(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "King's American dispensatory"

il 



HtNRYK.WAMPOL£&CO.Umited 



KINC'S 

AMERICAN DISPENSATORY 

BY 

HARVEY WICKES FELTER, M. D. 

ADJIMT l'Ki>H>»liK I'K I IlKMIMKY, I'llAHMAl Y, AM) ToXiCOI.i K. Y, AX J> rKnKK.--soK UF AN ATiiM V, IN 

THE ECLECTIC MEDICAL IXSTITITE, CIXCI.NXATI, OHIO; EDITOR OF IXICKE's SYLLABUS 

OF MATERIA MEDICA AND TIIERAPECTICS; E.X-I>RESH)EXT OF THE OHIO 

STATR Kc I !•( Tli: MKDTCAI. ASSO< I ATi. IV, KTC. KTI., XTC. 

AND 

JOHN URI LLOYD, Phr M., Ph. D. 

TROFESSOR OF CHEMISTRY, PHAIOIACY, A.VD TOXICOLOtiY, IX THE ECLECTIC MEDICAL INSTITUTE, 

CIXCINNATI,OHIO; FORMERLY PROFESSOR OP CHEMISTRY AXD PHARMACY IX THE CINCINNATI 

COLLEGE OF PHARMACY; EX-PRESIDENT OF THE AMERICAN PHARMACEUTICAL 

association; author of the chemistry of medicines; drugs AXD 

MEDICINES OF NORTH AMERICA; A STUDY IN PHARMACY; 

ETIDORHPA, ETC., ETC., ET1\ 

ENTIRELY REWRITTEX AXE) EXLAROED. 

NINETEENTH EDITION. THIRD REVISION. 
IN TWO VOLUMES. 



VOL. II. 



C INC INN. ATI: 

THE OHIO VALLEY COMPANY, 

317—321 RACE STREET. 

1905. 



AUTHORIZATION. 

Resolution passed by the National Eclectic Medical Associa- 
tion at the annual meeting, in Cleveland, Ohio, June 19, 1879 : 
Resolved, That this Association adopt The Americas Dispensa- 
tory as its STANDARD AfTHORITV. 

Alexander Wilder, M. D., Secretary. 

'Authority to use for comment the Phannacopieia of llie United 
States of Amerim (18SX)) , Seventh Decennial Revision, has been 
granted by the Committee of Revision and Publication." 

Authority to print selections from the Xational Formulary, has 
been granted by the Council of the American Pharmaceu- 
tical Association. 



COPYRIGHTS. 



Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 18.>l. by 
MOORE, WILSTACH & KEYS, 



Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1859, by 

>fOORE, WILSTACH, KEYS & CO. 

In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States, 

for the Southern District of Ohio. 

Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1864, by 

MOORE, WILSTACH & BAf.DWIN, 

In the Cleric's Office of the Kistrict Court of the United States. 

for the Southern District of Ohio. 

Entered according to Act of Congress, in the years ISTOand 1880. by 

WILSTACH. BALDWIN i CO. 

In the Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington 



Copyright, 1898. by 
THE OHIO VALLEY COMPANY. 



Copyright, 1900 by 
TIIE OHIO VALLEY COMPANY. 



PHINTEO AND BOUND 




LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Fin. SAME. SOIRCE. PAGE. 

116. Root of Alpinin otticinaruui Fre<lerick Stearns & Co.'s Catalogue, 905 

117. Gaultheria procuinbene Standard Dictionary ( Funk & Wagnalls), 913 

118. Gelsemiuin sempervirens After Millsjiaugh's American Medicinal Plants, 917 

nil. Rhizome of ( ielsemiuni sempervirens V rederick Stearns & Co.'s Catalogue, 918 

120. Gentiana lutea The American Cyclopedia (I). Appleton & Co.), 924 

121. tierauium maculatiun St^mdard Dictionary i F. & VV.|, 928 

122. Glvcvrrliiza glabra Staiidiird Hirtioiuirv i F. &W.), 946 

123. Gooiivera pubescens .><t;ui.l:ir.l Pirtioiuuv i F. it W.), 949 

124. Punica Granatum Stan.lui.I I >i(ti,.n;ny F & W.), 953 

125. lla-inatoxylon campccbianum The Aniciican Cvrl.iii i-.lia i |i". A. it Co.), 972 

12<i. llainameli^ virginiana Sian.hinl I lirliimary i F. & W.), 974 

127. Iledfoma pulegioides The Anuiican ( v(I..|ki ,lia (D. A. & Co.), 977 

12n. 11,-dera Helix ' St^n.hn.l I>i. ti.Miary (F. & W.), 978 

12!i. Holiaiithemum cana<lense .•^lui.ln 1 Di ti..nary (F. &W.), 980 

i:!0. Uelleborus niger v. ,; , l .nary (F. & W.), 982 

131. Anemone Hepatica m i inary (F. & W.), 985 

132. Anemone acutiloba Lloyd's Drugs an. i i n i . - i North America, 986 

133. Hciichera americana '. .■^laiuiai.i 1 n.lDnarv ( F. & W.), 988 

134. .K-mlns Ilippocastanum The American Cycloptedia ("D". A. & Co.), 990 

i:;".. llumulii-. l.npuhis Standard Dictionary ( F. it W.), 998 

13(i. I»riid rliizoiiie of Hydrastis canadensis Lloyd's D. and JI. of N. A., 1020 

137. Crystals of Berberiiie I i..;.!- 1' ;iiid U. of X. A., 1022 

138. Crystals of Hvdrastine i md M. of X. A., 1024 

13'.i. Hyoscyanius niger The Aun n. i ia i D. A. it Co. I. 1033 

140. Hypericum perforatum - I .nan- ( F. & \V.), 1038 

141. Bean of .St. Ignatius Frcl. ! -i !,. Co.'s Catalogue, 1043 

142. Ili-xopaca - <• ; nary (F. & W.i. 1044 

143. Iicxiilabra -i : i 1'. i .narv iF. &\V.l, 1045 

144. Iiiipati.-n.= pallida .-l.u. .:..... Da ii..nar\- (F. it W. i, 1047 

14") Inipati.ns lulya Suiidaid Dictionary (F. & W.), 1047 

14i; Inula il I. Ilium Frederick .^tearns it Co.'s Catalogue, 10.58 

147 Ci|ili,i. lis Ipecacuanha Frederick Stearns it Co.'s Catalogue, 1071 

14s. Iris tiureiitina Stan.lard Dictionary ( F. it W.), 1081 

I4!i. Liaye.s of Jacaranda procera Frederick Stiai iis it Co.'s Catalogue, 1082 

loO. IpoMUea jalapa The American Cylnpadia (I). A. & Co.), 1084 

151. Juglans cinerea Standard Dictionary (F. it W. I, 1089 

1.52. Kaluiia lalifolia The American Cydopjedia ^ I). A. it Co.i, 1093 

153. Single rtower of Kalmia l&tifolia The American Cyclopedia ( D. .\. & Co.i, 1093 

1-54. Sterculia acuminata Stearns' " Kola," 1100 

155. Crystals of CatTeine Stearns' '" Kola," 1101 

1.56. Arctium Lappa Lilly's Bulletin, 1118 

157. Ijuandula yera Standard Dictionary ( F. & W. ), 1 124 

15S. Leonurus Cardiaca Standard Dictionarj- (F. it W.l, 1125 

l-5'.<. Chrysanthemum Leucanthemum Standard Dictionary iF.itW.), 1130 

KM). Ligiistrum vulgare .^tamlard 1 lictinnarV > F. it W. i, 11.32 

Itil. Li.|uidanil)ar styraciflua Siandar.l l>i,;inriaiy K. itW.), 1148 

lt)2. Litliospermum canescens Standanl Didinnaiv iF.it W.i, 1198 

Ki.3. I^l«?lia inflata Lloyd's Drugs and Me.licines of North America, 119i> 

164. See.! of Lobelia inHata LloVd's Drugs an.l Medicines of North America, 1199 

1C5. Crystals of Inflatin Lloyd's Drugs and Medicines of North .\in«rica, 1201 

16(i. Lv'copoilium dayatum ". . .The .\merican Cyclopsedia i D. .V. & Co.i, 1211 

167. ^farrubium yulgare Standard Dictionary ( F. it W.i, 1241 

165. M..iuha pipirita Standard Dictionary (F. & \V.), 12.54 

16!i. .Mentha yiridis The American Cyclogiedia (1). A. & Co.), 1255 

170. Crystals of Menthol . . .. Pharmacology of the Newer Mat. Med. (Parke, Dayis & Co.), 1256 

171, Mitchellarepens '. The American Cyclopiedia ( D. A. & Co.), 1273 

(iii) 



>IST OF ILLTSTRATIONS. 



174. 


Co 


175. 


M^ 


176. 


sti- 


177. 


Set 


178. 


Xv 


179. 


<Ki 


180. 


Xe 


181. 


Sh 


182. 


(iii 


1811 


Ol. 


184. 


i;i« 



Morns nigra 

Myrii<tica fragrans 

CouiTiiipliora Myrrlia 

MyvtuK communis 

yoliMO.'s Xnx vomica 

■il of StrviliMos Xnx vomica. 



i|nrlol 



SOIRCE. 

.standard iJictionan' i F. & W. ), 

Stan.lar.l DictionarV i F. & W. |, 

StaiHlar.l I>icti..n;.rV F.&W.i, 

Standard Hirtioiiarv <F. &W.,i, 

.The .\merican Cy<luip:.dia ( D. A. & Co.l, 

Frederick .Stearns & Co.'s Catalogue, 

.The American Cyclopedia ( I». A. & Co.), 

Standard Dictionary i F. & \V. ), 

Standard Dictionary i F. & W.), 

Frederick Stearns A Co.'.s Catalogue, 

Standard Hictionarv , F. & W.), 

.Standard DictionarV ■ F. & W.), 

.Tlie American Cyclopiedia iD". A. & Co.), 
.Tlie American Cydopa-dia (D. A. & Co.), 

Standard Dictionarj' i F. & W. i, 

.The -American Cydopsedia i li. A. & Co.), 
.Tlie American Cvcloj)a-dia i D. A. & Co. >, 

Standaril Dictionary ( F. & W.), 

Standard Dictionary i F. & W. , 

Frederick Stearns c<c Co.'s Catalogue, 

Frederick Stearns & Co.'s Catalogue, 

Frederick Stearns & Co.'s Catalogue, 

Standard Dictionary i F. & W. i, 

Lilly's Bulletin, 

Lilly's Bulletin, 

Frederick Stearns & Co.'s Catalogue, 

Frederick Stearns & Co.'s Catalogue, 

Supplement to American Disj>ensatory, 

Pharmacology of the Newer Mat. Med. (Parke, Davis & Co.t, 



tigmavenenosniii 



.Aralia 
Passill 

IVntliiirniii sedoid 
PhysDstigma vene 
Calabar bean ; fruit of Pliy 

Phytolacca deeandra 

Poke-root 

Poke-root (section) 

Anandrta paniculata 

Cocculns indicus; fruit of Anamirta paniculata 

Leaf of Jaborandi. 

Piscidia Erythrina 

Podophyllum peltatum(with rhizome and fruit). .Frederick Stearns& Co.'s Catalogue 



Ptelea trifoliata 

Anemone Pulsatilla 

Pyrola rotundifolia 

Picrrena excelsa 

Ehamnus cathartica 

Genuine Cascara sagrada 

Rhus glabra 

Rhus Toxicodendron 

Rosmarinus officinalis 

Rnmex Acetosa 

Rume.v Acetosella 

Ruta graveolens 

Salvia officinalis 

Sambucus canadensis 

Sanguinaria canadensis 

Saponaria officinalis 

Sarracenia purpurea 

Honduras sarsaparilla 

Mexican sarsaparilla 

Smilax sarsaparilla root 

Bamboo brier-root 

Sassafras varii folium 

Scroplnilaria nodosa 

.«cutell:,ri;i lii(<-nfiora 

Sciit.Hnia vri-sii-olor 

Kodt .ii l'nl\ L.':ila Senega 

.\ri>tol,.,liia ^iTpentaria 

SilphiinH laeiniatnm 

Hrassica Mii.'ni 

Snlnine. frum Solanum Carolinense, 



l>hisagria 



StiHin;;i;i, section of 

Datura Stramonium 

Capsule and seed of Datura Stramouium 

Nicotiana Tabacum 

Tanncetum vulgare , 

Taxus baccata 

Thea chinensis 



Tea leaves . 



The American Cyclopedia (D. A. & Co, 

Frederick Stearns & Co.'s Catalogue, 

Standard Dictionarj- i F. & AV. i, 

The American Cyclopiedia i T). \. & Co. t, 

The American Cyclopedia ( D. A. & Co. ), 

Pharra. of the Newer Mat. Med. ( Parke, Davis iV; Co. ), 

The American Cydopietlia tD. A. * Co.', 

Johnson's Medical Botany ( Wm. Woo^Is & Co.), 

Standard Dictionary ( F. & W. ), 

Standard Dictionary ( F & W. t, 

Standard I Hctionary i F. & W. ), 

The American Cyclopaedia i D. A. & Co. I. 

Standa'rd Dictionarv i F. iV W.i, 

The American Cvdnpadia I>'. A. A Co.l, 

Standard I >i,ti. .narv i F. A W. ). 

Standard 1 'iitii'nary F. & W. ), 

The American Cvcliipa>dia D. A. A Co. i, 

: Lillvs Bulletin. 

LillV's Bulletin, 

Lillvs Bulletin, 

Lillys Bulletin, 

Standanl l>ictionary ( F. & W. ), 

Lloyd's Drugs and Jledicines of North America, 

." Supplement to American Dispensatory, 

Supplement to .\merican Disjiensatorv. 

The American Cvcloiuedia i D. A. A Co.'i. 

Standard Dictionarv F. »V: W. ', 

Standanl Di.tinnarV ■ F. iV W. i. 

Standard Dictinnary ( F. A: W.i, 

Lloyd's figure in .-Vnur. .lour. Pharni., 

The American Ivclopadia D. A. iV Co.). 

Standanl Dic'tionary F. A- W. i. 

The American Cyclopedia D. .\. A Co.), 

Frederick Stearns iNc Co.'s Catalogue, 

Lilly's Bulletin. 

Frederick Stearns A: Co.'s CataK>gue, 

Frederick Stearns A Co.'s Catalogue. 

The .\merican Cydona'dia i D. A. Ac Co.), 

Standartl Dictionary F. A W. ), 

Standanl Dictionary ( F. A: W. ), 

Standard Dictionary i F. A W.l, 



1295 
1298 
1301 
1313 
1314 
1318 
1319 
1326 
1347 
1369 
1375 
1.381 
1400 
14a5 
1424 
1424 
1429 
1441 
1442 
1463 
1466 
1471 
1471 
1471 
1476 
1476 
1479 
1510 
1528 
1586 
1589 
1610 
1614 
1653 
1654 
166-3 



lti86 
1705 
1707 
170S 
1724 



172tt 
1730 



1739 
1745 
1752 
1756 
1756 
ISOO 
1S06 
1809 
1S.U 
18:56 
1,*S36 
1S38 
183S 
I'XVS 
1913 
1915 



.Foo<l and Food Adulterants (U. S. Dept. of Agr., Bull. Xo. 13), 1928 



LIST OF ILIA-STRATIONS. V 

Flli. N.IMK. 801K(K. I'Al.E. 

244. Tlieoliroiua Cacau Kwilerick Sti-arus A C'o.'s Catalogue, 1931 

245. Thuja occidentalis The Aiiiori.aii ("v,l..i);i(lia ( D. A. & Co.i, 19;U 

24(j. Thvmus vulgaris St;iii.lar.l IHctioiiaiv (F. &\\'.), 1(140 

247. Til'm americana Sian.lar.l I>i(tionary (F. & W.I, 1940 

24.S. Trillium i-reituin The .\uurii an Cv ilopadia ( 1). A. & Co. I, 1!»97 

249. rstilairo setfetuui The Ainerican C'vclo|He<lia (D. .\. & Co.), 20:!4 

2-50. ArctostaphvloK Iva ursi Stamhml I)ictionar>- (F. & W.I, 2038 

251. Vanilla plahit..lia The Ameriiaii Cv.loi.ie.lia ( P. A A Co.), 2044 

252. VeratnuM allnini Staiidanl DictiMnarv I" >ii \V ', 2049 

253. Veratnim \ iri.U' Fred.riik St.anis ^ ( '. - ( ■Mi:il.._i!r. 2051 

254. Verbasniin Tliapsus .■<tan.lanlI«irti..narN I ,v W.i. 2055 

255 Visemu Haveserns Stan.lar.l lli.'ti.niaiy V. ,v W, . 20S0 

25(i. Xantliiinliiza ajiiifolia Lloyil's Drugs and .Medieim-s of Ndrtli Am. ma. -Jiim, 

257. Xantlinwluni americauum .". . .The Ameriean Cyclopwdia (1). .\. >v ( .i -ns; 

255. Xantlii.xyluiu aniericanum Icross-section) Lilly's liull.iin, ■Jll^^ 

259. Xaiitli'ixvluni CUiva-Hereulis (cross-section) Killv's Hiilh'tin. Jii'-s 

260. Ziimilur I.tlicinale Fretlerick Stearns it Co.'s Cataln^iie, 2109 



ABBREVIATIONS. 



Endeavor lias! b«?on made to t-xteml full civdit in the text by meane of abbreviations, 
t of which are self-explanatory. The followinj; selective list may assist some readers: 

.1. ./. /'., American Jonrnal of I'harniacy. 

A. P. A., American I'harmaccntical Association. 

A. J'. A. J'liH-., American I'liarmaccutical Association Proceediugs. 
Am. Horn. I'hitrm., American Homa-opathic Pharniacopceia. 
Aiiier. Ifoiii., American Honueojiathist. 

Aiiifr. Mill. I'Uiiitf, Millspaugh's American Medicinal Plant!;. 

Ann. lit- r/ii'm. el I'hurm., Annales de Chimie et de Pharmacie. 

Ann. ilrr i'heiii. iiiiil I'liiirm., Annalen der Cheunc und Pharmacie (Liebig's Annalen). 

Arch, ilir I'hiiiiti.. .Vrchiv der Pharmacie. 

Attjitlil, Alttiel'l's Chemistry. 

.li'., Avoirdupois. 

B.. BigelowV Ve!n-tal)l.- Materia Miilica and American Medical Botany. 

B. A. A. S., British Asi^nciaticn Ut the Advaiuiiiiciit of .<cicnce. 
Bur., Barton's \'e};etal>lc Mat.ria Mcdica ol the United States. 

B(r. ,1. ,1. ri„m. <;,.<.. Berichic der I icut.'^.lun Cluniiscluii Gesellschaft. 

Bill. Beij., Botanical Kegister. 

Br., British Pharmacop.eia. 

Br. I'hur., British I'liarmacopa-ia. 

Biichntr'.t liiji.. lUichncr's Repcrtorium fiir die Pharmacie. 

BiK-lin,r's .\r,i,.t J!,j„rl., Huchiier's Xeues Kcpertiirium liir Pharmacie. 

C. t'liristisfin's Pi.-^pensatory. 
°C., Degree Centigrade. 

Cc, Cubic Centimeter. 
Cm.. Centimeter. 

Clum. I'nilriilhl., Chemisches Centralblatt. 
Chill. Xltj., Chemiker Zi'itung. 
CMeiilz, Ccjblentz's Newer Kemedies. 

Com. Did. (if Iiuirijiiim- Sulahililiix, \. .M. Comcy, Oictinnary of Inorganic Solubilities, 1896. 
Coiiijil. Benil., Comptes Hendus. 
Co.r(, Coxe's Dispensatory. 

/> , David Don. I.inn.ian Transactions ami Philosophical Magazine. 
I>. mill M. Ill S. .1.. l.lovrl's Drugs and Medicines ot North America. 
Dill... Dublin PlianiKiic'.iueia. 

Diiniiik. Dymocks \". -itable Materia Medica of Western India: 

E. <l- r . Kdwarcls ami \'ava.sseur, Manual of Materia Medica, tr. bv Tongo and Durand. 
AW.. Kdinburgh Disi..n,s.torv. 
Ell. M,,l. .hiiir.. Kdinburgh .Medical Journal. 
Ell. IhiiH-iiii, Dniiran's Kdiidjurgh Dispensatory, l.SW. 
Ell. E. .V. ./.. Kditorial, Kclectic Medical Journal. 
°F., Degree Kabrenheit. 
/'. Siilr., .Michaux"s North American Sylva. 
Full':, Dr. Kent <). Foltz in Webster's Dynamical Therapeutics. 
G., (irav's Botanv of the Northern States. 
''.'//I., (iramnie. 
<!i II . ( lenesis i Bible). 
';. /. /'/.'i,/ii. . (icrinan Pharmacopoeia. 
/'/'//.. Imperial measure. 

.lahr...!,. ,1, r I'liiuiii., Jabreslx-riclit der Pharmacie. 

.Inn,-. 'I. rliini. Mill., Journal de Chimie Medicale ile Pharmacie et de Toxicologie. 
.hill,. .1. l-h.uu,.. Journal de Pharmacie et ile Chimie. 
A".. Prol. John King. .M. D. 
/... Lin.lU ys .M.dical Flora. 

I.iili. .liiiinl., I.iebig's Annalen (Ann. il. Cliem. and I'harm.i. 
Urb, l,o<k.'s Syllabus of Materia Medica and Therapeutics. By Felter. 
IajiiiI., London Pharmaco]><eia. 
lAtnil. Din/i.. Thomson's London Dispensittory. 
.l/<i». o/ Bill., Katon's Manual of Botanv. 

(vii) 



ABBREVIATIOXS. 

.lAi/. .!/«/. U'l'^leni Tiidid, Dymock's Vegetable Materia Medica of Western India 

Mall., Mattlicw (Bible). 

M.'l. FIih;:. ilalinesque's Medical Flora. 

Ml, I.. MilliiiMti-r. 

i\'. /•'., National Formulary. 

Nal. Form., National Formulary. 

Nat. Ord., Natural Order. 

P., Pareira's Materia Medica and Therapeutics. 

P. J. Tr., Pharmaceutical .Journal and Transactions (British). 

P. J. Proc, Pharmaceutical Journal and Proceedings. 

Par. Cod., Parisian Codex. 

Pharm. 1880, United States Pharniacopceia of 1880. 

Pharm. Ceiitmlh., Pharniaceutische Centralhalle. 

Pliarm. fiidia. Pharmacopoeia of India. 

Pharm. Jour., PharmaceuticalJournal and Transactions (British). 

Phil, rnnin.. Philosophical Transactions. 

S., Kaliii.s.|ih--s Mrdical Flora. 

Ji. A- S.. l;.,~, M. :iu,l Srhorlemmcr's Treatise on Chemistry. 

Spec. Jh'i'i.. -. Hi M.r'~. ■Specific Diagnosis. 

Spt'c. M-il.. >i ii'Mi 1 > Specific Medication. 

Si/Uah. of Mat. Med.. Locke's Syllabus of Eclectic Materia Medica and Therapeutics. 

By Felter. 
Syha, Michaux's North American Sylva. 

T., Thomson's Chemistry of Organic Bodies and Inorganic Chemistry. 
T. S., Pharmacopoeial Test Solution. 
Taylor, Taylor's .Medical Jurisprudence. 
U. S., United States. 
U. S. P Uiiitf^'f ^ttiti-s Pharmacopoeia. 
F. >S'., I'l 1 1 Volumetric Solution. 

Var.,^.u ■ ■ 

W.,y\' 1 - « U" l; -k of Botany. 

Webster, \\ ibster s I >ynamical Therapeutics. 

TT'^iH.,Wittstein's Practical Pharmaceutical Chemistry and Wittstein's Organic Constituents 

of Plants. 
Wo., Woodyille's Medical Botany. 



Fig. 116. 



GALAN6A.— GALAKOAL. 

The rhizome of Alpini'a offirinannn, Haucf. 

Nat. Ord. — Scitaminejv (Ziugiberucea). 

Common Namks : Colic root, Eat<t J»dia root, Galangal. 

Ii.LCSTKATiox : Bentlev and Trinien, Med. PlmUti, 271. 

Botanical Source and iHistory.— The plant that yields galangal was descriijed 
liy Mr. II. F. llame, in the .Inimul of the Liniunn Socuttj (1871). The plant wa? 
■ >i>i.iiiud froiii Hainan, an island diri'otly south of China, but p. ^^g 

it al.-;o doubtless grows on the adjacent mainland, as the root 
is largely exported from Shanghai and other Cliina ports. 
The galangal of commerce is known as I^'sgergahngal; another 
variety known as Greater galangal, is rarely found in the mar- 
ket. It is the product of Alphua Galanga, Willdenow, {Ma- 
.■fintn Galanga, Linne), and grows in Java. The name _^alangal 
is paid to be derived from the Arabic A'^anAuyVni, which, in 
turn, is perhaps the perversion of a Chine.se word, signifying 
mild ginger. Galangal has long been an article of commerce 
with the Eastern nations, and has been known in Northern „ ,,,,,, _ . 
Europe since the twelfth century (Hancc). The stem is from Koot<"^'P'"i»officmanm. 
:! to 4 feet high, erect, and bears a close resemblance to the common cultivated 
canna, or shot plant. The parallel-veined leaf blades are about a foot long, 2 to 4 
inches wide, smooth, entire, and sharply acuminate. They are attached at the 
base to a scarious, margined sheath, which clasps the stem. The flowers are borne 
in a terminal dense spike; they consist of a short, tubular, superior cah-x,a white 
corolla, with 3 lobes, a large ovate labellum marked with red veins, a single anther- 
hearing stamen, and a pistil with an inferior ovarv and a slender stvle (Bentley 
and Trimen, Mrd. Plaut^). 

Description. — The rhizome, as found in market, is in sections of from 1 
inch to 4 inch>'.s in length, and of a reddish-brown color, as though covered with 
rust. The cut ends are usually rounding, while the edges expand outwardly and 
turn back. Each fr:igment has, generally, one or more short branches, and it is 
evident that the roots are taken from the ground in masses, and chopped into 
pieces. Encircling themat intervals of from ^ to ^ inch apart, are corrugated rings 
of a light color consisting of adhering bases of leaf sheatns. The roots are stout, 
and break with a granular fracture presenting a brownish-gray color, interspersed 
throughout which are small ligneous fibers. These fibers project a short distance 
beyond one surface of the root, thus leaving depressions on the opposite side, 
resembling pin-holes; the center of the root, for about one-fourth to one-third of 
its diameter, consists of a bundle of these fibers. Galangal reminds us of ginger, 
and imparts a pungent taste and an ai'nmatic odor, very similar to that article. 
In this country, galangal has not come into use among physicians, but has been 
sold extensively by street-corner venders under such names as "colic root," "the 
wonderful East India root," etc., and was asserted by them to be a certain cure for 
toothache, headaclie, cti-. 

Chemical Composition. — The constituents of galangal are similar to those of 
ginger. A volatile oil is obtained by distilling the root with water, which ]>os- 
."essi-i a camphoraceous smi-ll resembling that of cajcput oil. This is due, accord- 
ing to Scliimmel & Co. (1890), to the presence of appreciable amounts of cineol. 
It is soluble in alcohol, and is lighter than water. A soft resin, having a pungent 
tast<', is extracted by ether, and also a peculiar, crystalline substance, naniefl by 
Brand-3 (^].8:i^),hTmpfrrid. Jahns (IS.SI) differentiated the k;empferid of Brandes 
into thr-e cmpounils, all forming yellow crystals, viz., Avrj/ip/fVfW (r„H,.,0,), fus- 
ing at 2J2° C. (431.6° F.i, almost insoluble in water, and solublewilh difficulty 
in al.oh..l ; gnlnnghi (C„H,A). fusing at 214° C. (417.2° F.\ soluble in 34 parts of 
absolute and 68 parts of 90 per cent alcohol; and alpinin (C,,H,,0,\ fusing at 
173°C. (34:i.4°F.). 

K.emjiferid, by oxidation with nitric acid, forms anisic arid (C,H,[0CH,1 
COOH), oxalic acid and other products. Gnlangin similarly yields i>enzoic ana 
oxalic acids {Aimr.Jour. Pharm.,lS82, p. 288). Kostanecki and Harry M. Gordin 



906 GALBANUM. 

(^Dissert., 1897), showed Icsempferid to be a flavonol derivative and established its 
exact graijhic formula. Probably galangin is similarly constituted. Thresh 
(Pharm. Jour. Trnns., Vol. XV., 1884, p. 234), announced the presence of a pun- 
gent principle, which he designaied galangol, and gave tlie tabulated result.-- of a 
complete analysis of the root,wliich shows as much as 23.7 per cent of starch. 

Action, Medical Uses, and Dosage.— Galangal is a stimulating aromatic, 
and has been successfully employed to aid the digestive process, preventing fer- 
mentation and removing/((^ws. It will be found especially useful in some forms 
of dyspepda, preventing vomiting or sickness of the stomacli, and facilitating 
digestion. It may be used in all cases in wliich a stimulating aromatic is indi- 
cated. It has some reputation as a remedy for periveal relnration with hemorrhoids, 
and for a lax and pendulous abdomen. Its best form of administration is in tinc- 
ture, the dose of which is from ^ to 1 fluid drachm. The powder may be given 
in doses of 15 to 20 grains; from 80 to 60 grains may be given in infusion. It 
is rarely prescribed at the present day. 

GALBANUM.— GALBANTJM. 

The gum-resin of Ferula galhaniflua, Boissier and Buhse; Ferula ruhricaulis, 
Boissier; and probably from other related species. 

Nat. Ord. — Umbelliferse. 

Synonym: Gummi-resina galbanum. 

Illustration : Bentley and Trimen, Med. Plants, 128. 

Botanical Source. — Ferula galhaniflua is a north Persian plant having a solid, 
tall stem about 4 or 5 feet high. The leaves are grayish-tomentose, the radical 
ones being triangular in outline, and decompound-pinnate, pinnatifid, the sec- 
tions being linear-obtuse. The radical leaves are large and the stem leaves small. 
The fruit is thin and flat, winged near the face, has slender, prominent ribs, and 
in the grooves presents single oil-tubes. Sometimes two narrow tubes are pres- 
ent. The commissure has no tubes. 

Ferula rubricaidis is a south Persian plant, probably growing to some extent 
in northern Persia also. It has been classed with the preceding by some botanists, 
while others accord to it a separate place. It differs chiefly in the greater width 
of the leaf segments, and in having more numerous and narrower oil-tubes. 

History and Description. — The plant from which the gum-resin O'dbanum 
is obtained, is not definitely known. The Britii-hPharmmojKiia (1898) mentions 
the above-named species and refers to the probability of other species of Ferula 
yielding it. That the Ferula galhaniflua is believed to yield it is due to the state- 
ment of F. A. Buhse, a German resident of Persia, w ho relates that in 1848 (see 
Fliickiger, 1S91), he was informed that the product spontaneously exudes from 
the plant in question, and was told by the natives that it was the source of gal- 
banum. Galbanum is imported from the Levant, and from India in cases and 
chests. It is generally met with in lumps, consisting of large, irregular masses 
of a brownish or dark-brownish color, and composed of agglutinated tears, some 
few of which, when broken, are somewhat translucent ; they have a waxy density, 
but become soft and sticky at a temperature of 3-5° to 37.7° C. (95° to 100° F. \are 
not pulverizable unless in very cold weather, have a strong, unpleasant odor, and 
a hot, somewhat acritl, and amarous ta"5te. Occasionally, galbanum is met with 
in the form of oval, globular, or irregular tears. On account of the impurities it 
contains, it should be melted and strained previous to employing it. When the 
color of galbanum is dark-brown or blackish, and when it contains an admix- 
ture of sand, straw, chiiis of wood, and other foreign matters, the article should 
be rejected as being inferior. The specific gravity of galbanum is 1.212. Gal- 
banum is partially dissolved by water, vinegar, or wine, forming therewith an 
emulsion. Alcohol dissolves about three-fifths of it, the residue being gum and 
impurities. Diluted alcohol is its best solvent. 

Chemical Composition.— According to Pelletier, galbanum contains 6 per 
cent volatile oil, (17 per cent resin, 19 per cent gum, ami 8 per cent foreign matter 
(11. and II.). The vo!,,iile oil consists mainly of a hydrocarbon of the terj>ene 
series, C,„H,(. According to Mossmer its boiling point is lietwecii l(iO°and 16.5°C 



GAI.HANTM. 907 

y'620° and 329° F.)- It is dextro-rotatory, colorless, has a specific gravity of 0.S84, 
and forms crystals with gaseous hydrochloric aciil. I'rohably other hydrocarbons 
are also present. The yellow-brown imin of galbanuni may be obtained (Fliicki- 
ger, P/iannarogiwsic, 1S91, p. (>") 1, by extractin;^ galbanuni with alcohul and dis- 
tilling off the solvent. The residual resin is also soluble in carbon disulphide in 
commercial but not quite in absolute ether, and in caustic soda. Upon destruc- 
tive distillation galbauum resin yields an aqueous fraction containing fatty 
acids, and a thick blue oil of the composition C',uH,„0, or more probably C',„I1.^(), 
after reiuQving therefrom a hydrocarbon t',„II„ ( Kachler, 1871). The blue oil 
boils at JBF C. (oo2.2° F. ), and 'holds in solution or suspension a crystalline body 
which Sommer (1859) named ximbelliferon. This substance is a "common con- 
stituent of the products of the dry distillation of such gum-resins as asatoetida, 
sagapenum and opopanax, and those derived from Impcratoria Ostruthium, Angelica 
Arrhangdica, etc., all being umbelliferous plants, hence the name. An occurrence 
exceptional to this rule was observed in the non-umbelliferous plant, Daphne 
Mezciruiii (Zwenger, 1854). 

Umbelliferon may be abstracted from the blue oil by means of boiling water, 
or by slightly alkaline water. It may also be obtained from galbanum resin 
direct by heating it with hydrocliloVic acid to 10U° C. (212" F.), abstracting 
with chloroform and evaporating the solvent. Umbelliferon (V.jllfi,i, is closely 
related to couinarin, being pura-oxi/rouinarin. It is hardly soluble in cold, soluble 
in 100 parts of boiling water, little soluble in ether, soluble in alcohol. It melts 
at 224° C. (435.2° F.), developing therebj' an aromatic smell. In aqueous solution 
it exhibits a bluish fluorescence markedly increased by alkalies. Its solution in 
concentrated sulphuric acid is likewise beautifully fluorescent. When boiled 
with caustic potash umbelliferon is decomposed into nsorcin (^meta-dwxy-henzene) 
(CJT,[OH]j), and formic and carbonic acids. Resnnin is likewise formed when 
galbanum resin is fused with caustic potash, and was discovered by this reaction 
in 1866, by Illasiwetz and Bartli. It enters into the composition of many dye- 
stuffs, especially fluoresceine (which see), and has been produced since on the 
manufacturing scale. When boiled with nitric acid, galbanum resin yields ^n- 
nitrore--<orcin or stij/)hnic arid (C'gH[NO,,],[OHl). Galbanum gum may be obtained 
by exhausting the drug with alcohol, and extracting the residue with water. 
T'lie a(iueous solution is optically inactive (Hirschsohn), and is precipitated by 
basic, but not by neutral acetate of lead. 

A distinctive test for galbanum is as follows: Extract its resin by means of 
carbon disulphide, dissolve it in alc<ihol, and gently warm with hydrochloric acid 
ofsp.gr. 1.15. The mixture then assumes a beautiful blue color which is evanes- 
cent. Galbanum resin, when in prolonged contact (for several hours) with hydro- 
chloric acid of sp. gr. 1.12 or higher, imparts to the latter, especially upon warm- 
ing, a beautiful red color (Fliickiger, Plt<irmaro<ino-^ie, 1891). 

Action, Medical Uses, and Dosage. — The effects of galbanum are similar 
to those of a.safcoetida and ammoniac, being weaker than the former, but stronger 
than the latter. Upon the unbroken skin it produces papules, while it causes 
ulceration if the skin be broken. It controls excessive catarrhal discharqcs, and 
causis some arterial tension and cerebral fullness. It has been used in hi/steria, 
chronic rheumatism, siipprcsKcd vicnstruation, Iciicorrhcea and chronic viucous affections 
of the air jiossagcs; and may be given in doses of from 10 grains to A drachm, in 
pill form, or in emulsion. Externally, a plaster is sometimes employed, as a mild 
stimulant and resolvent to indolent tumors; and the tincture has been efficient in 
scrofulous ophthalmia, or irritability or iceakness of the eyes. 

Related Oum-resins and Drugs.— Sagapenum (or.Sfro/j/num of mediseval times). Sapa- 
penuiii is iini>ortf.l fnnu tlu- Levant. It is the eolidified juice of au unknown plant, prol> 
al)l V a ]■'> rulii, of I'ersian origin. It w (■()iiii)U)nlv in tears aj-'Klutinatcil tot;etlier, iif a brownlsh- 
j-eiiow ci>lf.r, a liot and bitti-r taste, often alliaceous odor, softens between the fingers, is spar- 
ingly Boluhle in water, not completely poUihlo in alcohol, and wlun <listilled with water it 
yields a pale-yellow, v.ry fluid volatile oil.ht-'htiT than water, of a stronir, alliaceous smell, and 
a bitter, acrid taste, it is readily Bfihible in ether and alcohol, and is spc-edily changed to a 
transparent resin on exposure to the air. .Vceordiiig to Hager ( Ihinllnirh der Plwrm. Prajrit, 
\HH6<, eagapenum consiats of about 50 jxr cent resin, 30 pi-r cent gun\, 5 to 10 per cent volatile 
oil, and 5 to 8 per cent impurities. Fliickiger ( Pharinacograpliia),iit»Un that sagapenum rnn- 
tains t(;nW/(7V>ro;i l)ut no sulphur, and that it is remarkable for the jiermancnt, intense bbie 



908 GALEGA. 

color it aeeumes in the cold when a very small piece is placed in hydrochloric acid (density 
1.13). Sagapenum possesses medicinal properties similar to ammoniac and asafoetida ; but is 
not BO powerful as the last of these. It is sometimes added to discutient plasters as a stimu- 
lating iugredient. The dose is from 10 grains to i drachm. 

Oi'OPANAX. — The gum-resin of Opopanax Chimnium, Koch (Paslirutca OpopanuJ-, Linai). 
Nat. Oed.— Umbellifurae. This plant, called Bouah parsnip, is indigenous to the south of Europe. 
On wounding the stalk-base, or the root, a yellowish lactescent juice exudes and concretes. 
This is opopanax. The best grade is that which occurs in irregularly angular pieces, or sub- 
globular tears, varying in size, and of a reddish or yellowish brown color, i t readily fractures, 
displaying a waxy interior, and often e.xliibita imbedded fragments of vegetable tissues. Its 
odor is strong and disagreeiiM'-, and its taste acrid, bitter and balsamic. AVhen warmed it 
becomes soft, exhaling an oimn-likf ol t. It burns with a bright, non-sooty flaiue. The 
poorer qualities are not so biti'-r as g' " >d oijopanax, and come in masses larger than a walnut. 
A specimen of false opopanax has been observed in commerce by J. H. JIarais (see ^1/iier. 
Jour. Fharm., 1875, p. 39), consisting entirely of gum mj-rrh, which it resembles in appearance. 
Myrrh changes to a rose color v ith the vapors of nitric acid, while gum opopanax is not altered 
by the same treatment. It forms a yellow emulsion with water. Besides vegetable impuri- 
ties it contains starch (4.2 per cent), wax, volatile oil, resin (42 per cent i, and gum (3:5.4 per 
cent (Pelletier, JJull. de Pharm., 1812, p. 51). It is seldom used in medicine now, but in olden 
times was one of the gum-resins thought to be applicable to almost all ills, hence the name 
opopanax, meaning the " all-healing juice." In later times it was used in plasters, and inter- 
nally in bruiirhiiis with abundant expectoration, asthnui, hysteria, hypochondriasis, arutnorrhaa, 
etc. Dose, from 15 to 30 grains. 

Iltruiaria glabra. — .\bout 1885 a demand was made in this city for Hemiaria glabra, the 
drug being introduced by a specialist for whom the writer procured a supply in England. 
The remedy is still employed by physiciims, several claiming to derive good results from the 
fluid extract. This is a very old remedy, popular with the early herbalists of England. Iler- 
niarinc,t\xe erystallizable body obtained from this plant has been shown to be melhyl-umM- 
liferon (CioHsOa ). Faronychine, an alkaloid, has been found in small amounts in the plant by 
Schneegans {Amer.Jour. Pharm., 1890, p. 488). About the only use the plant now has is in 
catarrhal affections of the bladder. J. H. Schroder (1693) and Samuel Dale {PharmacoltHjin, 7th 
ed., 1751) refer to the plant as being principally employed to cure hernia (hence its name) and 
to increase the flow of^ urine. It was also said to increase the flow of bile, and was employed 
for the cure of jaundice and excess of mucus in the stomach ( probably gastric catarrh i. Inter- 
nally and externally it was praised in snake-bites, and the powdered plant was employed to kill 
maggots upon unhealthy sores of horses. It was reputed to "crush " and expel calcidi from 
the kidneys and bladder, assisting in their expulsion by carrj-ing with them an enveloping 
coating of "mucus. Its general properties were said to be cooling and drying, and the plant 
was popularly known as Breast wort and Knot weed. 

GALEGA.— GOATS RUE. 

The herb of Galega officinalis, Linne. 

Nat. Orel. — Leguminosa?. 

Common Name: Gont'.^ rue. 

Botanical Source and History. — This is an herbaceous plant, native of south- 
ern Enio])e. It has an eiett, perennial, glabrous stem, about 3 feet high, and is 
found growing mostly in sandy soil. Tiie leaves are alternate, oddly pinnate, and 
furnished at the bas^e with lanceolate stipules. The leaflets are smooth, lanceo- 
late, and terminate in a mucronate point. The flowers appear in June and July, 
are blue, and borne in loose, axillary racemes longer than the leaves. The calyx 
has 5 narrow, equal lobes. Tlie corolla is papilionaceous with an obtuse keel. 
The stamens are united in one set ; the filament of the tenth, however, is distinct 
for about one-half its length. The fruit is a dry, round, smooth, many-seeded 
legume. 

Tcjihrosia virginiana, Persoon (see Tephro»ia), a. plant formerly referred to the 
genus Galega, is a native of the United States, and the root, which is slender and 
very tough, is reinited to be an anthelmintic. We can not find that either of 
the aforenanii'd plants have been examined chemically. 

Action, Medical Uses, and Dosage. — Galega has a disagreeably bitter taste, 
and upcin being chewed, imparts a dark-yellowish color to the Riliva. Various 
properties were attributed to it in fornicr times, in which it was considerably 
emi>lo\ t(l as a vermifuge, as a stiimilant to the nervous system, as a diuretic and 
tonic in ti/phnid cDtulitimu, and is also stated to have been of service in the plague, 
as well as to stimulate the lactiferous vessels to an increased secretion during tlie 
period of lactation. It is seldom, if ever, prescribed in practice. 



GALIUM. 909 

GALIUM.— CL£AVEBS. 

The herb of Galium aparine. Limit, and other species of Galium. 

Nat. l)rd. — Rubiaccae. 

Common Namks: Cleavers, Goosf-grass, Catch-weed, Bedstratv, etc. 

Botanical Source. — Gnlium aparine is an annual, succulent plant, with a 
weak, procumbent, quadrangular, retrorsely-prickled stem, which grows from 
2 to G feet long, and is hairy at the joints. The leaves are 1 or 2 inches in length, 
2 or 3 lines in width, verticillate in sixes, sevens, or eights; linear-oblanceolate, 
nearly sessile, mucronate, tapering to the base, and rough on the margins and 
mid vein ; the peduncles are axillary and 1 or 2-flowered ; the flowers white, small, 
numerous and scattered. Calyx 4-toothed, corolla rotate and 4-parted, stamens 4 
and short, st vKs 2. The fruit is large and bristly, with hooked prickles ( \V. — G.). 

History, Description, and Chemical Composition.— This plant is common 
to Europe and the I'nited States, growing in cultivated grounds, moist thickets, 
and along banks of rivers, and flowering from June to September. Its root con- 
sists of a few hair-like fibers, of a reddish color. There are several sjiecies of 
Galium, all of which possess similar medicinal virtues, as Galium us^pniluif), Mi- 
chaux, Rouijh or Pointed cleavers, which difi'ers from the above in having its leaves 
in whorls of 4 or 6, and smaller, its fruit smooth, its stem less in length, and is 
perennial; Galium vcrum, Linne, or Yellow bahlraic, with an erect stem, leaves in 
whorls of 8, root long, perennial, fibrous, flowers densely paniculate, yellow, and 
terminal; Galium trifidum, Linne, or Small cleavers, with a perennial root, decum- 
bent stem, herb smaller than the others, leaves in fours or fives, and white flowers; 
Galium triflorum, Michaux, or Sweet-scented bcdstraw contains coumarin (C5H5O,), 
an odorous principle found also in tonka beans, melilotus and other plants; 
the Galium tinctorium, a variety of the G. trifidum, having a stouter and a nearly 
smooth stem, leaves of the branches in fours, of the stem in sixes; peduncles 
2 to 3-flowered; parts of the flowers usually in fours; G. lanceolatum, Torrey, 
and G. circaezans, Michaux, are sometimes known as Wild licorice on account of 
their taste. 

In a green state these plants have an unpleasant odor, but are inodorous 
when dried, with an acidulous, astringent, and bitter taste. Cold or warm water 
extracts the virtues of the plants; boiling destroys them. The roots dye a per- 
manent red, and the bones of the animals who eat the plant are said to be colored, 
similar to that caused by madder. The flowers are said to curdle milk, but this 
is not a constant efiect. Analysis has detected in G. reri(»i and G. aparine rubi- 
chloric acid, galitannic acid, citric acid, starch, chlorophyll, etc, G. aparine con- 
tains more citric acid than G. rerum, while the latter ho'lds the most galitannic 
acid. Oxalic acid may be present. 

Action, Medical Uses, and Dosage.— A most valuable refrigerant and diu- 
retic, and will be found very beneficial in manj' diseases of the urinary organs, 
as suppression of urine, calculous affections, inflammation of the kidneys ana bladder, 
and in the scalding of urine in gonorrhaa. It is contraindicated in diseases of 
a passive character, on account of its refrigerant and sedative efiects on the sys- 
tem, but may be used freely in fevers and all acute diseases. It has been recom- 
mended in scorbutic and nervous affections, but can not be depended upon. Grotcths 
or deposits of a nodular character in the skin or mucous membranes are regarded 
as indications for its use. An infusion may be made by macerating lA ounces 
of the herb in a pint of warm water for 2 hours, of which from 2 to 4 fluid ounces 
may be given 3 or 4 times a day, when cold. It may be sweetened with sugar or 
honey. Equal parts of cleavers, maiden-hair, and elder-blows, macerated in warm 
water for 2 or 3 hours, and drank freely, when cold, form an excellent drink in 
acute erysipcUu, scarlatina, and other exanthematous diseases, in their inflammatory 
stages. The infusion made with cold water is also considered very beneficial in 
removing freckles from the face, likewise lepra, and several other cutaneous erup- 
tiotts; the diseased parts must be washed with it several times a day, and contin- 
ued for 2 or 3 months in case of freckles. It has also been found useful in many 
cutaneous diseases, as psoriasis, eczana, lichen, cancer, and scrofula, and is more par- 
ticularly useful in these diseases when they are combined with a strumous dia- 



910 GALLA. 

thesis. The infusion may be prepared and administered as above mentioned. 
Of specific galium the dose is from 5 to 60 drops. 

Galium tinctoriuvi is said to be nervine, antispasmodic, expectorant, and dia- 
phoretic. It has been used successfully in n.sthmn, cough, and chronic bronchitis, 
and appears to exert an influence principally upon the respiratory organs. The 
plant has a pungent, aromatic, pleasant, persistent taste. A strong decoction of 
the herb may be given in doses of from 1 to 4 fluid ounces, and repeated 2 or 3 
times a d.iy, according to circumstances. The loot of this plant is said to dye a 
permanent red. 

Specific Indications and Uses. — Dysuria, painful micturition; renal and cys- 
tic irritati<m with Imrning; diuretic for" inflammatory states of the urinary tract, 
and for febrile conditions; "nodulated growths or deposits in skin or mucous 
membranes" CScudder). 

GALLA.— NUTQALL. 

'•An excrescence on Querrus Imitanica, Lamarck (Quercus infectoria, Olivier), 
caused by the punctures and deposited ova of Cynips Gallee tinctorise, Olivier. 
Class: Insecta. Order: Hymenoptera"— (C' S. P.). 

Nat. Ord.— Cupuliferffi. 

Synony-ms: Galls, Galln tinctoria, Galla halepense, Galla levantica, Galla quercina. 

Illustration : Bentley and Trimen, Med. Plants, 249. 

Botanical Source. — Quercus Imitanica (Quercus infectoria), is a small shrub, 
or tree, from 4 to 6 feet in height. The stems are crooked ; the leaves borne on 
short petioles, 1 to 1^ inches long, oblong, with a few coarse mucronate teeth on 
each side, bluntly mucronate, rounded and rather unequal at the base, smooth, 
bright-green, and shining on the upper side. The fruit or acorns are solitary, 
long, and obtuse; the cup is scaly and hemispherical (L). 

History. — Dyer's oak, or gall oak, is indigenous to the country from the Bos- 
porus to Syria, and from the Archipelago to the frontier of Persia. It furnishes 
the gall-nuts or galls of commerce. These are produced by the puncture of the 
folia'ceous or cortical parts of the tree by an insect, for the'deposition of its eggs. 
The insect producing the galls of commerce is the Cynips Gallas tinctoria, Olivier 
{Cynips que rcusfolii, of Linn£eus, or Diplolepsis Gallx tinctoriA\oi Geoflroy). After 
the female has made a puncture, she deposits her eggs therein; in consequence of 
the irritation thus caused, an excrescence is soon formed, from the concretion of 
the morbid secretion which subsequently ensues, and which is called galls. The 
larva of the insect is soon developed from the egg, changing first into the pupa 
and then into the imago. Toward the end of July, the young insect, having 
passed through all its stages of transformation into the state of fly, perforates its 

Srison and escapes. The best galls are those which are gathered about the mid- 
le of July, just before the escape of the insect. These are bluish-black, heavy, 
not yet perforated, and constitute the commercial black, bhw, or greni galls. Those 
galls from which the insect has escaped are commonly larger, lighter colored, per- 
forated, and less astringent; they are called ichite galls, and command a lesser 
price in commerce (P. — Ed.). 

Galls are chiefly imported from the Levant, i. c, Syria and Turkey, though 
some valuable grades (rhus galls) are brought in smaller quantity from several 
other countries, e. g., China and Japan (see below). The Aleppo or Syrian galls are 
blue or black; Snrian galls are small and blackish, and the radiation of the inte- 
rior is absent; and the Smyrna galls are grayish or olive-gray green intermingled 
with white galls. European countries also 1'urnish oak galls, r. p., England, Ger- 
many, Italy, but these are decidedly inferior in the amount of tannin they con- 
tain. For an interesting monograjdi on various species of galls, including Ameri- 
can oak galls, see C. H;irtwich, Jrrh. d.r rhann., 1S83, pp. 819 to Sv^l. 

Description and Chemical Composition.— Galls are described by the V. S. P. 
as follows: "Subglobular, 1 or 2 t'm. (• to^inch)in diameter, more or less tuber- 
culated above, otherwise smooth, heavy, hard; often with a circular hole near 
the middle, communicating with the central cjivity: blackish olive-gr»M-n or black- 
ish-gray ; fracture granular, grayish ; in the center a cavity containing either the 
partly developed insect, or pulverulent remains left by it; nearly inodorous, taste 



GALLA. 911 

Strongly a.-Jtriugeut. Light, spongy, ami whitish-colored iiutgall should he re- 
jected "—T. i). P.). Water is the best solvent of galls, and proof-spirit the next ; 
pure alcohol or ether acts more feebly upon them. The chemical reactions of 
galls in decoction or tincture, are similar to those named for tannic arid or t(ni)ii)i 
(gallotannic ncid, vhich see), as this substance exists in galls in large i)ro])or- 
tions. A number of analyses of galls from various sources are recorded in " 7/« 
Tannins" (1S92) by the late Prof. Henry Trimble. The amount of tannin varied 
from 2-1 per cent in European galls (German, English, Italian), to 61 per cent in 
Aleppo g:ill.s, and 69 per cent or more in Chines-e galls. 

H. K. Bowman {Amer. Jour. Pharm., 1869) obtained from selected oak galls 
80 per cent of tannin ; from white galls about 30 per cent; and from good com- 
mercial powdered galls 52 per cent. 

Prof. Trimble (Ainei: Jour. Pharm., 1890, p. 563) found in two species of galls, 
both from Querrus alha, growing in the vicinity of Philadelphia, from 32 to about 
35 per cent of tannin, and 1.11 and 1.71 per cent of a.-^h, referred to dried sub- 
stance. Moisture was 46 and 73 per cent. Trimble ob.served that galls, when 
allowed to air-dry slowlv, will deteriorate in tannin strength, hence must be rap- 
idly dried at 100° C. (2"l2° F.) in order to destroy the insect in whose develop- 
ment the tannic acid seems to be consumed. Gallic acid is present in galls in 
small amounts (about 1.5 per cent). 

Action, Medical Uses, and Dosage.— Galls are astringent, and were used in 
all ca.-;<s win re astringents aio indicateil. as in chronic dysmitenj, diarrhcea, passive 
heiiiorrhiiiji ■■<, aud in ca.'^es of poi.ioning by strychnine, vcratrine, and other vegetable 
nlkaloidi, with which it forms tannates possessing less activity than the other 
salts of these bases. Boiled in milk the decoction is used for the diarrhaa of chil- 
dren. As a local ajiplication, the infusion is employed as an injection in gleet, 
leucorrhiin,3>,'ilap.'iiis a »(, or for a gargle in indolent ulceration of the fauces, relaxed 
uvula, and the chronic stage of mercuried action on the mouth. The addition of alum 
is said to render it more beneficial. Dose of the powder, from 5 to 20 grains; of 
the tincture, ^ to 1 fluid drachm ; of the infusion, from i to 1 fluid ounce. Gallic 
and tannic acids have now supplanted it as a medicine. 

Eelated Galls and Drugs. — Gall.f. Chinenses sep J.\ponic«. Chinese and Japanese 
galli. This iinportaiit variety of galls, containing 70 per cent of gallotannic, or common tan- 
nic aci'l, is (k-rivid from tlie Bhus fi-miatata, Murray, being produced upon the leaf or leaf- 
stalk throiich the agency of the Aphis chinentis, Bell, which punctures the part. These galls 
are hollow, light, very irregular in shape, more or less lobed, and have numerous protuber- 
ances. Their shell is thin, horny and translucent, brittle, and breaks with a smooth, glisten- 
ing fracture. These galls are attenuated toward the base and inflated at the other extrem- 
ity. The shell is of a red-brown color, densely covered with a velvety gray downy pubescence. 
Iiie interii>r of the gall contains a number of dead insects. The Japanese galls are simdar but 
more slender, and have more lobes. Their pubescence is denser than that of the Chinese 
variety, and of a pale brown color. The Japanese galls are thought to be derived from Rhua 
japunica, Siebold. 

Tam.\ri.-k G.\lus. — Product of Tamarix orientalis, Forskal. South and southwest Asia. 
These are knotty, subglobular, and from i to J inch in thickness. They yield tannin to the 
extent of 40 to 50 per cent. Tmnarifk a/ricann, Poiret, of northern Africa, yields a similar gall, 
while the bark and leaves of the Tmnarisk gallica, Linne, are used as astringents in Kurope. 

Amerk AN XuTGALLs.— .Several species of Quercus, especially Queroiia att>a, Linne, yield 
inferior liijht, spongy galls, which contain comparatively little tannin. Forty per cent of tan- 
nin is said to be yielded, however, by aTexan species, the Qnercusvirens, Aiton (see Trimble, The 
ramii'iu). The 'Qiiercus lobala, Engelmann, furnishes California oak-ijaUs, rich in tannin. 

Vai.loxea ( Vahnin), Acorn cups. — Several varieties of acorn cups, including many of our 
indigenous products, are a-stringont. Those of Qnercus Robiir, Linni'', furnish Ihmijaria valoniit, 
while the Orimiid t'lhinia is the pniduct of several species of Quercus from southwestern Asia 
and southeast Enrol"-, especially Greece and Asia Minor, such as (iuercus \'allonect, Kotschy, 
Querent .f^jilupa, Linne, and others. 

B.vssoRA Gali-s contain on an average 27 per cent of tannin. They are ground and sub- 
sequently pressed into rectangular cakee. Persia and Asia Minor produce them, and they are 
employed in tanning. 

Nance Bars.— Probablv from Malpitjhia qiabra. Contains over 2C per cent of tannin 
(Hollierg, Amer. Jour. I'harm.,\'i)\. XVI i. Consiilerably employed by the Mexicans in tanning. 

Bkdeocar. — .\n excrescence, known as Fuwins romrum, produced by the puncture of in- 
sects {fi/nipi) upon the Eijlimliiu- or Su„t brior and other species of tlie rose family. It is 
roundish or irregular, atxiut an inch tlirough, and made uji of cavities, each containing a 
larva. It is feebly astringent ami almost odorless. It was formerly regarded anthelmintic, 
lithontriptic and diuretic, being given in doses of from 10 to 40 grains. 



912 



GARCINIA.— MANQOSTEEN. 



The fruit of Garcinia mangostana, Linne, and other species of Gnrcinia. 

Nat. Ord.— Guttiferse. 

Common Names : Mangosteen, Mangostan. 

Illustrations : Botanical Magazine t., 1847. Of G. indica, Bentley and Trimen, 
Med. Plants, 32. , . , • , 

Botanical Sovirce, Description, and History.— The tree furnishing the man- 
gosteen is large and handsome, liaving elliptic, ohlong or oblong-lanceolate, deep- 
green glossy leaves. The bark of the tree is bitter and exceedingly astringent. 
The fruit is brownish or brownish-gray, marbled with yellow, and is crowned by 
the 4-parted, sessile stigma. There are from 6 to 8 seeds, and the pulp is juicy, 
white, and delicious in taste and odor. It is about the size of an orange. 

Garcinia peduncidata, Roxburgh, yields a yellow fruit having an acidulous 
taste. It is of an inferior quality. 

Garcinia Ki/dia, Roxburgh, yields a small fruit of a deep-yellow color. It is 
of better quality than the preceding variety. 

Garcinia indica, Choisy {Garcinia purpurea, Roxburgh; Brindonia indica, Du- 
Petit-Thouars).— The fruit of this species is of a dull or purplish-red or purple 
color, having also a purple, acid pulp. The pulp, dried in the sunlight and 
slightly salted, is a commercial article, and when fresh the fruit is used in a cur- 
rie in India, where a purple syrup, for use in bilious affections, is also prepared 
from it. The juice is occasionally used as mordant for dyeing purposes. ^ The 
fruit, seeds and bark are all employed in India (Dymock, Mat. Med., Weatcm 
India). The seeds, when bruised and boiled with water, yield the concrete oil of 
mangosteen, known as knkam or kokinn butter. It is hard and friable at all ordinary 
temperatures, has a crystalline structure, and comes pressed in the form of hand- 
molded, egg-shaped cakes. It has a greenish-white or yellowish color, and pro- 
duces the unctuous touch of spermaceti. The fat, as found in market, must be 
strained before being employed in pharmaceutical operations. This removes 
particles of seed, fruit, etc., with which it is usually mixed. This butter is some- 
times used for cooking purposes in India, but is more valuable iu the preparation 
of ointment of nitrate of mercury, for, when added to lard, it gives it a good con- 
sistence for hot climates (Dymock, Mot. Med., Western India). 

Garcinia mangostana is found in the Malay islands. It was grown in the gar- 
dens of the Duke of Northumberland in 1855, and produced both blossom and 
fruit (.see illustration in Bot. Mag. t., 1847). The fruit of this tree is the famous 
mangosian or mangosteen, said to be among the most luscious of tropical fruits. Its 
rind is about the fourth of an inch in thickuess, contains a very astringent juice, 
from which, during wet weather, a j-ellow gum exudes, which is a variety of gam- 
boge. The Chinese use the bark of the tree to produce a black dye, and it is also 
used in dysentery. 

Chemical Composition.— The bitter and astringent rind of the fruit of Gar- 
cinia mangostana, according to W. Schmid, contains tannin, resin, and crystal- 
lizable mungostine (C^H^O,), forming golden-yellow, tasteless scales, melting at 
190° C. (374° F.), readily soluble in alcohol or ether, insoluble in water. Basic 
lead acetate precipitates it from its alcoholic st>lution. Its solution in alkalies 
reduces gold and silver solutions. The acidity of the fruit is due to malic acid. 
The resinous exudation of the trunk of the tree was investigated, in 1858, by 
X. Reitier in Wittstein's laboratory {Viertdjahresschr.f.prakt. PAnrHi.,Vol. VII, p. 
170), and found to consist of 88 per cent of resin, soluble in alcohol and in ether. 
Ammonia differentiates it into a soluble and an insoluble resin. 

Knkam baiter exists in the seeds of Garcinia purpurea to the extent of 30 per 
cent, and consists chieflv of tristearin and the glycerides of oleic and myristic 
acids (./,//(,•,../,. ,/, ,• Pharm:, 1S06, p. 71). 

Action, Medical Uses, and Dosage.— The rind of the fruit is highly recom- 
mended for di/scntert/, and has been extensively employed in India lor that dis- 
ease. A few years ago the rind was introduced into hurope by Gruppe, of Manila, 
who prepared an extract which was administered in the Vienna liospitals, as an 
astringent, with success in nitnrrhn! cmuUtions of the thmni, }:Uuldr . , ■■■*>, -n. and 



CiMTLTHERIA. 913 

uterm, etr. Tlie dose of the solid extract is 1 grain, repeated G or 8 times per day, 
in pill form, or rubbed up with syrup. 

Related Products.— Koi.a Bittkr or Male Kola. These seeds have a coffee-like, 
astriugeut ami bittir taste. Tlu»y are produced by the Garcinia Kola, Heckel, of western 
Africa (see Kola). 

Mammek AiM'LE. — A subglobular, brownish-yellow fruit, about the size of a large orange, 
the pulp of which is yellow and aromatic, ami the rind coriaceous and hitter. The seeds are 
3 or 4 and rough. It is the product of the West Indian Mammca americana, Linne, .A'«(. Ord.-- 
(luttifene. Another fruit is also known in the West Indies as mammee. It is the rusty-brown, 
oblong-ovoid berry of Liiattiia mammosa, Jussieu, of the Nat. Ord. — Sapotacea;. It ha.s one large 
polished seed of a'vellow-brown color. The pulp of the fruit is sweet and uiucilaginous, and of 
a yellowish or reddish color. 

GAULTHERIA.— WINTEROREEN. 

The leaves of Gaultheria prorumbens, Linne {Gaultiera repens, Rafinesque; 
Gautlherui humilis, Salisbury). 

Nat. Ord. — Ericacea-. 

Co.MMON Namks: Wintergrcen, Mountain tea, Deerberry, Teaberry, Boxbei-ry, a.nd 
improperly as Partridgeberry and Checkerbemj. 

iLi.rsTRATioNs : 'Bentley and Trimen, Med. Plants, 164; Bigelow, Medical 
Botany, 22. 

Botanical Source. — Gaultheria procumbens is a native, suffruticose plant, 
with a woody, horizontal root or rhizome, often \ of an inch in thickness. The 
stems are several, ascending about 3 inches from the rhi- 
zome, round and downy. The leaves are alternate, ever- ■^'^' ^^'' 
green, scattered, near the extremities of the branches, coria- 
ceous, shining, oval or obovate, acute at both ends, revolute 
at the edge, furnished with a few small serratures, each ter- 
minating in a bristle. The flowers are few, drooping, axil- 
lary, white, on round, downy stalks. Bracts 2, concave and 
cordate. The calyx is white, cleft into 5 roundish, acute seg- 
ments. The corolla is urceolate, 5-angled, contracted at the 
mouth; the limb divided into 5 short, reflexed segments. 
Stamens 10, rose colored; filaments white, hairy, bent toward 
the corolla; anthers oblong, orange colored, ending in 2 
double horns, bursting outwardly for their whole length 
above the filaments; pollen white. The ovary is roundish, 
depressed, and 5-angled, resting on a reddish, 10-toothed, 
glandular disk; styleerectand straight ; stigma simple. The 
fruit is a small, 5-celled, many-seeded capsule, invested with 
the calyx, which becomes large, round and fleshy, having 
the appearance of a bright scarlet berry .-(L.) _ Gaultheria procumbens. 

History, Description, and Chemical Composition.— 
This ])lant is a native of the United States, growing from Maine to Florida, and 
westward to Pennsylvania and Kentucky, in cool, damp woods, sandy soils, and 
on mountains, flowering from June to October. It does not grow in alluvial soil, 
nor in limestone countries. The leaves are medicinal, yet the whole plant may 
be used ; the leaves have a peculiar fragrance and an agreeable, characteristic 
flavor, with a slight astringency; the berries possess a similar flavor with sweet- 
ness, and are eaten by many; some wild animals, as deer, partridges, etc., use it 
for food. Water, by infusion, and alcohol extract the virtues of the plant. The 
leaves contain an odorous volatile oil, which may be obtained in the same man- 
ner as oil of peppermint. The specific gravity of the oil is 1.173 at 10°C. (50° F.). 
It is colorless at first, but subsequently becomes more or less of a iiinkish color, 
has a hot and aromatic taste, possesses acid properties, and is soluole in alcohol 
or ether (see Okum Gaultheria:). 

Mr. J. Oxley, in 1872, found the leaves to contain glucose, chlorophyll, gum, 
tannic acid, a body analogous to gallic acid, but not yielding pyrogallic acid upon 
heating, and principles found also in uva ursi and chimaphila, viz.: Arhutin, 
ericnlin and tirson. A quantitative proximate analysis of the leaves made by 
F. \V. Droelle {Amer. Jour. Pharm., 1887, p. 289) largely confirmed lliese results. 




914 GELATIXA. 

Volatile oil was found to the extent of i per cent. Gaultheria procumbens was 
ascertained by Prof. Power and N. C. Werbke to be free from andromedotoxin, a 
neutral poisonous principle present in several plants of the natural order Eri- 
cace.e (see Amer. Jour. Pharm., 18S9, p. 361). 

Action, Medical Uses, and Dosage. — Wintergreen possesses stimulant, aro- 
matic, and astringent properties. It is u.«ed in infusion as an a.«tringent in chronic 
mucous discharges, as a diuretic in dysuria, as an emmenagogue, as a stimulant in 
cases of debility, and is said to augment the flow from the lactiferous vessels of 
nursing women, but this is doubtful. It is also recommended as a valuable rem- 
edy for articular and muscidar rheumatism. The infusion and the essence both re- 
lieve irritation of the wethra and bladder, and are adapted to the incipient stages of 
rennlinflammation. Tubal nephritis is alleged to have been arrested by it even 
when examination has revealed in the urine the presence of blood corpuscles and 
tube casts (Webster). Scudder recommends it in spermatorrhaa with increased 
sexual excitement, and as a sedative in irritation and inflammation of the urethra, 
prostate gland and bladder. The volatile oil (see Oleum Gaultheria ), or its tinc- 
ture, is used to render syrups and other preparations more agreeable. The oil 
allays the pain of carious teeth, and large doses of it administered internally have 
caused death by producing inflammation of the stomach; the essence of winter- 
green is a carminative, and is sometimes used in the flatulent colic of infants. 
An infusion of the leaves or whole plant (,y to water Oj ) may be drunk freely. 
Dose of essence, 1 to 30 drops; of specific gaultheria, 1 to 20 drops. 

Specific Indications and Uses. — Cystic and prostatic irritation, undue sex- 
ual excitement, renal inflammation (early stage). 

Related Species. — Gaultheria hinpiduln, or Cancer wintergreen, is supposed to Vm- . fficient 
in removing the carcinomatous taint from the system; used a'lso in fcro/tda and prolapntttUeri. 

Melastoma Ackermanni. — Colombia. Yields an oil probably identical with oil of winter- 
green (methyl salicylate). Used provincially as an anti-neuralgic. 

GELATINA.— GELATIN. 

Purified glue prepared b}' boiling gelatinous animal tissues in water, evapo- 
rating and drying the product in the air. Carefully selected fresh bones are 
preferred. 

Synonyms : Gelatine, Artifiml isinglass, Ghitin. 

Source and History. — Gelatin is found in abundance in various animal sul> 
stances, especially in the skin, cartilages, tendons, membranes and bones. The com- 
mon gelatin of commerce, called glur, is made from trimmings and scra]>s of skins, 
ears, bones and hoofs of animals. It may be obtained by boiling these animal part* 
in water, straining thedecoction, and evaporating it until it forms a jelly on cool- 
ing. This is divided into thin slices of various sizes, which are allowed to dry in 
the open air. The purest variety of gelatin is obtained from the air bladder of 
fishes— e. gr., the sturgeon and codfish — and is named isinglass (see l-hthyocolla). 
The gelatin used for culinary and pharmaceutical purposes, in photography, 
etc., usually called gelatin proper, is carefully prepared from the bones of animals 
from which the fat is previously removed and the earthy matter dissolved out by 
means of hydrochloric acid. (For a detailed description of the processes of manu- 
fiicture involved, see Prof. S. P. Sadtler, Lid. Org. Chetn., 1895, p. 334.) Gelatin may 
also be obtained from the vegetable kingdom, viz. : From certain sj>ecies of sea 
weeds in Asiatic waters (see, for examjile. Agar Agar). 

Description and Chemical Composition.— Glue {Colla). Glue of good 
quality is firm and friable, not easily pulverized, of a light-brown color, and 
translucent. On the addition of water" it becomes soft and swells up, but does not 
dissolve except the water be hot or boiling. When dissolved in Imt water, it is 
much in use for uniting wood and various other substances together, but is too 
impure for internal employment or for a chemical test. Addition of acetic acid, 
or boiling with dilute nitric acid, has the effect of destroying the gelatinizing 
power of gelatin, while its adhesive properties are fully retained. A cement or 
liquid glue is thus obtained, which does not require the aid of heat to render it 
fit for use. A strong, liquid glue, very convenient for a number of objects, and 



even for porcelain, glass, aiul pearl, and which is preferable to that made with 
vinegar or nitric acid, is prepared as follows: To 3 parts of strong glue well 
bruised add )S parts of water, and allow them to remain in contact for several 
hours ; then add i a part of hydrochloric acid, and ^ of a part of sulphate of zinc. 
Expose the whole for 10 or 12 hours to a temperature of 80° to yO° C. (176° 
to 194° F.). 

Gelatin appears in commerce in thin, rectangular, transparent sheets, vari- 
ously marked by impressions received from the nets upon which the moist jelly 
is spread in order to dry. It al.so occurs in smooth, transparent pieces, or in 
thicker, opaque, porous pieces. It is not so thick as pieces of glue. Gelatin comes 
also in shreds and is often artificially colored. After digestion in hut water it 
should develop no odor nor should it change color. Dried gelatin, when di.-;- 
solved in 100 parts of hot water, solidities in the form of a tremulous jelly upon 
cooling. Prolonged boiling of the aqueous solution causes it to lose its gelatiniz- 
ing properties. 

Gelatin diflfers from albuminous bodies in not coagulating in aqueous solu- 
tion on boiling, nor being precipitated Iw nitric acid or potassium ferrocyanide. 
Its aqueous solution is precipitated, however, by alcohol and b}' tannic acid. Upon 
the latter reaction depends the conversion of hide into leather in the process 
of tanning. Two proximate principles may be distinguished in various forms of 
gelatin : G'utin, or gelatin proper, which is tlie gelatinous principle of tendons, 
hides, and the larger bones; and chondrin, v:\nch occurs mostly in the cartilages 
of the ril>.^ and joints and the young bones while yet soft (S. P. Sadtler). (Uutin 
has all the aforenamed properties of gelatin, and has a greater adhesive power 
than chondrin, swelling up in cold and dissolving in hot water, forming a jelly 
upon cooling. When boiled with diluted sulphuric acid or alkali, glycocoll 
(CjHjNO.) and leucin (CsHi,NO,) are chiefly produced. The former substance is 
not formed with chondrin. Dry distillation yields bases of the fatty and the 
pyridine series. Chondrin is precipitated by alum, lead acetates and metallic salts, 
not by corrosive sublimate, while glutin is precipitated by corrosive sublimate, 
but not bv lead acetates, nor by alum or ferric chloride T.S. 

Action and Medical Uses. — Gelatin probably does not affect the growth of 
the bodily structures. In the form of jellies it lias been used during convales- 
cence, but the nutrition derived from these preparations is believed to be due to 
the sugar, etc., usually employed in preparing them. Gelatin may act as a pro- 
tective in rectal enemas, in the treatment of din affect urtis, and in cases of poi-wn- 
ing by corrosive substances. Medicated gelatin (see Gelanthum) is now used to some 
extent in the treatment of skin (//.sw.sr,'!, particularly those of an eczeinatou3 type, and 
in the treatment of catarrhal affections of the imsal passages. 

Gelatin has been introduced here, in consequence of its application in phar- 
macy, for the purpose of promoting certain useful indications.. Several remedial 
agents of a valuable character, are unfortunately so repulsive to the palate as to 
produce nausea and vomiting whenever swallowed, and, as in many instances, it 
is almost impossible to dispense with them, an imjiortant object is to prepare 
them so that they may reach the stomach without offending the organs of taste. 
This has been effected' by inclosing the medicine in a case or cover of gelatin, 
forming what are cMvd'gclalin capsules, invented in France by M. Mothe. There 
are several inetho.ls at the present day for making these capsules; thus the end 
of an iron rod is made bulbous or egg-shaped, and is highly polished; being 
slightly oiled it is dipped into a hot, concentrated solution of 3 parts of pure gela- 
tin, i part of sugar, and 6 parts of water. A number of rods are generally used. 
The rods are then rotated to spread the solution evenly over the mold or bulb, 
and placed, bull) upward, on a board perforated for the jjurpose; when cool and 
dry they may be removed by giving to the cap.sule or bulb a pulling and gently 
twisting motion. These are then filled with the medicine, and the orifice closed 
over with more of the gelatin solution. Sometimes animal membrane, or fine 
skin, distended with mercury, is used instead of the iron bulb. (For a detailed 
method of preparing gelatin capsules, see standard works on pharmacy and Amer. 
.lour. Pharm.,\o\. IX, p. 20). In this way capsules may be made to contain from 
10 to 20 grains of liquid. Since the foregoing appeared in former editions of this 
Dispensatory, commercial empty capsules of all sizes have become a standard 



916 GELATINUM CHONDRL— GELSEMITJM. 

article of commerce. When received into the stomach the gelatin is dissolved, 
allowing the medicine to accomplish its therapeutical influences, li soft capsules 
are demanded a little glycerin added to the gelatin will make the product elastic. 
Capsules are now largely employed for dispensing quinine and similar medicines 
of unpleasant taste. These capsules are oblong, rounded and closed at one end, 
and cut off and open at the other end. It is only necessary to introduce the pow- 
der and slip a second capsule over the open end of the filled one. Folding or 
devorati.ve capsules are thin films of gelatin designed to be used like powder-papers, 
except that after folding upon the powder the edges are made to adhere by mois- 
tening them. When ready to be taken the whole capsule (and powder) is dipped 
in water until softened, and then swallowed. Medicinal pearls of gelatin, com- 
bined with sugar, acacia and honey, are also employed to enclose ether and simi- 
lar fluids. Gelatin (3 parts) and glycerin (7 parts) is sometimes used as a basis 
for bougies and rectal and vaginal medicated suppositories. Gelatin is also used for 
making court-plaster, hectographs, for coating pills, and for estimating the amount 
of tannin contained in a drug or preparation. 

A good paste is made by dissolving best white glue, 3 ounces (av.); refined 
sugar, 1^ ounces; water, 10 fluid ounces, or a sufficient quantity, together by the 
aid of a water-bath, and, while warm, apply it by means of a suitable brush to 
the reverse side of the labels while uncut or in sheets. After being dried and 
moderately pressed they are ready for cutting. Thick paper and not sized will 
require less water than when thin and well sized, and in all cases it should be 
quickly and evenly applied. It can only be used while warm. It does not pene- 
trate the paper and disfigure the labels, is very adhesive, never loosens from glass 
and leaves no disagreeable impression in the mouth after being moistened with 
saliva. 

GELATINUM CHONDRI (N. F.)— IRISH MOSS GELATIN. 

Preparation. — Formulary number, 18-4 : " Irish moss, one thousand grammes 
(1000 Gui.) [2 lbs. av., 3 ozs., 120 grs.] ; water a sufficient quantity. Wash the 
Irish moss with cold water, then place it in a suitable vessel, and add fifty thou- 
sand cubic centimeters (50,000 Cc.) [about 106 pints] of hot water, and heat it on 
a boiling water-bath for 15 minutes, frequently stirring. Strain the decoction, 
while hot, through a strong muslin strainer; return the strained, mucilaginous 
liquid to the water-bath, evaporate it to a semi-fluid consistence, then transfer it 
to shallow, flat-bottomed trays, and evaporate it at a temperature not exceeding 
90° C. (194° F.), so that the gelatin may become detached in scales. Note. — Irish 
moss gelatin thus prepared furnishes a mucilage of Irish moss which is opaque, like 
that made directly from the moss itself. It maybe prepared so as to yield a trans- 
parent mucilage by following the plan pointed out in the Note to Mucilago Chondri 
(F. 275) "~(Nat. Form.). 

Action and Medical Uses.— (See Chondrm.) 

GELSEMIUM (U. S. P.)— GELSEMIUM. 

The rhizome and roots of Oclscmium sempcrvirtns (Linno), Persoon. {Gelaemium 
nitidum, Michaux ; Gelsemium lucidum, Poiret ; Bignonia sempervirens, Linne ; Anotiy- 
mos sempei-virens,\V alter; and Li^^ianthtis sempervireus, 'SliWer). 

Nat. Ord. — Logan iacea;. 

CoM.MON Names: Yellow jasmine, Yellow jessamine. Wild xcoodbiiu, Carolina jag- 
min or je-mimine. 

Illustrations: Johnson, Med. Bat. of K ^1., Plate 7; Meehan, Native Flovxrs 
and Fcrn.'i, I, 9; Hentley and Trimen, Med. Plants, 181 ; Millspaugh's Amer. Med. 
Plants, I'liite 130. 

Botanical Source. — The Yellow jasmine is a handsome climber growing 
along banks and in lowlands and woods. The stem is smooth and twining; the 
leaves opposite, entire, ovate, or lanceovate, nearly evergreen, being dark-green, 
smooth, and shining on top ; paler beneath. The flowers are in axillary dusters, 
showy, and of deep-yellow color, and emit an agreeable, but rather narcotic odor. 



OI.SKMUM. 



on 



The i-aiyx is 5-parted and very small, with acute, lanceovate lohes. The corolla 
is Y to 1^ inches long, with 5-lobed margin; stamens 5, half as long as the corolla, 
and inserted on it. The style is longer than the stamens, and supports two 
2-parted stigmas. The fruit is an elliptical ixhI, 2-celled, 2-valved, and many- 
seeded. The seeds are flat, and attached to the margins of the valves. Owing 
to its evergreen leaves, fragrant llowers, pj^ ^^3 

and the shade it aflords, it is e.xten- 
sivelv cultivated in the gardens of the 
South for ornamentation. 

History. — This strikingly beautiful 
climher, peculiar to our southern cities, 
furnishes one of the most valued and 
universally used Eclectic remedies. It 
is a twining vine, flourishing in great 
profusion from Virginia to Florida, 
hanging in festoons from the neighbor- 
ing treesand shrubs, sometimes growing 
to the height of 50 feet. The average 
height, however, is from 20 to 30 feet. 
The plant blooms in early spring— in 
FloridaduringMarch,and in Mississippi 
and Tennessee in May and June. Dur- 
ing the dowering period it perfumes the 
air with a delightful fragrance similarto 
thatof the true jasmine. When the vine 
is abundant, the odor of the flowers is 
said to be almost overpowering. (.Jel- 
semium is known by several popular 
names, as Yellow jessamine, Yellow jas- 
min, Carolina jessamine, Carolina jas- 
min, and Wild woodbine. The name 
gelsemium wasgiven it by Jussieu, and „, . 

P , . , „ ^ ., Ti 1- 7 • Gelsemium sempervirens. 

19 derived from the Italian gelsomina, 

meaning jasmine. The plant, however, resembles the true jasmine only in its 
fragrance, and belongs to an entirely different natural order. Mr. E. M. Holmes 
(Phnrm.Jour. Trau.-:., 1S75, p. 481) states that it is rather unfortunate that it should 
often be called the Yellow jessamine in America, since there is a true jessamine 
(Jasininiim fniticans, Linne) with yellow flowers, which is often found in cultivation. 
If the name jessamine be ajiplied to Gelsemium xcmjicrvircns at all, it should be 
carefully distinguished as the Carolina jessamine (see also Dr. A. R. i.. Dohme, in 
Druij.Clrc, 1897, p. 179). Gelsemium was formerly known botanically as Bignonia 
sempervirens of Linnscus, and the Gelsemium nilidum, of Michaux and Pursh. The 
name gelsemium, as used exclusively by Eclectics, arose from a typographical error, 
and was widely copied in various writings, and accepted as autboritv before the 
mistake was discovered (see Prof. J. U. Lloyd, in Ec. Mai. Joiir.,{oT Jfarch, 1S92). 
While gelsemium is one of our best remedies, yet, like iris, jihytolacca, and 
other plants, it suffers from worthless representatives on the market. These prepa- 
rations, made from old, dried material, will fail to fulfil the expectations of he 
who administers them for the specific effect. Specific gelsemium, the preparation 
em])loyeil by Eclectic physicians almost exclusively, fully represents the plant. 
Prof J. U. Uoyd informs me that, in the preparation of specific gelsemium, the 
green root only is used. It is gathered in February or in early spring, cut into 
small pieces, put in barrels, and to the contents of each barrel is added 10 gallons 
of alcohol. In this condition it is shipped from the Carolinas (where it is gath- 
ered) to Cincinnati. On arrival, it is dumped into the drug mill and ground, 
alcohol and all, and from this material the specific medicine is made. He further 
states that, in one sea.-on, when the winter was uncommonly mild, the continuous 
growth of the plant caused a large amount of albuminous material to form in the 
root, and that preparations manufactured from such a product threw <lown an 
unsightly albuminous jjrecipitate, which, though it did not impair the therapr-utic 
value of the preparation, remlered it unsalalile. 




918 GELSEMIUM. 

This plant was brought into notice, as far as we can learn, in the following 
manner : A planter of Mississippi, whose name we liave forgotten, while laboring 
under a severe attack of bilious fever, which resisted all the usual remedies, sent 
a servant into his garden to procure a certain medicinal root, and prepare an infu- 
sion of it for him to drink. The servant, by mistake, collected another root, and 
gave an infusion of it to his master, who, shortly after swallowing some of it, was 
seized with a complete loss of muscular power, unable to move a limb, or even 
raise his eyelids, although he could hear, and was cognizant of circumstances 
transpiring around him. His friends, greatly alarmed, collected around him, 
watching the result with much anxiety, and expecting every minute to see him 
breathe his last. After some hours, he gradually recovered himself, and was 
astonished to find that his fever had left him. Ascertaining from his servant 
what plant it was the root of which acted in this manner, he collected some of it, 
and emplo}'ed it successfully on his own plantation, as well as among his neigh- 
bors. The success of this article finally reached the ear of some physician, who 
prepared from it a nostrum called the " Electrical Febrifuge," which was disguised 
with the essence of wintergreen. This plant was the Yellow jessamine, and a 
knowledge of its remarkable effects was not communicated to the profession 
until a later period (King). 

Description. — The best preparations of gelsemium are made from the green 
rhizome, therefore that official in the U. S. P. is not adapted to the uses of the 
Eclectic pharmacist and doctor. That work 
Fig. 119. simply states the " rh izome and roots" without 

specifying whether green or dried, hence it is 
to be inferred that the dried root is the one 
intended. For the sake of completeness we 
give the official description : 

"Cylindrical, long, or cut in sections, 
mostly from 5 to 15 Mm. (i to -f inch), and 
occasionally 3 Cm. {\ inch) tliick, the roots 
much thinner; externally light yellowish- 
brown, with purplish-brown, longitudinal 
Rhizome of Gelsemium eempervirens. lines; tough; fracture splintery, bark thin, 
with silky bast-fibres, closely adhering to the 
pale-yellowish, porous wood, which has fine, medullary rays, and in the rhizome 
a thin pith; odor aromatic, heavy; taste bitter" — {U. S. P.). Gelsemium yields 
its virtues to water or alcohol. The rhizome is several feet iu length (roots in 
Fig. 119 are cut off), with scattered fibers, and is from 2 to 3 lines in diameter to 
nearly 2 inches. The internal part is woody, and of a light-yellowish color; the 
external part, or bark, in which the medicinal virtues are said principally to 
reside, is of a light snuS-color, and from ^ to 3 lines in thickness. The root of 
this plant has been said to contain a resin which is poisonous in very small doses, 
and a tincture, made by digesting it in undiluted alcohol, is stated to have proved 
fatal. This statement is denied, and upon good grounds, for, were it true, death 
would necessarily follow the use of the tincture made with undiluted alcohol, in 
consequence of the presence of this resin, which would still be taken up by alco- 
hol in a proportion corresponding to the alcoholic strength of the solvent. Again, 
it has been asserted, that the deaths, which have occurred where the article was 
used, were owing, not to the gelsemium. but to the presence of another verv poi- 
sonous root, somewhat resembling it, whicli was carelessly or ignorantly collected 
and mixed with it. Others again, state that they have given large doses without 
any serious consequences, and, in one case, 6 fluid drachms of the tincture were 
swallowed by a lad of 20 years of age, without any permanent injury. Notwith- 
standing these statements, death has followed the employment of what was sup- 
posed to be the tincture of gelsemium, in a few instances, and further investi- 
gations are required to determine its probable cause, and whether this agent will 
produce any fatal results in large medicinal doses. Yellow jessamine may be 
administered in decoction, infusion, or tincture. 

Dr. Hiram H. Hill, formerly of the late firm of F. D. Hill tt Co., of Cincin- 
nati, has collected many hundred pounds o( the gelsemium root in the South. I 
am indebted to him for the following statement of it: "The length of the gel- 




tiKLSK.Mir.M, ;iiv 

seiniuin root, in day soil, is from 3 to 10 feet, and on the Magnolia ridges, and 
along small streams, 1 have traced some roots to the extent of 30 feet, although 
the average length is abont 15 feet. Like the roots of many other vines, it is 
hranching, with scattered fibers, and runs horizontally near the surface of the 
ground, sometimes merely under the leaves, for several feet. When first pulled 
up it is very yellow, and has a peculiar odor like that of the tincture, with a bit- 
ter, rather pleasant taste to most persons, at least people were constantly tasting 
or chewing it, while I was collecting it. The vine is of a green color, and always 
runs to the top of the tree or bush on which it fastens, then branches out, cover- 
ing the topmost branches with its thick foliage. I have seen it on trees that were 
50 feet in height, and the size of the vine was the same near the top as at the 
ground ; its general length is from 20 to 30 feet. The bark of the vine is full of 
a silk-like fiber, which is not found in other vines that 1 have seen. On old vines, 
the leaves are about \h inches in length, of a dark-green color, lance-shaped, 
and on short foot-stalks; on young vines or shoots they are longer, and are 4 or 5 
inches apart, while on the old ones they are very close and always oi)posite. The 
Howers are funnel-shaped and yellow. The vine, the root of which is sometimes 
gathered l>y mistake for the gelsemium, resembles it very much in appearance, 
though it is of a lighter color, and the outer bark is covered with white specks or 
marks somewhat similar to those on young cherry or peach limbs, and the lower 
parts of the old vines l)ecome rough, and have small tendrils that fasten upon 
the bark of trees, and which are never seen on the gel.semium. The bark of the 
vine is also more brittle, and the leaves are always on long foot-stalks, which are 
opposite, at the end of which are two opposite leaves, almost exactly resembling 
the leaf of the Ari.''tolochi(t Serpeutaria. The root is almost white, very tough, 
brittle when dry, not so fibrous as the true root, straight, about the same length 
of the medicinal root, and has a slightly bitter, disagreeable, nauseating taste. I 
never saw any of the flowers, though they are said to resemble the others in 
shape, but are pale, dirty-white, with a slight unpleasant odor, by no means like 
that peculiar to gelsemium. The vine is called ]Vhite poison vine and White 
je-<-<(imine'' ( King). 

Chemical Composition. — Mr. Henry KoUock, in 1855 (Amer. Jour. Pharm,. 
Vol. XX\'I1, p. 197 I, found, beside the usual constituents of plant roots, a volatile 
oil, a dry, acrid resin (the yel--<emin of the older Eclectics, see later), and a bitter, 
crystalline, alkaloidal substance which he named geUeminia. Prof. Maisch and 
C. L. Eberle (.4»i^r. Jour. Pharm., 1869, p. 3-5) again obtained this alkaloid; the 
latter stated its being absent from the wood of the root, which was later confirmed 
by Gerrard. In 1870 {Amer. Jour. Phnrm.. \). 1), Prof. Th. G. Wormley, examin 
ing a fluid extract of the root, discovered therein a crystallizable acid, which he 
called (jilsriniiur (or gel-semic) acid, and which is remarkable for the beautiful blue 
fluorescence exhibited by solutions of the acids in aqua ammonia; or other alka- 
lies, even when highly diluted. Chas. A. Robbins, in Prof. Sonnenschein's labora- 
tory (Amer. Jour. Pharm., 1876, p. 191), found gelsemic acid to be non-nitrogenous, 
and pronounced it to be identical with wt^rulin, the characteristic glucosid of horse 
chestnut bark. Prof. Wormlev (Amer. Jour. Pharm., 1882, p. 337) and recentlv, 
Prof. V. Coblentz ( Pror. Amer.' Pharm. A.<mr., 1S97, p. 225) proved, however, that 
gelsemic acid and it.irulin presented some striking differences in solubilities, etc., 
and could not, therefore, be identical. In this connection, it may be said that. 
15 years ago. Prof. F. A. Fliickiger, from gelsemic acid made for him by J. U. 
Lloyd, and asculin made l)y himself, established that they presented certain dif- 
ferences, lie communicated his results by letter to Mr. Lloyd, but thev were not 
published to our knowledge. More recently. Prof. E. Schmidt ( An-hiv (Icr Pharm., 
1898, p. 324) has clearly proved the identity of gelsemic acid with the known sub- 
stance l»'ta-}iiethyl-;t:*ndetin (C^^lfi,'). In harmony with this result are the re- 
searches of Prof. Coblentz, who gave experimental proof of the fact that gelsemic 
acid contains two hydroxyl groups, which agrees with the constitution of that 
substance identified' by Prof. Schmitlt. More doubt exists with regard to the 
alkaloidal i>rinciple, owing to the difliculty of obtaining it in crystallized form. 
Sonnensoliein and Robbins (l.S7fi) gave it the formula C,,H„NO,, while A. W. 
Gerrard ( .Amer. Jour. Pharm.. 1893, ji. 2')()i. evidentlv obtaining it in much purer 
form I (mm th.- purified hydrochlori.le), finds C';,H„NO,. I- Spiegel's results 



920 (lELSEMIUM. 

(1893) agree with the latter formula. Finally, Mr. F. A. Thompson (laboratory' 
of Parke, Davis & Co.) {Pfutrm. Era, 1887, p. 3) believes that, besides this alkaloid, 
which he calls gelsemine, there exists another in gelsemium root, which he calls 
gelsiminme; its hydrochloride is more easily soluble in water than that of the 
first alkaloid. Gelsemine is believed to act as a paralyzing, gel.seminine as a 
tetanizing, medium. A. R. Cushny (Ber. d. Dcutsrh. Chem. Ges., 1893, p. 1725) corro- 
borates the existence of the two alkaloids mentioned. 

Wormley {Amer. Jour. Pharm., 1877, p. 1-50) gives the following directions for 
obtaining from the fluid extract of gelsemium root the alkaloid, gelseminine {yelse- 
mine), SLiid gelsemic acid: Acidulate the fluid extract with acetic acid; atld this 
slowly to 8 times its bulk of water, filter from the resins, concentrate the filtrate 
on the water-bath to somewhat less than the original volume; then abstract gel- 
semic acid by ether, and, subsequently, the gelsemine by ether or chloroform, 
after rendering the fluid alkaline with sodium carbonate. In fluid extracts, pre- 
pared in the quantity of 480 grains of root to the ounce, Prof. Wormley obtained 
a yield of 0.2 per cent of gelsemine and 0.4 per cent of gelsemic acid. 

Comparative analyses of the rhizome, root, and stem of gelsemium, carried 
out in the laboratory of Prof. L. E. Sayre (Amer. Jour. Pharm., 1897, p. 234), showed 
the total absence of the alkaloid and the acid in the stem, while the rhizome con- 
tained 0.2 per cent of alkaloid and 0.37 per cent of gelsemic acid, and the root 0.17 
per cent of alkaloid and 0.3 per cent of gelsemic acid. The alkaloid, gelseminine 
(gelsemine of Thompson), is described by Wormley as a colorless, odorless, intensely 
bitter, basic principle, and was obtained by A. W. Gerrard in crystalline form. 
When pure, it exhibits no color reaction with sulphuric and nitric acids, as 
claimed by Sonnenschein. It is sparingly soluble in water, freely soluljle in acids, 
in chloroform and ether (1 in 25). Its nitrate crystallizes best of all its salts 
(Spiegel, Amer. Joicr. Pharm., ISOo, y. :^.S1). 

Gelsemic acid [beta-methyl ;: •■<riil, tin < it' E. Schmidt), according to Prof. Wormley, 
is a colorless, odorless, nearly t;l^t^•ll's.-, crystallizable acid, readily di.-isolving in 
alkalies with beautiful blue iluorescenct-; sparingly soluble in cold water (1 in 
1000), more easily soluble in hot water; also soluble in chloroform, ether, and alco- 
hol. Its salts formed with heavy metals are soluble, with difficulty, in water. 

Gelsemin, the so-called concentration (resinoid), should not "be emi>loyed for 
at least two reasons. First, it is of uncertain strength and quality. Secondly, 
its name being so similar, both in spelling and sound, to that of the alkaloid, (/e/<*e- 
miwe, that, through mistake, the latter agent might be supplied and serious results 
follow. Death has resulted from such a mistake, consequently it should be dis- 
carded, especially as it is not equal in therapeutic power to the fluid preparations 
of gelsemium. It may be of interest to state that nearly all of the so-called con- 
centrations (excepting podophyllin) of the earlier Eclectics have been discarded 
by the Eclectics of the present day, and are now used almost exclusively by the 
regular school, and especially by European physicians; also, by that class who 
believe that a/i the virtues of a remedy reside in concentrations and alkaloidal 
principles. Clinical experience proves that such preparations do not fulfil the 
indications as do the fluid preparations containing all the solu'^'e medicinal 
ingredients of tlie plant. 

Action, Medical Uses, and Dosage.— Gelsemium powerfully impresses the 
nervous system, though in man it never produces convulsions. Convulsions 
may occur in the lower animals. Small (medicinal) doses relax the muscles, 
especially the levator palpebra-, and allay nervous irritation. A pleasant or lan- 
guid sense of ease and relaxation is usually experienced, accompanied in the case 
of larger doses by a tendency of the lower jaws to drop, and a difficulty in manag- 
ing the eyelids. Sometimes sensation is lost first; again, and usually, muscular 
paralysis is the first to take place. The continued administration of it effects the 
brain (indirectly), spinal centers, and medulla, causing marked feebleness of mus- 
cular movements, confusion of vision, and vertigo. Large doses paralyze tlie 
spinal cord and cause almost complete loss of muscular power. Reflex action is 
depressed with tiie loss of muscular power, and these and the lack of sensibility, 
which usually takes place, are due to its action upon the sitinal marrow. Con- 
sciousness may be lost, but it is usually retained even wlien toxic (loses have been 
taken. When fatal, however, dissolution is iisually jireceded by lo.<s of eonsrious- 



GKLSKMIUM. 921 

ness. The c'liaracl«»ristic toxic symptoms are palpebral relaxation, ili^turbance 
of the ocular muscles, the dropping of the lower jaw, and the jirofound prostra- 
tion and muscular relaxation. The pupil dilates, there is drooping of the eye- 
lids (ptosis), and double vision (.diplopia). Applied locally to the eye, it dilates 
the pupils and interferes with the action of the muscles of accommodation. The 
pulse is slowed to 30 or 40 beats, and there is a marked decrease in temperature. 
Respiration is at first (juickened, then slowed, breathing becomes shallow, and the 
action upon the heart appears to depend upon the efl'ect upon respiration. As a 
rule, the mental faculties are not directly atlected by it, unless it bedue to accumu- 
lation of cari>on dioxide, the result oi" respiratory paresis. Occasionally, death 
results from overdoses, and, when it does so occur, is due to asphj'xia. Persons 
are reported to have been poisoned by eating honey gathered Ijy the bees from 
gelsemium dowers. 

Gelsemium is said to increase the tetanizing power of strychnine. The post- 
mortem appearances after death from gelsemium present nothing specially char- 
acteristic. Twelve minims of the fluid extract have been asserted to have killed 
a boy of 3 years, yet recoveries have taken place from much larger doses. Death 
from gelsemium usually takes place in from 1 to 8 hours. (For report of two fatal 
cases, see Taylor's Mal.'JurLsp., 1892, p. 164.) 

In poisoning by gelsemium or its alkaloid, gelsemine, evacuate the stomach 
by emetics or stomach pump, administer, hypodermatically, morphine and atro- 
pine, use friction, internal stimulation, hot drinks, external heat, etc. Tannin 
and the alkalies and their carbonates are reputed chemically antagonistic. Arti- 
ficial respiration should be resorted to, and the heart should be sustained by digi- 
talis and similar aicents. As but few cases of poisoning by gelsemium have 
occurred, tlie antidotal treatment is as yet not well established. 

rhera[)eutically, gelsemium acts upon the cerebro-spinal nerve centers, dimin- 
ishing; the blood supply to them, as in determination of the blood to the head 
and spine, thereby preventing spasmodic action. Consequently, in dde-nnination 
of the hlood to the hraia and npinalcord and their appendages, or in mJUimmotori/ condi- 
tion;! of the rerebro-.spinal system, the drug would be clearly indicated. It is never 
the remedy for congestion. Prof. Scudder has pointed out as the specific indica- 
tions for it: "The Hushed face, bright eye, contracted pupils, increased heat of 
head, great restlessness, and excitation." With these may be associated a general 
headache. Bearing these indications in mind, the drug will be found useful in 
the diseased conditions named in this article. Gelsemium was first employed in 
febrile tliseascs, as bilious, remittent, typhoid and malarial feveis. In these condi- 
tions, it was found t<i have such a marked antipyretic action that it rapidly rose 
in favor among the earlier Eclectics. More pronounced effects were looked tor by 
the Eclectic fathers than are now known to be most desirable. They regarded it 
as the only agent ever yet discovered capable of subduing in from 2 to 20 hours, 
and without the least possible injury to the patient, the most formidable and 
most complicated, as well as the most simple/ewr« incident to our country and 
climate, quieting all nervous irritability and excitement, equalizing the circula- 
tion, promoting perspiration, and rectifying the various secretions, without caus- 
ing nausea, vomiting, or purging. They also believed it adapted to any stage of 
the disea.se, while the majority of those who now employ it believe it best adapted 
to the earlier stages of fevers, and seldom of marked value, if not harmful, in the 
advanced stages, or after the period of excitation has passed. It may follow any 
preceding treatment with safety. It is best suited to sthenic cases with determi- 
nation of biuoil to nerve centers. It is to its controlling influence over nerve irri- 
tation that its antipyretic action is mainly due. As soon as its physiological efi'ects 
are observed, the remedy should be discontinued, lest the relaxation may be too 
great for the system to recover from. A writer observes that his experience in 
the treatment of fevers, with this agent, inclines iiim to believe that when given 
in do.ses Bufliciently large to produce its full and complete constitutional eflects, 
it impairs the tonicity of the mu.scular fibers of the heart (which are always 
weakened in those feversj, and thus retards or prolongs convalescence. Gelse- 
mium is a remedy for elevation of temperature, whether from cold, or due to 
graver affections, as the fevers above notice<l, or whether due to pneumonid.pleiiriinj, 
or even puerperal fever, in which it is often of marked value. Chilly sensations 



922 GELSEMIUM. 

upon moving the body are indications for it, and are usually followed by the 
high temperature and the stage of excitation, in which the drug has earned its 
reputation. 

Gelsemium possesses a most perfect control over the nervous system, remov- 
ing nervous irritability more completely than any other known agent. Such 
agents as passiflora increase its efficiency in this direction. Prof. W. E. Bloyer 
(E. M. J., 1894, p. 532) writes: " There is a species of nervousness that gelsemium 
always overcomes. The patient says that he is 'nervous.' He is grouchy, touchy, 
every impulse and feeling, whether painful or pleasant, is magnified or accelerated, 
and the contracted pupil is not always specially noticeable. If the patient be 
nervous and without fever or inflammation, give him Pulsatilla; with these, give 
Gpecific gelsemium."' 

By allaying nervous excitement and restoring the secretions it prepares the 
system for quinine, for quinine is very frequently associated with gelsemium in 
the treatment of various conditions. In i\\e fevers and inflammations of children 
this irritation is often marked, and frequently results in convulskyiis. These cases 
are promptly relieved b\' gelsemium, which, as an antispasmodic, is second to no 
other drug. Its power is well displayed in cnnvulsions from dentition, and in like 
conditions from inflammatory states of the digestive tract, as enteritis, gastro-enteritis, 
especially in bowel troubles of the second summer, as cholera infantum, diarrh(xa, and 
dysentery. Its powerful antispasmodic action makes it especially applicable to 
hysterical females. In hysteria, begin with 1 drop and increase until the muscles 
relax and diplopia results. In convulsions, with cramping rigidity of the muscles, 
give gelsemium until its physiological effects are produced. Neuralgia, with pow- 
erful nervous twitching, is relieved by it. Toothache, from peridental inflamma- 
tion, is relieved by it as well as that form of toothache frequently accompanying 
pregnancy. It is a good agent in facial neuralgia from nerve excitation and dart- 
ing pain, from cold, or from dental caries. Administer in drop doses. Insomnia 
is often relieved by gelsemium. It is prominent as a remedj' for pain, though the 
specific indication (nervous tension) should be present or the remedy will be 
likely to fail. There must also be evidence of increased circulation — hyperemia 
of the part. In headache, with active circulation, and especially from eye strain, 
in migraine, in nervous headache, and in myalgia, administer small doses. It also 
benefits bilious headache and tic-douloureux. For ovarian neuralgia full doses are 
necessary. It benefits intercostal neuralgia and sciatica. It relieves the tenesmus 
of dysentery and other spa-STnodic conditions of the bmceh. It is a valuable agent in 
chorea, and it has been used with marked success in epilepsy and tetanu.^, its efTects 
in the latter affection having been very favorable. In spasmodic cmulitions of the 
urinary tract it is frequently indicated. It produces relaxation during the passage 
of renal calculi. Scanty flow of urine, with irritation of urinary passages, calls 
for gelsemium. It should generally, unless specially contraindicated, be given 
previously to or with the indicated diuretic, when urinal suppression is due to 
renal or cystic irritation (not congestion). It is the remedy for dysuria from spas- 
modic urethral stricture. Hot applications to the loins and back aid its action. It 
acts promptly in the retention of urine in the hysterical woman. It is a good rem- 
edy in gonorrhoea, and some cases oi spermatorrhaia in plethoric subjects have been 
cured by it, though as a rule it is far less serviceable than otlier agents in noc- 
turnal emissions. One of its early uses was for gonorrluva, for which it was 
thought to be almost specific. For the early inflammatory stages of this affec- 
tion, with tendency to chordee, no agent is more prompt than gelsemium. It is 
frequently given with aconite and cannabis indica for this purinise. Gelsemium 
quickly relieves the tenesmic pain, ischuria, etc., of i>ri><7//if catarrhal cottdittoiis 
of the hiadder. Jnflamnmtimi of the kidneys, bladder or urethra, are relieved by gel- 
semium. In puerpenU convulsions it has probably been used oftener than any other 
remedy, excepting morphine and chloroform. 

In the pelvic disorders of women it is a favorite remedy. With the usual 
indications it subdues oraritis, metritis, and salpingiti.t. Severe dysmenorrhaa with 
colicky pains, and uterine colic are promptly relieved by large doses of it. Rigid 
OS uteri, with thin, unyielding edges, and "a dryness of the parts, is relaxed by 
gelsemium. In fact, it relaxes all sphincters. "By rectifying such complications 
it facilitates labor. Free doses should be administered. CJelsemiu.n, alone or 



combined with pulsatilla, is iiivaluiiblo t<> overcome the marked restlessness 
evinced V>y some parturients, and gelsemium will often retard a labor that has 
begun before the parts are ready for the ordeal, i>articularly when the woman is 
excessively excitable and nervous, and the pains are spurious, or at least jerky 
and ineffectual. The vervoiis teimon following accouchement is quickly relieved 
by this drug. After-}jains are controlled by it, and it is serviceable in some forms 
of lewitrrhau. 

By blunting peripheral sensibility it allays the itching of erzema, and locally 
applied (diluted ) is serviceable in pruritjo. Delirium tremetis, mania, and paralysis 
have been treated successfully with this drug. It has also been employed to 
some extent as a mydriatic in eye practice. I'rof. King derived considerable ad- 
vantage from gelsemium in covj u mi i litis, muscular asthenofiia, iritis, and in tiitnitus 
(iHrtHHi, administered in small doses every 3 or 4 hours; being extremely careful 
not to carry the influence of the agent to depression or relaxation. Dr. J.Par- 
rish, of Philadelphia, derived the greatest benefit from tlie administration of this 
drug, in cases of habitual drunkards and opiuui eaters. Gastro-intestimd irritation 
and irritative d;/spcpt:ia, with feeling of rawness, heat, and pain, with a sensation 
of knotty contraction in the stomach, call for gelsemium. In the cxanthimata 
this remedy is often indicated by the great heat and restlessness. It is nearly 
always called for in cerebrospinal mcniin/itis. In the recent epidemics oi influenza 
(In gripjie) probably no one remedy was more extensively used, or oftmer indi- 
cated. Where there were persistent high temperature and headache, with great 
excitability, it acted promptly and kindly. Gelsemium has been used quite 
extensively in vhoojiinci-rough, ^lasmodic cough, spasm of the glottis, o.-^thma, and the 
cough of htjstcrin. In ejxessire action of the heart, especially in liysterial subjects, 
it is often serviceable. Gelsemium has also proved beneficial in vertigo, hcmor 
rhage-^, ague-cake, gout and rheumatism, in the latter disease aiding some of the 
antirheumatic remedies. Bronchitis, lari/ngitis and albuminuria have also been 
successfully treated with gelsemium. Externally, gelsemium will be found of 
service* in neuralgic and rheumatic pains. The usual prescription is from 5 to 15 
drops of specific gelsemium in 4 ounces of water. Dose, a teaspoonful. For the 
larger doses begin with 1 drop, and administer cautiously until the physiological 
effects are ajtparent. Dose of spi'cific gelsemium, y'^ drop to 10 drops. 

Specific Indications and Uses. — Gelsemium is indicated by bright eyes, 
contracted pupils, flushed face, great heat, and restlessness ; mental irritability; 
insomnia, with excitation ; pain over the whole head; dysuria, with scanty secre- 
tion of urine; irritation of the urinary tract ; pinched, contracted tissues; thin, 
dry, unyielding os uteri, with dry vaginal walls; arterial throbbing and exalted 
sensibility: chilly sensations upon motion; hyperemia; and convulsions. 

GENISTA.— GENISTA. 

The young branches and leaves oi Genista tinetoria, Linne. 

Nat. Ord. — Leguminosa-. 

Common N.\mks : Dyer's green-weed. Wood-waxen, Green ireed, Dyer's broom. 
Dyer's weed. 

Botanical Source and History. — This plant is an erect shrub, about a foot 
high, and is a native of Central Europe. It is quite common in poor soil 
throughout England, and has been naturalized, and grows abundantly, in a few 
localities of the eastern United States. The stem is short, woody, anil sends uj> 
numerous erect branches. The leaves are simple, a character distinguishing the 
plant from most of the native leguminous plants. They are narrowly lanceolate, 
acute, entire, sessile, alternate, and attached to the stem at an acute angle. The 
flowers are numerous, bright vellow, and are borne in terminal, showy racemes. 
The calyx is 2-lipped, with a deeply '2-lobed upper, and a 3-lobed lower lip. The 
corolla is papilionaceous, and the 10 stamens are united into a complete tube at 
the base. The fruit is a flat, several-seeded pod. 

There are three English species of Genista, two unarmed; G.tinctoria,yi'\i\i 
smooth, and (;. pilosa, with hairy, leaves. The armed species, G. angliea, has sharp, 
eimjile thorns. The leaves of G.purgans, a native of France, are used as a cathartic. 



924 GEXTIAXA. 

Little is known of tlie cliemical history of the several species of GenUta. Dr. 
Plugge (^Jahresb. dcr Phcmn., 1895, p. 134), investigating the occurrence of the alka- 
loid cytisine in various species of Papilionacete, found Genista tinctoria and G.pUosa 
to be free from this substance. Genista tinctoria has been in some little repute 
as a medicine since the day of Culpepper. The flowers yield an inferior yellow 
dye. The dried plant possesses scarcely any taste. It must not be confused with 
Broom tops (Scoparius). 

Action, Medical Uses, and Dosage. — Both the flowers and the seeds have 
been employed in medicine, in dropsinil, (iffa-tions, and with considerable efficacy. 
Sixty grains of the powdered seeds })rodu'(e active catharsis, and even emesis,and 
is the dose generally advised in dropsy. An iiifusicjn of the flowers has been ad- 
vantageously emploj'ed in gout and rheumatism, and is also stated to have been 
successful in several cases oi albu in inuria,'u\ doses of 2 tablespoon fuls every 1 or 2 
hours. Probaljly a tincture would be found more available. Formerly this plant 
had an unmerited reputation fi ir the prevention, as well as the cure, of hydrophobia. 

Specific Indications and Uses. — "Ascites, and cedema with cutaneous dis- 
ease, or erosion of tlie skin with exudation" (Scudder, Spec. Med.). 

GENTIANA (U. S. P.)— GENTIAN. 



"The root oi Gentian a lutea,Lmne"—(U. S. P.). 
Nat. Ord. — Gentianete. 
Common Names: Gent inn, Gentian-root. 
Illustration- : Bcntley and Trimen, Med. Plants, 182. 

Botanical Source. — This plant has a long, thick, cylindrical, wrinkled, 
ringed, t'orki'd, perennial root, brown externally, and yellow within. The stem 
is 3 or 4 feet high, hollow, stout, and erect. 
^'^' ^^°- The radical leaves are ovate-oblong, o-nerved, 

and 2 or 3 inches broad; those on the stem 
sessile, ovate, and acute; those next the flow- 
ers cordate, amplexicaul, and concave; all 
are a pale, bright-green. The flowers are large, 
bright-yellow, in many-flowered whorls, and 
peduncled; the calyx is monophyllous. of a 
papery texture, semitransparent. 3 or 4-cleft, 
with short, lanceolate, unequal segments. 
The corolla is rotate, with a very short tube, 
or 6 green glands at the base. 5 or 6-parted, 
with oblong, acute, narrow, veiny lobes; the 
stamens, 5 or 6 in number, are not so long as 
the corolla; the anthers are subulate, some- 
what united, becoming distinct; the ovary 
conical; the stigmas se.«sile and revolute; the 
capsule stalked, oblong, 2-val ved. and 1-celled, 
and the seeils are many and flattened, with 
thin, brownish edges (L.\ 

History and Description.— This plant 
is common to the central and southern parts of Europe, especiallv the Pvrenees. 
Alps, etc., being found from 3,000 to 5,000 feet above the level of the sea. Its 
root affords the medicinal portion, and is brought to this market from Havre, 
Marseilles, etc. The U. S. P. describes it as follows : 

"In nearly cylindrical pieces or longitudinal slices, about 25 Mm. (I inch) 
thick, the upper portion closely annulate, the lower portion longitudinally wrin- 
kled; externally deep yellowish-brown; internally lighter; somewhat flexible 
and tough when damp; rather brittle when dry; fracture uneven; the bark 
rather thick ; separated from tiie somewhat spongy medituUium by a black cam- 
bium line; odor peculiar, faint, more prominent when moistened; taste sweetish 
and persistently bitter" — {U. S. P.). 

The root imparts its virtues readily to cold or hot water, alcohol, or sulphuric 
ether. A licjuor iM-ejiart'd from it in some parts of Switzerland is much j^rized a* 




Gentiana lute 



GEXTIANA. 925 

a stomachic; it is made lij' macerating; tli<- root in cold water, addiiif; some sugar, 
yeast, and distilling after vinous lermentation has occurred. Fliickiger {Phamui- 
cofinoitU', 1891 ), states that as a consequence of this use, the plant has almost dis- 
ai)peared fmni some i)arts of Switzerland. 

Chemical Composition. — Tlie following three proximate principles are the 
characteristic constituents of gentian root: Gentiopikrin, of Kromayer ( IS62), to 
which the root owes its hitterness; gcntUin, of Hlasiwetz and Habermann (1875), 
a yellow, tasteless substance, whose reactions with ferric chloride seem to have 
l> -en mistaken for those of tannin (see Maisch, A mtr. Jnur. Pharm., 1876, )i. 4.S6, and 
iS'^0, p. 1); and gmtlmwse, of Arthur Meyer (1882), a crystallizable, fermentable 
suiiar, not reducing Feliling's solution, and which occurs in the fresh root only. 
The root also contains a volatile oil to which its odor is due; fatty and resinous 
matter, uncrystallizable sugar, large quantities of mucilage, about 8 per cent of 
ash, but no starch. Drying the root seems to have the effect of increasing the 
resinous matter (Fliickiger, P/mrmarorinosie, ISltl i. 

Gkntiopikrin (0„H„0,;\ first olitained pure by Kromayer (Arch, der Pharm., 
1S62, Vol. CLX, p. 27), was previously described as gpntianin by Henry and Caven- 
tou (1821), and later differentiated by Trommsdorfl', Leconte, and Dulk into the 
bitter gentuinin and the non-bitter acid geutmn or gintu<ic acid. 

Gentiopikrin is completely abstracted from aqueous solution by animal char- 
coal; on this principle it* purification was affected. It crystallizes in needles 
of bitter taste, soluble in water and alcohol, in.soluble in "pure ether. It is a 
glucosid, being decomposed liy diluted acids into sugar and amorphous, yellow- 
brown, bitter _(;<;/i?«:i^<?)u/i (CnHijOj). Kromayer obtained from (i pounds of fresh 
root only 4 grammes of crystallized gentiopikrin. Fluckinger ( 1891) records that 
alcoholic tinctures of gentian root lose their bitterness upon standing, crystallized 
dextrose being deposited (Crawfurd and Wittstein). Allcali likewise destroys the 
bitterness of the tincture. 

Ge.ntisis (C„H,„05), of Hlasiwetz and Habermann (Jaresb. der Pharm., 1874, 
p. 309), forms yellow, tasteless needles, nearly insoluble in water and ether, crys- 
tallizable from alcohol. The researches of Kostanecki and his pupils (JBer. d. 
Deutxrh. Chem. Ges. i^^/'., 1891 and 1894) have shown that this sul)stanee is a trioxy- 
xiDith'mr belonging to the same class of substances as chi-i/.fiv, iinercetin, fi-^din, and 
other vegetable dyes. Fusing with caustic potash splits gentisin into acetic acid, 
phloroglucin. and oxysalicylic acid (CjH^Oj, an isomer of protocatechuic acid: 
it was probably the gentunc or gnUinnir arid of older authors. In 1894, Kostanecki 
and Tambor succeeded in effecting the complete chemical synthesis of gentisin 
(which is methyl-gentUrin, Kostanecki, 1891); gentise'in (CuHsOs+H.O) being the 
intermediary produet ( Bn: d Deuisch. Chem.'Oes. Ref., 1894, p. 190). G.W. Kennedy 
i .\iner. .lr,)ir. /"';/;i., 1881, p. 280), found gentiopikrin and gentisin also in the root 
of Frn.-^era W , •. ■/ (wliich see). 

Action, Medical Uses, and Dosage. — A i>owerful tonic, improves the appe- 
tite, strengthens digestiim, gives more force to the circulation, and slightly elevates 
the heat of the body. When taken in large doses it is apt to oppress the stomach, 
irritate the bowels, and even produces nausea and vomiting, as well as fullness of 
pulse and headache. Its administration is contraindicated where gastric irrita- 
bility or inflammation are present. Used in cases of debility and exha^tstimi, and in 
all cases where a tonic is required, as di/fpepsid, gout, ameiwrrhaa, hysteria, scrofula, 
interm,ittent*, diarrhfen, worms, etc. A tincture made by percolation of 1 part of 
podophyllum and 6 parts of gentian, diluted alcohol being the menstruum, 
was prized by Prof. Scudder as one of the most efficient remedies for "■atony of the 
Ktonvich and bowels with feeble or slow digestion" (S/iec. Med.). Gentian is valuable 
to relieve irritation and increase the appetite, after protracted fevers, where the 
powers of life are depressed and recovery de]>ends upon ability to assimilate food. 
Dose of the powder, from 10 to 30 grains ; of the extract, from 1 to 10 grains; of 
infusion, 1 or 2 fluid ounces; of tincture, 1 or 2 fluid drachms; of specific gen- 
tian a, 5 to 40 drops. 

Dr. Kiichenraeister believes that impure and nncrystallized gentianin (see 
previous editions of the Amer. /)(-•</).) is the most valuable substitute for quinine, 
acting as rapidly and as eflicaciously on the spleen, in doses of from 15 to 30 
grains twice a day. 



926 GENTIAN A OCHROLEUCA. 

Specific Indications and Uses.— "Sense of depression referred to epigastric 
region, and associated witii sense of physical and mental weariness" (Scudder, 

List of Specific Judications). 

Related Species.— '7m(iana Catesbsri, \V alter {Gentinna Saponaria, hinn^) , Blue or Ameri- 
can gentian, has a perennial, branching, somewhat flesliy root, with a simple, erect, rough 
stem, 8 to 10 inches in height. Leaves opposite, ovate or lanceolate, slightly 3-%-eined, acute, 
rough on the margin. Flowers large, blue, crowded, eubsessile, axillarj', and terminal. Calyx 
divided into 4 or 5 linear-lanceolate segments longer than the tube. Corolla large, blue, ven- 
tricose, plaited ; its border divided into 10 segments, the outer .5 roundish and more or less 
acute, the inner 5 bifid and imbricate. Stamens 5, with dilated filaments and sagittate anthers. 
Ovary oblong-lanceolate, compressed, supported by a sort of pedicel. Style none; stigmas 2, 
oblong, reflexed. Capsule oblong, acuminate, 1-celled, 2-valved (L. — B.). It grows in the 
grassy swamps and meadows of North and South Carolina, flowering from September to De- 
cember. The root is about J inch in thickness and 3 inches long, having a vivid, yellow, epi- 
dermal covering, under which is a whitish, spongy, cortical layer enclosing a thin column of 
woody tissue. Its bitterness is less pronounced than that of the official drug. It is little infe- 
rior to the foreign gentian, and may be used as a substitute for it in all cases, in the same 
doses and preparations. Alcohol and boiling water extract its virtues. Probably the Gentiana 
Andrewfii, Grisebach, or Cloied him gentian, the Gentiana puberula, Michaux, and the -Gentiana 
crinita, Frcelich, or Blue fringed gentian, possess analogous medicinal virtues. Maisch believed 
the two first-mentioned to be collected indiscriminately with the Gentiana Cateshni, of Walter, 
The same author also found the root of Gentiana crinita, Frcelich, and of G. C"fes'),ti',AV alter, 
to be free from tannin {Amer. Jour. Pharm., 1876, p. 487). 

The following European species are sometimes gathered and used like gentian : 

Gentiana purpurea, Linn^. South and Central Europe, in Alpine meadows. Differs from 
gentian root only in having a peculiarly branched top, and being of a more pronounced bitter. 
Flowers yellow-purple. 

Gentiana puncUita, Linn6. South and Central Europe, Alpine districts. Resembles pre- 
ceding. Flowers yellow and dotted with purple. 

Gentiana pannonica, Scopoli. Austrian mountain districts. Root smaller than that of 
G. purpurea, but similar in other respects. Flowers deep-purple. 

GENTIANA OCHROLEUCA.— OCHROLEUCOUS GENTIAN. 

The root and tops of Geiitlana ochroleum, Froelich. 

A^at. Ord. — Gentianeaj. 

Common Names: Marsh gentian, Yellowish-wkUe gentian, Straw-colored gentian^ 
Sampson snnkeroot, etc. 

Botanical Source. — This plant has a stout, ascending stem, mostly smooth, 
from 1 to 2 inches in height. The leaves are from 2 to 4 inches long, ^ of an inch 
to 1^ inch wide, obovate-oblong, sessile or amplexicaul, margin slightly scabrous, 
narrowed at the base, the lowest broadly ovate and obtuse, the uppermost some- 
what lanceolate. The flowers are straw-colored, 2 inches long, f of an inch thick, 
disposed in a dense, terminal cyme, often also in axillary cymes. The calyx 
is 5-cleft, the lobes unequal, linear, longer than the tube, and shorter than the 
corolla. The corolla is clavate, connivent or slightly expanding at the top, ochro- 
leucous or straw-colored, with green veins and lilac-purple stripes internally ; the 
lobes are ovate and obtuse; the folds entire, acute, and short. Anthers separate. 
The ca])sule or pod is included in the persistent corolla. The seeds are entirely 
wingless ( \V. — G.). 

History. — This plant is found growing in dry grounds, especially through 
the middle and low country of the southern states, flowering in September and 
October. Said likewise to inhabit Canada, and the western states, but this must 
be rare. The root is the medicinal part, and the tops are also often employed. 
Thoy are bitter to the taste, and probably possess the medicinal properties, in a 
greater or less degree, of the other plants of the same family. Alcohol or lioiling 
water extracts their virtues. None of the American Gentians seem to have been 
satisfactorily analyziMl. 

Action, Medical Uses, and Dosage.— Bitter tonic, antheluiintic,and astrin- 
gent. Fornit ily niiuli used in diispepsia, intermktcnts, dysentery, o.n^ all diseases of 
periodicity. To 2 ounces of the tops and roots, pour on H pints of boiling water, 
and when nearly cold, add ^ pint of brandy. Dose, from A to 4 fluid "ounces, 
every ^ hour, gradually increased as the stomach can bear it, at the same time 
lengthening the intervals between the doses. Also used for biles </ snakes, and 



GENTIANA QlUNQl'EKLORA.— OKRANIIM. 927 

in typhus fever:, pneumonia, etc. This is ii valuable agent, and deserves greater 
attention from the profession than it has received. It will be found very useful 
as a tonic to all enfeebled mucous tissues, and especially when there is more or 
less mucous discharge, as in chrmiic catarrhal affections, 7Hucotw diarrhcea, etc. 

GENTIANA QUINQUEFLORA.— FIVE-FLOWERED GENTIAN. 

The root of Gentiana ijuinqucjiom, Lunmrck. 

Nat. Onl. — Gentianea". 

C0M.M0N Names: Five-Jlowetrd gentian, Gall-u^ed. 

Ii.i.i-STRATio.N- : Botaninil Maga'zinc, Plate 3496. 

Botanical Source. — This is an annual jilant, found in woodland pastures 
and otlur oinu situations in the eastern section of the United States. Tlie stem 
is smooth, erect, 4-angled, and from 1 to 2 feet high. The leaves are opposite, 
entire, sessile, slightly cordate, clasping the stem at the base, and aiute at the 
apex. They are about 1 inch long, and have from 3 to 5 veins proceeding from 
the base. Tlie flowers, which ai)poar late in the summer, and open only in sun- 
shine, are of a bright-blue color, and erect. They are borne on loose panicles, in 
axillary and terminal clusters of 3 to 5, on pedicels shorter than the flowers. The 
calyx is about one-quarter the length of the corolla, and is deeply 5-parted, hav- 
ing very narrow, linear lobes. The corolla is smaller than in the other native 
species of Gentian;!, being slightly less than an inch in length. It is narrowly 
bell-shaped, and has 5 acute, sliort lobes. The stamens are 5, and attached to the 
corolla tubes; they have versatile anthers, which are introrse when the tlower ex- 
pands, but at length turn away from the pistil. The pistil consists of a 1-celled 
ovary, sup)iorted on a slender stii)e, and bears 2 distinct, sessile stigmas. The 
fruit is a dry capsule, opening by 2 valves, and tilled with very numerous small 
seeds. The plant above described is the form of (ientiana quinqueflora occurring 
in the eastern section of the United States. A western variety t var. occidentalis. 
Gray) difl'ers in being more rolnist, and in having the calyx-lobes half the length 
of the corolla. It occurs in the prairies of Illinois, and throughout the neigh- 
boring states, and southwardly. 

History and Description.— This plant was recommended a.s a substitute for 
quinine, the ru<it being employed. As found in the market, under the above 
name, it is about the size of senega, has the general appearance of this root, ex- 
cepting tlie angled form and ridge. It has a smooth bark, which is light-yellow 
externally, and white within. It breaks with a clear fracture and is hard and 
woody. The taste is very bitter, resembling the Apocynums rather than Gentiana 
lutea. It has never been cliemically examined. The plant grows in woods and 
pastures, flowering in September and October, and is found from Vermont to 
Pennsylvania. 

Action, Medical Uses, and Dosage.— Gentiana quinqueflora. Five-flowered 
gentian, SDinctiiiits called Gall-weed, on account of its intense bitterness, has been 
found of niuih servii e in hntdiu-li, , linr affcrllons, jaundice, etc., and is greatly supe- 
rior in it.s action to the olhcial root. This is certainly a valuable tonic and 
cholagogue, and deserves further investigation. It is regarded a valuable agent in 
chronic (/nstro- intestinal atony. Dose of a saturated tincture of the recent root, from 
5 to 40 drops. 

GERANIUM lU. S. P.)— GERANIUM. 

"The rhizome of Geranium vuwulalum, Linne" — {U. S. I'.). 

Nat. Ord. — Geraniacea-. 

CoMMO.v Names: C'ranesbill, Wild cranesbill, Crowfoot, Spotted (jcranium. Alum- 
root, etc. 

IlU'strations: Bentlev and Trimen, Med. Pl<ntts, -I'i ; Johnson's Med. Bat. of 
N. A., Plate 4. 

Botanical Source. — Geranium has a perennial, horizontal, thick, rough and 
knobby root, with many small fibers. The stems are grayish-green, erect, round, 
clothed with reflexed hairs, angular, dichotomous, and 1 or 2 feet high. The 




92S GERANIUM. 

leaves are ppreading, hairy, palmate, with 3, o, or 7 deeply cleft lobes, 2 leaves at 
each fork ; lobes cuneiform, entire at the base, and incisely serrate above. Th3 
radical leaves are OQ long petioles, erect and terete ; leaves at the top opposite, 
subsessile, those at the middle of the stem opposite, petiolate, 
'^" ■ and generally reflexed. Stipules linear or lanceolate. The 

flowers are large, generally purple, mostly in pairs, on unequal 
pedicles, sometimes umbelled at the ends of the peduncles. 
Peduncles long, round, hairy, tumid at the base, and at the 
forks of the stems 2-flowered. The calyx consists of 5 ob- 
ovate, ribbed, mucronate sepals, the outermost haiiy. The 
petals are 5, obovate, entire, liglit purple, and marked with 
green at the base. The stamens are erect or curving out- 
ward, alternately longer, furnished at the base with glands, 
terminated by oblong, convex, deciduous, purple anthers. 
Ovaryovate; style straight, as long as the stamens; stigmas 5, 
at first erect, and afterward recurved. The capsules are 5, 
together, and each 1-seeded (L. — W.). 

History and Description. — Geranium is a native of this 
T"-^ countrv,gr(jwing in nearlv all parts of it in low grounds, open 

Geranium maoniatum. ^q^j^ -^^0., flowering from April to June. There are several 
varieties of this species which are probably equivalent in medicinal virtues to 
the G. maculatuin. The dried root is the official part. It is officially described as 
follows: "Of horizontal growth, cylindrical, 5 to 7 Cm. (2 to 3 inches) long; 
about 1 Cm. (| inch) thick; rather sharply tuberculated, longitudinally wrinkled, 
dark-brown; fracture short, pale reddish-brown; bark thin; wood-wedges yellow- 
ish, small, forming a circle near the cambium line; medullary raj-s broad ; central 
pith large; roots thin, fragile; inodorous; taste strongly astringent (f. <S'. P.). 

Chemical Composition. — Geranium was analyzed, in 1829, by Dr. Staples, 
who found it to contain a large quantity of gallic acid, tannic acid, mucilage, red 
coloring matter, principally in the external covering of the root, a small amount 
of resin, and a crystallizable vegetable substance (Jour. Phil. Col. Phann., Vol. I, 
p. 171). The Messrs. Tilden have more recently made a quantitative analysis 
of the root, and found it to contain a resin soluble in alcohol, a resin soluble in 
ether, an oleoresin soluble only in ether, tannin, gallic acid, gum. pectin, starch, 
sugar, albumen, lignin, chlorophyll, etc. {Phann. Jour., 1863, Vol. V.,p. 22). H. K. 
Bowman, in 1869, found in the root of Geranium maculatuin about 13 and 17 per 
cent, and Chas. F. Kramer, in 1882, about 17 per cent of tannin ; while Henry 
.1. Mayers, who made a complete analysis of the root (Amcr. Jour. Phann., 1889, 
p. 238), obtained only 4.28 per cent, with much decomposed tannin (phlobaphene); 
from another specimen he obtained about 11.5 per cent. He also confirmed the 
j)resence of gallic acid. More recently (Bull. Km: Garden.^'. 1896. No. 109, p. 30) 
Henry R. Procter found as high as 25.7 per cent tannin. These contradictory 
results are sufficiently explained by the researches of Prof. Trimble and Mr. J. C. 
Peacock (Ainer. Jour. Pharm.. 1891, p. 265). In these ex|)eriments moisture and 
tannin were determined in samples which were obtained from 14 collections sys- 
tematically extending over a period of two years. The principal result of this 
work may be summarized as follows: 

I. Root collected in January had 11.72 per cent tannin, calculated on abso- 
lutely dry drug. The amount ro'se to 27.85 per cent in spring, just before bloom. 

