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UNIV5ftr:+TY OF 




With special supplements containing the most recent additions to the language ; 

broadcasting terms; notable proper names, literary, scientific, and historical; 

foreign words and phrases; abbreviations, etc., and a 

complete atlas of the world 

General Editors 

Special Editorial Contributors 

Emeritus Professor of Rhetoric and English Literature, University of Edinburgh 


Professor of English Language, University of Liverpool 

G. W. O. HOWE, D.Sc, A.I.E.E. 

James Watt Professor of Electrical Engineering, University of Glasgow 



The " King's English " Dictionary has been prepared for the con- 
venience of the general reader of current hterature — ^newspaper, magazine, 
or book. In these there occur words whose pronunciation, meaning, and 
derivation are not famihar ; English phrases whose import and origin are 
not obvious ; current foreign expressions that are not easily understood ; 
allusions to places, persons, and classical passages in literature which are 
not comprehended, and are difficult to trace. The " King's English " 
Dictionary aims at suppljdng the help necessary in all such cases, and 
gives in handy form much information that otherwise would have to be 
sought for in many books, some of which are not easily accessible. The 
main portion of the book consists of what is common to all good dictionaries 
— the pronunciation, derivation, and meaning of the general vocabulary of 
the English language, and a careful explanation of all phrases requiring 
elucidation. Recent words due to war, science, travel, and hterature 
have been included. The second part of the book is a long Ust of names 
occurring in history, geography, poetry, and mythology. The pronimcia- 
tion of these is given, along with a concise accoimt. Th|s list, it is 
believed, will be acceptable and useful. There are also various appendices, 
including a Scots glossary, common abbreviations, foreign phrases, and 
forms of address. The clear, bold type, the simple scheme of pronunciation, 
and the numerous illustrations, while they increase the attractiveness 
of the volume, tend to lessen the trouble of consulting a work of reference. 
Finally, the geographical supplement, unique in a work of this character, 
provides the reader with a complete up-to-date atlas of the World ; it 
also includes a reference list of the various coimtries of the world, with 
useful statistics compiled from the latest official returns. 




Prefatory Articles — 

A Bird's-Eye View of English Literature ix 

The Correct Use of English in Speaking and Writing xxi 

Wireless Telegraphy and Telephony xxviii 

The Dictionary 1 

Supplement of the Most Recent Words i 

Glossary of Commercial Terms xii 

Glossary of Aviation and Motoring Terms xvi 

Glossary of Wireless Terms xviii 

Tables of Weights and Measures xxi 

Pseudonyms xxv 

A Dictionary of Notable Proper Names 1080 

A Glossary of Scottish Words and Phrases 1168 

Pronouncing Vocabulary of Greek and Latin Proper Names 1168 

Proper Names in the Old and New Testaments, with Meanings 1184 

Foreign Phrases 1192 

Prefixes and Affixes 1206 

Etymological Vocabulary of Modern Geographical Names 1209 

Abbreviations used in Writing and Printing 1219 

Formal Modes of Addressing Persons of Title 1225 

Geographical Supplement — 1227 

(a) List of Countries of the World 1229 

(b) Population of Towns, etc. 1288 

(c) Complete Atlas of the World 1286 



Emeritus Professor of Rhetoric and English Literature in the 
University of Edinburgh 

Small a^ is the space here available, a little of it will not he lost in defining the 
particular point from which this view is taken, for such points have changed fre- 
quently in the last hundred years. If we were to go still farther back we should find 
one from which even Chaucer was scarcely visible, or patronisingly dismissed as 
not worth seeing; where even Spenser had to be modernised and was thought not 
much more than a moralist in verse. Then writers back to and including Chaucer 
were admitted on a kind of sufferance, warming gradually into less grudging and 
even eager reception : but except in the cases of Gray, Warton, and a few others, still 
keeping Trans-Chauceriana as a land, if not exactly forbidden, at any rate not 
worth attempting. Even the great Romantic revival, as it is called, of the extreme 
end of the eighteenth century and the first quarter of the nineteenth, did not go much 
beyond this. But soon Old or Early {more usually called Anglo-Saxon) and Middle 
English, which had never since the sixteenth century lacked a few devotees, began 
to attract more general, and for a time in some cases rather disproportionate attention. 
This corrected itself, and, for a time again, the whole range of English literature at 
last received its due consideration. It would sometimes appear thai yet another 
change is now setting in ; and that, whether for the benefit of strictly contemporary 
writing or not, the oldest division or divisions of the subject may be relegated to the 
background, or to thai purely specialist position which is rather more unfavourable 
than the background itself Here the endeavour to begin at the beginning and con- 
tinue till nearly the end will still be made. If the twentieth century seems not to have 
what some people would consider its due, the reason is an old and a well-proved one. 
There is hardly on record a single instance of such treatment of contemporary literature 
with earlier not proving unsatisfactory. To adjust the focus has constantly been 
found impossible. 

The Beginnings 

The earliest division of English literature is not bulky ; and though some 
of it was certainly destroyed during the subsequent centuries when French and 
Latin were the literary languages of our country — ^though even towards its own 
end-period it seems to have undergone a sort of atrophy — it is doubtful whether 
it ever was much larger. Further, a large proportion of it is translation in origin 
on one system of division, and religious in subject on another. Some of the 
language is altogether obsolete, and nearly all has undergone more or less change. 
The poetry of which the most interesting part of it (with perhaps one exception) 



consists, is constructed in a fashion different from that prevailing later : the 
system of versification being accentual-alliterative without anjrthing that we call 
rhyme (though the delusive term, " head-rhyme," is sometimes used for allitera- 
tion itself) appearing till very late. Possibly and indeed probably, the very earliest 
pieces, including the one tolerably complete epic poem, Beowulf, were brought 
into England by the Angle and Saxon invaders, not composed there after their 

Nevertheless, " Anglo-Saxon " — as the old and perhaps still the best name 
for it goes — ^is more than well worth study, and exhibits features which are still 
discernible in the latest English literature itself, while it has, both in general and 
in some particulars, the prouder distinction of being far older than any similar 
division of any other modern European language. It has also that of exhibiting, 
in its comparatively small bulk, a remarkable diversity of literary forms. The 
famous Anglo-Saxon Chronicle stands alone as a contemporary history in the 
vernacular at almost the beginning of a literature. It may deal with " battles 
of kites and crows," it may contain few — it does contain some — of those references 
to the " condition of the people " which it has become a modern fashion to 
demand. But its existence — in face of the overpowering predominance of Latin 
at the time and later for such purposes — may be without absurdity taken as 
proof of the antiquity of that resolve which Ascham formulated some three- 
quarters of a millennium afterwards to deal " with English matters in the English 
tongue for English men." 

The rest of the matter that we have from this period — though not much 
of it may have such individual claim as the Chronicle, and much of it certainly 
is translated — has, as literature, qualities of variety in subject and yet resem- 
blance in tone which are by no means universal in early literatures. That tone 
is almost invariably grave, even in the so-called " Riddles," but the variety in 
so small a bulk is very considerable, and the freedom of treatment where so 
much is translated, is very remarkable. In Scripturally based poems — ^the most 
famous and probably the oldest of which are those of Genesis and Exodus — quite 
possibly executed by the herdsman Caedmon of Whitby ; in several Saints' 
Lives — a class to which no small part of the Origins of Romance in all countries 
has sometimes been assigned — in a few curious poems of miscellaneous character, 
the finest of which is on a ruined city, possibly Bath ; in prose or half-prose 
Homilies, or sermons with — as was the habit throughout the Dark and Middle 
Ages — ^anecdotes and stories scattered pretty thickly in them ; in one very inter- 
esting novelette (as it may almost be called), that of Apollonius of Tyre, no 
doubt adapted from Greek or Latin and long after revived by Gower and in 
Pericles ; in not a few " Leechdoms " (medical treatises), and a few other things, 
we can discern without undue fancif ulness a really strong literary nisiis or effort, 
as yet furnished with an imperfect language, and very limited and rudimentary 
notions of Rhetoric and Poetic. Narrative power is already considerable ; poetic 
spirit evident if as yet not well fitted out with expression ; altogether no lack 
of quality. But it is equally evident that in almost all respects the literature 
is more or less inorganic ; means, " plant," patterns, training — all manner of 


similar things are wanting to it, and seem unlikely ever to have been supplied 
purely out of its owti resources. The atrophy already spoken of might really 
have come about but for one thing, that the hidden and incontestable power 
prevented any such fate. 

" Middle " English 

The exact way in which it was saved from that atrophy and nourished and 
disciplined into new and magnificent life is difficult, if not impossible, for any 
one who goes by the weight of evidence to pronounce upon. For a long time 
— indeed for some hundred and fifty years after the Conquest — there is hardly 
any evidence at all ; and for another hundred there is very little. People have 
filled the gap with all sorts of suppositions and assumptions. Some would have 
it that " the rhythm of the foreigner " broke in and destroyed our native prosody : 
while French and Latin similarly invaded and settled in, if they did not destroy, 
our language. Some suppose a continuous but lost series of alliterative poems 
from the eleventh to the thirteenth century. Some — and a good many — admit 
at least a deliberate imitation of French — in at any rate " Anglo-Norman " 
vocabulary, grammar and prosody. The sanest view according to others (with 
whom the present writer agrees) and that which takes closest account of the 
actual existing docmnents with the least of theory or guess-work to help them 
out — is that a slow but siu-e blend in literature as in nationality took place between 
" Saxon " and " Norman " characteristics, and produced, by the fourteenth 
century at latest, something which no one but a very lazy, a very stupid, or a 
quite uneducated person can fail to recognise as " English " in the work of 
Chaucer. The process in vocabulary was very slow ; we find at the beginning of 
the thirteenth long compositions in which no more than a hundred or two words 
appear that might not have appeared centuries earlier. But in prose form to some 
extent, and in poetic form to a much greater, the new fashions are much more 
obvious ; though even here there is a curious appearance of half unconsciousness, 
as if the writers were " growing " and not consciously training themselves — as if, 
indeed, they did not exactly know what they were doing, and were slipping their 
old skin and donning the new more than half unconsciously. 

It should be. however, though it by no means always has been, clearly under- 
stood that while language and literature were during this time rather in training 
than in actual practice, much excellent literary work was produced by Englishmen 
in other languages. This was certain to be followed up in English itself when the 
time came. The decadence of Anglo-Saxon, for instance, caused the Chronicle 
to be succeeded by quite a school of English Historians in the learned tongue : 
and while the earlier vehicle had never been suited for philosophical writing, some 
of the very greatest of the Schoolmen were of English birth, and Oxford could 
hold up its head with any Continental University. Even of the Romances which 
constituted the bulk of mediaeval belles lettres — though they were quickly and 
largely translated into the successive forms of English, and though the European 
storehouse and mart of them was certainly French — it is certain that some and 


even many were written, in as well as out of England, by Englishmen. Indeed, 
it is, despite much argument, a still unsettled point whether the most important 
and so to speak, constitutive parts of the great Arthurian legend — ^the chief single 
literary achievement of the earlier Middle Ages before Dante — are not of pure 
English origin : neither Welsh, nor Breton, nor French. 

In such a state of things, according to the well-known saying slightly altered, 
the hour comes when the man makes his appearance, or the men make their hours. 
In this case the hour was the latter part of the fourteenth century : and the men 
were Chaucer, Gower and Langland — ^the two latter being, no doubt, of inferior 
importance to the former, but never to be left out of consideration. Langland is the 
last great one, and perhaps the only one really great, of those who, while admitting 
much imported language, cling to the old poetic form. Gower (who was trilingual), 
is the latest and (for great is hardly the word for him), most considerable of those 
who may be said to have been uncertain about the sufficiency of their native 
language. Between them Chaucer shows, and shows triumphantly, now that 
native language has come to its own. 

Chaucer and the Fifteenth Century. 

The fashion and the extent to which Chaucer thus displayed the stage of 
perfectionment which England had then reached, excuse, if they do not fully 
justify, the old idea that, in some way or other, he was absolutely " the first 
warbler," " the well [head] of English," and the like. He was neither ; but he 
changed twitters into almost a full compass of notes, and dribbles into a flood. 
Hardly in any other literature is there an instance of a single writer in early times 
maintaining influence for a whole century, reviving it a little before the beginning 
and undoubtedly influencing that beginning of such a thing as the great Ehza- 
bethan development ; meanwhile actually determining what was almost the rise 
of a special extra-territorial (in this case Scottish) division of poetry, moulding 
it into forms not entirely in accordance with nationaUty in the more limited 
sense ; and maintaining that influence, even when it had for the time died off 
in its native country. 

That in the fifteenth century English verse, despite or in consequence of this 
Chaucerian influence, became of less importance involves no blame to him. Periods 
of imitation of a single poet are, it is hardly rash to say, always periods of a kind 
of decadence ; and here there was the special difficulty for poets that language 
and, apparently, pronunciation were undergoing considerable changes, while the 
versifiers were endeavouring to keep the same metres, and to lorce rhythm to suit 
them. In the puzzling but invaluable division of the ballad, verse itself more 
than holds its ground. On the other hand, the advance of prose — which also 
Chaucer had written, if not with the supremacy of his verse, with considerable 
skill — made steady progress ; History came back to EngUsh ; the last great and 
decidedly the greatest of mediaeval romances was given by Malory ; rhetorical 
devices inspired by the classical Renaissance began to be tried ; and what may 


be conveniently, if not very exactly called " miscellaneous writing " deserted 
verse for prose with fortimate immediate results and more fortunate promise. 

** Elizabethan " Literature. 

The fruit of all this long endeavour was, in perfection, still delayed for the 
greater part of yet another century ; though the first three-quarters of the six- 
teenth contain, to any careful observer, more than the promise of it. Still it is 
difficult to remember any exact parallel to the rush and burst in quantity, the 
variety and splendour in quality, of the literature which, a little after the twentieth 
year of EUzabeth, appeared with Spenser in poetry, Lyly and Hooker in prose, 
the " University Wits " in drama, as its leaders ; with Shakespeare himself to 
follow shortly ; and with such a crowd of noteworthy, though minor individual 
authors that one might fill this entire page with the mere names of them — pressing 
into the service none that were not really noteworthy in this or that degree 
and kind. 

Attempts have been made — quite properly if made in the right spirit and 
attended to in the right manner — to put down a large part of this astonishing 
literary development to mere translation. But, in order to secure that right 
attention, it is all important to distinguish between translation and imitation, 
which are mere translation and imitation, and translation and imitation that are 
not. Periods of the first are generaUy the weakest periods of literature : the 
others are often, if not always, the strongest. Spenser has -frequently almost trans- 
lated and quite paraphrased Ariosto ; Shakespeare, Amyot through North ; 
others others. And yet Spenser is, to say the least, as good a poet as the Italian, 
and Shakespeare is perhaps rather a greater writer than North or Amyot or their 
original Plutarch. The fact is that, in vigorous but comparatively unsophisticated 
periods of literature, even the greatest writers seem to feel themselves in a sort 
of pupillary state, while the lesser naturally do so. 

But be they greater or be they lesser, the writers of such a period somehow 
cannot escape some touch of greatness which, in other periods, may seem to be 
totally lacking. There is, perhaps, no division of Ehzabethan literature (using 
the term in the not strictly accurate, but useful sense of " From Si>enser to Milton, 
from Hooker to Browne, and from Marlowe to Sliirley,") where this greatness oftener, 
or less often, in fuller or scantier quantity and quality, is not to be foimd : though 
of course it is also perfectly true, that only very rarely do you find that 
faultlessness, that peculiar state of " correctness," which may be found elsewhere. 
There is rubbish of various kinds in the Elizabethan drama — a great deal of it, in 
fact, some being even in Shakespeare. There is dullness and flatness as weH as 
false rhetoric in Elizabethan prose ; and even in Elizabethan poetry there is 
bombast, conceit, verbiage, etc., etc. But somehow or other there is almost 
everywhere in them all the tlirob and pulse of life ; and occasionally, very often 
indeed, that fife puts on forms of such amazing grandeur, of such exquisite beauty, 
as no other literature at any other time has excelled. We mark stages in it — 


not altogether inaccurately, and with decided convenience ticketing them with 
the names of the three sovereigns who occupied the throne in succession during 
the period. But we must remember that if Shakespeare had lived to fourscore, 
he would have seen the closing of the theatres : and that Browne, who was born 
shortly after the death of Elizabeth, very nearly lived to see that of Charles the 
Second. The whole range of achievement from the Faerie Queene to Paradise 
Regained, and from Euphues to Christian Morals, is thus knit together : and not 
only fit to be taken as a whole, but absolutely demanding to be so. Just before 
it begins, English Literature is something with a thousand years of history, an 
immense course of training and cultivation, much interesting and some complete 
performance, but still, as was said above, in a sort of pupillage. When it closes, 
except for a prose-of-all-work (there are even beginnings of that), and an 
active, instructed criticism, it is a literature complete and fit to match any in the 

It is almost, if not quite, invariably found that immediately succeeding ages 
" sin their mercies " (in a good old phrase) as regards the age of literature, and 
perhaps of other things, immediately preceding them : and this was notoriously 
the case with regard to the period which we are considering. Even Dryden, 
though he did magnificent justice to Shakespeare's merits, was, not exactly too 
severe, but not quite severe in the right way on his defects. Now, Dryden was 
really a great critic ; while at the other end of the scale Pepys, who was not a 
critic at all, talks simple nonsense about Shakespeare. Nor was the whole 
eighteenth century in any right focus about the earlier seventeenth : while though 
its wrongs have been made up to it since, it is necessarily from a distance ; and 
seldom has been done with a Pisgah sight as it were — extensive and yet close — 
of the whole. Let us venture something of the kind, mounting the hill as we best 
can about 1550, and again a hundred years later, and comparing the state, at these 
respective times, of the different departments of literature. 

In the highest and oldest of all — Poetry proper — we have at the beginning a 
very extensive retrospect, with, if hardly a proportional, still a considerable 
amount of interesting work scattered about it, but with hardly more than one 
great name — ^that of Chaucer — in its catalogue or chronicle. Recently there have 
been as it were throes — ^as if something better or at any rate different, were coming: 
but nothing distinctly great. When the centenary comes, there are to the credit 
of the English literary landscape two certainly — Shakespeare and Milton, while 
some would add a third in Spenser — of the undoubtedly great poets of the world ; 
not a few of high second rank ; and such a crowd of minors, no one of whom is 
entirely destitute of real poetic genius now and then, as no other literature can 
show for anything like the time, if indeed at all its times put together. 

For the state of things in Prose, if not quite so brilliant a positive account 
can be given, the relative statement is only less in one respect. Poetry can show 
proficiency in all its kinds. Prose is as yet rather defective (as above hinted), 
in its character of " maid-of -all- work." In the greater prose — the prose that draws 
near to poetry — we have once more, ne-plus-ultras, while at the beginning- 


except in dying styles like Malory's — we have nothing of the kind. The highest 
flights of Taylor, Milton, and Browne have never been excelled; and, as in the case 
of poetry, it is astonishing how often, in writers not absolutely or constantly of 
the first class, you find first-class passages — passages for which elsewhere you 
may look in vain. But this prose is not yet, as the poetry practically is, armed 
at all points. It is not good for the more abstruse subjects unless they are of a 
mystical kind, for it is not clear enough. Nor is it good for the most opposite 
purposes possible — ^those of ordinary conversation, light narrative, business 
statement, etc., not merely because it is not clear enough, but because it is neither 
light nor flexible enough. 

It is, however, in the Third Division, Drama, that the most startling, if not 
the greatest, advance is perceptible. No one who really knows it would speak 
with contempt of the mediaeval drama, or even of its queer nondescript successors 
in the latest fifteenth and early sixteenth century. But, independently of the 
absence of any great individual talent, both suffer from a not uncommon curse of 
theatrical literature — ^the persistence of mould and type — to an extravagant 
degree. They are " mystery," " morality," " interlude," first of all — individual 
compositions in many cases last of all, and in very few cases definitely and 
prominently so. By the time of the closing of the theatres, though, of course, the 
great divisions of Tragedy and Comedy held as they always must hold, the mere 
class character had to a very large extent, if not entirely, ceased. People copied ; 
but even those who did so had sometimes, nay often, made of their copies some 
of the most independent and original things in the world. 

" Restoration " Literature. 

In, or to such a state of things, however, there is always an exception, or 
more than one, to be admitted : a drawback of some sort to be allowed. The 
volume, the variety, and the superbness at its best of Elizabethan literature cannot 
be denied. But that, except when it is at its very best, and sometimes even then, 
it may seem to call for correction, castigation, criticism, cannot be denied likewise. 
It was, in fact, a sort of " spate " and the water was turbid. The period immedi- 
ately succeeding is one which, until quite recently, has had rather hard measure : 
though not quite without deserving it. Putting aside those smrvivors of the 
larger Elizabethan age, whom we have glanced at above, there is in what we call 
Restoration literature (though it includes the reign of William and Mary), only 
one distinctly great name, that of Dryden, who fills the whole forty years, dis- 
tinguishes himself in all three broad departments of literature, and gives us our 
first great name, in that very subdivision of prose criticism, which has been most 
lacking before him. But even he, though there is a great deal in him of that 
older age itself, and though he has left a criticism on its greatest name — Shake- 
speare — unsurpassed to the present day, is open, in common with all his con- 
temporaries, except at odd moments, to somewhat damaging strictures in poetry 
proper, and in drama. In the former, he too often lets Rhetoric get the better 


of pure Poetic, as do all his contemporaries ; though both he and they have left 
charming lyrics to which too little justice has even yet been done. In drama, as 
they nearly all do, he tends to rant in tragedy (the curious, very un-English and 
short-lived rhymed tragedy is a feature of this time), and to that very easy but 
rarely artistic appeal of indecency in comedy. Comedy, howevCT, even with this 
blot on it, is one of the chief growths of the time. It ceases to be romantic, as it 
had been earlier : but it becomes — in the curious blend of realism and art, officially 
called the Comedy of Manners — a very perfect thing in its own way. Congreve's 
work in particular may not be of the best or even of a very good kind. But in 
its kind, it is unsurpassed. 

Indeed the work that this " Restoration " period did in clarifying and correct- 
ing English, thus providing some compensation for the deficiency of original genius, 
which was to prevail for some time, cannot in reason be overestimated. In 
particular, it would be difficult to find anywhere such a remarkable prop and 
stay in all kinds of literature as Dryden. Poetry at the time, as has been said, 
may have been handing over her sceptre to Rhetoric : but he kept them for a 
space as joint Queens of Brentford ; even in Tragedy, besides his ranting, but 
not contemptible " heroics," he actually dared to follow Shakespeare in All for 
Love, and did not fail utterly ; while in Comedy a great deal more credit 
to him is due than is usually given for scenes if not whole plays, which 
served as patterns to Congreve himself and others of Dryden's younger 
contemporaries . 

But it is in prose that, from the point of view of literary history, if not of 
pure aesthetics, Dryden and Dryden's contemporaries deserve most attention. 
They made the " middle style," as Johnson calls it, of English : and, after all, it is 
in this " middle " that Prose, more than almost anything else, obeys and profits by 
the axiom as to " going safely " and usefully. The highest prose is delightful, 
but is, after all, a kind of luxury and superfluity — ^for we have poetry to do the 
work, and do it better. Of the lowest we need not speak. But if, as surely is 
the fact, the most really valuable state of a thing is that in which it does what 
nothing else can do, and does that consummately — then such prose as that which 
Dryden almost began (though others from Johnson to Cowley had aimed at it), 
and which in his hfetime Addison and others, but above all Swift, brought to a 
relative state of perfection — is of value in the highest degree. This prose has 
seen, of course, enormous importations and inventions of language since : and in 
some way, what is called, in a minor style. But it is still in the main definitely 
modern as Elizabethan prose is not : and its lines are traceable even in the most 
ornate specimens of the most modern prose itself. 

The Eighteenth Century. 

This rather curious but very useful process of lowering but at the same time 
extending and adapting Prose continued to be the chief literary business of all 
but the entire eighteenth century. In Poetry it chiefly followed Dryden, and his 


pupil, Pope ; with, after the example of the latter, a still further discard of tlie 
more ambitious flights which the former had still attempted, and not seldom 
achieved. In Pope himself, hardly anything of poetry proper remains, but 
what is given by the metre : though that is as nearly as possible perfect of its 
own peculiar kind. The great performances of eighteenth century verse are in 
didactics, and satire — themselves the nearest prose of all such departments. Even 
when Gray and Collins make efforts in lyric, a certain stiffness hangs about them ; 
they are full of rhetorical figures ; and it is not till Blake — as a very young man, 
and one who was to live well into the following century — began, that the old 
freedom and soar reappeared. Nor in Drama, though this continued to be very 
popular, were any heights reached till the late days of Sheridan in comedy ; while 
not one single tragedy of a first, a good second, or a respectable third class appeared 
from the very first year of the century to the very last. It was during this time 
also that there grew up, partly as a consequence of the continued acting of older 
plays (for the acting of the time was as good as its playwriting was bad), a sort of 
mongrel stage dialect or lingo — which lasted well into the times of men now living, 
and which was surely the most detestable jargon ever used by man. 

But, to return to Prose, the state of things there was very different. As a 
matter of mere liking — of personal taste and enjoyment — one may prefer perhaps 
sixteenth, certainly seventeenth or nineteenth century prose to eighteenth : as a 
matter of critical estimation it cannot, as the phrase goes, be " put out of its 
place," and that a high one. 

For once, too, the history of a literary department is not, as so often, one 
of waxing and waning. That of eighteenth century prose is one of slightly varied 
forms of goodness ending in something like an establishment. The inevitable 
fault or disease of the " plain stj'le " — meanness and vulgarity — attacked it more 
than once, but was always worsted. Just about the junction of the centuries, 
one of these attacks took place as a sort of sequence to a deliberate attempt (to 
which voice had heen given by Sprat in his History of the Royal Society), to make 
the language more suitable for scientific and business purposes by adopting the 
vocabulary of unliterary folk. But Addison, by example, and Swift, by example 
and precept, showed that perfect clearness, force, in Swift's case, and in Addison's 
what was called elegance — almost everything in short except magnificence — could 
be secured by the plain style, with a gain for average use to compensate after a 
fashion for the loss of that magnificence in uses that were not average. Towards 
the middle of the century or a little later, when some decadence seemed to threaten, 
there came the rhetorical but stately prose of Johnson to guard against this, 
with that of Gibbon somewhat later : and the result of it all was the formation 
towards the extreme end of the century, and in the early years of the nineteenth, 
of a standard prose style which is hardly obsolete yet, though, of course, many 
varieties — especially in the way of return to the ornate — have been added to this, 
and though it has itself undergone certain changes partly resulting from the 
enormous reinforcement of the vocabulary. 

It was to the establishment of this style of all work that two great develop- 
ments, destined to be the most popular of all, owed in very great degree the 


possibility of their existence, and in a still greater its continuance and 
development. These were the newspaper and the novel. 

The Nineteenth Century. 

The rise of these; the contribution to the newspaper itself, and to inde- 
pendent uses of the Addisonian Essay, the popularity of which had continued 
for more than two generations ; and the establishment of a standard prose style, 
enabled the new birth or burst of original genius, when it came, to start with 
immense advantages over the first such birth or burst, its j^redecessor in Elizabethan 
times. (There is no " standard " of poetry ; the wind bloweth as it listeth, or not at 
all there.) Whether the total result of the age which followed — best dated perhaps, 
as we date, or the earlier one from The Faerie Queen to Samson Agonistes, from 
Lyrical Ballads to Asolando — was equal, better, or worse when compared with that 
earlier one, is a question itself much better left to the twenty-first or perhaps 
second century to answer. Here we have no questions of merit to decide : only 
panoramas of facts to give. And the huge expansion of quantity — the multi- 
plied variety and excellence in quality, of these ninety years or so is a fact, or a 
collection of facts, absolutely undeniable. Except in theology and drama (perhaps 
the most opposed of all the branches of literature), wherever we turn there is fresh 
and great growth. There were good preachers, but for first-class standard work 
of this kind, combining religion, intellect, and style, we may look about long 
enough. With the exception of one magnificent tragedy, Shelley's Cenci, all the 
serious drama is but second-rate stuff, and most of it tenth-rate : while the 
comedy is hardly better, till we come to the delightful but rather nondescript work 
of the late Sir William Gilbert at the very end of the period. Philosophy, though 
not quite in such a poor way, does not, from the purely literary point of view, 
" bulk " as they say, " very largely " — Mill on one side and Mansel on the other 
being its chief literary representatives. But elsewhere there is hardly a direction 
in which one can look without finding abundance combined with excellence. 

As to the oldest and highest of all hterary departments, poetry — ^there can 
be, in serious and catholic judgment, no diversity of general estimate, though there 
may be wide variation in detail and in particulars to note. The processes which 
went on in the eighteenth century could provide, as has been said, no standard of 
poetry : but they assisted, only less than in prose, the formation of a common 
basis of language on which, by the combined aid of recovery of old treasures and 
new inventions of genius, a great poetic diction could be rebuilt. And the new 
genius itself was indubitable. Wordsworth — a. doubtful critic, but a great poet 
on his day ; Coleridge, on his day (which unfortunately came but too seldom, a 
greater poet than Wordsworth, and one of the most marvellously influential 
critics of the world ; Scott and Byron, the revivers of verse-romance and the first 
writers to carry English literature all over Europe as a model and an mfluexice ; 
Shelley, the " poet of poets " in both senses of that ambiguous term — in the first 
division of the period ; Tennyson, Browning, Swinburne, William Morris, Rossetti, 


who overlapped them, and each other, in successive stages of the second — were 
only the most important names to which, as once before only, not a few high 
seconds and a crowd of real though minor poets could be added. But the impor- 
tant thing — ^for such a " view " as this — is not so much the presence of poets, 
great as individuals, as the diffusion and recognition of the true spirit of poetry 
itself which, since the death of Dryden, had been very rarely and scantily present — 
since the death of Milton, never apparent in fullest strength. From the days of 
Wordsworth the much talked of " Return to Nature " in subject had been uimiis- 
takable ; from the days of Coleridge (though he himself did not fully imderstand 
his own emancipation), the fetters and limitations which had been imposed on the 
form of poetry, with some healthy but more unhealthy results, were loosened and 
thrown away. The second and third generation took up the re-lighted torch, and 
the blaze of poetry continued for at least some ninety years — without prejudice to 

The next literary product of the nineteenth century upon which the attention 
of posterity is pretty certain to be concentrated — a product which is almost more 
its own than its poetry, because it owes less to predecessors, old or recent — ^is its 
work in the novel. The eighteenth had produced in Fielding one absolutely 
supreme novelist ; in Richardson and Sterne two of the greatest talent and of 
influence at home and abroad ; in Smollett our best practitioner, up to the time, 
of the novel of what is called " picaresque " adventure ; in Horace Walpole and 
Mrs. RadcUffe, cultivators, with some originaUty, of a special variety, the " Terror- 
Novel," which has never quite lost its hold ; and in Miss Bumey a considerable 
advancer of the domestic novel — which has eaten up most other kinds except 
that of adventure. But its minor fiction, with a few exceptions, though plentiful 
enough, had not been very good. By or soon after the beginning of the nineteenth, 
Scott, taking a variety of the adventure novel or romance, which had been tried 
at unsuccessfully for a long time — the historical — brought it to a state of some- 
thing like perfection which promptly served as pattern to all Europe : while Miss 
Austen, with a less popular but more delicate genius, brought the domestic variety 
nearer perfection still. Her example waited longer than his for imitation with any 
success : but not so very long. Scott's was imitated at once : and both Romance 
and Novel (as the styles of the two have come, not perhaps quite accurately, to 
be distinguished), subdivided into numerous classes or, better still, freed from any 
necessity of classification at all — flourished as they never had before in England 
or anywhere else, though France, starting a little later, ran them hard in their own 
days. The greatest names, those of Dickens and Thackeray, head a list of others 
from really great to not so very small, which in a paper Uke this it would be idle to 
attempt to draw up ; because it would be somewhat ungracious to begin with any 
one, and almost more so to stop with any other. 

It has been said that the Addisonian Essay had been a main feature of 
eighteenth century literature ; and it continued to be so throughout the nine- 
teenth, with a double portion of the freedom from conventional form which marked 
the younger century. Its freedom and its fertility were greatly helped by the 
enormous multiplication of periodical literature which has been glanced at. 


Periodicals — from the most ponderous " Review," to the lightest " newspaper," 
needed " articles ": and every " article " is an essay of a kind. The century, more- 
over, became one of criticism, as no previous century had been, and every criticism 
is an essay or a fragment of one. Indeed, there is nothing that cannot be treated 
essay-fashion ; though we have mostly given up attaching the title to extensive 
and serious works like Locke's. A library exclusively confined to Essays would 
contain a very large proportion of the very best literary work of these ninety 
years : and except Tennyson, hardly one of the greatest names would fail to appear 
in the catalogue. The sciences by their extreme specialisation, and the growth 
of technical language, have almost inevitably contributed less to pure literature 
than their former proportion : but they have not lacked excellent writers. And 
as for History, which has in times past provided some of the greatest literature of 
the world, it has certainly not failed to put in its share, though the much greater 
attention to the historical " document " now required of the historian, has tended 
to increase the bulk of his work, and diminish that of his subject with not alto- 
gether happy results ; and though a school of historical purists or Nazarites has 
arisen which would discourage literary aims almost or altogether. Biography, 
travel, other varieties of miscellaneous literature were freely practised, and 
sometimes introduced in this period. 

It may be disappointing to some readers — and it certainly goes against 
some current theories and demands — ^to leave the view in something of a mist, 
for the last thirty years, or, according to convention, the present generation's time. 
But a few may be contented to take it on trust from one who has had perhaps 
rather more acquaintance with literary history than most people that, as was 
said at the beginning, the continuance, on apparently level terms, of such views 
to contemporary literature has never been satisfactory and for good reasons never 
can be. Towards the time already indicated — ^the beginning of the last decade 
of the nineteenth century — ^the elder lights were being gradually extinguished, 
and though some remained and were even reinforced in their own semblance, a 
taste for different sorts of illumination set in. As always in such cases a cry of 
" Convention " was raised and various anticonventions were tried. " Free verse " 
in poetry ; " Free prose," in a different sense of " free," in novel, became or 
strove to become the order of the day. Paradox, the usual resource of talent which 
is not sure of itself, flourished, or raged, as the reader may choose the word : and 
that natural daughter of Paradox^ the putting forth of opinions intended to shock 
the feeble-minded, became more frequent in our streets than ever before. But 
how the state of things went on ; what effect has been produced on it, by the 
great shock of the War of 1914-1918, and so forth, must be left to others to see and 
say. Not all those fit to take the vanguard are buried by the holly-bush yet ; 
and all history teaches that even when this seems to be the case, it only means 
that new warriors will soon be earth-born. As the body of this book will show, 
they will have a richer and more varied armory of word-weapons to use than 
any of their predecessors and it will only rest with them to choose the best and 
keenest and use them with such skill sfi they may. 



Raines Professor of English Language in the 'University of Liverpool 

Spelltng. — Few languages have a more difficult system (or lack of system) 
of spelling than English. Our language started with an imperfect alphabet, and 
its unphonetic character has been greatly intensified, firstly by our frequent con- 
tact with other nations and their languages, either through war, conquest and 
trade or through books ; secondly, by the more or less definite fixing of our spelling 
at the end of the fifteenth century, while our pronunciation is, has been, and always 
will be changing ; thirdly, by sporadic attempts to reform our spelling. 

As an illustration of the first we may note how ch has three values in chief, 
champagne and Christ, the first word reaching us through the Norman Conquest, 
the second through modern French trade and society, the third through the Greek 
Testament. Of the second we cannot have a better illustration than the tradi- 
tional rhymes allowed to poets. They may rhyme war and star, love and prove, 
wand and hand, ward and hard. These pairs of words were once both spelled 
and pronounced alike, then for various reasons the vowel in one of each of the 
pairs changed its pronunciation, but the spelling gives no record of it, and we are 
content to allow pure eye-rhymes. The third disturbing cause was active chiefly 
in the sixteenth century. Then it was that spellings such as victuals, doubt, fauU 
replaced earlier vitailes, dmite, faute, because scholars wished to suggest their 
ultimate Latin sources. Usually they left no mark on the actual pronunciation 
of the word, but in fault we have now come to pronounce the I, though Pope still 
rhymes fault and ought. 

Ambiguous and arbitrary though our spelling is, educated opinion allows 
but little latitude in its use : inflexion and inflection are permitted, practice is 
now almost universal, but practise (verb) is occasionally met with, and practised 
(adj.) is universal, development ^nd judgment may pass muster with or without 
an e, we may dramatise or dramatize a novel, grey and gray are alike admissible 
though some would try to differentiate them in use ; one may smell attar or otto 
of roses, and a love of false simplicity is forcing rime upon us, side by side with 
rhyme, but even if one drew up a complete list of words with such alternative forms, 
it would give but cold comfort to those who find difficulty in using a fixed 

Pronunciation. — The question which at once suggests itself under this head 
is "What is the standard by which pronunciation is determined in present-day 
English ? " or, to put it in another way, " What is the best English ? " Many 
answers have been given to these questions but for the most pait they resolve 
themselves into that given by Jespersen that the best English is spoken by those 



*' whose dialect cannot be determined by their speech," whose language is free 
from words, idioms, and pronimciations which smack of the local or provincial. 
This is a somewhat bloodless ideal, but it is the one which, under the conditions 
of modern life, is gradually establishing itself not only in England but in France, 
Germany, Italy, and all other civilised countries. The speaker who uses the 
North Country pass, glass with a short vowel, or sounds his r's with a slight 
Northumbrian burr by bringing his uvula into play, or in the West Country 
fashion by slightly curling back the tip of his tongue, or who by the merest fraction 
of a second lengthens too much the initial vowel in the diphthong i of fine, thereby 
arousing a suspicion of Cockney influence, is not a speaker of Standard English. 
There are but few who attain the ideal completely, at least to the ear of the trained 
phonetician, and among educated people, whether they live in London or the 
provinces, one must recognise the existence of slight dialectal variations, such as 
have led Professor Wyld and others to use the term Received Standard for the 
absolute ideal and Modified Standard for that with which we have for the most 
part to rest content. 

So far we have only dealt with differences of pronunciation which are definitely 
dialectal and local in their origin, but there are other and important causes of 
variation which call for comment. 

The spoken word never stands entirely still. It is subject to a constant, 
tthough at times exceedingly slow, tendency towards change, and this often leads 
to differences of pronunciation between one generation and the next 
■or, still more definitely, between the speech of ourselves and our grandparents. 
Two different pronunciations may thus overlap in actual point of time. Speakers 
who are now in the forties and who would themselves always pronoimce leisure, 
herb and hospital as lezhur, herb and hospital, and shilling with a final ing, can 
remember grandparents who spoke the Standard English of their day and yet 
said leezhur, erb, orspital and shillin. This is happening in our own generation in 
the sound values of the italicised symbols in such words as Zawnch, soldier, o/ten, 
suit. Some people pronounce them with the older pronunciation still preserved 
in haMnt, idiot (no example), blt^, others with the new pronimciation now fully 
established in awnt, ItaZian, toss, due. 

But the pronunciation of words is affected by questions not only of time 
and age, but also by those of the significance and general manner of speech. Certain 
words when used in speech normally bear no stress at all, and thus suffer a reduc- 
tion in the fulness of their articulation, but when used in positions of greater 
emphasis and importance they keep their full phonetic value. To is not pro- 
nounced the same in " to-morrow " and " to and fro," or the in " that's the thing " 
(contemptuous), and " that's the thing " (meaning the one and only thing to the 
exclusion of all others), or have in " You ought to have done it," and " Have you 
done it ? " In this way a large number of words, more especially the small change 
of speech in the shape of the articles, pronouns, auxiliaries, conjunctions, preposi- 
tions, have in speech at least two vat.ues, a stressed and an unstressed one, 
and nothing is more destructive of good ^peech than the false distinctness cultivated 
hy some elocutionists whereby all these words are at all times pronounced with 


their full stressed vowels, thus allowing no possibility of giving expression to the 
finer shades of speech-value. 

More difficult is the case of those words which tend to have a different pro- 
nunciation in good COLLOQUIAL SPEECH from that which seems fitting for more 
public occasions such as reading aloud, teaching, preaching, and lecturing. 
Principle may be pronounced as [prinsepl] or as [prinsipl], horseshoe as [hors-shoo] 
or as [horshoo], sit down as [sit doun] or as [sid(d)oun], November as [november] 
or as [november]. always as [alwaz] or as [alwez]. Here the first thing to note 
is that all of us, even the most careful, use the more colloquial pronunciations to 
a far greater extent than we as a rule suspect. We are the worst possible witnesses 
in the case, and no man can safely be asked how he pronounces a word. The 
only safe way of finding out is for his friends with well-trained ears to listen and 
catch him unawares. We must beware, therefore, of setting up a Pharisaic 
standard of propriety on the basis of our own imagined practice, but, on the 
other hand, the more we realise these tendencies in our own speech the more 
carefully shall we be on our guard against colloquial English becoming slovenly 
English, and give each letter and syllable its distinct value, which, as we have 
seen above, by no means always implies its full value. The better our standard 
of colloquial speech the less danger there will be that, in the reaction from it, 
we rush to a pedantic extreme, and use a stilted type of English which 
cannot possibly respond to the emotional demands we have to make 
upon it. 

So far we have been dealing with differences of prontmciation into which 
questions of right and wrong hardly enter ; both pronunciations are at least 
admissible, though not perhaps on all occasions. There are others where right 
and wrong are more or less sharply divided, and first we may deal with those 
alternative and faulty pronunciations which have arisen through the 
TYRANNY OF THE PRINTED WORD. With the Spread of education and the universal 
circulation of books, we have come, in the first place, to exalt the written at the 
expense of the spoken word and to think, quite wrongly, that it has in itself 
some inherent authority which exalts it above what is in truth its more living self. 
Secondly, after the first few years of childhood we now learn new words by 
reading them much more often than by hearing them, and may, if cut off from' 
intercourse with educated speakers, come to very strange conclusions about the 
pronunciation of words. Such blunders are not as rare as one might expect, 
even among people fairly conversant with books. One may hear from time to 
time such strange pronunciations of comely, ribald, heinous, and Colchester as 
[komli], [ribald], henos], and [kolchester] in place of the normal ones given in 
this Dictionary. 

Both factors lead to the same result, viz., that we are tending to give up 
many pronunciations which have developed by the natural process of oral trans- 
mission from one generation to another and to substitute ones suggested by the 
spelling. Thus the old pronunciations of waistcoat, forehead, often, extraordinary ^ 
ate, conduit, cognisance = (badge), acknowledge^ as [weskut], [f ored], [ofn], [extror- 
dinari], [et], [kundit], [konizans], [aknolij] are fast giving way to [waskotj. 


[forehed], [oftn], [extra-ordinary], [at], [kondit], and, at least in clerical 
circles [aknoiij]. 

Further and even more striking examples are furnished by a study of what is 
going on in our place-names. We are giving up the old pronunciations of Tyne- 
mouth, Daventry, Shrewsbury, Cirencester, Pontefract, Darlington, Derby as Tin- 
mouth, Daintree, Shrewsbury, Cissiter, Pomfret, Darnton, Darby in favour of pro- 
nunciations based upon the spelling. It certainly looks as if it will not be long 
before we are saying Nor-wich, Aln-wick, Streat-ham, South-wark. Such pro- 
nunciations, whether in ordinary words or in place-names, are due to an essentially 
illiterate exaltation of symbol over sound, spelling over pronunciation. 

The safe rule, so far as one can ever speak of a rule in English,, is that when 
one has a choice of two pronunciations of this kind, one should reject the pro- 
nunciation which is nearest that suggested by the spelling. 

We have dealt with two forms of pedantry in pronunciation, both alike 
ultimately due to worship of the letter, but there are others which are equally 
unfortunate. Our language contains a large number of modern French words 
ADOPTED INTO OUR spccch from the seventeenth century onward. Such words 
were fully naturalised, and congee, dishabille, nonchalance, nuance, provenance, 
levee, naivety, parvenu, valet were pronounced and sometimes spelled in a more or 
less definitely English fashion as [conji], [dishabili], [non'shalans], [prov'enans], 
[levi], [nalviti], [parvenu], [valit]. Now we are all supposed to be French scholars 
and we are so anxious not to be thought ignorant of French pronunciation that 
we are coming more and more to substitute the actual Modem French word, or, 
if we are not quite sure of our French accent, we perhaps try to avoid such words 
altogether. A similar thing is happening in the case of certain French names of 
places which once had a genuine English pronunciation. We are afraid of being 
thought ignorant if we follow our forefathers and speak of Calais, Rheims, Orleans, 
Lyons, Boulogne as [kalis], [remz], [orlenz], [llonz], [buloin], and the day is not 
perhaps very far distant when we shall want to speak of Paris, Brussels, and 
Marseilles, as though the English never heard of them till the twentieth century. 

Somewhat similar is the case of a large number of words of latin origin. 
The pronunciation of these words in English is determined by the old-fashioned 
pronunciation of Latin which prevailed in England in the days of the Renaissance 
(still to be heard in the Westminster Play), and which has a long and honourable 
history behind it. That pronunciation does not follow the strict rules of Latin 
quantity though it has quite definite rules of its own. Nowadays we are taught 
to pronounce Latin in entirely different fashion, and there is often a clashing of 
new and old. This is how in the pronunciation of plenaiy, sterile, Deuteronomy, 
hypochondria, ephemeral, dynasts, and dynasty we often hear [plenari], [steril], 
[duteronom'i], [hipokondria], [efemeral], [dinasts], and [dinasti] in place of [plenari], 
[steril], [dutero'numi], [hipokondria], (cf. hipped - discontented), [efemeral], 
[dinasts], [dinasti] When two such pronunciations exist it is very difficult on 
first principles to determine which is the better, but if we know enough Latin 
or Greek to realise which pronunciation is nearer the classical original, we may 
as a general rule reject that alternative. 


Of different origin is the two-fold pronunciation recorded in this dictionary 
for such words as consistory, laboratory, illustrate, contemplate, ally, respiratory. 
None of these words had the accent on the initial syllable when they were first 
borrowed by us, but there is a general tendency in English speech to throw 
BACK THE accent as far as possible in every word, and hence alternative pro- 
nunciations with such have now arisen. Recondite and incondite illustrate this 
process rather happily. The first is in fairly common use and now is pronounced 
with the accent on the first syllable, the second is more definitely a scholar's word 
and has not yet thrown the accent back. 

Words. — As we turn the pages of this dictionary one of our first impressions 
must be that of the wealth of words to be found there which writers on formal 
rhetoric have labelled as " synonyms," or, in the strict sense of the term, " words 
which are the equivalents of each other." If, however, we proceed to examine 
these synonjmis a little more closely, we shall find that there is good reason for 
the alternative definition by which those writers have tried to save the position 
by adding the qualifying alternative " or which have very nearly the same 
signification." In reality there are no synonyms in our language or any other, 
if we thereby imply that any one word may be substituted for another on all 
possible occasions. Even if two words cover one another completely so far as 
meaning is concerned, they never do so in actual usage. It is very difficult to 
distinguish commence and begin in meaning, but in Oxford usage you cannot 
" begin " Bachelor of Arts, you can only " commence." It would be difficult to 
define short and brief in any way which would differentiate them, and yet what 
a world of difference between " Out, out, brief candle ! " and " Out, out, 
short candle 1 " To this extent at least the theory of the mot juste is a 
true one. 

It is these subtle differences of meaning, usage, and association which make 
certain words so extraordinarily sensitive a test of social savoir faire. A man's 
use of the words man, woman, lady, gentleman, clergyman, fellow, will stamp him 
even more effectively than his pronunciation of them. Further, if the use of 
words is a matter of such delicate poise, we must beware of any definite and 


expression. We shall not always make a point of choosing the more formal and 
stiff alternative and use sufficient, prior to, commence to the exclusion of enough, 
before, begin ; we shall not allow a perverted sense of modesty or politeness make 
us always decide in favour of accoucheuse, serviette, perspire as against midwife, 
napkin, sweat, or call (in army language) a washing-hench an abluiion-hench. If 
we are writing an essay we shall not always wend our way and never make it, or 
take our meals at a hostelry in definite preference to an inn. In other words, 
we shall try to find the word which, by meaning, association, usage, sound, fits 
the immediate context and not allow ourselves to fall into the jargon of any 
particular social dialect. 

Words will not stand still in their meaning any more than they will in their 
pronunciation, but we must be on our guard against violent and unjustifiable 
divergences from the true and natural path of semantic development. Largely 


because of our love of the fine term as against the plain one, we have come to 
Hse many words of Latin origin in a loose and entirely illogical fashion and many 
such words need to be carefully watched. News of an event may transpire, but 
the event can only happen ; you may aggravate your offence, you cannot aggravate 
your master ; it is possible that a thing may be unique, it certainly cannot be 
somewhat unique ; there is such a thing as mutual friendship, but no such person 
as a mutual friend ; one thing can replace another but cannot be substituted by 
it ; one thing may resemble another but it cannot be resembled to it. 

Li reaction against these dangers we may rush to the opposite extreme and 


quialisms are not in themselves bad. Swank is a word which has won a definite 
place in our everyday speech and supphes a real need, but that does not neces- 
sarily make it a good word in writing. Similarly with up to in such phrases as 
the familiar " It's up to us," or with the American use of sense and glimpse as 
verbs. Now, and for a good many years to come, these expressions will strike 
a jarring note in a piece of serious prose and they cannot, as some people seem to 
imagine, be given an air of respectability by surrounding them with a halo of 
inverted commas. 

Here, as in pronunciation, our great aim should be to find the happy mean 
between pedantic stiffness and colloquial vulgarity, to realise the need for the 
golden mean. It is not a problem of our own day and generation alone ; it has 
always been with us and no one has put the need for choice and circumspection 
better than Johnson when he gave praise to the English style of Addison as one 
that was " familiar but not coarse, elegant but not ostentatious." 

Books Recommended for Further Study 

Spelling and Pronunciation 

Bradley's Spoken and Written English and Nicklin's The Sounds of Standard 
English (Oxford Press) are stimulating and suggestive. Fuller and more systematic 
treatment of many of these problems from a definitely historical point of view 
will be found in Wyld's History of Colloquial English (Fisher Unwin). Some of 
the conclusions of the latter are presented in concise and more popular form in 
the same author's Studies in English Rhymes from Surrey to Pope (Murray). For 
a study of the pronunciation of English from a strictly phonetic point of view, 
one may recommend Sweet's The Sounds of English (Oxford Press) or Daniel Jones's 
The Pronunciation of English, which include transcriptions in phonetic spelling. 
Suggestions for the reform of English spelling will be found in the publications 
of the Simplified Spelling Society, while Craigie in his Pronunciation of English 
and First English Book (Oxford Press) has suggested a simple system of diacritics 
whereby the correct pronunciation of English with an unreformed system of 
spelling is rendered very easy of attainment. 



For a study of the growth of the English vocabulary the best books are 
Bradley's Making of English (Macmillan) and Jespersen's Growth and Structure 
of the English Language (Teubner). For a popular study of the curious semantic 
developments of many of oiu* words, the best book is Greenough and Kittredge, 
Words and their ways in English Speech (Macmillan). 

The best book on the right and wrong use of words, idioms, and phrases in 
English is The King's English (Oxford Press). 

On all these points alike much skilful and for the most part thoroughly sound 
information and guidance will be found in the tracts issued from time to time 
by the Society for Pure English, and pubhshed by the Oxford Press. 

A. M. 


By G. W. O. HOWE, D.Sc, M.I.E.E. 

James Watt Professor of Electrical Engineering in the University of Glasgow 

The term " wireless " is now generally applied to the transmission of energy, 
signals, or speech, by means of electromagnetic waves radiated through the inter- 
vening medium without any connecting wires. It is also called radio-telegraphy 
and telephony. 

The theory of these waves was first propounded by Clerk-Maxwell in 1864, 
but they were first produced experimentally in 1888 by Hertz, and are sometimes 
referred to as Hertzian waves. Marconi was the first to apply them to the trans- 
mission of signals ; he commenced his experiments in Italy in 1895, and came 
to England with his apparatus in the following year. 

If a steady electric current flows along a wire a magnetic field is produced 
in the space around it, but if the current is very suddenly started, stopped, or 
reversed, a pulse of electric and magnetic force travels outward hke a ripple on 
a pond into which a stone has been thrown, the velocity of propagation being the 
same as that of fight, viz., 186,000 miles per second. If the current in the wire 
is a high-frequency alternating current, that is, a current that reverses its du-ection 
many thousand times a second, there will be a contmuous emission of waves. 

In Hertz's experiments the wire was only two or three feet long and placed 
horizontaUy, but Marconi supported the wire verticaUy from a mast. Other 
things being equal, the strength of the radiated field and of the current produced 
in a distant receiving station is proportional to the length of the vertical wire. 
In order that large currents may flow up and down the wire, even at the top, it 
is necessary to have a large capacity or electrical reservoir at the top ; this is 
obtained by a number of wires, usually spread out horizontally, supported on 
two or more masts. With such a large upper capacity the cm-rent has nearly 
the same magnitude at all points of the vertical wire. The whole system of wires 
is called an aerial or antenna, and the current as measured at the bottom is called 
the " aerial current." The lower end of the aerial is either connected dkectly 
to a network of wires buried in the earth, or to a network supported by insulators 
on short masts ; this latter network, extending over the earth's surface under the 
aerial, may be insulated at its extremities, in which case it is called a counterpoise, 
lower capacity, or insulated eaHh screen, or it may be connected at numerous points 
to plates, pins, or wires buried in the earth. On ships the lower end of the aerial 
is connected to the skin of the ship. 

The masts or towers which support the aerial may be of solid wood, steel 

tube, wooden or steel lattice ; they are usually supported by guys or stay wires, 

but are sometimes self-supporting like the Eiffel Tower. Sometimes steel masts 

are insulated from the ground by inserting insulating material between the 

foundation and the base of the mast. 



There are many ways of producing the high-frequency current in the trans- 
mitting aerial. In the early days Marconi employed the Hertz method ; a spark- 
gap was inserted between the foot of the aerial and the earth, the high tension 
terminals of an induction coil being connected, one to the aerial and the other 
to the earth side of the spark-gap. On depressing the Morse key which closed 
the primary circuit of the coil, a succession of sparks passed across the gap. 
Before each individual spark can occur, however, the aerial must be charged to 
a high voltage, the voltage and the charge on the aerial increasing until the gap 
breaks down, when the spark forms a conducting bridge and allows the charge 
to flow to earth; but like a pendulimi which is suddenly released, the current 
rushes up and down the aerial with decreasing amplitude until the spark is extin- 
guished. At each spark, therefore, a train of waves is radiated into space. For 
ship work the standard frequency is 500,000 cycles or complete oscillations per 
second, which corresponds to a wave-length in space of 600 metres ; if therefore 
ten oscillations occur before the oscillation is damped out, the train of waves 
lasts 1/50000 of a second. 

Various improvements were soon introduced. The oscillation was set up in 
a separate circuit consisting of a condenser, a spark-gap, and an inductive coil, 
which latter was placed close to a coil connected between the aerial and the earth. 
The oscillatory current in the first circuit induces an oscillatory circuit in the 
aerial, both being tuned to have the same natural frequency of oscillation. As 
the power of the sets was increased, the induction coil with a direct-current 
supply was replaced by a transformer supplied from an alternator or rotary 
converter, and instead of the spark occurring between two stationary metal 
balls, it was made to occur between fixed electrodes and projecting pins on a 
rapidly rotating wheel. Many other special types of spark-gaps have been used, 
but for large stations this method of setting up the high-frequency current is 
now obsolete and has been replaced by one of three different methods : (a) the 
arc ; (6) the high-frequency alternator ; and (c) the thermionic valve. 

Duddell discovered that an ordinary electric arc supplied with continuous 
current was able to produce an alternating current of telephonic frequency in a 
condenser and inductive coil connected in series across its terminals. Poulsen 
found that by modifying the construction of the arc and burning it in a closed 
chamber containing spirit vapour or coal gas, it could be made to produce alter- 
nating currents of the very high frequencies required for wireless telegraphy. 
Such arcs have been constructed for powers of several thousand kilowatts, and 
are employed in a large number of important stations. 

In electric light and power stations alternating current is generated by means 
of alternators, but the frequency is only 15 to 60 cycles per second. Great diffi- 
culties are experienced in designing such machines for very high frequencies, but 
in the large stations recently erected for transoceanic communication the wave- 
length employed has been increased to 15 to 25 kilometres, corresponding to 
frequencies of 20,000 to 12,000 cycles per second. It is possible to build satis- 
factory alternators for this frequency. A transmitting station equipped with 
such high-frequency alternators resembles very much an ordinary electric power 


station ; the output of the station is, however, supplied through transformers 
to the aerial from which it is partly radiated into space and partly dissipated in 
unavoidable losses. 

In some cases, notably at the large German station at Nauen, the alternators 
deliver the current at a quarter of the desired frequency, and special transformers, 
the iron of which is magnetised by means of continuous current, are employed 
to double the frequency. By passing the current successively through two of 
these frequency doublers the required quadruple frequency is obtained. This 
method has the advantage of requiring alternators for a frequency of 5000 cycles 
per second instead of 20,000, which greatlysimplifies the construction and operation. 

The most recent development in the production of high-frequency power 
consists in the use of thermionic valves for the purpose. By suitable circuit 
arrangements, a thermionic valve supplied with continuous currents can, like 
the arc, generate a high-frequency alternating current. At the large station at 
Carnarvon, fifty-six valves operate in parallel and supply several hundred kilo- 
watts of high-frequency power to the aerial. 

In whatever way the power is generated the aerial current must be capable 
of rapid control by means of a Morse key (in telegraphy) or microphone (in 
telephony). In most cases the key is arranged to operate on some link in the 
chain, either opening a circuit or altering an inductance, or inserting a resistance, 
in such a way as to cause the aerial current to change from zero or a very small 
value to its maximum value. In the case of an arc generator it is usually con- 
sidered preferable to interfere as httle as possible with the steady burning of the 
arc and the common method of signalling in large arc stations is to cause the 
depression of the key to short-circuit some of the aerial tuning inductance, 
thus altering merely the frequency of the waves sent out. In this case the 
receiving station is tuned to receive the wave sent out when the key is depressed 
(marking wave) and not that sent out when the key is not depressed (spacing 

For high speed working the message is punched on paper strip, which is then 
passed through an automatic transmitter ; this is really a key operated by springs, 
weights, or electric motor, its up and down movements being controlled, however, 
by the presence or absence of holes in the paper tape passing through. The press 
of traffic and the economic necessity of increasing the revenue is leading to the 
gradual introduction of high-speed automatic transmission in all large commercial 
stations. For radio-telephony the transmitters employed are almost exclusively 
of the thermionic valve type. The speech or music causes variations in the resis- 
tance of a microphone which is connected in series with a cell and the primary 
winding of a small transformer, the secondary winding of which is connected to 
the grid of a thermionic valve. The current passing through this valve must 
therefore follow the fluctuations of the microphone current. There are many 
ways of causing this so-called modulating valve to act upon the output of the 
main oscillating power valve, but the result is in every case to subject the ampli- 
tude of the high-frequency current in the aerial to variations in accordance with 
the variations of microphone resistance produced by the voice. 


At the receiving station the passing electromagnetic waves induce high- 
frequency electromotive forces in the receiving aerial. The receiving aerial may 
consist of a vertical wire with or \vithout a system of elevated wires, or of a long 
horizontal wire a few feet above the ground, or of a coil of several turns wound 
on a vertical frame a few feet square, the plane of the coil or the direction of the 
long horizontal wire must be along the line joining the two stations. Inductive 
coils and condensers are connected between the aerial and earth, or in the circuit 
of the frame coil until its natural frequency is tuned exactly to that of the received 
wave. The current produced by the received wave will then be greatly increased 
owing to resonance, and the response to the desired signal will be much greater 
than that to any other signal of a different wave-length. 

This selective action can be still further increased by causing the aerial to 
act not directly upon the detecting device, but through the intermediate action of 
a separate oscillatory circuit which is also tuned very accurately to the desired 
frequency. Such tuned circuits act as sieves, filtering out undesired signals 
which would otherwise interfere with the reception of the desired signals. Such 
separation is impossible if both signals have the same frequency or even if their 
frequencies are not sufficiently different. 

Every time the operator at the transmitting station depresses his key, a 
succession of waves passes the receiving station and sets up a high-frequency 
current in the aerial and other circuits coupled to it. The presence of these 
currents must be made audible or visible to the receiving operator. In telephony 
the waves are passing continuously, but with a rapidly fluctuating amplitude 
controlled by the speech. 

Hertz detected the presence of the received waves by their abihty to make a 
spark jump across a minute gap in a ring of copper wire. Marconi employed a 
coherer — a glass tube containing metal filings ; the resistance through such a 
tube is normally very high, and a battery is unable to operate a bell or magnetic 
inker through it, but the application of a high-frequency voltage set up by the 
received waves greatly lowers the resistance and causes the inker to mark the 
paper strip. With this device all the early experiments of Marconi were carried 
out. It was soon found, however, that the advantages of aural reception by means 
of a telephone receiver far outweighed the advantage of the tape record given 
by the coherer. 

A great step in advance was the introduction of the magnetic detector, in 
the form developed by Marconi and used on ships for many years. In this, an 
endless band, consisting of a large number of fine insulated iron wires twisted 
together, was maintained by clockwork in continual rotation around two pulleys 
about a foot apart. The straight portion passed through a glass tube on which 
two coils were wound one over the other. One was connected between the aerial 
and earth or in a coupled, tuned circuit, whilst the other was connected to a 
telephone receiver. Two permanent magnets were fixed with their poles near 
the iron wire where it passed through the coils. 

So long as no signals were being received the passing of the iron wire caused 
only a light breathing sound in the telephones, but on the reception of a wave, 


the high-frequency current passing round the coil caused a moleeular change 
in the iron wire and a sudden slip of the magnetic field between the magnets and 
the wire ; this caused a click in the telephone receiver. It must be remembered 
that these magnetic detectors were used exclusively for the receipt of signals 
from spark-gap transmitters, and that, even during the holding down of the 
transmitting key for the short time necessary to send a dot, a number of sparks 
occurred, each of which sent out a train of waves and caused a click in the tele- 
phone receiver. These clicks, following one another at the rate of say 300 per 
second would give a musical note of this pitch in the telephone receiver. A point 
of considerable importance in the operation of a spark transmitter is to ensure 
that the sparks occur regularly and at such a frequency that they give a high- 
pitched musical tone in the telephone receiver, easily distinguishable from non- 
musical sounds such as those caused by atmospheric interference. 

The two types of detectors most commonly employed to-day are the crystal 
and the three-electrode valve ; these both depend for their action on rectification^ 
that is, they offer a greater conductivity to current in one direction than to current 
in the opposite direction. If a piece of zincite and a piece of copper pyrites are 
brought into light contact, it is found that the resistance is greater in one direction 
than the other, so that if a high-frequency alternating voltage is applied to a 
circuit containing such a contact, it produces a greater current in one direction 
than in the other. If the circuit contain also a telephone receiver, the diaphragm, 
although not affected by the high-frequency alternating current, will be acted 
upon by the excess of the impulses in one direction over those in the other, and 
will thus be moved at every spark at the transmitting station. There are a great 
number of combinations of crystals and of crystals and metals or other sub- 
stances which exhibit this phenomenon, e.g., carborundum and steel ; graphite 
and galena ; silicon and brass. In many cases the sensitivity is improved if a 
small steady voltage is applied to the contact, upon which the alternating signal 
voltage is superimposed. 

Professor Fleming first suggested the appH>sation of the two-electrode ihermionie 
valve as a rectifier for wireless reception. In a vacuum bulb, an incandescent 
filament and a cold metal plate or cylinder allow current to pass from plate to 
filament, but not in the reverse direction. Professor Fleming's patent was taken 
out in 1904, but the greatest stride was made in 1907, when Lee de Forest invented 
the three-electrode valve, which only differs from the two-electrode valve by 
the insertion of a metallic grid of fine wires between the filament and the cold 
plate. A battery is connected between the filament and the cold plate and main- 
tains a steady current through the valve ; the telephone receiver is also in this 
circuit. The high-frequency voltage produced by the received signal is applied 
between the filament and the grid, and the adjustments are so made that when 
the voltage is in one direction it causes a large increase in the plate current, whereas 
when it is in the other direction it causes a much smaller decrease. Whenever a 
signal is received there is thus an increase in the average current flowing through 
the telephone receiver. There are other ways in which the valve may be used as 
a detector into which we cannot here enter. 


The three-electrode valve is also largely used as an amplifier ; for this purpose 
the adjustments are so made that variations of the voltage applied to the grid, 
whether up or down, produce proportional variations in the plate current. An 
alternating voltage applied to the grid will then produce a symmetrical alternating 
ciUTent in the plate circuit. In this case the plate circuit will not contain a telephone 
receiver, but some device whereby the amplified voltage will act upon the grid 
of the next valve and give a greatly increased effect. The received high-frequency 
currents can thus be amplified before passing to the detecting valve or crystal 
detector. In a similar way the currents of telephonic frequency produced by the 
detector can be amplified before passing to the telephone receiver. In the first 
case, the device is called a high-frequency ampUfier, and in the second a low- 
frequency or note amplifier. 

By causing a fraction of the high-frequency amplified power in the plate 
circuit to be supplied back by a transformer or other means to the grid circuit 
of the same valve, the tendency of an oscillation, once started, to die away can 
be reduced, thus greatly increasing the sensitiveness of the device and making 
very weak signals plainly audible. If this so-called retro-action or back-couphng 
is increased beyond a certain point, the valve becomes a self-excited generator 
of oscillations to which reference has already been made. 

We have not yet explained how transmitting stations other than spark 
stations give an audible signal at the receiving station. The received current in 
this case is not intermittent, but an alternating current of constant amplitude, so 
long as the sending operator holds his key down. If, now, at the receiving station 
an oscillating valve set is placed near the receiving apparatus, the high-frequency 
voltage induced in the receiving apparatus will be due to this alone when no 
signals are being received, but due to both superimposed when signals are being 
received. If the oscillating valve set is adjusted to oscillate at a frequency very 
near that of the transmitting station, they will first be in step and give a strong 
resultant, then out of step, giving a weak or no resultant. Hence a note will be 
heard in the telephone receiver only when a signal is being received, and the pitch 
of the note heard will depend on the difference between the frequencies of the 
transmitting station and the valve oscillator at the receiving station. This 
method of reception is called the Heterodyne method and is due to Fessenden 
It is the common method adopted in all long-distance communication. 

Wireless telegraphy has an important application in the navigation of ships 
and aircraft. By suitable devices it is possible to tell from what direction a 
signal is coming ; a ship equipped with such direction-finding apparatus can thus 
locate its bearing with reference to any coast station which it can pick up, and 
from two or more such observations on different stations it can fix its exact 
position. The principle of the method is based on the fact that if the waves are 
received on a vertical coil instead of a vertical wire and the coil be rotated about 
a vertical axis, no signal is received when the coil is broadside on to the trans- 
mitting station, since the concentric ripples of the magnetic field cannot then 
pass through the coil. In another system the coast station is fitted with such a 
device, and the ship asks the coast station to observe its bearing and notify it. 


' In the early days of wireless telegraphy there was considerable doubt as to 
whether the electromagnetic waves would bend sufficiently around the curvature 
of the earth to make long-distance communication possible. It was found, how- 
ever, that the signals received at distant stations were very much stronger than 
one would have expected from mathematical calculation. It was also found that, 
especially with short waves, the signals were much stronger by night than by day, 
although there is no change in the conditions of the earth or lower atmosphere 
to account for such a variation. These two facts have led to the assumption, 
first suggested by Oliver Heaviside, that in the upper atmosphere the rarefied gas 
is always ionised, i.e., maintained in a conducting state. This so-called Heaviside 
Layer acts to some extent as a reflector, and the waves, instead of passing off into 
space, are caused to follow the curvature of the earth, and thus make possible radio- 
commimication with the antipodes. The difference between the strength of the 
signals by day and by night is supposed to be due to the sun causing a partial 
ionisation of the rarified atmosphere below the Heaviside Layer ; the medium 
through which the waves have to pass is thus made slightly conducting, which 
leads to considerable absorption. It must be admitted, however, that little is 
known with any certainty about the actual conditions in the upper atmosphere 
and the part which it plays in radio-telegraphy. 

The successful reception of signals does not depend only on their absolute 
strength, but also on their relative strength as compared with that of the so-called 
" atmospherics " or electromagnetic disturbances of natural origin which vary 
with the locality, time of day and season. The elimination of the effect of atmo- 
spherics is one of the most pressing problems in long-distance radio-communication. 

List of Abbreviations. 


. Arabic 


. French 

(). H. Ger. . 



Fahr. . 

. Fahrenheit 

Opt. . . 



. feminine 



. accusative 

Fort. . 






. nourished 



. Anglo-French 


. from 



. African 


. feet 





. Greek 



Gael. . 



Amer. 1 

nd. . American Indian 

Geol. . 

. Geology 


. Anatomy 

Geom. . 

. Geometry 




Ger. . 





Go. . 

. Gothic 



. Archaeology 

Gram. . 




. Arithmetic 






Her. . 




. Astronomy 

Hind. . 





Hort. . 





Hung. . 




. Australian 

Icel. . 




. auxiliary 

Ichth. . 

Ichthyology # 



. bom 


. id est (that is) 



Imit. . 






. Indian 



. book 


. initiative 



int. . 

. interjection 



. Brazilian 


. Irish 



. Breton 


. Italian 


. Chaldee ; Centigrade 

Jap. . 

. Japanese 



. capital 


. Latin 





. line 





. literally 

cf . 

. confer (compare) 


. miles 




Malay. . 

. Malayan 

R. . 




. manufactures 



. Chinese 

masc. . 




. county 

Math. . 




. colloquially 

Jl.D. . 

. Middle Dutch 



. Commerce 

M.R . 

. Middle English 



. comparative 

Med. . 

. Medicine 



. Conchology 

Met. . 

. Metaphysics 
. Metallurgy 




Metal. . 



. contraction 

Mex, . 

. Mexican 




M.F. . 

. Middle French 



. Cornish 

M. H. Ger 

. Middle Hiph German 



. Dutch 

Mil. . 

. Military ail'airs 



. died 

Min. . 


Dan. . 






. department 





. dialectal 


. Music 




Myth. . 

. Mythology 



, East; EnRlish 


. North 


. Ecclesiastical History 


. noun 



exempli gratia (for 
. East Indian. 

Nat. Hist. 

. Natural History 


Naut. . 

Nautical affairs 


E. Ind. 


. neuter 




N.L. . 

Modern Latin 




Nor. . 





Norw. . 

. Norwegian 



O.D. . 

. Old Dutch 



. Etymology 

O.F. . 

. Uld French 


Old High German 




Old Saxon 


















past participle 

present participle 







(fuod or quce vide 

(which see) 

Roman ; River 
Roman Catholic 
Saxon ; South 
scilicet (supply) 
Scotland ; Scottish 
United States 

verb intransitive 
verb transitive 
Welsh ; West 

Note on the Scheme of Pronunciation. 

With the exception of g^ the consonants employed in the phonetic spelling 
retain their name sounds, and the vowels, unless marked, retain their short 
sounds; h represents the guttural h heard in "loch." The digraph aw 
represents the sound of a heard in " fall ; " ou the sound of ow heard in 
"now;" 00, unmarked, the sound heard in "book;" bb the sound heard 
in "moon." The surd sound of fh is indicated by common letters, as in 
"thin;" the sonant sound by small capitals, as in "xHen." The following is 
the key to the long and peculiar vowel sounds : — 

Fate, far, ado ; me, her ; mine ; note ; tune ; md6n. 




a. abbatial 

AQ the first letter of the alphabet in the Aryan 
y ""J languages. In English it has eight sounds, 
heard in blade, Jare, any, man, star, all, what, China. 
o (a, a) a. the indefinite article, signifying one or 
•* any', placed before nouns of the singular number 
denoting an individual object, before collective nouns, 
and also before plural nouns when the adjective few or 
the phrase great many is interposed. It is a contraction 
of a7i (an unaccented form of A.S. an, one), and is sub- 
stituted for it before all words beginning with a consonant 
sound ; an is often retained beiore unaccented syllables 
beginning with h aspirate, u, and eu sounded as yu. 

A, the name of the sixth note of the diatonic scale of 
C major; la in tonic sol-fa notation. In logic the 
universal affirmative proposition. In Lloyd's register 
Al denotes a ship of the first class ; hence, first-rate, 
excellent. As an abbreviation, a has various meanings, 
for which see list of abbreviations. As a prefLx, a has 
difierent significations, for which see lists of prefixes. 

A sharp (A Ijj), the name of a musical tone inter- 
mediate between A and B. A flat (A b). the name of a 
tone intermediate between A and G. 
nnrAtmrh' (ard-vark) n. [D.] the ground-hog or 
dell U V cti IV earth-pig of South Africa. 
oot-/^-ii7rklf (ard-woolf) n. [D.] the earth-wolf of 
aaraWOlI south Africa. 

AarrimV Aarnniral (a-ron-ik, -i-kal) a. 
IXtXlUnii^j /1.C11 UlllCai pertammg to Aaron 

or to his priestly office. 

A a rnn 1 f f» (a-run-it) n. a descendant of Aaron, who 
SXAI UllXLC served as a priest in the sanctuar>'. 
Aarrkti'c K**arr1 (a-runz-berd) n. the name of 
ncXiUli o-UCctiu. several plants ; large-flowered 
St. John's wort, etc. 

A Q rr\r\ 'c rr»H (aArunz-rod) n. arod with a serpent 
ndlUil a-lUU twisted round it [Arch.]; name 
of several plants, the golden rod, etc. 
A K (^'') '"■■ [H.] the eleventh month of the Jewish civil 
•"•'-' year, and the fifth of the ecclesiastical year. 
^ivopicf (ab^k-sist) n. [abacus] one that uses an 
ctUd^ioL abacus in calculating ; a calculator. 
flHapU" (^-^ak^) adv. [_A.S. on b(ec] backwards; by 
ctUdUA. surprise ; agamst the masts— said of the 
sails when pressed by the wind. 

ahapnf (ab^i-kot) n. [a corrupt form of bycocket, 
a,U€X\^\JL (J p bicoquet] a kind of hat worn during 
the 14th, loth, and 16th centuries ; the brim was turned 
up and ended in a point or points before or behind. 
aV>3d"inn (ab-ak^hun) n. [L. ab and agere, pp. 
ctucti^LiUii actus, drive] the stealing of a number 
of cattle at one time. 

oKo r-f r»r (ab-ak-tur) n. one that steals a number of 
tXUcXK, LUi cattle at one time. 
oKiir'iic (ab^a-kus) n. [G. abax, abdkos, reckoning 
ciUciCUS) table or board] 
the upper plate upon the 
capital of a column, support- 
ing the architrave [Arch.]; an 
instrument for eftecting arith- 
metical calculations, with slid- 

ing balls or counters ; any rectangular slab or piece. 
Abacus harmonicas, the structure and arrangement of 
the keys or pedals of a musical instrument. Abacus 
major, a trough in which gold is washed. 
AfiflHHnn (a-bad-un) n. [H. dbad, be lost] the 
.rxLJdviu^ii destroyer or angel of the bottomless 
pit ; ApoUyon ; hell ; the bottomless pit. 

aKnff (a-baff) adv. and prep, [on by aj(\ at or 
dUdl L towards the stern [Naut.]. 
'sKoli<ariQf*a (ab-al-yen-at) r. <. [L. oft and alienus. 
dUdilClldLC foreign] to transfer the title ot 
property from one to another [Law], 

abalienation itiiSi^*'""^ "• '^' ^' °' 

a Kan Hon (a-ban^iun) v.t. [F. fr. L. ad, and Low 
dUdllUUll j^ bandum, proclamation, interdiction] 
to give up wholly and finally, or with a view never to 
resume ;— ^. (^-ban-dong') freedom from restraint or 
conventionality ; heartiness ; dash. 

abandoned ^^"S t^v^e^^ ''• ^^'° "^ "'''^^^' 

nhmnAnnt^f^ (a-ban-du-ne') n. one to whom a 
dUdllUUllCC thing is abandoned [LawJ 
oKoriHrkrKii- (a-banyun-er) n. one that gives up 

aoanaoner ^^ony and finally. 

aKanHrknmf^nf (a-ban^lun-ment) n. act of 
dUdlluuiiiiK^iiu abandoning, or state of being 
abandoned ; entire desertion or relinquishment, 
jj U - Qfi (a-bas) v.t. [L. ad and Low L. bassare, lower] 
dUdaC to bring low. as to the ground ; to east down. 
ahaQf*mPnf (?i-Das^ment) n. the act of abasing, 
dUdoCiiXCii u or bringing very low. 
oKocVi (?i-ba8h') v.t. [O.F. es=L. ex and bahir, 
dUdoii express astonishment] to destroy the self- 
possession of, as by suddenly exciting a consciousness of 
guilt, inferiority, or the Uke ; to strike with sudden 
shame or fear. 

oKncVimf^nf (a-bash-ment) n. confusion from 
dUdaillilClit shame, fear, or the like. 
oKof oKlf^ (a-ba^ta-bl) a. capable of being abated, 
dUdtdUXC a^ an abatable writ, etc. 
jjW^i.^ (a-baf) v.t. [L. ab and batere, for batuere, 
dUdLC strike] to beat down ; to deduct ; to diminish ; 
to lessen ; to destroy •,—v.i. to decrease ; to become less 
in strength or violence. 

nUofptnf^nf (a-bat^ment)n. the act of abating, or 
dUdLCliiCllt t'lie state of being abated ; decrease ; 
[Law] a remitting, as of a tax ; failure, as of a writ ; 
removal, as of a nuisance ; entry of a stranger into a 
freehold after the death of the last possessor, before the 
lieir or devisee. 

jy Vv «] f f^t* (a-baAter) n. one that, or that which, abates ; 
dUdLCl fLaw]6ne that, without right, enters into a 
freehold on the death of the last possessor, before the 
heir or devisee ; one that reduces or removes a nuisance. 
oHafic aKaffic (ab^-tis, a-ba-te ) n. [F.J a 
dUdUia^ dUdLtia ^^ of sharpened branches 
of trees turned outward for defence [Fort.]. 

abatised, abattised S.^bS.''-^^'^"* 

oKaf irkiir (a-ba-j66r) n. [F. oioMre, throw down, 
dUdL-J UUl and jfyy^f.^ dayla skylight. 
abattoir (^■bat-wor') n. [F.] a public slaughter- 

aKof iTr\i-v (ab-av-wo') n. [F.] a sounding-board 
dUdU-VUlJS. over a pulpit. 

jjl-vK (ab) n. [A.S. ab, for dweb, wool, fr. a and w^an, 
auu w^eave] among weavers, yarn for the warp. Abb- 
wool, wool for the abb. 

abba. ^^^-^^ ^- * Syrfac word meaning father, used 
a,uua, to denote a religious superior. 
abbarv (^^a-sl) n. [Low h. abbatia, abbey] the 
a.iJua,K.,y condition or privileges of an abbot. 
aKKofiol (a-ba^hal) a. pertaining to an abbot or 
dUUdUdl to an abbey. 

Ffite, far, ado ; me, her ; mine ; note ; tune ; m66n. 


oKKji (ab^) n. [L. abbas, abbot] a cleric in minor 
ctuuc orders ; an ecclesiastic without charge. 
aHKpkCC (al>€s) n. [L. abbatissa] the governess of a 
ctuucaa nunnery. 

o VkKpTT (ab^i) n. [Low L. abbatia, abbey] a residence 
a>uucy Qf monks or nuns ; the dwelling of an abbot 
or abbess ; a church now or formerly attached to a 
monastery, as Westminster Abbey. Abbey-land, land 
now or formerly belonging to an abbey. Abbey-lubber, 
a lazy monk or abbey pensioner. 

abbnf (ab^ut) n. [L. abbas, abbot, fr. Syr. abba, 
dUUUt father] the head of a community of monks ; 
the superior or governor of an abbey. Abbot of misrule, 
abbot of unreason, the leader in the popular Christmas 
revels before the Kef onnation. A mitred abbot uses the 
insignia and discharges certain functions of a bishop. 
Regular abbot, one duly elected and confirmed, and dis- 
charging all the functions of an abbot. Secular abbot, 
a person not a monk, who draws part of the revenues of 
an abbey. 

oKKrkf csViir* (ab^ut-ship) n. the state or office of 
aOUOtbnip an abbot. 

flhhrpviaf f^ (a-bre-vi-at) v.t. [L. ad and brevis, 
ctuuicvicXLC short] to bring witliin less space; 
to reduce by contraction or omission. 
aKKr^axrinf irin (a-bre-vi-a^hun) n. act of ab- 
dUUlCVlctLlUil breviating; state of being ab- 
breviated ; a shortened or contracted form ; a reduction 
of fractions to the lowest terms._ 

a KKr«a-iri o f r»r (?i-bre-vi-a-tur) n. one that abbrevl- 
dUUlCVldLUl ates or abridges, 
a KKr^axri a f rkrrr (a-bre^vi-a-tur-i) a. abbreviating, 
dUUl CVldLUiy or tending to abbreviate. 
o K p «. the first tliree letters of the alphabet, 
dj Uj \^y ygg(j fop jjjg yfiiQiQ alphabct ; a primer ; 
first principles. 

a KH a 1 (alAial) n. [A. abd, servant, and Allah, God] 
dUUdi a dervish. 

a V»H a 1 a iri (ab-da-la-ve) n. [A.lthe native name of 
dUUdldVl the hairy melon of E^ypt. 
AhH priori (ab-de^ri-an) a. pertaining to Abdera 
x^i^u^x idii or its inhabitants : given to laughter. 
AbHprif f* (ab-de-rit) n. an inhabitant of Abdera, 
x:xuu,CA iLC in Thrace ; a stupid person, the inhabi- 
tants of Abdera having been proverbial for stupidity. 
Tbe Abderite, Democritus, the laughing philosopher. 
Q K/4 pc4- (ablest) n. [Per. db, water, and dast, hand] 
a,uvi\.:;oL purification before prayer in the Moham- 
medan ritual. 

nKHir'anf (al>di-kant) a. abdicating ; renouncing ; 
dUUll^dlit -n. one that abdicates. 
flhHlPPff* (abyi-kat) v.t. [L. ab and dicare, pro- 
ci,i^uAv.a,L«.^ claim] to give up right or claim to; to 
withdraw froni power or trust : [Law] to disinherit. 
aKHir'afirkn (ab-di-ka-«nun) n. abandonment of 
dUUii.,dLlUll a public office, a right, or a trust. 
fl HH i pa f i v#» (ab-di-ka-tiy, aD-dik^a-tiv) a. causing, 
d,i^uiv,dtA V c OP implying abdication. 
abdicator (^^-f^i-^^a-tur) n. one that resigns or 

aHHifnrrT' (alAli-tur-i) n. [L. abdere, put away] a 
dUUltOry iji(j(}en repository. 

aKHnmian (ab-do^men, ab^o-men), n. [L.] the 
dUUUillCll belly, or that part of the body which 
lies between the thorax and the bottom of the pelvis. 
ahHnminal (ab-dom-i-nal) a. pertaining to the 
dUUUlXlinai abdomen;-*!. 
a kind of fish, like salmon, etc., 
with ventral tins behind the pec- 
toral. Abdominal legs, the false 
legs of the abdomen of insects. ■^"""«u"u". 

Abdominal ring, an oblong ring in each groin. 
Adominal Bcutella, the short, wide, imbricated scales 
that lie along the belly of a serpent. 
aVlHnminnQpnnv (ab-dom-i-nos-ko-pi) n. [L. 
dUUOminObCOpy abdomm, and G. skopein, 
view] the examination of the abdomen. 

abdominous gSiJ*^"ji;^;.'^ "• ^*"^"« ^ ^^ 

aHHllP** (ab-dus') v.t. [L. ab and ducere, lead] to 
di^uuv.^ draw to a difi"erent part [Anat.]. 
aHHllPPnf (ab-du^ent) a. drawing away [Anat.]. 
ai^uuv^^iiL Abducent nerves, the sixth pair of 
cranial nerves. 

ahHllPf (ab-dukf) v.t. [L. abdueere, lead away] to 
a.k/u u v., I. take away by stealth or by unlawful force. 

I abigail 

flhHlirtiofl (ab-duk^hun) n. the act of carrying 

cxufu u V, kiv/xx away, csp. of carrying away a person, 

by fraud, stealth, or force. 

a HH 1 1 r^CkV (ab-duk-tur) n. a person guilty of abduc- 

a.u/viu«.,Lv^j, jJQjj. [Anat.] a muscle that serves to 

draw back any part of the body. 

a K*:»a m (a-bem') adv. on the beam ; at right angles 

dUCdlll yfH^ the ship's keel [Naut.]. 

aVif^nt^t^ a ri a n (a-oe-se-daAri-an) a. alphabetical ; 

ducv,c^udi idii _^ Qjjg tjjjjt teaches or learns 

the letters of the alphabet. 

a H*aH (*-bed') adv. [E. a and bed] in bed ; on bed ; to 

CLi^^u bed. 

sKi^l^ aK<»lfr<i«a (a-ber,a-bel-tre)n.[L.a^6ws, 
dUClC, dUClUCC white] the white poplar. 

Abelian, Abelite, Abelonian 

(a-bel-i-an, a^bel-It, a-bel-o^ni-an) n. one of a religious sect 
in the early African church ; they married, but lived like 
Abel, in continence._ 

al-»«a1m/-kclr (a^bel-mosk) n. [A.] the musk-mallow, 
dUCllllU&K. OP Syrian mallow. 
oKf^rH^^xrinisk (a-ber^e-vin) n. [Etym. unknown] 
dUCl UCVlllC thesiskin,abirdof thefinchfamily. 
flbprranpf* (ab-er^ans) n. [L. ab and errare, 
duci 1 diii.«c wandei] deviation from rectitude. 
fkhif^rf'! tl f (ab-er-ant)a. wandering ; straying from 
duci 1 dii L the right course : abnormal. 
oKf&ffpfii-kfi (ab-e-raAshun) n. act of wandering; 
dUCiidUiuxi deviation, especially from truth or 
moral rectitude, or from the natural state ; alienation of 
mind ; [Astr.] a small apparent change of position in 
a heavenly body, due to the motion of the earth. The 
apparent displacement due to the earth's annual motion, 
is always 20"5" and is called the constant of aberration ; 
that due to the earth's daily motion is 0'3". A deviation 
of reflected or refracted rays of light by which they fail 
to come to one point [Opt.]. 

oKpf (a-bef) v.t. [L. ad and Icel. beita, make to bite] j - 
dUCL to encourage by aid or countenance ; to encour- ''^ 
age or assist in a criminal act. 

oKrtf tr-if^nf (a-bet^ment) n. the act of abetting; 
dUCLlllClXL that which serves to abet. 
aVif^i'i't^r aHf'ffpr (a-bet^ur, -er) n. one that 
dUCLLUij dUCLLCi a"bets, aids, or encourages. 
«i K ATm /^nqfirvn (ab-e-vak-u-aAshun) n. a morbid 
aDeVaCUatlOn evacuation [Med.]. 

anPP (a-ba-ans) n. [F. ab^iance fr. L. ad 
dilUC and ftcirfarc, gape] a state of suspension 
or temporary extinction with the expectation of a 
revival ; [Law] a state of expectancy or waiting. 
ablial (ab-hal) n. the East Indian name for the 
dUlldl berries of the common juniper. 
ahVinr (ab-hor') v.t. [L. ab and horrere, bristle, 
aUlivJl shiver] to regard with horror or detestation ; 
to dislike or hate extremely. 

a Hll nrrPtl Pf=» ^^^'^*'''"*'^^^'''- detestation; great ha- 
duiiui 1 Ciiv-Ctred ; that which excites repugnance. 
abVinrrPnf (ab-hor'-ent) a. detesting; detestable; 
dUlldllCllL contrary; repugnant. 
AHiH (aAbib, ab^ib) n. [H.] the first month of the 
T\ULlJ Jewish year ; after the captivity, called Nisan. 
ahiHp (a-bid') v.i. [A.S. abidan] to continue in a 
dUiUC place; to continue firm or stable ;—».<. to 
wait for ; to stand firm under ; to endure or bear. 
ablHpr (^^-b'^er) n. one that dwells or continues; 
dUiuci one that lives or resides. 
aHlHinP" (^'-l^i-diiiK) *• continuing; steadfast ;—«. 
"''-'■^'-^^*'^& continuance of residence. Abiding- 
place, a resting place. 

abidingly S^S;,;?!"^""^ '^''- ''' ^" ^^^^^ 

A t-j i p o (aW-i-ez) « . [L. ] a genus of coniferous trees, con- 

r^uico taining the firs, larches, spruces, and cedars. 

aHi«^f<^n<=' (aW-e-ten) n. [L. abies, abietis] a 

dUlCLCiiC hydrocarbon obtained from the resin 

of the Californian nut pine. 

aHif»f IP (ab-i-et-ik) a. of or pertaining to the genus 

dUic Lxv. Abies. Abietic acid is obtamed from the 

resin of some species of larch, pine, and fir. 

Q Ki *af i n (ab^i-e-tin) n. a resinous substance obtained 

dUlCLili from turpentine. 

oKi^f ifo (ab-i-e-tit) n. a sugar found in the leaves 

aUieilLC of the silver fir. 

a Ki trail (ab-i-gal) n. [see 1 Sam. axv. 23, 24] a 

dUXgdii waiting-maid. 


F&te, far, ^do ; m§, h$r ; mine ; note ; tilne ; m66n. 



nKirrpnf (ab-ij^-at) n. [L. abigere, drive away] 
ctUigcctu abaction ; a miscarriage procured by art. 
ahilifv (^'-bil-i-ti) n. fL. haiilitas] quality, state, or 
txUiXli,y condition of being able; power to act, 
bodily, moral, intellectual, conventional, or ie^al. 
oKinf *acf af *i (ab-in-tes^tat) a. inheriting from 
ciUlll LC;a LctUC one that died without a will [Law]. 
aViintrf^npcii^: (ab-i-o-jen^-sis) n. [G. a, 6ios, life, 
ctuiugciicoio and genesis, generation] spon- 
taneous generation [Biol. ]. 

oKippf (ab^jekt) a. [L. ab and iacere, throw] sunk 
clUJC\.<L tQ a low condition; low in estimation; 
despicable ;— n. one in a miserable state. 
ahifpfion (^b-Jek^hun) n. meanness of spirit; 
ctujCv^txOii baseness; abjectness. 
aHif»pfnACQ (al)^jekt-nes) n. state of being abject ; 
ctuj ct.. Llicao abasement ; servility. 
ahillHipatf* (ab-joo-di-kat) v.t. [L. ah and 
ctuj uuiUdLC judicare, judge] to pronounce 
illegal ; to declare wrong. 

•aKiii/^ioof irwri (ab-j66-di-ka^hun) n. the act of 
dUJUUlCailOn abjudicating. 
aHilinpf ivp (ab-jungk-tiv)a. [L. oft and jungere, 
auj uiiv.Livc join] isolated ; exceptional. 
a K i 1 1 ro f i r»n (ab-joo-ni^hun) n. act of renouncing 
«tuj Ui cttiUll unjer oath or solemnly. 
ahilirf* (ab-joor) v.t. [L. cU) and jurare, swear] to 
ctuj ui c renounce under oath, or with great solem- 
nity;— v. i. to take an oath of abjuration. To abjure 
the realm, to take an oath to leave the country. 
nKlar^f of irkfi (ab-lak-ta^hun) n. [L. ab and 2ac, 
ctUictt^LcttlUli lactis, milk] a weaning of a child 
from the breast; [Hort.] a method of grafting by 
approach or inarching. 

ahlanilPaff* (ab-lak-we-at) v.t. [L. ab and 
ctuictt^uccxtc: laqueus, noose] to lay bare or ex- 
pose, as the roots of a tree. 

ahlafinn (ah-'a^shun) n. rL.]a bearing or carrying 
ctuictLiUii away : [Geol.] the wasting of a glacier. 
a HI a f i Vf» (ab-la-tiv) a. taking away or removing ;— 
ctuiciLi V c „ the sixth case in Latin. 
a hi a lit" (^''^lout) **• [Ger.l a vowel change in the 
cxuidu L \yQ^y of a word, indicating a modification of 
use or meaning, as in sink, sank, sunk. 
ahla 7f» (a-blaz) adv. or a. on fire; blazing; highly 
ctuict^c excited; gleaming. 
a hip (3^bl) «• [L. nahilis, fr. habere, have] having 

mental power for the accomplishment of some object : 

having property, skill, or the like. Able-bodied, having 

a sound, strong," body ; skilled. Able seaman, one 

classed A.B., competent. 

ahlp'O'af'P (ab^le-gat) n. [L. ab and legare, send 

«*"*^5«*^^ away] a kind of papal envoy. 

a hi on ahl^af (ab^len, -let) n. [L. albus, white] 

ctuiv.ll, ctUlCL the bleak, a small fresh-water fish. 

a K1 (^r\cxr (a-blep^si) n. [G. ablepxia, blindness] want 

dUiepby of sicfit ; blindness. 

ahlrkoof <a (ab-lo-kat) t^.i. [L. ab and Uxmre, let out] 

ciUlU(.-eltC to let out ; lease. 

ablocation SetSl!""^ "' * ^'"'"^ °"* ^"^ 

ahlnpnf (ab^loo-ent) a. cleansing ;—^. something 
ctui u^^iiu that purifies the blood ; a determent. 
ahllltinn (ab-lo<>ishun) n. [L.] the act of cleansing 
ctuiuuiuii or w;ishing; religious purification ; the 
water used in cleansing. 

ablutionary ffl-JS!"""-^'-'^ "• p*'-'*'"^"^ to 

ah1iixrir»n (ab-166i-vi-un) n. [L. abluere, wash off] 

ctUlU VlUll that which is washed off". 

a.hlv (^^'i) ^^- "1 '"^ii able manner; with great 

***-'*J' ability ; vigorously. 

ahnf^P*afp (al)ine-gat) v.^. [L. aftnecrare] to deny ; 

ctuiiv^gctLc; to renounce; to surrender. 

ahnPfafinn (ab-ne-gu-shun) n. the act of ab- 

ctuiiCgctLlUll negating; renunciation. 

abnorma.! (abnor-mal) a. [L. ah and norma, 

u,>^ixv^x xxxax j.y|gj contrary to rule, law, or system. 

abnormitv (f'b-nor-mi-ti) n. state or quality of 

^ * ''J' being abnormal or irregular. 
ahoarH (a-bord) imv. and i>rep. on board; in a 
a.u\jtxi \x vessel. To coast aboard, to sail within 
sight of land. To fall aboard, to strike against. To ^et 
aboard, to get foul of. To lay aboard, to run alongside 
of, as an enemy's ship, for tliu purpose of fighting. 

ahnHp (a-bod') n. state or place of residence. To 

ctuuuc loake abode, to reside. 

a hoi i sjh (a-bol-ish) v.t. [L. abolere, destroy, abolish] 

cxuv/iioii to do away with; to put an end to; to 

annul or destroy. 

Q Krki i c Vi a K1 *» (a-bol-ish-a-bl) a. capable of being 

dUUllblldUlC abolished or annulled. 

abolishment SSoiS?^''-^'*''*^^*^^' 

ahrklifir^n (ab-o-lish-un) n. act of abolishing; 
dUUilLlUIl state of being abolished. 
ahnlif innicf (ab-6-hsh-un-ist) n. one that 
ctuuiitiUiiiSL favours the aboUtion of something, 
esp. the aboUtion of slavery. 

ahoma. (^-bo^m?) «■• [Pg] a name applied to the 
o,uyjii.itx large tree snakes of tropical America. 
ahr»maciim (ab-o-ma^um) n. [L. ab and onto- 
ctuuiiictauiii ^^^ tripe] the fourth, or true 
stomach of a ruminant animal. 

a hrktn i n a hi «a (<> - bom - i - na - bl) a. loathsome ; 
dUUininciUlt; hateful ; odious. 
ahntninahhr (a -bom-i-na-bli) adv. in an 
dUUllllllclUiy abominable manner. 
ahominafp (a-bom-i-nat) v.t. [L. oA and omen, 
ctuwiiiiiicxL^ omen] to hat« extremely ; to detest. 
ahnminafinn (^ -bom -i-na- shun) n. act of 
ci,u#v./xAAixxci.i,xv/ix abomiuatlng ; strong aversion 
or loathing ; an object of hatred and disgust. 
ahnrio*inal (ab-6-rii-i-nal) a. primitive; simple; 
(xuyjL xgxxxctx _^ jj or original inhabitant. 
aKnritrinfiQ (ab-6-rij-i-nez) [L.] the original 
auyji. igxiic:o inhabitants of a country. 
ahnrtinn (^'-bor^hun) n. [L.] act of miscarrying: 
a.u\ji. Lxwxi expulsion of an immature product of 
conception; anything that fails to come to maturity. 
ahrkrfirknicf (a-bor^^hun-ist) n. one that practises 
ctUUlUUlllbL criminal abortion. 
ahorfivP (a-bor-tiv) a. immature; rudimentary; 
ctuwx ex V t failing in its effect ;-n. an abortion ; a 
drug causing abortion. 

ahnrf ivplv (a-bor-tiv-U) adv. in an abortive or 
ctkiv/x tx V txjr untimely manner ; imiuaturely. 
ahnilflH (?^-bound') v.t. [L. ab and unda, wave] to 
ctuv^Lxxxu |je in great plenty ; to be prevalent; to be 
copiously supplied ; to possess in abundance. 
ahnilf (*bout') adv. and prep. [A.S. dhutan] on 
txu\j\x\, every side of; all over or around; in con- 
tiguity or proximity to ; in connection with ; near, in 
place, time, quantity, or the like. About town, in 
society. Put about, annoyed. To be about, to be astir. 
To bring about, to efiect. To come about, to happen. 
To go or set about, to prepare to do. 
ahoVP ('.*-buv') adv. and prep. [A.S. dbiijan] higher 
cti^v^ * ^ in place than ; surpassing or superior to in 
any respect ; more in number, quantity, or degree than. 
Above all, before all else. Above board, open or openly. 
Above ground, alive. Above the world, independent, 
a hra r^a H a hra (ab-r^-ka-dab'ra) ?i. [L]a combin- 
et Jl ctL-ctUctUl d ation of letters, in the form of 
an inverted cone, formerly used as a charm ; unmeaning 





A B R A C A D 

A B R A C A 

A B R A C 

A B R A 

A B R 

A B 


a K r a r* a 1 a n (a-brak'-a-lan) n. a cabalistic word used 
dUl dUctldn by the Jewish rabbis. 
abradp (ab-radOv.t. [L. ab and radere, scrape] to 
a,ui ctvx^ j.yb pj. ^ear off; to scrape away. 
aKraHino* (ab-ra^ing) n. crumoling of rocks due 
dUrdUing to weathering. 

AKraViamir' (a-bra-ham-ik) a. of or pertaining 
/\UrcincimiC to Abraham. 

A hra ham _m <an (a-bra-ham-men) a class 
/^U1 dildlll-men of lunatics allowed on certain 
days to go begging ; impostors that pretended to be such 
lunatics. Abraham Newland, a Bank of England note 
(from the name of a former cashier). To sham Abra- 
ham, to feign sickness. 

ahranrhiaf** (a-brang'-ki-&t) a. [G. a and 
dUi dll(.,illdLC hrangchia, gills] without gills. 

F&te, f^, ^o ; mS, h$r ; mine ; note ; tune ; m66n. 



«i|-wfociot1 (ab-r3;^zhun) n. a rubbing or scraping 
ctUictoiV^ii Qg-. an abraded spot or place ; the sub- 
stance worn off by attrition, 

oKfocivP (ab-raAsiv) a. tending to abrade;— 7i. 
ctui ctoi V c something that abrades. 
aKra-vac (ab-rak-sas) n. [G.] a word used by the 
ctUictActa Basilidians (a Gnostic sect) for their 
supreme God ; a Gnostic amulet having this word en- 
graved on it ; a genus of lepidopterous insects. 
2|U|.o7iff& (ab^ra-zit) n. [G. a and brazein, boil] 
cxUi a^lLKZ jjie rnineral gismondite, which does not 

effervesce under the blow-pipe. 

. ' . ' -ik) a- 

acids, or when heated before the blow- 

not effervescing, as in 

a hra 71 f i r (ab-ra-zit^ik) 
ctUXct^XLl^ acids, or wh( 
pipe ; a term applied to certain minerals. 
aKfCkocf (a-bresf) adv. side by side; on a line 
ctUl CctS>L ^ith ; up to the level of. 
a V»rpr»f inn (ab-rep^hun) n. [L. ab and rapere, pp. 
ctuxcpuiviii raptus, seize] carrying off; the state 
of being carried off; separation. 

aHr#^11Voir (^-b™V-wor) n. [L. arf and 6t6crc, drink] 
dUi CUVV^ii a watering place for animals; a joint 
between stones, to be filled up with mortar or cement. 
aHrir1o*P (?-t»riJ') v.t. (L. ad and brevis, short] to 
ctUX lUgC shorten ; to deprive ; to cut off. 
aHriHornf nf (a-brij-ment) n. a cutting off, 
ciuixugxii^iii. curtailing, or shortening; an 
epitome ; a summary ; a pastime. 
o Kfr^a pVi (a-broch') adv. or a. [a, on, and F. broche, 
^•-'^ UdCXX gpjt^j broached ; lettmg out liquor, or in 
a condition to do so ; — v.t. to broach. 
o Kf/^p A (a-brawd') adv. or a. at large ; without con- 
**'-''^ Wciu. finement within narrow limits ; over a wide 
space ; beyond or out of a house, camp, or other inclosure ; 
in foreign countries ; before the public at large. All 
abroad, at a loss ; puzzled ; perplexed. 
rthitTkO-'iMf^ (ab^ro-ga-bl) a. capable of being 
ctUXUgdUXC abrogated. 

oKfpicraf f^ (ab^ro-gat) v.t. [L. ab and rogare, pp. 
o,Ul\j^A\,^ rogatus, ask] to annul by an authori- 
tative act ; to repeal ; to make void, 
o Krr* era f i nn (ab-ro-ga^hun) n. act of abrogating, 
ctux u^ctUXUXX annulhng, or setting aside. 
abrr»f anr>iH (ab-rot^-noid) a. [G. abrotonon, 
ctux ULctxxuxu southernwood, and eidos, form] 
resembling southernwood \—n. a species of East Indian 
coral branched like southernwood. 
abrofannm (ab-rot^a-num) n. southernwood, 
"•'-'* " l-"-** uxxx _^rtemisia abrotanum. 
abninf (^•-brupt') a. [L. abmptus, fr. ab and 
ctux up t rumpere, brealf] broken; steep; craggy; 
sudden ; unconnected ; [Bot.] truncated. 
flbrnnfinn (ab-rup^shun) n. a sudden breaking 
ctux upLXUXX qq-. ^ violent separation of bodies. 

aKrnrkf Ixr (a-brupt^li) orf;;. brokenly; precipitously; 
UXUpLXy suddenly, 
o Kt-11 r^f -n Acc (a-brupt^nes) n. the state or quality 
dUl up LlXC&b of being abrupt. 

jjKcppoc (ab-ses) n. [L. abscessus, a going away, 
ctuo(.,c:oa an abscess] a collection or pus or purulent 
matter in an accidental cavity of the body. 
aKcr^inH (ab-sind') v.t. [L. ab and seindere, cut] 
ctuacxxxu to cut off ; to separate. 
ab^pi^^a (ab-sis^a) n. [L. oftscmMS, cut off] one 
ctuov^xooct Qf tjjg elements of reference by which a 
point, as of a curve, is referred to a system of fixed 
rectilineal coordinate axes [Math.]. 
aKcr'iccirkn (ab-sizli-un) n. [L.] act or process of 
ctua(.,xaaxuxx cutting off; state of being cut off; 
a figure of speech where a speaker stops abruptly, as 
supposing the matter sufficiently understood. 
ab^JPOtlPP (ab-skons') n. [L. abscondere, hide] a 
a,i^ov.,v^iiv,^ dark lantern holding a wax light, used 
in reading the services at matins and lauds. 
ab^SPnnH (ab-skond') v.i. [L. ab, ahs, and con- 
a,uov,u>xxu ^g^g_ ]jjy yp-] ^^j ^^^g Pj^g,g ggjj off-used 

esp. of persons that withdraw to avoid a legal process. 
absPflPP (ab-sens) n. [L. absentia'] state of being 

^^ absent; inattention to things present. 

3.bsPnf (ab-sent) a. [L. absens, absentig, ppr. of 

ca.uoc;xii, abesse, be absent] withdrawn from, or not 

present in, a place ; inattentive to what is passing ; 

needless ■,—v.t. (ab-senf) to take or withdraw to such a 

_*- distance as to prevent intercourse. 

liStviA aHQ<anf*»A (ab-sen-te')?). one that absents himself 

""■^ ctuocxxLCC frojn his country, office, post, or duty. 

a Kc«an f o Ai om (ab-sen-te-izm) n. the practice or 
dObCntCClbin habit of an absentee. 
a Hcifn f m Pn f (ab-sent-ment) n. act of absenting 
ctuocxxLxxxc;xxu Q^e's self; state of being absent. 
Q|-|Qpnf-minHp>r1 (abisent-mlnkled)a.inatten- 
ctuacxxu xxxxxxucu tive to one's surroundings. 
ab^infbp (ab^sinth) n. [F. fr. L. absinthium, 
cxuoiiitxxc wormwood] wormwood; a liqueur 
tinctured with wormwood. 

absinthial, absinthian S)''a.*^peJ: 

taining to, or derived from, wormwood ; bitter. 
nKcinf liiaf <a (ab-sin-thi-at) v.t. to impregnate 
dUbilXUllclLC with wormwood. 
a'hoinfliir' (ab-sin-thik) a. of, or pertaining to, 
ctUaXXXUXXXL. wormwood. 

ab<5infVlin (ab-sin-thin) n. the crystalline bitter 
ctuoxxxLXXXXX principle of wormwood. 

aKcinfVilQm (ab-sin-thizm) n. the condition 
ctusxxxLXXxaxxx produced by the use of absinthe. 
ab^nlllfp (ab-s6-lut) a. [L. absolutus'] uncon- 
ctuouxuLC trolled; unconditional; complete; 
finished ; perfect ; irrevocable ; despotic ; certain ; 
authoritative ; peremptory ; self-existent ; self-sufficing ; 
free from mixture. God is called The Absolute, the 
Self-existent. The absolute case, the case of a noun and 
an adjunct, whose construction is independent of the 
syntax of the sentence. 

aV»cr»liif f^lir (ab-so-lut-li) adv. unconditionally; 
ctuouxutcxy completely; authoritatively. 
oVkorkliif tf»r><^cc (ab^o-lut-nes) n. quality or 
dUSUXUUCXXCaa state of being absolute. 
ab^nlnfintl (ab-so-lu-shun) n. acquittal; a re- 
dUouxLXLXUXX mission of Bin, pronounced by the 
E.G. church in favour of one that makes due confession. 
aVicrkliif icm (ab-s5-lu-tizm) n. absolute govern- 
dUdUXU Lxaxxx j^^ent or its principles. 
ab^nlllfi^f (ab-so-lu-tist) n. an advocate of des- 
dUoUXLXUXou potism, or of absolute government. 
•aKorkliif rki-TT- (ab-sol-u-tur-i) a. giving absolution; 
aObOlUtOry capable of absolving. 
oKcrkl-trof rtrrr (ab-zol-va-tur-i) a. that absolves, 
dUauxVdLUXJ^ pardons,' or releases. 
ab^nl VP (ab-zolv') v.t. [L. ab and solvere, loose] to ^^(j 
dusuxvc ggt free from, as from some obligation, ^, 
debt, or responsibility, or from that which subjects a 
person to a burden or penalty. 

oKcr^lT^if r»t* (ab-zol-vi-tur) n. [Law] a decree of 
dUSUXVXLUX absolution. 

ab<5nnafli" (aW-sS-nant) a. [L. ah and sonus, sound] 
dUouxxdxXL discordant; inharmonious. 
pKcnrb (^^b-sorb') v.t. [L. ab and sorbere, suck in] 
dUoux u (-Q drink in ; to suck up ; to imbibe, as a 
sponge ; to engross or engage wholly. 
^iKorkfl-knl-kilifxr (ab-sor-ba-bil-i-ti) a. state or 
dUbUl UdUlXlLy qualitv of being absorbable. 

absorbable S^orfed'"^'^^ "'' '^^^^^^ "^ ^"""^ 

oKorkt-Kot-if (ab-sor-bent) a. absorbing ;—n. any- 
dUbUl UCllL thing that absorbs. 
oVkcrkri^f irkn (ab-sorp-shun) n. act of absorbing ; 
dUaUX p UXUXX process of being absorbed. 

aKcr>rr»fix7-*i (ab-sorp-tiv) a. having power to 
uaux p LX V C absorb ; absorbent. 
oKof airi (ab-stan') v.i. [L. abs and tenere, hold] to 
dUOLdxxx forbear, or refrain, voluntarily, esp. from 
an indulgence of the passions or appetites. 
pKcfojripr (ab-sta^ner) n. one that abstains, 
duoudxxxcx ggp_ from intoxicating liquors. 
oKof pkmirtiic (ab-ste-mi-us) a. [L.l sparing in the 
duaLCXXXXUUS use of food and drink ; temperate; 
abstinent ; very sparing. 

oKcf £kmirkiic1tr (ab-ste-mi-us-li) adv. temper- 
dU&UCXXXXUUaxy ately ; sparingly. 
n*hcf*amir»ncn<icc (ab-ste^mi-us-nes) n. qual- 
dUSLCXXXXUUdXXCOa jt,y of i,eing abstemious. 
oKcf *anf ir»n (ab-sten'shun) n. [L. abs and tenere, 
dU::>LCXXLXUXX j^old] a holding off or refraining. 

abstentious g^tion''^'"'^ ""' "'"'^"^ *"' ''^' 

aKcf i^ro-pnf (ab-ster'-jent)a. [L. abs and trrgere, 
dua tcx g cxx L pp tersus, wipe] serving to cleanse ; 
— n. that which cleanses. 

a Kef *»rcir»n (ab-ster^hun) n. act of wiping clean: 
dUSLwXdXUXX [jyied.] a cleansing by lotions or 
similar applications. 

