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Kl N G'S 






E u r o p e s Wa r w i t h Bo 1 s h e v I s m 

^^^^^^^^^i 




INTRODUCTION BK 

*SHAL FERDINAND 




/- - 



V 



KING'S COMPLETE 

HISTORY / *. WORLD WAR 

Vividly Illustrated with Panoramic Charts 

Visualizing the Great Conflict in all Theaters of Action 

19141918 



EUROPFS WAR WITH BOLSHEVISM 

19191920 

WAR OF THE TURKISH PARTITION 

19201921 

WARFARE IN IRELAND, INDIA, EGYPT, FAR EAST 

19161921 

EPOCHAL EVENTS THRU-OUT THE CIVILIZED WORLD 

FROM FERDINAND'S ASSASSINATION TO DISARMAMENT CONFERENCE 
Most Eventful Period of Man's Career Since Time Began 



Edited by W. C. KING, Litt. D. 

Officer de 1'InstructionPublique, et des Beaux-Arts 

AUTHOR OF 

CROSSING THE CENTURIES 

( The World's History Within Compass of One Volume ) 

KING'S VISUALIZED CHARTS OF AMERICAN HISTORY 

(For Use In Public Schools) 

Etc., Etc., Etc. 



INTRODUCTION BY 

MARSHAL FERDINAND FOCH 

Commander-in-Chief of the Allied Armies 

APPROVED BY THE WORLD'S HIGHEST COURT OF MILITARY AUTHORITY 



AUTHENTIC IMPARTIAL FEARLESS 1+ I 9 "J 




THE HISTORY ASSOCIATES 

SPRINGFIELD, MASSACHUSETTS 




THE WAR VISUALIZED 

al Departure in Illustration Complete Panorama of the 
War in Colors 

FROM FERDINAND'S ASSASSINATION TO THE ARMISTICE 

HIS work does not follow the old way of scattering unrelated war 
scenes through the text which are of but little historic value and mean 
nothing to the reader in visualizing the Great Campaigns, Important 
attles and Naval Combats as to time, place, chronological order, and con- 
temporaneous association. 

The Editor of this History has carefully worked out a series of Picture 
Charts a chart for each year of the War, with one additional chart 
devoted to portraits of the World's Foremost Statesmen and Military Stra- 
tegists, who were responsible for the Military and Naval operations of the 
Great Conflict. 

These Charts instantly bring before your eye a Vivid, Composite Pic- 
ture of the Concurrent Battles raging in all the Great War Areas on both 
land and sea. 

As it were you stand on a high eminence overlooking the World- 
Wide arena of Carnage, viewing the Titanic Struggles in each theater of 
strife, simultaneously taking place. 

Thus as you view the Mighty Conflict, the Terrific Battles, and Out- 
standing Events, they automatically arrange themselves permanently in 
your mind, just as each State of the Union takes its proper position, and 
every great city locates itself in your mind, as you recall the map of the 
United States. 

A brief survey of a Chart will so firmly fix the great events in the 
mind, in point of time, place and association as to make the descriptive 
text fairly bristle with life and interest. 

These Charts of themselves constitute a vivid panoramic history of the 
war, which will prove of transcendent value to the reader, enabling him to 
quickly grasp a comprehensive, organized understanding of the progres- 
sion and association of the great events of the War. 

For example, as you recall the first Battle of the Marne, you instantly 
see, through your mind's eye, that the Immortal Battle of the Marne imme- 
diately followed the Bloody Battle of Nancy, where Foch so signally dis- 
tinguished himself. While these two great battles were raging on the 
Western Front, the Russians on the Eastern Front captured Lemberg, with 
100,000 prisoners, and the Japanese seized Shantung on the other side of 
the Globe. 

Thus the Pictured Chart fixes, not only the time, but the association 
of events, and you will never forget that these three great events took place 
in September, 1914. The chief events >of an entire year may thus be 
indelibly fixed in your mind, instantly recalled when reference is made to 
any particular event in your newspaper, magazine or history reading. 



With each event on the Chart will be found the page number of the 
descriptive text in the volume. 



COPYRIGHT 1922, BY W, C. KING 



Publishers' Foreword 

rHE value of any work of history is measured largely by the intellectual 
equipment of the Author, the accuracy and authenticity of his data. 
The Editor of this volume was fortunately in possession of a back- 
ground of European history of peculiar advantage in undertaking to pre- 
pare the story of the Great War. 

In 1910 (after 20 years of laborious research) he brought to comple- 
tion, "Crossing the Centuries", a Synchroneous History of the World's Civ- 
ilization extending from pre-historic times down to the present day 
illustrated with vizualized charts, on which were pictured the great events 
of time, arranged in their chronological order and in their contemporaneous 
association, century by century. 

In the preparation of this stupendous work Dr. King was able to enlist 
the co-operation and collaboration of many of the foremost intellects of the 
Nation, Eminent Clergymen, College Presidents, Leading Publicists, Noted 
Historians, Scientific and Educational Specialists, representing a wide 
range of recognized scholarship. 

Probably no book of modern times has called forth stronger expres- 
sions of appreciation from prominent scholars, educational leaders, the sec- 
ular and religious press, than was accorded to this publication. "King's. 
Visualized Charts of American History" (extensively used in public 
schools) is another production of our Editor. In the preparation of this 
latter work, the Author had the editorial assistance of Dr. Wilber F. Gordy, 
author of Gordy's series of School Histories. 

In 1914 Dr. King's Alma Mater conferred -upon him the honorary 
degree of "Doctor of Letters" (Litt. D.), in recognition of his research 
work in history and other literary productions. (Four of his previous books 
reached a sale of two and one-ho.lf million copies.) 

In view of Dr. King's familiarity with the economic, political, and 
diplomatic situation in 'Europe, at the time war was declared, he was in a 
particularly favorable position to undertake the preparation of this volume. 
The book could have been on the market two years earlier had the Editor 
been willing to sacrifice accuracy and completeness for quick financial 
returns. He preferred, however, to secure the full truth at the expense of 
time, and build a book which would stand the acid test of critical 
comparison. 

This work embodies numerous original and unique features found in 
no other history, prominent among which is the tabulation of the "Order of 
Battle", showing in opposite columns the numerical strength of the oppos- 
ing armies, the list of Generals directing the respective forces, the date and 
place of battle, in every campaign and major engagement. 

Another original feature is the separate treatment accorded each bat- 
tle under a system of striking boxed headings, the frequent use of sub-head- 
ings, which illuminate the text, greatly aiding the reader in visualizing 
the ebb and flow of battle. This helpful feature is in marked contrast with 
many histories which present an endless array of facts, unrelieved by any 
captions, to aid the reader in distinguishing between different phases of a 
great battle, or determine one battle from another in an extensive campaign. 

Still another unique feature is the index, which precedes the narrative 
story of each year, arranged chronologically in parallel columns, showing 
at a glance the events taking place on both Western and Eastern Fronts on 
any given date, including folio of descriptive text. 

THE PUBLISHERS 



in 



The History Which Describes, Interprets and Visualizes 



A HISTORY which should interpret the hid- 
den strategic purposes underlying all those 
sudden cyclonic movements of gigantic 
armies on 10,000 miles of land battle fronts, 
and those titanic sea battles fought in all the 
naval combat areas. 

A WORK WHICH PASSED under the critical 
scrutiny of the War Department officials of 
France and Belgium, and by them was ap- 
proved for accuracy, completeness and im- 
partial presentation of facts. 

A LUCID NARRATIVE of the gigantic strug- 
gle, acclaimed by the highest court of mili- 
tary opinion in the world, as the most authen- 
tic, accurate, impartial and informative Book 
of the War published in any language. 

A WORK OF SUCH fidelity to truth, fullness 
of narrative, and unerring accuracy as to 
evoke the plaudits of that illustrious military 
genius, Marshal Ferdinand Foch. 

A WORK WHICH WAS annotated, in part, 
by that erudite lion-hearted prelate, His Emi- 
nence, Cardinal Mercier, who suspended his 
ecclesiastical duties for a time, to give this 
History the benefit of his unequaled knowl- 
edge of the scenes attending the German hor- 
rors committed in Belgium. 

A WORK WHICH So ENRAPTURED the rul- 
ers and statesmen of France that they con- 
ferred upon Dr. King the highest honor for 
literary achievement within the gift of the 
nation the "Beaux Arts Medal" of the 
French Republique also the Municipality of 
Paris conferred a similar honor by present- 
ing Dr. King with the great "Medal of Paris" 
for distinguished accomplishment. 

IN SUBMITTING THE PROOF pages of this 
history, prior to publication, to the test of 
examination by the highest court of authori- 
tative military opinion in the world, the edi- 
tor was actuated by the sole purpose to 
neglect no opportunity, avoid no test which 
could avail to purge the book of any possible 
deposit of error, or any fault of judgment 
which perchance had eluded observation, to 
the laudable end that the book should take 
on the character of an inerrant, absolutely 
reliable History of the most momentous 
struggle in which the nations of the earth 
have ever engaged. 



IT WILL BE CONCEDED, we assume, that 
the ultimate test for accuracy to which any 
historical work of the period could be sub- 
jected, would be the concurrent opinion of 
those Master Strategists, whose military 
genius availed to rescue Christian civiliza- 
tion from the peril of Prussianism. 

THEIRS WERE THE MINDS that conceived 
the consummate strategies, planned the de- 
cisive campaigns, controlled the every move- 
ment of those colossal armies, noted the ebb 
and flow of battle, and calculated exactly 
the sum total of the gains or losses, in every 
operation of the War. They alone being com- 
petent to pass upon the interpretative value 
of any history of the conflict, their ver- 
dict must be considered as authoritative. 

NOT UNTIL MORE THAN THREE YEARS 
after the Armistice, when finally the war 
archives of Europe have yielded up their 
most important stores of superguarded 
secrets and the lips of diplomacy have lost 
their reticence, has access been possible to 
the vital facts and inside official data upon 
which could be founded an authentic, definite 
and complete history of the great war. 

DURING THE ENTIRE COURSE of military 
operations an impenetrable veil of secrecy 
was prudently thrown over the important 
operations of the belligerent armies, conceal- 
ing the truth from friend and foe alike. 

IN THE PREPARATION of this work the 
labors of seven years of painstaking research 
and verification have been expended. In ad- 
dition to specially organized sources of infor- 
mation the author has had available for his 
personal use, the official documents of the 
countries at war, the official reports of the 
commanding officers, also the particular ac- 
counts of subordinate generals participating. 

THE AUTHOR was further privileged to 
traverse the entire areas of the Western Bat- 
tle fronts, accompanied by military officials, 
to check up the army positions of the con- 
tending forces and gather additional data. 

THIS ACHIEVEMENT in American author- 
ship, after attaining the rare distinction of 
European official approval, is now submitted 
to the American people for their verdict. 

THE PUBLISHERS 



IV 



Approved by the World's Highest Court of Military Authority 



MEDAL OF FRANCE 



MEDAL OF PARIS 




Officer de 1'Instruction Publique 

et des Beaux Arts 
The French Republique 




The City of Paris 

Token of 
Distinguished Achievement 



W. C. KING, Litt. D. 

AUTHOR OF 

CROSSING THE CENTURIES A Single Volume Library of the World's History 
KING'S VISUALIZED CHARTS OF AMERICAN HISTORY For Public Schools 

? The History of the World War 

That won the eulogistic approval of the Master Strategists of Europe 
That was Awarded the Highest Honor within Gift of the French Republique 

That was Critically Revised in part by His Eminence Cardinal Mercier 

That Gained the added Distinction of an Introduction by Marshal Foch 

That discloses in Full the Paramount Part of America in the Great Victory 

That presents the Only Complete, Impartial History of the Epic Struggle 

That Covers Europe's War with Bolshevism and the Turkish Partition 

That Reveals Fully the Warfare Waged in Ireland, India, Egypt and Turkey 

That Discloses the Secret Pacts and Diplomatic Intrigues of European Statecraft 

That Includes the Epochal Events Throughout the Civilized World 

From Ferdinand's Assassination to the Disarmament Conference 



THERE Is AN INCREASING desire, shared 
by millions of discriminative readers in 
all lands, to possess an authoritative, 
conclusive, impartial History of the World 
War, complete within the compass of a single 
volume ; 

A HISTORY which should visualize for the 
reader, the whole stupendous sweep of the 



universal conflict in all of its terrific and 
heroic phases ; 

A HISTORY which should concisely describe 
with vividness and accuracy the ebb and flow 
of every campaign, battle, and siege waged 
on land and sea, in every theater of the most 
colossal conflict ever waged by man, since 
time began. 



CONTENTS SUMMARIZED 



Story of the Amazing Prussians 
How Germany Lost Her Soul 9 

PAGANISM TO SUPPLANT CHRISTIANITY 10 

THE SPIRITUAL CORRUPTION OF GERMANY 12 

FALLACIES OF GERMANY'S RELIGIOUS LEADERS 16 

STATE WORSHIP SUPERSEDES DIVINE WORSHIP 16 

GERMANY DISCARDS THE RELIGION OF CHRIST 17 

WITH SWORD GERMANY CARVES WAY TO EMPIRE 18 

BISMARK, GERMANY'S SOULLESS DICTATOR 21 

ALL GERMANY BECOMES PRUSSIANIZED 23 

THE KAISER ASSOCIATED WITH DEITY 24 

INTRIGUES OF GERMANY IN THE BALKANS..... 28 

ASSASSINATION OF ARCHDUKE FERDINAND 30 

AUSTRIA GERMANY SECRETLY PREPARE FOR WAR 30 

AUSTRIA'S 48-HOUR ULTIMATUM TO SERBIA 30 

THE DECLARATION OF WAR BY AUSTRIA 30 

ALL EUROPE CRIES OUT AGAINST WAR 31 

GERMANY IN HOPELESS MORAL BANKRUPTCY 32 



The First Year 1914 
Germany Looses Her Thunderbolts 35 

SURVEY OF EVENTS FOR THE YEAR 35 

FIRST GUN OF WAR FIRED IN THE BALKANS 38 

TWO AUSTRIAN ARMIES INVADE SERBIA 41 

GERMAN INVASION OF BELGIUM BEGINS 43 

BELGIANS' HEROIC DEFENSE OF LIEGE NAMUR 44 

FRENCH INVADE ALSACE AND LORRAINE 51 

FRENCH DISASTER, BATTLE OF MORHANGE 53 

FRENCH DEFEAT, NEUFCHATEAU CHARLEROI 56 

BRITISH RETREAT 150 MILES MONS TO THE MARNE 58 

BATTLE OF THE MARNE DECIDES Destiny of Europe.... 65 

GENERAL FOCH'S VICTORY AT FERE CHAMPENOISE 72 

GERMAN ARMIES RETREAT TO THE AISNE RIVER.... 77 

THE BLOODY BATTLE OF NANCY 80 

GERMANY'S FIRST ASSAULT ON VERDUN 81 

RUSSIA GRAPPLES WITH GERMANY AUSTRIA 82 

LONGEST BATTLE LINE OF HISTORY 1000 MILES.... 84 

TWO RUSSIAN ARMIES INVADE EAST PRUSSIA 86 

GERMAN DEFEAT, BATTLE OF AUGUSTOWA 90 

RUSSIANS DRIVE AUSTRIANS OUT OF GALICIA 91 

TWO COLOSSAL GERMAN DEFEATS IN POLAND 97 

THE TERRIFIC BATTLE OF YPRES FLANDERS 102 

BATTLE OF THE YSER OPENS FLANDERS 103 

500,000 BELGIANS FLEE FROM ANTWERP 108 

REVOLTING ATROCITIES IN BELGIUM 109 

JAPAN DECLARES WAR ON GERMANY 114 

GERMANY LOSES HER STRONGHOLD IN FAR EAST.... 115 

SERBIAN ARMIES TRIUMPH OVER AUSTRIA 117 

GERMANY LOSES HER AFRICAN POSSESSIONS 119 

TURKEY ENTERS THE WAR WITH GERMANY 124 

RUSSIANS ANNIHILATE TURKS MT. ARARAT 125 

GERMAN COMMERCE SWEPT FROM THE SEA 126 

FIRST SEA BATTLE OFF HELIGOLAND 128 

NAVAL BATTLE OFF COAST OF CHILI 129 

LAST GERMAN SEA SQUADRON DESTROYED . 130 



The Second Year 1915 
Germany Victorious in the East 137 

SURVEY OF EVENTS FOR THE YEAR 137 

BATTLE OF THE SUEZ CANAL TURKISH FIZZLE 138 

GERMAN SUBMARINE PIRACY, 900 VESSELS SUNK.... 140 

RUSSIANS CAPTURE PRZEMYSL 120,000 PRISONERS 143 

THE WAR IN CARPATHIAN MOUNTAIN? . 144 



THIRD ASSAULT ON WARSAW FAILS. 146 

RUSSIAN DISASTER IN EAST PRUSSIA 147 

BRITISH SLAUGHTER AT NEUVE CHAPELLE 148 

SECOND BATTLE OF YPRES FLANDERS 150 

THE LUSITANIA GOES DOWN OFF IRISH COAST 152 

WAR IN THE AIR STRIKES TERROR TO EUROPE 153 

DISASTROUS BATTLE OF ARTOIS 156 

SLAUGHTER OF BRITISH, BATTLE OF FESTUBERT.... 157 

THE BRITISH SHELL SCANDAL. 158 

ITALY COMES TO ALLIES' AID IN CRITICAL HOUR.... 159 

ITALIANS OVERTHROW AUSTRIANS IN THE ALPS.... 161 

GERMANY SURRENDERS SOUTHWEST AFRICA 166 

TURKS KURDS MASSACRE 1,000,000 ARMENIANS 168 

RUSSIANS RETREAT ON 700-MILE LINE 170 

DARDANELLES BOMBARDMENT COLOSSAL FAILURE 176 

SERBIA CRUSHED BY GERMANY AustriaBulgaria.... 185 

BULGARIAN ALLIANCE WITH CENTRAL POWERS 187 

SERBIA'S WHOLE POPULATION IN FLIGHT. 191 

EDITH CAVELL'S EXECUTION SHOCKS THE WORLD 192 

TITANIC BATTLES AT ARTOIS CHAMPAGNE 194 

BRITISH LOSE 60,000 MEN IN BATTLE OF LOOS 196 

BRITISH VICTORIES IN FAR-OFF MESOPOTAMIA 198 

GERMAN DESTRUCTION U. S. FACTORIES BEGIN.... 201 



The Third Year 1916 
Germany Descends to Piracy 207 

SURVEY OF EVENTS FOR THE YEAR 207 

AUSTRIANS CONQUER MONTENEGRO IN Two Weeks 209 

TURKISH ARMENIA CAPTURED BY RUSSIANS 210 

VERDUN, WORLD'S GREATEST ARTILLERY BATTLE 212 

BRITISH DISASTER IN FAR-OFF MESOPOTAMIA 218 

ALLIED ARMIES RECONQUER MACEDONIA 221 

GERMAN AUSTRIAN ARMIES DEFEATED BY Russia 225 

AUSTRIAN ARMIES FORCE WAY INTO ITALY 230 

IRISH PEOPLE REBEL AGAINST ENGLAND 234 

THE GREATEST NAVAL BATTLE OF HISTORY 248 

THIRD BATTLE OF YPRES FLANDERS 250 

BATTLE OF THE SOMME, 1,375,000 MEN FALL 251 

BRITISH "TANKS" FIRST APPEAR. SOMME BATTLE.... 253 

ROUMANIA BETRAYED AND CRUSHED 254 

BRITISH SEIZE 33 AMERICAN MERCHANT SHIPS 258 

GERMANY'S SUBMARINE CAMPAIGN LAUNCHED 260 

ARABS THROW OFF TURKISH YOKE 262 

GERMANY'S FIRST PEACE PROPOSAL 263 

PRES. WILSON ASSUMES ROLE OF MEDIATOR 263 

ALLIED POWERS STATE THEIR WAR AIMS 264 



The Fourth Year 1917 
America Enters Humanity's War 269 

SURVEY OF EVENTS FOR THE YEAR 269 

UNRESTRICTED SUBMARINE PIRACY BEGINS 272 

GERMANS RETREAT TO NEW HINDENBERG LINE 274 

GERMANY SINKS ALL SHIPS WITHOUT WARNING.... 277 

GERMANY STIRS MEXICO JAPAN AGAINST U. S 280 

THE GREAT REVOLUTION IN RUSSIA 282 

CONGRESS PASSES $7,000,000,000 BOND BILL 292 

SECRET MOBILIZATION OF THE U. S. NAVY 293 

U. S. TORPEDO FLEET CONQUERS U-BOAT PERIL 295 

AMERICA'S WAR GARDEN FEEDS EUROPE 296 

CONGRESS DECLARES WAR ON GERMANY 299 

ASSAULT ON HINDENBERG LINE FAILS 302 

FIRST ENROLLMENT OF SELECTIVE SERVICE 313 

FIRST AMERICAN SOLDIERS ARRIVE IN FRANCE 315 

KING CONSTANTINE OF GREECE ABDICATES 320 

RUSSIA'S ARMY DEFEATED THROUGH DESERTION.... 322 

HUGE APPROPRIATION FOR AMERICAN AIRPLANES 323 



Contents Summarized (continued) 



BOLSHEVIKI SEIZE RUSSIAN GOVERNMENT 324 

THREE GREAT VICTORIES FOR FRENCH ARMY 332 

THIRD BATTLE OF YPRES. GERMANS EXPELLED 335 

POPE BENEDICT OFFERS PEACE PLAN 339 

ITALIAN ARMIES SUFFER GREAT DISASTER. 341 

GERMAN TREACHERY INGLORIOUS VICTORY 343 

AMERICAN SOLDIERS' FIRST BAPTISM OF FIRE 346 

16 NATIONS SEVER GERMAN RELATIONS 348 

AMERICA DEMANDS UNITY OF ALLIED ARMIES 349 

600 BRITISH TANKS BREACH HINDENBERG LINE 350 

U. S. GOVERNMENT TAKES OVER RAILROAD Systems 355 

GIGANTIC U. S. SHIPBUILDING PROGRAM 356 

BRITISH RECOVER PALESTINE FROM TURKS 357 



The Fifth Year 1918 
Christianity Triumphs Over Paganism 367 

SURVEY OF EVENTS FOR THE YEAR. 369 

GERMANY PLOTS TO SUBJUGATE RUSSIA 370 

DEATH KNELL OF LIBERTY IN RUSSIA 375 

THE REIGN OF TERROR IN FINLAND 378 

GERMANY PLOTS UKRAINIA'S DESTRUCTION 382 

AMERICAN TROOPS FACE ENEMY IN THREE Sectors 385 

TURKISH ARMY IN PALESTINE DESTROYED 387 

RUSSIA BATTLES AGAINST BOLSHEVISM 391-400 

GERMANS DRIVE BRITISH BACK 30 MILES _ 402 

TURKS RESUME ARMENIAN MASSACRES 413 

SECOND GREAT GERMAN DRIVE FAILS 415 

THE YANKEES AT APREMONT SEICHEPREY 420-422 

MOST DARING NAVAL EXPLOITS IN HISTORY 424 

BRITISH VICTORY MESOPOTAMIA ARABIA 425 

AMERICANS CAPTURE CANTIGNY IN 40 MINUTES 427 

3RD DRIVE ON PARIS HALTED BY AMERICANS 429 

TURKS MASSACRE GREEK CHRISTIANS 436 

ITALIANS DEAL DEATH BLOW TO AUSTRIA 439 

GERMAN DRIVE SMASHED AT THE MARNE 442 

MARNE SALIENT EVACUATED BY GERMANS 445 

GERMANS IN FLIGHT AT MONTDIDIER... 450 

THIRD BATTLE OF THE SOMME OPENS 451 

U. S. AND JAPANESE TROOPS AT VLADIVOSTOK 456 

AMERICANS REDUCE ST. MIHIEL IN 26 HOURS 459 

AMERICANS VICTORIOUS IN THE ARGONNE 465 

TWO AMERICAN DIVISIONS SMASH Hindenberg Line.... 474 

BELGIUM LIBERATED FROM GERMAN GRASP 479 

JAPAN AROUSES AMERICA'S SUSPICION 481 

POLAND RESTORED AFTER 140 YEARS' BONDAGE.... 484 

GERMAN AUSTRIAN EMPIRES COLLAPSE 489 

GERMANY COMPELLED TO SURRENDER 495 

ARMIES OF OCCUPATION ENTER GERMANY 495 

GERMANY SURRENDERS 200 WARSHIPS 499 

REVOLUTIONS BREAK OUT IN GERMANY 501 

MANY REPUBLICS RISE ON RUSSIA'S RUINS 503 

CRISES FACES EUROPEAN NEUTRAL NATIONS 507 

PRESIDENT WILSON'S EUROPEAN WELCOME 512-534 

BOLSHEVIKI LEADERS. APOSTATE JEWS 515 

SPECTRAL WARRIORS ON BATTLEFIELDS 517 

LATIN-AMERICAN NATIONS IN THE WAR...., . 524 



The Sixth Year 1919 
Europe's War with Bolshevism 527 

22 Nations in Battle Array 

SURVEY OF EVENTS FOR THE YEAR. 527 

GERMANY IN THROES OF REVOLUTION 532 

THE IRISH REPUBLIC PROCLAIMED 533 

PEACE CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS PARIS 536 

GERMAN REPUBLIC ORGANIZED 546 

PROPOSED GERMAN AUSTRIAN UNION 547 

GERMANY'S BALTIC SEIZURE ESCAPADE 551 

BRITISH TROOPS MASSACRE HINDUS 553 

ALLIES' UNLEGALIZED WARFARE IN RUSSIA 556 

POLAND ATTACKED BY FOUR ENEMIES . 562 



UKRAINIA'S BATTLES AGAINST SIX FOES 569 

ENGLAND SEIZES EGYPT BY FORCE 572 

BOLSHEVIST REIGN OF TERROR IN HUNGARY 574 

BOLSHEVIKI DEFEAT RUSSO-BALTIC ARMIES 580 

KOLCHAK'S SIBERIAN ARMIES CRUSHED 584 

DENEKINE'S COSSACK ARMIES DEFEATED 588 

UKRAINIA'S CAPITAL IN REIGN OF TERROR. 591 

TREACHERY AND DARK PLOTS IN SIBERIA 592 

CHINA REPUDIATES VERSAILLES TREATY 595 

CANADA INVESTIGATES LABOR UNREST 596 

MEXICO AND U. S. AT POINT OF WAR. 597 

THE VERSAILLES PEACE TREATY SIGNED 597 

U. S. SENATE REJECTS VERSAILLES TREATY . 602 

PRES. WILSON'S NATION-WIDE SPEAKING TOUR 607 

RACE RIOTS IN GREAT AMERICAN CITIES 610 

PROHIBITION LAW RATIFIED BY CONGRESS 611 

ITALIAN REBELS SEIZE PORT OF FIUME 613 

TURKS MASSACRE ARMENIANS GREEKS 616 

RAILROAD OWNERSHIP CONTROVERSY 617 

NATIONAL INTERNATIONAL LABOR Conferences 619-621 

GREAT BITUMINOUS COAL STRIKE 622 

GERMANY'S WAR CRIMINAL INQUEST. 624 

AMERICAN TROOPS GUARD SIBERIAN RAILROAD 626 

TREATIES WITH GERMANY AUSTRIA SIGNED . 629 



The Seventh Year 1920 
War of the Turkish Partition 635 

14 Nations Continue at War 

SURVEY OF EVENTS FOR THE YEAR 635 

THE LEAGUE OF NATIONS INITIATED 639 

MEMBERSHIP IN THE LEAGUE OF NATIONS 640 

PEACE CONFERENCE SESSION AT PARIS 644 

U. S. SENATE REJECTS TREATY OF VERSAILLES 646 

ATTEMPT TO OVERTHROW GERMAN REPUBLIC 646 

ROYALIST COMMUNIST REVOLTS IN GERMANY....648-649 

THREE ANTI-BOLSHEVIST ARMIES DESTROYED 652 

BOLSHEVIK ARMIES AT GATES OF WARSAW 654 

SEVRES CONFERENCE AND TURKISH TREATY 660 

FINAL BOLSHEVIK VICTORY IN THE CRIMEA 662 

FRENCH AT WAR WITH ARABS IN SYRIA 663 

ARMENIA PLUNDERED AND BETRAYED 666 

GRECO-TURKO WAR THRACE ANATOLIA 674 

ENGLAND VIOLATES HER PLEDGE TO EGYPT. 677 

D'ANNUNZIO FINALLY SURRENDERS FIUME 677 

KING CONSTANTINE OF GREECE RESTORED 678 

REIGN OF TERROR STIRS ALL IRELAND . 679 



The Eighth Year 1921 

Warfare Continues in Half the World 686 

Subjugated Nations Burst Bands of Bondage 

SURVEY OF EVENTS FOR THE YEAR 686 

GERMANY AGREES TO PAY REPARATION CLAIMS.... 688 

"PLEBISCITE WAR" IN UPPER SILESIA 690 

ALL INDIA REVOLTS AGAINST BRITISH RULE 695 

PERSIANS FREED FROM BRITISH DOMINANCE 697 

GREECE LIBERATES ASIA MINOR 699 

EGYPT THROWS OFF BRITISH PROTECTORATE...- 703 

PEACE TREATY BETWEEN U. S. AND GERMANY 705 

IRELAND GRANTED DOMINION STATUS 705 

THE DISARMAMENT CONFERENCE 708 

Auxiliary Chapters 

U. S. NAVY MASTERS SUBMARINE PERIL. 719 

THE AMERICAN ARMY TO EUROPE'S RESCUE. 726 

AMERICA BEARS LARGEST COST OF WAR. 732 

THE RED CROSS IN THE WAR 736 

THE YOUNG MEN'S CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATION 741 

THE YOUNG WOMEN'S CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATION 746 

THE KNIGHTS OF COLUMBUS .. 748 

THE SALVATION ARMY 750 

THE JEWISH WELFARE BOARD ... 753 



VII 




INTRODUCTION 

THE EDITOR of these pages has undertaken to expose to the American 
people and youth of the Public Schools, the History of the Great War 1914-1918. 

In the narration of these five years of battles, they will find the manifesta- 
tion of the qualities which all American, British, French, Belgian, Italian, 
Serbian and Roumanian soldiers, united in a common ideal, displayed constantly, 
with steadfast faith in the time of waiting: Stubborn Tenacity in the days of 
adversity: Offensive Spirit maintained unremittingly in the final battles, until 
the hour when the foe had to surrender. 

No other lessons could be more fertile in examples of Heroism and Moral 
Valor. 

I approve of the Editor's undertaking, which has been executed with such 
care and completeness, and I wish for this history a wide distribution among the 
English speaking people of every land. 



FERDINAND FOCH 



VIII 



&% This preliminary chapter comprises a concise history of the Prussian race, from its advent on the shores pf the Baltic Sea. 

down through the centuries. revealinK how this barbarous warring people carved their way to Empire, disclosing 

and Evil ambition for World dominion, and proceeding step by step down to Austria's cowardly ultimatum to UtU 

declaration of War Says an eminent scholar in a personal letter to the Editor. "You have compressed more important history 

into this single chapter than most historians put into an entire volume." 

HOW GERMANY LOST HER SOUL 



Once an Inspired and Honored Member of the Exalted Family of Nations 
She Fell From Grace Through the Seductions of Prussian Paganism 
Germany's Spiritual Surrender the Supreme Ethnic Tragedy of the Centuries 
Prussian Barbarism Traced from Its Source in the Land of Gog and Magog 
For 1300 Years the Prussians Resisted the Influences of Christian Civilization 
The Last Tribe in All Europe to Abandon the Worship of Their Pagan Gods 
Prussia's Duplicity, Treachery, and Her Evil Ambition to Govern the World 
Prussian Principles of Government Absolutely Opposed to Human Liberty 
Spiritual Betrayal of Germany, the First Step in Prussianization of the Planet 
Corruption of the German Mind by Atheistical Philosophers and Historians 
Blasphemous Teachings of Hegel, Fichte, Schlegel, Nietzsche, Trietsche,Bernhardi 
Germany Finally Renounces Her Christian Ideals, Reverting to Pagan Savagery 
Prussia's Diabolical Plot to Exterminate Christianity Throughout the World 
And Restore Their Ancient Pagan Worship of Odin and Thor Universally 



The Evidences Presented in this Chapter Are Drawn Largely from German Authorities 

THE horrendous World War, which brought martyrdom to Europe, judg- 
ment to Babylon, woe to all nations and liberty to half of the enslaved 
peoples of earth, was essentially a spiritual conflict, a collision of crucial 
concepts, a renewal on the cosmic scale of the eternal battle between 
Christ and Antichrist, Freedom and Tyranny, Bible and Babel. In its every 
phase, it implied a challenge flaunted in the face of God by the infuriate foes of 
Faith, and savagely expressed in futile assaults upon the ideal edifice of Chris- 
tianity. The impious challenge was accepted and its authors were rebuked, by 
an irresistible rally of the host of Christendom, united in defence of Faith, Free- 
dom and Fireside. 

Spiritually considered, the sequential victory typifies the inevitable triumph 
of Christianity over Paganism, of Truth over Error, of Right over Might, of 
Faith over Infidelity. In its social results the war was profuse in benefits to hu- 
manity. The sore shackles were removed from half the enslaved races of earth, 

(9) 



10 How Germany Lost Her Soul 

enabling 700,000,000 oppressed peoples to emerge from the depressive gloom of 
despotism into the kindly light of free democracy. Four tyrannous empires, tjie 
inheritance of Babylon, have dissolved like clouds and in their place many aspir- 
ing republics have risen. Europe is apparently relieved from the blight of Islam 
and the fangs of the Turk are drawn. After five years of chastening pain, the 
world is undergoing a social transformation. 

When the Gates of Hell opened wide, in the summer of 1914, dooming all 
Europe to a flaming, sulphurous martyrdom; when the Legions of Lucifer out- 
poured upon three continents, and witfc infernal weapons drawn from the ar- 
senal of Satan, strove to conquer or destroy mankind; when a million happy 
homes, in a myriad of cities and towns, had vanished in smoke or dust; when 
thrice ten million blameless victims had been offered up on the altars of Moloch ; 
when the warring skies dripped death, and the seas were choked with drowned 
ships; when the host of Christendom had gone forth to give battle to the Beast 
of Revelation; and when civilization had been saved in the extremity of its peril 
by the invincible might of the American Republic: even then the world had 
not guessed the monstrous design which filled the mind of the German Kaiser 
when he threw down his gauntlet to Heaven and challenged all Christendom. 

Paganism to Supplant Christianity 

A fourfold purpose impelled this vainest of modern despots, this new Cali- 
gula, in setting loose his barbarous hordes of Huns, Vandals, Turks, Tartars and 
Infidels, to work destruction in Europe. Conceiving himself in majesty as but 
little below Deity, and divinely ordained to impose his will upon all mankind, 
this vicar of Odin plotted (1) the conquest of the world, (2) the Prussianization 
of all nations through the media of German Kultur, (3) the destruction of the 
Christian Church, and (4) the restoration of the cult of Prussian paganism with 
its worship of Odin and Thor, and its memories of the abominable rites of human 
sacrifice. Apart from his rapt vision of a Prussianized planet, peopled by con- 
quered races newly conformed in the mold of a common Prussian Kultur, and 
with all mankind paying homage to him as to a lesser Deity, the Kaiser saw him- 
self as the chosen instrument of Odin, the pagan "hammer-god" of the Baltic 
skies, in the spiritual regeneration of the world. 

The simple, plastic German mind, for many generations past, had been 
gradually prepared for this reversion to paganism through the blasphemous 
teachings of the atheistical philosophers, historians, pedagogues and publicists 
of Germany. Even before the German states had meekly accepted the Prussian 
hegemony, the prime obstacle of Christianity had been removed from the 
general German mind to make way for a pagan religious tyranny upon which the 
Hohenzollerns might base their civil tyranny. All the despotic empires of 



Underlying Causes of the War 1 1 

antiquity, from Babylon to Carthage, had been so cemented. By establishing 
automatic dominion in the spiritual sphere, the Prussian pagans hoped ultimate- 
ly to establish it in the civil sphere, as their predecessors in Asia had done 
through all antiquity. The people were first spiritually, then politically enslaved. 

It was essential to the Prussian purpose that Christianity be destroyed, be- 
cause of the natural and historical alliance which exists between Christianity 
and Liberty. Alone among the religions of earth, Christianity has ever been in- 
imical to all forms of tyranny, has ever defended the weak as against the strong. 
Invariably Christianity has stood between the despotic ruler and his oppressed 
subjects ; invariably it has upheld the democratic ideal as against the autocratic. 
Throughout the Christian centuries, every state, every empire founded on auto- 
cratic principles has discovered in Christianity its most inveterate enemy. The 
annals of the Middle Ages, that marvelous era of human achievement, dis- 
close the gradual emancipation of man from every species of servitude as the 
influence of Christianity became more penetrating and universal. Contrariwise, 
the history of Europe, during the five centuries which have elapsed since the 
Renaissance, reveals the inevitable, startling spread of human slavery, in all its 
aspects, in the precise degree that the influence of Christianity had declined. 

The Prussian autocrats, those mad Hohenzollerns, strove to destroy the 
Christian religion because it stood in the path of their pagan ambition to reduce 
all mankind to a state of hopeless servitude. They could not hope to seduce 
the civilized world into wearing the pagan yoke, as they had succeeded in debas- 
ing the Christian states of Germany, without first expunging the ideal of lib- 
erty from the minds of all the people. But with Christianity holding aloft the 
torch of liberty and guarding the freedom of the people, the difficulty in realiz- 
ing the Hohenzollern ambition proved insuperable. Evidently, if Prussia was 
to impose her irreligious will upon all mankind, she must first destroy all Chris- 
tian evidences and beliefs. Prussia's hatred of Christianity, therefore, was pri- 
marily political, the hatred of a spiritual doctrine for its political consequences. 
Other nations England, France, and Italy also had warred against Christian- 
ity, though from a different motive. They challenged the Church, they threw 
down the gauntlet to God, because of their mistaken belief that Christianity had 
altered from its traditional status and become the enemy of Liberty. Prussia, 
on the contrary, with a clearer perception of the true facts, struck her blow at 
Christianity because she recognized in it the eternal friend and champion of Lib- 
erty, because her pagan rulers infallibly knew that Liberty could flourish on 
earth only when supported by the supernatural strength of the Christian 
religion. 

Phase by phase, the old pagan ideals of ruthless force, of pitiless warfare, 
were instilled into the mind of Germany. So complete was Germany's debase- 



12 



How Germany Lost Her Soul 



ment, 50 years ago, that Lord Acton declared : "Christianity is abominated in 
northern Germany, in life and in literature." He also described the destruction, 
stone by stone, of the Christian edifice in Germany, and revealed how the blocks 
of stone taken from the Christian temple were being used in constructing the 
pagan Temple of Valor. As the placid, kindly Germany of old the land of ro- 
mance, art and song came more and more under the sway of the pagan Prus- 
sian corruptors, Prussianism stood forth as a complete embodiment of the 
tyrannical instinct in human nature. Since the Prussian Beast, and his philosoph- 
ical lackeys, have not been destroyed, have only been laid low, and may at any 
time renew their assaults upon Civilization, it will profit us to review in some de- 
tail the methods by which the atheistical philosophers gained their ascendancy 
over the German mind in preparation for the corruption and coercion of all 
mankind. 



^^ 



The Spiritual Corruption of Germany by Her Mad Philosophers 

Plot of Paganism Against Christianity Gobineau's Superman 

Nietzsche's Blond Beast Worship of the Prussian State 

Fallacies of Hegel, Fichte, Treitschke, Bernhardi, Revealed 



THE complete surrender of the German 
intellect to the wild vagaries of the 
Prussian philosophers and publicists, 
the renunciation of the Christian religion 
by the leaders of the people and their prac- 
tical reversion to paganism, bodies forth as 
the most amazing spiritual phenomenon of 
modern times. The whole sweep of human 
history, in fact, affords no parallel to the 
slavish submission of this highly endowed 
people to their pagan Prussian mentor. 

The "philosopher" Fichte, in 1807, laid the 
foundation of the national egotism with his 
definition of "Deutschtum," or Germanism: 
"Germany is to all the rest of the world as 
good is to evil. To Germany alone, among 
the nations of the earth, belongs the privilege 
of expressing the true and the good. Every- 
thing which emanates from other peoples 
represents nothing but error and evil. In 
the German soul alone is to be found the 
sense of the ideal, combined with the power 
to realize that ideal in the world." 

The philosopher Hegel taught virtually 
that the state is a divine incarnation, super- 
ior to all earthly authority, to be worshipped, 



exempt from bondage to any moral law, and 
possessed of an absolute right to impose its 
will upon weaker nationalities. 

Nietzsche, "the mystagogue of Prussian- 
ism," who spent the last twelve years of his 
life in a madhouse, but whose blasphemies 
are nevertheless held to be Heaven-inspired, 
taught, in this manner, the negation of the 
Golden Rule : The cardinal virtues of Chris- 
tianity, and especially the emotions of mercy, 
self-sacrifice and pity, indicate an inherent 
weakness of the human race. Moreover, the 
physically strong, in their offices of kindness 
and helpfulness, are wasting energies that 
can be put to better use. The Christian law 
which bids us share each other's burdens, 
must, therefore, be regarded as obsolete. 
The strong man must be preserved at all haz- 
ards in order to advance the human race. 
There is no place in the world for the weak 
man; he should be destroyed. .Conscience 
should not be permitted to interfere with suc- 
cess, thereby preventing the evolution of the 
super-man, who is neither to be constrained 
by duty, nor restricted by law, "living his 
life beyond good and evil" or, in plain 



Underlying Causes of the War 



13 



words, in disobedience to the laws of God. 
Though most of Nietzsche's blasphemies are 
unquotable, yet the vaporings of this poor 
stricken paranoiac are esteemed as Heaven- 
inspired in Germany (and by some Amer- 
ican college professors, "educated" in Ger- 
many, as well), he being regarded as a pro- 
phet, and his books "sharing with Homer and 
Goethe, a place in the knapsack of every Ger- 
man soldier." 

Treitschke, the foremost historian and 
Machiavelli of Germany, justified national 
conquest in these words: "It is immoral if 
a state does not strive to extend its power, 
if such extension is required by an expand- 
ing population. Nations must never allow 
themselves to be bound by treaty obligations 
which endanger the existence of the state or 
are a disadvantage to it." 

With such monitors to guide them, the Ger- 
man statesmen had no compunctions in tear- 
ing up a certain "scrap of paper." 

General Bernhardi taught that "war is not 
only a law of nature, but a necessary means 
to the advancement of civilization. War is 
good because it regenerates a race and always 
exercises a renovating influence." It will be 
perceived that it is only a short step from 
such a doctrine to Nietzsche's atrocious 
theory, that it was the duty of the strong to 
exterminate the weak, and that the highest 
wisdom consisted in the renunciation of the 
Golden Rule. Naturally, the "strong race," 
whose evident destiny called it to this work 
of extermination, was the Germanic, or shall 
we say, the Vandal race. 

Conflict Between Christ and Thor 

THE conflict between Christ and Thor, be- 
tween Christianity and paganism, was upper- 
most in the minds of these deluded philos- 
ophers. Hegel was the first to pave the way 
with his theory that divinity on earth was 
embodied in the state and that development, 
not of religion, morality, or justice, but of the 
state, was the object of all laws. The glori- 
fication of the state included of necessity the 
sacrifice of the individual, and this ideal has 
been carried out with ruthless force in Ger- 
many. From the sacrifice of citizens of Ger- 
many, "for the good of the state," to the 
similar sacrifice of the citizens of other na- 



tions, was but a logical step in the German 
philosophic mind. Hence for the Prussian- 
Vandal, international laws were not binding. 

Paganism vs. Christianity 

THE next step was to prepare the credul- 
ous mind of Germany for the proposed tran- 
sition from Christian to pagan worship, in 
the Nietzschean manner, of which Professor 
Cramb is the rapt interpreter : "It is impera- 
tive that the German mind should recall that 
creative role in religion, which the whole 
Teutonic race abandoned fourteen centuries 
ago. They conquered Rome, but dazzled by 
Rome's authority, they adopted the religion 
and the culture of the vanquished. Judea and 
Galilee struck Germany in the splendor and 
heroism of her prime. Germany's own deep 
religious instinct, her native genius for reli- 
gion, was averted, stunted, thwarted. But 
having once adopted the new faith, she strove 
to live that faith, and for more than thirty 
generations she has struggled and wrestled 
to see with eyes that were not her eyes, to 
worship a God that was not her God (Odin), 
to live with a world vision that was not her 
vision, to strive for a Heaven that was not 
her Heaven (Valhalla) . Yet with what chiv- 
alry did not Germany throw herself into the 
great Crusades. And whilst her Crusaders, 
front to front with Islam, burst into passion- 
ate denials and set Mahomet above Christ, or 
in exasperated scorn derided all religion, her 
great thinkers and mystics led her steadily 
toward the serener heights, where knowledge 
and faith dissolve in vision, and ardour is all. 

"The 17th century flung off Rome. The 
18th century undermined Galilee (Christian- 
ity) itself, and with the opening of the 20th 
century Germany is reunited to her pristine 
genius, her creative power in religion and in 
thought. Must Germany submit to this alien 
creed derived from an alien clime? Must she 
forever confront the ages, the borrower of 
her religion, her own genius for religion 
numbed and paralyzed?" 

Nietzsche, the madman, "clearing away 
the accumulated rubbish of 1200 years," at- 
tempts to "set the German imagination back 
where it was with the Goths, Alaric and 
Theodoric, fortified by the experience of 
twelve centuries to confront the darkness of 



14 



How Germany Lost Her Soul 



paganism unaided, unappalled, triumphant, 
great and free." 

This mad plea for the restoration of pag- 
anism, "after the accumulated rubbish of 
Christianity has been cleared away," was 
taught in the universities and carried in the 
knapsacks of the same pitiless German sol- 
diers that crucified babies in Belgium, burned 
villagers alive, ravished women, dragged 
thousands of girls and women into worse 
than slavery, and committed such atrocities 
as the hordes of Genghis Khan perhaps never 
contemplated. 

Listen to Nietzsche's blasphemous parody 
of the Beatitudes and say if the German race 
that hails him as a prophet has not indeed 
lost its soul : "And ye have heard men say, 
'Blessed are the Peacemakers/ but I say unto 
you, 'Blessed are the war-makers/ for they 
shall be called, if not the children of Jehovah, 
the children of Odin, who is greater than 
Jehovah." 

The World's Destiny Depends on Germany 

THE credulous philosophers of Germany 
have always conceived that the destiny of the 
Teuton is the destiny of mankind, since he 
alone is fated to realize all possible develop- 
ments which other races have singly realized 
in turn. Schlegel declared that the imperish- 
able word of Divine Revelation is reborn in 
Germany for the whole world, and only in 
Germany can it find its final and complete 
manifestation. 

Fichte, in his Discourses, wt'ote: "Races 
yet unborn implore you, the stranger in far- 
off lands entreats you, they and all the ages 
of humanity throughout the future have 
faith in you, and implore you to guard 
against any possibility that in the great con- 
federation of a new humanity, the member 
which is the most essential to its existence 
should disappear. They must not search for 
you in vain, when they need your counsels, 
your example, your help. You it is to whom, 
among all modern nations, the seeds of hu- 
man perfection have been entrusted and to 
whom has been given the first place in de- 
veloping them. If you succumb, humanity 
succumbs with you, and all hope of any fu- 
ture renovation will be lost." 



Germany the Guiding Star of Humanity 

THE philosophy of history and human fate 
which Fichte expounded was based on a 
theory of "Heroes," who alone are living 
souls, and who truly -act; from generation to 
generation, they arise and dower their age 
with some ever new and ever stimulating 
representation of Eternal Reality, whose es- 
sence is one throughout the ever-changing 
forms that reveal it. At a stroke, they sweep 
away all the shams, all the dead forms ex- 
tinct life has left behind ; they are drawn ir- 
resistibly to the true, under the impulse of a 
law of their being, which is a force of Na- 
ture. They are the guiding stars of human- 
ity, the seers whose appointed task is to guide 
its steps; their rights are absolute, for in a 
world of the blind, they alone are gifted with 
vision. The swarms of mediocre men live 
only on the external plane, on the outskirts 
of life, among shams and illusions, mumbling 
their worn-out shibboleths, the empty shells 
of past existence. To work his will on these 
human swarms is the duty of the sacred 
prophet, for his rights are divine, and to 
them none other can be opposed. What these 
seers are among men, Germany is among na- 
tions. Her clear vision confers upon her a 
right to supremacy over all other races, in 
the domain of action as in that of philosophy. 
Her sons alone can gaze with undazzled eyes 
in all things and see their reality unchanged. 
Her inspired minds communicate directly 
with the Spirit of the Universe, the eternal 
will which organizes all, divining its hidden 
designs. Her intuition illuminates the es- 
sence of all things, even the enduring realities 
which constitute the foundations of all life. 
The German soul alone has torn asunder the 
veils that hide the inner realities of past and 
present civilizations, has revealed or ex- 
pounded the living ideas which have brought 
them into being, the living germ of truth 
which has given them strength to endure and 
at all times has marked out on what lines 
man's progress is possible. The German peo- 
ple, therefore, are "the chosen race," and 
Germany, "the mother of the inspired," has 
a sacred mission before which all men must 
bow and to which they can oppose "no right, 
no liberty, no thought." It is Germany's 
duty to impose her will on all mankind; for 



Underlying Causes of the War 



15 



she is the predestined guide of all the world. 
To oppose the fulfillment of this destiny is 
treason against God himself." 

Germany As the "Holy Ghost of Europe" 

THE poet Wolfskehl developed this theme 
still further, declaring: "It is the life or 
death of the soul of Europe we are fighting 
for. Your accomplices are sinning against 
the Holy Ghost of Europe. We are fighting the 
battle of all mankind, for the whole world. 
This war comes from God Almighty. It is 
the Divine in humanity which is at stake; 
not our existence alone, but that of Europe, 
is imperilled.'* 

The "Appeal to Europe" of the masters of 
higher education in Germany, issued in Octo- 
ber, 1914, signed by fifty-three Universities, 
and containing 32,000 signatures, declared: 
"We are absolutely convinced that the future 
of all European Kultur depends on the vic- 
tory of our militarism." 

Pantheism of the Germans 

THE pagan idealists of Germany, and the 
pagan philosophers and historians as well, 
have ever been obsessed with the idea of the 
providential mission of the German race. 
Whenever the "old good God of the Ger- 
mans," meaning Odin, willed the chastise- 
ment of any nation, the predestined instru- 
ment of these chastenings invariably was a 
German. The unsullied heroism of the Ger- 
man could regenerate the weak and corrupt 
races. In the pantheon of Germany, the 
highest niches of fame were reserved for 
those barbarous instruments of Odin, who 
had chastised the Roman Empire Varus, 
who had annihilated the legions of Caesar; 
Vercingetorix, Hermann, Alaric the Goth, 
and finally Martin Luther, the Reformer, who 
had chastised the Catholic Church. Thus, in 
the philosophy of history, the Teuton con- 
sidered himself as the soldier of the "old good 
God of Germany," and whenever a work of 
magnitude was to be performed, it was a 
German who was divinely assigned to the 
task. 

With this conception grew a violent hos- 
tility to Christianity. The poets, philoso- 
phers, and musicians of Germany notably 
Wagner in recent years rediscovered the 



gods of the German soil, exalted the mythical 
heroes of Germany, and passionately de- 
clared that the "delusions of Christianity" 
could never dispel German regard for pagan 
gods. 

War Is the Law of Odin 
To strive is Germany's destiny; her mis- 
sion is war. The spirit of valor infuses the 
literature of Germany; it fills the pages of 
the Eddas, the wild legends of the Nibelun- 
genlied, the rhapsodies of Nietzsche, the an- 
nals of the feudal barons and early kings of 
Germany; it represents to their minds the 
will of the Universe ; it is, in fact, the law of 
Odin. Acceptance of this law of ceaseless 
strife is proof of the nobility of race ; rejec- 
tion of this mandate can result only in na- 
tional degeneracy. The Religion of Valor 
not only implies regeneration, is not merely 
a duty towards one's self and Odin ; it is an 
end in itself. It creates the Kingdom of the 
Strong, the masters of the earth, and its 
ethics are not those of Christ, but of Odin. 

Be Pitiless, Urges Nietzsche 

THE gospel of Nietzsche also carried the 
doctrine that war is the natural state of the 
noble soul. "Ye shall love peace as a means 
for new wars, and a short peace better than 
a long one. I do not counsel you peace but 
victory. Let your work be a conflict, your 
peace a victory. A good cause, you say, hal- 
lows war. But I say unto you, a good war 
hallows everything." 

Pity and weakness were the superlative 
vices, as courage was the supreme virtue. 
"What is right, you ask? To be brave is to 
be right. War and courage have done 
greater things than the love of one's neigh- 
bors. It is not your pity but your valor 
which has hitherto saved the victims. Be- 
hold the new law, my brethren, that I lay 
down for you : Be pitiless. Who shall attain 
to anything great, who does not feel the 
power and the will to inflict great suffer- 
ings?" 

War, in the German mind, is more than a 
mere effort in heroism ; it is obedience to the 
will of Odin, the "hammer god." 

Darwin Helps Corrupt Germany 

THE gullible German mind, released from 
the safe moorings of Christian faith, and set 



16 



How Germany Lost Her Soul 



adrift in the ocean of infidelity, was easily 
swayed by every wind of doctrine that pre- 
vailed. Thus, in 1859, the national vanity 
was flattered by Charles Darwin's evolution 
fallacies, filched in the general from ancient 
Greek and modern Gallic sources. The Ger- 
man mind eagerly embraced the Darwinian 
notion, as yet unproved, of the preservation 
of favored races in the struggle for life, by 
the law of natural selection. This theory of 
the survival of the fittest and the evolution 
of the stronger, seemed to confirm the na- 
tional tradition that Germany was the race 
so favored and destined to sway the world. 
The apparent challenge to Christian revela- 
tion, implied by the doctrine of evolution, 
also pleased the dominant minds of Ger- 
many, which had discarded Christianity in 
favor of the religion of ruthless war, or sheer 
paganism. 

Count Gobineau's "Fair Aryan" Fallacies 

ANOTHER alien, Count de Gobineau of 
France, still further corrupted the German 
mind by putting forth a book on the "Ine- 
quality of Races" in courage, mastery, intel- 
lect and culture. Gobineau sought to prove 
that the laws of heredity are the sole laws 
of progress ; in race alone is to be found the 
key to national mastery and achievement. 
Solely by the accident of birth is a man of 
any race fitted for leadership. The well- 
born man is entitled to rule; for as man is 
above the brute, so is the aristocratic class 
above the masses. The black and yellow 
races are vastly inferior to the whites, in 
whom reside all virtue, intellect, beauty, re- 
finement, vigor, art, and capacity of the 
highest order. Hence, the purer the white, 
the more inevitable is his mastery of the 
world. Now, the Teuton and the Scanda- 
navian, being the purest white or Aryan 
races left on earth, are, therefore, by right 
entitled to compel their mastery upon the 
world. Compared to them, all other races 
are fitted only for slavery. But, alas, the 
white race, by intermarriage, has degen- 
erated into half breeds, and the world is 
hopelessly destined to decline to a state of 
democracy in which the aristocratic qualities 
of valor, refinement, taste, initiative, and in- 
vention will be suppressed. Had the "fair 



Aryan" races been developed by intensive 
breeding, as are race horses, there might 
have been evolved in Germany an aristocra- 
tic class, but it is now too late for such a 
blessed caste to arrive. Civilization is 
doomed to expire as a democracy! 

Enter Nietzsche's "Blond Beast" 

COUNT DE GOBINEAU'S biological theories 
intrigued the disordered mind of the Polish 
Jew, Frederick Nietzsche, who posed as a 
German, Nietzsche, who "lived in debauches 
of intellectual ecstacy," accepted without res- 
ervation the doctrines of Darwin and Gob- 
ineau, and from them he evolved a new "gos- 
pel" which Germany avidly seized upon. 
Darwin, having hinted his belief that a race 
will finally be evolved greatly superior to any 
existent race, Nietzsche gave that predes- 
tined race a name the Overman. Gobin- 
eau's "fair Aryan" he renamed the "Blond 
Beast." As both these types are to be wholly 
the products of evolution, they must not be 
hampered in their progress upward, by the 
superannuated morality of the old religion. 
"Christ is dead," therefore we must discard 
all Christian doctrines as worthless. In the 
place of the old morality, we shall have a 
Brute Morality, the Religion of Valor, where- 
by the Overman is to form a master caste of 
European Aryans, chiefly German, who will 
set up a new Kultur from which Christianity, 
the "Slave-religion," will be eliminated. The 
slave races must bow down to the Overman 
and the Blond Beast; while the Religion of 
Valor, in which there is to be no room for 
mercy and pity, is to supplant Christianity. 
Finally, the Overman is to evolve into the 
Superman, a product of the "fair Aryan" 
race developed upon eugenic principles of 
selection. Germany seriously accepted Nie- 
tzsche as a prophet and arrogated to herself 
the role of Overman. 

State- Worship Instead of God 

THE state, in the Prussian view, is re- 
garded as the summit of human society, the 
final result of evolution; above it there is 
absolutely nothing in the history of the 
world ; the Idea of the State is one to be wor- 
shipped as a real god upon the earth. Its 
essence is force ; its supreme duty is to assert 



Underlying Causes of the War 



17 



itself; the necessities of its existence are its 
only law; its past does not bind its future; 
no treaty or convention acknowledged by it 
can hamper its abiding duty of sovereignty; 
no vain scruple can hinder its action. It is a 
return to the state of Nature; it takes the 
place of God, and like the God of Nature, it 
has no regard for the individual ; like Him, it 
creates by destruction and death. No scruple, 
convention, or prejudice can hinder the ruth- 
less advance of this force once let loose; it 
must attain swiftly and by any means the 
maximum of results, for results only count. 
Its duty is to strike terror into all, and there- 
by paralyze all resistance ; the very excess of 
its atrociousness renders it finally less de- 
structive; the very excess of its inhumanity 
renders it more humane ; for the more crush- 
ing is its impact, the sooner will the end be 
attained; the more scientific it is, the more 
perfect it will be. War is the highest moral- 
ity, since before its reality all mere appear- 
ances crumble away, all the shams of peace, 
"that creator of unreal values." In war's 
awful presence, Truth alone can live. War 
alone recreates true values and restores to 
force and life the rights usurped by weakness 
and death, whose rights are non-existent. 

Such is the "gospel" that infected the cells 
of the German organism with the virus of its 
error. Under the spell of this false philos- 
ophy, the whole German race was hypnotized 
until all sense of reality was lost. 

How Germany Was Duped 

THE German is by nature a plastic being, 
easily led by appeals to his vanity and his 
bent for mysticism. In the Prussian he found 
his predestined master. Subordinating his 
own will to that of the master, he revelled in 
the illusion of liberty and initiative. 

Possessed by the delusion that Germany is 
the elect among the nations; that no other 
nation equals her in material and spiritual 
efficiency; that her culture is the supreme 
expression of human genius; that her mis- 
sion of world regeneration is divine, yet all 
nations are blind to her mission; that her 
force of expansion is irresistible, she resolved 
to rend the bonds that bound her and break 
h<r way through the wall of enmities that 
hemmed her in. Overcoming the opposition 



of inferior races, barbarous or decadent, she 
would fulfill the mandate conferred upon her 
by Odin, the "old good God of Germany." 
After she had conquered the whole earth, 
she would bestow upon the weak nations, 
blinded by error, the blessings of German 
Kultur, infusing them with the German 
spirit, and sharing with them the majesty of 
her fortune. Over the ruins of Christian 
civilization, the German ideal should rise 
radiant, shedding torrents of light on a daz- 
zled world. 

Flings Aside the Alien Religion of Christ 

ACCORDING to the madman, Nietzsche, Ger- 
many had been deflected from her ancient 
destiny when she permitted herself to be 
spiritually ^conquered by the Gospel of Christ 
"an alien Eastern genius in Galilee, born 
out of the Jewish race" but now Christ is 
dead : The creative power of Germany lies in 
giving the world a new religion the Religion 
of Valor born out of her own soul. How 
much mightier than Christianity will be the 
Religion of Valor. And how much nobler 
than the Gothic will be the architecture in 
which Germany's new religion will be housed. 
So let Germany destroy the ugly Gothic ca- 
thedrals which have loomed up all over 
Europe, these many centuries. 
* * * 

"Seek ye danger. Whether Germany rise 
or fall, at least she will not fall the thrall 
of an alien god, but as the disciple of Ruth- 
less Valor. For her no pallid Heaven beyond 
the grave, but a place in Valhalla, the ulti- 
mate home of Heroes." 

Germany flung aside the "alien religion 
out of Galilee" and created a Religion of Valor 
(paganism restored), which is its own stand- 
ard of conduct, its own judge of action. She 
attempted to confer this religion upon the 
world. The mediocre breeds of the world, 
who have usurped power while Germany has 
slumbered, should bow down before her maj- 
esty and might, and accept her Religion of 
Valor, if Germany would only nourish her 
valor and attempt what valor can achieve. 

Not for Germany are the false ideals and 
ethics of any alien people. Rather is it Ger- 
many's destiny to create a religion and com- 
pel it on the conquered races of the earth. 



18 



How Germany Lost Her Soul 



Only by way of conquest may Germany reach 
world empire and so compel the German Kul- 
tur and the Religion of Valor upon the uni- 
verse. 

England and Her American Spawn 

ALIEN nations, with their absurd ideals of 
peace, preach against war. But they who 
cry out against war are guilty of an immor- 
ality, for war is not the scourge of mankind ; 
it is the main thoroughfare of human prog- 
ress, over which evolution advances. A great 
people must choose between world dominion 
and ruin. War is therefore a most virile 
need of life ; only through war may a people 
rise to mastery. Germany must seek out 



the greatest obstacle to be overcome ; that ob- 
stacle is the sea-power of England. Other 
people must be overwhelmed; England must 
be crushed. And after England "her spawn 
in America." England's realm is built on 
rotten foundations, just as her spawn in the 
United States was born in corruption, ex- 
panding in vulgarity and British self-suffi- 
ciency. The Germans who go to America, 
seeking wealth, should live in communities 
apart, so that the German genius might not 
suffer weakening from American debase- 
ment. They should accumulate wealth so 
that on the day of reckoning they might help 
the Hohenzollerns to overthrow the English 
genius of the futile Republic. 



Prussians Still Uncivilized Pagans as Late as the 13th Century 

How This Tribe of Hun- Vandal-Tartar-Mongol-Strain Carved Its 
Way to Empire by the Sword 



IN order to envisage more fully the hid- 
eous ambitions of Germany in the World 
War, it is necessary to explore the psy- 
chology of the Prussian mind from its source 
in the Vandal tribes dwelling in the Baltic 
forests. At the outset, it should be men- 
tioned that the Prussians are a Vandal, not a 
purely Germanic race. Their association 
with the Germanic race was from the be- 
ginning the result of German conquest. The 
spiritual Germany that for centuries en- 
dowed the world with the profoundest litera- 
ture, the sublimest music and the loftiest 
conceptions of religious and civic liberty is 
no more. First coerced and at length cor- 
rupted by the dominant Prussians, Germany 
lost her spirituality, her national soul, and 
became the docile, even obsequious slave of 
her Prussian master. Some day the old 
Germany may recover her soul and again 
illumine the world with the light of her 
genius. 

The Prussian-Vandals, on the contrary, 
were ever a barbarous race, carving out their 
destiny with the sword. The Prussian race has 
never produced an intellectual leader apart 
from Bismarck, either in the field of theol- 



ogy, literature, music, or the fine arts. Lust 
for power, the exaltation of brute force, a 
supreme disdain for all moral restraints, 
these are the motives which have swayed 
them. 

First Glimpse of the Prussian- Vandals 

THE first glimpse which history affords of 
the unregenerate pagans who so recently as- 
pired to world dominion is supplied by Pliny, 
the Roman historian, who gravely asserts 
that the dwellers on the Baltic Islands "have 
horses hoofs instead of feet, and ears so large 
as to cover their bodies." The kings of 
Prussia, with justifiable pride, trace their 
descent back to the Vandals and Huns, those 
Asiatic barbarians who assisted in the over- 
throw of the Roman empire, outstripping 
even the Goths in sheer ferocity. Their 
original birthplace was somewhere within 
that vast reservoir of races lying south of 
Russia proper and north of Thibet, to which 
region ancient and modern scholarship as- 
signs the land of Gog and Magog. Their 
kinship to the Tartars, the Mongols, and the 
Turks has been clearly established. It is 
supposed that they reached the shores of 



Underlying Causes of the War 



19 



the Baltic during one of those great migra- 
tions of the Asiatic peoples westward in the 
early centuries of our era. They were still 
an unnamed race when the chroniclers of the 
tenth century labeled them "Po-Russians" 
that is, the tribe dwelling alongside Russia. 
Po-Russians gradually became known as 
Prussians. 

The Prussian's Religion 

THEIR religion was polytheism the wor- 
ship of many gods but particularly the gods 
Odin and Thor, the god of war, and the god 
of the winds. They resisted the efforts of 
thirteen centuries to bring them under the 
civilizing influences of Christianity. Bole- 
slaus I of Poland invaded their lands in 1015, 
and at the point of the sword compelled the 
savage "Po-Russians" to profess Christian- 
ity, but their submission was only a pretence 
and they relapsed into paganism. Some few 
years later, an army led against them by 
Boleslaus IV of Poland was totally anni- 
hilated, enabling the Prussian-Vandals to 
hold a part of Poland in subjection for years. 
Again, in 1219, they defeated a Crusading 
army sent out of Germany to subdue them. 

It was not till fifty years later that they 
were at length conquered by the Teutonic 
Knights, after both forces had suffered fear- 
ful losses. The Knights founded cities, 
planted German colonies, set up a code of 
German laws, and exacted passive obedience 
to German rule. Gradually the Prussian- 
Vandals resigned their heathen worship and 
took on the veneer of civilization. As early 
as the year 1400 we find Prussia famous for 
its gun foundry and its trained falcons, while 
orders for artillery came from great dis- 
tances. Gunpowder, too, was manufactured 
in quantities and large sums were expended 
on saltpetre. The Prussian-Vandals were 
therefore trained for war in the best of 
schools 500 years ago. 

Downfall of the Teutonic Knights 

As the wealth of the Knights increased 
they gave themselves up to wild orgies and 
abandoned their missionary expeditions. 
Their authority still further waned when, in 
1386 A. D., the prince of Lithuania married 
the heiress of Poland, united the two coun- 



tries under his own sceptre and imposed 
Christianity as the state religion. Wars with 
Poland followed, and the historical number 
of the slain passes all belief. The Knights, 
once so rich, now became desperately poor. 
In order to pay the heavy indemnity exacted 
by the successful Poles, they lured two 
wealthy burgomasters into the Castle, robbed 
and killed them. The Prussians thereupon 
formed a league to expel the Knights; but 
Emperor Frederick of Germany declared it 
illegal. Poland was appealed to and eventu- 
ally conquered and held all of Prussia. By 
the Treaty of Thron, in 1466, half of Prussia 
was annexed by Poland and the balance be- 
came a vassal dependency. Henceforth, each 
grandmaster was required, to his great hu- 
miliation, to swear the oath of allegiance to 
the Polish conquerors. 

The Hohenzollerns Appear 

IN 1511, Albert the Bear, Margrave of 
Brandenburg, was elected grandmaster of 
.the Teutonic Knights, embraced the Luth- 
eran cause during the Reformation era, dis- 
solved the Order and reorganized it into a 
secular duchy, and eventually paid homage to 
Poland. Thus Brandenburg and Prussia 
were now alike in the hands of the Hohen- 
zollerns, though of different branches. These 
branches were united when John Sigismund, 
elector of Brandenburg and a descendant of 
that Hohenzollern who had become possessed 
of Brandenburg in 1415 by foreclosure of a 
mortgage, succeeded to the dukedom after 
Albert Frederick became insane. Sigismund 
united with the Protestant forces and ac- 
quired Cleves and other possessions. His 
successor, George William, adopted a policy 
of neutrality during the Thirty Years' War, 
thus incurring the hatred of the Protestants 
and Catholics alike. Prussia was overrun 
by the Swedes, Poles, and Imperial armies 
for a period of twelve years, and suffered 
greatly under the scourge of fire and sword. 

Birth of the Prussian War Machine 

THE Prussian war machine was created by 
Frederick William, the elector who ruled 
from 1640 to 1688, and who conceived that 
the future glory of his nation depended upon 
an invincible army. To the building up of 



20 



How Germany Lost Her Soul 



this machine, Frederick applied all the re- 
sources of his country, denying himself and 
his court even the ordinary decencies of liv- 
ing. In addition to his own stalwart Huns, 
he scoured the world for huge soldiers to add 
to his Prussian Guards. Soon all Prussia 
was converted into a drill ground, the severi- 
ties of which rested like a pall on the nation. 
In his private life, King Frederick showed 
himself a true Hun. Macauley describes him 
as a frightful savage, whose rage vented it- 
self in curses and blows. His subjects fled 
before him as from a ravenous tiger. He 
was wont to kick women he chanced to meet 
when out walking, and to cane clergymen. 
His palace was described as a Hell, and him- 
self as the most execrable of fiends. Despis- 
ing the higher arts and sciences, his own 
mind was uncultivated and his sole recrea- 
tion was to drill, drill, drill his world-con- 
quering army. 

Birth of Prussian Treachery 

PRUSSIAN treachery toward an ally re- 
ceived its first grand exemplification in the 
acts of Frederick William. His great aim 
was to free Sweden and Poland. Assisted by 
60,000 Cossacks and Tartars, he marched 
against the Swedes to revenge the plunder 
of Prussian monasteries, and succeeded in 
regaining Warsaw and most of the treasure. 
Frederick agreed to aid the Swedes if they 
would reward him with Posen, Kalisch, and 
other Polish provinces. The Prussian-Swed- 
ish army outfought an army greatly superior 
in numbers, recapturing and looting War- 
saw. Before consenting to aid the Swedes 
again, Frederick induced Charles Augustus 
to recognize him as supreme, absolute, and 
sovereign duke of Prussia in 1656. Within 
a week, however, he had treacherously nego- 
tiated with the Poles, offering to renounce the 
Polish provinces which Sweden had promised 
him for recognition of his sovereignty. It 
was stipulated that this treaty should be 
kept secret till Frederick could ascertain 
whether Austria would assist him in the 
event that Sweden sought to revenge his per- 
fidy. As Emperor Leopold needed Freder- 
ick's vote in the near election, he reluctantly 
consented. Sweden thereupon declared war 
on Prussia and the Emperor sent Frederick 



10,000 troops, while Poland aided him with 
7000. 

Frederick succeeded in driving the Swedes 
out of Pomerania and Poland, but King Louis 
XIV of France compelled him to restore con- 
quered Pomerania. At the same time he ac- 
knowledged Frederick as a free sovereign 
over Prussia, thereby raising the House of 
Hohenzollern to the rank of a European 
power in 1660. 

The Prussian People Subdued 

THE Prussian nobility and burghers pro- 
tested against Frederick's assumption of 
lordship over them, even affirming that they 
preferred the government of Poland. They 
insisted that no taxes should be levied 
against their will, no wars or alliances begun 
without their consent, and demanded the 
disbandment of the army. In the diet of 
Konigsberg, in 1661, they accused the Hohen- 
zollern ruler of wishing to reduce them to 
servitude. The wildest rumors filled the air. 
It was alleged that all Lutherans were to be 
driven from their churches in favor of Cal- 
vinists. There were hints about Jesuit in- 
trigues. Finally a conspiracy was formed 
to depose the Hohenzollerns and return to 
the yoke of Poland, but it failed of consumma- 
tion. Frederick had cowed his savage people 
at last, and then he proceeded to tax them 
outrageously, to support his wars, seizing 
their household goods if the cash were not 
forthcoming. 

Refugees Establish Prussia's Industries 

YET during his reign Prussia prospered 
amazingly. This was due largely to Freder- 
ick's policy of persuading artisans, trades- 
men, and intellectuals generally to come to 
Prussia. Thus in 1685, when the edict of 
Nantes was revoked and the Huguenots were 
being persecuted in France, some 20,000 of 
their most capable artisans found asylum in 
Prussia and these refugees laid the solid 
foundations of Prussia's subsequent indus- 
trial and agrarian progress. Some 600,000 
of their descendants are now full-fledged 
Germans. 

"King of the Vandals" Crowns Himself 

His successor, Elector Frederick III, with 
the gold he had wrung from his people by 



Underlying Causes of the War 



21 



taxation, bribed the bankrupt Emperor Leo- 
pold to bestow upon him the crown of roy- 
alty. Preferring the title, "King of the Van- 
dals," or, failing that, "King of the Wends," 
he was finally permitted, in 1701, to call 
himself, not King of Prussia, but only "King 
in Prussia." He enlisted the aid of certain 
Jesuit priests in this transaction, encourag- 
ing them to hope for the establishment of a 
church in Berlin; but once the crown was 
his he cast them aside and neglected even to 
notify Pope Clement XII of his elevation, in 
consequence of which omission, the Popes 
for 100 years thereafter never addressed the 
rulers of Prussia as kings, but merely as 
"marchese di Brandenburg." 

With his own hands he crowned himself 
king, thus placing the kings of Prussia for 
all time above the entire nobility and popu- 
lace of Prussia, a precedent which the other 
autocrats of Prussia down to the latest Wil- 
helm, have been careful to follow. His court 
was a brilliant one, and became the rallying 
place for the intellectuals of all lands, and 
especially all who had been persecuted, like 
Jesuits and Huguenots, philosophers, and 
atheists. 

Frederick the Great Land Grabber 

IT was to Frederick the Great, however, 
that Prussia owes its pre-eminence as a mil- 
itary power. He inherited the throne in 
1713, and with it a treasure of $6,000,000 
and an army of 70,000, comprising the best 
disciplined troops in Europe. With the Great 
Frederick began the Prussian wars of con- 
quest which have continued to this day. His 
first act was to despoil Austria of the king- 
dom of Silesia, a flagrant crime against the 
law of nations. Though he had signed the 
treaty which guaranteed its possession to 
Austria and given to Empress Maria Theresa 
the most solemn assurance that he would not 
make war upon her dominions, he neverthe- 
less broke both the treaty and the assurance. 
The story of his perfidy does not end there. 
Frederick had formed an alliance with 
France and Bavaria at the beginning of the 
Austrian war, but later, when Maria Theresa 
offered him terms, he broke with his Allies. 
Persisting in his perfidy, he subsequently 
broke his treaty with Austria and invaded 



the territory of his ally without any declara- 
tion of war. By his various attacks on Aus- 
tria, France, and Russia he established in 
the German mind the tradition of Prussian 
supremacy over the whole of Europe. He 
also participated with Austria and Russia 
in the crime of the century, the partition of 
Poland, and now, a century and a half later, 
Poland is restored and the three powerful 
empires which despoiled her lie broken into 
fragments. Frederick the Great left to his 
son, Frederick William II, in 1797, an army 
of 220,000 men, a treasure of $50,000,000, a 
territory of 77,000 square miles, and 6,000,- 
000 subjects. He had taken a long stride in 
the direction of world dominion. 

Napoleon Humbled the Prussians 

THE great Napoleon destroyed this mili- 
tary machine in the decisive battle at Jena in 
1806, and reduced the Kingdom of Prussia 
to one-half its former area; but after his 
downfall Prussia recovered her lost posses- 
sions and in addition acquired portions of 
the kingdom of Saxony, Berg, Juliet, and 
several provinces on the Rhine. The King, 
however, repudiated his solemn promise to 
give the Prussian people a liberal constitu- 
tion. Instead, he set up a "patriarchal despot- 
ism," based upon military power, and prac- 
tically enslaved the Prussian race as his suc- 
cessors were later to enslave the Germanic 
races. 

Another Insane Hohenzollern 

His son, Frederick William IV (1840-61), 
continued this autocratic policy, crushed the 
popular rebellion of 1848 with a ruthless 
hand, destroyed absolutely the moral prestige 
of Prussia, and died a maniac in 1861. 

Enter Bismarck 

His successor, Wilhelm I, with the aid of 
his brilliant, but soulless chancellor, Otto von 
Bismarck, succeeded in imposing the Prus- 
sian will over the lesser German states as a 
step toward Prussian supremacy in Europe. 
With Austria's aid, he stripped Denmark of 
the principalities of Schleswig and Holstein, 
and rather than share the loot with Austria, 
joined with Italy in declaring war against 
that decadent shell of empire in 1866, bring- 



22 



How Germany Lost Her Soul 



ing Austria to his feet in a few short weeks. 
The Treaty of Prague, which closed the war, 
provided for the formation of the North 
German Confederation of States, excluded 
Austria from participation in German af- 
fairs, and left the way open for a federation 
of the southern German states, which are 
largely Catholic. Prussia gained by this 
war Schleswig-Holstein, Hanover, Hesse- 
Cassel, Nassau, and Frankfort. 

Prussia Gains Ascendancy Over Germany 

THE next step in Prussia's program of 
world empire took the form of German 
unity under Prussian leadership. Never in 
all their history had the German states 
consented to unite. Charlemagne almost 
succeeded in welding the Teutonic clans into 
a compact whole, but on the death of that 
mighty ruler the old empire quickly crum- 
pled. The lesser German states, however, in 
the 19th century held the Prussian-Vandals 
in a sort of awe, and under coercion con- 
sented to Bismarck's proposals, resulting in 
the formation of a Prussian-Teutonic al- 
liance. 

The Franco-Prussian War, 1870 

BISMARCK and the military clique, by 
means of a forged document, betrayed 
France into declaring war against Germany. 

So carefully had the plans of Bismarck 
been prepared that the Prussian victory over 
France was so quick and decisive as to startle 
the whole world. The Prussians, with the 
thought to bankrupt France, imposed an in- 
demnity of one billion of dollars upon their 
fallen foe, but France paid the entire sum 
in a few years. More painful to France, 
however, was the seizure of her beloved prov- 
inces of Alsace-Lorraine, which she has re- 
covered in the recent conflict. 

After the Franco-Prussian war, the elec- 
tors of Germany united to form an empire, 
naming the king of Prussia as the hereditary 
emperor of the German nation. 

Thus, in the course of a few centuries, the 
Vandal-Prussians, an alien race of super- 
savages from out the land of Gog-Magog, by 
the power of the sword, by treachery, by 
deceit, by bribery, had achieved their ambi- 



tion to dominate Europe, and now proposed 
to dominate the world at their pleasure. For 
centuries these Vandals had been unwearied 
in their endeavors to expand, at the expense 
of other peoples sprung from various sources. 
More than once, these ambitions have re- 
sulted in serious reverses. This was notably 
the case during the Thirty Years' War, in 
1640, when Prussia was so utterly devas- 
tated that certain districts retained scarcely 
half their inhabitants, and the Vandal state 
was only preserved from extinction by offer- 
ing asylum to the oppressed of other lands. 
Then was beheld that great influx of immi- 
grants from the Netherlands, of Huguenots 
from France, of the afflicted from other 
lands, who introduced improved agricultural 
methods among the semi-savages, established 
a variety of new industries, and elevated Ber- 
lin from a squalid little town of 6000 souls, 
a mere market place, into a populous, pro- 
gressive and prosperous city. 

Cannibalism in Prussia in 1639 

Repeatedly Prussia has been forced to re- 
build a national structure which internal 
anarchy, invasion, pestilence, plague, and 
other recurring visitations of divine wrath 
had shattered. During the Thirty Years' 
War ending in 1640, whole regions of the 
Margrave's domain were converted into a 
wilderness, and of the 330,000 inhabitants 
barely half survived. Similar afflictions were 
visited upon the Duchy of Cleves, the Duchy 
of Prussia, Pomerania, Magdeburg, Halber- 
stadt, and Minden. From a town of 9000 
souls, Prenzlau had shrunk to a village of 600 
persons. 

The magistrate of Prenzlau, writing in 
1639, bewails the fact that "living has be- 
come so dear that everywhere are heard the 
wailings, the cries, the howlings of the fam- 
ished. They feed upon the strangest of 
foods. They eat dogs and cats, and even 
appease their hunger in the open street 
with the bones of the dead; and must 
one speak of such horrors? famine rages 
so cruelly that, in the rural districts and 
even in the towns men attack one another; 
the stronger kills the feebler, cooks and eats 
his flesh." 



Underlying Causes of the War 



23 



How Prussia was Colonized 

THE first immigrants to enter Prussia 
were pillagers and adventurers in the train 
of the armies who had been left without 
employment, when peace was declared. Then, 
in 1685, an appeal was made to the French 
Huguenots to settle in Prussia, where free- 
dom of faith was absolute. Responding to 
this appeal, 20,000 Huguenots flocked to the 
Mark of Brandenburg alone, representing 
more than a tenth of the whole population. 
Under Frederick II the work thus initiated 
was continued. Refugees from the devas- 
tated Palatinate, from Switzerland, from 
Austria, from Saalzburg, from Bohemia, 
from Silesia, more Huguenots and numbers 
of Vandois folks, found a home in Prussia. 
To each immigrant was given free possession 
of his lands, full liberty of religious worship, 
privileges, security and justice, to insure 
their co-operation in upbuilding Prussia. In 
50 years, or by 1740, out of a total population 
of 2,400,000 inhabitants, the immigrants and 
their offshoots numbered 600.000. Thus 
Prussia's warrior race was strengthened by 
an infusion of skilled workmen in many 
crafts, agricultural experts, and industrial 
leaders. Frederick even looked outside his 
domain for material to improve his army, 
paying spot cash to neighboring princes for 
83,000 men of giant stature, whom he placed 
in the van of his army. 

Under Frederick the Great, systematic col- 
onization became a special branch of the 
Prussian administration to the same extent 
as the raising of taxes or of the militia. Fol- 
lowing the Seven Years' War "Prussia was 
restocked by human cattle and the living in- 
struments of production, much as a farmer 
stocks his farm and works it." All Prussia 
became a vast machine whose wheels were 
adjusted and set whirling by the most pitiless 
exploiter of flesh and blood the world has 
ever seen. In his life work, Frederick sym- 
bolized the hidden creative forces which had 
labored and darkly striven to advance 
Prussia along its predestined way. His heirs 
deemed themselves destined to subjugate and 
regenerate the world. 



Prussian People Willing Slaves 

FREDERICK molded Prussia into a state 
half modern, half feudal, with an artificial 
cohesion and unity, founded upon a most 
rigid military discipline, which knew no im- 
pulse save that of the king who was its liv- 
ing incarnation. Unlike all other states of 
Europe, the Prussian institutions were im- 
posed by the absolute will of its ruler upon a 
most motley horde of immigrants, uprooted 
from their own country and destitute" of per- 
sonal or collective right. Heirs of the grand- 
masters of the Teutonic Order and of the 
Margrave's, the Hohenzollerns, re-established 
the autocracy of the Middle Ages, amid the 
anarchy of the lands they inherited. Con- 
ceiving themselves the spiritual fathers and 
military chiefs of their subjects, they were 
the absolute masters of their bishops, their 
nobles, their burgesses, and their peasants. 
There was no right in power or time superior 
to theirs, and from their decision there could 
be no appeal. 

Alliance Between Prussia and Germany 

THE Napoleonic whirlwind overwhelmed 
Prussia, but when the storm had abated, 
Prussia renewed her life by the old method 
of colonization. The gates were again opened 
wide to admit artisans from other lands, who 
were granted many privileges. Masters of 
statecraft were drawn from other German 
dominions Stein from Nassau, Hardenburg 
and Scharnhost from Hanover, Gneisenan 
from Saxony, Blucher from Mecklenburg. 
Together they built a new Prussia, greater 
than the old, its roots drawn from every 
soil. Finally, an unholy alliance was formed 
between spiritual Germany and brutal 
Prussia, with Germany playing a subservient 
role, dazzled by the success of Prussian pag- 
anism. The Germans were quickly trained 
in mechanical and passive obedience until, 
like their Prussian mentors, they had lost 
their old spiritual ideals and directed their 
thoughts toward material ends, forever ab- 
sorbed in a brutal and unscrupulous realism. 
The gospel of "success," at any price, the 
idolatry of might, became the religion of 
Germany, until the entire nation was trans- 
formed into a hideous beast of prey. 



24 



How Germany Lost Her Soul 



Kaiser William Associated with Deity in the German Mind 

Dismissing Bismarck, the Emperor Plans His Conquest of the World 



IN pursuance of the cherished dream of 
world dominion, both material and spir- 
itual, which should enable the German 
mind to prevail over the world, her histor- 
ians, her philosophers, her theologians, pub- 
licists, and her politicians have been drilling 
into the minds and hearts of the German peo- 
ple of all classes, from the Kaiser to the 
peasant, the duty and necessity of the lofty 
and mighty ambition for their great country. 
They carried the idea of the superman so far, 
that they associated the Kaiser with Deity. 
As for that monster of egotism, the proof 
that he directly incited the acts of brutality 
committed by his soldiers in Belgium and in 
France, is contained in his address to his 
troops at Potsdam in 1891 : 

"Body and soul you belong to me. If I 
command you to shoot your fathers and 
mothers, you must follow my command with- 
out a murmur." 

How well they obeyed his command the 
story of ravished Belgium offers sufficient 
proof. 

Bernhardi Disregards International Law 

THE political conceptions with which the 
modern Prussian autocrats have inoculated 
the German mind were practically carried 
out by the early founders of the Prussian 
monarchy. The keynote of that policy, as 
enunciated by Gen. von Bernhardi and 
chorused by all the ruling classes was as 
follows : 

"In its undertakings a state should con- 
sider only the factor of force, disregarding 
every law except that of its own advantage. 
We can secure Germany's position on the 
continent of Europe only if we succeed in 
smashing the Triple Entente, in humiliating 
France, and giving her that position to 
which she is entitled. The Middle-European 
states which are at present independent 
must be joined to Germany. Until we have 
crossed swords with England, our foreign 



policy is condemned to failure. Not only our 
army and our navy, but our foreign policy, 
must be ready for immediate action." 

Aided by her universities, her historians, 
her philosophers, her patriotic societies, but 
most of all by her system of military educa- 
tion in the public schools, Prussia succeeded 
in transforming the mental attitude of the 
German people in less than 50 years. Her 
historians flattered them with assertion of 
their superiority to all other nations; her 
philosophers taught them that morality was 
an illusion, and that the only reality was 
Might. Her politicians caused visions of uni- 
versal domination, to glitter before their 
eyes, and her harsh barrack discipline en- 
slaved their wills. 

Germany Spoon-Fed by the Prussians 

OBEDIENCE to military authority disin- 
clines the German to think for himself. The 
pupils in the public schools, from the pri- 
mary grades up to the universities, have been 
"spoon-fed" by their Prussian masters. The 
system of instruction was one-sided. In the 
study of history, for example, no standard 
authors were permitted to be read even in 
the highest classes. The minds of all stu- 
dents were saturated with a Prussian version 
of world history. So strict a discipline was 
maintained that even the more liberal schools 
have been described as "purgatories" for the 
average boy, and as "infamous" to the less 
bright and incompetent. The sad conse- 
quence of the frightful overpressure to which 
the child mind of Germany was subjected, is 
seen in the yearly statistics of schoolboy sui- 
cides who had failed to secure the coveted 
certificate of exemption from military duties. 

True Liberty Unknown in Germany 

THE kings of Prussia have always been 
absolute sovereigns of their realm, holding 
that the state was supreme and that the sole 
function of the people was obedience. Every- 



Underlying Causes of the War 



25 



thing was sacrificed to the principle of cease- 
lessly extending the territory of the Prussian 
monarchy. Personal liberty as understood 
elsewhere in Europe and in America was un- 
known in Germany. Religion was fostered 
in Germany by the state as an agency to 
keep the masses in order. A part of the 
religion was its cult of war, its negation of 
the Golden Rule, its repudiation of the teach- 
ings of Christ. The religion of war was 
taught in all the schools; it permeated the 
entire life of Germany. 

Bismarck Becomes Dictator of Germany 

BISMARCK, the man of "Blood and Iron," 
and the one great man whom Prussia can 
boast in the past century, became the dic- 
tator of Germany from the birth of the Em- 
pire in 1876. The senile emperor, William I, 
was but a royal figurehead. Upon the dec- 
laration of Papal infallibility by the Vatican 
Council in 1873, Bismarck organized the Kul- 
turkampf to oppose the power of the Catho- 
lic Church in Germany. The nation was split 
into two warring factions and Bismarck de- 
fiantly announced that he would never make 
a peace with the popes, or, as he phrased it, 
would never "go to Canossa." Six years 
later, however, when the growth of the So- 
cialist party was so rapid as to endanger the 
safety of the state, Bismarck implored the 
aid of the pope in opposing Socialism. With 
hat in hand he went to "Canossa." 

Germany's pre-eminence among the na- 
tions of Europe was shown in 1878, at the 
Congress of Berlin called to arrange a peace 
between Russia and Turkey. The Prussian 
delegates succeeded in depriving Russia of 
all the advantages she had won as the nat- 
ural protector of the Balkan states. The 
Prussians did not wish Russia to be in the 
position to block their scheme of a Berlin to 
Bagdad railway. Russia remembered this 
injury in 1914. 

Enter Kaiser William II 

Now was ushered in the most calamitous 
era in world history. Emperor William I 
died in 1888 and his successor, Frederick III, 
survived him only three months. Kaiser Wil- 
liam II, the author of the Great World War, 
then ascended the throne. Upon his acces- 



sion to power he at once threw down the 
gauntlet to England, declaring pompously 
that "Germany must be supreme on sea as 
well as land." England was even then so un- 
suspicious of her great rival that Lord Salis- 
bury, the Prime Minister, was persuaded by 
the Kaiser to give him the island of Heligo- 
land, "the Gibraltar of the North," which 
commands the entire eastern coast of Britain, 
in exchange for two parcels of land in 
Africa. 

William IFs utterances soon took on a dic- 
tatorial tone. Imbued beyond reason with 
the doctrine of the divine authority of the 
Prussian kings, no monarch since the days 
of the Roman Emperor Caligula ever placed 
himself so nearly on a level with Deity as 
he. And being set upon a pedestal as a model 
for the Germans, his vanity and egotism 
have encouraged in that race their most 
nauseating characteristics. 

William Dismisses Bismarck 

THE policies of Emperor William were in 
frequent collision with those of the old chan- 
cellor, who had presented the Empire as a 
gift to the Hohenzollerns. Bismarck, after 
that great achievement, declared that Ger- 
many was "satiated" with glory and power 
and had reached the limit of territorial am- 
bition. He particularly opposed the program 
of colonial expansion which was now being 
broached. In so doing he aroused the ire 
of the Emperor, whose dream of world em- 
pire now obsessed him. Too proud to share 
the imperial power, William II resolved to 
dismiss the aged pilot of the ship of state. 
The ostensible cause of the rupture was the 
effort of Bismarck to revive special legisla- 
tion against the Socialists in 1890. William 
had been seeking to placate them, and he 
deposed the iron chancellor as a further sop 
to that body of radicals. But the Socialists 
failed to be won over by the Kaiser's wiles, 
and he became their virulent foe, nor did he 
again address them until the outbreak of the 
World War. 

The Kaiser Throws Off the Mask 

WILHELM then threw off the mask of peace 
and strode the stage of Europe like an Alex- 
ander. The era of the "Mailed Fist" had 



26 



How Germany Lost Her Soul 



opened. His frequent addresses were often 
marked by a frenzy that was maniacal, as 
when he constantly referred to the fact that 
his throne was "founded upon bloodshed" 
and was "maintained by the bayonets of his 
faithful army." On another occasion he de- 
clared he owed his "awful responsibility to 
the Creator alone, and that no man, no min- 
ister, no parliament, can relieve the people 
of their allegiance to him." Addressing the 
soldiers at Potsdam, he urged them to re- 
member that "they were his, body and soul, 
and if he ordered them to shoot their own 
parents they must do it without a murmur." 
When his troops were departing for China 
to subdue the Boxers he bade them "remem- 
ber you are Huns ; spare not, slay the enemy 
without pity." On his famous trip to Syria, 
in 1898, Kaiser Wilhelm assured "the 300,- 
000,000 Mohammedans who live scattered 
over the globe, that he will be their friend at 
all times." 

Pauper Nation Becomes Enormously Rich 

GERMANY, under William IFs leadership, 
entered upon an era of commercial and in- 
dustrial expansion successful beyond her 
most sanguine dreams. From a "pauper na- 
tion," priding herself on her simple manners, 
she became a very Colossus among the na- 
tions of the earth. The billion dollars com- 
ing from France enabled the Prussian banks 
to finance great enterprises. Giant corpora- 
tions were formed, dwarfing the great Amer- 
ican trusts. These were all state controlled. 
New enterprises were subsidized by the 
state. German ships sailed every sea; Ger- 
man banks were established in every corner 
of the earth. Labor was fully occupied. 
Everybody was prosperous. The old nations 
looked on this progress with sad eyes, fearing 
a competitor which might soon outstrip them. 

German emigration, which had totalled 
3,000,000 in the previous forty years, had 
shrunk to a negligible figure, 25,000 in the 
year 1913. Labor was in such demand in 
Germany that it was necessary to import 
many workmen for the factories. It is true 
that as the factories multiplied in the cities 
the agricultural regions were drawn upon 
for workmen and Germany could not produce 
over 80 per cent of the grains she required. 



But she could and did export her manufac- 
tured products in exchange for the grains 
that she needed. Her population increased 
30,000,000 in the 40 years since the Franco- 
Prussian War. Clearly the problem of ex- 
pansion was a pressing one. 

Pan-Germanism 

THEN was heard the cry that Germany 
must have a "place in the sun." Unfortu- 
nately for her, all the best places in the sun 
were already occupied by older nations. The 
Prussians decided to oust some of those na- 
tions from their colonial possessions. The 
most extreme among these colonial Chau- 
vinists were the "Pan-Germans." They de- 
clared it Germany's duty to reconquer as 
soon as possible all countries, or parts of 
countries, that have been at any time af- 
filiated with the ancient German Empire 
since the days of Charlemagne. This affilia- 
tion included, of course, the whole of France, 
Italy, Russia, Hungary, Holland, and Bel- 
gium. Aiding and abetting them was a rene- 
gade Englishman, named Houston Chamber- 
lain, Wagner's son-in-law, who declared the 
Germans "the salt of the earth" and its pre- 
destined regenerators, and blasphemously 
asserting that "Christ was a Teuton also." 

This Pan-Germanic Movement was merely 
a form of disguised propaganda for the in- 
evitable war to be fought for the control, 
first of Europe, then of the entire world. 
Encouraged by the Pan-Germanists, Kaiser 
Wilhelm began more and more to identify 
himself with the decrees of the Almighty. 
The "Me and God" motif crept constantly 
through most of his public utterances. 

As a preliminary step toward conquering 
Europe and the world, the Kaiser adopted a 
policy of alienating the "weak nations" one 
from another. 

Sought to Inflame Europe Against U. S. A. 

EMPEROR William's first real essay in 
world politics marked him as a covert enemy 
of this republic. In 1898, during our war 
with Spain, the Emperor sought long and 
vainly to rally the European nations against 
the republic that was laying impious hands 
upon another "divinely appointed ruler." 

Upon England's refusal to take part in the 



Underlying Causes of the War 



27 



plot, the scheme died "aborning." It will be 
recalled, in this connection, that when a Ger- 
man fleet was on the point of attacking Ad- 
miral Dewey's squadron at Manilla, the Brit- 
ish fleet came to the rescue and the German 
fleet withdrew. 

Aided Boers Against Great Britain 

Up to 1896 the relations of Germany with 
England had been generally pacific, at least 
upon the surface. These relations were 
strained at the time of Dr. Jameson's raid 
in the Transvaal, when the Kaiser sent his 
famous letter of congratulation to President 
Paul Kruger of the Boer Republic. There 
followed a violent agitation against England 
on the part of the press of Germany. Still, 
during this stressful period Kaiser Wilhelm 
paid two visits to his grandmother, Queen 
Victoria, and was cordially received. 

Germany's Naval Program Arouses England 

IN 1901 Joseph Chamberlain suggested an 
Anglo-Saxon Alliance, but so violently was 
this proposal received in Germany that it 
was never renewed. At about this time, 
Britain was genuinely alarmed at the rapid 
growth of the German navy in rivalry to 
England's, following the completion of the 
Kiel Canal in 1898. This was construed in 
Britain as an act of naval defiance, a warn- 
ing that Germany intended to establish her 
supremacy on the sea as on the land. The 
German press, at this period, was especially 
vituperative in tone. England quite natur- 
ally bestirred herself to form a defensive 
alliance, and the choice fell upon France and 
Russia, the enemies of Germany. 

The Triple Entente Is Formed 

THE Triple Entente was now formed, 
though not without certain difficulties. The 
defensive alliance with France was effected 
in 1903 and that with Russia in 1907. This 
alliance was the "circle of steel" which so 
annoyed Germany. Meanwhile, Germany 
schemed to alienate France and England. 
France in 1904 had acquired a lien on the 
vast territory of Morocco in recompense for 
conceding England's right to undisputed pos- 
session of Egypt after the menacing affair 
at Fashoda. England and Russia had pre- 
viously agreed upon the joint government of 



Persia. Both Morocco and Persia were Mo- 
hammedan states. In these large transac- 
tions Germany, the "super-nation" of earth, 
was completely ignored. Kaiser Wilhelm, 
wounded in his imperial pride, informed the 
three "conspirators" that he should in the 
future claim the privilege to share in the 
"distribution" of all remaining "opportuni- 
ties for colonial enterprise." 

Biding his time until the following year 
(1905), Emperor Wilhelm suddenly appeared 
at Tangier and formally declared the Sultan 
an "absolutely independent sovereign." A 
council called at tAlgeciras, Spain, in the 
same year, declared the independence of the 
African sultanate. Only the warning of 
England prevented Germany from declaring 
war against France at this time. 

The Morocco Affair 

A SECOND attempt at bulldozing France in 
1911 was even more successful. The French 
had sent an armed force to Fez, the capital 
of Morocco, to preserve order among the 
Mohammedans. Germany thereupon dis- 
patched a gunboat to Agadir and all Europe 
trembled on the very edge of war. Germany 
finally agreed in the peace conference at 
Algeciras to French control in Morocco, but 
demanded and received in "compensation" 
100,000 square miles of valuable French ter- 
ritory in Africa. The wrath of the French 
nation blazed forth at this added proof of 
German perfidy, and all Europe knew from 
that moment that the German Beast would 
stop at nothing short of universal war. 

During the next ten years England was 
so engrossed in her domestic affairs, more 
especially with the alarming state of Ireland, 
that she had but little heart for particular 
policies. Repeatedly her foremost military 
geniuses, especially Gen. Lord Roberts, 
warned her of the imminence of the German 
peril, but feeling secure on the sea she ig- 
nored the warnings and omitted to advance 
her preparations for defensive warfare. This 
British indifference to world affairs encour- 
aged the Kaiser to believe that the British 
Empire could be crushed at his pleasure. 
During this period, however, the course of 
events in the Balkans gave him the gravest 
concern. 



28 



How Germany Lost Her Soul 



German, Austrian, and Turkish Intrigues in the Balkans 

Kaiser Wilhelm Schemes to Build a Railroad from Berlin to Bagdad 



SINCE the wrongs of Serbia were the 
cause of the great war, as the assassina- 
tion of the Duke Francis Ferdinand of 
Austria was the pretext, it will profit the 
reader to retrace the origin of the Balkan 
troubles in which Serbia has ever played a 
foremost role. The Serbians, who belong to 
the great Slav race, first lost their inde- 
pendence five centuries ago with their defeat 
by the Turks in the decisive battle of Kos- 
sovo. Under their Czar, Stephen Dushan, 
they had been the dominant nation in the 
Balkan peninsula. A small fragment of the 
race, however, escaped and set up an inde- 
pendent kingdom in the mountain land of 
Montenegro. Here for four centuries they 
waged heroic and incessant warfare against 
the Turks, and finally threw off the hated 
yoke in 1804, thus sounding the doom of the 
Turk in Europe. The news of Greek libera- 
tion followed. A half century later Russia 
assisted the Bulgarians to expel the Turks 
from their land. 

Disraeli Dooms the Serbians 

IN 1875, when the Turks had been expelled 
from Serbia, Greece, Bulgaria, and Rumania, 
the Bosnians in alliance with their Slav 
brothers in Serbia and Montenegro, boldly 
attacked the foe. Just when their victory 
seemed certain, Austria-Hungary intervened 
and robbed the Bosnians of their victory. 
In the Congress of Berlin, which concluded a 
peace, the Jew Disraeli, then Prime Minister 
of England, restored Macedonia and Bosnia 
to the Turks, Bismarck secretly rejoicing and 
saying: "The Jew will do the job for us." 
This act of perfidy is denounced by one mod- 
ern British historian as "the greatest wrong 
ever done to the cause of peace and the 
greatest outrage to honor." So Serbia was 
left to struggle alone with her ancient foe 
for a union of her separated peoples. 

Austria, which had previously induced the 
corrupt King Milan to wage war with Bul- 



garia in 1885, had prevented the Serbians 
from gaining access to the sea through Al- 
bania, thus forcing the Serbians to look 
toward Macedonia for their future expan- 
sion. This brought the Serbians into con- 
flict with the rival ambitions of Bulgaria 
and was the sufficient cause of the Balkan 
War in 1912. 

Meanwhile, in 1909, Austria, the cat's-paw 
of Prussia, had seized Bosnia in express vio- 
lation of the Treaty of Berlin, shaking her 
"mailed fist" in the face of Russia, the nat- 
ural guardian of the Slav race. Serbia and 
Montenegro, encouraged by Russia, resented 
this plot to separate them from their breth- 
ren and were ready for war, but at this junc- 
ture the Prussian Kaiser showed his hand, 
and Russia was forced to retire while Serbia 
and Montenegro had to crave for mercy. 

It seemed now, Russia being disabled, as 
if the Serbian races were crushed forever, 
and the way was open for Prussia and Aus- 
tria to realize their dream of a great Prus- 
sian empire in Macedonia, connected with the 
Fatherland by a Berlin to Bagdad railway 
running through the Balkans, under a Turk- 
ish concession. 

The Balkan Federation 

THE Kaiser's plans, however, were set 
awry in 1912 when the first great Balkan 
Federation was formed and the hitherto ir- 
reconcilable Serbians, Greeks, and Bulgar- 
ians united to drive the Turk out of Europe. 
Their victory was quick and decisive. The 
Greeks seized Saloniki, the Serbs Monastir, 
and the Bulgars, Adrianople. All three were 
at the gates of Constantinople, and the Turk 
was at their mercy, when the powers of 
"Christian Europe" interfered at a confer- 
ence held in London. 

It was decreed that Serbia must give up 
Albania upon the demand of Austria, whose 
purpose was to disrupt the Balkan League. 
Serbia thereupon demanded the right to hold 



Underlying Causes of the War 



29 



all of Macedonia, which she had won, in vio- 
lation of her treaty with Bulgaria which 
provided for an equal division of that terri- 
tory. To this proposal Bulgaria demurred 
and left the conference to finish her conquest 
of Adrianople. Greece also refused to yield 
Saloniki as the Congress decreed. 

Second Balkan War 

URGED on by Austria and Prussia, the Bul- 
garians declared war upon their recent al- 
lies. The Bulgars gained a brief success over 
the Serbs, but the Greeks came to the rescue 
of the Serbs and drove the Bulgars out of 
Macedonia. Bulgaria's discomfiture was 
complete when the Rumanians took posses- 
sion of northern Bulgaria, and the Turks 
reoccupied Adrianople. By the treaty of 
Bucharest, all of Macedonia was given to 
Serbia; the Greeks recovered Saloniki and a 
stretch of seacoast ; a section of Bulgaria was 
Rumania's reward; while the Turk recov- 
ered much of Thrace. 

Austria Plans War Against Serbia in 1913 

AUSTRIA, as a result of the war, had lost 
all hope of an outlet on the ^gean Sea, had 
made an enemy of Rumania, and was pained 
by the spectre of a Greater Serbia rising in 
her path. Nor was Serbia's cup of happiness 
filled. Austria's hold on Bosnia was as sore a 
point with Serbia as was Germany's hold on 
Alsace-Lorraine to France. 

More ominous to Austria was the fact that 
millions of Slavs in Austria had been thrilled 
by the victory of Serbia and looked forward 
to the day when they, too, should throw off 
the German yoke and reunite with their Slav 
brethren. 

Seeing the danger, and with Emperor Wil- 
liam's consent, Austria made secret over- 
tures to Italy in 1913 for approval of her 
plan to wage instant war against Serbia. 



Italy refused to be drawn into a pact, and 
Austria, at Prussia's instigation, deferred the 
fatal blow for a year. The proof is con- 
tained in the Giolotti letter. 

The Lull Before the Storm 

THE diplomats of Europe, following the 
second Balkan War, patched up a peace at a 
conference in Bucharest, and deceived them- 
selves into believing that the danger of a 
European conflagration was past. But all 
Europe was in reality a volcano ready to 
belch forth in an instant. Throughout the 
Balkan states, the Serbians had organized 
secret political societies, and constant ap- 
peals were made to the spirit of Slavic pat- 
riotism. Austria and Prussia were prepared, 
as we have seen, by the proposal made to 
Italy, to strike at Serbia with the full force 
of their armies. The situation was further 
complicated by serious religious differences 
among the Serbs. 

In the spring of 1914, negotiations were 
in progress with Pope Pius X, resulting in a 
concordat whose terms were especially satis- 
factory to the Catholic element among the 
Serbs. Archduke Francis Ferdinand of Aus- 
tria, moreover, was known to be in sympathy 
with the Slavs; he was married morganati- 
cally to a Slav woman, and had even prom- 
ised a large measure of liberty to the Slavs 
in event of his accession to the throne of the 
Dual Monarchy. In so doing he had incurred 
the bitter enmity of the reactionary Magyar 
nobility of Hungary, the inveterate foes of 
the Slavs and the real ruling power of the 
monarchy. His death was desired because 
he had announced his purpose to establish a 
Federation in Austria, giving the Slavs a 
kingdom of their own, and thus diminishing 
the predominance of the Hun monarchy in 
the Dual Kingdom. 



30 



How Germany Lost Her Soul 



Assassination of the Archduke Ferdinand the Pretext for War 

Austria, at Germany's Dictation, Declares War Against Serbia. 
.Russia, France and England to the Rescue. 



THE Archduke Francis Ferdinand, heir 
to the throne of Austria, with his mor- 
ganatic wife, the Duchess of Hohen- 
berg, was paying a visit of state to Bosnia, 
then a subject province of Austria, peopled 
by Slavs. After viewing the maneuvers of 
two army corps at their field quarters, he ex- 
pressed a desire to inspect the troops in the 
capital at Serajevo. He arrived in the cap- 
ital early on the morning of Sunday, June 28, 
1914, to find only the local governor and his 
staff waiting to receive him. The streets 
were thronged, for the day was a Serbian 
fete. While the party was motoring leis- 
urely toward the place of inspection, a black 
package fell upon the opened hood of the 
archduke's car. He tossed it into the street, 
where it exploded, wounding two officials in 
a motor car and six spectators in the street. 
The bomb-thrower, a young printer by the 
name of Cabrinovitch, a native of Herze- 
govina, was seized, and confessed at his trial 
that he had received the bomb from the 
Serbian arsenal at Kragujevatz. 

Arrived at the Town Hall, the Archduke 
protested against the lack of precautions 
taken to insure his safety, but when the civic 
officials sought to dissuade him from contin- 
uing his tour of the city, he refused and in- 
sisted upon driving to the hospital where 
one of the wounded aides-de-camp was re- 
ceiving treatment. As his car was proceed- 
ing through a narrow street, the Appel Quay, 
a bomb was thrown which failed to explode. 
The assassin, a Bosnian student called Prin- 
zip, and like Cabrinovitch a Protestant Serb, 
then approached the car and fired three shots 
from a Browning pistol. The Archduke was 
mortally wounded in the neck, and the 
Duchess was terribly wounded in the abdo- 
men, she having offered her body as a shield 
to save her husband. Both died within an 
hour. The Austrian governor of Serajevo at 
once laid the blame at Serbia's door. The 
true authorship of the dastardly crime, how- 
ever, is yet to be revealed. 



The assassination was denouncd generally 
throughout Europe, but no international 
complications were expected to result from 
it. President Poincare of France was spend- 
ing a holiday in Russia ; Emperor William of 
Germany was cruising his yacht in Nor- 
wegian waters ; the trial of Madame Gaillaux 
engaged the attention of Paris, while Eng- 
land was engrossed with her Irish crisis in 
Ulster. The world waited calmly for the 
Austrian government to act in the matter. 

Secret Preparations for War 

A WHOLE month elapsed before the Dual 
Monarchy deigned to notice the tragedy of- 
ficially. We now know she employed these 
four weeks in preparations for war. July 23 
the government of Austria-Hungary pre- 
sented certain impossible demands to Serbia, 
and demanded an acceptance within 48 hours. 
Serbia accepted all the conditions except two. 
Concerning the demand that she "accept the 
collaboration in Serbia of representatives of 
the Austria-Hungarian government in the 
suppression of the subversive movement 
directed against the territorial integrity of 
the monarchy," Serbia would admit such 
collaboration as was permitted by interna- 
tional law. But against Article 6, which de- 
manded that Serbia should consent to Aus- 
trian judges sitting at the trial of political 
cases in Serbia, a vigorous protest was made, 
on the ground that it would be a violation of 
her constitution. Had Serbia accepted these 
impossible terms, it would have been equiva- 
lent to surrendering her sovereignty as an 
independent nation, and conceding Austria's 
right to control Serbia's internal administra- 
tion. However, Serbia did consent to refer 
the Austrian ultimatum to the Hague Tri- 
bunal for settlement. The offer was scorn- 
fully refused, and the Austrian minister left 
Belgrade. The fuse had been lit which 
started the world-wide explosion. It was an 
ultimatum, not to Serbia alone, but to the 
whole world. 



Underlying Causes of the War 



31 



Efforts for Peace 

WHEN the full text of the ultimatum was 
published, public opinion outside Hun-land 
was incensed at the severity of the demand. 
A feverish week of diplomatic effort followed 
among the nations of Europe. Sir Edward 
Grey, the British Foreign Minister, and Czar 
Nicholas of Russia worked ceaselessly in 
their efforts to prevent a declaration of war, 
for it had been foreseen that all Europe 
would be brought into the conflict because of 
pre-existing alliances. 

It was proposed to hold a conference in 
London to mediate the dispute between Aus- 
tria and Serbia. France and Italy quickly 
agreed, but the Teutons declined because 
their hearts had been set on war and their 
preparations completed down to the last de- 
tail. Indeed, it is known that the day after 
the crime, Austria issued secret mobilization 
papers to her subjects abroad. Kaiser Wil- 
helm had returned from his cruise and Brit- 
ain went mad with war fever. 

War Is Declared 

AUSTRIA sought to pacify or mislead 
Russia, July 24, by pledging herself not to 
annex Serbian territory in event of war. 
Russia asked that an extension of time be 
granted Serbia in which to reply to the ulti- 
matum, but was answered in the negative. 
The next day Russia published her warning 
that she would render assistance to Serbia 
if the Slav race were attacked. Sir Edward 
Grey proposed a conference of neutral am- 
bassadors to compose the differences of 
Serbia and Austria, but this solution was re- 
jected by Germany, who on the same day 
urged France and Great Britain to persuade 
Russia to remain neutral, a cold-blooded pro- 
posal which England and France rejected. 
Next the Kaiser pleaded with Russia to allow 
Serbia to be destroyed by Austria. In reply 
the Czar suggested referring the whole mat- 
ter to the Hague Tribunal. To this sugges- 
tion Emperor William made no reply. 

July 28, Austria declared war on Serbia 
and marched her army toward Belgrade. 
The next day Emperor William made a 
shameless bid for British neutrality, pledg- 
ing Germany to take no territory from 



France in case of a German victory, but omit- 
ting mention of French colonies in Egypt 
and Africa; nor was any mention made as 
to sparing the French fleet, or as to the size 
of the indemnities to be imposed on France. 
This typical German proposal was declined 
with scorn. On July 30, while Austria's 
army was on the march, Russia began to 
mobilize toward the Austrian frontiers. The 
next day Kaiser William, whose own army of 
830,000 was practically mobilized, sent an 
ultimatum to Russia, demanding that she 
cease further mobilization within twelve 
hours. The same day he made his last 
"shameful proposal" to England, saying he 
would not violate the neutrality of Belgium 
"provided" Belgium did not stand out 
against Germany. This proposal, too, was 
rejected by England. England then sent to 
Germany and France identical notes asking 
them if they would respect Belgium's neu- 
trality. France gave her prompt assurance, 
but Germany countered by inquiring whether 
England would remain neutral if Belgium 
were spared. Again England declined to 
dicker with the Huns. Meanwhile the Ger- 
man ambassador at Brussels was giving 
daily lying assurances to Belgium that she 
would not be attacked. 

France had made two requests to Eng- 
land to engage her support in event that 
France were attacked, but England would 
not at first consent. Meanwhile, in compli- 
ance with the terms of an old treaty, France 
withdrew her fleet from her own coast in 
order to protect British interests in the Med- 
iterranean. England thereupon assured 
France that if her coast were attacked she 
would defend her on the sea. 

On August 1, Sir Edward Grey, still hop- 
ing to avoid a general war, telephoned the 
German ambassador a suggestion that if 
both Germany and France would remain 
neutral the war might still be "localized," 
but this proposal was "doctored" so as to 
make it appear that England and France had 
agreed to remain neutral, leaving Russia to 
the tender mercies of the Huns. The Kaiser 
assented to the "doctored" version, but when 
the correction was sent to him it was care- 
fully suppressed. 



32 



How Germany Lost Her Soul 



Typical Hun Treachery 

GERMANY, on August 3, while refusing to 
promise not to trample down Belgium, would 
agree not to attack France by sea if Britain 
should remain neutral. 

Belgium, on the same day, heroically 
warned Germany that she was prepared to 
defend her borders against invasion by any 
nation, and asked the aid of England, France, 
and Russia in the event that an invasion took 
place. 

The English government, on August 4, de- 
manded an immediate answer from Germany 
respecting Belgian neutrality, and was 
startled to receive a reply from Foreign Sec- 
retary von Jagow saying that the German 
troops had actually crossed the border and 
it was now too late to reconsider. 

Sir Edward Goschen, English Ambassador 
to Germany, was instructed to serve notice 
in person on the German Emperor that war 
would be declared at midnight unless a more 
satisfactory answer could be given. 

The Chancellor, Bethmann-Hollweg, pro- 
tested against making such an ado over a 
"scrap of paper." Sir Edward Goschen pre- 
pared for transmission to England a tele- 
graphic summary of his interview, but this 
was never forwarded by the German govern- 
ment. A typical example, truly, of German 
Kultur! 



At midnight, on August 4, Great Britain 
declared war on Germany in defence of Bel- 
gium's integrity, which she, as well as Ger- 
many, had solemnly pledged herself in 1870 
to respect. France and Russia also declared 
war on Germany, and Italy declared her neu- 
trality. 

The Mendacious Huns 

SEEKING to justify their violation of 
Belgium, the Vandal-Prussians resorted to 
brazen falsehood. First they alleged that 
French troops had already crossed the Bel- 
gian border, and that in the circumstances 
Prussia was justified in trespassing across 
Belgium also. This was an absolute false- 
hood and so understood by the whole world, 
Germany included. 

Next the German falsifiers pretended to 
the "discovery" in Brussels of secret docu- 
ments proving the existence of a "conspir- 
acy" on the part of Belgium, France, and 
England to destroy Germany. This story 
was also proved to be absolutely false. 

Finally, Chancellor Bethmann-Hollweg 
publicly confessed the great wrong Germany 
had done in invading Belgium's soil, and 
promised reparation, "as soon as our mili- 
tary ends are reached." What "reparation" 
Germany made to Belgium during the next 
five years will appear in the historical narra- 
tive of the war that follows. 



The German Nation in Hopeless Moral Bankruptcy 

So Declared by Prof. Fugman of Leipsic University. A Sad Picture of Decadency. 
The Inevitable Fruit of Anti-Christian Ideals 

BEFORE proceeding with the narrative of the German occupation of Belgium, which 
precipitated the universal war, let us present this picture of the moral degradation of 
Germany just on the eve of the war. The indictment of the whole nation is from the 
pen of Dr. Fugman of Leipsic University, who was discussing war in general as a "biologi- 
cal necessity" and a "world cleanser." He said: 



"The life led by the bulk of the German 
people is indescribable, even though serious 
men lift up their voices against the iniquity 
of it all. Fidelity and faith has disappeared. 
A man's word has no value. Contracts are 
made only to be broken. Business in general 
assumes a shape resembling a huge organized 
deception. The corruptions of life grow 
apace, in town and country, and no prophet, 
no speaker, no preacher of morals, no apostle 



of nature, no seer is in a position to stem the 
tide of degeneracy and decay. Every man 
who practices an ideal is ridiculed. God so 
loved the German nation that he sent this 
war to heal it of the gangrene which is eating 
out its vitals. This war comes from God; 
therefore it is a blessing. War is the father of 
all things, and for Germans it is the cause of 
an incomparable regeneration, an indescrib- 
able blessing for the great future before us." 



NOTE This is the nation that felt itself "divinely appointed" to reform a decadent world. 



FIRST YEAR OF THE WAR 1914 



Important Events on Land and Sea 


PAGE WESTERN THEATER 


DATE 


EASTERN THEATER 


PAGE 






June 28 


Archduke Francis Ferdinand assassinated 


38 


84 


Germany and Austria secretly mobilize 


July 21 










23 


Austria's ultimatum to Serbia. 


40 






25 


Serbia rejects Austria's demands. 


40 






25 


Austrian Minister leaves Serbia 


40 






25 


European Powers plead for a conference 


31,40 






25 


Serbia begins mobilization of Army 


40 


127 


British Navy guards North Sea 


28 


Austria declares war on Serbia 


31. 40 






28 


Austrians bombard Belgrade, Serbian capital 


40 






28 


Serbian Government moves to Nish 


40 


127 


Germans lay mines in North Sea 


29 


Russia begins "preparatory mobilization" 


84 


128 


Germans bombard Algerian towns, Africa. 