\iiul fell io 9.72 per cint in October. 

II. The tannin obtained yields pyrogallol, upon heating, hence is related to 
gallotannic acid. 

III. The tannin obtained is a glucosid ; when heated with 2 per cent hydro- 
chloric acid it easily decomposes into gallic acid, glucose, and geranium red, a 
phlobaphene, which also forms as a red-brown precipitate when a 1 per cent solu- 
tion of the tannin is allowed to stand. 

IV. Xo gallic acid is present in the fresh root, nor in the decoction made 
therefrom ; only after the rhizome is dried is gallic acid present, due to the decom- 
jiosition of the tannin. 

Action, Medical Uses, and Dosage. — Geranium is a powerful astringent. 
Used in infusion with milk in thi> second stage of (li/stvUer;/,diarrhaa, and cholera 



GERARDIA. 929 

infnntuni. In bowel disorders it is the chronic or subacute states in wliich it is 
applicable, an<l especially where the disciiar^fs are abundant and deliilitating. 
The relaxati'iii of nienibraiifs following the inflaniniatory stage is an indication 
for its use. In dysentery it is not adapted to the first and acute stage, but should 
be used, after a laxative, as magnesium sulphate, where the disease tends to 
chronicity. The infusion or the specific geranium in milk may be employed. 
Both internally and externally it may be used wherever astringents are indi- 
cated, in hemorrfiiKje^, indole»t vhrrs^ apfitlmus sore viouth, o])lithalmin, leucorrhcea, 
ghrt, hciiialuriii, victwrrhngia, diabetts, and all excessive rhronir jhkcoim disc/iiirgeii; 
also, to cure vu'rrurial fKtlivntion. Rilaintion of the uvula may be benefited by gar- 
gling with si decoction of the root, as well as n^fftlhous virrration of the laovih and 
throat. Chronic phnnptgad catarrh has been cured with it, while recently' an old- 
school authority claims for it restorative properties in incipient jmhnonary con- 
suiiiption. From its freedom from any nauseous or unpleasant qualities, it is well 
adapted to infants and persons witli fastidious stomachs. In cases oi bUedingpiUf!, 
a strong decoction of the root may be injected into the rectum, and shouhl V)e 
retainetl as long as possible. Hemorrhoids are said to be cured by adding of the 
root in fine powder, 2 ounces, to tobacco ointment, 7 ounces, and appl}' to the 
parts, 3 or 4 times a day. Troublesome e]iistaxis, bleeding from vounds or small 
vessels, and from the extraction of teeth, may be checked effectually by ai>plying 
the powder to the bleeding orifice, and, if possible, covering with a compress of 
cotton. With Aletris farinosa in decoction, and taken internally, it has proved 
of superior efficiency in diabetes, and in Bright's di-^a.^e of the kidney. A mixture 
or solution of 2 parts of bydrochlorate of berberine and 1 part of extract of gera- 
nium, will be found of unrivaled efficiency in all chronic vuieous diseases, as in gleet, 
leucorrhifi, oj'hthalmia, gastric affections, catarrh, and ulceration of the bladdtyr, etc., eic. 
A decoction of 2 parts of geranium and one of sanguinaria forms an excellent 
injection for gleet and Uncnrrheea. Dose of the powder, from 20 to 80 grains; of 
the decoctii'U, from 1 to 2 fluid ounces; of specific geranium, 5 to 30 drops. 

Specific Indications and Uses. — Relaxed mucous tissues, with profuse, de- 
bilitatiui; discharges; chronic diarrhcea, with mucous discharges; chronic dysen- 
tery ; diiirrli(_ea, with constant desire to evacuate the bowels; passive hemorrhages. 

Related Species. — Geranium Eobertianum, Linnt^, or Herb Itoh,rl, grows wild both in Eu- 
rojHj ami in tlie United States, bnt is rare in this country ; and Pursh states that the Ameri- 
can plant is destitute of tlie heavy snu-U by which the European is so wpU known, tliough the 
two agree in all other respects. It has a tapering root, with several round, leafy, branched, 
re<ldisl», brittle, succulent, and ditfuse stems, hairj-, chiefly on one side (L. — W.). The plant 
flowers from May to September, and has a strong, unpleasant smell. The herb has a disagree- 
able, bitterish, astringent taste, and imparts its virtues to boiling water. A bitter principle 
and tannin are among its constituents. It has been used internally in int'cmitUiit Jefer,con- 
tiimplhn, li'iiiorrhagts, nephritic complaintt, jaundice, etc., and has been emplovid as a gargle in 
affecliom of tlie throai, and applied externally as a resolvent to m-oUen brea.<ts and other lumors. 

Erofil'iiii clrutariHin, L'Hi^ritier (Geranium cicxilarium, linn^). Storkebill.—Sonthera Europe 
and common in Western Uniteil States, though scarce in Atlantic states, A valuable nutri- 
tious forage plant, and, thouirh neither a clover nor a grass, is known as AlJUaria (from Spanish 
aljUerilhi, signifying pin ; hence pin-weed), Pin-clorcr, Pin-grasi, and Filaree. Cold weather doea 
not kill it and it is the onlv green vegetable substance available for stock in dry seasons^ It 
is said to impart a fine flavor t(j butter and milk (see Agr. Grams and Forage Plants of I'. S., 
byVa*y, 1HS9i. Diuretic ior dnipgit. > ^ ,. 

Entdium moechaium, A iton.— .Mediterranean Europe, north and south Africa, and Cali- 
fornia. Valuable forage plant in dry seasons. It has the odor of musk. Therapeutically it i» 
dlai)horetic. Other astringents are : 

\'inra mnjur. Orenl,r jMri winkle ; Vinca minor, Lemr ]>,-riu-inkle.—'EDg]anil. Reputed useful 
in menorrhwiia and Other hemorrhagic «/«/<•.«. 

Oroxiil'nm in'licum.—East India. Bark contains an acrid substance and a yellow crj'stal- 
line principle, oojriflin (Phann. Jour. Traiw., 1890, Vol. XXI, p. 2.57). Bark a powerful sudo- 
ritie, astringent and tonic. Employed in diarrhcea. 

Jiaimbd'iUii comhretum. —Atrica. Contains an abundance of tannin. Employed by the Am- 
cans in h:imnturic bilious ferer. 

GERARDIA.— BUSHY GERABDIA. 

The herb of Gerardia pedicularia, I.inn-e {Damfstoma ],edirularia, Beniham). 

\nt. Ord. — Scrophulariacete. 

Common Names: Bush;/ gerardia, Lnmeioort, Fever rreed. Amrn'cnn fox-glove. 



Botanical Source. — This is a perennial plant, whose stem is tall and bushy, 
with a scattered woolly pubescence, 2 or 3 feet in height, and brachiate-panicled. 
The leaves are numerous, opposite, ovate-lanceolate or oijlong, pinnatiSd, the seg- 
ments being doubly cut-dentate. The flowers are large, yellow, axillary, trum- 
pet-shaped, opposite, and pediceled; the pedicels are longer than the calyx. Calyx 
5-cleft, cut-dentate, segments as long as the hairy tube. Corolla yellow, an inch 
or more in length, subcampanulate, unequally o-lobed, segments mostly rounded, 
spreading, leaf-like, and woolly inside. Capsule 2-celled, dehiscent at the top 
(L.-W.). 

History. — This is a most elegant plant, found growing in dry copses, pine 
ridges, and barren woods and mountains from Canada to Georgia and Ken- 
tucky, and flowering in August and September. The whole plant is used. Water 
or spirit extracts its virtues. It has not been analyzed. There are several varie- 
ties of the species, which probably possess analogous virtues. 

Action, Medical Uses, and Dosage. — Diaphoretic, antiseptic, and sedative. 
Used principally in fibrile and infliuamatory diseases; a warm infusion produces a 
free and copious perspiration in a short time. Dose of the infusion, from 1 to 3 
fluid ounces. 

GEUM.— GEUM. 

The rhizome and rootlets of Geum rivale, Linne, and Geum virginianum, Linne. 

Xat. Ord. — Rosacese. 

Common Na.mes : (1) Water avens, Purple avens; (2) Virginia geum, Throat-root, 
Chocolat(-root. 

Botanical Source. — Geum rivale, likewise known as Purple arcus, is a peren- 
nial, hairy, deep-green herb, with a creeping, blackish, somewhat woody root, run- 
ning deep into the ground, with numerous fibers. The stems are 1 or 2 feet high, 
nearly simple, erect, and slightly paniculate at top. The radical leaves are nearly 
lyrate, uninterruptedly pinnate, with large terminal leaflets on long hairy petioles, 
rounded, lobed, and crenate-dentate, and from 4 to 6 inches long. The cauline 
leaves are few, subsessile, from 1 to 3 inches long, and divided into 3 serrate, 
pointed lobes; the stipules are ovate, acute, cut, and purplish, The flowers are 
few, sub-globose, nodding, yellowish-purple, on axillary and terminal jieduncles. 
The calyx is inferior, erect, purplish-brown, with 10 lanceolate, pointed segments, 

5 alternately smaller than the others; petals 5, as long as the erect calyx seg- 
ments, broad-obcordate, clawed, purplish-yellow, and veined. The seeds are oval, 
bearded, and hooked at the end (L. — W.— -G.). 

Geum virgininnum, Linne, also known as Throat-root, Ckocokite-ront, etc., is also 
perennial, with a small, brownish, horizontal, crooked root. The stem is simple or 
branched, smoothish above, pubescent below, and 2 or 3 feet high. The radical 
leaves are pinnate, lyrate, or simple and rounded, with appendaged petioles from 

6 to 8 inches long; the cauline leaves 3 or 5-lobed, softly pubescent ; all the leaves 
are unequally and incisely dentate. The flowers are rather small, white, erect, 
and borne on long, diverging peduncles; the calyx is 5-cleft. with 5 smaller and 
exterior, alternate bracteoles; the petals 5, about the length of the calyx; the 
stamens numerous; filaments slender, anthers yellowish and round. The styles 
are many, persistent, mostly jointed, geniculate, bearded, and hooked after "the 
upper joint falls away. Tiie fruit is an achenia, aggregated on a dry receptacle, 
caudate with the style (W.— G.). 

History and Description. — Geum rivale is common to Europe and this coun- 
try, and is lound growing in woods, wet meadows, and along streams, especially in 
the northern and middle states, and flowering in June and Julv. The American 
species diSers from the European (Geum urbanum, Linne), in having the petals 
more orbicular on their free margin, the flowers of less size, and its leaves with 
deeper incisions. The fresh root is aromatic. 

Geum virgininnum is found in hedges and thickets, and in moist places in 
most parts of the United States, flowering from June to August. These plants, 
with some other varieties, have long l)een used in domestic practice. The whole 
herb contains medicinal properties, but the medicinal and most eflicient portion 
is the root. The dried root of the G. rivale is scaly, jointed, tapering, hard, brittle. 



CilLI.KNMA. 931 

easily pulverized, of a reddish or jiurplisli color, and inodorous; tliat of the (i. rir- 
giiiianum, is brown, crooked, tuljerculated, and brittle; both are white internally, 
and of a bitterish, astringent t;iste. Boiling water or alcohol extracts their vfr- 
tues, the solution becoming reddish. They have not been analyzed, but probal)ly 
contain tannic acid, bitter extractive, gum, resin, etc. A weak decoction of the 
root of G.ra'flfe is sometimes u.sed by invalids as a substitute for tea and coflee. 
Its constituents are probably the same as those of Aveus {Geum urbanum, I.inne) 
(seeRelalidShirUs). 

Action, Medical Uses, and Dosage.— Tonic and astringent. Useful in all 
cases where tlieie is au enfeebled state of mucous tissues, or morbid secretions 
therefrom. Large doses may cause eniesis. Used in numerous diseases, as passive 
&ndchronicfiemorihit<i(S,chro)u'cduirrlt(iaanildy.^aitcri/JciKOirhu:a,dy8pepsi(i,2)lithists, 
rongesfioiis of tlie alnhminul viscera, intcnnittcntx, ap/ilhous ulcerations, etc. Pose of the 
powder, from 'JO to 30 grains; of tlie decoction, from 1 to 2 fluid ounces, 3 or 4 times 
a day. Gfum vrh.iuiiin, or Ennipnui uvcm, possesses similar properties (see below). 

Specific Indications and Uses, — {Gevm rivale). "Tearing, spasmodic, ab- 
dominal i>ains recurring upon taking food or exercise" (Scudder). 

Related Species.— ^fH»io/ht(»i,Gmeliii; }yhilei]eum. United States. Flowers in May and 
-Vugust. Used in hecuiaches and irritable conditions of the ttomach{Amer. Jour. Pharm., 1883). 

(iniin vrbaunm, Linne; Amin, Enropeun airun. Kurope, growing in woodlands and shady 
situations, and has yellow flowers. The rhizome of this plant is hard, dark-brown, fnbercu- 
lated at t>p, short (1 or 2 inches long and from J to i iueh thick), and has the siimniit beset 
with hairy, reddish-brown leaf scales. The fresh rhizome resembles cloves in odor, hence has 
been called radix can/oyln/Uata. Internally the rhizome is whitish, surrounding a central red 
portion. It has many fibrous roots of a lighter brown hue. It imparts a red color to both 
water and alcohol. Buchner analysed it in 18-14, and found a considerable amount of tannin 
and an amorphous and neutral yellow mass, to which he gave the name genia bitter. He also 
confirmed the observation of Trommsdortf as to the presence of a greenish-yellow volatile 
oil (0.04 per cent), and found that it has a clove-like odor (Rep. d. Pharm., 1844, Vol. LXXXV, 
p. 168 to 201). 

A vens is an astringent tonic considerably employed in European practice, where it is used 
in intermittent^, dysentery and diarrhaa, jxwiire hemorrhages, and leucorrhaa. It is apt to derange the 
stomach and induce emesis if given too freely. The dose of the powder is from 20 to 60 grains, 
but the decoction, made by boiUng 1 ounce of avens in 1 pint of water, is preferable. The doee 
is 1 or 2 fluid ounces 

GILLENIA.— INDIAN PHYSIC. 

The bark of the rhizome of GiUenia IriJ'oliala, Moench (^Spiraea trijoliata, Linne), 
and GiUenia stipulacea, Nuttall (Spirasa s<())utoa, Willdenow). 

Nat. Ord. — Rosacea?. 

Co.M.Mo.v Names: Indian physic, American ipecac, Indian hippo, and sometimes 
Bowman's mot. 

Botanical Source. — Indian phj'sic is an indigenous, perennial herb, with an 
irregular, brownish, somewhat tuberous caudex, from which radiate many long, 
knotted, delicate fil)ers. The stems are several, from the same root, about 2 or 3 
feet in lieight, erect, slender, flexuose, smooth, branched above, and of a reddish 
or brownish color. The leaves are alternate, trifoliate, subsessile, furnished with 
small linear-lanceolate and slightly-toothed stipules at the base; the leaflets are 
lanceolate, acuminate, sharply and unequally toothed, the upper ones often single^ 
the lower broader at the end, but acuminately terminated. The flowers are white, 
with a reddish tinge, borne in terminal, loose panicles, few in number, scattered, 
on long peduncles, occasionally furnished with minute, lanceolate bracts. The 
calyx is subcampanulate or tubular, terminating in 5 sharp, reflexed teeth. Pet- 
als 5, the 2 upper ones separated from the three lower, white with a reddish tinge 
on tlie edge, lanceolate, unguiculate, contracted and approximated at base and 
•i times as long as the calyx. The stamens are about 20, in a double series 
within the calyx, with short filaments, and small, yellow anthers. Styles 5, with 
obtuse stigmas. Capsules 5, connate at base, oblong, acuminate, diverging, gib- 
l)ous without, sharp-edged within, 2-valved, 1-celled, and 1 or2-seeded. The seeds 
are oblong, brown, and bitter (L. — B.). 

History.— The nlant GiUenia trifolinta, sometimes called Boumuin'sroot,\8 found 
growing fioin Canada to Florida, in rich woods, light, gravelly soils, and in moist 



932 GILLENIA. 

and shady situations; it is more common in the Atlantic States than the West- 
ern. It blossoms from May to August. The root is the medicinal part, and 
must be collected in autumn. As met with in commerce it is adry, tuberculated 
root, 3 or 4 lines in diameter, corrugated lengthwise, and of a reddish-brown color 
externally; it is composed of a light-colored, ligneous, internal substance, and an 
easily removed, dense, friable, brownish bark, which is readily reduced to a pow- 
der, having a similar color. It is nearly odorless, and has a nauseous, amarous 
taste, and yields its properties to alcohol or water at 100° C. (212° F.). The bark 
is the active portion, the internal woody substance being nearly inert. The root 
of G. stipulojcea is larger, tuberculated, and the rootlets present an annulated ap- 
pearance due to constrictions passing part way around the rootlet, forming semi- 
circular depressions. 

Gillenia stipulacea, Nuttall, also called Bowman's root, which is found on the 
western side of the Allegheny Mountains, growing through Ohio, Indiana, Illi- 
nois, Missouri, and southward, flowering at the same time as the above, possesses 
similar properties, but is more efficient in the same doses. It may be distin- 
guished by its drab-colored and branching stems, its greater size, its large, clasp- 
ing, ovate-cordate, leafy, gashed, and serrated stipules, its lower leaves being 
of a reddish-brown color at the tips; the stipules are leafy, ovate, doubly incised 
and clasping; and the flowers are fewer, smaller, on slender peduncles, hanging 
in loose panicles. It is seldom met with in limestone or alluvial soils. (_For 
an interesting article on the nomenclature of Gillenia, see Amer. Jour. Phann.. 
1898, p. 501.) 

Chemical Composition. — According to Mr. Shreeve, gillenia contains starch, 
gum-resin, wax, a fatty matter, a red coloring substance, a volatile coloring mat- 
ter, and a peculiar principle soluble in alcohol and diluted acids, but insoluble in 
water or ether (Ainer. Jour. Pharm. ,Yo\. I, p. 28). Mr.W. B. Stanhope procured 
griWciuVi from Gillenia trifoliata by making an alcoholic extract of the powdered 
bark, evaporating to dryness, treating with water, macerating the resinous and bit- 
ter residue with diluted sulphuric acid for 10 days, filtering, evaporating with excess 
of magnesia, extracting with alcohol and allowing the solvent to evaporate spon- 
taneously. The gillenin thus obtained was permanent in the air, very bitter, 
soluble in water, alcohol, ether, and diluted acids, neutral, giving a fine green 
color with chromic acid, and blood-red with strong nitric acid. Tannic acid 
produced no effect, but caustic potash, subacetate of lead, and tartar emetic threw 
down white precipitates. In doses of i grain it produced emesis, with consider- 
able vertigo (Amer. Jour. Pharm., 1856, p". 200). Mr. Frank AV. White (.4ni<T. Jour. 
Pharm. .1892, p. 121), found the active principle of Gillenia trifoliata to be a glu- 
cosid, obtainable by agitating the aqueous solution of the alcoholic extract with 
chloroform. 

In Gillenia stipulacea Mr. Gordon L. Curry found two glucosids which he ob- 
tained from the ether extract of an aqueous infusion. One, which he named gillein. 
was obtainable in feathery crystals, easily gives off sugar, is soluble in water, alco- 
hol, and diluted acids, and causes nausea in the dose of J grain. The other glu- 
cosid, called gillcenin, is amorphous, much more stable, soluble in water, but spar- 
ingly soluble in alcohol and ether. Neither of these substances gives the reactions 
of Stanhope's piUeiiin. Sugar, gum, and tannin were also found ( .Amer. Jour. 
PAacoi., 18it2, p. 513). Both this root and that of the Gillenia trifoliata were for- 
merly ..tlicial in the F. S. P. 

Action, Medical Uses, and Dosage.— The root-bark of these plants is emetic, 
cathartic, sudorific, expectorant, and tonic. In their action, they resemble ipe- 
cacuanha. Like the latter, their dust will provoke irritation of "the throat and 
breathing organs. They have been recommended in amenorrhea, rheumati.-'m. 
droim/, habitual coifiveucss, dyspepsia, irorms, and in intrfmittenls. As an emetic and 
cathartic, from 20 to 3.5 grains is a dose, which, when vomiting is required, may be 
vepeated at intervals of 20 minutes. It may be used in all diseases where emetics 
are indicated, as a safe and efficient agent. " In (h/Sfu^sia, accompanied with a tor- 
pid condition of the stomach, from 2 to 4 grains forms an excellent tonic. As a 
sudorific, 6 grains may be given in some cold water, and repeated at intervals of 
2 or 3 hours, or it may be given in combination with a small portion of opium. 
Large and oft-repeated doses of the infusion cause severe vomiting and purging. 



oLlXllO.MA.— liLYcEKlNf.M. 



GLECHOMA.— GROUND IVY. 



Tho j)laiit Glahoma halcracca, Liiuiu i^.W/zi^t UUchuma, Bentham). 

Nat. On?.— Labiato. 

Common Names: Ground ivy, Cat-foot, Oill-go-over-the-ground. 

Illustration : Jolnison's Med. Dot. of N. J., Fig. 145, p. 213. 

Botanical Source and Description.— Tli is plant, the (iterhomn hcdema.i ..f 
Linnieii.-i, is a iH'ieiinial, giav, hairy herb, with a prostrate, creeping stem, radi- 
cating at base, S(|uare, and from a few inches to 1 or 2 feet long. The leaves arc 
petiolate, opposite, roundish, cordate-reniform, crenate, hairy, and glaucous on 
both sides, though often purplish beneath. The tioral leaves are of the same 
form. The flowers are bluish-purple, about 3 together in axillary whorls. The 
corolla is about 3 times as long as the calyx, with a variegated throat. The calyx 
is long, curved, villous, the limb oblique, the teeth lanceolate-subulate, the upper 
being tlie largest. The bracts are scarcely as long as the pedicel. The 2 antliers 
of each pair of stamens meet with their 2 divaricate cells, forming the appearance 
of across (\..~\y.-~G.K 

History and Chemical Composition.— This plant is common to Europe and 
the United States, where it is found growing in snady places, waste grounds, dry 
ditches, fences and hedges, and on the sides of moist meadows, flowering in May 
and August. Tlie leaves are the parts used, and yield their virtues, by infusion, 
to boiling water. They have an unpleasant odor, and a harsh, bitterish, slightly 
aromatic taste. This plant was found by Mr. Charles A. Ridgway to contain an 
essential oil (0.06 per cent\ fat, resin, gum, wax, sugar, tannic acid, about 16 per 
cent of ash, etc., and an acrid, fatty substance (0.96 per cent) {Amer. Jour. Phnrm., 
1892, p. 6(;i. 

Action, Medical Uses, and Dosage.— Ground ivy is stimulant, tonic, and 
pectoral, and has been recommended in diseases of the lungs and kidneys, asthvia, 
jaundice, Injjiochondrin, and monomania. An infusion of the leaves is highly rec- 
ommended in lead co/ir, and it is stated that painters who make use of it often are 
never troubled with that affliction. The fresh juice snuffed up the nose is said to 
cure hcndiiehe. Dose of the powdered leaves, from i to 1 drachm; of the infusion, 
1 or 2 fluid ounces. A tincture of the fresh plant, prepared with 98 per cent alco- 
hol, may be given in doses of 1 to 15 drops. 

GLYCERINUM (U. S. P.)— GLYCERIN. 

Formcla: CjHsCOH)^. Molecular WEKniT: 91.79. 

"A liquid obtained by the decomposition of vegetable or animal fats or fixed 
oilB, and containing not less than 95 per cent of absolute glycerin (C3H5[OH]3^: 
91.79)"— (.r..?. P.). 

Synonyms: Glycerina (f. .*?. P., 1870), Glyrerine, Glycerol, Propenyl alrohol. 

History and Preparation.— Glycerin was discovered, in 1779, by Scheele in 
the sapoiiitication proiUuts of olive oil by means of litharge, and later recognized 
by him as a commou constituent of other oils and fats, and therefore named the 
"sweet principle of fats." Chevreul gave it the name glycerin, and cleared up the 
nature of its combination in the fats. Glycerin, or (//yrpro/, as it is now prefer- 
ably called to indicate its alcohol character, is a trihydric alcohol (C jH.,[OH],), 
containing the trivalent radical "glyceryl" (C3H5). It exists in oils and fats, 
combined with palmitic, stearic, and oleic acids in the form of glycerylesters of 
these acids (tri/ydiniHn, tri-itearin, triolein; also see under Adc}is). In some oils and 
fats it is combined partially with other acids — e. g., in butter — wherein 5 per cent 
of the total fat is glyceryl-tributyrate, or <W/»((^?/ri»; in cod-liver oil it is said to 
exist in part combined with ac(;ti('. acid, as glyceryl triacetate, or trincetin, etc. 
Glycerin al.<o exists in the yolk of eggs and the human brain in the form of phnx- 
ph4)-glyrcrir arid. Pasteur's researches have also estalilished its occurrence as a 
regular constituent among the products of fermentation (see Alcohol). 

On a small .-jcale glycerin may be oljtained in the proce.'is which led to its 
discovery, viz., that of making lead i)laster (see Emplastmm Plumhi). Tin- late 



934 GLYCEEIXUM. 

Mr. Robert Shoemaker prepared by this method probabl}' the first commercial 
glycerin in the United States, in 1848, at $4.00 a pound {Amer. Jmr. Pharm., 1879, 
p. 289). The article became official in the U. S. P., in 18.50. 

Large quantities of glycerin are now obtained as a by-product in the manu- 
facture of soaps and candles. This was formerly thrown away as useless. The 
principle involved is simply that of splitting the fat into its constituents (Jntty arid 
and glycerin) by adding the elements of water (see Emplastrum Phi.mbi). The pro- 
cess of saponification is being carried out in several diflerent waj-s: (1) With 
alkalies; the fatty acids thereby combine with alkali and form soap (see Supo) ; 
the glycerin in diluted form is contained in the aqueous layer below the soap. 
(2) With milk of lime (old process of Campbell Morfit, see this Di-i-pmsatm-y, pre- 
vious revision), or with milk of lime and water in closed vessels under a pressure 
of 10 atmospheres and a temperature of 172° C. (242.6° F.) (Millv's Autoclave Pro- 
cess, see Prof. S. P. Sadtler, Handbook of Induct. Org. Chem., 1895, p.'56). The glycerin 
water separates from the layer of lime soap and fatty acids; glycerin is obtained 
therefrom best by evaporation in vacuo. (3) With mperheated steam (''aqueous 
saponification") and subsequent redistillation of the raw glycerin. This method 
was introduced, in 1855, by Messrs. Wilson and Paine, and marked a great step 
forward in the problem of obtaining a pure article. In saponifying the fats with 
superheated steam, the temperature must not exceed 300° C.'(572° F.), or else 
decomposition products will be formed. Both the fatty acid and the glvcerin 
distill over. In redistilling the raw glycerin by superheated steam, the liquid 
is heated to about 180° C. (356° F.), and the steam has a temperature of about 
110° C. (230° F.). For .details regarding the manufacture of glycerin, consult the 
various works on chemical technology. 

Description. — Glycerin is officially described as follows; "A clear, colorless, 
liquid, of a thick, syrupy consistence, oily to the touch, odorless, very sweet and 
slightly warm to the taste. When exposed to the air, it slowly abstracts mois- 
ture. Specific gravity, not less than 1.250 at 15° C. (59° F.). Soluble, in all pro- 
portions, in water or alcohol, also soluble in a mixture of 3 parts of alcohol and 
1 part of ether, but insoluble in ether, chloroform, carbon disulphide, benzin, ben- 
zol, and fixed or volatile oils. Glycerin is slowly volatilized from an aqueous 
solution, at or above 100° C. (212° F.), with the vapor of water. Heated by itself 
to a higher temperature, it yields acrid decomposition products, boils at a tem- 
perature at or above 16.5° C. (329° F.),and is finally entirely decomposed and dissi- 
pated'' — ( U. S. P.). The exceedingly irritating decomposition products are chiefly 
due to the formation of acrolein (allyl aldehyde, C,.H,.CHO ), which is also formed 
when fats are burned, or when glycerin is heated with strong sulphuric acid. Yet 
Prof. Trimble has demonstrated (Amcr. Jour. Pharm., 1885, p. 275) the propriety of 
the use of the vapors of pure glycerin for inhalations, the details being as follows: 
W'hen 50 grammes of pure glycerin were slowly heated in an open capsule, 
vaporization became abundant at 130° C. (266° F.). At 264° C. (497.2° F.), slight 
boiling was perceptible, but very little was left, and the dense vapors formed 
had a purely sweet taste, absolutely free from any irritating quality. Pure glyc- 
erin, when heated to 150° C. (302° F.) in an open crucible, can be ignited, and 
burns with a blue flame. Glycerin of only 90 per cent can be burned with the 
aid of a wick, like alcohol, in a spirit lamp. Absolute glvcerin has the specific 
gravity of 1.266 at 15° C. (59° F.), and boils at 290° C. (554° F.\ while 95 per 
cent glycerin has a specific gravity of 1.2.526 and boils at 164° C. (327.2° F.) 
(Gerlacii). At one time crystallized glycerin, from a Vienna manufacturer, was 
brought to London, requiring the knile and hammer to break it. It resembled 
rock-candy (sugar), being in white, octahedral crystals, with considerable refractive 
l)ower, and, when melted, the liquid glycerin presented all its usual projierties, 
but could not be again reduced to the crystalline condition. It seems that pro- 
longed exposure to a temperature of 0°C. (32° F.) will J>ring about crvstallization, 
and contact with a crystal already formed will promote this pri>cess. "The cr^-stals, 
while hard and gritty, are very hvgroscopic. More recently, some specimens, 
after being melted, were found bv Prof. Trimble to have a high specific gravity 
(1.2618) (see Wallace Procter, in Amei: Jour. Pharm., 1885, p. 273). 

Glycerin dissolves many vegetable exudations and resinous substances. It 
does not dissj^lvo siigar or gum, Init readily mixes with syrups and mucilages. 



GLYCERINTM. 936 

It is insoluble in fatty matter, and can only be incorporated with it mechanically, 
to effect which it is necessary that the fat should have a soft consistence, which 
maybe imparted to it by combination with oil of sweet almonds, or some other 
fixed oil. Glycerin mixes with acetic acid; moistens bodies without rendering 
them grt-asy, does not become rancid, and is easily charged with the aroma of 
volatile oils. 

The solubilities of certain substances in glycerin (Klever) as taken from Chemi- 
ker Kdlender, 1897, are as follows: One hundred parte (by weight) of glycerin 
dissolve at 15.5° C. (60° F.) : 

l-ABTS. PARTS. 

.\Ium 40 Phosphorus 0.20 

Ammonium carbonate 20 PoUissium arsenate 60 

.A.muiouiuia chloride 20 Potassium bromide 25 

Arsenic trioxide 20 Potassium chlorate 3.5 

Arsenic pentoxide 20 Potassium cyanide 32 

.\tropine 3 Potassium iixlide 40 

Atropine sulphate 33 Quinine 0.5 

Barium chloride 10 Quinine tartrate 0.25 

Benzoic acid 10 Sodium arsenate 50 

Boric acid 10 Sodium biborate 60 

Brucine 2.2 Sodium bicarbonate 8 

Calcium suli)hido 5 Sodium carbonate 98 

Cinchoniiu- 0.5 Sodium chlorate 20 

Cinchunine sulphate 6.7 Strychnine 0.25 

Cupiic acetate 10 Strychnine nitrate 4 

Cnpric sulphate 30 Strychnine sulphate 22.50 

Iodine 1.9 Sufphur 0.10 

Ix>ad acetate 20 Tannic acid 50 

Mercuric chloride (corr.subl.l 7.5 Tartar emetic 5.5 

Mercuric cyanide 27 Urea 50 

Morphine 0.45 Veratrine 1 

Morphine acetate 20 Zinc chloride 50 

Morphine chloride 20 Zinc iodide 40 

Oxalic acid 15 Zinc sulphate 35 

Glycerin dissolves the vegetable acids, aloes, some resinous substances, the 
deliquescent salts, the sulphates of potassium, sodium, and copper, the nitrates 
of pota.-^sium and silver, the alkaline chlorides, caustic potash, caustic soda, baryta, 
strontia, bromine, iodine, and even oxide of lead, and one-tifth part of arsenous 
acid. It dissolves about 1 per cent of its weight of calcium sulphate, and 2 per 
cent of chloride of lead. It dissolves tlie salts of morphine, sulphate of quinine, 
and, when triturated with these, or with the salts of strychnine, veratrine, bru- 
cine, and other vegetable alkaloids, forms a medicinal cerate very useful for fric- 
tions and embrocations. It also dissolves sulphides of potassium, of calcium, 
and of iodine, iodides of sulphur, of potassium, and of mercury, and some chlo-. 
rides. It promotes the solution of borax in tincture of myrrh, no water being 
required; added to tincture of kino it retards gelatinizatioii. The vegetable ex- 
tracts are soluble in it, some of the solutions, as of extract of belladonna, forming 
useful external applications. Being possessed of strong antiseptic properties, it 
preserves animal and vegetable substances; meat has been immersed in glycerin 
for several months and preserved its freshness. It dissolves the carbonate of iron 
immediately on its formation, giving a deep-green solution. Like sugar it arrests 
the conversion of the ferrous into ferric salts, and has kei>t iodide of iron for years 
witliout change. It may be used in tiie preparation of spirits {c»»cncei<) of cloves, 
cinnain>n, etc, for syrups of phosphate of iron, bromide of iron, and iodide of 
quinine, for jneserving fresh lemon juice, and for preserving the soft consistence 
of pill masses and confections. Thus it is seen tliat the solvent powers of glyc- 
erin, ijoth diluted and undiluted, arc very extensive and important. 

By oxidation with cold nitric acid, glycerin yields glyceric (uid (CH,OH.CH. 
OH.COOII ) and a variety of other acids. Potassium permanganate in alkaline 
solution produces oxalic acid. Upon the latter reaction is based a (|uantitative 
determination of glycerin by Benedict and Zsigmondv, a process also indicated 
by Wm. Fox and J. A. Wanklyn (see Am^r. Jnur. Phar'm., 188G, i.. 248). Another 
niettiod for the quantitative determination of glvci-rin, by L. Legler and 
O. He'iner Amrr. .h„r. Phann.. 1S87, \>. 4G-1, from The Analy.^t, Jan. and Feb.. 1887\ 



936 GLYCERINUM. 

is based on the fact that glycerin can be completely oxidized to carbonic acid 
and water by being heated with sulphuric acid and potassium bichromate. 
Sulphuric acid combines with glycerin to form an ester glycerylsulphuric acid 
(SO,H.C3H5[OH],). Likewise glycerin combines with phosphoric acid to form a 
similarly constituted compound CPO,H2.C3H5[OH],). Nitroglycerin is a highly 
explosive compound that is made by methods safe only on a manufacturing 
scale and in the hands of qualified men (see Spiritus Glonoini). Glycerin liberates 
from borax half its quantity of boric acid; thus if blue litmus solution is added 
to separate quantities of neutral glycerin and borax solution, when mixed, a red 
color results. W. R. Dunstan (Amer. Jour. Fharra., 188'i, pp. 447-4-56) has shown 
that the red color turns blue upon warming, and reappears on cooling. Again, 
when adding glycerin to a mixture of molecular quantities of bicarbonate of 
sodium and borax, the boric acid liberated by the glycerin will expel with effer- 
vescence half of the carbonic acid in the bicarbonate, and monocarbonate will 
remain (with reference to this reaction, see also Mr. L. F. Kebler, Amer. Jour. 
Phnrm., 1894, p. 428). 

Glycerin is capable of undergoing fermentation under certain conditions. 
A. Fitz (1877) obtained, by the action of a certain class of fungi, called Schizomy- 
cetes, from glycerin diluted with twenty times its bulk of water, large quantities 
of normal butylalcohol and normal butyric acid ; also ethyl alcohol, capronic 
acid, hydrogen, and carbonic acid. Freund has also shown that trimethyleneglycol 
(CjHgOj) is one of the principal products formed. This substance has more 
recently been demonstrated by A. A. Noyes and W. H. Watkins {Avxer. Jour. 
Pharm., 1895, p. 633), to occur as a troublesome by-product in the manufacture 
of glycerin from fats that have undergone spontaneous saponification and sub- 
sequent fermentation. 

Tests and Uses. — For medicinal purposes, glycerin only should be used that 
has been purified by distillation ; an impure glycerin when applied to wounds 
or ulcers is very apt to cause a burning sensation, and a papular eruption on the 
skin; when pure it is unirritating. Formerly its impurities were more numer- 
ous than now, owing to the imperfect method of its manufacture. The process 
of purifying glycerin by distillation has reduced the proportion of ash consider- 
ably, which in pure distilled glycerin does not exceed 0.2 per cent, while undis- 
tilled glycerin from soap lyes may have from 7 to 14 per cent of ash. Impurities 
liable to occur in glycerin are : water, volatile fatty acids {e.g., formic and butyric 
acids), added sugar or glucose, empyreumatic substances, oxalic acid, chlorides, 
sulphates of calcium, magnesium, and heavy metals, as iron, lead, zinc, etc. 
Siebold (1889) observed the presence of arsenic in glycerin (in one instance, 0.04 
per cent), an impurity due to the employment, during manufacture, of sulphuric 
acid containing it. When present in glycerin, arsenic is exceedingly difficult to 
remove ; it is claimed that agitating with recently precipitated ferric hydrate 
■ will remove this contamination {Amer. Jour. Pharrn., 1890, p. 523 > The presence 
of iron in glycerin, due, according to Haussmann {Amer. Jour. Fliarm., 189"), p. 84) 
to its being kept in tinned iron cans, disturbs tiie color of pharmaceutical prepa- 
rations in which glycerin is coijibined with tannin, or phenols, or salicylic acid. 
Another impurity occasionally occurring in commercial glycerin is the trimethyl- 
eneglycol before mentioned. Glycerin, beside answering to the official description 
given before, should conform to the following tests of the l'. S. P.: "If a fused 
bead of borax, on a loop of platinum wire, be moistened with glycerin, and then 
held in the non-luminous flanie, the latter will be transiently tinted deep green. 
An aqueous solution of glycerin is neutral to litmus paper. When a small por- 
tion of glycerin is heated to boiling in an open porcelain or platinum capsule, and 
then gently ignited, it should burn and vaporize so as to leave not more than a 
dark stain (absence of dextrin and sugar), which would leave a bulky, difficultly 
combustible, charred mass); and on full combustion no residue whatever should 
be left (absence of fixed impurities^ If 5 Cc. of glvcerin be mixed with 50 Cc.of 
water and 10 drops of Hydrochloric acid in a small flask, and heated for half an 
hour on a boiling water-hath, then 10 Cc. of the hot liquid mixed with 2 Cc.of 
sodium hydrate T.S. and 1 Cc. of alkaline cupric tartrate V.S.. no yellowish-red 
cloudiness or precipitate should appear within six hours (absence of sugars). 
On gently warming a mixture of equal volumes of glycerin and of concentrated 



GLYCEIMNTM. 037 

sulphuric acid in a test-tube, the liquid should not acquire a dark color (absenco 
of readily carbouizable impurities). On gradually heating 5 Cc. of glycerin with 
3 Cc. of diluted sulphuric ai'id in a test-tube, short of boiling, no oflensive or 
acidulous odor should be evolved (.absence of fatty acids, etc.). No color, cloudi- 
ness or precipitate should appear when separate portions of its aqueous solution 
(1 in 10) are treated with hydrogen sulphide or amraoniuni sulphide T.l^. 
(absence of metals^ barium chli>ride T.S. (.sulphuric acid), calcium chloriile T.S. 
(oxalic acid), or ammonium oxalate T.S. (calcium salts). If a mixture of 2 C^-. 
of glycerin with 10 Co. of water, contained in a perfectly clean, glass-stoppend 
cylinder, be he.tted for five minutes in a water-bath at a temperature of 60° to 
60° C. (140' to 140° F, ), then mixed with 10 drops of silver nitrate T.S., and the 
cylinder set aside, well stoppered, in ditlused daylight, no change of transparency 
or color should occur in the mixture within five minutes (absence of chlorides, 
and limit of impurities having reducinsf properties)" — {U.S.P.). The presence 
of butyric acid may be detected, according to the British Phnrmacopaia (1898 1, by 
adding a mixture of eipial vt)lurae3 of alcohol (90 per cent) and diluted sul- 
phuric acid, and gently heating, whereupon the pineai)|>le odor of butyric ether 
is at once developed. As pure glycerin does not polarize transmitted light, the 
presence of sugar may be easily recognized also by optical methods. The Briti^'h 
PhaniMcopiri.i (I5;98)"fixes the limit of arsenic in glycerin by the following test : 
"2 Cc. diluted with 5 Cc. of a mixture of 1 part of hydrochloric acid and 7 parts 
of water, 1 Gm. of pure zinc being added, and the whole placed in a long test- 
tube, the mouth of which is covered by a piece of filter paper moistened with a 
drop or two of test solution of mercuric cldoride, and dried, should not afiord a 
yellow stain on the paper, even after 15 minutes (limit of arsenium)" — 'Br. Ph., 
1898). (Also see article on arsenic in glycerin, by A. C. Langmuir, Jour. Aintr. 
Chan. 5o';.,lS99, p. 133.) The most extensive use of glycerin, in the industries 
and arts, is in the manufacture of nitroglycerin ; large quantities are also used in 
the making of cosmetics, and for filling wet-process gas meters to prevent the 
containing fluid from freezing in winter and evaporating in summer. It is 
also employed as a food preservative, and for the treatment of wine, vinegar 
and beer (tins process being called scheelizinfi), and in addition to its use in phar- 
macy and medicine, it is also employed for many practical purposes in the 
mechanical arts. 

Action, Medical Uses, and Dosage. — Stimulant, antiseptic, laxative and 
demulcent. Pure glycerin abstracts water from the tissues, leaving them hard 
and irritated, and if of the skin lialjle to crack; impure glycerin, besides acting 
in the same manner, is more of an irritant on account of traces of suljjhuric 
and nitric acids as well as certain organic acids, and other deleterious substances 
contained in it. In view of these facts only the purest glycerin should be used, 
and that should be mixed with a certain- amount of water or rose-water before 
using. Glycerin may be used in prurigo, p.si)ria.'<is, impetigo, lichen, lepra, pityriasis, 
herpci er€(?<».<?, and some syphilitic and strumous a^cctions. M. Fonssagrives con- 
siders its usefulness in parmitical cutaneous affections to be due to its antiseptic, 
antiputrid, and anliparasitical properties. Glycerin has been used in the place 
of cod-liver oil, to improve nutriticm in convalescence from exhausting diseases, 
and in asthenic conditions generally. It is also used as a solvent of many alka- 
loid.s, extracts, salts, acids, etc., etc.", especially for local application to inflomed, 
ulcerated or suppurating part.^; also, as stated above, to several cutaneous nuilailies. 
Pure glycerin has been recommended fi>r di'ibitic palicnis by Drs. Pavy and Abbot 
Smith, as a substitute for cane sugar, lioney, molasses, etc., sweetening tea. cuflee, 
various drinks, cakes, etc., with it. It is generally regarded as a non-nutritious 
substance at the present day, and has lost prestige as a food in phthifit< and 
diaheten, and other e/hiuiKting di'ieases. It can not compare with cod-liver oil lor 
this purpose, though there is some good evidence tiiat it lessen.s, and in some 
instances checks, the excretion of sugar in mccharine diahetcs. Large amounts of 
glycerin act not unlike alcohol, producing intoxication and the same gastric 
effects. From one-third to one-twelfth of glycerin may be added t<j washes or 
cataplasms, to ren<ler them soothing, and to keep the latter moist for some time. 
It acta as an emollient and soothing application, absorbing moisture from the 
air, and preventing the parts to whicii it is applied from b.'c<'ming too dry. 



938 GLYCERIN'UM. 

A very small amount added to a few grains of borax and rose-water, furnishes 
one of the most elegant and efficient washes for chapped hands, face, lips, or 
nipples. A small quantity of glycerin added to pills or extracts, will preserve 
them from becoming hard and moldy. Vaccine virus may be preserved by 
mixing it with glycerin. It has been highly recommended for deafness in which 
there is a partial or total absence of ceruminous secretion, by protectingthe 
tympanum, and gradually restoring the parts to their natural condition ; it is 
likewise said to cause hearing in cases where the tympanum is thickened and 
indurated, or where it is in an unsound state or destroyed by ulceration ; but in 
this last case it is not permanent ; and when there is a hardness of the cerumen, 
and induration of the tympanum, it has proved successful. The plan is to mois- 
ten wool with the glycerin, pure or diluted with water, and pass it into the ear. 
In fact water and glycerin, or glycerin alone, are the best solvents for impacted 
and hardened cerumen, and by softening the mass with either, it may be readily 
removed by syringing carefully M-ith warm water. An efficient lotion for dress- 
ing the parts after the removal of the impacted mass, is the following : R Color- 
less hydrastis (Lloyd's), 3j; glycerin, gtt. xx; distillate of hamamelis, q. s. floSs. 
Mix. Sig. Apply warm to the parts by means of cotton. The bland and unir- 
ritating character of pure glycerin, in the presence of a little water, its perma- 
nence when exposed to the atmosphere (except its absorption of moisture), and 
the completeness with which it shields the parts covered by it, render it suscep- 
tible of many important applications. Mr. J. H. Ecky has given a formula for 
the preparation of a glycerin ointment, especially useful for chapped hands, lips, 
excoriations of the slin, etc. It will also serve as a medium for applying powders, 
etc., to -ulcers, cutaneous affections, or other difficulties, by combining them with it, 
in the desired proportions. The formula is as follows : Melt together spermaceti 
half an ounce, and white wax 1 drachm, with oil of almonds 2 fluid ounces, at a 
moderate heat; put these into a Wedgewood mortar, add glycerin 1 fluid ounce, 
and rub together until well mixed and cold. An excellent lotion for cracked 
hands, and especially for those who work in water, is the following: R Carbolic 
acid (liquefied by warmth), gtt. v ; tincture of arnica, fl5ss; glycerin, flsss; rose- 
water (or water or distillate of hamamelis), q. s. flsvj. Mix. Sig. Wash the hands 
thoroughly with asepsin soap and warm water, rinse them, and apply the lotion 
while the hands are still wet. 

A Ghjcerin Balsam for chapped lips and hands is made by melting together 1 
ounce, each, of white wax and spermaceti, then stirring in half a pound of sweet 
almond oil and 2 ounces of glycerin, and when nearly cold, half a drachm of attar 
of roses. Mr. Wilson recommends glycerin as an injection into the bladder to 
dissolve calculous deposits, especially urea, and phosphate of calcium ; also to be 
used as a substitute for syrups in preserving fruits; mixed with alcohol or 
pyroxylic spirit as an economical fuel for spirit-lamps ; and as a remedy in diseases 
of the viucous memhrnne of the stomach. Dr. Wni. Bayes advises a solution of 
tannic acid in pure glycerin as a local application to local hnnorrhapcs, hy a. sponge 
or brush, also to the vaginal, uterine, urethral, rectal, or nasal membranes, where 
a strong and non-irritant astringent lotion is desired. Glycerin dissolves nearly 
its own weight of tannic acid; the solution should be recently prepared and be 
kept in the dark, else it will decompose (see Gh/ceritc'i). On account of its 
affinity for the water of the tissues, glycerin may be used as an astringent. It 
has tlius been employed to dry and constringe vound.-<, lessening the tendency to 
tlie formation of pus, and a cotton pledget first dipped in hot water, squeezed, 
and saturated with glycerin, applied to fresh wounds, is said to cause union by 
first intention. Glycerin is an efficient astringent for Icumrrhnn. Otorrha!a, 
ozcenn, and other catan-h<d dixcharqes may be lessened by the local use of gl)'cerin. 
Abscesses, boils, carbuncles, and local odcnuis, as of the prepuce, may be treated with 
it. A mixture of glycerin and water is in common use to relieve drt/ncss of the 
vwuth induced by febrile and other states. Internally administered, "glycerin is 
somewhat laxative, and cures of chronic constipation and hetnorrhoids, ])Oth blind 
and bleeding, have been accredited to its use. When used by rectal injection, or 
by means of the glycerin suppository, it certainly is a very efficient remedy for 
habitual cost ivei^ess, provided the fecal mass be located in the rectum, and there is 
no lesion of the parts. If the parts be sound and the glycerin pure, no smarting 



GLYCERITA.-GLYCERITCM ACIDl CARBOLICI. 939 

or pain is likely to follow its use. It may be employed even with very young 
infantii, and a few injections will generally break up the constipation habit. 
Occasionally irritation of the rectum has followed in infants, but such instances 
are rare, and probably due to an unluultliy condition of the rectum or to the use 
of an impure glycerin. The amount to be used is from A to 1 drachm. A small 
glass syringe may be employed. Added to washes and ointments for skin diseases, 
glycerin aids in allaying itching, when present. One of the best applications 
for tihiul vlcerations is the following: R Glycerin, .^j ; carbolic acid (melted by 
warmth), gr. iij ; aqua pura, q. s. Oj. Mi.x. " Sig. Bathe the part two or three 
times a day. and keep the part wetted by laying upon it a cloth saturated with 
the solution. 

Dr. Goddard has given a formula for a very adhesive plycerin pute, suitable 
for fixing paper labels to glass and other surfaces, and which keeps well ; it is to 
dissolve 1 ounce of gum Arabic in 2 fluid ounces of boiling water, add 2 fluid 
drachms of glycerin, and strain if necessary. This forms a valuable paste for 
druggi.^t.-, chemists, and others. A (ilijccr'nijcUy is prepared by intimately mixing 
half a drachm of soft soap with 2 fluid drachms of pure honey, then gradually 
adding 6 ounces of clear olive oil, stirring without intermission until all the oil 
is taken up. Care must be taken not to add the oil too fa.st. Or it may be pre- 
pared by rubbing and mixing well together half an ounce cf powdered gum 
Arabic, and 4 ounces of simi)le syrup, then add the yolks of 3 eggs, and when 
well mixed, add gradually 4 ounces of olive oil, and 2' ounces of glycerin, previ- 
ously mixed together. The ordinary dose of glycerin is 1 drachm, though from 
2 to 4 drachms night and morning may be usetl. 

Belated Preparation.— Glycones, prepared l>y Eli Lilly & Co., Indianapolis, Ind., are 
rectal suppositories containing i'5 per cent of pure glycerin, covered with an easily removable 
coating which is impennous and unchangeable, preserving the suppositories in all climates. 
They are designed to overcome co»wf ipa/i'on, and quickly and easily produce rectal evacuation. 

GLYCERITA.— GLYCERITES. 

SyxoxYMs: Glycerina {Bi-.j, Glycerines i^Br.j, (ilycemla, Glyceroles, Glycerolata, 
Glycerols, Glycerates, Glycemates. 

By this class of preparations is generally understood solutions of medicinal 
substances in glycerin, although in certain instances the various Pharmacopoeias 
deviate to an extent. The term Glycerita as here applied to fluid glycerines, or 
solutions of agents in glycerin, is preferable to the ordinary names, '^ glyreroles," 
"glycerates," or" glyceiiiaUs," etc., &nd includes all fluid preparations of the kind 
referred to, whether for internal administration or local application. Many solu- 
tions of glycerin or glycerin and water, are apt upon standing to develop micro- 
scopic cryptogams, unless a certain proportion of alcohol is added to the solutions. 
On this account, it is better to i)repare many members of this class of solutions in 
small quantity at a time, and only as they are wanted (see Lotions and Plfismx). 

Belated Preparation.— GLVcELasiM. This was intro<luced, in 1667, by T. B. Groves. 
Take alni'.n.l lueal (tine , * ounce; glveerin, 1 ounce; olive oil, :5 ounces. Triturate the meal 
with the ciycrin and jrraihially itu-ori.orate the nil with the mixture. This semi-gelatinous, 
})asty nia.ss mav be iua<le into emulsions by gradually adding water to it. Powders may also 
(«; incorp<jrated with it. Uleoresins and essential oils may he employed as substitutes, wholly 
or in part. 

GLYCERITUM ACIDI CARBOLICI (U. S. P.)— GLYCERITE 01 
CARBOLIC ACID. 

PvN'iNVM,: Glycerin of carbolic tuid, Glycerole of carbolic acid. 

Preparation.— ■' Carbolic acid, twenty grammes (20 Gm. ) [309 grs.] ; glycerin, 
eightv grammes (SOGm.) [2 ozs. av.,360 grs.]; to make one hundred grammes 
(100 Gm.) [:J ozs. av., 231 grs.]. Weinh tiie carbolic acid and glycerin, succes- 
sively, into a tared capsule, and stir them together until the acid is dissolved. 
Then transfer the solution to a bottle"— (T. .S /'.). 



940 GLYCEEITUM ACIDI GALLICI.— GLYCERITUM ACIDI TANXICI. 

Action and Medical Uses. — This has been beneficially employed as a local 
application in several forms of cutaneous disease, attended with intense itching, 
prurigo, psoriasis, etc. ; likewise in parasitical affections of the skin, as tinea, pity- 
riasis, itch, etc. 

This preparation may be used of full strength in the preparation of carbolic 
acid plaster, but when designed for local applications, it should be still further 
diluted with glycerin. A solution of the above has been advised as a dressing 
to gangrenous wounds in preference to a solution of permanganate of potassium 
(Maissonneuve). Solutions of various strengths have been used in various cu^a- 
neous affections, cancerous and other fetid ulcerations. 

GLYCERITUM ACIDI GALLICI.— GLYCERITE OF 
GALLIC ACID. 

Sysoxym . Glycerin of gallic acid. 

Preparation. — Take of gallic acid, 1 troy ounce; glycerin, 4 fluid ounces. 
Powder the gallic acid in a mortar, then gradually add the glycerin, rubbing 
the mixture constantly, until an even mixture is effected. Transfer this to a 
porcelain evaporating 'dish, and warm gently upon a water-bath, stirring con- 
stantly until the acid dissolves. This preparation should not be heated above 
the boiling point of water, 100° C. (212° F. ), lest poisonous pvrogallol be formed 
(T. E. Thorpe). 

Action, Medical Uses, and Dosage.— This preparation has been taken in- 
ternally, instead of gallic acid in substance, in the several varieties of disease in 
which "this acid is indicated, and is supposed to be more promptly absorbed when 
used in tliis form. Useful in inflammatory affections of imwous surfaces, as of the 
fauces, nasal membrane, ear, vagina, etc. It is to be applied locally, either as a 
wash, gargle, or injection. Its dose is from 10 minims to 1 fluid drachm. Ex- 
ternally it has been applied to the scalp, in cases of alopecia. 

GLYCERITUM ACIDI SALICYLICI.— GLYCEEITE OF 
SALICYLIC ACID. 

Synoxyji : Glycerin of saliq/lic acid. 

Preparation. — Take of salicylic acid (made from wintergreen oil\ borax (in 
fine powder), each, GO grains; glycerin, 2 tluid ounces. Triturate the acid with 
■ the borax, in a mortar, until thoroughly mixed ; then add the glycerin, and rub 
until a clear solution is olitained. 

Action, Medical Uses, and Dosage.— (See Acidum &dicylicum.) This prepa- 
ration will be found very useful in all maladies in which salicylic acid is indicated. 
It may be used internally as well as externally, and constitutes a useful local appli- 
cation in several diseases of the mouth and pharnyx, in gangrenous idceri-, Uvcorrhoea. 
offensive discharges, 2>ediridi,jrruritis, etc. The dose internally is from ^ to 2 fluid 
drachms. 

GLYCERITUM ACIDI TANNICI (U. S. P.)— GLYCERITE OF 
TANNIC ACID. 

Synonyms: Glycerin of tannin, Glycerolc of tannin. 

Preparation.—" Tannic acid, twenty grammes (20 Gm.) [309 grs-J: glycerin, 
eighty grammes (80 Gni.) [2 ozs. av.,3(>6 grs.] ; to make one hundred grammes 
(100 Cim, ) [:5 ozs. av.,231 grs.]. Weigli the tannic acid and glycerin, successively, 
into a tared porcelain capsule, avoiding contact with metallic utensils, and apply 
the heat of a watir-hath, until the acid is completely dissolved. Then transfer 
the solution to a l.dttlo "— ( I '. S. P.). 

Action and Medical Uses.— This forms a useful local application in Heeding 
from nUs, leech bitcf, epistari^t, sore nipple.-<, anal Jis.ntre, chronii- coryza, s}KOi<iy gutna, 
vaginal leucorrhcea, and chronic mucous inffammalinn.'^, in whidi the mucous mem- 
brane is relaxed. It will be found an excellent local application in glnlAhe naml 



OLYCERITUM ALOES. -GLYCEniTlM 15ISMITHI. 941 

(lixr/inrges following the exanthematoua affections, otorrfifyn in children, granular oph- 
thalmia, ozana, etc. It is contraindicated in active inflammations, which should 
be allayed previous to its use (see Acidum Tanntcum). Chronic diseases of the 
skin, as enema, impetigo, tinea, lichen, etc., have also been greatly benefited by its 
api)lication. 

GLYCERITUM ALOES.— GLYCERITE OF ALOES. 

Sv.Nii.NVMs : Ulycerinum aloes, Glt/cerin of aloes, Glycerole of aloes. 

Preparation. — Take of finely powdered socotrine aioes,'4 drachms ; glycerin, 
4 troy oiuKv.-;; triturate the aloes with the glycerin in a glass or porcelain mortar, 
transfer to a hottle and agitate well together. If the aloes is not entirely dissolved 
digest the mixture for 15 minutes in a water-bath and strain. This forms a syrupy 
liquid of a bright mahogany color. 

Action and Medical Uses. — This is recommended as a local application in 
lichen aiirics. and irzeinut'ni.i affections. 

GLYCERITUM ALUMINIS.— GLYCERITE OF ALUM. 

Synony.m : (ilycerin of alum. 

Preparation. — Aluni, 1 ounce; glycerin, 5 fluid ounces; place ingredients in 
a porcelain vessel, stir them together, and heat gently until solution is accom- 
plished. Set tlie solution aside, and when all particles have settled pour off' the 
clear liquid. 

Action and Medical Uses. — This is to be used for the same purposes as 
alum (see Alumen). It is more irritating than glycerite of tannin, but has the 
advantage of being stainless. 

GLYCERITUM AMYLI (U. S. P.)— GLYCERITE OF STARCH. 

Synony.ms: (ih/cerin of sturrh, Pla»ma. Glymmyl. 

Preparation. — "Starch, ten grammes (10 (im.) [154 grsj ; water, ten cubic 
centinietvrs (10 Cc.) [162 HI]; glycerin, eighty grammes (SO Gm.) [2 ozs. av., 360 
grs.]. To the starch, contained in a porcelain capsule, add the water and glyc- 
erin, and stir until a homogeneous mixture is produced. Then apply a heat 
gradually raised to 140° C. (284° F.), and not exceeding 144° C. (291.2° F.), stir- 
ring constantly, until a translucent jelly is formed. Transfer the product to suita- 
ble vessels, provided with well-fitting covers" — (f. .9. P.). 

This preparation, if exposed to the atmosphere, readily absorbs moisture, 
hence it siiould be kept in closely-stoppered bottles. According to Willmott 
the substitution of water in ]ilace of one-third of the glycerin used will prevent 
this change. 

Action and Medical Uses. — Glycerite of starch forms a bland preparation, 
very useful in cases in which it is desired to apply mild, non-irritating aressings, 
as in the burning heat o{ eczema, in excoriated surfaces, in erythema, and in several 
other irriiatdl or inflamed conditionn of the skin. It likewise forms a vehicle for the 
application of other agents with which it may be mixed. 

GLYCERITUM BISMUTHI (N. F.)— GLYCERITE OF BISMUTH. 

SyniiNvm- : Li'iunr liisiitntlii nmcrntratus. C'imccntralcil anlutinn of bismuth. 

Preparation. — "Bismuth and aninK>niuin citrate, two hundred and seventy- 
five graiiuii's I JT') Gm.) [0 ozs. av., 307 grs.] ; stronger water of ammonia ( I '. S. P.), 
a sutUcient quantity; glycerin, five hundred cubic centimeters (500 Cc.) [16 tis, 
435 nil; water, a sufficient quantity to make one thousand cubic centimeters 
(1000 Cc.) [33 fl.5, 3!»1 TTl]. Triturate the bismuth and ammonium citrate with 
three hundred and fiftv cubic centimeters (350 Cc") [11 fl.?, 401 1111 of water and 



942 GLYCERITUM BOROGLYCERINI—GLYCEEITUM HYDRASTIS. 

two hundred and fifty cubic centimeters (250 Cc.) [8 flg, 218 TTl] of glycerin, and 
add to it gradually just enough stronger water of ammonia to dissolve the salt, 
and to produce a neutral solution. Then add the remainder of the glycerin and 
enough water to make one thousand cubic centimeters (1000 Cc.) [33 Q5. 391 TTl], 
and filter. Each fluid drachm contains 16 grains of bismuth and ammonium 
citrate. Note. — If glycerite of bismuth should at any time deposit a precipitate, 
this maybe redissolved by the addition of just sufficient stronger water of am- 
monia " — (A^nt. Form.). 

Action and Medical Uses. — Useful as a local application in eczema, excoruitiom, 
chaps of till' liji-^ o ml lidiuh, in gonorrkosa, vaginitis, chronic granular conjunctivitis, ciliary 
and glandular hltjjliaritis,etc. It should always be well shaken just previous to 
using it. 

GLYCERITUM BOROOLYCERINI (U. S. P.)— GLYCERITE OF 
BOROGLYCERIN. 

Synonyms: Glycerite of glyceryl borate, Solution of boroglyceride. 

Preparation. — " Boric acid, in fine powder, three hundred and ten grammes 
(310 Gm.) [10 ozs. av., 409 grs.]; glycerin, a sufficient quantity to make one thou- 
sand grammes (1000 (Jm.) [2 lbs. av., 3 ozs., 120 grs.]. Heat four hundred and 
sixty grammes (460 Gm.) [1 lb. av., 99 grs.] of glycerin, in a tared porcelain cap- 
sule, to a temperature not exceeding 150° C. (302° F.), and add the boric acid in 
portions, constantly stirring. When all is added and dissolved, continue the heat 
at the same temperature, frequently stirring, and breaking up the film which 
forms on the surface. When the mixture has been reduced to the weight of five 
hundred grammes (500 Gm.) [1 lb. av., 1 oz.,*279 grs.], add to it five hundred 
grammes (500 Gm.) [1 lb. av., 1 oz., 279 grs.] of glycerin, mix thoroughly, and 
transfer it to suitable vessels" — (U.S. P.). 

This may also be made quickly by dissolving boroglyceride (1 ounce, av.; 
in glycerin (1 ounce, av.) by gently heating the mixture. 

Description and Uses. — This preparation is colorless, thick, viscid and sweet. 
It is antiseptic and possesses marked preservative qualities. 

BoROGLYCERiN-UM (N. T.), Boroglyccrin, Glycertjl borate, Boroglyceride. — "Boric acid, in pow- 
der, six hundred and twenty gramme'a (620 Gm.) [1 lb. av., 5 ozs., 381 grs.] ; glycerin, nine hun- 
dred and twenty grammes (920 Gm.) [2 lbs. av„ 198 grs.]. Heat the glycerin in a tared porcelain 
capsule to a temperature not exceeding 150° C. (302° F.), and add the boric acid in portions, 
constantly stirring. When all is added and dissolved, continue the heat at the same tempera- 
ture, frequently stirring, and breaking up the film which forms on the surface. When the 
mixture has become reduced to a weight of one thousand grammes (lOOOGiu. ' [2 lbs. av.,3 ozs., 
120 grs.], pour it out on a flat surface previously coated with a very small quantity of petrolatum, 
let it cool, cut it into pieces and transfer them immediately to bottles or jars, which should be 
well-stoppered. Note.— The official glycerite of boroglycerin may be made from this by adding 
an equal weight of glycerin to the finished boroglycerin while it is still warm "—(Sat. Form. 1. 

GLYCERITUM HYDRASTIS (U. S. P.)— GLYCERITE OF 
HYDRASTIS. 

Preparation.— " Hydrastis, in No. 60 powder, one thousand grammes (^1000 
Gm.) [2 lbs. av., 3 ozs., 120 grs.]; glycerin, five hundred cubic centimeters (500 
Cc.) [16 II3, 435 Til]; alcohol, water, each a sufiicient quantity to make one thou- 
sand cubic centimeters (1000 Cc.) [33 H.^, 391 111]. Moisten the hydrastis with 
three hundred and fifty cubic centimeters (3-50 Cc.) [11 tl.^, 401111] of alcohol, 
and pack it firmly in a cylindrical percolator; then add enough akoliol to satu- 
rate the powder and leave a stratum above it. When the liquid begins to drop 
from the percolator, close tlie lower orifice, and, having closely covere<.l the t>erco- 
lator, macerate for 48 hours. Then allow the percolation to proceed, gradually 
adding alcohol until the iiydrastis is practically exhausted. To the percolate add 
two hundred and fifty cubic centimeters (250 Cc.> [8 H5, 218111] of water, and 
then drive oflf tlie alcohol by evaporation or distillation. After tlie alcohol is 
driven off, add enough water to the residue to make it me.isure five hundred cubic 



GLYCEKirrM lODIXII COMPOSITUM -GLYCERITIM PICIS. 943 

centimeters (500 Cc.) [16 fl^, 435 111], and set it aside for 24 hours. Then filter, 
pass enough water through the ifilter to make the filtrate measure five hundred 
cubic centimeters (500 Cc.) [16 fig, 435 ITl], add the glycerin, and mix thor- 
oughly"— (T. S. P.). 

flistory. — This preparation wa^ first elaborated by Prof. J. U. Lloyd, in re- 
sponse to a call from Dr. L. E.Wickens, of Holly, Michigan. It came into ex- 
tended use, and the published formula has now found its way into the Xati/nml 
Fonnii'iiri/ and I 'nilcil Snh.t P/iarmacopwia. Owing to the yellow color it has fallen 
into gi'iuM-al tiisfuvor. 

Action and Medical Uses. — (Those of Hi/dmstis.) Dose, i to 1 fluid draclim. 

GLYCERITUM lODINII COMPOSITUM.— COMPOUND 
GLYCERITE OF IODINE. 

Synonyms : Glycerinum iodinii compositum, Covipound glycerin n/ioditx, (Itycerole 
of iwlinc. 

Preparation. — Take of iodim, 1 drachm; iodide of potassium, 1 drachm; 
glycerin. 4 drachms ; thoroughly triturate in a glass mortar the iodide of potassium 
and glycerin together, then gradually add the iodine, and continue the tritu- 
ration until it is all di.<solved, and keep the mixture in a well-closed vessel. 

Action and Medical Uses. — This is a somewhat caustic preparation, very 
useful as a local application to ulcemtion of the os uteri, tion-vascuhir goitre, scrofu- 
lous ulcers, as well as those from constUutional fryphilis. It should be applied by 
means of a hair pencil, or lamp-wick porte-caustic. 

GLYCERITUM KINO.— GLYCERITE OF KlNO. 

Synonyms : (ihirtriitum kino. Glycerin of kino, Glycerole of kino. 

Preparation. — Take of powdered kino, 4 drachms; glycerin, 2 fluid ounces. 
Tiiturat.- tlmroughly toirether in a Wedgewood mortar, and transfer to a vial. 

Action and Medical Uses. — This forms a permanent solution, not giving 
any deposit, and should he employed as a substitute for the tincture of kino. 

GLYCERITUM PEPSINI (N. F.)— GLYCERITE OF PEPSm. 

Preparation. — /bnnu/on/ mtmber, 187: "Pepsin {!'. S. P. i, eighty-five 
grannnes i >--5 Gni.) [3 ozs., av.j; hydrochloric acid {V. S. P.). ten cubic centimeters 
(10 Co [162 Ttl]; purified talcum (F. 395), fifteen grammes (15 Gm.) [231 grs.] ; 
glycerin, five hundred cubic centimeters (500 Cc.) [16 fl.s, 435 Ttl] ; water, a suffi- 
cient quantity to make one thousand cubic centimeters (1000 Cc. ) [33 fl.s, 391 111]. 
Mix the pepsin with four hundred and fifty cubic centimeters (450 Cc.) [15 flg, 
104 ni] of^ water and the hydrochloric acid, and agitate until solution has been 
effected. Then incorjjorate the purified talcum with the liquid, filter, returning 
the first portions of the filtrate until it runs through clear, and pass enough water 
through the filter to make the filtrate measure five hundred cubic centimeters (500 
Cc.) [16 fl.s,43oTll]. To this add the glycerin, and mix. Each fluid drachm repre- 
sents 5 grains of pepsin (('. S. P.). iVo<<?.— For filtering the aqueous solution of pepsin 
first obtained by the above formula, as well as for filtering other liquids of a vis- 
cid character, a filter paper of loose texture (preferably that known as "Textile 
Filtering Paper '' i. or a layer of absorbent cotton placed in a funnel, or percolator, 
should be employed" — i Xnl . Form.). 

Action and' Medical Uses.- (Those of Pepsin.) 

GLYCERITUM PICIS.— GLYCERITE OF TAR. 

Synonyms: Glycerin of tar, Glycerole of tar. 

Preparation. — Take of tar, 1 troy ounce; glycerite of starch, 8 iroy ounces. 
Transfer the tar to a mortar, and gradually add the glycerite of starch, stirring 



944 GLYCERITUM POTASSII CHLORAS.— GLYCERITUM QUININ.E SULPHAS. 

constantly until an even mixture results (Neiv Remedies, 1879, p. 200). It is ad- 
visable to previously warm the glycerite of starch. 

Action and Medical Uses. — This preparation formsa very useful local applica- 
tion in lichen, pruriricpityruisis, psoriasis, lepra, herpes, erythema,ecse)nn, tinea, pruritis, 
and alopecia; also in indolent and gangrenous ulcers. It may be rubbed upon the 
affected part, or be spread on a piece of linen and thus applied. It is very apt to 
afford more or less relief, even when it does not remove the disease. Do not con- 
found this valuable tar compound for external use with the following liquid to 
be taken internally: 

Belated Preparation.— GLYCEBirrM Picis Liqcid^e. A good formula, with its u?es. is 
as follows: Take of tar, strained, 1 troy ounce; carbonate of magnesium, rubbed to powder 
on a sieve, 3 troy ounces; alcohol, 2 fluid ounces; glycerin, 4 fluid ounces; water, a suflBcienl 
quantity. Mix the alcohol and glycerin with 10 fluid ounces of water. Rub the tar in a mor- 
tar with the carbonate of magnesium added gradually, until a smooth pulverulent mixture is 
obtained, then, add gradually, in small portions at a time, with thorough trituration continued 
for 15 or 20 minutes, 6 fluid ounces of the mixture of alcohol, glycerin, and water, and strain 
with strong pressure; return the residue to the mortar, and repeat the trituration as before, 
with 5 fluid ounces more of the same liquid, and again strain and express; again treat the 
dregs in the same manner with the remainder of the fluid mixture, and after expression, re- 
duce the residue by trituration to a uniform condition, and finally pack firmly in a glass fun- 
nel, prepared for ))crcolation, and pour upon it the expressed liquors, previously mixed, and 
when the mixture has all passed from the surface, continue the percolation with water until 
1 pint of liquid has been obtained. 

This is an elegant and palatable preparation of tar, of a beautiful rich reddish-brown 
color at first, but losing its transparency from a deposition of resinous matter, which does not, 
however, affect the medicinal virtues of "the preparation in the least. If glycerin be substituted 
for the alcohol, in its preparation, the solution is nearly as strong as whenalcohol is employed 
and deposits less resin. Glycerin appears to be a good solvent of the medicinal properties of 
tar, and possessing demulcent, alterative, and nutrient properties, serves as a valuable adjunct 
to the latter therapeutically. 

Glycerin solution of tar is very valuable in chronic cough, chronic laryngeal, bronchial and 
pulmonary affccttons, and, being free from sugar, it is less liable to offend the stomach and dis- 
turb the digestive functions of patients requiring its long-continued use. It may be associated 
with the fluid extracts of wild cherrj' bark, blood-root, etc., to suit the views of the prescrib- 
ing physician. The dose is from 2 to 4 fluid drachms, 3 or 4 times a day, which will represent 
from about 7^ to 15 grains of tar (J. B. Moore, Amer. Jour. Pharin., 1S69, p. 115) 

GLYCERITUM POTASSII CHLORAS.— GLYCERITE OF 
POTASSIUM CHLORATE. 

Synonyms : Glycerimtm potassii chloras, Glycerin solution of chlorate of potas- 
siv,in, Glyrerolc of chlorate of potassium. 

Preparation. — Take of chlorate of potassium, in powder, I drachm ; glycerin, 
10 drachms. Place the two articles in a vial, and agitate until the chlorate is 
all dissolved. 

Action and Medical Uses.— This has been found valuable as a disinfectant 
and dressing for ill-conditioned ivounds and ulcers, and as a local application to 
enfeebled and ulcerated mucous surfaces, as in aphthous affections of the mo^tdi, 
leucorrhaa, gonorrhoea in females, nasal ulcerations, etc. 

GLYCERITUM QUININ,® SULPHAS.— GLYCERITE OF 
QUININE SULPHATE. 

Synonyms : Glycerinum quinina- sulphas, Glycerin of sulphate of quinine. Glycerole 
of qv in I nc. 

Preparation. — Take of sulphate of quinine, 24 grains; glycerin, 2 fluid 
ounces. Triturate the quinine with the glycerin, in a glass mortar, until it is 
dissolved, and transfer to a vial. 

Action and Medical Uses- — This forms an elegsmt preparation, containing 
1^ grains of sulphate of quinine to the fluid dracnm. It may l)e u?ed both 
internally and externally in all cases where quinine is indicated. 



i.i.vi. i:i;irLM SAPoNis.-GLVL'KKrriM vitelli. ;t4o 

GLYCERITUM SAPONIS.— GLYCEEITE OF SOAP. 

Preparation. — Take ii<nitral cDcoanut-oil-soda soap (or tallow-soda soap), 
1 part; glycerin (sp. gr., 1.250), 4 parts. The soap must be exactly neutral and 
dried at 100° (.". (212° F.). Dissolve the soap in the glycerin on a water-batli, 
and while .-till hot filter the solution. 

Description and Uses.— This process yields a hygroscopic, odorless, light- 
yellow nia.-is, having' elasticity. The heat of the body is sufficient to liquify it. 
This has lieen proposed l)y Hebra as an ointment base, the desired medicinal 
agents being added to it (Proc. Amer, Pharin. A<soc., 1891 ). 

GLYCERITUM SODII BORATIS.— GLTCERITE OF 
BORATE OF SODIUM. 

Synony.Ms: dhicerite of bnrnr, Glycerin of borax. 

Preparation.— Take of crystallized borate of sodium (borax), 1 troy ounce ; 
glycerin, 8 fluid ounces. Rub the borax in a mortar until it is finely powdered, 
then gradually add the glycerin and rub together until the bora.K is dissolved. 
The Gh/rerinum Borac is of the Br. Pharm. contains powdered borax. 1 ounce (av.); 
glycerin. 4 fluid ounces; and distilled water, 2 fluid ounces. 

Action and Medical Uses. — Tiiis preparation is employed, locally, in aph- 
thiv, thrv.gh. And other forms o( .■'iiimiitili.t. \n fis.sured and idrernted vij>ples,\n ci-zemn, 
tifhen, iiit>rlri<in, in pcn-asitir culiniri)ii.-< ili.-^tiise.f, and especially in piityrin.si.i of the scalp. 
It is also useful in aphthous and nlrcrative conditions of the vulva. It most generally 
relieves the burning and itching attending many cvianeous malndie.'^. 

GLYCERITUM TRAGACANTH.® (N. F.)— GLYCERITE OF 
TRAGACANTH. 

Preparation. — Fnrmxdamj number, 189 : " Tragacanth, in fine powder, one hun- 
dred and twenty-five grammes (125 Gm.) [4 oz. av., 179 grs.]; glycerin, seven 
hundred and seventy-five cubic centimeters (775 Cc.) [20 fls, 99 Ttl] ; water, one 
hundred and eighty-five cubic centimeters (185 Cc.) [6 fls, 123 111]. Triturate 
the tragacanth with the glycerin in a mortar, add the water, and continue the 
trituration, until a homogeneous, thick paste results." 

Xote. — -'The Glycerinum Tragaeanthx of the Br. Pharm. (1885) is prepared by 
mixing 3 troy ounces of tragacanth with 12 fluid ounces of glycerin in a mortar, 
adding 2 fluid ounces of water, and triturating until a translucent, homogeneous 
jelly is formed. 

'■Mwiiofio Tragacanthx of the I '. S. P. (1890) is made by mixing 18 grammes of 
glycerin with 75 cubic centimeters of water, heating the mixture to boiling, add- 
ing 6 grammes of tragacanth, macerating for 24 hours, and then adding water to 
make 100 grammes, heating it to a uniform consistence, and straining. 

■'I'lifiueiiluiii Gh/rerivio( the Ger. Pharm. is prepared by triturating 1 part of 
powdered tragacanth with 5 parts (bv weight) of alcohol (of about 91 per cent), 
then addiiii; 50 parts of glycerin, and heating on a steam-bath "-(iVai. Form.). 

Uses.— This Jelly-like mass is used chiefly as a pill excipient. 

GLYCERITUM VITELLI.— GLYCERITE OF YOLK OF EGG. 

Sy.nosy.ms: Glyconin, Glyconinum. 

Preparation.— " Fresh yolk of egg, forty-five grammes (45 Gm.) [1 oz. av., 
257 grs.l ; glvcerin, fiftv-five grammes (55 Gin.) [1 oz. av..411 grs.] : to make one 
hundred grammes (100 Gm.) [3 ozs. av., 231 grs.l. Uuh the yolk of egg, in a 
Miortar, with the glycerin, graduallv added, until they are thoroughly mixed. 
Th.n transfer the mixture to a bottle "—(('..'<'. f.). 



946 GLYCVRRHIZA. 

This preparation is of a honey-like consistence and is of value as an emulsify- 
ing agent for cod-liver and other oils. If kept from contact with the air, so that 
it can not absorb moisture, it keeps unaltered for a great length of time. 

Action and Medical Uses. — Protective and emollient. Useful in bums, ery- 
sipelas, erythema, and other cutaneous irritations for which glycerite of starch is em- 
ployed, 'it is inferior to that agent for most purposes. 

GLYCYRRHIZA (U. S. P.)— GLYCYRRHIZA. 

"The root of Glycyrrhiza glabra, Linne, and of the variety glandulifera (Wald- 
stein et Kittaibel) Kegel et Herder" {U. S. P.) (Liquiritia officinalis, Moench). 
Nat. Ord. — Leguminosffi. 

Common Names: Liquorice-root, Spanish licorice-root, Licorice-root, Radix glycyr- 
rhizas hispianicte. 

Illustration : Bentley and Trimen, Med. Plants, 74. 

Botanical Source. — The liquorice-plant has a perennial, cylindrical root, 
running to a considerable length and depth, grayish-brown externally, yellow 
internally, succulent, tough, flexible, rapid in growth, and provided with scat- 
tered fibers. The stems are erect, herbaceous, smooth, striated, with few branches, 
of a dull, glaucous-gray color, growing 2 or 3 feet in height. The leaves are alter- 
nate and unequally pinnate; the leaflets generally about 13, oval, entire, obtuse, 
slightly emarginate, viscid, and 1 terminal; the stipules are inconspicuous. The 
flowers are small, bluish or purplish, in axillary, erect spikes, shorter than the 
leaves, and borne on long peduncles. Calyx persistent, tubular, bilabiate, and 
5-cleft. The corolla is a straight, ovate-lanceolate vexillum; the keel is biparted, 
acute and straight. Stamens diadelphous; anthers simple and rounded; style 
filiform; and stigma blunt. The legumes are oblong, compressed, 1-celled, and 
1 to 4-seeded; the seeds are small and reniform (L. — Wi.). 

The variety glandulifera differs in not being smooth like the preceding, but 
in partaking more or less of a pubescent character, the leaves (beneath^ and stem 
being glandular-pubescent, while the pods are glandular and prickly. 

History. — This plant inhabits southern Europe, and some parts of Asia, and 
is cultivated in England, Germany, France, and in the United States to some ex- 
tent. The so-called Bussian liquorice (that produced by the 
'^' ■ variety glandulifera) grows from Hungarj' and Turkey into 

western Asia. Liquorice root is imported chiefly from Spain 
and Sicily. Commercially considered there are 5 grades, viz.: 
Italian, the best and sweetest, Spanish or Common liquorire root, 
Syrian, Turkish and Russian, the bitterest. These grades are 
preferred in the order named. 

Description.—" In long, cylindrical pieces, from 5 to 25 
Mm. (I to 1 inch) thick, longitudinally wrinkled, externally 
grayish-brown, warty ; internally tawny-yellow; pliable, 
tough; fracture coarsely fibrous; bark rather thick; wood por- 
ycyrr izag a ra. ^^^^ ^^^^ dense, in narrow wedges; medullary rays linear; taste 
sweet, somewhat acrid. The underground stem, which is often present, lias the 
same appearance, but contains a thin pith. The drug derived from the variety 
glandulifera (so-called Russian liquorice) consists usually of roots and root- 
branches, 1 to 4 Cm. (f to 1 inch) thick, 15 to 30 Cm. {6 to 12 inches) long, fre- 
quently deprived of the corky layer, the wood rather soft, and usually more or 
less cleft " — (f. 5. P.). Liquorice root has a faint odor and is so dense as to sink 
in water. It must be kept in a dry place. Those roots are to be pn lerred which 
are not worm-eaten or decayed, and whose surfaces of fracture are bright yellow. 
Chemical Composition.— The characteristic constituent of the root is glycyr- 
rhizin, so named by Kolnquet (ISO?) on account of its sweet taste. There are 
furthermore present, fatty and resinous matter (0.8 percent), small amounts of 
turn, albuminous substances, tannin, starch, yellow coloring matter, a bitter prin- 
ciple (glycyramarin), and wtparagin (Plisson, 1828), a substance already recognized 
by Robiquet, who named it agidoite. Seslini (1878) found from 2 t'^ 4 i>er cent 
of this principle present in liquorice root. 




GLYCYRKHIZA. 947 

G.;i'i/irhcziii Wiis obtained by Gorup-Besanez by making a cold infusion of 
the root, and heating the solution to boiling, filtering, evaporating to a smaller 
bulk, and precipitating with suli)huric acid. The yellow dakes thus obtained 
are washed with water and further purified by means of ether-alcohol (Husemann 
and Hilger). Z. Roussiu (ISTo) and Habermann (.1S79) showed that the sweet 
principle, glycyrrhizin, is the acid aniniouiuin salt of a peculiar nitrogenous tri- 
basic acid, called glynjrrhizic mid (often tcriucd glycyrrhizinj, to which Haber- 
mann assigned the formula C„H„NO„. The acid potassium salt of this acid is 
reniarkiible for its intensely Bwcet taste. The free acid, prepared from the lead 
salt, forms a brown, gelatinous mass, soluble in hot water, and having a bitter- 
sweet taste and acid reaction. It decomposes carbonates, swells up in cold water, 
is easily soluble in glacial acetic acid, but not in alcohol or ether. 

Habermann (ISSO) found that by boiling with diluted sulphuric acid, it splits 
into gh/ryrre(in (C„H,,NO,), a white, tasteless powder, insoluble in water, alkali and 
ether, soluble in alcohol ; and jKiratiMr/iari/: arid (C5H,„0j,which reduces Fehling's 
solution. Gorup-Besanez believed that dextrose was formed in this reaction. 
Habermann obtained the arid a mmnniu in glycyrrhizinate (glycyrrhizin proper) by 
crystallizing the commercial liquorice extract from glacial acetic acid, and subse- 
quent rccrysUdlization. In the purest state it forms yellow crystals of sweet taste, 
little soluble in cold water. When dissolved in hot water and then cooled, a stiff 
jelly is formed. This salt is hardly soluble in alcohol or ether. The amount of 
glycyrrhizic acid contained in liquorice root is varying. Sestini (1S7S) obtained 
3.3 per cent from air-dried root; H. J. MiJller, in 1880, obtained 7.5 per cent from 
Russian root (Fliickiger, 1891). Mr. L. McCullough {Amer. Jour, riumn., 1890, p. 
389), found 7.18 per cent. In commrrrial liqunrire ejtrart gl vcyrrhizin was found by 
Kremel {Archiv dcr Phann., 1SS9, p. 511) to vary from 6.8" to 11.9 per cent. Peltz 
{Pharm. Zsrhr.f. Rmslund, 1876, p. 257) records the results of 10 analyses of com- 
mercial extracts of liquorice root. Glvcyrrhizin was found to vary from 1.33 to 
18.14 per cent, starch from 1.33 to 35 per cent. Sestini (1878) found water, 48.7; 
glycyrrhizin, 3.27; carbohydrates, 29.62; asparagin, 1.25; ash, 2.08. (For methods 
of valuation of commercial liquorice extracts, see Fliickiger, Pharvinmgnosie,Zde6., 
1891, ai\d Alfred Mellor, Amcr. Jour. Pharm., 1898, p. 136.) Glycyrrhizin is stated 
(Fliickiger) to occur in other plants, e.gi.,^/»-»s preratorim (Berzelius), Axtrngalus 
glycyphyUos, Poly/jodiuni vuUjnre (Guignct, 18R5), Myrrhis odnmlfi (Schroeder, 1885), 
GiUiflma »perio.-</i, Martins, and Moiuxin bork (Peckolt, Pharm. Rundscfiou, 1888, 
pp. 31,203, 20(> I, but these statements, according to Fliickiger, require verification. 

Action, Medical Uses, and Dosage.— Liquorice root is emollient, demul- 
cent, and nutritive. It acts uiion mucous surfaces, lessening irritation, and is 
conseijuently u.-^eful in coinjhs, cntdrrli.s, irritation of the urinary organs, and pain of 
the iiitoylint^ in dian-haa. It is commonly administered in decoction, sometimes 
alone, at other times with the addition of other agents, and which is the prefer- 
able mode of using it. As a general rule, the acrid bark should be removed pre- 
vious to forming a decoction. When boiled for some time the water becomes 
impregnated with its acrid resin ; hence, in preparing a decoction for the purpose 
of sweetening diet drinks, or covering the taste of nauseous drugs, it should not be 
boiled over 5 minutes. The elHcieney of the root in old bronchial affections may be 
due to this acrid resin. The powdered root is also employed to give the proper 
solidity to pills, and to prevent their adhesion; the extract for imparting the 
proper viscidity to them. The extract, in the form of lozenge, held in the mouth 
until it has dissolved, is a very poi)ular and efficient remedy in coughs and pectoral 
(iffcrlions. An excellent troche or lozenge, very useful in ordinary cough, maybe 
made by combining together 6 parts of refined liquorice, 2 parts of benzoic aciil, 
4 jiarts of pulverized alum, and | a part of pulverized opium. Dissolve the liquor- 
icii in water, and evaporate to the proper consistence, then add the powders with 
a few drop.s of oil of anise, and divide it into 3 or 6-grain lozenges. The bitter- 
ness of quinine, qua.ssia, aloes, and the acrid taste of senega, guaiacum, mezereon 
and ammonium chloride are masked by liquorice. 

Related Species.— GlyryrrhUa Ifpidota, which grows in MiBsowi, posseeses the taste of 
liquorice to a consuierable degree. McCullough (Amrr. Jour. Pharm., 1890, p. :!S;ii found it to 
contain cvir (1 ((>.:!',)) jicr cent oi ijlyryrrhiziii. 



94S GLYCYRRHIZINUM AMMONIATUM-GXAPHALIUM. 

Ononis spinosa, Liniie, Rest-lmn-ow.—Europe, in sandy situations. The root of this plant 
is about 2 feet in length, and from less than i to nearly 1 inch in thickness. It is tough, 
curved, or twisted, and flattened, deeply rugose, and coveretl with a thin, deep grayish-brown 
bark. It is whitish internally. This has a mucilaginous taste, at first sweetish, then bitter 
and disagreeable, and on the whole somewhat resembles that of liquorice root. Reinsch (1842) 
obtained therefrom crystals of ononin (C30HJ4O13), tasteless and colorless, and recognized by 
Hlasiwetz (1855) to be a glucosid. Another constituent, ononid (CisHjjOg, Hlasiwetz), discov- 
ered by Reinsch, much resembles glycyrrhizin in its chemical behavior. Hlasiwetz also iso- 
lated from Reinsch's impure ononin a waxy substance which he called onncerin. Tliis liob 
was recently found by H. Thorns (Archiv. der P/mrm., 1897, p. 28) to be a secondary air ..h/.; 
(C26H42[OH],), for which he proposes the altered name onocol. It seems closely related t i 
(iliyloiilerin {vegetable cholesterin). 

Aqueous or acetous decoctions of this root are reputed diuretic and lithontriptic, other 
properties also being ascribed to it. Its principal use is as a diuretic for dropsy, for which it is 
a popular remedy in France. Other conditions in which it has been employed are as a wash 
foT ulcen, toothaclie, hemorrhoids, scalp eruptions, hydrocele, enlarged glands, and internally in jaun- 
dice, gout, and rheumatism, usually combined, in the two latter diseases, with renal depurants. 
The decoction is made with from 1 to 2 ounces of ononis root to water, 1 pint, the dose of which 
is a wineglassful several times a day. From 3 to 5 grains of ononin produced a prolonged irri- 
f»tion and sense of rawness in the mouth and throat (Schroffl. 

GLYCYRRHIZINUM AMMONIATUM (U. S. P.)— AMMONIATED 
GLYOYRRmzm. 

Preparation. — "Glycyrrhiza, in No. 20 powder, five hundred grammes (500 
Gm.) [1 lb. av.,1 oz.,279 grs.]; water, ammonia water, sulphuric acid, each, a suffi- 
cient quantity. Mix four hundred and seventv-five cubic centimeters (475 Cc.) 
[16 fl5,30TTl]"of water with twenty-five cubic centimeters (25 Cc.) [4061(11] of am- 
monia water, and, having moistened the powder with the mixture, macerate for 
24 hours. Then pack it moderatelj'in a conical glass percolator, and gradually 
pour water upon it until five hundred cubic centimeters (500 Cc.) [16 85, 435 TTl"] 
of percolate are obtained. Add sulphuric acid slowly to the percolate, with 
constant stirring, so long as a precipitate is produced. Collect this on a strainer, 
wash it with cold water until the washings no longer have an acid reaction, redis- 
solve it in water with the aid of ammonia water, filter, if necessary, and again 
add sulphuric acid so long as a precipitate is produced. Collect this, wash it, dis- 
.solve it in a sufficient quantity of ammonia water previously diluted with an 
equal volume of water, and spread the clear solutiou upon plates of glass, so that, 
when dry, the product may be obtained in scales" — ( U. S. P.). 

Description and Chemical Composition. — "Dark-brown or brownish-red 
scales, without odor, and having a very sweet taste. Readily soluble iu water and 
in alcohol. The aqueous solution, when heated with potassium or sodium hy- 
drate T.S., evolves ammoniacal vapors. If the aqueous solution be supersaturated 
with an acid, there will be produced a precipitate (glycyrrhizin) which, when dis- 
solved in hot water, forms a jelly on cooling. This substance, after being washed 
with diluted alcohol, and dried, appears as an amorphous, yellow powder, having 
a strong, bitter-sweet taste, and an acid reaction. Upon incineration, ammoniated 
glycyirhizin should not leave more than atrace of ash" — (U. S. P.). This product 
consists largely of ammonium glycyrrhizate ([XH,]C„H,,NO,j,) and glycyramarin 
(CjsHjjNOij), a bitter glucosid, dissolving in ether-alcohol (see G/.i/<"i/rr/iija). This 
preparation is used mainly for masking the bitterness of quinine salts. It pro- 
duces with these substances, when in solution, precipitates which contain tlie 
quinine. Hence, care must be taken to shake the vial before taking a dose. 

GNAPHALIUM.— WHITE BALSAM. 

The herb of Gnnphaliuin polycephalum, Linne. 

Nat. Ord. — Conipositfe. 

Common Namks: hulian posi/, SwcetsretUed life-€verlasting. Old field hubam. 

Botanical Source. — This plant is indigenous, herbaceous, and annual, with 
an erect, whitish, woolly, and much-branchetl stem, from 1 to 2 feet in height. 
The leaves are alternate, sessile, linear-lanceolate, acute, entire, scabrous above. 
and whitish tomentose beneath. The flowers are tubular and vellow, borne in 



GOOUYERA.-GOSSYPK'M PIRIFICATI-M. 949 

hf:i(l.-! ilusteivil at tlie summit of Ihe panicled-corymbose branches, ovate-conical 
before expansion, then obovate. The involucre is imbricate, witli whitish, ovate, 
and oblong, rather obtuse scales. Florets of ray, subulate — of disk, entire. The 
receptacle is flat and naked, the pappus pilose "and scabrous capillary (W. — G.). 

History. — White balsam is found in Canada and various parts of the United 
States, growing in old fields and on dry, barren lands, and bearing whitish-yellow 
flowers in July and August. The leaves have a iilcasant, aromatic smell, and a 
slightly bitter and astringent, but rather agreeable taste. They yield their prop- 
erties to water. No analysis has been made of them. The AnUnnaria Margo- 
ritacea, R. Brown, formerly Gnapkalium Murgarilcurum, Linno, <>r pearl-flowere-l 
life-everlasting, a perennial i)lant, possesses similar properties to the above (see 
Antennm-ia). 

Action, Medical Uses, and Dosage.— Astringent. The leaves and blossoms 
chewed, and the juice swallowed, have provetl beneficial in tdrerationg of the moulh 
and throat. A warm infusion (gss to water Oj), may be used iwfevas to produce 
diaphoresis, and is of service in quinsy, pulmonary complaints, leucorrkiea, etc.; it 
may be used internally and as a local application. Likewise used as an infusion 
in diseases of the bowels, and hemorrhages, and applied in fomentations to bruises, 
indolent tumors, and other local affections. Prof. Scudder suggests investigation 
to determine its influence upon the reproductive and urinary stuctures, in actUe 
and chronic ulceralions, and in digestive disorderts. The fresh juice is reputed an 
aphrodisiac. 

GOODYERA.— NET-LEAF PLANTAIN. 

The leaves of Gnodyera pid)cttrens, Roherl Brown. 

Nat. Or,/.— Orchidaceffi. 

CoMMiiN .\ AMKs : Net-leaf plantain. Scrofula iceed. Adder's violet, Rattlesnake-leaf. 

Botanical Source. — This plant has a perennial root, from which arises an 
erect, sheathed, and pubescent scape, from 8 to 12 inches in height. The leaves 
are radical, ovate, dnrk-green, conspicuously reticulated, 
blotched above with white, about 2 inches in length, and 
contracted at base into winged petioles scarcely half as long. 
The flowers are white, numerous, ])ubescent, and borne in a 
crowded, terminal, oblong, cylindric spike. Lip ovate, acu- 
minate, saccate, and inflated. Petals ovate. The Goodyera 
repens, R. Brown, is a reduced variety of the above, the scape g 
being from 6 to 8 feet in height; leaves less conspicuously 
reticulated, flowers being on a somewhat unilateral spike, 
more or less spiral; in other respects about the same as the 
preceding (W. — G.). 

History. — This herb grows in various parts of the United 
States, in rich woods, and under evergreens, and is common 
southward, while the G. repens is more common northward 
and on mountains. It bears white or yellowish-white flowers ^^^^ ^^ ^^ 
in .July and August. The Uavi-s are the parts employed, °° ''"^P" escens. 
and yield their virtues to ixiiliiig water. No analysis has been made of them. 

Action, Medical Uses, and Dosage. — Net-leaf ]ilantaiu is anti-scrofulous, 
and is repute<i to have cured severe eases of scrofula. The fresh leaves are steejied 
in milk and applied as a poultice to scrofulous iclcers, or the bruised leaves may l>e 
laid on them, and in either case they must be renewed every 3 hours; at the 
same time a warm infusion must be taken as freely as the stomach will allow. 
U.sed as an injection into the vagina, and at the same time exhibited inter- 
nally, the infusion has ])roved beneficial in leucorr/uen, recent prolapsus vicri, 
and as a wash in ."'rrnndonit uplithalitiia. 

GOSSYPIUM PURIFICATUM (^U. S. P.)— PURIFIED COTTON. 

" The hairs of the seed of Gossypium herbaceum, Linne, and of other species of 
Gossypium (Nat. Ord. — MalvaceaO, freed from adhering impurities and deprived of 
fatty matter"— (f'. S. P.). 




y.30 GOSSYPIUM PUKIFICATUM. 

Synonyms: Gossypium {Pharm., 1880), Absorbent cotton, Bombyx, Lana gossypii, 
Lanugo gossypii, Pili gossi/pii. Cotton wool. 

Source and Preparation.— Purified cotton is now made on an enormous 
scale by manufacturers whose processes, being private and of great personal value, 
should not be published in justice to the owners. All the absorbent cotton of 
commerce is purchased by pharmacists and other consumers, none being made 
on a small scale. It may be prepared from raw cotton by '' mercer izing" the latter, 
that is, by boiling with weak solutions of alkalies. By union with the fatty ma- 
terial of the cotton a soap is formed which is removed by repeatedly washing the 
cotton with water. F. L. Slocum's process (Amer.Jour. Pharm., 1881, p. 53), is as 
follows: Carded cotton is boiled for one-half hour in diluted solution (5 per cent) 
of caustic potash (or caustic soda). The soap formed is thoroughly washed out, 
the cotton expressed and placed for 15 or 20 minutes in a diluted solution (5 per 
cent) of chlorinated lime. It is tlien washed with water, dipped into water made 
slightly acid with hydrochloric acid, and again thoroughly washed with water. 
The cotton is then expressed and again boiled for 15 or 20 minutes with the 
diluted (5 per cent) alkali (hydroxide of potassium or sodium), washed again 
with water, next with acidulated water, and lastly with water. The cotton is then 
expressed and dried rapidly. It requires two boilings with alkalies to completely 
remove the fats. Mr. Slocum defines absorbent cotton to be cotton entirely freed 
from all matter (grease), that will obstruct capillary attraction. It is on record that 
in order to meet a popular demand for pure whiteness and a jieculiar "feel" in 
purified cotton, the latter, after being freed from fatty and resinous matter, has 
been covered again with a trace of free fatty acid by passing it through a (diluted) 
soap solution, and an acid solution afterward (^Amer. Jour. Pharm., 1891, p. 189). 

Description. — Cotton is tasteless, odorless, highly combustible, and accord- 
ing to Thompson, is not soluble in alcohol, water, ether, oils, or vegetable acids; 
weak alkaline liquids have no perceptible action on it, but when very strong they 
dissolve it by the aid of heat. Tannic acid forms a brown or yellow compound 
with it; nitric acid decomposes it when assisted with heat, oxalic acid being 
formed; sulphuric acid dissolves it. The strong mineral acids generally decom- 
pose it. Gun-cotton (Pyroxylin) a nitro-compound of an explosive character, is 
prepared from it by means of nitric acid (see Collodium and Pyrojcylinum). 

Purified cotton is almost pure cellulose. It is officially described as follows : 

''White, soft, fine filaments, appearing under the microscope as hollow, flat- 
tened and twisted bands, spirally striate, and slightly thickened at the edges ; in- 
odorous and tasteless; insoluble in ordinary solvents, but soluble in copper 
ammonium sulphate solution. Purified cotton should be perfectly free from all 
visible impurities, and, on combustion, should not leave more than 0.8 per cent 
of ash. When purified cotton, previously compressed in the hand, is thrown on 
the surface of cold water, it should readily absorb the latter and sink, and the 
water should not acquire either an acid or an alkaline reaction (evidence of proper 
purification)'"— (T'.S. P.). 

Action and Medical and Surgical Uses.— Externally, cotton is used as a 
local application in erysipelas, erythem(i,frts/i burns, wounds, severe bruises or contusions. 
in rlieumiitir pains, and has been successfully employed in dressing bli^ers. In 
burns and blisters, it quickly allays pain, but care must be taken that the cotton does 
not harden and adhere firmly to the part over which it is applied, as it will then 
cause irritation the same as any other foreign body; this may usually be avoided 
by first applying some simple oleaginous substance over the surface which is to 
come in contact with the burn or ulcer. Cotton is supposed to prove etficient 
by excluding the air from the parts over which it is applied, and also by imbib- 
ing the secretions. As an application after surgical operations it is unsurpassed, 
and by taking up the discharges prevents purulent absorption. It is often medi- 
cated with boracic acid, carbolic acid, etc., for this purpose. Pessaries and tam- 
pons are often prepared with cotton, but should be frequently removed lest they 
become foul from absorption of the discharges. Surgeons make extensive use of 
absorbent cotton to clean surfaces and cavities, and it is specially applicable for 
use in the nasal and aural passages, both for cleansing purposes and for the intro- 
duction of medicaments. For packing wounds and cavities and similar surgical 
uses some of the forms of gauze are preferred. 



GOSSYPII RAOICIS CORTEX. 951 

Cotton Preparations.— GossY PI I M stvi-tutm {'S.F.), Styptic cotton. Formulary number, 
190: '-Purilieil cotton ( ('. S. P. ), solution of cliloriae of iroufT. .S. P. >, glycerin, water, of each 
a sufficient quantity. Mix the liquids in the i>roportion of tive (■">) part.s'of the iron solution, 
one (1) part ..f jrlvcerin, and four |4) pftrts of water, in such quantities that the purified cotton 
shall he eunipktelv immersed in the liquid when gently pressed. Allow the cotton to remain 
in the liquid 1 hour, then remove it, i)res8 it until it 'has been brought to twice its original 
weight, spread it out in thin layers, in a warm place, protected from dust and light, and when 
it is sufficiently dry, transfer it' to well-closed receptacles"— i-V(i(. Form.). 

Hemost.-itii' cotton is prepared by impregnating absorbent cotton with solution of sub- 
sulphate of iron or mixture ol alum and chloride of iron. 

£>.\uiYi.ic COTTON or Stilieijlatfl cotton, contains from 5 to 10 per cent of the salicylic acid. 
Cotton is also imprtu'iiated with other substances, as benzoic acid (benzoic cotton), iodoform 
(iodoform cotton i, chlorine (chlorinated cotton i, boracic acid (borated cotton), etc. 

GOSSYPII RADICIS CORTEX (U. S. P.)— COTTON ROOT BARK. 

"The bark of the root of Gossypium herhaceum, Linne, and of other species of 
Gomfpium"—(V.S. P.). 

Nut. *:>/•</.— .Mill vacea?. 

Ilhstratio.n- : Bentley and Trimen, Med. PlanU, 37. 

Botanical Source. — Gossypium herhaceum is a biennial or triennial herb with 
a fusiform root, giving otf small radicles, and a round, pubescent, branching stem, 
about 5 feet high. The leaves are hoary, palmate, with 5 sublanceolate, rather 
acute lobes, 3 large, 2 small, lateral, and a single gland on the midvein below, 
J an inch from the base. The stipules are falcate-lanceolate. The flowers are 
yellow; the calyx cup-shaped, obtusely 5-toothed, surrounded by an involucel o;' 
3 united and cordate leaves, deeply and incisely toothed. The petals are 5 in 
number anil deciduous, with a purple spot near the base. Style simple, marked 
with 3 or 5 furrows toward the apex. Stigmas 3 or 5. Capsules 3 or 5-celled, 
3 or 5-valved, and loculicidal; the seeds, 3 or 5, are involved in cotton, somewhat 
plano-convex and reniform (W- — R- — ^^ •'• 

Gossypium barhndense, Linne, or Sea Islnnd cotton plant, is a larger plant than 
the preceding; leaves 5-lobed, with 3 glands beneath, upper ones 3-lobed; cotton 
white and seeds black. It is likewise biennial or triennial ( W.). 

History. — Cotton is an A.siatic plant, but is extensively cultivated in India, 
Syria, Asia Minor, the Mediterranean, and America. Cultivation has consider- 
ably changed tlie plant so as to render it difficult for botanists to correctly de- 
8cril>e the originals. Several species have been named by authors, which Swartz 
and Macfayden believe to be mere varieties of one species; while Wight, Arnold, 
and Hamilton believe that there are but two distinct species, the G. album, whose 
seeds are white, and which furnishes, according to A. W. Chapman, the vplnnd or 
ghort-stnp'e cotton, and the (r.ii/^ruw, whose seeds are black, and which furnishes 
long-staple or Sea Island cotton of "the United States. G. harbddeme yields true Sea 
Island cotton. The various cotton plants dififer considerably in the form of the 
leaf and its gland, the height of the plant, the hue of the petals, and the elonga- 
tion and di'licacy of the cotton. The plant can not be profitably cultivated north 
of the Ohio River, or above that latitude. The leaves are very mucilaginous, aiid 
have been u:<ed in cases where mucilage is required. A fixed oil is contained in 
the seeds, which may be procured by pressure; it is a drying oil. The i)art used 
in medicine is the inner Dark of the root, anil the white, downy substance con- 
tained in the matured capsule, and known as "cotton." When examined micro- 
scopically, the filaments constituting cotton are seen to consist of distinct, flat, 
narrow ribbons or tubular hairs, with occasional appearances of joints, indicated 
by lines at right angles to the side of tlie tube. 

The r. S. P. thus describes cotton root: "In thin, flexible bands or quilled 
pieces; outer surface brownish-yellow, with slight, longitudinal ridges or meshes, 
small, bl.ick, circular dots, or short, transverse lines, and dull, brownish-orange 
patches, from the abrasion of the thin cork; inner surface whitish, of a silky lustre, 
finely striate; l)ast fibers long, tough, and separable into papery layers ; inodor- 
ous; taste viry .-lightly acrid and faintly astringent" — (f. S. P.). 

Chemical Composition.— Prof E. S. Wayne (Avier. Jour. Pharm., 1872, p. 289) 
regards the red resin so frequently j.recipilMted in fluid extracts of gossypiuii 



952 GRAXATUM. 

as being produced by chemical change from a chromogene substance existing 
in all parts of the plant. It has acid properties, dissolves in alkali and forms 
colored precipitates with solutions of metallic salts, and is, therefore, called gos- 
sypic arid. About 8 per cent of the acid resin was found by Wm. C. Staehle 
(1875) in the powdered bark. It was soluble in alcohol, chloroform, ether, and 
somewhat less in benzol. Charles C. Drueding {Amer. Jour. Phann., 1877) removed 
from the red coloring matter a yellow principle by means of boiling benzin. He 
also finds in the root fixed oil, gum, sugar, tannin, and chlorophyll. Walter A. 
Taylor {Amcr. Jour. Phnrm., 1876, p. 402) observes that fresh root yields with strong 
alcohol a tincture of pale yellow color, which turns red upon prolonged standing, 
yet without precipitating. A weaker alcohol solution exhibits the same change 
in color, but precipitates. Old root yields to strong alcohol at once a deep-red 
solution, which does not precijiitate upon standing. 

Action, Medical Uses, and Dosage. — The bark of the recent root of the 
cotton plant is enimenagogue, parturient, and abortive. It is said to promote 
uterine contraction with as much efficiency and more safety than ergot, and was 
used by the slaves of the South for inducing abortion, which it efl'ected without 
any apparent detriment to the general system. It is adapted to cases of uterine 
inertia, and, while acting after the manner of ergot, is a much feebler though less 
dangerous drug. Four ounces of the inner root-bark may be boiled in a quart of 
water down to a pint, the dose of which is 1 or 2 fluid ounces every 20 or 30 min- 
utes. The hydro-alcoholic extract, as well as the decoction and specific gossypium, 
form excellent emmenagogues, and may be used in chlorosis, amenorrhaa, dysmen- 
orrhcea, etc. It is very doubtful W'hether this will ever take the place of other 
more certain parturients. In my own practice, it failed in producing any influ- 
ence upon the uterus during parturition in about one-half the cases in which it 
has been used, owing, probably, to its not being fresh enough. It operated 
exceedingly well in the first cases in which it was exhibited (J. King). The old 
root-bark is valueless as a medicine. The fluid extract is less efficient than the 
decoction, and fluid preparations are valueless after they begin to gelatinize, and 
deposit the so-called "red tannates" {seeFluid Extract ofGossypium). Enthusiastic 
reports of its efliciency in hysteria have been made. It seems adapted to those 
cases in which there is an anemic state of the reproductive organs, with lack of 
sexual desire or pleasure. It is a remedy for sexual lassitude,, and has been sug- 
gested for impotmcy (Webster). It is regarded as an efficient remedy for the re- 
duction oi uterine subinvolution and fibroids. It should not be used where there is 
marked irritation or tendency to inflammation. Gossypium is also a stimulant 
diuretic. The dose of the decoction (see above) ; of "the fluid extract, 1 to 60 
minims; of specific gossypium, 1 to 60 drops. 

Specific Indications and Uses. — Uterine inertia during parturition (large 
doses). _ Menstrual delay, with backache and dragging pelvic pain ; fullness and 
weight in bladder, with difficult micturition ; hysteria, with anemic condition of 
the reproductive tract; sexual lassitude, with anemia. 

Other Parts of the Plant. — The seeds are reputed to possess superior antiperiodic prop- 
erties. A pint of cotton seed placed in a quart of water and boiled down to 1 pint, and 1 gill of 
the warm tea given 1 or 2 hours before the expected chill, is said to cure interntittetU rVivr with 
the first dose. The flowers and leaves are reputed diuretic, and useful in urinanj affections; the 
leaves steeped in vinegar, are said to relieve hemicrania when locally applied, and a ilecoction is 
considered beneficial in the bites of venomous reptiles in Brazil. An infusion of the whole plant is 
reputed galactagogue. 

GRANATUM (U. S. P.)— POMEGRANATE. 

"The bark of the stem and root of Pun if a Granatuin, Linne" — (C. S.P.). 

Nat. Ord. — Lythrariea\ 

Com MOM Name: Pomegranate root-bark. 

iLi.rsTRATio.N : Bentley and Trimen, Med. Plant.'!, 113. 

Botanical Source. — Pomegranate is a small tree or shrub, with spinescent 
branchlets. Tlic leaves are opposite, oblong, inclining to lanceolate, entire, 
smooth, with no marginal vein, 2 or 3 inches long, by 5 or 10 lines wide, obtusCL 
deciduous, shortly petioled, rarely verticillate or alternate, and often axillary and 



GRANATUM. 



!).53 



Fig. 124. 




lasciclt'd. The ilowers are liirge, red, 2 or 3, nearly sessile, on soiuewliai teniiinal 
lir^inchlets. Calyx turbinate, o-cleft, thick, pale, and succulent; lestivation valvule. 
The corolla consists of 5 much crumpled, meinhranous petals. The stamens are 
numerous, inserted on the calyx, tilamcnt.s distinct ; anthers 
yellow. The ovary is roundish and interior; the style sim- 
ple and filiform ; the stigma globular and capitate. The fruit 
is a large, globose pericarp, the size of a small nniskmelon, 
leatliery, crowned by the prominent hardened tube of the 
calyx, divided horizontally into 2 parts by a very irregular, 
confus(>d dissepiment; the lower division 3-celleci, the upper 
5 to 9-celled; dissepiments membranaceous; placentie in the 
lower division at the bottom ; in the upper stretching from 
the side of the fruit to the middle. The seeds are numer- 
ous, angular and covered with a bright red, succulent, acrid 
coat. Embryo oblong; radicle short and acute; cotyledons 
foliaceous and spirally convolute (L. — W.). 

History.— The pomegranate grows on the Mediterranean 
shores, Persia, China, and other countries of Asia, and has 
been naturalized in the West Indies, and other civilized 
countries in warm latitudes. It has splendid, dark-scarlet 
flowers, often doubled, which appear in July and August. 
The Mowers, called biditu.<ilion by the ancients, have a slightly 
styptic taste, without odor, and their infusion gives a deep 
bluish-black precipitate with ferric salts. The saliva is colored a violet-red upon 
chewing them. Both tannic and gallic acids enter into their composition. In 
some foreign Pharmacopoeias, they, together with the seeds, are recognised as 
official. The rose-colored, juicy, acid pulp is edible, and is very grateful to febrile 
patients. The bark of root and stem is the only part employed in this country. 
The rind of the fruit was also official with us formerly. The fruit varies in size 
and flavor, that of the West Indies becoming the most perfect. The root is large, 
ligneous, knotty and hard. Its wood is not used in medicine. In this country the 
pomegranate shrub grows out of doors as far north as Washington, D. C. (Coville). 

Description and Chemical Composition. — Graxati Fructus Cortex. The 
rind of the fruit (Granati frurtus corter), when dry, is brown externally, j-ellow 
within, about a line in thickness, smooth or finely tuberculated, hard, "dry, brit- 
tle, in irregular fragments, inodorous, and of a very astringent, somewhat bitter 
taste. Its infusion gives an abundant, dark-bluish precipitate with the salts of 
iron. Analysis showed 18.8 per cent of tannin, 17.1 of mucilage, 10.8 of extractive 
matter. 30 of lignin, a trace of resin, and 29.9 of moisture. 

Gra.nati Radicis Cortex. — The bark of the root (Granati radicis cortex) is de- 
scribed by the U. S. P. as follows . " In thin quills or fragments, from 5 to 10 Cm. 
(2 to 4 inches) long, and from 1 to 3 Mm. (^\ to ^ inch) thick ; outer surface yel- 
lowish-gray, somewhat warty, or longitudinally and reticulately ridged ; the 
stem-bark often partly covered with blackish lichens; the thicker pieces of the 
root-bark more or less scaly externally; inner surface smooth, finely striate, graj'- 
ish-yellow; fracture short, granular, greenish-yellow; indistinctly radiate ; inodor- 
ous; taste astringent, very slightly bitter " — (U.S.P.). 

The bitterness of the bark is nearly lost by drying. When chewed, it tinges 
the saliva yellow. Its infusion yields a deep-blue precipitate with the salts of 
iron, a yellowish-white one with a solution of gelatin, a grayish-yellow with cor- 
rosive sublimate, and caustic potash or ammonia colors it purple. Paper which 
has been colored yellow by the moistened inner face of the bark, changes to blue 
by the action of sulphate of iron, and to a delicate rose color, which is evanescent, 
by nitric acid. These changes do not occur with the bark of barberry, or of box- 
root, which are sometimes fraudulently mixed with it; the box bark is nearly 
white, very bitter, but not astringent, and its infusion is not precipitated by salts 
of iron (Guibourt— Planchon, Hi.il. </<■« Drof,ues Simple.% 1876,Vol. Ill, p. 280). The 
barberry bark likewise very much resemljies the pomegranate, but is very bitter 
and not astringent, and is not affected by the salts ol iron, solution of isinglass, 
corrosive sublimate, or caustic potash The ligneous part of pomegranate root is 
inert, and should, therefore, be always separated from the bark. 



954 GRANATUII. 

Pomegranate bark contains about 20 per cent of tannin, which was believed 
by Rembold (1867) to consist of two astringent principles, one being gallotannic 
acid, the other punirotannic acid {C^a^fi^J, peculiar to this bark. Diluted sul- 
phuric acid hydrolyzed it into sugar and ellagicacid {C^^Yif>^) (Fluckiger,P/(a7-7n«- 
cognosir, 1891). The presence of gallic acid and mannil has been observed by vari- 
ous authors [jahresb. der Pharm., 1867, p. 139). The bark leaves from 10.5 to 16.5 
per cent of ash. It also contains a yellow coloring matter (see above). The an- 
thelmintic properties of pomegranate burk are due to the presence of several 
(4) alkaloids, discovered by Tan ret in 1878 and 1S80 (Amer. Jour. Phai-m., 1880, 
p. 416), and to which he gave the collective name pelletierine, in honor of the cele- 
brated French chemist Pelletier (1788-1842). C. J. Bender (188.5) proposes^ the 
more euphonic name pimicine. By mixing the ])owdered bark with milk of lime, 
exhausting with water, shaking with chloroform, and abstracting this solution 
with diluted acid, a solution of the 4 alkaloids is obtained. From tiiis solution 
sodium bicarbonate liberates rnethylpelletierine and pseudiOpelletierine, which are re- 
moved by chloroform; the addition of caustic potash then sets free jielletierine dLudi. 
isopelletierine. 

Pelletierine (CijHjjNjO,) is a colorless liquid, of specific gravity 0.988, rap- 
idly absorbs ox3'gen, and resinities. It boils at 195° C. (383° F.), is soluble in 20 
parts of cold water, and mixes in all proportions with ether, alcohol, and chloro- 
form. Its salts are crystallizable, but give off the base upon heating either dry or 



in solution. Its sulphate is la?vo-rotatory. Isopelletierine (C^^li^}\fi.,) is a liquid 

"^ " ' ' Diling 

point are the same as with its preceding isomer. Its sulphate is deliquescent and 



optically inactive, forming salts with acids. Density, solubilities, and boiling 



optically inactive. Mcthylpelletierine {C^^^^fi^ is a liquid whose boiling point 
is 215° C. (419° F.). Its hydrochlorate is dextrogyre. The alkaloid dissolves in 
25 times its weight of water at 12° C. (53.6° F.), and is soluble in alcohol, ether, 
and chloroform. Pseudopelletierine {C^^ii^^fi.,) is a crj'stalline body, fusing at 
46° C. (114.8° F.), is optically inactive, soluble in water, alcohol, ether, and chlo- 
roform. The chemistry of this base (called also granatonin) was investigated 
more recently by Ciamician and Silber (see Jnhresb. der Phann., 1893, p. 532, and 
1894, p. 526). 

Tanret recommended the tnnnate of pelletierine as the most efficient form of 
application. The bark of the stem contains principally pelletierine, while in the 
root-bark methylpelletierine predominates (Fliickiger, 1891). As to the yield in 
total alkaloids, W. Stoeder (1894) obtained from Java root-bark from 1.29 to 1.86 
per cent of hydrochlorates of alkaloids, the white-flowering variety yielding the 
most alkaloid. In 1890 {Jahresb. der Pharm.), the same author had obtained a 
j'ield as high as 3.75 per cent of hydrochlorates from the white-flowering variety. 
On the other hand, E. Aweng {ibid., 1890), observed that the alkaloid may entirely 
disappear from tlie commercial bark upon storing. 

Action, Medical Uses, and Dosage. — The flowers and rind of the fruit are 
astringent and have been used for arresting chronic mucous discharges, passive hem- 
orrhages, aphthous disorders of the mouth, night sueats, colliquatire diarrhaa, etc., but are 
now seldom employed. The rind has also been found serviceable in intenniUent 
fever and tapeworm. The bark of the root possesses anthelmintic properties, and is 
chiefly serviceable in tapeworm. The bark of the wild pomegranate is considered 
by the French to be more active than the cultivated plant, and the fresh bark is 
more active than an old bark. It may be given in powder, but the decoction is 
more frequently used. Pomegranate is one of the oldest of drugs, having been 
used fronr time immemorial. The bark and its alkaloid pelletierine, are now by 
common consent, acknowledged as specifics for the removal of tapeworm. Dizzi- 
ness, imperfect vision, sleepiness, or faintness, benumbing of the extremities, and 
occasionally convulsions have been produced by it. Foy, as well as Brenton, rec- 
ommend to prepare the decoction by placing 2 ounces of the root in li or 2 pints 
of water, and boiling down to 1 pint; this is to be strained, and from 2 to 4 fluid 
ounces given for a doise every half hour or hour, until the pint of the decoction 
has been taken. It commonly occasions several stools, an increa.'ied flow of urine, 
or nausea and vomiting, owing, it is sujiposed, to the agitation into which the 
worm is thrown from its presence. Sometimes joints of the worm begin to come 
awnv in less than an hour after the last dose. But often the doses luust be re- 



GRATIOLA. 955 

peated several successive mornings before they take effect, and it is right to repeat 
them occasionally for 4 or 5 days after the joints have ceased to come away. 
Laxatives should be atl ministered from time to time. It is said to act with the 
greatest certainty when the joints of the wi>rm come away naturally. The dose 
of the rind or tlowers in powder, is from 20 to 40 grains, and in decoction from 
1 to 3 riuid ounces. Eclectic physicians, as a rule, follow Prof. Locke's method of 
administering granatum. According to Dr. Locke, it is the best remedy for the 
removal of the worm, but as ordinarily recommended, the dose is too small. Its 
great drawback is its tendency to make the patient vomit, which may, in a meas- 
ure, be prevented bjr administering a little lemon juice and keeping the patient 
quiet. When vomiting can be prevented, it seldom or never fails to bring the 
worm whole. Prof. Locke's method is as follows: Press 8 ounces (av.) of the 
coarse bark (not powdered), into a vessel, and pour upon it 3 pints of boiling 
water. Boil, strain, and then boil this down until the finished product will meas- 
ure 1 pint. First prepare the jiatient by giving him at night a brisk cathartic, 
such as the antibilious physic, and in the nxirning allow a light breakfast. At 
about 10 o'clock in the forenoon administer 4 Huid ounces of the decoction. For 
the purpose of causing it to pass quickly into the intestines and thereby prevent 
its absorption as much as possible, a fluid drachm of fluid extract of jalap with 
a drop of oil of anise or cinnamon may be added to the dose. In 2 or 3 hours 
repeat this dose in the same manner. When its action begins give an enema to 
hasten its operation (see Locke's S;/llnbusof Mat. Med.). Should this treatment 
fail the first time, it may be repeated another day. As to treatment with the 
alkaloid the sulphate of pelletierine was first employed, but was superseded by 
the tannate which, on account of being tasteless and having less of a tendency to 
provoke nausea or vomiting, seems the preferable form to employ. The patient 
should have a light diet, preferably milk, the night previous to taking the medi- 
cine. Single doses of about 7 grains are now administered upon an empty stomach, 
the patient being kept quiet in a reclining posture. The dose is usually preceded 
by a drink of water, and followed at regular intervals by more water. A purga- 
tive, like fluid extract or compound tincture of jalap, is administered about 2 
hours after taking the pelletierine tannate. Some prefer castor oil as an evacuant. 
To insure the passage of the worm entire it should be received into a vessel of 
warm water, which will prevent its separation into segments. 

There seems to be a diversity of opinion regarding the effects of pelletierine 
upon the system. Undoubtedly it acts pronouncedly upon the nervous system, 
causing motor paralysis, while the contractility of the muscular fibers and sensa- 
tion remain unaffected. Itsaction has been compared to that of curare (Dujardin- 
Beaumetz). Temporary general paralysis is said to have occurred in a woman 
after a dose of 5 grains. Marked congestion of the retina and diplopia are as- 
serted to have followed the subcutaneous injection of 6 grains of the alkaloid. 
On account of its action upon the ocular nerves, it has been successfully used in 
paralytic states of the sixth and t!iird crduial verves. While many contend that it has 
a powerful control over certain of the nervous functions, others declare it innocu- 
uous. As great diversity exists in regard to dosage as to its effects. The dose of 
pelletierine has been given as ranging from i to 8 grains; the sulphate in about 
5-grain doses; the tannate in doses of from 5 to 23 grains, about 7 grains being the 
average (ll>^;e. Pelletierine ])reparations are usually sold in solution containing 
enouph f^r one dose. I>o<e of jHitnegranate flowers or rind, 20 to 40 grains. 

Specific Indications and Uses.— Ta;niacide and tseniafuge for the destruc- 
tion ami expulsion of tapeworm i T;tnia Solium). 

GEATIOLA.— HEDQE-HYSSOP. 

The plant and root of Orutiola officinalij<, Linm'. 
• Nal. Ord. — Scrophulariaceie. 

Co.\l.Mo.\ X.\.\iF.: lleihje-hti.<snp. 

Botanical Sovirce and fiistory. — The genus Gratiola is compo.-ed of small 
herbs less than a loot high, and found growing in low, damp situations. They 
nil ]ioss<— ! l)itt<T proj)ertiis and cattle refuse to eat them. They have opposite. 



956 GRINDELIA. 

sessile leave's and small axillary flowers. The calyx is sub-equally o-parted, 
and the corolla tubular and bilabiate. The stamens are 2, and there are often 
2 or 3 sterile filaments. The fruit is a dry, many-seeded, 2-celled capsule opening 
by 4 valves. 

Gratiola officinalis, Linne, is a native of Europe, and has a smooth, 4-augled 
stem, and lanceolate, 3 or 5-nerved leaves. The corolla is pale-yellow, and striped 
with light-purple. The calyx-lobes are often 7. This species has long been used 
as a medicine in the south of Europe, and was mentioned by Lewis in hi.s Materia 
Medira (1761), under the names Gratiola centaur ioides, Gratia Dei,hedg€-hysiop, and 
herb of grace. 

Gratiola virginica, Linn^, is the most common indigenous species, and is found 
in large patches in damp soil. It is a small, much-branched plant, with an 
erect, glutinous stem. Tlie leaves are lanceolate, dentate, and clasping. The 
flowers are very numerous, with small, white corollas variegated with yellow, and 
pubescent in the throat. The other indigenous species of Gratiola are mostly 
found in the southern states. 

Chemical Composition. — Nothing is known about the chemical constituents 
of the indigenous species, but they are probably similar to those of G . officinalis. 
Vauquelin (1809) found in the latter a bitter resinous substance, an acid in com- 
bination witli lime and soda, believed by him to be malic or acetic acid, and vari- 
ous earthy salts and principles common to plants. Marchand {Jov.n\. de Chim. 
Med., IS-io, p. 518^, proved the resin of Vauquelin to be a compound, identifying 
tannic acid and a white, bitter, crystallizable substance to which the name gratio- 
lin was given. Afterward, Walz proved gratioHn to be a flucosid, and obtained in 
addition another glucosid, grntiosolin, and an acid named by him gratiolic acid. 
The chemical constituents of Gratiola officinalis are of little practical value, as 
the infusion, or tincture, or plnnt in substance, are alone used in medicine. 

Action, Medical Uses, and Dosage.— Hedge-hyssop is rarely, if at all. used 
in this country. In I'uropi' it has been employed as a liydragogue-cathartic in 
the treatment of f//v>j;.?iV((^ affections, in duses of from 10 to 30 grains ot the pow- 
dered root. Its use is frequently followed by emesis and diuresis. In large doses 
its irritant action is pronounced, inducing violent vomiting and purging, the 
stools often being bloody and attended with severe colic. Gastro-intestinal in- 
flammation may follow, the rectum being most generally affected. In smaller 
doses, it has been advised in climnic affections oj the liver, in jaundice, and also in 
certain vuiiincholic forms ofinMinih/. Splenic engorgement, cerebral fullness and oppres- 
sion, and other conditions attended with an obstructed circulation are the states 
in which it is recommended by Prof. Scudder (.Spec. A/cff.), who regards the indi- 
cations to be "soreness and rawness of the mouth.'' It is an active agent, and 
should be administered with judgment. An infusion ot 4 drachms to a pint 
of boiling water, may be given in ^ fluid-ounce doses. Thirty grains act as a 
drastic cathartic. Probably a tincture of the root might be useful: but every 
indication for this agent can be fulfilled by one of our indigenous plants, as 
podophyllum, iris, euphorbia, apocynum, etc. 



GRINDELIA (U. S. P. i— GRINDELIA. 

" The leaves and flowering tops of Grindelia riibtista, Xuttall, and of Gn'ndelia 
squarrosa, Dunal'" — (('. 5. P.). 

ynl. C>rd. — Compositu'. 

CoMMu.N Names: 1. Hanli/ grindelia. 2. Seal;/ grindelia. 

Botanical Source and History.— (^n'ndW/a robusta is an erect perennial plant, 
native of Calit'ornia. It was brought to the notice of pharmacists and the medical 
profession generally, by Mr. Jas. G. Steele, of San Francisco, Cal.. through a paper 
presented to the American Pharmaceutical Association, in 1S75, although Dr.C. A. 
tanfield, h)ng previously, had noticed it in the Pucific Med. and Surg. Jour. The 
plant has a smooth, mund, striate stem, much divided into ascending branches, 
each of which ends in a large, yellow flower-head. The lower leaves are obovate- 
spatulate, and tapering at the base; the upper are alternate, n.«cendine, and 



GRINDELIA. 957 

have broad, clasping bases. They are of a firm, coriaceous texture, and a light- 
green color; the margins are coarsely toothed. The flower-heads are large, nearly 
I of an inch in diameter, and are solitary-, terminating the branches. The in- 
volucre is very resinous and consists ot many thick, imbricated scales, with 
recurved tips. The receptacle is fiat, pitted like a honey-comb, and destitute 
of scales. The ray-flowers are large, yellow, spreading, and arranged in a single 
series. They are" pistillate and tertile. The disk-flowers are very numerous 
and perfect. The achenia are smooth, oblong, and slightly 4-angled. The most 
distinguishing character of the genus Grindelia is the pappus, which consists of 
3 or 4 very deciduous awns; they are rigid, more or less curved, white, very 
smooth, and, when magnilied, have a waxy appearance. In the G.robxjusta they are 
about half the length of the disk-flowers. A very large variety (var. /((A(/b^i((), of 
this species of Grindelia is frequent in California, and is often collected. It is 
much more robust in every particular, having heads over an inch in diameter. 
The upper stem-leaves are" about an inch broad, and the flower-heads are sur- 
rounded at the base by a cluster of 3 or 4 leaves. 