Fate, far, ado ; me, her ; mine ; note ; tune ; moon. 



ot-icf ArciTr^ (ab-ster-siv) a. cleansing ;—n. that 
ctUoLClslvc which cleanses. 
nKcf iriPtlPP (ab^sti-nens) n. [L. abs and tcnere, 
dUoLlllCixCC: hold] voluntary forbearance from 
using or doing something ; abnegation. 
oKofirKanf (ab^sti-nent) a. temperate; — n. one 
ctUatlliClXL tiiat abstains. 

oKcfrapf (ab-strakt) v.t. [L. abs and trahere, 
dUo ti etV* L draw] to draw from or separate ; to draw- 
off, in respect to interest or attention ; to separate 
ideas by the operation of the mind ; to epitomize or 
reduce ; to take secretly for one's own use from the 
property of another: — v.i. to form abstractions. 
pKcfrapf (ab-strakt) a. distinct from something 
ctuotldV^t else; separate; withdrawn from the 
concrete or from particulars ; difficult ; abstruse ; — n. that 
which comprises m itself the essential qualities of a larger 
tiling, or of several things ; an inventory, summary, or 
epitome. Abstract idea, one produced by regarding 
some (luaUty apart from any body possessing that quality. 
Abstract numbers, numbers used by themselves, with- 
out reference to particular objects. Abstract of title, 
an epitome of the evidences of ownersliip. Abstract 
science, one that deals with phenomena apart from the 
bodies exhibiting them. Abstract terms, the names of 
abstract ideas. In the abstract, without reference to 
particular cases. 

aKcfraof<:kH (ab-strak^ted) a.. refined ; abstruse; 
aus>UiclV.,LCU al)sent-minded ; absorbed. 
ah«5f rapf pHIv (ab-strak-ted-li) adv. by itself; 
ciuoLicx^LCUiy in an al)sent manner. 
oKof t-n^f <ar1ri«aoc« (ab-strak^ted-nes) n. state 
aDbtraCteunebb of i,ging abstracted. 

pKcfrapfinn (^h-strak^shun) n. act of abstract- 
ctuoLictV^LiUil iug or separating, or the state of 
being separated ; act or process of leav ing out of con- 
sideration one or more properties of a complex object, 
so as to attend to others; analysis; an idea or notion 
of a theoretical nature ; a separation from worldly 
objects ; a recluse life ; absence of mind ; inattention 
to present objects ; the taking surreptitiously for one's 
own use part of the property of another ; in distillation, 
the separation of volatile from fixe I parts. 
oKcft*o/>f iTrA (ab-strak'-tiv) a. having the power 
aUbtraCLlVe of abstracting. 
oKcf rar>f nf^QC (al>^trakt-nes) n. the state or 
ctusLi ctv^tiicsa quality of being ab.stract. 
oKcfmcpk (ab-stroos') a. [L. ab strudere, pp. abs- 
ctudLiuac frusMs, thrust away] hidden; difficult 
or hard to be understood ; profound. 
aKcf ruc^alir (ab-stroos-li) adv. not plainly; 
aUbtrUbCiy darklv ; profoundly. 
oKcfnicAn^cc (ab-stroos^nes) n. state or qual- 
dUbirUbCIlCbb ity of being abstruse. 
o Kcii rH (ab-surd') a.'[L.] opposed to manifest truth ; 
ctL^oux VI inconsistent with rea.son, or the plain dic- 
tates of common sense ; logically contradictory, 
a KciirH if xr (ab-sur'-di-ti)H. quality of being absurd; 
dUbUrUlty that which is absurd. 

absurdness ifstnci'"^'^ "• "^'""^''y- "'•^''"■ 

aKnIia aKmilia (a-boWi-a) n. [G. a and tottZe, 
dUUlld, dUUUild ^viii] loss or lack of will. 
ahlltlHanPP (a-bun^lans) n. [L. abinidantia] 
cvi^uiiudxiv^c; ample sufficiency ; great plenty. 
aHiinrlanf (a-bun^ant) a. fully sufficient ; being 
dUUllUdlXL in great quantity. 
ahlinHonflfr (a-bun^ant-h) adv. plentifully; 

duunaantiy amply ; fuiiy. 

•aVvijcp (a-buz') v.t. (L. abuti, pp. abusus, abuse] 
aijuoc to make an ill or improper use of; to use 
with bad motives, to wrong purposes, or in a wrong 
way ; to treat rudely, or with reproachful language ; to 
uialtreat ; to impose on ; to violate ; to defile. 
abimP (9"b5s')'t. ill usage; improper treatment or 
duuoc employment; application to a wrong pur- 
pose ; a corrupt practice or custom ; rude or reproachful 
language j contumely ; violation ; defilement. 
ahimivP (a-bu-siv) a. practising abuse ; offering 
ci.k^ uox V c harsh words or ill treatment : corrupt. 
aKliciT7'*»np>cc (a-bu^siv-nes) n. quanty of oeing 
duusxvcxxc;aa abusive ; ill usage. 
abut (?*■'>"'') ^'•'- [L. ad and O.F. boter, thrust] to 
ai^ui, terminate or border; to be contiguous. 
flbllfmpnf (a-but^ment) n. that on which a thing 
auubiix^iii, abuts, or that which meets or abuts 

on any thing ; the solid part of a pier or wall, which 
receives the lateral pressure of an arcn. 
ahllffal (*-but^l) n. that part of a piece of land 
d u u t Ldx which ad j oins another. 
o K|| 7 7 (a-buz) adv. or a. buzzing ; filled with buzz- 
duu^^ ing sounds. 

abv^Ntnal (a-biz^mal) a. pertaining to, or re- 
o-uy oxiiax sembling, an abyss ; bottomless. 
oKttcc (a-bis') n. [d. abussos, bottomless] a bottom- 
**'^J' ^^ less depth ; a gulf ; any deep, immeasurable 
space ; (Her.) the centre of an escutcheon. 
oKti-cooI (a-bis^^l) a. abysmal; inhabiting or 
**■*-' J O'Jdx characteristic of the depths of the ocean. 
Apopia (a-kaisha) n. [G. akakia^ a genus of 
.nv^d\.,xd leguminous trees and shrubs, usually with 
thorns and pinnate leaves, and of an airy, elegant 
appearance. Various species yield gum Arahic, gum 
Senegal, East Indian gum, catechu, etc. 
nnnAt^rrye^ (ak-a-dem) n. an academy (used mainly 
dL,dUClilC in poetry). 

acarfprnial (^''■?-<l®^™i-*l) "-• pertaining to an 

aPaHptnian (ak-a-de^mi-an) n. a member of an 
dv..duc:ixxxdxx academy ; a student in a college. 
aPaHpmif (ak-a-tlem-ik) a. belonging to the 
dcducxxxxi., school or philosophy of Plato ; belong- 
ing to an academy or other institution of learning ; — n. 
one belonging to the academy or to the school of Plato ; a 
student in a college or university. An academic debate, 
que8tion,etc.,i8onethat is conventional and unpractical. 
aPaHl^mir'alQ (ak-a-dem-i-kals) ».;jZ. robes worn 
di.,dUCXXXXL.dXO ^y members of the universities. 
apaHpmipiatl (s^-l^^^l-e-mish^n) n. a member 
d^dvxcxxxxv^xdxx ^j -jn academy or society for 
promoting arts and sciences. 

ar^aH^micm (a-kad^-mizm) n. the doctrines 
dv^ducxxxxoxxx of the Academic philosophers. 
aPaHptni^i' (^-kad^-mlst) n. a Piatonist ; a 
dv,ducxxxx0 L niember or student of an academy. 
aPaHpTTIV (^-kad^-mi) n. a garden or grove near 
dv.dvxcxxxj^ Athens, belonging originally to a 
reputed hero nameil Academus. where Plato and his 
followers held their philosophical conferences ; a school, 
or seminary, holding a rank between a university, or 
college, and a common school ; a society of men united 
for the promotion of arts and sciences m general, or of 
some particular art or science. The main object of 
the French Academy is to regulate the French language. 
A pa H i a n (a-kaUli-an) a. [F. Acadie, Nova Scotia] 
x^v^duxdxx jiertaining to Nova Scotia ;— n. an in- 
habitant of Nova Scotia. 

acaleph, acalephe a?t!faU£"-°°««* 

A Ca 1 Pnb 3* (ak-a-le^fe) [G. akalephe, nettle] 
x^v.dxc;]L#xxd; a name given to the jelly-fishes, sea- 
nettles, etc., from their power of stinging. 
ar^al^arkVian (ak-a-le-fan) a. pertaining to the 
dCdlCpildll Acalephse ;-n. an acaleph. 

acalephoid Se-afiSph.' ^^- ''^'' ''™^ 
acalephous &!;gi^r^ ""■ i^J«°85°8 ^ ^^^ 

ar'amrkcia (a-kamp^si-a) n. [G. a and kamptein, 
dCdlXXp&Xd bend] inflexibUity of a joint. 
apanap**r»iiG (ak-a-na^shus] a. [G. akanos, 
dv,dxxd\.,cu ua prickly shrub] armed with prickles, 
a pa nf Via (a-kan-tha) n.; p^. acanthae (a-kan-the) 
dV^dXXLXXd [(J, akantha, prickle] a prickle [Bot.] ; a 
spine, or prickly fin [Zool.] ; one of the spinous processes 
of the vertebrae [Ajiat.]. 

acanthaceous Sh JiSs."'^ "" """^ 

Apanflliacs (a-kan'-thi-as) n. a genus of sharks, 
XXCdXX LXXldb including the dog-fish. 
apanfllinia (a-kan-thin) a. pertaining to or re- 
d«^dxxLxxxxxc; sembling the acanthus ;—%. a fillet 
or other moulding ornamented with the acanthus leaf. 

acanthocarpous iS^h^btt"at"^S: 

pos, fruit] having the fruit covered with prickles. 

Acanthocephala [f^l^SH&Z;^-^^ 

of parasitic worms in which the head is armed with spines. 
aPanfhnplaHnilc (ak-an-thoWa-dus) a. [G. 
dCdntilOCiaaOUS akantha, thorn, and 
klados, branch] having spiny branches. 

Fate, far, ftdo ; me, h^ ; mine ; note ; tiine ; m66n. 



acanthoid, acanthous i^s)a.'S?nJ: 

dLaninopiCrOUb a^on^A^a, spine, and pJeron, 
wingj having spiny wings or fins ; spiny. 

Acanthopterygii ^g^XoftteSSfi 

ous fins (it contains the perch, mackerel, sword-fish, etc.)- 
Apanflin^ (a-kan-tlius) n. a genus of herbaceous 
xxccLiitxluo prickly plants; [Arch.] an ornament 
resembling the foliage or leaves of the acanthus, used in 
the capitals of the Corinthian and Composite orders. 
nr'ar^ciitar (a-kap^su-lar) a. I G. a. and E. capsule] 
ctV^ctpa Uicti without a capsule. 
f\t^n fA i a r» (a-kar^i-ak) n. \G. a and kardia, heart] 
dCdl UldV. without a heart [Biol.]. 
ar»»iriacic (ak-a-rl-a-sis) n. a skm disease caused 
dCdX IdCMO by one of the Acarida. 
A poriHa (a-kar^i-da) [G. a and keirem, cut] 
r\K,a.l xUct a,n order of the class Arachnida, includ- 
ing the mites, ticks, itch-insects, etc. 
ar-arorkiic (a-kar'-pus) a. [G. a and A-ar/ios, fruit] 
dUdl pUUS not producing fruit [Bot.]. 
nnnritc (ak-a-rus), n.; pi. acaii (ak-a-ri) a tick or 
dl^dl uo mite. 

fl pa fa 1 f^pf i P (a-kat-a-lek-tik) a. [G. akatalektos, 
ct(.<dLctiCULX^ not defective at the end] not stop- 
ping short ; complete in syllables ; — n. a verse that has 
the complete number of syllables. 
a PQ f a 1 <ar%Cf r (a-kat-a-lep-si) n. incomprehensible- 
dCdLdXCpay ness: [Med.] uncertainty in the 
diagnosis or prognosis of diseases. 
apaf alf»r»fip (a-kat-a-lep-tik) a.[G. akataleptos] 
ct^fXLtXi.^^Liy^ not capable of being certainly 
comprehended or discovered. 

a pa fa nil a Ql a (a-kat-a-faAzl-a) n. [G.] inability, 
ct^cttct^ixctoxct froni disease, to use correct syntax. 
apafhar«ia ( ak-a-thar-si-a ) n. [G.] the impure 
cxCctLXXctx axet matter issuing from a wound [Med.]. 
aPaillnilQ (a-kawilus) a. [G.] stemless, or appar- 
dUdUlUUo ently so. The same meaning belongs 
to acaolescent, acauline, acaalose. 
nnnaAfx (ak-sed') v.i. [L. ad and cedere, move] to 
dCUCUc agree or assent ; to succeed as heir. 
appolf»ranr1r\ (ak-sel-e-ran^o) adv. a musical 
dUCCXCX dXXUU direction to quicken the time. 
a-PPflPTa-f P (ak-sel^-rat) v.t. [L. cul and celer- 
a,\,K,dd aLC (ij,g^ hasten] to cause to move faster. 
Accalaratod force, the increased force that a body exerts 
when its motion is accelerated. Accelerated motion, a 
m)tion that continually receives fresh accessions of 
velocity. Accelerating force, the force that produces 
accelerated motion. 

•3 p r» a] ai*a4-|rj«-i (ak-sel-e-raishun) n. the act of 
dOocXCi ctLXUXX accelerating; increase of motion 
or action. Acceleration of the moon, the increase in 
the moon's mean angular velocity about the earth. 
Acoeieration and refeirdatlon of the tides, the earlier 
and later occurrence of high water. Diurnal acc3ler- 
ation of the fixed stars, the amount, 3' 5(5" nearly, by 
which the sidereal is shorter than the solar day. 
oppalpf af ixTp (ak-sel-e-ra-tiv) a. accelerating; 
av^UwX^x <*LX V c quickening motion. 

ar>OAl<ir!ifrkt* (ak-sel^-ra-tur) n. one that, or 
wCCXCX dLUl that which, accelerates. 
app<alf»raf nrrr (ak-sel^-ra-tur-i) a. accelerating, 
i*\,v. wxcx (Xtux y or tending to accelerate. 
apPAnrliHilifTr (ak-«en-di-bil-i-ti) n. accendible 
di^UCilUlUlllLy quality- inflammability. 
apPAn'^iKlf* (ak-sen-di-bl) a. [L. accendere, burn] 
dCV^CliaiUlC capable of being inflamed. 
app*»ncir»n (ak-sen^hun) n. act of kindling; 
dCCCIlblUIl state of being kindled. 
app*»ncir»r (ak-sen-sur) n. one that sets on fire or 
ci,\.^c;xxs>ui kindles ; in the R.C. church, the person 
that lights and trims the candles. 

aCCPnt (*J^^nt) n. [L. a^icenUis] a superior force 
^ ^ of articulative eSbrt upon some particular 
syllaible of a word, distinguishing it from the others ; a 
mark used in writing to regulate the pronunciation : 
wonls, language, or expressions in general ; a mark placed 
at the right hand of a letter or number to distinguish 
magnitudes of a iimilar kind but differing in value ;— 
(ak-senf) v.t. to pronounce, utter, or mark with accent. 
accentor (•^■^^^-''ur) n. one that sings the lead- 

n. act of 
writing, or 

n/^r'<i«fitfs1 (ak-sen-tG-al) a. relating to accent; 
dC(.,CllLUdi rhythmical. 

aPPPtlfliafp (ak-sen-tu-at) v.t. to mark or 
ctv.«..cxxLUct.i.c; pronounce with an accent or 
accents ; to emphasize, 
n pp^^nf 11 a f ir\n (ak-sen-tii-a-shun) 
dl^V^cxxLUctUXUXX placing accents in 
of pronouncing them in speaking. 
aPPPnf (^k-sepf) v.t. [L. ad and capere, pp. 
dV^v^cpu captus, take] to take or receive with a 
consenting mind ; to receive or admit and agree to ; to 
understand. To accept a bill of exchange, to sub- 
scribe it in due form and thus to promise to pay it [Law]. 
apppnfahilifv (ak-sep-ta-bil-i-ti) n. quality of 
txv,y.,z:jJLciuim,y being acceptable or agreeable; 

apPPnfaHIp (ak-sep-ta-bl) a. capable, worthy, 
d(.>CCpLcluxc; or sure 01 being accepted. 
ar^PAirkfaKlpt-iPCC (ak-sep^ta-bl-nee) n. the 
ctv-v-cptduxcxxcoo quality of being accepta- 
ble or agreeable. 

apppnfaHlv (ak-sep-ta-bli) adv. in an acceptable 
dCV^cptdUXy manner; in a manner to please. 
a PPPTif a nPP (ak-sep-tans) n. the act of accept- 
dv.v.cpLdXXt.>c: ing. favourable reception; an 
engagement by the person on whom a bill of exchange is 
drawn, to pay it when due ; the bill itself when accepted ; 
an agreeing to terms or proposals by which a bargain is 
concluded; the taking or a thing bought as that for 
which it was purchased ; an agreeing to the act or con- 
tract of another. 

apppi-kfafinn (ak-sep-taishun) n. the act of 
dl..CCpta.i.xuxx accepting; kind reception; the 
meaning of a word or statement. 

accepter, acceptor person that accepts : 
one that accepts a bill of exchange so as to bind himself 
to pay the sum stated in it. 

a PPPQQ (ak'-ses) n. [L- accedere, pp. a^cesstis, go to] 
dt.v»Co& a coming to, or near approach; admittance; 
admission ; the means or way by which a thing may be 
approaclied ; addition. 

accessarily, accessary, etc. 

See accessorily, accessory, etc. 

apppcciHilifiT- (ak-ses-i-bil-i-ti) n. the quality of 
^^..cosx uxxx \,y being approachable. 

(ak-ses-i-Dl) a. easy of access or 
approach ; attainable, 
(ak-ses-i-bli) adv. in an accessible 
manner ; so as to be accessible, 
(ak-sesh-un) n. [L. accessid] act of ac- 
ceding : adhesion ; increase by some- 
thing added ; that which is added ; act of arriving at a 
throne, an office, or dignity ; the approach or commence- 
ment of a disease. 

aPPPQcinnal (ak-sesh'-un-al) a. giving increase 
dCl..c;ooxv..>xxctx oj. enlargement ; additional. 
aPPPCJ^if (ftk-ses^it) n. [L. he has come near] in 
d^CCooxt university language, a certificate or 
prize of second or lower merit. 

appficcnrial (ak-se-soi^ri-al) a. pertaining to an 
dCt^CooUX Xdx accessory. 

apppccnrilv (ai-ses-u-ri-li, ak^e-so-ri-li) adv. in 
dUt^CooUX xxy the manner of an accessory. 
opppccrkrinPQC (ak-ses-u-ri-nes, ak'-se-so-ri-nes) 
cll.,l.<caoux xxxc;ao „ gtate of being accessory. 
apppccnrrr (ak-ses-u-ri, ak^e-so-n) a contribut- 
dl.^CCoauX y ing; aiding in producing some efi"ect; 
—n. one implicated in a felony (though not as a principal) 
either be/ore the fact, by counsel or incitement, or after 
the fact, by rendering some assistance to the offender: 
an accompaniment ; [Fine Arts] any purely ornamental 
part of a design. 

appiHpnpp (ak^i-dens) n. that part of grammar 
d(.>i.<XUCXXUC which deals with inflection ; a small 
book containing the rudiments of grammar. 
appiHpnf (ak-si-dent) n. [L. ad and cadere, fall] 
dCCXUCXXL an unexpected event; casualty; mishap; 
contingency ; chance ; [Logic] a non-essential ;—pl. the 
properties and qualities of the parts of speech, as gender, 
number, and case. 

appi'Hpnfal (ak-si-den-tal) a. happening unex- 
cll.>l.^xvxcxxLctx pectedly; non-essential; not neces- 
sarily belonging ;— n. any thing happening accid«ntallv ; 
a casualty ; a sharp, flat, or natural, occurring not at the 


Fate, f&r, ^o ; mS, her ; mine ; ndte ; tune , mddn. 



commencement of a piece of music as the signature, but 
before a particular note. Accidental colours, the com- 
plementary colours seen when the eye is suddenly 
turned to a white or light-coloured surface, after it 
has been fixed for some time on a bright coloured 
object. Accidental light, any secondary light in a 
pamting, as firelight when this is not the chief light. 
ar^r^iH^nf alicfn (ak-si-den-tal-izm) n. acciden- 
cl(^l.«lUClXtcliiOiii tal character; accidental 
efi'ect ; the emphasizing of objects in a painting by fire- 
light or other accidental light. 

nnnir]f^rti-n\]\r (ak-si-den-tal-i) a<2v. by chance; 
ctCl..lUCllLaxxy unexpectedly. 
flPfinif Pr (ak-sip-i-tcr) n. [L.] a rapacious bird, as 
aK^K^HJiL^i jQ eagle, hawk, etc.; a bandage ap- 
plied to the nose (so called as resembling a hawk's claw). 

accipitral, accipitrine ^^"^^.'^ 

clous ; hawk-like. 

a/^^lGmnc (ak-siz^mus) n. [G. akkizesthai, pre- 
ctuv^isiiiua tend, fr. akko, bugbear] an afl'ected 
refusal ; an ironical dissinmlation [Rhet.]. 
fl.fplflim (^'■klam') v.t. and i. [L. da and clamare, 
a,\,\,i.aiiii (,j.y aloud] to honour or meet with 
applause ; to salute ;— n. acclamation. 
APPlntTIAfirin (ak-la-maAshun) n. a shout or 
a,\,\,ia.iiia.v.i.yji.i gome other expression of ap- 
plause ; [Fine Art] a representation in sculpture or on 
medals, of people expressing joy or applause. 
flPplamafnrv (a-klum^-tur-i) a. expressing 
a.v,K,ia.i.i.i<XL\ji y applause by acclamation. 
flpplimflfp (a-klT-mat) v.t. [L. ad and G. Hima, 
a.K,y,i.ii.ii{XL^ klimatos, slope, fr. kliiiein, bend] to 
habituate to a climate not native. 

applimaf inn (ak-li-maishun) n. the process of 
a.^.,v.iiiiictLiv^ix becoming, or the state of being, 

acclimatization ?cdi3ot'^''"°^ "• 

fl/'plimaf iyf* (^-kll-ma-tlz) v.t. to habituate to 
a,\,K,iiLiia.Li£.^ a climate not native. 
flPpHtnaf lir** (ai-kll-m^-tur) n. act of acclima- 
a,«.,v.iiiiicxbui c tinp^ qj. ^tate of being accliniate<l. 
applivifv (?^-kIiv^i-ti) w. [L. acclivitas] an upward 
civ^v^ii V 1 ujr giopg . jjjg talus of a rampart. 

ar'r'litrrmc (a-kll-vus) a. rising witli a slope, as a 
dCCllVOUb hill ; sloping upwards. 
fl-PPolsHp (ak-6-lad) n. [L. ad and coUum, neck] 
a,v.v.,v^ia,u^ a ceremony used in conferring knight- 
hood, consisting now of a blow given on the shoulder with 
the fiat of a sword. 

apprkmmrkrlaf <a (?i-kom^-dat) v.t. [L. ad and 
dV^L^UlillllUUclLC covimodus, fit] to render fit, 
suitable, or correspondent ; to adapt ; to conform ; to 
furnish with something desired, needed, or convenient ; 
to bring into agreement or harmony ; to reconcile ;— 
a. suitable ; fit ; accommodated. 

arrom m oH a f i n P- (a-kora^da-ting)a.afford- 
elV,<-UlllHlUUclLin^ ing or disposed to afiord 
accommodation ; kind ; helpful ; obliging. 

arrommnHafinn (a-kom-&3aAshun) n. act 

ctl^CUllllllUUciLlUn of fltti„g_ or state of being 
fitted ; adaptation ; whatever supplies a want or affords 
ease or convenience; an adjustment of differences; 
reconciliation ; a loan of money. Accommodation bill, 
a note or a fictitious bill drawn and accepted to raise 
money on, not given in payment of a debt [Law]. 
Accommodation ladder, one fixed outside a ship at 
the gangway [Naut.]. Accommodation land, knd 
bought by a speculator for building purposes. 

arrommnHaf ivf» (a-kom^j-da-tiv) a. sup- 

ctV,(.UllllllUUctUVC plying accommodation; 
disposed to accommodate ; adaptive. 

accommodator 2™o1Jff " ''''''^' 

appnmnanifir (a-kum-pa-ni-er) n. one that 
ctv^v^uiixpaillCi accompanies. 

acrom na n i m Pn f (»-kum-p?i-ni-ment)n.that 
civ,v,uxxxpcixxxxxicni which accompanies; some- 
thmg that attends as a circumstance, or which is added 
to the prmcipal thing by way of ornament, or for the 
sake of symmetry ; [Mus.] the part or parts performed 
by instruments accompanying another part or parts 
performed vocally or instrumentally. 
a PPnm r»a n icf (a-kum-pa-nist)n. one that plays 
acv^UXXXpaillbL an accompaniment. 

with ; [Mus.] to play the accompaniment. 

accomplice (^^i^o'^-pm .^- " 

aPPnmnanv (a-kum-pa-ni) v.t. [L. ad, cum, 
tx\^\,vjiix^a.n.y and pants, bread] to go with or 
attend as a comi)anion or associate ; to keep company 


[L. ad, cwm, and 
plicare, fold] a co-operator or 
partner ; an associate in crime ; a partaker in guilt. 

accompliceship, accomplicity 

(a-kom'plis-ship, a-kom-plis^i-ti) n. state of being an 
accomplice ; criminal assistance. 

ar»r»rkmr»licVi (a-kom-plish) v.t. [L. a<2and com- 
ciCCUllipilbll pi^e^ ffii up] to finigh . ^o com- 
plete ; to bring to pass ; to perform ; to equip. 
arpomn1icViaKl#a (a-kom-plish-a-bl) a. that 
dl^CUIIipilblldUlC ,„ay be accomplished. 
ar'r'r»mr»1icVi#:»H (a-kom-plisht) a. completed; 
ct«.,uuxxxpxxaxxcu perfected; consummate; hav- 
ing accomplishments. 

a r rnm nli qVi m pnf (a-kom-plish-ment)n. act 
ciCCUIIipilbllint^ni. of accomplishing ; com- 
pletion ; that which constitutes excellence of mind, or 
elegance of manners, acquired by education. 
a CCC\XX\ r»f **f P ^^^ account, etc., with which 
tx\^K,yjLi.iyj\,^ CLV,. accompt, etc., agree in pro- 

PppnrH (^'"'^o'^') "• [L. a<iand cor, cordis, heart] 
a.v.v.c'x u agreement; consent; harmony of sounds; 
concord ; chord ; voluntary or spontaneous motion ; 
[Law] an agreement that terminates a suit ; — v.t. to 
make to agree; to adjust- to concede ;— v.t. to be in 
accordance ; to agree in pitch and tone. 
anncwAixrtnf^ (a-kor'-dans) n. agreement; con- 
ciL,CUX UciXXUC formity ; harmony. 
aPPnrHanf (a-kor^lant) a. corresponding; con- 
cxv^v^v^xuaiiL sonant ; harmoniously. 
arrnrHitlP' (a-kor^lmg) a. in accordance with; 
ci,v,v,v^x uxxxg agreeable ; suitable. According as, 
proportionately as ; according to ; agreeable to ; in rela- 
tion to. According to Cocker (an arithmetician), 
neatly and correctly and according to rule. 
apmrHintrlv (a-korkling-li) adv. in accordance 
clCV-UXUXXXgxy ^.jtij. consequently. 

aPPnrHinn (a-kor'-di-un) n. [accord] a small, 
auv^v^x ui^^ii keyed, wind instrument, whose tones 
are generated by the play of wind upon metallic reeds. 
a rrrirH inniQf (a-koKdi-un-ist) n. a player on 
di.,<..ux uxuxxxat tijg accordion. 

aPPn^f (a-kosf) v.<. [L. ad and costa, rib, side] to 
a,K^\,yj^\, address; to speak first to; — ». address; 
manner; salutation. 

Qppi-kcf aKlf* (a-ko8^ta-bl) o. capable of being 
a,y,y,\jis\,a.ui.\.., accosted; easy of access ; affable. 
aPPnilphpmpnf (a-koosh-mong) n. [F. fr. L. 
dl^CUUCllCIllCllL od, cum, and locm, place] 
delivery in childbed. 

aCCOllchPUr (a-koo-sher') n. [F.] a man that 
a.v,v,\^u\^ix\.,ui assists women in childbirth. 
aPPOllphpilcsP (a - koo - shez') n. [F. fern, of 
dl-CUUCllCUbC accoMcfe«wr] a midwife. 
aPPniinf (^-J^ounf) «. [L. ad and computare, 
av^v^vuxAi. reckon] a reckoning enumeration, or 
record of some reckoning ; a detached written or printed 
statement of debts and credits in pecuniary transactions; 
a statement in general of reasons, causes, grounds, etc., 
explanatory of some event ; a statement of facts or trans- 
actions; a relation, narrative, or description ; an estimate 
or estimation ; importance ; value ; advantage ; profit ;— 
v.t. to reckon or compute ; to estimate •,—v.i. to render 
an account or relation of particulars ; to constitute a 
reason ; to render reasons or answer for in a reckoning 
or judgment. Account book, a book used for keeping 
accounts. In account with, having business dealings 
with. To account for, to give an account or explanation 
of. To make account of, to value. To take into 
account, to consider. 

appminf aHilifir (a-koun-ta-bil-i-ti)n. the state 
acCU UIX LdUlll ty of being accountable, or hable 
to give account or pay damages for injury done. 
aPPniinfahlp (a-koun-ta-bl) a. liable to be 
ai^CUUllLciUlC called to account. 
aCCOUntableneSS (?;-koun^ta-bl-ne8) n. 
^r , V7 the state of beingaccoun- 

table ; accountability. 

aCPOUnta hi V fe:Hoiui^t^-bli) adv. in an accoun- 
cti.v.uuxxLauxy uble manner. 

Fate, far, ^o ; me, h§r ; mine ; ndte ; tune ; moon. 



ar*r*minfanf (a-koun-tant) n. one that keeps, 
av^v^uuixtcxiiL oj. ig skilled in, accounts. Accoun- 
tant general, the chief accountant in public offices, 
etc.; formerly an officer in Chancery, who received all 
moneys lodged in court, and deposited them in the Bank 
of England. 

ar'/^rkiinf anfchiri (a-koun-tant-ship) n. office 
clCCUUllLcilltS>liip or work of an accountant. 
aPPOllffP (a-koo-ter) v.t. {¥. accoutrer, to dress, 
ctv^V^U U Ll C array] to furnish with dress, equipage, 
or equipments, csp. those of a soldier. 
Sirmilfrf»mf»nf Q ( a - koo - ter - ments ) 
a,\^y,\ju,i,i.\^ii.i.^ixi.i3 dress; equipage; trappings; 
military dress and arms. 
a prrpH if (a-kred-it) v.t. [L. ad and credere, believe] 

to give trust or confidence to ; to credit ; 
to receive ; to send with credentials, as an envoy. 

(a-kres^ns) n. gradual growth 
or increase, 


apprPQPPnl" (a-kres-ent) a. increasing; [Bot.] 
ctV^Ul CoV^^CilU increasing in size after flowering. 
apprpfion (^-kre-shun) n. [L. ad and crescere, 
a.v^K,i C U1V711 pp cretus, grow] an increase in growth, 
esp. by an accession of parts externally ; [Surg.] the con- 
junction of parts naturally separate ; [Law] the growth 
of property by external additions. 
arrrf^fivP (a-kre-tiv) a. of, or pertaining to, 
a.^dCUiVC accretion ; growing. 
«] ppf 11 £» (a-kroo') v.i. [O.F. accreu, pp. fr. L. ad and 
a>l,^l UC crescere, grow] to increase ; to augment ; to 
be added, as increase, profit, or damage. 
apr*rilPmPtlf (^•"kroo-ment) n. addition; in- 
ctCV^l UCixldiL crease: augmentation. 
aPPllHafinn (ak-u-ba-shun) n.[h. ad ^.'nicuhare, 
A\^y.,\X\Ja.\,iKJH. Jig down] a lying or reclining on a 
couch, as practised by the ancients at their meals : 
[Med. J confinement ; accouchement. 
flCPlimhptlf (a-kum-bent) a. [L. accunihere, lie 
av^uuiliuciiu near] leaning or reclining, as the 
ancients did at their meals ; lying against. 
aPPlimnlaff* (a-ku-mu-lat) v.t. [L. ad and 
a.\,^un.iu.icXLK^ cmnxdus, heap] to heap up in a 
mass ; to collect or bring together ;— v.t. to increase by 
successive additions. 

ar>/^iimii1af i rtn (a-ku-mu-laAshun) n. act of 
ctl^CUlilUlctUlUll accumulating, or that which 
is accumulated. 

aPPIimnlafi VP (a-ku-mu-la-tiv) a. causing 
cxuv^uiiiuictLi vc accumulation; cumulative. 
amimnlflfivi^lv (a-ku-mu-la-tiv-U) adv. in 
nv^v^uiiiumi,! v \,i.y an accumulative manner. 
a.PPlimnla.t"Or (?^-kii-mu-la-tur) n. one that 
a,v^v,uiiiuxa,ti..'i accumulates; a contrivance for 
the storage of electric energy. 

SPPliraPV (^k-u-ra-si) n. exactness ; correctness; 
a.\^K,\xi a,\,y precision, resulting from care; exact 
conformity to truth, or to a rule or model. 
SPPIiraf f* (ak-u-rat) a. [L. ad and cura, care] in 
ctl.>V.Uicttc; careful conformity to truth, or to a 
standard ; free from error or defect. 
flPPlirafplv (ak-u-rat-li) adv. in an accurate 
a.\,\^u.i.a.\.^i.\/ rnanner; with precision. 
flPPIiraf PflPQQ (ak - u - rat - nes) n. accuracy; 
ci,\..i«uictLCiic;oo exactness; precision. 
flPClir^P (a-kurs') v.t. [A.S. d and cursian, curse] 
ct\.<v,UJ.oc JQ devote to destruction; to imprecate 
evil or misery upon ; to curse. 

appiirc*»/1 Qr»^iii-cf (a-kur-sed, a-kurst') a. 
dl^CUiacu, clC(.,Ul&t doomed to destruction 

or misery ; worthy of a curse ; detestable ; execrable. 
appiicaKlfi (a-ku-za-bl) a. chargeable; blamable; 
ctV^CU&ciUlC liable to be accused. 
nppiicaf ir»n (ak-ii-za^hun) n. act of accusing; 
ctv^^uodLiUil that of which one is accused. 
JlPPlt^afivf^ (a-ku-za-tiv) a. producing or con- 
ctv^^uoctLivc taining accusations ; of, or belong- 
ing to, the objective case \—n. the accusative case. 
a PPll Qa f i VpI V (a-ku'-za-tiv-li) adv. in an accusa- 
ci.v^\..uoctLivc:iy tive manner; by way of accusa- 
tion ; in relation to the accusative case. 
aPPll^af nrial (a-ku-za-to-ri-al) a. of, or pertain- 
ci,\..«...uociLV/i xai jng to, an acciiser or prosecutor. 
a.CCllSa,torV fe-ku-za-tur-i) a. containing an 

aPPIlQP (a-kuz') v.t. [L. ad and causa, cause] to 
a.v«uuoc charge with a crime, offence, or fault. 

apPll^Pr (?^-ku-zer) n. one that accuses; one that 

"^^"•^^^ brings a charge. 

aPPll<?fnfn (a-kus-tum) v.t. [L. ad and con- 

o.\^\,\x>s\^yj 1.1.1. suescere, accustom] to make familiar 

by use ; to habituate or inure. 

Qr-piicfnmpH (a-kus-tumd) a. often practised; 

cll..<^uatuiiic:u customary ; usual. 

ami«ifnmpHnP<2«J (a - kus - tumd - nes) n. 

cH-UUai,L»lllCUllca5> wontedness; familiarity. 

o pp (as) n. [L. as, unity, unit, pound] a single point 

**^^ on a card or die, or the card or die so marked ; a 

particle; an atom. * - '^■ 

A P p1 H a in a (a-seMa-ma) n. [G. akeldamal a field 

-ti-^^t'^cLiiia. purchased with the bribe which Judas 

took for betraying his Master, and therefore called the 

field of blooci ; any field of blood. 

a PPntriP (a-sen-trlk) a. [G. a and kentron, centre] 

ci^v^iiLi i.\, not central ; away from the centre. 

o/»ck*-vt-iolo« (a-sef-a-lan) n. any mollusc of the 

acepnaian Acephaia. 

A PPnViali (a-sef-a-ll) n. religious sects or political 

rxccpildii parties without a head; levellers in the 

reign of Henry I. of England. 

o oia«-»Vi o 1 < om (a-sef-a-lizm) n. the state of being 

aCepnailSm without a head. 

aPPnViallQf (a-sef-a-list) n. one that acknow- 

ctV,.cpiicliiot ledges no head or superior. 

appniialifp (a-sef-a-Ht) n. one of the Acephali, 

ctccpiiclli UC jn any sense ; one that held nothing 

in fee from a feudal lord. 

ar'<ar»'halrMic (a-sef-a-lus) a. [G. a. and kepkale, 

dccpilctiuua head] without a head— applied 

specifically to animals of the class Acephaia, a class of 

mollusca ; having the style springing from the base, 

instead of the apex, of the ovary ; without a leader or 

chief ; having no distinct beginning. 

a r* ^artVi a 1 1 1 c (a-sef-a-lus) n. tne tape-worm ; a verse 

dCCpxictlUo defective at the beginning. 

aPP r»oinf (as-point) n. that side of a die which 

dCC"pyillL has but one spot; the single spot on 

a card or die. 

A ppt* (^-s?r) n. [L., maple-tree] the generic name of 

r\CCi the "maple. 

A ppra (as^-ra) n. [G. a and keras, horn] a group of 

n.CCl d apterous insects without antennae ; a group 

of gasteropodous molluscs without tentacles. 

•s/^iat-^/»*iAMio (a-se-ra^shus) a. resembling the 

dCCldUCUUS maple. 

appran (as'-e-ran) n. one of the Acera, in either 

dCCl dll sense of the word. 

aPPrH (a-serb') a. [L. acerbus] sour, with a rough 

dv^Cl U and astringent taste. 

a P P rH a f P (a-ser-bat, as^r-bat) v. t. to make bitter ; 

dl..Cl UdLC to exasperate ;— a. embittered ; severe ; 


acerbitude ifetlfaSy" """"^= ''""■ 

op'^fV-vifTT (a-s§r-bi-ti) n. sourness of taste, with 
duCXUlLjr bitterness and astringency — hence 
bitterness, or severity— applied to persons or things. 
an(^r\r (a-ser-ik) a. [L. acer, maple-tree] pertaining 
dv^Cl H- to, or obtained from, the maple. 
apprrkCP aPPrmiQ (as^-ros, -rus) a. chaffy 
aCerObe, dCerOUb [l acus, aceris, chaff] ; 
[Bot.] needle-shaped [L. acus, needle]. 
appknrafp (a-ser-vat) a. [L. acervu^, heap] heaped 
«*'-Cl VdUC up . [Bot.] growing in heaps or in 
compact clusters. ^ 

acesence, acesency n. state of 'turning 

or being sour ; a tendency to turn sour. 
Qp«ac/><anf (a-ses^nt) a. [L. acescere, turn sour] 
dCCoCCllU turning sour; readily becoming tart or 
acid ; slightly sour. . . 

Q r'fif a hi 1 1 1 1 m (as-e-tab^u-lum) n. [L.l a cavity in 
di^CLdi^uiuiii a bone to receive the head of 
another bone; a glandular substance found in the 
placenta of some animals; one of the suckers in the 
arms of a cuttle-fish. 

o/»ckf ofirkiie (as-e-ta-rius) a. suitable for salads, 
dCCLdl lUUs as lettuce, etc. 
a^«afQi*i7- (as-e-ta-ri) n. [L. acetum, sour wine, 
dCCLdiy vinegar] an acid, pulpy substance found 
in certain fruits, as the pear. 

appfafp (as^-tat) n. a salt formed by acetic acid 
dCCUdLC iinitfid to a base. 

Fate, far, g,do ; me, h§r ; mine ; n5te ; tvine ; m66n. 


arpfatpd (3'S^-*^'*'6d) a. combined with acetic 

nf*fx^\r* (a-set^ik, ai-se-tik) a. [L. acetum, vinegar] 

dec Lie relating to acetic acid; sour. Acetic acid, 

the acid of vinegar. 

ar'^afifirafinn (a-set-i-fi-ka-shun) «. act of 

d.ectiiiv>cttiv^ii making acetous or sour; the 

operation of making vinegar. 

ar<afifTT (a-seti-i-fi) v.t. or i. [L. acetum, vinegar, 

cteCLliy and facere, make] to turn into vinegar. 

acetimeter, acetometer [ertomS 

ter) n. [L. acetum, vinegar, and G. metron, measure] an 
instrument for ascertaming the strength or purity of 
vinegar or other acids. 

ar'f»ftm*afrv (as-e-tim^-tri) n. actor method of 
cteCLllXlCtiy ascertaining the strength or purity 
of vinegar or other acids. 

appf nnP (as^-ton) n. a highly inflammable liquid 
aCCtdiC obtained from acetates. 
aPPfnnafVlV (as-e-top-a-thi) n. [L. acetum, 
ctec LupctLiiy vinegar, and G. pathos, feeling] the 
acetic acid cure. 

nr^^frtcp a/'^afrkiic (as^-tos, -tus, or a-sc-tus) 
cteCLU;ac, ctecuuuo „ having a sour taste ; 
causing acetification. 

»i/»<ifTrl<ari<» (a-set^i-len, as^-ti-len) n. [acetic] a 
dCCLyiCIlC colourless gas, C2H2. 
flpflP ^^^^ ^- 1-^-^- '^^'^^i ^'^^} continued pain ; a dull, 
cteilC heavy pain ; — v.z. to be in pain. 
apVlf*n<^ (a-ken') n. [G. a and chainein, gape] a 
cteilCllC ginall dry carpel, with a single seed, which 
does not open when ripe [Bot.]. 

apllif^vaHlf* (a-che-va-bl) a. capable of being 
ctv^iiicvctuic achieved or performed. 
apflipvf* (a-chev") v.t. [O.F. achever, It. L. ad 
av^ixicvc caput, to a head] to carry on to a final 
close ; to bring out into a perfected state ; to accomplish. 
a p1i i f»Vf»m Pn f (a-chev-ment) n. act of periorm- 
aUiiiCVCiiiCiiL i,jg. accomplishment; a great 
or heroic deed ; an escutcheon or ensign armorial. 
apVlipVPr (a-che-ver) n. one that achieves or 
ctuiiic; V ci accomplishes. 

A/'lnillic fpnHr* (a-kil-is ten^o) n. the great 
rVCnililb tenaO tendon of the heel, where 
alone Achilles was vulnerable. 

flpllirifp (ak^i-rlt) n. [Ac/iir Mahmed, the dis- 
ctuxiii ILC coverer] dioptase, a copper ore. 
ar'Vilarmrrliarkiic! (ak-la-mid-e-us) a. [G. a and 
dCllldlliyUCUUb chlamus, mantle] having 
neither calyx nor corolla. 

arVinr (^-l^'"' ak-or) n. [G. achor, dandruff] a 
a,\,i.i\ji. cutaneous disease on the head ; scald-head. 
a P Vl rn m a f i P (ak-ro-mat^ik) a. [G. a and chrama, 
av^iiiuiiictLi^ colour] free from colour; trans- 
mitting light without decomposing it [Opt.]. 
achromaticity g^^^o-ma-tis-i-tD n. achroma- 

or>Virrkmaf icm (a - kro - ma - tizm) n. state or 
dClli UilldLidlli quality of being achromatic. 
anh m m a f i ^ p (a-knV-ma-t iz) r . t. to make achro- 
dUiii Ullldtl^c niatic ; to deprive of colour. 
arhrnmafnnQV (a-kro^ma-top-si) n. [G. a, 
dt^lll UllldLUps>y chroma, colour, and opsis, 
sight] colour-blindness. 

arinila (a-slk'-u-la) n. ; p?. aciculsB (a-sik-u-le) a 
c«,v,iv,uici, slender spine or bristle [Zool. and Bot.]. 
flPIPlllflr (^-sik-u-lar) a. [L.acicula, small needle] 
a,v..iv..uici.i slender, like a needle ; needle-shaped. 
arinilarlfr (a-sik'-u-lar-li) adv. in the manner of 
dClt^Uldliy needles or bristles. 

aciculate, aciculated &ft'^ieedit: 

shaped ; acicular. 

apiPiilifrirm (a-sik-u-li-form) a. [L. acicula, 

dV,l«^ulliUX ill needle, and forma, form] acicular. (^^id) a. [L. acidus, sour] sour; sharp to the 

CI.V.1V1 taste ; having the taste of vinegar •,—n. a sour 

substance ; a salt of hydrogen. 

apj/4ifpj«Qljo (as-i-Sif'-e-rus) a. [L. acidus, sour, 

ci.v..Aviii^x vjuo and/erre, bear] bearing, producing, 

or containing an acid. 

acidifiat)l£ (a-sid-i-fl-a-bl) a. capable of being 

apiHifir'afi/%ri (a-sid-i-fi-kaishun) n. the actor 
dV,lUlll(..dtlUn process of acidifying. 

I acorn 

aPlHifipr (a-sid-i-fl-er) n. a principle whose prea- 

ct«.^iviiiic;i gjice is necessary to produce acidity. 

o piHifv (?^-sid-i-fi) v.t. [L. acidus, sour, and facere, 

dv^iuiiy make] to make acid ; to convert into an acid. 

aPlHimpfpr (as-i-dim^-ter) n. [L. acidus^ sour, 

"''-*^**'**^''^* and G. metron, measure] an mstru- 

ment for ascertaining the strength of acids. 

ar»ir1im<af mr (as-i-dim^-tri) n. measurement of 

dUlUlllICUy the strength of acids. 

a r i H i f V (^-sid-i-ti) n. quality of being acid or sour ; 

ct^iuity sharpness ; sourness. 

apiHnPQ<5 (as-id-nes) n. quahty of being acid or 

ct^^iuiicoo SOUP . sharpness ; sourness. 

aPlHnlafp (a-sid-u-lat) v.t. to make slightly acid ; 

dV^lVlUldLC:; to embitter ; to make cross. 

apir1lllnn<5 (a-sid-u-lus) a. slightly sour ; subacid ; 

"'*'*'^'^*^^^ sourish; caustic; severe. 

a pi fnrm (as^i-form) a. [L. acus, needle, a,nd forma, 

dUllUl 111 shape] needle-shaped. 

o /'i nn r'orki 1 c (as-i-nfi^shus) a. [L. acinus, grape] 

aCmaCeOUb fun of kernels. 

finirt'inifrkrm (as-in-as^i-form) a. [G. akinakes, 

dt^llldV^llUl 111 short, straight sword, and L. 

forma, form] shaped like a scimitarJBot.]. 

a pi n i fnrm (a-sin-i-form) a. [It. acinus, grape, and 

dl.,illiiui 111 fornui, form] clustered like grapes 

[Bot. and Anat.]. 

'i/'inrkc^a a/*inrkiic (as^i-nos, -nus)a. resem- 

aCinOSe, aCinOUb bllngagrapeorabunch 

of grapes ; consisting of granular concretions. 

a pin 11 Q (as^i-nus) n.; pi. acini (as^i-nl) [L. acinus, 

d^lllUo berry] a bunch of berries ; a fruit, hke the 

raspberry or blackberry, that consists of drupelets [Bot.]; 

a racemose gland [Anat.]. 

A pi npn <5Pr (as-i-pen^er) n. [L.] a genus of fishes, 

nv<ipc;iioc:i whose type is the sturgeon. 

aplrnnixrlpHp'P (^ik-nol^j) v.t. [E.] to give a 

"'*'**■**'-' '"'*'^^o^ receipt for; to own, avow, or 

confess a knowledge of ; to recognize as a truth or as 

genuine ; to own or recognize in a particular character ; 

to own with gratitude. 

acknowledgment ?^rc&wTJJg"inf; 

recognition ; confession ; admission ; something given 

or done in return for a favour ; a declaration or avowal 

of one's own act. to give it legal validity. 

apliHp (^k'-hd) n. [L. aclis, small javelin] a spiked 

dUllUC club provided with a thong. 

aplinip 0>-kiin-ik) a. [G. a &iia klinein, incline] 

dCllllll^ without inclination— said of the magnetic 

equator, on which the magnetic needle is exactly 

horizontal, and has no dip. 

apmp (ak'-ine) n. FG.] the height, top, or highest 

d^iiic point of a thing ; [Med.Tcrisis. 

a Ptl P (^k-ne) n. [G. akme] a liard, red, inflamed 

d^iic pimple; a skin disease marked by the presence 

of such pimples. 

a Pn P^f i <s (ak-nes-tis) n. [G. a and knaein, scratch] 

ctv,iic;ocio that part of the spine, extending from 

between the shoulder-blades to tne loins, which an 

animal cannot scratch. 

aPo1oP*V (?^-koM-ji) n. [G. akos, remedy, and 

a,\,\ji\J^y logos, discourse] the doctrine of remedies. 

acolothist, acolyth ai^s^Jilcof^: 

a Pnl vfp (^^-lit) ^- [Gr- akolouthos] a companion ; 
ctuuijr LC an associate ; [Astr.] a satellite. 

acondylose, acondylous 118,^1118^: 

[G. a and kondulos, knuckle] jointless [Bot.]. 
a/Tknifo (ak^-n!t) n. [G. akoniton] wolfs-bane or 
dCUllltC monk's-hood. 

aPOnifip (ak-o-nit-ik) a. of or pertaining to, or 
ct\.^v./iiii.iv« derived from, aconite. 

aconitin, aconitine [i^ts^nou'SubsuncI 

obtained from aconite. 

A pr»n f i n c (a-kon-ti-as) n. [G. akon, dart] a genus 

.n.L,uiitida of lizards. ^ 

a.POnip (^-kop^ik) a. [G. a and 
a.\,vj^i.v., kopos, weariness] remov- 
ing weariness [Med.]. 

oporn (a-korn) n. [A. S. acem. Acorn 

acorn f^jit] the seed or fruit of ^'^"'■ 

the oak; a small piece of wood fixed on a masthead 
above the vane, to keep it from being blown away. 

Fate, f&r, ado ; me, her ; mine ; note ; tune ; moon. 




tv * Isi.f'^, Acom-cup, the hardened involucre covering the base of 
an acorn. 

ar*r»mpH (^kornd) a. furnished or loaded with 
cLCUi llCU acorns ; fed on acorns; [Her.] said of an 
oak shown in a coat of arms as loaded with acorns. 
A p^fll^ (ak^-rus) n. [G. akoros] a genus of plants 
■*^^'^* "^^ containing the sweet flag. 
jj prkf Tzl pH on (a-kot-i-le^un) n. [G. a and kotule- 
ctL.ULyiCUUli dQrjfi^ cup-shaped cavity] a plant 
in which the seed-lobes, or cotyledons, are not present. 
or^z-kfTrldi^rkt-irkiie (a-kot-i-le-du-nus) a. without 
aCOtyieUOnOUb cotyledons. 
a Pmi m pf pi* (^-kou-me-ter) n. [G. akouein, hear, 
ctCUUliiCLCX and metron, measure] an instru- 
ment for measuring the power of hearing. 
arTillcjf ir* (a-kous-tik) a. pertaining to the ears, 
O'^*''*^*'*^ to the sense of hearing, or to the science 
of sounds. Acoustic duct, the external passage of the 
ear. Acoustic nerve, the auditory nerve. 
nrrni^f ir*ian (a-kous-tish-an) n. one skilled in, 
ctCUUoLlCXctll or a student of, acoustics. 
apnilQfirQ fe-kous^tiks) n. the science of sound, 
dCULlotlv^o teaching its nature, phenomena, etc. 
arriliainf (a-kwanf) v.t. [L. ad and cognitus, 
(X\^K^UcX,lllK, known] to make fully or intimately 
known ; to make familiar. 

ar*niiain fa n PP (a-kwan-tans) n. state of being 
clC^Ua.lllUctliv..c; acquainted, or of having more 
than slight or superficial knowledge ; familiar knowledge ; 
a person or persons known to, but not on very intimate 
terms with, one. 

acquaintanceship SL'"l£K"ting 

acquainted, or of having acquaintance. 
a r"n 11 P«f (a-kwesf) n. [acquire] an acquisition; 
"<v,m*CoL [Law] property acquired otherwise than 
by inheritance. 

ar*niiipQPP (ak-wi-es') v.z. [L. ad and quies, rest] 
dC^UXCoCC to rest satisfied, or apparently satis- 
fied ; to concur upon conviction. 

acquiescence, acquiescency 

(ak-wi es^ns, -en-si) n. a silent assent or submission, 

with apparent compliance. 

'sr'niii^ao^orif (ak-wi-es^nt) a. submitting; dis- 

auquicaucilt posed to submit. 

aPflllipQPPflflv (ak-wi-es-ent-li) adv. in an 

cll,«^uicai.>dll.ljr acquiescent manner. 

QoniiiraKilifTT- (a-kwlr-a-bil-i-ti) n. the quality 

aCqUiraDlllty of being acquirable. 

Q^niiiraKlo (a-kwlr^-bl) a. capable of being 

ciC4UllclUlC acquired. 

a f n n i rP (a-kwlr') v. t. [L. <m? and quaerere, seek] to 

"•'-H'^ ^ gain, usually by one's own labour or 

exertions ; to take on. 

apnnirpmpnf (a-kwir-ment) n. the act of 

**^n"**^***^**^ acquiring, or that which is 

acquired ; attainment. 

apnillQifion (ak-wi-zish-un) n. act of acquiring ; 

dV^^UioitiUiX the thing acquired or gained. 

acnni^ifivP (?i"kwiz-i-tiv) a. capable of making, 

du^uioiuivc; disposed to make, acquisitions. 

arriiiictfi'tT'PnPCC (a-kwiz-i-tiv-nes) n. state or 

ct,<..4UiaiLlvc:xiCsa quality of being acquisitive; 

the organ supposed to give rise to this desire. 

apnnif (a-kwif) v.t. [L. ad and quietus, quiet] to 

ctV^^UiL gg(; free; to release or discbarge, esp. 

from an accusation, guilt, suspicion, or whatever lies 

upon a person as a charge or duty ; to conduct one's 

self ; to clear one's self. 

a r^nii ifm pnf (a-kwit^ment) n. act of acquitting ; 

ctV,4UltlllClit state of being acquitted ; acquittal. 

aPfllliffal (^-twit^al) n. a judicial discharge; 

ci^^UiLtcll performance of a duty; discharge of 

an obligation or debt. 

apniliffatlPP (a-kwit-ans) n. the act of dis- 

a.v..4UXi,Lctii«.^c: charging from a debt, or other 

obUgation ; a writing in evidence of a discharge ; a 

receipt in full. 

n nm ctr (ak'-ra-si) n. [G. akrasia, excess] want of 

ciL,XciSsy control. 


(aAker) n. [A.S. cecer] a piece of land containing 

160 square rods or perches, or 4840 square yards, 
or 43,560 souare feet. God's acre, the churchyard. 
aprpanlp (a^ker-^-bl) a. belonging to an acre or 
eiv^x cctuxc: ggfes ; according to the acre. 

opfPaiyp (S^ker-aj) n. extent of a piece of land 

ctv..x c:ctgc. measured in acres. 

aprpH (a^kerd) a. possessing acres ; having landed 

ctv,x cia property. 

arriH (^k-rid) a. [L. acer, sharp, sour] of a biting 

ctv^x x\J. taste ; sharp ; pungent ; harsh. 

ranri/^inn (a-krid-i-an) n. [G. akris, locust] one of 

etl-X XUXdXX the locust family. 

a pri H i f V (a-krid-i-ti) n. the state or quality of being 

ci,v..xxuxuy acrid ; acridness. 

opfiflftpcc (ak-rid-nes) n. the quality of being 

dv^x xvxxxcoo acrid, sharp, or pungent. 

aprimntlinil^ (ak-ri-mo^nl-us) a. abounding 

dCX xxxxuxxxuuo ^jti^ acrimony ; sarcastic. 

aprimrkni/MiclTr (ak-ri-mo-ni-us-li) adr. in an 

dl-X xixxuxxxuuaxy acrimonious manner. 

acrimoniousness ffiliS't^cilly of 

being acrimonious ; sharpness ; bitterness. 

aprimoflV (ak^ri-mun-i) n. [L. acrimonia fr. 

dUX xxxxuxxy acer, sharp] sharpness or severity, as 

of language or temper. 

apricia (a-kris-i-a) n. [G. a and krinein, judge] 

dL,x XOXd doubtful state of a disease [Med.J. 

opficTT (ak^ri-si) n. acrisia; want of judgment; 

**^* xoy inj.udiciousness. 

Aprifa (ak-rl-ta) animals without a distinct 

X^^XXUd nervous system. 

rknf\^\nr\\ (a-krit^i-kal) a. without, or not indicat- 

dL.X XUX«^dX ing_ a crisis [Med.]. 

aprifnpVirnmaPV (ak-ri-to-kro-ma-si) n. [G. 

dL-riLOLlxrOllXdCy „_ krinein, judge, and 

chroma, colour] colour-blindness. 

op4*if||y4|3 (ak-ri-tud) n. [L. ax:ritudo\ an acrid 

dUXXtUViC quality; biting heat; acrimony. 

acroamatic, acroamatical ^^^afil; 

-i-kal)a. [G.] abstruse ; pertaining to the esoteric doctrines 
of Aristotle, given orally to his disciples. 
aprnafip (ak-ro-at-ik) a. [G. akroatikos, fr. akro- 
dCXUdUXV.. (j^gg^ hearer] acroamatic. 
aprnHaf (ak-ro-bat) n. [G. akros, on high, and 
dUXUUdL lainein, go] one that practises high 
vaulting, tumbling, anQ_ other gymnastic feats. 
opj-z-vKafip (ak-ro-bat-ik) a. belonging to an 

ar'rr»r'<af\ViQlip (ak-ro-se-fal-ik) a. [G. aA;ros, at 
dCX UCCpxXdXXt.. the top, and kephale, head] 
having a pyramidal skull [Ethn.]. 
aprncrpn (ak-ro-jen) n. [G. akros, extreme, and 
dl,x u^cxx root gen, produce] a plant of the highest 
tribe of Cryptogams, including the ferns, etc. 
o^t-/-kcr<irirMTCs (a-kroj-e-nus) a. increasing in 
dCX Ug CllU ua growth at the summit. 
aprr»D*rar»lT\7' (a-krog'-ra-fi) n. [G. akros, at the 
dUX Ug X txyjiiy top, 'S.nd graphem, write] a process 
for producing designs in relief on metal or stone. 
opfj-vlf fj-i (ak-ro-lith) n. [G. lithos, stone] a statue 
dCX yjil UXX -(vhose extremities alone are of stone. 

acrolithan, acrolithic ^SliSS) 

a. formed like an acrolith. 

'%r'rf\]r\0'\T (a-krol-6-ji) n. [G. logos, discourse] the 
dCX UXUgy alphabetical representation of the first 
part, letter, or syllable of the name of an object, by a 
picture of the object. 

acromonogrammatic S2K."?;! t 

[G. akros, at the end, monos, alone, and gramma, letter] 

a kind of poem where every verse begins with the same 

letter as the preceding verse ends with. 

a prr»nT7-pVi a 1 (a-kron-i-kal) a. [G. akros, extreme, 

dUXUXXy CXXdX and nux, nuktos, night] taking 

place at night [Astr.]. 

aprnmrpVialtir (a-kron-i-kal-i) adv. m an 

dL.X uxxy i^xxdxxy acronychal manner. 

nr>*-nnr\\icf (a-krop^-lis) n. a citadel, esp. the 

aCropOilb citadel of Athens. 

_ -,^--..5,-^:^1^ (ak-ro-spir) n. [G. akros and speira, 

dCX LlajJXX c spire] a sprout at the end of a seed. 

a prr»cr»i rt^t^ (ak-ro-spird) a. having, or exhibiting, 

dux uapxx CU an acrospire. 

nt^rf\<sfs (a-kros') adv. and prep, from side to side, 

dCX Uoo or in a direction opposed to the length of. 

aprr»cfip (a-kros-tik) n. [G. akros, extreme, and 

dCX Uo LXl^ stichos, order, line, verse] a composition, 

Fate, far, ^do ; me, her ; mine ; note ; tune ; moon. 




usually in verse, in which the first letters of the lines, 

read collectively, form a name or sentence ;— «. relating 

to or containing an acrostic. 

n /^♦•/^o f i o o 1 1 TT (a-kros-ti-kal-i) adv. in the manner 

aCrObtlCeiliy ^f an acrostic. 

a^rr»f *>1<aiifi/> (ak-ro-te-lu-tik) n. [G. teleute, 

dUlULCJicutiv. euj] anything added to the end 

of a psalm or hymn, as a doxology. 

acroter, acroterium JtuSI'la Sf: 

tef-ian] a pedestal or a pediment for the support of a 

statue or other ornament [Arch.]. 

ar^rrkf *»rial (ak-ro-te-ri-al) a. pertaining to an 

eH-i U LCI let! acroterium. 

arrnfhvminn (ak-ro-thim-i-on) n. [G. akros. 

ciCl ULlxy llllUll at the top, and thumos, thyme) 

a kind of wart, with a narrow base and a broad top. 

Q p rof i C (^'-'^ot^ik) a. [G. akros, extreme] pertaining 

ciL.1 wtii^ to the surface ; exterior [Jled.]. 

23 Prnfi «?m (ak-r6-tizm)n. [G. a and krotos, beating] 

a.\,i.\jv,ii3iii absence or weakness of pulse. 

flPrnfnmnilQ (a-krot^-mus) a. [G. akros, ex- 

a.\^L \j \,\jiii\j no treme, and twne, a cutting] having 

a cleavage parallel to the top [Min.]. 

np4. (akt) v.t. [L. agere, pp. actus, do] to perform, 

^'^*' esp. upon the stage; to assume the office or 

character of ; — v.i. to exert energy or force ; to operate ; to 

perform, as an actor ; to behave or conduct, as in morals, 

private duties, or public oflBces ; — n. that which is 

d(Hie or doing ; performance ; deed ; a decree, edict, law, 

judgment ; a book, record, or writing, containing laws 

and determinations ; one of the larger or principal 

divisions of a play; a thesis publicly maintained by a 

candidate for a degree. To act on, to act according to. 

To act up to, to equal in action. 

a pf o (ak-ta) acts ; [Law] proceedings, or records 

€».\^\,a. Qf proceedings, in courts. 

ap4-j»K1ck (ak-ta-bl) a. practically possible; capable 

avkau/i^ of bemg performed. 

act"ina.l ('^^^-'i-nal) a. [G. akUs, aktinos, ray] per- 

av^Liiicxi taining to the oral surface of a radiate 

animal ; having tentacles or rays. 

artinP" (^^-tlug) a. perfonning duty; doing tem- 

""^^ o porary duty ; performing dramatically ;— «. 

action j dramatic performance. 

Apfinia (ak-tin-i-^) n. [G. aJdis, aktinos, ray] a 

x^v^Liiixo. genus of radiate polypes. 

arttniP (ak-tin-ik) o. perlainmg to actinism; per- 

Gi,v>i,iii^v. taining to the chemical rays of the sun. 

arf inifnrm (ak-tin-i-form) a. [G. aA-^ts, ray, and 

ct^tlllilUllil I forma, form] having a radiated 

form ; ^resembling one of tlie Actinia. 

ar*finicim (ak-ti-nizm) n. the radiation of light or 

c»v,i.tiiioixx heat; a property in the solar rays that 

produces chemical changes, as in photography. 

actinoeraoh (^k-tln^-graf) n. [G. aktis, 

^o* •*f'** aktinos, ray, &nAgraphein,vx'\iG] 
an instrument for measuring and registering the varia- 
tions in the chemical influence of the sun's rays. 
Prfinr»litp» (ak-tin^-Ht) n. [G. lUhos, stone] the 
a,v,Lxiiv/xii,^ ray-stone, a variety of ampliibole. 
arf innlif if* (ak-ti-no-lit-ik) a. pertaimng to, com- 
ctULUlUiltlC posed of, or Hke, actinolite. 
arf inolncrv (ak-ti-nol-o-ji) n. [G. aktis, aktinos, 
cfcv, Liiiv/iv^g jr pay, and loijos, discourse] that branch 
of science concerned with the chemical action of light. 
flpf inr»mf»f *»r (ak-ti-nom^-ter) ?i. [G. metron,a, 
ci,v,ciiiv^iix^i,c:i measure] an instrument for 
measuring the intensity of the sun's actinic rays. 
action (ak-shun) n. exertion of power or force; 
J ^ ^ motion produced; agency; an act or thing 
done ; a deed ; conduct : behaviour ; demeanour ; gesture 
or gesticulation ; a legal suit or process ; an engagement 
between troops in war ; the main subject of a work of 
fiction; [Phys.] the performance of a function. 
flptionaHiA (ak^hun-a-bl) a. affording ground 
a,v.Liv^iict,uic for an action at law. 
apfinnaKl^r (ak^hun-a-bli) adv. so as to afford 
ctv^LiUAidUiy ground for an action at law. 
activP (ak'-tiv) a. having the power or quality of 

^ acting; communicating action or motion ; 
constantly engaged in action, hence, energetic, diUgent, 
busy ; producing real effects ; [Gram.] expressing the 
transition or passing of an action from an agent to an 
object. Active list, the list of officers in the army and 
navy liable to be called upon for active service. 

actively SSJ^"^- 

adv. in an active manner; 
^. , , in an active sense, 
(ar-tiv-nes) n. the quaUty of being 
active ; nimbleness ; activity. 

af'fivifv (ak-feV-i-ti) n. the quaUty of being active; 

**^ LI V 1 ty nimbleuess ; agih^. 

opf/^ii (ak^tun)/t.[O.F.acofoft,fr.A. aZ,the,andgw<ii», 

ctv- \.KJil cotton] a quilted tunic worn under armour. 

opf-f-vf (ak-tur) n. one that acts ; one that represents 

ct\- LUl characters on the stage ; au advocate or proctor 

in civil causes ; a plaintiff. 

a ptr<acc (ak-tres) n. a female actor or performer; a 

ctv^Licaa female stage-player. 

3p4-||o1 (ak-tu-al) a. [L. uctualis] existing in act; 

ct^LUdl existing at the present time ; present. 

arfiialicf (ak-tu-^l-ist) n. one that deals with 

cxutudixoi, reahties— not an idealist. 

ar^f iialif-tr (ak-tu-al-i-ti) n. the state of being 

dV^LUailty actual; existence. 

a r^f 11 a 1 i 7a f irkfi (ak-tu-al-i-za-shun) a. a making 

dULUdll^dUUll actual; realization. 

3.Ptlia1i7^ (ak-tfi-al-iz) v.t. to make actual; to 

ci.(.>LUdii^c: describe in a vivid manner. 

actliallv (ak-tu-al-i) adv. in act or fact; really; 

dv^tudiijr truly; bjr active manifestation. 

flCtliarv (ak-tu-a-ri) n. a registrar or clerk; a 

dv^tudiy person skilled in intricate calculationa, 

esp. such as deal with the expectancy of life. 

a r*f 11 a f Pk (ak'-tu-at) v.t. to put mto action ; to move tt ^ 

dV^LUdLC or incite to action. _ "wy^**^ 

apfiiafirtn (ak-tu-a^hun) n. the state of being 

d^LUdLXUii actuated; effectual operation. 

ar*iiifir»n (ak-u-ish-un) n. [L. aouere, sharpen] 

di..ulLlull the act of sharpening. 

acillpatf* (ai-ku-le-at)a. [L. acit/euSjpricklel having 

dv, u 1 c d LC prickles, or sharp points [Bot. and Zool.l. 

aClllfafpH (^-ku-le-a-ted) a. furnished with 

d^uxcdLCU prickles; pointed; sharp; incisive. 

anilf»iic (a-ku-le-us) n.: pi. aculei (a-ku-le-i) [L.] 

di..uicua a sting ; a prickle. 

acnmf n (^-ku-men) n. [L.] quickness of percep- 

av^UiiiCii tjQQ or discernment. 

acuminate, acuminated ^htS' ""1' 

tapering to a point [Bot.] ; pointc ; acute. 
ar'iiminaf irkn (a-Ku-mi-oa^hun) n. a sharpen- 
dv^uiiiiiidticrii ing. termination in a sharp 
point ; a sharp, tapering point. 

op|i|-\|-pcciit*p (aK - u - presh - ur) n. [L. acus, 
"■''"r'*^*''^"*^ needle, and pressura, pressure] 
a method of stopping bleeding from arteries by means ol 
needles or wires [Surg.]. 

acupuncturation i^'^aTun^?:^'""^ 

apnniinr'f 111**» (ak-u-pungk'-tur) n. the intro- 
av. up u 11^., L ui c (luction of needles into the living 
tissues for remedial purposes [Surg.l 
a pijf p (gi-kut) a. [L. acutus, snarp] sharp at the end; 
•* _"^^ pointed; naving nice discernment; pene- 
trating ; shrewd ; sharp ; piercing ; high in pitch ; shrill ; 
[Med. Jattended with symptoms of some degree of severity, 
and coming speedily to a crisis ; distinguished fronc. 
subacute and chronic ; [Math.] less than a right angle. 
am f P-a n cr\ t^A (a-kut^ng-gld) a. having sharp 
dCULC-dHglCU or acute angles. 
anitp'lv (a-kut-li) odi'. sharply ; shrewdly; keenly; 
c*v, u cv^ijr ^jth nice discernment. 

apilf fnf^QC (a-kut^nes) n. the state or quality of 
1XK, u LCiicoa ijgjjjg acute. 

apnf ifnliaf *» (a-ku-ti-fo^li-at) a. [L. acutus, 
dv^u LiiUiidtC siiarp, axalfoliatus, leaved] having 
sharp-pointed leaves [Bot.]. 

adlfilnKaf*a (a-ku-ti-lo^bSt)a. [L. a<n*<iis, sharp, 
dCUUlOUdte and KL. lohatus, lobate] having 
acute lobes— said of leaves [Bot.]. 

acvannhlf^nciV (a-sl-a-no-blep^i) n. [G.a, kua- 
dCydnOOiepby no8, a dark-blue substance, and 
blepein, look] inability to distinguish the colour blue. 
a rvr lie (a-sik-lik, a-si-klik) a. [G. a and kuklikos, 
a,v,jf v-iiv, circular] not arranged m whorls [Bot.]. 

adactyl, adactyle, adactylus 

(a-dak'-til, -ti-lus) a. [G. a and daktulos, digit] without 
fingers or toes [Zool.]. 

adae'P (ad^j) n. [L. adagivm] a saying that has 
o ^ obtained credit by long use ; a proverix 

Fate, f^r, ado ; me, her ; ailne ; note ; tiine ; moon. 

adagial 12 

•jflop'tal (a-daiji-al) a. pertaining to or containing 
aucig idi an adage ; proverbial. 
afiap"in (^■'da^jo) adv. [it.] slowly; gi-acefully; 
cxucxg Lyj leisurely ;— a. slow ; graceful \—n. a piece of 
music in adagio time. 

a.f1 a.m a fl f (^d-^'-ma'rit) n. [G. ada/mas, adamantos] 
ci.uci.xiici.iii, a stone of impenetrable hardness; the 
diamond ; the loadstone ;— a. adamantine ; unfeeling. 
ilHamatrfin*^ (ad-a-man-tin) a. made of, or 
yctuctiiictii Liiic having the qualities of, adamant ; 
iimpenetrable. Adamantine spar, corundum. 
AHatnip (a-dam-ik) a. pertaining to Adam; naked. 
x^uctiiiiL, Adam's apple, a species of citron ; the 
projection formed by the thyroid cartilage in the neck. 
Adam's earth, red clay. Adam's needle, the genus 
Yucca. Adam's wine, Adam's ale, water. 
A H fl m iff* (ad-a-mit) n. one of the human race ; a 
xiUdlllltC member of a sect that laid claim to 
primitive innocence, and went naked. It arose in North 
Africa in the second century. 

AHan^ntlia (ad-an-so^ni-a) n. [Michel Adanson] 
■"•'^•***^'-'***** a genus of trees containing the 


African calabash-tree. 

o r|nr>f (^-dapf) v.f, [L. ad and aptare, fit] to make 

fit or suitable ; to make to correspond. 

(a-dap-ta-bil-i-ti) n. nuality of 
being adaptable ; suitableness- 
aHanfaHlf^ (a-dap-ta-bl) a. capable of being 
ctuctptctuic adapted; susceptible of adaptation. 

oHarvf oKlot-Kacc (a-dap^ta-bl-nes) n.' adapta 
ciUcipLctUlCllC&S) bilitv; fitness to be adapted. 
a r1 a rvf a f i r»n (ad-ap-ta^shun) n. the act of adapt- 
dUctpLdUlUll ing or fitting ; the state of being 

adapted or fitted ; fitness ; that which is adapted. 
aHarvf «aHri*ioo (a-dap-ted-nes) n. the state of 
clUctpLCUllCS>S> being adapted; suitability ; fit- 
ness ; suitableness. 

aHanfpr (?i-dap-ter) «. one that adapts; [Chem.] 
ctuctp LCI a, vessel with two necks, placed between 
a retort and a receiver. 

AHflr (aidar)«. [H.] the sixth month of the Jewish 
x^Ucti ejyji ajjd the twelfth of the ecclesiastical year. 
PfloTTc (a-daz') adv. on, or in, the day or time, as 
iX\i€Xy o jjj ^i^Q phrase nowadays. 
^AA (ad) v.t. [L. addere] to join or unite so as to form 
ctuu. Que sum or aggregate. 

addability, addibility SiJiLlSS^^i 

the quality of being addal)le. 

addable, addible a^lSaffi'^-*=''^p^^^^ 

aHHf^pimaf o (a-des-i-mat) v.t. [h. addcctmare, 
clUUCCllllclLe take the tenth] to tithe. 
ar1r1«anrliim (a-den^um) n. ; pi. addenda (a-den- 
ctUUCIlUUlll da) [L.] a thing to be added; an 
appendix to a work. 

addf*r (^'l-?'') *'■• [M.E. addere, naddere, etc., fr. 
a.vauc;i ^ g ncedre. snake] a venomous serpent ; a 
viper. Adder-bead, adder-gem, the adder-stone. Adder- 
bolt, adder-fly, the dragon fly. Adder-pike, the lesser 
weaver or sting-fish. Adder's-fem, the common polypody. 
Adder-stone, a rounded, iierf orated stone, supposed 
to cure adder bites. Adder's-tongue, the fern Ophio- 
glossum vulgatum. Adder's-wort, snakeweed. 
flHHipf (^"diitt') v.t. [L. addicere, pp. add ictus, 
•**^^^^ ^ deliver over] to apply habitually ; to devote ; 
to accustom ; to habituate. 

flHHipfpH (a-dik'-ted) a. devoted; habituated; 
a,vi vixv. cc VI .yvholly given over to. 

addictedness t^^StS^::^i^T^ '' 

additinn (^^-dlsh-un)??,. the act of adding; anything 
ci.viuii.i«^ii added; increase; the branch of arith- 
metic that treats of adding numbers ; a title or designation 
added to a man's name, to show his rank, etc. ; [Mus.] a 
dot at the right side of a note to indicate that its sound 
is to be lengthened one-half ; [Her.] anything added to a 
coat of ^arms as a mark of honour. 
aHHifirtnal (a-dish-un-al) a. added ; supplement- 
dUUlLlUHcll ary ;-n. an addition. 

additionally i^Sn.""-^'*^ '^''- ^^ ^^^ °* 

flHHitivP (ad-i-tiv) be added ; of the nature of 
cvuvii ui V v^ an addition ; helping to increase. 
flHHlf i'^^-^) «• [-A-.S. adela, mud] having lost the 
*''^^*'^ power of development by becoming diseased ; 

putrid ; corrupt ; unfruitful or barren ; — v.t. to make 
corrupt ; to confuse. Addle-brained, addle-headed, 
addle-pated, stupid, muddled. Addle-plot, a marplot. 
nAAnroic^A (a-dorsf) a. [L. ad and dorsum, back] 
dUUUl £»CU placed back to back [Her.]. 
fl H H rP^^ (a-ures') v.t. [F. adresser^ to direct words 
'*'^'^^ coo Qp discourse to ; to direct in writing, as a 
letter ; to apply (one's self); to court ;—/i. a formal appUca- 
tion, speecii, petition, or the like ; manner of speaking 
to another ; attention in the way of courtship ; skill ; 
dexterity ; direction of a letter, or the title and place of 
residence of the person addressed. 
sHHrP^^PP (a-dres-e') n. one addressed; one to 
**'^*-^* coocc ivhom anything is addressed. 
flHHllPP (,a-dus') v.t. [L. ad and ducere, lead] to ..... 
avivi ucc bring forward by way of proof ; to quote. '< Co-- 
arlHiir'^anf (a-du- sent) a. bringing or drawing to 
dUUUCCiiL a certain point [Anat.]. 

adducible SidJJed.'' ' ''^^ "'' '''^^^^' °^ ^"'"^ 

a.H d 11 Pf ion (a-duk^hun) n. the act of drawing 

C1.UU. uc Liv^ii together or bringing forward. 

A H H 1 1 r^C\T (a-duV-tur) n. a muscle that draws one 

aviuucLV^i part of the body towards another. 

arlpiK (ad-eb) n. [A.] an Egyptian weight equal to 

dUCU 210okes. 

sHflonnHp (a-de-lo-pod) n. [G. adelos, not visible, 

cLVici^pi^uc and pous, podos, foot] an animal 

whose feet are inconspicuous. 

rjHi^lnVimiQ (a-del-fus) a. [G. adelphos, brother] 

ci,uci|^iiu»uo having the stamens in bundles [Bot.]. 

n Hi^mnf ir»n (a-dem-shun) n. [L.] a taking away; 

ciuciiipLiuii [Law] the revocation of a grant. 

fl H Pn P 1 P"i a (ad-en-al-ji-a) n. [G. aden, gland, and 

duciictigicL algos, pain] pain in a gland [Path.]. 

aHf^flHrifip (a-den-drit^ik) a. [G.] without proto- 

duciivii luic plasmic processes. 

ad Pn i form (^-den-l-torm) a. [G. aden, gland, and 

duciiiiv^i 111 Ij_ forma, shape] gland-like in form. 

aHptlifi^ (ad-e-ni-tis) w. inflammation of a gland, 

cLUCiiiLio ggp of a lymphatic gland. 

a H P>n ncrra r^fi ^r (ad-en -og-ra-fi) n. [G. aden and 

ctuciiugictpiiy graphein, write] that part of 

anatomy which treats of the glands. 

adenoid, adenoidal ^T^f^'^i 

gland, and eidos, form] glandiform ; glandular. 
ar1*anr»lr»crir'al (ad-e-no-loj-i-kg,l) a. pertaining 
dUCliUlUglUcli toadenology. 
a HpnoloP'V (ad-e-nol-6-ji)n.[G. aden, gland, and 
duciiv^i\^gjr logos, discourse] the doctrine of the 
glands, their nature and uses. 

adenose, adenous Snllt'' """"'^ "' 

aHP'tlofomv (ad-e-not^-mi) «. [(jr. atiew, gland, 

duciiu twill j^ and <ome, cutting] the excision or 

dissection of a gland [Surg, and Anat. J. 

Pflpi-vc (ad-eps) n. [L.] animal fat; lard; [Phar.] 

duc^o tallow ; suet ; prepared fat. . 

a H Pr>f (a-depf) n. [L. adeptus] one well skilled in any // /fir- 

ducpi. art ;— a. well skilled ; completely versed. e.ykw 

nAe^rtM n n^r (ad-e-kwa-si) n. the state or quality of / 

dUCqUdl^y being adequate. 

aHf^miaff* (ad-e-kwat) a. [L. ad and aequus, equal] 

dvicy^udtc equal to; commensurate; suflBcient. 

orl^imiof «ilTT (ad^^-kwat-li) adv. in proportion; 

auequaieiy sufficiently ; fitly. 

arffvi^m (ad^-vizm) n. [G. a, and L. deus, god] 

due V 10111 denial of gods ; Hindu atheism. 

nAff^ni-f^A (ad-fek-ted) a. [affected] containing (as 

dUicCLCU an equation) different powers of an 

unknown quantity [Alg.]. 

arUnPTPk i&d-her') v.i. [L. ad and haerere, stick] to 

dUliCl C gtick fast ; to be attached or devoted. 

adherence, adherency .^en-'S?'^"": 

quality or state of adhering ; steady attachiiient. . ^JT 

a Ah f^r fKni- (ad-her^nt) a. united with or to; ' 
dUiiciclXL sticking ;—?i. one that cleaves to, or 
supports, some other person or a cause. 
adherentlv (ad-her-ent-ll) adv. in an adherent 

aHllf^Qintl (ad-he^zhun) n. the act or state of 
dUiXColUli adhering ; adherence ; concurrence ; 
that which adheres ; the force with which distinct bodies 
adhere when their surfaces are brought into contact. 

Fate, far, ^do ; me, her ; mine ; note ; tune ; moon. 




aHVlPQIVP (ad-he-siv) a. sticky; tenacious; ad- 
aUllColVC hering; gummed; fitted for adiiesion. 

adhesively ?™r"^ '^'- '° "^^ ^''^''"'' 

»ir1Vi<ioiTr<an*aoo (ad-he^iv-ness) n. the quality 
dUllC&l VCllcaa ^f sticking or ailhering. 
aHVliHif (ad-hiWt) v.t. [L. otTand habere, to hold] 
dUlllUlL to use or apply ; to attach. 
aHiaHafip (ad-i-a-bat^ik) a. [G. adiabatos, not to 
dUlctUcttiC be passed through] without gain or 
loss of heat ; said of bodies changing volume. 
aHiapfinip (ad-i-ak-tin-ik) a. [G. a, dia, and 
dUlct^tiili^ aktis, aktinos, ray] impervious to the 
chemical rays of light [Opt.]. 

AHianfiim (ad-i-an-tum) n. [G. adiantos, 
x^uictiiLUiii maidenhair, literally, unwetted] a 
genus of ferns, containing the maidenhair. 

aHiar»Vir»r*acic (ad-i-af-o-re^is) n. [G. a and 
UidpilUl cax& diaphorein to throw off by per- 
spiration] deficiency of perspiration [Path.]. 
a H i a rkVi e\mA i c (ad-i-af^-rus) a. [G.] indifierent ; 
dUldpiIUl UU2> neither right nor wrong; [Med.] 
doing neither good nor harm- 

aHiafVlPrmiP (a-dl-a-ther^mik) a. [G. a, dia, 
cxviicxLii^x iiin,- and therrha, heat] impervious to 
radiant heat. 
adlPU (^"^'^ ) *'^^- ^^•< meaning, "to God"] goo<l-bye ; 

. . farewell : — n. a farewell ; a leave-taking. 
aHinir* (a-dip^ik) a. [L. adeps, adipis, fat] of, or 
duipiv. belonging to, fat ; fatty. 

adipocerate JdiSeS"""^'^"'*" *° ''^'''^^^ '"**" 

nA\r\r\nt^r^\-\r\n (aiJ-i-pos-e-ratshun) n. the act 
dUipUt-CrdtlOn ^f changing, or the state of 
being changed, into adipocere. 

a/4if-)f)pp*-p (ad-i-p6-ser) «. [L. adeps, soft fat, 
. r^^*^* ^ and cera, wax] a soft, waxy substance, 
into which animal matter is changed when buried in 
moist places. Adipocere mineral, a fatty matter found 
in argillaceous iron-ore. 

a Hi nnr* formic (ad-i-pos'e-rus) a. relating to, or 
civiipv^v-ci uuo containing, adipocere. 
aHinnQP (ad-i-pos) a. [N.L. ad«'uost<s] pertaining 
'**^*r"-'^^ to, or consistmg of, animal fat ; fatty ;— 
n. the fat on the kidneys. Adipose tissue, connective 
tissue containing of fat cells. 
aHinnQlfv (ad-i-pos^i-ti) n. fatness; the accumu- 
ctuipuaiLy lation of fat in or upon any organ. 
aHinmiQ (ad-i-pus) a. fat; of tlic nature of fat; 
(xuipuua adipose. 

adipsia, adipsy i^t1liA"f?-a''a 

dip^a, thirst] absence of thirst [aled.]. 
adit (^d-i') ^- rL- adUus, entrance] a horizontal or 
ca,viib inclined entrance into a mine; a drift; passage. 
aHiap^^rmTr (a-Ja'^^"'S') "• the state of being 
cxuj av-cix^^y atijacent ; that which is adjacent. 
adia.PPnf (Ma^ent) «. [L. ad and jacerc, lie] 
nvjj n,\.,v..ii I, lying near, close, or contiguous. 
adiacentlv ^^-i^^nt-li) ^'"^ so as to be ad- 

aHif*pfival (ad-jek-tl-val) a. of the nature of an 
tXKXj c\.< wi V cxi adjective ; belonging to an adjective ; 
having the import of an adjective. 
B adippfivP (ad-jek-tiv) n. [L. adjicere, pp. ad- 
I a.vijcv,nvc jectus, add to] a word used with a 
r noun to limit its application -—a. pertaining to an 
ad j ective. Adj ective colour, in dyeing, one that requires 
to be fixed by a mordant. 
■' aHi«a/»f iTr/alTT (ad-jek-tiv-li) adv. in the manner 
I dUjeCUVeiy of an adjective. 
F S.^ i ni 11 (^'■Jo'n ) ^-^^ W- adjoindre, fr. L. adjungere, 
^'•^ «Jiii join to] to join or unite to ■,—v.i. to be 
contiguous or next ; to be in contact or very near. 
adioiirn (^'-jurn') t;.«. [O.F. «yomej-]toputoflf or 
I a.vijv»i*in defer to another day, or inaefinitely; 
I to suspend the meeting of ;— v. i. to suspend business for 
p a tim^e ; to close the session of a public Dody. 

a H i rti 1 m m <ari f (a-jurn-ment) n. the act of post- 
dUJUUilllllCllL poning or deferring; the in- 
terval during which a public body defers business. 
adiudp"** (^-i^i^v-t- [L. ad and Judtcai-e, judge] 
J "*-^5^ to award or decree judicially or oy 

authority j to sentence ; to condemn 


the judgment given. 

adjudgment (H".J-™e'^t)n. the act of judging; 

Ic'-tiv-li) adv. 

in an ad* 

aHillHipaff^ (a-jooyi-kat) v.t. to try and deter- 
ctuj uuxv^aLc; mme, as a court ; to pronounce 
judgment upon •,—v.i. to sit as a judge. 
aHillHipatinn (a-J66-di-kaAshun) n. act of ad- 
aujuuiv^dLiVFix judicating; a judicial sentence, 
judgment, or decision. 

adjudicator futc^i"''^"^"'^ "• '^'^^ *^** ^^- 

a H i 11 n rf (ad-jungkt) n.[h.adjungere,pp.adjunctus, 
ctvj.juii\..,L to unite] something joined to another 
thing, but not an essential part of it ; an assistant ; [Met.] 
any quality of a thing not pertaining to its essence; 
[Gram.] a word or phrase added to modify the meaning ; 
[Mus.] a relative scale or key ;— «. added to; united with. 
ar1iiinr>firkn (ad-jungk'-shun) n. the act of 
dU.JUllV.tiUll joining; the thing joined. 
a H i 11 n pf i VP (ad-jungk'-tiv) a. having the quality 
ctuj uii(.,Livc; of joinmg;— 71. one who, or that 
which, is joined. 

adiunctivelv (*'i-j"."«k'-'' 

a,u.juiiv.uiv&Ajr junctive ma 

aHiiiri/'f Itt (ad-jungkt^lOadv. in connection with ; 
UJ UllC Uy as an adjunct. 
a H i 1 1 ra f i on (ad-ioo-ra^hun) n. act of adjuring ; 
dUj ui ctuiUii a solemn charging on oath, or under 
penalty of a curse ; the form of oath. 
aHilirP (ad-joor) v.t. [L. ad and jurare, swear] to 
dUj Ul c charge, bind, or entreat, as if under oath, 
or the penalty of a curse. 

o f4 i II cf (a -just) v.t. [L. ad and Justus, just] to make 
""^J •^^*' exact or conformable ; to adapt ; to accom- 
modate ; to reduce to order ; to set right. 

adjustable SijUI'S-.^'^ "• '^p*^'" ^^ ^'""^ 

aHiiicffkr (a-jus^ter) n. a person that adjusts; 
dUJ U a L C i that which ad j usts. 

adjustive 'ii\uft''^ "• *'°'"°*^ °' ^"^^ ^ 

aHill^fmpnf (a-just^ment) n. the act of adjust- 
dUj uoLiilCiil. ing. arrangement; settlement. 

adjutage, ajutage gS/aitiS 

inserted into an aperture through which water passes. 
a rl i 11 f a n r\T (ad-j66-tan-si) n. the 
dUJ U LdllCy office of an adiutant. 
aHillfant (ad-j66-tant) n. [L. ad- 
**HJ ^ *«<*iX l* jutare, ppr. adjutans, 
adjutnntis, aid] an assistant ; an officer 
that assists the superior officers in the 
execution of orders, conducting corre- 
spondence, etc. ; a very large species of 
stork, a native of India. 
aHillvant (ad-joo-vant, ^d-j6di 
dUJ u VctilL vant)a. auxiliary;— n. 
one who, or that which, assists; Med.] 
something added to a prescription to aid the efifect of 
the chief ingredient. 

a H 1 PP*a f ion (ad-le-gu^hun) n. [L. ad and legare, 
ctviiCgctLiuii j.gnd with a commission] the right 
claimed by the individual states of the old German 
Empire of associating their representatives with those of 
the emperor in matters aflfecting the common welfare. 
Q A rn p a c 1 1 rp (ad-raezh-ur) r. <. to take the diraen- 
a.Uiiic;a,oui c gions, size, or capacity of; to 
measure ; [Law] to apportion. 

aHmpaciirpmpnf (^d-mezh-ur-ment) n. act 
ciuiiic;ctoui cixiciiu or process of ascertaining 
the dimensions of anything ; the dimensions ascertained ; 
[Law] the apportionment of shares. 

admeasurer ffi^asu^eT"'^ "' """^ *^*' 
admensuration S^J;r'em'nf'^"°^ " "^* 

oflfi-iif^iplp (ad-min-i-kl) n. [L. adminiculum, 
ctuiiiiiiiv.ic; jjgip support] an auxiliary, 
o A t-n ini/^ii1o«* (ad-mi-niK-u-lar)a.ati°ordinghelp ; 
dUIilllllCUldl helpful; corroborative. 
oflfi-lillicf pr (ad-min-is-ter) v.t. [L. ad and 
**^**'^****"''^* minister, servant] to manage or 
conduct, as public affairs; to dispense, as justice; to 
tender, as an oath ; to settle, as the estate of one that 
dies without a will •,—v.i. to contribute ; to bring aid or 
supplies ; to perform the office of administrator. 
oHminicf #:^ria1 (ad-min-is-te^ri-al) a. pertaining 
dUillllliSLClldl tb administration, or to the 
executive part of government. 


F&te, f&r, 9do ; me, her ; mine ; note ; tune ; moon. 




Q rl m i ti i e^-ro Kl «a (acl-min-is-tra-bl) a. capable of 
auminiijiraDie being administered. 
aHminief mf <a (ad-inin-is-trat) v.t. to adminis- 
ctUUilllX&UdtC ter; to give; to supply. 
oHminioff'if li-kfi (ad-min-is-tra^nun) n. the 
dUllillllS^UclLlUIl act of administering; tlie 
executive part of the government ; dispensation ; dis- 
tribution ; management of the estate of an intestate, or 
of a testator having no competent executor. 
aHminicfraf iTr^a (ad-min-is-tra-tiv) a. per- 
ctUXllllllSLl ctLl vc; taining to administration. 
Q A Yr\ i n i cf t* a f r»r (ad-min-is-tra-tur) n. one that 
ctuliillliatXclLUl administers, or that dhects, 
manages, or dispenses laws and rights. 

administratorship firr£'^^fL',> 


oHminicfraffi-v (ad-min-is-trS^triks) n. a 
ctUiilxlllcsLi ctLl X.X. woman that administers. 
oHmirsHilifv (ad-mi-rsi-bil-i-ti) n. (juality of 
ctviiiiii ctuiiiLjr being admirable ; admirableness. 
a A xx\ \ ra Kl a (ad-mi-ra-bl) a. worthy of admiration; 
dUiilil duic wonderful • very excellent. 
arlmiraKlorxaoo (ad-mi-ra-bl-nes) n. quality 
aamiraDienebb of ^,eiIJg admirable. 

arlmiroKlTT- (ad-mi-ra-bli) adv. in an admirable 
ctUliiUdUiy manner ; excellently. 
pz-ft-fiifal (ad-mi-ral) n. [A. amir, prince] a naval 
duiiiii cti officer of the highest rank (there are tliree 
grades of this rank— admiral, vice-admiral, and rear- 
admiral) ; the ship of an admiral ; [Zool.] a kind of shell- 
fish; [Entom.] a kind of butterfly. Admiral of the 
fleet, a title of distinction corresponding to field-marshal 
in tlie army. The Lord High Admiral used to have 
charge of naval affairs. 

admiralship ffifrl'f ''^'^^ ''• '^^ ''^'^ °^ ^" 

aHmirflltv (^J-mi-r^l-ti) «• the Lords Commis- 
ci.u.iiiJ,ia.XLjr sioners appointed for the manage- 
ment of naval aflFairs ; the building where the lords of 
the admiralty transact business. Admiralty Court, 
the chief court for trying maritime causes. 
a f|jYii|-j3 *•</%« (ad-mi-raishun) n. wonder mingled 
ckvixxxxx ctLxuxx with esteem, love, or veneration. 
•a fl |-|-i i ■j-fi (ad-mir') v.t. [L. waL and mirari, wonder] 
cxvaxxxxx c to regard with wonder mingled with 
approbation, esteem, or affection ; to estimate or prize 
highly ; — v.i. to wonder ; to marvel. 
o f1 mirPr (?^d-mlr'-er) n. one that admires ; one that 
CI.U1XXXX tx payg court to a woman ; a lover. 
af1tT-ii«-i«-ip"lv' (?'d-nilr-ing-li) adv. in an admiring 
ca.vtxxxxxxxxgxjr manner; with admiration. 
aHmiQcliHilifxT- (ad-mis-i-bil-i-ti) n. the quality 
aunilbblUllliy of being admissible. 
aHmicciKlf* (ad-mis^i-bl) a. capable or worthy of 
ctuxxxxaCiXUXC being admitted ; allowable. 
ofljYliQQiHlv (ad-mis-i-bli) aav. in an admissible 
'*'^****"*'*'-'*J' manner; so as to be admitted. 
o/^jYiicciori (^■d-mish-un) n. act of admitting; 
. "**^** power or permission to enter ; access ; 
the granting of an argument ; acknowledgment. 
o f1 ♦-jiiccorv'' (*<i-mis^-ri) a. [L. admittere, pp. ad- 
c4,vixAxioowx y qjiissus, admit] admitting. 
a.dmit (^■d-niit') v.t. [L. ad and mittere, send] to 
cxuxxxxL grant entrance to, whether into a place, or 
into the mind ; to receive as true. 

aHmtffaKI*^ (ad-mit-a-bl) a. capable of being 
aUlIllLiaUie admitted or allowed. 
aHmiffanpf» (ad-mit^ns) n. act of admitting; 
auxxxxLccxxx^^c;; permission to enter; act of giving 
possession of a copyhold estate. 
admi'5C (%d-miks') v.t. to mingle with something 

"■'*• else ; to add to something else. 
Q rl fn i -y f II f/a ( ad - miks - tur) n. a mixing; what 
avxixxxALLXx^ is mixed; a foreign element or in- 

oflmi-vi-iicVi (ad-mon-ish) v.t. [L. ad and monere, 
.,, ^a,nj to reprove gently, or with 

mildness ; to instruct or direct. 

aHmr»ni<afl*ir (ad-mon-ish-er) n. one that ad- 
ctUXXXUXllSMiCl monishes ; a'reprover. 

admoni«5hmf*nf (ad-mon-ish-ment) n. ad- 
ctuxxxuxxxaxxxxxcxXL monition; warning. 

aHmonifinn (ad-mo-nish-un) n. the act of 
ca.uxxxurxxxLXUXX admonishing; gentle or friendly 
reproof or counsel ; advice. 

a »^ jjn Qji jfi yp (ad-mon-i-tiv) a. containing admoni- 

aHmr\nif ifr^alxr (ad-mon-i-tiv-li) adv. by means 
aumonitlVeiy of admonition. 
a Hmrkn if rkr (ad-mon-i-tur) n. one that ad- 
dUXXXUlilLUl iiionishes; a monitor. 
aHmonif r»rv (ad mon-i-tur-i) a. pertaining to 
ciuxxxwxxx \,\ji. y or conveying admonition. 

admortization Sortizatfn.^""^ "' ^'' 

nHnaor-oirif (ad-nas^ent) a. growing to, or on, 
dUlldbCCllL something else [Bot.]. 
aHnaf *i (ad-nat) a. [L. adnasci, pp. adnatus, grow 
duxxdtc: to] grown together [Fhys. and Bot.]. 
a H n nm i n a 1 (ad-nom-i-nal) a. belonging to orqual- 
duxxuxxxxxxdx jfyij,g a noun ; adjectival [(Jtram.]. 
flHnniin (^^d-noun) n. an adjunct to a noun; an 
ctuxxuuxx adjective used as a noun [Gram.]. 
ofli-k (a-doo') n. [Scand. «^ = to, and E. do] bustle; 
***-*'-' trouble ; labour ; difficulty. 


n. [L. adolescere, grow up] the state of growing ; youth ; 
the period of life between childhood ana manhood. 
o rfrklpQPPnf (ad-o-les^nt) a. growing; advancing 
dUUXCov^cxxL to manhood;— n. a person in the 
adolescent state. 

3 H C\\ oH P (ad^-lod) n. [G. a, dolos, deceit, and hodos, 
**^'-'*^'^^ way] an apparatus for detecting fraud in 

AHrttiAan (ad-6-ne^n) a. pertaining to, or con- 
nuuxxcdXX nected with, Adonis. 
A Hon IP (a-don-ik) a. pertaining to Adonis; — n. an 
■*^'^'^***'' Adonic verse sung at the festival of Adonis 
(it consists of a dactyl and a spondee or trochee). 
A r4|-k*i4Q (a-do-nis) n. [Adonis, a youth beloved by 
x^uuxxxo Yenus] a dandy ; [Bot.] a genus of the 
Eanunculacese ; [Entom.] a kind of butterfly. 
flHorit (^'"opt) ^-i- [L. ad and optare, choose] to 
a,\XKJ^JL receive the child of another, and treat it as 
one's own ; to choose or select. 
adontahlp (a-dop-ta-bl) a. capable of being 

of ue 

(iopted ; worthy of ueing adopted 

adoof Pr (^rdop-ter) n. one who, or that which, 

adopts ; [Chem.] an adapter. 

e state of being adopted, 
(a-dop-tiv) a. fitted for adopting; 

adootion ('^-dop^hun) «. the act of adopting, or 

adoptive adopted ; assumed 

•srirkf ^iKilifTT (a-dor-a-bil-i-ti) n. the quality of 

aaOraOlllty being adoraWe. 

orl/ifoKIp (a-dor^a-ul) a. worthy of adoration; 

**'-*•*-'* duxc worthy of great love or admiration. 

QrlrkfoKlorioeo (a-dor'-a-bl-nes) n. the quality 

aaoraOienebb of being adoraWe. 

o r1 r\m KIit- (a-dor'-a-bli) adv. in a manner worthy of 

dUUldUiy adoration. 

of4<-k|*«]f i/^ii (ad-o-r3Ashun) n. worship paid to the 

**'^'-'* dLXV^xx J)ivine Being ; homage paid to one 

in high esteem or in high place. 

flHnrP (?^"dor') v.t. [L. ad and orare, speak, pray, 

'**-^ '-'■'■ ^ fr. OS, oris, mouth] to worship with profound 

reverence ; to love in the highest degree. 

a H nrpr (?"dor^r) n. one that worships or honours as 

^^^^'^ ex (jivine ; a lover ; an admirer. 

ar1r»rn (a-dorn') v.t. [L. ad and ornare, embellidi]*.^ 

dUUXXX to render beautiful ; to decorate. *}««•» 

nAr^frtrrte^ni- (a-dorn-ment) n. ornament; em- 

aaornment beiiishment. 
adorsed, adossed seeaddorsed. 

aHriCPiilaf inn (ad-os-ku-la^shun) n. [L. ad and 
dUUav^UXdtXUXX QgcuUtri, kiss] impregnation by 
external contact and not by intromission [Phys.]; im- 
pregnation of plants by the falling of pollen on the pistils; 
the insertion of one part of a plant into another [Bot.]. 
a H n^XTTI (^'-doun') adv. down ; toward the ground ;— 
dUU wxx p,.gp_ down ; all along. 

a<^r\t*<iC5o<a/4 (ad-presf) a. in close contact with- 
Upi CbbCU out adhering [Bot.]. 
a H r i ff (a-driff) adv. or a. floating at random ; at 
dUX XX t large ; at a loss. 

a Hrnit (a-drolt) a. [F. d droit, rightfully] dexterous ; 
"''-** '-'*^ skilful; ingenious. 

«>/^frkiflTr (a-droit^li) adv. in an adroit manner; 
aarOltiy readily; skilfuUy. 

Fate, far, ^do ; me, hgr ; mine ; note ; tune ; moon. 




orlrrtifriACC (a-droit^nes) n. the quality of being 
dUlUiLiicaa atiroit; dexterity; skilfuiness. 
o A <«TT (a-drl') a. in a dry condition ; thirsty ; in want 
Aaiy of drink. 

aH^pif ifinilQ (ad-si-tish-us) a. [L. adscitiis, as- 
ctUS\^iLitlUuo sumed] not essential; supple- 
mental ; added ; additional. 

aH^rrint" (ad-script) a. [L. adscribere, pp. ad- 
a.USV..lipL scriptus, enrol] written after— as dis- 
tinguished from subscript, written under ; attached to 
the soil, as a serf ; — n. a serf. 

arlc/^rir^firkn (ad-skrip'-shun) n. ascription; at- 
cLUdCl l\J LiUll tachment to the soil, or as a feudal 
inferior to a superior. 