29 


Austria orders general mobilization 


84 






31 


Russia orders general mobilization 


84 






31 


Germany declares, "a state of war exists" 


84 


51 


France orders mobilization of Army 


AUR. 1 


Germany declares war on Russia 


84 


45 


Germans invade Luxemburg 


2 


German troops on Russian border driven back 


86 


45 


Germany demands passage through Belgium 


2 


Russia prohibits sale of vodka 


83 


45 


Belgium rejects Germany's demand. 


3 






57 


German patrol invades France 


3 






34 


Germany declares war on Belgium 








47 


Belgium mobilization begins 








32 


England declares war on Germany 








32 


France declares war on Germany 








125 


President Wilson's proclamation of neutrality 








36 


Italy declares her neutrality 








46 


Germany begins invasion of Belgium 


5 






46 


Germans begin bombardment of Liege 


5 






51 


Battles on French frontier begin 


5 


Russian troops invade East Prussia 


86 


127 


British cut German cables 


6 


Turks close Dardanelles to Allies _ 


124 






6 


Turkey takes over two German ships 


124 


46 


Belgian garrison evacuates Liege 


7 






51 


French invade Alsace and seize Altkirch 


7 






51 


French seize Mulhousen in Alsace 


8 


Russia grapples with enemy on 1,000-mile front... 


82 






10 




92 


51 


Germans recover Mulhousen in Alsace 


11 






47 


Belgians rout Germany at Haelen and Diest- ;... 


12 


Austrian Armies invade Serbia. 


41 






12 


Austrians bombard Loznitza 


41 






14 


Serbians check Austrians at Loznitza 


41 


47 


Last of the Liege forts reduced by German guns 


14 


War in German East Africa begins 


123 


52 


Second French invasion of Alsace-Lorraine begins... 


15 


Japan sends ultimatum to Germany 


114 


47 


Belgians repulse Germans at Tirlemont 


15 


Boer Parliament Supports England 


119 


52 


French occupy Mulhousen and Thann 


16 


Serbians defeat Austrians at Jadar 


42 


47 


Germans capture and burn Belgian villages 


16 






53 


French occupy Saarburg (or Morhange) 


17 


Russian Army invades Galicia 


93 


48 


Belgian Government transferred to Antwerp 


17 


Russians win Battle of Gumbinnen 


86 


49 


Bombardment of Namur fortress begins 


17 


Russian victory at Frankenau 


87 


109 


Revolting atrocities in Belgium 


18 


Serbians defeat Austrians at Shabatz 


42 


110 


Germans set fire to Liege, Belgium 


19 






48 


Germans occupy Louvain 


18 






53 


French defeated at Morhange, Lorraine 


19 


English invade German Kameruns, Africa ... 


._ Ill 


48 


Germans occupy Brussels 


20 






54 


French retreat out of Lorraine 


20 






55 


French Army, defeated at Neufchateau 


21 






56 


French Army, defeated at Charleroi 


22 


Hindenberg takes command in East Prussia 


87 


57 


French Armies everywhere in retreat. 


22 






50 


French evacuate Lille, Arras, and Amiens. 


22 






50 


German Armies sweep through Belgium 


22 






49 


Namur fortress evacuated. 


23 


Austrians expelled from Serbian soil 


42 


54 


Battle of Nancy 


23 






58 


British begin retreat from Mons 


23 


Russians defeat Germans at Gumbinnen 


86 


61 


Germans worsted in Battle of Andregnies 


23 


Japan declares war against Germany ~ 


. 115 


57 


French evacuate Dinant .. 


23 






108 


Belgians reoccupy Malines 


23 






61 


British fall back on Maubouge 


24 






62 


Germans repulsed at Landrecies 


24 


Germans surrender Togoland, Africa 


121 


62 


British face disaster at Le Cateau 


25 


Japanese warships bombard, Tsing-tau 


115 


108 


German Zeppelin bombs . Antwerp _ 


26 


Austrians defeat Russians at Krasnik 


93 


63 


French save British at Cambrai _.. 


26 


Russian Army destroyed at Tannenberg ... 


88 


111 


Germans set fire to Louvain. 


27 


Russians withdraw from East Prussia 


90 



(33) 



34 



Important Events on Land and Sea 1914 



PAGE 

57 Longwy surrendered to Germans , 

128 Naval battle of Heligoland 

64 Rheims, Chalons, and Lille evacuated. 

64 British surrender La Fere and Laon 



64 British and French retreat ends at the Marno 

69 German pursuit swerves to southeast of Paris 

64 French Government quits Paris for Bordeaux 

68 Battle of the Ourcq begins 

72 Foch attacks German front at Fere Champenoise 

65 Immortal Battle of the Marne 

71 French victory at Montmorail 

80 Germans defeated in Battle of Nancy 

112 Germans set fire to Termonde, Belgium 

72 Foch's great victory at Fere Champenoise 

77 Germans retreat to the Aisne 

79 Germans bombard Rheims ... 



78 Battle of Aisne begins 

78 Germans bombard Soissons 

79 French reoccupy Rheims and Amiens.. 

79 "Race for the Sea" begins 

81 Germans reduce Troyon to ashes 

81 First Battle of Verdun begins 



DATE 

27 
28 
29 
30 
31 

Sept. 2 
3 
3 
3 
5 
5 
6 
6 
6 
8 
9 
9 

10 
11 
12 
15 
15 
20 
20 
23 

212 Great eight months' siege of Verdun begins in 1916.... 23 

23 

82 Germans capture St. Mihiel, France 26 

111 Germans set fire to Malines, Belgium 26 

28 
108 Germans lay siege to Antwerp 28 

108 Belgian Government moves to Ostend Oct. 3 

5 

109 Germans capture Antwerp 9 

10 

10 

108 Germans occupy Ostend 13 

102 Belgian Army retreats from Antwerp 14-28 

103 Battle of Yser begins in Belgium 16 

104 Belgians repulse Germans at Dixmude 16 

104 Germans destroy Nieuport, Belgium 24 

104 Belgians open dykes, drowning Germans 25 

105 First Battle of Ypres, Belgium 26 

107 Battle of Armentieres, Belgium 28 

28 

30 

107 Germans fail to break through to the sea 30 

129 British lose sea battle off Chili Nov. 1 

3 

4 

5 

5 

7 

9 

10 

12 

14 

15 

17 

18 

21 

21 

26 

29 

Dec. 1 
132 Trench deadlock sets in on Western Front 6 

130 Sea Battle off Falkland Islands 8 

9 

15 
15 

130 German cruisers shell English towns 16 

20 
23 
25 
31 



Russians capture Tarnopol, Galicia 



PAGE 
93 



Russians defeat Austrians at Halicz 93 

German Samoan Islands captured 124 

Japanese troops landed at Shantung 116 

Russians take Lemberg and 120,000 prisoners 93 



Austrians defeated at Rawa Ruska, Galicia... 



Germany's Bismarck Archipelago seized.. 
Austrians defeated at San River ... 



Russians seize Jaroslav, Galicia 



Si 



124 
94 



95 



Russians invest Przemysl, Galicia 95 

Austrians driven out of Galicia 95 

English aid Japanese at Shantung 116 

Rebel Boers defeated in South Africa 120 



Russians defeat Hindenberg at Augustowa 



90 



Russians advance on Cracow 95 

First German drive on Warsaw begins 97 

Austrians again invade Serbia 117 

Germans crushed at Kovno, Russia 98 

Turkish torpedo boats raid Sebastopol 125 

Germans invade Poland almost to Warsaw 98 

Germans driven back 150 miles by Russians 99 



Turks occupy Magdada 125 

Russians drive Austrians out of Galicia 100 

Turkish warships bombard Black Sea ports 125 

Japanese bombard Kiau-chau 116 

German raider Koenigsburg sunk 131 

Russia declares war on Turkey 125 

British bombard Turkish forts 124 

Sultan of Turkey calls for a Holy War 125 

England and France at war with Turkey 125 

British seize the Island of Cypress 126 

Germans surrender Tsing-tau to Japanese 117 

German raider Emden sunk 131 

Second German drive on Warsaw begins 100 

Russians again invest Przemysl 102 

German victory at Kodno 101 

Austrians defeat Serbians at Valjevo 118 

Sultan's call for a Holy War goes unheeded 125 

England assumes protectorate over Egypt 125 

British seize Basra on Persian Gulf 126 

Germans repulse Russians at Cracow 96 

War in German Southwest Africa begins 122 

Russians retake Czernowitz 102 

Austrians capture Belgrade, Serbia's Capital 118 

Germans occupy Lodz, Poland 101 

British take Kurna, Persia ,. 126 

Serbians retake Belgrade 118 

Austrians again driven out of Serbia 118 

Rebellion in German Southwest Africa ends 123 

Prince Hussain becomes Sultan of Egypt 125 

Russians raise the siege of Cracow 101 

Russians seize passes of the Carpathians 96 

English conquer German Kameruns, Africa, 122 



FIRST YEAR OF THE WAR-1914 

4 

GERMANY LOOSES HER THUNDERBOLTS 

Christian Europe Swept by the Fiery Cataclysm Foretold by the Prophets 

Gigantic Armies Invade Belgium, France, Serbia and Russian Poland 
Three Continents Become Battle Grounds in the War for Human Freedom 

7,000,000 Men Engage in Mutual Massacre on the Several Fronts 

Heroic Belgians Hold Back the German Hordes at Liege and Namur 

Kaiser's Armies, Overflowing Into France, Decisively Defeated on the Marne 

Austrian Armies Ingloriously Defeated by the Russians and Serbians 
Thrilling "Race for the Sea" Ends in German Defeat at Ypres, Belgium 



The Invasion of Serbia and Belgium Sets the World on Fire 

4,000,000 Germans, Austrians and Turks Launch Blow at Peaceful Europe 
2,553,000 Soldiers Spring to the Defense of Human Liberty 



Belgium's First Army 140,000 

France's First Army 800,000 

England's First Army 90,000 

Russia's First Army 1,250,000 

Serbia's First Army 200,000 

Montenegro's First Army 50,000 

Japan's First Army 23,000 

Total Allied Forces 2,553,000 



Germany's Advance Army 2,000,000 

(3,000,000 Additional Trained Troops 
Mobilizing, Including Greatest Assem- 
blage of Artillery in History.) 

Austria's First Army 1,200,000 

Turkey's First Army 800,000 



Total Teutonic Forces 4,000,000 



Survey of Events in the Year 1914 

THIS is the shuddering story of Europe's martyrdom, of Christendom's 
deliverance from the dread bondage of Moloch, of the world's chastened 
emergence from the fiery cataclysm in which it was so suddenly plunged 
on that epochal day in July, 1914, when the "Gates of Hell" suddenly opened and 
Earth was deluged with sulphurous flames and fumes. It is the story of the 
battle of Right against Might, of the Bible against Babel, of Christ against Anti- 
christ ! As the tremendous scenes in the cosmic catastrophe unfold one by one 
before our still horrified vision, we shall see all the nations engaged in the first 
universal conflict ever waged on Earth. Three mighty empires fall into stark 
ruin. Ancient kingdoms are blotted out as by a sponge. Emperors and Kings 
are toppled over like blades of grass. Cities and towns by thousands are reduced 
to dust and ashes. Three continents are drenched with the blood of 30,000,000 
human victims, that Moloch's thirst might be sated. 

(35) 



36 Germany's Crime Against Humanity 

Thousands of vessels, with their precious lives and treasure, are sent to 
the bottom of the ocean. Earth, with its thousand-mile battle lines is too small 
to satisfy the lust of Moloch ; the war is carried into the air by myriad planes, 
and under the sea by submarines. 

All this saturnalia of strife, so clearly foretold by the prophets, was the 
sequel to the ambition of an Emperor- Egotist, spurred on by his atheistical 
guides, to realize in his own person a pomp and plenitude of power surpassing 
that of all conquerors in history. 

Swollen with pagan conceit and defiant of the mandates of Almighty God, 
William Hohenzollern plotted to subjugate all Christendom to his will, over- 
throw Christian civilization and destroy personal liberty throughout the Earth. 

With the most formidable war machine the world had ever seen obedient 
to his merest nod, and with Austria, Bulgaria and Turkey as his pliant aids, Em- 
peror William felt assured of the success of his Satanic assault on civilization. 

Invoking the aid of science, he laid his plans with mathematical precision. 
Not only should he conquer all Europe, and ultimately the entire world, but his 
conquest should proceed by schedule by time-table, if you please. 

Knowing that Europe was unprepared for war, he mistakenly assumed 
that Russia could not possibly, within six weeks, mobilize an army beyond the 
power of Austria alone to subdue. England had fewer than 100,000 soldiers 
available for immediate service; Belgium less than 150,000; France could not 
rally 1,000,000 to her colors within three weeks. Therefore, the German Em- 
peror assumed it would be merely a holiday jaunt for his army of 2,000,000 to 
rush through Belgium, seize the dhannel ports, at which an English army might 
possibly disembark, descend into France, capture Paris in three weeks, dictate a 
peace to France and England, and then transfer his victorious army to the East- 
ern front and dispose of the clumsy Russian bear. 

We shall see, in the detailed narrative that follows, all the plans of the 
egotist miscarry, all his conceptions prove unstable. Russia's mobilization was 
a miracle of celerity. Instead of being menaced by Austria, it was the Russians 
that swept the Austrians back across the Carpathians in those first few weeks 
of war, taking Lemberg and Przemysl, and even preparing to advance through 
the Moravian Gap to Berlin and Vienna. 

Little Serbia, too, had driven the Austrian armies from her soil and re- 
asserted her independence. The Russians, it is true, had suffered disaster at 
Tannenberg, East Prussia, but this was more than retrieved by their "victories in 
Galicia. 

So effective was the Russian offensive that Germany faced defeat on the 
Eastern front at the close of 1914. Only by the aid of Russian traitors, who 



First Year of the War-1914 37 

first betrayed their army, and finally their government, was Germany able to 
impose her will in the Eastern theater of the war. 

On the Western front, Germany's schedule had similarly miscarried. The 
German warlords had visioned an unmolested passage through Belgium, ending 
in the easy conquest of all the coast cities. 

Never had they supposed Belgium capable of holding back their titanic 
war machine three weeks at Liege and Namur, until France could mobilize her 
troops on the northern frontier. Despising England's expeditionary force of 
90,000 as a negligible factor in the war on the Western front, they made no spe- 
cial effort to prevent its landing on French soil. That "contemptible little army" 
was destined to give a good account of itself at Mons, at the Marne and at Ypres. 

For a brief while, after the little Belgian army had been isolated in Ant- 
werp, and the German legions were pursuing the French and English toward 
Paris, victory seemed again in Kaiser's grasp. But here again German calcula- 
tions went awry. German strategy, plus German force, was impotent before 
the genius of Joffre and Foch, plus French and British valor. The Huns were 
stopped at the Marne and sent reeling back to the Aisne, narrowly escaping com- 
plete annihilation. The Emperor's dream of world conquest had ended in sud- 
den and ignominious failure. 

His legions might, indeed, burrow and wallow in French and Belgium soil, 
massacre whole villages, violate the sanctity of woman, crucify children, shell 
defenceless hospitals, bombard helpless cities for four years more, but advance 
they could not on French and Belgium soil. 

With the defeat of his Vandals and Huns in the battle of Ypres, a few 
weeks later, the Kaiser knew that his great adventure had ended in trench dead- 
lock. From that time on he had striven to create a military situation which 
might enable him to negotiate a "peace" that would recompense him for the 
loss of his colonial empire in Africa, and his rich insular possessions in Asia. 

His much vaunted navy still skulked in the twisted waterways of the Kiel 
Canal, fearing to give battle to the British. His commerce was driven from 
the sea. 

There was no hope for success on the Western front. Only the collapse 
of Russia could be of avail to the cause of Germany, but that was deferred until 
the following year. 

We shall now trace in detail the story of the first year of the world war in 
all theaters from its inception in Serbia to the concluding campaigns of 1914. 

The events of the year have been carefully correlated, enabling the reader 
quickly to grasp and intelligently to view the opening scenes in the most appall- 
ing conflict in the annals of the human race. 



38 



Germany's Crime Against Humanity 



EASTERN THEATER. JULY 29 -AUG. 25 ---. 



First Gun in the Great World War is Fired in the Balkans 

Austria Ingloriously Defeated by Little Serbia at Jadar and Shabats 
.*^*........~..........~*.....~............. SECTION 2-1914 -*-..-.......--*............*....*.......+* 



Serbian Forces, 200,000 

Field Marshal Putnik, Commander 
Gen. Mishitch 
Gen. Yourishich 
Gen. Stepanovitch 
Gen. Boyovitch 

Montenegrin Army, 50,000 
Gen. Vukovitch 

SERBIA, the ancient Slavic Kingdom that 
nestled among the rugged ranges of the 
upper Balkan peninsula, was the tiny 
stage on which the tremendous drama of the 
World War first opened. 

The apparent provocation to war was sup- 
plied by the assassination at Sarajevo, on 
June 28, of the Archduke Ferdinand, heir to 
the Austrian throne, by two youthful Serb- 
ians, bent on revenging the injuries inflicted 
upon their country by their Austrian 
masters. 

The true cause of the great conflagration, 
however, lay farther back in time; it was 
concerned with Germany's long-matured pur- 
pose of subjugating all the Balkan nations 
as a necessary step in her greater plan of 
conquering all Europe and Asia. Let us 
briefly examine the several factors in that 
dark conspiracy. 

Serbia, though a mere cipher in the sum 
of the world's progress, nevertheless had oc- 
cupied a position of importance among the 
nations, as the guardian of the sole historic 
highway connecting Europe with Asia. Sit- 
ting athwart the spurs of the great Car- 
pathian range of mountains, Serbia con- 
trolled the gates of the Morava valley, ex- 
tending from Nish northward to Belgrade, 
and affording the only direct path by which 
an army of invasion might pass into Europe 
from the east or into Asia from the west. 

Southward through this valley, nine cen- 
turies before, the Crusaders had swarmed 
on their way to the Holy Land to rescue the 
Sepulchre from the hands of the infidel 
Turks. Northward through the same defile, 
on a later day, the Moslems had advanced 



Austrian Forces, 400,000 

Gen. Potiorek, Commander 

Gen. Frank 

Gen. Boehm-Ermolli 



when they invaded Hungary and overran the 
south of Europe. 

Germany's interest in the Morava high- 
way, and consequently in Serbia's destiny, 
dated from the birth of her grandiose vision 
of a vast Teutonic Empire, embracing all the 
East, and connected with the Fatherland by 
a continuous line of railroad extending from 
Berlin to Constantinople and thence to Bag- 
dad. She had even begun to construct that 
railroad. 

The Turks, those remote kinsmen to the 
Prussian-Vandals, had given their consent 
to a German railroad extension across their 
domain. Austria, at once the dupe and the 
ally of Prussia, assisted in extending the Ber- 
lin-to-Bagdad railroad through Bosnia as far 
as the great seaport at Saloniki. All was 
merry as a marriage bell. But Germany was 
not content merely to secure a passage 
through the Balkans ; she desired to German- 
ize the whole Balkan peninsula. 

As far back as 1878, when Russia had 
beaten the Turks to their knees, and was 
preparing to occupy Constantinople, the 
Germans and the Austrians in unison, had 
stripped Russia of the fruits of her victory. 
The treaty of Berlin restored power to Tur- 
key, but placed the Slav provinces of Bosnia 
and Herzegovina under Austrian control. 

The next step in the plot was to bring the 
Balkan states under German influence 
through rulers of German blood or affilia- 
tions. Thus, by Germany's connivance, Alex- 
ander of Battenberg was placed on the throne 
of Bulgaria ; Ferdinand was sent to rule over 
Rumania; and the Crown Prince of Greece, 
after a military training in Germany, be- 



First Year of the War-1914 



39 



came the husband of Princess Sophia, sister 
of Emperor William of Germany! 

In 1912, the Kaiser's Eastern plans re- 
ceived England's sanction when Lord Grey, 
Great Britain's Foreign Minister, agreed that 
Germany should be permitted to extend her 
sphere of influence over all Mesopotamia. 
But in the same year the Kaiser's plans for 
control of the Balkans received a setback 
when Serbia, Bulgaria, Montenegro, and 
Greece united in crushing Turkey. 

To prevent the further expansion of this 
Slavic confederacy and at the same time re- 
store the Turks to their seat, the Kaiser with 
great cunning sowed the seeds of discord 
among the Balkan allies, persuading Bulgaria 
suddenly to attack Serbia and Greece in order 
to secure a greater share of the spoils of the 
first Balkan War. 

As a result of this second Balkan broil, 
Bulgaria was defeated and the Turks were 
restored in their possession of Constanti- 
nople. 

Serbia, however, still blocked the way to 
the East. If Germany was to succeed in 
establishing an Empire in Asia, she must 
first gain control of the Morava valley in 
Serbia in order that her legions might have 
a clear road for their march into Asia. 

Using Austria as a cat's-paw, Germany, 
in 1913, sought to gain Italy's consent to a 
war against Serbia, but Italy honorably de- 
clined to be a party in the plot, although at 
the time she was an ally both of Germany and 
Austria. 

Nevertheless, war was not long to be 
deferred. The German armies were on tip- 
toes, awaiting the word; the Kiel Canal im- 
provements were nearing completion, and 
with the opening of the enlarged canal in 
1914, "The Day" arrived which Germany had 
so long awaited. Weeks before the assas- 
sination at Sarajevo, Germany's war plans 
had been perfected down to the last detail. 
That murder merely served as a pretext. 

Four weeks were permitted to elapse be- 
for the Austrian government took any pub- 
lic action on the murder of Archduke Ferdi- 
nand. Under the surface, however, both in 
Austria and in Germany, there was great 
activity in executive and military circles. 



While Europe elsewhere was lulled to a sense 
of false security, every Teuton knew that 
war would certainly be declared, and that 
the interval was being used in preparation 
for the coming conflict. 

So obvious was the imminence of war that 
the Socialist leader, Karl Liebknecht, in a 
speech in the Reichstag, spoke ironically of 
the murder of the Archduke as "a gift from 
Heaven" to the German Junkers. 

Kaiser Wilhelm, who was enjoying a 
cruise on his yacht at the time of the mur- 
der, hastily returned to Potsdam, and in his 
palace there, on July 5, a conference was held 
of all the principal leaders in both the Em- 
pires. At that conference an ultimatum was 
drawn up to be presented to Serbia, embody- 
ing demands which Serbia could not comply 
with and preserve even the semblance of her 
poor sovereignty. 

The Austro-German plotters knew full 
well that Serbia could not, would not, accept 
the ultimatum in its entirety. They also 
knew that Serbia's refusal would be tanta- 
mount to a declaration of war. 

In their dull, stupid minds there lurked the 
notion that world opinion would hold Serbia 
culpable if war should result. At least, they 
hoped Serbia would appear as the aggressor 
and undeserving of any aid from Russia, her 
natural guardian, in event of war being de- 
clared. 

With Russia held in leash, France and 
England would likewise remain quiescent, 
and Austria would proceed to the annihila- 
tion of Serbia without hindrance. 

At the request of the financial and indus- 
trial leaders of Germany, the Austrian ulti- 
matum was held back 15 days, to give the 
German financiers the necessary time in 
which to arrange their affairs. They em- 
ployed this interval in unloading their se- 
curities on the bourses throughout the world, 
the German transactions on the New York 
Exchange being conducted on an enormous 
scale, with no hint of impending war. 

On July 21, two days before the time set 
for the ultimatum, the German General Staff 
sent out secret orders preliminary to mobili- 
zation, including the movement of troops 
toward the French frontier. At the same 



40 



Germany's Crime Against Humanity 



time the Austrian armies were secretly or- 
dered to prepare for mobilization on the 
Serbian and Galician frontiers. 

After the stage had been prepared for the 
opening scene in the world drama, the Kaiser 
undertook to deceive all Europe as to the im- 
minence of war by starting on a yachting 
cruise to Norway, though keeping in con- 
stant communication with his War Staff by 
wireless. 

The premiers of France and Serbia were 
also absent from their capitals, but the Brit- 
ish Fleet was distinctly on the "job," paying 
a visit to Kiel. 

The Ultimatum Is Presented 

AUSTRIA presented her ultimatum on July 
23, allowing Serbia only 48 hours to answer 
it. There were ten demands such as never 
before had been addressed by one indepen- 
dent state to another. 

Serbia was required 1, to suppress all 
propagandist literature; 2, to dissolve the 
secret patriotic society known as the Nar- 
odna Odbrana ; 3, to dismiss all propagandist 
teachers and prohibit such teaching; 4, to 
dismiss all Serbian officers and functionaries 
guilty of anti-Austrian propaganda, who 
might be denounced by the Austrian govern- 
ment; 5, to permit Austrian agents to "col- 
laborate" in the police work of Serbia; 6, to 
permit Austrian judges to "participate" in 
the trial by Serbian courts of those Serbians 
who were suspected of complicity in the plot 
to murder Archduke Ferdinand; 7, to arrest 
two persons in particular whose names were 
specified; 8, to stop trade in arms and ex- 
plosives across the Austrian frontier, and 
punish the officials guilty of allowing it ; 9, to 
require certain high Serbian officials to ex- 
plain their "hostile utterances" after the 
murder of the Archduke; 10, to answer "in 
the affirmative" before 6 p. m. on July 25th. 

Serbia's reply was forthcoming within the 
specified time. On the advice of the Russian, 
French, and British governments, Serbia ac- 
cepted unconditionally all the demands except 
the fifth and sixth. Even the fifth demand, 
permitting Austrian agents to assist in the 
police work of Serbia, she accepted in part, 
to the extent that it should conform to inter- 



national law and criminal procedure and 
friendly relations between nations. 

As to the sixth demand, permitting Aus- 
trian judges to sit with Serbian judges in 
the trial of Serbian subjects, she refused to 
comply, on the ground that such collabora- 
tion would be a violation of the Serbian Con- 
stitution and of the law of criminal pro- 
cedure. 

She promised, however, to bring the Serb- 
ian suspects to trial and to keep the Austrian 
judges, or delegates, informed on the prog- 
ress of the trials. 

It should here be noted that Serbia's ac- 
ceptance of the sixth demand would have 
been equivalent to the surrender of her sov- 
ereignty, rendering her officials liable to im- 
peachment for high treason. Moreover, the 
Constitution could only be amended by vote 
of the entire people, and such a vote could 
not be taken in the 48 hours allowed for ac- 
ceptance of the ultimatum. 

The Declaration of War 

AUSTRIA insisted upon a full acceptance 
of the terms. Serbia begged for respite, and 
Russia, France, and England pleaded with 
the Teutonic powers to refer the matter to a 
conference of the Powers. But the Teutons, 
thirsting for war, steeled their hearts, de- 
clined to accept mediation and set their gi- 
gantic war machines in motion. The great 
war had begun. 

On July 25, 1914, Baron Giesel, the Aus- 
trian Minister to the court of Serbia, de- 
manded his passports and left Belgrade. 
Austria on the previous day had begun mo- 
bilization ; Serbia at once began the mobiliza- 
tion of her army. Austria's formal declara- 
tion of war against Serbia was made on 
July 28, 1914. On the same day, Austria 
assembled 25,000 troops on the west bank 
of the Danube, opposite to Belgrade, Semen- 
dria, Gradishte and other Serbian cities 
along the whole Danube front. 

As the first shell burst ineffectively over 
the battlements of the old Turkish citadel of 
Belgrade, an answering cannonade imme- 
diately sounded from the Serbian guns. 

Thus was ushered in an artillery duel 
which continued for weeks along the Danube 
front. The Serbian government at once 



First Year of the War-1914 



41 



withdrew to Nish and the evacuation of the 
citizens of Belgrade was hastily accom- 
plished. 

Little was left of the once beautiful city of 
Belgrade after the bombardment had ceased. 
More than 750 buildings were demolished. 
Only the shell of the King's Palace remained 
standing. The University of Belgrade was 
entirely destroyed ; the old unarmed Fortress, 
a grim reminder of the Turkish occupation, 
was reduced to dust; the venerable Museum, 
stored with antiquities derived from pagan 
Rome, was wrecked; the great cigaret fac- 
tory, which the Serbian government operated 
as a state monopoly, was demolished ; factor- 
ies, foundries, and bakeries along the banks 
of the Danube were razed to the ground ; the 
hospital buildings and the foreign legations 
all suffered injury; and the principal streets 
were torn up by the exploding shells. 

Two Austrian Armies Invade Serbia 

MEANWHILE two Austro-Hungarian arm- 
ies, 400,000 strong, under the command of 
Gen. Potiorek, were secretly concentrating at 
six points along the Western and Northern 
Serbian frontiers, 340 miles in extent. On 
the Western frontier, the River Drina divided 
Serbia from Bosnia. 

On the Northern frontier the natural 
boundary was formed by the Save River, 
west of Belgrade, and the Danube River east 
of Belgrade. Thus the Serbian capital was 
included in a salient which projected into 
Austro-Hungarian territory on the north- 
west. 

By simultaneous invasions north and west, 
the Austrians expected to cut through this 
salient, capture Belgrade and with it a 
part of the Serbian army. The Serbian 
forces, all veteran soldiers who had recently 
emerged victorious from two Balkan wars, 
numbered 200,000 rifles. Under the direc- 
tion of Field Marshal Putnik, they were like- 
wise concentrating near the northern border. 

On August 12, the Austrian batteries on 
the west bank of the Drina River, opposite 
the Serbian city of Loznitza, opened a heavy 
bombardment of the town. Under cover of 
this fire, a fleet of barges, filled with Aus- 
trian soldiers, crossed the river. The land- 
ing was opposed by two Serbian battalions, 



acting as an outpost, supported by a few old 
field guns. They were quickly driven back 
to the heights behind Loznitza, where they 
continued their plucky resistance. 

The Austrians then laid a pontoon bridge 
across the Drina and landed an army of 
120,000 on Serbian soil, quickly throwing up 
defensive breastworks and constructing elab- 
orate trenches. 

On the same day an Austrian army, 100,- 
000 strong, crossed the Save River at Sha- 
batz, on the Northern frontier, strongly for- 
tified the town, and laid a pontoon bridge 
across the river from the railroad terminus 
at Klenak. 

Four other Austrian columns were invad- 
ing Serbia at Zvornik, Luibovia, Amajlia and 
E^ranjevo. All these positions converged on 
Valievo, the terminus of a railroad, extend- 
ing into the heart of Serbia. 

The two main armies of Austria, advanc- 
ing into Serbia along the lines of the Save 
and Drina rivers, were separated by the Tzir 
ridge of mountains. It was necessary that 
the Austrians should gain this ridge if a 
junction between their armies was to be 
effected. On the other hand, if the Serbians 
could occupy this ridge, they would be able 
to drive a wedge in between the main forces 
of the enemy and flank either wing of the 
Austrian army. In the race for the ridge 
the Serbians were successful. The battle 
front along the Tzir ridge was approxi- 
mately 100 miles long. 

First Battle at Loznitza 

THE first battle of the war opened on 
August 14, when the Austrian armies at Loz- 
nitza attempted to storm the heights held by 
three small battalions of Serbians. The Aus- 
trians charged up the hill in mass formation, 
but were met by a volley which sent them in 
confusion down the hill. Re-forming in 
mass, they advanced with fixed bayonets. 
This time the first line of Austrians reached 
the summit, but in a hand-to-hand fight they 
were again checked by the plucky Serbians. 
Under the cover of night, the Serbians with- 
drew to Jarebitze, where they met the first 
Austrian army, 80,000 strong. Here, the 
Serbians entrenched on a ten-mile front. 



42 



Germany's Crime Against Humanity 



During the night of August 15, the Aus- 
trians took possession of the Tzir and Iverak 
ridges. Meanwhile, at Shabatz, Austrian 
troops were pouring across pontoon bridges 
into Serbia; an Austrian flanking column 
from the Drina had reached Slepehevitch ; 
another force was centered on Krupain. 

Austrian* Defeated in Battle of Jadar 

AT daybreak, on the 16th, an Austrian 
army corps, 50,000 strong, was seen moving 
along the lower spurs of the Tzir Mountains, 
their aim being to prevent the insertion of a 
Serbian wedge between the Austrian army at 
Shabatz and the Austrian forces in the valley 
of the Jadar. With the idea of creating a 
diversion which should give the main Serbian 
army time to cope with the new situation, a 
Serbian artillery officer, Major Djukibch, se- 
cured permission to meet this body of Aus- 
trians with a single cannon. With a handful 
of volunteers, Djukibch planted his lone can- 
non in the path of the advancing army and 
opened fire. The Austrians, evidently believ- 
ing they had been surprised in force, turned 
and fled from the field. Some reinforcements 
of infantry and calvary were sent to Major 
Djukibch and the Huns were driven back to 
the mountains. Here they re-formed and 
gave battle to the small Serbian force that 
had pursued them. 

The Serbian outposts, though pressed hard, 
held their ground till evening, when the ad- 
vance corps of the main Serbian army came 
to the rescue. Though they had marched 60 
miles that day, the Serbians sprang over the 
breastworks, dashed through cornfields and 
tall grass, and with fixed bayonets charged 
the Austrian ramparts, driving the enemy in 
panic flight from their trenches through the 
Jadar valley. Two Austrian regiments 
which had held their ground were almost 
annihilated. 

Before nightfall, the Austrian corps was 
dispersed, leaving much booty behind. By 
this brilliant feat of arms, the Serbians cut 
off the Austrian army in Shabatz. 

Crushing Defeat of the Austrians at Shabatz 

AT dawn, on August 18, the Austrian army 
in Shabatz, on the Northern frontier, came 
forth to give battle to the Serbians. Out- 
numbered two to one, the Serbians gave way 



slowly, and at nightfall the infantry en- 
trenched along a line from Leskovitz to Mi- 
bana. The Serbian cavalry division at the 
same time retired on a line from Meskovibch 
to Brestovatz, its right wing being threatened 
by the Austrian advance out of Shabatz. 
Thus the armies were disposed across both 
the Tzir-Iverak ridges, which dominated the 
theater of war. 

The Serbian army on the Iverak ridge at- 
tacked the Austrians at Yargovitobi, driv- 
ing them from their trenches. An Austrian 
counter-attack, late that night, was repulsed 
at the point of the bayonet. 

On the 19th, the Austrians out of Shabatz 
forced back the Serbian forces operating in 
the south to the right bank of the Dobrava 
River. On the Tzir ridge, however, the Serb- 
ians took Rashulatcha, pursuing the Aus- 
trians along the Leshnitza River. The Serb- 
ian forces on the Iverak ridges also put the 
Austrians to rout. The third army, after a 
stiff engagement at Soldatovitcha, also dis- 
persed the Austrians, taking many prisoners. 

The next day saw the end of Austria's 
hopes. The army of the Shabatz, which had 
made so successful an advance only a few 
hours before, was now forced back from the 
Dobrava River. Mauled in turn by the 
Serbian artillery and cavalry, the Huns fin- 
ally fled in wildest disorder, through corn- 
fields and villages. 

In the Jadar and Leshnitza valleys similar 
scenes were witnessed. From the high 
ridges, the Serbians directed their artillery 
fire against the fleeing Huns. Soon the whole 
Austrian army was in flight toward the 
Drina. Shabatz was evacuated on August 24, 
and the last Austrian invader was expelled 
from Serbian soil. 

The Austrian losses in this battle were 
6000 killed, 35,000 wounded, and 4000 prison- 
ers. The Serbians lost 3000 dead and 15,000 
wounded. The Serbians captured 45 can- 
nons, 30 machine guns, and vast stores of 
munitions. 

Of 400,000 Austrians who had invaded 
Serbia in August, barely 300,0'00 returned. 
In 13 days the Serbs captured 40,000 pris- 
oners, while fully 60,000 Austrians had been 
killed or wounded. The Serbian casualties 
were placed at 20,000. 



First Year of the War-1914 



43 



WESTERN THEATER. AUG. 2 



Germany Masses 2,000,000 on French and Belgian Frontiers 

Prussian Strategy Revealed Gen. Joffre's Consummate Counter-Strategy Disclosed 



SECTION 3-1914 



Belgian Forces, 140,000 

King Albert, Commander-in-Chief 
Gen. de Moranville, Army Commander 

Belgian Garrison at Liege, 40,000 

Gen. Leman, Commander at Liege 

French Forces, 800,000 

Gen. Joffre, Commander-in-Chief 

First French Army, Gen. Dubail 

Second French Army, Gen. Castelnau 

Third French Army, Gen. Ruffey 

Fourth French Army, Gen. Langle de Carey 

Fifth French Army, Gen. Lanrezac 

British Forces, 90,000 

Gen. French, Commander 

ON Sunday, August 2, 1914, while 
Christian Europe was assembling for 
divine worship and the German Am- 
bassador at Brussels was calling on Heaven 
to witness that Germany had no thought of 
violating the soil of Belgium, 1,500,000 Ger- 
man soldiers were secretly concentrating on 
the Western frontiers of France and Belgium. 

A vanguard of German troops already had 
motored into Luxemberg to "spy out the 
land," and a selected force of 740,000 infan- 
try, supported by 65,000 cavalrymen and 
trains of huge artillery, were awaiting the 
signal to dash into Belgium by three routes, 
reduce the forts of the little kingdom at Liege 
and Namur, sweep across the great central 
plains of Belgium to the channel ports, and 
then descend into France and invest Paris. 

Behind the group of seven German arm- 
ies, the greatest assemblage of combat troops 
known to modern warfare, 3,000,000 addi- 
tional German soldiers were being mobilized. 

Heirs of Attila and Alaric, the German 
warlords had haughtily resolved to draw 
the sword against all Christendom, if need be. 
Confident of achieving a quick victory, they 
had perfected their strategy down to the 
smallest details. 

Foreseeing that France, Russia, and Great 
Britain would unite against them, but be- 
lieving that Russia's first mobilization could 
not be completed within six weeks, the Ger- 
man warlords expected to overwhelm the 
unprepared French armies, capture the city 



German Infantry, 1,500,000 
German Cavalry, 10 divisions 

Gen. von Moltke, Chief of Staff 
First German Army, Gen. von Kluck 
Second German Army, Gen. von Buelow 
Third German Army, Gen. von Hausen 
Fourth German Army, Duke of Wurttemberg 
Fifth German Army, Crown Prince of Prussia 
Sixth German Army, Bavarian Crown Prince 

Rupprecht 

Seventh German Army, Gen Heeringen 
Detached Corps, Gen. Daimling 
Detached Corps, Gen. von Emmich 



of Paris, and dictate terms of peace to 
France before ponderous Russia could mo- 
bilize her vast war machine. 

After a quick peace with France had been 
arranged, the German hordes would be 
shunted over to the Eastern front and unite 
with Austria's army of 1,200,000 in dealing 
a death blow to Russia. 

In perfecting their whirlwind campaign 
against France, the German strategists had 
attempted to forecast the probable French 
strategy of war. They assumed that, when 
the German forces overran Belgium, France 
and Great Britain both would rush small 
"sentimental" armies to the relief of the Bel- 
gians. These would be trapped and anni- 
hilated by vastly superior German forces 
already on Belgian soil. 

The whole French defensive being thereby 
weakened, it would be an easy matter to 
break through the French frontier, north 
and east, crush the French armies as 
between a vise and advance to the capture 
of Paris. 

Gen. Joffre refused to fall into the trap. 
Instead of sending a small "sentimental" 
army into Belgium, he established his north- 
ern line just below the Belgian frontier, 
meanwhile arranging for the debarkation of 
the first British expeditionary force of 90,000 
men at a French, instead of a Belgian port. 
This British army, marching through north- 
ern France, would unite in due time with the 
left wing of the French army. 



44 



Germany's Crime Against Humanity 



Subsequently, the two German armies of 
von Kluck and von Buelow swung through 
Belgium, like a huge gate on its hinges, in 
quest of the "sentimental" French and Brit- 
ish forces which their psychologists supposed 
to be on Belgian soil. So engrossed were the 
Huns in their futile hunt for the phantom 
Allied armies that they quite neglected at 
this time to seize the channel ports which 
were theirs for the taking. In fact, they 
"foozled" their warfare from beginning to 
end. 

When finally they did pursue the Allied 
armies across the Belgian border, although 
they outnumbered them in the ratio of seven 
to four, they were completely outgeneralled 
by Field Marshal Joffre, who lured them on 
to defeat at the Marne River by a series of 
maneuvers, which for brilliancy of concep- 



tion and execution, have seldom been equalled 
in all the annals of warfare. Like the army 
of rats that followed the pied piper of Hame- 
lin, the German hordes were at all times 
obedient to the will of the master strategist. 

At the outbreak of the war, Germany's nu- 
merical superiority in man power on the 
whole Western front was as seven to four, 
counting all combatants, but in certain sec- 
tors and in particular engagements she out- 
numbered the Allies five to one. 

On the sea, Great Britain was supreme. 
German commerce was driven from all 
oceans, and the German Grand Fleet was for 
the most part content to hide in the Kiel 
Canal, or the adjacent Baltic Sea. With this 
preliminary view of Vandal aims and prep- 
arations, the narrative history of the cata- 
clysmic war may now proceed. 



WESTERN THEATER. AUG. 4-14 



Liege and Namur Heroically Defended by Small Belgian Army ; 



For Three Weeks the Little Belgian Army Held Back the German Tidal Wave 
..................................................................... SECTION 4 1914 - 



Belgian Garrison at Liege, 20,000 men 

Gen. Leman 
Belgian Garrison at Namur, 26,000 men 

Gen. Michel 
Luxemburg Gendarmerie, 300 men 

Major Van Dyck 
Belgian Army, 120,000 men 

Gen. Selliers de Moranville 



German Forces, 1,000,000 men 

Gen. von Kluck 
Gen. von Buelow 
Gen. von Hausen 
Gen. von Emmich 



TWO days before the actual declaration 
of war, the German tidal wave was 
moving with irresistible force towards 
the Luxemburg and Belgian frontiers. Two 
colossal German armies, commanded by Gen- 
erals von Kluck and von Buelow, numbering 
480,000 infantry and supported by 65,000 
cavalrymen, with trains of heavy artillery 
bringing up the rear, were assembling near 
Aix-la-Chapelle and Limburg. 

Close behind them, half a million more 
picked troops were advancing, making a com- 
batant force of fully one million men who 
were prepared to invade and overrun the lit- 
tle Kingdom of Belgium. 

To the south, all the way along the Eastern 
French frontier, nearly one million more Im- 



perial troops were being disposed at strate- 
gical points, awaiting the word to break 
through and capture Paris. 

The most inviting route to Paris lay 
through the wide valley of the Meuse in Bel- 
gium. It was along this roadway that the 
legions of Caesar marched to the conquest of 
Germany 2000 years before. 

This gateway was guarded by the fort- 
ressed cities of Liege and Namur, which 
must be reduced before the Germans might 
hopo to gain an unimpeded passage to the 
Northern French frontier. These obstacles, 
however, were regarded as trivial by the Ger- 
man warlords. 

Confident in their numbers, in their pres- 
tige and especially in their incomparable ar- 



First Year of the War 1914 



45 



tillery, which could pulverize the staunchest 
forts, they hoped to romp through the Meuse 
valley and thence into France without let or 
hindrance. 

They knew that the Belgian forts were 
defended by slim garrisons, that the Belgian 
army at most would number 150,000 men, 
and they looked for no resistance worthy of 
the name. 

Accordingly, the armies of von Kluck and 
von Buelow requisitioned the four principal 
routes into Belgium from the Rhine valley. 
The first led through Luxemburg to the cen- 
tral valley of the Meuse; the second from 
Malmedy, opening on the Meuse valley at 
Dinant, Liege, and Namur; the third from 
Aix-la-Chapelle by way of Verviers, which is 
the main line from Paris to Berlin ; the fourth 
from Aix-la-Chapelle to the bridge of Vise 
on the Dutch frontier. Along these sev- 
eral routes the German hordes were set in 
motion. 

The Violation of Luxemburg 

THE first overt act of war on the Western 
front occurred at 1.30 o'clock on the morning 
of Sunday, August 2, 1914, when a detail of 
German officers in motor cars crossed the 
Moselle River at Wasserbilig and entered the 
Duchy of Luxemburg, whose neutrality Ger- 
many had guaranteed. 

They scoffed at the little Duchess of Lux- 
emburg, who thought to block their passage 
by maneuvering her motor car across the 
roadway ; sneered at the Luxemburg "army" 
of 300 gendarmes that lined the roadway; 
ignored the protests of the burgomaster and 
proceeded to the seizure of the Adolf bridge. 
Treves and Luxemburg were occupied the 
same day. 

Presently, the movement of German cav- 
alry across the bridge began, and before 
evening von Buelow's army of the Moselle 
had occupied the Duchy of Luxemburg. On 
the same day, clashes occurred between bor- 
der patrols at Longwy and Luneville, French 
frontier towns. 

Germany Fails to Cajole Belgium 

AT 7 o'clock on the same Sunday evening, 
the German Minister to the court of Bel- 
gium, Herr von Below-Saleske, presented a 



"highly confidential" note to M. Davignon, the 
Belgian Minister for Foreign Affairs, falsely 
alleging that the German government had 
received reliable information of the inten- 
tion of the French forces to invade Belgium 
through the valley of the Meuse, and declar- 
ing Germany's purpose to come to Belgium's 
aid and "forestall this attack of the enemy." 

If Belgium should consent to the German 
invasion and exhibit a friendly attitude, the 
German government would guarantee the 
kingdom and its possessions in their whole 
extent, and give indemnity for any damage 
resulting. If, on the contrary, Belgium 
should behave in a hostile manner toward 
the German troops, Germany would consider 
Belgium as an enemy. 

The Belgian Minister, on the following 
day, replied that the intentions attributed to 
France were in contradiction with the ex- 
press declarations made to Belgium on 
August 1 by the French government ; that in 
event of a violation of Belgian neutrality by 
France, Belgium would offer the most vigor- 
ous opposition to the invader "without Ger- 
man assistance," and closing with the firm 
declaration that "the attempt against her 
independence with which the German gov- 
ernment threatens her, would constitute a 
flagrant violation of international law," and 
that the Belgian government "has firmly re- 
solved to repulse by every means in her 
power any attack upon her rights." 

Germany, thereupon, threw off the mask 
of hypocrisy and proceeded with her plans 
for the invasion of Belgium. 

The Imperial Chancellor, Dr. von Beth- 
mann-Hollweg, in a speech to the Reichstag 
on August 3, announcing the occupation of 
Luxemburg by German troops, publicly 
acknowledged that the invasion was "in con- 
tradiction to the rules of international law," 
but justifying the act on the plea of "neces- 
sity," and pledging the German government 
to "right the wrong as soon as our military 
ends have been reached." 

Invasion of Belgium Begins 

KING Albert of Belgium exerted himself 
to repel the invaders. By his orders nearly 
all the bridges, roads and tunnels in the Ar- 
dennes district, were at once destroyed at a 



46 



Germany's Crime Against Humanity 



total loss of $200,000,000. Then, placing 
himself at the head of his army, numbering 
100,000 rifles, King Albert awaited the onset 
of the Huns. 

Von Kluck's army of the Meuse moved out 
from the plains of Aix-la-Chapelle on August 
3, crossing the German border and advanc- 
ing to points overlooking Vise, Limburg, 
Herve, and Verviers in Belgium. Their first 
objective was Vise, some ten miles north of 
Liege, on the Meuse River. This frontier 
town was defended by a single Belgian regi- 
ment. 

The destruction of the bridge at Vise, and 
the stout resistance of the Belgian regiment, 
delayed the German advance two days. Pon- 
toon bridges built by the Germans were re- 
peatedly destroyed by the Belgian batteries, 
but finally, after a severe bombardment, a 
crossing was effected on August 5 and the 
Huns poured into the town. 

To strike terror in the hearts of the towns- 
people, several civilians were seized and shot 
on the pretext that they had killed or 
wounded a few German soldiers. 

The male inhabitants were all rounded up 
and sent to Aix-la-Chapelle as prisoners, 
while the women and children were ordered 
to depart into Holland, many of them being 
reduced to a state of utter destitution. The 
torch was then applied to many houses, while 
looting was general among the Hun soldiers. 

The Siege of Liege 

MEANWHILE, the general movement of the 
German troops was proceeding along the 
Meuse valley toward the city of Liege, which 
occupies both banks of the river. The in- 
vestment of Liege was intrusted to Gen. von 
Emmich, with a body of infantry and cavalry 
totaling 150,000 men. The defenses of Liege 
consisted of twelve pentagonal forts, four 
miles apart, six on the right bank of the 
Meuse and six on the left bank, forming an 
irregular girdle or chain about the city. 
These forts were slimly defended by a gar- 
rison of 20,000 men. 

On the afternoon of August 4, von Em- 
mich's forces began closing in on Liege from 
three directions. That evening a German 
envoy entered the city, demanding its sur- 
render under the threat of immediate bom- 



bardment. Unawed by the numbers of the 
enemy, the brave Belgians declined to make 
terms with the invaders. An hour later, the 
German batteries opened fire on the outlying 
forts with their six-inch guns, but the shells 
rattled harmlessly against the massive walls. 

On the following day, the German eight- 
inch guns were brought into action, but these, 
too, proved ineffective. The great 16-inch 
German howitzers, which were destined to 
reduce the forts to powder, had not yet ar- 
rived. 

Furious at the vigor of the Belgian re- 
sistance, and fearing that any further delay 
might give France the opportunity to hasten 
her troops to the relief of the beleaguered 
fortress, von Emmich rashly decided to storm 
the city of Liege. A corps of 50,000 picked 
German troops was pushed forward between 
two of the outlying forts, advancing toward 
Liege in mass formation. 

A single Belgian division, of less than 
10,000 men, uprose to give them battle, sing- 
ing their national hymn as they faced the 
onrushing Huns. At close range, the Belgian 
machine guns opened fire on the dense Ger- 
man squares, cutting them down like grass. 

Again and again the Germans were driven 
to the assault, but they melted away by thou- 
sands before the withering fire of the Bel- 
gian guns. After four hours of sanguinary 
conflict the plucky Belgians, though outnum- 
bered six to one, in a final terrific bayonet 
charge, drove the Huns from the field, 

Germans Occupy Liege 

WITH the arrival of the huge German how- 
itzers, on the following day, the situation 
changed. These colossal howitzers, em- 
placed far beyond the range of the Belgian 
batteries, began throwing shells weighing a 
ton each into the Belgian forts. 

All six forts on the east side of the river 
were gradually pulverized. Fort Fleron was 
dismantled on August 6. On the following 
day Forts Chadfontaine, Evegnee, and Bar- 
chon succumbed to the avalanche of steel. 
Liege being now at the mercy of the invad- 
ers, Gen. Leman quietly ordered the evacua- 
tion of the city by the Belgian infantry. On 
August 7, Burgomaster Kleyer and the 
Bishop of Liege formally surrendered the 



First Year of the War 1914 



47 



city to the Germans. That night Liege was 
occupied by 10,000 German soldiers. 

The six forts on the west bank of the 
Meuse, though deluged daily with shells, 
were yet to be silenced. So long as they held 
out, the passage of the German armies 
through the valley of the Meuse was men- 
aced. 

General Leman, with the survivors of the 
eastern forts, had transferred to the west- 
ern forts and was prepared to defend them 
to the last gasp. 

The Germans lost no time in bringing for- 
ward their great siege guns and training 
them upon the new targets. A continuous 
hail of shells fell upon the western forts. 
Fort Enbourg, after surviving an inferno of 
shells for ten days, was reduced to powder 
on August 13. On the same day the cupolas 
of Fort Boncelles were shattered and the 
electric lighting apparatus was destroyed. 

Nevertheless, though they fought in styg- 
ian darkness, risking suffocation from the 
gas shells that penetrated the interior, the 
brave garrison held out till the 14th, when 
the collapse of the inner concrete walls of the 
fort made surrender imperative. 

Fort Loncin was demolished on the same 
day, the last defensive shot being fired by a 
Belgian gunner whose right hand had just 
been severed. Gen. Leman was found un- 
conscious and partially buried under debris 
in the sulphurous ruins of the fort. Gen. 
Emmich, the German victor, congratulated 
him for his gallant and noble defence of the 
fort, and bade him keep his sword which he 
had offered as a token of surrender. 

The heroic resistance of the defenders of 
Liege had not been in vain. For eleven days 
they had held in check the armies of von 
Kluck and von Buelow, enabling the French 
armies to complete their first mobilization 
and arrange a new offensive alignment. Bel- 
gium had saved Europe! 

Belgian Army in Retreat 

KING Albert had ordered the mobilization 
of the Belgian forces on August 4, the day 
Liege was first invested by von Emmich's 
forces. A week later, on August 11, the army 
had a total strength of 120,000 men. Under 
command of Gen. Selliers de Moranville, the 



army formed on the bank of the River Dyle, 
with its left touching Malines and its right 
resting on Louvain. 

Subsequently, the right wing was extended 
to Eghezee in readiness to form a union with 
the French left wing, which rumor said was 
pushing northward into Belgium. This ex- 
pectation, however, was disappointed, for the 
Allies were not as yet in a position to assist 
the Belgians directly. Outposts were so 
placed as to screen the Belgian army from 
the German advance. These outposts were 
soon in collision with the advanced posts of 
von Kl uck's army. 

First Field Battle in Belgium 

THE first field battle of the war in Belgium 
took place northwest of Liege, on August 12, 
when a force of 5000 German cavalry, sup- 
ported by artillery and infantry, attacked the 
twin villages of Haelen and Diest, with the 
intent to seize the bridges across the River 
Gethe. 

Here the Huns met with their first serious 
repulse. From behind improvised barri- 
cades, the Belgians decimated the German 
lines with a terribly effective machine-gun 
fire, driving them back in confusion. Two 
thousand Germans fell in this engagement, 
while hundreds of others threw down their 
arms and surrendered. 

Again and again the Belgian soldiers 
proved their superiority over the Germans 
when they met on even terms. Thus a flank- 
ing movement against the Belgian left wing 
at Cortenachen was easily repulsed. 

On August 15, after a sharp bombardment, 
a force of 2000 German cavalry galloped into 
Tirlemont, but were quickly driven out. A 
German cavalry detail which had bivouacked 
in Eghezee, was likewise expelled. 

But after the fall of the western forts at 
Liege, and when the overwhelming strength 
of the German armies was at length dis- 
closed, the Belgian army prudently withdrew 
from its position on the River Gethe, falling 
back on Aerschot. Meanwhile, the advanc- 
ing Huns had applied the torch to Pellenberg, 
Bautersem, Corback-Loo, and Lovenojul. 
Diest, St. Trond, and Waremme were occu- 
pied by the Huns without resistance. 



48 



Germany's Crime Against Humanity 



The Retreat from Aerschot 

AT Aerschot, the Belgian forces were 
pressed back by von Kluck's huge army, 300,- 
000 strong, supported by 1100 cannon and 
hundreds of machine guns. An orderly re- 
treat was begun toward Brussels. 

The inhabitants of all the villages on the 
countryside were now in panic flight before 
the German tidal wave. All roads leading 
to Brussels were choked with vehicles of 
every description and multitudes of village 
folk. Belgium's martyrdom had begun. 

Destruction of Lou vain 

A BRAVE stand was made in front of Lou- 
vain, on August 19, by the right wing of the 
Belgian army, acting as a rear guard, while 
the center fell back on Antwerp, but so su- 
perior in numbers and artillery were the 
Germans that a further retreat on Antwerp 
by way of Malines was ordered. Louvain 
was occupied the next day by an army of 
50,000 Huns. 

Governor General von Arnim, after taking 
formal possession of the city, disarmed the 
citizens, ordered them to bed at 8 p. m. daily 
and admonished them to leave one lamp 
burning in each house at night. All doors 
were to be left unlocked. 
A proclamation was issued threatening 
with immediate death any citizen found with 
a weapon in his possession or in his house. 

It was decreed that every house from 
which a shot was fired would be burned. The 
burgomaster and other city officials were se- 
cured as hostages, and were subsequently 
put to death. 

The Huns were determined to destroy Lou- 
vain in reprisal for the brave resistance of- 
fered by the Belgians to the German inva- 
sion. Seeking a pretext for the reign of ter- 
ror which they intended to inaugurate, they 
falsely alleged that German soldiers had been 
killed by citizens of Louvain. 

Three hundred men and boys were seized 
and shot in the streets. The burgomaster, 
two magistrates, the rector of the university 
and all police officials had previously been 
put to death. The torch was then applied to 
the "convicted houses" from which it was 
alleged shots had been fired. 

Beautiful Louvain soon became a roaring 



furnace. Whole districts were wiped out, 
and with them the architectural gems for 
which the town was famous. The Halles, the 
University with its priceless library, and St. 
Peter's Cathedral, were wholly or partially 
destroyed. 

The quaintly beautiful Town Hall alone 
was spared among the historic edifices that 
fell before the Vandal's torch. Whole streets 
were left in blackened ruins. Women and 
girls were given over to the brutal uses of 
the Hun soldiers; priests and aged civilians 
were shot, and scores of innocent townsfolk, 
without regard to age or sex, were massa- 
cred. Finally, a war indemnity of $40,000,- 
000 was assessed upon the ruined city. 

The Occupation of Brussels 

LEAVING a garrison of 3000 behind to 
guard Louvain, the German army swept for- 
ward toward Brussels. The Belgians had 
thought to defend their capital, but now, 
fearing its destruction by bombardment, 
they wisely decided to evacuate the city. 
King Albert, on August 17, had transferred 
his government to the fortressed city of Ant- 
werp. He was accompanied by all the dip- 
lomatic corps, excepting Brand Whitlock, the 
American Minister to Belgium, who remained 
at Brussels to render invaluable services to 
the cause of humanity. 

On August 20, 50,000 German troops en- 
tered Brussels without a shot being fired, 
while on the nearby plain of Waterloo the 
main body of von Kluck's huge army was en- 
camped. Aping the vulgar, brutal pomp of 
Asiatic conquerors, these Huns paraded 
through the streets of lovely Brussels, stop- 
ping now and then to tear down the national 
colors or to menace the populace with direful 
threats. Like another Pompey, an officer 
of the mounted Uhlans dragged two manacled 
Belgian officers by the stirrup leathers at the 
heels of his horse. 

The Belgian populace groaned at this bar- 
barous spectacle, whereupon a troop of Uh- 
lans backed the'.r horses into the ranks of the 
spectators, threatening them with raised 
sabers. That night, under cover of the dark- 
ness, many thousands of refugees left Brus- 
sels, filling the roads leading to Alost, Ghent, 
and Ostend. 



First Year of the War-1914 



49 



As at Louvain, only a few thousand Huns 
were left behind to guard Brussels, the left 
wing of von Kluck's army having moved 
southward to attack the French on the Sam- 
bre front. The center army, after passing 
through Brussels, advanced south by east 
into the plains of Belgium. The right wing 
had already passed between Brussels and 
Antwerp to the capture of Bruges and Ghent. 
Governor General von Arnim imposed a fine 
of $40,000,000 on Brussels, which was raised 
after much difficulty. 

The soldiers of occupation refrained from 
massacreing the inhabitants, contenting 
themselves with excesses in wines and 
liquors in saloons, the hotels, cafes, and pri- 
vate homes. 

The right wing of von Kluck's army, after 
compelling the retreat of the Belgians to Ant- 
werp, had pushed rapidly forward to the 
west, seizing Alost, Ghent, and Bruges. From 
the latter city they gained their first glimpse 
of the North Sea. The channel ports then 
were theirs forlhe taking, but they neglected 
this opportunity, to their subsequent- sorrow 
and chagrin. 

A Belgian Sortie Out of Antwerp 

THIS rapid push westward of von Kluck's 
right wing gave Gen. Moranville a chance to 
make a sortie out of Antwerp. Learning 
that Malines was but slimly defended by the 
Germans, he launched a counter-offensive on 
August 24, easily re-taking Malines and 
gaining possession of the trunk line railroad 
from Germany into Flanders. 

Had the British and French been able at 
this moment to "come to the assistance of the 
Belgians, the right wing of von Kluck's army 
might have been flanked and destroyed, but 
no reinforcements were sent and the plucky 
Belgians were compelled to defend their 
fatherland unaided for weeks. It is true, a 
force of 2000 British marines was landed at 
Ostend, but they proved a negligible factor 
in determining the general result. 

Germans Capture Namur in Four Days 

WHILE von Kluck's army was investing 
Liege and its fortresses, von Buelow's army, 
280,000 strong, was advancing up the valley 
of the Meuse toward Namur. The villagers 



fled from their homes by thousands at sight 
of the Huns. On August 12, the town of 
Huy, midway between Liege and Namur, was 
occupied with but slight resistance, giving 
the Germans control of all the railroad lines. 

Soon the huge German siege guns, drawn 
in three parts by teams of forty horses, or by 
thirteen traction engines, were rolling along 
the roads to Namur. The defence of Namur 
consisted of nine detached forts arranged 
around the confluence of the rivers Meuse 
and Sambre. These forts were held by a gar- 
rison of 26,000 men. 

The first bomb from the German field guns 
fell on the roof of the railway station at 
Namur on August 17, but the actual siege 
did not begin until August 21, with the ar- 
rival of the huge German howitzers, some of 
sixteen-inch caliber, and throwing projectiles 
weighing a ton each. 

On that day thirty batteries concentrated 
their fire on the Namur forts, smothering 
them with shells and obliterating the barbed 
wire defences in the spaces between the forts. 

The puny armament of the Belgian forts 
was impotent against this assault. One by 
one the little six-inch guns were snuffed out 
under the avalanche of fire from the German 
batteries, while the armor-plated turrets 
were reduced to fragments. 

Throughout four sulphurous days the brave 
defenders of Namur withstood the attack 
of 300,000 Germans, living in a veritable 
inferno after the forts had become unten- 
able, and praying for French assistance that 
never came ; for the French themselves were 
hotly engaged with the enemy at Dinant, 
south of Namur, and could only send two 
regiments to aid the Belgians. 

The casualties among the Namur garrison 
were frightful, whole regiments being deci- 
mated. On August 23, Gen. Michel ordered 
the evacuation of Namur. The garrison, in 
great disorder, fled from the ruined city, pur- 
sued and harassed by the German hordes; 
and after seven days the 12,000 survivors 
reacted Rouen, whence they embarked for 
Havre and Ostend. More than half the 
garrison had perished in the defence of 
Namur. 

On Monday, August 24, Gen. von Buelow 
entered Namur with all the arrogance of an 



50 



Germany's Crime Against Humanity 



Asiatic potentate, accompanied by the mili- 
tary governor of Belgium, Field Marshal von 
der Goltz. 

After taking hostages, and dispossessing 
the citizens of their arms, von Buelow's 
hordes moved southward, leaving a body of 
reservists in control of the captured city. 
Fort Suarlee held out till the 25th, when the 
garrison of 800 surrendered, and the fort was 
blown to fragments on the following day. 

French and Germans Clash in Dinant 

ANTICIPATING the attempt of the French 
to march to the relief of the beleagured for- 
tress of Namur, the Germans on August 14 
had dispatched a division of cavalry, a divi- 
sion of Prussian Guards, several infantry 
battalions, and a few batteries of light artil- 
lery to Dinant, some ten miles south of 
Namur, hoping to seize the town and head off 
the French. 

Though the Germans excelled in numbers, 
the French made such good use of their "75's" 
that the bridges over which the Germans had 
to pass were destroyed and some of the Ger- 
man units were forced into the river. The 
French guns also played havoc with the Ger- 
man infantry columns. Though the battle 
was a minor one and undecisive in its results, 
whatever advantage accrued was credited to 
the French. 

Von Kluck's Sweep Through Belgium 

AFTER the occupation of Louvain and Brus- 
sels by the Germans, the main army of Gen. 
von Kluck had made a wide sweep through 
Western Belgium, preparatory to a descent 
across the French frontier. This movement 
has been compared to that of a farm gate 
swinging shut upon its hinges. 

The advance guard of von Kluck's army 
consisted of four divisions of cavalry, sup- 



ported by batteries of horse artillery, ma- 
chine guns and motor transport mounting 
quick-fire guns, with the German Second 
Corps in rear. 

Lille, Tournai, Arras, and Amiens Evacuated 

WITH incredible speed, this German van- 
guard swept down on Tournai and Lille, cap- 
turing a French brigade and a British bat- 
tery, and spreading panic through the coun- 
tryside. The immediate object of this raid 
was to cut out the communications of the 
British army with its principal bases at Bou- 
logne and Havre. 

Further west, across the Lys, other bands 
of Uhlans raided the unprotected towns and 
villages, terrifying the inhabitants. Push- 
ing southward, without serious interference, 
von Kluck's raiders crossed the frontier and 
seized Arras, which gave them control of the 
northern lines to Calais and Boulogne. Ad- 
vancing toward Amiens, possession of which 
would imperil the chief line of supply of the 
British force, the Germans at Bapaume en- 
counteced a division of French Territorial 
troops, who fought gallantly until they were 
almost surrounded. 

At this critical juncture, a British detach- 
ment came to the rescue of the French, en- 
abling them to escape from their perilous 
position. The evacuation of Amiens fol- 
lowed, but before abandoning the city the 
British and French were able to save most of 
their rolling stock. 

The British supply base at Boulogne, being 
no longer tenable, a new base was established 
in the west of France at St. Nazaire, with an 
advanced base fifty miles inland at Le Maus. 

The sorely pressed Allies were now form- 
ing on the Mons-Charleroi line awaiting the 
attack which was to send them reeling back 
150 miles to the Marne. 



First Year of the War- 1914 



51 



WESTERN THEATER. AUG. 4 SEPT. 6 



French Invasion of Alsace-Lorraine Ends in Defeat at Morhange 

200,000 Germans Perish in the Terrible Battle of Nancy Where Gen. Foch 

Wins His Spurs with the 20th Corps 
SECTION 5-1914 .. 



French Forces, 350,000 

Gen. JofFre, Commander- in-Chief 
Second French Army Gen. de Castelnau, Com- 

20th Corps, Gen. Ferdinand Foch [mander 

16th Corps, Gen. Taverna 

15th Corps, Gen. Espinasse 
9th Corps, Gen. Durand 
First French Army Gen. Dubail, Commander 

8th, 13th, 14th, and 21st Corps 
Detached Division Gen. Pau, Commander 

70th Reserve Division Gen. Fayolle 

ON the day Liege was occupied by von 
Emmich's troops, August 7, the war 
was carried into Germany by a divi- 
sion of Gen. Dubail's First French Army, 
under command of Gen. Paul Pau. Cross- 
ing the Alsatian frontier at a point near to 
Belfort, Gen. Pau expelled a small force of 
Germans from Altkirch that evening, and 
seized Mulhousen on the following day. 
Pushing northward close to Colmar, both 
his flanks were suddenly threatened by the 
14th German Army Corps, and he was com- 
pelled to retire to Altkirch. 

Pau's raid into Alsace, which was started 
before the French had completed their mo- 
bilization, served the double purpose of un- 
covering the German troops and of inspiring 
the French nation with the hope that the 
"lost provinces" might soon be recovered. 
The moral effect of this short but brilliant 
campaign was to bolster up French spirits at 
a time when the nation was in a state of sus- 
pense. 

Previously, on August 3, a German patrol 
had taken advantage of the diplomatic with- 
drawal of the French troops from their own 
frontier, to invade French territory as far as 
the villages of Vaucourt, Xousse, and Remon- 
court, but Gen. Foch's 20th Corps had sent 
them scampering back into the Rhineland. 
On the same day several German cavalry reg- 
iments had been seen in the Seille Valley. 

"Battle of Frontiers'* Begins 

THE first real encounter on the Franco- 
German frontier took place at La Garde, on 
August 5, when Gen. Foch's 20th Corps car- 



German Forces, 590,000 

Gen. von Moltke, Chief of Staff 
Army of Lorraine Crown Prince Rupprecht 
Army of Alsace Gen. von Heeringen 
Gen. von Deimling 



ried the village against the stout resistance 
of the 21st German Army Corps and a Ger- 
man cavalry division, inflicting heavy losses 
on the enemy. 

Under orders of Gen. Castelnau, Foch 
evacuated the village on the following day, 
as the French high command did not wish 
to be drawn into a general engagement 
which might bo premature. 

The Plan to Invade Germany 

THE French War Staff, years before, had 
perfected plans for the immediate conquest 
of the "Lost Provinces" of Alsace-Lorraine 
in event of war with Germany. Pursuant 
to the plans, they had quickly mobilized two 
armies on the Eastern frontier. Gen. de 
Castelnau, in command of the Second Army, 
with his base on Nancy, was ordered to ad- 
vance through Lorraine and seize the bridge- 
heads over the Rhine as a preliminary to a 
possible invasion of Bavaria. 

Gen. Dubail's First Army, from its base 
in the Vosges, was to move north through 
Alsace, masking Strasburg and preventing 
the flanking of de Castelnau's army. .Gen. 
Pau's division, stationed at Belfort, was to 
co-operate in the double movement. 

The general direction of the advance was 
to be east of Metz, toward Sarreburg, "so as 
to serve as an additional threat against the 
German communications. The combined 
strength of Castelnau's and Dubail's forces 
was 280,000 ; that of the Germans, 500,000. 

The Germans, by the use of reserve corps 
in their first rapid mobilization, had put in 
motion a striking force, incomparably 



52 



Germany's Crime Against Humanity 



stronger than the French had anticipated. 
Seven colossal German armies were available 
in the first week of the war. Three of these 
armies von Kluck's, von Buelow's, and von 
Hausen's had poured like a flood into Bel- 
gium, seeking the easiest route to Paris from 
the north. These formed th right wing of 
the German strategic deployment. 

England and America were long deceived 
into believing that these armies constituted 
the main German advance. But the French 
staff were not so deceived. They knew that 
the chief striking force of the Germans was 
concentrated in the wooded country east of 
the Ardennes and- in Luxemberg. Here were 
assembled three great armies, forming the 
enemy's center and prepared to deal the 
death blow to France. 

The left wing of the German line was made 
up of two armies that of Prince Rupert of 
Bavaria in Lorraine, with headquarters at 
Metz, and that of Gen. Heeringen in Alsace, 
with headquarters at Strasburg. 

On the day that witnessed the invasion of 
Belgium by the German right wing and. the 
attack on Longwy by the German Crown 
Prince, von Heeringen was standing on the 
defensive in Alsace. 

Opposed by an enemy outnumbering them 
two to one, and preparing to attack them si- 
multaneously from the north and the east, 
the French were reduced to two alternatives. 
Either they might stand on the defensive, 
guarding both their frontiers with insuffi- 
cient troops, or else they might boldly attack 
the enemy on the Eastern frontier while 
holding back the German hordes at the Bel- 
gian frontier on the north. 

If they remained everywhere on the de- 
fensive, the French were in danger of being 
smothered under the weight of superior num- 
bers. But if they should carry the war into 
both Alsace and Lorraine, they might suc- 
ceed in halting temporarily the German ad- 
vance from the east, and the movement of 
additional German troops into Belgium as 
well. 

The inherent weakness of the latter plan 
lay in the fact that it involved a division and 
therefore a weakening of the French forces, 
in violation of a cardinal rule of offensive 
warfare, calling for the concentration of all 



available forces in a given area of action. 
Gen. Joffre, however, decided to take the 
risk. 

The Advance Into Lorraine 

ON the morning of August 15, Gen. de 
Castelnau's Second French army moved rap- 
idly toward the Lorraine border on a front 
extending from the Grand Cauronne to the 
Vosges. In the van of this advance was the 
20th Corps, commanded by Gen. Ferdinand 
Foch, the incomparable strategist who was 
destined four years later to lead all the Allied 
armies to a glorious victory. 

The French army aimed at seizing the 
Metz-Strasburg railroad, and especially the 
junction at Saarburg, in order to cut the 
direct communication between the armies of 
Prince Rupert and von Heeringen. The ac- 
tual frontier line was then held by a mere 
screen of enemy troops, the main German 
army occupying an entrenched position of 
great strength in the hilly country a few 
miles back of the border. 

Gen. Foch's 20th Corps, across the fron- 
tier, advanced in two columns, the left aim- 
ing at Delme, the right at Chateau Salins, 
both driving the German outpost guards be- 
fore them. Bridges were thrown across the 
Seille River and the corps crossed to the 
German side before night. 

Gen. Espinasse's 15th Corps, meanwhile, 
was moving toward the lake region, and Gen. 
Taverna's 16th Corps on Saarburg, with 
Gen. Conneau's cavalry division guarding its 
right flank and exploring the wooded uplands 
in front. On the extreme right, a division of 
Dubail's army was co-operating in the move 
on Saarburg. 

The German frontier forces continued to 
fall back slowly during the next two days, 
fighting delayed actions on a large scale, but 
leaving neither guns nor prisoners in the 
hands of the French. Gen. Foch's right col- 
umn seized Chateau Salins on the 18th and 
his left column occupied Delme, thus control- 
ling the junction of the Nancy-Morhange 
railway with the frontier line to 'Metz. The 
French center, advancing through the lake 
region, was approaching the main Metz- 
Strasburg railway; the French right wing 
had occupied Saarburg Junction. 



First Year of the War 1914 



53 



The Battle of Morhange 

ON the 19th, the French advance came 
under heavy artillery and machine-gun fire 
and the well-concealed German battle line 
was at length disclosed, extending eastward 
from Morville through Morhange and Fene- 
strange to Phalsbourg, its left resting on the 
Vosges and its right supported by the fort- 
resses at Metz. Gen. de Castelnau gave or- 
ders for an immediate attack. 

Gen. Foch's 20th Corps stormed the vil- 
lage of Couthel and gained the northern mar- 
gin of the Forest of Chateau Salins all the 
way to Delme. Espinasse's 15th Corps, in 
the center, captured the village of Vergaville 
and advanced toward Bensdorf Junction. 
Taverna's 16th Corps, pushing forward west 
of Saarburg, advanced toward Fenestrange. 
Dubail's Division, on the other hand, was 
checked north of Saarburg. From their 
strong main position in the uplands, largely 
masked by belts of wood, the German bat- 
teries swept every open space with a hurri- 
cane of shell fire. 

Still unaware that six German corps were 
opposing his three, and that Prince Rupert's 
entrenched line bristled with artillery drawn 
from the arsenal of Metz, Gen. de Castelnau, 
on August 20, re-formed his line and gave 
battle to the enemy on a front of forty miles, 
extending from Delme to Saarburg. Gen. 
Foch held the left of the line, from Couthel 
to Delme; Gen. Espinasse the center in the 
region of Vergaville ; Gen. Taverna the right, 
with his base on Birphing. 

Foch's "Iron Corps" led in the grand as- 
sault. The llth Division, advancing through 
a storm of high explosive shells and a hurri- 
cane of machine-gun fire, gained a footing in 
Rodalbe, the 26th Regiment penetrating the 
German trenches and sending back 115 pris- 
oners of the Saxon Corps. Though heavily 
counter-attacked, they clung doggedly to the 
ground they had won, but could advance no 
further. Foch's 39th Division also made 
some gains in the direction of Marthil. 

Elsewhere, the French offensive met with 
disaster. In the center, Espinasse's Corps was 
brought to a dead stop under the tempest of 
the enemy's fire. Whole batteries were put 
out of action by the howitzer shells, while 
the infantry, in attempting to push forward 



through the woods, found their progress 
barred by wire and were mowed down by 
machine-gun fire. On the right, Taverna's 
Corps also found it impossible to advance 
beyond the wire barrier. Their losses were 
appalling. 

By noon the French troops were well-nigh 
exhausted, while the Germans, fighting under 
cover, were comparatively fresh. Prince 
Rupert then launched a counter-attack, 
which was heralded by a tremendous burst 
of shell fire directed at the French center. 
Espinasse's Provencal troops gave way be- 
fore the onslaught of the Bavarians. Guns 
were abandoned and the retreat became a 
rout. 

As the French center collapsed, Gen. Foch's 
two divisions, in their advanced position on 
the left of the line, were left isolated and in 
danger of annihilation. Their peril was in- 
creased when a Bavarian reserve corps 
pushed out from Metz to attack their flanks. 

Luckily this German stroke was parried by 
two French reserve divisions which had en- 
trenched the ground between Nomeny and 
Delme, and now held back the Bavarians. 

With his left flank protected, Gen. Foch 
was able not only to cover his own retreat, 
but to protect Espinasse's demoralized corps 
in the center from complete disruption. 

With his llth Division Foch launched an 
immediate counter-attack on the flank of the 
advancing enemy. Then, skillfully withdraw- 
ing his divisions, he fought a series of rear- 
guard actions with the German right as they 
pressed forward toward Chateau Salins, 
making use of the forest-clad ground in his 
fighting retreat. 

His tactics were successful; the German 
assault gradually slackened and by evening 
the battered center was brought to a position 
of temporary safety on the line JelancoUrt- 
Maizieres. Meanwhile, the retreat of Tav- 
erna's Corps, on the right of the French line, 
had been covered by reinforcements from 
Dubail's army. 

Gen. Dubail's army had been more suc- 
cessful in the invasion of Alsace. The Donan 
heights and the neighboring line of the 
Vosges had been seized, and Gen. Pau's Divi- 
sion had captured Mulhousen with thou- 
sands of prisoners and twenty-four guns. 



54 



Germany's Crime Against Humanity 



Skilful Retreat Conducted by Foch 

DE CASTELNAU'S Lorraine army was still 
in peril, however, and a further withdrawal 
across the Seille and Meurthe rivers and 
thence into France, was decided upon. The 
army was ordered to fall back to a new posi- 
tion on the French side of the frontier, cover- 
ing the Trouvee de Charmes, a gap in the 
Eastern fortress barrier, with the en- 
trenched camp of Toul on its left and that of 
Epinol on its right. 

In co-operation with Dubail's First Army, 
they would there await the inevitable attack 
by the victorious Germans. 

Foch's 20th Corps was assigned to act as 
the rear guard of the whole army, covering 
its retirement across the Meurthe to the new 
battle positions. A welcome reinforcement 
reached the Second Army on August 21, made 
up of three brigades and several batteries of 
artillery belonging to the 9th Corps which 
had mobilized at Tours. 

The retreat across the frontier was begun 
on August 21. Gen. Foch, with his "Iron 
Corps," guarded the retirements, holding the 
heights on the left bank of the Meurthe 
above and below St. Nicholas and covering 
the river crossings with his artillery fire. 

On the right bank, a brigade of the llth 
Division, with several batteries, held the 
heights above Flainvol against repeated at- 
tacks, and only withdrew across the river at 
dark, blowing up the bridges as they went. 
The only French troops left on the right 
bank were those that held the Grand 
Cauronne. On Sunday, August 23, the Sec- 
ond Army was in position on its chosen bat- 
tle ground for the defence of the Charmes 
Gap. 

Allied Line in the North Also in Retreat 

ON the same day, Lanrezac's French army 
on the Sambre was defeated by von Buelow, 
the British had begun their retreat from 
Mons, the armies of De Ruffey and De Langle 
had both been shattered and the whole Allied 
line on the Northern frontier was falling 
back. 

As a result of the defeat of the Second 
French Army at Morhange, Gen. Dubail's 
First Army was obliged to abandon the 



Donan heights in Alsace and the neighboring 
line of the Vosges, and Gen. Pau was with- 
drawing from Mulhousen. Both were or- 
dered to unite with Gen. de Castelnau in 
front of Trouvee de Charmes. 

Battle of Trouvee de Charmes (Nancy) 

SUNDAY, August 23, found the armies of 
Castelnau and Dubail standing in battle 
formation in front of the Trouvee de 
Charmes, the 20-mile gap opening in the side 
of France, near Nancy, flanked on its north- 
ern end by the fortified Meuse heights and on 
its southern end by a fortified spur of the 
Vosges. 

De Castelnau' s battle line, with its left on 
the heights of the Grand Cauronne and ex- 
tending southward toward Essey, formed al- 
most a right angle with Gen. Dubail's line, 
which ran from Essey by way of Baccarat 
to the Vosges. The German advance, there- 
fore, must either be frontal against one army, 
exposing a flank to the other, or else form a 
salient enveloped by the French from the 
outset. Including the terrain swept by the 
guns mounted in the forts of Toul and Epinol, 
the front was 45 miles long. 

The Germans, after occupying Luneville 
on the 23d, advanced toward the Gap and 
gave battle on the following day. A corps of 
Gen. Heeringen's army made an attempt to 
turn Dubail's flank by forcing the Pass of St. 
Marie in the Vosges, but was repulsed by the 
14th French Corps, reinforced by troops 
from the garrison of Epinol. 

At the same time, two corps of Bavarian 
troops had pushed along by the Meurthe 
valley and engaged the 21st French Corps 
at Celles and Baccarat, but still the line did 
not budge. The main attack was made 
against De Castelnau's front. 

Advancing across the Mortague valley on 
both sides of Gerbeviller, the Germans flung 
themselves in dense masses against the posi- 
tions held by the 15th and 16th French Corps, 
but the men of Provence and Languedoc am- 
ply retrieved their failure at Morhange, re- 
sisting every attack. On the right of them, 
Conneau's cavalry fought dismounted. Here 
the attack was pressed furiously for hours, 
but in vain. Now began a terrific bombard- 
ment, shells and shrapnel raining upon the 



First Year of the War -1914 



55 



Plateau, but it could not disperse the indomi- 
table Frenchmen. 

Foch's Great Victory at Nancy 

THE German assault having failed, Gen. 
de Castelnau resolved to launch a counter- 
offensive, in charge of Gen. Foch. In addi- 
tion to his own 20th Corps, Foch was given 
command of the 70th Reserve Division and 
two brigades of the 9th Corps. 

Foch hurriedly planned a turning move- 
ment against the German right flank, with 
the heights beyond the Sanon as his objective, 
thus cutting the German communications and 
endangering their whole position. Under 
cover of the guns of the Grand Cauronne, 
Foch led his 20th Corps, first across the 
Meurthe by bridges, and then against the 
heights of Sanon, while the other detach- 
ments, under Gen. Fayolle, were pushed for- 
ward toward the Luneville-Chateau Salins 
road, north of the Marne and Rhine Canal. 

Seeing their danger, the German defenders 
of Sanon called for reinforcements, but the 
whole German army was by now wholly en- 
gaged repelling the counter-offensive, and no 
troops could be spared. Before nightfall, 
Gen. Foch had reached the heights beyond 
Sanon, had stormed Flainval and the neigh- 
boring villages, and cleared the wood of 
Crevic of the enemy. Gen. Fayolle, with the 
70th Reserves, had co-operated splendidly, 
having advanced within 2i/> miles of Serres 
on the Chateau Salins road. 

By desperately using all his reserves, 
Prince Rupert on the following day managed 
to hold both Foch and Fayolle in check, for a 



few hours, but this was fatal to his main bat- 
tle line, which showed signs of weakening. 
When the German front began to waver, 
Gen. de Castelnau ordered a general offen- 
sive. 

The French attacked from three direc- 
tions, compelling a retreat of the Germans 
through the wide gap between the Chateau 
Salins road and the Vosges. They fought 
stubbornly as they withdrew, but in three 
days they were driven across the German 
border, with heavy losses. This was the first 
great victory won by France, and coming so 
soon after the defeat at Morhange, it filled 
the nation with joy. 

Foch Promoted to Command of an Army 

THE generalship displayed by Gen. Foch in 
that victory entitled him to promotion. Sum- 
moned by Gen. Joffre to Chalons, he was 
complimented for his work at Nancy and 
given command, not of a corps, merely, but 
of an army the immortal Ninth French 
Army which was to be hastily formed out 
of army units then retreating from the Bel- 
gian border, and destined two weeks later 
to win imperishable glory as the real victor 
of the Battle of the Marne. 

German Losses 250,000 

THE German casualties in the Battle of 
Nancy are said to have reached the astound- 
ing total of 250,000, and this disaster to 
German arms was brought about by a French 
force but little more than half as large as 
the Germans. 



WESTERN THEATER. AUG. 22 SEPT. 6 



French Armies Overwhelmed at Neufchateau and Charleroi 

Their Retreat Towards the Marne Leaves British Forces Isolated at Mons 



SECTION 6-1914 



French Forces, 480,000 

Gen. Joffre, Commander-in -Chief 
Third Army, Gen. de Ruffey 
Fourth Army, Gen. Langle de Carey 
Fifth Army, Gen. de Lanrezac 

(succeeded by Gen. d'Esperey) 

"T "T THILE Gen. de Castelnau's army was 

^^^/ retreating out of Lorraine, on 

August 21-22, three other French 

armies further north were being over- 



German Forces, 800,000 
Duke of Wurttemberg 
Crown Prince Frederick 
Gen. Hausen 



whelmed by the German flood along the Bel- 
gian and Luxemburg borders. At this time 
there were four Allied armies in alignment 
on the French frontier Sir John French's 



56 



Germany's Crime Against Humanity 



British Expeditionary Force near Mons, 
Gen. de Lanrezac's Fifth French Army near 
Charleroi, Gen. Langle de Carey's Fourth 
French Army north of Sedan, and Gen. de 
Ruffey's Third French Army holding the 
pivot position near Verdun. 

As a preliminary to his plan of driving a 
wedge in between the armies of von Kluck 
and von Buelow, and uniting with the Bel- 
gian army at Brussels, Gen. Joffre had sent 
strong reinforcements to Gen. Lanrezac, or- 
dering him to proceed through Charleroi and 
flank von Buelow's army. While Lanrezac's 
army was moving up to the line of the Sam- 
bre to give battle to von Buelow's forces, Gen. 
Langle de Carey's army was advancing from 
Sedan across the Semois River to confront 
the Duke of Wurttemberg, and throwing out 
detachments on the left bank of the Meuse 
in hopes of keeping in touch with Lanrezac 
on the west. Further to the east, Gen. 
Ruffey's Third Army was advancing on 
Luxemburg to oppose the German Crown 
Prince and raise the siege of Longwy. 

Unknown to the French Staff, there was 
another large German army, that of Gen. 
Hausen, lying concealed behind the forests of 
the Ardennes, and it was this unsuspected 
force that was destined to bring disaster to 
the Allied cause. 

The two German army groups, commanded 
by the Duke of Wurttemberg and Crown 
Prince Frederick, were at this time separated 
by the River Meuse, and it seemed entirely 
feasible to defeat them separately. The Ger- 
mans, however, had outwitted the French 
by planting Gen. Hausen's army in reserve 
behind the Ardennes. 



So, instead of attacking seven German 
corps, as they had anticipated, the French 
encountered thirteen corps of infantry and 
three of cavalry. In addition, the Germans 
had a great superiority in artillery, aviation, 
machine guns, and material in general. 

French Defeat at Neufchateau 

STILL unaware of the vastly superior 
forces which the Germans had assembled, 
the French forces, on August 21, confidently 
advanced to give them battle. Namur had 
not yet fallen, and indeed, the fortress was 
expected to hold out for weeks. The Third 
French Army, commanded by Gen. Ruffey, 
followed from the east to the west the course 
of the Semois River, a tributary of the Meuse. 
The Fourth French Army, under Gen. Langle 
de Carey, operated between the Meuse and 
the Lesse. The German forces occupied the 
wooded plateau, extending from Neufchateau 
to Palisent, which they had strongly fortified. 

On August 21, Gen. Langle's infantry 
boldly attacked the Wurttembergers, but 
were repulsed. Still fighting, they fell back 
across the Meuse River. The pursuit by the 
Germans was punctuated by strong counter- 
attacks, inflicting great losses upon them. 

Gen. Ruffey's Third Army was similarly 
checked in its advance on Neufchateau by the 
superior forces of the German Crown Prince 
and was thrown back on the line of the 
Semois River. Both offensive actions under- 
taken by the armies of the French center had 
miscarried. Not only were they unable to 
lend their aid to Gen. Lanrezac, operating 
before Charleroi on their left, but they were 
obliged to retreat. 



The French Disaster at Battle of Charleroi 



French Army, 120,000 
Gen. Lanrezac 

THE French army of Gen. Lanrezac, on the 
day following the battle of Neufchateau, met 
with defeat, because that general had failed 
to carry out his instructions, which were : To 
occupy the city of Charleroi in full force, to 
entrench on both sides of the Sambre River, 
to destroy bridges across the river, and to 
secure his right flank from attack. 

Gen. von Buelow invested Charleroi on 
August 22 with his full strength of 300,000 



German Army, 300,000 

Gen. von Buelow 
Gen. von Hausen 

men. Crossing the bridges above and below 
Charleroi, the Germans poured into the city. 
There ensued one of the deadliest battles of 
the war. The thoroughfares of Charleroi at 
once were swept by a tempest of machine-gun 
fire. Great chimneys toppled over upon the 
combatants, burying hundreds in the debris. 
Hand-to-hand conflicts took place in factor- 
ies, in workshops, and in the electric power 
station. 



First Year of the War 1914 



57 



Into this desperate fray leaped the savage 
Turcos and Zouaves, fighting with long sheath 
knives and bayonets. Again and again they 
forced the Germans back to the environs of 
Charleroi. The city became a roaring fur- 
nace and in a few hours was reduced to ruins. 

Lanrezac Succeeded by d'Esperey 

THAT night Gen. Lanrezac learned of the 
fall of Namur. More startling still, he was 
informed that Gen. Hausen, with a new Ger- 
man army, 300,000 strong, had crossed the 
Meuse River at Dinant and was moving 
against his flank. To 'avoid being crushed 
between two enemy armies, Lanrezac gave 
orders for a hurried retreat southward. 
With heavy losses, he managed to reach 
Maubeuge, where he resigned his command 
to Gen. d'Esperey. So rapid was Gen. Lan- 
rezac's flight that he could not find time to 
notify the British army of his intended re- 
treat. The losses in this battle of Charleroi 
were appalling on both sides. 

Retreat of the French Armies 

LANREZAC'S Fifth Army, on retiring from 
Charleroi, barely escaped envelopment by 
these German armies. Von Buelow attacked 
from the north, von Hausen assailed the 
right wing, while the path of retreat was 
threatened by a third German force. By 
fighting desperate rear-guard actions, and 
with Sordet's cavalry protecting their west- 
ern flank, the Fifth Army reached Guise. 
Here, strongly reinforced, they turned upon 
their nearest pursuers, August 23, driving the 
Prussian Guards and the Tenth German 
Corps across the River Oise and continuing 
their retirement without hindrance in the 
direction of the Gap of Chimay. 

Evacuation of Dinant, Charleville, Mesieres 

LANGLE DE CAREY'S Fourth Army, operat- 
ing along the Meuse, made a stand at Dinant 
on August 23. Here the Saxons, in great 
strength, sought to gain possession of the 
bridges. The French for a time retained the 
bridges, but later they blew them up before 
retiring southward toward their own fron- 
tier. The Saxons, however, succeeded in 
crossing the Meuse at Givet and resumed the 
pursuit. 



On the following day, August 24, the 
French evacuated Charleville, leaving behind 
a small artillery garrison whose machine 
guns were so placed as to command the 
three bridges that connect Charleville with 
Mesieres. As the German vanguard entered 
the two towns the bridges were suddenly 
blown up behind them by contact mines, and 
their ranks were riddled by the French ma- 
chine guns. 

At the same time, the main German army 
appeared in view in the valley below and 
were greeted by a shower of shrapnel from 
the French guns on the hills above the town. 
The French, yielding to numbers, finally 
evacuated both Charleville and Mesieres, and 
retreated to Neufchateau, where they were 
attacked by the Duke of Wurttemberg's 
army. 

On the same day, the garrison of Toul was 
compelled to evacuate before the attacks of 
the Crown Prince Rupprecht of Bavaria. 

Donchery Is Captured 

THE collapse of the Meuse line on August 
27 was followed by the rapid retreat of Ruf- 
fey's and Langle de Carey's armies, closely 
pressed by the three German armies of 
Crown Prince Frederick, Gen. von Hausen, 
and the Duke of Wurttemburg. A decisive 
action was fought on August 7 at Donchery, 
near the famous battlefield of Sedan. Von 
Hausen, moving up the left bank of the 
Meuse, attacked Langle in flank, menacing 
his line of retreat, while the Duke of Wurt- 
temberg struck at his front. Against such 
odds Gen. Langle de Carey could not hope to 
prevail. Accordingly, he fell back hastily 
toward Rethel. 

Longwy Surrendered to the Germans 

LANGLE'S retirement from Donchery ex- 
posed the flank of Ruffey*s army on his 
right, compelling the latter*s retreat toward 
the wooded plateau of the Argonne. This re- 
tirement involved the surrender of the forts 
of Mesieres and Montmedy on the 27th. 

Longwy capitulated on the 27th to the 
Crown Prince Frederick, who advanced into 
France in the direction of the Argonne. Its 
brave defender, Lieut. Colonel Darche, had 
held out for 24 days against the assaults of 



58 



Germany's Crime Against Humanity 



the enemy, but the ancient fort could not 
longer withstand the pounding of the German 
guns. All the northern strongholds, except- 
ing Maubeuge, were now in the enemy's 
possession. 

Rheims, Chalons, La Fere, Laon Captured 

THE French made a brief stand on the 
Aisne River, where Langle de Carey had oc- 
cupied the town of Rethel. After two days 
of hard fighting, the French were forced, on 
August 29, across the Aisne, and the town 



of Rethel was put to the torch. Crossing 
the Aisne, in hot pursuit of the French, the 
Germans captured Rheims and Chalons on 
August 29, without firing a shot, and on the 
next day the f ortressed towns of La Fere and 
Laon surrendered. 

The general retirement on the line of the 
Marne was continued, and the pursuit of the 
Germans slackened. By September 3, the 
French armies had finished their retreat and 
were awaiting the word that would send the 
Huns reeling back. 



.......... WESTERN THEATER. AUG. 24 -SEPT. 6 



I British Army Retreats 150 Miles from Mons to the Marne 

Bloody Battles Fought at Mons, Le Cateau, Andregnies, Landrecies, Maroilles, Cambrai 

SECTION 7 1914 "' -^i 



British Forces, 90,000 

Gen. Sir John French, Commander 
First Army Corps, Gen. Douglas Haig 
Second Army Corps, Gen. Smith-Dorrien 
Gen. Allenby (Cavalry) 
Gen. Chetwode (Cavalry) 
Gen. Sordet (Cavalry) 
Gen. d'Amale (Cavalry) 

WITH^ four French armies in full re- 
treat on their several fronts, after 
the repulse at Charleroi, only the 
small British Expeditionary Force at Mons 
remained on the northern border to stem the 
German flood which was surging southward 
through Belgium. 

Realizing at last that he had greatly under- 
estimated the strength of the German inva- 
sion, Gen. Joffre's immediate strategic con- 
cern was how to save the Allied armies from 
irreparable disaster. Of French reserves he 
had at most four corps, which he might send 
north to assist his routed armies in making 
a final stand against the Germans. His 
Gallic caution, however, advised him that 
the situation was too fraught with danger to 
justify so desperate a risk. Outnumbered in 
the ratio of seven to four, the French forces 
could not hope definitely to hold the Germans 
in check. 

If Joffre should hazard a battle in the 
north, his armies would be far removed from 
their base, while the German line of com- 
munication was not yet strained. Defeat 



German Forces, 300,000 

Gen. von Kluck's army 
Gen. von Buelow's army 



now would spell disaster to the Allied cause 
and the complete triumph of Germany. With 
the surrender of the French armies, Paris 
would fall, and the Germans could dictate an 
ignoble peace, both to France and England. 
Germany might then give her undivided at- 
tention to Russia and by annihilating the 
Czar's armies attain to the mastery of Europe 
and Asia. 

With these reservations in mind, Gen. 
Joffre wisely decided to waive the opportun- 
ity for battle in the north, and, instead, con- 
tinue his retreat to the Marne, leading the 
Germans on to an insecure position where 
he might counter-attack them with some hope 
of success. Each step of the German ad- 
vance would draw them farther from their 
base of supplies, while the French were re- 
treating toward their base. Moreover, the 
French mobilization was rapidly progressing, 
and Joffre already had taken steps to form 
two new armies which would be in readiness 
to attack the German line when he had lured 
it southward to the Marne. Joffre accord- 
ingly ordered a general retreat and thence- 



First Year of the War -1914 



59 






forward he played with the German pur- 
suers as a cat plays with a mouse. The Ger- 
mans, too dense to comprehend the strategy 
of Joffre, and believing that the French 
armies were demoralized, fell into a trap 
that had been laid for them. Like the army 
of rats that trailed behind the pied piper of 
Hamelin, they followed whithersoever Joffre 
led, and never realized their blunder until 
the French and British fell upon them in the 
immortal Battle of the Marne. At the very 
outset, however, Joffre's plans miscarried, 
in part, on account of the confusion arising 
from the hurried retreat of the French 
armies. 

British Are Isolated at Mons 

ALTHOUGH the French armies on his right 
were in full retreat from the Belgian frontier 
on August 23, following their defeat first at 
Neufchateau and then at Charleroi, Gen. Sir 
John French, the commander of the British 
forces, still remained in fatal ignorance of 
this important fact for at least 24 hours. His 
intelligence department appears to have func- 
tioned imperfectly. Gen. French was una- 
ware that his little expeditionary force of 
76,000 infantry and 10,000 cavalry had been 
left in complete isolation on the 25-mile front 
along the Mons-Conde Canal. He knew 
nothing of the sweep of von Kluck's army 
through Belgium and the German intention 
to turn his left flank. His airmen had failed 
to detect the presence of swarms of German 
soldiers in the adjacent woods. Serene in 
the belief that he was supported on the right 
by Lanrezac's Fifth French Army and on the 
left by a screen of French cavalry, and con- 
fident that only two German corps at most 
opposed him in front, Gen. French tranquilly 
sat him down amid the slag heaps of the 
Mons region on that fatal Sunday, August 
23, to await the attack of the Huns. 

Gen. Smith-Dorrien's Second Army Corps 
held the left of the British line in front of 
Mons, while Gen. Douglas Haig's First Army 
Corps lay at Binche on the right, nearest to 
the position just vacated by Lanrezac's French 
army. Gen. Allenby's cavalry, numbering 
10,000 horses, was stationed in the rear, 
while a French cavalry force under Gen. 
d'Amade, guarded the British left flank. In 



addition, a cavalry corps of three divisions, 
under Gen. Sordet, rested farther south at 
Maubeuge, prepared to assist in any emer- 
gency that might arise. 

The Surprise Attack by the Germans 

AT high noon, on Sunday, August 23, 
while the church bells in the neighboring vil- 
lages were pealing joyously and the British 
soldiers were variously engaged at play or in 
washing their soiled garments, the heavens 
were rent with the screech of German shells 
fired from the cover of the woods fronting 
Mons. Squadrons of German airplanes sud- 
denly appeared, circling over the British 
line. 

The British airmen at once soared upward 
to give them battle. British cavalry patrols 
galloped in, bringing the information that the 
adjacent woods swarmed with German troops 
and heavy guns. Too late Gen. French 
learned that his little army faced, not two 
German corps, but six a force of 300,000 
Huns, as against 86,000 Britishers. 

Six hundred German guns were at once 
brought into action, drenching the British 
left with shrapnel, and the right of the line 
with bomb-shells. German airplanes, by 
dropping smoke bombs, gave the range for 
their artillery. Thus while the air battle 
was in progress, the infantry faced a hurri- 
cane of shells. 

Presently, from the cover of the woods, the 
German columns advanced in mass forma- 
tion, a seemingly irresistible horde. Undis- 
mayed, the British veterans stood their 
ground, seizing their rifles and pouring a 
fusillade of bullets upon the oncoming 
squares, which melted in the heat of the Brit- 
ish fire. As the living walls advanced, each 
in turn withered away before the bullet or 
the bayonet, until the German dead were 
piled breast high in places. 

Again and again the driven Huns ad- 
vanced, wavered, thinned, and retreated to 
the cover of the woods, but they were as 
constantly urged forward under the lash of 
their officers, until finally they all but 
reached the British line. As the dense masses 
of German infantry worked right up to the 
British trenches, the firing ceased and the 
British cavalry charged. With a blood-curd- 



60 



Germany's Crime Against Humanity 



ling yell, the Huns ran back as though the 
fiends pursued them. Yet as the day waned, 
the British trench line was wearing thin ; the 
awful tempest of German artillery fire was 
eating the heart out of the defense. Slowly 
but surely the British batteries were silenced. 

British Evacuate the Loop 

THE attack had now spread along the 
whole line of the canal, but except at the 
loop on the British right wing, the Huns had 
made no impression. There, however, num- 
bers prevailed at last and in mid-afternoon 
the Third Battalion was ordered to retire 
from the salient and the Fifth Division on 
the left to conform. 

After blowing up the bridges in the loop, 
the retreat was sounded and the Second 
Corps withdrew to a position on higher 
ground. As the right wing fell back, Gen. 
Chetwode's cavalry, by headlong charges, 
broke up every effort of the Germans to dis- 
organize the rear. 

On the left flank, held by Smith-Dorrien's 
corps, the Germans were seeking to suffocate 
the British line by sheer weight of numbers. 
They tried also to cross the canal by bridge 
and by pontoons, but the English for a time 
prevented this by the accuracy of their shell 
fire. The odds were, however, too uneven ; in 
the end the British details holding the 
bridgeheads were cut to pieces, the gunners 
dying to a man. The bridges were then de- 
stroyed by British engineers. 

Foiled at the bridges, the enemy massed on 
the bank and tried to hold their positions. 
An artillery duel followed for possession of 
the canal bank. In the beginning the Ger- 
man masses were cut down by the British 
gunfire, but other German masses pressed 
on, and slowly, under frightful loss, they 
began to work their pontoon bridges across 
the smoke-clouded face of the canal. 

Ten times they almost got the pontoons 
over, and as often the British guns reduced 
the boats to splinters. But the heroic efforts 
of the British were in vain. Fresh hordes of 
Huns were let loose against them; their 
flanks were in danger ; a great turning move- 
ment was developing away to the west of 
Tournai; it was time to retire. 



The Retreat Begins 

STILL unaware of the overpowering 
strength of the German forces which were 
bearing down upon his little army, though the 
true situation might have been discovered by 
efficient air scouts, Gen. French was dumb- 
founded when Marshal Joffre notified him at 
5 p. m. that three German corps were moving 
against the British front, while a fourth 
German corps was endeavoring to outflank 
him from the west. 

He was also informed that the Germans, 
on the previous day, had captured the cross- 
ings of the Sambre River, between Char- 
leroi and Namur, and that Lanrezac's army 
on his right was retreating. In other words, 
the defensive pivot of the Franco-British 
line at Namur, on which the Allied strategy 
depended, had fallen almost at a blow. By 
Sunday the Germans had left Namur, and, in 
numbers far exceeding French predictions, 
had seized the crossings of the Sambre and 
Middle Meuse and were hammering at the 
junction of the Fifth and Fourth French 
armies in the fork of the river. The junc- 
tion was quickly pierced, and the French, 
being overwhelmingly assaulted both in front 
and in flank, could do nothing but retire. 

When the British commander received this 
information, the French armies had been 
retreating for ten hours and were a day's 
march removed from him. Thus the British 
found themselves wholly isolated, engaged 
in front by three German corps and threat- 
ened by a fourth German corps on their left, 
with the French army a full day's march 
away. Undaunted, and with their proverbial 
coolness, the British made methodical ar- 
rangements for a retirement toward the pre- 
arranged line. The hard-pressed Second 
Corps began its retreat at midnight, its flank 
covered by the First Corps with massed 
artillery. 

French Army Helps the British Right Wing 

MEANWHILE, Gen. Joffre had ordered 
D'Esperey's retreating Fifth French Army 
to turn about and counter-attack, in order 
to prevent the cutting off of the British right 
flank by von Buelow's forces. D'Esperey at 
once attacked the Germans, driving them 
back almost to the gates of Charleroi. In 



First Year of the War 1914 



61 



this brilliant engagement, the Algerian 
troops especially distinguished themselves, 
humbling the Kaiser's Prussian Guards. 

The Battle at Andregnies 

To still further protect the retirement of 
Smith-Dorrien's Corps on the left of the 
line, Gen. French ordered Gen. Haig to boldly 
launch a counter-offensive along the Mons 
road from Bray to Binche. The enemy were 
then crossing the Mons Canal in great num- 
bers and pouring down on the villages to the 
south. Haig's heavy artillery fire held the 
Huns in check, giving the Second Corps time 
to form a strong battle line five miles to the 
south. Much desperate fighting took place on 
the 24th. A Cheshire regiment, nobly sacri- 
ficing itself, held the ridge from Andregnies 
to Elongues for several hours against over- 
whelming odds. Six hundred soldiers of the 
regiment fell in this heroic defence. Mean- 
while, Gen. Allenby's cavalry, 10,000 horses, 
had been ordered to swing over to the ex- 
treme left and protect the Second Corps from 
a flanking movement begun by von Kluck 
from the west. At Andregnies the cavalry 
halted, facing the Huns at a range of 1000 
yards. 

Then the gallant Ninth Lancers charged 
the German flank in the face of a tornado of 
shell and rifle fire, with no protection from 
the withering blast. The Lancers were 
further confronted by double lines of wire, 
strung within 500 yards of the enemy. Men 
and horses fell by the hundreds before this 
withering fire. Only by super-courage were 
they enabled to save their batteries and make 
good their retreat. But von Kluck's flanking 
movement had failed. 

Germans Held Ten Days at Maubeuge 

AFTER a short halt and partial entrench- 
ment on the line Dour-Quarouble, to enable 
the First Corps to break off its demonstra- 
tion, the retreat of the Second Corps was 
resumed, and by the evening of the 24th the 
whole British Expeditionary Force had 
reached the prearranged line, Jenlain-Bavai- 
Maubeuge. 

The Second Corps, on the left, was pro- 
tected by the cavalry operating westward, 
and by a new British brigade, the 19th, 
which had been brought up in the nick of 



time. The First Corps, on the right, was 
sufficiently protected by the guns of the 
fortress of Maubeuge. 

The Germans now began a wide envelop- 
ing movement, hoping to coop up the British 
army in the fortressed town of Maubeuge 
and capture it entire. In pursuance of this 
plan, Gen. von Kluck made a deep detour in 
the west in his effort to outflank the British 
left wing, while von Buelow was trying to 
roll up the British right flank. 

Meantime, in their sweep forward on the 
24th, the Germans had captured the French 
brigade of Marquis de Villaret at Tournai, 
and a British battery. 

Gen. French, knowing the danger he in- 
curred in relying upon the defences at Mau- 
beuge, decided to vacate the position. Ac- 
cordingly, the British army, on August 25, 
set out on the next stage of its retreat, 
marching south on either side of the forest 
of Mormal. 

The French garrison, however, remained 
in Maubeuge, holding the fortress against 
repeated German attacks for ten days and 
thus depriving Gen. von Kluck of the services 
of 60,000 troops in the subsequent Battle of 
the Marne. 

The British army made their stand in the 
neighborhood of Le Cateau, where civilian 
labor had been employed to prepare and en- 
trench the grounds. There the British were 
reinforced by a new division, sent forward 
to assist the retirement of the Second Corps. 
For both corps it had been a day of torture, 
marching under a blazing sun along roads 
crowded with transports and packed with 
refugees. 

Under these trying conditions, the various 
units of the Second Corps had marched 20 
to 35 miles on August 25, reaching their ap- 
pointed line on the Cambrai-Le Cateau road 
as night was falling and in a cold, steady 
rain. The First Corps, having been delayed, 
did not reach the allotted position; its units 
were scattered over a wide area, at some 
points 30 miles apart, and at no point nearer 
than Landrecies, eight miles from Le Cateau. 

The difficulties of movement had been in- 
creased by the convergence of the French 
troops, retiring from the Sambre, who cut 
across the British line of march. The 



62 



Germany's Crime Against Humanity 



enemy's pressure, moreover, had been con- 
tinued well into the night. 

Battle of Landrecies 

AT Maroilles, Haig's First Corps was so 
hard pressed that aid was urgently asked 
from the French. Two reserve French divi- 
sions responded, and by diverting the atten- 
tion of the enemy they extricated Haig's 
corps from a perilous position. The enemy 
allowed the British no respite. At 8.30 that 
night, when the exhausted British soldiers 
were preparing for a night's rest, the Ger- 
mans, in countless motor busses, bore down 
upon Landrecies. 

Fortunately, the town had been put in a 
hasty state of defence, the houses loopholed, 
machine guns installed, barricades erected, 
and a company detailed to guard each unit. 
Singing French songs and wearing French 
uniforms, the Germans poured into the town, 
for a while deceiving the British as to their 
true identity. The battle which ensued was 
as violent as it was sudden. All through the 
the night, with only brief intermission, the 
sanguinary struggle continued. Though out- 
numbering the British three to one, the Huns 
were nevertheless compelled to withdraw at 
dawn, leaving 1000 of their dead in the 
streets. 

The town was ablaze in many sections, and 
scores of buildings had been destroyed. 
Meantime, the First Corps was heavily en- 
gaged at Maroilles, but it stood firmly, rein- 
forced by the French division. 

British Disaster at Le Cateau 

THE crisis of the retreat was now ap- 
proaching. With his two corps widely sep- 
arated, Gen. French decided to abandon the 
Le Cateau position and retire beyond the 
Somme or the Oise. Though terribly ex- 
hausted, Gen. Haig's First Corps set out from 
its scattered halting places in the early hours 
of the 26th. By dawn the whole corps was 
marching south toward St. Quentin. Gen. 
Smith -Dorrien, deeming his Second Corps 
too exhausted to retire, so notified Gen. 
French, but was advised that any delay in 
retiring might compromise the plan of Al- 
lied operations and entail fatal results. To 
assist his retirement, the entire body of cav- 



alry and the Fourth Infantry Division had 
been placed under his orders. 

In disobedience of express orders, Smith- 
Dorrien on his own judgment decided to 
engage the Germans, who numbered 200,000 
men with 600 guns. 

With both his flanks exposed and with 
only three divisions to meet the attack 
of the enemy's legions, Smith-Dorrien rashly 
decided to hazard an engagement. The bat- 
tle opened at dawn. It was a desperate 
fight for the Britishers. Everything was 
thrown into the scale. Regiments and bat- 
talions, with complete self-abandonment, 
faced hopeless duels at impossible ranges. 
Brigades of British cavalry on the flanks 
boldy threatened whole German divisions. 

In the shelter of the trenches, withering 
away but never budging, the infantry 
grimly dwindled before the German guns. 
For the first six hours the guns never ceased 
their thunder. To the infantry it was a bat- 
tle of stubborn and almost stupefied endur- 
ance, broken by lucid intervals of that deadly 
musketry which had played such havoc with 
the Germans at Mons. 

To the British gunners, it was a duel 
which they accepted gallantly, causing the 
German masses to shiver and recoil. But 
once again sheer numbers prevailed. By mid- 
day, many of the British batteries were 
silenced and the enemy had begun a flanking 
movement. A desperate bout of hand-to-hand 
fighting ensued, men and horses being mixed 
in a seething, compact mass. Against such 
fearful odds the British could no longer con- 
tend. 

To prevent the total annihilation of his 
corps, Smith-Dorrien ordered a gradual Brit- 
ish retreat. In the pandemonium that 
reigned, the orders could not be conveyed to 
all parts of the line. Consequently, many iso- 
lated units of the British army were cut to 
pieces. In covering the retirement that fol- 
lowed, several companies of the* Fifth Divi- 
sion were almost annihilated. Fully a third 
of Smith-Dorrien's forces were erased on 
that fateful field. Single battalions lost as 
many as 600 men. Never had Britishers 
fought more bravely or more hopelessly. 
The story of the nineteen survivors of B 
Company, Yorkshire Lancers charging the 



First Year of the War-1914 



63 



enemy is typical of the spirit which inspired 
the British regiment. 

For this error of judgment, Gen. Smith- 
Dorrien was removed from his command, 
and exiled to Africa as "commander of the 
British African forces." 

The Third British Division, after repuls- 
ing a determined attack on Caudry, the apex 
of their position, retired slowly, their left 
wing being covered by the newly arrived 
French division which bore the brunt of the 
battle with great gallantry. Parts of this 
division shared the fate of other units en- 
gaged in covering the retirement. 

In the deep darkness of the night, many 
British units lost their way. Some were cut 
off or captured; others won their way 
through the German line to the sea. But of 
all adventures which befell them, none equals 
the tragedy of the First Gordons, a regiment 
that marched in the darkness into a German 
division in bivouac some miles south of the 
battle ground and were shot or taken pris- 
oner almost to a man. 

But with unruffled courage, the British 
continued their retirement and by nightfall, 
after another long and weary march, the 
remnant of the Second Corps and the Fourth 
Division halted and bivouacked in the pour- 
ing rain, the exhausted troops falling asleep 
by the roadside, too utterly spent to think of 
shelter. 

Saved by the French at Cambrai 

THE German pursuit was checked that day 
by the timely arrival of French reinforce- 
ments. From Arras, Gen. Sordet and Gen. 
d'Aumade had hastened with large bodies of 
French cavalry, horse artillery, and some 
battalions of infantry. In resistless charges, 
the Frenchmen drove the Germans back out 
of Cambrai, inflicting a blow that recoiled on 
the whole of von Kluck's army for fully a 
week, enabling the British to resume their 
retreat without serious molestation. 

The great British retreat, which the bat- 
tle of Gateau had so dangerously interrupted, 
was resumed on the 27th. Haig's separated 
First Corps, perpetually harassed, was mov- 
ing south as best it could, keeping its general 
direction but otherwise marching and bivou- 
acking by brigades. 



Some mishaps occurred during the retreat, 
as when the Second Munster Fusiliers were 
cut off at Bergueson, being saved from anni- 
hilation by the skillful and audacious action 
of the Fifteenth Hussars. On August 27, 
the Second Corps was still in advance of the 
First Corps, Gen. Sordet's French cavalry 
protecting the left flank, but the retreat was 
never halted. 

The whole north of France was now in a 
state of panic, hundreds of thousands of 
families were in flight along the country 
roads. Food or drink, there was none, and of 
shelter, only what the forests afforded. 

2000 Scots Repulse 20,000 Huns 

ONE column of Britishers, after passing 
through Cambrai, had halted at St. Quen- 
tin, and orders were given to turn on the 
pursuers. Two thousand Scots of the Black 
Watch, the Greys, the Lancers, and the Cam- 
eronians, jubilantly faced 20,000 Germans. 
Advancing to within 100 yards of the enemy's 
lines, they charged the Huns gallantly. The 
Scots Greys, galloping forward through a 
cloud of bullets, with the infantry hanging on 
the stirrups, tore past the emplaced maxims 
and were on the gunners before they had re- 
covered from the surprise. 

The Black Watch and the Scots Greys 
fought like demons. It was Scottish bay- 
onets against German swords. The Huns 
went down by hundreds ; their ranks wavered 
as the carnage among them increased, and 
they soon broke and fled before the bayonets, 
like rabbits before a shotgun. Still the 
slaughter went on, with here and there a 
fierce hand-to-hand exchange, as when the 
Germans, with their retreat cut off, fought 
to the last man. After four hours of fight- 
ing, the Germans were either dispersed, dead, 
or captured. Four thousand prisoners were 
taken by those 2000 Scots. 

The terrible retreat continued. It was one 
long nightmare for the wearied British. 
Their chief enemy was no longer the Ger- 
man, but the blazing sun, the toilsome roads, 
and the limits of human endurance. Sleep 
was cut down to a minimum. Men fed, drank, 
and slept as best they could. And day by 
day the footsore, shoeless troops were con- 
tinually harassed by the deadly German ar- 
tillery fire and by the cavalry. 



64 



Germany's Crime Against Humanity 



By night the Britishers picked their cau- 
tious way, in black darkness, through a 
strange country, fearing at every step to 
stumble into a German ambush. Yet so 
stubborn was the spirit of the soldiers that 
they rebelled against the order to retreat, 
not knowing that their steady withdrawal 
was part of a prearranged plan which was 
destined to bring victory to the Allied cause. 

By August 28, movement by corps was 
possible. On the following day the whole 
British line was once again restored. 

After eight days and nights of constant 
marching, their feet worn to the raw, the 
British reached the La Fere line on August 
29, and were out of present danger. Rein- 
forced on the left by the 6th French Army 
and on the right by the 5th French Army, 
the Britishers were prepared to turn and 
again give fight to the enemy. This was not 
to be, however; Gen. Joffre's plans called for 
a further retirement. 

Rheims and Chalons Taken 

IT had been intended to make a stand on 
the line from La Fere to Rheims, but this 
plan was abandoned when the three armies 
constituting the German center, after smash- 
ing the French resistance at the Meuse River, 
had pursued and driven the French out of 
Rethel on August 29 and set the town afire. 
The next day Rheims and Chalons were 
abandoned to the Huns, and the fortresses of 
La Fere and Laon surrendered. 

General Joffre thereupon ordered a general 
retirement on the line of the Marne, to which 
the French forces in the more eastern theater 
of war were directed to conform. Accord- 
ingly, the retreat of the British was resumed 
on Saturday, August 29, first toward the line 
of the River Aisne, from Soissons to Com- 
peigne, and then toward the Marne about 
Meaux. Ten thousand French troops also 
withdrew from the Somme, blowing up the 
bridges in their wake. 

Skirmishes at Villers-Cotterets and Nery 

Two lively skirmishes were fought on Sep- 
tember 1, one at Villers-Cotterets, where the 
Irish Guards received their baptism of fire 
while repulsing a German attack, and the 
other at Nery, where a British brigade held 



off eight regiments of Germans until relief 
arrived. Time and again Gen. von Kluck 
endeavored to turn the British left flank, but 
in vain. Twice he pressed the Allies too 
closely, at Guise on August 29, and at Mez- 
ieres on the 30th, but in each case was driven 
back in confusion with great losses. 

On September 2, the British left wing 
reached the Marne River, and on the follow- 
ing day the whole army crossed over, de- 
stroying the bridges in the path of the ad- 
vancing Germans. There followed a further 
retirement of twelve miles to a line based on 
Lagny, and there the British left wing made 
their last stand preparatory to the great of- 
fensive that was arranged against von 
Kluck's advancing army. 

To sum up, the Allied armies in twelve 
days had successfully retreated 150 miles 
from Moiis and Charleroi, had fought two 
pitched battles, and many rear guard actions 
and several cavalry skirmishes. The British 
Second Army Corps had sustained the brunt 
of battle and its casualties were not less than 
10,000 men. Now, at Regaix they were rein- 
forced by 2000 fresh troops from the 6th Di- 
vision, and prepared for battle. 

French Government Transferred to Bordeaux 

WHILE von Kluck's army was approaching 
Paris, the French capital had preserved its 
outward quiet and calm. Nevertheless, in 
view of the weakness of the city's defences, 
it was thought best to evacuate the popula- 
tion and transfer the seat of government to 
Bordeaux. 