Grindelia squarrom has the general appearance of Grindelia robusta, but is a 
smaller plant, and h;is lately been considered a variety of this species. It is more 
widely distributed than G.'robustn, and is quite common on the plains, from the 
Rocky Mountains west to the Pacific. The mode of growth is diSerent in the two 
species. In the Griiulelia squarrosa, a perennial root-stalk sends up from its head 
a cluster of from 4 to 10 slender, erect, sub-parallel, and generally undivided 
branches, from 1 to 2 feet high. The stem-leaves are alternate, acute, sessile, and 
slightly clasping at the base, and serrate on the margin. They are about an inch 
long, one-quarter as wide, and are attached to the stem in an erect position. The 
scales of the flower-heads are narrow, and have long, slender, recurved points 
(whence the specific name). In other respects the flower-heads resemble those 
of the Grindelia robusOi, but are smaller. The pappus of the Grindelia squnrrosa 
is slender and about the length of the disk-flowers. Grindelia squarrosa was in- 
troduced as a remedial agent some years after Mr. Steele brought G. robusta into 
notice. Its sensible properties are exactly like those of G.robxista, and it is often 
found on the market and substituted largely for G . robusta . 

Description — Owing to the fact that both species are often indiscriminately 
gathered, or that the one is frequently adulterated with the other, both are de- 
scribed by the U. S. P. under the name Grindelia, as follows: 

•' Leaves about 5 Cm. (2 inches), or less, long, varying from broadly spatulate 
or oblong to lanceolate, sessile or clasping, obtuse, more or less sharply serrate, 
often spinosely toothed, or even laciniate-pinnatifid, pale green, smooth, finely 
dotted, thickis"h, brittle, heads many-flowered, subgloVjular or somewhat conical; 
the involucre hemispherical, aboutlO Mm. (| inch) broad, composed of numerous 
imbricated, squarrosely-tipped or spreading scales; ray-florets yellow, ligulate, 
pistillate; disk-florels "yellow, tubular, perfect; pappus consisting of 2 or 3 awns 
of the li-n-rth of the disk-florets; odor balsamic; taste pungentlv aromatic and 
bitter"— r. .^. P.). 

Chemical Composition. — C. J. Rademaker (Neto Rem., 1876, p. 205), was prob- 
ably the first to make an analysis of Grindelia robusta, yet with no positive 
results. G. Lin wood Libby (Pharm. Era, 1888, p. 11), isolated from the same plant 
an oleoresin and a resin. 

A complete parallel analysis of G. robusta and G. squarrosa was made by 
W. H.Clark, in 1888, witii the" result that the constituents were qualitatively the 
same in both plants except that Grindelia robusta contained tannin ( 1.5 per cent ), 
while G. squarrosa Sf-emed to be free from it. Volatile oil was found in both. A 
crvstallizable saponin-like body also occurred in both species (G. robusta con- 
taintMl 2 per cent, and G. squarro.*a 0.82 per cent), for which the author proposes 
the name grindetin (Amer. Jour. Pharui., 1888, jip. 433-441). On the other hand, 
Mr. .lohn L. Fischer applies the name grindeline to a bitter, crystallizable alkaloid 
which he found in Grindelia robusta, and the name robust ic acid to a crystallizable 
acid found in the aqueous solution of the alcoholic extract of the same drug 
(Phnrm. Km, 1888, p. 208). Mr. Clark had obtained contradictory results with re- 
gard to the i)resence of an alkaloid. Dr. Schnecpans, in 1892, found the saponin- 
like body to consist of two glucosids, one being identical with, the other closely 



958 GRIXDELIA. 

resembling Kobcrt"s saponin, from senega and quillaja. The )>resence of small 
amounts of an alkaloid was also indicated {Anier. Jour. Pharni., 1892. p. 370). 

Action, Medical Uses, and Dosage. — The grindelias leave in the mouth a 
bitter, acrid sensation, which persists for some time and is accompanied or fol- 
lowed by an increased fiow of saliva. On account of their irritant effects upon 
the kidneys, they act as diuretics. The brain and cord are first stimulated Ijy 
then), followed by motor impairment of the lower extremities and a desire to 
sleep. The number of respirations are reduced by them. 

Grindelia robusta has been found especially efficient in asthma, giving prompt 
relief, and effecting cures in cases previously rebellious to medication. Occa- 
sionally, however, as is, indeed, the case with all the therapeutical agents, it has 
failed, but the circumstances attending these failures have not yet been deter- 
mined. Further investigations regarding its action in this disease, and the cause 
of its occasional failure are required. It has likewise been found efficient in 
bronchial affections, in pertussis, and in some renal vialadies. Prof. Soudder wag 
partial to this remedy as a local application in chronic dmases of the skin with 
feeble circulation, particularly old chronic and indolent ulcers. Specific grindelia 
robusta (51 to gii to water Oj), was employed with marked benefit. The fluid 
extract and sj^ecific grindelia robusta are the preparations generally employed, 
the former in doses of from 10 to 60 minims, and the latter in doses of 5 to 40 
minims, repeated 3 or 4 times a day, as may be required. Children require 
doses of from 5 to 15 or 20 minims (fluid extract), and 1 to 10 minims (specific 
grindelia robusta). 

Grindelia squarrosa has been highly eulogized as an efficient remedy in inter- 
mittent fever, and in other malarial affections, also to remove the splenic enlargement 
which so frequently follows those disorders. Why two plants so closely allied as 
the G. robusta and the G. squarrosa, and possessing nearly identical constituents, 
should give such discordant therapeutical results, is certainly enigmatical. The 
fact is, that many physicians have a great proneness to run after new remedies, 
especially when introduced under some pretentious name, and to place a marvel- 
ous credulity in the statements of interested parties, who are incapable of deter- 
mining accurate conclusions as to the value of a remedy. Webster, however, 
asserts that the remedy has a special action upon the splenic circulation, and 
points out as thecasefor it one oi splenic congestion associated with sluggish hepatic 
action and dyspepsia. Dull pain in the left hypochondrium, sallow skin, debility, 
and indigestion are the symptoms pointing to its selection (Dynam. Therap.K The 
same author recommends it in chronic dyspepsia due to prolonged malarial influ- 
ence, gastric pain when the spleen is seemingly involved, and in the splenic conges- 
tion of vuitarial cachexia. As a local application, the fluid extract is stated to be 
of value in the ^painful eczematousinflarmnation a.nd vesicular eruption resulting from 
contact with the poison vine or the poison oak. The dose of the fluid extract is 
from 15 minims to 1 fluid drachm, repeated every 3 or 4 hours; of specific grin- 
delia squarrosa, 5 to 40 drops. 

Specific Indications and Uses.— Grindelia robust.a. : Asthmatic breathing, 
with soreness and raw feeling in the chest; cough, harsh and dry: breathing 
labored, with a dusky coloration of the face in plethoric individuals. Locally, 
old atonic ulcers; full tissues; rhus poisoning. 

Grindelia sqxjarrosa: Splenic congestion, especially when dependent on 
malarial cachexia; fullness and dull pain in left hypochondrium, with indiges- 
tion, pallid, sallow countenance, and general debility; gastric pains associated 
with splenic congestion. 

Related Species.— Orindelia glutinosa, Dunal, of California, and Griitdelia hirtutuJa, 
Hooker and Arnott, have a similar odor and tast^ to Grindelia, and are probably gathered 
with it. The leaves of the former are smooth. It constitutes the Mexican CalaneapatU ile 
Pueblo. The second species is found along the Pacific to Puget's Sound. 

Haplopappus liaylahuen (Hi/sterioiuca Baylahuen). Nat. Ord.: ComiHieitw. — This plant i.« a 
native of Chili and contains a resin, tannin, and volatile and fixed oils. The resin acts upon 
the bowels and the essential oil upon the respiratory organs after the manner of the terebin- 
thinates, without, however, being an irritant to tlie gastro-intestinal tr.ict. The chronic Uhxhiu.^ 
of the boivels ol tuberculous patients is controlled by it, and the remedy is reputed of value in 
injfiammation of the bladder. Locallv, the tincture hiis been used on ii/r^rs, uwiiii.f."-, etc. both as a 
stimulant and protective. The tincture is prt'pared of the strength of 1 part to r>, and the di^se is 
from 5 to 25 drops. 



GUAIACI LIGNUM (U. S. P )— GUAIACUM WOOD. 

"The heart-wood of G^Mtacum officinale, Linn^, and of (luaiacum sanctum 
Linne"— U'. 5. P.). 

Nat. Ord. — Zygophyllea^. 

SysoXYMs: Lignum vita', Lignum sanctuin, Lignum benediclum, PaUm naiirttix. 

Illi'stration : Beiitley ami Trimen, Med. Plajits, 41. 

Botanical Source. — Uiuiuirum ^jfi^^-inale. This tree grows very slowly, vary- 
ing in hii.i:lit from 15 to 50 feet. 'Tlie trunk is u^^ually crooked, with crowdell, 
knobby, s^hort-jointod, tlexuose, spreading branches, about 4 feet in diameter; 
the bark is furrowed, spotted, and grayish. The leaves are opposite, bijugate or 
trijugate; the leaflets sessile, more or "less obovate, rounded at the apex, nerved, 
and glabrous; the common petiole is terete and clianneled above. The flowers 
are light-blue, on axillary peduncles, which are an inch long, 1-flowered, filiform, 
minutely downy, and several together. The calyx of sepals have the 2 exterior, 
somewhat broader than the others; all are obtuse and hoary with down. Petals 
5, thrice the length of the sepals, oblong, bluntish, unguiculate, and internally 
downy. Stamens 10, without scales ; filaments twice the length of the sepals, 
grooved ou tlie hack ; anthers bifid at the base and curved. Ovary 2-celled, with 
nvimeroua suspended ovules, and compressed ; style short, acute and subulate ; 
stigma simple; capsule obcordate, succulent, glabrous, yellow, 2 to 5-celled ; on 
short stalks, somewhat fleshy, angular; the seeds are solitary, compressed, round- 
ish, smooth, and pendulous (L.). 

GuaiariDii sunrtvm differs from the preceding in its leaflets, 6 or 8 of which 
compose the leaf, having an oblique-obovate, or rhomboid-ovate outline ; in hav- 
ing a fruit with 5 cells; and in having smaller wood, which is less compact and 
lightt-r in color. It grows in Cuba, Bahama, and otlur ^\■^•st India Isles. 

History, Description, and Chemical Composition.— The tree (Guaiacum 
offiri)>aU\Linnt) inhabits the West Indian Islands, especially Jamaica, 8t. Thomas 
and St. Domingo. The wood and resin, or solidified juice, are the parts used in 
medicine, though the whole tree possesses medicinal virtues. The bark is said 
to be the most active part of it, but it is seldom met with in commerce. The 
wood of this tree was used as a medicine by the natives long previous to the dis- 
covery of the country, and they made it known to the Europeans; by these it was 
introduced into Eurojje in the sixteenth century, and employed to much advan- 
tage in syphilitic afiectious. Guaiacum wood, also known asLignum vita:, a name 
given to it from a belief that its medicinal virtues were of a superior kind, is 
largely imported into this country from the West Indies for making block-sheaves, 
wooden pestles, and many other objects, for which it is j)eculiarly fitted by its 
extraordinary hardness and toughness. It is imported in billets, about a foot in 
diameter, and generally without the bark. The bark is hard, flat, a few lines thick, 
of a greenish-black color, with yellowish and grayish spots, inodorous, but very 
acrid. The wood, used for medicinal purposes, consists of turnings from the 
workshop of the turner, and is a uniform mixture of the alburnum and duramen, 
but that used in medicine should consist only of the latter. 

Tlie alburnum or sap-wood is of a yellow color, that of the duramen or heart- 
wood, greenish-brown. Guaiacum wood is only odorous wlien burned or rasped, 
the odor being aromatic; its taste is acrid, aromatic, and amarous, succeeded by a 
liricking in the throat. It is very dense and tough, and has a specific gravity of 
1.833. It is oflicially descrilx'd as follows : "Heavier than water, hard, brown or 
greenish-brown, resinous, marked with irregular, concentric circles, surroundt-d 
by a yellowish alburnum, sjilittiiig irregularly; when heated, emitting a balsamic 
oilor; taste slightly acrid. Guaiacum wood is generally used in the form of rasp- 
ings or turnings, which should be greenish-brown, containing few ))articles of a 
whitish color, and shouM acquire a dark l)luish-green color on the addition of 
nitric acid " — (!'. S. P.). When a very fine powder of guaiacum wood is acted upon 
by the atmosphere, its color is converted into green. Nitric acid turns it l>luish- 
green, and a solution of ferric chloride turns it blue. Solution of chlorinated 
lime eflects no change in other woods, but causes the guaiacum to u.ssume a, 
green color in a few seconds. These tests may be employed to determine the 



960 GUAIACI RESIXA. 

authenticitj' of the wood. Alcohol takes up its active parts (see Guaiari Resina). 
dissolving about 21 per cent. Fliickiger {Pharmacognosie, 1891), b)' extracting with 
ether, obtained 22.12 per cent of resin from the duramen, and only 2.85 per cent 
from the alburnum. The same authority found a trace of essential oil hy distill- 
ing the wood with water. Fremy and Urbaiu found vasndose (the incrustating 
substance in wood) to exist in guaiac wood to the extent of 36 per cent (see Jour. 
Pharm. C/i/Hi., 1882, p. 325). Several other trees of this family are stated to fur- 
nish the guaiacum wood, as the G. sanctum (now official), which has a tran.slucent, 
paler-yellow, and kss heavy and hard wood, and also the G.arboreum. 

Action, Medical Uses, and Dosage. — Taken internallj', guaiacum, both the 
wood and rrsiii, cuiu imuii y excites a sense of warmth in the stomach, and a dryness 
of the mouth, with thirst.' They act upon the economy like stimulants, increasing 
the heat of the body, and accelerating the circulation. If the body be kept warm 
while using the decoction, which is the form generally preferred, it will prove 
diaphoretic ; if cool, diuretic. As a diaphoretic and alterative, it has been admin- 
istered (but usually in compound decoction or sj'rup), in chronic rheumatism, 
chronic cutaneous diseases, scrofula, and syphilitic disease. As water can not take up 
much of the active principle in the wood, it is probable that its reputed efficiency 
was owing principally to the active agents associated with the syrup or decoction. 
The resin of guaiacum is the active principle (which see). The decoction of guaia- 
cum shavings may be made by boiling 2 ounces of the shavings in 3 pints of 
water down to 2 pints, the dose of which is from 2 to 4 fluid ounces every 3 or 4 
hours (see Guaiaci Resina). 

Related Species.— Gcaiaci/m mgustifolium, Engelmann (Porliern atjffustifolia . Gray). 
Mexico and south Texas. The wood of this tree is emploj'ed like that of guaiac. It is a yel- 
low-brown, heavy and hard wood, splitting irregularly. 

Balsam Wood. Pnio batsamo. — A South American tree of unknown botanical origin, the 
wood of which is thought to contain guaiaein. Upon distillation of the wood, about 6 parts 
of a thick, sticky, fragrant oil are obtained. This oil contains a crystalline solid, fusing at 
91° C. (195.8° F.), and answering closelv to the composition Ci4Ho40 iSchirumel & Co., 
Seports, 1892). 

GUAIACI RESINA (U. S. P.)— GUAIAC. 

" The resin of the wood of Guaiacum officinale, Linne " — ( U. S. P.). 

Nat. Ord. — Zygophyllea;. 

Synonyms: Guaiarum, Guaiacum resin, Resina guajaci. 

Source and Preparation. — The resin of guaiacum, or grina^uafVinim as it i.s 
erroneously called by some, is procured from the wood of the tree, by natural 
exudation; by jagging or wounding the tree in several places; by heat applied 
to the wood sawed into large billets; and by boiling the chips of the wood in 
water and salt, and skimming oflf the resin as it floats on the surface {Ed. — P.). 
The last two modes are the most frequent in use. 

Description and Tests. — Guaiacum is ordinarily met with in amorphous, 
hard masses of varying sizes, in which are found pieces of wood, dirt, and other 
foreign matters. It has a sweetish, faintly bitter taste, succeeded by a lasting 
acrimony, especially in the fauces. It does not soften by the heat of the hand, 
becomes tough wlien chewed, and is fusible at a moderate heat. Its specific 
gravity is 1.20 to 1.23. It is readily reduced to powder, becoming somewhat 
tenacious, and quickly aggregating, by the action of the air. Guaiac resin is 
officially required to be in "irregular masses, or subglobular pieces, externally 
greenish-brown, internally of a glassy lustre, and, in recent guaiac, usually red- 
dish-brown, transparent in thin splinters, fusible, feebly aromatic, the odor be- 
coming stronger on heating; taste somewhat acrid; powder grayish, turning 
green on exposure to air. Soluble in potassium or sodium hydrate T.S. and in 
alcohol; the alcoholic solution is colored blue on the addition of tincture of 
ferric chloride"— (('. 5. P.). 

The resin is practically insoluble in water, soluble, although not completely, 
in ether and oil of turpentine, easily soluble in acetone, amyl alcohol, chloroform 
and in creosote; fixed and volatile oils scarcely dissolve it, although oil of cloves 
and cassia oil are capable of dissolving appreciable quantities. Benzin, benzol 
and carbon disulphide dissolve the resin very sjiaringly. tJuaiac resin is remark- 



GUAIACI RESINA. 961 

able for the blue color reaction it yields in alcoholic solution (1 in 100) with 
ozoniziis (Sohonbein's ozonide). Ozone, chlorine, bromine and iodine, nitrous 
aiid, chromic acid, hj-pochlorites, ferric salts, lead and manganese dioxide, etc., 
and some organic substances, especially vegetable ferments and enzymes of the 
most obscure kind, <■. gr., the enzymes existing on freshly cut raw potato, etc., 
(oxitlnttoitjc'iuoits of Schonbein), cause a rapid bluing of tincture of guaiac. Ac- 
cording to Prof. Ed. Pchaer (Forschungsberiehle iihcr Lltcnt<mittcl,\'o\. Ill, 1896, p. 
l),the blue color is due to a very unstable ozone compound of guaiaconic acid 
(see Chcmiriil Compo!<ition). Its formation is prevented by light, heat, free acids, 
especially by alkalies, but acetic aeid, even in the form of glacial acetic acid, singu- 
larly promotes its formation. In contrast with these ozonizers stand Schonbein's 
antoznnide ('uitozonizers), substances otherwise capable of giving ofif oxygen, but 
incapable of reacting with tincture of guaiac. The type of these substances is 
hydrogen peroxide (HjO,). They become active, however, toward tincture of 
guaiac through the intervention of certain inorganic substances, and a number 
of fluids containing animal and vegetable ferments, f. ^., malt extract, saliva, 
fresh milk, or the red corpuscles of the blood. Schonbein, the discoverer of ozone, 
was the tirst to base upon this behavior the well-known guaiac test for blood, 
often believed to be fallacious, while Prof. Schaer pronounces it exceedingly char- 
acteristic and sensitive if properly carried out. 

Prof. Schaer, in the paper mentioned, publishes a new mode of carrying out 
this test, to which he has given 30 years' time of successful trial. This test is 
based on the following observation: When an alcoholic tincture of guaiac is 
poured into an aqueous solution of blood acidified with acetic acid, the guaiac 
resins, in precipitating, carry along with them almost quantitatively the blood 
coloring matter present in the fluid. Filter through paper and dry the latter 
with its contents, taking especial care to exclude light and air as much as possi- 
ble. The blood test is then produced by moistening small pieces of the filtering 
paper with water and adding hydrogen peroxide solution containing some acetic 
acid. If bl'iod is present the paper and liquid assume a pure blue color. The 
test can be applied with equal success to dry blood stains, and after a period of 
6 or even 10 years after drying the paper. A modification of this process, involv- 
ing the use of a concentrated aqueous solution of chloral hydrate to dissolve dried 
blood stains, is carried out as follows : Moisten the blood stains with acetic acid, 
extract with a 70 per cent solution of chloral hydrate, add an equal volume of 
guaiac-chloral solution (1 per cent guaiac resin in 70-75 per cent chloral hydrate); 
if ammonium nitrate is absent, a j'ellow-brown mixture results (otherwise a blue 
coloration takes place at once). If now the mixture is superposed by Hiinefeld's 
solution (15 C'c. of a 3 to 5 per cent solution of hydrogen peroxide, 25 Cc. of alco- 
hol, 5 Cc. of chloroform, and 1.5 Cc. of glacial acetic acid), previou.sly ascertained 
not to react with a mixture of chloral and guaiac, an intensely blue zone is de- 
veloped at the surface of contact of both fluids if blood is present. Soluble fer- 
rous salts mixed with the blood stain also give the reaction (Archiv der Pkann., 
1898, p. 574). 

Reversely, this reaction with ozonizers can be used as a delicate test for the 
presence of the resin of guaiacum in other resins, e. jr., scammony, jalap, etc. 
Guaiac is subject to adulteration with pine resin and other substances. This 
may be detected by observing that the genuine article, when heated, does not ex- 
hale a turpentine odor, and that oil of turpentine dissolves resin but not guaiac. 
Sulphuric acid forms with guaiac a dee]>-red solution; nitric acid dissolves it 
without the aid of heat, and with strong ettervescence yielding oxalic acid upon 
evaporation. The so-called Peruvian guauic resin, analyzed by E. Kopp {Arehir 
del- Phann., [3] Vol. IX, p. 193), is entirely difl'erent from guaiac resin, and there- 
fire does not give the characteristic reaction for this resin. 

Chemical Composition.— In 1862, Hadelich found the composition of guaiac 
resin to be as follows: "Guaiaconic acid, 70.3 per cent; guainc-resinic acid, 10.5 
per cent; guaiac-heta-resin, 9.8 per cent; guaiacic acid, giiaiac-yellow and impurities, 
4 9 per cent; gum, 3.7 per cent; ash constituents, 0.8 per cent" (Fliickiger, 
Phfirmarognosic, 1891). Tne first three substances may be (liflereutiated from the 
guaiac resin as follows : To a concentrated alcoholic, solution of the resin (1 i)art ) 
add a warm alcoholic solution of potassium hydrate (A i>art\ and allow the 



962 GUAIACI RESIXA. 

mixture to stand for 24 hours; a magma of crystals results, consisting of the 
potassium salt of giudac-resinic acid. Strain through cloth, evaporate the mother 
liquor to a syrup, add absolute alcohol in order to remove some more of this 
potassium salt. Now charge the alcoholic solution with carbonic acid gas, which 
precipitates the potassium as carbonate, filter, add water, acidulate with hydro- 
chloric acid and distill oflF the alcohol. The residual resin is then washed with 
warm water and treated with ether. Guaiaconic acid is thereby dissolved, while 
guniac-beta-resiii remains. The substances thus obtained are then purified by fur- 
ther treatment, for which see details in Husemann and Hilger, Pflanzenstoffe , p. 857 

Guaiaconic acid (C„H,,A\ isolated by Hadelich, in 1862, is the chief constitu- 
ent of guaiac resin (70 per cent), and is the substance to which is due the blue 
color reaction with oxidizing agents. Prof. E. Schaer ( Wittsteins Vierteljahrsschrift, 
1873, p. 68), however, remarks that guaiaconic acid, when exposed to direct sun- 
light loses its property of turning blue with oxidizers, even when the air is 
excluded. It is a tasteless and odorless, brownish, amorphous body, fusible near 
the boiling point of water, easily soluble in alcohol, ether, chloroform, acetic ether 
and acetic acid. It is optically lavo-rotatory, forms soluble amorphous salts with 
alkalies, decomposable by the carbonic acidof the air, and forms insoluble salts 
with heavy metals. It dissolves in concentrated sulphuric acid with a cherry-red 
color, water precipitating violet flakes from this solution. Dry distillation yields 
an oily distillate. 

Guaiac-resinic acid (CjoH^Oj) was discovered by Hlasiwetz, in 1859, and is a 
crystallizable substance, insoluble in water, soluble in alcohol, ether, chloroform, 
benzol, carbon disulphide, acetic ether and acetic acid, also in solution of caustic 
soda or potash, but not ammonia. It melts between 75° and 80° C. (167° and 
176° F.). It dissolves in sulphuric acid with a cherry-red color. Watt- r precipitates 
white flakes from this solution. When heated with hydrochloric acid this substance 
(as well as guaiaconic acid) yields methyl chloride and pyrocatechin (CeH,[OH];). 
Fused with caustic potash, it yields protocatechuic acid (CeH3rOH],.COOH ) (Hlasi- 
wetz and Earth). Upon dry distillation it yields gvaiacol (CjH.OCHjCOH]) (which 
see), and crjsia\\iza.hle pyroguniacin. The yield of this substance is 0.5 per cent. 
It melts at 180° C. (356° F.), is soluble in alcohol and ether, insoluble in water, 
can be sublimed in the form of needles or scales, which turn green with ferric 
chloride, and blue with warm sulphuric acid. When heated with zinc dust, the 
hydrocarbon guaicn (CjjH,^) is obtained, forming fluorescing plates. 

Guaiacic acid (CgHgOj, Deville) was first obtained, in 1837, by Righini from 
guaiac wood as a white crystallizable substance. In 1S41, Thierry isolated it from 
both the wood and the resin. It forms white needles, resembling benzoic acid, 
but is more soluble in water than the latter; also soluble in alcohol and in ether. 
Only 0.005 per cent of this acid could be obtained by Hadelich from guaiac resin. 
Deville found this substance upon rapid sublimation to decompose into carbonic 
acid and gunjaceii(guajol) {C^Hfi), a colorless oil, of the odor of bitter almonds. 
It was found by Lieben and Zeisel (confirmed by Herzog, Berichtc, 1882. p. 1085) to 
be identical with tiglhiraldehyde (CH3CH:C[CH.,].CH0), convertil)le by oxidation 
into tiglic acid, a constituent of Roman chamomile oil, as well as of croton oil 

(hiaiac yellow was first observed by Pelletier, and obtained by Hadelich (1862) 
in yellowish quadratic plates of neutral reaction and hitter taste, not easily solu- 
ble in water, diluted acids and chloroform, soluble in alcohol, ether, carbon disul- 
phide and alkalies, in the latter with yellow color. With concentrated sulphuric 
acid it forms a beautiful blue solution, turning green, then yellow. 

The resin of guaiac, upon dry distillation, yields a brown-red tar containing 
gtmiacol (C,H^O^) (see Guaiacohuii), pyroguaiacin (Ci.HioOH.OCjH^rOHJ'i, 'puaiol 
Iguazacen, tigliu-aldehyde, CsHjO), and kreosol {C^l{,fiJ. Fusion witli caustic pot- 
ash yields protocatechuic arirf, and by distillation with zinc dust, K. Botsch {^Amer. 
Jbwr. P/m;-m., 1881, p. 60) obtained 50 per cent kreosol, 30 per cent toluol, meta 
and ii.\r:ixylol, ))>('ucl()oumc)l, and the liydrocarbon guajon or guairn (C,.H„), afore- 
named, which is iiUiitical with the (luaiacen prepared by Wiesner. 

Action, Medical Uses, and Dosage.— (See Guaiaci Ligni also.) Guaiac is 
stimulant. Taken internally it uroduces the same efiects as named in the wood. 
but in a more active degree. Large doses act as a cathartic. It is used in the 
same affections as guaiaci ligni or guaiacuin wood. Several practitioners have 



GUAIACOLUM. 963 

founil it luni'licial in (imenorrhan, dymienonhosa, and other uterine diseases, aW of 
atonic oliaracter, likewise in acute dynenten/, in which its employment is s:iiil lo 
be lollowed by speedy beneficial results. It is much used in rhronic r/uunidfism, 
and in the abating stages of tiie acute form, and has proved a most valuable agent 
in these diseases. It is said to be an antidote to the effects of the tincture of 
Rlnis Toxicodendron. If the preparations of guaiacuni produce sickne.^^s, defective 
appetite, and irregularity of the bowels, their use must be discontinued. Guaiac 
gained its greatest reputation in the treatment of constitutional syphilis, having 
been liberally used for centuries in the treatment of that malady, but at the 
present day it is almost discarded as an antisyphilitic. It undoubtedly benefits 
some cases of rheumatism and is well endorsed as a remedy for rheumatic sore throat 
or rhcumolir pharyngitis. A tincture of guaiac, or preferably the ammoniated 
tincture is to be used. The latter preparation, as well as troches of the powder, 
have been highly endorsed as a remedy to abort tnnsiliiis. For this purpose they 
must be given early or good effects fail to be produced. In chronic rheumatism, 
where the circulation of the blood is feeble and the vital functions greatly de- 
pressed, and the hands and feet are cold, from 30 to 60 drops of the tincture may 
be used with expectation of benefit. A good tincture is prepared by macerating 
8 ounces of guaiac in 1 pint of alcohol. Guaiac is also of some value in atonic 
dyspepsia, Tprovided no inflammation is present. Certain f/;TO)u'c si- in diseases, re- 
quiring stimulation, are benefited by guaiac. From ^^ to -Jg- grain of the resin in 
i ounce of thick malt extract is recommended as a. lemcdy for habitual con.'itipa- 
tion. Guaiac is a remedy in atonic conditions only. It is contraindicated in all 
active febrile, plethoric, or inflammatory conditions, or where there is vascular 
excitment, tending to hemorrhage, or impaired digestion, with tendency to irri- 
tation (Locke). Dose of the powdered resin, from 5 to 20 grains ; of the tincture, 
from 1 to 4 fluid drachms, either of which may be repeated 3 or 4 times a day; 
ammoniated tincture of guaiac, 10 drops to 1 fluid drachm. A mixture of 10 
grains each of guaiac and compound powder of ipecacuanha and opium has been 
found of advantage in rheumati.sm and dysentery. 

Specific Indications and Uses.— Dryness and stiSiiess of the throat, with 
tumid, swollen tonsils, painful deglutition, and dribbling of saliva; incipient 
tousilitis (if used early) ; rheumatic pharyngitis. 

GUAIACOLUM.— GUAIACOL. 

Formula: C,HA or C,H..0CH3.0H. Molecular Weight : 123.71. 

Synonyms : Methyl-pyrocatechin, Catechol nwnomethyl ether. 

Source and Preparation. — Guaiacol is obtained from beechwood creosote 
(see Creosotum ), of which it forms from 60 to 90 per cent, the other constituents of 
importance being creosol (C.Hj.OCHj.OH), and the cresols (C,H,.OH). To obtain 
it, beechwood tar creosote is subjected to fractional distillation whereby crude 
guaiacol passes over in the portion distilling between 200° and 20.5° C. (392° and 
401° F.). After washing out the acid compounds with weak solutions of ammo- 
nia, the purified guaiacol is again fractionally distilled, and the lower fraction 
treated with ether, from which solution potassium-guaiacol is separated by the 
addition of a strong solution of caustic potash in alcohol. The potassium guaia- 
col is then thoroughly washed with ether, and the guaiacol liberated by niians of 
diluted sulphuric acid, after which it is once more rectified. Commercial guaiacol 
frequently contains cresols. It may be obtained pure by saponification of its ben- 
zoyl compound, previously purified by repeated crystallization. Guaiacol is also 
formed in the dry distillation of resin of guaiac (which sec), and may be prepared 
svnthcticaliy bv heating the potassium salt of methyl-sulphuric acid (CHjSO.K), 
with i.yrorMtechin (CV,H.[OII]j, and caustic potash, to 1S0° C. (356° F.). 

Description. — <Tuai:icol,when pure, is a pleasantly aromatic, colorless liouid. 
It-^ .-pccitic f:ravity at 15° C. (59° F.), is, according to Helbing, 1.133, and its boil- 
ing point, according to the same authority, 20G° to 207° C. (402.8° to 404.6° F.). 
It dissolves to some extent in water (1 in" 8.5), and freely in ether, alcohol, and 
acetic acid. Solutions of caustic soda and caustic potash dissolve it, producine 
the unstable salts of sodium-guaiacol aii<l potassium-guaiacol. Impure guaiacol 



forms a clear solution with twice its bulk of benzol at 20° C. (68° F.), but when 
pure, rapid and complete separation occurs. If to a solution of guaiacol in alco- 
hol be added a small amount of ferric chloride, a blue color is formed which turns 
emerald-green upon the addition of more of the iron compound. This is a char- 
acteristic reaction (even when OH is replaced by OCH3, as with guaiacolj, for 
all ortho-dioxy-phenols. 

Action, Medical Uses, and Dosage. — Guaiacol and its compounds (see 
below), have been used in wasting diseases, particularly phthvsis xiulmonalis and 
other tubercular affections. Lupus has likewise been treated with it. It is useful 
in profuse hronchorrhoea. The indications sought to be fulfilled are the diminution 
of diarrhoea, excessive sweating, cough, and expectoration. It was introduced as 
a substitute for creosote, and is reputed to act by combining with the toxic pro- 
ducts of the tubercle bacillus, and thereby effecting their elimination from the 
system. The dose of guaiacol for adults is from 2 to 5 minims ; for children, 1 to 3 
minims, 4 times a day, in milk, cod-liver oil, or capsules. Wine maybe used as 
its vehicle, and the drug may be given foj a length of time. Formerly^ it was 
inhaled, and it has been unwisely used hypodermatically. It agrees with the 
stomach better than creosote and dispels flatulence. 

Guaiacol Derivatives and Compounds.— Guaiacoi, Carbonate ([CeHi.OCHj.OljCOi. 

This salt is produced by precipitating a soda solution of guaiacol with carbonyl chloride and 
crystallizing the product from alcohol. It is a white, crystalline powder, neutral in reaction 
and almost without taste or odor. It is sparingly soluble in glycerin, fixed oils, and cold alco- 
hol ; easily soluble in hot alcohol, benzol, chloroform, and ether, and insoluble in water. This 
is the di-guaiacol ester of carbonic acid and contains about 91 per cent of guaiacol. It does 
not irritate the stomach, but, passing through that organ, is decomposed in the inteetines. 
Ordinary dose, 2 to 8 grains, gradually increased to 60 grains a day. 

Guaiacol Bexzoate (CjHi.OCHa.CsHjCOj), Bemosol, Benzoyl-^taiacol. —Thie salt is pro- 
duced by the interaction of potassium-guaiacol and benzoyl chloride. The product is crystal- 
lized from alcohol. It forms a colorless, crystalline powder, devoid of taste and odor, soluble 
In boiling alcohol, chloroform, and ether, and nearly insoluble in water. Does not give the 
guaiacol reaction with ferric chloride. Used in phlhisis and other ttibercutmis digtatts. Dose, 
5 to 100 grains per day. 

Guaiacol Cixnamate (CaHs.CHiCH.COsCjH.OCHj), Cinnamiil-gualacol, S/yra<-o/.— Col- 
orless, needle crystals of styracol are formed" by the interaction of cinnamyl chloride and 
guaiacol, the product being crystallized from alcohol. It is nearly insoluble in water. It fuses 
at 130° C. (266° F.). This agent has been used in phthisis, caiarrhal digestive affectiom, chronic 
diarrhcea, gJeei, and catarrh of the bladder. 

Guaiacol Diiodide, Guaiacol bituodide.—This newsalt is produced by precipitating a solu- 
tion of crystallized sodium-guaiacol in water by means of an iodide of potassiiun solution of 
iodine. It forms a red-brown compound, having an iodine-like odor. It is unstable and easily 
decomposed by heat. Alcohol and the fixed oils dissolve it. The uses and dose are the same 
as for guaiacol. 

GiAiACOL-CAHBONic AciD (C8H30HOCH3.C05H-(-2H20.), Methoxysaiicyjic ocM.— This sub- 
stance is prepared by a patented process. It forms a bitter, white, crystalline powder, devoid 
of odor. The fusing 'point of the anhydrous acid is 14S° to loO° C. (2^8.4° to 302' F. ). Alcohol, 
ether, hot water, ancl sodium bicarbonate solution easily dissolve it, while it dissolves with 
diflSculty in cold water. This substance and its alkali salts have been used as antirheumatics 
and antiseptics. 

Guaiacol Salicylate (CoH^OHCOj.C.H^OCHj), Guaiacol-.^M, Gwiiacolic saM, Salicpl- 
ffuaiacol. — This compound is obtained by acting on a mixture of sodium-guaiacol and sodium 
salicylate with phosphorus oxychloride. " It is a white, tasteless, odorless, crystalline powder, 
soluble in alcohol, chloroform, and ether, but not in water. Fusing point, 62° C. 1 143.6° F.). 
This agent is used as an intestinal antiseptic and to aid the digestion of phthisical subjects. 
Dose, 5 to 15 grains. 

Guaiacol Succinate and Guaiacol Phosphate are occasionally employed for the same 
purposes as guaiacol. 

GUARANA (U. S. P.)— GUAKANA. 

'"A dried paste chiefly consisting of the crushed or pounded seeds of Pmillinin 
Cupana, Kunth ( Pnulliuin sorhilis, Martins) "—({'. 5. P.). 

Nat. (.)rii — Sa])indaceR\ 

CoMJiiix Namks: (hiarana, Uaranazeiro, Uabano. 

Ii.i.rsTUATiON : Bentlev and Trimcn, }[c(i. Plants, 67. 

Botanical Source.— Tlie genus Paullinia comprises about SO species, natives 
of tropical Ainerica, with a single .Vfrii'an cxceptioi). The Paullinia Cupannt Paul- 



GUARAXA. 965 

linia soibilis) i.s a (.-limbing, shrubby vine, growing in northern Brazil, in moist, 
sandy locations. The flexible stem is very long, and takes root readily wherever 
it touches the ground, so that a single plant often extends over considerable 
space. In the wild state the vine attaches itself to large trees, and the fruit is 
difficult to collect, and of small yield; the vine is cultivated without support. 
The leaves are alternate, stipulate, and consist each of 5 smooth leaflets; the leaf- 
lets have the same shape and dentation as those of Rhus Toxicodendron, and look 
very much like them. The flowers are small, numerous, and disposed in erect, 
axillary, close panicles; the sepals are 5, the petals are 4, and have each a large 
pubescent scale on the inside, near the base; the stamens are 8, attached to a 
thick column. The pi.^til has a 3-lobed ovary, and a sessile, 3-parted stigma. The 
fruit is pear-shaped, and generally has a single brownish seed attached to the base, 
and nearly filling the periearp. 

History and Preparation.— This plant is of interest to the medical profes- 
sion from the fact that the drug known as Gunmna is prepared from the seeds. 
Guarana was introduced into France in the year 1817, by a French officer, and 
was described in the same year by Gassicourt in the Journnl de Pharmacie, the 
botanical source, however, being then unknown. It was called "'guarano," after 
the trilie of South American Indians (Guaranis), who prepared it, and in 1826, 
Martius, after identifying the plant, gave it the name of Paullinia sorbilis, in allu- 
sion to the fact that giuirana is employed to produce a drink. The preparation of 
guarana from the cultivated plant is clescribed by Prof. H. H. Rusby (Amei-. Jour. 
Phann., 1888, p. 267), as follows: "When the ripe pods begin to open the seeds are 
shelled from the husk by hand, washed to remove a phlegmy substance, and sub- 
jected for 6 hours to a roasting process whereby a papery sliell is loosened, which is 
removed by placing the seeds in sacks and beating them with clubs. A small 
amount of water is then added and the seeds kneaded by hand into a mass of the 
consistence of dough. The mass is then rolled into cylinders, spread out on the 
upper floors of large buildings erected for that purpose, and subjected to a slow 
fire, as nearly free from smoke as possible. The temperature is kept equable for 
several weeks, and the product as known in commerce is then ready for the mar- 
ket." Sometimes, it is said, the moistened magma of the coarsely powdered seed 
is incorporated with cocoa and tajtioca before kneading and rolling, but in Prof. 
Rusby"s experience such is not the case. 

Description. — Guarana appears in our market, generally in cylindrical sticks, 
from 6 to 12 inches in length, and from IJ to 2 inches in diameter, rounding at 
the ends, and averaging from 8 to 20 ounces in weight. Throughout the roll are 
fissures caused by contraction in drving. It leaves a sweetish after-taste resem- 
bling that of dulcamara. The U.S. P.thus describes it: "Subglobular or elliptic 
cakes, or cylindrical sticks, hard, dark, reddish-brown; fracture uneven, some- 
what gl'>ssy, pale reddish-brown, showing fragments of seeds invested with black- 
ish-brown integuments; odor slight, peculiar, resembling that of chocolate; taste 
astringent and bitter. It is partly soluble in water, and in alcohol'"— (['. -?. P.). 

Cnemical Composition. — Guarana was first analyzed in 1826, by Th. Martius, 
who discovered in it a crystallizable substance and named it guaraninc; hut the 
fact of its itlentity with caffeine became known by the researches of Berthemot 
and Peschastelus {.hur. Phnrm. C/iim., 1840, p. 618), who concluded that it existed 
in guarana in combinatiim as Unwdle of caffeine, and that it was obtainable in 
greater quantity from guarana than from any source of caffeine hitherto known. 
Subsequent researches confirmed the presence of cafleine; Stenhouse {Pfxinn. 
Jour. TraTis., 18.56, Vol. XVI, )). 2 12), found 5.07 per cent of this substance in gua- 
rana, and Mr. F.V. Greene (Amn: Jour. Phann., 1877, pp. 338 and 388), obtained 
about the same amount. Still others claim that the average is only about 3 per 
cent. The standard established by J. U. Lloyd as proper for fluid extract of 
guarana, is 4 per cent. 

The tannic acid of guarana was believed by Fournier (Jwr. P/i^rm. C'/im/i., 
1861, p. 291), to be iilentical with cafieotannic acid, and Peckolt (1866), stated 
that it resembletl kinotannir acid; F. V. Greene (1877;, termed it jiaulfinitanvjc acid. 
Recently the tannic acid of guarana was more closely studied i>y Ernst Kirmsse 
(Dissert., Strassburg, 1897). who established its non-glucosidal nature, hence its non- 
identitv with kino- or caffeo-tannic acids, and i)ointed out its close rehitionship to 



966 GUTTA-PERCHA. 

catechu-tannic acid (see Catechu). The same author confirmed the observation of 
Peckolt as to the presence of saponin in guarana. By exhausting guarana paste 
of its caffeine by repeated extraction with chloroform, and subsequently extract- 
ing with absolute ether, Dr. Kirmsse furthermore obtained 0.05 per cent of a 
micro-crystalline substance anticipated by Prof. Schaer in 1890 {Arrhiv der Pharm., 
Vol. CCXXVIII, p. 279), which proved to be catechin (^ratechuic acid), and was dis- 
tinguished by its discoverer as PauUinia catechin (see Catechu). This substance 
was mistaken by Peckolt,in 1866, for gallic acid, as Dr. Kirmsse proved by employ- 
ing Wackenroder's test to distinguish between gallic acid and catechin. This 
test is based on the fact that the green coloration produced by gallic acid in a 
freshly prepared solution of ferrous sulphate containing some sodium acetate, 
does not disappear upon adding acetic acid, while the color produced by catechin 
disappears under the same conditions. For methods recorded and results obtained 
in assay of guarana, see Kirmsse's dissf-rtation, H.W. Snow (Amcr. Jour. Pharm., 
1886, p. 483), Chas. A. La Wall (ihi.l, is'.iT, p. 350), and method by J. U. Lloyd. 

Action, Medical Uses, and Dosage.— It is very probable that from the tan- 
nin contained in guarana, it has effected recovery from diarrhaa, leucorrhcta, etc., 
of a very mild form; but as we have more prompt and efficient articles for these 
affections, in which this agent was at first so loudly heralded, it is no longer em- 
ployed therapeutically, except chiefly for the relief of certain forms of headache. 
Like coffee and tea, it appears to be a gentle excitant, and is serviceable in cases 
where the brain becomes irritated or depressed by mental over-exertion, and when 
there is a sensation of fatigue or exhaustion during very warm seasons; as it has 
practically the same chemical composition as caffeine and theine, we find it has 
likewise precisely the same physiological action. It is chiefly in nervous headache, 
in the cephalalgia sometimes accompanying menstruation, and that following a 
course of dissipation, in which the most benefit is derived from it. Its use ap- 
pears to be contraindicated in mo.st cases of neuralgia, neuralgic headache, and 
chronic headache, and in all cases in which it is not desirable to excite the heart, 
increase arterial tension, or increase the temperature. Its administration is often 
followed by dj'suria. The dose of guarana, in powder, is from 10 grains to 1 
drachm, but this is an unpleasant and objectionable form of administration. The 
indications for its use are a feeble pulse, pallid countenance, and expressionless 
eyes, with sick headache. It is asserted by Foltz to relieve the temporary paralysis 
oj the third nerve, which occasionally succeeds headache. The smaller doses act 
better than the excessively large doses, the medium dose of specific guarana being 
10 drops. Webster claims that it is serviceable in occipital ncumlgia and lumbago. 
The fluid extract and specific guarana are probably the most eligible preparations 
for use; the former may be given in doses of from ^ to 1 teaspoonful, in syrup or 
sweetened water, repeated 3 times a day; the latter in from 1 to 30-drop doses. 
M. Gubler states that guaranhie possesses diuretic properties, having tested it with 
several imtients; in doses of about 7i grains daily, it increased the urine from 
27 to G7 and 107 fluid ounces in the course of 2-1 hours. 

Specific Indications and Uses.— Headache, with pallor of the face, weak 
circulation, and the pain aggravated by exertion ; sick headache (migraine), with 
cerebral anemia; headache of menstruation, with cerebral anemia; mental ex- 
haustion or depression ; headache from dissipation. 

Related Species.— Timbo. Several leguminous plants of Brazil ai-e known by this 
naiuu. Thevare usod to stupefy fish. An alkaloid, /iHifcomV, has boen obtained from Paii/- 
liulu j,liui,il',( by Stanislas Martin {Pharm. Jour. rc<iii)i.,Vol. VII, 1S77, p. lOL'O'. From anotlier 
tiinbn riaHobtaiiifd two crvstallino substances, one timbdi)i,heiug a nerve poison, and oheniio- 
ally neutral ; the other anhi/dro-limboiii, a non-poisonous substance. Crude tiniboin yieldeil 
tci a lij;ht |ietnileum timbol, an oily compound, probably a poisonous constituent of the stem 
and brandies u{ tlie plant {Amer. Jour. Pharm., 1S91, p[5-HK 

GUTTA-PERCHA.— GUTTAPERCHA. 

The concrete juice of Isonandra Gutta, Hooker t^Dichopfi.t Gutta. Bentley),and 
other species of same order. 
Xol. 0/-(^— Sapotacoa^. 



GUTTA-PERCHA. 967 

CuMMi'X Names: Gutta-percha, Gulta-titban, Gutta-j)erch(i dqniratn, Gummi-plas- 
ticum. 

Ii.i.rsTRATioN : Bentlej' and Trinien, Med. PInuls, 167. 

Botanical Source. — This is the concrete milky juice of a tall tree, a native 
of tlie Miilayan Archipelago, especially of Singapore, where it is now becoming 
rai)iilly extinguished through ruthlessness in collecting gutta-percha. It has a 
straight and lofty trunk, about 3 feet in diameter at the ba.«e, with numerous 
ascending branches; the terminal buds are white from exuding gutta. The wood 
is hard; the leaves crowded at the extremity of the branches, alternate, petiolate, 
oblong, with a small point at the apex, base tapering, 4 or 5 inches long, 2 inches 
broad, up|>er surface bright-green, feather-nerved, under surface brownish-red, 
from den.se pubescence; the midrib and petiole the same; thepetiole 1 inch long, 
channeled, n<ttarticidated with the stem. Stipules none. The flowers are axil- 
lary, sessile, 4 together, disjiosed in a quadrangular manner, small and white. 
Bracts none. Calyx persistent, 6 sepals, brownish-red, in a double series, the 
outer largest; a?stivation valvate. The corolla is monopetalous, 6-oleft, the lobes 
J of an inch lung, tubes i an inch and deciduous; aestivation twisted. Stamens 
12, in a sinde series, equal, similar, and inserted in the mouth of the tube. The 
filaments are ecpial in length to the lobes of the con>lla; the anthers sagittate, ex- 
trorse, and affixed by their base to the filaments ; the pollen scanty. The ovary 
is superior, conical, sessile, seated on a disk, 6-celled, each cell containing a single 
ovule suspended from a central axis; the funiculus is conspicuous. Style longer 
than tlie stamens and persistent; stigmas undivided (E. W bite). 

History and Description.— This substance was introduced in 1842 to the 
profession, by l>r. William IMontgomerie, a surgeon in the British army in the 
Indies. The natives cut down the tree, remove its bark, and collect the milky 
juice in conic receptacles made from the spathe of the Areca palm. The juice 
soon concretes upon exposure to the air. The product is then put into a pot 
with water warmed to 70° C. (loS° V.) and kneaded, which removes particles of 
wood and bark, this process being repeated several times until a uniform mass is 
obtained. It has been stated that the yield from one tree is 20 to 30 pounds, but 
according to data given by Prof. Tschirch (Indisc/te Heil vnd Kutzpflanzen, 1892, 
p. 203) this must be an exaggeration. Dr. Burck, in Buitenzorg (.lava), has shown 
that by making incisions in living trees 1400 grammes of gutta may be obtained 
annually, and that this yield may be maintained during a ])eriod of 3 or 4 years. 
Aa imported it contains various foreign matters from which it should be freed 
before using it. It is a white or dirty pinkish opaque solid, having a faint odor. 
no taste, and hardens at 15.5° C. (60° F.). Water, alcohol, alkaline solutions, 
hydrochloric and acetic acids, and fixed oils have no action on it. It is soluble 
in coal naphtha, oil of turpentine, benzol, chloroform, boiling ether, and bisul- 
phide of carbon. Hot water softens it, and a heat of 71.1° C. (160° F.) renders it 
adhesive and pliable ; when soft it mav be easily cut or molded into various shapes 
—a temperature of 65° to 60° C. (120° to 128° F.) being the most favorable for 
this purpose. It resembles caoutchouc, and like this substance, has the ]>ropertj- 
of combining with sulphur, and is thus capable of being vulcanized for use in the 
arts (see Elastirn). Its specific gravity is 0.979. Gutta-percha, when in contact 
with air for some time, oxidizes and undergoes a peculiar change, becoming brit- 
tle and ultimately losing all coherence. In this process formic acid is lil)erated. 
The oxidized substance is soluble in cold alcohol. This change does not take 
place when gutta-percha is kept under water. It is a better insulator for electric 
wires and cal)les than caoutchouc, and is employed for insulating purposes in 
large ciuautitiis. 

Chemical Composition.— When gutta-percha, according to Payen (1852), is 
purified liy kneading in warm water, dried, and treated with hot absolute alcohol 
a hydrocarbon, gutta (75 to 82 i)er cent^ remains. From the hot solution an oxy- 
gen compound, a/6a(i (14 to 16 per cent), falls out upon cooling, while another 
oxygen compound, _^(t'(fi/ (4 to 6 per cent), remains in solution. To these con- 
stituents Otto Oe.sterle, in Prof. Tschirch 's laboratory (^rcAiw rf^rPA^rm.. 1892, p. 
641), added guttane, an unstable, thread-like body resembling gutta. Crude gutta- 
percha of commerce also contains tannin, salts and saccharine substances. No 
volatile oil could be identified. 



968 GUTTA-PERCHA. 

Gutta determines the elasticity of gutta-percha, and its plasticity at elevated 
temperatures. It is a white, amorphous hydrocarbon of the formula (C,„H,5)n 
(Oesterle) ; CjoHjj fOudemans, Baumhauer) ; (C\H,jn (Payen), etc., insoluble in 
alcohol and cold ether, little soluble in benzol and oil of turpentine, easily solu- 
ble in carbon disulphide and chloroform. It melts at 53° C. (127.4° F.) (Oesterle) 
and absorbs oxygen rapidly, whereby formic acid is liberated (Payen n Exposed 
to air and light pure gutta becomes yellow, friable, and partly soluble in alcohol, 
caustic potash and benzol. 

Alban is a light powder, not dissolved by water, diluted acids or alkalies, 
dissolves in boiling, but not in cold, absolute alcohol; readily soluble in ether, 
chloroform, carbon disulphide, benzol, and oil of turpentine. It has the compo- 
sition C,|,H|^Oj (Oesterle), yielding a hydrocarbon, alben, by heating with alcoholic 
Eotassa. It melts at 195° C. (383° F."). The presence of alban does not seem to 
ave any harmful effect upon the technical properties of gutta-percha. 

F/jiavU is a lemon-yellow, amorphous body, having the composition (C,oH,50)n 
(Oesterle), melting between 82° and 85° C. "(179.6° and 18-5° F.), but becoming 
soft at a much lower temperature. When it occurs in gutta in larger quantities 
it renders this article brittle. Fluavil is more soluble in the solvents mentioned 
than the other constituents. Whether alban and fiuavil are decomposition prod- 
ucts of gutta, was not determined. 

Action, Medical Uses, and Dosage.— Gutta-percha serves several useful 
ends in medicine, surgery, and pharmacy, and is likewise used fur ornamental 
and various other purposes. Splints, etc., have been made of it, and employed 
in cases oi fractures, diseased joinis, and other cases where it is desired to keep "the 
parts in a permanent position, and it is also formed into bougies, injection jiipes, 
catheters, pessaries, specula, forceps, handles, etc. Its pliability after having been 
immersed into hot water renders it especially adapted for the preparation of 
splints, and such splints are preferable to carved wooden splints. The solution 
in bisulphide of carbon has been employed by M. Vogel in iround-s eflected by 
cutting instruments — the fluid evaporates with great rapidity, and leaves a thin 
layer which protects the wound from atmospheric action, at the same time keep- 
ing its edges in close contact. Tlie following compound is recommended for the 
AeHiorMa^e supervening the extraction of teeth: Take of gutta-percha, 1 ounce; 
best tar, IJ ounces; creosote, 1 drachm; shellac, 1 ounce. Boil these in a cru- 
cible, stirring or beating them well, until they are blended into a stift', homogene- 
ous mass. The compound is readily softened between the fingers, and is easily 
introduced into the bleeding socket. It must be pressed in, and the hemorrhage 
will be speedily checked. For dental purposes solution of gutta-percha is purified 
by agitating it with calcium sulphate. Mixed with silica, powdered glass, zinc 
oxide, and similar mineral substances, to give hardness and the proper consist- 
ence, it is largely used by dentists to fill the cavities of carious, tath. Mr. Alton 
recommends the following preparation, applied to the skin in the same manner 
as collodion, as a protection against poisonous or deleterious vapors or fluids: 
Add 30 grains of gutta-percha to ^ an ounce of benzene, and expo.-^e to a mod- 
erate heat; when the gutta-percha" is dissolved, add to it a solution of 5 grains 
of caoutchouc dissolved in ^ ounce of benzene (benzol). A clear solution ct qutt(v- 
percha may be made by adding to the solution a mixture of § of a part of finely 
powdered carl)onate of lead in 2 parts of chloroform ; agitating the whole 2 or 3 
times, and then allowing the mixture to stand 10 or 12 days. The carbonate of 
lead, in becoming deposited, carries with it coloring and insoluble matters; the 
clear solution should then be decanted and placed in i fluid ounce vials, with 
closely-fitting gla.ss stoppers (see Liquor (lut((i-pcrch,r). This will be found very 
valuable as a local ai)|)lication to irritaltd and abraded surfaces, chaps, small voumh, 
etc., as it fmins a kind of cuticle over the parts. 

Dr. Maunoury reioiumends mixing 2 parts of chloride of zinc with 1 part of 
powdered gutta-percha, in a tube or porcelain dish, and gently heating the mix- 
ture over a lanij). The gutta-percha softens, the itarticles cohere in a spongy 
mass, which retains the chloride of zinc, and may be made into any convenient 
shape, which it retains on cooling. This he recommends as a manageable caustic, 
as it retains its consistence and flexibility, and can be easily inserted into the 
urethra, nostrils, fistulous or other pa.<sai.'f.'<, and. by its porosity, pcriuits the exu- 



UY.MNUCLAUIS 'J(;!l 

ilalion v( the cr.ustic, and thus opens a free passage for the result of the aotidii "f 
I lie cau^lic ou the tissues. Other caustics or agents may he applied in the same 
way. Chrysarobin is well applied with solution oi tiuttapercha. 

It has'been extolled by dermatologists as an ethcient ap])lication in certain 
i:kin affcrtinns, to prevent access of air and the formation of crusti*, to lessen the 
quantity of secretions, and to limit the action of the medicaments employed. It 
has thu.s been employed in smallpox {lo prevent pitting), in ery»ipelas, psoriai^i.^. 
I tonsurans, pruru/o, and certain eruimig. 

Prof. J. M. Maisch proposed the following solution as preferable to collodion, 
in having no gloss or contractile jiower, and in its close resemblance to the skin : 
Take 1 part of the best commercial gutta-percha, cut it into small pieces, and, by 
jigitation, dissolve it in 12 parts of chloroform ; on standing for a day, all the color- 
ing matter rises like a scum to the surface, leaving the solution clear; this may 
then be easily drawn off to the last drop. A wide glass tube, narrower at the bot- 
tom, and so arranged that both ends may be closed by corks, is the only instrument 
necessary; after the sejjaration is con:plete, the upper cork must be removed, and 
the lower one loosened so as to allow the liquid to run out slowly. Gutta-percha 
is acted upon by the strong mineral acids, but not by sea water, alkalies, vegetable 
acids, or weak mineral acids, hence gutta-percha vessels are highly valuable. 

Belated Products and Preparation. — .Several giUtag, some of which are closely allied 
to caoutcliouo, are useil t'uululterate fiiitta-percha, among which may l>e mentioned tl:e follow- 
ing: (Tiilta-fn>-f-io — two l.iiiils — one from I'erek, the other, a caoutchouc, from Borneo, GttlUi- 
linggarip, Gi(IUi-nimb<mtj, and Guttft-sninUk [Ciutta-putih). 

B.n,.<TA (GcM Chicle). — This is a milky exudate, known in tropical America as Cliirle, or 
Tiino-yiiHi, derived from the Bully tree (Mhnusops <?/(>fco«o, Gaertneri, which grows along the 
Amazon and Orinoco rivers of .South America. It is very much like gutta-percha, and ia em- 
ployed sometimes in plasters. Within recent years the demand for this substance has increased 
enormously in the United States, where the bulk is employed in making chewing gum. 

GrTTA-PERcn.\ Cements. — An improved cement for uniting the parts of boots and shoes, 
and in the manufacture of articles of dress in which cement is required, is made of 64 parts, 
by weight, of gutta-percha, 16 parts of caoutchouc, 8 parts of pitch, 4 parts of shellac, and 8 
{tarts of oil. The ingredients are melted together, the caoutchouc having been previously dis- 
solved. A cement for uniting sheet gutta-percha to silk or other fabrics, is composed of gutta- 
percha, 40 pounds; caoutchouc, 3 pounds; shellac, 3 pounds; Canada balsam, 14 pounds; 
liquid styrax, 35 pounds; gum mastic, 4 pounds; and oxide of lead, 1 pound. Another fur 
uniting it to leather, as soles of shoes, etc., consists of gutta-percha, 50 pounds; Venice tur- 
pentine, 40 pounds; shellac, 4 pounds; caoutchouc, 1 pound; and liquid st>Tax, 5 pounds. .\ 
cement for repairing or patching shoes and boots has been in vogue among shoemakers. It is 
made by dissolving 1 ounce of raw gutta-percha in 1 pound of hisulphide of carbon, and then 
adding a piece of resin. The leather must be well buffed to make the cement adhere. 

GYMNOCLADUS.— AlVCERICAN COFFEE-NUT. 

The seeds and pulp of the pods of Gymnockidus caiuuknsis, Lamarck. 

yat. Onl. — Leguminosa?. 

Commcpn X.\mes: American coffee-henn tree. Coffee tree, Kentiirky mahogany. 

Botanical Source. — This is a slender and unarmed tree, attaining the height 
of 50 or GO feet, with a trunk from 12 to 15 inches in diameter. For about 25 feet 
from the ground the trunk is straight and simple, and covered with a rough, scaly 
bark. The leaves are compound, unequally bipinnate, 2 or 3 feet long, and 1-^ to 
20 inches wide; the leallets 7 to 13 in number, ovate, acuminate, and duUtrii' n. 
the single leaflets often occupying the j)lace of some of the pinna?. The flowers 
are large, regular, diiecious, whitish, in axillary racemes, succeeded by jmils. 
Petals 5, oblong, equal, inserted on the summit of the calyx tube. Calyx tul)U- 
lar, 5-cleft, and equal. Stamens 10, short, distinct, inserted with the petals. 
Style 1. The legume is 8 to 10 inches long,2 to 2i inches wide, oblong, flattened, 
curving, pulpy within, and several-seeded. The seeds are from 2 to 4, quite hard, 
and somewhat egg-shaped, of a dark-olive color externally, slightly compressed, 
and about ^ inch in bngth by A inch wide (W.— <}.). 

History and Chemical Composition.— This tree is indigenous to the United 
States, and is fmiol glowing in ri<li w.»,ds and along rivers and lakes in westirn 
New Yolk, Ohio. Indiana. KentiK ky. et.-. It is known l.y several names, as C'ffee 
tree. Kenturl;/ rnffir free. The see-is were p>asted and u^ed by the earlier settlers 



970 GYMNOCLADUS. 

instead of coffee. The trunk is naked for some distance above the ground, above 
which is a rather small but regular head, formed by a few, quite long branches. 
The wood is quite hard and strong, is reddish or light yellowish, rather fine 
grained, and susceptible of taking a very fine polish and presenting a mo.st beau- 
tiful grained appearance; on this account it is highly prized in architecture and 
cabinet work. In our eastern cities it has been represented as a wood from Japan 
and brought most fabulous prices. The pulp and the seeds of the pods are the 
parts to be used; the former has some reputation as a fly poison. It is greenish 
and viscid. The active principle of these is taken up by alcohol, which gives a 
yellowish-brown tincture, or, if the pulp alone be u:^ed, a beautiful green, and, 
upon standing, crystals are deposited. The tincture lias an unpleasant, bitterish 
taste, followed by a persistent pungent aci'imony in the fauces. Rafinesque states 
that the leaves are purgative and contain a principle, cysticine, of a nauseous, bit- 
ter taste. The seeds are said to produce emesis. S. 8. Mell (1887) obtained from 
the seeds a yellowish, saponifiable, fixed oil (specific gravity 0.919) to the extent 
of 10 per cent. • Wax, resin and fat were extracted by ether, some tannin and a 
glucosid, burning to the taste and possessing a distinctive odor, were abstracted 
by alcohol. The seeds also contained mucilage, starch, and albuminoids (Avier. 
Jour. Phorm., 1887, p. 230). J. H. Martin largely confirms these results, but found 
saponin in all parts of the plant, and concludes that to this principle the physio- 
logical activity of the plant is probably due. Tannic and gallic acids are absent 
in the seeds. The pulp surrounding it contains sugar, tartaric and citric acids, 
and probably saponin {Amer. Jour. Pharm., 1892, p. 558). The carbohydrates of 
the fruit were investigated bv W. E. Stone and W. H. Fest {Amer. C'hem. Jour., 
1893, p. 660). 

Action, Medical Uses, and Dosage. — The tincture of the pulp and pods, 
and in some instances of the bark also, has been used with benefit in intermittent 
j'ever. More recently it has been tried, and with advantage, in cases of abnormal 
states of the nervous centers, as indicated, among other symptoms, by impaired 
sense of touch and vision, numbness, dull headache, apathy, and formication. 
In one case of locomotor ataxia it proved decidedly beneficial, and is valuable in 
some of the more serious symptoms resulting from excessive masturbation. Recent 
reports (Dr. N. G.Vassar) confirm its value as a remedy for s/)frm«torrAft'n. Prof. 
Roberts Bartholow, M. D., investigated physiologically the purified tincture of the 
leaves as prepared for him by J. U. Lloyd'and found it to be very marked in its 
qualities. It has likewise been recommended in laryngeal comjh with chronic irri- 
tation of the mucous lining membrane of the air passages, in erysipelas, in aU/'T«-s 
presenting a typhoid condition, in puerperal peritonitis, and in the exantliematoxn 
affections. It is certainly deserving the attention of our practitioners. The tinc- 
ture is best made by taking 2 ounces of the coarsely bruised seed and 1 ounce of 
the pulp, and adding to them 8 fluid ounces each of water and alcohol; let it 
macerate 12 or 14 days with frequent agitation, and then filter. One fluid drachm 
of this is to be added" to 3 fluid ounces of water, of which the dose is a teaspoon- 
ful, to be repeated every 3 or 4 hours. 

Eelated Species. — Cercis canadensis, Linne, Ari<. Ord. — Legumiuosie. The Htd bud or 
Judos ti;, , is a small tree growin;; in rich woods in the miiUilo states. The flowers expand in 
earlv spriiiu' In fore the leaves come out. Tliey are borne in lateral clusters and are of a pale- 
reddish <olor. They have an agreeably acid taste, and are often eaten by children. The 
leaves are simple, acute, cordate, and are supported on slender stalks. The fruit is a dr^-, 
brown, flat pod, which hangs on the branches during the winter. The name Judas tree is 
inapplicable, and the tree is so-called because its relative, the Verris sili'/uasirum, abundant in 
Palestine, is said to have been the tree upon which Judas hanged himself. It onlv required a 
little further credulity to transfer the notion to the American species. The biirk of the root 
is the preferred part, and is exceedingly astringent, even surpassing oak and hemlix-k. "When 
chewed it puckers the mucous membranes of the mouth almost as sensibly as the green fniitof 
the persimmon tree, or as the seed of the fruit of black haw ( Vihurmnn yrunifoliuin)" (Lloyd, 
in Drags iiiid ^f(■dicines of \orth America). Prof. J. T. Lloyd could detect neither alkaloid nor 
crystalline glucosid, the chief constituent being the taiiniu (i7<id.,Vol. II, 1241. The leaves 
and bark of this tree, especially the bark of the nx>t, possess [lowerfuUy astrin^'Ut propertiee, 
and maybe administered in cases in which this class of agents is indicated, as in diarrhira and 
rfi/iX'H/cn/, particularly in the chronic forms, and in chrmiic catarrhal coiulilious : also recom- 
mended as a local application in chronic gMiiorrhaa, gleet, Itniconrhaa, and chremic conjuuctiritit, and 
Other aflfections attended with inucoun projiuvia. 



GYNOCARDIA. 971 



GYNOCARDIA.— CHAULMOOGRA. 



The seeds and oil of fh/nontrdia odoratn, Robert Brown {Chaulnwogra odoratu, 
Roxburgh ; Hj/dnoi-arpus odorala, Lindley). 

Nat. Ord. — Bixinetv. 

Common Names: Chnithnugia seeds, CJiaulmofira. 

ILI.I-.STKATION : Bfutlcy an"<l Trimeii, Med. Plants, 2S. 

Botanical Source, History, and Description. — This is a very large and 
hands'Miie East Indian tree. The leaves are glossy, entire, and alternate; the 
flowers yellow and sweet-scented. The fruit is round, ash-colored, and when ma- 
ture, averages in weight from 10 to 20 jiounds. The numerous seeds are imbedded 
in its pulp, and contain an oil, which, according to Roxburgh, is mixed with 
fresh butter, and used by the natives as a remedy for cutaneous diseases. They 
are known as Chmiimoogni (cir Chaulmugra), and are said, when powdered, to have 
been used with advantage in scrofula, skin diseases, and rheumatism, the dose 
being alniut 6 grains. Tiie seeds are grayish, irregularly ovoid, compressed, some- 
what angular and smooth, a little over an inch long, and have an oily taste and 
a peculiar, nauseous odor. 

Chemical Composition.— C/iix/mHj/mo/; was obtained by pressure from the 
seeds about twenty years ago, and has attracted some little attention outside of 
India, where it has long been used. It is said that, in consequence of its high 
price, it is extensively adulterated by the natives of India, and so adroitly as to 
cause even the physicians in India to discontinue its use {Xew Remedies, 1S79). 
This oil is granular, melts at 42° C. (107.6° F.); but after melting may be reduced 
much below this point without solidifying, and has, at 42° C. (107.6° F.), the spe- 
cific gravity of 0.930. It has an acid reaction, an acrid taste, and a slight scam- 
mony-like odor. It is insoluble in water, partly soluble in alcohol, and, excepting 
impurities, seems to perfectly dissolve in ether, chloroform, carbon disulphide, 
and benzin. Mr. J. Moss (Phnrm. Jour. Tram., 1871), Vol. X, p. 251), founcl it to 
yield, upon the application of appropriate reagents, palmitic aridja. new acid, to 
which he gave the name, gynocardic arid; hypogaic acid (named from the seed 
ofAmehis hypogxa), and cocinic arid. Of these four acids palmitic constitutes the 
largest proportion (63 per cent), altogether making 81 per cent, the weight of 
the oil. These acids exist in the form of glycerides, as fats, the first two acids 
also in a free condition. Gynocardic arid (C„H,,Oj), however, is the important 
constituent (11.7 per cent), and gives the burning taste to the oil. Chaulmoogra 
oil strikes a green color with sulphuric acid. 

Action, Medical Uses, and Dosage.— Chaulmugra oil is used both inter- 
nally and externally in Uj'rosy, secondary sy}ifiili-<, rheumatism, sn-ofula, and in 
phthisis. Thed'ise for an infant is 1 or 2 drops daily ; for an adult, from 2 to 4 
minims, repeated 3 times a day. Drachm doses are said to have been given with- 
out any unpleasant results. As a remedy for lcj)rosy, it has been thought by some 
to give good results in the macular and anxsthetic forms (early stage), while other 
and equally good authorities pronounce it inoperative. The seeds, when pow- 
dered, are reputed more active than the oil. The oil has relieved the dyspepsia 
and bronchitis occurring in lepers. Externally, it has been successfully applied 
in the above-named diseases, likewise in herpes, tin< a, stiffness of joints, ulcers, and 
various cutanenm eriiptions. In the latter class it generally proves too irritating 
except in eczemas and psoriasis. It is said to destroy pediruli and the itch in.-<ect. 
It is usually trituratedwith from 4 to 6 parts of simple ointment, and thoroughly 
rubbed in with the palm of the hand, or with tiie fingers' ends. Moss recom- 
mends the following formula for ita economical use: Take of chaulmugra oil, 2 
parts; paraffin wax, at 41° C. ( 106° F.), 1 part, and ozokerine, 5 parts, and tritu- 
rate thoroughly together. (Ozokerine is produced from ozokerite, or earth wax, 
and furmsata-tele.-^sahil odorless basis for preparing ointments.) He also advises, 
as a more pleasant mode of administration, the use of perles or caj)sule.s, each con- 
taining the required dose. Children may take it in a little warm milk. It may 
also be given in emulsion with oil of almonds or glycerin. The powdered seeds 
are given in pills, from 3 to 6 grains being a dose. Salt meat, sweetmeats, spices, 
acids, and tobacco are strictly forbidden while taking this oil. Webster (Dynnm. 



972 



HiEMATOXYLON. 



Fig. 125. 



Therap.), praises cliaulmoogra oil in the anemia of syphilis, and states that by its 
action as a deobstruant, it averts indurations and banishes skin and mucous 
patches. He believes it to promise more than any other remedy if used early, to 
abort the constitutional efiects of syphilis. Prof. Scudder mentions its internal 
and local use to allay itching and burning, being specially beneficial where the 
circulation is feeble and common sensation impaired. 

Belated Species. — Hydnocarpns r^'nenata, Gcertner. Ceylon. 

Hydnocarpus Wightiana, Blume. AVesterii India. The seeds of both this and the prt- 
ceding species yield an oil which may be used for the same purpose as Chaulmw/ra uil. It 
resembles the latter in odor and color, and strikes with sulphuric acid a blue coloration, not 
so pronounced, however, as that produced by Chaulmugra oil. This coloration is due to 
the presence of gynucardic acid, which Moss also found in this species (Dymock, J/a<. J/p(f. o/ 
Western India). 

H.fflMATOXYLON (U. S. P.)— H-ffiMATOXYLON. 

" The heart-wood of Hasmatoxylon campechianum, Linne" — (['. S. P.). 
Nat. Ord. — Leguminosje. 
Common Name : Lngimod. 

Illustrations : Woodville, Med. Bot., 17; Bentley and Trimen, Med. PlanU, 86. 
Botanical Source. — This is a tree of from 20 to 25 feet in height, and occasion- 
ally re:iching40 or 50 feet. The trunk or stem is generally crooked and deformed, 
seldom exceeding 18 inches in diameter, 
and covered with a rough, ash-colored bark. 
The branches are somewhat tlexuous, ter- 
ete, and covered with whitish spots; in 
mountains and moist situations unarmed, 
jut in localities where the tree is stunted 
in growth, furnished with sharp spines be- 
low the leaves. The leaves are alternate, 
from 2 to 4 from the same irregular, rough, 
tubercular prominence, pinnate, some- 
times dividing, in a bipinnate manner, at 
the lowest pair of leaflets; the k-aflets are 
4-paired, shortly stalked, obovate, or obcor- 
date. The flowers are yellow, slightly fra- 
grant, on pedicels i inch in length, borne 
in axillary and subterminal racemes. The 
calyx is deeply 5-parted, brownish-purple, 
with thin membranous, deciduous, une- 
qual lobes, and a short, green, campanu- 
late tube. The petals are nenrly equal, 
obovate, wedge-shaped at base, .'■carcely 
longer than the sepals, and of a lemon-yellowish color. Stamens 10, alternately 
short, inserted on the in.side of the margin of the jversistent tube of the calyx'; 
filaments hairy at base; anthers ovate, without glands. Ovary lanceolate, com- 
pressed, 3-seeded, bearing a capillary style, which projects beyond the stamens 
and petals; stigma capitate and expanded. The pod or legume is flat, compressed, 
lanceolate, acuminate at both ends, 1-celled, 2-seeded, not opening at the sutures, 
but bursting in the middle longitudinally (,!..). 

History and Description.— This tree grows in Jamaica, on the eastern shore 
of the bay of Cam poachy, and in many of the West India Islands. The wood con- 
sists of a yellowish alburnum, and a dingy cherry-red inner wood, which last is 
the part used in medicine and the arts; it forms a useful commercial commodity, 
and is extensively used ns a dye-stuff. It becomes darker-colored liy exposure. 
Water or alcohol extracts its coloring nnitter, forming deep-purple solutions. Its 
aqueous solution yields a fine blue precipitate with lime-water, alum, and acetate 
of lead; a deep violet-blue with the higher salts of iron, and curdy flakes with 
solution of gelatin; sulphuric, nitric, hydrochloric, and acetic acids.and sulphate 
of copper also jiroduce precipitates. Water is the menstruum usually employed 
to extract its virtues. A pound of the wood yields about 2 ounces of the extract. 
The medicinal article is thus described in the" Pharmacop<pia: 




Htematoxylon campechianum. 



H.EMATOXYI.OX. il73 

• Heavy, hard, externallj- purplish-black, internally brownish-red, and marked 
with irregular, concentric circles, splitting irregularly ; odor faint, agreeable; taste 
sweetish, astringent. When chewed, it colors the saliva dark pink. Logwood is 
generally met with in the form of small chips or coarse powder of a dark brownish- 
red color, often with a greenish luster" — (f. 5. P.). 

Mr. Louis Siebold {Brit. Ph<^rm. Conf., 1887, [sec Amer. Jour. P^anji.]), consid- 
ers the logwood of San Domingo and Jamaica inferior to that of Campeachy or 
Honduras, and points out the great chemical difference between the commercial 
wood sold in logs, and that which comes to us ground or in chips, for the latter 
has mostly undergone a process of fermentation during which it is considerably 
modifii-d,"and loses its sweet taste. Howi^ver, for the purpose of testing water for 
traces of metals by means of logwood extract (see below), the fermented wood is 
preferalile. 

Chemical Composition. — Besides the usual plant constituents, logwood con- 
tains t'liuiiii (o.o per cent, according to Chas. F. Kramer, Avier. Jour. Phmm., 1882, 
p. 388); plihbapheiHS (,\\h\ch are coloring matters produced by decomposition of 
tannin substance), and ^;(/iia?oji///)i or //,ri(ifi^/». Tlie latter bodj' was discovered 
by Chevreul in 1811, and obtained pure in 1842 by Erdniann. Commercial log- 
wood extract often contains from 9 to 12 per cent of this principle which fre- 
quently crystallizes therefrom spontaneously in long needles. It is obtained by 
extraction with aqueous ether and crystallization from hot water containing 
reducing agents, e. p., sulphurous acid or acid sulphites. 

H;nnat".q/li)i (C,5H,.C\, Erdmaun i, crystallizes with 3 molecules of water in the 
quadratic, with 1 molecule, in the rliomliic system. It is not easily soluble in 
cold, but readily dissolves in hot water, alcohol, and in salts of alkaline reaction, 
e.^., borax; from the latter solutions it can not be obtained crystallizable unless 
the solution is slightly acidified. Hematoxylin is very sensitive to light and air, 
turning reddish when exposed to light. When exposed to moist air or other 
oxidizers, it rapidly deliquesces, turns brown, and finally yields a colorless mass 
containing oxalic acid. By milder oxidation it is converted into hirmaian. Solu- 
tion of hoematoxylin yields a black violet precipitate with ferric salts (ink), and 
is also nrecipitated by solutions of other metallic salts. The precipitates with 
lead ana copper salts turn blue upon exposure to the air. When subjected to 
destructive distillation hfematoxylin yields fymqalhd and resorcin; accordingly, a 
purple-colored p/ito/t-m (see .<4««7/)ie !>!/«), has been prepared by the interaction of 
2 molecules of hjematoxylin and 1 molecule of phtalic anhydride (E. A. Letts, 
Bcrichte, 1879). Hematoxylin undergoes a remarkable change with ammonia 
water in the presence of air. It is dissolved with rose-red, then purple-red color. 
The solution, by absorbing oxygen from the air becomes blackish-red, and upon 
evaporation, j'ields violet prismatic crystals of luevuitein-ammonia (C,8H,jOj.2XHj). 
These are soluble in water and alcohol'. When heated to 130° C. (266" F.), ammo- 
nia is given oflF and furmatein (C^Ji^^O^), is formed. Acetic acid likewise precipi- 
tates it from the aqueous solution of its ammonia compound. Another method 
of obtaining it is to add a few drops of nitric acid to an ethereal solution of 
haematoxylin. It forms a dark-violet, crystalline powder, soluble with difliculty 
in alcohol and glacial acetic acid, insoluble in chloroform and benzol. It dis- 
solves at 20^ C. (68° F.\ in water at the rate of 6 in 10,000, and is about twice as 
solul)le in ether. In alkalies it dissolves with blue color, which changes to brown. 
HaMuatuxylin has been propr)sed as a delicate test for ammonia; the presence of 
pnr^inr 1'=^'"^' of ammonia in water is indicated by an orange-red color assumed by 
blotting pajier saturated with an alcoholic solution of hematoxylin (^see Husemaim 
and 'iHlger, Pdmizemtoffr). Arthur Weddell likewise recommends hicmatoxylin 
as a delicate test for calcium bicarbon-ate in water, and for the presence of lead 
(1 in 200,000 1, in the same medium, by the characteristic color reaction which 
takes plare in the presence of air (Amrr. Jnur. Phann. ,1884, p. 2\4). L. Siebold 
(ytm/T. Jour. Pfiartn., 18^7, p.526\was able to detect even much smaller quantities 
of metals in potable water by this method. For the application of hicmatoxylin 
08 an indicator in alkaloidal as.say, see Pror. Amer. Pharm. As-toc, 1806, p. 109. 

Action, Medical Uses, and Dosage.— Logwood is a tonic and unirritating 
astringent. le<s coiisti]>atiiig tlian many f>tlier astringents, and is useful in hannr- 
rhuq'-i ! ■ ni (l.i: nil riix. Imni.^, ami li-nn Is, in «/i/ (luirr/ia'an and ihisciiUrus, in .summer 



974 HAMAMELIS. 

complaint of children, and in night-sweaU. A favorable preparation with many of 
the older practitioners in cholera infantum, after a proper employment of the syrup 
of rhubarb and potassa, is the following: Dissolve 2 drachms of extract of log- 
wood in 4 fluid ounces of boiling water, to this solution add 2 fluid drachms of 
ammoniated tincture of opium, 3 fluid drachms of tincture of catechu, 1 fluid 
drachm of compound spirits of lavender, and 4 fluid ounces of simple syrup, or 
syrup of ginger. The dose is a teaspoonful every 3 or 4 hours. An infusion of 
logwood taken internally, and also used locally, in form of spray or injection, has 
effectually cured several cases of obstinate and offensive nzuna. In constitutions 
broken down by disease, dissipation, or the excessive use of mercury, the decoc- 
tion of logwood, used freely in connection with the other treatment, will be found 
highly beneficial. Dose of the decoction, from 2 to 4 fluid ounces ; of the extract, 
5 to 30 grains. The use of logwood imparts a blood-red color to the stools and 
the urine. It should never be combined with chalk or lime-water, as they are 
incompatibles. 

Red Ink. — A good red ink may be made as follows : Take of pernambuco woo<J, a Bra- 
zilian wood said to be derived from Ciesalpinia echinata, 4 ounces ; diluted acetic acid, distilled 
water, of each, 16 ounces ; boil together until 24 ounces remain. Then add 1 ounce of alum, 
evaporate the liquid to 16 ounces, dissolve 1 ounce of gum Arabic in it, strain, and to the cold 
liquid add 1 drachm of chloride of tin. This ink is preferable to the cochineal ink, being free 
from its bluish tint and more permanent. 

Related Species. — Algarobilla, the pod-like fruit of BaUamocarpum hrerifoUum of Chili. 
Contains a large proportion of ellagic acid and more than 60 per cent of tannin. 

HAMAMELIS (U. S. P.)— HAMAMELIS. 

" The leaves of Hamameli.'< virginiana, Linne, collected in autumn" — {U. 5. P.). 
also the bark and twigs of same. 
Nat. Orel. — Hamamelacese. 

Common Names: Witch-hazel, Winterbloom, Snapping hazelnut. Spotted alder, etc. 

Botanical Source. — This is an indigenous shrub, and consists of several 

crooked, l)ranching trunks from the same root, from 4 to 6 inches in diameter, 

Fig X26 ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^®* "^ height, and covered with a smooth gray bark. 

The leaves are borne on short petioles, alternate, oval or ob- 

ovate, acuminate, obliquely subcordate at base, margin cre- 

nate-dentate, scabrous, with minute elevated spots beneath, 

and from 3 to 6 inches long, two-thirds as wide. The flowers 

are yellow, on short pedicels 3 or 4 together in an involucrate, 

axillary, subsessile glomerule. The calyx is small, divided 

into 4 thick, oval, downy segments, with an involucel of 2 or 3 

bracts at base. The petals, 4 in number, are yellow, | of an 

inch long, linear, curled or twisted. Sterile stamens 4, scale- 

Ti™„™„i ■ ■ ■ liJ^^, opposite the petals, alternating with the 4 fertile ones. 

Ovary ovate; styles 2, short; stigmas obtuse. The capsule or 

pod is nut-like, 2-celled, 2-beaked, opening loculioidally from the top : the outer 

coat separating fmm the inner, which incloses the oblong, black seeds, but soon 

bursts elastically into 2 ])i.-cos (W.— G.— R.). 

History and Description.— This shrub grows in nearly all parts of the United 
States, esinrially in damp woods, flowering from September to November, when 
the leaves are falling, and maturing its seeds the next summer. The bark and 
leaves are the parts used in medicine; they possess a degree of fragrance, and, 
when chewed, are at first somewhat bitter,"very sensibly astringent, and then 
leave a pungent sweetish taste, which remains "for a considerable time. Water 
extracts their virtues. No analysis has been made of the leaves, though they 
are known to contain a bitter body and tannin. The bark and root probably 
contain a very small amount of volatile oil (see Drs. J. Marshall and 11. C. Wood, 
in Therap. Guz., 1886, p. 295). Dr. Charles A. Lee {Jour. Mat. MaL, 1S59, p. 200) 
found in the bark 6^ per cent of tannin, while H.K.Bowman (Amt-r.^lmr. Pharm., 
1869, p. 194) records 8.10 per cent, and Walter B. Cheney (ibid.. 1886, p. 418) 6.75 
per cent. No glucosid nor alkaloid was obtainable bvthe latter author or by 
others. F. Gruttner {Archiv ikr Pharm., 1898, pp. 27S-320) obtained from the 




HAMAMELIS. 975 

bark 3 per cent of a crystallizable ami optically active tannin {haviavielitnnniu, 
C„H„0,— oH.O), gallic aciil, dextrose, fatty and waxy matter, including 7)/(,v''w'«''"''" 
(Cj,H„0+H_.0 I, etc. A preparation made hy distilling water, or watir containing 
some alcohol, from the green twigs and leaves of hamanielis is very popular under 
the term Di-^lilUd Extract oj Hamamelii<. The ('. S. P. describes hamamelis leaves as 
follows: •• Short-petiolate, about 10 Cm. (4 inches) long, obovate or oval, slightly 
heart-shaped, and oblique at the ba.-^e, sinuate-toothed, thickish, nearly smooth ; 
inodorous; taste astringent and bitter" — iCS-P.). The shoots are used as 
divining-rods to discover water and metals under ground, by certain adept.s (?i 
in the occult arts. 

Action, Medical Uses, and Dosage.— Witch-hazel is tonic and astringent. 
Some have pronounced it sedative also. The decoction of the bark is very useful 
in hemoplysis, hemateviesiA, and other hemnrrhngts, as well as in dmrrhcea, d>jsentenj, 
and excessive mucous dischanjes, v^ith full, l)ale, and relaxed tissues. It has been 
employed with advantage in inrijncnt }>/itlii-<l.-<; in which it is supposed to unite 
anodyne influences with its others. It is useful in the form of poultice in sicell- 
tnjrs and ^('/i<)/-s of a painful character, as well as in external tuflammations. The 
American Indians used it for this purpose. The decoction may be advantageously 
used as a wash or injection for sore irunith, painful ttuiwrs, extcrnnl injiammations, 
bowel complaints, prolapms ani and vteri, teucorrhan, gkct, and op'ilhalmin. 

Since the introduction of the distilled extract of witch-hazel and the specific 
hamamelis, the use of decoctions of the bark has been largely abandoned. The 
fluid extract has but little to recommend it. The particular field for hamamelis 
is in disorders involving the venous structures. Its most pronounced virtue is 
its stimulating and tonic action upon the venous coats, exhibited so markedly in 
ita power over raricoses, heinorrhoid^, hemorrhnyes, and other conditions due to re- 
laxation of venous structures. The parts are usually pale and relaxed, though 
occasionally a deep redness, due to venous engorgement, is observed. Here, and 
especially as great pain is usually an accompaniment, belladonna may be asso- 
ciated with it. It is adapted to the whole venous system, overcoming debility, 
differing therein from such agents as act only upon localized vascular areas. 

Prof. J. M. Scudder and others have found witch-hazel a valuable remedy in 
passive hemorrhages and congcMion, especially in epiataxis, hemorrhoid-i, jjhleijmima 
dolens (after acute phases have passed away ), phlebitis, and varicose veins. He also 
found it vakiable in diarrhcea, in chronic pharyngitis, and in chronic lUcrine conges- 
lion, where the cervix is enlarged without abnormal hardness, the os uteri being 
soft, open, and patulous, and perhaps leucorfhaa and some prolapsus present. It 
is specially adapted to diarrhoea with a tendency 'to or associated with passive 
hemorrhage. It also forms an excellent application to chronic vasndar conditions 
of mucous tissues, and to old, flabby, fetid ulcers. Prof. A. J. Howe stated that 
in "several cases of uterine hemorrhage, all occurring within 2 years, he adminis- 
tered witch-hazel with success. In some instances, the cause of the flow, and the 
conditions upon which it depended, were unknown or rested on conjecture, yet 
the exhibition of the medicine was always followed by satisfactory results." 
Half-teaspoonful doses of specific hamamelis were mixed with water and repeated 
every few minutes while the flow lasted, and afterward every few hours to pre- 
vent a return of the hemorrhage. In m> nurrhagia and those wasting states so 
common after abortion, in the early months of pregnancy, he used no remedy 
that exerted such beneficial effects as witch-hazel. In uterine hemorrhage follow- 
ing delivery at full term, the remedy is probably not equal to ergot, but in the 
kind of cases referred to it is a safer agent. In chronic diarrhaa and choltra infan- 
tum it is a valuable medicine. Hamamelis, both internally and topically, arrests 
oozing of Hood from mucous surfaces. This action is well shown in non-inflam- 
■nuttort/ hemnluria. It is not the remedy for active hemorrhage, but for passive 
bleeding, as from the lungs, stomach, bowels, renal or genital organs its action is 
satisfactory. 

Besides its control over actual hen.aturia, hamamelis is often serviceable in 
renal affections due chiefly to va.^cular relaxation. Thus in diabetes insipidus it 
has been of some value, but it is of greater service in mucous projiuvia of the urino- 
genitnl tract. It is of benefit in vesicid catarrh, with tenesmus, and in irritation of 
the bladder, due to enlarged and relaxed scrotal veins. It should be used both 



976 HEDEOMA. 

internally and locally to the scrotum. While it relieves varicocele, U>o much must 
not be expected of it in the way of a cure. In female disorders it is indicated by 
venous fullness and relaxation. Dull, aching, ovarian pain is relieved by hama- 
melis, and in leiicorrhaa, v>-ith fullness of the pelvic veins and relaxation of the 
uterine and vaginal walls, its internal and external exhibition is of marked 
benefit. It relieves ovarian and testicular congestion. Hamamelis is of pronounced 
value in hemorrhages into the eye ball, and locally relieves ecchymosis of the lids and 
conjunctiva. 

Hamamelis is justly popular as a remedy for sprains, conttisions, vxmnds, swell- 
ings, etc. A solution of a few grains of asepsin in distilled hamamelis forms an 
elegant and efficient dressing for hxmis, .scrt W.s, cuts, abrasions, crushed fingers, etc. Ten 
grains of menthol to 4 fluid ounces of distilled hamamelis are also efficient in 
burns and scalds (EUingwood). Glycerin and hamamelis, or Lloyd's hydrastis 
and hamamelis, equal parts, has rendered us excellent service in irritated and 
inflammatory conditions of the external auditory meatus, especially when due to irrita- 
tion from the presence of inspissated cerumen. Locally, hamamelis forms an excel- 
lent soothing application for chafing, dne to excessive discharges; it is likewise 
useful in diffusive cutaneous inflammations. Few agents are more grateful in vari- 
ous subacute forms of sore throat, also in sore throat with deep redness and great 
pain, and it is particularly soothing in scarlatinal angina. It is a very valuable 
aid, locally, in the treatment of tonsiUt is, phlegmonous ulceration of the throat, diph- 
theria, and acute catarrh. Chronic conjunctivitis, with vascularity of the palpebral 
and ocular conjunctiva, has yielded to a decoction of equal parts of hamamelis 
(bark), hydrastis, and lobelia, boiling the first two ingredients, and adding the 
lobelia to the hot liquid. Cover, allow to cool, and strain. Hamamelis should 
not be neglected as a part of the treatment of inflamed breasts, and applied hot 
it gives great relief to the soreness of abdominal muscles and pelvic parts fol- 
lowing childbirth. Muscular soi-encss and aching sensations, as of having been 
bruised, whether from colds, exposures, strains, bruises, or severe muscular action, 
are greatly relieved by the application of distilled hamamelis, either hot or cold, 
by means of compresses, while specific hamamelis may be given internally. 
It forms a good face wash for burning of the skin, for tan and freckles, for dilated 
facial capillaries, and a good application after shaving. Distilled hamamelis and 
Lloyd's colorless hydrastis form a safe and efiicient injection for most Ciises of 
gonorrho'a. Witch-hazel enters into many of the ointments designed for appli- 
cation Xo piles. An ointment made with lard and a decoction of white oak bark, 
apple-tree bark, and witch-hazel has been successfully employed for this purpose. 
Dose of decoction of witch-hazel, from 2 to 4 fluid ounces, 3 or 4 times a day; of 
distilled hamamelis, 5 to 60 drops; of specific hamamelis, 1 to 30 drops. 

Specific Indications and Uses.— Venous debility, with relaxation and full- 
ness; jiale nuicous tissues (occasionally deep-red from venous engorgement, or 
deep-blue from venous stasis); mucous profluvia, with venous relaxation ; passive 
hemorrhages; varicoses; capillary stasis; hemorrhoids, with full feeling: relaxed 
and painful sore throat; dull, aching pain in rectum, pelvis, or female organs; 
perineal relaxation, with fullness; muscular relaxation; muscular sorene^ and 
aching and bruised sensation, whether from cold, exposure, bruises, strains, or from 
physical exertion. 

HEDEOMA (U. S. P.)— HEDEOMA. 

"The leaves and tops of Hedeoma pulegioidcs (Linne). Persoon" — (U.S.P.); 
(Melissa jmlcgioides, Linne; Ounila pulegioides, WiWdenow. Zi:iphcnn piiltgioides, 
Desfontaines). 

Nat. 0/(/.— Labiatw. 

CoMMo.v Namks : Pcnni/royal, American penm/roval. Tick-weed, Squawmint. 

Ii.irsTitATioNs : Bentley and Trimen, Med. Plants, '200: Barton, Med. Boi., 4L 

Botanical Source. — This is an indigenous annual plant. It ha^ a fibrous, 
j-ellowish root, an erect, branching, pubescent, rather angular stem, from 6 to 12 
inches high. The leaves are A inch or more long, opposite, oblong, have 1 or 2 
teeth on each side, are smooth above, rough below, narrowed at the b.ise, and 
borne on short jietioles; the floral leaves are similar. The flowers are quite small, 




HKi>i:()MA. 977 

liglit-blue, ill 6-floweretl, axillary wIkhIs. Calyx ovoid or tubular; gibbous on 
the lower side near the base, with 13 stria' ; upper lip Stoothed; lower 2-cleft ; 
throat hairy. The corolla tube is as long as the calyx, downy, and ■J-lipped; 
upper lip erect, Hat and notched at the apex; the lower y. ^^^ 

spreading and o-cleft, the lobes being nearly equal. Stamens 
2, ascending and tiliforni; the cells of the "anthers diverging. 
Seeds 4, and olilong ( \V.— (4.— T,.\ 

History, Description, and Chemical Composition.— This 
herb was placed i>y l.innaus in th" •.thus .IAV/.^mi, and after- 
ward t'lNu'/n, from which it \va> leninvt il by I'dsoon, and placed 
in the gf\H\s Hcde(xma. It must not lie confounded with Meti' 
Iha Pulttiium, Linn^, or Eumju-nn f>e»ii>/r'njal,v;h\(h has simi- 
lar action and uses. It is a well-known plant, growing in 
barren woods and dry fields, and particularly in limestone 
countries, flowering from June to Septemlxr and October, 
rendering the air fragrant for some distance around it. It is 
common to nearly all parts of the United States. It has a 
peculiar, aromatic oilor, wliich, however, is very offensive to 
some jiersons, and a hot, pungent, aromatic taste. It imparts 
its virtues to boiling water by infusion; boiling destroys its 
activity by evaporating the volatile oil, on which its properties 
depend. Tlie oil (.-^eo Olmm Hahomu), its chief constituent, 
maybe obtained bv distillation with wafer, and is often em- 
ployed, or its tincture, instead of the herb itself; it is of a light- Hedeoma pulegioldes. 
yellow color, and specific gravity ranging from 0.!t:',0 to 0.940. JJcdcoma tliynwkk-i. 
Gray, a Texan plant, has similar properties. Tlu- ollicia! diuii is thus described: 
"Leaves opposite, short-pilioled, about 12 Mm. (^ inch) long, oblong-ovate, ob- 
scurely serrate, glandular beneath; branches roundish, quadrangular, hairy; flow- 
ers in small, axillary cymules, -with a tubular-ovoid, bilabiate and five-toothed 
calyx, and a pale blue, spotted, bilabiate corolla, containing 2 sterile and 2 fertile, 
exserted stamens; odor strong, mint like, taste warm and pungent''— ( T. .'<'. P.). 

Action, Medical Uses, and Dosage. — Pennyroyal is a stimulant, diapho- 
retic, emmenagogue, and carminative. The warm infusion used freely, will pro- 
mote jierspiration, restore svjipres^ed lorhin, and excite the menstrual discharge 
when recently checked, especially by colds ; it is often used by females for this last 
purpose, a large draught being taken at bedtime, the feet having been previously 
Ijathed in warm water. It is an excellent remedy for common colds. A gill of 
l)rewer"s yeast added to the draught is reputed a safe and certain abortive. The 
warm infusion may likewise be employed with advantage in the flutulent colic of 
children. The oil, or its tincture, is also administered as a carminative and anti- 
emetic, and has been of benefit in h>j-<ti ria,whooping-cou<jfi, spasim,etc. Hedeoma 
is accredited with galactagogue powers, but it acts best probably when diminished 
lactation is due to acute colds. Dr. M. H. Hennell ( Tnuis. Oluo E. M. A><xor., 1895, 
p. 31), justly extols tiie remedy in flatulent col ir, not only to serve as an anti-spas- 
modic, but to act as a calmative of the nervous phenomena. He uses it exten- 
sively in threatened conmil-fiom of children, in fii/sirria from menstrual derange- 
ments, in ;)u«r»rrf(/ sej^ticasm in, and to hasten or aid the eruptive process in the 
rxanlliriiiiita. Dr. Hennell nraises it especially^ as a remedy for chronic ainnioi-r/iao, 
and gives the indications below named. It is likewise used as a rubefacient in 
rhf'niniii--iii, and united with linseed oil, as an application to burns and ncnlds. 
Dose of the oil, from 2 to 10 drops; of a saturated tincture, 1 to 2 fluid drachms. 
The infusion maybe freely administered. Dr. Toothacker {Pfiilti. Jour, of Horn., 
Vol. II, {). <>')•")) reports a case of jioisoning in a woman from one fluid drachm of 
oil of pennyroyal. The symptoms were: Severe headache, dillicult swallowing, 
intense nausea, with severe retchings without emesis, intolerable bearing down, 
Ial)or-like pains, abdominal tenderness, constipation, dyspnoea, limbs .^emipara- 
lytic, and nervous weakness and jirostration ( Millspaugh's Amer. Med. Plnnl.'i). 

Specific Indications and Uses.— Amenorrh<ea of long standing, with jiallor 
ami anemia, and dark circles about the eyes. Patient comnlains of languor and 
la.ssitn.jc. lak's cold easily, has j.ain in the back and limos, and exhibits full, 
prominent veins (Hennell). 



978 HEUERA. 

HEDERA.— IVY. 

The leaves, berries, and gum-resin of Hedern Helix, Linne. 
Xat. Ord. — Araliace;e. 
Common Namks: ]vy, Common ivy. 

Botanical Source. — This is an evergreen creeper, with long and flexible 
stems and branches, which attach themselves to the earth, or trees, or walls, by 
numerous root-like libers. Tiie leaves are coriaceous, smooth, 



shining, dark-green, with vein s petiolate, the lower ones 
old 




Fig. 128. 

5-angled or 5-lobed, the upper or old ones ovate and acute. 
The flowers are greenish-white, disposed in numerous, simple, 
^ and downy umbels, forming a corymb. The berries are black, 

with a mealy pulp CSV. — 1.. i. 

History, Description, and Chemical Composition. — This 
plant is tomnicin all ovi r Europe, and is cultivated in many 
parts of the United States; it flowers in September. The 
gum-resin (GummiresiwiHederie, or Ivy gum), exudes from the 
incised bark, and comes to us in yellowish or red-brown, 
irregular pieces. The edges are translucent and of a garnet 
"'""' hue. It is acrid, faintly bitter, and when heated emits a 

pleasant, aromatic odor. The loaves and berries are the parts used. The former 
possess a peculiar, rather fragrant odor, and a nauseously bitter and astringent 
taste. The taste of the latter is somewhat acid, piquant, and terebinthine. 
A. Jandous (Aina: Jour. Pharni., 1883, p. 371), reports the ivj' berries to contain in 
their fleshy part 70 per cent of water, a dark-red coloring matter soluble in alco- 
hol and w-ater, resinous matter first tasting sweet, then sharp and bitter, and 
grape sugar, gum, albumin, and salts. The seeds contain a fatty oil of irritating 
taste and producing a green color with ferric chloride. The poisonous properties 
of the fruit are neither due to the resinous matter in the pulp, n<,ir to the oil 
in the seeds. 

A bitter substance believed to be an alkaloid and named hederin, was obtained 
from the seeds by Vendamme and Chevalier (see Amei-. Jour. Pharm., 18-12, p. 172). 
Posselt, in 1849, isolated from the seeds two proximate principles, viz.. crystallizable 
hcdcric acid (C^J:Lfi„ aecording to Davies, 1878), which Kingzett believed to be a 
glucosid, and amorphous A«/f/-((^nMi/cfl(7W. (^ For details regarding these substances 
see Huseniann and Hilger, Pflanzrnstoffe, ]->, 96S.) The hlUet hcdcrin is probably 
identical with hedcratannic acid. The leaves of ivy have a peculiar fragrant odor 
and an astringent, bitter taste. Mr. F. A. Hartsen, in 1875, by extraction with 
85 per cent alcohol, obtained therefrom iu impure form, a glucosid resembling 
saponin, but differing from the latter by not being soluble in water. L.Vernet 
{Jour. Phiu-m. Chim., 1881, p. 347), isolated this glucosid (C3,H^0„), which was later 
named hclixin (■\iiii\in. Jour. P/mrm. Chim.,lSdl, p. 215), by boiling out the bruised 
leaves with water repeatedly, then extracting them witli alcohol, evaporating the 
latter, washing with cold benzin, and crystallizing from solution in boiling ace- 
tone. It forms silky needles melting at 2:v>° C. (4.51.4° F.), insoluble in water, 
chloroform, and benzin, soluble in warm acetone, benzol, and ether; also in warm 
alkalies and hot alcohol. It reduces Fehling"s solution only after being heated 
wi th diluted sulphuric acid, sugar, and a neutral, crvstallizable"substance(C«H.,0,>. 
melting at 278° to 280° C. (532.4° to 636° F.), being formed. The latter is not fer- 
mental)le with veast; ^</'/j((/('////i is the name recorded for the helixin derivative 
in C. E. Sohn's /)/-/. Ariire Priiu-iplrs of Plants, 1894. 

Action, Medical Uses, and Dosage.— The leaves are stimulating, and have 
been employed as an api)lieation to i-sucs; and have likewise been efficient in 
diseases oV tlie skin, indolent ^tlccrs, erzemn.'<, itch, etc.. in the form of decoction, and 
applied locally; this will also destroy vermin in the hair, which, it is stated, is 
stained black by the application. They are reputed beneficial as a cataplasm in 
gUmdulnr cnldrgcmrnts. Marasmus ofcliUdren, rarliiti.<, and jiii/Hionmv affections have 
been benefited by the dried leaves in powder, in doses of 20 grains or more. The 
berries act as an emetic and cathartic, and were formerly esteemed in Jehrile afffc- 
lions, having been supposed to posso.-^s sudoritic virtues. As^^iX'iateil with vinegar. 



HELEXIVM.-HELIAXTHEMrM. !t79 

they were con:?iileriibly used during the [Mndon jilaiiui. The guin-resiu has been 
used for toothache, ulcerations, IikoI jxiuik, and to control nutxive duicharije^. 

HELENIUM.— SNEEZEWOET. 

The i>lant Helenium auluvinale, Linne. 

Xat. Oiil. — Composita'. 

CoMMiiN Na.mks: Sueezeuort, Sneez^ioeed, Swamp m-njlmcei: Wild sunflower. 

Ii 1 rsTKATiDN : Meehan's Antiie Fhmers and Fn-ns, II, 113. 

Botanical Source.— This plant, liicewise called Swamp, or False Bunflowir, 
is an iiidigen')ns, perennial herb, having a fibrous root, and several erect, branch- 
ing, angular stems, 2 or 3 feet high, and strongly winged by the decurrent leaves. 
The leaves are alternate, smooth, or slightly pubescent, elliptic-lanceolate, more 
or less deeply serrate, and often sprinkled with bitter and aromatic resinous glob- 
ules. The dowers are large, numerous, bright yellow, terminal in loose, showy 
corymbs, with flat, drooping, wedge-shaped rays, each ending in 3 obtuse teeth, 
longer than the large, globose disk. The invohuie is small, reflexed, with the 
scales linear or subulate. The receptacle is globose or oblong, naked in the disk, 
and chaffy in the ray only. Achenia top-shaped and ribbed. Pappus of 5 thin 
and 1 nerved chafly Scales, the nerve e.xtending into a bri.'^tle or point ((4. — W.). 

History and Chemical Composition.— Sneezewort is a plant common to the 
United !^t:lt^'s, growing in low, damp fields and meadows, and on alluvial river 
banks, flowering from August to October. It is nearly inodorous, with a rather 
acrimonious, amarous taste. It has been analyzed by F. J. Koch (Amcr. Jour. 
Pharm. ,lS~i, p. 221). It contains a trace of tannin and volatile oil, malic acid, 
and, besides tlie ordinar^r plant principles, an amorphous glucosid to which the 
bitter t^iste of the herb is due. When boiled with diluted acid it splits into a 
bitter, non-crystalline body of acid reaction, and glucose. This glucosid is solu- 
ble in boiling water, alcohol, and ether. 

Action, Medical Uses, and Dosage. — Tonic, diaphoretic, and errhine. Re- 
puted valiial>le in chills omlftrrr and other febrile diaea^se^. The whole plant pos- 
sesses errhine properties, but the flowers, particularly the florets of the disk, are 
the most active, and may be used, in powder, as a snuflf, in headache, incipient 
coryza, catarrh, deafness, and other affections where errhines are desired. 

Eelated S'pecies. ^ ffdenium tnutifoUuni, Sixtt&U. United States, from Georgia west to 
Texas au.l north to Kansas U'or illustration, see Meelian's yatiie Floiier.i and Ferns, 11, S7y 
This s|.f. i. < is ]".is(.ii.ius. According to Galloway (.1»(.)-. your. P/inrm.. 18721, spasms, with 
(leliriiiin aii'l uncnTisciinisness, were produced in fournegroes by this plant, while in animals 
it resulted in twitching of the muscles, violent convulsions, and death. 

Helenium parviflorutn, Nuttall.— Georgia. Properties similar to those of IMenium autumnale. 

HELIANTHEMUM.— FROSTWORT. 

The plant Helianthcmum canadensc, Michau.x {Ci.'<tus camidensU, Linne), 

NcU. Cn/.— Cistacea'. 

CoM.Mo.v Names : Frostvoeed, Frosttvort, Frostplant, Rock-rose. 

Botanical Soiarce.— This plant is a perennial herb, with a simple, ascending 
downy stem, about 1 foot high, at length shrubby at base. The leaves are alter- ^ 
nate, from 8 to 12 lines long, about one-fourth as wide, oblong, acute, lanceolate, 
erect, entire, subsessile, tomentose beneath, and without stipules. The flowers are 
large and bright yellow, few, in terminal corymbs; apetalous ones smaller, lateral, 
solitary or racemose, clustered in the axils of the leaves, and nearly sessile. The 
corolla, of the petaliferous flowers, are 1 inch wide, with 5 jietals, crumpled in the 
bud, and fugacious. Calyx of the large flowers liairy-pubescent, and 5; of the 
small flowers, hoary. Stamens of the large flowers numerous and declinate; of 
the small flowers, few. Style short or none. Stigmas 3-lobed, scarcely distinct; 
capsule smooth, shining, triangular, 3-valved, 1-celled, opening at top, about 3 
lines long; of the apetalous flowers not larger than a pin's head; the seeds are 
angular, few, and brown. The yellow flowers open in sunshine, and cast their 
petals by the next day (G.— W.j. 




980 HELIANTHEMUM. 

History. — This plant grows throughout the United States in dry, sandy soils, 

and flowers from May to July. The large flowers make their appearance first and 

later in the season the smaller flowers are produced on the same or other plants. 

The whole plant is medicinal. The leaves and stems of the plant are covered 

129 with a white down, and Prof. Eaton, in his work on botany, says: 

^" " In November and December of 1816, 1 saw hundreds of these plants 

sending out broad, thin, curved ice crystals, about an inch in breadth, 

from near the roots. These were melted away by day, and renewed 

every morning for more than 2-5 days in succession." These spicules 

of ice are sent out from fissures in the bark of the plant near its ba.se. 

The plant has a bitterish, astringent, slightly aromatic taste, and 

yields its properlifs to Imt water. 

Chemical Composition. — Analyzed in 1888 by W. Crutcher 
[ Arwr. Jour. Pfwnn., l.NbS, p. 390), frostweed was found "to contain tan- 
nin (10.8 per cent), wax, fatty and volatile oils. A white crystalline 
principle, thought to be a glucosid, was obtained in fine needles by 
treating an alcoholic extract with water and shaking out with benzol. 
These crystals were not further e.xaniined. 

Action, Medical Uses, and Dosage.— This plant has long been 
used in practice as a valual)le remedy fur scrofuln, in which disease it 
has been reported to liave efl'ected some astonishing cures. It is used 
Heiiamhemum in the form of decoction, syrup, or fluid extract ; if taken in too large 
can ense. (jgggg j^ ^yju gonietimes vomit. It is tonic and astringent, as well as 
nntiscrofulous. In secondary syphilis, either alone, or in combination with cory- 
dalis and stillingia, it was formerly regarded as a most valuable remedy. In the 
form of infusion, it has also been found very serviceable in chronic diaiThna and 
dysentery, especially when occurring among persons disposed to scrofula, also as a 
remedy in several forms of cutaneous disease; also as a gargle in scarlatina and aph- 
thmis ulcerations, and as a wash in scrofulous ophthalmia, prurigo, and other cutaneous 
diseases. Externally,apoulticeof the leaves is applied to *t'-TOf"(//<)i(of^/»ior««/i(ii(/<vrs. 
The fluid extract is the best form for internal use; dose, 1 or 2 fluid drachms, 
3 or 4 times a day. (For a list of physiological phenomena produced by this plant, 
in small and large doses, consult Millspaugh's Anu^r. Med. Plants,Vo\. I, p. 28.) 

Related Species and I>Tugs.—neUantliemum corimbosiim, or Frosiwed, with an erect, 
branching, canescent stem ; lance-oblong, alternate leaves, canescently tonientose beneath ; 
flowers in crowded, I'astigiate cymes ; primary ones elongateil, filiform pedicels, and with petals 
twice longer than the calyx; sepals villous-canescent, outer ones linear, obtuse ; inner ones 
ovate, acute; is found growing in pine-barrens and sterile sands, in the southern and middle 
states. It possesses properties analogous to the preceding, and may be indiscriminately em- 
ployed with it. F. J. Kruell, in 1874 {.Imer. Jour. Phartn.), found it to contain resin, chloro- 
phyll, gum, extractive, glucose, salts, and a large amount of tannin. 

Helianthemum vulgare, (jaertner {CUtus BeliaiUhemum, Linn^J. Europe. It has properties 
similar to the rock-rose. 

Laudantm, Jienina ladamtm. — This resinous exudate is derived from several species of 
Cisim, ol the iV«^ Ord. — Cistacese, especially tlie Cistits crflirui'.hinnd; Ci.'<Ih.< hidanifentf, Lmn4; 
and Ci.ilus cijpriu.% Lamarck. These are handsome evergreen shrubs, natives of the Levant 
and (rreciau Archipelago. The resin is collected from the branches bv means of a leather 
instrument somewhat like a rake — called lalidauitlerion — the implement being drawn over the 
bniuches and leaves, and the protbict scraped off the leather, to which it adheres. It is then 
kneaded or mixed together with sand or other solid material. Two grades of lalnianum a>e 
met in commerce. The first form, cuke laManuin, occurs as dark-lirowu or blackish masses, 
becoming soft and sticky by the warmth of the hands. When fn-shlv broken it hus a grayish 
ixsp.'ct, soon changing to a darker hue. The second form, C(wi»ioii hiMauum, cotm^a in cylin- 
driciil sticks, or spiral pieces, which are hard, brittle, light, porous, and of a gray-black c<ilor. 
Unlike the purer grade, it does not soften by the heat of til-,' hand. Both varieties arv bitter, 
and have a l)alsamic, pleasant odor. The second grade is usually much adulteniteil or wholly 
artificial. Pure labdanum is fusible, and burns with a vivid flame, is nearly completely dis- 
solved by alcohol, but insoluble in water. The p<x)rer grades are said to be gatherol from the 
hair of go;its and wool ol sheep, which are allowed to browse on the plants. Cate /<iWaiiiim, 
accordiiii; to Guibourt (//is/. </. /Jroj^iic,'!, 1875, Vol. Ill, p. 6751, ctmtains oi r»>sin and a small 
amount ol volatile oil, 8t) percent; wax, 7 per cent; extractive,! percent; hair, sjind, and other 
insoluble matter, 6 per cent. Hull hMainnn yieUled to Pelletier, sand, 72 per cent ; and resin, 
but 20 per cent. I.abdauum was formerly "regardeil diuretic and exi>eotorant, ami was em- 
ployed in hroncliitis, Irurnrihtta, catarrli, di/.^rnti III. v\f. It is now used only ii\ plasters, and is 
nearly obsolete as a medicine. Owing to ils agreeable aroma when burned, it was employed 
by the ancients for fumigating purposes. 



H£LlANTlir< 



HELIANTHUS.— SUNFLOWEE. 



The seeds and stems of Helinnthus <iunuu.<, Linne. 

Xat. Ord. — Compositie. 

Common Name: Sunjlmrer. 

Botanical Source. — This is an annual plant, with an erect, rough stem, usu- 
ally aiit)Ut 7 liet high, but which, under favorable circumstances, attains the 
height of 15 and even 20 feet. The leaves are large, cordate, and 3-nerved ; the 
upper ones alternate, the lower ones opposite. Peduncles thickening upward. 
The flowers are large and nodding; the rays yellow; the disk dark-purple. The 
seeds are numerous and dark-purple when ripe. A splendid variety occurs with 
the llowcrs all ni.liat.' ( \V.). 

History and Description.— This well-known plant is a native of South 
America, and is extensively cultivated in the gardens of this country on account 
of its beautiful, brilliant, yellow flowers, which appear in July and August. The 
ripe seeils are the parts used; they are of a purplioh color externally, about 4 or 5 
lines long, between 2 and 3 wide, 2-angled, margins parallel, apex somewhat 
pointed, the base truncate, compressed, with longitudinal convex surfaces, so as 
nearly to present 4 angles; internally the testa is whitish, and tiie kernel is whit- 
ish, oily, rather sweetish, and edible. They contain a fixed oil which may be 
obtained by expression. The leaves are large, and when carefully dried, may be 
made into cigars, very much resembling in flavor that of mild Spanish ones. 
The virtue of the seeds chiefly depends upon the fixed oil they contain. 

The finely prepared fiber of the stalks is said to be used in China to adulter- 
ate silks. Sunflower plants are now planted to some extent in malarial quarters 
under the belief that they have a beneficial influence in warding ofl' miasmata. 
Its action in this direction, if effective at all, is probably due to its power of 
absorbing large amounts of water from damp grounds. 

Chemical Composition. — All parts of the plant are rich in mineral matters, 
10.8 per cent of ash being yielded by the dry plant (Brandenburg). John found 
the fresh pith to contain 1.5 per cent of potassium nitrate, corresponding to 9 
per cent of the dried pith. Aspanu/in occurs in the young plant (Dessaignes), 
and inulin, according to Braconnot, in the root ( A rch iv der Pharm., 1859, p. 1). The 
kernels of the seeds yield 40 per cent of a limpid, fixed oil, Sunjionir oil. It is 
colorless or pale-yellow, odorle.ss and almost without taste. Its specific gravity is 
0.926; and at ^15° C. ( -+-5° F.j, it congeals. It is an excellent burning fluid, and the 
plants are largely cultivated in China and some other countries for the purpose 
of obtaining the oil, of which an acre of ground will yield between 200 and 3(X) 
pounds. Sunflower oil dries slowly. i/</«(/i^/iic rtr/ri (C\H,Oj, was obtained from 
the seeds by Ludwig and Kromayer (Arrhiodcr Pharm., 1859, p. 1). It dissolves in 
water and alcohol; the aqueous solution is colored intensely yellow by alkalies. 
With ferric salts it strikes a deep-green color, but is not precipitated by gelatin. 
Boiling with diluted acids liberates a sugar, reducing alkaline cupric tartrate so- 
lution. Its reactions show it to be a peculiar tannic acid, differing at least from 
caffeotannic acid. A sunflower of Algerian growth yielded, according toChardon, 
a distinctive oleoresin ( Pfmnn. Jovr. Tnin.t., 1873, p. 322). 

Action, Medical Uses, and Dosage.— Sunflower seeds and leaves are diu- 
retic and expectorant, and have been used in pulmonary offeft ions yviih consid- 
erable benefit. The following preparation has been of much efficacy in hroticliial 
and Inn/ngeal afrctions, and even in the cnui/h of phl/ii.ni^; it acts as a mild expec- 
torant and diuretic: Take of sunflower seeds, bruised, 2 jiounds; water, 5 gal- 
lons; boil the two together until but 3 gallons of liquid remain, then strain, add 
12 pounds of sugar, and U gallons of good Holland gin. The dose of this is from 
2 fluid drachms to 2 fluid ounces, 3 or 4 times a day, or whenever tickling or 
irritation of the throat, or cough is excessive, or when exnecioration is diflicult. 
Various agents may be added' to this i)reparation, accoraing to indications, aa 
tincture of stillingia, tincture of balsam of tolu, etc. An infusion of the pilh of 
sunflower stem is diuretic, and may be used where this class of agents is indi- 
cated, aLso in many febrile and inflamvutlori/ /or»i.s af diieivc; it likewise makes a 
good local appiicat"ion in some forms i<i nrn'ienplilhalmin. The i)ith contains nitre, 



982 HELLEBORUS. 

and has been recommended for the making of moxa; the quantity of nitre, 
however, varies, depending entirely upon the locality and character of soil in 
which the plant grows. The oil obtained from the seeds by expression, has been 
employed with benefit in cough, in dysentery, in inflammnti'ni of the mucous coat of 
the blndiler, and in dinerise of the kidneys. To be given in do^es of from 10 to lo 
drops, 2 or 3 times a day. A teaspoonful of the oil taken at one dose, has pro- 
duced active diuresis for four consecutive days, accompanied toward the termi- 
nation with pain and debility in the lumbar region. The leaves are astringent. 

Related Species. — Acthiomem helianlhoides, Nuttall. Gravel or Diabetes weed. — This plant 
is diuretic anil has been successfully employed in chronic cyslilig, dropsy, and gravel. 

HeliaHlhus luberosus, Liun6. JeruwUm arlklujke. — The tubers of this species resemble arti- 
chokes, and have been used as a substitute for i)otatoes. The carbohydrates of the tubers 
have been investigated repeatedly by O. Popp(1870 and 1878) ; Dieck and ToUens (Jahresb. dtr 



Pluirm., 1878, p. 81), and more recently by Ch. Tanret (Jour. Pharm. Chim., ]8«3, p. 107). The 
latter author finds the juice of the tuber before ita maturity to contain 16 per cent of the fol- 
lowing carbohydrates : ISarcharot'e, inulin, pseudo-inidin, inulenin, and two newly isolated substan- 




ces, helianthenm and »t/nanthrin. The formulie of all these substances have the nucleus CuHioOio 
(also see Amer. Jour. Pharm., 1S95, p. 4981. A Hni:ill .|nantity nf hi'vulose ami dextrose i:^ inrmed 
when the tuber ripens. 

HELLEBORUS.— BLACK HELLEBOBE. 

The rhizome and rootlets oi Helleborus niger, Linne. 
Nat. Ord. — Ranunculacese. 
Common Kames: Black hclkhore, Christmas rose. 

Illustrations : Bentley and Trimen, Med. Plants, 2 ; Woodville, Med. Bot., 169. 
Botanical Source. — Black hellebore has a black, perennial, tuberculated, 
horizontiil, scaly root or rhizome, whitish internally, and sending oS' numerous, 
130 lo"gi fleshy, brownish-yellow fibers, which become darker upon 
'^' ■ drying. Its leaves are large, radical, on cylindrical stalks from 
4 to 8 inches long, pedate, of a deep-green color above, and paler 
and strongly reticulated beneath; leaflets 5 or more, 1 terminal, 
cuneate-obovate, entire and unequal at the base, and coarsely ser- 
rated near the point. The scape is shorter than the petiole, 1 or 
2-flowered,with ovate lacerated bracts immediately beneath thecalyx, 
and 5 or 10 inches high. The flowers are large and rose-like. The 
calyx consists of 6 large, ovate or roundish, spreading sepals, at first 
white, then rose-red, eventually becoming green. The petals are 
yellowish-green, tubular, shorter than the stamens, and narrowed 
e e onisniger. -^^ ^j^^ base; stamens numerous; anthers yellow; capsules leathery; 
seeds many, arranged in 2 rows, elliptical, umbilioated, black, and glossy (L.V 

History and Description. — Black hellebore inhaliits the subalpine woodland 
regions in the middle and southern parts of Europe, flowering between December 
and I'ebinary ; it is also called Christinas rose. It is not the Melampodium of the 
ancients, so celobrated in mental diseases, which is now shown to be a distinct 
species, the Hcllrborus oriental is, and v;h\ch probably possesses similar medicinal 
virtues, as well as do the runts of some other 6]>ecies of the same genus. Another 
species should be mentioned here on account of its rhizome having a commercial 
name liaiile to become confused with IVniinnii ri/((/e (green hellebore\ It is the 
Hellcborus viridis, Linne. The commercial name of the drug (rhizome and root- 
lets), is Radix hellebori viridis, or green hellebore root. This species is reg-arded by 
some as more useful than the black hellebore, and has consequently obtained 
oflicial recognition in Europe. The medicinal parts of hellebore are the radicles or 
root fibers, which are generally met with the rhizome attached. It is a many-headed 
root with a caudex or body seldom over ^ inch in thickness, and several inches 
long, horizontal, sometimes contorted, uneven, knotty, with transverse ridges, 
slightly striated longitudinally, its upper surface having the remains of the leaf 
and flower-stalks, and thickly beset upon the sides and under surface with fibers, 
which, when uninjured, are from 3 inclies to a foot in length, 2 or 3 lines in 
diameter, dark brownish-black externally, whitish within, spongy, not wotxly, 
brittle, with a feeble odor, and a faint, bitter taste (C.^. When fresli they are said 
to he very acrid and nauseous, occasioning, when chewed for a short time a jnin- 



HELLEBORL'S. 983 

gent, numb sensation, resembling that which accompaDies the eating or drinking 
of anything hot. Desiccation, as well as age, gradually lessens this acridity. Its 
properties are taken up by water or alcohol; long-continued heat diminishes 
its activity. 

The rliizomes of Adoniif vernnlis, Linno, and Artan s^ica/«, Linn6, of Europe, 
have lieen emplovcd as adulterants of black hellebore. 

Chemical Composition —The root and the root-leaves of the various species 
of IlelkliiMUs contain two glucosids, /itilehnrein, which is a cardiac poison, also 
having drastic powers, and /idkhnrii), a narcotic poison ; also fatty oil, acrid resins, 
etc., but no tannin. JJdlihnrus ririilis is stated to yield a more active helleborein 
than // vi'irr; tlie same plant yields the largest amount of helleborin (.0.04 per 
cent). i/i''/t/v""//i was discovered in 18()4 by Husemann and MsiTm€ {Avn. Chnn. 
P//«c»i.,Vol. CXXXV, p. 55). These authors also studied more closely the hf/le- 
6o/m discovered in 1S.33 by BAi^tick (riiann.Jour. Tram.). Both substances were 
carefully investigated quite recently by K. Thaeter (^rcAw </(r P/«7r»;i., 1898, pp. 
414-4"24i. The isolation of the two substances from the root was effected by 
means of their opposite behavior toward water and ether, helleborein ])eing freely 
soluble in water, but insoluble in ether, while helleborin is insoluble in water and 
soluble in ether. 

Helleborein crystallizes from absolute alcohol in fine needles, which are 
not hygroscopic when pure ; it is of a sweetish taste, and in powder form has 
sternutatory properties. Its aqueous solution is precipitated by mercurous ni- 
trate, tannic acid, etc. On boiling with diluted acids, it is decomposed into sugar 
and dark blue flakes of ^<-/'^<'6ore^i')i, which are insoluble in water and ether, but 
soluble in alcohol with violet color (Husemann and Marnie). K. Thaeter has 
quantitatively established the mechanism of this reaction, in which 2 molecules 
of dextrose and 3 molecules of acetic acid are formed, the equation being as fol- 
lows: C„H^()„ (Mteboreln) -f 5H,0-C„H„C\ (helkboretu,) -\-2C,li,G,+ oC,U,0,. 
Hell' horef ill is permanent toward hot diluted acids, and is a member of the fatty 
series of organic compounds. Concentrated nitric acid produces with helleboretin 
a characteristic deep-violet color which, on dilution with water, is permanent for 
some time. Thus the formation of blue flakes upon boiling with acids, and the 
subsequent color reaction with nitric acid may serve as a characteristic test for 
hellebori in. 

Helleborin. — K. Thaeter confirmed all the properties found by Husemann 
and Marme for this substance, except its formula, for which he finds (CgHioO)]!, 
while his predecessors arrived at the formula C^^H^Oj. This substance forms 
white, oilorless, and tasteless needles, but in alcoholic solution they impart an 
acrid tasie. It is insoluble in cold water, quite soluble in alcohol and chloroform. 
Prolonged boiling with diluted acids decomposes it into sugar and helleboresin 
(C„H„0, 1. Helleborin gives a characteristic violet-red color with concentrated 
sulphuric acid; when poured into water white flakes are precipitated. 

Action, Medical Uses, and Dosage.— Black hellebore is a drastic cathartic, 
ami is re|iuled to possess eniiiitnagOi.'ue powers, but the latter is probably due to 
its i>urgati\e enicls. In fiualler doses it is a cardiac stimulant, and diuretic and 
anthelmintic properties are also ascribed to it. In large doses, it is a powerful 
poison, causing gastro-intestinal inflammation, dizziness, painful spasms, severe 
emesis, catharsis, heart failure, dilatation of the pupils, thirst with abdominal 
heat, cold sweats, convulsions, and even death. Death occurs from spasms and 
exhaustion. The recent root produces rubefaction, and sometimes blisters, when 
held in contact with the Bkin. Hellebore was formerly used in piil.<i/,iii!'(niit)/. 
aiinjilr.ii/, (h-<q,.-'ii, ejiilep.*;/, eU\, h»t is seldom used at present; oecasionally it is 
found useful in chloronix, nnu iwrrhnn,eic. In nervous disorders it might still be 
used, if properly employed, in cases of melnncholia and mania when due to gastro- 
hepatic disturbances, or in acute forms of mental abcrrationa due to menstrual 
wrongs. HijMeria and hyporhondria may be benefited by it, especially when de- 
pendent upon abdonnnal wrongs. As an agent for f/r')//.>fV, it is regarded as less 
useful th:in a|iocynurn. It ba.s been used to reduce dropsy through its purgative 
action, but since it has been found that small doses of the drug tend to stimulate 
the heart and increase diuresis, there is reason to believe that we have not yet 
fnllv nininiint.- 1 tip- power of the drug. Dropsies due to atonic; states of the 



984 HEMIDESMUS. 

bowels, serous effusion alter inflammations, with deficient absorption, and Aydro- 
ihorax and anasarca following the specific eruptive diseases, are specially mentioned 
as coming within its curative power. The dose for this purpose should be from 
a fraction of a drop to 5 drops of specific hellebore. Bryonia, apocynum, and 
digitalis act well with it. 

The drug in small doses increases the force of the heart's contraction, slows 
the pulse, and increases arterial tension. Renal activity is increased under its 
action, and non-compensatory symptoms in heart affections have rapidly disap- 
peared under the use of this drug. Prof. Scudder {Spec. Med.) suggests it as an 
emmenagogue when the patient is annoyed by heat flashes, burning of the sur- 
face of the thighs and nates, and sensitiveness of the pelvic and perineal tissues. 
It has been used in bowel disorders with jelly-like passages. The agent requires 
and deserves restudy. For the specific uses the minute dose is preferable. R Spe- 
cific helleborus niger gtt. v,aqua flgiv. Mix. Sig. Dose, a teaspoonful every 1,2, 
or 3 hours. For its old uses as a drastic purgative, etc., the dose of the powder 
is from 6 to 10 grains; of the tincture, from 1 to 2 fluid drachms; of the extract, 

2 to 6 grains. 

Helleborein, besides possessing similar properties, has been found to be a de- 
pressant of the nervous functions, and to possess decided ana3sthetic properties. 
From the fact that it has no apparent eflect upon the pupil, nor affects the intra- 
ocular tension, it has been preferred by some over cocaine as a local anesthetic 
in eye diseases, and is reputed more permanent in its effects than the latter. From 

3 to 4 drops of a solution, representing in all from ^ to ^^ grain, is thus employed. 
Owing to its powerful action upon the heart, it is not used subcutaneously to pro- 
duce local anasthesia. 

Specific Indications and Uses. — (The minute doses only.) Dropsy, heavy 
feeling in head, with cold forehead and clammy sweat; amenorrhoea, with flashes 
of heat, burning oi surface ol thighs and buttocks, and pelvic and perineal sensi- 
tiveness; discharges of gelatinous mucus from the bowels. 

Related Species.— fli??fcfcor!« fcelidw. Bear's foot. This European perennial, of fetid 
odor, is the most active of the hellebores. The acrid, bitterish, and pungent Itavcs and stem- 
stalks, when chewed, excoriate the membranes of the mouth. It acts as a powerful emetic 
and purgative, and in large doses is a dangerous agent. It has been used in powder and 
decoction to expel tapeworm, and in asthma, hij}iochondriasis, and hysteria. Dose of the drug, 
from 6 to 20 grains; ot the decoction (1 5 oi drug to 8 R5 of water l", a fluid ounce. It contains 
the same constituents as hellebore. Therapeutically, it is scarcely known in this country. 

HEMIDESMUS.— INDIAN SABSAPAEILLA. 

The root of Hemidesmris indints, Robert Brown {Periploca emfiicn. Retzius"). 

Nat. Ord. — Asclepiadaceffi. 

Common Names: Indian sarsaparilln, Nunnari. 

Illustratio.n : Bentley and Trimen, Med. Plants, 174. 