Pf1||1a«*fp (ad-u-la^ri-a) n. [Mt. Adula in the 
ctuuiai let Grisons Alps] a variety of orthoclase (it 
includes the moonstone). _ 

aHnlafirkn (ad-fi-la^hun) n. [L. adulatio] servile 
auuictLlUli flattery ; sycophancy. 
adula torv (ad-u-la-tur-l) «. flattering to excess; 
a.uuxa,LVJi y containing extravagant compliments. 
AHiillamif«a (a-dul-^m-It) n. [see 1 Sam. xxii. 
nuuildiillLC 1 2] one of the dissentient Liberal 
M.P.'s when Earl Russell and Mr. Gladstone introduced 
the 18t)6 Reform Bill ; the dissentients were also known 
as The Cave. The name originated with Mr. Bright. 
fldlllf (^"'iu"') "■ [L. adolescere, pp. acLvMus, grow 
"''-*"*^ up] having arrived at mature years, or to 
full size and strength ;— n. a person grown to maturity. 
adulterant (*"dul-ter-ant) «. that which is used 

to adulterate. 
flHlllfprafp (a-dul-ter-at) v.t. [L. adulter, adul- 
ctuuiLC^ictLi:; tgrer, counterfeiter] to debase or 
make impure by admixture of baser materials ;— a. tainted 
with adultery ; debased ; corrupted. 
aHiilf ^arof *alTr (a-dul-ter-at-li) adv. in an adul- 
dUUlLCl dLCiy terate manner. 
aHiilf t^raf <ari«aco (?i-dul - ter - at - nes) n. the 
ctUUlLClciLCllC:a:3 quahty "or state of being 

aHiilf <araf inn (a-dul-te-rfiAshun) n. act of adul- 
ctuuiLC;icltiuii terating, or state of being adul- 
terated ; an adulterated substance. 
a f1 II 1+-gj»gj- (a-dul-tgr-er) n. a man guilty of adul- 

adulteress I'^ilerT^'^ ""• ^ '"'°'''° ^"^^ °^ 

flHlllfpHnf* (a-dul-ter-in) a. born of adultery ; re- 
aviuiL^x inc lating to adultery ; spurious ; illegal; 
— n. a child born' in adultery [Law]. 
arliilf f»rrkiic (a-dul-ter-us) a. pertaining to, or 
dUUlierOUSj ^^^^xty of adultery. 
aHiilf ^armiclTr (Mul-ter-us-h) adv. in an adul- 
dUUlterOUbiy terous manner. 
fldllltPfV (a-dul-ter-i)ft. a violation of the marriage 
*'''^"*''^* J vows or marriage bed. 
aHiilf n«:ico (a-dult^nes) n. the state of being an 
ctUUlUlC^s^ adult ; full development. 
aHlimhranf (ad-um-brant) a. giving a faint 
aviuiix 1^1 0,111, shadow; showing a slight resem- 

a H 11 tn Hra f P (ad-um-brat) v.t. [L. ad and umbra, 
aviuiiii^icLL^ shade] to overshadow; to shadow 
faintly forth ; to typify. 

aHiimhrafion (ad-um-braAshun) n. the act of 
dUUlllUXdLlUIl adumbrating; a faint resem- 
blance ; an imperfect representation. 

adumbrative '^i^r.^.^^'^' 
aduncal, aduncous g-"J'-Sd «nl" 

hook] hooked ; bent like a hook. 

adimt (?'-<^"s''') <*• [L. adurere, pp. adustus, burn] 
nviuob burnt; scorched; hot and faery; looking as if 
burnt or scorched. 

aHtrarmp* (ad-vans') v.t. [F. avancer, advance, fr. 
dUVdllV^C avant, before, fr. L. ab and ante] to 
bring forward ; to raise to a higher rank : to supply be- 
f9rehand \~v.i. to move or go forward ; to improve ; to 
rise in rank, othce, or consequence ;-7i. act of moving 
forward ; approach ; improvement ; additional price or 
profit ; a furnishing of something before an equivalent is 
received ; what is so furnished ;— a. before in place, or 
beforehand in time. Advance-guard, a body of troops 
moving or posted in front of the main body. In 
advance, in front ; beforehand. 

a H va nPPH (ad-vanst ) a. in the frontrank ; before 
du V dix^^cu one's age ; holding extreme views. 
aHvanr#»mpnf (ad-vans^ment) n. act of ad- 
ci.vivci.iiv..^iii&iii. vancing or state of being ad- 
vanced ; improvement ; promotion: [Law] provision made 
by a hvmg parent for a child by gifting property to which 
the child would be entitled after the parent's death. 
a 1^"^/^ t1 Pf*r (?^-van^er) n. one that advances ; one 
cxuvciii^^ci of jjjg branches of a buck's horn, the 
second from the base. 
advancive (^'^■"^'^"^iv) ^- tending to advance or 

aHvanfaP"f* (ad-van-taj) n. any state or means 
^•"^ * **** ^°'& ^ favourable to some desired end ; 
superiority of state, or that which gives it ; benefit ; gain ; 
profit ; — v.t. to benefit ; to promote. Advantage ground, 
vantage ground. To advantage, with etl'ect. To have 
the advantage of, to be superior; to know without 
being known. To take advantage of. to utilize; to cheat, 
a H TT'a n f a 0"*»r»i i c (ad-van-ta-jus) a. being of ad- 
dUVdllLdgCUU£> vantage; profitable; useful. 
flHvan1-aP'f»011<?lv (ad-van-ta-jus-U) adv. in 
dUVdllLdgCUU&iy aji advantageous manner. 

advantageousness ItSgrr^ '^ 

being advantageous ; profitableness. 
aHvPnt (ad-vent) n. [L. adventus] a coming ; ap- 
"''-^''^**^ proach; the coming of Christ; a season 
including the tour Sundays before Christmas. 
aHxr^^nf ifirkiic (ad-ven-tish-us) a. [L. adveuire. 
dUVCllLlUlUua ^p adventus, come to] added 
extrinsically ; not essentially inherent ; accidental ; 
casual ; out of the proper or usual place. 
arlT7«anf if i/MiclT7 (ad-ven-tish-us-li) adv. in an 
dUVenUllOUbiy adventitious manner. 

adventitiousness at^itSIsSf^ *" 

ar1tr<anfiial (ad-ven-tfi-al) a. pertaining to the 
dU V CllLUdl season of advent. 
aHvPnflirf (ad-ven-tur) n. [L. advenire, arrive] 
***-***-**''"* ^ risk; chance; an enterprise of 
hazard ; a bold undertaking ; a striking event.— v.t. to 
risk ;~v.i. to dare. Bill of adventure, see bilL 
aHvPflfurpr (ad-ven-tur-er) n. one that adven- 
"'^ vciiLUici tiires ; one that relies for success on 
false pretences ; a speculator. 

adventuresome Kl'^^S^.U" ''^'' 
adventuresomeness a;-he?uaht7o£ 

being adventurous ; adventurousness. 

adventuress Sur"er."'"'^ "' "" ^'°"''' ^' 

aHvf=^n1"1irnilQ (ad-ven'-tur-us) a. inclined to 
cxuv^iitui v^uo adventure; perilous; hazardous. 
arlT7-*infiirrkiic1x7' (ad-ven-tur-us-li) adv. in an 
dUVentUrOUbiy adventurous manner. 
aHvPnflimi1«5nP«!«5 (ad-ven-tur-us-nes) n. 
dUVCIlLUrUU&nCbb the act or quality of 
being adventurous. 

aHvPrh (ad-verb) n. [L. ad and verhum, word] a 
tx\x V ti w^ ^oj.j ygg(j to modify the sense of a verb. 
aHvf^rhial (ad-ver'-bi-al) a. relating to, or like, an 
e*vj. V v.,1 i^id,! adverb. Adverbial phrase, a group 
of words equivalent to an adverb. 
aHvi^rniallxr (ad-ver-bi al-i) adv. with the force 
dU V CI UXdiiy of an adverb ; as an adverb. 
adversaria, (ad-ver-sa^ri-a) [L.] a common- 
"* ^ oa.1 Id. place book ; memoranda. 
aHvPr^afV (ad-ver-sar-i) n. [L. adversariug, 
c*vi V ti odi y turned toward] an opponent ; an 
enemy ;— a. opposed [Law]. The Adversary, the devil. 
a H VPf^a f i VP (ad-ver^sa-tiv) a. expressing opposi- 
aviv^ioativv:; tion ;— n. a word or proposition 
expressing opposition. 

a.dvPr^P (ad-vers) a. [L. advertere, pp. adversus, 
_ ^ * ^* "^ turn towards] acting in a contrary direc- 
tion ; conflicting; unfortunate; opposite in position. 
a.d VPrSflv (ad-vers-H)a^v. in an adverse manner; 
** * ^* ociy ^jtb "opposition ; unfortunately. 
advPrSPnP^^ Cad-vers-nes) n. state of being 
"■^ * ^* otiicoa adverse ; opposition ; adversity.. 
a H VPr«:i f v (ad-ver^i-ti) n. adverse circumstances'; 
a,va V 1 1 oi ujr misfortune ; calamity. 
advprt (<^fl-v?rt') v.i. [L. ad and vertere, turn] to 
V ^1 1, t^pjj tjjg jjjjjjjj or attention. 

Fate, far, aide ; roe, her ; mine ; note ; tune ; m6dn. 

advertence 16 

advertence, advertency S':%*'",t 

attention ; notice ; regard. 

o A TTiat-f on f (ad-ver-tent) a. attentive ; turning the 
aavertent mind" to; heedful, 
o /^TTCif f cktif Itt (ad-ver'-tent-li) adv. in an advertent 
aaverieniiy manner; heedfully. 
aHvPrfi^P (ad-ver-tiz) v.t. or i. [L. advertere, 
o.KXv^M, LioC notice] to give notice; to inform or 
apprise ; to make known through the press. 
aHv#*rfi^f tnPnf (ad-ver-tiz-ment) n. a public 
^'-^''^* LiociiiciiL intimation or announcement; 
public notice through the press. 

a H VPrf i ^Pr (ad-ver-tl-zer) n. one that advertises ; 
•*^ ^ *^* tloCl a journal that advertises. 
aHviPf (ad- vis') n. [L. ad and videre, pp. visus, 
ctUViV„C see] an opinion recommended or oflFered; 
counsel ; information ; [Com.] a notification to one 

Eerson by another with regard to business transactions 
etween them. Advice-boat, a despatch-boat. 

advisability S,^'!^-'*-^''-''-^^^ ^- *^^ "^""^^^^ °* 

advisableness ; expediency. 

advisable or expedient ; 

Q/lTriooKl^a (ad-vi-za-bl) a. fit to be advised or to 
clUVlS>clUlC be done ; expedient. 

advisableness ftont'^^"''''^ ""■ ^'^"''' ^"^ 

aHviQaHlv (^Ki-vl-za-bli) adv. in an advisable 
dUVioctUljr manner; with advice; wisely. 
aHviQP (ad- viz') v.t. to give advice to; to counsel; 
{j^^ ctUVloC to give information to;— v. i. to deliberate. 
aHviQpH (^d-vizd') a. acting with deliberation; 
dUVioCU marked by, or following on, deliberation ; 
prudent ; expedient. 

nHviQpHlv (*d-vi-zed-li) adv. with mature deli- 
dU V ioCilijr beration ; purposely ; with intention. 
aH\riQ**HnPQQ (ad-vf-zed-nes) n. deliberate con- 
dUVloCUllCoo slderation ; prudent procedure, 
o HirieotTKarif (ad-vlz^ment) n. counsel ; delibera- 
dUVl&ClilCllL tion ; consultation. 
aHvi^pr (a<l-vi-zer) n. one that gives advice; one 
dU V ioCi that instigates or persuades. 
aHvitjnrv (ad-vl-zur-i) a. having power to advise ; 
dU V Xod y containing advice. 
at^'vnr'UrM (ad-v6-ka-si) n. a pleading for; inter- 
aKiv \J\.,€XK,y cession ; judicial pleading. 
^f^'vnca f P (ad-v6-kat) n. [L. advocare, call to] one 
dU VOCdtc: that pleads any cause •j—v.t. to plead in 
favour of ; to maintain oy argument. Devil's advocate, 
a person appointed to oppose claims to canonization. 
Faculty of Advocates, in Scotland, a society of the 
lawyers that plead in the supreme courts. Judge 
Advocate, the prosecuting oflBcer before a court-martial. 
Lord Advocate, in Scotland, the chief Crown lawyer. 
arlTrrkr'af ocViir* (ad-vo-kat-ship) n. office of an 
dUVUCdLCbllip advocate: advocacy. 
aHvn'W¥*** (ad-vou-e') n. [O.F. aveue, fr. L. 
du,vwv>rcc advocatus, advocate] one that has the 
right of presenting to a benefice. 

a H vnw<Nnn (?"i-vou-zn) n. the right of presenting 
a.\j. WW ovTAx Qj nominating to a vacant benefice or 
living in the church. 

adynamia, adynamy l^^JK^fe^^'S 

dunamos, power] weakness due to disease ; a deficiency of 

vital power [Med.]. 

nHvnnmir' (a-di-nam-ik) a. weak; feeble; char- 

duyiidiiiit^ .acterized by absence of force. 

Q^xrf iifYi (ad-i-tum) n. [G. a and dutos, fr. duein, 

cavijr cull* enter] the most sacred 

part of a temple ; a shrine ; the chancel. 

a H 5^ nATf^ (adz) n. [A.S. adesa'] 

ctwi^, dU^C a carpenter's tool for 

chipping, formed with a thin arching 

blade, and its edge at right angles to the Adze. 

handle ;—v.t. to shape with an adze. 

aprfilp (e^il) n. [L. aedilis, fr. aedes, temple] an 

ca...viiiv.. officer in ancient Eome who had the care of 

the public buildings, streets, public spectacles, etc. 

apHilf^CiVlin (e-^Il-ship) n. office of an edile; it 

c^viii^oxiij^ formed an introduction to the 

highest offices. 

ppt\rf^ci\nfy\r (e-de-ol'-o-ji) n. [G. aidoia, the priv- 

KK.,\A\A^\.fi.\/^y ate parts, and looos, discourse] that 

part of medical science which treats of the organs of 

generation ; a treatise on the organs of generation. 


3^H rf»nf nm V (e-de-ot^-mi) n. [G. tome, a cutting, 
CK,\j.\.K^\f\,\ji.xxy tx.temnein, cut] dissection of the 
organs of generation [Anat.]. 
c£2"er ^*^'^-''l *• k^'^ -^Y^^ '~'^- ^ "^^^ certifying a 

student to oe sick. 

aigilqps] an abscess in 
.'e [Path.]. 

;T»P*ilnn<5 (e-ji-lops) n. [G 
d^^iiupo the corner of the ey 
oap-i o (e-jis) n. [G. aigis] a shield or defensive armour; 
**-'&*•' anything that protects. 

aPP'OnllOtlV (e-gofU)-ni) n. [G. aix, aigos, goat, 
'*'o'^r'*-"-'**J' and phone, sound] a sound suggest- 
ing the bleating of a goat, heard in pleurisy [Path.]. 
a=»0'rntaf (e-gro^tat) «. [L. he is sick] a note certi- * 
a^^iyjcai, f ying a student to be sick. 

2p nl i a n (^-o^li-an) a. pertaining to iEolia ; pertain- 
■'•^^'-'****** to .52olus,the god of the winds; pertaining 
to, or produced by, the wind. .Solian harp, a stringed 
instrument played by the wind. .£olian mode, the 
ninth of the Gregorian church modes or scales. 
JPr\\{n (e-ol-ik) a. pertaining to^olia;— «,. the .^olic 
•^ ^**^ dialect, one of the three great ancient Greek 
dialects. .£olic verse is made up of an iambus or a 
spondee, two anapests separated by a long syllable, and a 
final syllable. 

^^Tilinilf* (e-ol-i-pTl) n. [L.] a hollow metal ball 
cCUlipilC rotating by the i x mlsion of steam. 

2p f\] i cf (e^-list) n. [Ai^olus] a pretender to inspira- 
.fXiUiioi, tion (seg Swift's Tale of a Tub, section 8). 
3*nlof rnnv (^-o-lot^r6-pi)n. [G. aiolos, changeful, 
cK,yjk\j LI vpjr and trepein, turn]change of physical 
properties due to change of position [Physics]. 
a^On (^o") '"'■ [Cr. aion, age] an infinitely long period: 
'*''^** an emanation from God (the Gnostics held 
that all the works of God were performed by aeons). 
;¥*nnian (e-on-i-an) a. lasting for aeons or ages; 
CK^yj mail everlasting ; eternal. 

.^Envnrrii«?(^"P'''^^""^^^ ^- ^^- ^^^p^s, high, and 

"^ rJ *-'* *ii>3 amis, bird] a genus of gigantic fossil 
birds, found in Madagascar. 

^FTIlinrfal (e-kwo-re-al) a. [L. aequor, calm sea] 
^K^u.yji Cdi pertaining to the sea; marine; oceanic. 
3=^3 ri a tl (6-ratri-an) n. [L. aes, aeris, bronze] a 
cCi di idii Roman citizen of the lowest class (he 
paid only poll-tax and had no vote). 
a Pfa f P (aie-rat) v.t. [G. aer, air] to charge with car- 
**^*"'^^ bonic acid or other gas; to arteriahze; to 
supply with common air. Aerated bread, bread made 
from dough into which carbonic acid has been forced. 
Aerated waters, beverages charged with carbonic acid. 
Q^it-ofirkn (ii-e-ra-snun) n. the act of exposing to 
dCidUlUll the action of the air. 
a Pra for (a^-ra-tur) n. a machine for aerating; an 
dCl dLV/i apparatus for making aerated waters. 
a Pri a 1 (a-e-n-al) a. pertaining to the air ; consisting 
dCi idl of air ; produced by air ; having its place in 
the air ; high ; loity ; graceful : visionary : ethereal. 
Aerial perspective, the art of indicating the relative 
distances of objects by gradation of tone and colour. 
Aerial plants, those growing in the air, independently 
of the soil. Aerial tints, tints suggesting distance. 
apriallv (a-e-ri-al-i) adv. in an aerial manner; so 
dCX laiiy as to resemble air ; ethereally. .^ 

a AriP a P'fV ^^'^^' ^'^^^ '"'■ [Low L. area, the nest ,)^ 
dCl IC, dCi jr of a bird of prey] the nest or the ? A 
young of a bird of prey ; children ; a high situation. '^ 

a Pri fproi 1 ^ (a-e-rifi«-rus) a. [L. aer, air, and ferre, 
dCi IICX yJ uo carry] conveying or containing air. 
a prifnrm (a^-ri-form) a. [L. aer and forma] hav- 
dCi llUl ill ing the form or nature of air ; gaseous. 
nf^x-ifwT (aAe-ri-fl) v.t. [L. aer, air, and facere, make] 
dCl liy to infuse air into : to fill with air. 
iififnAfrirnf^ (fi'-er-o-drom) n. [G. a?7: air, and 
dCl <JUi <jilic; dromos, a course] an enclosure within 
which aeroplanes make ascents and descents. 
jj ^^fnp v^f (ii-e-ro-sist) n. VG. kustis, bladder] one 
dCl UUy o U of the air bladdiersof certain algae. 

a P rn H vn a mipQ (a-e-ro-di-nam-iks) n. [G. du- 
el KJKiy iidiiiiv^o namis, power] the science 
that treats of gases in motion. 

aprncrranVlV (a-e-rog^ra-fi) n. [G. graphein, to 
ctci Ugi a,^iiy ^vrite] a description of the air. 
aprrklifp aprnlifln (a^-ro-llt, -lith)«..[G.aer, 
aerolite, aerOlltn air, and lUhos, stone] a 
meteorite ; a meteoric stone. 

a prnl i f i P (a-e-ro-lit^ik) a. pertaining to an aerolite 
dCl UliLil., OP to aerolites ; meteoric. 

Fate, far, aido ; me, her ; mine ; note ; tune ; moon. 

Fig. 1. — A 110 h.p. Bristol Monoplane. Note the cowling over the centre 

of the tractor screw. 

Fig. 2. — An " Airco " Biplane of the " pusher " or Farman type. The 
propeller and engine are placed between the main planes and tails behind 
the pilot. 



Ftg. 3. — The Bristol Triplanc, " Braemar '*' type, equipped with four 400 h.p. 
Liberty engines ; one of the largest machines in the world. 

Photo, by courtesy of F. J. Camm.] 

Fig. 4. — Fokker, the famous aircraft designer, on his " glider." 


Photo, by courtesy of F. J. Camm.] 

Fig. 5. — The Handasyde Monoplane with wood-covered, unbraced wings. 

Photo, by courtesy of " Everyday Science."] 

Fig. 6.— The " Wren " 3 h.p. Monoplane, 23 ft. long, span 37 ft., speed 50 m.p.h. 


Fig. 7. — The Berliner Helicopter in flight during official tests in America. 




f 9 


J ~ 




















aerological ^i^^^""-^ " ^^^^^^^ *° 

fl PmlnP*i«?t (^-e-rol^jist) n. one that is versed in 

a*»rr»1ncrv (a-e-roi^-ii) n. [G. aer, air, and iogros, 
del UlUgy discourse] that science which treats of 
the air and its phenomena. 

o Of i-km a r« n\T (a^e-ro-man-si) n. [G. manteia, pro- 
dCi Ullldin^y phesying] divination by means of 
the air and winds ; forecasting the weather. 
*! ot-rkm of «ir (a-e-rom^-ter)n.[G. metron, measure] 
ctClUiliCl.Cl an instrument for measuring the 
weight or density of air and other gases. 
oot-rkmofr-ir (a-e-rom^-tri) n. the science of 
cldUXllCl.i jr measuring the weight or density 
of air and other gases. 

„ exrr\n a 11 f (a^-ro-nawt) n. [G. aer, air, and nautes, 
d.Cl Ulld U t sailor] an aerial navigator ; a balloonist. 
nci.1^r\n^^^\■\^^ (a-e-ro-naV-tik) a. pertaining to 
dCiUliautil^ aeronautics. 

2 /at-r-kfi 3 1 1 f i /«c (a-e-ro-naw'-tiks) «. the science or 
del UlldU Ll(.>o art of sailing in the air. 

3 £krr»n a iif icm (aAe-ro-naw-tism) n. the practice 
dCl UlldU Lisiil of ascending and floating in the 
atmosphere ; ballooning. 

aerophobia, aerophobyge'^Soiijt: 

[G. aer, air, and phobos, fear] a dread of air. 
aorr^olanf* (a'-er-6-plan) n. [G. a?r, air, and F. 
dCl upicxiic plane, flat] a flying-machine heavier 
than air, and supported by one or more plane surfaces, 
o <arr»cr»<:*n«JV (a^-ro-skep-si) n. [G. shepsis, per- 
dCl Uo^-Cpoy ception] the susceptibility to 
atmospheric conditions supposed to be possessed by the 
antennae of insects. 

a i^rncmnv (a-e-ros^ko-pi) n. [G. sAopet'n, observe] 
dCl KJsy^yJ^Jy t^g observation of the atmosphere. 
jj ornQf ^ f (ii^ -ro-stat) n. [G. aer, air, and statos, 
dCl Uo Ud L standing] a name given to air balloons. 

aerostatic, aerostatical tkj? S^plr- 

taining to the art of aerial navigation. 
o AtTiQf nf ir>Q (a-e-ro-stat^iks) n. the science that 
dCl Uotdtl^o treats of the equilibrium of elastic 
fluids, or of bodies sustained in them ; aeronautics. 
Qf^f.>^Qf ofi^f-i (a-e-ro-staAshun) n. aerial naviga- 
dCiuatcXtiuii tion; aeronautics. 
/ ;¥»rncrinni1Q (e-roc'^ji-nus) a. [L. a«*u<70, copper- 
i ; cciu^iiiuuo rust] pertaining to copper-rust. 
'I 2Pcn^■^ 1 a r»i a n (es-ku-la-pi-an) a. [Aesculapius, 
yx:raL.Uldpidll t^e g^^ of medicine] of, or 
belonging to, .lEsculapius ; medical ; — n. a medical man. 
»»cf hiaoinrnfif *»r ^^^-' o"" es-the-si-om^-ter) n. 
cCol.iXCoiUiiic;i.c;x [(J atstfems, sensation, and 
metron, measure] an instrument for measuring the 
sensibility of the skin. 

_:tQ4.y|p4-f^ (es-, or es^thet) n. [G. aisthetes, one that 
d^aLllCLC perceives] one devoted to the principles 
of aesthetics ; a lover of the beautiful. 

a&stnetic, aestnetical .j.^^d „. pertain- 
ing to the perception of tlie beautiful. 
•»of Viof ir'allir (*''s-, or es-thet^i-kal-i) adv. in an 
d:& LllC UH-dliy ajsthetic manner. ' 
oacfViof i/'icm (es-, or es-thet-i-sizm) w. devotion 
cCa LllC Lll^iaill to the study of the beautiful. 
^y^Q^U^^^-ipQ (es-, or es-thet^iks) n. the science of 
d^o UllC Llv^o the beautiful in nature and art. 

aestho-physiology tn.Thel£ti-tL1 

senses and consciousness, as related to nervous action. 
^F^^fivfll (es^ti-val, es-tl-val) a. [L. aestivalis, fr. 
a^a Li V di aestas, summer] belonging to the summer ; 
produced in the summer. 

3*Qfivaff* (es^ti-vat) v.i. to pass the summer; 
cCOLlvctuC [Zool.] to lie torpid in summer. 
•»of ifraf ir»n (es-ti-vaishun) n. the arrangement 
d:aLl VdLlUll of leaves in a flower bud [Bot.] ; the 
act of remaining torpid during summer [Zool.]. 
«K^f Vii*irkCO/-krto (eth-ri-o-skop) n. [G. aithrios, 
d^LllllUaUUpC bright, and skopein, behold] 
an instrument for measuring variations in the heat 
radiated from the sky. 

SPfinln0'V (e-ti-pl^-ji) n. [G. aitia, cause, and 
A^LiUiUgjr logos, description] the doctrine of 
causation ; the science of the causes of disease. 

o f o r (a-f ar") adv. from a distance ; at or to a distance ; 

dldl far away ; remotely. 

affaHilifv (af-a-bil-i-ti) n. the quality of being 

dlldUlllty aflaole; courtesy; complaisance. 

a ffa HI f» (af^-bl) a. [L. affabilis, fr. ad and fari, 

dlldUlC speak] ready to converse ; easy of access. 

a ffa HI f»n f»QQ (af^-bl-nes) n. the quality of being 

dllctUiCiicoo aA'able; ready condescension. 

a ffa HI TT (af^-bli) adv. in ^n afiable manner; 

dlldUiy courteously ; complaisantly. 

affair (a-far') n. [L. ad and facere, do] business 

dlldli of any kind ; that which is to be done ; thing ; 

an engagement of troops •,—pl. public or private business ; 

finances. Affair of honour, a duel. 

a ffp^rf (a-fekf) v.t. [L. ad and facere, do] to act 

dllCV^L upon ; to produce a change in ; to influence ; 

to love ; to hke ; to choose ; to aim at ; to covet ; to 

imitate m a manner not natural ; to put on a pretence of. 

aflTpT'fafion (af-ek-ta^hun) n. a striving after; 

dllCCLdLlUll assumption of what is not natural ; 

artificial appearance ; pretence. 

a fff^ ni'f^t^ (s'-f ek-ted) a. inclined or disposed ; assum- 

dllCV^LCU i^g or pretending to possess what is not 

natural or real ; not natural. 

affppfpHlv (a-fek-ted-U) adv. in an aflected 

dllC(.<LCUiy manner; hypocritically. 

offck/^f orlnocc (a-fek'-ted-nes) n. the quality of 

dllCCLCUllcaa being aflected ; affectation. 

offck/'fiHilifir (a-fek-ti-biUi-ti) n. capabihty of 

aneCUDlllty being aflected. 

flffpptihlp (a-fek'-ti-bl) a. that may be aflected or 

affi^rfincr (a-fek-ting) a. having power to excite 
dllCCLlllg the passions ; pathetic. 
affiarf irnrlv (a-fek-ting-li) adv. in an affecting 
dllCl..Ulii3ijr manner ; so as to stir emotion. 
affiaofion (a-fek'-shun) n. disposition of mind; 
dllCCLlUil good-will ; tender attacliment ; disease. 
aff<arfir»nal (a-fek'-shun-al) a. relating to the 
dllC^LiUilcti aflections; having aflections. 
aff*»rfinnafp (a-fek'-shun-at) a. having great 
d.llC^ tiUiictLc; love ; proceeding from affection, 
o ffck/^f ii-kri n f *»lTr (a-iek^hun-at-li) a. with affec- 
aneCLlOnateiy tion ; tenderly, 
a ff o /^firknaf^an^iQQ (a-f ek'-shun-at-nes) n. the 
dlieCLlOndtCIlCaa quality of being affec- 
tionate ; fondness ; good-will. 

aflF*arfinnf»H (a-fek^hund) a. having a certain 
diic^tiUiicu. (ligposition of feeling; inclined; 

affp»rfivf» (a-fek'-tiv) a. affecting or exciting 
dllCV.. Ll V c emotion : pertaining to the affections. 
•sffo/^fiTT-olTT (a-fek'-tiv-li) adv. so as to influence 
aneCllVeiy the affections. 
affopr (^-fer") v.t. [L. ad and forum, market] to 
dllCCi settle a fine ; to confirm fLawl. 
pffp|-pfif (af^-rent) a. [L. ad ana ferre, bring] 
dliCi cut bringing ; conveying inward [esp. Phys.J. 
o Pfof f iir»csr\ (a-fet-too-o^o) adv. [It. fr. L. ad and 
dllCLLUU&U /a^ere] with feeling [Mus.i 
affianPP (a-fl-ans) n. [L. ad and fides, trust] 
cLliiciiiV.,c plighted faith; the marriage contract; 
reliance ; confidence ;— r.t. to betroth. 
sfR^tlPf^r (a-fi^n-ser) n. one that affiances ; one 
ctiiicxiiv^Ci that makes a marriage contract between 

afnant (a-fl^nt) n. one that makes an affidavit. 

affipHf* (a-fesh') n. [F. fr. L. ad and figere, fix] a 

ctiii«..iic placard ; a pioster. 

affiHflvif (af-i-aa-vit) n. [L. ad and fides, faithl 

ctiiiucxviL a statement in writing, signed and 

made upon oath before an authorised magistrate. 

Q fifi 1 i o HI f» (a-fil-i-a-bl) a. capable of being afiiliated; 

cxxiiiiciuic chargeable as result or effect. 

o-pPliofp (a-fil-i-at) v.t. [L. ad and filius, son] to 

diiiiiciLC adopt as a son ; to receive into fellowship; 

to attribute to ; [Law] to assign (as a bastard) to a father. 

a ffilia f inn (a-fil-i-a^hun) n. adoption ; the act of 

cLiiiiicxLiuii affiliating ; [Law] the assignment of a 

bastard to its father. 

of^f1Pf4 (a-flnd') a. [L. ad and ^ma, border] joined 

ctiixiicu by affinity ; allied ; bound ; obliged ; 

[Zool.] related in structural character. 

ofRfiif V (a-fin'-i-ti) n. [L.] relationship by marriage ; 

ctiiiiii Ly close agreement ; connection ; [Chem.] that 

Fate, far, ?wio ; me, her ; mine ; note ; tune ; moon. 




attraction which takes place between the dissimilar 

particles of bodies, and forms compounds; [Biol.] 

resemblance in structure. 

a.ffirm ^^-^^^') ^-t- [L- ('■d &ndfirmus, firm] to assert 

aiixx ill positively ; to aver ; to maintain as true ;— 

v.i. to make a solemn promise to tell the truth [Law]. 

a'fflrmaKl*^ (a-fer-ma-bl) a. capable of being 

elilll llldUie affirmed or asserted. 

affirm a HKr (a-fei-'-ma-bli) adv. in a way capable 

cillll XlldUiy of affirmation. 

iJ ffi t*tn on no (a-fer-mans) n. assertion ; confirma- 

cHlllUldm^C tiori; ratification. 

a ffi rm a n f (a-fer^mant) n. one that affirms ; [Law] 

ctiiiiiixctilt one that substitutes an affirmation 

for an oath. 

a ffi rm a f irtn (af-er-maAshun) n. act of declaring ; 

cUlllilXdUUIl that which is asserted; [Law] a 

solemn declaration made by persons that decline takmg 

an oath. 

a ffi rm a f i Tr<a (a-fer-ma-tiv) a. affirming or assert- 

ctiiiiiiicttxvc ijjg-; ratifying; — «. that which 

affirms. In the aflarmative, yes. 

affirmafivf^lv (a-fer-ma-tiv-h) adv. in an af- 

0,1111 iiictLi V cijr firmative manner ; positively. 

Q Any (a-fiks') v.t. [L. affinere, pp. affixus, fasten to] 

*****■*■ to add at the close ; to attach. 

Q ffi -v (af^iks) n. a syllable or letter joined to the end 

ctiiiA of a word. 

stfd-vinrt (a-fik'-shun) n. the act of affixing, or the 

dinxiun state of being affixed. 

•sffi-yf'lirP (a-fiks-tur) n. the act of affixing; that 

*****'*'^'^^ ^ which is affixed or annexed. 

a-ffla-tinn '^-flS^hun) n. [L. ad and flare, blow or 

0,1110, Liuii breathe] a blowing or breathing on. 

a ffl o 4-||c (a-flaitus) n. inspiration ; the inspiration 

Oi 3r poet. 

offl jp4- (a-flikf) v.t. [L. afflictare, disquiet] to give 
0,1111 v^k continued pain to; to cause dejection or 
distress ; to grieve ; to harass. 

affli/'f «ar1ri<*oo (a-flik-ted-nes) a. the state of 
0,illlCCCUllC&5> being afflicted ; affliction. 
afflip1"inp*lv (a-flik^tlng-li) a. in a grievous, dis- 
o,iiii\.,Liiigijr tressing, or calamitous manner. 
affliction (^-flik^hun) n. a cause of contmued 
o,iiiiv« Li v^ii jjg^jj^ qJ body or mind, as sickness, losses, 
etc. ; the state of being afflicted; calamity; distress; misery. 
afflir^flTrfi (a-flik-tiv) a. giving pain; causing 
oiiiiv,i,ivc affliction ; distressing. 
afflictivelv (^-flik-'-.iv-'i) «cfv. in a manner to 

affluence, affluency ^Z^^^:^, 

flow to] abundance of anything^ esp. riches. 
afflllf^nf (af-166-ent) a. flowing to; wealthy;—-?!. 
oiii u^ii L a tributary of a river. 
afflni^nflTT- (af-166-ent-li) adv. in an affluent 
diXXUCllLiy manner ; abundantly. 
afflnv afflii-virkn (af-luks, a-fluk-shun) n. 
dlUUX, dmUXlOn ^^e act of flowing to; a 
flowing to ; that which flows to. 

afford (^-fSrd') v.t. [A.S. ge and forth'] to yield or 
. produce ; to grant, or expend, without pre- 

judice to one's circumstances. 

affilfpcf (a-for^est) v.t. to convert bare or culti- 
oiii^i COL yated ground into forest. 
affnr<acf af irkn (a-for-es-taAshun) n. the act of 
oiiux catdLlUll converting into a forest. 
ofiFf Qtir^Viiofi (a-fran^hiz) v.t. [F. affranchir, 
oiii diiv^lliac n,ake free] to make free; to set 
at liberty ; to enfranchise. 

affranchisement ^foT^^SSg" *'^ 

affrav (§'"f'"2'') '"■■ [O.F. effratcr, fr. L. ex, and 0. H. 

o,y (jgj. fridu, peace] a fight in a public place, 
to the terror of others ; a tumultuous assault or quarrel ; 
a brawl ; disturbance. 
affrpip'llf (^-fi^t') v.t. [F. affriter, hire] to hire a 

^^S*-' ^ ship for the transportation of goods. 
affrP'icrlif *ir (a-fniiter) n. one that charters a 
dill ClgllLCr gjjip toconvey goods. 
affrpicr'hf m«anf ( a - frat - ment ) n. the act of 
dill ClgH Lmcilt jiiring a ship for the transpor- 
tation of goods ; the freight carried. 
affrip-Vif (a-frif) v.t. [A.S. dfyrhtan] to impress 
o**** with sudden fear; to terrify or alarm; 
— n. sudden and great fear ; terror. 

affi-nnf (a-frunf) v.t. [L. od! and fr<ma, fi'ontis, 

0,111 v^ii I, forehead, front] to front; to insult; to 

abash ; — n. insult ; contemptuous or rude treatment. 

affrnnfii (a-frong'-ta) a. facing each other or the 

dlli UIILC spectators [Art and Her.]. 

Q ffirinf ^r (a-frun-ter) n. one that afironts another 

o,iiiuiiLc:i openly and deliberately. 

3 ffrOflfivf (a-frun-tiv) a. of an affronting charac- 

"**** ^'■^ 1,1 V c tgp . giving oft"ence ; abusive. 

afpiicfv (a-fuz') v.t. [L. affundere, pp. affusus, pour 

a.iiuoc upon] to pour upon ; to sprinkle. 

affn^iofl (a-fu-zhun) n. the act of aSusing, as in 

aiiuoi\^ii baptism and medicine. 

a fi <al r1 (a-feld) adv. to, in, or on, the field ; abroad ; 

dliciu ofi" the beaten path. 

anre (a-flr') adv. or a. on fire. 

aflampk (a-flam') adv. or a. flaming; in or into 

dlldillC flame; on fire ; ablaze. 

a fl a f (a-flaf) adv. or a. on a level with the ground ; 

oiiOL in a flat position ; flatly. 

a fl r»a f (a-flof) adv. or a. borne on the water ; in a 

aiiKjixi. floating condition ; floating; adrift. 

f"/-j/-)f (a-foof) adv. or a. on foot ; able to walk 

"'*'^*^^ about; astir; in motion ; inaction. 

Q forP (a-for') adv. and prep, before in place or time ; 

cxiKJi c [Naut.] towards the front part. Afore the 

mast, as a common sailor. 

aforeffOing" (^-^or^^-i^R) «• going before ; pre- 

a f n r <a Vi a n r1 (a-f oi^hand) adv. beforehand ; before ; 
dlUl CXldllU _„ provided ; prepared. 
a f r\r^m «an f i r»ri <iH (a-f6r'-men-shund)a. spoken 
dlOremenUOnea of ^j. named before. 

aforenamed (a-for-namd) a. named before. 

a fnrAca iH (a-for^ed) a. said or mentioned before 

oiui caoiu (a commonlegal term). 

af/-»fofVirkiifrVif (a-for-thawt) a. thought of 

dIOreinOUgni beforehand ; premeditated. y 

pfflff^^-if-t-ip (a-for^tlm) adv. in time past; at a q.-^S^ 

Old c Liiiic former time ; previously. 

afoul (a-foul') adv. or a. in a state of collision ; not 

oiuui fi-ee • entangled. 

ja <V-jj < A (a-f rad') a. [pp. of Otfray'i struck with fear or 

*** etna apprehension ; terrified ; alarmed. 

anew ; over again ; freshly ; 

Afripan (af-rl-kan) a. belonging to Africa; — n. a 
x^ii 1^.0,11 native of Africa : a negro. 
AfripatlHfr (af-rl-kan-aer) n. a native of South i(..,oiiuc;i Africa^ born of white parents. 
off-tf afrPff (af^ret) n. [A.] an evil genius in the 
0,11 iLj ctiiccL Mohammedan mythology. 
afronl" (a-frunf) adv. in front; face to face; 
0.11 «J11L albreast •,—prep. in front of. 
off (aft) adv. or a. [A.S. ceft] toward, or at, the stern 
*** ^ [Naut.]. Fore and aft, lengthwise. Right aft, in 
a direct line with the stern. 

a ft Pr (af-ter) prep. [A.S. cefter] behind in place ; later 
0,1 LCI jjj tijjjg . jjj pursuit of ; in imitation of ; accord- 
ing to •,—adv. subsequently in time or place ;— a. in the 
rear; succeeding; [Naut.] farther aft. After-ages, later 
ages. After-birth, what is expelled from the uterus 
after delivery ; a posthumous birth. After-clap, an un- 
expected subsequent event. After-cost, unexpected cost 
after the execution of a plan. After-crop, a second or 
subsequent crop. After-damp, choke-damp. After- 
game, one played to reverse the issue of the first. After- 
glow, glow in the west after sunset. After-grass, grass 
that grows after a preceding crop. After-growth, a 
subsequent growth. After-guard, the seamen that . 
attend to the after-sails [Naut]. After-math, after- , 
grass. After-pains, pains that succeed delivery. After- 
piece, a piece performed after a play. After-rake, part 
of the hull jutting out at the stern [Naut.]. After-sails, 
sails on, or abaft, the mainmast [Naut.]. After-state, 
subsequent state. After-swarm, a second swarm. After- 
times, futurity. After-tossing, the swell after a storm 
at sea. After-wise, wise after the event. After-wit, 
wit that comes too late. 

nfi-a^flf^rrc (af-ter-ingz) the last milk drawn 
dlLCllll^a in milking ; dregs. 
offiat-mrkof (af-ter-most) a. [A.S. c^emestl 

dlLClllXUoL npnr'pfit, fn tll» 

QfcpoVi (a-fresh') adv. 
oil coil after intermiss 

foremost [Naut.]. 

nearest to the stem ; the opposite of 

Fate, f^r, ?mJo ; mS, her ; mine ; nSte ; tune ; mA6n. 




flffprnOOn (^-^r-noon') n. time from noon to 

afterthought ItS^^^^ ""■ ''°''"°° '"'' 
afterward, afterwards %y%-^^v'. 

subsequently ; at a later period. 

Qo-a (a^a) n. [Turk.] a Turkish civil or military 
"&** oflicier of high rank ; a Turkish title of respect. 
a train (a'-K^Qi ?^-K^n') adv. [A.S. ongedn] another 
**&***** time; once more; moreover; in addition. 
o 0-jj 4 f-> of (a-gensf, a-^anst') pr«/). abreast of ; 
**'&"'^**^'' opposite to; in opposition to; in proyi- 
sion or preparation for. 

agalactia, agalaxy ^-fc'^t^alid'S! 

galuktos, milk] a deticiency of milk after child-birth. 
o rrolo/^f /M10 (ag-a-lak-tus) a. characterized by 
agaiaCLOUb agalactia; deficient in milk [Med.]. 

agalloch, agallochumSgS'ftgS 

wood ; the produce of Aqwlaria anallocha. 
o ry'x 1 rn a (a-gal-nia) n.; pi. agalmata (a-gal-mgi-ta) 
0.^0011.110, [^(j j impression of anything on a seal. 
Qcralmafr»lifp> (ag-al-mat-o-llt) n. [(i. agalvia, 
ctgdillldLUllLC agalmatos, image, and lithos, 
stone] a stone found in China (it can be cut with a knife 
and polished). Also called figure-stone and pagodite. 
A <To m o (ag^a-ma) n. [Caribbean name] a genus of 
.rt.garnel Uzards fZool.]. 

Ap*ama* (ag^-me) [see agamous] a name 
■**•&"'*****' applied to cryjjtogains. 
a cr Q rri \ (ag'^a-me) n. [native name, (Juiana] a gialla- 
o.^a,ii.ii. torial bird of South America, 
o crry m\n (»-gam-ik) a. [G.] ase.xual [Zool.] ; cr>'pto- 
d^dlllll- gamic[Bot.]. 

acromicf (ag'-a-mist) n. [G.] one that is opposed 
gctiiiiSW to marriage. 
flframn£rpnp<i5i«5 (ag-gi-mo-jenie-sis) n. [G. 
dgctxiil^gciicsia aaamox, unmarried, and 
genesis, production] non-se.\ual reproduction. 
QO*amr»iic (ag^-mus) a. [a. a and games, mar- 
dgdlllUUa riagej cryptogamic [Bot.]. 
Q era nP (ag^i-pe) n. [G. tiyape, love] a love-feast, or 
«*&**pc feast of charity, among the primitive 
Christians (originally held in connection with the 
Lord's Supper). 

op-anP (a -gap') adv. or a. [prefix a and gape 
"•o**!^ gaping, as with wonder or expectation. 
Q p-o *-t p (ag-a-rik) k. [G. agarikon] a name of various 
**&**^ **-' fungi, including the common mushroom : 
—a. fungoid. Agaric mineral a variety of calcite. 
afra^frip (a-gas-trik) a. [G. a and gaster, belly] 
**S***^*'* ^^ witliout a proper intestinal canal [Zool.]. 
p (ag^t) n. [G. achatii] a precious stone, semi- 
^ pellucid quartz, varieitated with colouring 
instrument used by gold-wire drawers 


matter; an , ,, 

o0-of t-iicrn (ag-a-thizra) »i. [G. agathos, good] the 

dgdLiiiaiil doctrine that all tlungs tend towards 

ultimate good. 

^O'si^iff^rcili^ (ag-a-tif-e-rus) a. [agate and L. 

ducing agates. 

ferre, carry] containing or pro- 

a2*atinP (ag-a-tln) a. pertaining to, or resembling, 

P jya fi 7P (ag^-tTz) v.t. to change into agate ; to give 

dgdUi^C the appearance of agate to. 

a^p-af V (^8'a-ti) a. of the nature of, or resembling, 

a croTro (a-gaive) n. [G. agaiie, noble] the American 
dgdVC aloe. 

a p-p (aj) n. [L. aevum, age] whole duration of a being ; 
**& ^ the latter part of life ; a certain period of life, 
marked by a diflerence of state ; period when a person is 
enabled by law to act for himself: a particular period of 
time in history ; the people who Hve at that period ■,—v.t. 
to cause to grow old ;—v.i. to grow old. 
ap*pd (a-jed) a. old; having lived or existed long; 
**o^^ having a certain age. 

Pp-placf (aj-, ag'-e-last) n. [G. a, negative, and 
dgc^idOL gelastes, laughter] one that never laughs. 
aP'PnPV (aAjeu-si)n. [L. agere, ppr. o/genx, agentis, 
o^**^^ do] instrumentality; a mode of exerting 

power ; office or duties of an agent 

a&"Pnria. (^-Jen-da) n.fd. th 

o'^^*^"' memorandum book 

things to be done ; a 

acrPtlPcica (9.-jen^-sis) n. [G. a and genesis. 

""S^**^^*" generation] imperfect development oi 

any part of the body [Phys.J. 

afrpnnpQic (aj-e-ne-si«) n. [G. a and gennesis, 

""S CiiiiCoio engendering] absence of reproductive 

power ; sexual impotence [Med.]. 

ao*Ptlf (aij^nt) n. a person or thing that exerts 

*''&^**'' power, or has the power to act; an actor; 

one intrusted with the business of another; a substitute; 

a deputy ; a factor ; an active power or cause. 

acrf*nfial (a-Jen^hal) a. of or pertaining to an 

**& *-***•**** agent or an agency. 

o o-cki 1 cf i a (a-gus^ti-a) n. [G. ageustos, not tasting] 

dgCUauid logs of the sense of taste [Med.]. 

a crcr*»r (*J^^) **• U^-^ '^^ earthwork or any artificial 

d.&&^* moiind or rampart [Archffiol.]. 

agglomerate ('^tjio'^^-^^w v,t. and i\h,^ad 

collect into a r 
a mass of com 

and glomus, glomei'is, ball] to 
mass ;— a. heaped up ; [Bot.l clustered ;—7i. 
jpacted volcanic debris [Geo!.]. 
flp-p-lnmpration (a-glom-e-m^shun) n. act of 
dgg4W*i*t*e»,i,iv/ii agglomerating; amass. 

agglomerative S?;fSotn5a^I^ " ^^""^^ 

a cro-liif ina nf (a-glo<'<^ti-naint)a.. uniting, as glue; 
«*&&i'^*'**'^****^ —n. any viscous substance. 
acrtrlnfinaf** (ii-gl6(>-ti-nat) v.t. [L. ad and 
d&S*"*'**»**^'^ glutinare, gluejto unite with glue 
or other viscous substance ;— a. united, as by glue ; 
[Phil.] consisting of more or less independent elements. 
acrcrliifinafion (a-glpo-ti-naAshun) 71. act of 
agglUtindLlUH uniting, or state of being 
united ; [Phil.] the condition of being agglutinate. 
«« ».<^1««4-««-iif«Trck (a-gl66-ti-na.-tiv) a. pertaining 
agglUUnatlVe to agglutination ; [PhiLJ char- 
acterized by agglutination. 

a o- err a n rl i rz a h 1 *» (ag-ran-dr-z^-bl) a. capable of 
aggranaiZaDie b^ng aggrandized, 
a crcrra n H i 7f» (ag-ran-diz) v.t. [L. ad and grandis, 
**&&* diivii^c large] to enlarge ; to make great in 
power or honour. 

a crcrra n H i 7t>m Pn f (a-gran^ie-ment, ag-ran- 
aggrdnUlZemCIlL diz-ment) n. the act or 
state of being made greater. 

ao-o-ravafp (ag'-ra-vat) v.t. [L. ad and gravis, 
&&* "•^«*^^ heavy] to make worse ; to enhance ; 
to give an exaggerated representation of ; to provoke. 
acro-ravafinp* (ag'-ra-va-ting) a. making worse 
"'&&*"•''"•*'***& or more heinous; provoking. 
atrcrravafinfrlv (ag-r^-va-ting-h) wlv. in an 
"S 6 ****** *'***&* J' aggravating manner. 
a cro-ra vaf ion (ag-ra-va^hun) n. act of making 
d^gidvdnv-»ii worse; exaggeration, as in de- 
scription, etc. ; that which aggravates ; provocation. 
acrcrrpcraf<a (ag'-re-gat) v.t. ana i. VL. ad and 
**&S*^S**'^^ grex, gregis, flock, hern] to collect 
into a mass ;—n. a sum or assemblage of particulars ,—a. 
collected together ; [Bot.l forming a dense cluster ; 
[Law] composed of individuals forminjj an association : 
[Zool.] made up of individuals forming a compound 
organism ; [Geol.] composed of distinct minerals ; 
[Anat.] clustered, or aggregate glands, 
a cr crrP' tra f i nn (ag-re-ga-shun) n. act of aggrega- 
**o &**-'&'*' ^-ivii t jng^ or state of being aggregated ; 
a combined whole ; an aggregate. 
a crp-rpjraf ivP (ag'-re-ga-tiv) a. pertaining to ag- 
**&&* ^S***-* » ^ gregation ; collective ; gregarious. 
jjp.p.|-p^„ (a-gres') v.t. and i. [L. aggredi, pp. 
•*&0 '^^^ dggressus. attack] to attack. 
o crcrrf^ccirkn (a-gresh-un) n. [h. a^jgressio] first 
*=*"&&* coaiun act of hostility or injury. 
jj o"CrrP<2c;i Vl^ (^-gres-iv) a. characterised by agres- 
**S&* cooivc g,on ; tending to attack ; prone to 
begin a q-uarrel. 

a £r£rrf»ccivf»n*iQQ (a-grcs-iv-nes) n. quality or 
**&&* caaivciicoo gt^te of being aggressive. 
a.P"PTPSSOr (^-Sres-ur) n. the one that first 

jj .-y.~^l^-j.^ (a-grev') v.t. [L. ad and gn-avi^s, heavy] 

""& o ' *^ ^ ^ to give pain or sorrow to ; to afflict ; to 

bear hard upon ; to injure ; to vex. 

^a'<rrr\^^V\ (a-gr66p) v.t. to bring together; to 

**oo**-'"P group. 

a crVia ^f (^"Sast') a. [A.S. d, and gcestan, to terrify] 

dgxidot struck with amazement; stupefied with 

sudden fright or horror. 

Fate, far, »do ; me, her ; mine ; note ; tune • moon. 




aa*i1fk (aj-il) a. [L. agilis, fr. agere, do] quick of 
**o**^ motion; nimble; brisk; active. 
a^ilelv ^*i"^.^''^ "^^' '^ .*° ^^'^^ °^ nlmble manner ; 

op-ilifv (^'-jil'i-ti) n. the s 
c»gxAj.bjr agile ; briskness ; 

briskly ; actively. 

npnpcc (aj-il-nes) n. the state or quality of 
^iic;oo being agile ; nimbleness ; briskness, 
state or quality of being 
, activity. 
o p-irj (aAJi-5, aj-i-6, a^ji-6) n. [It.] diflference in value 
'*o*'^ between metallic and paper money, or between 
one sort of metallic money ana another; premium; 
discount ; money-changing. 

acrirkfacr** (aiji-o-taj, aj-i-6-taj, a^ji-o-taj) n. [F.] 
ctgiv^Lcigc stock-jobbing. 

a p*iof (a-jisf) v.t. [O.F. agister] to pasture the cattle 
agiOL of others at a certain rate. 

agistage, agistment tt^hi^ft^^. 

ing and feeding of other men's cattle; price paid for 
such feeding ; a tax. 

acricfr^i- acricf«ar (a-jis-tur, -ter) n. an officer 
dglSMUl, ctgl^dtCl that has charge of the 
cattle pastured in a royal forest, and collects the money 
paid for them. 

ocrifoKIp (aj'-i-ta-bl) a. capable of being agitated 
a.gXLa.uic; or shaken ; that may be discussed. 
n p-|4-o f p (aj-i-tat) v.t. [L agitare, put in motion] to 
ctgiLcttC move with violent action ; to distract or 
excite ; to discuss ; to call attention to by speech or 
writing ;— v.t. to engage in agitation. 
jH' ncrifafirkn (aj-i-taishun) n. the act of agitating, 
i>H^.- dgltctUUll or the state of being agitated; per- 
v*^ turbation of mind ; discussion. 

a^itative ^'^i'-H^'^^^^ **• having power or tendency 

ap'ifflfnr (aj-i-ta-tur) n. one that agitates; a 
<*& *■ K* *''-'* machine for agitating and mixing. 
a P"lpf (ag'-let) n. [F. fr. L. acus, needle] the metal tag 
ctgiCL of a lace ; [Bot.] a pendent anther or catkin. 
o p>1f%K||1icrn (a-gloWu-lizm) n. [G. a and E. 
"•o**^ *-' "**OAi* globule] a deficiency of hsemoglobin 
in the blood {Path.]. 

oa*1n^<%^1 (^'-glos^l) «• [G. acrZossos, tongueless, fr. 
"o*'-''^'^*** a axiA glossa, tongue] tongueless. 

aglow (g^-glo') adv. or a. in a glow ; glowing. 

a p-1 11 1 i f i nn (ag-166-tish-un) n. [G.a and L. glvtire, 

""o*"^* ''*'-'** pp. glutitus, swallow] inability to 

swallow [Path.]. 

aP"matolnP~V (ag-ma-toK-jD n. [G. agma, 

a.^xxxca,i,v/Av/gjr agmotos, fragment, and logos, 

discourse] that department of surgery which relates to 


Q pTi ail (agonal') n. [A. S. angncegl] an inflammation 

0.^110,11 round the nail ; a whitlow. 

Q p"n 3 f P (ag'-nat) n. [L. ad and natus, born] any male 

0.^110,1,^ relation by the father's side ;— a. related 

on the father's side ; from a common source. 

acrnafir^ (ag-nat^ik) a. pertaining to descent by 

dglldUC the male line. 

a p"na.tion (ag-na^hun) n. relation by the father's 

0.^110.1,1^.^11 gj(jg . descent from a common source. 

a.P*nrPfl (agne^) n. [G. agnoia, want of percep- 

ogiiv^o. tion, ignorance] a state in which one 

does not recognise persons or things [Path.]. 
a-PTlOm Pn (ag-no^men) w. [L.] an additional name 
o.giiv/iii&ii given by the Eomans, because of 

some distinctive circumstance ; a nickname. 
acrnnminaf inn (ag-nom-i-na^shun) n. a sur- 
ctgilUlllllldLlUll name; resemblance in sound 
between one word and another ; alliteration. 
a.PT10^tip (ag-nos^tik) n. [G. agnostos, unknown] 
7*& ^^'-''^ i-*^ one that believes that human knowledge 
is limited to experience ;— a. pertaining to the agnostics or 
their doctrines. 

aD"nr»Qfir»icm (ag-nos-ti-sizm) n. the doctrines 
«tg IIUSJ UClbUl of the agnostics. 

a0"nilQ r'acfnc (ag'-nus kas-tus) [L.] the chaste 
cLgiiuo «.,d,aLUa tree, Vitex agnus castus. 
a.P"nU^ rfpi (ag'-nus de-I) n. [L. Lamb of God] 
T^o**""^ *-**^* a figure of a lamb bearing the 
banner of the cross ; a wax medallion bearing such a 
figure, and blessed by the Pope ; a part of the mass 
beginning with the words "Agnus Dei." 
aP^O aP'OnP (^-g^'. a-gon') adv. and a. [A.S. 
**•") **o^**^ acdn] past ; gone ; in time past. 

a p-op" (*-80g') adv. or a. [Celt.] highly excited by 

**&'-'& eagerness after an object. 

op*ninP* (^-go^ing) (''dv. in motion, as to set a 

"'o'-'***o machine, etc., ofiromfir. 

o p*nn i C (■^■f^on'-ik) a. [G. agonos, without an angle] 

**o*^***^ not forming an angle. Agonic line, a line 

on which the magnetic needle has no declination. 

a PTini^m (ag^-nizm) n. contention for a prize ; a 

**o^**~''** contest; the prize in a contest. 

Qp*oni^t (ag^-nist) n. [G. agonistes, fr. agon, 

"'o'^***'^^ contest] one that contends for the prize 

in pubUc games ; a dramatic actor. 

agonistic, agonistical '^t^ 

ing to contests, bodily or mental. 
a OT»nicf inaliTT- (ag-6-nis-ti-kal-i) adv. in an 
«*& '-'ilia LLK^ftliy agonistic manner. 
a&*OnisticS (ag-S-nls^tiks) n. the science of the 

aP'On i 7P (ag^-niz) v.t. to distress with great pain ; 
"'o'^***^^ to torture; — v.i. to writhe with agony; 
to suft'er anguish. 

agonizingly SS'S"'"^""^'^''' ^^^^""^'^"^^ 

ncmnrkf'hp'f *i (a-goino-thet) n. [G.] one of the 
oguiiULiiCLC oflicials that presided over public 
games in ancient Greece. 

a crr\nr\fVi«af ir* (a-go-no-thet^ik) a. pertaining to 
dgUllUUlCLlU the ofliceof agonothete. 
ap'nnv (ag^-ni) n. [G. agonial extreme bodily or 
cxgv^iijr mental pain ; the deatn struggle. Agony 
column, that part of a newspaper which contain^ 
advertisements for lost relatives and friends, etc. 
Qp"r)ra (ag^or-a) n. [G.] the public square and 
^o'^* ** market-place of an ancient Greek town. 
a OTkra r%\^ r»Ki a (ag-or-a-fo'-bi-a) n. [G. agora and 
o.gui o.j^iiuuio. phobos, fear] a dread of crossing 
open spaces, the result of nervous debility [Path.]. 
»ip-/-jll^P (a-goo-ta) n. [native name] a rat-like 
**& '-' " *-** insectivorous mammal, peculiar to Hayti. 
ao-mifi a0*nilfv (a-g66-ti) n. [native name] 
o,guutx, etguuty a genus of rodent mammals, 
natives of South America and the West Indies. 

(a-gra-ri-an) n. [L. ager, field] one that 

favours an equal division of property ; 

—a. relating to equal division ot lands ; relating to lands ; 


[Bot.] growing wild. Agraxian murder, or outrage, 
crime consequent upon a dispute about land. 

(a-gra-ri-an-izm) n. equal division 
" ' " ' r pr 
principles of those that favour such a division. 

agrananism ^oFitnd- 

or property, or the 

flPTf f (a-gre') •y.i. [L. ad and grains, agreeable] to 
"o* ^^ harmonize in opinion, statement, or action ; 
to yield assent ; to come to terms ; to resemble ; to 
correspond in gender, number, or case. 
oo-r<i<i?iKi1iftr (a-gi'e-a-bil-i-ti) n. the quality of 
dgl CCdUlll Ly befng agreeable. 
flPTPP^HIp (a-gre-a-bl) a. agreeing or suitable; 
^o*^^"^*^ in conformity or accordance; pleas- 
ing to the mind or senses ; willing or ready to consent. 
Q frf<i AoKlAtiAcc (a-gre-a-bl-nes) n. the quality 
dgl CCdUlCIlCbb of being agreeable. 
SPTPPflHlv fe-gre-a-bli) adv. in an agreeable 
cxgic;ca.Uijr manner ; pleasingly ; conformably. . 
jj pTPPtnP'tlf (a-gre-ment) n. a state of agreeing, 
**&* *^^^**^**^ or being in harmony or resem- 
blance ; concord of one word with another in gender, . 
number, or case ; a bargain or contract. 

agrestic, agrestical g-fwWSj 

pertaining to the fields ; rural ; unpolished. 

arr«-i^itlfiii-'i1 (ag-ri-kul-tur-al) a. relating to 
gnCUlLUrdl agriculture. 
ao-ri ^n 1 f n r*» (ag-ri-kul-tur) n. [L. a^er, field, and 
gllL.ulL,Ulc: cultura, cultivation] the art or 
science of cultivating the ground. 

agriculturist iSkSi''^ ""• °"' '^'"'^ 

PDrimonv (ag^ri-mun-i) n. [G. argemone, fr. 
"■fe^ lliUJiiy argos, shining] a genus of plants. 
acrrinlncrv (ag-ri-ol^ji) n. [G. agrios, wild, and 
a.giiUiUgy logos, discourse] the comparative 
study of primitive man. 

a ornnntmr (a-gron-o-mi) a. [G. agronomos, rural, 
«*&* UllUHiy fr. agros, field, and nemein, deal out] 
the art of cultivating the ground ; agriculture. 

F&te, far, ^do ; me, her ; mine ; note ; tune ; moon. 


21 alabastrite 

A crrr»Qf i^ (a-gros^tis) n. [G. agrostis, couch-grass] 
■**■& * '-'^ ''^^ a genus of grasses. 

agrostographer ^S!^^^:'' ' 

acrrn«5fnPTanhv (ag-ros^tog-ra-fi) n. [G. 
ctgiuotvrgicvpiijr agrostis, couch-grass, and 
graphein write] a description of grasses. 
ao-rrkcfrklrkonr (ag-ros-tolio-ji) n. [G. logos, d^- 
<*& i ua LUiug jr course] that part of botany which 
relates to grasses. 

orrrrkiinH (a-ground') otZt;, or a. on the ground; 
dgiUUliU stranded ; at a standstill 
ao*1iarHipn1"P (a-gwar-di-en-ta) n. [Sp. fr. L. 
**S"** ^ ^ ^^ aqiM, water, and ardere, burn] 
an inferior brandy made in Spain and^ Portugal ; any 
common distilled liquor. 

ap'llf* (^"i) '"'• l^- <icutus, sharp] a malarial fever 
**"& " ^ marked by successive paroxysms, cold or shiver- 
ing, hot and burring, and sweating ; chilliness ; a 
state of shaking with cold. Ague-cake, a tumour of the 
spleen, often due to ague. Ague-fit, a tit of ague. Ague- 
spell, a charm against ague. A^e-tree, sassafras. 
«]p>|i<ct-i (a-gu-ish) a. having the symptoms of an 
"•& Uloll ag^g . subiect to ague ; productive of ague. 
omiiol-irKaoc (a^u-ish-nes) n. state of being 
agUlSnnebb aguish ; chilHness. 
a0*vnnilQ (aj-i-nus) a. [G. a and cwne, woman] 
"'&jr **'-'"^ having no female organs [Bot.J. 
o U (a) int. an exclamation expressive of surprise, pity, 
"■^^ complaint, contempt, dislike, joy, exultation, etc., 
according to the manner of utterance. 
pViQ (a-ha) int. an exclamation expressing triumph, 
***^'* contempt, or simple surprise ; — n. a sunk fence. 
aVlPaH (a-hed) adv. farther forward j in advance; 
ctlicciu onward. To forge ahead, [^aut.] to draw 
or shoot ahead. To go ahead, to make rapid progress. 
pVif^of-k (a-hep) adi: in a heap ; all of a heap ; in a 
ctilCdp huddled or crouching condition. 
aVlPtTI (^^■'i^"^) "**• a sound intended to attract 
ctllClli attention, to express doubt, etc. 

(a-hoi) int. a word used chiefly at sea in hail- 
ing, as ship ahoy! 
o l-t I1 1 1 (a-hul') adv. or a. with the sails furled and the 
dliUXi helm lashed on the lee side [Naut.]. 

(a^) n. [Braz.] the three-toed sloth of South 
America, named from its cry. 



niA (ad) v.i. and i.[L. ad and iuvare, help] to assist ; to 
^^'^ help ; to relieve ; — n. help ; the person or thmg 
that aids ; a helper ; an aide-de-camp ; [Feudal Law] a 
subsidy or tax. 

'iir^f^ Hfa r»amr» (ad^e-kong) «.; p^. aides-de- 
dlUC-UC-Cdllip camp [p j ^n officer selected 
to assist the general in his military duties. 
siHIf^QQ (ad-les) a. giving no help; helpless; un- 
aiuic^oo supported ; friendless. 
oirrlpf (a-glet) n. [O.F. aigle, eagle] a young eagle 
•*^&*^'' [Her.]; [F. aiguillette, pomt] an aglet. 
aicrrpimrkrA (a%er-mor) n. [F.l charcoal ready 
di^l CiiiUl C for the addition of the other con- 
stituents of gunpowder. 

a i 0"rf»f f *» (a-gret) n. [F.l the small white heron ; a 
cxigx CLLC tuft, as of feathers, diamonds, etc.; [Zool.] 
the hog-fish ; [Bot.] the feathery or hairy down of seeds. 
a 10*11 ill p (a-gwel') n. [F.] a sharp, slender peak 
dig uiiic [Geol.] ; a drill used in blasting rocks. 
aitrnilliacniKa (a-gwe-lesk') a. shaped like or 
<**S "Aiiv.,ov|uc resembling an aiguille. 

aiguillette, aigulet t^-^'Ji^^ 


oil (^^) ^•*' [A^'S. eglan, pain] to cause pain to i—v.i. to 

'*'^* feel pain. 

Jltlpff P iCa-lef) n. [L. ala, wing] an iron or steel 

aiic^Ltv:; shoulder-plate worn by a man-at-arms. 

ailmfllf (al^ent) n. morbid aflection of the body; 

. . disease; indisposition. ^'*™^ ^■^" l-^' ^ ^^^ aestimare, estimate] to 
~**** direct or point, as a weapon ; to direct to a par- 
ticular object ;— v.i. to point with a missile weapon ; to 
/direct the intention or purpose •,—n. the act of aiming ; 
''-'the object aimed at ; purpose ; intention. 

Q jjvi 1 pgg (am-les) a. without aim or purpose : pur- 

air (ar)n. [G. aer, air] the atmosphere ; a gas ; a light 
**** breeze; a tune; peculiar look, manner, or carriage of 
a person ; [Paint. ] that which expresses action, manner,etc. ; 

—pi. an affected manner ; haughtiness ; — v.t. to expose to 
the air ; to ventilate ; to expose to heat, for the purpose 
of drying or warming; to parade. Air-balloon, see 
balloon. Air-batli, an arrangement for drying sub- 
stances in air of any desired temperature. Air-bed, a 
bed inflated with air. Air-bladder, a vesicle containing 
air [Anat.]; a swimming-bladder. Air-bone, a hollow 
bone, containing air, as in birds. Air-bound, prevented, 
by the presence of air, from acting. Air-brake, one 
worked by compressed air. Air-buUt, chimerical. Air- 
casing, a casing separated by air from the object 
inclosed, to prevent the rapid transmission of heat. 
Air-c^s, cells containing air [Bot. and Zool.]. Air- 
drain, an empty space left round a foundation to 
promote drjmess. ^r-drawn, drawn in air ; imaginary. 
Air-engine, an engine driven by the compression and 
expansion of air. Air-flue, a conduit for air. Air-foun- 
tsun, an apparatus for producing a jet of water by the 
elastic force of compressed air. Air-fonnel, a flue for 
ventilating the hold of a ship. Air-gun, a gun dis- 
charged by the elastic force of air. Air-bole, an opening 
to admit or discharge air ; a flaw in a casting. Air- 
jacket, a jacket inflated with air, or having bladders 
tilled with air attached to it. Air-line, a bee-line. 
AJr-macblne, a ventilating machine for renewing the 
air, as in a mine. Air-pipe, a ventilating pipe. Air- 
plant, hi plant unconnected with the ground. Air- 
poise, an instrument for weighing air. Air-port, a 
circular aperture in the side of a ship, admitting light 
and air. Air-pump, a machine for exhausting tlie air 
from a closed vessel. Air-sacs, air-cells. Air-shaft, a 
passage for air into a mine. Air-tbennometer, one in 
which air is used instead of mercury. Air-thread, a 
spider's thread floating in the air. Air-tigbt, so tight 
as not to admit air. Air-tint, an atmospheric modifi- 
cation of a tint [Paint.]. Air-trap, a contrivance to 
prevent the escape of foul air. Air-trunk, a ventilating 
conduit for theatres, etc. Air-tumbler, a kind of pigeon. 
Alr-vaJve, a valve controlling the flow of air ; a valve on 
a steam boiler to admit air, and thus prevent the forma- 
tion of a vacuum by the condensation of steam. Air- 
vessel, an organic vessel containing air; a vessel for con- 
densing air. Air-way, a ventilating passage in a mine. 
To beat the air, to make vain eflbrts. To take air, to 
become public. To take the air, to go for an airing. 
airilv (ar-i-H) adv. in an airy manner; gaily; 
dll liy merrily ; lightly ; delicately. 
nirinPQQ (ar-i-nes) n. openness to the air; levity ; 
dil iixcoo gaiety ; vanity ; aflectation. 
airv (^''"^^ "• having the nature or properties of air; 
**** J exposed to the air ; unsubstantial ; full of levity. 
aicslp ^^'^ n. [L. o^i, wing] the wing of a building; 
dlolC one of the latacal divisions of a Gothic church ; 
a jiassage in a church, into which the pews open. 

aisled CW) a. furnished with aisles. 

oif (at) n. [a form of eyot, an island] a small island 

*** *" in a river or lake. 

oif /»Vil-»rkri<i (ach-bon) n. [O.F. nache, fr. L. nati^, 

dlLCilUUIlC buttock, and A.S. ban, bone] the 

rump bone ; the cut of beef that includes this bone. 

pi Of (ajar") adv. or a. [A.S. on cerre, on the turn] 

*V "■ partly open, as a door. 

aim ma (a-joo^pa) »i. [native name] a pile-dwelling 

€Xj\Ju.^€X on the coast of Venezuela. » 

ajutage (aj^6-taj)n. See adjutage. 

alrimHn (a-kim-bo) adv. or a. [a (in), keen, and 

ar^imuKj i^y,^ ^jj^ a crook; bent. With arms , 

akimbo, ^rith hands on hips, and elbows turned outwards. . 

p1^i«-i (a-kin') a. related by blood; allied by nature; JuJlr- 

cti^iii partaking of the same properties. 

nla (a-la) n.; pi. aUss (a^le) [L.] a wing-like process 

o-^** [Bot., Anat., and Zool.]. 

alaHanHinP (al-aban^in) n. [Aldbanda, in 

dia.L^o,iivxiiic Caria] a sulphide of manganese. 

alaHarr^Vi (al-a-bark) n. [G.] the chief magistrate 

didUdi »-ii of the Jews in Alexandria under the 

Ptolemies and Eoman emperors. 

alaHaQfpr (al-a-bas-ter) n. [G.] massive gypsimi ; 

cuaudOLCi _a jQade of, or like, alabaster. 

alabastrian, alabastrine [ri4i;.trin) 

a. made of, or like, alabaster. 

alaKacfrif«» (al-a-bas-trlt) n. an alabaster vessel 

dldUdb LI 1 LC for holding perfumes. 

Fate, far, ^do *, me, her ; mine ; note ; tune ; md6n. 


alop]*- (?i-lak') int. 
Gtict^n. sorrow. 

an exclamation expressive of 

alflptflHav (^-lak-a-da) int. an exclamation ex- 
aictv, JVctuay nressive of regret or sadness. 
illflPrii'V (*"laK-ri-ti) n. [L. alacritas, alacritatis, 
aiaK^L 1 Ly fj. aiacer, brist] cheerf id readiness. 
AlaHHini^f (a-lad-i-nist) n. lAlaiklin, a learned 
x^iauuiiiiok divine] a freethinker among the 

AlaHHini^ia (a-lad-i-niz) v.l. [Arabian Nights] to 
x^ictuuiiiiz<c transform, as by magic. 

k la grecque or grec [if onTof^ the 

varieties of fret ornament [ArchJ, 
alalia (a-lii^li-a) n. [G. «, negative, and lalein, speak] 
ctlctild inability to speak, due to paralysis. 
alomorlpk (a-!a-mod') adv. [F.J in fasluon; — a. 
dlctlliuuc; fashionable ■,—n. a thin, glossy silk. 
n^'^■n^' (a-lant) n. [O.F. alan] a mastiff with short 
aiant ears [Her.]. 

alanfin (a-lan-tin) n. [Ger. alant, elecampane] a 
dlctlltlll starchy substance from elecampane; inulin. 
alar (a^lar) a. [L. ala, wing] pertaining to, or having, 
ctlctl wings ; [Bot.] situated in the forks of a plant. 
ala rtn (a-larm') n. [Low L. ad illas armas, to those 
dldllil arms!] a summons to arms: any sound or 
information giving notice of approaching danger ; sudden 
'surprise, with fear or terror; a contrivance for awaking 
persons from sleep ; [Fencing] a challenge ■,—v.t. to call to 
arms for defence ; to fill witli apprehension ; to disturb. 
Alarm-boll, a bell that gives notice of danger. Alarm- 
clock, a clock nuide to ring loudly at a particular hour. 
Alarm-compaas, a mariner's compass that indicates, 
by means of an electric alarm, any deviation from the 
prescribed course. Alarm-guage, a contrivance for 
indicating a dangerous pressure of steam, or a deficiency 
of water, in a boiler. Alarm-gun, a gun fired to give 
notice of danger. Alarm-post, a position where troops 
assemble on an alarm. Alarm-watcll, a watch that 
strikes at a particular hour. 

alarmino'lv (a-lar-ming-li) adv. in an alarming 
did! iiim^iy manner ; so as to alarm. 
alarmicf (a-lai^-mist) n. one that excites alarm; 
dXdi lllidL one that difiuses panic. 

alarum (a-lar-um, a-lar-um) n. and v. See alarm. 

o 1 a «-TT (a-la-ri) a. of, or pertaining to, wings or wing- 
didJ. y lijjg parts ; wing-like ; wing-shaped. 
oloo (a-las') int. [L. ah and lassus, weary] an 
dido exclamation of sorrow, pity, grief, etc. 
olofo <al'if<i/4 (a-lat, a-la-ted) a, [L. aZatus] 
cLldLC, dldLt:U ringed [Bot. and Conch.]. 


fllsi'ion (^-lii^shun) n. a winged condition; 
ci.i-a.LLKj 11 manner in which wings are disposed. 
o IK (alb) n. [L. alhus, white] an ecclesiastical vestment 
a.i.iJ qI white linen, envelopmg the entire person. 
alharnrp alHimr*^ (al-ba-kor, -bi-kor) n. 
dlUdCOre, aiDlCOre [pg f^ ^ ^^ the, and 

hukr, young camel] a species of tunny. 
Jllha.n (*'"l^n) ''*• [L. albus, white] a crystalline, 
diudii resinous compound, extracted from giittar 
percha by boihng in alcohol. 

alhaf a (•^'■'^a-ta) n. [L. alius, white] German silver, 
diL/dLd an alloy of nickel, copper, and zinc. 
alKafrrkoo (al-ba-tros) n. [Pg. alcatraz, fr. A. 
dlUdtrUbb al, the, and G. 
kados, a water-vessel] a very large 
web-footed sea-bird. 
alhf^tf (awl-be-it) cortj. al- 
a,iKJ\ziL though ; even though ; 
notwithstanding that. 
alK<arf (al-bert) n. [Prince 
dlUCl U jiiberi] a short kind 
of watch chain. Also called Albert- 
a Ihpctrianf (^l"^<^s-ent)«.[L. 

***'-'^^'-^**''a^6MS, white] becoming white ; whitish. 
a-lbica-tion (^l"bi-ka^hun) n. a growiiy; white; 
a,iui\,a.\.i\jn forming of white patclies in foliage. 
AlHio'P'nQPkQ (al-bi-jen-scz) [Aibi, in 
xxii^igciisca Languedoc] a party of Reformers 
wlio separated from the R.C. church in tlie 12th century. 
alhin (^'-'3'°) ^- TL. albus, white] a mineral of an 
CLiuiii opaque, white colour. 

albineSS (al-bl-nes) n. a female albino. 

22 alchemy 

alhini«5m alhinnicsm (al-bi-nizm, ai-bi-no- 
dlUlIllblll, dlUinUlbin i^m) n. the state or 

condition of being an albino. 

a 1 hi n n (al-bl-uo, -be-no) n. [L. albus, white] a person 

di 1.7X11 v/ with an abnormal whiteness of the skin and 

hair, and a peculiar pink colour in the eyes ; an animal 

similarly characterized. 

A 1 hi on (al-bi-on) n. [Gael, alp, height] England ; a 

■'*'*'"'*'^** name used in poetry. 

albite ^^^-^^^^ ^- t^. albus, white] white felspar; 

a Ihll frin <ann Q (al-bu-jin^-u8)a. pertaining to or 
diuu^iiicuus resembling the wliite of an egg 
or the white of the e^-e. 

3lhllP*f> (^.l-hci-go) n. [L., whiteness, fr. albus. 
diurugv^ white] a disease of the eye characterised 
by white opacity of the cornea [Path.]. 
a 1 hi 1 tn (^l-l^u'ii) 'i- [L- albus] a white table on which 
diMUiii anything was inscribed [R. Antiq.l ; a blank 
book in which to insert autographs or photographs; a book 
in which visitors enter their names. 
fllhlimPn (*l-bu-men) 71. nourishing matter stored 
diuuiiicii up between the embryo and the skin of 
many seeds ; a substance found in animals and plants, 
anti nearly pure m the white of an egg [albumin]. 
alhiimianiy** (al-bu'-me-niz) v.t. to cover with 
diuuiliciii^c an albuminous solution [Phot.]. 

albuminize iSS.'""'"^ ""•*• *° "''"''''* '°*^ 

alhnminnirl (al-bu-mi-noid) a. resembling al- 
diuuiiiiiiuiu bumen or albumin ;—n. a substance 
resembling albumin. 

albuminous, albuminose nis,^-nc->?i; 

full of, or containing, albumen ; of the nature of albumin. 
a 1 hi 1 m i n 1 1 f i a (al-bu-mi-nu-ri-a) n. [L. albumen, 
diuuiiiiiiuiid and G. ourm., urine] the pres- 
ence of albumin in the kidneys [Path.]. 
alhnrn (al-burn) n. [L. albus, white] alburnum; 
diUUl 11 the bleak, a sUvery-white fish. 

alburnous i^LiSf^ "• ^^' ^' p^^aining to, 

alhnmnm (al-bur-num) n. [L. albus, white] the 
dlUUlllUlll softer part of wood next to the bark. 
Alh^rri (al-bin) n. [Gael, alp, height] a poetic name 
niuyil of Scotland. 

Alpa (*l^^) ^- LIcel. alka, auk] a genus of birds 
•"■^'-** belonging to the auk family. 

alcahest Seealkahest. 

Alpflip (al-kaiik) a. \_Alcaeus, a lyric poet of Mity- 

x^iv^dil... lene] of, or pertaining to, or m, Alcaics ; — Alcaic verses. 

n\f^n\A alr»aTrrlo (al-kad') n. [A. al, the, 

dlCdlU, dlUdyuC and gaid, leader] in Spain, 

the commander of a fortress ; a governor of a prison. 

al'^alHl* (al-kal-de) n. [A. al, the, and qadl, judge] 

di^diuc a magistrate m Spain and Portugal, and 

Spanish America. 

alcanna (al-kan'-^)n. See henna, 

alparra ^a (al-ka^ra'za) n. [Sp. fr. A. al, the, and 
dii^di 1 d^d jcurraz, earthen vessel] a porous 
earthen vessel for cooling water by evaporation. 
?i1paza.r (^l-k^-^^r) ^- tSp. fr. a.] a fortress; a 

A 1 r» <i H /-k (al-se^6) n. [L.] a genus of birds, including 
/\H,CUU the kingfishers. 

Alpf*Q (al-sez) n. [L.] a genus of ruminant animals, 
X^lV.,Co including the elk and the moose. 

alchemic, alchemical frdSt^'S 

produced by, alchemy. 

alr^h<amir>allTr (al-kem-i-kal-i) adv. in an 
dl(.,lic;illl^diiy alchemic manner. 
^1<^Vi«if-niof (al-ke-mist) n. one that studies or is 
dlClieull&t skilled in alchemy. 

alchemistic, alchemistical ^^t^il; 

-ti-kal) a. relating to, or practising, alchemy. 

a 1 r»h e^m i -y *> (al-ke-mTz) v.t. to change by alchemy; 

dl(..llCllllz.c: to transmute. 

alphptnv (al-lf £!-'"') ^- [A- al, the, and Late G. 

dlCllClliy chttneia, chemistry] occult chemistry ; 

the search for the process of transmutuig the baser metals 

into gold ; any magic power of transforming. 

Fate, far, ado ; me, hgr ; mine ; note ; tune ; moon. 




alpmhip (a-lem-bik) n. [A. al, the, and G. ambix, 
**^*** uil^ gyp] a chemical vessel, usually of glass or 
metal, used in distillation. 

Ql#amKrr»fVi (a-lem-broth) n. [Etjui. unknown] 
dXCillUi ULXi a universal solvent. 
A1onr«<-kn 1o/«o (a-long'-song-las) n. lace made at 
AieuCyOn lace Alengon, in France, 
(al-ko-hol-ik) a. relating to, or of thef'olpj-JQM (a-le^ri;on) n. [F.] an eagle without beak or 

alcoate, alcohate SSte''^ ""■ ^ 

alrrkVinl (al-ko-liol) n. [A. al-kohU, powder to stain 
dlCUliUi the eyelids] pure or higlily rectified spirits; 
loosely applied to ardent spirits in general. 
alrnholatf* (al-ko-hol-at) n. a salt containing 

nature of, alcohol. 


alrrkVirklicm (al-ko-hoi-izm) n. the effects of 
dlCUllUllolll alcohol on the hunaan system. 

alcoholization S^^f^°'-'-=^'^"°^ "• *^' 

saturation with alcohol : alcoholism .... 

nlorkVirkliTtk (al-ko-hol-Iz) t'.«. to rectify spirit ; to ' al£»|-f«-|^CQ (a-lertr-nes) n. watcliful activity 

dlCUiiUii^C saturate with alcohol. I «**^* wiicoa readiness. 

feet [Her.]. 
olp*^ (51-lert') a. [It aW erta, upon one's guard] 
ctiCi t watchful ; vigilant ;— n. a surprise or alarm. 
Upon the alert, upon the watch, 
act of rectifying a spirit by ! olpi'flv (a-lert^li) ocJv. in an alert manner ; quickly ; 
a. I dici Lijr nirnbly ; briskly ; actively. 

alcoholometer, alcoholmeter 

(al-ko-hol-om^-ter, al-ko-hol-me-ter) n. [alcohol and G. 

metron, measure] an instrument for determining the 

strength of spirits. 

alrrkVinlrkmAfrxr (al-ko-hol-om'-e-tri) n. the 

ctlL^UllUiUlllCtxy process of determining the 

quantity of pure alcohol in a liquor. 

A1mr311 (al-ko-ran, al-ko-ran') 71. [A.] the Koran 

Xlll^Ui ctil tijg Mohammedan scriptures.^i" (^^-ko-ran-ist) n. a strict observer of 

alpnvP (al-kov, al-kov) n. [A. al, the, and qobbak. 

o>i\^VJ V c vault] a covered recess in a room ; a covered 

seat in a garden ; any natural recess. 

Alpvnnaria (al-si-6-natri-a) {Alcyonium} 

n.l\^y Ulldi ict a group of zoopyhtes. 

a1r"VOnip (al-si-on-ik) a. pertaining to the genus 

ctlUjrUiliU Alcyonium. 

o 1 n-xTr\r%ti-e^ (al^i-6-nIt) n. a sponge-like fossil, like 

aiCyOnite the Alcyomum. 

A1/^'«7-r»t-iiiim (al-si-6^ni-um) n. [G. alkuonion, a 

rucyuillUlll kind of zoophyte, like the halcyon's 

nest] a genus of zoophytes. 

a 1 H **ll vH f* (aMle-hld) n. \alicohoJ), dehycKrogena- 

cLluclljruc: ^^g) deprived of hydrogen] .a liquid 

produced by the oxidation of alcohol. 

o 1 r1 oViTrrl i n (al-de-hMik) a. pertaining to, or con- 

aiaenyaiC talnlng, aldehy(k. 

alHpr (awMer) n. [A.S. air] the popular name of 

ctiucx Alnus glutinosa. 

fllHprmJin (^iwlH^ler-man) n. [A.S. ealdorman] a 

ctiuci iiidix civic dignitary next to the mayor. 

aldermanate, aldermancy SjK[; 

-si) n. the office of alderman ; aldermen collectively. 
sIHprmsniP (awl-der-man-ik) a. relating or be- 
ctxuc;x xxxdxxxv^ longing to an alderman. 
3 1 H Prtn 3 n t*V (^wMer-man-ri) n. a district of a 
ctxucx xxxctiix y borough having its own alderman. 
AlHinP (awMin) a. an epithet applied to books 
*^**^***^ printed by Aldus Manutius, of Venice 

oltaf Viir»l/-»o~fr (a-le-thi-ol^ji) n. [G. aletheia, 
dXCtlXXUXU^y truth, and logos, discourse] that 
part of logic which treats of truth and error. 
olpff fk (a-let) n. [F. fr. L. ala, wing] a small wing; 
ctxc LLC a pilaster or buttress [Arch.]. 
alAiirr»m*»f **r (al-u-rom^-ter) n. [G. aleuron, 
ctXCUXUXXXCLCX wheaten flour, and metron, 
measure] an instrument for ascertaming the bread- 
making qualities of wheaten flour. 

aleurone, aleuron itbuSoidTuUan'ce 

found in minute granules in ripening seeds. 

Alexandrian, Alexandrine Ji^^: 

an, -drin) n. a verse of twelve syllables, or six iambic 

feet \—a. pertaining to Alexandria, Alexander the Great, 

or Alexandrine verse. 

a1«i-vir\ViarmiP (a-lek-si-far'-mik) a. [G.alcxein, 

ctXC.A.xpxxctx xxxxv, keep ofl", and pharmakon, drug] 

acting as an antidote ;— «. an antidote. 

oio'virwrrc^f 1/^ (a-lek-si-pi-ret^ik) a. [G. alexein, 

cUCJi-XpyxCLXL, ^ard off, and puretos, fever] 

acting as a febrifuge ;— n. a febrifuge. 

alf^Ylfprir (a-lek-si-ter-ik) a. [G.] acting as an 

aiCAiLSlii IK^ antidote ;— ». an antidote. 

olfo (al-f;.i) n. a North African grass, or its fibre' 

ctXXct yggd ij^ paper-making. 

nXtrn val'-gg.) n. [L.] one of the algas (al-je), crypto- 

"'*&"' gams, found mostly in salt or fresh water. 

algarot, algaroth &i^i,^^A^- 

tor] antimony oxychloride, a purgative and emetic. 
o 1 p*pHrs (al-je-bra) n. [A. al the, and jabara, bind 
dX^CUXd. together] universal arithmetic, in which 
letters express quantities and signs denote operations. 

algebraic, algebraical ^ ^'^ 

taining to, or performed by, algebra. 

a1cr*»KrQi/''i1lT7' (al-je-bra^i-kal-i) adv. by alge- 
Xg C UX dXCdXXy braic means. 

1 p-pHraist (^'-Je-brd-ist) n. one that is skilled 

alp (al) ra. [A.S. eaZw] a Hquor made from an infusion 'i1p'pKrai7p (al-je-bra-Iz) v.t. to perform by 
**^ of malt by fermentation. Ale-bench, a bench in, \ «*xg t ui ai^c; algebra ; to make algebraic in form. 

A1p-f»«-ifip (al-je-ren) n. a native or an inhabitant 
x^kigv^iAii^ of Algiers, or Algeria, in Africa; a 
pirate ;— a. pertaining to Algiers or to Algeria. 
alp-iH (al-jid) a. [L. fr. algere, be cold] cold [Med.]. 
«**&*'-«• Algid cholera, Asiatic cholera. 

algidity, algidness ^SStf''^"'''' 

Q 1 p'tfip (al-jif-ik) a. [L. algificus, fr. algus, cold, and 
** o***^ jfacere, make] producing cold. 

01 p-rjiH (al-goid) o. [L. alga, a seaweed, and G. 
•^ o'^*^ eidos, form] resembling algae. 
'i\crr\\rtcr\T (al-gol^vji) n. a branch of botany 
dxguxw^y devoted to algae. 
Q 1 p*nr (^l-?^"") 71. [L.] an unusual coldness, esp. at the 
***o*^* begmning of fever [Med.]. 
alcroricm (al-go-rizm) n. [A.] the Arabic system 
ctxgv^xxaxxx of notation; arithmetic. 
Q 1 p-oil «> (al-gus) a. [L. alga, sea- weed] pertaining to, 
"'*o'^"" or abounding with, seaweed. 
•alp-iin^il (al-gwa-zel) n. [A. al, the, and wazlr, 
cxiguo,^!! officer] an inferior ofiicer of justice; a 
constable ; a Spanish term. 

alp'lim almilP" (^l^um, al-mu?) n. [H.] a 
dx^uxxx, dXXXXUg tree mentioned in Scripture. 

alhenna (al-hen^i)n. see henna. 

or before, a public-house. Ale-berry, ale boiled with 
spice, sugar, and sops of bread. Ale-conner, an in- 
spector of ale. Ale-cost, costmary, used to flavour ale. 
Ale-hoof, ground-ivy, formerly used in making ale. 
Ale-house, a house where ale is retailed. Ale-silver, 
a duty formerly paid to the Lord Mayor by the ale- 
sellers in London. Ale-stake, a stake set up as a sign 
before an ale-house. Ale-wife, a woman that keeps an 

fllf^flfnrv (a^le-^-tur-i) «• [L- cdea, a game with 
dxcdLUX y fjjgg-j depending on chance. 

alectoromachy, alectryomachy 

(a-lek-to-rom^-ki, a-lek-tri-om-a-ki) n. [G. alektor, 
alektruon, cock, and mache, fight] cock-fighting. 
ali^rfrvntnanpir (at-lelc-tri-o-man-si) n. [G. 
dXCC LX y UXXXdXXCy jnanteia, divination] divina- 
tion by means of a cock. 

pipp (ale) adv. on the side opposite to the wind; 
ai^c on or toward the lee side [xsaut.]. 
aJpp'Qj- (al^-gar, al^-g^r) n. [ale and F. aigre, sour] 
ci.i^gci,x ale or beer that has become sour; vinegar 
made from ale. 

fllptnHHar (a-lem^ar) n. [Turk.] an officer that 
a.x^iixuvaa.1 j,gars the green standard of Moham- 
med before the Sultan. 

F&te, far, ado ; m§, h$r ; mine ; ndte ; tune ; m6dn. 




oline (SAli-?is) adv. [L.] otherwise ;—n. an assumed 

aiicxo name ; a second writ, issued after the first has 

expired without effect. 

Q 1 iKi (al-i-bl) n. [L.] a plea of having been elsewhere 

aiiui. when the crime was committed. 

ali/^anf oli^onf a (al-i-kant, al-i-kan-te) n. 

dllCcillL) dllCdllLC [^^icante, town in Spain] 

a kind of Spanish wine. 

fl 1 i H 3 H f* (^1-i-dad) n, [A.l the movable arm of an 

cuiuauc instrument used for measuring angles. 

flllPn (^-yd) <*• [L. alius, another] foreign; 

axi^xi different in nature ;— n. a foreigner. 

Q 1 i cirt a Ki 1 i f tt (al-yen-a-bil-i-ti) n. the capacity of 

dllCllctUlllLy being alienated. 

flliptiaHlf* (al-yen-a-bl) a. capable of being alien- 

cxiicixctuic ated, sold, or transferred to another. 

alif*naf>'f* (al-yen-aj) n. the state of being an 

ctiidictgc; alien ; the legal standing of an alien. 

fllipfiaff (al'-yen-at) v.t. to transfer to another; 

ctllCXlctLvi; estrange ;—a. estranged. 

aliptiafinn (^l-yen-aAshun) n. a transfer of title, 

ctiicilctLldi or a legal conveyance of property ; 

state of being alienated ; mental derangement. 

ali«anafr»r (al-yen-a-tur) n. one that alienates or 

ctllCllctLUl transfers property. 

alipflPf* (al-yen-e') n. one to whom a transfer of 

ctiiciiCC property is made. 

flliptli^m (al-y en-izm) n. the state of being an alien ; 

ctiiciiioiii jjjg study and treatment of insanity. 

aliferous, aligerous S^'rV'S 

wing, and/e?'re, gerere, bear] having wings. 
fllifnrm (S'l-i-f^™^) *• [L. ala, wing, and forma, 
"'***'-'^ •^■^* shape] having the shape of a wing or wings. 
all crVl f (a-lif) adv. or a. on fire ; illuminated ;—-!;.*. 
ctix^llL [Jvf.E. alihten] to get down; to dismount; 
to fall, or descend and settle. 

fl 1 i PTI (?^'l^^') ''•^- [■'-'• ^ ^^^ linea, line] to adjust by 
****o *■'■ a line \—v.i. to form in line, as troops. 
ali<rntTi*3>rif (a-lln-ment) n. the act of adjusting 
dllglllllCllU to a line; the line of adjustment; 
the ground-plan of a road. 

a 1 i t** (g,-llk') a. having resemblance ; similar ;— adv. 
ctiiivc jji the same manner, form, or degree. 
alimPnl" (aW-ment) n. [L. atere, to feed] that 
aiiiiicxiL which feeds or supports ; [Law] provision 
for support ; — v.t. to maintain [Law]. 
alitnpnf al (al-i-men-tal) a. pertaining to aliment; 
ctxxxxxc^xxLcix supplying food ; nourishing. 
all m P n f a 1 1 V (a^l-i-men-tal-i) adv. in an alimental 
ctxxxxxcxxtctxxy naanner ; so as to furnish aliment. 
alimAnfarin<acc (al-i-men-ta-ri-nes) n. the 
ctxxxxxcxxuctx xxxc;ao quality of being alimentary, 
alitn^nf arv (^^■'"■^^'I'^^'^^a. pertaining to food ; 
axxxxxcxxLaxy nutritive. Alimentary cajial, the 
great intestine by which aliments are conveyed through 
the body, and the useless parts evacuated. 
alitTKanfafirtn (al-i-men-taAshun) n. the act or 
ctXXXXXCliLciUUll power of affording nutriment. 
olim^nf of iTrA (al-i-men'-ta-tiv) a. nourishing; 
ctxxxxxc;xxLcttxvc; connected with nutrition. 

alimentativeness, alimentive- 

4-1 Acc (al-i-men'-ta-tiv-nes, -tiv-nes) n. the appetite, or 
X X c o o the organ of appetite, for food or drink [Phren . ]. 
alimnnv (al-i-mun-i) n. [L. fr. alere, feed] an 
axxixxv^xxjr allowance made to a wife out of her 
husband's estate or income, upon her separation from 
him, or during a suit for the same. 
alinPfl (3,]-i-ped)a. [L. ala, wing; and pes, pedis, foot] 
a.ix^«;;vi wing-footed ;— n. an animal whose toes are 
connected by a membrane that serves as a wing. 
a.linuant (^W-kwant) «. [L.] not dividing another 
a,xxvj[ Liaxx l number without a remainder. 
a-linuof (^l-i-kwot) a. FL. aliquot, some] dividing 
a.iiv^Lxv' L exactly, or witnout remainder. 
alioVj (SAlish) a. somewhat resembling ale; having 
a.xxoxx gome Quality of ale. 

A 1 i cm a (^■-"z^™?) w- [Gr.] a genus of aquatic plants, 
■* *-*^x>3x*xa, containmg the water-plantain. 
a.1 i t n 1 n W" (al-i-trungk) n. [L. ala, wing, and truncus, 
a.xAi,x uiiA. trunk] the segment of an msect to which 
the wings are attached. 

alivf* ■^?'-li^) «• having life; not dead; active; sug- 
«=*;**»»- ceptible; open to impressions (from); filled 
with living beings. 

aliTarino (a-liz^a-rin) n. [A.] the red colouring 
ctiX^cU XXXC matter of madder. 
allraVjpsif (a'-^a-hest) n. [F.] the pretended uni- 
dxi^cxxxcoL versal solvent of the alchemists. 
a.lk3.1l6Stic (^l"ka-hes-tik) a. pertaining to the 

Qlt-alf»o/'«an/'*a (al-ka-les-ens) n. the process of 
diJ^dlC^^UCllCC becoming alkaline. 
•sllra1<ao/*«»nr«T7' (al-ka-les-en-si) n. a tendency 
dllidlC&CCIlCy to become alkaline. 
allralAcr'finf (al-ka-les^nt) a. tending to the 
ctxi^ctxc:ai..c;xxt properties of an alkali. 
allrali (al-ka-li) «.; pi. alkalis, alkalies (al-ka-liz, 
ctxxvctxx .ji2) [A. al-qali, ashes of glasswort] one of a 
class of chemical compounds, soluble in water, having 
the power of changing certain vegetable colours, and of 
combining with metals to form salts. Fixed alkalies, 
potash, soda, lithia. Volatile alkali, ammonia. 
allralif^irrkiic! (al-ka-lif-e-rus) a. containing or 
dlK.dilIClUUb prodiicing alkalies. 

alkalifiable Skanfied" • "^^^ "" "^^^^^' °* ^''"*^ 

jj 1 1».Q 1 \ At (al-ka-li-fi) v.t. to form or convert into an 
ctXJ\.cLXXXjr alkali ---v.i. to become an alkali. 
alt-a1io-*anrkiic (al-ka-lij-e-nus)a. producing 
dXXS.dXlg CXXU ua or generating alkali. 
allralitnpf Pr (al-ka-lim^-ter) n. [alkali, and 
cxxx^ctxxxxxcLCX Q metron, measure] an instru- 
ment for ascertaining the strength of alkalies. 

alkalimetric, alkalimetrical jtm^'et^ 

rik, -ri-kal) a. relating to alkalimetry. 
a 1 Ira 1 i m <af rxr (al-ka-lim^-tri) n. the act of ascer- 
ctxis.ctixxxxc: tx y taining the strength of alkalies. • 
^1l?-^1irt<a (al-ka-lln) a. pertaining to alkali ; having \M-ft- 
dlK-dllllC the oualities of alkali. J 

pitr-alf fllfTr (al-ka-Un-i-ti) n. the quality that con- 
ctxx^dXXXXXLjr stitutes an alkali ; alkaline character. 
alt-all TO firkn (al-k^-li-za-shun) n. the act of 
dlli^dll^dLXUll rendering alkaline. 
alkalizP (al-ka-lIz) v.t. to change into an alkali; 
ctxx^ctxx^C to give alkaline properties to. 
alkaloiH (al-na-loid) n. a vegetable principle that 
ctx JVdXtJXU acts chemically like an alkali ;— a. resem- 
bling an alkali in properties. 

oikanpf (al-ka-net) n. [A. al-hennd, henna] a red 
ctxxvctxxct dye {vom Anchusa tinctoria ; the plant 
that yields the dye. 

allrplrpntri (al-ke-ken'-ji) n. [A.] the winter- 
dXX^CJi^cxx^x cherry, Physalis Alkekengi. 

alkcnna (al-ken-a)n. See henna, 

a 1 kpftn P^ (al-ker-mez) n. [A. aZ-qirmiz] kermes ; 
**^"-^* xxxco a cordial coloured by kermes. 

alkoran see alcoran. 

oil (awl) a. [A.S. call] the whole quantity, extent, 
**** duration, amount, quality, or degree of;— adv. 
wholly, completely ; — n. the whole number, quantity, 
or amount. After all, after everything has been con- 
sidered. All along, continuously. All but, almost. 
All-father, the father of all, used of Odin, Jupiter, and 
God. All-fools'-day, the first of April. All-fours, a 
game at cards. All-good, a name of the plant Good 
King Henry, the Perennial Goosefoot. All-nail, a salu- 
tation of respect or welcome. All-hallowmass, All- 
hallowtide, the time near All Saints' Day. All-hallows, 
All Saints' Day, November 1. All hands, the whole 
crew. All-heal, the popular name of several plants. 
AH in all, everything. All in the wind, [Naut.] too 
close to the wind, so that the sails shake. All of a 
sudden, suddenly. All one, quite the same. All-search- 
ing, pervading and searching everything. All Souls' 
Day, November 2, set apart by the Eoman Catholic 
Church as a day of commemoration of the faithful 
departed. All the better, so much the better. All the 
same, nevertheless. All-wise, supremely wise. At all, in 
any degree. On all fours, on arms and legs ; analogous. 
1 il *a (al-la) adv. [L. ad illam, to that] in the manner 
«***» of[Mus.]. 

alia H fP'MP^ (al-la braAve) adv. [alia and L. brevis, 
dlxd Ul C V C short] in quick common time. 
alia n'ir%f^]]a (^^ '^ ka-pel-la) adv. [alia and 
dild Udpcxxct Low L. capella, chapel] alia breve. 
Allah (al-a) «• [A^-] the Arabic name of the Supreme 

Fate, far, ^do ; me, her ; mine ; note ; tiine : moon. 




(al-an-it) n. [Thomas AUan] a silicious 
ide of cerium. 


allantoic ^^^-^^-^P^^^ *• of' or pertaining to, the 


allanfriirl (a-lan-toid) a. of, or pertaining to, the 
aiXdll LUlU allantois ;— ii. the allantois. 
allanfrkin (a-lan-to-in) n. a crystalUne substance 
dliailLUill found in the allantoic fluid. 
flllantni^ (a-lan-to-is) n. [Gr. alias, cdlantos, sausage, 
ctiiaiXL^JiOgnd eidos, shape] a thin membrane 
surrounding the foetus. 

allanf nf nv-initn (a-lan-to-tok-si-kum) n. [G. 
dllctll LU UU^ll.. Ulll alias, allantos, sausage, and 
toxikon, poison] sausage-poison. 
at*- aIIav ('>la') v. (. [A. S. aiecflran, to lay down] to make 
0,110. jr quiet ; to paclf v ; to mitigate or subdue. 
allaVCr ^^■^^'■) "■• '^^ ^^o, or that which, allays or 

J 3ll6Vl(lt6S. 

n 1 1 a irm f»n f (a-la^ment) n. act of allaying ; a state 
oiiajr iiicii L of rest after disturbance. 
a 1 1 P0*a f i nn (<il-e-ga^hun) n. positive affirmation; 
a,ii«^ga.uiuii that which is asserted; [Law] a .state- 
ment of what one undertakes to prove. 

of being 

o11pp*p (a-lej') v.t. [L. ad and legare, send] to bring 
**'**^o^ forward with positiveness ; to produce as 
an argument or excuse. 
al1#acrckQKl<a (a-lej^-bl) n. capabli 
dllC^ CctUlC alleged or affirmed. 
allf»0"ianr*pk (a-le^jans) n. [F. a (L. ad) and O.F. 
a,iicgio,iiuc iiggg^ loyaij the obligation that a 
subject owes ; loyalty. 

allegoric, allegorical f roSiS'S 

or pertaining to, allegory ; in the manner of allegory ; 
figurative ; typical. 

SkWf^crnrinctWxT (al-e-gor-i-kal-i) adv. in an alle- 
dllCgOnCeiHy gorjeai manner. 

allf^crnriralnp'QC (al-e-gor-i-kal-nes) n. the 

dllCgUl H^dlllCSja quahty of being allegoricai. 

a 1 1 <a crr\r\ of (al^-go-rist) n. one that allegorizes ; a 

dllCgOribt ^v-riter of allegory. 

a 1 1 *i cmri -re^ (al^;-go-rIz) v.t. to turn into allegory; 

diiC^Ui l^C _yi^ to use allegory. 

flllpp'Orv (al^-go-ri) n. [G. allsgoria] a compari- 

"■^^^o '-^^ J son sustained tnrough numerous details ; 

[Paint, and Sculp.] a figurative representation in which 

the meaning is conveyed symbolically. 

a11iao"r*if frk (al-la-gret^to) a. not so quick as 

dliegrettO allegrorMus.]. 

Q 1 1 p p*rr> (al-laigro) a. [It. f r. L. alacer, brisk] quick ; 

** ^o* '-' lively ;— re. a brisk movement [Mus.J 

alleluiah (al-e-loo-ya) m<. See haUelujah. 

allpviatf* (a-le-vi-at) v.t. [L. ad and levis, light] 
a.11^ V ia,LC to remove in part ; to assuage. 
allfTriaf ion (a-le-vi-aishun) »i. the act of allevi- 
oiic V io.tiUii ating : relief ; that which alleviates. 
all f^\T\ a f iTr<» (a-le-vi-a-tiv) a. alleviating •,—n. that 
dllCVldLlVC which alleviates. 
allPV ^?^'^^ """ [^-F- <^^''< go] a narrow passage ; an 
"* ^J inclosed garden walk ; a narrow inclosure for 
skittles, etc. 

alliacprklic (al-i-a-shus) a. [L. allium, garUc] 
o,iiia.v,cuus pertaining to garlic and allied plants ; 
having the properties of garlic. 

a.llia.nPP (a-ll^ns) n. state of being allied ; union 
0.1110,11^.,^ between families by marriage, and states 
by treaty ; the parties allied. Arms of alliance, arms 
obtained through marriage. 

a11io"afir»n (al-i-gaishun) n. [L. a>l and ligare, 
a,iiiga,Liv^ii bindj an arithmetical rule for finding 
the price of a mixture of ingredients of difterent values. 
-..vflllip*afnr (al-i-ga-tur) n. [Sp. el lagarto, fr. L. 
, «»»vdlllgdlOr ^Yfe, that, and ^a- 
certa, lizard] a large carnivorous 
amphibious reptile, of the Saur- 
ian family ; the American croco- 
dile. Alligator-apple, the fruit 
of Anona palustris, a West 
Indian tree. Alligator - pear, 
the fruit of the Persea gratissi- 
ma of the West Indies. Alli- 
gator - tortoise, the snapping 
turtle. Alligator. 

allignment C^-Hn-ment) n. See alignment. 

a lllQinn (a-lizh-un) n. [L. allisio, fr. aUidere, dash 
diiioiuii against] a striking against. 
all i f Pra f i nn (?^-lit-e-raisnun) n. [L. ad and litera] 
dilltCidLKJii repetition of the same letters or 
sound at the beginning of two or more words in close or 
immediate succession. 

allif laraf iir** (a-lit^-ra-tiv) a. pertaining to, or 
dilitCi dH vc marked by, alliteration. 
allrkr»af*a (al^-kat) v.t. to distribute ; to set apart ; 
dlXU\..dLC to assign ; to allot. 
allnpafion (al-o-kaAshun) n. [L. ad and locus, 
diiUCdtXUiX place] the act of allocating ; assign- 
ment ; the admission of an item in an account. 
'i^^r\r"ii■111• (al-o-ka-tur) n. a certificate that costs 
aUOCd,l,Ur are allowed [Law.]! 
alinrhiria (al-o-kl-ri-a) n. [G. alios, other, and 
c*,xxvyv,iiii lo, cheir, hand] a diseased state, in which 
a touch on one side of the body is felt at the correspond- 
ing point on the other side. 

allorhrnir (al-6-kr6^ik)rt.[G. a/^ocferoos, changed 
aiiuuixx ux»- m colour] changeable in colour. 
allnpTimif** (al-O-kro-It) n. a massive, fine- 
diiuuixx UXtC grained variety of iron garnet. 
allorhrOOllc; (a-'ok-ro-us) a. changing colour 
dXXUL.XXX UUUb [j^Ied. and Min.]. 
allomtinn (alo-ka^hun) «. [L.] an address, 
dxxu«. u LXUXX particularly of the pope to his clergy. 
al 1 oH 1 a 1 (a-lo^i-al) a. pertaining to allodium ; free 
aii\j\iicti of rent or service. 

allodialism iysS*'-'"'^"'^ "' *^^ ^"""^'^ 

allnHinm (a-lokli-um) n. [Low L.] freehold estate; 
dxxuux UiXX land absolutely held by the owner. 
alloe'amv (al-og-a-ml) n. [G. alios, other, and 

" o J gamos, marriage] cross fertilization. 

allOPTanh (al^')-graf) n. [G. graphein, write] a 
u, ^^ r signature made by one person on 
belialf of another ; opposed to autograph [Law]. 
allomprictm (al-om-e-rizm) n. [G. meros, part] 
dXXUlXXCXiam ehange in chemical composition 
without change of form [Chem.]. 

allom Ornll i <5m (al-O-mor-fizm) 71. [G. morphe, 
dXXUXllUI pillbm form] the power of changing 
form without change of composition. 
allonP'P (^■•""J) '>^- [L. ad and longus, long] a 
, ^**o^ pass or thrust with a rapier or sword ; a 
long rein used when a led horse is trotted in the hand. 
alloO (a-loo) See halloo. 

allonathir (al-O-path-ik) a. pertaining to, or 
dxiupdLXXXl., practising, allopathy. 
allonathi«it (al-op^a-thist) n. one that practises 
dXXUpdLlil&L medicine by allopathv ; an allopath. 
allOOathv (al-op-a-thO n. [G. altos, other, and 
". " «' pathos, suflTering] employment of 

medicines to produce effects different from those 
resulting from disease ; opposed to homeopathy. 
alloohanP (al^-fan) n. [G. aUophanes, appearing 
, "h'**"'**^ otherwise] an aluminous mineral that 
changes colour under the blow-pipe. 
alloohvlian lS^-o-'Jl-Hn)a.[G.] of another race; 
dxxupxxy XXdIl Turanian :-n. one of another race. 
allnf (^-lot) v.t. [L. ad and E. lot] to divide by lot ; 
o.iiv^ L to distribute in parts. 

all r»f Vi f»i cm (al^the-izm) n. [G. alios, other, and 
dxxu Lxxcx:)xxx <;^goj_ god] worship of other gods. 
allr»fmf»nf (a-lot^ment) n. the act of allotting; 
dllU LllXCllL that which is allotted. 
allof rnnp (al^-trop) n. [G. allotropos, in another 
a,iiv^ Li \j)j\:, manner] an allotropic form. 
allnfrnnir* (al-o-trop-ik) a. relating to, orcharac- 
dllULlUpiC terised by, allotropy. 

allotropism, allotropy ^■i)''^'°S: 

tion of physical properties without change of substance. 

a 1 1 *^f fpp (al-o-te) n. one to whom an allotment is 

a.iiv7i,i.^^ made, as of ground, shares, etc. 

al 1 0'W (?^-'ou') v.t. [L. ad and locus, place] to afford or 

cxkiKj w yield ; to acknowledge ; to abate ; to permit ; 

—v.i. to make deduction. 

allrkTwaVilp (a-Iou^-bl) a. that may be allowed; 

dxxuwduxc legitimate; permissible. 

all r»Txra Kl a n ^ c c (a-lou-a-bl-nes) n. the quality 

dliUWdUienCbb of being allowable. 

allriTxraKlir (a-lou^-bli) adv. in an allowable 

dXXUWdUXy manner ; permissibly. 

