 905. wij) wronge, wrongfully. A frequent phrase, sometimes used with little 
meaning as at L 572. Comp. 'for heo al mid wronge 1 wilneden of ure londe,* 
Lajamon, 27300, 1 ; ' Vrgan gan Wales held | \Vi}) wrong, for sope to say,' Tris- 
tram, 231 1, 2 ; 'Al that thou werres it is with wrong,' Richard, 5450; 'That 
falsely holdeth my lond with %vrong,' Generides, 7389 ; Arthour D. 295/462 ; id. 
L 340/1480 ; Le Morte Arthur, 3155 ; Alisaunder, 3987. 7vtiA right also occurs, 
'with wrong no with right,' Langtoft, p. no; 'al wiJ) rijt, and nojt wi]) W05,' 
Miitzner, Sprachproben, i. 149/62 ; ' ffor alle we schulen wi)) rijte louen vchon 
o])ur,' Vernon MS. 331/73. So also, ' mid unrijte,' Beket, 716 ; R. of Gloucester, 
6619. For the sense comp. ' pat ich Jiis present vnderfong | Jif ich dede, it were 
wrong,' Arthour, 66/2289, 9°- The meaning of the passage is, It would be 
wrong for me to undertake it, namely, your daughter whom you offer, and the 
goveming of your kingdom. For to lede is accusative infinitive in apposition to 
hit (see 479 note). As Matzner says, there is nothing unusual in the change 
from pi to oiuer, but the scribe's origmal had probably oper, which he has read 

O 951. Similar are, 'f>e holie rode tokningue : fram seoruwe heom scholde 
werie,' Horst., S. A. L. 155/335 ; * With his blood he shalle us boroo [ Both from 
catyfdam and from soroo,' Towneley Mysteries, p. 156 : but I do not know an 
exact parallel. For 912 see 732 note. 

II. 915, 6. See O 725, 1403, 4, and for the rhyme comp. ' It nis no rijt f'at J)0U 
me weme | Rightfulliche \2X y wil jerne,' Arthour, S4/2947, 8 ; for the phrase in 
915, 'King, ich jeorne ])ine dohter,' Lajamon O. 4424; ' jurne we his dohter,' 
id. 934, 4382 ; ' He semes me to wife alwayse,' Ywain, 1242. 

1. 924. Aton ... of, agreed about, sone, O 96S, is a scribe's slip. 

^1- 933> 4- See 265, L ion, 2, O 1042, 3. The expression is formal and of 
frequent occurrence ; comp, ' & swiftliche he sent his sond \ Ouer al in to Irlond,' 
Arthour, 181/6435, 6; ' Anon the barrons send their sonde | Wyde ouer all Eng- 
land,' id. 292/353, 4; 'Hastely he sente hys sondes | Into manye dyverse londes,' 
Richard, 49, 50 ; ' Anoon })e kjTig sente hys sonde | Wyde aboute ynto all hys 
londe,' Octavian, 50/1585, 6; ' Thru5he ]5e werlyd in euery lond | Pope Bonyfas 
sente his sond,' Archiv, Ixxix. 435/91, 2 ; ' He sende his sonde : wide send J-ane 
londe,' Lajamon, 422, 3 ; Tristrem, 256; R. of Gloucester, 363 ; K. of Tars V. 
913, 4. Important messages are generally entrusted to a squire (see Gauticr, La 
Chevalerie, p. 203; Schultz, pp. 173-8), and he is sometimes knighted for his 
good news ; comp. ' A knaue ])at he[m] knewe, | He made him knijt wij) hand | 
For his tidinges newe,' Tristrem, 1700-2. 

1. 943. See 193 note. 

L 951. The rhyme occurs often in Lajamon ; comp. * on songe no on spelle \ 
ne miSte hit na mon telle,' 12093, 4 ; ' Heore names ne herde ich neueie telle : in 


bok no in spelle,' O 1802, 3. He also writes, 'a. saegen o3er a spelle,' 6662 ; 
' inne soS spelle,' 8280 ; ' mid spelle,' O 12534. Comp. also Tristrem, 3091 ; 
Beues A. 2130. With feyr of felle, O 9S6, comp. ' Ho watj ])e fayrest in felle of 
flesche & of lyre,' Gawayne and G. R. 943 ; ' Vor he was meok & mylde ynou • & 
vair of flesse & felle,' R. of Gloucester, 5815 ; ' A feyre thynge of flesche and felle,' 
Eglamour, 29. 

1. 948. See 296 note. 

1. 950. The phrase is formal ; comp. ' To bring hir to his bedde,' Tristrem, 159; 
' And so hyr brynge as byrd to bedde,' Le Morte Arthur, 2989. 

1. 953. I have travelled far. It is not confined to land travel ; comp. ' & heuede 
Eneas ]>e duo i mid his driht folcke, | widen iwalken 2 send })at wide water,' Lasa- 
mon, 1 10-3 ; ' Peraventure yet ye may betyde | In straunge cnntry to walkyn wide,' 
Richard, 739, 40 ; ' She was ]>e fyrst ])at walkyd wyde [ Yn euery land,' Handl}'ng 
Synne, 2795, 6. Similar expressions are, ' Muchel ic habbe iwalken • bi water ant 
bi londe,' Horst., A. L. h./. 494/195 ; 'Thou walkyst bathe est and weste,' Egla- 
mour, 54; 'Were ys knyght Cleges, tell me herr, | For thou hast wyde iwent,' 
Clegcs, 476, 7. See also Minot, viii. 29 note. With 954 comp. 'As the mes- 
singerus welke bi the see sonde,' Amadace, 46/3. 

1. 956. Alas for the (evil) hour, time : much the same in meaning as the follow- 
ing line, but less common. Comp. ' Weylawey ]>e stounde,' Political, R. and L. 
Poems, 243/12; ' Wayle way pat stounde,' Guy A. 400/24/12. For 959, see 
755 note. 

1. 960. bidere tires. Comp. ' bitrum bryne tearum,' Codex Exon. 10/14; '& 
swij)e bitter teres lete,' Arthour, 31/1019. With the variant in O, comp. 1406; 
' Da pearS beam monig | blodigum tearum | birunne,' Codex Exon. 72/19-21. 

1. 969. pro5e is put by Stratmann under O. E. prdgan, to run. But the sense 
required is, The sea began to be stormy ; and we must either assume for the O. E. 
verb the meaning, to be convulsed, as the O. E. noun prdj means paroxysm 
(Sweet) ; or, with Wissmann, \.iikt}roje as written ior prowe (O. M.prdjvan). The 
latter suggestion is made more probable by such interchanges of j and w asfelawe, 
r. with knowe, 1089, and felaje, r. with draje, 1419. And rhymes like prone   . 
gloue •  • wo^e, 545, 793 ; kno7ve  • • o^e, 983, 1206; lo^e • • • tvvje, 1079, show 
that, for the scribe of C, j and iu lay very near in sound. For the use oiprowe, to 
be disturbed, comp. the example in 117 note and add, ' heje hare-marken | • • . 
J)rauwen mid winde,' Lajamon, 27356, 9. 

1. 972. ofpinke is impersonal, hit is the subject; see 106, 1056. It is rarely 
personal, but comp. Lajamon, 197. See for the constructions oi forpink, which 
replaced it , Guy, 984 note. Otietpink is used in the same sense, R. of Brunne, 

1. 973. Comp. generally with this passage, ' Le postis est alee ouvrir | Par ou 
Jehans devoit venir, | S'escoute et oreille, et regarde | S'ele I'orroit, car mout li 
tarde,' Jehan et Blonde, 2881-4. pe dure pin, the sliding bolt fastening the 
door, as shown in the illustration in Wright, Homes of Other Days, p. 145. 
Comp. ' In to hir chaumber hye stirt an hijt | & schette ])e dore wi)? J)e pinne,' 
E. Sludien, vii. 115/170, i; 'Sis angels two drogen loth in | And shetten to ^e 
dure pin,' Genesis & E. 1077, ^ ; ' Anone that lady, fayre and fre, | Undyd a pynne 
of yvere | And wyd the windowes she open set,' Squyr of L. D., 99-101 ; ' She's 
tane him to her secret bower, | Pinnd with a siller pin,' Child, iv. 289/4. In 
* With her fingers lang and sma [ She lifted up the pin,' Sharpe, Ballad Book, p. 5, 
a bar seems meant. 

NOTES. 151 

1. 975. See 755 note. 

1. 980. The ordinary phrase for such display of grief is seen in, * He wrungcn 
hondes, and wepen sore,' Havelok, 152. But comp. ' Sho wrang hir fingers, out- 
brast pe blode,' Vwain, 821 ; 'hir loueli fingris ho did wringe,' Cursor F. 23960; 
' wepmen & wummen, | mid wringiade honden | wepinde sare,' St. Katheriiie, 

1. 9S3. was iknowe, acknowledged, was acknowledging. For the construction, 

comp. ' beute jif J>u wulle icnawen beo 1 ])at ArCur is king ouer j^e,' Lajamon, 
26433, 4; ' He nolde be knowe for no Jiyng | )?at hit wes a mayde 5yng,' Ilorst., 
S. A. L. 171/53, 4 ; 'Seint Thomas him bithojte: that other he moste lie, | Other 
beo iknowe that he hit was,' Beket, 1223, 4; * Atte laste he was iknowe' (= con- 
fessed that he was Beket), id. 1225. iknowe in this construction goes back to O. E. 
adj. gectiiive, acknowledging ; comp. ' 7 hig ealle wseron Jiaes gecn&we ' (ge-cnawe, 
Hatton MS.), Lucae iv. 22 (= Et omnes testimonium illi dabant). But M. E. 
iknowe was mistaken for the participle of gecnawan and written with added n as 
in the first example above ; and the use was extended to the participles of bicnawen 
(O. E. becndwan) as in L 993, O 1028, and anaiawen (O. E. ottcfidwan). Comp. 
'Of his couenaunt he was biknawe,' Arthour, 15/425 ; ' & of hir dede sche was 
biknowe,' id. 24/764 ; ' He is by-knowe he is his sone,' Alisaunder, 1 140 ; * & how 
J)e couherde com him to • & was a-knowe fe so})e,' William, 421 ; ' ]?ef, pou schalt 
be slawe, | Bot J)ou wilt be ])e so])e aknawe,' Amis, 2098, 9 ; ' po weoren heo al 
J)at so)^e a knowen • (read knowe) hou heo foimden )>at luytel knape,' Gregorius, 
293. This explanation is due to Zupitza, Anzeiger, vi. p. 16. For the same 
rhyme see 1205, 6. 

1. 985. See 176 note, of depends on ikno've; see the examples of this construc- 
tion, answering to the O. E. genitive, in the preceding note. 

1. 992. In such wise that thou cease not, fail me not; practically, And do not 
fail me. For pat comp. ' Thre dayes lasted the fyght, | That Jiey nodur stynt nor 
blanne,' Beues, 74/66, 7 ; ' Fast he ffaught, bolhe he and they | All the nyght and 
all the day 1 That thes two dragons never blanne,' id. M. 1323-5 ; 'So was bi- 
twenen hem a fiht | Fro \t morwen ner to ]je niht | So jiat ])ei nouth ne blinne,' 
Havelok, 2668-70 ; ' f>us J)e batayl it bigan | • • • JJat neuer ))ai no Ian,' Tristrem, 
34, 8. The expression here has little meaning of its own : it strengthens the pre- 
ceding line, like, ' They hyeden faste • wold they nought bilinne,' Chaucer, iv. 
659/557 (Gamelyn) ; ' He went forth and wold not blynne,' Beues M. 905. Comp. 
also L 864 note. 

1. 994. to huse. Comp. ' And J)erto wile ich J^at J)u spuse, | And fa}Te bring 
hire until huse,' Havelok, 2912, 3 ; ' He |:'at maiden Oysel schal spouse j In godes 
lawe vnto his house,' Guy A. 5667, 8 ; 'To mary one of Je maydens thre | pe 
eldist first was helpid to hame,' Horst., A. L. n.f. 12/132, 3 ; * There's a French 
Lord coming o'er the sea | To wed and tak me hame,' Sharpe, Ballad Book, 
p. 2. 

1. 997. mid pe beste. See 1264 note. For 999, see 287 note. 

1. looi. Comp. 'Writes he did make and sende,' Generides, 7809; 'Then he 
made to sonde owt wryttes wyde,' Florence, 361 ; ' He sende writes sone on-on j 
After his erles euere-ich on,' Havelok, 136, 7; 2274,5; 'Mid worde and mid 
write 1 He dude 3am alle to wite,' Lajamon O. 6675, 6. But LO have preserved 
the original rhyme ; see 933 note. 

1. 1003. lijte, nimble, speedy. For this use of the word, comp. ' f>is losue was 
wondir li;t | And maistrj' had in mony a fijt,' Cursor T. 6951, 2; ' Till I may 


preve my myghte I With Roulande, that proude ladde, [ Or with Olyuer that is so 
lighte,' Sowdone of Babylone, 903-5 ; ' & 5nt fer was of welssemen • ]ie ver})e ost 
J)er to I lordeined wel inou • in a place biside | Jiat li3te were & hardi • muche folc 
to abide,' R. of Gloucester, 9275-7 ; ' Huon who was lyger and light,' Huon of 
Burdeux, 382/3; HC. 424; '& hadde an hors was ferly lyght,' R. of Brunne, 
1 2714. The adjective was specially applicable to the Irish, ' que leger sunt cum 
uent ' (Song of Dermot, 663), because they dispensed with defensive armour. So 
Saxo Grammaticus, ' Vtitur autem Hibernorum gens leui et parabili armatura,' 
169/6, and Giraldus Cambrensis, ' Praeterea nudi et inermes ad bella procedunt. 
Habent enim arma pro onere ; inermes vero dimicare pro andacia reputant et 
honore,' v. p. 150. With 1. 1004 comp. ' f>e gode weoren to fihten,' Lajamon, 
18461 ; ' cnihtes swi'i5e kene 1 wode to uihte,' id. 30375, 6; 'ffair folk to fighte, 
Cesar tabyde,' R. of Brunne, 4334. 

1. 1005. ino5e, in abundance. See 857, 1228, 1400, and comp, ' His barons alle 
aboute fast tille him drowe | With hors & armes stoute, J)er com tille him iuowe,' 
Langtoft, p. 203 ; ' Hi sumnede aje J)i3 holi day : he5e men ynowe J)erto,' E. E. 
Poems, 47/133. For O 1048, 9, see 1235, 6 note. 

1. loio. Comp. 336; * So wyj)ynne a litel ])rowe | Men amed Jiem & wel hit 
sowe,' R. of Brunne, 4669, 70; Havelok, 276. But the simple noun occurs in 
the same sense, ' Angis tok in a {jrowe | Mani castels/ Arthonr, 7/147, 8; 'There 
was dedde in a throwe | Fyve hundurde on a rowe,' Guy, 1655, 6. See also 
333 note. 

1. 1013. Stratmann proposed to read on for (2r» (E. Studien, iii. p. 270) and after- 
wards suggested that (5^ might be taken as a preposition (id., iv, p. 99). But the 
xistence oi and as a preposition in M. E. is very doubtful. The text presents no 
real difficulty ; the mast is lowered as well as the sail. Though no exact parallel 
or direct reference to the practice is forthcoming, the following passages speak of 
the raising of the mast at the beginning of a voyage, ' Heo rihten heora rapes J 
heo raerden heora mastes, | heo wunden up seiles,' Lajamon, 1099-101 ; ' They 
setten mast and halen saile,' Alisaunder, 992 ; ' Et fist lever voiles et tres,' Wace, 
3308 ; ' Crier a fait : as nes, as nes, | Et il entrent et lievent tres,' id. 4055, 6 ; 
' Mult furent le li marinel, | Vunt as windas, levent le tref,' Vie de S. Gile, 802, 3. 
Comp. also, * pey stryken sayl & anker cast | Vp to lande J)ey jede ryght fast,' 
R. of Brunne, 3687, 8. For 1015, see 124 note; for 1016, see i38inote; for 
1017, see 211 note. 

I. 1020. He was almost too late, comp. ' welnere he com to late,' Langtoft, 
p. 191. With 1021 comp. 597 note, and with 1022, 59 note. 

II. 1023, 4. See 1227 note, and for the passage generally, comp. HC. 850 ff., 
and, ' De yleqe vet Fouke, e vient en la foreste de Kent, e lessa ces chevalers en 
I'espesse de la foreste, e s'en vet tot soul chyvalchant le haut chemyn,' Fulk Fitz- 
Warine, p. 78. 

1, 1026. This phrase, which expresses the most complete isolation like that of 
one who, having come into the world without human parents, is devoid of relations 
or ties of any sort, occurs in four other places in M. E. literature : ' Thane he 
rydes hym allane | Als he ware sprongene of a stane | Thare na mane hym kende,' 
Perceval, 1042-4 ; 'Seint Edward in normandie . was \o bileued al one | As bar 
as wo sei]) of ])e kunde • as he sprong of fe stone,' R. of Gloucester, 6720, i ; 
' AUace, allace, wa is me, | Jiat wyf has tynt & barnis fre, | As thing wes sprongyne 
of \t stane, | Allace, I ame ful wil of wane,' Horst., Barbour, ii. 19/472-5 ; * & 
icham a wrecche & frendles : bileuej) nou alone, | Al nake}) & bar of alle gode : 

NOTES. 153 

as ich sprong out of \>e stone,' Early S. E. Legenc^ary, i. 396/105, 6. Grimm 
(Teutonic Mythology, p. 572), speaking of primitive legends which make the first 
men grow out of trees and rocks, instances the well-known passage in Homer, 
Odyssey, xix. 162, 3, dWd. koI us fnoi tlnk rtbv ytvos, uinruOfv iaai • \ oii -yap dni 
tpv6s iaat na\ai<pdTov ov5' diri TTtrprji, you must have ancestors, for you are not 
sprung of fabled oak or rock, and Zupitza, Anzeiger, ix. p. 190, quotes the follow- 
ing passages from Plato which show how the expression was understood in his 
time: ij otu in 5pv6s iroOtv fj t« Trerpas rdy iroXiTfias YiyvfaOai, dXA' oiixl <« tuiv 
fjOaiv Twy fv rati Tru\(aiy, de Republica, 544 D ; xal ydp tovto avrd to tov 'O^-qpov, 
ovh' iyw dvb Spvbs oid' dird Trirprjs iTfipvfca, d\X' l£ dvOpujircov, ware aal olictTui fioi 
flffi KOI vleis, K.T.X., Apologia, 34 D. See also Grimm, Teutonic Mythology, 
p. 1451, and Gervase of Tilbury, ed. Liebrecht, p. <)9. Similar expressions are 
seen in, ' J?at he suld fynd a palmere orly at mom, | At ])e South sate, alone as 
he was bom,' Langtoft, p. 32 ; ' Al oon he sat, as he was born,' Beues, 62/25 ; 
' In he come amonge hem alle [ Throw the clowdis as he had falle,' Ipomydon, 
811, 2. 

i. 102S. Comp. 782 note, and for the rhyme here, *a pore knyjt he mette | J)at 
wit mylde wordus: wel swyj)e fayr him grette,' Archiv, Ixxxii. 312/25, 6 ; ' In ])e 
wei he hj-m mette | And feire Jienne he hym grette,' Vernon MS. i. 329/27, 8. 

11. 1029, 30. Thou shalt tell me all thy news. ¥ov spelle, comp. L 951. 
' Palmers walkes both fer and nere,' Horst., A. L. «./., 9/427, and in the romances 
they are always welcome for their news, comp. Guy, 1405-8. Apparently they 
had a poor reputation for truthfulness, comp. ' Eien diz cum paumer • mcnconges 
uas trouant | Lei est de pelerin • nul ne mentira taunt,' HR. 194/3730, i ; * of ojier 
palmers he gan frayne | Lesynges quajTite,' Octavian, 43/1365,6; ' pilgrymes, | 
With scrippes bret-ful of lesinges,' Chaucer, iii. 63/2122, 3. For 1031, and on, 

1069, see 1363 note. 

O lo/o. Under bruken in Matzner may be found instances of the use of the word 
in asseverations with many parts of the body, but this expression appears to be 
without a parallel. For O 1071, see 153 note. 

1. 1034. We should probably read, Of Rymenhild ]>& 5inge. When the scribe 
of C finds in his original the fixed epithet of Rimenhild, i.e. Jie 5inge, in rhyme, 
he either leaves it out, as at 614, 1287, or recasts the line, as at 443, or spoils the 
rhyme by alteration to jonge, as at 566, 1188. See also 279, 80. 

O 1076, 7. Reading in the second line, tier hye gan, I take the meaning to be, 

1 come from under church wall where she owned a husband (see O 440). bonder 
chyrche wowe may mean, at the church porch, as in Chaucer's ' Housbondes at 
chirche dore she hadde fyve,' prol. 460, all that part of the ceremony which pre- 
ceded the nuptial mass being in former times performed at the entrance to the 
church. See Rock, Church of our Fathers, iii-. p. 172. 

1. 1036. See 755 note. 

I. 1038. wip golde, with a gold ring. I know of no exact parallel for this 
use, but comp. 'And spusen hem wij) one gold ringe,' Floris, 1252 ; ' I had rather 
marry your daughter with a ring of gold,' P. F. MS. i. 197/427 ; ' And thou schalt 
wedd Organata, my doghtur fre, | Wyth a fulle ryche r>'nge,' Eglamour, 605, 6. 
Expressions like ' He spoused hir wiJ) his ring,' Tristrem, 1706 ; ' For hir sake that 
he hade | Wedd with a ryng,' Perceval, 1763, 4, are very common. 

O 1084. Myd strencpe, by force, forcibly. Comp. ' mid stren<5e he heo nom,' 
Lajamon, 30480; ' His gode swerd wil? strengjie he drouj,' Guy A. 4346 ; 'And 
al men speken of hunting, ] How they wolde slee the hert with strengthe,' Chaucer, 


i. 289/350, 1 ; 'and thei toke hym bystrenght, not withstondyng the kyng defendid 
hym,' Ponthus, 3/17. With an adj. or adj. phrase the word is common, comp. ' he 
hafueS inome ])ine majei mid hahliche strenSe,' Lajamon, 25667, 8. 

1. 1046. Comp. 'to bure me laddei to J)as kinges bedde,' Lajamon, 30483, 4. 
For 105 1, see 183 note. 

I. 1052. As minstrels, palmers and beggars moved about freely and without 
question, men wishing to disguise themselves usually adopted the dress of one of 
these classes. For similar exchange of clothes with a palmer, comp. ' " Palmer," 
a seide, " paramour | 5em me J)ine wede | For min and for me stede." | • • • Beues 
of is palfrei alijte | And schrede pe palmer as a knijte | And jaf him is hors j^at 
he rod in, | For is bordon and is sklauin. | The palmer rod forj) ase a king, | & 
Beues wente alse a brepeling,' Beues A. 2058-60, 63-8; Lajamon, 30738-41; 
Wistasse le Moine, 900; Child, Ballads, v. p. 179: with a beggar, Orfeo, 497; 
Generides, 6871, 2 : vnih a charcoal burner, Wistasse, 1007,8 ; Fulk Fitz-Warine, 
p. 145. For the palmer's dress adopted as a disguise, comp. ' Pyk and palm, 
schryppe and slaueyn, | He dy5te hym as palmer queynt of gyn,' Octavian, 
43/i357> 8 ; ' In slaueynys as J^'ey palmers were | 5ede alle ])re,' id. 49/1547, 8; 
R. of Brunne, 15832-46. A good description of a palmer's outward appearance 
is given in Morte Arthure, ' A renke in a rownde cloke, with righte rowmme 
clothes, I With hatte and with heyghe schone homely and rownde ; | With llatte 
ferthynges the freke was floreschede alle ouer, | Manye schredys and schragges at 
his skyrttes hynnges, | With scrippe, ande with slawyne and skalopis i-newe, | Both 
pyke and palme, alls pilgrara hym scholde,' 3470-5. See also Piers Plowman B. 
V. 522-38. His distinguishing garment was the sclavine. This is usually taken 
to have been a cloak, but it was more probably a long robe of shaggy woollen 
stuff (' pallam villosam quam sclaviniam nominant,' Mapcs, de Nugis Curialium, 
p. 234), such as the pilgrims wear in the frontispiece to Fosbrooke, British Mona- 
chism, ed. 181 7. It constitutes the sole garment of Sir Orfeo, ' Al his kingdom he 
forsoke, | Bot a sclavin on him he toke, | He ne hadde kirtel no hode, | Schert [ne] 
non o])er gode,' Orfeo, 225-8. But the special marks of the pilgrim were the bourdon 
and the scrip. The bourdon was a stout staff a little taller than the bearer, with 
a knob about one third of the length from the top, and armed at the end with a 
large iron spike from which it is often called a pike. Comp. ' A pyked staf he 
dressede of his spere • as palmers don })at walkej) wyde,' Gregorius, 560 ; ' The 
knyghte purvayed bothe slavyne and pyke, | And made hymselfe a palmere lyke,' 
Isumbras, 497, 8 ; Richard, 611, 2. The bourdon and scrip, ' signa peregrinationis,' 
were received by the pilgrim from the hands of a priest, comp. ' Tandem cum 
lacrymis ab oratione surgens, sportam et baculum peregrinationis de manu Guillelmi 
Remensisa rchiepiscopi • • • devotissime ibidem accepit ' (Philippus, rex Francie), 
Rigord, i. p. 98. See further Du Cange, Dissertations sur I'histoire de S. Louys, 
no. XV ; and for a popular account of pilgrims generally, Cutts, Scenes and Char- 
acters of the Middle Ages, pp. 157-75. 

II. 1055, 6. To-day I shall drink at that feast in such wise that some will repent 
it. dririke appears to mean simply, share in the feast, and the sense is much like 
' There was berlyde at ])at suppere | Drynke that sethyn was bought full dere,' 
Ipomadon, 791, 2. But the word has in M. E. another well-known ironical use, 
of chastisement, and there may be some suggestion of it here, comp. ' and thoo 
that wolde have come uppe ( They dranke off Kyng Richardes cuppe ' (i. e. received 
blows), Richard, 6945, 6; 'Ye shall drynke or ye goo,' York Plays, 38/81; 
' Adam hente sone • another gret staf | For to helpe Gamelyn • and goode strokes 

NOTES. 155 

yaf. I • • • " What ! " seyde Adam • " so ever here I masse, | I have a draught of 
good wyn ; drink er ye passe," ' Gamelyii, 591, 2, 5,6; so of similar words, ' hem 
schal sone com a beuercche | J)at schal nou5t J)enchc hem gode,' E. Studicn, i. 104/91 ; 
'Sayd J)e marchaunde, " Sikerliche, | Here schal rise a fair beuerege,"' id. vii. 
114/93, 4; ' & euere whanne hi come • hii dronke of lujiere drenche,' R. of Glou- 
cester, 858/296 ; ' wesseyl I schal drynk yow too,' Richard, 6746. The lines, 
'& sware by the ruth, that god them gaue | He shold drinkewith his owne staffe,' 
Arthour, 361/2045, 6, show the same use of the word (probably the French ori- 
ginal contained a play on the words boirc and bordoit), comp. * The stranger reply'd, 
111 liquor thy hide | If thou offerst to touch the string,' Child, Ballads, v. 134/S; 
' And J)erfor, lord, good rijt it is | With oure owne staf chastisid to be,' Hymns to 
the Virgin, 81/89, 9°- ^^^ meaning given by the texts as they stand is not very 
satisfactory, but their substantial agreement is against any assumption of corruption. 
Otherwise one would be tempted to read ior J>er, brew : comp. ' Anon I wole to 
hem goo, | And brewen hem a drj-nk off woo,' Richard, 6373, 4 ; ' A sorye beverage 
ther was browen,' id. 4365 ; S. Sages, 265 ; 'pys bale wil \)ey eft vs brewe,' R. of 
Brumie, 1245; 'So \sX a lujier beuerege • to hare biofjje hii browe,' R. of Glou- 
cester, 621; Cursor T. 2848. With 1056 comp. 106, and ' Hj't wyle of-thenche 
hjTn sore,' Shoreham, p. 36. 

1. 1058. See 841 note and for the omission of the subject, Horn, 126S note. 

1. 1059. For horn his = Horn's, see Matzner, E. Grammatik, ii-. p. 236, 7. 

I. 1062. And twisted his lip; apparently, made a wry face by way of disguise. 
The e.xpression seems to be without parallel. Wissmann quotes, ' At ubi regiam 
snbiit [Olo], uerum oris habitum adulterina specie supprimens, obtritum annis 
hominem simulabat,' Saxo, 254/22-4. Morris reads, to-iijrong, distorted. For 
kewede, O 1107 read kelwcde. 

II. 1065, 6. With the substitution of netier ere for neuremore, these lines yield a 
fair meaning. He made himself uncomely, such as he never was before. But they 
read like a feeble variation on the preceding couplet, and should be rejected. 

11. 1067, S. The churlish porter is a stock character in the romances. See 
Gautier, La Clievalerie, pp. 494-6, and comp. ' "Porter," a sede, " let me in reke, | 
A lite Jjing ich aue to speke | Wi]) J)emperur." | " Go hom, truant," ])e porter 
sede, I ''Scherewe houre sone, y J)e rede, | Fro \e gate : | Boute ])ow go hennes 
also swi]je, | Hit schel ])e rewe fele sit^e, | {lou come J)er ate." | • • • Beues wi]) oute 
jre gate stod | And smot J)e porter on J)e hod, | pat he gan falle; | His heued he 
gan al to cleue | And for J) a wente wij ])at leue | In to J)e halle,' Beues A. 394-402, 
415-20 ; ' J?e porter gan him wite | And seyd, " Cherl, go oway, | 0)jer y schal J)e 
smite,"' Tristrem, 619-21 ; HC. 952-60 ; Cleges, 256-64; P. F. MS. ii. 587/722- 
32. The porter's resistance is sometimes overcome by bribes, but mostly, as here, 
by hard knocks. The poor dependant often fails to get admission, comp. ' Also 
fare)) Elde as doj) a sweyn | J)at stondej) at his lordes jate, | And mot not wenden in 
ajcyn, | ffor \ie porter ])at is J)er ate; | ffor no jiftes J)at he may jiuen, | Ne feire 
wordes })at he mai speken : | He wor]) out atte 3ate I driuen, 1 Anon J)e gate for 
him is steken,' Archiv, Ixxix. 433/117-24. For an ill-tongued porter in real life, 
comp. the episode of the legate Otho and the Oxford scholars as told by ISIatthew 
Paris under 1238 a.d. ' Quibus advenientibus, janitor quidam transalpinus, minus 
quam deceret aut expediret facetus, et more Romanorum vocem exaltans, et januam 
aliqnantulum patefactam tenens,ait, " Quid quaeritis ?" Quibus clerici, "Dominum 
legatum, ut eum salutemus." • • • Sed janitor, con\'itiando loquens, in superbia et 
abusione introitum omnibus procaciter denegavit. Quod videnles clerici, impetuose 



irruentes intrarunt ; quos volentes Romani reprimere, pugnxs et virgis caedebant,' 
Chronica Maiora, iii. p. 482. The absence of a porter, on the other hand, indi- 
cates unstinted hospitality ; there was no porter at Arthur's court according to the 
Mabinogion, d'Arbois de Jubaiuville, iv. p. 3 ; nor at the house of Sir Baudewyn, 
•He funde thaym atte the mete | The lady and hur mene, | And gestus grete 
plente, | Butte porter none funde he, | To werne him the jate,' Avowynge of 
Arther, p. 80 ; so too, ' At ]>o dor uschear fond he non | Ne porter at ]>o yette,' 
Gowther, 329, 30. In 1254 A.D. the king of England gave a great feast to the 
king of France at the Temple, which was open to all comers. ' Nee erat in majori 
janua vel aliquo introitu epulantium janitor vel exactor, sed omnibus adventan- 
tibus patuit ingressus ultroneus et dabatur lauta refectio,' Matthew Paris, C. M. v. 
p. 479. Similarly, ' Qui que vout beivre ne mangier | Si 'n out tant comme il en 
volt prendre. | Nuls n'i osa porte defendre,' Guillaume le M. 11 16-8. 

11. 1071, 2. Nor might he succeed in getting admission. For the construction, 
comp. ' and jeorne was aboute | hou he mihte awinne 1 \>at he were wip ine,' 
Lajamon O. 12563-5; 'mid fihte he hadde awonnel J'at he was king of londe,' 
id. 10876, 7. 

1. 1075. A common expression, but usually containing an adverb. Comp. 'He 
bit scholde abugge sum day,' Alisaunder, 1326; 'buten he hit abuggel mid his 
bare rugge,' Lajamon, 22457, 8 ; ' J)ou salt hit sore abugge,' id. O. 8158 ; ' J)e king 
vvel sore scholde hit abegge,' Beues A. 1516; Alisaunder, 2971. 

I. 1076. ouer pe brigge, i.e. into the moat: comp. the similar measure dealt 
to a saucy porter in Elie de S. Gille, ' Et Bertrans passe auant a loi de bacheler, | 
Le poin senestre li a el cief melle, | Enpoin le bien de lui, el fosse I'a iete,' 821-3. 
For parallels in the ballads, see Child, v. p. 95. 

II. 1079 ff. With Horn disguised at the marriage feast should be compared the 
episode in the Gesta Herwardi, which tells how Hereward on behalf of a friend 
rescued a Cornish princess (Gesta Herwardi, pp. 349-53). The passage in which 
Lajamon (30728-827) relates how Brian visited the court of Edwine has many 
features in common vnth the present passage. 

11. 1079, 80. wel loje. Comp. 11 15 and ' Pore men })at sat vppon Jie ground | 
Were delyd of many a pownde,' Ipomydon, 1544, 5 ; ' In the flore before me sett 
ye adowne,' Ipomadon, 788 ; ' pon schalt eten on Jje ground ; | f>in assayour schal 
ben an hound,' R. of Cisyle, 165, 6 ; ' In the floure a clothe was layde, | " This 
povre palmere," the stewarde sayde, ( " Salle sytt abowene 50W alle," ' Isumbras, 
567-9. So King Gram, hearing that his betrothed is about to be married to an- 
other, ' relicto exercitu tacitus in Phinniam contendit, inchoatisqne iam nupciis 
superueniens, extreme uilitatis ueste sumpta, despicabili sedendi loco discubuit,' 
Saxo, 18/31-4. With beggeres rowe, comp. 'ffor ffeare lest any one shold him 
know, I he kept him in silly beggars rowe,' Guy & Colebrande, P. F. MS. ii. 
528/28, 9 ; 'Go stond in beggers rowght | Yf J>ou com more inward | It schall 
the rewe afterward,' Cleges, 261-3; ' -^^ ^at in pore Mennes rowe | Jjerfore ]pei 
coujje him not knowe,' Alexius, 39/151, 2. The corresponding passage in Ponthus 
is worth quoting for the contrast in manners and sentiment. ' At that tyme itt 
was the custome at the weddyng of grete astates, ther shuld be xiij pouere men 
ordanyd, the which shuld sitt at mett befor the bride at a table by theym selfe ; 
in the worshipp of God and of his xij apostelles. And aftre the dynner, she that 
was maryed shuld yeve drynke to eueryche of the pouere men, in a copp of golde. 
And thus went Ponthus and satt doune for oon of the xiij,' p. 98/8-14. 

1. 1081. abate is postponed preposition, see 393 note. Comp. ' And loket aboute 

NOTES. 157 

him anre alle,' Avowynge of Arther, p. 80 ; * Al aboute he gan beholde,' Beues A. 
421 ; ' But euere his eye o sydc he glente,' R. of Brunne, 15848. 

1. 10S4. See 651, 2, and comp. ' alse he were of witte,' Lajamon O. 8226 ; * lie 
was neije of his witt ywis,' Arthour, 95/3322 ; ' Sche wax neij of hire witt,' W. of 
Paleme, 4346 ; and with the variant in L, ' Then wasTryamowre owt of hys wytt,' 
Trj-amoure, SS9 ; 'part waxen newe | Out of J)i witte,' Horst., S. A. L., 4/57, 8. 
But the expression is generally made more definite by the presence of an adjective, 
comp. ' He was neije wode out of wt,' Arthour, 53/1795 ; Lybeaus, 953 ; Beues 
A. 1916; ' He was nygh of wit wod,' Alisannder, 1831 ; S. Sages, 495, 6; W. of 
Paleme, 2772 ; " of witte hii weren awed,' Lajamon O. 4438 ; ' Out of wit he was 
anoied.' Alisaunder, 1600. Similar phrases are, ' That nighe of witte she wold 
wede,' Le Morte Arthur, 651 ; ' Syr Ector of hys wytte nere wente,' id. 3930 ; ' And 
made here wytte al wode,' Handlyng Synne, 1273. 

O 1 1 26. Comp. 'He seet stille and sihtte sore, | Litel he spak and I)ouhte 
more, | ^ViJ) drowpninde chere,' Horst., A. L. n.f. 217/298-300. The divergence 
of the MSS. is noteworthy ; no one of them is satisfactory : O 1 1 27 is a mere patch, 
and C 1086, a reminiscence of 916, ill suits the context. 

I. 1090. So far as he could see; comp. Matzner, E. Grammatik, \\}. p. 431. in 
vch plawe, L 1094, apparently means, in every fight ; ful of lawe, full of loyalty, 
fidelity ; but I know of no parallel for either expression. 

II. 1095, 6. See 117, 8 note. For 1097 see 1363 note. 

I. 1 100. Comp. 342, and, ' In J;i lokeing y was laft,' Desputisoun, 36/195. For 
1 105, 6 see 369, 70 note. 

II. 1107, 8. These lines occur with a slight variation at O 383, 4. For After 
mete, see 373 note, and comp. ' After mete in ])e haule \t kyng mad alle blithe,' 
Langtoft, p. 56. wyn and ale : these drinks are often mentioned together, comp. 
'ne mai hit na mon suggen on his tale' of J)an win and of J)an ale,' Lajamon, 
24439, 40 ; ' ^YheJ)e^ hem leuer ware. | Win or ale to gete, | Aske and haue it 
jare | In coupes or homes grete | Was brought,' Tristrem, 544-8 ; ' Hy ne drynken 
of ale ne of wjTie,' Alisaunder, 5925 ; ' To revele ho best my5th, | With wyne and 
\vith ale,' Degrevant, 1867, 8 ; ' Aye they sat and aye they drank, | They drank of 
the beer and wine,' Child, Ballads, iii. 23/8 ; ' to drinke mesurabli boj-e wijTi & ale,' 
Babees Book. 31/73; ' Soone anon |)0u sece ])y tale, | Whej^ur he dn,Tike wyne or 
Ale,' id. 14/63, 4. Kolbing (Sir Tristrem, 545 note) quotes ' Commaunde to sett 
bothe brede and ale | To alle men J)at seruet ben in sale; | To gentilmen with 
wyne I-bake, | Ellis fayles Jjo seruice, y vnder-take,' Babees Book, 312/409-12, 
and (E. Studien, xi. p. 507) * She servd the footmen o the beer, | The nobles o the 
wine,' Child, iii. 81/32 ; ' Win hwit and red, ful god plente. | Was {)erinne no page 
so lite, I Jiat euere wolde ale bite,' Havelok, 1729-31, as showing that a class dis- 
tinction was made in the serving of the two drinks. There is an earlier passage 
pointing in the same direction, ' weoren J?a hemes ' iscaengte mid beore. | & Jia 
drihliche gumen \ weoren win drunken.' Lajamon, 8123-6, but probably no differ- 
ence was made between the guests on great occasions like marriage feasts. It will 
be observed that L, which has here preserved the most primitive text, makes 
Rimenhild pour out the ale (1108) and pledge the company in the same (11 13), 
and even C makes all the company drink it (i 112). An interesting record shows 
that it was wideh' used in France in the xii*"" century, • Anno superiore (1151 A. D.) 
fuit vindemia rara et valde sera ; unde et vinum nimis carum et duri saporis fuit. 
Hoc antem anno fuit vindemia temporanea ; sed vinum carius quam fuerat anno 
praeterito ; iccirco fiebant vulgo etiam in Francia tabernae cerevisiae et medonis 



quod nostra memoria in retroactis temporibus non fuit auditum,' Robert deTorigni, 
pp. 167, 8. 

1. 1 109. Stephanius in his Notae Uberiores in Saxonem, p. 127, commenting on 
a passage which refers to a British banquet, ' Nee bubalinorum cornuum, quibus 
pocio promeretur, usus aberat,' 168/9, '°> illustrates the use of the horn as a drink- 
ing-vessel among the ancients. He quotes Pliny, ' Urorum cornibus barbari septen- 
trionales potant urnisque bina capitis unius cornua inplent,' Hist. Nat., xi. 45, and 
Caesar, ' Haec [uri cornua] studiose conquisita ab labris argento circumcludunt 
atque in amplissimis epulis pro poculis utuntur,* De Bello Gallico, vi. 28. For 
drinking-horns, as used by the English before the Conquest, see Wright, Homes 
of Other Days, p. 43. The ancient Laws of Wales (ed. Owen, i. p. 294) prescribe 
that the king's drinking-horn be that of the wild o.x. Other historical references 
to their use in mediaeval times may be given : ' E la custome itele estait, | 
Grant pris li ert ki bien beueit. | Od cupes, od mazelins, | Od corns des bugles 
pleins de vins, | Fu le wesheil e le drinchail,' Gaimar, 3807-11. The French 
nobility present at the Easter festival held by William the Conqueror at Fecamp 
in 1067 A. D. admired among the spoils of England there displayed, ' bubalina 
cornua fulvo metallo circa extremitates utrasque decorata,' Ordericus Vitalis, ii. 
p. 168. Perhaps among them was the ' cornu vinacium argenteum centum solidis 
computatum ' ("Vita Haroldi, p. 163), which, with many other precious things, he 
took from Waltham Abbey. Henry the First possessed a splendid horn, ' cornu 
grande, auro gemmisque ornatum sicut apud antiquissimos Anglos usus habet,' Ger- 
vase of Tilbury, p. 28 ; Gesta Romanorum, p. 541. It was stolen from an hospitable 
elf. A gift to prince Edward, ' unum cornu bubalinum,' is mentioned in the 
Wardrobe account of 28th Edward the First, p. 160. The use of drinking-horns 
appears to have lasted into the sixteenth century, comp. ' Nobis adhuc pueris, 
multus usus erat hujusmodi animalium cornuum in mensa, solennioribus epulis, 
loco poculorum,' Caius, De Rariorum Animalium Historia, p. 77. As is implied 
in mo, it would appear from some of these passages that horns were specially 
used on occasions of great ceremony. Curiously enough, mention of drinking- 
horns in M. E. literature is infrequent. Kolbing, in his note on Tristrem, 547, 
cites two instances, 'And then shee gaue me drinke in a home,' Eger, 287 and HC. 
336 : to these may be added, ' She came to me without delay | And brought me 
drink into a horn,' Gray Steel, 360, i ; ' lanus sit by the fyr, with double herd, | 
And drinketh of his bugle horn the wyn,' Chaucer, iv. 497/1252, 3; ' The homes 
fuUe of meth, as was the gyse,' id. 65/2279. There is also a magic hom in the 
story of the Boy and the Mantle, P. F. MS. ii. 31 i/i 77-82, and the ballads afford 
numerous instances, see Child, ii. 428/17; iv. 409/21, 422/43. anhonde, comp. 
' Heo bar an hire honde ; ane guldene boUe,' Lajamon, 14297, 8; 'his sweord he 
bar on honde,' id. 8190; ' Wawain his ax left an bond,' Arthour, 138/4888, and 
for another construction, ' a pot sche bar in honde,' Hermit & Outlaw, 225. 

1. 1 1 10. For la3e in the sense of custom, comp. ' & furh pa ilke leodeni ]>a. 
lajen comen to Jiissen londe | Waes-hail & drinc-haeil,' Lajamon, 14353-5 ; ' pere- 
fore ich aske iugement, | ])at his borwes be tobrent, | As it is londes lawe,' Amis, 
1210-2 ; ' Hire cloJ>es he dude of anon: as hit is lawe of bedde,' E. E. Poems, 
73/106 ; ' his hondes he wusch, so was J)e lawe • and bi ];e fuir sat him a doun,' 
Gregorius, 581 ; 'pat ner no mesageris lawe,' Beues, 59/1252 ; ' The messangeres 
nought ne knewe | Richardys law ne hys custome,' Richard, 3418, 9 ; 151 3 ; ' And 
clad J)e may in riche wede | As was lawe in J)at lede,' Cursor T. 3341, 2 ; P. F. MS. 
iii. 93/464; Beketj 300; Child, Ballads, v. 27/116. Similar expressions are, ' Als 

NOTES. 159 

it war londes ri5t,' Tristrcm, 952 ; ')7ys ys Jier custume & ]>eT gest,' R. of Brunnc, 
7577; 'And, "sir," she saidc, " drinke to me, | As the Gyse is of my londe," ' 
Sowdone of Babylone, 1931, 2. Ancient Germanic custom rctjuired the lady or 
the daughter of the house to bear the drinking-horn or cup round to the guests 
assembled at the greater feasts; see for references to the older literature \Veinhold, 
Die dcutschen Fraucn, ii. pp. 122,3, ^"d comp. ' })ae quene bar to drinken ' & alle 
hire bur-lutlen. | f>a i-lomp hit seoi^JJe 2 Jer after ful sone. | pat Galarne J)at maiden i 
com hire jeongen. | bolle heo hafde an honden ' Jer mide heo bar to dringen,' 
Lajamon, 307S8-95 ; ' Gvenoure on knewes oft gan stoupe, | To serue king 
Arthcur wij) j-e coupe,' Arthour, 184/6541, 2; ' Sponsa namque post prandium 
regalibus ornata induviis, sicut mos provinciae est, cum puellis potum convivis et 
conservis patiis et matris in extrema die a paterno domo discedens ministratura 
processit, quodam praecedente cum cythara et unicuique cytharizante cum poculo, 
quoniam praecipuus illis in locis jocus erat et novus,' Gesta Herwardi, pp. 350, i. 
With L 1113 comp. ' pat maide drone up J)at win i & lette don o6er Jier in | 8c 
bi-taehten fan kinge,' Lajamon, 14349, 51 ; R. of Brunne, 7589, 90. The corre- 
sponding passage in the French version agrees with C in making Rigmel merely 
serve the wine : ' En la buteillerie • est Rigmel pus entree | Vn com prist de 
bugle • dunt la liste iert gemmed | Ki entnr la buche • demi pie esteit lee | Si iert 
dor affrican . memeilles bien ouere^ | De piment lad empli • beiuere est ki bien 
agree | A sun dru le porta • cum iert la costumee | Li autre ensement • od uessele 
doree I Serueient tut entur . la sale encortinee,' 212/4152-9. 

1. 1 1 16. The three MSS. are in agreement here, for Lumby's In is a misreading. 
The expression means, It seemed to him that he was overpowered, he felt overcome 
by his feelings. This absolute use of bitiden is rare, but comp. ' For this lesing 
that is founden | Oppon me, that am harde i-bonden,' Dame Siriz, 203, 4 ; ' Seli 
wif, God the hounbinde,' id. 315. It occurs more frequently with a nominative or 
adverb phrase expressing the emotion, affection, or the like, which takes possession 
of or overpowers, comp. 'f>a andswarede Bruttes i mid sorjen ibunden,' Lajamon, 
14608, 9; 'I am so harde wiJ) serwe Ibounde,' Horst, S. A. L. 179/440; 'Thy 
child schal beo in sorowe y-bounde,' Alisaunder, 611 ; 'Sorwe so Tristram band,' 
Tristrem, 791 ; ' J?anne do al \t meseise • J)at ich am on ibounde,' R. of Gloucester, 
60/808 ; ' Of Thomas hadde gret pite | In kare ])at was ibounde,' E. Studien, viii. 
455/596, 7; ' Of al mi care ihc am unbunde,' Floriz, 544 ; ' With that noyse he fyl 
to gronnde | As man that was in woo ibounde,' Richard, 803, 4; 'and jif l)ou art 
in synne ibounde,' E. E. Poems, 131/47; Gregorlegende, i ; ' f?e king quhois hart 
was al wyth dred ybownd,' Lancelot, 502 ; ' Bot ilk berne has bene vnbundin with 
blame.' Golagros, 433/1040. See also 540 note. 

1. 1 1 19. wip pe furste, see 1264 note, and comp. ' Mid the furste he manseth 
me,' Beket, 1942. The earliest entry of the phrase in N. E. D. is dated 1611. 

1. 1 120. Horn here makes himself the spokesman of the confraternity of beggars, 
while in HC. he speaks of himself as the master ' of beggers mo {jan sexti,' 937. 

1. 1 1 22. Comp. ' Et un anap de madre d'un plain sestier | Li fist Aiols porter 
plain de uin uies | Dont manga li lechiere, qu'en ot mestier, | Si a son grant anap 
trestout uuidie,' Aiol et Mirabel, 4043-6. of a brun, from a brown horn, Matzner ; 
from a brown jar, Morris. Wissmann, adopting the reading of LO, explains, of 
the brown beer. I take the construction to be partitive, as at 234, O 911 and 
possibly 144; she filled him (one) of the brown (vessels), a bowl holding a gallon. 
R'menhild, coming to the beggars' row, lays down the white silver-mounted horn 
with which she has been pledging the guests of rank, and fills for the supposed 


beggar a large brown wooden bowl, which he passes on to his nearest neighbour 
(II 29) without drinking out of it. He insists on a white cup, i. e. a horn, such as 
the others have had, he will not drink from a dish (L 1146) ; and Rimenhild 
accordingly fills a horn for him (1153). The brown veSsel offered to Horn was 
a mazer, comp. ' and jaf him wyn of Maser broun,' Gregorius, 582 ; ' Me jaf him 
drynk in masere broun,' id. Cotton MS. 990. For the mazer, its material and 
colour, see especially Way's note, Promptorium, p. 328 ; and Cripps, Old English 
Plate, pp. 245-262. One, associated with the memory of Archbishop Scrope, is 
described in Drake's Eboracum. p. 439, and Yorks. Archaeological Journal, viii.p.312. 
In the court of Henry the Second there were Escantiones and Mazenarii, officers in 
charge of the cups and mazers (Hearne, Liber Niger, i. p. 350). With dyssh, 
L 1146, comp. 'a Mazer, or broad piece to drinke in. Patera,' Baret, Alvearie. 

11. 1 125, 6. See 449, 50. For haue, =take, see Zupitza's note on Athelston, 364. 
1. 1126 is due to a confused recollection of 450, the true reading is preserved by O. 
per vppe, in addition, comp. ' \€\ ])ou ne askedest \tx vppe • ))ralhede euere mo,' 
K. of Gloucester, 1085 (where other MSS. have /^r vp07i) ; ' Misdo hi wolleth 
al longe day : and theruppe beo wel bolde,' Beket, 403 : it is also used in the 
ordinary local sense of thereupon, comp. ' pat ich ])eruppe mowe a siker bold rere,' 
R. of Gloucester, 2493 ; ' A wyld wolf \tr com sone : & to Jie heued drouj | & J)er 
vppe sat & wiste hit faste : aje cunde ynouj,' E. E. Poems, 89/67, 8 ; 'pe monekes 
founde in ])is halle : bord & c\o\ isprad, | & bred & fisc J)er up Inouj,' S. Brendan 
A. 125, 6. 

L 1 1 31. ibite. Comp. ' God, for ure secnesse, dronk attri drunch o rode \ and 
we nuUeS nout bittres biten buten for us suluen ? ' Ancren Riwle, p. 364 ; ' Was 
Jier-inne no page so lite, | l)at euere wolde ale bite,' Havelok, 1730, i ; ' For Jiis is 
J)e fer])e dai agon, | Mete ne drinke ne bot i non,' Beues, 1739, 40. 