President Poincare, the Cabinet Ministers, 
the Senate and Chamber of Deputies, the 
judges of the higher courts, and the finan- 
ciers with the reserves of the Bank of 
France, took passage for Bordeaux on Sep- 
tember 3. The civil government of Paris 
was vested in the Military Governor, Gen. 
Gallieni, the prefect of Paris, and the prefect 
of police. An exodus of the population fol- 
lowed, 1,500,000 citizens fleeing to points in 
the south of France. 

General Gallieni's first concern was to 
strengthen the defences of Paris. Hundreds 
of small buildings within the military zone 
were demolished in order to leave a clear 
field of fire. The city gates were barred with 



First Year of the War-1914 



65 



heavy palisades, backed by sandbags; barri- 
cades were erected in the main thorough- 
fares, and batteries of machine guns were 
emplaced in all the public buildings for use 
in emergencies. Besides the 50,000 soldiers 
comprising the Paris garrison, the available 
forces for the defence of the capital on Sep- 
tember 3d included some four or five divi- 
sions of French troops, chiefly cavalry, hold- 
ing an advanced position near Dammartin 
and forming the nucleus of a new French 
army, under command of Gen. Maunoury, 
which was gradually being concentrated in 
the fortified area northwest of the city. 

The fortified camp of Paris consisted of a 
number of outlying forts, arranged in a cir- 
cle around the city, and with a radius of 
thirty miles. Within this circle there were 
parallel lines of trenches, and in addition a 
network of railroads to facilitate the transit 
of troops and supplies from fort to fort. 
Before the actual investment of Paris could 
begin, therefore, the Germans would have to 
break through this circle of outlying forts 
and then engage the army of ambush within 
the fortified area. 

German Drive on Paris Abandoned 

THE fates had kindly decreed, however, 
that Paris should be spared the agony of a 
siege. On the same day, September 3d, 
which witnessed the general exodus of the 
Parisians from their capital, French air 



scouts jubilantly reported the abandonment 
of the German drive on Paris. When within 
gun range, almost, of the outlying forts, Von 
Kluck's main army was seen to swerve 
sharply to the east, turning its back on Paris 
and then shaping its course in a southeast- 
erly direction, apparently aiming at the four 
Marne bridges between Meaux and Chateau 
Thierry, which D'Esperey's retreating 
French army had crossed only a few hours 
before. 

Von Kluck's Fatal Maneuver 

THE Paris garrison breathed a sigh of re- 
lief which rose to exultation when, a few 
hours later, information reached the capital 
that Von Kluck's army had thrust itself 
obliquely in the path of Von Buelow's Second 
German Army, sealing all the roads over 
which that army was advancing and com- 
pelling the cessation of all its movements. 

Von Kluck, it appears, had deliberately 
flouted the orders of the German high com- 
mand. To him had been assigned the task 
of guarding the flank of the entire German 
line, with his whole army facing Paris be- 
tween the Oise and the Marne, while Von 
Buelow was in pursuit of D'Esperey's Fifth 
French Army below the Marne. Von Kluck's 
jealousy of Von Buelow had prompted him 
to appropriate the latter's task, so instead of 
remaining above the Marne he had selfishly 
blocked the path of Von Buelow's advance. 



WESTERN THEATER. SEPT. 5-15 



Civilization Saved in the Immortal Battle of the Marne 

Blunder of a German General Paves the Way to Allied Victory Gen, Foch's Wonder- 
ful Strategy Compels a General German Retreat 

"" * " "' "" SECTION 8-1914 



Allied Forces, 1,200,000 

Gen. Joffre, Commander-in-Chief 
Army Alignment from Paris to Epinal: 
(Paris Garrison, Gen. Gallieni) 
Sixth French Army, Gen. Maunoury 
British Army, Gen. Sir John French 
Fifth French Army, Gen. D'Esperey 
Ninth French Army, Gen. Foch 
Fourth French Army, Gen. Langle de Carey 
Third French Army, Gen. Sarrail 
Second French Army, Gen. de Castclnau 

THE safety of France, and through her, 
of all civilization, was assured in that 
fateful hour when von Kluck's army, 
after turning its back on Paris and then 
thrusting von Buelow's vanguard jealously 



German Forces, 1,750,000 

Field Marshall von Moltke, Commander 
Army Alignment from Paris to Epinal: 
First Army, Gen von Kluck 
Second Army, Gen. von Buelow 
Third Army, Gen. von Hausen 
Fourth Army, Duke of Wurttemberg 
Fifth Army, Crown Prince of Prussia 
Sixth Army, Crown Prince of Bavaria 
Seventh Army, Gen. Heeringen 

aside, plunged eastward toward the Marne, 
"like a boar with lowered head", in blind 
pursuit of D'Esperey's battered French army, 
already below the Marne, which von Kluck 



66 



Germany's Crime Against Humanity 



mistakenly supposed to be wholly isolated 
and consequently ripe for destruction. 

Von Kluck's jealousy of von Buelow had 
led him into the double indiscretion of usurp- 
ing the latter's appointed task, and, in dis- 
obedience of explicit orders, taking four 
corps of his army south of the Marne, in- 
stead of remaining behind, facing Paris, with 
his entire army, to guard the west flank of 
the whole German line. Von Kluck's amaz- 
ing indiscretion proved fatal to the German 
plan of campaign and to his disobedience of 
orders is attributed the subsequent defeat of 
the Kaiser's legions. 

All unwittingly, and at the precise moment 
when he made his detour east of Paris, von 
Kluck had fallen headlong into a trap pre- 
pared for him by the sagacious Gen. Joffre. 
His frantic efforts to escape from the trap, 
whilst the French and British armies were 
endeavoring to close it, precipitated that 
sequence of decisive battles, involving all the 
belligerent armies on a front of 150 miles, 
and known under the generic name of the 
First Battle of the Marne a battle in which 
the very life of France was at stake and 
which resulted in the humiliating defeat and 
compulsory retreat of the entire German 
host. 

The trap, which so nearly engulfed these 
modern Huns, on the same battlefield where 
their ancestors, under Attila, were van- 
quished 1500 years before, had been pre- 
pared by Gen. Joffre during the anxious 
twelve days' retreat, of the French and Brit- 
ish armies southward from the Belgian 
border. Whilst the German armies were 
following in breakneck pursuit of the Allies, 
Joffre had evolved the strategy which was 
destined to halt the pursuit, confound the 
enemy and end forever the pretension of the 
German warlords to world dominion. At 
any time during that memorable retreat, had 
he so desired, Joffre might have made a 
successful stand against the foe. His eager 
troops, chafing under the ignominy of an 
enforced retreat, repeatedly implored their 
commander to strike back at the enemy. 
Joffre, however, had a larger plan in view. 
His purpose was to lure the Germans on un- 
til he had reached a secure position from 



which he might launch a decisive blow. So, 
in his backward swing of 150 miles, "Papa" 
Joffre was content to bide his time, keeping 
the Allied line always intact whilst thwarting 
the constant German efforts to outflank him, 
and compelling the German pursuit to take 
the precise direction he had indicated. 
Knowing that the Germans would defer their 
intended siege of Paris until all the French 
armies in the field had been disposed of, the 
initiative remained with him, even in retreat. 
Not von Moltke, but Joffre, was controlling 
the general movement of the German armies ; 
all unwittingly, the Kaiser's proud legions 
were obedient to the will of the French 
strategist ! 

Two Armies Secretly Organized 

UNSUSPECTED by the Germans, Gen. Joffre 
had secretly organized two new armies as 
the chief instruments of his triumphant 
strategy. One of these armies, the Sixth, 
under command of Gen. Maunoury, and com- 
posed of units drawn from other French 
armies on the Eastern frontier, lay in am- 
bush north of Paris, in readiness to spring 
out instantly and attack von Kluck's flank if 
he passed to the east of the capital. The sec- 
ond new army, the Ninth, under command of 
Gen. Ferdinand Foch, "the hero of Mor- 
hange", was forming below the marshes of 
Saint Gond, near Fere Champenoise, await- 
ing the word to take its place on the battle 
line. 

On September 3rd, when von Kluck's army 
swerved eastward from Paris, all the Allied 
armies of the left and center were ensconced 
below the Marne. The British Expedition- 
ary Force, after eluding the German pursu- 
ers, and blowing up the bridges on the Marne 
west of Meaux, had withdrawn beyond the 
Grand Morin River, secreting themselves be- 
hind the Forest of Crecy. A third British 
corps had secretly arrived in France, increas- 
ing the army strength to 120,000 rifles and 
10,000 cavalry. The Germans seem to have 
been unaware of the recuperation of the 
British forces, deeming them wholly dis- 
persed or destroyed. D'Esperey's Fifth 
French army occupied an advanced position 
to the right of the British on a line extend- 
ing from Courtacon to Epernay. Foch's 



First Year of the War 1914 



67 



Ninth Army, to the East, was concealed be- 
tween the waters of the Grand Morin and 
Compte de Mailly. Further East lay the 
Fourth Army, commanded by Gen. Langle de 
Carey. Gen. Sarrail's Third Army rested on 
the Meuse River, from Bar-le-Duc to Verdun. 
Gen. de Castelnau's Second Army lay 
athwart the Gap of Nancy in Lorraine. 

How the Germans were Deceived 

THE original plan of the German high com- 
mand, to envelop the left flank of the Allied 
line, having miscarried, when the British 
Expeditionary Force had eluded von Kluck, 
and D'Esperey's French army had escaped 
from the clutches of von Buelow, a new plan 
of battle, covering the operations of all the 
German armies, was devised on September 
2nd. This plan was based upon German mis- 
conception of the actual strength of the 
Allied armies. The existence of Foch's new 
army in the center of the Allied line and of 
Maunoury's new army north of Paris was 
wholly ur suspected by the German high com- 
mand. German aviators had jubilantly re- 
ported a great gap, some forty miles wide, in 
the center of the Allied line, where Gen. 
Foch's new army lay all the time snugly con- 
cealed below the marshes of Saint Gond. 
Similarly, the German aviators discovered a 
wide gap to the East of Paris where the Brit- 
ish army had made its deep withdrawal be- 
low the Grand Morin. To the Germans the 
only visible French force on the west wing 
was the battered army of D'Esperey, lying 
with both its flanks exposed below the Marne. 
On the Eastern wing of the long battle line, 
the situation was equally favorable to the 
German design. The Gap of Mirecourt, near 
Nancy, was defended by a French force not 
exceeding 100,000 rifles, while Verdun was 
defended by a French army of less than 
160,000 men'. The only other French force 
visible to the Germans on this wing was the 
small army of Langle de Carey, in position 
just East of the gap in the center of the 
Allied line. 

With seven great German armies in the 
field, outnumbering the French in the ratio 
of 7 to 4, it seemed an easy matter to over- 
whelm and destroy these isolated Allied 
armies. The German Crown Prince, with 



500,000 picked troops, would quickly dispose 
of Gen. Sarrail's small force at. Verdun. At 
the same time Crown Prince Rupprecht with 
350,000 Bavarians would overpower the 
100,000 French defending the Gap of Mire- 
court. To the army of Gen. Hausen was 
assigned the task of annihilating Gen. Langle 
de Carey's apparently isolated French Army. 
On the western wing, there was only 
D'Esperey's battered French Army to con- 
sider. Von Buelow would have the honor 
of despatching that isolated army. Finally 
von Kluck would guard the German flank, 
his army being ordered to face Paris, north 
of the Marne, prepared to cope with any gar- 
rison force that might emerge therefrom, 
and with any remnant of the dispersed 
British army that might reappear. Such 
was the general situation on that memorable 
3rd of September when the German west 
wing armies made their detour East of Paris. 

All these German plans were destined to 
miscarry, partly because of the heroic 
defense of the eastern line by the armies of 
Castelnau and Sarrail ; largely because of the 
surprise attacks by Gen. Joffre's unsuspected 
new armies, but most of all because of the 
contusion into which the German west wing 
had fallen as a result of von Kluck's dis- 
obedience. Von Kluck, when assigned to the 
task of guarding the west flank of the Ger- 
man line, had received explicit orders to hold 
his army between the Oise and the Marne, 
facing Paris, and to remain a day's march 
behind von Buelow's army, whose task it was 
to cover Paris from the Marne southward 
to the Seine, and at the same time outflank 
D'Esperey's apparently isolated French 
army. No account seems to have been taken 
of the "contemptible British army," but the 
Germans were very soon to learn of its ex- 
istence and its powers. 

Von Kluck, unwilling that the glory of 
outflanking D'Esperey's army should fall to 
von Buelow, resolved to earn that fame him- 
self. Leaving a single corps on the west 
bank of Ourcq as a rear guard, he took his 
remaining four corps below the Marne, 
marching directly in front of von Buelow's 
right wing and throwing that army into 
immediate disorder. 



68 



Germany's Crime Against Humanity 



It was at this juncture that Gen. Joffre 
decided to spring his trap. After a momen- 
tous interview on September 4th with Gen. 
Gallieni, the commander of the Paris gar- 
rison, he issued his historic order for the 
flank attack from Paris on September 5th. 
Only a single corps of Maunoury's new army 
was then available for the surprise attack. 
These troops, marching out from their place 
of concealment above Paris, engaged the 
flank corps which von Kluck had posted on 
the west bank of the Ourcq, expelling them 
from the heights which they occupied and 
liberating scores of villages. Von Kluck, 
now engaged with D'Esperey far below the 
Marne, was quick to realize the plight into 
which he had fallen, and to take the nec- 
essary steps to retrieve his blunder. With- 
drawing his four corps from the battle line, 
he sent them north to engage Maunoury and, 
being still further reinforced from the 
Maubeuge fortress, he succeeded in bending 
Maunoury's line back upon Paris. His with- 
drawal from below the Marne, however, had 
left a gap of thirty miles in the German front 
with von Buelow's flank exposed. Into this 



gap the French and British troops poured, 
compelling the immediate retirement of von 
Buelow's right wing. As a result of this 
retirement, von Kluck found it necessary in 
turn to break off his battle with Maunoury 
and retreat northward as far as Soissons. 

Meantime, in the center of the long battle 
line, Gen. Foch's Ninth Army was sustain- 
ing the combined attack of von Buelow's 
left wing and von Hausen's entire army. At 
the critical moment, when Foch's right wing 
was bent double and his army seemed 
doomed, he risked all on a single bold stroke. 
Noticing a slight gap at the point of junc- 
tion of the two attacking armies, he de- 
tached a corps from the end of his line and 
using it as a battering ram, broke through 
the enemy line, compelling a general retreat 
of all the German forces to the Aisne. Foch's 
victory came just in time to save the situa- 
tion on the eastern frontier, for the small 
garrison at Fort Troyon was on the point 
of yielding to an overwhelming German 
force. We shall now take up the various 
phases of the great Battle of the Marne in 
detail. 



The Batde of the Ourcq 



Allied Forces, 515,000 

Sixth French Army, 175,000 

Gen. Maunoury, Commander 

Gen. Pau, Chief of Staff 
Paris Garrison, 50,000 

Gen. Gallieni, Commander 

Admiral Ronarch (Marines) 
British Expeditionary Force, 130,000 

Gen. Sir John French, Commander 
Fifth French Army, 160,000 

Gen. D'Esperey, Commander 

THE "Battle of the Ourcq," which inaugu- 
rated and so largely determined the issue 
of the Battle of the Marne, is properly 
viewed, not as a single isolated action, spend- 
ing itself wholly) on the banks of a remote 
little stream, but rather as a sequence of 
widely separated battles, requiring for their 
vast theater the entire region lying between 
the Aisne and Aubertin Rivers, and involv- 
ing four gigantic armies a third of the 
whole embattled host of the Marne 
throughout the period of the German repulse 
and retreat. 



German Forces, 520,000 

First German Army, 270,000 
Gen. von Kluck, Commander 
Gen. von Kuhl, Chief of Staff 

Group Commanders: 
Gen. von Linsingen 
Gen. von Arm in 
Gen. von Quast 

Second German Army, 250,000 
Gen. von Buelow, Commander 



Timed for the strategic moment of the 
Allied offensive, when Gen. Joffre was pre- 
paring to launch his surprise attack on the 
German right flank, the Battle of the Ourcq 
River began just at dawn on September 5th 
with the movement Eastward from Dam- 
martin of four divisions of Gen. Maunoury's 
Sixth French Army, then secretly concen- 
trating in the fortified area north of Paris, 
to give battle to Gen. Gronau's Fourth Re- 
serve Corps and Gen. von Marwitz's cavalry 
brigade, which were posted on the west bank 
of the Ourcq as the flank guard of Gen. von 



First Year of the War 1914 



69 



Kluck's First German Army. It was the 
French intention, after disposing of this 
German rearguard, to cross the Ourcq above 
Lizy and then advance eastward in the gen- 
eral direction of Chateau Thierry, thus get- 
ting in rear of von Kluck's main army, which 
was then massed below the Marne. Neither 
von Kluck nor the German high command 
as yet suspected the existence of a new 
French Army north of Paris. 

The chosen battlefield west of the Ourcq 
presented the aspect of a broad level plateau, 
traversed by numerous small streams and 
dotted over with small villages, ending in 
an abrupt descent as it approached the river. 
The level monotony of the whole region is 
relieved by two forested heights, the 
Monthyon and Penchard hills, a mile or more 
in length, which rise near the confluence of 
the Ourcq and Marne Rivers, just north of 
Meaux. These heights, trenched through- 
out their length, and fairly bristling with 
machine guns, had been occupied in force 
by the German Reserve Corps. Von Mar- 
witz's cavalry brigade was positioned further 
north. Strong German outposts held all the 
villages west of -the Ourcq. The high east 
bank of the river, from Lizy to La Ferte 
Milon, was lined with German howitzers and 
fields guns of large caliber. 

Germans Driven from the Hills 

THOUGH much exhausted, after their 
forced march from the eastern frontier, and 
lacking in artillery support, the French 
troops advanced confidently against the Ger- 
man foe, liberating scores of villages before 
noon. Barcy and Etripilly were carried at 
the point of the bayonet by the French Re- 
serves. Before evacuating, the Germans had 
deliberately set fire to all the villages and a 
heavy pall of smoke settled over the whole 
extent of the battlefield. 

Advancing toward the Monthyon and 
Penchard hills, the French Zouaves en- 
countered a hail of machine gun bullets, 
which took a heavy toll. Nevertheless, before 
night set in, the Germans had been driven 
from those fortified hills, recoiling towards 
the Ourcq valley. Meantime, further north, 
Gen. Sordet's French Cavalry brigade had 



begun a flanking movement around the 
German right wing, compelling the German 
Uhlans to retire northward across the little 
Thourianne River in the direction of Antilly. 
Though the west bank of the Ourcq, between 
Meaux and Crouoy, was now practically 
cleared f Germans, the French divisions 
could not yet cross the stream, since all the 
crossings were commanded by those ominous 
German howitzers emplaced on the Eastern 
bank. 

Both Armies Re-inforced 

DISMAYED by the danger which threatened 
his flank, but which he still wrongly at- 
tributed to a sortie out of Paris, Gen. von 
Kluck on the 6th detached two full corps 
from his line below the Marne and sent them 
north to the relief of Gen. Gronau. The 
Second German Corps, commanded by Gen. 
von Linsingen, moved in two columns, one 
northwards across the Marne in the direc- 
tion of Vareddes, the other eastwards across 
the Ourcq at Lizy in the direction of Trocy. 
These columns quickly established a liaison 
with Gronau's Reserve Corps holding the line 
from Vincy south to Vareddes. The Fourth 
Regular German Corps, commanded by Gen. 
Sixt von Armin, went further north, cross- 
ing the Ourcq at Crouoy and establishing a 
line from Antilly south to May-en-Multien, 
which placed them in a position to counter- 
flank the French. 

Gen. Maunoury's new army, meanwhile, 
had been gradually taking shape north of 
Paris. Two reserve divisions from the East, 
under Gen. Ebner, which had arrived at 
Pontoise on September 4th after an exhaust- 
ing march, were ready to advance to Abblain- 
ville on the 6th. The 45th Algerian Division 
vnder Gen. Drude, although reporting at 
Dammartin on the 5th, did not enter the bat- 
tle till the next day. Gen. Boelle's Fourth 
Corps was not fully detrained at Gagny until 
the 7th. Some eight or nine other battalions, 
chiefly Zouaves and Spahis, were expected 
at Paris on the 9th. So, as yet, Maunoury's 
available forces were outnumbered by the 
Germans. 

The Holocaust on the Ourcq 

THE battle of the Ourcq widened on the 
second day, but in despite of their superiority 



70 



Germany's Crime Against Humanity 



in numbers, the Germans were compelled to 
give ground everywhere. The French in- 
fantry fearlessly faced the terrific German 
artillery fire, winning village after village 
at the point of the bayonet. The slaughter 
on both sides was terrible. When night 
closed in on the scene, the whole landscape 
was lit with burning villages, farms and hay- 
stacks. By the light of these burning struc- 
tures, the Germans built enormous pyres of 
wood and straw, saturated them with par- 
affin and cremated their dead on the battle- 
field. One of the special horrors of the battle 
was the burning alive of 1500 Germans who 
had been trapped in a sugar refinery which 
afterwards caught fire. Of the 1800 oc- 
cupants, only 300 won their way to safety. 

Gen. von Kluck, sensing his plight at last, 
tardily decided to carry out his orders from 
headquarters to protect the flank of the Ger- 
man line. On the evening of September 6th, 
he recalled from the Marne front the Third 
and Ninth Corps, which he had obligingly 
lent that very day to Gen. von Buelow's hard- 
pressed Second German Army on his left, 
ordering them to wheel about and proceed 
northward on the morrow as far as Mareine 
and Crouoy, cross the Ourcq River at those 
points and come into action on the right flank 
of the German army group commanded by 
Gen. von Armin north of Antilly. With these 
additions to his forces in the Ourcq area 
Gen. von Kluck would have 250,000 German 
infantry and 10,000 German cavalry, to- 
gether with a tremendous assemblage of ar- 
tillery to oppose Maunoury's army of 175,000 
men. 

Maunoury Is Pressed Back 

THE tide of battle turned with the arrival 
of the Third and Ninth German Corps in the 
Ourcq area. Maunoury's fatigued army, 
now hopelessly outnumbered and outgunned, 
had lost its chance of outflanking von Kluck. 
Instead of turning the German west flank, 
Maunoury's own west wing was now being 
pressed back and in danger of envelopment. 
To avert this fate, Maunoury ordered all the 
troops -of the French Fourth Corps still 
available to hasten to the support of his left 
flank at Nanteuil-le-Haudoin. Obedient to 
his wishes, the entire Paris garrison force, 



50,000 men, was packed into 10,000 motor- 
cars and despatched to him post haste. But 
before the arrival of this "Taxicab Army," 
at its destination, the situation had changed 
for the worse. Gen. von Quast, with two 
German infantry corps and a division of 
cavalry, already had bent back Maunoury's 
flank north of Antilly. An added misfortune 
was the arrival at Verberie that day of two 
fresh German divisions, one from Brussels, 
the other from the Maubeuge fortress which 
had just fallen. These new divisions co- 
operated with von Quast in a wide encircling 
movement against Maunoury's northern 
wing. Proceeding down the Nanteuil-Senlis 
road as far as Baron, it was their purpose 
to cut Maunoury's path of retreat towards 
Paris. With his flank thus threatened, 
Maunoury on the 8th began his retirement 
from Nanteuil to a line based on La Plessis- 
St. Soupplets-Monthyon, only a few miles 
above Paris. 

Nevertheless, on the same day, Maunoury's 
"Taxicab Army" made a desperate attempt 
to break through the German front at Trocy, 
but the attack was repulsed. 

Von Kl uck's Army Ordered to Retreat 

ON September 9th, when Maunoury had 
all but lost hope and when the Paris garrison 
stood to arms expecting any moment to see 
the German foe, the situation underwent a 
sudden and startling change. Gen. von 
Kluck had received peremptory orders from 
the Supreme Command to break off the battle 
at once and retire northward as far as 
Soissons, in conformity with the retreat of 
von Buelow's army on his left which had 
already begun. Before daybreak of the 10th 
von Kluck's forces had departed. Let us now 
review the events which were taking place 
below the Marne during the battle on the 
Ourcq and which brought about this sudden 
retreat of the entire German right wing. 

British Victory at Coulommiers 

VON KLUCK'S plunge across the Marne in 
pursuit of D'Esperey's Fifth French army 
had carried five corps of his army as far 
south as the Grand Morin River. Below that 
stream, and concealed behind the Forest of 
Crecy on a line extending from Rozoy to 



First Year of the War- 1914 



71 



Beton-Bazoches, lay the British Expedi- 
tionary Force, now increased to three full 
corps and well supported with cavalry and 
heavy artillery. Von Kluck seems to have 
been unaware of the close proximity of a 
reinforced British Army to his southern 
flank, but he was very soon to be enlightened. 
On the morning of the 6th, as already shown, 
von Kluck had withdrawn the Second and 
Fourth German Corps from the right of his 
line on the Grand Morin, sending them north 
to the relief of Gen. Gronau on the Ourcq 
and filling the gap so created with Gen. von 
Marwitz's Second Cavalry Corps. Apart 
from his cavalry, he now had but three corps 
at his disposal below the Marne. These 
troops were vainly endeavoring to turn the 
left flank of D'Esperey's line which extended 
from Courtacon east to Esternay. 

The long awaited moment had arrived 
when the British forces, hidden in the woods 
to the west, could retaliate upon the foe! 
Emerging suddenly from the Forest of Crecy, 
Gen. Haig's First British Corps surprised 
and annihilated several squadrons of von 
Marwitz's cavalry, driving back the rest of 
the Huns towards Coulommiers, where von 
Kluck had established his headquarters. Ad- 
vancing on Coulommiers before dawn on the 
next day, the British brought their heavy 
guns into play, shelling the Huns out of their 
headquarters. So sudden and furious was 
the British assault, that von Kluck himself 
and Prince Eitel, second son of the Kaiser, 
were interrupted in the midst of their morn- 
ing repast, barely escaping in their pajamas 
to their motor cars. An intense artillery 
duel ensued throughout that day. Whole 
batteries of German cannon were smashed 
to pieces and the path of retreat was littered 
with broken gun carriages. Ten thousand 
casualties, mostly German, resulted from 
this brief and bloody engagement. 

Continuing their pursuit of the Germans, 
the British on the 8th engaged the enemy at 
La Tretoire. The Germans struck back 
savagely at the British, but were swept by a 
hail of machine-gun bullets and forced to 
retreat across the Petit Morin, leaving 
behind them many dead and wounded, 
besides great stores of guns and ammunition. 



German Line in Confusion 

MEANTIME, the German line to the East of 
von Kluck had fallen into confusion for a 
variety of reasons. In their blind plunge 
across the Marne the Germans had failed to 
detect either the hidden British Army on 
the left of D'Esperey's line or Gen. Foch's 
hidden French army on his right. Suppos- 
ing D'Esperey's battered army to be wholly 
isolated, neither von Kluck nor von Buelow 
anticipated much difficulty in enveloping his 
flanks. Von Buelow experienced his first 
rude awakening when Gen. Foch, bringing 
his army into action on the 5th, had struck 
hard at the left of his line. Though von 
Buelow had the assistance of von Hausen's 
Army further East, the two together were 
still unequal to the task of overcoming Foch. 
Moreover, a part of von Buelow's Army was 
yet engaged with D'Esperey. Von Buelow 
was in fact so hard pressed on the 6th that 
he induced von Kluck to lend him two of his 
three remaining infantry corps, the Third 
and the Ninth. This left von Kluck with 
only one infantry corps and one cavalry 
corps at his disposal, since his second and 
Fourth Corps had gone north to the Ourcq 
that morning. He was soon to repent his 
generosity, for on that very day the observ- 
ant Britishers successfully attacked his 
western flank, which was guarded only by 
von Marwitz' Cavalry Corps, and an urgent 
appeal had come to him to send additional 
reinforcements to the relief of his hard 
pressed forces on the Ourcq. Von Kluck 
that evening beseeched von Buelow to release 
his Third and Ninth Corps in order that they 
might go north to the Ourcq. Von Buelow 
consenting, the two Corps early' next morn- 
ing began their backward wheel. Their 
departure left a gap some 30 to 40 miles wide 
between von Kluck's and von Buelow's 
Armies. 

French Victory at Mont mirail 

INTO this gap, on the heels of the retiring 
German corps, Gen. D'Esperey sent two 
corps of his Fifth French Army. The 
French pursued von Kluck first across the 
Grand Morin River at LaFerte Gaucher and 
then across the Petit Morin at Montmirail. 
The battle at Montmirail was a desperate 



Germany's Crime Against Humanity 



encounter in which the French proved their 

superiority over the Germans, man for man. 

The Retreat Across the Marne 

THE retirement of von Kluck from Mont- 
mirail had the effect of exposing the right 
wing of von Buelow's army. Both the French 
and the British pounded away at this flank, 
bending it back until envelopment seemed 
certain. A retreat was necessary if the 
whole army was to be saved. Von Buelow, 
accordingly, without permission from the 
high command, gave orders for a retreat 
across the Marne on 8th. This necessitated 



the withdrawal of von Kluck's corps also. 
By clever maneuvring the battered remnants 
of the two German armies succeeded in 
escaping from the trap laid for them. Cross- 
ing the Marne on pontoons at Chateau 
Thierry and LaFere-sous-Jouarre, the Ger- 
mans for a time held the French and British 
at bay on the banks of the stream, and at the 
same time reinforced Von Kluck's flank 
guard on the bank of the Ourcq, enabling the 
army engaged with Maunoury to break off 
the battle in that sector and withdraw on the 
10th to the Aisne River. 



Gen* Foch's Victory at Fere Champenoise 



French Ninth Army, 120,000 

Corps of Fifth French Army, 40,000 

Gen. Ferdinand Foch, Commander 

Gen. Grosetti 

Gen. Humbert 

MEANWHILE, the Allied battle line, 150 
miles long, had been sagging at its center, 
around Fere Champenoise, where the brunt 
of the German assault was borne by the 
Ninth French Army, commanded by Gen. 
Ferdinand Foch, destined to become gener- 
alissimo of all the Allied armies. Formed 
out of units from other French armies, the 
Ninth had not previously functioned in bat- 
tle as a separate organization. Its formation 
had been completed on September 4, after 
the retreating British and French armies 
from Mons and Charleroi had reached the 
Marne. 

On September 5, Gen. Foch was ordered 
to move his army back to a position on the 
line Sezanne-Fere Champenoise, between the 
armies of Gen. D'Esperey on his left and 
Gen. Langle de Carey on his right. The 
southern part of the terrain which the Ninth 
Army was assigned to defend is a country 
of low ridges and hills, traversed by innu- 
merable water-courses flowing toward the 
Marne. Its northern part is occupied by the 
great marshes of St. Gond, an impassable 
morass whose eastern and western edges are 
penetrated by two military roads extending 
north and south. 

This battlefield was historic ground. 
There Attila and his Huns made their camp 
1500 years before. Near by, at Chalons, the 
Turks had met defeat. There, at Domremy, 



German Forces, 500,000 

Gen. von Buelow's Army 
Gen. von Hausen's Army 



Joan of Arc was born. And there, in 1814, 
Napoleon Bonaparte had won a decisive vic- 
tory. 

Pursuant to his orders to fall back, Gen. 
Foch directed the movement of the Ninth 
Army southward toward the River Aube. 
The Germans were now in close but slow pur- 
suit. Von Buelow's Prussian Guards already 
had crossed the Petit Morin River, occupying 
the northern villages of the plateau of 
Sezanne on the western edge of the St. Gond 
marshes. Von Hausen's Saxon troops were 
skirting the western border of the St. Gond 
marshes in the direction of Fere Champe- 
noise. 

At midday, on September 5, Gen. Foch re- 
ceived the memorable order from Marshal 
Joffre to halt and prepare for a general 
counter-offensive at daylight on the morrow. 
Foch's army was ordered to cover the right 
wing of D'Esperey's Army on his left, to 
hold the debouches south of the marshes of 
St. Gond, and to post a part of the forces 
on the plateau north of Sezanne. 

When Gen. Foch Didn't Follow Orders 

GEN. FOCH did not wait for the morrow 
before putting his army into action. Instead, 
at 3 p. m., on September 5, he ordered an 
attack on the German front. His left wing, 
in co-operation with D'Esperey's right, was 
to drive von Buelow's Prussian Guards from 



First Year of the War 1914 



73 



the Sezanne Plateau and recover the high 
ground west of the marshes which Foch had 
vacated that morning under orders from 
Marshal Joffre. His center was to advance 
northward from Fere Champenoise in the 
direction of Vertus and expel von Hausen's 
Saxon troops from the high ground they 
occupied just north and east of the 
marshes. 

On the French left, batteries were dragged 
swiftly up the slope of Mont Aout and the 
spur of Allemont, and thence to the high 
ground near the village of Mondement. The 
42d Division, led by the fearless Gen. Gro- 
setti, moved rapidly from Sezanne to the 
northeastern heights of the plateau; the 
eager Moroccan Division, with Gen. Humbert 
in the lead, reoccupied the villages of Brous- 
say le Grand and Le Petit, and advanced to 
seize the adjacent roads; the Ninth Corps 
pushed forward through Bannes. 

At 4 o'clock, on September 5, 17 hours be- 
fore the Battle of the Marne had officially 
opened, Gen. Foch's batteries opened fire on 
the German advance west and north of the 
marshes. The German guns replied from 
the heights of Congy, from the plateau 
toward Charleville, and from the Gault 
woods. 

Undeterred, the French infantry pressed 
forward; Grosetti's Division seized the St. 
Prix bridge over the Petit Morin River; the 
Moroccans, crossing the marshes to the 
northern side, drove the German detachments 
out of Joches and Corzard ; the Ninth Corps 
captured the wooded hill of Toulon-la-Mon- 
tagne, planting three batteries of 75's on its 
crest; and German outposts were driven out 
of the villages round about. 

The French right wing, meantime, in its 
advance west of the marshes, had encount- 
ered no opposition. The Eleventh Corps had 
occupied the bank of the little Somme-Cham- 
penoise River from Ecurie-le-Repos to Sem- 
mesous. Aviators and cavalry scouts re- 
ported the near proximity of von Hausen's 
Saxon army, disposed along the upper Marne. 
The German outposts were stationed in the 
woods along the course of the River Soude, a 
few miles north of the Somme-Champenoise. 

That night von Buelow's Prussian troops 
delivered a surprise attack on the French 



left, expelling the Moroccans from the vil- 
lages of Joches and Dorzard. 

Germans Hesitate to Attack Foch 

AT dawn on Sunday, September 6, the 
great Battle of the Marne opened officially 
all along the line from Paris to Verdun, ex- 
cept in the center, where Foch held sway. 
There, for an hour after sunrise, the Ger- 
mans hesitated to advance. 

On Foch's left, Grosetti's 42d Division was 
holding the northeastern heights of the Se- 
zanne plateau in touch with the right -wing 
of D'Esperey's Fifth French Army; next 
came Humbert's Moroccan Division, holding 
the south edge of the marsh hollow, with 
some detachments north of it ; then came the 
17th Division of the Ninth Corps, under Gen. 
Dubois, one brigade disposed about Toulon- 
la-Montague, north of the St. Gond marshes, 
the other brigade holding the ground at their 
eastern and about Morains le Petit; Gen. 
Eydout's Eleventh Corps carried the line 
southeast for some miles along the course of 
the Somme-Champenoise to Sommesous. 

Here there was a break of ten miles, be- 
tween Foch's right wing and the left of Gen. 
Langle de Carey's Fourth French Army, south 
of Vitry le Francois. This gap was thinly 
covered by Gen. De 1'Espec's 9th cavalry di- 
vision, comprising only 24 squadrons with 
12 guns. 

For a reserve, Gen. Foch had Gen. Bat- 
testi's 52d Division near Mont Aout and Gen. 
Joppe's 60th Division between Fere Cham- 
penoise and Sommesous. A considerable part 
of Foch's artillery had been massed on the 
height near his left and center. 

All told, Foch had but eight slender divi- 
sions with which to oppose the greater part 
of two huge German armies. The Germans, 
moreover, were greatly superior in artillery, 
the hills on Foch's left fairly bristling with 
the enemy's long range guns. 
The Battle Begins 

SHORTLY after 7 o'clock the French guns 
began to bark and spit on the left wing. 
Then, protected by the covering fire of the 
French batteries on the Toulon-la-Montague, 
Dubois' Ninth Corps and Grosetti's 42d Divi- 
sion pushed forward to capture the Congy 
heights. Attack after attack was launched 



74 



Germany's Crime Against Humanity 



against the Germans, but no ground was 
gained. 

As the morning advanced, the enemy bat- 
teries from the curve of the Congy heights 
concentrated their fire on the Toulon-la- 
Montague, occupied by the French. By noon 
the village was in flames, the woods were 
reduced to splinters and the hilltop was 
wrapped in a pall of smoke and dust from 
the huge shells that burst in showers all over 
the ground. 

The position being no longer tenable, the 
French withdrew. Their retirement from 
the heights was the signal for a furious at- 
tack by the Prussian Guards, supported by a 
storrn of artillery fire beating down on the 
villages of the lower ground. The Moroccan 
troops, in their hazardous retreat along the 
narrow causeways of the marshes, were deci- 
mated by a deadly fire of shrapnel and high 
explosives. 

West of the marshes, the Hanoverians re- 
took the bridge of St. Prix and the adjacent 
hill. Most of the ground gained by the 
French in the direction of Charleville had to 
be abandoned. Grosetti's 42d Division, how- 
ever, doggedly held on along the Sezanne 
road without losing touch with D'Esperey's 
Tenth Corps on his flank. East of the 
marshes, a brigade of the Ninth Corps 
stopped the rush of the Prussian Guards at 
Morains le Petit, and a regiment of the same 
corps held on steadily at Auloray. 

By late afternoon, the Germans had gained 
a footing south of the St. Gond marshes; 
their artillery had crowned the height of 
Toulon-la-Montague and their infantry had 
driven the Moroccans out of Corzard and 
Aunizeus. With the converging attack from 
these two directions, the Germans fought 
their way into Bannes, but the French clung 
to the southern exists of the village. West of 
Bannes, they held on to the villages of 
Brousy-le-Petit, supported by the artillery on 
Mont Aout and the Allement Spur. 

Wide Gap in the French Line 

EAST of the marshes, the situation was un- 
changed. The French still held the line along 
the Somme-Champenoise River. Beyond 
this, Eydoux's Eleventh Corps was defending 
a ten-mile front, with only 3000 men to the 
mile. And where that front ended, there 



opened that wide gap of eleven miles between 
the two French armies, with only De 
1'Espec's Cavalry Division to cover it. 

Fortunately, no serious attack developed 
on this flank during the day. Once only the 
German cavalry pressed forward toward the 
gap, but De 1'Espec drove them back so 
promptly they did not care to repeat the per- 
formance. 

On the third day of battle, September 7, 
D'Esperey's right wing gave useful support 
to Foch's hard-pressed left by clearing the 
Gault woods of the enemy and joining with 
Grosetti's 42d Division in the counter-at- 
tacks toward Charleville. Humbert's Moroc- 
cans also assisted on the eastern heights of 
the plateau, where ground was lost and re- 
gained and lost again all through the day. 

The rallying point for the French defense 
was Mondement Chateau, standing on a bold 
spur of the Sezanne Plateau, looking out 
northward over the wooded slopes that sink 
down to the marshes of St. Gond. The Ger- 
mans, heavily reinforced, had gained posses- 
sion of the villages on the margin of the 
marsh, north of the Mondement Spur. The 
position formed a sharp salient, projecting 
into the enemy's lines and subject to fire 
from three sides. German batteries sent 
plunging fire over the woods and into Monde- 
ment, but the French clung to the ground. 
Aulnay had to be abandoned, while Morains- 
le-Petit was in flames and no longer tenable. 
The Prussian Guards pressed forward and by 
nightfall held the firm ground at the eastern 
end of the marshes. A fourth advance might 
have endangered the left of the Breton Corps 
about Ecury-le-Repos. 

The French Center Is Broken 

MEANTIME, to the east of the marshes, von 
Hausen's Saxons were attacking the French 
line along the Somme-Champenoise River, 
but the Bretons held firm, repeatedly charg- 
ing with the bayonet to check the rushes of 
the Saxons. Gen. Foch had sent in his re- 
serves and directed that "the offensive should 
be vigorously maintained." 

Before this order could be communicated 
to the troops, a crisis arose. In the darkness 
of the night, at 3 a. m., on Tuesday, Septem- 
ber 8, von Hausen's army suddenly attacked 



First Year of the War-1914 



75 



all along the line of the Somme, Normee was 
stormed and set ablaze, and the French gar- 
rison, after a hard fight amidst the burning 
houses, withdrew to the railway line beyond 
the river. At Lenharee, two companies held 
back an entire German column or fully an 
hour. 

On the right of the line, Vaussimont, 
Haussimont, and Sommesous held out till 
some hours after daylight. The Eleventh 
Corps retreated in some disorder, but at the 
call of Foch they rallied along the railway 
line. 

Coincident with this retreat, many of the 
peasantry, fleeing from Ecury and Normee, 
had poured into the artillery positions of the 
Ninth Corps, putting several of Gen. de 
Monssy's batteries out of action. At the 
same time the Prussian Guards attacked in 
front. The right of the line, in consequence, 
was compelled to fall back and form again 
for battle in the scattered woods between 
Mont Aout and Fere Champenoise. 

Fere Champenoise, lying in a hollow, is 
commanded by the higher ground to the north 
and east of it. These heights were seized by 
the Prussian Guards and the Saxons. 
Foch's Army Faces Destruction 

WITH Foch's center broken and the whole 
Ninth Army on the point of collapse, the 
Germans supposed the battle was won. But 
Foch was not defeated. He telegraphed to 
Marshal Joffre : "My center is broken ; my 
right is giving way; the situation is excel- 
lent; I will attack immediately." 

And attack he did. Sixty French guns, 
posted from the slopes of Mont Aout to the 
St. Sophie farm, bombarded the German 
positions about Fere Champenoise. Sup- 
ported by their fire, Battesti's 52d Division 
attacked the Prussian Guards, preventing 
their gaining ground beyond the low ridge 
west of the town. Another French attack 
across the Bannes-Champenoise road toward 
the railway was stopped by a mile of German 
machine guns athwart the line of advance. 

When night fell, the French right wing 
had fallen back to a line based on Corray- 
Gourganeon-Mailly. On the French left, 
Grosetti's 42d Division had scored heavily 
in a number of counter-attacks and was 
keeping in touch with the advance of D'Es- 



perey's Fifth Army, which had reached 
Montmirail, the center resting on the Petit 
Morin. Humbert's Zouaves and Marines 
were clinging to the ground round about 
Mondement, which was now in flames from 
the rain of German shells that were falling. 

Foch Discovers Weak Point in German Line 

IT seemed as if Foch's army faced destruc- 
tion, and in its fall it might involve the whole 
Allied line in ruin. The center was waver- 
ing and the right wing bent back at an angle. 
Only the left of the line held firm. - 

Challenging two huge German armies with 
a broken army, the strategical genius of Foch 
was put to the supreme test. He decided to 
risk all on one bold stroke. If he could pierce 
the enemy's line at its weakest point and 
strike one sudden, powerful, unexpected 
blow, he might be able to throw both German 
armies into confusion. Foch discovered that 
weak place in the enemy line. The two Ger- 
man armies while driving the French back-- 
ward, had not preserved their alignment. 
Thus, von Buelow's Prussian Guards, having 
met with stiffer opposition on the part of the 
French left wing, had been held up just 
west of Fere Champenoise. Moreover, von 
Kluck's retreat near Paris was tending to 
draw von Buelow's line ever toward the 
west. 

Von Hausen's Saxons on the other hand, 
had pressed the French center and right 
wing far to the south of Fere Champenoise, 
with the result that the Saxon right toward 
Corroy and Gourgancon was well south of 
the Prussian left on the ridges west of Fere 
Champenoise. 

The two German armies were barely in 
contact and Foch had seen that the junction 
between them presented a vulnerable point 
of attack. Here the French battering ram 
could be driven home, the blow being aimed 
at von Hausen's flank. 

But what troops could Foch spare for this 
enterprise ? His reserves were all spent ; his 
outnumbered troops, except on the left flank, 
were thinly holding the line. 

He resolved, nevertheless, to create a re- 
serve by withdrawing Grosetti's 42d Divi- 
sion from the line and employing it as a bat- 
tering ram. 



76 



Germany's Crime Against Humanity 



That night, September 8, Gen. Foch per- 
fected his plans for the masterstroke of the 
war. Fortunately, the retreat of von Kluck 
enabled D'Esperey to spare one of his corps 
to strengthen Foch's left wing. 

Gen. Foch ordered Grosetti to disengage 
his battalions and batteries from the line, 
re-form to the southeast on a new line be- 
tween Linthes and Pleurs, then push for- 
ward, on September 9, between the Ninth and 
Eleventh Corps of the French army, and fall 
upon the flank of the Saxon army. 

Focn's Masterstroke at Fere Champenoise 

THE order was duly carried out, but while 
Grosetti's Division was withdrawing and be- 
fore D'Esperey had sent the promised rein- 
forcements, a Hanoverian brigade was flung 
against Mondement, driving out the French. 
Luckily, reinforcements were at hand. Hum- 
bert's Moroccans, assisted by a regiment 
from Dubois' Ninth Corps and three of Gro- 
setti's batteries, prevented the further ad- 
vance of the Germans on this wing. 

Meantime, on the center and right, the 
Germans were moving successfully. Ey- 
doux's Eleventh Corps and De 1'Espec's cav- 
alry were steadily forced back. Still Gro- 
setti had not arrived. Early in the after- 
noon the Ninth Corps gave ground in the 
center, the Prussian Guards advancing to 
Conantre, compelling the French to evacuate 
Mont Aout. 

The broken French line was re-established 
from Mont Chalmont across the railway in 
front of Linthes and Pleurs, to keep in touch 
with the retiring Eleventh Corps, whose left 
was now near Fresnay. But the progress of 
the Saxon advance had macle the fissure be- 
tween von Hausen's right and von Buelow's 
left even more vulnerable than before. 

And now Grosetti was arrived at the desig- 
nated line with his 42d Division Foch's bat- 
tering ram. At a given signal, Grosetti led 
his troops between the two French corps and 
fell upon the Saxon flank. At the same time 
Foch ordered a general offensive all along 
the line. The Saxons and Prussians both 
were immediately thrown into confusion, and 
were forced steadily backward upon diver- 
gent lines of retreat. Grosetti drove the 
Saxons out of Conantre and Corray and got 



into touch with the left of Eydoux's advance ; 
one regiment of his division went forward 
that night in pursuit of the Saxons and at 
dawn the next day occupied Fere Champe- 
noise, which the Saxons had evacuated in the 
night. 

Germans in Retreat 

ON the left flank, Humbert's Moroccans re- 
newed their attack on Mondement with reck- 
less daring. After many desperate assaults 
had been repelled, Col. Letoguoi ran three 
guns close up to the wall of the fortress, 
breached it and stormed the gap thus made. 
The Prussians were driven out, after both 
combatants had suffered heavy losses. 

D'Esperey's Corps, which he had loaned 
to Foch, meantime had advanced across the 
Petit Morin as far as Fromentieres and was 
pressing toward Baye on the end from St. 
Prix northward to Epernay. 

The Prussians, fearing their direct line of 
retreat would be cut, hastily fell back by way 
of 'the narrow metaled roads across the St. 
Gond marshes. Everywhere the Prussians 
and the Saxons were in retreat. Gen. Foch 
had won a great victory how great he did 
not realize till the morrow. 

General Foch that night ordered the re- 
sumption of the offensive before daylight on 
September 10, D'Esperey's Tenth Corps was 
to attack north of the marshes of St. Gond, 
in the direction of Bergeres-lez-Vertus, 
against the enemy's northern line of retreat. 
General Dubois, with his Ninth Corps, was 
to advance between the east end of the 
marshes and the Fere Champenoise-Vitry 
railway. General Grosetti's 42d Division 
was to advance through Fere Champenoise. 
General Eydoux's Eleventh Corps was to 
push through Envy toward Lenhares. Gen- 
eral Del'Espec's Cavalry Division was to pro- 
tect the right of the advance and keep in 
touch by patrols with the left of the Third 
Army, which was moving on Vitry-le-Fran- 
cois. 

The Saxons, though beaten, were far from 
demoralized. A large part of von Hausen's 
army was imprisoned in a deep salient point- 
ing south, with Foch's army on one side and 
Langle de Carey's army on the other, threat- 
ening it with envelopment. But under cover 
of darkness the remnant of this Saxon army 



First Year of the War 1914 



77 



was safely withdrawn. The Prussians, too, 
made good their retreat, and both armies 
finally reached the new line on the Aisne. 

This brilliant victory of Gen. Foch com- 
pelled the retreat of all the German forces in 
France to the new line on the Aisne. The 
Battle of the Marne had been won by an 
army outnumbered three to one, and which 
had been all but enveloped a few hours be- 
fore. As a result of this victory, Foch was 
proclaimed "the master strategist of Europe." 

Flight of the Huns to the Aisne 

THE armies of Gen. von Hausen and the 
Duke of Wurttemberg had been pounding 
hard against Gen. Langle de Carey. After 
the victory at the St. Gond " marshes, Foch 
came to the rescue of Gen. de Carey. Gen- 
eral Hausen's Saxons were driven in wild 
disorder across the Marne and that unfortu- 
nate commander subsequently was retired in 
disgrace. 

Everywhere the Huns were in retreat. By 
masterly generalship, von Kluck escaped 
from the double pressure of Gen. D'Esperey's 
French army and Gen. French's British 
army, bringing his forces practically intact 



to the new position on the line of the Aisne 
River. 

Crown Prince Close to Victory at Troyon 

THE sole dubious success achieved by Ger- 
man arms during the entire campaign of the 
Marne was that of the army nominally com- 
manded by the Crown Prince Frederick Wil- 
liam of Prussia. This army, 350,000 strong, 
had attacked fort Troyon, defended by Gen. 
Sarrail with a garrison of 80,000 men. 

The heavy German siege guns had reduced 
the fort to a heap of ruins, and Gen. Sarrail's 
slim forces were in extremis when the gen- 
eral German retreat from the Marne com- 
pelled the Crown Prince to relinquish his of- 
fensive and turn tail. Had Troyon fallen, the 
way to Verdun would have been opened and 
the whole course of the war might have been 
changed. Foch's decisive victory therefore 
saved France and Europe. 

300,000 Slain or Wounded 

No official report on the losses of both 
armies in the Battle of the Marne has ever 
been published. Unofficial estimation places 
the number of the slain and wounded at 
300,000, the losses of the two combatant 
forces being about equal. 



WESTERN THEATER, SEPT. 1O-15 



German Armies Retreat to the Aisne River and Burrow In 

Allies Thwart German Plan to Extend Their Line Across France to the Sea 



SECTION 9-1914 



Allied Forces, 1,500,000 

Gen. Joffre, Commander-in-Chief 
French Army Commanders: 
Gen. Foch 
Gen. Castelnau 
Gen. D'Esperey 
Gen. Sarrail 
Gen. Langle de Carey 
Gen. Dubail 
Gen. Maud'huy 
Gen. D'Amade 
Gen. D'Urbal 

British Corps Commanders 

Gen. Sir John French, Commander-in-Chief 

Gen. Sir Douglas Haig 

Gen. Sir Smith-Dorrien 

Gen. Pulteney 

Gen. Allenby (cavalry) 

RETREATING from the Marne, the 
whipped Huns had fallen back on a 
strongly fortified line just north of 
the Aisne and Suippe rivers, with their right 
wing resting on the Oise at Compeigne and 



German Forces, 2,000,000 

Gen. Falkenhayn, Chief-of-Staff 

Gen. von Kluck 

Gen. von Buelow 

Gen. von Heeringen 

Gen. von Einem 

Gen. von Strantz 

Prince Rupprecht of Bavaria 

Duke of Wurttemberg 

Crown Prince of Prussia 

Gen. von Zwehl 



their left on the Meuse near Verdun, pre- 
senting a front of 120 miles. 

They occupied the crest of the Craonne 
Plateau, which rises sharply to an average 
height of 400 feet, some two miles back from 



78 



Germany's Crime Against Humanity 



the Aisne, and extending east from Com- 
peigne, a distance of thirty miles. With char- 
acteristic foresight, the German engineers 
had constructed an elaborate system of 
trenches along the crest of this plateau dur- 
ing their pursuit of the Allies to the Marne. 

At intervals along the plateau front were 
placed the heavy howitzers and cannons in- 
tended to be used in the siege of Paris and 
which now commanded all the river cross- 
ings. In addition to this formidable natural 
fortress, the Germans had constructed a laby- 
rinth of trenches in the Aisne quarries near 
Soissons, which had come under German con- 
trol some five years before. 

There were miles of galleries and subter- 
ranean passages running through the quar- 
ries, enabling the Germans to conduct their 
operations with secrecy and safety. 

On September 12, 1914, the day the re- 
treating German armies made their escape 
across the Aisne, von Kluck's army held the 
western end of the line, with his right resting 
on Compeigne. Opposing him were the 
armies of Gen. Manoury, Gen. French, and 
Gen. D'Esperey. East of -von Kluck's posi- 
tion and to the north of Rheims, were the 
German armies of von Buelow and von 
Hausen, facing Gen. Foch. 

Farther east, in northern Champagne, the 
Duke of Wurttemberg's army confronted the 
forces of Langle de Carey. Above Verdun, 
the Crown Prince of Prussia was pressed by 
Gen. Sarrail. Linked with Sarrail by the 
forts of the Meuse, the army of Gen. de Cas- 
telnau was fronting the army of Crown 
Prince Rupprecht of Bavaria. Beyond them, 
in the Vosges, the armies of Gen. Dubail and 
Gen. Heeringen were opposed. 

Turning German Flank at Compeigne 

To prevent the extension of the German 
line westward from Verdun to the sea, Gen. 
Manoury's left wing had been advanced north 
of Compeigne, thus flanking von Kluck. At 
the same time a general frontal attack was 
begun along the whole line from Compeigne 
to Verdun, a distance of 120 miles. This at- 
tack was ushered in by 'an artillery duel of 
great intensity in which the heavier Ger- 
man guns proved their superiority. 

From the commanding heights of the 
plateau, von Kluck's howitzers swept all the 



river crossings with a hurricane of shells. 
It seemed as though a sparrow could not sur- 
vive the ordeal of fire, j^et the dauntless Allies 
faced that roaring inferno without fear, and 
laid their pontoons and rafts preparatory to 
crossing the Aisne River. 

With an intrepidity beyond all praise, the 
French poilus, under Manoury and D'Es- 
perey, and the British Tommies, under Sir 
John French, succeeded in crossing in a dozen 
places between Compeigne and Soissons, and 
attacking vigorously up to the very edges of 
the plateau. Indeed, the French Zouaves ad- 
vanced up the deep cleft of Morsaim, through 
St. Christophe, and seized the villages of 
Autreches and Nouvron on the continuing 
spurs. 

Before daylight of September 14, Man- 
oury's advance had reached far up the slopes 
within sight of the German trenches, but 
further it could not go. 

The Battle for Chemin-des-Dames 

AT daybreak, on the 14th, a British corps, 
under Sir Douglas Haig, who subsequently 
became commander-in-chief of all the Brit- 
ish armies, stormed a section of the heights 
between Chavonne and Moulins, hoping to 
gain the Chemin-des-Dames ("Ladies' 
Road"), commanding the southern plateau 
from Soissons to Berry-an-Bac. Though 
they failed to reach their objective, owing to 
the fury of the German fire, they did secure 
an intrenched position on the plateau itself, 
within sight of the enemy's trenches, captur- 
ing 600 prisoners, 12 field guns and many 
machine guns. 

Soissons Reduced to Ruins 

THE Germans, in a series of violent 
counter-attacks on the 15th, drove the French 
out of their posts on the crests of the spurs, 
recaptured Autreches, and expelled the 
French from the Morsaim ravine and the 
spur of Nouvron. Before sunrise the next 
day the French had fallen back to the bank 
of the Aisne. The Huns followed up this suc- 
cess by shelling Soissons, and did not desist 
until the town was reduced to ruins. 

Reinforcements were rushed to Gen. Man- 
oury and he in turn counter-attacked on the 
17th, driving the Germans back from the 
edge of the plateau to their main position 



First Year of the War 1914 



79 



behind Nampcel, clearing them out of the 
quarries of Autreches, where their batteries 
had caused such deadly havoc, and winning 
back all the evacuated ground. 

Germans Shell Rheims 

FURTHER to the east, D'Esperey's French 
Army was assaulting in vain the German 
positions on the Craonne Plateau, while 
Foch's small army had fallen back from the 
Suippe River to a point outside Rheims, 
under pressure of von Buelow's and von 
Hausen's combined attack. In pursuit of 
Foch, the two German armies won the 
heights of Briamont, only five miles from 
Rheims, and the hill of Nogent 1'Abbesse on 
the east. 

From these hills, on September 10, the 
Germans began a ruthless ten days' bom- 
bardment of Rheims. This bombardment, 
while serving no military ends, resulted in 
the partial destruction of the incomparable 
Rheims Cathedral and the ruin of a great 
part of the historic city. 

All Christendom was shocked by the need- 
less bombardment of Rheims, and indigna- 
tion grew when it was learned that the pagan 
Huns had made a special target of the Ca- 
thedral, the most beautiful edifice in Europe, 
as though they intended destroying all Chris- 
tian evidences before restoring their sacri- 
ficial altars to Odin and Thor. 

The bombardment of Rheims, which be- 
gan on September 10, reached the climax of 
its intensity on the 18th, when the town was 
set on fire in many places ; blocks of buildings 
were completely demolished and many inhab- 
itants killed. 

The Race for the Sea 

IT was now apparent that any further 
frontal assaults on the German line must 
prove futile. The Germans not only occu- 
pied an impregnable position, but in num- 
bers and in gun-power they held the ad- 
vantage. 

So elated were the Germans at their suc- 
cess in holding the Allies at the Aisne, that 
they were emboldened to renew their original 
plan of extending their line westward to the 
sea. 

General Joffre, divining this intention, had 
taken steps to forestall it. While Manoury's 



army was pushing northward about Com- 
peigne on von Kluck's right flank, Gen. Joffre 
had ordered the armies of Generals Castel- 
nau and Maud'huy to transfer from the East- 
ern frontier and assist in his flanking move- 
ment. 

Moving with great secrecy, the army of 
Gen. Castelnau, on September 20, came into 
position on the left of Gen. Manoury, thus 
extending the Allied line northward from 
Compeigne to Peronne. Ten days later, Gen. 
Maud'huy's new army had arrived and the 
Allied line was extended still farther north 
to Lens and Arras, within sight of the Bel- 
gian frontier. By this time the German 
right flank; instead of extending westward, 
had been bent back sharply from its apex 
at Compeigne in the shape of a gigantic L. 

If it could be pressed back a trifle more, 
the Allies would be in possession of the Oise 
railway, the main line of German communi- 
cations, compelling a general retirement 
across the French frontier. Or, if the French 
flanking movement could be carried farther 
north, the Allies would be enabled to relieve 
the Belgian garrison at Antwerp, then in 
great peril. On the other hand, should Ant- 
werp be surrendered before the Allies had 
completed their flanking movement, nothing 
could prevent the German besieging army 
from advancing through Belgium to the cap- 
ture of the channel ports. 

To be the first to reach the Belgian sea- 
coast was now the aim of the rival armies. 
Their struggle to attain the objective is 
known in history as "The Race to the Sea." 
Even as Gen. Joffre had used two new armies 
in lengthening his line northward and turn- 
ing the German flank, so the Germans had 
transferred two armies to the bent wing of 
their line von Buelow's Prussian Guards 
taking their position just north of von Kluck, 
while the Duke of Wurttemberg's Bavarians 
held the extreme right of the line. These 
two armies represented the flower of the 
German troops, as their generals were the 
most distinguished among the German com- 
manders. 

British Army Transferred to Flanders 

THE British army, then in position south 
of the Aisne and far from its base, was trans- 



80 



Germany's Crime Against Humanity 



ferred to the north of the line in Flanders, 
where it could establish a new base, save Lille 
from hostile occupation, assist in the relief of 
Antwerp, and finally defend the channel ports. 
Another new French army, under Gen. 
D'Urbal, was also hastened north to support 
the left of the line. The operations of the 
Allies, north of Noyon, were now intrusted 
to the supreme command of Gen. Ferdinand 



Foch, whose brilliant generalship had marked 
him as the greatest strategist the war had 
produced. Under his direction the Allies 
won the race to the sea, but the narrative of 
the bloody engagements that ensued in 
Flanders, is reserved for another chapter 
dealing with the Battle of Ypres, on Page 102. 
During the Race to the Sea the Allied and 
German losses were each 25,000. 



WESTERN THEATER, AUG. 31 SEPT. 6 



200,000 Germans Fall in the Terrible Battle of Nancy 

100,000 French Defeat 350,000 Germans at the Grand Couronne 



.................. 



-- SECTION 1O- 1914 



French Forces, 100,000 
Gen. de Castelnau 



ON the same day von Kluck swerved his 
German army to the east of Paris 
(August 31), preparatory to striking 
the Allies' line on the Marne, a tremendous 
battle was begun on the Lorraine border at 
Nancy, 150 miles away. The German high 
command had massed at this point 350,000 
picked troops, expecting to break through 
the Gap of Mirecourt into France and take 
the Allies in the rear while von Kluck and 
von Buelow were attacking them in front. 

The combined German armies were com- 
manded by Crown Prince Rupprecht of Ba- 
varia, the Duke of Wurttemberg, and Gen. 
Heeringen, the victor of Morhange. Opposed 
to them was a French army of only 100,000, 
commanded by Gen. de Castelnau. The Ger- 
man artillery outranged the French guns. 
With heavy siege guns, brought from Metz, 
it was intended to blow Nancy and the Grand 
Couronne into oblivion and conquer France 
at a single blow. 

The Kaiser himself came from Metz to 
view the battle, arrayed as an Asiatic con- 
queror, and confident of victory. But instead 
of a victory he witnessed the disgraceful de- 
feat of his choicest troops by a foe whom 
they outnumbered nearly four to one. 

In a certain sense, the Battle of Nancy 
may be regarded as the prelude to the Battle 



German Forces, 350,000 

Kaiser Wilhelm, in person 
Crown Prince Rupprecht 
Duke of Wurttemberg 
Gen. Heeringen 

of the Marne. Indeed, Castelnau's victory 
at Nancy made possible the triumph of Joffre 
and Foch at the Marne. Had the Germans 
broken through the Gap of Mirecourt, all 
France would have been at their mercy. 

The battle was fought along a front of 25 
miles, the dominant feature of which was a 
long wooded range of hills, called the Grand 
Couronne. To control this height, the Ger- 
mans needed but to capture its extreme 
points the hill of St. Genevieve to the north 
and the plateau of Amance to the south. 

St. Genevieve commanded the right bank 
of the Moselle, which runs almost due north 
from Nancy to Metz, while the Amance 
plateau commanded the direct road from 
Salzburg to Nancy, through the forest of 
Champenoux. Through these valleys the 
German barbarians, for ages past, have ever 
sought to penetrate into the smiling plains of 
France. 

With the hill of St. Genevieve, 1200 feet 
in height, as their objective, the Germans 
advanced in two columns along either bank 
of the Moselle River, and after occupying the 
neighboring villages and forests, bombarded 
the village of St. Genevieve with their heavy 
siege guns. Every habitation wa,s blown into 
fragments. A single French battalion de- 
fended this hill against the repeated attacks 



First Year of the War -1914 



81 



in mass formation of German infantry. 
When the Germans retired, defeated, the 
slopes of the Grand Couronne were heaped 
with their slain. 

At the other extremity of the Grand Cour- 
onne, the plateau of Amance, the Germans 
wasted 40,000 high explosive shells in a vain 
effort to expel the French defenders. The 
whole plateau was riddled until it resembled 
"a gigantic Bruyere cheese." Yet so well 
concealed and protected were the French 
gunners that only 20 of them were killed. On 
the other hand, the French 75's rained down 
their torrents of melinite on the masses of 
Germans in the plains below, taking a heavy 
toll of death. 

The battle was extended to other areas of 
the sector. Many villages were destroyed 
and great loss of life resulted. 

The Germans launched their general at- 
tack on the Grand Couronne, September 6, 
in masses of 50,000 soldiers at a time, with 
bands playing and flags flying. But they 
never reached the top of the hill. Time after 



time that day the huge mass formation ad- 
vanced up the hillside, only to melt away 
under the fire of the French 75-centimeter 
guns, or to be charged with the bayonets of 
the "Ironsides" of France, who by their valor 
on that bloody day made possible the Allied 
victory in the Battle of the Marne. 

Five days more the slaughter of Germans 
continued, and then the Kaiser slunk back 
to Metz, with the full knowledge that France 
and Britain were not to be overcome. For he 
had meanwhile heard of von Kluck's retreat 
at the Marne and knew that his Prussian 
hordes were doomed to ultimate defeat. The 
slaughter of Huns in this second Battle of 
Nancy was beyond belief at least 200,000 
Germans fell and the disaster to German 
arms was effected by a mere handful of men, 
the remnants of that brave French army 
which had been defeated at Morhange only a 
few weeks before. 

This triumph at Nancy was, in fact, a 
phase of the decisive Battle of the Marne, 
which is described on Page 65. 



- WESTERN THEATER. SEPT. 2O-OCT. 3 



Crown Prince Launches His First Terrific Attack on Verdun 

Fort Troyon Reduced to Ashes. 500,000 Huns Repulsed by 160,000 French 

SECTION It -1914 



French Forces, 160,000 
Gen. Sarrail 
Gen. Dubail 

WHILE the "Race to the Sea" was 
progressing further west, Verdun 
on the Eastern frontier of France 
was the scene of terrific battles. It will be 
recalled that, during the Battle of the Marne, 
and on the very eve of the German retreat, 
the Crown Prince of Prussia had reduced 
Fort Troyon and almost taken Verdun. Dur- 
ing the general German retreat his army had 
fallen back to the pass of Grand Pre. This 
withdrawal enabled Gen. Sarrail to clear the 
town of 7000 German civilians and fortify 
every height within a radius of 20 miles of 
Verdun. 

Coupling up with the army of the Crown 
Prince, in the Woevre district, was a new 
German army, commanded by Gen. von 
Strautz. Together, they numbered 350,000 



German Forces, 500,000 

Crown Prince of Prussia 
Gen. von Strautz 

first line troops, with several corps held in 
reserve, an effective force of perhaps 500,000 
rifles. To meet the onslaughts of this great 
army, Gen. Sarrail could count on only four 
army corps 160,000 men. 

Returning to the assault on Fort Troyon, 
on September 20, the combined armies of 
the Crown Prince and von Strautz reduced 
the fort to a dust heap, but the garrison 
nevertheless held out until relieved by Gen- 
erals Sarrail and Dubail. All advances of 
the German infantry were repulsed by the 
French gunners on the nearby fortified 
heights. 

Hoping to take Verdun by an attack in 
rear through the little town of St. Mihiel, 
the Germans advanced in full force on Sep- 
tember 23, occupied the Hatton-Chattel spur, 



82 



Germany's Crime Against Humanity 



silenced the small fort of Parodies, destroyed 
the Roman Camp, and seized the bridgehead 
of St. Mihiel on the west bank of the Meuse. 
They had hoped to push due west to Revigny 
and complete the envelopment of Sarrail's 
Army, but the dauntless French would not 
let them pass. A French cavalry detachment 
drove them back, compelling them to en- 
trench on the edge of the river. 

A last desperate effort to pierce the French 
center was made on October 3. With the 
odds three to one in his favor, and with su- 
perior artillery, the Crown Prince attempted 
a turning movement through the woods of 
the Argonne against St. Menehold, but the 



French fell savagely upon his army and drove 
the Prussians back north of Varennes, cap- 
turing that town and gaining the road across 
the Argonne, which brought them in touch 
with Langle de Carey's army. 

By this great victory, the French straight- 
ened their line, which now ran from Verdun 
due west to Souain and then along the Roman 
road to Rheims. 

The Germans, however, held the salient at 
St. Mihiel and continued to hold it until Gen. 
Pershing's Yankee Boys "ironed it out,"- in 
September, 1918. A stalemate now set in on 
the eastern end of the battle line, while the 
great battles in Flanders were being fought. 



WESTERN THEATER. AUG. 9 -SEPT. 28 



Russia Grapples with Germany and Austria on 1000-Mile Front 

Russian Army Betrayed and Destroyed in the Terrible Battle of Tannenberg. 
Germans Soon Afterward Crushingly Defeated in the Battle of Augustowa. 



SECTION 12-1914 



Russian Forces, 500,000 

Grand Duke Nicholas, Generalissimo 
Army of the Niemen, Gen. Samsonoff 
Army of the Narew, Gen. Rennenkampf 
Cavalry Corps, Gen. Basil Gurko 

LET us now scan the flaming arena of 
war in the East, where Russia has been 
grappling single-handed with her most 
puissant foes, Prussia and Austria, along a 
battle line 1000 miles in extent, reaching 
from the Baltic Sea southward to the farthest 
passes of the Carpathians. 

When the war-clouds broke over Europe 
in July, civil discontent was rife in Russia, 
and anxious observers believed that the 
country was on the verge of another internal 
upheaval. There were many strikes in 
progress in Petrograd and in other Russian 
cities when the hour of conflict came and the 
masses of the people were stirred with a 
vast unrest. 

These surface symptoms were disregarded 
by the Russian social leaders, as they poured 
out of the cities for the holidays, all unmind- 
ful of the gathering war-clouds. They did 
not, however, go unnoticed in Berlin. There 
it was believed the war already determined 
upon would find Russia rent asunder by civil 
strife. 



German Forces, 500,000 

Gen. von Hindenberg, Commander 
Gen. von Francois 
Gen. von Morgen 
Gen. von der Goltz 

The Germans, nevertheless, had failed to 
understand the psychology of the Russian 
people, just as they had failed to interpret 
the moods of other nations around them. 

When the fateful day arrived, the strikes 
at Petrograd vanished in a night, and the 
once-hated Cossacks, who had been brought 
into the city to preserve order in the Nevsky 
Prospekt, found themselves acclaimed by the 
people. 

From the farthest confines of the empire, 
day by day, came interminable trainloads 
of men eager to give their lives for the Czar. 
Immense crowds knelt in front of the Winter 
Palace, chanting the majestic and solemn 
strains of the Russian National Anthem. 

The war had brought a solidarity to the 
Russian nation such as it never had known 
before. For the first time in a century, a 
Czar of Russia looked out upon a nation one 
and indivisible, upon a people burning with 
zeal to take up the burden of a war which 
appealed more strongly to them than any 
campaign in which Russia had ever engaged. 



First Year of the War- 1914 



83 



Prohibition of Liquor Traffic 

ONE of the first fruits of the moral awak- 
ening which Russia experienced in those 
epochal days was the entire prohibition of 
the liquor traffic. The Czar's imperative 
ukase, prohibiting the manufacture or sale 
of vodka, was accepted by nearly 200,000,000 
people without a murmur and was regarded 
as a symbol of the transformation which 
the country had undergone. The loss in 
revenue sustained by the Empire by reason 
of the ban on vodka amounted to $400,000,- 
000 a year, but all agreed that it was worth 
the price because of the increased efficiency 
it produced. 

At first the Czar's decree only applied dur- 
ing mobilization, but it was extended for the 
duration of the war. The result was magi- 
cal. From the Baltic to the Pacific, not a 
public house was open, and the order was 
rigidly enforced to the letter. Prohibition 
was accepted patiently and without com- 
plaint by the entire population. Rioting and 
dissipation were things of the past, both at 
the battle front and in the capital. Such was 
the grave and earnest mood in which Russia 
braced herself for her tremendous task. 

Russia's Military Establishment in 1914 

IN the decade following the war with 
Japan, the Russian military establishment 
had been reorganized along modern scientific 
lines under the direction of Grand Duke 
Nicholas, the commander-in-chief of all the 
armies. A great general staff was organized 
on the German model. Numerous schools 
for the training of officers were opened, in- 
cluding an aviation school at Sebastopol. 
High-born incompetents were removed from 
important commands and their places taken 
by able professional soldiers like Russky, 
Alexeieff, and Brusiloff. The artillery arm 
was improved and enlarged ; the infantry sol- 
dier was thoroughly trained in markman- 
ship and skirmish combat; the antiquated 
Cossack cavalry tactics were modified. 

The Russian regular army, in 1914, com- 
prised approximately 1,000,000 men, sup- 
ported by a trained reserve arranged in 
yearly classes of 400,000 each, with a total 
personnel numbering 4,000,000. To supple- 
ment the regulars and reserves there could 



be drawn great levies, to the number of 
20,000,000 perhaps, from a population of 
185,000,000. 

In two important particulars, however, the 
army was still deficient the services of sup- 
ply and transport. The government arsenals 
and factories controlled as they were by 
grafters and traitors lamentably failed 
to produce the quantities of arms and muni- 
tions found necessary in carrying on a pro- 
tracted war with a first-class power. 

The army was particularly short of big 
gun ammunition. All the perplexities and 
obscurities of the early months of the Rus- 
sian campaign turned upon the difficulty of 
converting mobilized men into efficient com- 
batants, clothed in uniforms, furnished with 
rifles and munitions and ready to fight. 

The lack of material and not the fighting 
qualities of her troops, was the chief explana- 
tion of such reverses as Russia occasionally 
encountered in the earlier stages of the cam- 
paign. A shortage of the means of waging 
war lay at the back of all her movements, and 
the knowledge gnawed at the hearts of her 
commanders. 

Russian Traitors Seated with the Mighty 

THESE deficiencies were laid at the doors 
of traitors within the gates ; some occupying 
the seats of the mighty, close to the throne; 
others in the Ministry of War; some in the 
Duma ; still some others in high financial and 
commercial spheres. 

These traitors were all-powerful; they 
could name the generals of the army; could 
control the ammunition and food supplies; 
could intercept the secret codes used by the 
Russian army chiefs. Some of them, though 
of German birth, were put in command of 
Russian armies. Through their machina- 
tions, Russia had been left naked to her 
enemies along a great extent of her frontier. 

The Polish salient, whose apex pointed 
westward to within 180 miles of Berlin, had 
been stripped bare of its fortresses, the old 
fortified triangle of Warsaw, Novogeor- 
gievsk, and Zegrje having been dismantled 
after the Russo-Japan war and no substitute 
defences having been provided. 

In July, after Prussia and Austria had 
secretly decided upon war, the Russian Min- 



84 



Germany's Crime Against Humanity 



istry of War ordered the transfer of all the 
Russian troops guarding the frontiers in the 
Odessa, Kiev, Petrograd, and Kozan districts 
to the summer training camps hundreds of 
miles inland. Those frontiers, therefore, 
were left unguarded at a critical time when 
common military prudence would have dic- 
tated the retention of the frontier troops. 

It is not surprising that the Minister of 
War, Sukhomlinoff, two of the German- 
Russian generals, and other culprits were 
subsequently court-martialed on suspicion of 
treason. 

They had also prevented the development 
of an inadequate transportation system in 
Russia. Though Gen. Kuropatkin, 15 years 
before, had pointed out the necessity for im- 
provements in military communications, no 
action was taken until 1913, when the army 
reorganization bill went into effect. This 
scheme provided for an excellent system of 
strategic railroads along the German and 
Austrian borders, but at the outbreak of the 
war there had been completed only five lines 
leading to the west and four to the southwest 
frontier. 

Offsetting these the Germans had seven- 
teen and the Austrians eight strategic lines 
of railroad. More than any other cause, it 
was the lack of adequate transportation fa- 
cilities that spelled the doom of the Russian 
army. 

First Mobilization of Troops 

RUSSIA'S eyes were first opened to the in- 
evitability of war on June 24, when Austria 
began to move eight army corps toward the 
Serbian frontier. Orders were at once issued 
to the Russian troops scattered in the far 
interior of Siberia to return to their winter 
quarters and undergo "preparatory mobiliza- 
tion" at midnight of July 29. Austria 
counter-moved by mobilizing all her armies. 

Russia thereupon ordered the general mo- 
bilization of her armies at midnight of July 
30. Germany at once declared war against 
Russia, but prior to her declaration of war 
she had mobilized her entire first-line army 
and all her fleet. 

Germany, having twelve railroads for 
every one possessed by Russia, and with much 
shorter distances to cover, was able to com- 



plete her mobilization in less time. Many of 
the Russian troops had to be transported 
from the Volga, 1000 miles inland. Despite 
these handicaps, however, the Russians were 
able to place 1,200,000 soldiers in line by 
August 9. 

Austria meantime had concentrated 1,250,- 
000 troops north of the Carpathians, under 
command of Archduke Ferdinand, and the 
Germans had 250,000 troops in East Prussia, 
soon to be reinforced by four army corps and 
commanded by Gen. Paul von Hindenberg. 

The supreme command of the Russian 
armies was vested in Grand Duke Nicholas, 
uncle of the Czar, but the War Ministry re- 
tained the right to name other generals in the 
army and to control the supplies of ammuni- 
tion. We shall see how this arrangement led 
to Russian disaster in the field, due to treach- 
ery of the basest description. 

Longest Battle Line in History 

A BRIEF survey of the 1000-mile battle line, 
the longest in recorded history, may assist 
the reader in visualizing the campaigns that 
are to be described. The northern part of 
the line separates Baltic Russia from East 
Prussia. 

On the Russian side, the armies fought 
amidst innumerable marshes and lagoons, 
pierced by six great rivers which had to be 
crossed and recrossed as the tide of battle 
ebbed or flowed. Through the mire of this 
region the heaviest guns could not be moved, 
neither could trenches be connected because 
of the water seepage. 

The fighting in this area was confined 
principally to infantry engagements in the 
open. From Riga, the chief city of Baltic 
Russia, southward to the fortress of Rovno, 
there ran a continuous line of railroad, which 
it was vitally necessary the Russians should 
hold. . 

On the Prussian side, a short distance 
across the frontier, lay the vast stretch of 
morass and swamp land known as the Mazur- 
ian Lake region, 60 miles long and practically 
impassable. Behind this natural barrier lay 
the German armies, with the guns of the 
fortressed city of Konigsberg and of the 
German fleet in the offing as additional pro- 
tection. To reach the German stronghold, 



First Year of the War 1914 



85 



the Russians had to skirt the Mazurian lakes 
on their northern and southern sides. 

In the central part of the battle line, where 
the wedge-shaped Polish salient projected 
250 miles into Germany, lay the weakest link 
in the Russian chain, since it was open to 
simultaneous attacks from the north by 
Prussia and from the south by Austria. It 
would be impolitic for the Russian forces to 
guard the frontier of this salient, stripped as 
it was of its fortresses, for they might be 
crushed between the German and Austrian 
pincers. 

The capital, Warsaw, which is situated in 
the heart of the salient, was therefore left 
open to invasion on three sides. In order to 
protect Warsaw, the Russians had built a 
chain of forts along the line of the Vistula 
River, extending from Ivangorod, on the 
south, to Kovno, in the far north, the prin- 
cipal fortresses being located at Ostrolenka, 
Ossowiec, and Augustowa. 

Though strong at the northern end, the 
line of forts was vulnerable at the southern 
end, and might be turned by a flank attack 
out of Galicia at a point east of Ivangorod 
and Warsaw. This, in fact, is what the Aus- 
trians repeatedly attempted to do. 

Russia's chief line of resistance at the 
center of the battle line was rather the wil- 
derness of swamps and bogs lying east of the 
Polish salient and known variously as the 
Pripet or Pinsk marshes. These intermin- 
able marshes, covering 30,000 square miles 
of territory, are absolutely impassable except 
for a few quaking roads, and a single line of 
railway connecting Kiev and Brest-Litovsk. 

The southern section of the 1000-mile bat- 
tle line was bounded by the great Carpathian 
range of mountains, separating 1 Russia from 
Austria, Poland, Galicia, and Bukownia. 
These mountains, whose peaks reach a height 
of 8000 feet, form a continuous barrier 800 
miles long and nearly 250 miles wide. 

There are ten principal passes over the 
Carpathians, some leading into Galicia, 
others into the plains of Hungary. It was 
over these passes that the Huns of an earlier 
day poured when they sought the overthrow 
of the Roman empire. Here were fought 
some of the most terrific battles of the 
World War. 



Strategic Plans of Opposing Armies 

THE Russian strategy had for its final ob- 
jective the capture of Berlin, lying 180 miles 
due west of the frontier of Russian Poland. 
The shortest and easiest route to the German 
capital lay through the provinces of Posen 
and East Prussia, whose inhabitants, being 
largely Poles, and therefore kin to the Rus- 
sians, would not be likely to offer any serious 
resistance. 

Before advancing westward toward Ber- 
lin, it was necessary that the flank of the 
Russian army of invasion should be protected 
against attacks by the Germans out of East 
Prussia on the north and by the Austrians 
out of Galicia on the south. 

Even in the improbable event that the 
Russian army, on its march toward Berlin, 
were not attacked in the flank by the Ger- 
mans and the Austrians, the frontiers of 
Russia nevertheless would be left open to 
invasion by the enemy. Hence, common 
prudence whispered that the Russians must 
first conquer East Prussia and Galicia before 
proceeding to the conquest of Germany. 

It was accordingly decided to mobilize all 
the Russian forces on the line of the fort- 
resses east of Warsaw, and from this base 
send forth groups of armies, for the simul- 
taneous invasion of East Prussia and Galicia. 

Austria, being the first to mobilize her 
army of 1,250,000, and greatly excelling in 
heavy artillery, decided to strike the Rus- 
sians a blow in western Poland before they 
could completely mobilize their forces. By 
so doing, she hoped to cripple the Russians 
at the start, and prevent their invasion of 
Galicia. This strategy, as we shall see, was 
upset by Russia's speedy mobilization. 

Germany's strategic plan concealed a two- 
fold purpose. While the Austrians were cut- 
ting the Warsaw salient from the south, the 
Germans would attempt to cut the salient 
from the northwest, before the Russian mo- 
bilization had been effected. 

If, however, the Russians should invade 
East Prussia before this movement could be 
well inaugurated, the Germans would lure 
the Czar's forces on to destruction in a trap 
already set for them in the treacherous 
morasses of the vast Mazurian lake region. 



86 



Germany's Crime Against Humanity 



Two Russian Armies Invade East Prussia 



Russian Northwest Forces, 450,000 

Gen. Gilinsky, Commander-in-Chief 
First Army Gen. Rennenkampf, Commander 

Gen. Pflug 
Gen. Ratkevitch 
Gen. Niloff 
Gen. Meeshtchenko 
Gen. Gurko (Cavalry) 

Second Army Gen. Samsonoff, Commander 
Gen. Postovski 
Gen. Martson 

CONTRARY to all expectations, the Russian 
armies were the first to strike an effective 
blow. Their mobilization was a miracle of 
celerity, enabling them, early in August, to 
take the initiative. Accordingly, while the 
Russian armies of the south were preparing 
to invade Galicia as a means of defending 
their left flank against Austrian assault, the 
armies of the north were advancing from 
two directions toward the East Prussian 
frontiers to protect their right flank. 

The first Russian army of 200,000 men 
was commanded by Gen. Rennenkampf, a 
German-born officer, who had distinguished 
himself in everything save morality during 
an army service of 40 years. 

The second Prussian army, numbering 
250,000 men, was commanded by Gen. Sam- 
sonoff, a brilliant, if rash, tactician. The su- 
preme control of these northwestern armies 
was vested in Gen. Gilinsky, a figure-head 
selected for a purpose by Gen. Sukhomlinoff, 
the Russian Minister of War, who was subse- 
quently court-martialed on suspicion of 
treason. 

The chief objective of the Russian armies 
was the fortressed city of Konigsberg, on the 
Baltic toast, then garrisoned by 100,000 men, 
under command of Gen. von Francois, a Ger- 
manized Huguenot. Konigsberg was other- 
wise defended by 1200 heavy guns, a girdle of 
15 forts, and the guns of the German fleet 
that lay off shore. 

Between the Russian frontier and Konigs- 
berg there spread a vast extent of lake and 
swamp land, some 90 miles in length and 60 
in depth, known as the Mazurian lake region. 
Only a few lines of railroad traverse the 
edges of this forbidden region, whose quak- 
ing interior is as mysterious and impene- 
trable as Thibet. 



German Forces, 500,000 

Gen. von Hindenberg, Commander-in-Chief 

Gen. von Francois 

Gen. von Morgen 

Gen. von der Goltz 

Gen. von Scholtz 

Gen. von Muehlmann 



The two Russian commanders were or- 
dered to advance to the frontiers, organize 
their lines in the rear, and then boldly ad- 
vance into East Prussia, encircling the Ma- 
zurian lakes. Rennenkampf's army was to 
push westward from Kovno on the Niemen 
River, and then skirt the Mazurian lakes 
on the north, while Samsonoff's army pushed 
northward out of Poland, skirting the lakes 
on the southern end. 

Russian Armies Invade East Prussia 

GENERAL Samsonoff, upon arriving at the 
Polish -Prussian frontier, halted his advance 
in order to organize his lines in the rear as 
directed. General Rennenkampf, on the con- 
trary, chose to disobey his express orders. 
His cavalry advance reached the frontier on 
August 3, but instead of waiting to organize 
his line in the rear, Rennenkampf decided to 
take the offensive, without notifying Sam- 
sonoff of his independent action. 

A cavalry division, commanded by Gen. 
Gurko, after a clash with the German out- 
posts at Libau, crossed the frontier at Lyck, 
on August 5, driving the Prussians' advance 
patrols back 15 miles and cutting the rail- 
road that skirts the Mazurian lakes. 

As they fell back before the Russian in- 
vaders, the Germans set fire to all their vil- 
lages and farmsteads, and destroyed all roads 
in the path .of advance. 
. Once across the border, Gen. Rennenkampf 
moved northwest, intending to follow the 
main line of railway connecting Petrograd 
and Berlin. 

Battle of Gumbinnen 

A GERMAN army, 150,000 strong, under 
Gen. von Francois, meanwhile had moved out 
from Konigsberg to block the advance of 



First Year of the War-1914 



87 



Rennenkampf s forces. The two armies met 
at Stallupohnen, on August 17, and after a 
brief engagement the Germans were driven 
back on a 35-mile battle line, having Gum- 
binnen as its center. Here the first real bat- 
tle on the Eastern front was fought, lasting 
four days, August 20-24. It was a desperate, 
hand-to-hand struggle, in which the Russians 
used their bayonets and hand grenades so 
effectively that the Germans were defeated 
with heavy losses, withdrawing in haste to 
Insterberg. Three days later, the Germans 
were ousted from this position, falling back 
toward Konigsberg. 

All the region east of the Meml River was 
now in possession of Rennenkampf, includ- 
ing the cities of Tilsit, Labian, Tapian, Ger- 
danen, Korschen, Rastenburg, Angerburg, 
and Goldap. The control of six important 
railroads centering in Konigsberg also fell 
to Rennenkampf. 

Instead of following up his victory and de- 
stroying the Germans, as was then easily 
possible, Rennenkampf chose to halt at In- 
sterberg, thereby bringing disaster to Sam- 
sonoff s army. 

SamsonofTs Victories at Frankenau and Soldau 

GENERAL SamsonofF s army of the Narew, 
from its base on the Polish frontier near 
Mlawa, had moved northward into East 
Prussia on a wide front, intending to round 
the southern edges of the Mazurian lakes and 
effect a junction with Rennenkampf 's army 
west of the lakes in preparation for a com- 
bined assault on Konigsberg. 

After crossing the border, Samsonoff ad- 
vanced with great rapidity, his main attack 
being borne by two central army corps, 
whose flanks were protected by covering 
corps, marching slightly in the rear. In quick 
succession, the Russian frontal corps cap- 
tured the important cities of Soldau, Neiden- 
burg, Ortelsburg, and Passenheim, driving 
the German forces before them like sheep, 
and advancing on Allenstein. 

Several German reserve divisions had 
meanwhile been sent from Konigsberg to as- 
sist in the defense of Allenstein. They hur- 
riedly constructed a defensive position at 
Frankenau, a few miles to the east, and 
there awaited the Russian onslaught. 



In a two days' battle, Samsonoff' s central 
corps defeated the Germans, who retreated 
from Frankenau in great disorder, some 
toward Konigsberg, others toward the south- 
west and abandoning all their guns and car- 
riages. 

All but one of the railroads out of Konigs- 
berg were now held by Samsonoff's two cen- 
tral corps. Apparently the German forces 
were doomed. The right wing of Samsonoff s 
army at Allenstein was only 45 miles re- 
moved from the right wing of Rennenkampf 's 
victorious army at Insterberg. 

Samsonoff had been informed some days 
before of Rennenkampf's victory in the 
north, and as he, too, had driven a German 
army before him, no doubt entered his mind 
of a sweeping Russian victory. 

Even though the Germans should receive 
strong reinforcements and attack him with 
superior numbers, Samsonoff would have no 
misgivings, being well assured that Rennen- 
kampf, only two days' march removed from 
him, would rush to his assistance with his 
army of 200,000. Never was a general more 
basely deceived than Samsonoff. 

Hindenberg Takes Charge 

APPALLED at the disaster which threatened 
their armies in East Prussia, the German 
General Staff hurriedly detached four corps 
from the French front and transported them 
by rail to East Prussia. They intrusted the 
supreme command of the new army to Gen. 
Paul Hindenberg, a retired corps commander, 
67 years of age, who had made a profound 
study of the Mazurian lake region and knew 
every passable road, every fordable stream, 
in that interminable stretch of bogs, swamps, 
marshes, and lakes. 

Hindenberg arrived at Marienburg on 
August 23 and began to collect the scattered 
German units. With an army of 500,000 at 
his command, and the advantage afforded by 
his perfect knowledge of the Mazurian death- 
trap, he could confidently plan the destruction 
of the Russian forces. His strategy was sim- 
plicity itself. The two Russian armies were 
divided. He would drive a wedge between 
them, seize all the possible avenues of escape 
by rail or road, and by superior force drive 



88 



Germany's Crime Against Humanity 



first one and then the other army into the 
treacherous Mazurian swamps, there to per- 
ish miserably. 

By August 26, Hindenberg's army, well 
concealed, was in position on a line from Al- 
lenstein to Soldau. His artillery was so 
placed as to bear upon every causeway along 
which the Russians could thread their way 
through the maze of ponds and bogs. 

Russian Treachery Aids the Germans 

IN addition to the swamps he knew so well, 
Hindenberg had powerful allies high up in 
the Russian court and camp, many of whom 
were of German blood. Chief among these 
was the Czarina, wife of the Czar, a German 
by birth and by preference. Associated with 
her were powerful officials in the Ministry of 
War, and in the army. They were in a posi- 
tion to betray Russia by revealing to the 
German General Staff information concern- 
ing projected movements of the Russian 
armies which would enable the Germans to 
forestall the efforts of the loyal Russian gen- 
erals. They were able, moreover, to with- 
hold military supplies, especially ammuni- 
tion, from the armies in the field. 

Though they had permitted Grand Duke 
Nicholas to assume the ostensible command 
of the Russian forces, the real authority was 
vested, not in him, but in Sukhomlinoff, Min- 
ister of War, who could choose the generals 
and control the army supplies, who knew all 
the secret codes and all the orders that were 
issued, and who could so arrange the army 
movements that they might not co-ordinate. 

Germany had so little to fear from Russia 
in East Prussia that at the outset of hostili- 
ties she had scarcely 250,000 troops sta- 
tioned there. For was not Sukhomlinoff the 
Russian Minister of War? And was not one 
of the Russian armies of invasion commanded 
by Gen. Rennenkampf, a German by birth, 
whose brother was the German governor of 
Thorne, whose uncle held high place in the 
German court, and who himself was a favor- 
ite of the German-born Czarina ? 

After his failure to support Gen. Samson- 
off, in the battle shortly to be reviewed, Ren- 
nenkampf was regarded as a traitor, and as 
a traitor he was put to death during the 
Russian revolution in 1917. 



Samsonoff Falls Into Hindenberg's Trap 

SAMSONOFF, after his victory at Allen- 
stein, was puzzled at the failure of Rennen- 
kampf to effect a contact with his forces. He 
knew that Rennenkampf was at Insterberg, 
only 45 miles away, and that the wings of the 
two armies could be brought together in a 
two days' march. Believing that there was 
no German force on his front capable of re 
sistance, he rashly decided to abandon his 
safe position at Allenstein and push forward 
through the treacherous Mazurian lake 
region, seize the crossings of the Vistula 
River, and capture the fortress of Graudenz. 

In thus plunging into the Mazurian laby- 
rinth, Samsonoff all unwittingly was walk- 
ing into Hindenberg's trap. To an invading 
army, the morasses of the vast Mazurian 
lake region present insuperable obstacles. 

Instead of military roads and wide plains 
for the deployment of troops, the only foot- 
ing which the region afforded for troops was 
along the narrow isthmuses which separate 
the countless ponds and swamps, or in the 
defiles between the rolling hills. Some of the 
ponds have sandy bottoms and are easily 
fordable; others are clay wells which would 
engulf an army which attempted to cross 
them. Similarly, many of the marshes are 
firm enough for the passage of men, while 
others are treacherous bogs. 

Any invading army, crossing this laby- 
rinth, would of necessity divide into a num- 
ber of columns, all widely separated and un- 
able to co-ordinate their movements. The 
lines of communication behind the advanc- 
ing armies would be few and difficult, and the 
opportunity for a successful retreat in case 
a superior foe was encountered, would be 
comparatively slight. Now Samsonoff had 
no expert knowledge of this lake region, 
while to Hindenberg it was an open book. 

The Great Battle of Tannenberg 

As late as August 26, Gen. Samsonoff was 
unaware that a superior German force 
threatened his line. On that day, his army 
was disposed along the western -edge of the 
Mazurian lakes on a 35-mile front, extend- 
ing north and south. His two advance corps 
occupied Allenstein at the north, another 
corps held the center of the line at Hohen- 



First Year of the War 1914 



89 



stein, while the two cover corps were sta- 
tioned at Soldau in the south. 

Hindenberg's army lay well concealed a 
few miles to the west, covering this Russian 
line. Having prepared a trap for the Rus- 
sians, Hindenberg was ready to lead them 
into it. With his vastly superior forces, he 
expected to gain an easy victory over the 
Russians. In broad outline, his plan was to 
roll back the flanks of SamsonofFs army at 
Allenstein and Soldau, and then, by striking 
hard at the Russian center, near Hohenstein, 
force the entire Russian army into the 
Mazurian swamps, where he should destroy 
it at his pleasure. 

In developing this strategy, Hindenberg 
seems to have wholly disregarded the exis- 
tence of Rennenkampf's Russian army, only 
a few miles to the north. Perhaps he knew 
Rennenkampf to be a traitor who would in 
no case come to SamsonofF s assistance if at- 
tacked. 

At all events, when ready to launch his 
surprise attack on SamsonofFs army, Hin- 
denberg planned as if he knew that no 
danger menaced him from Rennenkampf's 
direction. He had withdrawn all the German 
forces, excepting two divisions of cavalry, 
from in front of Rennenkampf's line, leaving 
only 10,000 Germans behind to hold in check 
a Russian army of 200,000. Sublime Ger- 
man confidence in Russo-German treachery! 

Russian Army Flanked 

HINDENBERG began his double flanking 
movement on August 26, when he turned 
SamsonofFs left flank at Soldau, bending it 
back as far as Neidenberg on the very edge 
of the Mazurian swamps and seizing at the 
same time the sole remaining railroad by 
which the Russians might have effected their 
retreat into Poland. 

Simultaneously, the Germans attacked the 
Russian center at Hohenstein, but here they 
met with such stout resistance that they were 
compelled to fall back to a prepared position. 
Had it not been for their superior artillery 
the German line no doubt would have been 
broken. 

While the Russian center and flank were 
thus engaged, Hindenberg was achieving his 
"masterstroke" on the Russian right flank. 



General Samsonoff, only a few hours before, 
had led his two advance corps out of Allen- 
stein on his rash expedition to Graudenz. 

The two corps, broken up into widely sep- 
arated columns, were threading their devious 
way along the narrow isthmuses that skirt 
the Mazurian lakes and swamps. They were 
in complete ignorance of the attacks then in 
progress on their center and left flank. 

All unwittingly, they were walking 
straightway into Hindenberg's trap. That 
astute general, who knew every inch of the 
Mazurian lake region, intended to flank the 
moving Russian columns in a novel way. 
Using 10,000 requisitioned motor vehicles, he 
rapidly transported two army corps through 
the gap between Rennenkampf's idle army at 
Insterberg and the bending right wing of 
SamsonofFs army, getting in the rear of the 
Russians. 

While 100,000 Germans were thus touring 
in motor trucks across his entire front, to 
take Samsonoff in the rear, Gen. Rennen- 
kampf, with 250,000 troops at his disposal, 
never stirred to the assistance of his doomed 
compatriots, though his army might easily 
have crushed Hindenberg's flanking move- 
ment and averted a terrible disaster to Rus- 
sian arms. 

Russians Sink in Mazurian Swamps 

THE inevitable happened. With both the 
Russian flanks enveloped, Hindenberg's re- 
serves pounded the Russian center at Ho- 
henstein and very soon SamsonofFs entire 
army was thrown into hopeless confusion. 
By virtue of his uncanny knowledge of that 
dismal swamp region, Hindenberg then 
mercilessly pushed the Russians deeper and 
deeper into the treacherous morasses. 

Whole regiments of Russians were seen to 
disappear suddenly in the morasses; others, 
as they slowly sank, were blown to atoms 
by the huge German guns carefully posi- 
tioned on the solid ground, which Hinden- 
berg had chosen. 

Fifty thousand Russians who had sur- 
rendered to the Germans were driven back 
at the point of the bayonet into the muck of 
the swampland, imploring mercy from the 
heartless Huns, who shelled them even as 
they sank. 



90 



Germany's Crime Against Humanity 



Out of 250,000 brave Russians who had 
entered Hindenberg's trap, only 60,000 man- 
aged to escape, by the Ortelsburg road east- 
ward. The two frontal corps were captured 
intact. 

General Samsonoff , while seeking to escape 
through the forests with members of his 
staff, was suddenly stricken with heart 
trouble. Unable to move a limb, prostrate 
and utterly helpless, he was deserted by his 
staff in the dark woods. Days afterward his 
corpse was found with a bullet wound in the 
head, but whether he died of suicide or was 
murdered by Russian traitors has never been 
revealed. 

Rennenkampf Basely Deserts His Army 

RENNENKAMPF'S army, after the Samson- 
off catastrophe, was reinforced by a full 
corps. With this army of 250,000, Rennen- 
kampf pretended to plan a further advance 
into East Prussia in the direction of Konigs- 
berg, yet a few days later he permitted a 
small German cavalry unit, with a single 
battery of guns, to break through his front, 
shell Gurnbinnen, cut his line of communi- 
cation and create a panic among the Russian 
transports stationed there. 

The next morning Rennenkampf gave 
orders for an organized retreat of the whole 
army toward the Russian frontier. But 
without waiting to conduct the retreat, this 
traitor and coward deserted his army and 
escaped by motor to the Russian front. 

General Gurko, the Russian cavalry leader, 
with great moderation, pictures the disgrace- 
ful episode: "Gen. Rennenkampf evidently 
was himself so shaken by the successive re- 
ports received that he had lost all self-con- 
trol, and leaving his staff he departed by 
motor car for the Russian frontier. He 
eventually reached Kovno, abandoning all 



power over his forces and leaving them to 
get through the hazards of the retreat, fight- 
ing on their own account." 

Twice Rennenkampf had betrayed his 
country and the army which so loyally had 
obeyed his orders. Before dismissing him 
from these pages, we may anticipate by re- 
vealing that in the following November, 
when the German armies were again in re- 
treat, on another front, Rennenkampf again 
betrayed Russia by permitting two sur- 
rounded German corps to escape from the net 
which Grand Duke Nicholas had drawn about 
them. Until then, he had escaped punish- 
ment for his treachery by reason of the 
Czarina's powerful aid. For that supreme 
act of treachery, or incapacity, Rennenkampf 
was deposed from his command. Ostracized, 
he slunk into obscurity and so continued 
until he met his deserved fate in 1917. 

Russian Army Successfully Retreats 

AFTER Rennenkampf s desertion of his 
army, von Hindenberg pushed rapidly north- 
ward with his superior forces, hoping to cut 
off the retreat of the Russians, but the loyal 
Russian generals in charge of the retreat 
were not to be caught napping. They suc- 
ceeded, though not without heavy losses, in 
withdrawing across the frontier. A Siberian 
army corps which had been pushed out from 
Grodno to protect the retreat was over- 
whelmed at Lyck, losing 20,000 prisoners. 

Once across the northern and southern 
borders, the shattered Russian armies were 
rapidly reorganized the First army with 
its base on the Niemen, the Second army on 
the Narew and the new 10th army along the 
Augustowa Canal. This line was strength- 
ened by the proximity of a fort and further 
reinforced by a series of defensive works. 



German Defeat in Battle of Augustowa 



Russian Army, 250,000 
Gen. Russky 



HINDEBERG continued his pursuit of Ren- 
nenkampf s army across the frontier into 
Russia. September 15, he occupied Suwalki, 
20 miles beyond the Russian frontier. A 
week later, his army reached the west bank 



German Army, 400,000 
Gen. von Schubert 
Gen. von Morgen 
Gen. von Hindenberg 

of the Niemen, the Russians being then en- 
trenched on the opposite bank. 

On September 25, the Germans laid two 
pontoon bridges across the Niemen, but these 
were quickly blown to pieces. Hindenberg 



First Year of the War 1914 



91 



shelled the Russian position all the next day, 
but could not silence the Russian guns. On 
the 27th, he built two more pontoon bridges, 
and these, too, were blown to bits. 

Thwarted at last, Hindenberg was forced 
to beat a retreat on September 28. The Rus- 
sians now became the pursuers and as the 
Germans groped their way through the 
marshy region west of the Niemen and later 
through the forest of Augustowa, they 



were mercilessly raked with shell fire, but 
finally the main German army reached a 
point of safety across the German frontier. 
The Germans lost 60,000 men in this battle 
of Augustowa. 

Hindenberg thereupon transferred his 
command to General von Schubert and hast- 
ened south to direct the movements of the 
Austrian armies, as narrated on Page 225. 



EASTERN THEATER, AUG. 1O-SEPT. 3 



Russians Drive Austrians Out of Galicia, Across Carpathians 

Fortress of Lemberg is Captured by Russians with 100,000 Prisoners 
Large German Army Comes to the Rescue and Austrians Are Saved From Annihilation 



SECTION 13-1914 



Russian Forces, 1,500,000 

Grand Duke Nicholas, Generalissimo 

Gen. Yanushkevitch, Chief-of-Staff 
First Army Group 

Gen. Ivanoff 

Gen. Ewerts 

Gen. Plehve 
Second Army Group 

Gen. Russky 
Third Army Group 

Gen. Brusilpff 

Gen. Dmitrieff 

"X ^T "THILE Russia with her right arm 

^V^/ was holding Germany at bay on the 

East Prussian front, with her left 

arm she was smiting Austria hip and thigh 

in Galicia and in Poland. Austria was in 

fact brought quickly to her knees, gasping for 

breath, and, but for the timely assistance of 

Germany, she must then have succumbed. 

As early as July 24, a week at least before 
any declaration of war was uttered, Austria 
had begun the secret mobilization of her 
armies, expecting to gain an unfair advan- 
tage in the war, which both she and Germany 
were determined to provoke. 

By the method of conscription she had 
hoped to raise an army of 2,000,000 soldiers, 
before the Russian forces could be mustered. 

This plan, however, had been frustrated 
in part by the widespread rebellion of the 
Austrian Slavs, a subject people comprising 
one-half the entire population of the Empire, 
and whose sympathies were wholly with their 
Russian brethren. Slavic outbreaks took 
place in Dalmatia, Bosnia, Croatia, and other 
provinces of the Empire, while in Herzego- 



Austro-Hungarian Forces, 1,200,000 

Archduke Frederick, Generalissimo 

Gen. Hoetzendorf, Chief-of-Staff 
First Army Group 

Gen. Dankl 
Second Army Group 

Gen. Auffenberg 
Third Army Group 

Archduke Joseph * 

German Army, 500,000 

Gen. von Hindenberg, Commander-in-Chief 

vina several government officials were as- 
sassinated. 

In repressing this rebellion, Austria 
adopted stern measures of reprisal. Slavic 
societies were dissolved, hostile newspapers 
suppressed, Slav leaders imprisoned, and all 
men up to fifty years of age drafted for the 
war. 

As the mobilization proceeded, the Slav 
regiments were kept separate from the Teu- 
tonic units, to prevent any possible contami- 
nation of the Huns, yet in despite of these 
precautionary measures, the Slavs continued 
to mutiny. 

The rebellion spread into Poland and Bo- 
hemia, endangering the entire mobilization, 
but finally, on August 6, Austria had suc- 
ceeded in mobilizing three large armies com- 
prising 1,200,000 unwilling troops. These 
forces were directed by the supreme com- 
mander, Archduke Frederick. 

Russia, in the meantime, had been success- 
ful beyond all expectations in her first mo- 
bilization. Instead of requiring six weeks, 
as had been predicted, to complete her first 



92 



Germany's Crime Against Humanity 



mobilization, Russia in ten days had suc- 
ceeded in concentrating 450,000 trained 
troops on the Baltic frontier, while 800,000 
other troops were assembled on the strategic 
line between Ivangorod and Brest-Litovsk. A 
fortnight later, Russia had drawn 1,700,000 
first line troops into the area of battle and in 
addition 2,400,000 reservists were rallying to 
the Czar's standards. We have traced al- 
ready the movements of Russia's Baltic 
armies throughout the disastrous campaign 
in East Prussia; now we shall portray the 
triumphant march of the three main Russian 
armies through Austrian Galicia. 

Strategic Plans Compared 

THE Austrians, whose first mobilization 
had been completed in advance of that of the 
Russians, were the earliest to put their arm- 
ies in motion. They had concentrated in 
eastern Galicia, just south of the Russian 
Poland salient, three groups of Austrian 
armies under the command respectively of 
Gen. Dankl, Gen. Auffenberg, and Archduke 
Joseph. 

These generals, having foreseen the inevit- 
ability of a Russian invasion of Galicia, 
thought to forestall it by carrying the war 
into the enemy's country, before ponderous 
Russia could get her armies underway. 

The Austrian strategic plans embraced 
three concurrent movements. One army 
group, in command of Gen. Dankl, was to 
cross the Polish frontier and advance on 
Warsaw by way of Lublin, with the purpose 
of keeping the Russians so busily engaged 
in defending the Polish capital, that they 
would find it impossible to attempt the in- 
vasion of Gaiicia. 

A second Austrian army, under command 
of Archduke Joseph, was to guard Dankl's 
left flank and at the same time occupy that 
part of Poland lying west of the Vistula. 

A third Austrian army group, under Gen. 
Auffenberg, with its base resting on Lem- 
berg, was assigned to protect Dankl's right 
flank, and at the same time extend eastward 
across the entire northern frontier of Galicia. 
We shall here anticipate the march of 
events, by revealing that the far abler Rus- 
sian strategists had divined the purpose of 
the Austrian generals, from the beginning 



of the offensive, and adopted measures to cir- 
cumvent them. 

There were three Russian army groups 
assembled at this time on the strategic line 
east of Warsaw, under the command respec- 
tively of Gen. Ivanoff, Gen. Russky, and Gen. 
Brusiloff. 

To Ivanoff's group was intrusted the de- 
fense of the Polish salient, and particularly 
the wide gap near Lublin through which 
Dankl's Austrian army hoped to penetrate on 
its march to Warsaw. 

Only an inconsiderable body of Russian 
troops had been posted on the Polish frontier, 
since it did not comport with the Russian 
strategic plans to offer immediate battle to 
Dankl. 

Instead, it was Ivanoff's purpose to fall 
back from the border, drawing Dankl as far 
as possible from his base, and out of touch 
with Auff enberg's army on the right. At the 
proper time, a Russian wedge would be 
driven in between Dankl and Auff enberg's 
armies, their flanks rolled back and both 
Austrian armies destroyed. 

In this double flanking movement, the 
Russian army groups, commanded by Russky 
and Brusiloff, were to co-operate. Brusiloff 
was to cross the Galician border southeast of 
Lemberg and turn Auffenberg's right flank. 
Russky at the same time was to cross the 
Galician frontier, northeast of Lemberg, and 
break through the Austrian line at the point 
where the wings of Dankl's and Auffenberg's 
armies joined, roll Auffenberg's left flank on 
Lemberg, and then, with his main army force 
Dank'l's right wing back into the morasses 
of Poland. All these strategic movements 
were successfully carried out. Let us now 
study them in detail. 

Dankl Falls Into the Russian Trap 

GENERAL Dankl's Austrian armies had 
crossed the Polish frontier on August 10, de- 
ploying on the right bank of the middle Vis- 
tula. Pursuant to their instructions, the 
Russian border troops fell back. Advancing 
unmolested, the Austrians occupied Kielce 
and other nearby towns. The Russians con- 
tinued to retreat northward before the Aus- 
trian hordes. All unaware that he was being 
led like a lamb to the slaughter, Dankl was 



First Year of the War-1914 



93 



permitted to win an easy victory at Krasnik 
on August 26. From Krasnik, the Austrians 
pressed forward to within ten miles of the 
Lublin gap. Here their advance was de- 
finitely stopped by Ivanoff's main armies, 
commanded by Generals Ewerts and Plehve, 
and spread out on a front of 40 miles. Hav- 
ing drawn Dankl into their trap, the Rus- 
sian generals proceeded to close it. The 
honor of springing the trap fell to Gen. 
Russky. 

Russky's Russian army, on September 17, 
crossed the Galician border, on a 40-mile 
front, between Brody and Sokal, to the north- 
east of Lemberg. Striking hard at the Aus- 
trian line, he broke through at the point of 
junction of Dankl's and Auffenberg's armies. 
Then, with his left and center, he rolled back 
Autfenberg's flank toward Lemberg, while 
with his right he turned Dankl's flank, forc- 
ing the latter to flee westward and take 
refuge in the swamps near Bilgarej and Tar- 
nograd. Thus, in the twinkling of an eye, 
both the Austrian armies had been completely 
isolated and could be dealt with separately. 

Meanwhile, Gen. BrusilofF s Russian army 
group had crossed the Galician border to the 
southeast of Lemberg and attacked Auffen- 
berg's right flank. A three days' battle en- 
sued at Tarnopol, ending in its capture by 
the Russians on the 27th. Retreating south- 
ward and fighting stubbornly, the Austrians 
entrenched at Brezezany. Russky took this 
city by direct assault, the Austrians retreat- 
ing in good order. 

The two Russian armies by this time had 
established connections, and were stretched 
out on a battle line some 200 miles long, in 
the form of an arc, extending from west of 
the Vistula to the Gnila Lipa River. 

Auffenberg, reinforced by the greater part 
of Archduke Joseph's reserve army, fell back 
to a strong and carefully prepared trench 
position, before Lemberg on a 70-mile front, 
extending from Busk in the north to Halicz 
in the south. Here was fought one of the 
most sanguinary battles of the war. 

General Brusiloff's Russian army, after 
forcing the cross of the Zlota Lipa on August 
26, made a wide detour, as far south as the 
Dniester, flanking Auffenberg and furiously 
assaulting his right wing, near Halicz, on 



August 30. The Austrian line was pierced 
on the following day, the entire right wing 
giving way. 

In their retreat, the Austrians attempted to 
make a stand at Botszonne, but the Russian 
guns blew the town into fragments. The 
Austrian retreat on the right became a rout. 
Guns, transport and all impedimenta were 
abandoned in the wild flight. Many thou- 
sand Austrians were killed and more were 
captured. 

Meanwhile, Russky's army had been clos- 
ing in on Auffenberg's left wing. For days 
violent fighting had occurred. Every inch of 
ground was contested. There were many 
desperate bayonet charges, and much man- 
to-man fighting. Positions were taken and 
retaken many times. The whole terrain was 
literally plowed up with shell fire. The losses 
on both sides were enormous. Finally, on 
September 1, the Austrian line was breached 
and gradually began to give way. 

Lemberg Captured with 120,000 Prisoners 

LEMBERG itself was stormed at 2.30 on the 
morning of September 1. The Austrians had 
attempted to re-form their line, but were 
thrown into confusion by repeated artillery 
and cavalry attacks. Both their flanks had 
wilted, their center was being pounded hard, 
and the Russians had begun an encircling 
movement, intending to 'surround and cap- 
ture the army entire. 

It was necessary at once to evacuate Lem- 
berg if the remnants of the army were to be 
saved. As the final retreat of Auffenberg's 
main forces began, he threw out a rear guard 
screen of Slav and Hungarian troops to hold 
the Russians in check. 

The Russians countered by pouring a ter- 
rific artillery fire over the heads of the ad- 
vancing Slavs and upon the retreating Aus- 
trian army. Under this rain of projectiles, 
the Austrian ranks broke in wild disorder. 
Abandoning guns, ammunition, and stores, 
Auffenberg's army retired precipitately. 

Lemberg being left undefended, the Rus- 
sians entered the city on September 3, being 
hailed as deliverers by the 200,000 Slav in- 
habitants. With the capture of the fortress, 
120,000 prisoners, 200 cannon, and enormous 
stores of war material fell into the hands of 



94 



Germany 's Crime Against Humanity 



the Russians. This great victory, coinciding 
as it did with Samsonoff s defeat at Tannen- 
berg, filled the Russians with elation. 

Dankl Retreats to the San River 

WHILE Auffenberg's army was being de- 
stroyed before Lemberg, Dankl's Austrian 
army also was facing a critical situation in 
the swampy country about Bilgarej and Tar- 
nograd, where it had been isolated. In his 
desperation, Dankl attempted to break 
through the Russian wall between Lublin and 
Kholm. The Tenth Corps led the assault 
against IvanofF s Russian line, but they could 
not break through. The Russians, by mass- 
ing their chief strength against Dankl's left 
wing, and threatening his development, com- 
pelled the retirement of his entire army. 

Attacked on his entire front and right flank 
from Tomaszon to Tarnograd, Dankl hastily 
retreated toward the San River, near its 
junction with the Vistula. Two heavy rear 
guards, to north and east, were left to hold 
back the oncoming Russians, while the main 
body and the baggage were crossing the river 
on September 12. 

But even so strong a defensive position as 
the swampy valley of the San could not with- 
stand the impetuous advance of the Russians. 
Wading the river in water up to their necks, 
the Russians fairly leaped upon the shoulders 
of the retreating Austrians, taking 30,000 
prisoners. Meantime the Russian artillery 
was shelling the bridges which the main body 
of the Austrians were crossing in solid 
masses. 

Besides the thousands killed by shell fire, 
hundreds of Austrians were forced into the 
water and drowned. With the remnant of 
his army Dankl managed to escape to a posi- 
tion of safety on the line of the Wistoka 
River, which he reached on September 23. 

Battle of Rawa-Ruska 

AFTER the defeat of Auffenberg's army be- 
fore Lemberg, the survivors had retreated 
and formed a junction with a newly formed 
Fourth Austrian army. The united forces 
occupied a well fortified line, 60 miles long, 
based on Grodek in the south and Rawa- 
Ruska in the north, and with excellent rail- 
road facilities in their rear. 



The Russians attacked the Austrians at 
Grodek on September 8, taking many pris- 
oners and doubling the entire line back on 
itself at a sharp angle at Rawa-Ruska. Here 
a terrific eight-day battle was fought, with 
300,000 men engaged on a six-mile front. 
The Russians concentrated their attack on 
the very apex of the Austrian angle, atop the 
bluffs at the edge of a ten-acre field. 

Eight successive assaults were repulsed by 
the Austrians. Some positions, before being 
finally evacuated, were taken and surren- 
dered several times. The armies, each in 
turn, would retreat a short distance, re-form 
and renew the offensive. 

At one point the Austrian position was so 
deluged with shrapnel that the ground was 
covered by dead, but the Austrians held on 
tenaciously. Day by day they gradually 
yielded ground, until at length they made 
their last stand on the crest of the ridge de- 
fending Rawa-Ruska. 

Here the Russians brought into play their 
huge howitzers, crumbling up the Austrian 
defences. Then they stormed the hill, expell- 
ing the Austrians at the point of the bayonet. 
By nightfall, the Austrian center was broken 
and the Russians were dropping shells into 
the outskirts of Rawa-Ruska. The town was 
hastily abandoned by the Austrians, who re- 
treated toward the San River, some 70 miles 
west of Lemberg. 

Austria Loses 250,000 Killed, 100,000 Prisoners 

THE Austrians were by this time scattered 
in flight. Since the Galician compaign opened 
they had lost 250,000 in casualties, besides 
120,000 prisoners. Two of their armies had 
been partially destroyed. They had resigned 
most of Galicia, including the great oil wells 
of Lemberg ; had surrendered half their Ga- 
lician armies and vast quantities of war 
supplies. 

The Russians, in quick succession, had oc- 
cupied nearly all the important, cities and 
fortresses Lemberg, Brody, Busk, Tarno- 
pol, Brzenany. The remnants of Dankl's 
army had been driven to the line of the Wis- 
loka. The Cossack cavalry forces were ap- 
proaching all the Carpathian passes which 
lead into Hungary. Przemysl and Joroslav 
alone held out. 



First Year of the War- 1914 



95 



The Capture of Jaroslav 

THE remnants of the three Austrian arm- 
ies, after their several retreats from Lem- 
berg, Rawa-Ruska, and Halicz, escaped to a 
prepared position of great strength on the 
western bank of the San River. There they 
were joined by three German corps. 

The new battle area, extending 32 miles 
east and 16 miles north, was enclosed by the 
double turn of the San and its confluent, the 
Vislok. The corner points of the rectangle 
were protected on the north by the fortresses 
of Rozozoff and Dynow, on the south by the 
fortresses of Przemysl and Jaroslav. A light 
railway, built solely for strategic purposes, 
ran parallel with the left bank of the San 
almost to its confluence with the Vistula. 

The Austrians had spent enormous sums 
to make this position impregnable. More- 
over, as they crossed the San, they destroyed 
most of the bridges behind them. But the 
Russians, in swift pursuit, were not to be 
balked of their prey. By a brilliant stroke, 
they seized the bridge at Krzeszov, a few 
miles west of Tarnogrod. 