Fate, i&T, ado ; me, hgr ; mine ; note ; tQne ; m66n. 




allri'WT'anPf* (a-lou^ns) n. act of allowing; per- 

diiUWdii^^c; mission; that wiiich is allowed ; a 

deduction \—v.t. to put upon allowance. 
' ~ nllnvsri (*-loK-san) n. [all(antoin), oaialic), an] 

a,ii<J.A.ctii ojjg Qf t{jg products of the decomposition 

of uric acid by nitric acid. 

allrkvanir" (al-ok-san'-ik) a. of, pertaining to, or 

cxiiv/.A.ctiiiv^ produced from, alloxan. 

flllov (?^"^°'^ ^•^- t-'-'' '^ ^'1^ ligare, join] to reduce 

€Xii\jy jijg purity by mi.xing with a less valuable 

metal ; to impair or corrupt ;— n. any compound of 

metals, as of copper and zinc to form brass: a baser 
'j< metal mixed with a finer ; evil mixed with good. 
>-■ •sIlrkTT-o o"«a (a-loi^j) n. the practice or process of 

ctliuyctgc mixing metals. 

ollonipp (awl-spis) 71. the berry of the pimento, 

ctlXojJlv^C gai(i tQ contain the flavours of cinnamon, 

nutmeg, and cloves. 

a 1 1 1 1 H f^ (a-166d') v.i. [L. ad and ludere, play] to refer 

ctiiuuc JQ something not directly mentioned. 

•s 1 1 1 1 tn of f *a (al-u-mef) n. [F. fr. L. ad and lumen, 

dllUlllCLtC light] a, match for lighting. 

olliimiri'if Pk (a-l66-mi-nut) v.t. to illuminate, as 

ctllUllIillctLC manuscripts. 

olliirriirirkt- (a-166-mi-nur) n. an illuminator of 

dllUlilillUl manuscripts. 

alllirp (^^-lur") v.t. [L. ad and E. lure] to attempt to 

dixui c ^raw to ; to tempt by the oifer of good. 

o lliif ckm «»«f (a-lui-'-ment) n. the act of alluring ; 

allurement that which allures. 

a 1 1 1 1 rf>r (a-lur^r) n. one who, or that which, allures ; 

dllUXCi a tempter. 

allnrinirlv (a-l^r-ing-li) c^v. in an alluring 

diiuiiiigiy manner; enticingly. 

a1 1 1 1 r i n <m #a c c (a-lur-ing-nes) n. the quality of 
iiUilllgllCS:) being alluring. 
allusion (^•-iQ-zJiun) n. [allude] a passing or casual 
diluolUil reference; a hint ; a suggestion. 
allll^ivP (a-lQ-siv) a. referring to indirectly; 
dliuoivc symbolical; marked by allusions. 
al1ll^ivf»lv (ii-lii-siv-li) adv. in an allusive 
diiuoivcijr manner; by way of allusion. 
'1 11 11 citron occ (a-lQ-siv-nes) n. the quality of 
ailUSIVeneSS ^eing alluslve. 
alluvial (s^-lu-vi-al) a. [L. alluvius, fr. ad and 
diiuvidi luere, wash] pertaining to alluvium; 
washed down ; of fresh-water origin. 
al1inrir»n (a-lu-vi-un) n. alluvium ; [Law] increase 
dliUViUix of Ian J ^y water-action. 
alluvium (^^-lii-vi-um) n. deposits of earth, gravel, 
dixu V xuixi jjfjfj other matter, by river or flood. 
allv (^'^^ ^•*- t^- ^ ^^^ ligare, bind] to form a 
"^^J connection between families by marriage, or 
between states by treaty ; to connect by simihtude or 
friendship ;— n. (al-i, a-lT') one allied ; a confederate. 
allvl (*^-'^) ""■• fl^- alHium), garlic, and yl, fr. G. hule, 
****J' * matter] an organic radical (C3H5). 
alma almaVi (al-ma) alme, almeli (al-me) n. 
dxxxxd) dxxxxdxx [^ j ^^ Eastern singing-girl. 

almacantar S^^^''^'^ "■ ^'' ^"- 

almaHia (al-ma-de^i) n. [A.] an African bark 
a,xki.i.a,\xt.a. canoe ; an Indian river-boat. 
olmop-pof (al-ma-jest) n. [A. al, the, and G. 
cxiiiici,gv..oi, megistos, greatest] Ptolemy's work on 
astronomy ; any work on astrology or alchemy. 

almagra SS? "• ^^^- ^'- ^-^ ^■^"^' '^^^p- 

alma mafpr (^l-™?^ ma-ter) n. [L., fostering 
dxxiid xxxdi.^x mother] one's college or university. 
Q 1 ^n an a C (fi^l-nia-uak) n. [F. ] a calendar of days, 
dxxxidxxdv.. weeks, and months, to which astro- 
nomical and other data are added. A nautical al- 
majiac, for the use of navigators and astronomers, is a 
register of astronomical observations and calculations. 

almandine gSSe": ^''' ^^^^'^^^ 

almicrVifirioco (awl-ml-ti-nes) n. power to do 
dXlXXlgllLlIiebb all things; omnipotence. 
almi0"Hfv (awl-mi'-ti) a. [A.S. ealmihtig] all- 
dixixigiiLjr powerful; omnipotent ;—n. God; the 
Supreme Being. Almighty dollar, a phrase expressing 
the power of money. 
' almntlH (a^mund) n. [O.F. almande. fr. G. amtig- 
diiiiv7iiu fi^ig^ amugdalon, almond] the fruit of the 
almond-tre« ; an ornament shaped like an almond ; one 

of the tonsils. Almond-cake, what is left after ex- 
pressing the oil from almonds. Almond furnace (,Al- 
main, German) one where the slags of litharge, left in 
refining silver, are reduced to lead. Almond-paste, a 
cosmetic composed of bitter almonds, etc., for softening 
the skin and preventing chaps. Almond-tumbler, a 
kind of pigeon. Almond-willow, a British willow. 
almrknor (al-mun-er) n. one that distributes alms 

aimoner or bounty. 

almnnrv (al-mun-rl) n. a place for distributing 
diiiiv^xii jr ahns ; the residence of an almoner. 
almost (^^^-™*^^^^) ^^- very nearly ; weU-nigh ; 

oltyic (amz) n. [A.S. celmesse, fr. G. eleemosune, 
dxxxio pity] any thing gratuitously given to relieve 
the poor ; a charitable donation. Alms-basin, a dish of 
metal to receive the alms-bags. Alms-deed, an act of 
charity. Alms-gate, the gate where alms were distrib- 
uted. Alms-house, a house appropriated for the use of 
the poor. Alms-man, a man supported by alms. 
almimanfar (al-mfi-kan-tar) «. [A.] a parallel 
dxxxxu\..dxxi,dx of altitude. Almucantar-staflf, an 
instrument formerly used to take observations of the sun. 
a 1 n a c/» Vi a ri cm (al-nas-kar-izm) n. conduct like 
dlllci&>CXXdl X&Xll Alnaschar's in the Arabian 
Nights ; day-dreams of future grandeur. 
alodium (a-l(>di-um) n. See allodium. 

Alnf* (al^) n. [G. aloe] a genus of succulent plants, 
x^xuc useful in medicine and the arts. 
alnp«5 (al^z) n. the inspissated juice of several 
dXL/Co species of aloe. Aloes-wood, agallochum. 
alnf'fir alnpfiral (al-o-et^ik, -i-kal) «. per- 
dXUCLX^, dXUCLXl^dX tammg to, or contam- 
ing, aloes ;— n. a medicine consisting chiefly of aloes. 
Aloetic acid, an acid obtained by the action of nitric 
acid upon aloes. 

oli^ff (a-loft) adv. on high; above the ground; in 
dxux L the top ; at the masthead. 
Q 1 <-k cr\ (a-log'-i-^) n. [G. a and logos, speech] inabiUty 
**"-'&*"' to speak, due to mental defect. 
alnsrnfr'nnhv (al-o-got^ru-fi) n. {Q.aloaos, un- 
"'*'-'& '-'^■'' »-'f^**Jr reasonable, and trophe, nourish- 
ment] unequal nutrition of difl'erent parts of the body. 

alomatipv ^'"'''"'™^'^''*^^ '"■■ ^^' ^"'■^^^ ^^i*' ^"^ 

dXUXXXdXXV^y «tan<eea, divination] divination by salt. 
a 1 nn P (a-lon') a. [fr. all and one] solitary ; single ;— - 
dXUXXC ^l^ly \,y itself ; separately. 
alnnP" (^•^ons') ^dv. [A.S. andlang] in a line with ; 
dXUXXg lengthwise; onward ;— prep, by the length of. 
Lying along, pressed down by the weight of sail [Naut.]. 
alon^'Side (^■"lo^is'rsi^) ^'"^ ^y ^^^ ^^^e of, esp. 

alnnf (^^■^t'of') adv. [E. «, on, and D. locf^ at a dis- , 

***'-''-'^ tance, but within view ; apart. 

alonpria alnnprv (ai-o-pc^i-a, ai^-pe-si) 

dlUpCCld, dlUpCCy n.[G.alopex,aldpekos, 

a fox] baldness ; loss of hair. 

'J 1 <-»i 1 r1 (a-loud') adv. with a loud voice or great"Hoise ; 

aiUUU loudly; audibl};. 

a 1 n ^^'P^ '*• ^^^ Celtic origin] a very high mountain ; — 

**'^r' pi. the mountains of Switzerland. 

a1r»ar'a (al-pak-a) n. [A. al, the, and Peruv. paco, 

dxpdUd name of the ani- _-hu 

mal] an animal of Peru, having 

long, fine, woolly hair ; a species 

of the llama ; a thin kind of 

cloth made of the wool of the 

alpaca, mixed with silk or cotton. 



alpenstock (tok^'" 

) n. 
[Ger.] a long, stout staff, shod 
with iron. 

air* Via (al-fa) n. the first 
dxpxxd letter of the Greek 
alphabet, used to denote first ; . 

[Astr.] the chief star of a con- Alpaca, 

stellation ; [Chem.] the first of two or more isomerous 
modifications of a compound ; [Nat. Hist.] the first sub- 
species. Alpha and omega, the first and the last. 
oloVioKof (al-1'a-bet) n. [G. alpha and beta, the 
dXjJXXdUCt two Greek letters] the letters of 
a language arranged in order ; first principles -y—v.t. to 
arrange alphabetically ; to designate by letters. 
alf-khrshof arian (al-fa-be-tairi-^n) «,. onelearn- 
dipxidUCl-dX XdXl iijg the alphabet ; a beginner. 

F&te, t&r, ^0 ; md, bgr ; mine ; nOte ; tune ; m66u. 

alphabetic 27 

alphabetic7alphabetical S^;-.^f:S 

a. pertaining to, or in the order of, the alphabet. 
•!ilr\Vi'iK«afir'al1ir (al-fa-betii-kal-i) otic, accord- 
aipnaDeLlCaiiy ing to the alphabet. 
oli-kVi oK«:if ire (al-fa-bet^iks) n. the science of the 
dipilelUCtlCo uge and development of alpha- 


betic writing. , . ,., ,,.,., ^ r.-i i-^ i. i 

alnhenic ^^^■^^'"'-^^' al-fe^nik) n. [A.] white barley 

olt-kViifrkmanrxr (al-ti-to-raan-si) n. [G. alphi- 
ciipiIltUlXiciii«^jr ton, barley-meal, and manteia, 
divination] divination by means of barley-meal. 
•alfkt-irkttcsiri (al-fon'-sin) n. [Alphonso Fern] a 
dipilUXlslXi surgical instrument for extracting 
bullets from wounds. , . 

Alphonsin, Alphonsine S„) ^"'Je": 

taiuing to any one of the name of Alphonso. Alphon- 
sln-tables, astronomical tables compiled under the 
patronage of AJphonso X., King of Leon and Castile. 
o 1«%V« ^oi o (al-fcV-sis) n. [alphus] the process of turn- 
aipnOSlS ing white. 

olrkVinc (al-fus) n. [G.] a cutaneous disease charac- 
ciipiiua terized by white patches with red edges; 
non-contagious leprosy. 

n\r\\nf^ (al'-pin, al-pin) a. pertaining to the Alps, 
ctl[JlllC Qj. to any lofty mountain ; living or pro- 
duced on high mountains. 

olrkiriicsf (al-pin-ist) n. an alpine chmber; an 
ctipilll&l. alpestrian. 

a 1 r»i cf a 1 r»i a (al-Pist, -pi-a) n. [Sp.] grass seeds 
ctipioUj ctipio. u.sed for feeding cage-birdg. 
a 1 n 1 1 i fr»i i (al-ki-foo) n. {A. al-kohX a fine powder] 
dli^UXlUU potter's ore, a lead ore found in Corn- 
wall, used to produce a green glaze. 
alrp^aHv (awl-red-i) adv. before this or that time; 
dll Cctvljr even now ; even then. 
alcsilria (al^slk) n. [Alsike, in Sweden] a kind of 
ctlol A.C clover, Tvir'olhmi hybridnm. 
alciraf (al-se-rat) n. [A.] in Mussulman belief, the 
dioli dt ijridge between earth and paradise. 
alQri (awl^o) adv. and conj. [ftll and so] in like 
dlaU manner ; likewise ; further ; in addition to. 
a If (alt) n. [L. altus, high] the higher part of the 
dAt scale [Mus.l. To be in alt. to be haughty. 
olf ar (awl-tar) n. [L. altar c] a table or elevated place 
dlLdl on which gifts or sacrifices are offered to some 
deity ; the communion table. To lead to the altar, to 

olf^i- \\rexnA (awl-tar-bred) n. bread prepared 
dl tdl - U I CdU lor t^e eucharist. 
alfar rarH (awl-tar-kard) n. a printed copy of 
dlLdi'Ccti U certain portions of the mass, placed 
on the altar to assist the celebiaiit. 
altar-cloth (a'^l-'^''-'^"''^^) "• * cover for the 

n1f?if r\\f^ne^ (awl-tar-pes) n. a picture or sculpture 
dlLdi -piC»-C over the altar. 
^li-of e«rfck«»ri (awl-tar-skren) n. the screen be- 
aiiar-bCI ecu innd the altar. 
nlf ar clah (awl-tar-stab) n. tlie slal. forming the 
dl tdl -aict u top of the altar, also called altar-stone 
and aJtar-table. 

Q 1 fo fo rre^ (a wi - tar - aj) n. offerings made upon an 
dl Ldl dg C altar to the church or the priest. 
olf or^xTio/a (awl-t^r-wiz) adv. in the usual position 
dlLdrWlbC of an altar. 

alf a ^imilfVl (alt-az-i-muth) n. [fr. altitude- 
ctlLd^liliULll azimuth) an instrument for deter- 
mining the altitude and the azimuth of heavenly bodies. 
alff*r (awl-ter) i'.t. [L. alter, another] to make some 
ditci change in \—v.{. to become different. 
olf Ai*^Ki1ifTr (awl-ter-a-bil-1-ti) n. the quality of 
dlierdUllliy being alterable. 
olf ctroKI A (awl-ter-a-bl) a. capable of being altered 
dlLCldUlC or varied. 

olf f^raKlc^nc^cc (awl-ter-a-bl-nes) n. the quality 
dlLCldUlCliCb^ of being alterable; alterabihtr. 
alfprahlv (awl-ter-a-bll) adv. in an alterable 
eti tci ctuiy nianner : so as to be altered. 
alf <iraf irk« (awl-te-ra-shun) n. the act of altering; 
dlLCl dUUIl the change made. 
alfprafivP (awl-tcr-a-tiv) a. having power to 
ctiLCictLivc alter;— n. a medicine that restores 
the healthy functions of the body. 

alff^rpaff* (al-ter-kat) v.i. [L. alter, another] to 
ctltCl v^atc contend in words ; to wrangle. 
alf f»rpaf inn (al-ter-kaAshun) n. warm conten- 
ctltCi l.,clLXUii tion in words ; controversy. 
olffkt-prl (awl-terd) a. changed; different; [Geol.] 
ctiLCiCU nietamorphosed. 

alfprnant (al-ter-nant) a. alternating; [Geol.] 
dlLCi llctiit composed of alternate layers. 
olfpf-l^of (al-ter-nsii') n. in diplomacy, rotation in 
ctlLCiiictL precedence, as in signing treaties to 
avoid questions of rank between countries. 
ol4-/:k|*f-lpf ck (al-teK-nat) a. [L. alternare, pp. alter- 
ctitClllcttC natus fr. a/tcr, other] lieing by turns • 
one following the other in succession ; reciprocal ; fBot.] 
placed at different heights upon an a.xis ; [Math. J suc- 
ceeding regularly on opposite sides of a straight line; 
—n. that which happens by turns; vicissitude; a sub- 
stitute. Alternate generation, an alternation of 
asexual with se.xual generation. 

2,14. f2|.f.p4.£k (al-ter-n&t) v.t. to perform by turns, or 
ctlLCl lldLC jn succession ; to change reciprocally ; 
—v.i. to happen by turns. 

jjIfpff^offklTr (al-ter'-nat-li) adv. in reciprocal 
dlLCllldtCiy succession; by turns. 
olf ckfn-jfon<icc (al-ttV-nat-nes) n. the quaUty 
dlLCrildtCllc:dS> of being alternate. 
_ii._|.— jji.:^— (al-ter-niUshun) n. reciprocal suc- 
dlbCl lldLlUll cession of things in time or place ; 
repeated transition ; interchange ; antiphonal reading or 
singing ; [Math.] pennutation. 

'aif orn a fivp" (al-ter'-na-tiv) a. offering a choice of 
dl LCI lid LI V C two things ;— ri. that which may be 
chosen or not ; a choice of two things. 
alf<it-riafix/p1v (al-ter-na-tiv-li) adv. in an 
dlLCl lldLi V cxjr alternative manner. 
alfprnafi-i7pnp«;<? (t^lter'-n^-tiv-nes) n. alter- 
aiLcrildLlVCllcaa native state or quality. 
AlfVi:*»a AlfViPa (ai-the-a) n [G. aZ</i,a«"a] a 
nxi,ii(x;d^ xxiLiiCd genus of plants including 
the common marsh-mallow and the garuen hoIlyhock.s. 
alfV»/Mio-Vi (awl-THo) conj. admitting that; not- 
dXLllUUgli withstanding: though. 
alf ilnnilPtlPP (al-til^-kwens)n.rL. ai<MS, high, 
dlLiiV.>«^uc;iil..c and loqui, ppr. toquens, -entis, 
speak] lofty speech ; pompous language. 
alfimpfpr (al-tim-e-ter) n. [L. alttis, high, and G. 
diUXliiCtci jnetron, measure] an instrument for 
taking altitudes, as a quadrant, sextant, or theodolite. 
alf im<af rxT- (al-tim^-tri) n. the art of ascertaining 
dlLlillC Ll y altitudes trigonometrically. 
alfiennanf (al-tis^-nant) a. [h. altus, high, and 
dXLloUlldiiL gonare, sound] high-sounding. 
alfifllHp (al-ti-tud) n. [L. nltitudo, fr. altus, high] 
dlLlLUUC height ; the elevation of a celestial object 
above the horizon ; highest point. 
ol4-iTr/-ilorif (al-tiv'-o-lant) a. [L. altus, high, and 
dlLlVUldllL votore, fly] high-flying. 
a Ifo (*'-^'*) *• [I^- altus] high ; — n. contralto ; the tenor 
dlLU violin. Alto-clef, the C clef when on the third 
line of the stave. Alto-relievo, alto-rilievo, high 
relief ; that kind of sculpture in which the hgure stands 
out from the backgrouml. Alto-rlpieno, see ripieno. 
•alfrko-^afliiat- (awl-too-geTH^r) adv. wholly; en- 
di LUg C LllCl tirely ; completely. 

altometer (altom-e-ter) «.. See altimeter. 

— li.^..|io«-|i (al-troo-izm) n. [F. fr. L. aZter] self- 
dlti uioiii sacrifice for the good of others. 
alf rili^f (al-troo-ist) n. one that practises altruism ; 
diLi uiot a person devoted to the welfare of others. 
a In la ('I'-u-la) n. ,- pi. alulse (al-u-le) [L. ala, wing] 
dxuid a bastard wing[Ornith. and Entora.]. 
ainm ('^'-um) n. [L. alumen] a double sulphate of 
f*'-***-*-*- alumina and potash \—v.t. to impregnate 
with alum. Alum-rock, alum-stone, the subsulphate of 
alumina and potash ; alunite. Alum-root, a name 
given to several astringent roots. 

alumina, alUmine «! oxlde'of aluminium. 
^liiminifoTi-kiic5 (al-u-mi-nif-e-rus) a. contain- 
dlUllllllllCl UUb ing aj„,„ or alumina. 

a1iiminifr\rm (al-u-min-i-form) a. having the 
aiUininilOrUl form of alumina. 
alnminitp" (*l-u-mi-nit) w, hydrous sulphate of 
diuiiiiiiiLc; aluminium, a snow-white or yellowish- 
white mineral. 

Fftte, far, »do ; me, her ; mine ; note ; tQne ; md6n. 




a 1 n m i n i n m (al-u-min-i-uni) n. [L. alumen, alum] 
dlUXlliliXUiii one of the metals. Aluminium 
bronze, or aluminium gold, contains nine parts of 
copper and one of aluminium. 

aliimirirkiics (al-u-mi-nus) a. pertaining to alum 
dlUlllllIUU^ or alumina. 

aluminum (al-u-mi-num)n. See aluminium. 

alnmicVi (al-um-ish) a. having the nature of, or 
diuiiiidii resembling, alum. 
flilimtllicj (a-lum-nus) n. [L. fr. alere, nurse] a 
cti Uiiiii uo pupil ; a graduate of a college. 
oliifa (al-u-ta) n. [L., a kind of soft leather] a 
diU Let species of leather-stone. 
alutaceOUS (^l-^-ta^shus) a. leathery ; whitish- 

alva tnnrina (^l-va ma-rl-na) n. [L. ulva 

aiwa llltxiUla. carina, sea-sedge] sea-sedge; 

dried seaweed, used for stuffing mattresses. 

alxr^aat-ir (al-ve-ar-i) n. [L. alvearium, beehive, fr. 

divcdiy alvus,' belly] a beehive; [Anat.] the 

hollow of the external ear. 

alvPolar (^l-ve^-lar, al-ve-6-lar) a. [L. alveolus, 

a.i.vv^\jt.a.i. ^i,ffi_ of alveus, hollow] pertaining to, or 

resembUng, the sockets of the teeth. 

alir^arklof <» (al-ve-6-lat, al-ve-6-lat) a. honey- 

di V CUldLC combed ; deeply pitted. 

flIvPnIllQ (al-ve^-Ius) n.; pi. alveoli (al-ve^-ll), 

div CUIUS a, cell in a honeycomb, a fossil, etc. ; the 

socket of a tooth. 

a 1 vi fl f» (al-vTn, al-vin) a. [L. alvus, belly] pertaining 

di V iiic to the belly or the intestines. 

al'Wav al'Wav^ (awl-wa, -waz) adv. perpetu- 

am ^^-'"•^ '^^ ^^^^ person smgular, present indicative 

ally ; regularly. 

rsor ' 

of the verb to be. 
«]4-n9 (aAma, am'-a) n. [G. ame, a pail] a eucharistic 
dxiid wine-vessel ; the wine itself. 
a tn S Cr^ fi P (am-a-krat^-ik) a. [G. hanm, together, 
diixd^.,i dti^.^ and kratos, power] uniting the 
chemical rays of light in a focus. 

am a H Ol 1 (am-a-doo) n. [F.] a spongy combustible, 
ci.xxiauuu jiiade of dried fungus and saltpetre. 

(a-man') adv. [E. a and main] violently and 


suddenly ; vigorously ; vehemently. 

»j *Yk n 1 p-Q •i-»-| (a-mal-gam) n. [G. malagma, emollient] 
diiidigdiii a' compound of mercury with another 
metal ; a mixture of different things. 
nn-ialo'aiTlsf'f^ (a-mal-ga-mat) v.t. to mix a 
dixidigdiiidtc: metal with quicksilver; to com- 
pound ; — v.i. to unite ; to coalesce ;— a. amalgamated. 
a m a 1 (ra m a f ir»n (a-mal-ga-maishun) n. act of 
diiidigdiiidLiuix amalgamating; the process 
of separating gold and silver from their ores by mixing 
them with mercury ; the blending of different things. 
of-rio'nif-'jf-ifk (am-an-i-tin, a-man-i-tin) n. [G. 
diiidiiiLiiic; amanitai, a sort of fungi] the 
poisonous principle of certain lungi. 
atnanilPfl^i^ (a-man-u-en^ls) n. [L. ab and 
^ , diiidiiucxioio ^anus, hand] a person whose 
i^t^ employment is to write what another dictates, or to copy 

what another has written. 

jj «-|-i a t-a tl f"Vl (am-a-ranth) n. [G. a and marainein, 
diiidi dil til wither] an amaranthus ; a flower that 
never fades ; a colour inclining to purple. 
amaranf Viin*» (am-a-ran-thm) a. belonging to 
dllldldllLlllllC the amaranth ; not fading; of a 
purplish colour. 

Amaranfllll^ (am-a-ran-thus) n. a genus of 
x^iiidi dii til ua plants, including prince's-feather 
and love-lies-bleeding. 
Am arvll i S (am-a-ril-is)n.[a shepherdess in classical 

ama^S (^'"■'P^^') ^•*- [^- '^ ^^^ massa, mass] to 

poetry] a genus of bulbous plants 

,. as') v.t. [L. ad and massa, 

collect into a heap ; to accumulate 
a m a QQPff ** (am-a-sef) n. an instrument used in 
ctiiidooc u LC the preparation of pigments. 

amassment ilcumuiS.*^ "• ' ^''"= '" 

amacfVli^nir' (am-as-then-ik) a. [G. hama, 
diiidOLXiciiit^ together, and sthenos, strength] 
uniting the chemical rays of light in a focus ; amacratic. 
amaff^lir (am-a-tur) n. [F. fr. L. amutor, lover] 
diiidi,c;ui ojje that cultivates any study or art 
from taste or attachment ;— a. having the quality of an 
amateur ; done by an amateur. 

atnaf PliriQin (am^i-tur-izm) n. the state, con- 

cxiiicxL^ui loiii (lition, or practice, of an amateur. 

atnafivp* (am-a-tiv) a. full of love; disposed to 

diixa,Livc loving; amorous. 

amativpnf*^^ (am-a-tlv-nes) n. [L. amare, pp. 

0.1110. Li V ciicoo amMtus, love] an organ supposed 

to influence sexual desire ; propensity to love. 

a m a f r»ri a 1 (am-a-to-ri-al) a. amatory. Amatorial 

0,1 110.LU1 10,1 muscles, the obhque muscles of the 

eye, used in ogling. 

amaf nriallTT- (am-a-to^ri-al-i) adv. in an ama- 

dlliatOnaiiy toml mamier. 

Q «-|-| a fnrv (am-a-tur-i) a. relating to love; expressing Hft^ 

diiidLUijr love; causing, or designed to cause, love. 

amanrr»oic (am-aw-jo^sis) n. [G. amMuros, dark] 

dllldUl USia partial or total loss of sight, due to 

paralysis of the optic nerves. 

amanrr^fi/' (am-aw-rot^ik) a. pertaining to, or 

dllidUl ULU., afiected with, amaurosis. 

firXMi7(^ (a-maz') v.t. [maze'] to confound with «t^ 

dllld^C surprise; to confuse with terror; to > 

astonish ; — n. astonishrnent ; perplexity. 

n«-|-|o 'v/arlItT' (a-ma-zed-li) adv. with amazement; 

dllXd^CUiy with astonishment. 

a m 13 Te^Arte^cc (a-maAzed-nes) n. astonishment ; 

dllidZiCUllC&>S> great wonder. 

a ma Tf^mt^rti- (a-maz^ment) n. a feeling of sur- 

dllld^ClllCllt prise and perplexity. 

•IfYio ^if^o-l-ir (a-maAzing-li) adv. in an amazing 

diiid^iiig ij^ nfianner or degree. 

A m a ynti (am-a-zun) n. [G.] one of a fabulous race 

x^iiid^uii of female warriors ; a masculine woman. 

Amayrknian (am-a-zo-ni-an) a. pertaining to an 

xxiiid^uilidll Amazon or the Eiver Amazon. 

Amazon stone, a green felspar, found near the Amazon. 

of-pK') crckc (am-ba-jez) n. [L.] circumlocution; 

diiiUd^Co ambiguity ; secret acts. 

o t-n K fi rri f <-kt-ir (am-baj-i-tur-i) a. circumlocutory ; 

dlllUdgllUry roundabout. 

ambari, ambarie i^^SL^a^^'"''"' 

»]«-i-|Vwoconr1rtr (am-bas-a-dur) n. [0. H. Ger. 
diiiUddSdUUl a«i6aA<, ■ servant] an envoy of 
the highest rank sent to a foreign government. 
QmKoccarlrkrial (am-bas-a-do-ri-al) n. of, or 
dill UdSSdUUl idl belonging to, an ambassador, 
o m K Q c o Q r1 t*«a o o (am-bas^a-dres) n. the wife of 
dlllUd^s&dUlCS}^) an ambassador. 
Pf-nl-kpf (am'-ber) n. [A.] a yellowish resin found as ^ 
diiiuci a fossil ;— a. made or coloured like amber. *^ 
Amber-seed, the seed of the abelmosk ; musk-seed. 
Amber-tree, a South African evergreen shrub. 
Q jYi b P ro*ri ^ (am-ber-gres) n.[¥. ambre gris, gray 
diiiucigiio amber] a fragrant substance found 
in the alimentary canal of the spermaceti whale. 
^rn\\\Afx'v\'t>r (am-bi-deks-ter) n. [L. ambi, 
dill U1UC.&. LCI around, and dexter, right hand] 
one that uses both hands with equal facility ; a double- 
dealer ; P^aw] one that accepts bribes from both sides ; — 
a. using both hands with equal ease ; double-dealing. 
omKiHc^vf fariftr Cam-bi-deks-ter'-i-ti) n. ambi- 
dlllUlUCJLLCllty dexter quality ; double-deaUng. 

ambidextrous Jextl"^'''''''™'^ ''• '"''''" 

omKirlo-vf rrkiiciTT- (am-bi-deks-trus-li) o^t;. in 
dlllUlUC.2Ll,lUU&iy an ambidextrous manner. 

ambidextrousness SmWdttSy.""^ 

offiKipf-if (am-bi-ent) a. [L. ambire, go around] 
diiiuicilL encompassing; surrounding. 
o fviKi rr|i (am-bi-gu) n. [F. fr. L. amhiguus] a feast 
diiiUlg LI where various dishes are served together. 
Pf-nKirriiifv (am-bi-gu-i-ti) n. quality or state of 
diiiuig LiiLy being ambiguous. 
ofYiKirriirkilc (am-big'-u-us) a. [L.] doubtful or 
diiiuiguuua uncertain ; equivocal. 
ambicrnnilQlv (am-big-u-us-li) adv. in an 
dill ui.^ u w uoxjf ambiguous manner. 

amOlgUOUSneSS certainty of meaning, 
ambif (am-bit) n. [L. ambire, pp. ambitus, go 
dill Ul L around] circuit or compass. 
o friKif 1/^n (am-bish-un) n. an inordinate desire of 
dlllUlLlUll superiority or power ; in a good sense, 
a laudable desire of excellence; that which one is 
ambitious to obtain. 

Fate, f&r, ^do ; mS, hf r ; mine ; nSte ; tune ; m6<5n. 




omKifimiQ (am-bish-us) a. possessing, or con- 
ciIIlUll.lUUo trolled by;, ambition ; aspiring. 
ot-rtKifi/^iiolTT (am-bish-us-li) adv. in an am- 
aiUDlLlOUbiy bitious manner. 
?imKifir»iicn*»CQ (am-bish-us-nes) n. the 
dJlilUiLiUUoiicoo quality of being ambitious. 
omKifiic (am-bi-tus) n. a circuit; the edge of a 
diilUlUUa thing, as a leaf, shell, etc.; [Arch.] an 
open space surrounding a building or monument. 
^mhi\f^ (am-bl)t^.t. [L. ambulare, walk] to move as 
dlllUlC a horse ; to move atlectedly ;— n. a peculiar 
gait of a horse, in which both legs on one side are moved 
at the same time ; an easy pace. 

amHlf»r (am-bler) n. one that ambles ; a horse that 
cilllUlCX ambles ; a pacer. 

amblingly S'"nSer"^'"^ "^'- '" ^° '"^^^^ 

ofnKlnfir^ (am-blo^tik) a. [G. amblosis, abortion] 

ctlXlUXUtlv^ causing abortion ; — n. a drug for 

causing abortion. 

2]l-n1-vlTr0-|^f1 (am-bli-gon) n. [G. amhlus, blunt, 

dlllUiygOll and gonia, angle] an obtuse-angled 


amhlvD-nnal (am-blig^-nal) a. obtuse-angled; 

txiiiuiy gwiio,! having the form of an ainblygon. 

amhivcrnnif f (am-blig^nlt) n. a mineral, a 
iiiULy ^yjiit-L^ phosphate of aluminium and 
lithium, containing fluorine. 

amblyopia, amblyopy Sbu-kpi^ «: 

[G. amblus, dull, and ops, opos, eye] dimness of vision. 
amhck (ani-bo), pi. ambos (am-box); ambon (am- 
tXlllUKJ ijou), pi. ambones (am-UV-nez) n. [U. 
ambon] in early churches a pulpit or reading desk. 
AmKnij-na \JTr\nr\ (am-boi-na wood) n. a 
AmDOyna WOOa fi„ely variegated wood. 
j~IY|Kfpof1o (am-bred^, am-bre-iiya) n. [am^r] 
dlllUl CctUct a kind of artificial amber made for 
the African trade. 

nmhtre^ir (am-bre^ik) a. forming by digesting 
dill Ul CH., ambrein in nitric acid [Chein.]. 
oi^Kfpin (am-bre-in) n. a pleasantly odorous, 
diliui cm fatty substance got from ambergris. 
of-pHro^ia (ain-bro^zhi-a) n. [G.] the fabled food 
dliiuiuold Qf tbe gods, which conferred eternal 
youth ; anything very pleasant to the taste or smell. 
QmKrrkcial (am-bn^zhi-al) a. partaking of the 
dlixuiuaidl nature of anibrosia. 
ot-nKf/^oiollir (am-bro-zhi-al-i) adv. with an 
amOrOSiaily aml.roslal odour. 
A tYiKi*i-\oi^n (am-bro-zhi-an) a. of, or belonging 
rVlllUrUbldll to, St. Ambrose, Bishop of Lilian 
(A.D. 340-397). Ambrosian chant, a mode of sinj/ing 
or chanting introduced by St. Ambrose. Ambrosian 
ritual, a formula of worship instituted by St. Ambrose. 
o rTiHrnQin (ani-l)ro-ziii) 71. a Milanese coin show- 
diiiui uoiii jng gt. Ambrose on liorseback. 
•]|-|-|1-|f|-^^'ri-*-tp (am-bro-tlp) n. [G. amhrotos, ira- 
diixui tJty pc mortal, and tupos, impression] a 
picture taken on glass, in which the lignts are represented 
m silver, and the shades by a dark background visible 
through the unsilvered portion of the glass. 
•]*-»iK«>^ (am-bri) n. [L. arma, arms, tools, etc.] an 
dxiiuxy almonry; a pantry; a niche or cupboard 
in a church for books and sacred utensils. 

ambs-ace, ames-ace fe^'both: h 

as, ace] a double ace; the lowest cast at dice ; ill-luck. 
n«->-iKi|1'3pf|it-n (am-bu-laAkrum) n. [L.] a set of 
axiiuuxdi...x Lxxxx pores in an echinoderm, tlarough 
which are protruded the tube-feet. 

o tri Kl 1 1an PP (am-bu-lans) n. FL. ambulare. walk] 
aiixuuxdxxuc a flying hospital, so organised as to 
follow an army in its movements ; a waggon or cart for 
the transport of the wounded, the injured, or the sick. 
omKiilonf (am-bu-lant) a. walking; moving 
dXXXUUXdXXL from place to place. 

ambulation Sk^fg^^'''""^ ""■ ^^^ ^'' °^ 

grT':V>ii1nf /M* (am-bii-la-tur) n. one that walks 
dXXXU^XdLUX about ; an odometer. 
•3|-|-iK|i1^4.yif>r|> (am-bu-la-tur-i) a. possessing the 
a.iiiiJU.ia,i,KJL y power of walking ; not stationary ; 
not fixed in its legal character ;— n. any part of a building 
intended for walking in, as a cloister, a corridor, etc. ; 
any portico or corridor. 

ambury (am-bu-rl) n. Same as anbury. 

amHiicraHf* (am-bus-kad ') n. [Sp. f r. L. in and 
dxxiu uov.duc j)an. busk, bush] a lying concealed 
for the purpose of attacking an enemy by surprise ; a 
place in which troops lie hid ; the force concealed ; — v.t. -; 
to cause to lie in wait \—v.i. to lie in wait. .'-^ 

o j«1-v||gU (am-boosh) n. and v. Same as ambua- 

ambushment ^^i^^t^^l^^r '"''^''' 

o|-r-if-\||cfion (ain-bust^yun) n. [L. amburere, pp. 
diixu uo txuxi ambustus, burn] a burn or scald. 
arnppr amir (a-nier')n. [A.]aprince; achief; 
dxxxccx , dxxiii tj^g sovereign of Afghanistan. 
Qm«a1irkrQKl<a (a-mel-yur-a-bl) a. capable of 
axneilOraOie being ameliorated. 
am<alirkraf <a (a-mel-yur-at) r.«. and i. [L. ad and 
dxxxcxxux dtc meiior, better] to improve. 
QfTKilirkt-'ifirkn (a-mel-yur-a^hun) n. the act of 
dXXXCXXUXdUXUXX ameliorating, or the state of 
being ameliorated ; improvement. 

ameliorative Sripro^eS."^ "• ^"^'"""^ 

nmt^rt (a-men', a^men) adv. or int. so be it; truly: 
"IxlCIl verily ,—n. a title of Christ ; an expression of 
assent ;—v.t. to ratify solemnly ; to approve. 

amenability, amenableness 

(a-me-na-bil-itij a-me-na-bl-nes) n. the state of being 
amenable ; liability to answer ; tractableness. 
orrif^naKI^ (a-me-na-bl) a. [F. am^ner, bring] 
dXXXCXXdUXC liable to be brought to account; 
willing to yield ; submissive. 

orriAnoKlTr (a-me-na-bli) adv. in an amenable 
dlllCIldUiy manner. 

flmPtlH (a-mend) v.t. FL. e and menda, fault] to 
dXXXCXXLX change for the oetter •,—v.i. to grow better. 
atTKanHoKlia (a-men^a-bl) a. capable of being 
dXXXCXXUdUXC amended or corrected. 
atnf^nHaf nrv (a-men^a-tur-i) a. containing 
dxxxcxxudtuxjr amendment; corrective. 
atnf^nHp (a-mend', a-mongd') n. [F.] a pecuniary 
dxxxcxxvxc gne ; reparation ; retraction. Tbe 
amende honorable, an open apology and reparation. 
QfYif^firl/af (a-men^er) n. one that amends, cor- 
dxxxcxxucx rects, or improves. 
am<anHmf»nf (a-mend-ment) n. a change for 
dxxxcxxuxxxcxxu the better; correction of a fault; 
reformation of life ; an alteration proposed in a bill or 
motion ; the correction of an error m a writ or process. 
of^p4-i/4c (a-inendz') compensation for a loss 
dxxxcxxuo Qr injury ; satisfaction. 
o fi-ii^tnif TT {A-n\en-i-ti)n.[h.amoenitas,{r.amoenus, 
dxxxcxxxuy pleasant] quality of being pleasant or 
agreeable, in situation, climate, manners, or disposition. 
n m fxn nrrh re^ii (a-men-6-re-a) n. [G. a, men, 
dXXXCXXUX X XXU:d month, and' rheiii, flow] sup- 
pression of the menses. 

am<anf am*anflim (am^nt, a-men-tum) n. 
ament, amenLUm ^^ amentum, thong] a 
species of inflorescence, consisting of a scaly sort of 
spike, as in the alder, birch, etc.; a catkin. 
amp^nf ar»*ir»iic (am-en-ta^shus) a. pertaining 
dXXXCXXLd^CUUa to, or bearing, amenta. 
ofYIPflfia (a-men^hi-a) n. [L. a, ab, and mens, 
dXXicxiLXd mentis, mirid] imbecility of mind. 
jj tn PTPP (a-mers') v.t. [L. a, ad, and m^rx, mercts, 
dxxicx v,c merchandise] to punish by an arbitrary 
fine ; to punish in general. 
o jYiprppaKlp (a-mer^a-bl) a. liable to amerce- 

amercement"'^a![?rafi2e."- ^ ^"'""'"^ 

Atnfripfln (a-mer'-l-kan) a. [Amerigo Vespucci] 
xiiiic:;! iv^dii pertaining to America •,-^n. a native •' 
of America ; a citizen of the United States. 
AmPfipaniQm (a-mer'-i-kan-izm) n. a word, 
x^xxi^i luaxixoixi piirase, or idiom peculiar to 
America ; love for, or sympathy with, the United States. 
Amfripatli^f^ (a-mer-i-k^n-lz) v.t. to render 
x^xxx^x x«,xxx^^ American in character. 

ames-ace «• see ambs-ace. 

A tn pf a bol a (am-e-tab^-la) [G.] insects that 
x^xxx^ i,a.u\jia. ^q qo^ undergo metamorphosis. 

F&te, far, ^do ; me, h§r ; mine ; n5te ; tune ; m66D. 




nfniaf oKrklian (a-niet-si-bo-li-an) a. [G-. ameta- 
ctlliCLctUUllctll IjqIq. unchangeable] belonging 
to the Anietabola ; — n. one of the Ametabola. 
Qf-nfkfoKrklir* (a-met-a-bol-ik) a. not subject to 
ctiiiCtdUUliV, metamorphosis. 
on-ipf ViTTcf (am-e-thist) n. [U. amethustos, not 
dllic: Llljr o t (irunkenj a bluish-violet kind of quartz, 
formerly supposed to prevent intoxication. 
orni^f Vifrcfin^ (am-e-this-tm) a. pertaining to, 
diiXC Lliy o Uilic oj. resembling, amethyst. 
amiaHilifv (a-mi-a-bil-i-tl) n. aniiableness ; 
ctiiiictuiii Ljr gentleness of disposition. 
fltniflhlf* (aimi-a-bl) a. PL. amare, love] worthy of 
cl.iiiia.uic loyg . iieserving of affection. 
•irrii»iKl<iriooc! (aAmi-a-bl-nes) n. the quality of 
d.IIllciUit;nebb being amiable. 

atniahlv (^ini-a-bli) oav. in an amiable manner; 
ctiiilctuiy ^jjjj kindness and good temper. 
omionf Inifrtrm (am-i-an-thi-form) a. with the 
ctllllctll Ullliui 111 form or likeness of amianthus. 
amianfhrkiH (am-i-an-thoid) a. resenibUng 
diillctll LllUlU amianthus ; —n. a kind of asbestos. 

amianthus, amianth S^itit^u^Ta 

and miainein, stain] a variety of asbestos. 
aminaKitifTr (am-i-ka-bil-i-ti) n. quality of being 
ctllliCctUlllLjr amicable; friendUness. 
ami pa hi** (am-i-ka-bl) a. [L. amicabilis, fr. 
ctilll\.^ctuic; aTjiaT-e^ 'love] friendly ; peaceable. 
amipaK1p»np»cc (am-i-ka-bl-nes) n. quaUty of 
cliiili...ctuic;iic;oo being amicable ; kindness. 
amiPahlv (am-i-ka-bh) adv. in an amicable 
diiilUctuiy manner; without controversy. 
amipp (am-is)n. [L. amicire, wrap about] a loose, 
CX1111V..C flowing garment like a cloak ; an oblong 
piece of embroidered linen, inade to wear on the head 
like a hooil, or to rest on the shoulders like a cape. 
a m i H P (am-Id) n. [amivionia)] a compound produced 
dllllUC {jy (j^g substitution of an acid radical for one 
or more of the hydrogen atoms of ammonia. 

amidin, amidine S^S:^r^S^, 

mill] a gelatinous solution of starch in hot water, 
a m i r1 o Vi i r\e (a-mid-ships) adv. half-way between 
dllllUStllipSa the stem and the stern. 
atniHcf amiH (a-midsf, a-mid') prep. [A.S. 
ctllliuat, ctllllU on TOtddan] in the middle. 

amir n. see ameer. 

amice (a-mis') a. [mm] wrong; faulty ;—a(?t;. in a 

diixiao faulty manner. 

amifv (am-i-ti) n. [O.F. amitie, fr. L. amare, love] 

diiiity friendly relationship. 

amma (am'-a) n. [Syr. ama, mother] an abbess; 

diiiiiid [Q. hamma, knot] a truss. 

ammf^fpr (am^-ter) n. [aviipere) and Tneter] an 

diiiiiiCLCl instrunient for measuring electric 

currents. Also, amperometer. 

ammonia (a-mo^ni-a) n. a volatile alkali of a 

diiiiiiLfiiid pungent smell ; spirit of hartshorn 

(originally prepared from camels' dung, near the temple 

of Jupiter Ammon). 

jj |_| __ r»n i a P (a-mo-ni-ak) a. ammoniacal ; — n. the 

diiiliiullldV., concrete juice oi an umbelliferous 

plant (gum ammoniac). 

ammrkriior*!il (am-o-ni-a-kal) a. pertaining to, 

dlllliiUllld<..di or using, ammonia. 

ammrkniffi (am-un-It) n. [L. comu Ammonis. 

diiiiiiuiiiLC: horn of Ammon] one of the fossil 

shells of a genus of extinct cuttle-fishes. 

amt-r-irkriiiitn (a-mo-ni-um) n. the hypothetical 

dlliniUniUm b^se of ammonia. 

ammiinif inti (am-u-nish-un) n. [L. ad and 

dixiiiiuiiiuiuil TTiMnzVe, defend] military stores ; 

the articles used in charging firearms and ordnance of 

all kinds ;— a. supplied for the use of soldiers. 

omriAci'i (am-ne'-si-a) n. [G. amnesia] loss of 

dmilC&ld memory [Path.]. 

oi-ri't-ipcfTr (am-nes-ti) n. [G. amnestial an act of 

diiiiicoty oblivion; pardon of political offences; 

proclamation of such pardon. 

^n^f-ii/-vfi (am-ni-on) n.; pi. amnia [G.] the inner- 

diiiixiv^ii most membrane enveloping the embryo 

[Anat. and ZooL] ; the fluid of the embryo-sac [Bot.]. 

n«-r|tlinf ip (*ni-ni-ot^ik) a. pertaining to the 

diuiiiULXk, amnion; possessing an amnion. 

amnific (am-nl-tis) n. inflammation of the 

diiiliiLia amnion. 

amrphfl (a-me-ba) n. [G. amoibe, change] a 

diiiv^ud microscopic mass of protoplasm, which 

moves about and feeds itself by means of finger-like 

processes protruded from its body. 

amrphif an (a-me-be-an)a. answering alternately, 

diiit-c^ucdii as in an amcebseum (a kind of poem). 

amrphniH (^■-nie-boid) a. of, or pertaining to, or 

ci.iii\xiUKJi.\i resembling, an amoeba. 

amOCnOmania amoenus, pleasant,' and G. 
mania, madness] a form of mania with pleasing illusions. 
A f»-if\|T-i||-t-M (a-mo^mum) n. [G.] a genus of 
.i^iiiv^iiiuiii aromatic plants, among them being 
those that yield cardamoms and grains of paradise. 
amnncr amnn£r«5f (a-mung', a-mungst') 

among, amongbt ^^^^ ^^.s. (mmuiig] 

mixed with ; conjoined with, or making part of. 
amonf illnflrk (a-mon-til-a-do) n. [Sp.] a kind of 
dlXlUilLllldUU sherry, light in colour and body. 
o ~Y\ nrpf (am^">-ret) n. [L. amor, love] a sweetheart ; 
dillvJlCL a love-knot ; a love-song ; a trifling love- 
aflair ;—pl. love-glances. 

^f^^fiof (amUl-rist) n. a lover; a gallant; an 
dlllUlldL inamorato. 

amnrnQa (am-o-ro^a) n. an amorous woman ; a 
dlllVJl Uod wanton ; a courtesan. 
o .i-f-i /-k ♦•i-i c r\ (am-o-ro-s6) n. ; pi. amorosi (am-o-ro^i) 
dlllUl UoU a man in love ; a lover ; a gallant. 
jj I-J-, f\ff\f I Q (am-ur-us) a. [L. amior, love] inclined tq,^jy\, 
dlllUl UUo love ; relating to, or produced by, lovej^*^ 
oi'»-i/N«*/%iic«lTr (ain-ur-us-li) adv. in an amorous 
amorously manner ; lovingly. 
amrkr/Micn*iQC (am-ur-us-nes) n. quality of 
dlXiUl U uaiicaa \^^xx\z amorous. 
A ^-,-j omTl a (a-mor-fa) n. [G. a and mwphe, form] 
Xl.iliUl jpild a genus of leguminous plants. 
of-)-inmVliQm (a-mor'-fizm) n. a condition of 
diliUl pilloiii shapelessness ; absence of crystal- 
lization ; want of crystalline structure ; nihilism. 
r%mf\rrt\^r\^^x^ (am-or-fo^te) stars not con- 
dlllUX pxxu LcC stituting a constellation [Astron.]. 
amnrnVirMlc (a-mor-fus) a. shapeless; uncrys- 
dXXXUX pxxuuo tiillized ; heterogeneous ; nihilistic. 
AmrtmVirkyna (a-mor-f6-z(%a) [G. amor- 
X\X11UX pXXU^<Ud ^fiQg^ without form, and zoon, 
animal] animals of irregular shape, as the sponges, 
a m rkrf (a-morf) a. [P. d la mort] lifeless ; spiritless ; 
dXXXUX I, depressed. 

amortization, amortizement 

(a-mor-ti-ziV-shun, a-mor-tiz-ment) n. act or right of 
alienating lands in mortmain. 

2jfYi rtrf i7P (a-mor^tlz, -tiz) v.t. [L. ad and mors, 
dXXXOX LX^C mortis, death] to alienate in mortmain, 
that is, to convey to a corporation ; to extinguish, as a 
debt, by a sinking fund. 

Ckmrs^\c\t\ (a-rao-shun) n. [L.] ejectment from 
d'ixlOUXUXX possession in office. 
amonnf (a-mounf) v.i. [L. ad and mx>ns, mantis, 
dXXXOUXXL mountain] to compose in the aggregate ; 
to reach or extend in substance or influence ; to be 
equivalent \—n. the sum total ; the effect, substance, etc. 
(a-moor') n. [F. fr. L. amor, love] a love in- 

dXXXUUl trigue. Amour propre (propr) self-esteem. 
Qmr\«alif*a (am-pe-llt) n. [G. ampelitis, a kind of 
dXXXpcxxtC bituminous earth sprinkled on vines to 
keep off insects, fr. ampelos, vine] a bituminous earth. 

amr»<ar<a (am-par') n. [Ampere, a French elec- 
dXXXpcx C trician] the unit used in measuring the 
strength of an electric current. 

o«n-it-v£ki«c«on/4 (am-per-sand) n. [for and per se- 
cixIxpcrbd.XXU and, that is, and by itself-and] 
the sign & (for L. et, and). 

amr»ViiarfVirnQi«S (am-fi-ar-thro-sis) n. [G. 
dXXXpxxxdX txxxuoio amp/i?'and ari^ros^s, artic- 
ulation, fr. arihron, jointj a kind of articulation 
permitting slight motion, as m the vertebra [Anat.]. 
n m TkVi i Ki a (am-fibi^i-a) [G.l animals that can 
dXXXpxxxuxd liye either on land or in water; a 
group of animals that in their early stage breathe by gills. 

amphibial, amphibian ^^f ^^ll? 

bios, living a double life, fr. amphi and bios, life] of, or 
pertaining to, amphibia. 

F&te, far, ^do ; me, her ; mine ; note ; tune ; m6dn. 




n*^r\UtV\t^r\ (ain-fiW-ain) n. an animal of the 
ampnlDian class Amphibia. 
ot-rn-»V«iKir»lif*> (am-fib^i-o-lit) n. [G. amphtbios, 
dllipXiiUlUllLC amphibious, and lithos, stone] 
a fossil amphibian. 

amrkViihir»1ncrtr (am-fib-i-ol^-ji) n. [G. ?o£ro3, 
ampniDlOlOgy discourse] that part of science 
concerned with the Amphibia. 

amr^ViiKinnss (atn-flb^i-us) a. living both on land 
ctliipiliunjuo and in water; of a mixed nature. 
arrsrkViiKirmcnfiQQ (am-fib^i-us-nes)n.quahty 
ampniDlOUSneSS of bemg amphibious. 
ofi-n-kViiKz-klo (am-fi-bol) n. [G. amphiholos, doubt- 
anipniUOlC ful] hornblende ; amphibology. 
»»t-n-rktiiK/-k1ir» (am-fi-bol-lk) a. of the nature of 
ampniDOllC amphlbole. 

— ~rlf^UiK/^1if A (am-fib^-llt) n. [G. amphiholos, 
ampniUOllLC doubtful, and lithos, stone] a 
rock consisting mainly of green hornblende. 

amphibological &S'11S. " '' 

amnhihnlntrrr (am-fi-bol^-ji) n. [G. amphi- 
ampniUOlOgy loiog^ ambiguous, and logos, 
speech] a sentence susceptible of two interpretations. 

amnVlihnlm'H (am-fib^i-loid) a. having the 
mpniDOlOlU appearance of amphlbole. 
omrtViiKrnr>Vi (am-fi-brak) n. [G. amphi and 
ctiXipillUict«..ii irachus, short] a foot of three 
syllables, the middle one long, the first and last short. 

amphicarpic, amphicarpous 

(am-fi-kar^pik, -pus) a. [G. amphi and karpos, fruit] hav- 
ing two kinds of fruit, or two seasons of ripening [Bot.]. 
A m nVi i ni-\Tf\r\in (am-fik-ti-on-ik) a. pertaining 
/impniCtyOmC to the Amphlctyons. 
Amnhirfvnn<5 (am-fik-tl-onz) [G.] an 
J. xiii^ixiv., Ljr v^iio assembly or councU of deputies 
from the several states of Greece. 

o m r\Vi i^f trrtnir (am-fik-ti-on-i)n. an association 
ailipiliU ty Ull_y of states for common interest. 
amnViicramnilQ (am-fig'-a-mus) a. [d. amphi 
ctxiipixigciiiiuuo and gamos, marriage] a term 
applied to plants having a structure entirely cellular, 
anil no sexual organs. 

ot-rit-\Viicrpti (am-fi-jen) n. [G. amphi and root 
ctiiipxiigcxi gfgjj^ produce] a thallogen. 
amr\hi crf\r\T (am-ti-go-rl) n. [F.] a nonsensical 
rtllipiligUiy composition. 

am rkVi i m o nt^r (am-tim^-sfr) n. [G. amphi and 
llipillllldCCl m^iicros, long] a foot of three 
syllables, the middle one short, and the others long. 
omrtViirk-viic (am-fi-ok-sus) n. [G. oxus, sharp] 
dllipniUXUb the lancelet, a little fish. 
Atnr\Viir\rkHo (am-fip^-d;i) [G. povs, podos, 
/-liiipiiijJUUct foot] an order of Crustacea. 
amnViinnHniiQ (am-fip^-dus) a. of, or pertain- 
dllipnipoaOUb ing to, the AraphlDoda. 


columns in front and be'''"'' 


or an edifice with 

_ _ _ prosty, 

columns in front and behind. 

(am-fis-be^n?i) n. [G.] a fabulous 
serpent supposed to have a 
head at each end. 

amphiscii, amphiscians ^{fzi^'ny: 

[G. amphi and skia, shadow] the inhabitants between 

the tropics, whose shadows in one part of the year are 

cast north, and in the other south, according as the sun 

is south or north of their zenith. 

omrvViicfrt t-ri rk 1 1 o (am-fis^to-mus) a. [G. stoma, 

dllipillbLUIIlUUb mouth] having a mouth-like 

opening at each end of the body. 

amnVlif Vl^sf rp^ (am-fi-the-a-ter) n. [G.] an 

<xiiipiiiLiic:cti,i c oval or circular edifice, having 

rows of seats one above another, around an open space, 

used for public sports. 

amphitheatrical lr/„,t^;SSt"e^^^^^^ 

an amphitheatre. 

^jriQjijfj-jf g (ara-fi-tri-te)n.[G., wife of Poseidon] 

the planetoids. 

a genus of marine annelids ; one of 

amnViif r/-»r»rkiic« (am-fit^ro-pus) a. [G. amphi 
dmpnitrOpOUS ^nd U-ovos, h. tr^ein, turn] 

having the hilum lateral and 
chalaza »ad micropyle [Bot.], 


utermediate between 

•jt-nnhifrvotl (am-fit^ri-un) n. [Amphitryon, in 
diiij^iii Li y yjii Moliere's Amphitryon, who gives 
a great dinner] a host ; anentertainer. 
ofpnhifvnP (am-fi-tlp) n. [G. amphi and tupos, 
diiipxiiLjrp^ type] a photographic process pro- 
ducing simultaneous positives and negatives. 
of^f-tVipkfo (am-fa-ni) n. [G. amphi and phoreus, 
ctixipiiv^i a. bearer] among the Greeks and Romans 
a two-handled vessel, usually of clay, for holding wine, 
oil, honey, grain, etc. ; also a liquid measure. 

amr\1-ir\i-ol (am-fo-ral) a. pertaining to, or resem- 
IIipilUl dl bling, an amphora. 
o mr\Vi/M*ir> (am-for'-ik) a. like the sound made by 
dllipHOl lU blowing into a flask [Med.]. 
^f-»ir\Virkf ^rir^ (am-fo-ter-ik) a. [G. amphoteros, 
dliipxxuuciit^ both] partaking of each ; neutral. 
o *-f-||-v1p> (am-pl) a. [L. amplus] of large dimensions ; 
"•^**r''^'^ great ; fully sufficient ; extended. 
ofYinlpnpQ^ (am-pl-nes) n. state or quality of 
dllipiCllCoo being ample ; largeness ; sufficiency. 
jj fYi r\] p-yi pa 111 (am-plek^i-kawl)a. [L. ampLexus. 
o,lll.^lK^A.l.\^a,\xl embracing, and caulis, stem] 
nearly surrounding the stem, as tlie base of a leaf [Bot.]. 
amnlifirafinn (am-pli-fi-kOAshun) n. act of,L,*v^ix amplifying; enlargement; ex- 
aggerated or ditlused narration. 

'imr\\\finn\-\\T(> (am-pli-fi-ka-tiv) a. serving or 
dliipxxil(^dl.iVC tending to amplify or enlarge. 
of-nf-kllfrr (am-pH-fl) v.t. \h. amplus and facere, 
o.i.ll\Jl.t.l.y make] to render larger ; to treat copiously; 
— v.i. to be ditt'use ; to dilate. 

otnn1ifllHp> (am-pli-tud)n. largeness; extent; an 
dXiipxiLUUC arc of the horizon intercepted be- 
tween the true east or west point and the centre of the 
sun or a star, at its rising or setting ; the horizontal line 
subtending the path of a body tlu-own. 
nrnrsAiT (am-pli) adv. largely ; liberally ; fully ; suffi- 
dXXXpxy ciently. 

Pf-nt-kiillo (am-pul^) n. [L.] a bottle with slender 
dxxxpuxid ueck and globular body, used by the 
ancient Eomans to hold perfumes and oils for anointing 
the body after bathing, etc.; [Eccl.] a vessel for holding 
consecrated oil, wine, etc.; [Biol.] a flask-hke or saccular 
dilatation or vesicle, as in the semi-circular canals of the 
ear, on the leaves of bladder-wort, etc. 
Qri-irvii11ooA/-viic (am-pul-aAshus) a. resembling 
ampUliaCt^UUb aglolmlarflask; bottle-shapeiL 
M*-|-|fx|if 'jf A (am-pu-tat) v.t. [L. aTnhi and putare, 
dXlipuLdtC prune] to cut off, as a limb. 

amputation fej^-^*^""^ ''• ^'* °* *°^p"- 

amiir't' amrkt ^-muk', a-mok') a. or adv. 
dlllUCK., dlXXUK. []M..^|.iy] to run ^^^^^^,. jg ^ 

rush about frantically, attacking all and sundry. 
amillpf (am-ii-let) n. [L.] something worn to pre- 
CI.X1XUXV.U vent evil ; a talisman. 
amillptir (am-u-let^ik) a. of the nature, or 
axxxuxv, uxv, possessing the virtues, of an amulet. 

amusable l-;?!!.";^^-^'^ ""■ ^^ ""' '^^p'^^'^ "^^ ^^^"k 

[F. amuser] to entertain 
agreeably ; to occupy in a pleasant manner ; 
to keep in expectation ; to delude. 
amil<;Pmf»nf (a-muz-ment)«. that which affords 
dXXXUacxiXCIXL pieasui-able occupation. 
amU^ia (o^-mu-zi-a) 11. [G. a anci mousa. a nmse] 
inability to understand or execute music. 

amusingly Slia'Slief."^'"'*^ "'^''' "' *" amusing 
ami 1 «;i VP (a-mu-ziv) a. capable of amusing ; enter- 
dXiiuaxvc taining ; diverting. 
a m VPtI a 1 a fp (a-mig'-da-Tat) a. pertaining to, re- 
«*xix_y ^victidLC sembling, or made of, almonds;— 
n. an emulsion made of almonds ; a salt of amygdalic acid. 
amVP"Halir' fe-mig-dal-ik) a. derived from al- 
nxxxj gvjcxiiv, monds, as amygdalic acid. 
amvo-Halin (a-mig'-da-lin) n. a crystalline sub- 
cxxiiy j^udxiii stance obtained from bitter almonds. 
amvPrlalniH (^-mlg-da-loid) a. almond- 
dniy^UaiOia shaped ;-n. an igneous rock with 
embedded almond-shaped minerals. 
a m VP"H a loi Hal (?-mig-da-Ioi-dal) a. [G. umug- 
dlliygUdlOlUai ^g- almond, and eidos, form] 
pertaining to amygdaloid ; a vesicular structure. 
a rj-i vl ^*™-'l) "• [^- cimtdon, starch] a hypothetical 
c>,xxxjr * radical thought to exist in many compounds, 


amuse ^^^™"^^- ""■*■ 

P&te, tkr, «(le ; m9, h«r : talne ; aOte ; tune ; m6dn. 




as amylic alcohol, etc. Nitrate of amyl, an amber- 
coloured fluid with a pleasant odour. 
or¥^Tr1o^Ar<k||c (am-i-laishus) a. composed of, or 
a,iiijrict.v,c;uuo resembling, starch ; starchy. 
ja M (an) a. [A.S. an, one] the form of the indefinite 
"'*•' article used before a vowel sound. See a. 
Q«Q (aAna, aAng,) n.vl. [L. anus, adj. suffix] sayings, 
a.xici anecdotes, and gossip, about some person or 

ansKs-nf icm (an-a-bap^tizm) n. a second bap- 
ctiictuctpuiSiii tism". rebaptism; the doctrine or 
practices of the Anabaptists. 

A n a Ha of i cf (an-a-bap-tist) n. [G. ana and haip- 
x^xidUctpLiOL lizein, baptize] one that denies the 
validity of infant baptism, and maintains that those who 
have been baptized in infancy ought to be baptized again. 

anabaptistic, anabaptistical 

(an-a-bap-tis^tik, -ti-kal) a. relating to anabaptism or to 
the Anahaptists. 

A |-ioKoo(an^-bas) n. [G. ana and hainein, go] a 
x^iidi^cto geiiiis of fishes, including the climbing-fish. 
anaHacic (a-nab^-sis) n.; pi. anabases (a-nab^- 
ctilctUdOia sez) a mihtary advance; [Med.] the 
increase of a disease or paroxysm. 
anar'amof ir» (an-a-kam-tik) a. [G. ana and 
ctiict«^ctliip ti^ kamptein, bend] reflecting or 
reflected. Anacamptic sounds, sounds produced by 
reflection, as echoes. 

anar*anffir\iic (an-a-kan-thus) a. [G. anakan- 
ctild^ctllLllUUS) ^i^gg^ spineless, fr. an and 
akantha, spine] spineless ; [Ichth.] having spineless fins. 
Ptiaflirntli^m (an-ak-run-ism) n. [G. fr. ana, 
allct^AXl V^illolli ajjd chronos, time] an error in 
chronology by which events are misplaced. 

anachronistic, anachronistical 

(an-ak-run-is-tik, -ti-kal) a. involving an anachronism. 
Pl-ioplocf ip (an-a-klas-tik) a. [G. anaklastos, 
ctlid^lctoUi^ reflected] pertaining to, or produced 
by, the refraction of light ; bent back ; refracted. 
ana/^1acfi/^c (an-a-klas^tiks) n. [G. ana, and 
ctiia<^iciai,X^a ^.^^_ break] that part of optics 
which treats of the refraction of light ; dioptrics. 
Snapli^i^ (an-a-kll^is) n. [G.l attitude of a 
dlld^lloxo j)atient in bed, which sometimes 
afibrds important indications [Med.]. 
flnaff¥»nn^i^ (an-a-se-no^sis) n. [G.] a figure of 
a.xxcti.^VA:;xx«Joxo speech, consisting of an appeal by 
a speaker to his opponents for their opinion. 
ana Pnl n f Vl r»n (an-a-kol-u-thon) n. [G.] a change 
a,xxctw.v^x u Lxxuxx fj-om one construction to another 
in the same sentence. 

anaPOnHa (an-a-kon^a) n. [Etym. unknown] a 
a,xxci.v^v^xxvici. large snake that is non-venomous, 
and destroys its prey by crushing. 
ana nrf^r\n f i n (a-nak-re-on-tik) a. pertaining to, 
ctxx<XL.x cuxx Lxv* ^^ j^f^g^ j^e manner of, the Greek 
poet Anacreon ; amatory ; convivial ; — n. a poem in the 
style of Anacreon ; a poem in praise of love and wine. 

anadem, anademe [^ aSl^^ftad: 

band or fillet] a garland or fillet : a chaplet or wreath. 
anar1in1r»cic (an-a-di-pl6^is) n. [G. fr. ana and 
ctxxctuxpxuaxo cLiploos, double] the repetition at 
the beginning of a new clause, of the word at the end of 
the preceding one [Ehet.]. 

anarlrrkt-nrkiio (a-nad-ro-mus) a. [G.] ascending 
dlldUX U111UU& riverg to spawn [Ichth.]. 
Ofia^niia (^'-ne^mi-a) n. [G. an and haima, blood] 
dxxccxxxxd ^ deficiency of blood or of certain 
constituents of the blood [Med.]. 

an3=*mip (a-ne^mik) a. pertaining to, or afiected 
dxxcbxxxxv. with, ansemia ; deficient in blood. 

anaesthesia, anaesthesis S;^s[s)^n! 

EG. an and aisthanonuxi, feel] loss of feeling ; insensi- 
)ility to pain, artificially produced. 
an»»QfVif»fi/» (an-es-thet-ik) a. producing anses- 
dxxcx^oLxxcLXV, thesia; having the power of 
depriving of feeling or sensation ;— «. that which pro- 
duces anaesthesia, esp. a substance like chloroform, used 
in surgical operations. 

ana.CI'lvoh (at^'-^-S^if) ^i- [Cr. ana, and glunhein, 
«***•*& *jr i^** engrave] an embossed or chased orna- 
ment, worked in relief, as a cameo. 

anaglyphic, anaglyphical, ana- 

flvntir (an-a-glif-ik, -i-kal, an-a-glip^tik) a. per- 
o * J' Jr ^*^ tainmg to anaglyphs. 

anaglyptograph SfStS'^enU^;; 

and graphein, write] a machine for making drawings in 
relief of embossed work. 

anaglyptography Sirilr^of "copying 

embossed work."nori^i^ (an-ag-nor^l-sis) n. [G. fr. ana and 
a,xxdgxxv./x xoxo gnortzein, make known] the un- 
ravelling of a dramatic plot. 

anagoge, anagogy fp^rlilff^'^'eSlSit^J 

ment ; allegorical or spiritual interpretation ; [Path.] 
ejection of blood from the lungs by the mouth. 

anagogic, anagogical &irf'per: 

taining to anagoge ; mysterious ; mystical. 

ana cm cri r^c (an-a-goj-iks) n. mystical interpreta- 

dxxdg ug xv-o tioij_ ggp of the Scriptures ; the study 

of mystical subjects. 

ana err a m (an-a-gram) n. [G. ana and gramma, 

dxxdgx dxxx letter] a transposition of the letters of 

a word or sentence to form a new word or sentence. 

anagrammatic, anagrammati- 

pol (an-a-gra-mat^ik, -i-kal) a. pertaining to, or 
*'*** making, an anagram. 

anagrammatically S^^n^X^SSiJ 

of an anagram ; by transposition of letters. 
act or practice of making 

anagrammatism (an-a-grami^-tlzm) n, the 


anagrammatlSt maker of anagrams. 
anatrrammaflV*^ (an-a-gram-a-tlz) v.t. to 
dXldgldiiillldtl^C transpose, so as to form 
an anagram ;—v.i. to make anagrams. 
anal (aAnal) a. belonging to, or near, the anus; 
dXldX ventral and median, as the fin of a fish. 
analppfip (an-a-lek'-tik) a. relating to analects; 
dXXdXCV^LX^ made up of selections. 
analfar'fc anal^nfa (an-a-lekts; an-a-lek- 
anaieCLb, dndlt^CLcl ta) [G. fr. ana 
and legein, gather] literary extracts; a collection of 
Uterary fragments. 

ana1*^mma (an-a-lem^i) n. [G. fr. analamhanein, 
dxxdxc:xxxxxxd take up] an orthographic projection 
of the sphere on the plane of the meridian ; an instru- 
ment of wood or brass, on which this projection is made. 

analepsis, analepsy S;"^l)^'P^'^'tG^"?r: 

analamhanein, take up] recovery of strength; a kind 

of epilepsy [Med.]. 

ana 1 Pr»f i C (an-a-lep-tik) a. restorative ; invigorat- 

dXXdXCp LXL, jjjg ._^ 3^ restorative medicine. 

a nalo*«^^ia (an-al-je^si-a) n. [G. fr. an and algos, 

dXldXgcoXd pain] mcapacity for feeling pain in 

some part of the body [Path.]. 

analogic, analogical S^Sgf '^'^ 

founded on, analogy. 

to, or 

on^1rkrrir»fili-«r (an-a-loj-i-kal-i) adv. in an ana- 
dlldlUglCdliy logidal mahnei 
analogy ; functionally, not structurally. 

logical mariner ; by way of 

analrkcriValniaoc (an-a-loj-i-kal-nes) n. the 
dlldiUgXL.dXXXCaa (quality of being analogical. 
analrKricm (a-nal^-jizm) n. an argument from 
dlXdlU^ioiXX cause to efl'ect; investigation by, 
or reasoning from, analogy. 
3na1oP*i*^t (a-nal^-jist) n. one that employs, or 

a n a 1 ncri ^e^ (a-nal-6-jiz) v.t. to explain or consider 
dlXdXUgx^C ijy analogy ;— ^.i. to use analogy. 
ana In iron «; (a-nal^-gus) a. having analogy; 
dxxdiv/^wuo presenting some analogy or resem- 
blance ; corresponding ; [Bot.J like in form but not in 
plan of structure. 

onolrkO-rknclTr (a-nal-o-gus-li) adv. in an analo- 
dlldlUgUUaiy gous manner. 
ana1nP*llP (an-a-log) n. [G. aim and logos, ratio, 
dlxdX<jg uc proportion] a thing analogous to some 

Fate, fir, ^o ; me, her ; mine ; note ; tune ; moon. 





other thing; [Biol] an organ similar to another in i 
function, but not in structure and origin. | 

analncrv (a-nal^-ji) n. partial similarity ; [Math.] 1 
dllctlUg jr simihtude of ratios ; [Biol.] similarity of i 
function in organs differing in structure and origin. | 

analTrciQ (a-nal-i-sis) n. [(Jr. ana and luein, loose] i 
ctllctxy olo tjjg resolution of anything into its con- | 
stituent elements; a synopsis; [Math.] resolving pro- j 
blems by reducing them to equations. I 

analvQf (an^-list) n. one that analyzes, or that 
ctlidiy S L js giaiied in analysis. 

analytic, analytical S°temfeint'fo 

analysis ■ resolving into component parts or firr t prin- 
ciples ; [Phil.] deficient in inflections. 
anal^rf irallv (an-ai-lit^i-kal-i) orfr. in an analyt- 
txllaiy Lll.,ctliy ical manner ; by way of analysis. 
analvfir'Q (an-a-lit^iks) n. [G. cmalutikoa, an- 
ctilo-iy tiL.o alytic] the science of analysis. 
onnliT'^aKlffk (an-a-li-za-bl) a. capable of being 
anaiyZaOie analyzed. 

y/i (an-?i-llz) v.t. to take to pieces ; to resolve 
^^ into elements ; to examme critically. 
yf^r (an-a-ll-zgr) ?t. one that, or that which, 
^^•^ analyzes, or is able to analyze. 
anamrKacic (an-am-ne^is) n. [G.] recollection of 
ctllcllilllCoio tjje past, esp. of the Platonic pre- 
existence ; a patient's account to the physician of his illness. 
o ri n m rkt-rvti rtoie (an-a-mor^fo-sis, an-a-mor-f(> 
AlltXmUl pilUaia gig) „. [g. fr. anamorphoun, 
form anew] a distorted representation of an object which, 
viewed from a certain pomt, or by reflection, appears in 
proportion [Opt.] ; a morbid development of form [Bot.]. 
•inari!! ananac (a-naAna, a-na^na, an-an^) 
ctlldlld, dlldllcts „. [Peruv.1 the pme-apple. 
ananHrmiQ (an-an^ms) a. [6. an and aner, 
dlldliuiuus andros, man] without stamens; 
said of female flowers [Hot.]. 

ananfVi<arr«ic (an-an-thgr-us) a. [G. an and 
dlldXlLlXCiUUa antheros, flowery] without 
anthers [Bot.]. 

'inonf Virkiio (an-an-thus) a. [G. an and antho$, 
ananinOUb flower] flowerless [Bot.l. 

anapaest, anapeSt oTtfiree'^synables'! the 
first two short, or unaccented, the last long, or accented. 

anapaestic, anapestic iTrilSSal; 

anapaest ;— 7i. the anapaestic measure ; an anapaestic verse. 
anaoVinra (<i-naf^-ra) «. [G.] the repetition of 
diidpiiUi d ^jje game word or words at the be- 
ginning of successive verses, clauses, or sentences [Rhet.]. 
anar»Virr»Hicia (an-af-ro-diz-i-a) n. [G. fr. an 
dlldpill UUlSld and AphrodUe,Yenas] absence 
of sexual power or desire ; impotence. 
an f3nVif/-kr1icinr> (an-af-ro-diz^i-ak) a. diminish- 
dnapnrUUlbiaC ing sexual desire ;-n. any- 
thing having this efiect. 

fltianla^fv (an^-plas-ti) n. [G. anaplassein. 
a.iidpidotjr remodel] the repairing of external 
lesions by adjacent healthy tissue [Surg.]. 
anarvlofrioJe (au-a-ple-ro-sis) n. [G.l the supply- 
dnapit^rUblb i^g otwh&t is lacking ; [Med.] the 
filling up of a deficiency, as in a wound. 
fl-tlflrpVl (an^rk) 7i. one that is the author of 
aiidi \^n anarchy, or the leader of revolt. 

anarchic, anarchical t^e^Sn™^ 

anarchy ; being without government ; lawless ; confused. 

3 n fl rpll i ^tn (an-ur-kizm) n. confusion ; disorder ; 

ctiidi V^iiioiil anarchy ; the principles of anarchy. 

anarphi^t (an^r-klst) n. one that promotes dis- 

aiicii v.,iiis u order ; one opposed to all government. 

a|-|»i«-pVi.r» (an-ar-ki) n. [G. anarchos, without 

0,1X0,1 K^iiy head] want of government in society ; 

lawlessness ; confusion. 

a n a rf Vi rrn i o (an-ar-thrus) a. [G. an and arthron, 

dlldlLlirUUb joint] without the article [Gram.]; 

without joints ; having no articulated limbs [Zool.]. 

a n a Qa ma (an-a-sar-ka) n. [G. ana and sarx, sar- 

o,xio,ao,i «-d }.fjg^ flegjj] dropsy of the cellular tissue 
(an-a-sar'-kus) a. belonging to, 
aflected by, ; dropsical, 
(an-asls^mik) a. [G. ana and seiein. 

anasarCOU^ (an-a-sarfkus) a. belonging to, or 

o,ixo,odSiiiii., shake] characterized by upward 
movement (said of earthquake shocks). 

the act 
an ex- 

ana cf a fir^ (an-^-stat^ik) a. [G. fr. anistatthai, 
dlldsLdLii,^ rise up] in relief. Anastatic print- 
ing, a process of printing from zinc plates in which the 
design has been etched in relief. 

anaQfr»mr»Qf» (a-nas^to-moz) v.i. to inosculate ; 
dlldo UUlilUoC to communicate with each other, 
as the arteries and veins. 

anacfomnciQ (^i-nas-to-mo^is) n. [G. anasto- 
dlldo LUiiiUolo itioun, open, discharge] the inter- 
connection of veins, arteries, etc. ; the interlacmg of any 
spreading system, as the veins of leaves, etc. 
ana cf r»mrkf iV (*-nas-to-mot^ik)a. pertaining to, 
dildStUlllULil., orexhibiting,ana8tomosis; Med. J 
having the power of removing obstruction from veins ; 
— n. a medicine that removes obstructions from vessels. 
anaQfrnnVlf* (a-nas^tro-fe) n. [G. fr. ana and 
dlldo uiupiic strephein, turn] an inversion of 
the usual order of words [Khet.]. 

anafhf»ma (a-nath^-m?i) n. [G.] an ofiering to 
dlidLiiciiid some deity, hung up in a temple: 
ii curse pronounced by ecclesiastical authority, and 
accompanied by excommunication ; an accursed thing. 

anathematic, anathematical 

(a-nath-e-mat^ik, -i-k?il) a. relating to, or containing, 
un anathema. 

anafhptnaficim (a-nath^-m^tizm) n. 
anaLnt:maLlbIIl ^f anathematizing; 
communication ; a cursing. 

anathematization (ir)"n."tracVlf' 

anathematizing or denouncing as accursed. 
anafVlPmafi^*:* (?i-nath^-ma-tlz) v.t. to pro- 
dlldLllciiidtl^C nounce an anathema against ; 
to denounce with curses ; — v.i. to pronounce anathema. 
anafrtmi/^al (an-a-tom-i-kal) a. belonging to 
dlldLUllllV.dX anatomy ; structural. 
annf rkmioallfr (an-a-tom-i-kal-i) adv. by means 
andtOiniCdliy ^f dissection. 

anatomist i^nat'omy"^''^ "^ °°' '^""^ *° 
anafr»miyafir»n (»-nat-6-mi-zaishun) n. the 
dlldLUllll^dLXUll act of anatomizing. 
onafntni^P (9-nat^-mIz) v.t. to dissect; to lay 
dlXdLLriiii^C open the interior structure of parts, 
for the scientific purpose of examining each by itself. 
o«-|']4-i-kfYi'(r (9-nat^-mi) n. [G. ir. anatemnein, cut 
dlldtuiixjr up] art of dissection ; act of dividing a 
thing for the purpose of examining its parts: act of 
separating the various parts of an animal body, to 
discover tlieir structure and economy; a skeleton. 
anaf rinQlQ (an-a-trip^is) n. [G.] rubbing; friction 
dXXdLi xpsia yg^^ remedially m disease [Med.]. 
3naf rnnrklic (^-nat^ro-pus) a. [G. ana and tre- 
dlidLXUpv^ua ^g,-„_ turn! appbed to an ovule 
having the micropyle near the hilum, and the chalaza at 
the opposite end [Bot.]. 

anbury, anberry S^^rJuiaiefvlinl-'; 

soft wart, peculiar to horses and cattle ; finger-and-toe. 
ofippcfnr (an^es-tur) n. [L. antecessor, foregoer] 
dii^.<c;oi,v/i Qjje from whom a person is descended. 

ancestral, ancestorial SJtlSSja.'^,^: 

latmg to ancestors ; possessed by ancestors. 

ancestress (an-sestres) n. a female ancestor. 

«3fipckcft*V (an-ses-tri) n. a series of ancestors or 
diiucsLXjr progenitors; lineage; honourable de- 
scent ; high birth. 

anrhiloncj (an^-kl-lops) n. [G.] 
a,ixv^xxxxv/^o an abscess mithemner 
corner of the eye [Path.]. 
anrhifTlPTf* (ang'-ki-ther) n. [G. 
dXXCXXXUXCXC anqchi, near, and 
therion, beast] a fossil horse. 
atipfior (ang'-kur) n. [G. angkura'\ 
o,ixv^xxvi an iron instrument dropped i 
from a ship to grapple the bottom and 
hold the vessel at rest in water; any ,^ 

firm support ; — v.t. to place at anchor ; — ^atbm. 
v.i. to cast anchor ; to come to anchor ; to stop. To 
weigh anchor, to raise it. Anchor-buoy, a buoy that 
marks the po.sition of an anchor at the bottom. Anchor- 
ground, ground for anchoring. Anchor-hold, the hold 
taken by an anchor ; security ; ground of expectation. 

Fate, f&r, ^o ; mei h^r ; mine ; note ; tiine ; m6on. 





AncbOT-ice, ground ice. Auchor-watcli, the watch set 

while a ship is at anchor. 

a n rVl nra Cff^ (ang^kur-aj) n. a place where a ship 

ctix v^iiUi cxg c can anchor ; a duty imposed on ships 

for anchoring in a harbour. 

SMpVinrpH (^nR-l^urd) a. at anchor; shaped like 

ctiii.,iiUi CU an anchor ; [Her.l applied to a cross 

whose extremities are turned back like anchor flukes. 

anchoress, anchor! tess ^^^;)-''n.^\ 

female hermit. 

anchoret, anchorite feliSoa" 

retire] a hermit ; a recluse ; a monk. 

anchoretic, anchoretical ik?^-kai)l 

of, or pertaining to, an anchoret, or to his life. 

a n P^ nvv (an-cho^vi) n. [Sp. fr. (?) Basque antzua, 

a.Li.\^M.iKj\ y dry]asmall sea-fish of the herring family. 

Anchovy-pear, the fruit of Oriaa caulMora (Jamaica). 

anrfivln^** (ang'-ki-los) v.t. [G.J to unite or fix 

txiiy^iiy luoc immovably; to stiffen;— v.t. to become 

consolidated ; to grow together. 

atlpllvlnQIQ (ang-ki-l6^sis) n. the consolidation 

ctiidiy iuoxo Qf t^o or more bones into one ; the 

immovable state of a joint. 

anchylotic J^lfyfijs^''*'^''^ "• p«^*^>°i»« *« ^"' 

to moderns : elders of the people ; barristers of a certain 
standing. Ancient of Days, God. 
atlPIPtlflv (an^hent-li) adv. in old times; for- 
cxixv^iCii Lijr merly ; in former times ; from of old. 
Qf|pJpfif«~»T (an-shent-ri) n. ancientness ; some- 
ctiiv^icii Li y thing belonging to antiquity. 
flflPlllaTIT' (an-sil-ar-i) a. [L. aricilla, female ser- 
ctiiv^iiia.! y Yant] subservient ; supplementary. 

ancipital, ancipitous ^rit'tnS, 

-cipitis, double-headed] two-edged [Bot. and ZooL]; 
double-faced ; ambiguous. 

fltlPnn (^'^s'-kon) n.; pi. ancones (ang-ko^nez) [G.] 
txiiy^KJH the elbow ; [Arch.l a console ; a corbel ; the 
corner or quoin of a wall, crossbeam, or rafter. 
anH (*"<i) <"'"^- [A.S.] the typical cumulative co- 
^***^ ordinating conjunction. 

atlHanf*^ (an-dan-te) a. [It.] rather slow;— n. a 
aiiuctix LC moderately slow movement or piece. 
a.nfla.ntinn (^n-dan-te^nS) a. somewhat quicker 
0.11 vxcxii till v^ than andante ;— 71. such a movement. 
OfiHfkcif fk (an^e-zit) n. [Andes] a rock, its essen- 
aiiucoiLC tiai composition being plagioclase, fel- 
spar, and hornblende. 

atlHirnn (^nd-i-ern) n. [O.F. andier] a utensil for 
****'^** ^" supporting wood in a fire-place ; a fire-dog. 
fl n H rrP pin tn (^'^-dre-si-um) n. [G. oner, andros, 
diiui vx^^iUlll man, andoiAros, house] thestamens 
taken collectively [Bot.]. 

androgynal, androgynous S'^i^g 

a. [G. aner, man, and gune, woman] having the charac- 
teristics of both sexes ; [Bot.] both male ana female. 
?inHrnP*vnv (a^n-droj-i-ni) n. the state of being 
ctiiui ugjriijr androgynous; hermaphroditism. 
o fi /4 rnl H (anyroid)ri.[G.aner,man, and eidos, form] 
ctiivii Uiu a machine in the human form, which, 
by contrivance, performs some of the motions of a man. 
a n r1 mne^i- a 1 /-ki i c (an-dro-pet^-lus) a. [G. aner, 
ctllUlupCLctlUUS) andros, man, Sind petalon, 
leaf] said of double flowers, the stamens becoming petals. 
a n H rnnVl a tm^ l «a (an-drof^-gus) a.[G. pha^ein, 
dllUiUpilcigUUS) eat] man-eating ; cannibal. 
a.nPar (^-i^^i") adv. near, contrasted with afar; 
ctiiccti nearly ; almost \—prep. near. 

anecdotal, anecdotical ^n°^k'.do& 

kal) a. pertaining to anecdotes. 

a t1 PpH nf f» (ani«k-d6t) n. [G. anekdotos, not given 

ctiic^v^vii^LC out] a particular fact of an interesting 

nature ; a biographical incident. 

at1#=»pHnf IQf (an^k-do-tist) n. one that tells, or 

a.iic;\.,uuFtiai. o^e given to relating, anecdotes. 

a.nplp (g'-nelOf.*. [A.S. an, on, and ete, oil] to anoint 

aii^iv;^ with oil ; to give extreme unction. 

a ti pi ppf rip (an-e-lek^trik)a. [G. anandE. electric] 
ctiic;ic;v..LiiV^ non-electric ;—«. a body that does 
not become electric. 

atlPmnOTam (a-nem^-gram) n. [G. anemos, 
ctiic^iiiv^gictiii wind, and gramma, letter] a 
record produced by an anemograph. 
atlPmnoranh (a-nem^-graf) n. [G. graphein, 
aii^iiiv^gi aj^ii write] an instrument for record- 
ing automatically the force and direction of the wind. 
a fl Ptn r»l nP'V (an-e-mol^-li) n. [G. anemos, wind, 
txii^ liisjiKj^y and logos, discourse] the doctrine 
of winds, or a treatise on the subject. 
anPinniTlpfpr (an-e-mom'-e-ter) n. [G. metron, 
aiismiiuiii^L^i measure] an instrument for 
measuring the force and velocity of the wind. 
n n pm rkm *»f t*\r (an-e-mom^-tri) n. the measure- 
diiCiiiUiiiC: Ll y nient of the force or velocity of 
the wind, by means of an anemometer. 
AflPtnOtlP (^•-nem^-ne)?*. [G. fr. anemos, wind]a 
x^iiciiiuiic genus of plants of the crow-foot 
family ; the wind-flower. 

anemonin, anemonine'SbStaS 

obtained from some species of Anemone, 
o « <im rvrkVi i 1 ^m i c (an-e-mof-i-lus) a. [G. anemos. 
dnCIIlUpilllUUb wind, and philos, loving] 
fertilized by wind-borne pollen [Bot.]. 
aflPtnn^PnnP (^-nem-o-skop) n. [G. anemos, 
ctiic:iiiuo\.>upc wind, and skoipein^ view] a con- 
trivance for showing the direction of the wind. 
anPnf (^■-iient') »rep. [A.S. on and ef en, even] in 
ctiiCii t respect of, or regard to ; as to ; about. 
a n PrniH (an^-roid) n. [G. a, neros, wet, and eidos, 
ctiiCi KJiKX form] a portanle barometer, shaped like 
a watch, depending for its action on the pressure of the 
atmosphere on a metallic box almost exhausted of air. 

anesthesia, etc. see ansesthesla, etc. 

a fl P 1 1 ri Q tn (an-u-rizm) n. [G. aneurunein, widen] 
ctliC Ul lolll a morbid dilatation of an artery. 
atlPliriQtnal (an-u-riz^m§,l) a. pertaining to 
ctiicui ioxiicti aneurism ; affected with aneurism. 
a n PTXT' (?^'°*^ ) ^^'"^ '" ^ "^^ form or manner ; newly; 
ctlic w over again ; afresh. 

oriA-'ir^fiK-kCjifTr (an-frak-tii-os-i-ti) n. state of 
aniraCLUOiiliy ^ging fuH of windings ; one of 
the fissures separating the convolutions of the Drain. 

anfractuous, anfractuose Sq^usS) 

a. [L. anfractus, turning] winding ; full of windings 
ancrpt (an-jel) n. [G. anggelos] a messenger; a 
****&^* spirit employed by God to communicate 
His will to man ; a ministering spirit ; an evil spirit ; an 
ancient gold coin of England, worth from 6s. 8a. to 10s., 
bearing the figure of the archangel Michael :— a. resem- 
bling angels ; angelic. Angel-toed, an open bed without 
bed-posts. Angel-fish, a species of shark, taking its 
name from its wing-like pectoral fins. Angel-shot, a 
kind of chain shot. 

a n D*p1 pf (an-jel-et) n. a gold coin of Edward IV., of 
****& ClC L the value of half an angel ; a small angel. 

angelic, angellCal belonging to, or resem- 
bling, an angel ; of the nature of an angel. 
ancrplipa (an-jel-i-ka) n. an umbelliferous plant; 
**il^CliUet a Cahfornian sweet white wine. 
ano-plipallv (an-jel-i-kal-i) adv. in an angelic 
«***&^**^****J' manner; like an angel. 
ancrplnia f rv (an-jel-olVtri) n. [G. latreia, ser- 
a.i.i-^\Zl\Ji.a. Liy vice] the worship of angels. 
ano-plnlncTTT- (an-jel-ol^-ji) n. [G. anggelos and 
cLii^d^iyj^y logos, discourse] a discourse on 

angels ; the doctrine of angels. 
ano-plrkt-iVianiT- (iin-jel-of-a-ni) n. [G. anggehs 
«*A^&Ciupiic»,iijr and phatnetn, appear] the 
manifestation of an angel, or of angels, to man. 
a ri cr<alrkf (an-je-lot) n. an old French gold coin ; a 
ctllgCiUt goiJ coin struck by Henry VI. of 
England, at Paris ; a kind of rich cheese made in 
Normandy ; a musical instrument like a lute. 
ano*pll1Q (an-je-lus) n. [fr. the opening words of 
ctll^CXUo the service, " Angelus Domini nuntiavit 
Mariae"] in the Roman Catholic church a devotional 
service in memory of the incarnation, said at morning, 
noon, and sunset. The angelus-beU, the signal to say 
the angelus. 

Fate, far, ^o ; me, b^r ; mine ; note ; tune ; m66n. 




a n crar (ang'-ger) n. [Icel. angr, grief] a strong passion 
«**i&C* or emotion of the mind excited by a real or 
supposed injury ; — v.t. to excite to anger. 

;,«- anglcncnyilla, geion, vessel, and engchuma, 
infusion] vascular tissue [Bot.]. 

a n crina (an-jI-na)n.[L.]inflammationof thethroat. 
dllgillct Angina pectoris, spasm of the chest. 
ancrincrranhv (an-ji-og^ra-fi) n. [G. angaeion, 
aii^ivj^i €X^i.iy vessel, and graphein, write] a 
description of the vessels in the human body. 
ancrinlnjrv (an-ji-ol^ji) n. [G. anggeion, vessel, 
aiiQivJiyj^y and logos, discourse] the science of 
the vessels of the human body. 

anjrinQnprm (an-ii-o-sperm) n. [G. sperma, 
ctiigivfoj^^i 111 seed] a plant having a seed-vessel. 

ancrinf nmv (an-ji-ot^-mi) n. [G. tome, cutting] a 
ii^iKJ \,\jiny dissection of the vessels of the body. 
oM0-1/:x (ang^gl)n. [L. angnlus corner] a corner j an 
Otkl^is^ angular projection; the difference of direc- 
tion of two lines in the same plane, that meet, or that 
would meet, if sufficiently extended ; the difference of 
direction of two planes intersecting, or tending to inter- 
sect each other. Acute angle, one less than 90"^. 
Adjacent aiiglea, such as have one leg common to both 
angles. Angle of incidence, the angle that a ray of 
light makes with a line drawn perpendicular to the plane 
on which it falls. Angle of refraction, the anjjle that 
a ray of light makes with a line drawn perpendicular to 
the refracting medium through which the ray passes. 
Curvilinear angle, one formed by two curvea lines. 
External angles, angles of any right-lined figure with- 
out it, when the sides are produced. Internal angles, 
those that are within any right-lined figure. Mixed 
angle, one formed by a right line with a curved line- 
Oblique angles, angles that are either acute or obtuse. 
Obtuse angle, one more than 90"". Rectilineal angle, 
one formed by two right lines. Right angle, one formed 
by a right line falling on another perpendicularly. Solid 
angle, the angle produced by the meeting of^ three or 
more plane angles at one point. Spherical angle, one 
made oy the meeting of two arcs of great circles which 
mutually cut one another on the surface of the globe 
or sphere. Visual angle, the angle formed by two rays 
of light, or two straight lines drawn from the extreme 

[A.S. angel] a fish-hook ; a rod 

points of an object to the centre of the eye. 
an trip (anf5'-gl) n. [A.S. aiigel] a flish 
ctiigic a^j fing fQj. fishing; — v.i. to fish with line 

1 '. and hook ; to use artifice ; to intrigue. 

/ anP'lpH (ang'-gld) a. having an angle or angles; 

(.' ctiigicu [Her.] broken in an angular direction. 
anp'lptnpf Pr (ang'-gl-me-ter) n. an instrument 
ctii^idiiC.Ld JQf measuring angles, esp. a geo- 
logical instrument for measuring the dip of strata. 
rxncrXf^r (ang^gler) n. one that fishes or angles with 
ctiigici a hook. Angler-flsh, a fish that attracts 
its prey by slender filaments attached to its head. 
ario-looif^i (ang'-gl-sit) n. a sulphate of lead found 
dllglC&lLC inAnglesea. 

Ano-liran (ang'-gli-kan) a. [L. Angli] English; 
x^iigii«.,ctii „f^ or belonging to the English 
church ;— 71. a member of the church of England. 
Ancrli/'atiiot-n (ang'-gli-kan-izm) n. the principles 
AngllCdnibm of ^^e English church. 
f^ncrWnh (ang'-gli-se) adv. [L.] in English; in the 
rvilglH.,C English manner. 

liPT^m (ang-gli-sizm) n. an English idiom; 
ii\.,ioiix English political principles. 
iPlZP (ang-gli-slz) v.t. to make English; to 
i^^^i^c render conformable to English idiom. 
ofip-lirip' (ang'-gling) n. the act or art of fishing 
ciiigxiiig with rod and line ; rod-fishing. 
Anp"1n (ang'-glo) a prefix meaning English. 
x^iigiv^ Anglo-American, n. an American of Eng- 
lish parentage or descent;— a. pertaining to Anglo- 
Americans ; connected with both England and America. 
Anglo-Catholic, n. a member of the church of England ; 
a high-churchman ;— a. catholic in the church of Eng- 
land sense ; high-church. Anglo-Catholicism, the 
principles of Anglo-Catholics. Anglo-French, n. the 
Norman-French introduced into England at the Con- 
quest ;— a. belonging to this language ; English and 
French. Anglo-Indian, n. an Englishman born or 
resident in India ;— a. connected with both England and 
India, or with Anglo-Indians. Anglo-Saxon, n. one of 
the nation f ormecT by the union of the Angles, Saxons, 


and other early Teutonic settlers in Britain : one of the 
English race ; the earliest form of the English language ; 
—a. pertaining to the Anglo-Saxons or their language. 
Anjrlotnania (ang-gl6-ma^ni-a) n. [G. mania, 
■"•**& **^***'***"' madness] excessive fondness for, 
or imitation of, everything Enghsh. 
AntrlnnVinKia (ang-glo-fo^bi-a) n. [G. phobos, 
AnglOpnODia f^^^ intense fear or dislike oi 
England, or of whatever is English, 
jj 11 0.>-ll- (ang'-^ur) n. [L.] great anxiety, accompanied 
allg v>l ijy painful constriction of the abdomen [Med.! 
a n tXTira (ang-g(T-ra) n. [Angora. Asia Minor] a cloth 
ctilgUl ct made from the wool oi the Angora goat. 
a t1 DTlQf 1 1 r^ (an-gos-tu-ra) n. [Angostura, Venez- 
alXgLfoLUict uelajabarkusedin preparing bitters. 
a n cri 1 v (an^-gri-li) adv. in an angry manner ; with 
ctiigl lijr indications of resentment. 
anOTV (ang'-gri) a. touched with anger; showing 
""^'O^y anger; roused; vigorous; [Med.] inflamed. 
a n cri 1 i 1 1 i fnrm (ang-gwil-i-form) a. [L. anguilla, 
angUllllIOrm ggi^ ^^d forma, form] in the 
form of an eel ; resembling an eel. 

anguine, anguineal af^friS: 

snake] pertaining to a snake or snakes ; snake-like. 
o|icr||icV| (ang^gwish) n. [L. a7igustiis, narrow] 
ctll^ Uloll extreme pain, eitner of body or mind. 
a n cr\ liar (ang^u-lar) a. having an angle or angles ; 
****& Uieti pointed ; consisting of an angle ; forming 
an angle ; measured by an angle ; stiff; formal. 
anjrillaHfv (ang-gu-lar'-i-ti) n. angular quality; 
«***& wxcvi A ujf any angular characteristic. 
anp*n1arlv (ang-gu-l?r-li) adv. in an angular 
ctiig uiai ly manner ; with angles or corners. 

angulate, angulated S^^foS-^'wS 

angles or corners ; of an angular form. 
antrn^faff* (ang-gus-tat) a. [L. angxistus, 
diiguotatc narrow] narrowed. 
anp'll«;ftfnliafp (ang-gus-ti-folli-at) a. [L. 
«*Ai^uJ5tiiUii<*UC angustus, narrow and /o/t- 
atus, leaved, ir. folium, leaf] narrow-leaved [Bot.]. 
anVi«alaf irkn (an-he-la^hun) n. [L.] shortness of 
ctllilClctLlUli breath; diflicult respiration. 
anVlvHriff* (an-hMnt) n. anhydrous sulphate of 
ctiliijr ux lUC lime, found in Austria-Hungary, etc. 
anViTi-Hrrkiic (an-hMrus) a. [G. an and hudor, 
ctlliiyuiuua water] destitute of water; [Chem.J 
without the water of crystallization. 
anil (^0"'l) ^- t-A- an-nil] a shrub from whose leaves 
ctiiii and stalks indigo is made. 
a n i 1 P (an-Il) a. [L. anus, old woman! of, or resembling, 
ctiixic an old woman ; old-womanisn ; imbecile. 
a nil in P (an-i-lin) n. [anil] a substance that fur- 
cxiiiiiiic nishes brilliant dyes. 
a nil if V (?^-nil-i-ti) n. state of being anile ; old age of 
ctiiiiiLj^ a woman ; dotage. 

animoHTr/iroirkri (an-i-mad-ver-shun) n. criti- 
dllllllciUVCrblUn ^ism; censure; reproof. 
animaHvprQivP (an-i-mad-ver-siv) a. having 
dlllllldUVCrblVe the power of perceiving. 
a nim a Hvprf (an-i-mad-verf) v.t. [L. animus, 
aiiiiiiavj. veil, mind, and advertere, turn to] to 
consider or remark by way of criticism or censure. 
a n i m a.1 (an-i-m^O n. [L. anima, breath] an organ- 
ciiiiiiicti i2g(j living being endowed with sensation 
and the power of voluntary motion ; an irrational being 
as distinguished from man ;— a. of, relating to, or got 
from, animals ; carnal. Animal-flower, a zoophyte 
resembling a flower. Animal magnetism, mesmerism. 
Animal spirits, natural buoyancy. 

animalcular SnXE'^^'^ ""■ p''*^'"'"« *^ 

a n i m 3.1 Pll 1 P (an-l-mal-kul) n. [dim. of animal] a 
ci,iiiiiia.i\..uic; very minute or microscopic animal. 
animalpnli^f (an-i-mal-ku-list) n. a student of 
ciiiiiiici,i\.,uxiOL animalcules; one that regards 
animalcules as the germs of life and the cause of disease.^m (an-l-mal-lzm) n. the state of mere 
aiiixxxaixoiii animals ; sensuality ; animal activity. 
a.nima.lifv (an-l-mal-i-ti) n. the state of animal 
a.xxxxxxa,xxbjr existence; the animal side of human 
nature; [Phys.] the sum total of animal vital phenomena. 
animali'yaf irkti (an-i-mal-i-za-shun) n. the act 
dlilllidilZidLlUll of giving, or of converting 
into, animal life ; briitalization. 

F&te, far, ^o ; me, h^r ; mine ; note ; tune ; moon. 




anilTlflli^P (an-i-mal-Iz) v.t. to give animal life 
ctiiiiiiaii^c Qp properties to ; to convert into 
animal matter by the processes of assimilation ; to render 
or regard as merely animal ; to brutalize. 
3 n i m 3 f P (an-i-mat) v.t. [L. cmirtia, breath) to give 
ciiiiiiicttc natural life to ; to give spirit orvigour to. 

animate, animated S'if^v^f spirTtef '^ 

flnimflfinp*! V (^■n-i-ma-ting-li) adv. in an ani- 
ciilii.iictL.ilX^ljr mating manner; so as toanimate. 
flnimsfinn (an-i-maAshun) n. the act of animat- 
a.i.ikiiHA\,i\Jii jng^ Qj. tjjg state of being animated. 
flntmflfivf (an-i-ma-tiv) a. having the power to 
ctiiiixicLti V c animate, or to impart life or spirit. 
animafnp'rpn'h (an-i-mat-o-graf) n. [L. ani- 
ci.xiii.LAc«.v.vygA €x^xi. „j(j^e^ pp_ animatus, give life 
to, and G. graphein^ write]. See Mnematograph. 
fl n i m ^ (an-i-ma') a. roused ; having eyes of a diflferent 
cuixixic tincture from the body [Her.]. 