11. 1133-43- The Parable of the Net as here told by Horn is a pointed reference 
to Rimenhild's dream (659-64). It is meant as a token by which she may recog- 
nise him, and an assurance of his identity. At the same time it asks whether she 
has been true to him. The net is Rimenhild ; Horn has come to see if it has 
caught anything during his absence, that is, if she has found a new love : if so, 
that is her gain, not his. He has come to examine the net. In HR. the setting 
of the parable is different and less effective. Horn encounters his rival Modin on 
the road to the palace. The latter is struck by the supposed palmer's appearance, 
and questions him, ' Ki estes, dunt uenez, v auez uus soiur?' | 'loel te dirai,' dist 
horn, ' si es escoteor, | ladis serui ici un home de ualur, | Dirai uus mun mester, 
ioe fui sun pescheor | Vne rei ke ioe oi, bone iert a tiel labor, | En une ewe la mis 
peissun prendre aun ior ; ] Pres sunt set anz passe ke ne fis ci retur, | Or sui ca 
reuenuz, sin ierc regardeor | Si ele peissuns ad pris, ia mais nauera mamur, | E si 
encore est sanz oec, dune en ierc porteor,' 206/4043-52. HC. 925-33 agrees 
closely with the French romance in the substance of the riddle and the circum- 
stances under which it is told. But HR. doubles it by the Parable of the Hawk 
told by Horn to Rimel after she serves the wedding drink, and has found her ring 
in the horn. ' Ioe fui ia ualleton nurri en cest pais, | Par mun seruise grant un 
ostur i cunquis ; | Ainz ke loi afaitie enz en mue le mis, | Pres ad ia de set anz 
bien poet estre sursis. | Or le uienc reueeir quels il seit de quel pris ] Sil ueut estre 
maniers v ueut estre iolifs ; | E sil est si entier cum il fud aces dis | Quant ioe turnai 
deci dune iert mien coe pleuis, | Od mei lenporterai de ci qua mes amis ; | E sil est 
depecie v en coe mal mis, | Ke penne ait brusee dunt rien li seit de pis | la mes 
pus nen iert miens, si mait saint denis,' 216/4257-68. Tliis variation of the 

NOTES. l6l 

parable is also found in the Romnnce of Jehan et Blonde, written by riiilippe de 
Remi, Sire de Beaumanoir, sometime between 1270-80 A.D. Jehan enters the 
service of the Count of Oxford and gains his daughter's love. He is called back to 
France bj' his father's death, but Blonde promises to wait for him for a year. 
Meanwhile the Count of Gloucester seeks her hand, and Jehan, returning only 
just in time, travels in his train from London to Oxford. As they approach Oxford, 
Jehan, though urged to stay with the Count, says he must go on other business, 
' "Sire," dist il, " ains que demour, | Vous dirai pour coi je m'en tor: | Antan et 
auques pres de chi | Un trop bel espervier coisi ; | De I'avoir sui en tel bretesce | 
Que je i tcndi ma bouresce : | Or vols veoir se je I'ai pris. | Mon afaire vous ai 
apris ",' Beaumanoir, ed. Suchier, ii. S9/2821-8. Jehan carries off the lady, and 
the count, her father, explains the riddle to the disappointed suitor, thus, ' Ma; 
fille, c'est li espriviers. | N'est mie fox li escuiers, | Ains le vous dist mout soutil- 
ment. | Car tout ainsi comme uns hom tent | Un oisel pour autre oisel prendre, | 
Tout autressi convient il tendre | S' amour pour autre amour avoir,' id. 104/3313-9. 
In the Romant de Jehan de Paris, which is a popular transformation of Jehan et 
Blonde, written about the end of the fifteenth century, a similar mystification 
occurs. Jehan and the King of England are on the way to Burgos, the latter ta 
wed the daughter of the King of Spain, the former to secure the lady for himself. 
In response to the king's question what brings Jehan to Spain, he replies, ' Je vous 
diz et asseure pour vray cjue il y peult avoir environ quinze ans que feu mon pere, 
a qui Dieu face mercy, vint chasser en ce pays, et, quand il s'en partit, il tendit ung 
petit las a une canne ; et je me viens esbattre icy pour veoir si la canne est prinse.' 
p. 55. Jehan afterwards explains that the ' las ' stands for the contract made 
between his father and the King of Spain for the marriage of their children, and 
the 'canne' for the lady, p. iii. Finallj', the story of the Net appears in the 
Gesta Komanorum (which, in its present form, dates from the middle of the four- 
teenth century) in exactly the same surroundings as in HR. The three redaction^ 
of the tale, distinguished by their first words as Pollentuis , Herodes, Imperator, 
are printed (the first and last for the first time) by Suchier in his edition of Beau- 
jnanoir, ii. p. 319-54. As there is no essential difference in the versions, Pollentius 
will suffice for our comparison. {^Herodes may be found in Gesta Rom.anorum, ed. 
H. Oesterley, p. 597, and in the edition by W. Dick, Erlanger Beitrage, vii. p. 118.) 
As usual, the disguised lover is asked by his travelling companion what is the object 
of his journey, and he replies, ' Re vera dicam vobis veritatem. Hodie ad septcm 
annos dimisi unum rethe in quodam loco, et jam volo illud visitare : si invenero 
fractum, illud dimittam et aliud michi adquiram ; si vero totaliter sanum et integ- 
rum invenero, erit michi valde preciosum et mecum toUam,' Beaumanoir, ii. p. 324. 
The other, arriving at the court, tells the emperor of his strange acquaintance of 
the road and his mysterious words, ' Imperator cum hec audisset, voce magna 
clamabat, " O famuli et milites, cameram filie mie agili cursu intrate, quia sine 
dubio illud est rethe de quo miles loquebatur," ' id. p. 326. (A modern version is 
given in Simrock, Deutsche Marchen, no. 43, pp. 203-7, under the title, Vater 
und Mutter.) A comparison of these passages shows that the framework in which 
the parable is set is in most cases the same. A disguised lover falls in with his 
royal rival on the way to his wedding. He talks in riddling and apparently 
nonsensical language, so that he is looked on as an entertaining fool. But he 
proves wiser than he appears, and his words are found full of meaning. The 
story is mostly associated with similar riddles. Thus, in the version of the Gesta 
Romanorum, a heas'y shower leads the seeming fool to remark that it is good 



always to carry with you yonr house (i. e. a cloak), while an abundant meal 
suggests the propriety of always having with one one's father and mother (i. e. 
bread and wine). Such inventions are of popular origin, and we need not, with 
M. Gaston Paris (Revue Critique, 1867, no. 168, p. 158), look to the East for 
their source. In this mystification we have clearly the original and popular 
use of the parable : it is the merit of the composer of King Horn to have turned 
it to an artistic purpose by linking it on to Rimenhild's dream and using it to stir 
her memory. RH. indeed uses it in both ways, but the Hawk variation of the 
story is comparatively ineffective, since it contains no reference recalling their 
former relations. 

1. 1135. bi este, in an easterly direction: fram by weste, O 1170, from 
a country lying to the west of this, amounts to the same thing. L 1135, 6 seems 
due to an imperfect recollection of L 775, 6, where see note. 

1, I144. L has here preserved the good reading; it repeats 1131, 2. 

1. 1 148. See 608, and comp. * Wei ofte may his herte colde | J)at not what wei 
he schal wende,' E. Studien, xiv. 186/123, 4; 'The hethen hertes gan fast coolde,' 
Partonope, 1055; 'His hert bigan te cold,' Tristrem, 388; 'Many mannys herte 
began to colde,' Octavian, 17/501 ; Generides, 8562; Legends of the Rood, 141/ 
316 ; Chaucer, ii. 313/362. Similar expressions are, 'his hert & his inward • by- 
gonne to be colde,' Archiv, Ixviii. 70/466 ; ' The kynges veynes waxen colde,' Ali- 
saunder, 1 1 74 ; 'No })ing, dame, wex Jiine hert cheld,' E. Studien, vii. 1 16/293 ; * >e 
childes hertte was wel colde,' Beues A. 511 ; id. 1226. fel to kelde, L 1150, fell 
to be cold, became cold, is remarkable for the infinitive used after/a//: Wissmann 
takes kelde as a noun, but this would seem to require in instead of to. The nearest 
parallel I have met is, ' f>e king hit wijiseide • his herte fel cold,' R. of Gloucester, 

1. 1153. Comp. 'Li butillers vn corn empli | De bon clare, puis len seisi, | La 
meite but del com tut plein, | Al rei Eadward le mist en main,' Gaimar, 4031-4. 

1. 1 1 55. See 402. The expression is illustrated by Zielke, Sir Orfeo, 254 note; 
to the examples there given add, 'To fynde the thy fylle of fyghte,' Le Morte 
Arthur, 1534; Octavian, 110/836, 114/860, 869; 'The yeant had hys fulle of 
fyght, I The boke se3the some dele more,' Eglamour, 560, i ; Awntyrs of Arthure, 
410; W. of Palerne, 3277; Ipomadon, 7808; 'To looke on this Ladye all my 
ffill,' Degree, P. F. MS. iii. 42/694 ; ' Fast be the see Sydde | Schuld we pley owur 
fyle,' Torrent, 910, i ; ' And Clarionas weping hir fil,' Generides, 7743, 4. 

1. 1 158. vnder -wnde li5e. See 1227 note. 

1. 1160. to grunde, to the bottom of the horn. Similarly, ' and duden heom 
alle clane ^ into ]^an scipen grunde,' Lajamon, 21507, 8 ; ' In ])an grunde of J)e tur 
mihte sitter sixti hundred cnihtes,' id. O. 7779, 80. The casting of the ring into 
the horn is Horn's answer to her question ; the two additional lines in LO spoil 
the effect. 

1. 1 1 73. Comp. ' Hye seyd, "Say me hou | Com })is ring to })e?"' Tristrem, 

3"2, 3- 

1. 1 1 75. bi seint gile, a pilgrim's oath. The abbey of St. Gilles near Nimes in 
Provence was one of the most popular resorts of pilgrims throughout the Middle 
Ages. By the eleventh century it was reckoned one of the four great shrines in 
Europe, and the concourse of people caused a considerable town to grow up round 
it. See Acta .SS., September, i. p. 285 C. S. Gilles en Cotentin near Saint-L6 was 
also much resorted to. For 11 78, see 770 note; for 1179, 597 note and O 109. 

1. 1 1 83. Took to the sea. For the constructions of nimen, in the sense of, to 

NOTES. 163 

betake oneself, comp. ' and nam fro 'San | foi '5 to Sc desert of pharan,' Genesis and 
E. 1247, 8; 'And into sichcm, a burght, he nam, | and Sc'Sen he nam to mirie 
dale,' id. 744, 5, 1436 ; ' Wolde fe erl nouth dwelle J)ore, | But sone nam until his 
lend,' Ilavelok, 2929, 30 ; ' ]at ful fayre ayen hem nemc,' id. 1207, and contrast, 
' fer he J^a sae nom,' Lajamon, 4966 ; ' aet Doure he ])ohte nimen lond,' id. 9737. 

1. 1 191. at Jje furste. See 114 note. 

1. 1 192. berste is common enough in this connexion ; comp. ' Hire thoughtchire 
heorte barst on two,' Alisaunder, 625 ; ' Hir thoughte hir sorwful herte brast a-two,' 
Chaucer, ii. 362/180, 1 72/599 ; ' My guerdon is but bresting of myn herte,' id. iv. 


1. 1194. The second Jje is a scribe's mistake. For the sense, comp. 261, 2, 540. 

1. 1195. Comp. 'for grete sorvve ):'at he hedde | He fel adoun on his bedde,' 
Guy A. 4013, 4; ' Vppon hyr bedde she gan downc falle | On swoune afore hyr 
maydens alle,' Ipomydon, 873, 4 ; 'The Lady sighed and sovvned sore | Into the 
bower upon her bed,' Gray Steel, 2454, 5 ; ' Ouerthwart hir bed she ouer threw, j 
Loue bond hir so sore and fast,' Generides, 1604, 5. 

1. 1 197. \Vith which to slay her hated lord, hire, as in LO, seems necessary to 
the sense, see L 920. For the omission of the relative in an infinitive clause con- 
taining a postponed preposition, see Matzner, Grammatik, ii^. p. 521 : with Rimen- 
hild's purposed suicide, comp. ' The terme ys on ]>t f rydde day, | That we schall 
be wedde wythowte delaye | And, or that y be hys wyfe, | I schall me sloo wyth 
a knyfe,' Guy, 5989-92 ; ' Ar sche wille to him spoused be | WiJ) a kniif sche wil 
hir sle,' Guy A. 5935, 6 ; ' Myghte scheo have yfounde a knyf, | Heo wolde have 
spilled hire lyf,' Alisaunder, 1061, 2. 

1. 1203. The readings of LO are to be preferred. C omits the humble detail of 
L 1209, compresses the two following lines into one, and lengthens 1204 to match 
it. For L 1212 see O 124 note. 

1. 1206. Comp. ' Ne cujieii hey him nout cnowe,' O.K. Miscellany, 198/24. 

1. 1209. mid ywisse, of a certainty, truly. See L 125, 431, 2, and comp. 
' muchel wes ])a blisse 2 pat heo makeden mid iwisse,' Lajamon, 7606, 7 ; ' heo 
wenden mid iwisse ' to habben muchel blisse,' id. 19006, 7 ; ' par was mid iwisse^ 
onimete blisse,' id. O. 31128, 9 ; ' ich wot al myd iwisse, | my ioie & eke my blisse | 
on him is al ylong,' Boddeker, 196/8-10. M.E. z'wis, wis (1. 1233) represents the 
neuter sing, of the O.K. adj. gewiss, wiss; it is invariably used as an adverb. It is 
strengthened by the addition of ful as in, ' And ouer tSat so ful iwis [ An otJer 
heuene ful o blis,' Genesis and E. 109, 10 ; ' & swa wass }>att la ful iwiss | All affterr 
Godess wille,' Ormulum, i. 23/741, 2 ; and of wtV, as at O 129. It develops a 
M.E. a.d\erb, ywisse {JL 1 241), corresponding to O.'E.geztiss/ice ; this is strengthened 
by wel, as ' 60 gan hem dagen wel iwisse | Quan god hem ledde in to blisse,' Genesis 
and E. 91, 2. On the other hand, O.E. gewiss, certainty, a neuter noun, forms with 
prepositions the adverbial phrases (i) mid gewisse, M.E. mid iwisse, as in the 
present passage ;it may take an adjective, as ' nuten hi we])er ded wurst • mid ncure 
Don iwisse,' E. E. Poems, 29/119) ; and M.E. tnid wisse, comp. ' ac sunderlepes he 
is here fader mid wisse,' O. E. Homilies, series ii., p. 25 : (2) to gewisse, M.E. to 
iwisse, comp. 'penijes per buoS an fund a J to iwisse an hundrad punda,' Lajamon, 
3544, 5; and to wisse, as at 121 : (3) to gewissuni, M.E. to iwissen, comp. 'To 
iwissen hit is isaidJ and soS hit is ifunden,' Lajamon, 24489,90. M.K. to ful 
iwis shows an adverb form treated as though it were a noun, comp. ' oc fis to ful 
iwis I mid finnes waxen,' O. E. Miscellany, 18/563, 4; 'An her endede to ful in 
wis 1 Se boc be is hoten genesis,' Genesis and E. 2521, 2. 

M % 



O 1252. Comp. O 1428, and see for examples of this common phrase, Matzner, 
s.v. chippen. With 1210 comp. 1234, 1353, and 'Michel ioie & mirj;e ))ai 
made,' Arthour, 72/2496; 'And maden ioie swi])e mikel,' Havelok, 1209; with 
Ii 1218 comp. 406. 

1. 1212. -wudes ende, see 1227 note. With 1215 comp. O 1511-3, and for 
wrofie, 12 16, see 348 note. 

Ii 1227, 8. Comp. L 1377, 8. 

1. 1221. Horn passes from Rimenhild's bower through the hall to the exit; 
Rimenhild goes to the tower (O 1266), where Athnlf is on the look-out for Horn 

1. 1227. vnder wude bo^e. Comp. ' Alse wes ounder wode bowe, | Wei gode 
tidingges him come I nowe,' Horst., A. L. n. f. 213/76, 7 ; ' Vnder wode bou5 | 
pai knewen day and nijt,' Tristrem, 2485, 6 ; ' Vnder wode bon? | After her fomen 
Jiai rade,' id. 3277, 8 ; ' And agayn imdyr wode bough,' Richard, 581 ,- ' In the hye 
way and vnder wood bowe,' E. Studien, xiii. 150/6071 ; Alisaunder, 6071. With 
vnder wude side, 1024, comp. 'In a playn by a wode syde | Arthur dide his 
folk abide,' R. of Brunne, 1002 1, 2 ; ' Soche sorowe vndur a wode syde | For nojiyng 
schulde haue me betyde,' Guy, 1 18-;, 6 ; ' Bi a mychel wodes syde | ]iei made hem 
logges to abide,' Cursor T. 6191, 2. Much the same is pe wudes ende, 1212, the 
edge of the wood, comp. ' bi aennes wudes ende,'La5amon, 86S7 ; ' \e.x he wes on 
telde? bi lias wudes ende,' id. 20787, 8 ; ' Wei stilleliche hy wenten away | Bi one 
wodes ende,' Horst., A. L. n.f. 213/107, 8 ; ' An hunting forto pleyen him : bi ])e 
wodes ende,' E. E. Poems, 51/150. Similarly, 'i ])on wode rime ^ \tx he vnder rise 
lis,' Lnjamon, 739, 40 ; ' per he was bi wude scaje,' id. 27367. vnder wode leje, 
L 1 160, is clearly a phrase similar to under tvood bough. It occurs in, ' euer is fe 
eie to])e wude leie (variant, le^e^, ])erinne is [^et ich luuie,' Ancren Riwle, p. 96 ; 'J?e 
hert biturnde is homes heye, | JJere he wes ounder wode leyc,' Horst., A. L. «. /. 
212/31, 2. It apparently corresponds to O.E. *wudu-ledje, where the latter half 
of the compound is the dat. s. of leak, meadow, which so often appears in place 
names as -ley, e.g. Woodley. The compound may well mean, forest glade, which 
however does not give a good sense with under : possibly the meaning of the second 
element was obscured in M.E. At any rate, C has altered the original phrase 
into the commonplace, lie under the wood. For other expressions of the same 
kind, comp. 'Go seeke hym vndyr the wode lynde,' Partonope, 497S ; ' per he wes 
ounder wode linde,' Horst, A. L. n.f. 212/20; Anglia, ii. 412/123; 'and lien 
under linde and lef,' Desputisoun, 41/106; 'Tell me thy name, good ffellow, 
quoth Guy, I Vnder the leaues of lyne,' Child, Ballads, v. 93/33. 

L 1240. See 607 note. For ywis, 1233, see 1209 note. 

1. 1235. See O T048. For preie, company, army, comp. 'He liggeth nygh, 
with suche pray | That he wrieth al the contray,' Alisaunder, 1991, 2; 'Of his 
people theo grele pray | Laste twenty myle way,' id. 2595, 6 ; ' For Alisaundre 
Cometh with his pray ; | His folk spredith al the contray,' id. 40S4, 5 (all cited 
by Matzner). It is apparently found nowhere else. Places like, ' Gedirs of ilk 
glode • grettir & smallire, | And prekis furth with his pray • & passes fraward 
Gadirs,' Wars of Alexander, 1334, 5 ; ' 5it he tok a pray J)orgh quayntise & spie,' 
Tangtoft, 203/15, are ambiguous. 

1. 1236. See 1007, and comp. '& dede hem in ])e way to gon,' Horst., S. A.L. 
143/402; 'And do heom in the wa3-e,' Alisaunder, 3397; '& grei])ede is noble 
ost  & dude him in ]e weye,' R. of Gloucester, 3765. 

1. 1238 is parenthetic and explanatory of wel sone. ful pikke, 1239, very 

NOTES. 165 

densely, numerously, very often, as in ' Wyde wyndowes ywroujt • y written full 
J)ikke,' Pierce the Ploughmans Crede, 175; ' Suche are now a lyue ful J)ickc | 
Forjete J)e dede for J)e quike,' Cursor T. 3377, 8, is here used exceptionally for, 
very completely. Tiie ordinary expressions are ' iarmcd wel aplijt,' K. of 
Gloucester, 10517; ' wel ynou,' id. 1965; ' anon rightis,' Alisaunder, 1946 ; ' at all 
pointes,' Alisaunder fragment, 184/230; * at all peccs,* Troy Book, 3197 ; ' to )>e 
te]),' Bcues A. 945 ; ' fram heued to ])e ton,' R. of Gloucester, 11177. 

1. 1244. For illustrations of do used figuratively ior pt4t, see N. E. D., iii. p. 562. 
Kare, deep distress, is a euphemism for death. . 

O 1 2S3. blody. Comp. ' Ageynste ])em rydyth Tyrrye | And makyth many a 
man blody,' Guy, 2103, 4 ; ' Mani on he made blodi, y pli3t, | Of Lombardes in J)at 
fijt,' Guy A. 541 1, 2 ; '& for to beten here bodyis : me haj) al blody I-maked,' 
Archiv, Ixxxii. 342/312 ; ' Seyst thou not thy men rcdde,' Guy, 3416. 

1. 1247. See 1422 note. 

1. 1 249. opes holde. Comp. ' Him trewe lord for to holde | Ant to sueren him 
othes holde,' Chronicle of E. 729, 30. In places like, 'Manrede ]at he beden, and 
ok I Hold o])es sweren on |)e bok,' Plavelok, 2780, i ; 2816 ; ' VVanne we abbejj 
isuore holde o))es • to Jie king ywis,' R. of Gloucester, 9369 ; 7861 ; 7863 ; 9127, 
the word-order suggests more readily the holddp, oath of allegiance, of the O. E. 
Chronicle, a. d. 10S5, but the meaning here is the same. With the passage 
generally comp. 317-20, and 'And o])es ])ar sworen 2 swike ])at hii nolden,' 
Lajamon O. 21945, 6. C is here defective; Wissmann reads here tion for ncure 
in 1250. 

L 1264. Comp. ' Y schell J>e wedde ajenes Jie wille | To morwe y schel hit 
ful-fille,' Beues A. 3169, 70. For felle, 1254 = ''^'j carry out, execute, see 
N. E. D., iv. p. 215. 

1. 1257. The corruption in C is curious but easily accounted for; comp. ' Com- 
maimde to sett bothe brede and ale | To alle men Jiat seruet ben in sale,' Babees 
Book, 312/409, 10. With 1258, comp. HC. 949; 'To riche men and heore 
meyne | J)er was riche seruyse,' Archiv, Ixxii. 57/1978, 9 ; ' les autres riches hommes 
qui la estoient donnerent a manger chascun Fun apies I'autre, le lundi, le mardi, le 
mercredi,' Joinville, p. 36 ; ' Molt out iloc riche asemblee | De riches barons e de 
contes,' Guillaume le Marechal, 9556, 7. 

1. 1259. See 755 note and comp. further, ' J)e joye J)at he made ]'on, | wi]) tonge 
telle may no mon,' E. Studien, i. 53/565, 6 ; ' J^e feste J^at heo wiji him made • no 
tonge telle ne may,' R. of Gloucester, 5856 ; ' J)e prouesse J)at brut dede • no 
tunge telle ne may,' id. 270; 'The deol that Seint Thomas makede : no tonge 
telle ne may,' Bcket, 645 ; ' J)er nis no tonge on erj^e : jiat half tellin myjte | J)e 
blis & ek ])e ioye : Jfat l^er is to Jie I-dyjte,' Archiv, Ixxix. 415/203, 4 ; Cursor T. 
1311 ; Horst., A. L. «./. 39/373 ; O. E. Homilies, series i. p. 193 ; Poema Morale, 
287; ' The joye of that bredale | Nys not told yn tale,' Libeaus, 2107, 8. 

1. 1261. chaere. Horn takes the king's seat {solium regale, see Hudson Turner, 
Domestic Architecture, i. p. 97), his audience are seated on benches. Comp. 
' Neuere so feir Chay;ere | Nedde kyng ne Emperere,' Vernon MS. i. 374/745, 6; 
*)?a sat Agag \t king] inne his haeh saettele,' Lajamon, 16645, 6 ; 'Nee mora, 
adduclus est [rex Pandrasus] et in cathedra celsior positus,' Geoffrey of Monmouth, 

1. 1264. mid Jje beste, among the best, one of the best tales. See 473, 4 ; 
997; 1326. For the adjectival use of this phrase, comp. 'cniht mid J)e beste,' 
Lajamon O. 7425 ; ' cniht mid J)ane beste,' id. C. 707 ; ' a gode man with ])e best,' 


Langtoft, p. 114; 'Justere he is with the beste,' Alisaunder, 3325; '])ou art 
archer wi)) pe best,' Cursor T. 3607 : for the adverbial use, ' god mid J)an beste,' 
La5amon O. 6098 ; 'wel mid J)on beste,' id. C. 6262 ; ' Also me may inne sealte 
se I Cristny wel mitte beste,' Shoreham, p. 9. In ' He thoght, whyll hys lyfe 
wolde laste, | To defende the cyte wyth ]>e beste,' Guy, 1495, 6, the phrase means, 
as well as possible (Zupitza), or possibly, against the best, of pe beste, L. 611, 
ofe Jji beste, O 911, from among your best, is a similar use. So too, 'he wes 
swike mid ]>an meste,' La5amon, 2547 ; ' of gret poer mid ]>e meste,' R. of 
Gloucester, 1733 ; ' For ])er was melodi wi}> ))e mest,' K. of Tars A. 553 ; ' And 
hondred wynter jef a levethe | That his lyf mid the lengeste,' Shoreham, p. i. 
See also 1 1 1 9 note. 

1. 1265. May I speak without incurring blame, giving offence. As Zupitza 
points out in his note on Guy, 3069, 70, ' " Syr," he seyde, " wythowte blame, | For 
nothying wyll y heyle schame," ' the line is an expansion of the common cheville, 
without blmne. It is an apologetic preface to some unpleasant communication, in 
this case Horn's protest at the injustice done him by King Aylmer. 

1. 1267. houe, raised. This use oihehben is common in La5amon, comp. 'SeoS- 
8en wes Conan ^ ihouen her to kinge,' 28770, i ; ' Kinges heo weoren ihoueneJ 
& kinges isvvorene,' 30127, 8, but it seems rare elsewhere. 

1. 1268. Matzner needlessly inserted j after ham. The pronoun of the subject 
is often omitted when it would represent the same thing as the noun or pronoun 
which forms the object in the clause immediately preceding. Comp. ' My fadre 
herd of that tithing, | And made fech him with honour, | And (i. e. he) was his 
chief counsellour,' Generides, 372-4; 'Well feyre aventurs befelle them | And 
sythen (i. e. they) scheweyd to mony men,' Guy, lo (Zupitza's note has a collec- 
tion of examples) ; ' Heo made him hire chaumburleyn, | Over knyght and other 
swayn ; | And him tok alle hire kayes, | And (i. e. he) hire warded by nyght and 
dayes,' Alisaunder, 445-8 ; ' J)er ich fond ])is feloun, | & (i. e. he) spac to Tirri in 
J)e prisoun,' Guy A. 6257, 8. As Kolbing points out (E. Studien, iii. pp. 127, 8), 
the construction is found in Old English and Middle High German. In 1. 260 the 
subject is omitted because it is the same as that of the preceding clause. Comp. 
' Thus Wynnes he many a townn | The Emagery ];at ther solde bee, | Bothe the 
Rode & pe marie free, | (i. e. he) Brynnede J)am in a fire,' Sege of Melayne, 24-7. 
A bold ellipsis of the subject, not reducible to any principle, is seen in 1. 1058 ; 
that in 1. 20 must be treated as a scribe's error. 

1. 1271. fleme is best taken as a noun, outlaw, exile ; but it may be the infinitive 
of the verb, which is found, though rarely, in the sense of, to flee. The insertion 
oito before a second infinitive is found in our texts at 307, 8 ; 425, 6 ; 583, 4, as 
the inf. simple is followed by another with /or to at 62 ; the prepositional infinitive 
by for to at O 161, 2 ; O 447, 8 ; L 435, 6, and by the simple infinitive at 
O 595. 6. 

1. 1277. Nor shall I do so. biginnen often forms with a dependent infinitive 
a circumlocution expressing no more than the sense of the second verb, but it is 
also occasionally used, as here, practically, for to do, without any meaning of 
making a start. Comp. ' Y wolde nought swylk a J)yng bygynne, | Al )iys reame 
for to Wynne,' R. of Brunne, 4963, 4 ; ' pes ))inges him made mest • biginne Jjulke 
dede,' R. of Gloucester, 7369 ; ' Then exylyd the kyng the queue, | Sche had 
wonder what hyt myght meene, | What made hym so to begynne,' Tryamoure, 
229-31 ; ' So salle I wirke als I kanne | That dede to bygynne,' Perceval, 1603, 4 ; 
Guy A. 446/83/3; Squyr of L. D. 122. 

NOTES. 167 

I. 1279. * stunde, see 333 note. 

II. 1285,6. See 475,6; 0828,9; Ii 1399. Comp. ' })a noni ArSur his red: 
wiC rechc his monnen | J'at he wolde inne Karliun i bere his cruiie iiim on | and 
a White-sunedaei J his folc pev isomnie,' Lajamon, 24243-8; 8087; '& Jjc king 
a Jian dai;e^ his crime bar an haefde,' id. 3i539>40; ' l^er after sone with his 
here ] Vot he to lundone forto bere | Corune, so J'at [alio] it sawe,' IIaveloi<, 
2942-4; '\>e king a witesoneday • ]>o hii come alle to is heste 1 Sette J)e croune on 
is hened • & huld noble feste,' R. of Gloucester, 3118,9; ' Vor he woldc croune 
bere • vor Jie heye tyde,' id. 3276 ; 3920, i ; 6592, 3 ; ' ])re si>e he ber croune ajer 
• to midewinter at gloucestre | To witesonetid at westmunstre • to ester at wincestre,' 
id. 7722,3; ' Four times in J)e 5ere | On his heued he bere | l>e holy croun of 
Jiorn I At ester, at wissontide | & at seyn iames day wij) pride | & in 5ole as god 
was born,' Rouland & Vernagu, 437-42 ; ' Un jur de Tentecuste avint | Li rois 
Aedward ke sa curt tint | A Westmuster grant e plenere | U grant gent du barnage 
ere. | Le jur porta li rois curune,' Life of Edward the Confessor, 1279-83 ; 3341-9 ; 
3601-10; ' Li rois i vint a Pentecoste, ] Ses evesques et ses abes | Et ses barons 
a tos mandes, | Altre gent asses assambla | Feste tint si se corona ; | Trois jors tint 
feste,' Wace, Brut, 8370-5; Geoffrey of Monmouth, 110/35-7 ; 116/9-11. For 
passages illustrating the crown-wearing festivals i^cun'ae coronalae) of the English 
and French kings, see Du Cange, Dissertations sur I'histoire de S. Louys, no. v. 
In, ' Season for to hold,' Torrent, 2157, the reference is to one of these set feasts : 
a variant on the expression of our text is seen in, ' Odewarde was king of grece: 
& wered kingus ringe,' Archiv, Ixxxii. 413/49; for the ring as a mark of royalty 
comp. ' & take]) Costaunt, mi neldest sone, | and jif him bo])e ring & crone,' 
Arthour, 75,6; ' That boith thi Ringe, thi ceptre and thi croun,' Lancelot of the 
Laik, 1325; Taylor, Glory of Regality, pp. 75-7. The variant in L 1294 
appears to mean, and learn (or, teach) king's counsel; that of O 1329, and know 
of king's rights ; both are without any parallel known to me. 

1. 1289. dra5e, resort, betake himself; comp. 1006; 1420; O 1508; ' Als Jiey 
vntil per schipes drow,' R. of Brunne, 3042 ; ' A wolde drawe to is swerde,' 
Beues A. 852; 'fan castef ;our gonels of anon, and drawe we to our wepnes 
eaerechon,' Ferumbras, 4421 (quoted by Kolbing) ; ' >e king isaeh j?e neode '. 
& droh to his raede,' Lajamon, 9526, 7 ; ' if })ei to luf wild drawe,' Langtoft, p. 87. 
See also L 723 for a similar expression. 

1. 1293. crude, hasten on. This intransitive use of croudc7i is rare; Matzner 
instances, ' Cread cnear on flot,' O. E. Chronicle, anno 937. Similar expressions 
are seen in, '])is prince went to J)e salt flode • J)at shippe bigan to gon | so swife, 
for \q wynde was gode • so swalowe ojier flon,' Archiv, l.wiii. 67/383,4; ' scipen 
]>er forS ]nungen,' Lajamon, 25543. With 1294 comp. 1512 and, ' J)ey set vp 
sail, \t wjTid hem blew,' R. of Brunne, 9973 ; ' The wynde thame soune owte of 
havene blewe,' Isumbras, 353. The ordinary expression for a favourable wind is 
seen in, ' He hadde wj-nde at wylle/ Launfal, 531 ; '& hadde wind at wille • to 
wende whan hem liked,' W. of Palerne, 2746; 5216; ' Thewinde thei had at here 
will I All to goode for that skill,' Generides, 6227, 8; ' Winde ])ai had as pai 
wolde,' Tristrem, 386 ; * A winde to wil him bare | To a stede per him was boun,' 
id. 1162, 3 ; 1392 ; 'A winde to wil hem blewe,' id. 1301 ; ' Weder stod on wille \ 
wind wex an honde,' Lasamon, 25537, 8 ; ' pe wynd drof hor scip al after wille: 
J)e wynd was good Inou5,' St. Brendan, 109. Similar are, ' The wynde stode as 
her lust wore,' Emare, 833; '& pe wind hom paide wel,' R. of Gloucester, 6827; 
' pe winde blew as he walde bid,' Cursor F. 24816; ' Li venz ert a lur pleisir,' 


Life of Edward the Confessor, 63/1327. Other expressions may here be noted, 
' gode winde god ha]) hem lent,' Guy A. 2866 ; ' When ])e wynd was wel l)em lent,' 
R. of Brunne, 1313; 'He suld take pat way, if wynde wild with him stand,' 
Langtoft, p. 145 ; ' To Scotlond gan ]>ei skip, Jie wynde was fam redie,' id. p. 304 ; 
' The wynd hem servyd wel inowgh,' Richard, 56 ; ' Jesu hem sente wynde ful 
good,' id. 1395; 'Alias! ]>e wind was al to gode | J)at him ouer broujte,' Beues 
A. 113, 4; M. 3S9 ; ' Aye the wynde was in the sayle,' Bone Florence, 136; ' wind 
heo haefden wunsum] weder mid Jian bezsten,' Lajamon, 11965,6. 

1. 1295. See 807 note, and comp. 1424, 1436, 7. With L 1305,6; O 1336, 7, 
comp. L 139, 40 ; O 143, 4. For 1298 see 305 note; for O 1340, 338 note ; for 
1300, 59 note ; for 1301, 53 note. 

1. 1302. hende in felde, skilled in the field, is a combination apparently 
without parallel : perhaps Aende points to an original lendende. LO have here 
the better reading. 

O 1345. 1*^^ lawe, faith, comp. ' Boute of cristene la we jhe kou])e naujt,' 
Beues A. 526 ; ' J)e seue kni3tes of hejien lawe,' id. 1780 ; * fat lyuede on \<t cristene 
lawe,' Ferumbras, 85 ; ' Hou Jjat J)e folk of he])en lawe ] A wel gret cheyn J)ai had 
don drawe,' E. Studien, viii. 117/21,2; 'Then asked the sowdeyn's sonne what 
lawe he held, and thei answeryd and seyd, the lawe of Ihesu Criste,' Ponthus, 
2/17,8; King of Tais V. 182. 

I. 1309. bi pine crois lijte, by thy shining' cross, or by the light of thy cross; 
a phrase without parallel. Perhaps v.'e should read brijte, comp. ' So weren he 
war of a croiz ful gent ( ? fulgent) | On his rith shuldre swij)e brith, | Brithter J)an 
gold ageyn Jie lith,' Havelok, 2139-41. liste, lyste, L 1321, O 1350, can only 
mean, stripe : probably their original had the rhyme liste . . . driste, with the 
graphic variation, noted at 249, for lijtc . . . drijte. 

11.1313,4. Comp. 867 note. 

II. 1315-22 bear evident marks of the scribe's distraction or weariness; he began 
by writing haue for serue, then added ajeties my wille from the next line, then, 
writing the next line correctly, he scraped out agencs my iville and wrote over the 
erasure ful ylle. The readings of LO give a good sense ; ylle means, distaste- 
fully ; comp. ' But pey hire likede swijje ille, | J)outhe it was godes wille,' Havelok, 
1165,6; ' J)ei Marke liked ille, | Tristrem to schip Jiai bare,' Tristrem, 1151, 2. 
For 1 31 7, 8, Matzner reads, J)o were icome to J)is ille (ile) | Sarazins lo])e and 
blake : the following lines may be re-arranged thus, ]?at dude me crist forsake | — 
On him ihc wolde bileue — | J)0 hi makede me reue. With 131 7 comp. 'He was 
a cristen king sum while,' E. Studien, viii. 1 18/109. 

1. 1319. For Sarazins, see note on 38. blake, black, comp. ' Wyth sarsyns 
bothe black and kene,' Guy, 3227 ; 'fan spac fe maiden fer sche stode | Among 
J)e sarrajins so blake,' Horst., A. L. n. f. 252/425,6; ' Of Sarrains bofe bio & 
blac,' K. of Tars A. 12 19. The Welsh and Irish annals often speak of the Danes 
as the black nation, comp. ' Mon vastata est a gentilibus nigris,' Annales Cambriae, 
anno 853, M. H. B. p. 835; ' Urbs Ebrauc vastata est; id est, cat Dub gint' 
(meaning, ' Pugna nigrorum Gentium,' Ann. Ulton.), id. anno 866; ' Gothrit filius 
Haraldi cum nigris gentilibus vastavit Mon,' anno 987, id. p. 838 ; Brut y Tywy- 
sogion, annis 986, 9S8, id. p. 850. The epithet seems less suitable to Danes than 
to Saracens proper, comp. what Joinville says of the Bedouins, ' dont ledes gent et 
hydeuses sont a regarder, car les cheveus des testes et des barbes sont touz noirs,' 
Histoire de S. Louis, p. 79. 

1. 1322. reue, reeve, praepositus. Among the many functions of the O. E. 

NOTES. 169 

jcirgerd/a was that of leading the militia and seeing to the defence of his district 
(Kemble, Saxons, ii. p. 164, Schmid, Gesetze, p. 597), and the title is here 
naturally given to Athulfs father as guardian of the coast See the quotation in 
note to 39. passage, pass, comp. * Et envoia a Cluses aucuns de ccs por garder 
les trespas,' Amis et Amile, p. 75; ' Therfore kepe we thys strett,' Tryamoure, 


1. 1325. bi este, a scribe's error for bi weste, see 1135. For 1326, see 1264 

1. 1327. O has here the right reading: He, O 1368, is Horn, and the reference is 
to the incident of S63-75. 

!• 1332- pQ rijte. Wissmann's explanation, straightway, lacks the support of 
any parallel : see 306 note. 

1. 1333. The jihrase is formal, comp. 'Ouer J^e se the wynde hem dryves,' Seege 
of Troye, Archiv, Ixxii. 13/61 ; ' J)e wynt bi gon J^e schip to driue | til )^ci bi gonne 
to ar}'ue,' Alexius, 46/241, 2; ' fien blew J)e wynd and gan hem dryue,' R. of 
Brunne, 4329 ; 9901 ; 15701 ; * Roberd mad him alle preste, J)e wynde gan him 
drj'ue,' Langtoft, p. 96; 149; 171 ; 227. For 1334 ^'^^ ^8° nole. 

1. 1341. hoi & sund, see 149 note, and comp. for this common combination, 
'Alias, ]at he was not hole and sownde,' Guy, 96S ; '])at \\\]) inne a lite stonde | He 
was boje hoi and sonde,' Beues A. 733, 4; Tristrem, 1872 ; R. of Brunne, 9657; 
Athelston, 653 note. In the next line LO have preserved the true reading, meaning, 
If all is well with Horn, then nothing can be wrong with Athulf. For the construc- 
tion, comp. ' Ake lif him tit J)oru5 yi red,' Horst., A. L. 14/356 ; ' ])at ho so do)) his 
dede mid bobance : him ne tyt non oj^er mede,' E. E. Poems, 44/48. The following 
lines give the ground of the knight's confidence, i. e. because Horn loves Athulf so 
dearly and is to him as a governor, guardian. I take stei-e as = O. E. steora, 
steersman : for so, comp. ' He rode so king wij) croim,' Tristrem, 175, and the 
similar use in 141 8. Zupitza sees in it the same adjective which occurs in Guy, 
' Then came the dewke Raynere, | An hardy knyght, and a stere,' 662 ; and in, 
' There found they the duke Loyer | With his baronage hardy and stere,' Copland's 
Guy, Y. I, and which he connects with O. H. G. stiuri, fortis, ferox, and Gothic 
* stiurs inferred from usstiuriha, immoderate, usstiurei, intemperance. But the 
tentative meaning he suggests, ' strong,' ' stout,' does not fit here. Whatever the 
explanation of the expression, the lines have much more the air of an original 
reading than the parallel inL 1353, 4, O 1382,3. 

1. 134S. Most of all times, i. e. more than ever before. The phrase is apparently 
without exact parallel, but it is like ' s\vulc he hafuede mod-kare i mest of aire 
monne,' Lajamon, 13 701, 2. 

!• 1353- Comp. ' Michel ioie & mirfe })ai made,' Arlhour, 72/2496. With 1355, 
comp. 468. 

1- 1356. For pat, practically = since, comp. ' jare hit is ])et ich wuste herof,' 
Ancren Riwle, p. 88 ^quoted by Matzner); ' jore is ])at ich ])at on seh,' Bcddeker, 
258/45; ' I'at y bar armes tventi jer it is,' Guy A. 5036; ' Jiat ich ete ])is is pe 
^ridde day,' id. 6207 ; '"It is ferre gone," sayd Robyn, | " That I was last here," ' 
Child, Ballads, v. 78/446: and for a similar sense, 'And seide ; cometh hider to 
me I 5ware habbe je jare i beo,' Horst., A. L. 22/605,6. For 1357,8, see 603 
note; for the construction in 1361 (where the negative, as in L 1371, must be 
restored), see 122 note. 

1. 1363. Comp. O 833, and, ' So ich jou segge in mi rime,' Arthour, 40/1341 ; 
'As seint Bede seys in his r}me,' R. of Brimne, 556S ; ' I maye in romaunce & in 


ryme | Ellys say in sorj'e tyme,' Ipomadon, 5337, 8 : similar is ' In heore song 
segge by ryme, | Yblessed be that ilke time,' Chronicle of England, 705, 6. With 
804, L 812, And seide pes ryme, comp. ' Seggith Darie that songe,' Alisaunder, 
1763: with vpon his songe, 1097, comp. 'and saeiden on songe,' Lajamon, 
22081 ; in L iioi the phrase is ' on is songe,' in O 1138 *in hys songe.' With 
on pine spelle, O 1069, comp. ' Tristrem J)at herd he | And seyd ])us in his spelle,' 
Tristrem, 3090, i : with vpon his tale comp. * ne mai hit na mon suggen on his 
tale,' Lajamon, 24439 ; 228S9. Similar expressions not occurring in KH. are seen 
in, '])enne seide fe Emperour in his sawe,' Horst., A. L. n. /. 341/22; 'King 
Ermin seide in is sawe,' Benes A. 1 251 ; K. of Tars V. 39 ; id. A. 831 ; ' As y have 
herd menstrelles syng yn sawe,' Emare, 319 ; ' And seiden anon with heore sawes,' 
Horst, A. L. 15/395 ; ' Vppon theyre lay they sat and song,' Torrent, 1492. Comp. 
also, 'E diseient en lur fauele,' Gaimar, 3751. 

I. 1364. This is a frequent formula occurring mostly in such contexts as, '& 
blissed ])e time fat he was born,' Ywain, 3344; Le Morte Arthur, 3213; but 
comp. also, ' Blyssed mote \>e tyme be | That we may pe here see,' Archiv, Ixxix. 
443/188,9; ' beneit seyt le temps que je vus unqe nory,' Eulk Fitz-Warine, 

P- Si- 
ll. 1366,7. W^e shall teach the heathen dogs a humiliating lesson. Comp. 'we 
5am soUe techei Bruttisse speche,' Lajamon O. 24941, 2 ; 'for ])us we eou scullen 
techen ^ ure Bruttisce speche,' id. C. 26543,4, 26833,4: ' ^e barouns of engelond, 
myhte hue him gripe, | he him wolde techen on englysshe to pype,' Boddeker, 
128/75,6. Expressions of similar meaning are, 'and we heom scuUeS telleni 
Brtittisse spelles,' Lajamon, 20605, 6 ; ' Ac our knijtes & our barouns | Hem taujt 
so her lessouns,' Arthour, 188/6703, 4 ; ' Arthour tau5t on a lessoun of howe | & 
cleued him to ))e sadel bowe,' id. 265/9675, 6 ; ' So I talket hom tille | That 
muche blode conne I spille,' Avow3'nge of Arther, p. 67 ; ' Bot hinde lohn of 
Coupland • a wight man in wede, | Talked to David • and kend him his crede,' 
Minot, ix. 37, 8 ; ' Li moignes est bons chevaliers, | . . . | Bien vous aprent vo 
patenostre,' Wistasse le Moine, 1625, 7 ; Guillaume le Marechal, 965. 

II. 1369,70. See 85, 6 note. For O 1406,7, see 603 note; with L 1377,8, 
comp. L 1227, 8. 

11. 1371, 2. The expression is formal ; comp. 'Beues gan than his home blowe | 
For all his hoste shold hym knowe,' Beues M. 755,6; 3047,8 ; 'He bleow his 
hom, his men he (read, hit) knawe,' Alisaunder, 6102 ; ' Generides his horn gan 
blow I That his felous might him know,' Generides, 5059, 60 ; ' doj) now & letej 
myn homes blowe ^ quiclich and anon, | j^at myne men mowe iknowe^ what |:ay 
schullej) don,' Ferumbras, 2347,8 ; ' The kinge his bugulle con blaw, | His knyjtus 
couthe hitte welle knaw,' Avowynge of Arther, p. 72 ; ' " Let blowe a home," sayd 
Robyn, | "That felaushyp may vs knowe,"' Child, Ballads, v. 67/229; ' They 
blewen an home that was knowe, | His folkis fast theder kan dravve,' E. Studien, 
xiii. 150/6102, 3 ; Beues, 37/775, 6. 

1- 1373- See 101 note. The phrase in 1375, 6 seems without parallel. For 
quike to drowe, L 1388, see 1492 note. 

L 1389. speres ord. Comp. 'mid axen, mid sweorden! mid scaerpe speres 
orde,' Lajamon, 7478, 9 ; ' & heom on ileggen '. mid orde and mid egge,' id. 
5201,2; 8595,6; 'mid sworde an mid speres orde,' Owl & N. 1066; 'Ord of 
spere, and ord of egge (read, swordes egge) | Schal at heore acordement beon,' 
Alisaunder, 1839,40; 932; Arthour, 7449. 

O 1419. See 58 note. With O 142 1, comp. O 48. 

NOTES. 171 

11- I379> ^O- Comp. 'and anan he gon to wurche' ane swiffe feire chirche,' 
Lajamon, 29531, 2 ; ' & let rere chirchen vp . Jat ))e ssrewen adoun caste,' R. of 
Gloucester, 2601 ; ' hij Icte arere churchen . in to al ])at contrey | & prioiyes 
wurchen • & many an abbey,' Archiv, Ixviii. 6S/433, 4; IIC. 106, 7. 

II. 1381,2. A fairly common combination. Comp. 'no belle i-rungen' no 
masse isunge,' Lajamon, 29441,2; ' Ne halewede kirke, nc messe songcn, | Ne 
child cristned, ne belle rongen,' R. of Brunne, 14S55, 6; 'Off enny kyik that preest 
in syng, | Messe in sayd, or belle in ryng,' Richard, 1133,4. I' 's frequent in the 
ballads, comp. ' Whan bells was rung, an mass was sung | An a' man unto bed 
was gone,' Child, i. 6S/27; iii. 70/21; iv. 29S/5 ; v. 244/10; 'When mass was 
sung and bells were rung,' Sharpe, North Countrie Garland, pp. 28, 42. A variation 
occurs in, ' He wole a-Morwe Belle rynge, | And Jenne wol he Matyns synge,' 
Vernon MS. i. 347/720, i, 

1. 1384. Comp. 73 note. In O 1428, read clepten, see O 1252. 

1- 1385- The reading of LO gives a good sense, see 1286 note. Still C pre- 
serves a primitive detail, and is therefore probably original. But serie is difficult ; 
Matzner, instancing scren, sar = s/ieren, shar, O. E. scieran, in Lasamon O. 20307, 
17663, takes it for skerie, representing O. E. scierian, allot, distribute. The 
meaning would then be. He caused corn to be distributed. But j = O. E. sc does 
not occur elsewhere in C, and support is wanted for a M. E. sherien. Perhaps we 
should KzA ferie (O. E. fenan), carry, bring, giving the sense, He caused corn to 
be brought. The heathen having wasted the land, the people are starving ; of 
a similar evil time it is said, ' Now je schul vnderstond, | Fif jer J'is last in 
Inglond, I J)at no com no was ysowe, [ Noi}'er on doun no on lowe,' Arthour, 
4535-8. So too Arthur, finding York wasted by Childric, rears the ruined churches 
and bids ' J^a eor<5e-tilien ' teon to heore craeften,' Lajamon, 22117, 8. 

1. 1387. Comp. 'and murie lyf J)ou schalt lede fer afterward,' Legends of the 
Rood, 61/512. For 1388 see 884 note. 

L 1404. ferde aboute, busied himself; here used absolutely, but like to go 
about, to be about, usually with a dependent infinitive ; comp. ' pat he ferde fast 
aboute • iloures to gadere,' W. of Palerne, 30. See also 277 note. 

I. 1389. Comp. ' ])e Duyk was of herte proud,' Gregorius, 446; 'sit wild he not 
be war Jier bi, so proude he was in herte,' Langtoft, p. 8 ; 'As men thojte in eche 
poynte: alto prute he drouj | Ac in his hurte hit was another,' Beket, 192,3. 
For on, see note on 281 and comp. further, ' Jia iwarS J)e king on mode prut,' 
Lajamon, 8828 ; ' on heorte he wes blitJe,' id. 4431 ; and see note on 1405. 
With 1390 comp. ' Feol and fikel and proud also | That him feol to muche wo,' 
Alisaunder, 2661, 2. 

II. 1 39 1, 2. So the traitor Mordred tries to win over the barons by gifts, ' Festys 
made he many and fele, | And grete yiftys he yafe Also,' Le Morte Arthur, 2962 , 3 ; 
' To erlys And to barons on ylk A syde | Grete yiftis he yaffe,' id. 3044, 5 ; ' And 
mordred that was mykelle of myght, | Wyth grete gvftes made hym stronge,' 
id. 3158, 9. Comp. also, ' Who jaf broche and beije 1 | Who bot douke Morgan ? ' 
Tristrem, 265,6. With 1392, meaning, to be on his side, comp. 'O bok ful 
grundlike he swore, | }>at he sholde with him halde,' Havelok, 2307, 8. 

1. 1393. He had stone carted, conveyed. The detail is often mentioned; see 
Ij 905 note, and comp. ' Morter fey made & ston dide fet | & spedde hem faste 
J>er on to set,' R. of Brunne, 7959, 60 ; ' Ston >ey dide gadere & graue,' id. 6699 ; 
' machunnes (masons) heowen | lim heo gunnen baemen,' Lasamon, 15465,6; 
' Gil ont commencie a olvrer | Piere, mortier a aloer,' Wace, 7513, 4. 


1. 1394. Where he hoped for success. Comp. ' And hopis beste for to spede,' 
Thomas of Erceldoune, 454, and for similar phrases, Miaot, v. 42 note. 

1. 1396. [and] surrounded it with water, biflette is apparently a aw. \ey., but 
there is no difficulty in taking it as the preterite of * bifleteti, a transitive form 
made by the prefix be, added to the weak verb, fleten, float. For the asyndeton 
comp. 646, 7 ; and for the meaning, ' Vor Jie castel is so strong • ])at J)e leuedi is 
Inne | Jiat ich wene al J>is lond • mid streng))e ne ssolde it winne | Vor \z se ge)) al 
aboute • & entreie bote on ])er nis,' R. of Gloucester, 3309-11. 

O 1446. hon on legge, lay hands on it, come near to attack it. Comp. ' He 
wiste J)e iewes wolde him forfare | If fei myjte bond on him lay,' Cursor T. 
14539,40; ' ne funde lie nonne swa kene monl J)at bond him durste leggen on,' 
Lajamon, 8191, 2 ; ' Ne bond on him with yuele leyde,' Havelok, 994. At O 1502, 
the expression is varied by the omission oiliond; on legge, means simply, attack, 
comp. ' & aefer he heom leide on ] mid sweord & mid spere,' Lajamon, 547, 8. 
For the combination in the following line, comp. * eche a kuntre wor]; kept • wi|) 
kud men i-nouje, | eche brug, eche pa])])e • eche brode weye,' W. of Palerne, 

1673, 4- 

I. 1398. For the alliteration comp. 'Then was Richard as prest to fight ] As 

ever was fowl to the flight,' Richard, 2275, 6; ' Grehoundes he hadde as swifte 
as fowel in flight,' Chaucer, iv. 6/190; ' liim thoght >at he was als lyght | Als 
a fowl es to fe flyght,' Ywain, 1304. 

II. 1401, 2. See 679, 80; O 718,9. gan wende, began to turn himself, went 
about, proceeded, like ' ferde aboute,' L 1404: Wissmann's quotation, ' \g. kaisere 
wende (= weened, thought): Walvvain to scende/ Lajamon, 27792, 3, is not a 

11. 1403, 4. Comp. O 1436, 7, and see 915, 6 note, jerne is an adverb, eagerly, 
in C; a verb in the corresponding L 1419. 