The Russians, on September 20, began the 
bombardment of Jaroslav. After three days 
of incessant shell fire, the powerful fortress 
was evacuated, the city itself being then in 
flames. With the surrender of Jaroslav, the 
Austrians were forced to abandon the line 
of the San River and the railroad from Cra- 
cow to Przemysl. 

There remained for the Russians to cap- 
ture first Przemysl and then Cracow on the 
German frontier. Once Przemysl had fallen, 
the Russian flank would be protected by the 
Carpathians, and the way to Berlin would be 
reopened. 

The Investiture of Przemyal Begins 

PRZEMYSL, a powerful fortress, defended 
by a garrison army of 100,000, under com- 
mand of Gen. Kusmanek, was surrounded by 
the Russians on September 20. The bom- 
bardment opened without delay, the Austrian 
guns answering shot for shot. 

Due to the treachery or incapacity of the 
Russian War Ministry, the shells for the 
huge Russian howitzers were not forthcom- 
ing, and the smaller field guns were ineffec- 
tive in reducing the fortress. Nevertheless, 



a vigorous bombardment was kept up until 
October 2, when the Russians demanded the 
surrender of the city. General Kusmanek 
refused to discuss surrender until all powers 
of resistance had been exhausted. 

Lacking heavy siege guns to enforce this 
demand, the Russians repeatedly and reck- 
lessly stormed the fort. The corpse-strewn 
ground soon revealed how costly the efforts 
had been. 

Finally, a Russian brigade approached the 
walls of the fort undetected and stormed the 
walls. The garrison retired to the casemates, 
from which they opened fire with machine 
guns. Undismayed, the Russians stormed 
the casemate and a hand-to-hand battle en- 
sued, with bayonets, gun butts and hand 
grenades. 

With the arrival of Austrian reinforce- 
ments, the Russian division withdrew. The 
Russians then settled down to a routine in- 
vestment of Przemysl, awaiting the arrival 
of their seige guns. 

The Advance on Cracow Begins 

WHILE one part of the Russian forces was 
investing Przemysl, another was advancing 
westward toward the German frontier, driv- 
ing the disorganized hordes of Austrians 
and Huns before them. 

Two principal objects the Russians kept 
in view. One of these was the capture of 
Cracow, near the western extremity of Ga- 
licia, possession of which would open the 
way either for an advance on Berlin through 
Silesia or an advance on Vienna through the 
Moravian Gate. The other was to secure the 
passes of the Carpathians, which would give 
access to Hungary. A successful conquest of 
Hungary bore with it the assurance of an 
early peace with Austro-Hungary. 

On November 11, the Russians converged 
on Cracow from two directions. One col- 
umn of Russian troops, operating out of Jaro- 
slav, occupied Miechow and Dynow. A Rus- 
sian force further south seized Lisko. But 
on the following day the Russians sustained 
a defeat near Czernowitz, capital of the Aus- 
trian province of Bukowina. 

An Austrian army, reinforced by German 
divisions, crossing the Pruth River, suddenly 
attacked the Russian right wing, inflicting 



96 



Germany's Crime Against Humanity 



heavy losses. On the same day another body 
of Russian forces in the Stryj valley was 
surprised by Austrian cavalry and put to 
rout. 

In central Galicia the Russian advance 
was successful. The Austrians in that sec- 
tion were for the most part driven west of the 
Dunajec River, along the front from Tarnow 
to the Vistula. 

As the Russian advance toward Cracow 
proceeded, the Austrian resistance stiffened. 
On November 20, the Russians on the north 
had reached the outer line of Cracow's de- 
fences. Meanwhile, the Russian cavalry were 
pushing forward into the passes of the Car- 
pathians. 

Alarmed at the encroachments of the Rus- 
sians, Germany rushed an army to the as- 
sistance of the Austrians. By December 6, 
the safety of Cracow was insured by the 
arrival of several German corps. The trees 
surrounding Cracow were cut down to afford 
space for the artillery and various new lines 
of fortifications and wire entanglements were 
arranged. 

South of Cracow the Austro-German forces 
attempted to turn the Russian right wing, 
after destroying the bridge over the Dunajec 
and occupying the heights on the left bank 
of the river. The dauntless Russians, how- 
ever, in the face of sustained artillery fire, 
crossed the Dunajec through icy water up to 
their necks and by vigorous assault captured 
the heights. On the following day the 
Austro-German s made a stand on a fifty-mile 
front extending from Wieliczka south to the 
Dunajec. They were defeated with heavy 
losses, losing many prisoners and guns. 

In West Galicia events during the next few 
days favored the combined armies of Austria- 
Germany. The south wing of the Russian 
army was defeated at Limanovo and com- 
pelled to retreat. At the same time a third 
incursion of the German forces into Galicia 
was arrested by Gen. Dmitrieff's army on 
the very border of the province, although they 
had crossed the Carpathians on a wide front 
between Wieliczka and the headwater of the 
San River. 

During the same week, the garrison at 
Przemysl, which was threatened with starva- 
tion, attempted to lift the siege by making a 



series of sorties, but each time were driven 
back with heavy losses. 

German Army Repulses the Russians 

GERMANY had been steadily pouring her 
troops into Galicia, through the Dukla Pass, 
and now had an army of 500,000 trained 
soldiers assisting the Austrians. In addition, 
Hindenberg had launched his great offensive 
toward Warsaw, elsewhere described. The 
Russian raiding forces which had crossed the 
passes into Hungary were now compelled to 
withdraw. 

With the arrival of the Germans, the Rus- 
sian offensive against Cracow was checked, 
Gen. Ivanoff's Army was forced back 70 
miles north of Cracow, compelling in turn 
the retirement of Dmitrieff's forces from the 
Dunajec to the Biala River. 

Still farther eastward, the army of Gen. 
Brusiloff was holding its own against the 
Austrian army under Gen. Ermolli. Early in 
December Ermolli tried to put a wedge be- 
tween the armies of Brusiloff and Dmitrieff, 
but he was defeated with the loss of 30,000 
prisoners. 

Meanwhile Hindenberg, in the Polish tri- 
angle, had forced back the central Russian 
armies. In Galicia, the combined Austro- 
German forces had closed the Silesian Gate 
into Germany, and saved Cracow from 
capture. 

New Russian Offensive in the Carpathians 

ON Christmas day, 1914, the Russian Gen- 
eral Staff launched a new offensive, this time 
among the mountain spurs of the Carpath- 
ians. Though outnumbered and outgunned 
by the Austro-German forces, the Russians 
advanced confidently on the Dukla Pass, the 
historic road into Hungary from the east. 
Two Russian infantry regiments, under a 
murderous fire, waded waist deep in the icy 
water of the Jasiolka River, charged the Aus- 
trian line, and took many prisoners. 

South of the Vistula, the Russians swept 
the Biecz front of all the Austrian forces, 
taking 15,000 prisoners. The upper reaches 
of the Vistula were similarly cleared. In 
western Galicia, the Russians drove the 
enemy before them like sheep. 



First Year of the War 1914 



97 



The year 1914 closed on the Galician front, 
with the Russian troops everywhere success- 
ful, and aiming at the six passes over the 
Carpathians. 

Russian Minister of War a Proved Traitor 

As a result of disclosures made during 
these opening campaigns, Gen. Sukhomlinoff, 
the Russian Minister of War, was tried for 
treason in September, 1914. 

It was proved at his trial that, for German 
gold, he had connived at sending Russian 
troops to their death in Galicia without nec- 
essary military supplies. It was also proved 
that he had received German money as a 
reward for holding up at Archangel* large 
stores of ammunition which had been sent 
to the army by Russia's allies. The loss of 



this ammunition cost tens of thousands of 
Russian lives. 

In spite of his colossal crimes, this arch- 
traitor was merely sentenced to life impris- 
onment, though scores of loyal soldiers were 
being put to death daily for slight infrac- 
tions of the military code. 

St. Petersburg's Name Changed to Petrograd 

ABOUT this time, Czar Nicholas, by Im- 
perial Decree, ordained that the name of the 
capital city, St. Petersburg, which smacked 
of the German, should be changed to Petro- 
grad, a wholly Slavic word. If at the same 
time he had banished the vicious German 
court clique from Petrograd, he might have 
saved his Empire. 



EASTERN THEATER. SEPT. 26 -DEC. 31 - 



Germans Sustain Two Colossal Defeats in Russian Poland 

Russians Repel Hindenberg's Two Invasions While Fighting Austrians in Galicia 
Treachery of a Russian General Saves German Army from Annihilation 



SECTION 14-1914 






Russian Forces, 2,000,000 

Grand Duke Nicholas, Generalissimo 

Gen. Russky 

Gen. Brusiloff 

Gen. Dmitrieff 

Gen. Plehve 

Gen. Ewerts 

Gen. Rennenkampf 

Gen. Schiedeman (Warsaw Garrison) 

Artillery manned by Japanese gunners 

Gen. Gurko (Cavalry) 



THE year 1914 closed on the Eastern 
front with two colossal defeats of the 
combined German and Austrian armies, 
under the supreme command of Field Mar- 
shal von Hindenberg, by Russian forces of 
lesser strength, commanded by Grand Duke 
Nicholas. For two months or more, nearly 
5,000,000 men were engaged in mutual 
slaughter on a battle line extending from the 
Baltic Sea to the Carpathians. 

The Germans, arrogant and boastful, had 
expected an early victory. Instead, they 
barely escaped annihilation. Were it not for 
the treachery of a Russian general of Ger- 
man birth the same Rennenkampf who had 
betrayed Gen. Samsonoff at Tannenberg and 
afterward abandoned his retreating troops 



German-Austrian Forces, 2,500,000 
Field Marshal von Hindenberg 
Gen. von Ludendorf, Chief-of-Staff 
Gen. Mackensen 
Gen. von Morgen 
Gen. von Linsingen 
Gen. von Below 
Archduke Eugene 
Archduke Joseph 
Gen. Schubert 
Gen. Dankl 
Gen. Kusmanek 
Gen. Boehm-Ermolli 

the principal German army must surely have 
been captured entire. These defeats at the 
hands of the despised Slavs proved as galling 
to Teutonic pride as their more spectacular 
failure in the Battle of the Marne. 

In September, when the Russians were 
overrunning all Galicia, after dispersing 
the Austrian armies and advancing almost 
to the walls of Cracow, Germany took fright. 
If Cracow should fall, not only would the road 
to Berlin be open to an invading army, but 
the collapse of the Austrian armies might re- 
sult in Austria suing for a separate peace. 

Moreover, the Russians, in occupying Ga- 
licia, had seized the great petroleum wells 
near Lemberg, the sole remaining source of 
Germany's supply of oil. If she hoped to 



98 



Germany's Crime Against Humanity 



win the war, Germany must regain those oil 
wells. Still another motive which actuated 
Germany in planning the invasion of Poland, 
was the necessity of winning a decisive vic- 
tory before the year closed in order to im- 
press the Turks, whose alliance was greatly 
desired, but who were still holding aloof. 

The general military conditions favored a 
vigorous German offensive in the eastern 
theater of war. On the Western front, where 
the recent German assaults on Ypres had 
failed, a stalemate was seen to be inevitable. 
The campaign on that front was settling 
down to trench warfare, enabling Germany 
to transfer many army corps eastward to 
assist Austria in her distress and possibly 
overwhelm Russia. 

Hindenberg Given Supreme Command 

GENERAL Paul von Hindenberg, who in 
August had annihilated one Russian army at 
Tannenberg, only to meet with humiliating 
defeat at Augustowa three weeks later, was 
detached from the Baltic front and given su- 
preme command of all the German and Aus- 
trian forces in the eastern theater of war. 
His chief of staff was Gen. von Ludendorf, 
the ablest of German strategists. 

With half a million fresh troops at his 
disposal, to reinforce 2,000,000 German and 
Austrian soldiers already in the field, Hin- 
denberg was ready in early October to begin 
his offensive. Knowing that the Russian 
center had been greatly weakened by the 
simultaneous advance of Russian armies into 
East Prussia on the north and Galicia in the 
south, and that Warsaw was defended by a 
very slim garrison, he resolved upon a double 
invasion of Russian Poland, with Warsaw as 
the chief objective. 

One group of German armies was ordered 
to cut the Polish salient from the northwest, 
while an Austrian group of armies was in- 
vading Poland from the southwest. These 
armies, after forming a junction, were then 
to advance to the capture of Warsaw. Their 
combined strength, Hindenberg believed, was 
sufficient to overwhelm any force which the 
Russians might assemble. Once in posses- 
sion of Warsaw, Hindenberg would control 
the Russian military base, and from that 



position in the spring he could proceed to the 
further conquest of Russia. 

Germans Cross the Carpathians 

BEFORE launching his direct drive on War- 
saw, Hindenberg had despatched 500,000 
German troops across the Dukla Pass of the 
Carpathians into Galicia, to save the shat- 
tered Austrian armies from total destruction 
and defend Cracow, the capitol of Poland, 
from threatened assault. 

Uniting with the scattered units of the 
Austrian army, the Germans counter-attacked 
the Russians, holding them in check 70 miles 
from Cracow, and compelling the evacuation 
of Jaroslav and the raising of the siege of 
Przemysl. 

German Army Crushed at Kovno 

WITH his right flank thus protected by the 
Carpathians, Hindenberg took steps to se- 
cure his left flank before marching on War- 
saw. Knowing that Gen. Russky's Russian 
army was disposd along the Niemen River in 
a position equally favorable for a flanking 
movement around the German left, or for a 
quick advance to the relief of Warsaw, Gen. 
Hindenberg ordered his Baltic army to ad- 
vance to the Niemen and drive a wedge be- 
tween Russky's army and Warsaw. 

General Schubert was assigned the task of 
turning Gen. Russky's flank. Instead of ac- 
complishing his purpose, Schubert's group of 
armies was crushingly defeated at Kovno, 
Grodno, and Ossowiec. The German army, 
outflanked at both ends, was pushed back in 
confusion across the frontier, with a loss of 
50,000 men and many guns. 

The disaster on the Niemen was aggra- 
vated by Schubert's message to Hindenberg, 
describing his defeat as a "strategic retreat," 
instead of a panic rout. 

The Invasion of Poland 

DECEIVED by this false assurance, Hinden- 
berg confidently began his invasion of Rus- 
sian Poland. The Teutonic armies advanced 
on Warsaw in four columns one along the 
Thorn-Warsaw Railroad, a second along the 
Kalisc-Warsaw line, a third along the Bres- 
lin-Radom-Ivangorod Railroad, and a fourth 
from Cracow in the same direction. 



First Year of the War 1914 



99 



As the German steam roller advanced, the 
force of Russians within the Polish triangle 
retreated slowly toward their base on the 
Vistula. The Germans in turn occupied Lodz, 
Radom, and all the other important cities 
and towns in the triangle, meanwhile repair- 
ing the railroad bridges destroyed by the re- 
treating Russians. 

By October 5, the German columns in the 
north had advanced almost to the gates of 
Ivangorod, while the Austrians further south 
had reached the Vistula between the Galician 
border and Ivangorod. 

Torrential rains were now falling, convert- 
ing the roads into quagmires. Horses sank 
up to their flanks and wagons up to their 
axles in the deep mud. In this emergency, 
great stretches of forest were cut down and 
felled trunks used to make corduroy roads. 
In the soggier places, artillery causeways 
were built, but these were soon blown to 
pieces by the Russian shells. 

Warsaw In Danger 

As the Germans drew closer to Warsaw 
and the thunder of their cannon could be 
heard, panic seized the inhabitants. Of its 
million citizens all who could flee the capital 
did so. Warsaw's main defenses consisted of 
twenty detached forts, whose batteries were 
manned by Japanese gunners, and a garri- 
son of 120,000 Siberian troops under the 
command of Gen. Schiedeman. 

On October 13, when the Germans had oc- 
cupied the towns of Blondie and Prusskow, 
some ten miles from" Warsaw, the garrison 
marched forth to give battle to the invaders. 
Though outnumbered two to one, the Rus- 
sians, in a two days' battle, compelled the 
Germans to retreat. Reinforced, the Ger- 
mans regained possession of the lost territory 
on the 16th. 

Meanwhile, squadrons of German airplanes 
were bombing Warsaw incessantly, day and 
night, killing and wounding hundreds of in- 
nocent non-combatants. The buildings shook 
with the detonation of the heavy guns. All 
foreigners had by this time left the city, but 
the peasants from the villages round about 
streamed into the city in vast numbers. On 
the 17th the Germans were within seven 
miles of Warsaw ; they had even crossed the 

COLL 



Vistula some miles south of Warsaw on pon- 
toons. All that stayed their advance was a 
slim remnant of a division of Siberian troops, 
whose artillery had been silenced and who 
had been cut almost to pieces. They were 
virtually in retreat, offering scarcely any re- 
sistance. From the Rodno road, the shat- 
tered remnants of other regiments were al- 
ready streaming back into Warsaw. It 
seemed as if the city must capitulate to the 
foe. 

Just when despair was seizing the inhabi- 
tants, the Germans ceased their attack and 
the word spread from lip to lip that Russian 
reinforcements were arriving. An hour 
later, the advance host of a Russian army, 
which had marched 150 miles from Galicia, 
through the mud and rain, to the relief of 
Warsaw, hove in sight. They were followed 
by corps on corps of infantry, cavalry, and 
artillery. 

The Germans Retreat 150 Miles 

WITHOUT delay the Russian gunners 
opened fire on the German front, while the 
Russian cavalry began to roll up both the 
German flanks. October 21 saw the Germans 
in full retreat from Warsaw. Two days later 
they were in rapid flight as far as Lowics. 

On the 28th the Russians reoccupied 
Radom and Lodz, vigorously pressing the 
pursuit on a wide front. As they retreated, 
the German armies split in two columns, one 
fleeing westward north of the Pilitza River, 
the other due south, with an interval of 40 
miles between them. 

By November 10, the Russians had not 
only forced the Russians out of Poland, but 
some of their detachments had penetrated 20 
miles into Prussian territory. Hindenberg*s 
army finally found protection on a line based 
on Thorn, Posen, and Breslau, 150 miles 
from Warsaw. 

Poland Devastated by the Germans 

DURING this retreat through Poland, Hin- 
denberg showed himself a true Vandal by 
destroying everything in his path railways, 
bridges, telegraphs, roads, villages. He 
found Poland blooming like a rose; he left 
it as desolate as a desert. No such destruc- 
tion had visited any other section of Europe, 
. CHRIST! REGIS SJ. 
Bib. tf M 



100 



Germany's Crime Against Humanity 



unless Belgium be excepted. More than 200 
cities and 9000 villages were destroyed, and 
7,000,000 people were reduced to the point of 
starvation. 

Austrian Disaster in Galicia 

THE collapse of Hindenberg's first offen- 
sive also spelled disaster to the Austrian 
army in Galicia, commanded by Gen. Dankl. 
Defeated in the Battle of Kosiencia, the 
Austrians were driven pell mell back to 
Radom. The entire right wing of Dankl's 
army was finally surrounded at Kielce, Octo- 
ber 28, 12,000 prisoners being taken in a 
walled graveyard. 

Meanwhile, Gen. Dmitrieff, the idol of Bul- 
garia, in command of a Russian army, had 
borne down upon the Austrians in Galicia 
and shut up two of their crack divisions 
within the walls of Przemysl. All other 
Austrian armies in Galicia that were able 
to escape had made their way in confusion 
to the border. 

Hindenberg's Second Drive for Warsaw 

HINDENBERG'S army, though driven back 
150 miles across the German border, was 
still intact and undismayed by defeat. In 
mid-November, when Turkey's entrance into 
the war as an ally of Germany was assured, 
Hindenberg decided to hazard another inva- 
sion of Poland. 

The military situation seemed to justify 
this decision. Russia's main armies were 
deeply engaged with the Austrians in Ga- 
licia ; her new levies were turning southward 
to repel the advancing Turks in Trans-Cau- 
casia ; Warsaw was indifferently defended by 
200,000 troops, and exposed to attack from 
three directions. Now was the time to strike 
a blow at Warsaw and compel the withdrawal 
of Russian troops from Galicia, where they 
were once again menacing Cracow and the 
historic gate to Berlin and Vienna. 

Carefully reorganizing his forces, and rein- 
forcing them with picked Prussian troops, 
Hindenberg called to his aid two generals 
of distinction who had been kept in the back- 
ground hitherto. General von Mackensen 
was summoned from Danzig, to which place 
he had been exiled for too frank criticism of 
the Crown Prince, and assigned to the com- 



mand of the northern army, guarding the 
eastern approaches to Thorn. General von 
Morgen was placed in command of the south- 
ern army operating from Halicz. Hinden- 
berg himself directed a third reserve army 
operating in the center. 

Russians Again Betrayed in Battle of Lodz 

FROM his base on the Thorn River, Mack- 
ensen on November 12 crossed the Polish 
frontier with an army some 800,000 strong, 
supported by much artillery. Before this 
superior force, Gen. Russky's Russian army 
withdrew, intending to fall back on the 
strong defenses behind the Bzura River, half 
way to Warsaw. 

In their retreat, the Russians skirted the 
city of Lowicz, moving southward to Stry- 
kow and thence on to Lodz, which is pro- 
tected on its west side by a great belt of 
nearly impassable marshes. In close pur- 
suit, Mackensen's right wing quickly seized 
the western crossings of the marshes; his 
extreme left moved toward Plock, while his 
center advanced against Piontek, where a 
heavy causeway had been engineered for 
heavy transport through the marshes. 

Two German corps, 100,000 strong, in a 
furious assault on November 18, captured 
the causeway. After crossing over, they 
split the Russian line and rolled up both 
flanks. One Russian wing was isolated 
around Lodz, the other on a line running east 
of Brezin to the Vistula. 

The Germans, strongly reinforced, at once 
began the envelopment "of the Russian army 
at Lodz, attacking in overwhelming force 
and with great vigor on the front, flank, and 
rear. 

The Russians, though resisting gallantly, 
were on the verge of surrender when rein- 
forcements arrived from Warsaw and Ga- 
licia. 

Then was witnessed a military maneuver 
absolutely unique in warfare. While Mack- 
ensen was striving to envelop Russky's 
forces, Grand Duke Nicholas was endeavor- 
ing to envelop the enveloping army. 

General Ewerts with one column of Rus- 
sian troops struck hard at Mackensen's left 
flank, while Gen. Rennenkampf was closing 
in on the right flank. 



First Year of the War 1914 



101 



When the Germans saw the great Russian 
army closing in on them, they fought franti- 
cally to cut their way out of the deep salient. 
Fighting at close quarters, man to man, 
quarter was neither asked nor given. Day 
after day the terrible conflict raged round 
about Lodz; closer and closer the Rus- 
sian circle was drawn; the losses on both 
sides were appalling. At the height of the 
battle, fearing capture, one of the Kaiser's 
sons escaped from the trap in an airplane. 

The German army, however, was allowed 
to escape because of treachery in the Russian 
high command. General Rennenkampf, the 
German commander of one of the Russian 
armies the same traitor who had betrayed 
Samsonoff at Tannenberg and afterward de- 
serted his army on its retreat deliberately 
disobeyed his orders to close in on the 
Germans. 

The situation was as follows : Two entire 
German corps, 100,000 men, had been caught 
in a pocket whose mouth was almost closed. 
It was Rennenkampf's task to close that 
pocket. Through a "tactical error," as he 
claimed, Rennenkampf permitted the Ger- 
man corps to escape capture. A third time 
he had proved a traitor to his adopted coun- 
try. For this supreme act of treachery Ren- 
nenkampf was courtmartialed and retired in 
disgrace. 

Russians Evacuate Lodz 

FROM Flanders and France, Hindenberg 
quickly transferred several corps and much 
heavy artillery to reinforce Mackensen, 
enabling the latter to renew his offensive on 
the Bzura front. So sure was Hindenberg of 
victory that he promised Warsaw as a Christ- 
mas gift to the Kaiser. Day by day, for a 
fortnight, Mackensen pounded the Russian 
line, with a reckless expenditure of men, los- 
ing 11,000 in a single day. 

The German left wing, meanwhile, had 
pushed forward beyond Lodz. The posi- 
tion being no longer tenable, the Russians 
evacuated the city in the night. On the 
morrow the German guns for fifteen hours 
shelled empty trenches which the Russians 
had abandoned on the preceding day. With- 
out opposition the Germans entered Lodz on 
December 6. 



The whole Russian line was withdrawn 
eastward in good order, occupying a strongly 
defended position in front of Warsaw, on the 
line of the Bzura and Rawka rivers. Here 
the Germans' advance was definitely checked. 
Hindenberg's second invasion of Poland had 
failed. 

German Victory at Kodno 

WHILE Mackensen's main army was ad- 
vancing on Lodz, Gen. Morgan's German 
army on his left had scored a notable victory. 
Moving out from their base at Halicz, the 
Prussians, on November 14, encountered the 
right wing of the Russian Baltic army, on a 
line extending from Wloclawek, 30 miles 
south of Kodno. 

The Russians, with a strength of only 
three corps, held their ground until crushed 
under the weight of numbers. After losing 
20,000 prisoners and 70 guns, besides thou- 
sands in killed and wounded, the Russian 
right wino- fell back to the Bzura River. For 
this victory, Gen. von Mackensen was raised 
to the rank of an Under Field Marshall. 

The Fighting in East Prussia 

WHILE engaged in the drives for Warsaw, 
the Germans had restricted themselves 
largely to defensive measures in East 
Prussia. But in concert with Morgen's No- 
vember attack on the Russian right wing in 
Poland, Gen. von Below was directed to ad- 
vance out of East Prussia, cross the Russian 
border, and cut the main railway line be- 
tween Petrograd and Warsaw. 

Below pushed forward to the Russian 
frontier, but was driven back with heavy 
losses to a secure position behind the Ma- 
zurian lakes. 

Subsequently, in December, von Below's 
army was summoned to the assistance of 
Mackensen's army at Prasmycz, and barely 
escaped envelopment. Again he retired be- 
hind the Mazurian lakes, there to remain 
during the winter, which had now set in. 

Collapse of Russian Drive on Cracow 

IN order to protect Warsaw, during Hin- 
denberg's invasion, the Russians had been 
compelled to withdraw a large part of their 
forces from Galicia. The Austrians, with 
the aid of powerful German reinforcements, 
were consequently enabled to lift the siege 



102 



Germany's Crime Against Humanity 



of Cracow, reoccupy Jaroslav and recover 
the greater part of western Galicia. The 
Russians, however, still held Lemberg and 
were investing Pr^emysl. Their raids across 
the Carpathians had temporarily ceased, to 
be resumed in the early spring. Due to Hin- 
denberg's drive on Warsaw, the Austrians 
had been given a new lease of life. 

Enormous Losses on Both Sides 
FOR five months not fewer than 5,000,000 
men had been engaged on the Russian front, 



along the Baltic, in Poland, and in Galicia. 
The combined losses of both armies have 
never been officially published. 

The Germans allege that the Russians lost 
743,000 in killed, 421,500 in totally disabled, 
and 310,000 prisoners. The Russians claim 
to have taken 360,000 German and Austrian 
prisoners, and they set the German losses in 
killed and wounded at a figure at least equal 
to their own. 



fefemmmfemtefe WESTERN THEATER. OCT. is -NOV. 13 temtePajBateisspaiKaiB 

Ypres, the Bloodiest of All the Battles Fought in Flanders 

1,500,000 Germans Held Back by 500,000 British, French and Belgians 
Many Germans Drowned When Dikes of the Yser were Cut and the Country Flooded 

K SECTION is - 1914 IBS te tetetefefetetefefefeft 



German Armies, 1,500,000 
Crown Prince of Bavaria 
Duke of Wurttemberg 
Gen. von Buelow 
Gen. von Beseler 






Allied Armies, 500,000 

Gen. Foch, Commander-in-Chief 

British Forces 

Gen. Sir John French 

Gen. Smith-Dorrien 

Gen. Sir Douglas Haig 

Gen. Pulteney 

Gen. Rawlinson 

Rear Admiral Hood (navy) 

French Forces 
Gen. Maud'huy 
Gen. Grosetti 

Admiral Ronarch (Marines) 
Gen. de Mitry 

Belgian Forces 
Gen. Meyser 
King Albert 

AFTER the fall of Antwerp, on October 
9, the Germans had pushed forward 
and occupied the Belgian coast line 
from the frontier of Holland as far west as 
Ostend. They now laid covetuous eyes upon 
the channel ports of Calais, Dunkirk, and 
Boulogne. 

With Ostend and Zeebrugge already in 
their possession, they were enabled to estab- 
lish new submarine bases, from which to at- 
tack the Allied shipping. If Calais, Dun- 
kirk, and Boulogne also could be seized, it 
would be easily possible to bombard the 
English coast towns with German long range 
guns. 

The Allied battle line at this time was 
continuous from the Swiss border northward 
to Lille, or within 40 miles of the North Sea. 
The Germans hoped to penetrate this 40-mile 



gap and seize all the seaports. To accom- 
plish this strategy, they brought to the area 
of battle in Flanders a colossal force, esti- 
mated as high as 1,500,000 men. 

To oppose this monstrous horde, the Allies 
could muster less than 500,000 men. Yet this 
comparatively puny force was able to hold 
in check the whole strength of Germany. The 
battles in Flanders which ensued were among 
the bloodiest known in history. 

The Line of Battle in Flanders 

THE British army, during the "Race for 
the Sea," had been transferred from the 
Aisne front to the left flank of the battle line 
in Flanders. With the fall of Antwerp, the 
duty devolved on the British to cover the 
retreat of the Belgian army. This task was 
brilliantly executed by Gen. Sir Henry Raw- 



First Year of the War -1914 



103 



linson, in command of two divisions of Brit- 
ish cavalry and two divisions of French in- 
fantry. 

By October 20, the Allied line in Belgium 
was intact from the North Sea to Albert, a 
distance of 100 miles. The extreme left wing, 
from Nieuport on the coast to Bixschoote, 
was held by Belgian and French mixed 
troops, under command of Gen. Mitry, sup- 
ported by the batteries of an English and 
French fleet. A British corps, under Gen. 
Sir Douglas Haig, held the line from Bixs- 
choote to Messines. General Pulteney's Brit- 
ish corps carried the line from Messines to 
Laventie, and Gen. Smith-Dorrien extended 
the line to Vermelles. 

The remainder of the front, between Ver- 
melles and Albert, was occupied by French 
troops under command of Gen. Maud'huy. 
On the German side, the line from the North 
Sea to Laventie was held by the army groups 
commanded by the Duke of Wurttemberg, 
and Gen. von Beseler. Prince Rupprecht's 
army group opposed Smith-Dorrien between 
Laventie and Vermelles, while Gen. von Bue- 
low's army group occupied the remainder of 
the line as far as Albert. 

Against the thirty army corps, or 1,500,000 
men, comprising the German forces in Fland- 
ers, the Allies could muster scarcely twelve 
corps. Of these Gen. Maud'huy had three 
French corps, or 120,000 men; the British, 
four corps, or 160,000 men ; and the Belgians, 
one corps, or 40,000 men. In addition there 
were two corps of French Territorial troops 
and two corps of French regulars, with some 
cavalry. 

All told, there were fewer than half a 
million Allied troops facing three times their 
number of Germans. In artillery support, 
the Germans had a superiority of ten to one, 
excepting where, in rare instances, the Brit- 
ish and French fleets could employ their naval 
guns from the offing against the German 
coast defences. General Ferdinand Foch was 
in supreme command of the Allied forces 
north of Noyon, while Kaiser Wilhelm in 
person directed the operation of the German 
armies. 

The Germans had blundered most amaz- 
ingly after the capture of Antwerp. Though 
outnumbering the Allies in this area of battle 



in a ratio of three to one, they nevertheless 
had failed to cut off the Belgian army's re- 
treat to the Yser River, and had permitted 
the Allies to occupy Ypres, Roulers, and 
Furness. 

They had lost their chance to seize the un- 
defended port of Calais, and instead were 
penned in at Ostend in the north of Belgium. 
Meanwhile, the British had driven the Huns 
across the Lys River and were masters of its 
left bank. Aided by the British and French, 
the remnant of the Belgian army had re- 
treated to Nieuport, where the Yser River 
enters the sea. Here the shattered army of 
King Albert had been reinforced by French 
and British marines, some at Nieuport, others 
at Ypres, still some others behind the Yser 
River and the canal that joins it to the Lys. 

In this cramped area, amidst a maze of 
canals and dykes, for more than a month, 
were fought some of the bloodiest battles 
known to history, participated in by the 
most diverse mixture of races, religions, col- 
ors, and nationalities ever assembled in 
combat. 

The Battle of the Yser Opens 

THE battles in Flanders may be viewed in 
three principal phases: First, the engage- 
ments along the 12-mile front of the Yser 
Canal, between Nieuport and Dixmude, in 
which the Belgians, French marines, French 
Territorials, African riflemen, and British 
fleet sustained the German attack; second, 
the Battle of Ypres, in which the British 
had the larger share; third, the German as- 
saults on La Basses and Arras, in which the 
French and British united to repel the Ger- 
man onslaught. 

Resolved at all costs to break through the 
Allied line to Calais, the armies of the Duke 
of Wurttemberg, 750,000 strong, on October 
18, made many violent thrusts at various 
points along the 12-mile front between Nieu- 
port and Dixmude. 

The town of Nieuport on the River Yser, 
a mile from the sea, was defended by a force 
of 50,000 Belgians. The two villages of 
Lombartzyde and Westende, at the mouth of 
the river, were also occupied by the Belgians 
and some French Territorials. 



104 



Germany's Crime Against Humanity 



On the seaward flank, one mile off the 
coast, three British monitors, with a draft 
of less than five feet, and mounting huge 
howitzers, were prepared to co-operate with 
the Belgians. A French naval division, under 
Admiral Ronarch, also brought their guns 
to bear on the German right. Advancing 
along the seacoast from Ostend, the right 
wing of Wurttemberg's army fell upon the 
villages of Lombartzyde and Westende, 
which they captured after a spirited re- 
sistance. 

No sooner were the Germans in possession 
than the British monitors steamed up to 
within a half mile of the shore and deluged 
the village with shells from their howitzers 
and three-pounders. The German sub- 
marines from Ostend sought in vain to reach 
these British monitors, being unable to fol- 
low them into the shoal water. Torpedoes 
were fired at the British vessels, but they all 
passed harmlessly beneath their hulls, having 
been set for much greater depth than the 
monitors' draught. The German big guns 
also failed to reach the British vessels, while 
the British naval guns were able to sweep 
the country for six miles inland, taking a 
heavy toll of death. 

Three Belgian batteries also opened fire on 
Lombartzyde and Westende, and the Ger- 
mans were glad to abandon these towns 
when the houses began toppling down upon 
their heads. Prevented from approaching 
Nieuport by the main road down the coast, 
the Germans withdrew, leaving thousands 
of their dead behind in the village streets. 

The Fighting at Dixmude 

NEAR Dixmude, on October 16, some two 
miles east of the Yser Canal, a force of 5000 
Belgians, under Gen. Meyser, and 6000 
French marines, under Admiral Ronarch, 
were savagely attacked by 100,000 Bavarians, 
commanded by the Duke of Wurttemberg. 

Incredible though it may appear, that lit- 
tle handful of Belgians and French actually 
held the huge Bavarian army in check for 
several days, inflicting heavy losses on the 
foe. On October 19, the German high com- 
mand ordered the Bavarians to cross the Yser 
"at any cost of men." In overwhelming 
masses the Bavarians advanced toward Dix- 



mude, taking several villages at a high price 
in human life. On the 21st, they crossed 
the Yser Canal near Schoorebakhe, but were 
soon beaten back. 

A furious bombardment of Dixmude by 
heavy howitzers was then begun, followed by 
eight separate assaults against the town. At 
nightfall 5000 Germans succeeded in cross- 
ing the Yser, but few of them were permitted 
to remain there. A German cavalry brigade, 
numbering 2000 horses, was driven back at 
the* bayonet's point into the Yser River, while 
a German infantry brigade that had wormed 
its way into Dixmude was practically exter- 
minated. Dixmude became a German ceme- 
tery. 

Again the Germans penetrated into Dix- 
mude. Bayonet fighting ensued from house 
to house and up and down the streets. In 
the end, the German battalion was either 
slain or captured. 

Above Dixmude, near St. George's Chap- 
elle, where the Germans had crossed the 
Yser, a strenuous struggle occurred. The 
Germans, after occupying Stuyvekenskerke, 
were expelled by the Belgians in a furious 
bayonet charge. Returning to the fray, the 
Germans concentrated their mitrailleuses on 
the canal bank close by, cutting the Bel- 
gian defensive force to pieces. Once again 
the Germans closed in on the village, but now 
they were confronted by the French, who 
drove them back across the Yser. 

Flooded Meadows Cause German Disaster 

BY October 25, the German advance had 
crossed the Yser at various points. Behind 
them were nearly a million and a half men. 
Only the most heroic measures could save 
Belgium from complete capture. In this 
crisis, Gen. Foch decided to inundate the 
whole region between Nieuport and Dixmude. 

The meadows and fields of this district at 
high tide were below the sea level. By a 
system of sluices at the mouth of the Yser, 
near Nieuport, the waters of the canal and 
the numberless dykes and ditches which drain 
into it are ordinarily discharged into the 
sea. At high tide the sluices are closed and 
the land water held back until the sea again 
fills. 



First Year of the War- 1914 



105 



The Belgians dammed the lower reaches 
of this canal and the waters rapidly over- 
flowed the brim, filling the meadows. The 
Germans soon were floundering in water 
knee deep, while their heavy guns were an- 
chored in mud. To spread the inundation, 
the Belgians fired shells into the dyke walls, 
releasing a vast volume of water that covered 
the district occupied by the Germans. 

The Battle of Ramscapelle 

THE Germans, though trapped, did not yet 
abandon their efforts. Their one chance of 
escape lay in capturing Nieuport and obtain- 
ing control of the sluices. By means of table 
tops, boards, planks, and other devices, the 
Bavarians crossed the flood and gained a 
foothold on the railway line, afterward occu- 
pying Ramscapelle. The Belgians at once 
made more breaches in the dams and opened 
the sluices still wider, until the seething 
waves rose to the level of the raised railroad 
tracks. 

Then the Belgians and French hurled 
themselves on the Bavarians at Ramscapelle. 
For a time the Bavarians held their ground, 
but presently demoralization seized them 
and after the streets of the town had been 
littered with their dead, they broke and 
turned tail, fleeing toward the lake in their 
rear. The French "75's" then were brought 
up, and a hail of shell fell on the Bavarians 
as they floundered through the waist-high 
waters. Machine guns also came into play, 
raking the line of retreat. Soon the lake, 
between the Ramscapelle and the Yser Canal, 



was dotted with the bodies of drowned Ba- 
varians. The survivors were barely able to 
reach a haven of safety over the bridges at 
St. Georges, Schoorbakhe, and Tervaete. 

The Battle of the Yser was at an end. Bel- 
gian and French valor had triumphed over 
Prussian numbers and ruthlessness. The 
Yser River, after this battle, ran red with 
blood. Canals in places were bridged with 
dead bodies. Germans had been drowned 
by thousands in the entrenchments when the 
flood came rushing in. On the edge of the 
flooded area, the Belgians and French in- 
fantry raked the doomed Germans with a 
pitiless fire of bullets, while the shells from 
the Allied fleet and land batteries broke in- 
cessantly' over the waters. 

Western Belgium was now as a vast char- 
nel house filled with unburied corpses. The 
wounded thronged every available building, 
or lay by the thousands in the open without 
succor or shelter, facing death from exhaus- 
tion. Villages, towns, and hamlets had been 
reduced to ashheaps. Not only were all the 
roads torn up by shells, but the cemeteries 
were forced to give up their dead, bones dug 
up by shells being flung along the surface of 
the soil. 

All the larger towns Nieuport, Bruges, 
Dixmude, Ramscapelle, and Peroyse were 
practically destroyed. In Nieuport, not one 
house remained undamaged, while the Cathe- 
dral and the Hotel de Ville were ruined be- 
yond repair. The Germans in this battle lost 
nearly 300,000 men. 



The Battle of Ypres 



British Forces, 150,000 

Gen. Sir John French 

THWARTED at Nieuport and Dixmude by 
the disaster which followed the inundation 
of the Yser, the Germans next attempted to 
force the British front near Ypres, a town 
on the banks of the Yperlee, 12 miles to the 
south. Here they were beyond range of the 
guns of the Allied fleet, which had wrought 
such destruction in their ranks at Nieuport. 

On this front of 30 miles, Gen. Sir John 
French had scarcely 150,000 Britishers to 
sustain the attack, while the German forces, 
commanded by the Duke of Wurttemberg, 



German Forces, 400,000 
Duke of Wurttemberg 

numbered 400,000. General Foch had prom- 
ised, however, to send reinforcements to the 
British as soon as possible. 

On the night of October 26 a night of 
inky darkness and torrential rain the Ger- 
mans in mass formation attacked the British 
front east and west of Ypres, but were 
beaten back so effectively and with such ter- 
rible losses that they needed three days in 
which to recuperate. 

The Kaiser in person then came to Menin 
to direct the next assault, which was launched 



106 



Germany's Crime Against Humanity 



on October 29 against the salient of the 
Gheluvelt crossroads near Kruiseik. A re- 
serve army corps, 50,000 men, was sent for- 
ward in mass to crush the line held at this 
point by 8000 exhausted Britishers. The 
heroic defence of Kruiseik by the Britishers 
forms one of the brightest chapters in the an- 
nals of warfare, but in the end numbers pre- 
vailed and the British fell back to the slopes 
of the Gheluvelt ridge, where they checked 
the further advance of the Germans. 

Bringing their heavy artillery into play, at 
dawn of the following day, the Germans 
directed their intensest fire against the 
ridge of Zandvoorde. Here the British 
trenches were obliterated and many of the 
brave Britishers were buried alive under 
mountains of debris. Yet the survivors man- 
aged somehow to preserve their line, retiring 
at dusk to Klein Zillebeke, a mile to the 
north. 

The crisis of the battle came on October 
31. Advancing along the Menin-Ypres road 
at daybreak, the Germans assaulted the vil- 
lage of Gheluvelt with great violence. The 
famous British Coldstream Guards, who sus- 
tained the brunt of the attack, were practi- 
cally annihilated, while the British First Di- 
vision was beaten back to the woods between 
Veldhoek and Hooge. The Royal Fusiliers, 
defending their trenches to the last gasp, 
were cut off and destroyed. Out of a thousand 
fusiliers only seventy survived. 

The heroism of the British was beyond 
praise. Dismounted British cavalry again 
and again charged the Bavarians with their 
bayonets, hurling them back precipitately 
upon their reserves. In a desperate, counter- 
attack, the British recaptured Gheluvelt. 
When evening fell, Ypres was still in their 
possession. But the Germans had seized the 
commanding hills of Messines and Hollebeke, 
which afforded them ideal gun positions for 
the bombardment of Ypres. On the same 
night fresh German troops relieved those 
who had fought during the day, flinging 
themselves repeatedly against the thin but 
dauntless British line. So attenuated was 
that line that it was necessary to press into 
trench service, in order to fill the many gaps, 
all the cooks, servants, orderlies, and cyclists 
attached to the British army . 



Though shattered, bleeding, and wasted 
away, the British line somehow held until 
the arrival next day of the 16th French army, 
and with it Gen. Grosetti's 42d Division 
Foch's battering ram at Fere Champenoise 
to set up a new barrier against the Huns. 
With the arrival of this formidable fighting 
force the tide of battle turned and the road 
to Calais was closed forever against the Ger- 
man hordes. 

The Destruction of Ypres 

ENCOMPASSED on three sides by the enemy, 
Ypres itself was marked for destruction. 
From the Messines and 'Hollebeke hills, the 
great German howitzers and field guns for 
ten days shelled the doomed city. The in- 
habitants, including many refugees from the 
countryside, at first took refuge in cellars, 
but the shells crashed through the houses, 
bursting in basements and bringing down 
upon their luckless heads endless cataracts of 
brick, masonry, and other debris. Day and 
night, without ceasing, the bombardment 
continued. 

To add to the terrors of the inhabitants, 
fire broke out in the poorer quarters of the 
city, and spread unchecked, consuming hun- 
dreds of dwellings that had been spared by 
the shells. Left homeless, the populace fled 
in terror from the doomed city. On the 9th 
of November a general conflagration set in, 
completing the ruin of Ypres. 

Though the city was now wholly deserted, 
the German batteries nevertheless continued 
to pour their heaviest shells into the town 
until Ypres was reduced to a mass of incan- 
descent wreckage. 

A last supreme effort was made by the 
Germans, on November 11, to break through 
the Ypres salient. This culminating stroke 
was to be delivered by the Prussian Guards, 
under the immediate eye of the Emperor. 
Advancing in mass formation along the 
Menin road in the direction of Gheluvelt, the 
Germans captured the first line British 
trenches and were still advancing when the 
British infantry halted them by an enfilading 
fire so deadly in its effect that a third of the 
Guards dropped on the field. Though urged 
on by their officers, the Guards reeled back 
to their trenches, defeated and utterly cowed. 



First Year of the War-1914 



107 



In the Battle of Ypres, the British lost 40,000 
men and the Germans 70,000 men. 

Last Thrust at La Bassee, Armentieres, Arras 

FAILING to penetrate the Allied line be- 
tween Ypres and the sea, the Germans made 
their final thrusts further south in the sector 
between Ypres and Arras. A picked force 
of 40,000 men had been assembled for this 
last effort to seize the channel ports. Sup- 
porting them was sufficient artillery, appar- 
ently, to blow all Europe into oblivion. 
Nevertheless, the Germans failed to pass. 

Just north of the Lys River, at Armen- 
tieres, there was a gap in the Allied line 
thinly defended by French and British cav- 
alry. For three days, beginning with October 
27, the Germans had tried to force their way 
through without success, but at length they 
succeeded in pushing the Allied line back to 
St. Eloi, with heavy casualties on both sides. 

Reinforcements were hurried to the scene, 
and on October 31, amidst a blizzard of hail, 
jyhen Gheluvelt had fallen and the British line 
was all but yielding, orders for an immediate 
advance were given. The Britishers sprang 
at their foes and whipped them to a stand- 
still, turning a near victory into a defeat. 

At Armentieres, on November 5, the Ger- 
mans brought into play a new and terrible 
type of mortar which threw projectiles 
weighing half a ton or more. At dawn, they 
raked the Allied line with high angle fire, the 
giant shells falling plump into the British 
trenches. An enormous mass of infantry 
was then hurled against the Allied line in 
mass formation. 

They presented a perfect target for the 
British riflemen, who raked their ranks with 
a storm of shrapnel and bullets, taking a 
frightful toll of death. The German lines 
wavered and then broke. Instantly the 
Britishers sprang over their parapets and 
charged the retreating foe with fixed bay- 
onets. One stubborn line of Germans, cover- 
ing the retreat, turned and faced the British- 
ers. A desperate hand-to-hand struggle took 
place, but the Germans were finally driven 
back to their own position. 



An artillery duel on the most gigantic scale 
took place amidst the orchards and copses 
of La Bassee, where the Germans perished by 
thousands in a hopeless attempt to break 
through the French lines. The battle was 
unlike any ever fought before. Nowhere was 
a gun or a gunner exposed, all being con- 
cealed by wily devices. The French infantry, 
from their place of concealment, refused to 
be lured forth. 

The German infantry, on several occasions, 
simulated attacking movements, hoping to 
draw out the French. Approaching the 
French lines, they fired countless rounds of 
ammunition at no target in particular. But 
on the last approach of the Huns, the French 
uprose from their hiding places and sent a 
hurricane of shrapnel into the German ranks, 
decimating and demoralizing them. The 
artillery fire, though deafening and awe- 
inspiring, was far from effective. 

Though desultory fighting took place in 
this area up to the close of the year, no de- 
cisive engagement was fought. The Ger- 
mans had failed utterly to achieve their two 
great ends, first to turn the flank of the Allied 
line, or, failing that, to pierce the line and 
break through to the channel ports. They 
had lost the offensive and must continue the 
war on lines prescribed by the Allies. The 
backbone of the German offensive was broken 
by the Allies at Ypres. 

500,000 Dead in Flanders 

FLANDERS proved a gruesome graveyard 
for all the combatants. The Germans left 
350,000 dead upon that battle field, while the 
Allies lost fully 150,000. To the Allied forces 
the British contributed 50,000, or more than 
half of their Expeditionary Forces; the 
French, 75,000 ; and the Belgians, 25,000. 

The whole area of Flanders was a sham- 
bles. Rivers and lakes were choked with 
human bodies. Thousands of corpses lay un- 
buried on hillsides and plains. The whole 
region was a hideous mass of ruins. Hun- 
dreds of towns and thousands of villages 
were reduced to ashes. 



108 



Germany's Crime Against Humanity 



.^ WESTERN THEATER, SEPT. 29 NOV. 6 ............................................................ 



Evacuation of Antwerp and Flight of 500,000 Inhabitants 

Entire Belgian Army Endangered by Blunder of Lord Churchill 
Belgian Government Removes First to Ostend, Then to Havre, France. 



SECTION 16-1914 



Belgian Army, 120,000 
Gen. Moranville 
King Albert 
Brig. Gen. Paris 

AFTER the fall of Liege and Namur, 
the plucky Belgian army had re- 
treated before the German hordes to 
the strongly fortified city of Antwerp, one 
of the largest and richest of all the ports in 
the world, with a population of 350,000. The 
Belgian court and King Albert's government 
had also retired within the Antwerp lines. 
Here the army of 120,000, commanded by 
Gen. Moranville, awaited the seige that was 
sure to begin. 

On August 23, the day of the battle of 
Mons, the Belgians learned that a large Ger- 
man force had been withdrawn from Bel- 
gium to assist in the attack on Mons. To 
relieve the pressure on the Allies by compell- 
ing the return of these German armies, Gen 
Moranville marched a single corps south and 
drove the Germans out of Malines. In re- 
taliation, the Germans flew a Zeppelin over 
Antwerp, and several civilians were killed 
by the explosion of bombs. 

Continuing their march, the Belgian army 
spread out, on a line from Termonde to Aers- 
chot, capturing Alost, laying siege to Corten- 
burg, and threatening the German communi- 
cations. Fearing von Kluck's flank might 
be attacked, the German high command hast- 
ily recalled the army of von Boehm from 
Mons and the army of Gen. Beseler, which 
had been held in reserve at Lille. 

The new German army, now numbering 
200,000, went in pursuit of the Belgian corps, 
numbering 50,000, which had meanwhile 
taken Aerschot and Louvain. A four days' 
battle was fought, September 13-17, on the 
line of the Malines-Louvain railroad, result- 
ing in the retirement of the Belgians to Ant- 
werp. The Belgian army, however, had at- 
tained its object; which was to cgmpel the 
recall of the German reinforcements, and the 
consequent relief of the pressure on the 



German Army, 200,000 
Gen. von Beseler 
Field Marshal von tier Goltz 
Gen. von Boehm 

British and French armies at Mons and 
Charleroi. 

Antwerp Forts Are Reduced 

THE siege of Antwerp began September^ 
28, when the huge German howitzers opened 
fire on the forts south of the River Nethe. 
The German guns had an effective range of 
seven and one-half miles, while the utmost 
range of the Belgian howitzers was only six 
miles. The Antwerp forts, therefore, were 
doomed from the beginning. Two of the 
forts were quickly silenced. On the third 
day of the siege, the Germans shelled the 
main waterworks of Antwerp. The dyke 
gave way and the water flooded the infantry 
trenches which had been dug between the 
forts, submerging the field guns and depriv- 
ing the city of all its water supply except that 
drawn from artesian wells. Meanwhile, the 
Belgian army was being forced back across 
the Nethe River as each outlying fort col- 
lapsed. 

The doom of the city was sealed on Friday, 
October 3, when the Belgian government pre- 
pared to transfer to Ostend. The evacuation 
of the civilians already was in progress, 
when a detachment of 6000 British marines 
arrived, in command of Brig. Gen. Paris, and 
accompanied by Winston Churchill, First 
Lord of the British Admiralty, who re- 
quested that the Belgian army postpone its 
evacuation till further reinforcements ar- 
rived. Against his better judgment, King 
Albert agreed. When first he had appealed 
for British aid, some days before, King Al- 
bert had expected that an army of 50,000 
would be sent to the succour of Belgium, and 
no doubt the British would have been glad 
to have sent that number could they have 
done so. 

Lord Churchill could only spare 6000 men 
in Antwerp's grave crisis, and this number, 



First Year of the War- 1914 



109 



of course, could render no effective aid. He 
has been criticized by English historians for 
having urged King Albert to delay the evac- 
uation of Antwerp until the entire Belgian 
army was in immediate danger of capture. 

For this blunder, Churchill was relieved 
from office and given a colonel's commission 
in the British army. The evacuation of the 
Belgian army was so long delayed that only 
two-thirds of the forces were able to escape 
toward Ostend and Ghent. Full 30,000 Bel- 
gian and British soldiers were driven into 
Holland, where they were interned for the 
remainder of the war. 

500,000 People Flee From Antwerp 

As the German besiegers closed in on Ant- 
werp, the inhabitants of numerous adjacent 
towns fled for refuge into the city, until 
500,000 civilians were centered there. On 
the 7th of October, Antwerp was in a state 
of panic, as the roar of the German howitzers 
drew nearer. 

Fearing the fate visited upon the people 
of Louvain and Aerschot, the Antwerpians 
prepared for evacuation. Then ensued one 
of the wildest scenes in modern history a 



whole population of 500,000 in panic flight. 
Before nightfall 250,000 had escaped from 
the doomed city, some by water, others by 
land. 

The harbor was alive with crafts of all de- 
scriptions, submerged to the water line with 
the weight of their human freight. Many 
thousands escaped to Ghent; some 200,000 
exiles on foot managed to reach Bergen in 
Holland, without food and penniless. Infants 
were prematurely born on the way and many 
elderly persons died by the wayside from ex- 
posure. The good people of Holland shared 
their food and shelter with these refugees. 

Meanwhile, the military authorities in 
Antwerp had set fire to the petroleum tanks 
on the left bank of the Scheldt, and the dense 
black columns of smoke covered the doomed 
city like a pall, while masses of seething 
flames illuminated the foreground. 

Conflagrations had broken out in several 
parts of the city, and the incessant roar of 
guns, meteoric showers of fiery projectiles, 
and bursting of shells completed the frightful 
impression of a stupendous outbreak of bane- 
ful, unearthly forces. 



WESTERN THEATER. AUG. 8 -SEPT. 2O 



The Revolting Atrocities in Belgium Horrify Humanity 

Thousands Are Tortured, Massacred, Violated, Burned Alive, Crucified 
*.+-+*** SECTION 17-1914 -- 



THE heart of humanity was inexpress- 
ibly shocked by the revelation of the 
frightful atrocities committed by the 
German Vandals during their invasion of 
Belgium and northern France. Even now, 
when those horrific scenes are fading in the 
distance, the mind recoils at recollection of 
the dastardly deeds that have heaped igno- 
miny on the name of Germany forever. It 
was as though devils, not humans, were seek- 
ing to carry out the destructive will of a 
thousand Satans. 

Infuriated by the heroic resistance set up 
by the Belgians, the barbarous Huns massa- 
cred whole villages of innocent people, spar- 
ing neither age nor sex. Hundreds of non- 
combatants were driven into burning build- 
ings, at the point of bayonets and burned 
alive. 



Thousands of young women, including 
many nuns, were fiendishly violated. Count- 
less mothers and girls were herded into 
trains and rushed into Germany to meet a 
fate worse than death. 

Children were crucified or pinned by bay- 
onets against the walls of their homes. 
Babies were shot as they reclined on their 
mothers' breasts. Families without number 
were exterminated. Beautiful cities, filled 
with priceless art treasures, were deliberately 
destroyed. Twenty-five thousand ruined vil- 
lages and towns mark the trail of the Prus- 
sian-Vandal. 

The Triangle of Terror 

KAISER WILLIAM had broken his plighted 
word, by authorizing the invasion of Belgium 
on "strategical grounds," and had shaken for 



110 



Germany's Crime Against Humanity 



all time the faith of civilized nations in 
treaties and international agreements. 

Violence and cunning were exalted in the 
German war book, as the ideal method of 
conducting a German war, and all means 
were classed as permissible if the object of 
the war could be attained. Cruelty and 
ruthlessness were encouraged, as tending to 
shorten warlike operations, and make them 
more effective. Pity and sympathy with 
human pain, were feelings unworthy of Ger- 
man warriors; all such sentiments must be 
discouraged on strategical grounds. 

The vast masses of troops which the Ger- 
mans could use for their turning movement 
against France amply sufficed to overcome 
the small, ill-equipped Belgian army, and 
huge mobile howitzers could raze the forts to 
the ground, but these measures might take 
too long. The pace must be accelerated at all 
costs ; the path of the armies must be rolled 
flat, no matter if the great pitiless rollers 
crushed the bodies of a whole free people into 
the soil, leaving a trail of innocent blood to 
dye the great flat roads in their wake. 

The German armies destined for the Bel- 
gian turning movement crossed the Belgian 
frontier between Malmedy and Aix-la-Cha- 
pelle. Near Liege the great tramping col- 
umns of troops divided, some to advance 
along the valley of the Meuse and cross 
higher up the river, some to move by Lou- 
vain and Brussels. 

The city of Malines lies to the north- 
ward of this route and close to the outer 
forts of Antwerp,. behind which the bulk of 
the Belgian Field Army retired after offering 
a gallant resistance. 

The triangle based on the towns of Ma- 
lines, Charleroi, and Liege, became a Triangle 
of Terror, in which the policy of cruel and 
inhuman torture, of a defenceless civilian 
population, was deliberately adopted by the 
Kaiser on "strategical grounds." 

The German soldiers, on August 19, gave 
themselves up to debauchery in the streets 
of Liege. Trained incendiaries set fire to 
houses, and the occupants were either burned, 
or shot while trying to escape. The Liege fire 
brigade were prevented from extinguishing 
the flames, and their carts used to transfer 
to the Town Hall the heaps of civilian dead 



that cumbered the streets. Women and girls 
were permitted to leave the burning houses, 
but men were either shot or burned alive. 

The atrocities perpetrated in Belgium dur- 
ing the passage of the German armies were 
deliberately prescribed, in order to take the 
heart out of the Belgian army, and lessen 
the prospects of resistance which would de- 
lay the German movements at a critical time. 

The still worse atrocities which occurred, 
after the great army had swept forward, 
were deliberately prescribed to secure the 
safety of the German lines of communica- 
tion, which were vital to the maintenance of 
the forces in the front line. 

The depositions of eye witnesses reek with 
descriptions of cruelty, which the mind of 
man can hardly, conceive as having occurred 
in Europe since the days of Attila or of Gen- 
ghis Khan 

One Belgian soldier, returning to his home 
near Malines, found the dead bodies of his 
father, mother, brother, and sister, each with 
both feet cut off just below the ankle and 
both hands severed just above the wrist. 
Corpses of bayoneted women, girls, and chil- 
dren, all horribly mutilated, bestrewed the 
countryside. 

Butchery in the Liege District 

THE more fiendish atrocities committed in 
the Liege district may be thus summarized: 
Four men tied together, tortured with bay- 
onets and with lighted cigarets in ears and 
nostrils, then murdered. Boy murdered by 
cutting his throat and cutting out his tongue. 
Women bayoneted. Baby girl dragged from 
her mother's arms, dashed to the ground, and 
murdered. Boy of twelve, hand cut off for 
clinging to parents, who were being pushed 
into a burning building to be burned alive. 
Girl of ten, ears cut off. Two men buried 
alive. Two little children bayoneted, lying 
murdered at the feet of a woman tied naked 
to a tree, murdered and mutilated. Violation 
of girls twelve years of age. Small baby's 
head cut off. Child of five years ripped 
open, after parents were slain. Whole vil- 
lages burned. Hundreds of civilians shot in 
masses. 

The trail of the Beast through the Meuse 
and Sambre valleys, in the Charleroi district, 



First Year of the War 1914 



111 



was marked by unbelievable atrocities, a par- 
tial summary of which is as follows: Town 
of Seilles burned, inhabitants massacred. 
Defenceless man in Huy tortured and killed 
slowly by hanging. Farmer's family burned 
alive at Marhovelette. Peasants hacked to 
pieces with swords at Bournine. Namur set 
on fire and inhabitants killed when escaping 
from burning houses. 

Hospital set on fire deliberately. Cripple 
of thirty-six and a paralyzed old man of 
eighty shot in cold blood. Boys of fifteen, 
twelve, and eight years murdered. Girl of 
seven bayoneted in the neck and killed. Civ- 
ilian hostages, including priests, roped in and 
used as a screen for German troops from 
enemy's fire. 

Nuns and young girls herded on to a 
bridge at Montigny and used as a screen 
against the enemy's fire. Women burned 
alive at Bouffioulx. 

Inhabitants of Charleroi deliberately suf- 
focated with burning straw in cellars where 
they had taken refuge. Indiscriminate mur- 
ders of inhabitants throughout the district. 

The Terror In Aerschot 

BURGOMASTER of Aerschot and 150 civilians 
shot in cold blood. Women shot and bay- 
oneted at Aerschot. Woman and baby killed 
at Rodenburg. Three months' old baby 
strangled in mother's arms. Boy of seven 
bayoneted. Boy of eight beheaded. Priest 
murdered and legs cut off. 

Girl of eleven crucified to a door. Houses 
at Aerschot burned, women and children shot 
while escaping from them. Woman hanged 
to a tree and bayoneted. 

Atrocities During the German Retreat 

DURING the German retreat in August 
these atrocities were authentically reported: 
Boy burned to death. Old woman murdered. 
Young girl bayoneted. Young woman's legs 
cut off. Boy of ten hanged by the neck. Boy 
of sixteen bayoneted. Peasant woman's eyes 
gouged out. Public violation of women. Feet 
of six children severed. Child of ten months 
pierced through with a lance. Child of five 
years hanged to a tree. 

Old women clubbed to death with butts of 
rifles. Men of seventy strangled. Hands of 
four children cut off. Men burned alive. Old 



man decapitated. Hands and feet of a boy 
of four cut off. Heads and hands of a woman 
and her three children cut off. Thirty 
wounded prisoners bayoneted. Child of 
seven and woman of forty decapitated. 
Whole family murdered for trying to defend 
a girl from being ravished. 

Louvain Wantonly Destroyed 

THE barbarous Huns began those acts of 
vandalism, which have made their name exe- 
crated throughout the world, shortly after 
the fall of Namur. Entering the beautiful 
university city of Louvain, August 26, they 
at once disarmed the Civic Guards and con- 
fiscated the arms. Then, under orders of 
Major von Manteufel, they began the sys- 
tematic destruction of the city. 

Incendiary bombs and paraffin-soaked rags 
were thrown in through numberless windows 
of dwelling houses. Soon the city was a roar- 
ing furnace. The famous University, with 
its priceless library was destroyed; the 
Halles, notable for their arches, were re- 
duced to ruins, and hundreds of houses were 
burned to the ground; only the walls of St. 
Peter's remained intact. 

Defenceless priests and laymen, women 
and children were herded together, bound, 
beaten, stoned, spat upon, and driven long 
distances into the interior. 

Hundreds of "hostages" were taken by 
train, densely packed in horse trucks deep 
with dung, into Germany, and upon their 
arrival jeered at by Germans. Many of these 
hostages became insane. . Patients were 
turned out of hospitals and the buildings 
burned. Priests were selected for the most 
brutal treatment. One little girl of six was 
slowly cut to pieces in the presence of her 
father and mother. 

Malines Three Times Bombarded 

THE wanton destruction of Malines (or 
Mechlin) was another crime for which no 
palliation can be offered. King Albert's 
army, darting out of Antwerp on the 23d of 
August, had retaken Malines, but was com- 
pelled to vacate the city four days later. 

In a fit of pure pique, the Germans bom- 
barded Malines, August 27, directing their 
fire at the Cathedral of St Rombaut, and 
partially wrecking it. On September 2, they 



112 



Germany's Crime Against Humanity 



resumed the bombardment, again damaging 
the facade of the Cathedral, the populace 
fleeing in wild panic from the city. 

Three weeks later, on September 26, when 
the inhabitants were returning to Malines, 
the town for the third time was bombarded 
and a fire started which raged furiously for 
several days. Thus this beautiful city was 
put to the torch without the excuse of mili- 
tary necessity to justify the barbarous crime. 

Termonde Shares the Same Fate 

THE historic town of Termonde was occu- 
pied by the Germans early in September, and 
shared the fate of Louvain and Malines. An 
enormous fine had been levied upon the in- 
habitants, and on the pretext that this fine 
was withheld, the Vandal-Prussians deliber- 
ately destroyed the beautiful city with all its 
priceless treasures. 

Inflammable oil was sprayed upon houses 
from hose carts and the city soon was in roar- 
ing flames. The destruction of Termonde 
was absolute, the city being literally leveled 
to the ground. 

The superb Cathedral of Notre Dame, with 
its paintings by Vandyck and Reubens, and 
the historic Town Hall, were totally de- 
stroyed. Thousands of families were ren- 
dered homeless, fleeing penniless and starv- 
ing through Belgium into France. 

Hundreds of Towns Blotted Out 

MORE than 2500 villages and towns were 
laid waste by the vindictive Vandals, whose 
uppermost thought was to strike terror into 
the hearts of the inhabitants. Dinant and 
Tamines soon shared the fate of Louvain, 
Malines, and Termonde. 

Looting and Pillage 

WHILE these towns were being put to the 
torch or shattered by shells, the Germans 
looted many wealthy Belgian homes of all 
their valuables. Louvain was stripped bare 
of everything worth the taking. Beautiful 
works of art were ripped from their frames 
and shipped to Germany. Household furni- 
ture was wantonly destroyed. 

Nothing was left intact which might profit 
the inhabitants in event of their return. 



Only "the complete extinction of the homes 
of Belgians would satisfy the merciless 
Vandals. 

Wholesale Massacres of Belgians and Alsatians 

THE pages of remotest history may be 
scanned in vain for a record of such unpar- 
alleled atrocities as were visited upon the de- 
fenceless victims of Belgium and Alsace, by 
the Vandal conquerors. Like beasts of the 
jungle, the German barbarians glutted them- 
selves in human blood. Aged people, moth- 
ers with babes at their breasts, innocent 
children were bayoneted, shot, or burned to 
death. 

Untold thousands of girls were torn from 
their homes, herded in trains, and sent into 
Germany, to suffer a fate worse than death. 
Belgian women and girls were used as a 
screen to protect the firing lines of the Ger- 
man armies. And later, when food supplies 
intended for the starving people began to 
arrive, they were seized by the Germans 
and appropriated to their own use. 

The Investigating Commission 

THE Bryce Commission, charged by the 
British government with the duty of investi- 
gating the whole subject of Hun atrocities 
in Belgium and northern France, cited re- 
volting atrocities that shocked the entire civ- 
ilized world. 

The evidence is conclusive that there were 
organized massacres of the civil population 
in many parts of Belgium and Alsace. Inno- 
cent men and women among the civilians 
were murdered in large numbers; women 
were violated; children even put to torture. 

The massacres, looting, incendarism, and 
isolated murders were ordered and counte- 
nanced by the officers of the German army. 
The rules and usages of war were frequently 
broken, in the murder of wounded prisoners, 
and in the frequent abuse of the Red Cross 

and the white flag. 

> 

664 Civilians Shot at Dinant 

AT Dinant alone, 664 civilians were 
herded in a square near the convent and 
shot ; sixty other corpses were recovered from 
a hole in the brewery yard, and forty-eight 
bodies of women and children were found in 
a garden. 



First Year of the War 1914 



113 



At Louvain, while the Huns were setting 
fire to the city, bands of soldiers would break 
into the houses and set fire to them, shooting 
the inhabitants who tried to leave their 
dwellings. Many persons who took refuge in 
their cellars were burned to death. 

Children Wantonly Killed 

AT Aerschot, the fifteen-year-old son of the 
burgomaster was put to death in revenge 
for the shooting of a German soldier. In 
Hofstade, the dead body of a boy five years 
old was found with his hands nearly severed. 
The corpses of a woman and a boy were seen 
at the blacksmith's. They had been killed 
with the bayonet. 

Two children, aged three and four years, 
were wantonly killed in the village of Weerde, 
as they stood in the roadway prattling 
with their mother. At Boortmeerbeek, a 
German soldier was seen to fire three times 
at a little girl five years old. Having failed 
to shoot her he subsequently bayoneted her. 
At Halcht, the bodies of ten civilians were 
seen lying in a row by a brewery well. 

At Dinant, sixty women and children were 
confined in the cellar of a convent from 
Sunday morning till the following Friday 
without food or water except for a carrot 
thrown to each prisoner on Wednesday. 

A great crowd of women, children, and 
men from Aerschot were marched to LoU- 
vain and suddenly exposed to fire from ma- 
chine guns and rifles. Numbers were killed. 

Hundreds of Belgians Burned Alive 

HUNDREDS of Belgians were driven within 
their fired dwellings and burned alive. Many 
others, who had taken refuge in the cellars of 
their homes, shared a similar fate. 

At Triaucourt, the Huns gave themselves 
up to the worst excesses. Here many women 
and girls were violated; the village was 
burned, and a systematic massacre of the 
inhabitants begun. Among these victims 
were two grandmothers, each above eighty 
years of age, who were shot while trying to 
escape. While the carnage reigned, the fire 
rapidly spread and 35 houses were destroyed. 
An old man of seventy and a child of two 
months perished in the flames. 



A Carnival of Murder 

ALL through Belgium and northern 
France, in hundreds of towns and villages, 
there was a carnival of murder, a Saturnalia 
of crime, rivaling the worst excesses of the 
barbarous armies that followed in the train 
of Attila, Alaric, Genghis Khan, and Tamur- 
lane. 

These crimes were committed, not by a 
race confessedly barbarous, but by a people 
who esteemed themselves the most cultured 
race on earth, yet who in reality were more 
base than the lowest race of barbarians that 
the world had hitherto known. 

On the 22d of August, 1914, the Germans 
occupied Tamines in Belgium. After burning 
242 houses, the Hun soldiers drove 374 of 
the inhabitants to the bank of the river and 
massacred them by machine-gun fire, some 
of the wounded being finished off by bayonet 
thrusts. 

Killed WhUe At Prayer 

FROM the private diaries taken from the 
bodies of dead German soldiers, corrobora- 
tion is had of some of the atrocities perpe- 
trated in Belgium. 

The diary of Eitel Anders reads: "In 
Vendre, all the inhabitants without exception 
were brought out and shot. This shooting 
was heartbreaking, as they all knelt down 
and prayed. It is real sport, yet it was ter- 
rible to watch. At Haecht, I saw the dead 
body of a young girl nailed by her hands to 
the outside door of a cottage. She was about 
fourteen or sixteen years old." 

The notebook of Private Max Thomas 
reads: "Our soldiers are so excited, we are 
like wild beasts. Today, destroyed eight 
houses with their inmates. Bayoneted two 
men with their wives and a girl of eighteen. 
The little one almost unnerved me, so inno- 
cent was her expression. 

"During the retreat from Malines, eight 
German soldiers met a child of three years. 
One of the soldiers skewered her on his bay- 
onet and carried the corpse away amidst the 
plaudits of his comrades." 

Innocent to Suffer with the Guilty 

THE infamous Gen. von Lieber, on August 
27, gave out this proclamation: "The town 



114 



Germany's Crime Against Humanity 



of Waevre will be set on fire and destroyed 
without distinction of persons. The inno- 
cent will suffer with the guilty." True to his 
promise, the town was destroyed and all its 
inhabitants were massacred. 

In a village in Lorraine, the Germans had 
set up their machine guns in a church bel- 
fry, and to insure their own safety they im- 
prisoned 275 French women and children in 
the church, warning the French soldiers that 
if they fired upon the machine-gun rest, they 
would kill their own kith and kin. One dark 
night, after the women had suffered tortures 
for several days, they sent out a little boy 
with a message to the French soldiers, im- 
ploring them to fire upon the belfry, since 
they would prefer death to a continuance of 
the horrors to which they had been subjected. 
The belfry was demolished and the bombard- 
ment resulted in the death of twenty women 
and children. 

The savage Huns, upon their arrival in the 
town of Gerbeviller, Lorraine, hung a boy by 
the neck to the limb of a pear tree. 

After sacking the village of Hastiere-par- 
dela, on August 23, the Germans killed and 
wounded a large number of inhabitants, in- 
cluding the parish priest and the school- 
master, upon condemnation of a court mar- 
tial conducted by drunken officers. 

At sunrise, eighteen men, including the 
priests, were summarily shot upon the alle- 
gation that a girl of fifteen had fired on one 
of the German officers. 



At Gerbeviller, the Bavarian troops 
rushed into the houses with savage yells, pil- 
laging and destroying, and killing men, 
women, and children. 

At Senlis, where the Germans were op- 
posed by African troops, they revenged them- 
selves upon the townspeople, killing many of 
the inhabitants, including the mayor, and de- 
stroying 105 houses. 

Male Inhabitants Consigned to the Flames 

THE diary of an officer of the 178th Regi- 
ment, Twelfth Saxon Army Corps, relates 
the destruction of the beautiful village of 
Gue D'Hossus in Belgium. "Apparently a 
cyclist fell from his machine, and in the fall 
his gun went off itself. Straightway there 
was firing in his direction. The male inhabi- 
tants were simply consigned to the flames." 

The diary of a soldier of the same regiment 
tells of the murder of 43 civilians in a town 
north of Dinant. 

Reservist Schlauter of the 4th Regiment 
of field artillery writes that 300 inhabitants 
of a town in Belgium were shot. 

On August 26 Major Gen. Stenger, com- 
mander of the 58th Brigade, issued an order 
that all prisoners be put to death, the 
wounded as well as the armed. "No enemy 
shall be left alive behind us." 

5,000 Belgians Murdered 

IT is conservatively estimated that 5,000 
Belgian men, women, and children, all non- 
combatants, were put to death in a most 
fiendish brutal manner by the Huns. 



.,.........-. ASIATIC THEATER, AUG. 23-NOV. .. 



Japan Declares War Against Germany in the Far East 

Germany Loses Her Stronghold of Tsing-tau and Her Islands in the South Pacific 

*^^^....^^^....^.^^....^^.^....^.^..^^.^. SECTION 18-1914 -- 



Japanese Army, 22,980 
Lieut. Gen. Kamio 
Maj. Gen. Horiuchi 
Gen. Yamacla 
Gen. Johogi 
Vice-Admiral Kamimura 

English Force, 1369 

Col. N. W. Barnardisten 

ANOTHER nemesis confronted Ger- 
many in the Far East, on August 15, 
1914, when Japan delivered an ulti- 
mation to Emperor William, demanding the 



German Garrison, 5,000 Marines 
Admiral Meyer-Waldeck 



evacuation of the fortressed city of Tsing- 
tau, on the tip end of the Shantung peninsula 
in China, which Germany had taken from 
China in 1898 on a "lease" of 99 years. 



First Year of the War-1914 



115 



Japan also demanded the withdrawal of all 
German warships from Asiatic waters and 
the restoration to China before September 
15, 1914, of the province of Kiau-chau, on 
the Shantung Peninsula, which Germany had 
acquired by "concession" in 1897. 

Causes of the War 

JAPAN had acted in this matter upon re- 
quest of Great Britain, with which nation 
she had signed a treaty of alliance, on August 
12, 1905, having for its object the main- 
tenance of peace in Eastern Asia and India, 
the preservation of the independence and in- 
tegrity of the Chinese Empire, and the de- 
fence of their special interests in the Far 
East. 

But the principal motive which influenced 
Japan was the desire to retaliate upon Ger- 
many for having outraged her sovereignty 
after the close of the China-Japanese War. 
Japan, during that war, had captured Port 
Arthur, but Germany compelled her to re- 
linquish this prize of war to Russia, and 
then seized the province of Kiau-chau as her 
share of the spoils. 

There followed a scramble among the 
European nations to seize desirable sections 
of China. England took possession of Wei- 
hau-wei, France acquired control of Kwan- 
chow Bay, Germany held Tsing-tau, and 
Russia regained Port Arthur, while Japan 
was left out in the cold. These acts of spoil- 
ation led up to the Boxer rebellion in China, 
in 1910, when several missionaries and other 
Europeans were put to death. It was then 
that Germany confirmed her seizure of Kiau- 
chau by compelling China to grant her a 
"lease" of the province for 99 years. 

Japan, therefore, was elated when Eng- 
land, on August 4, 1914, proposed the Ger- 
man fortress city of Tsing-tau be seized and 
all German warships expelled from Asiatic 
waters. But first Japan stipulated that she 
should be allowed to hold Tsing-tau if she 
succeeded in expelling the Germans. To this 
proposal England, and subsequently France, 
consented by secret treaty. 

Japan Declares War 

A TIME-LIMIT of nine days had been fixed 
by Japan for Germany's acceptance of her 
ultimatum, but Germany scornfully ignored 



the mandate. Accordingly, on the day ap- 
pointed, August 23, 1914, Japan formally 
declared war against Germany. 

There were many Germans living in Japan, 
but none of these were molested, all being 
permitted to pursue their regular vocations. 
In Germany, however, a different policy was 
adopted. Every Japanese subject in Germany 
was arrested and all the funds deposited by 
the Japanese Government in the Deutsche 
Bank of Berlin were seized. The German 
Ambassador remained at the Japanese capi- 
tol until August 30. 

Bombardment of Tsing-tau Forts 

ON August 25, 1914, the day before the 
formal Declaration of War, a squadron of 
twelve Japanese battleships, with a fleet of 
transports carrying 22,980 soldiers and 142 
heavy siege guns, headed for Tsing-tau. The 
fleet was in command of Vice-Admiral Hiko- 
nojo Kamimura, while the land forces were 
commanded by Lieut. Gen. Mitsoumi Kamio, 
Maj. Gen. B. Horiuchi and Maj. Gen. Hanzo 
Yamanashi. 

Tsing-tau and its environs formed a large 
entrenched camp protected by 23 forts of con- 
crete and steel, garrisoned by 5000 German 
marines. The first line of defence, on the 
seaside, consisted of five forts connected by 
trenches and protected by barbed wire en- 
tanglements. 

The second principal defences were the 
heights known as Mt. Moltke, Mt. Bismarck, 
and Mt. Iltis, commanding the plain. The 
outer line of defence, eight miles long, was 
along the Litsum River to the sea, at a dis- 
tance of some ten miles from the city. 

The harbor mouth had been sewn with 
mines, and the shores for twenty miles were 
guarded by batteries. In the harbor was an 
Austrian warship, the Kaiserin Elizabeth, 
anc! four gunboats. Three airplanes assisted 
in the defence. The command of the Ger- 
man forces was vested in the Governor-Gen- 
eral of Kiau-chau, Admiral Meyer- Wai deck. 

Proposals were under way to remove the 
Austrian warship to a place of safety, but 
at the last moment Austria elected to assist 
Germany against Japan, so it was necessary 
for Japan to declare war against Austria. 

The plan of the land attack called for a 
landing at the northern base of the peninsula, 



116 



Germany's Crime Against Humanity 



from which the troops were to advance in- 
land, cutting the railroad and extending their 
line across the base of the narrow tongue of 
land. After cutting off the city from the 
north, the force was to move toward the forts 
and commence the siege. 

The bombardment of the Tsing-tau forts 
opened on August 26, 1914. On the follow- 
ing day the Japanese marines seized several 
small islands in Kiau-chau Bay, sweeping the 
harbor of mines. At the same time a squad- 
ron of Japanese airplanes dropped bombs 
upon the wireless station, the electric power 
station, the railway terminal, and the boats 
in the harbor. 

One hundred Japanese women divers had 
previously volunteered to release the mines 
from their moorings, but their offer was de- 
clined, as the Japanese law prohibits the 
employment of women in warlike operations. 

Chinese Protest as Japanese Land Troops 

ON September 2, 10,000 Japanese troops 
were landed at Lungchow, thereby isolating 
the fortress from the mainland. The Chinese 
Government at once protested against this 
invasion of Chinese soil. To this objection 
the Japanese replied that military necessity 
justified the act, but that no permanent oc- 
cupancy was intended. The advance was 
halted for a fortnight by heavy rains. Then, 
on September 12, the railway station at Kiau- 
chau was occupied. 

Six days later the Japanese seized the rail- 
way which penetrates the peninsula, and 
again China protested. This time Japan in- 
sisted that the seizure was justifiable, since 
the railroad was owned by Germany. 

The river now being in flood, land opera- 
tions were still further delayed. Meanwhile, 
the Japanese airmen had not been idle. 
Bombs were dropped daily upon the city and 
the boats in the harbor, causing much dam- 
age. Circulars, calling upon the defenders 
to surrender, were also scattered over the 
town. 

First Naval Losses 

MEANWHILE, the battleship Kaiserin Eliz- 
abeth had been riddled and sunk by Japanese 
shell fire; the Japanese cruiser Takachiho 
had been sunk by a torpedo ; a German mer- 



chant ship in the harbor had been destroyed 
by aerial bombs; two Japanese destroyers 
had been lost in a typhoon, and havoc gener- 
ally had been caused among the Japanese fleet. 

The Siege Begins 

AN English force of 1369 men, under 
Lieut. Col. N. W. Barnardisten, commander 
of the British army in North China, landed 
on the peninsula September 23 and joined 
the Japanese. Three days later, the floods 
having subsided, the Japanese resumed their 
advance, pushing the Germans forward for 
two days to within five miles of the fortress, 
at a loss of fifteen killed and wounded. At 
the same time two British warships arrived 
in the harbor and the fleet began a general 
bombardment. 

On September 30, the Japanese drove the 
Germans within their fortifications, com- 
pletely surrounding Tsing-tau, and digging 
zigzag trenches up to the very face of the 
German defences, with utter disregard of the 
storm of shells that fell about them. The 
German gunners, during eight days, fired 
10,000 shells from the forts on the hills with- 
out causing any loss of life among the Jap- 
anese. 

The actual siege was begun on October 15, 
but notice having been given, many women 
and children were permitted to leave the be- 
sieged city and pass through the Japanese 
lines to the rear. 

The city of Tsing-tau was not in serious 
straits. There was food on hand sufficient 
to feed the populace for three months, but 
the supply of running water ceased by Octo- 
ber 20. When it became evident that the 
end was drawing near, Admiral Meyer-Wal- 
deck commanded that the warships in the 
harbor be blown up and the munitions in the 
forts destroyed. 

The Final Bombardment and Surrender 

HAVING by this time found the exact range, 
the Japanese and English gunners began 
their final bombardment on October 31, 1914, 
with 142 guns, sending a deluge of shells into 
the German defences. 

Under cover of this terrific fire, the Allied 
troops drove their saps and zigzag trenches 
up to the very slopes of the fort, prepared 



First Year of the War-1914 



117 



to take the place by storm. For seven days 
the bombardment continued, the warships 
uniting with the land batteries. The German 
defenders replied bravely. 

The electric light station having been de- 
stroyed, the city was in darkness for several 
nights. The non-combatants during the bom- 
bardment had taken refuge in their cellars, 
where they cared for the wounded. 

Tsing-tau Surrenders 

ON the night of November 6, several com- 
panies of infantry and engineers, led by Gen. 
Yoshimi Yamada, charged across the open 
ground, seizing the middle fort in the first 
line of defences. Before dawn, the next day, 
a grand assault was made, which gave the 
Japanese and British possession of all but 
the last line of defences, at a cost of 450 men. 
An hour later, when 20,000 Japanese were 
preparing for the final charge, flags of sur- 
render were flown from all the German forts. 

The formal capitulation of Tsing-tau came 
at 7.50 p. m., November 7, 1914, the Ger- 
mans surrendering unconditionally. Three 
days later, Governor Meyer-Waldeck for- 
mally transferred possession to Gen. Kamio 
and Germany had lost her last stronghold in 
Asia. 

The Allied forces entered the city on No- 
vember 16, taking 4043 prisoners, including 



the governor-general and 201 German of- 
ficers, together with 100 machine guns, 2500 
rifles, 30 field guns, and some ammunition. 

The Japanese losses in the campaign were 
236 killed and 1282 wounded ; the British, 12 
killed and 63 wounded; the Germans, 1000 
killed or wounded by the explosion of Ger- 
man land mines. 

German Pacific Islands Siezed 

GERMANY not only lost her Asiatic colony 
of Kiau-chau, but her group of island pos- 
sessions in the Pacific. These included Ger- 
man New Guinea, the Bismarck Archipelago, 
the Caroline, Pelem Marrana, Solomon and 
Marshall Islands, and a portion of the Sa- 
moan group. 

How Japan's Navy Assisted 

JAPAN rendered valuable aid to the Allies 
during the War. Her battleships patrolled 
the Pacific and Indian Oceans, and the China 
Sea. Three groups of German raiders were 
driven from the Pacific ; marines were landed 
at Singapore to quell riots; a Japanese de- 
stroyer squadron was sent to the assistance 
of the Allies in the Mediterranean, and more 
important still, Japan supplied Russia with 
enormous quantities of guns, ammunitions, 
military stores, and Red Cross supplies. 



- EASTERN THEATER. SEPT. 8 DEC. 15 



Serbia Triumphs Over Austria, Annihilating an Invading Army 

Following This Victory, a Quarter of Servia's Population Die of Typhus 

........................... ... .......... ................ ........ SECTION 19-1914 



Serbian Army, 200,000 

Field Marshal Putnick 

AFTER clipping the wings of the Aus- 
trian eagle at Jadar in August, and 
compelling its flight across the fron- 
tier, the Serbians in September took the of- 
fensive by joining the Montenegrins in an at- 
tack upon Serajevo, the Bosnian capital, then 
in Austrian possession. 

The Serbo-Montenegrin armies on Septem- 
ber 8th, attempted the crossing of the Drina 
River, but were beaten back on the following 
day by a powerful Austrian army, which suc- 
ceeded in gaining a foothold on the Serbian 
side. 



Austrian Army, 300,000 
Archduke Frederick 

A week later the Serbians struck at the 
Austrian center, compelling its retirement 
across the river, but the right flank of the 
Austrian army maintained its position, giving 
it the control of a bridgehead and the road 
from Liubovia to Valjeva. In this engage- 
ment the Austrians sustained heavy losses. 

Burning for an opportunity to retrieve 
their two defeats, the Austrians, in October, 
took advantage of Hindenberg*s drive in 
Russian Poland to withdraw an army of 150,- 
000 seasoned troops from Galicia and launch 
a new campaign in Serbia. 



118 



Germany's Crime Against Humanity 



The Austrians particularly aimed at seiz- 
ing the Morava-Vardar Road with a view to 
establishing communications with Turkey. 
Their plan of campaign was to advance 
through Valjevo to the western Morava 
valley and thence down this valley to Nish, 
the temporary capital of Serbia. 

South of Valjevo, there is a continuous line 
of ridges extending to the Save River at 
Obrenovats. It was on this series of ridges 
that the Serbians decided to take their de- 
fensive positions. 

The Austrians, in this third invasion, en- 
tered Serbia from two directions. One Aus- 
trian column crossed the Drina River on the 
west, the other column crossing the Danube 
on the northeast. Without opposition, these 
columns gradually converged toward the 
ridges on which the Serbians had taken their 
position. 

Meanwhile, daily for weeks, the capital 
city, Belgrade, had been bombarded, and it 
at last fell in December, after an heroic re- 
sistance. Town after town had surrendered 
to the Austrian invaders and it looked as if 
the fate of Serbia was sealed. 

Austrians Meet with Disaster 

ON December 1, the Austrians assaulted 
the Mai j in and Rudnik Ridges, on which the 
Serbian army was posted. In two days they 
had gained positions on the lower hills and 
the western ridge of Rudnik. Another week 
must surely have witnessed the capture of 
the Serbian armies, but on December 3, word 
reached the Austrians that, in far off Galicia, 
the Russians had once more scaled the Car- 
pathians and swarmed out upon the Hun- 
garian plains. 

Fearful for the safety of their own land, 
the Austrians attempted to disengage them- 



selves from the battle with the Serbians and 
return into Galicia. Three Austrian corps 
were hastily withdrawn from the battlef ront. 

Now was Serbia's opportunity to strike a 
deadly blow at the enemy. Sweeping down 
from the ridges, the Serbians engaged the 
retreating Austrians in fierce hand-to-hand 
struggle. In less than two weeks the great 
Austrian army was all but annihilated. The 
right wing, caught in the hills, was totally 
destroyed. The remnant of the left and cen- 
ter escaped northward through Shabatz and 
Belgrade, and crossed into Austria. 

Of all the Austrian forces, only a third sur- 
vived to cross the Danube. On December 15, 
the Serbians retook Belgrade. Serbia was 
free once more! 

Serbia Swept by Epidemic of Typhus 

So badly whipped were the Austrians that 
for nearly a year they durst not venture 
again into Serbia. But another and more 
dreadful enemy now appeared. An epidemic 
of spotted typhus, which had broken out 
among the troops at Valjevo, began to spread 
throughout the whole country. Exhausted 
by years of warfare in the Balkan conflicts, 
the Serbian soldiers easily fell victims to this 
scourge and perished by thousands. The vil- 
lages and towns were ravaged by the pesti- 
lence, people by hundreds dropping dead in 
the streets, and entire families being wiped 
out. 

The Allied nations, in response to Serbia's 
appeal, sent their best doctors and nurses to 
combat the plague. Hospitals were erected 
and everything that science could suggest 
was forth-coming, but it was not until April, 
1915, that the last traces of the epidemic were 
stamped out. By that time, a quarter of the 
population had perished. 



First Year of the War-1914 



119 



AFRICAN THEATER. AUG. 7- DEC. 2O 



Germany Loses Her Vast Empire in Africa to the British 

Conquest of the Four African Colonies Begun Boer Rebellion Suppressed 



SECTION 2O- 1914 



Allied Forces, 50,000 
Loyal Boer Leaders 
Gen. Louis Botha 
Gen. J. C. Smuts 
Gen. Lukin 
Col. Brits 
Major Bouwer 

British Leaders 
Maj. Gen. Stewart 
Brig. Gen. Cunliffe 
Capt. F. C. Bryant 
Lieut. Col. MacLear 
Col. Grant 

French Leaders 

Brig. Gen. Dobell 
Belgian Troops 

Gen. Tambeur 

THE war was carried into Africa at the 
very outset of hostilities in Europe; it 
continued there three years, and in the 
end Germany was dispossessed of a colonial 
empire four times the size of her European 
possessions. 

Germany controlled four huge colonies in 
Africa: Togoland, about the size of Ireland, 
with a native population of 1,000,000; the 
Kameruns, greater in area than the German 
Fatherland, with a population of 2,500,000 
blacks and 2000 whites; German Southwest 
Africa, comprising 320,000 square miles, and 
with a native population of 300,000; and 
German East Africa, twice the size of old 
Germany, and with a population of 8,000,000 
blacks. 

Boers Rebel in Union of South Africa 

WITHIN a week after Germany had flung 
down the gauntlet to Europe, mutterings of 
discontent against British rule were heard 
among a certain class of Boers in the Union 
of South Africa, particularly in the western 
Transvaal. Ostensibly the disaffected Boers 
were influenced by their ambition to found 
an Afrikander Republic ; in reality, they were 
dupes of Germany, who had heard the "call 
of the blood" and the ring of German gold. 

These conspirators really plotted the down- 
fall of the British Empire. If Africa and 



German Boer Native Forces, 20,000 

Gen. Christian Beyers, Orange Free State 

Gen. de Wet, Transvaal 

Gen. Wable 

Major von Doering 

Col. S. G. Maritz 

Col. Kemp 

Col. Francke 

Col. Muller 



Egypt could be won from Great Britain, con- 
trol of the Mediterranean, the Suez Canal, 
and the trade routes to India might pass to 
Germany. These were the tremendous prizes 
at stake in the Boer uprising. 

Boer Parliament Is Loyal 

THE leaders of the Boer revolt were Gen. 
Christian Beyers, Gen. de Wet, Col. S. G. 
Maritz, and Gen. Hertzog. All four had 
served with distinction in the Boer War of 
1898, and there still rankled in their hearts 
a hatred of Great Britain. 

Though still'a commander of Union militia, 
Col. Maritz had entered into a secret pact 
with the German Governor of Southwest 
Africa, in which the independence of the 
Union as a Republic was guaranteed, but 
Walfisch Bay and other parts of the Union 
had been ceded to Germany, and providing 
that the Germans should defer their invasion 
of the Union, until asked to do so. 

The great majority of the Boer burghers, 
however, refused to join with the rebels. 
Their spokesmen were Gen. Louis Botha and 
Gen. Smuts, both eminent leaders in the last 
Boer War, but now reconciled to British rule. 

On August 15, 1914, a convention of 800 
burghers was held at Treurfontein and reso- 
lutions were passed expressing confidence in 
the British Government. A month later, Gen. 



120 



Germany's Crime Against Humanity 



Christian Beyers, commandant general of the 
Union forces, who had been secretly organiz- 
ing the rebellion, resigned his command. He 
had previously won over to the rebel cause 
Gen. Delarey, a leader of the Boer forces in 
the Transvaal. 

Delarey soon after was killed by a police 
patrol near Johannesburg, before the rebel- 
lion was well under way. Meantime, a thou- 
sand armed Boers in the Transvaal had defi- 
nitely united with the rebellion. 

In this crisis, Gen. Louis Botha appealed 
to the loyalty of the Boers, calling for volun- 
teers to aid in suppressing the rebellion and 
promising to lead the Union forces in per- 
son. The Boers flocked by thousands to his 
standard. 

When the Boer Parliament met on Septem- 
ber 8, Gen. Botha, the premier, moved a res- 
olution assuring Great Britain of its loyal 
support. Gen. Hertzog, the minority leader in 
the Parliament, and a pro-German, sought to 
amend this by moving a declaration that an 
attack upon German Southwest Africa was 
against the interests of the Union of South 
Africa. Hertzog's amendment was rejected 
by a vote of 104 to 12. 

The "Prophet" of Lichtenberg Stirs Rebellion 

j 

EMISSARIES of Germany spread themselves 
through the Transvaal, inciting the Boers to 
rebellion. Among these was a fanatic by the 
name of Van Rensberg, better known as the 
"Prophet of Lichtenberg." 

Ever since the Boer War, in 1898, when 
a few of his many predictions were said to 
have been verified, the "prophet" had been 
held in high esteem. He now solemnly de- 
clared that the events predicted in the Apo- 
calypse, or Book of Revelations, were soon to 
be fulfilled. Germany, he averred, had been 
divinely ordained to subjugate and purify 
the sinful world. To resist this divine ordi- 
nance was to invite the righteous anger of 
Almighty God. 

Rensberg, in one of his pretended "vis- 
ions," saw standing forth as divinely ap- 



pointed leaders who should restore the Boer 
Republic, the traitors Delarey, Beyer's, and 
de Wet. 

The Massacre of Sandfontein 

LIEUT. COL. Maritz, meanwhile, had se- 
cretly accepted a commission as a general in 
the German service. His first overt act was 
to plot the massacre of a small force of Brit- 
ish and Boers who were assembled at Sand- 
fontein, near the Transvaal border. 

While these British-Boer troops were ad- 
vancing toward a water-hole, on September 
26, 1914, Col. Maritz and his rebel band am- 
bushed them in a circular basin. Concealed 
batteries deluged the loyal troops with high 
explosive shells. The trapped Boers fought 
heroically till their ammunition gave out, 
after which they were slain or captured. 

Maritz followed up this act of treachery 
by arresting all the loyal Boers and banish- 
ing them across the border into German ter- 
ritory. Ordered by Gen. Smuts, the Boer 
Minister of War, to report at headquarters 
and resign his command, Maritz, on October 
8, sent back a defiant reply. 

Defeat of Gen. Maritz at Keimos 

PROCLAIMING martial law throughout the 
Union of South Africa, Gen. Louis Botha des- 
patched a force of loyal Boers, under com- 
mand of Gen. Brits, in pursuit of Maritz. The 
rebels were overtaken and routed at Rate- 
draai on October 15. 

A week later, with a force of 1000 rebels 
and 70 German gunners, Maritz attacked the 
port of Keimos, which was defended by a 
garrison of 150 loyalists. 

Defeated in his purpose by the arrival of 
reinforcements of loyal troops, Maritz soon 
found himself hard pressed and even offered 
to surrender if granted a free pardon. This 
being denied him, the battle was resumed and 
the rebels were defeated. 

With the remnant of his band Maritz, 
wounded, fled across the German border. 
Two days later his followers met defeat at 
Kakamas and the rebellion in the Union of 
South Africa was at an end. 



First Year of the War -1914 



121 



Togoland the First to Surrender 



Anglo-French Forces, 1000 
Capt. F. C. Bryant 

THE first to fall of the four German col- 
onies in Africa was Togoland. On August 4, 
1914, the day Great Britain declared war 
against Germany, the British acting governor 
of Nigeria and the French governor of 
Dahomey planned a concerted campaign by 
land and sea against Togoland, which is 
hemmed in on three sides by the territories 
they governed, with a seacoast easily ap- 
proached by warships. 

On August 7, a British warship appeared 
off Lome, the capital, and the town surren- 
dered without the firing of a shot. The Ger- 
man garrison, comprising 60 whites and 400 
natives, escaped to Atakpame, 100 miles in 
the interior, uniting there with 3000 native 
troops. 

On the following day a French force crossed 
the Dahomey frontier, while a British force, 



German-Negro Force, 460 
Major von Doering 

under Capt. F. C. Bryant, crossed the Gold 
Coast frontier into Togoland. 

These Allied forces, after effecting a junc- 
tion, advanced toward Atakpame where the 
little German-Negro band had entrenched on 
the northern side of the Monu River. Cross- 
ing the river, on August 25, the Allies drove 
the Germans from their trenches with a loss 
of 75 men, and, after seizing the important 
wireless station at Kamina, occupied Atak- 
pame. 

The German commander, Major Doering, 
then surrendered unconditionally, losing 1000 
rifles and 250,000 rounds of ammunition. By 
arrangement, Togoland was thenceforth gov- 
erned jointly by France and England, each 
nation controlling that part of the surren- 
dered colony which was nearest to her Afri- 
can possessions. 



Conquest of the German Kameruns 



Anglo-French Forces, 50,000 

Maj. Gen. Dobell 
Brig. Gen. Aymerich 
Brig. Gen. Cunliffe 
Lieut. Col. MacLear 

THE conquest of the German Kameruns, a 
vast inland empire with a population of 
2000 whites and 3,500,000 blacks, occupied 
the Allies the greater part of five months. 
Here the Germans had organized a large 
force of native levies, mostly Bantus and 
Sudanese, who were drilled and led by Ger- 
man officers and provided with machine guns. 

Excepting in the highlands, the Kameruns 
is not habitable for whites. Its climate is 
deadly and it contains vast stretches of desert 
land visited by sand storms. 

Early in August, 1914, the Allies invaded 
the Kameruns from three directions two 
French columns crossing the border from the 
Congo, while an English force crossed over 
from Nigeria. 

On August 31, 1914, a brigade of Dublin 
Fusiliers, with some native troops, led by 
Lieut. Col. MacLear, while attempting to 
storm the German position at Garna, were 



German-Native Forces, 6,000 

Unidentified German Officers 



almost annihilated by machine-gun fire, the 
remnant of the British forces retreating into 
Nigeria. 

A second British expedition, composed 
largely of native Nigerians, occupied the 
German station of Nsanakong in August. 
Here they were surprised by a large German 
force and defeated with heavy losses. The 
surviving Nigerians cut their way out with 
the bayonet and escaped back to Nigeria. 
About the same time, a third British-Niger- 
ian force occupied and held Archibong. In 
retaliation, the Germans sent a force across 
the Nigerian frontier, which seized and oc- 
cupied the station at Okuri. 

Surrender of Duala, the Capital 

NAVAL operations were begun on the west 
coast in September, when the Germans sowed 
the channel of the Kamerun estuary with 
mines and further attempted to obstruct the 



122 



Germany's Crime Against Humanity 



waterway to Duala, the capital, by sinking 
several old steamships in the channel. Brit- 
ish gunboats, however, soon cleared the pass- 
age and a fleet of British troopships steamed 
up the estuary on Septembr 26. 

Duala was bombarded and its capitulation 
followed the next day. Bonaberri, across the 
river from Duala, surrendered a few days 
later. Meantime, a French squadron had 
bombarded Ukoka and sunk two German ves- 
sels in the bay. 

A British naval and military force, sailing 
up the Wuri River in launches on October 8, 
attacked the Germans near Jabossi, but 
were driven back to Duala. On the same 
day a French brigade attacked a German 
force at Japons, compelling their retreat to 
the mountains. 

Strongly reinforced, the Allies, on October 
14, again attacked Jabossi, silencing the bat- 
teries and occupying the city. Meanwhile, a 



regiment of Nigerian troops had routed the 
German-native forces at Susa and in the Lake 
Chad region. 

The main body of the German-native forces 
was pursued in two columns by Anglo-French 
troops, commanded by Gen. Dobell and Col. 
Mayer. The Germans were quickly expelled 
from Edea on October 26, and from Mujuka 
a few weeks later. Buea, after a spirited 
bombardment, was captured and the Ger- 
mans were driven back to the hills. 

Another French expedition, led by Gen. 
Aymerich, drove the enemy out of the 
Congo-Ubanghi region, capturing Numen and 
Nola. By December 20, the entire northern 
railroad line was in possession of the Allies 
and the German-native troops everywhere 
had been driven far into the interior. The 
Kameruns, though not wholly conquered, 
were pratically in control of the British and 
French. 



Conquest of German Southwest Africa 



Loyal Boer Forces, 40,000 
Gen. Louis Botha 
Gen. Smuts 
Gen. Lukin 
Col. Lemmer 
Col. Brits 
Col. Lichtenberg 
Col. van der Venter 
Col. Grant 
Col. Alberts 
Col. Mentz 

AIDED by the "Prophet of Lichtenberg," 
Generals Beyers and de Wet had raised a 
rebel Boer force of 10,000 men in the West- 
ern Transvaal and the Orange Free State. 
To offset this disaffection, 40,000 loyal Boers 
had answered the call of Generals Botha and 
Smuts. This loyal army went in pursuit of the 
main rebel army, commanded by Gen. Chris- 
tian Beyers. At Rustenberg, on October 27, 
the loyalists drove the rebels before them in 
headlong flight. Two days later the rebels 
were scattered in little bands and Gen. 
Beyers became a fugitive. Some of these 
scattered commanders were defeated by Col. 
Alberts at Lichtenberg and again at Zuit 
Pandrift on November 5. 

Col. Kemp, with a part of Gen. Beyers' army 
and large reinforcements, headed for German 
Southwest Africa, pursued by Col. Alberts. 



German-Boer Forces, 10,000 

Gen. de Wet 

Gen. Hertzog 

Gen. Christian Beyers 

Col. S. G. Maritz 

Col. Kemp 

Col. Peinar 

Col. Muller 



Beyers, meanwhile, with the remnant of 
his army and other rebels recruited on the 
way, entered the Orange Free State, hoping 
to get in touch with Gen. de Wet's forces. 
Close in pursuit, a band of loyalists, led by 
Col. Lemmer, smashed Beyers' command near 
the Wet River, taking 400 prisoners. 

De Wet's Defeat and Surrender 

GENERAL de Wet had organized a nonde- 
script army of 2000 rebels in the Orange 
Free State. This once brilliant cavalry 
leader, now an old man, could not cope with 
the new conditions of motor transport, nor 
could he follow the same tactics which had 
won him such successes in the Boer War six- 
teen years before. His first action was at 
Winburg, where he defeated a small loyalist 
force under Gen. Cronje. 



First Year of the War 1914 



123 



Gen. de Wet met his Waterloo at Marquard 
on November 12. Hemmed in on all sides 
by the forces of Gen. Botha, Gen. Lukin, Col. 
Brandt, and Col. Brits, numbering 6000, he 
barely hacked his way through the ring, leav- 
ing all his stores of food and ammunition, to- 
gether with 100 motor cars and wagons, and 
250 prisoners behind him. 

With a Boer detail in pursuit, de Wet fled 
up the Wet River valley to Boshof, where 
his rebel band deserted him. He crossed the 
Vaal River with only 25 of the 2000 rebel 
followers he had at Marquard. Then, unit- 
ing with a small body of fugitives at Sch- 
weizer Renek, de Wet headed for German 
Southwest Africa, expecting to join Maritz 
and Kemp. On November 25, 1914, while 
crossing Bochuanaland, de Wet gave battle 
to Col. Brits and lost half of his small com- 
mand. On December 1, 1914, at Waterburg, 
de Wet and his band of 52 rebels surrendered 
to Col. Jordaan. They were imprisoned at 
Johannesberg on a charge of high treason. 

Gen. Beyers Drowned in Vaal River 

GENERAL Beyers, leading a little band of 
rebels in the Orange Free State, was trapped 
on the Transvaal border, December 9, by 
Capt. Uys, and while endeavoring to escape 
by swimming across the Vaal River, was shot 
and drowned. 

End of the Rebellion 

GENERAL Botha, early in December, cap- 
tured 500 rebels in the Orange Free State, 
and 200 more surrendered to Commandant 



Kloppers. General Maritz, Col. Kemp, and 
the "Prophet of Lichtenberg" won two 
minor engagements in a surprise attack at 
Langklip and Onydas, but soon after they 
were put to flight by the Union forces. Es- 
caping to the German frontier, the rebels 
made their last stand at Upington, on Janu- 
ary 24, 1915, where a force of 1200 under 
Maritz and Kemp attacked Col. van der Ven- 
ter, but were easily repulsed. Maritz then 
fled into German territory. Colonel Kemp 
and the "Prophet" surrendered on February 
3, 1915. 

Natives Robbed and Massacred by Germans 

ONE result of the conquest of German 
Southwest Africa was the disclosure of Ger- 
many's inhumane treatment of the natives. 
The Hereros, Hottentots and Berg-Damaras 
numbered 130,000 in 1903, but the infamous 
Gov. von Trotha, pursuing a policy of exter- 
mination, had killed all but 37,742 by 1911. 
Nearly 75 per cent of the natives had been 
butchered in seven years, and their property 
confiscated. 

In 1890, when Germany annexed the coun- 
try, the Hereros possessed 150,000 herd of 
cattle, but in 1905, they had been despoiled 
of all their possessions. In 1907, the Imperial 
German Government, by ordinance, prohib- 
ited the natives of Southwest Africa from 
possessing any live stock. This was a sample 
of Germany's plans for the "regeneration of 
the human race" by "the divinely appointed 
rulers of Germany." 



Conquest of German East Africa 



British-Boer-Belgian Forces 

6,000 Whites, 350,000 Native Carriers 
Gen. Smuts 
Gen. Northey 
Gen. van Deventer 
Gen. Edwards 

THE conquest of German East Africa 
proved to be the most difficult task of all. 
Not only did the German-native forces out- 
number the British in the beginning, but 
they also held the Uganda railroad, which af- 
forded them a strategical point of attack. 
The British campaign opened with an attack 
on the capital of the colony, Dar-es-Salem, 
which was taken on August 13. 



German Forces, 5000 Whites 
Gen. Wable 
Gen. Kraut 
Gen. Lettow-Vorbeck 



The scene of warfare then shifted to the 
south, when the Germans attempted unsuc- 
cessfully to drive the British from Karonga 
on Lake Nyassa, and from Abercorn on Lake 
Tanganyika. Turning their attention to the 
north, the Germans delivered a total of seven 
attacks on British positions along the Uganda 
railroad and in the vicinity of the lakes, with 
varying success. 



124 



Germany's Crime Against Humanity 



In late September, the Germans started a 
joint naval and military attack upon Mom- 
basa, the capital of British East Africa, the 
cruiser Koenigsburg bombarding the city, 
while the land forces assaulted from the rear. 
The opportune arrival of British warships 
ended the bombardment and the German 
land attack was quickly checked. 

Six thousand British troops carried the 
War into the enemy's country in November, 
attacking the towns of Tanga and Gassin. 
Tanga capitulated, but Gassin held out till 
January, 1915. A British garrison of 300, 
holding Gassin, was later besieged by 3000 
Germans, who captured the town after a 



stubborn resistance. German East Africa 
was not conquered until November, 1917. 

Samoan and Bismarck Archipelago 

ON August 30, 1914, a squadron of six Al- 
lied war vessels, including three British cruis- 
ers, two Australian battleships, and a French 
cruiser, arrived at the German Samoan 
Islands in the South Pacific, and took pos- 
session without opposition, the German resi- 
dents being transferred to New Zealand. 

The German colonies in the Bismarck 
Archipelago were surprised by the Austral- 
ians on September 11, and surrendered. The 
powerful wireless stations in those islands 
were destroyed. 



!..., ,..,, ,. 



* EASTERN THEATER, OCT. DEC. " 

Turkey Enters the German Alliance Just Before the War Opens 

Sultan's Call For a "Holy War" Ignored By 300,000,000 Moslems 
Turkish Army Annihilated By the Russian Army of the Caucasus 



" SECTION 21 1914 "< 



Russian Army of the Caucasus, 150,000 

Gen. Woronoslav, Commander 



BEFORE the first shot was fired in the 
World War, Turkey had committed 
herself irrevocably to the German 
cause. Turkey had been admitted into a poli- 
tical and military alliance, concluded secretly 
with Germany, only a few weeks before the 
murder of the Austrian Crown Prince, and 
under circumstances somewhat indicative of 
Prussia's prescience of future events. 

Desiring the Kaiser's aid in recovering his 
lost provinces from Russia, the Sultan in 
1912 had proposed an alliance with Germany. 
For two years the Kaiser equivocated, but in 
the spring of 1914 he yielded his consent. 
Scarcely had the treaty been signed when the 
Austrian Crown Prince, who had been as a 
thorn in the side of Germany, was assassin- 
ated at Sarajevo and the stage set for the 
greatest catastrophe in the world's history. 

With the outbreak of hostilities, the Sultan 
professed a policy of strict neutrality, while 
orders issued for the mobilization of the 
Turkish Army under German direction. The 
German Military Commission, headed by 
Gen. Liman von Sanders, took over the duties 



Turkish Army of the Caucasus, 160,000 

Enver Bey, Commander 

(Assisted by a German Staff) 

of the Turkish General Staff, and the Ger- 
man Admiral Sushon, with a retinue of Ger- 
man naval officers, assumed control of the 
Turkish Fleet. 

The Dardanelles were at once closed to all 
foreign shipping and the waters of the Chan- 
nel sown with mines, to prevent the egress 
of the Russian Fleet from the Black Sea and 
the ingress of the Allied Fleets through the 
Bosphorus. Thus the only feasible route by 
which Russia's surplus grain might reach the 
Allies, or Allied guns might be sent into 
Russia was sealed tight. Russia had been 
practically isolated from her Allies ! 

England roused the temper of the Turks 
in the first days of the War by commandeer- 
ing two Turkish battleships under construc- 
tion in British yards. In reprisal the Turks 
stormed the British consulate at Constanti- 
nople. Turkey revealed her friendship for 
Germany when, in August, the'German war- 
ships Goeben and Breslau, after being chased 
through the Mediterranean, were ad- 
mitted through the Dardanelles and trans- 
ferred to Turkish Sovereignty. Subsequently, 



First Year of the War 1914 



125 



on the persuasion of Germany, the Turkish 
Government abolished the special privileges, 
called "capitulations," granted some years 
before to foreigners living within the Turk- 
ish empire. 

The Turkish Government, moreover, had 
championed the cause of Germany against 
England and her Allies, threatened Greece 
and Russia, and made overtures to Bulgaria 
and Rumania, looking to co-operation in a 
military policy. 

The Allied diplomats, too, were seeking 
the aid of those same nations. Bulgaria was 
promised Adrianople and Thrace ; Greece was 
tempted with the offer of Smyrna ; while Jlu- 
mania was to receive certain provinces in 
Austria as the reward for uniting with the 
Allies. 

Turkey's First Acts of War 

MEANWHILE, the secret intrigues of the 
Turks had culminated in definite acts of war. 
Not only had Turkey harbored enemy war- 
ships, and withdrawn her capitulations to 
foreigners, but on October 9, Turkish torpedo 
boats had raided the port of Sebastopol in the 
Black Sea, sunk several Russian cargo ships 
laden with grain, shelled two Russian cruis- 
ers, and bombarded the town of Sebastopol. 

On the 26th a swarm of Bedouins, invading 
the Sinai Peninsula, had occupied the wells 
of Magdada, 20 miles beyond the Egyptian 
frontier. On October 29 the Breslau bom- 
barded the Black Sea port of Theodosia. 

Convinced at last of the perfidy of Turkey, 
the ambassadors of the Allied powers at once 
asked for their passports. The Turkish Gov- 
ernment defended its action by asserting that 
the Russian ships were the aggressors. 



Sultan's Call for a "Holy War" Unsuccessful 

THE Sultan of Turkey, as spiritual ruler of 
Islam, on November 4, declared war against 
England and called on the 300,000,000 J^os- 
lems throughout the world to unite in a "H6jy 
War" for the extermination of all Christian 
nations then at war with Germany. 

The Mohammedan rulers of India, Egypt, 
Tripoli, Tunis, Algeria, and Morocco not only 
ignored the call, but many of the Moslem 
princes, including the powerful Agar Khan, 
proffered their personal services and large 
sums of money to England. 

In Egypt there was some show of hatred 
for England among the Nomads of the desert, 
but no attempt was made to instigate a gen- 
eral uprising. Arabia, a Turkish province, 
allied herself with England and France. 

Great Britain retaliated by declaring war 
upon Turkey, November 5, by seizing all 
Turkish vessels in British ports and annex- 
ing the Island of Cyprus. 

The Khedive of Egypt Is Deposed 

ABBAS II, the Khedive of Egypt, under the 
persuasion of Germany, and with the prob- 
able hope of freeing Egypt from British sov- 
ereignty, had espoused the cause of the 
Turks and fled to Constantinople. 

The British Government thereupon abol- 
ished the title of Khedive, deposed Abbas, 
and raised to the throne an Egyptian 
prince, Hussain, who assumed the power on 
December 20 at Cairo. At the same time 
the British Government promised to restore 
self rule to the Egyptians at the close of the 
War. 



Russians Annihilate Turks Near Mt Ararat 



Russian Army, 100,000 
Gen. Woronoslov 



GERMANY first used her cat's-paw, Turkey, 
in attempting to isolate Russia by the con- 
quest of the Transcaucasian region, near 
Mt. Ararat, where Noah's Ark landed after 
the Great Deluge. Here the Turkish and 
Russian boundaries meet. The frontier, run- 
ning parallel to the Caucasus range of moun- 



Turkish Army, 160,000 

Gen. Liman von Sanders 
Enver Bey 
Iskan Pasha 
Hassan Izzet Pasha 

tains, is guarded by forts. On the Russian 
side is the Kars fortress. 

Opposing this is the Turkish fortress of 
Erzerum. The German and Turkish strate- 
gists, finding the Russian frontier guarded 
by an army of scarcely 100,000 men, under 
Gen. Woronoslov, planned to surround and 



126 



Germany *s Crime Against Humanity 



destroy this army, seize Tiflis and Kars, and 
thereby gain control of the rich Caspian oil 
fields. 

In pursuance of this plan a Turkish army 
of 160,000, under the nominal command of 
Enver Bey and Hassan Izzet Pasha, but in 
reality led by Gen. Liman von Sanders and 
other German officers, was assembled at 
Erzerum. 

In general, the strategy of the Turkish gen- 
erals was to entice the Russians across the 
Turkish border and by a wide encircling 
movement by way of Ardahan, take them in 
the rear and destroy them. The success of 
the Turkish plan depended upon holding the 
Russian force on Turkish soil long enough 
for the wide flanking movement to be accom- 
plished in that difficult mountain region. 

The Russians, sure enough, were lured 
across the Turkish frontier on November 30. 
Advancing 30 miles in three columns without 
much opposition, they took the city of Kop- 
rikeui. There they were held while the 
Turkish development plan was proceeding. 

Half the Turkish' army, 80,000 men in all, 
marching north in a driving blizzard, suc- 
ceeded in crossing the high mountains that 
guard the Russian frontier overlooking the 
city of Sarikamish and the vital railroad to 
Tiflis. By advancing a few miles further 
they could cut off the communications of the 
Russians. 

In the meanwhile, a Turkish army of 
Erzerum had engaged one column of the 
Russian army at Koprikeui, driving it back 
to Khorassan, while another Turkish force 
stationed at Trebizond, after forced marches 
in a raging blizzard, had reached Ardahan 
and threatened the Russian column on its 
other flank. 



General Woronoslov, seeing his danger, 
rushed his main army back to Sarikamish 
and struck the Tenth Turkish Corps that 
threatened the railway, sending it in flight 
to the mountains. Then, with lightning 
rapidity, he turned upon the Turkish Ninth 
Corps, almost annihilating it. General Iskan 
Pasha surrendered. 

The Turkish First Corps was driven out of 
Ardahan on New Year's day, and on January 
17, 1915, the Eleventh Turkish Corps was in 
full retreat to Trebizond. The Turkish losses 
in this battle were 50,000. 

rTurks Whipped by Britons in Persia 

MEANWHILE, the Turks were receiving a 
bad mauling at the hands of the British in 
Persia. It was part of Germany's plan to 
get possession of the Persian Gulf, an impor- 
tant gateway to India and the Persian oil 
fields. The Turks were the agents which 
Germany used for the purpose. The English 
forestalled the Turks on November 7, when 
a British force under Gen. Delamain took the 
Turkish fort at Falon after a bombardment. 

Proceeding north along the Persian Gulf, 
the British disembarked at Sanijah, where 
reinforcements under Gen. Sir Arthur Bar- 
rett reached them, and thence advancing to 
Sahil. Here they routed a strong Turkish 
force, the enemy casualties being 1500 and 
the British only 38. 

On November 22, the British occupied 
Basra and on December 9 they forced the sur- 
render of the Turkish garrison at Kurna. 
Here they entrenched, secure in the knowl- 
edge that they had established a safe barrier 
against a Turkish advance into India, and 
still controlled the immensely valuable oil 
fields. 