(an-i-ma) n. [Sp.]the name of various resins, 
also called elemi ; Indian copal. 
Snimi^m (an-i-mizm) n. [L. amma, soul] the 
AiXiiiiioixi doctrine that the soul is the source of 
all vital phenomena ; belief in the existence of the soul, 
spiritual Deings, and a spiritual world ; the attribution of 
soul to inanimate objects and to natural phenomena. 
fl n i m i ^f (^n-i-mist) n. one that maintains animism 
ctxxxxxxxau jj^ ^^^y ggngg of the word. 
3.nimOSitv (^i^'i-i^os-i-ti) n. [L. animus, mind] 


violent hatred ; active enmity, 
(an-i-mus) n. [L.] intention ; purpose ; 
spirit; temper; animosity. 

ofiicfi (an-is) n. [G. anethon] a plant bearing aro- 
ctXlXOC inatic seetls, PimpineUa anisum. 
anicAorl ?iriieo cs£i£i/-1 (an-i-sed,an-is-sed)r!.. 
dlllbCCU, dlllbC-bCCU the seed of the anise. 
anic*iffp» (an-i-sef) n. a liqueur made from the 
dixxoc L tc seed of the anise. 
ani^nrnprmiQ (an-I-som^-rus) a. [G. anisos, 
ctixxouxxici uuo unequal, and wieros, part] un- 
equal in number in the difi'erent circles of the nower. 

anisostemonous (-.^Ut^Ma s^^iS 

thread] with stamens unequal in number to the petals. 
a n i cr»cf Vi f^nin (an-i-s6-sthen-ik) a. [G. sthenos, 
ctxxxauiStXXCXXXl^ strength] of unequal strength. 
fltlkpr (^ng-ker) n. [D.] a liquid measure formerly 
cixxr^cx yggfj jj^ England, containing ten wine gallons, 
on1r1<^ (ang-kl)n.[A.S. ancleow] the joint connect- 
ctxxr^ic; iijg the foot with the leg. 
o ti 1^1 ckf (ang-klet) n. an ornament, fetter, or support;L for the ankle. 

ankyloSe (ang-M-los) v. see anchylose. 

anna (an-a) n. [Hind.] in the East Indies, the six- 
ctxxxxa. teenth part of a rupee. 

annalist (an-al-lst) n. a writer of annals. 

a.nna.1^ (an^lz) [L. annus, year] a history of 
axxxiaxo events, each event being recorded under 
the year in which it happened ; masses said for a year. 
annafp^ (an^ts) «. [L. annus, year] the first 
a,xxxxcx.i,v::;o year's income of a spiritual preferment, 
paid to the pope ; the portion of stipend payable to the 
executors of a minister of the church of Scotland for 
the half-year after his death. _ 

a.nnpa.1 (^'""^l') '"•*• (A.S. an and celan, kindle] to 
a.xxxxc;<ax j^gat, and then cool slowly, for the purpose 
of rendering less brittle ; to heat in order to fix colours. 
annppfpnf (a-nek-tent) a. [annex] connecting or 
cixxxxcv^LCXXL joining one thing with another. 
annpliH annpliHan (an^-lid, a-nel-i dan) 
lAIlIieilU, cinntJilUcin ^ ^l annellus, little 
ring] one of the Annelida, a class of invertebrate ani- 
mals, including the earth-worm, etc. 
Qj-iMp-jf (a-neks') v.t. [L. annectere, pp. annexus, 
ctxxxxcA. (.jej tQ vmite at the end ; to subjoin ; to affix; 
to add, as a smaller thing to a greater ; to connect. 
a.nnPXa.f"inn (s^n-eks-aishun) n. act of uniting, 
cxxxxxc;,lxuxx or connecting ; addition; approp- 
riation of territory ; union of property with a freehold, so 
as to become a fixture. 

flnnPVf* (a-neks') n. anything annexed; a sub- 
ci.xxxxc;.A.^ sidiary building. 

arm t^-vm f^n f (a-neks-ment) n. the act of annex- 
ctlllll:;JS.lllCllL ijjg; the thing annexed. 

annihilable Annihilated.'^ *' '^^''^'' ^^ ^'""^ 

annihilaffi (a-nl-hi-lat) v.t. [L. ad and nihil, 
axxxxxxxxxcikc nothing] to reduce to nothing; to 
cause to cease to be ; to destroy the existence of. 
anniVlilafir»n (a-nl-hi-la^shun) n. act of reduc- 
aiixxxxxxxctLXUXi jjjg_ q,. g^^te of being reduced, to 
nothing ; destruction. 

anniViila i-r\r (a-nl-hi-la-tur) n. one who, or that 
dUlllllllctLUr ^yj^ich^ annihilates. 

a n n ivf^rcia r\T (an-i-ver^a-ri) a. [L. annus, year, 
cLxiAAj, V ^1 ocxx jr and vertere, pp. versus, turn] 
returning with tlie year, at a statea time ;— ?i. a day 
celebrated as it returns each year. 

annnminafinn (a-nom-i-na^hun) n. [L. ad 
ctXlllUiiXllXcttlUll and nomen, a name] the use 
of words nearly alike in sound, but of different mean- 
ings ; a pun ; alliteration. 

a n n ni"^ f f^* (an^-tat) v.t. [L. ad and notare, mark] 
a,i.iii.\j\,a,L^ to make comments upon ;— i^.i. to 
make annotations, comments, or remarks. 
annnfafinn (an-6-ta^shun) n. the act of anno- 
annKJLfXLiKJiL tating; a note or comment. 
a nnof a fr»r (an^-ta-tur) n. a writer of notes; a 
cxxxxxv^LdLV^x commentator ; a scholiast. 
n n n rkf a f /^t-tr (an-6-ta^tur-i) a. relating to, or con- 
dXXlxULdtUiy taining, annotation. 
nr\n rkf 1 n rvi i o (a-not-i-nus) a. [L. fr. annus, year] 
dnnOlinOUb one year old [Bot.]. 
annnffn annnffa (a-not-6, -a) n. Seear- 
dnnOLLO, dnnotta notto. Also written 
anotto, anatta. 

annnilPPf^ (a-nounsO v.t. [L. ad and nuntiare, 
ctxxxxwuxiv^c: report, fr. nuntius. messenger] to 
give public notice, or first notice of ; to make known. 
annr»ii«r'«am«a.rif (a-nouns-ment) n. act oi 
dlUlUUlIl^ClllCllL giving public notice; pro- 
clamation ; declaration. 

(a-noun-ser) n. one that announces 


or gives notice. 

annnv (^'^oi') v.t. ['O.P. fr. L. in odio, in hatred] 
ctxxxxcjr to injure or disturb by continued or repeated Y* 
acts ;— n. trouble ; vexation. i^^^J 

annnvanf P (a-noi^ns) n. the act of annoying, 
cixxxxwjrctxxv..c; or the state of being annoyed; 
that which annoys. 

annual (^n-^-?'l) *^- [L. annus, year] returning or 
axxxxixctx happening every year; yearly; performed 
in a year ; reckoned by the year ; lasting only one year ; 
— n. a literary work published once a year ; a plant that 
lives but one year or season. 

annnallv (^^-u-al-i) adv. yearly; each year; 
cxxxxxuaxij^ returning each year ; year by year. 
a-Hnuita-nf" fe-niifi-tant) n. a person that has an 

annnifv (^^-nu'-i-ti) n. [L. annus, year] a sum of 
ctxxxxuxLjr nioney payable yearly for a number of 
years, or for life. 

annnl (S'"^"!') '^•^- tL. ad and nullum, nothing] to 
ctxxxx Lxx niake void or of no effect. 
annular (an-u-lar)a. pertaining to, or having the 
dxxxxuxctx fQj.jQ of jj j.jng Annular eclipse, an 
eclipse of the sun which takes place when the moon is in 
apogee, the moon's disc being projected against the sun's 
disc in such a way as to be surrounded by a ring of light. 
annillarlv (an-il-lar-li) adv. in an annular man- 
ctxxxxuxdx ly jiej. . j^ the form of a ring. 
annnlarv (an-fi-lar-i) a. having the form of a 
dxxxx uxdx y j.jjjg ■ bearing a ring. 

annulate, annulated S^f,*^rftS 

belts ; made up of rings or ring-like segments. 
anniilafir»n (an-ii-la-snun) n. the state of being 
ctlxxxuXdLXUXX annulate; a ring-like structure. 
•iri«ii1<af (an-u-let) n. [L. annulvs] a little ring; 
dllllUlCU [Arch.] a small, flat fillet encircling a 
column, etc.; [Her.] a little circle borne as a charge. 
»> ♦-» «-n 1 1 m o«i f (a-nul-ment) n. the act of annulling; 
annUimeni the act of making void. 
o««iil/-ki/4 (an-ii-loid) a. [L. annidus, ring, and 
annUlUlU q g^fj^s, formtring-like. 
annnln^f* (an-u-los) a. furnished with, or com- 
dxxxxuxusc posed of, rings; ringed. 
annnmprafp (a-nu-me-rat) v.t. [L. ad and 

dXXXXLlXXXCX dLC ni/ij,m.firn/rr niiinhpri in .idfl a 

number to a former one. 

numerarc, number] to add a 

Fate, far, ^do ; m8, hjr ; mine ; note ; tune ; m66n. 




«««»»t-Mc»f'jfii-kr« (a-nu-me-ra^hun)n. addition a*, Qoffk an«saff»H (B.h^at,-^-ted) a. [L.ania, 
annumeration ^ a former number. | anbdtC, einbclLCU haudie] liaving a handleT 

oficfkrinP (an^e-rin) a. LL. a>iser, goosej pertain- 
ctiio^i iiit ingto, or resembling, a goose, or Its sltin. 

onmirioiaf «a (a-nun^hi-at; v.t. [L. annuntmre, 
cinnUIiV^lcltC jnake knownj to announce. 
«M«n«^iif i/-krt (a-nun-slii-a^liun) n. act of an- 
annunCldUUH riounclng; a festival (March 
25) in memory of the angel's anhounceraent to the Virgin 
Mary that she should t>ear the Messiah. 

annunciative, annunciatory 

(a-nun'-shi-a-tiv, -tur-i) a. containing an announcement. 
anniinr'iaf rvr (a-imn-shi-a-tur) n. otie that, or 
ctllliUiiV^ictLUi that which, announces. 
fs ti rkr* 3 rr»r»i 10 (an-o-kar-pils) a. [(i. and, tipward, 
dUUUcti puu& aadkarpos, fruit! said of ferns that 
have the fructification on the upper surface of the frond. 

orjrwr'iif fiarf ir» (an-6-ka-thar-tik) a. [G. kdthar- 
dllUUaLlicti Lll^ «iX-o«, p'urgingj emetic. 
annHf* (an'-od) n. [G. anodos, a v 
ctliUUC pgig of a voltaic current. 

way up] the positive 

anoHvnP (anj)-dln) a. [(r. an and odiine, pain] 
diiv^uyiic serving to assuage pain or grief ;—)i. 
anything that assuages pain or grief. 
anrkHtrrirtnc (a-nod-i-nus) a. having the qualities 
anoaynOUb ^j ^^ anodyne. 

anOia (a-nol-a) n. [G.] want of understanding. 

anninf" (^""oint') v.t. [L. in and ungerc, smear] to 
ctiK^iiiu pQm- (,ji ijpon ; to rub over with oil or 
unctuous substances ; to consecrate, by unction. 
a nnitif pH (a-noin-ted) a. consecrated;—/?, a con- 
ctiiUiiiucLi .secrated person , Tbe Lord's Anointed, 
Clirist; a king by divine right. 

anrtiflfmpflt" (a-noint^ment) n. the act of anoint- 
ctixv^iiiLiiic^iiu i,jg. consecration; a salve. 
annmalir»Arl (a-nom'-a-ll-ped) a. [L. pes, pedis^, 
cUlUllldll^CU foot. See anomalous.] liaving 
the middle toe united to the exterior by three phalanges, 
and to the interior by one only ;— «. a bird witli such a foot. 
annmallQm (a-nom'-a-lizm) n. a deviation from 
a.iiv^iiict,iiaiix rule- anomaly: an irregularity. 

anomalistic, anomalistical ti-^^] 

-ti-kal) a. irregular ; departing from common or estab- 
lished rules. The anomalistic year, the period 
between two successive perihelia of the earth. 
anrkTTialmic (a-nom-a-lus) a. [G.] deviating from 
dllUlUdlUUb a general rule, method, or analogy, 
nnomaloildxr (<>"*"n-a-lus-li) adv. in an 
ctixwiiidiuuaiy anomalous manner; irregularly. 
anom^lv (?^-nom'-a-ll) n. deviation from the 
***"****/ common rule or analogy; irregularity; 
angular distance of a planet from its perihelion. 
anon (^'-no") ««i'- [A.S. on cln, in one] quickly; 
miv^ix immediately; at another time ; again. 
Anonaopaa (an-o-na^se-e) n.pL [}/la,\&y menona] 
J^iiKJii€X\,ccC the custard-apple family, an order 
of ornamental trees and shrubs. 

annnvmitv (*"-o-nhn-i-ti) n. the state of l)eing 
a,ixvyi&jf iiiiujf anonymous; anonymousness. 
annnvmmiG (a-non-i-mus)rt. [G. an and o"oma, 
aiiv^ixyiiiuus name] wanting a name; without 
the real name of the author. 

annn^rmmiclTr ( a-non'-i-mus-H ) adv. in an 
dnonymOUSiy anonymous manner. 
anorrlnniiQ (an-or-kus) a. [G. an and orchis, 
ctUUl UllUUb testicles] having no testicles. 
annrP'VV (an^-rek-si) n. [G. anorexia, want of 
a.ii.\ji c Ajr appetite] want of appetite. 
annrmal (a-nor-mal) a. not according to rule; 
ctilUimdl abnormal; anomalous. 
annrfVliV' (an-or-thik) a. [G. an and orthos. 

doubly oblique [Min.J. 

irregular in crystallization ; 

annrfVlif P (an-or-thlt) n. a triclinic lime felspar, 
dllUi Llll LC^ fo^,j^,l Qjj Mount Vesuvius. 

annrflinrtia (an-or-th(Vpi-a) n. [G. an, orthos, 
ctnui Liiupid and ops, dpos, eye] squinting. 
anosmia ('*"-™-'"'-?') ♦'• C^-] l^ss of the sense of 

a«(-»4-Vjfi«. (a-nuTH^r) a. not the same; different; 
a,iiv./Lixc;i Q[^g niore ; anyone else. 

anourous, anurous gto^r'and 2S«! 

tall] tailless ; pertaining to, or having the characters of, 
the Anura, an order of Amphibia. 

)Ung, ago 
an^'WPr (^^^f) ^■•'- lA-^- ai^, against, and 
diio w ci swertan, speaK] to speak or write m 
return ; to refute ; to be opposite to ; to face ;-- i;.i. to 
reply ; to conform ; to suit ;— n. something said or written 
in return to a call, question, argument, address, or the 
like ; the solution of a problem. To answer for, to be 
responsiiile for. To answer to, to correspond. 
aiiCTWPraHlp (an^er-a-bl) a. capable of being 
dilo w C4 duic answered ; obliged to answer ; 
liable to pay, indemnify, or make gooil ; conformable. » 

anc-wT-praKlpnPQG (,an-ser-a-bl-nes)H. quality 
anSWeraOienebb of being answerable ; lia- 
bility ; responsibility ; agreement. 
atlQ'wrPraHlv (an^er-a-bli) aar. proportionally; 
dilowCidUijr correspondingly; suitably. 
anc\x7<arpr (an-ser-er) n. one that answers; one 
dl 1 a w c i C i that propounds a thesis. 
a n c:«/Prt pc:«5 (an'-ser-les) a. having no answer to 
dliawciiCoo give ; unanswered ; unanswerable. . ^ 

anf ('^"''^ "■ tA..8. cemette] an emmet; a pismire. ' . yw«AA- 
«**l^ Ant-bear, the great ant-eater of South .\merica. 
Ant-bird, an ant-thrush, an ant-catchef. Ant-COw, 
a plant-louse, kept and tended by ants, which feed on a 
sweet fluid secreted by it. Ant-eater, an animal that 
feeds on ants. Ant-egg, the egg of an ant : the larva or 
pupa of an ant. AntPmll, a mound raised by a colony 
of ants. Ant-lion, a neuropterous insect. 
ofif a (^n-t^^) 'i-'' P^- 8JitiB (an-te) [L. ante] a pilaster; 
dilLd — p/.antas [Braz. anta] the American tapir. 
anfaPlH (ant-as-id) n. [G. anti and L. aci'dtu, 
dll Ldv..iU sour] a remedy for acidity of the stomach ; 
—a. counteracting acidity. 

nnfao-rknicm (an-tag'-o-nizm) n. [G. rniti and 
diltdgUlliaili a^Qn, contest] opposition of 
action ; contrariety of things or principles. 
>]f-ifo oTknicf (an-tag^-nist) n. one that contends 
dllLdgUiiiai. with another in combat, , etc. ; a 
muscle that counteracts another ;— a. antagonistic. 
anfa£rnni<afir (an-tag-o-nis^tik) a. opposing; 
ca.iika,gv^ixioLiv, acting in opposition ;— n. some- 
thing that acts in an antagonistic manner. 
anfacrnni«5firal1v (an-tag-o-nis^ti kali) adv. 
dii tdg uiiia LiK^txny jn an antagonistic manner. 
a nf Q crnniTf^ (an-tag'-o-niz) v.t. to act in opposi- 
dllLdgUiii^c tion to ; to contend against ■,—i;.i. 
to act in opposition. 

a n fa 1 0*1 f ('^u-tal-jik) a. [G. a7iii and algos, pain] 
dilldlgiv^ alleviating pain ; — n. an anodyne. 

antalkali, antalkaline SSn^'atubi 

stance that neutralizes an alkali. 
anfananlacic (ant-an-ak-Ia-sis) n. [G.] a repe- 
diitdiiduidaia tjtion of the same word in A 
different sense ; a repetition of words after a parenthesis. 
anf anaOTlCP (ant-an-a-gtvje) n. [G. anti and 
dii Lctiicig wg c anaooge, A taking up] a flgur* that 
consists in replying to an adversary by recrimination. 
nn^•'^r\\^fr\A\o\nn (ant-af-ro-diz-i-ak) a. and n. 
anidpiiruulbldC gge anaphrodlslac. 
onf arvVifrk/^ifir' (ant-af-ro-iiit^ik) a. \_G. (tnti 
dll Ldpill UUl Lie and Aphrodite, Venus] having 
the power to mitigate or cure venereal disease;— n. a drug 
having this power. 

o •1 ^*\ «>/- Vi i o m (ant^ar-kizm) n. [G. anii and archS, 
dll Lcii v^iiioiii ft,]g-| opposition to all government. 
ofif ^ff<f if> (ant-ark-tik) a. [G. arktos, the north] 
dll Udi 1^ LiL. opposite to the northern or arctic pole ; 
relating to the southern pole or to the region near it, esp. 
to a circle distant from the pole 2.3° 28'. 
anf artVlHf ir* (ant-arthrit^ik) a. [G. anti and 
dlltdi Liiiiti«^ arthritikoi, gouty] counteracting 
gout ;— n. a remedy for gout. 

anf aafVimafir' (ant-ast-mat^ik) a. \G. aiih- 
dllLdStiliiidLiv, f7w<tA:os, asthmatic] alleviating 
asthma :^n. a remedy for asthma. 
anf af rrkriViir" (ant-a-trof-ik) a. [G. anii and 
dllLdtiupiiiv. atrophia, atrophy] efficacious 
against atrophy ;— «. anything that acts as a remedy for 

>trtf pl-vt-opliJal (an-te-brSAki-al) a. [L. ante and 
aiiL^uiav^iiKxi irachium, arm] pertaining to 
the forearm. 

F&t«, tXr, ^o ; md, her ; mine ; nOte ; tiine ; m66n. 




(an-te-se-da^ne-us) a. ante- 
cedent in time. 


onff^pprlp (an-te-sed') t>.t. IL.antecedere, go before] 
ctXlLd..CU.C t,Q precede ; to go before in time, etc. 

antecedence, antecedency ^t^;^; 

-den-si) n. act or state of preceding in time ; precedence ; 
[Astr.] apparent retrograde motion. 
'inf^ar'PkH^anf (an-te-se^ent) a. going before in 
- « cllXl,CL.CUCllt time, place, rank, etc. ;— n. that 
fCtA^* which goes before; the noun to which a relative refers ; 
the conditional clause of a hypothetical proposition : the 
first term of a ratio i—pl. the earlier events of one's life. 
ofif A^fkrlckfiflir (an-te-se-dent-li) adt'. before in 
ctllLC^CUCllLiy time; previously; on a priori 
grounds, that is, prior to experience. 
Pf^fppAccnr (an-te-ses-ur) n. one that goes be- 
ctlltCV>Coo<Jl fopg ; [Law] a previous possessor. 
o ti f A /^ Vi a m K P> r (an-te-cham-ber) n. a chamber 
ctllUCCllctlllUCl leading to the chief apartment. 
g«-|fpp1-i']r%p1 (an-te-chap-el) n. the part of the 
dli tCv^ilctjJCi chapel through which is the passage 
to the choir or body. 

an^-f^ny^rkir (an-te-kwir) n. a space more or less 
ctllLCUllUix inclosed in front of the choir. 

antecians, antcecians a:%'^a"4- 

and oikos, dwelling] persons living on corresponding 
parallels of latitude, on opposite sides of the equator, 
and on the same meridian. 

o«-|f ppllfcnr (an-te-kur-sur) n. [L. ante and cur- 
all LC\.« III OKJl ^g,.g^ pp_ cursus, run] a foreru- .ner. 
onf/ikHsfp (an-te-dat) n. a prior date ; a dat'- before 
aiitCUctuc: the true time;— 1;.<. to date beiore the 
true time; to anticipate. 

antediluvial, antediluvian S-^iyj it 

^n , -an) a. [L. ante and diluvium, flood] before the delutje ; 
pertaining to the times before the flood ;— n. one that 
lived before the flood : a very old, or old-fashioned, person. 
o nf ^1rvr\^ (an-te-l6p) n. [G. antholops] a ruminant 
dilLClupc intermediate 
between the deer and the goat. 

antelucan i^faS 

ante and lux, lucis, light] being 
i before light— a word applied to 
assemblies of Christians, in times 
of persecution. 

antemeridian ^i^^^id^ &«^. 

i-an) a. [L. meridies, noon] A»telope. 

being before noon ; pertaining to the forenoon. 
«]«-|4-A*-pp4-4p (ant-e-met^ik) n. [G. anti and emeti- 
ctiiLCiiicuiv, j^Qg^ emetic] a medicine that checks 
vomiting ;— a. restraining vomiting. 
'xr\i'f^Xn\\t\A^nf^ (an-te-mun^an) a. [L. ante 
ctiitciiiuiiuctiic: andmwi^Ms, world] existing 
or occurring before the creation of the world. 
«lf-|4-Af-io4-']'| (an-te-naAtal) a. [L. natalis, natal] 
ctii LCiictLdi happening' or existing before birth. 
nn^c^ t^ine^ne^ (an-te-ni-sen) a. before the first 
cill tC-lN il,CllC council of Nice (a.d. 325). 
. anfi^nns** (an-ten^) [L. antenna, sail-yard] 

' ciiitcnncc movable articu- 
' lated organs of sensation attached to 
A n.' 1*1 the heads of insects and Crustacea; 
'►•■'^-'"^ palps; feelers. 

anfpnnal (an-ten^l) a. per- u -] 

dllLCIlllcti taining to the an- <>\ 
tennae ; bearing antennae. . , 

antpnnifernii«? (an-te-nif: a,a,Ant6nn«. 

dlltCllllllCrUUb e-rus) a. [L. antenna, sail- 
yard, and /erre, bear] bearing antennae. 
Q yi f pym «-v4- j n 1 (an-te-nup^hal) a. [L. ante, before, 
a.iiLdiuj^Lidi and nuptiae, marriage] being, oc- 
curring, or done, before marriage. 
an^f^rm c/^Vi a 1 (an-te-pas-kal) a. of, or belonging 
dlxtcpdav^iXdl to, the time before the Jewish 
Passover, or before Easter. 

Q« j-f^l-jQef (an-te-past) n. [L. ante, before, and 
a,iii.c|jdoi, pastus, food] a foretaste; something 
taken before a meal to whet the appetite. 
onf f^nf^nrliiim (an-te-pen^i-um) n. [L. ante 
dllLCpCllUlUlll and pendere, hang] the hang- 
ing covering for th j front of an altar. 

anfpni^nillf (an-te-pe-nulf) n. [L. ante, paene, 
diii.c;pciiuiL almost, and ultimus, last] the last 
syllable but two of a word. 

antepenultimate S-ttu?twf;*Slnin"g 

to the last syllable but two \—n. the antepenult. 
anf **nilf»nfir' (ant-ep-i-lep-tik) a. [G. anti and 
diitc^ixc^Liv. epileptikos, epileptic] counter- 
acting epilepsy j—n. a remedy for epilepsy. 
anf PTinQlf ion (an-te-p6-zish-un) n. the placing 
dXX LCpuax UXUIX of ^ word before another that in 
ordinary construction it ought to follow. 
oflfcki-vrarirlial (an-te-pranidi-al) a. [L. ante 
dxxucpxdixviidi and prandium, midday meal] 
belonging to the time before dinner. 
nrti-0>rif\r (an-te-ri-ur) a. [L.] prior; antecedent; 
dXX LCX XUX situated in front. 

anfprinrifv (an-te-ri-or'-i-ti) n. state of being 
dXX LCX xux X Ly anterior ; precedence. 
anf f^ronm (an-te-room) n. a room forming the 
a.iiL%^iKJ\Jiii passage to another. 
Qtnf pf prnrtip (an-te-tem-pl) n. the porch of a 
dXX LC Lcxxxpxc temple ; the nave of a church. 
o n f Vi a1 i r»ti (an-the-li-un) n- pi. anthelia (an-the- 
dXXLXXCXXUXX jj.a) [G_] a mock sun; a bright ring 
seen on a cloud, etc., opposite the sun. 
anfVlplminfir (an-thel-mln-tik) a. [G. anti, 
dXX Lxxcxxxxxxx Lxv- and helmins, helminthos, worm] 
destroying or expelling intestinal worms ; — n. a vermifuge. 
ofi^-l-i A4->-| (an-them) n. [G. anti and phone, sound, 
dXX tXXCXXX voice] a hymn sung in alternate parts ; any 
church music adapted to passages from the Scriptures. 
Anthem-wise, in the manner ofan anthem. 
A f^fVi At-t-iic (an-the-mis) n. [G.] a genus of com- 
•"•l*LXXCmx& posite flowers. 
Q f^ i-U p|- (an-ther) n. [G. antheros, flowery] that part 
dXXLXXCX of the stamen containing the pollen, or 
fertilizing dust. Anther-dust, pollen. 
onfVtAr^il (an-ther-al) a. pertaining to an anther 
dXX LXXCX dX or to anthers. 

o « f Vi ofi f<irr»i 1 c (an-the-rif^-rus) a. [anther, and 
dXXLXlCX XXCX UUS L./erre, bear] bearing anthers. 
Q n fVi larrkcron rn i c (an-the-roj^-nus)a. produced 
dXX LXXCX Ug CXXUUa fjom anthers, or by the trans- 
formation of anthers. 

Pf.|i.t-ll^f.^<l'l (an-ther-oid) a. [anther, and G.eidos, 
dXX LXXCX KJlKJ. form] resembling an anther. 
gf^^-Uf^c^c (an-the-sis) n. [G.] the opening of the 
dXXLXXCoXo flower; the time whenaflower-budopens. 
onf VinKi'iti (an-tho^bi-an) n. [G. anthos, flower, 
dXXLXXUUXdXX ^nd bios, life] a beetle that passes 
its life on flowers and leaves. 
a nthorarnOUS (an-thp-kar-pus) a. [G. karpos. 

several flowers [Bot.]. 

fruit] formea by the ovaries of 

anthOCyanine (an-th5-sila.nin)n. [G. kuanos,_ 

blue flowers. 

blue] the colouring matter of 

onfl-i<-kl£Mtr>i« (an-tho-lu-sin) n. [G. anthos, 
<i.UX,LlUlGlH^lU flower, and leukos, white] the 
colouring matter of white flowers. 

anfhnliff* (an-tho-llt) n. [G. lithos, stone] a 
dXXLXXUXXLC flower-like impression on rocks, as on 
the strata of the coal-measures. 

anthological Sthdo^''"'''^^ ""■ ""''"'"'"^ *° 

jj f. 4-1-. /■\\r\o'v (an-thol-5-ji) n. [G. anthologos, flower- 
dXXLXXUXUgy gathering] a collection of flowers; a 
collection of beautiful passages from authors ; a collection 
of devotional pieces. 

of^^-t-i^l^c^o (an-thol-i-sis) n. [G. anthos, flower 
dXXLXXUXy oxo and lusis, a loosening] a retrograde 
metamorphosis of the parts of a flower. 
anflinmania (an-tho-maAni-a) n. [G. anthos, 
dXXLXXUXXXdXXXd flower, and mania, madness] ex- 
travagant fondness for flowers. 

ArifVirknT7*c fir*a (an-ton-iz fir) n. erysipelas 
AnrnOnyS nre (devotion to St. Anthony 
was believed to prevent or cure the disease). 
anfVmr»Villmi<5 (an-tbof-i-lus) a. [G. anthos, 
antnOpnilOUS flower, and philos, loving) 
flower-loving, as a bee [Entom.]. 

— — fU^f^Qf*^ (an-tho-rizm) n. [G. anthorismos, a 
dllLXXUXXSXXX counter definition] a description or 
definition difiierent fiom, and contrary to, one given by 
an opponent [Rhet.]. 

Fate, far, ^do ; me, her ; mine ; note ; tune ; moon. 




onffirtfa-viQ (an-tho-tak-sis) n. [G. anthos, 
cillLllULctAid flower, aud taxis, order] the 
arrangement of the flowers on the axis. 
anfVirariff* (an-tlira-sit) n. [G. anthrakites, a 
dllLlli ct^ltC ^ind of precious stone] a hard com- 
pact variety of mineral coal, nearly pure carbon. 
nrii-hrarii'ir (an-thra-sit^ik) a. pertaining to, 
dll till ct^l UlV,, or composed of, anthracite. 
jj_,i.i,|.jjp-.: J (an-thra-koid) a. [G. anthrax, car- 
ctlitill ctULlivl buncle, and eidos, form] pertaining 
to anthrax ; resembling the precious stone carbuncle. 
^„fL,-.oo/%riif«a (an-thrak'-o-nit) n. [G. anthra- 
aninraCOnite l^^ a heap of charcoal] black 
marble or limestone. 

anf VirarTicic (an-thra-ko^is) n. [G. anthrax, 
aiiLiii ctv,uaia coal] chronic inflammation of the 
lungs, due to inhaling coal dust. 

anflirav (an-thraks) n. a carbuncle; a malignant 
dilLiii ctA. disease in cattle, communicable to man. 
„^i.t.„__:p (an-throp^ik) a. [G. anthropos, man] 
diiLiix upit^ belonging to man ; manlike. 
anfVirr»nncrf»nTr (an-thro-poj^-ni) n. [G. an- 
antnropOgeny tkr6pos,m&n andaewjs, birth] 
the science of the development of man. 

anthropography S^^a^^'-^-f i;- S 

graphe, description] the science that treats of the actual 
distribution of the human race. 

«i |-|4-]-||«^|-|<^<f4 (an-thro-poid) a. [G. anthropoeides, 
ctiitiii v.ipuiu, lijjg a man, in human shape] man- 
like ; — n. one of the higher manlike apes. 
onfVit*rkrk/-k1ifo (an-throp^llt) n. [G. lithos, 
dllllirupUilLC stone] a petrified human body, 
due to incrustations deposited from calcareous waters. 
a n f h ronnl np^l r a 1 (an-thr6-p6-loj-i-k?il)a per- 
dimilupUlUglCell taining to anthropology; 
deaUng with the natural history of man. 
flnffirnnolnp^ir (an-thrS-pol^ji) n. [6. an- 
dULIiropOlOgy throvos, man, and logos, dis- 
course] the natural history of the human species. 
anffimnntn*ifr\7 (an-thro-pom-e-tri) n. [G. 
dllLnropOmeiry anthrdpos,m?in,SLnAmetron, 
measure] the scientific measurement of the human body. 

anthropomorphic fe"r.Snr5?cU: 

acterized by, anthropomorphism ; resembling man. 

anthropomorphism &)'^ri&^-S: 

ropos, man, and morphe. form] representation of the 
Deity as having a human form or attributes. 

anthropomorphist, anthropo- 

tnnmViif <a (an-thro-po-mor'-fist, -flt)n. one that 
iiiUi piliuc attributes to the Deity human form 

and attributes. 

anthropomorphize S-t'iSe-srS 

human qualities. 

anthropomorphosis StTSorm^: 

tion into human shape. 

anthropomorphous SCSlthTfigS 

of or resemblance to, a man. 

anthropopathic, anthropopath- 

j/»Q 1 (an-thro-p6-path-ik, -i-kal) a. having, or subject 
**'*''* to, human passions. 

anthrnnnnafhv (an-thro-pop^-tw) n. [G. 

dXl till UpupdLIiy anthropos, man, 2Lm\ pathos. 
affection, passion] the ascription of human feehngs and 
emotions to the Supreme Being. 

anthropophagi Sll^jo^f-^-^Sar' aS 

phagein, eat] men-eaters ; cannibals. 

anthropophagous SieSSoSivo" 

ous ; feeding on human flesh. 

eating it ; cannibalism. 

anthropophysite tni^^of'SL':- iSi 

phusts, nature] anyone that regards the gods as posses- 
smg a human nature, 

Fate, far, ^o ; me, h§r ; mine ; note ; tune ; moon. 

anthropotomy SSK'Sat an^d .oS; 

a cutting] human anatomy, 

anti-acid (an-tl-as^^id) a. and n. See antacid. 

anfiar (an-ti-ar, an^hi-ar) n. (Javanese name) the 
dXlLldl upas trge of Java ; an arrow-poison. 
anfiaritKa (an-ti-a-rin. an^hi-a-rin) n. the active 
dXi LldX lixc principle of antiar. 
onfi offi>ifi/-kn (an-ti-a-thsh-un) n. a lubricant 
anil-atLnilOn of grease and blacklead 
onf iKa/^r^Viiiic (an-ti-ba-kl-us) n. [G.] afoot of 
dll LX Udl^CXXX U2> three syllables.the first two long, 
and the last one short. 

anf iKar'frfarial (an-ti-bak-te-ri-al) a. opposed 
dXlLXUdCLClldl to the theory that certam dis- 
eases are caused by bacteria. 

o«if iKi1i/-kiic (an-ti-bil-yus) a. counteractive of 
anUUlllOUb bmous complaints. 
a n f i P (an-tik) a. [L. antiquus, ancient] odd ; fanciful ; 
dXX LX^ fantastic \—n. a Duflbon or merry -andrew ; 
odd appearance or device. 

anfipapflf^pfip (an-ti-ka-kek^tik) a. used against 
dXXLXi.,d^ixcuLi^ cachexy ; — n. medicine so used, 
onf i/^arHiiim (^t^'^i'^^r-^^'Uni) n. [G. anti and 
dXXtx<.,dX UXUXXX kardia, heart] pit of the stomach. 
anfiphlnr (an-ti-klOr) n. a suostance used to re- 
dXXLXUXXXVJX move or neutralize the chlorine left in 
materials bleached by means of chloride of lime, etc. 
nrif i/'Vifief (an-ti-krist) n. a great adversary of 
dllUClllXS>L Christ; theman of sindJohnii. 18,22). 
onfi/'Viricfian (an-ti-krist^yan) n. an opposer 
antlCnribtldn of cimst or Christianity ;-«. 
opposing Christ or Cliristianity. 

anfirhri«;tiani<?m (an-ti-krist^yan-izm) n. 
dllLXCXllX&LXdXliaxxi opposition, or what is 
opposed, to Christianity. 

anfirhmni«5m (an-tik'-ro-nizm) n. [G. anti, 
dXiLX«...XXXUXXXaxxi against, and chronos, time] 
error or variation in the order of time ; anachronism. 
anf ipinanf (an-tis^i-pant) a. anticipating; [Med.] 
dilLX^X|.;dXXL occurring before the regular time. 
a n f i pi r^a f f* (an-tis^i-pat) v.t. [L. ante, and capere, 
dxi LXV^xpdLC take] to take or do before another, so 
as to prevent him ;— v.j. to take up beforehand, or before 
the proper time ; to foretaste or foresee. 
anf ipinafiofl (an-tis-i-paAshun) n. the act of 
dxiLiuipdtiv/ii anticipating; previous view or 
opinion ; view or impression of what is to happen later ; 
preconception ; expectation ; [Med.] occurrence of an 
affection Def ore the regular time. 

anticipative, anticipatory ^^pi!^^' 

-tur-i) a. anticipating, or containing anticipation. 
anHplimav (an-ti-kll-maks) n. a sentence in 
dXXLX«.,xiixxd.&. ^hich the ideas become less im- 
portant and striking at the close— the opposite of /^lin^ iT, 
antiplinal (an-tikll-nal) a. [G. anti, and klinein, 
cxxiLxuxixicxi incline] inclining in opposite direc- 
tions from a central axis ;— n. the crest-line from which 
strata dip in opposite directions— the anticlinal axis. 
antiplv (an'-tik-li) adv. in an antic manner; with 
cxiibiv^ijr odd postures and gesticulations. 

antirnrmtitiitinnal (an-ti-kon-sti-tui«hun- 

dllLXCUllbLlLULlUndl al) a. opposed to the 
constitution, or to correct constitutional principles. 

anticontagious Stag'ton.'**'^'"'^"- °^^°''"^ 

a nf ipor (an-ti-kor) n. [G. anti, and L. cor, heart] a 
ctixLi«..v.Fi round swelling in a horse's breast. 
anfipnrrn^ivP (an-ti-ko-ro^siv) «. something 
a.11 biv^v/i 1 woi V c yggd to prevent corrosion. 
a n f i pncm *^f i n (an-ti-coz-met'-ik)a. injurious to, 
dxxtxv.usxxxcti^ or destroying, beauty;— n. a 
preparation injurious to beauty. 

anflPnil^ (an-tl-kus) a. [L. anticus, foremost, fr. 
ci,iiLiv,\./uo ante, in front] facing outwards [Bot.]. 
atlflPVplnflf (an-ti-81-klon) n. an outflow of 
dll Li^jr ^.^iv^xxc ^gak spiral winds from an area of 
high pressure. 

a n f i H nf a 1 (an-ti-do^tal) a. having the quality of 
cxxiLiuv/ 1.0,1 an antidote; pertaining to antidotes. 
antlHotP (an-ti-dot) n. [G.] that which tends to 
c).ixi.iuv7i.v« counteract poison or anything noxious. 
nnf iHof ipal (an-ti-d5t^i-kal) a. acting as an 
dlXLXUUUCdl antidote ; antidotal. 




antidoticallv ('i":*'i-doW-k^l-i) adv. by way of 

anf iHtrctknf ^arir* (an-ti-dis-en-tertk) a. of use 
dlltiUyacllUCilC against dysentery ; — n. a 
remedy for dysentery. 

a n f 1 Ar»Vi i a 1 f i r» (an-ti-ef-i-al-tik) a. [G. anti and 
ctiXLicpxilcliLXt^ ephialtes, nightmare] tending to 
prevent nightmare •,—n. a remedy for nightmare. 
arifi«»r»io/^rkr»'al (an-ti-e-pisi-kO-pal) a. opposed 
clU l.iCpi&>CUpcll to the office and rule of bishops. 
anfi_P>irancr*iliral (an-ti-e-van-jel-i-kal) a. 
ctilti CVailgClil^dl contrary to sound doctrine, 
or to the genuine sense of the gospel. 
o nf ifAKfil A (an-ti-feb-ril, -fe-bril)a. of useagainst 
anilieDnie fever ;-ri. a febrifuge. 
«3 tn f i fp H Pra 1 (an-ti-fed^-ral) a. opposed to federal- 
ciiiLixc:uci cti ig,jj_ Qj. a federal constitution. 
onfifri/^firtn (an-ti-frik-shun) a. reducing fric- 
anilinCLlOn tion ;-n. a lubricant. 
anfip*alflr*fip (an-ti-g^-lak-tik) a. [G. anti and 
ctiiLigaxct^uiv^ gala, galaktos, milkjdiminishing 
the secretion of milk ; — n. a medicine with this effect. 
p f^ 4.< (rpfi TT (an-tij^-ni) n. [G. a/nti and genos, race] 
ctiitigciijr sexual dimorphism. 
anfitrrnn^^lnc (an-ti-grop-e-los. -I6z) n. sing. 
All Llgl UpClUSJ and pi. [G. anit, hugros, moist, 
and peZos, mud] water{3roof leggings. 
anfiVi^^liY (an-ti-he^liks) n. the curved prominence 
diiLiXiCii^ parallel with, and in front of, the helix 
of the ear. 

anfiViirnnnfir (an-ti-hip-not^ik) a. preventing 
ctiXLXxxypxxutxu sleep;— n. a medicine that pre- 
vents sleep. 

antihypochondriac ll^i^or^raSt 

or pretending to cure, hypochondria. 
a nf ih vnnnhnra (an-ti-hi-pof^-ra) n. [G. anti 
dllLllxypupilUlcl and hupophora, objection] 
the anticipation and refutation of an objection [Khet.]. 
flnfilf^trnmiana (an-ti-le-gom-e-na) [G.] 
dllLiXC^UXllCllcl books of the New Testament 
whose inspiration was not at first universally received. 
anfilinrnfirkn (an-ti-lI-braAshun) n. the act of 
dxxtxxxux dLXUXX counterbalancing, or the state of 
being counterbalanced ; equipoise. 
ant ilif flip (an-ti-litn-ik) a. [G. anti and lithos, 
ciiiLxxxtxxxv^ stone] tending to counteract stone in 
the bladder ; — n. a medicine having this tendency. 
nnfilncrarifVitn (an-ti-log^i-rithm) «. the com- 
dXXUlUgdl iUllll piement of a logarithm or of a 
sine, tangent, or secant ; tne number corresponding to a 

antiInP*V (an-tll^-ji) n. [G. anti and logos, speech] 
c<.iii,xiv/gjr contradiction in terms or in ideas. 
a nf ilrkr»in<i (an-til^-pln) a. pertaining or related 
dllLUOpine to an antelope. 
anfimanaccar (an-ti-ma-kas'ar)n. [3facassar 
ail vxxxxdV^dOSdX oil] an ornamental covering for 
chairs, sofas, etc., to keep them from being soiled. 

antimaniacal S?a^i;Tmant^'^^ "• ^^"'^^' 
antimask, antimasque Sif JnZ'^^i^ 

tinctly dramatic portions of a mask. 
anfim^faHr»l<a (an-ti-me-tab^-15) n. [G.] the 
dxx Lxxxxc LdUUXC repetition of the same words in 
inverse order [Rhet.]. 

anfim#afafVi£kcic (an-ti-me-tath^-sis) n. [G.] 
aixtxxxxc tdUXXCOXd inversion of the members of 
an antithesis. 

anfimnnarr'hiral (an-ti-mo-nar-ki-kal) a. 
dllLlIIlUndrcniCdl opposed to monarchy. 
anf itnntlial (an-ti-mo^ni-al) a. of, or pertaining 
cviiLixxxuxxxcLX to, antimony ;—n. a preparation of 
antimony. Antimonial wine, sherry wine containing 
tartar emetic in solution. 

antimoniate S^nlS.^'^*^ ""■ ^ """^^ °^ ^"*'" 

a n f 1 m n n i a f *a H (an-ti-mo^n i-a-ted) a. combined 
ctxx txxxxuxxxd tcu or impregnated with antimony. 
anfitnnntP (an-ti-mon-ik) a. pertaining to, or 
cxixuxxxxv^ixiv. derived from, antimony. Antimonic 
acid, an acid containing two equivalents of antimony 
and five of oxygen. 

a n fi m r»n i oi i c (an-ti-mo^ni-us) a. consisting of, 
dxxtxxxxuxxxuuo or containing, antimony. Anti- 

monious acid, an acid containing two equivalents of 

antimony and three of o.xygen. 

antimOnitG (a'^-''i'?io-nIt) n. a salt of antimoni- 

a fl f i m Oti V (an-ti-uiun-i) n. [Low L. antimonium'] 
ciiiLixii^xxjr a whitish, brittle metal, used in medi- 
cine and the arts. 

antinephritic ifiSn^^yiS " ''"''"' '° 

Anfinrkmian (an-ti-no^mi-an) n. one of a sect 
x^xxLXXXUXXXXdXX maintaining that, under the Gos- 
pel dispensation, the moral law is of no obligation ;— a. 
pertainmg to the Antinomians ; denying the obligatori- 
ness of^the moral law. 

A n f i n om i a n i Qm (an-ti-no^mi-^n-izm) n. the 
/^nUIlOinidniSin tenets of Antinomians. 
rintinomv (an-tln^-ml) n. [G. anti and nomos, 
cxxxLxxxvixxxjr law] opposition of one law or rule to 
another ; the contradiction unavoidable by reason, when 
it passes beyond experience to deal with the absolute. 
anfi-nrp'a«;fir (an-ti-or-gas-tik) a. allaying 
0,11 bi VI gcio Liv, excitement or sexual desire. 
ant-i-n3^flohanfic:f (an-ti-pe-do-bap-tist) n. 
dllX,l-p«CUOUdpLlS5l, one that is opposed to 
the baptism of infants. 

anfinanal (an-ti-paipal) a. opposing the pope or 
dXXLxpdpdX popery ; antipapistic, 
anfirtar»icfipal (an-ti-pa-pisi.ti-k9,l) a. opposing 
dXX LXpdpxa LXCdX the papacy or popery. 
a nfina ralvf ip (an-ti-par-a-lit^ikV. good against 
dxXLxpdX dxy uxv- palsy ; — n. remedy for palsy. 

antipathetic, antipathetical 

(an-ti-pa-thet^ik, -i-kal) a. having a natural aversion. 
arifir»afViir' (an-ti-path-ik) a. relating -to autip- 
dXXLXpdLXXX«^ athy ; exciting antipathy. 
a n f i r>a flrv (an-tip^-thi) n. [G. anti and pathein, 
dXXLXpdLXXy suffer] aversion ; dislike; repugnance, 
a n f 1 r\<ai-i r\r1 i n (an-ti-pe-ri-od-ik)a. curing periodic 
dlXLXpciXUUXC attacks [Med.]; — n. a medicine 
with this effect. 

a nf ir\f»ricf a Icic (an-ti-per-i-stal-sis)n. inverted 
dxXLxpcx xaLdx;:>xa peristaltic motion of bowels. 
anf ir\*aricf aQiQ (an-ti-pe-ris-tg,-sis) n. [G.] in- 
dXXLxpcxxdtdoxa tensifying opposition of con- 
trary qualities ; [Ehet.] granting an opponent's statement, 
but denying the inference. 

anfinf»<?filpnfial (an-ti-pes-ti-lenishal) a. 
dXXLXpC2>LXXC;xxtXdX counteracting mfection. 
arif irvVilncricf i/^ (an-ti-fl6-jis^tik)a. opposed to 
dXXLXpxxxu^xauxi., the doctrine of phlogiston; 
counteracting inflammation ; cooling ;— w. anything that 
allays inflammation. 

a n fi nVl ntl (an-ti-f on, -fon) n. [G. anti and phone, 
dXXLxpxxuxx voice] the chant, or alternate smging, 
in choirs ; an anthem ; a response. 
anfinVlonal (an-tif-o-nal) a. pertaining to anti- 
dXXLxpxxuxxdx piions or alternate singing;— n. a 
book of antiphons or anthems. 

•a f-i f fr\Vi r\ry n i*it (an-tif^-nar-i) n. a book of anti- 
dnLipilUXldl y piions -d. antiphonal. 
anf ir\Virkri<afir» (an-ti-f 6-net-ik) a. corresponding 
dXXLXpXXUXXCUU in sound; rhyming. 

antiphonic, antiphonical \^^^li)i_ 

pertaining to antiphony. 

anfinVinnv (an-tif^-ni) n. an anthem or psalm 
dXXLxpxxuxxy gm^g alternately by a choir or con- 
gregation divided into two parts ; singing of this kind. 
a n f i n\\ ra «ai «: (an-tif-ra-sis) n. [G. anti and phra- 
dXX Lxpxxx doxs 2em, speak] use of words in a sense 
opposite to their proper meaning [Khet.]. 

antiphrastic, antiphrastical 

(an-ti-fras^-tik, -ti-kal) a. relating to antiphrasis. 
atifir»V»racfiVa1lT7' (an-ti-fras-ti-kal-i) adv. in 
dlX Lipxxx da LXCdXXy the manner of antiphrasis. 

antipodal, antipodean Stip-^'o-Mft 

a. pertaining to the antipodes ; diametrically opposed. 
anf innHp (au-ti-p6d) n. one of those that dwell on 
dXX Lxpuuc: opposite sides of the globe. 
atlflTinHf*^ (an-tip^-dez) [G. anti and 
dXXLXpuvxco pQn^g^ podos, foot] those that live on 
opposite sides of the globe, and whose feet are, of 
course, directly opposite ; the opposite side of the globe. 

Fate, tix, fido ; me, her ; mine ; note ; tune ; m6<^Q. 




anfi-»nl<* (an-ti-pol) n. the opposite pole; that 
cillLlpUlC ^luch is diametrically opposed. 
onfir\nnf» (an-ti-p6p) n. a usurper of the papal 
cillLipVJpc office, in opposition to the pope. 

antiprelatic, antiprelatical f^^:^^ 

ik, -i-kal) a. adverse to prelacy. 

anfirkcnrir (an-tip-sor'-ik) a. [G. antt and psor- 

dlltipoUil^ {l^g^ pertaining to the itch] curing 

itcli r-n. a remedy for itcn. 

anfir»irr*afir (an-ti-pi-ret^-ik) a. eflFective against 

ftH Lipjr 1 C m* fever ;— n. a remedy for fever. 

anf invrin (an-ti-pl-rin) n. [G. anti and pur, fire] 

dlltipyi 111 an antipyretic 0Dtaine<l from coal-tar. 

anfinimrian (an-ti-kwaAri-an) a. [L. antiquus, 

dllLl^Udllctll oiji pertaining to antiquity or to 

antiquarians ;— n. a large kind of drawing-paper. 

anfinnarianiQm (an-ti-kwa^ri-an-izm) 
ntiqUariaulblU of antiquities or of the 
pursuits of an antiquary. 

anfinnarv (an-ti-kwa-ri) n. one versed in anti- 
ctl 1 Ll L| u cti y quities ; a collector of ancient things. 
nnf«/-iiiofo<^ (an-ti-k\va-ted) a. grown old, or out 
antiquateU of fashion ; obsolete. 
a nf in IIP (an-tek') a. [L. antiquus, ancient^ old; 
ctiiLll^uc ancient; of old fashion ; made in imita- 
tion of antiquity ;—n. a remnant of antiquity. 
anfinii<aripcc (an-tok'-nes) n. quality or appear- 
ctliLl4UCilca:» jjnce of being antique. 
flflfinnifv (an-tlk^wi-ti) n. ancient times ; former 
ctilLl^ulLy ages ; great age ; the people of ancient 
times •,~pl. the remains of ancient times. 
a n f i ca hH a f a ri a n (an-ti-sab-a-ta^ri-an) n. one 
dllLldctUUctUcUiaii opposed to a strict observ- 
ance of the Sabbath. 

antiscians, antiscii [^-'jfSr^inii^I^S 

shadow] the inhabitants of the earth living on different 
sides of the equator, whose shadows at noon are cast in 
contrary directions. 

anfi^rrirHllf IP (an-ti-skor-bu-tik) a. counter- 
ctiiwio(.,ui uuLit.^ acting scurvy;— n. a remedy 
for scurvy, as lemon-juice, etc. 

anficrrit^fiiral (an-ti-skrip^tur-al) o. opposed, 
ctiitiav.1 iptui cti or contrary, to Scripture ; not 
accordant witii Scripture. 

a n f i ^Pnf i P (an-ti-sep4ik) a. [G. anti &nd teptikos, 
cxiiLiscpLiu septic] opposing putrefaction ;—n. a 
substance that resists putrefaction. 
antl^la VPrv (an-ti-sl5Ave-ri) n. opposition to 
aixtioiiav ci y slavery ;— a. opposed to slavery. 
anti^nPlsl (an-ti-so^hal) a. averse to social inter- 
ctiitiouv^iai course ; opposed to social order, or to 
the principles on which society is based. 
anficsnaQmnHip (an-ti-spaz-mod-ik) a. oppos- 
aiiLiapdOiiiuuii., ing spasms or convulsions;— 
n. a remedy for spasms or convulsions. 
anfiQnacf (an-ti-spast) n. [6. ] a tetrasyllable foot, 
(xiiLia^cioi, j„ ^yjjjgjj jijg fi^j ^Q(j jjjg i^gj syllable 

are short, and the middle syllables Ion". 

anti<>na <?f ip (an-ti-spas^tik)a.[G.] counteracting 

0,111,101^0.01.1 v., spasm; containing or consisting of 

antispasts ; — 71. an antispasmodic. 

anf icolpTipf ir* (an-ti-sple-net^ik) a. counter- 

ctiiLispicllCHV, acting disease of the spleen. 

aflficifacic (an-tis-ta-sis) n. [G.] the justification 

aiitiotctsis of an action on the ground that to 

iiave left it undone would have entailed greater evils. 

anficf rr»r»Vial (an-tis^tro-fal) a. pertaining to 

ctilLlALlupiicil antistrophe. 

anf icf rr»r\fip (an-ti»^trd-fe) n. [G.] repetition of 

diiLidLlupilC ^ords in an inverse order; the 

turning of an adversary's plea against him ; that part of 

a song or dance, around the altar, which was performed 

in turning from the left to the right, in opposition to 


anfiQfrnnViip (an-ti-strof-ik) a. pertaining to 

auLiauiupnn, antistrophe. 

anficif mmrkiio (an-ti-stroo^mus) a. efficacious 

ailLiauuUlUUb against scrofula. 

a nf if fipicm (an-ti-the-izm) n. [G. anti ViuAtheos, 

cm LI uliCl&Ill gojj opposition to theism. 

anfifVi«=nar (an-tith-e-nar) n. [G. anti and 

ctiiLlLUv^Ucir thermr, hollow of the hand] a 

muscle that extends the thumb ; the abductor muscle of 

the great-toe. 

flflfithp^i^ (an-tith^-sis) n. [G.] an opposition 
ciiii.ii.iic;;oio of words or sentiments; contrast; 
anything directly opposed to another. 

antithetic, antithetical ^1,^^^."^^^^: 

tainin^ to, or containing, antithesis. 

antithetically ffikSS-riie^r!"" ^ ^" 

pnf{4-4«arip (an-ti-trad) n. an upper tropical wind 
dii Ll Li dUC tijat blows north-east or south-east. 
o |-i4.<4-|.o o-iic (an-tit-r^-gus) n. [G.] a conical emi- 
ctii LI Li dg Uo neuce opposite the tragus of the ear. 
a n f i f ri n i f a ri a n (an-ti-trin-i-ta:ri;?in) a. oppoB- 
dnLlLiiniLdildll ing the doctrine of the 
Trinity ;—■ n. one opposed to this doctrine. 

antitrinitarianism J;,"i-zm) n^'ppo'^ition 

to the doctrine of the Trinity. 

^ty\'\^-\TX\(> (an-ti-tip) n. [G. anti and tupos, type] 
dil Li ty pc tiiat which is prefigured by the type. 
of^f {fTTf-tipal (an-ti-tip-i-kal) a. relating to an 
dll Li Ly piv^di antitype ; explaining a type. 
anfifiT-nipallv (an-ti-tip^i-kal-i) adr. by way of 
dll LI \.y pil-dliy antitype ; as an antitype. 

antivaccinationist Stln'-VpSS," 

the practice of vaccination. 

antivariolOUS it^aliS?"^'^"'^ «• preventing 

antizymic, antizymotic ^TnloS^l: 

opposing fermentation ; — n. a preventive of fermentation. ._ ' 

anflpr (ant^ler) n. [O.F. antoillier] a branch of a ' 

dll LiCi horn of a cervine animal. 

ot^flof^rl (ant^lerd) a. having antlers; decorated 

antiereu with antlers. 

anflia (ant^li-a) n. [L., pump] the spiral trunk of 

dli Llld lepidopterous insect*. 

anfliafp (ant^ll-at) a. furnished with an antlia or 

dllLildLC; spiral proboscis. 

ant06Ci (an-te^O See antecians. 

anfnnnma«2ia (an-ton-6-maAzi-a) n. [G. ] a figure 
dll LUiiUllidaid whereby an epithet stands for a 
proper name, or an individual for a species. i 

anfnnvm (an-to-nlm), n. [G. anti and oncyma,^ 
dli \,\jny ill name] a word of contrary signification.'. 
anuria (a-nu-rl-a) n. [G. an and ouron, urinep'' 
dliUiid absence of micturition. 
o m 1 e (a^nu3)n. [L.] the lower orifice of the alimentary 
anus canal. 

a n vil (^"-^'1) ""• [A.S. anfilte] an iron block, usually 
dll V 11 witj^ a steel face, upon 
which metals are hammered and 
shaped. To be on the anvil, to be 
in a state of preparation. 
anv-i<af\r (ang-zl^-ti) n. PL.] 
dll.A.lCLjr the state of being 
anxious; soUcitude about some future . 

or uncertain event. AutIL 

anvinil^J (angk^shus) a. [L. anxius, fr. angere, 
ctii.A.iv/uo cause pain] greatly concerned or solici- 
tous ; accompanied with anxiety. 

anvini1«;1v (angk'-shus-ll) adv. in an anxious 
ciii.A.iwuoijr manner ; with anxiety or solicitude. 
atTvinncnpcc (angk^hus-nes) n. the state or 
dli.2^lU uaiiCS>:> quality of being anxious. 
anv (^''"•^ *• [-A^S. Cenig] one out of many; some; 
****j' —adv. to an^v extent ; at all. 
a n vHnrl V (en-l-bod-l) n. any person ; an ordinary 
ctiijr yjyjyj-y person ; a person of some importance. 
a n vVlOAV (en-i-how) adv. at any rate ; in any way 
any iiyj w or manner ; in any case. 
Q « yf J^jri g- (en-i-thing)n. anyone thing, no matter 

anvXAri^P (en-i-wlz) adv. in any manner; to any 

diiy w IOC degree ; anyhow. 

Annian (a-o^ni-an) a. pertaining to the Muses, or 

.nuiiictii to Aonia in Boeotia. 

a r>ri ^f (a^-rist) n. [G.] a Greek tense which expresses 

a,\ji. lo L past time indefinitely. 

a nricjf ip (a-o-ris^tlk) a. pertaining to an aoristic or 

cxv^i ioi,iv. indefinite tense ; indefinite as to time. 

a nrfa (^-oi'-ta) n.; pi. aortee (a-or-te) [G.] the artery 

a\jL LCL issuing from the left ventricle of the heart ; 

the largest artery in the human body. 

F&te, far, ado ; me, her ; mine ; nSte ; tune ; m66n. 




aortal, aortic IKoSa.""''^ ""• ''''*''°'"' *' 

anrfiflQ (a-or-tl-tis) n. inflammation of the aorta, 
ctUl tl Ho or main trunk of the arterial system. 
a r^a ne^ (a-pas') adv. at a quick pace; quickly; hastily; 
apctCC speedily ; fast. 

a r»a crncri r a 1 (apa-goj-i-kal) a. proving by show- 
a,yj€X^yj^i.K,a,i. j^g the absurdity of the contrary. 
at^acrntyv (ap-agoj-i) n. [G.] the progress from 
**'r"*o*-'oJ' one proposition to another [Math.]; an 
argument in which the major premise is evident, but the 
minor requires proof; the proof of a proposition by 
showing the absurdity of denying it [Logic]. 

apana^6 «• see appanage. 

anatlfhrnnv (a-pan-thro-pi) n. [6. aj^o and 
<xpcLXiLiiJ.upjr anthropos, man] aversion to 
human society ; love of solitude. 

orvfii-ifVimtfkcic (ap-ar-ith-me^is) n. [G.l enu- 
ctpdl 1 LllXllC&iS> meration of particulars [Rhet.] 
oi-koff (a-parf) adv. [L. ad partem] separately, in 
ctpcti t regard to space or company ; aside ; asunder. 
jj -. jj t*f m Pn f (a-part-ment) n. a room in a house ; 
dJJcil tillCilt _^i a, suite of rooms ; lodgings. 
anafViP'fir' (ap-a-thet^ik) a. void of feeling; in- 
cipclLXlCUl^ sensible ; indifferent. 
a na f V» V (ap^^-thi) n. [G.] want of feeling ; privation 
ctpctLlijr of passion, or insensibility to pain. 
^jf^oi-i^-p (ap^-tit) n. [G. apate, deceit] a native 
ctpd. LI LC phosphate of lime, varying greatly in colour. 
a r*a 1 1 m <^P (a-p6^me) a. [L. ad and palma, palm of 
ctpdUiliCC the hand] with the hand open, so as to 
show the palm [Her.]. 

a nf» (^P) '"'■ L-^-®- ^P'''^ ^ tailless monkej; ; an imitator ; 
"Jr^ — v.t. to imitate servilely ; to mimic. 
anpalr (a-pek') a<Zv. on the point; in a posture to 
ctpCctA. pierce ; [Naut.] vertical, or nearly so. 
or\«a11rMic5 (a-pel-us) a. [G. a and L. pellis, skin] 
ctpcilUU^ destitute of skin. 
anpn«5ia anpn<5v (a-pep;si-a, -si) n. [G.] in- 
dpcpaxct, dpcjjay digestion ; dyspepsia. 
a npr (a^^per) n. one that apes ; one that imitates 
•^r*^* servilely. 

P«-IPI«P|I (a-per-su') n. [F.] a rapid survey of a sub- 
ctpci Vf u ject ; an outline; a sketch. 

aperient, aperitive t^^^-^^i^^f^ 

aperiens, -entis, open] laxative ; — n. a laxative medicine. 

apenspermic (^y-i-sper'-mik)a,[.G- '^.pen, 

albumen in the seed [Bot.]. 

sperma, seed] naving no 

* J-Vs anP'rfiii'P (ap-er-tur) n. [L.] an opening; a hole; 

■ifvr- dpcx LUX c [Opt] the diameter of an object glass. 

^ o r\prv (aipe-ri) n. a collection of apes ; the practice 

"Jr^* J of aping ; imitation. 

of-vpfal/tiic (a-pet^a-lus) a. [G. a and vetalon, 
tx^^ Lctxv^ uo leaf] having no petals or corolla. 
anPV (a^Peks)n.;i3i. apices, apexes (aApi-sez, aApek- 
ctpCA. ge2) [L.] the top, tip, or summit of anything. 

aphaeresis, apheresis fei'Sblnf of'i 

letter or syllable from the beginning of a word. 
ar\lianir\f prmic (af-a-nip-te-rus) a. [G. apha- 
ctpxxcLXXxptcxuua nes indistinct, and pteron, 
wing] without apparent wings [Entom.]. 
• at^Vianicf ir^ (af-a-nis-tik) a. [G. aphanes, indis- 
dJJlldlll& LIU tinct] indistinct [Min.]. 
flnlianifp (af-a-nit) n. a variety of diorite, the 
ci^xxciixxLC minerals composing it being indis- 
tinguishable by thenaked eye. 

antlfl<^ia fe-fa^zl-a) n. [G.] loss of the faculty of 
cx^iicxoia. speech, as the result of brain disease. 
anllflinn (a-fe^li-un) n. [G. apo and helios, sun] 
ci,^ii&xiv7xi that point of a planet's or comet's orbit 
which is most distant from the sun. 

apheliotropism ^^SSiltrS^, 

turning] a tendency to shun the light [Bot.]. 
ar^fiiHian (?^-fid-i-an)n. anaphis;— a.of,orpertain- 
dpillUldll ing to, aphides. 

aphidiphagous g«Se^.-)«J«rtJ^^^^^ 

upon, or devouring, aphides. 

a nf> i 1 a n f Vl rnnir (af-i-lan-thro-pi) n. [G. aphil- 
apnuantnropy anthropos, not loving man] a 
preference for soUtude [Path.]. 

loss of voice; dumbness, 
ntl 1 P (a-f on-ik) a. pertaining to, or characterized 
UXXXU by, aphonia ; — n. one speechless. 
^M>-|||o (af-o-nus) a. [G. aphonos, voiceless, 
UXXOLlo fr_ a and phone, voice] voiceless. 
nri Qtn (af-u-rizm) n. [G.] a precept or principle ^ 
sjl xaxxx expressed in a few words. 

arvtiic (a^fis) n.; pi. aphides (af-i-dez) [N.L.] the -^ 
dpxxxa vine fretter, or plant-louse. ^ 

Q 1-kVi 1 rk o*i cf i /^ (af-lo-jis-tik) a. [G. aphlogistos, not 
dpillOgl&LH., inflammable] flameless. 
aphonia, aphony (afo-ni-a,afio;ni)n.[G.] 

aphorismatic, aphorismic SaJ'i'ik; 

af-u-riz-mik) a. relating to, or containing, aphorisms. 
aphorist (af-u-rlst) n. a writer of aphorisms. 

aphoristic, aphoristical ^t! "go '«; 

having the form of an aphorism. 

orvVirkt-iofiValiTT (af-u-ris-ti-kal-i) adv. in the 
apnOribllUdliy form of aphorisms. 
anVirapf (af-rakt) a. [G. aphractos, unfortified, 
dpiXXdCL unguarded] unguarded ; undefended. 
anViracia (a-fraizi-a) n. [G.] inability to use con- 
dpxxxdoXct nected language ; speechlessness. 
at^Virifo (af-rit) n. [G. aphros, foam] a variety of 
dpxxxxLC calcite (eartH foam). 
ar»lnriyifp (af-ri-zlt) n. [G. aphrizein, be foamy] 
d^XXX X^XLC a variety of black tourmaline. 
aoVirrkrlician ( af-ru-dlz-i-ak ) a. [G.] exciting 
djJXXX uuxsxct,v. venereal desire ;—n. such a drug. 
anVifll»5> (af-the) [G.l small white ulcers seen 
ctpxx LXXcC on the tongue and in the mouth in thrush. 
Qi-^'Uft,|~.f^o* (af-thong) n. [G. a and phthongos, 
dpxXLXXUXXg voice] a silent letter or letters. 
orvfiTrltrkiic (a-fil-us) a. [G. aphullos, from a and 
dpxxyxxuua phullon, leaf] destitute of leaves. 
aniarian (a-pi-SAri-an) a. relating to bees, or to 
cLj^xax xctxx bee-keeping ■,—n. a bee-keeper. 
ariiari^f (a-pi-a-rist) n. one that keeps an apiary; 
d^xctx xo L one that keeps or studies bees. 
aniarv (aipi-ar-i) n. [L. apis, a, bee] a place where 
apxax y ^^ggg are kept : a bee-house. 
aniPal (ap^i-kal, aApi-kal) a. relating or belonging 
cx^i\^€Xi to the apex or top. 

or^i^i'fi'Vfkrl (ap-i-si-fikst) a. [L. apex, apex, and 
dpxi.,XXXACU _^a;MS, fixed] attached by the apex [Bot.]. 
a.nipillarv (ap-i-sll-a-ri) a. situated at or near the 

apiculate, apiculated (a:pik'-Q-iat, :ia- 

a short, abrupt point. 

ted) a. having 

a-nimlturP (a-pl-kul-tur) n. [L. apis, bee, and 

Itura, culture] bee-keeping, 
o rM Ao A (a-pes') adv. for each ; to each ; to the share 
apiece of each. 

a t-kinrkirl (ap-i-noid) a. [G. a, pinos, dirt, and eidos, 
dpxxxuiU form] free from dirt.. 

(a-pish) a. having the qualities of an ape ; in- 
clined to imitate in a servile manner. 

nes) n. the quality o_ 

mimicry ; foolery ; foppery, 
sen-tal) a. having no placenta. 


ar^icViriAoo (aApish-nes) n. the quality of being 
dpianllC&& apish; min' 
a n1 a fPtl fa 1 (ap-la-sen-1 
ctpxctv^c^xxtdx as the kangaroo, duck-mole' etc 

at^latiaflP (ap-la-nat-ik) a. [G. a and planetos, 

dpxctxxctLXV^ wandering] without aberration [Opt.]. 

a r>l a ^f i P (a-plas-tik) a. [G.l not plastic ; character- 

dpxctoLXl., ized by arrested development. 

ji |-^1 f\tfy h (a-plong') n. [F. fr. L. ad and plumbum, 

**P*'-'*** '-' lead] self-possession due to self-confidence. 

arvnrna (ap-ne-a) n. [G.] stoppage of breathing; 

dpxxu:;d want of breath. 

ariOPalvn^P (a-pok^a-lips) n. [G. apokaluptein, 

ctpuuetxypoc disclose] revelation; disclosure; 

specifically, the name of the last book in the Bible. 

apocalyptic, apocalyptical %^^\^^ 

-ti-kal) a. containing or pertaining to revelation, speci- 
fically, to the Revelation of St. John ; given to interpreting 
prophecy ; presenting a revelation or discovery. Apoc- 
alyptic number, the mystical number 666 (Rev. xiii. 18). 

apocalyptically Sl^Piattn'''"^*^"'^ '''*''• ^"^ 

a r\f\nn rr\r»n c (ap-6-kar^pus) a. [G. apo and karpos, 
dpuudx puus fruit) having the carpels separate. 

Fate, fAr, ^do ; me, hgr ; mine ; note ; tune ; moon. 




ar»r»r'afacfacic (ap-o-ka-tas^ta-sis) n. [G.] 
cipU(^aLctC>Lctaia return to a former state ; the 
sidereal period of a planet. 

artnnnrt^i-f^ (a-pok^pat)i;.<. to cut off the last letter 
ctpucupctLC or syllable ;— a. cut off from the end. 
ar\r\nr\r\f^ (a-pok^pe) n. [G.] the omission of the 
cipUL,upc last letter or syllable of a word. 
AnnrrvnVia (a-pok'-ri-fa) n.pZ. [G.] books whose 
Xip WV-i y jjiia. authenticity, as inspired writings, 
is not admitted, and which are not sacred Scripture. 
a r»r»fr\7nVl a 1 (^^-pok^ri-fal) a. spurious ; pertaining 
ctpuv.1 y piicxi to the Apocrypha ; not canonical. 
of-kz-v^t-irr^l-iQlicf (a-pok'-ri-ial-ist) n. a defender 
apOCrypnailbt of the Apocrypha. 
arkr»r1 ar\r»H#i (ap^d, -od) n. [G. a and pons, 
dpuu, eipuuc podos, foot] a footless animal. 

apodal, apodous ge^iflh^JitlitSK 
apodictic, apodeictic SK'iGlinS: 

testably demonstrated ; evident beyond contradiction. 

apodictically, apodeictically 

(ap-o-dik'-ti-kal-i, -dlk^ti-kal-i) adv. in an apodictic 
manner ; irrefragably. 

apodixis, apodeixis Z^;^oS 

nunai, demonstrate] absolute proof. 

n<51Q (a-pod^Vsis) n. [G.] the consequent re- 
Uoio suiting from the protasis or condition. 


anno*Pal (ap-6-je^l) a. relating, or pertaining. 1 
"Jr ^o^*** apogee ; being farthest from the earth. 
annP'Pf* (ap^je) n. [G. apo and qe, earth] that 
**P'-'o^^ point in the orbit of a heavenly body 
at the greatest distance from the earth; culmination. 

apogeotropism S^if^^SrS^ 

turning] a tendency to bend in apposition to gravity [Bot.]. 

apologetic, apologetical %i?^;'?['. 

kal) a. [G. apo and logos, speech] excusatory or defensive. 
nr\r\\f\crc^^\nn\\-iT (a-pol-6-jet^i-kal-i) adv. in an 
dpUlUgCHUdliy apologetic manner. 
»ir\/-klrkrr«if ir«c! (a-pol-6-jet^iks) /). the argumenta- 
dpOlOgetlCb tive defence of Christianity. 

apologist, apologizer fcrSf thi't 

makes an apology ; a defender of Christianity. 
Q«-v/-v1/-)p.<7p (a-pol^-jlz) v.i. to make an apologj- 
""r'^^^o *^c or defence ; to offer an excuse. 
ar*r»1r»o-ii<a (ap^j-log) n. [G. apoloqos, story, tale, 
cipUlOgUe fable] a moral fable ; allegory. 
annloP*V (^'-Pol^-JO ^- [^- «P0 and logos, speech] 
^"ir^^^oj an excuse ; a vindication ; a makesliift. 
annmf»mm«afpr (ap-6-me-kom^-ter) n. [G. 
dpomeCOmeter ^^^^ ^^os, length, and 
vielron, measure] an instrument to measure distances. 
a'nrkniaiimQic (ap-d-nu-r6^is)n.; wZ. aponeuro- 
aptjiicui uaia 8e8(ap-6-nu-roisez)[G.]thefil)rous 
tissue investing or forming the end of certain muscles. 
tp ar4r»r\*»f alrkiio (ap-o-pet^-lus) a. having a corolla 
ctpupCLdiUUS) of several distinct petals [Bot.]. 
flnnnViaQi^ (a-pofUi-sis) n. [G.] disclaiming m- 
ctpv^pxiaaia tention to mention something that is 
nevertheless suggested [Rhet.]. 

apophlegmatic X'ot1n|-"d21r?es^^^^ 

phlegm •,—11. an expectorant. 

annnllfhf'P'm (aP^-them) n. [G.] a short, 

cij^i^piiLii^giii pithy, and instructive saying. 

apophthegmatic, apophtheg- 

•"jiafipal (ap-o-theg-mat-ik, -i-kal) a. of the 
ixictLi^cti nature of, or using, apophthegms. 

apophthegmatist ?oteSr^-rts^r"of 


I apophthegmatize '^^^i^i&,^t 

a.nonllVP'f* (9-Pof-i-Je) n. [G.] a concave curve in 
a.pupiiy gc a column, where the shaft rises from 
the base or joins the capital [Arch.]. 
•a r»rkr»Vi tt-c i c (a-pof-i-sis) n.; pi. apophyses (a-pof^ 
dpupiiy &ia i.sez) [G.l a process of a bone [Anat.J ; 
a swelling under the base of the theca or spore-case m 
some mosses [Bot.] ; apophyge [Arch.]. 

annnlppfip (ap-o-plek-tik) a. [G. fr. apo and 
d^u^^ic v< Liv- plessein, strike] pertaining to, or con- 
sisting in, apoplexy ; predisposed to apoplexy ; — n. a 
person liable to, or afflicted with, apoplexy. 
a nnni PV V (ap^-plek-si) n. a disease characterized 
**Jr^r' ^ J by sudden loss of sense and voluntary 
motion, usually caused by eft'usion on the brain. 
of-i(-k|-ia (a-p6^ri-a) n. [G.] doubt where to begin or 
dpuiid ^hat to say [Khet.]; restlessness; uneasi- 
ness due to obstruction of the natural secretions [Path.]. 

aposepalous Spais'fef ^ "• ^*"°^ ^''' 

ar\/^cir»r\«acic (ap-o-sl-o-pe^is) n. [G.] sudden 
dpuaiupcaia stoppage of an imfinished dis- 
course for the sake of eflect [KhetA 
or%/-koifi'i (ap-o-sit-i-a) n. [G. fr. apo and titos, 
apObltld food] distaste for food. 
a nn^f a QV (^^-pos^ta-si) 7i. [G. apostasis] a depar- 
dpuo Ldoy turefrom one's faith, principles, or party. 
aorkcfaf** (a-pos-tat) n. a person guilty of apos- 
dJpuc^LdLC tasy ;— a. false; renegade. 
a r>n^f a f ipa 1 (ap-os-tat^i-kal) a. pertaining to, or 
dpUotdLll.,dl characterized by, apostasy. 
anrkQfafi7P (a-pos^ta-t!z) v.i. to abandon one's 
dpUoLdti^C faith, party, church, or profession. 
a r\ n Q f P tn (ap^s-tem) n. [G. apostema] an abscess ; 
dpuo LCill a sore filled with purulent matter. 

ar\rkcf <im a f *i (a-pos^te-mat) v.i. to form into an 
puaUCiildLC atscess; to swell and fill with pus. 
a rkr»cf «am a f mi c (ap-o-stem^-tus) a. pertaining 
dpuotCllldLUUO to, orresembhng, an apostem. 
a nn«5f i 1 a nn«5f i 1 1 P (a-Pos-til) n. [F. apostille] 
dpuaLll, dpUdLlliC a marginal note; a com- 
ment -y—v-t. to annotate by means of marginal comments. 
a nn^f 1 P (a-pos-l) n. [G. apostellein, send away] a 
dpuotiC person deputed to execute important 
business ; one of the twelve disciples of Christ sent forth 
to preach the Gospel. Apostles' Creed, a creed supposed 
to nave been drawn up by the twelve apostles. 

apostleship i^o^'s^tS'^^'P^ ""■ '^^ ^®'' °^ "° 

a r»r»cf rkl a f pi (a-pos^to-lat) n. the oflBce or dignity 
dpustUidtC of an apostle ; leadership. 

apostolic, apostolical SkJiVa?^^ 

taining to the apostles, their times, or their peculiar 
spirit ; according to the doctrines of the apostles. Apos- 
tolic see, the jurisdiction of the Pope. Apostolic 
succession, unbroken transmission of spiritual authority 
from the apostles through bishops. 
ar»r»cfrk1iVallir (ap-os-tol-i-kal-i) adv. in an 
dpUS>LUXi(^dliy apostolic manner. 
aorkcfrnnVlP (a-pos^tro-fe) n. [G.] an address 
dpUd LI upilC defivered to the absent or the dead, 
as if present ; a mark (') indicating the possessive case, 
or the omission of one or more letters of a word. 

apostrophic i^pPos^t^^lff ^ "• p"'^^"^"^ *°'° 

ai-incfrnnViiyp (a-pos-tro-flz) v.t. and i. to 
cLpuoux upiii^c^ addressby.ortouse, apostrophe. 
'ir\f\i-\^fxnnf\T (a-poth-e-kar-i) n. [G. apotheke, 
dpuuiic^di jr repository] one that prepares and 
sells drugs for medicines. 

ar^f\i■\^t^n^1■lm (ap-6-the^si-um) n.; pi. apothfr- 
pULilCClUlll cia (ap-6-thei«i-a) [G. apotheke, 
repository] the fructification of lichens. 
apothegm, etc. see apophthegm, eta 

^ rvrkf t-i Ar^ci c (ap-o-the^-sis, a-poth-e-o^is) n. [G. 
dpULilCUbi:) apo and theos^ god] the act of 
elevating to the rank of the gods ; deification. 
OT-tnf Vi<^rkCi7^ (ap-6-the^-siz, a-poth-e-6^Iz) r.<. 
dpu LUCUai^C to exalt to the dignity of a deity. 

apotome, apotomy fS^S^diff^l^nre 

of two incommensurable quantities. 

annfronnil*? (a-pot^ro-pus) a. [G.] used of an 

ctputiupuuo anatropous ovule which, when 

pendulous, has its raphe averse from, and when erect 

nas its raphe towards, the placenta. 

a nn worn Pn n<5 (a-pok-si-om^-nos) n. [G.] one 

apOXyomenOb ugj^^g the flesh-scraper. 

a nna 1 (^'-P^^^I') ^-f- [O.F. appalir, fr. L. aa and palli- 

ctppcti fi^g^ pale] to depress or discourage with fear. 

annallitlP* (a-pawl-ing) a. adapted to appal; 

**JrH o causing dismay or horror. 

Fate, fir, gido ; me, her ; mine ; note ; tiine ; moon. 




annallinp'lv ('.H>iiwl-ing-li) adv. in an appalling 
**jrH"' o y manner ; so as to cause dismay. 

a nna n a cre^ (ap'-a-nai) n. [F. fr. L. ad and panis, 
•*r'r'******S^ bread] Uie portion of land assigned 
by a sovereign prince for the subsistence of his younger 
sons ; a necessary adjunct : a dependency 

a r^oa ra f 1 1 R (ap-ivri^tus) n. [L. fr. arf and parare, 
ctp^c^l ctLua prepare] things provided as means to 
some end ; a set of implements, or utensils, for perform- 
scientific experiments or operations ; [JPhys.] a 

a nna rpnf 1 V (^i-p^r-ent-li) adv. visibly; evidently; 
cxjp|Jcti CiiLiy in appearance only. 
apparentneSS g-par'ent-nes).^. plainness to 

collection of organs ministering to the same function. 

a nna rf»l ('>P3'i'-el) n. [F. fr. L. ad and par, equal] 

ctpi^cti ci clothing ; decorations ; equipment of a 

ship ; — v.t. to dress or clothe ; to adorn. 

annarpnf (a-par-ent) a. [L. apparere, ppr. ap- 

ctppcticxit ^arenSj -cuii's, appear] visible ; beyond 

question or doubt ; seeming. Appaxent (Uajoaeter, the 

angle subtended at the eye by the real diameter. Heir 

apparent, one whose right to succeed is indefeasible 

(g,-par-ent-li) adv. VI 

in appearance only 


he eye or mind ; visibleuess, 
annarifinn (ap-i>-rish-un) n. appearance; visi- 
ctppa.1 1 LlUIX hility ; a ghost; a spectre; appearance 
of a heavenly body after naving been obscured. 
aririarifnr (^-P^r-i-tur) ^- ^ Roman officer who 
ctpj^ctiiLUi attended magistrates to execute their 
orders ; in England, a messenger that serves the process 
of a spiritual court : the beadle that carries the mace. 
a r»r4f*a 1 (^"P^' ) ^- ^- ^- (^PPellare] to remove a cause 
ctppccti from an inferior to a superior court;— 1^.(. 
to remove a cause from an inferior to a superior judge or 
court : to refer to another ; to call on for aid ;— n. act of 
appealing ; the right of appeal ; a summons to answer to 
a cliarge ; a call upon a person for proof etc. ; recourse. 
arxr\«&a1aK1f» (a-pel-a-bl) a. capable of being 
dppcaiauic {ippealed ; liable to be accused. 
annpa.lp'f' (^-IJ^l-er) n. one that appeals; an ap- 
ctppcf^ici pgjlor ; an accuser or informer. 
annPar ('^'P^'^) ^-^^ [I^- *^ ^"'^ parere, come forth] 
**r'r'^*** to come in sight ; to stand in presence of 
some superior ; to be obvious or manifest ; to seenj. 
annParatlPf* (a-per-ans) n. act of appearing; a 
ctprpc^cti aiiuc phenomenon ; semblance, or ap- 
, parent likeness ; personal presence ; outward show or 
^JUA;vA pretence ; introduction to the public in a particular 
character ; [Law] a coming into court. 
annf»a«aKlf* (a-pez^a-bl) a. capable of being 
ctj^p^aoaLJic appeased, calmed, or quieted. 
aDD6aS6 (a-pez')w.<. [F. fr. L.jMt and paa;, peace] 


to make quiet ; to allay ; to satisfy. 
ar>riPaQ#am^nf (^-pez-ment) n. act of appeas- 
ci.^|^^«xociiidiL ing_ or state of being appeased. 
ot-vrvoacpf (?.-pez-er) n. one who, or that which, 
a.^^\.^txi3^i. appeases or pacifies. 
annP>aQivf» (*-pcz^iv) a. serving or tending to 
o,pi^ta,oivc appease ; quieting. 

appellant STn^ltVeS^"' *' "^^""'''" 

annpllaff* (a-pel^t) a. oelonging to, or having 
**r'r'^**'*''y' cognizance of, appeals. 
aOOellation (ap-e-laAshun)n. the name by which 

a pei-son or thing is called ; title. 
annpllaf iv*» (a-pel-?i-tiv) [L. appdlare, name, 
ai^j^ciiaLivc cai^] common, as opposed to 
proper; designating a class [Gram.];— n. a common 
noun ; an appellation. 

annpllafivplv (a-pel-a-tiv-li) adv. in an ap- 
ctppClldLlVeiy peflative manner. 

appellatory Jp^S"'"''^ "' '=''''*^*"^°« ^° 

a nnf*^! 1 *»<a (ap-e-le') n. the defendant or respondent 

ctjJjJCHCC in an appeal [Law]. 

aOOPllor (^"Pel-ur) n. the pei-son that institutes 

"r'r"^**'-'* an appeal, or prosecutes for a crime; 

an accuser; an informer [Law]. 

aOOPnrf (^-Pend') v.t. [L. ad and pendere, hang] 

"'Jrr"-**'^ to hang or attach ; to subjoin ; to annex. 

appendage ixSL^o^rTuSSr'"'''' 

annPflHaflf (*-pen'-dant)a. hanging to; annexed; 
eippci*Uctiit^_^_ anything appended to. 
annPtlHir'if ics (^-Pen-di-sl-tis) n. inflammation 
<*pjJCilUlt.lLia of tije vermiform appendix of 
the caecum [Path.]. 

anOPfldirlP (a-pcii-dl-kO «. [L. appendicula] a 

small appendage. 

'it-»n*inr1ir«ii1ar (ap-en-dik-u-lar) a. having the 
appCllUit.. Ulctl character of an appendicle. 
ar»r»<:»nHir'iilQfp> (ap-en-dik-u-lat) a. provided 
ctppcilUlCUiatC with appendages ; having the 
character of an appendage. 

ar\r\f^rtr\i-v (a-pen^iks) n.; pi. appendixes, ap- 
ppciluiJL pendices (^-penklik-ses, -di-se«) [L.] 
something appended ; a supplement. 
ann<arr'P>nf inn (ap-er-sep-shun) n. perception 
dppCI CCpilUIl tliat reflects upon itself; Her- 
bert's term for mental assimilation. 
anriPrfaifl (ap-er-tan') v.i. [L. ad &i:\(i pertinere, 
**r'r'*'* ucwii pertain] to belong to ; to relate to. 

appetence, appetency §f ''i^"'' "'^°" 

natural desire ; sensual appetite ; tendency to seek 


annpfpnf (ap-e-tent) a. [L. appetere, ppr. ap- 
aj^l^^L^iii. j)ctens, -entis, strive after] very de- 
sirous ; pertaining to desire or volition.>Pf ihilitv (ap-e-ti-bil-l-tl) n. the quality of 
appc i,iuim,y exciting appetite ; attractiveness. 
arM-»<af iKl<a (a-pet^i-bl) a. excitipg appetite ; desir- 
ctppcuuic able ; attractive. 
a nr»f*f if P* (ap-e-tU) n. [L. appetere, seek] desire of 
**FP^ Li LC gratification, either of the body or of the 
mind ; a desire for food or drink. 

annptitivP (a-pet^l-tlv) «. characterized by appe- 
"r^r'^ ui Li V c t,{g oy desire ; possessed of appetite. 
a-tinpfi^f (ap-e-tiz) v.t. to create, or wjiet, an 
^'-fr^ Li^c appetite ; to excite a craving in. 
a r>riPf i 7f^r (ap-e-tl-zer) n. something that creates, 
*^t'f^ Lx^ci or whets, an appetite. 
a.nnla.llfl (^-plawdO v.t. and i. [L. ad and plmtdere, 
**r^r'***"*^ strike, clap] to praise by clapping the 
hands, or by other significant sign ; to commend. 
annlailCIf* (a-plawz') n. the act of applauding; l 
apj^xau^i:; approbation publicly expressed. ^^ 

aimivf* (?t-plaw-ziv) a. applauding; of the 

(xuox V c nature of applause. 

£x (ap^l) n. [A.S. ceppel] a well-known tree and v*^ 

^ its fruit. Apple-butter, a sauce of apples 
stewed in cider. Apple-corer, an instrument for re- 
moving coresfrom apples. Apple-faced, apple-cheeked, 
chubby. Apple-jack, a liquor distilled from cider. 
Apple-john, a kind of apple. Apple^motli, an insect 
destructive to apples. Apple of discord, a cause of 
contention. Apple of Sodom, a fruit described as 
beautiful externally, but filled with ashes— hence, anj'- 
thing that disappoints high hopes. Apple of the eye, 
the pupil. Apple-pie bed, a bed in which the sheets are 
so folded that one cannot get one's legs down it. Apple- 
pie order, perfect order. Apple-scoop, an instrument 
formerly used in eating apples. 

arjrvliafiff (a-pli-ans) n. act of applying, or thing 
"Jri^******^^ applied ; instrument or means. 
annlira'hilifxT- (ap-li-ka-bil-i-ti) ?i. the quality of 
cippiXCdUXULy being applicable or suitable. 
ai-vr\1ir«aKlf» (ap-li-ka-l)l) a. capable of being, or fit 
cippxx»..clUXC to be, applied ; suitable ; fit ; adapted 


•ar^rilir^oKl^artfioo (ap-li-ka-bl-nes) n. quality oii 
appilCdUieneSsSs bej^g applicable. 
annlipaKlv (ap-li-ka-bli) adv. in an app 
a^JiJii^^txKJiy nianner; suitably; fittingly. 


in an applicable 

IPanr'V (ap-li-kan-si) n. the state of being 
iy^a.iM.K,y applicable ; applicability. 

Qt-if%1i/->o«f (ap-ii-kant) n. one that applies; a 

ctppxxv,axxi, petitioner; a candidate. 

Q<-\r\1ipa^p> (ap-li-kat) a. applied or put to some 
**r'P*'^*'**^^ use ;— ?i. a straight line drawn across a 
curve so as to bisect its diameter. Applicate-ordinate, 
aright line applied at right angles to the axis of any 
conic section and bounded by the curve, 
a tM^lir-af ir»n (ap-li-ka-shun) n. the act of applv- 
appiK^dUUll ing. the thing applied; the act of 
making request, or soliciting ; close attention. 
annliraforv (ap^H-ka-tur-i) a. including the act 
ctppxx«^ci,L^x y of applying;— «. thatwhich applies. 
ofkf-kl'TT' (^^-Pli) '^'■^- [L. 'wi and plicare, fold] to lay or 
•*PP*jf place ; to employ for a particular purpose ; to 
use as suitable, or relative ; to employ diligently, or with 
attention ■,—v.i. to suit or agree ; to have recourse to. 
annniyfyiafn to-po-ja^to) a. [it. fr. L. ad and 
cxyj^j\jQ^i.a.\.\j podium, balcony] marking notes 
that are to glide into each other insensibly. 

Fate, far, ^do ; me, hgr ; mine ; note ; tune ; m66n. 




annncrcriafiira (a-poj-a-too-ra) n. an added 
PP<-'& &*«*''l^l^«' note of embellishment. 
a nnni nf" (^•PO'nf) v.t. [L. ad and puioctum, point] 
ctppu/iix u to fix ; to decree ; to prescribe ; to assign ; 
to equip •,—v.i. to determine ; to ordain. 

appointable ipS&"^ ""■ "^^^^^^ ""^ ^^°« 

annriinff P (a-pom-te) «. one appointed; [Law] 
ct^j^vyiixb^^ one tliat benefits by an appointment. 
a r»r»rkini"m*anf (a-point^ment) /i. act of appoint- 
dp^^t^iiibiiicixi. ing. office assigned ; whatever is 
appointed ; decree : allowance \—pl. equipments ; [Law] 
declaration of the designation of property. 
annnrfinn (a-por^huu) v.t. [L.J to divide and 
**r'r"-'* »'*'-'** assign in just piroportion. 

apportionment SlTpSSiS"'^"*^'''' 

3 nnn^fr C^-P'^zer) n. [pose) an examiner ; a former 
a.ppuoc:i otticer in the English Court of Exchequer. 
o r>no«;iff* (ap^zit) a. [L. apponere, pp. appositus, 
ctppuoiLC put near] applicable ; well adapted. 
anr»r»Qif «alv (ap^-zit-Ii) adv. in an apposite 
cippurax LCijr manner ; fitly ; suitably ; pertinently. 
annnsiif «=»nf»CQ (ap^-zit-nes) n. the state or 
dppuaiLCXicao quality of being apposite. 
ar>on^ifir»n (ap-6-zisli-un) n. the act of adding 
appuaitit^ii t,Q. accretion; juxtaposition; the 
relation to a noun (or pronoun) of a noun, adjective, or 
clause, added attributively or by way of explanation. 
arkr»r»oifirkrif»l (ap-6-zish-un-al) a. pertaining to 
cippU2>lLlUllcil apposition. 
ar\r\raical (a-pra^z;il) n. the act of appraising; a 
ctppi ctidcti valuation bv authority. 
arkrkraicfi (a-praz) v.t. [L. ad ana pretium, price] 
dppi dl&C to set a value on. 
annraiQpm**nf (a-priz^raent) n. the act of 
a,p^ia.ioc;iiic;iiL appraising: estimated value. 
Jinnrai^f r (?^-P'"'i-zer) ■»». one that appraises; one 
"•HH* cxioci appointed and sworn to fix the value 
of goods and estates. 

a nnrPPia hlf* (?i-pre^lu-a-bl) a. capable of being 
dj^pi^uictuic estmiated or appreciated. 
a onrppi a f P (a-pre^shi-at) v.t.\ij. ad and pretixjvm, 
a,y)Ji.^y.,ia.\.K^ price] to estimate justly or truly ;— 
v.i. to rise in value ; to become of mure value. 
annrPPiafion (*-prc-shi-a-shun) n. the act of 
a.Yjyjy^\,i.tx\,iyjii appreciating; valuation; a just 
valuation or estimate ; rise in value. 

appreciative, appreciatory ^^.f. 

tiv, -tur-i) a. having or implying appreciation. 
annrpriaflvptTT (a-pre^hi-a-tiv-li) adv. in an 
tx^^ji. ^v^tati V Cijr appreciative manner. 

'-, K* Q nnr#^1n*inH (ap-re-hend ) v.t. [L.] to seize or lay 
]ft,4 a,|jpi ciiciiu hold of ; to understand ; to entertain 
suspicion or fear of ;— ?».t. to be of opinion ; to believe. 
ar\r»r*>Vi»rioiK1<i (ap-re-hen-si-bl) a. capable of 
dpprenenblDie being apprehended. 
ar»r»r*iVi<inoir\ri (ap-re-hen-shun) n. the act of 
cippi CilCUblOn apprehending ; the faculty by 
which ideas are conceived ; distrust or fear. 
ar>r\r<aVirat-icixr<a (ap-re-hen'-siv) a. quick of 
dpprenenblVe apprehension ; fearful. 

apprehensively i=lfpSSS^':Sn^^^^^ '° 
apprehensiveness iKa'r^r'qu&of 

being appreliensive ; fearfuhiess. 

a.nnrpnfipp (a-pren-tis) n. [O.F. fr. L. apprehen- 
"'rr'* ^iii-iv-c clere] one bound to another to learn 
a trade or art; a novice; — v.t. to bind as an apprentice. 
Apprentice-fee, a premium received by a master for 
instructing an apprentice. 

apprenticeship SiX.'^f.fipJ,-^^^^^^^ 

time for which he serves. 

a.nnri^f* (^-P^'^) ^'-t- [O.F. fr. L. apprebendere] to 

r'r'* *"^ inform ; to give notice, verbal or written ; 
[appraise] to set a value on. 
annroaph to-P^och) v.t. [O.F. fr. L. ad and 

Hr* '-"*>-** propius, nearer) to come, or draw, 
near \~v.t. to come, or cause to draw, near ; to resemble ; 
— n. the act of drawing near; access or opportunity ; a 
passage or avenue \—pl. the works thrown up by besiegers 
in their advances toward a fortress, or the advances 
tliemselves. To graft by approach, to inarch. 

annrrvarViaHlpk (?-pro^hgi-bl) a. capable of 
ctppiUdClIdUlC being approached ; accessible. 

approachableness fcSebrtSoi 

being approachable. 

arvr»rr»apV»inO" (a-pro^hiug) n. the process of 
'*Hr'* vydv^iiiiig grafting a scion, without separa- 
ting it from the parent stock, into another stock. 
arxrvrrkapVimflknf (a-proclt-ment) n. the act of 
dppiUdL.llliICIlL approaching; approach. 
ar\r>rnHaff* (ap^ro-bat) v.t. [L. approbare, pp. 
o-t^y^^'JO-*'^ approhatxis, assent to as good] to 
express satisfaction with ; to approve. 
aor^rrvSiif inn (ap-ro-ua^hun) n. the act of 
dppiUUdtiUll approving ; approval. 

approbative, approbatory ^^:Z\ 

-tur-i) a. approving ; containing approltation. 
annrnninnilifv (ap-ro-puig'-kwi-ti)n. the state 
cippx UpmqUlty of being near ; propinquity. 
annrnnriahlf* (*-pr(%pri-a-bi) a. capable oi 
dpi^i upi idLriC bemg appropriatea, set apart, 
or assigned to a particukir use. 

o«-|«-k«-|-j«-j«-|Qf p (a-pio^pri-at) v.t. [L. ad and pro- 
•*r r* v^Jt^* idLt prius, one's own] to set apart for 
a particular purpose, or for one's self; to assign ; to 
annex a benefice to a spiritual corporation ; — a. set apart 
for a particular use or person ; suitable. 
annronHaff»lv (^^-pro^pri-at-li) adv. in an 
dppx KJ)jl. XdtCljr appropriate manner; fittingly. 

appropriateness itfeSrfitSs." '"'■ 

a r*r4rr»r^riaf ir»n (a-pro-pri-a^hun) n. the act of 
d|jpx upi idtiUii Betting apart for a purpose; 
anything, esp. money, thus set apart. 
annrnnrtafivf* (a-pro^pri-a-tiv) a. appropria- 
'**'r'* vjr'* *«*i'* * ^ ting ; mvolving appropriation. 
ar>r>rnr>riafor (a-pro^pri-a-tur) n. one that 
**Jr H* ^H appropriates; one possessed of 

an appropriated benefice. 

a nnrnva \W(^ (^-pr6f>^vai-bl) a. worthy of approba- 
^tfxr v V dUiC t,Qn . deserving approbation, 
o rtnrrwxra 1 (a-procAval) n. act of approving ; appro- 
dppiUVdl bation ; sanction. 

improve \—v.t. to express or feel approbation. 

a nnrnvpmf»nf (a-pr66.r-ment) n. approbation ; 

**Hr^^ ^ "^ ^ act of becoming an approver; 

the improvement of commons by inclosure for purposes 

of husbandry. 

a nnroVPr (?^-pr66^ver) n. one that approves or 

o,\J\Ji w ci commends ; one that confesses a crime, 

and reveals his accomplices. 

annrnvintrlv (a-pr66-ving-li) adv. in a com- 

dppi U Vlllgiy niendatory manner. 

annrrkvimaf f» (a-prok-si-mat) v.t. [L, ad and 

"Hr' v-A'****citc proximare, come near] to carry 

or advance near; to cause to approach ;— v. «'. to come 

near ; to approach ; — a. near to ; nearly correct. 

annrnvimafirvn ( n. an 

dppiUJ&.llIIcttiUll approach; a coming near; 

a continual approach to an accurate result. 

a nnro vi m a f i V*» (^^-prok-si-ma-tiv) a. approxl- 

dppiUAlIlldLlVC mating; approaching. 

^ f-j|-^l|4 (ap-we') n. [F. fr. L. ad and podium, support] 

dp^ui the reciprocal action between a horse's mouth 

and the rider's hand ; defensive support. Point d'appui 

(pwang dap-we'), point of support ; a position of shelter 

or support for troops. 

arkr\ii1co (a -puis') n. [L. appellere, pp. appulsus, 
ppuiac drive] act of striking against ; [Astr.] the 
approach of a planet to coniunction witli the sun or a star. 

arvrvii 1 eir»ri (a-pul-shun) n. a striking against by a 
ppUl&lUll moving body. 
or\rvii1ciT7p (a-pul-siy) a. driving or striking 


against; impinging, 

(a-pul-siv-li) adv. in an appukive 
manner ; by appulsion. 
'irvr>iit*f<xr»nn/'«k (a-pur^te-nans) n. [appertain] 
dppUl LClldHCC that which apperUiins. 

appurtenant gg^'Jf*^-''*"'^*'- ix^i^^'-gingtoby 

a ora via (a-prak^i-a) n 
dpi recognise the uses 

n. an appurtenance. 
[G.l loss of power to 
of objects. 

Fate, far, ^o ; me, h^r ; mine ; note ; tune ; m66n. 




o rtr ir^r\f (8^pri-kot) n. [L. praecoguus, early ripe] a 
dpi H-Ut fine fruit allied to the plum. 
AnHl (a^Pi'il)n.[L.] the 4th month of the year. April- 
•'^P^ ** fool, one sportively imposed upon on April 1. 
jj T-ifz-kfi (aAprun) n. [O.F. naperon, fr. L. mappa, 
'''P* ^** napkin] a cloth, or piece of leather, worn on 
the fore part of the body, to keep the clothes clean, or 
protect them from injury ; the fat skin on the belly of a 
goose or duck ; a covering for the vent of a cannon ; a 
piece of leather spread oefore the legs in an open 
carriage : a piece of curved timber above the foremost 
end of the keel of a ship ; a platform of planks at the 
entrance to a dock. Apron-man, a mechanic. Apron- 
string, the string of an apron. Tied to the apron- 
strings, unduly controlled. 

aproned (aApmnd) a. wearing an apron. 

a nmnn«5 (ap-ro-p6') adv. or a. [F.] to the purpose ; 

ctpi upuis pertinently ; seasonably. 

Q rtrrtc^vi n (ap-ro-sek-si-a) n. [G. aandprosechein, 

ctpi uacAlct give heed] inability to fixthe attention. 

3n^f* (aps) n. [G. hapsis, hapsidos, arch] a semi- 

ct-poc circular or polygonal recess in a church, etc., 

having a dome or vaulted roof. 

ar»cir1al (ap-si-dal) a. pertaining to an apse or to 

ctp^MUax the apsides. 

o«-voic (ap-sis) n.; pi. apsides (ap-si-dez) [G.] an 

**P _ '^'^ apse ; a reliquary ; one of the two points in an 

elliptical orbit at the greatest and least distance from the 

centre of force. The line of apsides joins these points. 

o «-)f (apt) a. [L.] fit ; suitable ; liable ; disposed ; 

**P *" dexterous ; ready ; prompt. 

ot^fpt-al (ap-te-ral) a. [G. a and ptcron, wing] 

a^v^^itxi destitute of wmgs; [Arch.] having no 

columns along the sides, but only in front. 

aoteran (^p-te-ran) a. belonging to the group of 

" , wingless insects •,—n. a wingless insect. 
a nf *»riii m (ap-te-ri-um) n. a part of the skin of a 

) n. a part ( 
ithout feathers [Ornith.]. 

apterium fet- 

Qrv4-p«»y-)l|o (ap^te-rus) a. wingless; havmg only 

c«.|^i,^i v^uo rudimentary wings. 

A «>4-p*>Trv (ap-te-riks) n. [G.] a genus of birds with 

r ''^^ J "^ rudimentary wings and no tail. 
nrtfifnHf^ (ap^ti-tOd) n. [L.I natural or acquired 
ci,|Ji,iLUUc; disposition or tendency ; readiness. 
at^flTT (apt^li) adv. properly; fitly; appropriately; 
ctp njr readily ; wittily. 

Q nfnPQQ (apt^nes) n. the state or quality of being 
aj^Liicoo apt; fitness; readiness. 
Qrkfrkffi (ap-tot) n. [G. aptoton] an indeclinable 
dptOie noun [Gram.]. 

a|-vf fvfJp (ap-tot^ik) a. having no declension ; unin- 
"P ^^ ''**- fleeted ; without grammatical inflection. 
a mrr^af i r» (ap-i-ret-ik) a. without fever ; marked by 
djjy 1 C Lie the absence of fever. 
anvrPX'V (a^P-i-reksi) n. [G. apurexia] absence or 
""fj * ^•**-j' intermission of fever. 
a r>i7Trki i c (a-pi-rus) a. [G. a and pur, fire] incom- 
dpjri uua bustible ; unchangeable by heat. 
a nil a (^*'^*) '"'• [1".] water. Aqua fortis, weak, 
nv£uci, impure nitric acid. Aqua labyrinthi, the 
perilymph. Aqua marina or aquamarine, a beryl of 
a sea-green colour, or this colour. Aqua regia, a mixture 
of nitric and hydrochloric acid, dissolving gold. Aqua 
Tofana, a poison made by an Italian woman, Tofana 
(17th century). Aqua vitae, ardent spirits. 

aquafortist iqSortS."'^^ "" ^"^ ^*'^^' ""'* 

aauarpllf* (ak-wa-rel) n. [F. fr. L. agvM, water] a 
Mv^utvx K,i.i.\^ painting, or paintings, in water colours. 
aO liar ill m (^-l^watri-um) n. [L.] an artificial pond 
«.v£uc*.Axuiix Qj. (.j^nk for keeping aquatic animals 
and plants ;_ a collection of such tanks, etc. 
Anna ri lie: (a-kwairi-us) n. the water-bearer, a 
x^4Udiiua sign in the Zodiac, which the sun 
enters about the 21st of January. 

aa liatir (^-kwat^lk) a. pertaining to, inhabiting, or 
7 ^ ^ frequenting, water; practised on, or in, 
water;— n. a plant that grows in water;— b^. sports or 
exercises on, or in, water. 

aquatint, aquatinta SSlt'eSirifg 

process producing prints like drawings in Indian ink ; an 
engraving so produced -—v.t. to etch in aquatint. 
aOUativPtlf^^ic: (a-kwat^lv-nes) n. desire for 
d4UdUVCllC5>b liquids,and life on.ornear, water. 

anii<aHiirf (ak'-we-dukt) n. [L, 
o-queUUCL ducere, lead] an 
artificial conduit for water. 
anii*irMic (aikwe-us) a. par- 
aqUeOUS taking of the na- 
ture of water ; made by means of 
water. Aqueous humour, the 
watery fluid between the cornea 
and the crystalline lens of the eye. 
Aqueous rocks, sedimentary rocks. 

aqvu, water, and 


„ Aqueous vapours, 

the invisible vapour given ofi" from the surface of water. 

aqueousness, aquosity fkwtsu-to «: 

aqueous state or quality ; wateriness. 
a n 1 1 1 fprr»l l ^ (a-kwif-e-rus) a. [L. a^v/i, water, and 
"'4^***'^ UUo fgrrg^ bear] conveying water, as the 
aquiferous canals of sponges and many molluscs. 
annifnrm (ak'-wi-form) a. [L. aqua, water, and 
aK^UllKJl 111 forTua, shape] in the form of water. 
•3niiilaf«arl (ak-wi-la-ted) a. [L. aquila, eagle] 
d4UlldLCU adorned with eagles' heads [Her.]. ..^ 
oniii1in«^ (ak-wi-lin, -lln) a. belonging to the eagle ;** 
dquilllic curving ; hooked. 

A ^o K (ar^ib) n. a native of Arabia ; an Arabian horse ; . 
£\l dU a^n outcast child of the streets ;— a. Arabian. _j 
a ra h P ^ n U P (ar-a-besk') n. ornamen tation after the" 

Arabian manner, ,_ 

often intricate and fantastic from the I' 
intermingling of foliage, fruits, etc. ; '•N* ' ^ 
—a. Arabian ; relating to the ara- r^ ^;;^ 
besque style of ornament; — v.t. to |>^ ^' " * TJ' 
ornament with arabesque. > t _ '|| 

A f o K i a n (a-ra!-bi-an) a. pertain - i 

nidUldlling to Arabia, or to 
its inhabitants \—n. an Arab. ..A 

AfoKip (ar-a-bik) n. the Ian- » -f^ 

x^idUiv^ guage of the Arabians ; 
—a. pertaining to Arabia or its 'csque. 

language. Arabic numerals, the figures 1, 2, 3, etc. 

A — o \\\n\'7f^ (a-rab^i-sTz) v.t. to render conformable 
rxidUl«..l^C to Arabic usage. 
ofaHin (ar^i-bin) n. the principal constituent of 
dldUill gum-arabic. 

AraHi^f (^i^-^-Wst) n. one versed in Arabic litera- 
nidUioL ture, science, or medicine. 
ara Hip (ar-a-bl) a. [L. arare, plough] fit for tillage 
dl dUlC or ploughing ; fit for cultivation. 
a ra p1i tl i H (^'-rak-nid) n. one of the Arachnida, the 
**"* dClllim spiders, scorpions, and ticks. 
a ra pVi fl if i^ (ar-ak-m-tis) n. infiammation of the 
dl d\^lllllLlo arachnoid membrane. 
arapfinoiH (a-rak-noid) a. [G. arachne, spider, 
dl dl^iiiiuiu. and eidos, form] resembling the 
Arachnida ; cobweb-like. Arachnoid membrane, one of 
the inembranes of the brain and spinal cord, between 
the pia mater and the dura mater. 

♦1 ■M />Vt ryr\^r\ rri of (ar-ak-nol^-jist) n. one versed 
araCnnOlOglSl in arachnology. 
arapVinnlnt>*\r (ar-ak-noM-ji) n. [G. arachne, 
dl dv^iiiiuiug jr spider, and logos, discourse] the 
natural history of spiders, mites, etc. 
arack «. see arrack. 

ara=*n^fv1p (a-re^-stll, aire-6-stIl) a. [6.] having 
diccUoLjriC columns four or more diameters 
apart •,—n. a building so columned [Arch.]. 
arSPn^V^fvlp ^^'' ^^ a-re-o-sis-til) a. [G. araios, 
dl cc^jajroLjr IC thin, S2/n, with, andsiwtos, column] 
having columns in pairs, the distance between the 
columns of a pair being usually half a diameter, and 
between the successive pairs three diameters and a half ; 
— n. a building so columned. 

iiVT^P'CtVxh^f^ (ar^a-gu-nlt) n. [Aragon, Spain] a 
*** d^uiii uc variety of calcium carbonate. 
a 1*a i P*n <^P (*-i^n-ya) n. [L. aranea, spider] a mine 
dl digiicc .^ith branching galleries. 
Arainaip (ar-a-maiik) a. [Aram] pertaining to 
xxidiiidie Aram; Aramean ; Syro-Chaldaic ; — n. 
the northern class of the Semitic languages ; Chaldee. 