Botanical Source. — This is a climbing plant with a long and slender root, 
with few ramifications, covered with rust-colored bark, and with twining, difluse 
or climbing, woody, slender stems, from the thickne.«s of a crow's quill to that of 
goo.se's, and nearly smooth. The leaves are opposite, on short petioles, entire, 
smooth, shining, and of firm texture; they vary much in shape and size, those of 
the young shoots that issue from old roots", being linear, acute, and striated down 
the middle with white; while the others are generally broad-lanceolate, some- 
times ovate or oval. The stipules are 4-fold, small, on each side of each petiole, 
and caducous. The flowers are small, externally green, internally a deep-purple, 
in axillary, sessile racemes, which are imbricated with flowers, anil then with 
scales like bracts. Calyx 6-cleft, with acute divisions: corolla flat, rotate, with 
oblong, pointed divisions, and rugose inside. Follicles long, slender, and spread- 
ing (L.-Ro.). 

History, Description, and Chemical Composition.— This plant is the Peri- 
plora (fi(^(V(iof Willdenow, and the AscUjii'is ;i,v<H(/(),Mn>'n of Roxburgh. It is com- 
mon all over the peninsula of India. It has long been use*l as a medicine in 



HEPATiCA. 98.5 

India, but was not known to the medical profession of this country ami Kuiojit-, 
until its introduction by Dr. Ashburner, in l&^l {ImiuI. nnd lAlinh. I'ln/s. Jour., 
Vol. LXV, p. 189). Its root is loop, tortuous, cylindrical, rugose, furrowed longi- 
tudinally, and has its cortex divided l)y tranverse fissures into nioniliforin rings. 
It is brownish externally, has a feeble,"bitter ta-^te, and a peculiar aroniatic odor, 
somewhat like that of sassafras, but which has been compared to that of mw hay. 
The cortical ])ortion has a corky consistence, and surrounds a ligneous nieditul- 
lium. Mr. Ciarden {Lmd. Med. Gnz., 1837, p. 800) obtained from it a volatile, 
cr^-stallizable acid, on which the taste, smell, and probably the medicinal proper- 
ties depend. From an erroneous notion of the origin of the root, he called the 
acid the smilnsjieric anil, but it may with more propriety be termed hemidismic acid 
or hemldrsmnHV.) (also see.-l,mr..A,„,-. /V,an)(.,Vol. XX, P- 289). 

Action, MedicalUses, and Dosage.— Indian sarsaparilla has been success- 
fully employed in rnuruil. (//.vca.-c.M, especially in cases where the South American 
sarsaparilla has proved iiielHcient. Dr. A.shburner savs that it increases the ap- 
petite, acta as a diuretic, and improves the general liealth; "plumpness, clear- 
ness, and strength, succeeding to emaciation, muddines.s, and debility." Likewise 
said to l)e useful in (ifffctions of tlie kidtiei/.% sn-ofula, cuUincoit.s diseases, aind t/,rush. 
Notwithstanding these statements it is by no means so eflicient and certain as 
many of our indigenous remedies. It is used in the form of infusion, as boiling 
dissipates its active volatile principle. Two ouncis of the root may be infused 
in a pint of boiling water for an hour, the whole of which may be taken in 
the course of 24 hours. A syrup of hemidesmus is used for flavoring medicinal 
mixtures. 

Related Species.— ^ymrwrna aylvestre, Robert Brown (Atclepias gemirmta, Roxburgh i. 
This a.sil('i)i;ulao«oii8 climbir is indigenous to India and Africa. The vine is wo«ly and bears 
little yellow tlowers. The root is nearly an inch, or abont two-thirds of an inch, in tliicknes.s, 
and is covered with a red-brown, spongy bark. To the taste it is acrid and saline. The leaves 
of this plant are said to possess the peculiar property of temporarily obliterating the sense of 
taste for sweetness or bitterness, so that sugar does not tiste sweet, and that quinine tastes 
like chalk (.Imcr. Juur. I'harm., 18S8, p. 33i»; aKso ihid., 1848, p. \hZ). This property is thought 
to be due to an acid having some likeness tochrysophanic acid. It was isolated by I>. Hooper, 
in 1887, and named by him gumnemic acid. The'ta.ste of sour, saline, and astringent substances 
is not alten'd by thisprincii'Ie. J»r. Hooper also found coloring matter, resins, albumen, vari- 
ous carljobydrates, tartaric acid, and a bitter neutral bo<iy. The powdered root is a remedy 
in India f<jr wwAe-fti/ts. 

HEPATICA.— LIVEELEAP. 

The leaves oi Anemone nrutilobn, Lawson, and Anenwne Hepaticu, Linne. 

Xal. Ord. — Ranunculaceffi. 

CoMMo.N Names: Liverleuf, Livenvort, Noble liverwort, Avierkan livei-leaf, kidney 
liverleiif (A. Heji. ), Henri liverleuf (A. ariU.), Hepatwa, etc. 

RiASTRATio.N : Lloyd's Urmj.t ami Med. of X. A., Plate V, Figs. 10 to IT. 

Botanical Source.— I. Anemone Hepatka {Hcpatica ameri^ann of De Can- 
dolle and He,,atini triJoha of Willdenow). This is a perennial plant, the root of 
which consists of numerous strong fibers. The leaves are pig. 131. 

all radical, on long, hairy petioles, with 3 ovate, obtuse, or ^ ^ 

rounded, entire lobes, smooth, evergreen, coriaceous, cordate ^vi,oi 

at base, the new ones appearing later than the flowers. The 
flowers appear almost as soon as the snow leaves the ground 
in thesprin;:; are single, generally blue,sometimes white and 
fl'sh colored, no<lding at fii-st, tlien erect, on hairy scape 
■i or 4 inches long; by cultivation they become double. Tl 
involucre is simple and composed of 3 <ntire, ovate, obtuse 
bracts, resembling a calyx, and situated a little below the 
flower. The calyx consists of 2 or 3 rows of petaloid senals; 
the stamens are" awl-shaped; the anthers elliptic; anil the 
achenia ovate, acute, and awnless (\V.--G. ). 

IL Anemone ActiTii.oBA (Hqmtira <truttlnh,i) diflers in 
having the leaves with 3 ovate and j)ointe<l lobes, or soine- 
times 6-lobed; leaves of the involucre acute or acutish fC >. 




HERACLEUil. 



History and Description.— The Anemone Hepaiica has been viewed as the 
onl)' species of this genus, the differences observed as to color, form, etc., being 
De Candolle, however, divided it into two species. 
These plants are common to the United States, 
growing in woods and upon elevated situations; 
the A. Eepatka (H. ainericana'), which is the least 
coniir.on, being found, as Eiiton state.*, on the side 
of hills exposed to the north, and the other on that 
facing the south. They both bear white, blue, or 
purplish flowers, which appear late in March or 
early in April, and are among the most beautiful 
and most sought-for of our vernal flowers. The 
entire plant is employed. It occurs in market in 
broken masses of leaves, sometimes intermixed with 
broken roots, and of a green color. It is odorless, 
and has a subastringent and viscid taste, and yields 
its virtues to water. The name livcruoH sometimes 
erroneously applied to it, belongs to the cryptogam 
Marchantia polymorphc, and others of the same 
family. Undoubtedly it was the demand for the 
latter plant that led to the wonderful "hepatica 
boom "' about the year 1S80. In 1883, the consump- 
tion of liverleaf in this country alone was about 
450,000 pounds. (For an exhaustive article on 
hepaiica, the reader is referred to Drugs cnai ^fedi■ 
cines of North Americn, by J. U. and C. (J. Lloyd, Vol. 
I, pp."37^4.) According to Prof. J. U. Lloyd, the 
blunt-lobed variety is seldom found in commerce, and does not form one-fiftieth 
part of that collected in America, the supply being almost wholly from the 
acute-lobed hepatica. 

Chemical Composition.— Rafinesque (1828) stated that the plant contained 
"tannin, mucilage, extractive," etc. C. B. Smith (186S) demonstrated the exist- 
ence of tannin in the plant. Prof. J. U. Lloyd and Mr. Harter analyzed it, sum- 
ming up the result as follows : " It contains none of the classes of active constitu- 
ents found in medicinal plants, but consists of the usual constituents of plants, 
such as a tannin, gum, sugar, chlorophyll, and small amounts of a bland oleo- 
resin (Harter, Pharm. Record, 1884). Ot the substances named, none were in 
amount sufficient to render them consjncuous. It may be accepted that hepatica 
does not contain a single prominently marked constituent, and that few herbs 
present less decided peculiarities"' (.T. U. Lloyd, in Drugs ond Mul. of N. A.). 

Action, Medical Uses, and Dosage. — A mild mucilaginous astringent. It 
has been used in infusion, taken frt'eW in fevers, hejiatic complaint.t. blefding frotn 
</ie in«i7.s coup/iS, etc., but in severe cases it is unavailable. Th ' ■" ' 
taken ad libitum. 




Anemone acntiloba. 



is unavailable. The infusion may be 



HERAOLEUM.— MASTERWORT. 



The root of Herarkum lauutum, LinnL 

Nat. On?.— Uml)ellifer;e. 

CoMMO.v Names: Mustenport, Cotc-parsnip. 

Botanical Source.— This plant, sometimes called Cme-parsnip, has a large, 
splmlle-shaped, perennial root, of a strong, disagreeable smell, from which arises 
a hollow, thick, furrowed, branching and pubescent stem, from 3 to 5 feet high, 
and often an inch or more in width at the base. The leaves are very large, on 
downy, channeled petioles, and ternately compound ; the leaflets roundish-cor- 
date, and unequally lobed ; the lobes acuminate, almost glabrous above, and 
woolly underneath. The flowers are white, in huge umbels, often a ft>ot broad, 
with deciduous involucres. Involucels long-pointed, lanceolate, and manv-leaved. 
The calyx limb is composed of 5 small, acute teeth. The petals are obcordate, 
with the point inflexed, the outer larger and radiant, appearing deeplv 2-clefl. 



HERACLEUM. 1»n, 

The fruit i^s compressed, oval, with a broad, flat margin, and 3 obtuse dorsal ribs 
to eacli cari)el; intervals with single vitt;i', and seeds tiat (G. — W. — R.). 

History, Description, and Chemical Composition. — Found growing in 
moist meadows and lultivateil frrounds Iruni Labrador to Pennsylvania, and west 
to Oregon, liowering in J une. The root is tlie jiart used ; is somewhat analogous to 
parsley in appearance, has a strong, peculiar, unpleasant odor, and an ill-flavored 
acrimonious taste. The recent root and leaves, when placed in contact with tin- 
skin, irritate and inflame it; and that which inhabits very damp localities i.< 
considered poisonous (B.). The leaves and seeds have also been used medici- 
nally. The root probably contains acrid principles, volatile oil, and resin. The 
plant is Slated by Nuttall (.-limr. Jour. i'/K/nii., l836,Vol. VII, p. 281) to be hardly 
distinct from Hcrarleuin sphoitihjliinn, Linm'-, of Europe and Asia. This pl'\nt is 
also known as Cow-parsnip, and lias similar medicinal properties. The fruits of 
all species of Heracleum thus far analyzed, abound in volatile oil, free ethyl and 
methyl alcohol and solid hydrocarbons of the paraffine series. From ILrdrleum 
giganleum, Gnlzeit obtained 2 per cent of volatile oil, which was differentiated 
into 10 per cent of a mixture of elhijl-butyrnte and acetate, and 55 per cent of hcryl- 
butyrate and octyl-acetale. Besides, a crystallizable substance, hcradin (C32H.„0,„), 
was otitained from the immature fruits. It is a colorless, odorless substance, 
melting at ISS" C. (365° F.), insoluble in water, not easily soluble in ether, solu- 
ble in chloroform, boiling carbon disulphide (1:400) and in cold (1:700) and boil- 
ing (1:60) absolute alcohol {Amer.Jmu: Pli,mn.,18S0, p. 136). The fruits odfim- 
cleum ephondj/liuni yielded to Zincke (i)/;ss., 1869), 0.3 per cent and to Moslingcr 
(Jahresb. chr PAncm., 1876, p. 165), 0.8 to 0.9 per cent of a volatile oil. (For a review 
of its constituents, which are similar to those of H. giganteum, see Husemann 
and Hilger, Pflanzenstoffc.) 

Action, Medical Uses, and Dosage.— Stimulant, antispasmodic, and car- 
minative. Used in decoction infntulenn/ and di/xjiejisia, and 2 or 3 drachms of the 
powdert-d root, taken daily in €/jil)jis>/, ivid continued some time, with a strong 
infusion of the leaves and tops at night, has been found successful. Recent trials 
with a saturated tincture of the root seem to indicate that it has some power over 
epilepsy though the conditions in which it is specifically applicable have not yet 
been determined. Recommended also in asthma, colic, amenorrfKva, dysmenorrha'a, 
palsy, apoplexy, intermittent^, etc., in doses of 1 drachm. The dose of a strong tinc- 
ture (3viii of root to Oj of alcohol), ranges from 5 to 60 minims. 

Belated Species. — Imperalnria Oslmthium. Tlie rootstock of Peucfdmium OstnUhium, Koch 
[Imperntunn (htridliiuin, Linne), Nat. On/.— Unibelliferie. Masterwii. This dru^ consists of a 
fioincwliat ti:itt>iied, subconical rootstock, of al)outa finder's thickness, and ranging from 2 to4 
iuolii-8 in length. Its surface is wrinkled, scarred, and warty; its uppir portion bus a finely 
annulati'il appearanci'. Its color externally is a deep bro«u-j;ray ; iutern.ally dirty wliite. It 
has a large cinlral pith, while its bark is thin, and all parts abound in nsin cells of a brown- 
ish-yellow hue. Its taste is pungent, aroinalic, aixl bitter, giving a prolonged sense of warmth- 
to tiie mouth. Its odor is markedly balsamic, somewhat reseuihling aiii,'elii;a. Masterwort is 
scarcely at all usidin America, ami la noticed here chiefly on account of its having been used 
as an aduhtriint of aconite ( Holmes). In former years it was much esteemed as a medicine, 
beiug known, on account of its extensive uses, as diiituim rrmediam. It grows in the moun- 
tains of central and south Europe, It contains from 0.2 to 0.7 per cent of volatile oil. Osaun 
and Wackenroder, in IS:'.!, obtained from it iinperalorin, a, principle believed by K. AVagner 
(18.54) to be identical with peucedanin, obtained from Pmceilanum officinale, Liunt^, an allied 
species, by Schlatter, in 1«33. However, more recent authors (A. Jassoy, 1890) lulieve it to 
be identi<-al with oslnilliln (see below l. Piuculnu I niorms colorless, rhombic prisnis, or plates, 
or fine ni-edli-8, which are odorless and tasteless when pure; they are insoluble in water, but 
soluble in etlur, chloroform, and alcohol, the latter solution haviiiga faintly bitter taste. The 
pure sub.stancomrlts at 10.'S^O.c22i>.4°F.) (1'. Ilaensel, IS'.ll). AVh.n concent rali-.l hydrochloric 
acid 6<jlution is added to an alcol.,,lic solution of /"".v./,!,,;;!, the biiur lo.srs a m.thvl group 
and is quantitatively converted into o/ro.s, /..,(( lHa-^iw.tz and Wci.l.ll. The fc.rmiiUe of the two 
compounds have been differently stated, but the researches of A..lassov (lS9<t) and P. Ilaensel 
(1891), in Prof. Schmidt's laboratorv, and tbo.se of >I. Popper ( l.'^'.i.S), have denionRtrated the 
forinulaof /,."r«/„„;,. to be ChHihOCHj^.O,, or CmIImO,, wliile ormM-Inn vaa found by Hlasi- 
wetz and Weidel i.Ihh. Cliem. /'/i<i rm., 1822, Vol. 174, p. tiT) to have tlie (analogous) comi>o8i- 
tion CnHi,'(JH).Oj, or ChH,/), (see Arrhiv <lrr I'Imrm., 1S98, pp. 662-692). The latter sub- 
stance is a crj-stallizable, tasteless Ixxlv, hardly soluble in cold alcohol or ether, almost insolu- 
ble in cold water, better soluble in boiling water, soluble in chloroform, alkalies, and even 
concentrated mineral acids without umiergolng chemical alti-ration. The melting point of tho 
pure substance is gt.ited to be IT.i'f. (:!47° F.) or 177°('. (:V)1..5° F.). Another con-titu ;it of 



988 HEUCHERA. 

imperatoria is a colorless, odorless tasteless boily, ostruihin (CuHjoOs, A. Jassoy, in Archiv der 
P/(an»., 1890, p. 544), which forms characteristic, rhombic crj-stals, insoluble in water, but 
soluble in alcohol and ether. It was obtained from the root, in 1874. by Gomp-Besanez (0.6 
percent). Alkalies dissolve it with beautiful blue fluorescence ; weak acids precipitate from 
this solution osiruthin unchanged. Upon fusing it with caustic alkalies, Gorup-Besanez ob- 
tained a small yield of resorcin, and butyric and acetic acids. The same author found in this 
root oxypeucnlaniu, a bitter, crystallizable principle, insoluble in ether, soluble in chloroform, 
and previously obser^'ed by Erdmann in older roots of Peucedanum officinale. Heut ( 1874 ) found 
its melting point to be 140° C. ( 284° F. ) , a result confirmed by Ja.ssoy and Haensel ( 1898 1. The 
root here considered is stimulant, and was formerly used locally in indolent vJctrii, buccal par- 
(i/i/sis, and (wJ/mc/K", the root being chewed in the latter instances ; internally in /"lo/fora and 
iiijiammation, flatulence, colic, dyspepsia, delirium tremem, hystt ria, t^tc, saiil la other debilities, 
both general or local. It has not been used in Eclectic medicine. 

HEUCHERA.— ALUM-EOOT. 

The root of Heuchera americaiia, Linne. 
Nat. Ord. — Saxifragacese. 
Common Names: Alum-root, American sanicle. 

Botanical Source. — This plant, sometimes called American sanicle, is herba- 
ceous and indigenous, with a perennial, knotty, yellowish root. The leaves are 
j,^ ^gg all r;\cliral, on very long, downy petioles from 2 to 8 inches 

'^ ■ in kiigth, roundish-cordate, hispidly pilo.-e, about 7-lobed, 

and from 2 to 8^ inches in diameter ; the lobes are short, 
roundish,andcrenate-dentate, with dilated mucronate teeth. 
Many scapes or flower stems arise from the same root, from 
2 to 4 feet high, erect, naked, viscid-pubescent in their 
U))j)er part, terminating in loose, pyramidal, forked jmnicles, 
which are nearly one-third the length of the scape. The 
calyx is permanent, 5-cleft, campanulate, small, obovate, 
striated with very obtuse segments, and more conspicuous 
tlian the petals. Tlie petals are purplish-white, or rose- 
colored, minute, spatulate, and inserted into the margin of 
the calyx, between its segments. The filaments are twice 
V/ j^ as long as the petals, yellowish, inserted opposite the seg- 

J]{1 .-^S^ ments of the calyx, persistent, and surmounted by small, 

ik' ^^^\ red, globose anthers. Cap.«ule ovate. Seeds minute, oblong, 

cftM. black, and very hispid { L. — W. — R."). 
Heucnera amencana. History, Description, and Chemical Composition. — 

Tliis plant is a native of North America, and is found in shady, roeky woodlands 
from Connecticut to Illinois and southward, flowering from May to August. The 
root is the part used ; it is perennial, yellowish, horizontal, somewhat flattened, 
rough and unequal, with an intensely astringent taste. It yields its medicinal 
virtues to water. It should be collected in September. Bowman (,lSt39) found 
tannin present to the extent of 20 per cent, but Jos. C. Peacock i^Amcr. Jour. 
P^arm., 1891, p. 172) found only 5.55 percent tannin and 12.2 per cent phloba- 
phene. Roots collected in October were richest in tannin (19.66 per cent, calcu- 
lated upon dry substance), and ricliest in starch granules (,13.62 per cent) in 
March. Compare al.so Prof. E. S. Bastin, on the structure of i/ncTitAj americatia 
{Amer. Jour. P/i'(»-?)i., 1894, p. 407). There are several species of Heuchera, the 
Heuchera caulocens, //.jsii(if-s'f)(S, and others which possess similar properties, and 
are often collected and sold with the roots of H.amcrimna. H.fiispiiia, Pursh ; 
H.parcijlora, Nuttall; and H.n/lindrim, Douglas, are said by F.W. Anderson to 
l)e much employed by the hunters of the northwest as astringents to check the 
diarrhcea produced by thealkali-waterof tlie plains. The root of Mii("ii jx-ntandrn. 
Hooker, belonging to the same natural order, is recommended by F. W. Anderson 
as being far suj)erior to ahim-n-iot for this purpose (Bol. Viiz.,\SS~, p. 6-'> i. 

Action, Medical Uses, and Dosage.— -Alumroot, as its name would indi- 
cate, is a powtil'ul astringent ol such intensity as seldom to be ailministered in- 
ternally, yet it would undoubtedly prove useful in small doses, in all cases where 
astringents are indicated. An aqueous extract will be found very Wneficial in 
dinrrfuva and di/sentcri/ in the second stages, in ftcmorrfx^qe^, and other similar dis- 
eases. Externally the powdered root may be applied to >i,wnr,-h,in,.<, , ,,i.<inri.<. 




HIBISCUS ESCULENTVS.— HIERACirM. t>.S9 

ri'ouiuU, foul and indolent ulcers, etc. The decoction is utseful in ap/Uhous sore vvmlh 
And soreiie^s of the throat and faiKCJf; it may I'c used as a wash or gargle. Taken 
internally, in doses of a wineglass half full 3 or 4 times a day, it has been eOicient 
in didbttt.^, and in bUrding jiile^, employing it, in this last complaint, by injection 
also. Equal parts of alum-root and black cohosh-root in decoction, form an 
excellent local application in leiieoT^han and ea-oination of tlie cervix uteri. Some 
practitioners employ this root indiscriminately with that of the Geranium macu- 
latum; it is, however, more iiowerfully astrinjrent. 

HIBISCUS ESCULENTUS.— OKRA. 

The unripe fruit of the Hibisnts fsndetitus, Linne (Abelmosrhua esculentus of 
Wiglit and Arnott). 

Xnt. Ord. — Malvacea:. 

Common Names: Okrn,Go)nbo, Bendcc. 

iLLrsTR.xTioN : Beutley and Trimen, Med. Plants, 36. 

Botanical Source. — This plant is an herbaceous annual, with a stem some- 
what woody at tiie base, attaining a height of from 3 to 6 feet, and being 3 or 4 
inches thick, bearing alternate, serrate leaves of 3 varieties, angular, palmate, and 
.subdigitate. The tlowers are solitary, large, and showy; of a pale yellow, tinged 
at the b;i-e a dark crini.son. The herbaceous portions of the plant are clothed 
with sharp bristles, and often bear purplish spots. 

Description. — The gombo fruit is a pentagonal, narrow, cylindrical capsule, 
from 2 to 12 inches long, tapering at the base, and about 1 inch in diameter. It is 
often cinvcd, and is covered with hairs, especially along the ridges. The pods con- 
tain several roundish or kidney-shaped smooth seeds in each of the several cells. 

History. — Okra was well-known to the Spanish Moors and Persians, and as 
early as 1216 was described by a native Sevillian botanist, Abul-Abbas-el-Nebate, 
who states that the young and tender fruit was eaten with meat by the people of 
Egypt, who also employed it medicinally for its emollient properties {Pharmacog- 
raphia). The Indian Pharmacopoeia has an official decoction of the immature 
capsules to be employed as a demulcent diuretic in catarrhal affections of the 
urinary tract, as gononlK ea, and in dysuria, and ardor urinae. Okra is indigenous 
to tropical Africa, where the natives call itbnmeea, and to the West Indies, and is 
cultivated throughout the tropical and subtropical regions. It is raised on a 
large scale near Constantinojile, where the fruit is employed on account of its 
demulcent properties. The fiber of the bark is used in the arts to make paper 
and ropes. Its fruit is valued chiefly, and especially in the southern states, for a 
mucilaginous substance, gotnhine (Landrin, Jahresb. der Pharm., 1874, p. 172), which 
it imparts to soups, being often used in combination with tomatoes. It is also 
used for pickles. According to Porcher, the parched seeds are used by the negroes 
of South Carolina us a substitute for coffee. 

Action and Medical Uses. — Okra is demulcent, mucilaginous, and the leaves 
are said to make an e.\( client emollient cataplasm. The seeds of the H.Abelmos- 
rhus (see below) were formerly considered a stomachic stimulant, antispasmodic, 
and nervine, but are now employed chiefly by the perfumer. 

Related Species. — flihlsrus Ahelmosrhtm, Linm'. {AhelmofcliHS 7nosckalm, Moench). .\n 
evergri-fii tree, iiitroduceil into tropical America, but indigenous to Egypt and southern Asia. 
The seeds, known a-s yrana j/ionc/mdi, have a musk-like odor, and are warm and spicy to the 
taste. The odor resides in the teeta of the seeds, an<l is more noticeable if tlio see<ls he heatiil 
or rubbed. According to Ainslie, the seeds are used by the Aral>8 to impart a pleasant flavor 
to their coffee. They are also used to adulterate musk and employed in the making of per- 
I'unies. In fJombay they are used to protect woolens from the ravages of the moth, and rubbed 
to a past*- with milk, employed to cure the i/<7i (Dymock, Mnt. Med. of KeMem India). 

HIERACIUM.— HAWKWBED. 

The root and leaves of Hieracinm venosii m,hinne. 
Xnt. Ord. — Composita;. 

Common Namks ; IlnwhreerJ, Veiny-lenrcd hnwhrcfd, Riiltli.ituilr treed, .'>lriiicd 
hhioilin):>. 



990 



HIPPOCASTANUM. 



Botanical Source. — This plant has a perennial root, with a stem or scape 
from 1 to 2 feet in height, dark-brown, slender, sometimes naked, sometimes with 
1 or more glabrous, cauline leaves, forking above several times into a spreading, 
loose corymb, with an awl-shaped bract at each division. The radical leaves are 
obovate or oblong, somewhat acute, nearly entire, subsessile, thin and pale, pur- 
plish, and glaucous underneath, a little hairy above, often hairy along the midrib, 
marked with purple veins, and the first that unfold are close to the ground. The 
heads are very small, in a loose panicle on slender diverging peduncles, 12 t<j 
20-flower(d; tlie involucre glabrous, hispid at the base; the flowers bright-yellow; 
the achenia slu)rt, linear, and not tapering at the summit (G.—W.;. 

History and Description. — Hawkweed grows in many parts of the United 
States, but more commonly in the East and North, upon dry hills and in pine 
woods. It bears yellow flowers from May to July. The leaves and roots are 
employed; they are inodorous, with a bitter and a.'^tringeut taste; they seem not 
to have been analyzed. Water extracts their virtues. 

Action, Medical Uses, and Dosage. — This plant is tonic, astringent, and 
expectorant ; it has been used in decoction in scrofula, menorrhagia, hemoptysis, and 
other hemorrhages. The powdered leaves ami root, combined with bloodroot, have 
been used as a snuff in polypus of the nnxe. Said to be efficient against the bites of 
poisonous tnalcs, over which it undoubtedly has some power. The juice of the 
fresh leaves is recommended as a cure for toarts. Dose, of the infusion or syrup, 
from 2 to 4 fluid ounces. 

Related Species. — The following species of Hieracium have also been used to some 
extent in medicine, and, unless otherwise stated, have the same uses as the preceding plant. 

Hieracium scabrum, Linn6. Rough hawkweed. — Has been employed for the relief of toothache 

Hieracium Gronovii, hinni. Hairy hawkweed. — Used like the preceding, t^aid lu be fully 
as useful in siiake-biteg as H. renosum. 

Hieracium murorum, Linn6. —Astringent and faintly bitter. Vulnerary. 

Hieracium pilosella, Linn6. — Astringent and bitter. 

HIPPOCASTANUM.— HOESE-CHESTNUT. 



The bark and fruit ot\E6culu.'i Hippocuslnnuin, Limn-. 
Xut. Ord. — Saiiindacea. 
CoMMO.N Name: llorsi -chestnut. 

Botanical Source.— The ^Esculus Hippocastanum is a beautiful middle-sized, 
round-headed tree, .")0 or 60 feet in height, with many branches, a rugose, tawny 



Pie. 134. 




lIi|>pi>oaG(auum. 



bark, and a white, not very firm wood. Th 
leaves are opposite, digitate, long-stalked, 
and consist of 7 obovate-lanceolate, acumi- 
nate, bright-green, coarsely and irregularly 
serrated leaflets which diminish in size from 
the center. The flowers, which are pink- 
colored and white, are borne in terminal 
thyrses, or pyramidal racemes. The corolla 
is spreading and composed of 5 oblong, un- 
guiculate, fringed, wavy petals, with a small 
reddish spot above each claw. The calyx 
is 5-toothed, bright-green, and campanulate. 
The stamens are 7 in number, and support 
reddish-brown, oblong anthers. The fruit is 
a prickly, thick, and tough capsule, 3-valved, 
1 to 3-celled, with usually 2 large, deep chest- 
nut-brown seeds, and a large broad space 
forming a hilum. 

Description.— The B.\kk. Horse-chest- 
nut bark is of a gray color externally, show- 
ing leaf scars and wart-like excrescences spar- 
ingly distributed. The internal surface is 
whitish and snuxith. Tiie bark is thin, and 
throughout its internal structure presents a 



HIPI^^JASTANIM. Vt;»l 

brown or brownish color. Tlie inner bark has a rough, bitter taste, and i^ nearly 
odorlees; and is tough and fibrous on fracture. It yields it.s })roperties to water 
and diluted alcohol. The aqueous infusion is bitter, fawn-colored, and non-astrin- 
gent. Gelatin separates its tannic acid; iron gives a green precipitate; infusion 
of galls and tartar-emetic produce no efl'ect upon it. 

The Nut, when dry, is subglobular, compressed, from 1 to 1 J inches in diame- 
ter, with a shining, chestnut-brown testa, marked by a reddish or yellowish-gray 
hilum, nearly an inch in diameter. In the middle (if the hilum is a smaller spot, 
in the center of which is a slightly roughened elevation. Passing from the hilum 
around to the oi)posite surface may be observed an elevated ridge terminating in 
a bulbous extremity, and resting in a horseshoe-shaped depression. The surface 
of the nut is slightly corrugated. The internal portion is starchy, yellowish-white 
in color, and has an unpleasant, bitter taste. The nut has a sligiit, peculiar odor. 

History. — Horse-chestnut is indigenous to certain parts of southern Asia 
(Persia, northern India), from whence it was conveyed into Europe. It is now 
common to many p:irts of the United States, where it grows rapidly, Vilossoming 
from Ai)ril to July, and maturing its fruits in the autumnal months. It is exten- 
sively cultivated for shade and ornamentation in gardens and along sidewalks. 

Chemical Composition. ^.\ 11 parts of the plant, especially the bark of the 
root, trunk, and branches, and thotestaof the seeds, contain a peculiar tannic acid, 
which forms an uncrystallizable, nearly colorless ni;iss, whose solutions turn red- 
brown when exposed to the air. Heating with diluted mineral acids to the tem- 
perature of boiling water jiroducesared p/ilohaphcne, a.suhsteLacewh\ch. also occurs 
ready-formed in the bark and the leaves ot the tree (Rochleder). yEscidin {C^fi,fi,), 
discovered by Canzoneri and first obtained pure by Minor (1831\ is a faintly 
bitter glucosid occurring principally in the bark, also in the testa of the seeds, 
but not in the leaves (F. 0. Ray, A„wr. Jour. PIi<irm.,18SG, p. 409). From 2 to 3 per 
cent have been obtained from the bark. It is a white, microcrystalline powder, 
soluble in 672 parts of cold and 12.5 parts of boiling water, and in 24 parts of 
boiling alcohol, but insoluble in absolute ether. ^E^culin is distinguished by the 
blue fluorescence it displays in aqueous, but more markedly in alkaline solution. 
This glucosid is easily decomposed into its constituents, if it be heated above its 
melting point, 1GU°C. (320"^ F.\ and also by the action of the ferment einul-<in 
(see Amygfl'ilw<),OTVth(n boiling it with diluted acids, when it is decomposed into 
dextrose and a'>r«/<'//(i (C'^HjO,). The latter substance, which is also to be found 
in the bark, is a diixy-coumarin (C^Ho[OH]oCH:CH.CO.O), and an isomer to d<iph- 
;!'?(■«, a derivative of certain epeci' s of Daphne. yEsculinhns been repeatedly de- 
monstrated to be different from yeUemk acid, with which it was at one time sup- 
posed to be identical (see Gelsemium). 

A crystallizable, bitter glucosid, argyrsescin (CjtH^Oio), found by Rochleder in 
the cotyledons of the seeds, occurs most largely shortly before maturity. A yellow 
coloring matter (qwrx^cUrin of Rochleder), occurs in the leaves of horse-chestnut, 
as well as in the cotyledons of the seeds, and especially in the flowers. More 
recently N. Rudolph (see Amcr.Jnnr. P/mnii., 1804, p. 35), established its chemical 
relationship to otlicr quercitrin-like bodies, and gave it the formula CjiHooO,,, 
while qiienUriii (of qiiercitrin bark), was found to contain 1 molecule less of 
water. Boilingwith diluted acids decomposes the horse-chestnut quercitrin into 
/«ot?u/'i7c (C,H„Oj, and (y-M-rre^Z/i (('„H,<,0,). 

A variety of other substances, such as {r.^ric and rapsubiscic arid.^, trl^scin, 
//•((ar///, etc., mn.-^tly intermediary products in the development of the different 
"part!? of the plant, have been isolated by Rochleder, for which see details in Hust- 
mann and Hilger, PflanzenMoffe, p. 870. Suponin (itphrodxacin of Rochletler, 1858), 
is also a constituent of the seeds, and the latter have long been known to bo 
useful in powder form for washing purposes and as a sternutatory (see Pharm. 
Central),. ,my2, y. 687, and 1806, p. 163). A fatty oil {Uleum Hippocnstani). has been 
obtained from the seeds in the amount of 0. 1 percent. It is of a rich yellow color, 
has a specific gravity of 0.027, and solidifies at a temperature of + 1.25° C. ( 34.3° F.). 
The seeds also contain starch, ami on this account attempts have been made to 
utilize horse-chestnut seeds as a food material, but these eH()rts have not met with 
success, owing to the dillicullv of economically removing saponin from the seeds 
rseeP. Soltsien, rhem. Zcitinuj'mn, p. 1374). 



992 HIRUDO. 

In the seeds of JSsadus Pnvia, Linne, the Red buckeye of the southern states, 
E. C. Batchelor (Amer. Jour. Phnrm., 1873, \i. Ho), found a poisonous glucosid, in- 
soluble in ether and chloroform, soluble in hot alcohol, and freely soluble in cold 
water; this solution froths upon being shaken. The principle is not identical 
with tiie anij/rnsrir, and the (i/i/n-fKhisrin of Rochleder. 

Action, Medical Uses, and Dosage. — Undoubtedly horse-chestnut acts upon 
the human sy.stcni very niucli after the manner of buckeye (^Esculus glabra). By 
some, however, its power over the circulation is thought to be more pronounced, 
particularly its control over the portal vessels. The virtues formerly ascribed to 
the bark anl nut are as follows: Horse-chestnut bark is tonic, astringent, febri- 
fuge, narcotic, and antiseptic. In intermittent fever i\\Q bark has effected cures when 
given in doses of a teaspoonful 4 or 6 times a day. Ten grains of the powder 
of the rinds of the nuts have been asserted to be equivalent in narcotic power 
to three grains of opium. This claim, however, requires substantiation. Gan- 
grenous and ill-conditioned ulcers have been benefited by a strong infusion of the 
bark. The whitish, central part of the nuts, when in powder, has been recom- 
mended as a sternutatory in some cases of ojihihnlmia&wd headache. The oil of 
horse-chestnuts is considered in Europe a valuable local application in neuralgic 
and rheumatic affections; it is made by exhausting the powdered horse<-he5tnut in 
ether, filtering and evaporating. iEsculin, in doses of from 5 to 30 grains, re- 
peated 2 or 3 times a day, has proved beneficial in periodical febrile affections, and in 
•neuralgia of the internal viscera. Of all the uses formerly made of hippoca.stanum, 
only the latter is recognized to-da}', its power of controlling neuralgia of the viscera, 
and then only in csLses of abdominal plethora. Specific medication has taught us 
that it is a remedy, not for active conditions, but for congestion and engorgement. 
It is indicated in general by capillary engorgement — a condition of stasis — with 
vascular fullness and sense of soreness, throbbing, and malaise all over the body. 
An uneasy, full, aching pain in the hepatic region is also an indication. Rectal 
disorders, such as rectal irritation and heirwrrhoids, with marked congestion and a 
sense of constriction, as if closing spasmodically upon some foreign body, with 
itching, heat, pain, aching, or simple uneasiness, are fields in which hippocastanum 
exerts a specific influence. The pile-tumors are purple, large, do not bleed as a 
rule, but there is a sense of fullness, or spasm of the parts, and a free diarrlio-a 
may be present. Not only does it relieve such rectal complaints, but cures dis- 
orders hinging upon ihem, snch. SlS rectal neuralgia, prnctilis,e\.Q.,&nA the retiexep 
induced by them, proceeding from the rectal involvement. Among these reflex 
manifestations may be mentioned dyspnaa, af<thmatic seizures, dizzinc^t, headaehe, 
backache, and disturbed gastric functions amounting to veritable forms of (/]/«»«>- 
sia. These conditions pass away when hijjpocastanum overcomes the rectal diffi- 
culties. Dose of specific horse-chestnut (prepared from the nut only\ from J to 5 
minims in water every 1 to 3 hours. 

Specific Indications and Uses. — Visceral neuralgia, due to congestion; sore- 
ness of the whole botly, with vascular fullness, throbbing, and general malaise: 
throbbing, fullness, and aching in the liepatic region ; rectal uneasiness with burn- 
ing or aching pain; sense of constriction, with itching; large, purple pile-tumors: 
uneasy sensations and reflex disturbances depending upon hemorrhoids or rectal 
vascular engorgement. 

HIRUDO.— LEECH. 

The !><inguistiga medicinalis, Savigny, and Sangui^uga officinali.<, Savigny. 

CTo,9.< .• Vermes. (>(/«• .• Annulata. Sub-order : Aitodn. Familij : Uirxxdinete. 

Description. — The leech belongs to the cla.«s of Vermes in "the Zoological 
arrangement, and order Annulata. This class is characterized l>yaniore or less 
elongated body; soft skin, segmented and annulated; articulated members and 
wings absent, and blood red. The general zoological characters of the order are: 
"Jaws with 2 rows of pointed, numerous teeth, which are mutually inclined at 
an acute angle" (Brandt). 

"Body elongated. Back convex. Belly flat. Extremities somewhat narroweil, 
furnished with disks or suckers; anterior extremity somewhat narrower than the 
posterior one. Rings from 90 to 100. Eyes represented by 10 blackish points. 



HI KUDO. 993 

Mouth trirafliate. Jaws cartilaginous, arnicil witii numerous cutting teeth. Anus 
small, placed on the doi-sum of the last ring" (P.). 

Two species of leeches are recognized in commerce, the Sanffuvmgn officinal^ 
{Hirudo njficinnli!!) and the Stiii(juixu(ia nmlicinalU (Hirtidn medicinnlis, Linne; 
Hiiudo ;)rori)iriVj/w, Carena), tiiough some excellent zoologists consider them to 
he only varieties of the same species. " Both have a soft extensile body composed 
of about 98 rings. They vary in length from 1^ to 6 inches when in repose, hut 
can contract themselves to a third of their length, and stretch themselves out to 
marly the double of it. They present along the back and flanks 6 continuous or 
interrupted stripes of a rusty or greenish-yellow color, by which they are easily 
distinguished from all other species that resemble them. They can attach them- 
selves by both ends to adjacent objects by means of a particular apparatus. The 
.S. mattr'inalis is distinguished by a dark-brown or greenish-brown back, with Tusty 
stripes generally spotted with black, and a grayish or yellowish belly, also more 
or less speckled with black spots. The S. offiriwdi.'< has a paler greenish-black 
back, less bright and unspotted stripes, often interrupted and intercommunica- 
ting, and a paler, more yellowish, or greenish unspotted belly. Tiie former, coni- 
monly called the English, Ga-man, .S'im/(W), or Sjiakird leech, is a native of Britain, 
Germany, Poland, Sweden, northern France, and European Russ a. The latter, 
usually iknown as the Humjnnj, or (ueen leerh, is a, native of that country, and 
likewise of the south of France.' Both species have 3 converging mandibles, fur- 
nished at their edge with minute sharp teeth, from 69 to 71 in number in each 
jaw in the Hungary leech, and from 79 to 90 in the other. By means of these 
teeth, when the skin is sucked in the mouth, it is pierced with a sawing motion, 
soas to present 3 incisions meeting in a common center. These incisions often 
l>euetrate through the whole thickness of the integuments into the cellular tis- 
sue. The animal becomes filled with blood in the course of 15 minutes, if it be 
vigorous, and draws about a drachm and a half" (Christison). The American 
leerh {Hinidn decora. Say), is frequently used in this country, though it does not 
draw as much blood, by one-third, as the foreign leech. It has a back of a dark- 
green color, and having 3 rows of quadrangular dots running lengthwise, the cen- 
tral row being pale brownish-yellow, and the others quite black. The abdomen 
is also pale brownish-yellow, and interspersed with dark spots. It is ordinarily 
about 3 inches long, and occasionally longer. (For an account of the repulsive 
mode of collecting leeches in Greece, see Amer. Druggist, 1891, p. 81.) 

Preservation.— There is considerable difficulty in preserving leeches, especi- 
ally on a large scale, as they often die suddenly and in great numbers. Various 
iiiean.s have been adopted to keep them healthy. The most common cause of their 
sickness and death is the formation of a slimv matter on their skin, and which 
they are in the habit of removing by drawing themselves through moss and small 
stones. Dr. Johnson names certain diseases as a cause of their death, and Brostat 
describes three epidemic disorders. Leeches are more liable to disease and mor- 
tality, when kept together in large quantities, than when preserved in small num- 
bers." They should be keitt in glass or earthenware jars, in clean rain or soft 
water, which should be changed every day or two, and at the bottom of which 
is placed some loose mo.<s, pebbles, etc., for them to move among. "It is stated 
that the ])resence of metallic iron in water prevents it from becoming putrid. 
This influence is said to be very marked in water in which leeches are preserved, 
and renders the changing of the water unnecessary for very long periods. The 
slimy excretions of the animal appears to combine with the oxide of iron, which is 
constantly l)eing formed." Tiie jar in which the animals are kept should be cov- 
ered with" a thin cloth, and placed in a locality where the temperature is equable. 
A dead leecli should be at once removed, and fresh water be immediately 8U)> 
l)lied to the remaining ones. M. Allchin has prepared a leech conservatory, in 
which the leeches were kept in a healthy state, and the water clear and sweet, 
without changing the water for 10 or 12 months. It consists of a glass tank with 
a movable glass cover, and arrangement for admitting air through a perforateil 
metallic i)late. Some coarse gravel is jilaced at the bottom of the tank, which is 
about half filled with water, and into it are put 1 plant of Valisneria, 10 water 
snails ( Plawirhiji conieiu<), and about 1(X) leeches. A permanent balance of animal 
and vegetable life is thus obUiiied, and no necessity occurs for changing the 
6.3 



<;94 HOMATROPIN.E IIYDR0I5R0MAS. 

water. It has been tried to propagate leeches in confinement, but in all these cases, 
after a few years, there remained only those which were placed in the water, and 
those just hatched. This depopulation of the artificial ponds in which thej' were 
kept has been attributed, by Dr. Berard, to the "enemies of the leech,"' or those 
animals which devour tliem, among which he names the pig, the otter, the mole, 
the hedgehog, the rat, water-shrew mice, teal, ducks, heron, fowls, serpents, toads, 
fresh-water shrimp, and other crustacefe. The goose, aquatic toad, water-lizard, 
and frog he does iii)t consider enemies of the leech. If these statements are found 
to be correct, they will aid materially in determining the best plan by which to 
preserve and propagate leeches artificially. 

Artifiridl or mechanical leeches are now to be had. They are in reality small 
cupping instruments. 

Action, Medical and Surgical Uses. — Leeches are occasionally used as a 
substitute for general blood-letting (which is scarcely ever now practiced) among 
children and delicate adults, or when it is required to abstract blood from some 
part whose locality or sensitiveness contraindicates the lancet or cupping. The 
abstraction of blood by means of leeching has, however, a decidedly different 
effect from that obtained by bleeding. A local impression may be made without 
seriously disturbing the whole system, as is the case in venesection. They are 
also very beneficial when applied with care to hemorrhoidal tumor.^, prolapsed rectum, 
inflamed vulva, etc., watching that they do not creep out of reach within any of 
the internal cavities of the body, as serious results might ensue. Salt is a speedy 
poison to the leech, and whenever one gets within the stomach, or other cavity 
beyond reach, the introduction of a strong solution of salt will destroy it. They 
are more commonly used in heal inflammations, bruises, etc., in which thej' often 
render excellent service. In applying them, any hair growing on the part must 
be removed by shaving, and the part must be thoroughly cleansed by soap and 
water, followed by clear water. Should the leech not fasten quickly, various 
means have been advised to overcome this difficulty, as moistening the part with 
warm milk and water, sugar and water, or with a drop of blood, or by immersing 
the leech for a moment in porter. It has also been recommended to hold the 
leech in a dry cloth, direct its head to the selected part, and slowly withdraw it 
along the skin, thus forcing it to take hold in order to find a firm attachment. 
But it must be recollected that there are certain states of the body, in which the 
leech will not attach itself, or speedily perish if it does. In poisoning by nux 
vomica, strychnine, oxalic acid, etc., and where sulphur has been ustd. the leech 
dies if it abstracts blood. In order to hold leeches to any part of the body, they 
are placed in a narrow tube called a leech-glass, which confines them to one spot. 

When it is desired to remove leeches froua the skin, this maj- be accomplished 
readily by dropping a little salt upon them, which sickens them. The usual 
mode is to draw the leech gently through the thumb and index finger, in a direc- 
tion from its tail to its head, thus forcing out the blood, and tlu-n place the ani- 
mal in clean water, to remain there for several days before employing it again, 
frequently renewing the water. Soubeiran and Bouchardat recommend as the 
best plan, first, to sicken the leech by placing it in a solution of 8 parts of s;Ut to 
50 of water, then, holding it by the tail, to dip it into hot water, but which can 
be borne by the hand, and then to strip it by gently passing it between the fin- 
gers ; the leech is then to be placed in fresh water, which should be changed every 
day. A little white sugar dissolved in the water will, it is said, speedily restore 
them to their original activity. When the hemorrhage from leech-bites is trouble- 
some, or too long continued, it may be checked by applying tannic acid or other 
astringents, collodion, eau de Pagliari, or by a very superficial stitch with a fine 
sewing needle. 

HOMATROPIN^ HYDROBROMAS.— HOMATROPINE 

HYDROBROMATE. 

Formula: C,JI,,iNO,.HKr. Molecular Weight: 355.17. 

Source and Preparation.— ifoma/rop/Hc (t>ri//o/»v/-'rt>/x'iii«) is the most im- 
iwrtant of the tropeints (wliich see) — a series produced by heating (mpinf (C.H,. 
NO) in the presence of diluted hydroihloric acid and certain o'ganio acids. 



IIOMATU.iIMN .: llYnr.ODUOMAS. 995 

Thus liuiiiatro|iiiie is prepared l>y the action of tropine upon mandelic (phenyi- 
fllyoolic) acid (C^H^O,) (see article on liomatropine by Prof. F. B. Power, in Amer. 
Jour. Pharii)., IHH2. p. 145). Houiatropine is an alkaloid. forn)ing transitarent, 
prismatic crystals (Merck, 1880), soluble in ether, alcohol, and chloroform, but 
less soluble in carbon disulphide, from a solution of which it readily crystallizes. 
A peculiarity of this alkaloid is that, though hygroscopic and extremely deli- 
quescent, it dissolves with dillicultv in water. *rhe alkaloid forms salts with 
hydrorhloric, hydrobromic. and sulpliuric acids; also with picric acid. The most 
valuable salt of homalropine, therapcuticallv, is liomatropine hydrobroniate. 

HoM.\TROPi.sE Hyukorrom.\tk (C,sIi„JsO,.HBr.) can be easily obtained in 
crystallized form by the action of hydrobromic acid upon crude liomatropine and 
subse(iui lit ri'crystallization from water. 

Description and Tests. — Homatropine hydrobromate occur.s in small, white, 
lustrous, non-hygrosctipic crystals, soluble in 6 parts of water and 130 parts of 
alcohol. The Br. Phann. (1898) for homatropine hydrobromate directs that the 
solutions should be neutral to litmus. The same authority demands that: 
" Heated on jilatinum foil it fuses and burns without leaving an appreciable resi- 
lUie. If 0.2 Cc. of chloroform be shaken with 1 Cc. of a 10 per cent aqueous solu- 
tion, to which a solution of chlorine has been cautiously added, the chloroform 
will assume a brownish color. A 2 per cent aqueous solution yields no precipi- 
tate, nor does the c;iutious addition of solution of ammonia, previously diluted 
with twice its volume of water, but diluted solution of potassium hydroxide pro- 
duces in it a white precipitate, soluble in excess of the reagent. Solution of 
iodine causes a brown, and test solution of mercuric chloride a white precipitate. 
If about 0.01 Gm. be dissolved in a little water, and the solution rendered alka- 
line with solution of ammonia, and shaken with chloroform, the separated chlo- 
roform will leave on evaporation a residue which will turn yellow and finally 
brick-red, when warmed with about 1.-5 Cc. of a 2 per cent solution of mercuric 
chloride in a mixture of 5 volumes of alcohol (90 per cent), and 3 volumes of 
water. When treated with fuming nitric acid and potassium hydroxide, as de- 
scribed under 'Atropina,' no reddish-violet coloration is developed (distinction 
from atropine), the residue becoming reddish-yellow. It affords the reactions 
characteristic of liydnibromides" (Br. P/ki/v/k, 1898). The sulphate, hydrochlo- 
rate, and salicylate of homatropine, each in white crystals, soluble in water and 
alcohol, are ocx-asionally employed therapeutically. 

Action, Medical Uses, and Dosage.— This salt acts very much like atropine, 
causing a quick, full dilatation of the pupil, but the paralyzing influence upon 
the muscles of accommodation is much less, and the effects of the agent more 
transient. Homatropine dilatation seldom lasts over 24 hours, and usually be- 
gins to diminish after a few hours, whereas atropine dilatation may persist for 
several days. Homatropine, after the instillation of large doses, imparts a bitter 
taste, but, unlike atropine, no dryness of the pharynx is induced. Homatropine 
hydrobromate is a safer agent than atropine, and does not produce such marked 
systemic disturbances as the latter. A 1 per cent solution is usually preferred for 
ophthalmic work. The solution is fairly permanent. Under the use of this drug 
pupillary dilatation takes place in from 15 to 25 minutes, reaches the maximum 
in about 1 hour, and usually disappears in about 6 hours; accommodation paresis 
occurs in f to 1^ hours, and passes off before the dilatation is overcome. Instilla- 
tion of this agent produces some smarting, and occasionally conjunctival irrita- 
tion results, but these effects are less likely to occur than with atropine. Poison / 
ing by homatropine and its salts should be treated by means of emetics" and the' 
stomach-pump, followed by tannin and animal charcoal, and emesis again resorted 
to. Then a cathartic dose of castor oil is advisable. Heat, stimulation, and arti- 
ficial respiration should not be neglected. Hartridge advises a combination of 
cocaine and homatropine for producing quick maximum dilatation. 

Foltz {Wehster's Dynmii.rherai,.,r>.5S0) states that for use in middle-aged 
persons, the drug is all that can be desired, but for refractive troubles, particularly 
of children, with ciliary spa.sm, he regards it of little value. It is contraindicated 
in glaucoma. The agent is seldom used internally. However, homatropine is 
now by far the most commonly employed mydriatic for use in refraction work. 
For oiihtlndinoncopic cininiiKitiom it b:is Impl" ly riplaced atropine, as it has ia 



estimating refraction in patients over 25 j-ears of age. Homatropine is antago- 
nistic to muscarine and pilocarpine. Homatropine hydrobromate has been suc- 
cessfully u.«ed inthevighl-miecls of phthisis. Doses of ^ grain have been advised 
for this purpose, but the jjractice c:in not be strongly recommended. The dose of 
homatropine hydrobromate is from y^^ to ^^j grain; the maximum amount for a 
day being ^^ grain ; as a colly rium, 3 to 4 grains to 1 fluid ounce of water. 

Belated Preparation. — Mvdrixe. Thi.s is a white powder— a combination of thp alka- 
loids homatropine and ephedrine — introduced into ocular therapeutics by Dr. Cattaneo, in 
IS95. It dissolves freely in water, and is employed chiefly in 10 per cent solution. It is 
promptly mydriatic, scarcely irritant, causing at first sl'^ht burning, and has no effect ujxiu 
accommodation. Claimed "to be quicker and more transient than other mydriatics, and con- 
sequently of marked value for diagnostic purposes. 

HORDEUM.— BAELEY. 

The decorticated seeds of Hordeum distichm}, Linne. 

Common Names : Barley, Pearl barley. 

Illi'stratiox: Bentley and Triinen, Med. PlatUs, 293. 

Botanical Source. — There are several kinds of barley, the more general ones 
being the following: Hordeum vulgare, Linne, has an erect, smooth, fistular culm 
or stem, from 2 to 4 feet in height, with alternate, carinate, lanceolate, linear, 
and roughish leaves; the sheaths are auriculate at the throat. The flowers are 
all hermaphrodite and awned; the spikes thick, and about 3 inches long; the 
spikelets 3, all fertile, 1-flowered, with an awn-like rudiment at the base of the 
upper palete. Glumes 2, subulate, nearly equal, and awned. Paleiu 2 and herba- 
ceous; the lower one lance-ovate, concave, and long awned; the upper obtusely 
acuminate, and bicarinate. The stamens are 3 in number; ovary hairy at the 
apex. Stigmas 2, sessile, somewhat terminal, and feathery. Scales 2, ciliated. 
Caryopsis adhering to the palea\ Fruit or seeds in 4 rows (L. — W.). 

Hordeum di'<tichon, Linne, differs from the preceding by having a compressed 
spike or ear, with the lateral spikelets abortive and awnless; the spikelets on the 
edge only being fertile, and the fruit is disposed in 2 rows. 

Hordeum hcra-^tk-hnn, Linne, has the fruit in 6 rows. 

History and Description. — Barley is thought to be a native of central Asia, 
but the subject is involved in much uncertainty. The seeds are the parts em- 
ployed. They are oblong-ovoid, with a furrow on one side running lengthwise, 
j'eliow outside, white internally, of a feeble odor, and a moderately saccharine 
taste. When the seeds are stripped of their husks, and made round by a particu- 
lar process, it constitutes pearl barley {Hordeum Perlatum), which is the best form 
for use ; when this is ground into a coarse flour it forms barley meal. Pearl bar- 
ley occurs in subspherical or marly ovoid grains, of a white, starchy aspect. 
Sometimes remaining portions of tlie husk give to it a yellowish cast." This is 
especially the case along the longitudinal groove. Its t;is"te resembles that of the 
farinace;e in general. When the seeds are but partially decorticated it is known 
&3 hulled, Seoteh, or j'ot barley. When the entire grain is moistened and exposed 
in mass to a summer temperature until it begins to germinate, and is then devi- 
talized at a definite stage of the germinating process, by a stronger heat, it is con- 
verted into MAi.T, which is extensively employed in making ale, beer, and porter. 
During the process of making malt, the temperature rises appreciably, much car- 
bon dioxide is given off, and the nitrogenized matter in the seeds"unde«;oes a 
change, being in part converted into a peculiar ferment, called diasta^. It has 
the power, peculiar to infusions of malt, of converting large quantities of starch 
into dextrin and a fermentable sugar, vmltos^\ To obtain the greatest possible 
yield of diastase from a given amount of barley, at the same time reducing the loss 
of carbohvdrates to a minimum, is the object of successful malting (see special 
works on Wewing, etc., for details of this process"!. 

Chemical Composition.— Kim ig {Xahmngs uud GenussmitUl, 3d ed., 1893, 
Vol. II, p. 467) gives the following percentage composition of barley seed, the 
results being the average of 706 recoraed analyses of barley from many countries, 
imhiding the United Slates: Water, ll.ft"); nitrogenous matter, 9.6(>; fatty mat- 



iii>i;i>i;rM. 997 

ter, 1.93; sugar {innllo.sc), l.ol; dextrin, ().:'>!1; stiin-h, .59.09 ; (i lire, 4.95; as^li, 2.42. 
The iiitrogeiiouii matter consists of gluten rasein, glulcii-Jihriu, inurcdin, and albu- 
min. The gliadin contained in wheat being absent, it is therefore imiii>.>isible to 
obtain gluten from barley (see Ai-cim)- Albumin varies in barley from Of) to 1.77 
per cent. As regards carbohydrates, sugar is stated to predominate over de.xtrin 
in American barley. Stelhvaag (ISSUi found tiie fatty matter in barley to con- 
sist of 13.62 per cent free fatty acids (coulainiug hurdcie uckl, or lauro-slediir arid 
of Beckmann, 1855), 71.78 per cent neutral fats, 4.24 per cent lecithin, and 6.08 
per cent phyloxterin. 

J. C. Lermer, in 1863 (Wittstein's Vierteljnhrssrhrift, Vol. XII, p. 4), made a 
comparative aiuilysis of barley seeds and the malt obtained tiierefrom. and 
observed a loss in starch of 14.57 per cent, and an increase of sugar by 2.03 per 
cent, also the fatty oil became reduced in quantity, while dextrin, cellulose, and 
proteids remained constant. Mr. Frank X. Moerk has more recently (Aimr. Jour. 
Pharm., 1884, p. 366 and 46.5) made some diligent analyses of Canada barley as 
well as the malt prepared from it, to which articles the reader is referred. A 
peculiar, optically lavogyre carbohydrate, .<('/i«W//j! (f,;/n(uilhro><e), was found in hor- 
deum liy Kiihuemann ( 1875). The ash of barley seeds contains chiefly phosphate 
of pota.-isium, magnesium and calcium, and large amounts of silica (in the husks). 

A peculiar principle has been found in barley seeds subsequent to the germi- 
nating process, by MM. Payen and Persoz, which they have named duistasc. The 
same substance has likewise been found in the seeds of oats and wheat, and in 
the potato, but only after these have undergone germination. Diastase maj' be 
obtained by macerating ground malt in cold water, suljjecting to pressure, and 
filtering and lieating the liquid to the temperature of 70° C. (158° F.). Another 
nitrogenous body existing in the liquid is thus coagulated and removed. The 
liquid, being filtered again, is to be mixed with a sufficient quantity of alcohol to 
throw down the dinsia.se. Toobtain the diastase pure, it should be again dissolved 
in water, and thrown down by alcohol, and this ought to be rejieated several 
times. Diastase thus obtained is solid, white, amorphous, insoluble in alcohol, 
but soluble iu water and diluted alcohol. Its aqueous solution possesses neither 
acid or alkaline qualities, and has little taste. Diastase, after purification, is best 
obtained in the dry state by exposing it in thin layers to a current of air at about 
44.3° C. (110° F.). Its aqueous solution is not jirecipitated, like that of starch, 
by lime, baryta, or acetate of lead ; on keeping it becomes acid. Its most remark- 
able property is that of converting starch in the presence of water, at a temjiera- 
ture of about 50° C. (122° F.), into a peculiar sugar {mnltose, C„H,„,0,,) and dex- 
trin. It has no action upon either gum or sugar, and yet 1 part of it added to 
2000 parts of starch, suspended in water, causes the starch globules speedily to 
burst, the teguments sejjarating from the containetl granulose, which readily 
undergoes this extraordinary conversion without any perceptible diHeronce in the 
weight of the substance employed. Diastase has also been called midtiiic. A sec- 
ond ferment, jiefita-sc, forms during malting, whoseaction is to change the jiroteids 
into pept(jnes and jiarapeptones, tlie beer <lepending upon the latter bodies for its 
(asserted ) nutritive <iualities ( Wagner, Ilniidhurhder Clteni. Tcchnologie, 1889, p. 901). 

The difl'erent kinds of beer, ale, and porter are made from malt, with the 
addition of hops and other articles. Malt has a sweetish, mucilaginous, rather 
agreeable taste. An infusion of it at 71.1° C. (160° F.) completes the conversion 
of the starch into sugar and gum; yeast being then added at a temperature 
between 15.5° and 26.6° C. (60° and"80° F.), vinous fermentation takes place, 
carbonic acitl gas is disengaged and alcohol formed. The sugar is the source of 
the alcohol exi.^ting in malt liipiors, while the gummy dextrin is the cause of 
their viscidity. an<l tin- periuan.-nce of their etferve.-cence and frothy top. 

Action, Medical Uses, and Dosage.— Pearl barley in decoction is nutritive 
and demulcent, and, on account of its mild and unirritating qualities, is much 
used as an article of diet for the sick and convalescent, acting at the same time, 
if the barley itself be swallowed, as a gentle aperient. The decoction is employed 
for suspending powdered drugs insoluble in water, and also as a drink in fdirile 
diseriscs, catarrh, dyxetilen/, inflnmmdtinn nf the hlndder, gitnoriho'a, and rhronir mucous 
inflammations. Combined with ho|)s, or in the form of beer, ale, or porter, it forms 
a valuable tonic in many chronic exhnu^liiKj di^teaties, anrl in convalescence. From 



998 HCML-Lrs. 

2 to 4 ounces of malt boiled in a (juart of water, afford a more demulcent and 
nutritious liquor than barle\',and is consequently betteradapted to cases requiring 
a sustaining course of treatment. In making the decoction of barley-, 2 ounces 
must first be washed with cold water, and all extraneous matters removed, then 
place the barley in i pint of water, boil for a short time, strain ofif the water, and 
throw it away, as this is only employed to remove mustiness, or any disagreeable 
flavor which" the barley may have acquired. To the barley thus prepared, add 4 
pints of boiling water, boil down to 2 pints, and strain. The decoction may have 
other articles added in the course of its preparation, varied to suit the taste of the 
patient, as sugar, sliced figs, raisins, liquorice-root, etc. It may be drank freely. 

HUMULUS (U. S. P.)— HOPS. 

"The strobiles of Huvmlus Lupulus, Linne" — (U. S. P.). 
Nat. Ord. — Urticaceae. 
CoMMO.v Name: Hop. 

Illustration : Bentley and Trimen, Med. Plants, 230. 

Botanical Source. — This i)lant has a perennial root, with many annual, an- 
gular stems, rough backward, with minute, reflexed hairs, twining around sur- 
p. ^gg rounding objects in a volute direction with the sun, and 

^^' ' climbing to a great height. The leaves are opposite, 

on long, winding, rough petioles; the smaller ones cor- 
date, the larger from 3 to 5-lobed; all are deep-green, 
serrated, veiny, and very rough. Theflowering branches 
are axillary, angular, and rough. Stipules, 2 or 4, be- 
tween the petioles, smooth, ovate, and reflexed. The 
flowers are numerous, axillary, and of a greenish color. 
Male flowers very numerous, panicled, yellowish-white; 
sepals 5, oblong, obtuse, spreading, concave; stamens 
short; anthers oblong, opening by 2 terminal pores. 
Female flowers pale-green, grow on a separate plant, in 
the form of an ament, having each pair of flowers sup- 
ported by a bract, which is ovate, acute, and tubular at 
the base"; sepals solitary, obtu.-;e,smallerthan the bracts, 
1 L 1 enfolding the ovary; ovary roundish and compressed ; 

umu us upu us. stigmas 2, long, subulate, and downy. The bracts en- 

large into a persistent catkin or strobile, each bract inclosing a nut enveloped in 
its permanent bractlet, and some yellow, resinous grains (L. — B.\ 

History and Description.— This plant is common in hedges and thickets in 
many parts of Europe, and grows si)ontaneously in various sections of the United 
States; said also to inhabit China and the Canary Islands. It is largely cultivated 
for its cones or strobiles, which are used medicinally, and in the manufacture of 
beer, ale, porter, etc. A few rows of the barren vines planted among the fertile 
ones, are said to be profitable by increasing the weight of the produce. The strob- 
iles or cones are the parts employed; these are collected when thoroughly ma- 
tured, properly desiccated, and then placed in large bags or pockets, and sold as 
Hops. They consist of ovate, membranous, semi-transparent, light-green scales, 
tinged more or le.ss of a yellow color, which are glandular at their base, nearwhich 
I hey develop 2 minute, globular, hard nuts or achenia of a bay-brown color, and 
which are covered with aromatic, superticial, globose, golden-yellow glands or 
.i;rains. To these the name lupuVin was given by Ives {Amer. Jour. Science. 1820, 
p. o02). The active i)roperties of hops are owing to the lupulin, although the 
scales possess them also, but in an inferior degree. Lupulin (see Ll^pulinum^. is pro- 
cured by beating or rubbing the strobiles, and then sifting out the grains, which 
form about ^ part of the hops. The official description of nops is as follows: 

"Ovate, about 3 Cm. (1^ inch) long, consisting of a thin, hairy, undulated 
axis, and many obliquely-ovate, membranous scales, in the upper part reticulately 
veined, and toward the base parallel-veined, glandular, and surrounding a su6- 
globular achene ; color of the scales greenish, free from reddish or brownish sjx>ts; 
odor aromatic; taste bitter, aromatic and slightly astringent"— (T. S. P.). 




HUMVLlri. 9;ivi 

Oaemicdl Composition.— Boiling water takes up the virtues of hops; how- 
i ver, tliey are iin])aired by long-continued heat. Tlie decoction turns litmus 
paper red, becomes deep-green with the salts of iron, and turbid with the solution 
of isinglass. A better solvent than water is diluted alcohol. By distillation with 
water, ho]>s yield a limjiid vnlnlih- oil (O.S per cent, v. W'agn-r), lighter than 
water; Payen antl Chevallier (1822) obtained from lupulin 2 ])er cent. Tiie oil 
in part contains /nimu'tne (a sesquiterpene, C|jH„), and unsaturated hydrocarbons 
not belniiging to tiie terpene series. The formation o{ buti/ric and vitleritmic uci(U, 
i>b.*erved in liie distillation of old hops or lupulin with water, is not due to oxi- 
dation of the volatile oil (A. C. Chapman, Pharm. Ccntmlh., 1899, p. 73). 

A bit(<r principle was obtaineil as an amorphous, water-soluble mass, by 
M. L-isleib [Arrhio der Pharm., 1880, )). o4o), by e.xhausting lupulin of its bitternes's 
by cold water, abstracting the bitter, with some resin, oy animal charcoal, 
abstracting with alcoliol, and separating the bitter from the resin by means of 
etlier, which dissolves the bitter part only. The bitter principle, upon boiling 
with diluted sulphuric acid, is resolved into brown, amorphous lupuliretin (also 
supposed to be an oxidation product of the volatile oil), and crystallizable bipulic 
acid. A cn/stiilli-abU\ bitter principle, called hop-hitter arid, was first obtained pure 
by Lermer in 1863 (Diugl. Pol. Jour., Vol. CLXIX, p. 54), by an elaborate process. 
This substance is insoluble in water, soluble in alcohol, ether, chloroform, and 
other liquids, notably the volatile oil of hops. The same compound was more 
recently obtained by H. Bnngener (Amer. Jour. Phnnn., 1884, p. 427, from Pharm. 
Jour. Trans., 1883-4, p. 1008). Six kilograms of fresh lupulin from unsulphured 
hops were extracted with low-boiling petroleum ether, and yielded 400 Gm. 
(6.6 per cent), of crude hop-bitter acid. The pure substance melts at 92° to 93° C. 
(197.6° to 199.4° F.), and when exposed to the air, soon turns yellow, resinifies, 
and develops an odor of fatty acids and aldehydes. Oxidizers produce valerianic 
acid in considerable quantity. 

The rcsiiis of hops were dififerentiated by Dr. Hayduck (see Amer.Jmir. Pharm., 
1888, p. 25. into three resins, two of which are soluble in petroleum-ether and 
form ether-soluble copper salts. The hop-bitter acid aforementioned is spontane- 
ously convertible into one of these two resins, namely, that which is not pre- 
cipitated by lead acetate. These two resins, as well as the hop-biter acid, were 
established to be the principles antagonistic to lactic ferments, while the oil of 
hops does not possess such untiseptic properties. A peculiar tannin, called 
humuli-tnnnir acid, was found to be present in hops to the extent of 2 to 5 per 
cent (v. Wagner, 18.53, and Etti, 1876). A crystallizable alkaloid was believed by 
Lermer to exist in hops, although Gresshoff (1887) established its absence in 
lupulin (see Fliickiger, Phnrmacorinosie, 1891). In this connection, the nature of 
the poi.«oiious, crvstallizal)le substance abstracted by F. Davis from the green 
strobiles of hops "with ether (Pharm. Jour. Trans., 1886, Vol. XVIII, p. 20). prob- 
ably deserves further investigation. Other constituents are: Wax (about 10 per 
cent in lupu'in), chlorophyll, dextrose (3 per cent, by Griessmayer, 1874), a.-tpara- 
i/ine (I per cent, Bungener and Fries, Amer. Jour. Pharm., 1886, p. 91), trimethylatn- 
'ine and choline (C,H,[0H].V[CH3],0H), lupuline of Griessmayer, 1874); oi' the 
latter base, Griess and Harrow obtained from hops 0.02 jjcr cent; diluted aqueous 
solutions of this substance dissolve comparatively large amounts of ^o;) resin, pro- 
ducin<r an intensely bitter solution. (Also see Lupulinum for special jwints.) 

Action, Medical Uses, and Dosage. — Hops are tonic, hypnotic, febrifuge, 
antilitbic, an 1 anthtlinintic. Their tonic and anthelmintic properties are small, 
and ]irnlialily depend u])iin their bitterness; they pos.sess no antiperiodic virtues. 
Sometimes tliey cause diuresis, and are said to correct lithic arid deposits. They 
are priieipuliy used for their sedative or hypnotic action — producing sleep, remov- 
ing restlessness, and abating pain, but which they often fail to accomplish. A 
]>illow stutl'ed with hops has long been a popular remedy for procuring sleej). 
Hops, as well as lupulin, are useful in delirium tremens to allay the morbid excite- 
ment and vigilance, while at the same time it exerts its stomachic effects. It 
is extremely elficient in dijxpefiKin where restlessness and a brooding disposition 
are prominent feature.*. Fermeutalire di/spc/isia, with con.seouent eructations, 
often yields to hops or lupulin. Externally, in the form of a tomentation alone, 
or coiTibined with boneset or other bitter herbs, hoi>s have jirnved beneficial in 



1000 HYDRANGEA. 

pneutnonia, pleurisy, yastritus, enteritis ; also as an application to painful swellings or 
tumors. An ointment made by boiling 2 parts of stramonium leaves and 1 of hops, 
in lard, has proved an effectual application \n. erzema, ulcers, HTui pninftd t'unons. 

Lupulin exerts a more certain influence than hops, and should be preferred 
for internal use, as the dose is much less bulky. The properties here ascribed to 
hops are possessed by lupulin, and the conditions benefited by lupulin are also 
those in which hops act beneficially. The subject will be further discussed under 
Lupulin (see Liqndinum). 

The decoction of hops is seldom employed. Ale, porter, and beer are fre- 
quently administered in cases of debility in the absence of inflammatory symp- 
toms, as tonic, stimulant, and nutritive agents. fFor specific indications see 
Lupulinum.) 

HYDRANGEA.— HYDRANGEA. 

The root of Hydrangea arhnrescens, Linne {Hydrnngcd vulgaris, Michaux and 
Pursh). 

Nat. Ord. — Saxifragacea-. 

CoMMo.N' Names: Seven harks, WiM hydrangea. 

Botanical Source. — This plant is the Hydrangea vulgaris of Michaux and 
Pursh. It is an indigenous shrub, smooth, or nearly so, attaining the height of 
5 or 6 feet, with opposite, petiolale leaves, wliieh are ovate, obtuse at the base, 
rarely cordate, acuminate, serrate-dentate, nearly smooth, and green on both 
sides. The flowers are often all fertile, numerous, small, white, becoming roseate, 
and borne in fastigiate cymes. The calyx tube is hemispherical, 8 or 10-ribbed, 
and coherent with the ovary; the limb 4 or 5-toothed, and persistent ; the petals 
ovate and sessile; the stamens 8 or 10, and slender; the capsule crowned with the 
2 divergent styles, 2-celled below, and opening by a foramen between the styles; 
and the seeds are numerous (W. — G.). 

History and Description.— This elegant shrub grows abundantly in the 
southern, and middle-western states, in mountains and hills, and on rocks and 
near streams. The bark is rough, pealing ofl' — each layer being of a difl^erent 
color, and which has probably given origin to the name "seven barks." It is 
quite common in the Susquehanna and Schuylkill valleys, and its flowers are 
often met with in bouquets in the markets of Philadelphia. The rout is the part 
that has been employed. It is firmed of numerous radicles, sometimes not larger 
than a goose-quill, and again half an inch or more in diameter, and of consider- 
able length. These proceed from a caudex, which sends upward numerous diver- 
gent branches. When fresh, the root and stalks are very succulent, containing 
much water, and can easily be cut, and the root likewi.se contains a great deal 
of mucilage, with albumen and starch. When dry they are very tough and 
resistent, and exceedingly difficult to bruise or cut, hence they should be bruised 
while fresh, or which is better, cut into short transverse sections, which facilitates 
the drying. The bark of the dried root has a rather pungent, aromatic, not dis- 
agreeable taste, somewhat similar to that of cascarilla bark. The stalks contain 
a pith which is easily removed, and they are used in some parts of the country 
for pipe-stems. 

Chemical Composition.— Mr. Joseph Laidley,'of Richmond, Va.(^4Hi<T.Jbur. 
Pharm., 1852, p. 20), found the root to contain gum, albumen, starch, resin, and 
inorganic salts. It was subsequently analyzed by Jos. Baur {ibid.,lSSl, p. 157 1. 
who found, in addition, probable indications of an alkaloid and a crystallizablc 
body. A glucosid, hydrangin, fluorescing with opal-blue color in alkaline solution, 
was obtained later by C. S. Bondurant (,.4»i<r. Jour. Phami., 1887, p. 123). It forms 
star-like masses of crystals, soluble in ether and alcohol, and when treated with 
diluted acids, sjilits into grape sugar and a resinous body. Acids destroy the 
fluorescence. Sugar, saponin, several resins, fixed and volatile oils (2.28 per cent), 
and starch (7.28 per cent) were also found. Sulphur is a constituent of the 
volatile oil. Contrary to Baur's statement, no tannin was found. Mr. H.J. M. 
Schroeter {Amer. .Iciir. Pliann., ISSD, p. 117) obtained a yield of O.OS per cent of 
In/ilninqin, for which he established the formula C„H.^O|pand found th'> molting 
point to be 228° C. (442.4° F.\ 



HYnitAUiiYUI (.IILOKIDIM COUUojJlVlM. 10()l 

Therootof if i/<^ra»(/(aj/ant<«/rt/((,var.pr(in(/j^oro, a shrub frequently cultivated 
in the northern and iiiiildle states, was analyzed quite rt>rently (A.G. Luebert, 
Amer. Jour. Pharm., 1898, p. 550). A glueosidal, crystallizalile nrinciple was ob- 
tained, nieltintj at 178° C. (.■^52.4° F. ), and probably not identical with the hydrnn- 
ijin n{ Bonduraiit. The name 7"/ (<(-/( i/'/'vi »(///! is suggested for this substance. 

Action, Medical Uses, and Dosage.— This plant w as introduced to the pro- 
fession by l>r. S. \V. I>utl< r, of Burliiiu'ton, N. J., as a remedy for the removal of 
riilrulou.<! or (irdvrlhj (I, jio.sils in tfif hliuUh i\ and for relieving the excruciating pain 
attendant on the passing of a calculus through the ureter; and from reports 
made, it certainly deserves a full and thorough investigation. The power of cur- 
ing or dissolving stone in the bladder is not claimed for it; it is only while the 
deposits are small, when in that forui of the disease known as grarcl, that it is an 
elhcieut remedy; then by removing the nucleus, which, if allowed to remain in 
the organ, would increase in size and form stone, the disease is averted, and when 
employed at this stage, it is said to have proved beneficial in every instance, and 
as many as 120 calculi have been known to come from one person under the use 
of this remedy. The efleet of the plant. Dr. Butler states, is to remove, by its 
own specific action on the bladder, such deposits as may be contained in that 
viscus, j)rovided they are small enough to pass through the urethra. Thus it has 
chieHy an eliminatory action rather than any power to dissolve gravel. By its 
soothing action it relieves vesical and urethral irritation. Probably its greatest 
value lies in its power of preventing the formation of alkaline and phosphatic 
deposits. The former mode of using it was to prepare a concentrated syrup of it 
with sugar or honey, and give a tea-spoonful 3 times a day. Now specific hydran- 
gea, in doses of 5 to 30 drops, 3 times a day, preferably in hot water, or a simple 
decoction of the root to be taken freely are preferred. If taken in overdo.ses it will 
produce some unpleasant symptoms, as dizziness of the head, oppression of the 
chest, etc. It is a good remedy in acute nqihritis. The leaves of hydrangea are said 
by Dr. Eoff to be tonic, sialagogue, cathartic, and diuretic. The specific hydrangea 
and fluid extract of hydrangea are principally used in the earthy deposits, as 
phosphates of calcium, ammonium, and magnesium, in alkaline urine, and in 
rhronic ghd, and mucmis irrilntina of the bladder in aged persons. Its alterative 
powers, chiefly due to its washing away of strumous and other unhealthy products, 
are not to be underrated. It is not without some value in hrnncho-pulmonic affec- 
tions, relieving irritation ; also in some forms oi gnstric irritatioi). 

Specific Indications and Uses. — Vesical and urethral irritation, with grav- 
elly deposits; dithcult urination; bloody urine; deep-seated renal pain; hepatic 
pain ; irritation of bronchial tract. It improves the nutrition of the urinary 
mucous tissues. 

Preparation of Hydrangea.— Lithiated HvDn.\NGE.\. This specialty of the Lambert 
Pharuuical t'o.,i't St. l.ouis. Mo, is a compound of fresh hydrangea and benzo-salicylate of 
litliium, prepared liy special proce.'*s. It is employed in renal and cystic affections, viz. : 
I.UIiuria, goat, rheumatism, ciilculun, diabeits, cystitis, and vesical irrtlation. The dose is from 1 to 2 
fluid drachms, 4 times a day, preferably between meals. 

HYDRARGYRI CHLORIDUM CORROSIVUM (U. S. P.) 
CORROSIVE MERCURIC CHLORIDE. 

FoRMUL.\: HgCl,. MoLEciLAR Weight: 270.54. 

Sy.sf).N VMS : Corrosive chloride of mercury, Corrosive sublimate, Hydrargyri jicrr/i/n 
ridnin. I'crrhloride of mercunj. Bichloride of vurcury. Chloride of mercury. Corrosive 
miiriiite of mcrcun/, Oiymurinte of vicrrury, Hydrnrgyrum muridticum corrosivuiii, 
llydrargyruvi con-OKivum snhlimatum, Ilydranjyri hichloridum, Mcrcurins suhlivuitUM 
rorrosivux, Sublimatum corrosivutii, Sublimatus corrosivin', Chloruretuiii (Chloretum) 
hydrnrqyrirum. Mercuric chloride. 

"Corrosive mercuric chloride should be kept in well stoppered bottles" — 

(CS.P.K 

Preparation. -"Take of persulphate of mercury, 20 ounces (av.) ; chloride 
of sodium, dried, UJ ounces (av.); black oxide of manganese, 1 ounce (av.). Re- 
duce the persulphate of mercury and the chloride of sodium, each, to line jiowder, 



1002 HYURARGYRI ( HLURIDIM COKROSIVUM. 

and, having mixed them and the oxide of manganese thoroughly b}' trituration 
in a mortar, put the mixture into an apparatus adapted for sublimation, and 
apply sufficient heat to cause vapors of perchloride of mercury to rise into the 
less heated part of the apparatus which has been arranged for their condensa- 
tion"— (Br. Pharm.'). 

Double decomposition takes place thus: HgS0,-|-2NaCl=HgCl,+Na,S0.. 
Any inercurous compound that may contaminate the mercuric sulpiiate, and any 
iiiercurous chloride generated during this process, are converted into mercuric 
chloride b}' the chlorine generated from the action of the manganese dioxide 
<'niployed upon the sodium chloride. This process differs from the U. S. P. 
(1870) in the employment of an already prepared mercuric sulphate, and in the 
introduction of the manganese salt. 

Description. — Mercuric chloride, when obtained by sublimation, forms in 
beautiful white, semitransparent masses, composed of very small prismatic 
needles. It has the specific gravity 5.14 to 5.42. In the light it becomes reduced. 
first to mercurous chloride (calomel), and finally to the metallic state. Its incom- 
patibles are alkalies and their carbonates, tartar emetic, sulphide of potassium, 
soaps, albumen, iron, copper, lead, metallic mercury, vegetable substances con- 
taining tannic acid, etc. It is officially described a"s " heavy, colorless, rhombic 
crystals, or crystalline masses, odorless, and having an acrid and persistent, metal- 
lic taste; permanent in the air. Soluble, at 15° C. (59° F.), in 16 parts of water, 
and in 3 parts of alcohol, in 2 parts of boiling water, 1.2 parts of boiling alcohol, 
4 parts of ether, and about 14 parts of glycerin. It fuses at 26-5° C. (509° F.) to a 
colorless liquid, and at about 300° C. (572° F.) it volatilizes in dense, white 
vapors, leaving no residue. The aqueous solution reddens blue litmus paper, but 
becomes neutral to litmus on the addition of sodium chloride. With ammonia 
water it yields a white precipitate; with an excess of hydrogen sulphide a black 
one; with ]iotassium iodide T.S. a red one, soluble in an excess of the reagent; 
and with silver nitrate T.S. a white precipitate, insoluble in nitric acid" — 
{U. S. P.). The white precipitate produced in solutions of corrosive sublimate by 
ammonia water, has the composition HgCl.NHj; the analogous precii>itate produced 
in solutions of mercurous salts with ammonia water, is black. Mercuric chloride 
is easily reduced to insoluble mercurous chloride (calomel) by such reducing 
agents as sulphurous acid or stannous chloride. An excess of the latter reagent will 
further reduce the calomel formed to metallic mercurv. The reactions involved 
are as follows: 2HgCl.,-^SnCl.,==Hg,Cl,-fSnCl, and Hg,CI,+ SnCL--Hg,+SnCl.. 
Mercuric chloride forms crystallizable double salts with the chlorides of potas- 
sium, sodium, and ammonium, and also combines with hydrochloric acid. The 
Alemhruth Salt of the alchemists was a mixture obtained by evaporating to dryness 
a solution of equal weights of mercuric chloride and ammonium chloride. 

Tests. — "If a saturated, acjueous solution of the salt be heated nearly to boil- 
ing, then completely saturated with hydrogen sulphide, and allowed to stand for 
several hours in a well-corked flask, it should yield a colorless filtrate, which, on 
evaporation, should leave no residue (absence of many foreign salts). If the pre- 
cipitated mercuric sulphide obtained in the last test he washed with water, then 
shaken for a few minutes with ammonia water, and filtered, the filtrate shouM 
be colorless, and, on the addition of a slight excess of hydrochloric acid, should 
afford neither a yellow color, nor a yellow precipitate (absence of arsenic)" — 
(['. S. P.). The presence of calomel (mercurous chloride) in corrosive sublimate 
is recosrnized by an insoluble residue being left upon dissolving in water, this 
residue tuniint,' l)lack with ammonia water. 

Action and Toxicology.— In this article the action of the mercurials in een- 
eral will first be given, followed by such special statements as apply to individual 
members of the group. In the metallic state mercury is inert as a medicine, except 
when in a state of minute division; but its oxides and other comiwunds possess 
exceedingly active projjerties. Metallic mercury, undivided, may be taken in con- 
siderable amount, acting by its weight merely as a purgative. If, however, it l>e 
retained in the intestinal tract so a< to form soluble salts, or if in prolonged contact 
with the skin, it will produce the con.'<titutional effects. Thus the blue ointment 
and mercurial plaster have caused alarming symptoms. The vapor of metallic 
mercury is exceedingly poisonous. Mnrrel' ree.T.N :in a'-rouiit of the wrei-king, 



HYDUAIKiYKl fHI.OIUDrM CORROSIVrM. 1003 

near Cadiz, of a vessel, and the recovery of several tons of quicksilver by the crew 
of an English man-of-war, whereby '200 of the crew were sickened, with 2 fatali- 
ties, besides the destruction of animals, fowls, and roaches, all in consequence of 
the rotting of the sacks containing the metal. From the vapors from a fire in 
the quicksilver mines at Idria, ovt-r 9lX) individuals residing in the vicinity were 
attacked with trembles. 

Almost all the mercurial preparations act in the same way, possessing siala- 
^'ogue, deobstruent, alterative, etc., properties, the character and degree of which 
are frequently diminished or augmented by the peculiar agents in coml)ination 
with them. These eflects, however, are rarely increased physiological effects, but 
pathological in character. Bartholow, in considering the action of the mercurials 
upon the glandular system, very properly observes that " these actions of mercury 
should not be regarded as a physiological stinnilation of the intestinal glands, in 
the sense that the foods are stimulant to these organs. The action is pathological, 
and the products of the action are pathological" {Mat. Med, p. 248). The mercu- 
rials, when long continued, and, in many instances but few doses, with some very 
susceptible constitutions, induce a succession of very serious symptoms, as ema- 
ciation, general debility, oedema, tremor of the limbs, diseased liver, pain in the 
bones, caries, palsy, ulcerations of the pharynx and other parts, gangrenous 
ulceration of the mouth and face, and a sort of scorbutic marasmus. It likewise 
occasionally produces a febrile condition of tlie system, with profound prostration 
{mercurial ereihisiv), profuse perspiration, several forms of cutaneous disease, as 
eczema, herpes, inflammation orcongestion of the eye, fauces, or peritoneum, nodes, 
enlargement of the inguinal, a.xillary, mesenteric, parotid, pancreatic, etc., glands, 
together with various painful and nervous attacks. It was introduced to the 
medical profession by the notorious Paracelsus. 

The modus operandi of the mercurials is not well understood In the stomach 
it probably forms an albuminate, which, though insoluble in water, is readily 
dissolved by chloride of sodium and by an excess of albumen. Minute doses are 
said to increase the red blood discs; large doses destroy the blood discs, reduce 
fibrin, and poison the heart. Mercurials have a special affinity for the glandular 
structures. This is well marked in its action upon the salivary glands. The former 
practice of "touching tiie gums," or producing profuse salivation (mercurial ptya- 
lism), has been, largely through the stand taken by the Eclectic school, aban- 
doned. This disagreeable condition, which formerly produced untold misery, 
exhibited itself in its worst form by an enormous increase of thick, ropy, albu- 
minous saliva, subsequently becoming thin and watery, and amounting to several 
l)int3 in a day. Then followed extensive ulceration, or gangrenous stomatitis of 
the cheeks and adjacent structures, with tender and swollen glands, sloughing of 
the cheek and gum, allowing the teeth to fall out and the jaw to become carious.^ 
Practical medicine has no greater stain upon her escutcheon than the memory of 
the horrors of acute mercurialism, as formerly practiced. So profound was the con- 
dition of mrrcurinl carhexia, fn/drargi^m, or mercurial ere(hi.«m from continued doses 
of these drugs, that profound marasmus, anemia, and excessive purging soon led 
the victim to an untimely grave. This condition was frequently accompanied by 
the mercurial tremor, neuralgia, paralysis, or epileptiform convulsions. Scrofu- 
lous individuals and those latioring under renal affections are said to be more 
susceptible to the untoward action of the mercurials, while children are less 
readily salivated. 

Artisans who are employed as gilders, and who work in looking-gla.ss, ther- 
mometer, and barometer factories, and miners of quicksilver, are afflicted with 
a somewhat different form of mercurialism, marked features of which are pros- 
tration and anemia, mercurial fever, pustular or vesicular eruptions, jerky, stam- 
mering speech, convulsions, and particularly a peculiar form of muscular weak- 
ness denominated "the trembles." These tremors (or "shaking nal.«y") manifest 
themselves first in the upper limbs, then in the legs, and finally in the trunk. 
They are readily brought on, gradually increase in extent ami severity, and are 
quite persistent and uncontrollable. The prehensile movements lack precision 
and the lower extremities, in walking, tremble as if strung on wires. (For a 
graphic account of this condition, see Murrell's Manual of Materia Medica and 
TherapciUicM, ]8tl6, J). 204.) 



1004 HYDEAEGYPJ CHLOEIDUM CORKOSIVUM. 

Before the vigorous fight of the Eclectics against the mercurials as chola- 
gogues, it was the prevailing opinion that these salts, particularly calomel, increased 
the natural secretions of the liver, thereby causing an augmented flow of bile. 
Reliable experimentation by several old school observers has proved the claims of 
our practitioners to be largely true. While it is still admitted by some that cor- 
rosive sublimate is slightly stimulant to the liver, the majority deny even to 
this salt cholagogue powers. That calomel has no such action is now univer- 
sally acknowledged. If an increased flow of bile into the intestinal canal does 
take place under the action of the mercurial, it is caused, as with croton oil, 
by the reflex contraction of the gall-bladder and duct, due to the duodenal irri- 
tation produced. This is the view held by Bartholow, among others. The long- 
continued use of mercury has caused an altered biliary secretion, and has even 
checked hepatic activity. 

Briefly, the distinctive eSects, aside from the general mercurial impression, 
of mercury and its chief salts, are as follows: Metallic mercury, undivided is a 
mechanical purgative; in a divided state, as in gray powder, blue mass, and blue 
ointment, it becomes an active agent capable of all the untoward efiects of this 
class of agents. Blue pill readily causes salivation, calomel less frequently. The 
general action of calomel closely resembles that of mercury in the divide"d state. 
Calomel probably passes for the most part into the intestines, where the alkaline 
secretions convert it into oxide of mercury. Mercuric chloride, mercuric iodide, 
mercuric cyanide, and mercuric nitrate are exceedingly energetic and toxic 
agents. Some of the mercurials, particularly the corrosive chloride and the bin- 
iodide are energetic germicides. The anthrax spores are destroyed by the tirst iu 
a solution of 1 to 1000. 

Taken internally, corrosive sublimate is an active, corrosive poison, acting 
very quickly, and producing in over-doses a coppery, metallic taste, and violent 
burning pain in the mouth, throat, oesophagus, and stomach; great ditliculty of 
swallowing, sense of suflTocation, nausea, violent vomiting, increased by everv- 
thing taken into the stomach; the pain soon becomes diffused over the whole 
abdomen, which becomes very sensitive to pressure; violent purging, often of 
blood; gre'at anxiety; flushed (occasionally pale), and even swollen countenance; 
restlessness; pulse quick, small, and contracted; cold sweats; burning thirst; 
short and laborious breathing; urine frequently suppressed; and finally stupor, 
coma, convulsive movements, partial paralysis, or paraplegia, and death. Faint- 
ing often precedes death. Sometimes before death ensues, if time enough has 
elapsed, there may be profuse salivation, ulceration of the mouth, fetor of the 
breath, and other secondary mercurial symptoms. The mouth and oesophagus 
appear whitish, as if having been painted with silver nitrate solution (Taylor). 
On inspection after death, the membranes of the mouth, throat, and ctsophagus 
are softened and whitish or bluish-gray, and show marked inflammation, while 
the stomach and bowels will be found excessively inflamed, sometimes with 
patches of ulceration or gangrene. (Arsenic lesions are confined chiefly to the 
stomach and bowels.) Corrosive sublimate poisoning differs from arsenical poi- 
soning in the metallic taste produced, in the violent symptoms almost imme- 
diately occurring, and in the evacuations being more often mixed with blood. 
If death is produced quickly, the symptoms closely resemble those of cholera; if 
several days elapse before death, the symptoms are more like dysenterv, with vio- 
lent tenesmus and shreddy, blood-mixed mucous discharges (Taylor, Med. Juris.). 

In poisoning by corrosive sublimate, death may not take place for several 
days. Such cases may show a total inactivity of the renal organs. Death usually 
occurs in from 1 to 6 days, though it mav occur earlier or later, having l>een 
known to take })lace in less than i hour. The smallest dose known to have killed 
(a child), is 3 grains; it is thought tlial from 3 too grains or less will kill an adult 
(Taylor). Death may occur from the external application of tlie drug to tumor^ 
ulcers, etc.; and soritnis symptoms have followed from the use of the .solutions 
even when the skin is un)>roken. 

In the bodies of persons, who, during life had employed mercury or some of 
its preparations, either internallv or externally, metallic mercury has been found, 
as in the bones, brain, pleura, liver, cellular" tissue, lungs, kidneys, etc. It has 
also been detected in the secretions of patients who were under its influence, as in 



HYDRAKOYin CHLORIDrXl CoUItoSn TM. 1005 

the perspiration, urine, saliva, l>iie, gastro-intoetinal secretions, and in the fluids 
of ulcers. The salivation and gangrenous inflammation of the mouth occasioned 
by mercurials are best overcome by astringent infusions, as tincture of myrrli, 
both taken internally and used as a gargle, and the administration of chlorate of 
pot;issium. Its constitutional eflects are best remedied by vegetable alteratives 
with iodide of potassium, tonics, attention to the excretions, malic acid, exercise, 
etc.; though it is rarely the case that a perfect recovery of liealth ensues where 
the system has sufiered considerably from the eflects of tiie mercury. 

In the treatment of cases of poisoning by corrosive sublimate, the antidotes 
must be given promptly, without the least delay. Thus the white and yolks of 
eggs, well beaten with water; milk, or a niixture of wheat flour, oat-meal, or bar- 
ky-meal, and water; these f(-rm a compound whose chemical action on the tis- 
sues are slight when compared w ith that of the poison. One egg is said to be 
required for every 4 grains of corrosive sublimate swallowed. The above, as well 
as mucilaginous ^rauiihts should be given freely until relief is aSbrded ; and as 
soon as possible the stomach sliouUl be evacuated by the stomach-pumj), and like- 
wise be well washed out. Chemical antidotes, or those which decompose the poi- 
son, or form harmless compounds with it, should also be used, as a mixture of 2 
parts of very fine iron filings, and 1 of fine zinc filings, which is said to reduce 
the corrosive sublimate to the metallic state; or, the hydrated sulphide of iron, 
which completely destroys the poisonous quality of the mercurial salt, if given 
witiiin 10 or 15 minutes after it nas been swallowed. After the poi.sonous symp- 
toms have been overcome, any inflammation which may remain, must be treated 
on general principles. 

Medical Uses and Dosage. — Mercury and its preparations have been little 
employed by Eclectic pliysicians, and have even been absolutely proscribed by 
many menil>ers of the Eclectic school. While it is true that the use of the drug 
has been discouraged by the teachers and writers of our school, it is also true 
that their ground of opposition is well taken, for these are drugs so pernicious in 
their etil-ets, as ordinarily employed, that their abuse should be strongly guarded. 
They should only be used when the S])ecific indications for their employment can 
be unmistakably pointed out. Therefore it is desirable that we reiterate what has 
been declared again and again by the leaders and teachers of the Eclectic school, 
that it is not the «•?<", but the o^!<*e of mercury to which objection is made. The 
earlier Eclectics, many of whom would not use mercury in any form, sought to 
find Buljstitutes for the mercurials (as with podophyllin, etc.,for hepatic disor- 
ders), for, as stated by Prof. King in the original preface to the American Dispensa- 
tory (\>. 8>, "there is no siugleremedy known to man which has produced agreater 
amount of mischief by its indiscriminate use than mercury ; nor is there any other 
drug which has done one-hundredth part as much to create a prejudice against 
scientitic medicine, to destroy the confidence of the community in its practition- 
ers, and to repel them from the physicians to the nostrum dealer." That the 
Eclectic fathers were justified in their objections to the viciously injudicious em- 
ployment of mercurials prevalent in regular medicine in the early days of our 
school, is now evident from the position taken by many of the most conspicuous 
old school authors of to-day, and by the very conservative use of the drug at 
present by old school physicians, as well as by their kindlier feelings toward 
their professional brethren, whose opinions relating to some problems in therapy 
do not agree with their own. In referring to the medical uses of the preparations 
of mercury, unless attention is called to Eclectic authority, the reader is to under- 
stand that the uses given in this work are in accordance with the authorities 
of the regular school, and are designed to give scientific information concern- 
ing a class of preparations we can do without or replace by better and more 
kindly remedies. 

Corrosive sublimate is little used by Eclectic practitioners, either as an inter- 
nal or external remedy. Nor is its use as extensive among allopathic practition- 
ers as it was some years back. In fact, in reviewing the old school works upon 
[)ractice and materia medica of the past and present, one is struck with the com- 
parative conservatism in the use of these jireparations as compared with former 
times. Corrosive sublimate has been employed as an alterative in ciitnneom, srrnfu- 
/■lie, .and rh'umatic dixeascs, nervous disorders, ditvnxcs nj the lione", in ohslinate jmrriijo. 



1006 IIYDRARfiYRI CHLORIDCM CORROSIVl'M. 

aciu, and other eruptions on the face, etc. It was, however, more generally admin- 
istered, and is still largely used in the treatment oi syphilitic maladies. Atthe pres- 
ent day, besides its use in syphilis, it is advocated internally in gustri/- ulcer, to pro- 
mote cicatrization and internally and locally in diphlheria. Murrell advises its use 
(1 grain to 10 fluid ounces of water; dose, 1 teaspoonful every hourj, in inJuviHe 
diarrhcea with green, slimy, offensive stools. Externally, it is the chief antiseptic 
agent for use as a germicide, being used more largely for that purpose than any 
other drug by these practitionerir. It destroys pcdiruli, and in the form of solu- 
tion or ointment is largely employed in pnra>^itic skin affertions, in orue, piiyriniiix, 
chloasma, freckles, gonorrhmi, pruritLs vulvie, in the treatment oiunumh, and in gen- 
eral surgical, gynecological, and obstetrical manipulations. (For a more detailed ac- 
count of its employment by the old school profession, consult any "regular'' 
materia medica.) The solutions employed for general antiseptic purposes should 
never be stronger than 1 in 2000. Solutions of 1 to 10,000 in vaginal injections 
during operations have produced violent toxic effects. Death has resulted from 
solutions of 1 to 1500 employed in surgical operations. Many fatalities have 
occurred from its employment even in dilutions of 1 to 6000, when used in the 
peritoneal cavity and in other operations ou the viscera. Used in this way it fre- 
quently produces albuminuria. For these reasons, corrosive sublimate solutions 
are rarely used by Eclectic surgeons. 

Internally, corrosive sublimate has been emploj'ed to some extent by Eclec- 
tic physicians. Prof. Scudder, who opposed its use chiefly because of the lack of 
discrimination on the partof physicians, believed that if rightly studied, mercury 
might fill a valuable place in medicine, but only in chronic cases {Sper. Med., p. 179). 
He stated that if he were administering it, he would be guided by the small, con- 
tracted, elongated, and pointed tongue, of natural or more than usual degree of 
redness, with prominent papilla?. The urine should be of normal specific gravity, 
depositing no sediment, the lijjs of good color, the circulatiiin good, and the skin 
elastic. He declared the mercurials were contraindicated by a pale mouth and 
tongue with absence of papilla?, pale and full fauces, tonsils, and palate, shiny red 
spots over the tongue, pallid, expressionless face, full lips, and increased secretion 
of saliva. 

Prof. H. T.Webster advocates the use of corrosive sublimate ox (adults) to 
6x trituration (children), in 2-grain doses every 2 or 3 hours, for its effects upon 
■ the mucous membrane of the colon, the vitality of which has been impaired by 
long-continued inflammation in chronic cholera infantum and dy.^'cntery. llcers of 
the colon and rectum form, the evacuations are semipurulent, and convalescence 
lingering. Here he claims that it lessens the pain and tenesmus, checks the 
evacuations, and restores normal energy to the parts. 

Externally, solutions of corrosive sublimate have been advised asacoUyrium 
(1 to 10<X) to 1 to 10,000), in various affections of the eye, as ophthalmia neonatorum, 
acute c<iUirrh(d conjunctivitis, phlychtenular conjunctivitis, keratitis, xcra-^is, trachoma, 
Inchrynud blcnorrhcea, and hypopyon keratitis (Foltz). Corneal opacitits have resulted 
from its local use. Foltz employs j^ to ^'j grain doses in syphditic eye disorders. 
In ear disorders he advises internally ^^ to ^^ grain doses in (ryphditic suppura- 
tive otitis media, and in internal ear affections. Washes (I to 1000 to 1 to 4000) 
have been recommended in suppurative otitis media, furuncles, diffu.^ otitis media. 
and in operations for mastoid disease. A wash composed of solutions of borax 
and corrosive sublimate is asserted signally useful in the treatment of nocks. 
fissures, and other sons affecting the face, corners of the mouth, behind the ears, 
etc., in children. The ordinary doses of mercuric chloride range from -jV to i 
grain. The dose preferred by Webster is 2 grains of the 3x trituration for adults, 
and of the 6x trituration for children. 

Yellow \yASH (Lotio Flava), used as an application to venerfnl, scrofulou*, and 
phagedenic tdcers, is prepared by adding 2 or 3 grains of corrosive sublimate to a 
fluid ounce of lime-water. When employed, it should be well shaken and used in 
the turbid state. 

Specific Indications and Uses.— Tongue small, contracted, elongated, and 
pointed, and of normal color, or of increased redness, and prominent papilla-; 
urine must be normal in specific gravity and deposit no sediment: cin-ulation 
good; lii)s of good color, and skin elastic (Scudder). Impaired mucous mem- 



IlYKKAlUiVKl I lIUtUlUlM (.UKKoSlVr.M. 1(X)7 

brane of colon and loctuiu in chronic dysent'-ry and cholera iiifantuin. with 
ulceration, pain, ttiiisiiius, and semipurulent discharges (Webster). 

Mercury and Mercurial Compounds.— Hydrargyrum (U.IS. P.), iVercwy, Quicksilier, 
Argnilnin viruin, Ilyilritiiii/mm rinun, Mtrcurius vifus. Symbol: Hg. Atomic Weight: 199.8. 
MiToiiry often occui-s iii a luilive slate, but it is met witli more abunilantly in the form of 
c-innaUar, or sulphide of mercury. It is also nut with, altliuugh rarely, in the form of an 
amnl^ram, iu combination with gold and silver, aLso in the lurui oi niereuruu^ chloride, and in 
certain copper ores. The hulk of mercury conie.« from .Vluuulen, Spain, and New .Ahnaden, 
California. Idria, in .Vustria, likewise furnishes it, a.s well as mines iu China, Japau, Ten;, 
ete. The pnxiess for obtaining pure mercury from its sulphide is very simple. The cinnabar 
ore is mixed with half its weight of lime, and then di.stilled in iron retorts. Mercury distilLs 
over, and the sulphide of calcium remains in the retort. .Vt Idria, in .Vustria, and Almaden, 
in Spain, the ore is roasted. I)y which the sulpliur is converted into siilphtirous acid, and the 
mercury is volatilized and condensed in suitable apparatus. This is the process most generally 
employed. The mercury thus ohtained is shipped in cylindrical iron tiasks, holding about 
75 pounds. The I'. S. J', directs that "mercury should be kept in strong, well-stoppered 
bottles," and describes it as "a shining, silver-white metal, without odor or taste. It is liquid 
at the ordinary temperature, and easily divisible into spherical globules; but, when cooled to 
—39.38° C. I — i5S.S8° F.), it forms a ductile, malleable mass. Specific gravity 13..5584 at 1.5° C. 
(59° F.). Insoluble in the onlinary solvents, also in concentrated hydrochloric acid, and, at 
common temperatures, in sulphuric acid; but it dissolves in the latter, when hoiled with it, 
and is readily and completely soluble in nitric acid. At ordinary temperatures it volatilizes 
very slowly, more rapidly as the temperature increases, and at :)r>7.2')° C. (675.0.5° V.) it boils, 
and is con'ipletely volatilized, yielding a colorless mid ver\ |.iiisonous vapor. When globules 
of mercury are "driipp,d upin'i white jiaper, tin > sli 'uM I'll almut freely, retaining their 
globular form, and leMvini; Mi>streaks or traces, li sh.iiM In- p. riectly dry and presenta bright 
surface. On boiling .'i tiiii. of imrcury with .'i (V. nt water and 4.-T"(;ni. of sodium hyposul- 
phite, in a test-tiihe, lor about 1 luiiiii'te. the mercury shouUl not lose its luster, and should 
not acquire more than a slightly vellowish sluule (absence of more than slight traces of 
foreign metids)"— ( ['. .S'. P.). .Mercury, wlien frozen, has the specific gravity 14.931, and 
crystallizes in octahedra. Mercury is not altered by being kept under water, but its surface 
becomes gradually tarnished when exposed to the action of tbe air, becoming covered with 
a black oxide, especially when impure. In order to purify it for certain scientific purposes, 
e. g., the making of barometers and thermometers, it must be redistilled. By this process 
such impurities aa lead and tin remain in the residue. It may also be purified by digesting 
100 parts of mercury for 3 days in 5 parts each of water and nitric acid, and subsequently 
washing it well with distilled water and drying it with bibulous paper; or the mercury is 
allowed to fail in a fine stream through a hiidi column of cliluted nitric acid iL. Meyer). 
Mercury combines with bromine, I I il • ; i;ii.Mixygcn,lead, phosphorus, sulphur, bismuth, 
arsi-nic, etc. Gold, silver, tin, ear :iil>iii( with it when cold, forming alloys called 

(iiiialyams. When heated in (i|m !i i i ts li..ilini; point, mercury unites with oxygen, 

firoducing the red oxide in scale- ^l i h ■- umi ,|, , i pose water; but if boiled in this 

iquid it aljsorbs sijj of its weight li i, maii I v, iih lai. or ajitated for a great length of time 
with water, it is divided to such a l.-i, , as p, 1 ,-. it- m. t ilia In-ter, and then forms a blackish 
powder, which is the metal in a stat.- oi -i, at Ai\ i-mh ■,,,.., ./i,./ or killed). 

Two oxides of mercury are knuwn, the hi^lur , Ilgi i ami lower (HgjO^and the two 
corresponding series of salts are known respectively as nurcuric anil iiiemirous compounds. 
All soluble compounds of mercury are poisonous, acid in reaction, and disagreeably metiillic 
to the taste. White is the usual color of the normal salts, while the basic compounds are 
yellow. .Veirwom salts form a white, insoluble precipitate with soluble chlorides (calomel), 
which turns black upon the addition of ammonia. They precipitate black with caustic potash 
or caustic soda, mercurous oxide (IlgjO) being formed." Mercuric salts precipitate yellow with 
caustic potash or caustic soda. They yield a scarlet precipitate, mercuric iodide (Hglj), if 
carefully added to solution of potassium iodide, but this precipitate dissolves iu excess of the 
latter reagent. 

Mercury, in combination with other substances, may be detected bv dissolving the 
substance in nitric acid; in the solution place a idece of bright copper, and after some time 
remove it, and rub it with a clean paper, when, if mercury be present, a silvery stain will he 
found on the cop|H-r, which is removeil by heat, and niay'bi' collected in a minute globule of 
qiii<'ksilver if the volatilization be conducte<l in a small" glass tube. If a strong .solution of 
iodi<le of potiissium be ad<led to a minute portion of any of the salts of mercury, placed on a 
clean, bright plate of copper, the mercurj' is immediately deposited in the metallic state, 
appearing as a silvery stain on the copper;" no other metal is deposite<l by the same means. 
The solution of mercury previous to the application of this test, must be concentrateil by 
evaporation ( A. Morgan," /Viarm. Jour, and Traw., XI, 372). -Vny solid mercury compound may 
be recognized by mixing It with drv sodium carbonate, placing tiie mixture into a small, dry 
glass tube closed at the bottom and heating over a tlame. The mercury will then be set free, 
anrl will collect at the colder part of the tube in the form of minute globules. In addition to 
its chemical and pharmaceutical uses, merciirv iseinploved extensively for a variety of pur- 
poses, viz., the extraction of gold and silver froni tli.ir ore"s by the process known as .imn/^nmn- 
limi; in electrolvtic processes; in the manufacture of iihysleal apparatus, such as barometers, 
thermometers, and mercury air pumps; in tlie form of amalgams in the making of mirrors, cic. 



1008 HYDKAKGYKI CHLORIDUM COKROSIVUM. 

IIydrargykum Cum Creta (U. S. P.), Mercury wilh chalk, ^thiops creiaceug. — " Mercury, 
tliirty-eight grammes (38 Gm.) [1 oz. av., 149 grs.J; clarified honey, ten grammes (10 Gm.) 
[154 grs.] ; prepared chalk, fifty-seven grammes (57 Gm.) [2 ozs. av., 5 grs.]; water, a sufficient 
quantity to make one hundred grammes (100 Gm.) [S ozs. av., 231 grs.]. Weigli the mercury 
and clarified honey successively into a strong bottle of the capacity of one hundred cubic cen- 
timeters (100 Co [3 fl,5, 183Ttl], and add two cubic centimeters (2 Cc.) [33111] o( water. 
Cork the bottle, and shake it for about half an hour at a time, until tlu- aggregate time of 
shaking reaches 10 hours, or until the globules of mercury are no longer visible under a lens 
magnifying 4 diameters. The shaking maybe more conveniently performed by mechanical 
means. Rub the prepared chalk with water, in a mortar, to a" thick, creamy paste, and, 
having added the contents of the bottle, washing the la.st portions in with a little water, 
triturate the whole to a uniform mixture. Finally ilry the mixture, first between ample layers 
of bibulous paper, and afterward in a capsule, at the ordinary temperature, until it weighs 
one hundred grammes (100 Gm.) [3 oz. av., 231 grs.]. Then reduce it to a uniform powder, 
without trituration, and keep it in well-stoppered bottles, protected from light" — ( I . S. P.). 
Mr. Francis Hemm {Amer. Jour. Pharm., 1894, p. 391) states that the process is not suitable to 
the wants of the retail pharmacist. 

Several methods have been devised for the preparation of this powder, but the official 
process above described is probably as efficient as any. It is based upon Squibb's succussion 
process. The Br. Pharm. employs i part of mercury and 2 parts of chalk, but excludes the 
honey. In this preparation the "mercury becomes minutely divided, with, perhaps, a conver- 
sion of a very little of it into mercurous oxide. It forms a powder of a gray color, which 
effervesces when diluted acids are added to it. When acetic acid is added, an insoluble 
precipitate remains, which is dissolved by diluted nitric acid, and consists principally of 
mercury. The substance under consideration is officially described as "a light gray, rather 
damp powder, free from grittiness, without odor, and having a slightly sweetish ta.«te. If a 
portion of the powder be digested with warm acetic acid, the chalk is dis.solved with efferves- 
cence, leaving a residue of finely divided mercury. The filtrate should not become more than 
slightly opalescent on the addition of a few drops of hydrochloric acid (limit of mercurous 
oxide '. If another portion of the powder be digested with warm, diluted hydrochloric aciti, 
the filtrate should not be afTected by hydrogen sulphide T. .S., or by stannous chloride T. S. 
(absence of mercuric oxide)"— ( K ,S'. P.). This salt is used as a laxative, cholagogue, and 
alterative (many prominent old school physicians deny it these properties), though it pro<luces 
all the deleterious constitutional effects of mercury, by continued use. It has been used in 
biliary dem lujeinents, sti-umom diseases, syphilis in infault, diarrhea, etc. The dose for an adult is 
from 5 to 10 or 20 grains, 1 or 2 times daily; to children from 1 to 3 grains. It may be given 
alone, in powder, or in combination with rhubarb, bicarbonate of sodium, or other compatible 
agents. Jonathan Hutchinson regards this as the best preparation of mercurj- for use in fyphilL'. 

Hydrargyrum Cum Magnesia, Mercttry with magnesia, is used in the same doses and for 
the same purposes as the preceding compound. It is prepared by triturating together the 
same as in the above, 1 part of mercury with 2 parts of carbonate of magnesium. 

Massa Hydrargyri ( r. iS. P.), .Uass of mercury, Blue mags, Blue pill. — (See Masm Hydrar- 
gyri.) Blue pill is used as an alterative, sialagogue, and purgative, and is said to be less 
irritating than the other mercurials. It has been used in c(,ni'll}>ation, biliary derangement, 
syphilitic diseases, and wherever it is desirable to bring the system under the influence of mer- 
cury. As an alterative, 2 or 3 grains are given daily, or on alternato days, liedtime being 
usually preferred for their administration. As a purgative and reputed cholagogue. the dose 
is from 1 to 3 pills, to betaken on going to bed; when thus given, it iscustomarj- to administer a 
dose of castor oil, infusion of senna, or other cathartic on the next morning, as recommende<l 
by At)crnitliy. Po cause salivation, from 3 to 5 grains, taken in the morning, and twice this 
quantity at iiedtirae, in conjunction with opium to prevent purging, is usually prescriU'd. 
Blue pill is frequently associated with other purgatives, as rhubarb, aloes, jalap, colocvntli, 
etc., also with quinine, antimony, or other agents, according to the indications to be fulfilled. 

Hydrargyri Cyanidum ( U. S. P.), Mercuric cyanide, Hydrargyri rtiamirftwn, i (". .V. P.. 1850', 
Cyamiref of merntni, Mercurim cyanalus {or Itoriissictis), Cyannrelvm hydrargyrirmii. Hydrtirgynnn 
borusstrii-'. I ',.„,,;, I,- .,f ■nn-mrii. I'nif!^intr of mercury, Bicyanide of mercury. Hg(CN)j — 251.76. — 
"Men 111 I ! h iiM !>,■ l;c|it in well-stoppered, dark amber-colored bottles" — l C.S. P."*. 

It nia\ ! I ' I n |.;ii,-.l liv .lis-, living red precipitate {Hvdraegyr^tvi aridum rnhnnn) in 

dilutr.l 1 II .\ 111. i.i.l, iili,riii._' Mild evaporating to cr\-stal"lization. thus: Hg<")4-2HC>>V- 
HjG • llu' ' N 1 .1 iN ;.i. |iarati<>n from ferrocyanide of jwtassium and nienniric snipliate. 

See dill. 1 1.. 11- 111 I . s. /., i^iO. I "(_'olorless or white, prismatic crystals. oilorU>R*. and having 
abitlci', iiu'iillir i:i-ii (ill. salt is exceeilingly ])oisonousl; beroroing dnrk-<"oloredi>ii «xi><isuie 
to light, s.iliihl,. at I'l ('. ."'ii'' V.) in 12.S parts of water, and in l.i parts of alctihol ; in 3 prirts 
of boiling water, and in (1 parts of boiling alcohol; vcrv sparingly soluble in itlu r. When 
slowly heated in a gla.ss tube, the salt decrepitates, and decomposes into metallic iiK'n-nry aii^l 
inflainmable cyanogen gas, which burns with a purple flame. On further heating, the blackish 
residue, consisting of i>ar!i-cyanogt>n with globules of metallic mercurj-. is wholly dissi|>i<le<l 
If 1 part of the salt be gentiv heated with 1 part of iodine in a drv tost-lnlv, it will affonl at 
first a yellow sublimate which afterward becomes red, and above tiiis a sublimate of <-<'l<irlet*. 
needle-shaped crystals will be formed. On adding hydrochloric nciil to the aqueous solution 
of the salt, the odor of hydrocyanic acid is evolved! A .» per cent aqui-ous solution of Ihf 
salt should b(> neutral to litmus paper, ami should not yield, on the gradual addition of a 
few drops of potassium ioilide T. 8.. either a tvA or a reddish prtx-ipitate. s«-ilnble in an excess 
of the precipitant, nor should it yield a white precipitate with silver nitmie T.S. ^absenc^• of 



IIYl)KAI!(iYni C HLORIDl-M rORROSIVUM. 1009 

mercuric clilorifle^ " — {U.S. P.). >rcn-uric cyaiiiilo i.s :i corrosive poison, combining also the 
poisonous effects of prussic aciil, but lias been ust'd in ii iifnal ilinenivf, humid fjunnwig MIrrt, 
porrigit, and other cutantou* disfrnvf, as well iis in some rlinniic injtummntiotiii. It has also been 
advocate<l in (liphlheria. Its dose is from i^ to J pr.iin, in pill form, with opium and crumb of 
bread, t'liibrel claims to have averted meningeal infection from /xinii/i/ir/id/i/iiVix by washing 
the contents ul the eye with a solution of mercuric cyanide ( I to 15,000). An ointment for 
ext -rnal :iiipli«'iUion in skin diseases, etc., in:iv be made by rubbing together cyanide of 
mi'pcury. Hi grains, with lard, 1 ounce, and oil of lemon, 15 drops. Not employed iii Ju-lectic 
theraiH'Utics. 

HvnKAR.iViUM A.MMOSIATIM (I'.S.P.), Ammouitihtl mfrcury (XH,HgCl=251.18!, ll/iiVe 
prreipil'ite, Mtrciirir ainmoniiim chloritlt; Merruriiminunhun clilnridt; M>Tcuriiis pnrcipUatitii: ullius, 
llildrarij\ir<i,ii ynrcipitntum jlhitiii, JJi/drargi/n aiiimoiiiif-cliloritliDii, Jlydniryyrum amido-chlimilnm, 
Hfldriinjiiri ii iiinliilo-bichlnriduiii, Hydrargi/niiit tiiiiinoniiilo iniirlaliriDii, W'hiti' oxide of vtercurij , Infu- 
riije iflli'le prtripil'ilf. — "Corrosive mercuric chloride, in jMiwiler, one hundred grammes (100 
CJm.) [3 ozs. av..23l grs.]; ammonia water, distilletl water, e;ich, a suthcient quantity. Dis- 
solve the corrosive uiercuric chloride in two thousand cubic centimeters (20tiO Cc.)[()7fl5, 
3 d m] of warm distilled water, filter the solution, and allow it to cool. Pour the filtered liq- 
uid gradually, and with constant stirring, into one hundred ami fifty cubic centimeters ( 150 Cc.) 
[5 fl5. 35 ITl] of ammonia water, taking care that the latter shall remain in slight exces,?. Col- 
lect the precipitate on a filter, and. when the liquid has drained from it ns much as possible, 
wash it with a mixtun'of four hundred cubic Centimeters (-1110 Cc) [13 fl5, 2.'i3 HI ] of distilled 
water and twenty cubic centimeters (20 Cc.) [325 ITl] of ammonia water. Finally, dry the pre 
cipitate between sheet.-? of biliuloiis paper in a dark place, at a temjjerature not exce<'ding 
30*" C. lSt>° F.). Keep the profbut in well-stoppered bottles, protected fnui light "— i C. S. P.). 
The washing directed in tli^ I'. S. P. process with ammonia water is for the purpose of re- 
moving the ammonium chloride. If water only be u,<;ed, the washing must be (Quickly per- 
formed, and cold instead of hot water employed. This will prevent the change into a basic 
Sidt — oxii-diinerciir-ammonium clilnride (XII,HgOHgCI i, a lemon-vellow compound. If iodine 
and ammoniated niercu'V be triturateil together, nitrogen iodide (iodamine), will gradually 
form and after a time the mixture '■pulfsup." But should iodine and alcohol both be present 
a dangerous explosion results. 

Ammoniat'd mercury is officially desorilied as occurring in "white, pulverulent pieces, 
or a white, amorphous powiler, without odor, and having an earthy, afterward styptic and 
m-t.dlic t;:ste. Permani nt in the air. Almost insoluble in wateror in alcohol. By pro- 
long-d w.ishiiig with w;iter, it is gradually decomposed, assuming a yellow color, and becom- 
ing converted i:itoabasic salt. Readily soluble in w;iT"n Ivlr-Moric, nitric, or acetic acid, 
and ill a C'l'd sfilution of animoninm carbonate. Also ( ; ' : ' . ~ hilile in a cold solution of 
solium liy|i i^ulphite, with the evolution of ammoni:! W i ; - solution is heated for a 
eliort tiim-, red mercuricsuliiliiile i.sseparateil, which, on pr i ik ! I lioiling, turns black. At 
a temperature below a reil beat tlie salt is decomposed witliout lusiou, and at a red heat it is 
wholly volatilized. AVheu heat. 1 wiih jLta^siuin or sodium hyilrate T.S., the salt turns yel- 
low, and evolves vapor of amiie.nia. '11 le .s,,|iitl(m of the salt in "diluted nitric acid, gives with 
potassium iodide T.S. a red pre< ipitate, w ith silver nitrate T.S. a white one. The salt should 
be st>luble in hydrochloric acid without etl'ervescence (absence of carbonate), and without leav- 
ing a residue I absence ol niercurous saltK Its solution in acetic acid should not be rendered 
turbiil by <libit.'d sulphuric acid (absence of \eai\)"—{L'.S.P.). The salt, when heated tea 

L-raiure b low a red heat, forms ammonia, nitrogen, calomel, and water. Caustic ammo- 



nia does not alter it. White precipitate i.s used externally oiilv, in herpes, impetigo, porrigo. 

' " " •.-... lit tol2partaof lard, 

imnie cerate, lorms an ointment tor application in the above-named maladies. Ran>lyem- 
ployea in Eclectic practice, but isaconstituent in the popular old Fx'lectic Ophthalmic Balsam. 



and other offectioiiK of the fl.in, and in ophlhnlmia Uirfi. One part of the salt to 12 parta < 

or simple cerate, forins an ointment fur application in the aoove-nanied maladies. Ran>lyem- 



Afcrcuric-<li'immonittm c/</"ri<'(i[NH3],llgCl2 ), Fmsibleuhite piicijiilate. — This compound was 
at one time confused with ammoniated iiiereury (NHjHgCl). It is produced by boiling the 
latter with ammonium chloride snlution.or by precipitating mercuric nitrate with ammonium 
chloride and potassium carbonate. It ditlers from ammoniated mercury in juai)uj at a tempera- 
ture less than rednes-s. 

Mek( i-RifS iSoLfBius Haunem.*nxi, Solidile mercun/ of JJnhnfmnnn, Ammonio-nitmie of mir- 
cnr;/, Ilii'tinrgyrum ojrydulatuiii iiiyntm, Hydrnryyniin o.rydiihilHin uilricuin ammotiitiluiii. — This 
compound is of a variable composition; according to Mitsrhn li. li. it is triinercuroso-ammo- 
nium nitrate I Hg3lIN.NOj)2.2Il20. This Hahnemanniiii i | ' ■' i-i a velvety black pow- 
der, with a slightly metallic taste. It is sublimable wit! • i i sition and contains no 
irlobules of metallic inercurj'. Hahnemann discarded tins i!; ■ i' ii in'favorof Mercurius 
vivus (Aiiwr. Horn. Phnrm., which see for methods of preparation). 

HvuiiAR<;vni Sfusui-PHAS Fi.avus ( f. .S'. /'. ), YeUow mercurie tubgidphale (Hg[HgO]jS04 = 

■ " ■ ■ " — Duhnnlphiile of merrury, Subpemulphn' 



'■27 A4), BfiAic mercuric sidphale, Tiirjxth minend, Yellow. , _ .. . . 

iif mercury, Trdnific tulphate of the oxide of mercury, Ilydrargyri ojtdum tidphuriaim, /[ydrnrgtri 
udmulpha.'', M,rriiriun emeticug flanif, Tur/iethum minernle. Hydrargyrum sutphurictim Jlnrum, .Si//- 
p/i<i» hydrnrgy riots fianm, Ilydrargyri fidphax flarim ( I'. S. P., 1870), Oxy-niercuric sidphate.—Th\a 
preparation may lie obtained by triturating" mercuric sulphate with hot water; the yellow 
powder resulting therefrom is to be well washed with distille<I water, and then dried. The 
I'.S. /'.process first prepares the mercuric sulphate, and afterward the sMbsulphate, as follows: 
"Mercury-, one hundred grammes (lOCXim.) [2 oz-s. av.,2:!l grs.]; sulphuric acid, thirty cubic 
centimeters i30 Cc.) [487111]: nitric a<id, tw.nty-tive cubic centimeters (2.'S Cc. i [^OHITI]; 
distilled water, a sufficient quantity. Upon the mercury, contained in a capacious fliL«k, jiour 



1010 HYDRARGYRI CIILORIDrM CORROSIVUM. 

tho sulphuric acid, previously mixed with fifteen cubic centimeters (15 Cc.) [243111] of dis- 
tilled water, then add, very gradually, the nitric acid, jireviously mixed with twentv-five cubic 
centimeters (25 Cc.) [406 TTl] of distiiled water, and digest at a gentle heat until reddish fumes 
are no longer given off. Transfer the mixture to a porcelain capsule, and heat it on a sand- 
bath under a hood or in the open air, with frequent stirring, until a dry, white mass remains. 
Reduce this to a fine powder, and add it in email portions at a time, with constant stirring, to 
two thousand cubic centimeters (2000 Cc.) [67 fl.5, 301 TTl] of boiling distilled water. When all 
has been added, continue the boilingfor 10 minutes; then allow the mixture to 8>-ltle, decant 
the supernatant liquid, transfer the precipitate toaetrainenwashit with warm distilled water, 
until the wa.shing8 no longer have an acid reacti(jn, and dry it in a moderately warm place. 
Keep the product in well-stn|ipircd bottles, protected from the light" — ( ('. iS'. /'. '. Boiling 
the mercury with Bulpliuricaiid and hastening the processby nitric acid, results in the forma- 
tion of mercuric sulphate. AVlien this is added to boiling water, the basic or oxysulphale pre- 
cipitates, while a corresponding quantity of sulphuric acid goes into solution. 'Tlie tempera- 
ture and quantity of the water influences the yield. About 75 per cent is realizf-d. "A heavy, 
lemon-vellow powder, odorle.ss and almost ta.steless ; permanent in the air. .'^•.luble in about 
2000 parts of water at 15°C.(-")0°F.l,and in 600 pait.s of boiling water; insoluble in alcohol: 
readily soluble in nitric or hydrocbloiic acid. \Vlien heated, the salt turns red, becoming 
yellow again on cooling. At'a n d heat it is volatilized, evolving vapors of mercury and of 
sulphur dioxide, and leaving no residue. A solution of the salt in nitric or hydrochloric acid, 
diluted with water, gives with i)otas?ium iodideT.S. a red precipitate, and v. itli barium chloride 
T.S. a white one. The salt should be completely soluble, in 10 parts of hydrochloric aciil 
(absence of mercurous salt or of lead i " — ' U. S. P.). Its aqueous solution is colorle.ss. Its spe- 
cific gravity is 6.444. Boiled with caustic 6f>da or potash, a red precipitate is thrown down, 
while the solution contains sulphate of potassium. It was once employed as an emetic, in 
doses of from 3 to 5 grains, in su-elled teKtide, its nauseating and emetic action being suiMXised 
to promote absorption; it has also been recommended in vumbranoug croup. In doses of from 
J grain to J grain per day, it has been given as an alterative. One grain mixed with 5 or 6 
grains of some mild powder, has been used as an errh'meinoiihthnlmic of rlirms, chrome cntarth, 
cerebral difficulties, etc.; it excites sneezing. One part of turpeth mineral triturated with 100orl2o 
parts of iard, forms an ointment which has been used in frictions, in cases of h- rjjff, slightlg 
inflammatory tetters, etc. Like other mercurials, this is ajit to cause salivation ; and in improper 
doses acta as a violent poison. It is seldom used at the present day, and is even condemned 
as dangerous and superfluous by some of the old school authors. 

Hydrargvri Pkh-suli'iias (HgSO,), Mercuric sulphate, Persulphate of mercim,, Sutphale of 
mercury. Normal mercuric sulphate, (inlfas mercuricus, Hydrar(pjrum tulphuricum, ilereuricut ritrio- 
latw. — This salt is prepared by placing in a porcelain capsule, quicksilver, 10 ounces (av.), in 
6 fluid ounces (Imp.), of commercial oil of vitriol; apjily heat and constantly stir with a porce- 
lain spatula until eflervescence ceases, and nothing remains but a white and dry crystalline 
salt (Dulj.l. This accords with the iJr. P/iann. process. The salt is a white, opaque S'-.lid, which 
becomes orange-colored at a dull red heat, but white on cooling ; at a full red heat it is decom- 
posed. Water decomposes it, producing turpeth mineral (which seel, and a soluble persalt. 
It is not used as a medicine, but is employed in the manufacture of calomel, corrosive subli- 
mate, and subsulphate (oxysulphate) of tuercury. 

Hvi)R.\Ri.via DiPER.NiTR.\s, Bafic mercuric nitrate, Bibasic nitrate of nierrunj. — Prepared by 
boiling uieicuiy in strong nitric acid until the liquid, when diluted with water, ceases to yielii 
a white precii)itate (calomel) on the addition of a solution of common salt. Then concentrate 
until it has the sp.gr. 3.47. This liquor has an acrid, metallic taste, and colors the skin, when ex- 
posed to light, purplish red. By careful evaporation over concentrated sulphuric aiid, crystals 
of the normal nitrate (IIg[X03]2)2.H20, are formed. When evaporated to crystallization, the 
bibasic nitrate Hg,Oi>'03)2+-li2t), separates; if the crystals be washed with cold water, as 
long as it gives an acid reaction, a heavy yellow powder is obtained, which is a more basic 
nitrate of mercury (IlgjOjfXOsL); this, when boiled in water, yields a briek-nHi powiler, 
which is still more basic (HgeOstN'Oj],). The bibasic nitrate of mercury is acridand caas- 
tic, more so than the nitrate (Hg[X03]2'i, and exerts an influence up<->n the syst.-m similar to 
that of corrosive suhlimate, into which sjdt it becomes converted by the action of the alkaline 
chlorides in the alimentary canal. It is now seldom used. 