ALL OCEANS, OCT. 4 DEC. 8 



British Navy Sweeps German Commerce from the Seas 

Naval Battles Fought at Heligoland, Falkland Islands and Coronet. 
Daring Exploits of German Sea Raiders English Coast Towns Bombarded 

................. .,..,,..,..>..,.............^.............,....^...... SECTION 22-1914 



E 



NGLAND'S Navy, in closing the seas to 
Germany, and guarding the waterways 
of the World, made possible the trans- 

to France of the huge armies which fin- 



ally throttled the Beast, and saved Civiliza- 
tion. If the German Navy then second only 
to England's in power had been able to con- 
trol or even sail the seas, the mighty armies 



First Year of the War 1914 



127 



of Great Britain, the United States, Canada, 
Australia, New Zealand, and Africa, never 
could have come to the assistance of France, 
battling practically alone on the Western 
front against the overwhelming forces of the 
Huns. 

British Navy Ready for Action 

PROVIDENTIALLY it would seem, the British 
navy was mobilizing for its annual autumn 
maneuvers off the port of Spithead, in the 
summer of 1914, when the Archduke of Aus- 
tria was assassinated, at Sarajeva. Foresee- 
ing the possibility of war, the British Lord 
of the Admiralty, Winston Churchill, gave 
secret orders for a general muster of the 
British navy. Within a week, in early July, 
a mighty armada of 400 warships had as- 
sembled in the North Sea. 

The British ships were not arrayed, ac- 
cording to custom, in holiday attire. On the 
contrary, the fleet was drawn up ready for 
battle, with decks cleared, guns uncovered, 
steam up, and magazines replenished. 

Nor was the fleet demobilized at the con- 
clusion of the maneuvers on July 29. Like 
watchdogs, they continued to guard the North 
Sea, and especially the entrance to the Kiel 
Canal, which Germany had recently remod- 
eled to admit the passage of her largest 
dreadnaughts. 

They kept the German navy penned up in 
that canal, or in the adjacent basins of the 
Baltic-North Seas. And when war was de- 
clared, on August 4, 1914, the British Grand 
Fleet took its station off the northern coast 
of England ready to pounce upon the Ger- 
man fleet of 350 warships if they showed 
their prows at the entrance of the North Sea. 

France, with 340 warships, was guarding 
the Mediterranean Sea, and keeping a watch- 
ful eye betimes on the 240 Austrian warships 
then anchored in the Adriatic. The Russians 
had 110 warships in the Baltic and 20 more 
in the Black Sea. Japan's staunch navy was 
on the alert in the South Pacific. 

Outside its home waters Britain had a fleet 
in the Mediterranean and several squadrons 
in Eastern waters. In New Zealand, there 
were four cruisers, and in Australia four 
cruisers and two submarines ; other cruisers 
and gunboats were stationed at the Cape of 



Good Hope, off the west coast of Africa, and 
along the Atlantic coast. Two new Turkish 
battleships, building in British shipyards, 
were commandeered, and two destroyers were 
purchased from the Chilian government. 

Germany, in addition to her home fleet, 
had eleven warships in other seas, protecting 
her thousands of merchant vessels. 

German Ships Flee to Neutral Ports 

BEFORE the actual declaration of war, the 
German government, by wireless, had warned 
the German merchant vessels sailing the 
seven seas to seek safety in neutral ports. 
Within a few weeks there were nearly 700 
German vessels so interned in all parts of the 
world. Hundreds of German vessels were cap- 
tured, however, and before September 1, 
1914, German commerce had been swept from 
the oceans. 

German Mine Layers and Submarines Active 

A WEEK before the opening of the war, 
German mine layers, disguised as fishing 
boats, had been laying mines in the paths of 
commerce over a wide area. They were espe- 
cially active in the North and Baltic Seas. 

A fleet of British destroyers was at once 
despatched to the home waters for mine lay- 
ers. They sank the Konigin Luise on August 
6, rescuing 50 of her crew of 130. On the 
following day the British cruiser Amphion 
struck a mine and sank. Many of her crew, 
after taking to their boats, were killed by the 
explosion of her magazine. 

On Sunday, August 9, a flotilla of German 
submarines attacked the cruiser Birmingham. 
Two shots from the British ship struck one 
of the submarines, and she sank immediately. 
Early in August, the German cruiser Augs- 
berg bombarded the Russian port of Libau in 
the Baltic Sea, inflicting much damage. 

German Cables Cut 

MEANWHILE, on August 5, the British ship 
Drake had cut two German cables off the 
Azores Islands, leaving the German admiral- 
ity without direct communication with the 
seven warships still roaming the sea. 

Two German Cruisers Escape by Stratagem 

ON the day war was declared, two of the 
fastest German cruisers, the Goeben and the 



128 



Germany's Crime Against Humanity 



Breslau, began the bombardment of Algerian 
coast cities along the Mediterranean Sea. 

On August 5, being then in imminent 
danger of capture by an Allied fleet, they es- 
caped by a clever stratagem. At nightfall, 
the band of the Goeben was placed on a raft 
and ordered to play German national airs. 
While the Allies were trying to locate the 
source of the music, the German cruisers, 
under cover of the darkness, slipped away 
to the neutral port of Messina. 

The next day, pursued by the Allied fleet, 
the two ships headed for Constantinople, ex- 
changing shots en route with the cruiser 
Gloucester. Arriving at Constantinople, the 
two ships were transferred to the Turkish 
government. 



Germany's $10,000,000 Gold Ship Escapes 

THE fast German merchant ship, the 
Kronprinzessin Cecillie, left New York har- 
bor on July 28, 1914, carrying a cargo of 
$10,000,000 in gold, and was in mid-ocean 
when England declared war. English cruis- 
ers naturally exerted themselves to capture 
her, but the Kronprinzessin eluded them. 

When within a few hundred miles of the 
English coast, the German "gold ship" turned 
about and with darkened interior, made for 
America, reaching the neutral port of Bar 
Harbor, Me., on the evening of August 5. 

Allied ships, notably the Lusitania and the 
French liner Lorraine, were able to elude the 
German cruiser Dresden which was endeavor- 
ing to intercept them early in August, 1914. 



Battle of Heligoland Bight 



British Naval Forces 

Admiral Sir David Beatty 
Admiral Christian 
Admiral Jellicoe 
Commodore Keyes 
Commodore Tyrwhitt 
Commodore Goodenough 

THE first great sea fight of the World War 
was fought on August 28, 1914, off Heligo- 
land Bight, in the North Sea, resulting in a 
victory for the British. 

A large fleet of German light cruisers, de- 
stroyers, and submarines was lying under 
the protection of the batteries on the island 
of Heligoland. From this naval base, Ger- 
man submarines had been operating against 
British shipping. 

Admiral Jellicoe conceived a plan to entice 
this German fleet away from the protection 
of the Heligoland fort, close in upon it from 
both flanks, and then destroy it in the open 
sea. 

While squadrons of concealed British bat- 
tleships, cruisers, and destroyers were guard- 
ing either side of the Bight, Commodore 
Keyes, on August 27, moved his flotilla of 
eight submarines and two destroyers toward 
Heligoland at midnight. 

The next morning three of the British sub- 
marines, their hulls showing above water, 
steamed slowly toward the island fortress, 
followed by five submersed boats and two 
destroyers. 



German Naval Force 

Admiral von Ingenohl 



A fleet of 21 German destroyers hastened 
out to give battle, and the visible British 
boats turned tail. A German airplane, oper- 
ating above, signaled to the fort and soon a 
squadron of German light cruisers joined in 
the pursuit. 

The three visible British submarines, act- 
ing as decoys, headed for the northwest, pur- 
sued by a flotilla of German submarines, de- 
stroyers, and torpedo boats, and a fleet of 
light cruisers. The odds seemed to please the 
Germans. 

But lying in wait for them were Commo- 
dore Tyrwhitt's two destroyer flotillas, Com- 
modore Goodenough's light cruiser squadron, 
Admiral Christian's cruiser squadron, and 
behind these Admiral Beatty's squadron of 
battleships with four destroyers. 

The first shock of battle was t>orne by the 
British cruiser Arethusa, which gallantly en- 
gaged two German cruisers, the Ariadne and 
the Strassburg. Though badly damaged by 
German shells, the Arethusa held out for half 
an hour or more until the Fearless had come 
to her assistance, and then hurled a shell that 
shattered the forebridge of the Ariadne, kill- 



First Year of the War-1914 



129 



ing the commander. Both the German ves- 
sels then drew off to Heligoland. The Are- 
thusa was in a bad plight ; all but one of her 
guns were disabled; fire was raging on her 
main deck, and her water tank was punc- 
tured. She was towed away by the Fearless. 

Meanwhile, the flotillas had been hotly en- 
gaged. One German destroyer, the B-187, 
headed straight for the line of British de- 
stroyers, and though riddled with shells, her 
guns kept up their booming, and her crew 
their cheering up to the moment she sank. 
Ten other German destroyers were damaged 
and the English destroyers also were bat- 
tered. 

For an hour, between 9 and 10, there was 
a lull in the fight; then the battle was re- 
sumed. The Arethusa and the Ariadne, hav- 
ing been repaired, again appeared in the 
line. 

The German cruisers Mains, Koln, and 
Strassburg reopened the fight by firing upon 
some small British boats that were engaged 
in rescue work. The Arethusa and the Fear- 
less, with several destroyers, gave battle to 
the three German cruisers. In short order 
the Strassburg was disabled and limped back 
to Heligoland. 

The British battleship Lion now appeared 
on the scene, and quickly sank the Mains with 
a torpedo. The battleship Queen Mary then 
engaged the Koln, which turned tail, but be- 
fore she couid get away a shell from the 
Lion found her vitals, and she sank with her 



crew of 370. The Ariadne, which had come 
to the rescue of the Koln, was then sent to 
the bottom. 

With three cruisers and one destroyer 
sunk, one cruiser and seven destroyers badly 
damaged, 700 sailors drowned and 300 taken 
prisoners, the Germans acknowledged defeat. 
The British escaped without the loss of a 
ship. 

British Cruisers Sunk by Submarines 

THE submarine boat was an important ally 
of Germany from the beginning. On Sep- 
tember 3, the British gunboat Speedy struck 
a mine in the North Sea and went down. On 
September 5, the cruiser Pathfinder was sent 
to the bottom off the east coast of England 
with great loss of life. 

Three English cruisers the Cressy, 
Hogue, and Aboukir while patrolling the 
coast of Holland, on September 22, were tor- 
pedoed and sunk by the German submarine 
U-9, Capt.-Lieut. Otto Weddigen. The Abou- 
kir was struck first, and the Hogue and 
Cressy went to her assistance. 

While cutters from the Cressy were re- 
turning with the rescued sailors from the 
Aboukir, the Hogue was struck. And while 
trying to save the crew of the Hogue, their 
own vessel was sent to the bottom. Of the 
1459 officers and men comprising the crew of 
the three vessels, only 779 were saved. 

The English retaliated, on September 13, 
by torpedoing the German cruiser Hela near 
Heligoland. 



Sea Battle of Coronel, Off Coast of Chile 

(November 1, 1914) 



British Naval Force, Four Vessels 

Admiral Sir Christopher Cradock 

WHEN the war broke out, the German Pa- 
cific squadron of seven vessels, commanded 
by Admiral von Spee, was at Kiau-chau, 
China. Among these vessels were the Emden 
and the Karlsruhe, both destined to achieve 
fame as raiders. 

Early in August, 1914, the German squad- 
ron left Kiau-chau to prey upon English com- 
merce in the South Pacific. A British squad- 
ron of five vessels, commanded by Admiral 
Sir Christopher Cradock, was detailed to 
safeguard British shipping in the South Seas. 
On November 1, 1914, off the coast of Chile, 



German Naval Force, Four Vessels 

Admiral von Spee 

near Coronel, the German fleet, sighting the 
British vessels, opened fire with great ac- 
curacy at a range of seven miles. The Brit- 
ish flagship, Good Hope, exploded and sank, 
carrying Admiral Cradock to his death. The 
Monmouth, set on fire, made for the open sea. 
The four German ships then bore down upon 
the Glasgow, but she escaped. Early in the 
engagement the Otranto, an armed liner 
merely, had disappeared. 

The fifth ship of Admiral Cradock's squad- 
ron, the Canopus, had been undergoing re- 
pairs at a port further south. She found the 



130 



Germany's Crime Against Humanity 



Glasgow the day after the battle and together 
they proceeded to the Falkland Islands. The 
German fleet, overtaking the Monmouth on 
the next day, fired seventy shells into her 



when she lay sinking, on fire, and helpless, 
unable to fire her guns. With Admiral Cra- 
dock, 1650 British officers and men perished 
in this battle. 



Sea Battle Off the Falkland Islands 

(December 8, 1914) 



British Squadron, 10 Vessels 

Admiral F. D. Sturdee 

ENGLAND took immediate steps to revenge 
the disaster to Cradock's squadron. Rear 
Admiral F. D. Sturdee, chief of the naval 
staff, was put in command of a special squad- 
ron of seven cruisers which secretly steamed 
away to the South Atlantic. His fleet was 
joined by three more cruisers, including the 
Glasgow. 

Upon arriving at his destination, Admiral 
Sturdee laid a trap for the Germans by send- 
ing a fictitious wireless message to the cruiser 
Canopus, bidding her proceed to Port Stan- 
ley in the Falkland Islands. 

As foreseen by Admiral Sturdee, this mes- 
sage was intercepted by the Germans. Ad- 
miral von Spee, who was heading for Cape 
Horn, thought it an easy matter to capture 
the Canopus at Fort Stanley. He reached 
the fort December 8 and was astounded to 
find Admiral Sturdee's entire fleet in waiting 
for him. 

A furious sea-fight occurred, which re- 
sulted in the sinking of four of the five ships 
composing the German squadron. Only the 
Dresden escaped and she afterward became a 
raider. Many Germans were rescued from 
drowning by the Britishers, but the German 
losses exceeded 1000, while the British losses 
were trifling. Thus was destroyed the last 
German squadron upon open seas. 

English Coast Cities Bombarded 

THE shelling of seaside resorts and de- 
fenceless towns on the east coast of England, 
and the consequent murder of innocent civ- 
ilians, was one of the pastimes of the Ger- 
mans in the late fall of 1914. On November 
2, eight German cruisers, some of them carry- 
ing 11-inch guns, appeared off Yarmouth and 
bombarded that naval station at a distance 
of ten miles, but without inflicting much 
damage. 



German Squadron, Five Vessels 

Admiral von Spee 

On December 16, a German squadron of 
five vessels emerged from the fog off Hartle- 
pool and West Hartlepool, dropping 1500 
shells into and about the two towns. The 
ancient batteries on shore feebly replied, but 
their shots could not reach the German ships. 
The townspeople, many of them awakened 
from sleep, rushed into the streets. One 
shell, in bursting, killed three children who 
were fleeing with their mother. More than 
thirty innocent people were killed and 
seventy-five wounded. Among the buildings 
destroyed were St. Mary's Catholic Church 
and the Church of St. Hilda. The gas works 
were also destroyed, and in consequence the 
town was without lights for many nights. 

Proceeding to Scarborough, the Germans 
began to bombard the town while many peo- 
ple were yet asleep. Thirteen were killed or 
wounded while attempting to dress. One 
shell hit St. Martin's church while com- 
munion was being served. 

Half an hour later two cruisers began the 
bombardment of Whitby, dropping 200 shells 
into the town and killing two persons. 

German Sea t Raiders, Emden and Koenigsberg 

SEVERAL German raiders roamed the seas in 
the early months of the war, taking many 
prizes before being finally rounded up. Of 
these, the most resourceful and daring was 
the third-class cruiser Emden, commanded 
by Capt. Karl von Muller. By means of sup- 
ply ships, Capt. von Muller was enabled to 
raid the southern seas for nearly three 
months without touching land. After loot- 
ing the captured merchantmen it was his 
practice to sink all but one of them. This 
ship he filled with the prisoner crews and 
passengers he had captured, sending them to 
the nearest port. Some of the prize ships 
he used as colliers, placing in charge his 
petty officers. 



First Year of the War 1914 



131 



The Emden, quitting Japanese waters 
when the war opened, steamed into the har- 
bor of Madras, in British India, with the 
French flag flying and bombarded the town, 
setting on fire two large oil tanks. Before 
leaving Bengal Bay, the German raider sank 
twenty-one steamers, with $45,000,000 worth 
of merchandise on board. 

The Emden 's Audacious Ruse 

THE British government sent a squadron 
in pursuit of the Emden. Within a short time 
the British cruiser Yarmouth captured two 
of the Emden's colliers off the coast of Su- 
matra. This left Capt. von Muller short of 
coal. He sought to replenish this supply by 
an audacious ruse. 

Knowing that the Yarmouth had sailed 
from Penang in his pursuit, he boldly decided 
to enter that harbor in search of coal. 

By means of a false funnel and the ingen- 
ious use of canvas, he disguised his ship so 
as to make it resemble the Yarmouth, and 
on the evening of October 28, 1914, entered 
the harbor of Penang. 

A Russian cruiser and three French de- 
stroyers were then on guard in the harbor. 
They hailed the Emden by wireless and were 
assured that the vessel was the Yarmouth 
returning to harbor. 

The Emden actually approached to within 
600 yards of the Russian cruiser before the 
ruse was discovered. Too late the Russian 
ship opened fire. The Emden riddled the 
Russian vessel with shell fire and she sank 
in fifteen minutes. 

Quickly leaving the harbor, the Emden 
sighted an ammunition ship and was prepar- 
ing to capture her when a French destroyer 
appeared and gave battle. The Emden sank 
the destroyer, but at this juncture a cruiser 
from Penang headed for the Emden and 
Capt. Muller put off for the Indian Ocean. 

Nothing further was heard of the Emden 
until November 9, when the raider endeav- 
ored to cut the British cables and the wire- 
less plant on the Cocos Islands, southwest of 
Java, hoping to prevent British communi- 
cation with India, Australia, and South 
Africa. 



A landing party from the Emden did cut 
what appeared to be the true cables, but in- 
stead were false cable-ends set up by the 
British authorities, who had foreseen the at- 
tempted destruction of the cables and fore- 
stalled it. 

Unfortunately for von Muller, a convoy of 
troop ships from Australia was passing with- 
in 100 miles, accompanied by the cruisers 
Melbourne and Sidney. Notified by wireless 
of the Emden's whereabouts, they started in 
pursuit, reaching the Cocos Islands in three 
hours. 

Knowing that escape was impossible, be- 
cause of the foul bottom of his vessel, von 
Muller decided to give battle. At full speed 
the Emden steamed straight for the Sydney, 
and even landed one shell on her forebridge, 
but the Sydney fairly riddled the raider with 
shell, disabling her. 

Capt. von Muller was made prisoner and 
permitted to keep his sword. With the cap- 
ture, an hour later, of a German collier, the 
career of the Emden, greatest of sea raiders, 
was ended. 

The Cruiser Koenigsberg Trapped 

THE Koenigsberg, a third class German 
cruiser, also enjoyed an evil repute. Her 
operations were chiefly confined to the east 
coast of Africa. In August, 1914, she cap- 
tured two British merchant ships, seizing 
their stores, and sinking them. 

Dashing into the harbor of Zanzibar, on 
September 20, she so battered the British 
cruiser Pegasus that it lost all resemblance to 
a war vessel. 

The Koenigsberg then made off to her hid- 
ing place some miles up the Rufige River in 
German East Africa, where she was located 
on October 30 by the Chatham. To prevent 
her escape, colliers were sunk at the mouth 
of the river. Thus, amid the jungles of an 
African river, the German raider ended her 
career. 

The Karlsruhe, a consort of the Emden, 
also enjoyed a limited success as a raider be- 
fore being sunk by an unexplained explosion 
in December, 1914. 



132 



Germany's Crime Against Humanity 



ALL BATTLE FRONTS. NOV. AND DEC. 



Closing Battles of the First Year of War in All Theaters 

Germany Holds 600,000 Prisoners Toll of Death is 1,000,000 Men 

^.*.^.^.*.^....^..-...^...*....*..-.~^.*.~... SECTION 23 - 1914 ~-~>+~-~*->~+*-+*+~*-+~++~+~++. 



AFTER the great Allied victory at 
Ypres, November 17, 1914, the two 
colossal armies on the Western front 
settled down to trench warfare for the win- 
ter. Germany now held the greater part of 
Belgium and occupied 8000 square miles of 
territory in northern France, including vast 
coal and iron fields, and many of the impor- 
tant industrial centers. 

The casualties on all fronts during the first 
three months of fighting were not less than 
1,000,000. England alone had lost a third 
of her gallant expeditionary force. 

Germany had taken 600,000 prisoners. Of 
these nearly 300,000 were Russians, 250,000 
French, and 40,000 English. Hundreds of 
towns and villages in Flanders and France 
already had been obliterated by the terrific 
fire of the German artillery. 

Nevertheless, when this first chapter of 
the great war closed, Germany was the loser. 
She had utterly failed in her chief purpose to 
crush the Allies at one stroke. 

On the Western front she was held at bay, 
besieged in the trenches that now extended 
from the North Sea through Flanders and 
France to Switzerland. 

On the Eastern front she had suffered two 
crushing defeats at the hands of Russia, 
while her ally, Austria, had been all but 
crushed by Russia and sorely humiliated by 
Serbia. Germany in addition had been dis- 
possessed of her vast African colonies, her 
South Pacific and Asiatic possessions. 

Though still, in man power and especially 
in munitionment, superior to the Allies, she 
knew that England was building up a huge 
army which would inevitably work her de- 
struction. 

Her main hopes were centered on achiev- 
ing some great victory upon which she might 
found a proposal for a profitable peace, which 
should leave her in possession of the terri- 
tories she had conquered. 

Unable to enforce a decision in the West, 
she was preparing to launch a third offensive 
against Russia, early in January, 1915. 



Wettest Winter in History 

THE winter of 1914, on all the fronts, was 
the wettest in the memory of men. The hos- 
pitals generally behind the lines were filled 
with cases of ague, rheumatism, frost bite, 
gangrene, and the dread tetanus. The battle- 
fields were soggy, and oftentimes the com- 
batants fought in water waist deep. 

The closing engagements of 1914 on the 
Western front were chiefly "local" battles, 
having for their object the straightening out 
of the trench lines. 

The Fight at Armentieres 

ON the night of November 23, the Ger- 
mans hurled shells weighing 200 pounds each 
into the half mile of Allied trenches at Ar- 
mentieres, and followed this with an infan- 
try rush. The Huns were swept back by the 
Ghurkos with their terrible long knives. 

From December 9 to December 14, the 
English fought for possession of the wood at 
Wytschaete, and were finally successful. 

The Battle of Guianhy 

DECEMBER 19, the Indian troops "rushed" 
the German lines at Festubert and were al- 
most annihilated. The losses were over 1,000. 
Elated by their success, the Germans on the 
following night launched an attack along a 
six mile front around Festubert. 

The rush was preceded by an explosion of 
mines which took a heavy toll from the In- 
dian and English troops. The Germans 
seized most of the trenches, but at the critical 
moment reinforcements were sent by Gen. 
Haig and the Germans were expelled. The 
English casualties were 4,000. 

Opposing Forces Fraternize on Christmas Day 

ON Christmas Day, 1914, the amazing 
spectacle was witnessed on the Western front 
of English and German soldiers fraternizing 
in the trenches, and uniting in the pagan tree 
worship which their Saxon forefathers had 
practiced in the dark forests of Germany be- 
fore their adoption of Christianity. The next 
day the deadly warfare continued, and so 
closed the year of 1914 on the Western front. 



MODERN METHODS OF WARFARE 

Introduction of the Most Fiendish Devices Conceivable by Man 
Criminal Inventions Sway the Enemy of Humanity 



IN closing the story of 1914 and before proceeding 
with 1915 and the succeeding years, let us briefly 
review modern warfare with special reference to 
the murderous devices introduced by the Germans. 

At the opening of hostilities in 1914, it was unbe- 
lievable that any civilized nation could be capable 
of such depravity, such wholesale crime, as was 
planned and executed by the fanatic and war-crazed 
classes of Germany. 

Nowhere in the annals of time has there been such 
a perversion of knowledge for criminal purposes. 
Never has science and invention contributed to such 
a felonous assault against human life. 

One by one murderous devices were hurled against 
the Allies. As each succeeding horror was intro- 
duced, the Allied Nations quickly solved the princi- 
ples of the deadly contrivances and the engines of 
destruction were hurled back against the enemy with 
increased force and deadly results. 
Poison Gasses 

The Germans developed a variety of poisonous 
substances, such as asphyxiating gas, and lachrymal 
gas, calculated to produce blindness. The third 
"Triumph" was the deadly mustard gas. Asphyxiat- 
ing gas was first used by the Germans in the first 
battle of Ypres the deadly compound was mixed 
in huge reservoirs back of the lines, with a pipe sys- 
tem extending toward the British and Canadian 
forces. When the wind currents were moving in the 
right direction, the stop cocks were opened about 
midnight, and the poisonous fumes, hovering close 
to the ground, swept on their deadly mission. 

The terrible mustard gas was carried in gas shells, 
which exploded with but slight noise, scattering 
their liquid, death-dealing contents broadcast. The 
liquids used quickly decomposed as they came in 
contact with the air, forming a gas which hovered 
close to the earth with frightful effects. Other 
heinous devices created by these demons of depravity 
were flame-projectors, liquid fire, trench knives, and 
nail-studded clubs. Then came airplane bombs and 
huge cannon, throwing projectiles far behind the 
lines, causing great destruction of property and 
thousands of lives of innocent non-combatants. 

The Allies soon overcame the deadly gasses to a 
large degree, by inventing the gas mask. These were 
worn, not only by the soldiers on the battle lines, but 
by artillery horses, pack mules, Laison clogs and 
often by civilian inhabitants, including school chil- 
dren, far back of the fighting areas. 

Those gas masks contained a chamber filled with 
charcoal prepared from peach pits and other sub- 
stances similar in density qualities. Peach pits were 
gathered by the millions from all belligerent coun- 
tries. Anti-gas chemicals were mixed with the 
charcoal. The wearer of the mask breathed entirely 
through the mouth by means of a rubber mouth- 
piece the nose being closed by a clamp attached to 
the mask. 

Allied Genius Mobilized 

When America entered the war, the Scientific and 
Inventive brain of the Nation was mobilized, and 



these gifted men co-operated with the genius of the 
Allied Armies. Not only were the deadly devices of 
the Germans improved upon, and used against the 
enemy with terrific effect, but legitimate war devices 
were invented, which went far in accomplishing final 
victory. 

Among those were the "Tank", a Mobile Armored 
Artillery, a development of the caterpillar tractor, 
invented in America and adapted by England. Three 
types of the Tank were produced one carrying 
heavy guns only, another equipped with machine 
guns, and the third called the "Whiffet", capable of 
moving 18 miles per hour. The tank tore through 
barbed wire entanglements, crossed trenches, and 
laid low trees in its pathway. 

In frantic desperation Germany endeavored to pro- 
duce tanks to meet the Allied monster, but her 
efforts were futile compared with the Allied output. 

Another Allied invention produced by American 
genius was the depth bomb, which proved the death 
knell to under-sea craft. A wonderful instrument 
was the listening device, invented by an American, 
by which the approach of a submarine could be de- 
tected twenty miles away, and the direction from 
which it was coming. 

Modern Warfare 

The development of war equipment and death- 
dealing devices in modern warfare ushered in tre- 
mendous changes in methods and tactics. The mo- 
bilization of materials, railroads, mammoth guns, 
machine guns, food, clothing, airplanes, submarines, 
and other engines of destruction, was quite as im- 
portant as the mobilization of man power. During 
the early part of the war, the Germans won battle 
after battle because of their system of strategic rail- 
roads, previously planned, in anticipation of war 
and a speedy victory. 

Lacking an adequate system of transportation, 
Russia lost the great battles that doomed her to de- 
feat. Belgium was over-run, and France, being de- 
ficient in transportation facilities, to cope with 
Germany, her soil became the battle-field where the 
enemy could extend trench systems over great areas 
of territory. 

France, though lacking in strategic railways, 
evolved an effective substitute, through a system of 
auto-truck transportation. When von Kluck made 
his great rush on Paris in 1914, Galliene dispatched 
from the city an army in taxicabs, which struck the 
exposed flank of the enemy and contributed in no 
small degree to the Allied victory at the first Battle 
of the Marne. 

The truck transportation system from Paris to 
Verdun, along that famous highway, the "Sacred 
Road", during those eight months of artillery siege, 
enabled the French to keep inviolate, the mottb of 
that historic city, "They shall not pass", and they 
did not pass, though the enemy sacrificed 500,000 
men in a vain attempt to reach Paris. 

Motor trucks brought American reserves to the 
front, making possible victory at the second battle 
of the Marne. Auto transportation enabled the 



(133) 



134 



Germany's Crime Against Humanity 



British to send the Canadians and Australians pell- 
mell after the retreating Germans at Lens, Cam- 
bria, and Ostend. 

American Railway Construction in France 

American railway construction in France was not 
only one of the marvels of the war, but the most 
marvelous transportation achievement in the world's 
history. American engineers worked out an inter- 
weaving system of wide gauge and narrow gauge 
roads, stretching from the sea-coast far into the 
interior of France, delivering men, munitions and 
food in a steady stream to the entire front, and 
further served to quickly transport a whole army 
corps from one sector to another. 

It was this network of strategic railways that en- 
abled the French to send a great avalanch of blue- 
clad poilus to the relief of Amiens when Hindenberg 
made his final terrific assault in 1918. 

Divisions of Military Operations 

Military operation may be roughly divided into 
three classes: Open Warfare, Trench Warfare, and 
Crater Warfare. The first battle of the Marne was 
almost wholly open warfare, as were the battles of 
the Masurian Lakes, Allenstein, and Dunajec, in the 
Eastern theater, also the battles on the Italian front 
between the Piave River and Gorizia. 

In battles of this variety, airplanes and observa- 
tion balloons play important parts. When the enemy 
has been drawn out of the trenches, wireless 
messages are flashed to the artillery and slaughter 
at long range begins. In case of no entrenchments, 
as in the first battle of the Marne, massive artillery 
guns open a terrific fire, into the open columns, pre- 
paring the way for machine gunners and infantry 
charge. 

Cavalry a Negligible Factor 

Cavalry have played a heroic role in previous wars, 
but in this war the utility of the mounted soldier 
was almost negligible. In the armies of both the 
Allies and Central Powers, cavalrymen were con- 
verted into some other form of service, trench mor- 
tar companies, bombing squads, and other special 
groups. In Mesopotamia, South Africa, and parts of 
Russia, however, when the fighting was in open 
stretches, great bodies of cavalrymen were utilized 
extensively. 

Trench Warfare 

Trench warfare occupied the major portion of the 
time, and contributed nine-tenths of the discomfi- 
tures of the soldiers of both sides. During the ear- 
lier stages of the war, and before the men became 
hardened to the rigors of the trenches, many thou- 
sands died of exposure and many more thousands 
became incapacitated for life by "trench feet", a 
group of maladies developed from exposure to cold 
and to water, running through the trenches. 

As the war progressed trench conditions were im- 
proved, and in the end men learned to live in them 
with some degree of comfort. 

The "Race to the Sea" 

After the first battle of the Marne, the defeated 
German Army retreated to their prepared positions 
along the Aisne. Then began a series of flanking 
movements by both armies, speedily resulting into 
the famous "race to the sea," resolving itself into a 
competition between the opposing armies in rapid 
trench digging. 



Each side endeavored to prevent the opposing 
army from executing a flank movement. Within an 
amazingly short period the opposing trenches ex- 
tended from the Swiss border clear up to the Belgian 
coast, making further flank movements impossible. 

When trench night-raiding began, it was quickly 
observed that straight trenches exposed large num- 
bers of men to deadly fire. Bastians were quickly 
made, forming zigzag front line trenches Bastians 
also extended to communicating trenches, leading 
back to the company kitchens. 

Aerial Bombing 

Airplane bombing produced a great change in the 
character of the war. The fighting lines were ex- 
tended many miles behind the battle front. It 
brought horrors by night attacks, upon fatigued 
troops resting in billets far in the rear, destruction 
and death were also visited upon the civilian popu- 
lation, men, women and children in villages and 
cities scores of miles from the actual fighting areas. 

Germany repeatedly transgressed all laws of war 
and of humanity by bombing hospitals far back of 
the battle lines. A sample of these many atrocious 
attacks was perpetuated on a large Red Cross hos- 
pital at Boulenes on May 29, 1918. There was no 
possibility of mistaking the building for anything 
else flying Red Cross flags with lights turned on the 
flags, so that they would show prominently, and 
the windows were brightly lighted. The building 
was filled with wounded men. Those inside heard 
the buzz of the plane, but anticipated no danger, 
when over the building a huge bomb was dropped, 
which exploded in the building, carrying death to 
scores of the wounded soldiers, nurses and a doctor 
at the operating table. The horror of the catas- 
trophe was increased when the building took fire. 
Then to add to their murderous assault the airplane 
returned to the scene of the dastardly atrocity and 
fired on the rescuers with machine guns. 
Crater Warfare 

This character of warfare was the result of inten- 
sified artillery attacks upon trench systems. It was 
in the Eastern theater at Dunajec, under von Mack- 
ensen's direction, that for the first time in history 
the wheels of artillery pieces were placed hub to 
hub, in intensified hurricane fire upon the Russian 
positions with deadly effect. Later the same tactics 
were employed on the Western front, with the result 
that whole trench systems were destroyed, with the 
exception of deep dugouts, thus sending the trench 
occupants, for protection, into craters made by shell 
explosions. These craters formed excellent substi- 
tutes for trenches, being linked together by entrench- 
ing tools, carried by every soldier. 

Both armies deliberately created crater systems, 
by the attacking artillery. Into these crater lines 
the attacking infantry threw itself, wave after wave, 
in its rush on the enemy trenches. 

The earth over vast areas of territory was so 
churned up by the intensive artillery fire as to 
create what is known as "Moon Terrain" fields, re- 
sembling the surface of the moon as seen through a 
powerful telescope. 

The troops on both sides were trained to use these 
shell holes or craters, each crater being occupied by 
a group of men, who kept in touch with the next 
group, and all groups along the line moving through 
the connecting avenues from one crater to another, 
in unison toward the enemy. 



SECOND YEAR OF THE WAR 1915 

Important Events on Land and Sea 



PAGE WEST1 RN 1 IK ATI 


DATE 






Jan. 1 






22 


140 


Naval battle of Dogger Bank 


24 


140 


Germans sink American bark, W. P. Frye 


28 






29 


202 


Germany plots destruction in America. 


Feb. 1 






2 


141 


President Wilson holds Germany "accountable". 


10 


149 


French attack Germans at Perthe 


12 


140 


German blockade of British Isles begins 


18 


154 


German Zeppelins founder in North Sea , 


18 






19 






20 


166 


Boers defeat Germans in Southwest Africa. 


25 






25 






26 






29 


140 


Allies blockade all German ports. - 


Mar. 1 






2 






3 


142 


German cruiser enters Newport News. , 


10 


148 


Battle of Neuve Chapelle begins. 


10 


150 


English capture Neuve Chapelle. - 


12 


150 


Germans defeat English at St. Eloi 


14 






18 


154 


German Zeppelins shell Paris. . - 


21 






22 


141 


"Falaba" sunk 11 1 lives lost. 


29 






Apr. 12 


150 


Germans attack west of Ypres 


15 


150 


British capture "Hill 60" _ _ 


17 


154 


Zeppelins raid English cities. _ 


17 


150 


Second Battle of Ypres opens _ 


22 


151 


Germans cross the Ypres canal 


23 


154 


Zeppelins raid French orphanage 


24 






25 






26 






27 






28 






29 


141 


American Steamer Gulflight torpedoed 


May 1 






2 


182 


British slaughter at Gallipoli - 


3 






5 


152 


"Lusitania" torpedoed: 1,198 lives lost. 


7 


151 


Battle of Artois begins in France _ 


9 


157 


British attack Notre Dame Ridge 


9 


157 


French take Notre Dame de Lorette. _ 


11 


153 


President Wilson's first "Lusitania" note..... 


13 


158 


British disaster at Festubert 


17 






19 


161 


Italy declares war on Austria. _. 


23 


162 


Italian Army invades Austria. 


23 


163 


Austrian airships bomb Italian cities. . ........ 


24 


141 


American steamship Nebraskan sunk. 


25 


163 


Italians cross the Isonzo River _ 


26 


155 


First air raid on London 


31 






June 2 






3 


163 


Italians capture Montfalcone. 


7 


153 


Secretary of State W. J. Bryan resigns. 


7 


163 


Italians capture Grodisca. 


8 


165 


Italians seize Falzarego Pass 


9 


163 


Italians bombard Gorizia 


17 


155 


French airships raid German cities 


17 






20 


164 


Austrians retreat on Isonzo front. -... 


22 


141 


U. S. protests sinking of "Frye" 


28 


166 


Austrians defeat at Freikofel. .-.-... 


29 



EASTERN THEATER PAGE 

Russians defeat Turks in Caucasus _ 125 

Austriana re-take Kirlibaba Pass . 144 

Turks advance on Suez Canal _ . 139 

Russians lay siege to Przemysl 146 

Germans launch third drive on Warsaw _ 14< 

Turkish attack on Suez Canal repulsed. 139 

HiiHsianH defeated in East Prussia. 147 

Battle of Kosiowa _ . if. 

Austrian.* occupy Czcrnowitz 145 

Massacre of Armenians begins _ 168 

Allied Fleet bombards Dardanelles forts. 177 

Austrian* capture Carpathian passes 145 

Second attack on Dardanelles forts fails 177 

Russians evacuate Przasnysz 147 

British Army advance into Mesopotamia. 198 

Russians re-occupy Przasnysz 148 

Allied troops land at Kum-Kale 177 

British Army advances into Mesopotamia. 198 



Third naval attack on Dardanelles forts.. 



Russians capture Przemysl 

Austrian Army surrenders to Russians.. 



178 



14C 

146 



British repulse Turks at Shaiba 198 

British rout Turks at Basra 199 

British occupy Nakailah 199 



Armenians in 10 villages massacred. 168 



Allied troops land on Gallipoli peninsula- 
First Battle of Krithia. Gallipoli 

German Army invades Courland... 

Battle of Anzac Cove, Gallipoli 

German ships bombard Libau, Courland. 



180 
182 
148 
182 
148 



Battle of the Dunajec opens in Galicia 17t 

Great Russian retreat begina 172 

Russians make stand at Wisloka River _... 172 

Russians evacuate Jaslo 171 



Germans surrender Windhoek. Africa. _ 117 

Battle of the San River _ 172 

Russians storm Sicunva. 172 

Massacre of Armenians in Van region 1C9 



Russian typhus epidemic in Caucasia. 168 

British battleship Triumph sunk by Turks.... 183 

British fleet withdraws from Dardanelles. 183 

Germans recapture Przemysl _. 172 

British capture Amara _ 199 



1,000.000 Armenians massacred..., 

Russians evacuate LemberK 

German victory at Rawa Ruska. 
Austriana occupy Lemberg 



17S 
172 
172 



(135) 



136 



Important Events on Land and Sea 1915 



PAGE 



166 Italians capture Zellenkofel 



164 Austrians counter-attack Italians 

164 American steamer Leeclanaw sunk... 
164 Italians storm St. Michels 



202 
202 
202 



142 



197 



202 
141 



DATE 

July 2 

4 

6 

9 

13 
14 
14 
21 
22 
25 
27 
29 



142 German raider Kronprinz Wilhelm escapes Aug. 

192 Edith Cavell, English nurse, arrested 



142 English troopship torpedoed ; 1,000 lost... 

141 Steamship Arabic sunk 

165 Italy declares war on Turkey 



PAGE 

Austrians defeated in Battle of Krasnik. 173 

German cruiser Konigsberg destroyed _ 167 

Germans surrender Southwest Africa -....._.._... 166 

Russians evacuate Przasnysz 173 

Russians retreat to the Bug River _ 173 

German conquest of Courland 173 

National call to prayer in Russia 174 

British capture Nasiriyeh 199 

Germans capture Lublin, Russia 174 

Germans sustain defeats in Kameruns 167 

Russians evacuate Ivangoroi 161 

Russians evacuate Warsaw 161 

Battle of Suvla Bay, GallipoU 183 

Battle of Sari Bahr, Gallipoli 184 

Irish troops capture Chocolate Hill 184 

Australians repulsed on Sari Bahr 184 

Irish troops capture Dublin Hill _ 184 

Germans capture Kovno, Russia _.. _ 174 

Germans capture Novo Geogievsk _ 174 



Australians capture Hill 60 

Germans capture Brest- Litovsk _.. 

Austrians capture Lutsk fortress 

Germans capture Grodno. 

Czar Nicholas in command of Russian Armies... 
Russians stop Germans at Tarnopol 



141 American note on "Arabic" sinking.. 

202 U. S. demands recall of Ambassador Dumba... 



194 Allied Offensive in Artois begins. 

195 Battle of the Champagne 



196 British lose the Battle of Loos 

195 French scale the Heights of Massiges.. 

197 French victory in Artois 



197 German counter-offensive in Champagne.. 
192 Edith Cavell executed by Germans. 



189 French Cabinet resigns 

189 Briand becomes Premier of France.. 

142 Steamer Ancona torpedoed. 



4 

5 

6 

7 

9 
12 
15 
17 
19 
21 
26 
31 

Sept. 2 
5 
6 

7 

8 

8 

15 
18 
21 
21 
22 
24 
25 
25 
25 

Oct. 3 

5 

6 

7 

11 
12 
14 
15 
22 
28 
29 

Nov. 5 Bulgarians take Nish.. 



U S. demands recall of von Papen Dec. 

U. S. demands recall of Boy-Ed. 

Henry Ford's Peace Ship Sails 



U. S. protests sinking of Ancona ........ , 

Gen. Haig commands British Armies.. 



Henry Ford returns to U. S.. 
Liner "Persia" sunk ..... 



184 

..... 174 

..... 178 

174 

175 

175 

Russians lost 1,600,000 men during retreat. _ 175 



Germans occupy Piesk. 175 

Germans take Vilna 175 

Austro-German Army advances on Serbia 185 

Bulgaria mobilizes army of 300,000 186 

Allies despatch an army to Salonika 186 

Premier Venizelos of Greece resigns 186 

Greeks oppose landing of Salonika Army 186 

Bulgaria still pretends neutrality _ 186 

Russia serves ultimatum on Bulgaria. 186 

Anglo-French Army lands at Salonika 186 

Austro-Germans bombard Belgrade 187 

Austro-Germans capture Belgrade 187 

Bulgaria invades Serbia 187 

Treachery of Bulgaria and Greece _ 185 

Serbian nation in flight, 189 

Triple offensive in Serbia opens 187 

Bulgarians occupy Uskub ... 189 



189 



Battle of Babuna Pass 190 

Salonika Army retreats 190 



Serbia refuses a. German peace offer.. 

Battle at Katshanik Pass 

Bloody battle of Pristina 

700,000 starving Serbians in retreat.... 
Serbians overwhelmed at Prisrend 



190 

190 

191 

191 

191 

Serbian Army escapes into Albania 191 

Greek King seeks to intern Allied Army.. 191 

Allied embargo laid on Greek ports 191 



Bulgarians take Monaster.. 



191 



Bulgarians attack British and French .................................. 191 

British retreat to Kut-el-Amara ....................................... _ ..... 192 

Allies defeated in Macedonia ............................ . ..................... 192 



Allies retreat to Greek frontier 
British withdraw from Gallipoli 



192 



185 



British beleaguered at Kut-el-Amara 



198 



SECOND YEAR OF THE WAR-1915 

* 

GERMANY VICTORIOUS IN THE EAST 

Russian Armies Overwhelmed and Driven Back Into the Interior 

Serbia Is Crushed and the Whole Nation Put to Flight 

British Suffer Disaster at Gallipoli and in Mesopotamia 

Turks, Led by German Officers, Massacre 1,000,000 Armenians 

Germany's Vast African Empire Seized by Britons and Boers 

Sinking of the Lusitania Strikes the World Aghast with Horror 

German Zeppelins and Submarines Bomb Defenceless British Towns 

Germans Use Poison Gas, Liquid Fire and Other Infernal Devices 



Survey of Events in the Year 1915 

GERMANY'S dream of World dominion seemed near to realization at the 
close of 1915. Europe then lay all but prostrate at her feet. The rem- 
nant of Russia's once mighty army, betrayed and broken, had been driven 
back into her bleak interior. Warsaw and all Poland had fallen, like a ripe 
plum, into the hands of the Huns. 

Serbia had been desolated and the whole nation put to flight. Turkey and 
Bulgaria had joined the German alliance and were rendering a truly Satanic 
service. Greece, though nominally neutral, was secretly aiding Germany. With 
the Balkans obedient to her nod; Germany's path to the East by way of Constan- 
tinople seemed at last opened. 

The failure of the Dardanelles campaign had assured the security of Con- 
stantinople. There was nothing to fear' as yet from England's campaign in 
Mesopotamia, for was not the "contemptible English army" locked up in Kut-el- 
Amara, facing starvation ? England, moreover, had been unable as yet to bring 
a preponderant force to bear on the Western front. Italy, it is true, had come 
to the rescue of civilization, but there was little to fear from this quarter, for 
Austria and her ally the Alps would protect that frontier. 

There had been some German reverses, however. The English, French 
and Boers together had seized the German colonies in Africa, while Japan and 
Australia had dispossessed Germany of her Asiatic possession, and her islands in 
the South Pacific; but these colonies would be recovered in due time after Eu- 
rope had been conquered. 

(137) 



138 Germany's Crime Against Humanity 

Only France remained unconquered France the invincible nation, which 
alone stood between Germany and her control of the world! France must be 
destroyed. The Crown Prince would have the honor of breaking through that 
wall of steel at Verdun, and advancing to the conquest of Paris ! France, bleed- 
ing to death, was at the end of her military resources ! England could not or- 
ganize her forces in time to prevent the death-blow that was to be delivered at 
Verdun. So the German war lords viewed the military situation during the 
second year of the War. 

Finally the power of Great Britain should be destroyed. As a necessary 
step in that program, Admiral von Tirpitz would unleash his submarines and 
sink all the enemy and neutral ships that plied the seas, in order that England 
might be coerced or starved into submission. Germany's ruthless submarine 
policy would also serve as a warning to other neutral nations, especially the 
United States, that Germany would hesitate at no crime against humanity in her 
will to victory. 

Hence the deliberate sinking of the Lusitania, a crime without parallel, that 
struck the World aghast with horror, and the scuttling of other passenger 
ships and freight boats, including American vessels, which compelled Amer- 
ica tardily to enter the War. 

Germany and her allies, during this crucial year of 1915, pursued a military 
program that, in sheer atrocity, dwarfed all the classical excesses of Nero, 
Domitian, Genghis Khan and Mahomet. The massacre of 1,000,000 Christian 
Armenians by German-led Turks and Kurds marked the trail of the Apocalyp- 
tic Beast in the East. The bombing as they slept, of defenseless cities, by Zep- 
pelins, and the shelling of English coast towns, by submarines, were features of 
German warfare in the West. Clouds of poison gas, infernos of liquid fire, 
blinding bombs, the Huns had sent for good measure into the trenches on all 
the fronts. 

In spite of the employment of these infernal agencies of warfare, and 
though the cause of civilization still trembled in the balance, the close of the 
year nevertheless saw all the armies of the Allies intact and gaining strength 
for the decisive contest. . 

The march of events in all theaters of warfare during 1915 is here presented 
in their chronological order, enabling the reader to visualize the successive phases 
of the great conflict. 



Second Year of the War-1915 



139 



EASTERN THEATER. JAN.-FEB. 



Battle of the Suez Canal Proves a Turkish Fizzle 

Turkish Troops Easily Routed by the British Forces 
Prince Kernel Becomes Sultan of Egypt 



......... SECTION 2 1915 



British Force, 40,000 

Maj.-Gen. Sir John Maxwell, Commander 

THE German intriguants at Constanti- 
nople had been occupied since the first 
days of the War in developing a 
gigantic plot having for its ultimate object 
a universal uprising of the 300,000,000 Mos- 
lems throughout the East. They hoped thus 
to end the rule of England in both Egypt 
and India, and destroy the British Empire. 

The Moslem world, however, refused to 
do the bidding of the Huns. Only the 
Osmanli Turks, now tottering to their fall, 
consented to act as the Kaiser's cat's-paws. 

Germany had proposed, with the assist- 
ance of her Turkish allies, to take possession 
of the Suez Canal in the hope of separating 
England from India and at the same time 
menacing English rule in Egypt. 

A Turkish Expeditionary Army of 65,000 
men, under the nominal command of Djemal 
Pasha, but in reality led by German officers, 
was mobilized at Constantinople and ordered 
to seize the Suez Canal. The Mediterranean 
Sea route being then unsafe both for Turks 
and Germans, the Army in reaching Suez, 
was compelled to cross the trackless and 
waterless Syrian Desert, varying in width 
from 120 to 150 miles. 

The defense of the Suez Canal had been 
assigned to Maj.-Gen. Sir John Maxwell, who 
had assembled an army corps recruited from 
the Egyptian troops. 

As early as November 21, 1914, a skirmish 
had taken place between the Suez Canal de- 
fenders and a troop of 2,000 Bedouins, in 
which the Arabs were repulsed. 

The defenses of the Suez Canal were at 
once strengthened. At the north end of the 
canal, the dyke was cut in several places in 
order to flood a portion of the Syrian Desert 
to the east and thus prevent attack in that 
direction. The inundation at once increased 
the British water defenses some 20 miles and 
reduced the entire British front about 60 



Turkish Force, 65,000 

Gen. Djemal Pasha, Commander 

miles. Naval patrols took over the task of 
guarding the Bitter Lakes through which 
the Suez Canal runs and the additional water 
areas in the North. 

In the main, all British defences were 
arranged on the west bank of the canal, but 
in addition a few defence posts were built 
to cover ferries and other crossings. Four 
British gunboats the Swiftsure, Ocean, 
Minerva and Clio took stations in the canal, 
and two French warships assisted at Port 
Said, the northern end of the canal. 

The Attack en the Canal 

EARLY in January, the British observers 
had noted enemy preparations in Syria, 
where the Turks had established outposts at 
Khan Yunus and Auja, the terminal of the 
railroad from Aleppo. A week later, the 
Turks had pushed their advanced posts for- 
ward to the villages of El Arish and Kossai- 
ma, both on Egyptian soil. 

On January 28th, the vanguard of the 
Turkish Army advanced in two columns to 
the initial attack on the British line. In the 
North, the route from El Kantara to El Arish 
was temporarily cut by the Turks, but they 
were soon beaten back. In the South, skirm- 
ishes near El Kubic took place, but the Turks 
scored no great advantage. 

The main army of the Turks, which had 
now dwindled to 12,000 men, arrived at the 
canal on February 2d. A skirmish near Is- 
mailia Ferry was suddenly terminated by a 
violent sandstorm. After nightfall, however, 
the Turkish Army, hauled some 30 pontoon 
boats to the banks of the canal at Toussoun, 
12 miles below Ismailia, and attempted to 
cross. The British troops opened fire with 
maxim guns, which took a heavy toll in lives. 
The Turks brought several batteries of field 
guns into action, but failed to silence the 
British batteries. 



140 



Germany's Crime Against Humanity 



Next day, the British, supported by land 
and naval artillery, crossed the canal at Sera- 
peum and attacked the Turkish left flank. 
By late afternoon a third of the Turkish 
Army was in full retreat leaving 500 prison- 
esr and many dead behind them. The guns 
on a Turkish warship in the adjacent lake 
then opened a lively fire, damaging a British 
gunboat. During the night, the Turks stole 
away, and so ended the battle of the Suez 



Canal. By February 10th the Sinai Peninsula 
was cleared of the enemy. 

Prince Hassein Kernel Ascends Throne of Egypt 

AFTER the British Government had estab- 
lished a protectorate over Egypt, Lieut.-Gen. 
Henry MacMahon was appointed High Com- 
missioner and Prince Hassein Kernel, eldest 
son of Iswail, ascended the throne of Egypt 
with the title of Sultan. 



....... ................ ............................................ ALL. OCEANS FEB. 5 DEC. 31 



German Submarines Begin Piratical Attacks on Passenger Ships 

American Vessels and American Lives Sacrificed in Germany's 
Newly Established War Zone. 



>*.*.****** SECTION 31915 ** 



THE British Navy, after sweeping Ger- 
man commerce from the seas, strove 
to prevent the transportation to Ger- 
many of all foodstuffs, cotton, shells and cop- 
per. A virtual blockade over the German 
ports was established on February 2d, with 
the avowed purpose of starving Germany 
into submission. 

In reprisal for England's blockade of Ger- 
man ports, which held the menace of ultimate 
starvation for the Huns, the Kaiser and Ad- 
miral von Tirpits resolved to establish a "War 
Zone" about the British Isles, in the hope of 
destroying Allied and neutral commerce on 
the Atlantic and preventing the shipment of 
food and supplies to England. To enforce 
this counter-blockade, they made use of their 
highly developed submarines, sparing neither 
passenger nor freight vessels, and inaugurat- 
ing a reign of terror on the seas which has 
made the name of German execrated through- 
out the earth. 

The War Zone 

THIS resort to piracy began on February 
4th, when it was declared that the waters 
round Great Britain and Ireland, including 
the whole of the British Channel, constituted 
a war region, and that on and after February 
18th, all enemy and neutral ships would be 
liable to destruction without warning. A sea 
passage, 30 miles wide, to the north of the 
Shetland Islands and the eastern region of 



the North Sea, was set apart for neutral 
shipping. 

This presumptious decree, which in effect 
assumed Germany's right to control the move- 
ments of all vessels 'of all nations upon the 
high seas, aroused the indignation of America 
and was the occasion of prompt diplomatic 
action. 

America Warns Germany and England 

DESPITE the German blockade, American 
manufactures and farm products flowed 
steadily into the Allied ports. The United 
States Government, however, notified both 
England and Germany that, notwithstanding 
their mutual blockades, our rights as a neu- 
tral nation would be zealously safeguarded. 

Having decided upon a policy of terrorism 
at sea, Germany lost no time in illustrating 
her aptitude for this form of inhuman war- 
fare. Germany at this time possessed some 
50 submarines of the Lake pattern, 213 feet 
long and 20 foot beam, with a speed of 12 
knots when submerged, and a radius of 2000 
miles. 

So many British vessels were torpedoed 
during March that certain areas of the Irish 
Sea were closed to all kinds of traffic. Neutral 
ships, in order to escape attack, displayed 
their names in large lettering along their 
sides. 

Sinking of the William P. Frye 

PREVIOUS to the establishment of the "War 
Zone," on January 28th, a German submarine 



Second Year of the War 1915 



141 



had sunk the American freight steamer, 
William P. Frye, in the South Atlantic, and 
a protest had been entered by our Govern- 
ment. Beginning in March, a whole se- 
quence of outrages against American ships, 
and American passengers on friendly ships, 
were reported. These were made the subject 
of diplomatic controversy between the United 
States and Germany. 

The Falaba, Gulflight and Cushing Sunk 

THE Liverpool liner, Falaba, engaged in the 
African trade, with 90 sailors and 100 pas- 
sengers aboard, was overtaken by a German 
submarine in St. George's Channel on March 
29th. The captain was given five minutes to 
put his jcrew and passengers in.to lifeboats. 
At the expiration of the time limit, she was 
sunk by a torpedo and 111 persons, including 
women and children, were drowned. 

Soon after this outrage, the American 
steamship Cushing was attacked and dam- 
aged by a German airplane in the North Sea. 
Then came the sinking of the Lusitania with 
the loss of 1153 lives, including 114 Amer- 
icans. 

The American tank steamship Gulflight 
was torpedoed off the Scilly Islands on May 
29th, but managed to creep into port. When 
the torpedo struck the ship, the captain ex- 
pired of heart disease and two of the crew 
jumped into the sea to their death. 

American Steamship Nebraskan Torpedoed 

AT 9 o'clock on the night of May 25th, the 
American steamship Nebraskan was torpe- 
doed, off Fastnet on the English coast, and a 
hole 20 feet square torn in her starboard 
bow. All on board escaped in the life boats, 
but when it was seen that the Nebraskan was 
not sinking, they returned to the vessel and 
by pumping, managed to keep her afloat till 
she reached port. 

Americans Go Down With The Armenian 

THIRTEEN persons, three of them Ameri- 
cans, lost their lives when the Leyland liner 
Armenian, carrying horses for the Allied 
Armies, was torpedoed, 20 miles off the Corn- 
wall coast of England. After receiving two 
signals to stop, the captain of the Armenian 
put on all speed and attempted to escape. 



The submarine opened fire upon the Ar- 
menian with shrapnel, killing 13 men and 
setting fire to the ship. Some of the lifeboats 
were riddled with shot, but the remainder 
of the crew were able to escape from the 
ship. 

On July 25th, the American steamer Lee- 
lanaw, bound from Archangel to Belfast 
with flax, was torpedoed off the coast of 
Scotland. 

Arabic Sunk With American Passengers 

Two more Americans and 30 British sea- 
men were killed on August 19th, when the 
Atlantic liner Arabic was sunk by a torpedo 
off Fastnet Light, England, close to where the 
Lusitania was sunk. President Wilson again 
protested against this ruthless form of war- 
fare. The German Government falsely alleged 
that the Arabic was torpedoed when in the 
act of ramming a German submarine which 
was engaged with another English vessel. 
Prompt denial \vas made of this assertion by 
many witnesses who testified that the Arabic, 
instead of participating in the fight, was en- 
deavoring to escape when overtaken and 
torpedoed. Our Government entered into 
several "conversations" with Germany re- 
garding the sinking of the Arabic, but beyond 
the denial by Germany that she had nursed 
any belligerent intent toward the United 
States, nothing came of the incident. 

Our Consul Lost With The Persia 

ANOTHER wave of anger swept over Amer- 
ica, on December 30th, when it was learned 
that the Oriental liner Persia had been sunk 
in the Mediterranean Sea, off Alexandria, 
Egypt, with a loss of 392 lives, including one 
American, Robert Ney McNeely, the newly 
appointed consul to Aden, who was en route 
to his post when he lost his life. 

Germany, Austria, and Turkey each in turn 
disclaimed responsibility for this outrage. 
Our Government adopted the view that the 
Persia had rendered herself liable to sub- 
marine attack by carrying several 4.7 inch 
guns, and that the Consul, instead of tak- 
ing passage on the guilty boat, should have 
asked for a United States warship to trans- 
port him to his post of duty. 



Germany's Crime Against Humanity 



English Submarines Retaliate 

ENGLAND did not visit retaliation on Ger- 
man shipping in the Baltic Sea until after the 
German Navy threatened the Russian port 
of Riga with her fleet in the fall of 1915. A 
squadron of British submarines was then sent 
into the Baltic Sea and on October 28th suc- 
ceeded in sinking the armored cruiser Prinz 
Adalbert with 475 of her crew. 

Turkish Battleship Sunk 

THE battleship Kheyr-ed-Barbarossa was 
sunk by British submarines in the Golden 
Horn, Constantinople, with a loss of 611 men. 
This feat served to clear the Sea of Marmora 
of Turkish shipping. 

1000 Drowned on the Royal Edward 

THE Turks took their revenge for the loss 
of the Barbarossa when they sank the Eng- 
lish troopship, Royal Edward, in the ^Sgean 
Sea on August 17th, sending 1,000 men to 
their death out of a total of 1,702 aboard. 

900 Vessels Sunk in 1915 

DURING the year 1915, nearly 900 mer- 
chant craft were sunk by German sub- 
marines, yet the steam shipping of England 
during the year was increased by 88 vessels, 
despite her heavy losses, and the reprisals 
of Allied submarines resulted in driving Ger- 
man commerce from the Baltic Sea. Many 
German submarines had been sunk and oth- 
ers had been caught in a steel net sunk in 
the British Channel. 

American Lives Lost on the Ancona 

WHILE Germany was pretending sorrow 
for the loss of American lives due to the 
sinking of the Lusitania, the Arabic and the 
William P. Frye, Austria aroused our nation 
to wrath by her sinking of the Italian pas- 
senger ship Ancona. On November 9th, 
while en route from Sicily to New York, the 
Ancona sighted an Austrian submarine in 
the Mediterranean. 

She attempted to escape, but being over- 
hauled, finally stopped. Then without fur- 
ther warning, or the observance of any of 
the formalities accompanying the right of 
search, the submarine opened fire upon the 
unarmed passenger ship, relentlessly shell- 



ing not only the wireless apparatus, side and 
decks of the ship, but even the lifeboats in 
which the terrified passengers were seeking 
refuge. Some who approached the submarine 
in the hope of rescue were driven off with 
jeers. As a result of this inhuman pro- 
cedure, 200 men, women, and children lost 
their lives, among them several American 
citizens. 

When America protested against this wan- 
ton slaughter of innocent non-combatants, 
Austria at first sought to justify the act, 
but finally consented to punish the submarine 
commander, "for exceeding his instructions," 
at the same time pledging herself in future 
to observe "the sacred commandmnts of 
humanity" in conducting her warfare. 

Two German Raiders Interned 

THE sensational career of the German 
auxiliary cruiser Prinz Eitel Frederick, 
Capt. Thierichens, came to an end on 
March 10, 1915. Eluding a watchful British 
cruiser, she slipped into the harbor of New- 
port News, Virginia, for repairs, carrying 
a crew of 200, besides 300 passengers 
whom she had captured on French Brit- 
ish, Russian, and American vessels dur- 
ing her cruise of 30,000 miles over the 
Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. She had sent 
eight merchant ships to the bottom, includ- 
ing the William P. Frye, an American 
vessel, laden with wheat. The Prinz Eitel 
Frederick was at once interned. 

The Kronprinz Wilhelm, another German 
raider, docked at Hoboken at the outbreak 
of the War. On the night of August 3, 1914, 
with her bunkers and even her cabins filled 
with coal and provisions, all her lights out 
and canvas covering her port holes, she es- 
caped to sea, and in her subsequent raids 
captured numerous merchant ships of a total 
value of $7,000,000 besides taking 960 pris- 
oners. 

She it was that supplied the Dresden with 
provisions. It was the Kronprinz Wilhelm, 
too, that anchored in the mid- Atlantic in 
order to serve as a wireless telegraph station 
for Admiral Spec's squadron. When she 
finally reached New York Harbor, most of 
her crew were suffering from a mysterious 
disease, thought to be beri-beri. 



Second Year of the War- 1915 



143 



EASTERN THEATER. FEB.-APR. 



Russians Capture Przernysl, 120,000 Prisoners and Much Booty 

German and Austrian Armies Fail to Break Through the Russian Lines. 
Hindenberg's Four Attacks on Warsaw All Prove Unavailing. 

.~.. M ~............. SECTION 4-1915 * . 



Russian Forces, 2,000,000 

Grand Duke Nicholas, Generalissimo 
Gen. Yanushkevitch, Chief of Staff 

Northern Army groups 
Gen. Russky 
Gen. Ewerts 
Gen. Sievers 
Gen. Bulgakoff 

Southern Army groups 
Gen. Brusiloff 
Gen. Ivanoff 
Gen. Dmitrieff 
Gen. Alexeieff 
Gen. Selivanoff 



THE opening weeks of 1915, all blizzard- 
swept and cold beyond precedent, saw 
Germany massing millions of troops 
on the Eastern battle-front in the hope of 
rescuing Austria from the deadly embrace 
of the Russian bear. 

Austria then was exhausted and near to 
complete collapse. The Russians had over- 
run all Galicia, driving some of the Aus- 
trian armies back into Hungary and seizing 
the main passes of the Carpathians. Lem- 
berg and Jaroslav both had fallen ; Przemysl, 
with a garrison of 120,000, had been in- 
vested; and Austria had suffered the humil- 
iation of being expelled from Bosnia by the 
despised Serbians. Unless Russia's grip on 
Austria were loosened, Austria might soon 
succumb and sue for a separate peace. 

In seeking a final quick decision on the 
Eastern front, Germany was further influ- 
enced by the knowledge that, within a few 
months at most, she must be prepared to 
exert her full strength in the Western arena 
of war, for England's mighty Army was 
rapidly taking shape and in the coming sum- 
mer would challenge Germany's occupancy 
of the Western trenches. It was necessary 
therefore to strike Russia a mortal blow. 

In what sector of that 900-mile battle-line, 
extending from the Baltic Sea to the frontier 
of Bukowina, might Germany most effec- 



Austro-German Forces, 2,500,000 
Gen. von Hinclenberg, Generalissimo 
Gen. von Ludendorf, Chief of Staff 

Northern Army groups (German) 
Gen. Below 
Gen. Eichhorn 
Gen. Scholz 
Gen. Gallwitz 
Gen. Litzmann 

Southern Army groups (Austrian) 
Gen. Mackensen 
Gen. Dankl 
Gen. Boroevic 
Archduke Joseph 
Prince Eugene 
Gen. Kusmanek (Przemysl) 

tively strike at Russia ? Surely in the Polish 
triangle, where Hindenberg had met with 
two repulses in November and December, 
preceding. 

So, undeterred by his recent failure, Hin- 
denberg determined to renew his assaults 
on the Polish salient, north and south, with 
Warsaw as his main objective. If his attack 
succeeded, the Russian Armies operating in 
Galicia must speedily be recalled to the de- 
fense of the Polish capital, giving Austria 
a respite in which to catch her breath. 

The Disposition of Armies 

IN February, there were nearly 5,000,000 
troops facing each other on that long East- 
ern battle-line. On the German side, in 
Northern Courland, was the army of Gen. 
Below. Next below him, in the Mazurian 
Lake region, was Gen Eichhorn's army. Gen. 
Scholz carried the line from Lomza to Plock. 
The Bzura River front in Poland was de- 
fended by Gen. Mackensen. Below him, 
stretching south as far as the Carpathians, 
were the armies of Gen. Dankl in the Nida 
sector and of Archduke Joseph in the Duna- 
jec sector. The passes of the Carpathians 
were defended by Gen. Boroevic. Prince 
Eugene carried the German line still further 
south to the Roumanian frontier. Still 
another German army, that of Gen. Kus- 



144 



Germany's Crime Against Humanity 



manek, was surrounded in the fortress at 
Przemysl by the Russians. 

On the Russian side of the battle-line, 
Russky's army group held the greater part 
of the Northern front, from the Vistula to 
the Niemen, with Generals Sievers and 
BulgakofF in command of individual armies. 
Gen. Ewerts' army was on the line of the 
Nida in Southwestern Poland. 

On the Galician front, in the South, Gen. 
Dmitrieff's army stretched along the Duna- 
jec River, facing west toward Cracow. 
Brusiloff's army covered the Carpathian 
front, to the south of Przemysl. That fort- 
ressed city was then being besieged by a 
reserve army under command of Gen. 
Selivanoff. 



The extreme southern end of the Russian 
line, from the Kirlibaba Pass in Bukowina, 
to Kimpolung on the Roumanian border, was 
occupied by Gen. Alexeiff's army group. 

In numbers the Germans held a slight 
superiority, but in artillery they by far 
excelled the Russians. The Germans were 
amply provided with 12-inch guns, while 
the Russians had only 6-inch bores. In 
addition the Russians were handicapped by 
the lack of ammunition. 

There came a time when, lacking rifles, 
it was necessary to send forth Russian troops 
to assault the German line with only hand 
grenades for weapons. Yet the brave Rus- 
sians succeeded in storming many a German 
stronghold with just such primitive tools of 
war. 



The War in the Carpathian Mountains 



Russian Forces, 900,000 

Gen. Brusiloff 
Gen. Ivanoff 
Gen. Dmitrieff 



BEFORE launching his new drive against 
Warsaw, General von Hindenberg needed to 
strengthen and regroup the shattered Aus- 
trian Armies that had fled into Hungary and 
then embolden them to recover the Carpa- 
thian passes. 

Early in January, several German Divi- 
sions were dispatched into Hungary, and 
these, uniting with the scattered Austrian 
forces, were formed into three new armies, 
with a total strength of 1,000,000 rifles. This 
Austro-German force was put under the 
supreme command of Archduke Eugene of 
Austria, with Generals Boehm-Ermolli, Lin- 
singen and Pflanzer in immediate command 
of the army groups. 

These armies, late in January, carried the 
War into the Carpathians. There, amid rag- 
ing blizzards and in deepest snow, many 
furious battles were fought during the en- 
suing months. All these Austrian offensives 
ended in dismal failure. 

The first task of the resuscitated Austrian 
Armies was to clear the province of Bukowina 
of the Russian invaders. There were strong 



Austro-German Forces, 1,000,000 

Archduke Eugene, Commander-in-Chief 
Western Army Gen Boehm-Ermolli 
Eastern Army Gen. Linsingen 
Southern Army Gen. von Pflanzer 

political reasons why Bukowina should be 
recovered. From Bukowina the Russians 
might easily advance to the conquest of 
Transylvania. Now both of these provinces 
were peopled by Roumanians and it had been 
Roumania's great ambition to annex them. 
Austrian domination had prevented, till now, 
the realization of this dream. 

Both the Germans and the Allies had 
sought to win the support of Roumania in 
the War, but the Roumanians still remained 
neutral. If a sufficient bribe were offered 
Roumania she might be tempted to give her 
support to one side or the other. 

The Austrians had no intention of giving 
Roumania the two provinces as the price of 
her support, but they feared Russia would 
do so if she succeeded in her conquest of the 
provinces. Hence their eagerness to dispos- 
sess Russia of Bukowina. 

Gen. Pflanzer's Austrian Army moving 
eastward, retook the Kirlibaba Pass on Jan- 
uary 22d, sweeping on through Bukowina to 
Czernowitz, the capital, which he occupied 



Second Year of the War 1915 



145 



on February 18th. Only a single Russian 
column, 30,000 men at most, opposed the 
advance of his great army. After driving 
the Russians out of Bukowina, Pflanzer 
crossed the Northern border into Galicia and 
captured the important junction city of Stan- 



islau, 70 miles from Lemberg. Here his 
advance was stopped. A strong Russian 
force, early in March, forced him to evacuate 
Stanislau and retreat back to Czernowitz. 
With this repulse, the Austrian threat at 
the Russian communications was removed. 



The Battle of Kosiowa Rages for a Full Month 

Feb. 6 Mar. 6. 



Russian Army, 300,000 
Gen. Ivanoff 

THE Second Austrian Army, under Gen. 
von Linsingen, after traversing three of the 
Carpathian passes leading into Galicia, fell 
into a trap on the other side. The Austrians 
had to descend the bare slopes of the Lysa 
Gova Mountain, through two defiles, in front 
of the Ridge of Koziowa, upon which Gen. 
Ivanoff had posted his army. As they en- 
tered these defiles, the Austrian columns 
were swept by an enfilading fire, which took 
a dreadful toll of death. 

In mass formation and at the point of the 
bayonet, the Austrians, on February 6th and 
7th, attempted to storm the ridge. Twenty- 
two furious bayonet charges were %*pulsed 
in a single day, the Austrians falling like 
leaves in autumn. 



Austro-German Army, 350,000 
Gen. von Linsingen 

Only two ways of escape remained open 
to the Austrians; one by retreating over the 
passes; the other, by advancing through 
those two narrow defiles leading into the 
plains below. So long as the Russians held 
the Ridge of Koziowa, it would have been 
slaughter to attempt to crowd a huge army 
through these narrow defiles. For an entire 
month this terrible battle raged, but the 
Austrians failed to drive the Russians from 
the ridge. 

Meanwhile, due to the failure of this Aus- 
trian army to break through and come to 
its assistance, the great fortress of Lemberg 
had fallen. But the Austrians held most of 
the Carpathian passes. 



Capture of Przemysl by the Russians 

Mar. 22. 



Russian Army, 100,000 
Gen. Selivanoff 

THE most spectacular victory in the East- 
ern theater of war during the year 1915 was 
the Russian capture of the town and fortress 
of Przemysl, in Galicia. The Russians had 
laid siege to this fortress in September, 1914, 
but the investment had been broken on Octo- 
ber 15th, and additional Austrian troops had 
been rushed to the defense of the town. 

After the fall of the fortress towns of 
Jaroslav and Chyrow, the Russians were 
enabled to renew the siege on November 12, 
1914. The fortress was then defended by a 
garrison of 120,000 men, under command of 
Gen. von Kusmanek, and the Russian besieg- 
ing force of 100,000 was directed by Gen. 
Selivanoff. 



Austrian Army, 120,000 
Gen. Kusmanek 

Gen. Selivanoff, not caring to risk a ground 
siege with his 6-inch guns, had gradually 
closed in upon Przemysl on all sides by under- 
ground operations. With so large a garrison 
to feed, it was obvious that the fortress must 
eventually surrender unless the Russian 
siege circle could be pierced. 

Foreseeing this peril, Gen. von Kusmanek, 
in November and December, had sent out 
sorties to break through the Russian line, 
but without success. Two Austro-Hunga- 
rian armies at this time were attempting to 
cross the Carpathians and hasten to the relief 
of Przemysl, but being held in check by the 
armies of Brusiloff and Ivanoff, the fortress 
was doomed. 



146 



Germany's Crime Against Humanity 



The pressure around Przemysl tightened 
during January and February. On March 
13th, the Russians broke through the outer 
line of defense at Malkovise and assaulted 
the inner line. 

By March 19th, the luckless garrison were 
at the point of starvation; even the last of 
their horses had been devoured. Embol- 
dened by hunger, a force of 30,000 Hunga- 
rians marched out from the forts with the 
desperate resolve to raid the Russian food 
base at Mosciska, 20 miles away. 

Their route led them past the strongest of 
all the Russian artillery positions. When 
the Hungarians reached this position, they 
were annihilated by a tempest of shells, 
machine-gun fire and rifle bullets. The 
slaughter was almost complete, only 4,000 
surviving the massacre. 

Seeing that surrender was inevitable, 
Gen. Kusmanek ordered the destruction of 
the munitions within the fort, and the demol- 
ition of all bridges. 

On March 22d, the formal capitulation 
took place. In all, 120,000 prisoners fell to 
the Russians, including nine generals, 93 
superior officers, 2,500 subalterns and 117,- 
000 soldiers, besides 1,000 pieces of ordnance. 



The capture of Przemysl deprived Austria 
of four army corps and released Selivanoff's 
army of 100,000 for service elsewhere along 
the Russian line. 

Third Austrian Army Stopped in Dukla Pass 

The Third Austrian Army, commanded by 
Gen. Boehm-Ermolli, in the meantime, had 
been endeavoring to force the Dukla and 
Lupkow Passes of the Carpathians. Boehm- 
Ermolli did succeed in penetrating part way 
through the Lupkow Pass, forcing Gen. Bru- 
siloff to fall back from Baligrod, but Gen. 
Dmitrieff had come to BrusilofF s assistance 
and the Austrian armies were finally stopped. 
The Russians thus secured control of the 
southern ends of the Dukla Passe^. 

For a month or more, Gen. Brusiloff strove 
mightily to gain control of the Eastern 
passes as well, but he could not dislodge the 
Austrians from the heights. In one flanking 
movement, on February 7th, the Russians 
took 17,000 prisoners. The Austrian inva- 
sion, however, had failed to attain its major 
purposes, namely, to expel the Russians from 
Bukowina and to relieve the besieged garri- 
son at Przemysl. 



Third Assault on Warsaw Ends In Failure 

Feb. 1-8 



Russian Force, 100,000 

Gen. Russky 



German Force, 150,000 

Gen. Mackensen 



Hindenberg, on February 1st, launched his 
third drive on Warsaw, using for the pur- 
pose an army of 150,000, under the command 
of Gen. Mackensen. 

This time the movement was inaugurated 
with a frontal attack directed against the 
west side of the Polish salient opposite 
Bolimof, 40 miles from Warsaw. It was 
preceded by a violent artillery preparation 
which wrecked the Russian trenches. 

A terrific snowstorm set in, screening the 
movements of the German troops. In dense 
masses, ten to twenty men deep, the German 
tidal wave advanced, surging over the first 
Russian trench line on a seven-mile front 
facing the Rawa River. 



On the following day, the German flood 
overflowed the second and third Russian 
lines, advancing five miles along the Warsaw 
Railroad. Here it was checked for two days 
by the stubborn Russian resistance. 

The arrival of Russian reinforcements 
from Warsaw on February 4th turned 
the tide. 

In the midst of a driving blizzard the Rus- 
sians furiously counter-attacked, steadily 
pushing back Mackensen's army, day by day, 
until on February 8th, the Germans had been 
forced back to the Rawa trenches. Macken- 
sen's drive had failed and 20,000 German 
lives paid the forfeit of this third thrust 
at Warsaw. 



Second Year of the War-1915 



147 



Another Russian Disaster in East Prussia 

Feb. 10-12 



Russian Forces, 160,000 
Gen. Sievers 
Gen. Bulgakoff 

THE scene of battle now shifts to the frozen 
North, where the Russians are courting 
fresh disaster in the treacherous region of 
the Mazurian Lakes in East Prussia. Early 
in February, a small Russian Army in com- 
mand of Gen. Sievers had rashly invaded East 
Prussia from the North. As usual, the Ger- 
mans proceeded to envelop and trap this army. 

Gen. Eichhorn, in command of the German 
forces, was instructed to draw the Russians 
on until they had got themselves in a position 
where it would be easily possible to flank 
them. The Germans, accordingly, fell back up- 
on strongly fortified positions behind the Ma- 
zurian Lakes and the line of Angerapp River. 

The Russians heroically charged these 
positions, the Third Siberian Corps wading 
up to their shoulders in icy water in a vain 
attempt to cross the Nietlitz Swamp, in the 
face of the enemy's fire. 

Von Hinderberg, who was personally ob- 
serving the battle, now summoned von Below's 
army from the Courland front, farther north 
and began an enveloping movement around 
both flanks of the Russian Army. 

A heavy snowstorm set in, February 5, 
and the deep drifts rendered motor traffic 
difficult. The Germans had prepared for 
this contingency, having thousands of sleighs 
and tens of thousands of sleigh-runners ready 
for the rapid transport of their guns and 
wagons. The Russians, on the contrary, 
were unable to move most of their big guns. 

With great rapidity, the Germans moved 
to the attack. The Southern column, under 
Gen. Falck, struck the Russians at Kolna, 
and the Northern column fell upon the other 
wing on a line reaching almost to the Rus- 
sian border. 



German Forces, 300,000 
Gen. von Eichhorn 
Gen. von Below 
Gen. von Falck 

The Russian left wing began its retreat 
in a blinding snowstorm, and was driven 
relentlessly by the Germans, leaving behind 
40,000 prisoners. On February 10th, the 
snow still falling heavily, the Russians made 
a stand at Eydtkuhnen. At midnight the 
Germans launched a surprise attack and 
drove the Russians from village to village, 
until on February 15th, this wing was forced 
back across the Russian frontier. 

The Russian right wing, meanwhile, had 
been flanked near Kovno, taking refuge in 
the Forest of Augustowa and abandoning 
most of its vehicles. Men and horses sank 
to their waists in the snow. No food was 
procurable, as the field kitchens could not 
follow the armies. With the snow falling 
heavily, an icy gale blowing, and shelter 
denied them, the plight of the soldiers in 
both armies was pitiful. Many thousands 
of Russians were taken prisoners and other 
thousands slain. 

Meanwhile, the Russian left wing had been 
pressed back to Lyck, where a furious battle 
was fought on February 12th, under the eyes 
of the German Emperor. Three days later 
the remnant of this army found its way 
back on Russian soil. 

The Russian right wing, after being shut 
up in the Forest of Augustowa, fought des- 
perately to break through to the fortress of 
Grodno, but most of them were captured 
or killed 

The Germans claim to have annihilated 
Gen. Sievers' army, taking 100,000 prisoners 
in all the battles of the Mazurian Lakes. The 
Russian figures are not available. But it 
was a great disaster to Russian armies with- 
out a question. 



Russians Without Guns, Take Przasnysz 



Russian Force, 50,000 
Gen. Sievers 



Feb. 24-Mar. 23 



German Forces, 100,000 
Gen. Gallwitz 
Gen. Scholz 



WHILE the Russians were being driven out 
of East Prussia, a German Army, com- 
manded by Gen. Gallwitz, had invaded Rus- 



sia and aimed a sudden blow at Przasnysz, 
a town lying some 50 miles north of Warsaw. 
If this position could be taken, the Germans 



148 



Germany's Crime Against Humanity 



would have no difficulty in cutting the rail- 
way between Warsaw and Petrograd. 

On February 24th, the Germans stormed 
the town, which was garrisoned by a force 
of 40,000 infantry, with some cavalry in 
support. Przasnysz was evacuated the next 
day, the Russians making an orderly retreat 
and contesting every foot of the ground. 

One Russian division held a ridge south- 
west of the town for 36 hours against the 
attacks of four German divisions. Apprised 
of the danger, Grand Duke Nicholas des- 
patched a body of Russian raw recruits to 
the scene. 

Lacking rifles, and armed only with bay- 
onets and hand grenades, these raw recruits 
heroically charged the German columns. A 
desperate hand-to-hand combat followed. In 
the end, the Russians triumphed. 

The seasoned German troops fled in head- 
long retreat before those raw recruits, never 
stopping until after they had reached the 
German border. The Russians claimed 11,- 
000 prisoners in this engagement. 

Gen. Gallwitz, having meanwhile strength- 
ened his army, on March 8th advanced again 
in the direction of Przasnysz, but only to 
be repulsed. For ten days, from March 13th 
to 23d, a determined battle raged round 
about Jednovozez, no fewer than 46 assaults 
taking place. The casualties on both sides 
were heavy, but in the end the Germans 
were driven back. 

German Retreat from Ossowietz 

AFTER his defeat in the winter battles 
along the Mazurian Lakes, Gen. Sievers had 



been deposed from his command and three 
new Russian corps, 150,000 strong, had been 
brought to the defense of Fort Grodno. The 
ranks of Sievers' decimated corps had also 
been filled up. Thus reinforced, the Rus- 
sians gave battle again to Hindenberg's 
army, which had now reached Suwalki and 
was endeavoring to cut the main line from 
Warsaw to Petrograd. This movement was 
held in check. Hindenberg now began the 
bombardment of Ossowietz, but here the 
massive defenses proved unconquerable by 
the 42-centimeter mortars which had re- 
duced the forts at Liege and Namur. The 
bombardment continued through February 
and March. Finally, on April llth, the Ger- 
mans gave up in despair all thoughts of 
forcing the Russian line in the Warsaw 
salient and retreated to their frontier. 

Invasion of Courland 

The Russians sent a small body of troops 
into Courland on March 18th and drove the 
Germans out of Memel, but were themselves 
forced to evacuate the city a few days later. 

On April 27th, a large German Army, 
under command of Gen. von Lauenstein, 
entered Courland. Preceded by a cavalry 
brigade, which destroyed all the railway 
tracks and bridges to the southwest and 
northwest of Shavli, the Army advanced in 
three columns. One column moved on Libau, 
held by the Russians, which was shelled by 
German naval vessels on April 29th. The 
city was evacuated on May 8th, and at once 
occupied by the Germans. 



- WESTERN THEATER, MAR. 1O " 



Slaughter of British at Neuve Chapelle Due to Poor Leadership 

A "Victory" that Cost England 13,000 of Her Bravest Sons 
Barrage Fire Used for the First Time by the Germans 

,...^.^...,...... t ........>^... M ... > .. t .. > ..... > ^..... t ,,., l ..,.,.......^. < SECTION 5-1915 ...^.^.........^^... i .,,.,...,...........,.. 



British Army, 80,000 
Gen. Douglas Haig 
Gen. Smith-Dorrien 
Sir Henry Rawlinson 

THE dearest "victory" yet won during 
the War was that of the British in the 
battle at Neuve Chapelle, beginning 
March 10th. This engagement was other- 
wise noteworthy as the first in which the 
barrage fire was used by either side. 



German Army, 50,000 
Gen. Falkenhayn 
Crown Frince Rupprecht of Bavaria 

The Allies and the Germans had rested 
quietly in their muddied trenches all winter 
long with nothing to relieve the monotony 
save occasional "nibbling" operations in- 
tended to straighten the lines. 

Early in February, Gen. Langle de Carey's 



Second Year of the War 1915 



151 



French army in Champagne had made an 
attack upon the Germans at Perthes, and 
reinforcements had been drawn from the 
German trenches between La Bassee and 
Lille, thus weakening their defences at Neuve 
Chapelle. Two British army corps, num- 
bering 80,000 men, and commanded by Gen. 
Sir Douglas Haig, were ordered to attack in 
the expectation of breaking through the Ger- 
man barrier. 

On the morning of March 10th, the British 
gunners found the exact range of the German 
trenches. At 7 o'clock the most deafening 
roar of artillery yet heard on the Western 
front shook the earth, as 350 huge howitzers 
and field guns dropped their lyddite shells 
and bombs into the German trenches at short 
range. For an hour the shell fire continued 
and behind this the English soldiers walked 
in safety through No-Man's Land. The 
barbed wire emplacements of the enemy at 
one end of the line were torn like threads. 

Soon a dense pall of smoke hung over 
the German lines. The deadly fumes of the 
lyddite blew back into the English trenches. 
In some places the troops were smothered 
in dust, and spattered with blood from the 
hideous fragments of human bodies, that 
went hurling through the air. At one point, 
the upper half of a German officer, his cap 
crammed on his head, was blown into one 
of the British trenches. 

Indian Troops Seize Neuve Chapelle 

AFTER an hour's bombardment of the Ger- 
man trenches, the curtain of fire was ex- 
tended beyond the village, to clear the way 
for an infantry rush, and at the same time 
prevent German reinforcements reaching the 
front. In a twinkling the Hindu troops on 
the right of the British line went "over the 
top" and stormed the German trenches in 
front of the village of Neuve Chapelle, find- 
ing them filled with a welter of dead or 
dying men. The survivors mostly surren- 
dered. Beyond the trenches the village of 
Neuve Chapelle was a heap of ruins. All 
that remained intact in that once fair village 
were two great crucifixes reared aloft, one 
in the churchyard, the other near a chateau. 
Meanwhile, the machine guns were keeping 
up their fire from houses in the outskirts. 



Scottish Troops Slaughtered Through' a11 the 

"tg were 
AT the other end of the British lines, 

ever, disaster attended the attack. 1^ 
artillery on the left wing had failed to clear 
the barb-wire entanglements for the rush of 
the Scottish Rifles. The accidental destruc- 
tion of the British field telephone system, by 
shell fire, also added to the confusion. The 
Scottish Rifles charged against the barbed 
wire, even tried to tear it with their hands, 
while the murderous fire of the Germans laid 
them low by thousands. Out of one battalion 
of 750 men, only 150 answered the roll call 
at the end of the day. 

British Division Held in the Open Five Hours 

To the left of Neuve Chapelle, on the 
Auber Ridge, the 7th Division also carne to 
grief. This division had been ordered to 
wait at the ridge until after the Eighth Divi- 
sion had reached Neuve Chapelle before ad- 
vancing through Aubers. Seeing their plight 
the Germans opened a deadly fire upon that 
front. At last, after facing this avalanche 
of shells for five hours, the division was 
ordered to charge the German gunners. The 
advance was made in the face of a blazing 
inferno of shell fire. In this hopeless assault, 
the British were slaughtered by thousands. 

Late that afternoon, finding further ad- 
vance impossible, the survivors intrenched 
under the relentless German fire. At day- 
break the plucky Britons returned to the 
attack, but were so greatly outnumbered that 
a retreat to the trenches was ordered. In 
this one engagement the British lost 13,000 
men; of these, 1751 officers and men were 
taken prisoners. 

Germans Also Lose Heavily 

THE battle continued throughout Thurs- 
day, March llth, the British still holding 
Neuve Chapelle. Under cover of a fog, on 
the following day, Crown Prince Rupprecht 
of Bavaria led a large German force in mass 
formation against the British position. As 
the German squares emerged from the Biez 
Wood, they were blown to fragments by the 
British gunfire. 

Wave after wave of Bavarian and West- 
phalian troops advanced fearlessly to their 
doom. The slaughter was almost as great 
as that sustained by the English troops two 



148 



irmany's Crime Against Humanity 



would b" 

way J- S? 



the Germans with- 
in possession of 



ting had cost England 
fas estimated that the 
[8,000, chiefly incurred 

of St. Eloi 

As AN immediate sequel to the struggle at 
Neuve Chapelle, a short and furious battle 



took place at St. Eloi, four miles south of 
Ypres, on March 14th. Following a heavy 
bombardment, the Germans sprang a mine 
in a large tumulus or hill within the British 
lines, and stormed the British entrenchments. 
The British counter-attacked the next day 
and recaptured nearly all of the lost ground, 
but the Germans remained in possession of 
the hill itself. 



WESTERN THEATER, APRIL 22 - MAY 13 



Second Battle of Ypres Fought Amidst Clouds of Poison Gas 

Canadian Heroes Hold Allied Line After Colored Troops Are Annihilated 



*************** SECT I O N o 1915 

Canadian Forces, 30,000 

First Brigade, Gen. Mercer 

Second Brigade, Gen. Currie 

Third Brigade, Gen. Turner 

Artillery, Gen. Burstall 

British Cavalry, Gen. Allenby, Gen. Rivington 

British Battalions (5), Col. Geddes 

French Colonial Division (colored), 20,000 

FROM the close of the first battle of 
Ypres, in November, 1914, until the 
spring of 1915, the Ypres salient had 
remained comparatively quiet. About the 
middle of April, the Duke of Wurttemberg's 
army, 150,000 strong, made a partially suc- 
cessful attempt to squeeze out the salient east 
of Ypres. 

In retaliation, the British assaulted the 
German position on April 17th, capturing 
Hill 70, an eminence commanding the city 
on the southeast. Repeated counter attacks 
by the Germans failed to dislodge them. The 
general positions of the combatant armies, 
however, remained practically unchanged, 
the Germans still holding the Wytschaete 
and Messines hills. 

Early in April, the defenses of the Ypres 
salient had been somewhat weakened by the 
transfer south of the best French troops, 
together with most of the British artillery, 
to assist in the great spring offensive, which 
Gen. Foch was about to launch. The breach 
in the Allied line was filled by three brigades 
of raw Canadian troops, newly arrived in 
Belgium, and a division of colored French 
Colonial troops, mostly Turcos and Zouaves. 
The watchful Germans thought the condi- 



tions most favorable for an attack on the 
northern face of the salient with a chance 
of breaking through to the coast. 

The First Chlorine Gas Attack 

ABOUT the middle of April, a deserter from 
the German lines had warned the Allied 
commander that the Germans were planning 
to annihilate the defenders of Ypres with 
poison gas, but the story was dismissed as 
a visionary tale. 

On the afternoon of April 22d, without 
further warning, a cloud of greenish-yellow 
chlorine gas, five miles long, was observed 
to emit from the German trenches, being 
slowly wafted by the north wind toward the 
point where the French and Canadian lines 
met, in the Northern section of the Ypres 
salient between Bixschoote and Langemarck. 
As the poison cloud advanced, the vapor 
seemed to cling to the earth, seeking out 
every hole and hollow, and filling tKe trenches 
and shell holes as it crept along. 

Colored Troops Overcome by Gas 

THE division of colored troops, French 
Colonials, being in the main path of the 
cloud, were first enveloped in the deadly 
fumes, which left them choking and agonized 



Second Year of the War-1915 



151 



in the fight for breath. Thousands in the 
first support trenches and in the reserve lines 
either suffered violent suffocation, vomited 
blood, or fell in contortions, many dying 
later in the field ambulances, and casualty 
clearing stations. 

Some were blinded or stupified; others 
saved themselves by burying their faces in 
the earth, wrapping mufflers about their 
faces, or stuffing their handkerchiefs into 
their mouths. The majority of those in the 
front line perished. 

Throughout this terrible ordeal, the Ger- 
man artillery kept up its deadly work, the 
high explosive shells bursting among the 
helpless victims of the infernal gas. The 
remainder of the black troops fled, in wild 
panic, toward Ypres, leaving a gap four miles 
wide in the line between Langemarck and 
the Ypres-Commines Canal. The effect of 
their withdrawal was to leave the Canadian 
left wing exposed to attack by 150,000 Ger- 
man troops and the massed German artillery. 

Gallant Canadians Hold Firm 

THE main path of the poison cloud also 
struck the left wing of the Third Canadian 
Brigade, commanded by Brigadier-General 
Turner. Though almost suffocated, and 
their line torn by the fearful cannonading, 
the brave Canadians held firm. 

One detachment with handkerchiefs or 
mufflers tied over their mouths, actually 
charged back through the deadly gas cloud 
in the endeavor to reach the barbarous 
authors of the gas attack. What became 
of these heroic Canadians is not definitely 
known. 

Penetrating this cloud of death, the Ger- 
man soldiers, all wearing respirators, poured 
through the four-mile gap in the Allied line 
caused by the flight of the French colored 
troops. 

Quickly drawing back his left flank, which 
had been exposed by the rout of the colored 
troops, Gen. Turner reformed his Canadian 
brigade in a semi-circle and stoutly engaged 
the enemy. 

Still dazed and nauseated by the poison- 
ous fumes, and pounded by the fire of the 
Hun artillery, the brave Canadian troops 
held the enemy at bay, though the odds were 
four to one. Thousands fell gloriously in 



that unequal struggle. Meanwhile, all the 
available British and Canadian reserves were 
brought up. 

The day was saved by the timely arrival 
of five British battalions, under Col. Geddes, 
which filled the gap in the line. 

In the confusion of the first attack, the 
Canadians had lost several field guns in the 
St. Julian Wood. These were retaken at the 
point of the bayonet by the Scottish Cana- 
dians after a most gallant assault on the 
wooded position. 

All through the night the main battle con- 
tinued, the German machine guns playing up- 
on the Canadian Scots "like watering pots." 
But the line never wavered. As soon as one 
man fell, another took his place. Finally, the 
Germans ceased firing and the Canadians 
were able to intrench in the coveted position. 
Just before daylight, however, the German 
artillery fire swept the woods like a hurri- 
cane and the Canadians were forced to eva- 
cuate. 

Within Three Miles of Ypres 

AT break of day, the Germans on the left 
flank forced the crossing of the Yser Canal, 
seized Lizerne and advanced to within three 
miles of Ypres. A counter attack on April 
26th by the Canadian 1st Brigade, command- 
ed by Brigadier-Gen. Mercer, was set in 
motion. Against a fusillade of shot and shell 
from the German guns, the brigade pressed 
resolutely forward and at the point of the 
bayonet forced the Huns out of their front 
line trenches, retaking Lizerne. Had the 
Canadian line broken, the whole Western line 
of the salient must have gone and Ypres 
would have been lost. 

Ypres Destroyed by Shell Fire 

DAY after day, for nearly a month, the 
desperate battle continued without cessation. 
The Germans were gradually forced back 
across the canal. British and Belgian rein- 
forcements appeared and closed the gap in 
the Canadian line. 

The terrific German artillery was now di- 
rected on the city of Ypres and many of its 
historic buildings were destroyed by incen- 
diary bombs. The British troops had neither 
artillery nor ammunition with which to re- 
ply to this bombardment. Seeing that the 
salient was untenable, the British on May 



152 



Germany's Crime Against Humanity 



13th withdrew from Pilken Ridge to a new 
line about a mile east of Ypres. 

By the use of gas, and by their superiority 
in men and artillery, the Germans had won 
a limited victory. But the heroism of the 
Canadian troops who defended Ypres will be 



the theme of song and story so long as the 
world endures. 

The British losses in this battle were 60,- 
000; the German losses, 40,000. The Ger- 
mans took several thousand French Colonials 
prisoners. 



WESTERN THEATER, MAY 7 



Lusitania Torpedoed; 1198 Lives Lost Off Coast of Ireland 

Pres. Wilson Warns Germany She Will be Held to " Strict Accountability" 



,..............,... ......... SECTION 7 1915 .................................................. 



THE whole civilized world was horri- 
fied to learn, on May 7, 1915, that the 
Cunard Line Steamship Lusitania, 
bound from New York to Liverpool with 
1959 persons aboard, of whom 179 were 
Americans, had been torpedoed off the south- 
western coast of Ireland and 1198 lives lost. 
The toll of death included 114 Americans 
and 35 infants. Many persons of distinction 
went down with the Lusitania, including 
Alfred Gwynne Vanderbilt, Charles Froh- 
man, Charles Klein, Elbert Hubbard, Justus 
Miles Forman, and William T. Stead. 

German Warnings Published in New York 

NINE days before the time set for the sail- 
ing of the Lusitania, all the notable Amer- 
icans who had booked passage on the ship 
were warned by anonymous telegrams to 
cancel their engagements. 

A further warning appeared on the day 
the ship sailed, in the form of advertise- 
ments in the New York dailies, giving notice 
to neutral travelers that the Zone of War 
included the waters adjacent to the British 
Isle and that all vessels flying the British 
flag were liable to destruction in those 
waters. 

To counteract this threat, the agent of the 
Cunard Line assured the passengers that no 
danger need be apprehended. Very few of 
the passengers cancelled their bookings. So 
the Lusitania was- permitted to steam out 
of New York Harbor on the appointed day. 

Two Torpedoes Strike the Lusitania 

ALL went well until 2 o'clock on the after- 
noon of May 7th, when the Lusitania, then 
some ten miles off the Old Head of Kinsale, 



the most southerly point of Ireland, sighted 
a submarine. Without warning, torpedoes 
in quick succession struck the ship, crashing 
through the hull and opening a large cavity 
through which the water entered. Many sea- 
men were killed outright or injured by the 
explosions. 

Rescue Ships Threatened 

Boats were lowered in haste, only to cap- 
size in the placid sea. The listing of the ship 
increased the work 'of rescue. Wireless calls 
for aid brought many naval vessels and other 
ships to the assistance of the doomed ship. 

One of these, the Narragansett, received 
the call while dodging two submarines which 
fired upon her as she speeded on her errand 
of mercy. 

The steamer Etonian was prevented from 
answering the call by a warning that she, 
too, might be attacked. 

Eighteen minutes after being struck, the 
Lusitania went down, Capt. Turner still 
standing upon the bridge. He was after- 
ward rescued. Women and children were 
given priority in the boats, but in the excite- 
ment, several boats were overturned. 

The Americans, without exception, died 
heroically, assisting the women to places of 
safety in the boats. 

Kaiser Guilty of Wholesale Murder 

THE German Government hastened to jus- 
tify the crime, by the false assertion that 
the Lusitania was in reality an armed muni- 
tion ship. 

This mendacious claim was met by the 
proof that the Lusitania carried no guns, 
either mounted or unmounted, and the only 



Second Year of the War 1915 



153 



munitions in her hold were 1250 shell cases 
and 4200 cases of cartridges adapted for 
small arms. 

A coroner's jury, at Kinsale, Ireland, 
charged the Emperor and the Government of 
Germany with "the crime of wholesale mur- 
der before the tribunal of the civilized 
world." 

Wilson's Warning to Germany 

Six days after the sinking of the Lusitania, 
President Wilson, in a communication to the 
German Government, declared that "Amer- 
ican citizens act within their indisputable 
rights, in taking their ships and in traveling, 
wherever their legitimate business calls them 
upon the high sea." He -recited the series 
of outrages perpetrated by Germans in which 
American lives had been jeopardized; called 
upon the German Government to "disavow 
the acts of which the Government of the 
United States complains," and warned the 
German Government that the United States 
would omit no word or act necessary to the 
performance of its sacred duty of maintain- 
ing the rights of the United States and its 
citizens, and of safeguarding their free exer- 
cise and enjoyment. 

Finally, the President warned the German 
Government that he would hold it to "a strict 
accountability" for any infringements of the 
rights of American citizens, intentional or 
incidental. 

The German Government, on May 30th, 
pleaded extenuation for the crime by reas- 
serting the falsehood that the Lusitania car- 
ried munitions of war and was probably 
armed. 

Two Cabinet Members Resign 

President Wilson replied vigorously, de- 
manding assurances that Germany would 



refrain from conducting submarine warfare 
upon unarmed passenger boats. Germany 
pretended to agree to this proposal. 

The American Secretary of State, William 
Jennings Bryan, was so shocked at the bellig- 
erent tone of President Wilson's warning to 
Germany that he resigned and Robert Lans- 
ing was appointed his successor. 

Lindley M. Garrison, Secretary of War, 
also resigned from the President's Cabinet, 
because his views on war preparedness did 
not coincide with those of the President. 
Newton D. Baker of Cleveland, Ohio, was 
chosen to succeed him. 

More German Parleys 

PRESIDENT Wilson resumed negotiations 
with Germany, looking to a settlement of 
the damage claims for loss of life on the 
Lusitania. On February 8, 1916, Germany 
promised to make due reparation for the 
wholesale murders committed, and was 
almost constrained to admit that the sink- 
ing of the Lusitania was a crime. 

A week later, however, the German Gov- 
ernment reopened the rupture by declaring 
that all armed merchantmen of an enemy 
nation would be regarded as warships and 
be subject to attack without warning. 

While these parleys were in progress, on 
March 24th, the passenger steamship Sussex 
was torpedoed without warning in the Eng- 
lish Channel. President Wilson, in. despair 
of ever recalling the German admiralty to 
a sense of humanity, demanded that the 
ruthless methods of naval warfare cease at 
once on pain of the instant rupture of diplo- 
matic relations. The continuance of this 
parley belongs to a later period of the War 
story. 



.,,.,.....,................. ALL FRONTIERS MAY 31 """"""*""",.., .,...,....,..,..., 



War In Air Strikes Terror Throughout Europe and Asia 

Eighteen Zeppelin Raids Upon English Cities, 309 Persons Killed, Including 5 1 Children 



SECTION 8-1915 



THE war in the air, during 1915, car- 
ried the flaming sword through the 
skies hundreds of miles beyond the 
battle lines, striking terror among the non- 
combatant populations of cities in all parts 
of Europe. 



Of all the devilish innovations of 
inaugurated by the Germans, none 
dated the Britons as did tho?' 

raids upon their defenceless citi " 

, u i u u vec machine 

when shrieking bombs crash' , 

* u xu j j .planes which 

roofs of houses in the dead , . 

ilso invented a 



154 



Germany's Crime Against Humanity 



their toll of death among the sleeping non- 
combatants. 

When the War began, Germany had 35 
of these dirigible balloons, veritable ships of 
the air, each capable of carrying a load of 
seven tons and a crew of 20 men, together 
with fuel for the engines, provisions, wire- 
less apparatus and armament. The pre-war 
type of zeppelins could fly 1,000 miles in 31 
hours. 

In battle, however, the zeppelins were 
found to be practically ineffective, bemg 
easily destroyed by the aeroplane guns. 
They were used principally in carrying out 
Germany's policy of brutal and cowardly 
terrorism, by dropping bombs upon sleeping 
cities and seashore resorts, and aiming chiefly 
at striking terror among women and chil- 
dren in the unprotected towns. 

The first airship raid over England took 
place on January 19th, when two zeppelins 
passed over the towns of Yarmouth, Cromer, 
Sheringham, and King's Lynn, dropping 
bombs as they sailed along, and killing nine 
civilians. 

Three Zeppelins Come to Grief 

Three zeppelins, while heading for Eng- 
land, were caught in a storm of sleet over 
the North Sea, February 16th. One zeppelin 
managed to make a landing on Fance Island 
in Denmark, its crew suffering acutely from 
frostbitten hands and feet. A second air- 
ship fell into the sea and all the crew were 
lost. The third airship foundered off the 
west coast of Jutland and four of its crew 
were killed. The zeppelins made no further 
raids until the weather improved. 

Zeppelins Kill 50 in Warsaw 

IN March, a squadron of zeppelins shelled 
Warsaw in Poland, killing 50 persons and 
causing many fires. One of the raiders was 
brought down, March 18th, and her crew 
captured. 

Early in the morning of March 21st, four 

QUjpelins headed for Paris. French airmen 

of NeP meet them at Compeigne and forced 

^hem to turn back. The other two 

Two M u ding the French patrol, kept up 

ALL went Wht with pursuing aeroplanes 
noon of May V bombs over Versailles. Sail- 
some ten miles they dropped 25 bombs, kill- 



ing eight persons and starting a number of 
fires. All Paris rushed from bed at 4 a. m. 
to witness the fight in the air. 

The Allied batteries at Ypres opened fire 
on a zeppelin that was surveying the gun 
positions early on the morning of April 13th. 
The craft was so badly injured, it fell a 
complete wreck, near Thielt. 

A zeppelin arrived at Newcastle-on-Tyne, 
England, April 13th, and aimed a dozen 
bombs at the arsenal and naval workshops, 
but though several fires were started, no 
material damage resulted. 

A fleet of zeppelins shelled Blyth, Wall- 
send, and South Shields, on the northeast 
coast of England, -on the night of April 14th, 
but without causing extensive damage to the 
industrial and shipping centers of Tyneside. 

Zeppelins raided Lonestoft, Maiden, and 
Hebridge in England* on April 16th, set sev- 
eral fires, killed two horses and incited a 
panic, but no persons were killed. 

Bombing a Hcspital 

A TYPICAL Hun performance was that of 
sending a squadron of six zeppelins direct to 
Southwald, England, April 26th, where the 
Countess Stradbroke had converted her man- 
sion into a hospital for wounded soldiers, 
and dropping six bombs in close proximity 
to the building. Fortunately these bombs 
missed their mark. 

On April 26th, three towns within 30 
miles of London were shelled, but the British 
airmen drove off the invaders. Shortly after 
midnight, the next morning, one of the zep- 
pelins dropped seven bombs in the neigh- 
borhood of Colchester. 

Zeppelins visited Warsaw, Poland, a sec- 
ond time, on April 21st, damaging the post 
office and killing a dozen persons. 

Orphanage Damaged, Many Children Injured 

A MIDNIGHT zeppelin raid over Calais took 
place on April 26th. Here an orphanage 
was damaged and many children injured. 

A French torpedo boat in thfc English 
Channel brought down a zeppelin which was 
returning from a raid on an English town, 
on May 17th. 

Two zeppelins and two Taubes were pur- 
sued by French aeroplanes near Calais, on 
May 18th. One of the zeppelins attacked 
London. 



Second Year of the War -1915 



155 



First Raid on London 

So WELL was London guarded from hostile 
air craft that the zeppelins were denied 
access to the areas above the metropolis until 
May 31st, ten months after the opening of 
the War. Near midnight, on that day, sev- 
eral zeppelins appeared above the city, rain- 
ing down shells upon the city and killing 
six persons. 

In reprisal the citizens of London declared 
a boycott upon every person having a name 
of German origin ; German shops were looted, 
German homes were attacked, and rioting 
took place in many districts where Germans 
were numerous. 

Huns Violate Their Agreement 

ON June 3d, Great Britain and Germany 
agreed upon a plan for the protection of 
public buildings from air raids. Hospitals, 
churches, museums, and other public build- 
ings were to be indicated by large white 
crosses on their roofs. Despite this agree- 
ment, the Huns continued to bomb such 
buildings. 
Burning Zeppelin Sets Fire to an Orphanage 

ENGLAND'S east coast was visited by zep- 
pelins on the night of June 6th, and 24 per- 
sons were killed and 440 injured. 

The next night a zeppelin shelled Yar- 
mouth, killing four and injuring 40. While 
returning home, the zeppelin met a British 
monoplane on scout duty near Brussels. 

The little aeroplane gave battle to the 
dreadnought of the air, which finally ex- 
ploded and fell, "like a flaming comet," upon 
the convent orphanage of Le Gran Beguinage 
de Sainte Elizabeth, in the suburbs of Ghent. 

Several of the convent buildings were set 
afire, causing the death of two nuns and two 
children. The zeppelin crew of 28 were 
burned to cinders. 

The hero of this exploit, Lieut. Warneford, 
while flying in a new French machine a 
few days later, was in turn killed by the 
falling machine. 

45 French Airships Raid Germany 

Reprisals were taken for the zeppelin raids 
in England. On June 15th, a fleet of 45 
French battle planes flew across Germany 
to Karlsruhe, setting fire to the largest chem- 



ical plants of that city and wrecking both 
wings of the Margrave's Palace in which 
the Queen of Sweden was sleeping at the 
time. She and other titled personages 
barely escaped death. Fires broke out in 
various parts of Karlsruhe; 112 persons were 
killed and 30 injured. 

Raid on English Gun Factory 

A ZEPPELIN attack upon the Armstrong 
munition factory at South Shields, England, 
was made at midnight, June 16th, killing 
16 and injuring 40. The buildings were only 
partially destroyed. 

Air Raids in Italy 

THE Austrians made several aerial attacks 
upon the historic cities of Italy, evidently 
with the purpose of destroying their archi- 
tectural and art treasures. Venice was 
bombed on several occasions. As a measure 
of precaution the priceless art works of 
Venice, including the stained glass windows 
from cathedrals, the paintings and the stat- 
uary, were removed far inland, while the 
base of the Campanile and other historic 
edifices were protected by thousands of sand 
bags. 

Numerous fires were caused in Venice and 
other Italian cities. In reprisal, the Italians 
attacked Austrian supply bases, railway sta- 
tions and other vantage points. 

St. Quentin Ablaze 

FRENCH airmen were very active from the 
beginning of the War and many raids were 
made upon German cities. On April 15th, 
the station at Saint Quentin was shelled, 150 
freight cars and extensive freight sheds were 
destroyed and the city itself became a roar- 
ing furnace for several hours. Twenty-four 
Germans were killed. 

On the following ^day, French aviators 
dropped bombs on the German munition 
works at Leopoldhehe, the electric and muni- 
tion plants at Metz, and other German cen- 
ters, doing much damage. 

Friedrichshofen was visited twice during 
April, the French bombs destroying $1,000,- 
000 worth of property. 

French Anti-Aircraft Gun 

THE French devised an improved machine 
gun for use in their Voisin biplanes which 
proved very effective. They also invented a 



156 



Germany's Crime Against Humanity 



microphone device, so sensitive as to an- 
nounce the approach of zeppelins and air- 
planes when many miles away. 

English cities, during the period of the air 
raids, were kept in outer darkness. Win- 
dows were covered, street lights were extin- 



guished, and the populace walked the streets 
at their peril. 

It was estimated that 309 innocent non- 
combatants, including 51 children, were 
killed in England as a result of the 18 zep- 
pelin raids made in 1915. 



...-- WESTERN THEATER, MAY- JUNE ". 



Battle of Artois Disastrous for Allies and Germans Alike 

100,000 Men. Fall In Struggle for Notre Dame and Aubers Ridges 
British Shell Scandal Results in Removal of Lord Kitchener 



............. SECT ION 9- 1915 



Allied Forces, 430,000 

Gen. Joffre, Commander-in-Chief 
French Army Group 280,000 
Gen. Foch, Commander 
Gen. Petain 
Gen. D'Urbal 

British Army 150,000 

Gen. Sir John French, Commander 
Gen. Sir Douglas Haig 
Gen. Sir Henry Rawlinson 
Gen. Sir Herbert Plumer 

THE hopes of the Allies, during the early 
spring of 1915, were centered in the 
Franco-British offensive which Gen. 
Foch was preparing to launch in May. In 
deciding upon this offensive, Gen. Foch had 
kept two objects in view. 

First, he hoped to erase the Lens salient 
by ejecting the enemy from their powerful 
trench positions on the heights to the west of 
Lens and driving the Germans across the 
Artois plain toward Douai. The immediate 
effect of this operation would be to relieve 
Ypres from the German pressure. 

Second, by pounding the Germans hard on 
the Western front, he expected to compel 
them to withdraw several corps from the 
Eastern front, thus succoring the Russians 
at a moment when they were facing disaster. 

The Battle of Artois, as Foch's spring 
offensive came to be known, consisted of 
simultaneous attacks against the German 
line, by the French and British, launched at 
separate points. The French Army had for 
its objectives the strongly fortified heights 
known as Vimy Ridge and Notre Dame de 
Lorette. Supporting this operation, the 
British Army was to assault the German 
position on Aubers Ridge, further north. 



German Forces, 600,000 

Bavarian Army Prince Rupprecht. 
Wurttemberg Army Duke Albert 
Prussian Army Gen. Buelow 



The combined strength of the Franco-Brit- 
ish forces was 430,000, while the German 
armies opposed to them, carried 600,000 
rifles. The Germans held the advantage in 
their strongly fortified positions on the 
heights. Gen. Foch thought to offset this by 
a concentration of artillery on a scale never 
before attempted on the Western front. The 
French alone had 1,100 cannon directed on 
the German positions. 

Battle of Notre Dame de Lorette 

WITH an army of 280,000 seasoned troops, 
supported by 1,100 pieces of heavy artillery, 
Gen. Foch, on May 9th, struck hard at the 
German line on a twelve-mile front to the 
south of La Bassee. 

The main assault was directed at the Ger- 
man stronghold on the Ridge of Notre Dame 
de Lorette, overlooking the plains about Lens. 
The artillery preparation excelled in violence 
anything hitherto heard in France. In the 
space of a few hours, 300,000 shells fell like 
an avalanche upon the German fortifications, 
burying many of the defenders. Parapets 
and entanglements alike were blown to 
fragments. 

When the artillery fire subsided, the 
French poilus dashed forward in three col- 



I 






Second Year of the War-1915 



157 



umns to storm the heights. The German 
first-line trenches were quickly seized. In a 
few hours the northermost French Corps had 
conquered all the slopes of Notre Dame to 
the -west of Lens. 

The French advance on the southwest was 
equally successful. In rapid succession, La 
Targette, Neuville-St. Vaast, and Ablain-St. 
Nazaire were captured. 

In the center, Gen. Petain's famous 33d 
Corps swept like a flood over what had been 
known as the White Works, rapidly advanc- 
ing two miles beyond the Arras-Bethune 
Road. In an hour they had overrun all three 
German trenches and pierced the German 
lines. Three thousand prisoners and 60 
guns were captured in that initial rush 
forward. 

Had the French line everywhere been able 
to conform to the pace set in the center, 
Lens might then have fallen. Unfortu- 
nately, there were no French troops in sup- 
port of Petain's corps and so his golden 
opportunity was lost. Before night, the 
breach in the German line had been closed 
by German reserves, brought up in motor 
cars from Lens and Douai and the French 
were unable again to pierce the enemy line. 
Two years were destined to elapse before the 
Allies again arrived so near to Lens. 

Though the French were unable again to 
break through the German line, they did 
succeed in capturing many important enemy 
positions. 

On the night of May 12th, the decisive 
assault was executed. Crawling forward on 
all fours, the French Chasseurs stormed the 
German parapets in the face of deadly gusts 
of machine-gun fire, and engaged in a death 
grapple with their adversaries in the dark 
interior of the fort. Nothing could resist 
the fury of the French assault. They soon 
were masters of the German stronghold. 

The village of Carency, after being riddled 
with shells, surrendered on May 12 with 200 
prisoners. Ablain, which was in flames, and 
the fort of Notre Dame de Lorette, sur- 
rendered the same day. 

The retreating Germans had taken refuge 
behind a series of strong redoubts, in order 
to attack the French with enfilading fire. 
One by one these redoubts were taken the 



White Road on May 21st, the cemetery at 
Ablain on May 29th, the Souchez sugar fac- 
tory on May 31st, and Neuville-St. Vaast on 
June 8th. 

Battle of the Labyrinth, Underground 

THE hardest fighting took place in the 
Labyrinth, an elaborate system of trenches 
and redoubts built underground on an angle 
between two roads near Vimy Ridge. Div- 
ing into these underground passages, 50 feet 
below the surface, the French grappled with 
the Huns, using bayonets and knives, picks, 
hands, and even their teeth. 

At one end of the Labyrinth, known as the 
Eulenberg Passage, the Germans made their 
last desperate stand. Here the entire 161st 
German Regiment of 4,000 men were slain. 
The Bavarian Regiment also lost heavily, the 
French taking 1,000 prisoners. The total 
losses of the French in this underground bat- 
tle were 2,000. 

60,000 Germans Fall in Battle of Artois 
THE French had now smashed the German 
salient and taken all the outlying defenses 
of Lens save one. But beyond this they 
could not advance. They had, however, won 
a brilliant victory. The Germans had lost 
60,000 in the Battle of Artois, the French 
losses totalling 40,000. 

British Slaughter at Festubert 

May 9-16 

ON May 9th, the same day the French 
attacked Notre Dame Ridge, the British 
assaulted the Aubers Ridge, but for lack of 
ammunition the attack failed. A second 
assault was delivered on May 16th at Festu- 
bert. Here the German trenches were pro- 
tected by special wire cables, nearly two 
inches in diameter, with parapets in front of 
these entanglements. The British, lacking 
high explosives, could not sweep these ob- 
structions aside with their artillery fire. 

After showering the German trenches with 
shrapnel, the infantry charged against the 
barrier. Unable to cut the thick wire, the 
Britishers laid their overcoats upon the en- 
tanglements and crawled over the top in 
the face of a murderous machine-gun fire. 
Though thousands perished at this barrier, 
the British troops did not waver. 

For 15 hours the Britishers assaulted this 



158 



Germany's Crime Against Humanity 



position and finally succeeded in driving the 
Germans out of their trenches along a part 
of the front, pursuing them to the slope of 
a ridge that commanded the road to Lille. 
Here the Germans had assembled such an 
array of machine guns, all accurately trained 
on their second line of trenches, that to 
advance further meant annihilation. 

In the triangle west of La Bassee, the 
Highlanders made a gallant charge, taking 
two lines of trenches. The Germans, from 
their third line trenches, which were pro- 
tected with armor plate and cement, raked 
the Highlanders with machine-gun fire, in- 
flicting such terrible losses that the High- 
landers had to retreat. 

By nightfall, the British Army had been 
forced to withdraw at all points except in 
the center, where the Kensington Battalion 
captured three lines of German trenches in 
successive bayonet charges, and advanced up 
the ridge. Unfortunately, the supporting 
columns on either side of them had failed 
to break through the barbed wire barriers 
and the Kensingtons were left alone, to face 
the close fire of the Germans directed from 
three sides all day long. 

In vain they appealed for reinforcements. 
Finally, when trench mortars were brought 
against them, they were forced to retreat 
over open ground which offered no protec- 
tion from the deadly machine-gun fire that 
pursued them. Only a remnant of this brave 
band returned to the British trenches. 

Charge of the Scottish Troops 

THE Sussex and Northampton troops were 
almost exterminated in trying to reach the 
German trenches. Then the Scottish Cam- 
eronians and the Black Watch took their 
places and actually penetrated the German 
positions in a desperate bayonet charge, but 
again British reinforcements failed them, 
and again the British lack of high explosives 
caused a slaughter, for the heroic Scots were 
overwhelmed by the German torrent of shell 
fire. More than 8,000 Britishers perished 
that day at Festubert. 



British Make Slight Gains 

THE British attack was continued on IVJay 
17th, with some success. At Festubert, three 
lines of German trenches along a front of 
1,200 yards, were carried for a total penetra- 
tion of three-quarters of a mile behind the 
German position. 