1. 1405. ful of mode. Comp. ' His herte wax angry & ful of mod,' Ferumbras, 
3635; ' J>o wasotuwelfolof mood | & fauatashe were vvood,'Otuel,ii23, 4; 'Gene- 
rides wex so ful of moode ] For Sir Lucas that was so goode,' Generides, 9225, 6. 
Similarly, 'his hert was fuUe of site,' Langtoft, p. 104. For L 1423, see 281 note, 
and comp. further, ' unsel him wes on mode,' La3amon, 30541 ; ' ])e king wes on 
mode sar,' id. 638; ' soruful on his mode,' id. 167. With 1406 comp. 960 note; 
with swete, 1407, 'swulc he mid sweuenei swunke ful switJe,' Lajamon, 17908, 9. 

1. 1410. P"or omission of the relative, see Kellner, Syntax, pp. 61, 2. In the 
French version there is no ship ; ' Si uit vn auisium dunt torment se cremeit | Kil 
er[t] sur un flum mes ne sout v esteit | E en miliv del flum bele rimignil veeit | Es 
granz undes broiant deskal mentun tut dreit | Wikle ert del altre part que neer 
la uoleit | Vne furche de fer en sa mein si teneit | Dunt larebutet en si cume sen 
isseit,' HR. 4969-75. 

1. 141 1, blenche is explained by Miitzner as, turn over; but that appears more 
suitable to ouerblenche, L 1429, while, to lurch, would be a meaning for the 
simple verb more in accordance with the other uses of the word. The passage is 
apparently without parallel, on hire, O 1466, seems a corruption oi oner. 

1. 1415. Comp. 'And ofte her pelte ynto ])e see,' Octavian, 20/595. 

1. 141 8. Comp. 554, and, ' J)at nijt he hadde litel yslape | He stirt vp al in rape,' 
Arthour, 2367, 8 ; ' The king saide, " I ne have no rape, | For me lest yit ful wel 
slape," ' S. Sages, 1631, 2 ; 'Als se Jiou? me lete have rap and rac,' Desputisoun, 
43/276 ; ' His nedes to spede j^en had he rape,' R. of Brunne, 7436. 

1. 1420. See 1289 note. 

NOTES. 173 

11. 1421, 2. idon vnder. ■under don, like the commoner, dotine don, means to 
conquer, subject; comp. 'And a wond ^e sal sniiten rigt | Moab kinges, and 
under-don | Al sedes kin Cis werld up-on,' Genesis & E. 4040-2: in, ' Octiater 
with muche wondur | Antiochim hadde him undur,' Alisaunder, 3804, 5, we should 
probably read don for him. So, w;7^tv = defeated, abased, as in, ' Bot euer er ))ai 
vnder,' Minot, ii. 18 (note); ' Pryde br>'nges me vnder & not above,' Ipomadon, 
3681 ; for above in the opposite sense, see Ipomadon, 5 (note) and comp. ' Over al 
sal 5e be obove,' Ywain, 1540; ' I hane 50W hoi pen to joure aboue,' R. of Brunne, 
7200. idon is, therefore, tinsuitable in meaning, it is probably a mistake due to 
do in 1142. The reading of LO gives a good sense; vnder gan sometimes means, 
to beguile, deceive ; comp. ' ])ou hast me gyled and vndurgone ' (translating, 
circumvenisti^, Horst, S. A. L. 33/479; ' Hu he migtcn vnder-gon | Here fader,' 
Genesis & E. 1147. 1422 is corrupt; Miitzner's explanation which makes nie 
6f Rymenild the object of hap idon vnder is against the word-order and would 
require done, the dative infinitive, instead of do. We might read, Rymenhild to 
done wunder, with the object of doing Rimenhild an injury, or, & Rymenhild 
do to wnnder, where do would be past participle constructed with hap and the 
meaning, and hath put Rimenhild to distress. Comp. ' }-a scipen wenden to 
wundre,' Lajamon, 7S55 ; ' with hirself heo ferde to wonder, | heo ter hir clo])us al 
in sunder, | in a gret woodnesse,' Alexius, 6S/472-4. wunder, mirabile = va3.r\t\- 
lous, terrible deed ; comp. ' On of hem fiat haued Ois wunder (i. e. idolatry) | wrogt,' 
Genesis & E. 3588. So, ' Help nawht here wonder,' O 918, means, Their desperate 
effort did not avail them, and, 'Horn ne dude no wunder,' 1247, Horn took no 
terrible vengeance. But it also means perplexity, deep distress, as in, ' But yn ]>t 
put I'at was f er vndyr | He saghe so moche sorowe and wundyr | Of fendes fele 
J)at |er wore,' Handling Synne, 5262-4; ' werre & wrake & wonder,' Gawayne 
& G. K. 16 ; 'I was begynner of al this wondre,' Generides, 8872 ; '"Of this," 
said the king, " I haue great wonder | For sorrow my hart will breake assunder," ' 
Triamore, P. F. MS. ii. 87/190, i, where the older version has, ' "Alias," seyde 
the kynge, "now y wondur," ' Tr>-amoure, 199; and this meaning suits well 

1. 1423. Comp. ' Ihcsu, for ))i woundes fine | In Ingland help vs to haue pese,' 
Minot, i. 91, 2; 'Ihesu, for ]>\ woundis fyue | J)e feend away from us J)ou dryue,' 
Hymns to the Virgin, 20/77,9; ' Jhesu, for jour woundes five | je ben our help 
and our socour,' Songs and Carols (Warton Club), 79/1, 2 ; Alexius, 50/283 ; 
Athelston, 144; ' '' Louerd," he seide, " help me nou : for thi swete wounde," ' 
Beket, 1713. wordes, O 1476, is probably due to a confusion with the seven 
words : a frequent invocation is that by the seven names as in ' " Syr," he seyde, 
"god of heuyn | 5ylde yow for hys nameys seuyn," ' Guy, 2681, 2, where the 
editor says he does not know what seven names are meant. They are Sapientia, 
Adonai, Radix Jesse, Clavis David, Oriens Lux (Oriens splendor lucis acternae). 
Rex Gentium, Emmanuel, as occurring in the anthems sung at vespers in the week 
before Christmas, beginning December 16. Comp. further, ' Praie J)i son of gret 
pouste I ffor his names seuene,' Alexius, 34/305, 6; ' Yblisced be his nam seuen,' 
Horst., S. A. L. 140/125; id. A. L. n. f. 230/199; E. Studien, viii. 449/83; 
454/541 ; id. ix. 46/286. See Romania, xiv. p. 528, Daurel et Beton, p. cj. 

1, 1426. See 853. 

L 1446. god of cure, good of choice, as good as could be desired. The 
expression is apparently without parallel, but comp. ' ten ))usend monnen | \t\. wes 
>e bezste cure ^ of al Bnitlonde,' Lajamon, 8076-8 ; ' & aefter cure heo him jeuen \ 


J)reo hundred jisles,' id. 617 1, 2. The same word apparently occurs in ' to wynne 
pe cure' (= to win the gree), Octavian, 33/1017. 

O 1453. hem . . . bytwexe, must mean, agreed on, fixed by them (i, e. Fikenild 
and Aylmer). Comp. ' And seide 3am bi-tvvine i J)at par hii wolde akepe,' Lajamon 
O. 26936, 7. 

1. 1427. See 124 note. For al ri5t, 142S, see 305 note. 

1. 1432. Comp. '& ladde him to nywe wore • to a uair castel & god,' R. of 
Gloucester, 9220 ; ' J)e newe wore of wesmunstre • ]>e king bigan ]>o anon,' id. 10658. 

O 1480,1, is unintelligible: read perhaps, 'J)e watres bigan to terne | By here 
schipes Sterne.' 

1. 1436. See 124 note, vjjrist, rising, elsewhere regularly means, resurrection. 

L 1455. stoure, see 685, where O has the same variant as C here, and O 1016, 7. 
For alyue, L 1457, see 131 note. 

L 1467. Comp. ' " Kyng Alisaundre," he saide, " kyngis flour,'" Alisaunder, 


1. 1448. See 59 note. 

1. 1456. wijj none ginne, by no device. Comp. 'mid wulches cunnes ginne' 
he mihte cumen binnen,' Lajamon, 20297, 8 ; 'Ac in a castel he lay of priis | J)at 
wij) no gin, y 50U plijt, | Noman J^er in com mijt,' Arthour, 56/1906-8 ; 'That 
noe man might to them winne | By noe manner of gynne,' id. 367/2335, 6; 'And 
wele he saw that by na gyn | AUane to hir myght he noght wyn,' S. Sages, 3019, 20; 
' Ne shal it neuer with noo gyn | of lawndre be washen clene,' Generides, 610,1 
' But out of the pit coud I not wyn | Nouthir for craft nor bi noo gyn,' id. 2675, 6 
Beket, 1961 ; O. E. Miscellany, 153/237, 8. It is often contrasted with open force 
as in, 'Ac by strenthe no by gynne | No myghte he heom that day wynne, 
Alisaunder, 1219,20; 'mid strengSe oOer mid ginne 1 his lond to biwinne, 
Lasamon, 6599, 600 ; ' But the towre myght he neuer wynne | Wyth strength[e] 
ne wyth stoure stronge, | Ne wyth none other kynnes gynne,' Le Morte Arthur, 
3035-7- For O 1502, 3, see O 1446 note. 

1. 1457. See 183 note: for 1458, see 122 note. 

1. 1459. See 235,6, and comp. 'For ich kan craft and ich kan liste,' Owl and 
N. 757, and for the rhyme, ' neuere ))urh nare liste i her of na})ing nuste,' Lajamon, 
17850,1. O 1506, 7, means that Horn took all the advice that his companions 

1. 1461. sche-we, display, bring out, as in, 'An harp he gan forj) bring,' Tristrem, 
1811. Comp. also, 'Sipfe was schewed hem bi | Murjjc and munstralsy,' Horst., 
S. A. L. 207/220, 1. For drawe, O 1508, see 1289 note. With Horn's disguise 
as a harper, comp. the device by which Baldulf gained admission into York besieged 
by Arthur : ' Cum ergo alterius modi aditum non haberet [Baldulphus], rasit 
capillos suos et barbam, cultumque joculatoris cum cythara cepit. Deinde intra 
castra deambulans modulis quos in lyra componebat sese cytharistam exhibebat. 
Cumque nuUi suspectus esset, accessit ad moenia urbis paulatim ceptam simula- 
tionem faciens. Postremo cum ab inclusis compertus esset, tractus est funiculis 
intra muros,' Geoffrey of Monmouth, 122/42-8. The same story is told by Wace, 
Brut, 9336-51, Lajamon, 20305-38, and R. of Brunne, 9839-54. In the same 
disguise, Anlaf spies out Athelstan's camp : ' lUe (Anlaf) qui tantum periculum 
imminere cerneret, astu exploratoris munus aggressus, depositis regiis insignibus, 
assumptaque in manibus cythara, ad tentorium regis nostri (Athelstani) progre- 
ditur; ubi cum prae foribus cantitans, interdum quoque quateret dulci resonantia 
fila tumullu, facile admissus est, professus mimum qui hujusmodi arte stipem 

NOTES. 175 

quotidianam mercaretnr. Rej^em et convivas musico acromate aliquantisper 
flclinivit, cum inter psallcndum omnia oculis scrutarctur. Postquam satictas edendi 
finem dcliciis imposuisset et severitas administrandi belli in colloquio procerum 
recrudesccret, abire jussus pretium cantus accepit. Quod asportare nausians, sub 
se in terra defodit,' W. of Malmesbuiy, de gestis regum Anglorum, i. pp. 142, 3. 
R. of Gloucester, 550S-17, relates the same incident. So too Johan de Raun- 
paygne, who ' savoit assez de labour, harpe, viele, sitole e jogelerie,' uses his skill 
twice on daring adventures, Fulk Fitz-Warine, pp. 92-5, loS-iio, and Eustace 
the Monk finds the disguise of a minstrel useful, Wistasse le Moine, 2166-214. 
Comp. also Daurel et Bcton, 1929 ff. 

L 1483. See 1264 note. 

1. 1464. at wille, as pleased them, as well as they could desire. Comp. ' of pe 
noblest knyghtes o lyue | Wei armed at her wille,' R. of Iirunne, 13358, 9 ; ' wind 
stond an willen,' Lajamon, 1102; ' Lendemeyn leva Fouke matyn, e fust armee 
tot a talent, e ces compaignouns ensement,' Fulk Fitz-Warine, p. 95. But O has 
preserved the original reading. 

1. 1468. gleowinge, harp playing. So ' For he was sle5e of harp glew,' 
Cursor T. 7251 ; ' Quil wit gleu and quil wit sang,' Cursor C. 7433; ' & gou J)aer 
to gleowien ; & muche gome to makien,' Lajamon, 20315,6. 

1. 1473. He, Rimenhild. It was apparently the British custom to admit none 
but artists after the feast was begun, see d'Arbois de Jubainville, iii. p. 257. For 
minstrels at feasts, see Wright, Homes of other Days, pp. 183-5, for their kinds 
and instruments, pp. 194-209. Their seat near the door is noteworthy, L 1496, 
O 1523. For clenche, 1476, see 232 note. 

1. 1477. With the effect of Horn's song, comp. ' Swiche song he gan sing, | fJat 
hir was swijje wo ; ] Her com swiche loue longing | Hir hert brast nei5e a to,' 
Tristrem, 1860-3. With walaway comp. ' Hys songe was not but wele away,' 
Partonope, 3550; 'his ryght songe was welaweyi wij) oute lesinge,' Anglia, i. 
69/65. For 1479, see 428 note. 

I. 1480. Comp. ' N'as ther non of heom that lowgh,' Alisaunder, 2435 ; ' The 
kyng ne non of his ne lough,' id. 5727; and the similar, 'Non of hem ne lyst 
synge,' id. 5319- For 1481,2, see S75 note, and comp. 'Hit eode hire herte 
swijje neih,' Castel of Loue, 320. With 1483, 4, comp. 613, 4, 873, 4 : the variant 
in LO gives a better sense here. 

II. 14S7, 8. Comp. ' He drow ut sone his gode swerd, | And smot him so up-on 
Jie crune, ] ])at godrich fel to fe erjje adune,' Havelok, 2733-5, The usual expres- 
sion is seen in, ' Crounes ))ai gun crake,' Tristrem, 887 ; ' Many a croune men 
myght se crake,' R. of Brunne, 5070. For fel, L 1510, see 421 note. In 1488, 
hefulde should be read for ij'ulde. 

1. 1489. arowe, see Minot, v. 48 note. 

1.1492. todra5e, see 181, L 1388. todrazvcn, distrahere; drazven, trahere 
{detrahere, iractare), are all used in two different senses, (i) to tear asunder by 
means of horses attached to the limbs, and (2) to draw to the place of execution 
over the pavement, on a hurdle or a hide. For the former meaning comp. ' Quo 
cognito, rex eum quasi regiae majestatis occisorem membratim laniatum equis 
apnd Coventre, exemplum terribile et spectaculum lamentabile praebere jussit 
omnibus audentibus talia machinari. Primo enim distractus, postea decollatus, 
et corpus in tres partes divisum est,' Matthew Paris, Chronica Majora, iii. p. 498 
(panishment for attempted assassination of Henry iii. 1238 A. D.); ' ))at Beues 
scholde ben anhonge | & to drawe wiJ) wilde fole,' Beues A. 3568,9; '& Rodric 


Jjer wes of-slajenl & seot5Sen mid heorsen to-dragen,' Lajamon, 9952, 3 ; 'Ant for 
that tresoun that hy dude | Hy were to-dravven wythe stude,' Chronicle of England, 
839, 40 ; ' I war vvorjii wit hors be draun,' Cursor C. 9060 ; ' Wyth wilde hors thou 
shalt be drayne,' Le Morte Arthur, 3014 ; ' quosdam fecit equis trahi, alios igne 
cremari, alios suspendi et alios incarcerari,' Annales Monastici, ii. p. ill. For the 
second meaning, which is the usual one for drawen, trahere, comp. ' Primo igitur 
a Westmonasterio usque ad turrim Londoniarum et inde usque ad illam poenalem 
machinam quae vulgariter gibbettis dicitur distractus . . . omnes autem sexdecim 
socii per civitatem Londoniarum ad caudas equorum tracti, ad patibula sunt 
suspensi,' Matthew Paris, C. M. iv. p. 196 (of the pirate William Marsh and his 
companions, A. D. 1242) ; 'Primo pelle bovis stratus, ascensis sex lictoribus equos, 
caudis ipsoium distractus per civitatem Londoniae,' Flores Historiarrim, iii. p. 282 
(of Thomas Turbeville in 1295); ' Vor he let him mid hors to drawe . fram strete 
to strete,' R. of Gloucester, 6392 ; ' I wolde be way or strete | Hys body war 
to-drawe,' Lybeaus, 188,9; 'Now ])e Turbeuile has his jugement, | Drawen 
is a while on London pauiment,' Langtoft, p. 270 ; ' And si})en to ])e galwes 
drawe[n] | At \\% foule mere tayl,' Havelok, 2477,8; ' pey drowen hym J)orw5 
ylke a strete,' Athelston, 804; Tryamoure, 578,9; ' " 3e schul ben honged & 
todrawe," | He dede feche hors wel sket | & teyed hem to her fet ] & dede hem 
drawe on J>e pauement,' Arthour, 380-3; Boddeker, 131/162, 3; ' tractus est equis 
lento passu ad locum suspendii,' Annales Monastici, iii. p. 294. There is thus no 
clear distinction between drawen and todraiven, the second meaning is the usual 
one for both, but the first best suits the passages in our texts. 

I. 1497. king, the deposed Aylmer. homage, apparently for homagers, vassals, 
but the use is without parallel. LL. Jiomagium is sometimes used in the concrete 
sense of the land held by a vassal. The scribe's error in O 1545 is exactly reversed 
in Cursor, 5799; T. reading trowage where the other MSS. have correctly vtrage, 

II. 1503,4. See 117 note. For L 1525, O 1550, see 36 note. With L 1527, 8 
comp. 1327, 8. wyt yre, O 1553, comp. '& wi]) hard dunt & gret yre • to gadere 
sujjjie hii come,' R. of Gloucester B. 3824; 'He cryde, " Boy, ley on with yre | 
Strokes as ys woned \>y syre," ' Octavian, 36/1 117, 8 ; ' He fau5t with ire and with 
enuie,' id. 36/1124. 

11. 1509, 10. This place is unsatisfactory in all the MSS. LO have a feeble 
repetition of the preceding couplet. In C, kni^tes in both lines cannot be right, 
and He can hardly refer to Horn, if horn is to stand in the next line. Perhaps we 
should read, He (i.e. Horn) jaf alle ore | For A]ielbrus lore, He did honour, shewed 
favour, to them all because of the training he had had from Athelbrus. For the 
rhyme, comp. ' he spac of feire laere' and al of godes are,' Lajamon, 30159, 60. 

1. 1513. ride, sail : comp. ' No tyme in hauen to schipe go | Ne in se hiderward 
ryde,' R. of Brunne, 15690, i ; *ffor all be water J)ey must ryde,' Seege of Troye, 
692. For 1512 see 1294 note. 

I. 1514 may mean, Where he experienced sorrow (i.e. of separation from 
Rymenhild, Wibsmann). But the rhyme is spoilt hy fondede, and /onde, which 
Wissmann substitutes, is not found before the i6th century as contracted pre- 
terite. Even if it could stand, the vagueness of the line as to time would be 
unsatisfactory: er, L 1536, meets this difficulty, but the line is very clumsy. 
Possibly it originally ran, fer he wojes gan fonde, there he built walls, i.e. a 
church, as at 1379,80. 

II. 1521, 2. Wissmann apparently understands the passage a=, All people might 

NOTES. 177 

sjinpathisc wilh the trials of these true lovers. But hem ini5te rewe ought to 
mean, might repent (themselves), see 37S : oit, of or foy must be inserted before 
hem to give anything like \N"issmann's meaning, but even then hrcoivcn generally 
means, to have mercy on, to show active pity (comp. 37S), not, to sympathise wilh. 
1. 1526. vnorn here means ugly; and the line is of the same type as, ' And 
5ede barfote and nought yschod,' E. Studien, xiv. 171/34 ; ' Schod & no J)}-ng bare,' 
Athelston, 377. 

I. 1527. among, at intervals, develops a sense of continually, Comp. ' Floris 
sijte and wep among,' Floris, 845 ; ' Euer pe boye blewe and lewh a monge,' 
Archiv, xc. p. 75; ' Wi]) weping I mengid my drinke among,' E. Studien, x. 
247/1 86 {among might here mean, together); * Sum wile softe and lud among,' 
Owl & N. 6; * They pleyd & songe amonge,' Archiv, Ixxix. 437/279 ; ' Tc deum 
laudamus jiei songe amonge,' Anglia, i. 73/257;' Lajamon, 22702, 23564; Amis, 
860. Similar are, ' And also cussed his feet amyd,' Cursor T. 14015 ; ' Pleiei5 
& sweie'5 & singeS bitweonen,' O. E. Homilies, i. 193/28. The lines apparently 
express the thankfulness of the scribe that his task is done. 

II. 1529,30. A very common formula in the romances; comp. ' Jesu, lorde, of 
heuyn k)-nge, | Grawnt vs alle hys blessynge,' Octavian, 64/4,5; Isumbras, i, 2; 
792-4; Eglamour, i, 2; Avowinge of Arther, 93/13,4; Triamore, P. F. MS., ii. 
80/1, 2; ' Lord Jhesu, heuyne-kynge, | Thow grante vs all J)i blyssinge | Iff it ))i 
\vylle be,' Archiv, Ixxix. 443/19 1-3 ; ' Jhesu Cryst, heuyn kjTige, | Grant them all 
hys blyssinge | That J)is story ^v)■ll haue in mynd,' Horst., A. L. n.f. 241/607-9. 
.Similar are, ' he J)at is al-mihti kyng, | \a.t heije sitte]) In Trinite, | Graunt vs alle 
his blessyng, | AMEN, AMEN par charite,' Archiv, Ixxix. 434/221-4; ' God that 
made the myddel erd | Geve ows alle his blessyng,' Alisaunder, 8029, 30; ' Now 
lesu Cryst that all hath wTOUght | As he on the Rode vs bought | He geve hvs his 
blessing,' Torrent, 2664-6; Amadace, 56/17,8; Boddeker, 194/1,2. 




horn childe & maiden rimnild 

Mi leue frende dere, [f- 31 7 v*] 

Herken & je may here, 

& ;e wil vnder flonde ; 
Stories ;e may lere 4 

Of onr elders ])at were 

Whilom in fiif lond. 
Y wil ;ou telle of kinges tvo, 
Hende hajieolf waf on of ]>o, 8 

fJat weld al ingelond ; 
Fram Humber norj) Jian wait he, 
f>at was in to J)e wan fee, 

In to hif owhen hond. 1 2 

He no hadde no child, af je may here, 
Bot a fone [)at was him dere ; 

When fat he waf bom, 
pe king was glad & of gode chere, 
He fent after frendef fer & nere 

& bad men calle him horn, 
v-iii- knaue childer he foiijt. 
To horn hif fone /le hem bitaujt, 

Alle were \zS. frely bom, 
Wi> him to play & lere to ride, 
Fine 3er in ))at ich tide, 

WiJ) baner him biforn. 




Hende, & 5e me herken wold, 
fJe childer name af it if told, 

Y wil ;ou reken arijt ; 
Ha/rof & tebaude, 
A);elfton & winwold, 

Gariif wife & wijt, 



Wihard J)at was euer trewe, 
SeJ)))en firfl him horn knewe. 

To feme wi]) al hif mi;t ; 
Wicard & hif brojier Wikel, 
SeJ)en Hom fond hem ful fikel, 

Lefingef on him })ai lijt. [f. 317 v*] 36 

Arlaund, J)at al ])ewef cou))e, 
Bo])e bi norJ) & bifouj^e. 

In herd if noujt to hide. 
On hunting waf him mod cou^ie, 
For to blowe an hom wi]) moujie 

& houndef lede bifide, 
To harpe wele & play at ches, 
& al gamen J)at vfed is 

& mo waf in J)at tide ; 
Ha['eolf Arlaund bitaujt 
Hom & hif children aujt. 

To lem hem to ride. 

Out of danmark com an here, 
Opon Inglond forto were 

Wi]) flout ofl & vTiride, 
Wi]) yren hattef, fcheld & fpere ; 
Alle her pray to fchip ])ai here 

In clifland bi tefe fide. 
Schepe & nete to fchip J)ai brou5t 
& al ])at })ai haue mou5t, 

In herd if noujt to hide. 
When hapeolf it herd fay, 
He bulked bo])e nijt & day, 

Ojain hem for to ride. 






20. he Aent] omit MS. : supplied by Caro. 

N 2 

28. Hafrof] Hayro/US. 



Wi)) in ]>a.t ich fourtennijt 
Barounf fele & mani a knijt, 

Al were ])ai redi boun ; 
WiJ) helme on heued & brini bri3t 
Alle were J)ai redi to fijt 

& rered gonfeynoun. 
On alerton more al J)ai mett, 
per were lier dayes fett, 

Failed hem no roum ; 
SeJ?J)en to clifland ])ai rade, 
per ]>e danif men abade, 

To fel ])e feye adoun. 




In a morniwg Jiai bi gan, 
Of al J)at day ])ai no blan 

pat baleful werk to wrke ; 
Sidef ])ai made bio & wan, 76 

pat er wer white fo fe])er on swan, 

Swiche gamen man aujt irke. 
When l>at euen bi cam, 
pedanif men were al slan: [f. 3iSr'j 80 

It bi gan to mirke. 
Who fo go)) or ridej) per bi, 
5ete may men fee ^er bonef ly 

Bi feyn Sibilef kirke. 84 

Hende hapeolf, af y 50U fay, 
Duelled Jier f)e nijen day, 

pe folk of him waf fain. 
pai toke anon ]>at ich pray, 88 

Schepe & nete ])at ]>eT slain lay. 

And 3af it ]>e folk ojain ; 
Armour & brini brijt 
He jaf to squier & to knijt, 92 

To feriaunt & to swayn ; 
Schipes he dede to lond drawe 
& 5af to bond men on rawe. 

For her catel waf slayn. 96 

po he feye J^at were wijt, 

WiJ) helme on heued & brini brijt 

& wele coujie prike a ftede, 
& J)o J)at were douhti in fijt, 100 

Sexti dubbed he ])er to knist, 

& 3af hem riche mede. 

Sum baylif he made, 

And fum he 5af londef brade, 

Hif jiftef were nouBt gnede ; 
& sejif)en he dede chirchef make, 
To fmg for J)e dedef fake : 

God quite him hif mede ! 



Se])J)en king ha])olf fore. 

For to hunten on blakeowe more 

WiJ) a rout vn ride, 
In fretj'e & in forefl ])ore ; 112 

To telle })e dere flrong it wore, 

pat he felled Jiat tide, 
& anon after, wiJ) outen lefing, 
He held a feft at pikering, 1 16 

per hif kni3tef fchuld ride ; 
& sej)])en to 3ork, waf noujt to layn, 
Arlaunde com him ojain, 

& horn hif fone wi]) prede. 1 20 

King ha])eolf tok ])e children au5t, 
pat he had hif fone bitau5t, 

& gan to wepe anon : 
'Ich aue won mi fon wiJ) mau3t, [f. 318 r'] 
pat we 05ein in batayl faujt, 125 

& now ])ai ben al slon, 
& 30ur faderf ben slawe Jiare : 
pat of ])inke]) me ful fare 128 

& o];er mani on. 
pe lond ])at f ai held of me, 
Alle y 5iue 30U here fre, * 

Ward no kepe y non. 132 

Wi]) Horn, mi fone, y wil 5e be, 
Af 5our faderf ban ben wi|) me, 

& o])ef 3e fchul him swere, 
pat 56 fchal neuer fram him fle, 136 
For gold no filuer, lond no fe, 

Osein out londif here.' 
To horn hif fone he hem bi toke 
& dede hem swere opon ]>e boke, 140 

Feute J)ai fchuld him here. 
While J)at ])ai line mi3t, 
Wi]) helme on heued & brini bri3t, 

Hif londef for to were. 144 

66. gonfeynoun over an erasure MS. 

123. ziiex wepe, soyeWSi. 

73. Tnorning] niornig MS. 



Hende hajieolf Jiat waf fo fre, 
Bot -ix- monel) foioumd he, 

No lenge no hadde he pes. 
Out of yrlond com kingef pie, 148 

Her namef can y telle J)e, 

Wele wi]i ouleii les: 
Ferwele & \N inwald were \>er to, 
Malkan king waf on of ]>o, 152 

Proude in ich aprcs; 
Al weftmer land flroyed pay. 
pe word com on a Whiffonday 

To king ha])eolf at hif def. 1 56 

He bad pe harpour leuen hif lay : 
' For ouf bi hone]) anoper play, 

Bufke armour & flede.' 
He fent hif fond nijt & day 160 

Alfo fafl af he may, 

Hif folk to batayl bede ; 
' Bid hem, fat Jiai com to me, 
Al J)at hold her lond fre, 164 

Help now at J)if nede ; 
Better manly to be slayn, 
JJan long to Hue in forwe & pain, 

Ojainoutlondifjjede.' [f-siSv^] 168 

)?ai bnfked hem wel haftily, 
To com to pe kingef cri 

WiJ) in elleuen nijt, 
)7at eueriche (Irete & eum fly 172 

Glifed pQT pai riden by, 

Of her brinif brijt; 
& fej't'en to flajoief more J)ai rode, 
J?e rout waf boJ)e long & brod, 1 76 

To fel ))o fay in fijt ; 
Alle Jiat nijt duelled J)ay, 
Til amorwe Jiat it waf day, 

pe barounf of gret mijt. 180 

pe irife oft waf long & brade. 
On flainef more ))er pai rade, 

f>ai 5af a crie for prede ; 
Hende hajieolf hem abade, 184 

Swiche meting waf neuer made, 

\Vi)) forwe on ich afide : 
Rijt in alitel flounde 
Sexti ])oufand were layd to grouwde 188 

In herd if noujt to hide ; 

King haJ)eolf slouj wi}) hif hond, 
pat waf comen out of yrlond, 

Tvo kingef Jiat tide. 192 

King hajjeolf waf wel wo. 
For pe irife oft waf mani & mo 

Wip fcheld & wiJ) fpere ; 
Ful long fej'jien man feyd fo : 196 

AY hen men fchuld to batayl go. 

To men mijt on dere. 
f>ei king hapeolf faujt faft. 
King malkan ftiked attelaft 200 

Hif ftede Jiat fchuld him bere : 
Now fchal men finde kingef fewe, 
pat in batail be fo trcwe, 

Hif lond forto were. 204 

When king ha])eolf on fot ftode, 
pe yrife folk about him 5ode, 

Af hondef do to bare ; 
Whom he hit opon ]ie hode, 208 

Were he neuer kni3t fo gode. 

He 5aue a dint wel fare ; 
He broujt in alitel ftounde 
Wele fif J)oufende to grounde [f. 318 v^] 

WiJ) hif grimly gare. 2 1 3 

pe Irife oft tok hem to red, 
To fton ))at douhti knijt to ded, 

pai durft neije him na mare. 2 16 

Gret diol it waf to fe 

Of hende ha])eolf ])at waf fo fre, 

Stonef to him pai caft ; 
pai brak him boj^e legge & kne, 220 
Gret diol it waf to se, 

He kneled attelaft. 
King malcan wi)) wret))e out ftert 
& fmot king hafeolf to pe hert ; 224 

He held hif wepen fo faft, 
pat king malkan fmot hif arm atvo, 
Er he mi5t gete hif swerd him fro, 

For nede hif hert tobraft. 2 28 

po king malkan wan pe priif, 
Oway brou3t he no mo ywif, 
Of hif men bot Written, 

J54. we/lmer\ me over an erasure MS. 

216. ««/j«] »■ above line MS. 

1 82 


}?at wouwded were in bak & fide; 232 
f>ai flei5e & durfl noujt abide, 

Dajjet, who hem bi mene ! 
To yrlond he com 05ain, 
3c left her fair folk al slain 336 

Lieand on ])e grene. 
parf hem noijier nijt no day 
Make her ros J^ai wan J)e pray, 

Bot slowe \)e king, y wene. 240 

A nerl of nor])humber land, 
He herd telle ])if ti])eand, 

He bulked hi;« to ride ; 
Alle he fefed in hif hand, 244 

Al Jiat he to fom him fand, 

Rijt to humber fide. 
^\'hen })at arlaund herd fain, 
pat hende ha})eolf waf slain, 248 

He durfl no lenge abide ; 
pai bulked bo})e nist & day 
Af fafl af J)ai may, 

Her heuedef for to hide. 252 

Fer fouJ)e in Inglond 
Houlac king J)er pai fond, 

WiJ) knijtef flijie on flede. 
Hetoke him Horn bipe hand; [f. 319 r'] 
When he hadde teld hif tijieand, 257 

Mennef hertef mijt blede : 
' When hende haJ)eolf waf slan 
& hif londef fram him tan 260 

& we ben flowe for drede : 
Of mi felf if me noujt, 
Bot horn, hif fone, ichaue \>e broujt, 

Help now in ))if nede.' 264 

Houlac king waf wel hende, 
Reffaiued hem nijen, Herlauwd })e tende. 

Her maifter for to be : 
' Mete and drink y fchal hem fende, 268 
8c euer, when ich out wende, 

pai fchal wende wi]) me. 
Horn fchal be me leue & dere.' 
He bad harlaund fchuld him lere, 272 

pe rijt forto fe, 

pe lawef bojje eld & newe, 
Al maner gamen & glewe ; 

In bok J)uf rede we. 276 

puf, in boke af we rede, 
Alle J)ai were in court to fede, 

Sweteliche at lare ; 
Alle were ])ai clojied in o wede, 280 
To ride on palfray o])er on flede, 

Whe})er hem leuer ware. 
Horn waf bo])e war & wife, 
At hunting oft he wan jie priif, 284 

Loued he no])ing mare ; 
Harpe & romaunce he radde arijt, 
Of al gle he hadde in fijt 

pat in lond ware. 288 

pe word of Horn wide fprong, 
Hou he waf bo])e michel & long, 

Wi]) in fiftene jere ; 
per waf no knijt in jnglond, 292 

pat mi5t adint flond of hif hond, 

NoiJ^er fer no nere. 
Michel he waf & wele ymaked, 
Af white af milke he waf naked, 296 

& euer o bli])e chere ; 
Meke he waf & trevve fo fliel, 
Alle gamef he cou])e wel, 

As 5e may forward here. [f-Zigr'^] 300 

Houlac king, y wene, 
Hadde no child bi pe quene, 

Bot a maid brijt ; 
Al J)ai feyd })at hir fene, 304 

Sche waf a feir may & a fchene, 

& maiden rimneld fche hijt. 
When fche herd horn fpeke, 
Mijt fche him noujt forjete 308 

Bi day no bi nijt ; 
Loued neuer childer mare 
Bot triflrem or yfoud it ware. 

Who fo rede arijt. 312 

pat miri maiden wald nou5t wond, 
Dern loue forto fond, 
^if fche it mijt winne ; 

2^q Make] m corrected out of/ MS. 
266. }e\ e above line MS. 

251. After /^;', /erased MS. 
283. hor MS. 



l''oi))i fche fent hir fond, 316 

I'or to fpeke wij) arlond, 

For Horn fchuld cu/« wi|i him. 
\: Arlauiul him hi })0U3t, 
jif he hom wiJ) him broujt, 320 

Lefmgef fchuld bi ginne ; 
For \>i he lete horn at hame, 
Sc toke haJ)erof in hif name 

To maiden Rimneld j»fic. 324 

pc miri maiden, al fo fone 

Af hajierof jn to chauwber come, 

Sche wend, pat it wer hom. 
A riche cheier waf vndon, 328 

|>at feuien mi5t fit J'cr on. 

In swiche craft ycom ; 
A baudekin J^er on waf fpred ; 
I'ider J)e maiden hadde hem led, 332 

To fiten hir bi fom ; 
Frout & fpicef fche hem bede, 
Wine to drink wite & rede, 

BoJ)e of coppe & horn. 336 

jJan a feriauMt fche bad go, 
A gentil gofhauk for to ta. 

Fair he waf to flijt ; 
)7er wi]> herten glouef to, 340 

Swiche waf ]>e maner po, 

And 3af HaJ)erof of her jif/. 
^Sche wcnde bi Ha})erof, Horn it wer,?, 
pat loued hunting nojiing more, [f. 319 

On him hir loue waf lijt : v'] 345 
A lef of grehoundef for}) Jiai broujt, 
& he forfoke & wald it noujt 

& feyd haperof he hijt. 348 

' What euer ]ii name it be, 
pou fchalt haue ]>ii houndef J)re, 

pat wele can take a dere ; 
& ha})erof, for J/C loue of me, 352 

Com to morn, & horn wij) ]>e ' ; 

He lay hir hert ful nere. 
([ & Harlaund J)at waf he«de, 

Toke hif leue forto wende, 356 

Wi}) a bli])e chere. 

& com anon on ])e morn, 

& brou3t wiJ) hiw hcnde horn, 

Af je may forward here. 360 

pe maiden hour waf fair fpred, 
Atired al wi}) riche webbe, 

Sche haylett hem wiJ) winne ; 
pc mirie maiden hir bi})ou3t, 364 

In what maner })at fche mou5t 

Trewe loue for to ginne. 
Sche fett hir hem bitvene : 
pe maiden waf brijt and fchene 368 

& comen of kingef kinne ; 
Anon hir felue hadde hem ledde 
To fitten opon her owhen bedde, 

Arlaund & Hom wi]) him. 372 

Hendelichc fche to hem fpac, 
A poumgarnet })er fche brak, 

& fpicef dede fche calle, 
Wine to drink ; after ])at 376 

Sche lete fet for}) a ftede blac, 

Waf couered al wij) palle, 
pe fliropef were of filke wite, 
Bridel & fadel al waf (like, 380 

& feyd, ' Horn hende in halle, 
It waf me told })ou fchult be knist ; 
Y })e 5if here a flede li3t, 

& a queyntife of palle.' 384 

' Horn,' fche feyd, ' if })i name, 
An horn y fchal 3iue ))e ane, 

A michel & vnride, 
Al yuore if pe bon, [f 319 v"] 388 
Sett w\\> maul a riche flon, 

To bere bi pi fide.' 
C pe baudrike waf of filk rist, 

pe maiden felf it hadde ydist, 392 

Layd wi)) gold for pride : 
' What pat euer be wip me, 
Horn, at ))i wille fchal it be. 

In herd if nou3t to hide.' 39*) 

pan fche lete forp bring 
A swerd hongand bi aring, 
To hom fche it bitaujt ; 

316. Afterye«/, wi/ MS. 

324. tunc] omit MS. 
342. 5?/ MS. 

i>! supplied by Ritson, iniie Michel. 



It if J;e make of miming, 400 

Of al swerdef it if king, 
& weland it wvou5t ; 
^ Bitter- fer ]>e swerd hijt, 

Better swerd bar neuer knijt, 404 

Horn, to pe ich it ];ou3t ; 
If non5t a knijt in Inglond, 
Schal fitten adint of ])ine bond, 

Forfake pou it noujt.' 408 

Hendelich ])an ])anked he 
pe maiden of hir jift fre, 

& feyd, ' fo god me fpede, 
Rimnild, for })e loue of l)e 412 

Y fchal iufle, Jiat J)ou fchalt se, 

Opon J)if ich flede.' 
^ Horn in J)at ich ftounde 

5af ))e maiden loue wounde, 416 

So neije hir hert it 5ede ; 
& fche wel trewely ha)i him hijt, 
gif ]?at he be dubbed knijt, 

Hir maidenhod to mede. 420 

Wi]) in J)at ich fourtennist, 
Horn waf dubbed to knijt, 

& hajerof, af y wene, 
& 0)361 mani pat wer^ lijt, 424 

Haf houlak king hadde hem hijt ; 

So were Jiai ful fiftene. 
A turnament J)e king lete crie, 
pider com wel on heye 428 

Kni3tef J)at wer^ kene : 
Maiden rimneld biheld \>af play, 
Hou Horn wan ))e priif pat day, 431 

To wite & noujt to wene. [f. 320 r'] 

Houlac king jaf horn leue, 
In hif hour forto chefe 

J7e maidenf |)at were fre, 
Riche of kin & hondef sleye ; 436 

f)ai hadde frendef fer & neije, 

He mijt avaunced be ; 
& maiden rimnild him bede, 
)7at he fchuld take non ofer rede : 440 

No nojier ])an chefe he ; 


For fche wel trewely haj) him hijt, 
5if l^at fche Hue mijt, 

Hif leman wald fche be. 444 

Tebaud went bijond fe 
& Winwald pat waf fo fre, 

To leren hem to ride ; 
Wip pe king of Frauwce duelled he, 44S 
Mani time pai gat pe gre, 

In turnament pat tide. 
pe king feije, pat pai wer wijt, 
Bope he dubbed hem to knijt 

Wip wel riche pride ; 
Wiif pai toke & duelled pare, 
In Inglond com pai nomore. 

Her werdef forto bide. 



Gariif in to bretein went, 
& Apelflon wip him waf lent, 

To anerl fo fre. 
At iuflef & at turnament, 
Whider ward fo pai went, 

Euer pai gat pe gre, 
& perl hem bope knijtef made, 
& 5af hem londef wide & brade, 

Wip him for to be ; 
put pai duelled ]>er in pes. 
While pat criflef wil wes, 

In boke fo rede we. 




Houlac king jaf gold & fe 

To hem, pat pai mijt pe better be, 

& bad pai fchuld wiue ; 
Haperof, a knijt fre, 472 

& horn he feyd, ' y loue pe, 

Man mod oliue.' 
& Wiard treuly he hap hi3t, 
J?at he fchal dubbed be to knijt [f. 320 r^] 

At anoper fipe. 477 

Wigard & wikel hem bipoujt, 
Hou pai hom bitray moujt : 

God lete hem neuer priue ! 480 

On aday, af houlak king 
Schuld wende on hif playing. 
To late hif haukef fleye, 

422. Hor}i\ orn over erasure MS. 
4_^2. Ihe p;uard has to wite 1^ nou^t. 
470. }iai aDove line MS. 

430. f>a{\]> MS. 

434. After forto^ e erased MS. 

476. After be erasure of two letters MS. 



Horn \>an, wif) outen lefing, 484 

Bilaft at horn for blodeleteing 

Al for a maladye. 
\A'ikard bi ])e king rade, 
Wikel ])at lefing made, 48S 

Horn gan J)ai wray, 
Sc feyd, ' fir, y feije jiflerday, 
Hon Horn bi ]>i doubter lay: 

Traitourf boje be Jiai.' 492 

pe king lened ])at J^ai fede; 
' For )u 3af fche him ^e ftede, 

Lefing it if nou5t.' 
He went hom af he wer^ wode, 496 
In to boure anon he jode 

& maiden Rimnild he foujt ; 
C He bete hir fo, ]>at fche gan blede, 
pe maidenf fleije oway for drede, 500 

pai durfl help hir uoujt ; 
Gi/tlef fche waf of J)at dede, 
Horn hadde noujt hir maidenhede, 

Bot in word & Jioujt. 504 

Houlac hif swerd haj) tan 
& feyd Horn fchuld be slan ; 

For \\TetJ)e he wald wede : 
' He ha]) me don michel fchame, 
Y wende wele haue fuffred nane 

For mi gode dede.' 
Knijtef com \>c king bifom, 
Alle prayd J)ai for Hom, 

No mijt ))er non fpede ; 
pe king in to hif chauwber if gon 
& fchet him felf \-ei in al on. 

Til hif wret])e oner 3ede. 516 

Falfmen ha)) on ouf leyd, 
& to mi fader ouf bi wraid, 
Y drede he flemef te. 

5 28 



}?ei ))at hom waf fore adrad. 
In to boure he waf ladde, 

pe maiden for to fe; 519 

He fond hir liggeand on hir bedde, [f. 
Mou])e & nofe al for bled : 320 v'] 

' }7if haftow for me.' 
* Bi god of heuen ]>at me boujt, 
Of mi felue if me noujt, 524 

Way if me for J)e ! 

Bot, horn, jif it fu fchal bitide, 
f>at ])ou fchalt out of lond ride 

& flemed fchaltovv be, 
f)if feuen winter y fchal abide, 532 

Mi maidenhed to hele & hide, 

For pe loue of ]>e ; 
f>ei an emp^rour come, 
King o})er kingef fone, 536 

For to wedde me, 
Of no loue ne fchal he fpede, 
J?at y ne fchal kepe mi maidenhede. 

So help me god, to ])e ! 540 

Horn, to morwe in ])e morwing 
f>ou fchalt fare on hunting 

To take fe wild ro ; 
5if god J)e fpede an hunting, 544 

Loke ))ou bring it bifor pe king, 

What fo ])ou may to ; 
As he fittef at hif def, 
Yferued of pe firfl mef, 54S 

Hanjtel pe now fo, 
Fare af J)ou wifl noujt, 
& he fchal telle pt al hif ])0U3t, 

Er ])0U fram J)at bord go.' 552 

A morwen Horn to hunting' if gan, 
To take pe wilde wij) pe tam. 

In pe morwening; 
Fine hertef ha)) he tan, 
Bi midday brou5t hem ham 

Bifor houlak king. 
pe king feyd, ' it if for nou3t : 
Traitour, ))oa haft trefoun \vr0u3t ; 

To morwe 3if y pe finde, 
Bi mi croun, fou fchalt be slawe, 
Wi)) wilde horf al to drawe 



& sej)))en on galwef hing.' [f. 320 v^] 

To rimneld he com, wi]) outen lefing, 
& fche bitau5t him aring, 
pe vertu wele fche knewe : 

478. a»/A«/l / over erasure MS. 502. GiUlef'\gitlef^MS>. 541. tnornin£\tnoring'i\S. 



' Loke ])ou forfake it for no ])ing, 56S 
It fchal ben our tokening ; 

pe (Ion it if wel trewe : 
When J)e flon wexe]) wan, 
pan chaunge]) \>e poujt of ])i leman, 572 

Take J)an anewe : 
When J^e flon wexe]) rede, 
pan haue y lorn mi maidenhed, 

Ojainef ]?e vntrewe.' 576 

Horn feyd, ' in ))ine erber if atre, 
per \Tider if awel fre, 

Ygrowen al \vi]> yue : 
Rimnild, for \>e loue of me, 580 

Eueriday J)at })0U ])er be, 

To fe J)e water li)ie 
& when ))ou fefl mi fchadu J)are, 
pan trowe J)ou me namare, 584 

pan am y bon to wiue ; 
& while Jjon fefl mi fchadu nonjt, 
pan chaungej) neuer mi Jjoujt, 

For no woman oliue.' 588 

Wiard rode fou)ie & horn rode weft. 
To Walef Horn com atteleft, 

Wel long er J)ai fo mete. 6 1 2 

C purch aforeft af he fchuld fare, 
An armed knist mett he Jiare, 

& bad horn fchuld abide, 
To 5eld hif harneife leffe & mare 616 
0])er iufte, whejier him leuer ware, 

pe lawe if noujt to hide. 
& horn of iufting waf ful fain, 
& feyd to ]>e kni;! ojain : 620 

' Ful leue me were to ride.' 

Houlac king wald nere wede, 
pere he fat opon hif feghe 

& feyd, ' traitour, fie ! ' 
Horn tok hif leue & jede, 592 

Wi}) him he toke hif gode ftede 

& grehoundef bot Jire 
Sc alle hif harneyf laffe & mare ; 
Hajjerof durft noujt wij) him fare, 596 

So wro]) ]>e king waf he. 
Maidenf in \>e boure gan crie 
& feyd rimnild wald dye ; 

Now swone]) pat fre. 600 

When horn com fer out of ]>ai fijt. 
He feyd, godebounde he hijt. 

When he gan ani mete. 
A\'iard rode after day & nijt, 604 

Al fo faft af he mijt, 

Horn forto feke. 
Of godebounde herd he fpeke, 
Horn no mijt he neuer gete, [f. 321 r^] 

Bi way no bi ftrete. 609 

JT pe knijt toke a fchaft in hand, 
& horn wele vnder-fand, 

pat he cou]'e ride ; 
^ Horn tok on al fo long 
A ful tou5 & to fo ftrong 

Ojainef him pat tide. 
pe knijtef fcheld he cleue atvo 
& of hif platef he brae ]>o 

8c fruffed alle hif fide : 
Out of hif fadel he bar him J^an, 
He brae hif arm & hif fchulderban, 632 

He hadde a fal vnride. 



When he of /its swoning bicam. 
He afked after hornef nam, 

Whider he wald gang : 636 

' In walif lond if ])er nan 
Man y made of flefohe no ban, 

Ojain ])e may ftand.' 
Horn answerd o nan : 640 

' Godebounde if mi nam ; 

Icham comen to fand, 
For to win gold & fe. 
In feruife wij) 5our king to be, 644 

pat lord if of pif land.' 

' Our kingef name if Elidan ; 
In al Walef if ])er nan 

So ftrong aman af he ; 648 

While ]>e feuendayf began, 
Euerich day wi]) fundri man 

Iufting bedef he ]>e. 

579. yue] y corrected out of « MS. 597. After wro},}e erased MS. 634. his\ omit MS. 



pe eijtenday, be Jion bold, [f. 321 r'] 652 
jif J)OU J)e feuen dayf mai hold, 

pe king J'an fchaltow fe 
Com rideand on a ftede broun 
Wi]) a foket o sU/ feloun, 656 

Forto win \>e gre.' 

Horn feyd, wi]) ontten lefing, 
' For to fpeke \vi{) l;c king, 

For no))ing wil y bide.' 660 

pe knijt told him naraare ; 
pe king at fnowedoun he fond ])are, 

Sir Elydan ])at tide. 
He iufled al )iat feuen nijt, 664 

Eueriday wi}) fundri knijt, 

He gat J)e faireft pride ; 
pe eijtenday wij) elidan, 
& wan her fledef cuerilkan, 668 

In herd if noujt to hide. 

He fmot he king opon J-e fcheld, 
Of hif horf he made him held 

& feld him to Jie grounde ; 672 

Swiche on hadde he founde feld, 
pat fo had feld him in fe feld 

Bifor J)at ich flounde. 
pe king afked hiw, what he hijt, 676 
& he him answerd anonrijt, 

' Mi name if godebounde.' 
* Y wil ]»e 5if gold Sc fe, 
jif J)at l)ou wil duelle wiJ) me, 680 

Bi 5ere a {)oufend pounde.' 

Meffangers com out of yrland, 
& take J)e king aletter in hand, 

& bad he fchnld rede, 684 

Fro aking J)at men dede wrong, 
Hif owhen fone, ich vnder ftond, 

f>at axed help at nede. 
He lete write aletter 05ain, 68S 

He fchuld han help, if noujt to layn, 

WiJ) knijtef ftipe on (lede. 
Horn to batayl waf ful boun 
& folwed ])e meflangers out of toun, 692 

In to Irlond J)ai him lede. 

Hem com anhauen wele to hand, 
f»at 5olkil if clcped in irland, 

f)e court waf J>er bifidc. [f. 321 v*] 
Finlawe king ])er })ai fandc, 
For to here ti]ieande, 

03ain hem gan ride. 
pe letter told pat he broujt. 
Help fchuld him faile nonjt 

Ojainef })ilke tide. 
King Finlak dede to malkan fay, 
\Vhe])er he wold bi nijt or day, 

pe bataile wald he bide. 

pe kingef fonef riden bape, 

To haylef Horn, when ]>ai him fawe, 

& welcomed him, fat fre. 
Anon J)ai gun to flriue raj)e, 
Whefer of hem him fchuld haue, 

To duelle in her meine. 
Horn answerd hem \>a.n as hende 
& feyd to hem, ' mi leue frende, 

pe king ])an wald y se, 
& afterward y wille 30U telle, 
Where me leuefl if to duelle, 

& semlyeft to me,' 







pe meflanger told homef dede, 
Hou he hadde ywon ]>e flede, 

& hou he feije him ride; 720 

* Sir, mijteflow hold him to Jii nede. 
King malkan J)arf }ie nou;t drede, 

Batayle mijt ])ou bide. 
Hour king ha]) boden him gold & fe, 724 
\Vi]) fat he wil wiji him be 

At J)if ich nede, 
& Horn ful trewely haj) him hi3t 
Fur to flond in flede of knijt, 728 

In herd if noujt to hide.' 

In }Tlond waf fer nan, 

J>at alle fai be to malkan gan. 

So michel waf hif poufle ; 
Bot finlak king him al an 
Haf J)e batayl vnder tan, 

5if crifl wil fat it be. 


656. ofeloun MS. stel ovml MS. (see .Alisaunder, 4415). 
707. haylef \ corrected out of Imylett MS. 



King malkan dede bede out here, 736 ^pei Horn feije {)e mefl frang, 

Opon ]>Q king finlak to were ; 

' Now J)an fchal we fe, 
3if he wll fijt, he fchal be slan, 
5if he wil bide, he fchal be tan : [f. 32 1 v'^] 

Y trowe befl he wil fle.' 741 

In he ridef hem a-mang » 
& layf on wel gode won ; 
It waf no man of yrland, 
Mi5t flond adint of hif hand, 
At ich flroke he slou3 on 


Bot J)re woukef were J)er fett, 
J>at alle J)if folk fchal be mett, 

& batayle fchal j^er be. 744 

pe Walif king hadde gret lett 
Wif) windef & vfi]> watref bett, 

Sir elidan J)e fre ; 
He no mijt in to irlond come, 748 

For to helpen hif fone. 