Aramean, Aramaean ^ramaTc'^! a" 

inhabitant of Aramsea ; Aramaic. 

aranPlH (a-ra^nc-id) n. [L. aranea, a spider] any 

cti cxix^iu animal of the spider family. 

a ran PI form (?^-ra^ne-i-form) a. [L. forma, 

cti txii^ii\Ji III shape] spider-like in shape. 

Fate, far, ^o ; me, hgr ; mine ; note ; tune ; moon. 




araneose, araneous 

(a-ra-ne-6s, -us) a. 
like a cobweb. 

J, |.Q fi pTt (.^-^^SrS^) ^- [native name] a bead made 
di a.1 1 g <J q{ rough carnelian. 
o fo f Jr»n (a-ra^hun)n. [L. aratio] the act, or practice, 
dl clUUll of ploughing. 

A rail pari a (ar-aw-kairi-a) n. (^.4rai«<;anos, a tribe 
m dUUcti let of Indians iii Chih] a genus of conifer- 
ous plants, including the monkey-puzzle. 

arbalest, arbalist rS'twI^^L" ^t 

ballein, throw] a cross-bow. 

flrhifpr (ar'-bi-ter) n. [L.] a person appointed by 
PtJJ^ parties in controversy, to decide their 

*^ differences ; one that can exercise control. 

ofKif f o crf^ (ar'-bi-traj) n. calculation, so as to take 
dluiLictgc; advantage of the diflferent value of 
money, stocks, etc., at difl'erent places at the same time. 
ofKiffol (ar'-bi-tral) a. pertaining to, or of the 
a.1 UlLl di nature of, arbitration. 
arKif ram<anf (ar-bit^ra-ment) n. [L.] decision; 
dl UlU dlilCXlt award of arbitrators. 
arhifrarilv (ar'-bi-tr?i-ri-U) adv. in an arbitrary 
di Ui Li di liy manner : by will only ; absolutely. 
ofKif rafin«^cc (ar'-bi-tra-ri-nes) n. quahty of 
dl Ul LI dl 1I1C&S> being arbitrary. 
of-Kif |*o|>cr (ar'-bi-tra-ri) a. depending on will or 
di Ul Li di y discretion ; despotic ; absolute in power. 
o|-Ki4-fpf f^ (ar'-bi-trat) v.t. and i. to hear and 
di uiLl dLC decide, as arbitrators ; to determine. 
arhifrafion (ar-bi-tra^hun) n. the hearing and 
dl uiLidLiuii determination of a cause between 
parties in controversy. 

Prhifrafor (ar^bi-tra-tur) n. a person chosen by 
diUlLidLUi parties that have a controversy, to 
determine their differences ; an umpire : an arbiter. 
orKif raf rtrcViin (ar^bi-tra-tur-ship) n. the office 
dl UlLl dLUi Siiip or functions of an arbitrator. 

arbitratress, arbitratrix, arbit- 

r<acQ (ar'-hi-tra-tres, -triks, ar^bi-tres) a. a female 

1 COS arbitrator. 
nrKnr arKniir (ar^bur) n. [L. herba, herb] a 
di UUi , di UU Ui |)o^er . ^ g^at shaded by trees. 
ofK/-vf (ar'-bur) n. [L.] a tree; the main support or 
di UUi chief spindle of a machine. Arbor l)lanae, 
Diana's tree, an arborescent precipitate produced by 
mercury in a solution of nitrate of silver. Arbor Judae, 
the Judas tree. Arbor Satumi, Saturn's tree, an 
arborescent precipitate produced by suspending zinc in a 
solution of acetate of lead. Arbor-viiie, a species of 
bindweed. Arbor vltse, tree of life, the popular name of 
certain species of Thuja ; an arborescent appearance seen 
in a vertical section of the cerebellum, and m the interior 
of the neck of the uterus. 

Q i-K/ira PPnil ^ (ar-bur-a^hus)a. woody ; wooded; 
di UUi dl^cuuo living on, or among, trees. 

arboreal, arboreous SotgiSUls-; 

living on, or among, trees. 

orKrkr<^c/^<:^n^A (ar-bur-es^rs) n. the state of 
dl UUI CSUClll-C being arborescent. 
flrHnrP^PPtll" (ar-bur-es^nt) a. [L. arborescere, 
di UUi cov^Cii L become a tree] resembling a tree. 

arboret (ar^bur-et) n. a small tree ; an arbour. 

ij rHrtrf^f 1 1 m (ar-bu-re^tum) r. a botanical garden 
di UUi CLUiii for the cultivation of trees. 
orKr»ri/»rk1<a (ar-bor^i-kol) a. [L. arbor, tree, and 
dl UUI lUUlC colere, dwell! living in trees [Zool.]. 

arboricolous f;re^sYBo3"'"'^ "' ^'"""'"^ °° 

a r H nripnlfii rt^ (ar-bor-i-kul-tur) n. [L. arbor and 

dl UUi il.,uiLUi C cnUura] cultivation of trees. 

arhnrifnrtn (ar-bor-i-form) a. [L. arbor, tree, 

di UUi iiui ill a,nd forma, shape] tree-shaped. 

•3««Kf%f4^o4-i/-k«-| (iir-bur-I-zaisnun) n. a tree -like 

di UUi i^dLiUii appearance, as in minerals. 

ot*Kr\ri7oH (ar'-bur-Izd) a. arborescent; having 

dlUUriiCCU tree-like markings. 

a rKrkrr»i i c (ar^bur-us) a. formed by trees ; pertain- 

diuuiuua ing to trees. 

Q j-KQUj-pfJ (ar-burd)a. furnished with an arbour, 

arbusclc (ar-bus-l) n. [L. arbiiscula, little tree] 
a Qwart tree. 

arbuscular ^smaKej-tto.^'''*"°^ *" * 

A|«f-v||4-||c (ar'-bu-tus) n. JX.] a genus of evergreen 
^*^ UULUO ghrubs, including the strawberry tree. 
o fp (ark) n. [L. arcus, bow) part of the circumference 
*** ^ of a circle or curve ; an arch ; ^ 

the apparent path of a heavenly 
body above (diurnal arc) or below 
(nocturnal arc) the horizon ; the 
arc-shaped band of Ught formed by the passage of an 
electric current between two carbon points. Arc- 
boutant, a flying buttress. 

arCabUCerO &?4'.^^*^^'^^"- tSP-]anarque- 
Q«-po/4p (ar-kad) n. [Xi. arctw, bow] a series of 
*** ^duc arches ; a walk arched above ; a range of 
shops along an arched passage. 

a r/^a H «aH (ar-ka^ed) a. furnished with, or formed 
dl <..dUCU iiije_ an arcade. 

ArPflHian (ar-ka^l-an) a. pertaining to Arcadia, a 
xxi ^.^dUidii district in Peloponnesus, in Greece ; 
simple ; — n. an inhabitant of Arcadia ; an ideal rustic. 

arcadianism ^^u'dt?''^""'^"'^ "' ^""'^""^ '^' 

Pt-pQfiiifTi (ar-ka^num) n.; pi. arcana (ar-ka^n^) 

dl v,diiuiii [L J a secret ;— generally pi., mysteries. 

ofpt-i (arch) a. [i.e. chi^] cunning or sly ; mischiev- 

dii.,ii ous; roguish. 

P fp Vi (arch, 4rk) a. [G. archein, rule] chief ; principal; 

dl \.,ii niuch used as a prefix in compounded words, as 

arch-butler, arch-chamberlain, arch-chancellor, arch- 

dapifer— officers of the old German empire. 

o fpt-i (arch) n. [L. arcu$, bow] a curved line or part of 

"^ ^11 a circle ; any work in 

that form, or covered by an arch ; 

—v.t. or i. to form an arch. Arcll- 

boardL the plank athwart the stern 

of a snip, that usually bears the 

name. Arch-brick, one used in 

building arches. Arch-buttress, 

a flying buttress. 

ar/»'h'*»ari (ar-ke^n) a. [G. . . 

di i^ilcCdil arcfea/os.ancient] *'*°- 

of, or pertaining to, the oldest period of geological time. 

ar/^n'Xirklrkcripal (ar-ke-6-loj-i-kal) a. relating 

dICIlcCUlUglCdl to archeology. 

Q fnYy !»/-\1rkcricf (ar-ke-olio-jist) n. one versed in 

dlCllcCUiU^iS>L archselology. 

ofpViaai-kli^crv (ar-ke-oW-ji) n. [G. archaios, 

di v^iiccuiugy ancient, and logos, discourse] the 

science of antiquities. 

o fpVi sip (ar-ka^ik) a. [G. archaios, old] antiquated ; 

dl i^iidi^ characterized by obsoleteness. 

o f pVt a \ cm (ar^ka-izm) n. an obsolete word, expres- 

dl v^iidioiii gion, or idiom ; antiquity of style or use. 

o rpVl a n trfA (ark'-an-jel) n. an angel of the highest 

dii.,iidiigci order; a kind of a dead-nettle; a 

kind of a pigeon. 

nrnVi^ntrf^Wn (ark-an-jel-ik) a. belonging to 

drCIldllgCllC archangels. 

3 rr^l-i Ki c Vi /%ri (arch-bish-up) n. a chief bishop ; a 

dlCiiUidliup metropoHtan. 

o i-/»ViKioVirkrkf io (arch-bish-up-rik) n. the juris- 

arcnUlbllUpriC diction of an archbishop. 

arpflHf^apnn (arch-de-kn) n. an ecclesiastical 

dl v^iivi^dv^uii dignitary next below a bishop. 

(arch-de-kn-at) n. the juris- 
diction of an archdeacon, 
(arch-de-kn-ri) n. the ofiice or 
jurisdiction of an archdeacon. 

arpVlH^^arnnQVlirk (arch-de^kn-ship) n. the 

arCIlUCd<-UllS>llip office of an archdeacon. 

n*'r'VtA\r\f^e^c£^ (arch-di^-ses) n. the diocese of 

arCnaiOCeSe an archbishop. 

nfc\yA\^nn\ (arch-du-kal) a. pertaining to an 

dlCllUUCdl archduke. 

♦ir/^ViHii/»fi#acc (arch-duch^s) n. the wife of an 

diV,iiuuv,iicaa archduke; a princess of the 

reigning family of Austria. 

P trVl H 11 p1i V (arch-duch-i) n. the territory or office 

di v^iiuu«..iijr of an archduke ; an archdukedom. 

^if^-y^A^^\re^ (arch-duk) n. a grand duke ; a son of 

di Ciiu ui^c the Emperor of Austria. 

orpYi^Hirtcic (ar-ke-bl-6^is) n. [G. arche, begin- 

diCiicuiusia uing and biosis, way of life] the 

production of living from non-living matter. 


Fate, far, ^do ; me, her ; mine ; note ; tune ; m66n. 





arrVlP>0"nnintn (ar-ke-go^ni-um) n. [G. 
a.1 V'li^gv/xxiuixi beginning, and gonos, 
the female organ of the higlier cryptogams. 
a rrln Pixnn V (ar-keg'-o-ni) n. spontaneous genera- 
ctlK^il^^KJxiy tion: archebiosis: abiogenesjs. 
arr'llP'lnP'V (ar-kel^-ji) n. [G. arche, beginning, 
cli ^ii^iKJ^y and io^os, discourse] the science of, 
or a treatise on, first principles. 

arpVjpr (^rch^r) n. one that shoots with a bow; a 
cti ^iici bowman ; the tenth sign of the zodiac. 
ofpViAfrr (arch^r-i) n. the art of shooting with a 
ctl V^llCl y \)Qyf and arrow ; arciiers collectively. 
ofplipc.pniirf (arch^z-kort) n. an English 
ctl uxlCo~L.v.rui t ecclesiastical court of appeal, 
formerly held in the church of St. Mary-le-Bow, or of 
the Arches (those supporting the steeple). 
o j>pVipf TTQo 1 (ar-ke-ti-pal) a. constituting, or per- 

— fpll pf TrnP (ar'-ke-tip) n. [G. arche, begmning, and 

taining to, a model ; original, 
,ar'-ke-tlp)n. [G. arche, begmnir „, 
tupos, figure] the origmal pattern of a 
work ; the model from whicli a thing is made. 
arrllPllQ (ar-ke-us) n. [G.] in Paracelsus, the 
diV^ilCUs anima mundt, soul of the world; a 
living principle below the Creator and above the world. 
'iff^V%fit^r\A (^rch-fend) n. the chief of fiends; 
d,rcnnenU the devll ; Satai^ 
ofpViiafpr (ar-ki-aAter) n. [G.] a chief physician, 
cti ClllctLCi ggp one in attendance on a monarch. 
ofpt-iipol (ar^ki-kal) a. governmental; ruling; 
ctl ClllUctl chief ; primarjr ; primordial, 
a mV\ irliarrtnal (ar-ki-dl-ak'-un-al) a. pertaining 
ctl ClliUlclL,Ullctl to an archdeacon or to his office. 
Qf/^Viii^ioz-^rkrinf o (ar-ki-dl-ak-un-at) n. the 
ctl ClllUldCUllclLC office, dignity, or jurisdic- 
tion of an archdeacon. 

archiepiscopacy £S^aL^a'?ciri&^^^ 

Qf/'Viifir^ior'rktAQl- (ar-ki-e-pis^ko-pal) a. belong- 
ctl ClllCpi^CUpctl ing to an archbishop. 

archiepiscopate SSpriS:''*^ " "" 

ofpViipfpTT (ar-ki^-ri) n. [G. archierexis, high 
cix ^.^xxicx cjr priest] the higher orders of ecclesi- 
astics in the Bussian church. 

arrViipTanVipr^^'""'^^^"'!*'^^^) '"'■ ^*^- '^^'^^^ and 

ctx \.,xxxgx ctpxxcx flrrapfeem^ write] a chief secretary. 
Q t-pVi 1 1 (ar-kil) n. [O.F. orchetl] a violet dye obtained 
ctx v.,xxxx fi-om several species of lichen. 
Arrhi\r\nV\i'm (ar-ki-16^ki-an) a. pertaining to 
rvi CllliUCiilclll Archilochus, a Greek satiric 

Eoet ; severe ;— n. a verse of seven feet, the first three 
eing dactyls or spondees, the fourth a dactyl, the last 
three trochees. 

a rr* him a 0*11 c (ar-ki-maAgus) n. the chief of the 
ctiuiliiilct^ua jyiagi, or worshippers of fire; a 
chief magician ; a wizard ; an enchanter. 
arr^ViimanHrif *» (ar-ki-manklrit) n. [G. archi 
<xi v.ililllctllUl ItC and mandra, monastery] the 
ruler of one or several monasteriesin the Greek church. 
Arc h i m 6 d 6 an (arki-me^de-sm) a. pertaining to 

medes. ArcMmedean screw, 
an instrument for raising water, 
formed by winding a flexible 
tube round a cylinder in the 
form of a screw. 

arching ^t?,^iT;^-^: 

arched work. Archimedean screw. 

arpflinplaOTk (ar-ki-pel^a-go) n. [G. archi and 
cix «^xxxj^cxa.g \j pelagos, sea] a body of water inter- 
spersed with isles ; a group of islands ; the Mgean Sea. 
arrVlif **pt" (ar'-ki-tekt) n. [G. archi and tekton, 
cixv^xxxLcv-L workman] one that plans and super- 
mtends the construction of a building; one that con- 
trives or builds up. 

a rpVlif PPf l\r<a (ar-ki-tek-tiv) a. adapted to use in 
CIX v-xiXLCV, Live architecture; used in building. 
arPnlf PPf rknir* (ar-ki-tek-ton-ik) a. pertaining 
Ctl «-lllLCCLUUlC to, or skilled in, architecture. 
arpnifpr^f nnir*c (ar-ki-tek-ton-iks) n. the 
dl 1,111 LCC LUllll^b gcience of architecture. 

arpfliff^pfliral (ar-ki-tek-tur-al) a. of, or per- 
ctlUlllLCCUUlcll taining to, architecture. 
arptlif P^pflirallv (ar-ki-tek'-tur-al-i) adv. in an 
ctl ClllLCl-iUrciliy architectural manner. 

a r r* Vl ifppflirp (ar-ki-tek-tur) n. the art or science 
ctl L.111 Lcv, LUX c of building ; frame or structure ; 
style of building ; workmanship. 

o xtYx \ irs VP (ar^ki-trav) n. [G. archi and It. trave 
ctl Cllltl ctv c fr. L. trabs, beam] the lower division 
of an entablature, which rests immediately on the column ; 
the ornamental moulding round the exterior curve of an 
arch ; a moulding above a door or window. 
arphival (ar-ki-val, ar-ki-val) a. pertaining to 
ctl v,lll V ctl archives ; contained in records. 
a t*pVl i VP^ (ar'-kivz) n. [G. arche, goverimient] place 
ctl Ulll V Co ju which public records are kept ; public 
records and papers. 

arpllivi^f (ar^ki-vist) n. a keeper of archives; a 
ctl W.H1 V lo t person in charge of records. 
arpllivnlf (^r'-ki-volt) n. [It.] an ornamental 
ctl^llivtJit moulding following the exterior curve 
of an arch; an arch regarded as supporting weight [Arch.]. 
a rr Vilnfp arrhilnfp (arch-loot, -i-l66t) n. 
arcniUte, arcnilUie a large kind of lute. 
jj fpVi Itt- (arch-li) adv. in an arch or roguish manner ; 
ctl Ullljr ^jtji giy humour ; shrewdly. 
Pfpt-inpcc (arch-nes) n. sly humour ; shrewdness; 
cti Uiiiicoo cunning ; roguishness. 
arplinn (aiAkon) n. [G.] a chief magistrate in 
cti ^iiuii ancient Athens ; a ruler. 
or/^VirkncViin (ar^kon-ship) n. the office, or the 
ctl UllUllSilip term of office, of an archon. 
arpVlOtlfip (ar-kon-tik) a. pertaining to an ar- 
cti v.iiCXiLi^ chon; — n. one of a Gnostic sect of 
the 4th century, believing in archons or rulers of the 
several heavens. 

arplir)7nip (ar-ko-z6^ik) a. [G. arche, beginning, 
ctl UiiW^Uiv^ and zoe, life] pertaining to the earliest 
forms of life on the globe. 

archpresbyter S'ytef ^''*''^ ''' ^ "^'"^ 

archprieSt (Arch-presf) n. a chief priest. 

arpVlwav (arch-wa) n. a passage under an arch; 
cti 1^11 w ay an arched entrance. 
arpVlwavpH (arch-wad) a. furnished with, or 
ctl L.11 w txy cu having, an archway. 
of/^ViTirioo (arch-wiz) adv. in the form or fashion 
arCnWlbe of an arch. 

jj «.p i fnr m (ar^i-f orm) a. [L. arcus, bow, and forma, 
cti v.,iiUi ixx shape] curved ; arched. 
ofpfipTanVl (ar-ko-graf) n. [L. arcus, arc, and 
ctl V^tJgi ctpii Q_ graphein, write] an instrument 
for drawing an arc without using a central point. 

arctation, arctitude [fdV^tr^ar^: 

arctare, draw together] narrowness ; constriction. 

arpf IP (ark'-tik) a. [G. arktos, a bear] pertaining to 

cll«.,Liv, the north pole, or the regions near it; 

northern ; frigid. Arctic circle, a circle 23° 28' from the 

north pole. Arctic fox, a small species of fox, with a 

fine, beautiful fur. 

o t'pl'i pia n (ark-tish-an) n. an arctic explorer ; one 

dl C tLK^X€XH that studies arctic peculiarities. 

A rpf 1 1 rn c (ark-tu-rus) n. [G.] the brightest star in 

ni V, uui us the constellation of Bootes. 

at*P1ia1 (ar^ku-al) a. [L. arcus, bow] pertaining to, 

cti ^ Uctl or of the nature of, an arc._ 

arpiiaffi arpiiafpH (ar'-ku-at, -a-ted) a. 

arcuate, arcuaiea bent iike a bow. 

arPliafinn (ar-ku-aAshun) n. a bending; con- 
cti L^UctLlUli vexity; abnormal curvature of a bone. 

arCUbalist (ar'-ka-bal-ist) ji. Seearbalist. 

o«*f4pccirip (ar-da-sen') n. [F.l the fine Persian 
ctl Uctosiiic; silk imported into France for weaving. 
a rH pi n P (ar^e-in) a. [L. ardea, heron] heron-like ; 
cti UdiiC having the characters of the herons. 
PfrtpfipTT (aKden-si) n. the state or quality of 
ctl uciiV-jr being ardent ; ardour ; zeal ; heat. 
arHptif (arklent) a. [L. ardere, ppr. ardens, -cutis, 
ctiUCiit burn] hot or burning ; glowing ; zealous; 
passionate. Ardent spirits, alcoholic liquors. 
arHpflflv (ar^ent-li) adv. in an ardent manner; 
*** '^^•^^''■^J' with ardour: zealously; passionately. 
a vc\ nil r (ar'-dur) n. [L.] heat ; warmth of passion or 
ctxuuux affection ; eagerness. 
arrlnrkiic (ar-du-us) a. [L. arduus] high or lofty; 
ctlUUUUa attended with great labour; difficult; 
working habitually or strenuously. 

Fate, far, ?uio ; me, hgr ; mine ; note ; tune ; modn. 


Qrr1iir\iiclx7' (ar-du-us-li) adv. in an arduous 

ctiuuuuoiy manner , with great labour. 

ai-rliirkiionooc (aMu-us-nes) n. great diflBculty ; 

arUUOUbnebb laboriousness. 

Jiff* ^^^^ [Northumbrian aron] present indicative 

*••* ^ plural of the verb to be. 

o f la (ar> ar) n. [F. fr. L. area] a unit of square measure 

*** ^ containing 100 square metres or 107ti'44squarefeet. 

o c'po ( (aire-a) n. [L.J any plane surface, as the floor 

dl Cd Qf a room, church, or other buildmg ; the site 

on which a building stands ; a sunken space around a 

building; the superficial contents of any figure; a 

compass of ore allotted to diggers. 

o«*pa1 (a-re-al) a. pertaining to an area. Areal 

ctl Cell velocity, the rate at which a revolving line 

generates an area. 

A rf^ca (^'-r^k^, ar^-ka) n. [native name] a genus of 

£\i CUct palms, mcludih^ the l)etel-palm. 

Q rp» f a r' f i rk n (ar-e-f ak-shun) 7i.[L. ar^'acere, make 

cil Ciai.. tiUii dry] the act of drying ; dryness. 

^|.pf^o (a-re^n^) n. [L.] the area in the central part 

dl Clld of an amphitheatre, in wliich the gladiators 

foufcht and other shows were exhibited ; any place of 

con test or exertion; [Path.] sand or gravel in t .kidneys. 

arenaceous, arenarious SSS^'^a: 

having the properties of sand; abounding in sand; sandy. 
ar^anafion ('ir-e-na-shun) n. a sand-bath; the 
dl ClldLlUll application of hot sand [Med.]. 
ofpnipnllfp (ar-e-nik'-o-llt) n. [L. arena, sand, 
dlClliV^UiiLC: ij,jj colere, dwell] a supposed fossil 
worm-burrow, found in Cambrian and other strata. 
oi-orii/'rklrkiic (ar-e-nik^-lu8)a. inhabiting sand, 
dl ClllCUlUUa as cerUin worms [Zool.l 

arenose, arenous ^^"nt^Snd?!'^"' *"" °^ 

ot-£ki-k1o (^-re^-la) n.; pi. areolffi ^a-re^-le) [L.] a 
dl K^KJla, small area ; a small interstice; the coloured 
circle round the human nipple. Also areole (ar^-6l). 
'iX'f^rAav (a-rc^")-lar) a. pertaining to, containing, or 
dl cuidi consisting of, areolae. Areolar tissue, 
connective tissue ; cellular tissue. 
arf»n1afp (a-re^-lat)a. divided byfine intersecting 
dl cuidLC iineg . characterised by areolae. 
ofpz-klgf-ir^f^ (a-re-o-la-shun) n. an areola; a space 
dl cuidtlUll containing areolae; areolar markm4{s. 
flrpnm<=»ff»r (ar-e-om^-ter) n. [G. -"•"•'"» »'••" 
txL ^\./iiic LCI and metron, measure] 
for measuring the specific gravity of fluids. 
arf^rktrififiTr (ar-e-om^-tri) n. act ot measuring 
dl CUiiiC Ll y tije specific gravity of fluids. 
Ar^nr»a crif i^ (ar-e-op-a-git, -jit) n. a member of 
Xii cupdgi LC the court of the Areopagus. 
Arpnnafrifir (ar-e-op-a-git^ik, -jit^ik) a. per- 
jn.1 \^\j^a,^i.i,i\, taining to the Areopagus. 
Af<irkr\o o-iie (ar-e-op-a-gus) n. [G.] a tribunal 
I\l COpdgUb of ancient Athens, held on a hill 
named in honour of Ares or Mars ; any nnal court. 
areOStyle, etc. see aneostyle, eta 

aretaics, aretology J^G^ifeSS 

the part of moral philosophy that treats of virtue. 

a rpf p (?t-nit') n. [F. fr. L. arista, ear of corn] a sharp 

dl c LC mountain ridge, or rocky spur. 

arixal aroril (ar-gal, -gol) n. [M.E. argoU, 

cj,i ^ fxxy a.i.^\jL argayle] unrefined or crude tartar. 

arcrala (ar'-ga-la) n. [Hind.] an adjutant bird, or 

dig did marabou. 

o t-p-a 1 i (ai'-ga-li) n. [Mongol.] a species of wild sheep 

cii gdii Qf Asia, with very large h( 

Argand-lamp S^^^^'S?"- *^r ^ 

49 ariel 

afp-pfifip (ar-jen-tik) a. containing silver in 
""* o ^** ^"'^ chemical combination. 


arfrpnfifprnn«5 (ar-jen-tif^-rus) a. [L. fer 
dl gCll LllCl Wl*p bear] containing silver. 
SrP'Pnfinf* (ar-jen-tln) a. [L. argentum, silver] 
"^o*'*'^^***^ pertaining to, or resembling, silver; 
—n. a silicious variety of carbonate of lime, having a 
silvery-white lustre ; white metal coated with silver. 
ofcrpnfifp (ar-jen-tit) n. silver sulphide, an im- 
"•^ g c 11 ui LC portant ore of silver. 
ofp*i1 (ar'-Jil) «• [L- argilla, white clay, fr. G. argil- 
^^ o** los, fr. argos, white] clay, or potter's earth. 
arP"i11arP011^ (ar-ji-Ia-shus) a. of the nature of 
digiiid^cvruo clay; containing much clay. 

argilliferous ^SSgSy"- ^- •^«*^^' ^--^ 

a rp"!! 1 iff* (ar-ji-llt)n. clay-slate; an argillaceous rock, 
0,1 giiiiLC often breaking into thin, smooth slates. 
a r P"i 1 1 i f i P (ar-jl-lit^ik) a. pertaining to argillite, or 
dl g 1111 Liv. argillaceous schist. 
3 rp"! 11 n (^'■"Jil^) an element in compound words, 
digiiiu meaning, containing clay. Arglllo-arena- 
ceous, consisting of clay and sand. Argil! o-caJcaxeous, 
consisting of clay and lime. , Argillo-calcite, marl. 
ArgiUo-ferrugtaous, containing clay and iron. 

* ' * r^j I c (^jil-us) a. consisting of, or belonging 
'-'"*^ to, clay ; clayey. 
xrp (ar^jiv) a. [G.] pertaining to Argos in Greece; 


Greek i^n. a native of Argos ; a Greek. 

arawt, thin, 
an instrument 


_ -- - by 

Argand ; a circular hollow wick or gas- 
burner is surrounded by a glass chimney, 
thus producing a strong and clear light. 
a i-o*pnf (ar-jent) a. [L. argenttim] 

S^**^ silvery; bright, hke silver ; 
— n. the white colour on a coat of arms, 
designed to represent silver or purity. 
a rcrpin f a 1 (ar-jen-tal)a. of, or per- 
cxi gciiLdl taining to, silver. 
arP*Pntan (ar-jen-tan) n. German silver; an 

S^m-dii 3j]oy of nickel, copper, and zinc. 
arcfanf af irki-i (ar-jen-taishun) n. the act of 
dl g cil LdLlUll overlaying with silver. 



fl.rP*On (^'?*^") '^- 1^- "' negative, anderfiron,work]one 
*** o*^^* of the inert constituents of the atmosphere. 
ArPTinailf (^ir-Ko-nawt) n. [G. Argo and nautes, 
^^*- S'-'iidUL sailor] one that sailed with Jason, in 
the Argo, for the golden fleece ; the paper-nautilus. 
A t* p-rin a 1 1 f 1 P (ar-go-naw-tik) a. pertaining to the 
•**i g wiidu Li\^ Argonauts, or to tneir voyage. 
-1 l-p-riQV (^"^-KO-sO «• [Jiagusa, a port in Dalmatia] 
*** o^'^J' a large merchcint ship ; a galleon. 
o rcrrk^ (ar'-go, ar^?ot) n. [F.] thieves' slang ; slang ; 
ai gv^L phraseology pecuhar to any class. 
a rp^^ l a HI f» (ir'-gfl-a-bl) a. capable of being argued ; 
diguduic admitting argument. 
arp*ll P (^"^u) v.<. [L. arguere] to debate or discuss ; 
^** o "'^ — v.i. to reason ; to dispute. 
arp'llfr (ar-gu-er) n. one that argues; a disputer; 
""^o"^* areasoner. 

arP"limPnt (ar-gu-ment) n. proof; a reason 
_ o "*ii^*ii' ofiered in proof ; a process of reason- 
ing ; debate ; the subject-matter of a ciiscourse ; the gist 
of a play, novel, poem, etc. 

arp"nmpnfal (ar-gu-men-tal) a. belonging to, 
•** o "***'-** «-a.* or consisting in, argument. 
arp*limpnfafinn (ar-gu-men-taishun) n. pro- 
dig UlllCllLdUUn cess or act of reasoning. 
arO"nm**nfafiTrP (ar-gu-men-ta-tiv) a. con- 
diguiiiciitdLivc taining argument; contro- 
versial ; disputatious ; addicted to argument. 
a riri l m l*n f a f i Vf»1 v (ar-gu-men-ta-tiv-li) adv. 
dlgUlllCllLdUVCiy in an argumentative 
manner ; as regards arguments. 

argumentativeness Sitfi:The q^dauty 

of being argumentative. 

Aj-p"iic (ar^s) n. a fabulous being said to have a 
■*^* o "^ hundred eyes ; a watchful, vigilant person ; 
a genus of pheasant. Argus-eyed, very watchful. 
Argus-shell, a species of porcelain-sheU. 
ofO'llfp (ar-guf) a. [L.] sharp; shrill; shrewd; 
dl g u uc jjeen ; TOot.] sharp-toothed, as a leaf. 
aria (a-ri-a, a-ri-a) n. [It. fr. G. aer, air] a song for a 
dl Id single voice, supported by an accompaniment. 
A ri a n (a-ri-an) a. pertaining to Arius of Alexandria, 
r\i idii in the 4th century, who held Christ to be 
only a superangeUc being ; — n. a follower of Arius. 
Arianism (a^^i-^m-izm) n. the doctrines of the 

a ri pi n P (ar^l-sen) n. [Arica, Chili] an alkaloidfound 

dl iv^iiic jn cinchona bark. 

ariH (^'^-'•i) ^- [L. aridus, fr. arere, be dry] dry; 

dl lu parched ; uninteresting. 

a r i H a c (ar-i-das) n. [native name] a kind of tafieta 

dl lUdS> from the East Indies. 

a ri H i f v a ri H n P c c (a-rid-i-ti, ar^id-nes) n. ab- 

di luiujT) dl luiicoa sence of moisture; dryness. 

a ri<a1 (a-ri-el) n. [A. aryil, a stag] an African gazelle 

driCl (Gazeiladama). 

F&te, far, ^o ; me, her ; mine ; note ; tune ; moon. 


I consteuation ; tne 

AWaq (aAri-ez) n. fL.l the Ram, a constellation; the 
n.1 ICo fijst; of thg twelve signs of „ ^^ 

the zodiac. First point of Aries, 
the point where the sun crosses the 
equator at the spring equinox. 

arietta, ariette g;t'rf. 

et') n. [aria] a short song or air. 
aHo*Vlf (a-rif) adv. in due order ; 
****&***' rightly; without mistake; appropriately; 
correctly ; exactly ; directlv. 

aril arilln^ ^r'-il, a-ril-us) n.; pi. axilli (a-ril-i) 
ctili, ctliliuo [L aridus, dry] an extraneous or 
late-formed seed-coat or covering, or an appendage grow- 
ing from or about the hilum of a seed. 

arillate, arilled £;S' ^^-^^^ «• ^^^"^ 

aHllnHf* (a-ril^d) n. a false aril, originating from 
di XllUUC the micropyle or raphe. 
a ri rkl a f i nrt (ar-i-6-laAshun) n. [L. hariolus, sooth- 
ctliUicttiUil sayer] sooth-saying. 
arinQrt (a-ri-o^o) a. and adv. [It. fr. aria] of the 
dl IKJOKJ pature of, or in the manner of, an aria and a 
recitative combined. 

ariftP (a-rlz') v.i. [A.S. drlsan'] to get up from a 
a.1 loC lower to a higher position ; to proceed ; to issue. 
a riQ^a (^^-ris^t?') ^- CL.] an awn ; any similar process 
aJ. xoLd. in plants or animals [Zool. and Bot.]. 
ariQfzirPrl (^'^i^-t'^i'l^) "f^- \X>- Aristarchus, a critic 
a.1 lo Lctl *-ll of Alexandria] a severe critic. 
ari^farrVlian (ar-is-tar-ki-an) a. pertaining to 
a.1 lotcti v^xiicLii Aristarchus ; severely critical. 
Off of of p (a-ris-t^t) a. furnished with an arista; 
cti lo LcttC having a pointed, beard-like process. 
P«*icf rtPra CM (a^'-is-tok-ra-si) n. [G. aristos, best, 
a.iloLUda.L.jr and kratem, rule] government by 
nobles ; the nobility or chief persons in a state. 
ofic4>^<->fQf (?i-ris-t6-krat) n. one of the aristoc- 
a.1 io LUi,.! ctL jacy ; a proud or haughty person. 

aristocratic, aristocratical fejtSk; 

-i-kal) a. pertaining to aristocracy. 
aricf/^^>1*af ir'sllfr (ar-is-to-krat^i-kal-i) ac^v. in 
0.1 la LUV^l dLl^dliy an aristocratic manner. 
oficf rkr>raf icm (ar-is-tok-ra-tizm) n. the con- 
di lO LU»-l dLlCMll dition of being an aristocrat. 
Aricf r^r* Via nir* (ar-is-to-fan-ik) a. pertaining to 
ril la tupildlllV. Aristophanes, the great Athen- 
ian comic poet ; witty ; broadly comic. 
Aricfrkf *i1ian (ar-is-to-tel-i-an) a. pertaining to 
niiatULClldll Aristotle, his works, or his dis- 
ciples ; — n. a follower of Aristotle. 

Anstotelianism ;f,[[l-^g"orAS«e.*'^ 

a.rithmJl'nPV (^r^ith-man-si) n. [G. arithmos, 
a.1 1 bimiOiiiv^jr number, and manteia, divination] 
the foretelling of events by numbers. 
arif htn**f ir (a-rlth-met-ik) n. [G.] the science of 
a.ixi,iiiAi^i.i\.« numbers; the art of computation by 
figures ; a work on computation by figures. 
arifVimpf ipal (ar-ith-met^i-kal) a. pertaining, 
dl iLiiiiid,i\,di or according, to arithmetic. 
arifVimpf i/^allfT' (ar-ith-met^i-kal-i) adv. in an 
dl 1 Liliiic l,l<.,dliy arithmetical manner ; accord- 
ing to the rules of arithmetic. 

ariflimp'firian (a-rith-me-tish-an) n. one 
dl ILllIllCUCldn sijjiied iu arithmetic. 

arithmnrnpfpr (ar-ith-mom^e-ter) n. [G. 
dIlLlllllUIllCl,Cr arithmos, number, and tnet- 
ron, measure] a calculatii^ machine. 
art ^^'^^ "• ^■^■^- ^^- ^- C'i'cere, keep] a small close 
*** **• chest which contained the tables of the Covenant 
among the Jews ; the vessel in which Noah and his family 
were preserved ; a large boat used on American rivers. 
arm ^^'■™^ ^- [^.-S-] the llmb that extends from the 
*** *** shoulder to the hand ; the branch of a tree ; the 
end of a yard ; part of an anchor ending in a fluke ; an 
inlet of water from the sea. Arm-chair, a chair with 
arms. Arm-chest, a box or chest containing small arms. 
Armfal, as much as the arms can hold. Arm-hole, the 
cavity under the shoulder; a hole for the arm in a 
garment. Armpit, the hollow under the shoulder. At 
arm's length, at a distance. With open arms, cordially. 
a.rm (arm) n. [L. arma, arm] a branch of the military 
«** *** service ; an instrument of warfare ;— pi. war ; the 
mQitar}' profession; armour; heraldic bearings;— v. «. to 


50 armoury 

equip with weapons ; to furnish what will add strength or 
efficiency ; to fit with armature, as a magnet ;~v.i. to take 
arms. Small arms, weapons not requiring carriages, 
a rm nr^a (ar-miMa) n. [Sp.] a fleet of armed ships. 
dl llldUd Invincible Armada, the Spanish fleet 
sent against England, a.d. 1588. , 

o t-m a r1 i 1 1 r* (ar-ma-dil^) n. [Sp.] an animal pecu- \. , atr 
driUdUmO liar to South ,,j,„y^yy,^ \ 

America, having the body en- MMAy/A</L&sg^ \ 
cased in an armour composed of 
small, bony, shell plates. 


naval forces equipped for war; 
the munitions of a ship of war. .=..^»-.^^. 

a rm a f 1 1 rP (ar^ma-tur) n. armour : a piece of iron 
dl iiidLUi c connecting the two poles of a magnet. 
armpH (armd) a. ecniipped with, or supported by, 
dl lllCU, arms ; fortiiiea ; plated ; provided ; [Her.] 
having talons, teeth, etc., or having them of a different 
colour; [Mag.] furnished with an armature. Armed 
neutrality, tne condition of holding aloof from a contest 
while ready to repel attack. "^i^ 

Arrfk '^nian (ar-me-ni-an) a. pertaining to Ar- 
x^l 111 illdii nienia ; — n. a native, or the language, 
of Armenia. Armenian bole, a pale-red clay from 
Armenia. Armenian stone, a blue carbonate of copper. , 
armip*Pr (ar-mi-jer)n.[L.]oneentitled to armorial '" 
diiiiigci bearings ; an esquire. 
armilla (ar-mil-a)n.[L.]a bracelet orarmlet; an iron 
dl iiiiiid j.jng_ or brace, in which the gudgeons of a 
wheel move ; [Anat.] the annular ligament of the wrist. 
armillarv (ar-mi-la-ri) a. resembling a bracelet; 
diiiiiiidijr consisting of rings 
or circles. Armillary sphere, an 
instrument consisting of several brass 
rings, all circles of the same sphere, 
designed to represent the positions of 
the chief circles of the celestial sphere. 
armillafpH (ar-mi-la-ted) a. 
a.1«u wearing bracelets. 

arming-press %-^''^.\ 

press used in stamping and lettering 

the covers of books. _ 

Arminian SinTngtO^Jmimus" AimlUary sphere, 
or his doctrines ; — n. a follower of Arminius, who denied 
the doctrines of predestination, limited atonement, and 
perseverance in grace. 

A**r»-iiriioriiom (ar-min-i-an-izm) n. the tenets 
Arminianibin of the Armlnians. 
armiDofpnPP (ar-mip^-tent) n. [L. arma and 
dl illiputcil\.>v:; potens, powerful] power in arms, 
o f tvt f t-k/^f tin f (ar-mip^-tent) a. powerful in arms ; 
arrnipOtent mighty in battle. 
PfiYiicfipp (ar^mis-tis) n. [L. arma and sistere, 
dl lllloUlV^C stop] a cessation of hostilities for a 
short time ; a truce. 

a rm 1 P^^ (arm-les) a. destitute of arms or branches ; 
dl llllCoo without an arm or weapon ; helpless, 
a r m 1 pf (arm-let) n. a small arm, as of the sea ; a 
dlllllCL kind of bracelet. ^-- 

armnirp (ar-mwor') n. [F.]an 
a.1 iiiv^ii \.., ambry; a cupboard. 
armnrial (ar-mo^ri-al) a. per- 
dl lllUl Idl taining to heraldic 
bearings ; — n. a book on heraldry. 
Armorip (ar-mortk) a. pertaining to Brittany 

**1 lllv/l Iw ^Armnrina^ — n. t,hp lanaiiacrp nf Innrpr 


(Armorica)-- «. the language of lower 

Armnripan (ar-mor'-l-kan) a. Armoric;— n. a 
■**■* iiiui lUdii native or inhabitant of Armorica. 
armori^f (ar-mur-ist) n. one skilled in heraldry; 
dllllCFliot a blazoner of heraldic arms. 
armnrv (ar-mur-i) n. [O.F. armojri'e] heraldry ; an 
dllllUiy armorial bearing. f ■¥" 

a rmnnr (ar'-'^^^'") n. [O.F. fr. L. arma, arm] defen-fcj^ 
dllllCFUl giyg arms for the body; anything worn 
to protect in battle ; the steel or iron covering of snips of 
war. Armour-bearer, one that carries the armour nf 
another ; an esquire. 

nf■rrtf\■^^t•ci*' (ir^mur-er) n. a maker of arms ; onei.i 
driIlUUI Cl charge of arms. 
armoiirv (ar^mur-i) n. a place where instruments 
dl lliuui y of war are deposited ; an arsenal. 

Fate, fir, ado ; me, her ; mine ; note ; tune ; moon, ^ 




flrmn^itlP (ar-mo-zen) n. [O.F.] a plain silk, for- 
cti iiiv^^iiic merly used for clerical robes. 
Arm'^frnnp'-P'lin (arm -strong -gun) 7i. a 
/\riIlSjLrUIlg-gUn breech -loading, wrought- 
iron, rifled cannon, named from its inventor. 
armv (^'■-'^i) '>^- [L. arma, arms] a collection or body 
cti iny Qf jjjgQ armed for war, and organized in com- 
panies, regiments, and divisions under proper officers. 
Army-corps, a division including all branches of the 
service, and forming an army in itself. Army-list, an 
official publication giving a list of officers, military 
stations, etc. Army-worm, a voracious caterpillar. 
Cliurcll army, a religious organization of the English 
church, whose work lies among the poor. Salvation 
army, a religious and social organization on a semi- 
military basis, for the benefit of the neglected classes. 
Arnipa (ar-nl-ka) n. a genus of Compositae. A 
ri.1 iiii^d. tincture of Arnica montana is used for 
wounds and bruises. 

n rn rkf a m 1 1 f (ar'-not, -nut) n. [E.] the pig-nut, 
ctxxlUL, ctlilUt or earth-nut. 
flrnof f"0 (^r-not^')) n. [native name] an orange dye 
fXL ii\j\,\^\j obtained from Bixa orellana, a small tree 
of tropical America. 

o mm a (a-ro^ma) n. [G.] the fragrance in plants, etc. ; 
di v^iiict a subtle quality or pervasive flavour. 
Srnmflfip (ar-o-mat-ik) a. fragrant; spicy; — n. 
cti v^iiictLiv, a plant, or drug, having a fragrant 
smell, and usually a warm, pungent taste. Aromatic 
vinegar, a perfume made by adding oil of lavender, 
cloves, etc., to acetic acid. 

aromatization ?/£omatizS^""^ "' ^^' '''* 

a.rorn3ti7f* (a-ro^ma-tlz) v.t. to impregnate with 
txi. v^xxictLi^c aroma ; to give a spicy flavour to. 
arnmafiyi^r (a-rr>-ma-tl-zer) n. that which gives 
ax uxxxctLX^Cx an aromatic quality. 
flrnmafmiQ (a-ro^ma-tus) a. containing an aro- 
ax v^xxxakuiuo matic principle ; aromatic. 
orn<5«^ (a-roz) preterite, singular and plural, of the 
ax \^o^ verb ange. 

Qrr\iinr1 (a-round') otZv. in a circle; near ■.—prep. 
dlUUIlU on all sides of ; about. 
arOimP (a-rouz) v.t. to excite to action ; to awaken 
ax v^uo^ suddenly •,—v.i. to wake ; to become active. 
arnvnt arninf (^^-roint) v.t. [E.] to bid be- 
ctx uy XI L, etX Ulll L gone ;-v.t. begone ! 

a.rnPP"P"in (^■■"P^J-") **• ["• f^- o.i'pci, harp] the 
"* r'^oo*'-' sounding of notes in rapid succession ; 
a chord so played. 

arquebus, arquebuse [S^^tLu 

hand-gun, supported upon a forked rest. 
nrnii«aKiicar1<a (ar-k we-bus-axi') n. the shot from 
dX 4UCUU£)ciUC an arquebuse ; a kind of lotion 
for sprains and bruises. 

a rn 1 1 aKii ci #ar (ar-kwe-bus-er') n. a soldier armed 
diquCUU^alCI with an arquebuse. 
arnn*irif A (ar-ke-rit) n. a mineral silver amalgam 
ax 4UCX XLC found at Arqueros, Chili. 

arquifOUX (ar'-kl-foo) n. Seealquifou. 

a.rra rlr ('^""^^k) n. [A. 'araq] a spirit obtained in the 
a^^i^ £ Indies from rice or the cocoa-nut tree, etc. 

arraign ^^■■"^"^- "•*• ^Q-^- ^^- ^- «^ ^^^ ratio, 

bar; to call i 

reason, taste, or other tribunal. 

reason] to call or set a prisoner at the 
:foi ' 

bar ; to call in question, or accuse, before the bar of 
reason, taste, or other tribunal. 

o rra i £rnm*inf (a-ran-ment)n. theactof arraign- 
axxaxgxxxxxcxxL ing; accusation. 
o t-f a fi p-f> (a-ranj') v.t. [F. arranoer] to put, place, or 
ail aiig^ dispose, in properorder;toad3Ustorsettle. 
Q t*ra n crf^m t^ni' (a-rdnj-ment)n.actof arranging; 
axxaxxgcxxxcxxL the state of being arranged; 
classification ; adjustment ; the adaptation of a composi- 
tion to voices or instruments ; a piece so adapted. 
a rt*a n f (arrant) a. [errant] very bad ; notorious ; 
axiaxxL unmitigated ; thorough. 
a.rranf1v (^r-ant-ll) adv. in an arrant manner; 
ax 1 axxLXjr infamously ; disgracefully ; impudently. 
a.rra ^ (ar^s) n. tapestry ; hangings of tapestry, made 
ai 1 ao fjfgt at Arras in France. 
arra ^ P n P (ar^i-sen) n. a cord or thread of wool and 
0.1 1 aocxxc g^jj^ ujjgjj jjj embroidery. 

a.TTei.'V ^^'^^ *'• [O.F.] order ; disposition in regular 
""J lines, hence, a posture for fighting ; an 

orderly collection ; dress ; raiment ; [Law] the order of 
empanelling a jury; the panel ;— v.t. to put in order, as 
troops for battle ; to deck or dress ; to adorn with dress ; 
to set in order, as a jury, for the trial of a cause. 
^yr-fxrit- (a-rer) n. [O.F. arere] the state of being 
ai X cax behind ; what remains unpaid (usually pi.). 
'irrf^sr^Q'f^ (a-rer^j)n. the state of beingin arrears; 
ax X CaX age the part of a debt unpaid ; arrears. 
o f.~pp4. (a-rekf) v.^ FL.] to raise;— a. erect; attentive; 
ax X c V, L [Ijot.] brougnt into an upright position. 
arrpnnfnk-nil«i (ar-e-not^-kus) a. [G.] pro- 
eirrCllULUK.UU& ducing only males. 
arrpknf of ion (ar-en-ta^un)n.[O.F.]permission 
ax X cxx LaLXUXX ^^ ^ tenant of forest land to inclose 
it on payment of a rent. 

arr**nf if inn<5 (ar-ep-tish-us) a. [L. arripere, pp. 
axx cpLXtxuuo arreptus, catch] snatched away 
fraudulently or secretly. 

P|*|«pc4- (a-resf) v.t. [L. ad and restare, remain] to 
ax X COL check or hinder the motion or action of ; to 
take by authority of law ; to seize on and fix ; — n. the 
taking or apprehending of a person by authority of law ; 
stay of judgment after verdict ; any seizure, physical or 
moral ; a scurtiness of the hind leg of a horse. 
orrf^^cf af irtn (ar-es-tatshun) n. act of arresting; 
axxcatauxuxx seizure ; stopping. 
nffcxci-exr nife^ci- f\r (a-res-ter, -tur) n. one 

arrebter, arresstor .,^^0, or that which, 

arrests ; the person at whose suit an arrest is made. 
o i*t*pcf tn Pnf" (^-rest^ment) n. an arrest or deten- 
ax X couxxxcxxt tion of a criminal ; the seizure of a 
person's wages, etc., in payment of debt. 
jj t*rpf (^'-ret', ?i-ra') n. [F.] an authoritative judgment; 
ax X c U an edict ; a seizure of persons or goods. 
p«*|>4X|.p (a-rer', ar-yar') n. [F.] the rear. Arrifere- 
ax 1 xcx c •ban, the sovereign's summons of his vassals 
and their vassals to war ; the troops thus collected. 
Arri^re-fee or -fief, a fee held of a feudatory. 
Arrifere- vassal, a vassal of a vassal. 
jj |.— : Q (ar-is) n. [L. arista, beard of grain] the edge 
ax X xo formed by two surfaces meeting each other, 
whether plane or curved. Arris-gutter, a wooden 
V-shaped gutter. Arris-wise, diagonally. 
jj ffixra 1 (?^-ri-val) n. act of arriving ; act of reaching 
ax XXV ax a place by water or land ; attainment of an 
object ; the person or thing arriving. 
o|*|>ivrp (a-rlv')v.i. [L. ad and ripa, bank] to come 
ax X X V C to ; to reach ; to attain ; to occur. 
a rrn0*a n r P (ar'-o-gans) n. [L. ad and rogare, ask] ' ^cIaj 
axxv^gaxxvc; the condition or quality of being ' 
arrogant ; undue assumption of importance. 
offz-wp'anf (ar^-gant) a. assuming undue import- 
aXXUgaxxL ance ; overbearing; haughty. 
o|*f/-|o*anf1v (ar^-gant-li) adv. in an arrogant 
ax X Ug axx txy manner ; haughtily ; very proudly. 
^f«*<-kp-of p (ar^-gat) v.t. to claim unduly; to de- 
«*'^* '-'&*'' *'*^ manu overbearingly ; to assume. 
O4*f<-|o-af inn (ar-o-ga^hun) n. the act of arroga- 
ax X ugauxvixx ting^or making insolent pretensions. 
offno*af ivP (arVga-tiv) a. making undue pre- 
axxugaLXVC tension ; arrogant. 
arrnnHi (^■rong'-<le) a. [F.] rounded oflF; [Her.] 
*** X uxxux having a rounded surface. 
arrnnHi<5<5f»mPnf (a-rong'-des-mong) n. [F.] 
arronUlbbement ^^^ grst, and therefore the 
largest, sub-division of a French department. 
off/-kTzr (ar^')) n. [A.S. arewe] a pointed weapon to 
ax X u w he shot from a bow. Arrow-grass, a com- 
mon name for the genus TriL'lochin. Arrow-head, the 
head of an arrow ; an aquatic plant of the genus Sagittaria. 
Arrow-headed, shaped like the head of an arrow. 
Arrow-headed characters, strokes resembling arrow- 
heads, nail-heads, or wedges— hence called, nail-headed, 
wedge-formed, cuneiform, or cimeatic, and abound- 
ing among the ruins of Persepolis, Nineveh, and Babylon. 
arrnTA/rnof (ar^root) n. a tropical plant, so 
ctx X U W X KJKJ t called because the Indians use the 
roots to extract the poison of arrows ; the highly nutritious 
farinaceous substance or starch which it yields. 
o rrr\\KT\r (ar^i) a. consisting of arrows ; formed 
ax L\jw y ij]jg an arrow ; swift ; darting. 
arcfi (ars)"- [A.S. cers] the buttocks. Arse-smart, 
ax oc smart-weed (Polygonum hydropiper). 
ar^Pnal (ar-se-nal) n. [A.] a public establishment 
€Xi.ZiK:iiitxi. foj. the manufacture and storage of arms 
and all equipments for land or naval service. 

Fate, far, ^do ; me, h^r ; mine ; note ; tune ; moon. 




!arcianiafpk arQPknaf** (ar-se^ui-at, ai^'-se-nat) 
cil bCllid,.l.C) cU 3CHelLC^_asaltofareeuiuacid. 
a rQf^Otf* (iiJ^se-nik, ars-nik) n. [G. fr. arsen, male] a 
di aciixi^ metal of a steel-gray colour. Arsenic 
trioxide is a virulent poison. 

a rQf»n i n (ar-sen-ils) a. containing arsenic. Arsenic 
di ocixiv^ acid, a name given to arsenic pentoxide. 
arQ#*flir'al (^I'-sen-i-kgJ) a. belonging to, Corn- 
ell posed of, or containing, arsenic. 
arQPnir'aff^ (ar-sen-i-kat) v.t. to combine with 
di oCiilUdLC; arsenic ; to treat with arsenic. 
arci^nioiiG (ar-se-ni-us) a. pertaining to, or con- 
disCiiiUUo taming, arsenic. Arsenious acid, 
(HsAsOs) a name given to arsenious oxide (As20a). 
arS6nit6 (ar'-se-nit) n. a salt of arsenious oxide. 

ar^lQ (ar-sis) n. [G.] a rising inflection of the voice; 
di oio the accented part of a metrical foot, as opposed 
to the tliesis, or unaccented part ; [Mus.] the unaccented 
beat of the bar. 

a r<50n (ar'-sun) n. [L. ardere, pp. arsus, burn] mali- 
di oUii cious and voluntary settmg on fire. 
•] *U- (art) second person, present tense, indicative mood, 
**^ '' of the verb to be. 

n «-f (art) n. [L, ars, wrtis] employment of means to 
*** *' some desired end ; application of science to prac- 
tical purposes ; an industrial pursuit ; skill ; cunning. Art 
and part, [Scots Law] instigation. Art union, an institu- 
tion for promoting art, and encouraging artists, pictures 
being distributed by lottery in return for subscriptions. 
Black art, sorcery. Faculty of arts, a university depart- 
ment dealing with the subjects of an ordinary university 
course. Fine arts, those that aim at giving aesthetic 

Sleasure. Liberal arts, the higher branches of learning. 
lechauical arts, those involving manual laboiu-. 
a^-^—^Jq^j, (ar-te-miz-i-a) n. [G. an herb like 
m Ldiiioid wormwood] a genus of the Com- 
positse, including southernw^ood, wormwood, etc. 
^f^pmpl (ar-te^ri-al) a. pertaining to, or contained 
di LCi idi in^ aj, artery ; resembling an artery. 
arf Arioli'^af inn (ar-te-ri-al-i-zaishun) n. tlie 
di LCiidii^dLiUii process of arterializing. 
nfi-f^i-inWi^fx (ar-te^ri-al-iz) v.t. to communicate 
di LC I idii^C the qualities of arterial blood to. 
3rtf»rin1nP*V (ar-te-ri-oM-ji) n. [G. loffos, dis- 
di uci i\Ji\j^y course] a treatise on the arteries. 
arfptiof ntnv (ar-te-ri-ot-o-mi) n. [G. arteria 
di LCI iKJLKJiiiy and tome, cutting] tlie opening 
of an artery by a lancet, for the purpose of letting blood; 
that part of anatomy which treats of the arteries. 
arf p>rif ic (ar-te-rl-tis) n. inflammation occurring in 
di LCi iti& the arteries. 

arfprv (^r'-te-ri) n. [G.] a vessel that conveys the 
a* tvi y hlood from the heart to all parts of the body. 
Artp^sian (^r-te-zhain) a. belonging to Artois, in 
X1.1 b«.^oici,ix France. Artesian wells, wells made 
by boring into the earth till the water, from internal 
pressure, flows upward, like a fountain. 
a.rfful (^rt^fool) a. made with, or characterized by, 
fXi. Liui art or skill ; exhibiting art or skill ; cunning. 
artfllll V (^rt^fpol-i) adv. in an artful manner ; with 
*** wiwiijr art; cunningly; dexterously. 

arthritir arthritiral (ar-thritiik,-i-kai)a. 

diUiiilUl., diUiliLH-ctl pertaining to the 

joints or arthritis ; gouty. 

arfhrifio (ar-thrl-tis) n. [G.] inflammation of a 
di tiiiitiS) joint; gout. 

arfhrnHia (ar-thro^i-a) «. [G. arthron, jdnt, 
di Llii UUld and eMos, form] a gliding joint. 
arfhrnHvnia (ar-thro-din-i-£i) n. [G. odune, 
diUiiUUyiild pain] pain in a joint. 
arf VjrnQICi (ar-thr6-sis)n.; pi. artliroses, (ar-thro^ 
di Liii uai6> sez) [CJ.] articulation in a joint. 
artirVinlrfk (ar-ti-chok) n. [A.] an esculent plant 
CXI Liv.iiyA.c somewhat resembling a thistle. Jeru- 
salem artiolioke, a species of sun-flower (Jerusalem is 
here a corruption of It. girasole, sun-flower). 
article (^-ti-kl) n. [L. artus, m'ticulus, joint] a 
* • u • *^^*"S6 ^^ ^ contract, treaty, etc.; a point of 
faith ; an item ; a prose composition in a magazine, etc.; 
a substance or commwlity ; one of the words a, an, the ; 
—v.t. to set forth in particulars ; to bind by covenant or 
stipulation. Articles of war, regulations for the army 
and navy. In the article of death, in the death-agony. 
The tmrty-nine articles, the points of doctrine main- 
tained by the church of England. 

orfi/^iilsr (ar-tik-u-l?ir) a. belonging to the joints, 
di LiUUidi OP to an article. 

arfipillatf (ar-tik-u-lat) a. formed with joints; 
di LiL.UidLC distinctly uttered; clear ;—t>.<. to joint; 
to unite by means of a joint ; to form into syllables or 
words •,—v.i. to utter articulate sounds ; to enunciate. 
arfipnlaf f*lv (ar-tik-u-lat-li) adv. in a jointed 
di LiUUidLCiy manner; distinctly; clearly. 
arf ir^iilof «an*icc (ar-tik-u-lat-nes) n. articulate 
di LiCUidLCiiCas ((uaUty or condition. 
arfir'nlafinrt (ar-tik-Q-la^shun) n. the act of 
di LiV^UidLiUii articulating, or the state of being 
articulated ; articulate voice ; a consonant ; a joint. 
jj^i.:x:p„ (ar-ti-tis) n. [L. ars, artis, art, and facere, 
di Lliil^C make] an artful or skilful contrivance ; 
a device ; a trick ; cunning ; strategy. 
'yfi-if^nf^r (ar-tif-i-ser) n. a sMlful workman; one 
di l.iii<..Ci that constructs. 

offif^piol (ar-ti-fish-al) a. made by art; manu- 
di l,iiiV.>idi factured ; feigned ; fictitious. 

artificiality, artificialness ffM-tC 

ar-ti-fish%l-nes) n. the quality of being artificial. 
offifnpi'illv (ar-ti-fish-al-i) aclv. in an artificial 
di Liiiv^idiij^ manner ; by art ; not naturally. 
a t*t i 1 1 Pri ^t (a^-til^-rist) n. one skilled in designing 
di LXiiCi ioL and constructing, or in using, artillery. 
artillprv (^r-til^-ri) n. [O.F. fr. L. ars, artis, art] 
di tiiiCiy cannon orordnanceandtheirappendages; 
the science of gunnery ; the troops employed about the 
ordnance. Artillery-level, an instrument for indicating 
the elevation of the gun. Artillery-train, ordnance 
mounted on carriages fully f urnishe<l and ready for action. 
artillprvmatl (ar-til^-ri-man) n. one of the 
di LiiiCi yiiidii artillery; a cannoneer. 
artisan (^^-ti-zan) n. a person skilled in any 
di Liodii rnechahical art ; a handicraftsman. 
O'pficf (ar-tist) n. one that professes and practises 
di na t ojjg of the fine arts, esp. painting or sculpture. 
arf icf <a (ar-test) n. an expert m some art, not one 
di tiJstC of the fine arts. 

arficfir> nrficfir^al (ar-tis^tik, -ti-kal) a. per- 
di LiatiC,, di LiS>til..di tainingto, or cWacter- 
ized by, art ; made in the manner of an artist. • , 

prflpcc (art^les) a. free from art; simple; unde- HCk** 
di LiCoo signing ; inartistic. * 

O'pflpcciv (^rt^les-li) adv. in an artless manner; 
di LiCooiy without art; naturally; without guile. 
»j y\-\ AQQtl PQQ (art-les-nes) n. the quality of being 
di LiCooiiCoo artless; naturalness; simplicity. 
A fi-iippi nn^ var-to-kar^pus) n. [G. artos, bread, 
£\l LUv^di jpiio and karpos, fruit] a genus of trees, 
including the breadfruit-tree. 

At*lim (^r""i) '^^ t^- aron] a genus of plants, in- 
n.1 Uiii eluding the wake-robin or cuckoo-pint. 
Ariinrl«alian (ar-un-del-yan) a. pertaining to the 
£\l UiiUCiidii Earl of Arundel ; a term applied to 
the Grecian marbles presented to the university of 
Oxford by an Earl of Arundel. 

ariinrlif<^rr»iiQ (ar-un-dif-e-rus) a. [L. ferre, 
di UiiUliCiUUa bear] producing reeds. 
ariinr1iriar'*ir>iic! (a-run-di-na^shus) a. pertain- 
dl UilUilid«^CUU&> iijg to, or resembling, a reed. 

arundineous, arundinose 2us?a-run- 

di-nos) a. [L. arundo, reed] abounding in reeds. 

arn<5np-5r arii<5nirp (a-rus-peks,-pis)7i.[L.] 

di uo^^CA., di uopn.-c a divmer by aruspicy. 

ariicr>iot7' (a-rus-pi-si) ?(.. divination by inspection 

di uapn^y of the entrails of victims. 

Arrzan (^i^i-?'°> a^ri-an) a. [Skr.] Indo-European;— 

■**•* J **** n. an Indo-European. 

Pfrrf pnfxirl (ar-i-tc-noid) a. [G. arutaina, cup, 

di y LKZiiKJiKl and eidos, form] applied to two 

laryngeal cartilages and their connected parts. 

»j o (az) adv. [fr. also] like ; similar to ; for example ; 

**" of the same kind with ; in the manner in which ; 

while ; — conj. since ; because 'f—pron. that. 

jjo (as) n.; ]d. asaes (as^z) [L.] a Koman weight of 

**^ 12 oz. ; a Koman copper coin. 

aca (^3^^) ^- [P^T- aza, mastic] a resinous gum. 

dod Asadulcis (as-a-dul-sis), benzoin. 

asafetida, asafoetida fr^'dltt^'Pa 

and L. foeti&iis'] a fetid, inspissated sap froni the East 
Indies, much used in medicine. 

Fat^ f&r, ^do ; me, bgr ; mine ; note ; tune ; moon. 




scoraKsr^r^s (as-u-ra-bak^) n. [L. asarum, 
dactl ctuctui^ct hazel-wort, aud bacca, berry] the 
hazel-wort (Asarum Europctum). 
ocofifi (as^-rin) n. a substance like camphor, 
ctodX m obtained from ^sarttm £uropintm. 
acVif^ci-in (as-bes^tik) a. pertaining to, or of the 
ctaucoLiv^ nature of, asbestos. 
pcKpcf ifnrtn (a3-bes^ti-form)a. having the form 
cto ucoLXiUiiii OP appearance of asbestos. 
a «;V>F»<sf in f (as-be*-tm) a. pertaining to asbestos ; 
doucoLiiic; joatie of, or like, asbestos; incom- 

ooKckofrkirl (as-bes^toid) a. resembling asbestos; 
dbUebtOlU of the form of asbestos. 
oohf^cfnc (as-bes^tcs) n. [G.] a fibrous variety of 
ctsucoLua hornblende, incombustible. 
a*?llolitP (as-bo-lit) n. [G. asbole, soot] eajrthy 

Acr^ariH^ac (as-kar'-i-dez) [G.] the intestinal 
r^bl^aiiUCa thread-worms. 
ocpfkfif] (?i-send') v.t. [ll ad and scandere, climb] 
ctav.,diu to move upward upon ; to climb ; to 
mount •—!'./. to move upward ; to mount ; to go back in 
time ; [Mus.] to rise in pitch. 

ascendable ^^^e'nS^^^ "" "'^*^'' "* ^'"^ 
ascendancy, ascendency st^dS^so 

n. superior or controUing influence. 

ascendant, ascendent liVn^^'att 

the horizon ; predominant ; surpassing ;— n. slope ; an 
ancestor ; ascendancy ; the part of the ecliptic on the 
eastern horizon at any particular moment. House of 
the ascendant, the part of the zodiac Ix-tween 5* above 
and 25° below the horizon. Lord of the ascendant, the 
planet that rules the ascendant. To be in the ascendant, 
to have commanding influence. 

n^PPtl^intl (^-''(iu^liun) )6. the act of ascending; 
ctoUCiloiuii thg vjgihle going up of our Saviour to 
heaven. Ascension-day, the ilu\ on which f)ur Saviour's 
ascension is conmiemoratcd. Oblique ascension (of a 
stiir), an arc of the equator lK.'tweeu the first point of 
Aries and that nomt of the eiiuaior which rises at the 
same instant as the star. Right ascension, distance east 
of the first point of Aries, measured on the celestial equator. 
ac/'P'ncinnnI (a-seu^shun-al)a. of, pcrtainmg, or 


relating to, ascension. 

(^-sen-siv) a. rising ; causing to rise ; 

intensive; augmentative. 
flSPP'tlf ('.i-sent') n. the act of rising; a mounting 
a.o<.,di L upward ; the way by wliich one ascends ; an 
eminence ; advancement. 

aQr^*^rfnin (as-er-tan) v.t. [L. ad and certv^ sure] 
dov^ci tctiii toniake certiiin ; to find out. 
ocr>«krfoinoKlA (as-er-tu-n^-bl) a. capable of 
dSCCl LctlllctUlC being ascertained. 
SQr'^rf ainm ^nf (as-er-tan-ment)n. a making 
cio» LctilixiiCilL or gaining certainty. 
ocppfip (iji-seWk) a. [G. fr. askein, exercise] rigor- 
cxov^^LXV^ ouslv self-denying; of, or relating to, 
ascetics ;— 71. one that practises rigorous self-denial. 
a^PPf ipiQm (^-set^i-sizm) w. the life or practice of 
ci,av,^tx\.,xoxxx ascetics ; mortification of the body. 

aSCi (as^i) n., 1)1. of ascus. 

oopiari (as^i-?iu) n. [G. a and skia, shadow] one 
dov^xctxx that casts no shadow at noon. 
fl^piflifln (9-sid-i-^n) a. \(x.axkidion, dim. of askos, 
cxouxuxdxx wine-skin] belonging to the Ascidia, or 
sea-squirts ; — n. a sea-squirt. 

a c r' i H i fV-\r m (i> - sid - i - form) a. bottle - shaped ; 
cl£3(.,lUlIUriIl sTiaped like an aseidian. 
?mpiHilim (*-sid-i-um) ?*. • j)l. ascidia (a-sld-l-gi) a 
dov^xuxuxxx pitcher-shaped organ or appendage. 
3^pif>*f*rni1^ (4-siJHi-rus) a. [N.L. ascus, bottle, 
**'^v,*&v.x uuo ami L. gerere, bear] bearing asci. 
Qcr*if<ac (a-sl-tez) ?i. [G. askites, a kind of dropsy] 
dsv^xLca dropsy of the belly. 

ascitic, ascitical ^Ses';-^*'^ "• "^'^""^ 

aSCititioUS (asl-tish-us) «. see adscititlous. 

a^PIPr»iar1 (as-kle-pi-ad) n. a kind of verse in- 
doux^l^idu vented by Asclepiades, a Greek poet 
(it contains a spondee, two or tliree choriambs, and an 

iambus) ; [Bot.] a plant of the order Asclepiadaceaa ; one 
of an order of Greek phjsicians, priests of Asclepius 
(Aesculapius), god of medicine. 

asclepiadean, asclepiadic p^^^di 

an, as-kle-pi-ad-ik) a. of, or pertaining to, asclepiada. 
a«5rnfmnillTn (as-ko-go^ni-um) n. [G. askos, 
doui^^vjxxiuxxi i^g j^nd gonos, race] the organ 
in which the asci are developed. 

3*\Pnc:r>OrP (as^kS-spOr) ?;. [G. sparos, seed] a 
dOV..Uop(^x c spore produced in an ascus. 
a-SCribS-blP (*s-kn-bai-bl) a. capable of being 

ocpt*iHp (as-krlb) v.t. [L. ad and tcribere, write] 
do^x xuc to attribute to ; to impute ; to assign, 
a crrir^f inn (as-krip^hun) n. the act of ascribing; 
abCripUOn the thing ascribed. 
Qc^rir\f if f/^iics (as-krip-tish-us) a. bound to the 
dbCripUtlOUb soil . enrolled. 
aonic (as^kus) n.; pi. a8Ci(as-i) [G. asko&, bladder] 
dsv^uo a spore-case LBot.]. 

ac*»ifv (a-se-i-ti) n. [L. a, ah, and ae, oneself] 
ca.o^xi.jr independent existence. 
a.SPmia. (^-s^-™'-*) »• [G. a&nAsema, sign] inability 
(xo^ixxxd. to form or understand any sign or symbol. 
oopt-kfip (a-sep-tik) a. [G. aseptos. not liable to 
do^l^Lxv^ decay] not liable to putrefaction. 
asexual (^^-sek-su-^) a. without sex ; produced by 
a.i9^A,uax other than sexual processes. 
Q qVi (ash) n. [A.S. rpscl a genus of forest trees ; the 
cxoxx wood of the ash-tree i -a. pertaining to the ash ; 
made of ash. AsJh-fiy, the oak-fly. Ash-key, the samara 
of the ash-tree. 

ocVi (ash) n. [A.S. asce] the earthy or mineral par- 
""** tides renvaining after combustion ; fine matter 
ejected from volcanoes; the remains of a dead body; 
(usually, pi.). Ash-fire, a slow fire used in chemical opera- 
tions, etc. Ash-hole, a place for aslies ; the lower part 
of a furnace ; an asli-bin. Ash-pan, a pan for ashes 
l)eneath a grate. Ash-pit, a place for ashes, etc. Ash- 
Wednesday, the first day of Lent (so called from the 
sprinkling of ashes on the heads of V)enitentsX 
pcVi'ttTlpH (^'Sii^iud') a. afiected by shame ; con- 
doxxdxxxcu fused by a consciousness of wrong. 
o c Vi on (^h^n) a. made of ash-wood ; of the colour 
dStUCti of ashes ; ashy. 

a <5V»Prv (ash-e-ri) n. aplace for ashes ; aplace where 
doiicx y potash is made. 

a«iVllar rj<5ll1pr (ash'-l^r, -ler) «. [O.F. fr. L. 
daxxidi, doxxxcx q^./^^ board] freestones as 
they come from the quarry ; hewn stones for facing. 

ashlaring, ashlering gngS^pi^hT 

pieces to which laths are nailed in garrets; ashlar masonry, 

ing) n. upright 
shlar masonry. 

aQVir^rP (a-shor) ad». on, or to, shore; on land, 

doxxux c opposed to aboard. 

ocViv (*s^') <*• o^ ^^ pertaining to, ashes; strewn 

o.^'-'-j mth ashes ; ash-coloured ; like ashes. 

A c i n n (a^h^) a. pertaining to Asia ; of, or belong- 

nsxdll ing to, Asia. 

acjiarpVl (a^hi-ark) n. [Asia aud G. urchein, rule] 

doxdx K,ix the president of the religious rites and 

public games in the Eoman province of Asia. 

Aoiofir' (a-shi-at^^ik) a. belonging to Asia; — n. a 

AbiatlC native of Asia. 

A<?tflfipi^m (a-shi-at^i-sizm) n. imitation, or 

x^oxdLXUXOXXX somethingeharacteristie, of Asiatics. 

o c 1 H P (?^-sTd') n. something said or done aside ^—adv. 

doxuc on or to one side ; out of the way ; apart. 

a^NlHpritP (a-sid'-e-nt) n. [G. a and stderos, iron] 

doxucx X LC a meteorite containing no iron. 

ocifiinP (as^i-nm) a. [!->. asinus] belonging to, or 

doxxxxxxc ])aving the qualities of, an ass. 

ocffio (a-sit^i-g., a-sisli-ya) n. [G. asitia fr. a and 

doxLXd gjYoa, food] loss of appetite. 

pctr (ask) v.t. [A.S. dscian] to seek to obtain by 

doiV words ; to petition ; — v.i. to request ; to inquire. 

aolranoffk act-orif (a-skans', a-skant') adv. 

dbiS.dliV„C, dbJVdllL [It. scam^re, go aside] 

obliquely ; toward one corner of the eye. 

Qotpr act" (as^ker, ask)n. [A.S. a</i,fte€]awater- ^^^V 
ddlS-CX, d&K. ne^t". an eft. v' 

polrp'w (?t-sku') adv. [sArew] sideways: askant; with 
dOivv:; w a wry or a contemptuous look. 
oclorif (a-slant) adv. in a slanting manner; ob- 
doxdxxL Uquely .—prtfp. across ; athwart 

Fate, far, ^o ; me, hgr ; mine ; note ; tiine ; moon. 




aspect a: 

oolppD (a-slcp')ac?v.ora. in, or into, a state of sleep ; 

aoiccp dormant ; inactive ; benumbed ; dead. 

oclnnP (a-sl6p') a. sloping; oblique ;—a(i2;. with a 

ctoiupc slope or descent ; m a sloping position. 

aSmear (?i-smer') «. smeared over ; bedaubed. 

ocnm^'fnilQ (si-so-ma-tus) a. [G. a and soma, 
ctouiiicttuus s'oraatoSy body) incorporeal. 
po/^f-iio (a-s6^ni-a) n. [G. a, negative, and L. sonus, 
aouxiid, sound] tone-deafness. 
o o^n (asp) n. [G. aspis] a small, hooded, poisonous 
"•^P serpent. Also aspic, aspick. 

asparagin, asparagine 

(g,s-par^9,-jin) n. a crystalline substance 
(C4H8N2O3) found in asparagus, etc. 

asparaginous SP^a.'%i 

taining to, or resembling, asparagus. 
Qcr^Qfoo-iics (as-par-a-gus) n. [G .] . 

dbpcirdgUb a culinary plant cul- -*^*p- 

tivated in gardens (its tender, succulent shoots are eaten). 
fl^narfaff* (as-par-tat) n. a salt of aspartic acid, 
ctopcti LctLC o"btained from asparagine. 
ocnarfip (as-par-tik) a. pertaming to, or obtained 
ctopcti wiu from, asparagine. 

(as-pekt) n. [L. fr. ad and specere, to look] 
look ; mien ; appearance ; position or situa- 
tion ; the position of one planet with respect to another. 
fl^n a^nPtl ^^^P' ^.s-pen) n. [E.] a species of 
ctop) ctopcxi poplar, Populus tremula. 
acr\P11 (^s-pen) a. pertaining to the trembling 
ao^c^ii poplar; shaking; tremulous. 
perjfif (as-per) n. [L., rough] the rough breathing 
a,opc;i (<)^ a sign of aspiration in Greek grammar. 
3.^'nPt'fl ff* (as-pe-rat) v.t. [L. aspero, pp. asperatus, 
a.o^c.1 ciLC make rough] to make harsn or uneven. 
acr^/amf ir»n (as-pe-ra^shun) n. the act, or result, 
ct&pCldUUll of asperating. 

aspergilliform £PTSa™^ " ''"''^- 

Pc:nPr0'illllQ (as-per-jil-us) n. [L. aspergere, 
c\.i3^^i gj.iiuo sprinkle] the brush used to sprinkle 
holy-water on the congregation. 

asperifoliate, asperifolious ISI: 

at, -us) a. having rough leaves. 

aSOeritv (^s-per-l-tl) n. [L. asper, rough] roughness 
r'^**^^ of surface, taste, or sound: harshness of 
spirit and language ; rigour ; bleakness ; diflSculty. 

aspermous ^3tSteof?eeds^"' ^^^^""' 

fl cmprQ** (as-pers') v.t. [L. ad and spargere, sprinkle] 
ctopciac to slander; to vilify; to besprintle. 
3«inpr«Sf*r (as-per'-ser) n. one that asperses or 
ctopcx oci slanders: an aspergillus. 
aSOersion (as-per^shun) n. a sprinkling; false 
Mw^^v^j. oAv/xx reports or charges ; calumny. 

aspersive, aspersory t^^Sk^^ 

aSOer'=!Ori 11 m (as-per-so-ri-um) n. [L. aspergere, 
•n " ^ ; , , "PP- aspersus, sprinkle] the asper- 
gillus ; a font for holy -water. 

aSOhalt ^^^'-t^^^> as-falf) n. [G.] hard bitumen; a bit- 
" uminous composition used for pavements. 

asphaltic, asphaltite SS^h^ " 
aspheterism SSe^-ja o^njSed^octS 

that private ownership of property is unjust. 
aSOhodel (as-fo-deO n. (G.] any plant of the 
r u-*^ 7 . 8,^""^ Asphodelus; the mythical flower 
of Hades ; the king s-spear. 

asphyxia, asphvxv (asfikisi-a,-si)ri.[G.] 

.. f •', ' w.^j-»xijAjf suspended anima- 

tion trom the nonconversion of venous into arterial blood. 
aSDnVXi;)! (as-fik'-si-al) a. relating to asphyxia; 
a.^^iijrAicti resulting from asphyxia. 
aSDnVXiani" (as-fik^si-ant) n. a substance that 
a,^i^iijr Aictii L causes asphyxia. 

aSOnVXiate (as-fik-sl-at) v.t. to produce 

^"-y Aictuc asphyxia in ; to sufi-ocate. 
aSpnyXiator l^u';?u"^i'A",*"'"^-'^; one who, orthat 

which, asphyxiates ; an apparatus 
>^x ^^u...eui'5"iiiB lire uy means of carbon dioxide ; an appa- 
ratus for testmg drain-pipes by forcing smoke into them. 

ocr\ip (as-pik) n. [G. aspis] the asp; a piece of 

clopil.^ ordnance ; a jelly containing meat, eggs, 

fish, etc.; [L. spica, spike] the great lavender [Bot.]. 

aQt^iranf (as-plr-ant) a. aspiring; ambitious ;—n. 

ctopiidllt one that aspires. 

ocDtrpff^ (as-pi-rat) v.t. to pronounce with a 

ctojJiXdLC breathing or full emission of breath ; to 

add an h sound to ; to remove a fluid from ;— n.. a letter 

marked with a note of breathing ; a mark of aspiration ; 

—a. pronounced with a rough breathing. 

a Qriirpfintl (as-pi-raAshun) n. the act of aspiring 

cto|Jiicluiuii or aspirating; an aspirated sound; 

strong wish for what is noble and spiritual. 

aQr>irafnrv (as-plr-a-tur-i) a. pertaining to 

aopxi tXLKJL y aspiration or breathing. 

a^nirf (as-pI/) v.i. [L. ad and spirare, breathe] to 

dopii c desire with eagerness ; to pant ; to ascend. 

3^nirPr (s-s-plr^er) n. one that aspires or longs to 

ctopii Ci reach ; an aspirant. 

?l«5nirinP'1v (as-plr-ing-li) adv. in an aspiring 

ao^^ii iiigijr manner; ambitiously. 

aoorkt-r»ncs (a-spo^rus) a. [G. a and svoros, seed] 

d&pUlUU;^ without spores. 

ocnnrf afion (as-por-taAshun) n. [L. abs and 

ctopv^i tcLLiViii portare, carry] a carrying ofi"; 

[Law] the felonious displacement of goods. \ ^ 

fl^nilini"- (?^-skwint') adv. or a. to the corner of the : • 

ctot^uiiiL eye ; obliquely ; furtively ; oblique. 

OQQ (as) n. [A.S. assa] a quadruped of the horse r»^ 

**'^'^ family ; a dolt. Asses' bridge, Euclid, I. 5. 

aSSafetida n. see asafetlda. 

aQQacrai 3QC!<io*ai (as-a-gi, -e-gl) n. [A.] a 
daddgdij dascgdi slender iron-tipped lance 
of hard wood •,—v.t. to kill or wound with an assagai. 
occai (as-saAi) adv. [It., very, enough, fr. L. ad and 
ctoodi satis,_ enough] very [Mus.]. 
o ceo i1 (a-sal') v.t. [L. ad and satire, leap] to fall on; 
ctoodxi toattack; to ply with arguments, motives, etc. 
accailaHl*^ (a-sal-a-bl) a. capable of being 
ctoactxxctuxc:; assailed ; open to attack. 
a^^ailanf (a-sal-ant) a. assailing ; invading with 
ctooctxxctxxu violence ;— «. one that assails. 

aSSapan, aSSapaniC the nadve name S 
the American flying squirrel. 

occat*f (a-sarf) v.<. [L. ex and saWre, hoe] to grub 
ctooctx t yp trees and bushes;— %. the act of assarting. 
aCQaQcin (a-sas-in) n. [A. fr. hashish, a madden- 
ctaactasxxx j^g (jr^gj one that kills, or attempts to 
kill, by secret assault. 

acQaccinaf*^ (a-sas-i-nat) v.t. to murder by secret 
cxooctsaxxxctLc; assault or by sudden violence. 
accaccinaf ir»n (a-sas-i-naAshun) n. the act 
daaddOixxdtxuxx of assassinating. 
accaccinafnr (a-sas-i-na-tur) n. an assassin; 
ctoactaaxxxdLUX o^ie that assassinates. 
a^^ailll" (?'-sawlt') n. [assail] a violent attack 
ctooduxt ^jtii physical means, as blows, weapons, 
etc.; an attack with arguments, appeals, etc.;~v.t. to 
attack with physical violence; to attack with moral means, 
or with a view to producing moral efiects. Assault of, 
or at, arms, an exhibition of military exercises. 
aSSaultablp (a-sawl-ta-bl) a. capable of being 


a^^aillfpr (?i-sawl-ter) n. one that attacks with 
dooduxucx violence ; an assailant. 
occav (^'■sa') n. [G. eocagion, a weight] trial; 
doody examination ; determination of the quantity 
of metal in ores, coin, bullion, etc.; the substance to be 
assayed; — v.t. to test; to determine the amount of metal 
in \— v.i. to attempt or endeavour. Assay-balance, a 
delicate balance used by assayers. Assay-furnace, a 
furnace used in assaying. Assay-master, an officer 
appointed to assay bullion and coin. 
occavPr (a-suAer), n. one that assays metals; an 
doodycx officer of the mint who assays bullion 
and coin. _ * 

a QQa vi t1 P" (O'-sa^ing) '>^- the act of determining the 
doodjr 1II& quantity of any metal in a compound. 
a cCf^mHI a 0"P» (a-sem-blaj) n. the act of assem- 
daacxxxuxdgc: bling; state of being assembled ; 
a collection of individuals or things. 
oQopmh1p> (a-sem-bl) v.t. [L. ad and simul, to- 
dooc:ixx uxc gether] to bring or call together \—v.i. 
to meet or come together ; to convene. 

Fate, f^, g,do ; me, h§r ; mine ; note ; tune ; moon. 


assembly 55 

M — 

aecfifnhlv (?^-sem-bli) n. a company collected 
a.oo^iiii^ijr jjj Qjjg place, and usually for some 
common purpose ; [Mil.] the second beating of the drum 
before a march. Assembly-room, a room for balls, etc. 
General Assembly, the supreme court in some Presby- 
terian churches. 

o ccprif (a-senf) v.i. [L. ad and sentire, to feel] to 
0.00^11 b admit a thing as true; to express agree- 
ment ; — n. the act of assentnig, admitting, or agreeing to 
anything. Royal assent, the assent of the sovereign to 
bills passed by parliament. 

accianfafirkn (as-en-taAshun) n. the act of assent- 
ctOdClltcttlUli jng. servile assent. 
occpnfpr (a-sen-ter) w. one that assents, concurs, 
(xoo^iit^i or acquiesces. 

3^c;pnfiptlf (a-sen^hent) a. assenting; giving 
aoociiLi^iii, assent ;— n. one that assents. 
a<;c;PnfivP (a-sen-tiv) a. giving assent; inclined 
0,00 V..11 ui V t Qp disposed to assent. 
Qccpff (a-serf) v.t. [L. asserere, pp. assertus, 
doov^i I. JQJjj jq) jq affirm positively ;— to maintain or 
defend by words or measures ; to vindicate a claim. 
oQoprfinn (a-ser-shun) n. the act of asserting; 
ciooc:;! Liv^ii affirmation ; vindication. 
accpirf ifT-pk (a-ser-tiv) a. positive; dogmatic; 
daaciLlVC affirming confidently. 
aGQP»rf iTr^irKacc! (a-ser'-tiv-nes) n. the quality 
d&tsCl LI VCUCbb of being assertive. 
a QQf^rf nr (a-ser-tur) n. an affiriner ; a maintainer ; 
0,00^1 i,v-»i a champion ; a defender. 
occpcc (?i-ses') v.t. [L. assidere, pp. assessus, sit 
dooc^oo ijy] to charge a certain sum as a tax ; to 
fix the value of property or income, for the purpose of 
being taxed ; to estimate. 

aCQf^QcaKI^ (a-ses^a-bl) a. that may be assessed ; 
ctaacoactuic i,abie to be assesseti. 

aSSeSSablv (^''S^s-^-bli) "^^- ^y means of an 

J assessment. 
a«!Q*^QcmAnf (a-ses-ment) n. act of assessing; 
cxos^aoiiicilL valuation for the purpose of 
taxation ; the specific sum charged ; fixing the amount 
of damages by a jury. 

a cqpqcnr ('i'-ses-ur) n. one that sits by another, as 
doocoov^i jjgjjt jjj dignity or as an adviser ; one 
appointed to assess ; in Scotland, an elected member of 
a university court. 

Qccpocnrifll (as-e-s6-ri-?il) a pertaining to 
exoo^oov^i i.€xx assessors, or a court of assessors. 
Qccpf q (as^ts) n.pL [L. ad and satis, enough] 
0,00^ Lo property in possession or due, as opposed to 
liabilities ; the efl'ects of an insolvent. 
a QQPVPra f P (a-sev^r-at) v.t. [L. ad and severus, 
aoo^ V v^x ciLc; severe] to affirm with solemnity. 
acc*»i7'<araf ir>ri (a-sev-e-ra-shun) n. positive 

. . affirmation; solemn averment. 

acsQiKilaf*! (a-sib-i-lat) v.t. [L. ad and sibilare, 
ctaaiUUdLC whisper] to make sibilant. 
a.SSidpnt" (a8^i-dent)a. FL. assidere, ppr. assidens, 

* ^ _ '' -entiSj sit by] accompanying. 
a.SSidlli1"V (as-i-du-i-tl) n. close application or 

* "**'J' attention ;— pi. constant attention. 
a.SSidlinim (a-sid-u-us) a. [L. ad and sedere, sit] 
cLooiviuv^uo constant in application or attention. 

assiduously S:Llfy;\-t^e"Ser- '"''""' = 

aCQiHiirkiicriAcc (a - sid - u - us - nes) n. the 
ctOOlU UU UailC5>S5 quality of being assiduous. 
a^qiPnfrk (as-i-en-to) n. [Sp.l a contract formerly 
c»,o o 1 <^ 1 1 L v^ made by Spain with other powers for the 
supply of slaves t« its American possessions. 
agcip"n (a-sin') v.t. [L. ad and signum, mark] to 
a,ooigii appoint; to apportion; to make over to 
another ; to attribute ; to specify ; — n. a person to whom 
property or an interest is transferred. 
ac!cio"naK1«i (a-sT-na-bl) a. capable of being 
^ a&>&>lgIlciUlC assigned. 

flqcjicrnaf (as^ig-nat, a-se-nya') n. paper money 
aooxgiictt^ issued in France (1789-1796.) 
aSSicna-f ion (as-ig-nais]iun)ri. theactof assign- 
ci.ooigixci.tiv./ii ing; an appointment of time and 
place— used chiefly of love meetings ; attribution of origin ; 
[Law] an assignment, or the deed by which it is made. 
a^^ipTlPP (as-i-ne') w. one to whom something is 
aooigixc^c assigned. Assignees in bankruptcy, 
persons to whom a bankrupt's estate is assigned in the 
interest of his creditors. 


a^^ip"f1tnPtlf (a-sin-ment) n. an allotting to a 
aooig 11111^11 L particular person or use; a transfer 
of title or interest ; the writing by which an interest is 
transferred ; the transfer of the property of a bankrupt. 
Assignment in bankruptcy, assignment of a bank- 
rupt's property in trust for his creditors. 
a G^ipTinr (as-i-nor') n. one that makes an assign- 
aooxgiitji jnent, or assigns an interest. 
a<5c:imilaHi1ifv (a-sim-i-la-bilii-ti) n. the 
clS>S>iXililclUill ty quality of being assimilable. 
aqqitnilaf P (^■■sim-i-lat) v.t. [L. ad and similis, 
ctooxxxxxxciLC liije] to cause to resemble ; to convert 
into a like substance •,—v.i. to become similar ; to be 
converted into the substance of the body. 
accimilafirkn (a-sim-i-la^shun) n. act of assim- 
daaililllclLlUll jfating, or of being assimilated; 
conversion of nutriment by an organism. 
aqqitnilaf ivp (a-sim-i-la-tiv) a. capable of 
aooxxxxxicxLxv^ assimilating; tending to assim- 
ilate ; producing assimilation. 

accimilaf nrrr (a-sim-i-la-tur-i) a. tending to 
ctsSillXlictLUiy assimilate; assimilative. 
gociqf (a-sisf) v.t. [L. ad and sistere, stand] to give 
0.00X0 L support to: to succour; — v.i. to lend aid; 
to be present ; to attend. 

acQicfanr*** (a-sis^t?ins) n. help; aid; further- 
ctas>iaLctllV,C ance ; succour ; relief. 
a^qiqfanf (a-sis^tant) a. helping; lending aid or 
aooxoLaxxL support ;— n. one that assists. 
acqi^p (a-siz') n. [O.F. fr. L. assidere, sit by] a 
doox^c sitting; an order or regulation; a statute 
regulating weights, measures, or prices; the weight, 
measure, or price so regulated; the periodical sessions of i t*/--*^ 
the superior courts in England ; time or place of holding / 
thecourt;— v.i.tofix weight,measure,orprice, by authority, 
a cci 5r<am«»nf (a-slz^ment)n. inspection of weights 
ctddi^CiXlCllL and measures. 
Q qoi 7pr (a-sl-zer) n. one that valued, as weights and 
cxoox^^x measures ; in Scotland, a juryman. 

associability, associableness 

(?i-so-8h?i-bil-i-ti, a-s6^ha-bl-nes) n. associable quality. 
accr»/'iaKl*a (a-s6^ha-bl) a. capable of being 
dSSUUlcLUlC joined ; companionable ; [Path.] 
liable to be afiected by sympathy. 
a^^npiatf* (a-so^hi-at) v.t. [L. ad and sociut, 
a.oo\JK,ia,i.^ companion] to join as a friend, part- 
ner, or confederate ; to unite m the same mass ; — v.i. to 
unite in company ; to keep company ; — a. closely con- 
nected with, as m interest, purpose, or office ; [Path.] 
connected by habit or sympathy ;— 7i. a companion ; an 
ally ; a partner ; a member of an association or mstitution. 

associateship !,TSis5ci2?^"-**''^°'''"''° 

a QCinPiaf inn (a-so-shi-aAshun) n. act of associat- 
CXOOV./UXCI.I.XWXX jng^ or state of being associated; 
connection ; union of persons for some particular purpose. 
Association of ideas, the cohesion of actions, sensations, 
and states of feeling, occurring tegether or m close suc- 
cession, so as to cohere in such a way that when any of 
them is afterwards presented to the mind, the others are 
apt to be brought up in idea. 

associational Srfto aSSi"- "'^"- 

a ^^OPia.f ivf* (a-so^lil-a-tiv) a. capable of associ- 
fxoov./v^xca.i.x V t ating ; characterizedby association. 
aqqoil (?-soil') '^■t. [O.F. fr. L. absolvere] to release 
aoo\.rxx or set free. Scot, assoilzie (a-soil-ye). 
aqqnnanPP (as^)-nans)«.resemblance of sounds; 
a.ooiM>xxa,xxv,c; a verse effect consisting in the 
repetition of the same accented vowel sound with de- 
ferent consonants ; agreement. 

acqrkfiani" (as^-nant) a. [L. assonare, ppr. asso- 
a,oov.rxxci,xx 1/ nans, -antis, sound] having a resem- 
blance of sounds ; characterized by assonance. 
oqq/-v4*4- (a-sorf) v.t. [L. ad and sors, sortis, lot] to 
ctoov^x L separate and distribute into classes ; to fur- 
nish with all sorts •,—v.i. to suit ; to harmonize. 
accrkt"fm*»nf (a-sort^ment) n. act of assorting; 
dOOUi LXllCXlU a number of things assorted. 
aQCsnao*** (a-swaj') v.t. [L ad and suavis, sweet] 
dooudgc to soften ; to allay \—v.i. to abate. 
aQQlia 0"P>m*anf (a-swaj-inent)n.act of assuaging; 
ctooudgcxxxcXXU abatement; mitigation. 
3.S^Ua.P"Pr (^'■swaijer) n. one who, or that which, 
dg c X assuages or allays. 

F&te, f Ar, ^o ; me, her ; mine ; note ; tiine ; moon. 





a^^llfl^ivP (a-swa^iv) a. mitigating; softening; 
ctooUctoiVC easing; tranquillizing; soothing. 
occiiAfiiriA (as-we-tud) n. [L. ] custom ; habit ; 
aSSUeiUae haWtualuse. 

«]cciitnP (a-8um') v.t. [L. ad and suviere, take] to 
J^lk*'^ ctoouiiic take, or take upon one's self ; to take for 
^ granted, or without proof ; to pretend to ; — v.i. to be ar- 

rogant ; to claim unduly _; [Law] to give an undertaking. 
aQQlimpHlv (a-su-med-li) adv. as may be as- 
a,oouiiicu.iy sumed or taken for granted. 
fl^^nminO' te-su-ming) a. taking, or disposed to 
ctsouiiiilig take, upon one's self more than is just; 
arrogant ; — n. presumption. 

a^^lltnn^if (a-sum-sit) n. [L., he undertook] an 
ctooUiiipoit o'bligation not under seal ; an action 
to enforce such an obligation. 

acciimrif ir»n (a-sum^hun) n. act of taking to, or 
cta:»uiixptxuii upon, one's self ; act of taking for 
granted ; supposition ; the thing supposed ; the minor 
proposition in a syllogism ; a taking up into heaven ; 
a festival in honour of the ascent of the Virjgin (Aug. 15). 
a^QlimnfivP (a-sum-tiv) a. that is or may be 
ctoo Uiiip Li V c assumed ; marked by assumption. 
Qooiimr\fiTr<alTr (a-sum'-tiv-li) adv. in an as- 
ciaa Uliipuvciy sumptive manner. 
flQQlirahlp (a-shoor'-a-bl) a. capable of being as- 
0,00 ui duic sured ; suitable for assurance. 
flQQIiranPP (a-shoor'-ans) n. act of assuring; the 
ctoo ui ctixuc state of being assured ; freedom from 
doubt ; firmness of mind ; intrepidity ; impudence ; a con- 
tract for the payment of a sum on a person's death, etc. ; 
legal evidence of the conveyance of property. 
Q CC11 rP" (^i-shoor') v.t. [L. ad and sccurus, secure] to 
0,00 ui c make sure or certain ; to render confident ; 
to confirm ; to covenant to indemnify for loss ; to insure. 
a^^lirpH (^t-shoord') a. certain; confident; pre- 
0,00 Uicu sumptuous; insured. 
acciir*aHlTr (a-shoor^d-li) oo^v. certainly ; without 
d&aulCUiy (Joubt; confidently; impudently. 
a QQ11 rf*H n f*QQ (^-sh66r^ed-nes) n. state of being 
ooouicuiicoo assured; certainty; confidence, 
(a-shoor^r) n. one that assures ; one that 


takes out a policy of insurance. 

occiiro*pnf (a-sur'-jent) a. [L. assurgere, rise up] 
0,00 ui gc;xiL rising ; [Bot.] rising in a curve. 
3^mirit1£>"lv («>sh66i-'-ing-li) adv. in an assuring 
0,00 Ui iiigijr manner ; so as to give confidence. 
A^^vrisn (§^-sii^i-an) a. of, pertaining to, or 
x^ooj^ 1 10.11 characteristic of, Assyria or its people ; 
— n. a native, or the language, of Assyria. 
AccT/rirklrkcricf (a-sir-i-ol'-o-jist) n. one skilled 
n&byriUlUglbL in Assvriology. 
Acc\7-rirklr»cr\r (a-sir-i-ol-6-ji) n. that branch of 
X\aayilUlUgy learning which deals with the 
history, language, etc., of Assyria. 
a of a fir' (as-tat^ik) a. [G.] having no tendency to 
0,01,0.1,1V. take a fixed position [Physics]. 
acfAicm (as-te-izm) n. [G. fr. astu, city] polite 
dbCClbm irony [Ehet.]. 

Acfpf (as-ter) n. [G., star] a genus of plants with 
•* ^"^ i-^*^ radiated compound flowers. 
oc«fpf ja (as-te-ri-a) n. [G. aster, star] a variety of 
0,01,^110, sapphire, showing a star-like opalescence 
in the direction of the vertical axis when cut round. 
acjfprialif^a (as-te^ri-a-llt) n. [G. aster, star, and 
0,0 tci lailtc litiiog^ gtone] a fossil star-fish. 
a^tPri^W (as-te-risk) n. [G.] the mark (*) in print- 
no^v^AioA. jjjg and writing; something resembling 
an asterisk ;—v.t. to mark with an asterisk. 
a«:f<*ri«!m (as^te-rizm) n. [G.] a small cluster of 
0,0 bv^i 10x11 stars; three asterisks (\*) to direct 
attention to a particular passage. 

a^itprn (*-st§rn') adv. in, at. or toward, the hinder 
0,0 w\-* 1*^ part of a ship ; behind a ship, at any distance. 
acifprniH (as^te-roid) a. [G. aster, star, and eidos, 
r" t , ^o'"™] star-hke : star-shaped ;-n. one of 
the small planets between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter. 
9 «:f Prni Hal (as-te-roi^al) a. star-like ; pertaining 
0,0 tCX UXUctX to the asteroids, or to the star-fishes. 
A<?fprniHpa (as-te-roi-de-a) an order of 
X1.0LCX UXUCcl echinoderms, the star-fishes. 
A«:fprn1pni«i (as-te-rol^pls, as-ter-o-lep-is) n. 
X^OLCX UXCpxa [■(._ igpi^^ g^jajej a huge fossil fish. 

A<?i"Pmnhvl1ifp (a8-ter-6-filiIt)n. [G.pJmllon, 
n& LCI Upiiy lllte leaf, and lithos, stone] a fossil 
plant, with whorled leaves, from the coal measures. 

asthenia, asthenyStt?n"&V.]dlb& 

ocfViptlip (as-then-ik) a. [G. a and sthenos, 

0,0 Lxxcxxx^ strength] characterized by debility. 

acf VionrklrkCTTr (as-the-nol'-o-ji) n. [G. asthenes, 

ctaLllCXXUXUgy ^gak, and logos, discourse] the 

study of diseases connected with debility. 

ocf f-i Annnia (as-the-no^pti-a) n. [G. ops, opos, 

0.0 Lxxcxxupxo, gyg] ^eak vision from fatigue of the 

eye muscles. 

jj~i.l^^_j, (ast-ma, as-ma, asth-ma) [G.] a chronic 

OOLXXXXXO, disorder of respiration. 

asthmatic, asthmatical i^st'-mat^'ik" 

-i-kal) a. pertaining to, or affected by, asthma. 
acfiornaficm (a-stig-ma-tizra) n. [G. a and 
ooLXgixxctLXOXXX utiffma, -matos, point] a defect 
in the eye, or in a lens, such that rays of light converge, 
not in a point, but in a line. 

acfir (a-ster) adv. or a. stirring; active; Uvely; 
0,0 Lxx nimble; alert. 

astomatus, astomous Kr)- a"'[S 

without a mouth [Zool.] : without breathing pores [Bot.]. 
ocfofli^V) (as-ton-ish) v.t. [A.S. a and stunian, 
o,ot^xxxoxi trash] to amaze ; to confound. 
aofz-kriioViincr (as-ton-ish-ing) a. amazing ; mar- 
dbLOIllblllllg vellous; wonderful. 
acfr\nicVim*inf (as-ton-ish-ment) n. confusion 
oatUXXXOXXXXXCXXL of mind from fear or surprise, 
o of rki in H (as-tound') v.t. [astonish] to strike dumb 
0,0 UU uxxu ^ith amazement. 

3^fminHit1P' (as-toun-ding) ppr. adapted to 
ootijuxxviiiig astonish; causing amazement. 
acfrar1Hl<a (a-strad-1) aaw. with the legs across a 
0,0 tx ctuuxc thing, or on different sides of it. 
A cf r:»aa (as-tre^) n. [G. Astraia] the goddess of 
no LX ceo, justice ; the fifth asteroid. 
^ of fa 0*01 (as-tra-gal) n. a small semi-circular 
OOLXOgox moulding [Arch.]; a convex moulding 
round a cannon, near the mouth ; the astragalus. 
a ^f ra O"^ 1 11 ^ (as-trag^^-lus)7l. [G.] the ankle-bone; 
0,0 LX o,g ctx u o a genus of leguminous plants. 
acfraWian (as-tra-kan) n. the pelts of young 
0,OLxaxs.xxo,xx jambs from Astrakhan, Eussia ; a 
rough fabric imitating this fur. 

ocfral (as^tral) a. belonging to the stars; starry. 
ctotxox Astral-body, a spiritual body. Astral- 
lamp, one so constructed that it casts an unbroken light 
on the table. Astral-spirits, spirits formerly believed to 
people the astral world, i.e., the starsand interstellar space. 
a «;f ra V (?^"Stra') adv. and a. out of, or from, the right 
cto LX 0,y ,^ay ; wrong [—v.i. to wander ; to be lost. 
^Q4-<><p4- (as-trikf) t'.^. [li. astHngere, pp. astrictus, 
0,Otxx\.,L draw close] to bind fast; to constrict; to 
contract ; [Scots Law] to limit. 

acfrir^firkn (as-trik^hun) n. the act of binding; 
ctOLXXULXUXX the stopping of a flow of blood- 
constriction ; restriction ; constipation ; [Scots Law] 
restriction to a particular mill for grinding grain. 
acfripfivp (as-trik-tiv) a. producing astriction ; 
0,0 LX xc LX V c binding ; styptic ;— «. a styptic. 
a^friHp (a-strld') adv. with the legs apart; prep. 
0,0 LX XUC .^th one leg on each side of. 
jj of 1-1 fi p*firi P V (as-trin-jen-si) n. quality of being 
0,0 LX xxxg KZil\.,y astringent ; harshness of temper. 
o of ri n crp n f (as-trin-jent) a. [L. ad and stringere, 
0.oLXiXX^ClXL hind] binding; strengthening; — n. 
a medicine causing contraction in the organic textures. 
acfrifp* acfrrkifpi (as^trit, as-tro-Tt) n. [G. 
ctOLXXLC, OOLXUXLC aster, astron, star] star- 
stone ; a star-like mineral or fossil ; a kind of madrepore. 
oc4-«-<-krrcxnTT (as-troj'e-ni) n. [G. astron, star, and 
abtrOgeiiy g^nQg^ birth] the 
meteoric evolution of the heavenly 

acfrnlaH^a (as'tr5-hib) n. [G.] 
dOLX uxo,uc: an obsolete instru- 
ment for taking the altitude of the 
sun or stars, etc. ; a projection of 
the sphere on the plane of a great 

astroUthology Sogjf) ,^ ,^ 

71. [G. astron, star, lithos, stone, and Astroiabe. 

logos, discourse] the scientific study of meteorites. 

F&te, f^r, ?ido ; me, hgr ; mine ; note ; tune ; moon. 




a<5frr»ln£>'P'r (f^s-trolni-jer) n. [G. astron, star, 
aoUXUiUgCi and logos, discourse] one versed 
in astrology. 

astrologic, astrological SlfS- 

taining to astrology ; practising astrology. 
a^f rnlop'i^l^ (as-trol^-jlz) v.t. to ascertain by 
do Li uiugi^C means of astrology ;— v.i. to study 
or practise astrology. 

fl^frnlnf>"V (as-trol^ji) n. the science of predict- 
doLiUlUgjr ing events by the heavenly Iwdies. 
Judicial astrology professed to foretell human aftairs. 
Natural astrology is practical astronomy. 
a^frnmffrv (as-trom-e-tri) n. [U. astron, star, 
ctoti (Jiiiv^tt y and metron, measure] the deter- 
mination of the apparent magnitudes of the fixed stars. 
ocfi-nnniTIPr (as-tron^i-mer) »i. [G. /lomos, law] 
do l/i t^iiuiiid Q,^g versed in astronomy. 

astronomic, astronomical Sf^^^^; 

-i-kail) a. pertaining to astronomy. Astronomical clock, 

one that Keeps sidereal time. 

nof r/^nrkmir^alltr (as-tro-nom-i-kal-i) adv. in 

da U UliUlllK^dliy the manner of astronomy. 

fseffrkrirkmTT- (as-tron-6-mi) n. the science of the 

abtrononiy heavenly bodies. 

a cf rnnfi nf om f»f pr (as-tro-fo-tom^-ter) ji. [G. 

dS LI UpilU LUlllC LCI astrtm, et&rph68,ph6tos, 

light, and metron, measure] an instrument for measuring 

the brightness of a star. 

fl^frn^PnnP (as^trS-skop) n. [G. skopein, view] 

doLXV/ol^upc an instrument composed of two 

cones, on which the constellations were delineated. 

pcfrilf (a-struf) adv. or a. in a strutting manner; 

do Ll u L y^ith a strut ; strutting ; pompous. 

astutelv^***'*''^'^''-^ cK^v. shrewdly ; sagaciously; 

***-' "*•-•' witn a strut ; struttmg ; pompous. 

a^f llf P (as-tut')a. [L. astus, crait] subtile; shrewd; 

doLULC sagacious: crafty. 