An attack from Richebourg was not so 
successful, as the Germans were prepared for 
it. The result of these operations was to 
drive two wedges into the German lines, one 
in front of Richebourg, the other before Fes- 
tubert, the intervening space of 1,000 yards 
being left in German possession. The Brit- 
ish attack gradually worked itself out. 

The British Shell Scandal 

Gen. Sir John French, Commander-in-Chief 
of the British forces, had repeatedly urged 
upon Lord Kitchener the importance of sup- 
plying high explosives to the Army, but with- 
out result. After the Festubert disaster he 
laid the matter before Lord Northcliff, who 
promptly aired the "shell scandal" in the 
columns of his English newspaper, the Lon- 
don Times. The British nation then tardily 
awoke to a realization of its delinquency. 

Lord Kitchener was dismissed from the 
office of Minister of Munitions, and Lloyd 
George named as his successor. Under the 
latter's administration, great ammunition 
plants sprang up like magic, and plentiful 
supplies soon began to flow toward the Army 
in France. 

French Advance is Checked 

THE campaign in Artois on the whole 
proved unfruitful in results. For months 
the French and English hammered away at 
the enemy line. Two attempts to pierce the 
St. Mihiel salient were repulsed. A slight 
advance over the Vosges Mountains into the 
Valley of Fecht was made, west of Colmar, 
but the entire campaign proved of small 
military advantage to the Allies.' The Ger- 
mans still held the trenches, and 100,000 had 
fallen in the attempt to dispossess them. 



Second Year of the War 1915 



159 



WESTERN THEATER. MAY 24 



Italy Nobly Comes to the Allies' Aid in a Critical Hour 

Her Friendly Neutrality Made Possible Victory at the Marne 
She Secretly Assures France of Friendship While Preparing for War 

. ... , , . T SECTION 1O-1915 



Italian Army, 700,000 

Gen. Luigi Cadorna, Commander 

Gen. Brusati 

Gen. Pecori-Giraldi 

Duke of Aosta 

King Victor Emmanuel 

Admiral Patris 



THOUGH Italy did not enter the war 
arena as an active participant until 
May 24, 1915, yet from the very be- 
ginning she had dedicated herself, heart and 
soul, to the cause of human liberty. On 
August 2, 1914, three days before England 
declared war on Germany, and at the very 
moment of Austria's attack on Serbia, Italy 
nobly renounced her alliance with Germany 
and Austria, boldly declaring her neutrality, 
and proclaiming to the whole world her 
abhorrence of Teuton brutality. 

The fate of France, of civilization itself, 
depended upon Italy's decision. Had Italy 
cringed before the might of Germany, France 
must have regarded her as a potential foe, 
and felt the necessity of protecting her 
Southern frontier with a force of 1,000,000 
men. 

After severing her unnatural bonds with 
Austria and Germany, Italy at once gave 
France the full assurance of her friendship, 
enabling France confidently to withdraw her 
troops from the Italian frontier and array 
them against Germany in the glorious Battle 
of the Marne, where the fate of Europe 
was decided. 

Thus Italy, though nominally neutral, ren- 
dered military and moral aid of the suprem- 
est value to the cause of liberty, freedom, 
and justice. Without that moral aid which 
Italy extended to France, defeat instead of 
victory might have resulted at the Marne 
and the world have been subjugated by the 
German barbarians. 

How Italy Became Germany's Ally 

ITALY had become the unwilling partner of 
Germany and Austria in 1879 from humil- 



Austrian Army, 1,200,000 
Gen. von Hofer, Commander 
Gen. Dankl 
Archduke Eugene 
Gen. Boroevic von Bojna 
Gen. von Rohr 
Gen. Koevess 
Archduke Charles 



iating necessity. Following the wars for 
Italian independence, she was hemmed in by 
enemy states. Her relations with France 
had been embittered by the French seizure 
of Tunisia, to which Italy aspired. 

Germany was threatening to disrupt the 
new kingdom by restoring Rome to the Pope, 
and plotting to open wide the breach between 
France and Italy which had been caused by 
the infamous treaty of Campoforma in 1797. 
Italy, too, had much to fear from Prussian 
and Austrian aggression in the Balkans. 
Germany, on her part, had observed the 
growing friendship of England, France, and 
Russia which developed soon after, into the 
entente alliance. 

Feeling the necessity of a counter-alliance 
that should serve to curb the power of France 
in the Mediterranean, Germany decided to 
invite Italy into partnership with herself 
and Austria. It was really coercion on the 
part of Germany, for had Italy declined the 
invitation, she might have been snuffed out 
of existence on some pretext or other. Italy, 
therefore, consented under duress to this 
unnatural alliance with her ancient enemies. 

Austria and Germany Betray Italy 

SINCE 1879 Germany and Austria had re- 
peatedly betrayed their ally, Italy. The 
most flagrant of all these betrayals was the 
seizure of Bosnia and Herzegovina, in 1908. 
It had been definitely stipulated, as a condi- 
tion of the alliance, that the Allies should 
exchange information concerning relations 
with other powers. Austria violated her sol- 
emn agreement, by seizing the two Balkan 
kingdoms without notifying her ally, Italy, 
of her intentions. 



160 



Germany's Crime Against Humanity 



Austria persistently fomented trouble in 
the Balkans without consulting Italy. Thus 
she selected a ruler for the Kingdom of Alba- 
nia; compelled Serbia to relinquish an out- 
let upon the Adriatic Sea; forced Montene- 
gro to yield the port of Scutari, and arranged 
the frontier between Serbia and Greece, all 
without consultation with her ally. 

Invasion of Italy Proposed 

AUSTRIA'S supremest act of treachery to- 
ward her ally, Italy, occurred after the Great 
Messina earthquake, at a time when Italy 
was wrapped in mourning. 

Gen. Conrad von Hoetzendorff, Chief-of- 
Staff of the Austrian Army, proposed the 
invasion of Italy, and his infamous proposal 
was actually supported, by the Emperor 
Franz Joseph and the Crown Prince Fred- 
erick Ferdinand, who was later assassinated 
at Serajevo. Happily, the wanton attack 
upon Italy was successfully opposed by Chan- 
cellor von Aerenthal. 

Italy's seizure of Tripoli and Cyranesia 
from the Turks in 1911 was prompted by 
knowledge of Germany's preparations to take 
those territories. Germany, throughout that 
war secretly aided the Turks to overthrow 
her ally! 

It remained for Austria to cap the climax 
of her treachery when she served her fatal 
ultimatum upon Serbia on July 23, 1914, 
without consulting Italy or announcing her 
intentions to her ally. Germany, too, after 
Italy had declared her neutrality in the 
World War, roused Tripolitania to rebellion 
against Italy. 

Germany Seeks to Bribe Italy 

IT will ever redound to the glory of Italy thai 
she spurned the tremendous bribe proffered 
by Germany to secure her continued neutral- 
ity, and instead nobly threw herself into the 
struggle for freedom at a time when the 
Allies were on the brink of disaster. Rus 
sia had collapsed, the Western line was bend- 
ing under the German pressure, the U-boats 
had begun to take their toll of ships, Eng 
land had not yet placed a tenth of her forces 
in the field, the Allied cause was in dire 
straits, when Italy entered the struggle. 

Italy was unprepared for war in 1914. 
She had just emerged from her war with 



Turkey in Lybia. Her military stores were 
therefore exhausted, her artillery depleted, 
her armies disbanded and her finances in a 
critical state. In a military sense, she was 
helpless. To have joined the Allies at that 
time would have meant national suicide. In- 
stead of aiding, she would have injured the 
cause of her future Allies. Austria then 
would have conquered Italy in a short cam- 
paign. 

Italy, therefore, chose the safer course ; she 
declared her neutrality, secretly assured 
France of her friendship and made hasty 
preparations for inevitable participation in 
the great struggle. 

German Propaganda in Italy 

THE German and Austrian intriguants, 
however, were tirelessly seeking to buy the 
support of the nation. Italian newspapers 
were bribed to conduct a campaign of paci- 
fism; Socialists were bribed to advocate the 
continuance of neutrality. Baron von Bue- 
low, a gifted German diplomat, offered the 
supreme bribe to Italy, if she would remain 
neutral. 

The greater part of the Trentino was to be 
restored to Italy; Trieste was to be pro- 
claimed as a free city; certain islands off the 
Dalmatian Coast were to be surrendered; 
concessions along the Eastern frontier were 
to be made; Austria would recognize Italian 
sovereignty in Vallona and withdraw from 
Albanian affairs. 

Why Italy Hated Austria 

To ALL these seductive offers Italy turned 
a deaf ear. The cry of martyred Belgium, 
the appeal of ravished France, the stifled 
cries of tortured humanity, aroused her spir- 
itual indignation. At the proper time she 
would enter the War and fight for human 
liberty. 

Aside from her purely altruistic reasons 
for striking a blow at the Teutons, Italy had 
a secondary motive, the redemption of the 
lost provinces, "Italia Irredenta," torn from 
her by Austria. The Italian people in these 
provinces had been the victims of unspeak- 
able atrocities, at the hands of the Austrians. 

Within 50 years, the Austrians had pun- 
ished their rebellious Italian subjects by 
soaking their bodies in turpentine and burn- 



Second Year of the War 1915 



161 



ing them alive ; had crucified children ; buried 
patriots in quicklime and put to death hun- 
dreds for trivial political causes. Italy had 
not forgotten these martyrs. 

Italy's aspirations, once she entered the 
War for liberty, were for the freedom of 
her own enslaved peoples in the Lost Prov- 
inces as well as the other martyred races of 
earth. As her inalienable right, she de- 
manded a pledge that, if successful in the 
War, the Allies should restore her Lost 
Provinces. 

Austria had done all in her power to denat- 
uralize the Italian provinces by colonizing 
Croatians and Germans, Prussianizing the 
schools and subjugating the people, but her 
efforts proved futile. Trieste, Trentino, 
Venetia, Dalmatia, all remain as essentially 
Italian today as they had been Roman for 
1900 years previously. 

Another vital reason for demanding the 
retrocession of. Italy's provinces, lay in the 
fact that Istria alone had several excellent 
seaports, while the Italian shore of the Adri- 
atic Sea is without a single first-class harbor. 
While Istria remained in foreign possession, 
just so long was an Austrian knife poised 
over the heart of Italy. It was stipulated, 
therefore, that the harbors of Trieste and 
Fiume especially should be restored to Italy. 



Italy Votes for War 

A WAVE of spiritual indignation swept Italy 
when the facts of the atrocities in Belgium 
and France first became known. The warm 
heart of Italy clamored for war. But before 
Italy could enter the War unitedly, certain 
political obstacles must first be removed. 
Giolitti, the former Premier, and perhaps 
the most powerful politician in Italy, con- 
trolled the lower branch of the legislature. 
He was both a strong neutralist, and a par- 
ticular friend of the Austrian Ambassador, 
Buelow. 

On May 10th, Giolitti appeared before the 
Assembly, protesting against war with Aus- 
tria-Hungary. The Assembly seemed on the 
point of acceding to his demands. Premier 
Salandra at once resigned his office. In this 
crisis, the Italian people took control of the 
situation. Popular demonstrations occurred 
on every hand. 

On May 15th, in obedience to King Victor 
Emmanuel's request, Premier Salandra re- 
sumed his office. Five days later the As- 
sembly passed a vote of confidence in the 
ministry, the count standing 407 to 72. 

The final step was taken on May 23d, when 
the Italian Chamber of Deputies, by a vote 
of 407 to 74, decreed that beginning with the 
following day, Italy would consider herself 
in a state of war with Austria-Hungary. 



*- WESTERN THEATER. MAY 24- NOV. 15 



Italian Army Scales Towering Alps to Overthrow Austrians 

Italy and Austria Wage War Amidst Mountain Peaks of the Alpine Ranges 
Incredible Feats Storming Mt. Nero Battle of Gorizia Italians Cross the Isonzo 



SECTION 11-1915 



Italian Forces, 750,000 

Gen. Luigi Cadorna, Commander-in-Chief 
Gen. Brusatti 
Gen. Pecori-Giraldi 
Duke of Aosta 
Admiral Patris 



AT midnight, on the 23d of May, 1915, 
the Armies of Italy were set in 
motion northward to seize and close 
the gateways of the Austro-Italian frontier, 
which extended 450 miles from the Swiss 
border to the Adriatic Sea, a stretch half 



Austrian Forces, 750,000 
Gen. Boroevic 
Gen. von Hofer 
Gen. Koevess 
Gen. von Rohr 
Gen. Dankl 
Archduke Eugene 
Archduke Charles 

again as long as that covered by the Allied 
front in Belgium and France. 

Throughout its greater part, this frontier 
was formed by the natural barrier of the 
Alps, whose myriad peaks tower miles in 
air, overlooking the sunny plains of Venice 



162 



Germany's Crime Against Humanity 



and Lombardy. Along this mountain bar- 
rier the Austrians had constructed a system 
of defensive works, which seemingly defied 
frontal attacks. 

From foothills to summits, these awesome 
Alpine slopes were seamed with parallel lines 
of trenches, protected by wire entanglements 
and with permanent gun emplacements and 
turrets fixed at intervals. 

To assault this mountain fortress in mass 
was deemed impracticable; only by attack- 
ing each fortified peak in separate operations 
and by relatively small bodies of troops might 
success be attained. Yet it was necessary 
to cover the whole extent of the frontier with 
Italian troops, lest the Austrians should pour 
down into the Northern plains of Italy. 

The actual goal of the Italian Armies, how- 
ever, was not the Trentino and Tyrolean 
regions in the North, but Trieste in the 
East. 

The way to Trieste, through a 25-mile pas- 
sage along the Isonzo River, between Cividale 
and the Adriatic Sea, was unopposed by the 
Alps. Instead, two parallel railways, some 
ten miles apart, led eastward from the 
Isonzo front, one from Gorizia following the 
course of a branch of the Isonzo River; the 
other from Monfalcone by way of Carso, fol- 
lowing the seacoast direct to Trieste. The 
central pivot of the Isonzo River was Gorizia, 
surrounded by outlying forts manned with 
the latest improved guns. 

As the capture of Gorizia would deprive 
Trieste of her railway communications with 
Austria, its subjugation was the first real 
objective of the Italian Army. But while 
advancing eastward toward the capture of 
Gorizia, the Italian Army would be liable to 
attack on its flank through the passes in 
the Trentino. 

There were two Trentino gateways 
through which the Austrians might advance 
to attack the Italian Army in the rear. One 
of these was the ancient highway leading 
from Munich, Bavaria, which crosses the 
Brenner Pass and continues through the 
Adige Valley into Northern Italy; the other 
was the historic highway leading from 
Vienna, Austria, across the Pontafel Pass 
and thence through the depression between 
the Carnic and Julian Alps into Italy. It 



was vitally important that these gateways 
should be closed before Italy's main Army 
moved eastward toward the Isonzo. 

Accordingly, at midnight, on May 23d, 
strong bodies of Italian Alpini and Berseg- 
lieri crossed the Trentino border, driving 
back the Austrian outposts along the whole 
front, at Lake Garda, the Adige Valley, the 
Dolomites, the Brenta Valley and at Stelvio. 

A second force moved eastward toward the 
upper Save, in order to cut communications 
between Vienna and the Trentino, and to 
close the Pusterthal Passage, which runs 
parallel to the Italian frontier north of the 
Julian and Carnic Alps. The main army 
moved eastward out of Venetia toward the 
Isonzo River. 

The Alpini, agile as chamois, and the Ber- 
seglieri, or sharpshooters, mounted on motor- 
cycles, fearlessly advanced up the steep 
mountain roads of the Trentino and Tryolean 
frontiers in the face of the Austrian rifle- and 
shell-fire. 

When half way up the slopes, the Berseg- 
lieri dismounted and advanced stealthily 
from rock to rock, and tree to tree, pressing 
the enemy before them. Within 48 hours, 
the Italian troops had occupied the highest 
points on the frontier and converted many of 
them into fortresses. 

Pressing on toward Trent, the Italians 
scaled the precipitous heights of Zugna, lift- 
ing their mountain guns to the summit to 
offset the Austrian long-range artillery. 
Cone Zugna, rising 6,000 feet in air, and 
dominating both the east bank of the Adige 
and the railway running north to Trent, was 
won after a stiff fight on May 31st. 

Undismayed by the appalling odds, the 
Alpini swarmed up the towering heights, 
which bristled with Austrian guns, and on 
reaching the summit charged the enemy at the 
point of the bayonet. Six Alpini, after 
intrenching on the crest of a mountain near 
the Fourth Canton, held a force of 600 Aus- 
trians for three days until reinforcements 
arrived. Other small groups fought for days 
against greatly superior forces, crouching in 
crevices of the rocks or half hidden in forests 
and snow-banks. 

There was no restraining the impetuosity 
of the Alpini. With the cry, "Vive L'ltalia" 



Second Year of the War 1915 



163 



on their lips, they hurled themselves against 
the Austrians and drove them back mile after 
mile. Though half a million Austrians were 
massed in the southern Tyrol and the Tren- 
tino, they were forced nevertheless, to evacu- 
ate all the villages lying between Sugana 
Pass and Lake Garda, while the Italians oc- 
cupied every vulnerable position from Stelvio 
Pass to Grado, a distance of 306 miles. 
Raids were made in several places 20 miles 
inside the frontier. y 

Sleeping in the hollows of the rocks and 
eating sparingly, the hardy Alpini in scat- 
tered bands dominated this long stretch of 
frontier for weeks, overcoming obstacles 
from which any other body of fighting men 
would have recoiled in dismay. 

Italian Cities Bombed by Austrian Airplanes 

THE Austrians, meantime, had answered 
this invasion with a combined sea raid and 
airplane assault on the Italian cities along 
the Adriatic Coast, at 4 a. m. on May 24th. 

The object of this raid was to delay the 
concentration of the Italian Army by attack- 
ing vital points on the main railway be- 
tween Venice at the north and Brindisia on 
the south. Bombs were dropped on the arse- 
nal, the oil tanks and balloon sheds at Venice, 
but happily none of the priceless art works 
of that queen among cities was damaged. 

A rain of shells fell upon Porto Cassini, 
north of Pavenna, in the vain effort to de- 
stroy the torpedo base at that place. Rail- 
way stations and bridges were bombed or 
shelled at Rimini, Sinigaglia, Mandredonia, 
and Westi. 

The open city of Ancona was shelled by 
warships, and the beautiful Cathedral of St. 
Ciriaco was damaged. Other undefended 
towns were shelled, contrary to the law of 
nations, including Barletta, Porto Cwita- 
noova, Porto Recavati and Bari. This out- 
rage caused a cry of protest to ring out from 
all parts of Europe. The raid lasted only 
two hours arid the Austrian fleet of 24 vessels 
returned in safety to the Harbor of Pola. 

Italians Cross the Isonzo River 

THE main army of Italy, commanded by 
Gen. Luigi Cadorna, moving eastward, had 
crossed the Isonzo River on May 27th and 
advanced toward Montfalcone, 16 miles 



northwest of Trieste, while other strong col- 
umns had invested Gorizia and Grodisco. 
Within a -week, the Italian batteries were 
bombarding Montfalcone and assaulting the 
heights of Monte Nero. 

Montfalcone Capitulates in 3 Days 

MONTFALCONE, an important Austrian sea- 
port, was bombarded by an Italian cruiser 
squadron on June 7th, and the Castle demol- 
ished. Two days later, the Berseglieri, with 
the Italian grenadiers, pierced the Austrian 
line, forcing a passage of the Isonzo at the 
point of the bayonet, and began the develop- 
ment of the city. 

The pine-clad mountain slopes about Mont- 
falcone were set on fire by the Austrians in 
the endeavor to stem the Italian rush, but 
the brave Alpini, storming the promontory 
of Rocca, occupied the lower section of the 
town. From the plateau, 1,000 feet above 
the town, the Austrians opened fire on the 
invaders with heavy howitzers. 

The Italians, undismayed, dragged their 
3-inch guns up the precipitous cliffs, driv- 
ing the Austrians from their stronghold. 
The way was now opened to Trieste. The 
Austrians in this engagement lost 2,000, the 
Italians, only 100 killed and wounded. 

The Assault On Gorizia 

THE Italians, by their capture of Grodisca 
on June 8th, completed their control of the 
lower Isonzo. General Cadorna then ordered 
a simultaneous attack on all the strongholds 
guarding Trieste. Chief among these were 
the Carso table-land and the fortresses of 
Gorizia, Tolmino and Tarvis. The key to 
this series of strong defenses was Plava, 
occupying a salient in the middle of the 
Austrian line, on the eastern bank of the 
Isonzo. 

Under cover of darkness, on June 17th, 
the Italians opened fire on Plava from their 
batteries on Mt. Korada across the river. 
Then, after throwing a pontoon bridge across 
the Isonzo, the Berseglieri crossed and car- 
ried Plava in a gallant bayonet charge. 

Gorizia Bombarded 

MASSING 500 cannon on the heights over- 
looking Gorizia, Gen. Cadorna now began 
the bombardment of the city. The artillery 



164 



Germany's Crime Against Humanity 



assault continued for weeks, Gorizia being 
one of the most impregnable fortresses in 
all the Carso table-land. The east side of 
Gorizia was protected by a broken, rocky 
wall rising 1,000 feet in places. 

South of the city, on a ten-mile front, 
the Austrian trenches were constructed of 
concrete, four feet thick, and covered with 
steel armor. Against these defenses, shrap- 
nel and even high-explosive shells failed to 
do much damage. 

Italians Repulsed 

FOUR corps of Italian infantry, led by the 
Duke of Aosta and armed chiefly with hand 
grenades and short knives, were sent for- 
ward to take the forts, but were repulsed 
with heavy losses by 200,000 Austrians under 
Archduke Eugene and Gen. Boroevic. The 
Austrians pursued the retreating Italians 
across the Carso Plateau. The Italians bur- 
rowed in along the slopes of the plateau in 
caves and holes, gullies and ravines, and 
strengthened their position with barricades 
of sandbags. 

Meanwhile, the Italians' cannon across the 
river were shelling the Austrian advance and 
compelling it to move cautiously. A series 
of battles ensued for five weeks, from June 
22d to July 31st, extending over the whole 
Carso front. Though reinforced, the Aus- 
trians in the end were driven back with 
broken ranks. 

On July 18th, Gen. Cadorna launched a 
new assault all along the Isonzo front. For 
three days and, nights the battle continued, 
the Austrians finally being pressed back and 
yielding 3,500 prisoners. 

Austrian Counter-Offensive Fails 

WHILE the Austrians were retreating, 
many heavy howitzers had been rushed to 
the Carso Plateau from the other Austrian 
strongholds. The Bavarian Crown Prince, 
too, had sent the Austrians generous ammu- 
nition supplies and several expert German 
gunners. Thus reinforced, Gen. Bovoevic 
began a counter offensive on July 22d, with 
a concentrated bombardment. The Austrian 
infantry, under cover of this fire, advanced 
in massed formation to take the bridges in 
rear of the Italians. 



The Italian line was on the point of giving 
way, when the Italian batteries on the oppo* 
site heights got the range of the Austrian 
columns and disorganized them. The Italian 
infantry now recharged and took 2,000 
prisoners. 

The Austrians sought to recapture Mont- 
falcone, only to be repulsed with heavy 
losses. On July 25th, the Italians stormed 
the slopes of St. Busi and San Martins. At 
St. Busi, particularly, the fighting was san- 
guinary. Again and again the hill was won 
and lost, both sides being strongly reinforced 
and concentrating their artillery fire on the 
summit of the hill. 

On July 27th, the Italians again stormed 
the Plava Heights and St. Michels with 
bombs and bayonets. Though they gained 
both summits, they could not retain the posi- 
tions, so withering was the enemy's artillery 
fire. Gorizia itself seemed impregnable. 
Further assaults on the stronghold therefore, 
were postponed. The Italians and Austrians 
each are said to have lost 150,000 in this 
engagement. 

Charge of the Bulls on Mount Korada 

THE most ingenious and spectacular charge 
in modern warfare was a feature of this 
campaign. The mountain of Korada, be- 
tween the Isonzo and the Juario, commanded 
the middle course of the Isonzo River. Its 
slopes were protected by a network of per- 
manent trenches and barb-wire entangle- 
ments. 

If Italy was to be protected from invasion 
this mountain must be taken quickly. Lack- 
ing heavy field guns to reduce the wire en- 
tanglements, the Italians adopted a most in- 
genious expedient to assist the infantry in 
seizing the heights. 

A herd of fierce bulls had been concealed 
near the center of the Italian line. As the 
Italian bombardment proceeded, the bulls 
were wrought to a high pitch of frenzy by 
the concussion. Suddenly let loose, the bulls 
charged furiously up the mountain slope, 
tearing the wire strands apart like so many 
ribbons. The Italian infantry followed in 
their wake with fixed bayonets, crowding 
through the gaps in the wires and capturing 
the Austrians' position without difficulty. 



Second Year of the War 1915 



165 



Under cover of a heavy fog, on May 29th, 
the Austrians had concentrated an enormous 
force at Manthon. From this point they 
made five successive efforts to retake the pass 
of Monte Croce in the Carnic Alps. 

The Alpini, fighting brilliantly against in- 
superable difficulties, resisted every effort to 
expel them. When the last Austrian charge 
had failed, the Italians, springing from their 
trenches, drove the Austrians down into 
the valley. 

200,000 Men Fight Above the Clouds 

THE Italian Alpini, by climbing through 
ice and snow over Paralba Mountain and 
fighting their way downward, had stormed 
and taken the passes of Cregione and Valen- 
tina, together with the heights of Friekhofel, 
on June 8th. A week later the Austrians 
assembled a huge army and endeavored to 
retake the passes as a preliminary to attack- 
ing the Italian flank, and pouring through 
the passes into Italy. 

Fully 100,000 men on both sides were en- 
gaged in this unique battle above the clouds, 
dotting the snowclad slopes and ravines for 
many miles around. The two armies came 
to close grips, man -to man, along those icy 
mountain slopes, until the bayonets dripped 
blood. 

At one time the Austrians had actually 
gained Paralba, at a height of 8,840 feet, 
but being threatened in the rear, they has- 
tily retreated to the huge mountain of Stein- 
ward, overlooking the Gail Valley. 

Italians Take Cortina in the Dolomites 

THE capture of Cortina, 4,000 feet high, in 
the Dolomites was one of the seemingly 
superhuman exploits of the Italians in the 
first months of the War. The Austrians 
had barricaded the historic road that winds 
around the slopes. Despite these obstacles, 
and the hurricane of shells from the Aus- 
trian guns, the Italian artillerists hauled 
their guns up through the mountain defiles, 
while the Alpini ascended the mountain on 
two sides by way of the glaciers of Serapis, 
taking the various heights of Cortina. 

Italians Win, 10,000 Feet in the Air 

ANOTHER feat almost unparalleled in war- 
fare, was the taking of Falzarego Pass by 



the Italians, June 9th. The Italians, though 
confronted by a fortified position 10,000 feet 
in the air, nevertheless pushed on almost to 
the summit, compelling Gen. Dankl to hurry 
up reinforcements to protect his flank. They 
all but succeeded in cutting the railway which 
carried food and munitions to both the Tren- 
tino forces and those in Southern Tyrol. 
Their brilliant action had the effect of dis- 
couraging the Austrians from invading the 
plains of Italy. 

Infantry Against Artillery 

THE valor of the Italian infantry was 
effectual in protecting the Italian frontier 
cities from artillery attacks. The Austrians 
were supplied with the great Skoda guns, 
reputed to be the best in the world, while 
the Italians were rather weak in artillery at 
the outset of the War. 

Gen. Cadorna's lightning dash through the 
Austrian passes prevented not only an Aus- 
trian invasion through those passes, but also 
the effective use of the Austrian heavy 
artillery. 

After establishing their hold on the fron- 
tier, the Italians moved cautiously for a few 
weeks to give their own armament factories 
time in which to manufacture big siege guns. 

When these guns did finally move toward 
his army, and to facilitate their transport, 
Gen. Cadorna was obliged to build strong 
bridges across swollen rivers in the face of 
the Austrian artillery fire. The Austrians 
rendered the movement of artillery more 
difficult by breaking down the high embank- 
ment used in carrying off the snow water 
and allowing the mountain flood to inundate 
the Italian valley below. 

The Storming of Monte Nero 

FARTHER to the north, amidst the tower- 
ing heights of the Alps, a hundred battles 
were fought at three principal points, the 
Carnic Alps, the passes of the Dolomites and 
the Trentino salient. 

Monte Nero formed a rampart of rock that 
could have been defended by a regiment 
against an army corps. The Austrians, from 
overconfidence, had grown neglectful in 
guarding it. One night, when the Austrian 
sentries were asleep, the Italian Alpini, 



166 



Germany's Crime Against Humanity 



swarming silently up the mountain, silenced 
the sentries and captured the garrison with- 
out difficulty. 

Possession of Monte Nero gave the Italians 
a base from which to shell the forts of Tol- 
mino and Tarvis, but these being the two 
strongest positions in the whole chain of 
Austrian defense, defied reduction. The 
Italian howitzers soon, however, demolished 
Fort Hensel and other permanent forts. 

The Austrians, during June, 1915, sacri- 
ficed whole brigades in attempting to recover 
the peak of Freikofel which had been seized 
by the Alpini in the first advance of the 
Italian Army a month before. 

Brilliant Capture of Zellenkofel 

THE capture of Zellenkofel, an important 
observation peak, by the Italians on July 6th, 
was an example of their daring methods. 
In the dead of night, a small body of Alpini 
climbed up the almost sheer precipice, 1,000 
feet high, carrying with them ropes and a 
maxim gun. Having reached the summit, 



they opened fire on the Austrians defending 
the mountain and annihilated the entire 
force. 

The Austrian battery on the opposite slope 
now belched forth, silencing all the Italian 
guns, but all the attacks by Austrian Re- 
serves failed to shake the Alpini from the 
mountain. 

Italy's Gains the First Year 

IN August, 1915, the Austrians having 
been so strongly reinforced, Gen. Cadorna 
ceased his offensive, being unwilling to send 
his men to certain slaughter. 

During their brief campaign the Italians 
had advanced more miles across towering 
mountains than the Allies had done on level 
ground. The Austrians, it is true, still held 
their main defenses, but they had been com- 
pelled to send for reinforcements from other 
battlefields, and were unable to aid Germany 
either on the Western or the Eastern front. 

The Italian casualties during the three 
months totalled 25,000; the Austrians lost 
80,000 in the same period. 



AFRICAN THEATER -JULY I I 



German Southwest Africa Surrenders to BritislvBoer Forces 

Warfare Continues in the German Kameruns and along the African Coast 

^.^.^.^.^..................,....... SECTION 12-1915 ,~~*....*..-,...~.~*.^. --.-..........,..,........- 



British-Boer Forces, 20,000 

Gen. Louis Botha, Commancler-in-Chief 

Gen. Lukin 

Gen. Myburgh 

Gen. Mackenzie 

Gen. Smuts 

Col. Van der Venter 



German-Native Forces, 10,000 

Governor-General Seitz 
Col. Francke 
Col. Kemp 



AFTER the collapse of the Boer rebel 
lion in December, 1914, followed by 
the surrender of Gen. De Wet and the 
death of Gen. Byers, the Germans of South 
west Africa were left in a precarious posi- 
tion. Their scattered forces of rebel Boers, 
Germans and natives numbered scarcely more 
than 10,000, while the Boer-British Army 
totalled close to 20,000. Hemmed in on all 
sides, the Germans sought desperately to 
break through the circle of steel. 

The British then were in possession of all 
the exits out of Southwest Africa. It re- 
mained for them to complete the conquest 



of the German colony and capture or destroy 
the enemy. Gen. Botha's army, in January, 
was divided into two parts, preparatory to 
advancing into the interior. 

One division, under his personal command, 
intended to proceed by rail from Swakop- 
mund to Windhoek. A second division was 
to move in three columns: One proceeding 
north from Warmbad, one east from Luder- 
itz Bay and one west from Bechuanaland. 
These three columns were to unite and move 
northward to aid Gen. Botha in capturing 
Windhoek. 



Second Year of the War 1915 



This movement got well under way in Feb- 
ruary. There ensued several months of 
fighting over the eighty-mile stretch of burn- 
ing desert veldt, where the temperature rose 
to 120 in the shade and water supplies had 
to be carried by the commissaries. 

Botha's Boer Army Advances 

GEN. Louis BOTHA, commanding the Union 
Army, moved out of his base at Swakop- 
mund on February 22d, and seized Nonidas 
and Goanikontes, preparatory to advancing 
upon the German capital, Windhoek. On 
March 19th, finding the enemy at Riet, which 
commands the highway to Windhoek, it was 
arranged that Col. Brits' brigade should at- 
tack in front while Col. Colliers' brigade 
was executing a flank movement to cut off 
the line of retreat. 

The frontal attack proved successful, but 
the flank attack was a failure, the Germans 
holding the railway and taking 43 men 
prisoners. 

During April and May, Gen. Botha suc- 
ceeded in clearing the railway for a distance 
of 50 miles. He established a railhead at 
Trekopke with the Kimberly regiment under 
Col. Skinner in charge. This encampment 
was attacked on April 26th, by a force of 
700 Germans with a dozen guns. The Ger- 
mans failed in their encircling movement and 
were driven back, losing 25 men. 

Germans Surrender Windhoek 

IN the South, Col. Van der Venter, in com- 
mand of a Union force, crossed the Orange 
River and occupied a group of German sta- 
tions. Uniting with the forces of Gen. Smuts, 
on April llth, he drove the Germans from 
their strong positions on the Karas Moun- 
tains. A week later Col. Van der Venter 
entered Sechein, the Germans fleeing in great 
haste. 

At Gibeon, on April 28th, Gen. Mackenzie's 
division drove the Germans pell mell before 
them, seizing much booty. 

On May 1st, Karas was evacuated by the 



Germans and occupied by Gen. Brits' com- 
mand. The way was now open to the Ger- 
man capital. 

The Germans, seeing further resist- 
ance useless, surrendered Windhoek on May 
12th, with its population of 3,000 whites and 
12,000 natives. The great wireless station 
at Windhoek, which kept the Germans in 
touch with Berlin, was found uninjured. 

The rounding up of straggling bands of 
Germans throughout the colony occupied the 
Union forces during the next two months. 
Finally, on July 9th, at a place called Kilo- 
metre 500, the Germans surrendered German 
Southwest Africa, with 5,000 prisoners of 
war, to the British. The conquest of this 
empire cost the Allies 1612 men in killed and 
wounded, while the Germans and rebel Boers 
lost 800. 

VThe War in the German Kameruns 

THE Germans and rebel Boers were still 
holding out in various sections of the Kam- 
eruns during 1915, and it was the business 
of the French, Belgian and British forces to 
subdue them. Many small engagements took 
place, but with the capture of the forts at 
Garna on June llth, and of Ngaundere on 
July 29th, the Germans were practically dis- 
possessed of their colony, although in the fall 
of 1915, a considerable force still occupied 
Yaunds and did not surrender until New 
Year's Day, 1916. 

German Raider Destroyed in African River 

GUERILLA warfare was kept up during the 
summer of 1915 along the northeastern bor- 
ders of Rhodesia and in Nyassal and by 
British and Belgian forces. The German 
raiding cruiser Koenigsburg, which had run 
up the Rufiji River for shelter on October, 
1914, was bottled up by sinking a collier 
across the mouth of the river. On July 4th, 
up among the jungles of an African river, 
the monitors Severn and Mersey shelled and 
destroyed this mighty German raider, once 
the terror of the seas. 



Germany's Crime Against Humanity 



EASTERN THEATER-JULY 26 --.....................,....., . 



1,000,000 Armenians Massacred by the Turks and Kurds 

Russians Drive Turks Out of Northern Armenia and Lake Van Region 

.-.-.-.. -.---.- t i t i t ,.. t ..f--'r "-- SECTION 13-1915 ......................................................................... 



Russian Forces, 180,000 

Gen. Yudenitch, Commander-in-Chief 
Gen. Woronozov, Erzerum Army 



FOLLOWING up their crushing defeat of 
the Turkish Army at Sarikamish on 
New Year's Day, when they captured 
an entire army corps, the Russians advanced 
through Turkish Armenia, and in a surprise 
attack on the Turks near Erzerum, about 
the first of February, captured a command- 
ing general and the staff of the Thirtieth 
Turkish Division, besides a large quantity 
of war material. 

In order to deliver their surprise attack, 
the Russians had crossed a mountain two 
miles in height during a raging blizzard 
which served to conceal their movements and 
the noise of the army. Coincident with 
this battle, a Russian squadron in the Black 
Sea bombarded the Turkish transports. 

Meanwhile, another Russian Army had en- 
countered a Turkish force at Maraud, in the 
Turkish province of Azerbaijan, commanded 
by Gen. Djevet Pasha. The Turks fled in 
disorder, abandoning their cannon, stand- 
ards, dead and wounded. 

Massacre of Armenians Begins at Ardanutem 

EARLY in February, after the Turks had 
been driven out of Ardahan, they retired to 
Ardanutem, a town near the Armenian fron- 
tier. Here they began those systematic mas- 
sacres of Armenians which have made their 
name execrated everywhere. Of the 200 vic- 
tims of Turkish vengeance in this town, 150 
were dragged from their homes and killed in 
the streets, while 50 Armenians were taken 
from the local jail, stripped naked and com- 
pelled to leap to death into the frightful 
abyss of Jenemdere, also called "The Devil's 
Gap." 

At Tamvot the Turks killed 250 Arme- 
nians, leaving their bodies to be devoured by 



Turkish Forces, 200,000 

Gen. Enver Pasha, Commander 
Gen. Djevet Pasha 
Gen. Halil Bey 
Gen. Sary Kamish 
Gen. Talaat^Bey 
Ahmed Fevsi 

the scavenger dogs. The women residents 
of this town were taken into captivity. 

600 Butchered in Antreat 

ALL the male inhabitants of Antreat, 600 
in number, were put to death and the women 
were divided into parties and sent to various 
interior towns. 

An Armenian physician, Dr. Derderian, 
reported to the Red Cross of London that 
the whole plain of Alashgerd was dotted 
with the bodies of men, women and children 
who had been slaughtered by Kurds after 
the Russians had retreated from this district. 
The Armenian women were carried away to 
the mountains. At this time, the Armenian 
Red Cross reported that 120,000 destitute 
Armenians were imploring aid in the Cau- 
casus region alone. 

Turks, Defeated in Persia, Massacre 800 

CONTINUING the advance into Northwest- 
ern Persia, the Russians defeated the Turks 
in a furious battle at Atkutur, the Turks 
losing 12,000 in casualties. 

The Turks cruelly massacred 800 Chris- 
tians in this region, dragging many of them 
out from the homes of friendly Mahometans, 
who had sheltered them. Some of the vic- 
tims were shot ; others were bound to ladders 
and their heads chopped off where they pro- 
truded from the rungs ; eyes were gouged out 
and limbs chopped off. Several hundred 
other Armenians were thrown into* deep wells 
and drowned. 

Inhabitants of Ten Villages Massacred 

REFUGEES reaching the Russian lines on 
April 24th, reported that all the inhabitants 
of ten villages near Van had been killed by 
the Turks and Kurds. Following this mas- 



Second Year of the War-1915 



169 



sacre, the head of the Armenian church at 
Etchmiadzia cabled President Wilson an ap- 
peal addressed to the people of the United 
States, to act on behalf of the Armenians. 

6,000 Massacred at Van as Russians Appear 

ON May 15th, the Russian consul at Van 
reported the massacre of 6,000 Armenians 
by the Turks and Kurds. One week later 
a column of Russian troops entered Van, 
the murderous Turks retreating toward Bit- 
lis after setting fire to half the town. By 
June 6th, the Russians had cleared the whole 
region of Turks, practically annihilating Gen. 
Halil Bey's original corps. 

Typhus Epidemic Among Russians in Caucasia 

ALONG the Caucasian front, the campaign 
had been halted by a typhus epidemic among 
the Russians, which claimed 150 victims 
daily. Hostilities were resumed about May 
1st, and the Turks were driven back to the 
southwest, with heavy losses on both sides. 

12,000 Killed at Bitlis and Mush 

IN June, it was reported that 12,000 Arme- 
nians had been killed at Bitlis and Mush, and 
that several villages in the Lake Van region 
were entirely wiped out. 

At Marsovan, where an American college 
is located, the Armenians were driven out to 
the suburbs. Twelve hundred were put to 
death and thousands of other Armenians 
managed to escape into Northern Mes- 
opotamia. 

Armenians Hold Two Towns 

IN some towns the Armenians endeavored 
to defend themselves against Turkish 
attacks. At Shaben Karshissar, in the prov- 
ince of Anatolia, the citizens held the town 
for a short time against Turkish troops, but 



were finally overcome. Four thousand were 
put to death. 

The people of Kharput also held out a 
week against the attacks of the Turks before 
surrendering. 

American Ambassador Aids the Armenians 

THE United States Department of State, 
in reply to a universal appeal for action on 
behalf of the Armenians, instructed the 
American Ambassador at Constantinople, 
Mr. Henry Morgenthau, to make representa- 
tions to the Turkish Government. While 
disclaiming responsibility for the massacres, 
the Turkish Government affirmed that the 
Kurds were the guilty parties. However, 
upon Mr. Morgenthau's request, Turkish 
regular troops were sent to Persia to keep 
order. Yet it is known that the massacres 
in the Lake Van region were instigated by 
the Turkish Minister of the Interior, Talaat 
Bey, in reprisal for the act of the populace 
in resisting an order of banishment directed 
against them. 

1,000,000 Massacred in Armenia 

THE districts covered by the Armenian 
massacres were Eastern Anatolia, Cilicia and 
the Taurus region. The British and Russian 
official reports agree that in 1915 fully 1,000,- 
000 Armenians out of a population of 4,000,- 
000 were killed by the Turks and Kurds. It 
was estimated that 250,000 Armenians es- 
caped into Russia after suffering untold pri- 
vations. 

The slaughter of the Armenians is said to 
have been instigated by Enver Pasha and 
Talaat Pasha, who charged the Armenians 
collectively with "treason." These acts of 
unspeakable savagery, at which the whole 
world shuddered, were defended by certain 
German publicists as justifiable. 



170 



Germany's Crime Against Humanity 



....,..,........,..,..,..,..,... EASTERN THEATER. MAY SEPT. 

Entire Russian Line Forced to Retreat on a 700-Mile Front 

One Russian. Army Blown Into Oblivion by Mackensen's Guns at Dunajec River 
Germans Conquer Poland, Galicia and Courland Russians Lose 1,600,000 Men 

..^.^....^^.^.^.^.^.. l ...... ., ........ SECTION 14-1915 ............................................................................ 



Russian Forces, 2,500,000 

Grand Duke Nicholas, Commander-in-Chief 
Gen. Yanushkevitch, Chief of Staff 

Army Commanders: 
Gen. Ivanoff 
Gen. Alexeieff 
Gen. Brusiloff 
Gen. Dmitrieff 
Gen. Ewerts 
Gen. Lechitzky 



IRREPARABLE disaster befell Russian 
arms in May, 1915, when a tornado of 
shell-fire from 3,000 heavy German guns 
ripped open a 40-mile gap in the Russian 
front, along the banks of the Dunajec and 
Biala Rivers, blowing Gen. Dmitrieff' s army 
into oblivion and compelling the entire Rus- 
sian line to fall back into the far interior, 
with a resultant loss of 350,000 in killed and 
wounded and 1,250,000 prisoners. 

Her tremendous victory gained for Ger- 
many possession of 100,000 square miles of 
Russian territory, comprising all of Poland 
and Courland, the greater part of Galicia and 
several other large provinces, whose aggre- 
gate population was 20,000,000. 

This disaster, which bore fruit two years 
later in red revolution and the quick collapse 
of the Russian Empire, was due primarily to 
Russia's inferiority in guns and lack of am- 
munition, which left her impotent before 
Germany's unparalleled concentration of 
artillery on the most vulnerable point in the 
Russian line. 

The European Allies for months had been 
endeavoring to get munitions into Russia. 
The only practicable route for the transport 
of supplies from the West was through the 
Dardanelles and Bosphorus, past Constanti- 
nople and thence by way of the Black Sea. 
The failure of the Dardanelles and Gallipoli 
campaigns had definitely closed this route to 
the Allies. 



Austro-German Forces, 3,000,000 

Gen. Hindenberg, Commander-in-Chief 

Gen. Ludendorf, Chief of staff 
Northern Army Group Gen. Hindenberg 

Gen. Below 

Gen. Eichhorn 

Gen. Scholz 

Gen. Gallwitz 
Central Army Group Prince Leopold 

Gen. Woyrsch 
Southern Army Group Gen Mackensen 

Archduke Joseph Ferdinand 

Gen. Boehm-Ermolli 

Gen. Marwitz 

Gen. Pflanzer 

Gen. Linsengen 

Archduke Frederick 

One other entrance into European Russia, 
from Vladivostok on the Pacific Coast over 
6,000 miles of Trans-Siberian Railway to 
Moscow and Petrograd, remained open. The 
Japanese had availed themselves of this route 
in sending $40,000,000 worth of guns and 
shells into Russia, but since February the 
Japanese had been at controversy with China 
and their exports of munitions were suspend- 
ed while they made provision for their own 
needs in case war broke out with China. 

After the quarrel with China had been 
composed, Japan resumed her export of mu- 
nitions, but these later supplies failed to 
arrive in time to save the Czar's larmies. 
Consequently Russia for months had been 
without adequate military supplies. 

The United States Government subse- 
quently came to Russia's rescue by sending 
20,000 American freight cars and 400 Amer- 
ican locomotives to the port of Vladivostok 
in order to facilitate the shipment of guns 
and shells over the Trans-Siberian Railroad. 
Thanks to this timely aid, Russia was able 
to recover from her defeat and for a time 
resume the initiative. 
Germany's Colossal Preparations Underway 

THE combined armies of Germany and 
Austria had hitherto failed, after four con- 
secutive attempts, to break through the Rus- 
sian front by way of the Warsaw salient. 
They now planned to launch a surprise attack 
in another direction, further south. 



Second Year of the War 1915 



171 



Hindenberg had discovered a more vulner- 
able point in the Russian line, where it bent 
along the banks of the Dunajec and Eiala 
Rivers, just below Tarnow in Western Gali- 
cia. This sector, some 40 miles long, was 
thinly held by an army of 200,000, com- 
manded by Gen. Dmitrieff, a Bulgarian 
officer in the service of Russia. Not only 
was this sector insufficiently covered with 
troops, but Dmitrieff had neglected to pre- 
pare suitable lines of defense in his rear. 

Knowing these facts, the Germans decided 
that this was the place to launch a surprise 
attack which would carry ampler promise 
of victory than did the Warsaw sector. For 
weeks they were secretly engaged in bring- 
ing forward to the Dunajec sector the great- 
est assemblage of artillery ever known in 
warfare. 

Under cover of night, they had gradually 
concentrated 4,000 heavy howitzers and field 
guns of every caliber, together with 10,000 
machine guns, in front of Dmitrieff's posi- 
tion. Huge ammunition depots uprose be- 
hind the German lines. Food depots were 
constructed, hospitals erected and an intri- 
cate telegraph system set up. Great droves 
of cattle were brought forward to insure an 
adequate supply of meat. 

5,500,000 Troops in Battle Array 

FINALLY, an army of 750,000 specially 
trainedj troops, under command of Gen. Mac- 
kensen, was secretly massed east of Cracow, 
prepared at a signal to pour through the gap 
which the German artillery would open in 
the Russian line. All these extensive prep- 
arations went on unnoticed by Gen Dmitrieff. 

In May, a month made otherwise memor- 
able by the sinking of the Lusitania and 
the entrance of Italy into the World War, 
the Germans were ready to hurl their thun- 
derbolt at Russia. At this time the 700- 
mile battle front, extending from the Baltic 
Sea to the Carpathians, was occupied 
by 3,000,000 German and Austrian troops, 
divided into three groups of armies, all under 
the supreme command of Field Marshal von 
Hindenberg. 

At the Northern end of the line, in East 
Prussia, and prepared to undertake a raid 
into Courland, there was an army group 



commanded by Gen. von Below, under Hin- 
denberg's immediate observation. In the 
center of the long battle line, along the Polish 
border, was a group of armies directed by 
Prince Leopold of Bavaria. Southward, in 
Western Galicia, an army group led by Gen. 
Mackensen was acting in co-operation with 
the armies of Archduke Frederick of Austria. 
The Russian trenches were held by some 
2,500,000 troops, many thousands of whom 
lacked rifles and all of whom were in need 
of ammunition. The supreme commander 
was the Grand Duke Nicholas, uncle of the 
Czar. The three principal Russian Army 
groups were commanded by Gen. Alexeieff in 
the North, Gen. Ivanoff in the Center and 
Gen. Brusiloff in the South. At the begin- 
ning of the great battle, only the troops in 
the Galician sector were fully engaged. 

Battle of the Dunajec Opens 

ON THE morning of May 2d, the roar of 
4,000 howitzers and field guns announced 
that the battle had begun. In the space of 
four hours, 700,000 shells were hurled at the 
Russian line, obliterating the trenches on a 
40-mile front and blowing the greater part 
of Dmitrieff' s army into eternity. Every- 
thing within the range of shell-fire was swept 
away trees, wire emplacements, horses, 
vehicles and 150,000 men. Many who re- 
treated from this inferno were caught in 
a cascade of , shell-fire that fell upon the 
terrain at the rear of the main position. 

Gen. BrusilofFs Army Escapes Capture 

A MERE remnant of Dmitrieff' s army ef- 
fected their escape from the slaughter pen 
at Gorlice, retreating in confusion toward the 
Wisloka River. Mackensen's Phalanx of 
shock troops quickly pushed through the gap 
in the line and, separating into two columns 
began a wide enveloping movement in con- 
junction with the army of Boehm-Ermolli 
They planned to capture, not only the rem- 
nant of Dmitrieff's army, but the whole of 
Gen. BrusilofFs army on the right. 

Dmitrieff's shattered army defeated this 
scissor-like movement by the stubbornness of 
its resistance, fighting rear-guard actions as 
it retreated, and enabling Gen. Brusiloff to 
escape from the trap set for him. The Bava- 
rian and Hungarian Armies, under Gen. von 



172 



Germany's Crime Against Humanity 



Emmich and Gen. Marting, strove mightily 
to reach the Western passes of the Carpa- 
thians before Brusiloff could effect his with- 
drawal, but he managed to elude them, 
though with a loss of 30,000 men. 

The Battle on the Wisloka River 

A NEW Russian line was formed on May 
5th, along the banks of the Wisloka River, 
and reinforcements were sent to the armies 
of Gen. Dmitrieff and Ewerts. The Ger- 
man siege guns were again trained on the 
luckless Russians, who had but little artillery 
and less ammunition, to sustain the attack. 

Nothing daunted, General Ivanoff s Cauca- 
sian Corps, 50,000 strong, with their daggers 
and bayonets only, charged full upon the 
powerful German batteries, capturing one 
of them and taking 7,000 prisoners. 

After five days of savage fighting, the line 
swaying backward and forward across the 
river, the German artillery fire prevailed, and 
the brave Cossacks were forced to retreat 
with a loss of 20,000 men. 

With the fall of Jaslo, on May 7th, before 
the assault of Gen. Mackensen, the whole 
defense of the Russians on the Wisloka col- 
lapsed and the Russians began a general 
retreat to a new position behind the San 
River, which they reached on May 12th. In 
their retreat, the Russians had lost most of 
their artillery, but they had taken a toll of 
130,000 dead or prisoners from the Germans, 
while their own losses were not less than 
100,000. 

Germans Retake Przemysl 

MACKENSEN'S army reached the San River 
on May 14th, and two days later they forced 
a passage of the river at Jaroslav, compelling 
a further retirement of the Russian Army in 
that sector to the Grodak Lakes west of 
Lemberg. The Germans now aimed at cut- 
ting the line to the Przemysl. 

While Mackensen's army was seeking to 
envelop Przemysl from the North, the Aus- 
tro-Hungarian armies in Galicia had crossed 
the San River and advanced north to com- 
plete the encirclement. On May 15th, the 
Austro-German troops, by enormous sacri- 
fices, hacked their way through the Russian 
trenches and barbed wire entanglements in 
their effort to reach the railway. 



Subsequently, these trenches were recov- 
ered by the Russians, but on May 19th, the 
Austrians regained them and two days later 
were threatening the Russian line of retreat. 
Boehm-Ermolli meanwhile was approaching 
the town from the south and other German- 
Austrian armies were pressing in from 
the West. 

The Russians, on May 24th, in the hope 
of saving the garrison at Przemysl, launched 
a counter-offensive. Its chief incident was 
the storming of Sieniava by Ivanoff's corps 
on May 27th and the capture of 7,000 
prisoners. 

Przemysl was now invested on three sides, 
shells were cascading in the town, and the 
Germans had all but closed the sole avenue 
of Russian escape. But in the night the 
Russian garrison quietly withdrew, leaving 
a few gunners behind to protect their re- 
treat. On June 2d, the Germans swarmed 
into Przemysl, finding their prey gone. 

The Germans paid dearly for their victory, 
losing in all their campaigns in Galicia 600,- 
000 troops in killed or captive. The Russian 
losses were 300,000. 

Russians Hit Back Hard 

THOUGH forced into a general retreat, the 
Russians still were hitting back hard at the 
Huns. General Ewerts had smashed Arch- 
duke Joseph's army at Rudnik, almost an- 
nihilating three Austrian regiments and 
taking 4,000 prisoners. Gen. Boehm- 
Ermolli's army was badly mauled on the 
road from Moscika to Lemberg after failing 
to storm the Russian positions by mass 
attacks. Gen. von Linsengen, crossing the 
Dniester at Zuravno, was balked in his 
attempt to flank Brusiloff's army. Mack- 
ensen's army alone, with its 4,000 heavy 
guns, was able to batter the Russian line. 

Cossack Heroism in Battle of Lubaczovka 

ON June 7th, was begun one of the most 
spectacular battles of the retreat. Between 
Rawa-Ruska and Lemberg, on the line of the 
Lubaczovka River, Gen. Mackensen with 
500,000 men assaulted the Russian front. 
The battle raged furiously for a week, but 
finally on June 15th, the incessant shell-fire 
and asphyxiating bombs opened a gap in the 



Second Year of the War-1915 



173 



Russian line, through which the German 
Phalanx poured in great flanking movement. 
In this crisis, three regiments of Cos- 
sack cavalry, under Gen. Polodchenko, 
charged like a whirlwind against the German 
masses, sabering them right and left and 
putting thousands to rout. Then, swerving 
to the rear, they put the German Reserves 
to confusion, capturing many machine guns, 
and sabering their way back to their own 
lines. In this daring exploit, the Cossacks 
lost only 200 in killed and wounded. It 
seemed to have weakened Mackensen's nerve ; 
at any rate, General Ivanoff was enabled 
without molestation to withdraw his army 
20 miles behind the Dniester River to a for- 
tified position. 

Evacuation of Lemberg 

LACKING heavy artillery, and with less 
than half their infantry supplied with rifles 
and ammunition, the Russians could not hope 
much longer to stay the German-Austrian 
advance. Gen. Ivanoff wisely decided to 
evacuate Lemberg on June 17th, taking with 
him all his stores and baggage. Gen. Boehm- 
Ermolli led his battered Austrian corps into 
the town on June 22d, meeting with no 
resistances. 

Gen. Ivanoff gradually withdrew to the line 
of the Bug River, with Boehm-Ermolli in 
pursuit. Southeast of Lemberg, Ivanoff 
turned upon him, annihilating one of his 
divisions of 25,000 men. 

The Russians finally retreated behind the 
Sereth River, leaving the Germans in pos- 
session of Galicia. All the territory which 
Russia had gained in an eight months' cam- 
paign had been recovered by the Teutons 
in eight weeks. The Russians had lost 
nearly 800,000 men; one whole army had 
been destroyed, and their grip on Austria 
had been removed. The Teutonic Allies lost 
nearly 1,000,000 men in these engagements 
along the whole battle line. 

Battle of Krasnik 

MEANWHILE, the German-Austrian ad- 
vance into Poland was progressing. At 
Krasnik, on July 2d, the army of Archduke 
Joseph of Austria, while advancing toward 
Lublin, was halted by a Russian Army under 
Gen. Loishche. Three days later, the Arch- 



duke fell back upon an intrenched position 
north of the town, losing 15,000 men. The 
Russian losses were 8,000. The army 
of Gen. Mackensen also was stopped 
near Krastnostav on July 7th. 

The Fall of Przasnysz 

FOR a week, or more, comparative quiet 
prevailed along the entire Eastern front. 
Then, on July 13th, the army of Gen. Gall- 
witz, supported by the army of Gen. von 
Scholtz, launched a sudden assault on Przas- 
nysz, now a mass of ruins. 

In the sector north of the city, the Russians 
had constructed a strong system of fortified 
positions. For miles in either direction 
there extended a series of parallel trenches, 
with bombproof dugouts deep underground. 
Millions of bags of sand were used as breast- 
works and in front of this barrier were piled 
hundreds of thousands of tree trunks. In 
addition there were many lines of barb-wire 
entanglements. 

Instead of attacking the position from the 
front, Gen. Gallwitz aimed simultaneous 
thrusts at the two flanks, preceded by a 
heavy bombardment of the whole line of 
trenches. The plan succeeded, and the Rus- 
sian defenders barely had time to evacuate 
their trenches before the German pincers 
closed in upon Przasnysz. The Russians 
then fell back to the Narew River line, the 
last refuge in the Warsaw salient, closely 
pursued by the Germans. 

Germans Capture Courland 

THE entire Russian line, from Courland to 
the Polish frontier, was now being assaulted. 
Gen. von Below, on July 17th, in far away 
Courland, had defeated the Russians at Alt- 
Auz. On the same day Gen. von Woyrsch, 
in his advance on Ivangorod, pursued a Rus- 
sian Army across the Ilzanka, while Gen. 
Mackensen had compelled the Russians to 
evacuate Krastovor. Farther to the east, the 
Austro-Hungarian troops had crossed the 
Bug and Wolica Rivers. 

Archduke Joseph, on July 16th, made ten 
separate assaults on the Krasnik-Lublin line, 
but was repulsed. The Russians, on July 
19th, retreated along the whole front from 
the Vistula to the Bug. One by one the 
defensive fortresses were falling. 



174 



Germany's Crime Against Humanity 



National Call to Prayer 

ON July 21st, the bells in all the churches 
throughout Russia clanged a call to prayer 
for 24 hours' continual service of interces- 
sion for victory. Hour after hour, in spite 
of the heat, the people stood wedged in the 
churches while the priests and choirs chanted 
their litanies. 

Lublin and Ivangorod Fall 

WHILE Russia was praying for deliverance 
from the Huns, the iron circle was closing 
in upon Warsaw. Lublin, Zamost and Nis- 
tau successively were captured. On July 
28th, Gen. Woyrsch's army crossed the Vis- 
tula and threatened the Warsaw-Ivangorod 
Railroad. Four days later 100,000 Germans 
occupied the right bank of the Vistula. 
Ivangorod surrendered after a violent bom- 
bardment on August 4th. 

Evacuation of Warsaw 

RATHER than risk the bombardment of the 
city, the Grand Duke Nicholas wisely de- 
cided upon the evacuation of Warsaw. Lack 
of ammunition was also another deciding 
factor in the retreat. Before quitting the 
city on August 3d and 4th, however, the 
Russians had stripped it bare of all metals, 
such as church bells and machinery, that 
might possibly be of service to the Germans. 
All the crops in the surrounding fields had 
also been destroyed. At 3 o'clock on' the 
morning of August 5th, the last of the Rus- 
sian troops had departed, after blowing up 
the bridges. 

Three hours later, the army of Prince 
Leopold of Austria occupied the city. He 
found it practically deserted. The citizens, 
to the number of 500,000, had fled into Rus- 
sia, leaving behind in Warsaw a sprinkling 
of Poles and Jews. 

In the campaign which ended in the cap- 
ture of Warsaw, 5,500,000 troops were en- 
gaged. The losses totaled 1,500,000, about 
equally divided between the two combatant 
forces. 

The Great Russian Retreat from Warsaw 

AFTER the evacuation of Warsaw, the Rus- 
sian Armies fell back to a new line of de- 
fences, girdled by fortresses, stretching from 
Kovno in the North to the Roumanian bor- 



der. The rupture of the Warsaw salient at 
its apex compelled the retirement of the Rus- 
sian Armies from Russian-Poland. How to 
save his retreating armies from capture or 
annihilation was the problem which Grand 
Duke Nicholas had to face. His retreat was 
a masterpiece of strategy. 

The whole Eastern war front, at first 700 
miles long, was gradually shortened to 600 
miles by the end of October. At the north 
of the line, from the Gulf of Riga to Novo 
Georgievsk, Field Marshal Hindenberg with 
four German armies, faced Gen. Alexeieff 
with a group of Russian Armies. In the 
center of the Eastern battle-front, Prince 
Leopold's armies faced the Russian group 
directed by Gen. Ewerts. At the Southern 
end of the line, the armies of Gen. Macken- 
sen and Gen. Ivanoff were in opposition. 
The Germans and Austrians were well sup- 
plied with cannon and ammunition, while 
the Russian supplies failed during critical 
periods. 

Fall of Forts Kovno and Novo Georgievsk 

Hindenberg launched his first attack on 
the strong Kovno Fort on August 8th, at 
the same time sending out two columns of 
troops to cut the Warsaw-Petrograd Rail- 
way and seize Lomza. Kovno, with its 
eleven outlying fortresses, held out till Au- 
gust 18th, when it surrendered under cir- 
cumstancs implying treachery. Indeed, the 
commander at Kovno, was afterward court- 
martialed for treason. The fort yielded the 
Germans 400 guns and 4,000 prisoners. 

Two days later, Novo Georgievsk, then in 
flames from the bombardment, surrendered 
with 700 guns and 85,000 prisoners. Em- 
peror William and the German General Staff 
graced the occasion with their presence. 
The fall of Kovno rendered necessary the 
withdrawal of all Russian forces along the 
Niemen sector. Their retreat to Vilna was 
safely affected. 

Fort Grodno Evacuated 

GRODNO, the last stronghold on the Nie- 
men, was invested on August 31st. The 
Germans had brought up their heaviest siege 
guns for this purpose and a terrific bom- 
bardment followed for two days. The Rus- 



Second Year of the War-1915 



175 



sians quietly evacuated the fort on the night 
of September 1st. When Hindenberg's army 
entered the fort on the following day, they 
found the place vacated. 

Czar Nicholas Takes Command of Army 

GRAND DUKE NICHOLAS, though he had 
outgeneralled Hindenberg and Mackensen re- 
peatedly, was now deposed as chief com- 
mander of the Army and appointed Viceroy 
of the Caucasus. 

The first murmurings of red revolution 
were heard in Russia and Czar Nicholas 
thought that, by taking chief command him- 
self, he might be able to restore the weaken- 
ing morale of the Army and the nation. 
Accordingly, by Imperial ukase, dated Sep- 
tember 5, 1915, the Czar assumed personal 
direction of the Armies of Russia, naming 
Gen. Alexeieff as his Chief of Staff. 

Germans Called to the Balkans 

THE Balkan situation now claimed the 
attention of the German high command and 
the pursuit of the Russians was abandoned. 
Gen. Mackensen, with four German armies, 
withdrew from the line and started for the 
Danube front. The German line was reor- 
ganized into four army groups : One, under 
Hindenberg, occupying a front extending 
from Riga to the Niemen; a second, under 
Prince Leopold of Bavaria, from the Niemen 
to Pinsk; a third, under Linsengen, from 
Pinsk to Rovno, and a fourth, under the 
Archduke Frederick, from Rovno to 
Bukowina. 

BrusilofFs Victory at Tarnopol 

UNDER the Czar's leadership, the morale 
of the Army seemed to improve and ammu- 
nition now began to flow to the armies. 
Gen. Brusiloff, on September 8th, smashed a 
German column near Tarnopol, capturing 
many guns and 17,000 prisoners. 

Vilna Also Taken 

THE investment of Vilna began on Sept. 
15th, with the bitterest fighting of the 



whole retreat. Enveloped on three sides 
with its path of escape occupied by massed 
cavalry, the Army of Occupation fought its 
way out to the great chagrin of Gen. Eich- 
horn, the "conqueror," who forthwith occu- 
pied the city on September 18th. 

Attack on Riga Fails 

A JOINT naval and land attack on Riga 
was launched by the Germans, but their at- 
tempted landing at Pernau was blocked. The 
attempt to bombard Riga was repulsed by 
the Russian Baltic Fleet, the Germans suf- 
fering heavy losses. 

Brest-Litovsk, Lutsk and Dubna fell to the 
Germans in quick succession. 

Retreat Ends at Last 

BY THE end of September, the Russians 
were able to establish a strong line from Riga 
to Dvinsk along the River Dvina. This line 
was protected at Riga by the guns of the 
fleet, and at Dvinsk by the Petrograd Rail- 
way. Repeated attempts were made tc 
pierce the new line at Dvinsk, but without 
success and the Germans suffered heavily in 
each attempt. The German advance had 
been finally stopped. Although several 
minor engagements were fought along the 
line during November, no battles of impor- 
tance resulted. 

Russians Lose 1,300,000 Men in 1915 

DURING the retreat, the Russians lost 
1,250,000 in prisoners and 350,000 in dead 
and wounded, besides thousands of field 
guns. They had surrendered 100,000 square 
miles of territory of the Germans, including 
all of Poland, but they still were uncon- 
quered and their army was intact. 

Outnumbered, outgunned and victims of 
basest treachery, the Russian soldiers had 
given a good account of themselves. The 
German losses also approximated 1,000,000 
on the Eastern front, in prisoners and cas- 
ualties during the year 1915. 



176 



Germany's Crime Against Humanity 



EASTERN THEATER, FEB. 19- DEC. 2O - 



Bombardment of the Dardanelles a Colossal Failure 

Gallipoli Proves a Charnel House for 100,000 Australian and New Zealand Troops 

.............................................>..... SECTION 15 1915 ..............( 



Allied Army and Navy, 300,000 
Gen. Sir Ian Hamilton 
Gen. Monroe 
Gen. Gouraud 
Gen. Marshall 
Gen. D'Amade 
Maj.-Gen. Hunter-Weston 
Maj.-Gen. Douglas 
Lieut.-Gen. Birdwood 
Vice-Admiral Sackville S. Garden 
Vice-Admiral Pierse 
Vice-Admiral John de Robeck 

OF all the transcendent blunders inci- 
dent to the World War, none was so 
tragic in its consequences as that 
which sent 100,000 heroic Australian and 
New Zealand troops to their doom on the 
rocky Peninsula of Gallipoli in the spring 
of 1915. 

This ill-fated expedition was a part of the 
larger plan, involving the bombardment of 
the outer forts, the passage of the Darda- 
nelles, the capture of Constantinople and the 
relief of Russia, whose great need for ammu- 
nition England sought to supply. The clear- 
ing of the Dardanelles, if successful, would 
have enabled Russia, in her turn, to supply 
the Allies with millions of bushels of wheat. 

There was also to be considered the polit- 
ical eft'ect of the fall of Constantinople, not 
only upon Greece, which was wavering be- 
tween the cause of the Allies and of Ger- 
many, but upon Bulgaria and the Moslems 
in India and Egypt as well. 

Powerful Defences of the Dardanelles 

THE Dardanelles, the historic water bound- 
ary separating Europe from Asia, is a nar- 
row channel 47 miles long and from one mile 
to four miles wide. It waters the Eastern 
shores of the Gallipoli Peninsula, which are 
lined with perpendicular cliffs. From Cape 
Hellas, at the tip of the peninsula, where a 
sandy beach permits the landing of parties 
in small boats, the ground rises rapidly to 
a height of 500 feet, while beyond this ridge 
rises the peak of Achi Baba, 1,100 feet high. 



Turkish Army, 500,000 

Gen. Liman von Sanders (German) 

Gen. Enver Pasha 

Gen. Djevad Pasha 

Admiral Usedom 

Gen. Mertens (German) 

Gen. von der Goltz (German) 

Gen. von Wangenheim (German) 

Gen. Talaat Pasha 



At the narrowest part of the Dardanelles 
stand the Kilid Bahr Plateau, 700 feet high, 
and northwest of that is the Plateau of Sari 
Bair, 1000 feet high, and covered with a 
dense mass of ravines and thickets. The 
difficulty of landing a force in the face of 
an enemy intrenched on these heights may 
be guessed from the fact that the cliff rose 
almost sheer from the water's edge to a 
height of 500 feet. 

With the aid of German engineers, the 
Turks had constructed elaborate fortifica- 
tions commanding both the Dardanelles and 
the Bosphorous, equipped with huge Krupp 
guns. The shores were lined with batteries 
for the launching of torpedoes. The en- 
trance of the straits was guarded by four 
strong forts, equipped with batteries of 10- 
inch guns. 

At no place along the shore was there a 
dock or landing place, and at only a few 
points might a foothold be gained by any 
expedition that succeeded in effecting a land- 
ing. With heavy cannon placed on the 
heights overlooking these shores, it seemed 
foolhardy to invade the peninsula until after 
the Turkish forts had been silenced. 

The English, therefore, decided to bom- 
bard the forts, confident that their 15-inch 
naval guns would stand out of range of the 
guns of the forts and smash them to atoms. 

Constantinople and the forts along the 
Dardanelles were at this time garrisoned by 
500,000 Turks under command of a German 
officer, Gen. Liman von Sanders. 



Second Year of the War 1915 



177 



Blockade of the Dardanelles 

As early as November 3, 1914, two days 
before Great Britain's actual declaration of 
war against Turkey, the English had bom- 
barded the entrance forts in order to draw 
their fire and ascertain their range. On 
December 13th, Lieut. Holbrook, in a small 
submarine, dove under five rows of mines in 
the channel and sank the battleship Messi- 
duyeh, which was guarding the channel. 

British Submarine Dives Under Mine Field 

ANOTHER British submarine, on the next 
day, also dove under the Turkish mine field, 



but the Turks were now on the alert and so 
many mines were exploded around the Brit- 
ish vessel that she had difficulty in escaping. 
A French submarine, on January 15th, also 
essayed the same feat, but was shot to pieces 
by the Turkish shore batteries. 

The English, meanwhile, had established 
a blockade of the channel, and in January, 
French and English squadrons had united to 
form a strong blockading fleet. The Island 
of Tenedos was seized and a base for naval 
operations established at Lemnos, 50 miles 
from Gallipoli. 



The First Bombardment Opens with 12-Inch Guns 



Anglo-French Fleet, 14 Vessels 

Vice-Admiral Sackville Garden 
Vice- Admiral John de Robeck 
Rear-Admiral Guepratte 

THE first attempt to force the passage of 
the Dardanelles was begun on February 
19th, when a fleet of ten British and four 
French warships, under the supreme com- 
mand of Vice-Admiral Sackville Garden, with 
Rear-Admiral Guepratte in command of the 
French division, arrived at 8 a. m. off 
Gallipoli. 

Forming in a semi-circle outside the en- 
trance to the Dardanelles, the ships opened 
fire with 12-inch guns on the four outer forts. 
The bombardment continued until mid-after- 
noon, when three British and three French 
battleships closed in upon and silenced the 
land batteries. 

Bad weather prevented further bombard- 
ments until February 25th, when the outer 
forts again were silenced. Scottish trawl- 
ers, detached for the purpose from the North 
Sea Fleet, now swept the channel clean of 
mines for a distance of four miles. This 
enabled three battleships to enter the channel 
and pound Fort Dardanos on the Asiatic 
shore with their 12-inch guns, silencing it 
after a gallant resistance. Several concealed 
batteries were put out of action at the same 
time. 

Forces of British marines were now landed 
to complete the destruction of the forts. All 
the landing parties were successful except at 
Kum Kale, where the Britishers were driven 



Turkish Navy 
Admiral Usedom 



back to their boats by a superior Turkish 
force. 

On March 5th, Vice-Admiral Pierse, with 
a fleet of three vessels, bombarded Smyrna, 
inflicting much damage but not effecting a 
landing. 

An Anglo-French fleet of five warships 
steamed up the Dardanelles on March 6th, 
and attacked the Asiatic forts at close range, 
while the newer battleships, from the Gulf 
of Saros, bombarded the forts on the Euro- 
pean side at long range. During this bom- 
bardment, Allied aeroplanes and a captive 
balloon circled around the forts, directing 
the firing. 

This plan proving ineffective, the long- 
range bombardment of the Turkish forts on 
the European side of the straits was aban- 
doned and the ships shifted their fire to the 
forts near Chanak. During this bombard- 
ment, the Turks scored three hits against the 
newest British battleship, the Queen Eliza- 
beth. 

Resuming the attack on the next day, four 
French battleships steamed up the strait and 
again bombarded Fort Dardanos, while two 
British ships in the rear hammered the forts 
along the narrows. The guns of the Queen 
Elizabeth especially spread havoc among the 
garrisons of the Turkish forts, one of the 
shrapnel shells, containing 12,000 bullets, 
killing 250 Turkish soldiers. 



178 



Germany's Crime Against Humanity 



The force of the high explosive shells was 
shown when, as they struck the Turkish 
works and exploded, tons of earth and cement 
were thrown hundreds of feet in air. The 
poisonous gasses emitted by these shells com- 
pelled the Turks to withdraw temporarily 
from their forts, giving the impression that 
the forts had been permanently silenced; 
hence the frequent "silencing" of Dardanos. 

The Expeditionary Forces Assemble 

FOR several days there was a lull at the 
Dardanelles, while an Allied War Conference 
was in progress at the Island of Lemnos. At 
this conference, Vice-Admiral Sackville Car- 
den was relieved of his command of the Allied 
fleet, and Vice-Admiral John de Robeck 
named to succeed him. Meantime, the Allies 
had been concentrating their Expeditionary 
Force for a landing at Gallipoli. An English 
army, 120,000 strong, mostly Australians and 
New Zealanders, had arrived at Lemnos, 
while a lesser French force had been assem- 
bled at Bizerts in the ^Egean Sea. Gen. Sir 
Ian Hamilton was in command of the Brit- 
ish troops and Gen. d'Amade in command 
of the French Territorials. 

The First Blunder 

AT THE Conference held in Lemnos, it was 
proposed to launch a land attack upon the 
Gallipoli defences immediately. To this pro- 
posal Gen. Ian Hamilton demurred on the 
ground that the British transports recently 
arrived at Lemnos, had been loaded in such 
a slipshod manner that the materials abso- 
lutely necessary for the protection of the 
troops upon their landing at Gallipoli were 
buried in the ships' holds under a weight of 
tents, hut parts, cooking utensils, etc. 

He represented that the slightest delay 
in landing the troops and providing them 
with materials of denfense would entail terri- 
ble losses, if it did not prove absolutely fatal. 
Declaring that he could not embark with a 
transport fleet in such condition, Gen. Ham- 
ilton urged that the whole fleet return to 
Egypt, and be reloaded. The suggestion was 
adopted. 

Three Battleships Sunk by Turkish Mines 

Now occurred the second blunder of this 
ill-fated campaign. Instead of waiting for 
the expeditionary forces, as agreed upon, Ad- 



miral de Robeck rashly decided to make a 
run past the whole line of powerful Turkish 
forts guarding the Narrows, ten miles from 
the entrance to the Dardanelles, where the 
stream is less than a mile wide. 

He hoped to silence all the forts without 
injury to his fleet and win a brilliant victory. 
On March 18th, Admiral de Robeck's two 
squadrons of ten battleships advanced up 
the straits toward the Narrows and engaged 
the forts of Chanak. Under the combined 
fire of these naval guns, the forts ceased 
firing, but not until all the battleships had 
been crippled by the fire of the forts. 

A third squadron of six British battleships 
then advanced up the Strait to relieve the 
disabled French squadron. Waiting until 
the narrow waterway was filled with ships, 
the Turks released a number of floating 
mines which were carried down with the 
current. 

The Bouvet struck one of these floating 
mines, and was blown up, sinking in three 
minutes and carrying all her crew to the 
bottom. Two hours later, the Irresistible 
and Ocean also struck floating mines and 
sank, but their crews were saved. The In- 
flexible was damaged by a shell and had to 
be beached at Tenedos. Several of her offi- 
cers and crew were killed. The Gaulois also 
was damaged by shell fire and a huge rent 
torn in her bows. 

With the approach of darkness, the invad- 
ing ships slipped out of the Dardanelles. The 
attack on the Narrows had failed, with the 
loss of three battleships and 2,000 men. 
Four other ships were so badly damaged that 
it was necessary to dock them. 

Turkish Ammunition Almost Exhausted 

IT is now known that the Turkish forts 
were so short of ammunition that they could 
not possibly have held out two days longer 
if the Allies had continued their bombard- 
ment. United States Ambassador Morgen- 
thau, in his book of reminiscences, recalls 
that on the evening of March 18th, the Ana- 
dolu Hamidieh Battery, the most powerful 
of the Turkish defences on the Asiatic side, 
had in reserve only 17 armour-piercing 
shells, while Fort Kilid Bahr, on the Euro- 
pean side, had only ten shells remaining. 



Second Year of the War 1915 



179 



Naval experts agree that if these two forts 
had fallen, the Allied fleets might easily 



have reached Constantinople and thus have 
changed the whole face of the War. 



The Allied Annies Disembark at Gallipoli 



Allied Forces, 128,000 

Gen. Hamilton, Commander 
British, 63,000 
Russian, 47,000 
French, 18,000 
Cavalry, 36,000 

THE Expeditionary Force, numbering at 
the outset 63,000 British, 47,000 Russian and 
18,000 French troops, besides 36,000 horses, 
with Gen. Ian Hamilton in supreme com- 
mand, arrived off Gallipoli in five divisions 
on April 23d. 

In all the history of warfare there is noth- 
ing to compare with the difficulties attending 
their landing at Gallipoli. There were no 
harbors, wharves or docks at which to land. 
The troops were compelled to debark in 
small boats and wade a hundred or more feet 
in water before setting foot on the low 
beaches. 

Three main landings were made ; the 29th 
Division of British Regulars disembarked 
near Sedd-el-Bahr at the point of the penin- 
sula, where its landing was protected by the 
warships in the Gulf of /Saros ; the Australian 
and New Zealand troops disembarked north 
of Gaba Tepe; while a naval division made 
a demonstration further north. 

The Turks, in anticipation of the invasion, 
had strengthened their defences. Elaborate 
systems of trenches and redoubts had been 
constructed in front of the heights from end 
to end of the peninsula. The beaches had 
been lined with rows of barbed wire, some 
of them extending into the sea. The shores 
had been planted with mines, electrically 
operated, to blow the invaders into frag- 
ments. Concealed pits, machine-gun nests 
and other traps were prepared along the 
front. 

On the rocky uplands, rising in successive 
ridges above the beaches, batteries of howitz- 
ers and cannon were solidly emplaced, and 
prepared to belch forth their infernos of 
shell, lyddite and shrapnel. 

Plan of Assault at Gallipoli 

THE general idea of the Gallipoli campaign 
was the capture of Constantinople by an 



Turkish Line Troops, 250,000 

Gen. Liman von Sanders, Commander 



army marching through the peninsula and 
reducing the forts along the Dardanelles 
shore by successive rear attacks. 

The first objective of the army was the 
heights overlooking the Narrows, possession 
of which would enable the Allied artillery 
to sweep the Turkish fortresses on both 
shores. 

These forts had been assaulted in vain by 
the Allied battleships; evidently they must 
be taken, if at all, by attack from the rear. 
This would necessitate landing the army on 
the west shores of the peninsula, washed by 
the waters of the ^gean Sea. 

But first it would be necessary to capture 
the two dominating heights on the ^gean 
shore that of Achi Baba 6,000 feet high, 
near the tip of the peninsula and overlook- 
ing the village of Sedd-el-Bahr; and Sari 
Bahr, 1,000 feet high, eight miles to the 
northward, overlooking Gaba Tepe and 
Anzac Cove. By taking Achi Baba and 
isolating Sari Bahr, the army would have a 
clear road through the low country to Kilid 
Bahr and the objective forts. 

It was a part of Gen. Hamilton's plan to 
launch a surprise attack upon Achi Baba 
and to deceive the Turks as to his intentions 
by effecting a landing at separated points. 

Accordingly, it was arranged that the 29th 
English Division, composed largely of reg- 
ular Scottish troops, led by Major-General 
Weston, should land on five adjacent beaches 
at the tip of the peninsula, then push forward 
to the village of Krithia and assault the 
Heights of Achi Baba from the northwest. 

Simultaneously, the Australian and New 
Zealand troops were to land at Gaba Tepe, 
12 miles up the coast, taking possession of 
the road to Maidos, which runs between Sari 
Bahr and the heights of Kilid Bahr, and at- 
tack the heights from the rear. 



180 



Germany's Crime Against Humanity 



At the same time, the French forces, un- 
der General D'Amade were to make a diver- 
sion at Kum Kale on the Asiatic side of the 
straits while a squadron of battleships 
was making a diversion farther up the Gulf 
of Saros, these two last operations being in 
the nature of feints, intended to disconcert 
the Turks. 

The Battle of Gaba Tepe 

AT one o'clock on the morning of Sunday, 
April 25th, transports carrying 36,000 
Australian and New Zealand troops appeared 
five miles off the coast at Gaba Tepe, accom- 
panied by a number of destroyers. Landing 
boats were at once lowered in the darkness 
and towed to shore in fleets of five by steam 
pinnaces. 

By a fortunate error the boats had been 
towed a mile above the selected point of dis- 
embarkation to a point steeply overhung by 
cliffs. Had they landed on the lower beach, 
as originally planned, they would have been 
subjected to the enfilading fire of the Turks. 

The beach on which the actual landing was 
effected is a strip of sand, forty feet in width 
and 3,000 feet in length, bounded on the 
north and south by small promontories. At 
its southern extremity, a deep ravine, lined 
with scrub, runs inland, while near the north- 
ern end of the beach a small but steep gully 
runs up into the hills at right angles to the 
shore. The mountain spur which forms the 
northwestern side of the ravine falls almost 
sheer excepting at the southern limit of the 
beach, where gentler slopes give access to 
the mouth of the ravine beyond. 

As the first fleet of landing boats reached 
the shallow water in front of the cliffs of 
Gaba Tepe, the Turkish lookouts gave the 
alarm and searchlights at once illumined the 
scene. Leaping from their boats, the gallant 
"Anzacs" waded through the shoal water to 
shore, amidst a tempest of bullets from the 
cliffs above. 

The Third Australian Brigade, led by Col. 
Sinclair MacLagan, was first to reach land. 
Without hesitation, they charged the Turkish 
trenches on the beach, bayoneting the de- 
fenders, and advancing up the sides of the 
precipitous cliffs that rise 100 feet in air. 

Half way up the cliff, the Turks were 



intrenched in a strong position, but in 
15 minutes they were swept out of their 
trenches. The plucky Australians then scaled 
the cliff and moved inland along the Maidos 
Road. 

By this time, some 4,000 troops had landed 
on the narrow beach to the south, through a 
hurricane of bullets fired from the Turkish 
machine-gun batteries on the summit of the 
cliff. The landing boats, too, found them- 
selves in difficulty. Three of the towing 
ropes had been cut by the Turkish shell-fire 
and the boats drifted helplessly under the 
withering fire of the Turkish gunners. 

Worse still, the Turks had drawn their 
heavy howitzers to the scene, and, with per- 
fect aim, were hurling heavy shells at the 
Allied fleet, compelling its withdrawal. Un- 
supported by artillery, the brave Australians 
were now in dreadful plight. 

As the landing troops continued to splash 
through the surf on their way to the shore, 
the Turkish guns enfiladed the beach with a 
succession of shrapnel, machine-gun and 
rifle fire that took its toll in thousands. To 
assault the heights against such odds was 
beyond human strength. 

By 3 o'clock in the morning, some 25,000 
Turkish troops had been rushed to Gaba Tepe 
and about the same number of Australian 
and New Zealand troops were assembled on 
the narrow beach. General Birdwood de- 
cided no further advance should be made. As 
a measure of protection, he began to con- 
tract his line. 

No sooner was this operation begun than 
the Turks launched a counter offensive, ad- 
vancing in mass formation against the 
Australians, but they were driven back. 

Just before daylight, the Turks massed for 
a final attempt to push the invaders back into 
the sea. The brunt of the assault was borne 
by the Third Australian Brigade, which had 
been the first to land. Aided by machine 
guns, which had just been brought ashore, 
the Australians managed to stop the Turkish 
advance, though their losses were frightful. 

Finally, when evening fell, both sides 
rested from sheer exhaustion. The advanced 
line of Australian troops now held a preca- 
rious footing on the ridges overlooking the 
shore of the Gulf of Saros. 



Second Year of the War-1915 



181 



Battle of Sedd-el-Bahr a Slaughter 

THE main British expedition, meantime, 
was debarking at five points along the tip 
of the peninsula near the village of Krithia. 

At 5 o'clock that Sunday morning, the 
Scottish Borderers and a battalion of the 
Royal Naval Division under Lieut.-Col. Koe, 
landed on a narrow strip of beach, after- 
wards scaling the 200-foot cliffs without op- 
position. Having gained the heights, how- 
ever, they were attacked furiously by a large 
Turkish force ; but resisted bravely. All day 
and into the next night, they sustained the 
murderous fire. 

At 7 o'clock Monday morning, after half 
the force had been killed, and when their 
food, water and ammunition were exhausted, 
the remaining British troops escaped to 
their boats, protected by a screen of fire from 
British warships. 

The 87th Brigade, under Brigadier-Gen. 
Marshall, landed midway between Tekke 
Burna and Hellas Burna in a wide bay lead- 
ing to a gully, flanked on one side by steep 
hills and on the other side by steep cliffs. 

The Turks occupied an almost impregnable 
trench position on the heights. Every inch 
of the ground on the beach below had been 
prepared against attack, with sea and land 
mines, wire entanglements and pits. 

After a preliminary bombardment by the 
supporting warships, the First Battalion, in 
32 cutters towed by eight launches, ap- 
proached the shore. As they leaped into the 
shallow water, the Turks opened fire upon 
them, cutting down the first line of the bat- 
talion to a man. 

The Second Battalion, nevertheless, ad- 
vanced without faltering and endeavored to 
cut the wire entanglements on the beach. 
They, too, were swept away by the Turkish 
fire, only a remnant of the battalion break- 
ing through the wire to the shelter of the 
bush-covered slopes. 

At this moment, the 88th Brigade, under 
Brigadier-Gen. Hare, landed just below at 
Cape Hellas, and stormed the cliffs, expelling 
the Turkish gunners from their trenches 
with their bayonets. Presently the Turkish 
fire ceased, and the survivors of the Bat- 



talion were enabled to reform and advance 
upon Hill 114. 

Reinforcements were landed at 9 o'clock at 
Cape Tekke, the heights above being then 
in possession of the British. Three lines of 
Turkish trenches were carried. Preceded 
by an intense naval bombardment, the Brit- 
ish now took Hill 138 by assault, the Turks 
resisting stubbornly. 

Further down the coast, near the village 
of Sedd-el-Bahr, a landing in large force was 
attempted on a narrow strip of beach swept 
by the cross-fire of the Turks, who were 
concealed amidst the ruins of the village. 
Barriers of barbed wire emplacements had 
been stretched, one line along the beach, 
another half way up the slope of the high 
hill. Behind this barrier were the Turkish 
trenches, and farther back there were many 
places of concealment. 

At this juncture, a huge transport, carry- 
ing 2,000 men, swung in along shore. Trans- 
ferring to colliers, the newly arrived troops 
headed for the beach. Before they could 
land, however, the Turks concentrated their 
fire upon the foremost boats, killing half the 
occupants. The transport itself was now 
beached and the troops were transferred to 
lighters. 

As these boats headed for the shore, a 
storm of shrapnel burst over them, and so 
many of the men were killed that the attempt 
to land the 1,000 remaining troops on the 
transport was postponed till evening. This 
time it was. successful. Some small parties 
were also landed at other points along the 
shore. In all, 1,500 British soldiers were 
brought ashore and found protection behind 
the escapement near the water's edge. 

French Landing at Kum Kale 

MEANWHILE, on the Asiatic shore, 3,000 
French troops had landed at Kum Kale, and 
after storming the ruined castle, advanced 
toward the village of Yeni Shehr. So vigor- 
ous was the Turkish resistance, that the 
French were barely able to intrench. All 
through the night the battle continued. In 
the morning, having lost nearly 1,000 men, 
the French re-embarked under the protection 
of fire of warships. 



182 



Germany's Crime Against Humanity 



Battle of Anzac Cove 

ONLY two of the seven landings attempted 
had been successful, those at Beach X and 
Beach W. Two others had been definitely 
abandoned. On the cliffs above Gaba Tepe, 
the Australians were bravely resisting the 
efforts of the Turks to drive them into the 
sea. 

The cove in which they had landed they 
named "Anzac Cove," the word Anzac being 
formed from the initial letters of the official 
name of the colonial expedition, Australian 
and New Zealand Army Corps. Their losses 
had been very heavy, but withal they were 
cheerful. 

Early on the morning of April 28th, the 
Anzacs hauled their heavy field guns up the 
slope of the cliffs to the summit. Here they 
gave battle to the Turks, all day, but with- 
out gaining ground. Though wholly sepa- 
rated from the other landing parties and out- 
numbered, they managed to hold their own 
against the Turks. 

First Battle of Krithia 

SOME 1,500 men, meanwhile, had been 
landed on the tip of the peninsula, near Sedd- 
el-Bahr, and on the 26th, following a heavy 
bombardment, they cleared the village, 
stormed the castle and took Hill 141, though 
at a high cost in men. 

By morning of the 27th, several beaches 
were in possession of the British and the 
French. Gen Ian Hamilton united these 
forces for an assault upon the village of 
Krithia, from which point they intended 
advancing upon Achi Baba Heights. The 
men were exhausted and the few guns land- 
ed afforded them but inadequate artillery 
support. Ammunition was short and the 
water supply was nil. 

Advancing toward Krithia in two columns, 
the Allies were stopped when within a mile 
of the village, and driven back by superior 
Turkish forces. Only by hastily intrenching 
were the Allies able to hold their position. 

During the ensuing two days, the Anzacs 
were reinforced by six Motor Maxim Corps, 
who held the trenches while the Anzacs 
reorganized behind the line. Fresh rein- 
forcements followed with heavy artillery. 



25,000 British Fall in Three Days 

LATE on the night of May 1st, the Turks, 
creeping up on their hands and knees, leaped 
into the trenches of the 86th Brigade and 
bayoneted the defenders, but were unable to 
press the advantage. Similar raids were 
made all along the line, but most of them 
were repelled. 

At daylight on May 2d, the Allied troops 
went over the top in a counter-attack, but 
being stopped by machine guns and barbed 
wire barriers, they retired to their trenches. 
The Turks countered during the next three 
days with such terrible effect that the Brit- 
ish alone lost 25,000 men, killed, wounded 
or sick. 

Second Battle of Krithia 

THE Lancashire Fusilier Brigade arrived 
from Egypt on May 5th, and a fresh assault 
was made against the village of Krithia and 
the Heights of Achi Baba the next day. 
Though the Allies made advances of half a 
mile, in the end they were obliged to stop 
and intrench, so stubborn was the Turkish 
resistance. 

The French Senegalese troops especially 
distinguished themselves in this battle, fall- 
ing like leaves in a gale as, again and again, 
they charged the Turkish trenches and ma- 
chine-gun batteries. 

On May 7th, the Allied warships united in 
a tremendous bombardment of the ground 
round about Krithia, but the shells failed to 
exterminate the enemy. Some hours later, 
when the Lancashire Fusiliers advanced 
across the open fields toward Krithia, they 
melted before the destructive fire of the 
Turks. 

Learning that heavy Turkish reinforce- 
ments were on the way, the British troops 
on May 8th made a last desperate attempt 
to carry Krithia by bayonet assault. Some 
units of the advance actually reached the 
Turkish line, but the assault In general 
proved a costly failure. 

Anzacs Bombarded for Five Days 

MEANWHILE, the Australians, at Anzac 
Cove, were being drenched with shrapnel. 
The Turks, aware that the Australian posi- 
tion had been weakened by the withdrawal 



Second Year of the War 1915 



183 



of two brigades to assist in the assault on 
Krithia, launched a vigorous offensive. 

Beginning on May 5th, and continuing five 
days, the position of the Anzacs on the top 
of the cliffs, along a front of half a mile, 
was bombarded at the rate of 1,000 shells 
an hour. The Turks, though unable to expel 
the Anzacs from the summit, nevertheless 
succeeded in preventing any reinforcements 
being sent to the British line. Here, too, 
a dreadful toll of death was taken. 

Second Battle of Anzac 

THE Allies received strong reinforcements 
in the following week, and General d'Amade 
was succeeded as commander of the French 
forces by General Gouraud, the "Lion of the 
Argonne." 

The Turks, also reinforced, with a corps 
of 30,000 men, launched a powerful attack 
on the Anzacs at midnight, May 18th. Pre- 
ceded by a bombardment of the Australian 
trenches, the Turks advanced in close for- 
mation, and were met by a scorching fire 
from the Anzac line. 

For six hours the battle continued, the 
Turks being mowed down by thousands. 
Hundreds of Turks were caught in the 
barbed wire entanglements ; scores of others, 
upon reaching the Anzac parapet, were bay- 
oneted. At length the Turks withdrew, 
after a truce had been called to give them 
the opportunity to bury their dead. 

Another Slaughter at Krithia 

THE British and French troops spent the 
next two weeks in extensive mining and 
sapping operations, preliminary to a new 
assault upon the Turkish line along the 
Krithia front. On June 4th, at noon, the 
mines were exploded and 24,000 British and 
French troops advanced a few hundred yards 
upon a front of four miles. 

Unfortunately, a gap existed in the Allied 
line between the French and English forces. 
The Turks pierced this gap and enfiladed the 
exposed wings of both the Allied armies, 
wiping out an entire British battalion and 
driving the French back with much 
slaughter. 

French Storm the Turkish Trenches 

THE French left wing, led by General Gou- 
raud, stormed two lines of Turkish trenches 



on June 21st, capturing the "Haricot" 
redoubt, which had twice changed hands. 
The French right wing, at a cost of 2,500 
men, took the trenches above Kereves Dere 
in a gallant assault. Gen. Gouraud lost an 
arm in this battle and was superseded by 
General Baillaud. 

The Battle of the Gully Ravine 

WHILE a British warship shelled the Turk- 
ish position, a strong force of British in- 
fantry rushed and held five lines of Turkish 
trenches along the coast at the Gully Ravine. 

Further up the coast, Enver Pasha led 
the Turks in two unsuccessful attempts upon 
Australian position at Anzac Cove on 
June 29th. 

The Turks, on July 4th, attacked the 
whole Allied line, at one time penetrating 
the British front, but they were finally driven 
back. Eight days later, the British advanced 
a quarter of a mile in the direction of Achi 
Baba, carrying a few yards of the Turkish 
line along a 50-mile front, but the Heights 
of Achi Baba still defied them. 

The Heavy Toll of Death 

THE British losses, by the end of July, 
were 50,000 in dead and wounded and as 
many more disabled by sickness. Of the 
original six divisions sent to Gallipoli, fully 
half were destroyed and a quarter more re- 
moved by illnesses. Several more divisions, 
aggregating 150,000 men, had been brought 
to the scene of slaughter. The French 
losses were about half as heavy as the British 
casualties. 

Three More British Battleships Sunk 

THE German submarines and Turkish tor- 
pedo boats, meantime, had been active in 
Turkish waters. On May 12th, the British 
battleship Goliath, while operating just, in- 
side the Strait, was sunk by a Turkish tor- 
pedo boat. On May 26th, the battleship 
Triumph, while supporting the Australians 
near Anzac Cove, was sunk by a German 
submarine. The entire fleet then withdrew, 
and it became apparent to all military ob- 
servers that the Gallipoli venture was 
doomed to failure. 

The Final Battle of Suvla Bay 

EARLY in August, while the Turks were 
celebrating the feast of Ramadan, the Allies 



184 



Germany's Crime Against Humanity 



made a final supreme effort to bend back the 
Turkish line. Fifty thousand fresh troops 
from England had arrived at Gallipoli 
young lads who had never yet faced a battle 
line and were landed at Suvla Bay, five 
miles north of Anzac Cove. Here they were 
joined by Indian Gurkhas. This landing 
place had the advantage of much open coun* 
try stretching back from the beach on which 
to conduct maneuvers. 

It was planned that these troops, upon 
landing, should push forward to the 
Anafarta Hills, which rise 600 feet high, 
dominating the surrounding country. At 
the same time, the Australian troops at 
Anzac Cove were to assault the Heights of 
Sari Bahr, from whose crest thousands of 
Turkish machine guns looked down. 

Greeks Take Part in the Fight 

WHILE these two movements were in prog- 
ress, the Greek Legion and the Cretian Vol- 
unteers were being transported in troop- 
ships to Karachali, on the European main- 
land, where a demonstration was to be made 
to prevent any reinforcements being sent to 
the other battlefields. Finally, a new offen- 
sive was to be launched at Krithia to hold 
all the Turkish troops at that point and pre- 
vent their being shifted to Sari Bahr and 
the Anafarta Hills. 

Australians Scale Sari Bahr On One Side 

ON August 7th, the Australian troops 
moved out from Anzac Cove in two columns 
to attack the Heights of Sari Bahr. The 
right wing advanced in three lines to storm 
the Lone Pine Plateau. The first line was 
totally annihilated. The second line shared 
a similar fate, only a few survivors reach- 
ing the trenches, and they were either bay- 
oneted or captured. The third line was 
called back in time to save it from similar 
destruction. 

On the next day, however, an assault upon 
the same position was successful, the Aus- 
tralians capturing and holding the Turkish 
trenches. 

The left wing of the Australian Army, 
600 strong, advanced in three columns to- 
ward the opposite slopes of Sari Bahr. On 
the evening of August 6th, one column of 
Australians moving toward Koja Chemen, 



barely escaped capture and retreated to the 
base at Asman Dere. 

A column of New Zealanders, weighted 
down with full kits, food and water, scaled 
the steep sides of Rhododendron Ridge, 
swept the Turks from the crest, and charged 
up the southwestern slope of the main peak 
of Sari Bahr. Here they intrenched, re- 
pelling repeated charges of the Turkish in- 
fantry. The column of Indian troops also 
gained ground in the vicinity of Hill 2. 

Fatal Delay of British Troops 

AT daybreak, on August 9th, the Allied 
troops made their final supreme assault on 
the Heights of Sari Bahr. First, the Allied 
warships in the bay opened a furious bom- 
bardment of the Turkish trenches. Then, 
with a yell that echoed for miles, the British 
troops sprang from their trenches and 
charged up the steep slopes. 

The Indian troops, with the Gurkhas in 
the forefront, scaled the heights in a twink- 
ling. At once, the Turks concentrated their 
gunfire upon them and upon the New Zea- 
landers who were supporting them on the 
left. This was followed by a furious Turk- 
ish charge which drove the Indians and 
New Zealanders down the mountain sides. 

The English and Indian troops, operating 
from Suvla Bay, meanwhile, had advanced 
on the flank of Sari Bahr. The Irish troops 
stormed and captured Chocolate Hill on the 
night of August 8th, but failed to make con- 
nections with the Australians who were 
being pressed on the opposite slopes. 

Three days passed before the Suvla Bay 
forces succeeded in coming to the aid- of 
the Australians. The delay was fatal, for 
the Turks had rallied in great force and 
driven back the Australians from all the 
positions they had gained on Sari Bahr. 
Had the Suvla Bay troops been moved more 
quickly, the Turkish stronghold might have 
been taken and the way opened to the forts 
on the Dardanelles. 

On August 15th, the same Irish troops 
that had taken Chocolate Hill succeeded in 
rushing Dublin Hill in a hand-to-hand fight 
with the Turks. On August 21st, the Aus- 
tralians drove the Turkish defenders from 
the crest of Hill 60. 



Second Year of the War -1915 



185 



The Turks had hurriedly fortified all the 
other hills surrounding Sari Bahr, and all 
efforts to take them by assault proved 
abortive. 

Allies Evacuate Gallipoli 

THE Allied commanders, now convinced 
the Gallipoli campaign was a failure, with- 
drew their troops from Anzac Cove and 
Suvla Bay, leading a small force of British 
and French troops at the tip of the peninsula 
to face the brunt of the Turkish assaults. 

It was fortunate for these troops that the 
rainy season had now set in, rendering it 
difficult for the movement of Turkish guns 
and armies. The Turks contented them- 
selves for weeks with shelling the Allied 
line near Krithia at intervals, while they in 
turn, faced a vigorous bombardment from 
the British warships off the coast. 

Gen. Hamilton Deposed 

FOLLOWING the failure of the Gallipoli 
campaign, on Oct. 28th, Gen. Ian Hamilton 



was succeeded in supreme command of the 
Expeditionary Forces by Gen. Sir Charles 
Monroe. Upon his recommendation, it was 
decided to evacuate the peninsula, and Mon- 
day, December 19th, was the day set for the 
withdrawal of the troops. 

Under the protection of a strong fleet of 
warships, the troops at Sulva Bay and Anaac 
Cove were safely removed at 3 o'clock in the 
morning without knowledge of the Turks. 
By January 9, 1916, the last of the Allied 
troops had left the peninsula. 

British Casualties Over 200,000 

THE British casualties during the Gallipoli 
compaign were 112,921. To these must be 
added 96,683 soldiers and marines who had 
been sent to hospitals. In addition, the 
British lost six battleships, enormous stores 
of ammunition, many guns and much pres- 
tige among the Mahometans throughout the 
British Empire. The Turkish losses were 
estimated at 50,000, while the French were 
at least 25,000. 



EASTERN THEATER. SEPT. 19- DEC. 1 



Serbia Crushed by Armies of Germany, Austria and Bulgaria 

Bulgaria Entered the War While Still Protesting Her Neutrality 

Entire Serbian Nation Put to Flight 200,000 Peasants Perish in the Mountains 

Treachery of King Constantine of Greece and His German Queen 

^^............n...,,.......^^.^^.*..^.^.^..........,.,,.,,..,. SECTION 16-1915 - T T T T t , , , , , . , , , 



Serbian Forces, 300,000 

Field Marshal Putnik, Commander 

Gen. Zirkovitch 

Gen. Goykovitch 

Gen. Mishitch 

Gen. Jourishitch 

Gen. Stepanovitch 

Salonika Army, 150,000 
Gen. Sarrail, Commander 

WITH Russia rendered impotent in 
the autumn of 1915, Germany ful- 
filled her threat to punish little 
Serbia for the two defeats inflicted on Aus- 
tria. The task was assigned to General 
Mackensen, the victor in the battle of the 
Dunajec, who, with a force of 300,000 Aus- 
trians and Germans, was to co-operate with 
a Bulgarian Army of 300,000, now secretly 
preparing for war. 

Opposing this army of 600,000, the Ser- 
bians at most could put 300,000 soldiers into 



Austro-German-Buljiarian Forces, 600,000 

Gen. Mackensen, Commander 
Austrian Army Gen. Koevess 
German Army Gen. Gallwitz 
Bulgarian Army Gen. Boyadjieff 
Gen. Teodoroff 



the field. Their hopes lay in the promised 
support of an Allied Army, 150,000 strong, 
under the command of General Sarrail, which 
was assembling at Salonika. 

Treachery of Bulgaria and Greece 

KING Ferdinand of Bulgaria, a German 
carpet-bag prince, who had gained the throne 
a few years before, was secretly pledged to 
assist the Teutonic Allies. The sympathies 
of the Bulgarian people, however, were 
wholly with Russia and against the Teutonic 
Allies. 



186 



Germany's Crime Against Humanity 



The sympathies of the Greek nation also 
were with the Allies. Indeed, Greece was 
bound by treaty to assist Serbia if she was 
attacked by Bulgaria. But the influence of 
King Constantine's wife, a sister of Emperor 
William of Germany, had been exerted 
against Russia and Serbia. 

Foreseeing the treachery of Bulgaria, 
Premier Venizelos of Greece had requested 
the Allies to send an army of 150,000 troops 
to Salonika in aid of Serbia if attacked. 
France and England consenting, the mobili- 
zation of an army was begun on Septem- 
ber 24th. 

King Constantine's German wife then per- 
suaded the King to compel Premier Venize- 
los' resignation and appoint a cat's-paw, M. 
Zaimis, in his place. This was done. 
Zaimis' first act was to renounce the treaty 
with Serbia and declare for a policy of 
"armed neutrality." 

The Greek Chamber of Deputies at once 
passed a vote of confidence in the Venizelos 
Government, but this did not deter either the 
King or Premier Zaimis from carrying out 
their nefarious plot. Together, they con- 
spired to prevent the Allied troops landing 
at Salonika and even encouraged the Turks 
to make war upon their former Balkan 
Allies. 

Their treachery culminated in a proposal 
to intern the whole Allied Army, but Lord 
Kitchener warned King Constantine that his 
dethronement would follow such an act and 
Constantine very wisely desisted. The 
Greek King contented himself with throwing 
every possible obstacle in the way of the 
Allies and in giving the unspeakable Turks 
a free hand in attacking Serbia. 

Allies Refuse Serbia Permission To 
Attack Bulgaria 

WHILE Bulgaria was falsely assuring the 
Allies that she had no intention of entering 
the War, Serbia knew that the Bulgarians 
had mobilized an army of 300,000, prepared 
at a moment's notice to attack Serbia in the 
rear. 

The strategical position of Serbia was one 
of extreme danger. The main line of railroad 
from upper Serbia to Salonika, upon which 
the nation depended for food and military 



supplies and the transportation of its armies, 
passes within a few miles of the Western 
Bulgarian border. If this line were cut, 
the Serbian Army would be trapped between 
the Austro-German armies on the north and 
west, and the Bulgarian Army on the east. 
Her communications with the Allied Army 
at Salonika would be destroyed and her nat- 
ural path of retreat closed. 

While Gen. Mackensen was personally or- 
ganizing his offensive against Serbia, his 
name still appeared in the German official 
dispatches as being actually engaged on the 
Russian front. Thus did Germany hood- 
wink the Allied military strategists as to 
her. intentions, even as Bulgaria was deceiv- 
ing their credulous diplomats. 

On October 3d, Russia awoke to the truth 
and served an ultimatum on Bulgaria, giving 
King Ferdinand 24 hours in which to break 
with Germany, but Ferdinand did not com- 
ply with this demand. 

Disposition of the Armies 

GEN. MACKENSEN'S Austro-German Army, 
composed of 300,000 veterans, was rapidly 
concentrating in two divisions. The left 
wing, under Gen. von Gallwitz, occupied a 
front along the Danube from the Roumanian 
border to Semendria. The right wing, com- 
manded by Gen. Koevess, extended past Bel- 
grade, along the Save River nearly as far as 
the Drina. The rest of the frontier, along 
the Drina River, was occupied by a smaller 
Austrian Army. Mackensen had upward of 
2,000 cannon to aid him in smashing the 
Serbian line. 

The Serbians could only muster a force 
of 200,000 men against the Austro-German 
Army on the Northern and Western fron- 
tiers. This army, in four divisions, was 
commanded by Generals Mishitch, Zirko- 
vitch, Jourishitch and Goykovitch. To pro- 
tect their Eastern frontier, they relied upon 
an army of 100,000 in command of Gen. 
Stepanovitch to oppose the Bulgarian force 
of 300,000. 

Bombardment of Belgrade Begins 

THE battle began on September 19th, when 
2,000 huge guns fired their shells across the 
Danube River at the Serbian defences, the 



Second Year of the War 1915 



187 



bombardment of Belgrade being especially 
intense. 

Under cover of this fire, the Austrians 
attempted to cross the Danube and Save 
Rivers at several points, but without success. 

At Semendria, an entire Austrian battalion 
was annihilated. With the firing of the first 
shell on the Northern front, the Bulgarian 
Army was advanced to the frontier, prepared 
to take part in the battle, although up to 
the last minute King Ferdinand had given 
England assurance that he would not assault 
Serbia. 

A steady hail of shells fell daily upon the 
forts of Belgrade and the entire Serbian 
line. The big naval guns in the capital, sup- 
plied by the Allies and served by expert gun- 
ners under command of Rear Admiral Trou- 
bridge, in reply, swept the Austro-German 
lines. Two enemy gunboats were sunk. 

Fire Bombs Hurled Into Belgrade 

FAILING to reduce the Belgrade forts, the 
Germans on October 5th hurled vast quan- 
tities of inflammable bombs into the city 
itself, with the intent to set it on fire. At 
the same time they kept up a constant bar- 
rage fire beyond the city limits to prevent 
the escape of the populace. 

Belgrade Taken by the Huns 

ON THE following day, after heavy losses, 
the Germans forced a crossing of the Dan- 
ube at four points. The river defences were 
then blown to dust by the fire of the German 
howitzers. On October 8th, Hungarian 
troops took the northern citadel by storm, 
while the German troops seized the heights 
on the west side of Belgrade. Soon the naval 
guns in Belgrade were silenced under an 
avalanche of shells, while the city was re- 
duced to a mass of charred ruins. 

Gen. Zikovitch, meanwhile, had withdrawn 
the greater part of the garrison to the for- 
tified positions south of the capital and the 
Germans occupied the ruins of Belgrade, 
taking 600 wounded prisoners and a number 
of guns. The Serbian Government, mean- 
while, had been established at Nish. 

The Teutonic troops poured across the 
Danube and Save Rivers, taking many small 
villages and forts along the river fronts, 



but being unable to advance far into the 
interior. 

At Zabre, on the Save River, October 10th, 
the Austrians deluged the Serbian trenches 
with asphyxiating bombs, and then charged 
in solid formation. The Serbians, protected 
by gas masks, met the charge with bayonets, 
driving the Austrians back in panic. On 
the Drina River, too, near Badovintse, Aus- 
trian charges were repulsed with great 
slaughter. 

Outnumbered and outgunned, the Serbians 
finally gave way before the Teutonic armies, 
and by October llth, Mackensen's forces had 
occupied the banks of the Danube and Save 
Rivers for a distance of 100 miles, from 
Grodishte to Shabatz. Along the Drina 
River, too, the Germans had gained a foot- 
hold and now Mackensen began a closing-in 
movement from three directions on the Ser- 
bian Army. 

In the East, the main objective was the 
railroad running through the Morava Valley. 
Here it was first necessary to reduce the 
forts at Semendria and Pojarevatz. After 
a two- weeks' siege, Semendria fell, October 
llth, the garrison retiring to Pojarevatz. 
Two days of furious fighting followed, the 
Germans capturing the fort at a heavy cost 
in dead and wounded. 

Bulgaria Enters the War 

BULGARIA threw off the mask of neutrality 
on October llth, declaring war against Ser- 
bia on the pretext that the Serbians had 
crossed the frontier and attacked Bulgarian 
troops. An army of 200,000 under General 
Boyadjieff, occupied a line along the frontier 
from Vidin to Zaribrod, threatening the Bel- 
grade-Sofia Railroad. A second army, 100,- 
000 strong, under Gen. Teodoroff, faced to- 
ward Macedonia, with the railroad center of 
Uskub as its chief objective. By seizing 
Uskub, they would be able to drive a wedge 
into Serbia from east to west and close the 
natural Serbian path of retreat. 

Opposing these great armies on the East- 
ern frontier, Serbia had a force of 100,000 
men. 

Allied Army Comes to the Rescue 

MEANWHILE, the vanguard of General Sar- 
i-ail's army, 70,000 strong, had landed at 



188 



Germany's Crime Against Humanity 



Salonika, and though the treacherous King 
Constantine of Greece sought to intern them, 
the troops were at last permitted to advance 
through Greece to the relief of the Serbians. 
The Greeks hampered them, however, by 
rushing their own mobilization and seizing 
most of the cars on the main railroad needed 
for their transportation. 

General Sarrail's Allied Army advanced up 
the Sardar expecting to form a junction with 
the Serbians. At Valandova, on October 
15th, an army of Bulgarians attacked them 
in force, but were repulsed with heavy losses. 
General Sarrail continued his advance to 
Kriwlak and Gradsko, but durst not go 
further until reinforcements arrived. 

Desperate Fighting in the North 

GENERAL Boyadjieff's Bulgarian Army in 
the North, meanwhile, had crossed the lower 
Timok River and advanced in two divisions 
toward the cities of Pirot and Kniashevats. 
Never was seen such savage fighting, such 
awful slaughter, as ensued during the next 
fortnight, when the Serbians and Bulgarians 
grappled with each other in those Serbian 
mountains. Whole regiments were hemmed 
in against the rocky walls and annihilated. 

In some of the combats, when guns were 
lost, the men seized boulders and hurled them 
at their opponents, or strangled their enemies 
with their grip. Quarter was neither asked 
nor given in this man-to-man combat. Num- 
bers finally prevailed, however, and the Ser- 
bians were forced to yield village after vil- 
lage, ridge after ridge, the torch being ap- 
plied to each town seized by the Bulgars. 

Bulgars Cut the Railway and Seize Uskub 

GENERAL TeodorofFs Bulgarian Army, 
moving rapidly into Macedonia, in two col- 
umns, aimed at seizing the main line of rail- 
road and preventing communicatons between 
the vanguard of General Sarrail's French 
Army and the Serbians. 

One Bulgarian column cut the railroad at 
Vranya and occupied the city on October 
17th. TeodorofFs main army, going South, 
seized Palanka, Sultan Pepe and Katshaua, 
and advanced to Veles, where on October 
20th, they again cut the railroad line, mak- 
ing any further advance of General Sarrail's 
army impossible. 



Two days later the Bulgarians drove the 
Serbians out of Uskub and into the Katsha- 
nik Pass, where the Serbs made a gallant 
stand against great odds. 

Mackensen's Offensive Begins 

THE entrance of Bulgaria into the War was 
the signal for General Mackensen to move 
his Austro-German Armies down from the 
North and encompass the Serbians. He found 
it a difficult task, despite his superiority in 
numbers and artillery. The Serbians, all 
along the line of the Danube and Save Rivers, 
had built parallel lines of strong intrench- 
ments, protected by the rock-ribbed hills 
skirting the mountains of the interior. The 
Germans, after crossing these rivers, had 
been held back by these obstacles. 

On October 15th, Mackensen launched a 
powerful offensive all along the line. General 
Koevess moved out of Belgrade and bombard- 
ed the heights to the south. Mount Avala, 
ten miles away, succumbed in three days 
and by the 21st Obrenovatz and Shabatz were 
in his control. 

Meanwhile, General Gallwitz was moving 
his army down the Morava Valley, using his 
heavy artillery against the fortified positions 
on the heights. By October 28d, his army 
had advanced to the southern bank of the 
Jesenitza and had passed Rakinatz. 

On the extreme Western front the Austri- 
ans had crossed the Drina at Vishegrad and 
the German left wing had crossed the Danube 
at Ovsova, taking the heights overlooking the 
city. All the rivers forming the frontiers of 
Serbia were now in the hands of the German 
Allies, but they paid a heavy price for the 
gains. 

The Serbian Nation in Flight 

THE Serbians, while defending themselves 
so valiantly against their foes, had been 
buoyed up by the hope that the French and 
English would come to their assistance. 
There were promises, too, that the Russians 
would launch an offensive against the Bul- 
garians. 

But as the weeks passed, and no help ar- 
rived, the Serbian peasants began to lose 
heart. At first, as their villages were occu- 
pied by the Huns, they had merely accom- 
panied the Serbian armies in their retreat, 



Second Year of the War 1915 



189 



but in late October, a general exodus of the 
peasantry southward began, the roads being 
choked with slow-moving ox-carts. 

Soon these avenues of escape were closed 
by the Bulgarians, and then nothing remain- 
ed for them to do but attempt to cross the 
forbidding mountain wilderness of Albania, 
which blocked the way to the Adriatic Sea- 
coast. These mountains were infested by 
fierce bands of Albanian brigands and tribes- 
men, to whom murder was a pastime. 

To add to the distress of the Serbians, the 
rain fell incessantly; the roads were deep in 
mud and food was scarce. The plight of 
those poor peasants, especially the women and 
children, may well be imagined. They 
dropped by thousands along those mountain 
trails, scarcely half of them reaching the 
Adriatic Seacoast. 

Huns Hurled Back at Kragujevats 

THE Austrian Army, advancing from the 
north, kept pushing before them the small 
divisions of Serbians. On October 28th, they 
found the Shamadian Division defending the 
hills north of the Kragujevats. After shell- 
ing the Serbian position, the Austrian in- 
fantry began the ascent of the heights, but 
met a wall of bayonets which they could not 
pierce. Wave after wave of Austrians ad- 
vanced and each was thrown back in confu- 
sion, leaving 3,000 prisoners behind them and 
the field covered with their slain. On the 
approach of the main Austrian Army, the 
gallant Serbians evacuated the heights, No- 
vember 1st, after destroying the arsenal and 
all the stores it contained. 

By November 2d, all Northern Serbia had 
been conquered, the railroad had been opened 
between Berlin and Constantinople and the 
armies of Austria had come in touch with 
each other. 

Farther south, in Macedonia the Bulgarian 
Army of General Teodoroff, after occupying 
Uskub, had advanced toward Katshanik 
Pass, which was held by the Serbian Army 
under General Bojovitch. Repeated assaults 
upon this pass failed to dislodge the Serbi- 
ans, who used their bayonets most effectively. 
The Serbians Forsaken 

MEANWHILE, Colonel Vassitch, with a 
small Serbian force, was holding Veles, where 



he expected to form a junction with General 
Sarrail's French Army, whose guns could be 
heard assaulting the Bulgarians some miles 
to the south. After holding back the Bulga- 
rian hordes for an entire week, Colonel Vas- 
sitch retired to the Babuna Pass, which 
marks the division of Macedonia from Upper 
Serbia. 

It was soon apparent that the Serbians 
could hope for no aid from the outside. 
General Sarrail's French troops had indeed 
penetrated north as far as Gradsko, defeat- 
ing the Bulgarians in several engagements, 
and were within sound of the Serbian guns, 
but lacking in strength, or for whatever rea- 
son, they could advance no further. General 
Sarrail's conduct of this campaign was after- 
ward made the subject of a military inquiry, 
which left him with a clouded reputation. 

Great Britain had offered Greece the 
Island of Cyprus if she would keep her 
pledge to Serbia, but to no avail. Italy had 
declared war on Bulgaria, October 20th, but 
had been unable to render any direct assist- 
ance. 