For flormef on ]>c fe. 
King finlak feyd, 'if noujt to hide, 
J>if batayl dar y noujt abide ; 752 

Mi rede if tan to fle.' 

& yan waf Horn af fain o fijt, 
Af if J)e foule of J)e lijt, 

When it ginne]) dawe : 756 

' Sir king, foi to held J)i rijt, 
Y rede ])ou bede riche jift : 

pe folk wil to ])e drawe ; 
Geder to fe folk ]>at ])ou may, 760 

& baldliche hold ])i day, 

Batail fchal we fchawe : 
To fle me fink it if gret fchame, 
Ar dintef be fmiten or ani man llan, 764 

For drede of wordef awe,' 

pe kingef fonef wer knijtef bold, 
& feyd fai wald fe batail hold, 

Her liuef forto lete ; 768 

Finlac king, fei he war aid, 
Blefeli he feyd fijt he wald. 

To hold fat he bi-hete. 
J>uf fai riden out of tonn 772 

Wif fpere oloft & goinfaynoun, 

Malkan king to mete ; 
WiJ) fperef fcharp & swerdcf gode 
J>ai slouj mani afrely fode, 776 

So grimli gun fai grete. 

Maiden & wiif gret forwe gan make [f. 
For fe kingef fonef fake, 322 r'] 785 

pat were apoint to dye. 
Finlac king 05ainef him come, 
& hif armef of him nome ; 788 

pe bled ran ouer hif ei3e. 
He cleped hif doubter Acula, 
& bad fche fchuld a plafter ta ; 

Of woundef waf fche sleije. 792 

pe maiden tafl Hornef wouwde, 
pe kingef doubter, in fat ftou«de ; 

Of him hye if ful fain : 
' JJou fchalt be fone hole & fou^de ; 796 
Haftow Malkan broujt to grouwde?* 

He feyd, ' 5a,' o5ain. 
' King Malkan waf mi faderf ban, 
& now for fofe ich haue him slan, 800 

pe fofe for to fain. 
Mi fader swerd y wan to day, 
Y kepe it while y Hue may : 

pe name if blauain.' 804 

]?ai birid f e folk ]at were slan, 
& her armour fai ladde ham, 

Wif horf white & broun. 
Finlac king him bi fou3t, 808 

Hou he Horn 5eld moujt. 

To jif him hif warifoun ; 
He tok malkan kingef lond, 
& fefed it in to Hornnef bond, 81 2 

Bof e tour & toun. 
Fries, barounf, euerichon, 
In Irlond waf f er non, 

pat no com to hif fomoun. 816 

pe kinges doubter Acula 
Loued hende Horn so 
Sche durfl it noujt kif e ; 

758. bede] de above the line MS. 783. One leaf of MS. lost here. 

816. MttT}ai, it MS. " 



Whejier fche feije him ride or go, 
Hir )'0U5t hir hert brak atvo, 

]7at fche no fpac -wil' Jiat blij'c. 
On aday fche made hir fcke, 
Horn com Sc wi}) hir fpeke, 

Sche mi;t no lenger mij)e ; 
To him fpac ]>at maiden fre 
& feyd, ' horn, y loue \)e, 

Man moft oliue.' [f. 322 r'^] 

Ouer al horn ]>e priif him wan, 
He feyd it waf for owiman, 

]^t was him leue & dere : 
Acula wende for Jian, 
pat horn hir loued & moft gode an 

Of ani woman Yat were. 
Of anoj er waf al hif Jioujl, 
Maiden Rimnild forjat he noujt, 

Sche lay hif hert ful nere. 
pe ring to fchewen ha]> he tan, 
J>e hewe waf chauwgcd of ])e flan, 

For gon if feuen jere. 

Horn wald no lenger abide ; 
He bulked him for to ride 

& gedred folk eueraware, 
An hundred knijtef bi hif fide, 
^ViJ7 ftedef fele & michel pride, 

Her fchippef were ful 5are. 
pai fayled oner ])e flode fo gray. 
In Inglond ariued were }>ay, 

]5er hem leuefl ware ; 
Vnder awode ])er ])ai gan lende, 
Horn feije abegger wende, 

Sc after he is fare. 


Horn faft after him gan ride 
& bad ]>e begger fchuld abide, 

For to here hif fpeche. 
pe begger answerd in J)at tide, 
' Vilaine, caneftow noujt ride? 

Fairer ]>ou mi3t me grete ; 
Haddeflow cleped me gode man, 
Y wold haue teld ]>e wennef y cam 

& whom y go to feche : 

Horn to feke Iiaue y gon 
jJurch out londcf mani on, 
& ay fchal wliile we niete. 





& now be min robef riuen, 
& me no waf no no)ier 5euen 

Of alle I'if feuen 3cre. 
Y go to feke after hiw ay, 868 

& ])uf haue don mani aday, 

Til put we mete yfere. 
To day if moging Jie king 
Wiji rimnild at fpoufeing, [f. 322 v'] 872 

pe kingcf doubter dere ; 
Mani fidef fchuld be bi bled, 
Er he bring hir to hif bed, 

Jif horn in lond were. 876 

S36 C! Wiard fchaltow calle me ; 
Gentil man, jif ])ou be fre, 
Tel me ]i name ; 
d f'i knauc wald y fain be, 
S40 J'at fair feft forto fe. 

Me Jjcnke [-atow haft nane.' 
Horn answerd him ojain, 
' Ich hat Horn, if noujt to lain, 

& ellef were me fchame ; 
Bot 3if ich held J)at ])ou haft feyd, 
Er })at ])ai ben in bed layd, 
Fiue })Oufende fchal be slain. 






Wiard, ojain fchaltow ride 
To mi folk & J)ere abide, 

Haue here mi robe to mede ; 
& y wil to court gon, 
Forto loke what ))ai don, 

In J>i pouer wede ; 
Bring hem \'nder jon wode fide, 
Al fo jem aftow may ride, 

pe way J^ou canft hem lede ; 
& y fchal heije me wel fone, 
Y com ojain, er it be none, 

^if crift me wil fpede.' 







When horn fro fer herd glewe, 
WiJ) taboumef bete & truwppef blewe, 
Ojainef hem he 3ede. 

843. eueraware] Michel prints eueriwhare. 



Muging king ful wele he knewe, 904 
He tok him bi ]>e lorein newe, 

Ojain he held hif flede. 
Wikard com & fmot him fo 
& feyd, ' traitour, lat ]>e bridel go.' 908 

pe blode out after jede. 
Horn ful trewely ha]) him hijt, 
He fchal him jeld ])at ich nijt, 

A box fchal ben hif mede. 912 

Moioun king waf ful wo 

J)at he hadde fmiten ]>e pouer man fo, 

& feyd, ' lat mi bridel be. 
\Vi]) ]>i J)ou lat mi bridel be, [f. 322 v^] 
What fo })ou wilt afki me, 917 

Ble])elich jiue y ]>e.' 
' Peter ! ' qua]) Horn, ' ]'atow wilt 
5iue me maiden Rimnild, 920 

J)at if fo fair & fre.' 
pe king waf wro]) & rewe hif jift : 
' J>ou afkefl wrong & no ])ing rijt, 

Sche may noujt })ine be.' 924 

Horn feyd, ' Y fett a nett otime : 
5if ani fifche if taken ))er inne 

Of al })if feuen jere, 
No fchal it neuer more be mine, 928 

Y wold it were fonken in helle pine, 
Wi]) fendef fele on fere ; 

& 5if it ha}) ytaken noujt, 

Y fchal it loue in hert])0U3t, 932 
& be me leue & dere.' 

Jmf fai went alle yfame 

Vnto ])e caflel v/i]> gle & game ; 

A fole ])ai wende he were. 936 

' Of beggers mo ])an fexti,' 
Horn feyd, ' maifter am y, 

& afke ])e ]>e mete, 
J>at y mote & o})er ]>re 940 

To day in ])ine halle be. 

When folk if gon to fete ; 
pan y wil folwe }e ham, 
& ])at y mot wi]) ])e gan 944 

In atte caftel jete.' 

pe king him hijt fikerly : 
' j'ou fchalt in })e halle by 

To haue Jiere/e mete.' 948 

J>er waf mani riche geft 
Dijt vnto ])at frely feft 

Of douhti folk in lond ; 
Atte 5ate waf flrong ])ra(l, 952 

Horn wald noujt be ])e lafl 

In for to gauge. 
pe porter cald him herlot swain, 
& he put him ojain, 956 

J>er out for to fland. 
Horn biufl opon him fo, 
His fcholder bon he brak ato, 

& in anon he ])range. 960 

Kokef hadde ])e mete grayd, [f. 323 r'] 
pe bord waf fett, ]>e clo]) waf layd ; 

To benche jede ]>e bold ; 
]?etrompef/)/fW6',])eglewemenpleyd, 964 
J?e bifchopef had ]>e grace y feyd, 

As miri men of molde. 
]Jer waf mani aricheman, 
Mete & drink wel gode wan 

To alle ])at ete wolde. 
Horn fat & litel ete, 
Michel he })0U5t & more he fpeke. 

For fole men fchuld him hold. 972 

J>an waf ])e lawe, fo]ie to fay, 
pe bride fchuld ]ie firft day 

Seruen atte mete ; 
Hendelich fan ferued fcho, 
Af a maiden fchuld do ; 

Horn bigan to fpeke : 
' Maiden, jif Tpi wille be. 
To godef men fchultow fe, 

pou no oujtefl hew noujt forjete ; 
& se])]5en })e knijtef fchul turnay, 
For to loke who fo may 

pe maiflri of hem 5ete.' 984 

For]) fche went, ])at maiden fre, 
& feched drink, ])at men mijt fe, 
To ])at beggere : 




904. Mitging] first ^ corrected out of w MS. 

925. horn] It above line MS. 

955, 6. in one line MS. 

964. blewe] ycde MS., correction by Ritson. 

981. one letter erased before ou^te/iyiQ. 

914. ^e] e above line MS. 

948. pi\ /lis MS., correction by Ritson. 

960. Jiraiige] r above line MS. 

980. fchuliow] might be i^ajA/chii/iow MS. 



' For homnef loue y pray ]>e, 988 

Go nou5t, ar J)if drunken be, 

jif euer he waf ])e dcrc' 
pe maiden bi him (lille flode, 
To here of horn hir )'ou5t it gode, 992 

He lay hir hert ful nere ; 
Of pe coppe he drank pe wine, 
pe ring of gold he kcfl })cr inne : 

' Bi tokening, lo, it here ! ' 996 

' A, sely man, Jie I)re(lef fare, 
pon fchalt haue a drink mare, 

Gode wine fchal it be.' 
Anojier drank sche him bare, 1000 

Sche afked 5if horn l^er in ware ; 

' 5a, certef,' ]>an feyd lie. 
Naf fche bot alitel fram him gon, 
J?at fche ne fel adoun anon, 1004 

Now swoncj) liat fre. [f. 323 r'] 
Kni5tef her to chauwber ledde ; 
When fche lay opon hir bedde, 

Sc/ie feyd, ' clepe ha])erof to me.' 1008 

' Knijtef, go]) in to halle swijie, 
& bid Jie kingef make hem bli])e, 

Jjat y wold wel fain ; 
Hajierof, go in to Jie erber swij)e 1012 
& geder paruink & iue, 

Grefef \>at ben of main. 
Certeynli, af y 50U fay, 
Horn if in pif halle to day ; 1016 

Y wende he hadde ben flain : 
Moioun king fchal neuer fpede, 
For to haue mi maiden hede, 

Now Horn if comen ojain.' 1020 

* Ha])erof, go in to halle & fe : 
In fell pouer wede if he, 

Y pray J)e knowe him ri5t : 

Say him, treuj^e plijt er we,' 1024 

' Bid him,' fche feyd, ' af he if fre, 

Hold jiat he bi hijt ; 
Bidd him go & me abide 
Rijt vnder 5on wode fide, 1028 

Af he if trewe knijt ; 

When al ^if folk if gon to play, 
He & y fchal flele oway, 

Bitvcnc J)C day & ]>e nijt.' 1032 

Ha)icrof in to halle 5ode, 
P'or to bihald jat frely fode, 

Ful wele he knewe hif viif ; 
Opon hif fot hard he flode, 1036 

Horn jioujt l)e tokening gode ; 

Vp he gan to arife. 
For]) ])ai 5ede, ]>o knijtef bold ; 
Ha))erof Jie maidenferand told, 1040 

Of trewe loue Horn waf wiif: 
' Y fchal com in to ])e feld v/ip pride, 
An hundred knijtef bi mi fide, 

Milke white if mi queintife.' 1 044 

* Bot, hajierof, |;ou mod me fchawe, 
Whar bi y fchal Wikard knawe, 

Hif buffeyt fchal be boujt.' 
' He ha]) queintife white fo snawe, 104S 
Wi]) foulef blac af ani crawe, [f. 323 v'] 

W'ip filke werk it if wroujt. 
Moioun queintife ?f 5alu & wan, 
Sett wi]) pekok & wi]) swan, 1052 

pa.t he wi}) him ha]) broujt ; 
Wikelef queintife if 5alu & grene, 
Floure de liif fett bi tvene, 

Him for 3ete ])ou noujt.' 1056 

ft Now if hajierof comen ojain, - 
& feyd he ha}) Horn fain, 

& what folk he ha]) broujt ; 
& after wzfarmef he gan frain ; 1060 
Waf neuer Rimnild ere fo fain 

In hert no in ])0U5t : 

* Ha})erof, go in to halle swi])e 

& bid mi fader make hiw bli})e 1064 

& fay icham fike noujt. 
Wikard, ])at if leue to fmite, 
Horn fchal hi;« hif dettef quite. 

To nijt it fchal be boujt.' 1068 

When })ai hadde eten, ])an were pai boun ; 
Wi]) fpere oloft & gonfainoun, 
Al armed were ])0 bold ; 

1008. Sc/te] Scle MS. losi. ?/] wo/MS., correction by Ritson. 

1060. ivi/armes\ wa/arme/yi^.^ correction by Ritson. 



Wi]) trump & tabourun out of toun 1072 
]?uf Jiai redde ])e rijt roun, 

Ich man af he wold. 
A nerl out of comwayle 
Ojain Moioun faun faile, 1076 

pe turnament fchal hold ; 
& horn com in to ]>e feld wi}) pride, 
An hundred knijtef bi hif fide, 

In rime af it if told. 1080 

Horn of /ler coming waf wel wife, 
& knewe hem bi her queyntife. 

Anon Jiai counterd \>o. 
Moioun king ha]) tint J)e priif, 1084 

Vnder hif horf fete he liif, 

Horn wald him noujt slo. 
To fir wigard hif swerd he weued, 
Euen ato he cleue hif heued, 1088 

Hif box he jalt him J)o ; 
Out he fmot Wiglef eije ; 
Traitourf ])at er leue to lije, 

Men fchal hem ken fo. 1092 

}?at day Horn Jjetumament wan [f. 323 V''] 
Fro Moioun & mani aman, 

WiJ) knijtef Ripe on flede ; 
He toke \>e gre pat waf a swan, 1096 
& fent to rimnild hif leman, 

To hir riche mede. 
^ To houlac king horn gan wende 

& ])onked him af hif frende noo 

Of hif gode dede : 
' )"ou feddefl me & forflerd to man.' 
He maked wikel telle out pan 

Hif leffingef & hif falfhed. 1 104 

Moioun king if iuel dijt, 
Tint he ha]) ]iat swete wijt 

& wold ben oway. 
Horn })at hadde hir tren])e plist, 1 108 
Wedded hir })at ich nijt 

And al opon aday. 
Now if Rimnild tviif wedde, 
Horn brou3t hir to hif bedde ; 1 1 12 

Houlac king gan fay : 
' Half mi lond ichil pe 5iue, 
Wi}) mi doujter, while y liue, 

& al after mi day.' 1 1 16 

Fiue days fat her feft, 

WiJ) mete & drink riche & onefl, 

In boke as we rede. 
For]), as we telle in gefl, 1 120 

Horn lete fende eft & weft, 

Hif folk to batayle bede ; 
Into nor]) humber land for to fare. 
To winne })at hif fader ware, 1 1 24 

Wi]) knijtef Mpe on flede, 
Wi]) erl, baroun & wi]) swain 
To winne hif fader lond o5ain, 

5if crift him wold fpede. 1 1 28 

Michel frely folk waf })are, 
into nor}) humber land to fare 
Wi]) ftedef wite & broun. 
Horn wald for noman fpare, 1132 

To winne al ])at hif fader ware, 

Bo]ie tour & toun. 
When ]?orbrond herd ])if, 
pan horn to lond y comen is, 1136 

1081. /ler] omit MS., supplied by Caro. 1091. er supplied in margin MS. 

1 102. oufed over an erasure MS. 1 103. tnakeo] rfadded in darker ink MS. 

U36. lond] a? above line MS. The rest is wanting. 


This Glossary aims at giving all the forms of the words occurring in the 
three texts of King Horn, but the references to the more common words usually 
record their earliest and latest instances only. The variants are mostly grouped 
under that form which is nearest to the Old English or French, and cross 
references are sparingly used. As in the Notes, numbers without a letter refer 
to the version of the Cambridge MS., those preceded by L or O to the London 
and Oxford versions resjiectively. t after a reference to L means that the same 
form with the same meaning occurs in the parallel line of O and of C. Horn 
Childe is not included in the glossarj'. 

The abbreviations which need explanation are : v. infinitive mood of verb ; 
pr. s., pt. s., pr. pi., pt. pL, third person singular or plural, present or past 
indicative ; imp. s., imp. pi., second person singular or plural imperative. The 
other persons are indicated by numbers prefixed. A noun in the singular is 
indicated by s., in the plural by pi. ; the cases of nouns, pronouns, and adjectives 
by «., v., a., d., g., nominative, vocative, accusative, dative, genitive. The 
weak forms of adjectives are distinguished by u<k. No indication or meaning 
follows a word which is merely a variant form of the word preceding. The 
New English Dictionary has been largely used in the classification of meanings. 
In the etymologies, A. S. forms are taken from Sweet's Student's Dictionary. 
The source of each word of Romance origin not found in the oldest English 
is briefly indicated. Forms marked * are hypothetical. 

A, iiifoj. ah,0348, Oiooi. ha,L34i. 

Abbe, see Habben. 

Abiden, v. remain, 728. abide, re- 
main behind, 1023. abyde, L 1033, 
O 1062. abide, endure, 1048. abyde, 
L 1056, O 1091. abide, encounter, 
854. abyde, L 862, O 881. abide, 
await, L 1466. abyde, O 1493. 
tabide, to await, 1446. nabod, iit\i;. 
pt.s. stayed not, 720. 

Abouen, adv. aloft, L 620. 

Abugge, V. aby, pay the penalty, 
1075, L 1081. abygge, O 11 16. 
abeie, atone for, 110. abeye, O 116. 
abohte, pt. s. paid for. L 1402. 
aboute, O 1433. A. S. dhycgan. 

Abute, adv. in the neighbourhood, 
246. aboute, L 252, O 257. abute, 
around, 1081,1092. aboute, L 1087, 
O1122. her abute, in this neighbour- 

hood, 343. ferde aboute, L 1404 n. 
Abute, frep, throughout, 214. 
aboute, L 222. abute, with regard to. 
279. aboute, L 285. abote, O 290. 
aboute, beside, L 349, O 355. abute, 
round,404, 612, 744. aboute, L 748, 
O 771. abute, all around, 1081. 
abowte. not far from, O 1338. 
aboute, L 1307. abute, 1297. 

Ac, couj. but, 523, O 860, 1202. ah, 
L 120, L 1402. at, 116, O 854, O 
950. hat, O 559. A. S. ac, ah. 

Adred. see Ofdrede. 

Adrede, i /;-. s. fear greatly, L 297. 
adredde, pt. s. impers. L 11 70. 
adred. //. //. O 128 (mistake for 
adredde). A. S. otidrxdan. 

Adrenche, v. cause to drown, sub- 
merge, 105, L 109. adrent, //. 
drowned, 977. adrenche. v. perish 




by drowning, L 1430!. A. S. adr^n- 
can, immerse. 
Adrinke, v. perish by drowning, 971. 
adrinke, v. submerge, O 11:. 
adryuke, L 979. nadrinke, iieg. 
/;-. s. szibj. 142, adrynke, pr. s. stibj. 
L 146. adronque, //. drowned, L 
988. A. S. ddriiicaii, be drowned. 
Adri^e, v. endure, bear, 1035. A. S. 

Adune, adv. down, 1488. adun, 4 28, 
1490. adoun, O 51, L 305, L 1512, 
O 1539. adoune, L 1121, O 1156, 
L 1510. adown, O 539. adowne, 
O 1537. Adoun, /r^/. down, L 1082. 
A. .S. adune, ofdftne. 
Afelda, adv. afield, L 997. 
After, prep, subsequent to, L 364f, 
1 107, Li 109. hafter, O 644. after, 
in succession to, O 961, L I5i4t: 
in accordance with, O 462 : in search 
of, 525. '-^ 545, L i449t- efter, L 
f;27. after, in pursuit of, 8S0, 1231, 
O 1274. efter, L 1239. After, for, 
L 1 202. After, adv. afterwards, 366. 
Afterward, adv. afterwards, 488. 
Afurste, see Ofjjurste. 
Age, s. d. years of maturity, L 1334!. 

O.K. adge. L. *aetdticiini. 
Ajen, adv. back, 582, O 594, O 1278. 
a5eyn, L 580, L 973. a^en, against, 
in resistance, O 916. A5en, //r/. in 
resistance to, O 917. a^eyn, L 60. 
ayen, O 60. a^en, in hostility to, 
812, O 841. a5eynes, L 839. 35611, 
contrary to, O 1357. a5enes, 76, 
1 31 5. a5eyn, L 82. ajen, in for- 
cible contact with, 1415. a^eyn, 
L 1433. a5enes, towards, O 628. 
a5eynes, L 608. 
Agesce, v. aim at, strive, Q 1222. 

agesse, 1181. 
Agrise, v. shudder ;with abhorrence), 
867,0896. agryse, L S77. agros, 
//. s. impei's. it terrified, L 1326, 
O 1355. A. S. dgrisan. 
Agynne, v. do (begin to do), L 12S5, 

O 1320. A, S. aginnan. 
Aire, see Er. 

Al, adj.s.n. all, L388t, L824t, 1521. 
al, s. a. L 127!", L loio, 1459, 
O 1506. al, s. d. O 1 78, L 440, 
O 924, L 1012, 1518. alle, 235. 
alle, //. n. L if, 826, L 1257, 
O 1566, O 1568. alle, //. q^ 20, 
L 23, O 23, 1369, L 1511, 07538. 
al, O 919, O 1175, 1489. alle,//. d. 
L 7it, L I358t, 15.30. alle veie, 
in all directions, O 257. Al, 
pron. s. a. everything, L 25of , 1030. 

al, //. n. all, 548, O =64: all men, 
756. alle, O 6i, L 502, O 779, T 112, 
L 1249. alle, //. a. 44, L 51 7t, 
L 614, 1 241. al, O 48, O 1407. alpe, 
//. g. O 664. alle, //. d. 619. wi)? 
alle, ? forthwith, L 371, wip al, 
besides, L 424. ouer alle, every- 
where, O 1426. Al, adv. altogether, 
completely, quite, L 38, O 38, 50, 
1428, O 1445, L 1474. al, every- 
where, 246, O 1122. al, even, O 715, 
L 1 108, 1304. al ri5t, straight- 
way, 699, 1428. 
Ale, s. n. 1257. ale, s. a. O 3S4, 1108, 

L mo. 
Ali5te,//. s. alighted, 47. 
Aliue, see Oliue. 

Allone, adj. s. n. alone, O 80. alone, 
74, L 80, O 860, L I035t, 1113. 
alone, s. d. 612. alon, s. a. O 62S. 
Alonde, adv. on the land, O 134, 

L 170. 
Also, adv. too, L io2f , L 2']\\. also, 
similarly, O 1383 : even so, 543 : 
in the same degree as, 590 : as suiely 
as, 775, L 781. also, just as if, 652, 
1026, O1125. ase, 10S4, L 1090. 
also swipe, as quickly as possible, 
471. also pat, ? as quickly as, 1232. 
Also, conj. in what manner, L 32t. 
ase, in such wise, 34, 53^. as, 
^ 5,^8, 896, O 937. hes, 1066. as, 
according as, O 1 147. ase, when, 658. 
Alyue, see Oliue. 

Amad, //. distracted, demented, but 

influenced in meaning by aniayed, 

dismayed, 574. A. S. genixdd, mad. 

Aniiddewart,/r(;/. towards the middle 

of, L 556. 
Among, prep, surrounded by, L 23of , 
1518. Among, adv. at intervals, 
continually, 1527. 
Amore5e, adv. on the following day 
(when it has come), 645, S37. 
amorewe, L 407, L 845. amorwe, 
O 421, O 864. 
Amyraud, s. n. Emir, Saracen com- 
mander, O 95. admirad, 89. ad- 
myrold, L 95. O. F. amirans. 
An, adj. s. n. a, L 599, 601. on, 89, 
L 95. a, L 1314, O 1345. an, s. a. 
L mi, O 1146. ane, O 494. en, 
L 1037. on, 1109. one, L 593, 
O 609, 862, L 915. a, O 13^6, 
166, L 174, L 131 2t, O 1444. o, 
I^ 478, 597, 631- on, s. d. O 1073. 
one, O 31, O 1 167. a, L 79t, 333> 
L 636, O 981, 1010, L 1044. o, 
1032, 1033. 
An, adj. numeral, s. a. one, L 612, 




0632,01370. on, 616. O, -r (/. 54S, 
938, L 946. one, 315, L 323,0 1158. 
one, s. n. alone, 527. one, //. a. 
O 35S. is one, by himself, L 529. 
ys one,L 60S. onne, s. n. beyond all 
others, O 72. a while, at one time, 
formerly, 1317- a stounde, for one 
moment, L 339, O 346. On, pron. 
s. n. one, L 27t, 952, O 1039. one, 
O 840. on, s. a. L 821. at on, 
agreed, 925. at one, L 933. 

An, prep, placed in, L iiii, 11 09. 
on, looS, O 1 146, O 1340. arowe, 
in a row, 1489, L1511. arewe, 
O 153S. on, placed on, in contact 
with, L4ot, 1475, L 1487,0 1524. 
hon, O 1341. a, L 170, L 422, 
L 1201. o, L 620, L 1095, L 1313, 
L 1485. abenche, O 381, L 1497. 
afelde, L 997. alonde, O 1 34, L 1 70. 
obenche, L 373. on, supported by, 
^ 347. 3S3. O 525. hon, O 395. 
a, L 509. 780. akneu, L 340. 
aknewes, L 3S5. aknes, 505. on, 
within, surrounded by, 301, 430. 
on erep, within the world, anywhere, 
O 176. on erpe, O 247. on, in, 
342. an honde, in hand, to deal 
with, L 64. on, contained in, 
L 1043, O 1072, L i373t. on, within 
(of mental, &c., stateK L 2S7, O 292, 
13S9, on, present at, O 264, 653, O 
856. an, O 1 171. on, at, in direc- 
tion of, L6o9f, L i505t. o, Li 506. 
on, into, 309. on, upon, 306, 
L 6o4t, O 1466. an, at the time 
of, during, L 407, O 421. on. 574, 
O 9S1. a, L 9.s8, L 976+, O 993. 
amore5e, on the morrow, 645, 837. 
amorewe, L 407. amorwe, O 421. 
an, bent on, in the act of, 646. 
on, 32, O 34, O 491, L 642, 
O 660. a, 7S1, L 787. o, L 625, 
L 657, L 658. awowen, on wooing 
bent, O 822. on, in state of, 131, 
L 616, O 634, L 1315. O 14S4. on, 
in (of manner), 360, O 631, L 937. 
a, L 365. on, concerning, 614, 
O 630, L647, 14S4. o,L6io, L884. 
on, in fobject of feeling) , L 48, O 48, 
1321,01421. On, flw'z'. upon (place), 
L S49f. on, thereon, O 1446. on 
legge, attack, O 1502. 

Ancre, s. a. anchor, L 1024. anker, 
O 1053. ankere, 1014. O.'E.ancor, 
ancra. L. ancora. 

And, co)ij. and, O 7, 577, 699, O 1547. 
an, O 104, O 915. ant. L 7, L 1544. 
and, if, O 575. ant, L 560. and 
yf, O 203. 

Anhitte, \ pr. s. strike against, lay on, 

712. O. N. hitta. 
Anhonge, v. hang, 32S. onhonge, 

O 341. A. S. dhon, onhon. 
Ani, adj. s. n. any, L 324. any, O 14, 

O 1507. ony, O 329. eni, 316, 

1460, L 1480. eny, L 14, L 588 1, 

L 1143. eni, adj. s. a. 553, 11 42. 

eny, L 130, L 1142. eny, adj. s. d. 

L 9S6. Any, pron. s. a. O 1177. 
Anon, adzi. immediately, L 49t. 1352. 
Anonder, prep, under, O 57, 567. 
Auoper, pron. s. a. another, L 289+, 

578, O 590. enojjer, L576. 
Anouen, adv. above, aloft, 624, O 638. 

Anouen, pnp. on top of, O 1513. 

A. S. oiuffan. 
Answarede. //. s. answered, 42. an- 
swered, O 1 109. answerede, O 46, 

1068. answerde, 199. onsuerede, 

L 46, L 1074. 
Aquelde, pL s. quelled, slew, L 88/, 

O 900, L 998. A. S. acwillan. 
Are, see Er. 
Areche, /;-. s. suhj. interpret, L 668. 

A. .S. ar^ccan. 
Areche, v. get at, strike, 1220. A. .S. 

Arewe, v. be sorry for, rue, L 382. 

A. S. ofhreowan. 
Ari5te, adv. straightway (or perhaps, 

justly). 457. A. S. ariht. 
Arise, v. rise, 868. aryse, L 87S, 

O 897. arise, pr. s. suhJ, 359. 

aryse, L 366, O 372. aros, pt. s. 

L 448, L 1325-t*. aryse, pt. s. subj. 

L 1454, O 1461. 
Ariue, v. arrive, land, 179, 1505. 

aryue, L 187, L 784t, L 1304. 

ryuen, O 1223. ariuede,//. J. 1513, 

O 1558. aryuede, i //. s. L 156: 

pt. s. L 1535. riuede, O 1550. 

aryueden, /A //. L 1525. ariued, 

//. 36, O 40, 150, 807. ariue, 923. 

aryue, O 633, L 1458, O 1485. 

aryued, L 40, O 836. aryuede, 

O 966. oryue, L 615. riued, 

O 158. riue, O 189. O. F. ariver. 
Arme, s. d. upper limb of body, 606, 

L705t. arm, L 604, O 622. armes, 

//. a. L 43it. armes,//. d. L 307t) 

L 1362, O 1393. 
Armed, //. O 832, L 1223, O 1358. 

iarmed, S03, 1239. yarmed, L811, 

L 1247. 
Armes, //. a. weapons, L 485t, 513, 

L 515. armes, horse armour, 716. 

armes, //. d. armour, L 5S9, O 603, 

L 832'|-. F. armes. 
Arnde, see Rende. 

o a 



Arcwe, aJv. in a row, 14S9, L 151 1. 
arewe, O 1538. 

As, See Also. 

Asayle, v. attack, O 882. asaylen, 
O 651, L 863. asayly, L 633. 
assaille, 637, S56. O. F. asalir. 

Ase, see Also. 

Askede, pt. s. asked, L 43, L 597, 
O 615. acsede, O 43. axede, 39, 
1470,' L 1492. 

Asla5e, //. slain, 88, 1491- asla5en, 
S97. A. S. aslcan, or ofslean. 

Aslepe, adj. s. n. asleep, 658, 1303. 

Asoke, pt, pi. stihj. renounced, 65. 
A. S. setsacan. 

At, prep, placed at, 253, L 259, 
L I496f. atte, (=at pe), 1043, 
O 10S8, O 1 261. at, in contact with, 
L595, L 1 186. at, present at, 1033, 
L 1226, 1245. ate, O 1280. atte, 
through the, 107S. at, from (of 
source), L 583f. at, as far as, 
L 1 188. at, in condition of, 1252. 
at, in accord with, 1464. at, to the 
extent of, L 612, O 632. ate, O 499. 
at, at the time of, L 676t, L 857t, 
1 1 36. ate (= at Jie), O 760, O 830. 
at, on and by occasion of, 609, O 
625. at pe furste, straightway, 661, 
L 885, 1191. ate furste. O 679, 
O 904. at pe firste, L 11 97. ate 
ferste, L661, O 1232. at pe furste 
worde, forthwith, without more talk, 
114, L 118. at pe firste word, 
O 122. at on, agreed, 925. at one, 
L 933, O 96S. at, with ace. inf., 

Atstod,//. s. came to a stand, L 1455. 
A. S. xtstandau. 

Auenture, s. a. adventure, 650, O 666. 
O. F. atienture. 

Awake, itnp. s. L i3iSt. awek, //. s. 
awoke, L 1435. 

Awei, adv. away, to a distance, S78. 
awey, L 730, O 753, L 1055, O 1090. 
awai, 796, 1047. away, L 732. 
awey, off, L 1210, O 1245. awei 
(with ellipsis of verb), go away, 707. 

Awowen, see An, and ■W"o5e. 

Awrek, pt. s. avenged, L 900. A. S. 

Awt, adv. at all, O 1194. Ojt, s. a. 
aught, 976. 

Awynne, v. obtain, 107 1. A. S. 

Ay, adv. always, L 1543. 

Bald, adj. s. n. bold, 90. bold, L 17, 

O 17, L 96. baud, O 96. bold, 

' s.a. O 1163. bolde, //. rt. forward, 

L379+: presumptuous, L 600, O61S. 
belde, 602. 

Banere, s. d. banner, 1374. O. F. 
banere, L. *bandaria. 

Bare, s. d. bier, 891. A. S. beai-ive. 

Barme, s. d. bosom, L 706!. A. S. 
bear til. 

Barnage, s. n. body of vassals, O 1544. 
baronage, L 151 7. baronage, s. d. 
1282. O. F. bai-nage, L. ^bai-oji- 

Bataille, s. a. enemy in battle array, 
855 : .y. d. battle, ^74. batayle, 
s. a. O 588. O. y". bataille, L. L. 
bat alia. 

Bedde, s. </. 299, O 310, L 958t, 
L 1201. bed, O 1236, L 1435. 

Bede, v. present, L 466!. bede, 2 
//. s. didst offer, O 948 : didst com- 
mand, O 1 31 5. bad, pt. s. com- 
manded, O 235, 273, 1152, 1262. 
bed, L 279, O 284, L 5o8t, L 1272, 
O 1305. be (for bed), O 278. bede, 
2 pt. pi. offered, 907. A. S. bPodan 
(but with some forms due to biddan). 

Beggare, s.a. beggar, L 1128. beg- 
gere, s. n. Lii33t: s. a. 11 28, 
O 1 163. beggeres, s. g. L io86t. 
beggares, //. n. L 11 20. beg- 
geres, 1 1 20, O 1 1 55. 

Belle, s. n. bell, 1016 : s. a. 1253, 
L 1263. bellen, //. a, O 1294, O 
1424. belles, 1381. belle, L 1393. 

Ben, V. be, 8, O 10, O loio, 1038. 
bene, L 8, O 8, L 1542, O 1565. 
beo, 10, 1285. beon, 446, 1520. 
buen, L 508, L 572. be, L 10, 

506, O 1328, L 15x5. am, 1 /;-. J. 
149, O 158, 201, O 1404, icham, 

1 am, L 1 1 34, L 1375. ychani, 
L 209. art, 2 pr. s. L 97t, L i-|68. 
ert, 1098. is,/r. J-. 92, L 136, O 207, 
1529. 1118,0326,0580. ys, L 19S, 
h 520. hys, O 140, O 1384. nis, 
7!cg. pr. s. 13, L 19, 955, O 1000. 
nys, L 916. bep, pr. s. is, O 954. 
ben, I are, O S55. beo, 313. 
beop, 175. bep, 547, O 563, 826, 
L 1360. buep, L 1S3, L S34. be, 
L 321, O 327. beo, 2 pr. pi. 161. 
be, L 169, O 171. ben, pr. pi. 
O 172, 1350, 1523, O 1568. beop, 
162, 1 1 20, L 1545. bep, L 300, 

852, 897, O 1155, 1213. buep, 
L 170, L 1226. bup, 807. beo, 

1 pr. s. subj. be, 1133. be, L 11 33, 
O 116S. beo, 2 pr. s. subj. 790. 
be, O 553, L 560, L 796, O S19. 
beo, /;-. s. subj. 80, 1440. be, 
O 203, L 368, 817, L 1374, O 1403. 



beo, 1 pr. pi. suhj. 131. be, O 139. 
ben, pr. pi. suhj. L i, O i. beon, 
I. was, I //. s. 1033, '°43> ^^ 1088, 
wes, L 1053. was. //. s. O 5, =, 
L I3t, L 1460, 1506, U 1557. wes, 
L 5, L 1532. nas, 7teg, pt. s. wr.s 
not, iS, O 925, 1066. nes, L 204, 
L i.;o2. were, //. //. 22, L 38, 
O 1S9, O1359, 1472, L1493. ware, 
O 38, O 124, O 968. weren, O 59, 
L 1246, I471, 1491, O 15^0. ywere, 
L 502. nere, neg. pt. pi. 1060. 
were, i //. s. suhj. might be, L 43S. 
were, 2 //. s. suhj. 107, L iii. 
were, pt. s. suhj. O 86, L 303t, 
310 «, L Ii7it. nere, 7!eg. 2 pt. 
s, suhj. L 909 : ncg. pt. s. suhj, 
L93t. O 1083. were, i pt. pi. subj. 
L 910. vreve, pt. pi. suhj. 88, L 94. 
ware, O 94. beo, i>/ip. s. 377, 
1448. be, L381, 39i> L 1357, 
O 1495. be, i»ip. pi. L 135. beo, 
//. 115, be, L 119, O 119. hybe, 
O 1174. 

Benche, s. d. seat, settle, 369, L i io7t, 
^475; O 1524. abenche, on bench, 
O 381, L 1497. obenche, L 373. 

Bene, s. a. boon, request, 50S, O 528, 

Ber, s. a. beer, L 11 26. beer, L iioS, 
L 1161. bere, J-. ^. O 1148. beere, 
L 1113. ber, 11 12. 

Bere, s. d. bier, L 902, O 930. A. S. 

Bere, v. wear, L 479t. 1286. ber, 
//. s. bore, L mi, O 11 46. bar, 
1109. bere, imp. s. L 56S, 570. 
ber, L 4,:;3, O 471. bore,//, born, 
O441. born, L lof, O 130S. ibore, 
417. iboreu, 510. iborn, 138, 866. 
ybore, L 423, L 127;;. yborn, L 
142, O 146, L 512. hybore, O439. 
hyborn, O 530. 

Berne, v. burn, set on fire, 690, O 709. 
bernde, //. s. was on fire, L 1240. 
brende, O 1275. 

Berste, v. burst, break, L 662t. berste, 
imp. s. 1 192. 

Berwe, v. protect, O 951. A. S. 

Beste, adj. s. n. ivk. best, L 29f, 174, 
L 182. beste, //. n. L 832t : //. d. 
L47St, L611, LSo8,0 829, Li336t, 
L 14S3. Beste, j'. a. profit, advan- 
tage, L 7761, L iiS2\: pl.d. LiOD7t, 
1 264 «. 

Betere, adj. s. n. better, L 565, 567. 
betere, adv. L 1405. 

Beye, v. atone for, L 1 14. bo5te, //. s. 
paid for, 13S8:^. bowten, 
O 923. 

Beyne. adj. pi. ace. both, L 892. bo, 

//. n. L 299. A. S. begen, ba. 
Bi, prep, beside, near, O 133, 135, L 
644, O 704, 128S, L 1444. by, L 
13 ). O 552, L 699t, O 1007, L 1296, 
O I479. bi, before (of oath , 165. 
O 175, "75- O 1362. b^ L 173, 
L 1 1 79, O 1 2 14. bi, in presence of, 
512, O 532. by, L 514. bi, in 
direction of, towards, O 5, 11 35. 
by, L 5, O 1170, L 1 181, L 1335, O 
1547. bi, on, 35, O 39, 139, 1465. 
by, L 39, O 147, O 838. bi, in, C) 
20, 168. bi, along, L 35t, L 2i6t, 
L l^T,, 954- by, L 129, O 788, L 
962, O 997. bi, to extent of (com- 
parison), 315. by, L 323. bi, at 
time of, in, L 265t, 1431. by, L 
265, O loii, L 1451, O 1457. bi, 
by the space of, 96. bi, judging by, 
1309. by, L 1321, O 1350. bi (of 
part acted on), 400, L 402, O 412, 
1499. by, L 400, O 801, L 1519, 
O i5-)6. bi, with, by means of, 436, 
L 440. by, L 450, O 1503. bi 
honde, at hand, 1137. bi p3 laste, 
at the lowest estimate, 616 )i. by 
shoure, in abundance, L 334. 
Bicollede, //. s. smeared with soot or 
grime, L 1072. Comp. collede, L 
ic88, and colley, E. Dialect Dic- 
Bicolmede, //. s. smeared with culm, 
coal dust, 1064. Comp. £"6i/;;»'iJ, 1082. 
Bidde, v. ask, beg, O 12 18. bydde, 
L 1183. bidde, pr. s. subJ. 457. 
bad, pt. s. prayed, 79, L 85. bed, 
O 85. bad, pt. s. begged, asked, 
1069. bed, L 1075,0 mo, O 1227. 
bid, imp. s. O 472, O 473. A. S. 
Bieste, error for biweste, 1325. 
Bifalle, v. come to pass, happen, O 
105. byfalle, L 103. byfalle, be 
fitting, L 180, O 1S2. biualle, 172. 
bifalle, pr. s. stibj. 99 : pp. become, 
420, O442. 
Biflette, //. s. surrounded, 1396 n. 

byflette, L 141 2. 
Biforn, prep, in front of, L 53 2t- by- 
forn, O 526. byforen, L 879. bi- 
fore, 456. byfore, L 496. biuore, 
506. bifor, O 512. byfor, O 898. 
biuo, 869. biforn, in, into presence 
of, O 244, O 870. bifore, 369, L 
373, 888. byfore, L 241, L 500, 
O 927. biuore, 233, 496. 
Bigilen, v. deceive, L 328. bigile, 
320, O 333. bigiled, //. betrayed, 
958. bygile, O 1002. O. Y.guiler. 



Biginne, v. do, 1277 n. biginnes, 
2 pr. s. beginnest, O 588. bigan, 
pt. s. began, did, 117, 6 125, L 753, 
O 1337' I503> L 1523. bygan, O 
515, L 1191, L 1301, O 14S8. bi- 
gon, L 140, L 1461. bygon, L 121, 
L 927, L 1306. bigonne, //. //. 
L 887, L 1453. bygonne, O 1460. 
bigunne, 1433. bigyn, imp. s. 

Bihelde, v. behold, 601, 1147, L 1149. 

bylielde, L 854, O 873. biholde, 

L 599. byholde, O 617, O 11S4. 
Bihet, pL s. promised, L 474t. A. S. 

b eh a tan. 
Bihinden, prep, behind, O 202. bi- 

hyude, L 200. bihynde, ? adv. 

192 n. 
Bihouep, pr. s, is needed, is fitting, 

47S, L 4S2. byhoued, O 49S. 
Bikeehe, t/. deceive, trick, O 323. 

bycahte, //. s. L 663. 
Biknowe, //. acknowledging, L 993. 

bycnowe, O 1028. See 983 ;/. 
Bileue, 7/. believe, 1321. 
Bileue, v. remain, L 367f, 742. by- 

leue, L 746. bileuest, 2 /;-. s. re- 

mainest, O. 803. A. S. helirfan, 

properly, to leave behind, but some- 
times vk^ith intrans. force of belTfan. 
Bilyue, adv. quickly, O 345. bliue, 

472, 721, 968. A. S. be + life, dat. 

Binde, v. bind, tie up, 191, O 201 (?). 

bynde, L 199. bunde, //. bound, 

422. boirnde, overpowered, O 1151. 

ibunde. 1116. ybounde, L 1116. 
Bireupd, //. deprived of, 622. by- 

i-eued, L 61S, O 636. 
Birine, v. rain on, 11. byryne, 

Birunue,//. bedewed, wet, 654. bi- 

ronn=^, O 670. byronne, L 652. 

A. S. berhman. 
Bischine, v. shine on, 12. byschine, 

O 12. A. S. bescinaii. 
Biseehe, i pr. s. pray, intercede, 579 ; 

beseech, 453, L 457. bysohte, pt. s. 

desired, sought, L 2S3. byseche, v. 

entreat, L 318. 
Bisemep, pr. s. seems, 486 n. by- 

seniep, pr. s. impers. becomes, befits, 

L 49'o. byseme, ? pr. s. subj. O 506. 
Biside, /;-(?/>. by the side of, 853, L 861, 

1426. biside, adv. in com]iany, 

O 1333- 
Bispac,//. s. spoke out, O 205. bispek, 

O 95- 
Bistride, v. bestride, 749. bystride, 
O 776. A. S. bcstrldaii. 

Biswike, v. deceive, 290, O 301, 667. 

bysuyke, L 296. byswyke, L 669. 

A. S. beswTcan. 
Bite, V. taste, drink, O 1166. ibite, 

L 113!. 
Biteche, i /;-. s. commend, O 591. 

byteehe, L 577. 
Bitere, adv. bitterly, 1482. Bidere, d. bitter. 960. 
Bipinne, see 'Wipinne, 
Bipo^te, pt. s. devised, planned, 264. 

bipohte, L 270. bipouete, O 27-. 

bipo5te, considered, 41 1. bypohte, 

L 417. bipoute, O 433. 
Bipute, see Wiputen. 
Bitide, v. happen, take place, 543. 

bytyde, O 559. bitidde,//. s. im- 
pers. it befell, I. 1184. bytidde, 

O 1 2 19. bitide, /r. s. subj. impers. 

may befall, L 541 : may it befall, L 

212, 961, L 971. bytide, O 1006. 

bityde. O 214. 
Bitime, adv. in good time, 965, L975. 

bytyime, O 1010. 
Bitoke, 2 pt. s. didst entrust, L 1103. 

bytoke, O 1 140. bitak, imp. s. en- 
trust, 785. 
Bitraie, v. betray, 1251. bytreye, 

L 1 26 1, bitraide, 1 //. s. 1270. 

O. F. trair. 
Bitterly, adv. L 1058. 
Bituene. /;■£■/. between, L 352, L 428, 

O 446. bitwen, O 358. 
Bitwex,/5;-t^. between, 346. bitwexe, 

424. bytwexe, O 1453. 
Biwende, pt. s. turned round O 334. 

biwente, 321. bywente, L 329. 

bywende, v. busy JTimself, I. 1417. 

Comj). ivcnde. A. .S. bew^ndan. 
Biweste, adv. in the west country, 5. 

Biweste, s.d. the west country, 769, 

L 775 > t) 798, 945. byweste, L 

Biwreie, pr. s. subj. may reveal, dis- 
close, 362. bywreyen, v. betiay, 

O 1292. bywreyde, revealed, />/. j'. 

O 12S9. A. S. tvregan. 
Bi^onde, /;-(,;^. beyond, 1177. 
Blae, adj. s. a. black, L 588, O 602. 

blak, 590. blake, adj. pi. n. 

Li33if. Blake, J. «. dirt, L i2io-t-. 
Blame, s. d. blameworthiness, fault, 

1265 «. O.Y . blas!?ie. 
Bleine, s. n. whale, O 701. O. F. 

Blanche, v. lurch, 141 1 w, O 1466. 
Blesse, v. wish happiness to, .^84, 

L 582. blisse, O 596. blesse, 

make blessed, L 166. blesse, /;•. J. 

subj. L 553, -^11. blisse, O 571. 



iblessed, //. 1364. yblessed. I, 
1374. hyblessed, (.> 1403. 
Blessing, s. a. 156, 1530. 
Blis, s. a. bliss, <;ladness, 1234. blisse, 
158,0 16S, L 42of , 1210. blysse, 

,r. of. Li 242. blys,Oi277. 
Blipe. ac(/. s. ;/. cheerful, merry, 274, 

1347. blyjje, L 2S0, O 1012, L 

1357- O 13S8. blip (rhymes with 

^c'//e\ O 285. blipe, s. a. 355. 

792. blyjje, L 361, O 367, L 798, 

O 821. blipe, //. M. I. O I. 131. 

O 139. blype, L I, L 135. Blipe, 

adz'. gladly, O 4S9. blype, L 475. 
Blod, s. n. blood, passion, 608, O 624, 

L 87St. blode, s. d. O 920, 1406. 

L 1424. blod, L 916 n. blode, 

descent, race, L 185+, 
Blody, adj. s. a. bloody, O 1283 : //. 

d. O 1005. 
Blowe. V. blow, 1009, L loig. L 1 38it. 

bleu. //. J. L i302t, 1512. 
Blynne, 2 /;'. s. suhj. cease, fail to 

help, L 1002. A. S. blinnan. 
Bo, see Beyne. 
Bodie, s. g. body's. 900. bodi, s. d. 

body, O 174. bodie. 164. bodye. 

L 172. 
Bo5e, s. d. bough, 1227. bowe, L 

1235, O 1270. See wude. 
Bolle, s. a. bowl, mazer, L ii23t. 
Bone, s. d. L 916. 
Boneyres, adj. s. n. well-bred, O 939. 

O. F. boiiaire. 
Borde, s. d. ship's side, 113, L 117. 

bord. O 121. borde, table, 253, 

O 264, L 835t, L i.^o7t. bord, 

L 259. brode, feast, O 1074. 
Bote, s. d. boat, L 2 lof, L 7741". 
Botes,//, a. boots, O 522. O. F. bote. 
Bope, adj. pi. n. both, O 305, L i36ot, 

1523, L1545 : pi. a. O384, Li204t. 

Bope, conj. both (. . .and), L 911, 

1108, L ih07. 
Boye, s. n. varlet, 1075. 
Brae, pt. s. broke, L 683, O 700. 

brak, 68 1. 
Brende, see Berne. 
Brid, s. n. bread, 1257. 
Bridel, s.d. bridle, rein, L 7;8t. 
Brijt, adj. s.n. bright, fair, 14. brict, 

O 14. bryht, L 14, L 98. briycte, 

O 466. bri5te, J. «.w^.390. bryht, 

s. a. L 918. brijte, s. d. 382. 

bryhte, L 384. bricte, O 476, 

O 747. brycte, O 394. bri5te, 
//. d. 500. 
Bringen, v. bring, O 62, L 344, L 903, 

O 1375. bringe, 58, L 62, L 286t, 

1334- brynge, L 695, L 1098. 

bringe, i/;-. j'. 641, O 655. brynge, 
L 637. bringe, /;■. .r. siibj. C) 594. 
brynge, L 580. broute. i pt. s. 
brought, () 653. bro5te,//'. s. 466, 
883. brohte. L 470, L 1022. 
broute, O 919. browte, O 484, 
() 922. broute,//.//. 40, III, 600. 
brohten, L 44, L 1S8. broucte, 
O 44. broucten, O 190. bring, 
?'w/. s. O 370. brouten, //. 
brouglit, O 1419. ybroht. 1. 914. 
bringe of liue. kill, O 712. broh- 
ten of lyue, killed, L 188 (see 
Brinke, s. d. edge, 141. brynke, 

L 145. 
Brode. see Bord. 
Broper, s. 11. L 575t: 1291 : s. a. 284, 

L 290. 
Bruc, imp. s. enjoy, 206. brouc, 
L 214. brouke, O 216. brouke, 
2 /;-. s. subj. L 1041 . O 1070. 
Brudale, s. n. wedding feast, L 1267. 
brydale, O 1300. brudale, .s-. d. 
1032, L 1044, L 1045. bridale, 
O 1073. 
Brude, s. n. bride, L 1058. bride, 
1049. bryd, O 1093. 
I Brugge, s.d. bridge. L 10S2. brigge, 
1076, O 1117, O 1503. 
Brun, s. d. brown vessel v?), 11 22. 
broune, pi. d. brown vessels, L 11 2 2 , 
Brunie, s. a. brinie, covering of chain 
mail, 591 «, L 719. 841, L 1230. 
brunye, L 849. brenye, O 605, 
O 740, O 868. 
Brymme, s.d. shore, edge, 190. 
Bu5e, V. bend, crook, 427. 
Bnr, s. n. lad)'s room, 386. bour, L 
388. boures, s.g: L 709, O 1017. 
bure, s. d. 269, 1438. bur, 325. 
boure, L 275, O 280, L 1456, O 1483. 
boure flore, O 730. 
Burdon, s. a. pilgrim's staff, 1061. 
burdoun, O 1104. bordoun, L 
1069. O. F. bordon, bourdon. 
Buriede,//*.//. buried, L906. burden, 

Bute, conj. unless, 65, O 892, O 925, 
139'^'. bote, L 69, O 69, O 1386, L 

1414. bot 5yf, O 761. bute, yet, 
O 120, 193, 658. but, O 26. bute, 
moreover, 887. bute, on the con- 
trary, 1113, 1399. bote, O 648, L 

1415, O I44S. bute, but (interjec- 
tional), 825. but, O ■:4. Bote, adv. 
only, L 37, O 37, L 206. 