■HvDK.\R(iYRi Pnospn.\s, Mercurous jilm^jihate, Pliofphale of mercury, Protuphitfuhale of mer- 
n/rv.— This salt is made by triturating 8 i>art3 of dry mercurous nitrate, in a porcelain niortar, 
witn 16 parts of distilled water, in which is mixed i part of nitric acid, sp. gr. 1.20 ; to this is 
added ahout 60 parts of pure water, and the w hole gently warmed until dissolve<l. filten>d if 
necessary, the clear solution diluted w ith 8 times its wiijilit i>f jnire water, and tin n treatol 
with a siihition of crystallized sotlium plins|ihate, so long as a pncipitaie is lorined. Wa>h 
this carefully with water until it no longer gives ai\ acid reaction, dry with a gentle heat, ami 
keep in a closed bottle excluded from the light. It is a white, <ine,'crystalline, cxlorless,«n.l 
tasteless powder. He.ated it fuses, evolving oxygen and metallic mercury, and leaving a col- 
orless, glacial mass, which is the phosplioric acid with a trifling quantity of mercury. It is 
insoluble in water, but is completely dissolved in nitric acid by'^the aid ot heat. It has Ut-n 
highly spoken of as an efticient remedy in f>findnry si/[>liil!s, in divsos of J grain or 1 grain in 



pill form. Phosphate of mercury 4 J grain.'), opium 3 grains, tartar emetic } grain. fornie»l into 
V pills, with a sullicient quantity of conserve of roses, has been used with asserttnl ad\-iuitagi-. 
One pill to be taken every nicht ami morning. 

Hydrahoyki Si'i.pnintM Kiiuu m (HgS. Molecular weight : 2S1.7SV Urd iHemiric tuMid.-. 
Ilydrurgyri mlphuntuiii rubnan ( C. ^'. 7'., IS70), .Sn/^'/i«ri/ oj'iifr-''- -A-' kv. s>i is I'^.d,, . 



1;YI)KARi;YKI tHLORIOlM CORKOSIVL'M. 1011 

Uied, oriiVrf ?n//)/iurrt of mercury, Cinnal>ar, Vermilion, Paris rcil, Biiulphuret of mercury, Sulfn- 
rfhtm hiidrargi/ricum, }lyilrargtirum mlfuratum riiliruiii, I 'innaliarin, yfinium. — This compound 
is found in large quaniity in nature, and is the chief source from which mercury is pre- 
pared. The I'. S. ]'. ( IS7(fi. directed for its jireiiuratimi : (.iraduallv add to 8 troy ounces of 
melted sulphur, 40 troy ounces of mercury; stir continually, and heat until the maiss Coui- 
mences to swell, then "remove from the fire and cover the vei^sel closely to preveut its taking 
fire, an. I when cold, powder the uuiss and suliliiiie it. Vermilion may also be j)repareil iu the 
wet way liy agltatint; mercury with a Sciliition of sulphur in caustic potash. (Kor th<- d. 'tails 
of Wittsteln's ])riR-ess, see this l>ispensatory,hi.st edition.) When prepared by the first jiniciss, 
cinnabar forms in dark reddish-brown masses, coinpused of cry.'<talliue needles, wliich fiiruisti 
a powder of a beautiful scarlet-red color. Prepared by the latter method, a liery-red, soft, 
heavy powder is obtained, distinguishable from that prepared by sublimation, especially by 
ita bright color. Cinnabar is odorless, tasteless, insolulile in water, alcohol, cold nitric aciil 
(sp.gr. 1.2), cold hydrochloric acid, diluted sulphuric acid, and aci'lic arid. Hot nitric acid 
decomposes it, precipitating a portion of the sulphur, and converting the other portion into 
sulphuric acid, sulphate and nitrate of nien-ury; fuming nitric acid totally converts it into 
mercuric suliJiate. Nitro-hydrochloric acid dissolves it with decoiniMi.<itioii, snlpluir being lib- 
erated and mircuric chloriile andenlphuricacid being formed. Expo.sed to the light, it gradu- 
ally acquires on the surface a pray tint, arising from the separation of the miTcury and 
sulphur, both of which in their free state remain in admixture with the compound. Heated 
in a test-tube it acquiR's nearly a black color, and sublimes without fusing, to a shining iron- 
grav mass, becoming red on trituration; any adulterations in the cinnabar, as red lead, col- 
cothar, chalk, or brick-dust, remain bihiiid. If this residue yields on charcoal before the 
blow-pipe a bead of lead, red lead is present ; but if it undergoes no change, either brick-dust 
or colcothar is jiresent. If dr.igon's blood be present, itwill color alcohol in which the cinna- 
bar has been shaken. If the addition of a ndneral acid causes ellervescence, chalk is present 
If cinnabar be boiled with acetic acid, ioilide of potassium will give a yellow precipitate of 
iixlide of lead in the filtrate, if red lead De present; and hydrogen 8ulphi<re a black precipitate. 
If it completely volatilizis upon hratAnierunn ir-miliua (basic lead chromatel, is absent. 

Cinnahar'was formerly exhibited internally in dlseafisoftheskin, gout, chronic rheumati.im, 
and ironn«, in dosesof from 10 to L'O^rain.s, in pills, or incorporated in an electuary. It is at 
the present day rarely, if ever, us.d internally. In gi/pliililic ulirmliotix of the air passages, and 
in several rhniiiic ciiliuuoits difiiia^s, it has been used as a fumigating agent, aliout i drachm 
being placed up. in an iron plate heated to reilness, and the vapors which are evolveil being 
inhaled or directed upon the disea.s.(l parts. Owing to the irrit;iting nature of the sulphurous 
vapor, the suboxide of mercury is preferred to cinnabar for fumigation. 

HvDR.\KiiVia Sllphidc.m NR;Rf.M, Black giilpliide of vicrcwy, JMiops viinend, Ilydranjtjri 
rulphuretuin niijram. Black sulphuret of mercury, Ainorphnus mlphuret of inercury, Elhtups mineral, 
Hydrargyri txdiihurelum cnm mlpliure, etc. — It is procured by rubbing together, in a porcelain 
mortar, equal parts of mercury and washed flowers of sulphur (with the occasional addition 
of a few dro|)8 of water to prevent any dust from ascending i, until they form a grayish-black 
powder, and neither mercury nor siilpliur is visible with a niagnilyi'ng glass; the labor is 
greatly diminished by employing diluted sulphide of amnioninin instead of water. It is also 
formed by precipitating a solution of a mercuric salt with an exivss of hydrogen sulphide ps. 
Hlack sulphide of mercury is a heavy, somewhat grayish-black, inodorouis, tasteless, insoluble, 
amorphous powder, insofuble in water, hylrochloric acid, and diluted nitric acid, the latter 
taking up at the most only small traces of uiu-ombined mercury. Heated iu a test-tube, it 
tirst loses sulphur, which deposits on the cool portion of the tube, and partly combines with 
the oxygen of the air present, to sulphurous acid; then sulphide of mercniy sublimes, and 
deposits it.self as an iron-gray mas.s, becoming red when ruMud. If there is a residue, either 
the mercury or sulphur was impure, or charcoal may ha\ e been added. In composition it is 
undoubtedly black amorphous mercuric sulphide mixed with sulphur in excess. 

Ethiops mineral was formerly employed as a diaphoretic, alterative, and vermifuge ; in 
doses of from 5 grains to } drachmj 2 or 3 times a day, it has been used in srrofnhns and skin 
disenseii. It acts very mildly, and as stated by Dr. lUincan, may be continued for a consider- 
able length of time in doses of several drachms without producing scarcely any Sensible efTect. 
It is Seldom u.sed, except in the form of ointment as au application to i<(7i,<fHti-, and some other 
ciUaneoits ajfertitmi. 

HvnR.\K<.VKl Pit 1 I 1 ~ 'Tr.'.[;X03]j), Prul.nillrate of mercury. Mercitrim^ tiilralr, Xltrnt, 
of mercury, X-ulral ),.' —This salt is olitained by digesting excess of mercury in 

cold nitric acid until -i • ] i -■<■. i r nystals are formed. Nitrate of mercury may be distin 
guished from other niliii- - I tiM u liit'e precipitate of calomel formed when it is dissolved ie 
water and mixed wiili a snUiMe chloride, e. ;/., solium chloride. Nitrate of mercury is rarely 
used as a meclicine, on account of it.s tendency to decompose. A solution of inercurous nitrate 
is one of the first steps iu the preparation of citrine ointment. The comiKisition of the salt 
after having been acti'<l ujion by the hot grease, is problematical, a portion of it iirobably 
l>eing converted into mercuric nitrate, which change is iiccelerate<l by the fr. c nitric acid. An 
ounce of the salt dissolveil in j pint of distilled water, acidnlatiil with 70 grains of nitric aciil. 
and the solution made of sp. gr. 1.100, has lieen used as a mild caustic in (.;-. r,.il ii/c. ..(/luruiand 
;trt>irlli». Two parts of the .salt to .">() of the lard, form an ointment which has been U8e<l in 
■'•l>ra, pmriafi*, etc. In Eclectic practice brown citrine ointment has bi-en useil by Prof. Scudder 
and others in chronic eczema, nyconiK, harlier's ilili. and some cases of priiritii {S/jec. .Vc</.). 

HVDRARGVKI ET QUI.VIS.is C'llI.ORIDU.M, ' Vi/,,,-,'./,' .,/' ,,„Tri//// <ll/<f (/IKIIIIK.— Take 1 part of the 
j.ichloride of mercurv, and 3 parts <.f hvi!r.Mhl<.r ie ..f quinine. l>i»solve each wparately 



1012 HYDRARGYRI CHLORIDUM CORROSIVUM. 

in the least possible quantity of water, mix the solutions, filter, and drj' the precipitate bv a 
gentle heat. This has 1 leen used in obstinate cutaneous diseases, and in cases where it is desirable 
to produce the influence of quinine and mercury. The dose is from J grain to 1 grain, everj- 
4 or 6 hours, in pill form with opium and erumb of bread. 

Hydrargyri Bok.^s, Borate of mercury. — Rub together 11 parts of calomel and 13 parts of 
biborate of sodium, for about 15 minutes, then add small quantities of water from time to 
time, continuing the trituration throughout; then filter, wa.«h the precipitate till the washings 
are tasteless, and dry. At one time recommended as a substitute for calomel, in doses of 2 
grains daily, increasing gradually. 

Hydrargy'ri Bromidim, Mercurous bromide {VLg2BT2), Bromide of viercvry. — Toaweak solu- 
tion of mercurous nitrate add a solution of bromide of potassium so lone as a precipitate falls: 
filter, wash, and dry by a gentle heat. It forms a white powder resembling calomel. This is 
given for the same purpose as the iodide of mercurj', in doses of 1 grain per day, gradually 
increased. A bibromide of mercury (mercuric bromide [HgBr,]), is made by mixing together 
equal parts of mercury and bromine ; sublime the white powder formed by the mixture. It is 
white, soluble in water, alcohol, or ether; its solution gives a red or yellow precipitate with 
alkalies, and nitric or sulphuric acid decomposes it with evolution of vapors of bromine. It 
is a powerful poison, and has been recommended in syphilis, lepra, etc., in doses of ^ grain, 
gradually increased to J grain. It may be given in pill. 

Hydrargyri Acetas, Acetate of mercury.— It forms in rectangular tables and plates, hav- 
ing their angles frequently truncated. They are white, but become black on exposure to light 
are inodorous, of an acrid, metallic taste, and almost insoluble in water or alcohol. Heat de- 
composes it. It has been occasionally used in syphiliticajfections, in doses of from 1 to 5 grains. 
One or 2 grains dissolved in water, has been used as a wash in obstinate cutaneous affections. 
This salt is seldom used. 

Hvi)r.\rgyi;i P.knzoas (Hg[C6H5C00]2-f H,0), Mercuric binfizoate.—A crystalline, white 
powder, tasteless and odorless, and formed by mutual decomposition between a mercuric com- 
j)Ound and an alkali benzoate. It dissolves easily in alcohol, solution of common salt, but 
sparingly in water. It may be used by injection (1 in 1000 or 1 in^OOO), into the urethra for 
gonorrhoea, or it may be hypcKlermatically administered. For the first purpose it is added to 
an equal amount of sodium chloride, and for subcutaneous uses, combined with cocaine and 
sodium chloride (Stukowenkow). 

Hydrargyri Carbol.^s, Mercuric carbolale (Hg[C,H50]2), Mercuric phenylate (phenate). 
Hydrargyrum plunylicum, Mercuric dip/if (la/e (Merck's).— -Caustic potash 56 parts, carbolic acid 
(liquefied), 188 parts. Dissolve by aid of heat in just enough alcohol to eiTect solution, and 
add, with continual stirring, corrosive sublimate (13-5 parts), dissolved in alcohol. Evaporate. 
The yellowish precipitate becomes nearly colorless as drj-ness approaches. Wash with water 
slightly acidulated with acetic acid, and crystallize from boiling alcohol. This compound 
forms "stable, needle crystals, colorless, soluble in hot alcohol, alcoholic ether, ether, and gla- 
cial acetic acid ; not soluble in alcohol and water. Reputed antisyphilitic. Dose, i to i grain, 
twice a day. An inferior, less stable preparation, known also as mercuric phenate, is batic 
mercuric phenate iHgOHOCjHj) (Gamberini's). 

Hydrargyrum Bichloratcm Carbamidatum SoLCxrM, Solution of mercuric chloride and 
urea. — This preparation quickly undergoes change, and is generally directed to be prepared 
extemporaneously. Dissolve mercuric chloride ( 1 Gm. ) in hot water (100 Cc. ) ; when cola, add 
urea (o Gm.). Filter. Dose, 1 Cc, equal to i grain, once a day, hypodermatically, for typhilit. 

Hydrargyrum Formamidatum SoLCTrM,&/i(((ou of mercuric formamide. — This is prepared 
by dissolving the oxide, freshly precipitated, from 10 Gm. of mercuric chloride, in enoagh 
formamide to dissolve it, and bringing the measure to lOlX) Cc. with distilled water. Dose, 
1 Cc. (16 minims), equal to i grain, liypodermatically, in gyphilis. 

Hydrargyrum Peptoxatum SolVtum, Solution of nurairicp>'plonate. — Prepared by mixing 
aqueous solutions of mercuric chloride and dry peptone, filtering, and adding sMiumchloride 
to the solution, and bringing the whole to the desired strength with water. The do^, hypo- 
dermatically, is 1 Cc, equal to J grain of mercuric chloride. Gluten pe/'tone ruNimatr, in 1 per 
cent solution (25 per cent mercuric chloride), has bee.n recommended as a substitute. 

Hydrargyrum Tannicum O.xydulatum, Mercurous taimate. Hydrargyri lannat. — This was 
introduced by Lustgarten as possessing advantages over other mercurials in fyphili.: It is pre- 
pared bv precipitating freshly prepared mercurous nitrate with a strong solution of tannic 
acid. Three to 5-grain doses are auministered daily until 150 grains have been taken. It is 
without taste or odor, insoluble in the common solvents, and yields its tannin to alcohol or 
water. It contains about 50 per cent of mercury. 

Hydrargyri Salicyi-as, Neutral, or Secondary nifrairic talicylale. — From mercuric chloride 
(27 parts), precipitate oxide of mercury, wash it well, and rub" with water to a soft magma. 
Add salicylic acid (15 parts), heat on a" water-bath, and shake frequently until the yellowness 
. changes to snow-white. Wash the resulting sjilicylate wiih warm water to remove all fret- 
acid, drain, and dry. It forms an odorless, tasteless, non-crystalline salt, s<ilnble in solution 
of sodium chloride, and in soda solution (a double salt forniingl, but not soluble in wat«r or 
alcohol. It is administered in pill, the dose being Ho A grain, three times a day, the «lciee 
being gradually increased to 1 to li grains. Preferred by Aiirajoaiid others, over other niei^ 
curiiils as an antiseptic and antisvpliilitic. 

Hydrargyri et Zinci Cyaxidum, .If avihc r.nl :i<>c cyaoide (Zn,Hg[CX]h)-— .^n insoluble 
white powder, lauded by Lister as a non-poisonous antiseptic. 

Hydrargyri O.VYUY.txiDUM, Oxycyanide (>i mercury (Hg,0[CN],V— .K solution in water 
(1 to 1500) of this compound is recomuienued us an antiseptic iu ocular therapeutics. 



HYDKARCiYKI (III.oUinrM MITE. 1013 

Hydrargyri Pyrobokas, Affrctin/ iiyrohuiale (HgB.O,).— An insoluble, non-crystalline, 
brown powder, recommendi-il as a tonical agent in fi/phililic and other ulceratiom. 

Anione other mercurials, the following are newer introductions for use in ki/ji/hVw: Thi/m- 
olsiJphale 01 iH<>ro(rv ([(CudlisOjHg.HgJjSO,); Tlivmolncelale (V mcrnin/ ( [C'loHisOJ.IIg.Hg'.C, 
HjOjl; ThtfinolnitraU of mfrnin/ ( [CioHisOlHg.HgNOa); XaphlhoUile of nurrury (iiienury 30.8 
per centi, a yellow powder; and Tribmplienul turlule of uirrcury. Hydnirgiiri ml phocifunna 
or SnlphiMijanntf of merfuni (sulphocyaniae formerly I, is employed in making the trinket, 
'• Pharaoh's Srjxnl." 

HYDRARGYRI CHLORIDUM MITE (U. S. P.)— MILD 
MERCUROUS CHLORIDE. 

"Obtiiined in the form of jiowder V)y the rajiid condensation of the vapor 
of niercurons chloride. Mild mercurous chloridu should be kept in dark amber- 
colored bottles"— (f. 5. P.). 

Formi'la: HgjClj. Molecular Weight: 470.34. 

Synonyms: Calomel, Mild chhriile ofmercuri/, Hydrargyri svbchloridum, Hydrar- 
gi/ri chlnriduin, Hydrargijrtun chhmitum dnlre, Hydnirgynuii vniriaticum dulce. C hlorw- 
retuin hydrargi/rosuni, Chlorelitui hydrnrgyrosum, Mcrcurius dulcis, Calomelas, Mernuous 
chloride; Sulichlnride (SuhmuridU) of mercury, Protorhloride of mercury. 

Preparation. — Calomel is never prepared by the pliarniacist. "Take of per- 
sulphate of mercury 10 ounces (av.), mercury 7 ounces (av.), chloride of sodium, 
drieil, 5 ounces (av."), boiling distilled water a sulliciency. Moisten the persul- 
phate of mercury with some of the water, and rub it and the mercury together 
until globules are no longer visible; add the chloride of sodium, and thoroughly 
mix the whole by ci>ntinued trituration. Sublime by a suitable apparatus into 
a chamber of su("h size that the calomel, instead of adhering to its sides as a crys- 
talline crust, shall fall as a line powder on its floor. Wash this powder with 
boiling distilled water until the washings cease to be darkened by a drop of 
sulphh vdrate of ammonium. Finally, dry at a temperature not exceeding 100" C. 
(212° F.) '•—(/>>. Fhann., 1885). 

In this process double decomposition takes place, as follows: 2NaCl+Hg, 
SO,=X;i,SO,-f-Hg,Cl.,. Mercurous chloride sublimes, and if passed into a small 
receiver crystalline crusts or masses are obtained ; if in a large receiver, as directed, 
a fine crystalline powder results. A still softer or finer powder may be olitained 
if a jet of steam be allowed to pass into the receiver, or, according to Soubeiran, 
if a blast of cold air be admitted. The best calomel is that produced by aid of 
the steam vapor, as this agent at the same time dissolves out any mercuric chlo- 
ride which may lie present, due to possible admixture of the mercurous sulphate 
employed with mercuric sulphate. 

Description and Tests. — "A white, impalpable powder, becoming yellowish- 
white on being triturated with strong pressure, and showing only small, isolated 
crystals under a magnifying power of 100 diameters. It is odorless and tasteless, 
and permanent in the air. InsoluV)le in water, alcohol, or etiier, and also in cold 
dilute acids. When strongly heated, it is wholly volatilized, without melting. 
In contact with calcium hydrate T.S.,or with solutions of alkali hydrates, or 
with ammonia water the sait is blackened. When heated with dried sodium car- 
bonate in a dry glass tube, it yields metallic mercury" — {I'.S.P.). Calomel is 
incompatible with the alkalies, lime-water, and sulphide of potassium, which 
blacken it, forming the suboxide or black oxide of mercury (Hg,,0) ; also with anti- 
mony, copjjcr, iron, lead, etc. It has been stated that if calon'iel be given at the 
same time with either common salt, nitrohvdrochloric acid, or the alkaline chlo- 
rides, it may give rise to serious, if not fatal results. This is due to the calomel 
being soluble in aqueous solutions of alkali chlorides, especially in solution ol 
chloride of ammonium at 40° to 50° C. (104° to 122° F. ). When warmed for sev- 
eral hours to this temperature, 100 parts of sodium chloride, dissolved in 833 
pirts of water, form 0.33 parts of cornoivo sublimate from 25 parts of calotnel, 
u'Cjual to 1.2 per cent) (Mialke, in A. M.Comey, Din. of Chen. Snhd.il it i,.^, 1S!»G). 
Likewise, calomel should never be given in connection with articles containing 
hydrocyanic acid, either in a free or latent condition, m it may be converted into 
the bicyanide of mercury, and mercuric chloride. Tlie alkaline earths and car- 
bonates (calcium carbonate excepted), niid citric aeid, convert it i)artially into 



lOU HYDRARGYRI CHLORIDUM MITE. 

corrosive sublimate. Tlie same is effected when it is rubbed with sugar contami- 
nated with lime, but not when lime-free. Calomel of a gray color contains free 
mercury. If cold water which has been agitated with it for some time gives, 
with sulphide of ammonium, a black precipitate, it contains corrosive sublimate. 
Ether, in this case, readily dissolves out the corrosive sublimate. In testingcaloni' 1 
for corrosive sublimate, it must not be treated with boiling water, since calomi 1 
is slowly decomposed with boiling water, corrosive sublimate being formed. After 
1 hour's boiling of calomel with 20 Cc. of water, 2 Mgr. of corrosive sublimate were 
insolation (A. M. Come}', see above reference). "If 1 Gm.of the salt be shaken 
with 10 Cc. of water or alcohol, the respective filtrates should not be affected by 
hydrogen sulj^hide T.S., or silver nitrate T.S. (absence of mercuric chloride), nor 
should they leave any residue on evaporation (absence of other soluble impuri- 
ties). On heating a portion of the salt, in a test-tube, with potassium or sodium 
hydrate T.S ,it should not evolve the odor of ammonia; and if another portion 
be shaken with acetic acid, the filtrate should not be affected by hydrogen sul- 
phide T.S., nor by silver nitrate T.S. (distinction from and absence of ammo- 
niated mercurv)" — {U.S. P.). 

Action, Medical Uses, and Dosage. — (See remarks under Hydrargyri Chlo- 
riduvi Corrosivum.) Internally, calomel acts as a purgative, in doses of from 2 to 5 
grains ; on account of its uncertainty of action, it is usually given in combination 
with other purgatives, as jalap, senna, scammony, colocynth, etc. It has been 
much used as a purgative in torpid states of the bowels, in torpor of the liver, d< ranijed 
conditions of the biliary organs, jaundice, Bomejehrile disorders, iiorins, dropsij,a.iid vari- 
ous disordered conditions of the alimentary cnnal uiuiccampanicd by inflamnuitimi. Large 
doses of calomel, as 20 to 40 grains, every half hour or hour, are said to act as a 
sedative, and have been administered in yellow fever, dysenter;/, A-<iatic cholera, diseases 
of the liver, etc. As an alterative, it has been exhibited in chronic cutaneous diseases, 
glandular affidions, hepjatitis, etc., in doses of from i to 1 grain every 1 or 2 days, 
as circumstances may require, with occasional doses of castor oil, or some mild 
saline laxative to keep the bowels free. Asa sialagogue, it has been used in various 
forms of disease, as all febrile, inflammatury, s)/p/hili}ic, and chronic vi^-eral discaseg, 
etc., in doses of 1, 2, or 3 grains, every 3 or 4 hours, usually combined with Dover's 
powder, or some other opiate, when there is no condition of tbe nervous system 
contraindicating the use of narcotics. Very few, however, use it at the present 
day for its sialagogue effects ; and it may be said the numl)er who use it for the pre- 
ceding affections is becoming less and less as the years pass by. Calomel increases 
the action of the secreting organs; when its use is continued for along time, 
according to the susceptibility of the patient's system, it produces the constitu- 
tional effects of mercury. Sometimes it produces nausea, griping, and great faint- 
ness. Large doses are always dangerous, as the agent is very uncertain in its 
action at all times; I have known as small a dose as 3 grains to cause phagedenic 
ulceration of the face and jaw (King). This kind of ulceration is by no means 
uncommon among patients under mercurial treatment. Combined with other 
remedies, calomel is said to increase their effects— hence, those who use it have 
combined it with antimonials to promote diaphoresis; Siud. viilh squills to favor 
diuresis in droji-iical affectiom. Many jvidioious physicians of the regular school 
now condemn the employment of calomel in acute hepatitis, hepatic cirrhosis, 
hepatic abscess, acute yellow atrophy of the liver, jaundice from gall-stones, yel- 
low fever, remittent fever, many acute intlammatory disorders, such as pneumo- 
nia, ])leurisv, endocarditis, pericarditis, peritonitis, meningitis, etc. Notwith- 
standing tliat it has been shown to actually lessen the biliari*;' discharge, it is still 
.■onsideiahly used in so-called ''bilious allaek-^." Externally, it has been used as a 
snuff combined with other substances, in nasal polypus, and di-^ascs of the Schnci- 
derian memb7-(ine; and blown into the eye in chronic rhrunuUic &nd srrofjulousoph- 
thahnia, and spots on the cornea. One part of calomel to 8 parts of lard, is said to 
form an excellent ointment in porrigo favosa, heri^s, imj^etigo, l<-pra, psoriasis, and 
other chronic skia diseases. Cnndylomnla'o.Te treated among other ways, by dusting 
them with calomel; likewise heriws and irritation around the genitalia; also used to 
d'im[Q'iA\ exid>erant granulations, and it forms an ingredient of some cancer pow- 
ders. One drachm of calomel added to a pint of lime-water forms the Black 
Wash (/-o?M) A^flfrn), which is a favorite application with some old school physi- 



HYDRARGYni l()niI)lM lUBRrM. 1015 

c'ians, to nil syphililic ulrrrs. Soinetinies llie \va.<li i.-s niiulo 2 or 4 times the strength 
of the above. For furtlier remarks, see any staiulard 'TeguUir" materia medica. 

In the Eclectic school of medicine calomel in minute doses has been recom- 
mended l>y Webster (-D_v»M HI. TlitTU)/.), in hlhargic stiites characterized chiefly by a 
long-continued tired feeling, associated with marked diurnal drowsiness and noc- 
turnal wakefulness. The patient, though apparently in good health, awakens tired 
in the morning, is averse to exerti'in of any Kind, and retires at night still tired, 
and the drowsine.*s is of such a pronounced character as to require much effort to 
remain awake. Such a condition, he states, often follows malarial infection, 
though he does not consider that it dei)ends upon such a cause. Tlie trouble 
must be idiopathic and not dependent upon "sympathetic local trouble." The 
dose is 2 or 3 grains of the 3 x trituration, 3 times a day. 

Calomel forms an excellent topical application in corneal ulter of a. slnpgii-h 
character. It should be freely dusted upon the lesions. Phlyctenular conjunct iv it U 
may be similarly treated. Foltz warns us that it should not be used when cor- 
neal ulcers are forming, or when they are enlarging. He uses calonnl to provoke 
irritative action in suiicrjicidl corneal opuritics, thereby inducing reparative fiction. 
Calomel forms a good application in sj/philitic ch<iu(~re m\d chancroid, particularly 
the latter. Prof. J. M. Scudder employed it in such lesions when the sores were 
pale and coated with a pultaceous secretion. Dose of calomel for specific effects, 
2 or 3 grains of tiie 3 x trituration, 3 times a day. Not employed by Eclectics as 
a purgative. Tlie use of calomel internally or locally is contraindicated while 
taking iodide t>f potassium, h-t it be converted into iodide and iodate of mercury. 

Specific Indications and Uses.— (See under Hydrargyrl Chturidum Corrosivum 
for general indications for the mercurials.) Tiretl, apathetic, or lethargic condi- 
tion, with marked drowsiness in daytime, and sleeplessness at night. Locally, to 
sluggish corneal ulcers and pale chancroids covered with a pultaceous secretion. 

HYDRARGYRI lODIDUM RUBRUM ^U. S. P.)— RED 
MEKCURIC IODIDE. 

FoKMfLA: Hgl,. MoLECDLAR Weight: 452.86. 

Synony.ms : Biniodide of mercury, Red iodide of mercury, Hydrargyri jieriodidum, 
Periodide of mercury, Deutiodide of mercury, Hydrargyri iodidi nihrum. Mercuric iodide, 
loduretuiii hydrnrgyricum, DeiUoioduretum hydrargyri, Biniodidum hydrargyri, Mercu- 
riua indatos ruber. 

Preparation. — "Corrosive mercuric chloride, forty grammes (40 Gm.) [1 oz. 
av., 180 grs.]; potassium iodide, fifty grammes (.50 (Jm.) [1 oz. av., 3o4 grs.]; dis- 
tilled water, a surticient quantity. Dissolve the corrosive mercuric chloride and 
thepotassium iodide, each, in eight hundred cubic centimeters (800 Cc.) [27 fls, 
25 Til] of distilled water, and filter the solutions separately. Pour both solutions, 
simultaniMiusly and in a tiiin stream, under constant and very active stirring, 
into two thousand cubic centimeters (2000 Cc.) [67 fls, 301 111] of distilled water. 
When the precipitate has subsided, decant the supernatant liquid, collect the pre- 
cipitate on a filler, and wash it with cold distilled water, until the washing.s give 
not more than a slight opalescence with silver nitrate test solution. Finally, dry 
it in a dark place, between sheets of bibulous paper, at a temperature not exceed- 
ing 40° C. (104° F.). Keep the product in well-stoppered bottles, protected from 
lighf— ir..S'.i'.). 

Description and Tests.— Mercuric iodide (^Hgl,) is remarkable for its being 
f/imor;>/iow.<, J. f. occurring in two different physical modifications. The salt, as 
obtained by the official process (precipitation), is scarlet red; this is the stable 
modification, which may be obtained also in quadratic crystals by crystallization 
from hot alcohol and other solvents. Heat converts this salt into the unstable, 
yellow modification which assumes the form of rhombic prisms when the salt is 
subjected to sublimation. These crystals turn red again upon cooling, but should 
they retain their yellow color upon cooling, friction with a hard body will sud- 
denly restore it. The official salt is described as "a scarlet-red, amorphous pow- 
der, odorless and tasteless; permanent in the air. Almost insoluble in water, 
but soluble in 130 parts of alcohol at 15° C. (59° F.), and in 15 parts of boiling 



1016 HVDRARGYRI lODIDfM RUBRUM. 

alcohol; also soluble in a solution of potassium iodide, or of mercuric chloride, 
and in a solution of sodium hyposulphite. When heated to about 150° C. ('302° F.), 
the salt becomes yellow, but again assumes a rfd color on cooling; at 238° C. 
(400.4° F.), it fuses to a dark yellow liquid, which, on cooling, forms a yellow, 
crvstalline mass, and at higher "temperatures, volatilizes without decomposition, 
leaving no residue. On heating the salt with potassium or sodium hvdrate T.S., 
and adding a little sugar of milk, metallic mercury is precipitated. NVhen it is 
heated with sulphuric acid and a little manganese dioxide, vapor of iodine is 
evolved. If the salt be dissolved in hot alcohol, the solution, after cooling, should 
be colorless; and when this solution is diluted with an equal volume of water, it 
should not redden blue litmus paper (absence of mercuric chloride). If about 
0.5 Gm. of the salt be shaken with 10 Cc. of water, the filtered liquid should not 
become more than very slightly colored by hydrogen sulphide T.S., nor give more 
than a slight opalescence with silver nitrate T.S. (limit of soluble chlorides or 
iodides) " — (U. S. P.). Fixed oils, chloroform, carbon disulphide, mercuric solu- 
tions, potassium chloride, and some ammonium compounds dissolve it. Red 
iodide of mercury enters into the formation of Mayer's and Nessler's Te^i Solutions 
(see List of Reagents). 

Action, Medical Uses, and Dosage. — Mercuric iodide is an active poison, 
nearly as powerful as corrosive sublimate. In doses of ^V of a grain, carefully 
augmented to J of a grain, it has been largely employed in syphilitic and scrofulous 
affections. This is the preparation usually selected by Eclectic physicians when a 
mercurial is to be employed in constitutional syphilis, and in cutaneous, o<-ular, and 
aural affections, depending on a syphilitic taint. Its use was particularly advo- 
Gited by Prof. Howe. The minute doses are usually preferred. The indications 
are those given under mercuric chloride (which see). In diseases of the eye, of 
syphilitic origin, as in syphiliticiritis, it has given results when iodide of potas- 
sium has failed. Similar results are obtainable in keratilis, choroiditis, choroido- 
retinitis, etc. Locally, it has been employed chiefly as Panas' solution, as in tn- 
cipient trachoma, and in phh/ctei}ulnr and catarrhal conjunctivitis. This Solution (mer- 
curic iodide 1 part, absolute alcohol 400 parts, and distilled water 20,CHX) parts) is 
frequently employed as an irrigating fluid for use previous to operations upon 
the eye, as in iridectomy, removal of cataract, etc. Di.'ieases of the internal and middle 
ear, when of specific origin, frequentl}' yield to the judicious use of this drug. 

Externally, a solution of it, 6 grains to a fluid ounce of distilled water, has 
been used as a lotion to scrofulous and syphilitic ulcers, etc. An ointment composed 
of 2 grains of mercuric iodide, 40 grains of cerate, and 20 grains of almond oil, 
has also been used in obstinate ophthalmia tarsi, with thickening of the meibomian 
glands, opacity of the cornea, obstinate venereal ulcers, chronic cutaneous diseases, etc. 
A drachm each, of mercuric iodide, lard, and olive oil, has been successfully em- 
ployed as a caustic application to lupus. It is to be used in very small quantitie.< 
at a time, being careful to place it only on a limited amount of diseased surface, 
repeating its application about once in every week, and extending its action 
from one part of the disease to another, as the cure progresses (Cazenave, Ann. de 
Therap., 1852, p. 175). Mercuric iodide may be ailministered in i>ill, trituration, 
or in solution in alcohol, or ether, to be administered in water. Tlie do<e ranges 
from t-jVtt grain to J grain, the doses of j^^ to ^\ grain usually being preferred by 
our physicians. 

Specific Indications and Uses. — (See Hydrar^yri Chloridum Corrosinun, for 
indications for, and general action of, the mercurials.) 

Related Preparation.— SoLmoN of 1odo-hydr\rgvrate op Potassitm.— A preparation 
was rccominendeii by Pr. Channing, called Sohtlion of iixto-htidnir^ifrntf of po/iMwi'iim, which is 
Baid to ln> efficient in clinmic tuberctdous nffeetion.*, diifptitsia, chronic htoatilis mid fiJfiiilif, ngut- 
cake, nna.*an-a, ascites, scrofulous aud Sfi/ihilitic distasts, leucorrhaa, and m»-n«<rii<i/ iti mttgmu-uts, 
Bonie cutaneous affections, etc. It is prepan'il by dissolving 7 grains of icniide of putassiuin in '2 
fluid on nces of distilled water, aud then adding it grains of nuTcuric iodide. Thi-re will l>e 
about 16 grains of the iodo-hydi-argyrate of potitssium in this solution, with a slight excess of 
iodide of potassium. The dose is 2, ;i, or 5 drops, repi-ated o times a d:iy ; it nj.iy l>e given 
largely diluted with water, or in some vegetable alterative svrun. 

tlelated Salt. — HvDRARdYKi Iodidcm Fi.avim( r. .S". A". ). )VWo»r mrpdjroiK iVWirf^. (HgjI, 
=652.tit)l. Hyiirarquri iodidum tiride (Phann., \SSO\, Protiodidf of mercwy, YfUow lor tirrtn) 
iodide of mercury, Hydrargyri tuhiudidum, Suhiodide of mercury, Proloiodidt of mfrciini. Mide if 



HYDRARr.YRI OXIDTM FLAVrXI. 1017 

mercury, Hydrargyri iodiduin ( f. >'. 7^., 1S50), Jlyilniryyniiii iixlalumfiarum, lodurrtum hydrar- 
gyrofuiii, Jlydrargyri prvlo-ujduri I inn . " Mercury, fifty prainmus (•'lO Gm.) [1 oz. av., S34 Kf^]; 
nitric aciil, pt)tassium iinlidi', distilled water, afioliiil, euoli, a eiiflifieiit quantity. Mix twenty 
culiio cvntinieters (-'OCV.) [:V2'i llll.eaoli.of nitric aiid and distilled water, and, when the liquid 
is cold, pour it upun the mercury coul;iined in a Bniall glass flask. Set the mixture aside in 
a cool and dark j>l;u'e, and agitate it occasionally, until the reaction cease8,and a little mer- 
cury still remains undissolved. Scpanite the crystals of mercurous nitrate, which will have 
formed, from the mother liquid, allow them to draia in a phiss funnel, and dry them on bibu- 
1 >aspaper, in a dark place. When the salt is dry, w.igh oil" forty grammes (40Cini.) [1 oz.av.. 
1^0 prs.J of it, and dissolve it in one thousand 'cuhie centini. te'rs (liMK) Cc.) [03 ti.j, SiU HI] ol 
distille*! water, to which ten cubic centimeters (10 i\-.) [H'lilll] of nitric acid had pr^•vion^ly 
been added. Having prepared a sohitiiin of twentv-iMur grammes (24 Cim.) [:!70 grs] of potil^- 
sium iodide in 1000 cubic centimeters ( moo Ce.) [o3 H,v 3i>l lit] of distilled water, slowly pour 
the solution of potassium iodide into tli;it of tlie nnrcuroua nitrate, with cons'tant stirring, 
allow the precipitate to subside, deiant the eninrnatant lieinid, and transfer the precipitate, 
together with the remainder of the liquid, to a filter. ^VIlen the precipitate has drained, 
wash it with distilled water until the washiuL'S no lon^jcr have an acid reaction ujion litmus 
paper, and afterward wash it with alcohol, as long a) the char, colorless washinj.'s give any 
color with hydrogen sulphide test-solution. Lastly, dry the product in a dark place, between 
sheets of bibulous paper, at a temperature not exceeding 40° C. (104° F.k Keep it in dark 
amber-colored vials, with the least possible exposure to li;;ht. Instead of weighmg otf forty 
grammes (40 Om.) [1 oz. av., ISO grs.] of the mercurous nitrate as above directed, the whole of 
the crystallized salt may be taken aud the amount of potassium iodide, etc., adjusted uu the 
pnnwrtions given above" — ( I'.S. P.). 

Theproeess involved is represented by the equation: 2KI-fHg2(X03lj=2KX03 + 2( Hgl). 
The potassium iodide nmst be added to inot the revei-se) the solution of mercurous nitrate, 
to prevent the formation of mercuric iodide. The ahohol is employed to wash away traces 
of the mercuric iodide, should any be present. Its absence will he "shown by the hydrogen 
sulphide test employed. 

The ollicial 8;ilt is "a bright yellow, amorphous powder, odorless and tasteless. By ex- 
posure to light it becomes darker, in proportion as it undergoes decomposition into metallic 
mercury and mercuric iodide. Almost insoluble in water, and wholly insoluble in alcohol or 
ether. "When slowly and moderately heated, it assumes at first an orange and then a red 
color, l>ecoming yellow again on cooling. When quicklyanil strongly heated, it is at tiret par- 
tially decomposed into mercury aud mercuric ioilide, and finally is completely volatilized. 
When it is heated with suliilniric acid and a little manganese dioxiile, vapor of iodine is 
evolved. In contact with a solution of potassium iodi<le, the salt is decomposed into mercuric 
iodide, which dissolves, leaving a residue of metallic mercury. If 0.5 Gm.of the salt be shaken 
with 10 Cc. of alcohol, a portion of the filtrate should be "scarcely affected by hvdrogen sul- 
phide T.S., nor should it produce more than a very faint, transient opalescence wiien dropped 
into water; and if 6 Cc. of the filtrate be evaporated from a white porcelain surface, not 
more than a verv faint, red stain should remain (absence of more than traces of mercuric 
iodide)"— (r.S. "P.). 

(Compare JL/drargyn Chloridum Corrosirum.) Yellow iodide of mercury is a powerful 
irritant poison, but has been administered in small dosi'S in nnihdis and gcinfida. especially 
when they occur in the same individual. The dose is i to 1 grain per day, cautiously carrying 
it to 3 or"4 grains. Children of 6 months old reijuire iV of a gram, gradually increased to J 
grain. It maybe given in pill form, conjoined with some narcotic, as conium, opium, etc. ; or, 
1 part of the iodide niay be dissolved in 48 jiarts of ether, of which solution, 12 drops contain 
alxiut i of a grain. It is now preferred by some physicians in the treatment of omgtitutional 
nifihilh. It 18 geldoin employed by Eclectic physicians. Prof. Webster, however, declares that 
the 3x trituration (dose 2 or 3 grain.s). Las a specific action upon tiie larynx, making it a 
prompt remedy in hKtrseiuss and cniup {Ih/nain. nrrap., p. 407). An ointment Used as a 
dressing for elrumo-syphdilic ulcus, and as an application to sycosis, lupxis, rosaccn, and other 
tuhfrcniitr fkin disfases, is made by triturating together 6 ounces of the iodide with a mixture 
of white wax 2 ounces, lard 6 ounces. 

HYDRARGYRI OXIDUM FLAVUM (U. S. P.)- YELLOW 
MERCURIC OXIDE. 

For.mula: HgO. Molecular Weight: 215.76. 

Syso.nym.s : Mercuric oxide, Pnripi/ated oxide of mercury, Hydrargyrum oxydatuiii 
prsecipitdtii III ( i-iifluvum). Yellow oxide of mercury. 

Preparation. — "Corrosive mercuric cliloritlc, one hundred grammes ClOO 
Gm.) [3 ozs. av., 231 gr.-.]; soda, forty grammes (40 Gm.) [1 oz. av., 180 grs.] ; dis- 
tilled water, a siillicient quaiititv. Dis.-iolve tlie corrosive mercuric chloride in 
one thf>usaiid ciiijiccontimeters (lOOOt'c) [33 flg, 301 lUl of warm distilled water, 
and filter the solution. Dissolve the soda (which should contain 90 per cent of 
sodium hydrate), in one thousand cuhic centimeters (1000 Cc.) [33 H.5, 391 ITl] of 
cold distilled water, and into this solution pour gradually, and with constant 



1018 HYDRAKGYRI OXIDUM FLAVUM. 

Stirring, the solution of corrosive mercuric chloride. Allow the mixture to stand 
for an hour at a temperature of about 30° C. ("86° F.), stirring frequently. Then 
decant the supernatant, clear liquid from the precipitate, and wa.^h the latter 
repeatedly bv the affusion and decantation of distilled water, using one thousand 
cubic centimeters (1000 Cc.) [33 fig, SDl 1U] of water each time. Collect the pre- 
cipitate on a strainer, and continue the washing with warm distilled water, until 
a small portion of the washings, when poured on a little mercuric chloride test- 
solution, no longer produces a yellowish turbidity at tlie line of contact of the two 
liquids. Then allow the precipitate to drain, and dry it bitween sheets of bibu 
lous paper, in a dark place, at a temperature not exceeding 30° C. (86° F.). Keeji 
the product in well-stoppered bottles, protected from thelight'" — ( U. S. P.). Thi- 
is Dr. Hoffman's process, and is represented by the following equation : HgClj-r 
(NaOH),— (NaC'lJ2-f-HgO+H,0. An excess of alkali is essential, that brown mer- 
curic oxychloride be not formed and precipitated with the oxide; for this reason 
the corrosive chloride must be poured into the alkaline solution. The soda solu- 
tion must be free from carbonate, else a brownish mercuric carbonate will be 
formed. If the temperature be too high the tendency is to form a reddish-colored 
salt, therefore it is best to operate at as low a temperature as practicable, to pro- 
duce the bright-yellow oxide. 

Description and Tests. — "A light orange-yellow, amorphous, heavy, impal- 
pable powder, odorless, and having a somewhat metallic taste ; permanent in the 
air, but turning darker on exposure to light. Almost insoluble in water, insoluble 
in alcohol, but readily and completely soluble in diluted hydrochloric or nitric 
acid, forming colorless solutions. When moderately heated, the salt assumes a 
red color. At red heat it is completely decomposed into oxygen and metallic 
mercury, and is finally volatilized, leaving no residue. If 0.5 Gm. of the oxide 
be digested on a water-bath for 15 minutes?, with a solution of 1 Gm. of oxalic acid 
in 10 Cc. of water, it will be converted into white mercuric oxalate (distinction 
from red mercuric oxide). On dissolving 1 Gm. of the oxide in 100 Cc. of diluted 
nitric acid, the resulting solution should be clear, and should not afford more 
than a slight opalescence with silver nitrate T.S. (limit of chloride) '" — {('. S. P.). 

Action and Medical Uses. — This agent has not been employed in Eclectic 
practice as an internal medicine. It is, however, an important topical remedy in 
ocular thtrapeutir.-:. For ciliary^ blepharitis the ointment is probably the best local 
application, especially in chronic cases. The dried scales should te softened and 
removed by means of an alkaline wash, as of potassium bicarbonate, and the lids 
dried. Then the ointment should be thoroughly apjilied to the margins of the 
lids. If too strong, marked irritation and conjunctival hyperemia may be pro- 
duced. Foltz states that in phlyrtemdar keratitis in children it is indicated in 
nearly all cases (Webster's Dynatn. Therap.). The ointment is also advised in 
corneal maruhr, indnhid conical tilcer.'i, conjunetival gnmulntinns, arro.y^v, cpi.9rlcntis, and 
pannus. Foltz declares it of negative value in supjatratire otitis vtoHa, but has 
obtained good results from its use to heal the tympanic lesion after the cessation 
of the discharge. R Yellow oxide of mercury, grs. xxx, petrolatum sj. Mix. An 
ointment containing 2 per cent each of the yellow oxide and morj^hine sulphate 
in connection with dry heat is reputed efficient in the earlv stage of/urtmrular in- 
fiammation of the external auditory canal (see also Ungiientxim "Hydrargyri Oridi flavi). 

Other Oxides of Mercury.— Hydraegyri Oxinrsi Ribrcm (U.S. P.), Rfdmfrcuric oxide, 

Peroxide <.:/ nnri-ury, ]!'<! prtdpitalf. 0.tydu7n hudrargyricttm, Hydrargyri nilrico-oiidum, il<rcuri\is 
torrosiiiif'riili' r, Merciiriiis pniciinliilun ritlM r, Pfd oxiile of mrrcuri/, Dniuuide v/vifrmry. Formula 



HgO. Moltcularwiiylit: 21."). 76. Red mercuric oxiile should be ki'pt in wi'll-f^topperi-d bi>t- 
"i-s, prott'Cti'il fiiiuiliglit. This pn-paration is obtaiued by dissolving mercury, 3 rounds, in 
itric acid, is fluid ounces, and distilled water, 2 pints, with the aid of agi>ntle heat. K<iil down 



tli-8, protccti'd fiiiui light. This preparation is obtained by dissolving mercury, 3 rounds, i 
"1 pints, with the aid of a p'ntle heat. K<iil dow 
the liquor and rub what remains to a powder, rut this into anoihi-r very shallow vessel, am! 



apply a gradual heat until red vapors cease to rise ( ImwI.). In this instance nitrate of mercun,- 
is first formed, and then decoui|X)Sed by the aiil of heat. A trace of nitrate is liable to ri>main 
if the heat is not sufficiently high ; on the other hand, an excess of heat would cause decom- 
position of the oxide into mercury and oxygen, and consequent loss of oxide. 

Officially described, it is in " heavy, orange-red, crystalline scales, or a crystalline powder, 
becoming more yellow the finer it is divided, odorless, and having a somewhat metallic taste: 
permanent in the air. Almost insoluble in water, insoluble in alcohol, but n'adily and com- 
pletely soluble in diluted hydrochloric or nitric acid, forming colorless solutions. When 
lieated to about 400° ('. (752° r.), it beivtnes dark violet oralmost black, but assumes its origi- 



UYDUAsTINlN.V; 11 YlHiOCHLUKAS. 1019 

nal color on coolinp. At a red heat it is completely iK-composeil into oxyp-ii ami uu-tallic 
iiu-rcury, ami is finally volatilized, leaving no rewdue. If 0.5 Gni. of the oxide be dinested, on 
a water-l);ith, with a solution of 1 C-ini. of oxalic acid in 10 Co. of water, it will not change color 
within 2 hours (distinction from yellow meri'urio oxide). If a little of the oxide be strongly 
li.ated in a test-tube, the vapors "should not redden moistened blue litmus paper (absence of 
nitrate). On dissolving 1 Cini. of the oxide in UXl Cc. of diluted nitric acid, tlie resulting solu- 
tion should Ih' clear, and should not aflord more than a slight opalescence with silver nitrate 
T.S. ( limit of chloride) "— ( I'. *'. P.). 

Ki d precipiUtte is a powerful irritant, and when taken internally, even in small doses, 
readily excites vomiting and |>urging ; large doses cause gastro-enteritis. It is rarely employed 
internally on account o? these dangerous eflTects, though it has been recommended in ityphititic 
./iVd.sfti. The ilosi- of it is from \^t to i grain, combined with i grain of opium, in pill form, 
to Ik> repeated once or twice a day. It is principally used externally, as an escharotic and 
stimulant, to Ti'iUwe jungoiin Jlenliy ixcrfscfufn, to onii/iircs, to excite certain syphititif ulcerations, 
and Imh'liiil iilci-s generally, and principally to reduce c/iroHic o/)/i(/i(i/Hii<i, maintained by the 
ulceration of the free margm of the eyelids. One part of the finely levigated powder of red 
precipitate, mixed with 8 parts of simple ointment, forms a stimulating application to ulcers, 
chnnilc vflillialiiiiii, some diseasff nj Ihc skiu, etc. Mackenzie recommends 1 part of the powdered 
red precipitate to be triturated with 8 i)arts of white sugar, a portion of which may be blown 
into the eye, through a quill, in opacitt/ of the cornea. In syphilitic ulceration of the throitt, uitUa, 
liiiisits. etc.! the following has l)een recommended as a fumigation: Mix together red pre- 
cipitate, 2 drachms; frankincense, myrrh, each, 40 grains; camphor, 16 grains. Throw a por- 
tion of this on a hot shovel, and inhale the vapor. It must be remcmoered that it is capa- 
ble of being absorbed, and of proilucing very serious accidents. Rarely employed in Eclectic 
practice. 

Hydrar>;vri Oxidu.m Xichc.m, Uydrargyri .<i<(«>.ri/'/(iHi(HgjO) Suboxide nf mercury, Mercurous 
oxide: also called Protoxide, Gray or Black oxide of mercury, etc. — This oxide is prepared by 
tn-ating 1 part of finely divided calomel in a porcelain mortar, with 1 part of solution of caustic 
potash, sp. gr. 1.233, which has previously lieen diluted with 3 parts of water; after rubbing 
together for about i hour, throw it on a filter, protecting the residue as much as possible from 
the light, and wash with cold water as long as the filtrate exhibits an alkaline reaction; then 
dry at the ordinary temperature, and keep in a ves.scl excluded from the light. An excess of 
|>o'tassa is necessary to insure the entire decomposition of the mercurous chloride; and heat, 
during the process, must be carefully avoided, as it will cause the protoxide to separate into 
mercuric oxide and mercury. Nevertheless, with every precaution, a small portion will decom- 
pose, and during the washing and drying the black rolor becomes tinged with green. 

Pure mercurous oxide (suboxideof mercury), shuiild he quite black, but from the pres- 
ence of a little mercuric oxide, it has generally a'green tinge ; it is very heavy, inodorous, with- 
out taste, insoluble in water, alcohol, or alkalies, but readily soluble ih diluted nitric acid, and 
acetic acid. It is readily decomposed by light, becomes olive-colored, and is resolved into mer- 
curic oxide and metallic mercurj-. Heated in a tube it acquires at first a red color, from de- 
composition into oxide and metal, it then becomes darker, separating into oxvgen and metal, 
and volatilizes without leaving a residue. Its purity maybe iletermined by tnis last experi- 
ment. Its solution in diluted hydrochloric acid should give no precipitate with either potassa, 
or oxalate of ammonium ; if any red oxide had been dis.soIved, the potassa would throw it down 
as a reiidish or yellowish hydrate ; if calcium be present, the oxalate will give a white precipi- 
tate. It is one of the least 'irritating of the mercurial i)reparations, when pure, and, like them, 
}iroduces cnnstitutional effects, especially when its use is continued for a time. In doses of 
rom i grain to 1 grain per day, it acts "as an alterative; 2 or 3 grains, repeated every 3 or 4 
hours, will produce salivation. (!)n account of its varying composition, and tendency to ope- 
rate severely, owing to the presence of mercuric oxide| it is seldom exhibited internally. One 
part of the mercurous oxide, well rubl)e(l up with 3 or 4 parts ot lard, has been used as a 
substitute for unnurial uintineiu. 

HYDRASTININ.a: HYDROCHLORAS (U. S. P.)— HYDRASTININE 
HYDROCHLORATE. 

FoRMrL.\: C„H„N0,HC1. Moi.ecvlar WEroHT: 224.97. 

" The hydrochlorate" of an artificial alkaloid derived from hydrastiiie, the 
latter being a colorless alkaloid obtained from hydrastis. Hydrastinine hydro- 
chlorate should be kept in well-.st()ppered vials" — (U. S. P.). 

Source.— The colorless alkaloid of hydrastis, hydra-stine, when oxidized by 
such agents as sulphuric acid and iiianjianese dioxide combined, or with potas- 
sium pennanganate, platinic chloride, or chromic acid, yields an artificial alka- 
loid known as hydrastinine, and an iwu], opinnir (trid (M. Freund and W.Will, 
1885; also see Schmidt and Wilhelm, 1888). Hydrastinine is introduced into the 
Pfi(irmncof,<tia for the first time in the form of the hydrochlorate. Its pharnia 
copoeial recognition, however, has not been followed by any considerable use and 
physicians neglect it in favor of natural preparations of hydrastis. 



1020 HYDRASTIS. 

Description. — This new salt is officially described as follows : " Light-yellow, 
amorphous granules, or a pale-yellow, crystalline powder, odorless, and having a 
bitter, saline taste; deliquescent on exposure to damp air. Soluble at 15° C. 
59° F.), in 0.3 part of water, and in 3 parts of alcohol; difficultly soluble in ether 
or chloroform. When heated to 173° C. (343.4° F.\ the salt undergoes partial 
fusion, but does not liquefy. Upon ignition, it is consumed, leaving no residue. 
The salt has an acid reaction npon litmus paper. A dilute aqueous solution of 
the salt (up to about 1 in 100,000), has a decided blue fluorescence. The salt dis- 
solves la sulphuric acid with effervescence, coloring the acid yellowish-red. An 
aqueous solution of the salt is not preciijitated by ammonia water. An aqueous 
solution of the salt yields, with silver nitrate T.8., a white precipitate insoluble 
in nitric acid. On adding to 2 Cc. of an aqueous solution of the salt (1 in 1(X)), 
an excess of bromine water, a yellow precipitate is produced, which is dissolved 
by ammonia water to a nearly colorless liquid (difference from hydrastine, with 
which the ammonia produced a brick-red precipitate)" — (U. S. P.). 

Action, Medical Uses, and Dosage. — Recent investigations of this body 
seem to indicate that paralysis (without tetanus) of the motor tract of the spi- 
nal marrow, is an effect of its physiological doses. Acting mainly upon the 
arterial walls, and less so upon the cardiac muscle, it increases arterial tension 
and slows the pulse, the latter effect being largely due to tlie irritation it pro- 
duces of the pneumogastric nerve. Its chief use, and that for which it has been 
introd>iced,is in hemorrhage from the uterus — menorrhagia, metrorrhagia, etc., buying 
been successfully treated with it. It has likewise been extolled in endometritis of 
a mild type, and dysmenorrltaa of a congestive form. The weight of testimony- 
seems to favor the view that it acts upon the small arterial terminals in the Uter- 
ine mucous surfaces, and that it jjossesses no oxytocic properties. On the other 
hand, there is good evidence that it produces strong tetanic contractions of the 
uterine muscles, producing abortion. Several alxirtions have thus been attributed 
to its use. It is asserted tliat it is jireferable to ergot in controlling uterine hem- 
orrhage. The astringent action of hydrastine was noticed by Prof J. A. Jean9on 
in 1886 (see Er. MkJ. Jom-., 18S6, p. 5SG). Hydrastinine hydrochlorate is employed 
hypoderniatically in doses of J to li grain. 

Specific Indications and Uses.— To control uterine hemorrhage, especially 
when due to congestion. 

HYDRASTIS (U. S. P.)— HYDRASTIS. 

"The rhizome and roots of Hydrastis canadensis, lAnne" — {U. S. P). 

Nat. Ord. — Ranunculacea;. 

Common Names: (See below.) 

Illustr.'Vtio.ns: Llovd"s Druqs and Med. of X. A, PI. 8; Bentley and Trimen, 
Med. Plants. 1 ; Holder's Mrd. Pflanzen, PI. 180. 

Botanical Source. — This indigenous plant has a perennial root or rhizome, 
which is tn-tuous, knotty, creeping, internally of a bright-yellow color, with 
numerous long fibers. The stem is erect, simple, 
herbaceous, rounded, pubescent upward, from 
6 to 12 inches in height, oecoming purplish, and 
bearing 2 unequal terminal leaves. The leaves 
are 2 only, alternate, palmate, with from 3 to 6 
lobes, hairv, dark-green, cordate at base, veiny, 
the lower leaf peti<date, the other sessile, froin 
4 to 9 indies wide when full-grown, and the seg- 
ments serrated. The flowers solitarv, terniiniu, 
^ . ^ , . , „ ^ , , small, white or rose-coloretl, and borne on a ped- 

Dncd rhizome of Hydra«ti.i canadensis. , , . .-, • i • i .i m i *^ 

uncle about 2 inches in length. The calyx con- 
sists of 3 petaloid, deciduous, broadly-ovate, jnile greenish-wliite, concave, slightly 
ilowny sepals, wliieh fall away when the flower onens. The stamens are m.Hny, 
and longer than the pistils. Filaments flat, linear-lanceolate, and liaving the cells 
of an anther on their edge at the apex. Pistils sevenil ; ovary oval, glabrous and 
attenuated upward into a short style. Stigma obtuse and scarcely lobt-d. The 
fruit resembles a raspberry, is red, and cmisists of many little l!-.<Vecled drupi^ 




HYDRASTIS. 1021 

ct)llectiil into a globose head, each crowned with the persistent style; the seeds 
are ncarlv black, obovate, and polished, having a minute embryo at the base of a 
lleshv aiul oilv albumen (L.— \V.— G.). 

fiistory.— This i)lant is found growing in shady wood^, in rich soil, and 
dump meadows, in different parts of the United States and Canada, but is more 
abundant west of the AUeghanies. From about 1847, and especially since the 
first appearance of the Eclectic Dutjiensatory of the I'nited States (now American Di-i- 
l)ensntori/),m 1852, hydrastis has figured conspicuously among the leading Eclectic 
drugs, and few have been in greater esteem. This plant is well known to bota- 
nist' as Yellow pHccoon and Oramje root. The present pharmacopwial name, OoWcti 
seal, was introduced by the Thomsonians, who employed the root to a limited 
extent. It has reference both to the color of the root and to its seal-like scars 
produced by the death of the stalk of the plant of the preceding year. It has 
several other common names, some of thera apjdicable and some being shared 
by other plants, one in particular. Yellow root, being the commercial drug name 
(or X'liilhorrhiza apiij'olia. Some of these common names are derived from some 
physical characteristics of the plant; others from its therapeutic u.«es; while still 
others have reference to its resemblance to other substances. The following are 
some of its popular api)ellatives: G'')/(/cn seal. Yellow puccoon, Yelloxo root, Orange 
root, Ene balm. Eye root. Ground raspberry, Indian paint. Yellow paint, Indian dye. 
Yellow eye. Jaundice root. Wild nircuinn, Ohio curcuma, Curcuma, Golden root, M'ild 
turmeric, and Indian tuniu-ric. In commerce, both golden seal and yellow root are 
the terms employed. The other names should be dropped, and only the name 
of golden seal, as recognized by the Pharmacopn?ia, should be retained. The 
scientific name HydraMis, given" it by Linnaeus, on authority of Ellis, is a mis- 
nomer, derived from old English authorities, who supposed that the plant grew 
in bopgy places, an error which also appears in Wood's Class Book of Botany {CG. 
Lloyd), whereas the plant is never found in wet or boggy situations, on prairies, 
or in sterile soil, but rather in rich open woodlands, preferring a hillside richly 
strewn with leaf mold. An attempt, which unfortunately failed, was made by 
Miller, in 17o9, to change the name to Wameria, in honor of Richard Warner, of 
Woodford, Essex, England. 

In our article on podophyllum, we call attention to the fact that that plant 
can not easily be exterminated by the advance of agriculture. With hydrastis. 
however, the oi)posite is true; the plant disappears as soon as the ground is dis- 
turbed by the settler. Once plentiful along tlie Ohio river banks, it is now found 
only in isolated spots, having suffered extermination as fast as the woodland 
yielded to the pioneer's axe. At present the geographical center of the plant is 
around Cincinnati. But four states now grow sufticient hydrastis to make it 
profitable for gathering fi)r commercial use. These are Ohio, Indiana, Kentucky, 
and West Virginia. There is one redeeming feature, however, in the fact that in 
the mountainous parts of the states in which it grows, it is not very likely to dis- 
appear soon. These districts are inhabited by a class of individuals commonly 
known as "white trash," and also by negroes. They are perfectly contented to 
exist with the least possible exertion on their part, consequently they do not take 
kindly to cultivation of the soil. These virgin forests of the mountain contain 
an abundance of medicinal roots, among them hydrastis. While the plow exter- 
minates it forever, simply digging the roots, as is done by these contented, happy 
rxit diggers, will never absolutely exhaust the resources of those regions. Hence, 
we may hope to have a moderate supply of this drug as long as these people are 
left to enjoy their seclusi(jn; but it must grow scarcer each year, and, if the 
demand continiies in medicine, increasingly more expensive. 

Hydrastis is of very rapid growth, so much so that those who are searching 
for botanical specimens must be on the alert, as the ])lant,when favored by a con- 
tinuance of warm weather during May, will, in a week or 10 days, send up a stem 
and open its blossom. This bloom is white and small, the stamens, on account 
of their whiteness, being the most conspicuous portion of the flower. The stem 
of the plant ranges from 6 inches to 1 loot in height, forking near the top, and 
each part of the division thus made, bears a roundish cordate leaf, each having 
from to 7 lobes. The.se leaves, after the flowering periiids, often become 6 or S 
inches broad, iieing but partly developed at the time of flowering. The lower 



1022 HYDRASTLS. 

leaf is the larger at this time, while the smaller is eessile at the bas^e of the Hower 
stem, enclosing the bud, and is but ])artially unfolded when the flower expands. 
A whole patch of hydrastis, for it grows in patches in rich, hilly woods, will not 
remain in bloom over a week. The fniit, consisting of several drupes aggregated 
together, known botanically as an el.rrlo, matures in July. It resembles somewhat 
a rod raspberry, though larger. Each of the drupes, which are from 8 to 10 in 
number, contains 1 round, shining, black seed, imbedded in a white, sweeti.sh pulp. 
Description. — The rhizome of hydrastis — the part employed in medicine — 
<locs not attain a very great size, for after from 4 to 6 years growth, a gradual 
decay sets in at the end of the root remote from the stem. It consists of a crooked, 
knotty, wrinkled rootstock, 1 or 2 inches long, giving off a numberof yellow fibers. 
The younger rhizomes are well marked on the upper surface with cup like depres- 
sions, showing where the stems of the previous years were articulated. The 
cotyloid cavities become less marked as the rhizome advances in age, and it is 
from these seal-like depressions that the name, golden seal, is derived. Fresh 
hydrastis is vivid yellow, both within and without, but upon drying, becomes 
dull-brown. The best rhizome has a large amount of yellow juice, which, in 
drying may leave the interior yellow or orange-yellow, or, by aggregations of 
it, the central portion may as.sume a reddish hue. Dry hydrastis usually, how- 
ever, is of a lemon-yellow color on fracture, if the root be not old. If old, it 
may be of a greenish-yellow hue, or even brown, the latter color being due to 
the disintegration "of the yellow princiiiles. Therefore, specimens of hydrastis, 
showing a greenish-brown or brown color, should be rejected as being of inferior 
quality. The juice was used by the Indians to color their clothing, and to etain 
their faces. Hydrastis has a peculiar odor and a bitter taste, added to which is a 
persistent acridity, which causes the abundant salivary flow following the chew- 
ing of the rhizome. Hydrastis loses about two-thirds of its weight by drying. 
Its virtues are imparted to water, glycerin, or alcohol. The official drug is thus 
described: "Rhizome about 4 Cm."(li inche.s) long and 6 Mm. (J inch) thick; 
oblique, with short branches, somewhat annulate and longitudinally wrinkled ; 
externally brownish-gray; fracture short, waxy, bright reddish-yellow, with a 
thickish bark, about 10 narrow wood-wedges, broad medullary rays, and large 
pith. Roots thin, brittle, with a thick, yellow bark and subquadraiigular, woody 
center. Odor slight, taste hitter"— {['. S. P.). 

Chemical History and Composition.— The root of hydrastis contains the 
usual plant constituents, starch, albuminous matter, resin, sugar, fatty matter, 
inorganic salts, and three alkaloids, birhcrine. of yellow color, and hydrasline &n<\ 
canadme, hoih of which are white. 

Berberine has received different names, according to the botanical sources 
in which it was discovered, and to this alkaloid the name hi/drnsthie was first 
Pie 137 aflixed. In 1824, Huttenschmid found a yellow coloring matter 

in what he believed to be Geoffmya i»ermi.i, the Jamaica cabbage- 
tree, and gave it the rxdme jn mo icini\ This substance, Wittstein 
{Oryanic Prinrlplcs ofPldutf:), accepts as berberine. In 1S26, Cheval- 
lier and Pelletan found a rich yellow alkaloid in the bark of 
Xiinthnxylum Clava Hcrculi^ (Hercules' club), which they named 
xanthopicrite. This was s\ibsequently also proved identical with 
berberine. In 1828, C. S. Ralinesque." whose works were authority 
with the Eclectic fathers, stated in his Medical Flora of thf L'ltUfd 




I'stnls of Rorbe- 



Slates (1828), that the constituents of Hydrastis canadensi 



were: 



ghtiy "Amarin, extractive, several salts, and a peculiar principle, hydras 
maguiflfd. f^^^g^ of a yellow Color," taking pains to italicize the word hiidrnstine. 

Again, in 1830, Huchner and Herberger obtained from Bcrbais tii'j/nn'.-, a purifietl 
yellow extract, which they named hcrberhic. In 18;i9, Dr. George Kemp prepared 
a salt of berberine and picric acid, and was the first to class berberine among the 
alkaloids. This name at last superseded the terms jnmaicinf, xnnthojuerile, and 
Rafinesqiie's /n/drnstine, although the latter name clung to it for a long time after- 
ward. Even "to this day, the name h;/dr<tstitie is freiiuently preferre<l in America 
owing to the priority of the appellation given by Kafinesque^nd, as an act of 
right, due to priority, it has been insisted upon by the earlier Eclectics. H;/dni*- 
tine {berberine), was "not the exact substance employed by the members of our 



HYnUASTis 1028 

school as a medicine, l>ut rather a salt of the above was used— a hydrochlorate of 
hydrastine (muriate of hydrastine), wliioh was called hydrngline, orneutnit fn/ilrns- 
tine. It was not sliown to be a salt until after Durand (I'^Sl) gave a i>roce.<s for 
making a jTOiluct similar to tii;it wiiicii had long been i)rej)ared by Eclectic jihar- 
mat'ists and emjiloyed medicinally by Et'lectic physicians. As late as ISQ'I, Mr. 
F. Mahla, of Chicago, proved this Eclectic hydrastine to be an aikaloidal salt, 
and showed that the oase was brrherine. Eclectic physicians, however, refuse<l 
then to change the name of the medicinal salt, ami to this day it frequently bear ; 
the old name, hydrastine. 

The demand for ''concentrated medicines,"' or .so-called "Eclectic concentia- 
tions," was the means of introducing viuruite of hydniMine (Jiydrofhlorate of bcrbe- 
rnie") into medicine. Arguing tiiat if podophyllum yickled an active medicinal 
product by precipitation of its alcoholic preparations with water, the early Eclec- 
tics also thought that an active product could be thus obtained from hydrastis. 
Upon trial, a yellow, bitter, resinous body was obtained and put on the inarket 
as a "concentrated powder," under the \yMue,reshwid hi/dr<i;i(in. It soon became 
evident that this resinous precipitate, or "resinoid," did not possess the medicinal 
qualities of the crude drug, hence a desire to further investigate kd to the method 
of adding hydrochloric acid to the supernatant liquid after precipitation of the 
resinoid (which solution was shown to possess the major part of the active prop- 
erties of the root), with the result of obtaining a very bitter, brilliant yellow 
precipitate. To distinguish it from the resinoid kt/dnistin, this yellow salt was 
callea hydmstin (hydmKlint) vcufral, and was put on the nnirket by three manu- 
facturers under the following names: Mnrinte of /lydnistin, hydraidn ii(u(r(il,Rnd 
hydrastine. The name hydra.itin neutral being finally dropped, it entered the lists 
s\a hy draft ine, vuiriale of kydrasline, and hydrastin, the resinoid of the latter name 
having gone out of market. 

To recapitulate we find : (1) That the yellow alkaloid now known as berhe- 
r(W was the hydrat^tine of Rafinesque ; (2) that the medicinal fn/drantine of the 
Eclectic fathers was hydmchlnratc of brrhenne, and was known to them a.s hydrastine 
or ventral hydrastine, or viuriate of hydrastin; and still later as hyilrasti,,; (3) that 
the name hydrastin originally referred to tlie resinous precipitate prepared by treat- 
ing the alcoholic tincture with water and drying and powdering the jirecipitate. 
To make matters still worse a mixture of various substances supitosed to repre- 
sent all the peculiar constituents and virtues of hydrastis was named ^'■mmbined 
hydrastin.'' This is the onlydiug miw known simply as ^Vf//v7.s(//j, or combined 
principles A,'/</'"-''«"«. Boviral bcrberine salts have been used in medicine. For 
further particulars concerning the early history of berberine, see J. U. and C. G. 
Lloyd (D. and M. of i\. A.,\\,[. I, p. 96.) 

Brrhfrinem:\y be obtained by the following process, recommended byMr.Wm. 
Procter, Jr. : "Take the root of Hydrastis canadensis, or of Berberis vulgaris, pref- 
erably the former, in coarse powder, exhaust it by repeated decoction or diges- 
tion in boiling water, and evaporate the filtered liquid to a soft extract. Treat 
this with stronger alcohol by digestion in a water-bath still, at several times until 
it is exhausted (or until a quart of ahohol has been employeu for the extract 
from each pound of the root ). Add to the tincture one-fourth of its bulk of water, 
distill off five-sixths of the alcohol, and add to the hot, watery residue an excess 
of diluted sulphuric acid, and allow it to cool. The sulphate of berberine crys- 
tallizes out, and if necessary, may be drained from the mother li<iuid, redissolved, 
in the smallest quantity of boiling water, and again crystallized. The sulphati- 
of berberine thus obtained is dissolved in boiling water, and decomposed b^' the 
addition, in exce.ss, of oxide of lead (freshly obtained by i)recipitation from the 
acetate or nitrate of lead by liquor potass.a, and well washed ), the solution being 
kept hot during the d'-composition. When a drop of the hot, clear liquid will 
not be precii)itated by baryta water or acetate of lead, tlie decomposition is fin- 
ished. The solution .should then be filtered off hot, evaporated, and set aside for 
crystallization" (Anur. J«nr. I'/iarm.,lSVA, j). 10). 

The aulhoT?i of J), and M. of N. A. prefer the preparation of berberine by the 
decomposition of berberine sulphate with a very slight excess of baryta water. 
Ber6«-i(i« (C„H|,NO., J. Dyson I'errins, 1862) crystallizes in tufts of dark, brown- 
red needles, soluble in water and alcohol, and practically insoluble in sulphuric 



ether, chloroform, carbon disulphide, ami benzol. It forms crystallizable salts 
with acids, such as the hydrochlorate, the nitrate, the acid and the neutral sul- 
phate (mono- and di-berberine sulphate), etc. It al;^o forms a crystallizable com- 
pound with acetone, called acetoiw berberine (C,oH„NO,.C3H50; (For the history 
and descriptiovi ol the salts, see D. and M.of I^. A. The graphic formula of berbe- 
rine was brought to light by W. H. Perkins. Jr., in 1890. 

Hydrastine, the principal white alkaloid of hydrastis, must not be confused 

with Rafinesque's hydrnstme or with the Eclectic medicine hydrazine luurinte. It 

j,jg j^gg was discovered in 1850, by Mr. Alfred B. 

^___^- - Durand(yl7ner.Jbwr.P/iarm., Vol. XXIII, 

^^-^-""T'^^^ ^^X"""^ / h P- ^'^^' "'^° described it as being insolu- 

/^X\^''-'\ )^ ^'^C-2-— -^X — ^ ^^® ^^ water, sparingly so in cold ether 

^X'>^-''^^~"iy^ ^i^C ^y^ and alcohol, more soluble in boiling 

^ ^ ^ ether, entirely soluble in chloroform 

and boiling alcohol, but speaks of the 

crystals as being of a brilliant yellow 

-; j , v yf" f O\ color, which was undoubtedly due to 

^.i — _^ ^<*Y V^ contamination with traces of berberine. 

^^ ^ \ } / ^ Mr. J. Dy.«on Per r ins {Phnnn. Jour 

^ ,,.„;, , , r?^?!.^., May, 1862) was the first to obUin 

CrystalB of Hydrastine, natural s.ze. j^ ^.^j^'^ ^^^ p ^I^j,,^_ ^^ Chicago, pre- 

pared it in 1863 (Amcr. Jour. Phnrm.,\o\. XXXV, p. 433;. by adding aqua ainmo- 
nise in slight excess to the mother liquor from which berberine was previously 
separated as hydrochlorate by the addition of hydrochloric acid. The crude 
hydrastine was then purified by recrystallization from alcohol. Also, see paper 
by Prof. F. B. Power, on the preparation of hydrastine in Prnc. Ainer. Phdrm. 
Ass'„:,\SM, p. 448. Bydmsdne (C„H„NOe, Freund and Will, Bit. d. Dtut^h. Chevi 
Ges., 1887, p. 88j is tasteless in the alkaline saliva; it forms salts with acids 
which, however, are not crystallizahlo. Its soluble salts are acrid, the hydrochlo- 
rate, and occasionally the citrate, being the preferred medicinal salts. Hydrastine 
salts in solution are decomjtosed by alkalies, which liberate the alkaloid as a pre- 
cipitate. A fluorescent body has been found adhering to crystals of fii/drastine, 
its effects are produced in the presence of alkalies (seeD.nnd M.of N. A., Yo]. I, 
p. 143). The melting point of hydrastine, according to Prof. Power, is 132° C. 
(269.6° F.). By reduction with nascent hydrogen, this author obtained crystal- 
lizable tetrn-hydro-hydrastine. Hydrastine, when oxidized in acid media, is con- 
verted into opinnic arid (C^}I,.,0J and hydrastinine (C,,H„NO,), Freund and Will, 
1888 ; also see E. Schmidt and Wilhelm (Archiv dcr Pharm., 1888, p. 3-53). In alka- 
line solution viethylamine and hemipinic a.nd nicotinic acids Tesuh. An interesting 
account of the chemical relationship between hydrastine and narcotine on the one 
hand, and berberine and papaverine on the other, is given by Dr. Alfred R. L. 
Dohme in the Wet-tern Drugt^ist, 1895, y). 58. The statement made by Dr. Freund 
is also recorded, that hydrastine and berberine exist in the root of golden seal, 
most probably in the free state. 

C.\XADi.NE (C.„H.,,XO.). In 1873, Mr. A. K. Hale (Ainer. Joiir. Phnnn., 1873, 
p. 247), announced the presence of a third alkaloid in hydrastis root, resembling 
berberine, but being darker in color, and behaving diflferently toward solvents. 
Mr. .bihn C. Burt (.Iwrr.Joiir. PA«;»i., 1875, p. 481), continued these observations. 
and gave additional reactions. Again, Mr. Herman Lerchen (Amcr. Jour. Phnrm., 
1879, p. 470), prepared the new base, naming it xanfhnpurrine, on account of the 
yellow color of the alkaloid as he obtained it. Lastly, F. Wilhelm, in Prof. 
Schmidt's lalioratory, incidentally obtained minute quantities of a new alkaloid 
(.4)rAfy(?friV(ar(;i., 1888, p. 345), which Prof. Schmidt named f'imi«/(iif, ami which 
he believes to be identical witli tiie third alkaloid of hydrastis obtained by his pre- 
decessors. More recently, Prof. Schmidt found canadine to be tdni-hydro-berheriuf. 
havingtheformulaC,„HJ,NO,(.lrcA(0(/<r P/i(jrm., 1894, pp. 136-154; also see resume 
by Mr. F. X. Moerk, in Amer. Jour. Pharm., 1894, p. 304). Cnnadine forms an almost 
insoluble nitrate by means of which the alkaloid was obtained from hydrastis. 
The free base forms white, acicular crystals melting at 132.5T. (270.5* F.). It 
is insoluble in water, soluble in alcohol, ether, chloroform, benzol, and hot petr<»- 
leum-ether; the hydrochlorate and hydrobromate, esptHMftlly in exces^s of acid. 



HYDRASTIS. 1025 

are not ea.sily solublf, while tlie sulphate forms an exception, being solulile in 
water. ^Vhen exposed to light, ainndiyie gradually turns yellow, being converted 
into berberine, especially in sulphuric avid solution. 

From the researchi-s of Pri>f. Schmidt, it bicomes probable that hydrastis root 
contains in adilition sevcr.il alkaloids rt-latid to those already known, but occur- 
ring only in minute quant it v. (For a special dissertation on hvdrastis, the reader 
is referred to Vol. I, ot D. and M. of N. A., by J. U. and C. G. Lloyd, from which 
j>ublication is derived nuuh of the botanical and chemical material embodied 
in this ariiele on hydrastis ) 

Medical History, Action, Uses, and Dosage.— For many years the salts of 
berberine and p'>wdered hydrastis were the chief forms in which this drug was 
administered. At the present time tiiese salts and the crude drug are but little 
used, and in this paper we shall confine ourselves principally to the liquid prepa- 
rations of hydrastis — chief among which are the specific hydrastis and Lloyd's 
hydrastis. As there have been many prei)arations of this "drug thrown on the 
niarket (since Lloyd's was introduced), uiulcr the name "colorless hyilrastis,"and 
accompanied by the statement that they are preparations of the white alkaloid 
hydrdKtiiit', it is but fair, in speaking of Lloyd's hydrastis, that we should state 
that it is not merely a solution oi h;/dra!!tinc,'\\h'\ch' ia probably the lea-=t valuable 
constituent of hydrastis, but a nn paration containing the cvnduned calorhss con- 
stitiiatts of t]ie drug. It is a well-known fact, though often overlooked by those 
who wish to make it appear that the alkaluiclal constituents of a plant are alone 
the valuable and active therapeutic factors, that the combination or a>sociation of 

Srinciples formed naturally in the plant, or held together naturally even when 
erived from the plant, more completely represents the crude drug than do 
the isolated and forcibly separated alkaloids, and that medicinal virtues are pos- 
sessid by the former that can not be even approximated by the latter. Thus it 
is, that Lloyd's hydrastis is much superior as a remedy, than if it were merely a 
fluid preparation "of the white alkaloid. From some experiments made by Prof 
J. A. Jean^on {Fc. Mai. Jour., ISSfi, p. 586), with a concentrated solution of the 
associated colorless principles divested of the alkaloid, hydrastine, it was shown 
that marked therapeutic effects could be obtained from them alone. It acted 
principally as an astringent, gradually decreasing and finally arresting hyper- 
secretion. As an intrauterine astringent he preferred it above all others. In 
determining its physiological effects, he administered it to animals in health, 
but could not observe any appreciable eff'ect ujion temperature, pulse, or respira- 
t' 11 y apparatus. These physiological doses, however, produced constipation and 
anorexia. Thus, we observe, as is very frequently the case, a marked contrast 
iietween the almost negative physiological eff'ects and the very positive thera- 
peutic results. In this connection we can state that Prof. Lloyd has been led, 
from his great experience in observing the results of the uses of hydrastis, to 
.seriously consider the advisability of excluding, to the great extent, the white 
alkaloid from Lloyd's Hydrastis. Reports, unquestionably reliable, indicate that 
it is often irritating and objectionable. 

The whole drug, including the alkaloid hydrastine, appears to stimulate the 
respiratory and circulatory apparatus, imparting increased tone and power. Arte- 
rial tension is augmented, and blood pressure in the capillaries increased, render- 
ing it valuable, like belladonna and ergot, in overcoming blood stasis. Its action 
upon the nervous system has been compared to that of strychnine (Ellingwood). 
though less energetic, but more permanent. Thus the tone imparted to the 
heart muscle is permanent, rather than intermittent or spasmodic (ilnd.). The 
sensibility of the nerve endings is blunted by hydrastis in excessive doses, and 
in the lower animals large doses of the alkaloid have produced death. No such 
toxic action, however, has been observed uiwn man. Muscular nutrition is in- 
creased under the judicious administration of hydrastis, making it a valuable 
agent in niMndar debility, and in altered states of the muscles, particularly of the 
unstriped variety. 

It is a little singular that hydrastis was not mentioned by our earliest writers 
on indigenous materia medica, for it was in extensive use among certain of the 
aboriginal trilies of North America, being used both as a medicine and as a color- 
ing material. Prof. Kenjaniin Smitli Barton in his first edition of "0)//<-rtion« /or 
65 



1026 HYDRASTIS. 

an Essay Toward a Materia Medica of the United States'' (1798), refers to the Cherokee 
use of it as a cure for cancer. Later, he calls attention to its propertie.s as a bitter 
tonic, and as a local \va.«h for ophthalmia From that time on it was endorsed by 
Rafinesque, Hand, Smith, and the various writers of the botanic and of the med- 
ical reform schools. The extensive range of uses given by the foregoing writers was 
not included in the first edition of tlie Aincrim n Dtxjiemsdtory (1&52), Prof. King 
evidently believing the virtues of the drug to have been greatly overdrawn. He 
gave, however, a careful review of its properties and uses, and thus, for the first 
time, it became firmly established as an Eclectic medicine. At the present time 
it is a great favorite with Homa'opatliic practitioners and with a large proportion 
of Allopathic physicians. It was introduced into Horaceopatliic medicine by the 
late Prof. E. ^I. Hale, M. D., who was familiar with the Eclectic usts of the plant. 

Hydrastis is bitter to the taste, and induces increased activity of the salivary 
glands. It sharpens the appetite and aids digestion when indicated. Schatz ha.s 
shown that it increases contraction of the muscular fibers of arteries without 
affecting other muscular tissues of the tubular organs. He has also shown that 
it decreases congestion of the genito-uriuary tract. Rutherford, who investigated 
it, concluded that it was a hepatic stimulant, and in less degree stimulant to the 
intestinal tract. Its power as a hepatic stimulant is, however, probably overrated, 
while as a stimulant of the gastric and intestinal mucous surfaces its action is 
marked. Hydrastis exerts its chief action upon the mucous and glandular struc- 
tures, and to some extent, through its white alkaloid, upon the nervi>us system. 

Hydrastis is a valuable drug in disordered states of the digestive apparatus, 
especially when functional in character. It is not adapted to all classes of cases, 
but is rather to be considered as indicated in disorders of a sub-acute charac- 
ter and in atonic states with increased tl'iwof mucus. In mh-anite and chmnic 
injlaiiiiiialion tciihfne S(cntion it yiill be found to render good service. Asa gen- 
eral bitter tonic it resembles, though does not equal calumba and gentian, but is 
more api)licable to debilitated conditions of mucous tissues. Beginning at the 
mouth, its beneficial action may be traced throughout the alimentary canal. For 
aphthous stoiii'ititis it is equaled only by coptis and phytolacca. It is not the 
remedy in this disorder when the mucous secretions are checked, Vuit is best 
adapted to subacute forms, bordering on :ichronic state. As a remedy for various 
gastric disorders it will take a leading place, e>pecially if it be borne in mind 
that it is never beneficial, but on the contrary, dues harm, in acute inflamma- 
tory conditions. When, however, the trouble is subacute and semi-chronic, and 
especially with mucorrhaa, or even secretion of pus, the drug will give good 
results. It is indicated in gastnc irritability, relieving the irritation, and after- 
ward restoring the tone of the parts. For years the powdered root was made into 
acjueous infusion, which, when cold, was enii>loyed with marked benefit, but now 
we have pleasantcr preparations which give ecjually as good results without entail- 
ing the unpleasantness of swallowing a large quantity of bitter and crude medi- 
cine. Lloyd's hydrastis has proved an excellent form of administration in cases 
of "ire iviilcr dyspepsia,' a. dii^eased condition said to be peculiarly American, on 
account of the almost universal practice in this country of drinking ice water and 
iced tea. The hydrastis should oe given in 10-drop doses, before each meal and 
at bedtime. Chronic giiMritis,\\\{\\ increased secretion (chmnic gastric catarrh), is 
often promptly met with this drug. It is very valuable in gastric ulnr. Several 
physicians have observed that it is a very useful remedy to exhibit in cases of 
gastric catarrh following the inordinate use of alcoholic stimulants. Prof. Bar- 
tholow, who among the " regulars," has made extensive use of hydrastis, gi>e3 so 
far as to state that in suflicient doses (tinctur^^^L^id extract >, it is probably the 
best substitute for alcoholic beverages when ^^^^isired to abandon the use of 
spirituous stimulants. This statement is riil^HRrby the therapeutic editor of 
the National Dispensatory. However, it is certain that it is valuable in any form 
of gastric disorder, no matter what its origin may be, if there be irritation, or 
subacute infiammatory symptoms vilh innyascd serrction — a condition of alony. 
In chronic alroholisni it may be associated with capsicum or strychnine, or both, 
together with a liberal quantity of beef tea and other easily digested food, reg:u- 
larly administered. Small doses of hydrastis will be found indicated in that 
form of dysjicpsia exhibiting a belching of jiutrescent gases, and full.iwed by a 



HYDRASTIS. in27 

Wfakue.-s, ur sonsation of "goneness" in the pit of the stomach. If j;reat irrila- 
hility of the stomach is present, minute doses of the duid preparations or of 
liydrastine hydrochlorate are to be preferred. When there is less irritation ami 
great inactivity, po\vdere<l hyilnistis may be used. When the larger doses are 
employed it should be immediately after meals. 

This drug is equally as beneticial in oitdt-rhal statis of the intestines and gall 
ducts. In thindcmd oitarr/i, with jaundice, and in those forms of catarrh ofthebilinn/ 
/.</*«i(7<-s due to accretions of inspissated bile mixed with crystallized cholesterin. 
ilie remedy will be found serviceable if continued for a considerable length ot 
lime. Hydrastis should be remembered in o/w/»ifl<e co/i.s(/;}hO'o)i. It is especially 
useful in those disordered states due to hcjnitic obstruction or to hepatic confieMion, 
accompanied or not with intestinal or biliary catarrh. The constipation best met 
with hytlrastis is that hinging on atunicconditionsof theintestinal glands, which 
may be gently stimulated to normal activity by small doses of either the specific 
preparation or Lloyd's hydrastis. Prof. King considered it a valuable tonic for 
enfeebled st:ites ot the alimentary tract in infants and children, and recom- 
mended it for the same purpose in convalescence from "severe attacks oidiniThno, 
d)f8cntcn/, nnd other debilitating maladies."' Local application, with the internal 
use of hydrastis, has been resorted tola hemorrhoids, Jif.iundanus,utcers and eczema 
of the o/ii<-<, and pro/, (^ /.serf and vlanitrd rertuii), with apparent benefit. 

For the use of hydrastis in respiratory affections we insert the following from 
a jtrevious article: "Golden seal is a valuable local agent in affections of the nose 
and thruat. It acts as a subastriugent tonic to the jiarts to which it is applied. 
Simple cularrhid, follicular, or granular pharyngitis is often cured by it. Si/philitic 
ulcerittionsoft/ienaso-pharynycalpamtgesare relieved and often cured by it. The 
colorless hydrastis (Lloyd's) has a beneficial effect in the various forms of sore 
throat, rhinilit,&nd also ulceratid or aphthous varieties of tonsillar, phuri/ngeal, and 
retrophnryngeal catarrh. Subacute and naso-pharyngcal catarrh where the niucous 
membranes are dry and parched, the secretions being altered in quantity and 
character, is cured by it. In catarrhal hypertrophy with profuse discharge and 
thickening of the Selineiderian membrane, this pieparatiou is without an equal. 
It should oe somewhat diluted, and is never the remedy for active, in tlammatoiy 
lesions" (Felterj. For that disagreeble state accompanying nasal and pharyn- 
geal catarrh, in which the mucus forms in gelatinous masses and drops into the 
throat, hydrastis is probably without an equal. It should be apijlied locally and 
also adniinistered internally. Locally, it is especially serviceable in subacute 
forms of tondlitis, &nd occa-^ionaWy m diphtheria. The drug is more especially 
indicated in catarrhal affections of any of the mucous membranes if there be also 
muscular debility. 

In aural and ophthalmological practice this drug is a favorite local applica- 
tion. In the earlier history of its use as a medicine, infusion of the root, as em- 
l.loved by the Indians met by Captain Lewis, in 1804 (during the famous Lewis 
and Clark E.xpedition), and s<"plutioiis of berberine salts, as used by the " Eclectic 
Fathers," were employed in various o^-//^^a/»iMi«. These forms gave e.^cellent re- 
sults, the one objection to their employment being their staining qualities. At 
the present day these colored preparations are seldom used, but in their stead 
Lloyd's hydrastis gives fully as great satisfaction therapeutically, as well as being 
l)leasant in taste and much more cleanly as a hual application. It may be em- 
ployed in the proportion of about 1 part in 10 or 20 of pure water in coujumtival 
diseases. It is only useful in superficial disorders of the eye, having no value in 
intraocular affections. It is valuable in all amjunctival mllainmatioiis, particularly 
-') in the catarrhal forms. Foltz regards it as an excellent remedy in /«///rw/nc 
'nijunctivitis. Suiterfirial corneal ulcerations are benefited by it, and in cilmry blepha- 
ritis it may be emploved with confidence. It is well, however, in the latter dis- 
order to wiush the edg'es of the lids thoroughly with a weak solution of potassium 
bicarbonate, rinse well with pure water, and lastly apply the hydrastis lotion. It 
has been recommended and used with a degree of success in trachomic lids; but it 
is not nearlyso effective in this complaint as theointment of non-alcoholic thuja. 
The principal use of this drug in ear dise(u<cs has been for the cure of purulad 
luriammatioii of the viiildle ear, provideil granulations do not exist. It may be em- 
ployed lieie in both acute and chronic inHainmalion>, and is .specially imlicatdl 



1028 HYDUASTIS. 

where the discharge is abundant. It may be dropped in the ear, or the ear may 
be cleansed with water to which a quantity of the medicine has been added. 
About 10 drops of solution (1 to 6 or 8) is about the proper amount to be em- 
ployed when instilled into tlia aural aperture. Excellent results have been obtained 
by using it in this manner, mixed with specific hamamelis, to which water is 
added if too much smarting be produced. This combination has served us well 
in eczema oj the aural canal and in irritation due to inspissated cerumen, the latter 
being readily softened by it. 

Prof. Webstar (_D;/nnui. Therap.) calls attention to the use of specific hydrastis 
in cases of myalijic tinderncss and soreness. He regards it as indicated where the 
unpleasant symptoms are masked during rest but aggravated by pressure and by 
motion. These myalgic symptoms may be due to various causes, often resulting 
as reflexes from uterine, rectal, and prostatic disorders. He also includes in the cate- 
gory of myalgic complaints, headac/ies resulting from reflexes in which the scalp- 
muscles are involved; pcctor(d tenderness due to lacerated cervix uteri; and the 
vnisculor pains caused by anemia, resulting fnjm uterine, hemorrhoidnl, and other 
hemorrhages. The dose recommended is fri)ra the fraction of a drop to 1 drop. 

Taking advantage of the results of Prof. Schatz's investigation of the action of 
this drug on the circulation, several physicians have employed it in hemorrhagic 
conditions and in pathological states upon which hemorrhages are likely to depend. 
Schatz found it useful in hemorrhagefrom uterine Jihrouls (mi/omata); congestive dys- 
menorrhea; hemorrhage in ?;i?-y»is, persisting even after the use of the curette; hem- 
orrhages from, subinvolution, endometritis, vietritis, parametritis, cicatrices, stenotic condi- 
tions, a.nd climacteric hemorrhage. Operations and other means had failed in the 
cases above mentioned, but hydrastis cured. The dose a<lministered was 20 drops 
of the tincture 3 times daily. Too small a dose is without this controlling power 
over the walls of the vessels, according to Schatz, while large doses have an effect 
further than is desired. It is too slow a remedy for a.cU\e post-partum hemorrhage. 
but may be employed for the control of passive hemorrhage. It is useful in vietror- 
rhagia. Like ergot, it may be employed for the reliei of chronic cerebral hy]>eraemia. 
&nd other forms of cerebral engorgement. Other observers have seen its beneficial 
action in the cure of fungoid endometritis, lacerated cervix, and pelvic cellulitis. Lo- 
cally and internally, excellent results are obtained from hydrastis in Icucorrha a. 
both vaginal and uterine. For gonorrhoea, Lloyd's hydrastis probably enjoys a 
more extensive use as a local application than any other drug, aud this use of it 
is not confined to Eclectic practitioners alone. ¥ or gket it is equally as beneficial. 
For this purpose it may frequently be combined with aqueous thuja. Salts of 
zinc and lead, in very small amounts, may be added to the solution of hydrastis. 
If carefully em])loyed, stricture as a result need never be feared. Other prepara- 
tions of hydrastis will give good results, but their staining qualities coudemn 
them. To Prof. John King must be accorded the first mention of this use of the 
drug. He also used it successfully in '■'• mcipunt stricture, i-jiermatorrhaa, and inHam- 
mation and iilccration of the internal coat of the bladder." As a remedy for cystitis, it 
may be given internally, and used largely diluted to wash out the bladder. Prof. 
Jean(,(in,ia discussing tlie concentrated solution of the associated principles of 
hydrastis (devoid of hydrastine), says: " Formerly, I used to apply locally a tam- 
l)on or wad of absorbent cotton, well saturated with a solution of the double sul- 
phate of alumina and copper, in cases of ctrvical erosions and light tHipillary 
vegetations. Now I apply the cotton saturated with the concentrated solution of 
tlicse hydrastis substances, and find that the effect is all that can be desired. The 
eroded "surface becomes smooth, the vegetations disappear, and a fine glistening 
layer of mucous structure soon makt-s its appearance." 

Hydrastis has been used to some extent in cutaneous diseases. Prof. Jeanvon 
cured a stubborn case of eczmut of the scrotum with it. Othtr taj^es of eczeiiui, de- 
fending upon gastro-intestinal disturbances, have been cured by Us ialernalexlii- 
bition alone. Ame, seborrhea sicca or oleosa, scmjula, acne rosacta, tuptu<, st/cosi.i, boiU, 
carhuncUs, and ulcers, wben dependent upon gastric ditliculties, have been greatly 
benefited and Some cases cured by tlie internal use of the drug alone. The local 
use at the same time hastens the cure. Eczematous manifestations around the 
ouili'ts of the body also yield to tlie kindly a< lion of golden seal locally applied 
ll has been said loiure ((i/u«r, though tliis U>e of the drug is overrated. Still. 



HYDKASTIS. 1029 

many oelieve it to have a beneficial effect in proloiijiiiig life and in mitigating the 
severity of the disease. On this point Prof. Scudder remarks, " In some cases of 
cancer with sloughing of tissues, and in malignant ulceration, no application will 
do more to retard the i)rogress of the disease than an infusion of the crude article 
or a solution of the alkaloid (,^< //x rnx ). It has been claimed that the internal 
administration of the remedy alone will prove curative. I am satisfied that in 
some cases tills use of hydrastis will do much to relieve pain and lengthen life, 
even if it does not prove curative." Hale and others consider the long-continued 
use of hydrastis internally excellent in n'Uinhug. ■<rirr/i us of the hrntM, -when the 
tumor is hard and painful, but has not vet advanced to ulceration. 

Hydrastis should be remembered lu cimvakmnrefroia dismsc-'i having exces- 
sive mucoid discharges, or where hemorrhage has played an imiiortaut part. For 
malaruil dUordtrs it probably has but little to recommend it. It has been used as 
an anti-malarial drug, but as it has usually been employed with some of the cin- 
chona alkaloids, the beneficial, or at least the antiperiodic eflects were probably 
due to the latter. Hydrastis should not be overlooked, nevertheless, in convales- 
cence from (jCHcnd dcliililt/, pwtnirlcd fevers, iiifl(immatm-i/ afferlions, and nervous pros- 
tration. Hence it is u-sefiil to combine with it capsicum, strychnine, nux vomica, 
iron salts, and quinine, when there are clear indications for their selection. Pros- 
trating tiighl-swedls are very often controlled by it. In heiiatic and stomachic dis- 
orders it may be greatly aided by iris, phytolacca, bryonia, arnica, leptandra, 
chionanthu-j, and podophyllin, provided any of these are indicated. Powdered 
hydrastis and the extract are now seldom employed. The usual do.se of specific 
hydrastis ranges from the fraction of a drop to 30 drops; of Lloyd's hydrastis, 
from 5 drops to 1 drachm; of infusion of Hydrastis (gi to aquaOj) from^to2 
fluid ounces; locally, Lloyd's hydrastis, from full strength (ulcerated cervix uteri), 
to a dilution of 1 in 20 in water. Dose of the powder, from 10 to 30 grains; of the 
tincture, from 1 to 2 fluid drachms; of the hydro-alcoholic extract, from 2 to 5 
grains; of the fluid extract, 10 to 60 minims; hydrastine (Eclectic^ 1 to 6 grains; 
of hydrastiniue hydrochlorate, J to li grains; berberine (see below), 2 to 20 grains; 
berbVriiie hydnulilciratc, 1 to 5 grains; berberine sulphate, 1 to 5 grain.s. 

Specific Indications and Uses.— Hydrastis is specifically indicated in catar- 
rhal states of the niuious nienibranes, when unaccompanied with acute inflam- 
mation. An apparent exception to this is in acute purulent otitis media, in 
which it is said to act better than in chronic conditions; gastric irritability; irri- 
tation of parts with feeble circulation; muscular tenderness and soreness, worse 
under pressure or on motion; passive hemorrhages from uterus and other pelvic 
tissues; skin diseases depending on a gastric abnormality, indicating hydrastis. 

Related Brag.— Ccclocline polycarpa, A. DeCandoWe (Ummn jmli/rarpa, De'Candolle), }>/- 
lou-tliie ir.f ,,j Sjuddii, Btrberiite tree. An African tree inhabiting Sierra l.eone, Soudan, and 
other points in western Africa, which, when wounded, exudes a juice which leaves an in- 
delible yellow fitain upcin linen, and tinges the saliva yellow. It is used as a yellow dye by 
the natives, and imparts both color and bitterness tow'ater. Stenhouse has shown the color- 
ing principle to be (-< rh, rine. Medicinally, it has been used in decoction and powder by the 
inhahitants of Sierra Leoiio, as a topical dressing for ohsliixile ulcerallom. 

Preparation of Hydrastis.— I. iqcid Hydrastis. This is a glycerin preparation intn»- 
diioi'd l>y till' William S. .M.rrfll Chemical Company, of Cincinnati, and is properly a specialty 
of this iirm. lluid hydrastis is employed l)Oth externally and internally. 

Related Preparations.— BKREiERiNB and Its Salts. Bniuriun, Berbmne. (Foradi'Bcrip- 
tion of lurbfiiiie see al)ove.) Herberine is an excellent tonic, and also appears to possess 
slightly laxative properties. It will be found to exert an efficient action upon all abnormal 
mucous tissues, and may be employed In ca.se8 where barherry or hydrastis is indicated. It 
may be used in powder.in doses of "from 2 to 20 grains; or in water, to which citric, tarturii-, 
or acetic acid baa been added to aid its solution. AcHate qfbrrberiue will be found a very solu- 
ble salt, and of much efficacy. 

Beriieri.n.b HvDROcHi-ORAS, Berlnriiie hydrochlorate (see above).— Hydrochlorate of her- 
berine ia a tonic, with an especial action on diseased nuicoua tissues ; It poRsesses, in an emi- 
nent degree, the tonic virtues of the root, and was formerly nnich used, ami ia still employed, 
by some physicians as a substitute for it. It is more benehcial as a tonic durini; lonvalesceiice 
from exhauf'ting di»eaai», such as biliom and tiiiihuid /ners, acute hriinlitis, (jnitlrlllf, nil' rilh. ilinr- 
rhirn, di/srnten/, etc. In di/npepKia anil chnmic iiiHiimnialhn of llie itomnch it is very valuahle, and 
will be found of especial advantage in the treatment of pi»rson» who are int«-mneriite. gradu- 
ally removing the abnormal condition of the stomach, and in many instances destroying the 
appetite for li<iuor; it niav be condjined in these '-ases with sulphate of iic.inine, extract of 
quassia, or other hitter toiiie. In linoulir,; n coinhination of opial parts of hvdrm-hlorate of 



1030 HYDROCOTYLE. 

berberine, extract of bayberrj' bark, and oleorosin of prickly ash bark, will often prove efficient. 
Coinbined with sulphate of quinine and extract of leptandra, it was once considered useful in 
infantih' rnnitU-nt fi-cer. Equal parts of hydrochlorate of berberine, resin of caulophyllum, and 
extract of leptandra, form an excellent' medicine ior aphtlue and other ukeratiotu of Ihe nv/udi 
and tlii-itat, in infants, as well as adults; it should be administered internally. A pill com- 
posed of 1 crrain of hvdrochlorate of berberine, ^ of a grain of alcoholic extract of nux vomica, 
and sufficient olooresin of ptelea to form a pill-mass, is found an efficient remedy for some 
forms of dyxjiiimti, and loss of appetite; 1 pill to be given for a dose, and repeate<i 3 times a 
dav. Dose of hydrochlorate of berberine: For an adult, from 1 to b grains; for children, 
from .' a grain to 3 grains ; and which may be repeated from 3 to times a day, if required. 
Bekbkkjn.e i^vi.VH\ii, Berberiiu sulphate. — Four grains of sulphate of berberine, dissolved 
in 1 fluid ounce of hot water, forms, when cold, an excellent collyrium in puml^iU and phlye- 
teuular coiijuiidiviti.-', and an efficient injection in otorrlitea, oztena, leucorrhoea, catarrh oj'Oie bladder, 
chronir ijuiiorrhaa, prostatorrhcea, and relaxed or enfeebled condiiiom of mucom membranes. S taining 
of garments, etc., is an objection to the local use of berberine salts. 

HYDROCOTYLE.— WATER PENNYWORT. 

The entire plant of Hydrocotyk Asiaikc, Linne. 

Nat. Ord.— Umbelliferse. 

Common Names: Water pmnytvort, Thick-leaved pe^inywort, Indian pennyvxrri, 
Bevilacqua. 

Illustration : Bentley and Trimen, Med. Plants, 117. 

Botanical Source and History. — The genus Hydrocotj-le is an extensive 
family, comprising nearly 100 .<j)ecies that are found throughout the temperate 
world*, consisting mostly "of small, inconspicuous marsh herbs. The generic char- 
acters are: Flowers small, in simple umbels; petals 5, white, the points not in- 
flexed; calyx margin wanting; fruit of 2 carpels, which are flattened laterally, 
5-ribbed, and not furnished with oil-tubes. 

Hydrocotyk Asiatica is a low, creeping plant, widely difi'used over the warmer 
parts of the world, and abundantly met with in India, Cape of Good Hope, and 
Australia. The leaves are kidney-shaped, crenate, and the petioles attached at 
the base of the leaf. 

In England the genus is represented by a single species. H. vulgaris, which is 
found growing in most parts of Europe. The leaves of this species are nearly 
orbicular, and about the size of an English pennj'; hence the common name 
"pennyimrt." The name "sheep-rot'' is sometimes applied from the supposition 
that it causes the " rot" when eaten by sheep. The leaf-stalks are attached to the 
leaf-blade near the center of the under surface, a position comparatively rare 
among plants. 

There are five American species of Hydrocotyle. all small herbs, growing 
in swamps. H. iimbellata and H. interrupta have the leaves peltate ; while in 
H' Americann, H. ranuncitloides, and H. repandn the leaves are attached to the leaf- 
stalks at the base of the blades. Hydrocotyk Americana is the most common native 
Bpecies, and is found farther north than the others. It is a delicate, slender plant 
growing in damp, shady places; the leaves are thin and smootli, and are borne on 
short leafstalks ; the minute wliite flowers are in close sessile umbels, in the axes 
of the leaves. The Ht/droroti/lc ruliriris and tlio 5 American species have proper- 
ties pnd.al>ly similar to those of Hie //. Asnitlm. 

Medical History and Chemical Composition.— In 1852, Dr. Boileau, of 
India, having been for many years attlicted with leprosy, heard that the American 
plant, called Chiiichunchulli', v,-i\s of value. This plant was said to resemble the 
violet, and, while waiting for the arrival of a supply, the doctor experimented 
with Hydrocotyk Asiatica, and recovered. He subsequentlv used the remedv with 
other lepers. " His experience was published, the plant \)eing callwl ftriViKi/un. 

In 18.53 or 18.54, M. Jules Lepine continued the subject in the iV<i«/r(i,< (inutte 
(Phnrm. Jour, and Tram.. 1853 and 18.54), and confirmed the assertions of Pr. 
Boileau regarding its elliciency in leprosy. Before this, liowever, the plant is said 
to have occupied a place in the Indian 5lateria Medica. The composition of the 
plant is not known, beyond the experiments of Lepine, who decided that an 
oily substance, named by him vellarin, was the active medicinal principle. (See 
Christv, .\cw Commercial Hints, 1885, p. 58.) 



HYOSCIN.K HYniKiHKOMAS.-lIYOsCYAMlX.K HYDKOBKoM AS, W6l 

Action, Medical Uses, and Dosage.— Tliis plant should be ranked among 
the acronaicolic uoisons, along with tlm CKnantlia crocata, and the C^icitas. Boi- 
Ifau, Lepine, ana others liave found it u.-eful as a remedy against elrphantiaaia of 
the Greeks (leprosy). Devergie, C'azenave, Waring, Hunter, etc., have derived 
benefit from it in chronic eczema and otlier cutniicniis vwkidies, in 8rr<>ful<i, secmidari/ 
f-yp/iiliSjii 'riTS, and c/ironicr/icumiitinm. It is an at'tive agent, large amounts induc- 
ing headache, dizziness, and stuj)or, as well as bloody passages from the bowels. 
Itching of the skiu is said to be occasioned by it also. As tlie root is very hygro- 
scopic, and is not well preserved in powder, its best form for administration is in 
infusion, or syrup, 1 ounce of the root to 1 pint of fluid, and which may be given 
in doses of from 4 to 1 fluid ounce, repeated 3 or 4 times a day. An alcoholic 
extract may likewise be used in doses of from J to | of a grain. Notwithstanding 
the favoral>le rej)ort3 concerning the efficiency of tliis plant, it has fallen into 
disuse, and is seldom employed at the present day. 

The Hydrofotyle gummi/era, growing in Brazil and in the Antilles, has been 
used in hepatic and re)ial affections. 

HYOSCINiE HYDROBROMAS (U. S. P.)— HTOSCINE 

HYDROBROMATE. 

"The hydrobromate of an alkaloid obtained from Hyoscyamus. It should 
be kept in small, well-stoppered vials" — (U. S. P.). 

Formiia: C„H,,N0.HBr-f3IIp. Molkcl-lar Weight: 436.98. 

Preparation. — The mother licpiors from the preparation of hyoscyamine were 
found by l.Mclinliuiii, in 18H), to yield the syrupy alkaloid hijosrliie. It is freed 
from hyoscyamine by jirodming the gold cliloride double salts, and that of hyos- 
cine is more soluble than its corresponding hvosc\anjine salt, thereby allowing 
its separation. The melting p..int of the hyoscine salt is 198° C. (388.4° F.). The 
union of the alkaloid with hydrohromic acid yields hi/oscine hydrobromate. 

Description.— ''Colorless, transparent, rhombic crystals, odorles.s, and having 
an acrid, .slightly bitter taste; permanent in the air. Solul)le, at 15° C. (59° F.), 
in 1.9 parts of water, and in 13 parts of alcohol; very slightly soluble in ether or 
chloroform. When heated to 100° C. (212° F.), the salt loses its water of crystalli- 
zation, and fuses to a thick, syrupy mass, which becomes quite fluid at 160° C. 
(320° F..). When ignited, it is consumed, leaving no residue. The salt is neutral 
to litmus paper. Addition of ammonia water to the aqueous solution of the salt 
(1 in 6U) produces no change, but sodium or potassium hydrate T.S., causes a 
white turbidity. Addition of silver nitrate T.S. to the aqueous solution produces 
a yellowish-white precipitate, which is insoluble in nitric acid, but, when filtered 
off and washed, is soluble in ammonia water diluted with its own volume ot 
water. If 5 drops of fuming nitric acid be added to 0.01 Gm.of the salt, in a 
small porcelain capsule, and the mixture be evaporated to dryness on a water- 
bath, a scarcely tinted residue will be left, which, when treated, after cooling, with 
a few drops of an alcoholic solution of potassium hydrate, will assume a violet 
color"— (r.S. P.). 

Action, Medical Uses, and Dosage. — (See Hyosq/avius.) 

HYOSCYAMIN.*: HYDROBROMAS (U. S. P.)— HYOSCYAMINE 
HYDROBROMATE. 

"The hydrobromate of an alkaloid ol)tained from Hyoscyamus. It should 
be kept in small, well-stoppered vials" — (I'.S.P.). 

Formii.a: C,,H„NO,HHr. Molecular Weight: 369.14. 

SvNO.w.M: Hyosri/fimiiium hydrobromicum. 

Description.— 'A yellowisli-white, amorphous, resin-like mass, or prismatic 
crystals, having, particularly when damp, a tobacco-like odor, and an acrid, nau- 
seou.s, and bitter taste; deliquescent on exposure to air. Soluble, at 15°C. (59° 
F.),in about 0.3 part of water, 2 parts of alcohol, 3000 parts of ether, or 250 parts 
of cldoroform. At 78° C. (172.4"*^ F.), the salt melts, for 



forming a nearly colorless 



1032 HVOSCYAMIN.E SrLPHAS.-HYOSCYASUS. 

liquid. When ignited, it is consumed, leaving no residue. The salt is neutral 
to litmus paper. An aqueous Folution of the salt is not precipitated by platinic 
chloride T.S. (difference from most other alkaloids). With gold chloride T.S. it 
yields a precipitate which, when recrystallized from a small quantity of boiling 
"water acidulated with hydrochloric acid, is deposited, on cooling, in minute, lus- 
trous, golden-yellow scales (difference from atropine). The aqueous solution of 
the suit yields, with silver nitrate T.S., a yellowi.sh-white precipitate, which is in- 
soluble in nitric acid; but, when filtered off and washed, is soluble in ammonia 
water diluted with its own volume of water" — [U. S. P.). 
Action, Medical Uses, and Dosage. — (See Hyoscyamus.) 

HYOSCYAMINiE SULPHAS (U. S. P.)— HYOSCYAMIKE 
SULPHATE. 

"The neutral sulphate of an alkaloid obtained from Hyoscyamu^. It should 
be kept in small, well-stoppered vials" — {U. S. P.). 

Formula: (C„H^N03),H2S0,. Molecular Weight: 674.58. 

Preparation. — Carefully neutralize an alcoholic solution of hyoscyamine with 
diluted sulphuric acid and evaporate in the cold. It may also be obtained by 
slowly concentrating the diluted sulphuric acid solution of hyoscyamine over 
concentrated sulphuric acid. It is claimed by some that this salt forms in small 
crystals, but Ladenburg maintains that only hyoscine salts and not those of hyos- 
cyamine are crystallizable. As found in market both lines of salts are somewhat 
colored, hut when pure are white or colorless. 

Description.— -"White, indistinct crystals, or a white powder, without odor, 
and having a bitter, acrid taste; deliquescent in damp air. Soluble, at 15°C. 
(o9° F.), in 0.5 part of water, and in 2.5 j)arts of alcohol ; very slightlv soluble in 
ether or chloroform. At 140° to 160° C. (284° to 320° F.) the salt 'melts, and, 
upon ignition, is consumed, leaving no residue. The salt is neutral to litmus 
paper. An aqueous solution of the salt is not precipitated by platinic chloride 
T.S. (difference from most other alkaloids). With gold chloride T.S. it yields a 
precipitate which, when recrystallized from a small quantity of boiling water 
acidulated with hydrochloric acid, is deposited, on cooling, in minute, lustrous, 
golden-yellow scales (difference from atropine). The aqueous solution of tiie salt 
vields, with barium chloride T.S., a white precipitate insoluble in hydrochloric 
acid"— {U.S. P.). 

Action, Medical Uses, and Dosage. — (Bee Hyosq^amm.) 

HYOSCYAMUS (U. S. P.)— HYOSCYAMUS. 

" The leaves and flowering ioY>» of Hi/osci/amus /(/(/tv, Linne," "collected from 
plants of the second year's growth" — (T. S. P.). .-Mso the .seeds <>f Hwn>n/amxti 
niger, Linne. 

Nat. Old. — Solanacese. 

CoM.MoN Name: Henbane. 

Ili.ustk.^tio.n : Bentley and Trimen, Med. Plant.t, 194. 

Botanical Source. — Henbane is a biennial jilant, with a long, spindle-shaped, 
thick and corrugated root, of an internal, whitish color, and e.^ternally brown. 
The stem is from 6 inches to 2 feet high, erect, tapering scarcely branched, and 
covered closely with long, weak hairs, tipped with a minute black gland. The 
leaves are large, oblong, acute, alternate, coarsely and unequally sinuated. occa- 
sionally somewhat decurrent, stem-clasping at the base, pale dull-green, and 
slightly pubescent, witii long, glandular liairs upon the midrib. The tlowers are 
numerous, a.xillary,subsolitary, nearly sessile, and embosomed in the up[>ermost 
leaves, than which they are much shorter. The corolla is of a dull, dirty yellow, 
strongly netted with purple veins, deep-purple at the orifice, funnel-shapetl, with 
a somewhat erect, 5-lobed limb; lobes rounded, spreading, the 2 anterior a little 
smaller than the others, and separated at base by a deep slit in the tuW. Calyx 
villous, funnel-shaped, 5-lobed, regular, wider than the corolla, to whose \nW it 



HYO.S(YAMVS. 



1(i:j:} 



Fig. 139. 




Hyoscyamus niger. 



is equal in length and persii^tent ; i;ich lobe is ovale ami acute, with an open 
lestivation. Stamens 5, deelinate, straight, t^horter than the corolla, the 3 lower 
longer than the others, filaments juibescent, inserted about llie middle of the 
lube of the corolla, and inclined; anthers 
cordate and purple. The ovary is nearly 
round, shining, pale-green, 2-cellcd, with 
numerous ovules, adhering to tlie dissepi- 
ment; style till form, declinate, and )iurple 
at theape.^; stigma blunt, rouml, and capi- 
tate. The fruit is an ovate, 2-celled cap- 
sule, opening transversely by a ci'iivex lid. 
The seeds are many, small, obovate, and 
brownish (L. — B.)." The whole plant has 
a disagreeable, fetid odor, and a repulsive 
appearance. 

History. — Henbane is an European 
herb, naluralized in this country, growing 
in wiiste grounds and commons, and flow- 
ering from June to September. Botanists 
are divided as to whether it is an annual 
or biennial plant. All parts of tlie plant 
are medicinal, but the leaves and seeds are 
the parts usually employed; the former 
should be collected at the time of its flow- 
ering, and the latter when perfectly ma- 
tured. The leaves of the second year's 
growth of the plant are reputed more active than those of the first year; when 
fresh they abountl in a viscid juice, and when bruised have a nauseously rank, 
narcotic smell, and an acrid, oleaginous, disagreeable taste. Upon drying, the 
smell and taste are almost destroyed. Tlie leaves impart their properties to 
diluted alcohol; water, alcohol, ether, fixed or volatile oils also take up a portion 
of their virtues. The aqueous infusion is tasteless, light-yellow, and has the taste 
and odor of the plant. The leaves should be kept in a dry situation on account 
of their tendency to absorb moisture. 

Description. — HYoscY.A.Mrs (V. S. P.). "Leaves ovate, or ovate-oblong, up 
to 25 Cm. (^10 inches) long and 10 Cm. (4 inches) broad; sinuate-toothed, the 
teeth lar:_'e, oblong or triangular; grayish-green, and, i)articularly on the lower 
surface, glandular-hairy; midrib prominent; flowers nearly sessile, with an urn- 
shaped, 5-toothed calyx, and a liglit yellow, purple-veined corolla; odor heavy, 
narcotic; taste bitter and somewhat i'.crid" — (U. S. P.). For a microscopical ex- 
amination of powdered hyoscyamus leaves, see Prof. S. E. Jelifie, in Druggists' 
CVVat^r, 1899, p. 74. 

Hyoscyami Semen. Hyoscyamtis seeds. — The seeds were official in the U. S. P., 
1870. They are employed for Ihe production of the alkaloid, hyoscyamme. They 
are small, numerous, oval, obtuse, or somewhat reniform, compressed, finely dot- 
ted, of a yellowish-gray color, and having the same taste and odor as tlie leaves, 
hut with oiliness. The interior is whitish, displayingwithin the albumen a figure 
'Jshaped embryo. The concavity of the seed is marked by the hiluin. 

Chemical Composition. — According to Morries, an empj-reumaticand highly 
poisonous oil is olitainable by the destructive distillation ol henbane {Kdin. Med. 
(uid^'u/Y/. J'.,(,-.,Vul.XXXlX,p.370), Thechief constituents of hyoscyamus seeds, 
iiesides fi.xcd oil and fatty matter, gum, starch, albuminous matter, etc., are two 
alkaloids, /i;/o«r?/a»)U/ie and /(i/o.-ia'xe, the latter having been recognized, in ISSO, by 
L:idenburg"(/>i<'''.^'"i.,Vol.C'CVl,p.270),and ))reviously (1876) observed by Buch- 
lieim, and ca.led hy h\m sdcrranine. Mr. F. Mahla obtained nearly 2 p.rcentof 
nitrate ot potassium from the leaves of henbane (.l/iKr. Jour. Phann., IWil. p. 402). 

Hyoscvami-SE (C,,H„N03, Ladenl)urg), was found in iienbane (impure) by 
Peschier (1821; and by Payen (1824), and subsequently purified by tieiger and 
Hes.se (1838). It is nuire abundant in the .eee<ls than in the herb, the latter when 
fresh, yielding 0.14 to 0.16 per cent; in the fresh seeds Wadgymiir (P/w. ylmfc. 
I'hiirm. Asmc, 1867, p. 404 i, found as high as 0.52 per cent of the alkaloid. ( For a 



1U.]4 HYOSCYAMUS. 

Buniraary review of the various methods pursued in isolating hyoscyamine, tee 
Husemann and Hilger, PJianzenstoffe,r). 1181.) In purest form it is obtainable from 
its (purified) gold double chloride (Ladeuburg). Pure hyoscyimine crystallizes in 
tufls or stellate, silky needles of an acrid, unpleasant taste; when impure it is an 
amorphous, deliquescent mass, having a nauseating, narcotic, tobacco-like smell. 
It dissolves sparingly in cold, more readily in hot water, is soluble in alcohol, ether, 
chloroform, benzol, and amj'l alcohol. Its melting point is 108.5° C. (227.3° F.). 
Hi/osri/nmiiie is strongly basic and forms crystallizaljle salts with acids. In aqueous 
solution it is very unstable, being decomposed by heat, especially when heated 
with alkalies, ammonia then being liberated. Ladenburg proved it to be an 
i.somer of atropine (which see), yielding the same decomposition products (tropine 
and tro2-nc arid) as atropine when heated with diluted hydrochloric acid or baryta 
water. From solutions of its salts, hyoscyamine is but incompletely precipitated 
by caustic alkalies or carbonates; it forms precipitates with auric chloride, tinc- 
ture of iodine, tannic acid, and other alkaloidal reagents. The platinic double 
chloride is more soluble than that of atropine. This behavior permits its isola- 
tion from commercial (impure) atropine. Hyoscyamine is identical with duhoisine 
from Duboisia imioporoides (Ladenburg), and is likewise identical with daturine 
(see Merck's Index, 1896). Hyoscyamine is an active poison, as are its salts; a 
minute quantity of it placed within the eye, causes a persistent dilatation of 
the pupil. 

Hyoscine (Ci,H5,N0„ 0. Hesse and E. Schmidt). This base was obtained by 
Ladenburg from commercial semi-liquid brown hyoscyamine by dissolving it in 
water, precipitating with gold chloride, and recrystallizing from hot water, from 
which solution hyoscine gold chloride fir.'^t precipitates, and the base is then easily 
regenerated. Hyoscine forms an amorphous, semi-liquid mass, not easily soluble 
in water, easily soluble in alcohol and ether. It j'ields crystallizable salts with 
acids, and on warming with baryta water at a temperature of 60° C. (140° F.). 
is decomposed into tropic acid (t',H,„0,), and pseudo-tropine (C,H,jXOi. A water 
soluble hyoscine was recently found by O. Hesse to be obtainable in compara- 
tively lartre quantities from the flowers of D«;i(/-a ofta, an ornamental plant cul- 
tivated in southern Grrniany (D'(';/f/;>^<' C/rrH/ar, 1809, p. 85). 

Action, Medical Uses, and Dosage. — ^Ilyoscyamus is a powerful narcotic, 
and is dangerously poi.sonou.';, tliuugh fatalities from it or its alkaloids are rare. 
In fact, the physiological action of hL-nbane and its bases scarcely differs from that 
of stramonium and belladonna and their alkaloids, except in degree. It produces 
the same dryness of the mouth, flushing of the face, pupillary dilatation, quick- 
ened cardiac and respiratory action, illusions, hallucinations, and delirium occa- 
sioned by belladonna, only in a lesser degree. No difference is observable in the 
action of hyoscyamine and atropine upon the mechanism of accommodation and 
upon the movements of the lungs and heart. Hyoscyamine is more hypnotic and 
less apt to cause delirium than atropine. The dilatation of the pupils, which, 
however, does not always take place under hyoscyamine, is caused by stimulation 
of the sympathetic nerves. When death occurs from liyoscyamus or its alkaloids 
it is due to respiratory jiaralysis. The alkaloids are eliminated by tlie kidneys. 
In large doses, but in.sullicient to produce death, the tendency of hyoscyamus is 
to produce general paralysis of the nervous structures. One patient lost her 
memory from being poisoned with it. Among the ill eftects of hyoscyamus are: 
Deranged vision, dilatation of the pupils, giddiness, general excitation, fullness 
of pulse, flushing of the face, weight in the head, headache, loss of muscular con- 
trol, with tremulousness, mental confusion, incoheniicy or loss of speech, somno- 
lency, furious delirium, unconsciousness, coma, irresponsiveness of the pujiila to 
light, cold sweat, small, frequent, and fecMe pulse, and deep and laborea respira- 
tion. Tetanic rigidity may be present a portion of the time and sometimes con- 
vulsions, as well as na"usea,"vomUing, and intestinal pain and purging. The treat- 
ment of poisoning by hyoscyamus is tiiat indicated yxnAer Belladonna. Chloral 
is especially recommended for poisoning by hyoscine. Autopsies reveal gastro- 
intestinal inflammation from poisoning by this drug. 

When 1^ of a grain of sulphate of hyoscyamine has been subcutaneooslv 
injected hyoscyamine has been detected in the urine 22 minutes al"terward. ff 
enough be injected to cause complete dryness of the tongue and hard and soft 



HYOSCYAMUS. 103o 

)>iilates, the pulse will increase temporarily in frequency, volume, and power; if 
this eti'ect upon the tongue is not produced, the pulse will he lessened in fre- 
(liieiuy without diiiiinution of its volume and force, and giddiness, somnolency, 
iuul dilat^ttion of tlie pupils will accompany, the patient frequently acting as if 
intoxicated (Ilarley). (Compare Alrophun Snlji/ias and Dtiboma.) 

Hyoscyanuis is a cerebro-spinal stimulant, or in the Eclectic meaning of the 
term, a cerebro-spinal sedative. It relieves pain and promotes sleep. Nervous iiri- 
tiiti'Di. without congestion, high ft'ver, or disturbance of the circulation in tlie 
cerebrum is the key-note to its use. Functional disturbances are those best re- 
lieved by the smaller doses of hyoscyanius. In medicinal doses it is anodyne, 
liypnotic, calmative, and antispasmodic; allaying pain, soothing excitability, in- 
ducing sleep, and arresting si>asm. It does ii<>t produce constipation like opium, 
l>ut has a tendency to act as a laxative. Its sedative effect upon the sympathetic 
nervous system requires larger doses to produce, and it is more transient anil less 
powerful than belladonna; its most prominent eflccts are excessive giddiness and 
somnolency, which is caused by belladonna in only a very secondary degree. 
Hyoscyamus is a far safer agent for children and old people than opium. It 
favors the restoration of the normal functions wlun impaired through nerve irri- 
tability or debility. In this way it often favors the action of the special sedatives. 
If there is irritation of the gat-tro intestinal trai't it improves the action of the 
bitter tonics. As a remedy for pain it is less ellicient than opium, and usually 
requires larger doses. Unlike the latter, it docs not restrain the secretions. 

Hyoscyamus is usually given in cases where opium disagrees, or where con- 
stipatii)n must be avoided; in vruralfiic and all sjiiisinodicaff(.'ciions,a3 rcnnl, uterine, 
hcjKitic and fl<tt II Ir lit colic, ciMlnna, ciitiU, rficuiiiitl/xni, chronic cough, irritations of the 
nri)ian/ oninris, and infionnmitory cases attended with nervous excitability and not 
with high fever. On account of not producing headache, it is preferred to opium 
in hepatic and renal inflammaiions, and to relieve j.ain and lessen cough in pulmonic 
affcrlioni>. In bronchitis with short, dry, explosive cough, it is a very useful agent, 
and in pneumonia we have obtained prompt results from small doses, when a con- 
dition of sub-delirium with widely dilated pupils was present. Dry, irritative 
coH(jh and the troublesome nervous cough, so-called, aggravated by lying down, 
are indications for hyoscyamus. As a cough remedy, it is frequently given with 
syrup of wild cherrj', and la this form renders excellent seiwice in jihthisis. It 
often renders good service in sjxwmodic asthma, and it should be remembered as 
an important remedy in uhoopimj-cough. 

Hyciscyamus is a remedy for spa.vn and pain — particularly for spasmodic pain. 
When there is nervous irritation, feeble circulation, and tendency to mental 
aberrations, it is particularly useful in the veuralgia of exhaustion, si/phiiitic bone- 
pains, di/smenon-hcea, particularly when neuralgic, men.^lrual headache, headache oj 
debility, and the paim of herpes zosin; pains in tht liver, kidneys, bladder, ovaries, 
etc. All these cases when showing anemia and nervous depression, will yield to 
hyoscyamus or its alkaloids. Great unreal, with debility, is relieved by this drug. 
Hyoscyamus is an excellent agent in irritable conditions of thebladdcr'and urethra, 
where nerve f<jrce is low, ami should therefore find a place in urinal urging, tenes- 
niic voiding, and in nocturnal as well as diurnal incontinence. It is a urethral 
sedative, and combined with camphor (pill) has long been employed to relieve 
urethral irritation after the passing of bougies, catheters, sounds, and divulsors. 
The i)ains of hemorrhoids are frequently relieved bytiiis agent. Hyoscyamus is 
frequently combined with active cathartics, as scammony, colocynth, aloes, resin 
of podopliyllin, etc., without impairing their energy, not only for preventing tor- 
mina, but because it renders their action more ellicient. 

The great field for hyoscyamus and its alkaloids is inncrvou.^ (iffeetion.i,and 
here its principal em])loyment is to cause sleep, or remove irregular nervous 
action. They are useful "in irritable conditions of the brain and hmrt, with palpi- 
tation, and in certain cases oi epilep-fy, chorea, senile and mercurial treiiwrs, and enu- 
resis. Brown-SeqiKird says that hyoscyamus shouiil be used instead of belladonna 
or opium, in cases of paraplegia, with symptoms of irritation of the spinal cord, 
where sleeplessness is present. To force sleep in insomnia, narcotic doses are 
required, and, as a rule, such an action is undesiralile, and other agents are better 
for tliis jiurpose. But to allay irritability, upon whicli sleeplessness often depends. 



1036 HYOSCYAMUS. 

or to relieve restlessness and dreaming during sleep, no drug is more efficient 
than hyoscyamus, in small doses. It is often useful in children's diseases for 
this jjurpose. In fractional doses, it is an excellent calmative in typhomania of 
typhoid fever. It is serviceable in hjateria, w'Mh. frequent voiding of small quan- 
tities of urine. Fractional doses of hyoscyamus, frequently administered are 
useful in ^^ 'puerperal convulsions, associated with a nervous condition bordering on 
mania" (Locke). 

Few remedies have been more valued in the treatment of the various forms 
of insanity than hj'oscyamus and its alkaloids. It is especial!}' useful in mania, 
both acute and chronic, larger doses being usually required in the latt<r form. 
The cases most benefited are tho.se exhibiting great excitation, MJth a ti-ndency 
to destructiveness, delu.'<inii(il ivsavily, epileptic mania, and rcrurrrnt mnnia. Prof. 
Webster mentions as a strong indication for hyoscyamus the garrulousness and 
quarrelsomeness exhibited by the insane. Nervous disturbances manifested by 
low muttering delirium, or by singing and talkativeness during fevers, are fre- 
quently relieved by small doses of this agent. Hj'oscj'amus has been declared 
useless in delirium tremens, but there is abundant reliable evidence to prove that 
it is an exceedingly useful agent when that malady is not of the mo.=t active 
character, and the victim is given to low muttering delirium. Here stimulant 
doses sufficient to sustain the nervous system should be given. 