Relief Comes Too Late 

ENGLAND had been able to land only 13,- 
000 soldiers at Salonika. The French Gov- 
ernment, too, had failed to meet the emer- 
gency to the satisfaction of the nations and 
the Cabinet had been forced to resign on 
October 28th. A new French Cabinet, with 
M. Briand as Premier was then formed. 

General Joffre visited England to insist 
that energetic measures be taken for the 
relief of Serbia. In a few days, as a result 
of his mission, large forces were sent to 
Salonika, but they arrived too late to render 
effectual assistance. The Greeks, were now 
openly aiding the Austrians by obstacles in 
the path of the Allies. 

Capture of Nish by Bulgarians 

MEANWHILE, the German steam roller was 
advancing steadily toward Nish. The Ser- 
bians were expelled from their headquar- 
ters at Kralievo on November 5th, and two 
days later Krushevatz surrendered with 
nearly 5,000 prisoners. The Heights of 
Lugotzni were taken by storm and on the 
next day, the German forces united at 
Kirwin, while the forces of General Boy- 



190 



Germany's Crime Against Humanity 



adjieff were advancing on Nish from the 
south. The whole Serbian Army was being 
enveloped. 

Battle of Babuna Pass 

THE Serbians in Macedonia were still hold- 
ing tenaciously to the Babuna and Katshanik 
Passes, their only remaining avenues of re- 
treat. The Babuna Pass was defended by 
Col. Vassitch with a force of only 5,000 men. 

Here, within 10 miles of the French Army, 
was fought one of the most desperate bat- 
tles of the Balkan War. Twenty thousand 
Bulgarians with heavy artillery, hurled 
themselves daily against the Pass during the 
first week in November, but were driven back 
at the point of the bayonet. 

Serbians Again Forsaken 

GENERAL SARRAIL, meanwhile, found him- 
self unable to pierce the Bulgarian line and 
join the Serbs at Babuna Pass. To reach 
them he must first cross the Tserna River 
and take the strongly fortified Mount of the 
Archangel, which the Bulgarians held in su- 
perior numbers. Crossing the Tserna, Sar- 
rail's Army, now reinforced, began scaling 
the heights, 1,000 feet in air. Driving the 
Bulgarians out of the villages at the base' 
of the mountain, he encircled the heights, 
forcing the Bulgarians to evacuate Sirkovo 
half way up the slope. 

On November 10th, being reinforced, the 
Bulgarian Army of 60,000 assumed the of- 
fensive. Their plan was to take the French 
in the rear, cut off their retreat across the 
Tserna River and annihilate them at the base 
of the mountain. For three days the battle 
raged, but the French Army fought so val- 
orously that the Bulgarians were routed, 
leaving 4,000 dead upon the field. 

Genera] Sarrail, however, dared not resign 
his sole path of retreat across the Tserna 
River and cross the mountain to the relief 
of the Serbians who, again forsaken, with- 
drew from Babuna Pass, falling back upon 
Prilip on November 16th. Four days later, 
the Bulgarians returned to Mount Archangel 
and again attacked General Sarrail, but 
failed to oust him from his position. 

Closing In On the Serbians From Three Sides 

THE main armies of Austria, Germany and 
Bulgaria were now conducting a great con- 



verging movement, closing in upon the Ser- 
bians from three sides and sweeping them 
forward toward the awful defiles of the 
Montenegrin and Albanian Mountains, 
through which no army could possibly pass. 
With the cutting of the railroad, the Serbian 
line of supply was destroyed and they were 
woefully lacking in food and ammunition. 
Separate Peace Terms Declined by Serbians 

ON November 12th, General Mackensen 
had offered a separate peace to the Serbians, 
if they would resign all of Macedonia, and 
a strip of territory along the Bulgarian fron- 
tier, but Premier Pachitch declined the pro- 
posal, saying: "Our way is marked out. 
We will be true to the Entente and die 
honorably." 

Furious Battle for the Katshanik Pass 

HEMMED in on three sides, the retreat of 
the Serbians presented many difficulties. To 
escape by way of the mountains of Monten- 
egro and Albania, where no railroads or even 
good wagon roads existed, seemed impossi- 
ble. Yet the only alternative to a flight over 
the mountains was to cross the Greek 
frontier, where they might later join the 
Allies. 

This road was blocked by the Bulgarians, 
who had wedged themselves in between the 
Serbians and General Sarrail's forces. The 
Serbians, at all costs, resolved to break 
through the circle of steel. They must, how- 
ever, first drive the Bulgarians out of the 
Katshanik Pass before they could advance 
westward to Tetovo and thence proceed south 
to Monastir, and finally to Salonika. 

A Savage Three-Days Battle 

ON November 10th, General Bojovitch, 
with 8,000 Serbians and 100 field pieces, 
shelled the Bulgarian trenches at Katshanik 
Pass, forcing the Bulgars to retreat four 
miles. The Serbian infantry then rushed 
upon the retreating Bulgars, and as the two 
lines merged there ensued a battle that for 
savage fury never had been equalled during 
the campaign. 

Day and night, for three days, they fought 
with bayonet, rocks, hands, teeth. They 
fought oftentimes blindly, friend crushing 
the skull of friend or rending his limbs with 
teeth and claws. 



Second Year of the War 1915 



191 



Despite the odds of four to one, the Ser- 
bians almost opened a gap in the enemy 
line, but at the crucial moment the Bulgars 
were reinforced and the Serbs on November 
15th retired from the Pass, rolling back 
toward Prisrend. 

Last Stand of the Serbians at Pristina 

THE main Serbian forces, by this time, 
had been rolled back upon the great Kossove 
Plain, 40 miles long, where they were joined 
by a hundred thousand Serbian refugees. 
Here they decided to risk all upon a final 
decisive battle at Pristina, on the same bat- 
tleground that saw the defeat of the Serbian 
Czar Lazar by the Turks in 1389. 

The battle of Pristina was fought Novem- 
ber 13th amidst a ceaseless downpour of rain, 
with thunder reverberating and lightning 
flashing. It was reciprocal slaughter, not 
warfare. Whole regiments were blotted out 
in a trice. Along that battle line of 40 miles, 
quarter was neither asked nor given. 

King Peter Kneels in Prayer During Battle 

WHILE the guns were roaring their loud- 
est, the aged King Peter of Serbia knelt 
in prayer in a neighboring church, asking 
that his kingdom might be saved from de- 
struction. But it was not to be. 

The Serbians were overwhelmed by the 
numbers of their enemy and retreated to- 
ward Prisrend, leaving 50,000 dead and 50,- 
000 prisoners behind them. A final stand 
was made by 80,000 Serbians at Prisrend, 
November 27th, but they were driven from 
this position on the following day, fleeing 
across the frontier into Albania with the 
whole population in wild pursuit. 

700,000 Civilians and Soldiers in Retreat 

THE horrors of the retreat of the Serbian 
nation and the remnant of the Serbian Army 
through the snow-clad mountains of Alba- 
nia are beyond description. A fierce north- 
erly gale swept the mountains as the refu- 
gees, numbering 700,000, staggered through 
the defiles. Ill-clad and often barefoot, so 
famished that they fed upon flesh of dead 
horses by the wayside, they plunged thro'ugh 
drifts of snow up to their knees some west- 
ward to Scutari, others southward to Greece. 

Thousands of mothers, hugging babies to 



their breasts, sank in the snow or sought 
shelter behind rocks, there to perish miser- 
ably in the fury of the gale. 

The whole route, from Prisrend to Mon- 
astir, 90 miles away, was lined with human 
corpses and the carcasses of horses and 
mules dead of starvation. 

Finally the tattered, half starved ranks of 
the refugees managed to reach their destina- 
tions, some at Monastir, others along the 
Albanian Seacoast, whence they were trans- 
ferred in Italian ships to the Island of Corfu. 
Here King Peter set up a new Serbian Gov- 
ernment. 

Greek King Angers the Allies 

THE destruction of the Serbian Army left 
the French forces of General Sarrail at Mt. 
Archangel in a position of much peril. A 
small force of British troops had deployed 
on the French right wing late in November, 
holding the mountain chain that forms a nat- 
ural boundary between Greek and Bulgarian 
territory. On November 27th, General Sar- 
rail decided upon a general withdrawal of 
the Allied Army into Greece, with Salonika 
as a base. 

King Constantine of Greece at once ob- 
jected and even proposed the internment of 
the Allied Army. More menacing still, he 
planted 200,000 Greek soldiers between Sa- 
lonika and the line of retreat of General 
Sarrail. This act of treachery aroused both 
France and England. They demanded as- 
surances from Greece that the Allied Army 
should not be molested, yet the King was so 
reluctant to yield the point, that it was not 
until after they had laid a partial embargo 
on the Greek ports and the city of Athens 
had been menaced with starvation that King 
Constantine finally agreed to play fair. 

Bulgarians Attack the British and French 

THE British, on the right wing of the 
French Army, occupied a double line of 
trenches among the - snow-clad hills north 
and west of Doiran. A Bulgarian Army, 
100,000 strong, under General Teodoroff, at- 
tempted to force these trenches at two points 
on December 5th, but was sent reeling back 
at the point of the bayonet. 

A second attempt was more successful, the 
Bulgarians gaining the first line of trenches, 



192 



Germany's Crime Against Humanity 



but failing to expel the British from the 
second line. 

On the following day, their movements 
masked by dense mists, the Bulgarians show- 
ered the British trenches with high explo- 
sive shells. Then, advancing in mass for- 
mation, they drove the British back to Var- 
dar, where they were able to unite with the 
French. 

French Retire to Grodetz 

MEANWHILE, General Sarrail had stolen a 
march on the Bulgarians. Early in Decem- 
ber, he had withdrawn his entire army with 
all his stores from the Tserna River, and 
entrained at Krivolak. After destroying the 
bridges and railroad tracks at this point, he 
continued his retreat toward the Greek bor- 
der. A large Bulgarian Army overtook him 
at the Demi Kapu Gorge, but he conducted 
his retreat so skillfully that his army reached 
Grodetz intact. Here heavy intrenchments 
were thrown up. 

The Bulgarians now attempted to drive a 
wedge in between the French and British 
armies, but SarraiPs strategy defeated this 



purpose, and by December llth, the Allied 
Armies were back on the Greek frontier. 
As they retired, the Allies destroyed the rail- 
roads and set fire to Gevgheli and other 
towns along the way. During the entire 
retreat the Allies lost only 3,500 men. The 
Bulgarians, fearing the Greeks, did not 
carry the pursuit any farther, and General 
Sarrail's army was soon back in Salonika. 

Round Up of German Consuls 

ON December 30th, a fleet of German aero- 
planes dropped bombs on Salonika, doing 
much damage. In retaliation, a squad of 
French soldiers visited the German, Aus- 
trian, Bulgarian, and Turkish consulates, ar- 
resting all the consuls and sending them to 
Marseilles, France, whence they were taken 
to Switzerland. 

Later, the Teutonic consuls at Mitylene 
were arrested and sent out of the country. 
The Island of Corfu was seized and utilized 
as a sanitarium for Serbian refugees, and 
the Island of Castellorize was occupied as 
a base for operations against the Turks. 



........................ EASTERN FRONT, OCT. 13 -">"* 

Execution of Edith Cavell by the Germans Shocks the World 



Her Trial a Travesty of Justice ; Her Death a Brutal Murder 

SECTION 17-1915 ................................................... 



....................... 



HP 



'HE martyrdom of Edith Cavell, a gen- 
tle English nurse, who was brutally 
put to death by her German jailers, 
in Brussels, on October 13, 1915, excited the 
pity while drawing down upon Germany's 
head the condemnation of the whole world. 

Miss Cavell was directress of a large nurs- 
ing home at Brussels, Belgium. On August 
5th, she was arrested by the German author- 
ities and secretly confined in the prison of St. 
Giles, charged with aiding British and 
French stragglers to escape across the Dutch 
frontier, and with supplying them with 
money, food and clothing. 

Brand Whitlock, the American Ambassa- 
dor to Belgium, who had been intrusted with 
the protection of British interests in the 
occupied portions of Belgium was left un- 
informed of Miss Cavell's arrest for several 



days. When finally apprised of the fact of 
her arrest, Ambassador Whitlock requested 
authorization for the legal counsellor of the 
American Legation, M. Gaston de Leval, to 
visit Miss Cavell and arrange for her de- 
fense. Ambassador Whitlock's request was 
ignored for weeks, but on September 10th, 
he urged Baron von der Lancken, chief of 
the German political department, to take 
immediate steps to insure for Miss Cavell an 
impartial trial. 

Von der Lancken brutally refused, "as a 
matter of principle,"' to allow M. Gaston de 
Leval to interview Miss Cavell, saying that 
her defense was in the hands of the German 
advocate Braun, "who, I may add, is already 
in touch with the competent German author- 
ities." He further declared that Miss Cavell 
herself admitted that she had concealed in 



Second Year of the War 1915 



193 



her house several French and English sol- 
diers, as well as Belgiums of military age, 
furnished them with the necessary money 
for their journey to France, and provided 
them with guides who enabled them secretly 
to cross the Dutch frontier. 

Maitre de Leval repeatedly asked permis- 
sion to visit Miss Cavell in prison, but was 
told that attorneys engaged in defending 
prisoners before German military courts, 
were never allowed to consult with their 
clients before the trial and were not entitled 
to examine any of the evidence in the Gov- 
ernment's possession. He was even cau- 
tioned against attending the trial of Miss 
Cavell lest the German judges should resent 
the presence in court of a representative of 
the American Legation. 

The travesty of a trial was held on Thurs- 
day, October 7th, continuing through Friday. 
Not until the following Sunday, however, 
was the American Legation able to glean the 
meager facts disclosed concerning the trial. 

It was alleged that Miss Cavell frankly 
admitted that she had aided young soldiers 
to cross the frontier into Holland in order 
that they might return to England and 
France. 

It was further alleged that Miss Cavell 
acknowledged receiving letters from these 
soldiers, thanking her for the assistance ren- 
dered them. 

By a strained interpretation of the Ger- 
man military law, Miss Cavell was adjudged 
guilty of a "crime," and upon this technical 
foundation the public prosecutor urged that 
sentence of death be passed upon her. The 
sentence was duly passed, not in open court, 
however, but in the secrecy of her cell. 

Maitre de Leval renewed his efforts to see 
Miss Cavell; he also asked that Rev. M. 
Gahan, the English chaplain, be permitted 
to visit her. Herr Conrad, the German of- 
ficial in charge, refused M. de Leval permis- 
sion to see Miss Cavell until such time as 
the judgment of the military court should 



have been pronounced and signed. He also 
refused the request that an English chap- 
lain be allowed to visit the prisoner, saying 
that Miss Cavell should have the ministra- 
tions of a German Lutheran chaplain. He 
promised, however, to notify the Legation 
immediately upon the confirmation of the 
sentence, in order that the necessary steps 
might be taken to secure the pardon for Miss 
Cavell. This assurance was renewed during 
the day. 

The American Legation drew up a peti- 
tion for clemency, addressed to the Governor- 
General, von der Goltz, and a covering note 
addressed to Baron von der Lancken. In 
this note, the Governor's attention was called 
to the fact that of the many persons arrested 
for aiding soldiers to cross the Dutch fron- 
tier, none had suffered the death penalty. 

Accompanied by the Spanish Minister (the 
Marquis de Villalobar), Secretary Gibson 
of the American Embassy that evening 
searched for Baron von der Lancken, finding 
him at length with some of his cronies at a 
disreputable theater. They presented the 
note urging clemency. Von Lancken refused 
to lay the petition before the Emperor. 
Moreover, he declared that the Military Gov- 
ernor of Brussels had ratified the sentence 
of death "and not even the Emperor could 
intervene." 

That night Rev. M. Gahan was admitted 
to Miss Cavell's cell, offering her the last 
consolations of her faith. Early on the 
morning of October 13th, the brave nurse 
was shot in the prison courtyard. The Ger- 
man minister who attended her, and gave 
her burial, declared that she was courageous 
to the end ; she professed the Christian faith, 
and said she was glad to die for her country. 

It may not be amiss to add that, in 1918, 
evidence was forthcoming that Miss Cavell 
had been betrayed into the hands of the Ger- 
mans by a renegade Frenchman. After the 
Armistice, this wretch was convicted as a 
traitor to France and put to death. 



194 



Germany's Crime Against Humanity 



WESTERN THEATER, SEPT. 2O- DEC. 25 



Titanic Battles Fought in Artois and Champagne 

400,000 Men Fall in the Attempt to Reduce the German Salient at Noyon 

SECTION 18 1915 o-.... ........................... 



Allied Forces, 1,500,000 

Gen. Foch, Group Commander 

French Armies 

Gen. Petain 
Gen. de Castelnau 
Gen. Marchand 
Gen. Dubois 
Gen. Baratier 
Gen. D'Urbal 
Gen. D'Esperey 

British Armies 

Gen. Sir John French 
Gen. Sir Douglas Haig 
Gen. Hubert Gough 
Gen. Henry Rawlinson 
Gen. Herbert Plumer 

French Woman's Battalion 

Louise Armand, Commander 

THE autumn of 1915 witnessed a truly 
titanic battle on the Western battle 
front, with 3,000,000 combatants en- 
gaged in mutual massacre along the salient 
extending from Artois to Champagne. 

At this time, the apex of the German 
salient, at Noyon, extended dangerously close 
to Paris. Therein lay its weakness, for if 
the German front could be pierced above and 
below Noyon, the compulsory withdrawal of 
the German forces to the Belgian frontier 
would follow. The situation was almost 
identical with that on the Eastern front, 
where the bulge of the Warsaw salient gave 
Hindenberg his opportunity to strike from 
the north and south and compel a general 
Russian retreat out of Poland. 

Aiming to destroy the German salient at 
Noyon, General Foch had assembled two 
groups of Allied Armies, one on a front 
opposite Lens in Artois, the other on a front 
opposite Vouzieres in Champagne. The 
Artois sector was held by a joint British and 
French Army directed by General Sir John 
French; the Champagne sector extending 
from Rheims to Verdun, was occupied by a 
French Army under General Petain, one of 
the ablest commanders developed by the War. 
At the beginning of the great battle, in mid- 
September, the opposing forces were about 
equal, 1,500,000 each. 



German Forces, 1,500,000 

Crown Prince Rupprecht, Commander 

Gen. von Buelow 

Gen. von Einem 

Gen. von Fabeck 

Gen. Falkenhousen 

Gen. Strautz 

Gen. Gaede 

Gen. Ditfurth 

Gen. von Fleck 

Crown Prince Frederick 



The Elaborate Preparations 

ELABORATE preparations had been made 
for this supreme assault. In the Champagne 
sector, a network of railroads had been con- 
structed by the French, and great engineer- 
ing bases established, to facilitate the work 
of bombardment. The artillery preparations 
were made on a gigantic scale, mountains of 
ammunition having arisen behind the Allied 
lines. 

The Anglo-French forces in Artois had 
been divided into two armies, one personally 
directed by General Foch, the other by Gen- 
eral Sir John French and Gen. Sir Douglas 
Haig. The commander-in-chief of the en- 
tire front was General Joffre, the hero of 
the Marne. 

The Germans, too, had made extensive 
preparations for defensive warfare. Their 
parallel line of trenches, from the Belgian 
Coast to Switzerland, a distance of 400 
miles, had been converted into a a continuous 
fortress, cement lined and interspersed with 
deep dugouts or caves, "as commodious and 
comfortable as a ball room." In heavy artil- 
lery and in machine guns, they held a supe- 
riority over the Allies. 

In general, the Allied strategy embraced 
the following plans. The main attack was 
to be made in Champagne by the French 



Second Year of the War-1915 



195 



group of armies under General Petain. To 
the north, between Lens and La Bassee, in 
Artois, where the French and British Armies 
joined, a joint attack was to be launched. 
Further north, on a front of eighty miles, 
the British alone were to conduct a series 
of secondary assaults. 

Terrific Bombardment by the French 

THE battle in Champagne was ushered in, 
September 21st, with the most thunderous 
roar of artillery that ever assailed the ears 
of man. Perhaps never before or since has 
earth heard such an uproar. Beginning in 
a raging bombardment, it became a mad 
drumming, furious beyond all power of 
imagination. 

Day and night, for five days, the French 
guns vomited destruction against the Ger- 
man line. Strongly built trenches were 
crushed in like ant hills, burying the Ger- 



mans by thousands in their dugouts; the 
German wire entanglements were swept 
away, the embrasures smashed and many 
alleys of communication between the German 
trenches choked up. 

The long-range-guns demolished the per- 
manent way, stopping all movements of sup- 
plies and reinforcements. During those five 
days, the Germans lived in an inferno, 
choked for want of air, half starved for lack 
of food, dazed and distracted by the violence 
of the assault. In the shelled trenches the 
Huns fell by thousands. To add to the hor- 
ror of the bombardment, a mist of smoke 
overhung the battlefield, obscuring the gen- 
eral view. 

The shells burst so close together that ths 
puffs of smoke along the heights were merged 
in a single cloud. It was like looking at a 
multitude of geysers in full ebullition. 



Great French Victory in Champagne 



French Army, 200,000 
Gen. Petain 

THE infantry attack along the 20 miles of 
Champagne front had been timed for 9.15 
a. m., September 25th. At the indicated 
moment, the French troops climbed out of 
their trenches and, at double quick, broke in 
a first immense wave against the German 
trenches, 660 feet away, an African cavalry 
brigade under General Baratier participat- 
ing. 

No sooner did one wave of infantry sweep 
forward than another surged up behind it, 
flowing impetuously in the same direction. 
The French advance submerged the entire 
first line of German trenches, advancing past 
the batteries to the heights south of Py. 
Foremost in the rush were the daredevil 
African Corps and the Moroccan troops, led 
by the brave General Marchand, who fell 
mortally wounded at the moment of victory. 

The Germans, taken by surprise, had 
shown but little resistance at the onset. 
Now they brought their machine guns into 
play and opposed every step of the French 
advance. The two French wings were sub- 
jected to a converging gun-fire, followed by 
counter attacks on their flanks, which served 
to check their progress. 



German Army, 215,000 

General von Ditmurth 

The center columns, however, steadily ad- 
vanced, day by day, fighting every inch of 
the way. By Sept. 27th, these columns had 
advanced one to two miles, taking 3,000 pris- 
oners and 44 cannon, and part of the advance 
had almost reached the second line of Ger- 
man trenches. 

Many German batteries were captured, 
whose artillerists were found chained to 
their guns. 

The heights north of Massiges, which the 
Germans deemed impregnable, were scaled 
in fifteen minutes, the Germans surrender- 
ing in masses. The advance along the crest 
of this ridge was made with difficulty in the 
face of a withering machine-gun-fire. 

The French were compelled literally to 
blast their way through with hand grenades, 
which were passed along from hand to hand 
in an ever-lengthening chain of grenade 
bearers, much as buckets of water were 
passed from hand to hand in the old fire- 
fighting days. 

For eight days, from September 25th to 
October 3d, the battle of Massiges Heights 
continued without respite and with unexam- 
pled fury, but inch by inch the Germans 



196 



Germany's Crime Against Humanity 



finally were compelled to yield the ground. 
Possession of these heights enabled the 
French to extend their lines and take by a 
flank movement the sections of first line 
trenches which they had failed to capture 
by a frontal attack. 

Germans Lose 165,000 in the Battle 

IN 12 days the French penetrated the 
German lines to an average depth of two 
miles on a 15-mile front, taking 25,000 pris- 
oners, 150 guns and a vast quantity of booty. 
More than 140,000 Germans had fallen dead 
or wounded, while the French losses were 
upward of 100,000. 



On October 7th, a fresh German Army of 
93 battalions, numbering 100,000 men, was 
recalled from the Russian front to Cham- 
pagne; and began a counter offensive. They 
failed, however, to regain their lost terri- 
tory or to drive back the French. By the 
middle of October the Champagne Battle had 
ended in a stalemate. 

The tactics of the French commanders 
had an immediate strategical result of the 
first importance, for by compelling the Ger- 
mans to draw their Eastern Armies to sup- 
port the Champagne offensive, they aided the 
Russians in stopping the German drive in 
the East. 



British Lose 60,000 Men in Battle of Loos 



British Army, 250,000 

Gen. Sir John French 
Gen. Sir Douglas Haig 
Gen. Sir Henry Rawlinson 
Gen. Sir Hubert Gough 
Gen. Sir Smith-Dorrien 

THE simultaneous attack on Loos by the 
British troops under Sir John French and 
Gen. Douglas Haig opened brilliantly on 
September 25th. Preceding the assault, for 
five days, the British guns roared savagely 
all along the 80-mile front from the Belgian 
Coast to Artois. 

As in Champagne, the German parapets 
melted away, trenches were obliterated, the 
very air seemed choked with the infernal 
din. During the bombardment, squadrons 
of British aeroplanes flew over the battle- 
field, some signalling the range to the gun- 
ners, others dropping shells on railway trains 
and bridges. Thousands of gas bombs were 
dropped upon the German trenches at Loos, 
giving the Huns a dose of their own infernal 
medicine. 

Behind this poison cloud, the British in- 
fantry uprose, wearing gas masks. Advanc- 
ing in four columns, they stormed the Ger- 
man line but were stopped short by an 
avalanche of bullets. Three successive as- 
saults by one British division of 10,000 men 
broke under the German resistance. A 
fourth advance carried the Britishers over 
the German trenches, and two miles beyond. 
The First British Army seized the famous 
Hohenzollern Redoutft, captured the German 



German Army, 250,000 

Crown Prince Rupprecht of Bavaria 



guns and crossed the highway at several 
places. 

The Second British Army was equally suc- 
cessful in its early movements. A Scottish 
division, after capturing the village of Loos, 
occapied the slopes of Hill 70, and even pen- 
etrated into the last German trench-line near 
Cite St. Auguste. Unfortunately, the Brit- 
ish Reserves failed to support the advance 
and the brave Scots were left isolated be- 
yond the German line. 

The Germans, strongly reinforced, re- 
turned to the fray. Before nightfall they 
had driven back the Scottish troops, retaken 
Hill 70, restored their line and begun a coun- 
ter-offensive. 

Sir John French, appealed for aid to Gen- 
eral Foch, and two brigades were sent to 
his assistance. But the Germans now were 
so solidly placed they could not be dislodged 
and the British assault, which had promised 
so much at the start, ended in failure. 

General French is Superseded 

THOUGH the British took 3,000 prisoners 
and 25 guns in this engagement, yet they 
lost 60,000 men, and all they had to show 
for this appalling loss was a dubious advance 
of two miles along a four-mile front. The 



Second Year of the War 1915 



197 



battle of Loos, therefore, must be regarded 
as a British disaster. 

In consequence of this and other failures, 
a complete reorganization of the British mil- 
itary forces took place. General Sir John 
French was supplanted as commander-in- 
chief of the British forces by General Sir 
Douglas Haig, and Sir William Robertson 
was appointed chief of staff. 

"The Joan of Arc of Loos'* 

IN THE shell-swept town of Loos, when the 
British took possession on September 25th, 
lived a 17-years-old girl, Emiliene Moreau 
by name, who was studying to be a school 
teacher. During the bombardment, while 
the shells were exploding round about her 
and the French poilus were falling by thou- 
sands, Emiliene had converted her cottage 
into a first aid station and, unassisted, minis- 
tered to the wounded. Two German snipers, 
through loopholes in a nearby house, sud- 
denly began firing upon her improvised hos- 
pital, whereupon the brave girl armed her- 



self with a revolver, boldly entered the house 
and killed them. Later in the day, two other 
German soldiers charged toward her with 
fixed bayonets. They, too, were sent to Wal- 
halla by the bullet route. 

While going her rounds of mercy the next 
day, three more -Huns endeavored to pierce 
Emiliene with their bayonets. With hand 
grenades given her by a British grenadier, 
Emiliene blew the Huns into fragments. 

On the eventful day, when the British line 
was wavering under what has been described 
as "the most terrible cyclone of shells ever 
let loose upon earth," Emiliene appeared at 
the front, waving the French tri-colour and 
singing the "Marseillaise." 

Inspired by her brave example, the Brit- 
ish line stiffened and a retreat that might 
have endangered the whole front was avert- 
ed. For these glorious acts of heroism, 
Emiliene was cited in the French Official 
Journal, and Sir Douglas Haig christened 
her "The Joan of Arc of Loos." 



French Victory in Artois 



Franco-English Army, 300,000 
Gen Ferdinand Foch 
General Sir John French 

IN concurrence with the French advance 
in Champagne and the British thrust at Loos 
on September 25th, General Foch launched 
an offensive in Artois. This offensive also 
had been preceded by an earth-rocking bom- 
bardment lasting five days, which practically 
obliterated the first two lines of German 
trenches. Before the bombardment ceased, 
thousands of German deserters came into the 
French line, glad to escape from the inferno 
of shell fire. The French storm troops found 
the ruined German trenches deserted, and 
the army in retreat through a woods. 

The main objective of the French was 
Lens, an important coal town. But first they 
must gain Vimy Ridge, commanding the 
town, which was held by the Germans. In 
two days, without much resistance, the 
French crept up the western slope of Vimy 
Ridge, but the Germans on the eastern slope 
prevented their gaining the top. 

The Germans, by using a liquid fire com- 
posed of petrol and tar, sought to smoke the 



German Army, 300,000 
Crown Prince Rupprecht 



French off the slope. A bayonet charge fol- 
lowed. Amidst suffocating fumes, which so 
clouded the atmosphere that friend could 
scarcely be distinguished from foe, like den- 
izens of the infernal region, a half million 
soldiers fought for possession of the ridge. 

Day after day the struggle continued, the 
advantage passing now to one side then to 
the other. The French lines had been weak- 
ened by the withdrawal of two divisions 
which had been sent to the relief of the Brit- 
ish at Loos. Were it not for this, there can 
be no doubt that the Germans would have 
been expelled from Vimy Ridge. 

The battle finally resulted in a stalemate, 
after each side had lost 100,000 men. The 
French, however, took 25,000 prisoners and 
large stores of munitions. They are justified, 
therefore, in claiming a victory. It is esti- 
mated that 400,000 men fell in this titanic 
campaign fought in the Champagne and 
Artois, 



198 



Germany's Crime Against Humanity 



EASTERN THEATER -DEC. 21 ..-----..............,.,.... 



British Army Beleaguered in Kut>El-Amara 

Fighting Overhelming Forces in Mesopotamia Site of "the Garden of Eden" 

i .... i..iMi. """"""** SECTION 19 1915 ...................., 



British Mesopotamian Army, 20,000 

Lieut.-Gen. J. E. Nixon, Commander-in-Chief 

Gen. C. V. F. Townshend 

Gen. Del amain 

Gen. Houghton 

Gen. Sir Arthur Barrett 

BRITISH prestige in the East, especially 
among the Turks and Arabs, had been 
sensibly diminished through the failure 
of the Dardanelles campaign. Desiring to 
restore this prestige, an English Army em- 
barked upon the ill-fated expedition to Bag- 
dad in 1915. 

There were, however, other actuating rea- 
sons for their expedition to Bagdad. In a very 
real sense, Mesopotamia has been regarded as 
the gateway to India, and the vestibule of 
three continents. It was felt that the cap- 
ture of Bagdad would alike insure the safety 
of India, thwart the German ambitions in 
Persia, and at the same time exert a tremen- 
dous political effect upon Turks, Moslems and 
Arabs alike in Arabia, Persia, Syria and 
Egypt. 

Back in November, 1914, a British force 
under Gen. Sir Arthur Barrett, already had 
entered on one stage of the campaign. Land- 
ing at Fao, at the head of the Persian Gulf, 
the British easily dispersed the Turks. The 
cities of Kurna and Basra, controlling the im- 
mense oil fields, very soon were in British 
possession, and the Persian Gulf was closed 
to Turkish and German invasion. "On to 
Bagdad" was now the British battle cry. 

Opening Clashes in "The Garden of Eden" 

THE supposed site of the Garden of Eden, 
in Mesopotamia, now became a theater of 
warfare. On March 3d, a reconnoitering 
force of 1,000 British met a Turkish Army, 
12,000 strong, at Ghadir. The Turks in 
force endeavored to flank the British column, 
but the Britishers, retreating, managed to 
make their way back to -Ahwaz, where a 
garrison was stationed to defend the Anglo- 
Persian Oil Company's pipeline. On the same 



Turkish Army, 40,000 

Marshal von der Goltz 

Nuredin Pasha 

German officers unidentified 



day, 1,500 mounted Turks attacked a small 
squadron of British artillery northwest of 
Basra. The British lured them on to a po- 
sition where they could be raked by the fire 
from concealed machine guns and artillery. 
The Turks fled in disorder, leaving many 
dead, while the British lost four officers. 

Turkish Guns Bombard Kurna 

EARLY in April, 30,000 British troops had 
been dispatched from India, under command 
of Lieut.-Gen. Sir J. E. Nixon, and the entire 
British forces were placed at three points 
Kurna, Ahwas, and Shaiba. An army of 
Turks, 40,000 strong, led by German officers, 
attacked these positions on April llth. 

For two days the Turks bombarded Kurna, 
but besides battering the bridge across the 
Tigris River, the shell-fire had little effect. 
The British gunboat Odin, and the fire of the 
shore batteries, succeeded in dispersing the 
Turkish boats on the river. At Ahwas, 
large bodies of Turkish cavalry appeared but 
did not attack. 

Turks Flee from a Mirage at Shaiba 

ON April 12th, a three days' battle opened 
at Shaiba with an attack by a motley army 
of 22,000 Turks, Kurds and Arabs command- 
ed by German officers. During the thick of 
the fighting, and when success was well with- 
in their grasp, the Turkish forces suddenly 
ceased firing and fled in wild panic from the 
field. 

A Turkish prisoner subsequently explained 
the cause of the Turkish withdrawal. It 
appears that a pack train, approaching the 
British line from the rear, had been so dis- 
torted by a mirage that it appeared to the 
Turks as a great body of reinforcements. 
Believing themselves to be fighting against 



Second Year of the War 1915 



199 



enormous odds, they had yielded up a victory 
almost won. 

British Rout the Turks at Basra 

ON the 14th, the British assumed the of- 
fensive, moving towards Basra, four miles 
distant, where a Turkish Army, 12,000 
strong, were well intrenched in a tamarisk 
wood. From this retreat, the Turks shelled 
the advancing British Army with six big 
field guns. When near the Turkish line, the 
British united in a grand charge, sweeping 
over the enemy trenches and expelling the 
Turks at the point of the bayonet. This 
victory cost the British 700 men, including 
17 officers. 

Fleeing toward Nakailah, with the British 
in close pursuit, the Turks endeavored to 
escape by boats up the Tigris River. They 
were overtaken, however, and twelve boat- 
loads of fugitives were captured. In all, the 
Turks lost 2,500 men, 700 of whom were 
made prisoners. Three days later the Brit- 
ish entered Nakailah. 

Still pursuing the Turks during the month 
of May, the British drove them off Persian 
soil to a refuge at Amara. 

Gen. Gorringe, the British commander, 
also rounded up certain Arab bands that had 
assisted the Turks, destroying their prop- 
erty and seizing their strongholds. 



Turks Again in Flight from Kurna 

NORTH of Kurna, the Turks were becom- 
ing troublesome. On May 31st, a British 
expedition launched a surprise attack upon 
the enemy by boat, compelling them to flee, 
and taking many prisoners and guns. So 
precipitate was the flight of the Turks that 
they left all their tents standing. Most of 
the refugees escaped by boat. They were 
pursued by a British naval flotilla, which 
sank the Turkish gunboat Marmaris and 
captured the transport Masul. Two light- 
ers, containing mines and military stores, 
were also captured, together with 300 
prisoners. 

Amara and Nasiriyeh Captured 

THE town of Amara surrendered to the 
British on June 3d, with 3,000 prisoners, 13 
guns, 12 steel barges, and four river steam- 
ers. Nasiriyeh, the reputed site of the Gar- 
den of Eden, was taken on July 25th, after 
bombardment, with 1,000 prisoners and 13 
guns. The Turkish casualties were 500 and 
the British 300. A month later, the British 
expelled the Turks from an intrenched posi- 
tion along the line of communication be- 
tween Bagdad and the Tigris. 



Kut-el-Amara Captured by the British 



British Army, 12,000 
Maj.-Gen. Townshend 
Gen. Frye 
Gen. Del amain 
Gen. Houghton 

FROM his base at Amara, on the Tigris 
River, Gen. Townshend planned an advance 
on Bagdad by way of Kut-el-Amara. The 
small British Army, numbering 12,000, suf- 
fered greatly from the scorching heat and 
from lack of water. The motley fleet of ves- 
sels, bearing the army, moved up the Tigris 
early in September. On the way to Kut-el- 
Amara, the alliance of the Beni Lam Arabs, 
a powerful tribe, was secured. 

The British Army came within sight of 
Kut-el-Amara on September 23d. Here the 
army of 20,000 Turks, under command of 
Nuredin Pasha, were strongly intrenched, 
on both sides of the Tigris. 



Turkish Army, 20,000 

Nuredin Pasha 
Djemal Pasha 



For six miles in either direction, the Turks 
had established a line of trenches, protected 
by large areas of barbed wire entanglements 
and supported by heavy artillery. The 
banks of the river at this point were 20 feet 
high. A strong redoubt on the right for- 
bade any flank movement in that direction. 
On the left bank, the line of defense was sep- 
arated by two miles of marsh land. The 
river, too, was blocked by lines of sunken 
boats, while across the river was stretched 
a heavy wire cable. 

A column of Britishers, under Gen. Frye, 
wormed its way by three days' effort to 
within 400 yards of the barbed wire entan- 



200 



Germany's Crime Against Humanity 



glements which enveloped the Horseshoe 
Marsh. Day and night during the advance, 
which ended September 28th, they were 
subjected to continual shell fire, but lost only 
90 men. 

Meanwhile, a second British column under 
Gen. Delamain, crossing the Tigris, had 
reached an attacking position on a neck of 
land between two marshes, where the Turks 
were intrenched on September 28th. Here 
the British concentrated their field guns. 

Gen. Delamain's column, in two divisions, 
started an enveloping movement around 
Nuredin Pasha's army, whose northern flank 
was exposed. One of these divisions, under 
Gen. Houghton, worked its way in rear of 
the Turks. Gen. Townshend then gave or- 
ders for a general battle. 



For three days the battle raged, but at 
the precise moment when the British ring 
was about to close on the Turks around the 
marshes, another Turkish division appeared 
in rear of the British, also attempting a 
flanking movement. Turning savagely on 
the new enemy, the British quickly put them 
to flight. That night, under cover of dark- 
ness, the Turkish Army evacuated Kut-el- 
Amara, rapidly retreating to Azizi, 40 miles 
away. 

From this base the German and Turkish 
engineers began to prepare near Bagdad a 
most elaborate system of trenches and forti- 
fications. The engineers also extended the 
Bagdad railway line, enabling Nuredin Pasha 
to transport an army of reinforcement out 
of Syria. 



British Win Costly Victory at Ctesiphon 



British Army, 15,000 

Gen. Townshend 



AN army of Turks, numbering 200,000 or 
more, was by this time pouring into Mesopo- 
tamia, composed of troops released from 
Egypt, Gallipoli and Transcaucasia. They 
were not, however, as yet concentrated in 
battle line. Opposing the British Army of 
15,000 Indian troops, in October there were 
probably 45,000 Turks. 

Against his better judgment, but on the 
peremptory order of his superior officer, Gen. 
Townshend had been persuaded to advance 
toward Bagdad. His little army was sup- 
ported by a flotilla of boats which sailed up 
the Tigris in early October. 

On October 23d, the British routed a Turk- 
ish force of 4,000 at Azizi. The advance 
continued. On November 21st, Gen. Towns- 
hend's army of 15,000 Anglo-Indians en- 
countered a Turkish force of 45,000, occupy- 
ing two lines of intrenchments near the ruins 
of the famous palace of Ctesiphon, only 18 
miles from Bagdad. The Turks were se- 
curely intrenched on both banks of the Tigris. 
Their trenches, laid on level ground, were 
deep and narrow, affording a poor target for 
the British gunners. The Turkish position 
was further strengthened by fences of 
barbed wire. 



Turkish Army, 45,000 

Nuredin Pasha 
Marshal von der Goltz 

Gen. Townshend's small army gave battle 
to Nuredin Pasha's army of 45,000 Turks on 
the morning of November 22d. The British 
gunners opened with a roaring artillery fire, 
which failed to find the Turkish trenches. 

Under cover of this bombardment, the 
whole British line advanced on a wide front. 
The Turks made no sign until the British 
had advanced to within a mile of the barbed 
wire barriers; then a perfect shower of 
shrapnel fell upon the advancing Britishers. 
Without wavering, the British front ad- 
vanced across the open ground, then pausing 
under a murderous rifle fire while a detail 
of men went forward to cut the barbed wire, 
finally charging the Turkish trenches gal- 
lantly. 

Meanwhile, the British wings had turned 
both flanks of the Turkish line, compelling 
the enemy to retreat a mile or more to the 
rear. By mid-afternoon the entire body of 
Turks had been expelled from their first- 
line trenches, and when night fell, the Brit- 
ish were also in possession of a part of the 
second-line trenches. 

In the desperate charges and counter 
charges that took place that day an entire 
Turkish division was destroyed. The Brit- 



Second Year of the War - 1915 



201 



ish, though victorious, had lost nearly 5,000 
men, a third of their force. 

During the night, the rescue of the 
wounded occupied both armies. With the 
dawn, came a gale of wind and a dust storm 
which obscured the landscape for hours. 
When the air cleared, it showed the battle- 
field strewn with the slain. 

The Turks strongly reinforced during the 
night, and now outnumbering the British 
four to one, flung themselves against the 
British line repeatedly, during the after- 
noon and evening of the 24th, but the line 
held and before another dawn had broken, 
the Turks withdrew to reform on their third 
position along the line of the Dialah River. 

Though victorious, the British still had 
suffered such heavy losses that General 
Townshend deemed it advisable to fall back 
upon Kut-el-Amara. The retirement was 
carried out successfully, in a region swarm- 
ing with hostile Arabs. 

All through the retreat, the British were 
compelled to fight rear-guard actions with 
these treacherous nomads, who were 



mounted on fleet horses. Finally, the Brit- 
ish force reached Kut, where a series of 
fortifications had been established. Here 
the slim British forces settled down on 
December 2d to await the reinforcements 
which were from India. Every day the 
Turkish ring of steel closed in upon Kut-el- 
Amara and many clashes between the two 
armies occurred. Before the middle of De- 
cember, the British were practically be- 
leaguered by the foe. 

Relief Force Starts from India 

SIR JOHN NIXON, Commander-in-Chief of 
the Mesopotamian Army, resigned his post 
under censure for his mismanagement of the 
Bagdad campaign and was succeeded by 
Lieut.-Gen. Sir Percy Lake, Chief of the In- 
dian Staff, who at once despatched an army 
to the relief of Gen. Townshend's pent-up 
forces in Kut-el-Amara. 

At the same time, the German general 
staff sent the aged Gen. von der Goltz to 
Mesopotamia to conduct the Turkish opera- 
tions against the British. 



UNITED STATES. AUG.-DEC. 



German Destruction of Factories in United States Begins 

Our Government Demands Recall of Ambassador Dumba, Boy-Ed and von Papen 



SECTION 2O-1915 



GERMANY had mobilized an immense 
army of spies, dynamiters, assassins 
and conspirators in the United States 
at the outbreak of War in Europe. These 
assassins hesitated at no crime that might 
in the least degree advance the cause of the 
Fatherland. 

The head center of these conspiracies was 
the German legation at Washington, and the 
master mind that directed their efforts was 
Count Johann von Bernstorff, the German 
Ambassador. 

His principal lieutenants were the Aus- 
trian Ambassador, Constantine Deodor 
Dumba, Captain Franz von Papen, Captain 
Karl Boy-Ed, Dr. Heinrich P. Albert and 
Wolf von Igel. Another leading conspirator, 
Franz von Rintelen, received his instructions 
direct from Berlin. 



In addition to these special plotters, there 
were at least a million residents of German 
ancestry who aided the German spies in 
their work of destruction. 

Destruction of Factories Planned 

THESE German plotters were especially 
active in the attempted destruction of muni- 
tion factories, workshops, camps and the 
most important centers of military and civil 
supply in the United States. 

In addition to the incitement of labor 
troubles throughout America, they special- 
ized in sabotage in machine shops; the de- 
struction of vessels carrying war material 
to the Allies; the burning of stocks of raw 
materials and finished goods; and the de- 
struction of electric power stations in large 
centers. 



202 



Germany's Crime Against Humanity 



German "Employment Bureau" Organized 

IN order to recruit their criminal agents 
to the best advantage, they had established 
in New York City a general German employ- 
ment bureau, with branches in Philadelphia, 
Bridgeport, Pittsburgh, Cleveland, Chicago 
and Cincinnati. 

Soon after this criminal employment bu- 
reau had been established, Ambassador 
Dumba was able to report to the Austrian 
Foreign Office that, in his opinion, it was 
possible to disorganize and hold up for 
months, if not entirely prevent, the manu- 
facture of munitions in Bethlehem, Penn., 
and in the Middle West. 

Typical Plots 

TYPICAL plots of the German arson and 
murder squad were revealed at the trial 
of Albert Kaltschmidt, who had been indicted 
upon the following counts by a United States 
grand jury at Detroit: 

To blow up the factory of the Peabody's 
Company, Limited, at Walkerville, Ontario, 
engaged in manufacturing uniforms, cloth- 
ing and military supplies. 

To blow up the building known as the 
Windsor Armories of the City of Windsor, 
Ontario. 

To blow up and destroy other plants and 
buildings in said Dominion of Canada which 
were used for the manufacture of munitions 
of war, clothing and uniforms. 

To blow up and destroy the great railway 
bridges of the Canadian Pacific railroad at 
Nipigon. 

To blow up the Detroit Screw Works, 
where shrapnel was being manufactured. 

To destroy the St. Clair tunnel, connecting 
Canada with the United States. 

On the night of February 1, 1915, Werner 
Hor, a German reserve lieutenant, partially 
destroyed the International bridge, upon 
which the Grand Trunk Railway crosses the 
border between the United States and Can- 
ada at Vacceboro, Maine, by the use of an 
explosive. For this act he was paid $700. 

Bribery of Congressmen Planned 

COUNT VON BERNSTORFF applied to Berlin 
for authority to pay out $50,000 in order 
to influence certain Congressmen to use their 
effort in preventing America's entering the 



War. He naively added: "In the above 
circumstance, a public official German dec- 
laration in favor of Ireland is highly desir- 
able, in order to gain the support of the Irish 
influence here." 

Involving Mexico with the U. S. 

FRANZ VON RINTELEN was specially de- 
tailed to the task of embroiling Mexico and 
Japan in war with the United States, in the 
expectation that once war was declared it 
would stop the shipment of American am- 
munition to the Allies. 

The arch-plotter in Mexico was the Ger- 
man Ambassador, Heinrich von Eckhardt. 
It was to Eckhardt that Dr. Alfred Zimmer- 
man of the German Foreign Office sent the 
famous intercepted cable despatch, announc- 
ing the inauguration of submarine warfare 
and proposing that Mexico and Germany 
wage war together against the United States. 

Destruction of Shipping 

WIDESPREAD destruction of American ship- 
ping, entailing much loss of life, was plotted 
by the German arson squad. Thirty-three 
explosions and fires were caused by German 
bombs on ships sailing from New York har- 
bor alone. 

Consul General Bopp and his hired agents 
were arrested for conspiracy to blow up any 
vessels belonging to the Allies found within 
the limits of Canada, which were laden with 
horses, munitions of war or articles of com- 
merce in course of transportation. 

Among other dynamiters arrested was one 
Robert Fay, who had invented an infernal 
machine which he tied to the rudder posts 
of vessels, causing their disablement. 

Large sums of money were expended in 
the bribery of certain newspapers and jour- 
nalists, among the latter being George Syl- 
vester Viereck, Marcus Braun, and J. F. 
Archibald. 

Dumba, Boy-Ed, and Papen Recalled 

THE criminal activities of Ambassador 
Dumba resulted in the demand for his recall 
by the United States Government on Septem- 
ber 8th, 1915. 

Captain Karl Boy-Ed and Captain Franz 
von Papen were also recalled on De- 
cember 8th. 



THIRD YEAR OF THE WAR 1916 



Important Events on Land and Sea 



WESTERN THEATER 




PAGE 


DATE 


212 Why Verdun was attacked 


Jan. 6 




8 


21S The Verdun defences 


11 




12 




13 




18 




18 




18 




19 




20 


212 Ludendorff resigns as German Chief of Staff 


22 


212 Gen. Falkenhayn succeeds Ludendorff...'. 


23 




23 




28 


212 Germans preparing to bombard Verdun 


Feb. 1 


213 Germans attack French front at Lihons, Flanders 


13 




16 




16 




18 


260 German raiders bring Appam into Newport News. 


20 


212 Battle of Verdun begins, in France 


21 


214 Germans occupy Haumont Woods, Verdun 


23 


215 "They Shall Not Pass" Verdun 


23 


215 Germans take Herbebois, near Verdun 


24 


115 Gen. Petain takes command at Verdun 


25 


215 Germans capture Fort Douaumont, Verdun 


26 


215 French recapture Fort Douaumont 


26 


216 French transport La Provence sunk ; 3,000 lost 


26 


216 German attacks on Verdun repulsed 


28 


260 Germany begins sinking merchant ships 


29 


215 Battle of the Wings 


Mar. 2 


216 Germans renew attack around Verdun 


2 


216 Germans capture Douaumont, Verdun 


3 


260 German raider Moewe returns home 


5 


265 Zeppelins raid English coast ; 12 killed 


5 


214 Germans slaughtered at Herbebois, Verdun 


6 


216 Germans use Liquid Fire, asphyxiating gas Verdun 


7 


216 Germans capture Hadraumong 


8 


262 Portugal seizes 38 German ships 


8 


262 Germany declares war on Portugal 


9 


216 Germans capture part of Fort Vaux, Verdun 


11 


231 Austrian drive on Italian front begins 


11 


251 Inter-Allied Conference at Paris 


12 


262 Austria at war with Portugal 


15 


216 Battle at "Dead Man's Hill". Verdun 


16 


231 Austrians defeat Italians in Tolmino sector 


18 




19 


216 French retire from Avacourt Wood, Verdun 


21 


261 Steamer Sussex torpedoed ; 50 lives lost 


24 




27 


216 Germans repulsed on Verdun front 


28 


217 Allies evacuate Melancourt, Verdun front. 


31 



216 Germans capture town of Haucourt, France Apr; 5 



216 
216 



234 
241 
242 
242 



Germans assault "Dead Man's Hill", Hill 304, Verdun 
Violent German attacks on Verdun front 



Irish Rebellion opens 

Arrest of Sir Roger Casement... 

Irish Republic proclaimed 

Irish rebels seize Dublin 

Birth of Sinn Fein movement... 



EASTERN THEATER 

PAGE 

Austrian!! invade Montenegro . 209 

Gen. Aylmer's British Army attacks Turks lit 

Russians begin offensive in the Caucasus 219 

Montenegro sues for peace 210 

Austrians capture Montenegro's capital 209 

Russians defeat Turks at Koprikeni 211 

Montenegro refuses Austria's Peace Terms 210 

British advance toward Kut-el-Amara 219 

King of Montenegro flees to Italy 210 

Montenegrin fort* surrendered 210 

Turks defeat British at Umm-el-Hanna _. tit 

Capital of Montenegro established at Lyons, France. 210 

Austrians occupy Sartari, Montenegro 210 

Gen. Sarrail's Allied Army occupies Salonika, 221 



Two Turkish Corps routed at Erzerum. 

Russians capture Erzerum, Turkish Armenia. 

Russians capture Mush in the Caucasus. 

Russians capture Bitlis 



211 
211 
211 
211 



Russians advance in Caucasus and in Persia 211 

Russians capture Kermanshah, Persia. 211 



Russians assault the German line.. 



226 



Turks defeat British at Dujailah 219 



Russian offensive on Northern Front fails:. 



Greeks shell Allied Warships. Salonika. 

Russians drive Germans back near Pinsk.. 
Russian Hospital ship sunk in Black Sea 



6 Russians advance in Galicia 

8 British relief Army defeated in Mesopotamia... 
10 
11 

13 Russians defeat Austrians in Galicia 

Russians capture Trebizond from Turks. 

Russians expel Turks from Turkish Armenia 



226 



221 
22C 

261 



226 
219 



22C 

211 
211 



Turks defeat British at Sunna-i-Yet 219 



204 



Important Events on Land and Sea 1916 



PAC 

265 
250 
260 
248 

231 
248 
265 
232 
216 
265 
216 
232 
250 
232 
251 
231 
265 
216 
232 
265 
248 

232 
216 
250 

232 

261 
217 
217 
251 
233 
265 
232 
232 

261 
232 
217 
233 
266 
266 

217 
265 
217 
265 
265 
233 
233 
233 
233 

217 

251 
252 
252 
252 
261 

261 
252 
265 
233 
261 
252 
265 

252 
233 
261 



British Fleet bombard Zeebrugge, Belgium 


DATE 

25 


British surrender to Turks at Kut-el-Amara 


PAGE 
220 


Irish troops take Hohenzollern Redoubt. 


27 




. . 28 


Irish Rebels surrender 


29 


Italians make important gains over Austrians. 


30 
.... May 2 


Austrians begin offensive in Volhynia 


226 


Austrian counter-offensive on Italian front. 


. 231 


Irish leaders executed for treason 


3 


Cymric torpedoed off Irish coast 


9 


Italians advance close to Trent. 


9 


German attack on Hill 304 repulsed 


9 


Austrian transport sunk in Adriatic Sea 


10 


Austrians advance into Italy 


231 


French advance on Verdun front. 


12 


Austrians begin drive in Trentino 


15 


British storm Vimy Ridge . 


15 


Austrians drive Italians back across border 


19 


British expel Turks from Dujailah 


220 


Germans regain Vimy Ridge. 


21 


Bulgarians seize Fort Rupel, Greece 


221 


Italians driven back in Sugana Valley 


21 


Four German ships sunk in Baltic Sea 


24 


Germans recapture Fort Douaumont, Verdun , 


25 


Italians evacuate Asiago 


26 




30 


Italians evacuate Asiago Plateau. 


232 


Great naval battle off coast of Jutland 


31 


Bulgarians move southward into Greece. 


222 




. June 1 




1 


Russia's great offensive in Galicia begins 


227 




2 


Austrian airplanes bomb Verona , 


2 
2 


Allies take over control of Salonika- 


222 


Lord Kitchener goes down with Hampshire , 


4 
5 

7 


Independence of Arabia proclaimed. 


262 


Allies blockade Greek ports 


232 


Fort Vaux surrenders to the Germans, Verdun 


7 


Germans within four miles of Verdun City 


7 


British lose village of Hooge, Belgium 


7 




8 




227 




9 




227 




9 




227 




10 




227 


42 Zeppelins bomb English towns, kill 426 , 


13 
13 
14 


Shereof of Mecca revolts from Turkey 


262 




262 


German counter-offensive in Galicia opens 


228 


Italians gain on Isonzo front 


15 




16 




16 


Russians capture Czernowitz, Bukowina 


228 




18 


Allies demand Greek demobilization 


222 




. . 21 




22 
23 




222 




228 


British steamer captured ; Capt. Fryatt executed 


23 
24 




222 




25 




26 




27 




27 




266 




28 


Italians storm Monte Trappolo . 


28 


French recapture Thiaumont 


29 
30 


Austrians still retreating before Russians 


228 


First Battle of the Somme opens 


... July 1 




2 


French advance on near to Peronne and Combles... 


4 
5 




7 




9 
10 




261 


Four Russian ships sunk in Black Sea 


266 




11 




11 


Russian offensive stopped at Stokkod River 


229 


Italians advance in Adige Valley 


12 




14 




15 




229 




16 


British storm Pozieres Ridge. : 


19 
23 


Russians canture Brody .. 


229 




25 


Capt. Fryatt executed by the Germans 


27 




28 



Important Events on Land and Sea 1916 



205 



261 
233 



PAGE 

248 Sir Roger Casement hanged for high treason.. 

232 Venice bombed by Austrian airships 

233 Italians occupy Gorizia 

265 Zeppelins raid England ; 23 killed 

233 Italians sweep over the Cargo Plateau 



Zeppelins raid England ; 8 killed.. 
Italy declares war on Germany 



254 Gen. Hindenberg becomes head of German Army 



DATE 

Aug. 3 

7 

9 

9 

11 

12 

17 

21 

23 

24 

25 

27 

27 

28 

29 

30 

30 

31 

31 



Arabs defeat Turks near Medina........ 



PAGE 



263 



Turks massacre Arab civilians in Medina 263 

Bulgarians invade Greek territory 222 

Salonika Army moves against Bulgarians. 222 

Greek revolutions in Crete and Macedonia _ 222 

Bulgarians take Fort Kavala. Greece _. 222 

Venizelos leads Gre;k revolution 222 

Bulgarians invade Macedonia. 222 

Roumania declares war on Austria. 254 

Germany declares war on Roumania _ 255 

Turkey declares war on Roumania 255 

Roumanians seize passes of the Carpathians 255 

Roumanians seize Kronstadt, Hungary 255 

Roumanians force Austrians to withdraw. _. 255 

Bulgaria declares war on Roumania 255 



Sept 



265 13 Zeppelins raid England ; 2 killed. 



253 First great air battle of the War. 



258 British seize 33 American cargo ships 

253 British "Tanks" first used at Courcellette 

253 Allies break throttgh German lines on Somme front.. 

253 Allies take Flers, Courcellette and Martinpuich 

259 U. S. protests Britains seizure of cargo ships 



265 Zeppelins raid English coast ; 38 killed... 

265 Zeppelins raid south of England ; 36 killed 

263 Allies take Combles, Thiepval, and Gaudecourt... 



Roumanians capture Petroseny 255 

Roumanians capture Hermannstadt 255 

Allies' demands on Greece accepted unconditionally 224 

Two German Armies and Bulgariana 256 

German troops invade Dobrudja. _ 256 

German Army seizes Tutrakhan. Roumania. _... 256 

Roumanians capture Borszek 255 

Russians repulsed at Kovel 229-230 

Roumanians repulse Germans at Lipnitza. 256 



Serbians defeat Bulgarians at Ostrova 223 



Russians renew offensive in Galicia 

Roumanians rout Germans at Rasova, 

Russians occupy Fiorina, Macedonia. 

Serbians capture Krushegrad and Neokazi. 
Germans retreat in Roumania , 



229 

256 

223 

... 223 

257 

Roumanians again take offensive in Dobrudja 257 

Arabs take Taik from Turks 263 

Roumanians defeated near Vulcan Pass 256 

Roumanians defeated at Hermannstadt 257 

Roumanians driven back into the Carpathians.. 257 

Roumanians retreat out of Hungary 257 



265 Zeppelins raid English coast ; 1 killed. Oct. 1 

2 
4 
5 

262 German U-Boat sinks 6 vessels off Nantucket 8 

I 
11 
17 
17 
22 
22 
23 

217 French recapture Fort Douaumont. Verdun 24 

25 
25 
25 
28 
261 Many hospital ships sunk during year _ 29 



Battle for Lemberg in full swing 

Roumanian advance into Bulgaria is checked.. 

Serbs reach Monastir railway line 

Salonika (Allied) Army advances in Balkans.. 

German-Austrians take Kronstadt 

Allies recognize new Greek Government 

Austro-Germans invade Roumania 

Greeks surrender their Fleet to Allies 

Italian Army enter Macedonia. _ 

Russians defeated near Lemberg 

Roumanians driven back i: 
Germans take Constanza, 



221 

257 

223 

223 

257 

222 

257 

223 

223 

236 

i Dobrudja 257 

Roumania 257 



Roumanians driven from the Vulcan Pass. 

Germans capture Cernavoda. Roumania 

Allied line joined from Adriatic to Aegean 

Russian offensive ends in Galicia.. 



257 
257 
223 

230 



217 Germans evacuate Fort Vaux, Verdun.. 
217 Close of the Battle of Verdun 



208 Woodrow Wilson re-elected President of U. S. A.. 

208 Ancona sunk in Mediterranean 

265 British airships bomb Saorbrucken. Germany 



253 British advance through Ancre Valley, France. 

253 British capture Peaumont-Hamel 



Nov 2 Greek rebels defeat Greek Royalists. 224 

2 

3 Germans driven back into Hungary ~ 257 

7 

8 Roumanians invade Transylvania. 258 

10 

11 Russian Fleet bombards Constanza. Roumania. 257 

12 Constanza burned to the ground 257 

IS Roumanian Army defeated in Transylvania 257 

14 



206 



Important Events on Land and Sea 1916 



PAGE 

263 President Wilson sounds Nations on their war aims 
253 Close of the First Battle of the Somme 



261 The Britannic, mammouth British hospital ship, sunk 

208 Emperor Franz Joseph of Austria dies 

208 Prince Karl succeeds as Austrian Emperor 



265 Airships raid English coast 

260 American steamer Columbian torpedoed 

260 Minnewaska sunk in Mediterranean 

250 Admiral B'eatty succeeds Admiral Jellicoe.. 



DATE 

18 
18 
19 
19 
19 
20 
21 
21 
24 
26 
27 
28 
29 
29 



PAGE 

Greece ordered to surrender arms to Allies. 224 

Roumanians defeated at Tirgu-Juil 258 

Bulgarians evacuate Monastir 223 

Greek King refuses to surrender arms 224 

German troops invade Western Roumania 258 

Serbians occupy Monastir 223 

British Hospital Ship sunk in Aegean Sea 261 

German-Bulgarian troops overrun Roumania 258 

Greeks refuse to surrender arms 224 

Roumanian Government moves to Jassy 258 



265 Henry Ford's "Peace Ship" sails for Europe Dec. 1 Allied troops enter Athens 224 

3 Roumanians signally defeated at Argechu 258 

5 
6 

12 Roumanians evacuate Bucharest 258 

15 

16 Greece agrees to Allies' demands _. 224 

18 

19 

23 Russians driven out of Dobrudja, Roumania 258 

26 

27 

30 Turks expelled from cradle of Islamism _. 263 



208 Prime Minister Asquith of England resigns 

208 Lloyd George becomes Premier of England. 

263 Germany makes her first Peace Proposal 

217 French win brilliant victory at Verdun 

264 President Wilson Bounds Allies on War Aims 

264 English state their peace terms 

264 Germany suggests a peace conference 

264 Scandinavian countries support Pres. Wilson's stand 

264 Allies refuse to confer with Germany 



THIRD YEAR OF THE WAR-1916 



GERMANY DESCENDS TO PIRACY 

Submarines Sink Hundreds of Helpless Ships Without Warning 
German Navy Defeated by British in Great Sea Battle Off Jutland 

Supreme Attempt to Crush France at Verdun Ends in Failure 
Russia Recovers from Defeat and Overruns Galicia and Turkey 

Bulgaria Unites with Germany in Crushing Roumania 

Italy's Victorious Campaign Huns Hammered on the Marne 

Germany and Austria, Foreseeing Defeat, Make Peace Proposals 

President Wilson Becomes the Spokesman for Humanity 



Survey of Events in the Year 1916 

GERMANY had a bitter foretaste of her inevitable defeat in the year 1916. 
Yet in the opening months of the year the fruits of victory seemed already 
within her grasp. Everywhere her enemies had been humbled. Russia 
lay as a prostrate hulk, seemingly beyond recovery. The French and English 
forces had hammered in vain against the German ramparts on the Western front. 

Italy had sustained a damaging blow at the hands of Austria. England 
had been humiliated twice by the Turks first at Gallipoli and next at Kut-el- 
Amara, where General Townshend's army was forced to surrender. Bulgaria 
had given Germany assurances of her support ; Greece was also a secret ally of 
Germany. 

With Russia apparently crushed and England's Volunteer Army not yet 
arrived on the Western front, France alone stood between Germany and world 
dominion. Upon France, therefore, Germany loosed all her thunderbolts in the 
terrific assault at Verdun. How France endured the inferno of Verdun is one 
of the most glorious epics of the war. 

We shall see, as the year's eventful history unfolds, how the British thrust 
on the Somme gradually weakened the German offensive at Verdun and taught 
the Huns that they were neither supermen nor world conquerors. 

Germany was to receive a new surprise when the despised Russians, mirac- 
ulously recovering from their recent defeat, hurled themselves against the foe, 

(207) 



208 Germany's Crime Against Humanity 

driving the Austrians back 40 miles on a 300-mile front, retaking Galicia and all 
the strongholds she had lost during her retreat in 1915. At the same time, 
Russia was expelling the Turks from Armenia, though not until after the Mos- 
lems had massacred a million Christian Armenians. Austria's discomfiture was 
complete, when Italy had driven her out of the Trentino and advanced across the 
Carso Plateau toward Vienna. 

Germany's last hope of a decisive victory on the seas was dispelled when 
her High Seas Fleet fled back to its harbor, after a losing battle with the English 
Navy off the coast of Jutland, in the most terrific conflict the seas have ever 
witnessed. 

Unwilling to compete with the Allies along humane lines, the Huns at 
length threw off all the restraints of civilization and adopted a ruthless, murder- 
ous submarine policy, sinking merchant ships and even hospital ships without 
warning. But these ruthless expedients failed to attain their chief purpose, 
which was to starve England into submission by sinking all the food ships that 
plied the oceans. 

Germany gained another suitable ally in 1916, when the Bulgarians (those 
half brothers to the Turks) united with the Huns in completely crushing Rou- 
mania. This tragedy might easily have been averted had certain traitorous 
statesmen, then in control of Russian affairs, hastened to support Roumania. 
England, too, was in part censurable for the tragedy, having withheld her sup- 
port of Roumania while the too sanguine Sir Edward Grey was parleying to 
gain Bulgaria's allegiance to the Allied cause. 

The year 1916 was eventful in a political sense, also. The aged Emperor 
Franz Joseph of Austria died and was succeeded by his son, Karl, who subse- 
quently abdicated his throne. Lord Kitchener, England's Minister of War, was 
drowned off the Orkney Islands when the ship on which he had taken passage 
for Russia was sunk either by a mine or a torpedo. Premier Asquith of Eng- 
land resigned under the pressure of public opinion, and was succeeded by Lloyd 
George, who guided the ship of state through many troubled waters, during the 
remainder of the War. President Wilson, in 1916, was re-elected President of 
the United States and by universal consent became the spokesman for humanity. 
His warnings to Germany, though unheeded at the time, must have convinced 
the autocratic Kaiser that there was a moral force in the world to which he must 
answer for his crimes. 

That Germany already had grave doubts of the security of her conquests 
in Belgium, France and Poland, was made evident toward the end of the year, 
when she put forth certain hypocritical proposals for peace. The Allies met 



Third Year of the War 1916 



209 



these bogus peace proposals by the flat assertion that reparation and restitution 
by Germany was a condition precedent to peace. Germany's idea of a satisfac- 
tory peace was one which would leave her in possession of Belgium and North- 
ern France, and as much more of European soil as she could seize and hold. 

The attention of the world was f ocussed for a week in April upon an abor- 
tive uprising in Ireland, when 1800 revolutionists, angered by the refusal of the 
British Government to make effective the Home Rule Bill passed by two succes- 
sive Parliaments, took possession of Dublin, and held it for seven days against a 
British army of 60,000. Before the Irish Rebellion was suppressed, a third part 
of Dublin had been destroyed by fire and shells, and 600 lives lost. The detailed 
story of the year follows. 



EASTERN THEATER. JAN. 6-13 



Austrians Conquer Montenegro in a Two* Weeks' Campaign 

Little Army of 40,000 Holds Out Till Reduced to Point of Starvation 
King Nicholas Flees First to Rome and Then to Lyons, France 

.*...., ,.,.,..........,..........,. SECTION 2-1916 , 



Montenegrin Army, 40,000 
General Yukovitch 
King Nicholas 

MONTENEGRO, the poorest kingdom 
in the Balkans, had declared war 
against Austria on August 7, 1914, 
and her little Army of 40,000 men had ren- 
dered effective aid to their kinsmen in Serbia 
from the beginning of hostilities. Montene- 
grin artillery on Mt. Lovcen, had shelled the 
port of Cattaro and other Austrian towns 
along the Adriatic Sea in August, 1914, and 
the infantry occupied Scutari. 

When the Serbians were making their vic- 
torious assault on Shabatz, and the Austrians 
were stampeding across the Drina, the Mon- 
tenegrins attacked the Austrian Army on 
the frontier, compelling their retirement. 

The Montenegrin Army, commanded by 
General Yukovitch, then advanced into Bos- 
nia and at Bilek, on September 2, 1914, won 
a signal victory over the Austrians, taking 
many prisoners. A week later the Austrians 
met defeat at Foca. 

The Serbians then sent an army into Bos- 
nia to unite with the Montenegrins in an 
advance on Sarajevo, but the Austrians 
were now in such strong force that both the 
Montenegrins and Serbians withdrew from 
Bosnia. 



Austrian Army, 60,000 
General Ermolli 
General Koevess 

The Montenegrins continued to assist the 
Serbians through the campaigns of 1915, sup- 
porting the left flank of the Serbians' posi- 
tion, and holding the lines around Fotcha and 
on the Lim River. 

After Serbia had been crushed, in the fall 
of 1915, Austria began to lay her plans to 
eliminate Montenegro. At this time a huge 
Austrian Army guarded the frontier, while 
King Nicholas's forces had dwindled to 
40,000 effective men. Despite these inequali- 
ties, the Montenegrins were able to smash 
an Austrian Army at Bielo, in the closing 
days of 1915, driving the enemy back as far 
as Ivania. 

Montenegrins Surrender to Austrians 

THE main Austro-Hungarian Armies were 
assembled on January 6, 1915, for a general 
offensive against Montenegro on two fronts, 
General Koevess directing the movements. 
While the Eastern frontier of Montenegro, 
along the line of the Tara, Lim and Ibar 
Rivers, was being shelled by the great Aus- 
trian howitzers, the warships in the Gulf of 
Cattaro on the Western front began a vio- 
lent bombardment of Mt. Lovcen, lasting 



210 



Germany's Crime Against Humanity 



four days. The Austrian Infantry then 
swarmed up the mountain slope and seized 
Lovcen, driving out the small Montenegrin 
garrison defending the town. 

The Montenegrins had long since expended 
all their ammunition and they were short of 
food as well. Moreover, their resistance had 
been weakened by the knowledge that Pre- 
mier Minskovitch, a secret friend to Austria, 
had been negotiating for their surrender. 

With their stronghold, Lovcen, in the 
hands of the enemy, the Montenegrins were 
forced to abandon their capital, Cettinje, on 
January 13, 1916. 

Many of the Montenegrin soldiers laid 
down their arms, but a greater number 
escaped to Albania, uniting with the Ser- 
bians. The Austrians occupied Scutari on 
January 23d and San Giovanni di Medua 



two days later. The conquest of Montene- 
gro was now complete. 

King Nicholas, meanwhile, had sued for 
peace, and it was unjustly alleged that he 
and his German wife had long intrigued with 
the Austrian diplomats. These rumors 
ceased, however, when it became known that 
King Nicholas had refused the terms of peace 
offered by Austria and remained with his 
two sons at the head of his troops, prepared 
to organize a final defense and take part in 
the retreat of his unconquered army. 

On January 23d, King Nicholas arrived 
in Rome at the court of his son-in-law, King 
Victor Emmanuel of Italy, and from thence 
he journeyed to Lyons, France, where the 
capital of Montenegro was temporarily es- 
tablished by courtesy of the French Gov- 
ernment. 



EASTERN THEATER, FEB. 16- MAY 31 



Turkish Armenia Falls Into the Hands of the Russians 

Erzerum and Trebizond Captured by Forces of Grand Duke Nicholas 

SECTION 3 1916 ,.................^....^.........^.....^...^.^^.**^-. 



Russian Army, 320,000 

Grand Duke Nicholas, Commander 
General Yudenitch 

r | ^HE Turkish menace loomed up in the 
opening days of 1916. Tutored by 
German officers, the Moslems had built 
up an effective war machine. They had 
dealt one English Army its death blow at 
Gallipoli, and had imprisoned another Eng- 
lish Army in Kut-el-Amara. Their forces 
had overspread the Caucasus, Armenia and 
Mesopotamia. They had slaughtered a mil- 
lion Christian Armenians. Unless driven 
out of Europe they might prove a menace to 
civilization. To oust them from Constanti- 
nople was the hope of the Allies. 

The disaster at Gallipoli had convinced the 
Allies that Constantinople could not be con- 
quered from the South. An attack from the 
North, by way of Turkish Armenia, offered 
the surest promise of success. But first the 
Turks must be expelled from Erzerum and 
Trebizond, their two Armenian strongholds. 
The task was assigned to the Russian Army 
of the Caucasus, under command of Grand 
Duke Nicholas. 



Turkish Army, 150,000 

General Enver Bey, Commander 
General Ahmed Fevzi, Erzerum Garrison 

With an army of 320,000, liberally sup- 
plied with munitions and food sent from 
America, Grand Duke Nicholas applied him- 
self to the task. He aimed first at the cap- 
ture of Erzerum, an almost impregnable fort- 
ress, encircled by a chain of concrete de- 
fences, carrying 1,000 huge guns of the very 
latest Krupp pattern. In and about Erzerum 
was a Turkish army, numbering 150,000 first 
line troops, directed by Enver Bey. 

To take Erzerum by direct assault was 
deemed impossible; indeed, the fortress had 
resisted all Russian attempts to capture it 
during the Russo-Turkish War. Instead, 
Grand Duke Nicholas planned to invest 
Erzerum from all sides and, by threatening 
the communications of the fortress with the 
nearest railroad 200 miles away, .to compel 
its evacuation. 

Dividing his army into three columns, and, 
with Olty as a base, Duke Nicholas advanced 
upon Erzerum from three directions. The 
Russian columns began their converging 



Third Year of the War-1916 



211 



movement on Erzerum in mid-February, 
1916. A blinding snowstorm was raging at 
the time and the temperature was 25 degrees 
below zero. 

Two Turkish Corps Dispersed 

AT THE approach of the Russian Army, 
the Turks had moved out from Erzerum to 
block their path. They proved no match for 
the Russians. The Northern Turkish Corps 
was quickly flanked and put to flight. Two 
divisions of the Southern Turkish Corps were 
similarly disposed of. The Central Corps 
of the Russian and Turkish Armies fought 
a three days' battle at Koprikeui, January 
16-18th, which resulted in a Russian victory. 
The line of the Araxes was forced and the 
Turks fled in wild disorder, constantly har- 
assed by pursuing Cossacks. All the roads 
leading to Erzerum were blocked by dis- 
carded equipment, abandoned guns, and 
half -frozen stragglers. 

Turks Evacuate Erzerum 

ERZERUM itself was still defended by a 
strong garrison under command of Ahmed 
Fevzi. The Russian artillery began a terri- 
fic bombardment of the outer defenses, con- 
tinuing five days. Then, in a grand assault, 
the Siberian troops carried all nine of the 
outlying fortresses. Erzerum being no 
longer tenable, the garrison retired to a 
strongly fortified ridge east of the city. 
Gen. Yudenitch, the Russian commander, by 
hauling his heavy guns up the slopes of the 
supposedly inaccessible peaks to the north, 
was enabled to flank the ridge, which was 
subsequently carried by storm. The Turks 
evacuated Erzerum on February 16th. A 
rearguard of 12,000, left behind to protect 
the retreat, was captured, together with 300 
guns and a great quantity of military stores. 

Trebizond Captured by the Russians 

THROUGH the deep snows of a Caucasian 
winter, the Russian Army marched out from 
Erzerum in three columns on February 18th 
to invest the city of Trebizond, the principal 
Turkish seaport on the Black Sea. The right 
wing of the Russian Army, on February 23d, 
captured Inspir, about 75 miles northwest of 



Erzerum; the Russian Center advanced to 
Askala, 30 miles from Erzerum, while the 
Russian left wing on March 2d occupied 
Citlis. Fresh Russian troops were landed 
at Atina on the Black Sea, while Russian 
destroyers took the seaport of Rizeh, and on 
March 17th, were within 20 miles of 
Trebizond. 

As the Russian armies closed in upon Tre- 
bizond, the panic stricken population fled to- 
ward Kara-Hissar and Swias. Turkish re- 
inforcements now began to arrive from Gal- 
lipoli and the defence stiffened. By March 
27th, the Russians had advanced to the 
Oghene Dere River, between Rizeh and Tre- 
bizond, occupying the heights above the 
stream. A series of strong Turkish assaults 
failed to dislodge them from this position. 

Nearer and nearer the Russians advanced 
toward Trebizond. During the first two 
weeks in April, the Turks fought desper- 
ately to hold them back, especially along 
the Kara Dere, but all in vain. On April 
16th, the Russians were within 12 miles of 
Trebizond, occupying the village of Assene 
Kalessi. 

New Turkish reinforcements were rushed 
up from Central Anatolia in a vain effort to 
stop the Russian advance. That being found 
impossible, the Turks evacuated Trebizond 
on April 18th, and the town was occupied 
by the Russians two days later, after silenc- 
ing the Turkish guns in the outer forts. 

The capture of Trebizond gave the Rus- 
sians possession of a stretch of territory 250 
miles in length and 125 miles wide, compris- 
ing 31,250 square miles, reaching from the 
Black Sea on the north to the Turki-Persian 
frontier on the south, and including the 
greater part of Armenia. 

The Russian pursuit of the Turks was re- 
sumed on April 19th toward Erzingan on 
the west and Diarbeka on the southwest. 
During April and May many minor cavalry 
engagements were fought along a battle 
front 200 miles long, with varying successes, 
the campaign finally resolving itself into 
clashes between outposts. The Turkish 
losses during this campaign were estimated 
at 60,000. 



212 



Germany's Crime Against Humanity 



- WESTERN THEATER, FEB. 21-OCT. 23 



Verdun, the Greatest Artillery Battle of Recorded History 

Though Deluged with Millions of Shells, the French Repel the Huns for 8 Months 
Germans Sacrifice 500,000 Picked Troops in Vain Attempt to Reach Paris 



SECTION 4, 1916 



French Forces, 500,000 

Gen. Petain, Commander 

(Succeeding Gen. Castelnau) 
Corps Commanders: 

Gen. Balfourier 

Gen. Neville 

Gen. Mangin 

Gen. Humbert 

Gen. Sarrail 

Gen. Herr 

THE invincible spirit of France, proved 
on a thousand battlefields, was put to 
its supreme test in the inferno of 
Verdun, where for eight months the slim 
band of French heroes, guarding the gate- 
way to Paris, held back the overwhelming 
forces of Germany in the face of a hurricane 
of artillery fire unequalled in history. Del- 
uged daily with shells, their trenches blown 
to dust, fighting without adequate shelter 
and hopelessly outnumbered, the superb sol- 
diers of France heroically defended their 
line and once again saved Europe from Hun 
domination. Five hundred thousand Ger- 
mans were sacrificed in this vain attempt 
of the German Crown Prince to crush France 
in one overpowering operation. 

Von Ludendorff Resigns as Chief of Staff 

THE siege of Verdun was launched in com- 
pliance with the wishes of Crown Prince 
Frederick William, who had a roseate vision 
of himself as a world conqueror entering 
Paris at the head of a horde of Huns. Upon 
his suggestion the best shock troops in Hin- 
denberg's victorious army on the Russian 
front were transferred to his command. 
This so angered General von Ludendorff, the 
German Chief of Staff, that he resigned his 
office in a huff and was succeeded by General 
von Falkenhayn. Nor did the great Hinden- 
berg take kindly to the withdrawal of his 
best troops from the Russian front; on the 
contrary, he frankly predicted the failure of 
the Verdun enterprise. Regardless of their 
protests, however, the Crown Prince was 
permitted to indulge his royal ambition. In 



German Forces, 1,000,000 

Gen. Falkenhayn, Chief of Staff 
Army Commanders: 

Crown Prince Frederick 
Gen. von Haesseler 
Gen. Daimling 
Gen. von Guretski-Cornitz 



the end, the failure of the siege involved the 
disgrace, both of the Crown Prince and of 
von Falkenhayn. 

Why Verdun Was Attacked 

VERDUN, though accounted the strongest 
citadel in all Europe, in reality was the most 
exposed point along the whole Western front 
of 500 miles from Calais to Switzerland. 
The rapid reduction of the Belgian fortresses 
at Liege and Namur had demonstrated be- 
yond cavil that no modern fort could long 
withstand the pounding of great siege guns. 
Once the forts at Verdun were reduced, the 
German command believed the march to 
Paris, 140 miles away, along the Valley of 
the Oise, would be as a holiday stroll. 

Verdun, moreover, constituted a menace 
to the adjacent iron fields of Lorraine, 
whence Germany derived the ore needed for 
her guns and ammunition. The destruction 
of the forts, therefore, would insure the 
safety of the indispensable iron fields and 
open the gateway to Paris. 

Germany was well aware that a war of 
erosion must of necessity result to her dis- 
advantage, inasmuch as the resources of the 
Allies tended constantly to increase as hers 
tended to diminish. Her last opportunity 
of winning the War lay in crushing France, 
before the Allies could bring their full 
strength to bear upon the Western front. 

England already had placed 600,000 men 
in the Western trenches and had promised 
an additional army of 2,000,000 by midsum- 
mer of 1916. Italy was preparing to enter 
the War on the side of the Allies. It was 



Third Year of the War 1916 



213 



imperative, therefore, that Germany should 
endeavor to crush France in one colossal 
blow. 

In pursuance of this general policy, Ger- 
many had assembled on the Franco-German 
front a group of armies whose total strength 
was estimated at 1,000,000. Of this num- 
ber, 500,000 were already concentrated at 
Verdun, the balance being held in reserve. 

In preparation for the siege, which had 
been forecasted a year before, the German 
High Command had assembled the greatest 
concentration of artillery in the history of 
warfare. Mountains of shells had sprung 
up; thousands of huge howitzers and field 
guns had been solidly set upon placements 
for the grand assault; great stores of as- 
phyxiating bombs, poison gases, and other 
infernal devices were in readiness. To lend 
eclat to the siege, the "god-man," Kaijer 
Wilhelm, was present and conferred the chief 
command upon his son and heir, the Crown 
Prince. 

The Verdun Defences 

THE French, on their part, knew full 
well that the forts were indefensible. Ac- 
cordingly they had advanced their defensive 
eastward across the River Meuse, where two 
parallel lines of trenches were constructed 
in a semi-circle along a line of hills, forming 
a salient whose apex pointed toward the 
north. Guarding this line, though not 
wholly in the trenches, was an army of 120,- 
000 Territorials, under the immediate com- 
mand of Generals Sarrail and Herr. 

Both ends of the French salient were held 
by the Germans; St. Mihiel had been seized 
in September 1914, and Montfaucon had 
been occupied during the retreat from the 
Marne. These positions gave the Germans 
absolute control of the two principal rail- 
roads that supplied Verdun with food and 
ammunition. More important still, they 
were able to sweep the salient with a cross- 
fire from east to west. 

Only one narrow gauge railroad remained 
in the possession of the French, and this 
being totally inadequate to carry the needed 
supplies of food and ammunition to Verdun, 
and within range of the German guns be- 
sides, it was necessary to improvise a new 



transport system. Motor vehicles of all 
descriptions, some 10,000 in number, were 
requisitioned from all parts of France, and 
this mobile service proved the salvation of 
Verdun. Thirty-thousand drivers were con- 
stantly employed in operating their motor 
vehicles. 

The units of the French Army, crouching 
in myriad crater holes, or lurking in the 
wooded stretches along the line, with only 
a few troops left to guard the trenches, were 
in a precarious situation, due to the fact that 
the River Meuse, at their back, was now in 
flood. A forced retreat across the river 
might end in disaster. 

The Germans, in addition to the advan- 
tage they held in numbers, guns, positions 
and supplies, had constructed a system of 
railways along the front of the Verdun 
salient enabling them quickly to transfer 
their men and supplies to any point where 
the exigencies of battle called for rapid con- 
centration. 

The Preliminary Bombardment 

THE French strategists had anticipated 
the launching of a powerful German offensive 
in the Western theater early in 1916, but the 
general expectation had been that the attack 
would be deferred until the March winds 
had dried the ground. The probabilities 
pointed toward an attack in force against 
the British front in Flanders. So sure of 
this were the Allied commanders that they 
had drawn from the forces defending Ver- 
dun, in order to strengthen the British posi- 
tion. The Germans had encouraged this 
illusion of a Flanders offensive by making 
a feint attack on a five-mile front at Lihons 
with rolling gas clouds followed by infantry 
rushes in mass. 

While this feint against the British front 
was in progress, on February 19, 1916, the 
real artillery assault on the Verdun salient 
was begun. Using only a part of their field 
guns, the Germans seemed to be feeling out 
the French position, to get the range and 
to locate the French batteries. But even 
this preliminary bombardment was a terri- 
ble demonstration of German power. This 
trial bombardment by field guns continued 
without cessation for 48 hours, the French 



214 



Germany's Crime Against Humanity 



gunners answering the fire as best they 
could, with the inferior artillery at their 
command. 

The Immortal Battle Begins in a Blizzard 

HAVING found the range of the French 
trenches, the Germans, on February 21st, 
began the bombardment in force. A blizzard 
was raging and the French soldiers, unshel- 
tered on the bleak hills of the Meuse, suf- 
fered greatly from the cold. With a roar 
that shook the earth for many miles around, 
thousands of field guns swept the French 
lines along the heights of the Meuse from 
St. Mihiel to Montfaucon. Then the huge 
Austrian howitzers, firing 12-inch shells, 
were brought into action, concentrating now 
upon one, then upon another, center of re- 
sistance. 

The first hurricane of shells reduced the 
salient from Brabant to Haumont; in a trice 
the trenches were obliterated. Had they 
been occupied in force, as the Germans sup- 
posed them to be, the entire French Army 
must have perished. 

Fortunately the French Army, for the 
most part, were crouching low in dugouts, 
tunnels, crater holes or in the adjacent 
woods, and only a few thousand perished in 
the trenches. 

Soon, like a puff-ball, the entire sector 
from Herbebois to Mancourt was blown to 
dust. Then the Central front of the salient 
was smothered in a hail of shells pouring 
down from three directions. Thus the entire 
front line of trenches was wiped out. 

One hour after the opening of the battle, 
every yard of ground behind the first 
trenches had been plowed by German shells 
and the telegraph lines destroyed. 

German Infantry Attack Repelled 

IN spite of the blasting fire, the valorous 
French soldiers clung to their dugouts and 
tunnels, which the shells had failed to pen- 
etrate, and from widely scattered positions 
along their front they operated their bat- 
teries of light guns with cool and deadly 
precision. 

As, wave upon wave, the German infantry 
advanced to secure the trench-line, they were 
repeatedly checked by the heroes in the dug- 



outs, who cut them down with a relentless 
machine-gun fire. Only in the Center was 
the assault successful, the Germans occupy- 
ing the Haumont and Caures Woods. 

All this time the French units, isolated 
in their tunnels and dugouts, were fighting 
upon their own initiative without general 
direction. 

Brabant Proves "A German Graveyard" 

THE second day of battle opened cold and 
snowy. To warm the French, the Germans 
threw jets of liquid fire into the Wood of 
Consenvoye, forcing an evacuation. There 
followed an infantry assault on Herbebois 
and the Wood of Ville in which the hand- 
to-hand fighting was especially bloody and 
determined. 

The German artillery fire, meanwhile, was 
growing in violence; great gusts of flame 
swept over Anglemont, the Mormont Farm 
and La Wavrille; the second French trench 
line was churned with shells; Haumont was 
reduced to ruins. Still the hordes of Huns 
had difficulty in expelling the small body 
of French defenders; it was evening before 
they gained possession of the ruins. 

When night fell, the French had lost the 
Wood of Ville and evacuated Brabant, but 
still held most of Herbebois and La Wavrille. 
In the cold and snow, under the ceaseless 
bombardment, the dauntless Frenchmen has- 
tily dug themselves in again. The German 
losses were so appalling that they afterward 
named Verdun, 'The German graveyard." 

Germans Slaughtered at Herbebois 

WITH both trenches gone, the battle was 
now to be fought in the open. Determined 
upon carrying the wood of L'Herbebois at 
any cost, the Germans on the third day of 
battle attacked in great force and in close 
formation. 

Waiting until the Huns were at close 
range, the French "75's" opened fire on the 
solid mass. Whole ranks were wiped ^out at 
a time; it was downright slaughter. Five 
successive attacks were made, with the same 
result. The fighting became furious beyond 
description. Yet, despite their reckless 
squandering of life, the Germans could not 
gain a foot of ground. 



Third Year of the War-1916 



215 



Unfortunately, as night fell, the Germans 
succeeded in taking La Wavrille and the 
defenders of Herbebois were obliged to fall 
back or risk being flanked. Many of the 
French soldiers, fighting mad, refused to re- 
treat, choosing rather to die where they 
stood. 

In other directions the Germans were ad- 
vancing more cautiously. On the 24th the 
French evacuated the dangerous position in 
the village of Samogneux, and by evening the 
Germans had gained the hill known as "cote 
344," the villages of Beaumont, Le Chaume 
and Ornes, the Wood of Fosses, and had 
thrown the French back to the line of the 
Verdun forts. The Germans were now con- 
fident that they had won the battle. One last 
effort would make them masters of the 
heights above Verdun and the French Army 
would be forced to retire in disorder. 

Gen. Petain Takes Over the Command 

IN THIS critical juncture, aid came to the 
French. General Petain arrived, with all 
his staff, to succeed General Castelnau in 
active command, bringing with him a corps 
of 50,000 veterans who had won laurels in 
Flanders, Artois and Champagne. This 
corps was at once thrown into the furnace 
and checked the German advance. At the 
same time, Crown Prince Frederick's Army 
of 14 divisions was increased to 25, giving 
him a force of 800,000 to oppose the French 
force of 300,000. 

Germans Make a Breach at Douaumont 

THE battle, on the 25th, centered on the 
borderland of Douaumont. Early that day 
the Germans made a fierce attack on the 
cote of Poive, carrying the villages of Louve- 
mont and Bezonvant. 

Before Douaumont the fighting was in- 
tense; by 5 in the afternoon the village 
seemed to be surrounded. A German bri- 
gade had indeed secured a foothold at Fort 
Douaumont, and the German General Staff 
had trumpeted to the world that "the 
armoured fort of Douaumont, the corner- 
stone of the French defense of Verdun, had 
been carried by a Brandenburg regiment," 
but their boast was premature. 



"They Shall Not Pass" 

DECLARING that "they shall not pass," the 
French by a vigorous counter-attack, thrust 
back the enemy. A desperate struggle fol- 
lowed ; the Germans did their utmost to widen 
the breach they had made toward the fort; 
the village of Douaumont was taken and re- 
taken, but all the German effort and waste 
of men were in vain. They could not pass 
on; henceforth their advance was definitely 
controlled. 

The "Iron Corps" Retakes Douaumont 

GENERAL PETAIN met the peril of this 
crisis, February 26th, by launching a coun- 
ter offensive. The veterans of the immortal 
"Iron Corps," led by General Balfourier, 
flinging themselves in front of the whole 
German advance in the Ravine of Death, on 
the edge of the Douaumont Plateau, first 
halted the onrush of the Great German Army 
and then retook Fort Douaumont. 

During the ensuing three days Douaumont 
changed hands three times, but try as they 
might, the Germans could not dislodge the 
heroic Iron Corps. Single positions were 
regained and lost twice in a day. 

In this engagement the losses of the Ger- 
mans were unbelievably heavy; 100,000 fell 
in a single day. The future of France, of 
the world, was at stake and the Iron Corps 
would have died to a man rather than suffer 
defeat. In that maelstrom of death, every 
reserve corps available had been used by the 
Germans. At the moment of victory they 
had been thwarted by a single brave French 
Corps which was forced to fight facing uphill 
and with a flooded river at its back. 

"The Battle of the Wings" 

FAILING to force the French line at its 
Center, the Germans, on March 2d, attacked 
the two ends. The French salient was now 
inverted, with its apex pointing toward 
Verdun, the right wing resting on Fort de 
Vaux and the left on Dead Man's Hill. The 
breach in the Center was swept continually 
by the efficient artillery fire of the French 
gunners. It was necessary to capture these 
wings before the German direct advance on 
Verdun could be continued. 



216 



Germany's Crime Against Humanity 



In these hellish attacks the Germans made 
use of liquid fire, asphyxiating gas, bombs, 
machine guns and bayonets upon a scale 
hitherto unknown. Thousands of brave 
Frenchmen melted away like snow flakes, in 
this crucible of war. Their only shelter was 
that afforded by swamps, forests and shell- 
craters, which were half filled with water 
and ice. 

Continually the ground was swept by a 
rain of shells. So fiercely was every inch of 
ground contested, that advance was possible 
only after the shelter holes had been pulver- 
ized and their occupants blown to atoms. 
It was downright butchery ; the soldiers con- 
tending not only against the infernal weapons 
of warfare, but also against the sullen forces 
of nature. 

Snow fell interminably during March and 
there ' was little protection against the 
weather in the coverts of the forest, the 
swamps and the hillside. In this bleak 
theater of war, during a period of three 
months, was fought one of the most terrific 
battles of the entire War. 

Battle of "Dead Man's Hill" 

ACROSS the Meuse River, opposite to Dou- 
aumont, is an eminence known as Le Mort 
Homme ("Dead Man's Hill"). Adjacent to 
this, and separated from it by a brook, is 
another eminence known as Hill 304. These 
hills, which commanded Verdun, were held, 
but not occupied in force, by the French. 

The defending French Army at this time 
occupied the higher elevation along the 
Charny Ridge, which extended westward 
from the River Meuse four miles north of 
Verdun. If the Germans could capture these 
hills, the gate to Paris would be opened. 

The Germans, by a great sacrifice of men, 
advanced during the first week of March to 
the foot of Dead Man's Hill. Another week 
found them in possession of one of the sum- 
mits. Here they were stopped. "They shall 
not pass" declared the French. 

During the next ten days the Germans 
wasted regiment upon regiment in futile at- 
tacks upon Hill 304. 

Still hoping to break through to Verdun, 
they next assailed Pepper Ridge, which 
stretches between Douaumont and Dead 



Man's Hill. Here the resistance was equally 
stubborn, and on April 18th, the Crown 
Prince desisted from further efforts in this 
direction. 

Returning to the assault on Dead Man's 
Hill, the Germans, in the last week of May, 
succeeded in expelling the French. Hill 304 
soon after succumbed. But it was an empty 
triumph, bought at frightful cost. The Ger- 
mans still found they could not break through 
to Verdun. 

Fort de Vaux Holds Out Three Months 

THE German bombardment of the village 
and Fort of Vaux at the right wing of the 
salient, was begun on May 29th. Vaux 
stood on a broad plateau whose slopes were 
seared with ravines, which assisted the Ger- 
mans greatly in their operations. 

Having first seized the little village of 
Vaux-devant-Damloup in the valley below, 
the Germans cautiously worked up through 
the ravines and in the ensuing weeks gradu- 
ally advanced their trench lines around the 
fated fort. Continual bombardment finally 
reduced the fort to powder. 

The slim French garrison of 600 men, now 
completely isolated from the rest of the army, 
took refuge in the underground passages of 
the fort. They were in sore straits for lack 
of food and water. 

On June 3d, the Germans reached the 
summit and by dropping gas bombs and liquid 
fire down upon the French garrison, sought 
to suffocate them in the shelter below. 

Finally, on June 7th, with death by suffo- 
cation as the only alternative, Major Raynal, 
the brave commander of Vaux and his plucky 
garrison, surrendered. The Germans, after 
100 days and at a loss of thousands of men, 
had gained an objective which profited them 
little. 

The German Thrust at Verdun Fails 

HAVING captured the two wings of the 
French line, the Crown Prince then launched 
his final thrust for Verdun through the cen- 
ter of the salient. The two armies -faced each 
other on lines running north and south. The 
Germans, on the Douaumont Plateau, were 
now but four miles from Verdun. 

Their first intent was, by frontal attack, 
to expel the French from the narrow ridge 



Third Year of the War- 1916 



217 



which barred the way to Verdun. In this 
effort they were doomed to disappointment. 
After two months of the most terrific fight- 
ing of which history has a record, the Ger- 
mans succeeded in penetrating only six miles 
into French territory on a 15-mile front. The 
limit of their advance was Thiaumont, which 
was taken on June 23d after an assault by 
100,000 picked German troops. On the next 
day the battle raged in the streets of Fleury 
where the French held their ground and 
stayed the advancing tide. 

The Souville Fort still held, and until that 
had been reduced, the German passage of the 
Meuse would be hotly contested. The Crown 
Prince had promised his troops in July that 
the push for Verdun would continue, but the 
battle of the Somme was now raging further 
north, and the Crown Prince was forced to 
withdraw his reserves from the Verdun 
battle field to assist in the Somme operations. 

Failing to dislodge the French at Souville 
he could not hope to reach Verdun. On the 
other hand, while the Germans held Douau- 
mont, a renewal of the Verdun offensive 
might be expected at any time. 

The French, in August, attacked the posi- 
tions gained by the Germans at Fleury and 
Thiaumont, but were repulsed with heavy 
losses. So matters rested until the great 
French offensive began in September. 

German Losses 500,000, French 200,000 

THE Germans, so far in the Verdun cam- 
paign, had sacrified 500,000 lives and their 
only recompense for this fearful loss was a 
paltry gain of a few miles of French terri- 
tory on a 15-mile front. The French losses 
were estimated at 200,000. France had again 
saved civilization. Russia had been given 
time to recuperate from her disaster, and 
England had been able to bring 2,000,000 sol- 
diers to the Western front. 

Recapture of Douaumont and Vaux 

THOUGH the German pressure against Ver- 
dun had relaxed in July, because of the trans- 
fer of men and guns to the Somme battle- 
field, nevertheless- the Germans were able to 
hold Forts Douaumont and Vaux and seri- 
ously threaten Verdun. 

The situation being intolerable to the 
French, early in September they began pre- 



parations for a counter-offensive. Artillery 
of the heaviest type was concentrated about 
Verdun and there was also a great assem* 
blage of aviation. 

General Mangin, in command of the offens- 
ive, planned a threefold attack. One divi . 
sion was to advance on the town of Dauau 
mont by way of the Hardamont Quarries. A 
second division, advancing from Froidc 
Terre, was to take Fort Douaumont. A third 
division was to assault Vaux. 

The triple attack was launched on October 
24th, preceeded by a concentrated artillery 
fire which crumpled up the enemy's trenches. 
Just before noon in the obscurity of a dense 
fog, the three divisions rapidly advanced to- 
wards their several objectives. Whole sec- 
tions of the German first line we're taken 
without resistance. 

The ravines, especially those at Harda- 
mont, were the scenes of savage fighting. A 
battalion of Senegalese, newly arrived from 
Africa, here encountered a terrific fire of 
musketry and machine guns. Wavering for 
a moment, the negro troops swept on again. 
Split in the Center by an enemy force, the 
Senegalese rushed ahead on either side, at- 
tacking on the first lines. Due to the heroic 
action of these brave colonials, the resistance 
of the Germans at Douaumont was broken. 

Despite the desperate resistance of the 
Germans, Douaumont was taken in four 
hours, the victors traversing ground which 
it had taken the Brandenburgers six months 
to cross after an expenditure of hundreds 
of thousands of lives. This victory netted 
the French 6,000 prisoners and much booty, 
their losses being less than 3,000. 

End of Battle of Verdun 

THE assault on Vaux was less successful. 
The French advance was halted on the line 
of the old ditch, but with Douaumont in 
French possession the fate of Vaux was 
sealed. 

The Germans held the fort until November 
2d, then suddenly evacuating the position 
and retiring to the Woevre Plain. With the 
restoration of Vaux, the circle of Verdun 
defences was once more complete. 

Eight months before the French had said : 
"They shall not pass." And the Germans 



218 



Germany's Crime Against Humanity 



did not pass Verdun. Instead they had re- 
tired a defeated army, leaving half a million 
of their dead on the slopes round about 
Verdun. 

Final Dispersion of the Germans 

THOUGH the Germans had withdrawn, 
their guns were still within range of the 
Verdun forts. It was necessary to drive 
them out of range. This the French did in 
a second and final counter-offensive, which 
opened on December 15th. In a few brief 
hours, four French divisions swept twice 



their number of Germans out of the Meuse 
district to the north; clearing the interval 
between Douaumont and the Woevre and 
re-establishing the main defensive position 
beyond the circle of forts. At the same time 
they took 11,000 prisoners, together with 115 
guns and much booty. 

Of all the territory seized by them, the 
Germans retained only Dead Man's Hill and 
Hill 304. These were destined to fall in the 
following year. 

Verdun had been redeemed by the valor 
of the French. 



EASTERN THEATER. JAN. 8 -APR. 28 



British Army at Kut-El-Amara Surrenders After 143 Days' Siege 

Relief Army of 90,000 from India Fails to Unite with Gen. Townshend' s Forces 



.................................. SECTION 5 1916 

British Garrison, 9,000 
General Townshend 
British Relief Army, 90,000 

General Aylmer, Commander-in-Chief 
General Younghusband 
General Kemball 
General Keary 
General Gorringe 

British Mesopotamian Army, 20,000 
General Sir Percy Lake 
General Brooking 
General Sir John Nixon 



Turkish Army, 200,000 (estimated) 

General Khalil Pasha 
General von der Goltz 



FOR the first time in 140 years or since 
the American Revolution an English 
Army was forced to surrender, when 
the famished remnant of General Towns- 
hend's Mesopotamian Army on April 29, 
1916, laid down their arms to the Turks at 
Kut-el-Amara after sustaining a siege of 143 
days. 

When General Townshend's Expeditionary 
Force started on its ill-fated campaign to 
Bagdad in October, 1915, it numbered less 
than 25,000 men. These had diminished 
gradually in several battles with the Turks, 
and when General Townshend finally took 
refuge in Kut-el-Amara, on the banks of the 
Tigris River, he had an effective force of 
about 9,000 men. The strength of the Turk- 
ish forces has been variously estimated up to 
250,000. They were under the command of 
a German military instructor, General von 
der Goltz, assisted by General Khalil Pasha. 

All efforts to bring relief to General 
Townshend had failed. One British Relief 



Army, 90,000 strong, under the command of 
General Aylmer was being organized at Ali 
Gherbi. The First Division of the Army of 
Relief, commanded by General Younghus- 
band, which had started for Kut-el-Amara on 
January 4, 1915, was advancing in two col- 
umns along both banks of the Tigris. The 
British Mesopotamian Army, commanded by 
General Sir Percy Lake, and numbering 20,- 
000 men, also endeavored but without success 
to break through the Turkish ring and relieve 
the beleaguered British forces. 

Turkish Sorties Repulsed 
GENERAL TOWNSHEND'S garrison, then well 
supplied with provisions and hoping for 
speedy relief, were busily engaged during the 
month of January, 1916, in repelling the fre- 
quent sorties of the Turks. Th'e January 
floods, which compelled the retirement of the 
Turks from their intrenchments around the 
Kut to the higher ground a mile or two 
away, also worked to the advantage of the 
British garrison. 



Third Year of the War-1916 



219 



Attempts to Reach Kut-el-A niara 

THE British Mesopotamian Army, under 
command of General Sir Percy Lake, which 
had been operating near by, strove mightily 
to break through the Turkish ring and re- 
lieve the beleaguered garrison. 

The Mesopotamian Army, advancing on 
February 22d along the right bank of the 
Tigris to Um-el-Arak, bombarded a Turkish 
stronghold at El-Henna across the river, 
stampeding the Turks. Two weeks later the 
army had pushed forward to Es-Sinn, seven 
miles from Kut-el-Amara, and assailed this 
Turkish stronghold. The Turks were driven 
from their first line trenches in the early 
assault, but recovered the position on the 
same day. General Lake then withdrew to 
his former position, 23 miles from Kut-el- 
Amara. On March 10th, a division of Gen- 
eral Lake's army drove back a body of Turks 
that had occupied an advanced position on 
the Tigris. A period of stagnation now 
set in. 

The Indian Relief Army Advances 

MEANWHILE, the British Relief Army 
from India, under command of General Ayl- 
mer, was fighting its way along the desert 
to the relief of Kut-el-Amara. On January 
8th, this army defeated the Turks in two 
pitched battles at Sheikh Saad, and by Jan- 
uary 22d had advanced to Umm-el-Hanna, 
where the Turks were strongly intrenched. 
The British bombarded the position, but the 
Turkish reply was so effective that the Brit- 
ish withdrew with heavy losses. General 
Aylmer was then succeeded in command by 
General Gorringe. 

The spring floods had now set in and the 
whole region was a sea of mud, rendering 
all military movements difficult. The Brit- 
ish troops were obliged to bivouac, during a 
downpour of rain, in soaked and sodden 
ground, sinking ankle deep in mud. Any 
advance made must be over open country, 
affording no protection from shell fire, 
against elaborate trenches built for the Turks 
by German engineers under the direction of 
General von der Goltz. 

British Relief Army Repulsed at Dujailah 

UNDISMAYED by the repulse at Umm-el- 
Hanna, General Gorringe decided to move 



up the left bank of the Tigris and across the 
desert at night and launch a surprise attack 
on the Turkish position at the Dujailah re- 
doubt, seven miles below the Kut. It was 
a risky enterprise, inasmuch as the British 
Army would be removed from its water sup- 
ply and in event of a repulse would be in 
a position of grave danger. However, on 
March 7th, the plans were finally perfected. 
Gen. Kemball's division of infantry, covered 
by a cavalry brigade, was to attack the 
Dujailah redoubt from the south, while Gen- 
eral Keary was to attack on the east sHe. 
The remainder of the army was held in 
reserve. 

Unfortunately, General Kemball's division 
was delayed three hours in opening the at- 
tack, and for lack of co-ordination, the whole 
movement failed. The British, with heavy 
losses, thereupon fell back on Wadi. 

Relief Army Gives Up the Fight 

OWING to the heavy floods, the English 
Army could not renew their operations until 
April 4th, when a second and successful as- 
sault was made upon Umm-el-Hanna. On 
April 8th, the British attacked Sanna-i-yat, 
but were repulsed. Turning to the fort of 
Beit-Aiessa, on April 17th, they captured 
that position after a heavy bombardment, 
holding it against several counter-attacks. 
A two days' assault on Sanna-i-yat followed, 
April 20-21st, resulting in a victory for the 
Turks. The Relief Army had fought day 
and night, for 18 consecutive days, on both 
banks of the Tigris; had advanced time and 
again to assault positions of great strength 
defended by superior forces; had contended 
against the obstacles of flood, heat, lack of 
water, and scarcity of food. Utterly ex- 
hausted from facing a foe that greatly out- 
numbered them, they were near to the end 
of their resources. They could not force the 
Turkish lines. Consequently, the garrison 
at Kut-el-Amara could hope for no aid from 
them. 

One Final Effort to Send Food to Kut 

ONE last desperate effort to relieve the 
now famished and emaciated garrison at 
Kut was made on the night of April 24, 1916. 
A ship, laden with provisions, attempts^ to 
run the gauntlet of Turkish guns command- 



220 



Germany's Crime Against Humanity 



ing the entire stretch of the Tigris between 
Sanna-i-yat and Kut-el-Amara, but it ran 
aground near Magasis. At the same time an 
attempt was made to send food by aero- 
planes, but the Turkish anti-aircraft guns 
riddled the planes with shot, bringing them 
crashing to the ground. 

Plight of the Garrison 

THE sufferings of the garrison, meanwhile, 
were intense. In the early stages of 
the siege, there was food in plenty for the 
10,000 British and Hindu soldiers and the 
20,000 civilians living in Kut. Arab traders 
sold stocks of jam, biscuits and canned fish 
at exorbitant prices. These supplies being 
soon exhausted, all were forced to depend 
upon the army commissariat. In February, 
the ration was a pound of barley-meal bread 
and a pound and a quarter of mule or horse 
flesh. In March, the ration was reduced to 
half a pound of bread and a pound of flesh. 
In April it was four ounces of bread and 
twelve ounces of mule flesh, which was the 
allowance operative at the time of the sur- 
render. The food problem was made more 
difficult by the religious scruples of the Indian 
troops, who refused to eat horse and mule 
flesh, lest they should violate the rules of 
their caste. In this emergency the English 
troops were required to give most of their 
grain allowance to the Hindus. 

Disease spread among the horses and 
.hundreds were shot and buried. The dimin- 
ished grain and horse food supply necessi- 
tated the shooting of 2,000 starved animals ; 
the fattest of these carcasses sufficed to feed 
the garrison for 40 days. Stores of grain 
had been found secreted in several houses, 
but could not be used because of lack of a 
mill to grind it. This difficulty was over- 
come when British airplanes, in response 
to a wireless appeal, succeeded in dropping 
millstones inside the city. Scurvy, however, 
soon set in and many deaths resulted because 
the mule and horse meat was boiled in the 
dirty muddy water out of the Tigris without 
salt or seasoning. 

Stray cats furnished many a "wild rabbit" 
supper; ginger root took the place of tea; 
a species of grass was cooked as vegetables 
and it gave a relish to the horse flesh. When 
the milk supplies ceased, the hospital diet 



was confined to corn flour, or rice water for 
the sick. On April 22d, the last of the re- 
serve rations had been issued; all the artil- 
lery, cavalry and transport horses, mules and 
donkeys had been consumed, save only five 
mules. From April 25th to April 29th, the 
garrison subsisted on slim supplies dropped 
by aeroplanes. The garrison and populace 
were by this time so attenuated as to resem- 
ble walking skeletons. 

The Surrender of Kut-el-Amara 

ON April 29th, the 143rd day of the siege, 
after destroying his guns, munitions and 
wireless equipment, General Townshend 
hoisted the white flag of surrender. The 
surrendered army was composed of 2970 
British and 6,000 Hindu troops. The Turks 
agreed to supply their captives with food 
sent up the Tigris from the English base. 
It was also arranged that wounded prisoners 
should be exchanged and this was done. No 
reprisals were attempted on the civilian pop- 
ulation. The prisoners were removed with- 
out delay to Bagdad and .from there to 
Constantinople. Very few of the prisoners 
of war survived the treatment they received 
at the hands of the Turks in Constantinople. 
British Relief Army Defeats the Turks 

FOR a month after the surrender of Kut- 
el-Amara, quiet reigned along the Mesopota- 
mian battle front. On May 19th, activities 
were renewed, when the Turks vacated their 
position on the south bank of the Tigris at 
Beit Eissa. 

General Gorringe's Indian Relief Army at 
once advanced and attacked the Turks at 
Es-Sinn, driving them out of the strongly 
fortified position known as the Dujailah Re- 
doubt. They were assisted in this operation 
by a force of Cossack cavalry, which had 
ridden 200 miles over mountains 8,000 feet 
high from their base in Kermanshah, Per- 
sia, to join the British. 

Having cleared the south bank of the 
Tigris of Turks for a distance of ten miles, 
the British now shelled the Turkish posi- 
tions on the north bank of the river, but 
failed to dislodge them. On June 10th, the 
Turks sank three British barges on the 
Tigris. The extreme heat prevented any 
further operations in this theater of war 
from May to July. 



Third Year of the War 1916 

EASTERN THEATER. MAY 26- DEC. 3O 



221 



Allies Reconquer Macedonia and Occupy City of Monastir 

Bulgarian-German- Austrian Forces Defeated Revolution in Greece Results from 
King Constantino's Treachery Allies Seize Greek Navy 



SECTION 6-1916 



Salonika Army, 700,000 
Gen. Sarrail, Commander 

French Land and Naval Forces 
Gen. Cordonnieu 
Gen. Guillemat 
Admiral du Fournier 

Serbian Force, 100,000 

Gen. Mishitch 
British Force 

Gen. G. F. Milne 
Roumanian Force 

Gen. Averescu 
Italian Division 
Russian Corps 

THE situation in the Balkans, during 
the early months of 1916, was of such 
gravity as to fill the Allies with deep 
concern. Though nominally neutral, Greece 
nevertheless had been secretly aiding the 
Germans. King Constantine, the brother-in- 
law of the Kaiser, had winked at all evasions 
of Greek sovereignty attempted by the Bul- 
garians and the Austrians. When his Prime 
Minister, Venizelos, protested against these 
treacherous acts, the King had caused his 
removal. A new cabinet, headed by M. 
Daimos, had been chosen to fill the interior 
until the general elections were held in 
August. 

Following the conquest of Serbia in 1915, 
the Bulgarians had driven the Salonika 
Army, commanded by General Sarrail, back 
across the Greek border to its base. Greece 
being then at peace with Bulgaria, the Bul- 
garian Army had not crossed the frontier 
in pursuit of Sarrail. At Salonika, General 
Sarrail had established himself in a strong 
position with a wide circle of intrenchments. 
But on the sea side, he was menaced by the 
forts at the entrance to the harbor. On 
January 28, 1916, Sarrail had seized these 
forts and driven the consular agents of the 
enemy powers out of Greece. 

German Bomb Raid Angers Greeks 

GERMAN activities began at Salonika on 
March 27, 1916, when a squadron of Greek 



German-Bulgarian-Greek Forces, 800,000 
Bulgarian Army Gen. Boyadjieff 
Austro-German Army Gen. von Staabe 
Greek Army Gen. Kovakes 



aeroplanes dropped bombs upon the British 
and French warships in the harbor. Four 
of these aeroplanes subsequently were dis- 
abled by the fire of the Allied guns. Many 
of the bombs fell in the city of Salonika, 
killing 80 civilians. 

This raid naturally aroused deep resent- 
ment against Germany among the populace. 
The Chamber of Deputies considered the 
question of declaring martial law, .but Pre- 
mier Skouloudis discouraged all hostile crit- 
icism of Germany on the ground that "the 
higher interests of Greece impose silence." 
Nevertheless, the raid was characterized as 
an act of "simple assassination" and "Ger- 
man frightfulness." Attempts to hold mass 
meetings were prohibited, but at the funeral 
of the victims of the raid the populace cried, 
"Down with the barbarians!" and "Down 
with Germany!" 

Bulgarians Invade Greece and Seize Fort Rupel 

WILD excitement was caused among the 
Greeks on May 26th, when it became known 
that their hated enemies, the Bulgarians, had 
invaded Greek territory and seized Fort 
Rupel, six miles across the border, compelling 
the garrison to evacuate. On the following 
day the Bulgarians occupied Fort Dragotin, 
and Fort Kanivo. 

The Bulgarians pretended that this was 
only a temporary occupation of the forts, 
necessary to their protection from an im- 



222 



Germany's Crime Against Humanity 



pending advance of the Allies out of Salonika. 
It developed later, however, that the surren- 
der of the forts was due to the direct com- 
mand of King Constantine, who had received 
a bribe from Germany in the form of a 
"loan" of $15,000,000. 

Emboldened by their success, the Bulga- 
rians pushed further south, occupying all of 
the Kavala Drama district, all of the Greek 
territory east of the German line and finally 
seized the Adrianople Salonika Railway 
which enabled them to transport their troops 
and supplies with greater facility. 

Allies Compel Greek Army to Demobilize 

DECIDING to teach the Greek King a lesson, 
the Allies on June 8th served notice on Con- 
stantine that a commercial blockade of Greek 
ports would be established. This action pro- 
voked hostile demonstrations in front of the 
Allied legation buildings. On June 23d, the 
Allies made these several demands: The 
complete demobilization of the Greek Army; 
the appointment of a new ministry devoid 
of any political prejudice; the immediate dis- 
solution of the Chamber of Deputies, to be 
followed by fresh elections; and the dismis- 
sal of certain police officials who had con- 
nived in the assaults upon the legations. 

King Constantine, returning hastily to 
Athens, ordered the troops under arms and 
summoned the Chamber of Deputies. The 
resignation of Premier Skouloudis was ac- 
cepted and Alexander Zaimis was named as 
his successor with power to choose a new 
cabinet. The obnoxious chief of police was 
immediately removed and it was promised 
that all the demands of the Allies should be 
carried out. Thereupon the blockade was 
raised and the Allies agreed to advance 
Greece a loan to tide her over her financial 
difficulties. 

Salonika Army Now Numbers 750,000 

GENERAL SARRAIL'S army at Salonika had 
been rapidly expanding until in August, 1916, 
it numbered 750,000 men. These forces in- 
cluded 350,000 French and English, 100,000 
Serbians who had been transferred from the 
Island of Cyprus; 80,000 Russians, a large 
body of Italians and representatives of all 
other Allied nations excepting the Japanese. 



The Bulgarian Army at this time was 300,000 
strong. 

Bulgarians Capture Kavala in Macedonia 

ANTICIPATING an advance by General Sar- 
rail's army, the Bulgarian forces on August 
17th moved south from Monastir; crossed 
the frontier of Eastern Macedonia, where 
the treacherous Greek guards gave them 
right of way; forced the Serbian defenders 
of Macedonia back as far as Ostrova Lake, 
and surrounded Fort Kavala, which was de- 
fended by the Fourth Greek Army Corps. 
More Greek treachery was here disclosed, 
for the larger part of the garrison sur- 
rendered to the Bulgarians without firing 
a shot. A considerable number of the loyal 
Greek soldiers, however, escaped to Theos. 
This movement of the Bulgarians discon- 
certed the plans of Gen. Sarrail, whose ad- 
vance was now threatened from three direc- 
tions, rendering impossible the use of his 
army in mass. 

Greeks Rise in Revolutions 

THE treachery of King Constantine, in 
permitting the Bulgarians to invade Greek 
territory without opposition, still further in- 
flamed the public indignation. Revolutions 
broke out in Macedonia and Crete among 
the loyal Greeks. In Macedonia, a provis- 
ional government was organized with Col. 
Zimorakakis at its head, receiving the sup- 
port of the Greek garrisons at Vodena, Port 
Karaburun and Salonika. 

In Crete also a provisional government 
was formed and a committee was sent to 
Salonika to tender the allegiance of the Cre- 
tans to Gen. Sarrail. The Revolutionists or- 
ganized an army with M. Venizelos, the for- 
mer Premier, as their leader. 

This revolution so frightened the King that 
he hastened to make overtures to the Allies. 
Premier Zaimis urged the Allies to state the 
reward Greece might expect should she enter 
the War on thir side, but he was informed 
that Greece must waive the question of com- 
pensation for the present. 

On October 9th, President Venizelos ar- 
rived at Salonika and assumed direction of 
the new Revolutionary Government, which 
had meanwhile been officially recognized by 
the Allied Governments. The new Greek 



Third Year of the War 1916 



223 



Government thereupon declared war upon the 
Germanic Allies and began to enlist troops 
for a campaign against the Bulgars. King 
Constantine, however, still ruled over Athens 
and indeed over all the mainland of Greece 
outside Salonika. 