Byflowe,//. surrounded, O 612, O 646. 
byflowen, L 628. 



Bylaucte, //. s. deluded, took in, O 
68i. A. S. Ixccan. 

BysetVe,//. surrounded, O 1445. 

Bysprouge. //. ? sprung, O ■564 (prob- 
ably scribe's mistake iox hysproiige). 

Cacche, v. catch, chase, L 1227. 
kecehe, L 1377. keche, O 1262. 
kaucte, i //. s. caught, O 682. 
'kaxite. pLpI. received, O 915. O. F. 

Calle, V. summon, L 907. 

Canst, 2 _pr. s. art able, O 1248. 
const, L 1 2 13. canstu ( = canst 
pu), 1206. cunne, /r. J-. j?/(^'. may- 
be able, 1,68. conne, may know, 
L 566, konne, v. know, O 582. 
cupe, />(. s. knew, 1459. coupe, L 
1479, L 1536. cupe, knew how, 
353* coupe, L 359. cowpe, O 
365. cupe, //. s. subj. was able, 

Care, s. a. sorrow, distress, L 269, L 
1252, kare, O 274. kare, s. d. 

I 244 71, 

Caste, V. throw forth, 1014, L 1024. 

kaste. O 1053. kaste, 1 pt. s. threw, 

659, L 659. keste, O 677. caste 

on, V. put on, 841 : //. s. L S49, 

O 868. 
Castel, s. a. castle, 1395, L 141 1, O 

1500, kastel, O 1444. kestel, O 

i486, castel, s. d. L 1398, 1466, 

O 1 515. castele, L 1488. castel 

walle, 1042, L 1054. kastel walle, 

O 10S7. O- F- castel. 
Chaere, s. d. seat with arms, throne, 

1261. chayere, L 1271. cheyere, 

O 1304. O. F. chaere. 
Chambre wowe, wall of chamber, L 

982. F. chambre. 
Chapel, 5. «. oratory, Li 392. chapeles, 

//. a. 1380, O 1423. O. F. chapek. 
Chaungen, v. exchange, O 1095. 

chaunge, L 1060. chaungi, 1052. 

O. F. changer. 
Chelde, see Kelde. 
Cheose, v. choose, 664, L 666. chesen, 

O 799. chese, O 684. 
Chere, j. a. countenance, L 40 if, L 

io7it. chere, .?. rf. L 901, O 1126. 

O. F. c hie re. 
Child, s. n. child, offspring, L 10, O 10, 

648, O 664, L i35of : aspirant to 

knighthood, 25, O 27, iiS, L 207!. 

chyld, L 27. child, s. a. L. 245, 

O 2JO, L 253t, 4S0. childe, j. d. 

L 301, O 306. child, 85t, ^295. 

childre, //. n. O 117. children, L 

115, 120, O 12S, L 162I-, L 1348, 

O 1379: pi- c- III. child, s. 71. 
young knight, O 1206, L I369t. 
chil, O 550, O 709, O 780. child, 
5-. a. 1 1 79, O 1220, 1 51 5. chyld, 
L1537. childre, //. z*. 1355. child- 
ren, O 1397. 

Chyrche, i-. a. church, L 1392. chirche, 
s. d. L 905. kyrke, O 932. chyrche 
wowe, church wall, O 1076. cher- 
chen, //. a O 1423. churchen, 
62. cherches, O 65. chirche, 

Clade,//. clothed, O 176. 

Cleche, v. lay hands on, come at, L 
963. See Cleach, Cleek, in E. Dialect 

Clenche, v. grip with the nails, pluck, 
L I498t. Other explanations are : 
' ma-l<e to clink,' Bradley-Stratmann. 
and ' grasp firmly,' N. E. D. 

Clepen, v. call, summon, O 235. 
clepep, pr. s. calls, L 231. clupede, 
//. s. called, 225. clep, imp. s. O 
qii. A. S. clcopia7t. 

Clsppe, V. embrace, O 1393. clippe, 
L [362. clepten, /^. //. O 1252. 
cle[p]ten, O 1428. yclupten, they 
embraced, L 1217. A. .S. clyppaii. 

Clope, s. d. clothing, L i2 23t. elopes, 
//. a. 1053, L io67t, O 1097. 

Cniue, j-.i/. knife, O 114. kniue, loS. 
knyue, L 112. knif, s. a. 1196, 

1201. knyf, L 1207, O 1242. 
knyues, //. a. O 1237 : //. (/. L 

1 202. A. S. C7iif. 
Cole, s. n. coal, L 588t. 
Collede, adj. s. d. dirtied, L 108S. 
Colmie, adj. s. d. smeared with coal 

dust or soot, 1082. 
Colour, J. «. complexion, L 16. colur, 

16, O 16. O. F. colur. 
Come, s. )i. coming, 530. A. .S. 

Comen, v. come, O 278, O 2S4, L 1475. 

come, 273, L 279, L I4i6t, 1455. 

com, I /;-. s. come, O 1073, O 1074. 

come, 1032, L 1044. comest, 2 

pr. s. L 149, O 1071, L 1106, O 

1143. comes, O 151. comez, /;-. .r. 

468. come, I /;-. s. snbj. L 557t, 
L 73St. cume, 2 pr. s. S2ibj. 143. 
come, pr. pi. subj. 448. com, 

1 pt. s. came, 1365. come, 2 pt. s. 
L ii78t. com, pt. s. L 2 29t, O 
1278, 1517, L 1539. cam, 586, O 
736, L 794t, 9S1, O iioS, comen, 

//. //. O 63, L 1245, L I383t. 
come, 59, L 63, 1005, L 1015, 1218. 
icom, 1318. ycome,Li33o. come, 

2 //. s. subj. O 1 1 3. come, pt. s. subj. 



267, L 273, 1072. com, imp. s. L 
^53)^^872,1102. cum, 8^5. comen, 
//. O 541, C) 797. icomen, 202, 
76S. yeomen, L 170. O 186, L 774. 
come, 1. 136, O 140, L 1145, O 
1495. icome, 176, L 1141, L 1375. 
1448. icume, 162. ycome, O172, 
L 1S4, L 1364, O 1404. hycome, 
(» 1170, O 1176, O 1 1 So. come to 
Hue, escape death, O 113. 

Comiuge, s. d. coming, O 1134. 
comynge, 1093, L 1097, 

Compaynye, s. n. company, follow- 
'"&> 8r9' O- F- compaipiie. 

Cod, see Giune. 

Corn, s. a. grain, 1385. 

Cosin, s. n. cousin, relative, 1444. 
eosyn, L 1464, 6 1491. O. F. 

Couerture, s. d. bed covering, 696, 
O 715. couertoure, L 69S. O. F. 

Crakede,//. //. cracked, were broken, 
L 1083. krake, v. be broken, O 

Cristemesse, s. d. Christmas, O 826. 
Cristesmasse, 799, L S05. 

Cristene, adj. s. n. christian, L 1329+ : 
s. d. L i85t. cristen, adj. pi. n. 
832. Cristene, //. n. christians, L 
840. cristine,//. a. L 188. 

Cristenenien,//. a. 182,0 192. cris- 
tinemen, L 190. 

Crois, s. g. cross's, 1309, L 1321 (pos- 
sibly dative), crowches, O 1350. 
croy5, s. n. L 1314. crowch, O 
1345- Crois is due to O. F. crois: 
crowch is possibly O. E. crfic, see 
N. E. D., s. V. 

Crude, v. hasten on {iiitrans.) 1293. 
croude, L 1301, O 1334. 

Crune, s. a. crown, diadem, 475, 12S6. 
croune, L 1399, O 1430. coriine, 
O 495. coroune, L 479. croune, 
top of head, head, L 1041, O 1070, 
L 1509. crune, 1487. crowme, 
O 1536. corune, corotine represent 
O. F. corone ; the short forms are 
probably Germanic adaptations of 
L. corona. 

Cunde, s. d. condition of birth and 
rank, 421. kunde, L 425. kende, 
O 443. cunde, s. n. race, 1377. 
kende. s. a. O 1420. 

Cunesmon, s. a. kinsman, L 1346. 

Cunne, s. d. race, kinsfolk, L 186. 
kunne, 865, O 1309, O 1563. 
kenne, 144 n, 176, L 1S4, O 614, 
1518, L 1540. kinne, O 894. kyn, 
633. kinne, s, a, O 152. nones 

kunnes speche, speech of 110 sort, 
L 964, 

Cuppe, s. a. cup, 449, 11 25. coppe, 
L 453. O 469, L 1125, O 1164. 
cuppe, s. d. O 245, 1132. cupe, 
234. coupe, L. 242. coppe, L 
1132,01167. ci/ppe represents A. S. 
cuppe, L. L. cuppa : coupe, O. F. coupe: 
coppe, cupe, are probably French. 

Cure, s. d. choice, L 1446. A. S. 

Curt, J", n. courtyard, 592. court, O 
606. curt, s. d. palace. 245, O 256. 
court, L 251. O. F. curt. 

Cusse, V. kiss, L 435, L 5S1. kusse, 
O 595. kesse, 431, 583. custe, 
pt. s. kissed, L 403, 405, 739, 1189, 
L 1397. kuste, 1230, O 1277. 
keste,Lii95. kiste,0 4i7. custe, 
//.//. 1209. kuste, O 1252. custen, 
L 743, O 1428. kusten, O 766. 
kyste, L 121 7. cus, iwp. s. L 742. 
kes, 738. cusse, 1208. kusse, O 
765, O 1251. kesse, L 1216. 

Dai, s. 11. day as measure of time, 187. 

day, L 195, O 197. dai, s. d. 548, 

938- day, L 3 if, L 946, O 981. 

daies, //. n. 927. dayes, L 935. 

dawes, O 970. daies, pi. d. 1295. 

dawes, L 1303. dai, s. n. time of 

sunlight, 1427. day, L 497, L 499t, 

O 1 454. dey, O 513. day, s. a. 

L I27t, L 956. daie, s. d. 259. 

daye, L 265, 818. day, O 272, 

493. day, s. n. set time, O 1452 : 

s. a. L 862, O 881, L 1421, day, 

.f. a. existence, lifetime, L 731. t 

dawe, s. d. L 914. dayes, //. «. 

O 6. daies, //. a. 140. dayes, L 

144. dawes, O 148. 
Daili5t, s. n. daylight, 124. day- 

lyht, L 128. daylyt, O 132. 
Dales,//. flf. valleys, 154, L 161, O 164, 

210, L 2i6t . 
Damesele, s. a. maid in waiting, 1169. 

damyseie, O 1208. damoisele, L 

117.;. 0.¥. dameisele. 
Dayspringe, s. d. break of day, L 1447. 
Ded, adj. s. n. dead, L 1171, O 1206, 

O 1226. dede, //. n. L 834t, L 

1545+, ded, L 910. 
" d. deeds, 537, O 553. 
De5e, V. die, L 113, L 1191. deie, 

109, 332, 888, 1346. deye, O 115, 

O 927, L 1356, O 1387. deide, 

//. s. died, 1185. 
Denie, v. resound, ring, 592 «. denye , 

O 606. A. S. dyuiaij. 
Deole, s. n, sorrowful sight, 1050. 



dole, L 1057, O 1092. deol, s. a. 
1048. dole, L 1056. O. F. deol, 

Dere, adj. s. n. dear, beloved, O 157, 
433, L 679t, L i2i2t. duere, L 
437. dere, pi. n. O 124, 222. 
duere, L 228. Dere, fl(fe. dearly, 
1343 : at high price, 884, 1388. 

Derie, v. harm, 786. derye, L 792, 
O 8 1 5. derie, pr. s, siibj. O 150. 
derye, L 148. A. S. dorian. 

Derke, s. d. night time, L 145 if. 

Derling, s. n. favourite, 488, O 508. 
derlyng, L 492. Derling, adj. (?) 
s. n. 723. derlyng, L 725. dere- 
ling, O 748. A. S. deorliiig. 

Derne, adv. secretly, intimately, O 
1382. A. S. dip-tu. 

Dep, s. a. death, no, L 114, 8S4, 
L 899, O 1091. deth, O 160. ded, 
O 340. det, O 116. dij)es, s. g. 
640. depe, s. d. L 62, L 844 f, O 
1419. dij)e, 58, 1252. (deye, O 62, 
O 649. de^e, L 1378, scribe's mis- 
takes for depe.) 

Deuise, v. plan, compose, 930, O 973. 
deuyse, L 938. deuise, imp. s. 
assign, appoint, O 248. deuyse, 
L 243. O. F. deviser. 

Disse, s. d. dish, 1144, O iiJm (see 
ii22«). dyssh, L 1146. 

Dohter, s. «. daughter, L 255, L 392. 
doster, 249. douter, O 260,0402. 
dohter, ,y. a. L915, L 1004. do5ter, 
903, 994. douter, O 944, O 1035. 
dohter, s. d. L 378, L 699. do5ter, 
697. douter, O 716. 

Don, V. execute, perform, accomplish, 
L 540 f. do, L 282 1, L i292t- 
dest, 2 pr. s. L 950. do, pr. s. subj. 
O 538, L 702, O 721. dude,//, s. 
1247. dude, //. //. O 1545. do, 
imp. s. 51S, L 520, O 1^54, L loio, 
O 1041. idone, //. 446, 484. to 
done, for doing, to be done, I. 488, 
O 504 : to perform, L 712, O 735. 
don, V. inflict on, 683. do, L 685, 
O 702, 1422. doj), pr. s. 682, 702. 
don,//. O 1475. do, L 1440, L 1472. 
don, V. put, L 1344. do, L 274t. 
dide, pt. s. O iioi. dude, 342, 
L 34S, 1244. dede, O 354. dude 
him, put himself, proceeded, L 
ioi7t, 1236, L 1244. duden of 
lyue, pt. pi. put to death, iSo 11. 
do, isnp. s. L 701 f. idon,//. 142 1. 
dide, //. s. caused, O 414, O 1541. 
dede, O 1442. dude, 1023, L 1409, 
1515, O 1560. dide,//.//. O 1361. 
dude, 1320. do, imp. s. L 485. to 

(scribe's error [ox do), O 501. don, 

V. act, O 462. do, imp. s. 896, 

O 936. to done, to have business, 

784, O 813. done, L. 790. do, v. 

serve as, suffice as, O 854. dop, 

pr. s. (substitute to avoid repetition of 

another verb), O 978, 698, L 700. 

dide, //. s. (auxiliary in periphrastic 

past), O 974, O 1539. dude, L 938, 

L 9.^9) 930, 931. L 1473, 1495.0 1522. 

dede, 973. dude, 184, 1490. 

duden, L 192. deden, O 194. 
Dore, s. a. door, O 1018. dore, s. d. 

L 1496, O 1523. 
Dorste, //. J. dared, L 259,928,0 971, 

1404. durste, L 724. derste, L 

936. dorst, O 1437. durst, O 725, 

O 743, L 1420. 
Dorte, sec JJar. 

Doute, s. d. dread, O 587. O. F. doutc. 
Dradde, //. s. impcrs. it feared (her), 

i. c. she was apprehensive, 1166. 

dradde, pt. pi. were fearful, 120. 
Dra5e, v. resort, betake oneself, 1289, 

1420. drawe, L 1297, O 1473, O 

150S. drawe, \ pr. pi. subj. L 1438. 

droje, //.//. 1006. drowe. L 1016. 

O 1047. dro5, //. s. pulled, S72. 

drawe, //. delineated, O 1344. 

y drawe, L 131 3. 
Drede, s. a. dread, 258. 
Dre5e, v. endure, bear, L 1047. dreye, 

O 1078. A. S. dreogan. 
Drench, s. d. drink, L 1 164. drenche, 

O 1 1 99. 
Drenche, v. cause to drown, O 1014. 

drenched, //. drowned, O 1023. 

A. S. drpicati. 
Dri^te, s. d. the Lord, 1310. A. S. 

dry hi en. 
Drinke, v. drink, 402, 1055 n, 1152. 

drynke, L 1063, O 1098, L 1154, 

O 1 1 89. drank, //. s. O 114S, 

O 1 196. drone, L in 3, L 1161. 

dronk, 1154, 1159. O 1191. 

dronke, L 11 56. dronken, //. //. 

1 1 12. drink, imp. s. O 1161, 

1144,1145,01181. drinke, O 1 192. 

drynk, O 1 182. drynke, L 1147. 

drync, L 11 26, L 1157. 
Driue, v. cause to flee, O 753. dryue, 

L 730, L 802 f. dryue, 2 //. s. 

didst banish, L 1279. drof, //. s. 

L 880, O 899. driuen, //. //. 870. 

dryue, v. propel, L 1534. driue, 

/;•. s. subj. 1333, O 1374, 1424, 

O 1477. dryue, L 1343, L 1442. 

drof, //.J. 119, L 762. drof, //. i'. 

moved (itself; along, L 123, O 127, 

o 785. 



Droupnynde, adj. s. d. drooping, 
dejected, O 1126. O. N. dn)pim. 

Drye, v. dry, O I^S8. 

Drynk, s. a. drink, O 1 166. 

Dubbe, V. confer kniglilliood, 45S. 
dobbe, L 494, O 510. dubbe, /r. 
s. siil'j. O 475. dubbede, //. s. 499. 
dubbed,//. 447. ydobbed, L 439. 
? O. F. adouhcr. 

Dubbing, s. n. ornamentation, 564. 
dubbing, J. a. knighthood, knighting, 
4.^'^. 4S7, O 507. dobbyng, L 442, 
L 491. dobbinge, C> 458. dub- 
bing, s. d. 629. dobbing, O 580, 
O 644. dobbyng, L 562, L 626. 
\'crbal noun of diibhc. 

Dun, adv. dun legge, strip off, io.;7. 
doun, L 1065, O 1 100. doun falle, 
fall prostrate, L 4.^2. doune, O 450. 
doun. down, L 1085, L 1220. 

Dune, s. (/.upland, 154, 210. downe, 
O 164. dounes, //. (/. L 161. 

Dunte, j-. d. blow, stroke, 609, O 625. 
dunt, O 904. dent, s. a. 152, 859. 
duntes, //. a. L S65. L 872, O 884. 
denies, S57, S64. dunte, O 891. 
duntes,//. d. 573, O 917. A, S. 

Dure pin, s. a. bar of the door, 973. 

DurJ), see par. 

Dute, I /;-. s. doubt, fear, 344. doute, 
O 356. doute, V. L 350. 

Dwelle, V. stay, O 3S8. duelle, 374. 

Dyjete, v. set in battle array, O 87-;. 

E, see He. 

Eche, adj. s. d. each, O 219, 1087, 

O II 28. vch, L 218, L 1094. 
Eere, s. d. ear, L 316. here, O 320. 

ire, 309. earen, //. d. L 969. 

eren. O IC04. ires, 9;9. 
Ef, see 3if. 
E^e, s. d. eye, L 1048. eye, O 1079. 

heye, O 778. i5e, 755, 975, 1036. 

eyjen,//. d. L 755. 
Eke, adv. likewise, also, L 17, O 17, 

L 13S6, O 1440. 
Elde, //. d. old men, 1391. olde, 

L1407. helde, O 1440. held, //.a 

O 141 7. olde, L 1390. Old, adj. 

s. n. L 18. hold, O 18. 
Elles. adv. otherwise, 246. elle wher, 

elsewhere, L 326. elles wher, 318. 

elles qwere, O 331. 
Ende, s. d. completion, 733, L 737. 

hende, O 760, O 953. ende, edge, 

side, 1212, L 1220. hende, O 1255. 

in J)ende, at the finish, 1378. 
EndeJ),/;-. i-. ends, 1525. 152S. ende, 

pr. pi. subj. 912. 

Eudyng, .r. a. result, L 579. endynge, 

O .=;9.V 

Enemy, s. it. () 995. eneniis, s. ' ;/. 
L 960. enemis, //. d. 952. O. V . 
iiein i. 

Envie, s. a. envy, O 706. enuye, 687, 
L 6S9. F. eiivie. 

Eode, I pt. s. went, L 1180 : //. s. L 
383, L 1533. 5ede, O 490, 588, 
14S5, O 1534. yede, O 121, O 
13.^9- 5yede, O 746. 5eode, 381. 
ede, L 1310. eoden, //. //. L 162, 
L 14S7. eode, L 585. ede, L 115. 
5eden, 587, 1465. 5ede, 153, 294, 
^^ 30.^- yeden, O 1341. yede, O 
117, O 163. 5yede, O ,^99. 

Er, adv. previously, formerly, 535, 877, 
L 1536. aire, O 554. Er, prep. 
before, L 976. her, O 953, L 1447. 
er pen (A. S. ivr Pan , L 452, 
er (in er pen forming a conjunction 
phrase), L 544, L 922, L 1454. Er, 
conj. before, L 130, 882, L 1286, 
O 1321, her, O 513, L 541, O 
1454. here, O 562, O 913, O 1461. 
are, 448. ar. 546. or, 553, 910, 912, 
1427. er ne, L551. er Jjat, 1434. 
er pane, before when, 143.= . 

Erende, s. a. mission, 4G2. herdne, 
O 480. A. S. seietide. 

Ernde, Erne, see Rende. 

Erndinge, s. a. errand, mission, 58 1 ;;. 
erndyng, L 466. A. S. xrendung. 

Erpe, s. d. earth, O 247. erep. O 

Este, s. d. east, 1135, 1325 11. 

"Bte, ate, 1258, L 1268. hete, 
O 1 301. heten, O 1280. 

Epe, adv. easily, L 6t, 835, L 843. 
ype, 57. hepe, O 862. 

Euel, adj. s. a. disastrous, L 335. 
heuele, miserable, O 340. euele, 
s. d. ill-famed, L 336. heuele, 
O 341. 

Euen, s. d. evening, L 407. eue, 304, 
L 368, L 46St, O 769. heue, 
O 376, O 421. 

Euene, adv. quite average, fully. 94. 
eueneliche, L 100, O 100. 

Euening J>tn eiicning = pi ncnetiing), 
s. a. name, 206. A. S. nqmning. 

Euer, adv. at any time, L 48, L 1484. 
euere, O Si 7. eure, 236, 788, 
1 157. euer, constantly, incessantly, 
L 85. euere, O 85, L 1 105, O 1 142. 
eure, 79, i loi. euere, by any 
chance, L 1249. euer eny, any at 
all. L 14. euere any, O 14. 

Euerich, adj. s. d. every, O 226, 
O 691. eueriche, O 1427. euer- 



yche, O 976, O 1043. euereche, 
934. eueruch, L 673. eueruche, 
L 942. eurech, 216. eureehe, 
609, 671. Eueruchen, pi on. s. a. 
everyone, L 898. 
Eyse, s. d. comfort, L 1265. heyse, 
O 1298. O. F. else. 

Fable, s. d. falsehood, fabrication, 
L 716, O 737. Y. fable. 

Fader, j-. n. father, L 1276, O 1309 : 
s. a. L 8S1 t, 1336, O 1377 '• s. d.\^ 
I292t- faderes, J-. ^. O ij6. fader, 
no, L 114, O 1299, L 1522. 

Faille, v. be wanting at need, 638. 
fayle, O 6:2, O 883, O 1051. 
faylen, L S64. fayly, L 634. 
fayle, give way, be beaten, O 5S7 
(see 573 n). Y .faillir. 

Fair, adj. s. n. handsome, beautiful, 
94, L 427, 1526. fairer (error for 
faire), 314. fayr, O 17, L 99, O 
941. feir, L 258. feyr, L 17, 
O 9S6. feyre, s. n. wk. I. 955. 
fair, s. a. 166, 778. faire, 387, 403. 
fayr, O 807. fayre, O 399, O 415. 
feir, L 7 84. feyr, L 174. feyre, 
L 401. feyre, s. a. ivk. L 917, 
L 1463. fair, s. d. 113S. fayr, 
O "73, O 1551. feyr, L 1138, 
L 1526. fayre, s. d. 70^. L 387, 
^^ 397- feire, 385. faire, //. n. 
22, 161. fayre, O 171. fayre, 
//. a. O 24. feyre, L 24. faire, 
//. d. 522. faire, adv. courteously, 
L 389, 1028, 1 1 86. fayre, O 396. 
fayre, handsomely, O 176. feyre, 
kindly, L 436. 

Fairer, adj. s. n. more handsome, 10, 
13; 331- faire (for fairer), 8. 
fayror, O 328, O 344. fayrore, 
L 323. feyrer, O 8, O 10. fey- 
rore, L 8, L 10. fayrer, 5. a. 
O 13. feyrore, L 13. 

Faireste, adj. s. n. wk. most hand- 
some, 173, 7S7. fayreste, O S16. 
feyreste, L 793. fayrest, s. n. 
O 183. 

Fairhede, s. n. beauty, S3, fayrhede, 
O 89. fayrede, O 93. feyrhade, 
L89. fairhede,^-. a'. 797. feyrhede, 
L 803. 

Fairnesse, s. n. beauty, 87, 213. 
fayrnesse, O 223. feirnesse, L 
221. feyrnesse, L 93. 

Falle, V. prostrate oneself, O 473, L 
7861. falle, /r. s. subj. 455, L 459. 
fel, //. ,f. L 340t, 505, O 525. vel, 
L 509. falle, V. slip off, L 1230+. 
fel, //. s. became prostrate, L 432, 

450,L866, O 8S5, L1501, O152S. 
feol, 428, 740, 1479. felle, //. //. 
858, L 896. fel,//.j-. dropped, L 606 : 
passed, turned, L 1150 : felled, L 1510 
(see 42 1 «.). feoUe, //. s. subJ. would 
it befit, 421. A. 'i.fcallan. 

Fals, adj. s. n. faithless, L 645. false. 
s. d. 1248. ?0. Y.fals. 

Falsede, s. d. treachery, O 1287. fals- 
sede, L 1256. 

Fare, v. go, journey, L 732. farest 
2 /;-. s. L 799, O 822. farst, 793 
ferde, pt. s. L 621, 649, L 757t 
L I448t. verde, 625. fare, // 
prospered, e.xperienced, 1355, O 1397 
ifare, 468. yfare, L 472, L 1366. 
hyfare, O 4S6. A.S.farait \s\\.\ipt 
from feraii. 

Faste, Ga'z'. vigorously, L 122, O 126, 
L 1524. faste, swiftly, O 1274. 
fasste, 119. faste, securely, L Sjo-f. 
faste, firmly, O 916. 

Fecche, v. bring, 351, L 357. feche, 
O 363. vecche, L 1378. vacche, 
reach witli a blow, strike, L 12 28. 
fette,//. J. brought, L 1398. A. S. 
f^ccan, fitian. s. fed, L 590, O 604. 

Fela5e, s. a. comrade, 996. felawe, 
O 547, L 1006, O 1037, L I093t, 
L 1462. felawe, s. n. L 1437, O 
1472. felages, //. n. conipanions, 
1338. felawe, O 1271. felajes, 
//. a. 1462. fela5es, //. d. 1290. 
felawes, L 1236. felawe, L 129S, 
L 1482, O 1509. 

Felaurade, s. a. company, L 174. 

Felde, s. d. open country, O 240 : 
battlefield, O 534, L 556,557, L 853t, 
987. feld, 514, L 516. afelde, in 
battlefield, L 997. 

Fele, adj. pi. a. many, O 11 11, 1329 : 
//. d. O 60, L 1376. vele, 56. 
Fele, pron. //. k. 57, L 61. A. S. 

Felle, s. d. skin, complexion, O 986. 

Felle, adj. pi. d. spirited, O 1510. 

Felle, z'. throw down, 62,0 65: lay low, 
kill, L 66. felle, pr. s subj. O 842. 
fellen, /;-. //. stdj. O 8^4. felde, 
pt. s. or//. O 58. ifulde, he felled, 
1488. felde, //. s. subj. would it 
befit, L 425 (see 421 n.). A. .S. 
fill Ian. 

Fende, s. d. the devil, O 1421. 

Feor, adv. a long way, 769, 1135, 1146, 
1177. fer, L 775, O 798, L iiSi, 
O 1 2 16. fer, to a great distance, L 
660. fer & eke neh, everywhere, L 
1096. fer no nere, nowhere, L 966. 



Fere, adj. s. n. whole, sound, L 155. 

fer, 149. A. ^.fpre. 
Fere. s. a. fear, O 12S5. 
Fere.^f.M. companion, comrade, L949+, 

>349> L 1359: s. a. L 747t : s. d. 

O1164. ifere, 1129. yfere,Lii29. 

feren. //, n. L 53, L io2t, 1426. 

ifere. 102, 221. yfere, L 227, L 394. 

feren, //. a. L 2it, 853, L S61. 

feiren, 237. yfere, 242. feren, 

//. d. L SSf, L 243, O 248, L 1250. 

ferin, 1242. fere, L 501. yfere, 

497. K.?>. gtfcra.fera. 
Feste, s. ti. feast, 477, L 4S1, 521, 

L 524, O 542 : s. a. L 807, O S28, 

13S6, 1433, L 1453 : s. d. 1 1 36, 

01261,1245,01280. festes,//. w. 

O 497 : //. a. O 1431 , O 1460 : //. d. 

L1226. Qt.Y.fcsle. 
Feste. f. fortify, O 1444. A.S.fastatt. 
Fewe, adj. pi. n. few, L 38, O 38, 

O 59 : //. a. 1462. Fewe, pron. pi. 

n. b 925 : pi. a. 50, L 59, O 634. 
Fif, adj. d. live, O 102. fiue, 1295, 

1423,01476. fyue, Li303,Li44i. 

fiue, adj. 11. 80S. fyue, L 816, 

Fiftene, adj. a. fifteen, 37, fyftene, 

L 41 : adj. d. L 1 8. fiftene, O 18. 
Fi5te, V. flight, 514, 1331. fi5ycte, 

O 1372. fy5cte, O 859, fy3te, 

O 840, O 874, O 1044. fyhte, L 

516, L S19, L 1341. fycte, O 56S. 

fyten,0 534. fypte, L550. fu5ten. 

pt. pi. fought. 1375. fouten, O 1414. 

fyhten. ?L 13S5." 
Fi5tinge, s. n. combat, 817. fy5tyng, 

O S46. fyhtynge, L 825. 
Finde, z\ discover by search, 700, 936. 

fond, //. s. 368, L 372, O 667, 

L i232t. fonde, O 380, O 548. 

funden, pt. pi. S51. founden, L 

859. O 878. founde, //. O 1000. 

ifunde, 955. fond, i pt. s. fell in 

with, met, L iiS^f- fond, pt. s. L 

39t. L765, 1443, O 1490. fonden, 

//.//. L1311. founde, 1301, O 1342. 

funde, pt. pi. siibj. reached, 882. 

founde, //. met, O 802. ifounde, 

773. yfounde, L 779. 
Fine, v. come to an end, 262, O 271. 

fyne, I. 264. O. Y .finer. 
Finger, s. d. 570. fynger, L 56"^. 

fiugres.//. a. 980, O 1025. 
Fis, s. n. fish, O 700. fiss, 661, 664, 

6S1. fys, O 679, O eSi, O 684. 

fyssh, L 661. I. 6^3, L 1 143. fiss, 

.;. a. 1142. fyssh, L 1142. 
Fissen, v. fish, 1136. Fisse, 1143. 

fyssh, L 1 145. fyjsse, O 11 So. 

Fissere, ,f. n. fisherman, 1134. fys- 

shere, L 1134. fj'5ssere, () 1169. 
Fissing, s. a. fishinjj, 1 149. fyssyng, O 

1 186. fysshyng.L 1 151. flschinge, 

s. d. O 676. fysshyng, L 658. 
Fipeleres, //. «. fiddlers, 6 1521. 

fypelers. L 1494. 
Fleme, s. a. outlaw, 1271. A. S. 

Fleme, v. drive into exile. O 1315. 

A. ?). file mail. 
Flen, V. (lay, 86. fle. 1370. flo, L92. 

flon, O 92. A. ^.jlc-an. 
Fleon, V. dec, L 8S7. 
Fleoten, t/. float, L 159. flete, O161. 

flette, O 786. flet. pt. s. sailed, 

L 197. fletten,//.//. L763. A. S. 

Flijte, s. d. flight. 1398. flyhte. 

L 1414. 
Flitte, 2 pr. s. sulj. depart, 711. 

flette, L 713, O 732. O.N.fiytja. 
Flode. s. d. open sea, L I43t. L 11 89+. 
Flore, s. d. floor, 529, L 709, O 730. 
Flotterede,//. s. tossed on the wave.-, 

L 129. A. ^.Jloterian. 
Flour, s. n. flower, L 15, O 15. flur. 

15. O. ¥.fiottr. 
Flowen, v. swell, rise, L 121, O 125, 

L 1523. flowe, 117,1503. flowe, 

be in flood, 632. 
Fluste,//. s. flew (flushed), L 1080. 
Flyten, v. contend, L 855. A. S. 

Fode, s. n. child, one brought up, 

L 13501. 
Fo^el, s. n. bird, 1398. foul, L 1414. 

fo5eles.//. (T. O 129. foules, L133, 

O 137- 
Folc, s. n. followers, O 1411 : people, 

O 269: s. a. 61, 066, 618. folk, 

s. It. 152 1 : followers, 1372, L 1382. 

folk, s. a. people, L 65 : s. d. 258. 

folc,//. n. O 1566. 
Fole, s. n. steed, 591, 593, L 591, O 

607 : s. a.'L 587t, L 590, O 604. 
Folye, s. a. foolish, mad word, L 69ot- 

O. Y.folie. 
Fonde, v. experience, 151, L 157, 1. 

734t, L 1536. fondede,/^. s. 15 14. 

A. S.fa?idiaii. 
Fonge, V. receive, O 159, 327, O 340: 

grip, L 72 If. fonge, imp. s. take, 

L 74 if. A. S./on. 
For, prep, on account of, L 73t, L 740t, 

L I474t : by reason of, L 555, 557, 

1 104, 1346 : for the sake of, L 567, 

5^9, O 1227, L i44it: in requital 

of, 1496, L 1516, L 1530+, Li53it: 

on behalf of, L ^^i. L 459, O473, 947. 



O 990 : in honour of, L 55ot, O 573, 
L 1154: with a view to, L 288t, 
1265: in search of, 978. for 
(=fore), iu joreference to, L 673!: 
before, O 1 169. for '^with inf. a.), to, 
O 1318, 1505. for, in order to, 11 36. 
for to, 23, O 25, L 234t, L 862, 
1476, O 1493. forte, L 25, L 141S. 
for to (with inf. «.), to, 480 : (with 
/«/. a.), 62, O 162, 431, O448, L 
1078, O 1463, 1 51 1, forte, L 436, 
L 1283, L 1356. for pat, because, 
O 183, O 979. forpi, wherefore, 554. 
For, lonj. since, because, L 1 1, L52t, 
L i4<5ot, 1528. vor, 172. 

Forberne, z'. burn up, consume, L 692. 
A. S.Jorl^ivmafi. 

Forbode, s. d. prohibition, 76, L 82. 
forbod, O 82. A. S.forbod. 

Foreward, s. a. agreement, L 456t. 
forewart, L 552. A. ^.forciveard. 

Forjef, imp. J-Zforgive, 349, L 355. 
for^yf, O 361. 

Forleose, v. lose utterly, L 665. for- 
lese, O 683. forloren, lost, thrown 
away, 479. A. 'A.forlcosan. 

Forlete, v. let go, part with, L 224!. 

Forsake, v. deny, L I332t. forsoke, 
2 pt. s. didst fail in loyalty, L 751 f. 
forsoke, //. s. subj. renounced, L 69. 
forsoken, pt. pi. siibj. O 69. for- 
sake,//, repudiated, O 570. 

Forp, adv. forwards, onwards, L 197, 
O 607, L 757, O 1272. forth, L 1237. 
forh, L 1035. forp, out, 225, L 231, 
O 373. forp leide, laid out, un- 
sheathed, 692. forp, away, L 754t: 
(= go forth, away) L 709. 

Forpricte, adv. straightway, O 393, 
O 746. forpri^cte, O 1020 (or 
perhaps, straight in front). 

Fot, s. a. foot, L 138, O 142, 758, 
L 764. Fout, 134. fot, s. d. O 474. 
fete, s. or //. d. 1240, L 1248. 
fotes, //. d. O 521. fet, L460. 

Foure, adj. d. four, L ii66t. 

Fourteniht, s. a. fortnight, L 452. 

Fram, prep, (of motion away from) 72, 
O 78, O 213, 1374. from, L 78, 
L211, L1045. fram (of separation), 
726, O 731, O 751. from, L 72S. 
fro, 367. fram (of motion in succes- 
sion, with to), 212, O 222. from, 
L 220, fram (of extent, with to), 
1240. from, L 1248. fram, against, 
1324. fro, O 951. Fram honder, 
O 1076. 

Fre, adj. s. n. courteous, gentle, L 267. 

Fremede, //. n. strangers, L 68. 
fremde, 64, O 68. A. S.fretncde, 

Froward, adv. ill-naturedly, L 1074. 

Ful, adj. s. a. foul, ugly, 1063. foul, 
O 1106. foule, L 1 07 1, foule, s. a. 
-ok. L 1 2 10. fule, s. V. 323, 707. 
foule, L 331, O 336, L 708, O 729. 
Fule, adv. foully, 322. 

Ful, adj. s. n. complete, full, L 54, 
O 54, O1131, 1405. Fulle, J. a. full 
supply, 402, 1355, O1192. felle, 
L 1 1 57. Ful, adv.Ytvy, fully, 429, 
L 504, L 843, 1356. fol, L 1170. 
fulle, 96, L 7361, L 926f, 1140. 
folly che, O 98. 

Fulfllle, V. perform, celebrate, L1264. 

Fullen, V. perform, celebrate, O 1295. 
felle, 1254. fulle, pour out, O414. 
fulde, //. ^. O 1190 : filled, L ii22t, 
Ji53> L 1 1 55. 

Funde,e'. go, hasten, 103, 133. founde, 
L 107, L 137, L 732 : proceed to 
fight, L S40. fonde, go, O 141 : go 
to fight, 832. funde, i pr. s. hasten, 
1280. founde, O 755, L 1288, O 
1323. founden, i pr. pi. sitlj. O 


Fundling, s. n. foundling, 420. 
fundlyng, L 226, L 424, L 708. 
fundlinge, O 442. fuiidyng, 220. 
fundling, j. a. L 234. fundlyng, 

Furste, adj. s. d. zvk. first, 114, L 1 iS, 
O 625. firste, O 122. at pe furste, 
forthwith, 661, L 885, 1191. ate 
furste, O 679, O 904. at pe firste, 
L 1 197, ate ferste, O 1232. ate 
pe ferste, L 66 1 . furste, //. d. first 
persons, 11 19;?, O1154. vurste, 
L 1119. Furst, adv. previously, 544. 
first, O 559. 

Galeie, s. d. galley, 1 85 . 1 008. galeye , 

L 193, L loiS. O. Y.galie. 
Galoun, s. d, gallon, L 1123. galun, 

1123, O 1 158. O. Y. galun. 
Game, s. n. contentment, enjoyment, 

L 2o6t. 
3are, adj. s. d. ready, O 1396. 5are, 

adv. quickly, 467, 892. A. S. gearo. 
3are, adv. long ago, 1356. 5ore, in 

time past, L 1366. A. S. gcara. 
Gate, s. d. gate, 1078, O 1088, 1474. 

5ate, 1043, 1073. yate, O 11 14. 

gates, //. jt. O 1279. 5ates, 1238, 

L 1246. 
Gateward, s. d. porter, 1067, O 1108. 

5ateward, L 1073. 
39, pron. pi. 71. you, 100, L 104, L 

I367t. ye, O 109, O 171, O 357. 



e, pi. of dignity, 907. ^ou, pi. d. 
, 30, O 136, 346, 862. you, O3. 



ou. L 3. L 32, I. 132, L 352. hou, 

C) 35S. 50U,//. rt. 105. 1356. 
Geant. s. 11. y;iant. O 617, O 8S5. 

geaunt. L >Siot. geant, s. a. O 

S79. geaunt, s. a. S52, L 860, 

0. F. geaut. 
Jade, jeden, see Eode. 
39lde. V. repay, 4S2, L 4S6. jeld, 

imp. s. L looof. 5olde. //. repaid, 

L639. yolde, O 657. 130^6,460, 

'^4.^> y5olde, L 464. hy5olde, O 

39n, prep, against, O 1470. A. S. 

5end, pnp. through, L 1012. jent, 

beyond, L iiSi. A. S. geond, geoit- 

5eode, see Eode. 
5ere, s. it. year. I, 1140. jsr, //. n. 

524. 5ere, L 526. yere, O 544. 

5eres, 912. jere, //. a. L 736t, 

918, L 926, 1140, O 1175. yere, 

O959. ^3Te.p/.d.()6. yere. O 102. 

jeres,//.^. L 737t, O 953. 
Jerne, see Bende. 
5erne, v. desire, ask for, L 1419, O 

1436. jerne, i pr. s. 915, L 923. 

heme, O 956 '^possibly = ^rw^, earn). 

A. S. gicrtian. 
33rne, adv. earnestly, 1085, O 1383, 

1403 : eagerly, O 1413. jurne, L 

13S4. A. S. georne. 
Gesse, v. aim at, tn,', L 1187. 
Geste, J-. n. conspicnous act, 478 «. L 

482. geste, sport, entertainment, L 

523. gestes, //. d. games, 522 : 

? O 498. O. F. geste. 
Gestes, //. «. guests, O 541 : pi. a.'L 

1225,61260. geste, 121 7. 
39t, adv. still, in addition, L 74. 5ute, 

70. Jet. up to the present, L 1370, 

O 1401. 5ut, 7SS, 1360. A. S. 

giet. gieta. 
3eue, V. give, L 919. jeue, pr. s. 

subj. L 164. L 420, 581, II 90, L 1342, 

^530. jeuen (read liue), 156. 

yeue, O 166, O 168, O 1373. jyeue, 

593- 3yue, O 436, O 45S, O 
1231. 5iue, 158, 414, 438. 5af, 

1 //. s. 640. gaf,//. s. 466, O 1 439, 
1 509. jef, L 865, L 1406. jeuen, 
//. //. 149S, L 1 518. 3ef, imp. s. 
914, 1119. je (read lef), L 1062. 
3yf, O 955. 

3if. conj. if, supposing, O 93, O 103. L 
349. 5ef, 87, L loi, 815, L 1372. 
3yf, L 93, O 355, L 738, O 1384. 
yf, O 113, O 553. if, 107, 1362. 
ef- 53?! 1341- 5if. whether. O II 77. 
jef, L 9S5, 1094, L 1 159. 5yf, O 

1 135, O 1194. if, 976, 1157. ef, 

Gigours, //. ;;. players of the gigue, 

I472. O.Y. gigiuour. 
Giled, pp. deceived, 1 45 2. gyled, 

1499. O. V.giii/cr. 

Ginne, s. d. device, artifice, 1456. 

gynne, L [476. F. etioin. 
Ginne. i pr. s. subj. begin, 546. 

gynne}?,/.;-. s. I. 729, O 752. gan, 

1 pt. s. did, 1047, O 1090. gon, L 
1055. ga,n,pt. s. began, did, O 199, 
241, L 3SSt, L 1498, 151 1, O 1531: 
impers. O 742, 876. gon, //. s. L 
247, L 1481. con, L 302, L 1534. 
gunnen, pt. pi. 850. gunne, 51, 
'4^'7! 1505- gonnen, O 65, L 858, 
L 1024, O 1430. gonne, L 55, O 
5.=^> 637, L 1489. O 1516. gon, O 
141. connen, L 187. gonne, i//. 

//. subj. O 1473 (scribe's error for 
iiiniie,'. gyn, imp. s. 
L3i9,L 376,0454,0 1 153. ?gon. 

o 390. 

Girde, pt. s. girt, O 517. gyrte, O 
1512. gurden, //.//. L i486. 

Glad, adj. s. «. O 1273 : s. a. O 821. 
glade. //. a. 1527. 

Glas, s. 71. glass, L i4t. 

Gle, s. a. song with accompaniment, 
1260, L 1270. A. i^.gleo. 

Glede, s. n. live coal, L 506, O 520. 

Gleowinge, s. a. minstrelsy, harp 
playing, 146S. glewinge, O 15 17. 
gleynge, L 1490. A. S. gleoiman. 

Glide, V. glide (of a ship's motion), O 
144, O 1337 : steal away, 1047, L 
1055. glyde, O 1090. 

Glotoun, s. H. glutton, L 11241-. O. F. 

Glouen, //. a. gloves, L 800, O 823. 
gloue, 794. A. S. glof, with occa- 
sional //. luk. glofan. 

God, adj. s. 71. good, L 258, 486, 564, 
O 580, L 1336, O 1367. gode, 'j.«. 
ick. L 7, O 7, L 33t, 195, L 203, 
L 347t, L i325t, L i349t. godne, 
,f. a. 727, L731. god, L 164, O 166, 
482, L 486, L 5o8t, L 579t, L 75St, 
997. gode, s. a. wk. L isif, L 
788t, O 870, 1502, L i:;22. gode, 
s. d. L i84t, L 186, O 1 88, O 904, 
i486, god, L 8S5. 1008, L 1446. 
gode, s. d. %ok. L 4, O 629, O 902, 
L ii9of , L i53ot. gode, pi. ;z. wk. 
L 53t: //. a.'^L i44t : pLd. 178, O 
186, O 917. for none gode, with 
no good object, L 288t. 

Golde, s. d. gold, 459, L 463, O 477, 



L ii68t : gold ring, L losof. gold, 

adj. s. a. L 561 f. 
Gome, s. d. man, person, L 9S6. 

gumes. pi. 71. 161. gomes, L 2^\. 

gomen, L 169. A. 
Gon, V. go, proceed, walk, L 50+, L 

292t, 6 627, L 1193, 1351. gone, 

L 607, 611. gb, L loif, 527, 848. 

gop, /r. s. L 215, L 371. goth, O 

217. go, i»!p. s. O 147. 207, L 

363t, 699, L 797t, L 1234+. so^, 
pp. past by, L 195. igon, 187. 

igo, O 197. go, travelled, 11 76. 

hygo, O 1 2 15. ygon, gone, L 64S. 

ygo, L 300. to Hue go, escape 

death, 97 11. 
5oue, see Hoiie. 
5oxire, adj. s. n. yours, 814. ^ytire, 

O 845. ower, s. a. your, 908. ojjer 

(possibly mistake for ower), 813. 

ore, ,f. ^. L 822. oure,//. «. L 821. 

^our,//. a. 815. oure, L 823. 
Grace, s. a. power, virtue, L 569 : s. d. 

571. O 585. O. ¥. grace. 
Grante, itnp. s. grant, 508. graun^^e, 

O 5 2 8 . O . F . graantcr. 
Gras, s. a. grass, 130, O 138. grases, 

pl.a.l. 134. 
Grauel, s. d. gravel, beach, 1465, O 

1514. grauele, L 148;. O. F. 

Gredde,//. s. cried out, L 1202. A. S. 

Grene, s. d. field of battle, L Sjgt- 
Gret, adj. s. n. tall, big, 93 : great, 

278, L 284, L 66it. grete. s. d. 

899, O 940. gret, L 504, L 1018. 
Gret. 7/>ip. s. greet, salute, 144. 145, 

L ifo, L 151, O 152. grete, O 153. 

grette, //. j. L 386t, L losSf, 1352, 

L 1397. A. ^. gretan. 
Grete, v. weep, 889, O 92S. A. .S. 

*grxtan, gret ait. 
Gripe, v. grip, clutch, L 55t. L 6o3t. 
Grom, s. n. youth, page, L971, O 1006. 

grome,//. w. O 171. 
Gros,/A s. impers. it terrified, 1314. 
Grunde, i-. d. bottom of sea, 104, O no. 

grounde, L loS. grunde, bottom 

of cup, 1 160. grounde, L 1162. O 

1 197. grunde, floor, 334, O 347, 

740,0767,1115,01150. grounde, 

L 340, L 744, L 1115. grunde, 

earth, 639, 653. grounde, L 635, 

L 896. grunde, shore, 134,0142. 

grounde. L 138, L 595. 
3yede, see Eode. 
Gyle. s. n. treachery, deceit, L 968. 

gyle, J. ^. L 1472. O. F. guile. 
5ynge, adj. s. n. wk. young, L 131, L 

447. L 564, L 1295. 5enge, O 463, 
O584. 5onge, 566, O 1330. 5inge. 
s. d. 'U'k. L 285. 5ynge. L 377. L 
610, L 1027, L 1506. 5enge. O 290. 
yenge,0 63o. jeng, 01229. 5onge, 
279, O 1056, 1188, O 1297, O 1533. 
ijyng, s. a. L 214. 5onge, //. v. 
iz-j : pi. n. 547, L 545. yonge, O 
563. 5onge. //. a. young people. L 
1390, L i407t, O 1417. 5ungemen, 
//. n. L 1366. 

Ha, see A. 

Habben, v. have, hold, possess, O 430, 
O 690. habbe, L 76, O 76, O507, 
O 967. haue, 198, L 491, O 590, L 
loojf. han. L 576, L931. habbe, 
\ pr. s. 304, O 315, L 408. O II S3, 
L 127S. haue, L 310, O 423, 1268, O 
1311, 1315. aue, O 1215. haued 
(for haue), O 130 (comp. O 274^. 
hauest, 2 pr. s. L 726, O 735, 795, O 
824. hauestu, hast thou, 724, O 749. 
hauez, O S13. hast, O 529, L 537, 
539, L 801. ast. L 790. nast, hast 
not, L 712. nastu, thou hast not, 
T193. habbej), pr. s. has, L 142 1. 
hauejj, L 515, L 1472, O 1474, O 
1499. ha]3,L 217, 513, 1449, L 1469. 
hat, O 1174, O 1496. ?hus,Oi4i9. 
habbe, 2/;-.//. 1355, L 1366, abbe, 
O 1397. haue, i pr. s. subj. L 369 : 
2 pr. s. subj. O 910. heuede, i pt. s. 
L S71. hauede,//. s. had. O 9, 48, 
298, O 1285. haue (for haued), O 
274. heuede, L 52. hadde,9, L 2it, 
141S, O 1559. hade, L 59. L 1252. 
hede, L 472, L 1484. nadde, had 
not, 1 1 14. haddit, had it, O 636. 
hadden. //.//. L 597. hadde, 9, O 
615. nadde, had not, 863. haue, 
it?tp. s. L I44t, L 731 , icoo : receive, 
take, O 237, 449, L 561, O 579, 
1053, O 1097, 1125. 

Halke, s. d. corner, 1087, O 11 28. 

Halle, s.d. hall, public room of palace, 
palace, L 77t, L 229!, L 261 f, O 
1429 : s. a. dwelling, L 1395. halle 
dore, hall door, L 1496. O 1523. 
halle gate. 1474. A. S. lieall. 

Hap, s. a. fortune, L 335. 

Harde. adj. pi. a. violent, 864, L 872, 
O 891. harde, adv. vividly, in-, 
tensely, L 1426, O 1463, hard, 
roughly, 1068, O iioo. 

Hardy, adj. s. a. bold, L 1346. F. 

Harpe, s. a. harp. 1461, L 1481, L 
1498!. harpe, s. d. L 237, O 242, 
L 246t. herpe, O 1508. 



Harpen, v. play on the harp, O 244. 
harpe, 231. 

Harperes, //. ;/. O 1520. harperis, 
L 1493. A. S. hcai-f'cre. harpurs, 
1471. O. F. harpcor. 

Haste, s.d. in on haste, speedily, 615, 

Hat, see Ac. 

Hatte,//. s. grew hot, 608. 

Hauene, s. d. harbour, 751. 