Hyoscyamus should not be overlooked as a calmative in nymphomania, par- 
ticularly if due to childbirth, when there is evidently more delirium than sexual 
passion"; the circulation is feeble, tlie pulse quick and small, the brain active, 
and the patient may have been distuihed with un|)lpasant dreams. P"erpernl 
mnnia, due to exhaustion and weakness, is often cnntrolied by hyoscyamus. It 
acts well in the insomnia of exhaustion, where there is continual agitation and 
nervous unrest. Hyoscyamus is especially valuable to control the nervous phe- 
nomena following fevers and other exhausting diseases. Nervous heart action is 
amenable to it, as is also tumultuous heart-action, with valvular insufficiency. 

Where the fresh leaves can be obtained, they are employed in fomentation, 
or bruised, as an external application to allay the inflamnMtory and painful condi- 
tion of iilcers and tumors, as well as to relieve nervous headache, and the pain in 
gouty, neuralgic, rheumatic, and similar affections. An ointment of hyoscyamus 
extract (sj to petrolatum sj), is useful to relieve pain in hemorrhoids,'cancer, etc. 
A liniment for glandular swellings may be made by mixing together, extract of 
henbane, 1 drachm; white soap, 4 drachms, and linseed oil, 12 fluid ounces; to 
be applied 2 or 3 times a day with considerable friction. Dose of the powdered 
leaves, from 2 to 10 grains; of the tincture, from 30 drops to 2 fluid drachms; and 
of the alcoholic extract, which is the only extract that should be used, from i to 2 

f rains, which may be cautiously increased, according to its efft-ets; of specific 
yoscyamus, fraction of a drop to 20 drops. It should be remembered that the 
administration should begin with the smaller doses, and that patients become 
tolerant of its action so that enormous doses may be given. For the specific 
action, however, only small doses are required. 

HvoscYAMi.NE AND Hyosci.ne (SCOPOLAMINE). — The two alkaloids of hyos- 
cyamus— /(i/o.srj/rtHi/xe and hyosrine — or their salts, chiefly the hydrobromates, are 
frequeiUly given in the nervous disorders alwve mentioned, liyoscyamine salts 
being preferred to those of hyoscine, as the latter are said to sometimes jiroduce 
mental excitation. From the fact that much of the so-called "amorphous hyos- 
cyaniine,"'the most active kind, is frequently largely contaminated with hyo.«cine, 
it has been extremely diftieult to determine the e.xact field of action of each, or 
tiie proper do.ses. Hyoscine is much more active than hvoscyaniine, the ordinary 

' " li even in these doses it 
.-oscyamine may be given 
r>scyamine hydrobromate 
been especially employed in acute mnnia, e]iiUptic mania, delusional ins<inity, 
chronic dcmottia, chronic alcoholism, paralysis agitans, sexual fxciiation with ,<miin(i/ 
emissions (y^^ to -^ grain at be<ltimc\ nymphomania, trhooping-cotigh, enteralgia, 
spasmodic axllnna, spasmodic torticollis, facial neuralgia, insomnia, profuse etrcaling, 
iiiany, tetanus, neurasthenia of h>fpochondriasi»,etc. Hyoscine lias hoeti u<eil to cure 
tlie innrphine habit. 



hypodermatic dose ranging from^^tOY^ifgrain, tiiougli even in these doses it 
should be cautiously employed. Tlie hydrobromate of hyoscyamine may be given 
in much larger doses. Hyoscine hydrobromate and hyoscyamine hydrobromate 



lIVO.sfYAMlS. lUo, 

As a mydriatic, hyoscine is more powerful and more prompt than atropine, 
hut the dihitation produced is less prolonged ; acconiniodation, however, is slow ly 
recovered. The hydrohromate is the form generally enii)loyed, heing used in the 
cases in which atropine is apparently indicated, hut when tiic latter gives rise 
to atropine irritation. The solutions generally iiii ployed are those containing 
from 2 to 4 to S grains to the ounce of distilled" water. Scopolamine (see S<o],olia 
iilropoiiks). is now recognized as practically identical with hyoscine, the (Icrmnn 
I'h'ifiiiwnpit'ln having adopted the name Scnjinliniiiiii- llifdnibrinniite for hyoscine 
hydrohromate, from the fact that most of the hyoscine is now prepared from Sco- 
/.olid iitroj,oi(ks, it yielding larger amounts than other hyosciiie-yielding species. 
One drop of a 1 to 3000 a(jueous solution of scopolamine hydrohromate produces 
complete dilatation of the pupils in ^ hour, and maintains the dilatation for 2 
day.«. A drop of 1 to '20,00t) aqueous solution will produce a partial dilatation in 
20 minutes (Murrell). Scopolamine may he employed for ticcommodation }mralysis 
hy applying 1 drop only hy means of a glass rod. For examining for errors of 
refriniiiiii 1 drop of a solution of ahout ^ grain to 1 fluid ounce of water is prefer- 
red. The lids should he ruhbed outward to prevent the fluid from entering the 
ducts. Several cases of most profound poisoning have resulted from the use 
of even weak solutions of this mvdriatic, therefore its action should be closely 
watched ( Prof. W. B. Scudder. M. 1).). 

The leaves of hyo.<cyamus in infusion, or the extract dissolved in water, were 
formerly used locally to the eye before operating (or cutnrnct, in order to dilate the 
pupil, which is usually effected in 3 or 4 hours, without any subsequent iniurv 
to the eye. This was succeeded by the use of hyoscyamine and its salts, which 
have now given way to hyo.scine hydrohromate; occasionalh' hyoscine hydriodate 
is used for the same purpose. 

As to the dosage of the alkaloids, hyoscamine and hyo.scine and their salts, 
tliere has been much variance, i)articularly in regard to the former, which in com- 
merce is often of greatly variable strength. Hyoscyamine has been given in doses 
.IS large as 1 grain, but the ordinary commencing dose should not be larger than 
.*j grain, gradually increased until the desired action is obtained. Hyoscyamine 
sul))hate. jj^ to 5I5 grain; by instillation into eye, A to ^'0 grain; hyoscyamine 
hydrohromate, jjn to Jj grain; by instillation into tne eye, ^ to 5'^ grai" ; hyos- 
cine hydrohromate, y-i^j to g'^ grain ; to eye, i to 1 per cent solution ; hypodermatic- 
^llyiTiu to-nrugi'aiii- As a general rule the hypodermatic dose of these salts is 
one-half or less than one-half as small as when given by mouth. Particularly 
should care be exercised in the case of the hyoscine salts, the preferred doses of 
of which are those of ^^ to j^^ grain. 

Specific Indications and Uses. — Nervous irritability, with unrest and in- 
somnia; face flushed and pupils dilated; fright, terror, restlessness in sleep; 
loquaciousness; busy delirium of a low muttering character, or with singing, 
talkativeness, amusing hallucinations and illusions, etc. ; garrulousness; destruc- 
tiveness; sharp, dry, nervous cough, worse upon assuming a recumbent position; 
muscular spasms; choking sensations; rapicl and palpitating cardiac action. 

Preparations Containing Hyoscyamus.— BAi.'<.\MrM Tbanqitllans. The French Coder 
has a ]>!• |i iKiti'iii ci til.- ;ilpii\.- nam. iiiailc l>y tri-atiuK narcotic and aromatic plants with olive 
oil to exilic t their aitivr (■■.iistiiuc iits. It is used ii.s a local application fury/<ii/i. X nioditicd 
prepiiratiMii lia? l.fcii iis.cl in this i-..nntry. Take GO grains of each of the alcoholic extraets of 
bfllaili.nna, hyogevanuis. coniuni, ami stramonium, ami 24 grains of aqueous extract ol opium. 
.\il(l L' fluid riiinceH of hoiling water to soften the extract.", and add olive oil. S tliiid ounces. 
Dig.-.~t with moderate heat until the wnter is dissijiated, and lilter. Add to the liltrati- L'O min- 
ims e.icli oi tlie essential <;ils of lavender, sage, peppermint, thyme, worinwooil, and rue. It 
i.i a good application in cii/uc/"', a few drops being introduced upon cotton into the external 
auditory meatus. Care shuulil bi' observt^il in its use. 

Olkc.m I1vo.scvami Co.mi>ositc.m (X. F. 1, CiDiifmuml nil of htjmrtinnxn'. Rnhnmum Irnnqvil- 
/(iii>.— ■•< »il of absinth, oil of laveudi-r, oil of rosemary, oil of sage, oil of thyme, of each, 2 drops; 
infused oil of hvoscyamus (F. 27"J). one hundred eiibic centimeters (Hxi Cc. I [:i H.^, 1S31TI]. 
Mix tlieiii. .V.,/^. — Oil of absinth i.s the volatile oil of .liV« i/iiW-i AUxuilhiiim, l.inne 1 wormwood), 
and oil of sage is the volatile oil of Stilrhi nffinnalin, l.inne. Infu.s«-d oil of hyoseyanms is the 
(».„,„ Il.i..,.:i„„n of the (nr,wi„ l'h.,mma,iMii.,. The It^mm TrnwiniUe { }i„lmmum Tr,in<,uillnm) 
of the < .x/. . is a more lomijlex preparation, not identical with the above, but jiossessing about 
the same prnperties" A"/. Fnrm.). This and the preceding' preparation may lie tuiployed 
as embrocations for the relief 01 nairolijii-, unjalyii- ami rheumolir jniiiu. 



1038 HYPEPJcr>f. 

HYPERICUM.— ST. JOHNS WORT. 

The leaves and flowering tops oi Hypericum perforatum. Linne. 
Nai. Ord. — Hypericacea-. 
Common Namk: St. Jolm's vort. 

Illustration : .Johnson's Med. Bot. of X. A., Fig. 112. 

Botanical Source. — This phint has a perennial, woody, tufted, fusiform, 
tortuous, somewhat creeping root. Its stem is 2-edged, branchiate, erect above, 
curved below, branched, and from 1 to 2 feet high. The leaves 
'^' ■ are very numerous, elliptical or ovate, obtuse, opposite, en- 

tire, marked with pellucid dots, of a pale-green color, from 
6 to 10 lines long, one-third as wide, the ramial leaves being 
^ much smaller. Tlie flowers are numerous, of a bright yellow 
( < ilor, and borne in dense, forked, terminal panicles. The calyx 
is persistent; and the sepals are 5, acute, lanceolate, connected 
ut the base, with 6 dark-colored glands. Petals 5, twice as 
long as the sepals, ovate, obtuse, yellow, dotted, and streaked 
with black or dark purjde. Stamens numerous, united at 
base, divided into 3 sets, with small anthers. Styles 3, short, 
erect, ; stigmas small. The capsule is roundish, 3-celled and 
Hypencum perforatum, g.^^lved; the Seeds numerous, small, and roundish. The 
whole herb is dark-green, with a powerful scent wlun rubbed, and stain the fingers 
dark-purple, from the great abundance of colored essential oil (L. — W. i. 

History and Chemical Composition. — St. John's wort is an herb abun- 




dantly growing in this country and Eurojie, and proving exceedingly annoying 

■ It has a pe< 

binthine odor, and a balsamic, bitterish, rather astringent taste. It imparts its 



to farmers. The flowers apjitar from June to August. It has a peculiar, tere- 



properties to water, alcohol, ether, oils, or alkaline solutions. Other species of 
Hypericum are possessed of medicinal properties, notably the fl)///priVi'/(i mrothra, 
Michaux, pinc-ivecd or ordnrie-gra.^s, growing in sands, winch has aperient (jualities. 
An allied plant, the Ascyruni crujc-Andi-eo', Linne, or St. Andrcii's ooa>, has been 
locally applied to glandular indurations and swellings. Hypericum contains a 
volatile oil, a resin, tannic acid and coloring matter (Blair, Amer. Jour. Pharm., 
Vol. II, p. 23). Pectin is also present. The red coloring principle is a resinous 
body known as hyperimm red. The odor of this principle is similar to that of 
the'flowcrs. Karl Dieterich (P.^nr»!.. Cc/i^roM., 1891, p. 683) macerated the flowers 
with 90 per cent alcohol, and obtained a tincture of a rich red color, containing a 
mixture of two coloring matters, a yellow principle soluble in petroleum ether, 
and a red coloring matter, insoluble in this solvent. The red principle, in solid 
form, w:i3 a resinous mass of a green lustre, soluble in alcohol with red color, and 
resembling nnV/iamm ret/; insoluble in fatty, but soluble in ethereal oils. Acids 
dissolve it with red, alkalies, chloroform, bejizol and carbon disulphide with green 
color. The substance does not possess any advantage over other indicators in 
alkalimetry. W lieu exposed to air in thiu layers, it turns greenish at once. The 
aqueous extractive matter of the fliMvcrs contains calcium, magnesium, potas- 
sium, and oxalic, siilphuiic and carbonic acids. 

Action, Medical Uses, and Dosage.— Astringent, sedative, and diuretic. 
Used in supprest<ion of the vrine, chronic vrinnry njf'ect ions, in diarrhun, dusentrry, 
vornis, jaundice, mcnorrhaijia, hysteria, ticrvous affections with depression, hemoptysis', 
and other hcmon-haqes. Hypericum has undoubted power over the nervous sys- 
tem, and j)articular^y the s])inal cord. Homoeopathic physicians regard it as the 
arnica of that structure. It is \i»cd. in injuries of the Sjiine and in lacerated and 
punctured iconnds of the limbs to prevent tetanic complications and to relieve the 
excruciating pains of such injuries (Scudder). It is highly valued by Webster 
in sjyinal irritation when, \i\wn gentle pressure u^ion the spinous processes of the 
vertebriv, burning pain is elicited. Throbbing ot the whole body in nervous indi- 
viduals, fever being absent, is said to be a good indication for hypericum. The 
usual method of administration is: R Tincture of hypericum, gtt. x to xxx ; 
aqua, flsiv. Mix. Sig. Teaspoonful every 1 or 2 hours. Externally, hyjieri- 
cum may be used in fomentation, or used :is :in .•inlm.'nt for ili-i..'!!iiiir IkiiiI 



HYSSOPl'S— IPHTHYOOOLLA. 1UH9 

tumors, cakrd hreitsts, bruur.<, cccliymosi^, surllings, tilcern, eic. The blossoms, infused 
in sweet oil or bear's oil, by means of exposure to the sun, make a fine, red bal- 
samic ointment for uoumh, ulcers, sircUings, lumors, etc. A very excellent oint- 
ment for tumors, erchymnsed conditions, etc., may be made by adding to 1 jioundof 
lard. A j)Ound of the recent tops and flowers of St. John's wort, and A pound of 
fresh stramonium leaves ; bruise all toi;ether, expose to a gentle heat for an hour, 
and strain. Dose of the powder, from i to 2 drachms; of the infusion, from 1 to 2 
fluid ounces. The dose of the strong tincture is from i to 10 minims. The 
saturated tincture of the fresh herb (.sviii to alcohol, 76 per cent, Oj) is nearly a.> 
valuable as that of arnica for bruises, etc., and may be substituted for it in many 
instances. 

Specific Indications and Uses. — Spinal injuries, shocks, or concussions; 
throbl)ing of the wIkiIc body uitlmut fever; spinal irritation, eliciting tenderness 
and burning paiu upon sligiil pressure; spinal injuries, and lacerated and punc- 
tured wounds of the extremities, with excruciating jiain ; liysteria ; locally to 
wounds, contusions, etc. 

HYSSOPUS.— HYSSOP. 

The flowering tops and leaves of Hi/ssopu.-, nffiriimlis, I.inne. 

Xat. 0/-(/.— Laliiatcic. 

CoM.Mo.v Na.mk: Hysso}). 

Botanical Source. — Hyssop is a perennial herb. Its stems are quadrangu- 
lar, woody at the base, spreading, verj' much branched, and 1 foot or 2 in height; 
the branches are rod-like. The leaves are opposite, sessile, usually oblong-linear, 
or lanceolate, sonielinies ellii)tical, sometimes narrower, acute, entire, punctate, 
green on each side, rather tliick, and 1 ribbed underneath. The flowers are blu- 
ish-puri«!e, seldom white, and borne in racemose, second whorls, consisting of 
from 6 to 15 flowers. The floral leaves are like those of tlie stem, but smaller. 
Outer bracts lanceolate-linear, acute, scarcely shorter than the calyx. Uj^per lip 
of the corolla erect, flat, emarginate; lower lip trifid, spreading, with the middle 
lobe larger. Stamens 4, protruding, and diverging; anthers with linear divari- 
cating c lis (T,.— W.K 

History and Chemical Composition. — Hvssop inhabits Europe and this 
country, being raised jirincijially in gardens. It flowers in Jul}-. The tops and 
leaves are the medicinal parts; "their odor is pleasantly fragrant, and their taste 
hot, spicy and somewhat oitter, which pro]ierlies are due to a volatile aromatic 
oil, which rises in distillation both with water and with alcohol. 

This oil ojhi/ssnp is limpid, neutral, and of a pale yellow or greenish-yellow 
color, camphoraccous in ta.~tc, neutral in reaction, and in odor resembling hys- 
6op. Alcohol freely dissolves it. Its specific gravity is 0.88 to 0.98. It is an oxy- 
genated oil, or, according to Stenhouse, a mixture of several such oils (Husemann 
and llilg. r). Tromni.sdorf has shown Herberger's (1829) hyssopinto be merely an 
impure sulphate of calcium. Hyssop also contains fat, tannin, resin, mucilage 
and sugar. Water, by infusion, or alcohol extracts the active virtues of hyssop. 
It is Slid to contain some bitter principle and sulphur. In Mexico the Stjlvia 
axill.iris, Pc-sse, is called /inss,,/,. 

Action, Medical Uses, and Dosage. — Stimulant, aromatic, carminative and 
tonic. Principally used in quiniyy and other sore throats, as a gargle, combined 
with sage and alum, in infusion sweetened with honey. Also recommended in 
tiMhmii, roiiij/is, and other aWections of the chest, as an expectorant. The leave.s, 
applied to' bruisrs, sj)eedily relieve the pain, and disperse every spot or mark 
from the parts aflected. The infusion (herb, giv to aqua Oj) may be given freely; 
the volatile oil, in doses of 1 or 2 drops. 

IGHTHYOCOLLA (U. S. P.)— ISINGLASS. 

"The swimming-bladder of Acipenser Hu.m, T,inn<', and of other siM-.i.:« of 
Acipenger" — (f. S. P.). 

OlfiMj,: Pisces, fjrdtr: Sturioms. 



1040 ICHTHYOCOLLA. 

Source and History. — Isinglass is an almost pure gelatin, being usually 
procured from the air-bags, sounds, or swimming-bladders of various fishes, chief 
among which are those furnishing Ru-isiaa isinglass. These are mainly the belugo 
(Acipemcr Huso, Linne), the sterlet {Acipenser ruthenus, Linnej, the oxseter {Aciptnser 
GAldcnstluHi, Ratzeburg), and the scwruga, or starred sturgenn (Acipenser sldlutm, 
Pallas). These sounds are membranous sacs situated under the spine, in the 
middle of the back, and above the center of gravity. In most fi.-:hes they connect 
with tiie stomach or a'soi)hagus by the pneumatic duct; these sacs are filled with 
air, containing about 80 per cent of oxygen, and are composed of a firm, silvery 
external coat, and two thin and delicate internal coats. The sounds are re- 
moved from the fi.sh, cut open, carefully washed, and then exjKjsed to the air to 
dry; then, after being dampened to soften them, they are made into rolls about 
half an inch in diameter, and folded between three pegs, into the shajie of a horse- 
shoe, heart, or lyre (long and shoH staple), or folded in the manner book-binders 
fold printed sheets of ■pa.\)ex {hook isinglass), or dried in single sheets {'>lteet i.siu- 
gluss). When tlie sound is rolled out it is termed ribbon isinglass. The internal 
membrane of the sounds is thin and insoluble. Sometimes isinglass is reduced 
to small shred.s, when it will be scarcely possible for the eye to distinguish the 
inferior from the finer kinds; the latter may be known by their whiteness, free- 
dom from unpleasant fishj' odor, solubility in water, and translucency of the 
jelly obtained on cooling from its hot solution. The above are the best forms; 
the sheet isinglass is superior to any ; an ounce of water will di^.-^ol ve 10 grains of 
it, leaving hardly any insoluble matter, and furnishing an excellent jelly. 

There are other kinds of an inferior character, as the cfie i*/)!';Ai>.*, which is 
in cakes or round pieces, having an unpleasant smell, and a tawny color, and 
which is principally used by artists. The Samorey isinglass is prepared in Russia 
from the Silurus glanis, but it is not so pure as those named above. Isinglass is 
also made in the eastern states, in this country, from the sounds of the hair 
(Gadns merluccius, Linne) and cod (Gadus Morrhua Linne, or Morrhua americann), 
and other fishes. It is in long, flat pieces, known as ribbon isinglass, is very pure, 
being almost wholly soluble in water, but its piscatory flavor is an objection to 
its use for domestic or pharmaceutical purposes. A very inferior isingla.<s is pre- 
pared in Brazil from the sounds of fish {lump isinglass and honei/romb i.<inglass), 
and in the East Indies (purses and leaves, P.) (Anter. Jour. Fha!-m.,Yo]. XVlII, p. 
54). A variety of fish glue, apparently procured from the natatory bladder of the 
yellow sturgeon, but unfit for pharmaceutical purposes, has been met with in com- 
merce in France. It swells up in water and is only partially dissolved. Isin- 
glass prepared from the air-bags of large fishes, when unopened, is known &spipe 
or purse i'iinglass. 

When American isinglass, in solution, is thinly spread on cotton cloth, pre- 
viously oiled and dried, it forms a very pure article, in clear, delicate lamina', 
but having a piscatory smell, and is known as '' transpareiU or refined gla.^^." The 
so-called Chinese or Japanese isinglass is the vegetable product of certain algae (see 
Agar Agar). 

Description and Chemical Composition. — " In separate sheets, sometimes 
rolled, of a horny or pearly appearance; whitish or yellowish, senii-transyvirent. 
iridescent, inodorous, insipid; almost entirely soluble in boiling water and in 
boiling diluted alcohol, A solution of isinglass in 24 parts of boiling water forms, 
on cooling, a transparent jelly '" — ( U. S. P.). 

Isinglass is sometimes kept in thin, very fine cuttings, in which form it is 
more readily dissolved by boiling water. Isinglass is chiefly a very pure gelatin 
— that known as glntin (see Gelatin). The best kinds are white, tra'nsparent, glis- 
tening, odorle.«s and tasteless; the poorer varieties are colored, opaque, and have 
either a fishy taste or smell. It is soluble in weak acidulous and alkaline liquids, 
and in water at 100° C. (212° F.), forming with the latter, when strainecf anil 
cooled, a pure animal jelly. It is not dissi)lved by alcohol, ether, nor by w.iter at 
15.5° C. ((iO° F.), but with this latter it expands and becomes soft. Tannic acid 
added to its solution occasions a tough, gelatinous precipitate, taniiate of gelatin. 
When boiled with caustic i)otash, or with concentrated minenil acids, it is dtHiini- 
posed, forming sugar of gelatin or gh/cm-ull (amido-<icitir arid), C,}\,(}iU,)0., whirlj 
is in large transparent crystals, very sweet, soluble in water, ami forming lH»nuti- 



ICHTHYOLUM. 1U41 

fully crystallized salts with acids. John found 100 parts of the purest isiiiglus.- 
to consist of 70 parts of gelatin, 16 of o»m(uome*2.o of membrane insoluble in 
boiling water. 4 of free organic acid salts of potassium, sodium and phosphate of 
calcium, and 7 parts of moisture. Mr. R. Bairti {Amer. Jour. Plinrm., 1888, p. 608) 
found the ash in three samples of Russian isinglass to vary from 0.4 to 0.6 per 
cent, while in two specimens of American isingla.<s the ash amounted to 2.17 an<l 
■2.40 per cent. Prof. \V. T. Wenzcll (Amn: Jour. P/iurm., 1894, p. 447) recommends 
the use of American isin;:la.-;s for tli- (iu:intit;itive determination of tannin, in 
place of the hide-powder usually eiiiployed. 

Action, Medical Uses, and Dosage.— Isinglass is seldom used in medicine, 
excei)t as a nutritive. It is u.-ed as a diet, in the form of jelly, or added to other 
jellies, to give them a tremulous apjjearance. It has proved very useful for scrofu- 
limg and coiimiiiptive pntimls. I have used the following preparation in inconti- 
nence of urine, both in children and adults, in many instances, and have found it 
a useful as well as agreeable remedy, proving serviceable when other means had 
failed: Take of isingVdss (loiui sUipU), 1 roll; boil it in 1 pint of water till it is 
dissolved, then strain, add 1 pint of sweet milk, put it again over the fire, and 
remove it just as ebullition commences; then sweeten with loaf sugar, and grate 
nutmeg upon it. When made it very much resembles custard. Of this, a tum- 
blerful may be taken 3 or 4 times a day by an adult (K.). Isinglass is employed 
in the arts "for various purposes, for clarifying or fining wines, beer, coffee, syrups, 
etc., and is a constituent of court-plaster. Three drachms form a proper jelly 
with a pint of water. 

Cements.— An excellent cement, called Armeni.^n or Di.\moxd cement, is made witli 
isinglass, which is valuable for mending glass, china, and porcelain vessels, which are not to 
be expose"! to heat and moisture. It is made by sprinkling water npon 2 drachms of isinglass, 
allowing it to stand until .softened, then adding as much proof-spirit as will rather more than 
cover it, then dissolving with a moderate heat. Have previously prepared, a solution njade 
by dissolving 1 drachm of gum mastic in 2 or :; fluid drachms of'alcohol. Mix the two solu- 
tions, and .stir in 1 drachn> of gum ammoniacum, prex iuusly reduced to a fine powder, au<l 
rubb«-d down with a little water. Evaporate, it miessary, mi a watn-lMtU to a proper consist- 
ence. Kei-p the cement thus prepared in a vial. When riMjuircd i(ir use plunge the Ixittle in 
warm water, and keep it there until the ceiiunt becoiut-.s Huid ; tlien apply it with a stick or 
small hard brush to the edges of the broken vessel, previously warmed. Compress the pieces 
(irmly together until coM, taking care to make the contact perfect, and using a very thin layer 
of tviuent. When properly applied, the cement is almost, if not quite, as strong as the glass 
or china itself. 

A cement for stoneware may be made by softening gelatin in cold water, warming and 
ailding recentiv slaked lime enough to render the mass sufticiently thick for the purpose. A 
thin coating di this cement is to be spread while warm over the gently heated surfaces of 
fracture of the articles, and dried under strong pressure. 

ICHTHYOLUM.— ICHTHYOL. 

FoRMUL.^: C«,H3.S,0„(NH,)r Molecular Weight: 598.88. 

Sy.nonvms : Ammonium irhthyol mlphonnte. Ammonium ichthjol. 

Source and Preparation. — In the Tyrolese Mountains of Europe are found 
immense deposits of a bituminous mineral containing the fossilized remains of 
fishes and .sea animals of a pre-historic period. If this mineral be subjected to 
destructive distillation, it yields a transparent, crude oil, of a brownish-yellow 
color, and a peculiar, i)enetrating, pungent odor. It has a density of 0.865 and 
boil.s between 100° C. and 255° C. (212° F. and 401° F.). The crude oil is mixed 
with strong sulphuric iicid in excess, whereby it becomes ichthyolsulphonic acid. 
When the reaction has ceased the mixture is tVeateil repeatedly with a strong solu- 
tion of common salt, to remove the remaining sulphuric and sulphurous acids, 
when the ichthyolsulphonic acid, in form of a dark mass, separates. If the acid 
be saturated with ammonia, ammonium ichthyolsulphonate is formed. 

Ichthyol (the ammonium salt), is a syrupy liquid of a reddish-brown color, 
and a bitu'minous taste and odor. It contains as much as 10 per cent of sulphur. 

% Onnaz-mu , iicrorcUiiff to (imclii 
V -'71). was i.btHlned by Thtiiartl liy . 
wiiu aU'.>hiil. luil evaporaUng the alcoholic Uqui'l 



1042 ICHTHYOLLM. 

Water dissolves it, forming a clear, red-brown fluid, of faintly acid reaction. It 
is but partially soluble in ether or alcohol, but when these are mixed, volume 
for volume, complete solution is eflected. The aqueous sfdution yields a tarry 
layer of the free acid upon the addition of hydrochloric acid. When dried by the 
heat of a water-bath, it loses nearly half (45 per cent) of its weight. Ichthyol 
puffs up when heated, and carbonizes, and if the heat be continued sufficiently 
long it completely volatilizes, leaving no residue. It mixes readily with fats and 
petrolatum in any proportion. (For a more detailed description of ichthyol and 
related preparations, see P/ianH.Ce/j^mWa//*', 1883, pp. 113 and 477; and 1886."p. 115.) 
Action, Medical Uses, and Dosage.— Owing to the presence of the sulphur 
contained in it, several dermatologists were led to the use of ichthyol in .4-tn affer- 
tinns. For a time it was extensively used in almost every form of skin disease, as 
well as applied to wounds and other accidental lesions. Rlieumntir joinU. ijimtj 
amcUtions, and iipniim were treated with it, a.^ -were tomUlar enl/irgements and othei 
glandular hypertrophies. Internally, it was employed for the relief cf throat dU- 
orders and digestive derangements, particularly those of a fermentative type, but its 
intolerable odor and taste have led to its abandonment for the latter types of 
disease. Active germicidal properties are attributed to it, and its use is now 
largely confined to cutaneous maladies, in which it appears to be no more success- 
ful than other bodies of a like nature, the extraordinary properties first attributed 
to it being given but little credence at the present time. It appears, however, 
to give fair results in erydpelns. The chief skin di.^eases in which it has been 
employed are ulcerations, rhilblnins, frost-bites, contusions, urticaria, bums, scalds, acne, 
eczema, psoriasis, and entertrigo. A pomade of 1 part of ichthyol, 2 parts of lanolin, 
and 6 parts of sweet almond oil, is said to have been signally useful in smallpox. 
As an inhalation, a 25 per cent aqueous solution of ichthyol may be employed; 
internally, from 1 to 20 minims ma}' be given in milk or capsule.-: as an oint- 
ment, it may be used with lanolin or petrolatum in strengths ranging from 
22 to 50 per cent. 

Related Compounds. — Other Ichthtols. When the term ichthyol alone is used it refers 
to ammoiiixm ichlliyul. There are, however, several other compoumls of ichlhyolsiilphonic {sul- 
phoichthyolic) acid, known respectively as wiium uhlliyol, lithiniii ichthyol, zinc iihthyol, iiirrciiry 
ichthyol, etc., prepared liy saturation of the acid with either the oxides or carboniites of these 
elements. The sodium "salt is the one prepared for pill administration. It dis.«<ilvesinwat«'r, 
and is alkaline in character. These ichthyols are all tar-liko, lirown or black niass«-s. 

Thiolum or Thiol. — This drug, obtained by E. Jacobsen by a jwtented process, occnia 
in two forms, the dry, thiolum siccum, and the fluid, Ihiolum li(piiilum,t\u- latter containing about 
40 per cent of dry thiol. The latter is a deep-brown, synipy preparation, really a neutral solu- 
tion of thiol in water, It has a peculiar odor resembling that of so-called Russia leather. Its 
density is 1.080 to 1.081. It is freely soluble in water and glycerin, with the tir*t forming a 
frothy" solution when agitated. The" dry form is prepared by evaporation of the liquid thiol. 
Pure thiol is a dark-brown, non-hygroscopic powder, soluble in water. This agent has been 
employed for precisely the same conditions as ichthyol, a solution, or ointment, or occasionally 
the dry powder being applied. The advantage claimed over the former is the absence nf otlor. 
From 5 to 10 drops of the fluid, or 1 to 2 grains of the powder have been administered in rheu- 
matic complaints. 

Ti'MExoi.i-M, TcMENOL.— Tumenol is a dark-colored, syrupy fluid obtained from the puri- 
fied oils from bituminous shale, by acting upon them with strong sulphuric acid. It is a mix- 
ture of sulphonic acids and sulphones. Tumawl oil consists of the sulphones separated from a 
caustic soda solution of tumenol, by means of ether. It is a thick, deep-yellow fluid, soluble 
in benzol and ether, but does not dissolve in water, unless tiinienol milphonic acij be present. A 
caustic soda solution of tumenol precipitates, upon the addition of hydnx-hloric acid, a dark- 
colored, bitterish powder, lumciml giilplwnic acid. Crudf tumenol \tumenol lenali . is a soft, tough, 
resinous mass of a brown color and without odor, composed of tumenolsulphonic acid and 
tumenol Bulphone. A lotion containing 10 j>er cent of tumenol and equal quantities of glyc- 
erin (or water), alcohol, and ether, has been highly endorst'd by Neisser i ISvl ', to control the 
itching of prurigo, eczema, and parafilic, as well as otlier affections of the fkin. Eczemaious Jiirm» (^ 
akin dist>riU'r.^ appear to be best influenced by it. 

IciiTinLiiiN, Ichthyol albuminate.— .\ form of ichthyol for internal use. prepan^d by precipi- 
tating ichthyol with fresh albumen. Prolongeil heating or washing of the pn-cipitate remo^-s 
the ichthyol taste and odor. This is an odorless and nearly tjistele.ss. grayish-brown powder, 
insoluble in water and acid media, but soluble in alkaline media. It is slowly dissolved by the 
intestinal secretions. Claimed to be more valuable tlian ichthyol for internal us*', but can 
not supplant it as an external remedy. Said to disinfect and n-gufato the action of the bowels, 
improve the appetite, and increase assimilation. The dose ranges from o to o<> grains, directly 
before meals ; (or children, the smaller doses should lie given, mixed with p4>Vdered choco- 
late. It has iieen used in inteMinal aluuy and catarrh, rachitis, Bcroftila, anemia, etc. 




IGNATIA.— IGNATIA. 

The Pt'ed o{ Slryrhno.< Linnlin, Lindley (lijnatia innarn, LiniK? lilius; Stryrhnox 
hiuitii, Berjiius; Stryr/ino.i p/ulippnjsii', Blsinci'; Ignntinnn philippinirn, Loureiro). 

Xnt. Ord — Loganiaoeic. 

Common Names and Synonyms: St. Ir/natiiw bean. Bean nf Si. Ifinniiu-o: Fnhn 
I(inatii, Sttiun J(ittnti;f. 

Ili.isthation : Bentley and Trinien, Mnl. Plants, 179. 

Botanical Source. — Strychnos Jgnatla of Lindley, is a braiu'hing tree, witli 
long, Inpering, smooth, scrambling branches. The leaves are ovate, acute, i)Ctio- 
late, veiny, pmooth, and a sjian long. Hooks none. Panicles small, j,. j^^^ 
axillary, 3 to Sflowored, with short, round, rigid pedicels. The 
flowers are very long, nodding, white, smelling like Jasmine. The 
fruit is smooth, pear-shaped, the size of an ordinary apple or a 
Bonchretien pear; seeds aliout 20, somewhat angular, about 12 
lines lonir, and imbedded in a pulp(L. ). 

History and Description. — This tree is indigenous to the 
Philippine Islands. Its seeds, the 8t. Ignatius bean of commerce, 
are about the size of olives, rounded and convex on one side, and 
somewhat angular on the other, pule brownish externally, with 
a bluish-gray tint, greenish- hrown internally. Their substance 
is hard, compnet, and horn-like. They are inodorous and of an 
exceedioixly lutter taste. 

Chemical Composition. — The St. Ignatius bean yields its 
l)roperties to water, but alcohol is its best solvent. Pelletier and 
Caventou, in 1818, found it to contain the constituents of nux 
vomica only in different proportions. These chemists found 1.2 per 
cent of strvchnine and little brucine. On the other hand, how- 
ever, F. F. "Mayer, in New York {^Amer. Jour. Pharm., 1863, Vol. 36, ^TiSs f^ f u ii^o i 
p. 219), found it to yield twice to three times as much brucine as strj-chnos ig- 
of strychnine. More recently, B. Sundblom, in Prof. Fliickiger's '"'"^' 
laboratory (^rr/ii'y (//■>• P/mn)i.,"l 889, Vol. 227, p. 145), obtained from the seeds 0.178 
per cent of strychnine and 0.278 per cent of brucine. (For details regarding these- 
alkaloids, see Nuz Vomica.) The alkaloids were observed by Pelletier and Caventou 
to occur in natural combination with igamric arid, a substance identified by Hohn 
(Arr/iio dcr Phnrm., 1873, Vol. CCII, p. 137) as an iron-greening tannic acid. Mr. 
Jas. M. Caldwell {Amer. Jour. Phnrm., 18-57, Vol. XXIX, p. 294) notes the absence 
of starch from the seeds, while albuminous matter is present to the amount of 
about 10 per cent {Phnrmacographin). Prof. Fliickiger (Arrhiv der Pharm., 1HS9), 
examining authentic specimens of other parts of the tree, found in the bark of the 
stem 0..52 per cent of total alkaloids, strychnine predominating, while in the wood 
of the stem brucine was in larger amount. The root contains considerably less 
alkaloid, while the leaves are free from it. 

Action, Medical Uses, and Dosage. — The action and uses of ignatia are 
very similar to tlmse of mix voniica, but more energetic. It appears also to pos- 
se.ss an intlueiK-e over the nervous system of a tonic and stimulating character, 
not bclonjring to nux vomica or strychnine. It is never a remetly for conditions 
of excitation of the nervous system, but its key-note is atom/; it is the remedy for 
ncn-ous debility, and all that that terra implies, being one of the best of nerve st iniu- 
lants and nerve tonics. It was early recognized in this woik as a remedy for 
nervous d'biHty, ameuorrhcea, chloro.<<is, etc. As a rule, the dose of ignatia adminis- 
tered is too large, a depressing headache often resulting from its immoderate use. 
Tlie ])re])aration mostly employed in our school is specific ignatia, of which from 
•5 to 10 drops should be added to 4 fluid ounces of water, and the solution be 
administered in teaspoonful doses every 2 or 3 hours. Bearing in mind the con- 
dition of Ti'rr'^K.g fl/o»ii/, it maybe successfully administered in noz-oi/a, where the 
patient is cold, and especially when coldness of the extremities is one of the dis- 
tressing features of the menopause. It should be thought of in anemic states of 
the brain, and particularly in those cases where the j)atient exhibits hyMeriral, 
iDclnnrfiiilir, or hyporhondriaral deinonxtriilimix. It is a remedy for digestive disorders, 



1U41 ILEX OPACA. 

i^uch as atonic dyspepsia and chronic catarrh of the stomach, with atonj-, and jf'/.* 
Iralgia or gaslrodynia. The sick headache of debility is relieved by it. Shifting, 
dragging, boring, or darting pains, deeply seated in the loins or lumbar region, 
are those benefited l)y ignatia. It is an important remedy in ato-nic- rqyrodwiivc 
dtMrrders. Eclectics have not found it to be especially adapted to females only. 
as have the Homo-opaths, who declare it the remedy for women, while nux and 
strychnine are remedies for men. Sexual coldness in both .sexes, impoli;nre in the 
male and sterility in the female are remedied many times by the judiciou.s admin- 
istration of ignatia. The deep-seated pelvic pains of women, particularly owrwH 
pai/i.s- and uterine colic are especiall}' relieved by ignatia, which is also indicated in 
menstrual disorders with colic-like pains, heavy dragging of the ovaries, and an 
abnormally large and heavy womb. If added to these pelvic weaknesses, the gen- 
eral nervous system is greatly debilitated, there are wandering pelvic pains or 
pain in the right hypochondrium with constipation, neuralgia in other parts of 
the body, twitching of the facial muscles, a tendency to paralysis, and choreic 
and epileptiform symptoms, associated with a disposition to grieve over one's 
condition, the indications for ignatia are still stronger. But to obtain beneficial 
effects the dose must be small. 

Ignatia has shown itself useful in atonic states of the eyes and ears. Atonic 
vimal asthenopia and catarrhal conjunct Ivitk, with palpebral twitchings and a sen- 
sation as of dust in the member, are relieved by doses of^to ^ drop of specific 
ignatia, while 3^-drop doses have proved useful in the tinnitus and impaired hearing 
depending upon general atony of the system (Foltz). 

The dose of ignatia (powdered) may range from ^V to i grain ; of the alco- 
holic extract, from ^ to J grain ; of specific ignatia, from yV to | drop; of the 
tincture, from \ to 2 minims. The treatment of poisoning by ignatia is identical 
with that of strychnine, which see. 

Specific Indications and Uses. — General nervous atony ; disposition to 
grieve; dull, deep-seated, dragging pain in loins, back, or right hypochondrium: 
hysterical, Llioreic, epileptoid, or hypochondriacal manifestation, due to debility: 
dysmenorrhoea, with colicky pains and heavy womb; sexual frigidity, impotence. 
and sterility; wandering pelvic pains; coldness of extremities; muscular twitch- 
ings, particularly of face and eyelids; dull hearing, due to general atony; nervous 
depression ; burning of the soles of the feet; congestive headache. 

ILEX OPACA.— AMERICAN HOLLY. 

The leaves of Ilex opaca, Alton. 
Nat. Ord. — Aquifoliacese. 
Common Namk: American holly. 

Botanical Source.— This tree" rises from 20 to 40 feet in height, having leaves 

which are alternate, coriaceous, evergreen, smooth, and shining, flat, oval, acute 

at the end, and the wavy margins armed with strong, scattered, 

*?■ ■ spiny teeth. The flowers are small, greenish-white, arranged in 

-^ ^ scattered clusters along the base of the yoiuig branches, and borne 

^U/!rS from the axils of the leaves. The calyx is persistent; the calyx- 

^Sl^jT-T teeth acute. The corolla is rotate, monopetalous. and 4-cleft; the 

stamens erect and alternate with the divisions. The ovary i> 

globular, and 4-celled. Stigmas 4, subsessile, and obtuse. The 

fruit is a red, globular berry of 4 cells; the nutlets are 4 and 

striate (G.— W.V 

History and Chemical Composition.— The holly is foun.i 
growing throushiiut tlir Initfd States Irom Maine to Louisiana, 
iicx opaca. j^^ moist woodlands, and llowcring in .Uine. It is quite common 
to the Atlantic states, especially New Jersey. The viscid substance of the inner 
bark, like the mistletoe berry, "furnishes an" adhesive material known as hirdHuif. 
Tlie berries are about as large as a whortleberry, of a red color, and an acrid, liit- 
ttrish taste. The leaves are the medicinal parts. They have a bitter, somewhat 
liarsh taste, but no odor, and yield tlieir virtues to water or alcohol. They are 
believed to contain ilicin (see Related Species), wax, gum, salts, etc. (For the 




ILEX OI'A( A. 1045 

preparation of Rousseau's ilirin, see this Disj,rmalory, last revision.) Mr. D. P. 
Pancoast {Amer. J(jur. r/mrm., lS.")6,Vol. XXVIII, ]>. 315) prepared from the leaves 
of American holly an aqueous decoction from which tlie bitterness was removed 
by charcoal, and subsequently abstracted from the latter by alcohol. An amor- 
phous, non-hygroscopic, intensely bitter mass resulted upon evaporation of the 
solvent, partially soluble in water, and completely soluble in alcohol and ether. 
It could not be obtained in the crystallized state. By the same process the author 
isolated from the berries a crystallizable, very bitter i)rinciple, soluble in ether, 
water, and alcohol. Acids precipitate it from aqueous solution. The fruit con- 
tains tannin. Mr. Walter A. Smith {Amer. Jnur. J'/mnn., \88~, i>. 2'^0) obtained 
from the leaves, by extraction with benzin, a volatile oil of an acrid, mustard- 
like odor, and also identitied a glucosid. The leaves contained 4.5 pir cent 
of ash. 

Action, Medical Uses, and Dosage.— Holly leaves are tonic and febrifuge; 
said to be verv efl'icient in the treatment of inlcrmillcut fevers, in doses of 60 grains 
of their powder administered 1 or 2 hours previous to the chill. The infusion 
has also proved beneficial in icteru-^, pleurilij^. eutnrrh, variola, art/iriti.i, etc. The 
berries are said to be emeto-cathartic and cholagogue; from 8 to 15 of them will 
act as a hydragogue. According to Dr. Rousseau, ilicin acts decidedly upon the 
spleen, liver, and pancreas, producing a sedative effect, and is a cheap substitute 
for quinine. Its dose is 10 grains in pill form, gradually increased to 30 grains. 

Belated Species. — lle.r aquifoUum, Linn^, European holly, together with several other 
species in this country, possess properties similar to tliose of American holly. Dr. F. Molden- 
hauer has found in the leaves a crj-stalline yellow coloring matter, which is scarce in tlie leaves 
when they are collected in Januar>', but abundant when gathered in August. It is soluble in 
alcohol or hot water, but insoluble in ether or cold water, loses its color at 18.)° C. (365° F.), 
and fuses at 197.7° C. (388° F.), decomposing slightly above this temperature. He gave it the 
name Hijcanihin (CrHaOn). He also isolated from the aqueous extract the crystallizable cal- 
cium salt of a syrupy acid, iliac acid. Ilicin is the bitter principle upon which the febrifuge 
properties of the leaves depend; it has not been obtained as yet in a pure state. The leaves 
have been used in intermittent fevers and rheumatism, and the berries in dropsy. The leaves pro- 
duce rastric heat, nausea, anil colic. The berries have emeto-cathartic properties. 

Ilex Vassine, Walter {Ilex romiloria, of Alton), or South Sea lea, an evergreen shrub, grow- 
ing in the southern states, is the Cassiite of the Inilians II is also known as Canfena, Yaupon, 
oi Yotipon. A liquid, called 6/aci rfnuA-, is prepan 1 1 l\ liiilinL' the toasted leaves in water ; in 
the performance of their religious rites, and on j.'ii :it .Mr;iM,,iis ulien in council, the men only 
are permitted to drink this, for the purpose of cli aii^in;: lluir systems. The leaves have a 
rough, aromatic taste, no odor, and in large doses their decoction causes active emesis, cathar- 
sis, and diuresis; in small quantity it greatly increases the urinary discharge. A few leaves of 
this plant lessen the injurious influence of saline water, and it is used for this purpose by per- 
sons along the sea shore in North Carolina. Acconling to the analysis of Dr. F. P. Venable 
(Amer. Junr. Phann., 1885, p. 390), the dried leaves contain 0.32 percent of caffeine, 7.39 per 
cent of tannin, and 5.75 per cent of ash. Mr. Henry M. Smith (Amer. Jour. I'hann., Mi'2, p. 
216) found 0.011 per cent of a volatile oil, 3.4 per cent of resin, and 0.122 per cent of cafTeine. 
(For a detailed and exhaustive article on Ilex Va.'<itine see monograph by E<lwin M. Hale, M. D., 
Bulletin Xo. 14, Division of Botany, U. S. Department of .\griculture.) 

Ilex glabra. Ink bern/.—Siindy grounds from New England Pig. 143. 

to Florida. Employed cluefly for ornamentation, and was at a . 

one time used in intermittent fevers. ; afe 

• Ilex Dahoon,\\'a\\er; Dahoon holli/, am\ Ilex myrtifolia, Wa.\ <gtr _W V7 

ter; both of southern stjites, are also known as Ca^sena. ti ^'V ^ \^^ 1 '.] I'-i. 

lltx naraguayensis, 8t. Hilaire; Argentine Republic, and y^^ \.^y' ' ''<i ,. 

Brazil.— This tree "yields Paraguay tea or Yerha matt'; Si. Barlholo- , V 
miii'x 1,11 <,rjt suit's tea, which is consumed in immense quanti- r\^ 
ties in Snuth .\merica in place of Chinese tea. Its etTects are N^^ 
said to more nearly resemble coca than tea. The plant grows «^ 

along water courses, and from December to August collecting 
parties gather the leaves which, after a preparatory torrificatioii 
to enhance their aroma, are powdered and enter into commerce 
and are sold to be prepared by infusion like common tea. Their L^ij^ i 
chief constituent is catreine, which exist.s in quantities varying li 

from 0.2 per cent to 1.8 per cent, the average vieM d'eckolt) lUx l 

being 0.G4 per cent. Tannin {tnalrlanide arid)' U present in 

amounts of from 10 to 1(> per cent ( A. Hobbins, .linn-.Jiiur. /7;i/;hi., 187S, p. 273). 1 i" i. :i^.- ..i.- 
most aromatic just before the fruit is ripe. Volatile oil, a stearopten, ami a cryslaiiizable 
acid, matrririilie acid, have also been obtained from the leaves. The infusiun of Paraguay tea 
is diuretic and gudorilic, and in excessive doses acts as a drastic purgative, itor an interest- 
ing article on mat; or Para^'uay tea, see Th. I'c <kf>lt, Amrr. Jour. J'lutrm., \S&i, p. 570. i 



1046 



ILLICIUM (U. S. P.)— ILLICIUM. 



The fruit of lUinum verum, Hooker. 

Nat. Orel. — Magnoliaceae. 

Common Names and Synonyms: Star-anise, Star-anise fruit, Chinese anise; Semen 
bfulinna, Anisi stellatn frurtits. 

Illustration : Bentley and Trimen, Med. Plants, 10. 

Botanical Source and History.— The plant bearing star-anise is a small tree 
or shrub, indigenous to southwestern China, growing in the mountainous eleva- 
tions of Yunnan. The shrub attains a height of from 8 to 12 feet, and has entire. 
lanceolate, evergreen leaves, which are pellucid-punctate. The flowers are poly- 
petalous and of a greenish-yellow color. The fruit is described below. This 
jilant was introduced into Japan bj' the followers of Buddha, and planted near 
their temples. 

Description. — The ['. .S. F. describes star-anise of commerce as follows, giving 
also the distinctive differences between it and the poisonous fruit of Illicittm ani- 
satum, Linne : "' The fruit is pedunculate and consists of 8 stellatelj'-arranged 
carpels, which are boat-shaped, about 10 Mm. (f inch) long, rather woody, wrinkled, 
straight-beaked, brown, dehiscent on the upper suture, internally reddish-brown, 
glossy, and containing a single, flattish, oval, glossy, brownish-yellow seed; odor 
anise-like; taste of the carpels sweet and aromatic, and of the seeds oily. Star- 
anise should not be confounded with the very similar but poisonous" fruit of 
Iliicium anisatum, Linne (Illieium rellgiosum, Siebold), the carpels of which are 
more woody, shriveled, and have a thin, mostly curved beak, a faint, clove-like 
odor, and an unpleasant taste" — (U.S. P.). This last poisonous fruit is some- 
times found as a dangerous admixture to true star-anise. 

Chemical Composition.— The seeds contain, according to Meissner (1818). 
some volatile oil, resin, and a large amount of fixed oil. The fruit (without the 
seeds) contains volatile oil, resin, fat, tannin, pectin and mucilage. The volatile 
oil (oil of star-nnL'<e), amounts to about 4 to 5 per cent, and is almost identical 
with oil of anise (from Pimplnella Anisum, Linne). Star-anise oil (from Chinese 
fruit) according to Schimmel & Co.'s Semi-annnal Report (October. 1893), has the 
specific gravity at 15° C. (59° F.), of 0.980 to 0.990, and its known constituents are 
pinene, anethol, phellundrene, safrol, and hydro-quinone-ethyl-ether, while onlv anethol 
(C,H,[OCH3][CH:CHCH3]) &nA pinene ([C,<,HJ) (Fluckiger, Pharmacogno'sie, 1891) 
are given as the constituents of anise oil, which has the same density as sinr- 
anisc oil. J. F. Eykmann (1888) detected the poisonous sikimin in the fruit, while 
Schlegel found a crystalline principle of a pronounced odor of musk. He also 
found saponin in the watery extract (Amer. Jour. Pharm., 1885, p. 426). 

Action, Medical Uses, and Dosage.— Both the seeds and oil of star-anise 
possess the .^liinulant, diuretic, carniinative, and slightly anodyne properties of 
anise. Locally applied and internally administered, t&ey have been used for 
abdominal pains, particularly when associated with flatus, and in bronchitis, and 
locally alone in earache and rheumatic complaints. The dose of the powder is from 
10 to 20 grains; of the oil, from 1 to 10 drops. Oil of star-anise is largely em- 
j)loyed to inijjart a flavor to spirits, especially in France, Germany and Italy. 

Related Species. — Iliicium aniMtum, Linne (Iliicium religiofum, Siel)ol(li. This fruit was 
until quite recently (1880) considered identical with the preceiling, the shrub bearing which 
was also known as Illiciitm animtum, Loureiro, until it was determined by Hooker ( ISSSl to In? 
a distinct species, to which the name Iliicium tt-nim. Hooker, was applied. Illirium rfligi,K'iii„ 
is indigenous to the eastern portion of .Vsia, and is cultivated in Japan, where the plant is 
known aa gikimi (shikimi). Eykmann found in the seeds a crj-stalline, poisonous, non-gluc<>- 
sidal, non-alkaloidal body, sikimin, soluble in hot water, alcohol, and chloroform. For an 
account of the analysis, see Amcr. Jour. Pharm.. 1881, p. 407. The volatile oil ^yl7 ,>/ rfnr-<iiii.v. 
from .Tapanese fruit 1, according to .'^chimniel A Co., contains «ifn>/, and has a density of 0.i»J<4 
10 0,994 at 15° C. (59° F.). The fruit is dcscribe<l above. It is highly iioisonous, and atten- 
tion was drawn to this fruit through cases of poisoning which occurr«rt in the Netherlands, 
in I8S(), as also in Japan, their native country. Fatalities in children have resulted from the 
ingestion of the seeds, the toxic symptoms being vomiting, i-onvulsions reeembling thos.- 
of epilepsy, with frothing at the mouth, loss of consciousness, dilated pupils, and the f.Hiv 
exces-ivelv i-vanotic. 



IMI'ATIE.N:^. 1047 

Illicium pan'ifl(mim, Micbaux. — Georgia, Florida, and Carolina, in the hill districta. This 
ppeoies has yellow blossoms, the fruit is S-carpidled, anil has the tnslc of sassafras. They are 
poisonous. Barral (Amei: Jour. Phnrm., 1890, p. :530), isolated a tn\i, ._'lii.'..~i(l iinin the seeds. 
The properties are tliought to resemble those of rhik-imi (Jlliciuui /■./.;.-.,... m. li .Id). 

Illiriiiiii flofidanum, Ellis; Sliuk-bush, Poumii-bay:— An ever^;iv,u -l.iuli, mowing from 
I'Morida along "the Gulf of Mexico coast to Louisiana, and bearing juiii.li' lli.uii>. The fruit is 
13-carpelled, and has a disagreeable, anise odor resembling somewhat that ol turpentine. Both 
fruit and leaves are poisonous. The fruit, leaves, and bark of this 8i)ecies are aromatic, the 
tirst being occasionally substituted for anise, the last for cascarilla. (bee Henry C.C. Maisch, 
.1../, r. ./..»,. rifii-iii., 18So, pp. 22S and 27S, for a histological and chemical study of this plant.) 

//'.,; ..uK.i, Hooker tilius et Thomson.— Malay Peninsula. Fruit U'or 13-carpelled, 
l>huki.-hl r.« n in Color, and has a taste like mace. 

///,.--, ',, jH//i I i. Hooker (iliuset Thomson. —UeuK'al. Fruit 13-carpelled. Taste bitter and 
acrid, like bay-leaves and cubebs. 

IMPATIENS.— JEWELWEED. 

The plants Impatiens pallida, Nuttall, and Iinpatknsfulva, Nuttall. 
Na(. On/.— Gerauiacea\ 

CoMMu.N N.\.MKs: I. {Impatiens pnllidn), Balsam jeirelivefd, Balsam weed, Pale 
Uiuc/i-iii._-ii"t. II, , ]inpati£i\s J'ulva), Speekled jcireU, Spotted tourh-me-nat . 

Botanical Source. — Jmpatiens pallida is an indigenous annual plant having a 
smooth, succulent, tender, subpellucid, branching stem, with tumid joints, growing 
from 2 to 4 feet in height. The leaves are oblong-ovate, coarsely 
Fig. 144. ^jj^j obtusely serrate, teeth muoronate, from 2 to 5 inches long, 

petiolate, and about two-thirds as wide. The flowers are large, 
pale-yellow, sparingly maculate, and mostly in pairs; the ped- 
uncles, 2 to 4-flowered and elongated. The sepals are appar- 
parently but 4, the 2 upper united, the lowest gibljous, dilated- 
conical, broader than long, with a very short, recurved spur. 
The petals are apparently 2, unequal-sided and 2-lobed, each 
consisting of a pair united. Stamens 5, short; anthers open- 
ing on the inner face, connivent over the stigma. Ovary 
5-celled ; stigma sessile. Capsules oblong-cylindric, an inch 
long, 5-valved, bursting at the slightest touch when ripe, and 
scattering the anatropous seeds (W. — G.). 
J . ^ Impatient) Jul va is the most common variety; its leaves 

mpatienspa a. ^^^ rhombic-ovate, obtusish, coarsely and obtusely serrate, 
with teeth mucronate. The flowers are smaller than in the 
previous one, deep-orange, maculate, with many brown spots ; ^'^' ^ ' 

lower gibbous sepals acutely conical, longer than broad, with 
an elongated, recurved spur. 

Impatieus balsamina, the Garden balsam, or Ladies^ slippers, 
is spontaneous about gardens; its leaves are lanceolate, ser- 
rate, upper ones alternate; peduncles clustered and 1-flowered; 
spur shorter than the flowers. The flowers are red, white, pur- 
ple, pink, flesh-color, and scarlet; sometimes they are double. 
This is an exotic plant, a native of the East Indies, and culti- 
vated as a Iteautiful garden annual. Its height is from 1 to 5 

History. — These plants grow throughout the United States, 
in moist, sluuly jjlaces, and along rills, in rich soil, flowering from July to Sep- 
tember. The /.pallida is most common northward and westward, and the I. fulva 
southward. Both plants pos.sess similar properties. The leaves are astringent. 
The whole plants are used medicinally, and impart their virtues to water. They 
contain a yellow coloring matter, buthave not been chemically studied. 

ActlQn, Medical Uses, and Dosage. — They are aperient and diuretic; a 
decoction is recoinmended \i\ jiiin,,!;,;. /upntiti.'i, and dropxij. The juice is said to 
remove wartti, cure rinijininns, snli-r/Kinii. etc., and to cleanse foul ulcere; or it may 
be applied for these purpdses in the form of a poultice boiled in milk. The 
bruised plants or the juice ai)plied to parts ;wwo)i<'(i hj/ rhus, give prompt relief 
It also gives relief from tl>e ett'ects of stinging nettle. The recent plant boiled in 
lard, forms an excellent ointment (or piles. 





1048 



INDIGO.— INDIGO. 



A blue dye-stufif obtained from several species of Indigofera. 

Nat. Ord. — Leguminosse. 

Synonyms: iDdirmn. P'Kjmentum indkun. 

Source and History. — The plants furnishing indigo are quite numerous; 
chief among them are Lidlgofem tinrioria, Linne, cultivated in India and the East 
India Islands; Indigofera Anil, Linne, growing in the West Indies, Central and 
South America, and Indigofera argentea, Linne, cultivated in Egypt and the- French 
colonies in Africa. To these sources is to be added the commercial product called 
Woad, prepared from the leaves of hntis tinrtorin and I.lmitanica (Sat. Ord. — Cruci- 
fera;), plants which were formerly much cultivated in France and Germany, and 
supplied the demand for indigo before it was introduced into Europe from for- 
eign countries. 

Indigo-blue does not pre-exist as such in these plants. . It is developed by the 
decomposition of the bitter glucosid indiran (CjjHjjNO,,), a colorless chromogene 
existing therein. This substance also occurs sometimes in pathological urine. 
When acted upon by diluted acids or ferments, it is said to absorb water and to 
be hydrolyzed into indigo-hhie {C.^fi^^.<d.,), and a saccharine principle indiglutin 
(CeHioOg), "which undergoes further decomposition by fermentation. However, 
oxidation also plays an important part in the production of indigo-blue. The 
plants are collected during the flowering season, and are kept immersed in water 
in soaking vats or cisterns. At a temperature of about 30° C. (86° F.), fermen- 
tation soon sets in, lasting from 12 to 15 hours. When the liquid becomes of a yel- 
lowish-green color, it is drawn off and stirred briskly for about 3 hours. The liquid 
now turns deep blue, and the indigo, being insoluble in water, and of a greater 
specific gravity, soon falls to the bottom. The supernatant liquid is removed, 
the thick indigo sediment is heated to the boiling point of water to prevent fur- 
ther fermentation, then strained, pressed, and cut into cubical blocks and care- 
fully dried. Three hundreil kilograms of the indigo plant yield about 1 kilogram 
of indigo (S. P. Sadtlt r, ILmdhnok of Indu4rinl Organic Chemhtnj, 2d ed., 189-5). 

Description and Chemical Composition.— Commercial indigo occurs in hard, 
porous, brittle lumps or cubes of a dark-blue color and devoid of taste or odor. 
Indigo which is firm, dense, not easily broken, and which has a dull or greenish 
or grayish hue, is of inferior quality. Its specific gravity varies between 1.32 and 
1.45. Commercial indigo contains from 20 to 80 per cent of indigo-blue, the aver- 
age being about 45 per cent ; the remainder consists of indigo-brown, indigo-red, 
indigo-gluten, water, and varying quantities of mineral matters. The ash should 
not amount to more than 8 per cent. When indigo is rubbed with a hard and 
smooth body, the surface of friction assumes a copper-like lustre. Heated to 
287.7° C. (550° F.), indigo sublimes as a violet-colored vapor, although not without 
decomposition, and condenses on cool surfaces in the form of small, acicular crys- 
tals of a copper hue. Indigo-blue is not affected by the ordinary solvents, such as 
water, alcohol, ether, diluted acids and alkalies. It can be crystallizt-d, however, 
from aniline and oil of turpentine, and is also soluble in chloroform, glacial acetic 
acid, paraffine, castor oil, nitrobenzene, phenol, and similar solvents. Concen- 
trated, especially fuming sulphuric acid, readily dissolves indigo, forming deep- 
blue solutions. According to the relative quantities of indigo and sulphuric acia, 
and the temperature maintained in the reaction, either indigo-mi)noi.uli>honic (<fn/- 
pho-purpuric) arid (C|sHprSO,H] N,0,), or indigo-di.tidjihonir (.nilphiudigntic) nciil 
(C„H,[SO,H],N,0,), may be obtained. The monosulphonir acid is insoluble in 
water; its sodium salt is soluble, and is called indigo-purple or rrd-indigo cnrminr. 
The di.mlpfionir arid is soluble in water, and is the substance commercially ternietl 
Saxoni/ blue or C/iemnitz blue. The sodium or potaissium salt of this acid is" the true 
indign-rarmine or xoluble indigo of commerce, and occurs in the form of u pasty 
ma.ss or as a powder; in the latter case it obtains the commercial name indigotine 
(S. P. Sadtler, Handbook; 1895, p. 447). The name indigotin is also often given in 
text-books to the pure indigo-blue (C,jH,„N,0,). 

Indigo-bhw h converted by oxidizers, <. or, nitric acid, into yellow-reil, crystal- 
lizable wi^in (C„H,oN,0,), whi"ch, when distilled with caustic potash. yi.l.N ,n,iti,>e 



(CjH^NHj). When indigo is acted upon by reducing agents in alkaline solution, 
«■. J/., by dextrose, or sulphurous acid, or hydrogen sulphide, zinc, etc., a solution 
of a yellow color is yielded, containing "alkali-soluble iixligo-uhite ((.\^\l,.'S f),). 
This solution, exposed to the air, precipitates indixjo-Mue again. This reaction is 
made use of in dyeing; the cloth, being saturated with the alkaline solution con- 
taining indiqn-u-hite, is exposed to the air, whereby the indigo-blue formed is firnilv 
tixed in the' fiber. 

Action, Medical Uses, and Dosage. — Indigo and its preparations when ad- 
ministered, iiavf imjiarted a blue color to the cutaneous and renal secretions. 
Large doses cause gastro-intestinal irritation, debility, and nervous derangements. 
The sulphate is reputed an active emnienagogue, and indigo was several years 
ago tested as a remedy for qnlcp>fi/, but has been abandoned as inefficient and even 
detrimental. The dose ma_v be stated at from 1 to 20 grains. 

Synthetic.\i. iNnioo. — Within the last 20 years, several syntheses of indigo-blue and its 
iliTivatives have been accouiplished. An iiiiportitnt stepping-stone to tliis feat was the syn- 
tlu-sis !•( In'liil (CgHiX) (the skeleton substance of indigo), by Baeyer and Enimi-rhng, in 1S69. 
The tirst synthesis of imligo by Baeyer {liir. d. Detiturli. ('hem. TrVx., 1880, p. 22.54), was aecoiu- 
plished by converting orlho-nitr(>^iiiiia'mlc aciil (CjH^NOj.CHrC'H.COOH) into ortlio-uitro jilu-ni/l 
pniitiiilir (icit/ (C|,H4[N"Oj].CCiCOOH.l, and this into indiyo-hlw through the reducing agency 
of sugar in alkahne solution. The graphic formula of iiuligo-liliie (C8H4.NH.CO:C=C:CO. 
NH.CjH,), elucidated by the researches of Prof. Baeyer and his co workers, suggests to him 
an analogy with that of the Azndiji.ii which see). More recently additional syntheses of indigo 
were effected simultaneously by L"Ledererand K. Heumann (see Clumiker Z^ittmi], ]>>90, Oct. 1st 
anil Oct. Sth; also see .I»i«t. ./ohc P/inrm., 18!)0, p.614) ; likewise some methods for the direct 
fvntlie-iis of l,uli'j,^,-.iniiii; are uu nodnl (see A. Haas, in -Inifr. Jour. P/if(n»., 1891, p. 406, and 
li. lieynianii. in 'Pr..!. .-a.ltlerV Jl.nJJ /.-. 1895, p. 4.i2). 

Related Species and Product.— In addition to the plants above mentioned, indigo is 
probalily yieliled also hv tlie following plants: (lyinneniti tiiiijois, Sprenfrel, Hindustan; Polygo- 
num liiirturiiini, Linne, Cliina; Wrightia Inirlorin. Robert Brown, Hindustan; and Chdego liuctoria. 
Prof. H. Moliseh {Anur.Jour. Pliariii.,imi, |> 494 i. delects the presence of indkan in plants by 
boiling some fragments of the latter in a test-tulie with a diluted sohition of aqua ammonise, 
and in another experiment with <liluted hydrochloric acid, tilteriug, cooling, and agitating 
with chloroform, which assumes a blue color if indican is present. 

t'rtscentia ciyV(<'.— South America. The fruit of this plant contains a blue body resembling 
indigo,and crescentinic add (G. Peckolt, Phnrm. Rrmdsrhvi, 1884). 

INFUSA.— INFUSIONS. 

Infusions are solutions of vegetable principles in water. The addition of any 
alcoholic mixture is only made in cases wliere the medicinal action of the liquor 
itself is desired, or to act as a preservative. Clear, soft water, as river, rain, or 
distilled water should be used in the preparation of infusions; hard, or lime- 
stone water, from springs or wells, or water holding saline substances in solution, 
is unfit for this purpose, as such water is apt to occasion precipitates. Drugs con- 
taining volatile active constituents, or which are deteriorated by a temperature 
somewhat elevated, or which contain a principle not desired, and which is not 
readily dissolved by water at a low degree of heat, are better made into infusions 
by cold instead of hot water. 

Infusions form a very expeditious and convenient mode of exhibiting many 
medicines, as the most of them readily yield their active constituents in this way 
without requiring to be very finely divided. The principal objection to them is 
the diHiculty of keeping them for any length of time, in consequence of which 
they n ijuire to be prepared off-handed, and in limited quantity at a time. Mugs 
containing a movable diaphragm are now much in use for the preparation of 
infusions. The diajihragm extends to one-third or one-half of the dei)th of the 
mug, and contains the vegetable remedy, while the jar is filled with hot or cold 
water as m-Ay be required. A constant circulation is kejit up in the fluid by the 
increased density of the impregnjited water carrying it to the bottom, while its 
place is occupied by the less impregnated fluid, and this continues until the 
remedy is exhausted of its active soluble principles. 

In making infusions with boiling water, starch and other principles are often 
taken up, whose presence disposes to acidity or moldiness, or perhaps favors re- 
actions which materially impair the infusions; on this account percolation bv 
cold water is often preferable, as it avoids these inconveniences, beside which 



1050 INFUSA. 

these infusions have a less tendency to spoil than those made at a boiling tern- 
l)erature. The process of percolation or displacement b}- cold water, affords infu- 
sions of very great strength, and is preferred to any other mode; it requires, how- 
ever, that the articled should be more finely powdered, as a general thing, than 
is customary in preparing infusions in the ordinary way. When of too great 
strength, the infusion may be reduced by dilution with water. Very excellent 
infusions may be prepared with many medicinal herbs, roots, or barks, by perco- 
lating with a fluid composed of 3 parts of water and 1 part of glycerin. 

Infusions are better when prepared in glazed earthenware or porcelain ves- 
sels fitted with covers, than when prepared in metallic vessels, on account of a 
liability to chemical alteration from metallic influence, and which frequently 
iinijairs the preparation. Infusions containing acids, or saline substances, should 
always be prepared and kept in gla.ss or china vessels. 

In the preparation of infusions, the reactions of agents should always be kept 
in view. Thus, infusion of chamomile florrern yields precipitates with nitrate of 
silver, sulphate of iron, gelatin, yellow Peruvian bark, tincture of chloride of iron, 
corrosive sublimate, and the acetates of lead. Infusion of horxerndiih undergoes 
rapid decomposition, and is precipitated with acetate of lead, infusion of galls, 
nitrate of silver, corrosive sublimate, and the alkaline carbonates. Infusion of 
doves is precipitated by the soluble salts of antimony, zinc, iron, silver, lead, and 
by lime-water. Infusion oi casrnrUla is precipitated by infusion of galls, acetates 
of lead, sulphates of zinc and iron, nitrate of silver, and lime-water. Infusion 
of yellow Peruvian bark is incompatible with potassium, sodium, and ammonium 
hydroxides and carbonates, lime, magnesia, tannic and gallic acids, and vegeta- 
bles containing these acids, tartaric acid, oxalic acid, and the soluble tartrates and 
oxalates. It also afifords precipitates with other agents, which, however, do not 
always injure its efficiency or active principle, as corrosive sublimate, arsenous 
acid, tartar emetic, gelatinous solutions, soluble salts of iron, silver, and zinc, and 
many vegetable solutions, as those of cloves, chamomile, calumba, cascarilla, galls, 
horseradish, catechu, digitalis, senna, orange-peel, rhubarb, valerian, and simaruba. ■ 
Infusions oi senna, gentian, rhubarb, and calumba, are better made with cold water. 
When boiling water is added to calumba it takes up the starch, and the infusion 
spoils rapidly. It should be made with cold water, then boiled, and filtered to 
separate albuminous matter. Infusion of digilalis is precipitated by acetate of 
lead, sulphate of iron, and infusion of cinchona (Land. — Phillips, Phann. Jour, and 
Trans., 1855, Vol. XIV, pp. 339, 438, 439, 403, 486). 

As nearly all vegetable medicines are occasionally administered in the form 
of infusion, it would be useless to enter into an especial relation of them, further 
than already explained in the above general rules. Thev are more commonly 
prescribed as secondary or auxiliary measures, and are left for the nurse or family 
to prepare. However, there are a few compound infusions, some of which are 
of a spiritous nature, which it may be advisable to describe on account of their 
extensive employment and superior efficiency in the diseases for which they 
are recommended. 

The U. S. P. general method is as follows: "An ordinarv infusion, the 
strength of which is not directed by the physician, nor specified "by the Pharma- 
copoeia, shall be prepared by the following formula : Take of the substance, 
coarsely comminuted, fifty grammes (50 Gm.) [1 oz. av.. 334 grs.] ; boiling water, 
one thousand cubic centimeters (1000 Cc.) [33 ti.v 391 lU]; water, a suflicient quan- 
tity to make one thousand cubic centimeters (1000 Cc.) [33 flg, 391 lU]. Put the 
substance into a suitable vi'ssel provided with a cover, pour upon it the boiling 
water, cover the vessel tightly, and let it stand for half an hour. Then strain, 
and pass enough water through the strainer to make the infusion measure one 
thousand cubic centimeters (UXlOCc) [33 fls, 391 111]. Caution.— The strength 
of infusions of energetic or powerful substances should lie speciallv prescribed bv 
the physician"— ([^.5. P.). 

We give place to formulas for several infusions according to the British Phar- 
viacnpiein, and a number official in the l'. S. P., 1870. 

iNPrsuM EiTp.\Tonn ( ('. S. P., 1870), Infitnion of Ihorouijhtrort.—V^Tied bouewt, or thorough- 
wort, 1 troy ounce; boiling water, 1 pint. Macorato 2 hours. Strain. Doee, as an emetic, take 
freely in tepid condition; as a tonic, use colli in I or 2 fluid-ounce doses. 



IXFls^lM ANTHEMIUIS.-INFUSUM BUCHV. lU'.l 

I.NFr=rM Picis LiQriD.E ( V. S. P., 1S70), In/tmon of tar, Tnr iw/,t.— Tar, 1 pint ; water, 4 
pints. Mix, agitato frequently tliroiighout 24 hours, pour off infusion, and filter. Dose, as a 
diuretic, I or L' pints daily. Locally, as a lotion in skin diseases, and as a bladder-wash in 
cliro7tic n/ftilis. 

I.NFi-siM SPIGELI.E ( ['. S. P., 1870), Infugio)! of spigrlia. — Spigelia, j troy ounce ; boiling 
water, 1 pint. ^lacerate 2 hours. Strain. Dose, for young child, J to 1 fluid ounce, night and 
morning: for adult, 2 to 6 fluid ounces. 

IxFisiM .S.*Lvi.E ( v. S. P., 1870), Infusion of sage. — Sage, J troy ounce; boiling water, 1 
pint. Macerate J hour. Strain. Dose, 1 fluiil ounce. Valuable in .ipermalorrliaa and nighl- 
smats. Locally, as a mouth-wash, or volucle for other topical agents. 

INFUSUM ANTHEMIDIS.— INFUSION OF CHAMOMILE. 

Synonym: Infusum chamomillx romame. 

Preparation. — Infuse, in a closed vessel for 15 minutes, h ounce (av.) of 
chanioniili' llowers in 10 Huid ounces (Imp.) of boiling distilled water. Strain. 
This aeoor,l> witi> the Rr. Pharm.. 1S.S.5. 

Action, Medical Uses, and Dosage.— (See Anthemis.) A useful preparation 
in the hotcel troubles of dentition. Dose, i to 2 fluid ounces, smaller doses being 
given to children. It is emetic when warm ; tonic and nervine when cold. 

INFUSUM APII COMPOSITUM.— COMPOUND 
INFUSION OF PARSLEY. 

Preparation. — Take of parslej' roots and seeds, coarsely bruised, carbonate 
of iron, eacli. 4 ounces; horseradish root, in small pieces, 2 ounces; juniper ber- 
ries, squill, white mustard seed, mandrake root, and queen of the meadow, of 
each, finely bruised, 1 ounce; good cider, 6 quarts. Boil the cider and pour it on 
the rest of the articles mixed together in an earthen vessel; cover the vessel, and 
digest with a gentle heat for 24 hours. 

The cider should not be hard, nor too new, but sparkling and pleasantly 
tart, and, after digestion bv heat, it should be allowed to remain upon the articles 
without straining it off. fey this course, the liquid becomes still further impreg- 
nated with tlie properties of the iiieilicines. 

Action, Medical Uses, and Dosage. — This is a most excellent preparation 
in several varietie.'s of dropsy, for wiiicli alone it is used. It increases the action 
of the kidneys, regulates the bowels, improves the digestive functions, and pro- 
motes activity of the absorbent vessels. The dose is 1 or 2 fluid ounces, 3 times 
a day. In the summer season, half the above quantity may be made at one 
time^ as otherwise it becomes very sour and moldy. It should always be used 
immediately after its preparation (J. King). 

INFUSUM AURANTII COMPOSITUM.— COMPOUND 
INFUSION OF OEANOE PEEL. 

Preparation. — Infuse, in a closed vessel for 15 minutes, } ounce (av.) of 
bitter orange peel Ccut small) ; 56 grains of fresh lemon peel (cut small\ and 
28 grains of liruised cloves, in 10 fluid ounces (Imp.) of boiling distilled water. 
Strain— (Br. Ph>irm.). 

Action, Medical Uses, and Dosage.— Used chiefly as a carminative. Dose, 
A to 2 fluid ounces. 

INFUSUM BUCHU.— INFUSION OF BUCHU. 

Sysosyms: Infiunim diosnur, hfusum hnrosmae. 

Preparation.— Infuse, in a cll)se<l vessel, for 30 minutes, h ounce (av.) of 
bruised Kuchu liavfs, in 10 fluid ounces ( Imp.) of boiliiiK water. Strain. 

Action, Medical Uses, and Dosage.— (See Burlm.) One of the best forms 
in which to euiploy buchu. Dose, A to 2 fluid ounces. 



1052 INKUSUM CALUMB.E.— INFU.SUM CUSsU. 

INFUSUM CALUMB^.— INFUSION OF CALUMBA. 

Synonym: Infusinn of columbo. 

Preparation. — Macerate, in a closed vessel, for 30 minutes, J ounce fav.) of 
calumba root (cut small), in 10 fluid ounces (Imp.) of cold water. Strain. When 
made with boiling water the preparation is mucilaginous, and is not believed to 
keep so well. T. Greenish, however, states that the contrary is true, and directs 
that cold water be first used, thus getting rid of the starch, and afterward bring- 
ing the infusion to the boiling point, by means of which the albumen is coagu- 
lated. Greenish's views are not generally accepted, for according to the weight of 
evidence, the infusion made by means of cold water is most permanent. 

Action, Medical Uses, and Dosage.— (See C'alumbn.) Dose, 1 to 2 fluid ounces, 
before meals. 

INFUSUM CARYOPHYLLI.— INFUSION OF CLOVES. 

Preparation. — Macerate, in a closed vessel, for 30 minutes. \ ounce (av.) 
of bruised cloves in 10 fluid ounces (Imp.) of boiling distilled water. Strain — 
(Br.Pfnu;,,.). 

Action, Medical Uses, and Dosage. — (See Cnryophyllm.) Carminative. Used 
chiefly in the nnmen of debility, and in pains induced by flatulenre. 

INFUSUM CATECHU.— INFUSION OF CATECHU. 

Synonyms: Compound infusion of catechu, Infusum catechu coinpositurn (U. S. P., 
1870). 

Preparation. — Infuse, in a closed vessel, for 30 minutes, 160 grains (av.) of 
coarsely powdered catechu, and 30 grains (av.) of bruise.d cinnamon bark, in 10 
fluid dunces (Imp.) of boiling distilled water. Strain. This accords with the 
Br. Pharm. 

Action, Medical Uses, and Dosage. — (See Catechu.) Used chiefly in non- 
irritant diarrhiKi. Do.se, I to 3 fluid ounces. 

INFUSUM CINCHON.ffi(U.S. P.)— INFUSION OF CINCHONA. 

Synonym: Acid infusion of cinchona. 

Preparation. — '• Cinchona, in No. 40 powder, sixty grammes (60 Gm. i [2 ozs. 
av., 61 grs.]; aromatic sulphuric acid, ten cubic centimeters (10 Cc. ) [162 ITl]; 
water, a suflicient quantity to make one thousand cubic centimeters i UKX) Co.) 
[33 flg, 391 m]. Mix the acid with five hundred cubic centimeter? (500 Cc.) [16 
n5, 435 111] of water, and moisten the powder with thirty cubic centimeters (30 
Cc.) [1 flg, 7 TTl] of the mixture; pack it firmly in a conical glass percolator, and 
gradufilly pour upon it, first, the remainder of the mixture, and afterward water, 
until the infusion measures one thousand cubic centimeters (1(X)0 Cc.) [33 flg, 
39im]"— (f/. .S'. P.). 

The Br. Phdrm. directs red cinchona bark. Yellow bark is preferable for this 
preparation, although the l'. S. P. permits any good cinchona. This preparation 
represents ;i solution of the cinehoiui alkaloids in the form of sulphates, and is an 
efficient iireiiaratioii. 

Action, Medical Uses, and Dosage.— i S.r r,,.,/, \-^...\ n,..,tiv :>< ;» 

tonic. Dose, 2 fluid ounces, :; tjints a (lay. 

INFUSUM CUSSO.— INFUSION OF KOUSSO. 

Synonyms: I,>Ui.'<Hm bnn/rm- {!'. S. /».,1S80). hfu.^io,, ,f f,r,n„-m. 

Preparation. ^Infuse, in a dosed ve.<sel for 15 minutes, i ounce of coarsely 
powdered kousso in S fluid ounces (Imp.) of boiling distilled water. Do not 
strain. This accords with the Br. Pharm. 



INFrSUM DIGITALIS.— IXFl'SUM ERGOT.K. 1053 

Tlu- r. .9. P., 1870, ilirected brayera, No. 20 powder, 6 parts; boiling water, 100 
jiart.*. The Xational Formulor)/ directs as follows : 

I.NFi-si'M Br.wek.k (X. F.) {U. S. P., 1880), Infmmi of hrnyera.-rFomndnry 
numlier, 101 : ' Brayera, in No. 20 powder, sixty grammes (60 Gm.) [2 ozs. av.,51 
i-'is.]; boiling water, one thousand cubic centimeters (1000 Cc.) [33 115,391 ITl]. 
I'our the boiling water upon the brayera, and let it macerate in a covered vessel 
until ci>nl. The infusion should be dispensed witliout straining" — (X<it. Form.). 

Action, Medical Uses, and Dosage. — As a vermifuge, this infusion should 
be taken fa>tiiig, one-half the ([uantity being given an hour before the second 
portion, the llowers being swallowed with the infusion. This is the original 
Aliyssinian method of administering cusso. 

INFUSUM DIGITALIS (U. S. P.)— INFUSION OF DIQITALIS. 

Preparation.—" Digitalis, bruLsed, fifteen grammes (1.5 Gm.) [232 grs.]; alco- 
hol, one hundred cubic centimeters ( 100 Cc.) [3 fl.s, 183 TTl] ; cinnamon water, one 
hundred and tiftv cubic centimeters (loO Cc.) [5 H.s. 35 Til]; boiling water, five 
hundred cubic centimeters (500 Cc.) [16 fl.5. 435 ttl] ; cold water, a sufficient 
t|uantity to make one thousand cubic centimeters (1000 Cc.) [33 flg, 391 HI]. 
Upon the digitalis, contained in a suitable vessel, pour the boiling water, and 
allow it to macerate until the mixture is cold. Then strain, add the alcohol and 
cinnamon water to the strained liquid, and pass enough cold water through the 
re^iidue on the strainer to make the product measure one thousand cubic centi- 
meters ( 1000 Cc.) [33 fl5, 391 my — ( r. s. p.). 

The cinnamon in this preparation is merely added to flavor the infusion, 
while the alcohol tends to preserve it. Infusion of digitalis throws down a pre- 
cipitate on standing several hours. 

Action, Medical Uses, and Dosage, — (See Digitalis.) Infusion of digitalis 
is the mo<t ethcient preparation of foxj;love, and is particularly applicable when 
a diuretic action is desired. It should be remembered that digitalis acts slowly 
and the infusion should not be pushed too fast, lest an over action result from 
it a day or two after its administration. Dose, 1 to 4 fluid drachms, 3 times 
a day, carefully watching its action. 

INFUSUM EPIG^^ COMPOSITUM.— COMPOUND 
INFUSION OF TRAILING ARBUTUS. 

Synonym: Diuretic compound. 

Preparation. — Take of trailing arbutus, queen of the meadow root, dwarf- 
elder bark, marshmallow root, each, coarsely bruised, i ounce ; boiling water, 
good Holland gin, of each, 1 pint; honey, a sufficient quantity. Pour the boil- 
ing water and gin on the plants, and digest them with gentle heat, in a close- 
covered vessel, for 6 hours ; then remove from the fire, strain, and add sufficient 
honey to i>ndtr it pleasantly sweet. 

Action, Medical Uses, and Dosage.— This is a very valuable remedy in 
(irinrl, in chrnnic caturrh of the Mudder, .-iuppre^sion of urine, high colored or scalding 
urine, inflammation of the urethra, and other disorders of the urinary organs. In oxidir 
dcj,o:<its,' however, it is of no utility. The dose is about 2 fluid ounces, 3 or 4 
limes a day; in severe cases, this dose may be given every hour until relief is 
obtained, after which every 3 or 4 hours. In ca.ses of gravel, a corresponding 
quantitv of wild carrot root and seed mav be advantageouslv added to the articles 
I. KinL' 

INFUSUM ERGOTiE.— INFUSION OF ERGOT. 

Preparation.— Infuse, in a closed vessel for 30 minutes, J ounce (av.) of 
orir.«ly p..w(lered ergot in 10 fluid ounces (Imp.) of boiling distilled water. 
Strain— < Dr. Phann.). 



1054 IXFUSUM GENTIAN. E COMP.— INFUSUM HYDKASTIS COM!'. 

Action, Medical Uses, and Dosage. — About 10 grains of ergot are contaiiieil 
in a fluid ounce of this infusion, the dose of which is from 1 to 2 fluid ouncns. It is 
used as a parturient. 

INFUSUM GENTIANS COMPOSITUM.— COMPOUND 
INFUSION OF GENTIAN. 

Preparation. — 'Gentian, in moderately coarse powder, i troy ounce; bitter 
orange peel, in moderately coarse powder, coriander, in moderately coarse pow- 
der, of each, 60 grains; alcohol, 2 fluid ounces; water, a sufficient quantity. Mi.x 
the alcohol with 14 fluid ounces of water, and, having moistened the mixed pow- 
ders with 3 fluid drachms of the menstruum, pack them firmly in a conical per 
colator, and gradually pour upon them, first, the remainder of the menstruum, 
and afterward water, until the filtered liquid measures a pint"'— (T. .S'. P., 1870). 

The following accords with the Br. Pharm.: Infuse, in a closed vessel for 30 
minutes, 55 grains each of sliced gentian root and bitter orange peel (cut small;, 
and \ ounce (av.) of fresh lemon peel (cut small) in 10 fluid ounces (Imp.) of 
boiling distilled water. Strain. 

The formula of the (/. S. P., 1870, is to be preferred to that of the latter, as it 
is a more eflicient product, and, on account of the alcohol it contains, is much 
more easily jirescrved. 

Action, Medical Uses, and Dosage.— Stomachic and tonic. Dose, ^ to 1 
fluid ounce, 3 times a day. 

Related Infusion. — Infusum Gentiax-u Compositcm Fortius (^.¥.), Stronger compound 
infusion of qentian. Formulary number, 192: " (ientian, one hundred and twenty-five grammes 
(125 Gm. ) [4 ozs. av., 179 grs.] ; coriander, thirty-five grammes (35 Gm.) [1 oz. av., 93 grs.] ; bit- 
ter orange peel, thirty-five grammes (35 Gm.) [1 oz. av., 93 grs.] ; diluted a)cohol i t'. .S. P.),a 
.sufficient quantity to "make one thousand cubic centimeters (1000 Co.) [33 fl.^, 391 111]. Reduce 
the drugs to a nioilerately coarse (No. 40) powder, moisten it with diluted alcohol, pack it in a 
percolator, and percolate with diluted alcohol, until one thousand cubic centimeters 1 1000 Cc.) 
[33 fli, 391 TTt] are obtained. Note. — When Infusum geiitimui: comix/silum is prescribed, mix 1 
volume of this preparation with 3 volumes of water" — (Nat. Fonn.). 

INFUSUM GERANII COMPOSITUM.— COMPOUND 

INFUSION OF CRANESBILL. 

Preparation. — Take of cranesbill, witch-hazel, black cohosh, and golden seal, 
each, coarsely bruised, | ounce; boiling water, 2 pints. Mix the articles together, 
and digest witli a genfle heat, in a -closed vessel, for 2 hours; remove from the 
fire and strain. If rc(|uir('il. alum. 1 drachm, may be added. 

Action, Medical Uses, and Dosage.— This forms an efficient astringent wash 
in aphtlious and other (//.yvi.M x ,;/'//„' „i'mlk and thrmit, when unaccompanied with 
inflammation; and is also useful as an injection in Iciuorrhan. prolnjtsus ani, &nd 
prolapsus uteri. Without the alum, this infusion may be administered internally 
in doses of from 1 fluid drachm toi fluid ounce, repeated 3 or 4 times a day. and 
will prove efficient in chronic diarrhina and dysenUt-y, in wrt^-irc fumorrhages, in 
hemorrhoids, and in debilitated conditions of the venous fi/stem (J. King). 

INFUSUM HYDRASTIS COMPOSITUM.— COMPOUND 
INFUSION OF GOLDEN SEAL. 

Preparation.— Take of golden seal, blue cohosh, witch-hazel, of each, in pow- 
der, A ounce; boiling water, 1 pint; pulverized alum, 1 drachm: honey, a suffi- 
cient quantity. Ad(i the plants to the boiling water, and digest with a gentle 
heat, in a closed vessel, for A hour, remove from the fire, strain, add the alum, 
and suiruient honey to thorougblv sweeten the infusion. 

Action, Medical Uses, and Dosage.— This infusion is very valuable as a 
wash or gargle in various forms of Korr mouth and itlcenUcd sore fhront. Without 
the alum, it may also be employed internally in the same cases as named in the 
preceding article (.1. King). Dose, i to 1 fluid ounce. 



IXKISUM JABOKAXDI.-INKISI M 1>KINI VIIU.INI AN.K Ut>5 

INFUSUM JABORANDI.— INTUSION OF JABORANDI. 

Preparation.— Iiil'ut-f, in a closeU ve!^¥l■l, lur M iiiuuilf!-, i ouiiLf (uv.; ol 
jahoraiuli ^^■ut small), in 10 fluid ounces (.Imp.") of boiling distilled water. 
Strain— I />'/■. I'/mrni.). 

Action, Medical Uses, and Dosage.— (See Pilomrjms.) The large doses ne. - 
essarv render this infusion somewhat apt to provoke nausea and vomiting, thou^!; 
it well represents the virtues of jaborandi. Dose, A t<i 2 fluid ounces. 

INFUSUM KRAMERI.ffi:.— INTUSION OF RHATANY. 

Preparation.— Infuse, in a dosed vessel, for 30 minutes, i ounce (av.) of 
rhatany-root (.\o. 40 powder), in 10 fluid ounces (Imp.) of boiling distilled water. 
Strain— vi>V. P/iann.). Each fluid ounce contains 23 grains; that of the U. S. P., 
1870, contained 30 grains. 

Action, Mediced Uses, and Dosage.— (See Aromerw.) Useful in pns-nve fum- 
I'l-rhages and Hiic-""- i.r..ti, ,,■;,,, !),,<,-, A to 2 fluid ounci's. 

INFUSUM LINI.— INFUSION OF LINSEED. 

Synonyms : Infusum lini composUum (C. S. P., 1870), Injmion of flaxseed. 

Preparation. — Infuse, in a closed vessel, for 2 hours, 150 grains (av.) of lin- 
seed (whole), and 50 grains (av.) of liquorice-root (No. 20 powder), in 10 fluid 
ounces (Imp.) of boiling distilled water. Strain— (Br. Phftrm.). The U. S. P.. 1870, 
process directed flaxseed, A troy ounce; bruised liquorice- root, 120 grains, and 
boiling water, 1 pint. Macerate 2 hours and strain. The linseed should not be 
bruised, else the swelling of the seed will prevent .straining, and as the mucilage 
is in the testa of the .seed, bruising is wholly unnecessary. 

Action, Medical Uses, and Dosage.— (See Lini Farina.) Useful in acute 
reispiratury di^oithrs, but the liquorice impairs its usefulness in intestinal inflam- 
mations. It may be freely used for the administration of magnesium sulphate 
and quinine salts, though it is employed chiefly for coloring and flavoring pur- 
poses. Burcal mid fiiitcial inflaminfition.s' and ulceration-^ may be washed with it, and 
given internally, through the sulphuric acid contained in it, it exerts some con- 
trol over coUiquntivc mvats. Dose, 1 to 4 fluid ounces. 

Related Preparation.— Infisi-m Ro-s.e Compositcm (X. F.), Compound infuMon of rw. 
Fonnnlttrij numUi; 103: "Red rose, thirteen grammes (13 Gm.) [201 grs.] ; ililutcd sulphuric 
acid ( r. .S'. y.), nine cubic centimeters (9 Cc.) [146 TTl]; sugar, forty grammes (40 Gni.) [1 oz. 
av., ISO grs.] ; boiling water, one tliousand cubic centimeters i lOOO'Cc.) [33 flj, 391 TTl]. Pour 
the boiling water upon the rose, in a glass or porcelain vessel, add the acid, cover the vessel, 
and macerate for an hour. Then di.ssolve the sugar in the liquid and strain. 

INFUSUM LUPULI.— INTUSION OT HOP. 

Synonym: Jnfunum humtdi (U. S. P., 1870). 

Preparation. — Infuse, in a closed ves.«el, for 1 hour, ^ ounce (av.) of hops ii. 
lo fliiiil oiinr, s ( Imp I of boiling distilltd water. Strain— (Z</-. P/innn.). 

Action, Medical Uses, and Dosage.— i See /fiimit/u*.) An eflicient form for 

the administration of ho]is. Dose. A to 2 fluid ounces. 

INFUSUM PRUNI VIRGINIANS (U. S. P.)— INTUSION OF 
WILD CHEREY. 

Preparation.—" Wild cherry, in No. 20 powder, forty grammes (40 Gm.) [1 oz. 
av., 180 grs.] ; water, a sufficient <|uantity to make one thousand cubic centimeters 



10o6 INFUSU.M QUASSI.E.-INFUSU.M SEXN.E COMPUSITUM. 

(1000 Cc.) [33 55,391111]. Moisten the powder with sixty cubic centimetois 
(60 CeO [2 ng, 14 Ttl] of water, and macerate for 1 hour; then pack it firmly in 
a conical glass percolator, and gradually pour water upon it until the infusion 
measures one thousand cubic centimeters (1000 Cc.) [33 flg, 391 TTl] "—(U. S. P.). 

On account of the volatile character of the active constituents of wild cherry, 
cold water only should be used in preparing an infusion of it. A transparent, 
wine-colored infusion, pleasantly bitter, and possessing the well-known flavor <jf 
bitter almonds. 

Action, Medical Uses, and Dosage. — (See iVunrw virginiana.) Sedative and 
tonic. Dose, 1 to 3 fluid ounces, 3 or 4 times a day. 

INFUSUM QUASSI.ffi.— INFUSION OF QUASSIA. 

Preparation. — Macerate, in a closed vessel for 30 minutes, 5-5 grains of quassia 
wood (in chips) in 10 fluid ounces of cold distilled water. Strain — {Br. Pharm.). 
Warm water is equally or more eflective for the preparation of this infusion. 
The above process of the Br. Pharm. yields an infusion of only one-fourth of the 
strength which might be had by employing the U. S. P. general method. 

Action, Medical Uses, and Dosage. — A pure, bitter stomachic tonic. Dose, 
i to 2 fluid ounces. 

INFUSUM SALVI.® COMPOSITUM.— COMPOUND 
INFUSION OF SAGE. 

Preparation. — Take of sage leaves, hyssop leaves, of each, 1 ounce; boiling 
water. 2 pints ; pulverized borax, 1 drachm. Place the herbs in the boiling water, 
allow them to dige^^t for i hour, then strain and add the borax. 

Action and Medical Uses. — This infusion is employed as a wash and gargle 

in aphthas, sore throat, and qHii}.<n/, when accompanied with inflammation. 

INFUSUM SENN.ffl.— INFUSION OF SENNA. 

Preparation. — Infuse, in a closed vessel for 30 minutes, 1 ounce (av.) of 

senna and 28 grains of sliced ginger in 10 fluid ounces (Imp.) of boiling distilled . 
water. Strain— (Br. Phnrm.). The U. S. P., 1870, directed senna, 1 troy ounce; 
bruised coriander, 60 grains; boiling water, 1 pint. Macerate 1 hour. Strain. 
Infusion of senna, when exposed to the atmosphere, precipitates a yellow deposit, 
which is said lo increase its tendency to gripe. 

Action, Medical Uses, and Dosage. — (See Senna.) Doee, 1 to 4 fluid ounces. 

INFUSUM SENN.ffi COMPOSITUM lU. S. P.)— COMPOUND 
INFUSION OF SENNA. 

Synonym : Black draught. 

Preparation. — "Senna, sixty grammes (60 Gm.) [2 ozs. av.,51 grs.]; manna, 
one hundred and twenty grammes (120 Gm.) [4 ozs. av., 102 grs.] ; magnesium sul- 
phate, one hundred and twenty grammes (120 Gm.) [4 ozs. a v.. 102 grs] ; fennel, 
bruised, twenty grammes (20 Gin.) [309 grs.]; boiling water, eight luuKlretl cubic 
centimeters (800 Cc.) [27 lis, 25 111] ; cold water, a sullicient quantity to make one 
thousand cubic centimeters (lOtX) Cc.) [33 l\s, 391 111]- Upon the senna and fen- 
nel, contained in a suitable ves.<el, pour tlic boiling water, and macerate until the 
mixture is cold. Then strain with expression, dissolve in the infusion the mag- 
nesium sulphate and manna, and again strain. Lastly, add enough cold water 
through the strainer conUiining the senna and fennel to make the infusion meas- 
ure one thousand cubic centimeters (RXX) Cc.) [33 flS, 391 111] "— (C .S. P.). 

This is tlie famous black draught, and should not he c< nfounded with block 
drop, or vinegar of opium {Acctum Opii). These names should be dropped from 



INKl'Sr.M VALEKlAX.E.-INJErriO MUKI'IIIN.K HYPOUEUMICA. 1057 

medical literature, as much harm has and may still result from confusing the one 
with the other. The infusion should not be allowed to macerate too long, lest an 
increased griping result from its use. The addition of the fennel is for the pur- 
pose of les.<fning its tendency to gripe. 

Action, Medical Uses, and Dosage. — (See Senna.) Purgative. Dose, 1 to 4 
lliiid <nnues every I or 2 hours until catharsis occurs. 

INFUSUM VALERIAN/E. INFUSION OF VALERIAN. 

Preparation. — Infuse in a closed vessel for 1 hour, Jounce (av.) of bruised 
vaieriaii" iliizcime in 10 fluid drachms (Imp.) of boiling distilled water. Strain 
— I i)V. /'/,„,,».. 

Action, Medical Uses, and Dosage.— (See Vakriaua.) Dose, J to 2 fluid 

OUMCe>. 

INJECTIO APOMORPHINiE HYPODERMICA.— HYPODERMIC 

INJECTION OF APOMORPHINE. 

Preparation.— "Take of apomorphine hydrochlorate, 2 grains; camphor 
water. HKi minims. Dissolve and filter. The solution should be made as required 
for use. Dose, by subcutaneous injection, 2 to 8 minims" — {Br. Fharm.). Equal 
to about ^ to i grain of apomorphine hydrochlorate. 

INJECTIO ERGOTINI HYPODERMICA.— HYPODERMIC 

INJECTION OF ERGOTIN. 

Preparation. — '"Take of ergotin, 100 grains (or 1 pa:.-t) ; camphor water, 200 
lluiil grams (or 2 fluid parts). Dissolve by stirring them together. The solution 
should be made as required for use. Dose, by subcutaneous injection, 3 to 10 
minims "—(Br. Phami.). Equal to about 1 to 3^ grains of ergotin. 

INJECTIO MORPHIN.® HYPODERMICA. -HYPODERMIC 
INJECTION OF MORPHINE. 

Preparation. — "Take of hydrochlorate of morphine, 92 grains; solution of 
ammonia, acetic acid, distilled water, of each, a sufficiency. Dissolve the hydro- 
chlorate of morphine in 2 ounces of distilled water, aiding the solution by gently 
heating; then a<ld solution of ammonia so as to precipitate the morphine, and 
render the liquid slightly alkaline; allow it to cool; collect the precipitate on a 
filter, wash it with distilled water, and allow it to drain ; then transfer the mor- 
phine to a small porcelain dish with about an ounce of distilled water, apply heat 
gently, and carefully add acetic acid until the morphine is dissolved, and a very 
slightly acid solution is formed. Add now sufficient distilled water to make the 
solution measure exactly 2 fluid ounces. Filter and preserve the product in a 
stoppered bottle excluded from the light" — (Br. P/inrm^. 

Description.— This is a slightly acid, clear solution, free from any solid par- 
ticles when freshly prepared. When kept, it slowly disintegrates, acquiring a 
hrowni.-h cilor, crystals of morphine being gradually deposited. To prevent this 
cliunge, S'luibb recommended ^ per cent of pure carbolic acid ; .Johnson, sulphur- 
ous acid (5 drops to the fluid ounce, Jennings); and Limousin, j^ j^er cent of 
salicylic acid. "A fluid drachm of it, rendered slightly alkaline by the addition of 
solution of ammonia, yields a precipitate of morphine which, after being washed 
and dried, should weigh 4.25 grains, corresponding to 6 grains of acetate of mor- 
phine"— (/?,-. P/Kirm.). 

Dose, by subcutaneous injection, from 1 to 6 minims (^ to i grain) beginning 
with the smaller doses. 



1058 



INULA (U. S. P.j— INULA. 




"The root of Inula Helenium, Linn6" — {U. S. P.) (Corvusartia Helenium. Merat). 
Nat. Ord. — Compositse. 
Common Names: Elecavipane, Scabwort . 

Illustrations: MiUspaugh, Amer. Med. Plants, PL 81; Bentley and Trimen. 
Med. Plants. 150 ; WoodviUe, Med. BoL, 26. 

Botanical Source. — Elecampane has a thick, tap-shaped, branching, aromatic, 
and perennial root, with a thick, leafy, round, furrowed, solid stem, from 4 to 6 
^.^ ^^^ feet high, branched and downy above. The leaves 

are large, ovate, serrate, veiny, smooth, of a dark-green 
color above, downy and hoary beneath, with a deshy 
midrib; radical ones petiolated, from 1 to 3 feet in 
length, by 6 or 12 inches wide; cauline ones se.«sile 
and amplexicaul. The flower-heads are large, radiate<l, 
solitarj' at the downy summits of the blanches. 2 
inches broad, and of a bright-yellow color. The in- 
volucre is hemispherical; the outer scales broad, re- 
curved, leafy, and finely downy on both sides; the 
inner ones linear. The florets of the ray are numer- 
ous, pistillate, long, and narrow, in 1 row. and termi- 
nate in 3 unequal teeth ; the disk-florets are numerous, 
perfect, tubular, and 5-toothed, and the anthers have 
2 bristles at the base. Ovary oblong. Achenia quail- 
rangular and smooth ; pappus simple and roughish. 
The receptacle is reticulated, and not quite smooth or 
naked ( L — W— G.— T.). 

History and Description— Elecampane is com- 
mon to Europe, and cultivated in this country, grow- 
ing in pastures, along roadsides, etc.. flowering from 
July to September. The root, which is the part used, 
should be gathered in the second year of its development, and during the fall 
months. When recent it is quite thick, spindle-shaped, dividing, with many 
delicate fibers; its color is yellowish-gray externally. Iodine colors the root 
brown, and the infusion is changed to a green color by the addition of ferric 
chloride. The P. 8. P. describes /?)«/« as follows: "In transverse, concave slices 
or longitudinal sections, with overlapping bark, externally wrinkled and brown ; 
flexible in damp weather; when dry, breaking with a short fracture; internally 
grayish, fleshy, slightly radiate, and dotted with numerous shining, yellowish- 
brown resin-cells; free from starch; odor peculiar, aromatic; taste bitter and 
pungent "-(T. .'>'. P.). 

Chemical Composition. — The following percentage composition of inula is 
recorded in Hager's Handbuch der Phann. Praxii',\o\. II, 1886. p. 76: " ImUin, 
30 to 40 ; a trace of volatile oil; inula (alaut) camphor, or hclanv. a crystallizable, 
volatile substance, 0.5; wax, 0.3; acrid soft resin, 2; glutinous bitter extractive. 33; 
protein bodies, 12.5; cellulose, 9.6; potassium and calcium salts, /iiu'/x (6C,H|,0i 
+ HjO, Kiliani, 1881), an isomer of starch, was discovered in elecampane by Val. 
Rose, in 1804, and was called by him aUiutin. Sometimes it is also termed Menin. 
It is a fine, white, starchy powder, very hygroscopic, tasteless, and inodorous; its 
specific gravity is 1.356. Iodine gives it a yellow color, which distinguishes it 
from starch, and also renders it insoluble in water. It is soluble in boiling water, 
from which it is deposited as the solution cools. It is insoluble in alcohol. 
Diluted acids, upon heating, transform it into hvvulose, the intermediary product^", 
metinulin and l;ivulin (CjHn,Oj), being formed. Ferments, f. p., dia^itase. yeast, 
emulsin, saliva, have but a slight sugar-forming eSect upon inulin (DragendorflT, 
1870; also see Husemann and Hilger, f^mnni.^offe, 1882, Vol. I. p. 142).' The re- 
searches of Kiliani made it probable that inulin is chemically tne anhydride of 
hevulose (see ,4»)<T. Jour. P/iorm.. 1881, pp. 188 and 469). Its solution in boilinfi 
water produces left-handed rotation upon n ray of polarized light. It melts ne.ir 
165° C. (229° v.), gives off water, anil leaves a scaly, sweetish, gummy ina.<s. 



iNTLA. la'in 

readily m.IuIiU- in wiiter. Concentrated nitric acid, heated with it, converts it 
into oxalic acid. Diluted nitric acid, by oxidation, change.* it into formic, oxalic, 
glycolic, and racemic acids. Inulin docs not reduce Fehling"s solution, nor does 
it undergo fermentation. It may be prepared in abundance also from dande- 
lion roots, and those of the dahlia and other roots of the Compo:<U<t;, when dug 
up in the autumn. Roots dug in the autumn yield over twice the amount (44 
per cent, Oragendurtl ) yielded by spring roots, "in the spring of the year a por- 
tion of the inulin seems to have'been changed into hevulin, mucilage, sugar, and 
several glucosids. 

Alant aimphor (helenin) was observed in the root of elecampane as early as 176U, 
by Lefebure and others (see Husemann and Hilger), as it sometimes crystallizes 
on old roots. .1. Kalien (Ber. ,i Dcutsrh. Chem. Ge"., 1873 and 1876). has shown this 
volatile substance, which he obtained by distillation of the root with water, to be 
composed of needle-like crystals of (ilantir anhydride (C,jH.„0,), melting at 66° C. 
(150.8° F.); aln-nlol 'X\Ji,fi), an aromatic liquid; uUmt camphor proper (C.oH.sO), 
the latter a white subsUmce melting at 64° C. (147.2° F.), of a mint-like, aromatic 
odor: and helenin (C^H,0). an odorless, bitterish, crystallizable principle, with 
melting point :it 1 10° C. (230° F. ). 

Action, Medical Uses, and Dosage. — Elecampane is an aromatic stimu- 
lant and tonic, and is said to be expectorant, emmenagogue, diuretic, and diapho- 
retic. It is much used in rhronie jndmnnnry nffection>:, rtxakneg/' of the dujeMiw. 
orqmix, hepntie torpor, atonic dyspepsui, with flatus, and internally and externally 
ill 'ettrr. itrh. and Other riUanemi,-i diiea.ie.-<. When added to the compound syrup of 
spikenard, it should be exhausted by boiling alcohol, and the tincture added to 
the syrup, instead of boiling it with the other articles, as is usually done. The 
alcoholic extract, combined with powdered extract of liquorice, benzoic acid, san- 
guinaria, and morphine, forms a lozenge or pill very valuable in chronie catarrhal, 
bronrhial. and all pulmonary irri/adons. One drop of the oil of stillingia may be 
ailded to each lozenge for bronehial and laryngeid affections. Night-sioeats are relieved 
by inula, as are some cases of humid asthma, and, by its tonic properties, it tends 
to sustain the strength of the patient in chronic dist)rders of the respiratory tract. 
Helenin is accredited with a fatal action upon the tubercle bacillus by Korab, 
Blocq, and others. Inula is somewhat slow in action, and should be used for 
quite a time to get its full action. That it is an important remedv in irritation 
of the trachea and bronchise is now well established. It is adapted to cases with 
free and abundant expectoration, teasing cough, and pain beneath the sternum, 
conditions frequent in la grippe, and the severer forms of colds. 

An etficient preparation is that recommended by Prof Locke (Syllah. of Mat. 
Med.) : R Elecampane, si ; boiling water, 1 i)int. Boil until but 8 ounces remain ; 
add 4 pound of white sugar. Chronic vesical catarrh has yielded to the kindly ac- 
tion of elecampane. Both acute and chronic disorders may be treated with inula. 
It is also useful in leucorrheea, and is especially eflfective in catarrhal mdometritis, 
with discharge of glairy mucus. Dose of the powder, from 20 grains to 1 drachm ; 
of the infusion, from 1 to 2 fluid ounces; syrup, 1 to 4 fluid drachms; specific 
inula, 5 to 40 drops ; fluid extract, 10 to 60 drops; helenin, J, to J grain. Elecam- 
pane should be restudied in reference to its action in catarrhal atfections of the 
respiratory organs, and especially in relation to the kind of cough which is men- 
tioned above. 

Specific Indications and Uses. — Cough, of a teasing, persistent character, 
accompanied with substernul pain, and profuse secretion; atony of abdominal 
viscera, with engorgement and relaxation ; catarrhal discharges. 

Related Sjfeciea. -Inula luptnrrosa, Bornhanli (Inula Conyza, DeCandoUe; Conyza rtjuar- 
',-1. I.imiei. Herl) used in Europe. Diuretic and emmenagogue, and, when charred, eni- 
ploved an an insecticide. 

Pnlkdrin ili/KnItrica, Gaertner (Inula liyeenUrica, Linne), ^Vmuwrt.— Properties like those 
• 'i the preceding species. 

CVir/iiw «fa'(/M, Linn^. Cariinf i^iiXfe.— Europe. The root, which is unpleasant m odor 
iid sweet, Iw.t, and tiually bitter to the taste, is the part cmploved. It contain.s volatde oil 
lid rtsin. Hiuretic and emmenagogue; large doses cathartic. Tlu' de<<K-tion or |>owiI<t hiW 

n use<l in amrnnrrhijea. imfxitruce. i/litfsnl imnili/^iti, and in li/iihoiil flalef o( acute inaladiea. 

low- of powdered root, from 10 to -'0 grains, be.st Hdniinistered in decoction. It appears to 
-trongly influence tbe sexual organs of both male and female. 



1060 lODoFoRMlM. 

lODOFORMUM (U. S. P.)— IODOFORM. 

Formula : CHI,. Molecular Weight : 392.56. 

"Iodoform should be kept in well-stoppered bottles, in a cool and dark 
place"— (T. S. P.). 

History and Preparation. — Iodoform was discovered, in 1822, by SeruUas, 
and introduced into medicine by Glover and Bouchardat, in 1837. Its composi- 
tion was determined by Dumas (1834). It is formed when iodine, in the pres- 
ence of caustic alkalies, or alkaline carbonates, acts upon a variety of substances, 
such as alcohol or acetone, aldehyde, lactic acid, acetic ether, and other readily 
saponifiable ethers. Gum, dextrin, and sugars, in aqueous solution, as well as 
albumen, casein, fibrin, and other proteid compounds in alkaline solutions, also 
give rise to iodoform when properly acted upon by iodine. 

Iodoform may be prepared by heating an alcoholic solution of iodide of potas- 
sium to 40° C. (104° F.), then adding and stirring in successive quantities of 
chlorinated lime, until the dark-red color of the liquid is removed. On standing, 
crystals of iodoform and iodate of calcium are precipitated. Treat these with 
boiling alcohol of 90 percent; the iodoform only is dissolved, and is deposited 
in crystals as the solution cools. 

Suillot and Raynaud (1889) devised a process now largelj' employed in 
France, and by which an exceptionally pure product (the ^'absolute iodofonn" of 
Casthelaz) is produced. It is prepared directly from kelp (ash of sea weeds), which 
is lixiviated; a definite quantity of potassium or sodium iodide prepared there- 
from (say 25 parts) ; and acetone (3 parts), and caustic soda (1 part), both in solu- 
tion in water (500 to 1(XX) parts), are added. Sodium hypochlorite solution is 
then added, drop by drop, as long as a precipitate of iodoform occurs. Filhol's 
method is favorably received, and gives a large yield (72 per cent). It is essen- 
tially as follows : Into a long-necked flask, with a long supply tube are intro- 
duced crystallized sodium carbonate (2 parts), water (10 parts), and alcohol (1 
part). The mixture is then gradually and slowlj' heated to between 60° and 80° 
C. (140° to 176° F.). Then iodine (1 part) is added in fractional portions until 
the color is discharged. The solution is allowed to cool and the crystals collected 
upon a filter. The filtrate is then warmed, sodium carbonate (2 part*:) and alco- 
hol (1 part) added, and chlorine gas passed rapidly into the solution as long as 
iodoform is precipitated. More iodoform may be obtained by repeating this treat- 
ment of the filtrate. ( For a review of some of the earlier methods of preparing 
iodoform, see Pharm. Centralhnlle, 1882, p. 419.) 

Description and Tests.— Iodoform is officially described as occurring in 
"small, lemon-yellow, lustrous crj»stals of the hexagonal system, having a pecu- 
liar, very penetrating and persistent odor, somewhat resembling that of saffron 
and iodine, and an unpleasant, slightly sweetish, and iodine-like taste. Specific 
gravity 2.000, at 15° C. (59° F.). Very" slightly soluble in water, to which it, how- 
ever, imparts its odor and taste. Soluble in about 52 parts of alcohol at 15° C. 
(59° F.), in about 12 parts of boiling alcohol, and in 5.2 parts of ether. Very 
soluble in chloroform, benzin, and fixed and volatile oils. Iodoform is slightly 
volatile even at ordinary temperatures, and in boiling water distills slowly over 
with its vapor. At about 115° C. (239° F.), it melts to a brown liquid, and at a 
liigher temperature emits vapors of iodine, leaving beliind a carbonaceous mass, 
which, upon full combustion, should be completely dissipated (absence of fixed 
impurities). On digesting about 0.1 Gm. of iodoform with 5 Cc. of a 5 per cent 
solution of pota.ssium hydrate in alcohol, and then slightly supersaturating with 
diluted nitric acid, the liquid will be rendered blue bv starch T.S. The solutions 
in neutral solvents are neutral to litmus paper, if 2Gm.of ioiloform be thor- 
oughly shaken with 10 Cc. of water, the filtrate should be colorless and free from 
bitter taste (absence of soluble yellow coloring matters, picric acid, etc.), should 
not affect the color of litmus paper (absence of free acids'), and should remain 
unaflected by silver nitrate T.S. (absence of soluble iodides)" — (T. .S. P.). 

Iodoform is somewiiat unctuous to the touch. The aromatic oils of peupermint, 
anise, fennel, and others, as well as balsam of Peru and couniarin, have ne«n sjiid 
to mask its un|)leasant odor, from 3 to 5 drops of oil of peppermint t>eing reconi- 



lODOKiiUMfM. 1061 

mended to disguise an ounce of iodoform in ointments or mixturet;. Our expe- 
rience is to the effect that none of tiiem accomplish the puruose. Kven though 
they cover the odor in mass, on exposure the rank odor of ioiioform asserts itself. 
In this connection it may be Siiid tliat Johnson and Johnson have introduced an 
ioduret of carbon, under the name iodoform odorUsK, which is claimed to be fully as 
efficient as ordinary iodoform, and free from all odor. Analvsis by Pmf. S. P. 
Sadtler gave 95.20 per cent iodine. To remove the odor from tfie hands, utensils, 
and instruments, tirst applv a few drops of oil of turpentine, and afterward thor- 
ougly wash with water and soap (see also Imloformum Aromali-'Hihim). Iodoform 
solutions, when exposed to sunlight, liberate iodine. The latter is contained in 
iodoform to the extent of 98.69 per cent. Gentle heat decomposes it into iodine 
and hydriodic acid. It is partially decomposed when boiled with solution of 
potassa, yielding iodide and formate of potassium. It is not likely to contain 
many impurities. Its chemical decomposition is analogous to that of chloroform. 

Action, Medical Uses, and Dosage.— Ordinarily iodoform, when applied to 
the sound <>r broken skin, wounds, ulcers, and mucous membranes, is non-irrita- 
ting, and acts as a topical anasthetic. Occasionally, however, serious poisoning 
occurs from its absorption, and death has been known to result from such appli- 
cations. Among the symptoms thus produced are drowsiness and stupor, menin- 
gitis, delirium, progressive emaciation, high fever, sphincter paralysis, and death. 
Occasionally an eczematous eruption is caused by it, or an erythema or papular 
eruption may appear. In one case under our treatment, after the removal of an 
encysted bullet from the knee, and the dressing of the wound with a 10 per cent 
iodoform gauze of standard make, an erythematous redness followed in 24 hours, 
succeeded in 2 days by an extensive and painful eruption of vesicles, filled with 
a deep, orange-colored serum. Considerable constitutional infection accompanied, 
with a rise in the temperature of 2 degrees. The whole knee was involved, and 
had the appearance of a large, rough-skinned orange. The lesion spread rapidly 
wherever the viscid serum touched the sound surface. It resisted ordinary treat- 
ment with sodium bicarbonate, borax, etc., until dusted with bismuth subiiitrate, 
when healing took place rapidly. Applied to the rectum in suppository, iodo- 
form so far blunts sensibility as to allow unconscious defecation. Iodoform, 
when employed in large quantities for packing, may become an encapsulated for- 
eign body, and eventually gives rise to an iodoform "abscess," the contents of 
which are iodoform and mucus (Murrell). Chorea, suicidal mania, and profuse 
diarrhiea have followed the local use of iodoform. Internally, small doses (5 or 6 
grains, or less) improve the appetite, and iodine quickly appears in the urine and 
saliva, escaping from the former as an iodide of sodium with a small portion of 
iodate. The symptoms produced by toxic doses are the following: Faintne.«s, 
giddiness, headache, mental confusion, drowsiness, burning gastric pain, delirium, 
convulsions, unconsciousness, a quickened or slowed, small pulse, cold, livid skin 
with profuse perspiration, and general paralysis (Taylor, Med. Juris., from Br. 
Med. Jour., 1882). 

In iodoform poisoning, the use of the drug should be stopped and the alka- 
line carbonates employed locally and internally together with the internal admin- 
istration of bromide of potassium, acetate of potassium, or lemonade. Asa rule, 
iodoform should not be used in conjunction with carbolic acid. Fatty degenera- 
tion of the kidneys, liver, and heart has been found after death from iodoform. 

Iodoform has been used to some extent as an internal medicine. M. Righini 
(1862) stated that the inhalation of its ethereal solution is of great service in re- 
tarding the progress of phthisis. Foxwell, of Birmingham, England, now regards 
it as almost specific in the treatment of phlhu'is. From 1-grain pills, 6 times a 
day, he claims greater results than from any drug or combination he has em- 
ployed. He has administered as high as 50 grains per day for long periods with- 
out ill results. The effects reported by Foxwell are : Soothing of nervous erethism, 
lessening of cough and expectoration, increased nutrition, and improvement of 
physical signs. Murrell, who endorses Foxwell's treatment in the main, in jilil/iudjt 
and loiitlcr-coiigh, found that in some cases the large doses had to be abandoned on 
account of the strong odor imparted to the breath, and the nau.sea and vomiting 
induced (Murrell, Mat. Med., 1896). It is said to be very efficient in checking 
pulmonari/ hemorrhage in tuberculosis of the lungs. Internall •, in the dose of 1 to 3 



1062 lODOFORMUil. 

grains, 3 times a day, in pill form, it was forncerly regarded useful in goitre, scrofula, 
rachitw, glandular tumors, vienstrual derangements, affections of the bladder, etc, hut is 
now seldom employed for these affections. It is, however, valued by some as an 
alterative in the same-sized doses, in syphilis and in syphilitic neuralgia. 

Iodoform is best known as an antiseptic surgical dressing for use in operations, 
and as an application in various forms of ulcerations, syphilitic and otherwise. 
Few agents are more useful in the treatment of ulcerated, granulated, or abraded 
surfaces, than a solution of 1 part of iodoform in 4 parts of glycerin (Locke). In 
venereal diseases, barring its odor, which may be masked, however, it is one of the 
most useful of applications. Soft chancres readily yield to it, as do many painful 
phagedenic ulcers. For these purposes, the pure iodoform in small amount may 
be dusted upon the ulcers, or the powder proposed bj' Prof Locke may be em- 
ployed. It is composed of iodoform, 100 parts; thymol, 1 part, and sugar of milk, 
200 parts. It is exceedingly useful in syphilitic fissure of the tongue, syphilitic pharyn- 
geal ulcers, and simple or s^/philitic ozena. It is without a superior in hospital gan- 
grene, gangrenous vulvitis, ajMhous vulvitis of debilitated children, and in ointment, 
to temporarily relieve pruritis vulvse. It forms the chief application to suppura- 
ting buboes. A good form of exhibition is that given by Murrell: R Iodoform, 
5j; oil of eucalyptus, flsj ; soft and hard petrolatum, of each, gijss. Mix. In 
venereal diseases, the more irritable and painful the lesions, the more effectual is 
iodoform. Go^.wrrhcea and gleet may be well treated with iodoform, bougies con- 
taining that drug and oil of eucalyptus, being the preferable form for use. It is 
better adapted to gono-rhcea of the female. However, iodoform is less effectual in 
this class of diseases than other forms of treatment. Chordee is palliated by it. A 20 
per cent ointment is reported to have subdued pain and swelling in acu'te orchitis. 
Vaginismus and other forms oi vaginal hypersesthe.na are relieved by iodoform. 

An ointment of 30 to 60 grains of iodoform to an ounce of lard or petrolatum, 
has been successfully applied to tumors and in certain dry forms of skin diseases, 
and especially of syphilitic origin. Ringivorm is said to be cured by it. In sup- 
pository form with cacao butter (iodoform, grs. xxx; cacao butter, 5j. Mix. Make 
6 suppositories), it has proved beneficial in cancer of the utenis. Cancer of the breast 
and other carcinomata are also benefited by it. Its advantages are that- it relieves 
pain, corrects the offensive odor, retards destruction of tissues, and conserves the 
strength of the patient. It does not arrest the secretions as does opium. An 
ointment (1 part to 15 of petrolatum) forms a good application in cracked nipples. 
The parts, however, should be thoroughly washed befoi'e suckling the child. Pain- 
ful chronic ulcers should be first destroyed with nitric acid, and then treated with 
iodoform. Iodoform in ointment or suppositorv is exceedingly useful to subdue 
pain and promote healing in rectal tilcers, hemorrhoids, und painful anal fi.ssures. It 
aids greatly by rendering defecation painless. Iodoform forms a good dressing 
after the opening of boils and carbuncles. The latter are said to have been aborted 
by the injection of an ethereal solution of iodoform. 

An emulsion of iodoform has been employed for injecting roW o6«ce.«!f5 and 
tubercular carii's (Billroth ), and in the treatment 'of cystitis. A solution of iodoform 
in ether or glycerin has been lauded by some as an injection for emj)yema,ab.<!cesses, 
and joint affections, ixW of tuhcrrulous character. A collodion solution na.s been em- 
])loyed toi)ically to infla mnuitory sirelling.'<, chronic arthriti-". localized neurnlgias. goitn, 
.•<wollen cervical, and other lymphatic glamls, and for the absorption of peritoneal, 
pleuritic, and pericardial effusions. A saturated chloroforniic solution gives relief in 
various superficial neuralgias. A turpentine solution (4 per cent), inhaling from 
■ > to 5 drons, lias been advised in bronchicrtasii: and in laryngeal and pulmonic tuber- 
riilo.iLs. >iurrell recommends the following powder for insufflation in laryugeiu 
plithij<is: R Iodoform, boric acid,aa5ij; menthol, grs. x ; phosphate of calcium. 
il.s.,5J. All in fine powder. Mix. 

Iodoform is largely used in the treatment of Mmp/^", .^nrptra/, (/wti^Ao/, and tn- 
ferifil u-nunds. For Such )>urposes, the powder or the gjiuze are generally iireferred. 
It relieves pain and promotes healing. As little should be used as will accom- 
plish the desired purpose, and never should more than 30 grains be used at one 
iliessing. Neither should its application be too frequent. Good drainage should 
be insured, and the parts should not be too snugly V>andageil. Iodoform gauze 
should be preferred in operations u]>on the intestine'!, and {Peritoneal and other cavUita. 



lODOFORMUM. 1063 

Iodoform is an important agent in nasal, ocular, and aural duieages. As an 
insufflation powder, a combination of iodoform and tannic acid is effectual in 
ozena, pont-nanal catarrh, and in soft nasal hyprrtrophu's. A first decimal trituration 
dusted uj>on the lids with a soft brush, is useful in granular ronjunrtivitis (I.ocke). 
In eve disorders a 5 to 10 per cent ointment or an impalpable powder should be 
employed. Aged persons are sometimes toxically impressed by its apiilication in 
ocular affections. Iodoform may be used after ojitralions ttpnn the n/e or aji]iemlages, 
in ciliary blepharitis, simple and serpiginous corneal ulcers, hypopyon hrotitis, purulent 
conjunctivitis, pannits, ophthalmia neonatorum, phlyctenular conjunct iritis, palpebral 
ulcers, and conjunctival gumma. Iodoform is employed in f^ujipunitice car affections, 
particularly after the "active phases have paissed. The powiler or gauze may be 
used after "o/.(;-(i^(0)W upon the aural canal. Foltz {Dynam. Therap.) declares the 
"pale mucous membrane"' the indication for iodoform, and in suppurative otitis 
media prefers a mixture of equal parts of boric acid and iodoform. If eye or ear 
disorders are of syphilitic origin its use is particularly commended. 

Various combinations of iodoform are employed locally, besides those already 
mentioned. The following are useful forms: (1) A.ntiseptic powder : Iodoform 
11 parts, bismuth subnitrate 4, salicylic acid 4, camphor 1 (Cavazini). (2) Anti- 
septic p.\ste: Iodoform 1 part, oil of camphor 4, salicylic acid 4, starch, a suffi- 
cient quantity to form a stifl' paste. (3) Inhalant: Iodoform 1 part, oil of 
turpentine 8." (4) E.mulsion: Iodoform 10 parts, glycerin 8, distilled water 2, 
tragacanth 5. Thia may be shaken with water in any quantity desired. 

Ointments of iodoform (with petrolatum), usually contain from 5 to 10 per 
cent of the drug. With it may be incorporated some of the deodorants men- 
tioned, particularly oil of camphor or eucalyptus. Glycerin solutions contain 
from 5 to 30 per cent; ether solutions, from 5 to 25 per cent; oleaginous solutions 
(olive oil 1, 10 to 25 per cent; flexible collodion solutions, 5 to 10 per cent; iodo- 
form gauze, from 10 to 50 per cent, the former being generally preferred; tritu- 
ration in milk sugar, 10 per cent. The dose of iodoform ranges from i grain to 3 
grains, in pill. 

Other Iodoform Preparations. — C.\RBAsrs Iodoform.^ta (X.F.i./odo/onn jnitz^. Formu- 
Inry nui,tl>,i; IM '• I.Mlofonn, tin >;iamu)es (10 Gm.) [l.")4grs.]; ether (r'..S. P.), forty 



(40 Gm. I [1 oz. av., l.SO grs.]; alcofiol, forty grammes (40 Gm.) [1 oz. av., 180 grs.]; tincture of 
benzoin ( ['. .v. P. i, five grammes (5 Gm.) [77 grs.J; jilycerin, five grammes (5 Gm.) [77 grs.]; 
gauze mu.«lin, a suffioient quantity. Dissolve the iodoform in tlie ether, then add the alcohol, 
tincture of benzoin, and glycerin. Immerse in a weighed quantity of this solution, contained 
in a suitabli- ve.ssel, the exact amount of gauze muslin required to absorb the whole of it, to 
pro<lui-e a proihiot of a prescribed percentage of iodoform, work it alwut with a pestle so as to 
impregnate it uniformly; then take it out, and hang it up to dry, in a horizontal position, and 
in a dark place. Lastly, wrap it in parattin paper and preserve it in air-tight receptacles. 
Note.— To calculate the amount of muslin and of iodoform solution required to obtiiin a prod- 
uct approximately of anv required percentage of iodoform, let x denote this required percent- 
age. Then take of the aliove iodoform solution ten (10) times this quantity (or iO x). Also 
multiply the n-quired percentage (x) by three (:;), divide the resulting product by two (2), 
and subtract the quotient from one hundred ( 100). The remainder represents the number of 
parts by weiglit of gauze muslin to be used. Reganling the most suitable kind of gauze mus- 
lin, see note to Carbusm Curt>oUita ( F. 17) " — (.iY«(. Form.). 

Ioi)oK()[!ML-M AromatisatC-M (N. F.],Aromalized iodoform. Deodorized iodoform.—" Iodoform, 
25 parts; cumarin, 1 part. Mix them intimately by trituration. Ao/c.-^Should cumarin not 
be available, or should it be objectionable to the patient, the odor of iodoform may also he 
more or less masked by many essential oils, for instance those of pep|)ermint, cloves, cin- 
namon, citronella, bergamot, sassafras, eucalyptus, etc. Another etlicient covering agent is 
freshly roaste<l ami powdered coffee. The odor of iodoform may be removed from the hands 
or any utensil which it has coiue in contact with, by washing them with an aqueous solution 
of tannii' acid"— .\''i I. Firm., 1st ed.). 