Allied Advance Against the Bulgarians 

THE Allied campaign in the Balkans 
against the united forces of Bulgarians, Aus- 
trians and Germans, was finally begun in 
September, after the Bulgarians had over- 
run Eastern Macedonia. Gen. Sarrail had 
detached a group of armies from his forces 
at Salonika, consisting chiefly of Serbs, 
French, English and Russians, to advance 
northward against Monastir in Macedonia. 
Co-operating with this force, was an Italian 
Army in Albania, approaching Macedonia 
from the west. An energetic offensive was 
begun along the entire front on Sept. llth. 

The Serbian Army, 100,000 strong, led by 
Gen. Mishitch, stormed the heights near Lake 
Ostrova, driving the Bulgarian's left wing 
back to the rocky hills behind Binitza. It 
took a week of intense fighting to dislodge 
the Bulgars from this strong position, but 
in the end the Bulgarians were routed, the 
Serbians pursuing them nine miles and cap- 
turing many prisoners and guns. The Bul- 
gars made their next stand on the banks of 
the Cerna, but were quickly pushed back 
along the ridges forming the eastern side of 
the Monastir Valley. 

Meanwhile, the British forces, under Gen. 
G. F. Milne, had crossed to the east bank 
of the Struma, pushing the Bulgars before 
them. The French, under Generals Guille- 
mat and Cordonnieu, had hammered the en- 
emy west of Lake Doiran as far as the 
Vardar, taking the first line of Bulgarian 
trenches. In the West, the Russian columns 
had shoved the Bulgars back upon the crags 
and precipices near Kastoria. The Italian 
Army, operating in Albania against the Aus- 
trians, had driven the foe out of Tepeleni and 
other villages on the border. A regiment 
of Greek volunteers, commanded by Lieut.- 
Col. Gravannis, assisted in the capture of the 
town of Fiorina. The net was closing in 
gradually on Monastir. 



By the middle of October, the British were 
hammering at the Seres fortress, the Ser- 
bians had taken Velyselo and Baldentsi, and 
the Italians had entered Macedonia from the 
west and were soon to establish a connection 
with the Russian left wing operating in 
Kastoria. 

Allies Seize the Greek Fleet 

MEANWHILE, King Constantine had been 
concentrating his pro-German Army in the 
interior near Larissa and the Allies resolved 
to clip his wings. On October llth, Admiral 
du Fournier was sent to Athens to demand 
the surrender of the entire Greek Fleet, ex- 
cepting two battleships and one cruiser. 
These demands being complied with, he fur- 
ther ordered the dismantling of all the shore 
batteries and the transfer to Allied control 
of the railroad connecting Larissa with the 
seaport of Piraeus. 

So unpopular was this proceeding that 
street riots resulted in which the police par- 
ticipated. Admiral du Fournier thereupon 
landed a large force of French Marines with 
machine guns and took command of the 
Greek police force throughout the Kingdom. 
This summary action brought King Constan- 
tine to his senses, and he ceased, for a time, 
his pro-German activities. 

Monastir Recaptured by the Allies 

IN Macedonia, so rapid had been the ad- 
vance of the Russians in the West, that the 
Bulgarians were forced to abandon their 
entire line of frontier defences centered on 
Kenali, retreating across the Viro and Bis- 
tritza Rivers toward Monastir. 

Hot in pursuit, the Russians by November 
16th were within four miles of the city. 
The Serbians, meanwhile, were swinging 
rapidly around to the northeast of Monastir, 
taking many prisoners. The Italians, too, 
had invested Monastir on the west side. The 
French were advancing toward the north, 
threatening the Bulgarian line of retreat. 

Fearing the loss of their entire Army, the 
Bulgarians and Germans evacuated Monas- 
tir on the night of November 18th, retreat- 
ing northward, and the city was occupied 
the next day by the Serbians, on the anni- 
versary of their expulsion from the city in 
1915. The Bulgarians, during their retreat 



224 



Germany's Crime Against Humanity 



from Monastir, were harassed by the Ser- 
bians,., losing many thousands in killed and 
wounded. 

Meanwhile, on the right of the Allied line, 
between Vardar and Doiran, the Bulgarians 
had shown strong resistance. With the cap- 
ture of Monastir the Serbian campaign 
closed so far as military results were con- 
cerned and a deadlock ensued on the Mace- 
donian front. 

Greek Against Greek 

THE first clash between the Greek Revolu- 
tionists and Royalists occurred on November 
2, 1916, when a body of Revolutionists 
marched overland to Katerina, some 25 miles 
northeast of Larissa, where a garrison of 
Royalist troops were stationed. In a brief 
encounter, the Revolutionists ousted the Roy- 
alists and occupied the city. King Constan- 
tine thereupon decreed that any Royalists 
who chose to do so might join the forces 
of the Revolutionists. 

Fighting In Streets of Athens 

THE Germans, on taking over the forts in 
Macedonia, had confiscated 350 cannons, 60,- 
000 rifles, and $20,000,000 worth of ammuni- 
tion. The Allies thought it time to remove 
all further temptation out of the reach of 
Germany. 

Accordingly, on November 18th, Admiral 
du Fournier was instructed to notify King 
Constantine that the "Equilibrium of War" 
had been disturbed by Germany's seizure 
of so much war material and that Greece 
would be required to surrender all arms, 
munitions and artillery to the Allies before 
December 1, 1916. 

The King having withheld his consent to 
any surrender of arms, a transport contain- 



taining French troops appeared off Athens 
and preparations were made to land them. 

The Royalist Government in the city at 
once expelled the French officers in charge 
of the telegraphs and post office, taking pos- 
session of them. 

Admiral du Fournier made formal de- 
mand for the delivery of the first installment 
of war material; the reply was a definite 
refusal. Whereupon, Allied troops and ma- 
rines were landed from the ships into the 
harbor. 

As the troops marched into Athens they 
were fired upon by a mob of Greeks, 47 
Allies being killed. Returning the fire, the 
Allies killed 29 Greeks. On the following 
day the landing party returned to the ships, 
while the Greek soldiers began intrenching 
on the heights overlooking Athens. During 
the melee, the Allied warships fired 38 shells 
into the city, some of which seemed aimed at 
the Royal Palace. 

Meanwhile, the Revolutionary troops had 
declared war on Germany and Bulgaria. All 
the citizens of the Allied nations had left 
Athens and taken refuge in Piraeus. The 
Greek ministers at London and Paris had 
resigned, saying they could no longer identify 
themselves with the Royalist Government of 
Greece. The diplomatic representatives of 
the United States, Holland, and Spain pro- 
tested against the treatment accorded the 
Revolutionaries, Gen. Korakas and Major 
Benakas of Athens having been arrested on 
charges of inciting guerilla warfare. 

Following conferences between the King, 
the Greek Government and the Allies, it was 
announced on December 16th, that Greece 
had accepted unreservedly the conditions of 
the Allies with reference to the surrender 
of arms. 



Third Year of the War-1916 



225 



i .... i . i ..*..,! EASTERN THEATER, MAR. 1-DEC. 31 



Russia Defeats Combined Annies of Germany and Austria 

All of Bukowina and the Greater Part of Galicia Recaptured 
Owing to Failure of Ammunition Supplies, Victory Comes to Naught 

........................................................................ SECTION 7, 1916 , 



Russian Forces, 2,000,000 

Gen. Alexeieff, Chief of Staff 

Northern Army Group 

Gen. Kuropatkin, Commander 
Gen. Plehve 

Central Army Group 

Gen. Ewerts, Commander 

Southern Army Group 

Gen. Brusiloff, Commander 
Volhynian Army Gen. Kaledin 
Galician Army Gen. Sakharoff 
Bukowina Army Gen. Lechitzky 
Independent Army Gen. Lesh 



THE Russian Armies, though staggered 
by the loss of a million men during 
their headlong retreat from Warsaw 
in the closing weeks of 1915, still possessed 
the essential power of recuperation. As the 
spring of 1916 approached, so rapid was their 
recovery, they were able to reorganize on the 
Dvina line, seize the initiative anew and 
launch a powerful offensive against the com- 
bined Armies of Germany and Austria. 

In a whirlwind campaign, after rupturing 
the Austrian line on a wide front, the Rus- 
sians dispersed two great Austrian Armies, 
reconquered all of Bukowina and the greater 
part of Galicia, and forced the Teutonic 
Armies to retreat 50 miles behind their 
frontiers. 

In Transcaucasia the Russians were 
equally successful. Armenia was freed from 
Turkish dominion and the victorious armies 
of Grand Duke Nicholas then turned south- 
ward with Constantinople as their goal. 
Once again Germany and her allies were 
threatened with disaster and once again they 
were saved from annihilation through the 
evil machinations of the pro-German con- 
spirators at the Russian court who so con- 
trived that the necessary arms and munitions 
were withheld from the Russian Armies. 
Let us now examine in detail the Russian 
operations during the crucial year of 1916. 



Austro-German Forces, 2,000,000 

Field Marshal Hindenberg, Commander 
Northern Group (German) 
Gen. von Scholz 
Gen. von Eichhorn 
Gen. von Fabeck 
Gen. von Woyrsch 

Central Group (German) 

Prince Leopold of Bavaria, Commander 
Southern Group (Austrian) 

Archduke Joseph Ferdinand, Commander 

Volhynian Army Gen. Linsengen 

Galician Army Gen. von Bothmer 

Bukowina Army Gen. Pflanzer 

Turkish Divisions 

Eastern Front Reorganized 

UNDER the direction of Gen. Alexeieff, 
Chief of Staff, the 720-mile battle line was 
reorganized in January, 1916, the Czar's 
armies being divided into three groups. In 
the Northern sector, from Riga south to 
Dvinsk, the command was vested in Gen. 
Kuropatkin, the old Commander-in-Chief in 
the Russo-Japanese War. In the middle sec- 
tor, between Dvinsk and the Pripet marshes, 
the army group was directed by Gen. Ewerts. 
In the Southern sector, from the Pripet to 
the Dniester, Gen. Brusiloff was in supreme 
command, with Gen. Kaledin directing the 
Volhynian Army, Gen. Sakharoff the Gali- 
cian Army, Gen. Lechitzky the Bukowina 
Army and Gen. Lesh an Independent Army, 
facing the Bukowina border. At this time 
the fighting strength of the Russian Armies 
did not exceed 1,500,000 rifles, but by early 
summer there were some 2,000,000 Russian 
soldiers on the battle front. 

The Austro-German forces were similarly 
divided into three main groups. Gen. Hin- 
denberg directed the Northern group, Prince 
Leopold of Bavaria the Central group, and 
Archduke Joseph Ferdinand of Austria the 
Southern group. The Teutonic Armies, at 
the dawn of 1916, had a combined strength 
of 1,200,000 men, which was increased to 
2,000,000 as the summer advanced. Thus, 



226 



Germany's Crime Against Humanity 



from first to last, 4,000,000 men were en- 
gaged on this front in 1916. 

Prelude to the Great Russian Offensive 

THE campaign on the Eastern front had 
two general phases first, the assault on the 
German line, from Riga to the Pripet River, 
in March, and second, the crushing attack 
on the Austrian line from the Pripet Marshes 
to Crernowitz, beginning in June. 

The March offensive was launched by the 
Russian Armies in the generous hope of suc- 
couring the French troops engaged in the 
defense of Verdun. By assaulting the Ger- 
man line in the East, it was expected the 
enemy would be compelled to relax their 
pressure on Verdun and perhaps transfer 
several army corps eastward to meet the 
Russian menace. Due to the unpreparedness 
of the Russian Armies and their fatal lack 
of ammunition, the March offensive proved 
a colossal failure. 

Gen. Kuropatkin on March 2d, began his 
campaign in the region between Lake Dris- 
wiaty and Lake Narosch by feeling out the 
strength and disposition of the enemy. Fre- 
quent collisions took place between the oppos- 
ing armies during the ensuing two weeks, 
!?Mt no battle of consequence was fought. On 
March 18th, Gen. Kuropatkin endeavored to 
fracture the German line in the sector south 
of Dvinsk, using his limited ammunition sup- 
plies in one supreme artillery preparation. 
All that day and far into the night the drum- 
fire of the Russian guns persisted, but at 
last the artillery fire ceased and the infantry 
were ordered to advance. 

The losses of the Russians, in the infantry 
attacks which followed, were fearful, being 
estimated at 80,000 men on a front of 90 
miles. Still, without cessation, the Russian 
attacks continued day by day, fresh troops 
being brought up constantly. Eight distinct 
attacks, during the next four weeks, carried 
the Russian line forward a mile, but at a 
terrible cost in men. 

When the spring thaws set in, the Ger- 
mans, along the entire Northern front, pos- 
sessed the advantage of higher ground. The 
Russians, knowing that their own trenches 
would soon overflow, redoubled their efforts 
to force the Germans back. Russian artil- 



lery carried death and destruction into the 
German trenches along the whole front, and 
many sectors of trench were taken. 

Successive Russian waves swept on over 
the heaped corpses, over the barbed-wire 
barriers before the German line, over the 
first trenches, and full upon the German 
soldiers, crouching half frozen in the mud 
of their shattered shelters. Terrible hand to 
hand conflicts followed. Hand grenades 
tore down scores of attacks. The combat- 
ants fought like madmen, with spades, bay- 
onets, knives and clubbed guns. The Rus- 
sians gained ground, but at a fearful price 
for so slight a gain. 

Having reached the first line German 
trenches, the Russians seemed helpless. In- 
stead of sweeping on toward the second line, 
they tried to intrench themselves in the 
weakened first line. The German artillery 
fired shells of the heaviest caliber into these 
trenches, ripping the Russian invaders into 
fragments. The Russians in this ill-fated 
campaign lost 140,000 in killed and wounded. 

A Lull on the Austrian Front 

MEANWHILE, the Russians had begun a 
limited offensive on the Austrian front, 
which slowed down by the end of March be- 
cause of the river floods which inundated 
their trenches and the surrounding regions. 
The Austrians at once started local offensives 
at points along the line, most of which were 
repulsed. Artillery duels were of daily oc- 
curence, and skirmishes between outposts, 
but attacks in force were rare. 

Resuming their offensive in April, the Rus- 
sians were able to advance their positions 
along the Austrian front; then came a lull, 
due to muddy roads, until, on the last day 
of April, the Austrians in turn started a 
strong offensive north of Mouravitsky in Vol- 
hynia which gained some ground. The Rus- 
sians, in a counter attack, recovered the 
ground and captured many prisoners. 

From now on until the first of June, the 
operations along the Austrian front, though 
savagely fought, were of minor importance. 

Meanwhile, General Brusiloff had suc- 
ceeded General Ivanoff as Russian group 
commander in the Austrian theater of war, 
and with him were associated the armies of 



Third Year of the War -1916 



227 



Generals Kaledin, Scherbacheff and Lechit- 
sky. 

The Great Russian Offensive Opens 

THE battles of the past three months had 
been merely the prelude to the real Russian 
offensive which began June 2d, with a ter- 
rific artillery fire along the entire Southern 
front from the Pripet to the Pruth, followed 
by a general infantry attack along the 300- 
mile front. Immense masses of men were 
hurled against the strongly fortified Austrian 
lines at every important point. So over- 
whelming was this onrush that it swept the 
Austrians out of their trenches. In one day, 
40,000 Austrians were captured, with 27 can- 
non and 50 machine guns. 

Russians Capture Lutsk Fortress 

ADVANCING in swift successive waves, the 
Russians pressed back the Austrian Army of 
Archduke Joseph, twenty miles to the plain 
of Lutsk, taking nearly 50,000 prisoners, 77 
cannon, 134 machine guns and 49 trench 
mortars, together with great reserves of am- 
munition. 

On June 7th, the Russian artillery blast 
swept away 19 rows of wire entanglements, 
making a breach in the enemy's position near 
the village of Podganzy, where 3,000 prison- 
ers were taken. 

Simultaneously, another Russian force, ad- 
vancing on the Lutsk fortress along the line 
of the Dubno River, stormed the trenches of 
the village of Krupov, taking thousands of 
prisoners. The fortress itself was surren- 
dered the same day with 11,000 men and 
many guns. The Austrians were now in 
panic flight. Field Marshal Ludendorf hast- 
ened to the scene of disaster, bringing rein- 
forcements from Verdun. 

Continuing his pursuit of Archduke Jo- 
seph's army, General Brusiloff crossed the 
river Styr the next day, and in one sector 
alone, so precipitate was the Austrian flight, 
he captured two supply trains, 29 field kitch- 
ens, 193 tons of barbed wire, 1,000 concrete 
girders, 7,000,000 tubes, and a great quantity 
of arms. Another sector yielded him 30,000 
rounds of rifle ammunition, 1,000 rifles, and 
four machine guns. 

Northwest of Tarnopol, in Galicia, the Rus- 
sians seized the adjacent heights and 6,000 



prisoners, while a division of raw Russian 
troops, just arrived on the line, forced the 
bridgehead near Rozhishchwa, thirteen miles 
beyond Lutsk, taking 3,000 prisoners and sev- 
eral heavy guns. 

Russians Advance 50 Miles, Take 120,000 
Prisoners 

THE offensive along the Dniester was also 
successful. Advancing 12 miles, the Russians 
captured the villages of Potok Zloty and 
Scinka, seizing a large artillery park and 
many shells. 

On June 10th, the seventh day of the great 
offensive, the Russians' flood had swept for- 
ward 50 miles, had captured one general, 
1,700 officers and 120,000 soldiers, besides 
124 guns of heavy caliber, 180 machine guns 
and 58 trench mortars. The remnant of 
Archduke Joseph's army was fleeing west- 
ward toward Kovel. 

Dubno Is Captured 

JUNE 10th also saw the capture of the 
Austrian fortress city of Dubno which gave 
Russia possession of the Volhynian triangle 
of fortresses, consisting of Lutsk, Dubno and 
Kovno. Still in pursuit, the Russians crossed 
the Ikva and pushed 25 miles westward, com- 
pelling the surrender of the garrison at Mly- 
now. Thus in Volhynia the Russians in one 
week had pushed the Austrians back nearly 
50 miles. 

Austrian Defeats in Bukowina 

FURTHER south, in Bukowina, General 
Lechitsky's army had pushed the Austrian 
army back, and advanced to within 14 miles 
of Czernowitz. In the teeth of a furious 
flanking fire, and despite the explosion of 
numberless Austrian mines, the Russians 
captured the Austrian positions south of Dov- 
bronowce, 14 miles northeast of Czernowitz, 
taking 20,000 prisoners and ten guns. On 
June 12th, Lechitsky's army crossed the 
Dniester, captured many fortified points, in- 
cluding Zaleszcyky and Jorodenka, 35 miles 
northwest of Czernowitz. 

Brusiloff, on the same day, had occupied 
Torchin, while on the Pruth sector, the Rus- 
sian troops had approached the bridge head 
of Czernowitz. At only one point were the 
Austrians able to hold their line near Kolki 



228 



Germany's Crime Against Humanity 



in Northern Volhynia, south of the Styr 
River, where they had repulsed the Russian 
attacks. 

Lemberg and Czernowitz Threatened 

BOTH Lemberg and Czernowitz, the cap- 
itals of Galicia and Bukowina, were now 
threatened. The Russians had overrun all 
of Southern Volhynia, advancing 45 miles on 
the ninth day of their offensive. The precipi- 
tous banks of the Dniester, which had been 
converted into a seemingly impregnable 
stronghold, proved no obstacle to General 
Lechitsky's gallant army. In the first few 
days of the Russian offensive, he had taken 
one of the principal positions between Okna 
and Dobronowce, southeast of Zaleszcyky. 

General BrusilofFs operations on the flanks 
of Gen. Linsengen's Austro-German Army 
were proceeding with wonderful rapidity. 
All the efforts of German reinforcements, 
sent south by General Hindenberg, had failed 
to drive in a counterwedge at Kolki, Rozhish- 
she and Targowica. The Russian Eighth 
Army, having advanced 40 miles into the 
enemy's territory, were now in a position to 
assist the Russian thrust beyond Tarnopol 
and co-operate in the proposed advance on 
Lemberg. 

On June 13th, the Russian advance con- 
tinued along the entire 250 mile front from 
the Pripet to Roumania. The Austrians 
offered stiff resistance at the village of Zarur- 
ski and on the heights of Gaivivonka, but 
could not stay the advance. Pushing on to 
within 10 miles of the Galician border, the 
Russians took Kozin by storm. In Bukowina, 
the town of Sniatin, 20 miles from Czerno- 
witz, was captured, putting the defenders of 
that capital in a perilous position. General 
Pflanzer-Ballin's army was routed and almost 
destroyed. 

Czernowitz is Taken 

CZERNOWITZ, the capital of Bukowina, fell 
on June 16th, after a six days' assault. Shells 
fell incessantly, day after day, causing a ter- 
rible panic among the inhabitants, mostly 
Jews, Ruthenes, and Poles. The final artillery 
attack was terrific. "It resembled a thou- 
sand volcanoes belching fire," wrote one 
German journalist. The Austrian guns re- 
plied with equal intensity. The Russians 



advanced in 16 waves and were mowed down. 
Russian columns were continually pushing 
back from the Pruth beyond Sudagora. 
Hundreds were drowned in the River Pruth. 
At last, numbers prevailed and the Russians 
occupied the town, but not until the Austrian 
Army had safely withdrawn. Only a rear- 
guard of 1,000 Austrians was captured. 

In an endeavor to weaken the Russian at- 
tack on the Austrian line General von Hin- 
denberg, on June 16th, began an offensive 
on the north, from Dvinsk to Kovno, along a 
150-mile front. The attack, while yielding 
some minor advantages, failed in its chief 
purpose. In order to strengthen his line, 
Hindenberg had been compelled to transfer 
several divisions from the Somme battlefield. 

More successful was the combined German 
and Austrian attack on the center of General 
Brusiloff's front, west of Kovel. The Rus- 
sian Center was halted and 3,500 prisoners 
were taken. 

1,000 Wagonloads of Food Captured in 
Bukowina 

GENERAL LECHITSKY'S army, after the cap- 
ture of Czernowitz, crossed the River Pruth 
in pursuit of General Planzer-Ballin's shat- 
tered forces. In several rearguard engage- 
ments, 2000 Austrian prisoners were taken, 
and more important still, 1,000 wagonloads 
of provisions and forage fell into the hands 
of the Russians. 

Large quantities of engineering material, 
left behind at railroad stations, also were 
seized by the Russians. The Russian ad- 
vance in Bukowina progressed rapidly. On 
June 21st, the city of Radautz, controlling 
an important railway, was captured. On 
the next day, three more railway junctions 
were seized. 

Russians Control All Bukowina 

IN a furious battle, fought at night, the 
town of Kimpolung was taken by the Rus- 
sians on June 23d, together with 3,000 pris- 
oners, and loaded trains found in the railway 
station. The towns of Kivty and Viznic 
were next seized, and with their capture all 
Bukowina was now in the possession of the 
Russians. The retirement of the Austrians 
had been so hurried that they abandoned 



Third Year of the War 1916 



229 



2,500 tons of coal and great reserves of fod- 
der and structural material. 

Russians Take 250,000 Prisoners in One Month 

GENERAL LECHITSKY, still advancing, cap- 
tured Kolomea on June 29th, after a furious 
battle of four days' duration, taking 15,000 
prisoners. This victory not only endangered 
the remnant of Gen. Pflanzer's army, but 
menaced the army of Gen. Bothmer on the 
Volhynian front to the north. Two days 
later, in his advance on Stanislau, he stormed 
some strong Austrian positions, taking 2,000 
prisoners. Advancing into Southern Gali- 
cia, one column of Lechitsky's army occu- 
pied the railway junction at Delatyn and 
seized many depots of war material aban- 
doned by the Austrians. On July 9th, while 
heading for the passes of the Carpathians, 
Lechitsky's forces meanwhile had driven the 
Germans before him. 

In Galicia the Russian forces meanwhile 
had driven the Germans across the Dniester 
and were advancing toward Lemberg, taking 
thousands of prisoners and many guns. On 
July 30th, they were close to Stanislau. 

At many points along the Northern front, 
the Russians battered Hindenberg's line, the 
Germans being ejected from Niki with big 
losses. 

From June 4th to June 30th, the Russians 
had taken 250,000 prisoners in all sectors of 
the battle line. 

Russian Advance Checked 

Two Austrian armies those of Archduke 
Joseph and of General Pflanzer-Ballin had 
been routed with huge losses. In mid-June, 
General Lechitsky's Russian Army was 
threatening Lemberg from the south, while 
General SakharofTs army was approaching 
from the north by way of Brody. The Aus- 
trian Center, under Generals Bothmer and 
Boehm-Ermolli, still held fast, but their 
flanks were threatened and the situation was 
serious. If the Russian Army of Gen. Kal- 
edin succeeded in reaching Kovel, he could 
drive a wedge in the Teutonic line at the 
point where the Austrian and German fronts 
joined. 

General von Hindenberg quickly detached 
several divisions from his forces on the 



Prussian front, sending them under General 
Linsengen to the aid of the Austrians. At 
once the situation changed. The Russian 
advance toward Kovel was retarded and- the 
danger of a breach in the German line, com- 
pelling a general retirement from Poland, 
was for the time being eliminated. 

The Battle of the Stokhod River 

THE Russians, in other sectors, were more 
successful. During July they had regained 
15,000 square miles in Volhynia, Galicia and 
the Bukowina. They had taken the cities 
of Lutsk, Dubno and Czernowitz. 

The Austro-German Armies had made a 
stand on the bank of the Stokhod River, ex- 
tending 100 miles from Lutsk to the Pripet 
River, of which it is a tributary. At a 
salient in this line, near Kovel, furious fight- 
ing was in progress early in August. The 
artillery fire was simply a continuous roar 
like thunder. At night the whole sky was 
illuminated by bursting shells, searchlights 
and star-bombs. The fortunes of battle 
were first with the Germans, then with the 
Russians, but in the end the Russians were 
driven back after a week of fighting. The 
advance toward Lemberg had failed. 

The Failure to Reach Lemberg 

UNDAUNTED by this reverse, the Russians 
made another thrust at Lemberg from the 
east early in September. The attacks were 
especially violent in the vicinity of Halicz. 
Here the Austrian line had been greatly 
strengthened. Seven new divisions, includ- 
ing three of Turkish troops fresh from Gal- 
lipoli, had been added to the original seven 
divisions. As the battle developed, the most 
sanguinary and desperate fighting which 
war-swept Galicia had experienced, took 
place, especially in the sector between the 
Zlota Lipa and Dniester Rivers. The Rus- 
sians repeatedly stormed the strongly forti- 
fied Austro-German lines, but the resistance 
was so stubborn that very little advance was 
made. Nevertheless, before September 16th, 
the Russians had taken 25,000 prisoners and 
22 guns. 

After a brief lull in the fighting, the bat- 
tle for Lemberg was again in full swing on 
October 1st, all along the line from Brody 
to the Dniester. The Russians assaulted 



230 



Germany's Crime Against Humanity 



with great violence day after day, but made 
no conspicuous progress. Late in October, 
in a counter offensive, the Austrians wrested 
complete control of the west bank of the Nar- 
ayuka from the Russians. During the next 
six weeks, the Czar's troops tried to recover 
the lost positions, but December 1st found 
the way to Lemberg still barred to them. 
The Russian offensive had worn itself out. 

The Drive on Kovel Fails 

FARTHER north, the Russian drive against 
Kovel had resulted in appalling losses to the 
Czar's troops during September. The Rus- 
sians threw themselves recklessly against the 
Austro-German line, but wave upon wave 
they were annihilated. On September 6th, 
the Russians attacked on a twelve-mile front 
west of Lutsk, but could not bend the Aus- 
trian line. Again on October 2d, they tried 
to batter their way through to Kovel, mak- 
ing no less than 17 attacks on one point of 
the line, but without material gains. The 
assaults gradually slowed down during No- 
vember, the Austrians holding their positions 
firmly, 

Fighting: in the Carpathians 

WHILE the thrusts against Lemberg and 
Kovel were in progress, the Austrians 
launched a violent offensive along the entire 



Carpathian front of 75 miles; from the Jab- 
lonica Pass down to the Roumanian border, 
but with only minor gains. South of Dorna 
Vatia the Russians were thrown back across 
the Negra Valley, but in October they re- 
gained some of the ground lost. 
. All through November and December en- 
gagements were fought at various points 
along the Carpathian Hills just north of the 
Roumanian border, but without effecting the 
general situation. 

Russia's Offensive Ends 

THE Russian offensive had spent itself. 
The Czar's troops had achieved a colossal 
victory in the early weeks of the offensive, 
taking 300,000 prisoners, 20,000 square miles 
of territory and an immense booty. By 
pressing the united Austrian and German 
forces in the Eastern theater of war, the Rus- 
sians had compelled the withdrawal of enemy 
corps from Verdun, the Somme, Gallipoli, 
and Italy. In this way Russia had aided 
if not saved the Allies. But she had done 
it at a great sacrifice. So prodigal was Rus- 
sia's expenditure of man-power that her cas- 
ualties must have exceeded 500,000. It was 
Russia's swan song, for the forces of anarchy 
were now undermining the pillars of state, 
and the Czar's mighty empire was destined 
soon to fall in irrevocable ruin. 



WESTERN THEATER, MAR. 15-NOV. 



Austrians Force Their Way Into Italy, but are Driven Back 

The Italians' Spectacular Advance Toward Trieste, Taking Gorizia 



SECTION 8, 1916 



Italian Army, 500,000 
Gen. Cadorna 
Gen. Pecori-Giraldi 
Duke of Aosta 



DEEMING herself finally delivered 
from the Russian peril, Austria was 
free to bestow her full attention on 
the Italian front early in 1916. An army of 
not less than 600,000 picked troops was as- 
sembled on the Alpine frontier with 2,000 
huge cannon, ready to batter its way 
through the Italian defenses. The task of 



Austrian Army, 600,000 

Archduke Charles of Austria 

Field Marshal von Hoetzendorff 

Gen. Dankl 

Gen. Koevess 

Gen. Boroevic von Bojna 

Gen. von Rohr 



crushing Italy was assigned to Archduke 
Charles Joseph Ferdinand of Austria, as- 
sisted by Field Marshal von Hoetzendorff. 

The Austrians hoped to forestall the ex- 
pected Italian assault on Gorizia, then being 
planned, by an attack on Trentino. Concen- 
trating their artillery fire on the front be- 
tween the Adige and Brenta, they hoped to 



Third Year of the War 1916 



231 



push through to the Venetian Plain, capture 
Verona and Vicenza, and then, by threaten- 
ing the Italian flank, compel a general re- 
treat of all the Italian forces operating along 
the line of the Isonzo River. 

From late February until the middle of 
March, there was a succession of floods and 
snowfalls, with their resultant avalanches 
and landslides, rendering military operations 
difficult. So sudden and resistless were these 
avalanches that they swept away whole reg- 
iments of men and great sources of supplies. 

The Austrians assisted nature in this de- 
structive work by producing artificial ava- 
lanches on the steep mountain slopes by 
means of mines, bombs and artillery fire. 

The Austrian Advance Begins 

ABOUT the middle of March, the Austrians 
began to develop their offensive. With 2,000 
guns available, the artillery fire intensified 
along the entire front. The Austrians ad- 
vanced west of the St. Maria Mountain in 
the Tolmino sector, taking many prisoners. 
In the Doberdo and Ploecken sectors, and 
along the Gonby bridgehead, the Austrian 
guns thundered incessantly for a week from 
March 26th to April 1st. Many minor posi- 
tions were taken by both armies. 

Early in April General Brusati of the Ital- 
ian Army was deposed, and his command 
given to General Pecori-Giraldi. 

For six weeks, from April 6th to May 15th, 
many violent engagements took place on the 
Doberdo Plateau and along the whole Isonzo 
front, without affecting the general situa- 
tion. The Italians, on April llth, carried 
with the bayonet a strong line of redoubts 
along the southern slopes of Monte Pari Cim- 
adore and the crags of Monte Speron. 

A part of these trenches were recovered 
by the Austrians in a counter assault on the 
following day, only to be retaken that same 
evening by the Italians in a hand-to-hand 
struggle. 

On April llth, while a blizzard was rag- 
ing, an Italian force attacked and carried 
the Austrian positions on the rocky crags 
of the Lobbia Alta, 1918 feet high, taking 
several prisoners and one gun. 



A Mountain Blown Away 

ONE of the most spectacular episodes of 
the battle occurred on the night of April 
18th. The Italians had occupied Col di 
Lana Mountain, 4,815 feet high, but failed 
to drive the Austrians from its western peak, 
where a battalion of sharpshooters with field 
and machine guns were strongly intrenched, 
protected by the Austrian artillery on the 
adjacent Mount Sief. 

The Italians solved the problem of eject- 
ing the Austrians by mining the entire west- 
ern margin of Col di Lana with tons of high 
explosives. The resultant explosion shook 
the earth like a mighty earthquake, blowing 
the mountain peak to atoms and destroying 
the 1,000 Austrians who occupied the 
trenches on the peak. 

Terrific Battles in Adige Sector 

THE Italian counter-offensive had been so 
successful that by May 15th Cadorna's troops 
were less than 12 miles south of Trent and 
seriously threatening that city, but now they 
were . to taste the bitterness of defeat. 

No less than 400,000 Austrians were 
thrown into the narrow sector of 25 miles 
between the Adige and the Val Sugana. 
More than 2,000 guns suddenly rained pro- 
jectiles of all calibers upon the Italian posi- 
tion. A bombardment of incredible violence 
ensued. Aeroplanes regulated the fire of a 
15-inch naval gun showered projectiles on 
the town of Asiago. 

Following the hurricane of artillery fire, 
the Austrian troops attacked in mass forma- 
tion. Four onslaughts were made on Zugna 
Torta. The Italian machine guns cut down 
the grey-blue masses of men; the wire en- 
tanglements were heaped with dead. The 
Austrians then hurled themselves against the 
advance posts of the Val Terragnolo, but the 
Alpini defended every foot of the ground, 
fighting always in the snow. 

Three resolute bayonet attacks lacerated 
the Austrian lines, but the assailants kept 
advancing in endless waves. Finally the 
Italian rear guard threw themselves on the 
enemy and checked their advance long enough 
to permit the retirement of the main Italian 
body to the line running from Malga Milegna 
to Soglio d' Aspio. 



232 



Germany's Crime Against Humanity 



Even here there was an avalanche of gun 
fire, and the Austrian dead filled the valleys, 
but fresh troops swarmed up from all parts. 
Night soon ended the first day's dreadful 
slaughter. 

Austrians on Italian Soil 

AFTER three more days of uninterrupted 
artillery fire, the Italians vacated their posi- 
tions between Val Terragnolo and the upper 
Astico on May 18th. On the same day the 
Austrians crossed the Italian frontier and 
established themselves on the Costabella, a 
ridge of the Monte Baldo chain, driving 
the Italians back four miles. A day later 
the Italians were forced from their position 
on the Col Santo. In the five days of Aus- 
trian offensive, 13,000 Italians had been cap- 
tured and 109 guns. 

Austrians Advance to Roncegno 

ON May 20th, the Italians lost the Borgola 
Pass, 3,000 men, 33 guns and three howitz- 
ers. Everywhere the Austrian advance was 
successful. The Laurence Plateau, Fima, 
Mandriole and the heights as far as the 
Astico Valley were captured in quick succes- 
sion. Between the Astico and Brenta, the 
Austrian advance continued in the Valleys 
of Terra Astico, Doss Maggio and Campelle. 

Well across the Italian frontier on the way 
toward Vicenza, the forts protecting Assiero 
were reduced. By the capture of Spitz 
Tonezza and Monte Meglignone the Austrian 
line was made secure across the frontier as 
far as Forni on the Astico. 

After storming Col Santo, the right wing 
of the Austrian Army now moved toward 
Monte Pasubia, while the left wing stormed 
the Sasso Alto, enabling the Austrians to 
advance into the Sugana Valley and take 
Roncegno. 

In less than a week the Austrians had ad- 
vanced their whole line far into Italian ter- 
ritory, across mountains 5,000 to 9,000 feet 
high, and had taken 24,000 prisoners, 251 
cannons and 101 machine guns. 

By May 26th, the Austrian Center had 
seized Arsiero, while the right wing had 
advanced to within 10 miles of Schio, both 
cities being terminals of the railroad system 
of which Vicenza is the center. Another 
force of Austrians meanwhile had captured 



the entire mountain range from Corno di 
Campo Verde to Montemeata, taking 2,500 
prisoners and 8 guns. 

Austrian troops, on May 30th, drove the 
Italians from Gallis and then took Monte 
Beldo, Monte Fraia and Monte Prufora by 
storm. Asiago then being threatened, the 
Italians evacuated the city. The total cas- 
ualties of the Italians, at the end of the sec- 
ond week of this Austrian offensive were not 
less than 80,000 men. 

General Cadorna, on June 3d, issued his 
memorable order that the Italian troops must 
defend the last remaining positions to the 
death. How heroically the soldiers re- 
sponded was shown in the battle of Mount 
Ciove, when 4,000 men in a brigade of 6,000 
were killed or wounded. 

The loss of 200 cannon was a very serious 
matter to the Italians, since these could not 
immediately be replaced. 

Verona and Vicenza Bombed 

AUSTRIAN aeroplanes, on June 2d, bombed 
the cities of Verona and Vicenza, while Ital- 
ian air squadrons retaliated by dropping 100 
bombs on various enemy camps and ammu- 
nition depots. Still the Austrian advance 
continued. On June 3d, Cesuma was cap- 
tured with 5,600 prisoners and 14 guns. 

Italian Counter Offensive Begins 

Now the Austrian offensive began to 
weaken, for the Russian successes had com- 
pelled the transfer of Austrian troops from 
the Italian front to the Galician theater of 
war. This withdrawal enabled the Italians 
on June 9th to launch a counter offensive. 
Artillery duels were maintained along the 
whole front, and the invaders were pushed 
back in the upper Arsa Valley and along the 
western slopes of the Monte Cengio. On 
June 10th, an Austrian attack at Monte 
Lemerle was repulsed with heavy losses. 
The Italian offensive was livening from the 
Adige to the Brenta. 

On the next day Austrian aeroplanes 
dropped bombs on the military hospital at 
Vicenza, and also attacked Venice, Thiere 
and Mestre with slight damage. 

The Italians, on June 12th, carried the 
strongly fortified line from Parmesan to Tio 
Romini. The Austrians, by violent artillery 



Third Year of the War 1916 



233 



action, attempted to regain the initiative, but 
were everywhere thwarted with huge losses. 
Their offensive had utterly failed. 

Marvelous Italian Engineering: Exploits 

RELIEVED of the enemy's pressure, the Ital- 
ians again took up the offensive and with 
renewed energy made for Trieste and Trento. 
But the Austrians were even still better pre- 
pared than before to obstruct their advance. 
Here Italian engineering genius triumphed. 
Gigantic and endless trenches, caves and 
forts had been excavated. In addition, a 
tunnel 850 feet long, and reaching to within 
90 feet of the Austrian trenches, had been 
bored, in which 800 Italian troops were as- 
sembled. At a given signal, the men leaped 
from these secret pockets and assaulted the 
Austrian positions with incredible rapidity. 
Within* 20 minutes three lines of Austrian 
trenches were carried; the redoubt on the 
summit fell within an hour, and the chase 
went on along the crest and down the sides, 
straight to the banks of the Isonzo, the Ital- 
ians taking many prisoners. San Mauro 
was taken by 6 o'clock, after which the work 
of intrenchment was begun. 

The Austrians, on the following day, were 
compelled to withdraw to the eastern bank 
of the Isonzo ; at the same time the positions 
on Monte San Michele were evacuated, and 
the Italians thereby were put in full posses- 
sion of the Gorizia bridgehead. In three 
days they had taken 10,000 prisoners, 20 can- 
nons, 100 machine guns, and had recovered 
the territory they had lost in the spring. 

Italians Recross the Isonzo River 

GORIZIA was now subjected to a devastat- 
ing artillery fire, under cover of which the 
Italians crossed the Isonzo at nightfall of 
August 8th. On the next day the bridge 
over the Isonzo was taken by storm, after 
a most sanguinary battle, and the Italians 
at once occupied the city. The pursuit of 
the Austrians continued, and by September 
llth the Italians had advanced five miles 
nearer to Trieste. By this time the Aus- 
trians had been reinforced and they seemed 
to be determined to stop the Italian advance 
across the Carso Plateau. 



Meanwhile, Italy had declared war on Ger- 
many, August 27, 1916. 

Heights of San Grado Taken 

AN attack on the Carso Plateau, on the 
evening of September 14th, carried the Ital- 
ian lines forward a few miles. The height 
of San Grado was taken by storm. During 
the next two weeks only minor engagements 
were fought along the whole Alpine front, 
except at Mount Cimone. Early in the 
morning of September 23d the entire sum- 
mit was blown up by an Austrian mine and 
the occupying Italian force of 500 men 
destroyed. 

Advance Along the Carso 

IN October, a notable though terribly ex- 
hausting advance was made along the Carso 
Plateau, that strongly fortified bulwark of 
Trieste. Without giving the enemy a mo- 
ment's respite, numerous diversive actions 
were undertaken in the direction of Tren- 
tino, among which for the heroic efforts 
made and the important tactical results ob- 
tained, special merit must be awarded to the 
retaking of the Pasubic district and the 
march in the zone of the Alps of Fassa, 
where the mountainous peak of the Cauriol 
was conquered and the Austrians were com- 
pelled to concentrate a number of their 
forces on this point, diverting them in this 
way from other fronts. 

With the beginning of November 1st, the 
Italians once more resumed their drive again 
against Trieste, and in four days of fighting 
on high mountain peaks advanced their lines, 
taking 10,000 prisoners. But their own 
losses also were heavy, compelling a cessa- 
tion of hostilities. Excepting for a series of 
artillery duels during November, neither side 
undertook any important engagement. 

Spectacular Warfare in the Dolomites 

THE early and hard winter surprised the 
combatants on the new lines and delayed, 
without suspending, the operations on the 
mountains. The great works carried out by 
the Italians during the summer and autumn 
to facilitate the carriage of the gigantic 
pieces of artillery up the steep slopes of the 
highest peaks of the Alps, to victual and 
furnish new supplies to the soldiers nestled 



234 



Germany's Crime Against Humanity 



up in the heights, constituted one of the most 
difficult engineering feats ever known. 

On no other front were there so many 
natural obstacles to overcome, with so many 
dangers to face; such as avalanches, aerial 
raids, frozen limbs, bombardments, mines 
that would unexpectedly blow up, etc. On no 
other front was there greater difficulty in 
the matter of supply and transport and the 
care of the wounded. Every stretcher 
bearer found himself continually exposed to 
the peril of falling over a precipice together 
with his wounded. Over all these obstacles 
the Italians triumphed. They drove the 
Austrians back, foot by foot, up the almost 
vertical Dolomite rock, sometimes by the fire 
of their mountain, field and heavy guns, but 
oftener in hand to hand and bomb fighting. 

Sniping never ceased by day, but the actual 
battles were almost invariably fought 
at night. The only day fighting occurred 
when, failing to carry it by direct assault, 
the whole or part of a mountain top was 
blown off. 

Tunnels were driven by machinery 
through the solid rock beneath the Austrian 



strongholds, which presently disappeared 
under the smashing influence of 40 tons of 
dynamite. Then the Alpini would swarm 
over the debris and capture or kill the 
enemy. 

Food for the men and ammunition for the 
guns were first carried up zigzag roads, 
especially built by the Italians for this War. 
When these roads had reached their utmost 
possible height, the guns were carried up a 
series of wireways, steel cables slung from 
hill to hill, from ridge to ridge, spanning 
the yawning depths and reaching almost 
vertically into the clouds. Up these cables 
the guns and food were handed, as well as 
timber for the huts in which the soldiers 
lived, and material for the intrenchments. 
And down these dizzy wireways, the 
wounded were lowered. 

Add to these difficulties the assaults of 
Nature; the gales and snowstorms were ex- 
celled in horror by the avalanche. On one 
day the melting snow revealed the frozen 
bodies, looking horribly lifelike, of a whole 
platoon which had been swept away a year 
before. 



IRELAND AND ENGLAND. APR. 21-MAY 21 



Irish People Rise in Rebellion Against English Tyranny 

Dublin Seized Part of City Destroyed by Fire and Shells 600 Lives Lost 

Sinn Fein Movement Analyzed 



SECTION 9-1916 . 



Irish Rebels, 6,000 men 

James Connolly, Commander 
Patrick H. Pearse 
Edmond de Valera 
John O'Reilly 
Major John McBride 
Countess Markievicz 



THE most audacious and yet the most 
inspiring rebellion in modern history 
that of a handful of Irish patriots 
to wrest control of Ireland from Great Brit- 
ain and set up a Republic astonished the 
world when launched in April, 1916. Be- 
fore it was finally suppressed by the British 
Army of Occupation, a third part of the city 
of Dublin had been destroyed by fire, and 
hundreds of lives immolated on the altar 
of liberty. 

The provocation to rebellion was supplied 
by a conspiracy entered into by a small cote- 



English Army, 60,000 men 
Gen. John Maxwell 
Gen. Friend 

Brig.-Gen. W. H. M. Lowe 
Col. Portal 
Col. Kenard 
Maj. G. A. Harris 
Maj. Wheeler 

rie of Scotch-Irish Tories in Ulster, then vir- 
tually in control of the British Government, 
to nullify two successive acts of Parliament 
granting Home Rule in Ireland; their trea- 
sonable action in permitting the Ulster Vol- 
unteers to retain their arms while disarming 
the Irish Volunteers in the south of Ireland, 
and finally their attempt to coerce the de- 
frauded Irish majority into bearing arms in 
defense of Great Britain, with no assurance 
of freedom and justice as their reward. 

The great majority of the Irish people, 
having despaired of achieving Home Rule 



Third Year of the War-1916 



235 



by constitutional methods, in view of the 
perfidious policy of the British Tories and 
the immunity granted the Ulster Volunteers 
for their treasonable defiance of Great Brit- 
ain, at last resolved to die bravely as rebels 
rather than be disarmed and conscripted into 
the British Army by a nation that had held 
them in subjection for 700 years. 

Causes of the Rebellion 

IN THE broad historical view, the Irish 
rebellion of 1916 was the ultimate protest of 
four-fifths of the people of Ireland against 
the further exploitation of a subjugated race 
by the rapacious Tories of Great Britain, 
coupled with the desire of this unconquered 
nation to realize their ideal of complete in- 
dependence under a democratic form of gov- 
ernment. The issue was complicated by the 
frenzied resistance of a small minority of 
the Scotch Irish, living in Ulster, who had 
sworn to defeat Home Rule, even if it were 
necessary to fight the British Empire in the 
effort. 

Just prior to the outbreak of the World 
War, and after the British Parliament had 
placed a Home Rule law upon the statute 
books, these fanatical Ulsterites organized 
an army of 100,000 volunteers, equipped 
with 50,000 rifles which they boasted had 
been supplied by Germany. 

The Volunteers were drilled daily in 
various cities, defying the British authori- 
ties openly, but due to the extraordinary 
influence of Sir Edward Carson, Andrew 
Bonar Law, Lord Arthur Balfour and other 
Tories, they escaped punishment for their 
seditious acts and treasonable utterances. 
They were even rewarded for their treason, 
the leaders among the Ulsterites being vested 
for a time with the virtual control of the 
British Empire. 

Ireland Once the " School House of Europe " 

IN order to comprehend the Irish question 
in all its complex details it is necessary brief- 
ly to recall a part of the glorious early his- 
tory of Ireland, from the days when the "Isle 
of Saints" was the school-house of Northern 
Europe, and its colleges and schools gave 
learning and light to the Irish missionaries 
who converted and civilized each in turn the 
painted savage Saxons of England, the Picts 



of Scotland, the Gauls of France and the 
Goths and Teutons of Germany. 

Under the tutelage of the Druid priests, 
Ireland or Scotia, already had advanced to 
a state of culture far beyond that of the 
other inhabitants of the British Isles. With 
the conversion of pagan Ireland to Chris- 
tianity by St. Patrick in the fifth century, 
a marvelous era of education began. Col- 
leges, seminaries and schools sprang up like 
magic all over the island. St. Patrick him- 
self founded 365 churches and schools, or- 
daining 450 bishops and thousands of priests 

Missionary priests from Scotia (Ireland) 
journeyed to England and Pictland (Scot- 
land), where the still savage Saxons and 
Picts were instructed in the rudiments of 
education and of religion. 

From there the Irish priests crossed the 
channel into France and Germany, bringing 
the light of learning and of Christianity to 
the Gauls, the Goths and the Teutons. 

From the fifth to the seventh century, Ire- 
land was famous as the cradle of education 
for Northern Europe. To Ireland were sent 
most of the princes and sons of the royal and 
noble houses of Europe to acquire an educa- 
tion. Here were the leading colleges, 
schools, teachers of Europe. A prince with- 
out an Irish education was a rarity. In gen- 
eral culture, too, Ireland naturally surpassed 
her neighbors of the British Isles, who were 
vastly slower in emerging from the stage 
of barbarism. 

Ireland Comes Under the Saxon Heel 

THE Saxon heel was first implanted on the 
neck of Ireland in 1171, during the reign of 
Henry II, when the Earl of Pembroke, sur- 
named Strongbow, conquered the southern 
provinces and was acknowledged as sover- 
eign by all the petty chiefs. It has been 
alleged, upon "evidence" found to be spur- 
ious, that King Henry II invaded Ireland 
with the authorization of Pope Adrian IV, 
himself an Englishman, for the ostensible 
purpose of bringing the "rebellious Irish" 
under "submission" to Rome. 

In support of their contention, the Anglo- 
Saxons produced a document purporting to 
be a copy of the original decretal issued by 
Pope Adrian IV, authorizing the ignorant 



236 



Germany's Crime Against Humanity 



Saxon King to invade enlightened Ireland. 

But inasmuch as the alleged decretal lacked 
the papal signature, and because a search of 
the Vatican archives has failed to reveal the 
original decretal, it is the unanimous opinion 
of impartial scholars and historians that the 
document in question is a brazen forgery. 

If additional evidence were needed to re- 
fute the Saxon canard, which curiously per- 
sists to this day, it could be supplied by the 
plain inferences drawn from the English his- 
tory of the period. Recollect that it was by 
instigation of this same King Henry II that 
the saintly Thomas a'Becket was foully mur- 
dered before his altar in the Cathedral of 
Canterbury. For that atrocious crime, King 
Henry II of England was excommunicated 
by Pope Adrian IV. Furthermore, the ban 
of excommunication was still in effect at 
the time the Saxons were subjugating Ire- 
land. 

Therefore, beyond all doubt, Henry II was 
an outcast from the Catholic Church and a 
bitter enemy of the reigning Pope, at the 
very time he is supposed to have been author- 
ized by that Pope to invade Ireland and 
bring the loyal Irish Catholics under "sub- 
mission" to Rome. 

Surely it must affront the candid mind to 
be asked to give credence to the theory that 
an excommunicated King, his hands imbrued 
in the blood of a prince of the Church, and 
while still resting under the papal ban, was 
chosen as the instrument of the same Pope 
that cast him out of the fold, to visit chastise- 
ment on a race whose loyalty to that church 
has ever been proverbial. 

Even if the absurd contention be allowed 
that the excommunicated King and murderer 
was in fact sent as a "missionary" into Ire- 
land, stili the Saxons are not justified in re- 
maining longer in Ireland, for instead of 
bringing the Irish people under "submission 
to Rome," as they allege they were commis- 
sioned so to do, King Henry II and his succes- 
sors ever since, have been ceaselessly though 
uselessly employed in undermining the faith 
of the Irish Catholics and separating them 
from Rome. In strict logic, therefore, since 
they not only have failed to carry out their 
alleged pact with Pope Adrian, but contrari- 
wise have violated its express terms, the 



Saxons are no longer morally justified in 
remaining in Ireland. 

Dispossessing the Irish 

So IT appears that the Saxons, by brut< 
force, succeeded in subjugating the greatei 
part of Ireland some 750 years ago, and havt 
held the Irish nation enslaved ever since 
After the conquest, various attempts wert 
made to plant colonies of English and Scots 
in Ireland, but without marked success until 
in 1608, the entire northern province 01 
Ulster was confiscated and parceled out ir 
lots of 1,000 to 2,000 acres each among a 
new set of alien colonists, composed chieflj 
of Scottish planters. In addition, large 
sections of the province were allotted to 
various London corporations and individuals 

It was stipulated, as a condition of owner 
ship, that all those planters should belong to 
the Protestant faith, that they should follow 
English or Scottish customs, and should em 
ploy no Irish in any capacity. Then was 
ushered in the era of the terrible persecu 
tions of the Irish by their alien masters con 
tinuing through the centuries. 

Gradually the Irish recovered many of 
their civic rights. In 1783, when England 
was fighting the American colonies, the Irish 
were granted a Parliament and Ireland pros 
pered amazingly, her ports being filled with 
ships and her commerce extending through 
the seven seas. But when England was once 
again out of danger, she contrived, by shame 
less bribery as Gladstone described it, to de 
prive the Irish of their Parliament and their 
liberties and Ireland in 1800 was united to 
England, without the consent of the people 

The Tories in England and in Ulster, after 
despoiling the Irish of their homes and acres 
have ever since kept the people in subjection, 
have done their utmost to fan the flames of 
religious animosity, have destroyed many of 
her industries and have laid upon the people 
the heavy burden of unjust taxation. 

United Irishmen Organize 

THERE was a large Protestant' faction in 
Ireland, however, that united with the Cath- 
olics in their struggle for freedom. Among 
the earliest of the Protestant leaders were 
Thomas Addis Emmett, Wolf Tone and John 
Mitchell, who aimed at a reunion of all par- 



Third Year of the War 1916 



237 



ties for the securing of the common rights 
of all Irishmen. 

The movement to create a democracy in 
Ireland "a government of the people, by 
the people and for the people" was begun 
in 1790, when Theodore Wolf Tone, the Prot- 
estant secretary of a committee dedicated to 
the task of redressing Catholic grievances, 
founded the Society of United Irishmen. 

He designed to include all classes and all 
religions in the ranks of the new society 
whose immediate purpose was to reform the 
Parliament and effect the removal of relig- 
ious grievances. 

The Protestant people of Ulster, excepting 
the Tory leaders, joined hands with the 
Catholics of the South in this new effort to 
secure this liberty. 

The French Revolution was then in prog- 
ress, and in 1796 the French Government 
agreed to aid the Irish rebels. Pursuant to 
this promise, a fleet of French ships, com- 
manded by General Hoche, sailed from Brest 
with 15,000 men and 45,000 rifles, but was 
dispersed by a storm. 

In July, 1797, a Dutch Army under 
De Winter set sail for Ireland pledged to 
render aid to the Irish rebels, but they were 
defeated by the British at Camperdown. 

Following this defeat, the Irish were dis- 
armed, and a reign of terror ensued. There 
were wholesale arrests and many thousands 
of Irish patriots were sold into slavery in 
the West Indies. An English Army, num- 
bering 110,000 men, occupied Ireland, using 
repressive measures to quench the ardor of 
the rebels. Nevertheless, a rebellion fol- 
lowed, led by Wolf Tone, but this was quickly 
suppressed. Tone committed suicide in 
prison. 

Emmett and O'Connell 

IN 1803, Dr. Robert Emmett led the Irish 
in another revolt, but this, too, was sup- 
pressed and Emmett was hanged. 

Daniel O'Connell, a brilliant young lawyer, 
elected to Parliament in 1828, gradually 
wrung from the British certain concessions, 
but failed in his efforts to repeal the act of 
Union. At the height of his parliamentary 
career, the dreadful famine of 1846-47 oc- 
curred, when half the population of Ireland 
perished or emigrated to America. 



An uprising of the Young Irishmen took 
place in 1848, but this also proved abortive. 
The Fenian Movement 

THE next struggle for independence for 
Ireland was better known as the "Fenians' 
uprising. Many officers and soldiers of the 
British Army secretly joined this organiza- 
tion, and after our Civil War, thousands of 
American soldiers of Irish ancestry also 
united with the movement. The Fenian 
threat won many concessions for Ireland, 
but as a momentous force Fenianism was 
practically shattered in 1867, following an 
unsuccessful invasion of Canada by the 
American branch of the order. 

The Home Rule Movement 

A "Home Rule" movement was launched 
in 1870, by a group of business and pro- 
fessional men in Dublin, who agitated for 
an assembly in Ireland subservient to the 
Parliament of Great Britain. 

Nine years later the Land League was 
organized by Michael Davitt, having for its 
object the restoration of Irish farm land to 
the Irish people and the destruction of alien 
landlordism. These two movements were 
merged under the leadership of Charles 
Stewart Parnell. 

Two Home Rule bills were introduced by 
Gladstone in 1886. The first was defeated 
by a narrow majority in the House of Com- 
mons, the second was passed by the House 
of Commons, but was vetoed by the House of 
Lords in 1893. Meanwhile, land reforms 
had been won. In 1881 the Irish tenants' 
Charter of Freedom was granted, guaran- 
teeing the Irish farmer the ownership of all 
the improvements he made on his farm. 
Land courts were established to fix fair rents 
for farms and a limited scheme of land pur- 
chase was also put in operation. 

The Land Purchase Bill 

REACTION came with the defeat of the 
second Home Rule Bill. Pamell was dead; 
there was a split in the parliamentary party, 
and the cause of Irish self-government ceased 
to be a living issue in the House of Com- 
mons. But the drive toward the ownership 
of the land still continued. 

At length, in 1903, a conservative British 
Government passed the Land Purchase Bill, 



238 



Germany's Crime Against Humanity 



enabling the tenant farmers of Ireland to 
purchase their farms on a plan of installment 
payments, extending over a long term of 
years. Under the operation of this act, 
much of the land of Ireland has passed to the 
tenants. 

A system of local government was also set 
up in Ireland through popularly elected 
County and District Councils. The Con- 
gested District's Board was created to assist 
the people in the most impoverished districts 
of the West and South. 

In 1900 the Department of Agriculture 
and Industries was organized. Finally, in 
1909, a national university was established 
in Dublin. 

Birth of the Sinn Fein Movement 

IN 1893 a new movement was launched 
in Ireland by the intellectual leaders of the 
race, whose earliest spokesman was Dr. 
Douglas Hyde, a Protestant, who urged the 
restoration of the Gaelic language and the 
reconstruction of Irish life. "Ireland for 
the Irish" was their motto. Conceiving 
themselves as "nation builders," they urged 
the necessity for de-Anglicising Ireland. 
While the people were waiting for some form 
of self-government, everything vital and dis- 
tinctive in Ireland's intellectual and spiritual 
life was being corrupted or destroyed. "You 
cannot make a nation of half-and-half," they 
declared. "Where people are half Irish and 
half English, there is only a province, not a 
nation. Make them wholly Irish in speech, 
in thought, in mental direction, and then you 
will have a nation with a worthy civiliza- 
tion." 

A real movement for the development of 
a national culture began. The revival of 
Irish industries first was inaugurated. On 
the intellectual plane, the movement signal- 
ized itself by a creative effort that aroused 
interest in Europe and America. There was 
a new outburst of Irish literature in the Eng- 
lish language, in which W. B. Yeats, George 
Russell and Standish O'Grady took a lead- 
ing part. 

The Irish parliamentary party in the Brit- 
ish House of Commons, meanwhile, had been 
reunited under the leadership of John Red- 
mond, but against the power of the English 
Tories it could work but little headway. 



The young intellectuals, numbering many 
college professors, physicians, editors and 
other professional men, contended that Irish 
emancipation could not be gained by the agi- 
tations of an Irish Party in the British Par- 
liament. Rather should Irishmen insist upon 
the withdrawal of their representatives from 
Parliament, and strive to govern Ireland 
through a provisional government. 

Nationalists, they argued, should resort to 
arbitration courts and not to law courts es- 
tablished by British authority. Agricultural 
co-operation should be developed so that Ire- 
land might become independent economically. 
In brief the policy was "Ireland for the 
Irish," with every Irish Nationalist working 
for national protection. The Gaelic phrase, 
"Sinn Fein," ("Ourselves") with its insist- 
ence upon Irish initiative and self-reliance, 
independent of English control, became the 
slogan of the movement. 

England Promises Home Rule 

AN English liberal party meantime had 
gained the ascendancy and a measure of self- 
government was offered to Ireland, but this 
was rejected because of the inadequacy of 
its administrative and financial proposals. 
A genuine Home Rule Bill was then intro- 
duced and circumstances seemed favorable 
to its passage. To a greater extent than at 
any time in her history, England had been 
liberalized and democratized. 

Unfortunately, the Tory party, represent- 
ed by the decadent House of Lords and a 
small but powerful coterie of office holders 
and manufacturers in Ulster, fought the pro- 
posal as inimical to their business interests 
in Ireland. Yet at that very time, in the 
nine counties of Ulster, the Home Rulers 
had a majority of one in the Parliamentary 
representation. 

The English Lords encouraged the minor- 
ity among the Ulster Irishmen in their oppo- 
sition to Home Rule. The threat was made 
that, on passage of the Home Rule bill, a 
provisional government would be set up in 
Ulster and civil war follow. To give reality 
to this threat, a body of Ulster Volunteers 
was organized in 1913 and armed under the 
inspiration of Sir Edward Carson. Openly 
defying the British Government they broke 
forth in treasonable speeches, declaring that 



Third Year of the War- 1916 



239 



if the British Parliament should pass a Home 
Rule Bill they would resist its operation by 
force of arms. 

Leading Tories like A. Bonar Law, Lord 
Arthur Balfour, Sir Frederick Smith and 
several British generals promised the Ulster 
forces support and immunity in event of 
their rebellion. The arms used by this band 
of traitors were supplied from Germany. 

In this emergency, Edmond MacNeill, pro- 
fessor of history in the National University, 
urged the formation of a body of Irish Vol- 
unteers to safeguard the constitution that 
represented the will of the democracy of 
Great Britain and Ireland, as expressed by 
the British Parliament. The Irish Volun- 
teers was organized in November, 1913, at 
a public meeting in Dublin. Previously an 
"Irish Citizens Army" had been organized 
in the South of Ireland. 

The Tory party in England, which had 
encouraged the Ulsterites to arm themselves, 
now placed an embargo on all arms, making 
it difficult for the Irish Volunteers to pre- 
pare themselves for the civil war that seemed 
to be impending. Meanwhile the Ulster Vol- 
unteers were holding daily drills in and 
about Belfast, and yelling defiance at the 
British Government without molestation. 

The "Curragh Camp Mutiny" 

IN March, 1914, a group of British mili- 
tary officers, headed by Gen. Sir John French, 
declared that if sent to disarm these Ulster 
Volunteers who were uttering treason 
against Britain, they would disobey orders. 

This "Curragh Camp Mutiny," as it was 
called, resulted in bringing thousands of re- 
cruits into the ranks of the Irish Volunteers. 
These Volunteers stood for the constitutional 
idea, that any measure passed by the Parlia- 
ment of Great Britain and Ireland, repre- 
senting the will of the British and Irish 
nations, must become law and operative. 

Furthermore, they held that there should 
be no partition of Ireland, that no part of 
Ulster should be erected into a non-Irish 
state, but that there should be one Irish 
state only and with a single executive. 

The "Bachelor's Walk" Massacre 

ANOTHER crisis came in June, 1914. The 
Ulster Volunteers had smuggled a cargo of 



arms into Larne, a northern seaport, and the 
British Government made no attempt at in- 
terference. But when, a month later, the 
Irish Volunteers in the South landed a cargo 
of rifles at Howth, and were conveying the 
arms to Dublin by automobile transport, a 
force of British soldiers demanded the arms 
but were refused, nor did the soldiers attempt 
to seize them. 

As the soldiers were marching through the 
streets of Dublin they were hooted by hood- 
lums, and some stones were thrown at them 
at a place called "Bachelor's Walk." The 
troops opened fire on the crowd, killing sev- 
eral men and women. 

This massacre aroused passionate resent- 
ment throughout Ireland, and accounted for 
the subsequent loss of accord between the 
Irish people and their Parliamentary repre- 
sentatives, the determination of the Irish 
Volunteers to hold their arms at all costs 
and the production of a state of alarm and 
exasperation amongst the people. 

The Tories Again Show Their Hands 

IRELAND was therefore swept into the 
World War with a memory of citizens killed 
by British soldiers and a sense of unfair dis- 
crimination between Nationalist and Ulster 
Volunteers. 

Yet when John Redmond, leader of the 
Irish Parliamentary forces, made a speech 
in the House of Commons, proffering Ire- 
land's full support to the Allies, the nation 
applauded his act. It was promised and be- 
lieved that England would at least render 
tardy justice to Ireland. 

But to the dismay of the Irish National- 
ists, the anti-national propaganda was kept 
up in England. Lord Arthur Balfour, a 
Scot, insistently demanded that the Home 
Rule Bill be dropped at once. 

A. Bonar Law, another Scot, made ve- 
hement speeches against the Home Rule Bill. 

John Redmond, meanwhile, had offered the 
services of the Irish Volunteers to the Brit- 
ish Government as a defence force on con- 
dition that they were equipped and kept 
within the country. But the English Tories, 
while willing to arm the Ulster Volunteers, 
refused permission to the Irish Volunteers. 
Mr. Redmond then asked that all Irish regi- 



240 



Germany's Crime Against Humanity 



ments fighting England's battles be allowed 
to display their national colors, but this re- 
quest was also refused. 

Home Rule Bill Held Up 

ON September 20, 1914, the British Par- 
liament enacted the Irish Home Rule Bill, 
but the measure was not to be put into effect 
until an amending bill had been passed. The 
Tories had proposed that the Ulster Union- 
ists collaborate in the framing of the bill of 
amendments. John Redmond at once began 
a tour through Ireland urging the Volunteers 
to enlist. They reminded him that their chief 
concern was the putting in effect a Home 
Rule measure, and until that had been done 
their place was in Ireland and not in Europe 
fighting to save tyrannous Britain. 

A split occurred in the ranks of the Vol- 
unteers. The great majority, standing be- 
hind Mr. Redmond, became known as the 
National Volunteers. Some 10,000 or more 
rallied around Prof. MacNeill, calling them- 
selves the Irish Volunteers. Apart from 
these divided forces there was a Citizen's 
Army, with its own leaders. Thus there 
were three centers of militant opposition. 

Coalition Cabinet Formed 

A NEW crisis presently occurred. The 
government that had passed the Home Rule 
measure was voted out of office and a coali- 
tion cabinet took its place, with Lord Arthur 
Balfour, Sir Edward Carson and A. Bonar 
Law, all three of them abettors of treason 
in the recent Ulster uprising, at the helm of 
state. 

The Irish Volunteers now felt that the 
cause of Irish liberty had been betrayed, for 
Balfour had been a lifelong opponent of 
Home Rule, while Bonar Law had declared 
in a speech at Dublin in November, 1913: 
"I have said on behalf of the party that if 
the Government attempts to coerce Ulster 
before they have received the sanction of 
the electors, Ulster will do well to resist them 
and we will support resistance to the end." 
Sir Edward Carson, the Chief of the Gen- 
eral Staff of the forces opposed to Home 
Rule, had taken an oath to resist the estab- 
lishment of a Home Rule Government, and 
Irish Nationalists felt that he would not have 



taken office unless he had obtained some as- 
surance that the Home Rule Bill would not 
be made operative in his time. 

Conscription and Wholesale Arrests 

IRELAND was now in a state of great alarm. 
Parliament had passed a conscription bill 
applicable to England and efforts were being 
made to extend the provisions of the act to 
cover Irish enlistments. Wholesale arrests 
for trivial offences were being made. The 
emigration of Irish people to America was 
forbidden. The burden of taxation had con- 
tinuously increased and was well nigh insup- 
portable. It was rumored that the food sup- 
ply of Ireland was to be seized and sent to 
Europe, leaving the Irish to face the horrors 
of famine. In this crisis, the National Vol- 
unteers went over in droves to the Irish Vol- 
unteers, resolved to defend their homes with 
their lives. Public meetings were held all 
over Ireland to protest against overtaxation 
and the deportation of arrested men. On 
April 19th, a document was read to the Dub- 
lin Corporation in which it appeared that 
the leaders of the Irish Volunteers, Citizen 
Army, Sinn Fein Council and Gaelic League, 
together with other persons, were to be 
placed under arrest and certain buildings 
occupied on an order from the military com- 
mander. Fearing the suppression of their 
long struggle for independence, the Irish 
patriots decided upon an uprising. A 
parade was arranged that would be the pre- 
lude to an insurrection. 

Vote Against Insurrection 

THERE were left to the Irish patriots three 
courses of action: they had first, the option 
of disbanding voluntarily and giving up their 
arms, thereby facing the certainty of being 
conscripted into the British Army; secondly, 
they could submit to being disarmed by order 
of the British Government with a like result ; 
or, finally, they could fight for freedom on 
their own soil. 

Only three weeks before, at a secret meet- 
ing of the Revolutionists held in Dublin, a 
resolution in favor of immediate insurrection 
was defeated by a single vote, cast by the 
chairman, Prof. Edmond MacNeill. 

But since that meeting, the situation in 
Ireland had reached a crisis. Under the De- 



Third Year of the War - 1916 



241 



fense of the Realms Act, Irishmen were being 
deported in great numbers without being al- 
lowed to offer a defense, while other men 
and women were arrested and kept in jail 
without trial. Meanwhile, positive informa- 
tion had reached the Revolutionists of the 
intention of the British Government to dis- 
arm the Irish Volunteers, while permitting 
Redmond's National Volunteers and Carson's 
traitorous Ulster Volunteers to retain their 
arms. 

Warning Against Conscription 

THE Revolutionists thereupon issued a 
proclamation, warning the Government that 
the Volunteers "cannot submit to be dis- 
armed, and that the raiding for arms and 
the attempted arming of men, therefore, in 
the natural course of things, can only be met 
by resistance and bloodshed." The Govern- 
ment met this situation by seizing a number 
of liberal Irish newspapers. Coincidently, 
John Redmond, in a speech in Galway, af- 
firmed that unless Ireland enlisted at least 
1,000 men weekly, the Government would 
repudiate its Home Rule agreement. 

At the same time a proposal was made that 
Ireland should be taxed to pay one-sixth of 
the expenses of the War. A storm of pro- 
tests greeted this proposal from all parts of 
Ireland. Even the Dublin Corporation 
adopted a resolution declaring that the Coun- 
cil "viewed with alarm the proposed enor- 
mous increase in taxation as contrary to both 
the Act of Union and the Home Rule Act." 

German Ship, Bringing 20,000 Rifles, is Sunk 

THE Revolutionists meanwhile, following 
the lead of the Ulsterites, had been nego- 
tiating with Germany for a supply of arms. 
The vessel Aud was chartered for the pur- 
pose, and was loaded with 20,000 rifles, 
1,000,000 rounds of ammunition and 15 ma- 
chine guns. Flying a neutral flag and dis- 
guised as a merchant vessel, the Aud left 
Germany on April 12th, bound for Ireland. 
Accompanying the Aud was a German sub- 
marine, in which Sir Roger Casement, Capt. 
Robert Monteith and Private Daniel Bailey 
had taken passage. The submarine, how- 
ever, put in at Heligoland for repairs, which 
kept her there several days, while the Aud 



continued on her way through the British 
blockade. 

On the third day a British destroyer hove 
in sight and fired a shot at the Aud to com- 
pel her to heave to, but night had fallen 
and the German boat escaped in the dark- 
ness. A day later, the German boat passed 
a British submarine but went by unchal- 
lenged. 

On the evening of April 19th, the Aud 
arrived off the Kerry coast of Ireland, her 
destination, and awaited the coming of 
dawn. Early the next morning, a British 
cruiser suddenly appeared and fired a shell 
over the Aud. Seeing that capture was in- 
evitable, and preferring to sink his vessel, 
the commander raised the German flag to 
the masthead and ordered the vessel blown 
up. With a thunderous rumble, followed 
by a sheet of flame, the Aud sank with all 
her crew, carrying with her the hopes of the 
Irish Revolutionists. 

Sir Roger Casement's Arrest 

LATE the same night the submarine carry- 
ing Sir Roger Casement and his two compan- 
ions was lying submerged a mile off the 
Kerry coast. On Friday, April 21st, having 
approached as close to shore as she could, a 
collapsible boat was let down from her side 
and Sir Roger's party rowed ashore. The 
landing was observed by a fisherman named 
John McCarthy, who sent word to the police. 
Meanwhile Sir Roger and his companions 
had proceeded inland three miles to a cot- 
tage, where they were met by a committee of 
Revolutionists. To them Casement intrusted 
a message to Professor Edmond MacNeill, 
the Revolutionary leader, advising him that 
no help need be expected from Germany and 
urging him, for the sake of Ireland, to pre- 
vent any uprising at this time. Casement 
was arrested an hour later. 

The Call to Arms 

THE Irish Volunteers, meantime, upon 
learning that arrangements had been made 
to disarm them, had resolved upon an upris- 
ing to take place on Easter Monday. The 
call had already been issued before Case- 
ment's arrest. In general, the plans called 
for simultaneous uprisings throughout Ire- 



242 



Germany's Crime Against Humanity 



land. In Dublin, where the British troops 
were quartered, it was expected there would 
be difficulties encountered, but in most of the 
country districts, which were defended only 
by small bands of soldiers, the seizure of the 
towns was confidently expected. After cap- 
turing the country towns, the Revolutionists 
were expected to march to Dublin and op- 
pose their united forces to the British Army. 

The Fatal Countermand 

THE carefully laid plans of the Revolution- 
ists were upset by the action of Professor 
Edmond MacNeill of Dublin University, a 
leader of the Volunteers from the beginning 
and the pilot who had steered the organiza- 
tion through some very stormy seas. 

Upon receipt of Sir Roger Casement's mes- 
sage, begging him to prevent an uprising, 
Professor MacNeill resolved to countermand 
the orders issued from headquarters calling 
the Volunteers to arms on Easter Monday. 
He knew that all plans had been made for 
revolution, that everything was in readiness 
and that the Volunteers were to declare an 
Irish Republic within 48 hours. To be effec- 
tive, an order calling off the Easter "maneu- 
vers" had been inserted in the newspapers 
of the following day. A hurried call was is- 
sued to members of the Volunteer Committee 
and late that evening a conference was held 
in the house of Professor MacNeill. 

At the same time another conference was 
called of those who had drawn up the Irish 
Declaration of Independence, and who were 
determined to fight at all hazards, even with 
their bare hands. The conference at Mac- 
Neill' s house broke up early Saturday morn- 
ing without reaching a decision. 

Nevertheless, the last edition of the Dub- 
lin Evening Herald of Saturday contained a 
notice, signed "MacNeill, Chief of Staff," 
countermanding the orders for the "maneu- 
vers." At the same time, to make assurance 
doubly sure, telegraphic messages were sent 
broadcast to every parish priest in Ireland, 
asking them to make similar announcements 
in their pulpits. 

This was the fatal act that broke the back 
of the Irish Rebellion. As we shall see later, 
when the Dublin uprising occurred, the 
"maneuvers" were not being held in the 



country at large and the suppression of the 
incipient revolt was made easily possible. 

Irish Republic Proclaimed 

THE Irish Republic was proclaimed at the 
base of Nelson's Pillar, Dublin, on Easter 
Monday, April 24, 1916. The preamble read: 
"We declare the right of the people of Ire- 
land to the ownership of Ireland, and to the 
unfettered control of Irish destinies, to be 
sovereign and indefeasible. The long usur- 
pation of that right by a foreign people and 
government has not extinguished the right, 
nor can it be extinguished except by the 
destruction of the .Irish people. In every 
generation the Irish people have asserted 
their right to national freedom and sover- 
eignity. Six times during the past 300 years 
they have asserted in arms. 

"Standing on that fundamental right, and 
again asserting it in arms in the face of the 
world, we hereby proclaim the Irish Repub- 
lic as a sovereign independent state, and we 
pledge our lives and the lives of our com- 
rades-in-arms to the cause of its freedom, of 
its welfare, and of its exaltation among the 
nations. Signed on behalf of the Provisional 
Government, Thomas J. Clarke, John Mc- 
Dermott, Thomas MacDonagh, P. H. Pearse, 
Edmond Kent, James Connolly, Joseph 
Plunkett." 

Pearse was elected President of the Re- 
public and Commandant-General of its 
forces ; Connolly was chosen to command the 
forces in Dublin. 

Opening Scenes of the Rebellion in Dublin 

EARLY on the morning of April 24, 1914, 
Augustine Birrel, Chief Secretary for Ire- 
land, gave his orders for the disarming of the 
Irish Volunteers and the Citizen's Army, but 
leaving the still traitorous Ulster Volunteers 
in possession of their arms. The Irish Revo- 
lutionists in Dublin also had received orders 
to assemble for "inspection and parade" at 
10 A. M. on that day. 

Shortly before noon a company of the 
Citizen's Army swung along O'Connell 
Street, entered and seized the Post Office, 
hauled down the British flag, and raised the 
tricolor of Ireland. A moment later, a col- 
umn of British Lancers, their horses at full 



Third Year of the War-1916 



243 



gallop, and their rifles ready for immediate 
use, appeared far up the street. The rebels 
threw a body of men across the street as a 
first line of defense and a score of rifle bar- 
rels appeared over the parapet of the Post 
Office roof. 

When still some distance away, the Lan- 
cers fired a volley, killing one of the rebels. 
An answering volley from the rebel line sent 
a half dozen Lancers plunging headlong from 
their saddles to the ground. Without wait- 
ing for the command, the Lancers wheeled 
and galloped back to the Castle, leaving their 
dead and wounded behind them. 

Meanwhile, barricades had been thrown 
up within the Post Office, while on the roof 
the defenses of the building were perfected. 
President Pearse of the newly proclaimed 
Irish Republic, accompanied by a number of 
his officers, then addressed the throngs that 
surged around the building, telling why a 
Republic had been proclaimed, and urging 
his hearers to join in the struggle for inde- 
pendence. Many volunteers came forward. 

A trolly car was turning the corner and 
stopped at the entrance to North Earl Street. 
It was toppled over by a bomb, forming a 
substantial barricade to this approach to the 
Post Office. All this time people were walk- 
ing up and down the street in the usual man- 
ner, but taking the keenest interest in the 
progress of the rebellion. The police were 
nowhere to be seen, having been ordered off 
the streets earlier in the day by the Castle 
authorities. 

The Clash at Stephen's Green 

SIMULTANEOUSLY with the attack on the 
Post Office, the rebels had made similar at- 
tacks at other points in accordance with their 
plan of campaign. Stephen's Green, a stra- 
tegic point, was taken, and the ten gates 
opening from it were closed. A double line 
of trenches was at once dug within the in- 
closure. The pedestrians in that vicinity 
were warned to disperse, and did so. 

Incoming and outgoing trolley cars were 
halted at the street corners, their passengers 
and crews expelled, and the cars toppled 
over on their sides by means of bombs to 
form barricades. An hour later an automo- 
bile, laden with supplies for the rebels, was 



fired upon by four English soldiers in 
Nassau Street. 

The rebel marksmen on the car fired a 
volley in return, wounding two of the sol- 
diers. The other two soldiers escaped. 

This incident occurred while the street 
was still crowded with people, all of whom 
ran terrified to the nearest shelter. A little 
later a trolley car hove in sight, filled with 
English soldiers. It was greeted with a sa- 
lute of rifle bullets, the soldiers dropping for 
safety to the floor of the car, and soon pass- 
ing on out of sight. 

The rebels also seized Jacob's biscuit fac- 
tory, using the bags of flour stored there to 
barricade the windows. Haricourt Street 
Railroad Station also was seized; then the 
rebels took Portobello Bridge over the Grand 
Canal, and Clanbrassil Street Bridge, these 
two positions cutting the English militia off 
from the rest of Dublin. 

Castle Taken by Woman and Boy Scouts 

A LITTLE before noon, while the British 
garrison in Dublin Castle was awaiting the 
arrival of other soldiers from the Curragh, 
ten miles away, the Countess Markievicz, 
Irish wife of a Polish nobleman, leading a 
band of Irish Boy Scouts, marched up to the 
outer gate of the Castle. 

The sentry pointed his rifle at the invad- 
ers. Without a moment's hesitation, the 
Countess shot him dead. 

Then, with a cheer, the Boy Scouts fol- 
lowed their intrepid leader into the lower 
quadrangle, occupied by the barracks of the 
Dublin Metropolitan police and of several 
companies of- British soldiers quartered 
there. 

The sound of the pistol shot brought out 
a score of the military who, seeing that an 
attack was in progress, retreated within the 
Armory and the Police Barracks, but the 
Boy Scouts carried the Barracks on the run 
before the occupants had time to close the 
doors, and all inside surrendered. 

From the adjacent Armory, however, 
there was fired a fusillade of shots, killing 
several of the scouts. 

A moment later, one of the Boy Scouts 
shattered the lock of the Armory door with 
a bullet, and led by Countess Markievicz in 



244 



Germany's Crime Against Humanity 



person, the Scouts charged for the broken 
door. A scattering volley met the charge, 
resulting in two casualties. 

Just at that moment the Lancers, who had 
previously run away from the Post Office, 
reappeared, their horses covered with foam. 

The Countess, realizing that her little 
force was unable to cope with the situation, 
ordered the Boy Scouts to fall back toward 
the gateway. Keeping up a running fire, 
they made their retreat toward the entrance. 
There they met reinforcements, under Com- 
mander John Connolly, and again they 
charged into the Castle. 

This time the Lancers turned tail, dashing 
out of the Castle through the Ship Street 
entrance. Several Britishers and a few 
rebels were killed in this fight. The barracks 
were again occupied and a rifle fire was kept 
upon the Armory. Soon the Castle was vir- 
tually in possession of the rebels. 

The Countess Markievicz with her Boy 
Scouts then marched toward Stephen's Green 
to take possession of the Royal College of 
Surgeons- The fame of her exploit at the 
Castle had preceded her, and she and her 
company were greeted with cheers as they 
marched along the west side. 

The rebels next took over and occupied 
the office of the Evening Mail newspaper 
and the Empire Theater. 

Commander Connolly Shot at City Hall 

CAPT. John Connolly led his company to 
the City Hall, which he seized. He went 
directly to the flagstaff, pulling down the 
municipal flag and running up the Repub- 
lican flag in its stead. As he was tying the 
last knot, a sudden volley rang out from the 
quadrangle of the Castle, killing him in- 
stantly. Connolly was an actor, closely con- 
nected with the Abbey Theater Company and 
the National Players. 

Trinity College Fighters 

TRINITY College, a bulwark of the English 
in Ireland, had established an Officers' Train- 
ing Corps, which formed a rallying point for 
units of the British forces. They success- 
fully defended the Dublin Bank and the Col- 
lege, driving the rebels up Dame Street. 

Meanwhile, Capt. Edmond de Valera, 
destined later to be chosen Provisional Pres- 



ident of the Irish Republic, had seized West- 
land Row Station and sent forward a detach- 
ment of 100 men to hold Boland's Mills, 
where the Republican flag was hoisted at 1 
o'clock. A regiment of British soldiers made 
two attacks upon this position, but were re- 
pulsed. By Monday evening the rebels had 
taken possession of a line of defenses in the 
southern part of the city which stretched 
from the Canal to the Castle, and from the 
Castle to Ringsend. 

Around the Post Office, the rebels had 
patrolled the entire length of O'Connell 
Street to the Parnell Monument, and had 
seized the newspaper offices, Liberty Hall, 
Beresford Place, the Amiens Street Station, 
the Customs House, the Four Courts, and 
other points of vantage. 

Magazine Fort Taken by Surprise 

ONE of the most daring episodes of the 
first day was the taking of the Magazine 
Fort in Phoenix Park. This Fort was so 
placed as to command every building in Dub- 
lin. At noon, on Easter Monday, a company 
of rebels approached the Fort from two 
sides. 

Three of the rebels advanced through the 
open door, depriving the sentry of his rifle. 
The body of Volunteers then rushed into the 
Fort and within two minutes, were in full 
possession. The attack was a complete sur- 
prise. 

The garrison were disarmed and impris- 
oned in one of their own dormitories before 
they had time to assimilate the idea that 
there was really a Revolution in being. The 
rebels then collected all the small arms and 
ammunition stored therein, and marched 
away exultantly. 

British Rush 20,000 Soldiers to the Scene 

IT so happened that, when the Rebellion 
was begun, General Field, commander of the 
troops in Ireland, was on a leave in England ; 
Colonel Kennard, the garrison commander 
at Dublin Castle, was out of town, and a 
number of the other officers were in attend- 
ance at the races at Leopardstown. 

The news of the Rebellion was received at 
first with incredulity, but upon confirmation 
of the first r.eport steps were taken to cope 
with the situation. Before 5 o'clock that 






Third Year of the War 1916 



245 



afternoon 1600 cavalrymen from the Cur- 
ragh were dispatched to the scene, with 1000 
infantry, a battery from the Reserve Artil- 
lery Brigade at Athtone, the Fourth Dublin 
Fusiliers from Templemore, and a composite 
battalion from Belfast. It is estimated that 
the Government had 20,000 men at its dis- 
posal by Tuesday morning, whereas, the 
rebels in Dublin mustered 1809 rifles at most. 
All Monday evening the sound of firing 
could be heard as various bodies of troops 
came in contact with the insurgent outposts. 
Martial law was proclaimed in Dublin on 
Tuesday. 

Custom House Taken by the British 

AT midnight, on Monday, the British 
troops drove the rebels out of the Custom 
House and into Liberty Hall. A few hours 
later, the British held the Magazine, Phoenix 
Park, the upper courtyard of the Castle, the 
Royal Hospital, the Barracks, the principal 
railway at stations, the Dublin Telephone 
Exchange, the electric power station, and 
Trinity College. The rebels held Sackville 
Street, the General Post Office, the Four 
Courts, the Jacob's Biscuit Factory, the 
South Dublin Union, St. Stephen's Green, all 
the approaches to the Castle except the Ship 
Entrance, and many houses throughout the 
city. 

The Second Day's Fighting 

ON April 25th, the second day of the Re- 
bellion, Brig.-Gen. W. H. M. Lowe arrived 
with 5000 troops. By establishing a line of 
posts from Kingsbridge Station to Trinity 
College, he divided the rebel operations to 
the north and south. 

The holding of these buildings not only 
separated the rebel center round the General 
Post Office, from that round St. Stephen's 
Green ; it established a valuable base for the 
collection of reinforcements as they arrived, 
and prevented the rebels from entering the 
Bank of Ireland, directly opposite to and 
commanded by the rebel buildings. 

A cordon was established by the British 
troops around the northern part of the city, 
from Park Gate to the North Well. 

As the rebels were directing a heavy fire 
upon the Castle from the Corporation Build- 



ings and the Daily Express office, these posi- 
tions were assaulted by the Government 
troops. 

The main forces of the rebels now hav- 
ing been located in and around Sackville 
Street, the Four Courts and adjoining build- 
ings, it was decided to enclose that area 
north of the Liffey River by a cordon of fire 
and steel so as to localize the efforts of the 
rebels. 

While fierce and bloody tragedy reigned in 
one locality, the populace of Dublin showed 
their unconcern in other localities near by. 
Women sat in the doorways, men lounged at 
the street corners, and the children played 
fearlessly in the side streets, while their ears 
were dinned with the explosion of shells and 
the rattle of musketry. 

The Rebellion Outside Dublin 

DESPITE the proclamation of Professor 
MacNeill, countermanding the order for re- 
bellion, there were several uprisings in the 
outlying districts. In County Dublin, the 
insurgents captured the villages of Swords, 
Lusk, and Donabate. Troops were sent to 
repel the attack, but only when they had been 
reinforced -by the Staffordshire Regiment on 
Thursday morning, and helped by the guns 
of warships, did they succeed. 

Further north, in Drogheda and Dundalk, 
several collisions occurred between the rebels 
and the Government troops. At Drogheda 
the National Volunteers, supporting John 
Redmond, assisted the military in subduing 
the rebels. 

The rebels in County Louth seized Bar- 
meath Castle, holding it for several days. 
There was bitter fighting, too, at Ardee. 

In County Meath, a force of insurgents de- 
feated a body of police, capturing their rifles 
and ammunition. 

In Ulster, a flying squadron of 3000 men 
from Belfast made a search for concealed 
weapons, seizing a number of persons sus- 
pected of sympathy with the rebels, and 3000 
rounds of ammunition. 

In Cork, rebellion was prevented through 
the persuasion of Bishop Cohalan, who be- 
seeched the Volunteers not to join the Re- 
bellion. Acting upon his advice, the Volun- 
teers surrendered their arms upon agreed 



246 



Germany's Crime Against Humanity 



terms which were shamefully violated by the 
British officials. 

In Kerry, the rebels made a small demon- 
stration, but in Galway and Wexford they 
held out for several days. Had it not been 
for the heavy fire from warships in the har- 
bor after the military had been put to flight, 
the rebels might have captured Galway. 

In County Wexford, the rebels seized En- 
niscortly, holding it for several days and 
finally surrendering to a large force sent 
from Dublin in an armored train. 

Gunboat Shells Liberty Hall Needlessly 

THE real Battle of Dublin began on Wed- 
nesday morning, April 26th, the third day of 
the Rebellion. British troops had been ar- 
riving hourly in great numbers during the 
preceding night and a naval gunboat, the 
Helga, had pushed up the Liffey River, op- 
posite the Custom House, ready to co-operate 
with the infantry forces. A circle of steel 
now encompassed the rebels. 

At 7 o'clock Wednesday morning the guns 
of the Helga began to bombard Liberty Hall, 
a rebel stronghold. After 100 or more 
shells had been aimed at the target the Brit- 
ish Infantry charged across Beres-ford Place, 
and into the Hall, only to learn that their as- 
sault had been needless. The rebels, during 
the preceding night, had tunneled their way 
out of the building, taking everything of mil- 
itary value with them, and were now partak- 
ing of a hearty breakfast in the Post Office 
while the British were occupying the de- 
serted ruins of Liberty Hall. 

Bombardment of Houses and Stores 

THE guns of the Helga next played on the 
buildings along O'Connell Street and adja- 
cent houses in the rear of the city. Several 
buildings were soon in flames and red ruin 
faced Dublin. Meanwhile the cordon was 
being drawn tighter around the rebels. 

The Bloody Battle of Mount Street 

THE bloodiest encounter of the Rebellion 
occurred on Wednesday during the engage- 
ment known as the Battle of Mount Street. 
Two battalions of the Sherwood Foresters 
had been ordered to advance and recapture 
Trinity College at all costs. The rebels at 



this time occupied strategic positions in scat- 
tered school buildings and houses. One bat- 
talion of Government troops, advancing to- 
ward Ringsend, prepared to assault the 
position held by a company of rebels under 
command of De Valera. The rebel flag was 
at once run up over the school buildings 
where the rebels had intrenched themselves, 
and a warning shot was fired over the heads 
of the approaching soldiers. 

The Battalion dashed forward but was met 
by an enfilading fire which mowed down 
line after line. The remainder of the Bat- 
talion broke and fled, ignoring the curses and 
exhortations of their officers. 

Two hours later the Sherwoods again ad- 
vanced to the attack, with the assistance of 
bombing parties led by Captain Jeffares. 
Under cover of bomb and rifle fire, the Brit- 
ish charged up to the end of the bridgehead. 

From all directions the rebels poured a hail 
of bullets into the lines. Wave after wave of 
the Battalion was swept out of existence. A 
wall of dead and dying was piled up along 
the bridgehead, and it was the awful task of 
the bombing party to blast their way 
through this wall of mangled flesh and bone 
in their efforts to get at the rebels. 

After six hours of desperate fighting, the 
Britishers won the position, with the loss of 
hundreds of men. Again, to their chagrin, 
as at Liberty Hall, they found the rebels 
had all escaped by an underground passage. 
So severe were the British losses that they 
did not care to push on to Trinity College 
despite positive orders to that effect. It was 
not until midnight that, reinforced by the 
arrival of the South Staffordshire Regiment, 
they occupied the coveted position. 

Dublin a Blazing Inferno 

DUBLIN that night was a raging furnace. 
Vivid sheets of red and scarlet flame, dense 
clouds of thick smoke, indicated the price the 
Rebellion had exacted. All through the 
night, guns were bombing from the south 
side of the Liffey, from the gunboat Helga, 
and from Trinity College. 

O'Connell Street was an inferno. With 
buildings blazing on either side of the street 
and heavy smoke rolling above, with bullets 
falling like hail, death stalked abroad and 



Third Year of the War -1916 



247 



commanded every inch of this section. The 
whole center of Dublin was ablaze ; it seemed 
as if the city would be totally destroyed with 
thousands of its inhabitants. 

In the heart of the inferno, throughout 
that dreadful night, in the blazing streets 
and amidst a tempest of shells and bullets, 
the rebels held their ground without wav- 
ering. 

As the hours wore on through that doom- 
ful night, the intensity of the battle in- 
creased. Into a hundred and one minor 
points which the rebels had captured, the 
shells were poured. In O'Connell Street the 
fires were most appalling, the firing heaviest, 
the fighting intensest. A crossfire of bullets 
constantly swept the thoroughfare from both 
ends of the street. 

Women and Girls in the Firing Line 

THE Irish Rebellion was remarkable foi 
the heroic part taken in it by Irish women 
and girls. On Easter Sunday, the day first 
appointed for the "maneuvers," the women 
in the movement were mobilized and in- 
structed to bring rations for a certain period. 

These women, who performed their duties 
with a cool and reckless courage unsurpassed 
by any man, were in the firing line from the 
first to the last day of the Rebellion. They 
comprised women of all ranks, from titled 
ladies to shop assistants, and they worked 
on terms of equality with the men. Some 
of these women patriots acted as snipers, and 
both in the Post Office and in the Imperial 
Hotel, there were women on guard with 
rifles, relieving exhausted Volunteers. 

The girls proved themselves heroic mes- 
sengers, carrying dispatches under fire to 
all points of the firing line. One young 
lady, a well-known writer, whose rela- 
tions held appointments under the Crown, 
volunteered to take a dispatch for Com- 
mander Connolly under heavy machine- 
gun fire. Shaking hands with the com- 
mander, she stepped coolly out amid a per- 
fect cross rain of bullets from Trinity Col- 
lege and from the Rotunda side of O'Connell 
Street. Other girls were engaged in Red 
Cross work ; still some others cooked, catered, 
carried supplies. All the women could throw 
hand grenades; they understood the use of 



bombs in fact, they seemed to understand 
as much of the business of warfare as their 
men folks. 

Fall of the Rebel "Forts" 

ALL day Thursday and Friday the rattle 
and roar of big guns made the center of the 
city a roaring inferno. The streets were 
swept by machine guns. Whole rows of 
houses had been blown up, apparently with 
the object of giving the British forces a clear 
field for a play of artillery and field guns. 
Fire was the greatest ally of the British, en- 
abling the troops to draw closer and closer 
to the insurgents. 

There was no general battle between the 
military and the rebels; sniping and 
house-to-house fighting was the rule, with 
high explosives ever and anon battering down 
the walls upon the heads of the defenders, 
and machine guns sweeping them into ob- 
livion as they endeavored to escape. 

On Thursday night the British heavily 
bombarded the "fort" at Hopkins store, 
which the rebels held in force. The place 
soon became untenable and orders were is- 
sued to retire to the Post Office. Few of 
those who essayed the journey achieved it, 
for as they emerged, the machine guns came 
into deadly play. With this heavy bombard- 
ment, the whole block of buildings from Hop- 
kins' northward began to take fire. The 
flames spread rapidly, driving the insurgents 
from the houses toward the Post Office across 
the street. 

Friday morning the British raked the 
Post Office with their artillery. From within 
came the sharp replies of rifle bullets, ac- 
companied by the patter of a machine gun 
on the roof. But the unequal contest could 
not last ; by evening, explosive shells had set 
the building afire; by daybreak of Saturday 
the Post Office and the buildings near it 
were gutted, and the insurgents had been 
driven northward. It was advisable now 
to sue for the best possible terms of sur- 
render. After a meeting of the Provisional 
Government of the Republic, a woman mes- 
senger was sent to Brig.-Gen. Lowe to ask 
for terms. 

The insurgent force at Jacob's factory, 
numbering 200, held out till Sunday. One 



248 



Germany's Crime Against Humanity 



of the most pathetic incidents of the insur- 
rection is connected with the defense of the 
"fort." It seems that the factory was one 
of the chief sources of employment for the 
very poor of Dublin and they were in anguish 
lest it be destroyed. They crowded around 
the building in terror lest their only means 
of employment should be taken from them. 
Their presence there saved the building from 
destruction, for of course the soldiery could 
not fire upon these noncombatants. The 
building was finally surrendered through the 
good offices of a Carmelite friar. 

Rebels Surrender Unconditionally 

AT last, on Saturday, April 29th, the reb- 
els decided that further resistance would 
entail needless slaughter, and they surren- 
dered unconditionally to Brig.-Gen. Lowe. 
But though the military gave the order to 
cease fire on Saturday afternoon, the streets 
of Dublin did not become quite safe until 
Monday, as sniping was carried on by the 
rebels, who, in their coverts, had not re- 
ceived word of the surrender. Some pre- 
ferred to meet death rather than surrender. 

On the day of the surrender, the British 
forces numbered about 60,000, while the reb- 
els at most numbered 1,100. Two hundred 
buildings, valued at $12,500,000, were de- 
stroyed by fire. The casualties were 600 



dead and 1400 wounded for both sides, the 
British losses being in excess of the rebel 
casualties. 

Rebel Leaders Executed 

A LARGE number of the rebels were ar- 
rested, deported, and confined in jails with- 
out being brought to trial. Court martials 
were held by Sir John Maxwell, beginning 
May 2d. On the following day Provisional 
President Patrick Pearse of the Irish Re- 
public, Thomas MacDonagh, and Thomas J. 
Clark were shot. Other leaders were exe- 
cuted in due order. Sentence of death was 
passed upon both Countess Markievicz and 
Henry O'Hauroban, but this was commuted 
to penal servitude for life. Professor Mac- 
Neill also was sentenced to penal servitude 
for life. As the result of a week's court- 
martial, 16 men were put to death, six sen- 
tenced to penal servitude for life, 20 others 
were sentenced to terms of imprisonment 
with hard labor, extending from six months 
to two years. 

Sir Roger Casement Executed 

SIR ROGER CASEMENT, an Ulster Protes- 
tant, who had acted for the rebels in Ger- 
many, was hanged in Pentonville prison on 
August 3, 1916. In his last days he became 
a convert to the Catholic faith, and received 
the last rites of the church on the scaffold. 



WESTERN THEATER, NORTH SEA, MAY 31 



Greatest Naval Battle of the Ages Fought Off Coast of Jutland 

25 Warships Sunk in Indecisive Conflict Between British and German Armadas 
British Fleet, Outmaneuvred, and Scattered, Breaks Off the Battle Late at Night 



SECTION 10-1916 



British Grand Fleet, 144 Warships 

Admiral Sir John Jellicoe, Commanding 
First Dreadnought Squadron Vice-Admiral Bur- 

ney, Rear Admiral Gaunt 
Second Dreadnought Squadron Vice- Admiral 

Jerram, Rear Admiral Leveson 
Third Dreadnought Squadron Vice- Admiral 

Sturdee, Rear Admiral Duff 
Battle Cruiser Division Vice-Admiral Beatty 
Battle Squadron Rear Admiral Evan-Thomas 
Cruiser Squadron Rear Admiral Arbuthnot 
Cruiser Squadron Rear Admiral Hood 
25 Light Cruisers, 78 Destroyers, Submarines 

THE German High Seas Fleet, venturing 
forth for the first time from the ob- 
scurity of its harbor base at Wilhelms- 
haven, where it had lain inactive ever since 



German High-Seas Fleet, 126 Warships 

Admiral Von Scheer, Commanding 

First Squadron Vice-Admiral Schmidt, Rear 
Admiral Engelhardt 

Second Squadron Rear Admiral Mauve, Rear 
Admiral Lichtenfels 

Third Squadron Rear Admiral Behnke, Rear Ad- 
miral Nordmann 

Battle Cruiser Division Vice-Admiral Hipper 

11 Light Cruisers, 88 Destroyers, Submarines 



the outbreak of the War, sought out and gave 
battle to the British Grand Fleet in the east- 
ern waters of the North Sea, off the coast of 
Jutland, on May 31, 1916. Beginning with 



Third Year of the War 1916 



249 



the chance encounter and running fight be- 
tween advance cruiser squadrons on scout 
duty off the Skagger Rack, the battle ex- 
panded gradually into a general engagement 
of the two most formidable fleets afloat, with 
270 ships of all classes participating in what 
is adjudged to have been the greatest naval 
conflict of all time, and the intensity of which 
is attested in the recorded loss of twenty-five 
warships and 10,000 lives. 

Though indecisive in actual tactical result, 
in that neither fleet could justly claim to 
have vanquished the other or to have realized 
its full objective, yet if the comparative con- 
duct of the two fleets in battle be justly ap- 
praised, estimating at their true value the 
German turning maneuvers which so mysti- 
fied and even terrified the British High Ad- 
miral, and keeping in mind the superior Ger- 
man markmanship, it must be conceded that 
in this first real duel of the dreadnoughts the 
German contender approached the closer to 
the verge of victory. 

At grips with the mightiest armada' in ex- 
istence, whose superiority in metal was as 
two to one and whose excelling speed of ships 
gave it additional advantage, the inferior 
German fleet none the less outmaneuvred 
and outfought the mismanaged British fleet, 
inflicting upon it losses both in ships and in 
men approximately twice as severe as those 
she herself sustained, and at length, when 
darkness had closed on the scene, inspiring 
the British Admiral with so vast a fear for 
the safety of his capital ships as to cause him 
abruptly to break off the battle, and with- 
draw with all his superdreadnoughts some 
eighty miles to the south, abandoning his 
scattered cruiser squadrons to their own re- 
sources and thus enabling the German fleet 
to steal back unmolested to its base. 

The Setting for the Jutland Battle 

LET us first vizualize the setting for this 
great battle. The ships of the British Grand 
Fleet, in pursuance of the general policy of 
periodical sweeps through the North Sea, had 
left their safeguarded base off the east coast 
of Scotland, on May 30th, in two divisions. 
The lesser division, consisting of six battle 
cruisers, under Admiral Beatty, supported 



by four dreadnoughts, under Admiral Evan- 
Thomas, was steaming southward some sev- 
enty miles in advance of the main body of the 
British Fleet, commanded by Admiral Jelli- 
coe, which comprised a squadron of three 
battle cruisers under Rear Admiral Hood, a 
division of four armored cruisers under Rear 
Admiral Arbuthnot, 24 powerful dread- 
noughts in three squadrons, commanded by 
Vice-Admirals Burney, Jerram, and Sturdee, 
together with 25 light cruisers and 78 de- 
stroyers 144 vessels with a fleet speed of 
20 knots. 

The German Admiral, Von Scheer, whose 
armada consisted of 22 dreadnoughts, 16 
cruisers, and 88 destroyers, with a fleet speed 
of only 17 knots, had conceived the plan of 
leading the lesser division of the British 
Fleet into an ambush where it might be de- 
stroyed by the main body of the German 
Fleet. Pursuant to this plan, a squadron of 
five fleet cruisers, under Admiral Hipper, 
acting as a decoy, proceeded northward along 
the coast of Denmark, with the main division 
of the German Fleet trailing 25 miles behind. 

Admiral Beatty's lesser division of the 
British Fleet, after proceeding south as far 
as the 56th parallel, had turned northward 
according to orders. The division was no 
longer intact, a distance of six miles now 
separating Beatty's six fast cruisers from 
Evan-Thomas' four slower battleships. At 
2.20 p. m. on May 31st, the smoke of the 
German ships was detected. Beatty at once 
shaped his course to the southeast, hoping 
to cut off the enemy from his retreat along 
the Jutland coast, at the same time notifying 
Admiral Jellicoe of the presence of the Ger- 
man ships. The German decoy squadron 
also turned south, intending to lead the Brit- 
ish into the trap prepared for them. At 3.48 
the action commenced at a range of ten miles, 
both sides opening fire simultaneously. 
Evan-Thomas' dreadnoughts now joined in 
the fight, firing from a range of twelve miles. 
Though the British ships were the speedier 
and their guns by far outranged those of the 
enemy, still it was the British that suffered 
most in this running fight. Within twenty 
minutes the British cruisers Indefatigable 
and Queen Mary were sunk with all their 



250 



Germany's Crime Against Humanity 



crews ; and the British destroyers Nestor and 
Nomad were also destroyed. 

Suddenly, at 4.40 p. m., the German High 
Seas Fleet appeared from the northeast in 
three divisions, forming a junction with von 
Hipper's decoy squadron. Realizing now 
that he had been led into a trap, Admiral 
Beatty swung his four cruisers around and 
started north at full speed, leaving Evan- 
Thomas' four dreadnoughts to bear the brunt 
of the action with the German Fleet. Beatty 
hoped to turn the tables on the enemy by 
leading the Germans into the jaws of Ad- 
miral Jellicoe's Grand Fleet, which was 
steaming south at terrific speed. 

A running fight ensued for two hours as 
the two fleets proceeded northward. During 
this stage of the battle the Germans suffered 
their severest losses. The cruisers Lutzon 
and Pommerm were sunk; and the battle- 
ships Konig, Seydlitz and Derfflinger were so 
battered that they could barely keep afloat. 

Meantime, Admiral Jellicoe had detached 
a squadron of three very fast cruisers from 
his main fleet and sent them, under com- 
mand of Admiral Hood, to the assistance of 
Beatty. Hardly had they formed a junction 
with Beatty's squadron before the Invincible, 
Hood's flagship, was blown up with appalling 
suddenness, disappearing in a burst of smoke 
and flame. 

A worse fate befell Rear Admiral Arbuth- 
not's squadron of armored cruisers which ar- 
rived at 6.40. As Admiral Beatty's squadron 
drew aside to make way for him, Admiral 
Arbuthnot steered his squadron directly in 



the path of the German dreadnoughts, receiv- 
ing the broadside fire of the entire German 
fleet. Of his four vessels three were sunk 
with their crews. Admiral Thomas also lost 
one of his battleships when the Warspite 
jammed her helm and was taken back to the 
British base. 

The British Grand Fleet arrived in six 
columns shortly after six o'clock. A heavy 
mist had fallen, obscuring even near objects. 
Admiral Jellicoe at once deployed to the east, 
with the double purpose of avoiding the 
enemy's torpedo boats and of cutting the 
enemy off from his base. The movement 
failed of its purpose. The German admiral, 
after setting up a smoke screen to obscure his 
movements, launched a torpedo attack which 
took a heavy toll. A terrific battle of de- 
stroyers ensued in the fog, resulting in the 
sinking of thirteen vessels, of which eight 
were British and five German destroyers. 

The German Admiral, by adroit maneu- 
vers, kept his capital ships constantly out of 
reach of the superior British Fleet. Failing 
to find the German Fleet, and fearing that 
his own dreadnoughts were menaced by the 
German destroyers, Admiral Jellicoe at 9 p. 
m. withdrew from the battle, steaming 80 
miles to the south, opening a path for the 
escape of the German fleet. 

The British losses in the battle were four- 
teen vessels, including six capital ships with 
a tonnage of 111,980, and 6600 casualties. 
The Germans lost eleven vessels, with a ton- 
nage of 60,180, and their casualties were 
3,076. 



WESTERN THEATER, APRIL- JUNE 



Third Battle of Ypres Opens With a Terrific Artillery Duel 

Gallant Canadians and Intrepid Irishmen Hold On Against Great Odds 



SECTION 11-1916 



British Forces, 20,000 

Gen. Sir Douglas Haig, Commander 

THE opening battles on the Western 
Front, in the spring of 1916, were 
fought over a limited area near Ypres 
in Flanders, Belgium. These engagements 
were only the prelude to the great Franco- 
British offensive planned for July. 

The first clash occurred on April 27th, 
when one of the Irish brigades, holding the 



chalk-pit salient south of Hulluch, vigorously 
bombarded the Hohenzollern Redoubt and 
drove the Germans out of their craters. 

The Germans retaliated, two days later, by 
attacking the British line at several points 
between Ypres and Souchez. At Hulluch and 
Loos, two German gas attacks, followed by 
infantry rushes, were launched. Far from 



Third Year of the War 1916 



251 



being demoralized by the poison gas, the 
Irish spirit was fiercely aroused and they 
poured a heavy rifle-fire into the German sol- 
diers as they advanced. Not one German 
soldier penetrated the Irish line, but hun- 
dreds fell dead before the deadly gun-fire. 
A third gas attack was attempted, but it 
failed to reach the Irish lines. 

British troops, on the night of May 15th, 
stormed Vimy Ridge, penetrating in part the 
German forward line. Two weeks later, on 
May 21st, the Germans shelled the British 
out of the captured position and pierced the 
British line, to a depth of 300 yards on a 1500 
yard front. The British subsequently at- 
tempted to regain the Ridge, but without 
success. 

Canadian troops again showed their mettle 
in that violent artillery duel known as the 
Third Battle of Ypres. Without warning, 
on the morning of June 2d, the German guns 
laid down a heavy smoke barrage, completely 
obscuring the firmament. Then, for four 
hours, the British sector was deluged with 
high explosive shells which pulverized the 
trenches and opened enormous craters. For 
added measure the Germans exploded many 
mines, which took a heavy toll of death. By 
darting from one devastated section to an- 
other, the brave Canadians somehow carried 
on in that pit of death whila mines were ex- 



ploding and grim craters were yawning be- 
fore them. Just at noon, the Wurttemberg 
regiments pushed through the British de- 
fenses in Sanctuary Wood to a depth of 700 
yards in the direction of Zillebeke. 

On the following day, being reinforced, the 
Canadians counter-attacked, driving the Ger- 
mans back a quarter of a mile. A lull set in 
till the 6th, when the Germans launched an- 
other attack, seizing the town of Hooqe and 
Sanctuary Wood at a cost of thousands of 
lives. Heavy German bombardments of the 
British line ensued for a week. Then, on 
June 13th, the Canadians counter-attacked 
near Hooqe, recovering much ground. 

On June 22d, the Germans sprang a large 
mine in the neighborhood of Gwenchy, blow- 
ing the British trenches skyward and open- 
ing a crater 120 feet wide. Still, when the 
German infantry advanced a regiment of 
Welshmen closed on their flanks and drove 
them back, either into the crater or to their 
own trenches. 

In the closing days of June the situation 
changed. The great Allied offensive on the 
Somme was about to begin. As a prepara- 
tion for that offensive the British batteries 
bombarded the whole German area near 
Ypres, destroying the enemy's trench de- 
fenses, blowing up ammunition depots and 
cutting off their lines of communication. 



WESTERN THEATER. JULY I - NOV. 13 



1,375,000 Soldiers Fall In the First Battle of the Somme 

England's First Citizens' Army Led to Slaughter British " Tanks " Used for First Time 
at Courcellette Germans Saved from Utter Defeat by Torrential Rains 

' SECTION 12- 1916 



Allied Forces, 1,500,000 

Gen. Ferdinand Foch, Commander-in-Chief 
British Army, 700,000 

Gen. Sir Douglas Haig, Commander 
. Gen. Sir Henry Rawlinscn 

Gen. Home 

Gen. Sir Herbert Gough 

Gen. Butler 

Gen. Allenby 
French Army, 800,000 

Gen. Fayol'e 

Gen. Micheler 

ENGLAND'S First Citizen Army, newly 
arrived in France, in co-operation with 
a French Army, received its baptism of 
fire in that pitiless five-months' struggle in 
Picardy known as the First Battle of the 



German Forces, 1,300,000 

Gen. Falkenhayn, Chief-of-Staff 
Northern Group Duke of Wurttemburg 
Central Group Crown Prince of Bavaria 
Southern Group German Crown Prince 
Gen. von Buelow 
Gen. Gallwitz 



Somme. For sheer waste of men, blunder- 
ing tactics and the inefficiency of the lesser 
officers commanding, this battle holds an 
unique place among the more tragic encoun- 
ters of the World War. 



252 



Germany's Crime Against Humanity 



The Battle of the Somme, which opened on 
July 1st, had for its principal object the re- 
duction of the German salient at Noyon, 
whose apex projected westward to within 50 
miles of Paris. Its secondary object was to 
relieve the pressure upon the French at Ver- 
dun by compelling the Germans to transfer 
a considerable force from that theater of war 
to the Somme. The battle was fought on a 
30-mile front, bounded by the Rivers Ancre 
and Somme, the British holding 20 and the 
French 10 miles of the line. The immediate 
objective of the British was Bapaume; that 
of the French, Peronne. The Allied forces 
numbered 1,500,000 men and the Germans 
1,300,000. 

After the range of the German trenches 
had been found by the Allied airships, there 
was launched on June 28th, a most terrific 
artillery bombardment, which continued in- 
cessantly for four days and nights, rising 
to a hurricane pitch of fury. It was only 
partially successful, for the Germans had 
built themselves perfect protection from 
shell-fire in the form of large bomb-proof 
dugouts, deep underground, each dugout cap- 
able of sheltering hundreds of soldiers. Here 
they could rest secure, and when the bom- 
bardment had ceased, haul out their machine 
guns and await the advance of the enemy. 

50,000 British Perish in a Single Day 

AT daylight, on July 1st, the artillery laid 
a barrage behind the German line, and the 
British and French went "over the top" 
along the 30-mile front, expecting to find the 
German trenches in ruins and the Hun Army 
demoralized. 

Never was there a greater delusion and 
never did such swift disaster fall upon an 
army as that sustained by the British left 
wing from Gommecourt to Fricourt. 

All unaware of the German Army hidden 
in deep dugouts, the British left wing on a 
twelve-mile front went gallantly forward, 
wave after wave, until they had passed 
Thiepval. 

Suddenly, from a thousand dugouts, the 
German soldiers emerged, taking the Brit- 
ishers in the rear with the fire of their ma- 
chine guns and cutting them down like grass. 



Some British regiments were caught be- 
tween two fires, cannon assailing them in 
front and machine-gun fire from the rear. 
They fell by thousands. 

Fully 50,000 Britishers perished on that 
fatal day. At dusk, when the barrage fire 
ceased, the survivors crept back to the Brit- 
ish lines. 

British Right Wing Take 2,500 Prisoners 

THE right wing of the British advance, 
meanwhile, had escaped the fate of the left. 
Advancing on a four-mile front, south of 
Fricourt, they had penetrated into four par- 
allel German trenches and captured the vil- 
lages of Mametz and Montauban. The Ger- 
mans fell back seven miles to La Boiselle, 
where they reformed, leaving 2,500 prisoners 
and numbers of machine guns with the vic- 
torious Britishers. La Boiselle was carried 
on July 5th and five days later Contalmaison 
was captured. 

General Haig, on July 14th, ordered a gen- 
eral advance against the second line of Ger- 
man trenches, on a 12-mile front from La 
Boiselle to Delville Wood. The Germans 
yielded three miles of their line, losing 
10,000 prisoners. A squadron of British cav- 
alry, under General Allenby, participated in 
this engagement for the first time since the 
armies had occupied fixed positions. A week 
later, the French extended their partial six- 
mile advance along their entire front. 

French Veterans Advance Six Miles 

THE veteran French troops, meanwhile, 
under Gen. Fayolle, with highly trained ar- 
tillerists, swept the Germans before them 
on a ten-mile front south of the Somme, 
taking 12,000 prisoners in ten days, captur- 
ing a score of villages and gaining all their 
objectives. 

When within sight of Peronne and Com- 
bles, having then advanced six miles, they 
halted to enable the British right wing to 
overtake them. 

The Great Battle at Pozieres Ridge 

FOR five weeks, from July 14th to August 
18th, the German third line of trenches along 
the slopes of the Pozieres Ridge was stormed. 



Third Year of the War -1916 



253 



Step by step the British advanced, taking 
Ovillers-la-Boiselle, Pozieres and a part of 
the Delville Wood, but the Huns still hung 
to the higher ground between Thiepval and 
Fleurs, on a front of seven miles. 

Finally, by hurling 500,000 men against 
the ridge, the Allies took Thiepval, Martins- 
puich and Courcelette and pushed the Ger- 
mans back to the low ground around Ancre 
Brook. 

On the east side of the ridge, another 
Allied Army took Delville Wood, Fleurs, 
Combles and approached Mont St. Quentin, 
the key to Peronne. 

The German line had been breached in 
several places and broken on the front from 
Ancre to the Somme. The Huns were now 
fighting in quickly dug trenches, barricaded 
villages, shell holes and mine craters. They 
had suffered enormous losses under the con- 
stant pounding they had received, and the 
Allied losses were scarcely inferior. 

First Great Aeroplane Battle 

DURING this battle of Pozieres Ridge, the 
first great aerial battle was fought between 
the British, French and German aeroplanes. 
The British had gained the supremacy of the 
air, chiefly by mobilizing their planes. The 
Germans, who had hitherto used their planes 
individually for scout work or bombing pur- 
poses, now assembled several squadrons and 
contested the air field with the British and 
French. 

Early in September, 1916, occurred the 
first great air battle of record, when 42 
planes belonging to the three contestants 
were destroyed in a spectacular combat over 
the ridge. 

British "Tanks" First Appear at Courcelette 

THE greatest military innovation of the 
War the British armored chariots, famil- 
iarly known as "Tanks" made its first ap- 
pearance September 14th on the Somme bat- 
tle-field, and was first employed in the en- 
gagement at Courcelette. This invention, 
ascribed to Colonel Swinton of the British 
Army, was an adaptation to military pur- 
poses of the familiar caterpillar tractor, in- 
vented by an American and long used in the 
United States. Moving clumsily, but with 



irresistible force, it could span the trenches 
and mine-craters, shatter trees like pipe- 
stems, trample down the most intricate 
barbed wire entanglements, crush down the 
walls of houses, and pierce the strongest lines 
of defence. Practically impregnable to or- 
dinary gun fire, it was a movable fort, 
within which the gunners might direct a 
close range fire at the enemy. 

At Courcelette, where 24 of these tanks 
first were put to effective use, many of the 
Germans fled in terror at sight of the me- 
chanical monsters, while others surrendered. 
With the aid of these tanks, the Canadians 
and British forced the Germans back two 
miles on a front of six miles. A wedge was 
then pushed in the German line between 
Peronne and Bapaume and several thousand 
prisoners were captured. 

Combles was evacuated on the 26th. The 
tanks had but a limit