(as-tut-li) adv. 

cunningly ; craftily, 
a<?f llf PflP*?^ (as-tut^nes) n. the quality of being 
dOLUL^iic^oo astute; shrewdness; cunning. 
fl^nnHpr (?'-8unUler)a<Zi;. [A.8. onsKxtiran] apart; 
douiiuci sepamtcly; into separate pieces. 
a '^vllim ('^'Si-lum) n. [G. asulon] a place of refuge, 
doy 1 u iii where criminals and debtors found shelter; 
any place of retreat : an institution for the unfortunate, 
as the deaf and dumb, or the insane. 
a cxrm K r»l i a (as-im-bo-li-a) n. [G. a and fumholon, 
d&y 111 UUild symbol] aphasia ; asemia. 
a <5vm m pf ri pa 1 (a-si-met-ri-k^l) a. not properly 
o-ojf xiiiii^ Li iv,di proportioned; notBymmetrical. 
a.<?vmmptrv («-shn-e-tri) j^ [G.] want of pro- 
""^J*** * ''^*J portion; incommensurability. 
a.<?vm ntotP (as-lm-tot) n. [G.] a straight line that 
**'^J' ***i^»'V-'i'V» continually approaches a curve, but 
never meets it within a finite distance. 
a<sVnarfpfp Oi-sin-ar-tet) a. fG.] disconnected; 
ciojr 110,1 Lv, i.t composed of diflerent metres. 
a Qvn H pf nn (a-sin-de-ton) n. [G.] the omission of 
dt>y IIUCLUU connectives fRhet.]. 
P 4- (at) prep. [A.S. at] denotes primarily rest in a place, 
«-»'^ but 18 extended to a great variety of applications. 
afahal (at-a-bal) n. [Sp. fr. A. al, the, and tail, 
cxLCLi^d,! lirum] a Moorisli kettle-drum. 
af ar^amif P (a-tak-a-mit)n. [-^tac«f»a, a province 
dLd(..dllllLC of Chili] an ore of copper. 

ataghan (atVgan) n. See yataghaiL 

ataman (at-*-man)n. SeehetmaiL 
afaravia nfaro-v-TT- (at-a-rak'si-a, at-a-rak- 

dtdraxia, ataraxy gj) „ ^^ f^. a and 

tarassein, disturb] freedom from the passions. 
atavi'^m (a^^'J-vizni) n. [L. atavus, ancestor] the 
cLwcLvioiii recurrence of characters, disease, etc., 
that can be traced to a more or less remote ancestor. 
ataXtP (a-tak-sik) a. irregular in the functions of 

*^ the body, or in the coui-se of disease. 
ataXV ('^'••tak-si, at-ak-si) n. [G.] irregularity in 

J Iwdily functions, or in the course of a disease. 

ate (et) preterit of the verb eat. 

a f ppVi *-iip (a-tek-nik) a. [G. a and technl, art] with- 
ca.L.v..v,iiiiiv. .out technical knowledge; not technical. 
atdpnP (at'e-lgn)a. IG. ateles, incomplete] lacking 
Mbv^i^iic the essential form; imperfect; amorphous. 

afpllPr (?'-tel-i-a, at-el-ya')n. [F.] a workshop, esp. 
dLCiiw.1 of an artist ; a studio. 
afplntrlnccia (at-e-lo-glos^i-a) n. [G. atelis, im- 
dtciugiuoaid perfect, and glossa, tongue] im- 
perfect development of tongue. 

affialamniic (a-thal^i-mus) a. [G. a and thala- 
dLildidXiiUUO ^Qg^ bed] without apothecia[Bot.]. 
AfVianacian (ath-a-na-shan) a. pertaining to 
XXLlidiidOidll Athanasius, bishop of Alexandria; 
— n. a follower of Athanasius, or one holding his view of 
the Trinity. 

aflipicm (a^the-izm) n. disbelief in the being of 
dLllCiOiii God ; godlessness. 
Q j-Vi picf (3Athe-ist) n. [G. a and theos, god] one that 
dLixciO L denies the existence of God;— a. atheistical. 

atheistic, atheistical r'SJSi.S-'S 

atheism ; denying God ; impious. 

af lipi^fipallv (a-tne-is-ti-kal-i) adv. in an athe- 

dLiiciOLX^dxijr istic manner; impiously. 

of 1-i£kicfipo1nPCc (a-the-is-ti-kal-nes) n. the 

dLlXClS>LlCdllXC&S> quality of being atheistical. 

ofViAi^a (aAthe-Tz) v.t. to make atheistic; — v.t. to 

dLXiCX^C talk atheism. 

afliplinp" (ath^l-ing) n. [A.S. cetheling'] a crown 

dLXi^xiiig prince ; a nobleman. 

athenaeum, atheneum fG.^Tn''^andlnt 

Athens, the temple of Athene, where pnilosophers and 
poets declaimed] a literary or scientific club; an institution 
lor the encouragement of literature and art. 
A fViAf-iian (a-the^ni-an) a. pertaining to Athens; 
XXLXXCXXXdXX _^ an inhabitant of Athens. 
a f Vl Pni 1 <N (a^the-us) n. having no reference to God; 
dtxxcuuo ,jQt taking God into account. 
afhprmanmiQ (a-ther'-ma-nus) a. [G. a and 
dLXlcxxxxdXXUUa thermos, hot] opaque to heat; 
not allowing radiant heat to pass through. 
afllir^f (^-thersf) a. thirsty ; having a keen desire 
dLXXXXOL for drink; keenly desirous; longing. 
afhlpfp (ath-lef, ath-let) n. [G.] a contender in 
dLXXXCLC wrestling or other games ; a man strong 
and active by training. 

afhlptic (ath-let^ik) a. belonging to wrestling, box- 
dLXXXCLXU ing, and other exercises; vigorous. 
athleticallv (ath-let^-i-kal-l) adv. in an athletic 

•jfVilpfipicm (ath-let^i-sizm) n. the art or practice 
dLlXiC LXI...XOXXX of engaging in athletics. 
nfVilpficm (ath-le-tizm) n. the qualities of an 
dLllxCLXOXXX athlete; the profession of an athlete. 
aflrwaH" (^^-th^awrf) prep, [a, on, and thwart] 
dLXXWdX L across; from side to side of ; in opposi- 
tion to ;—adv. crosswise. Athwart hawse, across the 
stem of a ship (said of another ship). 
afilf (Milt') adv. and a. in a tilted manner; tilted 
dLXXk up ■ in the mannerof a filter. 

Aflanfpan (at-lan-te^an) a. pertaining to, or 
rXLXdXXLCdXX resembhng. Atlas, who was repre- 
sented as carrying the world on his shoulders. 
aflatlfp^ (at-lan-tez) figures or half -figures of 
dLXdXXLCo men, used instead of -- 
columns to support an entablature. '^ ■ •~*"''*"* =^=g 

Aflanfir* (at-lan-tik) a. pertaining 
rXLXdlx LXV, to the ocean that lies be- 
tween Europe and Africa on the east and 
America on the west ; — n. the ocean itself. 
a tla Q (at^las) n. a collection of maps 
dLXdo in a volume; large drawing- 
paper ; the first vertebra of tne neck. 

atmidometer i?;)"'l;.''f e'e 

atmometer. *umu«»,. 

atmological SS^''"''''^ "' ^'"^^^^ ^ 

af mr»lr»£ri<5f (at-mol-o-jist) n. one versed in 
dLXXXUXUgxoL atmolog)' ; a student of atmology. 
af tnnlnO'V (at-moW-ji) n. [G. atmos, vapour, and 
dLXXXUXUgjr ^ofiTos, discourse] the science that 
treats of the laws of aqueous vapour. 
af tnrjlv^i^ (at-mol-i-sis) n. [G. lusis, setting free] 
dLXXXi^xysio the separation of mixed gases by 
putting them into a porous chamber placed in a vacuum. 
a f tn nm pf Pr (at-mom-e-t§r) n. [G. atmos, vapour, 
dLXiiuxiiCLCX and metron, measure] an instru- 
ment for measuring the rate of evaporation. 

Fate, f4r, (ido ; m5, hgr ; mine ; note ; tune ; mddn. 




a f m rkc r»Vi e^rt^ (atAmos-fer) n. [G.sphaira, sphere] 
dLllluapxiCl C the mass of aeriform fluid sur- 
rounding the earth ; any similar envelope ; pressure of 
the air ; a pervading influence, 

atmospheric, atmospherical 

(at-mos-fer-ik, i-kal) a. relating, or due, to the atmosphere. 
afnll (at^l. a-tol') n. [Maldive] a ring-shaped coral 
ctLUll island inclosing a lagoon. 
af nm (at^u™) ^- [G- citomos] an ultimate indivisible 
aLKJiH particle of matter ; anything extremely small. 

afnmir flfnmiral (^om-ik, -i-kai) a. re- 

dLUlIliU, ctLUmiL^cll lating to, or consisting 

of, atoms. The atomic philosophy taught that atoms. 

by their own properties, originate all forms of being and 

matter. Atomic theory, the atomic philosophy ; the 

theory that chemical combinations take place between 

atomsand in definite simple proportions. Atomic weight, 

the weight of an atom of an element compared with the 

weight of an atom of hydrogen. 

afrkmicm (at^um-izm) n. the doctrine of atoms; 

cttUilliSiil atomic philosophy. 

afntni^f (at^um-ist) n. one that maintains the 

aUUillloL atomic philosophy or the atomic theory. 

afrimiyaf inn (at-um-i-zaAshun) n. reduction to 

ctLUlXll^dtluii atoms or (a liquid) to a spray. 

afnmi^l* (at^um-iz) v.t. to reduce to atoms; to 

cttvFllll^v; reduce to fine spray. 

afnmi^Pr (at^um-I-zer) n. an apparatus for reduc- 

aLUlXlX^d ing a liquid to spray, fordisinfecting, etc. 

afriTTIoloP'V (at-um-ol^-ji) n. [Gr. atomos, atom, 

a.L\JllXUlV/g jr and logos, discourse] atomism. 

afniTIV (at^uni-i) *''■ [«^*<'^'<^"*2/] a skeleton ; [aiom]an 

dLUiliy atom; a tiny being. 

^i-l^fip (a-ton') v.t. [at orie\ to reconcile; to answer 

ctLUiiC Qr make satisfaction for ;— v.i. to stand as an 

equivalent; to expiate. 

M4.^f-IPfYlf^nf (a-ton-ment) n. reconciliation after 

aLV^iiciiiCiit enmity or controversy ; satisfaction 

or reparation ; the expiation of sin by Christ. 

«|4-^|-lip (a-ton-ik) a. unaccented; [Path.] lacking 

a.LUilil.> tone;— n. a word or syllable that has no 

accent [Gram.] ; a soothing medicine. 

'\¥r\n\T (at-6-ni) n. [G. atonos, languid] want of tone; 

a,LV/iiy lack of muscular power [Path.]. 

sf ^fv (a-topO adv. or a. [a, on, and top] at or on the 

o.\.yj\J top ; above. 

bihan, atrabiUary, atrabiUous 

(at-ra-bi-la^ri-an, -us, at-ra-bil-i-an, -ar-i, at-ra-bil-yus) a. 
[L. ater, black, and hilis, bile] affected with melancholy. 

atramental, atramentarious,at- 

ra m«anf mic (at-ra-men'tal,-men-ta-ri-us,-men- 
1 dlllCllLUUb tus) a. black, like ink ; inky. 
afrir» (f'-trip') odv. said of the anchor, when just 
cttxip lifted from the ground. 

afrilim (S^tri-um) n. [L.] the entrance-hall, the 
0,1.1 lu 11 A cijigf room, of an ancient Koman house; 
the main cavity of the auricle of the heart. 
afrnpion^ (a-tro^hus) a. [L. atrox] extremely 
0,1,1 v^v^iv^uo heinous; flagitious; execrable. 
Q4-t«/-\pi/%iiq'|v (a-tro^hus-li) adv. in an atrocious 
cbbi \j\,i\jLii3i.y manner; outrageously; enormously. 
afr/-knirkiicn*»cc (a-tro^hus-nes) n. the quality 
ctUUl^lUUbllCbb of being atrocious ; atrocity. 
atrnpifv fe-tros-i-ti)n. extreme heinousness; enor- vwi bjr mity of guilt ; anything atrocious. 

atropal, atropous S^S^'- „pf t^ ^t 

turned] erect, said of an ovule [Bot.]. 

atronh V (at^ro-fi) w. [G-.] a wasting away, from lack 

«*wi vr^Ai jr of nourishment, or inability to assimilate. 

atropin, atropine St^i'^i^iSl'Z 

the deadly nightshade (Atropa belladonna). 

at fa rh (^^-t^ch') v.t. rO.F. attacher] to bind, fasten, 

r*, J T" °^ *'^ ' ^° ^^^ ^y '^8al authority ; to lay 

hold on by force ; to connect ; to bind by moral influence. 

affar*fiahlp> (a-tach^-bl) a. capable of being at- 

cttLAi^ixctuxc: tached ; liable to be taken and held; 

capable of being fastened or conjoined. 

a f f a r Vl «^ (a-ta-sha') n. [F. ] one attached to the suite 

ciibi,(X\,iic of an ambassador. 

af f ar'lnmf»nf (a-tach-ment) w. act of attaching, 
dLLdCXXiXXCXiL or state of being attached; any 
passion or affection that binds a person ; that by which 
one thing is attached to another; some adjunct to an 
instrument, machine, or other object ; a seizure by virtue 
of a legal process ; the writ or precept commanding such 
seizure. Foreign attachment, seizure of the property 
of a non-resident or absconding debtor. 
„i.i._pl_ (a-tak) v.t. [F. attaquer] to fall upon with 
cttLci^^i^ force; to assail; to assault; to fall upon 
with unfriendly words or writing ; to begin a controversy 
with i—v.i. to make an attack ;— n. a falling on with force 
or violence, or with calumny or criticism. 
aff ar^'U-aKl^a (a-tak-a-bl) a. capable of being 
dLLciUJi^clUXC attacked; assailable. 
o4-foi|-| (a-tan') v.t. [L. ad and tangere, touch] to 
dtLdixx achieve or accomplish; to ga,in;—v.i. to 
arrive at ; to reach. 

attainabiHty, attamableness 

(a-ta-na-bil-i-ti, a-taAna-bl-nes) n. attainable quality. 
offoiriaKtA (a-tatna-bl) a. capable of being 
dLLdixxdUXC attained; practicable; feasible. 
of f aifiz-lpi* (a-tanyer)n. [O.P. fr. L. ad and tan- 
dLLdXXXUC:x pg^g touch] the consequences of a 
sentence of death or outlawry for treason or felony, viz. , 
forfeiture of all civil rights, and corruption of blood, that 
is, incapacity to inherit or transmit property. 
P f f- p i fi m Pfl f (a-tan-ment) n. act of attaining; that 
dLLdiixixicxxL which is attained ; an acquisition. 
p4-4-pi*^4- (a-tanf) v.t. to aflect with attainder; to 
dLLdiix L stain ; to disgrace ; to corrupt ; — n. a stain, 
spot, or taint ; a wound on the leg of a horse. 
offoinfm<:knf (a-tant-ment) n. act of attainting ; 
dtLdXXXLlxxcxXL state of being attainted. 
p4-fpi|-|4-|i««f^ (a-tan-tui-) n. imputation of dis- 
dLLdXiXLUXC honour; stain; attainder. 
pi.i.p~ (at-ar) n. [A.] the fragrant, essential oil made 
dLtdX from rose-petals ; a perfume from flowers. 
affpmnpr (^■-tem-per) v.t. [temper] to reduce or 
dLLCiixpcx moderate, by mixture ; to mollify ; to 
mix in just proportion ; to accommodate ; to adapt. 
af f *imr^i^rmf»nf (a-tem-per-ment)?i. the act of 
dtLCiixpcxxxxcxxL tempering; tempered state. 
affptrrni" (^■'^^'^t.') v.t. [L. ad and tentare, try] to 
dULCXXxpt make an effort ; to make trial or experi- 
ment of ; to make an attack upon ; — n. an essay, trial, or 
endeavour ; an eft'ort to gain a point. 

af f <af-»-irkf aKiliftr (a-tem-ta-bil-i-ti)n. the quality 
liemptd-Umty of being attemptable. 
P 'f f^&m ■nf a Kl t^ (a-tem-ta-bl)a. capable of being at- 
dLLC;ixxptdUXC: tempted : that may be attempted. 
a tfpn H (^"t^nd') v.t. [L. ad and tendere, stretch] to 
dtLCixu go or stay with, as companion or servant; 
to wait on ; to serve ; to be present with; to accompany; 
to be united or consequent to \—v.i. to pay attention ; to 
heed ; to wait or be in waiting. 

af f PtlHatlPP' (a-tenyfans) n. act of attending; 
dLLdiudii«.,c; the persons attending; a retinue. 
Attendance oflBicer, a school board otticial whose business 
it is to see that children attend school as required by law. 
affPTlHanf (a-ten^ant) a. being present in the 
dLtc;iiu.dXXL retinue of a superior; accompanying 
or following as consequent ; depending on, or owing duty , 
to; — n. one who, or that which, attends or accompanies. 
afff^nfinn (?■- ten -shun) n. act of attending; 
dL tcxx Lxuxx watchful observation ; act of civility. 
pi.i.p^i.:.»p (a-ten-tiv) a. full of attention; regard- 
dt LCix ux V c ihg with care : gallant ; polite. 
off ckrifiTTfilTr (a-ten-tiv-li) adv. with attention: 
dltCIlLlVCiy cheerfully ; heedfully ; diligently. 
af f *anf ifr^an^icc (a-ten-tiv-nes) n. the state of 
dULCXXLXVCXXCad heing attentive; attention. 
^i.i.p^llPf.i. (a-ten-u-ant) a. [L. aJd and tenuis, 
dLLCXXUdxiL thin] making less dense; thinning; 
—n. a medicine that thins or dilutes fluids ; a diluent. 
affpniiafp (a-ten-u-at) v.t. to make thin or less 
dl/UCXXUdLC dense ; to make slender ; to reduce in 
force, etc.;— v. i. to become thin, slender, or fine; to lessen ; 
—a. slender; thin ; [Bot.] tapering. 
^fi.^f.,iiof j/-tti (a-ten-ii-aAsTiun) a. act of attenu- 
dULCXXUdLXUXX ating; state of being attenuated; 
reduction of strength or energy. 

pi.i.p^i. (a-tesf) v.t. [L. ad and testis, witness] to 
dtLCot hear witness to; to aflirm; to invoke; to 
swear in •,—v.i. to bear witness ; — n. testimony. 

F&te, f&r, 9do ; me, her ; mine ; note ; tiine ; m66n. 




r4(LZ«^*^ff «aof af inn (at-es-taishun) n. testimony; the 
•*^ cittCS>tclLlUll administration of an oath. 

affiacfpir aff*aefr»r (a-tes^ter,-tur)n. one that 
dLLCOLCl , ctttcstui attests or vouches for. 

A4.4-<p (at^ik) a. pertaining to Attica, or to Athens; 
XXtLlt^ — ji a native of Attica; an Athenian; Attic 
Greek ; a low story (attic story) above an entablature or 
a cornice ; a garret. Attic base, one consisting of an 
upper torus, a scotia, and a lower torus, separated by 
fillets. Attic dialect, the standard form of Greek. 
Attic faith, inviolable faith. Attic order, an order of 
small square pillars at the uppermost part of a building. 
Attic salt or wit, delicate, refined wit. 

A 4-4-«piof-|-i (at^i-sizm) n. peculiar style of Greek used 
.rxLtiUioiii bytheAthenians; elegant Greek; elegant 
diction ; favour for the Athenians. 

A 4-4-|pi^p (at^i-slz) v.<. to make conformable to the 
xltLXV.>l^C language of Attica, or to Greek manners, 
etc.; — v.i. to use Atticisms ; to favour the Athenians. 
o f f iri* (^■tir ) ^•^- [L. ad and O.F. tire, row] to dress : 
cttLll C to array; to adorn, es». with elegant or splendid 
gamaents ; — n. clothes ; dress ; [Her.] horns of a buck. 
of-f-if pfl (a-tlrd) a. having horns ; said of stags and 
cttLilcu harts used as bearings [Her.]. 
j% f fif II i-1 £k (at^i-tud) n. [hovih.aptitudo, fr. L. aptus, 
ctUtiLUUC fit] posture of a person ; position of thmgs. 
off if iirlinol (at-i-tu^i-nal) a. of, or pertaining 
dtULUUlIlcil to, attitude.' 
affif iiHinarian (at-i-tu-di-naAri-?in) n. one 
dlllLUUindridn that studies attitudes. 
offifiir1ini'70 (at-i-tuUli-n!z) v.i. to assume 
aiLlLUUlliliSC allected attitudes. 
»lff^11pf.f (a-tol^nt) a. [L. ad and toiler e, ppr. 
cttLUiicii L tollens,-entis, to lift] lifting up ; raising; 
— n. a muscle that raises somepart. 
^i.i.^|.^ (a-tern) v.t. [O.F. fr. L. ad and tomare, 
ctLtui 11 turn] to transfer ;— v.i. to transfer homage ; 
to acknowledge a new possessor as landlord. 
flffrirriPV (^'-t^r-ni) '^^ one legally appointed by 
a,tLv>iiic;jr another to transact business for him; 
a solicitor or law-agent. Attomey-generjil, an otticer 
of the state, empowered to act in all cases in which the 
state is a party. Power, letter, or warrant of attorney, 
a legal document by which a person authorizes another 
to transact business for him. 

a f f rkrn ckxrcVi i r\ (a-ter^ni-8hip)n. oflBce or function 
cttLUl licy &liip of an attorney ; agency. 
o f f orti m Pnf (a-tern-ment) n. act of a feudatory 
ctLLUi iiillCtllL vassal, by which he consents, upon 
the alienation of an estate, to receive a new superior ; 
the agreement of a tenant to acknowledge the purchaser 
of the estate as his landlord. 

pi.i.^^pi. (a-trakf) v.<. [L. attrahere, pp. attractus] 
cttti ctut to draw, or cause to tend, toward ; to draw 
to, or cause to adhere or combine ; — v.i. to be attractive. 

attractability 5^!;^StSiS." **"'"'" "' 

offfopfoKIp (a-trak-ta-bl) a. capable of being 
ctLLictv^Lctuic attracted ; suscepti ble to attraction . 
aff rapfino'lv (?-trak-ting-li) adv. in an attrac- 
ctLti ctV^Liilgiy tlve manner ; so as to attract. 
of f |«o/>f if\f| (a-trak^hun) n. a power in nature 
dtUlctCLlUll acting between bodies or ultimate 
particles, tending to draw them together, or to produce 
cohesion or combination ; the act or power of attracting ; 
that which attracts. 

3 4-4-|.opf iTrp (a-trak-tiv) a. having the power of 
ct L Li tXK. Li V c attracting ; enticing ; engagmg. 
of f ror^f ifrfalTr (a-trak^tiv-li) aoi'. with the power 
ctLLiaCLlVCiy of attracting ; alluringly. 
of f f or^f itronocc (a-trakJtiv-nes) n. the quality 
dULlcH^UVCIlCbb of being attractive. 
pffrallPnf (at-ra-hent) a. attracting ;—n. that 
ciL Li ctilCll L which draws to or towards. 

attributable ItSIifed''^'^ "' ''^'"' °^ ^'"^ 

atf rihnf P {a-tril)iut)f.i. [L.a<iW6Mere] to consider 
ctLLiiuuuc ,.jg belonging to ; to ascribe to. 
affHHllfp (at^ri-but) n. an essential or necessary 
dtLiiuuLC property; [Gram.] an attributive word; 
[Fine Arts] a symbol of office or character. 
off fiKiifi^ti (at-ri-bu-shun) n. the act of attri- 
ctL LI 1 U U LlUIl buting ; the quality attributed. 
affriHllfivP (a-trib-u-tiv) a. relating to, o 
cLCLiii^ULivc pressing, an attribute ;—n. a 
that denotes an attribute. 

or ex- 

affriKiifiTr^alir (a-trib-u-tiv-li) adv. in an 
dLLi lUUtlVCiy attributive manner. 
pfff>ifp (a-trlf) a. [L. atterere, pp. attritus, rub 
dtLl ILC away] worn by rubbing or friction ; [TheoL] 
penitent through fear of consequences. 
of frif «an«acc (a-trlt^nes) n. the state of being 
dtLl ILCllcaC) worn by friction. 
o4-4-««j4-ifxfn (a-trish-un) n. act of wearing by friction ; 
dLLi 1L1V.I11 state of being worn ; forced penitence. 
P f f 11 fi A (a-tun') v.t. to tune or put in tune ; to make 
dttuiic accordant; to fit for a purpose; to harmonize. 
pfrri-kip (a-tip^ik) a. [G. a and tupos. type] not 
^^j l**^^ typical : without distinct typical characters. 
P II Kp A p (6-baa) n. [F. fr. L. albiis, white] morning 
duudvic music; musical announcement of dawn. 
aiiKaini:^ (o-ban) 7i. [F.l succession to the goods 
ctU UdlllC of a deceased alien. Till 1819 the French 
king enjoyed the droit d'aubaine. 
P l|Up«.Q-p (o-barzh) n. [F. fr. 0. H. Ger.] an inn ; a 
dU uci gc place of entertainment for travellers. 
a 11 Hi n (aw'-bin)n. [F.] a kind of broken gait, between 
dUUiii an amble and a gallop ; a Canterbury gallop. 
flilhlirn (aw-burn) a. [Low L. albumus, whitish] 
dU u ui 11 reddish-brown ; — n. an auburn colour. 
flliptiotl (awk^hun) n. [L. augere, pp. auctus, 
o,\XK.,\.l\Jll increase] a public sale of property to the 
highest bidder, by a person licensed for the purpose ; — 
v.t. to sell by auction. Dutch auction, a puhlic sale at 
which goods are put up above their value, and the price 
is gradually lowered till a purchaser is found. 
'iiiof irvn'itnr (awk-shun-ar-i) a. belonging to an 
dUCLlUlldiy auction. 

siicf ionppr^^^^'^^"'^'^''^^ '"'■ ^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^ ^^ 
dU I., LlUllCCl auction --^.LzlxiA i. to sell by auction. 

•iiirl'i/'irkiic! (aw-da^hus) a. [L. audere, dare] 
dUUdClUUb bold; daring; insolent. 
aiiHar'imiclv (aw-da-shus-li) adv. in an auda- 
dUUd<.,iUuaijr ciousmanner; boldly; impudently. 
oil rlo/^i/Mierioco (aw-da-shus-nes) n. the 
aUaaClOUbnt^bb quality of being audacious. 
SIlHspifv (aw-das^i-ti) n. daring spirit, or con- 
dUUdUlLjr fidence; hardihood; effrontery. 
ailHiHlp (aw^i-bl) a. [L. audire, hear] capable of 
dUUiUlC being heard ; loud enough. 
oiirliKl^^nc^cc (aw'-di-bl-nes) n. the quality of 
aUaiDieneSS being audlWe. 
SIlHiHIv (aw^i-bli) adv. in an audible manner ; in 
**''^'^^*-'*J' a manner to be heard. 
ailHipriPP (aV-di-ens) n. admittance to ahearing; 
duuiciiv^c an assembly of hearers. Audience- 
chamber, an apartment for a formal meeting. Audience' 
court, an archiepiscopal court, now disused. 
ailHiotnpfpr (aw-di-om^-ter) n. [L. audire, 
dUUiUiiic LCI bear, and G. metron, measure] an 
instrument for testing the power of hearing. 
^^^A\r\\^r\r\e^ (aw^i-fon) n. [G. phone, sound] an 
dUUipxiUllC instrument that collects sound 
waves, and directs them through the teeth and the bones 
of the head to the auditory nerve. 
a 1 1 H i f ^^^-^^^^ '"■■ an official examination of accounts ; 
o-U^*'*' a final account ;—^.<. to examine and adjust 
accounts. Audit-bouse, a building or room attached to 
a cathedral for business purposes. Audit-offlce, the office 
in which thepublic accounts are audited. Commissioners 
of audit, officers appointed to audit the public accounts. 
QiiHifinn (aw-dish-un) n. the act, or the sense, of 
duuiuiuii hearing; that which is heard. 
ailHifivP (awkli-tiv) a. relating to the sense of 
•*'^*^* Li V c hearing ; concerned with hearing. 
a 1 1 H i f nr (awkll-tur) n. a hearer ; one that listens ; a 
dUUiLd person authorized to examine accounts. 
»jiir1ifr»t-c1-iir» (aw^i-tur-ship) n. the office, or 
dUUlLUl Ssllip term of office, of an auditor. 
a 1 1 H i f n rv (awy l-tur-l) «. pertaining to the sense of 
d U u 1 v,\Ji y hearing ;— ^. an assembly of hearers ; an 
audience ; the place on which a judge sits to hear causes. 
ai10"Pan (aw-je^ah) a. [Aiigeas] pertaining to 
**'^&^"'** Augeas ; arduous. 
P II p-f^r (aw'-ger) n. [A.S. nafu, nave, and gar, dart] a 
**"o^* carpenter's boring tool, 
somewhat like a large gimlet ; an in- 
strument for boring soils or rocks. 
PIIQ>p4- (awi-jet, o-zha') n. [L. 
o-vi^K^L alvus, belly] a priming 
tube used in exploding miUtary 
mines and in blasting. 


Fate, far, gwlo ; me, hgr ; mine ; note ; tune ; moon. 




ancrVif (***) n. [A.S. dioi^f] anything; any part; 
ctugllt a jot or tittle r-adv. to any degree ; at all. 
an<rif#a (aw'-jit) n. [L. fr. G. atffire, brightness] a 
ctUgiLC variety of pyroxene. 
aiiD*if if' (aw-jit-ik) a. pertaining to, resembling, or 
dUgiLiv^ containing, augite. 

an iymp^nf (awg-menf) v.t [L. fr. augere, increase] 
dUglXlClXL to increase in size or amount; to pre- 
fix or augment •,—v.i. to increase ; to grow larger, 
oiicrmianf (awg'-ment) n. a mark of past time; a 
ciU^iiiCiit prefix to mark past time. 
aiicrtTKinf aKlfi (awg-men-ta-bl) a. capable of 
dUglllCllLdUlC augmentation. 
aiicrmf^nfafinn (<iwg-men-taishun) n. act. of 
dU^lllCiltciLlUll augmenting; state of being 
augmented; the thing added; [Mus.] modification of a 
subject by lengthening the notes. Augmentation court, 
a court created by Henry VIII. to augment the revenues of 
the Crown by suppressmg the monasteries. Process of 
augmentation, action in the Court of Teinds by a 
Scottish parish minister for increase of stipend. 

aiio-rrifinfafiv** (awg-men-tsi-tiv) a. having 
UglllClltdtlVC the quality of augmenting; 
[Gram.] not diminutive ; — n. an augmentative word. 
•iiio*m<anf <ar (awg-men-ter) n. one who, or that 
dUgillCllLCl which, augments. 
aiio*llt* (aw'-gur)n. [L.] one that pretended to foretell 
dU^ Ul future events by the singing, flight, and feed- 
ing of birds ' a soothsay;er \—v.t. to foretell ; to betoken ; 
—v.i. to conjecture by signs or omens; to prognosticate. 

aiio'nrfll an 0*11 rial (aw^Q-rai^ aw-gu-ri-ai) 

dUgUldi, dU^Ulldl «. pertaining to augurs. 

augurate, augurship ©^A»ce 

or dignity of augur. 

ailfyiirv (a^-gu-ri)n. artof foretelling events by the 
du^ Ui y actions of birds ; an omen ; prediction. 
Piip-iicf (aw-gusf) a. [L.] creating extraordinary 
duguob respect; imposing; majestic; solemn. 
A II 0-11 cf (aw-gust)n. [L.] the eighth month of the 
x^ u g u o k year, named in honour of Augustus Caesar. 
A 11 crii cf a n (aw-gus-tan)a. pertaining to Augustus 
xxuguobdii or to his times (the Augustan age of 
literature is its most brilliant period); pertaining to 
Augusta Vindelicorum (Augsburg, Bavaria), where in 
1530 Luther and Melancthon drew up the Augustan 
confession ;— ti. a writer belonging to the Augustan age. 

Augustin, Augustine STelfantd^r 

of friars named after St. Augustine. 

AiicriiQf inian (aw-gus-tin-i-an) a. relating to 

x^u^uokiixidii yt. Augustine or his doctrines ;— 

n. a behever in St. Augustine's doctrines of predestination 

and ilresistible grace ; an Augustine. 

aiunicf tK^GQ (aw-gust-nes) n. dignity of mien; 

dUguOLiicsa majesty; grandeur. 

S-llK (^^'^^ '^^ [Icel. alka\ a diving bird of northern 

(xuiv gg^s . the great auk became extinct recently. 

aula ri an (aw-laAri-an) a. [6. aule, hall] relating to 

dUldildll a hall:-7i. at Oxford, a member of 

a hall, as distinguished from a collegian. 

ail1«af if (aw-let-ik) a. [G. fr. aulas, flute] pertaining 

duxcbiv. to the flute or the flute player. 

a.ll1ic (^^-''k) *• pertaining to a royal court. Aulic 

a,uiiv» council, the personal council of the emperor 

of the old German empire ; the Austrian council of state. 

aiimnnif>rp» (aw-mr>-ni-ar) n. [F.] a large purse 

ctuiii«^ixici c carried at the girdle. 

aiinf (*"*') ''h f^- amzto] a father or mother's sister. 

**"***• Aunt SsQly, a game in which the players try, 

by throwing sticks, to smash a pipe placed in the mouth 

of a Wooden head set on a pole. 

aura ('^^V"'^^ '^' ^^- ^^- ^-3 ^ subtle emanation from a 
*7"* ** body ; atmosphere j character ; a peculiar sensa- 
tion, as of a current of air rising to the head, preceding 
an attack of epilepsy or hysteric ; a gentle breeze. 
aural (^'^-'■^i) '^- [L. aura, air] pertaining to the 

" 0,1 j^jp. ["L aurw, ear] belonging to the ear. 
auratP (^w-rat) n. [L. aurum, gold] a kind of pear ; 

^^ a combination of auric acid with a base. 
a II rf»a ff» (aw-re-at) a. [L. fr. aurum, gold] of, con- 
aui cdLC tftining, or like gold ; golden ; gilded. 
anrplia (aw-re-h-a) n. [It. fr. L. aurum, gold] a 
cfcui v^Axca, chrysalis, or pupa. 

a nrplia n (aw-re-li-?in) a. like, or pertaining to, an 
cxux ^110.11. aurelia ;— re. one that studies insects. 

aiir<anla (aw-re^Vla) n. [L. fr. mirirm, gold] a 
dUi K:\Jla. radiance surrounding the whole figure ; a 
circlet of light or glory surrounding the head; [Il.C. 
Theol.] a reward added to the essential bliss of heaven. 
sitire^r\]f^ (aw-re-ol) n. a halo ; a radiance surround- 
dUl CUiC ing a body ; [R.C. Theol.l an aureola. 
a 1 1 ri r* (aw'-rik) a. pertaining to gold. Auric oxide, 
dUl iC a compound of gold and oxj'gen. 
anrir*lp» (a^r-l-i-kl) n. [L. auris, ear] the external 
dUli^lC ear; one of two muscular sacs situated at 
the base of the heart ; a kind of ear-trumpet. 
aiiriplf^H (aw-ri-kld) a. having an auricle or 
dUl lUicu auriclesj having ear-like appendages. 
aiiripilla (aw-rik-u-la) n. a garden flower {Primula 
dUilv^Uld ojMJTcute) ; bear's ear. ,>c 

an ri Pillar (aw-rik-a-lar) a. pertaining to the ear, ^yU- 
dUl iv..uidi or to hearing ; told in the ear, as auric- 
ular confession ; pertaining to the auricles of the heart. 
aiirir^iilarlxr (aw-nk-u-lar-li) ndv. by whisper; 
dUi l^Uidl iy hy means of auricles. 

auriculate, auriculated {|^ S? '^a! 

shaped like an ear ; having ears or ear-like parts. 
a 11 ri fl=»mi l Q (aw-rif^-rus) a. [L. aurum, gold, and 
dUl iiCl UUo fgj.^.g bear]yieldingorproducinggold. 
aiirirnrm (aw-ri-iorm) a. [L. auris, ear, and 
dUi llUi Hi forma, form] ear-shaped. 
aiirio'al (aw-rl-gal) a. [L. auriga, charioteer] per- 
dui igdi taining to a chariot or carriage. 
aiiriD-ranllv (aw-rig'-ra-fi) n. [L. aurum, gold, 
dUi igi a^iiy and G. graphein, write] the act or 
process of writing or engraving in golden characters. 
aiirilavf* (aw'-rl-lav) n. [L. aim's, ear, and lavare, 
dUi lid V c wash] instrument for cleaning the ears. 

auripigment gSi^U'"''"'"'^ " ^'' 

anriQPnnP (aV-ri-skflp) n. [G. skopein, view] an 
dUi iouupc instrument for examining the ear. 
a nricif (aw'-rist) n. one that heals or is highly skilled 
dUiioL in disorders of the ear. 
anrifp'H (aw-rf-ted) a. eared; [Zool. and Bot.] 
dUi i tcu having ear-like lobes or appendages. 
aiirnpllQ (aw^roks) n. [Ger.] a species of wild ox y^/V 
dUi UUiio ojice very abundant in Europe. 
aiirnra (aw-rfv-ra) n. [L.J dawn] the dawn of day. 
dUiUid Aurora borealis, a luminous meteoric 
phenomenon, popularly called northern lights or 
streamers; the phenomenon in the southern hemisphere 
is called Aurora australis. 

ailrnral (aw-ro^ral) a. belonging to, or resembling, 
dUi Ui di the aurora : dawning ; roseate. 
a 11 roil Q (aw-rus) a. [L. ntfrum, gold] of, pertaining 
dUi cruo to, or containing gold. 
a 11 rn m (a^V-rum) n. [L. ] gold. Aumm fUlminans, 
dlii Uiii gold dissolved in nitro-muHatic acid, and 
precipitated by ammonia. Aurum potabile (drinkable 
gold), a cordial or medicine. 

ailQPlllfaff* (aws-kul-tat) v.t. [L. aiiscultare, 
dUOCUiLdtC listen] to examine by auscultation. 
aiiamilf af inn (aws-kul-ta-shun) n. actof listen- 
dLisv.,UiLdLiUii jng ; a method of distinguishing 
diseases by means of the ear or stethoscope. 
aiicr^iilf af r»r (aws-kul-ta-tur) n. one that prac- 
dU&(^UiLdtUi tises auscultation. 
aiiopiilf af r»rT7- (aws-kul-ta-tur-i) a. pertainingto 
dUai..,UiLdL,Uiy auscultation ; auscultative. 
ail<ariipafp (aws-pi-kat) ?>.<. [L. auspicari] to 
dUoJJiV..dLC initiate; to predict ;— v.i. to augur. 
ail<5niraforv (aws-plk-a-tur-l) a. pertaining to 
dLlopil.>dl.v^i y auspices or omens. 
anQf^ic*f (aws'-pis) n. [L.] an omen drawn from 
dUoJ->iV>c> ijjrds ; augury ; protection ; patronage. 
an<5t^irirni<s (aw-spish-us) a. having omens of 
dUopiv..iV^uo success; propitious; gracious. 
aiict^ir*iAilc1t7- (aw-spish-us-li) arif. withfavour- 
dUJspiCiUuaxy able tokens; iJi-osperously. 
a tiot^ipimicni^cc (aw-spish-us-nes) n. a state 
dU:dpiL.iUuaiic:asi of good promise; prosperity. 
ailQff»rP (aws-ter') a. [G. austeros,'] sour with 
dUoLCiC astringency; having acerbity; severe in 
judging, living, or acting ; harsh ; stern ; severely simple. 
aiicf ^rp>lv (aws-ter'-li) arfv. in an austere manner; 
dUotClCijr severely; sternlj-. 

austerity, austereness St5,^.{;-eij*i: 

severity of manners or living ; strictness ; roughness. 

Ftlte, ikx, ijAo ; mS, her ; mitoe ; note ; tune ; mddn. 




All^fifl (^^s-tin) a. [a contraction of ^M<;ttsim] ! *j|«4-^^4.jj4- (aw-to-krat)Ti. [G. au?os,self,andiTra<o«, 
x^uouiii Augustinian, as, hn Austin in&T. «*"''*^'-* «**' strengthjan absolute prince orsovereign. 

?iiiofral (aws-tral) a. [L. rtiwfer, south wind] of, or •jiifrkr^rofi/' 'in fr»r»f*'»fir'fil (a-w-to-krat- 
aUbirdl tending to, the south ; soutliern. jd-UlOCFcillC, d,U lOCraUCai ik, -l-kaDa. 

absolute; independent in power. 

Qiif rkr^t-af ir'allTT (aw-t6-krat'i-k?il-i) adv.m an 
ctU tUCl ettlCdiiy autocratic mftiiner. 

autocratrice, autocratrix ^TlS; 

-triks) n. a female autocrat. 

autocratship KST*^*''''^ "' '^* *'®'' °' 

AllQfralaQia (aws-tral-aAsha) n. Australia and 
XTUStx ctictdicx t}ie neighbouring i.slands. 
A 1 1 cf ra 1 a ci a n (a«'s-tral-a^han)a. pertaining to 
rvus H €XlcX.^l.fXU. Austi»lasia ;-«. a native of it. 
AiiQfralian (aws-tral-yan) a. pertaining to 
xi.uoci cLiXdii Australia ;— n. a native of Australia. 

a n cf m 1 i y f* (aws-tral-Tz) v.i. to point towards the 
ctua Li ctii^c south magnetic pole. 
aiicfrrfcmanr'Tr (aws^tro-man-si) n. [L. auxter. 
clu:3UUUlctilcy g^uth wind, and G. manteia, 
divination] divination from observations of the winds. 
flllf^rpllV (a^-tar-ki) n. [G. cuutos, self, and 
a.u.Lcx.i\,iiy arckei'n, rule] absolute power; [G. 
arkeiii, sutficej self-sufficiency. 

authentic, authentical Saol'tG.' 

axithentikos] of genuine origin ; of approved authority ; 
reliable ; genuine ; [Mus.] having an immediate relation 
to the key-note or tonic. 

Qiif Vi«anf ir^olltr (aw-then-tj-kal-i) adv. in an 
dU UiCH m,clAiy authentic manner. 
ranfVifinfi^alniacc (aw-then-ti-kal-nes) n. the 
dU tliClll,lCcilllc:9& qualitv of being authentic. 
ailf ViPnf ipatf* (aw-then-ti-kat) %\t. to prove to 
ctuUilCiltiUcltC i^ genuine; to give authority to. 
niif Vicirtf iz-of irkti (aw-then-ti4ia^shun) n. the 
ciULnenULd,UOn ^ct of authenticating. 
31lfllf»nf irifv (a«'then-tis^i-ti) n. quality of 
ctULXiC.lltiUitjr iKjing authentic ; genuineness. 
Sinflinr (^^w-thur) n. [U.F. fr. L. auqere, increase] 
autiiUi ji,g beginner, or first mover of anything; 
the efficient cause ; creator ; one that composes a Ijook. 
mitlinrPQQ (aw'-thur-es) n. a female author (the 
CtU Liiui Coo -^'orA is now used to mark sex). 
Qiif Virkf-Jf fif iTro (aw-thor'-i-ta-tiv) a. having au- 
dULllUllLdUVC thority ; positive. 
anfhnrifafiiT-filir (aw-thor'-i-ta-tiv-li) adv. in 
dU LHUl 1 LdLi V Ciy an authoritative manner. 

authoritativeness SJy^S^Sg"- 

31lflirkrif\7" (aw-thor^i-ti) n. legal or rightful i)ower 
dU LllUi 1 Ly to command or act ; dominion ; influ- 
ence of character, office, or station ; mental or moral 
superiority, and the like; official declaration, opinion, or 
statement worthy to be taken as a precetient ; a book 
that contains such ; an expert \—pl. the executive powers. 

authorization StKrizlS^"''^ "• '^' "'' 

anflinri^P (aT\<thur-iz) v.t. to clothe with au- 
auuiiv^ii^c thority; to empower; to legalize; to 
establish by authority, usage, or public opinion. 
o vi4-Vif^«-ol-iir\ (aw-thur-ship) n. the state of being 
autiiui oiiip jjn author; origination or source. 

autobiographer, autobiogra- 

r»Vi iof (aw-t(VbT-oe-ra-fer, -fist) n. one that writes a 
pillbt life of himself. " 

autobiographical fctdif^Z^^Stni 

taining, autobiography. 

autobiographically SfJ.f ^z'Tn^'ai; 

autobiographic manner. 

ailf nhiocrra r\h\r (aw-to-bT-og'-ra-fi)n.[G.ow<o,'?, 

write] a memoir of a person written by himself. 
31ltnPar (a^^-to-^ar) n. [(t. autos, self] a light road 
cxu LU^dX vehicle driven ny mechanical power. 
aiif rvr'3i-t-»rkiiC5 (aw-to-kir-pus) a. [G. autos, self. 
dULU(.,dipuUb and karpos, fruit] consisting of 
pericarp alone [Bot.]. 

ailfnrlifVinn (<iw-tok-thon), n.; pi. atltoch- 
dULUUllLllUn thones (aw-tokthu-nez) [G.] an 
original inhabitant ; an aboriginal animal or plant. 


f rk/'Vi f Vi /-in /Ml e (aw-tok-thu-nal,aw-tok-thon-ik, 
LUCllLllUIlUUbaw-tok'-thu-nus) a. aboriginal. 

autochthonously l^Iil^SS'"""''^ "^'- 

fl 1lf nprafv (aw-tok-m-si) n. independent orself- 
txu.\,\j\.,L€XK.,y derived power ; unlimited authority. 

nnfr» Ha ft^ (ou-to da fa) «.,- pf. antoe da fe 
dU H-» Kit* ic rpg ] a sentence pronounced by the 
Inquisition; the pun isnment {e.^. by burning) of heretics. 
anfoP*amv (aw-tog-a-mi) 71. [G. autos. self, and 
dUtugdiiijr gamos, marriage] self-fertilization. 
oiif i-^n-zi^nmiC (aw-toj^-nus) a. [G. autot, self, 
dULC>gc:ii«JUO jindffe/ios, race] self-generated. 
anf nfrranh («*''t6-graf) «. [G.] written by one's 
dULUgidpii self;— «. a person's own hand- 
writing; an original manuscript. 

autographic, autographical 

(aw-to-graf-ik, -i-kal) a. pertaining to an autograph. 
ailfncrranllV (a^-tog-ra-fi) n. a person's own 
dULUgi dpiijr writing; a process in lithography 
for transferring writing. 

aiif r»maf ti (aw-to-math) n. [G. automathes, self- 
dUtUllldLll taught] a self-taught person. 

automatic, automatical, autom- 

afnil^ (aw-to-mat^ik, -i-kal, aw-tom'-a-tus) o. per- 
dLUUo taining to an automaton; self-acting. 
Qiif /-ktriaf i/»allTr (aw-to-mat'i-kal-i) adv. in an 
dULUUldUCdliy automatic manner. 
m|i<4-p^f«.|o4-'icrn (aw-toni-a-ti?m) n. automatic ac- 
dUtUilldLloill tion ; purposeless action due to 
disease ; the power of initiating movement. 
siif r-ttn of r^n (aw-tom'^-ton) ti.; pi. automata 
dULUllldtUll (aw-tom4i-ta)fG. ] a machine moved 
by invisible works which imitates the actions of men or 
animals ; any self-moving machine. 
ailf r>mr\Hil*» (aw-to-mo^bil) a. moving itself by 
dULUiiii^uiic; internal forces •,—n. an autocar. 
niifnmoli'f** (aw-{om^-lTt) n. [G. automolos, 
dU tuiiiuiii LC deserter] gahnite, a mineral. 
niif /-kt-n/"kt-r»Viioi-M (aw-to-mor-fizm) n. [ij. autos, 
aULOmurpnibm ggif^ and rmrphe, form] the 
ascription of one's own characteristics to another. 

autonomic, autonomous iki'aSnS' 

mus) a. relating to autonomy ; self-governing. 
ailfnnnmv (aw-ton^-mi) «. [G. autos, self, and 
dU \,KJii\Ji.iiy nomos, law] right of self-government; 
a self-governing community ; freedom of the will. 
ailfnnViaP'V (a^-tof-a-ii) n. [G. p/uiccm, eat] the 
dU Lupxidgy act of feeding upon one's self. 
anfnrila^tv (aw'-to-plas-ti) n. [G. autoplattot, 
dULUpxdOty self-formed] reparation of a lesion 
by healthy tissue from the same body [Surg.]. 

autopsia, autopsy i^^tr^^.'S'aS 

opsi's, sight] personal observation; post-mortem exam- 
ination ; critical examination of a literary work. 

autopsical, autoptical S^j^'S 

with one's own eyes ; based on actual observation. 
ail f nf vr>P (aw^to-tlp) n. [G. autos, self, and tupos, 
dU LKJ ty pc type] a photographic process for repro- 
ducing works of art ; a picture made by this process. 
anf limfl (aw-tum) n. [L.] the third season of the 
dUtUXXXXX year; the decline of human life. 
ailflltntial (aw-tum'-nal) a. of, or belonging to, 
dULUXXXXXdX autumn ;—n. a plant that flowers in 
autumn. Autumnal equinox, the time when the sun 
crosses the equator, as he proceeds southwards (Sept. 2).) 
o II vpci c (awks-c^is)n. [G. auxesis, increase, ampli- 
dU aCoxo fication, fr. auxein, increase] hyperbole. 
ailVtlifl-rv (awg-zil-ya-ri) a. [L. auxilium. help] 
"'"■*'*^**** J' helping; subsidiary; — n. a helper: a 
verb helping to form tne moods and tenses of other verbs; 
—pi. foreign troops in the service of a nation at war. 
aiivnfonip (awk-so-ton-ik) a. [G. auxein, grow, 
ca.u.A.v^tvixxxu and tonos, tone] induced by, or ac- 
companying growth [Bot.]. 

IBUe, f^t »do ; m9, h«t ; mine ; Q6t« t tiUie ; tabdn. 




av^lil (9'-v^l') ^•*- [L. ad and voter e, be strong] to 
ctVcxii profit- to assist;— v.i. to be oi use or advan- 
tage ; to answer the purpose ; — n. advantage ; use ; benefit. 
To avail one's self, to take advantage. 
•iTT'iiloKilifTT (a-va-la-bil-i-ti) n. state of being 
dVdllclUlllLy available; availableness. 
«>.^oi'|oK1pk (a-va-la-bl) a. capable of being used to 
avdllctuic advantage; profitable; valid. 
fiTmitoKl^arKaoc! (a-vaAla-bl-nes) n. state of 
ciVcillclUICllC£>:) being available ; efficacy. 
availahlv (^^-va^la-bli) adv. in an available man- 
ctv dlldUiy jier ; ^^jth success or effect ; profitably. 
avalatlf'Vlf* (av-a-lansh) n. [F. fr. L. ad and 
ctVdlctllUllc; 'vallis, valley] a snow-slip; a vast 
body of snow, ice, or earth, sliding down a mountain. 
avania (a-vaAni-a) n. [Turk.] an imposition, or 
dVdllld exaction, by the Turkish government. 
avanf-rnnripr (a-vant'koo-n-er) n. [F.] a 
avcxiAb v,v7Uj,A\^i forerunner ; a harbinger. 

avanturine, aventurine J-veStf^rin) 

n. [F. aventure, chance] an artificial gem whose com- 
position was discovered by chance ; a variety of quartz 
containing spangles of mica or other mineral. 
oTrofipfk (av-a-ris) n. [L. avarus, greedy] excessive 
dVdi XV^C 2ove of money or gain ; greediness. 


(av-a-rish-us) a. actuated by avarice ; 

covetous; grasping. 
a variptnil^lv (av-a-risn-us-li) adv. in an avarici- 
dVdiiui^^uoijr ousmanner; covetously; greedily. 
»iTT'i«*ir»*r»iics«<ic«c« (av-a-rish-us-nes) n. undue 
aVdnClUUbnebb love of money. 
a^yacf (a-vasf) int. [D. hovd vast, hold fast] cease 1 
dVdS>t jiold! stop! enough! 

p^ofar* (av-a-taf) n. [Skr. avatdra, descent] the 
dVdtdi descent of a deity to earth ; the incarnation 
of a god ; manifestation. 

a Tro 1 1 n f (a-vawnf) int. [F. avant, forward] begone ! 
dVdUXlt withdraw! away! 

avP ^^^^> aAve) int. [L., hail] hail; farewell; — n. an 
•**^ Ave Maria; a salutation. Ave Mana, Ave 
Mary, a prayer to the Virgin Mary. 
aVPnaPPOim (av-e-na^shus) a. [L. avena, oats] 
*** ciidv^cvjuo pertaining to, or resembling, oats. 
a ■!»•<* ri n o-«k (av^-naj) n. rent or other duty payable 
dVCIldgC in oats [Feudal Law]. 
a\rAn<ar n-xre^nrM' (a-ve-ner, -nur) n. the pro- 
dVCUCl, dVCllUl vender-'keeper of the royal 
stables [Feudal Law]. 

Q VPn f>*P (a-venj') v.t. [O.F. fr. L. ad and vindicare, 
. .^* .5^ claim] to take satisfaction for injury; to 
inflict pain on the wrong-doer ;—v.i. to execute vengeance. 
a.VPnP"Pfll1 (?^"'^enj-fool) a. avenging; revengeful; 
"* '' ^**o^* "* vengeful ; full of vengeance. 
avpnO'P'r (^^-ven-jer) n. one that avenges. Aven- 
d V ^ixg ex ggj. Qf blood, see Numbers xxxv. 12. 
fl-VPnollcj (a-ve^nus) a. [G. a. and L. vena, vein] 
a.v exiv^uo without veins ; as an avenous leaf [Bot.]. 
QTrp«-io (aV-enz) n. any plant of the genus Geum; 
**'' ^^^^"^ Gewmurhanum is the herb-bennet. 

aventail (aV-en-taOn. Seeventail. 

AvPflf inp (av^n-tln) n. one of the seven hills on 
i 1. V ^11 \,M.i.iM^ which Eome is built ; a place of refuge. 
aVPnflirP (a-ven-tur) n. [adventure] a mischance 
•* * ^** i-"* t causing a person's death without felony. 
aVfinUP (av^e-nu) n. [L. advenire, come to] an 

, ^ entrance to any place; passage; a walk in 

a park or garden, usually planted with trees. 
aVPr ^^'^^^^ ■^•*- fl^- ^^ and verus, true] to declare 
'**'-'* positively ; to assert with confidence ; to allege. 
Q xrPraP'P (av'-€-raj) a. [O.F. fr. L. habere, have] con- 
"'o'^ taining a mean proportion ; ordinary ;— 
n. a sum or quantity intermediate to a number of sums 
or quantities ; a general statement based on a comparison 
of diflferent cases •,—v.t. to reduce to a mean ; to propor- 
tion \—v.i. to be, or form, an average. General average, 
a proportionate payment to cover loss sustained, or 
expense incurred, for the general safety of a ship and 
cargo. On an average, taking the mean deduced from 
a number of examples. Particular average, the pay- 
ment made for unavoidable damage to a ship or cargo. 
Petty or accustomed average, the allowance made for 
the incidental expenses of a voyage. 
aVPraCPlv (av'-e-raj-lDo^v. in an average ormean 

^ o^'J' manner; lying between two extremes. 

avprmpnf (a-ver'-ment) n. act of averring; affir- 
dvcx xxxc;xxL mation ; positive assertion ; verifica- 
tion ; [Law] offer to justify or prove. 
AvPrnal Avprnian (^-ver-nal, -ni-an) a. 
/^VCllldl, rVVClllldll pertaining to Lake 
Avernus, in Campania, near which was the fabled 
entrance to the lower world. 

avprrnnrafinn (av-e-rung-ka^shun) n. the 
aVCri UllCdUUIl act of removal. 
»jTTpfft|fip»s4-f\t- (av-e-rung-kaitur) n. [L. aver- 
<^^^^ X uxxv.di.v^x runcare, remove] a contrivance 
for cutting ofi' brandies at a height above the head, as a 
pair of shears attached to a pole. 

nvpr«janf (<}-ver-sant) a. [L. awrsaW, turn away] 
dvcx odxxL showingthebackoftherighthand[Her.]. 
oTrprQP (a-vers') a. turned away; having a repug- 
o, V c;x ot nance or opposition of mind ; unwilling. 
a VPr^pIv (?'-vers-li) adv. [L. aversus, turned away] 
dvc;xoc;xy backwardly; unwillingly; reluctantly. 
OTrprQpnpQC (a-vers-nes) n. quality or state of 
dvc;xoc^xxeoo being averse ; aversion. 
a VPr^iotl fe-ver-shun)n. opposition or repugnance 
dvcx oxv^xx of mind; dislike; antipathy; contrariety 
of nature ; the cause of repugnance. 
OTT/riff (a-verf) v.t. [L. avertere, pp. aversus, turn 
d V ex u away] to turn aside or away. 
OTrprfpr (a-ver'-ter) n. one that, or that which, 
d V ex ucx averts, or turns away. 
mr*irf iKIfi (a-ver^tibl)a. preventable ; that may be 
dVCX LXUXC averted, or warded ofi". 
a Tri a i-inrt (a-vi-a'-shon) n. [L. avis, a bird] the art of 
dVldLXUll jiyi„g through the air. 
oTrinfr»r (a-vi-at-or) n. one who devotes himself to 
dVXdtUX the art of aviation. 

aviniltlirp (a^vi-kul-tur) n. [L. avis, bird, and 
dviv^uxLuxe cultura, culture] the care of birds. 

avid (aV-id) a. eager ; greedy. 

a viHitv (?'-'^'d-i-ti) n. [L. avidus, greedy] an intense 

dvxvxxLjr desire ; strong appetite ; eagerness. 

a ^ri fa 1 1 n a (a-vi-faw-na) n. [L. avis, bird, and E. 

dVXXdUXXd fauna] the birds of a district. 

a vifal (av-i-tal) a. [L. avus, grandfather] of, or per- 

d V X Ldx taining to, a grandfather or ancestor. 

OTri'^anHiim (av-i-zan-dum) n. {advise] private 

dvxz.dxxuuxxx consideration [Scots Law]. 

aTTTinaHrk (av-6-ka^r>)?i. [Mex.] the alligator-pear, 

d V UUdUU the fruit of a West Indian tree 

n\Tf\nry\-\r\r\ (av-o-kaAshun) n. [L. ah and vocare, 

dVUCdLlUXX eall] act of .ailing; diverting from 

some employment ; the business that calls ofi'; business. 

atrrkr^af i-\7-fi (a-vok-a-tiv) a. calling off; — n. a 

d V UCdUX V C dissuasion ; that which calls off. 

a vrtO^ f r»t*V (a-vok-a-tur-i) a. recalling, said esp. of 

<^y^y^o.K,KJi y letters recalling subjects to their 

native country in times of war. 

nTTr\nf3,i- fitrr»o<af (av^o-set) n. [It. avocetta] a 

aVOCei, dVObCt kind of wading Wrd. 

Q vni H (^■"Void') v.t. [L. ex and viduus, empty] to keep 

aVKJiKi at a distance from ; to make void ; to annul or 

vacate ; to evade, as a plea ; — v.i. to become vacant, as a 

benefice ; to withdraw. 

nrrrtiA^htlf^ (a-voi-da-bl) a. capable of being 

dVUXUdUXC avoided ; preventable. 

ri'\Tr\\r\rir\cf^ (a-voi-dans) n. the act of shunning; 

dvuxu.dxx^e the state of being vacant, as a benefice. 

a,V0iQ6r (a-vol-der) n. one that shuns, or avoids. 

aT7Tkir11#:»cc (a-void-les) a. that cannot be avoided ; 
dVUXUXCOa inevitable; unavoidable. 
avnirHnnni«i (av-ur-du-poiz') n. [F. fr. L. 
a,VKJi.i \au|^v-»io iiahere, have, de, of, and pensum, 
weight] a weight for ordinary commodities, in which a 
pound contains 16 ounces, or 7000 Troy grains. 
avnilpVl (a-vouch') v.i. [O.F. fr. L. ad and vocare, 
dvuuexx ejjjj] to declare positively ;— n. evidence. 
avmipliaHIp (a-vouch-a-bl) a. capable of being 
dVULxexxdLrxe avouched, or maintained, 
o T7-/-ki 1 /»Vi m on f (a-vouch-raent) n. a declaration ; 
dVOUClllllCllL the act of avouching. 
avHTAT" fe"Vou') v.t. [O.F. fr. L. advocare] to declare 
dVUW openly; to own; to confess; [Law] to ac- 
knowledge and j ustif y, asan act done •,~v.i. to acknowledge 
and justify, as an act done [Law]. 
»5 Trr»tTTO Kl <a (a-vou-a-bl) a. capable of being avowed 
aVOWaOie or confessed. 

Fate, fir, ^do ; me, her ; mine ; n6te ; tune ; moon. 




a VOTxral (^-vou-al) n. the act of avowing ; an open 
dVU W dl Qj. frank declaration. 
avO'WflflPf^ (a-vou-ans) n. avowal; a candid 
dVU wctiiv^c admission; frank acknowledgment. 
»iTr/^Txr?irif (a-vou^nt) w. one that raalces an 
aVOVVdnt avowry [Law]. 

nvnxATPHlv (a-vou-ed-li) adv. in an avowed 
eivuwcviij^ manner; openly. 

avowee (a-vou-e') n. See advowee. 

o vnwrv (§^-vou-ri) n. patronage ; a patron ; [Law] 
d V u w i j^ the act of the distrainer of goods, who, in an 
action of replevin, acknowledges and justifies the taking. 
a VI 1 1 ^i on (^-vul^hun) n. [L. avellcre, pp. avulsus, 
d V UioiUii pluck off] a tearing asunder ; a fragment 
torn off ; sudden removal of land by flood, etc. 
aviinPlllflr (^■vung-ku-lar) a. [L. avunculus. 
dV uiiv^uicti uncle] of, or pertaining to, an uncle. 
fl^Vfl if (^■^^*' ) ^•^- [wait] to wait or look out for ; to 
d w cti \, expect ; to be in store for ; to be ready for. 
oTxrpl^p (a-wak') v.t. [A.S. dwacian] to rouse 
dWciA.c froui sleep; to arouse from a state resem- 
bling sleep, as from death or inaction ; — v.i. to come 
out of sleep ; to bestir oneself ;— a. not sleeping ; in a 
state of wakefulness or vigilance. 

OTxrat^PII (a-waAkn) v.t. and i. [A.S. dwcecnan] to 
ct w ctA.c;ii rouse from sleep or torpor. 
Q.rTTol^ptnpj> (a-waikn-er)n. one that, orthatwhich, 

flwaWpninP" (a-wa-kn-ing) a. rousing:— «. the 
ctwctivf^iiiiig act of awaking; a revival of interest. 

awan tin^ (a-won-tlng) a. absent ; wanting. 

a'XAmrH (''>"wawrd') v.t. [ward] to give by judicial 
dwctiu determination; to assign by sentence; to 
adjudge •,—n. a judgment, sentence, or final decision ; 
the decision of arbitrators in a case submitted ; the paper 
containing such decision. 

a\itT'xr(\(^t' (^^-wawr^er) n. one that awards; a 
awdi uci judge : an arbitrator. 
a ■\A7'3 rf* (a-war) a. [A.S. gewicr, conscious] watchful ; 
ct w cti c vigilant ; cognizant. 

OTYTocVl (^-wosh') cMv. level with, tossed by, or 
ctwdoii covered with, the water [Naut.]. 
OTxroTT (a-wa') adv. [A.S. onweg] absent; at a dis- 
ct w €xy tance ; under ; l)egone. Away-going, depart- 
ing ; a departure. Away with ! take away. (I cannot) 
away with, tolerate. To make away with, to destroy. 
o^'^rp (aw) n. [Icel. oof] profound fear mingled with 
^'"^ reverence; dread; veneration ;—?>.<. to strike 
with fear and reverence. Awe-struck, overwhelmed 
with awe. Aweless, not feeling, or not inspiring, awe. 

aweary (a-we-ri) a. tired ; fatigued. 

o-rrrpof t-ipf (a-wcTH^T) odv. towaids the wind, 

a,vv ^ctuiici distinguished from alee. 

Q Tirpi crVi 0>-wa') adv. atrip ; having the flukes (of the 

o, w ^1^11 anchor) just clear of the Dottom [Naut.]. 

a'wfill (aw'-fool) a. striking with awe; very im- 

o, w i ui pressive or majestic ; dreadful ; caused by awe. 

a"wfn11v (aw'-fool-i) adv. in an awful manner; 

cbwiuiiy terribly ; excessively. 

a"wfll 1 n P^^ (aw'-fool-nes) n. the quality of striking 

a w 1 uiiicoo ^nij ^^g . jjggp solemnity. 

a Twll i 1 «a (a-hwll) adv. for a while ; for some time ; 

a w inic for a short time. 

Q-frrtf'TTTO «-f1 (awk-ward) a. [M.E. atck, wrong, and 

a, w A. w cti VI loard] wanting dexterity; bungling; 

ungraceful ; embarrassing : dangerous. 

a -ixrlrTxra rrl 1 tt (awk-ward-Ii) adv. in an ungraceful 

dWK.WdrUiy manner ; bunglingly. 

aTTTl^Txrori-1t-iAc>c (awk-ward-nes) n. the quality 

dWK.Wdranebb of being awkward. 

a.'wl (awl) n. [A.S.] a pointed instrument for making 

•* •* * small holes. Awlwort, a small aquatic plant. 

a-Vrn (awn) n. [Icel. ogn] the bristle or beard of barley, 

cxwii oats, grasses, etc. 
L, O'lXT'ninP* (aw-ning) n. [F. auvent, penthouse] a 
r a,vviiiiig cover of canvas to shelter from the sun's 

rays ; the poop-deck beyond the bulkhead of the cabin. 

Awning-block, a small pulley-block for stretching or 

supportmg an awning over a deck or elsewhere. 

a\xrr»<ir1 QTirrifr (awnd, aw^ni) o. having awns ; 

dWneU, awny fuU of beard. 

S'urnlf^cc (awn-less) a. without awn or beard ; des- 

ctwiiicaa titute of awns. 

a^wrv (^"") ^'"- and a. turned or twisted toward 
dvvxjr one side; asquint; aside from the line of 
truth, or right reason ; perverse. 

a v-p aw (aks) n. [A.S. eax] an instrument, usually 
ct.A.C.) dA. of iron, with a steel edge, for hewing tim- 
ber, chopping wood, etc. Axe-head, the iron of an axe. 
Axe-stone, a mineral ; jade or nephrite. An axe to 
grind, some private purpose to serve. 
a vi a 1 (ak-si-al) a. pertaining to an axis ; forming the 
d.A.idi axis : [Anat/] pertaining to the head and trunk. 

a-viallxr (ak^i-al-i) twiv. towards the axis; with re- 
JLldliy gard to the axis. 
a vi fprni 1 ^ (ak-sif^-rus) a. [L. axis and ferre, bear] 
ct.A.iic;.i yju.0 consisting of an axis without leaves. 
a vifnrm (ak-si-form) a. [L. axis, axis, and /orma, 
cx.A.iiV/1 111 shape] in the form of an axis. 
a V i 1 (ak'-sil) n. [L. axilla] the angle between the upper gj(jg of a branch or leaf, and the stem or branch. 
axile (^H^^l) *• pertaining to, or situated in, the 

a vi 1 1 a (ak-sil^) n. [L. axilla, dim. of axis, axis] the 

CI..A.111CI armpit ; an axil. 

avillar a-villar^r (ak'-si-lar, -i) a. pertaining 

dAiildi, dJLliXdiy to the armpit; situated in, 

or rising from, the axilla. 

a vinm (ak'-si-um)n.[G.] a self-evident and necessary 

'*"'*'**^*** truth orproposition; an established principle. 

axiomatic, axiomatical Ski'lkS^^ 

pertaining to, or having the nature of, an axiom. 
o vir^mafif^allfT' (ak-si-o-mat^i-kal-i) adv. in an 
d.A.lUllldl.lV.dliy axiomatic manner. 
o vie (ak'-sis) n.; pi. axes (ak^es) [L.] the straight 
*•*■*" line on which a body revolves, or may be sup- 
posed to revolve ; the second vertebra of the neck ; the 
central part of a plant, round which the others nre dis- 
posed ; a medial line between corresponding parts. Axis 
cylinder, the central portion of a nerve. 
av1<3 avlf^ f rp>A (ak'-sl, -tre) n. [A.S. eax^ a 
d.A.ic:,ct.A.ic-i.i cc transverse 
bar connecting the naves of the op- 
posite wheels of a carriage ; an axle. 
avI^H (ak^ld) a. having an 
dJvicu axle or axles. 
avolnfl (ak'-so-lotl) 
aXOiOLl a tailed 
found in Mexico. 

axotomous S'^-g^S! 

axis and tome, cutting] cleaving in a 
direction perpendicular to the axis [Min.l. 
aviltlP'P (ak^unj) n. [L. axis, axle, and wngere, 
dAUligc grease] the internal fat of animals ; lard. 
av avP ('^ '^^' [Icel. ci, ever = A.S. a] yes; yea; 
*^Ji ^j^ (d) always, ever;— ri., p^. ayes (Tz) an affir- 
mative vote: a voter m the affirmative. Aye-aye, a 
quadruped of Madagascar (named from its cry). 
•STron (a^ya) n. [Pg.] a lady's-maid or nurse [East 
dydll Indies]. 

A ^olpo (a-zaAle-a) n. [G. azcdeos, dry] a genus of 
x^^dicct flowering plants. 

ayarnlp (az^-roT) n. [A.] the Neapolitan medlar, 
d^di uic a European snrub, or its fruit. 
a y i m 1 1 f Vi (az^i-muth) n. [A.] an arc of the horizon 
d^iiiiULii intercepted between 
the meridian of the place and a ver- 
tical circle passing through the 
centre of any object. Azimuth 
circle, a vertical circle, or one pass- 
ing through the zenith of the merid- 
ian and cutting the horizon at right 
angles. Azimuth compass, an in- 
strument for finding the magnetic 
azimuth or the amplitude of a 
heavenly body. Azimuth dial, a 
dial whose style is perpendicular to 
the plane of the horizon. Magnetic azimuth, an arc of 
the horizon, intercepted between the vertical circle pass- 
ing through any object and the magnetic meridian. 

azimuthal SS*"-^^^ "■ p^^t^'"i°« "^ "^« 

a^nip (a-z6-ik) a. [G. aand zoe, life] destitute of 
d^Uiu organic life ; applied to rocks or strata. 
a 'yr»r»cr>*armia (a-z5-0-8p?r'-mi-a) n. [G. azoos, 
d^UU&pcx ilXId lifeless, and aper-ma, seed] ab- 
sence of, or lack of vitality in, the spermatozoids [Med.]. 

. [Mex.] 


Azimuth compass. 

Fate, fir, §ido ; me, h«r ; mine ; note ; tune ; moon. 




Q_-.4.r^ (a-zof, aiWt) n. [G. a and zoe, life] a gas 

txZiKJ LC unfit tor respiration ; nitrogen. 

a ynf io (^■-zoWk) a. of, pertaining to, or containing 

tXCtULlK, azote or nitrogen. 

a ynf i y<a (az^-tlz) v.t to nitrogenize ; to render 

a^ULX^C nitrogenous ; to deprive of life. 

Q TiirA (azh-ur, aAzhur) n. [A. lazioard, lapis lazuli] 

d^Ul C lapis lazuli ; the fine blue colour of the sky ; 

cobalt blue; the sky; [Her.] the tincture blue;— a. 

sky-blue •,—v.t. to colour blue. 

jj_„^_, J, ---jT-,£i (az^im) w.CG. azwmos, un- 

d^yiiiy d^yillC leavened] the Jewish paschal 

loaf ; unleavened bread. 

BU is the second letter, and the first consonant, in the 
) *^ English alphabet. In music, B is the seventh 
tone in the diatonic scale of C major. Not to know B 
from a bull's foot, to be grossly ignorant or illiterate. 
Ha a (ba) n. [Imit.] the cry or bleating of sheep -—v.i. 
Udct (;q cry or bleat as sheep. 

■D__i [baial) n. [H. ha'cu, lord] the supreme male 
Oddl divinity among the Phoenicians. 
Rflali^m (ba^^'l'i^™) '"'• *^® worship of Baal; 

■Roolief Riaalifpk (b§Aal-ist, -it)7i. a worship- 
£>aailbL, DddllLC perof Baal; an idolater. 
Ka Ka (ba^ba, ba-ba') n. [E\] a kind of fruit-cake, first 
UdUd made in Poland. 

'DoKKiff m«afat (bab^it-met^l) n. a soft anti- 
JDdUUltt-lilCLdX friction alloy of copper, anti- 
mony, and tin, named from the inventor. 

babblative ^^^^ti"" ^'''° ^" ''^^^^^"^ '' 

UoKKlia (bab^l) v.t. [ha, a sound uttered by an 
UdUUiC infant] to prate ; to chatter;— v.i. to utter 
words imperfectly ; to prate ; to chatter ; to make a 
constant murmuring noise, as a small stream running 
over rocks \--n. idle talk ; unmeaning words ; the mur- 
mur of running water. 

babblement Ser""'"*^ "' ''"^ '"'^ ' ^'''' ' 

KoKKIoi- (bab-ler) n. one that babbles; an idle 
UdU UiCl talker ; a tell-tale : a thrush-like bird. 
Ha Hhl i n P" (bab^-ling) n. foolish talk ; indistinct, in- 
UdLfUlllig coherent speech ; confused murmuring. 
HaHf* (bab) n. [Etym. doubtful] an infant; a young 
UdUC child of either sex ; a baby. 
HaHpl (barbel) n. [H.] a confused combination of 
\ja,u^l sounds ; confusion ; disorder. 

babirussa, babiroussa ftfei'iSf S 

East Indian wild, horned hog. 

HaHonn (b*-b66n') n. [P.] a monkey with a long 
ua.UKJ\Jii. f^Qg^ broad high muzzle, cheek-pouches, 
canine teeth, and naked callosities on the buttocks. 
HnHrinnicH (b?i-b66n-ish) a. hke, or shewing the 
UdUUUlxiail antics of, a baboon ; clownish. 
HaHrtrtcH (ba-boosh') n. [Per.] a slipper without 
DdDOObn a heel, used in Turkey. 
HaHii HaHr»r» (ba-boo) n. [Hind.] the Hindu 
DaDU, DdDOO form of Mr. or Sir. 
HaHv (baAbi) n. \hahe\ an infant; a babe ;^ doll; a 
uauy childish person. Baby - farmer, one that 
maintains children for a stipulated fee. Baby-house, 
a place for children's dolls and babies. Baby-jumper, 
a suspensory support for a child, attached to the ceiling 
of a room by an elastic strap, and used for exercise. 

babvhood (baAbi-hood) n. the period of infancy; 

i state of being a baby. 
HaHirissH (baibi-ish) a. having the appearance or 
UdUyxaiX the ways of a baby; like a baby; childish. 
HaHvicsm (baAbi-izm) n. babyhood; a childish 
ua.Kij ioiii^mode of speech ; childish conduct. 
Babvloflian (bab-l-lO-ni-an) a. Babylonish; 
•'^^- ^ jnagnificent; luxurious ;—n. an 

inhabitant of Babylonia ; an astrologer. 
B abvlon i r (bab-l-lon-lk) a. pertaining to Babylon, 
~I J' iv/iiiv. Of niade there ; disorderly; confused. 
RaHvlnnicsH (bab-i-lo^nish) a. pertaining to 
DdUyiOnibn Babylon; mixed; confused. 

harralanrf»aff* (bak-a-iaw'-re-at) n. [LowL.] 

UdCUdldUreate the degree of bachelor of arts. 

Ho/'r^ara Harraraf (bak-a-ra') n. [¥.} a 
UdUCdld, Udl..CdXdL game with cards be- 
tween gamblers and a banker. 

Har*raff» (bak-at) a. [L. bacca, berry] having a 
Lld\^l.<dUC pulpy nature, like a berry. 
Har'rHanal (bak-a-nal) n. [L. Bacchus, god of 
UdCCXXdXXdx ^ine] a devotee of Bacchus; one 
that indulges in drunken revels ; a revel ; an orgy ; a 
bacchanalian song or dance ;— a. of, or pertaining to, 
Bacchus ; riotous ; noisy. 

Ho^/^Viorifilia (bak-a-naAli-a) feasts in 
Udl^CXXdXXdXXd honour of Bacchus; drunken 
feasts or revels. 

Hnr^^Hanalian ( bak-a -naAli-an) a. bacchanal; 
Ud^^XXdXXdXXdXX _^ a drunken reveller. 

bacchanalianism SS^eS^Sj'™^ "' 

HaPpHanf (bak'-ant) n. a priest of Bacchus; a 
UdL. ^..XXdlx L bacchanal ; a reveller •,—a. worshipping 
Bacchus; revelling. 

Ho^oHonfoi (ba-kan-te) n. a priestess of Bacchus ; 
UdCCildULC a female bacchanal. 
HarpHip (bak-ik) a. relating to Bacchus; jovial 
VJaX^y^lllV^ with intoxication ; drunken. 
Happiff»l*nn<5 (bak-sif^-rus) a. [L. bacca, berry, 
Udd..xxcx u uo and ferre, bear] producing berries. 
Happivnrr>11'5 (bak-siv^-ms) a. [L. vorare, de- 
lJa.K,\^lv\jl uuo vour] subsisting on berries. 
HapHplnr (bach-e-lur) n. [Low L. haccalarius, 
Udv^XXClUX holder of a farm] a man of any age who 
has not been married ; one that has taken the first 
degree at a college or university ; a young knight. 
Bachelor's-buttons, an herbaceous perennial plant. 
H o ^H o1 f\f\ c m (bach^-lur-izm) n. state of being 
UdCllClUI 1^111 a bachelor: bachelorhood. 
HooViolrkfol-iirv (bach - e - lur - ship) n. state of 
DaCneiOr^nip being a bachelor. 
Hapillu^ (ba-sil-us) n.; pi. bacilli (ba-sil-I) [N.L.] 
UdC'XXXLXo a genus of rod-like germs found in the 
blood and tissues of animals in a diseased state. 
Ha pIt (bak) 71. [F. hac, tray] a large tub or vessel into 
Ud^i^ which the wort; etc., is drawn for the purpose 
of cooling, straining, mixing, etc. ; a broad, flat boat. 
Ha pW" (bak) n. [A.S. bcec] the upper or hinder part of 
VJsXy,v^ an animal, from the neck to the loins ; the 
part opposed to the front ; the rear ; the outward or 
upper part, as opposed to the inner or lower ; the part 
opposite to that which fronts the speaker or actor, or the 
part out of sight ■,—a. belonging to the back ; reversed ; 
remote ; overdue \—adv. to the place from which one 
came ; to, or toward, a former state, condition, or time ; 
away from the front ; in a state of restraint or hindrance; 
in return •,—u.t. to get upon the back of ; to support ; to 
force backward ; to endorse ; to bet in favour oi;—v.i. to 
move or go back. Back-hand, writing sloped the reverse 
way. Back-handed, with the back oi the hand directed 
backwards ; indirect ; sarcastic. Back-hander, a blow 
with the back of the hand. Back-painting, a method of 
varnishing mezzotint prints affixed to glass, so that they 
appear to be painted on the glass. Back-piece, back- 
plate, a piece of armour for covering the back. Back- 
rent, arrears of rent. Behind the back, in one's absence ; 
not openly. To back down, to yield. To back out, to 
retract ; to retire from an uncomfortable position. To 
back up, to support. To back water, to reverse the 
motion of the oars. To turn the back on, to abandon ; 
to neglect. 

H a r*lrHi f <a (bak'-bit) v.t. to speak evil of in absence; 
UdCX^UXtC —v.i. to revile the absent. 
HapVHlff^r (bak-bi-ter) n. one that backbites; a 
UdCl^. ux LCX secret calumniator or detractor. 
HapVHif iflO* (bak'-bl-ting) n. the act of slander- 
UdV^i^uXLXXXg ing ; secret calumny. 
HapVHnarH (baK-bord) n. a board to which the 
Udl^^x^UUdX KX hack is fastened to prevent stooping 
HaplrHntIP (bak-bdn)7i. the spine ; a main sup- 
Ud^r^ULrxxc port; firmness; moral principle. 
V\nf^\^\\r\ryciA (bak-bond) a. vertebrate ; furnished 
DaCKUOneU with a backbone. 
HaplrHnnr (bak-dor) a. unworthily secret; clandes- 
UdUJVUUUX tine; — n. a back or private entrance ;Uv 
an indirect method. ' 

HaplfPf (balc'-er) n. one who, or that which, backs 
Ud^xvcx or supports another ; one that bets. 
K'l/'lrfnll (bak-fawl) n. in wrestling, a throw or 
UdCKIdli fall on the back. 

Fate, f&r, ^do ; me, her ; mine ; nSte ; tune ; m66n. 


Ka n\rcra m m nn (bak-gam-unj n. [E. bdck, and,lIimUIl MJE. gamen, play] a game 
plaved by two persons with pieces or men, dice-boxes, 
ana dice. 

Ka n\ro'rr\^^t^ H (bak-ground) n. ground or surface 
UctCi^gl UUilu jn tjje ^^^^ or behind ; a place of 
obscurity or shade ; a situation little noticed. 
Vvopl^ifip* (bak-ing) n. support, physical or moral ; 
uav>A.ixig mountings ; endorsement ; the act of 
providing anything with a support. Backing-hammer, 
a hammer used in beating into shape the backs of books. 
Ka r't'Cfif (bak^et) n. a setting back or backward ; 
Uctl^is^act a check ; relapse. 

backsheesh, backshish gSsS.^ " 

Ka/'lrcirl*^ (bak-sTd) n. back or hinder part of any 
uaun.aiuc thing; the rear; the buttocks. 
Haplr^liHp (bak^lld) v.i. to fall back or oflf; to 
ucxv..i^sxiuc; apostatize ; to relapse. 
hiPPlr^liHpr (bak-slMer) n. one that backslides; 
uctt^i^oiiuc^i a renegade ; an apostate. 
hflPlr^liHinP" (bak-sll^ing) n. a falling back in 
ua.v..ivoiiuiiig principle or practice ; apostasy. 

backstair, backstairs ^^^ntli.S'g 

backstairs of a house ; indirect ; unfair ; intriguing ;— «. 
a stair or stairs at the back part of a house ; private stairs. 
hapVcf a^rc (bak'-staz) long ropes extending 
ua.^^ jvs Lctjr o from the top-mast heads to both 
sides of a ship, to assist in supporting the mast. 
Ka nVcf if r'Vi (l>ak-sticn) n. a method of sewing in 
uct^^jvotitv^ii which the stitches overlap. 
haptQTxrnrH (bak-s<">rd) n. a sword with one 
ua.u A.O w ui u sharp edge ; a single-stick. 
hapWwarH (bak-ward) adv. with the back in 
UctV^A-WctiU advance; toward, or on, the back; 
in past time ; from a better to a worse state ; in a reverse 
manner or direction ; contrarily ;— a. directed to the 
back or rear; unwilling; dull of apprehension; late or 
behindhand in time. 

K o r^tT-Tzro rA o f i r\n (bak-war-da^shun) n. on the 
UdCK.W^drUd1,lUn g^ock Exchange, a con- 
sideration paid by the seller of stock for tne right to 
postpone its delivery for a time. 

Koplf TzrprHlv (bak'-ward-li) adv. in a reluctant 
uav.. jv w CXI viiy or unwilling manner. 
Ka/^lrTTrnt-rlrKioo (bak-wani-nes) n. state or 
UciL,K.Wcil UllCbb quahtyof being backward. 

backwards Cbak-wardz) adv. backward. 

bfl pk^Wfl f Pr (bak-waw-ter) n. water held back by 
ua,ui:^wct.Ld some obstruction, as a dam ; water 
thrown back by the turning of a water or paddle-wheel. 
Kar't'TxmnrIc (bak-woodz) outlying, un- 
uctv^n. w uuua cleared and unsettled districts. 
Ha rlrixrnnH cm an (bak-woodz-man) n. one 
Ud,CK.WOOUS>IIian uyin^ j^ t^g backwoods. 

Kq r on (ba-kun, ba^kn) n. [O.F.] hog's fiesh salted or 
ua,\.,yjii pickled and dried, usually in smoke. To 
save one's bacon, to guard one's self from injury. 
Rafonian (ba-k(>ni-an) a. pertaining to Francis 
ua.K,\jiiia.ii Bacon, or to the inductive system of 
philosophy ;— ?). an adherent of the Baconian philosophy; 
one that believes Bacon wrote Shakespeare's plays. 
Harfi^rinlncricf (l>ak-te-ri-ol^Vjist) n. an ex- 
Udl^LCl iUlOglbt pert in bacteriology. 
Kar^f farirklrkfrrr (bak-te-ri-ol-o-ji) n. [G. bak- 
UdCLCilUlUgy terion, little stick, and logos, 
discourse] the doctrine or study of bacteria. 
Kar'f *»rirklTTcic (bak-te-ri-ol-i-sis) n. [G. lusts, 
UcH,LCllUiy2)i& resolving] the adaptation of 
filters to the purification of sewage and sewage effluent. 
hfl pfprinm (bak-te-ri-um) «..- pi. bacteria (bak- 
ua,K,\.K^ii.u.ii.i te-ri-a) one of the micro-organisms 
found in decomposing infusions of organic bodies. 
Ha r*! 1 1 nm f^i-r^r (bak-u-lom^-tri) n. [L. baculum, 
ucti.,uiUiiiCl,iy gtaff^ and G. metron, measure] 
the measurement of heights or distances by staves. 
bflH (^^"^l) *• [M.E. bad] wanting good qualities, 
urcxu physical or moral; evil; vicious; disagreeable; 
painful ; noxious ;— n. that which is bad. 

bade (bad) preterite of the verb bid. 

- HaHp*P ^''^j^ "• CLow L. baga, ring, collar] a dis- 
I\v *^^*^o ^ tinctive mark or sign worn on the person ; 
— v.t. to mark with, or as with, a badge. 

65 baignoire 

Ka H o*«ar (bai^r) n. [perhaps fr. badoe, in reference 
UctvigCi to the white stripes ,n^ 

on its forehead] a burrowmg 
quadruped related to the bear; 
—t:t. to follow up with great 
eagerness, as the badger is 
hunted ; to pester or worry. 
Badger-legged, having one leg 
sliorter than the other. 

badiaga [^^utg'a*fLu mdianbad^er. _ 

sponge, the powder of which is used to remove the dis- 
coloration of Druised flesh. 

haHip"f^nn (ba-dij-un) «. [F.] a mixture of plaster 
•-"**^*& cv^ii and freestone, used to fill small holes in 
statues ; sawdust and glue used to conceal defects in wood. 
HaHinaP"P (bad-i-nazh', bad-i-naj)n. [F. badiner, 
Uctuiilct^c joke] light or playful discourse. 
hflHIv (bad-li) adv. in a bad manner; not well; 
Udviljr dangerously ; unfortunately. 
K o r1 m i ri f rkn (bad-min-tun) n. [name of a country 
OaUinini.Un gg^t of the Duke of Beaufort] an 
out-door game similar to lawn-tennis, but played with 
shuttlecocks ; a kind of claret-cup. 
t-wo/-1f|pcc (bad-nes)n. state of being bad; want of 
*-'"''^**^*" gowl qualities, natural or moral. 
hflfflp (baf-1) v.t. [Etym. unknown] to treat with 
""'***^ insult or mockery ; to check by shifts and 
turns ; to elude by perplexing. 

Kaffl*ar (baf-ler) n. one that baffles, checks, eludes, 
Udiiic;i thwarts, or defeats. 

Kofflil^p- (baf-hng) a. disconcerting; confusing; 
Uctiiixiig bewildering ; [Naut.] variable. 
K'lfflirirrlTT (baf-ling-li) adv. m a baffling manner; 
Damingiy so as to baffle. 

Koff Koffa (baft, baf-ta) n. [Per.] a fine cotton 
Udlt, UdlLcL cloth made in the East. 
ha P" ('^ag) n. [Etym. unknown] a sack or pouch, used 
"^& to hold, preserve, or convey anything ; what is 
contained in a bag; a definite amount of certain com- 
modities ; — v.t. to put into a bag ; to seize or entrap ;— 
v.i. to swell like a full bag ; to hang loosely. Bag and 
baggage, with aU belongmgs ; wholly. To let tlie cat 
out of the bag, to reveal a secret. 
t-jo craoofk (ba-gas') n. [F.] the refuse of the sugar- 
Ud^dooc cane, after crushing. 
Ha 0*a fpllp (bag-a-tel) n. [FJ a trifle ; a thing of 
Ud^dUCiic; jjo importance; a game played with 
balls and a cue on a board having nine holes at one end, 
into which the balls are to be struck. 
ha.P'P'aP'e (bajc'-aj)n.[0.F.6afif«c, bundle] the tents. 

clothing, utensils, and other necessaries 
of an army. 


Ha ircr\ n cr (bag'-ing) 7i. the act of putting into bags; 
'^"'0 0***0 the cloth or materials for bags. 

(bag'-i-nes' n. the state or quality of 
being baggy. 

Ha fTf^M^ (b*^') *• having the appearance of a bag ; 
'^"ooJ bulging out loosely ; pufly. 


(bag-man) n. one that carries a bag; a 
commercial traveller. 

\f^ (ban-yo) n. [It.] a bathing-house; a bath; 

*'-' a trothel ; a prison. 
Kom-vit-kA (bag'-pip) n. a musical instrument used 
Oagpipe in Scotland. It 
consists of a leathern bag, which 
receives the air by a tube, which 
is stopped by a valve, and of pipes, 
into wnich the air is pressed by 
the performer. 

Dagpiper onetiiatplayson 
a bagpipe. 

H a OTwi 0" (bag-wig) n. an 18th 
'-'"'& ''* *& century wig, the 
back hair of which was inclosed in a bag. 

bah (ba) int. an exclamation of disgust or contempt. 

HaHaHnr (^la-ha^oor) 7i. [Hind.] a name of honour 
Udiiduui given to European oflicers. 
HaHar (ba-har')n. [A.] a measure of weight in the 
Udlldi East Indies, varying in different localities. 
H a i H a k" (bi^ ak) n. [Kuss.j a boat, usually with one 
UdiUdA. niast and sail, used on the Dnieper. 
Hoi crtt r\if-<a (bfi-nwor) n. [F.] a box in a theatre on 
UdlgllUUC the lowest tier. 


Fate, far, ado ; me, b@r ; mine ; note ; tune ; m66n. 





Sail ^^^'^ '"■*• ^^- ^(''J'"'^^^' bear a burden] to set free 
Uctil from custody, on security being given for the 
appearance, at a certain day and place, of the person 
bailed ; to deliver upon contract that the trust shall be 
faithfully executed; — n. the persons that procure the 
release of a prisoner, by becoming surety for his appear- 
ance in court; the security given. Bail-bond, a bond 
or obligation given by a prisoner and his surety, to 
insure the prisoner's re-appearance in court. To admit 
to bail, to release upon security given. To find bail, to 
procure persons to act as bail. 

1-|q{1 (bal) n. [O.F., barrier] a division between the 
"**** stalls of a stable ; a little bar laid on the tops of 
the stumps in cricket. To baU up, to order to throw up 
the arms, preparatory to robbing. 
Ha il ^"^^^ '"'• [Scand.] a hoop or ring ; the handle of a 
Uctli kettle, etc.; an arch-shaped support for an 
awning, etc. 

hail ^^^^^ '"'■ '-^' ^'^'*^^^' ^^^ ^ scoop ; a pail \—v.t. to 
Uctil from water by means of a scoop, pail, etc. 
KailaKI** (bWa-bl) a. capable of being admitted to 
UctlldUiC t)aii ;• admitting of bail. 
Ha i 1 a crp^ (bSAlaj) n. [L. bajulare, bear a burden! a 
Uctlldg c (^^t;y imposed upon the dehvery of goods. 
Haiipp (ba-le') n. the person to whom goods are 
UcLllCC committed in trust. 

Hailpr (bailer) «. one that bails out water; a vessel 
UdliCi for bailing water ; a ball that strikes the bails. 
Hailpv (baAli) n. [O.J\ bail, barrier] the outer walls 
Uctiicy of a castle ; the outer court of a castle. 
Hailip (ba^li) n- [O.F. hailli, bailiff] a municipal 
UctiiiC magistrate in Scotland. 
hail iff* (baAlif) n. a sheriff's deputy, appointed to 
uctiiiiJ. make arrests, collect fines, summon juries, 
etc.; a steward ; an overeeer ; a farm manager. Water- 
bailiff, an official appointed to protect rivers from poach- 
ing and other illegal fishing. 

haili'wipW (baAli-wik) 71. [A.S. wlc] the precincts 
uictiii w 1 v^xv. jn T^hich a baihff' has jurisdiction. 
hailmpnl" (bal-ment) n. a delivery of goods in 
uctiixiiciit trust; act of bailing a prisoner. 
ba ilnr (ba^^ur) n. one that delivers goods to another 
UfXiiyji y^ trust, for some particular purpose. 
hailnipPP (bal-pes) n. in law, a certificate issued to 
ua.iipic:^c a, person who has become surety as bail. 
hail<>tnan (balz^man) n. one that gives bail or 
kJci.iioj.iicLxi becomes securUy for another. 
Sain ma rip (bang-ma-re') n. [F.] a water-bath, 
uaxix xxxax xc ^^ ygg^ j^ cookery. 

Ra i ra m (bl-ram) «. [Per.] the name of two festivals 
j-»a,xx dxxx iri the Mohammedan year. 
Hairn (bam) n. [A.S. beam, fr. her an, bear a child] 
utxki. XX jjjj^t; ^hich is born ; a child. 
Kq j^ (bat) n. [Icel. beita\ any substance used to catch 
\ja.i.\, fjg}j_ etc.; anything serving to allure; entice- 
ment; temptation; refreshment taken on a journey;— 
v.t. to put a bait on or in ; to give food and drink to, upon 
the road ; to provoke and harass, as bulls by dogs •,~v.i. 
to stop to take refreshment on a journey. 
Haifpr (barter) n. one that baits or worries; one 
ua.1 UV.X tij^t torments or teases. 
baitiflP* (baAting) n. the act of worrying; long 
'' o continued annoyance; the act of furnishing 
a trap or hook with bait ; refreshment. 
bai^P ('^^^•* "■• tO-F- baies, baize, fr. L. badius, bay- 
•* ^*^ coloured] a coarse woollen stuff, with a long 
nap ; — v.t. to cover with baize. 

bakp (bak)i;.«. [A.S. bacan] to heat, dry, and harden, 
r J • "^ natural or artificial means ; to prepare for 
food, m a close place heated, or on a hot surface ;— f .i. to 
do the work of baking ;_to be baked. 
halrphnarH (bak-b6rd)n. aboard on which the 
wcxivcunjctx u (jough is prepared in making bread. 

bakehouse fOTbikkig.''' ^ ^°"'^ "'' ^''"'^'"^ 

bakpr (backer) n. one whose occupation is to bake 
, 7" "r; bread, biscuit, etc. Baker-foot, an ill-shaped 
foot Baker-legged, having legs that bend inwards at 
the knees. Baker's dozen, thirteen. 
ba.kprv (ba^ker-i) n. the trade or calling of a baker ; 

** ^~* J a bakehouse. 
bakinp* (ba-klng) n. the quantity baked at once. 
" " o . Baking-powder, any powder used instead 
of yeast in raising bread, etc. 

bakshish, baksheesh K^fg^a'^u?; 

Letter balance. 

Ra 1 a^'tl a (ba-le-na) n. [L.] a genus of aquatic mam- 
XJcticdict malia, including the Greenland whale. 
halanPP (bal-ans) n. [L. bis, twice, and lanx, 
UctlctllV^C plate] an appara- 
tus for weighing bodies ; a beam 
with two opposite scales ; act of 
comparing; estimate; a just 
proportion ; a wheel in a watch 
serving to regulate the motion of 
the others ; a sign in the zodiac, 
called Libra; — v.t. to weigh in a 
balance ;. to render equal in pro- 
portion, etc. ; to compare in relative force, value, etc. ; to 
estimate ; to adjust, as an account ; to sway back- 
wards and forwards ;— v.i. to be in equipoise ; to move 
toward, and then back; to fluctuate between opposite 
motives; to hesitate. Balance-beam, beam of a balance; 
a beam attached to the gate of a canal-lock, and used in 
opening and closing it. Balance-flsh, the hammer-headed 
shark. Balance-sheet, a paper giving a summation of 
accounts. Balance-step, the goose-step. Balance-wheel, 
the wheel regulating the beat in watches. Balance of 
power, international equilibrium. Balance of trade, 
the difference in value tjetween the imports and exports 
of a country. To balance books, to close the accounts 
in a ledger. To hold in balance, to keep in suspense. 
halanPPr (bal-an-ser) n, one that balances or 
Uctlctxxuci weighs ; an acrobat. «« 

V\^\nr\nif^A (bal-ko-nid) a. provided with a balcony 
UdlCUliiCU or balconies. 

ha IrTitl V (bal-ko-ni) n. [O. H. Ger. balcho, scafi'old] 
uctxuuxxy a projecting platform or gallery. 
h a 1 H (ba wld) a. [Celt. ] destitute of natural covering, as 
Udiu Qf jja^jp or feathers ; unadorned ; mean ; bare. 
halHachin (baMa-kin) n. [It. Baldacco, Bagdad,«.,xixxx in Turkish Asia] a structure in form 
of a canopy or ornament, over doors, thrones, etc. 
ha 1 rl prrl a ^h (baMer-dash) n. [Dan. balder, noise, 
UdiUCX Udoxx ^^(^ j5_ ^shl senseless jargon; 
ribaldry ; — v.t. to adulterate. 

Ko1/^Vi<ior1 (bawld-hed) n. one bald on the head; a 
UdlUnCdU kind of pigeon. 

halHiponf (bawl-di-koot) n. the common coot ; a 
UdXUX^UUL monk, on account of his shaven crown. 
halHlv (bawld-li) adv. in a bald manner; without 
Udxuxy ornament ; meanly. 

halHnP<^<? (bawkl-nes) n. state of being bald; 
Udxuxxcoo meanness or inelegance of style. 
\\r%\Ar\fi\-c^ (ba wld-pat) n. a pate without hair ; one 
UdiUpdLC with a bald head. 
ha 1 H ri P (bawMrik) n. [M. H. Ger. balderich, girdle] 
UdXUX XV, a girdle worn pendent from one shoulder, 
across the breast, and under the opposite arm ; a richly 
ornamented scarf. 

ha 1 P (bal) n. [M. H. Ger. balle, ball] a bundle of goods 
UdXC corded or hooped for transportation ■,—v.t. to 
make up in a bale or bales. Bale-goods, goods made up 
in bales, as distinct from goods packed in oarrels. 
halp ^^^^^ """ t-^-^- bealu, evil] misery; calamity; 
UdXC misfortune ; sorrow. 

halp (bal) n. [A.S. bcel, fire] a large fire ; bonfire ; a 
UdXC beacon ; a signal-fire ; any great fire. Bale-fire, 
a signal-fire ; an alarm-fire. 

halppn (ba-len') n. [L. balaena, whale] whalebone. 
UdXCClx Baleen-knife, a curved double-handed 
knife for splitting whalebone. 

halpfnl (bal-fool) a. full of misery; calamitous; 
UdXCXUX full of sorrow ; woeful; sad. 
halpfllllv (bal-fool-i) adv. perniciously; sorrow- 
UdXCX uxxy fully ; in a calamitous manner. 
ha 1 pfl 1 1 11 PQ^ (bal-fool-nes) n. the state or quality 
UdXCXUXXXCoo of being baleful ; perniciousness. 
halitIP (ba-len') n. [F. , packing-clotn] coarse canvas, 
UdXXXXC used for packing. 

hali^P (ba-lez') ?i. [F.] a pole raised on a bank; a 
UdXX^C sea-mark ; a barrel-buoy. 

hallr (bawk) n. [A.S. balca, a ridge] a great rafter, ^\ ■ 
UdXi^ or timber ; a hindrance or disappointment ; an •'■^ 
unploughed ridge or strip ; a part of a billiard table •,—v.t. 
to disappoint ; to frustrate ; to leave untouched in 
ploughing •,—v.i. to stop abruptly in one's course. 
hallrpr (baw-ker) 11. [A.S. bwlcan, shout] a man 
UdXX^CX stationed on an eminence on land to signal 
the approach of herrings. 

ha llrv (baw-ki) a. given to balking ; apt to stop and 
UdXJvy refuse to move. 

Fate, far, ado ; m5, her ; mine ; n6te ; tflne ; m66n. 

ball 67 

Hall (t**^l) ''^- PI- H- Ger. balle] any round body ; any part of tlie body that is round or protuberant, 
as the eye-ball ; the globe ; the earth ; a game with 
a ball ;— r.i. to form, as snow, into balls, as on horses' 
hoofs, or on the feet. Ball-bearing, a bearing contain- 
ing loose metal balls for lessening friction Ball- 
cajtridge, a cartridge furnished with a ball. Ball- 
cock, a contrivance that allows water to enter a cistern, 
but shuts of itself, by means of a floating ball, when 
the cistern is full. Ball-flower, an ornament resem- 
bling a ball, placed in a circular flower. Ball-ironstone, 
iron ore occurring in balls. Ball-proof, impenetrable 
by bullets. Ball and socket joint, a joint formed by a 
ball in a socket, admitting of motion in any direction. 
Hall (bawl) n. [F. 6a/, dancing, fr. Gr. baUein, throw] 
"**** a social assembly for the purpose of dancing. 
1> o 1 1 3 H (bal^d) n. [F. fr. G. ballein, throw] a popu- 
UctlldU, jaj song, narrative or sentimental, in homely 
verses ; a simple air. Ballad-monger, a dealer in 
ballads ; an inferior poet. Ballad-opera, an opera in 
which ballads are sung. BaUad-singer, one that sings 
ballads in the streets. 

HallaHp (ba-lad) n. [F.] a poem in triplets of 
Uctlid.u.c stanzas of seven or eight lines, each hav- 
ing the same line as a refrain , usually followed by an envoy. 

ballader, balladist Ser'^or ifnU of 

ballads ; one that composes ballads. 
Ko11<ri/4i<7Ck (bal^d-iz) f.t. to convert into a ballad; 
UdildUlZC -r.i. to write ballads. 
KallaHi*tr (bal^id-ri) n. poetry of the ballad kind ; 
Udliaui y the art of making ballads. 
fiollocf (bal^t) n. [D.] any heavy matter placed 
UctlictoL jn the hold of a vessel, to steady it; bags 
of sand carried in the car of a btiUoon : gravel, broken 
stones, etc., laid on the bed of a railroad to make it firm 
and solid ; that which steadies a person ; — v.t. to load or 
furnish with ballast ; to steady. In ballast, without 
cargo ; latien with ballast only. 

Kali'icf 3 o*<^ (i)al-as-taj) n. toll paid for taking 
UAlKXa Lclg C ballast from a gravel bed. 
Hallacfincr (bal-as-ting) n. the act of ballasting; 
UdiiddLlllg materials used for ballast. 
ha 1 1 p>ri n a (bal-ler-e^na) n.; pi. ballerlne, baller- 
UctiiCl lild ijijtg (bal-ler-e^na, -naz)[It.] a ballet-girl. 
hallpf (bal^) n. [F.] a theatrical exhibition with 
uctiiCL ixiusic, dancing, decorations, etc. 
ballinP" (haw-llng) n. the act of making balls; in 
uctixiix^ puddling, making iron into balls suitable 
for handling. Balling-gun, an instrument for giving 
medicine-balls to horses. 

Hal lief a Ha lief a (ba-lis^ta) n. [G. ballein, 
uctiixsLctj Udliauct throw] an ancient military 
engine for throwing missiles. 

Halliefip (ha-lis^tlk) a. pertaining to ballistics. 
L^diiiOLiv^ Ballistic pendultun, an apparatus for 
measuring the velocity of projectiles. 
Hallicfi^c (ba-lis^tiks) «. the science that deals 
Ucllll&Ll(^:3 with projectiles. 
Hallnr^n (ba-166n) n. fit. ballone] a bag made of 
UdllUUn silk or other light ma- 
terial, and filled with hydrogen gas or 
heated air, so as to ri se and float i n the 
atmosphere; a l)all or globe on the top 
of a pillar; a spherical glass receiver; 
— v.t. to ascend in a balloon. Cap- 
tive balloon, a balloon anchored or 
attached to the ground by means of 
a rope. 

ballooning ^^'^:^ 

cendingin, and of managing, balloons. 

balloonist £ona';,f' ^ "' "" ^"-^ 

ballot (bal-ut)n. [It. ballotta] a ball used in voting ; 
utxi.iyj\, ^ written or printed vote; act of voting by 
balls or tickets ; whole amount of votes cast \—v.t. to 
choose by ballot;— r.t. to vote or decide by ballot. 
Ballot-box, a box for receiving ballots. 
Hall r»f i n o- (bal-ut-ing) n. the taking of a ballot ; a 
UciliULillg vote ; selection by lot. 
Hallrkff pim<irif (ba-lot^ment) n. [F.] a test of 
UdllOttement pregnancy [Med.]. 
balm ^^^^ '"■• [G- oalmmon] a kind of aromatic 
ua.i.i.i.1 plant; the resinous and odoriferous sap of cer- 
tain trees ; any fragrant or valuable ointment ; anything 


that heals, or mitigates pain;— iJ.t. to anoint with balm ; 
to assuage. Balm-cricket, the field-cricket. Balm 
of Gilead, a small oriental evergreen tree, and the 
balsam obtained from it. 

Halmilv (ba^mi-li) adi-. in a balmy manner; fra- 
Uctliiiixjr grantly ; refreshingly. 
balmineSS (ba^^ii-nss) n. the state or quality of 

Raltnnral (bal-mor^il) n. [a royal residence 
S-ttXi.iii.KJi. txi. {jj Aberdeenshire] a kind of cap ; a 
petticoat 'j—pl. ankle boots that are laced in front. 
Halmv (''^"li) *• having the qualities of balm; 
Uctliiiy odoriferous ; aromatic ; soothing. 
Ha 1 11 f^a t*V (bal-ne-a-ri) a. [L. balneum, bath] of, or 
UdiliCcii jr pertaining to, baths ; — n. a bath-room. 
Halnf^ntn (bal-ne-um) n. a sand or water bath, 
Udiiicuixi uged for heating articles. 
Ha 1 ea (bawl^a) n. [Sp.] a sailing raft made of light 
Udxod logs fastenetl together. 

Hal earn (bawl^am) n. [G. balmmon\ an aromatic 
Udxodxxx resinous substance, containing an essential 
oil; a species of tree; a popular annual plant; — v.t. to 

Haleamir* (bawl-, bal-sam-ik) a. having the 
Udxadxxxxi., qualities of balsam ; unctuous ; mild ; 
— n. that which has the properties of a balsam. 
Haleamipallv^'^^^''' bal-sam-i-kal-i) adv. in 
UdXodXXXXV..dXXjr a balsamic manner; asa balsam. 
Kolcsomifttt-z-kiics (bawl-, bal-sa-mif-e-rus) a. 
Ud,i:3aillllClUUS> [l ferre, bear] producing 
balm or balsam. 