He, pi-on. s. n. he, L -^f, O 58, L 69, 
L 1460!. hey, o" 1532,^0 1534. 
hei, 151. hye, O 1159. e, O 331. 
(he refers to things at, O 5S0, 662, O 
680, 6S2, O 954, O 1177, 1442. L 
1460,01487.' hine, ^. a. him, 1028. 
hyne, L 1038, L U95. him. 84, O 
90, L9i,L92, 1396, 6 1437. L 1534. 
hym, O 725, L 769, L 79S, 1150, 
O 1 531. (hyne, L 1195, him, 570, 
1396 refer to things.) him, s. a. re- 
flex, himself, L 38;t. L ioi7t, 1475, 
L 1497. hym,'o 739, O 11 20. 
him, s. d. O 19, L 2 2t, 116, L 120, 
1077, 1501, L 151S, L 1521. hym, 
O 25. 42, O 1441, O 154'^'. him, 
s. d. reflex, for himself, L 758,0 7S1, 
1063. For the ethic dative and the 
dative reinforcing the subject, see 
137 n. Heo, pron. s. n. she, 69, 
L 309, L 985, 1478. heo (error for 
he), 649, 651, 779. hue, she, L 76, 
L 1500. he, 71, O 73, L 308, O 
1202, 1473. hy, L 73, O 1125. 
hye, O 262, O 1237. sche, O 374. 
hire, s.a. her, L 296, O 301, 430, 
1430, L 1520, O 1547. hjnre, O 595, 
L 932, L 1450, O 1458. hure, 290, 
384, 1500. hire, s. a. reflex, herself, 
L 27ot, L 329t, 355, L 361. hire 
sslue, L 1204. hyre selue, O 1239. 
hure selue, 119S. hire, s. d. L 
362+, L ■;26t, 585, O 597, 1151. 
hyre, L 404, L 1153, O 1 188. hure, 
963, 1 165. Hit, pron. s. n. it, 6, L 6, 
O 31, 1520, L 1542. hyt, L 31, O 
376, O 1099, O 1530. ith, O 1565. 
hit, s. a. 41, L 45, L SfSf, L 1402, 
1469. hyt, O 60, O 1566. it, O 45. 
ith, O 1033, O I2I2. it, yt (in com- 
position), O 471, O 636, O 637, O 
1161. Hi,/r(?«.^/. «. they, 22, 1523. 
hue, L 38, L i-;45. hye, O S52, O 
1519. hy, 53,'L 55, 155, L 1524. 
he, I, O I, 1S4, O 1293, O 1430, O 
1460,01568. heo, Li. iso5te, they 
sought, 39. yclupten, they em- 
braced, L T217. hure, pi. g. of 
them, L1258. huere, L 1260. here, 
O 1289. hem,//, a. them, i?>, L 

^sc, L495t, L 1495, O 1512, 1524, 
O 1569. huem, L 1227, L 122S. 
hem, //. a. reflex, themselves, L.S67, 
O 886. huem, L 14S6. hem,//, a. 
reciprocal, one another, L 743, i 209, 
1522, O 1567. hem, //. (/. O 54, 
171, L 121S, 1339, L 1349, O 1453. 
huem, L 54, L 1 79. His, adj. s. n. 
of him, 7, L 7, L 1299, '497' Wse, 
O 7) ^'> 536- hys, O 16, L 530, O 
I4N2. hyse, O 851. is, L 529, 
L 1517. ys, L 772, L 994. his, 
s. a. 156, L 232, O 488, O 1029, 
L 1462, 1530. hise, O 707. hys, 
O 481, O 1426. is, L 69, L 1541. 
ys, L 899, L 1230. hise, j. d. L 
1129. hyse, O 871. his, 32, O 34, 
L 550, O 1459, 1518, L 1530. hys, 
O 476, O 1563. is, L 40, L 1540. 
ys, L 34, L 60S. hise, //. «. O 6, 
053,0123. hyse, O 231. his, 49, 
L 53, L I444t- is, L 897. ys, 
L 867. hise, //. a. O 253, L 493, 
L 908, Li 225. hyse, L 24S, O 1260. 
his, 237, O 509, 1489. hys, O 926, 
O 1538. is, L 902, L 1511. hise, 
//. d. O 234. hyse, O 829, L 1298. 
his, 224, L 230, L 243, O 243, L 501, 
1423, L 1441. hys, O 452, O 1476, 
O 1509. is, L88, L 1250. his, //-(?;/. 
//.<?. his men, 1 255. Hire, a^//'. 5. «. c f 
her, 261, L 263, O 270, 1148, L 1150. 
hyre, L 263, O 1185. her, L 920. 
hire, s. a. 265, O 276, L 941, 1153, 
L 1203, O 1238. hyre, L 271, L 
1 12 1, hure, 288. hire, s. d. L 257, 
O 2S0, 309, L i43it, L 1522. hyre, 
L 360, O 1242, O 1299. hire,//, a. 
980, L 990 : //. d. L 7St, L 307t, 
1 162, Li 166. hyre, O 969, O 1 201. 
Here, culj. s. n. of them, O 9, O 
1 480. huere, L 9, L 1306. hure, L 
140, O 199. here. s. a. 65. O 69, 
170, O 180, 1468, O 1517. hure, 
L 306, II 21, L 1254. huere, Li 78, 
L 1 490. hore, 854. here, s. d. 60, 
0130,0920,1327,01513. huere, 
L 126, L 888. here, pl.\. 112, O 
118, 882. huere, L 116. here, 
pron. s. d. theirs, 66, O 70. huere, 
L 70. himself, adj. deflnitive n. 
490, 920. him selue, L 494. 

Heirs, //. n. 897. heyres, O 938. 
heyr, s. a. L 912. O. F. heir. 

Held, Helde, see Elde. 

Help. /.'. s. availed, O 918. help, 
imp. s. aid, L 202, O 204, 435, O 
455, L looif. helpe, 194. 

Hende, see Ende. 

Hende, adj. s. voc. courteous, L 375t> 



L 1117+ : 5. ;;. O 1296. hendy, x. «. 
1336. hende, s. a. dexterous, 1302. 
Hende, ai/v. at hand, L 1 137. A. S. 
gehende, and -hqiiJig. 

Henne, adv. from this place, L 5of , 
O 345, O 913. hennes, 323, O 
1323. henne, at a distance, 319. 
hanne, O 332. hennes, L 327. 
henne out, depart, O 72S. henne, 
O 729. 

Hente, v. seize on, affect, L 968 : 
//. s. caught, lifted, L 433 : i //. pi. 
got, experienced, O 890. A. S. hpi- 

Heorte, s. n. heart, 1148. herte, L 
1150, O 1185, L ii98f, O 1313 : 
s. a. 434, O 454. heorte, s. d. 263. 
herte, L 249t, O 905, 13S9. horte, 
L 380. huerte, L 281, L 886. 

Heouene, 5. d. heaven, L 1546. 
heuene, 1524, 1529, O 1569. 
heuene, j. g. heaven's, 414, L 

Her, adv. in this place, 150, L 170, O 
1216, 1308, L 1335. he (for lier'), 
O 200. her abute, in this neigh- 
bourhood, 343. here, iu this place, 
L 156, O 158, L 796t, L95ot, O 
1495. her, on the spot, now, 306, 
L 453. 563, L 912, 1053. here, L 
233t, O 469, O 579. her, at this 
point, 1525. 

Herdne, see Erende. 

Here, v. hear, listen, listen to, be told, 
397, O 409, O 698, L 965, O 1305. 
ihere, 67S, 1262, 1469. yhere, 
L 397, L 680, L 1272, L 1491, 
O 1 5 18. here, i pr. s. L i33t. 
herde, i //. s. L 693t. herde, pL 
s. 200, O 210, L 945, L 969, O 1004. 
iherde, 959. yherde, //". s. L 45, 
O 45, L 208. A. S. /iieran, ge- 

Herinne, adv. in this place, 312, 
O 325. herynne, L 320. 

Heritage, s. d. inheritance, L I289t. 
O. P". eritage. 

Herkenede, //. s. listened to, gave 
heed to, O 1506. herkne, imp. s. 
806, L 814. 

Heme, see 3erne. 

Herst, adv. previously, O 562. 

Hes, see Also. 

Hepene, adj. s. a. ivk. heathen, L 153, 
O 155: //. d. L 596, 598. 

Heued, s. n. head, 610, O 626. hed, 
JL 606. heued, s. a. L 61 7t, 
L 637t. 

Heuie, adv. oppressively, 1408. 

Hewe, s. d. complexion, L 98. 

Hewe, V. cut in pieces, O 1353. 
Heye, adj. s. a. wk. supreme, O 236. 

heh, s. n. elevated, L 1095. hije, 

s. d. 32S. 
Heynde, s. a. hind, female of the deer, 

Hider, adv. hither, to this place, 1174, 

1333, L 1343, L 1468. hyder, 

L 1178, O 1213. hydeward, adv. 

in this direction, L iiiS. 
Hi^e, V. hasten, 880. hi5ede, //. s. 

hastened, 96S. 
Hilte, s. d. handle, I416. hylte, 

L 1434,0 1471. 
Hitte, pt. s. hit, L 605. hette, v. 

O 733- . 

Hoi, adj. s. n. unhurt, sound, 149, 
L 155, L i35it : s.a.Q) 594. 

Holde, adj. pi. a. of allegiance, 
L i259f. See 1249 n. 

Holden, v. possess, 670. holde, 307, 
L 672. helde, L 314, O 319, 902, 
O 942. holde, side, L 1408. helde, 
1392, O 1441. holde, suppress, 
L 380, O 390. helde, observe, keep, 
O 472. holde, pr. s. siibj. 452, 
L 456. holde, imp. s. suppress, 
376. helde,//. considered, O 502. 
hylde, celebrated, O 1074. 

Holy, adj. s. d. O 932. 

Horn, s. a. (used as adv.) homewards, 
L 225t, L 903, L 1265, O 1458. 
horn, s. d. 647. 

Homage, s. n. vassalage, vassals, 1497. 
O. F. homage. 

Honde, s. d. hand, L 64-}', 81, O 87, 
L isSt, 215, O 225, L i43it, 1499, 
L 1519. hond, L 87, 306, L 312, 
O 1546. hon, J-, a. O 1446. hondes, 
//. a. hands, L 990. honde, L ii6f, 
192, L 200. honden, O 202. 

Honge, V. hang, be suspended, L 336. 

Hopede,//. s. hoped, 1394. 

Hore, s. d. mistress, L 710, O 731. 

Horn, s. a. drinking vessel, L imf, 
L ii2it, I153, L 1155 : trumpet. 
L I38if. horne, s. d. drinking 
horn, 1 145, L 1147. horn, L iiGif, 
O 11S2. 

Hors, s. n. horse, 1232. 

Hot, adj. s. 11. O 624. 

Hote, \ pr. s. am called, L 773t- h-^t, 
pt. s. was called, 7, 9, 25, 761. 
hihte, L 9. hoten,//. L 27, O 27, 
L 767, C) 790. hote, O 211. ihote, 
201. yhote, L 209. ihote, ordered, 
1045. See Hight in N. E. D. 

Hou, see ^e. 

Houe, 2 pt.S. didst raise, 1267, L 1277. 
Joue, O 1310. A. S. h^bban. 



Hu. adv. how, 46R, i.^f;. hou, 1. 472, 

O 4S6, L 1366. O 1397. 
Hudde.//. >. liid, 1196. 
Hulke, sec like. 
Hulle,//. </. hills, 208, O218, hulles, 

L 216. 
Hund, dog (said contemptuously of 

heathen), 601. hound. L 599. 

hunde, s. d. 831. hounde, L S39. 

hundes, //. «. O91, 611, O 627. 

houndes, L 607. hondes, () 906. 

hiindes.//. a. S81, 1367. houndes, 

O 914. L 1377. hounden, O 912. 

houndes, //. g. O 82. hounde, 

//. (/. L 59O. honde, 598. 
Hundred, s. a. 616, O 632, O 1370. 

houndred, L 612. hundred, //. a. 

1329. honder, L 1339. 
Huntinge. s. d. hunting, 646. hunt- 

ingge, O 660. hontynge. L 642. 
Hurede, //. s. hired, 527. herde, 

L 758, O 781. 
Hurne, s. d. corner, ambush, L 1383. 

A. S. Jiyrtte. 
Hus, see Habben. 
Huse. s. d. hou-c, 994. house, L 1003, 

O 1034. hus, 226. 974, 1502. hous, 

O 236, L 1522, O 1549. 
Husebonde, s. a. husband, 735, 1039. 

hosebonde, L 739, O 762, L 1051, 

O 10S2. husebonde, s. d. 415. 

hosebonde, L 421, O 437. 
Hy5ouren, see Eende. 
Hynowe, see Inoje. 

Ich, pro7t. I, O 3, L 32, L T329. O 1498. 
hich, O 211. ichc, O 157. yeh, 

137, L 343, L 438I yich, O 578. 
hyc, O1176. ihc, 3, 1356. 1,631, 
1451. y, O 136, L 175, 344, 1274, 
L 1355, O 1362. hy, O 407, O 1356. 
icham, I am, L' 1134, L 137;. 
ycham, L 209. ichulle, I will, L 
540, L 1 291, ychulle, L 3, L 1227. 
ynulle, I will not, L 3 28. ichul, 

1 shall, L 921. ychul, L 558, 
L 1293. yshal, L 975. ischal, 
441, 1285, and similar formations at 
L 132, L 4,^0, L 627, 630, 631, 

657. 944. 945. '343. 1346- nully, 

I will not, L 1146. nullich, L 

1 131. recchi, care I, L 370. rohti, 

heeded I, L 1356. 
Igraue,//. engraved, 566. igrauen, 

1 164. ygraued, L •;63, L 1168. 

hygraue, O 583. hygrauen, O 

Iknowe, adj. s. n. acknowledging, 

9S3 ;;. A. S. gecnxwc. 
Iknowe, v. recognise, 1372. yknowe, 

L 121,^, L 13S2. yknewe, //. s. 
stihj. L 646. A. S. gi'ctidwaii. 

Haste, V. last, remain whole, 660. 
yleste, //. J. L 6. A. S.^Qc/a'sfa/!. 

Hich, adj. s. m. like, 1066. yliche, 
O 19. ilik, 502. iliche, //. n. 
313. yliche, L 321, O 327. A, S. 

Iliche. s. n. peer, e(|ual, 18. 340. 
yliche, L 19. ylyche, L 346. 
liche, O 352. yliche, likeness, 
L 295. ylyche , J. </. O 300. Hike, 
289. A. '6. gclTca. 

like, adj. s. a. same, 855. like, s. d. 
926, L 1238. ulke, 1 199. hulke, 
O 496, O I 240. 

Hie (for lie), s. d. island, 1318. yle, 
L 1330,0 1359. O.Y.isle. 

Ille, adv. against the grain, distaste- 
fully, L 1327. ylle, () 13.^6. ille, 
bitterly, 675. ylle, L 677. ylle, 
"i adj. pi. a. wicked, 1316 ii. 

Iment, see Munt. 

Imete, v. encounter, 940. ymette, 
//. s. L 1037. A. S. ge me/an. 

In. prep, (of place where) in, 17, L 20, 
L i42t, O 833, L i535t. yne, 
L 688. ynne, O 1019. in, on, 
126, L 156, O 317, L S59, O 878, 
1180 : within, surrounded by, L 307, 
O 312, 705, L 1362, O 1393:" in 
(metaph.), 243, O 254, L 256t, 
O 390, 429 : under, subject to, L 348, 
O 354. in (of place whither), into, 
L 794, O 817, L ioi7t, L 1164, 
O 1199, 12.36, L 1244; into (meta- 
ph,\ 60, O 460. in (of time), at, 
on, O 31, 167, L i465t: during, 
in the course of, O 102, 595, L 636, 
O 675, 1 199, O 1240, O 1458: 
after. 333. L895, loio, L 1020. in 
(of manner), after the pattern of, 
according to, 289, O 300, O 371, 
L 1543 : in respect of, L 832, O 853 : 
with, O 547, O 603, L 1316, O 1511. 
A. S. itt. 

In, adv. inside, within, 381, L 809, 
O 1089, L i495t- yn, into (cup), 
L 1 1 76. per . . in, in which, 974, 
per . . inne, in it, L 602, 604, 135S, 
1455. ])er . . ynne, L 147.^. per . . 
hinue, O 620. A. S. inti, innc. 

Ino5e, n. enough, i 22S. yno5e, 
1400. ynowe, O 1271. ino5e, //. 
a. 182, 857. hynowe, O 192. 
ynowe, L 190, L S65, O 884: //. d. 
L 1236. Ino5e, pron. pi. n. loo^. 
ynowe, L 1015, L 1416. hynowe, 
O 1046. 

Into, prep, (of motion) into, O 79, 113, 




L117, 1432, L 1452, O 1473: (of 

substitution) 440, L 444. 
logelers, pi. n. jugglers, entertainers, 

L 1494. jogelours, O 1521. O. F. 

loie, s. a. joy, 1353, O 1394. ioye, 

O 436, O 1303, L 1363. ioie, s. d. 

1 36 1, L 1 37 1. O. Y.joie. 
lorne, see Rende. 
Iquemef), /r. s. pleases, 485. A. S. 

Isene, adj. s. n. visible, evident, 92, 

684. ysene, L 686. hysene, 

O 703. A. S. gesiene. 
Isi5e, 2 pt. s. thou didst see, 1157. 

isije, pt, pi. saw, 756. ysey5en, 

L 756. isi5e,//. s. subj. might see, 

976. A. S. geseon. 
Iswoije,//. swooned, in a swoon, 428, 

858, yswo5e, 1479. yswowe, 

L 432, O 450, L 1501, O 1528. 

hyswowe, O 885. A. S. ges7vogen, 

pp. of swogan. 
Iwis, adv. certainly, surely, 196, 

L 5i9t. iwys, O 1319, O 1387. 

ywis, O 54, 682, L 684, 1233, 

L 1252. ywys, L 686, L 1284. 

hywis, O 701, O 703. hywys, 

O 1276, ywisse, L 1241. towisse, 

for a certainty, 121. mid ywisse, 

of a certainty, L 125, 432, 1209 n. 

mid y wis, L 54. 

Kelde, v. grow cold, L 11 50. chelde, 
1148. kolde, O 1185. A. S. ceal- 

Kelwe, adj. s. d. dirty, O 11 23. 

Keue, adj. s. n. brave, bold, 91, L97, 
O 98 : s.v. 507, O 527 : s. a. L86ot: 
forward, L ii28t. kene, //. n. 
brave, 164, L 172 : //. d. L 42t. 

Kenne, /;-. //. siibj. know, L 150. 
A. S. caiman. 

Kepe, V. guard, L 752, 1103, 1323. 
kepest, 2 pr. s. 1307, L 131 9. 
kepte, //. s. caught up, 1202, 
L 1208. kep, imp. s. keep, guard, 
L 75ot, L i287t. ikept,//. iioi. 

Keruen, z'. carve, L 241. kerue, 233. 

Kewede (for Kelwede), pt. s. be- 
smeared, O 1107. 

Keyte,//. 5. ? showed, O 8S4. ?A. S. 
cypa7t,pt. cypde. 

King, s. n. 5, O 5, O 360, L 366, 
01284,1529. kinge, O33. kyng, 
L 5. 47, O 966, 1404, L 1532, 
O 1557. king, s. a. O 155, 457, 
1507. kyng, 147, L 153, O 805, 
I^ i345t, L 1529, O 1554. kinge, 
s. d. 4, O 4, O 1057, 1428. kynge, 

L 4, Oi33i> L 1448, 01455- king 
155, O 165, 1494. kyng, 369 
L373,9''^i,L 1514,0 1543. kinges 
j'.^.L 20, 020,393, 1447. kingges 
O 7S9. kynges, 249, £255,0 1549 
kinge, O 260, L 378. kynges, pi. 
n. L 933, O 968 : //. d. 178 : pi. g. 

Kingeriche, s. d. kingdom, 17. A. S. 

Kinne, see Cunne. 

Knaue, s. n. young man, attendant, 
961, 967, 971 : J. a. 940, 977. A. S. 

Kne, s. d. knee, L 509, 780. akneu, 
on knee, L 340. knes, pi. d. 383, 
O 525. kneus, O 347, O 395. 
aknewes, L 3S5. 

Knelyug, s. d. kneeling, L 787. 
kneuling, O 491. knewelyng, 7S1. 
knewlyng, O 810. A. S. cticorvlian. 

Kni5t, s. n. knight, 447, 1447. knyht, 
L 451, L 1361. knyhte, L 439. 
knict, O 503, S02. knyct, O 888. 
knyt, O 986, O 1392. kni5t, s. a. 
482, 1302. knyht, L 484, L 1463. 
knyhte, L 943. knict, O 500, 
O 524. knyt, O 807, O 1343. 
kni5te, s. d. 458, 1267. kny5te, 
O 1310. knyhte, L 549, L 1277. 
knicte, O 475, O 567. knycte, 
O 978. knyte, O 467, O 1021. 
knyht, L 11 14. knyt, O 1149. 
kni5tes, s. g. 1510. kni^tes, 
//. n. 49, 1228. kny5tes, O 
1333, O 1479. knyhtes, L 545, 
L 1444. knyhte, L 1221. knictes, 
O 53, O 642. knytes, O 834, 
O 1544. kni5tes, //. a. 520. 
kny5tes, O 1145. knyhtes, L908, 
L 1 483. kni5tes, //. d. 256, 1509. 
kuy5tes, O 1256, O 1510. knyhtes, 
L 262, L 1013. knictes, O 267, 
O 640. knyctes, O S29, O S41. 
kniyctes, O 935. knyhte, L 522. 
knicte, O 540. 

Kni^ten, v. knight, 490. knigte, 
435, 49.1, 515. knyhten, L 640. 
knyhte, L 495, L 517. knicten, 
O 658. knicte, O 455, O 511, 
O 535. kni5ti, 480, 644. knyhty, 
pr. s. sul'J. L 462. knicted, pp. 
O 529. 

Kni5thod, s. a. knighthood, knightly 
qualities, 545, 1268. knyhthod, 
L 543. knicthede, O 561. kni5t- 
hod, s. d. 440. knyhthede, L 444. 
knythede, O 460. knythod, 
L 127S. 

Knowe, v, know, recognise, ackuow- 



ledge, 41S, L 672, 1090, O 124S, 
01411. kneu, //. ^. 1149, L 1151. 
neyj, O 11S6. knewe, pt. pi. 
L i459t, O 1566. 
Knutte, pt. s. tied, fastened, L S50. 
A. S. cnyttan. 

Lace, V. fasten with a lace, L 7i9t. 
lacede, //. jr. S42, O 869. O. F. 

Lache, v, catch, O 678. latchen, 
O 662. lajte, pt. s. comprehended, 
243. lahte, L 249. lauete, O 254. 
lahte, I //. s. caught, L 664. A. S. 

Iiaje, s. n. custom, mo. lawe, 
L 1112, O 1 147. Ia5e, s. a. religion, 
faith, 65. lawe, L 69. lawe, s. d, 
L 1314, O 1345: fidelity, O 1131. 
A. S. lagu. 

Ijaud, s. a. country, earth as opposed 
to sea, L 601. lond, 603, O 619, 
L 79it, L i367t, O 141S. londe, 
L 130. lond, s. n. S14, L S24t, 
O S45. londe, s. d. L 4ot, L i432t. 
lond, L 44, 757, L 1527. londes, 
s. g. 190. alonde, on the land, 

Lang, adj. s. n. long, tedious, 494 11. 
long, tall, L loof. longe, dila- 
tory, O 977, L ii02t. long, s. a. 
tedious, L 498. longe, O 514 : "wk. 
L4i2,0428. Longe, aa?i;. (of time) 
6, L 309t, L 742, L 1218, O 1306 
(see O 314"), O 1559. 

Lappe, s. a. loose fold of a garment, 
L 1209, O 1244. 

Lasse, adv. later, Soo, L S06. lesse, 

Laste, I //. s. shot, cast, L 660. 

Latere, adv. later, L I030t. 

Latten, v. put off, delay, L 937, leten, 
929, lette, O 972. A. S. latian. 

Lay, s. a. song, L 1499+. O. F. lai. 

Lay. s. a. faith, L 1544. ley, O 69. 
O. F. lei. 

Lede v. conduct, L 192 f, 293: govern, 
908, O 949: convey, carry, 1393, 
O 1442. lade, L 1409 (possibly 
represents A. S. liladan, to load). 
lede. pr. s. siihj. conduct, L 1546+ . 
ladde. pt. s. I, 22 f, O 1085, 1500, 
L 15:20. ledde, O 808, O 1298, 
O 1547. ladde, //. //. brought, 
O 616. ladden, L 598. ledde, 
convoyed, O 931. A. S. lidan. 

Lefdi, s. v. lady, 335, 350. leuedi, 
O 362. leuedy, L 341, O 348, 

L 397- 
Lefte, pt. s. stayed behind, 647. lefde, 

remained over, 137S. lafte, let 
remain, L 616. leuede, O 634. 
lef, imp. s. stay, 774, L 780. A. S. 
Le5e, s. d. meadow, glade, L 1160. 
leye, O 1195. See 1227 n and 


Leggen, v. lay, place, L 902. legge, 
L 1065 f (see dun), O 1446 «, 
O 1502 (see an), leie, 302. leye, 
L 308, O 313. leide, pt. s. H2i : 
stored up, 379, 692 (see forJ>). 
leyde, L 694, O 711, L 1121, 
O 1537. leiden, pt. pi. 891. 
leyden, O 930. leyd, //. O 1237. 
A. S. l^cgan. 

Lenunan, s. n. ladylove, 433, O 453, 
1 41 2. lemmon, L 679, L 1430. 
leman, O 748, O 1467. lemman, 
s. a. 1450, O 1497 : .f. d. 552, L 574. 
lemmon, L 5:10, L 1436. leman, 
O 568. 

Lene, pr. s. subj. grant, L 465 f. 
A. S. l-inan. 

Leng, adv. longer, 728, 742, 1103. 

Lengpe, s. d. length, 900, O 941. 

Leof, adj. s. n. beloved, 324, 708. 
lef, O 157, L 332, O 337. leue, 
s. V. L 949 1, 1359. O 1400: s. a. 
O773. lef,//. «. O 124,0 232. Lef, 
s, n. darling, O 584: s. v. O 573, 
655. luef, s. n. L 564 : s.v.'L. 653, 
L 1212. 

Leose, v. lose, 663. 

Leren, v. te.ach, L 247, O 252. lere, 
L 234 1, 241. A. S. Ixran. 

Lerne, v. learn, or teach, L 1294. 
A. S. leoniiati. 

Leste, adj. s. d. (used as noun), least, 
I, 612, O 632. laste, 616. lest, 
O 499. 

Zieste, pr.s. siibj. last, continue, O 425. 
laste, /A s. 6. lesten, O 6. 

Leten, v. leave behind, lose, O 1281. 
lete, L 1254. lete, let fall, let 
drop, 890, O 929. lete in, admit, 
L 1495, O 1522. late in, 1044, 
1473. let, pt. s. permitted, L 6-Sf 
(see 675 fi), L 1 230 f. leten, //. //. 
136. let, m/. j.L5i7t. let, //. j. 
caused, 13S1, O 1422, 1453. lette, 
L 902, L 907, L 1 39 1, lete, 
lost, 1246. A. S. lietan. 

Lette, V. hinder, O 1 243. A. S. l^ttan. 

Leue, s. a. permission to go, L 467 f, 
L.-^^St, L 745 f. 

Leue, V. trust, 562, O 578. yleue, 
L 559. leue, I pr. s. L 450 : believe, 
O 1362. leuest, L 1322, O 1351. 
leuej), //-. //. L 48. leuet, O 48. 



luuej*, 44. leuede, //. //. O 1421. 
A. S. geliefan. 

Leyhe, v. laugh, O 366. loh, pt. s. 
L 361. lowe, O 367 : pt. s. suhj. L 
1502, O 1529. lou5e, 14S0. 

Libbe, v. live, L 67 f. lyue, i pr. s. 
O426. liuej),//-. i-. O 1401. lyuejj, 
1360, L 1370. libbe, pr. s. siihj. 
L 324 f. liuede, pt. s. dwelt, 74. 
lyueden, //. //. lived, L 1543. 
A. S. Ubban, UJia7i. 

Lie, V. speak falsely, 1451. lye, 
O 1498. 

Lif, s. a. life, 1387, 1246 (possibly //."I. 
lyf, L 1254 (possibly //.). liue, 
s. d. 97, O 103, 1334, O 1375. 
lyue, L loi, L 126, 131, L 1344. 
lif, 122, O 130. lyue, //.fl. O 1281. 
my lyue, in my life, 777. of liue, 
alive, O 344. on liue, O 634, 
O 1484. on lyue, 131, O 806. o 
lyue, L 616. lyfdawe, s. d. exist- 
ence, L 914. 

Liggen, v. lie, be in recumbent posi- 
tion, O 1343. lyggen, O 1331. 
ligge, 1275, 1288, L 1296, O 1318. 
lygge, L 1283. Ii5e, 115S. lip, 
pr. s. 695, 1 137. lyht,/;-/^. L 697, 
L 1 137. lay, I //. s. 658. lai, 
pt. s. 272, 686. lay, 1303, L 1315. 
hylay, O 1346. leye, pt. s. suhj. 
L 1262. laie, 1252. leyen, pt. pi. 
suhj. O 1293 (leyen to depe = 
should lie doomed to die), lig- 
gynde, pres. p. L 131 2. leye, pp. 
lain, L T139. ileie, 1139. A. S. 

Li5t, s. n. light, 493, Si 8. Ii5te, s. 
d. 1309 n. lyhte, adj. s. n. 7i>k. 
bright, clear, L 497. 

Iji5te, V. grow light, bright, 386. 
licte, O 398. lyhte, L 388. 

Iii5te, adj. pi. d. nimble, speedy, 
1003. lyhte, //. n. L 1014, L 

Iii5te, V. arrive, 1397. lycte, alight, 
descend from horseback, O 539. 
lyhte, L 521. lyhte, pt. s. L 51. 
licte, O 51. Ii5te, 519. 

Lili flour, s. n. lily, O 15. lylye 
flour, L 15. 

Linne, 2 /;'. s. suhj. fail, grow slack, 
992. lynne, O 1033. lynne, v. 
cease, stop, L 319, O 324, 354: 
imp. s. 2,11. A.S.lmnau. 

Liippe, s. a. lip, L 7070'!-. 

Liste, s. a. cunning, craft, 1459. lyste, 
counsel, O 1506. liste, s. d. know- 
ledge, accomplishments, 235. listes, 
//. a. accomplishments, L 2 39 : devices, 

L 1479 : //. d. accomplishments, 

O 246. 
Liste, s. d, ? stripe, L 1321 (see 1309 

«\ lyste, O 1350. 
Lipe, V. listen, give a hearing, O 2. 

\y'pe, suhj. 2. lipe, ?>«/. s. 336. 

lype, L 342, O 349. O. N. hlyda. 
Lipe, V. ease, assuage, O 428. lype, 

L 412. lype, to be mild, L 360. 

A. S. lipati, iTpian. 
Lodlike, adj. pi. n. loathsome, O 1 360. 
Lofte, s. d. upper room, 904. O. N. 

Lo^e, adv. in lowly place, 1079. 

lowe, L 1085, O 1 1 20. lowe, in 

humble condition, 417, O 439. 

O. N. Idgr. 
Loke, V. look, view, 975, L 1096, 

L ii4if : protect, guard, L 752, 

L ii04f, L 1333, O 1364. lokest, 

2 pr. s. gazest, L 573. loke, 

2 /;-. s. suhj. 575. lokede, />/. j. 

looked, L6o9t, L 883 f, L i505t. 

loked, O 1 1 22. loke, imp. s. 

guard, 748, O 775. yloked, //. 

L 1105, O 1142. 
Lokyng, s. d. guardianship, 342, L 

Londe, v. put on land, 753. 
Lond fole, s. a. inhabitants, O 47. 

lond folk, 43, L 47. 
Londisse, adj. s. d. belonging to a 

country, native, O 999 : //. d. 634. 

londische, O 647. 
Longest, 2 pr. s. belongest, 1310. 
Lore, s. a. counsel, teaching, 442, 

L 446 : s. d. O 462 : training, L 


Lope, adj. s. a. hated, L I203t: 
//. n. displeasing, unwelcome, L 
1068 f: loathsome, hateful, L 1331. 

Loueliche, adj. s. d. loving, affec- 
tionate, 454, L 458, 580. 

Louerd, s. n. feudal superior, O 531 : 
s. d. L 441, O 457. lord, s. n. 51 1, 
L 513: s. d. 437. louerd, s. a. 
master, husband, L 314, O 319, 
O 1238. lord, 308. 

Lude, adv. loudly, 209, 1294. loude, 
L 1302, O 1335. Loude, adj. s. a. 
loud, L 217. 

Lure, V. look gloom.y, O 1267. loure, 
1/ 1232. 

Luste, V. listen, O 493. lust, imp. s. 
337. luste, 1263. leste, 473, L 
477. list, L 343. lustep, imp, pi. 
O S35. A. S. hlystau. 

Luste, /;-. s. sithj. it may please, 
O 889. leste, 862, L 870. liste, 
pt. s. it pleased, O 424. lyste, 



L 410, L t2tR. luste, L 404 f, O 
I. '53. A. S. lystaii. 

Lutel, adj. s. a. little, I. 342. lute, 
L 507. litel, 336, O 349, 503, 
O 523. lite, II 31. lutel, s. d. 
1, 636, L S95, L 1020. lite, O 654. 
litel, loio. Litel, adv. 1439. lite, 
932, O 975. lyte, L 940. Lut, 
prou. s. a. little, few, L 616. 

Lujjere, adj. pi. ;/. wicked, 498. A. S. 

Luue, s. d. love, 557, 5^19. loue, L 
,^55, L 567, O 1227, L 1543. luue, 
s. a. beloved one, 746. loue, L 750. 

Luuejj, pr. s. loves, 1343. luuede, 
pt. s. 24. louede, L 26, O 26, 
L 254 1, L 1353, O 1382. luuede, 
pt. pi. 247. louede, L 253, O 1567. 
loueden, O 25S, 1522, L 1544. 
luued, //. 304. loued, L 310. 
yloued, O 315. 

Lym, s. a. mortar, L 1410 : s. d. 
L 905. A. S. iTin. 

Lyne, s. a. fishing line, 681. 

Mai, I /;-. s. have power, am in a 
position to, 562, 944. may, L32t, 
218, L 559, O 578, L 965, 1103. 
mi5t, 2 pr. s. 191, 700. myht, L 
199. myct, O 719. may, pr. s. O 
582, L 968, L 1475, O 1502. mai, 
1455. myhte, I//. 5. L 1355. mihte, 
L 963. my^t, O998. mict, O 67S. 
mictest, 2 pt. s. O 103. mihte, pt. 
s. L 613, L 1269. myh.te, L 8, 
L 1542. mi5te, 8, 1521. miy5te, 
O 1078, O 1565. my5te, O 434, 
^^ 1 395- miste, 10. micte, O 8, 
O 287. mi5t, O 1446. my5t, O 
loi;, O 1059. micten,//. //. O 61. 
myhten, L61. nii5ten,57. mi^te, 
1400. mihte, L 1416. myhte, 
L 67. micte, O 67. mi5te, i pt. s. 
subj. 1345. ini5te, //. s. stilj. 1200. 
mihte, L 1491. myhte, L 166, 
L 1206. my5te, O 1241. my5t, 
O 1518. 

Maiden, s. d. maiden, 947. mayde, 
O 990. mayden, s. a. L 1538, 
O 1 56 1. maide, 15 16. maide, 
s. n. 272. mayde, L 278, L 406. 
m^aydnes, //. n. ladies in waiting, 
L 393. maidenes, //. d. 72,' 391, 
1162. maydenes, O 78, O 1201. 
maidnes, L 78, L 1166. maydnes, 

Maister, s. 71. leader, L 868. mayster, 
O 88 7. maisteres, s. g. leader's, 
621. maister, L 617. meyster 
kinges, s. g. O 635. maister 

kynge, s. d. L 638. maister kinge, 

642 n. meyster kinge, O 656. 

O. F. niaistrc. 
Make, s. d. spouse, L 1427. A. S. 

Maken, t'. cause to be, cause, 34S, 

O 360, O 1259. iiaake, L 354, 12 16, 

L 1224 : I //'. //. sidj. 1527. 

makedest, 2 pt. s. 1271, O 1314. 

makede, pt. s. 355, O 367, O 921, 

1065, O 1489. ma'de, L 361, 

O 1283, L 1537: pt. pi. L 1332. 

make, imp.s. 792, L 79S. make, z'. 

constitute, create, 669 : i /;-. j-. L 912 : 

2 /;-. s. siil'j. L 484. makedest, 2 

pt. s. O 500. makede, ft. s. 84^ 

O 540, 1519, O 1564. made, L 90, 

O 175, L 1541. makeden, pt. pi. 

O 1363. maked, //. L 451. made, 

O 90. mad, L 1532. make, v. 

arrange, construct, compose, L 1400, 

L 1473 1: P>-- s. subj. L 552. 

makede, pt. s. O 828, 1477, O 

1526. made, L 807, O 1443, L 1499. 

makede,//.//. () 1431, 1468,0 1517. 

makeden, L 1490. makede, //. s. 

displayed, expressed, 403, O 415, 

1063, O 1 106, made, L 401, 

L 1 07 1, O 1394. makede, //. //. 

1234, 1353- makeden, 12 10. 

maden, L 904, L 1363. 
Man, s. It. man, person, 316, O 323, 

L 793 1, 1460, O 1507. ma, O 400. 

mon, L 324, L 1480. man, s. a. 

O 1099 : s. d.O 891. mannes, s. g. 

O 861. monnes, L 871. men, //. 

n. O 201, L 253 1, L 1493, O 1520: 

//. a. 126, O 134, L 151 if. 

mannes, //. g. 21. menne, L 23. 

manne, pi. d. O 613. menne, O 

1S6, L 629, L 1376 f. men, 634, 

O 1044, O 1257. Man,/w;/. s. n. 

one, O 933. me, 366, L 906, 1046, 

L 1495. men, L 370, O 378. mon, 

L 250. me, //. n. 891. 
Manere, s. n. custom, fashion, L 54S f. 

O. F. maniere. 
Mani, adj. pi. a. many, 1070, 1176, 

moni, L 1076. mani, s. a. O 1215. 

mony, L 11 80: //. a. L 1339. 

monie, //. d. L 60. Monie, pron. 

pi. n. many men, L 1253. 
Masse, s. n. mass, eucharist, L 1026. 

messe, O 1055. masse, s. a. L 1394. 

messe,Oi425. masses,//, a. 13S2. 

A. S. vixsse. 
Maste, s. a. mast, 1013 : 5. d. L 1023, 

O IO.:;2. 
Matynes, //. n. morning prayers, L 

1025. O. F. tnaline. 



May, s. n. maiden, L 955 ; 5. a. L 917, 

L 1422. 
Me, /;-<?«. a. L 150, L I73t, O 1363, 
1421, L T439: reflex. 669: ^. (after 
verbs and adj.) L 177 1. L 332, 
L 381 1, O 425, 485, L 924 1, L 
1103 1, L 1321 1, O 1371 : d. (after 
prep.) O 2, 233, L 241, L 1190, 
O 1312 : reflex. L 297 t, 344, O 356. 
My selue, adj. dcflnitive n. myself, 
O 510. 
Mede, s. n. reward, O 283 : s. a. 
L 474 1 : gift, bribe, L 1406, O 1439. 
Meoknesse, s. d. meekness, 1496. 
Mesauenture, s. d. misfortune, O 339. 
messauenture, 710. mesauentur, 
326. O. F. vicsauenlure, 
Mest, adj. s. n. most, 250 : adv. L 26t, 

L 1358 f. most, L 254. 
Mestere, s.d. occupation, craft, L 235+, 

L 547 f. O. F. mestier. 
Mete, J', a. food, liveliliood, L 11 S3, 
O 1218 : s. d. repast, 373, O 383, O 
3S7, 1107, L 1109. 
Mete, V. fall in with, meet, L 948, 
O 983. mette,//. J-. 1027, O 1066. 
metten, pt. pi. L 163 f. A. S. 
iitctan, genictau. 
Mete, V. dream, L 1426 f. A. S. 

mix tan. 
Metyng, s. d. dream, L 657. metynge, 

O 675. A. S. fuse ting. 
Mi, adj. s, n. my, 439, 1266, L 1276, 
L 1350. my, L 443, O 459, O 1309, 
L 1324- 1340- mill, L 1 137, 1340. 
myn, L 492, L 1350, O 1381. my, 
s. V. L 356 1. min, 335, O 348. 
myn, L 341, L 397. mi, 5.^.0152, 
228, L 369, O 942,996, L 1274. my, 
145, O 154, L 234, O 377, L 1006, 
1178,01311. myn, L 671, L 912. 
mine, 770, O 799, L 1136. myne, 
L 776, L 1061, L 1182. mi, s. d. 
O 338, 342, L 441, 1284, L 1328, 
O 1353. my, 2, L 2, O 457, L 843, 
1315, O 1357- min, 1281. myn, 
306, L 312, O 689, L 1289, O 1325. 
mine, O 160, O 317. myne, 144, L 
158. mj, pi. n. L 913. mine, 897. 
myn, O 938. myne, 121 3, L 1221. 
myne, //. a. 1053, O 1097. myn, 
//. d. O 1405. mine, O 1256, 
Mid, prep, in company with, along 
with, O 22, L 88, 220, 1392, O 
1441. myd, L 367,0 1225, 6 1379. 
myde, O 304. mid, among (in mid 
pe bests), 474, L 478, 997, L 1007, 
1264, L 1336 : myd pe furste, 
O 1154: myd pe beste, O 1367. 

mid, to, L 260. mid, filled with, 
L 629. mid, with (of accompanying 
circumstance, feeling, &c.), O 1123, 
L 1508, O 1535. myd, O 965, 
L 108S. mid, with (of manner), 
L 483, L 542 f . mid, with (of in- 
strument), by means of, L 249, O 
533, 1396, L 1434. myd, L 578, 
O 904, O 1416. mitte, with thee, 
L 624 1- Mide, adv. therewith (? 
= A. S. mid py), L 1203. mid y 
■wis, assuredly, L 54. mid y wisse, 
L 125, 432, 1209 n. 
Middelni5te, j. d. midnight, 1297. 

A. S. middcl-niht. 
Mideward, adj. s. d. middle (of), O 

574. A. S. 7niddeweard. 
Midnyhte, s. d. midnight, L 1307. 
mydnijte, O 1338. A. S. mid-niht. 
Mihte, 5. d. power, strength, L 1353. 
mi5te, 436. my5te, O456. myhte, 
L 440. myht, L 4S3. myhte, s. a. 
possibility, opportunity, L 1342. 
miy3te, O 1373. 
Mild. adj. s. n. gracious, O 86. myld, 
80, L 86. myld,//. a. gentle, kindly, 
L 168. mild, O 170: //. n. 160. 
Mildenesse, s. d. gentleness, L 151 6. 
Mile, J. a. O 610. myle, L 594, 596, 
L 1 1 80, O 1 2 15. mile, //. a. 319, 
O 332, 1176. milen, L 327. 
Mislyken, v. ? be displeased, L 429. 
mislyke, 425. myslyke, O 447. 
mislike, pr. s. subj. may displease, 
668, O 688. mislyke, 1, 670. A. S. 
misltcian, be unpleasant to : possibly 
the construction of L 429, 425, 
O 447 is, it began to be unpleasing 
to Rimenhild. 
Misrede, v. give ill advice to, 292, 
O 303. mysrede, L 298. A. S. 
Misse, v. lose, 122, L 126 : 2 pr. s. 
S2thj. fail to get, L i478t. miste, 
pt. s. subj. 1361, L 1371. 
Miste, see Mai. 

Mo, adj. pi. n. more, 808, O 837. 
Mode, s. d. mind, feeling, L 287t, 
L 1423 : emotion, excited feeling, 
1405. mod, mind, L 257. 
Moder, s. n. mother, L 1370+: s. a. 
L i52t, O 1426: s. g. 648, O 664, 
1383, L 1395. 
Modi, adj. s. ti. angry, 704, L 716, 

O 737. mody, L 704, O 723. 
Molde, s. d. earth, ground, L 325t. 
Mone, see Ymone. 
Mong, see par. 

More, adj. s. n. greater (degree), 554 : 
more important, 441, L 445: more 



splendid, L 524: {Greater (size), 95, 
O loi : s. a. L 702, O 721 : greater 
(degree), L 76, O 76 : further, L 317, 
O 322, O 461, L 68ot, L 734t : s. d. 
greater (number), 834, L 842 : //. 11. 
L 81(1. More, adv. more (degree\ 
L 74t, L 92it: further Tspace), L 
594t : (time^ sooner, L 8o6t: here- 
after, 324: furtlier, L ii99t. 

Mot, I pr. s. must, am obliged to, 
L 732. most, 2 pr. s. must (go), 
101 : must, O 386. mot, /r. s. 543. 
mote (for mot'), O 559. mote, i 
//-. //. 1420. mote, I pr. s. suhj. 
775, L 781 : may I (of wish), O 
804. mote, 2 /;-. s. subj. mayest, 
art permitted, 97, L loi : mayest 
(of wish), L 147, O 149, 327, 
332, O 340, O 641. mote, pr. s. 
subj. may (of wish), L 191 f, 204 : 
may ... be, L 334. moste, i pt. s. 
might, was permitted, O 1089: must, 
am obliged to, O 1254. moste,//. 
J. ought to, L iSof. moste, /A//, 
might, were permitted, 63. 

Muchel, adj. s. n. great, abundant, 83, 
L 523, 673. mikel, O289. muche, 
L 89, L 675, 1050, O 1438. miche, 
O 89, O 693. meche, O 269. 
muchel, _<•. a. 158, 1234. michel, 
O 75. muche, L 75, 1131, 1353, 
L 1363. myche, O 1285. meche, 
O 865. muchel, s. d. 326, 922, 
L 930. michel, O 339, O 965. 

Munt, //. purposed, L 801. mynt, 
O S24. iment, 795. A. S. myntan. 

Murie, adj. s. n. merry, joyous, 521 : 
s. a. 1387, merie, 1386. merye, 
L 1400: pi. a. O 1431. Murie, 
adv. gaily, merrily, L 592, 594, 1^67, 
L 1 489. murye, O 1432, O 1516. 
merie, O 608. 

Murne, adj. s. n. sorrowful, 704. 
mourne, O 723. A. S. unimvn, 

Murne,/;-. J. subj. mourn, 964, L 974. 
morne, O 1009. mourninde, /reJi'. 
/. i^used as adj. s. d.), sorrowful, L 
578. morninde, O 592. 

Mupe, s. d. mouth, 354. moupe, 
L 360, O 366. 

Na. adv. no, L 76, 1193,0 1234. no, 
728, L io3ot, 1 103, L 1 199: not, 
O 22S, L 669, L 740. A. S. na, no. 

Name, s. n. L 205t, 1266. nome, 
L 219, L 772: i^. a. L 214 (see 2c6 ?;). 
name, s. d. O 9. 

Naming, s. a. name, O 216. 

Nawt, s. a. nothing, O 68 2. nojt, 

937. uout, L 664, L 712, L 945. 
nowt, () 678, 735. Naut, adv. not, 
not at all (usually with ne), O 285, 
<^>307!0 327. nawt, O 426, O 673, 
O 1248. nawht, O 918. no5t, 
106, 1526. noht, L 1151. nout, 
L 280, L 106S. nowt, O 343, O 
1498. nouth, O 325, O 392. 

Nayles, //. d. tinger-nails, L 23St. 

Ne, adv. not (singly ., L 10, O 10, 46, 
L 259t, L I478t, O 1484 : (with 
another negative) 8, O 11, L i75t. 
O 1385, L 1475, 14S0. ne . . .bute, 
1397, ne . . . bote, L 37, L 141 3. 
er ne, before, L 551. (For ne in 
combination with verbs see abiden, 
adrinke, ben, habben, wille, witan^ 
Ne, cofij. nor, 11, O 11, L 12, L 670, 
1131, O 1.503. ne . . . ne, neither 
. . . nor, L 570, L 572, 572, 574, 
919, 920, O 962, O 963. 

Nede, s. a. necessity, L 62t: what is 
required, L 473t. A. S. Jtead. 

Ne5, adv. nearly (degree), 252, 860. 
neh, L 868. ney, O 991. neh, 
nigh (space), L 1096. Ne5, prep. 
near, 464. neh, L 468. ney, O 
482, O 769. ney honde, close at 
hand, O 1172. 

Nekke, s. d.  neck, 1240. nycke, 
L 1248. 

Nere, adv. (compar. in form^ nigh, 
L 966. Ner, prep, near, L 368, 
O 376. nir, 364. ner, nearer, L 
777. nier, 771. 

Net, i-. n. fishing net, L ii37t: -f- ^• 
L 659t, L 662t, L 683. 

Neuening, s. a. title, name, 206. O. 
N. ncfna. A. S. nimning. 

Neure, adv. (mostly with «(j) never, 
116, 262, 1274. neuer, L 50, L 
1261. neuere, O 50, L 1106, O 1320. 
ner, L 260, L 1285. neuremore, 
324, 70S, 1066. 

Newe. adj. s. n. new, L 1460, O 14S7. 
nywe, 1442. newe, j. a. 746, L 750 : 
s. d. L 1452, O 14,59. nywe, 1432. 

Nexte, adj. s. n, %vk. next, O 960 : //. 
d. O 102. Nexte, prep. O 404. 
nixte, 392. 

Ney5, see Knowe. 

Niht, s. a. night, L 1386. nyht, 
L 127, L 1425. nijt, 123, 1407. 
ny5t, 141 5, O 1462. ni5te, 492. 
nict, O 131. nyhte, s. d. L 265, 
L 1450. nijte, 259, 11 99, 1430, 
O i4-;7. nicte, O 272. 

Nime, i pr. s. take, O 689. nome, 2 
pL s. got, L 1177+. nam, p(. s. 
took, O 449 (?), O 547, 585, O 1340 : 



betook itself, 1183. nom, L 11S9: 
took, L 583, O 597, L 1309. neme, 
pt. pi. 60. nomen, L 64, O 64. 
nym, ?w/. s. O 469, O 1160. 

Wiping, s. 11. worthless person, dastard, 
196. nyping, O 206. nypyng, 
L 204. A. S. niping : see Kemble, 
Saxons, ii. p. 120. 

Non, /;w/. s. n. no one, S, O 8, L 19, 
L I502t. 'No, adj. s. 71. no, 1^^,11, 
O 76, 1456, L 1476, O 1502. none, 
J. a. O 423. no, L317, 1114, L1131, 
O 1 166, 1247, O 1286. none, s. d. 
17, L 20, O 20, L 937t, 1456. non, 
257, L 872. no, O 268, O 999, 1265, 
L 1476. nones, s. g. L 964. no, 
//. n. 886 : //. a. 254, O 265. none, 
pt- d. 573, 634, O 647. noman, s. n. 
no one, O 19, 388, 617. nomon, L 
613. Woping, adv. not at all, 274, 
1 1 50. nopyng, L 1152, O 1187. 
Nopyng, s. a. nothing, L 924. 

None, s. d. noon, mid-day, L 364t, 
L 8o9t. A. S. non (properly, ninth 
hour, but when eating is mentioned 
the M. E. word means mid-day). 

Noujjer, conj. (generally corr. with ne, 
«(?), L806. naper, OS27. neiper, 
800. noper, O 266. no, L 806, 
L 966. A. S. nawper, 7Ja-hwceper. 

Nowe, see O^ene. 

Nowhar, adv. nowhere, 257, 340, io88. 
nowar, 955, 1096. nower, O 268, 
L 804, O 1000, L 1 100, O 1137. 
noware, O 1292. nowere, O 11 29. 

Nowne, see O^ene. 

Nu, adv. now, at this time, by this 
time, 372, 509, 1457, 1523. 'now, 
O 749. nou, O 32, L 477, L 1545, 
O 1568. nu, as matters stand, under 
the circumstances, 191, 227, 538, 
1 192. nou, L 143, O 147, L545, 
O 579, L 1 198, O 1233. ^u, conj. 
since, 539. nou, L 537. nou (error 
for nout), O 342. 

O^ see An. 

O, intei-j. 905. 

O pat, conj. until, L 128. A. S. op- 

Of, p7'ep. from, out of, off (separation), 
L 5it, L i37t, L 822, 870, L 1023, 
O 1052, L iio7t, 1203, L 1347: 
springing from, belonging to (origin), 
L 88t, L I58t, L iGsf, L i83t, 
L I036t, L I338t: on (date), 548 : 
(privative), L i26t, L 448t, L 538, 
652, L 695t, L 847t, 1361, 1458, 
O 1505: from, at the hands of 
(source), L 369t, L 87it, L 986, 

L ii69t: on account of, by reason 
of (causal), 258, L 387t, L 42it, 
L425t, 522, 573, L 934t, 1248, 
O 12S7, L I326t: consisting of, 
containing, L 42, O 42, L 79t, L 630, 
L ii23t, L ii68t, O 1345, 1406, 
L 1424 : about, on (object, motive), 
L 4t, L 2 35t, L 246t, 409> J- 41. 5, 
O 487, L 566, 568, 784, L 995, 
L 1256, O 1329, L i427t, L i48ot, 
1525. oflfe, O 5S2. o, L 574, 
L 610. ope (=ofthe), L 237. of 
(partitive), L 71+, O 249, L 611, 
O 920, L I list, L ii22t, L i358t, 
1463. ofe, O 911. of, in respect 
of (qualitative), L 18, O 18, L 96t, 
L i72t, 537. 57I5 L 808, L 916, 
L i334t, L 1446, L 14S3. o, 900. 
of (genitive), 215, O 225, L 513, 
L i522t, 1529. of Hue, alive, O 
344. of (? error for ofte), 144. Of, 
adv. off, 610, O 626. 