Related Compounds.— .\ristoi., .•lnnidn/in,/)i7A.vmo/f/iio(/irf»'(OjoHs40jIj). An iotloform 
Bulwtitute pr.lerrc.l nn account of its comparative hick of odor. It contains 4.5.8 per cent of 
iodine. It is a bulky, deep reddish-brown, amorphous powder, without taste, but haying a 
neruliar ami slightly aromatic odor, suggestive of iiMline. Water and glyceiin do not dissolve 
It, but it is readily di88olye<l by chloroform, ether, and collodion. Alcohol dissolves it with 
ditBculty. Caustic alkalies do not effect its solution, though it is taken vip by the lixeil and 
ea><ential oils, vaseline, petrolatum, etc. .'Sulphuric acid, heat, and light ilecomiio.se it. Aristol 
U ]iro<luced by the interaction of a solution of thymol in caustic soda solution and a solution 
of i«Kline in an aqueous solution of potassium iodiile. Mr. George M. Heringer (.Iwkt. ^uur. 
/'/i<(n;i., l,S»l,p. I75i fouml commercial aris'tol to conform to the following formula, C«)H»il, 
<),.-.'lI,<>. thus holding ('..14 per cent of water. Annidalin was originally one of the names 



1064 loDuFuKMr.M. 

applied to aristol, but it is chemically a rlitbyniol (liio.iifle. Aristol is employed as a cicatrizant 
and substitute for iodoform, consequently' tlie conditions requiring its use need not be re- 
peated. Some prefer it to iodoform. Fo'ltz speaks highly of aristol, in dry powder, in aoite, 
subacute, and chronic siippuniliie otitis media, and in moist eczema of the external avditory canal, with 
great itching. An ointment of aristol may be used upon corneal tUcers, after active inflammation 
has been subdued ; and in interstitial keratitis, after subsidence of the acute phases it assists in 
clearing the cornea. In powder and ointment it has given good results in pklijctenular cn- 
junctiritis. A 1 per cent solution in almond oil has Ijeen used by injection with apparently 
good results in pulmonary tuberculosis. 

Cakvacrol Iodide (CisHisOI). — A yellow-brown powder, which decomposes above the 
boiling point of water. It results when, in the manufacture of aristol, carvacrol is suljstitnted 
for thymol. 

Xeroform, Tribromphenol-bisnmlh (CeHjBrjO — Bi — 0). — A new substitute for iodoform, 
greater efficiency being claimed for it, besides its comparative lack of odor and the capability 
of being sterilized without decomposition at 110° C. (2.'!()° F. i. (For its preparation, see Pharm. 
Cenlralhalle, 1895, p. 309.) It is a neutral, greenish-yellow, fine powder, tasteless, and having 
but a faint carbolic acid odor. It is not decomposetl by light. Acids and bases decompose it, 
especially when heated. The claims made for it are : It is antibacterial, rendering poisonous 
toxines and ptomaines innocuous, and being itself non-poisonous; it limits and prevents the 
secretion of pus. It is desiccant, deodorant, analgesic, hemostatic, and promotes granulation 
and cicatrization. Bulk for bulk, it has greater covering power than ioaoform. Having first 
thoroughly cleansed the parts, it should bi- a|>pli(<l cxactlv like iodoform. It is particularly 
claimed of value in moist eczemas, even wluii |ir- .In i 1 l.y iodoform. Success has been reported 
from its use in fresh and infected xvovml. .-, rarirose ulcerations, suppuratinij buboes, 

abscesses, bums, chancroids, paronychix. '•< rillc affections, impetigo, nasnl and aural 

diseases, antnd disease, and in gynxcoloyicul i-' Its application is sometimes irritating at 
first, but this is said soon to pass off. 

Ei'ROPHEN, Diisobutyl-orlho-cresol-iodide (CsaHsiOjI). — Prepared like aristoi. the thymol 
being substituted by isobutyl-ortho-cresol. A soft, fine, and light, non-crystalline, yellow pow- 
der, having a feeble, saffron-like odor, but no taste. Alcohol, chloroform, ether, collodion, 
and the fixed oils dissolve it, while in glycerin and water it is insoluble. It is nmch lighter 
than ioiloform, being five times as bulky". When heated to llCC. (230° F. i, it yieMs a trans- 
parent, brown liquid. When dry, it is permanent. When moistened, it splits into iodine, 
and an iodine compound, which is .soluble. Iodine is also set free by the alkalies and their 
carbonates. Light and heat decompose its solutions. Europhen contains 27.9 per cent of 
iodine. The general applications of this body are those of ioaoform. being regarded by some 
as superior in certain eye, ear, iin<l nose affections, and in various form.« of stin diseases, imvnds, 
and in specific and non-sji' <■'/!'■ oh-' mih.n.-t. 

.\ntiseptin, .Boro-fA///</"/-:i" -'•'/./,.— Radlauer, who introduced this remedy, claime<l it 
to be a definite chemical cmiiiih.iiii.I, liiit, according to F. Goldmann {Pharm. Centralhalle, 1891, 
p. 499 , it is a mixture of zinc sulphatr (85 parts), boric acid (10 parts', thymol i2.5 parts*, and 
zinc iodide (2.5 parts). 

Antiseptol, Cinchonine iodosulphate, or Cinchonine heropalhlte. — .-V com|>ound oi varying 
composition, according to methods of preparation Usually a reddish-brown, light powder, 
containing 50 per cent of ioiline, soluble in chloroform and alcohol, but not in water. It is 
prepared by precipitating cinchonine sulphate by means of solution of iodine in ]K>tassium 
iodide ( Yvon, Amer. Jour. Pharm., 1890, p. 493). Solutions of it are employe<l upon irounds, 
ulcers, and hemorrhoids. 

loDoL, Tetraiodo-pyrrol, Pyrrol letriodide (UJ^XH).— Introduced, in 1885, by Ciamician 
and Silber. Iodine is allowed to react with pyrrol in alcoholic (or methyl alcohol I solution. 
Upon the addition of water, iodol separates in crystalline, yellow flocculi. It may also be 
obtained as directed for aristol, substituting pyrrol for thvmol. -V bulky, pale-yellow, shining, 
crvstallinc powder, without odor or taste when p<iro. ft contains 88.97 per cent of io<)ine. 
Water scarcely dissolves it, diluted alcohol butslightlv, ether, alcohol, and the fixed oilsfrt-ely 
dissolve it. Its solution in alcohol is miscible with glycerin. .\t the temper.iture of Ixniing 
water, it remains permanent, but at and above 145° C. (293° F.l, decomposition takes niace, 
ioiline is given off, and the iodol burns without leaving a residue. Upon treatment with sul- 
phuric acid, ioilol turns green (see Amer. Jour. Pharm., 1885, p. (i05). It should not be con- 
tonndod with Iodol, a substance reseuibling chlond in its action upon animals i Ral)Ut«-auK and 
prepareil by acting upon a mixture of nitric acid and alcohol with iodine. lodal is tleconi- 
posed by alkalies, yielding formic acid and iodoform. Iodol is antiseptic and a substitute for 
iodoform. Its external use is reported to have produced toxic symptoms. Internallv. in 2 or 
3-grain doses, it has been employed in diabeles mellitns, scrofula, i\m\ syfjtili*. .\pplieil locally, 
to vounds, chancroids, ulcers, condylomata, and funtjous groirths; and, by insufflation, in larytifitol 
tuberculosis and atrophic forms of nasal and pharyngeal catarrh. 

Io<lol lias also been employed in calarrluil eye affections, but is said to Iv undt>sirable in 
phlyctenidar coujnnctirilis. It is nion- irritating in tr.iumatic and ulcerate*! ear affections than 
iodoform. .Vccording to Foltz, it does not produce healthy granulations, and he tleclares it 
less etticient than boric acid in purulent iutfainmation of the 'middle ,ar. It is, however, said to 
bo useful in corions suppuration of the e-rlerual auditory canal. Dose, 2 to 20 grains. 

I^tsoi-UAN (l/>sophane), r/i'-iWo-Hirtdcrcsoi (C'HIjOH.CH,).— This bo<ly was intro<lucr<l 
in 1892, and contains 78.39 per cent of iodine. It is prepareil by the action of iixliue upon 
nieta-oxy-toluic acid (t^Hj.OH.UHj.OXlH) in tlie presence of "the calculated quantity of 
caustic alkali or alkaline carbonate. It forms white or colorless needles, wit In nit . "lor, and 



lUlJOFullMlM. 1UG5 

lueltiog at 121.5° C. (l'o0.7° F.). EthiT, chlon)form, benzol, and tlie fixi-d oils, wlu-ii warnnMl 
to 60° C. ( 140° F. I, dissolve it. Alcohol dissolvi-s it with dilficulty ; in water it is insoluble. It 
is used for the same purposes as iodoform. 

S<)Z()ioi)i)LK, .SijoiikW, .Soioi<»<Wic ariil, I>ilo<lo-para-iilinuil mdphoiiic acid (C«Hj.OH.l2..">0j 
H.^.'iUjCti. —\ compound containing ol'.S per cent of iiHline. The potassium salt is i)repared 
by the acliun of cuuient rated sulphuric- acid upnu jihenol (carVxilic acidi, jniru-jiln iml .■iiilf/huiiii' 
iKiiMiiiiij; l.inued. Tliis is converted into the potassium sjilt, and the calculated amount of 
ii)do-cliloride i< aldrd, wlieriliy the .v(C."'»(/o/,-//ii/ti.wi(m is precipitated as n crystalline sub- 
stance. Soluble with dithculty in' water. It is then imritieil by recrystallization (Oslerinayer, 
I'hiirm. Vtnlralhiilh; ISSS, p. o-'U). Sozoiodolic aci.l occurs in Bnuill,"pri*'l""tic needle-civstals, 
easily soluble in water, alcohol, or glyceriu. With metallic ba,«es it forms acid an^l neutral 
salts,' thi' former of which constitute the medicinal salts generally employed. The four which 
li.ive come into more prominent use are the following: |1) ISDZoiodolt-sodnuix [fyiiiiiuu fozoiiHlo- 
I'llf). in colorless, inodorous, astringent-sweetish needles, soluble in water (1 in 20) in alcohol, 
ami warm glycerin. This is the preparation known simply as Sozoiodole. It is non-toxic, 
antiseptic, and de.siccant, and has a wide application in venereal Jimrderf,iD oiihlhnlmuloijy, m 
fi/r.c/ioiix ()/ the nosv and llirnal, and in all cases requiring antiseptic treatment. It is \ised in pow- 
der of 1 to 10, or pure; and in solutions of 1 to 12 to 1 to 50 of solvent. (2) 5<oiiW"/^-/j"(</«.-ii(m 
( Pulamiim guzitioiliil'ile), a white, light, inodoroiLS powder, hardly soluble in warm alcohol, but 
soluble in water (1 in 100 1. Properties similar to the sodium compound; unlike the latter, it 
swells ui) when heated on platinum foil, similar to the phenomenon known an rhe " Pharaoh's 
Serpent. (3) S>i:(iii>dolt-zinc \Zinc foznuxlolnte). Delicate, prismatic needle-crystids, colorless, 
otlorless, solubh- in glycerin and alcohol, and in 25 parts of water. More astringent than the 
prewding, ami being niore irritant and liable to prove escharotic in concentration, must be 
use<l in greater dilutiou. .■^jK-cially applicable in j/ij«orr/itr<i. Employed in powder, salve, or 
solution of strength ranging from'l too to 1 to 100. (4) SozouKlole mercun/ (.Vrn-io;/ «)«)»«/<)- 
lull). Very fine, orange-yellow powder, insoluble in water or alcohol, but dis-solving" in water 
( 1 in 200) uiKjn tlie addition of sidt or hydrochloric acid. Caustic in concentrated form, and 
the only }K)isonous salt of the group. Employed like other mercury compounds, and as a 
general antiseptic like iodoform. Used in strengths of from 1 to 200 to pure, in jwwder, salve, 
or solution. These salts are odorless, non-toxic (except the mercury salt), soluble in one or 
more of the couimon solvents, non-decomposable by light, and in from 10 to 25 per cent tritu- 
rations are claimed to have about the same power as pure iodoform. (For their detailed 
description, see Phann. CenlrallmUe, 1890, p. 335.) 

Si>z\i., Aluiniimm jMrapheniilsiU^lionale {Sozonale) ( [C|,H, [OHJSOsIb Alj). — Formed by 
ilouble decomposition between barmm parapbenolsulphonate and aluminum sulphate, or by 
dissolving aluminum hydrate in paraphenolsulphonic acid. It forms astringent, crystalline 
granules naving a faint phenol odor. It is quite stable and forms permanent solutions with 
water, alcohol, or glycenn. It is one of the proposed antiseptic substitutes for iodoform. 

SrLi'HAMiNOL, nivxt/dijilieyii/lamhie (CisHjOSjX).— .l/rtno.ri/rfip/if7ii//<(»iiHc, boiled with caus- 
tic BO<Ia solution and sulphur, tiltere<l, and treated with ammonium chloride, yields a precipi- 
tate of sulpliaiuinol. It is a light-yellow powder, tasteless and odorless, easily soluble in alco- 
hol, glacial acetic acid, and alkali solutions, insoluble in water. Combined in solution with 
guaiacol, menthol, eucalyptol, and creosote, under the names of sulphaminol guaiacol, sul- 
pbaminol menthol, etc., it has been employed in ttibercular affections of the lari/nu: 

TniopnEN-E (C,H,S).— An oily, colorless, mobile liquid, boiling at 84° C. (183.2° F.), a 
regular constituent of commercial coal-tar benzol (Victor Meyer, 1883), and isolated therefrom 
by agitation with stroni: Mdpliuric acid. It does not mix with water. Two of its compounds 
have been medicinally cmi.loycd. Sodium tliiophene sulphonate (CjHjS.Na.^O, ) is a crystal- 
line white powder contaiuinK of sul|)luir about 34 percent. Thiophene diiodide (C^HjIjS,) 
contains 9.5 per cent of sulphur and 75.6 per cent of iodine, and forms plate-like crystals solu- 
ble in the common .solvents except water. It is volatile, and melts at 40.5°C. (104°F.K It is 
proposed as an iodoform sulxstitute. 

XosoiMiES, TelraiiA;,,henoli,hthalein ( rC,H,I,.OH],:C:C,H,C0.0 or C!oHioI,0,).— This 
U an odorless iodine comi)<)uiid intended chiefly as an antiseptic powder — a substitute for iodo- 
form. It has greater covering power than the latter. It is a tasteless, pale, yellowish-gray 
powder, containing 61.8 per cent of ioiline. Nosophen is insoluble in water and acids, and 
feebly .soluble in alcohol, while chloroform and etlier dissolve it freely. Heating with strong 
sutplinric or hydrochloric acid decomposes it, iodine being liberated. Concentrated alkalies 
and dilute<l aciils, however, ilo not decompose it, even upon boiling. It forms salts «ilh 
80<lium lantinosinel, bismuth (eudoxinel, mercury, zinc, etc. It is non-poisouous, possesses 
bactericidal, anastbetic, antihemorrhagic, and desiccating properties, and maybe used in a 
great variety of troubles, Iwtli locally and internally, in which iodoform is employed. It is 
used chiefly, however, in powdir, as a topical agent'. The dose is J grain to 8 grains, but the 
bismuth salt (eudoxine) is preferred for internal administration. 

A.VTiNosiNE is the sotlium salt of iiosophen, and is used chiefly in 1 to 5 per <'cnt solu- 
tions, in antiseptic irrigations. It is a dark- blue amorphous povv<ler, freely soluble in water 
and aU'ohiil ; also soluble in glycerin. It is not i>ermanent, like nosophen, owing to the action 
of the atmospheric carbon dioxide. It has no odor, and is said to be non-irritant and non- 
poisonous. 

EuDoxtSK is the bismuth salt of nosophen. It is a tasteless and o<lorle8s. reddi.'>h-brown 
IMjwder, containing .52.9 per cent of io<line and 14.5 percent of bismuth. It is insoluble and 
non-poisonous, .\lkaliea decompose it, nosophen and bismuth oxide resulting. It has li.-.-n 



rocomiuended in the bowel disorders of infants. Eudoxine is the salt o( tetra-iodo-phenol-phta- 
lein, and is preferred for internal administration. Dose, i grain (very young infants), to 8 
grains, 3 times a day. 

lODUM (U. S. P.)— IODINE. 

Symbol: I. Atomic Weight: 126.53. 

A non-metallic element obtained from kelp, and as a by-product from the 
mother liquor of Chili saltpeter. It should " be kept in glass-stoppered bottles, 
in a cocil iilacc"— ( U.S. P.). 

History and Source. — Iodine was discovered, in 1812, by M. Courtois, a salt- 
peter manufacturer of Paris; and, in 1820, its medicinal virtues were first made 
known by Dr. Coindet, Sr., of Geneva. It is prepared from the ashes of sea weeds, 
occurring on the coasts of France, Ireland, Scotland, Jajjan, etc. The ashes are 
of a dark color, and are known by the name of kelp. They contain about 0.2 per 
cent of iodine. It also occurs in sponge. The amount of iodine present in the 
different algte varies according to the species. Mr. James Wheeler (1882) found 
comparatively large amounts of iodine in Laviinaria flex icaulis and L.mrrharina. 
According to L. Van Itallie (1889) about 0.01 per cent of iodine is contained in 
FiKiis vesiculosiis and Choixdru» crispus. The occurrence of iodine in the beds of 
Chili saltpeter is also traceable to a probable marine origin. 

Probably all varieties of Gadu.^ (codfish) contain it in their livers — a maxi- 
mum of 1 part in 60,000 (Mitchell Bird, 1882)— and the liver of Raja clavata and 
B. batis are said to contain even more than the cod-liver. Traces of iodine have 
been found in the liquids of Julus fastidissimus, crabs, starfish, salted herrings, etc. 

Its presence in minerals and natural waters is frequent. It has been found 
combined with mercury and silver, in the cenis-iite of Catorce, Mexico ; in verj- 
small quantity in Silesian zinc ore; in the salt of Hall, Tyrol ; in native nitrate of 
sodium ; in Silesian coal ; in the distillation products of coal; in the Jura lime- 
stones near Lyons and Montpellier; in clay, vegetable mold, sulphur, cinnabar, 
iron, and manganese minerals, gypsum, white chalk, etc. It has likewise been 
detected in rain and fresh water, and in various mineral waters^, in diflerent parts 
of the globe. The salt brines, left in the manufacture of salt and of bromine in 
West Virginia, were shown by Prof. Mallet (see Amer. Jour. Pharm., 1881, p. 606) 
to contain considerable quantities of iodine. 

Preparation. — Iodine is commonly prepared from kelp, which is lixiviated in 
water, the solution concentrated by evaporation, and the various salts of sodium 
and potassium deposited, whereby a dark-colored mother liquor is left, called ioiUne 
lye. Sulphuric acid is added to this to acidulate it, and to liberate carbonic acid, 
sulphurous acid, and hydrogen sulphide gas, while sulphur is deposited, and hy- 
driodic acid is formed in solution. The acidulated lye is now introduced into'a 
leaden still, and heated to 60° C. (140° F.) when manganese dioxide is gradually 
added; a leaden head is then adapted, heat is applied, iodine is evolved, and is 
collected into a. series of glass receivers, on the inner surface of which it condenses. 
The following reaction takes place: 2IH4-MnO.,+ HjSO,-:-MnSO,-|-2H.O+I,. 

Soubeiran states that iodine may also be obtained from the mother liquor by 
the following process: Add sulphate of copper to the mother water so long as a 
white precipitate of cuprous iodide (Cu.I,,) is thrown down, while part of the 
iodine remains in the fluid. Then treat the supernatant liquid with more of the 
sulphate, together with iron filings. The iron, taking the place of the copper in 
the solution, sets that nutal free, and the metal, in the act of evolution, unites 
with the iodine in the fluid, so that more iodide of copper is formed. When this 
iodide is mixed with dioxide of manganese and sulphuric acid, a moderate heat 
decomjxjses it, and iodine is sublimed. 

Tiie criide iodine is purified to some extent by resublimation, but must un- 
dergo additional purification to get rid of traces of iodine chloride, bromide, or 
cyanide. For this purpose it is recommended by F. Musset (18W) to melt it 
under a concentrated layer of potassium iodide solution, allowing to cool, and 
washing out the iodine cake witli water. Another method, that of Stas, to obtain 
pure iodine from potassium iodide solution, is to oxidize part of the iodide to 
lodate in such proportion that upon subsequent acidulation with sulphuric acid, 



lODUM. 1067 

Muline is nrecipitated according to the following equation : RIOj+iKI-|-,H,SO,^^ 
,K,S(),-|-,H,,0+I,. Acconiing to C. Meineke (Chcmikcr Zcitunq, 18!)2, p. VIW and 
1230), an exceptionally pure iodine is yielded by this method. This author pre- 
fers tlie use of potassiunj permanganate as an oxidizer. 

Description. — Iodine is usually sold in small scales, or rhombic plates; occa- 
sionally in solid ma.<ses. It is heavy, friable, dry, grayish-black or bluish-black 
in color, has a shining appearance, a peculiar, unpleasant, and irritating odor, 
and a sharp, acrid taste. It is brittle and easily pulverized, fuses at 114° C. 
(•237.2° F.), boils at 175° C. (.347° F.), though its vapor rises with that of boiling 
water. "As it fuses it is gradually dissipated in the form of a purplish vapor, 
leaving no residue" — {U.S. P.). At common temperatures it slowly evaporates. 
Its specitic gravity is 4.948 at 17°C. (62.6° ¥.)—{l'.S. P.). It .stains the skin a 
deep brown, which slowly disappears, and, if the contact be prolonged, will de- 
stroy the soft textures of the body. Vegetable colors are slowly discharged by it. 
" Soluble in about 50(X) parts of water, and in 10 parts of alcohol at 15° C. (50° F.) 
with a brown color; also freely .soluble in ether, and in a solution of jjotassium 
iodide with a brown color; and in chloroform or carbon disulphide with a violet 
color" — (T. .9. P.). According to W. Duncan {Amer. Jour. P/iarm., l.Si)2, p. 100), 
the solubility of iodine in chloroform is limited to 1:56.6 at 10° (". F. Dietze 
(Aimr. J-ntr. Phnrm., 1898, p. 574) states that its solubility in water is (on the aver- 
age) 1:3600 at ordinary temperature, and 1:2200 at 30° C. (86° F.). It is .soluble 
in water containing syrup of orange, and 6 ounces of water to wliich 2 grains of 
tannic acid are added, will dissolve 10 grains of iodine. In saline solutions it 
is much more soluble, and freely so in solutions of chloride of sodium, nitrate of 
ammonium, or iodide of potassium. It is very soluble in benzene, glycerin, or 
the volatile oils, but with some of them, especially those from the coniferous tribe 
of plant.<, considerable heat is evolved, brisk effervescence ensues, and much of the 
iodine is discharged in vapor. With castor oil, a 20 per cent solution of iodine 
niav be obtained, which has the advantage of being niiscible with alcohol (Amei-. 
.W)-.P/('»™., 188.5, p. 43.5). 

Iodized oil of juniper (iodine, i drachm, oil of juniper, 1 ounce, the iodine to be 
added gradually until the whole'is added) possesses all the properties of the tinc- 
ture of iodine, and its use is not attended with discoloration of the cuticle. Iodine 
unites with oxygen or hydrogen to form acids, also with sulphur, phosphorus, 
carbon, chlorine, etc., and readily unites with metals, such as copper, iron, silver, 
etc. Its characteristic reaction is that with starch. This substance, if converted 
by boiling with water into soluble starch, forms a blue precipitate with it, of such 
intensity that iodine may easily be detected in 4.50,000 parts of water. To effect 
tliis the iodine must be free, which may be obtained by adding a little nitric acid to 
the suspected solutions, and the solutions must be cold (see also Amylum). Iodine 
is easily mixed with fatty substances; it is apt to escape from the surface of oint- 
ments, unless united with iodide of potassium, which impedes this result. The 
combination of iodine with hydrogen forms a gaseous acid, called hydrhdic acid 
(IH), an<l that with oxygen forms two acids, the iodir (10,11) and pcr-iodic arid.'< 
(IO,H ). The preparation known as rolorlr.^s tincture nf iodine is a solution of iodine 
in comtiination, and will be considered in its proper jibioe. 

Tests. — "With starch T.S. it produces a dark-blue color. A solution of iodine 
in chliirol'orm should be perfectly clear and limpid (absence of nioi.sture). T<< 
determine the presence of c_vanogen, chlorine, or bromine, proceed as follows: 
Triturate 0.5 Gm. of finely powdered iodine with 20 Cc. of water, and filter off' the 
solution. To one-half of this solution, in a test-tube, carefully a<ld decinormal 
.sodium hyposulphite V.S., until the solution is just decolorized. Then add a few 
drops of "ferrous sulphate T.S., and sub.sequently a little sodium hydrate T.S., 
and heat the mixture gently. On now adding" a slight excess of hydrochloric 
acid, the liquid should not assume a blue color (absence of iodine cyanide). To 
the other half of the aqueous filtrate, in a te.st-tube, add a slight ex'cess of silver 
nitrate T.S., shake actively, allow the precipitate to sul)side, and, having poured 
off" the clear, supernatant "liquid completely, shake the precipitate with a mixture 
of 1 Cc. of ammonia water and 9 Cc. of wiiter, and filter. Upon the addition of 
a slight excess of nitric acid to the filtrate, not more than a sliglit opalescence 
should make its appearance (limit of cblDrine or bromine). If0..32 Gm. of iodine. 



1068 lODUM. 

together with 1 Gm. of potassium iodide, be dissolved in 20 Cc. of water, and the 
solution mixed with a few drops of starch T.S., it should require not less than 25 
Cc. of decinormal sodium hyposulphite T.S. to discharge the blue or greenish color 
of the liquid (corresponding to at least 98.85 per cent of pure iodine)" — ( f '. .S*. P.). 
(For a detailed list of tests and the mode of their application, see this Di^xnmtory, 
preceding; editimi.) 

Action, Medical Uses, and Dosage.— In large doses, iodine is an irritant 
and cori-o.-^ive pnison, stimulating the raucous membranes, liver, and absorbent 
glands, e.xciting the sexual organs, and producing debility of the digestive func- 
tions, muscular weakness, and emaciation. This influence upon the system, in 
which its poisonous efifects are developed, is termed iodisvi. Its symptoms are 
fever, violent vomiting and purging, great thirst, palpitation, extreme restle.ss- 
ness, rapid emaciation, acute, ejiigastric pain, cramps, small and frequent pulse, 
violent priapism, trembling, occasional syncope, etc. These symptoms vary in 
different persons, and have even terminated fatally. From 4 to 6 grains have 
produced these sx'mptoms, hence it should never be administered in large doses, 
and wiien these effects appear, the medicine should at once be stopped. (For 
further consideration of iodism, see Pota-'<ni lodidum.) 

In small, or medicinal doses, iodine is a stimulant, tonic, alterative, di-uretic, 
emmenagogue, and diaphoretic. It affects especially the absorbent and glandu- 
lar system, and its results vary according to the dose, combination, etc." It has 
been detected in the urine soon after being swallowed, also in the saliva, perspi- 
ration, milk, and blood, and always in the form of hydriodic acid, or an iodide. 
It is supposed to undergo conversion in the stomach into hydriodic acid, and is 
thus absorbed. In proper doses, iodine improves the appetite and digestion, 
stimulates to some extent excretion and secretion, proves diuretic, and increases 
strength. It probably does not stimulate blood-making nor nutrition, but it ma- 
terially assists in the removal of worn-out tissues — in fact, increases retrograde 
metamorphosis. There is a difference of action in preparations of iodine; those 
which act especially by iodine in a free state, or in which it is readily set free, are 
not eliminated from the economy, as tincture of iodine, iodide of iron, and iodide 
of calcium, and should be administered in small doses. On the other hand, those 
which are eliminated, as iodide of potassium, or of sodium, may be given in large 
doses. These not only convey into the excretions metallic substances that may 
have been in the system for a long time, but, as with iodide of potassium, they 
produce the influences peculiar to the base; with the iodide of potassium we 
observe the diuretic and sialagogue influence of the alkali (Bouchardat's Ann. 
dc' Therap., 1869, p. 184). Iodine and some of its preparations will occasionally 
produce salivation, soreness of the mouth, coryza, and often pustular eruptions. 
Under its influence, enlarged glands are brought to their normal size, and strumous 
ulcers gradually healed. Occasionally it has caused a rapid and permanent wast- 
ing away of the mamma? or testicles, and again, after a lapse of time, these organs 
have recovered their original development. 

Iodine is i'nii)l()yed mi'dicinally in various forms of disease, in some of which 
it produces astonishingly beneticial results, this being especially true in di.<eases 
involvinji the lymphatic structures. The diseases in which it appears to be more 
generally I'llicient are hrmirhorele, glandular ohntnirtion.9, stTofulti, ifj/phili--*, merrurin- 
!<i/phillf:. utruinoiix ophthalmia, ozena, ulcers of the integuments, enlargement of the external 
absorheiil glands, chranic enlargement of the lieer and x/iUen, vuimnut, testes, and i(/<Tt<«, 
ovarian tumors, ieueorrheea, amenorrhea, dysmenorrhiea, caries, ]uirali/sis. chorea, rheu- 
matism, and, in fact, the majority of diseases of a h}i}>ertrophical, stnimmis. or cachec- 
tic character. In bronchoeele, it is most serviceable in the early congestive .-Jtage, or 
in the middle stage of gelatiniforni effusion ; in the indurated stage of the tiiyroid 
gland it is of little benefit. In this afi<ition its use should he continueil uninter- 
ruptedly for at least Ave weeks, and if no good etTect.* appear, it may be laid .iside. 
The compound solution of iodine is generally prefern-d in doses of 5 to 10 drojwi, 
8 times a day. Iodine has been injected into the gland with apiiarent lieneht^ 
but this pi-actice is not generally commended. Prof. .1. M. Sonader i^}xc. Med.) 
advised small doses of iodine in serual debility: R Tincture of iodine, gtt. xx; 
simple syrup. H.^iv. Dose, 1 teatipoonful 4 times a day. prefenibly after meals 
and !tt bedtime. 



KlUlXl KHj'.t 

Iodine is not a cumulative medicine, like lead, digitalis, etc., hence, whenever 
its effects approach iodisni, a suspension of its use will gradually remove them; 
however, at the present time, these effects are not so often observed as among its 
early investigators. Yet, as some persons are very susceptible to its influence, the 
approach of iodism should be carefully watched, and its symptoms checked. In 
rhronir lUarrhmi and di/scnteri/, cholfro infantum, colliqunlive ilutrr/io'd of jiht/iuitJ^, and 
.■.rnj^H/'x/.* (/(>n.<<'.<, Prof. King found the following a su|)erior remedy: Take of 
iodine, lA grains; sulphate of morphine, J grain ; extract of geranium, 20 grains; 
triturate thoroughly together in a mortar, form into a pill-mass with simple syrup 
or extract of liquorice, and divide into 10 pills; of these 1 pill maybe given every 
1 or 2 hours to an adult. In hepnt ir Hud ■■•■j>lenir nffert inn. ■<,i\r\ed extract of leptandra 
may be substituted for the extract of geranium. In the Mexican diarr/xea, he suc- 
leeded in curing every case in which the following preparation was employed : 
Take of iodine, H grains; tannic acid, 10 grains ; distilled water, 5 fluid draclims. 
Mix together. For an adult, give 1 fluid drachm every 2 hours, in syrup of ginger, 
or cinnamon water, to be continued daily. Iodine is contraiiulicuted in cerebral 
congestion and tendency to apoplexy, in menorrhagia, in disordered stomach or 
bowels, or wherever local diseases become attended with symptomatic fever, or 
with incidental febrile affections. 

Externally, iodine is u.*ed in the form of ointment for .strumous w/r«T.v, np/i- 
thnlmia. and some cutaneou," di.ieases, as lupw. fai-u.% acne, psoriasi.", etc. With collo- 
dion it forms a good ajiplication ior frost-hite.-'. Subcutaneous injections of iodine 
arounil the wound, have been found successful in bites of some .*nakes and other 
poisonom wounds. A cau^ic iodine solution (Lugols) is recommended as an appli- 
cation to stimulate or destroy soft Sindjungmts granulation.^, and as a remedy for 
uoli-me-lan^irre. (See Lugol'g .'^lution.) 

Drs. R. Druitt and B. \V. Richardson recommended the vapor from iodine as 
a deodorizer and disinfectant. Powdered iodine, or a strong tincture of iodine is 
place'] in open vessels in various parts of a room, so that the air therein becomes 
impregnated with the vapor. This is recommended in cases of smallpox, typhoid 
and other fer'rji, or wherever the atmosphere of a room requires purification, as 
where there are sinks, sick-chairs, closets, etc. The air thus purified becomes 
fresh and agreeable to the sen.«e of smell. Inhalations of vapor from iodine 
have been highly spoken of in the treatment of phthisi.'< (palliative only), rhronir 
binimjiti.-' and bronrhiti.t. and in aj/honia; the atmosphere of the patient's room to 
be impregnated with the vapor, so that it can be constantly inhaled day and 
night. Dr. J. Waring Curran, in the treatment of diphthrria, recommended a fluid 
drachm, of a compound composed of iodine, iodide of potassium, each, 4 grains ; 
alcohol, 4 fluid drachms; water, 4 fluid drachms — which he adds to a pint of vine- 
gar in which a handful of sage has been boiled; this is placed in a teapot or an 
inhaler, and kept hot over a spirit lamp, and the vapor is inhaled 10 or 12 times 
a day, for 10 or 12 minutes each time. The dose of the iodine solution must be 
steadily increased until it reaches i fluid ounce foreach inhalation. The tincture, 
in 2 or 3-drop doses, in syrup of lemon, is said to improve the condition in diph- 
theria. In eniiipelntoux inflnmmatityns it has been advi.«ed to paint the inflamed 
surface with a .strong tincture; likewi.se, in chilblains and rulaneous .icrnfula. Boil.-< 
may be aborted by painting with tincture of iodine, which application is also 
useful in carbuncles, ihoxxgh a dilution (1 part to 3 or 4 of water) is le.ss painful, 
arrests destruction of tissues, and removes the decayed parts. Locally, iodine is 
useful in chronic uterine eiui'irgrment, chronic induration.i of the remix uteri, uterine 
ulcerations, leucorrhiea, mtci, phan/ngeal granulation-' and ulcers, spina hifula, and thi' 
tincture or compound tincture gives relief in laryngeal ulrei-ntions, for which the 
vapor has been less efficiently em|)loyed. The topical application of iodine i> 
frequently resorted to in rhronir rheumatism and neuralgia, and applied to the 
chest in rhronir pleuri-fy to promote the absorption of plastic exudations. An 
ointment of iodine is of value in hydrarthrosis. Applied in smallpox it is said U> 
prevent in a measure the full development of the pustules, and thereby prevent 
extensive pitting. Iodine is an excellent application to buljors, and if applied 
early may abort them; it is likewise of value in syjihilitir ulritatiims of the tonsil. ■< 
and faures, and in strelling of Ihr qum* and loo.-ening of the teeth. Ringirnrm. rorns. 
an<l felons are often benefited bv iodine. 



1070 lODUM. 

A solution of iodine (grs. j), in glycerin (flsj), forms a good application in 
purulent nasal discharges, as ozena. The tincture, diluted with three times its vol- 
ume of water, has been recommended as an injection in h y drorek. nfter removal 
of the effused fluid, to stimulate the tunica vaginalis to adhesive inflammation. 
These injfftions have also been advised in ovarian cysts, drop>ry of tlie joinU, hernia, 
indnlfiii iiliyci>:s, rnrities, sinuses, fistula in ano, etc. 

hxliiii' ill ^tiuiig solution has been successfully employed in blepharitis cUinrix 
and in ronjii ,ii-iirl/is. An adhesive iodine paint is used at Moorfield's Ophthalmic 
Hospital, as an application to chronic inflammations of the eyelids; the mastic pre- 
vents the paint from spreading on the more delicate structures in the neighbor- 
hood ; take of alcohol, 2 fluid drachms; spirit of nitric ether, 4 fluid drachms; 
mastic, i drachm; iodine to saturation. Mix. The vapor of tincture of iodine 
with camphor, applied by Politzer's method, is said to improve non suppurative 
otitis media. Occasionally painting the tincture on the mastoid region relieves in 
mastoid disease, and the same applied to the attic of the tympanum check.? suppu- 
rative action in those parts. The compound tincture is applied after opening the 
sac of hematoma aur is, and according to Foltz (Dynam. Thernp.,\>.Q2^),a mixture 
of glycerin 10 parts, and iodine 1 part, is excellent for the cure of that morbid 
action giving rise in the canal and fundus of the ear to aggregations of epithelium 
and pus of a tenacious character. 

Iodine may be kept in a state of solution when added to mixtures in the 
form of tincture, by the addition of syrup of orange peel, or a few grains of tannic 
acid. When given internally to females it is apt to increa^ie the quantity of the 
menstrual discharge and sometimes to multiply the periods of its appearance; if the 
symptoms are not very severe or alarming, but little interference will be required, 
as they will cease after a short time; where this is demanded, a cessation of the 
use of the remedy will most generally sufl!ice. In the employment of iodine, if 
the urine is passed in quantity, and on examination is found to contain iodine, 
and the strength and appetite of the patient gradually return, it may be consid- 
ered indicative of a beneficial therapeutic influence, and its use should be contin- 
ued. Dose of iodine, in substance, i grain, 2 or 3 times a day, in pill form; of the 
tincture, from 5 to 15 drops, twice a day. The best forms for internal use are the 
compound tincture and compound solution. Some prefer the 3 x trituration. 
When given in powder, it should be united with opium or hyoscyamus,_and 
formed into a pill with the extract of liquorice. In poisoning by iodine, first 
evacuate the stomach, by giving an emetic in starch water, and afterward admin- 
ister freely starch water, starch paste, flour, or arrow-root in water. 



Related Preparations.— Iodizeo Puf.noi . T>r. Pircy Boulton intrwluceil to the profee- 
sion a (■iiliirl(>s sdiition of iodine aii'l .:iil. 11. .iri.l, as possessing stimulant ami antiseptic 
pro|)(itiis in a ni:iikc<l degree. It li:i> i i i : u-eful as a local application i by injection, 

gargle, l.itinii, Ml spiay inhalation), in 'hrria.oztnii, otorrhnn, fturuletit ophthalmia, 

/oij/anil i:iil'il' III iilfii:-i,leitcorrha'a, utci I'lh^ / < . . iileri, intental lieHinrrhoidi. lariniyeiil, mul 
bronchial iijf'cclions, etc. In some instjmcis it will rtijnire to be diUitcd with water, and when 
the spray is to be inhaled, the glycerin maybe omitted, and the mixture be diluted to the 
required extent with water. Its tormula is as follows: Take of compound tinctun' of iodim-, 
45 minims; crystals of carbolic acid (liquefied), 6 minims; glyeerin. S fluid drachms; distillnl 
water, 5 fluid (Uinces. Mix. The color disappears in frt>m S hours to 10 days, depending iimm 
the temperature; the mixture should be kept in a dark jilace. (.See also formula of .HciViini 
Carboliciiiii /l«/<(^(»l [.V(i(. /•'(//•ni.],p. 41, which preparation has similar us»'s to the prein-ding. ■ 

Mktiiynoi,.— This agent was introdueed by Prof. J. .\. Jeancon, M. P., acconling to whom 
it is "a compound of the sodium salts of a systematic series of iodo-phenol acids, in which the 
hydrogen of iodo-phenol is progressively substituted with imline, carboxyl. and hydnx-arbon 
/groups, and in which the iodin-! preponderates. The use of methyiiol is inilicated in all forms 
of venous congrMioii of the skin or of the nuu'ons membranes of the" Iwdy ; in all forms of ulcmi- 
fioH, of whatever origin ; in inliltrate^l ^tiite.^i ,.( the tissues, whether 'due to stoppage of the 
venous current and dilation of the lymphatic vessels. or to local obstruction by dimoni/iim.wn', 
etc. In action this substame is highly .«tiiuulating to vascular activity without having 
the least elfect on tlie heart. It acts also as an antiseptic and iK>w»rful germicide, its two 
qualities ronibiniiij; to produce healthy circulation and absorption of inflltrat»tl substances, 
also di'stiiiying the more or less noxious matter, fornuMi in the stagnant, unhealthv tissues. 
The use of methynol promptly produces healthy granulations in iiii(o(<'ii( ii/cfTs, checking sup- 
puration and invigorating the enfeebled tissues; new and invigonUing substance is the result. 
In pilfs, condylomata, prurilis ani (itching piles), it is equally efficient. In ralmr or r.i;/ii«ii 
'u/^iemccretions, in catarrhal «(n(<'» of the primir ri'.r. as well as in that of the uterine ctr>ix. its action 
prompt and eflective. Old sore fliitif an- readily liealed by daily applic:?'' ■••: 'n.thy- 



hi/pernecret 
is both pi 



I'KCACVANHA. 



1U7I 



r. >!. In pruritif nilrir and /inirigo, jwrrlgo 
a|>i«licatiuiis of this iliiiv; ami most of tl 
niiiov.-.l Ipv it. Mctlivnul can bo applie< 
after tlu- alii-cttii surlai-.-s havi- tirst bet-n 
lineil witli discaseil mucous membranes hi 
which arc allowed to remain 1 or 2 hours, 
produced by the application of the drup. S 
nhould be applied only after the parts havi 
chlorate. As the drug is not poisttnous, it 
cal, nasal, pharyngeal, and larynpe: " 
he injected without pro<lucing any harm; 
about 1 drachm of castor oil or almond oil 
tity of the drug. .\n ointment of methyiiol 
be formed by mixing the iugredinits in I 
prescription:" R Methynol, 1 ouiicr; peti 
mortar, or on a pill slab, with a scatula' 



I, and inUrtrign, the itching gives way after seviTal 
le si|uaniiius and mxlular alTections of the skin are 
I with a soft sponge, or with a camel's hair pencil, 
cleaned with castde soap or inirax water. Cavities 
«ve to be tn'ated with proper-sized cotton tampons, 
as the Ciuse rei|Uin>8. There is very seldom any pain 
Should the atTecteil surface he too irritable, methynol 
■ been tii-st treateil with a solution of cocaine hyilro- 
can be safely used (properly diluted i upon the bue- 
meinbranes. In tiimmx or lumoral );«(iW)i, it max 
beginning with 5 drojjs of the methynol mixeil willi 
, as an injection, and gradually increasing the qunn- 
I with petrolatum or kindred substances, can readily 
he [■iiiportion desire<l. The following is a desirable 
Mix together bv rubbing in a 
Jeaiicon, M. D.I. 



IPECACUANHA lU. S. P. i— IPECAC. 



"The root of Crjihn'etis Ipecnenanha (Brotero) A. Richard" — (('. S. P.). Cephdi- 
lis enutica, Persoon; Callicocm Ipecacuanha, Brotero; i'rngoga Ipemrunnht, Baillon; 
Pifi/rhotria Ipemruanhd, Miiller-Argoviensis. 

Sat. Off.— Rubiacetv. 

Common Names: Ipecac, Ipemcuanha. 

Ii.Lr?TR.\TioN : Rentley and Trimen, Med. PInnts, 14-5. 

Botanical Source— Cephaelis Ipecacuanha is a small plant, with a perennial 
root, <lesceiniiiii; oMiquely into the ground, from 4 to 6 inches long, simple, <>r 
divided into a few diverging branches, about as thick p. ^^„ 

as a goose-quill, ringed, when fresh pale-brown, when 
drj' umber-colored, blackish-umber-cohjred, or gray- 
ish brown; tlie cortical integument with a reddish, 
resinous, glittering fracture, and readily se|)aratin<.' 
from a central woody axis. The stem is suffniticnsc, 
from 2 to 3 feet long, ascending, often rooting near 
the ground, smooth and cinereous at the base, and 
downy and green near the apex. The leaves are 
rarely more than 4 or 6 on a stem, oblong-ovate, acute, 
roughisli with hairs, from 3 to 4 inches long, from 
1 to 2 broad; those at the top of the stem are oppo- 
site, those toward the base alternate. Petioles short 
and downy. Stipules erect, appressed, membranous, 
deciduous, and 4 to 6-cleft. Peduncles solitary, axil- 
lary, downy, erect when in flower, reflexed when in 
fruit, and about ii inches long. The flowers are 
small, white, in senugiobose heads, of 8, 12, or more; 
the involucre is 1-leaved, spreading, deeply 4 to 
(>-|)arted, with obovate, acuminate, ciliated segments. 

obovate-oblong, acute, and downy. Calyx minute, obovate, whitish, adliering t 
the ovary, with 5 bluntish, short teeth. The corolla is wliite, funnel-sliaped, the 
tube cylindrical, downy on the outside and at the orifice, the liml> shorter than 
the tube, with 5 ovate, reflexed segments. Stamens 5; filaments fililbrm, white, 
and smooth; anthers linear, longer than the (ilaments, projecting a little beyon<l 
tiie corolla. Ovary with a fleshy disc at the apex ; style filiform; stigmas 2, linear. 
The berry is ovate, obtu.se, about the size of a kidney-bean, at first purple, after- 
ward violet-black, 2-celled, 2-seeded, with a longitudinal, fleshy partition. Nucules 
plano-convex and furrowed on the flat side (L.). 

History. — Ipecacuanha inhabits Brazil, in moist, shady situations, and is also 
fouinl in other sections of South America, generally between 7° and 20° south 
latitude (/vV/.), flowering from December to Mardi, and maturing in fruit between 
April and June. The root, which is the official part, is gatiiered by tlie natives 
from January to April, who, after removing the stem from it, wash it and dry it 
by exposure to the sun's rays. (For details regarding its cultivation am! cofjec- 
tion, see article in Ffw/erH />^u^<;^.v^ 18!t7. p. :i4l5.) It is principally imported from 




CephaSMs Ipecacuanha. v 

Bracts to eacli flower 1, 



1072 IPECACUAXHA. 

Rio Janeiro, in barrels, seroons, and large packages. The bark of the root is its 
most active part. 

Description. — "About 10 Cm. (4 inches) long, and 4 or 5 Mm. (^ to ^ inch) 
thick ; mostly simple, contorted, dull grayish-brown or blackish, finelj' wrinkled; 
closely and irregularly annulated, and often transversely fissured; bark thick, 
brittle, brownish, easily separated from the thin, whitish, tough, ligneous por- 
tion; odor slight, peculiar, nauseous; taste bitterish, acrid, nauseating. When 
ipecac is sound and free from moldiness, its quality is proportionate to the thick- 
ness of the bark, and the thinness of the ligneous portion "—( I'. S. P.). Commer- 
cial ipecacuanha roots are sometimes distinguished as the grayish-black, the 
grayish-red, and the grayish-white varieties. The true variety is called Rio ipecac 
commercially. 

Ipecacuanha root, when whole, is so characteristic, that it is hardly liable to 
adulteration. A variety known as the Carthagena, Xeto Granada, or Columbian ipecac 
{Cephaiiis aruminatn, Karsten), is larger, less markedlj- annulated. and shows a 
larger number of more conspicuous medullary rays than the ordinary drug. The 
name radix antidy^enterica, was formerly applied to ipecacuanha root. The pow- 
der of the genuine article is of a grayish-yellow color, with a faint, bitterish, ob- 
scurely acrid taste, and a weak, musty, peculiar odor, which becomes stronger and 
nauseating during the process of pulverization ; in some persons it excites sternu- 
tation, in others a difficulty of breathing resembling asthma. It yields its prop- 
erties to water, and still better to alcohol, spirits, or wines. Boiling impairs its 
virtues. As regards the detection of adulterants of ipecacuanha, see article on the 
microscopic examination of ipecac root and its possible adulterants in powder 
form, by Dr. Alfred Schneider {Amer. Druyght, 1897, p. 3). Likewise, some micro- 
scopical and chemical criteria for true ipecac root were laid down bv Prof. Tschirch 
and F. F^iidtke ( Archiv dn- Phann., 1888, p. 441). 

Chemical Composition.— While the root of the ipecacuanha plant is the 
only official part, its active, emetic principle has been shown to exist also in other ■ 
parts of the plant, e.g., the stems and the leaves (Hooper. 1892). but not in the 
seeds (Fliickiger, PAaVmnco_(7nos«', 1891). In 1817 Pelletier and Magendie isolated 
from true ipecac root an alkaloid which they called emeiine, but the fact that they 
obtained 16 per cent of this principle demonstrates their product to have been 
merely a concentrated extract. Upon further experimentation, however. Pelletier 
succeeded in obtaining a pure alkaloidal product in the amount of 60 grains to 
the pound, which corresponds to somewhat less than 1 per cent. Subsequently, 
the chemistry of ipecacuanha root was elaborated bv Reich (1863), Lefort (1869), 
Podwissotzky (1879), and others. H. Kunz, in 1887 {Jahre.^. da- Phann., 1887, p. 
416), found for emetine the formula C3„H^oN.;05, which is now generally adopte<l 
as correct. Kunz also established the dyad nature of the alkaloid emetine in it« 
saturation power with acids, which in 1890 was confirmed bv Blunt {Phann. Jour. 
Trans., 1890, Vol. XX, p. 809), and W. Simonson {Prnc. Amc'r. Phann. Assoc., 1890, 
p. 188); hence the statement in Fliickiger (/or. r//.), that emetine is a monad base, 
requires correction. Kunz also found cholin (C,H,OH.N[CH5]jOH), to be present 
in ipecac root. 

Pure emetine forms a white, non-crystallizable powder which turns brown by 
exposure to light and air. It is very slightly soluble in water; the solution tastes 
bitter and is alkaline to litmus paper. It dissolves readily in diluted acids, a,-; 
well as in chloroform, alcohol, warm benzin. and ether, and is also soluble in 
fixed oils and benzol, but insoluble in caustic alkalies and in essential oils. With 
acids, emetine forms neutral, soluble, bitter, acrid, and for the most part uncrys- 
tallizable salts. Fliickiger obtained the hydrochlorate in crystalline form (Phar- 
viarognnsie, 1891). The nitrate dissolves in water with difficulty. The solutions 
of the salts are precipitated by gallic and tiinnic acids. Fliickiger (,/«<•. ri/.t, gives 
the following test (or emetine \n ipecac root: Shake the ro(H with five times its 
weight of cold hydrochloric acid (sp. gr. 1.12), filter, and sprinkle siune chlorinated 
lime upon the liquid. If emetine is present, a chanuteristic fire-red color is pro- 
duced. Bv this reaction, the absence of emetine from the wood of the root is 
established 

In 1894 and 189.5 Paul and Cownley(./hAres/). (/rr PAnrm., 1894, p. 523. and 18*^=:. 
1>. 163), discovered another alkaloid in ipecac root which they called crphacli 



IPKIAC rAN-Hi» 1073 

This is distinguished from emetine piinciiwlly by its hiinj; .soluble in caustic 
alkalies, and by its melting point, whioh is U)-2° C. (215. (5° F. i. while for ^-mWiii* 
they found 6S° C. (154.4° F.). Pelletier also had observed that emetine was natu- 
rally combined with what he took to be {lallio acid, but which was recognized 
later by Willigk as a new substance, and by him called iptracuan/iir arid. Reich 
sul)sequently found it to be a glucosid. .*>V<i;v/j is present in ipecac root in large 
amounts, and a trace of a nauseating elherad oil is also present. In some allied 
sj)ecies SK/jfir abounds. 

Literature concerning the as.say of ipecacuanha is abundant and often dis- 
cordant, althougli a satisfactory solution of the ipecac problem seems to have 
been reached. The proportions of total alkaloids observed by different authors 
generally range from 1 to 3 per cent. C. C Keller thinks that 2i per cent may 
not be too excessive a standard of alkaloidal strength (Pcor. Amer. Phnrm. Assoc., 
1893, p. 400). Dr. A. R. L. Dohme {Pror. Amer. Phnrm. A^soc, 1805, p. 2G9), has 
found that the part of the root where it merges into the stem {irinj root) is at 
least as rich in alkaloid as the rest of the root {fann/ mot), and that "the part of 
the stem adjacent to the root still contains considerable quantities of emetine. 
(Adapted in part from an article on ijjecacuanha in the \Ve)<tern Drnqgint, 1897, 
p. 346. 1 Tannic acid, all astringents containing tannic or gallic acicls, iodine, 
salts of iron, and acetati' of It-ad. -.xn- incompatible with ipecacuanha. 

Action, Medical Uses, and Dosage. — Ipecac, in material amounts, is irri- 
tant to the cutanious and mucous surfaces. Applied to the skin by inunction 
it excites irritation, and produces vesicular, pustular, and sometimes ulcerative 
effects. It is exceedingly irritating to the Schneiderian membrane, causing heat 
and violent sneezing. In some individuals, the inhalation of the powdered drug 
l)rovokes decided paro.xysms, closely resembling spasmodic asthmatic attacks — 
the chief symptoms being great dyspncta, with marked anxiety and prostration, 
and wheezing respiration and cough. This is often accompanied with violent and 
prolonged sneezing and spitting of blood. Such attacks are usually followed by a 
free expectoration of mucus. Ipecac, in doses of less than 1 grain, acts as a gastric 
tonic and liepatic stimulant, but large doses prove emetic. When it fails to pro- 
duce eniesis. catharsis usually results, though both effects may take place from 
its emphivnient. The stools produced by this agent are of the so-called bilious 
type, and have been denominated "ipecacuanha stools." A state of tolerance 
may be established from the prolonged use of ipecac. Ipecac produces a relaxa- 
tion of the skin and consequent diaphoresis, and it increases the broncho-pul- 
iiionic secretions. Physiologically speaking, ipecacuanha is said to scarcely affect 
the circulation, but there is no doubt that in minute doses in disease, it stimu- 
lates the circulatory apparatus, acting thereby as a fipccinl sedative, us that term is 
employed in Eclectic therapy. Its therapeutic action upon the circulation is well 
shown in its effects upon hemorrha(ie; anci in acute disorders of the stomach, bowels, 
and breathing organs. The alkaloid, emetine, the active principle of ipecac, is so 
severe and uncertain in its action that it is seldom used in medicine. Two grains 
of it have killed a large dog, and Jj grain vomited an old man severely. Observa- 
tions upon the lower animals prove that death takes place from cardiac paralysis. 
The post-mortem lesions arc: Gastro-intestinal irritation, and sometimes swol- 
len, red, blood-stained, and ecch^-mosed patches are seen, similar to those pro- 
tluced by some of the metals; the lungs are hyperemic, though occasionally 
anemic: and henatized patches are observable. "Emetine is eliminated by the 
way of the l)oweis. 

Therapeutically, ipecac is a very important remedy. It has three chief fields 
of operation: fl) In large doses it provokes emesis, and for this purpose it may 
be employed as suggested below ; (2) it checks active hemorrhages; (3) it relieves 
gastro-intestinal and broncbo-pulmonic irritation and inflammations. Its spe- 
cific use, ill small doses, is to relieve irritation, no matter what the disea.«e may 
be. The specific action of ipecac is best observed in acute affections, when there 
is hyperemia, capillary engorgements, and hypersecretion. Ijjccac is often em- 
j>Ioyed to a.«sist the action of other agent.«, particularly agents to act upon the 
l»owels, and with other agents which control irritation. 

Thfc dose of ipecac largely controls its uses. In do.ses of} to A grain, it acts 
as a tonic, improving digestion, increasing the ai)petite, and is valua&le in irritative 



1074 IPECACUANHA. 

dyspasia. In doses of ^ to 2 grains, administered every 3 or 4 hours, it produces 
perspiration, and is beneficial in febrile and inflmnvuitory disemes; combined with 
opium its diaphoretic influence is greatly augmented, as seen in the powder of 
ipecacuanha and opium. 

Half-grain doses are expectorant. From 3 to 10 grains will produce nausea, 
which may be continued for any length of time, and which is attended with more 
or less depression of the pulse, languor, moisture of the skin, and an increased 
mucous discharge from all the mucous tissues of the system, which renders it 
very useful in pulmonary and hepatic diseases. It has been found very useful in 
typhoid pneu7nonia in combination with sulphate of quinine. In doses of from 
J to 1 grain, rubbed up with sugar to render it pleasant, it has proved efficient in 
the pneumonia of children. Doses of from 5 to 15 grains have a tendency to move 
the bowels, while doses of 20 grains or more act as an emetic. It is stated that an 
infusion of 2 drachms of ipecacuanha in a gill of hot water and strained, will, if 
drank warm, prove emetic; then if the same quantity of hot water is again added 
to the residue, strained and drank cold, it will prove purgative; and the same 
process repeated the third time, and used cold, becomes a valuable tonic. This, 
however, requires confirmation. 

Ipecac is a specific emetic, and the mildest of its class. As such, in 20-grain 
doses, it operates actively, causing much nausea and continued muscular strain- 
ing, with a free secretion of mucus; vomiting, however, seldom takes place until 
15 or 20 minutes after its administration. It is inferior to no other emetic, being 
safe even in large doses, seldom producing painful spasms of the stomach or 
bowels, and causing less prostration of the vital forces than tartar-emetic and 
similar drugs. It is best employed in combination with other emetics, as in the 
compound jw^oder of lobelia, which is much used by practitioners, and is preferred 
to any other emetic in the early stage of febrile disea><es, and in other instances 
where a severe succussion of the system is indicated. Ipecac is the best emetic 
for the purpose of unloading the stomach of undigested aliment, and "amte indi- 
gestion, bilious attacks, accompanied with siz-k headache, and other forms of head- 
ache, depending upon difficult digestion, may be cut short with an emetic dose 
of the powdered drug" (Locke, Syllab. of Mat. Med., p. 24). "In nau.^a, with a 
broad, flabby, and slimj' tongue, give ipecac in full emetic doses" (ibid). Re- 
peated doses of the powder in sweetened warm water, until emesis takes place, are 
useful in the convulsions of children, cramjjs, colic, etc., arising from intestinal irrita- 
tion, though it is less effectual than lobelia and gelsemium combined. Small 
doses of ipecac may follow to relieve irritation. In intermittent ferer, and particu- 
larly in chronic ague, where quinine is ineffectual, the system may he gradually 
brought under the emetic action of ipecac, after which the quinine will give better 
results, and may even not be needed. Ipecac is less useful than zinc sulphate, 
or, preferably, apomorphine hydrochlorate, hypodermatically, in narmtir poison- 
ing, for which it has been recommended. This is due to the fact that, being a 
specific emetic chiefly, it must be absorbed before it exerts it^ emetic effect. In 
croup and membranous rroup, when the secretions are well loosened, ipecac is a use- 
ful emetic. In .'<pa.-<modic a.'^thma (less valuable than lobelia), hysteria. )ierttissis,sore 
throat, common catarrh, and stricture of the che-^'t common in phthi.-is. ipecacuanha, as 
an emetic, will sometimes be found very beneficial. In menorrhagio. 20 grains of 
the powder at bedtime, followed by a saline cathartic in the mo.rning, has, in the 
hands of several practitioners, promptly checked the discharge. .\s a rule, how- 
ever, its emetic action is not required, as hemorrhage is best checked witii smaller 
doses. Bronchitis in children, with dry, hoarse, croupal cough, is often cut short 
by the emetic action of ipecac. 

While ipecac is an emetic, it has long been well-known as a remedy to ihe<'k 
nausea and vomiting. This is best accomplished by it when the tongue is red and 
pointed, and shows evidence of irritation. If the condition depends upon foul 
accumulations within the stomach, the emetic action will be first required, after 
which the small doses may be continued to control irritation, if pre.«ent. 

The specific use of ipecac, as before stated, is to relieve irritati'Oi. no matter 
what organ is affected. With this may be vascular excitation. This is probably 
due to the irritated condition of the sympathetic. The patient may be irritable 
mentally, easily disturbed by noise.s and the skin is heightened in color. Fits 



IPECACIAXHA. 1075 

of weeping an- not uiicoinnion. Its beneficial eflFects are particuliirly noticeable 
in acute irritative and inHanimatory disorders of the stomach and bowels. It 
should be said here that in these, as well as in other troubles of a similar nature, 
the special sedatives — aconite, veratrum, gelsemium. and rhus, and such other 
irritation-relieving remedies, as matrienria, amygdalus, epilobium, bismuth, mag- 
nesium sulphate (small doses), collinsonia, hydrastis, and bryonia, may be indi- 
cated with ipecac. In fact, where the indications below given for ipecac are pres- 
ent, it will materially aid the action of these remedies, one or more of which are 
usuall}' necessiirv, as ipecac seldom covers the whole range of symptoms present 
in these cases, l^he chief indications pointing to the .sole or associate use of ipe- 
cac, in stomach and bowel disorders, are the elongated and pointed tongue, with 
reddened tip and edges, with large papilhc, or eflfacement of the pajiilUe; tender- 
ness on prcssuri'; contraction of tissues; pinched countenance, white line around 
the mouth; tendency to nausea and vomiting, with or without eructations; and 
marked hyperusthesia. There is evidence of hypersecretion, sympathetic irrita- 
tion and capillary engorgement, and the cases are acute. With these indica- 
tions well in hand, it will be found of great service in gastrir irriUthiUty. nausea, 
and vomilinfi (if not from organic stomach lesions), and acute muroui: diarrhita. In 
the diarrhaa nj feeUtituj, with tongue coated white, and stools green, bloody, and 
offensive, and associated with nausea, ipecac serves a useful purpose. For the 
offensive element chlorate of potassium may be as.sociated with it, and for the 
peevishness and fretfullness usually present, matricaria. In simple diarrhun, due 
to undigested and irritating food, an emetic or cathartic is preferable to small 
doses of ipecac, though the latter sliould be given to control after-irritation. It is 
a valuable remedy in muco-cntcritU. It should be associated with aconite or epi- 
lobium. In artitc cholera injmitum, with small and frequent mucoid passages, it 
should be given early. It is of less value where the stools are profuse and watery, 
Though less valuable" in chronic than in acute disea.ses, it is applicable in chronic 
chohrn infantum, with pallid tongue, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and pallid 
or yellowish face. But in this case nux vomica should be given with it (Scud- 
der). In simple irritative diarrhcra, nux should be given with it when the pre- 
ceding symptoms are present. No remedy, with the exception of magnesium 
sulphate, gives better results in acute dysentenj. Combined with proper diet and 
absolute rest upon the back, the following may be given : B Specific aconite, 
gtt. v; specific ipecac, gtt. x to xv; magnesium sulphate, ji; aqua, flsiv. Mix. 
Dose, 1 teaspoonful every hour. Small doses of diaphoretic powder (containing 
ipecac) are also useful in dysentery. Ipecac is specially adapted to cases o{ spo- 
radic dysnUrry, and is less effectual in zymotic cases, unless associated with antizy- • 
motic treatment. Dysentery has been treated with large doses of the powdered 
<lrug. suflficient to produce catharsis, but this method is le.>^s efficient than that 
indicated above. F'ornierly, 1 grain each of dried extract of leptandra and ipe- 
cacuanha, and ^ grain of resin of podophyllum, given every 3 hours until it 
operated freely, was considered an excellent remedy for dysenteri/. 

Ipecac is a remedy of first importance in many respiratory disorders. These 
conditions are similar to those indicating its employment in gastro-intestinal dis- 
eases, viz., irritation, capillary engorgement, and hypersecretion. Thus, associated 
with the special sedatives and asclcpias and bryonia, if necessary, it is a very 
valuable agent, in honrsene-^s or congestion of the vocal cordf, hroncho-pidmnnary con- 
gestion from colds, irritable and spasmodic coughs, and in the early stage of acute 
catarrhal affections, dyspnrea of pregnann/, and pertussis. In colds, capillaiy bronchitis, 
acute bronchitis, and pneumonia, particularly of children, it has an important 
place. It acts chiefiy on the bronchioles and the parenchyma of the lungs, allay- 
ing irritation, relieving cough, and diminishing expectoration when profu.^^e 
(stimulant doses), and aiding expectoration when scanty (nauseant doses). It 
also answers well in subacute cases. The u.«e of ipecac (emetic doses) in croup 
has already been referred to. It is also of value in small doses in mucous crouji; 
it should be combined with aconite. In manbranous croup it has been recom- 
mendid with bryonia. In dry forms of cough it may be given in nauseant doses; 
ill hypersecretion, in small or stimulant doses; in spasmodic cough, with bloody 
<xpectoration, frequently repeated do.«es short i>f nausea. It relicvis irritative 
'•onilitions ariBing from too frequent or violent tise nf the voice. 



10i6 IPECACUANHA. 

Owing to its evident action upon the capillaries, it is a valualjlo aj^ent in 
artive hemorrhages — post-parl" m. hnnnptj/ns, hematemesis, hematurui, eiji'stoxU, and hem- 
orrhages from the hoicels. Tin- ( -i-i- rolling for ii are usually those of nervous indi- 
viduals, with marked irrital.iliiy ;uiil vascular excitation. Under similar condi- 
tions it is of value in mewinhatjia and inetrorrhngin. It is sometimes of value in 
heiiiorrhoids, especially' when of the bleeding variet\'. It maybe associated with 
hamamelis, ffisculus, or collinsonia as indicated. 

In fevers and inflammtitory affections, small diaphoretic doses of ipecac have 
been highly beneficial. Its action in these cases is also beneficial upon the nerv- 
ous system and mucous membranes. Excitability and suppres.sed secretion.^ 
being symptoms, it acts favorably in the erupt iir fevers. Both Dover's Poinle)' and 
the Diaphoretic Povder are often indicated in inflammatory and febrite dixonhr--. 
Both are very efficient in the nifjht-ivcats of consumption. Doses of from ^ to -J 
drop of specific ipecac give prompt relief in the majority of cases o{ phlyctenular 
diseases of the eye with photophobia, the latter symptom being quickly subdued by 
it (Webster's Dynam. Therap., p. 588). It will likewise act as a sedative in many 
local inflammatory diseases, and will be found extremely valuable in peritonitis. 
even the worst form occurring in puerperal .women. It is also of value in aru^c 
rheumatism, gold, jaundice from biliary catarrh, and to relax the parts in the pas- 
sage of small biliary calndi. 

A liniment of ipecac (R Powd. ipecacuanha, sweet oil, of each, sij; lard, gs.'?; 
mix well together), to be used with friction, 3 or 4 times a day, afterward cover- 
ing the parts with flannel until an eruption was produced, was formerly used in 
the treatment of itiripicnt phl/ii.-is. cfitain rheumatic afferlions, chroi\ic hydrocephalus, 
chronic injlamination of the .■^i/nnn'nl in> mhrnne of the knee, and infantile convulsions. It 
has, however, but little tn inomiin ml it. In all cases where this drug as an 
emetic, can not be given by the luoulh, it may be used in injection, adding 2 
drachms of the powder to 1 pint of warm water, for an adult — it will operate 
kindly and thoroughly as an emetic. 

The doses of ipecac, for its various uses, have been sufficiently indicated 
above. However, the range of dosage is from the fraction of a grain to 20 grains; 
specific ipecac, the fraction of a drop to 20 drops. The usual prescription for 
specific purposes is R Specific ipecac, gtt.v to xx; aqua, fl^iv. Dose, 1 teaspoonful 
every 1 or 2 hours. It must be remembered that sometimes powdered ipecac will 
do that which no fluid preparation of ipecacuanha can accomplish. 

Specific Indications and Uses.— An emetic for overloaded or foul condi- 
tions of the stomach, and other conditions indicating emesis; i"n-i/«/(V);!, whether 
of stomach, bowels, nervous system, or pulmonary tissues; active hemorrhages; 
irritative diarrhoea; acute bowel disorders with irritation; long, pointed tongue, 
with reddened tip and edges, accompanied with nausea and vomiting, and with 
or without fever; dyspncea; irritative cough ; hoarseness from cold; hypersecre- 
tion, with mucous rales (small doses) ; diminished expectoration (nauseant doses). 

False Ipecacs and Related Species.— Several emetic roots of the natural orders Ruhia- 
w.T, Poli/iidhr, autl ]'liilor,;r, ha\i- been at tiiue.s thrown upon the market as varieties of Ipecaru- 
anlia. "fhey are all known in Brazil as jxxtya, or in the remaining parts of South America as 
Ipecacuanha. These are: 

Law;e Striated IPEc.\crANnA. — Derived from the /'xi/<7i.>(ri<i rmelica. Mutis (JVn/. Orrf. — 
Rubiacese), New Granada. This is also known a.s Viulel flrinlcd i/i»<yim<iii/i<i, i/vracmiii/ia of St. 
Martlia, etc. It is larger than ipeoae-root, and is marked bv longitudinal grooves. The thick, 
brown bark has constrictions, but is not, like ipecac, aunuiated. It is tough under the koil«-, 
exhibiting a violet-cut surface, and is vioisl ami .tnft, even when many vears old. this being 
its chief distinguishing feature. It has a sweet taste, due to sugar, ft contains no stan-li 
( Pharmacographia). 

Small Striatkh Ii'ECACLANn«..— This is thought by Planchon to come fr«m a species of 
Jiich<nilsoi>in. It is known also as Ulack ijiecacmvilia, t>irialc<l Itriulf ifxTactianha, Hlaci itriatfd 
iliccaciiuiiliii, etc. It resembles the foivgoing, but is smaller, and usually tupering at the ex- 
tremities. It dillers in color (being black-brown), and in being britiU. S'tarch i-ells are promi- 
nent, and till' tiiste is acrid, not sweet. 

I'ndi i.ATEi) Ii-E^AcrANUA. — FarinacfDUf. Ami/huYouf, or Whitf ipfcaciianha. The root of 
Richiiitliii .iriilirti, l.inne { Hiclinrdnoiiia ivahra. St. ililairel, A'li/. Ord. — Hubi«cea>; Brazil. The 
fresh root is white; the diied, iron-grj\y. It is sinuous or undulated, apjH-aring knotty, and is 
altfrnalily tissured on the siiles. Tts'bark is Ihiek, brittle, white, and starehy, enelosiug a 
strong, sk-ndcr, llexible, ligneous portion. It contain.-; no emetine. 



iKis. 1U77 

Ixiii vs" IrKCAcrAXiiA. — Another asclcpiiiilai'i'oiis phiiit, the Tiilnjihura iiflhiiiiiliin.Vi,' n:\tt et 
Arnott (.l*<"/'V""'"""'''<'<'. LiiuiO), furnishes an emetic rout. Indian ipeeae is a twining, s^hruhby 
species, a native of the Imlian Peninsula, Ceylon, ami the Moluccas. The riMit hag lon^' l>een 
useil by the Hindus as a medicine; and, in small doses, is cathartii — in large doses, emetic. 
In conseijuence of its use us a siib.stitnto for ipecac, in India, the plant has acquired tlie name 
"[luHan i/*C(ic." It has been succ-essfuUy employed as a remedy tor epUlimlr (/;/Krti/»r_i/, and 
has also been recommended in limiKiriil a»thiii(i. ftilpatrick report* the administration of the 
leaves, in a jjreat number of cases, with entire satisfaction. The dose of the |>o\v<lered leaves, 
as an emetic, is 25 or 30 grains; as a diaphoretic and expectorant, from 3 to 5 grains. Tylo- 
phurhie, an alkaloi<l, was ol>taine<l from it, in 1891, by .Mr. 1). Hooper. 

The other species yielding emetic roots are as follows: lunidium JpecacutiHliii,\\-nU-uat. 
.Vii/. Ord. — Violaceie. So-cti\U'n Wliilf llgiuviis iiH-cdcufiiilia. Hra/.il. .S"/<'<i r<T(iV(7/(i<<i, Sprengel, 
and lonidium /uj/i/ya/.i/o/iiim, Ventenat, have been employeil bv the Mexicans. 

Afclefnas CHmindricd , Linne, is known as HuManl i/i.v(i(-i((iiJi<i. A Senegambian plant fur- 
nishes a root known as Bttlalior, having properties like those of ipecac. A species of lonidium, 
variously determined as 1. inarcmri, Limmfliintiii, and /. miVi-«/(/i.yH«H;, yields an emeto-Durgative 
root known in South America as cuicliiiiu-lntlli. It has been used in th^phaiUia-iiK. >!(irihiiiu cain- 
panuUiUi, Roxburgh (Nat. Orrf.— Rubiaceiel, of India, yields a purgative and anthelmintic berry. 

Niiregamia (itatti, Wight and Arnott. Xal. Ord. — Meliacere. Naregamia, Titm/xiui, (inanfte 
ipecaruunha. Western India. This root contains wax, oxiilizable fixed oil, and imregamine, an 
alkaloid (D. Hooper). Agpamgine is also thought to be present. It is reputed an expectorant, 
hepatic stimulant, and emetic. Small d(»e8 of it are given in India in bronchitis, fultilliug 
the indications for ipecac and senega. The natives of >hdabar employ it in emetic doses in 
dytenlery, lironchilif, r/ienmalism, and bilioim and dimiepllc flates. The ordinary dose of a strong 
tincture (1 in 41 is from 5 to 10 drops; as an emetic, 15 to 30 drops. 

C0CI1.1.AXA. — Cocillana bark is derived from a Bolivian tree, the Sgcornrpuis Rmhifi. Its 
activity is due to a principle regardeil by Husbyas an alkaloid; by Eckfeldt, a glucosid. Its 
action closely resembles that of ipecacuanha, vomiting, heavy headache, sneezing, coryza, 
ilepressioii, and purging having been produced by from 20 to 50 grains. .As an exiieeturant it 
is reputed more stimulating than ipecac, and in doses of 10 to 20 drops of the fluiil extract, it 
has been employed in bronchial affections, both acute and chronic, and in ptdmimam coiimmiition, 
with reputed success. 

Cyperus arliculatus,Adrue,Guiiua rush. — Antiemetic. Tonic. Dose of fluid extract, 30 drops. 

Petiveria hexaglochin, Pipi rtxrf.— Reputed diaphoretic and a stimulant expectorant. 

IRIS (U. S. P.)— IRIS. 

" The rhizome and roots of Iris versicolor, Linne" — (U. S. P.). 

Xat. Ord. — Iridese. 

CoM.MO.v N.\MEs: Blue flag, etc. (see below). 

Ilu'stratioxs: Meehan, Native Flouas and Ferns, I, 141; Bigelow, American 
Medical Botany, I, 1.5o ; Millspaugh, American Medicinal Plants, 173. 

Botanical Source. — Iris versicolor is an indigenous plant, with a fleshy, 
horizontal root or rhizome. Its stem is 2 or 3 feet in height, terete, flexuous, 
round on one side, acute on the other, and frequently branched. The leaves are 
about 1 foot long, i to 1 inch wide, ensiform, striated, erect, and slieathing at the 
base. Bracts scarious. The flowers are from 2 to 6 in nuniher, generally blue 
or purple. The ovary is obtusely 3-cornered. The peduncles are of different 
lengths, and flattened on the inside. The .sepals are spatulate, l)eardless, tlie 
border purple, the claw variegated with green, yellow, and white, and veined with 
purple. The petals are erect, varying in shape from spatulate to lanceolate, usu- 
ally paler than the outer, entire, or emarginate. TJie stignisis are 3, petaloid, pur- 
ple, or violet, bifid, crenate, and more or less refle.xed at the point. Stamens 3, 
concealed under the stigmas, with oblong-linear anthers. Capsule S-ceiled, 
3-valved. when ripe oblong, turgid, 3-sided, with roundish angles. The seeds are 
numerous and flat (L.— B.— \V.). 

History and Description. — Iris versicolor has been desigiuitcd by various 
names, as Bin, jhi,i, Flmi lihj. Water flag, Liver lily. Snake lily, Flonrr de luce, Poimn 
flag in contradistinctidu to Sweet flag (^corw-s C«7((mi(.-i), and Larger blue flag io 
"distinguish it from the other species of this genus. The name /m, from a Greek 
word meaning "the rainbow deified," was given it by the ancients on account of 
the brilliancy and diversity of color in its blo.^sonis. 

Blue flag is one of our most beautiful and interesting common wild flowers, 
growing throughout the United States in wet, marshy localities, blooming in 
May and June. The flowers, from 2 to 6 in number, are jarge and showy, of a pur- 
jjlish. or violet-blue color, variegated witii wiiite and greenish-yellow, intersper-^ed 



1078 IRIS. 

with purple veins. The plant grows from 1 to 3 feet high, having a stout, .some- 
times branchinfr .'^tpm, angled on one side. The leaves are sword-shaped, from 
6 to 8 inclii - liiiit.'. ami f of an inch wide. The root, which resembles that ofAcorus 
Cnlamiiy. i- tin- jiai t officially used. It has a peculiar odor, augmented by rub- 
bing and jiulveriziug. The t^. .9. P. thus describes iris: "Rhizome of horizontal 
growth, consisting of joints, 5 to 10 Cm. (2 to 4 inches) long, cylindrical in the 
lower half, Hattish near the upper extremity, and terminated by a circular scar, 
annulated from the leaf-sheaths, grayish-brown ; roots long, simple, crowded near 
the broad end; odor slight; taste acrid and nauseous " — {(.'. S. P.). The recently 
dried root varies from a light, pinkish-brown internally, studded over with min- 
ute white dots, somewhat resembling in color very light sandstone, to a dark red- 
brown — the latter being unfit for pharmaceutical uses. Care should be exercised 
as to the locality in which the plant grows. We recently rejected a large lot, 
more than 2000 pounds, extra fine in external appearance, that came from the 
South, and was of a dark, red-brown internally, but almost destitute of oleoresin, 
which principle had been replaced by a red, astringent tannate. Our experience 
is to the effect that the Ohio raised iris is superior to that of any other locality 
known to us, and in collecting the drug, for specific iris, many times the market 
price is paid for the rhizome from one locality in the state. 

The active properties of iris are taken up by boiling water in infusion, and 
by alcohol or ether; and its acridity, as well as its medicinal virtues are dimin- 
ished by age. The fresh root, sliced transversely, dried in an atmosphere not 
exceeding 39.4" C. (103° F.), pulverized, and then placed in darkened and well- 
closed vessels to protect it from the action of light and air, will have its medicinal 
virtues preserved for a L'lcat length of time. 

Chemical Composition.— The fresh rhizome of iris, when distilled with water, 
yields an opalescent distillate, from which a white, camphoraceous substance 
separates, soluble in alcohol, and having a faint odor (C. H. Marquardt, 1876). 
The rhizome furthermore contains starch, gum, tannin, sugar, oil. and resin. The 
resiii is of a light-brown color, of a faint odor, and of a taste resembling that of the 
root; when perfectly freed from oil it is whitish-yellow. Its therapeutic influences 
are not positively known. It is soluble in chloroform, ether, and boiling alkaline 
solution, from which acids precipitate it. The oil possesses in a high degree the 
taste and smell of the root, and is the principle to which it owes its medicinal 
activity. Cressler (Amer. Jour. Phnrm., 1881, p. 602) found indications of an alka- 
loid, obtainable by extracting the alcoholic extract of iris with acetic acid, remov- 
ing fat b}' means of ether, and abstracting the alkaloidal substance by means of 
amylic alcohol after rendering the fluid alkaline. 

As early as 1844, Prof John King prejjared and introduced to the profession 
the o/,'nr).<i I) of iri.s — about the same time that he discovered the resins of cimici- 
fuga and piMtiphyllum. The name, oleoresin of iris — a trade name being iridin — 
was applii-d to this substance 50 years ago. It is but little used at present, except 
in combination with other hepatics, in pill form, in the treatment of chronic dis- 
eases of the liver. The preparation upon the market known as irUiit. though 
commonly spoken of by medical writers as iridin, or oleoresin, is a mixture of 
the oleoresin, with a sufficient amount of the root to stiflfen it and render it piil- 
verizable. It may be stated here that the watery fluid preparations of iris are 
very unreliable. Fluid preparations should be made only from recent rhizomes, 
jiresenting internally a very light pinkish-brown color, studded with minute 
white dots. Those having a brown-red color throughout, should be rejected. 
When dropped into water the preparation should give an opalescent, milky ap-_ 
pearance, and when in large amount should precipitate oleoresin. The odor of 
iris should also bo perceptibly increased when its preparations are added to water, 
being to most people a disagreeable, nauseous, fatty odor. 

Medical History.— This plant was highly esteemed by our American Indians, 
who used it in gastric affections, and it was also a popular domestic remedy when 
it was thought necessary to produce salivation without resorting to mercurials — 
hence it is sometimes called " trpc^dft/*' merrun/." Bigelow, Smith, and Thaclier 
wrote regarding its cathartic properties, but on account of its unpleasant effects. 
when given in purgative doses, it did not come into general use until taken up 
by our school, where it is not used as a cathartic. 



ii:is 1079 

The bhu' flag is one of our most valued of early Eclectic medicines, having 
been u^ed almost exclusively by our practitioners, until of late years, when 
it found finite a imiminent [dace in the therapeutics of both Allopathic and 
Homti'i)p:it!iif practice. 

Action, Medical Uses, and Dosage. — Physiologically, iris acts upon the 
givstro-inu ^tinal cinal, and tin- glan<luhu- and nervous systems. It powerfully 
excites the biliary, salivary, and pancreatic secretions. Upon the ga.stro-intestinal 
tract it acts violently, causing acid vomiting, frequent, hydragogue catharsis, with 
intestinal liurning and severe colic. A writer says: "The root of the blue flag ex- 
tends its influence through every part of the .>;ystem in small doses, and repeated 
at short intervals. It seems to act more particularly on the glandular system, 
exciting them to a discharge of their respective offices. In large doses it evacu- 
ates and exhausts the system, acting on the liver, and the alimentary canal 
throughout." Animals, after death from its ingestion, show marked congestion 
of the gastric and intestinal tissues. By its action upon the nervous system, it 
has produced neuralgia of the face, head, and extremities. Iris .salivates, but 
without injury to the gums and teeth. In general practice salivation is not, as a 
common rule, desired for the cure of disease, yet we have many articles which 
produce it, and often without the practitioners being aware of the fact, and hence, 
when it does occur, the cry is at once raised that mercury is used. Salivation 
caused by vegetable agents may be known from that by mercury, by the absence 
of mercurial fetor, and no sponginess of the gums or loosening of the teeth. 

Therapeutically, this agent is alterative and cholagogue. It is one of our 
best agents to influence the process of waste and repair. It exerts a powerful 
catalytic action upon the lymphatic glandular system, and the ductless glands, as 
well as upon the liver, pancreas, and kidneys. In cachectic t<tatcs of the system, bad 
blood, scrofulii, and ^' mercurial diseases " it does excellent service, and in secondary 
syphilis, with cerebral disturbances, and copper-colored dermal pigmentation, it 
is one of the best drugs we possess. 

Upon the liver, its action is marked. In that unpleasant condition known 
as ^'biliottsness." it is prompt and efficient, and as a remedy for bilious headache, 
accompanied by nausea and vomiting of bitter ingesta, or in sick headache, depend- 
ent upon indigestion, it is unsurpassed. In chronic hepatitis, and other hepatic dis- 
orders, with constipation, and sharp, cutting pains, increased by motion, iris may 
be given alone or may be advantageously combined with other hepatics. Duo- 
dciutl catarrh, with jaundice, and clay -colored stools, indieating a lack of biliary 
secretion, is cured by iris, and it is likewise valuable in comtipntion, dependent 
upon biliary and intestinal torpor. Minute doses of iris allay ijastric irritation, 
being valuable in cholera infantum and cholera morbus. R Specific iris, gtt. v ; 
aqua, flgiv. Mix. Dose, 1 te:ispoonfuI every hour. In diarrhoea and dysentei-y, 
with large, slimy evacuations: R Specific iris, gtt. xv; aqua, flgiv. Mix. Dose, 1 
teaspoonful every hour. Iris, in small doses, is often valuable in gastric irritation, 
associated with sickness at the stomach and vomiting, and in gastralgia. It is not 
without good results in burning aphthous states of the oral cavity. From 1 to 5 
drops should he used in the latter case. Reflex muscular pains, dependent upon 
gastro-intestinal and pancreatic disorders, are relieved by it, and especially when 
the muscular coats of the viscera are involved. Pectoral nains and distressing sen- 
Bations beneath the scapula are also relieved by iris in doses of from 1 to 5 drops. 

Iris is specifically indicated in soft glandular enlargements. It is one of the 
very few reliable drugs used for the cure of goitre, or enlarged thyroid. Indeed, for 
this condition it is our most direct and effectual remedy, whether the enlarge- 
ment be constant, or whether it be simply a fullness due to menstrual irregulari- 
ties. This use was early pointed out Dy Prof King. Further, it has a marked 
influence for good on the ovarian and uterine dijfturbances giving rise to this full- 
ness. In goitre, apply a cotton cloth saturated with specific iris, and give inter- 
nally a teaspoonful, 3 times a day, of a mixture of specific iris, fl^ss ; aipia, fll'^'- 
Basedou' .< dixease — exophthalmic goitre — in the early stage, has been cured bv iris; 
AddUon'x disease of tne suprarenal capsules hus'lieen irreatlv improved, though 
not cured by it. In chronic affections nf thr pancreas, witli a sodden, leaden-colored 
tongue, and" in chronic splenic disease, when the skin is blanched — as in leuenry- 
t'tr'iiii'i — this drug is indicated. Chronic renal diseases, ascites, anasarca, hydrothorax, 



1080 IRIS. 

and hydropericardmvi have yielded to its curative powers. In dropgy. it is admin- 
istered in cathartic doses. It is seldom used at present as a cathartic, but when 
so used its harsh effects may be somewhat overcome by combining it with ginger, 
piperin, or camphor. 

As a remedy for uterine hypertrophy, enlarged ovaries, ulcerated os and eertix uteri, 
^iterine leucorrhcea, and dysmenorrha/a: R Specific iris, gtt. x to xx ; aqua, flgiv. 
Mix. Dose, 1 teaspoonful every hour in acute troubles, and 4 times a day in 
chronic affections. It is all the more strongly indicated in these conditions, if 
there be impaired general health, with mental depression, and when the skin 
presents abnormal pigmentation. 

This drug has been successfully used in chronic rheiiniaiism, syphilitic rheuma- 
tism, gnnnrrhira. xprrmatorrhaea, and prostatorrhcea. Specific iris, in doses of from 
1 to 5 (lrn|j~. ( V. ly 4 or 5 hours, in a fluid ounce of water, w-ill be found very useful 
in those j.r,,..t,iiir :lis<-]inrges and nocturnal emissions, the re.sult of masturbation, and 
which are aecuuipanied with considerable debility, mental uneasiness, and more 
or less irritation of the nervous centers. Prof. Scudder, in his "Practice,"' states 
that he has for years placed great reliance on iris in treating syphilittr iritis. It is 
very efficient in malarial jaundice, and intermittent and bilious remittent frers. It is 
rendered more efficient in malarial disorder.^, when combined with eunnymus, or 
alstonia constricta. Iridin, in 3-grain pill, every night, followed by a .saline cathar- 
tic in the morning, was quite popular among Edinburgh physicians some years 
ago as a remedy for the vomiting of pregnancy. 

Iris is of great utility in dermal practice, given alone or associated with other 
indicated reni( dies. It seems to have a better action in chronic conditions. It 
is particularly adapted to disea.=es involving the sebaceous glands, and is espe- 
cially useful in comedones, and other erujttions common to youth. It i.- indicateil 
by rough, greas}', discolored conditions of the skin, and in those cases where pus- 
tular, eruption seems to be associated with functional disturbances of the repro- 
ductive apparatus ; also when associated with thyroid fullness in the female. It is 
valuable in .syphilitic skin diseases. We have used it beneficially in eczema ntltrum of 
children, and in cases of eczema of the scalp in adults. Some cases are benefited only, 
not cured by it. In one case of 13 years' standing, the unpleasant symptoms were 
subdued as long as the patient took the drug ; as soon as the iris was witiidrawn 
the unpleasantness returned, though the general health of the man was much 
imj)roved by its administration. Herpes zo.-<ter and herpes prfrpuiinlis usually call 
for iris and rhus. Rujiia and impetigo have been cured by it when associated" with 
sulphur, or Fowler's solution. Persistent prurigo, p>toriasi.% and acne indurata will 
usually present conditions calling for iris. For lejira: R Specific iris, tisi to flsii; 
aqua, flgiv, Mi.\. Teaspoonful 4 times a day. 

The system should first be prepared hy sulphur, or the sulphites, compound 
tonic mixture, or acid solution of iron, if debilitated. Other remedies may l>e 
associated with iris in chronic skin diseases wlien indicated, as alnus, apis. Phy- 
tolacca, or rhus tox. Pu.<tules upon the scalp and face in children are benefited 
by the minute dose of iris. 

The dose of iris depends largely upon the effect desired. If a pronounced 
action upon the gastro-intestinal and glandular secretions is desired, from 5 to 20 
grains of the powder, or 10 to 60 minims of the strong tincture, or 5 to 20 drops 
of specific iris may be used. In some persons, and when exhibited in large doses, 
it is apt to occasion much distressing nausea, with considerable prostration ; these 
effects may be obviated or mitigated by combining it with a few grains of cap.si- 
cum, or ginger, a grain of camphor, or 4 or 5 grains of resin of blue cohosh (cauio- 
phyllin). For its specific uses, however, the specific iris, in doses of from ^ to 5 
drops, is preferred. Like all representative fluid preparations of iris, specific iris 
is liable to decompose and gelatinize, and is then useless as a medicine. The 
remedy is not appreciated as it should he, but it is safe to say that with a reliable 
preparatitm it will grow in favor the more it is employed. 

Specific Indications and Uses.— The specific indications for iris may be 
stated as fullness of thyroid gland: enlarged spleen: chronic hepatic complaint.s 
with sharp, cutting pain, aggravated iiy motion: nausea and vomiting of sour 
liquids, or regurgitation of food, especially after eating rich pastry or fats: watery. 
burning bowel discharges; enlarged lymphatics, soft and yielding: rough, greasy 



(1 Lucca, Av li /I 

The //•(« 111, \\. tsV ^■:r^>liV ■ 



IKIS FLOREXTISA. lOSI 

conditions of the skin ; disorders of sebaceous follicles ; abnormal dermal i>i.<;iii( n- 
tation : menstrual wrongs, with thyroid fullness; unilateral facial neuralgia; 
muscular atrophy and other wastings of the tissues; bad blood. 

Related Species.— Tliere are st-veral species of iris, as I. rinjiiiieii, l.inne, Bmton irin ; 
I. hirii^lni', Nuttall ; //IS i,ni<i, Liune.or Dmirf iri/. utc.,wliicli are often collected ami niixeil with 
the ollicial article. JrUjloreiUiiui, or Flureiiline orriji, is said to be emetic, catliartir, and diuretic, 
liut it is .seldom employed except in the composition of tooth i>owders, and to conceal an offengire 
breiilh I see Irinjlort-iiliitii >. 

IRIS FLORENTINA.— FLORENTINE ORRIS. 

The rhizome ci( IrU gtmnanu-a, Linne; IrU fiorentina, Linn^, and Iris pallida, 
Lamarck. 

Xat. Ord. — Iridacea\ 

t'oMMns NA>fKs: Florcniinr m-ris, Orrit-rnnt. 

Botanical Source and History. — Three species of iris furnish the orris-root 
of commerce, the Iriit girnuiitirn, or liluf fla(i; the Iris pallida, or Pale flag, and the 
I ri-i flit rent inn, or White flaq. The first is indigenous to 
south Europe, and found likewise in Morocco and north- ''^^ 

em India, and is cultivated near Florence and Lucca, 
besides being a coiumon flower in London 
All three species have the general characteristics 
order, but differ in the color of the flower. " 
fierninnirn has large, handsome, dark-blue flowers. Iris 
pallida has flowers of a delicate, pale-blue hue. Though 
not indigenous, it grows plentifully about Florence and 
Lucca, and wild in the stonj^ regions of Lstria. Its stem 
is much taller than that of the /. germanica. The two 
preceding varieties furnish the bulk of commercial orris- 
root, the Iris fliirentiiia furnishing but little. The latter 
is closely related to Iris pallida, but has large, beautiful 
white flowers, luarked with yellow and brown. They 
are sweet-scented. The rhizomes of all these species are 
indiscriminately collected, and are termed by the Tus- 
can peasants (liaggiolo. They are gathered in August, 
peeled, and dried by solar heat. The larger sections are replanted. The peasants 
divide the drug into several grudes, us selertcd,. sorts, raspings, powder, and that made 
into orrin peait. Irisia. of the Indian bazaars, which is brought into commerce 
unpeeled, is believed by the authors of Pharmarographin to be the product o{ Iris 
gennanim. The same source is attributed to an inferior grade from Morocco. 
The fresh root-stock is jointed, branching, and fleshy. E.>cternally it is yellowish- 
brown, internally juicy and white. Its taste is acrid, and its odor at first earthy, 
becoming, as it dries, of a pleasant, violet-like fragrance, which is said to be not 
fully developed until the root has been dried for two years. The rhizomes of the 
three species all resemble each other. 

Description. — Dried orri.s-root comes in sections from 2 to 4 inches in length, 
and from 1 to U inches in width, being broadest at the apex. The pieces are 
made uj) of an elongated portion which is irregularly subconical, and sends off at 
its broader extremity 1, 2, and occasionally 3, branches, and these, having been 
cut short in trimming, give them the appearance of small cones attached to the 
main portion by their apices. The rhizome is somewhat bent into an arch, flat- 
tened, shrunken, grooved, and contorted. Where the small rootlets have been 
attached to the under surface, little circular .«cars may be seen. The bark is 
usually absent, leaving a dull, white, heavy, compact texture, which fractures 
irregularly. Its taste is at first bitterish and aromatic, and finally acrid; its odor 
suggestive of the violet. Under the microsco|)e the drug exhibits crystals of 
calcium oxalate. Orris-root Ls sometimes adulterated with other species" of orris, 
but thev lack its pcciili;ir fragrance. The various starches used to adulterate the 
pi.wder MKiy iM'dete.ted under the lens. 

Chemical Composition. — Orris-root contains a large amount of starch, a 
small (juantity of a cry-stuiline, volatile substance (Dumas), a brownish, soft, acrid 




1082 JACARAXDA. 

resin, and a small proportion of tannin, which strikes green with ferric salts. By 
distillation with water from 0.60 to 0.80 per cent of a crystaWine oi-ris camphor 
floats upon the surface of the distillate. Fliickiger (Phamiacographia), has proved 
this to be chiefly viyristic arid (C„Hj,Oj), intermingled with a small amount of 
volatile oil. which develops in the drying of the drug. This orris camphor, some- 
times calliil '</'/ nf nrris-rnnt, has the persistent violet fragrance of the drug. The 
so-called //'/"/V (-// (if orris-root is said to be prepared by digesting crushed orris- 
root in oil iif fpdai-wood, and finallj" distilling with steani. 

Iridin (Q.^^\\.,fi^^) is a glucosid obtained from orris-root by G. De Laire and 
F. Tiemann {Jnhresh. der Pharm., 1893, p. 548; also see Amer. Jour. Phann., 1894. 
p. 32). It must not be confused with the Eclectic Iridin (see Iris versicolor), 
which for half a century has been an article of commerce. It forms white needles 
slightly .soluble in water (1 to 500), and acetone (1 to 33), insoluble in ether, chlo- 
roform, benzol, etc., soluble in hot alcohol. Dilute alcoholic sulphuric acid decom- 
poses it, near the temperature of boiling water, into dextrose and crystallizable 
irigenin (CJi,fi^), having the character of a phenol and producing "with ferric 
chloride a deep violet color. Irigenin, when heated with concentrated alkali, is 
decomposed into formic acid, iridic acid (C,„H,P^), (which is an aromatic oxy-acid), 
and iretol (C.Ufi^), a phenol. Heated above its melting point, 180° C. (356° F.), 
iridic acid is decomposed into carbonic acid and a phenol, iridol (C,H5[OCH,]jOH). 
The synthesis of all these bodies \va« ettocted by the authors. 

Action, Medical Uses, and Dosage.— Active irritant qualities are ascribed 
to orris-root, alxlniuinal iiain and iiuitu-catharsis being among its effects. These 
properties are dis.'^ipated ujion drying the rhizome, when it becomes merely a gas- 
tric stimulant. The salivary flow and renal secretion are augmented by it while 
sneezing and increased pituitary secretion results from its use as a sternutatory. 
About the only use now made of orris-root is as an ingredient of breath perfumes 
and dentifrices, it not only giving a pleasant flavor, but acting beneficiallj' on the 
gums. It was formerly used as a diuretic, expectorant, and remedy for chronic 
diarrhoea. From 5 to 15 grains constitutes a dose of the powdered root. 

JACARANDA.— JACARANDA. 

The leaves of Jacaranda procera, Sprengel (^Jacaranda Caroba, De CandoUe; 
Bignonin Co?-o/;«,Velloso; Bignonia Copaia, Auhlet; Karadelestr is syphilitica, Arxvida. 
da Camara). 

Nat. Ord. — Bignoniacese. 
Common Names: Caroh-trec, Caroba, Caaroba. 

Botanical Source. — The caroba tree grows in Guiana and Brazil, and attains 
a heijrlit of 30 or 40 feet. The tree is much branched, and luxuriantly crowned 

with a foliage of beautiful deep-green, 
compound leaves. These are abruptly 
bipinnatifid, dividing into 3 or 4 pairs of 
pinna?, each having from 8 to 12 ellip- 
tical, nearly sessile leaflets, subacute at 
each extremity, and covered under- 
neath with a woolly pubescence, due t" 
the abundance of long, empty hairs. 
The flowers are borne in terminal cymes, 
are white and red and showy, and ex- 
hale a honey-like perfume. The fruit 
is a woody, many-seeded capsule. The 
root of the tree is deep-red externally, 
and yellow-white internally. The bark 
of the tree is of an ashen hue. 
Description and History. — The leaves are the medicinal parts. They are 
somewhat coriaceous, from 1 to 2 inches long, entire or nearly so, elliptic, lance- 
oblong, or ol)long; either oblique at liase, or subacute at both extremities, smootli. 
and (lark-brown on upper surface, lighter beneath, strongly nerved, and velvety- 
woolly. The surfaces are beset with oil-glands. Odor slight : taste bitter-astringent. 




JALAI'A. 1083 

The Jnrnrnnda pmrern is one of the many trees known in Brazil as Cdroha or 
Carohiiikn, others hemg Jacaranda orj/ji/ii/lla, Chawiie^o ; Jdcurainh ftivoi/'Ad, Spren- 
<;el; Jumniiiiln xuhrfi'imht'n, De Candolle ; Carobn de fior cenle. S[)rengel; Iii<inonin 
iiiiihisii, Manso; Spuniltdnjiermn lit/ioiitripticum, Martius; ('y}}iMnx (tnlvsyphVilica, 
MartiiH— all of tlicni hnving uses similar to jacaranda in their native country. 

Chemical Composition.— A detailed analysis of the leaves and bark oi Jam- 
r.nul.i ,.,u.-trn. hy Th. IV-ckult (Zeilsr/ir. <l. Oe.star. Apoth. Ver., 1881, Xos. 30 and 31). 
is altstraeted in Ainer. .lour. Pfmrm., 1882. p. 135. The leaves contain cnrubin (0.16 
per cent ), a crystallizable, faintly bitterish, inodorous principle, soluble in boiling 
water and alcuhol, insoluble in ether, precipitated from aqueous solution by tartar 
emetic; with acetic acid it yields a crystallizable compound. Carohir nciil (0.ft5 
per cent) crystallizes in needles of aromatic odor and acid taste; is soluble in 
water and diluted alcohol; .oteorarnbir nrid (0.10 per cent), pale-brown, of a tonka- 
like odor, soluble in cold absolute alcohol and ether; cdroftojif (2.66 per cent), a 
balsamic, resinous acid, greenish, soluble in alcohol (sp. gr., 0.815) and caustic 
alkalies; carohu re.^in(Z.^'i per cent), inodorous and tasteless; carobn Ixtlmm {I AA 
per cent), dark brown, syrupy, of tonka-like odor; carnba tannin (0.4-t per cent), 
and a hitter principle (2.88 per cent; ; albumen, starch, etc. The bark contains 
rarohin lO.S per cent), aimba rfsi)i (0.5 per cent), the 6i«CT- principle (0.28 per cent), 
and in addition nirohintir <«■/(/ (0.2 per cent), devoid of odor. According to Hesse 
(ISSOi, 11.) alkaloid is present. 

Action, Medical Uses, and Dosage. — This agent has been used in its native 
country as an antisyphilitic, and was introduced into general medicine for the 
treatment of venereal disorders. If useful at all in si/philis, it appears to be en- 
dorsed as a remedy for secondary manifestations, and is used both locally and 
internally in ■■tifphililir ulcerations. It has not been generally used liy Eclectics 
for this purpose. It seems to have been successful in ryMic di-<order>i with pus- 
bearing and fetid urine, and in gonorrho'a. Carobin, which resembles the active 
constituent of sarsaparilla, has been used in doses of 1 grain in syphilis and scrofula 
(Peckolt ). Dr. Lyman Watkins (Ec. .Med. Jmr. ). treated successfully with jacaranda 
a case of epHrp-j/ at the Eclectic Medical Institute Clinic. The disease was of 
fourteen years duration, and averaged from 7 to 10 convulsions in a day. From 
the very outset, through the 3 months during which the patient was treated, not 
a convulsive attack was experienced. Jacaranda undoubtedly has an influence 
upon the nervous structures. Epileptic disorders relieved Ijj' it are those super- 
induced by sexual indiscretions. It is recommended for those of feeble mentality 
though well-nourished in body, with voracious appetite and addicted to mastur- 
bation. The usual manner of exhibiting the remedy is as follows : R Specific 
jacaranda. flji or fl^ii; aqua, fl.^iv. Mix. Sig. Teaspoonful every 4 hours. Fluid 
extract of jacaranda is given in doses of Irom 15 to 30 minims. 4 times a day, 
carobin. in 1-grain doses. For local use. R Jacaranda leaves (powdered), 3i to jii; 
p.-trol:,tiini..5i. 

Specific Indications and Uses.— Mental enfeeblement, voracious appetite, 
and i|iili:psy. particularly of niasturbators ; secondary syphilis and syphilitic 
ulcers. 

JALAPA lU. S. P.)— JALAP. 

"The tuberous root of Ipomcea jatapa,'S\itta.\\" — (I'.S.P.); (Ipoman purga, 
Hayne; Iponuen Schiedennn., Zuccarini ; Exogonium jalnjni, Baillon; Kxagonium 
! 'irga, Bentham ; Convolvulus jalupn, Linne; Convolmdu.'< jiurga. WenderothV 

Sot. Ord. — Convolvulacete. 

CoMMo.N Name: Jalap. 

Ii.i.isTKATio.Ns: Bentlev and Trimen, Med. Plants, 186; Boi. ^f,„,„z!l„.\^o\. 73. 
Plat.-42S(i 

Botanical Source. — Jalap has a fleshy, tuberous, pyriform root, with numer- 
ous rouiidisii tubercles. The stems are several, smooth, brownish, very slightly 
rough, with a tendency to twist, twining alxnit surrounding liodies. The leaves 
are long jjetioled, the first hastate, the succeeding ones cordate, acuminate, niucro- 
nate. smooth, deejily incised at base, and conspicuously veined beneath. I'ed- 
uncles axillary. 2Howered, rarely 3, twisted, as long as the jjetioles. Calyx has 



1084 




no bracts; composed of 5 smooth, obtuse, mucronate sepals. The corolla is funnel- 
shaped, purple, with a long, somewhat clavate tube, and an undulated limb, with 
5 plaits. Stamens 5; filaments smooth, unequal, and longer than the corolla 
_. tube; anthers white, oblong-linear, and pro- 

jecting. Ovary slender, and '2-celled ; stigma 
simple, capitate, and deeply furrowed. Cap- 
sule 2-celled ; cells 2-seeded ; seeds unknown 
(L.-N.). 

History. — It is only within compara- 
tively recent years that any certainty has 
existed in relation to the plant from which 
jalap root is obtained. It was first spoken 
of in 1609, as Bryonia meclwfiainn nigrirans, 
then it was regarded by Ray as Convolvulus 
1 iiirrktinuK jahipium dirlut', aft c r which 
■ inirnelort, being deceived by persons who 
--( rted that they had seen the plant grow- 
ig, referred it to a species oi Mimlnlk. Bal- 
>iir placed it as iha Emgonivm i,urga, an A 
.uuiicus named it Convolvulvs julnpa, and 
thu^ much difference of opinion existed 
until, in 1S27, when Dr. J. R. Coxe. of Phila- 
.,,„»..,.,> J... ■.,..> (lelphia, succeeded in obtaining jierftct flow- 

''"""' '""' " prs from roots of the true plant furnished 

to him from their native soils, and thus first made its true character known to 
the scientific world. The name of Ipoiixvu punjn was bestowed upon the plant by 
Wenderoth and Hayne, but as the authorities of this country have, undoubtedly, 
the first claim, it may be viewed as fixed that I.jnlapa, the name originally given 
to it by Nuttall, is the official plant. 

The jalap plant is found in a deep, rich, vegetable soil, at an elevation of 
nearly 6000 feet above the level of the sea, growing in Mexico, near Chicanquiaco 
and Xalapa, from which last named place it is usually exported, and from which 
it has also obtained its name. It is generally imported in bags, containing 100 
or 200 pounds. The root is the official part, and is gathered in all sea.sons, but 
principally in March and April, when the young shoots are appearing. The 
plant may be cultivated in the southern parts of the United States. In 1866, Dr. 
I). Hanbury planted a root or tuber of jalap in a garden, near London, and ob- 
tained promising results. It is now successfully grown in Jamaica and in India, 
especially in the Nilgherry hills of that country. According to Warden (1887), 
the jalap tubers of India are not of first quality. Jalap is a very varialile drug, 
much of it being of an inferior quality. The best kind is that known as the Vera 
Cruz variety. Several related, and often inferior drugs, <•. (/.,Tampico jalap, have 
appeared on the market {ir.ee Bc/atnl Sperit's). 

Description. — When fresh, the root is black externally, white and milky 
within, and varies in size according to its age, from that of a walnut to that of a 
moderate-sized turnip. It is dried in net bags over the fire, sometimes entire, and 
sometimes in sections. It is often pre3'ed upon by insects which, however, leave 
its active part untouched, rendering it con-scquently more eneri;ftic. Jalap thus 
preyed upon is used for procuring the resin, but should not be given internally, 
except in much smaller doses than for the ordinary root. Jalap is rather difficult 
to pulverize, but if triturated with cream of tartar, sugar of milk, or other hard 
salt, the ]>roce.ss of i)ulverization is facilitated, and the powder rendered much 
finer. When in powder, the color is a pale grayish-brown, and when in contact 
with the mucous membrane of the air-tube, causes coughing and sternutation, 
with an increased discharge of saliva. Its solvents are water, alcohol, or spirits. 
Water takes up a small portion of its cathartic principle, but considerable of an 
amylaceous and mucilaginous extractive matter, .\lcohol dissolves the resin, on 
which its cathartic virtues depend. Kther (mly partially dissolves it. Dilute*! 
alcohol completely extracts its active properties. 

The r. S. P. thus describes good jalap, and gives tlie method of valuation of 
same: "Napiform, pyriform, or oblong, varying in size, the large roots incised. 



JAI.Al'A. 1085 

more or let;.* wrinkled, ilark-hrown. with lighter-colored spots, and short, trans- 
verse ridges; hard, compact, internally pale, grayisli-l>rown, with niunerous con- 
centric circles composed of small resin cells; fracture resinous, not fibrous; odor 
slight, but ])eculiar, snif)ky, and sweetish ; taste sweetish and acrid. On exhaust- 
ing 100 i)arts of jalap with alcohol, concentrating the tincture to 40 parts, and 
pouring it into water, a precipitate of resin should he obtained, which, when 
washed with water, and dried, should weigh not less than 12 parts, and of which 
not over 10 per cent should be soluble in ether" — ( T. N. P.). 

.lahip root is seldom adulterated ; if light, whitish internally, spongy, friable, 
:ind of a dull fracture, it should be rejected. The resin of jalap, met with in 
commerce, however, is sulyect to falsification, being adulterated sometimes with 
j;uaiac, colophony, and various inert substances. In the case of colophony, freshly 
rectitied oil of turpentine will di.-^solve out this atlulteration, while jalap resin is 
insoluble in this medium (Tromsdorfl). 

Chemical Composition.— Analysis of commercial jalap shows the presence 
of starch, uiii'rystallizal)lc sugar (19 per cent, Guibourt), gum, coloring matter, 
a resin, .-oluble in alcohol, and a soft resin, soluble in ether. From 12 to 18 per 
cent is the average yield of resin (J'/Kirnuirognijihia), though as high as 22 per cent 
has been obtained. As stated above, the i'. S. P. demands 12 per cent of total 
resin, including not more than 1.2 percent of ether-soluble resin. The resin of 
jalap may be obtained by treating the coarsely-chopped roots with water, which 
removes such constituents as sugar, gum, and coloring matter, and extracting the 
resin from the roots by means of boiling alcohol, sjiecific gravity 0.880. This 
resin consists of two distinct resins. One of these, having the odor and acrid 
taste of jalap, is soft, of acid reaction, and soluble in ether as well as in alkaline 
solutions; from the latter it is reprecipitated by acids. Prof. Mai.sch (Amer.Jour. 
Pharui., 1887, p. 326) considers it a mixture of resins, not deserving a special name 
until better investigated. The other resin, insoluble in ether, is the purging 
principle (jfilnpiagin, Maisch, 1887; convolrulin, C^HJ^,^,^!^. Mayer, 18-56; or 
C„II,„.0.,. A.Krom'er, 1894; rhodeoretin,o{ G. A. Kayser,1844; and ja/rt;)t»i, of Buch- 
ner and Herberger, 1831). It is hard, white, odorless, and tasteless, while in alco- 
holic solution it is nauseously acrid. The latter solution is optically la;vo-rotatory. 
Convolvulin (as it is mostly called) is insoluble, or nearly so, in water, ether, chlo- 
roform, carbon disulphide, petroleum benzin, oil of turpentine, etc., but dissolves 
readily in alcohol, acetic acid, acetic ether, in cold nitric acid, and in alkalies; 
in the case of ammonia being used, the heat of the water-bath effects solution. 
Upon again acidulating the alkaline solution, no precipitate is formed, owing to 
the conversion of convolvulin into (-onvolvulic (convolvulinic) acid (Cj.jHj^Ojj, Mayer), 
an amorphous, white, hygroscopic powder, soluble in water and alcohol, and in- 
.-olnble in ether. Of this substance convolvulin is the anhydride. Convolvulin, 
as well as convolvulic <trid,aTe glucosids (Kayser). When conrolvulic acid (CjjHjjO,,, 
A. Kromer, Amer. Jour. Pharm., 1894, p. 197) is treated with the ferment cmulsin, or 
with warm diluted acids, it is decomposed into 2 molecules of sugar (CjH,jO,), 
and crystallizable convolvulinolic acid (Ci^H^Oj, Kromer). The latter is insoluble 
in water and melts at 46° C. (114.8° F.). Convolvulin, treated with the same agents, 
decomposes into glucose, volatile methyl-ethyl-acetic acid, and convolvulinolic acid ; 
with alkalies, 1 molecule of mcthyl-ethyl-acetic and 2 molecules of convolvulinir acids 
are formed. Hiihnel (1896), by the same agents, obtained 2 glucosid acids, con- 
volvulinic and purqinic acidx (see Jahre^b. dec Pharni., 1896, p. 511). Strong nitric 
acid oxidizes convolvulin to carbonic and oxalic acids, and a small quantity of 
xcbacic (ijjoinic) acid (C.H,„[C0OH].), a substance which is also one of the products 
of the dry distillati..ii «f ol.-ic fats. 

Action, Medical Uses, and Dosage.— Jalap is an irritant and cathartic, ope- 
rating energetically, occasioning profuse liquid stools with griping, and some- 
times sickness at stomach, or even vomiting. Large doses produce violent hyper- 
catharsis, sometimes terminating fatally. When applied to a wound, it is said to 
induce purgation. Notwithstanding its' activity, it is a safe and convenient purga- 
tive, much in use among the profession, and is useful in all cases where it is de- 
sirable to produce an energetic influence on the bowels, or to obtain large evacua- 
tions. In intestinal inflammations it should not be used. I'nited with the 
bitartrati- of potassium, its hvdragi.gue properties are much increased, and thus 



1086 JALAPA. 

it proves beneficial in dropsies, a.'i well as in some forms of scrofula. Jalap, how- 
ever, is suitable for excitable, active conditions, and may be used where a cooling 
effect is desired, as when it is necessary to evacuate the bowels in febrile dimrder^. 
Inflammatory rondltions of the hilinry apparntus are exceptions to the rule that it 
should not be us^ed in gastro-intestinal inflammations. When the rectum i.« 
impacted with a hard, fecal mass, the expulsion of the latter is facilitated by the 
})urgative action of jalap, which greatly augments the intestinal secretions; all 
casi'S oi const ipnt inn, due to dryness of the mucous membranes, through inactivity 
of the intestinal glands, are relieved by jalap. The dose for this latter purpose 
may be 5 grains in the morning, repeated for several days. When a stimulating 
laxative can not be used in hemorrhnids,]a\ai^ may be employed, and it is likewise 
elHcient as a derivative in cerebral disorders. The nntibilions physic (which .see), or 
the following modifications (Locke) of it are verj- useful preparations: (1) R Pow- 
dered jalap, 5viii ; powdered senna, gxvi; powdered ginger, gi. Mix. Dose, a 
full teaspoonful in sweetened water; (2) R Jalap, giij ; potassium bitartrate, gvj; 
ginger, gii. Mix. Dose, 30 to 60 grains, in water, every 3 hours, as a hydragogue 
cathartic. 

It is stated that the aqueous extract of jalap, the root having been previ- 
ously exhausted of its resin by alcohol, will exert no cathartic influence, but will 
operate as a powerful diuretic, but I have not been able to procure this effect, 
though having made a trial in several cases (King). Three grains of jalap, taken 
an hour before each meal, act as a slight nauseant, destroying a desire for food 
among persons who are apt to eat too freely. If jalap is digested in ether, its nause- 
ous taste and smell will be wholly removed without lessening its cathartic power. 
A biscuit is sometimes made for those to whom it is extremely nauseous and dis- 
agreeable; 5 drachms of jalap, 30 of sugar, and 4 ounces of flour, are made into 15 
biscuits after the usual mode; 1 biscuit is a dose. The tendency of jalap to gripe 
aiid nauseate, may be obviated by adding to the dose 1 or 2 grains of camphor, or 
3 grains of cloves. The dose of powdered jalap is from 10 to 30 grains (the aqueous 
extract ought not to be used, except as a diuretic); of the tincture, from 1 to 4 
fluid drachms; the resin, or alcoholic extract, is given in from 2 to 8-grain doses, 
being usually rubbed up with sugar, or in emulsion, for the purpose of lessening 
its disposition to produce painful irritation of the intestinal mucous membrane. 
As a hydragogue, 2 drachms of the bitartrate of potassium are added to 10 or 30 
grains of pulverized jalap. Convolvidin (rhodeoretin) purges violently in 3 or4grain 
doses, and appears to be the active princii)le of jalap. Specific jalap, 10 to 20 
drops every 4 hours ff)r its specific uses. Though not an anthelmintic, jalap is 
often given tn hasten tlie expulsion of iroTHi-s, after agents have been given for 
their stupefaetidii (ir destruction. 

Specific Indications and Uses. — Constipation from deficient secretion of in- 
testinal glands; pain and griping in lower bowel; colic, with stercoraceous vomit- 
ing; general gastro-intestinal torpor. 

Related Species and Drugs.— Several related convolvnlaceous tuhers of >fexico and 
Brazil have been eiuployed as i>iir_'ativef. They are uot, however, articles of general commerce. 

Ta.miio .1 MM'. Tliis is tlie Mexican Piov/u de .Sirmi Oonfii.aiul is derived from the 
Ipomad xliiiiihiii.-^, llanliuiv. It mueli resembles the jalap tuber in !ip|H?arance, odor and taste. 
While it is dilflcult to distiii^'iiish some of the tubei-s from those of trne jalap, most of the 
Tauipico tubers are smaller and more elongated, more corky ami shrivelled, and show an 
absence of little scai-s crosswise the roots so noticeable iu true jalap { Phannaci^jixphia). It 
yields a resiii 1 10 t.. 15 per cent). Fliickiger obtained 10 per cent of it. It is completely solu- 
iile in ether. S|,ii.r:itis |s7il) named the resin Idinpicin (C«sHioOss). It is converlitf into 
Unujiirir ,1,1,1 (I VJI, ,M,, i liv means of concentrated alkalies, .\cids resolve it into sug-ar and 
hiiiipii;,!,,- ,1,1,1 (( .1 l,,|i I,, , ilius showing its glncosidal character, analogously to that of con- 
njlndiii. It has piirgati\e j)r(iperties. 

Mirabllls jnlnpa, Linne; Four o'clnrk. — The tubers of this species, which somewhat resem- 
ble jalap, may be distinguished by the presence of needle-like raphides of calcium oxalate. 

Tpoiiiceii tiirjictliiijii. K. lirown ; Tiii-i>eln r<x>l. — This is the TitrhUh vrgfOil of the t'lriich Chtifj: 
It is not verv sunilar in appearance to jalap. It contains a resin (4 per cent>, of which hir- 
lulhiii, the etiier-soluble |Hiriiiin. a glneosid, behaves like resin of jalap in relation to acids and 
alkalies. Bases convert it intri /"/71W/11V ociVJ, iiicMi/'-croloiiiV nciV, tnices of formic, and niflhj/l- 
ellnil;i<;t!r (,ri,ltt. etc. (see articles by N. Kromer, Ofitrrr. Z^lir.f. Phannnri.. ISiCi. N(^. IS to 24 1. 

liwiiiira nil, Roth {<'iiiii<>ltiiln» iiiV, Linn^ ; Pharbitia iiiV, Choisyl. — Tropical regions an<l 
southern I'niteil States. Seeils called kiilmldmi in India, and are slightly puiyative. They are 
black, triangular, with a rounded back, and have a sweetish taste, followed by an acrid son- 



JEFFERSOXIA. 10S7 

>.iti<>n. They yiclil ^ilmrhilinin (identical witli cnnvl inline ami n vnlatiU- oil. The eeeils are 
r<>aste<l anil V'^*"" '" powili-r. 

I/iomiiii li-ili)>Hi I Phiirhilis triloba, I/wmirti /icc/z-rdccn).— The seeds of the Japanese plant 
known as hii./«i»/i(, vield cnnnilniliii, and are eiuployed like kiiUnUtim. 

Mechoacan— this proiluit. probably of a convolvulaceous plant, comes in (:ray or whitish 
I'ircular seclinns or fragment-", somewhatfarinaceons, autl destitute of the ciR-les of resinous 
lells. It sometimes occurs as an adulterant of jalap, but its detection is not diflicult. It is 
feeblv cathartic. 

Okizaba RiHiT.— This is variously known iis \\'ikh\<i. Liijlil, or Fufijonn jiitnp. >Mf jnla)), 
Jiiliiji t;iw or !>hilb<. and is the Mexican'/'io;/.) i/i<(r/.<.. It is deriveil from the 1}i»,ih>'i i.riznlunfix, 
l.cdanois. This root is fusiform, ami sonu-tinus occurs in comiiierce in transvcrx- slices, but 
more frc(iuentlv in rectaufiular blocks. Its lon^'itudinal wrinkles ;irc deeper than those of 
jalap. Its color is also lighter. From the latter it nuiy be know n bv il..' iM.linlions on traiis- 
verse section, and by leaving, when fractured, projecting bumllcs •■! r i ;- >— i-ls. C'hetnie- 
ally, it closely resembles jalap. Its chief constituent is jalaitin ( (' , 1 1 ' ' i ( 1 1 :< )32, Poleck), 
so named by Mayer i/«ini-i7io'/forrti/i of Kayseri, and should not In > i.i ii •; i u iili the jalayin 
of Buchnerand Herberger, which is convolvulin. Miiyer's JMlapin .iiii. i.-. iioin convolvulin in 
that ether and acetone freclv dissolve it. Polnk isiii' pn, puses lor it the name orizabhi, as 
Prof. Maisch has done in 18S7'. .Alkalies <-hange it into water-soluble jn/niiiV ociVf (C88HiisO.-!j,or 
Hjt'irH^n,, Poleck). Dilutol acids convert it into sii^Mr and ;(i^i;<iHO?(Cs2H62<>7).in.'!oluble in 
water; inobably identical with jalapinolic acid (Ccl ler.t >,, or C'leH.TnOj, Poleck, 18921, obtainable 
frniu -caiumony resin. Jalapin {urizuliin) is oxidized by nitric acid to carbonic, isobutyric, and 
11. .(/(>(• (iciW, the latter an isomer of sebacic acid (compare cimoi/cn/iii). Jiiluuiii (Mayer's) has been 
-liowu bv Spirgatis to be identical with feaininuniii both in chemical ami purgative qualities, a 
tact more recently confjrmetl by Th. Pohck (see J-ihr.sl,. ,1, ,■ fhin,,., 1892, p. 80i. 

Ip<iiiiir<t /Htttdmiilii, Meyer ( C<iiuolrulii.< yxii/Jioddw, Liune' ; ^yHd /i<./«/<e.— This plant, like- 
wise known as Wild jolap, .Won in lli^ (Irovnd, M>rlio ,n, ck . M,i,i nfthe K'irll,. etc., has a perennial, 
Very large, tapering rix)t, with several stems from the same root, from 4 to 8 feet long, round, 
-lender, purplish, smooth or nearly so, trailing or twining. I^eaves 2 or .'J inches long, about 
tin- same width, broadly cordate at base, acuminate, entire, or wavy, alternate, sometimes pan- 
hiriform, smooth, deep-green above, paler beneath, on long petioles. Flowers white, dull- 
|.urple toward the base, large, opening in the forenoon; peduucles axillary, longer than the 
|ietioles, cymose, branching at th^' top, several-flowered. C'>rolla large, campauulate, 2 or 3 
Miches long. Calyx smooth, 5-parted, naked ; si-pals ovate-oblong, stamens white, the U'ngth 
"f tlie tube; anthers oblong. Style white, thread-like; stigma capitate, bilobed. Capsule 
"Idong, 2-<iIleil, 4-seeded, without' intermediate partitions i I,. — \V.- ti.). 

Wild potato is indigenous to the United States, growing in light and sandy soils, from 
I onnectieut and west Xew York, southward and westward, and flowering from .lune to August; 
;l rarelv iriows North, but is found in some parts of South .Xnierica. The root Is the medicinal 
p irt ; it is verv large, being from 2 to 8 feet in length, and from L' to 4 or .j inches in diameter, 
■ ranched at the bottom, brownish-yellow externally, whitish ai.d lactescent internally, fur- 
r.wed lengthwise, and of a disagreeable odor an<l bitter, rather a< rid taste; about 75 per cent 
in weight is lost in drving. It is generally met with in transverse, circular sections, which are 
-.iiuew hat tawny externally, whitish with'diverging lines internally, and n(jt readily powdered; 
the powder is somewhat grayish. Watf r or alcohol extracts its active properties, but diluted 
alconol or spirits are its Wst" solvents. It contains resin, bitter extractive, sugar, starch, gum, 
a body resembling tannic acid, etc. The resin is purgative. It consists of an acid, and a non- 
acid portion. It is a glucosid, and exists to the extent of 1.5 per cent. 

The active principles of this plant are unknown. It pos.sesses mild cathartic properties, 
acting gently in doses of from 40 to (>0 grains of the powdered root. The infusion taken in 
wineglassful doses every hour, has been etTective in (/m/«v, "''•""(/'("/, and cntcutoun afeclioits. 
It seems also to exert' an influence over the lungs, liver, and kiilneys, without excessive 
diuresis or catharsis. The s.tturated tincture is more energetic than the powdered root, ile- 
coction.or extract. It is asserted that the Indians can handle rattlesnakes with impunity alter 
wetting their hands with the milky juice of this mot. 

JEFFERSONIA.— TWINLEAF. 

The rhizome of Jeffersnnia diphylla, Barton. 

.\<tl. 0/-J.— Berberidaceie. 

CiiMMuN Namks: Tuinknf, Rhcumnlkm-nifit, Ground-squirrel pea. 

Botanical Source. — This is an indigenous, perennial phmt, sonielinie-s known 
as Grouiid-Miuirrel pea, and Rheumatism-root. Its rhizome is horizontal, with 
matted fibrous radicle.*; the .scape or stem is simple, naked, 1-flowered, and from 
8 to 14 inches in height. Tiie leaves are in pairs, binate, placed base to base, oval, 
broader than long, ending in an obtuse point, smooth, jilaUKUis beneath, and borne 
on petioles as long as the scape, which arise from the rliizoine. The lluwers are 
large, regular, and white. The calyx consists of 4 lolored, deciduous sepals. The 
corolla is com)»osed of 8 flat, oblong, spreading, incurved petals. Stamens S, with 
oblong-linear anthers, on slender filaments. Ovary ovoid, soon gibbons, i.ointed; 



1088 JUGLAXS. 

stigma •2-lobed. The capsule is obovate, or somewhat pear-shaped, stipitate. and 
1-celIed, opening half-way round horizontally, making a persistent lid. The 
seeds are many on the lateral placenta, with a fleshy lacerate aril on one side 
and oblong (\V.— G.). 

History and Description. — This plant is found from New York to Maryland 
and Virginia, and in many parts of the western states, growing in limestone soil, 
in woods and near streams and rivers, and flowering in April and May. The 
part used is a thick, knotty rhizome, from which long, fibrous roots proceed, and 
is of a brownish-yellow^ color. It is used as an adulterant of hydrastis, and is 
often artfully mixed therewith. In cases that have come under our ob.-ervation, 
this root has been chopped so as to bring it to about the size of hydrastis. In 
other instances it has been matted together inside of bunches of hydrastis, and 
in still others the rootlets have been removed, chopped, and mixed with hydra.<- 
tis. The epidermis is somewhat corrugated, and in some specimens transversely 
cracked. The bark is resinous, and contains the active principle of the roots. 
The central portion is ligneous, of a light straw color, and is easily separated by 
bruising the root. The root has an odor similar to that of podophyllum, and a 
bitter, mucilaginous taste at first, followed by a pungent, nauseous, and acrid 
taste. Wati_-r or alcohol extracts its virtues. 

Chemical Composition. — An analysis by Prof. E. S. Wayne, showed this 
plant to contain tannic acid, gum, starch, sugar, mineral matters, considerable 
pectin, fatty resin, a bitter substance, an acrid and nauseous matter somewhat 
similar to polygalic acid, which occasioned vomiting with persistent nausea (see 
Amer. Jour. Pharm.,yo\. XXVII, p. 1). Prof. F. F. Mayer states that the pectin 
of Prof. Wayne, in the above analysis, is saponin; also that the root contains a 
large proportion of a white alkaloid, and a small quantity of bcrbcrine (Auier. Jour. 
Pharm.. 18fi3, p. 90 ). AW. Flexer { Amei: Druggist, 1884, p. 227), denies the existr 
ence of K.rln-rinr in .Ifilpr.<(jni:i. 

Action, Medical Uses, and Dosage. — Diuretic, alterative, antispasmodic, and 
a stimulating diaphoretic. Successfully used in rhmnic rhnimati^i, as & ionic in 
secondary ov mercurio-syphilvt; &\so used with advantage in dropsy, in many »i<Tro«-< 
affectiom; spasms, a-amps, nervous excitability, And even dunng pregnane;/. In syphi- 
litic diseases it has been combined with corydalis, but I have been unable to deter- 
mine any other than a tunic influence, with evident improvement in nutrition, 
whether it be administered alone in this maladj', or combined as just stated 
(King). As a gargle it has been beneficial in diseases of the throat, ulcers about the 
fauces, scarlatina, ophthalmia, and indolent ulcers. It is administered in decoction 
and saturated tincture. Dose of the decoction, from 2 to 4 fluid ounces, 3 times 
a day; of the tincture, from 1 to 3 fluid drachms, 3 times a day. Some prac- 
titioners substitute this jilant for senega, as an expectorant and emetic. 

Specific Indications and Uses.— Pain in the head with dizziness and sen- 
sation of tension (Watkius, Conipendimn of Eekelic Prartiee). 

JUGLANS (U. S. P.)— JUGLANS. 

"The bark of the root of Juglans cincrca, Linne, collected in autumn" — 
{U.S. P.). {Juglans oblonga.yiiUer; Juglans cathartica, yik-h&MX). The leaves are 
also employed. 

A'((/. 0?"f?.— .Juglandacea\ 

Common N.\mes: Butternut, Mliite u-alnut. Oil nut. 

li i,r<ri;A 1 ION : Rentley and Trimen, Med. Plants, 247. 

Botanical Source. — This tree is indigenous, and grows to a height of from 
30 to 50 feet, with a trunk about 4 feet in diameter, at some 4 or (J feet from the 
ground, and which, at 8 or 10 feet from its biu^e, divides into numerous, nearly 
horizontal, wide-spreading branches, with a smooth gray bark, and forming a 
large tufted head, giving to the tree a peculiar appearance. The leaves are alter 
nate, from 12 to 20 inches long, consisting of 7 or 8 pairs of leaflets, wliich aie 
2 or 3 inches in length, oblong-lanceolate, rounded at tlie ba.<e. acuminaty. finel\ 
serrate, and downy, with the petioles and bmnchlets downy with clammy hair- 




jri;i.ANS. 1089 

Male and female flnwors distinct upon the same tree, the former in large aments, 
4 or 5 inches long, hanging from the sides of tiie la.st year's shoots, near their 
extremities. The scales which compose them, oblong and deeply cleft on each 
side into about 3 teeth or segments. Anthers about 8 or 10 
in number, oblong, and nearly sessile. The fertile flowers '*' 

grow in a short spike at the end of the new shoot; are ses- 
sile, universally pubescent, and viscid; when fully grown 
they seem to consist of a large oblong ovary, and a f<>rked 
feathery style. The top of the ovary, however, presents 
an obscurely 4-toothed calyx. Within this is a corolla of 
four narrow lanceolate pttals growing to the sides of the 
style; the style divides into 2 large, diverging, feather}', 
rose-colored stigmas, nearly as long as the ovary. The 
fruit is sometimes single, suspended by a thin, pliable, 
|)eduncle; sometimes several are together on the sides and 
extremity of the same peduncle. It is of a green color, 
brown w-hen ripe, oblong-oval, obtusely pointed, hairy, 
and extremely viscid. The nut or nucleus is dark-colored, 
liard, oblong, pointed, carinated on both sides, and its whole surface roughened 
bv deep indentures and sharp jirominences. The kernel is oily, pleasant-flavored, 
and edible (L.— W.— B.l. 