Ofdrede, i pr. s. (properly terrify) 
dread greatly, 291, 302. ofdradde, 
//. s. itnpers. it feared, O 1205. of- 
drad, //. terrified, 573. adred, 
L 124, L 1436. A. S. ofdrxdd. 

Ofer, prep, above, O 11 17. ouer, 
1076. ouer, in command of, 512. 
ouer, beyond, O332. Oueral, adv. 
everywhere, L 252. oueralle, O 

Ofherde, //. s. heard, 41. ? A. S. 

Oflaucte, //. //. overtook, O 914. 

Ofreche, v. come up with, O 998 : 
obtain, 1283, O 1326. 

Ofte, adv. often, L iigt, L ii95t, 
O 1290. often, O 417. ofte, mistake 
for efte, O 451. 

Ofpinke, v. repent, make sorry, O 112, 
L 9S0, 1056, O 1099. ofpynke, 
L 1064. ofpinche, 106, O 1015. 
ofpenche, L 1 10. A. S. ofPyncaft. 

Ofpurste, adj. pi. n. athirst, 11 20. 
ofperste, O 1155. afurste, L 1120. 
A. S. ofpyrst. 

Oftok, ft. s. overtook, L 1241, O 1276. 

Ojene, adj. s. n. own, 249, 1340. owe, 
O 1381. oune, L 255, L 1350. 
owne, O 260. nowne, O 508. 
o^e, s. V. 335. howe, O 348. owe, 
L 341. nowe, s. a. O 1497. oune, 
s.d. L 1540. owe, O 1563. 050, 
^. n. betrothed, 984, .1205. owe, 
L 994, O 1029, L 1214, O 1249. 
owe, y. a. 669, L 671. nowe,^. ^. O 
689. owne, property, rights, O 1329. 

05t, see Awt. 

Old, adj. s. n. L 18. hold, O 18. 



olde,//. a. old men, L 1390 : //. d. 

L 1407. held,//, a. O 141 7. 
Oliue, adj. pi. n. alive, as liviiii^, O 139. 

olyue, .V. a. L 1372 : s. d. L 362. 

aliue, s. n. 107, 1440. alyue, L 

III, L 783, L 1457. aliue, s. a. 

1362: //. n. 619. alyue, //. //. 

L 135. (Sometimes half adverbial, 

see 131 «.) A. S. on life. 
On, see An. 

Open, adj. s. n. L 1080. 
Or, see Er, Oper. 
Orde, s. d. point, edge, L 620, 624, 

I4S6. horde, O 63S. A. S. ord. 
Ore, J. a. favour, L 653+, 1509. A. S. 

Ope, s. d. oath, L 353t (see 347 «), 

L 450. opes, //. a. 1249, L 1259. 

hopes, O 1290. 
Oper, adj. s. n. second, L I95t, L 492 : 

s. a. other, L 244: j. d. O 249, L 

549> L 673. opere, 238, 257, 551, 

671. oper, //. w. 813. Oper,/»vn. 

s. n. L 2St, L 768t. L S29t. 
Oper, conj. or, L 44t, 86, O 761, 

L 9S6, 1 102. or, O 1 14, 
Ouen, adv. above, L 1485. A. S. tifan. 
Ouerblenehe, ''. turn over, L 1429. 
Ouercomep, /;-. s. overcomes, 815. 
Ouertok.//. s. overtook, 1233. 
Outlondisse, adj. pi. d. foreign, O 

Owe, V. own. possess, O 440, O 1077. 

howe, O 690. ohte, //. s. ought, 

was bound to, L 418. 

Paene, adj. s. a. heathen, 147. payn, 
s. n. as noun) pagan, heathen, 41, 78. 
payen, L 45, L866. paiens, //. n. 
L S92, L 896. paens. 807, 877. 
pains, 59, payns, L 63, 85, 179, 
L 887. paynes, L 815. payenes, 
L 84, L 91, L 187. payns. //. a. 
1316. paynes, L 1328. payens, 
L 894. payenes, L 898. paynes, 
/'•<f- 76, Si. payenes, L 82, L 87. 
O. ¥. pai i^en, h. faganns. 

Page, s. n. attendant, L 977, O 9S7, 
O 1012 : s, a.L, 948, O 983 : s. d. 
L 1290, O 1325. O. 

Palais, s. d. palace, 1256. paleyse, 
L 1266, O 1299. Y. palais. 

Palle, J. d. coverlet of rich stuff, O 413. 
pelle, 401 : garments of rich cloth, 
O 1511. A. S. p^ll: perhaps /t'/Zi? 
is due to O. F. paile. Both go back 
to Ij. pallium. 

Palmere, J-. n. palmer, O 1072,01102 : 
s. a. L 1037 t : s. V. L, io39t, L 
^ J 75t i s.d.L,ii 74f . O. Y .palmier. 

Passage, s. a. pass, narrow way, L 

i.^.^.^t- ¥. passage. 
Passe, V. convey, L 759. O. ¥. passer. 
Pape, .f. (/. path, O 1447. 
Paynime, .f. d. heathendom, O 832. 

paynyme,8c3, L 811. paynimes, 

//. n. heathen, () 63, O 84. paynims, 

O 189. paynyms, C) 836 : //. a. () 

I3.S7- peynims,//.^^'-.087. peynira, 

s. It. C) 45. O. ¥ . paiennisine, paoi' 

nime (Joinville). 
Pilegrym, j. ^. pilgrim, 1154. pyle- 

grim, O 1 19 1, pelryne, L 11 56. 

O. F. pelerin. 
Pin, s. a. door-bolt, bar, 973. 
Pine, s. n. anguish, torment, 261 : s. a. 

68 2 : s. d. 540. pyne, s. n. L 263 : 

s. d. L 538. 
Pine, V. afflict, torture, 635. pyne, 

L631, O 649. pyne, 1 pr. s. feel 

anguish, O 1235. pined,//, caused 

to sorrow, 1194. pyned, L 1200, 
Place, s. d. lists (of tournament), L 

57ot, L 72ot. F. place, L. platea. 

Comp. A. S. plsece. 
Plawe, s. d. fight, L 1094. Comp. A. S. 

plfga, play, f\g\\\.'\ng, plcgan. plivgan. 
Pleie, V. divert, amuse oneself, 23, 186, 

361. pleye, L 25,0 25, L 351,0 357. 

A. S. plegan. 
Pleing, s. d. recreation (especially riding 

and hunting), 32 n, 630. pleying, 

O 643. pieyhinge, O 34. pley- 

5yrig, L 34. pleyyTig, L 625. 
Pli5te, z'. plight, engage solemnly, 305. 

ply5te, O 316. plyhte, L 311. 

pli5te, I pr. s. 672. pliete, O 692. 

plyhte, L 674. plyct, imp. s. O 432. 

plyht, L 4:6. plist. O 410. 
Ponde, s. d. pond, O 11 73. pende, 

L 1138. A. S. *pund, an enclosure. 
Porter, s. n. doorkeeper, L 1081, O 

1 1 16. ¥.portier. 
Posse, V. push, move onwards, loii. 

puste, //. s. drove in, L 1079. ^• 

Poure, v. look eagerly, O 1133. pure, 

Prede, s. n. pride, arrogance, O 1438. 

A. S. p7-yte. 
Preie, v. beg, ask, pray, 763. pre5e, 

L 1 192. preye, L 769, O 792. 

preide,//. j-. 1186. O. ¥ . preier. 
Preie, s. a. company, troop, 1235. 

preye, O 1048, L 1 243. O. F. preie, 

Prestes,//. a. priests, L 1394, O 1425. 
Prime, s.d. six o'clock in the morning, 

L976, Oioii. pryme, 966. prime 

tide, hour of prime, L S57f. 



Pris, s. d. value, worth, 898. O. F. 

Proue, V. test, L 543t. proued, //. 

shown, proved, 126S, O 131 1. proue, 

L 1278. O. Y.pruver. 
Pruesse, s. a. deeds of valour, L 554, 

556. pruesce, O 572. O. F. 

Prut, adj. s. n. aiTOgant, 1389. A. S. 

Pugde, //. s. pushed, O 1117. ? for 

ptmgde, comp. Exmoor Scolding, 256 ; 

Elworthy, IVest - Somerset Words, 

p. 596 ; Lajamon, O 2393, 3. 
Pylte, pt. s. pushed, thrust, L 1433. 

pelte, 1415. pulte, O 1470. 

Quare, see "Wliare. 

Quap, //. s. said, 127, 1171. quo]), 
Li3i,Li2i9. qwat, O 453, 1472. 
quad, O 686. qwad, O 215, O 435, 
O 1254. A. S. cwepan. 

Quelle, V. kill, L 65t. quelde, pt. s. 

Queme, adj. s. ti. agreeable, accept- 
able, O 505. A. S. civeme. 

Quemep, pr. s. is pleasing to, L 489. 
A. S. cweman. 

Quen, s. n. queen, lady, 7, 1161, 1223 : 
s. V, 1117, O 1152, O 1198, 1204: 
J. a. 146, O 154. queue, s. n. L 7, 
O 7, L 1165 : s. V. L 356t, L 1163, 
O 1247 : s. a.'L 152, L 1541! = ^- ^• 
O 1229. 

Quie, adj. s. a. alive, 86 : //. a. 1370. 
quike, L 1388. 

Eake, v. go hastily, O 11 19. rakede, 

//. s. L 1084. A. S. racian. 
Rape, s. n. haste, 554 : s. a. 1418. 
Rape, adv. quickly, O 1352. A. S. 

Reaume, s. a. kingdom, O 942, O 949 : 

J. rf. O 1550. reme, L1525. O. F. 

Reeche, i pr. s. care, reck, 366. reche, 

O 378. recchi, care I, L 370. 

reeche, /r. s. siclj. may trouble, 352. 

reche, O 364. rohti, i //. s. heeded 

I, L 1356. A. S. riccan. 
Red, a^'. J. «. L 16, O 16 : j. «. O382: 

s. d. L 506, O 520. 
Rede, s. d. counsel, L 833t. A. S. 

Rede, v, counsel, give advice, O 499, 

896, O 937 : help, L i9it : declare, 

O 1395. rede, i pr. s. advise, L 

483, O 718 : pr. s. suhj. help, L 

I o59t. A.S. rxdan, reord, and rxdan, 


Redi, adj. pi. n. ready, 1 214. A. S. 

Rein, J. «. rain, II. reyn, Lii,Oii. 

Reme, v. quit, leave, 1272. A. S. 

Rende, //. s. rode, O 1274. ernde, 
L 1239. arnde, 1231. K.S.xruan, 
make run, ride. Jerne, v, run, O 724, 
O 908. vrne, 878. iorne, //. tra- 
velled, 1 146. hyjoureu, O 1183. 
yorne, L 1 148. A. S. ieman, eornan, 
run. Erne, v. run or ride, L 889, 
O 906. A. S. ternan or iernan. 

Rengne, s. a. kingdom, 901, 908, 
O. F. regne. 

Rente, s. a. reward, 914, O 955. O. F. 

Rente, pt. s. tore, rent, 725. rende, 
L 727. 

Reste, s. a. repose, L 409, O 423, 
O 910, L I i96t. 

Reste, imp. s. take rest, cease fighting, 
L 869, O 888 : 861. 

Reue, s. a. prefect, 1322, O 1363. A. S. 


Reupe, s. n. sorrow, pity, L 675. 

rewpe, O 693. rupe, 673. reupe, 

s. a. L 415, rewpe, 409, O 431. 

A. S. *hreowp. 
Reupful, adj. s. d. sorrowful, L 901. 
Rewe, V. repent, rue, 378, O 392. 

rev7e (error for reme), O 1314 : in a 

corriipt passage, 1521 n. A. S. 

Rewlich, adj. s. fi. sorrowful, O 1092. 

reuly, L 1057. 
Reyne, v. rain. Oil. 
Ribbe, J. d. rib, L 3231. ribbes,//. n. 

L io83t. 
Riche, s. d. realm, O 20. ryche, L 20. 
Riche, adj. s. n. rich, valuable, O 283. 

ryche, s. d. splendid, L 906. riche, 

s. n. high-born, of rank, 314, O 326, 

L 345+. ryche, L 322. riche,//. w. 

21, L 23, L I268t: pl. d. L 1406. 

ryche, O 1439, rich, //, g. O 23. 

See Du Cange, s. v. rici homines. 

A. S. rice, powerful. 
Riden, v. ride, go on horse, O 241. 

ride, 34, 544, L I443t- ryde, L 36, 

36, L 858, O 1332. ride, float, 
ride at anchor, 136: sail, 151 1. ryde, 
float at anchor, L140, L 1306. ride, 

1 pr. s. ride, O 560. rod, pt. s. L 
34t, L 642t, L 6S7t. riden, pt. pi. 
ride, O 37. ryde, L37. 

Ri5te, s. n. privilege, custom, 516. 
ryhte, L5i8. riete, O 536. ri5te, 
fair play, 829. ryhte, L 837. ryjcte, 
O 858. wip ryhte, with justice, pro- 



priety, L 312, L 1354. 'Ricte, adv. 
straightway, O 746. ri^t, 1474. 
ri^te, 1332. wel ri5te, 381, 129S. 
wel rihte, L 130S. wel ricte, O 
465. wel ryjte, O 1339. wel 
ryhcte, O 317. to ryhte, L 383. 
al rijt, by directest way, 699, 1428. 
her ri5te, on the spot, 306, forfj 
ri^cte, O 1020. ri5t anon, straight- 
wa}, 45, 28;. ryht anon, L 49, 
L291. ryt anon. O 296, ry5t nou, 
even now, O 1263. ri5t, exactly, 
849, 1012. ryjt, O S76. riht, L 
857. rit, O 51S. 

Eime, s. d. rhyme, speech, O S33, 1363, 
O 1402. ryme, L 1373 : s. a. S04, 
L 812. O. V. rime. 

King, s. n. 11 68. ryng, L 1172, O 
T207. ring, s. a. L 56it, 1172, 
O 1228. ryng, 450, O 470, L 1162, 
L 1 1 76, O 1 21 1, ringe, s. d. 565, 
O 583, 14^3- rynge, L 563, 873, 
L 1505- ryng, O 1532. ringes, 
//. a, L 454. 

Einge, V. resound, 13S1. rynge, 
L 1 393- ryugen, O 1424. ronge, L 1263. runge, 1253. ron- 
gen, O 1294. irunge, pp. 1016. 
yronge, L 1025. 

Blue, riued, riuede, see Ariue. 

Kiuere, s. d. river (i.e. hawking', 230. 
ryuere, L 236. O. F. riviere. 

Hobe, s. a. garment, L 1061. F. robe. 

Koche, J-. ^. rock, L 79+. rochewalle, 
wall of rock, 1384, L 1396. O. F. 

Kode. s. d. cross, L 336t. 

Ros, pt.s. rose, L847f, O864, Liio7t, 

Rose. s. n. L 16, O 16. 
Rose red, adj. s. n. 16. 
Roper, s. d. rudder, L i^6\. 
Roune, s. a. counsel, L 1294. A. S. 

Rowe, s. d. followers, army, O 924 : 

rank, Lio86t. Comp. arowe. 
Rowen, v. propel with oars, sail, L 122, 

O 126, L 627, L 1524. rowe, 118, 

O 611, L iioof, 1504. 
Rugge, s. d. back, L 1066. rigge, 

105S, O HOT. A. S. hiycg. 
Ryue, s. d. shore, land, 132. ryue, 

L 136, L 1533. ryue, ? = to ryue, 

O 140. O. F. rive, 
Ryuen, see Ariue. 

Sadel, s. a. saddle, L 717, O 738. 
Badelede,//. J. saddled, 715. 
Sake, s. d. cause, L I474t. A. S. sacii, 

Sale, 5. d. hall, 1107, L 1109. A. S. 

Salyley, scribal error for galeye, O 195. 

Sang, s. a. lay, story in verse, 3. song, 
L 3, O 3 : s. n. 1528. souge, s. d. 
verse-making, 240, O 251. song, 
L 246 : lay, 2, L 2. songe, speecli, 
L iioif. 

Sarazin, .f. a. Saracen, O 623. sara- 
jyu, L 605. sarazins, //. n. 1319. 
sarazyns, O 1 360. sara5y ns, L 1 33 1 . 
sarazins, //. a. 607. sara5yns, L 
66, L 1387. sarazines,//. g. 633, O 
648,01420. sara5ynes, L630. sa- 
razins, 1375. saraziues, //. d, O 
42, sarajynes, L 42. sarazins, 38. 
sarazine, adj. s. d. O 614. 

Saule, s. d. soul, 1 190. soule, L 1 196, 
O 1231. 

Scapede, pt. pi. escaped, 886. O. F. 

Scene, adj. s. n. bright, resplendent, 
O97, shene, L9S. schene,//. «. 
O 1 74. A. S. sciene. 

Schal, I pr. s. am about to, 3, S33, 
1451 : mean to, am determined to, 
0228,669,1312,01353: am certain 
to, O 461 : must, am bound to, •;44 : 
cannot avoid, 663, 0674, 0683 : bind 
nyself to, 351, O 409, O 55S, 667. 
shal, mean to, L 224, L 1285 : bind 
myself, L 357, O 687. sal, am de- 
termined to, O 572. ischal, 441 
(for other combinations see IcA). 
schalt, 2 /;-. s. art certain to, 95, 
O 698, 714 : hast to, 286 : art about 
to, 475, O 495 : wilt, 572 : must, 290, 
0301,1029,01193. shalt, art cer- 
tain to, L 50 : must, L 105 : hast to, 
L 292, O 297 : wilt, L 1 144. said, 
O 50. scald, O loi , O 107. schal, 
O 5S6, O S05. schaltu, shalt thou, 
46, 916. schal, /;-. s. 105, O 208, 
1287, O 1330. shal, L 109, O 159, 
L1324. sal, O 1 1 1 , O 590. schal, 
with impersonal verb, 106,378, O392, 
798, O 1099. shal, L HO, L 382. 
shulen, i /;-. //. L 822, L 1379. 
scholen, O 874, O 1408. schollen, 

1406. solen,0 49. sehulle, 43, 
1367. schole,0 1262. shule, L855, 
L 1377. schulen, 2 pr. pi. O 109. 
sehulle, 103. shule, L 104, L 107. 
scholen, /;-. //. O 1259. sehulle, 
io-;6,i2i6, shule, L 1224. scholde, 

1 //. s. was to, 395 : must, O 947 : 
would be likely to, 1346: scholte, 
must, 906. sehulde, would, O 
333. suldes, 2 //. s. art certain to, 
O 106. scholde, pi. s, would be 



certain, 347, O 359: was meant to, 
753) O 782 : ought to,0 933 : could 
not avoid, 1075, O 1116 : appeared 
about (in a dream), 141 2, O 1466, O 
1 4^17. sholde, might be, L 326 : 
would, L 1260. schulde, had to, O 
407. shulde, L 2S2, L 1430. 
scholden, i pt. pi, 109. shulden, 
L 113. sholde, 0115. schulden, 
2 pt. pi. O 357, scholde, 100. 
scholde, pt. pi. O 1441. scholde, 
1 pt. s. stthj. 1 100, O 1141. shulde, 
L 1 104. scholde, pt. s. stibj. 268, 
O 279, 764, O 793 : were going, 718, 
O 741. schold (for scholde), O 278. 
shulde, L 274, L 770: were going, 
L 720. scholden,//'.//. jw^y'.0 1305. 
Schame, s. a, disgrace, 327 : s. d. 332. 

shame, s. n. L 334. A. S. scamit. 
Scha.T^e,adJ.pL d. sharp, pointed, 232. 

sharpe, L 238, O 243. 
Schedde, pt. s. shed, spilled, O 920. 

A. S. scadan. 

Scheld, s. a. shield, 513. sheld, L 

515. schelde, s. d.\i, O573, 1301, 

O 1342. shelde, L 57, O 241, 

L1313. selde, O 57. scelde, O533. 

scheld, O 1344. 

Sehenche, v. pour out, serve, 370, 

O 382, 1106, O 1 145. shenche. 

L 374, 1. 1 108. schenk, imp. s. O 

1154. shenh, L1119. A.S. st-^tican. 

Schende, put to shame, injure, 680, 

O 719, 1402. shende, L 682, L 

141S. schende, ? nullify, O 699. 

schente, //. s. reproached, abused, 

322. schende, O 335. shende, L 

Schete, v. shoot arrows, 939. shete, 

L 947. 
Schewe, v. display, 1461 : disclose, 
1311. shewe, L 1323: display, L 

1 48 1, schewe, 2 pr. s. sid>j. disclose, 

O 1352. 
Schip, s. n. ship, O 127, 189, 1183, 

O 1482. ship, L 123, L 1455. 

schup, 132, 1437. scyp, O 1050, 

O 1224. schip, s. a. O 611, O 781. 

ship, L 627, L 1031. shyp, L 595. 

schup, 119, _io2t. schipe, j-. (/. O 

1047,01332. ships, L 107, L 1443. 

shype, L 888. schupe, 103, 1425. 

schype, O 1465. scype, 6 1478. 

scyppe, O 1221. schip, O 109, O 

141, O 1473. ship, L 764, L 1021. 

schup, 133. shipes, s. g. L 117, 

O 121. schypes, O 907. schupes, 

113. schipes, //. a. 37, O 41, 882. 

shipes, I, 41. scyp sterne, ship's 

stern, O 141 2. 

Schipe, V. take on board ship, O 122S. 

schepede, pt. s. took ship, O 1013. 

shipede, L 978. 
Schok,//. s. shook, 591, O 605. 
Sehonde, s. a. disgrace, 702, 714, 

O 721. shonde, L 702. A. S. 

Stand, scond. 
Schorte, adj. pi. n. short, 927, O 970. 

sherte, L 935. 
Schrede, v. clothe, O 739. shrede, 

L 718. schredde,/^. s. O 603, 840, 

O 867. shredde, L 84S. sredde, 

L 589. schurde,0 1511. schrudde, 

pt. pi. 1464. A. S. scry dan. 
Schrewe, //. (/. wicked men, 56, L 60. 

srewe, O 60. A. S. screawa, shrew 

Schulle, adv. shrilly, clearly, 207. 

A. S. scyl {adj.). 
Sclauyne, s. a. sclavine, io£;4 m, O 

1096. sclaueyn, L 1062, L 1065. 

sclauyn, 1057, O iioo, O 1265. 

selauin, 122*2. O. F. esclavine, L. 

L. sclavinia. 
Scrippe, s. a. scrip, wallet, L io69t. 

A. S. scripp (but see Archiv, Ixxvi. 


Se, s. n. sea, 105, O iii, O 1016, 1503. 
see, L 109, L 1523: s. a. L 1099. 
se, 1095, O 1136. see, s. d. L 194, 
L 659, 1396. se, 186, O 196, 659,0 
677. se brinke, s. d. sea shore, 141. 
se side, 33, 135, O 143, 954. se 
syde, O 35, O 997. se stronde, O 
838. se strond, O 1547. see 
brynke, L 145. see side, L 35, 
L 962. see syde, L 139, L 984. 
se flode, sea, 139. 

Sechen, v. try to tind, L 943. seche, 
935: try to get, 770, L 776, L 
11 36, L ii82t. seche to, make 
for, visit, O 982. seche, i /;-. s. try 
to find, 945, L 953. sekest, 2 pr. s. 
try to get, O 985. sechestu, seekest 
thou, 942. seche, 2 pr. pi. L I77t. 
so5te, pt. s. went to, 465. sohte, 
L 469, L 1395. sowte, b 483, O 
1426. sohten, //.//. L 43. sowten, 
searched, O 1418. sowte, tried to 
get, O 43. so5te, tried to find, 599. 
iso5te, they sought, 39. seche, 
imp. s. investigate, search, O 1198. 

Seek, adj. s. n. sick, L 278. sech, O 
1226 sek, L 1191. sik, 272, 1185. 

Seie, V. say, tell, 764. seye, L 770, 
O 793. seie, i /;-. s. S95, 1265. 
seip, pr. s. L 773. seyt, O 772. 
seydest, 2pt. s. L 1280. sedes, 538. 
seydes, O 554. saide,/A s. L 789, 
L 1365. sayde, L 277, L 405. 



seide, L 232, 271, T269, L 1493. L 
1500. sede, 285, 1447. seyde, () 
135, L 316, L 1273, O 1520. seden, 
941. seyden, L306, O 888. 
sede, 863, 1471. seie, imp. s. 147, 
151, 1173, 1307. sey, L 153, O 
155, L 1177, O 1212. sei, O 159, 
L 1319. say, L 157, L 456. seie, 
imp. pi. 169. sey, O 179. say, 
L 177. 

Seil, s. a. sail, 1013. seyl, L 1023, 
O 1052 : J. d. L 196, O 19S. sail, 

Seint, s. n. saint, 665. seinte, L 667. 
seynte, O 685. seint, s. d. 11 75, 
L 1179. seynt, O 12 14. O. F. 

Selue, adj. s. a. self, 45, L ii52t, L 
I204t. seluen, //. i/. L 352. selue, 
346. See also he, and 7iie. 

Sends, v, send {oi a messenger or 
message"), 1001. sende, i pr. s. 
subj. send word, L 738t : pr. s. suhj. 
convey, 1332. sende,//. s. sent, L 
27it. 933, L 1173, O 1208. sente, 
O406. 525, O 1042, 1169 : banished, 
726. O 751. sende, L72S. senten, L "1.347. sente, 1337, O 1378. 
send, imp. s. 35S, L 364. isent, 

//• 97S. 

Seen, V. see, 1345 : look at, face, L 
724. sen, O 743 : see, 650, O 666. 
se,Li355. se, i/r. j. L 134. seth, 
/;-. s. O 134. se, I pr. s. subJ. O 1386, 
sa5, 1 //. s. 777, 1 1 27. sauj, 167. 
say, O 177. se5, 1356. seh, Li75,L 
783, L 1 1 27. sey, O S06, O 1162. 
se5e, 2 pt. s. L 1159. seye, O 1194. 
sa5, pt. s. 125, 888. say, O 645. 
seh, L 595, L 1099, L 1462, sej, 
10S3. 1095. sey, O 611, O 11.36. 
seye, pt. pi. O 779. se'^e, pt. s. subJ. 
might see, L 9S5. seye, L 130. se, 
imp.s. 452. 

Serie, v. ? error iox ferie, carry, 1385 n. 

Seruen, v. act as attendant, L 242, 
O 245. serue, 234 : take employ- 
ment with, L 782t : render service, 
fill office, L 92if. serue, i pr. s. 
am subject to, O 1356. seruy, L 
1327. seruede, pt. s. worshipped, 
L Sif, L 83f. F. se)~vir. 

Seruise, s. a. employment, L 244 : 
work done, 990. seruy se, O 1031. 
seruice, L icxdo. seruise. s. d. em- 
ployment, 23S, O 249. O. F. se?-vise, 
sen' ice. 

Sejjpen, adv. afterwards, L 115S. 
suppe, 107S, 1156. sype, O 1193. 
A. S. sippan. 

Sette, V. 1 eiTor for slette, chase, hunt. 

L 714. A. S.slii'tan, to set dogs on. 

(In mod. dialects, slate, strike.) 
Sette, V. lay foundations of, build, 

139.:;, L 1411. sette, /A s. made to 

sit, 299, O 310, 401, O 413, L 50.5t : 

seated (himself, L io8.^t, 147.!;, L 

1 497 : placed i^himself), L 385^-, O 

491, L 787t : put on, O 521, L 717, 

O 738 : placed in contact with, L 

I207t: fixed, L 619, 623 : directed, 

757: alighted, O 7S7. settit, fixed 

it, O 637. setten, pt. pi. placed, 

134, L 764. sette, L 138, O 142. 

set, //. appointed, L 1421. A. S. 

Seue, adj. seven, 96, L 526t, 1140, 

O 1175- seuepe, adj. «. L U40; 

a. I> 927. seuenpe, O 960. 
Seue ni5t, //. n. seven days, 448. 
Seyle, v. sail, O lo.^o. 
Seyne, s. a. drag-net, O 700. A. S. 

segne, L. sagena. 
Shillep, pr. s. sounds, O 220. A. .S. 

Shoure, s. d. shower, in phrase, by 

shoure, in abundance, I^ 334. 
Shurte lappe, s. a. fold of shirt, L 

1209. schirt lappe, O 1244. schirte, 

,r. d. shirt, O 15 13. sherte, L 14S5. 
Shyne, v. shine, L 12. 
Sibbe, //. n. kinsmen, L 68t. A. S. 

sibb, related. 
Side, s. d. side (of body), O 880, L 

1444. syde, L 644, L 972, O 1007. 

side, edge, margin, 1024, L 1305. 

syde, L 1034, O 1063, O 1336. 
Si^te, s. d. appearing, 385, syhte, 

L 3S7. A. S. gesiht. 
Sike, V. sigh, 426. syke, O 448. 

syken, L 430. A. S. sican. 
Siluer, ,f. d. silver, O 477. seluer, 

4.59> L 463. 
Singe, V. sing, L 3t, L I3.^t, 1467, 

L 1489. synge, L 592, O 608, L 

1394, O 1516. syngen, O 1425. 

singe, imp. pi. O 135. sunge, //. 

1260. songe, L 1270, O 1303. 

ysonge, L 1026. hysonge, O 1055. 
Sinken, v. sink, O 110. sinke, 104, 

L loS. 
Sire, s. it. lord, ruler, 1.S06. syre, 

O 1=152. sire, s. v. sir, 833, L 951. 

Elsewhere combined with a noun, as 

title of knight, or form of address, as 

L5iit,L53it, 01548,784,0858, 

914. O. F. sire. 
Sijje, s. a. time, 356 : //. d. occasions, 

1348. sype, L 135S, O 1389 : //. a. 

times. On II. A..S.sip, 



Sitte, V. take seat, be seated, L 534, 
534, O 641, 1083, L 10S9. sytte, 
O 1124. sittep, /;-. ^. sits, 904. syt, 
O 945. sittep, 392, L 394. 
sittet, O 404. sitte, 2 pr. s. siibj. 
L 39it, O 552, L 623, 627. sat, 
//. s. 653, 1 261. set, L S35, O S56, 
L 1271,0 1524. set, abode, L 1465. 
seten, //. pi. sat, L 305. sytten, 
O 1261. sete, L 1253, L 1496, O 
1523. site, 2w/. J. 805, L 813. syte, 
imp. pi. O 834. sittende, pres. p. 
O 667. sittinde, 1443. sittynde, 
L 649. A. S. sittan. 

Sixe, adj. six, 391, O 959. syxe, O 
403. six, L 926. sexte, s. d. sixth, 
O 961. 

Skippe, V. skip, spring, L 1361. 

Slape, s. d. sleep, L 1315, 1417. 
slepe, O 1346. 

Slen, V. slay, 85, L I04t, 191, L 199,0 
1238. slein, L 1203. sle, L 602, 
604, 1369, O 1407. slo, L91. slon, 
L 47+, O 91. sleh, pr. s. stihj. L 
823. sle, I pr. pi. subj. O 912. 
B\e\i, subj.h'S:2i . slen, 813. 
sloh, I //. s. L 876. sloij, //. s. slew, 
615,871,987. sloh, L 611, L 152S. 
slow, O 631, O 1553. slowe, I pt. 
pl.O 895. slo5en,/A//. 181, 1375. 
slowen, L 189, L 1345, O 1376. 
slo^e, 1327. slowe, O 191, L 892, 
L 1387. slawe,//. slain, L 868, O 
887, O 925. yslawe, L 94, O 9^, 
L 913, O 1540. yslaye, L 572. 

Slepe, V. sleep, L 410, O 424. slepest, 
2 pr. s. 1308. L 1320. slepe, i /;•. 
s. stthj. L 656, O 674. 

Smerte, v. smart, pain, 876, 1390, L 
1504, O 1531 : //. s. 1482. 

Smiten, v. smite, L 856. smite, 52. 
smyte, L 56, O 56. smot, i //. s. 
smote, L 635, 639 : //. s. L 507 f, 
L 886t, 1481, L 1503. ?smatte,6o7. 
smiten, pt. pi. L 1385. smyten, 
63> L 57, O 1414. 

Snelle, rt^?)'. //. a', quick, 1463. Snille, 
adv. quickly, O 217. A. S. snell. 

Snute, s. d. nose, 1082. snoute, L 
1088. snowts, O 1 1 23. 

So, scribal error for se, O 138. 

So, adv. in this way, thus, 99, L i8ot, 
L 518, O 536, L 1379, L i542t : to 
a marked degree, great extent, very, 
L 215, 222, O 269, L 749t, L ni7t, 
L 1212, 1343, O 1377: to a degree 
already described, L 6of, L 654t, 
L ii28t, 1522, O 1559: to such a 
degree, L i46ot: eqiaally, L 174, 
O 1 76 : on such condition (^introduc- 

ing attesting or adjuring clause with 
suppression of as clause), L 19 if, 
L 553t, O 804, O 910, O 1070, L 
I059t: accordingly, therefore, L 
219+ : it, that (as predicative com- 
plement of is, was], 550, iiio: in 
the manner stated, this, L T379. so 
. . . so, to such extent, in such degree, 
... in which, 6, L 15, L 3i5t. O602, 
L 121S : so . . . pat, to such extent 
. . . that, L 75, 251, O 262, L663, 
O 681, 1482: (with virtual that 
clause) O 75 : in such wise . . . 
that, L 605, O 623, L S94 : (with 
virtual that clause) O 105, 119, L 
2 2 3t. So, coiij. as (second correla- 
tive), 590 and examples above under 
so ... so : as, like ^ comparison), 14, 
L 16. O 16, L 506, O 520, L 918. 
so euer, L 14, L 588. so euere, 
O 14. so, in like manner as, O 774, 
O 933, 1418: in place of, 1344: as 
if, L 720t, L 1036, O 1065 : even as 
(introducing parenthesis), L 404, O 
418, 1127 : when, 630. 

Softe, adv. softly, gently, L 147, O 
149, L 39it, L io75t, O 945 (or adj. 
s. d.). 

Solempnite, s. d. ceremony, observ- 
ance, L 504. O. F. solcmnite. 

Someres, s. g. summer's, L 3if, L 918. 

Sond, s. n. sand, strand, O 1488. 
sonde, s. d. 809. 

Sonde, s. 11. message, 271, L 277 : s. a. 
L 27it, L 928. sonde, s. a. mes- 
senger, 933, L 941, L 987, O 1022, 
O 1042 : s. d.'L loll. A. S. sand; 
the distinction between sand, masc, 
messenger, and satid, fem., message, 
is doubtful, though in Southern M. E. 
so7id, messenger, is distinguished from 
sonde, message. 

Sone, J. «. son, L9 O 9 ; s.7>.'L 1467 f: 
s. a. 9. sones, //. n. L 23t, L 913 : 
//. a. L 766t, 887, L 902, O 926. 

Sone, scribal error for one, O 968 : for 
souc, O 468. 

Sone, adv. soon, speedily, L 46t, L 
i245f, L 1391, O 1422, sone so, 
ccnj. phrase, as soon as, 200, O 210. 
so sone, L 208. 

Soneday, s. n. Sunday, O 1054 : s. d. 
966, O 993, O loii. sonneday, 
L 958, L 976. 

Sore, s.a. grief, misery, L 75, O 75. 
A. S. sdr. 

Sore, adv. sorely, bitterly, L 73+, L 
i20ot, 1220: painfully, L 1504, O 
1531 : excessively, earnestly, L 297t, 
L 35ot, L 1170. 



Sorewep,/r. s. sorrows, L 956. 

Sorje, s. a. sorrow, 83S. sorewe, L 

408, L 846, L 904. sorwe, O 422, 

O 428, O 865. serewe, L 412. 

soreje, s. n. 261. sorewe, L 263. 

sorwe, O 270, 911, O 952. sore5e, 

s.d.\\o^,. sorwe, 09-;i. K.'i.sorg. 

Sorinesse, s. d. sadness, sorrow, 922. 

sorwenesse, O 965. sorewenesse, 

L 930. A. S. sdrignes. 

Sope, s. d. truth: in to sojje, for a 

truth, really, L 449. A. S. to sdj>e, 

to sdf>u»i pitigum. 

Sound, s. d. strait, channel, L 6 28. 

A. S. sitnd, sea. O. N. stcnd, strait. 

Sonne, s. a. sound, L 217, O 220 

(comp. Orfeo, 270). O. F. son. 
Speehe, s. a. words, L 317, O 322, 
c>^l, O 399: language, L isSof. 
spec huere speehe, acted as their 
spokesman, L 1 78. spac is speehe, 
said what he had to say, L 3S9. 
speehe, s. d. talking, words, 454, 
L 4.^^, L 57St, L 964, O 999. 
Spede, V. succeed, prosper, L 465t, 
L 804, 1394, L 1405 : impers. 79S. 
A. S. spedan. 
Speken, v. speak, O 265, L 418, L 
i3Sot. speke, 254, L 260, L 266t, 
L 377> 412, O 434. speke, i pr. s. 
speak, L 337. spek, i //. s. spoke, 
329. spak, O 342. spake, 2 pt. s. 
535. spac,//. J. 159, L 179, L 389, 
602. spak, 89, O 180, O 399, 960. 
spec, L 95, L 970. spek, O 145, 
L 600, O 618. spake, i pt. pi. L 
535. speke, O 555. 
Spelle, J-. d. talk, L 951 , 1069 : stor}', 

news, 1030, L 1040. A. S. spell. 
Spere, s. d. spear, O 533, L 542!. 

speres, s. g. L 1389, O 1416. 
Spille, V. drop, run, O 696. spille, 

I pr. pi. stihj. perish, L 202t, 
Sprede, v. spread, 716 n. 
Springe, s. d. beginning, in day 

springe, L 1447. 
Springe, v. leap, L 59it, L i237t 
grow, L I34t: spread abroad, L 
2i9t, 1017 : break, begin to appear 
L499t, L 64it, 1427, O 1454 
springe, pr. s. subj. break, 81S 
sprang, pt. s. broke, 124, 493 
sprong, L 128,0 132, L 497: leaped 
L I229t: grew out, took origin, L 
1036. spronge, //. s. stihj. O 513 
sprunge, grew out, 1026. spronge 
//. C) 1065. sprunge, begun, 1015 
hyspronge, O 1054. yspronge, ad- 
vanced, promoted, L =46. isprunge, 

Spares, //. d. spurs, 500. spores, //. 

a. O 522. 
Spurne, v. kick, in op spiirne, kick 

open, O n 15. 
Spuse, s. d. husband, 995. spouse, 

L 1005, O 1036. O. F. cspus. 
Spuse, s. d. wife, 307,422,902,0943. 

spouse, L 313, O 318, L 426, O 444. 

O. F. espuse. L. j/<?[«]ja. 
Spuse, z/. give in marriage, 993,0 1035. 

spouse, L 1004. spousede, pt. s. 

took in marriage, L 1450, O 1457. 

spoused, pp. given in marriage, L. 

1050, O 108 1, ispused, 1038. O. F. 

Squier, s. n. squire, 11 11. squiere, 

s. d. O 1 149. skyere, L 1114. 

squieres,;-. ^. 360,0371. skuyeres, 

L 365. O. F. escuier. 
Sredde, see Schrede. 
Srewe, see Schrewe. 
Stable, s. d. stable , for horses), L 586f , 

L 7I.T, O 736. O. F. estable. 
Stale, adj. s. d. old, not fresh, O 383 

(see 369 «). 
Stalke, V. go quietly, stealthily, O 

1 129. 
Stede, s. a. horse, 715, L 753t : -f- <l- 

L 51, L 505, L 717, O 738. A. S. 

Stede, j-. d. place, 257, O 268. A. S. 

Steppe, V. step, go, O 1392. 
Stere, s. n. guide, guardian, 1344. A. S. 

stcora, steersman. 
Stere, s. d. ? rudder, put for stem, 

loi n, 1373. ? A. S. steor. 
Stere, v. govern, control, O 454, stere, 

imp. s. 434. A. S. stterati. 
Sterne, s. d. hinder part of ship, O 907, 

O 1412, O 1481. 
Sterue, v. die, L 78it: 2 /;-. s. subj. 

910, L 922. isterue,//. dead,ii67. 
Sterye, see Sture. 
Steuene, s. d. voice, L 1365, O 1396. 

A. S. stefn. 
Stille, adj. s. n. quiet, L 539t- Stille, 
adv. quietly, gently, L 215, L 3i5t, 
L ioo9t : privately, secretly, L 293f , 

37.^> O 387 : constantly, O 695. 
stille, '\adv. gently, 676 «, L 67S : 
or V. fall in drops. 
Stirie, see Sture. 
Stirop, s. d. stirrup, 75S. 
Stiward, s. n. seneschal, L28r, O 286. 
O 405 : s.v.l. 233t : s.a.l. 232t, 
L 1522, O 1549. sty ward, s. w. 
L 395 : J-. </. L 455, O 471. stuard, 
^- «• 275, 393 : s. a. 1502 : s. d. 



Ston, s. n. stone (of ring), L 569, O 
585 : s. a, stone (for building), L 
1409+. stone, s. d. L 79t, L i036t. 
ston, L 905. stones, //.«. 571. 

Stonde, v. stand up, L 399t, O 54S : 
be present, L S79t : be at anchor, 
597, L i03it: come to land (or, 
appear), L 175, O 177: be placed, 
O 1490 : blow favourably, L 761, 
O 7S4 : direct oneself, L iiSsf. 
stonnde, O 109. stant, pr. s. is 
placed, O 1007. stond, L 972. 
stondefi, 962. stondej), exists for, 
554. stonde , /r. //. stibj. are placed, 
L 5i4t- stod,/^ s. stood up, 529 : 
delayed, L 722, O 745 : was at 
anchor, 1437, O 1482. a5en . . . 
stode, //.//. resisted, O 916. 

Stonge,//.//. stabbed, pierced, L 1389, 
O 1416. A. S. stingan. 

Streme, s. d. river, L 105, L 1526. 
streume, O 1551. A. S. stream : the 
latter form is perhaps influenced by 
O. N. straii7nr. 

Strengeste, adj. pi. n. strongest, 823, 
O 852. strongeste, L 831. 

Strengpe, s. n. strength, 215. stregpe, 
error for strengfie, O 225. strengpe, 
s. d. 899, O 940. strencpe, force, 
O 1084. 

Striken, pt. pi. struck, lowered, L 
1023, O 1052. strike, 1013. 

Striue, s.d. resistance, dispute, in "wy}) 
oute striue, unquestionably, L 413. 
■wit uten striue, O 429. wipute 
strif, 407. O. F. estrif. 

Striue, z). quarrel, L 729, O 752. O. F. 

Strokes,//, a. blows, O 915. 

Stronde, s. d. beach, L 39t, L iist, 
O 1 221, 1500, L 1520. strond, O 
1547. stron, ? for stronde, O 107. 

Strong, adj. s. n. L 99+ : thorough, 
L 1280: s. a. able to resist, 1395. 
stronge, s. d. O 1086. strong, 1041. 
Stronge, adv. passionately, L 31 of. 

Stryde, v. mount, bestride, L 753. 
A. S. stridan. 

Stunde, s. a. short space of time, 739, 
0766,1279: awhile, 774. stounde, 
L 780, O 803 : short time, L 339, 
O 346, L ii'6i, O 1196, L 1287, 
O 1322. stunde, s. d. 333: time, 
occasion, 167, 956. stounde, O looi : 
short time, L 636,0 654, L 895. A. S. 

Sturdy, adj. s. n. stubborn, determined, 
L 874, stordy, O S93 : s. a. O 1377. 
O. F. cstoiirdi, estordi. 

Sture, s. d. river Stour, ? for river gene- 

rally, 6S5. stoure, L 687, L 1455. 

store, O 1482. 
Sture, V. move, sail, L 1445. sterye, 

L 147. stirie, O 149. A. S. styrian. 
Sturne, adj. s. n. severe, resolute, L 

704 : //. n. harsh, fierce, 877. A. S. 

Suemme, v. swim, O 1469. suemne, 

O 199. swymme, 189, L 1432. 
Sum, adj. s. n. some one, of some sort, 

O 323, 6S0, L 682. som, O 701. 

sum, J-, a. L 685, L 1440. som, O 

702, O 1475: s. d. O 567. sum, L 

549. sume, 551. Sume, pron. pi. 

n. a certain number, 54, 498, 1472. 

some, O 92, 1056. somme, L 58. 

summe, L 92 : //. a. L 1064, L 138S. 

some, O 58. Sumwet, pron. s. n. 

something, L 6S4. Sum while, adv. 

formerly, L 1329. som wyle, O 

Sund, adj. s. n. in good health, 1341. 

sounde, L 1351, O 1384. sound, 

s. a. uninjured, L 580. 
Sune, imp. s. utter sound, 209. O. F. 

Sunne, s. n. sun, 12, 1434. sonne, 

L 12, O 12, L 1454,0 1461. sunne, 

j-.^. 567,653. sonne, L 565,0 5S1 : 

s. g. L 826, O 847. sunne, 1436. 
Supe, see Swipe. 
Swerd, s. n. sword, L 634t. suerd, 

L1324: s.a. L 694, L 721. swerd, 

s. a. 51, L 55, L 6o3t, O 744, 872. 

swerde, s. d. O 476, 623, 712, O 

1535. suerde, L 619, L 14S6. 

sworde, L 462. suorde, L 1508. 

swerd, 108, O 733, 835, O 1353. 

suerd, L 112, L 885. suert, L 714. 

swerdes, s. g. 1416. suerdes, L 

1434, I486, swerdes, pi. a. O 55 : 

pi. d. O 1512. suerdes, O 114. 

swerd hylte, s. d. sword hilt, O 

Swere, i'. a. neck, L io72t: s. d. 404, 

O 416, L 748t, 1203, O 1246. suere, 

L 402, L 1211. A. S. suvora. 
Swete, adj. s. it. sweet, pleasant, 217, 

O 227, 443, O 1300 : s.v. 1204: s.a. 

1450. suete, s. 71. L 223, 1257, 

L 1267, L 1425 : s.v.l. 1369 : s. a. 

1530. Suete, s. V. sweet one, L 

Swete, V. sweat, 1407, O 1462. A. S. 

Sweteliche, adv. pleasantly, 384. 

suetliche, L 386. 
Sweting, s. ? n. darling, favourite, O 

Sweuen, s. n. dream, 679, L 681. 



sweuene, s. a. L 66Sf , O 699. A. S. 

Sweuening, s.a. dreaming, 724. swe- 
uenyng, L 726. Cp. A. S. sivcfniaii. 

Swike, V. deceive, O 6S7. A. S. sw'i- 

Swilk, aJJ. s. n. such, O 581, swihc, 
s. a. 166. such, 41S, O 440. suche, 
L 569. swiche, s. d. O 585. suche, 


Swipe, adv. verj', O 24, 164, L S74, 
O 13SS. suipe, 1234, L 1247, 1463. 
suype, L 24, L Sio. swype, L 96, 
O S79, L 13S4, O 1510. supe, 17S, 
375, S02, 852. wel swipe, exceed- 
ingly, O 170. swipe, quickly, O 
127, 273, O 36S, 791. suyp'e, L 
123, L 279. swype, L 476, O S20, 
L 1002. wel swipe, very quickly, 
O 427, SSo, 1226. wel suype, L 
978. wel swype, L 411, L 797, O 
1013. also swipe, as quickly as 
possible, 471. A. S. siuipe. 

Swohinge. s. d. swooning, faint, O 
464. A. S. ges7i'dginig. swojning, 
444. swowenynge, L 44S. 

Sworen, //. //. swore, 1249, O 12S8, 
O 1290. suoren, L 1257. suore, 
L 1259. 

Syjen, v. sigh, O 1171. ? derivative of 
A. S. sice, a sigh. 

Table, s. d. L 585!. F. table. 

Take, v. take, receive, seize, O 556, 
L 558, 560, L 1209, 1305, O 134S. 
take, 1 pr. s. O 576, L 671 : i pr. s. 
S2il>j. O 569: pr. s. subj. L 551, 553. 
toke, 2 //. s. didst entrust, 1099. 
toe, //. s. took, L 587, O 1104, L 
1521 : passed on, L 1129. tok, took, 
2S3, O 294, L 40ot, L 1243, 1499, 
O 154S : delivered, L 470, O 484 : 
passed on, 1129, O 1164: placed, 
1058. toke, took, L 289, L 467. 
toke,//'. s. subj. L 70, L 1142-}" : pt. 
pi. subj. 66. token, O 70. tak, 
imp. s. 227, 563, 735 : entrust, O 814 : 
give, 794, O 823, 1054. t^'^' take, 
L 233, L 739,0 762, L1125 : entrust, 
L 791 : give, L 800, O 1096. take, 
take, 536, L 536. take, //. taken, 
L 1428, O 1465. itake, 1410. A. S. 
betivcan, entrust, confused with Icel. 

Tale, s. n. story, 1525 : j. a. L 478t, 
L I274t: speech, L 3i9t: s. d. 
stor)', L i043t. 

Talede, pt. s. related, O 4S5. A. S. 

Teche, v. teach, L39ot, 1219, O 1263, 

L I379t. tn5te,//'. s. 244. tahte, 
L 250. taucte, pt. pi. O 255. tech, 
i///p. s. L 239, O 242, L 24C)f. 

Techiug, s. d. training, 1508. tech- 
yng, L 1530. 

Tellen, v. narrate, O 32, O 1302. telle, 
30, L 32, 568, O 1193,1259, L 1269: 
enumerate, L 613, 617. telle, i pr. 
s. narrate, say, L I32t: pr. s. subj. 
L 37ot. tolde, pt. s. 467, L 471, 
9S2, L 992. telde, O 4S7, O 1027. 
telle, ivip. s. 1156, L 1158. tel, 
L 317, O 322. 

Teon, V. betake himself, L 723 : go, 
L 888. ten, turn, O 742. A. S. 

Teone, ,r. a. suffering, sorrow, L 355. 
tene, 349, O 361, L 6S5t. 

Teres, //. a. tears, O 696, 890, O 929, 
1406. terres, L 678, L 1424. tires, 
676. tearen,//. d. L 970. teren, 
O 1005. teres, O 670. terres, L 
652. tires, 960. tieres, 654. 

pah, conj. though, even if, L 325, L 

1052, L 1262. pe5, 317, 1252. pei, 

O 330. pey, O 1083. pou, O 1293. 

pah, adv. yet, still, L 259. A. S. 

Peak, pih. 

panne, conj. (after comparatives) than, 
O 13, O 837. pane, 13, 316, SoS. 
pan, 116, O 120, 596, O 610. pen, 
L 13, L816. er pane, before, 1435. 
panne, adv. at that time, thereupon, 
thereafter, 68, L 72, O 145, O 845, 
1440. penne, L 141, O 461, L 
1295, O 1330. pan, O 359. panne, 
in that case, 439, O 459, 1347. 
penne, L 443, L 1356, L 1357. 

par, /;-. s. needs, O 400. dorte 
(^ = poj-te), pt. s. needed, 388. durp 
(? = purtCj., L 390, A. S. pearf, 

par, adv. in that place, O 80, 505, 
1027. pare, L47i,L 1365,1493. per, 
L 67t, L ]537t, L 1541 : \i7itro- 
duct cry) 502, L 8o9t, O 925. pere, 
in that place, L 304t, L 1172!, I353. 
L 1513, O 1542. pore, L 1092, L 
1532, O 1557. Per, C071J. where, 
L 36, O 36, 700, L i536t. peran, 
adv. thereon, L 573, 575. pare- 
fore, therefore, L 105, L 731. par- 
uore, loi. perfore, O 570, L 1340, 
O 1371. pe for, O 107. perinne, 
therein, 1072, 6 1113, L1143, O 
1399. perin, 1241. perynne, 
L 1078, O 117S, L 1368. peryn, 
L 1413. per . . . inne, L 602, 604, 
1358. pere . . .inne, O 1407. per 
. . . ynne. L 1475. per . . . hinne, 




O 620. fermong, there among, O 
1380. perof, at it, thereat, L I24t, 
1330 : of them, L 819, O 840 : of it, 
L 945t, 1 1 14) L 1 144, O 1 1 79. 
parte, to that, 672, O 692. parte, 
L 674, O 742 : in addition, L 1410, 
O 1443. per vppe, in addition, 450, 
L 454, 1 1 26. per oppe, O 470. 

Pat, adj. s. n. the, L 123, O 209, 272, 
L 406, L 683, 1296, O 1466. pat 
on, the one, L 27t, L 767t, L 828f. 
pat oper, the other, L 28t, L 768-f, 
L 829t. pe, the, 14, L 29^, L so-f, 
L I523> i525> O 1544. pene, s. a. 
L 153, L 788, L 1459. pen, L 158. 
pat, 61, L 862, O 1245, 1260. pe, 
L65, 123, O 131, O i373> i433> L 
1453. pe whiles, whilst, L 6, L 
1403. pe while, 1280, L 1288, 1354. 
pe wille, O 1323. pe wile, O 1253. 
pan, s. d. 624. pen, L 620. er pen 
(A. S. ier Jisem J>e), before, L 4fs2, 
L 544) L 922, L 1454. pare, 674. 
pe, L 4t, L 35t, L 1488, 1500, O 
1547. atte, at the, 1043, 1078, O 
1088, O 1261. ate, O 499, O 679, 
O 1 232, O I 280. pe, s. instniJiicntal, 
(aa'z'.) 554, L 1405. pe,//. «. L63i-, 
L i246t, O 1544: //. a. L 239, 607, 
O914, O 1460, L 1479 : //. d. O 102, 
L 262 1, 1509. pe, pron. pi. n. they, 
O 55) O 61, O 141, ? O 1421, or rel. 
pro7i. who. pei, O 129, 1441. po, 
O 38. pere, //. g. of them, O 1291. 
pat, adj. s. n. that, L 388, L 955 : 
s. a. O 155, 356, i29it, 1407,' O 
1462 : s.d.O 397, L 716, O 1273, 
^445) L 1527. po, //. n. O 91, O 
627. pat ilke, s. d. that same, 926, 
L 1238. pat hulke, O 1240. pat 
vlke, 1199. pe ilke, s. a. 855. 

pat, pron. dcm. s. n. that, that thing, 
92, L 103, O 105, O 504, L 1112, 
1390. pat, pron. rel. (invariable) 
who, L 2t, L i502t, 1529 : which, 
L 90, 160, O 247, 1 172, O 1453, L 
1480+ : what, L 470!, I. 602,604, 
L 1282+: whom, L 22f, 978, L 
1528, O 1553: him who, 988: those 
who, L 615, O 633, O 899. pat, 
conj. (introducing subject clause) L 
658, O 676, L ii7it, L i34it: 
(clause explanatory of subject) L 104, 
O 560 : (object clause) L 86t, L 
i55t, L 64ot, I28it, 1440: (clause 
explanatory of object) 267, L 273, L 
i26ot, L 1343, O 1374, O 1567: (re- 
placing verb before obj. clause) 1 30 : 
(elliptical) see that, L 740, O 763 : 
(time) when, O 33, Os52,938,L946 : 

until, L 368 : since, 1356: (modal) 
so far as, 1090: (result) so that, 54, 
L 58, L 84t, L ioS3t, L I478t : but 
that, L 1048. so . . . pat, L 76, 252, 
O 263, O 682, L 895, 1482. swiche 
. . . pat, O 586 ; suche . . . pat, 572 ; 
(purpose) in order that, L 438, L 
442t, L ii04t, L1491, O 1518 : (rea- 
son) because, L 525. al pat, until, 
L 497. also pat, as fast as, 1232. 
er pat, before, 1434. for pat, be- 
cause, O 183. 5yf pat, if, O 842. 
o pat, until, L 128. pe while pat, 
while, 1280, L 1288. tyl . . , pat, 
until, O 981. wel pat, O 6. 
pe, scribal error for he, she, O 77 • fc)r 
J>u, O 732 : {or J>er, O 1077 : for her, 


pe, pron. s. a. thee, L 49+, L I477t : 
s. d. L 206, O 208, L 2i2t, L 334, 
L 4S2, L 579, L 67ot, 798, L 870, 
O 889, L 1472 : s. d. (after prepo- 
sition) L 349, O 355, 392, L 459, 
1269, O 131 2. mitte, with thee, L 

penchest, 2 pr. s. thinkest, L 574. 
penke, 2 pr. s. suhj. 576. poute, 
I //. i-. thought of, O 1317. pohte, 
L 12S2. po^te, 1274. poucte, 
pt. s. thought, O 292. poute, O 
514, O 630, O 903, O 980. pohte, 
thought, L 287, L 498, L 610, L 
647, L 884. po5te, thought, 281, 
614, 874, 1484. hure po5te, had in 
her mind, felt, 277. poute, pt. s. 
inipers. it seemed, O 289, O 544, O 
675,01151,01275. pohte, L 284, 
L 526, L 657, L 1116, L 1240. 
peneh, imp. s. consider, L 1163. 
A. S. ppican, but with meaning, 
seemed, borrowed irom /j/nean. 

peof, s. V. scoundrel, 323, 707. pef, 
L 331, O 336. 

pes, adj. s. a. this, L 453, 688, 804, L 
992. peose, L 690. pise, L 812. 
pis, 449, O 469, L 66it, L 6oit, 
L i367t, L I473t- pis, s. n. O 
425, L 824t. pys, O 845. pisse, 
s. d. L 1338. pise, O 1369. pis, 
150, L 210, L 4Sot, 1328, L i330t. 
pis, s. g. 190. pis,//, n. L 94 : //. a. 
O 857, L i333t, O 1406. pes, L 
454, 828. pyse, O 912. peose, L 
836. pise, //. d. L 1226. pis, O 
102. J)is, //. g. O 953. pis, pron. 
s. n. this, L 11 40. 

picke. adv. solidly, completely, L 1247. 
pikke, 1239. ^- S.//(tt'. 

pider, rta'!v.lhither,699, L1442. pyder, 
O 1477. puder, 1424. 



pilke, adj. s. a. that same, L 1425 : 
s. d. L 676, L 1174, L 1205. 

Jjin, scribal error for in, L 380. 

pin, adj. s. n. thy, 1205. pyn, L 398, 
L 1214,0 1249. pi. L 20it, L575t, 
O 1313. 1360. py, L 205, O 952, 
L 1370, O 1401. f>ine, s. a. L 421+, 
666, O 1041. pyne, L 537, L 1062. 
fin, 434, O 454, L 466, 669, O 671. 
Jjyn, L 653, L 727, O 1497. pi, 43, 
O 47, L 3i9t, O 1096, 1450, L 1470. 
py, L 47, L 114, O 699, L 1004, O 
1035. pine, s. d, 215, O 225, L 
23,;t. L i040t, 1454. pin, L 710. 
pyn, L 450, O 1 25 1, pi, 408, L 440, 
O 716, 1136, O 1171, L 1279. py, 
L 699, O 1007, O 1199. pine,//.«. 
98, O 104, L 624t. pyne, L 102, 
O 844. py, L 106, L 393. pine, 
//. a. 481, L Soof. pyne, O S42. 
pin, L 485, 513, L 515. pi, O 501. 
pine,//, d. 391, O 403. pi, O 841, 
O911. pine, /i;v«. /Z. a. 636, O650. 
pyne, L 632. 

ping, s. M. creature, 443 : J. a. thing, 
O 94S, 1 1 26. 

po, adv. then, L 38, 50, L 52t, L 
Ii73t, L 1502, O 1529, po, <:onj. 
when, L 268, 632, O 742, L 1364, 
O 1540. 

pohte, s. d. mind, L 256. p05te, 250. 
poute, O 261. 

ponkede,//. s. thanked, L 510. 

porhreche, c. ? traverse, L 1291. Mad- 
den, Lajamon, iii. p. 450, explains 
it, get possession of. A. S. purh 
rxcan, ox ^eriKau.. 

pral, s. n. serf, L 423. pralle, O 441. 
pralle, s. d. 419. pral, 424, L 428, 

pralhede, s. n. state of dependence, 
L 443, O 459. pralhod, 439. 

pre, adj. L 62t, 832, O 852, L 1083. 
preo, S15. 

prettene, adj. n. thirteen, L 171. prot- 
tene, 163. 

pridde, adj. s. n. 822, L 830. prydde, 

priue, V. prosper, 620. O. '^.frlfa. 

Pro5e, s. a. space of time, 336. prowe, 
L 342, O 349. proae, s. d. loio, 
prowe, L 1020. A. %.prag. 

pro5e, V. to be disturbed, stormy, 969«. 

prowe, V. cast, L 981, O 1016, 1490, L 
1512. prewe,Oi539. preu, 1 />/. i^. 
threw, L 1164. prewe, 2 pt. s. L 
ii76t. preu, /^ s. 1076, 1160, L 
1162. prew, L 1082, O 1197. 

pxifpron. thou, 91, O 103, O 718, 1458. 
pou, L 50, O 50, 237, L 1478, O 

1505. po, O 3S6, O 552, O 888. 
tu, in combinations like catislu. haucs- 
tu, fiasttt, schaltti, seckcstti, wcpcstu, 
wiltu, worstii, zvursiu. 

pure5, prep. throut,'h (local) 875. 
pourh, L 886. poru, adv. through- 
out, O 1418. 

purh out, pfip. throughout, L 21 8. 
poruout, O 224. poruouth, O 226. 
poruuth, O 219. 

pus, adv. so, in this way, L 232, L 
27ot, L 1417, 1528. 

pusend, s. a. thousand, 319. pousent, 
L 327. pousond, O 332. 

pynke, v. seem, L 1153, O 1188. 
pinke, 1151. pynkep,/;-. s. inipers., 
it seems, O 1350. pinkep, O 1371. 
punchep, L 1321, L 1340. pinkp, 
1309. pu^te,//. s. i>iipc9-s. it seemed, 
278, 494) 524. 530, i"<5. A. S. 

Tide, s. d. hour, time, 849, L 857, 
1445. tyde, O 876, L 1465 : fitting 
time, O 1492. A. S. tid. 

Tide, V. betide, happen, 204, L 206, 
O 20S. tit, pr. s. L 1352. tyt, 
O 13S5. A, 8. iidan. 

Tidinge, s. a. news, O 136. tidynge, 
L 814, L 986, L 992. tydinge, 
O 1027. tydynge, L 132. tipinge, 
128. tiping, 982. typyng, 806. 
tydynge, s. d. L 1238. tydyngge, 
O 1273. tydyng, O 835, O 1555. 
tipinge, 1230. 

Til, conj. until, 124, O 132, 364, O 376, 
493, O 639, 1278. lyl, p?-ep. to, 
O 785: until, O 981. til, 938, L 
946 (in O 981, /// . . . Pat may be 
coHJ. = until). 

Time, s. «.time, 1364, L 1374 : proper 
time, 533. tyme, L 533, O 551: 
time, O 1403. time, //. a. times, 
1070, L 1076. bitime, in good 
time, 965, L 975. by tyime, 

O lOTO. 

Timing, s. a. event, success, O 166. 
tymyug, L 164. A. S. gctiinian, 
to happen. 

To, scribal error ioic do, O 501. So do 
for (0, L 466. 

To, adv. too, L 38, O 38, 50, L 722 1, 
L 1 102, O 1139. to, prep, (motion 
to) to, on, into, 40, O 44, L 63 f, 
O 64, L I546t: (motion towards) 
towards, at,'L 460, O 474, L 659t, 
1425, L 1432 1, L 1443, O 1478: 
(rest in) in, at, L 1003 t, L I207t, 
O 1293: till. O 426: (extent) as far 
as, 1240, L 1248: (result'^ to, 58, 
L 62, L loi t, 458. L 631, 1244, 



L 1277 1, L 1378, O 1419: (aim, 
purpose) for, with a view to, O 556, 
L 558. 560, L 562, L 696 t, L 
958, L 1419, O 1436: by way of, 
L 833+: in honour of, L 11 14, 
L ii47t, O 1149, 1154, L 1156: 
(definition) as, for, in capacity of, 
O 9, 307. L 313, 536, L 1005 t, 
L 1482; (object) L 2 t, L 167 t, 
1 3 10, O 1312: (forming adverb 
phrases) to ryMe, ? straightway, 
L 383. to sope, for a truth, truly, 
L 449. to wisse, for a certainty, 
121. to dai, 46, 635. to day, 
L 546, L 553 t, O 564, L 1227 t, 
1449, L 1469. to morwe, O 497, 
O 846. to morewe, L 825. to 
marewe, L480, L 481. to inore5e, 
476,477,817. toni5t, 1424. tony5t, 
O 1477. to nyht, L 1442. to (with 
ger. inf.) in order to, L 114, L i94t, 
Li344t, 1430, L 1515: (with ace. 
inf.) L 121 +, L I22t, O 1480, 1504, 
L 1524 : (with nom. inf.) O 506, 876 : 
(in ellipt. phrases) 830, 832, L 840, 
O 859, ? L 1422. 

To, J-. d. toe, L 606. 

To berste, imp, s, burst asunder, L 
119S, O 1233. A. S. toberstan. 

To brake, //. //. broke in pieces, 1077. 
A. S. tobrecan. 

To dra5e, v. tear asunder, 1492. to- 
drawe, O 1541. todro5e, //. //. 
181. todrowe, L 189, O 191, 
L 1388. 

Tofore, prep, before, 1436, A. S, 

Togadere, adv. together, 52, 1354. 
togedere, L 56, L 856, L 1364. 
togydere, O 56, O 875. ? togare, 

To5enes, prep, against, in opposition 
to, 56. to5eyiies, L 820, L 1328. 
A. S. togeanes, 

Toggen, V. pluck (the strings), L 237. 

Tohewe, v. cut in pieces, 1312, L 1324. 
A. S. tokeawan, 

Toronto, pt. s. tore asunder, O 750. 
A. S. tdrejtdaii. 

Toward, /;-£/, towards, 1466, O 1515. 
towart, L 1488. to . . ward, 11 18, 
O 1 153, Lii86t, O 141 3. 

Traytour, s. n. traitor, L 1280. O. F. 
traitre, trditur, 

Trende, pt. s. turned from side to side, 
O 452. trente, L 434, 

Treupe, s. a, plighting, troth, L 311, 
0316,672. trewfe, 305. treuwpe, 
O692. troujje, L 674. trenpe, s. d. 
L 676. trewpe, O 694. trupe, 674. 

Trewage, s. a. tribute, 1498. truage, 
L 1518, O 1545 (? obligation to pay 
tribute). O. F. ireiiage. 

Trewe, adj. s. n. true, loyal, L 381 f, 
537. L 1094, O 1131 : s. v. 561, 
L 749t, L ii75t, O 1472: s. a. 
O 770, O 1037 : s.d.l. 1543 : //. d. 
L 1250. trewe, adv. faithfully, 
1522, O 1567. 

Treweste, adj. s. n. most loyal, 998 
(possibly //. d.) : pi. d. L 1008, O 

Treyde, pt. s. ? vexed itself, was 
grieved, O 1313 (the word in A. S. 
tregian and M. E. is regularly trans- 
itive ; probably ^e has here dropped 
out after herte). 

Tueie, adj. pi. a. two, 1345. tueye, 
L 26, O 26, L 766, L 1355. tweie, 
24, 760, 887. tweye, L 21, O 926, 
O 1386. tweyne, L 891. two, 
//. 71. 49. tuo, L 53. tueye,//. d. 
L 307, L 352. tweie, 301, 346. 
tweye, O 312, O 358, O 1509. 
two, 430. Tuo, pron. pi. n. L 37. 
tvo, O 37. 

Tune, s.d.iovm, 153, 1285, O 1328. 
toune, L 218, O 219, O 1071, 
L 1293. towne, O 163. tounes, 
pi. d. L 162. 

Tunge, J. n. tongue, 1259. tonge, 
L 1269, O 1302. tunge, s. d. 1248. 

Tur, s. a. tower, 1453. tour, L 1473. 
ture, s. d. 1091, 1224, 1437. toure, 
O 704, O 1085, O 1132, O 1266. 
tour, L 1095. O. F. tiir. 

Turne, v. take another direction, 703, 
L 703, 1073, O 1 1 14. torne, O 
722. turne, imp. s. L 973 f. 
turne, pr. pi. stibj. give a favour- 
able turn to, 666. terne, O 686. 
yterned, //. changed, O 460. 
terne, v, ? flow round, O 1480 n. 
O. F. torner. 

Twelf, adj. pi. a. twelve, 19, 489. 
tuelue, L 493. tuelf, //. n. 1338, 
L 1348 : //. d. L 501. twelf, 497, 

Twie, adv. twice, 1452. twye, O 
1499. A. S. twiiva, 

Vacche, vecche, see Fecche. 

Uan, see "Whanne. 

Vch, see Eche. 

Verade, s. a. band, company, 166. 

A. S. geferrxden. 
Vjten, s. a. time just before daybreak, 

1376. ohtoun, L 1386. oujten, 

O 1415. A. S. tihta. 
Vistes, see Witeu. 



Vlke, see like. 

Vnbicomelich, aJj. s. ace. uncomely, 
foul, 1065. 

Vnbind, imp.s. release, 540. vnbynd, 
L 538. 

Vnbowe, v. relax, L 431. 

Vncupe, adj. s. d. unknown, strange, 
729. vncoujje, L 733. onekup, 
O 756. 

Vnder, prep, beneath, 317, L 325, 
O i^Si, 1227, L 1235. honder, 
O 3"^28, O 330, O 1258, O 1270. 
vnder, behind, 53, L 57, 1301, 
L 1 31 1, honder, O 901, O 1342. 
vnder, within, 73, L 79, L 705 : 
close up to, beside, 970, L 982, 
1024, 1437, L 1525. honder, O 
1017, O 1063, O 1336, O 1483: 
? beside or within, O 1076. honder, 
O 1 195, ? beside, vnder, L 1160. 
Vnder, adv. in idon vnder, sub- 
jected, 1421 : in gon vnder, be- 
guiled, L 1439: gon onder, O 1474. 
honder, in subjection, O 919. 

Vnderfonge, v. receive, undergo, 
L 335, L 571 : undertake, 906. 
honderfonge, O 947 : imp. s. take 
in charge, O 250. vnderuonge, 
239. A. S. under/on. 

Vnderstond, imp. s. receive, L 245. 
vnderstonde, understand, L 1274. 
honderstonde, O 1307. 

Vnderstondyng, s. a. knowledge, per- 
ception, L 1255. 

Vndo, V. open, unbar, 1069, L 1075. 
ondo, O 1 1 10. vndude, pt. s. 973. 
vndone,//. 1238, L 1246. ondone, 
O 1279. 

Vnlondisshe, adj. pi. d. foreign, 
L 629. 

Vnorn, adj. s. n. ugly, plain, 330, 
1526. vnorne,L338. A.S.unonie. 

Vnpynne, v. unbar, O 1018. 

■Vnspurne, v. kick open, 1074. 

Vntrewe, Oiij. s. n. disloyal, L 645. 

Vp, adv. in erect posture, L 399 f, 
1313, L 1325. op, O 1354. vp, 
from the ground, L 433 : from the 
sea to land (with on), L 762 ; (with 
to) L 1032, 1300, L 1310, 1414. 
op (with lion;, O 1341 ; (with to), 
O 1061. vp (with to"!, forward, 
from back of room, 1485, L 1507. 
op (with to), O 1534 : (with in), 
aloft, O 1 1 32. op, ? for ope, open, 
O II 1 5. Op, prep, upon, O 1344. 
A. S. iip. 

Vpon, prep, (place) on, at, 565, 810, 
1115: in, 281, 1031, 1097. opon, 
on, L 121 1. vpon (aim) with a 

view to, L 34 : (time) on, 29, L 31 : 
(object of verbal action) upon, on, 
44, 295, L 301, 576. opon, O 306. 
vpon honde, to be dealt with, L 
Si 7. Vpon, adv. from above, 11, 
O II, 12, A. S. iippaji, uppoii. 

Vppe, adv. in phrases, per vppe, in 
addition, completion, 450, L 454, 
1126; per oppe, O 470. al vppe, 
effectively, L 11 26. al oppe, C) ii6i. 
Oppe, prep, to the extent of, O 456. 
A. S. uppe. 

Vprisinge, s. d. rising from bed, 844. 
vprysynge, L 852. oprysyng, O 
871 : rising (of sun), O S47. 

Vpriste, s, d. rising (of sun), 1436. 

Vpspringe,^. d. rising (of sun), L 826, 
A. S. upspriiig. 

Vre, adj.s. n. our, 132, L 197, 393, 
516, 815, L 823. vr, L 136. oure, 
L 395. houre, O 140, O 405. 
vre, s. n. predic. ours, L 824+ . vre, 
s. a. our, L S21, 1368. oure, L 1380, 
O 1409. vre, s. d. 549, 1310. oure, 
L 378. houre, O 471. oure,//. rt. 
L 200, O 202. ore, 192. 'Vve,p7-on. 
s. a. our man, 813. houre, O S44 : 
s. n. O 842. 

Vrne, see Eende. 

Vs, pron. d. to, for us, 6S2, L 685, 
L 833, L 1 1 19, 1530. hus, O 1 154. 
vs, d. after prep. L 200, O 202, 512, 
L 514, O 532. ous, L 244. vs, 
a. L I04t, L iiof, 6S0, O 1477, 
L 1546. hus, O 360, O 875. OS, 
O 535. OUS, L 192. vs, a. reflex. 
ourselves, 1527. 

Vt, adv. (motion), from the room, 707. 
out, O 345, L 707, O 728 : to the 
field, L S58, O 887. vt, 850. vt, 
forming prep, phrase with of, out of, 
from, 71, 202, 1337, 1373- out of. 
L 77, O 212, L 1383, O 1412. 
hout of, O 77, O 734. A. S. at. 

Vte, adv. outside, 245. oute, absent, 
away from the country, L 1403, O 
1434. A. S. ftte. 

Vtrage, scribe's error for Image, O 1 545. 

Wakede, //. s. awoke, 444. A. S. 

zvacian. wok, 1417. A. '6. wocan. 
"Walawai, interj. alas ! 956. wail- 
away, 957. weylaway, L 1500. 

weylawey, L 967, O looi, O 1003. 

walaway, s. a. lamentation, 147S. 

weylawey, O 1527. 
"Walke, V. go about, 1088. walked, 

//. journeyed, L 961, O 996. walke, 

Walle, s. d. wall, L I054t, L 1396 f. 



"Warn, see "Who. 

Ward, see Toward. 

Ware, see Ben. 

Warne, v. put on guard, warn, O 708 : 
I pr. s. 6S9. werne, L 691. A. S. 

"Water, s. n. water (of the sea), 142, 
L 146, O 150, L 1098, O 1135. 
watere, j. d. O 646, L I029t. 
water, O 612, O 1378, L 1412, O 
1445. wateres, s. g. O 1481. 

W^axe, V. grow in stature, 95. wexe, 
O loi. waxe, prosper, L 445. 
wexe, 441 : dawn, O 1452. waxe 
wild, fall passionately in love, L 302. 
wexe wild, 252, 296, 948. waxe}), 
pr. s. O 991. wex,/^. s. O 263. 

We, pron. 71. L 47 f, L 1438 f, 1527- 

W^edbrojjer, s. n. sworn brother, O 
295 : see 284 w. 

Wedde, v. display passion, O 311 : 
pt. s. 300. A. S. lucdan, to rage. 

Wedden, v. marry, I430, 1 5 16, O 
1561. wedde, L 957 1, L 1422, 
L 1538. wedded, //. O 1496. 
ywedde, 1449. yweddep, L 1470. 

Wedding, s. 71. 423, O 445. weddyng, 
L 427. wedding, s. a. O 1295. 
weddinge, s. d. 1018. weddynge, 
L 934. wedding, 926, 1033. wed- 
dinges, //. d. wedding, O 969. 

Wede, s. a. clothing, L 1060 1- A. S. 

Wedlak, s. a. wedding, 1254, L 1264. 

Weie, s. d. way, road, 759, 1007, 1236. 
weye, L 765, O 788, L 1017, O 
1049, L 1244. '^ay, 1304. weye, 
s. a. O 1489. alle veie, s. a. in 
every direction, O 257. 

Wei, adv. (with adj. and adv.), very, 
42, L 123, O 170, 1512, L 1526, O 
1551. vel, 445, O 723. wel rijte, 
straightway, 381 (see rijte). wel 
ywis, very certainly, O 129. wel 
(degree), much, thoroughly, clearly, 
O 74, 92> 377, O 391, L 4S9, L 
734+, L 816, 909, L 1544: quite, 
739. wel, dexterously, successfully, 
O 241 : prosperously, L724, L 779+, 
798, L 971 1, 1448, O 1495, L 
1534: fitly, becomingly, 484, L 488, 
O 492, 782, L 1316, 1520, O 1565 : 
kindly, 144, O 152, L 151 f : plea- 
surably, to satisfaction, L 212 "f*, L 

214 1, L 391 t, L 623t: L 362 f 

(constr. as tioiai), 
Wel, see While. 
Welcome, adj. s. «. O 549, L 796 f , 

L 1468 : (as sentence- word) L 405, 


Welcome}), pr. s. welcomes, L 531. 

Welde, V. wield (weapon), L 4S5 + : 
govern, 901 : possess, L 313, O 318, 
L 426, O 444, O 943. wolde, 30S. 
A. S. tuealda7i. 

Wende, v. go, L 376, O 386, O 1254: 
depart, 911, O 952: ? pass away, 
679 71., L 681 : turn {hiira/is.), O 
1153: go about, biisy oneself, 1401, 
O 1450 : ? error for she7ide, O 1451. 
wente, go, O 626. wende, i pr. s. 
1211, L 1219: 2 pr. s. subj.O 718. 
wente, pt. s. went, L 77, 472, O 
665, 920, O 1562. vente, O 77. 
wende, 367, O 373, L 528, O 1064 = 
? turned {t7-aiis.), O 451. wenten, 
for wente, went, 71. wenten, pt. 
pi. L 1348, O 1429. wente, 1338, 
O 1379. wenden, L 1265, O 1514. 
wend, t7j!p. s. go, O 338, 709, L 
711, 713. went, 325, L 333. 
wende, 372 : turn {i7it>-a7is.), 11 18, 
L 1118. wente, pp. gone, 913, 
O 954. wend, converted, changed, 
L 444. iwent, 440. A. S. n'pida7i. 

Wendling, s. v. ? vagabond, adven- 
turer, O 729. (Apparently occurs 
here only : comp. wa7idelard, Lang- 
toft, p. 115.) 

Wene, i /;-. j. think, judge, expect, 
O 578, L 665 +, L 834 1, L 1127 t- 
wenest, 2 pr. s. 11 33, L 11 33. 
wenst, O 1 1 68. wenep, pr. s. 
1439. wendest, 2 pt. s. 1273, L 1281. 
wendes, O 13 16. wende, pt. s, 
L 303+, L ii24t, wenden, pt. 
pi. L 125 f. A. S. weiia7t. 

Wepe, V. weep, O 162. weopen, 
L 160. wepe, I /;-. s. L 655 1, 
1 104. wepest, 2 pr. s. L 654. 
wepes, O 672. wepestu, weepest 
thou, 656. wepep, pr. s. L 73, L 
1058 f. wep, //. s. O 73, L 677, 
L 1048, O 1079, 1406. weop, 69, 
675, 755, 1036. wepte, L 1424. 
wepends, pres. part. O 668. 
wepinde, L 1091. wepynde, L 
650. wepinge, 1085. 

Werie, v. defend, 785, L 791. werye, 
O 814. A. S. iv^rian. 

Werie, v. wear, L 1399, O 1430. 
were, iftip. s. L 567, 569. 

Werke, s. d. fortification, L 1452 +. 
A. S. lueorc. 

Werne, v. forbid, O 374 : hinder, 
prevent, O 725, L 890, O 909: 
refuse, L 924 f, 1404, L 1420, O 
1437. wurne, prevent, 1086. A. S. 

Weste, s. d. West, 5, L 5, L 1135, 



O 1170, L iiSit, L 1335, O 1366. 
westen, C) 5. A. S. be westan, on 
'i'cslan, lying to the west. Westene, 
ai/J. s. d. Western, 16S, 754. A. S. 
western, westanc, adv. from, in llie 

Wete, adj. fl. d. wet, L 970. 

Whanne, conj. when, 915, 1399, I49i- 
whane, 359, 81S. wanne, O 151, 
913. O 954. whan, 793. when, 
L 366, L 799, I. 141 f. wan, O 372, 
O 822, O 956, O 1448. van, O 95. 

Whannes, inter, cuiv. whence, 161. 
whenne, L 169. wenne, O 171. 

Whar, adv. (in dep. clauses), where, in 
what place, 11 73. war, O 1212. 
whare, O 14S5. wher, L 1458. wer, 
h 1 177. whar, on occasion when, 
691. wher, L 693. qware, O 710. 
wher. wherever, 416. whare, O 
43S. werefore, why, L 343. 
warfor, that for which, O 1313. 
wher so er, wherever, L 944. 

What, pron. interrog. n. 825. wat, 
L S33, O 854: a. 942, O 985. 
whet, L 950. what, pron. con- 
junct, n. 197, 765, L 771, 1470: 
a. 39, L 2S3, 1163, L 1164, 1307. 
qwat, O 615, O 795: n. O 1199. 
wat, O 207, O 794, O 1519: a. O 
43. 169, 277. wet. L 597. whet, 
n. L 205: a. L 43, L 177, L 1319. 
Bumwet, s. n. something, L 684. 

"Whi, adv. interrog. indirect, why, 
337) ii52» "74> L 1320. wi, O 
1 213. wy, O 1 189. why, L 1154. 
wi, direct interrog. 656, O 1071. 
wy, O 672. why, L 654, L 1042. 
why ant, well ! if, L 560. 

While, s. a. space of time (short 
generally) in phrases : a while, 
formerly. 131 7. a whyle, for a 
little time, L 870. a wile. O 889. 
one while, 862. one whyle. L 
593. one wile, O609. J>is while, 
on this occasion, L 1471. pe wile, 
as long as, O 1253. pe while, 
whilst, 1354. pe wille, O 1323. 
pe while pat, 12S0, L 128S. wile 
pat, O 1434. welpat,06. whiles, 
s. g. in pe whiles, while, L 6, L 
1403. while, .f. rf. 595 : evil chance, 
957, L 967. wile, O 1003. wile, 
s. n. trouble, 643. 

WTiit, adj. s. n. white, L 15 t : s. a. 
O 669. whyt, L 651. white, s. d. 
1132, L 1132. wite, O 1167. 
whit, 501. 

White, imp.s. guard, L 1471. A. S. 

Who, pron. interrog. pi. n. (in in- 
direct question), L 1492. warn, 
pron. rel. s. d. O 1235, O 13(12. 
who, pron. iiuicf. s. n. whoever, L 
422. whose, J. 646. wham so, 
J-. a. 352, L 358. warn so euere, 
O 364. 

Whyjt, s. n. ? breeze, O 784. A. S. 

Wide, adv. far, 953. O 996. L 9S3 : 
amply, 1512. wyde, lar, L 961. 
Wyde, adj. s. d. large, extensive, 
L 643. 

Wif, s. a. wife, 553, O 569, L 1470. 
wyf, O 440, L 551. wiue, O 
576, O 773 : s.d. b 430, O 1436. 
wyue, I. 414, 560, L932i", L 1419. 
wif, 408, 536, O 556. wyf, L 

Wi^te, s. d. person, 671. wyijte, 
O 691. wihcte, O 397. wyhte, 
L 673. wijte, //. n. persons, 886. 
wi5t, s. a. particle, whit : in phrase, 
a litel wi^t, lightly, gently, 503. 
a lute wiht, L 507. a litel with, 

o 523- 

Wiket, s. c. wicket, gate, 1074. wyket, 
L 1079, O 1115. O. F. luisket. 

Wil, s. ft. pleasure, wish, O 538. 
A. S. 7vil. 

Wilde, adj. s. n. passionate (in phrase, 
waxe wilde), L 302. wild, 2.^2, 
O 263, 296, 948, O 991. wilde 
? O 307 (see 295 «.). wylde, adj. 
s. d. cruel, L 1045. 

Wille, s. n. purpose, desire, inclina- 
tion, L 20I t, L 398 1, L 520, 
943: s. a. L 294 1, L loiof: s. d. 
L 1328 f, 1464. A. S. willa. 

Wille, I pr. s. mean to, purpose, O 3, 
O 860. wile, O 950. wole, O 708, 
O 733, O 987. wolle, O 1263. 
wTille, 542, 556. wolle, wish to, 
O 13S7. wille, am willing, O 840, 
wolle. shall (auxiliary), O 363, L 
919, O 937. ichulle, I mean to, 
L 540, L 542, L 1228, L 1291. 
ychulle, L 3, L 1227. nullich, I 
will not, L 1131. nully, L 1146. 
ynulle, L 32S. nelle, 1131. nele, 
O 149S. nel, O 1 166. wiltu, 2 
pr. s. art thou willing, O 493. 
wile, pr. s, purposes, O 323, O 
709, 949 : is willing to, 811. wol, 
L 819 : will (auxiliary), L 685. 
wile, O 303. wole, L 298, O 505 : 
purposes, L 6S2, L 692, L 730, O 
753. wille, 690. wile, 1 pr. pi. 
O 619. wilen, O 47. wollep, L 
47, L 49, L 601 : have to, L 1060. 



■wulle5, purpose to, 603. wulle, 
shall (auxiliary), 84S. willen, have 
to, O 1095. wolle, 2 wish, 
L 1,^67, O 1398. wulle, 1357. 
wolle, 2 pr. s. subj. L 1323. wule, 
131 1, wilen, pr. pi. subj. are will- 
ing, O 2. wolde, \ pt. s. (with/rt'j. 
meaning), should like to, O 499, 
L 666t: wished to, 1321. nolde, 
was unwilling, L 1056 + : (hypo- 
thetical) would be unwilling, 320. 
woldest, ipt.s. (hypothetical) would 
be ready, L 351 : wast willing, L 
640, 644 : (with pres. meaning) 
desirest, 396. wolde, pt. s. desired, 
318, O 331, O 374, L Ii67t, L 
1432, O 1469 : wished to go, 1414 : 
was about to, L 1098 f, L 1187+: 
was determined to, O 883, L 932 f : 
(hypothetical) would, were about to, 
292. nolde, was not disposed to, 
527, L 529, L 1049 1, O 1051, 
L 1300: would not have, 1292 : was 
determined not, L 864, L 1049 f. 
wolden, 2 pt. pi. (hypothetical) 
would be inclined to, 345. wolden, 
//. //. wanted to, L 889, O 908. 
wolde, were determined, 85, L 91, 
1^92,091,092. nolde, were unable 
to, L 264, O 271 : refused, 1044. 
w^olde, 2 pt. s. subj. wert willing, O 
658 : (with pres. meaning) desirest, 
O" 408 : pt. s. subj. L 77 if. 

"Wimman, s. n. woman, O 76 : i'. a. 
418. wymmon, s. d. L 552. wim- 
menne,//. d. O 71. wymmanne, 
67, L 71. 

Win, s. a. wine, O 382, O 384. 
wyn, 370, L 374, O 414, 1106, L 
1 110, 1 131, O 1 190. wyne, s. d. 
L1155. wyn, 402, 1153. 

Wind, s. n. 1294, 151 2. wynd, L 
761, L 1019, O 1051, O 1335, L 
1534. wynde, O 1374. wynd, s. d. 
L 1446. 

Winne, v. conquer, O 619, 1357, O 
1406. Wynne, L 601, 603, L 1367 : 
succeed, O II 12. winne, gain, 991, 
O 1032, 1 1 79 (insert shall), wynne, 
L looi, 1 144. winne, 1 pr. s. con- 
quer, 1278. Wynne, 1286, O 1321. 
wan, pt. s. reached, O 200. 

Winter, //. a. years, O 18. wyntor, 
L 18. 

Wipe, V. O 622. wype, L 604, 606. 
wiped, //. s. O 1245. wipede, 
1203. wypede, L 1210. 

Wis, adv. certainly, O 537 (see 
1209 «.). 

Wise, s. d. fashion, manner, 360, O 

371, 929, O 972. wyse, L 365, 

L 937. 
Wise, adj. s. v. 989, O 1030. wyse, 

L 999. wisest, adj. s. ti. O 184. 

wyseste, s. n. 70k. L 181. 

Wisse, V. direct, guide, O 782 : in- 
struct, L 436 : pr. s. stdj. guide, 
L 419 +, L 1477 t- wise, imp. s. 
237. A. S. wissian, wisian. 

Witen, V. learn, know, 288, O 299. 
wite, O 461, O 1329. wyte, L 
294. wystest, 2 pt. s. L 240. 
vistes, O 247. wiste, pt. s. 78, 
O 287, L 1372, L i4Sot: //. //. 
O 84. nuste, pt. s. neg. knew not, 
276, L 282, L 1457. nust, pt. pi. 
ncg. L 84. wiste, 2 pt. s. sicbj. 
236. weste, pp. L 14S4. A. S. 


WiJ>, prep, along with, in company 
with, 20, L 22, 1501, L 1521. 
with, O 37, O 1228, 1255. wyj*, 
L 25. wy5t, O 1509. wit, O 230, 
O 294, O 297. wyt, O 663, O 
1405. wif>, beside, near, L 244, 
363, 774, L 780. with, O 388. 
whyt, O 803. wijj, for, on the side 
of, L 1408. wip, in the number of, 
among, 1119, L 1119, 1326. wit, 
O 494. wyt, O 1038. wijj (ob- 
ject of verbal action), 155, L 194. 
with, O 165, O 342, O 407. wyj7, 
L 552. whit, O 813. wit, O 196, 
O 265, O 298. wyt, O 567. wip, 
against, L 729, L S38 f. wiht, O 
752. wip (modal, of accompanying 
circumstance, feeling, &c.), 326, L 

458, L 504, L 901, 922, 1082, L 
1365, i486, with, O 880, O 1005. 
wit, O 241, O 1277, O 1396. wyt, 
O 339, O 1126, O 1553. wij) 
mihte, earnestly, L 1353. wij» 
ryhte, as is right, L 312, L 1354. 
wip wronge, wrongfully, L 572, 
905. wit wronge, O 946. wip, 
filled with, containing, 38, L 596, 
598j 633, 1184, L 1 190. wip 
(instrumental), by means of, 108, L 
112, 1456, L i486, L 1528. with, 
O 1 14, O 739, O 1004. whit, O 999. 
wit, O 243, O 1471. wyt, O 366, 
O 151 2. wip (equivalence), against, 

459, L 463, O 477. wyt, O 477. 
Wip, adv. with which, 514. wit, 
? error for wit inne, prtp. O 726. 

Wip alle, adv. therewith, thereupon, 
L 371. wip al, besides, L 424. 

Wipdra5e, v. (trans.) withhold, 859. 
wipdrawe, v. {reflex.) retreat, L 
867. wytdrawe, O 886. wip- 



drawe {iiitraJis.), ebb, I- 1461. 
wipdro^e, ft. s. sti/'j. 1399. wij)- 
drowe, L 1415. witdrowe, () 1448. 

"Wiperling, j-. a. enemy, opponent, 
() i-;6. wytherlyng, L 154. 
wipering, ? scribal error for wiper- 
ling. 14S. A. S. wi/>crli>tg. 

Wip inne, prep, (place), within, L 
251, L 1054, L 113S. wit hinne, 
O 256. wit inne, O 1427. whit 
inne, O 1087. bipinne, 1042 : 
(time) inside, 1295. wypinne, L 

Wipsegge, i /;-, s. deny, 1276. 
wipsugge, L 1284. wytsigge, O 


Wiputen, prep, without, in absence of, 
devoid of, 347 «. wipute, 18S, 407, 
834. wip outen, I. 353. with- 
outen, O S61. wipoute, L 196, 
L 842. wyp cute, L 413. wit 
uten, O 19S, O 429. wit outen, 
O 359. bipute, 1342. wipoute, 
outside of, L 251. wit oute, O 256. 
wipoute, except, L 1250. bipute, 

Witte, s. d. intellect, wit, O 184. 
wytte,L 182. wit, 174. of witte, 
out of one's senses, distraught, 652, 
1084, O 1125. 

Wo, s. n. sorrow, grief, L 54, O 54, L 
Ii9t : s. cY, 269 1, 1514 n., L 1536. 
"Wo, adj. s. n. sorrovvful, L 281 -f-, 
429, L893, L 1423. 

Wode, adj. pi. a. furious, O 921 (see 
34S ;/.). A. S. zvod. 

Woje, s. d. wall, 970. wowe, L 982, 
O 1017, O 1076. A. S. wag. 

"Woje, V. woo, 546, 793, 1403. 
wowen, L 799. wowe, i pr. s. 
subj. L 544, O 562. awowen, on 
to woo, on wooing bent, O 822. 
A. S. wogian. 

Won, s. d. abundance, costly display, 
L 906. O. N. vdn. 

Wonde, i pr. s. scruple, hesitate, 
337. L 343: 2 pr. s. subj. L 740, 
O 763: imp.s. 736. A. S. wandian. 

Word, s. n. report, news, 1017: s. a, 
word, L 260. worde, s. d. word, 
L 461 : speech, O 1067. wordes, 
//. a. L i68t, L 379 1, L 600 f, 
828, L 836 : //. d. L 96t, L 1038, 
L 1326+, O 1476 (scribe's error for 
wondes). worde, //. a. 254, O 265, 
O 857. at pe furste worde, forth- 
with, 114 n., L iiS. at pe flrste 
word, O 122. 

Worpi, oiij. pi. n. worthy, estimable, 
L 1222. 

Wreche, s. a. vengeance, L 1292 \, 
A. S. luracii, g. ivrivce. 

Wreyede, pt. s. accused, informed on, 
L 1258. A. S. wregaii. 

Wriuge, v. twist, 980, O 1025. 
wrynge, L 990: distort, L 1070. 
wringe, O 1105. wrong, pt. s. 
distorted, 1062 ;/. wriugende, 
pres.p. twisting, O 118. wringinde, 
112. wryngynde, L 116. 

"Writ, s. a. letter, 930, O 973. wryt, 
L 938. writes,//, a. looi. 

Write, z'. 931, O 974. wryte, L 939. 

Wronge, s. d. wrong: in phrase, wip 
wronge, wrongfully, L 572, 905 n. 
wit wronge, O 946. O. N. ratigr. 

Wrope, adj. pi. a. angry, L 354 fi 
1224 f. But see 348 «. 

Wude, s. d. wood, 361, 1158: wood- 
craft, hunting, 230. wode, L 236, 
O 240. wode, wood, L 643, O 
661. wodes, s. g. L 1220, O 1255. 
wudes, 121 2. wude bo5e, leafy 
shade, 1227. wode bowe, L 1235, 
O 1270. wode le5e, forest glade, 
L 1 1 60. wode leye, O 1195 (see 
1227 «.). wude side, edge of the 
wood, 1024. wode syde, L 1034, 
O 1063. 

Wunde, s. a. wound, 640. wounde, 
s. n. L 1352, O 1385. wund, s. d. 
1342, wundes, //. d. 1423. 
wondes, L 1441. A. S. 'viind. 

Wunder, s. n. marvel, wonder, 278, 
115I} I330' wonder, L 284, O 
289, L 1153, O 11S8, L 1340, O 
1371 : desperate effort, O 918. 
wunder, s. a. terrible deed, ven- 
geance, 1247. wonder, O 12S6. 
wunder, distress, 1422 n. wonder, 
L 1440, O 1475. 

Wune, V. dwell, 731. wonie, L 735, 
L 1368. wony, O 758. wonye, 
O 1399. wuniep, pr. s. 1325. 
wonep, L 1335, O 13^)6. wonede, 
//. s. L 80, O 80, L 925 f. woned, 
pp. dwelt, O 1559 : accustomed, wont, 
L 36+. A. S. wunian, dwell : 
ge~viinian, be in the habit of. 

Wurche, v. build, 1379, L 1391. 
werchen, O 1422. werke, perform 
a rite, O 933. wro^te, i //. s. did, 
effected, 1273. wrohte, L 1281. 
wroute, O 1316. wrojte, pt. s. 
kept (of a fest'ival), 1387. wrohte, 
L 1401. wroute, O 1432 : aimed 
at, contrived, O 288. 

Wurs, adj. s. n. worse, 116. wors, 
L 120. werse, O 120. A. S. adj. 
u'ieisa : adv. wiers. Wiirst, adj. s. 



n. worst, 68. werst, L 72. verst, O 
72. wurste, ^. n. %uk. 648. werste, 
L 30 f, O 664. A, S. 'vyrsta. 

Wurp, pr, s. will be, 460, 684. 
worfi, L 464, O 4.7S, L 686, O 703. 
■WTirp, becomes, is, 958. worp, O 
1002 : arises, takes place, L 1057, 
O 1092 : exists for, L 1199, O 1234. 
worpe, /;-. pi. will take place, O 
497. •wrorpest, 2 pr. s. wilt be, L 
332. wurstu, thou wilt be, 324, 
708. worstu, O 337. WT'pe, pr. s. 
subj. may be, L 86. worpe to, v. 
be turned into, O 467. A. S. 

"Wyjte, adj. pi. d. valiant, O 1045, 
O 1257. 

Wyue, V. marry, L Soi f . 

Tede, see Eode. 

Yfelde, //. //. felt, 54, L 58, A. S. 

Yfere, adv. together, L 1363, O 1390. 

A. S. on gefere. 
Yleue, V. trust, L559. A. S. geliefatt. 
Ylome, adv. 1 steadily, continuously, 

L 197. A. ?>.gelome, often. 

Ylype,/r. //. siihj. listen, L 2. 

Ymay, pr. s. may, L 103. 

Ymete, adj. pi. d. suitable, befitting, 
O 1347. A. S.gemwte. 

Ymis, O 130: scribal error influenced 
hy yi/iist, pp. oi gei?iissen. Read in 
1. 129, _j'Ti'mt? : in 1. 130, Jiaiie misse. 
misse, s. a. loss. O. N. missa. A. S. 

Ymone, s. d. companionship, 834, L 
842 : s. 11. companion, L 530. 
mone, 528 : s. d. company, O 861 : 
s. a. share, 1 1 14. A. S.gewdna, com- 

Yorne, see Eende. 

Yre, s. d. wrath, O 1553. O. F. ire. 

Yrecche,/r. s. stihj. may trouble, affect, 

L 358. A. S. r^ccan, care for. 

A. S. 

Yshape, //. attired, L 1316. 

sci^ppan . 
Ysoude, scribal error for pe sonde, 

O 282. 
Ytake, v. lay hold on, seize, L I3i7- 
Ype, see Epe. 
Ywynne, v. succeed, L 1077. A. S. 



Page 195, col. 2, dele ariue, 923. P. 203, c. i, under Dute, add O. F. dtiier; 
c. 2, 1. 5, read ennemi; 1. 9, add after 5ede, 294 and dele 294 in 1. 14 ; 1. 20, read 
^r. P. 205, c. I, 1. 33, add fyte, O 512. P. 207, c. i, 1. 14, read gean. P. 20S, 
c. 2, 1. 37, add hedde, L 1169. P. 209, c. i, 1. 7, add O. F. haste. P. 212, c. i, 
1. 25, dele L 519 f . P. 213, c. 2, 1. 4, read lu^fan ; 1. 59, add 2 /;-. s. P. 2 14, c. 2, 
1. 52, add after gloomy, 270, after loiire, L 276, O 281. P. 215, c. 2, 1. 4, read 
L 1427 f. P. 219, c. 2, 1. 17, add O 270; 1. 39, dele O. P. 221, dele the second 
ryue. P. 222, c. 2, 1. 43, add seke, O 988; 1. 45, add stibj. 


Ailmar, 494. Aylmar, 219, 703. 
Aylmare, 1243, L 1251, 1494. 
Almair, 155. Aylmer, O 165, L 
325, L 703, O 1455. Aylmere, 
L 498, O 526, L 1*5 1 4> ^ 1543- 
Eylmer, L 163. 

AJlof, see Murry. 

Alrid, see Apyld. 

Arnoldin, 1443, 149S. Arnoldyn, 
L 1463, O 1490, L 1513, O 1542. 

Apelbrus, 225, L 231, 1507, L 1529. 
Athelbrus, L 247, L475. Ailbrus, 
241. Aylbrus, 367, 451. Aylbrous, 
O 252, O 1548. Aybrous, O 235, 
O 1554. 

Apulf. 27, L 290, 1515, L 1537. 
Athulf, L 27, 2 84, L 575. Hapulf, 
25. Ayol, O 27, O 1560. Apulfes, 
,^. 1444, L 1464. Ayolles, O 1491. 

Apyld, L 767, L 830. Ayld, O 790, 
O 850. Alrid, S22. Harild, 761. 

Berild, 762, 821. Beryld, L 768, 
L 829. Byrild, O 791, O 812. 
Byryld, O800, O851. 

Crist, 44, L 48, L S6t, L i477 1, 
1524, L 1546. Criste, d. 77, O 83, 
L 1322,01351. Cristes,^. L i54t, 
L 1314, O 1345. 

Cutberd, 767, 917. Cuberd, O 796. 
Cubert, O 808, O 936. Cutberdes, 
g. 797. Godmod, L 773, L 925. 
Godraodes, g. L 803. 

Ermenild. see Hermenyl. 
Estnesse, L 954. O 9S9, O 1250. 
Eylmer, see Ailmar. 

Pikenhild, 647, 1492. Fikenild, 26, 
L 1404. Fikenyld, 1435, O 1496. 

Fikenylde, 28. Fykenhild, 687. 
Fykenild, L 1417, O 1450, L 1491, 
O 1518. Fykenyld, L 28, L 6S9, 
O 706, O 1 541. Fokenild, O 28, 
O 663. Fekenyld, O r454. Fike- 
nildes, g. O 14S3. Fikenhildes, 
1248, 14S7. Fykenildes, () 12S7, 
L 1456, L 1509. Fykenyldes, O 
1536. Fykeies, L 1256. 

Gile, S. 1175. Gyle, L 1179, O 1214. 
God, O 48, 165, L 173, L 1342 1, 

O 1569. Gode, d. 75, L 81, O 1169. 

Godes, g. L 1544. 
Godhild, 7, 1360. Godild, O 7, L 

75, L 152, 6 154. Godyld, L 72, 

O 72, L 1370. Godylt, L 7. 
Godmod, see Cutberd. 

Harild, see Apyld. 

Hermenyl, O 944. Hermecylde, 
O 1561. Ermenild, L 91 7. Erme- 
nyld, L1538. Eeynild, 903, 1516. 

Horn, i. 9 t, L i.:;39 f. Home, L 337, 
O 373> 588- Homes, g. O 93, L 
295 1, L 960 t, L 1346 t, I- '455> 
1481, 1528, L 1531, 1556. Hornos, 


Jesu, So, 148. Ihesu, O S6, L gof , 
L i.i;4, O 156, O 175. Jesus, 1529. 
Ihesu, ^. L 1314, O 1345. 

Irisse, 1004, 1366. Yrisse, 1290. 
Yrisshe, L 1290, L 1376. Hirysce, 
O 1325. Hyrische,0 1045, O 1257. 
Hyrysce, O 1405. 

Mody, L 959, O 994, L 1527, O 1552. 

Modi, 951, 1045, 1506. 
Murry, 4, L 873, 1335. Murri, 31, 

69. Mury, L 1345. Mory, O 73, 



O 892, O 1376. Morye, O 4, O 33. 
AUof, L 4, L 33, L 73. 

Keynes, 951. Reynis, L959. Beny, 

Bimenhild, 928, 984. Bymenhild, 
248,1519. Bymenhilde, 874, 1484. 
Bimenild, O 259. Bimenilde, 
614. Bymenild, L 283, 651, 958, 
L 1 541. Bimenyld, O 713. 
Bymenyld, L 254, L 929. Bymy- 
nyld, L 928. Bemenylde, L 1046. 
Beymnyld, O 288. Bymenil, L 
980. Beymild, O 388, O 667. 
Beymyld, O 298, O 1533. Rey- 
mylde, O 1056, O 1075. Bymyld, 
O 584, O 1546. Beynyld, O 1451. 
O 1564. Bimyld, O 396. Beymyl, 
O 463, O 775. Eimenyldes, ^. 
O 727. Bymenildes, L 1474. 
Bymenyldes, L 706. Beymyldes, 
O 1 501. Bymenhilde, 706, 1018, 

Steuene, S. L 667 f- 

Sture, 685. Stoure, L 687, L 1455. 

Store, O 1482. 
Suddene, 138, 127S. Sudenne, L 

142, L 1539. Suddenne, 143, 

1517. Sodenne, O 146, O 1562. 

Sudennes, ^. L 1305. Sodenne, 

O 1336. 

purston, L 827 f, L 991 f. 

Westernesse, 157, 1495. "Westnesse, 
L 165, O 167, O 1223, L 1515. 
"Westnisse, O 783. Westnesse 
londe, L 176, O 178. Westene 
londe, 168, 754. 

Yrisse, Yrisshe, see Irisse. 
Yrlonde, 1002, 1513, L 1535. 
Hirelonde, O 785. Hyrelonde, 

O 1558. 
Ysoude, O 282. 








Cfatenbon ^ttee (|)u6ficah'ona» 




I. Literature and Philology 1-54 

§ 1. Dictionaries, Grammars, &c 1-5 

§ 2, Anglo-Saxon and English ....... 6 

§3. European Languages, Mediaeval and Modern . . . 17 

1. French, Italian, &c, ....... 17 

2. German, &c. ........ 30 

3. Scandinavian ........ 23 

§ 4. Classical Languages ........ 24 

1. Latin 24 

2. Greek 32 

§ 5. Oriental Languages . 45 

§ 6. Anecdota Oxoiiiensia Series 52 

II. Theology 65-67 

A. The Holy Scriptures, &c 65 

B. Fathers of the Church, &c 60 

C. Ecclesiastical History, &c. ....... 62 

D. Liturgiology 64 

E. English Theology 65 

III. History, Biography, &c 68-77 

IV. Law 78 

V. Philosophy, Logic, &c 80 

VI. Physical Science and Mathematics, &c 82-90 

VII. Art and Archaeolog^y 91 

VIII. Palaeography 92 

I /6/0I 

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