History and Description.— This tree and the Juglnnf nigra or Black walnut 
a'-e common to North America. The J.cinerea is found throughout the New 
Kiigland. Middle, and Western states, and Canada, growing in rich woods, on ele- 
vated river banks, and on cold, uneven, rocky soils, flowering in April and May, 
and maturing its fruit during the middle of autumn. A saccharine juice, said 
to furnish a good sugar, is obtained by tapping the trees early in the spring. 
Butternut wood is light, of a reddish hue. not apt to become worm-eaten, and is 
frequently used in paneling and for ornamental work. The fruit collected some- 
time previous to its ripening is used in the form of pickles by many persons; the 
bark and shells of the nut furnish a dye of a chocolate color, for woolen goods, but 
as a dye, the bark of the black walnut is preferable. In the recent state, butternut 
bark is acrid, and when rubbed upon the surface of the body, occasions redness 
and sometimes blisters. The medicinal parts are its leaves and the inner bark of 
the root, the latter of which is best when gathered from April to July. The bark 
of the root is otficial, and this, the Pharmacoptjeia directs, should be gathered in 
the autumn. The official description of the bark is as follows: " In flat or curved 
pieces, about 5 Mm. {\ inch) thick ; the outer surface dark-gray and nearly smooth, 
or deprived of the soft cork and deep-brown; the inner surface smooth and 
striate; transverse fracture short, delicately checkered, whitish, and brown; odor 
feeble; taste bitter and somewhat acrid" — {U.S. P.). Its original whiteness soon 
begins to alter upon exposure to the air, changing from a yellow to a dark-brown 
color. Water at 100° C. (212° F.), takes up all its active poperties. 

Chemical Composition. — In the bark of Juglans cnifrea, (Butternut tree), 
C. O. Thii'liaud found (Amer. Jour. Phnnn., 1872, p. 253), bitter extractive, much 
oil, crystullizable, orange-yellow jugkindic acid, soluble in benzol, alcohol, and 
ether, but hardly soluble in water, and probably related to chrysophanic acid ; a 
crystallizable, colorless acid, and a volatile acid, but no tannin, although ferric 
chloride gave a dark-colored precipitate. Mr. E. 8. Dawson (1874\ however, estab- 
li-^ht-d the presence of tannin in the bark, when rapidly and immediately dried 
after collection. The bark stains the skin persistently brown. A quantitative 
and comparative analysis of the bark of the root and trunk by E. D. Truman is 
reci>rde(i in Anier.Jour. P/innd., 1893, p. 426. Juglamlii- arid was obtained by the 
author in orange-red crystals from the alcohol extract when this was treated with 
water and the solution abstracted with ether. The crystals turn deep-violet with 
alkalies, and decompose very readily, resinous products insoluble in water being 
formed. Perhaps juqlandir acid is identical with nucin or ji/jr/o»t, obtainable from 
the green leaves ancf pericarps of the Juglam regia, Linne, or European walnut 
(see Related Sperirn). 

JiGL.\NoiN is a name once given to a dried extract from the J.cinerea. It 
was a member of the class of jjreparations introduced and used about 50 years 



1090 jroLAXS. 

ago by the Eclectics under the name resinoids or conrcntmtiom (see Leptandrin and 
Podophylh'n for special remarks concerning this class). 

Action, Medical Uses, and Dosage.— Butternut in small doses is a mild 
stimulant t'l the intestinal tract, proving laxative and in larger doses is a gentle 
and agrctalik' cathartic, causing no griping, nor subsequent weakness of the in- 
testines. It resembles rhubarb in its effect, but without inducing constipation 
after its action. It is very valuable in cases of habitual constipation, rolorert it i^, and 
several other intestinal diseases. It is generally used in the form of an extract, in 
do.«es of 1 to 30 grains. An excellent combination for chronic constipation is tlie 
following: R Ext. butternut, 3j ; ext. nux vomica, grs. v. Mix. Ft. Pi 1. No. 40. 
Sig. Two pills, 3 times a day (Locke). The same pill is very efficient in deficient 
gastric secretion, in atonic dyspepsia, and in indigestion accompanied with gastric 
irritation, sour eructations, and flatulent distension of the stomach. Administer 
1 pill a day. Juglans is useful in tenesmic, burning, fetid diarrhaa and dysenten/, 
and should be remembered in inte-<inal dyspepsia with irritation. The specific 
juglans maybe given in from 1 to 10-drpp doses. The same doses of the same 
preparation act as an efficient alterative in chronic skin affections and scrofula, being 
particularly indicated in those skin affections exhibiting vesicles or pustules. 
Webster believes it effectual in all skin diseases except those presenting parasitic, 
scrofulous, or syphilitic manifestations. Juglans is an efficient cathartic to use 
when a free action of the bowels is demanded in rheiimntimn and chronic re-fpiratory 
affections. A strong decoction of it is much emjiloyed in some sections of the 
country, as a domestic remedy in rheumatism affecting the muscles of the back, 
and in intermittent and remittent fevers, as well as in other diseases attended with 
congestion of the abdominal viscera ; it is also reputed efficient in murrain of 
cattle, and yellow water in horses. It was used with great advantage in the 
treatment of dii^mtn-y and dinrrhn'a occurring among our soldiers in the Civil 
War. Dose of the extract, from 1 to 30 grains, usually from 1 to 5 grains; specific 
juglans, 1 to 20 drops, tlie smaller doses being preferred for its specific action. 

Specific Indications and Uses. — Chronic constipation ; gastro-intestinal irri- 
tability, with sour eructations, flatulence, and either diarrha*a or constipation 
dependent thereon; diarrhrea and dysentery with tenesmus and burning and 
fetid discharges; torpid liver; chronic skin affections of a pustular or vesicular 
character, discharging freely ; eczematous affections. 

Belated Species.— Jughnf nigra, or Black valiiul grows from 60 to 90 feet high, with a 
diameter of from o to (J feet, with a brown bark. Ix'aflets numerous, 7 to 10 or 11 pairs, ovate- 
lanceolate, serrate, subcordate at base, taper-iiointed at the apex, smooth alxive, the lower 
surface and the petioles minutely downy. Fruit globose, with scabrous punctures; nut cor- 
rugated, kernel sweet, more plea.sant tasted and less oily than the Vrutternut, but greatly 
inferior to the European v, a\nnt, Juylatis ngia (\V. — G.). juglans nigra i.s rarely found in the 
northern states, but is more common to the middle and western. It flowersand ripens its 
fruit at the same time with the butternut. The duramen of its wood is compact and heavy, 
of a deep-violet color, surrounded with a white alburnum. It is extensively use<l in building 
and for cabinet work (G. — W.). The leaves otJaglam nigra were analyzed by Lillie J. Martin 
(Amfr. Jour. Phorm., 1886, p. 468), and contained tannin" as the dominant principle; volatile 
oil, a volatile acid, resin, wax, gum, and a crystallizable substance, probably a glucosid. The 
ash constituted 8.5 per cent, and the absence of aluminum in the ash was established. The 
juice of the rind of black walnut is said to cure Inrjjes, (czana, porrigo, etc., and a decoction 
has been used to remove worms. The bark is very astringent and acriiuouious. and is en>- 
ployed in dyeing. 

Juglans r(gia,l,inn6; English, or European walnut. — The leaves and green pericarp of the 
fruit of this species have an astringent, bitter taste and a characteristic odor. They are known 
in European pharmacy respectively aa tlie Folia juglamlis and Cvrttx frticttu juii'linulK*. The 
kernels of the ripe fruit, as well as those of the black walnut, butternut, peoam-nut i Oiri/ci 
olii\ijormis, Nuttall), and the hickory nuts (siiecies of Carya) yield a tixed oil known as nut oil. 
It isone of the drving oils, and is "bland, of a greenish or light-yellow color, and In oimes of 
the consistence of lardat near — 18°C. (0° ¥.). ft has a specific gravity of 0.;>2S. and, aceording 
to Mulder (18651, contains linolcie, ni vristic, and lauric acids. .■V volatile oil was obt^uned from 
the leaves (0.02!) per Cent i. 1 \ .li-till;i'ti..u with water. It has the flavor of tea, and solidifies at 
lo°C. (59°F.) (Schimmels /. 

Juijlon {CmHfOj, ()>.,'.■ -./uimnw, Rornthsen and Lemf>er, 18S5; .Win, of Vogel 
and Reisehauer, 1856 an I 1^'^ /. /i, of Thipson, 1,S'I6). oix-ure in the grvon pericarps of 
the European walnut, and is ol't:iinal>le by extniction with carKm disulphide. ether, etc. 
-Vceording to Bernthsen and Lemper, it is aii oxidation product of /iy(/n);'iij//i.H. which exists in 
the husks, and can be abstracted therefrom with ether. The ethereal solution shaken with 
diluted chromic acid, converts it bv oxidation into yellow. i-rystallizaMe i-;.' soluble in 



.njlHA-JlNirKKlS. 1001 

chlorolVirin arul concfiitrateil sulphurii- lu-id with blood-red color, harilly soluble in cold alco- 
hol and ether. Crj'stals ofjugton are suliliiiial)le, and are ileconiposed by hot water, a brown 
coloring matter resulting. Jughm .stains the skin brown. Uilutetl alkalies iWefoWe jnglon with 
an evanesivnt purple color. The periciirp ol the immature fruit contains largi' quantities of 
tannic acid i luiriutimir acid, of I'hipson ), but the ripe husk is entirely free from this principle 
(C. Hartwicb, Arcliir A-r I'liunn.. 18>S7, p. IkJS). 

A crwstflllizable alkaloid, Jii(//(im(/iu, was isolated from the leaves in 1876, by Tanret; it 
turns black upon exposure to the air. .Yi«i7 (CnHijO. + jHjOj.a non-fermenlable sugar occur- 
ring in the leaves, was found by Tanret and Villiers ( 1878) to be identical with inosit. Sestini 
obtained from the root of juglims t'onsiderable quantities of (jlycyrrhizin in the form of potas- 
sium and calcium salts. 

The European walnut has been fouml by Prof. Negrier, of Aneere, to be very efficient in 
ft-i-ofulii. To children hilmring under this disease he administered a strong infusion of the 
leaves in teacM|iiul dnsts, or the aqueous extract in doses of 6 grains, or a proportionate dose 
of a syrup pn pared with S grains of the extract to 10 drachms of syrup, repeating the dose 
from 2 to 5 times a day. All the iilars and «0f<' fi/ts were washed with a strong decoction of the 
leaves, and the ulcers covered with linen compresses steeped in this decoction, or poultices 
made with flour and the decoction. Xo injury followed its long-continued administration. 
The above American species would probably answer as good a purpose. 

JUJUBA.— JUJUBE-BERRIES. 

The fruit of Zizypfius vulgaris, Lamarck, and Zizyphus Lotus, Lamarck. 

Xitl. Onl. — Rhamnacese. 

Ci>.M.MiiN Name : .hijuhr-hrrries. 

Botanical Source and History. — The shrubs bearing jujube-berries are cul- 
tivateil ill Siiain, Italy, and Fnince, and along the Mediterranean. Tlie first spe- 
cies is indigenous to Syria and Asia Minor, the second grows in the northern part 
of Africa. Jujube plants are shrubs, sometimes arborescent, and have alternate, 
serrated, ovate leaves, which are 3-nerved and armed at the base with prickly and 
spinous stipules. By abortion the fruit is 1-celled and 1-seeded, but it usually 
has 2 cells and 2 seeds. 

Description and Chemical Composition.— Jujube-berries are roundish-oval 
or oblong drupes, about the size of an olive. The skin is vivid-red when fresh, 
but when dried becomes brownish-red, and is leathery, thin, and wrinkled. The 
pulp is soft, yellowish, mucilaginous, sweet, and acidulous, and encloses the ovate, 
pointed stone. The drupe of the Z. Ij)tus is smaller (about | inch) and subglobu- 
lar. The fruit of an East Indian species, Zizyphus jujuba, Lamarck, possesses like 
properties, and the shrub gives a stick-lac from which a portion of the shellac of 
commerce is prepared (fice Amer. Jour. Phartn., 1886, p. 307). Chemically, jujube- 
berries contain sugar and mucilage, while tannin is a constituent of the bark. 
(2.8 per cent, D. Hooper, 1894). The fruits of the first two species constitute an 
article of food in their native countries, being employed like raisins, figs, etc. 

Preparation. — Jujube Paste. Masm de jujulm. With sufficient water ex- 
tract juiulii'-licrries, 5 parts, to obtain of the infusion, 35 parts; add sugar, 20 
parts; acacia. .'^(J jiarts. Evaporate, add orange-flower water, 2 parts; boil slowly 
ibr 12 Imurs, and run into molds. This is in accordance with the French Codex. 
Jujube pa^tf (ill the Cnitcil States), seldom contains jujube. 

Action and Medical Uses.— Jujube decoction is employed in some countries 
as a deinulceul pectunil, and like other acidulous and sweet fruits, jujube enters 
into the composition of tisanes for the relief of throat and bronc/io-pulinonic irri- 
tatiom. Jujube paste is demulcent, but seldom met with in this country. 

JUNIPERUS.— JUNIPER. 

The fruit (berries) of Juniperus cominuni'<, Linne. 

Xnt. Ord. — Conifera'. 

C'oMMo.N Name: Juniper berries. 

Ii.i.rsTKATioN : Beiitley and Trimen, Med. Plnnli, 255. 

Botanical Source.— This is a small evergreen shrub, never attaining the 
hei^'ht of a tn-c, with manv very close branches, the extremities of which are 
smooth and angular. The leaves are attaclied to the stem or branches in threei, 



1092 JUXIPKIiUS. 

in a verticillate manner, linear-acerose, sharplj' mucronate, entire, shining-green 
on their lower surface, and channeled and glaucous along the center of their 
upper surface; they are always resupinate, and turn their upper surface toward 
the ground. The flowers are dioecious, the males in small axillary aments, witli 
roundish, acute, stipitate scales, inclosing several anthers. The female flowers an- 
on a separate shrub, having a small, 3-parted involucre growing to the scale-^. 
which are 3 in number. The fruit is fleshy, roundish-oblong, berried, of a dark- 
])urp]ish color, formed of the confluent, succulent scales, marked with 3 promi- 
nences, or vesicles at top, ripening the second year from the flower, and contain- 
ing 3 bony, angular seeds (L.). 

History and Description. — Juniper is common to Europe and this country, 
growing in dry woods and hills, and flowering in May. The fruit or berries are 
the medicinal parts ; those which are imported from the southern parts of Europe 
are the best. The American berries possess less medicinal virtue, and are seldom 
employed. Juniper berries are about the size of currants, of a purplish-black 
color, shrunken, marked at the top with a triradiate groove, and at the base with 
the bracteal scales; they contain 3 seeds. Their odor is peculiar, terebinthine, 
and aromatic, and their taste terebinthine and sweetish, succeeded by some bit- 
terness; these qualities are due to an essential oil, which may be obtained by 
distillation with water. They yield their properties to hot water or alcohol. An 
empyreumatic oil — oil of cnde (see Oleum Cadinum), or huile de cade, is obtained in 
France l'\ iliy (lif^tilliition of the wood of Juniperwi Orycednii<, Linne. 

Chemical Composition. — According to Schimmel & Co., juniper berries con- 
tain 1.2 (ilt cent of essential oil in Hungarian, and only 0.7 per cent in German 
fruit (Fliickiger, Pharmnrngvosie, 1891). (Also see Oleum Juniperi.) Steer (1856) 
isolated from the berries a yellow coloring matter which he QoWeii juniperin. It 
is soluble in 60 parts of water, also soluble in ether, alcohol, sulphuric acid, and 
in ammonia with golden-yellow color. Two analyses by Ritthausen and Donath 
{Juhresh. der Pkarm., 1877, p. 62), gave the following percentage composition : Mois- 
ture 10.77 (recent), 29.44 (dry); ash 3.37 (R.), 2.33 (D.); dextrose 14.36 (R.), 29.6-5 
(D.) ; water-soluble matter, consisting of formic, acetic, and malic acids and a bit- 
ter substance 11.7 (R.), 3.41 (D.) ; fat, resin, and volatile oil, 12.24 (R.), 11.33 (D.) : 
protein bodie.s, 5.41 (R.), 4.4.5 (D.) ; cellulose, 31.6 (R.), 15.83 (D. t; nitrogen-free 
matter soluble in sulphuric acid and caustic potash (pectin, Donath) 10.55 (R.), 
0.73 (D.i. 

Action, Medical Uses, and Dosage. — Both the berries and oil are stimu- 
lating, carminative, and diuretic. The oil is said to act like copaiba in arresting 
mucous discharges, especially from the urethra. It is contained in the spiritous 
liquor called Hollands, one of its best forms as a diuretic. Five minims of the 
oil, with 1 fluid drachm of nitrous ether, given 3 times a day in any common 
vehicle, produces diuresis in dropsy when other means fail. Combined with an 
equal part of watermelon seeds, and made into an infusion, I have cured several 
cases of ascites occurring in children, having them to make free use of it (King l 
The berries are employed principally as an adjunct to other diuretics, and have 
been found eflicient in ponorrhcea, gleet, leucnrrhren, cystirrhcea. nffc-tinns of the skin, 
scorbutic diseases, etc. Pyelitis, ]n/elo-nepfiritis, and ry.-<tilis wlien chronic, and particu- 
larly when in old people, are relieved by juniper. Uncomplicated renal hyprrfmin 
is cured by it. The indications are a persistent weiglit or dragging in lumbar 
region. Dose of the berries, from 1 to 2 drachms ; of the oil, from 4 to 20 minims. 
The infusion (berries, gi ; aqua, Oj), may be given in wineglas^ful do.*es, a pint 
being taken in a daj'. It is very useful in the dropsy following si-arlatina, and 
other infectious diseases, and may be combined with acetate or biTartrate of potas- 
sium if desired. Oil of C.\de has been successfully employed in ;)<ira.«iVi> ulin 
diseases, nwist eczema, and psoriasis. 

Preparation of Juniper.— Howe's Ji'siper Pomape. This preparation is a compound 

of laril. nil nf jiuiiiKT aiul l-'owlor'.s solution, tlio proportions of which tiavi- l>etni publisueil iu 
thi-Kclfhr M,,Ih;iI .Ininn.il. Mui-h i)hiirniaoeutical skill is n'iinirt'<l to hlen.l the ingre<lients 
so as to ]in>vi'nt sulisiquent s<>]i;\i-alion. .T\)nip(>r pomade is useful in "all forms of fcro/m or 
Idler, it allays the itcliing anil i.vti,.\~ ih, vesicles and scales. The unvruont ma.v l>e usetl 
upon all parts of the boilv, tin.;, -i ■ . u|ion mucous surfaces. It isemployeil in the 

nasal cavities with acauiers h:ni i ■ - : iu-ate the symptoms of <-ii/<irr/i,toarn.'St hou-i'fn-r, 

to heal mi.inl itlcnv, to arrest ' . -, ami to improve states of it,,ifiu-x> depending 



KAI.MIA. 



1093 



upon thickening of the linings of the Enstacliian tul)e8. Juniper poiiuule softens tlie Koaly 
patches on the lace which are often tpllhluiiiiiiliiii.t. It hiw proved an excellent dressin).' Inr teller 
o/llie edtjii ••/ llo I i/t liil.i.v;h\ch leads to' ii ikl Amrj'.'and indnratiun njthe IuimI l^ndeni. The pomade 
is reliable in the treatment of «//•( iii/»;y/tji in nursiny women; and it will cure chapped hands'" 
(Prof. A.J. Howe, M. D.i. 

KALMIA. -MOUNTAIN LAUREL. 



Fig. 152. 




Kalmia latlfolia. 



The leaves of Kalmia latijolia, Linne. 

Nat. Oni — Ericacea?. 

Common Namks: Mountain laurel, TMurd, Slirep laurel, etc. (see below). 

Botanical Source and Description.— This jilant is known by various names ii 

different sections ol' the couutry, us Laurel, LnnhkiU, Ivy, Big-leaved ivy, Spoomvood, 

Calicu-hush, MnKntnin l(iur(l,eU\ It is a beautiful 

shrub, from 4 to 8 feet high, sometimes attaining 

the height of a small tree, with crooked stems and 

a rough bark. The leaves are irregularly alternate 

and ternate, evergreen, coriaceous, very smooth, 

with under side soiuewhat paler, ovate-lanceolate, 

acute at each end, entire, on long petioles at the 

ends of the branches, from 2 to 3 inches long. 

The flowers are numerous, white or variously 

tinged with red.very showy, clammy, in splendid 

terminal, viscid-pubescent, simple or compound 

corymbs, with opposite branches. The pedicels 

are glutinous and pubescent, with ovate, acumi- 
nate bracts. Calyx small, 5- parted, and persist- 
ent, with oval acute segments. The corolla is 

large, monopetalous, with a conical tube, a cyathi- 

form limb, and an erect, shallowy, 5-lobed mar- 
gin; at the circumference of the limb, on the 

inside, are 10 niches or pits, accompanied with 

corresponding prominences on the outside; in these depressions the anthers are 

found lodged at the time when the flower expands. The stamens are 10. hypo- 
gynous, bent outwardly so as to lodge their anthers in the niches 
of the corolla, but liberating them during the period of flowering 
and striking against the sides of the stigma; anthers 2-celled with 
2 terminal pores. The ovary is roundish, supi)orting a slender, 
declinate style longer than the corolla; stigma obtuse. The fruit 
is a dry capsule, which is roundish, depressed, 5-celled, 5-valved, 
the valves alternating with the divisions of the calyx. The seeds 

rare numerous, and minute (L. — W. — B. — R.). 
■ History. — Sheep laurel, or more j)roperly Mountain laurel, 

inhabits most parts of the United States, on rocky hills and ele- 
vated grounds, and in damp soil, sometimes forming a dense 
thicket, with a profusion of beautiful rose-colored flowers which 
KSmia^iauioUa appear in June and July, forming a contrast with its dark, glossy, 
green leaves. The leaves are reputed to be poisonous to sheep 
and several other animals, killing them; while others again, as deer, goats, and 
partridges, feed upon them without any unpleasant consequences. When par- 
tridges, which have eaten the laurel leaves, have themselves been cooked and 
eaten, they are said to have occasioned sickness at stomach, headache, in)paire<l 
vision, diflicult breathing, coldness of the surface and extremities, and other 
symptoms similar to those caused when putrid lueats are eaten. An emetic of 
mustard with warm water has relieved some of thi' above symptoms by removing 
the poison from the stomach. It is very doubtful, however, whetlier these .symp- 
toms were cau.sed by the poisoned flesh of the birds, as numerous persons eat 
partridges that have" fed on these leaves, without the lea.st inconvenience. The 
Indians are said to have use(l the expressed juice of the leaves, or a strong decoc- 
tion, for the purpose of committing suicide. They also made si)oons of the wood, 
hence the name spoonwood. The leaves, which are astringent and bitter (dc-icribcd 
above), are the medicinal parts, and yield tiieir virtues to alcohol or water. 



Fig. 153. 




1094' KALMIA. 

Chemical Composition. — The leaves contain, according to Mr. C. Bullock, 

fatty matter, resin, tannic acid, gum, a bodj' somewhat like mannit, chlorophyll, 
wax, albumen, an acrid substance, extractive, yellow coloring matter, and various 
.'ialts (Amer. Jour. Pharm.,\o\. XX, p. 264). Mr. G. W. Kennedy (187.5j isolated 
(trhutin in small quantity. The poisonous principle is nndromedotoxin (CjiH^iO,,), 
a neutral body, found by Prof. Plugge in several poisonous, ericaceous plants (see 
also investigation by A. J. M. Lasche, P/iarm. Rundschau, 1889, p. 208). It is soluble 
in water (1 in 35), chloroform (1 in 400), alcohol (1 in 9), and almost insoluble 
in ether (1 in 1400). The diluted mineral acids, when warm, impart to it a beau- 
tiful red color. Mi.ss De Graffe {Amer. Jour. Phann., I8d6, p. 321), found tannin 
resembling oak-tannin in the stems and leaves of mountain laurel. Mr. Harry 
Matusow {Amer. Jour. Pharm., 1897, p. Z41) analyzed the root of Kalmia latifolia, 
which contained 11.4 per cent of starch, 1.24 per cent of ash, tannin resembling 
oak-tannin, etc. The ether extract contained a substance which gave reactions 
for amlrnmrdntoiin. 

Action, Medical Uses, and Dosage. — In immoderate doses, sheep laurel is a 
poisonous narcotic, producing the symptoms above named, with diminished cir- 
culation. In medicinal doses, it is antisyphilitic, sedative to the heart, and some- 
what astringent. Internally, either in powder, decoction, or tincture, it is an 
efficient remedy in primary or secondary syphilis, and will likewise be found 
invaluable in febrile and inflammatory diseases and hypertrophy of the heart, allaying 
all febrile and inflammatory action, and lessening the action of the heart. In 
nrtive hemorrhages, diarrhoea, and/wx, it has been employed with excellent effect, 
and will be found useful in overcoming obstinate chronic irritation of mucous sur- 
faces. I have extensively used this agent, and regard it as one of our most effi- 
cient agents in syphilis; and have likewise found it very valuable in inflammatory 
fevers, jaundice, and ophthalmic neuralgia and inflammation. The remedy must 
always be used with prudence; and should any of the above mentioned symp- 
toms" appear, tlie dose must be diminished, or its use suspended for a few days. 
In cases of poisoning by this article, stimulants, as brandy, whiskey, etc.. must be 
given, with counter-irritation to the spine and extremities. Sheep poisoned by 
eating the leaves, have been saved by administering 1 or 2 gills of whiskey to them 
(King). Scudder (Spec. Med.), states that he has employed it with marked advan- 
tage in secondary syphilis and atonic chronic inflammations. For the treatment of 
aching pains in the muscles of the face, muscular rheumatism ■with shifting pains, 
and in the early stage of rheumatism of the heart, success has been claimed for this 
drug, the specific medicine being used in from 1 to5-drop doses. Bright's diseaseif) 
is asserted to have been benefited by its use. Pain in the back during the men- 
strual period, and pain upon moving the eyes are said to be relieved by kalmia. 
Externally, the fresh leaves stewed in lard, or the dried leaves in powder mixed 
with lard "to form an ointment, are said to be beneficial in tinea cajulis, psora, and 
other cutaneous affections. "Sometime since I treated a case of syphilis of five weeks' 
standing, which had not received any kind of treatment during that period. The 
patient, at the time I first saw him, had several chancres, the surface of the body 
and head was covered with small red pimples, elevated above a jaundiced skin, 
and he was in a very debilitated condition. I administered a saturated tincture 
of the leaves of kalmia, and touched the chancres with a tincture of chloride of 
iron, and effected a cure in 4 weeks, removing the jaundice at the same time" 
(King). The saturated tincture of the leaves or specific kalmia, are the best forms 
of administration; they may be given in doses of from 10 to 20 drops every 
2 or 3 hours; the decoction may be given in doses of from A to 1 fluid ounce; 
;ind of the powdered leaves, from 10 to oO grains. For acute disorders, particu- 
larly affections of the heart, from 5 to 20 droi)S of specific kalmia may l>e added 
to 4 fluid ounces of water, and the dilution administered in teaspoonful doses 
every hour. A salve made of the juice of the plant, forms an eflicient local appli- 
cation for rheumatism. This remedy was a great favorite with Prof. King. esi>e- 
cially for troubles depending primarily upon syphilitic infection. 

Specific Indications ana Uses.— Syphilis with excitation of the heart and 
circulation; rheumatism with sliifting pains; cardiac excitation; cardiac palpi- 
tation excited retiexly from gastro-intestinal irritation: pain upoti movement 
of the eves. 



KAMA I. A. 1095 

Related Species and Derivative.— Thrro are othorspocieB of Kalmia, ns fCnImia glaitca, 
Alton, or s,r„„ij, or /'<(/.• launl, anil Knlmia tnniuiflifolia, LiniK-, or .Ynm.ic-/«'<ii>(/ Iniinl, which 
I>os!8ess similar proiHTties. The K. tingii^tifolia Is siippoeeil liv some to hi- the best of the spe- 
cies for im-dicinal use. l^awlKS in 1889, found <indromeilt,lan'u in the leaves and twigs of the 
latter plant, as well as the berries of Kalmia lali/uliu. This plant is used by the Cree Indians 
88 a tonic and remedy for iutislinal irregulnritien. 

L.M-KoTtTANi.\K. — M. (ireslioff has found in a number of l.aurel speciee a crystalline, 
toxic alkaloitl thniiiManiiie't. soluble in an excess of alkali. It closely resembles strychnine 
in its action upon the spinal cord [I^hunn. Jour. Tratis.. IS'.U, Vol. XXI.'p- 662). 

KAMALA ^U. S. P.)— KAMALA. 

"Thegland.< and hairs from the c&psu\es of Mallntus phiHppiensw (Lam&Tck), 
Miiller Arg." — ( T. S. P.);(Erliinus philippinensis, Baillon ; Rottlera tinctoria, Rox- 
burgh ; CrottD) p/iilippemu^, Lamarck). 

Ndl. Oril. — Euphorhiacea?. 

Co.MMo.\ Names: Rottlem {('. fi. P., 1870), Knmain, Kameela, Spommood. 

Ii.i.i-.STRATio.\ : l?cntley and Trinien, Med. Plants, 236. 

Botanical Source and History.— This is a small tree or arborescent shrub, 
found ill the hilly jiurts of India, along the base of the Himalaya mountains 
from Assam to near Ferhawur, in Mysore, and near Bombay, in Australia, China, 
Abyssinia, etc., and growing from 1.5 to 30 feet high. It was formerly known as 
Rottlerii tinctoria. Its leaves are entire, petiolate, ovate, and acute. The fruit of 
this plant is about the size of a hazel-nut, tricoccous, with its external covering 
trifurrowed, and thickly covered with glands of a pulverulent appearance, and 
a reddish color. These glands are the parts used, and are obtained by simply 
brushing them off from the ripe ca])sule, which usually ripens between the last 
of January and the first of April. In Hindustan this powder, under the name 
of tvurru.9 (see Belated Drugs), hsLS been extensively employed as a dyeing agent. 

Description. — Kamala, when recent, has a peculiar, heavy odor (inodorous, 
/'. S. P.>. increased on being rubbed between the fingers, or upon being wanned, 
but which diminishes with age. In the mouth it is gritty and has a somewhat 
acrid taste. When exposed to a temperature of 93.3° to 100° C. (200° to 212° F.) 
it undergoes no apparent alteration ; when a small portion is dropped into a 
Hame it flashes up instantaneously. Its best solvents are alcohol, ether, and solu- 
tions of alkalies, from which it is precipitated by water or acid, in the form of a 
resinous substance. 

The U. S. P. thus describes the official drug: "A granular, mobile, brick-red 
or brownish-red powder, inodorous, and nearly tasteless, imparting a deep-red 
color to alkaline liquids, alcohol, ether, or chloroform, and a pale-yellow tinge to 
boiling water. Under the microscope it is seen to consist of stellately arranged, 
colorless hairs, mixed with depressed-globular glands, containing numerous red, 
club-shaped vesicles. Upon ignition it should leave not more than 8 per cent 
of ash " — (['. S. P.). Dr. F. A. Fliickiger states that if the glands are caused to 
roll under water or glycerin, they all ultimately show, to the observer, under the 
microscope their flat side. In its center we find a very short stalk cell, from 
which a certain number of small clavate cells radiate in different directions, thus 
constituting the somewhat globular form of the gland, which is covered by a weak 
integument. The thicker ends of the small clavate cells within appear at the 
outside as soft protuberances, upon which partly depends the irregularity of the 
nearly globular form of the glands. The radiate cells in question .ire arranged 
around the center of the flat side to the number of from 9 to 30. If only the 
basal side is examined, they will be seen to be filled with a dark-brown or brown- 
ish-red resin, the intermediate spaces and the outer membrane being of a light- 
yellow color. The outline of that side, which is always turned to the ob.server, 
forms thus an undulated circle or ellipsis, the diameter of which varies from 
70 to 120 micromillimeters (thousandth parts of a millimeter), the lieight of 
till" whole gland being always considerably less. The kamala glands are always 
accompanied by a tolerable amount of characteristic, stellate, colorless, or brown- 
ish hairs, belonging equally to the fruits of M<iIIoIh.-<, and some fraguients of tl^g 
latter, and inorganic impurities {Pharm. Jour., Dec. 1867, p. 279). 



101)0 KAMALA. 

Chemical Composition.— Kamala contains a small amount of moisture (O.o to 
3.5 per cent), .starch, tannin, gummy extractive, citric and oxalic acids, volatile 
oil, and ash, but consists chiefly (to 80 per cent) of a red-colored resin, which 
is soluble in ether, alcohol, carbon disulphide, amyl alcohol, glacial acetic acid; 
also in alkalies, imparting to the latter a beautiful red color. Leube Q860; dififer- 
entiated the ether-.solubIe part of kamala into a resin freelv soluble in alcohol, 
fu.'iing at 80° C. (176° F.),and another, less soluble, fussing at 191° C. r.375.8° F.). 
Anderson (185-5) observed a yellowish-brown crystalline sediment in an ethereal 
solution of the resin, and named it rottlerin (Cj,HjoOg). By fusion with caustic 
potash, Fliickiger obtained from this exxhstAnce para-oxy-henznic acid . Rottlerin (or 
kaiiKilin of Merck ; see Fliickiger, Pharmacognosie, 1891, p. 261), is probably the 
same substance as mallotoxin {C,giltfi^. or C„H,„03), obtained in flesh-colored 
needles from kamala by A. G. and W. H. Perkin (1886), and by Jawein (1887), 
the latter observing its melting point at 200° C. (392° F.). Acids reprecipitate 
this substance from its solution in alkalies. The ash of kamala was found by 
Fliickiger and Hanburj' not to exceed 3 per cent in a good grade; the V. S. P. 
allows 8 per cent. A red color of the ash points to the presence of ferric oxide. 
H. G. Greenish (Ainer. Jour. Pharm., 1893, p. 193) calls attention to a false kamala 
observed by him in trade, and which consisted mainly of powdered safflower, 
carelessly collected and badly preserved. 

Action, Medical Uses, and Dosage.— This article has been known as a rem- 
edy for tapetmrm among European and American physicians, for only a few years, 
though long known and employed for this purpose in India. Dr. C' Mackinnon, 
a surgeon in the English army in India, first made its properties known to the 
profession, he having been almost invariably successful with it. Since then 
other practitioners have employed it with equal success. In doses of from 2 to 4 
drachms it purges, often with griping, or nausea and vomiting, and producing 
from 4 to 10 or 15 stools. The worm is usually expelled entire, but often without 
the head, in the third or fourth stool, after 3 drachms of the powder have been 
administered. A strong alcoholic tincture acts more mildly and with more uni- 
form effects. Round and seat worms are also said to be expelled by it. The dose 
of the powder for an adult is from 2| to 3 drachms, given in mucilage, .syrup, or 
other vehicle; of the tincture, made in the i)roportion of 3 ounces to ^ pint of 
alcohol, ^ fluid ounce. The dose to be repeated, if necessary. Dose of specific 
kameela, as a ttenifuge, 30 to 60 drops, every 3 hours, until 5 or 6 doses have been 
taken. Externally, its employment is stated to be efficient in certain cutaneous 
affections, particularly scabies and herpetic ringworm. 

Related Drug. — War?, Wtrras, or Warras. This term properly signifies saflron, but 
ha.« been applied not only to kamala, bnt more especially to a certainj>owder. the Ixitanical 
source of \vhi( Ii is not ilifinitily known, though thought to come from Flemiiiriia Ornhnmiana. 
This is the Mil.>t:mr.> re i> rri .1 ti) and beautifully illustrated in the paper from whii-h the above 
quotiition Is. .■ A'//, ii/i, /, ■ ; /yd. /i i is extracted. I>r. Kliickigt-r therein refers to a new kind 
of kamala, which lie thinks iiuist belong to another plant. It is darker colored, more free 
from earthy impurities, and its grains are all larger than those of the old or true kamala, anil 
instead of being globular they are cylindrical or nearly conieal; its cells are not elavate. but 
simply subcylindrical, and not radiate, and the hairs with which it is mixed are nearly coloi^ 
less, and not stellate or tufted, as in the true kamala, hut quite simple. When exposed to a 
temnerature of 93.3° to 100° C. (200° to 212° F.t, the new kamala becomes intensely iihick. Its 
alconolic tincture, slowly evaporated, leaves microscopic crystals, probably the i-«}//<ri)i of Dr. 
.\nderson. It is imported from Aden. (For interesting details reganling wars, see Flflckiger, 
PhctniKirnriiiosie, 2d ed., 1883, p. 236). 

Other Taeniafuges. —jKmMia ribrx, Burmann. Sal. Oi<l. -Myrslnese. India. The Lorries 
of this tree are amuiatie, and have been used to adulterate pepper. The color is dnll-reil. The 
stalk and .5-parted calyx are often attached; the apex is beaked; and the surface striated. 
The ta-ste is pleasantly astringent and feebly aromatic. It is ta-niacide. The natives of India 
attribute tonic, alterative, and especially antlielmintic properties to it. It is saiil to cause the 
death of the worm. It enters into the focal applications for skin diseases, esjwiiallv riii<7int>nii, 
and has some reputation as a carminative stomachio in df/sfK-intia. The natives further I»-lieve 
that its use, with licorice, tends to strengthen the l««lv, and |>revent the ilU'tleets .•! old age 
(Dymock, .\fat. Med. Western India). Warden i ISS.'^ is.'.lated Irom it golden-yellow ervstals of 
im'Micarid (CjIIuOj). It is soluble in al.oliol ami ehlomform, but not in water, Kor M/>'- 
wiirm, Etnhelia rilies is given in powder i5i to ~)\n) with milk, upon an empty stomach, and 
followed with a purgative. 

McsKN'NA, JIesen.sa, Bisissa, or BrssESA. — The bark of .4mci<i anthelminlien. Baillon. 
,Yfi/, On/.— Leguminosa'. .\u acrid dru»' containing, according to Thiel ( 1862 \, bitter ami sweet 



KIN.). 10!»7 

principles, V>fsi<ie8 mutenin, an amorphous, saponin-lilce principle. An Abyssinian remedy lor 
Itiiietiwiii, taken in doses of '2 or 3 ounces of tlie powder, followed after some time with a purga- 
tive. It i.s siiid to cause nausea, and the worm is expelled in a pulpy condition. 

Ka-vsM.A is a remedy employed by the .\byssini;ui.s for the removal of Uijietnonn. 

Ophiiixyhin sf-iiKiitiiiuin. — Kast India. The root contains an essential oil and ophioxylin 
iCmHijO, 1, a yellow, crystalline body. The root is used by the natives as an anthelmintic 
and cathartic. 

S.\i>ui.\. — Fruit of Mtfsn lanrfolala, Forskal. ..V«(. Onl. — Myrsineie. Abyssinia. A brown- 
green, resinous drupe, having a bitter, acrid, pungent tjiste, and sometimes causing nausea, 
emesis, and catharsis. It contains, acconling to .\poiger (1S57I, j>ectin, an iron-greening taii- 
nin, fatty anil volatile oil, and an acrid boily. Wittstein and Apoiger {Amer. Jour. Phmm., IfviS, 
!>. I.i9) established the remarkable occurrence of boi-'u- acid among the mineral constituents 
of this plant. Reputed an ctTective tajniacide. .\dministered in powder. It is said to impart 
a violet hue to the urine. 

Tatzr, or Satze.— .\ disagreeable fruit, of a red-brown color, derived from the .l/;/rsi»<; 
(ij'ricana, Schimper. Tieniacide. Dose, 4 to G drachms. 

KINO (U. S. P.)— KINO. 

"The inspissated juice of Pterocarpus Marsupium, Ro.\burgh " — (('. 5. P.). 

Nal. Ord. — Leguminosa?. 

Co.MMoN N.ame: Gummi kino, Re.nna kino, Biyn (Bengalese). 

Illistk.\tion ( of tree) : Beutley and Triiueu, Xfcl. PldtiU, 81. 

Botanical Source. — For a long time the origin of kino was unknown. It 
has been a.-icertained to be the product of a lofty tree, growing upon the moun- 
tains of the Malabar coast of Hindustan, named Plciomrpus Mnrsupiiun,he\ongmg 
to the A'«/. fc(/. Leguiuinosw. It has an erect, very higii trunk, rarely straight. 
The outer layer of the bark is brown and spongy, falling ofl' in flakes; the inner 
red, fibrous, and astringent; branches spreading, horizontal, numerous, and far- 
extending. The leaves are sub-farious, alternate, pinnate with an odd one, 8 or 9 
inches long; leaflets 5, 6, or 7, alternate, elliptic, emarginate, firm, deejj-green, 
and shining above, less so below, from 3 to 5 inches long, and 2 or 3 broad. The 
petioles are round, smooth, waved from leaflet to leaflet, 5 or 6 inches long, 
stipules none. Panicles terminal, very large; ramifications bifarious, like the 
leaves. Peduncles and pedicels round, a little downy. Bracts small, caducous, 
solitary below each division and subdivision of the panicle. The flowers are very 
numerous, white, with a small tinge of yellow. Vexillum with a long, slender 
claw, very broad ; sides reflexed, waved, curled, and veined; keel 2-petaled, adher- 
ing slightly for a little way near the middle, waved, etc., same a.s the vexillum. 
Stamens 10, united near the base, but soon dividing into 2 parcels of 5 each; 
anthers globose, 2-lobed. Ovary oblong, pedicelled, hairy, generally 2-celled; cells 
transverse, 1-seeded. Style ascending. The legume, which is borne on a long 
petiole, is three-fourths orbicular, the upper remainder, which extends from the 
pedicel to the remainder of the style, is straight, the whole surrounded with a 
waved, veiny, downy, membranous wing, swelled, rugose, woody in the center, 
where the seed is lodged, not opening; generally 1, but sometimes 2-celled. Seeds 
single and renifnrm (L.). 

History and Description.— Kino is the juice of the tree obtained by making 
longitudinal inci.-ions in the bark; it flows abundantly, has a red color, and by 
drying in the sun, cracks into irregular, angular masses, which are then placed 
into wooden boxes for exportation. It usually reaches this country bv way of 
England, being originally imported from Bombay or Tollicherry. East India (or 
Malabar) kino is that recognized by the l'. S. P., which describes it as follows: 

"Small, angular, dark, brownish-red, shining pieces, brittle, in thiii layers 
ruby-red and transjiarent, inodorous, very astringent and sweetish, tinging the 
saliva deeji-red. Soluble in alcohol, nearly insoluble in ether, and only slightlv 
soluble in cold water" — (C. S. P). Kino burns without fusion or softening, witii 
but little flame and frothing, leaving a scanty gray a.>'h. Boiling water dissolves a 
large j)ro|)ortion of it, forming, when cold, a perinanent, intense, blood-red solu- 
tion, which yields with ferric chloride a dark-green, coarsely flocculent precipitate, 
which is so abundant as to render the whi)le liquid gelatinous. Acetate of lead 
produces a gray i)recipitate, and tartar emetic gradually a lake-red, muddy jelly. 
Cold water, which partly dissolves it, forms with it a clear, cherry-red solution, 



1098 KINO. 

leaving a crumbly, grayish residuum. Alcohol dissolves about two-thirds of it. 
and forms a deep, brownish-red tincture, which is not disturbed by water. By 
long standing the tincture gelatinizes, and becomes less astringent. Proof-spirit 
is a less complete solvent, but the tincture is less apt to gelatinize. Its solubility 
in water is facilitated by alkalies, but its astringency is thereby lost, and its 
general eliaiacti-is chan^rcd. 

Chemical Composition. — The chief constituent of kino is kino-tannic (cocco- 
(annir) uri,!, whieh ir- |irt'sfnt in the amount of from 45 to 55 per cent (F. E. Mafat. 
Pharm.Jnur. r/YOi,-*, 1892, Vol. XXIII, p. 146). It is closely related to the Unnin 
from catecliu; its non-glucosidal nature was established by Bergholz (Dmeri. 
Dnrpiit, 1884). Unlike cattchu, however, kino yields to ether no catechin (cnte- 
rkuic arid). This solvent, according to Eissfeldt (1854), abstracts from kino only 
traces of pijromterh in (C6H,[0H]j). On continued boiling of an aqueous solution 
of kino or kino-tannic acid, an insoluble, red jjhlobaphene, kino-red, is precipitated. 
This substance is also formed gradually by prolonged exposure of solutions of 
kino at ordinary temperature (Gerding, 1851). By fusion with caustic potash, 
Hlasiwetz (186.5) obtained from kino 9 per cent of phloroglucin (C5H3[OH]3) ; proto- 
catechuic acid (CeH3[0Hl.C00H) has also been observed in this reaction (Sten- 
house). Kinoin (CnHuOj is a crystallizable substance obtained by Etti (1878) 
from Malabar kino, by boiling this with diluted hydrochloric acid, decanting from 
the kino-red formed, and abstracting the aqueoussolution with ether (see Jahresb. 
der Pharm., 1878, p. 190). 

The yield of kinoin is 1.5 per cent. Etti found this substance to be decom- 
posable by hydrochloric acid into gallic acid (C5H,[OH]3.COOH), pyrocatechin, and 
methyl chloride. Heated to 130° C! (266° F.), it loses water and is converted into 
h'7io-ref/ (CjgH^O,,). Kinoin is soluble in alcohol and boiling water, little soluble 
in ether; its solutions produce with ferric chloride a red coloration, and are not 
precipitated by gelatin. Kino-red is hardly soluble in water, soluble in alcohol 
and alkalies; its solutions are precipitated by gelatin, and colored green by ferric 
chloride. A. Kremel was unable to obtain kinoin by Etti's method; in its place 
he invariably found protorntechuir arid (see Jahresb. der Pharm., 1884, p. 281). Good 
kino leaves about 1.5 per cent of ash. 

Action, Medical Uses, and Dosage.— Kino is a pure and energetic astrin- 
gent, and may be used to fulfil all the indications for which catechu is emploj'ed. 
It is not considered so efficient in rhronic dysentery as catechu, but is preferred 
internally in menorrhagia, and as a topical application in leurorrho'a, relaxed sore 
throat, and aphthae of the mouth or fauces. An infusion thrown into the nostril 
has suppressed hemorrhage from the Schneiderian membrane; and the powder on 
iint has suppressed a hemorrhage from a wound in the palate. Dose of the pow- 
der, from 10 to 30 grains; of the tincture, from i to 2 fluid drachms. 

Related Drugs. — There are many other exudations known in commerce as Kino, partly 
derived from plants belonging to entirely different natural orders, c. g., many species of Euca- 
lyptiLi, Myi-iftica, etc. Among the most important are the African kino, Dhak-tret kino. Botany 
Kaij kino, Jamaica kino, and .S'o«//i A7nerican kino. 

African Kino, Gambia kino, until within recent years was very rarely seen in commerce ; 
from specimens received from Mungo Park, when on his last journey, it was decided to be an 
exudation from the Plerocarpu.1 eriuaceu,'!, Poiret, a tree growing in niaiiy districts of the .'^negal, 
Nunez, and along the banks of the Gambia and other streams of West .\frica. Its behavior 
is similar to that of ordinary kino. According to Th. Christv, of London, this tn-e yields the 
genuine kiiio that was first introduced into medicine by Dr. tothergill. An authentic commer- 
cial snecimeii left 1 T.t per cent of ash, and contiiined .=i2 per cent of tannin, while other com- 
mercial spe<Mes vielded from 2.6 to 7 per cent ash, and from 14 to ;<!• percent tjinnin. 

DiiAK-TREE Kino, liitlea kino, lieiigal kino, Biiirn '/"'". Ai/o." kino. I'ihif kitio, (liim of the 
Piil<i.t iDhnk-tny). is the product of the Bnlci frtniiU^in. Roxburgh, a miignitic«>nt leguminous 
tree of the East Indies. BiUra fHi>ei-ba, Roxburgh, and Buhn ;Hirrirf..ni. Roxburgli. exude a 
similar product. The juice naturally exudes from tissurt-s in the branches of the trve, and 
concretes into red tears which become black uniler the action of the sun. Thev art- irrx-gn- 
larly angular, seldom so largi' as a grain of barley, apparently black and ojwque. but r»-ally of 
an intense garnet-red color, transparent in thin pieces, and fretpiently have IiIhtb of bark 
adhering to one of their faces, their taste is very astringent, brittle when chewed. wilJiout 
adhering to the teeth, and they tinge the saliva lake-red. Their chemical n-actions and solu- 
bilities are similar to those of the Eivst India variety. Thev contain from 7:5 to W per ctMit of 
tannic acid, and might be safely substituted for orilinary kino. It rarely reaches England, 
"nd has not been imported to .\merica. It is termed Onm hitm. 



KOLA. lU'.lD 

_ BoTAN-v B.\Y<Klso, Auilralinn Uno, or £ucali/pUts kino, first ilescriboJ by White ami Smith, 
in 1790, was bi-lieveJ to be the astriiigt-nt inspisaateU juice of the brown gu'm tri'c of New llol- 
liintl I the £'!(.vi%<i« rtmnijern), a tine tjill tree belonging to the iVri(. Cc/.— JIvrtaie;r, ami wiis 
stuteil tt> yiel.l a roil juice so urofu.-icly from incisions that CO jrallons mit;ht lie collectt<l from 
on" tree. Acconliug to J. H. Maiden [Phariii. Jour. Tmm., Vol. XX, 1889, pp. 'JJl and :V2\), 
til -se statements are consider.ibly overdrawn, ami the jK'culiari'i/cu/y/jdn rcW/ii/cra botanically 
ileserilK'.l bv Smith, can not now be identiiied, as the majority of Australian eucalyptus spe- 
cies are resin-bearing plants. Only one species, however, is of commercial value (although 
Maidiii recommemls si-veral others i, viz., Kucoliiiilm roMmln, .'^chlecht., growing in enormous 
iliianlilies along the Murray Hiver, in Australia; it yields the .I/m/th.v »■.(/-;/«;», or AV</-(/hhi kino. 
The im'duct obtained fixnn all other spi-cies is sparingly s(j1ii1)1o in water and alcohol and 
tlieretore commercially unsuitable, but this is i>r(ibaly due to jirolonged exposure of the resin 
to the air before it is gathered. This inferior grade has been used as an adulterant of the 
li.'tler grades of kino. Mr. Jaseph Bosisto (.4i/i<r. ,/.w/-. I'lmnii.. 1K97, p. .=S;«), staU-s that the 
i;il-(jiim of K. if'Mi-dtu lo<lgt'8 itself in t lie ducts between t lie bark and the wood, and when tapped 
It can be obtained in rather large <iuantities. .1. II. .Maiden ( .Inifr. Join: J'liarin., 18i>7, p. 1 ) gives 
the highest yielil at 4 gallons, the average l)eiiig I quart from one tree. On evaporating the 
juice in a vacuum pan a ruby-red gum is obtained, entirely soluble in water and alcohol. Com- 
mercial specimens yielded about 47 per cent of tannic acid. The turbidity observed with some 
of the kinos from Australian eucalyptus including /iT. ros/rd^d), when dissolved in alcohol or 
water, is ilue to the presence of two crystallizable substances, rudesmiti and aromadendrin. 
(For details regarding the chemistrv of "these substances, see Henry G. Smith, Anui: Jour. 
J'lianii., lS9t5, p. 679). 

.T.w.MC.K, or West Ixdi.\.v Kixo, is obtained from the f>en-iidi> grape (Coccolohn urifera, 
Linn^), a tree belonging to the Nal. 0/v/.— Polygonacea-. The tree inhabits the seacoast of the 
West India Islands-and the adjoining coast' of .\merica. .\ decoction is prepared from the 
leaves, wood, and bark, which are excessively astringent, then evaporated, and the thick fluid 
poure<l into vessels, in which it solidities upon cooling. I'lwn extracting it from the vessels 
containing it. it is readily reduced to pieces varying in size, generally about as large as a small 
cherry, anil with a disposition to the orthogonal' form. Thevare ligliter colored, and less .shin- 
ing than the ordinarj- kino, are impervious to light in bulk, but garnet-red and semi-trans- 
parent in thin fragments; are brittle and pulvenible, forming a paler-colored powder than the 



Irug. They are inodorous, amarous, ami excessively astringent, impart a red hue 
t'> the saliva wlien masticated, and contain about 41 per cent of tannic acid. Cold water, 
and alcohol, dissolve nearly the whole of AVest Indian kino, about 6 to 11 per cent remaining 
undissolved. 

SoiTii .\merican, Coi.rMBiA, Or CARACAS KiNo, is probably furnished by the same tree as 
the West Indian, and is likewise probably derived from the Coccohha uvifera, Linne. It is 
imported in heavy masses, and closely resembles the Jamaica kino in its several properties, 
excepting that it "is equally .soluble in cold water and alcoliol, is more free from any tenacious 
siibstanoi' interfering withthe filtration of its watery solution, and contains no resinous body. 
It is rarely si'en in America. 

MvKisTKA Kiso { K'il jadikai) is an extract resembling ulliiial kino, obtained as an exu- 
dation upi>n making incisions into the bark of MyrMcu mnl'ih.i <■,,-,,_ l.:niiarck, a tree growing in 
southern India. The product was studied in recent ye;ir< by I'n'i. IM. Schaer [Amer. Jour. 
I'hnrm., IS'.Hi, i>. 546), who found that the myristica kino airncs In all iliaracteristics with true 
kino, except that no pyrocalechiu could be "abstracted with ether. .\ characteristic constitu- 
ent of yfi/ristic'i kino, however, was found both in a dry specimen obtained from the Kew 
(iarden.*, and a semi-liuuid extract prepared for the author in the Buitenzorg (Java) Botanical 
tiardeu, namely, crystals of calcium tartrate, the presence of which, therefore, seems to indicate 
Mi/rittica kino, and to distinguish it from the official kino, .yfi/ri^tica sucadaiua seems to yield 
must of the.se crystals. 

Ptrrornrpni i/Ky/fK.*, Willdenow. — Philippine Islands and South India. Thisspecics yields 
a red kino of a fetid character, known as .Saii;; draaon. 

Ceratopetall'm.— .\ kino-like gum. Is saitf to be obtained from a plant of this genus 
growing in New South Wales. 

KOLA.— KOLA. 

The seed.'! of Sterculin acuminata, I'alisot de Beauvais (^Coln ncuminaln, Roliert 
Brown ). It has mnny other synonyms. (See Kola, Monograph No. 5, of Frederick 
Stearns «.t Co.) 

AW. Ord. — Sterculiacese. 

Common Names: Kola, Kola nut. Female Ma, Cola (Bism/-l)is»y, triiru. Ver- 
nacular). 

Ili.u.stratio.vs: Kola, Monograph No. 5, of Frederick Stearns & Co., Figs. 3, 
T). and 11 ; A"'/" IHfi^trafed, by Johnson it Johnson. 

Botanical Source.— This is a tree from 40 to m feet high, somewhat re.'^em- 
hling til'- Kimnion chestnut tree. The trunk is erect, smooth, and cylindrical. 
The bark is green and thick. The le.tves are alternate, entire, slightly revolute. 




Sterculia acuminata. 



smooth, green, and oblong-acuminate, from 8 to 6 inches long by 1 to 2 inches 
broad. They are borne on petioles from 1 to 3 inches long. The younger leaves 
are pubescent. The flowers are polygamous, and borne in both terminal and axil- 
lary cymose panicles, beset with stellate hairs. 
The flowers are greeni.sh-j-ellow or white and 
purple at the margins of the petals. The fruit 
is composed of follicles, containing from 1 to 10 
oblong, obtuse seeds, with acartilaginou.*, pur- 
plish testa. The cotj'ledons are generally 2 
in number (may be 3 to 5), red or greenish- 
j'ellow, flatly ovate, or auriculate, compressed, 
and thick. 

History. — The kola tree grows in a some- 
what limited locality, comprising that portion 
of western Africa between Sierra Leone and 
the Congo and Lower Guinea. It thrives at 
about or a little higher than the sea level, in 
hot and moist situations. When conditions 
of soil and climate are favorable, it grows in- 
land from the points mentioned olXl or 600 
miles. It has been found elsewhere, though 
undoubtedly introduced, as in Jamaica, where 
it was distributed by slave traders. The Eng- 
lish and French have introduced it into many 
of their possessions, and the gulf and Pacific 
coast districts of the L^nited States are said to 
possess the required climate and soil for its 
growth in this country. The travels of Leo 
Africanus(in the 16th century) referred to this 
tree as the Gora or Guru, and he wrote concerning its bitter nut. Clu.-ius ( 1591) 
described and illustrated the seeds. J. Bauhin first referred to its medicinal use, 
noting its employment by the natives in fevers. Kola seeds have been used by 
the African natives from time immemorial as a necessity and a luxury. It fig- 
ured as an indispensable necessity in manj' ceremonials — social, political, and 
religious. It was used as a declaration of war (red nut), and as a symbol of peace 
(white nut). It figured in courtship and marriage, compacts of friendship, as a 
mark of hospitality, and was put into the graves of the dead to nourish them on 
their long journey. The natives masticated kola to allay hunger, prevent thirst, 
promote digestion, and sustain strength. Like the so-called Indian charing nut, 
it was accredited with the property of purifying and sweetening water. The 
natives prefer it over tea and coffee, and innumerable are the faluilnus virtues 
ascribed to it. In civilized countries kola was known chiefly as a curiosity until 
quite recently. In 1883, Meckel and Schlagdenhauften published a detailed 
monograi>h ctmcerning it, entitled " Sur les Kolns Africains." It now has an exten- 
sive commerce in this country. (For exhaustive and instructive matter concern- 
ing kola consult •' Ao/a,"' by Frederick Stearns & Co., and Koln Illustrfifed. by John- 
son it Johnson ; see also an interesting illustrated paper bv F. B. Kilmer, on Bi^si/ 
nuts, the Kol,i of the West Indie.*, in Auu^r. Dni.i., 1S!I4, p. o.56.> 

Description.— Kola nuts, .so-called, are the cotyledons of the seeds, deprived 
of their puriilish, cartilaginous testa. The irregular seeds, owing to close nesting 
in the follicle, have a compressed, somewhat triangular and subtetragonal shape, 
and bear considerable resemblance to the horse-chestnut. Tlie cotyledons, which 
may number from 2 to 5, are fleshy and thick, and about 1 iudi in length. They 
have, when fresji, a bitterish, somewhat astringent taste. Wlicn dried, however, 
they possess a mild and fiiintly aromatic taste, and an odor that lias been coni- 
])ared to that of nutmegs. There are two varieties of kola nut — the irhite kola, 
which is more nearly "a pale greenish-yellow," and the ml l-nin — both being 
yielded by the same species, and often occurring in the same nod. 

Chemical History and Composition.— 0. Dapper, in hisdescrintion of Africa 
(Amsterdam, U!7«l I, slaits that the kola nut, "as experience teaclietli. eaten in tlie 
evening, hiuderetli sleep" (J, O. Schlotterbock. in "Koto," publisheil by F. Stearns 




KOLA. 1101 

& Co.). That this effect was clue to the presence o( theinc (c(ifftinc),\\a^ ascer- 
tained, in 1SG4, by Dr. Daniell, a noted traveller in West Africa, who also sujiplied 
Dr. Atttield with the drug for tlie purpose of analysis. Beside theine (aiffeinc) 
(2.13 per cent), starch (42.5 per cent), ash (3.20 per cent), volatile oil, fat, albu- 
minoids, gum, and sugar were found by the latter chemist {Pharm. Join-. Trans., 
1864,Vol. VI, p. 4.50). 

More recently, Heckel and Schlagdenhauffen (Sur lex Kolm AJricaing, 1883), 
discovered, in addition, small quantities oi theohmmine (C,H,N,Oj), the chief alka- 
l.iidal principle ofcacao(77(f'</)/()Hi/( Ctwtio); ^hoi/h. a sub- j, ^^^ 

stance not recorded by Attfield; and a residual, pecu- 
liar and physiologically active substance, called kola-red. 
E. Knebel, in 1892, concluded that the kola-red of these 
French chemists was an impure glucosid, to which, in 
its pure form, be gave the name kolatiin. According to 
Knebel, kohitiin is a combination of equal molecules of 
citffeim, glucose, and koln-red proper, a body closely allied 
to the tannins. It is decomposed into its constituents 
by drying the drug, or by the action of diluted acids, or 
a certain diastatic ferment, which he succeeded in iso- 
lating. The gradual decomposition and consequent 
liberation of caffeine would account for discrepancies 
observed in the analyses on record. In this connection, Crjstais of Cafleine. 

see an interesting paper on kola and kolanin, by F. B. Kilmer, in.4»i(i-. Joiu: Phann., 
1896, p. 9(5. The recent exhaustive researches of James W. T. Knox and A. B. 
Prescott {Pmc. Amer. Phann. A^sor., 1896, p. 136; and 1897, p. 131) have shown, 
however, that the caffeine compound, called by Knebel kolanin, is simply a kola- 
tannate of rnffeine, the kolatanjiic acid itself being free from sugar, thus differing 
from coffeotitnnir acid. 

Kolatannic acid (kolatnnnin) exists in kola both free and in combination with 
caffeine, and was obtained in pure form by abstracting it by repeated shakings 
with acetic ether, after removing the alkaloids with chloroforin. (For the details 
of this painstaking process, as well as the description of its acetyl and bromine 
derivatives, prepared in order to clear up the constitution of this compound, 
consult the original paper.) The formula for kolatnnnin is C,„H,oOg. It is com- 
pletely soluble in water, alcohol, acetone^ethyl ether; sparingly so in ether; and 

austic potash yields ■ 
^:,H,[OH],). Boiling 
diluted acids converts it into an insoluble rerftoc/?/ of variable composition; the 
filtrate yields to ether protocatechuic arid. Kolatannin is to be classed with the oak 
tannin grou]), as contradistinguished from the gall tannin group (Trimble), the 
farmer group yielding with ferric salts a green (the latter a blue) solution and 
precipitate, with calcium hydroxide a light-pink precipitate, turning red, then 
brown (the gallotannic group forming a white precipitate, turning blue), and 
with bromine water a yellow precipitate, turning brown, while the latter group 
yields no precipitate. 

The question of assay methods seems to be still a matter of some controversy. 
For a resume of the methods of J. Jean (1896), F. Carles (1896), and the method 
of Knox and Prescott (1897), see tlie paper of these chemists herein referred to; 
also see K. Dieterich, Pharm. Centmlhallc, 1897, p. 675. 

A. R. L. Dohme and H. Engelhardt (189(3) found specimens of African kola 
to yiekl more caffeine (2.24 jier cent) than Jamaica kola (1.93 per cent). 

Action, Medical Uses, and Dosage.— The action of kola has been compared 
to that of cofiicaiid iokiu, imt it ditiirseven from these,and from that of the two 
principles — caffeine and tli»i)l)r(imine--contained in it. l^pon the stomach it ap- 
pears to exert a tonic influence, improving digestion. This it does either b}- 
increasing secretion or by acting upon the circular fibers of the stomach (Monnet). 
It increases the functions of the cerebro-spinal system and sympathetic system. 
Thisis the effect of small and medium do.«es,renderingonecapableof severe mental 
exertion, overcoming mental dejjression, and tlie tendency to somnolency. Large 
doses produce overstimulation, and tlius tend to destroy the usefulness of thedrug 
when given in proper doses. Physical strength is augmented and sustained by 



insoluble in chloroform and benzin. Fusion with caustic potash yields proto- 
ratechui'- arid (C.H3fOH],.COOH) and phloroglucin (C6H,[0H],). Boiling with 

of VI " " 



1102 KOLA. 

kola, its action upon the muscular system, increasing contractility, being pro- 
nounced. It must not be forgotten, however, that while kola has c^nisiderable 
power in warding off physical and mental depression and exhaustion, that state- 
ments regarding its action in this respect are largely overdrawn. Kola is a tonic 
to the heart, regulating its contractions and increasing its power. Under a weak- 
ened state of the heart, kola causes the pulsations to become fuller and less fre- 
quent. Arterial tension is increased by the drug, diuresis augmented, an especial 
increase of the watery portion of the urine having been observed. Tissue waste 
is retarded under its administration, the excretion of urea being diminished. 

Kola is undoubtedly of value in certain conditions, hinging chiefly on nerv- 
ous depression. Htjatcria and neurnsihenin, with mental gloominess and forebod- 
ings, have been relieved by it. In melanchnlin it appears sometimes useful, par- 
ticularly if that condition be associated with phthisis. The neurasthenic condi- 
tions following exhaustive discharges, or following typhoid and other fevers, is a 
field for its exhibition. It is very useful in cerebral anemia. The guiding symp- 
toms, after protracted illness, are mental depression, tendency to faintness, marked 
nervous irritability, poor appetite and digestion, and great muscular debility. To 
these may be added the diarrho>a of debility. It has been administered in//»e«- 
monia and typhoid fever, when great nervous irritability was present. Its reputa- 
tion as a remedy for the alcohol habit has not been sustained, though there is good 
reason to credit the statement that it quickly overcomes acute alcoholi.ym. Evi- 
dence is not wanting that it sustains the nervous svstem in one attempting to 
break from the tobacco habit. C. W. Hamilton, M. D. [Brit. Med. Jour.. lS90.Vol. I, 
p. 1067), claims it an effective remedy in sea sickness. Certain forms of atonic di/.<- 
pepsia are benefited by it, while for the cure of obstinate chronic dian-hceas, it has 
long had a reputation. It has been assg /.ed that its action in this respect can not 
be well understood, as the amount of^nnin in the drug is so small. May it not 
be due to relieving irritation, and not' to its astringent action ? That form of dys- 
pepsia, attended with pyrosis, eructations, and sick headache, is amenable to kola. 
The vomiting of pregnancy is said to be arrested by it. It has also api)eared useful 
to check Asiatic chole7-n, and has been used in the various forms of diarrhoea preva- 
lent in the tropics. 

Kola may be used in feeble conditions of the heart, especially rorrfiVir irrita- 
bility, the cases being those in which caffeine is useful. Difficult breathing, irregu- 
lar action, and valvular deficiency are the indications for its use. It forms a 
good vehicle for the exhibition of other cardiac stimulants. It is said to be of 
marked value in s^noker's heart. Kola has given good results in migraine, and in 
those forms o{ neuralgia of debility in which cafi'eine and like agents have proven 
useful. Dose of powdered nut, 5 to 30 grains; fluid extract, 5 to 30 drops; solid 
extract, 1 to 6 grains. Various proprietary fluid preparations are ujion the mar- 
ket. The best form for administration is kola in bulk, the drug to be slowly 
masticated and the salivary solution swallowed. 

Substitutes and Adulterations.— The seeds of several plants have been used either 
■wholly a.s a substitute fov, or ;is :i(lulteraiits of, true kola. .All ol these, however, are wholly 
destitute ol the eharacteristic iiriiuijiles of that drug, .\mong these phiuts may he lueutiontxl 
the following: 

Giirciiiia AVd, Ileckel. .Y<i/. Orrf.— Guttifene. The fruit of this plant is rarely found as an 
adulterant of kola, as their external features are entirely dilTerent. However,' it lH>ar8 the 
names of False kola, Male kuh, and liitter kola. False kola \Uk»s not enter comuiercv. hut it is 
highly esteemed by the natives of .-Vfriea, though devoid of marked stimulant pro|ierties. 
.\phrodisiac effects are acereiiited the seeds by the Negroes, and, as a masticatory, they employ 
, them in common colds. They contain tannin,' coloring matter, and a browu and a yellowish- 
white resin, hut no alkaloids (see also Uaninia Manyoslatia). 

Hi'citiera lilturoli.'!, Alton. Xal. Ord. — iSterculiaoea^. An orbicular-shaped se«l of a choco- 
late color, which tnight not to be mistaken for kola, its characteristii-s being suttioiently diflVr- 
ent. Admixtuie w itli the smaller seeils of kola is possible. This plant prows in India, .\frica. 
Australia, and the Philippines. It contains none of the characteristio jirinciplesof kola, except- 
ing a tannin similar to kolatannic acid. It containsi, however, 10 times as much fat. 

Pcntadesma buli/race.r, Don. Xal. Onf. — Clusiare««. A'aii.i/d. Tn'e growing along west 
coast of Africa. Found by Heckel and Schlagileidiauffen as a fre<^uent a<lulterant ol kol.i 
which it closely resemliles in appearance and color, and from which its dilVeriMitiation is ditVi- 
cult. No starch or alkaloids are present, but the seeils contain an ahundauiv of fat— inii;. •■ 
biUler—am\ a peculiar, odorless, and tasteless resin, of a yellowisli color, and possessing toxi. 
properties. 



KUAMKKIA. 1103 

Xttfivleiiun iHi;»-nn/i«, Beauvais. — The reniform, rvddish St'eds dI this spoii.s >'cln^titutt■ :i 
false kola, wbieli has a taste closely resembling that of true kola. The external apiM-aranees, 
liowever, are entirely ditlereut. J^ponin is present in large amounts, aecoriiiuj; to Heckel un<l 
^^c■hlag(lenhaul^en. 

Liifum.i m<i)/i»io«j, tiriesebach. Stifxiti. Xat. On/.— Sapot;ipe8e. .\c-coRling to Helbing the 
seeils of this plant have been otlered as kola. The dried seeds are said to evolve a strong 
odor of prussic aeid. On ai-rount of their aroma, the seinis, wiiii-h_ contain a large quantity of 
fattv oil, are sjiid to U' usimI as a cundiuient bv the natives of the West Indies. 

Iiimuryhaiiilni .1/ont (.l/oni ..ic./.y/l a leguminous tri'c, is the j)robable 8<jnrce of a false 
kola, from St. liomiiigo ( West Indies), which was ollend in l^S'.Hi m the English market. It 
appears to contain no call'eine (liuinn.J'iin-. Tnms., !Wl,S, p. L'STl. 

Belated Species.— .l/'/-om<i aiKjn"!". Mnne. .Vn/. Cnl. Sterculiacese. A common shrub 
in Bengal, where it is known as rhil'himbol, and cultivated as (lUik-Uimliitl in Boudtay gardens. 
The shrub has velvety branches, and the Howers are of a handsome red color. The leaves are 
ovate-oblong, and the' seeds are contained in a cottony envelope. Sircar (/»</. Meil. (•'a:-, 187L') 
announced the baik of the root as an etticient emmenagogue. It is al,<o reputeil serviceable 
in dutnininrrlnni. particularlv when accompanied with con-'estion orwith neuralgic pain. One- 
halfdrachm of the white, viscid juice found in the bark of the root is administered in combi- 
uation with black pepper {see Pymock. -l/(i(. Mt<l. ir,.s/<(/< luitin). 

KRAMERIA (U. S. P.)— KRAMERIA. 

"The root of Kramer ia triaudm, Ruiz et Pavon, and of Knimcria Iximi, Linne'' 
-(U.S. P.). 

Nat. Oct?.— Polygalea\ 

Common Names: Rhatany, Ratanhia. 

Illi-strations: Bentley and Trimen, Mai PlanU^, 30 and 31. 

Botanical Source. — Krameria triandra. This is a suflfruticosse plant, with 
a horizontal, very long, and branched rout, with a thick bark.reddish-hrown exter- 
nally, and red iiiternally. The stem is round, procumbent, much Inanihed, and 
tapering; the branches' are 2 or 3 feet long, and when young white and silky; 
when old, dark and naked. The leaves are alternate, sessile, oblong, and obovate, 
acuminate, entire, and hoary on each side. Flowers red, solitary, and axillary, 
on short stalks. Calyx of 4 sepals, the inferior largest, silky externally, smooth 
and shining inside, of the color of lac. The corolla consists of 4 petals, the 2 
upper separate, spatulate, the two lateral roundish and concave. Stamens 3, 
hvpogenous; anthers small, urceolate, with 2 ojienings at top; ovary ovate; style 
red, and terminal; stigma simple. The fruit is a dry, hairy drupe, burred with 
dull red hooks; seeds 1 or 2 (L.). 

Krameria Ixi.na, Linne, differs in having 5 unlike petals in its flowers which 
are red, and borne in terminal, loose racemes. Its leaves are petiolate and longer 
than those ti( the preoediug species. 

History and Description.— The root of Krama-ia triandra is known as Payta 
or Peruvian rhatany ; that of A'^. hina as New Granada or Savanilla rhatany. The 
latter is found growing from North Brazil to Mexico, and in the West Indies. 
The former plant grows upon the dry, gravelly, and sandy hills in Peru and Bo- 
livia flowering all the year round. The natives had used it as astrong astringent 
long before its di.>covery by Ruiz, in 1780. The root is the oflicial part; it is dug 
up in large quantities after the rains, and after being well dried is exported. In 
Portugal it h;vs been emi)loyed to adulterate red wines. Sometimes an extract is 
jtrepared from it, which is exported and used in a similar manner. The I'.S. P. 
thus de.«cribes rhatany: "From 1 to 3 Cm. (| to 1^ inch) thick, knotty, and sev- 
eral-headed above, branched below, the branches long; hark smooth. or in the thin- 
ner i)ieces, scaly, deep, rust-brown, 1 to 2 Mm. (^ to ^ inch) thick, very a.strin- 
gent, inodorous; wood i>ale brownish-red, tough, with tine meilullary rays, nearly 
tasteless. The root of Krameria Jximi (Savanilla rhatany) is less knotty and more 
slender, and has a dark purplish-brown bark, about 3 Mm. (J inch) thick'"— 
(.{'. S. P.). Cold water or diluted alcohol readily extracts its active constituents. 
In powder it is of a reddish color. The bark contains more of the medicinal vir- 
tues than the ligneous or woody part. If the root be macerated in water at 
100° C. (212° F.), its medicinal properties will be extracted, but as a little starch 
and some colored extractive will also be dissolved, the infusion, when cool, will 
become niuddv, and after a time the above inert substance will be depo.-ited. 



11U4 KILVMEHIA. 

Boiling will extract still more of this matter, and the tannic acid of the root being 
oxidized by the action of the air, loses all its therapeutical influences. A cold 
infusion, or an extract from the cold infusion, are the best forms for use. By 
placing the powdered root in a percolator, and passing water throivgh it, a brick- 
red, aqueous solution is obtained, possessing all the medicinal qualities of the root, 
and from whieli an excellent extract maybe procured by a quick, but cautiously 
conduitid fvapriration. 

Chemical Composition.— Wittstein ( Vierteljnhrsschrifl , 1854, Vol. Ill, pp. 348 
and 485), found the freshly peeled root-bark of rhatany to contain an iron-green- 
ing tannic acid, and a red decomposition product of the latter, analogous to 
chinnnt-red; gummy matter, wax, sugar, starch, calcium oxalate, etc. No gallic 
acid is present. Thf' tannin of rhatany, caUed rafanhm-tnnnir (h-ameria-tmiiii'-) 
acid, is the mnr-t impoitant constituent. It is a red amorphous powder. Nearly 
18 per cent Ava~ i.litiiiia .1 from the Payta variety by Wittstein (1854), while R. G. 
Dunwody (Anur. Jour. Phann., LS90, p. 166) found in the commercial drug con- 



siderably less tannin, viz., 8.4 per cent. Tartar emetic causes no precipitate with 

■ " " ed pre ~ 

as a decomposition product in dry distillation; fused with potassium hydroxide 



it; with gelatin a llesh-colored precipitate is obtained. Pyrornterhin is produceil 



it yields phloroglucin and protocatechuir acid; and diluted acids acting upon it pro 
duce sugar and ratanhia-red (C.iell„0^^) , a. product similar in composition to one 
yielded by hippocastanum and tormentil. The dry extract of rhatany formerly 
imported from South America yielded to Wittstein a crystalline principle whicii 
he believed to be identical with tyrodn (C^HjiNO,), an amido acid ; this principle is 
not contained in ratanhia root. Ruge and Stiideler (1862) found it to have the for- 
mula CioHjjNOj, and pronounced it to be methyl-tyrosin, and also named itratunhin. 
Ruge obtained 1 .26 per cent of this substance. Gintl (see Jnhresb. der Phnrm., 1860, 
p. 165), showed it to be identical with angelin, first obtained by Peckolt in the 
quantity of more than 86 per cent from the Resina d^ angelim pedra, a natund 
exudate from the Brazilian tree Ferreira spectahilis, Allemao. It is probable that 
the South American ratanhia extract in question was derived from tliis tree and 
not from krameria. 0. Hiller-Bombien {Archiv der Phnrm.,lS^2,\^\t.bVi-oAS). 
confirmed the identity of ro^ni/(m with niethyl-tyrosin and angelin, and also with 
the alkaloid surinanmie, obtained in 1824 by Hiittenschmid from Gtoffroya siiri- 
naryunisi'^. and proposed for it the name andirin, on account of its probable occur- 
rence in all species ut' Amlini. 

Action, Medical Uses, and Dosage. — Rhatany is a powerful astringent, with 
some slight tonic virtues. Constipation with slight dyspeptic symptoms maj* be 
induced by immoderate doses. It may be employed internally with advantage in 
vwiorrhagia, hematemesis, passive hemmrhages, chronic diarrhra, leucorrliaa, dironir 
mucous discharges, colliquative persjnration, and incontinence of urine. Internally in 
small doses. Prof. J. M. Scudder (Spec. Med.) recommends it in '' gastric C(ita)-rh, dys- 
pepsia, with full, relaxed skin, inmniinence of urine, gleet, prostatorrhita, leucnrrhua. 
and in some cases of catarrh" (p. 164). It is also used as an energetic styptic in 
epistaxis, hemorrhage from the cavity of an extracted tooth, or the surface of a 
wound, and as a local application to prolapsus ani, fis-^'ure of the anu-i, Jissurcd nip- 
ples, and leuco^rha-a. As an application to spongy and bleeding gums, to redden and 
consolidate them, as well as to preserve the teethj the following" paste will be found 
unsurpassed: Take of prepared chalk and powdered cinchona, of each, equal 
parts; combine them with a sufficient quantity of equal parts of the tinctures of 
rhatany and myrrh, to form a paste. Use daily with a brush. Dose of the pow- 
dered rhatany, from 10 to 30 grains; of the tincture, from 1 to 4 Huid drachms; 
of the infusion, from 1 to 4 fluid ounces ; of the extract, from 10 to 20 grains. 

Related Drugs.— Bn.vzii.i.vx (Par.v or Ce.\r.\) Rh.xt.vnv is referred by Fh'ickipcr and 
llanbiuy to Kruinrriii argentea, Martins, of Brazil. Kramrria cistoidfu. Hooker, of Chili, furnishes 
11 rhatany closely rosemblinj: the I'ayta pio<iiu't, while Texiis Wki/hhj/ is yiel<U><l l>y tlie A'lii- 
mcria sec'iindiriura of De CandoUe. Kiaiiirria lanctiilalu, Torrey, of North Aiiurii-n, is richer in 
tannin and extract than the official prodnct. .\ false rhatany has been nut with, the s<.ni> .• 
of which is unknown; compared with trne rhatany, its twigs aiv smoother and slightly shin- 
ing, having also deeper furrows and transverse depn>ssions of an annular form. It is not s.i 
lougli, breaks more ea.sily and with a short fraetuiv; its l»ark is thicKer and adheres lirndy !.• 
the wooil, is lighter-colored on its inner surface, and has a glistening aspect when cut wiih a 
sharp knife. The center, when cut through, is of a dull, {wile-red color, and without the dark 



points lu.-l with in the true nM.t. It is iniKlonms, more strongly astringent in tiiflte tlian the 
genuiDe rliatauy. anil gives more abundant precipitate with chemical reagents [Pharm. Jour. 
atul Trtins. I. 

LABURNUM.— LABURNUM. 

Tlie seeds of ('i/li.-<u.< Lnbumum. Linii<-, 

Nut. Ord. — Leguininosa'. 

Co.MMOx Names: Bmn-lrrfoil, Golden chain. 

lLLfsTF{.\TioN : BoUinirnI Mfigiiziiie, Plate 176. 

Botanical Source and History.— Laburnum is an unarmed shrub or small 
tree, niitivf <4" tlio iiiuuiuaiiidus portions of southern Europe, and frequently 
found in tultiv;ition, espciialiy in Great Britian. The leaves are petiohite and 
trifoliate, with ovate lanceolate leaflets, pubescent underneath. The golden-yellow 
flowers, which appear from May to June, are very showy, and are disposed in 
lo>>se, pendulous racemes. The calyx is canipanulate and two-lipped; the upper 
lip is entire, the lower one three-toothed. The corolla is papilionaceous, with a 
large vexillum. Tlie fruit is a brown legume, containing many seeds, and is 
attenuate at the base. The genus Cytisus is almost exclusively European, and 
there is no indigenous s|)ecies in the United States. Ct/>.ii-iu< Scojiarius, Link, or 
"common broom," a very abundant shrub in Great Britain, is extensively used 
as a diuretic. 

Chemical Composition. — The ripe seeds of Cytmi.'^ Lolmmum, as well as other 
species of Cytisus, contain an alkaloid n/^i-'-jnc, discovered and obtained pure in 
1864, by Huseniann and Marine. It also occurs in other genera of plants, and 
was established by A. Partheil (Archiv da- Phnrm., 1892, p. 470), to be identical 
with K/rW/i, discovered by A. W. Gerrard {Pharm. Jmn: 7Vrt».'*., 1886, Vol. XVIII, 
J). 101 ), in the seeds of l'le£euroj),Tus. More recently, K. Gorter {Archiv der Phamt., 
1897, p. 321), proved its identity with 6oy''//"r/)i''. tlic alkaloid of the root of £o;)- 
tisiii liiictnrid (which .«ee). Prof. Plugge ( 1>^''1 > :il-i> I'llieves it to be the same sub- 
stance a-: t-ofdinrin, from Sophora toinenlosd. Ciii'ishk' ( llexine, Bajilitoxine) has the 
formula C|,H|,N.,0 (Partheil, 1892; Gorter, ISOTi, and when pure crystallizes in 
large colorless prisms, soluble in water, alcohol, chloroform, and acetic ether; less 
soluble in benzol, amyl alcohol, and acetone; insoluble in petroleum ether, carbon 
disulphide,and absolute ether. It melts at 152° to 153° C. (305.6° to 307.4° F.), 
and can be sublimed by heating in vacuo. It is a d vad base, forming two series of 
salts with acids. The nitrate (C„H„N,0.HN03-f 11,0) forms large crystals. Par- 
theil obtained 1.5 per cent of cytisine from laburnum. In the mother liquors he 
observed the )ircsence ofcholin. 

Action, Medical Uses, and Dosage. — Administered to certain animals, as 
the dug. cat, etc.. even in small doses. M. Chevallier found laburnum to occasion 
emesis, muscular debility, increased pulse, accelerated respiration, somnolence, 
spasms, and finally death." With man, according to Dr. T. S. Gray, Popham, Clout, 
and others, the bark, the flowers, or the seeds, in large doses, produce a sense of 
indisposition, drowsiness, followed by vomiting, vertigo, cold sweats, dryness and 
constriction of the throat, gastric pain, pallor, purging, accelerated respiration, 
strong contraction of the features, dilatation of the pupils, muscular contrac- 
tions, quick and agitated pulse, and other symptoms of narcotism. Recovery 
from these symptoms occurs more or less speedily, and no case is recorded in 
which death was the result. In cases of poisoning by laburnum. Dr. Gray has 
ailvised the use of charcoal, though in many severe cases, persons who have suf- 
fered severely from the symptoms named, have ])romptly recovered w ithout the 
aid of any antidote. Chevallier. who, having taken 6 or 8 grains of cytisine, found 
liimself threatened with severe symptoms, drank quite freely of lemonade, and 
tiiereby checked their further progress. In medicinal do.ses. Dr. Gray recommends 
the use of the active principles of laburnum in the treatment of i/v/Myw/a attended 
with vomitings of bile-matters and alternate attacks of diarrluea and constipation ; 
likewise to check the vomiting of children who eject their food .soon after its in- 
gestion; to relieve bronchial roufih, and mitigate the severity of the paroxysms of 
jtertimin and aMh ma, and to prevent the sympathetic vomiting of pregumir;/; hovi- 
ever, these recommendations have not lieen supported by suljseinienl trials. Prof. 



1106 i-A(. 

J. M. Scudder (Spec. Med.), suggests the small dose (teaspoonful of the solution of 
10 drops of a tincture of the recent bark, made with 98 per cent alcohol, in 4 ounces 
of water), every 1 to 3 hours in irritation of mucous tissues occurring in nervous 
dyspepsia, in the restlessness and uneasiness which follows mental overwork, and 
in the excitation of the gastric and hepatic nerves giving rise to frequent and 
easily excited vomiting. The dose of a decoction, of sp. gr. 1.034, is from 2 to 30 
minims; of C3'tisine, from ^ grain to 2 grains (hypodermatically ^ to | grain) ; of 
laburnine, from 2 to 10 grains. In a case where poisoning occurs, tlie best course 
to pursue is to remove the contents of the stomach as speedily as po.«sible by 
means of an emetic well diluted with warm water, and then to administer am- 
monia, whiskey, or other dififusible stimulants. 

LAC— MILK. 

" The fresh milk of the cow. Bos Taurus, Linne"— (Br. Pharm., 1885). 

Class: Mammalia. Order: Ruminantia. 

Description. — Cow's milk was official in the former British Pharmacopasiiis, 
being used in the preparation of Mistura Scammonii. It is a white, opaque fluid, 
having a density of near 1.030. Its taste is sweet, bland, and to most individuals 
agreeable; its odor slight and peculiar and its reaction feebly alkaline or neutral. 
Under the microscope it appears as a transparent fluid in which are imbedded 
minute globules or corpuscles of a fatty nature, which give to the liquid its 
opacity and whiteness. According to some observers, these globules are sur- 
rounded by an albuminous envelope. The globulas being somewhat lighter than 
the medium in which they are suspended, rise to the surface and cun-titute what 
is familiarly known as cream. This yellowish-white stratum, which contains also 
some of the serum and casein, constitutes about 5 per cent of the fluid. When 
the cream is removed or skimmed ofi", skim-milk remains, containing enough of 
the globules to give it opacity and a bluish whiteness. If the cream be agitated 
for a time, as in churning, the fat globules aggregate, or as some contend, the 
envelope is ruptured, and butter is produced. The serum which remains upon 
removing the butter, contains some butter and casein, saline matter, and milk sugar 
in solution, and is the well-known huttermilk. The pleasantly acid taste of butter- 
milk is due to l((ctic acid formed by the fermentation of some of the milk sugar. 
If milk be allowed to stand it will become soured on account of the formation of 
lactic acid, a.nd formi curds or clabber, due to the precipitation of the r<i.*f/H. The 
latter substance is the material which forms cheese. Acids and rennet produce 
the same effects. The curds are suspended in a thin fluid and can be readily 
separated by straining. The separated fluid is then known a.s uhq/, and is chiefly 
a solution of salts and sugar of milk {saccharum lactis) and some albumen, coagu- 
lable by heat. When the casein is precipitated by rennet, siceet ir/ici/ is obtained, 
while when precipitated by spontaneous souring, mtr whey results. According to 
C. Arnold (Archiv der Pharm., 1881, p. 41), fresh milk that has not been boiled may 
be recognized by the guaiacum test, producing with tincture of guaiaeum a blue 
color; if, however, an alkali or an acid has been added, or the milk heated to 
80° C. (176° F.), no such coloration takes jiiace (also see Guaiari Rcsitui '. Benzin, 
ether, alcohol, chloroform, and carbon disulphide yield with milk permanent 
emulsions. This behavior prevents the elaboration of a method to determine the 
total solids in milk by taking its specific gravity after removing the fat by means 
of immiscible solvents (CJustavus Pile, Amcr. Jour. Pharm., ISSS, \k 244 >. 

Chemical Composition.— The milk of all mammals has the s.\me composi- 
tion qualitatively; the ingredients differ only in their relative quantities. Even 
in one and the same species of animals, there is a marked diversity in the com^Ki- 
sition of the milk, according to the breed of the animal, the quality and quantity 
of its food, according to whether the animal is at rest or active, or on the prox- 
imity to a birth. For cow's milk, Wagner (Haudbuch der Chan. Technologie., 1885), 
p. 953) gives the following limits in the percentage of its constituents: Total 
solids, 6.8 to 17.1 (water, 92.2 to 82.9); fat, 1.4 to 7.2; nitrogenous matter. 2.2 to 
6.2; milk sugar, 1 to 5.2; salts, 0.1 to 1.7. The following table compiled from 
data given by J. Kiinig {Die Menschl. Xahrungs und 'ienuss^mittti. 3tl ed., 1S93\ illus- 



trates the coiiip;initive average composition of a great number of sample!- of milk 
from various sources: 



Water 

Casein 

Albumin 

Total nitrogenous matter 

Kat 

Sugar of milk 

8alt8 



Woman. 


Cow. 


Coat. 


Sheep. 


AM. 


87.41 


87.17 


85.71 


80.82 


89.64 


1.03 


3.02 


3.20 


4.97 


0.67 


1.26 


0..53 


1.09 


1.56 


1..T.T 


L'.29 


3.55 


4.29 


6.52 


2.22 


S.-8 


3.69 


4.78 


6.86 


1.64 




4.88 


4.46 


4.91 


5.99 


0.31 


0.71 


0.76 


0.89 


0.51 



90.78 
1.24 
0.75 
1.!I9 



It is evident from thi."! table that cow's milk and woman's milk differs in some 
respects. Woman's milk is richer in milk sugar, but poorer in salts. Woman's 
milk also contains more albumin and less casein than cow's milk. The deficiency 
in the salt contents in woman's milk is probably the cause why its oa.-^ein is pre- 
cipitated by the add of the gastric juice in the unusual form of fine flakes wliich 
are more readily digestible than the more lumpy casein precipitate of cow's milk 
(A. Dogiel, in .J. Konig, lor. cU.). Even richer in salts than cow's milk is the milk 
of goats and sheep. Much fat (butter) and nitrogenous matter characterize that 
of the goat and sheep. The milk of the mare and ass, on the other hand, show 
a marked deficiency in butter and albuminoids, and a relatively larger amount 
of sugar of milk. "They approach woman's milk in composition. 

The nitrogenous portion of milk is chiefly composed of rasein a.nA albumin. 
The latter is eoagulable by heat in the presenceof acids. Reside.s. there are small 
quantities of pepton-like" bodies present, probably originating in the decomposi- 
tion of casein or albumin. One of these substances is called Inrto-protein, which 
is not precipitated by acids, or heat or rennet, but is thrown from solution by 
alcohol or tannic acid. Casein, which is held in solution probably as a calcium 
compound (W. Eugling, 1885), differs from albumin in not being eoagulable by 
heat, but being coagulated by the action of inorganic and organic acids, and by 
certain ferments, especially a peculiar enzyme (unorganized ferment) contained in 
rennet, a membrane obtained from the fourth stomach of the calf. The separa- 
tion of casein al.so takes place spontaneously at ordinary temperatures upon stand- 
ing, the process being greatly favored by warmth, and being due to the formation 
of lactic acid. (For Duclaux's views regarding the properties of the protein mat- 
ters of milk, see Amer. Jour. Pharm., 1884, p. 591.) 

The fatty matter in milk is the butter, which is a rather complex body. The 
tats are glycerides of butyric, capronic, caprinic, stearic, oleic, palmitic, and 
myristic acids. Rancid butter is due to the decomposition of the glycerides con- 
taining the lower fatty acids, and the liberation of the free fatty acids, especially 
butyric acid, in fluid form. Besides the fats, an odorous substance in small quan- 
tity' and liirlin (sugar of milk), salts, casein, and water are ])resent in butter. The 
salts contained in milk are chiefly phos]jhates and chlori<les of calcium, magne- 
sium, pota.-sium, and sodium, nil being inorganic bodies necessary to the suste- 
nance of life. Th. Henkel ( 1888) has found citric acid to bo a normal constituent 
(0.1 per cent) of cow's milk; woman's milk does not contain it. 



Preservation. — Boiled milk may be ])re.Kerved in open air longer than ra\ 
lilk. To preserve milk for journeys the simplest method is to .«"terilize it b 



placing the fresh milk in a proper container, well filled, immersing in a boiling 
water-bath for a time, closing the container tightly, ami taking pro|.er measures 
to prevent the access of air. It is also recommended to place the milk in a well- 
annealed glass container, to add .sodium l)icarl>iinate (about 5A grains to the 
quart), cork the bottle tightly, place in water-bath at 90° C. (194° F.). for 4 hours, 
remove the container, and varnish the cork. Boric acid (1 to 1000) and .salicylic 
acid (1 to 5000) will prevent for a time the formation of lactic acid in milk. 
However, preserved milk, even if kept in well-.sealed bottles, is liable to decompo- 
^ition and to become intensely bitter, if it is not heated to a sufliciently high 
temperature or for a suflicient length <«f tim.- (C. Naegeli). This ob.«ervation is 



1108 LAC. 

confirmed by Meissl (1882), who found the milk, after a lapse of one year, to have 
a somewhat bitterish taste; the fat being somewhat rancid and bleached, the 
milk sugar (4 to 5 per cent) unaltered, the nitrogenous matter peptonized, and 
small quantities of leucin, tyrosin, and ammonia were present, but no organized 
ferment. 0. Loew {Bericlile, 1882; also see Aiwr. Jour. Pharm., 1883, p. 102), found 
that milk heated to 120° C. (248° F.) will keep for a number of years, while 
anotlier specimen that was kept for 8 years after having been heated to 101° C. 
(213.8° F.) for 40 minutes, was intensely bitter, the milk sugar being decomposed 
into lactose and dextrose, and casein and albumin into peptones, etc. 

Condensed, or Concentrated Mii.k is now largely used in place of preserved 
milk. This, as usually found upon the market, appears as a pasty mass, of j-el- 
lowish-white color and somewhat translucent. When diluted with about 5 parts 
of water (by weight), it will appear like ordinary milk. There are variou.s brands, 
and all are prepared b}' varying methods and require different amounts of diluent. 
The above-mentioned dilution applies to a condensed milk prepared essentially 
as follows: Milk is poured to a depth of about 2 inches into a flat-bottomed, 
shallow boiler, and heated by means of a water-bath. Cane sugar is added in the 
proportion of 1 ounce to the pint of milk. Heat is continued and evaporation 
favored by constantly stirring the mixture, which is reduced in volume four-fifths, 
when it is poured into cans and these are hermetically sealed. The cans are then 
arranged in a boiler and subjected to a steam lieat a little above the boiling point 
of water. The process is then completed (Lignac). On a manufacturing scale, 
milk is condensed by evaporation in vacuum apparatus. Sugar is added to the 
original milk as a preservative. Evaporation can also be carried to dryness, -pro- 
dueing "milk prnrder.'' (See tabulated results of 21 analvses of condensed milk 
in Jour. .4n„r. Chein. Sor.. 1899, p. 444.) 

Adulteration and Detection. — Watered milk maybe known by its relatively 
low specific gravity, that of milk being 1.030. Skim-milk has a higher specific 
gravity. To detect adulterations it is first necessary to carefully evaporate the fluid 
to dryness; the loss will represent the water, the residue the solids. To ascertain 
the amount of fats, extract the residue with benzin or ether: incineration of the 
residue now remaining will indicate the amount of salts in ash, while the nitroge- 
nous matter and sugar are represented by what is lost in incineration. Another 
method is to treat with alcohol and water the ether-insoluble residue, whereby 
the salts and sugar are dissolved and the casein remains as residue. S]>ecial 
instruments have been devised for the rapid determination of the amount of 
cream, butter, and the density and degree of opacity of milk. These are known 
as lactometers (creamometers), and lactoscopes. The following process for the deter- 
mination of fat in milk is recommended in Phnrni. Centralhalle (1899, Y>-27i) as 
giving exact results: In a glass cylinder 40 Cm. long, provided with a graduation 
between 15 and 20 Cc. and at 70 Cc, place 10 Cc. of milk, 1 Cc. of 20 per cent 
ammonia water, and 10 Cc. of 95 per cent alcohol. Add 25 Cc. of ether, shake and 
add 25 Cc. of petroleum ether, shake again. Allow the ether — petroleum ether 
solution to separate, measure its volume, evaporate an aliquot part of it to dry- 
ness. Dry the residual fat at 100° Cc. (212° F.) for 2 hours, and weigh. 

The presence of siilin/lir aci<l in milk can easily be recognized by abstracting 
milk diluted with its own volume of water, treating with a few drops of acetic 
acid, and filtering with ether, evaporating this solvent, and observing the violet 
coloration with a 1 per cent solution of ferric chloride (see Amrr. Jour. Pharm., 
1882, p. 358). (For details regarding milk analysis see J. Konig [/(><•.<■*<.]; also 
Prof Sadtler's Hondbook of Industi-inl Organic Chemistri/,18S5. p. 264, and s|i€cial 
literature there indicated.) 

Action, Medical Uses, and Dosage.— The use of milk as a beverage and 
food arr too well-known to r(()uiri' comment. SuRice to say that in arnle difta^es, 
with high tiMupeiature and rajjid liurning of the tissues, hot milk. salte<l or un- 
salted, is the best food for administration, being easily digested and sustaining 
the nutrition of the body. It is specially of value in most irat^iiuj condiiiong, &nd, 
when modified, forms tlie he^^l suhst Utile for mothci'.-> milk. Occasionally, some in- 
dividuals can not partake of milk, claiming that it renders them l>il"ious. This 
effect is undoubtedly more largely due to a faulty condition of the digestive tract, 
rendering the digestion of cream" dillicult. In .«uch cases skimmed milk has the 



i.At. 1109 

advantage over whole milk. Milk is treijuently of great advantage in dif/entive 
derangniuiits, particularly in chronic aflections, reVn-viug gastro-ititexliual irriUUion, 
un»mne.«>, uivrM, and iimomiiin. Sour or coagulated milk is an excellent agent to 
meet the indications alluded to under Aridum hirtirum. 

The so-called "milk cure" has given excellent results in many disorders, 
chiefly of a chronic character. In certain European centers milk cures have been 
establishetl, and, while to the fresh milk must be attributed great good, there is 
no doubt but that hygienic attention, climate, and sanitary surroundings con- 
tribute much toward a cure. The plan is usually to place the patient upon an 
exclusive milk diet for at least 3 weeks, from 1 to 2 quarts of milk being con- 
sumed in a day. This treatment requires great fortitude on part of the patient. 
Upon taking this treatment, but a short time elapses before a repugnance for milk 
conies upon the patient, the appetite fails, there is a distressing sense of goneness 
and emptiness in the stomach, the tongue becomes pasty and furred and tastes 
badly, and constipation and great weakness ensue. The body steadily loses weight 
until a certain point is reached, and there it is maintained. Constipation, with 
dry, scybalous, practically inodorous, and yellowish stools is the rule. 

The urinary flow is increased, and the quantity of urea greatly lessened. 
After the third week it is customary to allow a little liread, and then meat, and 
so on, for a continued period, the chief part of the diet, however, still consisting 
of milk. Sometimes it is necessary to skim the milk or to boil it, or to add to it 
lime-water or some of the carbonated alkalies, but where possible the pure milk 
alone is to be preferred. Coffee, mineral waters, and laxatives are sometimes re- 
quired to overcome the constipation. The " milk cure"' has been signally eflective 
in certain obstinate slomark ami bmrel affections, as chronic dysjiepsia, gastric ulcers, 
gastric catarrh, gastratgia, chronic diarrhiea, chronic dj/senten/, persistent enteralgia, in- 
testinal indigestion, ascites, diabetes, and desquamatice nephritis, with albuminuria. 
Gout and eczema are also said to have been cured by an exclusively milk diet. 
Milk is one of the most soothing of substances for gastric cancer, and sustains the 
strength of the patient. 

Co.NDKXSED Milk is stated by Dr. Richard Neale to be of great medicinal value 
to infants at times, but it should not be given to them as food, as it does not suf- 
ficiently support vitality {see Amer. Jour. Pharm., 1S!^S. i>. i72). Similar experi- 
ence is" recorded by Dr. Edmund Owen (Amer. Jour. Phurm., 1R84, p. 278). It is 
evident that if too much sugar has been added considerable dilution with water 
is necessary, which renders the milk too weak in nutritive constituents. 

BvTTERMiLK IS signally eflective in many cases oi stomach and bowel disorders; 
and in diabetc--< and albuminuria. (For indications, see Acidum Lacticum.) 

Sweet Whey forms an excellent diet drink in acute diseases,feve)-s, and inf ani- 
mations. The pale tongue indicates it. 

Sour Whey should be given when the tongue is red. 

KofMYS is useful in many constitutional and exhausting diseases, as cAronic 
bronchitis, ^(/iMwm pulmonalis, scrofula, low fevers, chronic diarrhwa and dysenten/, dys- 
pepsia, neurasthenia, ga.-itric cancer and gastric rdcer, summer bowel disorders of children, 
and in many adynamic states requiring food and an alcoholic stimulant. It should 
be borne in mind, however, that on account of the amount of alcohol present, an 
intemperate habit may be formed or fostered by the continued u.-^e of kouniys. 
Under favorable conditions, as under the koumys treatment in the steppes of Rus- 
sia and in Asia, consumptives are reported to have been cured l>y this iieverage. 

Kefir is very similar in its effects to koumys, though le.-^s stimulating, and 
may be u.sed in tfie aflections for which the latter is useful. The amount of these 
two beverages to be consumed will be regulated according to the effect desired or 
produced. 

Milk is one of the substonces usually administered in poisoning by the corrosive 
poisons, particularly those with which it may combine chemically, as with mer- 
curic chloride; even when not antidotal it forms a .Miothing agent in the after 
treatment. A bread and sweet milk poultice is in frequent use to hasten suppu- 
ration in boils, (d>scesses, etc., and milk has i)een employed as a lenitive in .-icveral 
skin disea.«es, particularly in cases t,t' siml/urn, and as an application in ojJiihalmui 
and otorrhwi. The practice of milking mother's milk into the eyes of the new- 
born is to be condemned. 



1110 LACCA. 

Milk Preparations. — Koi-.mvs (i-umii«), a ferment<>d beverage and medicine, 
:ind useil \>y ccitaiu nomadic tribes of Russia and the inhabitants of Tartarj-, is produced by 
fermenting' fre.sh mare's milk with yeast. When about 12 hours old it is known as siaumt/fil 
or ssaumal. Upon standing a few days it becomes much more energetic, acquires a stronger 
acid taste, and becomes well charged with carbonic acid gas, whicli renders it sparkling. Even 
when well secured in bottles, and at a low temperature, fermentation having once begun will 
continue, with an increase of lactic acid, carbon dioxide, and alcohol. The Tartars are said to 
jirepare koumys also by adding; ^ part of koumys to fresh milk, stirring frequently, and, at the 
end of 3 or 4 hours, n-movinji the mixture from the tall vessels employed and putting it into 
champagne l)Ottles, placing them into a cool place for a period of about a week. The product 
acquiies thereby a peculiar, .sweet, acidulous taste. Cow's milk is free from the unpleasant 
odor and taste of mare's milk, and is, therefore, to be preferred in preparing koumys. Dr. I,. 
Wolll' recoimiiends as follows: Take J ounce of grape sugar, dissolve it in 4 ounces of water 
in a quart champagne bottle, and add to the mixture a solution of 20 grains of compresseil 
yeast (Fleischmann's), or well-washed and pressed brewer's yea.st; finally, to the whole adil 
good cow's milk sufficient to almcst fill the bottle. Place the cork and wire it. Put the bottle 
in a cool place at 10° C. (50° F.), or lower, shake 3 times a day, and allow fermentation to pro- 
ceed about .S or 4 days. It is then ready for use, and will keep 4 or 5 days. The kumyss of 
the N'lt'iniirtl Furmulary is prepared as follows : 

Lai Frkmentatum (N. F.), Fei-nieiiUd milk; Kumyss. — " Cow's milk, fresh, 32 fluid ounces; 
yeast, scmiliquid, 60 minims; sugar, 1 troy ounce. Dissolve the sugar in the milk contained 
in a strong bottle, add the veast, cork the bottle securely, and keep it at a temperature between 
25° and 32° C. (75° to 90° F'. ) for 6 hours, then transfer to a cold place "— ( Nul. Form., 1 st ed. ), 

Kefir, or Kephir. — A milk-wine, prepared by certain tribes of the Caucasus from goat's 
and sheep's milk by fermentation, in a leather bag, with yeast and a peculiar bacterium or 
fungus. A goat-skin bag is filled with milk, and to it is added "kejjr seed," a tenacious, dark- 
brown, dry, earthy mass, the origin of which is kept secret, and which contains, according to 
Kern, the liaoterium Dispora cauca.tica, Kern, with some Saccharomyces cererigia; or yeast fun- 
gus. The properties of this "seed" are retained for a long period after drying. It is" an article 
of commerce, and is used in the preparation of kefir from cow's milk, which is preferably ster- 
ilized by heat before the adding of the kefir seeds (B. Xiederstadt, 1890i. Fermentation en- 
sues in a few hours after adding the ferment. The changes which take place are chiefly in the 
casein. Prepared from cow's milk, it is less acid and not so alcoholic as koumys, but c-ontains 
more albumin, and, by some, is preferred to the koumys preparation, i For directions to pre- 
pare kefir without the '" kefir seeds," see Dr. Kogelmann, Anier. Jour. Platnn., 1886, pp. 295 and 
388.) The comparative percentage composition of gow's milk, koumiss and kefir, is stat«d as 
follows I Amer. Jour. Pharm., 1887, p. 515) : 





Cows Milk. 


Koumiss. 


Kefir. 




4.8 
3.8 
4.1 


1.12 
2.05 
2.20 

i;65 
91.83 




Butter ... 


20 




20 


Lactic acid 




Alcohol . .. 




08 




87.3 









Seri-.m L.\ctis Dulce, ir/iei/.— With 200 parts of fresh cow's milk mix 1 part of rennet- 
wine ; warm to 35° to 40° C. (95° to 104° F.), when coagulation takes place, and the whey may 
be strained from the curd. 

Sebum Jj\cTts, or Serum laclU acidum, Acid whey. — Heat 100 parts of fresh, or skim milk, 
to boiling, and add 1 part of vinegar, or 0.1 part of citric acid, in 1 part of water. When coajru- 
lation is complete strain, mix the strained fluid with the white of 1 egg, heat to the boiling 
point, and filter. 

Seki'm L.^otis T.\>i.\Ri.N'DiN'ATi'M, Tamarind whey. — .K brownish whey, obtaineil by heat- 
inu; together 4 parts of tamarinds and 100 parts of milk, and straining. 

Seki M .\i.i MiNATiM, Alum irliei/. — Obtained bv heating to l«>iliiig 1 part of powdere<l 
ahun and 100 parts of milk. Strain." 

LACCA.— LAC. 



A resinous exudate produced tlirough the puncture of several trees by the 
lieiuiiiterous insect. Coccus laccn, Kerr. 

Source. — Lacca is collected from the branches of several trees, most of them 
lac-bearing, found chiefly in the East Indies. Several American ulants are also 
said to yield the product, these being the hirrca mexiciuin, Moricanu (L<irrc<i qluti- 
iio.v'i, Engelmann), the Stinkweed or Crenxnte-bu^h , and the Acucia (frrt/;/". Gray, Dot h 
growing in Arizona, west Texas, Mexico, and southern California. The East India 
trees yielding it are said to be the following: Aleiirites /rtrci/irm.Willdenow (Croton 



larriferum, Liniie [Euphorbiacea'] ; Finis itnlira, Roxljurgh ; Ficus religiosa, Linue; 
Ficus lieiKjalen.-'is, Linne; Ficvs TsjeUi, HamWUm [Urticacea-]; Butea fiondosa, Rox- 
burgh fLeguminopaJ; Schkichern /)•(/«(/((, Willdenow [Sapindaceaj] ; and Zizyjthus 
jujithx [Rhaiiinacea'] ). 

Large numbers ol'tlie insects l^Corru^ laeea) congregate upon the smaller and 
tender branches of these trees. The female insect punctures tlie limb and becomes 
surrounded l)y the exuding resinous matter. The imbedded insects swell uji and 
form a cell containing a red-coloring matter (yielding /(ir-(/i/<), which gives to tiie lac 
containing it a superior value. The young iarva> are develoi)ed in tlie exudation, 
which gradually becomes hard, and, \)oring their way out, make their escape. 

History and Description. — The principal grades of lacca are ^^VA-Air, f/rnw- 
lac {g('fd-hir), sliell-lw (s/iellac), and lump-lar ((jrapc-lnc). The thickly beset "resin- 
nodules enclosing the twigs constitute slirk-hir. This contains about 10 per cent 
of red coloring matter. When these nodules are detached from the branchlets, 
and for the most part deprived of their coloring matter by a washing process, 
they form the seal or grain-lac. The individual tears of the first variety are red- 
dishbrown and contain in their central portion a deep, blackish-red substance. 
The taste is subastringent and slightly bitterish. When the young insect has 
made its escape the exudation is brown. The second variety consists of more or 
less shiny, small fragments, of a yellowish or reddish color, and are almost taste- 
less. Slit'l>-I(ir is the product of the preceding varieties after they have been boiled 
in water and partially deprived of coloring matter, fused, and congealetl upon a 
polished surface. Or, the crude seed-lac is put into a narrow, sausage-like cloth 
bag, heated over a charcoal fire, and the cloth slightly twisted until the melted 
lac apj>ears on the outside ; the bag is then removed from the fire, and the lac 
scraped off by means of an aloe leaf. The scrapings at once harden, and consti- 
tute what is known as shellac (.see interesting article on shellac, by Jos. Bosisto, 
in Amer. Jour. Phnrm., 1886, p. 307). Lump-lac is the same as stick-lac, yet de- 
prived of the woody portion and melted together. 8eed-lac, in agglutinated mas- 
ses, is sometimes known as (/rf(^e-/«f. If stick-lac be chewed, it becomes soft, and 
a beautiful, purple-red hue is imparted to the saliva. Red stick-lac boiled in 
water, imparts to it its coloring matter. This, when precipitated by alum, and 
pressed into cakes, constitutes what is known as lac-dye — a purple coloring body. 
IJme-water likewise precipitates the coloring matter. Caustic soda and potash, 
sodium biborate, acetic and hydrochloric acids dissolve shellac, also hot alcohol, 
while cold alcohol dissolves about 90 per cent, leaving a wax-like body undis- 
solved. With aqua ammonife, if digested in a closed container, it forms a gelati- 
nous magma. Acids reprecipitate shellac from its solution in alkali. Blenched 
shellac is obtained by acting with chlorine gas upon shellac in alkaline solution. 
This yields a product insoluble in alcohol. Alcohol-soluble bleached shellac is 
obtained by digesting an alcoholic solution of it with animal charcoal. 

Chemical Composition.— Unverdorben found lac to be a complex material 
consisting of at least five resins (separable by their behavior toward ether, alcohol, 
or alkalie.- 1, fat, wax, and coloring matter. According to Hatchet, shellac contains 
about [»0 |ier cent resin and 4 per cent wax, while scarcely seven-tenths of resin and 
10 per cent of coloring matter, also wax, etc., is contained in stick-lac (see Hager, 
Hnndhuch der Phnrm. Praxis, 1886, Vol. II, p. 330). Shellac contains but little if 
any coloring matter. The coloring body has been more recently examined by 
R. E. Schmidt ( 1887), who gives it the formula C|jH,jOs, and names it Inccnic acid. 
It closely resembles the coloring matter of cochineal, canninic acid, although they 
are not identical. It forms brown-red, crystalline crusts, is slowly soluble in alco- 
hol, e:isiiy snlul.lc in amyl alcohol, acetone, and glacial acetic acid; also somewhat 
solubl.' ill xv^itir, ami insDJuKl.- in ether. It forms colored solutions with alkalies. 

Action and Medical Uses.— Lacca is slightly astringent, besides po.ssessinj? 
some f)f tiie properties common to the resins, on which account it was formerly 
used as a dressing for vounds and ulcers. It is not now used medicinally. Sur- 
gical si)lints are sometimes prepared from it (see below). 

Shell-kic Splints.— Take of finely pulverizeil shell-lac, 1 poun«l; alcohol (90 per cent), 
1 quart ; mix, ainTixpose it to a moderate heat in a loosely-stopped bottU-, for 48 hours, when 
till- »hill-la.- will Ik- dissolveii. With this Bolution witnrate woolen cloth, and allow it to dry. 
Ti> apply and fit tlir cloth to any part, cut it into tin- proper shape, and then liold it near a 



1112 LA(JH.NANTHK.S— LACMl'S. 

fire or hot stove, or dip it into boiling water, when it will become soft and pliable. As soon 
as it has cooled so as not to burn the patient, apply it to the part, and by holding it for a few 
minutes, or by the application of the bandage while it is yet pliable, it will assume any form 
desired, and on cooling, it becomes hard and retains its form exactly. If it is desirable to 
strengthen the sjdint, take two pieces of the saturated cloth, spread one side of each with a 
thick coat of the solution, by means of a common paint brush, allow the alcohol to evaporate, 
and then. placinK these two coated sides together, press them with a hot flat-iron until they 
have bei'oini' perfectly cemented. This operation may be repeated several times, if it is nec- 
essary tn iiicri ;)sc the' strength of the cloth or splint. 

Related Products.— Xanthorrh<k.\ Re.siss, Gum acaroides, Gum acroides, Grasg-tree ffum. 
Dififereut species ui Xanthorrhoea in Australia have j'ielded resinous balsams, the chief of 
which are the yellow balsam from Xanthorrhcea ha$tUis, and the red, from X. australU. Thev 
contain cinnamic and benzoic acids, and when heated evolve a tolu-like oflor. Heated with 
nitric acid they are converted info picric acid. Medicinally they resemble tolu and gtoraz, 
and have been used in the treatment of diarrhua. The supply is inexhaustible, and the resin 
has been used like shellac for varnishing cabinet work, but is much inferior to that product. 

SoiNOR.4^ Gu.M.— An acidulous gum-resin, said to be the exudate of the branches of Larrea 
mexicana, Moricand. It is employed by brewers, and is said to be identical with Arizona 
shellac. 

LACHNANTHES.— LACHNANTHES. 

The whole plant Lachnanthes (inctorui, Elliott. 

Nat. Ord. — Haemodorace£e. 

Common Names: Red root, Spirit weed. 

Botanical Source. — This is a perennial plant, introduced into practice by 
the Homoeopaths. It has a red fibrous root, and an erect stem, strict. 18 to 24 
inches liigh, clothed with white wool above. The leaves are mostly radical, 
fleshy, equitant, sword-shaped, 3 to 4 inches wide, and nearly as high as the stem; 
the cauline leaves remote and bract-like. The corymb is terminal, close, 15 to 
30-flowered ; the flowers densely clothed with white wool outside, glabrous and 
yellow within. Perianth woolly outside, 6-parted down to the adherent ovary. 
Calyx lobes exterior, of 3 linear sepals, as long as the 3 lance-oblong petals. Sta- 
mens 3, opposite the sepals; filaments long, exserted; anthers linear, bright-yel- 
low. Style thread-like, exserted. declined; stigma minutely 2-lobed. Capsule 
globular, truncated, 3-celled, many-seeded ; seeds few on each fleshy placenta, flat 
and rounded, fixed by the middle (W.— G.). 

History. — This plant is a native of the United States, growing in .«andy 
swamps and along borders of ponds, near the Atlantic coast, from Rhode Island 
to Florida, flowering in July. The root has been used for dyeing jiurposes, and, 
according to Dr. Byron, has been used among the Florida Indians to produce a 
brilliancy of the eye, a flushed and swollen face, a bold appearance, and eloquent 
speaking; after these peculiar stimulating efiects pass off", the person becomes 
stupid and very irritable. The method of employing it is to make the whole 
plant into a saturated tincture. 

Action, Medical Uses, and Dosage.— Large doses of lachnanthes produce 
dilatation of the pupils, impaired vision, dizzine.«s, and other unplea.*ant symp- 
toms, somewhat similar to those produced by belladonna. Lachnanthes has been 
more particularly recommended in imeumonin, nerfous and ti/phus fcrers. some rfis- 
ecuies of the bruin, in the delirium offerer, in morbid conditions of the. braiu and nervou-i 
■Hy.'item, especially when in these .several maladies redness of the cheeks and bril- 
liancy of the eyes are accompanying symptoms. It has also been efficient in 
rheumatic %vry neck, hoar.<<enei<$, larj/}>(^eal cough, tinnitus aurium, and in nervous heid- 
ache. A fluid drachm of the tincture added to 4 fluid ounces of water, and admin- 
istered in fluid drachm doses, every 3 or 4 hours, is the proper method of ad- 
ministering it. 

LACMUS.— LITMUS. 

A peculiar blue coloring matter obtained from Rocctlla tinctoria, Acharius, 
and other lichens. 

Nat. 0»-rf.— Lichen es. 

Common Names a.nd Svno.nyms: Litmus, TuriusoU; Tournesol, Ltjcca cimUeti, 
Lacca musica. 



LAons. 1113 

Botanical Source. — Roccella tinrtoria^or Orcfiilla weed, is a small, dry liclieii, 
with a rounded, glaucous, nearly erect thallus, forked and subdivided into numer- 
ous branchy, roundish, gray, yellowish, or brownish threads; the apothecia are 
scattered, red and elevated; the disks are Hat, csesius, pruinose, and as broad as 
the border. 

History, Preparation, and Description.— Koccella tinctoria is found on the 
Miaritinif rocks of tlic eastern .\ll;ii\tic Islands, as the Azores, Canaries, etc. ; the 
western coast of Suutli America, south of England, Portland Islands, Seilly 
Islands, and various otlier countries. Litmus was formerly obtained from this 
])lant alone, but other lichens have now in a great measure supplanted it, as the 
Eoirelln fuciformif, or Amiola ured, from Angola and Madagascar; the I^canora tar- 
tnmt, or Tartarean mons, from Norway and Sweden ; the Variolaria dealbata, from 
Auvergne and the Pyrenees, and some others. 

Lacmis, or /w7hi'(.<, was formerly jjrepared only in Holland, but at present is 
manufactured from various lichens in Italy, France and Britain. It is made "by 
niacerating jtowdered lichen for several weeks, with occasional agitation, in a 
mixture of urine, lime, and potashes, in a wooden trough under shelter. A kiiul 
of fermentation takes place, and the lichen becomes first reddish, and subse- 
quently blue. Wiien the pulp has acquired a proper blue color, it is placed in 
brass or steel molds, and the cakes thus obtained are subsequently dried. An 
addition of aqueous ammonia answers the same purpose as that of urine in the 
above mixture. "Litmus is imported in the form of small, rectangular, light 
and friable cakes of an indigo-blue color. Examined by the microscope, we find 
sporules and portions of the epidermis, and mesothallus of some species of lichen, 
moss, leaves, sand, etc. Its odor is that of indigo and violets" (P.). Litmus is 
usually mixed with chalk or gypsum in order to form it into cakes. 

Chemical Composition.— The chromogenic bodies in the lichens mentioned 
are crystailiziiiile i)henols and phenol acids. To the latter class belong lernnnric 
acid, discovered in 1842 by .Schunck, with which bela-nrsellinir arid of Stenhouse 
(1848) is identical; crythrinir and rnrcellic arids (Heeren, 1830), !(^"?((> arid.evernic 
acid, etc. ( For details regarding the.se acids, see Husemann and Hilger, Pftatizeti- 
stoffcVo]. I, p. 303.) They are in themselves colorless, but become converted into 
coloring matters by the joint action of water, air, and ammonia. 

Lecarwrir and (C,jH„0., Gerhardt and Hesse), crystallizes in white stellate 
needles soluble in 2500 parts of boiling water with acid reaction, more .soluble in 
liot acetic acid, ako soluble in alcohol and ether. Its melting point is 153° C. 
(307.7° F. ), and it forms crystallizable salts with acids. Heated with water, alcohol 
or aqueous alkalies, /^raHoriV arid adds one molecule of water and is converted into 
crystallizable orselli)iic arid (C\H,0,). This when continuously boiled with water, 
loses carbonic acid and forms nrrin or dihi/droxy-toluene (C-HjO, or C^H ,.CH,.rOH]j), 
which is also obtained by dry distillation of lecanoric acid. Orcin is the cliromo- 
gene body jiroper of this group. It forms colorless needles of sweetish, nausea- 
ting taste, is easily soluble in water, alcohol, and ether; ferric chloride produces 
with it a violet coloration. Exposed to light and air it turns reddish. In alka- 
line solution it changes to red or brown upon exposure to the air. In contact 
with moist air containing ammonia, it is converted into orcein (C,H,XO;,), a 
brown substance soluble in aqueous alkalies with purple-red color, being precipi- 
tated from this .solution by acids. Orcein is the coloring princijjle of orsei lie or 
archil (see below). 

Urrin, when exposed to moist and ammoniated air in the presence of alkali 
carl)onates, is converted into azolitmin, the blue coloring matter of litmus. The 
coloring bodies in litmus, according to Dr. Kane (C/fem. CeH<n(//(/«/^ 1841. p. 567; 
also see Pereira, Mai. iV«/., edition by J. Carson, 1846), are: (1) A jnirplish-red 
semifluid material, P/7/</iro/f/)i. It is soluble in ether and alcohol, and yields with 
ammonia a rich purple solution; (2) a crystalline body of a light red color, 
crythrolitmin, nitrogen free, soluble in alcohol", but sparingly so in etiier and water, 
and striking blue with ammonia; (3) a brownish-red, noncry.«talline body, the 
chief coloring i)rinciple of litmus, named azolitmin cC".H,NO,); it turns blue with 
alkalies, is in.soluble in alcohol and ether, ami siiaringlv soluble in cold water; 
(4) a small amount of a bright-red UAy, spa,, ioi it mi n. which is colored blue by 
alkalies; water di.ssolves it sparingly; insoluble in alcohol and ether. 



1114 LACTUCA. 

Action and Uses.— 0?-«n resembles resorcin in its effects upon skin diseases. 
It is said to be a decided antiseptic, and to cause death in toxic doses by para- 
lyzing the heart-muscle. 

Litmus is employed in urinary, chemical, and pharmaceutical analysis, and 
is a familiar test for free acids and alkalies. The acids impart a red color to blue 
litmus; the alkalies restore the original blue color to the reddened litmus. Car- 
bonate of calcium dissolved in water by a considerable excess of carbonic acid, 
will also restore the blue color of reddened litmus. It is used either in infusion, 
or in the form of litmus paper. The infusion, sometimes erroneously called tinc- 
ture of litmus, in made by adding 1 part of litmus to 25 parts of distilled water, 
to which, for the purpose of preserving it about jV P^f"^ "f spirit or alcohol may 
be added. 

Litmus Paper. — Blue Litmus Paper (Chartu Exploratoria Ccerulea) is pre- 
pared by dipping strips of paper in a clear and strong infusion of litmus, or by 
brushing the infusion over the paper. White unsized paper is the best for this 
purpose; and the infusion may be made by adding 1 part of litmus to 6 parts 
of boiling water. Good litmus paper should be of uniform color, neither too light 
nor too dark, and when carefull_y dried, should be kept in well-stopped vessels in 
a dark place; when it has a purplish tint, it is a more delicate test for acids than 
when pure blue. An extremely delicate test-paper may be made by almost neu- 
tralizing the alkali contained in the litmus; thus: Divide the filtered infusion 
of litmus into two parts; stir one portion with a glass rod which has been pre- 
viously dipped into very dilute sulphuric acid, and repeat this until the liquid 
begins to look reddish; then add the other portion of liquid, and immerse the 
paper in it (P.). 

Red Lit.^ius Paper (Charta Exploratoria Rubefacta) is best prepared by dip- 
ping the blue paper in a very dilute acetic or hydrochloric acid, merely acid 
enough to redden it. 

Related Products. — The following pigments are produced from the same plant which 
yields lacinus. They are similarly prepared, excepting that alkalies, caustic soda, or potash, 
are not added to the ammoniacal mixture (see Chemual Composition above). 

Orchil, or Archil, is used for dyeing, coloring, and staining. There are two kinds, called 
blue oirh il and red orchil, wliich di ffer merely in the degree of their red tint. They are deep-red- 
dish purple liquids, or pasty masses, with an ammoniacal odor. Orchil is prepareil by steep- 
ing the lichens in an ammoniacal liquor, in a covered wooden vessel. 

Cudbear, or Persio, is obtained by the same process as orchil, and when the proper pur- 
plish-red color lias been developed, the mixture is dried in the air and reduced to fine powder. 
It is used as a dye, and sometimes as a test for acids and alkalies. (An interesting article on 
the manufacture and chemistry of orchil, cudbear, and litmus, by Dr. Crace-Calvert. is to be 
found in Pharni. Jour. 7'ram.,Vol. II, 1871, pp. 514 aud 535. i 

LACTUCA.— LETTUCE. 

The flowering herb of Lnctuea virosa, Linne, and other species of Lactuca. 

Nat. Orel. — Compositas. 

Common Name : Strong-scented lettuce. 

Ii,i.usTR.\TioN : Bentley and Trinien, Med. Plants. 160 and 16L 

Botanical Source. — Lnctuea virosn has a tap-shaped root, with a solitary stem, 
2 or ;; feet high, irtct, round, smooth, sparingly leafy, scarcely- branched, panicled 
at the tup, and a little prickly below. The leaves are horizontal, nearly smooth, 
and finely toothed ; the radical ones numerous, obovate, undivided, depressed ; 
those of the stem smaller, often lobed; arrow-shaped, clasping at their base; the 
midrib of all more or less beset underneath with prominent prickles, such as often 
occur on the margin also. The flower-heads are numerous and panicled, with an 
abundance of small, heart-shaped, pointed bracteas. Involucral scales downy at 
the tip, destitute of any keels or ribs. Corolla small and light-yellow. Pappu.^ 
rough (L.). There are many varieties of lettuce; they all have large leaves, often 
corrugated, and containing more or less of a whitish juice, the lactucarium. Their 
stems are round and corymbose at the suiumit; the leaves sulxirbicular and run- 
cinate; cauline ones cordate or obovate: flowers yellow. 

Lactuca sativa has an annual, tap-shaped root, with a corymbose stem, 2 or 3 
feet in height, and suborbicular leaves ; cauline ones cordate. Heads numerous 



LACTICARIUM. 1115 

and small, with yellowish corolla (W.). It is not so rank in odor as the L. virosa, 
has not blood-red spots on its stems, and no prickles on the keel of its leaves. 
Previous to the appearance of the dowering stems, the garden lettuce contains a 
pleasant, sweet, watery juice, and in this condition the plant is employed as a 
salad; l>ut in both species, no sooner does the (lowering stem rise above the early 
leaves than the juice grows milky, very bitter, and of a strong, peculiar, rank 
odor, not unlike that of opium (see Chemical Composition). 

Lvtnrn Srariolii, Linne, difl'ers hum L. virosa in having vertical, spinescent, 
tooth"-d. deeply-cut, or pinnatifid leaves. 

History.— The Lactucn rimsn, Linne. is the only species recognized by the Br. 
Phorm.. 188.5, and is directed by the V. S. P. as the source of hictuniriiun (see Lac- 
tiiJ-ariitm). Several other species, however, yield this product. Lactuvu saliva, ot 
common lettuce of the gardens, is supposed to be a native of the East Indies; it 
is e.\tensivelv cultivated in Europe and this country. According to Prof. J. M. 
Maiscli, the L. canadensis, var. elongata (wild lettuce), of our country po.ssesses nar- 
cotic i)rinciples similar to the others. Mr. H. Flowers (Amer. Jour. Pliarm., 1879, 
p. 343) observed in a growing specimen of this plant a strong, narcotic odor of 
the milky juice, but a remarkable change in the taste, from sweetish to bitter, 
took place later in the .season. Ixictucarium, or lettuce-opium, s^o-caUei], is obtained 
from the plants "by cutting the stem of the lettuce at the time of flowering, im- 
bibing the milky juice that Hows out by a sponge or by cotton, and squeezing it 
out into a vessel containing a little water. It is then left in a dry place until' it 
concretes into a solid mass" (Thompson's Orfi. C/iem.). The juice, in drying, loses 
about half its weight of water. By making another cut a short distance below the 
first, and so proceeding several times daily, the whole of the juice contained in 
the plant may be collected. There are several other modes recommended for pro- 
curing the lactucarium, but no one of them obtains an article equal to that col- 
lected by the above plan. After the middle period of inflorescence, the juice, 
becomes" thicker, but deteriorates in its medicinal principles. A single plant of 
L. saliva is said to yield 17 grains of lactucarium. while a plant of L. virosa gives 
56- grains. L. Scariola, or prickly lettuce, yields 25 grains. As found in commerce, 
lactucarium is in roundish, compact, rather hard masses, weighing several ounces, 
of a reddish-brown color externally, of a bitter, narcotic, and somewhat acid taste, 
and an odor approximating that of opium. It is asserted that two species — 
L. Scariola. Linne. and L. alti.'tsima, Bieberstein — furnish a superior article of let- 
tuce-opium. Fairgrieve, of Scotland, cultivated the L. virosa, var. montana, and 
Aubers;ii-r. of France, tlie L. alti.-<sima. 

Chemical Composition.— The chief constituent of lactuca is lactucarium (see 
Lactucarium i Potassium nitrate is an additional constituent. Mr. T.S. Dymond 
(Pharm. Jour, rivni.''., 1891, Vol. XXII, p. 449), having ob^erved mydriatic'action 
with extracts of Lactuca sativa (common garden lettuce) and L. virosa, the former 
being collected while flowering, succeeded in isolating therefrom an alkaloid (not 
exceeding 0.02 per cent), which he identified as hi/'i.-^ri/amine. Specimens of Eng- 
lish and German lactxtcarium, on the other hand, did not contain a trace of the 
alkaloid. The occurrence of an alkaloid in so widely-u.*ed a vegetable need not, 
however, cause alarm. It is probably in insignificant quantity in the early stages 
of growth of the vegetable. 

Medical Uses. — iSee Lactucarium.) 

LACTUCARIUM (U. S. P.)— LACTUCARIUM. 

"The concrete milk-juice of Lartuca virosa, Linne"— (f. S. P.). 

Nat. Ord. — Compositte. 

CoM.Mo.v N.\mk: I.^ttuce-opiuvi. 

Description. — (For source, history, and collection of Lactucarium [in part], 
Bee Lactuca. Lactucarium comes to us chiefly from Germany and Scotland, and 
is also produced in France, although little of the latter jjrotUKt reaches American 
market.'^. The Scotch, or English, variety is said to be of better quality than th