HolcamiriPk (ba wl^am-In) n. [G.] the touch-me- 
UdXS>dXXllllC not, or garden balsam. 
Kolonm/Mie (bawl-sam-us) a. having the qualities 
DaibdinUUb of balsam ; balsamic. 
Hal 11 etf*r (^al-us-ter) n. [G. balaustion, the flower 
Udxuotcx of the wild pomegranate] a small column 
or pilaster, used as a support to the rail of a staircase, etc. 
Hnliicf fir*irl (bal-us-terd) a. having balusters; 
Udxua LCX CU furnished with balusters. 
HalnefraHf* (bal-us-trad) n. a row of balusters 
^***'^^ *"* dUC supporting a rail or coping. 
Haliicf raHino* (bal-us-tra^ing) n. balustrade; 
UdXUSLi duxxxg a design in balustrade fashion. 
Hal^arinf* (bal-za-ren) n. a light material of 
UdX^dX xxxc worsted and cotton, for ladies' dresses. 
HamHitin (bam-be-no) n. [It.] a child or baby ; a 
Udxxxuxxxi.; figure of the child Jesus in the manger. 
\^*im\\r\nn\^Ae^ (bam-boch-i-ad') n. [li.bamho, 
DaiUDOLCldUe childish] a painting of rustic 
life, treated in a spirit of broad humour. 
HamHnn (bam-b66')n. [Malay] a tropical plant of 
UdlxlUUU the reed kind, with tall, jointed stems ; a 
cane or stick of the bamboo ■,-^\t. to beat with a bamboo. 
\\nrr\\\c\f\'7\f^ (ham-boo-zl) t>.t. [a slang word] to 
UdixiUUU^XC play tricks upon ; to mystify ■,—v.i. 
to practise mystification. 

K!imHr»r»yl<ar (bam-boo^zler) n. one that bam- 
UdiXXUUU^XCX boozles ; a c"heat ; a trickster. _ 
Ha n (bf^n) n. [A.S. baniutn] a proclamation or edict ; 
Udll public notice of a marriage proposed ; interdic- 
tion ; prohibition ; outlawry ; a curse ■,—v.t. to curse ; to 
execrate ; to prohibit ; to proscribe ; — i>.i. to utter curses. 
Ha n (ban) n. [Hind.] a fine kind of musUn got from 
'-'•*** the fibres of the banana. 

Han (ban) n. [Per.] the ruler of the crownland of 
UdXX Croatia and Slavonia. 

Hanal (ban-al) a. [F.] subject to manorial rights; ' 
UdXXdX common ; stale ; trivial. 
Hanalifv (ba-nal-i-ti) n. the state of being banal; 
UdildXXtjr commonplaceness ; triteness. 
Horiano (ba-naina)n. [Sp.] a species of the plan- 
UdXldlXd tain tree, and its fruit. 
Honaiici/' (ba-nawisik) a. 
DaUdUblC [G. hanausikos, of 
mechanics] merely mechanical. 

Banbury cake SSkf "^i 

[Barib^iry, in Oxfordshire] a kind of 
cake filled with mincemeat. 

banc, banco £f)"t?[^?t 

bench [Law]. A court in banc, in 
banco, a full court of judges. J^anana. 

Hanr*o (bang'-ko) n. [It.] bank money, as opposed 
Udxxi.,u to current money. 


Fate, far, ^o ; me, hgr ; mine ; note ; tune ; moon. 




hanH (band) n. [A.S. bend] a cord, tie, or fillet; 
UctllU ajjy ligament with which a thing is tied or 
fastened, or by which a number of things are con- 
fined together ;— [0. H. Ger. binda, band] a flat strip 
of any material, used to bind round anything ; a linen 
ornament worn about the neck by clergymen ; a broad, 
flat, low moulding ;—[(). H. Ger. bant, band] a company 
united in any common design ; a company of musicians 
trained to play together ; a body of armed men ; 
—v.t. to bind or tie ; to mark with a band ; to unite in a 
company ;— v.i. to confederate for some common pur- 
pose. Band of hope, a body of children pledged to 
total abstinence. Band-saw, a long flexible steel saw 
running on pulleys. 

HanHairf* (ban-daj) n. [F.l a fillet, roller, or 
UctilUctgc scathe, used in dressing and binding 
up wounds, etc. ; a ligature •,—v.t. to bind with a, bandage. 

bandana, bandanna ESd.ta'splcies 

of silk or cotton handkerchief. 

V^anHHnv (band-boks) n. a light paper box for 
UctllUUU.A. bands, caps, or bonnets. 
Knrirlomii (ban-do') n.; pi. bandeaux (ban-doz') 
UdllUCdU [F ] a fillet worn round the head. 
HanHpH (ban-ded) a. bound or fastened with a 
UctllUCU. band; having bands; united as in a band. 
Kntnrlckt-illo (ban-de-rel-ya) 71. [Sp.l a small dart 
UdnuerUld used by bull-fighters. 
hanHprnlp (ban-de-rol) n. [F.j a small flag 
UctliUCi uic carried on the masts of vessels, on 
military weapons, etc.; a pennon. 
Korir1ir«/-k/-kf (ban-di-koot) n. [Telegu] a large 
UdnUlCOOt Indian rat, used for food. 
hand if (ban-dit) n.; 2>?. bandits, banditti (ban- 
UdiluiL ^jtg^ ban-dity) [It. bandire, banish] a law- 
less or desperate fellow ; a robber ; a brigand. 
Kanr11*if KanH#aliaf (band-let, ban'-de-let) n. 
Danaiei, Oanaeiei [dtm.of6ami]anylittle 
band or flat moulding. 

K o n r1 rk cr (bandog) n. [band and dog] a large fierce 
UdiiUUg kind of dog, kept chained. 
hanHrilf^Pkl* (ban-do-ler') n. [It. banda, band] a 
Udiiuuicc:! leather belt, thrown over the right 
shoulder and across the breast, tor holding cartridges. 
banHnlinP (ban-do-len) n. [Etym. unknown] a 
uctiiuuriiiic gumniy substance for smoothing and 
fixing the hair. 

HanHnrf (ban-dor) n. [G. pandoura] a kind of 
udiiuv^i c guitar instrument. 
bandsman (bandz^man) n. one of a band of 

baflHv (ban^i) n. [F. bander, to bandy at tennis, 
ua,ii.\xy Jo bend] a club bent at the lower part for 
striking a ball ; the play with such a club ;— a. crooked ; 
bent; — v.t. to beat to and fro, as a ball in playing; to 
give and receive reciprocally ; to toss about ; to agitate. 
Vk a n r1 Tj- (ban^i) n. [Telegu] an Indian vehicle made 
Udliuy of wood. 

batIP (ban) n. [A.S. bana] a deadly poison; any 
utxii^ cause of ruin ; ruin ; destruction. 
batipflll (ban-fool) a. having poisonous quaUties; 
ucxii^iui noxious; destructive; pernicious. 
ba.npflll1v (ban-fool-i) adv. in a baneful manner; 
uchLiK^iuiiy hurtfully: destructively ; perniciously. 
Hanpfnlnpcc (ban-fool-nes) n. the Quality of 
UFdiic^xuixicoa being hurtful ; perniciousness. 
ban P^ATTirf (ban-wurt) n. a poisonous plant, as the 
ija.M.i.\^ w v/i c deadly nightshade or lesser spearwort. 
banp* (bang) v.t. [Icel. banga, beat] to beat, as with 
•-'»***& a cluD ; to handle roughly ;— n. a blow with a 
club ; a heavy blow • a thurnp. 

b an P"1p (bang-gl) n. [Hind.] an armlet or anklet 
»-' •***&**- worn by Orientals ; a bracelet. 
banian (ban-yan) n. [Skr.] a Hindoo merchant ; 
I' . ** a morning gown; the Indian fig-tree. 
Banian days, days on which British sailors get no fiesh- 
meat ; days of poor fare. 

banish (ban-lsh) v.t. [O. H. Ger. bannan, proclaim] 
" ; to condemn to exile; todriveaway; toexpel. 

DaniSner (ban-lsh-er) n. one that banishes. 

ban i ^b m Pn f (ban-ish-ment)n. act of banishing; 
Udintsllineni gt^^g ^^ ^dng banished ; exill 
expatriation ; expulsion. 

banisf Pr (ban-ls-ter) n. [a corruption of baliisterl 
uaiiioLCi a support to the rail of a stair. 



^ (ban-jo) n. [bandore] a stringed musical in- 
^ strument, resembling the guitar and the 

hanini^f (ban-j6-ist) n. one that performs on the 
UdlXJUloL banjo; a banjo-player. 
HanU" (bangk) n. [M.E. banke] a ridge of earth; an 
UdllJv accUvity ; an elevation in the sea ; a shoal ; 
the side of a river or lake ;— [O.F. banc] a bench in a 
galley ; a tier or rank of oars ;— [F. banque] a stock of 
money deposited for use ; place where money is de- 
posited ; a private or incorporated l)anking company ;— 
v.t. to raise a mound or dike about ; to inclose, or 
fortify with a hank;— v.t. and v.i. to deposit money in 
a bank. Bank-agent, a person employed by bankers 
to conduct their operations in a branch ofiice. Bank- 
bill, a note or bill of exchange, payable to order, and 
at some future specified time. Bank-book, a book in 
which a person's bank accounts are entered. Bank- 
credit, the drawing of money from a bank on reasonable 
securities. Bank-holiday, a day on which banks are 
closed by statute. Bank-interest, the interest allowed 
by a bank on money deposited. Bank-note, a promissory 
note issued by a banking company, payable on demand. 
Bank-stock, a share or shares in the capital stock of a 
bank. To bank a fire, to make up a fire by covering it 
with fuel so pressed down as to secure slow combustion. 
ha n Ira hi P (bang^ka-bl) a. receivable as cash by a 
Udili^duic; bank ; capable of being banked. 
hanlrpr (bang-ker) n. an owner or manager of a 
UdilA.CX bank; the keeper of funds in a gaming- 
house ; a Newfoundland fishing-boat ; a mason or 
bricklayer's bench ; a covering for a bench ; a delver ; 
an overflowing river ; a jumping horse. 
ha n Wi n P* (bang'-king) n. the business of a banker ; 
UdilA.iiig {be making of a mound or bank; the 
mound thrown up ; fishing on the Newfoundland banks; 
—a. pertaining to, or carried on by, a bank. 
hanlrlfkcc (bangk-les) a. not confined by banks; 
Udiiiv.iC;oo without bounds ; limitless. 
hanlrrnnf (bangk-rupt) n. [L. rumpere, pp. 
uaiir^i. u.yji, ^uptus, break] a trader that breaks, or 
becomes unable to pay his debts ; an insolvent ; any 
individual unable to pay his debts ;— a. unable to pay 
debts ; insolvent ■,—v.t. to fail in trade ; to make insolvent. 
hanlmir>fpv (bangk-rupt-si) n. state or act of 
UdiiA.1 upLUjr becoming bankrupt; failure in 
trade. Bankruptcy laws, laws providing for the 
division of a bankrupt's assets among the creditors. 
ha n n f»r (ban-er) n. [O.F. bantere] a military ensign ; 
Udllixci tbe standard of a prince or state. 
Katinckforl (ban-erd) a. having banners ; exhibit- 
UdllllCrCU ing banners. 

hannprpf (ban-er-et) n. a rank conferred on one 
UdlxliCl C L able to bring a certain number of 
vassals into the field ; a knight made on the field ; a 
little banner; formerly, a magistrate in .some Swiss 
cantons and Italian republics. < 

ha n n nptr (ban-uk) n. [Gael] a cake made of oat, 
Udiiliu v.. A. pease, or barley meal, baked over the fire. 
hannc (banz)n.pZ. [ban] proclamation in church of 
Udiiiis intended marriage. To forbid the banns, 
to protest against an intended marriage. 
ha n n 11 pf (bang-kwet) n. [F.] a feast ; a rich enter- 
Udilt^uc t tainment :—v.t. to treat with a banquet ; 
—v.i. to regale with good eating and drinking ; to feast. 
hanniipfpr (oang-kwet-er) n. a guest at a b^p- 
UdilV^UCLCl quet ; one that gives great dinners. 
hanniiP»fino" (bang'-kwet-ing) n. feasting ; luxu- 
Udiiy^ucLiiig rious living; a feast. Banqueting- 
house, a house where entertainments are given. 
hanniipffp (bang-kef) n. [F.] a raised bank in- 
Udlil^UC; LLC; gide a parapet, used by the defenders 
when firing ; a footway or sidewalk. 

banshee, benshie g^eig^'a 'f^ii^'k^t 

warns of impending death. 

Konofir'lrl^a (ban-stik-1) n. [A.S. ban, bone, and 
UdliaLll..K.iC gticels, prickle] the stickleback. 
ha nf a m (ban-tam) n. a very small domestic fowl, 
Udil Ldlll brought, probably, from Bantam, in Java ; 
—a. pertaining to, or resembling, the bantam ; puny ; 
plucky. Bantam-weight, a boxer of very light weight, 
Bantam-work, East Indian carved and painted wood work. 
ha nf pr (ban-ter) v.t. [Etym. unknown] to make fun 
UdllUCi of; — v.i. to indulge in banter ;-^i. humorous 
raillery ; chafi" ; pleasantry. 



fftte, far, ^do ; me, her ; mine ; note ; tune ; moon. 




Hanfprpr (ban-ter-er) n. one that banters or 

Utxll LCI CI rallies ; one that makes fun of. 

Hanfinfricm (ban-ting-izm) n. a diet (mainly of 

UctiXLiiigioiii lean meat) prescribed as a remedy 

for corpulence by W. Banting, of London (1863). 

U o f-i f 1 f fi cr (bant-ling) n. [handling, one wrapped in 

Uctlltllil^ swaddling-bands] an infant. 

Rfltlf 11 (ban-too) ?;. [S. Afr.] a general name given to 

XJctllLU the South African languages. 

ha n van (ban-yan) n. \hanian\ an Indian fig-tree 

Utxi.i.ytXi.1 whose branches 

form roots, covering a wide area. 

ha nha H (baio-bab) jt. [Afr.] 

VJtXyjUcXU a very large tree. 


the idol said to have been 
worshipped by the Knights 

DaptlSm laptizein, bap- 
tize] act of baptizing ; the appli- 
cation of water to a person, as uanyan tree, 

the symbol of initiation into the visible church of Christ. 
hanf i^tnal (bap-tiz-mal)«. pertaining to baptism. 
uctpLioiiicti Baptismal regeneration, the doc- 
trine that baptism is a vehicle of grace. 
Ha nf icm a llv (bap-tiz-mal-i) adv. in, or through, 
uctpLioiiictiiy l); by means of baptism. 
Dot-vf-iof (bap-tist) «. one that administers baptism; 
J->d.ptioL a title applied to John, the forerunner 
of Christ: as a contraction of Anabaptist, one that 
rejects infant baptism, and holds to immersion as the 
proper mode of administering this rite. 
nanf i^tprv (bap-tis^ter-i) n. a building or place 
ua,yj LIS LCI y where baptism is administered. 

baptistic, baptistical i^^PpfJSnVn^-HlJ 

baptism ; baptismal. 

Ko r\\-\ y o (l)ap-tTz') v.t. to administer the sacrament 
iJcipLi^c of baptism to ; to christen. 
bar ^^"^^^ """ [Q-^- ^« '■'■«] a long piece of wood, metal, or 
'-'*''* other .solid matter, used eap. for a hindrance or 
obstruction ; any obstacle that obstructs or defends ; a 
barrier ; a bank of gravel, or other matter, at the mouth 
of a river or harbour ; the place in court which counsel 
occupy, or where prisoners are stationed ; any tribunal ; 
the inclosed place of a tavern, where liquors are kept forsale; 
[Her.] a horizontal mark across the escutcheon ; [Mus.]a 
line drawn perpendicularly across thestafl';— v.i. to fasten 
with a bar ; to obstruct ; to prevent ; to except ; to 
with stripes or lines. Bar-Iron, iron wrought into mal- 
leable bars. Bar-keeper, an inn-keeper. Bar-posts, 
supports of a gate, consisting of detached bars. Bar- 
shot, shot consisting of a bar, with a half ball or round 
head at each end. Bar-shear, a machine for cutting 
metal bars. Bar-sinister, see bend sinister. To cajfl 
to the bar, to admit as a barrister. Trial at bar, a 
trial before a full bench of judges. 
ha ra n PP (bar-a-ne) n.[Hind.] a woollen cloak worn 
ucLk diicc j„ India : a rain-cloak. 
harafhriim (bar^^-thrum) n. [G. barathron] a 
wa.1 cxLiii uiii pjt or dungeon at ancient Athens ; 
the bottomless pit ; hell ; the belly ; a devourer. 
hfirh (barb) n. [L. barba] beard, or that which re- 
uai u sembles it ; the point thatstands backwardin an 
arrow, fish-hook, etc.;— [A.] defensive armour anciently 
worn by horses •,—iBarbary] a horse noted for speed : a 
pigeon of a black or dun colour ; — v.t. to furnish with 
barbs, as an arrow, fish-hook, etc. ; to clothe, as a horse, 
with armour. 

barbae an (bdriba-kan)?!. See barbican. 

ba.rharian (bar-ba-ri-an) n. [G. barhwros] a man 

ua.L L^ai laii j^ his rude state ; a cruel, brutal man ; 

— a. savage ; uncivilized ; inhuman. 

barhariP (bar-bar-ik) a. foreign; uncivilized; 

ua,*. ufXk IV, rude; barbarian ; rudely grand. 

h a rh arir»atlTr (bar-bar-i-kal-i) adv. in a barbaric 

Udl UdriCdliy nianner. 

b a.rh a ri ^ m (bar-barizm) n. the use of obsolete or 

utxi ua.1. loiii foreign words ; want of civilization. 

barbarization Kriz' nf'''""^ ''■ "'" '''* °^ 

ba.rha rif V (^ar-bar^i-ti) n. conduct of a barbarian ; 
i^cu ua.k LLy savageness; cruelty ; inhumanity. 

1-|ot-hari7P (bar-ba-rlz) v.t. to corrupt by bar- 

Udi ucti i^c barisms ; to make barbarous ;— v.i. to 

use barbarisms ; to become barbarous. 

ha rha rnil ^ (bar'-ba-rus)a. marked by barbarisms ; 

Ueti Udl wuo uncivilized or savage; barbaric; 

cruel ; ferocious. 

Wo f ha mil ^1 V (bar^ba-rus-li) adv. in a barbarous 

Uctl ualKJUSiy manner ; as a barbarian. 

Kot*hat*rkiicn<:^cc (bai^-ba-rus-nes) n. quality of 

Udl Udl UUSllcaa being barbarous. 

barbastel, barbastelle aistebll: 

[L. barba, beard] a long-eared bat found in Europe. 
harhafp (bar-bat) a. [L. barba, beard] bearing 
Udl UdLC lines, spots, or tufts of hair ; bearded. 
Kpfl-wppiip (bar^oe-ku) n. [Haytian barbacoa^ a 
Udl ucv,uc wooden framework] a hog, ox, or other 
large animal roasted whole ; a framework on which an 
animal is roasted or smoked ; — v. t. to dress and roast whole. 
U^i^Kfkfl (barbd) a. having barbs. Barbed wire, a 
Udl ucu ^ire of several strands, armed with sharp 
projecting points, used for fencing. 
Kofhpl (bar-bel) n. [L. barba, beard] a small beard- 
Udi uci ijije process appended to the mouth of 
certain fishes ; a large fresh-water fish, found in many 
European rivers \—pl. a disease incident to horses and 
cattle, characterized by excrescences under the tongue. 
f%orh<^11af f» (bar^bel-at) a. having short, slight 
Udl ucildtc hairs, or small bristles. 
V>o4*|-vAr> (bar^ber) n. [L. barba, beard] one that 
Ud.1 uci shaves the beard, and cuts and dresses the 
hair, of others ;— v.i. to shave and dress the hair of. 
Barber-monger, one that frequented the barber's shop ; 
a dandy. Barber-svirgeon, a surgeon that was also a 
barber ; a surgeon of no standing. 
|-vofhpf|>ir (bar-ber-i) w. [LowL. 6e?'6em] a shrubby 
Udl UCI 1 y plant, common in hedges. 
1^ Q fhpf (bar-bet) a. [F. fr. L. barba, beard] a kind 
Udl UCL of poodle ; a brilliant tropical bird. 
harhptf P (bar-bet) n. [F. fr. L. barba, beard] an 
Udl uctuc eminence inside a fort, from which 
cannon may be fired over the parapet ; a similar platform 
in a ship. 

Uo rhipa n (bar'-bi-kan) n. [O.F. harbicane] an ad- 
Udi uiv,dii vancedwork defending the entrance tea 
castle or city ; an opening in the wall of a fortress for guns. 
KnfhiilA (bar-bul) n. a small barb; a fringe of a 
U dr U U iC barb of a feather. 

harparnlp (bar-ka-rol) n. [It. harca, boat] an 
Udl Cdi uic Italian bargeman ; a song sung by 
Venetian gondoliers ; music imitating such a song. 
ha rrnn ha rrnn f» (bar-kun, bar-koine)n. [It.] 
Udl CUll, Udl L,UllC a Mediterranean coaster. 
harH (bard) n. [W. bardd] a poet;— [F. barde] de- 
Udi VI fensive armour ; a thin piece of bacon for 
larding;— v.<. to furnish with bards or armour; to lard 
with slices of bacon. 

Ka rH in ha rH i cVi (bar'-dik, -dish) a. pertaining 
UdlulL,, UdlUlS>ll to, or characteristic of, bards, 
or their poetry ; poetic. 

harHicm (bar'-tlizm) n. the science of bards; the 
Udl Uiaill doctrines of bards. 
harHlincr (bard-Ung) 7i. a bard of no great parts: 
Udiviiiiig a poetaster. 
bardshlD (bard^hip)n. theofSceofbard; reputa- 

l-vofp (bar) a. [A.S. hcer\ without covering; naked; 
Udl c destitute ; empty ; unfurnished ; laid open to 
view; exposed; threadless; simple; unadorned; — v.t. to 
strip off tlie covering ; to make naked. 
h fj t*<»h Q n\reiA (bar-bakt) a. with uncovered back ; 
UdlCUdL,K.CU having no saddle. 
bareboned (bar-bond) «. deficient in flesh ; very 

spare or lean. 
ha rpfa Cf^A (bar^fast) a. with the face uneovered ; 
Udl cidv^cvi shameless ; impudent. 
harpfaPPHlv (bar'-fast-li) adv. without disguise 
Udl cidv-cviijr or reserve ; impudently. 
har^fa r'^rln^cc (bar^fast-nes) «. state of being 
Udl CldCCUIlCbb barefaced ; eflrontery. 
harpfonf (l>ar'-foot) a. and adv. with the feet 
Udl v^ivrv^u bare ; without shoes and stockings. 
harPP*P (l'?'-i"azh') n. [Rariges, in France] a thin 
ucLi v.^'gv.^ stuff for ladies' dresses, veils, etc. 

bareheaded !S5ered!*^ "" ^^"'"^^ '^^ ^'^ 

Fate, far, ?ido ; me, ligr ; mine ; note ; tune ; moon. 




Ha r^^lv (bar'-li) adv. nakedly ; without concealment ; 
Udl Ciy openlv ; poorly ; only ; scarcely ; baldly. 
Harp>n<^<5Ci (bar-nes) n. the state of being bare; 
Udl CilCoo nakedness ; indigence. 
HarP'<5artr (bar-sark) adv. with only a shirt on; 
Lldl Codi Jx without armour ;— ;(. a berserker. 
U jj ««0-Q \*% (bar-gin) n. [O.F.] an agreement between 
iJa.i.^fX.111. parties concerning the sale of property; 
a stipulation of any kind ; a purchase, or the thing 
purchased ; a profitable transaction \—v.i. to make a 
contract ; to agree. Bargain and sale, a method of 
conveyance [Law! Into tlie bargain, over and above 
what IS stipulated. To bargain for, to reckon on. To 
buy at a bargain, to buy cheaply. To strike a 
bargain, to make a contract. 

■U jj «*0-o i 1^ ptck (bar-gi-ne') n. the person that agrees 
iJo.i.^cX.ll.iKZKZ to purchase and pay. 
U J, «-o-a i n f r (bar-gin-er)n. thepei-son that bargains 
'-'*** & dlilCl or makes" a bargam. 
Uoro*a in rtr (bar'-gin-ur) n. one that agrees to sell 
Udl gdlllUl a„j aeliver something [Law]. 
Koro-fi (barj) n. [O.F.] an elegant pleasure-boat; a 
UdlgC large boat for the __ 
conveyance of goods ; the second = 
boat of a man-of-war. 

barge - board i^o^/i') 

n. [origin of harge unknown] a ( 
board placed at the gattle of a 
building to hide the liorizontal 
timbers of the roof. 

bargee, bargeman 

(bar-je', barj-man) n. 
a man that manages 

a barge ; one of the crew of a barge. 
l^ofo-om'icf <:kr (barj-mas-ter) n. the master or 
Udl g Cllldd LCI owner of a barge. 
Harir* (bar^'k) a. [G. haros, weight] barometric;— 
Udl IC [ftarium] of, or pertaining to, barium. 
Ha rill a (ba-ril-a) n. [Sp.] a sea-shore plant from 
Udl llld ^hich soda is made ; the alkali produced. 
Harillf^f (bar-i-let) n. [F.] the case containing the 
Udl lllC L mainspring of a watch. 
H a r i 1 1 m ( ba - ri - um ) n. [G. barus, heavy] the 
UdllUlll metallic basis of baryta. 
U J, I-1-. (bark) n. [Icel. bbrkr] the exterior covering of a 
Udl Jv ^fgg . (;i^g fj,^(j . — y f to strip the bark from ; to 
peel ; to cover or inclose with bark. Bark-bed, a hot- 
bed formed of spent bark. Bark-mill, a mill for crushing 
bark. Bark-pit, a pit used in tanning. 
ha rlr (bark) w.i [A.S. beorcan] to utter an abrupt cry; 
Udl IV Jo clamour ;— n. the noise made by a dog. To 
bark at the moon, raise an absurd or ineffectual outcry. 

bark, barque ^iSet ^*'' ^''""^"'^ "" "''""" 

vessel, having her fore and main 
masts rigged square, and her 
mizzen, fore-and-aft rigged. 
i^^rirf^r (bar-ker) n. one 
Udl K.C1 that barks ; a tout. 

Barker's mill ^g" 

mil) n. a water-wheel driven by 

the reaction of water gushing 

horizontal arms, carried by a vertical axis. 

Vj Q f\r\ n p* (bar^king) n. the cry of a dog : any harsh 

ucxi jviiig sound ; the stripping of Dark from 

trees ; tanning. 

ba rkv (bar^ki) a. consisting of, or containing, bark ; 

ucti r%.y covered with bark. 

Harlpv (bar-li) n. [A.S. bcerlic] a valuable grain. 

ucn icj^ Barley-corn, a grain of barley ; the third 

part of an inch. Barley-sugar, sugar boiled till brittle 

and candied. Barley-water, a decoction of pearl barley. 

Barley-wine, ale or beer. John Barley-corn, malt liquor 

personified. Pearl-barley, pot-barley, the kernel of 


ba rm (b^rm) n. [A.S. beormal the foam rising upon 

utxi. iix jQj^jf. liquors when fermenting ; yeast. 

Ha rm air! (bar^-mad) n. a waitress in the bar of an 

UdllUdlU inn or tavern. 

Harm an (bar'-man) n. a waiter that attends the 

Udlllldn bar of a tavern. 

Ha rm a Qf f*r (bar^mas-ter) n. [Ger. bergmeister\ a 

"*** ***«*'3 1-^^* superintendent of mines. 

RarrmapiH^ (bar'-me-sid) n. [Barmecide, in the 

UdllllCUlUC Arabian Mihts, who duped a 


from openings 

beggar with a sham feast] one that invites to an 
imaginary repast ;— a. illusory or imaginary. 
Ko *-rviTT (bar-mi) a. containing barm or yeast; li-othy; 
Udllliy excited ; flighty. 

Harn (barn) n. [^A.y. bern] a building for storing 
Udl 11 grain, hay, etc. Bam-stormer, a strolling 
actor. Barn-yard, the yard about or near a barn. 
OofnaHiff^ (bar-na-bit) n. [church of St. Bar- 
MJtAl lldUitC nabas, in Milan] one of the Eegular 
Clerks of the Congregation of St. Paul. 
K o |«fi a pl P (bai^na-kl) n. [Etym. unknown] a shell- 
Udi lldl.,ic fjgh^ common along sea-shores, and 
found adhering to rocks, timber, vessels, etc.; a species of 
goose ; an instrument put upon a horse's nose to confine 
him ; a pair of spectacles. 

HarntrranH (bar^-graph) n. [G. baros, weight, 
Udl Ugl dpii and graphein, write] an instrument 
for registering fluctuations in atmospheric pressure. 
\\'3rci}c\a'\r (ba-roi^-ji) n. [G. Zos'o.s, discourse] the 
Udl UlUg y science of the weight of bodies. 
1-^ofi-%tTlpfpr (ba-rom-e-ter) n. [G. baros, weight, 
UdlUlllCLCl and »«e<ron, meas- 
ure] an instrument for determining the 
weight or pressure of the atmosphere, 
andascertamingtlie changes of weather, 
or height of any ascent. 

barometric, baromet- 

ripa 1 (bar-6-met-rik, -ri-kal)a.per- 
1 iCdl taining to the barometer. 

barometrically Si'^'kai^fJ 

adv. by means of a barometer. ' i^aromeier. 

Ha rnm f*f rv (ba-rom-e-tri) n. the art or process of 
Udl UlllC tl y measuring with a barometer. 
Ha rrkn (bar-un) 7i. [F.] in Britain, the lowest title of 
Udl Ull nobility ; a title of the judge of the Court of 
Exchequer. Baron of beef, a joint of two sirloins. 
UofnnaO'f:' (bar-un -aj) n. the whole body of 
Udiuild^c barons; the dignity of a baron ; the 
land that gives title to a baron. 

Hamnf»'?<? (bar-un-es)7i. a baron's wife; a woman 
Udl Ulicoo holding a baronetcy in her own right. 
Kofz-kfipf (l)ar'-un-et) n. a degree of honour below 
Udl UllCt a baron and above a knight. 
Uofrtnf^f a cre^ (l)ar-un-et-aj)n. the collective body 
UdlUllCUdgC of baronets; the state of a baronet. 
Uofrknof ^TT (bar-un-et-si) n. the rank or dignity 
DarOnetCy of a baronet. 

'Uof-i-vfifol (ba-ro-ni-al) a. pertaining to a baron, a 
Udl Ullldl i)arony, or the order of barons. 
Uo «•/-)*-) icrri (bar-un-izm) n. feudalism ; the baronial 

U.^ rnnv (bar-un-i) n. the honour or fee of a baron ; 
Udl Uliy the territory or lordship of a baron. 
\\nrr\ri\\fx (ba-rok') a. [Pg.] odd; irregular ;—«.. a 
Udiu^uc fantastic ornament. 
H a r n ^ P n n f* (bar^-skop) n.[G. baros, weight, and 
Udl Uo\.,upc skopein, view] any instrument show- 
ing the changes in the weight of the atmosphere. 
HarnilpHf* (ba-roosn) n. [L. bis and rota, wheel] 
Udl U UCllC a double-seated, four-wheeled carriage, 
with a falling top and an outside seat for the driver. 
Harniianf itIP (bar-kan-ten) n. [bark] a vessel 
Udl «^Udil Lillc having three masts, the foremast 
being square-rigged, the others fore-and-aft rigged. 
Harrar'an (bar^a-kan) n. [Turk.] a thick, strong 
Udl 1 dCdll stuff,' somewhat like camlet. 
Harraplr (bar^ak) n. [It. baracea] a building set 
Udl 1 dUxv. apart for soldiers ; the whole range of "^ 
buildings for officers and men (usually pL). Barrack- 
master, an officer that superintends barracks. 
Kor"t-or»r»i^n (bar^a-koon) n. [Sp.] a depot for 
Udl 1 dCUUll slaves, often fortified. 
H a rra r-i i H a (bar-a-k6cAla)n. [native name] a large 
Udl 1 dL.UUd pgrch fish of the West Indian seas. 
Ha rra crp (bar^T.j) n. [F.] the damming of a river 
Udl 1 dgC for irrigation, etc.; such a bar or dam. 
Ha rra n fa (ba-rang-ka) n. [Sp.] a deep ravine or 
Udl 1 dllCd defile : a cutting made by a torrent. 
H a rra c (bar'-as) n. [F. ] a resinous exudation obtained 
Udl Ida from fir trees. 

Harrafnr (bar^a-tur) n. [O.F. barat, barter] an 
Udl 1 dLUl encoiirager of litigation ; the master of 
a ship, who commits fraud in the management of it ; one 
that takes bribes ; one that commits barratry. 

Fatu, far, ado ; me, her ; mine ; note ; tune ; m66n. 




harrafmn^ (bar-a-trus) a. of, pertaining to, or 
Udl 1 ctLl uuo characterized by, barratry. 
harraffV (I'^-^-tri) «• practice of vexatiously 
Udl i CtLl jr encouraging law-suits; a fraudulent 
breach of duty on the part of a master of a ship. 
ha rrf^H (^^J"^) ^- secured or provided with a bar ; 
Uctl 1 Cvi obstructed by a bar ; streaiced. 
U Off pi (bar^l) n. [Low L. harillus] a round, bulgy 
Uctl 1 Cl cask made of staves and bound with hoops ; 
the quantity that such a vessel contains ; any hollow 
cylinder or tube : — v.t. to put or packin a barrel. Barrel- 
bulk, a measure of 5 cubic feet, used in estimating capacity 
for freight. Baxrel-organ, the common hand-organ. 
harrf^llpH ('^'^r-eld) «. packed in barrels ; inclosed 
Uctl 1 CllCU jjj a cylinder; having a barrel or barrels. 
ha rrP fl (b*"^") <*• [O.F. baraigne] incapable of 
UctllCll producing oflspring ; producing nothing; 
fruitless. Barren-spirited, of a poor or mean spirit. 
K»iffonlxT (bar-eu-li) adv. in a barren manner; 

Darreniy unfruitfuiiy. 

ha rrPtl n P^<s (bar^n-nes) n. state of being barren; 
Uctl 1 Clliiv^oo unproductiveness ; sterility. 
ha rr«af (bar'-et) n. [F.] an ancient flat military cap ; 
UctllCL aberretta. 

harripaHf (bar-i-kad) n. [Sp. barrica, cask] a 
Uctl 1 iV^ctUC defensive fortification, made in haste, 
of anything that will obstruct the enemy ; any obstruc- 
tion or means of defence i—v.t. to fortify with a barricade ; 
to stop up a passage. 

ha rri Pr (bar-i-er) n. [O.F. barrtere] a kind of fence 
Udl 1 ici naade to stop an enemy ; a fortress or 
fortified town on the frontier of a country ; any obstruction; 
any limit or boundary. Barrier Act, an act passed by 
the General Assembly of the church of Scotland in 
1697, to check hasty legislation. Barrier reef, a coral 
reef separated from the land by a lagoon. 
Koffitio* (bar'-ing) n. the action of the verb bar. 
Udl 1 lllg Barring-out, act of fastening the doors 
of a school-room against a master. 
harricf<af (bar-is-ter) w. [bar] a counsellor-at-law, 
Udl 1 io wci admitted to plead at the bar. 
harrO'W (baKo) n. [A.S. beran, bear] a light, small 
Udl 1 u w frame, boarded on the bottom, for carrying 
goods, and borne by hand. Wheel-barrow, the same 
supported on wheels. 

ha rrnw (bar^) Jt.[A.S. beorg] a hillock or mound of 
Uctl 1 u w earth, intended as a repository of the dead. 
ha rf Pr (bar'-ter) v.t. [O.F. barat, barter] to exchange 
uctl tCl or give in exchange ;— r.*'. to traffic by 
exchanging one commodity for another ■,—n. act of ex- 
changing commodities ; the thing given in exchange. 
harfprpr (bar^ter-er) n. one that barters, or ex- 
udi LCI ci changes goods. 

Koffivofi (bar-ti-zan) n. [introduced by Sir W. 
Ufcti Li^ctix Scott ; corruption of bratticing] a small 
overhanging turret, projecting from the angles of a 
square tower or the parapet of a building. 
harfnn (bar'-tun) n. [A.S. bere, barley, and tun, 
uai LUii inclosure] the lands a proprietor keeps for 
his own use ; a farm-yard. 

har^vnnH (bar- wood) n. a red dye-wood from An- 
ucii w uuu goia and the Gaboon, shipped in bars. 
Kofrrppnf f ip (bar-i-sen-trik)ti.[G. oaro«, weight, 
i^cti jr«>'V'iiLiiv^ a,jj kcntron, centre] of, or per- 
taining to, the centre of gravity. 

harrrfa (ba-rl-ta) n. [G. barus, heavy] the heaviest 
U dry Id of the earths. 

ha rvf P«a (ba-n-tez) n. sulphate of barium, generally 
uai y i,^^ called beavy-spar. 
harvfonf* (bar^l-ton) «. [G. barus, heavy, and 
"*** J ^yii^ tonos, tone] grave and deep, as a kind 
of male voice ; — n. a male voice, the compass of which 
lies between the bass and the tenor. 
hartal (baAsal)a. pertaining to, or constituting, the 
uaiscxi hagg . nearest the base. 
ha <5a If (ba-sawlt) n. [L. basaltes, an African word] 
ucLiaaiK. ^ j-ock of igneous 
origin, consisting chiefly of 
augite and felspar (it is usually 
of a greenish-black colour). 
hacjalfir' (ba-sawl-tik) a. 
i^cLOdiLiv, pertaining to, or 
containing, basalt. 

basaltiform [SjrS: 

of theformof prismaticbasalt; columnar. Bwall 

ha^alfinP" (ba-sawl-ting) n. the operation of 
uctoctiLiiig forming building-blocks from the 
refuse of blast-furnaces. 

ha^anifp (bas^-nlt) n. [G. basanos, touchstone] 
UdodiiiLC a velvety-black quartz ; touchstone. 
hao hi fill (ba-ble') n. [F., blue-stocking] a literary 
Ud2>-UlCU lady ; a blue-stocking. 
Kocpiilp (bas^kul) n. [F. ] an arrangement by which 
Udov^Liic; one part of a movable nridge balances 
another. Bascule bridge, a kind of drawbridge. 
ha^P (has) a. [Low L. bassus, low] of humble birth 
UdoC and decree ; illegitimate ; low in value or 
estimation ; morally low ; unworthy ; mean in spirit : \^asa. 
Base-bom, born of low parentage. Base-bred, of low 
breeding ; mean. Base-court, the outer court of a 
mansion ; servants' court. Base - hearted, having a 
base, treacherous heart. Base-minded, mean-spirited. 
Base-spirited, having a mean spirit : cowardly. 
ha ^P (bas) 11. [G. oasis, step] the bottom ; the part of 
UdoC a thing on which it stands or rests ; a funda- 
mental principle ; the part of a column between the top 
of the pedestal and the bottom of the shaft ; the principjil 
element of a compound ; a substance used to fix colours 
in cloth; a tract of country protected by fortifications, or 
by natural advantages, from which the operations of an 
army proceed ; a line from which to compute the 
distances and positions of objects by a system of tri- 
angles ■,—v.t. to put on a base or basis ; to found. Base- 
ball, a game of ball played by eighteen persons, nine on 
a side. Base-dance, a slow dance, IIkc the minuet. 
Base-line, a main line taken as a base of operations. 
Kooplpcc (bas^les) a. having no foundation or 
uctacicoo support; unsupported. 
ha CplpQQtlPQQ (bas^les-nes) the quality of being 
Udacicosiicso baseless; groundlessness. 
ha<5Plv (bfis^li) adv. in a base manner; illegiti- 
UdoCljr mately ; dishonourably. 
ha^PtnPnf (basement) n. the lowest story of a 
UdociiiCiiL building, above or below ground. 
ha ^Ptl P^^ (basques) n. the quality of being base ; 
Udociicoo that which is base; worthlessness ; 
liability to rust ; spuriousness. 

h a c h (bash) V. t. [Dan . baske, slap] to strike violently ; 
UdZMl to knock ; to thrash. 

ha <Nh a \X7 (ba-shaw') n. [Turk.] a pasha ; a haughty, 
'-'**'^*'''**'* overbearing person. 
ha Qh fill (bash-fool) [a 6as/i.] a. having a downcast 
UdolllLli look; very modest; shy; shamefaced. 
Ko oVifiillTr (bash-fool-i) cK^v. in a bashful manner; 
UdbniUHy very modestly. 

hachfiilnPQC (bash-fool-nes) n. the quality of 
UdCMiluliicsa being bashful; diffidence; timidity. 
hocVii ho-^rnil?- (bash-i-ba-z66k) n. [Turk.] a 
Udbill-Udi^^UUlV. Turkish irregular soldier. 
ha^ip (ba^sik) a. relating to, or serving as, a base; 
Uddl«^ primary ; having a small amount of silica. 
ha^lHilim (ba-8id-i-um)w.; p^. basidia (ba-sid-i-?i) 
ucioiuiuxxi [(J ici^ig^ base] a spore-bearing cell in 
the fructification of mushrooms. 

ha <5ifi VpH (biiisi-fikst) a. [L. basis, base, and jixus, fixed] adhering by the base or 
lower end [Bot.l. 

Vvocifv (ba-si-fi) v.t. [L. basis, base, and facere, 
uctoiiy make] to convert into a salifiable base. 
ha ^il (baz^il) n. [O.F. bisel] slope of the cutting edge 
uctoii of a tool \—v.t. to grind an edge to an angle. 
ha «;i1 (baz^il)».[G.6rtS!7j'A;os,royal]afragrantaroniatic 
uctoii plant (one species is much used in cookery). 
ha ^il (baz^il)«. [F. basane, fr. A. bitdimh, fining] the 
uctoii gjjjjj of a sheep tanned. 

hacilar (bas-i-lar) a. [L. basis, base] pertaining to, 
uctsiicti or situated at, the base. 
Kocilip (ba-sil-ik) a. [G. basHeus, kingj kingly; 
uctoiii\.< royal ; of, or pertaining to, a basilica. 
ha Qlli pa (ba-sil-i-ka) n. [G. basilike, a building 
Udoiii<.^d ^yjth colonnades] a large oblong hall 
with double colonnades and an apse at the end ; a church 
built on this plan. 

ha Qll ipnn (ba-sil-i-kun) n. an ointment composed 
uctoiiiv.,uii of yellow wax, black pitch, resin, and 
olive-oil ; so named from its reputed sovereign virtues. 
ha^ili^W (bas^i-lisk) n. [G. basiliskosi & fabulous 
uctoiiiOA. serpent, called a cockatrice ; a genus of 
crested lizanls ; a large piece of ordnance. 
ha^in (b3^n)n. [F. bassin] a hoUow vessel to hold 
ucxoiii water for washing, and other uses; any 

I^te, i&T, ado ; me, her ; mine ; nSte ; tiine ; m66n. 




hollow place containing water ; a circular or oval valley ; 
a land-locked harbour or bay ; the entire tract of country 
drained by a river ; pond ; dock ; reservoir. 

DaSinCQ (ba^snd) a. inclosed in a basin. 

basinet, bascinet, basnet &f n"?^ 

n. [O.F. bacinet, fr. bacin, basin] a light steel helmet, 

shaped like a basin. 

basinful (baisn-fool) n. the utmost a basin 

Uocic (baAsis) n,; pi. bases (baisez) [G. basis] that 
Udolo onwhichathingrests; the principal ingredient; 
ground-work or first principle. 

na qIt (bask) v.t. [Scanfi.] to warm with genial heat ;— 
UctoA. ^^ iQ ijg j^ warmth ; to be exposed to heat. 
ha qIt f»f C'as-ket) n. [Etym. unknown] a vessel made 
UctoivcL of twigs, rushes, or other flexible things, 
interwoven; the contents of a basket; — v.t. to put in a 
basket. Basket-beagle, a small hound used in coursing 
captive hares. Basket-grate, a grate with bars at 
bottom; front, and sides. Basket-hUt, a hilt of a sword, 
protecting the hand from injury. Basket-work, wicker- 
work. Tne pick of the basket, the finest of the lot. 
l-kfiol7-off*iT (bas-ket-ri) n. basket-work or basket- 
DabKetry making. 

HaQflllP (bask) n. [F.] a part of a lady's dress, 
Uctol^uc resembling a jacket with a short skirt. 
Koc fplipf (bas-re-ler) n. [F.] sculpture whose 
Ucto-l CiiCi figures do not stand out far from the 
ground on which they are formed. 
Kpoc (bas) n. [A.S. beers] a fish of several species, 
uctoo much esteemed for food. 
llP Qo (has) n. [a modification of bast] the lime tree, or 
Uctoo jfg bark, which is used for mats, etc. ; a bass-mat. 
Ko cc (bas) w. [Low L. bassus, low] the lowest part in a 
Uctoo musical composition ;— v.t to utter in a deep tone. 
Vtpccpf (bas-set) n. [F. bassette, fr. Low L. bassus, 
Lf ctooc t Jq^] a game at cards resembling the modern 
faro. Basset-horn, a kind of clarionet. 
ba ^^pf (bas-set) n. [Etym. unknown] emergence of 
uaoocu strata at the surface ; outcrop. 
HaQCpfino" (bas^t-ing) a. the outcropping of a 
UdaacLiii^ rock on the surface. 
ha^^itipffp' (bas-i-nef) n. [F.] a wicker basket, 
uctooiiiCLLC; with a hood over one end ; a cradle. 
ba ^^OOn (ba-s66n') n. [It. basso, fr. Low L. bassus, 
ua,aaKJ\jii jo^] a wind instrument with eleven holes, 
which are stopped by the fingers, as in flutes. 
bassoonist (ba-s66n-ist) n. a performer on the 

Kq cf (bast) n. [A.S. bwst] inner bark of the lime tree— 
uaoL hence, matting, cordage, etc., made of the bark. 
Ko cfa rH (bas-tard) n. [O.F.J an illegitimate child ; 
1^0,0 Lcti VI an inferior quality of soft sugar ;— a. 
illegitimate ; spurious ; adulterate ; counterfeit. 
bastardizP (bas-tar-dlz) v.t. to make or prove to 

ue a nastard. 
Hacf arHir (bas-tar-di) n. act of begetting a bastard ; 
ucio Lcii uy gfate of being a bastard. 
Kacfp (bast) v.t. [Icel. beysta, strike] to beat; to 
ucto LC cudgel ;— [Etym. unknown] to drip butter or 
fat on meat in roasting ; — (p.F. bastir, sew] to sew 
slightly ; to fasten together with long stitches. 
HaQfilp hacfillp (bas-tel')n. [O.P.] a fortress 
k/aoLiic, uctdUiilC used as a state prison. 
bastina.Ho (bas-tl-naido) n. [Sp. baston, a stick] a 
uci.obiiici.uv7 sound beating or cudgelling ; beating 
an offender on the soles of his feet with a rod ;—v.t. to 
beat with a rod, esp. on the soles of the feet. 
Kacftno" (bas-ting) n. the moistening of roasting 
1^0,0 Liiig mga^j .^j(.j^ fgj.^ butter, etc.; the gravy, fat, 
or butter so used ; a cudgelling or pounding ; the act of 
sewing with long, loose stitches ; the stitches themselves 
ba.^tion (bast^yun) n. [F.] a part of the main in 
,**"^*'-'** closure which i)ro- -' ■ ■ ■ -' -- 

jects toward the exterior, having 
two faces and two flanks. 

bastioned L'^tS] 

with, or defended by, bastions. 

baston, batoon Jf^f 

ba-toon') n. [0. F. ] a heavy stick '; "• ^^tion. 

a baton ; a mace of wood used in the tourney ; a moulding 

at t^e base of a column ; a torus. 

Uaf (bat) n. [Celt.] a club, used in playing cricket ; a 
*-'**^ sheet of cotton for quilting ; a piece of a brick ; — 

v.i. to manage aj)at, or play with one 
body and membranous 

Vvg4- (bat) n. [Dan. ba/cke] a mammal, with mouse-like 
*^**^ body and membranous _;-iitfa9.:=^«*^ ^T!;S^ 
Bat-fowling, the snaring ?L>jirijsvft^.v-/^Mt -'^1 


wings. _ 

of birds by attracting 

towards a light. 

batardeau [^f fS: ^.^^ w 

dam ; a dam across a moat. ' ' "^^"T^^ 

hafafa (ba-ta^ta) r?. [Hay- ^*- 

ucttcLLO. tian batata, the native name of the sweet 
potato] the sweet potato. 

Raf avian (ba-taAvi-an) a. pertaining to Holland 
j-»ctL,ci,v 10,11 Qj. itg inhabitants, or to Batavia in 
Java ;— 71. a Dutchman or an inhabitant of Batavia. 
t-vQ4-pV| (bach) w. [A.S. bacan, bake] the quantity of 
uciLV^ii bread baked at one time ; a baking ; a number 
of persons or articles received or despatched at one time. 
Hatp (bat) v.t. [abate] to lessen; to deduct. With/-- 
ucttc bated breath, with the breathing restrained J fr 
from fear, awe, etc. •<. ^ 

ha f pa 11 (ba-t6')n.; pi. bateaux, (ba-t6z')[0.F. bate[]\^ 
uctLCdU a light boat, long in proportion to its breadth, 
K o fVi (bath) n. [A.S. bceth] a place or vessel to bathe 
UctLii jji . act of exposing the body, etc., to water or 
vapour ; the water used for bathing ; a solution, or the 
vessel containing it, for immersing any substance in. 
Bath-room, an apartment for bathing. Order of the 
Bath, an order of kniglithood, the investiture being 
formerly preceded by the bathing of the candidates. 
TurMsh bath, a bath in which, after being sweated in 
hot air, the patient is rubbed, kneaded, etc., and con- 
ducted through a series of cooling chambers. 
TDq 4-U (bath) n. the capital of Somersetshire. Bath- 
xjctm ■brick, a brick-shaped composition of calcareous 
earth for cleaning knives, etc. Bath-bun, a rich kind of 
bun. Bath-chair, a wheeled chair for invalids. 
HafVl (bath) n. [H.] an ancient Hebrew measure, 
UdLiX about six or seven gallons. 
1^^ 4-t. p (baTH) v.t. to wash by immersion ; to moisten; 
UdUiiC —i)_i_ to be, or lie, in a bath; to be immersed. 
K?ifVi«ar (bii-THer) n. one that bathes himself or 
UdtllCi another. 

KafViincr (ba-THing) n. the act or practice of 
UdLilillg bathing. Bathing-dress, a loose cos- 
tume worn by open-air bathers. Bathing-machine, a 
covered carriage for the use of sea-bathers. 
U — fl-irni7m (bath-mizm) n. [Gr. bathmos, a step] 
UdLillXli^XXl growth-energy; doctrine of such. 
hafhnmpfpr (ba-thom-e-ter) n. [G. bathos, 
UdLXXUXXXCtcx tiepth, and metron, measure] a 
spring balance for determining the depth of water. 
Ujji-Up^^Qf:^ (bat-hors, baw-hors) n. [F. bat, a pack- 
UdUXXUX oC saddle] in the army, a pack horse. 
HafVinQ (ba-thos) n. [G. bathus, deep] depth; a 
UdUXXUo descent from the elevated to the mean, in 
writing or speech ; anticlimax. 

HafVlTTTTlpf Pr (ba-thim^-ter) n. an instrument 
UdLXXy xxxc LCX fQp measuring depths at sea. 
Kof 1-iT7-t-n<:»f rrr (ba-thim^-tri) n. the art of meas- 
UdLlxyxxxCLXy uring depths at sea. 
U of 1110- (ba^tin^) prep. [ppr. of 6afe, abate] abating; 
UdUXXXg deducting ; excepting. 
Uoficf p (ba-tesf) n. [F.] a fine kind of Unen cloth 
UdLXo LC from Flanders ; a variety of cambric. 
ha f 1 pf (bat^let) n. [bat] a small bat for beating linen 
UdLXC L when taken out of the buck. 
ha f m a n (bat-man, baw-man) n. a man in charge of 
UdLXXXdXX abathorse; the servant of a cavalry officer. 
Uof i^tl (batiun)n. [F. Mton] a staff or truncheon, used 
UdLt/XX for various purposes •,—v.t. to cudgel or strike. 
ha fra pVi ia n (ba-traAki-an) n. [G. batrachos, frog] 
UdLX dv^XXXdXi an animal of the frog order. 
ho f Oman (bats-man) n. one that uses the bat in 
UdLdXXXdXX cricket, etc. ; a batter. 
haffa (bat^) n. [Hind.] an allowance or gratuity 
UdLUd given to Anglo-Indian officers. 
haffalia (ba-tal-ya) n. [It.] disposition or arrange- 
UdLUdXXd ment of regiments, battalions, etc. 
ha ff a 1 inn (ba-tal-yun) n. [It.] a body of infantry, 
UdLtdXXV.ixx consisting of several companies. 
haffpl (bat^l) [Etym. unknown] provisions 
UdLtCX taken from the buttery; the charges thereon; 
college accounts in general ; an Oxford University term. 

Fate, fir, ado ; me, her ; mine ; note ; tiine ; moon. 


K a f f P fl (^^t^Ji) ''• t- [Scand. ] to fatten ; to fertilize, as 
UctLLCll land \—v.i. to grow fat ; to hve in luxury. 
U o f f pfi (bat^n) n. [F. baton, stick] a narrow piece of 
UdUtCli board, or scantling ;—7;.t. to fasten with 
battens ; to cover and nail down the hatches of a ship. 
Kaf f <anin O" (batoning) n. the act of fixing battens 
UdLUCiiiiig to a wall; the battens themselves. 
Hafff^r (bat^r) v.t. rO.F. batre] to beat repeatedly 
UcttLCl and with violence ; to attack with artillery ; 
to wear or impair ; — n. a mixture of fiour, eggs, and milk, 
in cookery ; paste. 

Knf f f»r (bat^r) n. one that holds the bat in cricket; 
UctLLCi a batsman. 

haffpr (bather) v.t. [Etym. doubtful] to give a 
UdLLCl backward slope t,o\—v.i. to slope gently 
backwards ; — n. a receding slope. 

Kaffi^rino* (hat-^r-ing) n. the act of beating down. 
UcttLCiiiig Battering - Charge, a full charge of 
powder for a heavy gun. Battering- 
ram [from a resemblance to the head 
of a ram], an engine used to beat 
down the walls of besieged places ; 
a blacksmith's hammer. Battering- 
train, cannon for demolishing forts. 
Ka f f larrr (bat^r-i)». [F. batterie, 
UdLLCiy fr idttre, beat] act of 
battering; anyplace wherecannonare u « ^ 
mounted ; a number of cannon taken Battering-ram. 
collectively; a number of jars charged with electric fluid ; 
' ^n apparatus for generating galvanic electricity ; the 
unlawful heating of another. 

l-jo i-i.; |. p. (bathing) n. cotton or wool in sheets ; the 
UdULiiig use of, or the method of using, a bat. 
hflfflf* (bat^l) n. [O.F. batatUe] a fight or en- 
uaLLic counter between opposing forces; combat; 
engagement ■,—v.i. to contend m fight. Battle-arra^, 
order of battle. Battle-axe, an a.xe formerly used m 
battle. Battle-bolt, a missile used in battle. Battle- 
piece, a painting descriptive of a battle. Battle-royal, 
a general engagement ; a mfilee ; a free tight. Battle- 
song, a song sung by soldiers marching to battle. 
Triau by battle, wager of battle, in law, decision by 
single combat (abolished 1818). 

Koff 1/^/4 (bat^ld) a. ranged in onler of battle; con- 
uctLLicu tested ; fought ; having battlements. 

battledore, battledoor KSuZo^i; 

beater] an instrument of play, with a handle and a flat 
board, used to strike a shuttlecock. 
hafflptnpnf (bat^l-ment) n. [Etym. doubtful] 
krctti.iciiiciit an indented parapet, orig. used 
only on fortications ; any defensive wall. 
Kaff l<im<inf *»rl (l>at^l-men-te(l) a. having, or 
UaiUCIIlCHLCU furnished with, battlements. 
bflf f n1nP'i<?f (ba-tol^-jist)n. a babbler; one that 
uctLLV^iv^gioL repeats his wonls unnecessarily. 
bflffnloP^U" O'a-tol!^-ji) n. [G. battoloaos, stam- 
U(Xi.i,vjiKJ^y merer, ir. battos, stammerer, and 
logos, discourse] idle talk ; undue repetition of words. 
K Q f f 1 1 p (ba-too') n. [F. fr. battre, beat) act of beating 
uctLUUC ^oods, etc., for game ; the game beaten up. 
bflllblp (baw^bl) n. [O.F. baubel] a trifling piece of 
uauuiK^i finery; agew-gaw;— «. trifling. 
KaiiHialrin (baw^e-kin) n. [O.F.l a rich embroi- 
UclUUCK.111 dered cloth of silk and gold threads. 
ha.ll P"P (^^2h) n. [F.] a kind of coarse drugget from 
u/ciugc Burgundy; mortar made of clay and straw. 

baulk (hawk) n. and V. See balk. 

hflvin (bav^in) n. [Etym. unknown] brushwood for 
uawiii. kindling fires ; firewood. 
ha.'whpP (baw-be) n. [Etym. doubtful] in Scotland, 
uawucc thg halfpenny; orig. a Scottish coin 
worth about lid. Scots. 

K a TiTfl (bawd) n. [O.F. bavd, gay] a person that keeps 
i.»a, w u a brothel ; a procuress. 
HaiArHilv (baw-di-h) adv. ii 
UdWUHy lewdly ; obscenely. 
KaTxrHinficc (bawyi-nes)n. obscenity ; lewdness; 
uawuiiiCS^S immodesty. 

Kq iTTfl j»rT (bawd-ri) n. the business of a bawd ; for- 
i^cvwuiy nication ; ril)aldry. 
bawHv (baw'-di) a. obscene; filthy; unchaste; 
uawKiy ig^jj Bawdv-house, a brothel. 
ba."wl (''^^l) ^•'- [Scand.] to shout ;—v.i. to cry with 
***** vehemence ; — n. a loud, prolonged cry. 

73 beadleship 

bawler (baw-ler) 71. one that bawls. 

KoTTrlino- (baw-ling) n. loud outcry; clamour;— a. 
UaWling shouting loudlv. 

KoTxrri (bawn) n. [ir.] a fortification; a cattle in- 
UdWIl closure. 

KoTT (ha) a. [L. badius] red or reddish ; inclining to 
"0,y chestnut ;--ra. a horse of that colour. 
hfl V ^^^ '"'■ fLow L. baia\ an inlet of the sea ;— (O.F. 
*^^j baee) a principal compartment or division in a 
building ; a place in a barn for depositing hay. Bay- 
salt, salt got from sea water. Bay-window, a window 
that projects beyond the front of the house. 
KoTT (ba) n. [L. baca, berry] the laurel tree ;— pi. 
*J'*J an honorary garland or crown made of laurel ; 
literary excellence. Bay-cherry, the cherry laurel. 
Bay-rum, an odoriferous cosmetic from bay leaves. 
Kjj.^ (ba) n. [O.F.] barking, esp. of hounds in pur- 
"^J suit of prey ; a state of defence and defiance 
when escape has become impossible ; — v.t. to bark at ; to 
inclose and set at bay ; — v.i. to bark, as a dog at his game. 

bayadere, bayadeer fe^ti-ScKili^ 

KoTro|*/4 (baiard) n. properly a bay horse, but often 
ua,y ax u any horse ; one foolishly self-confident. 
KaxrorrllTT (baAard-li) a. blind; conceited ;—iKiv. 
Udy drUiy bUndly ; stupidly. 

.f^t-f^Y (ba^ber-i) n. the fruit of the bay -tree 

^* * J and the plant itself. 
KoTrfirl (hafl) a. having a bay or bays, as an edifice ; 
UdyCU formed like a bay. 
KoTTonpf (basnet) n. [F.] a short, pointed instru- 

udyuiiCL jjieut of iron, ^ .^^ « 

fitted to a gun; — r.f. to stab 
with a bayonet ; to drive by the / 
bayonet. ' 

havnn (ba^oo) n. [F.] the 
UdyUU outlet of a lake; a 
passage for water. 

Ha ya a r ha y a r (ba-zar') n. [Per.] in the East, 
iJd^ddi, Ud^di a market-place; a spacious 
hall or suite of rooms for the sale of goods ; a sale for a 
benevolent object. 

hHpllilltn (del-i-um) n. [G. bdellion] fragrant 
[juciiiuiii gum-resin, something like myrrh. 
Kfi (be) v.i. and aux. [A.S. beon, to be] to have a state 
^^ or existence ; to exist in some particular state or 
relation ; to become. Let be, let alone ; put a stop to. 
hpa ph (bech) n. [Etym. unknown] the shore of the 
ucdUii gga or lake washed by the tide ;-^'.t. to run 
upon a beach. Beach-comber, a long wave rolling in from 
the ocean ; a lounger frequenting the Pacific coasts. 
hp^a nh *»H (becht) a. having a beach ; hauled up on 

UCdUilCU t-lip hAiir>h • sf.ranilprl 

a bawdy manner ; 


a. Sword bayonet 
6, Common bayonet. 

the beach ; stranded. 
hpaphv (be^hi) a., like a beach; covered with 
UK:a.\^iiy shjngle • pebbly ; shingly. 
hpaPOn (be-kn, be-kun) n. [A.S. bedcen] a signal 
ucdv^v^ii jjre or light on a hill top ; a mark near the 
shore, or in shoal water, as a guide to mariners ; a light- 
house ; — v.t. to give light to, as a beacon ■,—v.i. to gleam. 
K/aa/Tkna crt:^ (be^kun-aj) n. toll paid for the up- 
UCdCUlldgC teep of beacons, etc. 
hif^nnnnf^f^ (be^kund) a. having a beacon; pro- 
UCdL.UllCU yj^e^i ^th a beacon. 
hpaH (bed) n. [A.S. fr. bidden, pray] a little perfor- 
ucdu ated ball strung on a thread ; any small 
globular body ; a round moulding •,—pl. a rosary ; a 
necklace. Bead-proof, having a crown of beads resting 
on the surface when shaken (said of spirits). Bead-roll, 
a list of prayers ; a list of persons prayed for ; a list or 
series ; a rosary. Bead-stuff, the thin wood for the 
headings of cabinet-work. St. Cuthbert's beads, fairy 
beads, the perforated joints of the stems of fossil 
encrinites. To draw a bead on, to take aim at. To tell 
or say one's beads, to recite the rosary ; to be at prayers. 
Koa r1<i<-1 (beUled) a. in the form of a bead ; having 
UCdUCU beads; [Bot.jmoniliform. 
hpa Hin P" (beting) n. beads collectively ; a mould- 
uc;ci«aixig ing in imitation of beads ; bead-work, 
hpaHIp (be^l) n. [O.F. bedeH a messenger or 
u^cLvii^ crier of a court ; an omcer in a university, 
who precedes with the mace : a parish or church officer. 
Vk*aaH1*ar1r»m (be^l-dum)?!. beadles collectively; 
UCdUlCUUXll peculiarities of beadles. 
h**ar11pcViir» (oe'dl-ship) n. the office, duties, or 
UCdUXC&XXXp functions of a beadle. 


Fate, far, ado ; me, her ; mine ; note ; tune ; moon. 

beadsman 74 

beadsman, bedesman [l!Sj^^^tui 

prays for another; one that hves in an ahnshouse. 
hpaHv ("^^i) «• bead-like; small, globular, and 
UCctuy sparkling, as eyes ; covered with beads. 
h«=»a (r\ P (oe-gl) n. [Etyin. unknown] a hound used in 
UCctglC hunting hares ; a spy ; a sheriff's officer. 
Hpa Ir (bek) n. [V. bee] the bill or nib of a bird, turtle, 
UCctJv g(.g . anything ending in a point like a beak. 
Uf^ob-pkH (bekt)a. havingabeak; ending in a point or 
ucctivcu. process like a beak. Beak-iron, a bickern. 
Hf^alrpr (be-ker) n. [Icel. hikarr, cup] a large 
UCct A-Ci drinking cup or vessel ; a chemist's utensil. 
Hpam (bem) n. [A.S.] any large piece of timber, 
UCctiii long iji proportion to its thickness ; a main 
timber of a building, snip, loom, plough, or other struc- 
ture ; the part of a oalance from which the scales hang ; 
the pole of a carriage ; the shank of an anchor ; a col- 
lection of parallel rays from any luminous body.— t;.*. to 
send forth ; to emit \—v.i. to emit rays of light ; to shine. 
Beam-compass, an instrument for describing large 
circles, consisting of a wooden or brass beam, having slid- 
ing sockets for steel or pencil points. Beam-feather, 
one of the long feathers in the wing of a hawk or 
other bird. Beam-filling, masonry brought up from the 
level of the under to the upper sides of the beams. On 
the beam, at right angles with the keel. To be on the 
beam-ends, of a ship, to heel ; to be in sore straits. 
Kiao t-riilTT (be-mi-li) adv. in a beamy manner; 
UCcilllliy brightly ; radiantly. 
Upp tn 1 PQQ (bem-les)a. sheading no rays of light; 
UCctiiiiC.oo giving out no radiance. 
hpa tnv (be-mi) a. emitting rays of light ; radiant ; 
UCdiiiy resembling a beam ; massy. 
Iipo *-| (ben)n. [A.S.Ja well known leguminous plant, 
UCctii and its seed, of manv varieties. Bean-feast, 
a feast given by an employer to his workmen. Bean-fly, 
a purple-coloured fly tliat infests bean flowers. Bean- 
goose, a wild goose, which winters in Britain. 
hpfl r '^^'^^^ ^■^- [A.S. beran] to support or sustain ; to 
uccti convey ; to carry ; to endure ; to suffer ; to show 
or exhibit ; to admit or be capable of ; to behave ; to bring 
forth ; to give birth to ; — v.i. to produce, as fruit ; to be 
fruitful ; to sufi'er or endure ; to lean upon ; to press ; to 
take efiect ; to succeed ; to be situated as to the point of 
compass ; to relate or refer to. To bear a hand, to give 
aid. To bear down, to overwhelm ; to destroy ; to 
conquer. To bear out, to support ; to corroborate ; to 
confirm. To bear with, to put up with ; to tolerate. 
Vvpof (bar) n. [A.S. bera\ a wild quadruped of the 
u\^a.i. genus Ursus; one of two 
constellations in the northern 
hemisphere, called the Greater and 
the Lesser Bear. Bear-baiting, the 
sport of inciting dogs to worry 
captive bears (abolished in Britain, 
1835). Bear-berry, an evergreen 
shrub with small bright-red berries. 
Bear-garden, a place where bears 
were kept for sport ; a turbulent 
assembly. Bear's-grease, a pomatum made of the fat 
of the bear. 

Hf»araK1f» (bar'-a-bl) a. capable of being *borne; 
UCdldUlC tolerable; endurable. 

(bar^a-bli) adv. in a bearable or tolerable 

beard ^^''^^ '"■■ [A.S.] the hair that grows on the chin 
ij\.,a,i \^ and adjacent parts of the face ; the long stifi" 
hairs on a plant ; the awn ■,—v.t. to pluck, or pull the 
beard of ; to set at defiance ; to furnish with a beard. 
Hf^arHpH (ber^ed) a. having a beard; prickly; 
UCdruea jagged : barbed. 

hpa rHlf^cc (oerd-les) a. without a beard ; youth- 
UCdl UlCbb fu, . immature. 

Hf*arf11fiCc:n*»co (berd-les-nes) n. the state or 
wccti Uicaaucaa condition of being beardless. 
bearer (^^^■^^■) ^^^ one who, or that which, sustains 
or carries ; one that assists in carrying a 
body to the grave ; one that holds a cheque or other 
order for the payment of money ; a figure by the side of 
a shield ; a supporter. 

Kf»a j-iri pr (bar-ing)n. the manner in which a person 
. T"*^ o bears himself ; the situation of an object, 
with respect to another ; relation ; act of giving birth ; 
span of a beam or other piece of timber ; any single 
emblem in an escutcheon. 




Hea ri^Vl (bar'-ish) a. partaking of the qualities of a 
UCctl loii bear; grutf: uncultivated. 
KtkaricVinP'CC (bar'-ish-nes) n. the characteristics 
ucaiiaiiiicsa of a bear; uncouthness. 
Kf^arcVin (bar-skin) n. the skin of a bear; a 
uccti ojviii shaggy, woollen cloth. 
bpa.r^va.rd (bar-wawrd) n. a keeper of bears ; a 

Kpocf (best) n. [L. bestia] any four-footed animal 
ucctoL yged for labour, food, or sport ; an irrational 
animal ; a brutal man. 

K*iacflin*»cc (best^-li-nes) n. the state of being 
UCetamncsa beastly: brutahty; filthiness. 
Ko Q cf Itr (best^li) a. like a beast in form and nature; 
UCd&Liy brutal ; filthy. 

hpaf (bet)w.<. [A.S. bedtan] to strike repeatedly; to 
u^cxK, punish with blows; to bruise, or pulverize; to 
hammer, as gold, into form ; to range over ; to overcome 
in contest; — v.i. to throb; to pulsate; to come, or act, with 
violence ; to be in doubt ; to make progress against the 
direction of the wind, by sailing in a zig-zag line ;— ^i. a 
stroke ; a recurring stroko ; a pulsation ; the rise or fall of 
the hand or foot, in regulating time ; a round or course 
prescribed or frequently gone over ; a place of frequent 
resort. Beat of drum, a succession of strokes on a drum, 
representing various signals. To beat about the bush, 
to approach a matter indirectly ; to fence ; to equivocate. 
To beat hollow, to excel or outstrip easily. To beat 
one's brains, to ponder over. To beat the air, to con-* 
tend needlessly. To beat the general, to give the signal 
to troops by beat of drum. To beat time, •lo regulate 
the time in music by hand or foot. To beat up, to 
attack unexpectedly ; to i)ring to a fluid or semi-fluid 
state by beating ; to make head against wind or tide. "To 
beat up and down, to run in dilierent directions, as an 
animal hard pressed. 

hP3 f en (be-tn)pp. made smooth by beating, orworn 
u^txL^ix by use ; conquered ; worn out. 
llPflfer (be-ter) n. one that beats or strikes; an 
u^txL^x instrument for pounding. 
Kiaafifi/> (be-a-tif-ik) a. imparting or completing 
ucdtiiiv, blissful enjoyment. 
hif^ai-ifinn]]-\T (be-a-tif-i-kal-i) adv. in a beatific or 
UCdLlllCdliy happy manner. 
hf^af ifir'afinn (be-at-i-fi-kaAshun) n. act of 
u^a,i,iiiv.ciuiuii beatifying; an act of the pope 
declaring a person beatified after death. 
Kpa^j At (be-at^i-fl) v.i. [L. beatus, happy, a.nd facere. 
u^a,v,iiy niake] to make happy; to bless with celestial 
enjoyment; to declare that a person is received into heaven. 
heAtinP* (be-ting) n. act of giving blows; punish- 
uK,a,i.i.ii^ ment by blows; pulsation; throbbing; 
process of sailing against the wind by tacks. 
Hf^afifnH** (be-at-i-tud) n. [L. beatitndo, f r. beatus, 
ucctLiLUUC happy] felicity of the highest kind; 
heavenly bliss ; the declaration of blessedness made by 
our Saviour in regard to particular virtues (Matt. v. 3-11). 
Kpo I J (bo) n. [F. fr. L. bellus] a man of dress ; a fine, 
Kf^cxu. gay man ; a lady's attendant or suitor. Beau 
ideal, a conception of perfect or consummate beauty. 
Beau-monde, the fashionable world ; people of fashion. 
HfianicVi (bo-ish) a. after the manner of a beau; 
ucdUldXl like a beau ; foppish ; fine. 
ReaiinP (bon) n. [Beaune, a French town] a 
j^^cxuii^ red wine of Burgundy. 
Hpa n cln in (bo^ship) n. the quality of a beau ; the 
ui^auoiiip condi^tion of being a beau. 
Hp»anfpniic (bu-te-us) a. very fair, or very 
UCdULCUUS. handsome ; beautiful. 
Hi^aiif Pkr»iic1ir (bu-te-us-li) adv. in a beauteous 
UCdUtCUU&iy manner ; beautifully. 
H<^anf p»rmcn*»cc ( bii-te-us-nes ) n. state or 
UCdUtCUU:MlC&& quality of being beauteous. 
H<aaiif ifir^af ir^n (bu-ti-fi-ka^shun) n. the act of 
UCdULlilt.dUlUil making beautiful; decoration. 
Kiaaiifi'fi/ar (bu-ti-fl-er) n. one who, or that which, 
UCdULlllCl makes beautiful. 
heanf iflll (bu-ti-fool) a. having the qualities that 
i^^auLixui constitute beauty ; lovely. 

beautifully iSanne?."^"'^ "'^''' '" ^ ^""""^'^"^ 

Hp»anf ifiiliK^cc (bu-ti-fool-nes) n. the quality 
Ut^dUUIUintJbb of being beautiful. 
Heanfifv (bu-ti-fl) v.t. FE. beauty, a.nA L. facere, 
UCdULiiy make] to make or render beautiful ;— 
v.i. to become beautiful. 

Fate, far, ado ; me, her ; mine ; note ; tune ; m66n. 




V»<aa iif V (bii-ti) n. [O.F. fr. L. bellus, fair] an assem- 
DCdii Ly biage of graces or of properties that please 
the eye or the mind ; a particular grace or excellence ; a 
beautiful woiuan. Beauty-sleep, sleep before midnight. 
Beauty-apot, a patch placed on the face to heighten 
beauty ; a foil. Beauty-wash, a cosmetic. 
K*iaT7-<ir (l^ver) n. [A.S. befer] an amphibious, 
UCciVCl rodent quadruped ; 
' ' the fur of the beaver ; a hat made 
of the fur ; a cloth used for making 
overcoats, etc. ;— a. made of beaver, 
or of the fur of the beaver. 
Beaver-poison, the water-hem- 
lock. Beaver-rat, the musk-rat. 
hf^avpr (be-ver) n. [O.F. 
U^cLV^i laviere] part of a 
helmet in front, so constructed that 
the wearer could raise or lower it. 
K^avprpH (be-verd) a. fur- 
ucctvcitvi nished with a beaver. 

beaverteen twiiied ciotu!*' ^ 

KpKpprin (be-be-rin) 71. the pri- 
uc^L/v^^iiiA niary element of the 
bark of the bebeeru or greenheart tree 
of Guiana. „ „.,■<., 

h^hlllKhf^rpH (be-blu}):erd)a. "• ^'"''^ 

ucuiuuuci cvA sw^ollen or bleared with weeping. 
Hpr a 1 m (be-kam') v.t. to still ; to appease ; to keep 
UC(.>a.lill from motion by want of wind. 
hppalmint>* (be-ka^ming) n. the condition of 
UCUctlilllllg Ijeing becalmed ; a calm ; stillness. 
Hppa 11 QP (be-kawz) adv. and covj. [Ou and cause] 
UC^dUoC because of ; for the reason tiiat. 
Kpr»Viampl (l>esh-a-mel) n. [Louis de Bechamel, 
UCCliaiiXCX steward of Louis XIV., inventor] a 
rich white sauce thickened with cream. 
hppVianPP C^e-chans') v.t. to befall -.—i/.t. to 
UCL.llctll^C happen ; to chance. 
K o r' Vi a rm (l>e-<;harm') v.t. to charm ; to captivate ; 
UCUUdllil to enchant. 

hprllP-Hp-mPr (bashye-mar) n. [F., spade of 
ucv^iic: uc-iiici thesealthesea-slugortrepang, 
a food tish hidily prized l)y the Climese. 
hppW" (bek) n. [beckon] a sitniificant no<l or motion 
UCl.^A. Qf jjjg head or liand ; — v.t. to notify by a 
motion of the head or hand ; to intimate a command to ; 
— v.i. to nod, or make a sign with the head or hand. 
hprt (bek) n. [Scand.J a small brook, or the valley 
UCv.iv. jjj Yvijicli it runs. 

Upp1j-fi4. (bek-et) n. [Etym. unknown] a rope with 
uci^ixci. ij,j()t and eye, for securing tackles, spars, 
etc. ; a hook ; a cleat ; a rope grommet ; a pocket. 
hppWrifl ('**^l^-n) ^■^- [A..S. becnian] to make a 
UCUA.UII significant sign to ; to summon ;— t.t. to 
make a sign to with hand or linger, etc. 
hppi nn H (be-kloud) v.t. to cause obscurity or dim- 
UCV..1U uu j^ggj, [q . ty make dark or gloomy. 
hppnm P (be-kum) v.t. [A.S. becuman] to suit or be 
UCi^uiiic suitable to ; to befit •,--v.i. to pass from 
one state or condition to another ; to enter into some new 
state. To "become of, to be the lot of. 
hpPOminP" (be-kum-ing) a. appropriate or fit; 
uc\.,v^iiniig congruous; suitable; graceful. 
Kckorkt-v-iiri rrlrr O^e-kum-ing-li) adi;. aftera proper 
UeCOmingiy ^^ graceful manner. 
hprnmincrnpcc (be-kum-ing-nes) n. state or 
UeCOmingnebb jjuallty of being suitable. 
Kf»r1 (bed) n. [A.S.] an article of furniture to sleep or 
'^^'^ take rest on; offspring; marriage; a plot of 
-ground in a garden, usually a little raisea ; bottom of a 
stream ; a layer, seam, or stratum ; place on which anj'- 
thing rests ; — v.t. to place in a bed \—v.i. to go to l>e(l. 
Bed-cliair, a chair with a movable back for invalids. 
Bed-clothes, sheets, blankets, etc. , for a bed. Bed-gown, 
a night-<lress ; a kind of sack-garment used by country- 
women in Britain. Bed-hangings, the curtains of a bed. 
Bed of justice, the seat of the French king in parliament ; 
an official visit with a view to force the Parisian parlia- 
ment to registerroyal edicts, etc. Bed-pan, a warming-pan; 
a chamber utensil for use in bed. Bed-rite, the rite or 
privilege of the marriage lied. Bed-sore, a sore peculiar 
to a bedridden person. Bed-swerver, one unfaithful to 
marriage vows. From bed and board, the judicial 
separation of husband and wife. To be brought to bed, 
to bring forth a child. 

h)pHaV)Hlp (be-dab^l) v.t. to dabble or wet; to 
u^\A.a.\j wit sprinkle or wet with »""i=«^ 

(DfrKiar-kn) v.t. to ds 

to shroud in gloom. 

sprinkle or wet with moisture. 
bcdarkcn ("^^'■■^P) ^-^j ^° darken ; to obscure ; 

K/aHacVi (be-dash') v.t. to wet by throwing water 
i^^vxaoix Q,j . to bespatter with water. 
KpH a 11 K (benlawb ) v.t. to soil with anything thick 
ucuctuu and foul ; to daub over. 
KpHa'^'ylp (be-daz^l) v.t. to dazzle or overpower by 
UCUcl.^.^lC too strong light. 
HpHaT'T'lino-l-tr (be-daz^ling-li) adv. in a manner 
UCUctZ,/illllgiy calculated to bedazzle. 
hpHpVia mhpr (bed^ham-ber) n. a chamber for 
L./cu.v.ixci,iixuc;i a bed ; a sleeping apartment. 
Kpflflfiifl (bed-ed)p». furnished with a bed; planted or 
uc;vxu\^u gxed in a bed; appearing orgrowing in beds. 
Kp/4f1-j«-« rr (bed-ing)7i. materialsof a Led, whether for 
utuuiiig man or beast ; position of beds and layers. 
K^Hp/'t' (be-tlek) v.t. to cover with ornaments; to 
UCUCCK. jieck- to adorn. 

bedegar, bedeguar [Sf&esJel^ 

briar and other roses, caused bv insects. 

K^HpI HpHpII (be^i, be-del') n. [Low L. 

ucuci, ucuc^ii bedellus] the university name 

for a beadle. 

KpflfkTril (b©-<levy) v.t. to beat with devilish 

ucvic V n malignity ; to torment ; to confound. 

K^iHpirilmprif (be-<lev'-l-inent) the act of be- 

UCUCVlllUCllL devilling; chaos or disorder. 

Kfirj pTiT (be-du) v.t. to moisten with dew, or as with 

UFt ut w jg^y . to distil or drop moisture on. 

bedcWCr ^'^^"<^"^'') ^- ^ne who, or that which, 

uCClcW S. 

bedfast (bed-fast) a. confined to bed ; bedridden. 

Kp<-1fAl1/-kTTr (bed-fel-6) n. one that sleeps in the 
utviiciiu w g^ujg ijgd ^th another. 

KpHicrVif (be-dif) I'.f. to deck with ornaments; to 

ucuigiiL setoff; to equip. 

Kprlim (be-dim) v.t. to make dim; to obscure or 

UCUlIll darken ; to becloud. 

KpHi'ypn (bo-dl-zn) ?;.t to dress or adorn tawdrily 

UCUiZ.Cll or with false toste. 

hpHlam (bed-lam) n. [corrupted from Bethlehem] 

'^^'-^ *'*■'■** a mad-house ; a lunatic asylum ; a place 

of uproar. Jack or Tom 0' Bedlam, a lunatic. 

h P H 1 a m i ^ m (bed-lam-izm) n. a peculiar feature 

'^*^"-^**^^***^^*'^ of madness or of madmen. 

hpHlamifp (l>ed-lam-It) n. an inhabitant of a 

ucuxdiiiXLC mad-house; a madman. 

HpH m a t'Pr (bed-ma- ker) 71. one that makes beds or 

ucuxxxci, bedsteads; one that puts beds in order. 

RpHoilin (bed^6-in) n. [A.] a nomadic Arab; a 

xjc.uv.iuxxx wanderer ;— a. nomadic. 

Korl r>rkof (bed-post) n. one of the upright supports 

DCapObt of a bedstead. 

hpH ra cro-l p Ow-drag-l) v.t. to soil, by dragging in 

ucuxetggiC dirt, mud, etc. 

KAi^fAfipVi (be-drensh) i\<. to drench; to soak; 

ucux c;xxv.xx to wet through ; to saturate. 

hpHHH hpHn'HHpn (bed-rid, -rld-n) a. TA.S. 

UCUllU, UCUnUUen ^edWda, one bedridden] 

confined to bed by age or infirmity. 

K/a/-1«-/1/-v«-M (bed-room) n. an apartment for a bed; 

Lftux yjvjiii^ sleeping apartment ; room in a bed. 

Kpf1l-i-j«^ (he-drop) v.t. to drop upon ; to sprinkle or 

L^tux vj^ cover, as with drops. 

hpH^fpad (bedi«ted) n. [A.S. bed, bed, and stede, 

uc^vxoLttxvx place] a frame for supporting a bed. 

hpH^fra'W (bed-straw) n. straw for filling a mat- 

UC.US LX ct w tress ; any plant of the genus Galium. 

hpH firlr (bed-tik) n. a case, as of linen cloth, for 

uc:u.LXL.A. bolding the wool, feathers, etc., for a bed. 

bedtime (bed-tim) n. the usual liour for going 

hpHllpl^ (be-dukO v.t. to duck; to immerse; to 
ucuuv^x^ plunge or thrust into water. 
KpHiicf (be-dust) v.t. to sprinkle, cover, stain, or 
UCUUdL tarnish with dust. 

Kprlfxra rf (be-dwawrf) v.t. to make little ; to stunt ; 
UCU Wdl 1 to check the growth of. 
hifi'f^'\7iTrkr\r (bed-wurk) n. work performed in bed; 
ucu w ijx r^ work requiring little effort. 

bedye (be-dr) v.t. to dye ; to colour ; to stain. 

Fute, far, ^do ; me, h^r ; mine ; n5te ; tune ; nbdn. 





1, neck; 2, shaking-piece; 3, 
chine ; 4, ribs ; 6, clod ; 6, 
brisket ; 7, flank ; 8, loin, 
sirloin ; 9, rump ; 10, round ; 
n, le^; 12, foot; 13, udiler; 
14, shm ; 15, cheek. 

Kpp (be) It. [A.S. 6eo] awell known four-winged insect 
'J^^ of many genera and ^->,,r-^ 

species ; an industrious person. 
Bee-bread, the pollen of 
flowers, eaten by the young 
bees; a plant that yields 
honey, as the red-clover. Bee- 
culture, the rearing of bees : _ „ ^ -n? ,■ t, 
apiculture. Bee-eater, a birci "• <J"««" ^«*- ^- w°rki°g »««• 
that feeds on bees. Bee-glue, the material with which 
bees till up the cells. Bee-gum, a beehive fashioned out 
of a gum tree. Bee-line, tlie shortest line from one place 
to another. Bee-master, one that keeps bees. Bee- 
moth, a moth that lays its eggs in beehives. Bee-orchis, 
hee-flower, an orchid with a bee-like flower. Spelling- 
bee, a contest in_ spelling. 

KppKpp (be-be) n. [Per. 6i6i, lady, lawful wife] a 
uccucc lady ; a Hindu concubine. 
Kpppll (bech) n. [A.S. bece] a tree of the genus 
uccv^ii Fagus. Beech-coal, charcoal from beech- 
wood. Beech-gall, an excrescence on the beech, caused by 
insects. Beech-mast, the mast or nuts of the beech. 
Kpfxpllfiri (be^hen) a. consisting of, or pertaining 
uc;c«.«iicii to^ the wood or bark of the beech. 
KfjkppViTr (be^hi) a. abounding in beech trees; re- 
u^^K,i.i.y lating to beech trees. 
Kppf (bef) n. [F. bmuf, fr. L. bos, bovis, ox] an ox ;— 
L^cci pi 'beeves, the flesh ' • 

of an ox, bull, or cow, used as 
food ;— a. pertaining to the 
flesh of bovine animals. Beef- 
eater, one that eats beef; a 
large, well-fed person; one of 
the yeomen of the Royal 
Guard. Beef-tea, the fluid 
essence of beef. Beef-witted, 
dull ; stupid ; blunt - witted. 
Beef-wood, the genus Casua- 
rina, from its colour. 

beefsteak fSk>^f 

beef broiled, or for broiling. 
Ko Afrr (bef-i) a. fleshy ; obese ; solid ; muscular ; 
Ueeiy hardy. 

VkppViiTT-p (be-hlv) n. a case or box used as a 
UCCIH V C habitation for bees. 
RpplypKiiK (be-el-ze-bub) n. [H.] a Philistine 
xj c: c; 1 ^ c: u u u god ; the prince of demons. 
Kaa«« (ber) n. [A.S. beor] a fermented liquor made 
y cc;i from malted grain, with hops and other flavour- 
ing matters ; a fermented extract of plants, as spruce, 
ginger, sassafras, etc. Beer-engine, an engine for 
pumping beer from the cellar. Beer-money, an allow- 
ance to servants in lieu of beer. Small beer, beer of 
poor quality ; an insignificant thing or person. To 
think small beer of, to consider as of no value. 
Kpp|-Tr (ber'-i) a. pertaining to, or discoloured with, 
uv. v^i jr heer ; given to drinking beer. 
KppcfiriP'c: (bes-tingz) n. [A.S. blasting'] the first 
Kt\^\^i3 bxiig o njijk drawn from a cow after calving. 
Kjapo-iira ■y (bez-waks) n. the wax secreted by bees, 
•^^^^ w a.A Qf w^hich their cells are constructed. 
KppCTxriflO" (bez^wing) n. a film in port wines 
»-»v,\-o w iiig resembling the wing of a bee— a 
criterion of age ; such a wine. 

Kppf (bet) n. [L. beta} a plant having a succulent 
u/\,\^i. pQot ygg^ fQp fQojj ^jj^ fQj. making sugar. 

Kppflp (be-tl) n. [A.S. b^tel] a heavy mallet or 
ij\,\,\.i.y^ wooden hammer -—v-t. to beat with a beetle. 
Beetle-headed,^ having a head like a beetle ; stupid. 
Kppf 1p (be-tl) n. [A.S. biixin, bite] a coleopterous 
*^^ uit insect having four wings, the outer being stiff" 
cases for covering the others when folded ■,—v.i. to extend 
out ; to jut. Beetle-browed, having prominent brows. 
Kppf lin cr (bet^ling) n. act of beating with a beetle 
ucc Lililg Of mallet, as cloth. 

beeves {hevz) of beef; cattle; oxen. 

befall (b^-fawl') ^•*- [A.S. b^eallan] to happen to; 

" to occur to ;—v.i. to come to pass ; to happen. 

npfif (be-flf) v.t. to be suitable to; to suit; to 

i^^iiL become. 

hpfiffino* (be-fiti-ing) a. of a suitable character; 

i^v^iibbiixg becomini^; appropriate. 

Kpfiff itiorlv (be-fiti-ing-li) adv. in a suitable 


manner ; becomingly ; fitly. 

hpflatter (^^-^^^^^^ ^•*- ^^ flatter; to wheedle; 
V\ei(ir\TTTc^f (be-flou^r) v.t. to cover or besprinkle 

Denovver ^ith flowers. 

hkf^fmr (be-fog') v.t. to involve in fog ; to confuse ; to 
UClUg render unintelligible ; to perplex. , ; 

hpfool (be-fool') v.t. to fool; to infatuate; to-V^.p 

Up|V|rp (be-for') prep. [A.S. b^oran} in front of ; 

uciViic preceding in space, time, dignity, etc.; in 

presence or sight of ;—adv. on the fore part ; in front ; in 

time preceding ; already •,—conj. sooner than. Before 

the mast, said of seamen that sleep in the forecastle. 

Before the wind, with the wind right aft. 

VvpfV|fpl->ofi/| (be-for-hand) adv. by way of 

ucxui cixctiiVi preparation, or preliminary. 

V|pfVwfp4-« *Yi p (be-for^tlm) adv. of old time; in 

uciui c Liiiic former time ; formerly. 

V<t<^f/-tii1 (be-fouD v.t. to make foul; to soil; to 

UCIUUI render dirty. 

V\e^fre^n'\^^ <* (be-frek'-l) v.t. to freckle ; to discolour ; 

•JCliCCK-lC to diversify. 

Hpfrtf tlH (be-frend') v.t. to act as a friend to; to 

UCii iciiu aid or countenance ; to benefit. 

Kii frill (be-fril') v.t. to provide or adorn with a frill 

Deirm orfrllls. 

Up||.if<p-p (be-frinj') v.t. to furnish with a fringe ; 

uciixiigc tQ ornament with a fringe. 

beg (beg)n. See bey. 

Kpp* (t)eg) v.t. [Etym. unknown] to ask earnestly, with C^ 
'-'^o humility, or in charity ; — v.i. to ask alms or {^ 
charity ; to practise begging. To beg the question, to 
assume an essential proposition in an argument. 
Kpp-pf (be-gef) v.t. [A.S. begitan] to procreate, as a 
•^^o^ ^ father or sire ; to get ; to produce. 
Kpjypf f pr (be-get^r) n. one that begets ; a father ; 
'-'^S^^^^* an originator. 

Up0-o>o f (beg'-ar) n. [beg'] one that entreats earnestly, 
'-'^'oo"'* or with humility, e; 

begging; a mendicant 

one that lives by 
v.t. to reduce to beggary ; to 

impoverish ; to make destitute ; to exhaust. Beggar- 
my-neightaour, a puerile game at cards. 
Hpfrp-aHitlPQ^ (beg^ar-H-nes) n. the state of 
'-'^oo*** ****^^^ being beggarly ; meanness. 
hpp'frarlv (beg-ar-li) a. in the condition of a 
•-'^&&****j' beggar; extremely indigent ; mean. 
\\f^cro'ar^T <be?-ar-i) 71. a state of extreme poverty 
•-'^&&***J' or indigence ; mendicancy. 
y^f^rro-^nsr (beg-ing) n. the act of asking, or the 
^^oo^'^^o practice of living on, alms. 
RpcrliarH (beg'-ard) n. [Beguine] a member of a 
'■J^^i-i^o.i u religious sect in the Low Countries. 

begllCl (be-gild') v.t. to cover or overlay with gold. 

Kpn-ifi (be-gin') v.t. [A.S. beginnari] to enter on ; to 
'-'^o^** commence ; — v.i. to take rise ; to commence. 
HpO"itinPr (be-gin-er) w. one that begins ; a young 
'-'^o*****^* practitioner ; a tyro. 
HpO"innin0* (be-gin-ing) n. the first cause ; origin ; 
•-'^&^^**'^^**S source; tnat which is first; com- 
mencement ; the rudiments, first ground, or materials. 
Up ~:.p J (be-gerd') v.t. to bind with a band or girdle; 
^^&** *-* to surround ; to encompass. 
bpe"irdle (be-gcr'-dl) v.t. to surround, as with a 

Kprrlprhpfr (beg'-ler-beg) n. [Turk.] a govemor- 
uc;gi^xucg general of a Turkish province. 
Keko-lrkrim (be-gl66m') v.t. to wrap in darkness ; to 
UCg lUUlll cover with clouds. 

begone (be-gon') int. go away ! depart ! 

H f^ crn n i a (be-gon-ya) n. [Michel Bdgon (1638-1710), 
'-''-'S'-'*'^^** a French botanist] a genus of beautiful 
tropical plants, much cultivated in hot-houses. 
KpoTkff^^n (be-got-n) pp. generated; produced. 
UC^ULUCii Only begotten, Jesus Christ. 
y\fxcrr\mf^ (be-grlm') v.t. to soil with grime or dirt ; 
UCgiXllxC to make grimy. 

h*acrriiH o-<a (be-gruj') v.t. to grudge ; to envy the ^\v 
UCglUUgC possession of . "^ 

HpO*llilp (be-gir) v.<. to delude by artifice ; to im- 
UCguxxc pQgg Qjj . to evade. 
h<ao-iii1pmpnf (be-gll-ment) n. act of beguiling 
"^S "xitiiiciii, oj. deceiving ; the state of bemg 
beguiled or deceived. 

F&te, far, ^o ; mc, her ; mine ; note ; tune ; moon. 




tlP&'lliler (b®'8!-l§r) '"'■ one who, or that which, 

KiacriiilincrlTj- (be-gl-ling-li) adv. in a manner to 
DCgUlling^iy beguile ; deceitfully. 
Rpp*llinP (ba-gen') n. one of an ascetic sect of 
'-'^o uiiic women, founded in the 12th century by 
Lambert le Bfegue (the stammerer), priest of Lifege. 
Kptrrnm (be-gum) n. [Hind.] a Hindu princess or 
*^^o uiii lady of high rank. 

KpUolf (be-haf) n. [A.S. be healfe, by the side] 
uciictii advantage ; benefit ; interest • defence. 
hpVlflVP (be-hav') v.t. [be and have] to carry; to 
Udiavc conduct; to manage; — v.i. to act; to 
bear or carry one's self. 

hpll a viniir (be-hav^yur) n. manner of behaving ; 
upciixcxviv/ui bearing or carriage. 
VkfiVlfiarl (be-hed') v.t. to sever the head from the 
uciicctu body ; to decapitate. 
K<aVifiaHiria' (be-hed-ing) n. the act of decapitat- 
uc^ii^ctuiii^ ing, or cutting ofi'the head. 
KpVipt-ri/-kf Vj (be-Tie-moth, be-he-moth) n. [H. 6'fee- 
uc:ixc:xxi<Jtii 7)xo<fe,p;. of 6'/i,emafe, beast] an animal 
described in Job xl. 15-24 ; probably the hippopotamus. 
KpVipcf (be-hesf) n. [A.S. hehies] that which is 
i^ciic^oL willed or ordered ; command ; mandate. 
hf^lninH (be-hlnd') prep. [A.S. behindan] at the 
uciiiiiu back of; left after; left at a distance by 
the progress of improvement ;— oav. at the back part ; in 
the rear ; not in view ; remaining. Behind one's back, 
in one's absence. Behind the scenes, ac(iuainted with 
the inner workings. Behind the times, not well 
informed ; old-fashioned. 

K<aVi \nAVtnr\A (be-hind-hand) a. in arrear ; back- 
UClllllUilctllU ward: tardy; dilatory. 
hphnlH (behold') v.t. [A.S. behealdan] to fix the 
us^iiyjiKi eyes upon; to look at: to see with 
attention ■,—v.i. to direct the eyes to an object ; to look. 
K#aVi rkl r1 <»ri (be-hoMn) a. obliged ; bound in grati- 
UCIlOlUen tude ; indebted. 
beholder (^e-hoMer) n. one that beholds ; a 

Hp>hnn<a\7 (be-hun-i) v.t. to smear or sweeten with 
ucuwncjr honey; to flatter; to cajole. 
H^Vinnf (be-hoof) n. [A.S. behuf] need; necessity; 
u^ii.yj\ji advantage ; profit ; benefit. 
bpll nnvP (be-hoov) v.t. [A.S. behojian] to be 
u^iivjyjvK^ necessary for ; to become. 
KptfTf* (bazh) n. [F.] a woollen cloth made of 
kf^i^c undyed wool. 

bpiriP" C^^-"'*?) ^- existence in fact or in thought; 
u^iii^ that \vhich exists; an animal; a creature. 
KriickTxrt^l (be-j66^1) v.t. to furnish or ornament 
UCjewei with jewels. 

hplrnnffpH (be-not^d) a. knotted again and 
»^^xvii«^i,ucu again ; covered with knots. 
KplaHrkiir (be-laibur) v.t. to work diligently upon ; 
UCiauU Ul to beat soundly ; to cudgel. 
Kploop (be-Ias) v.t. to fasten with lace or cord ; to 
u^icxK,^ adorn with lace. 

HplpifpH (be-laAted) a. benighted; abroad late at 
i^\^ici.b^vA jjight ; later than the time appointed. 
HplaiiH (be-lawa) v.t. to praise highly ; to extol to 
ucictuu the skies. 

bplPV (^-IS.') v.t. [A.S. belecgan] to block up; to 
u\^ia.y waylay ;—[D.] to make fast, as a rope, by 
taking several turns round a pin. Belaying pin, a pin, 
as of iron, to which running rigging may l)e belayed. 
bdf*h ^^'^'^h, belch) v.<. fA.S. bealcnn] to throw up 
u^iv^ii from the stomach with violence; to eject 
violently ;— v.t. to eructate ; to issue with violence ;— ». 
an eructation. 

bplrh Pr (bel-sher) n. [Jim Belcher, a famous boxer] 

^ ^**^* a neckerchief with a dark blue ground and 

large white spots, each having a blue spot in the centre. 

bplfia.rn (beMam) n. [M.E. bel, grand, and dame, 

** ** mother] grandmother ; an old woman in 

general ; an ugly old woman ; a hag. 

bplpa.P*ll Pr (be-le^ger) v.t. [D. belegeren, besiege] 

^**o"^* to surround with an army, so as to 

preclude escape ; to besiege ; to blockade. 

nplpaD"llprpr (I'^-le-ger-er) n. one that be- 

w^iitcig uci ci leaguers ; a besieger. 
belecturP (be-lek-tur) v.t. to annoy with lec- 

^^"*^ tures; to reprove constantly. 
HpIpp (be-le') v.t. [be and tee] to place on the lee side 
UCICC of ; to shelter. 

Kplpmnif p (bel^m-nlt) n. [G. belos, dart] a fossil 
UClCiiiiiiLC: found in chalk rocks: also called 
arrow-head, finger-stone, and thunder-sione. 
belfried (bel-frld) a. furnished with a belfry. 

hplfrv (bel-fri) n. [M. H. Ger. berof'rit, place of 
uc;xii y security] a movable tower, erected by besiegers 
for attack and defence ; a bell-tower. 
■Dplp-iari (bel-jian) a. pertaining to Belgium; — n. 
■*-'*-'*S*'*** a native or inhabitant of Belgium. 
Rplfrravian (bel-gra^vi-an) a. belonging to Bel- 
■*-''-*&* "' ' *"-** gravia, in London ; fashionable ;— 
n. one of the upper classes. 

Rplial (bel-yal)n. [H. Vll, without, and ya'al, profit] 
j-f ^iicxi the devil ; an evil spbit. 
hpl i hpl (be-li-bel) v.t. to pronounce a libel against ; 
UKinUKii to slander ; to calumniate. 
Kplip (be-ll) v.t. [be and lie'] to give the lie to; to 
uc^iic tell lies concerning ; toslander. 
Kplipf* (be-lef) n. [A.S. geleafa] an assent of mind 
uc;iid to the truth ; the thing believed ; a tenet, or 
bodyoftenets; confidence. Tlie Belief, the Apostles' creed. 
K«i1ii:»TraKl<a (be-le-va-bl) a. capable or worthy of 
UeiieVciUie being believed. 
Kfil i ckTra K1 fan *ico (be-le-va-bl-nes) n. quality of 
UeiievaUienebb being believable. 
Kplipvp (be-lev') v.t. [A.S. gel^fan] to be persuaded . 
u^ii\:;v^ of the truth of ; to regard as true ; to place SX9JI^ 
confidence in ; to credit ; — v.i. to have a firm persuasion, ^ . efj^ 
which often approaches to certainty; to think; to suppose. ^ / 
KplipVpr (be-le^ver) n. one that credits, esp. one 
uciic V ci that believes in the Scriptures as a revela- 
tion from God ; a professor of Christian faith. 
hplipvitlP* (be-le- ving) ppr. having faith; ready 
ij^xic V xiig or disposed to believe. 
Hplip\rincrlTr (be-le^ving-li) adv. in a believing 
uciic V iiigiy manner ; with faith or belief. 

belike (be-Hk') adv. likely ; probably ; perhaps. 

K<aliff1«k (be-lit^l)v.<. to make small; to depreciate; 
UClHtlC to think lightly of. 

Hplif f IpfTIPnf (be-lit^l-ment) n. act of belittUng 
uciittic^iiiciii. or treating with contempt. 
hpl 1 (^'^ "• [-^-S- &«^^] a hollow metallic vessel which 
ucii gives forth a clear, ringing 
sound on being struck ; anything in 
the form of a heW, as the cup or 
calyx of a flower. BeU-bird, a South 
American or an Australian bird, 
named from its note. Bell-buoy, a 
buoy with a bell that is rung by 
the waves. Bell-crank, a crank for 
transmitting motion through a right 
angle. Bell-founder, one that founds 
or casts bells. Bell-foundry, a place 
where bells are founded or cast. Bell-glass, a bell- 
shaped glass to protect flowers. Bell-hanger, one that 
hangs and fixes bells. Bell-metal, an alloy of copper 
and tin— used for making bells, etc. Bell-pull, bell- 
rope, the handle, wire, or cord by which a bell is rung. 
BeU-punch. a ticket-punch with bell signal. Bell- 
ringer, one whose business is to ring a bell. Bell-tele- 
graph, a telegraph for recording signals by hells. Bell- 
turret, bell-gable, a turret or gable provided with a belL 
Bell-wether, a sheep that leads the flock, with a bell 
on his neck. To bear away the bell, to take the prize ; 
to be superior. To bell the cat, to vie with a superior 
foe (from the fable of the mice that decided to put a bell 
on the cat). To curse by belL book, and candle, to 
excommunicate solemnly ; — v.i. [A.S. bellnn] to bellow. 
hpllaHnnna (bel-a-don-a) n. [It.] deadly night- 
UCiictUdiiici, shade, employed as a cosmetic. 
Kpllp (bel) n. [L. belhis, beautiful] a young lady of 
UCilC superior beauty, and much admired. 
KaII^ac 1«affr«ac (bel-let^r) [F.] polite or 
UCHCa-lCtLlca elegant literature. 
hpllipo^P (bel-i-kos) a. [L. fr. bellum, war] dis- 
UCliiv^v^oc: posed to contention ; pugnacious. 
hplllPO^plv (bel-i-kos-li) adv. in a warlike man- 
UCili^uocijr uer; pugnaciously. 
Kpl 1 i p H (bel-id) a. having a belly of a particular kind. 
UCiiicu as pot-6eW/ed! ; rounded; protuberant. 
hplliiyprPtlPP (be-lij^-rens) n. the act of carry- 
iJvJiixgci ciiv-c ingonwar; actual warfare. 

" . belluvi, war, 
gerens, -entts, 

hplh'p-prpnf (be-lij^-rent) a. [L 
i^^iiig\^i v..iib and gerere, ppr. i 

Fate, far, 9do ; me, h^r ; mine ; note ; tQne ; moon. 




wage] waging war, disposed for war ; — n. a nation or state 
carrying on war ; an individual engaged in fighting. 
hfllill P" C'^el-ing) n. the use of the diving-bell ; the 
uciiilig fQar of deer in rutting-time. 
K<i11ir»r»f *inf (be-lip^-tent) a. [L.] powerful or 
UCUipUUCllt mighty in war. 
K<:k11m Q n (bel-man) n. a man that rings a bell ; a 
UCillliail town-crier. 

Rf»11r»nfl (be-l6^na) n. [L.] the goddess of war; 
i-iClxvillct a tall, vigorous, high-spirited woman. 
hplln'\A7' (beW)v.i. LA.S. bellan] to roar; to clamour; 
UCilU W — ^ a j.Qa,r ; a loud outcry : vociferation. 
hpllnTXTQ (bel^z, -us) n. sing, and pi. [A.S. birlg, 
UCiiV/Wo ijjag] an instrument for propeUing air 
through a tube. Bellows-flsli, the trumpet-fish. 
hpllv (bel-i) n. [A.S. bwlg, bcelig] tnat part of the 
^^**J body which contains the bowels; thealxlomen; 
the part of anything which resembles the belly in pro- 
tuberance or cavity ; — v.i. to swell and become protuber- 
ant. Belly-band, a band that encompasses the belly of 
a horse; a girth. Belly-fretting, violent pain in a 
horse's belly ; chafing caused by the fore-girths. Belly- 
god, a glutton ; an epicure. Belly-pinched, starved. 
Hfllvfill (bel-i-f ool) n. as much as fills and satisfies ; 
UCiiyiUl sufliciency; over-abundance. 
Kiilz-k/^'U- (be-lok') v.t. to lock ; to fasten with, or as 
DCIOCK: with, a lock. 

Hf lnm3 nPV (bel^-man-si) n. [G. belos, dart, and 
lJ\Zl\jniail\,y manteia, divination] divination by 
means of arrows. 

hplnnP" (be-long') v.i. [prefix be and A.S. langian] 
UCiV^llg to be the property of ; to be the concern or 
proper business of ; tobe a part or quality of. 
hplnnP'iflP' (be-lon^ing) n. that which pertains 
uciuiigiilg tQ Qj^g as a Quality or endowment. 
hploVPH (be-luv^d, be-luvu')a. greatly loved ; dear 
usziyj V cu. tQ tjjg heart ; — n. one very dear. 
Hfln'W (be-l6') prep, [be and low] under in place; 
UCIUW beneath; inferior to; unworthy of; unbe- 
fitting •,—adv. in a lower place; beneath; on the earth, as 
opposed to the heavens; in hell, or the regions of the dead. 
hplf" (belt) n. [A.S.] that which engirdles a person or 
'-'dl' thing; a band or girdle; that which resembles a 
girdle ;^.t. to encircle, as with a belt ; to encompass. 
RpI ffl fl P (bel-tan) 71. [Gael.] old May -day ; a Celtic 
XJCitaiiC festival celebrating such a day. 
Kplfpfl (bel-ted) a. wearing a belt as an emblem of 
uci ucu. rank; of a ship, protected by belts of armour. 
hplf in O" (bel-ting) n. belts in general ; the material 
uc;j.uiiig of which belts are made. 
Kplxrprl pf p (bel-ve-der') n. [It. fr. L. bellus, beauti- 
wci V ^uc;i c fui^ and videre, see] a small structure 
on the top of an edifice, open to the air on one or more 
of its sides ; a summer-house on an eminence. 
Kp«-p|o (be-ma) n. [G.] a platform or hustings; the 
kf^iiicx sanctuary or chancel of a church. 
Kf»m pa n (be-men') v.t. to make mean ; to debase ; 
M^iii^dix tQ lower ; to degrade. 
hpmirP (be-mlr') v.t. to drag, encumber, or soil, in 
u^xixii t the mire ; to cover with mire. 
I k}«--Hpmnan (be-jn6n')«.(. to express deep grief for by 
te.p',.< . ■ uciiiucxii moaning ; to lament ; to bewail. 

Kck«-I-||-ip'U- (be-mok') v.t. to treat with mockery; to 
wviinv^^-rs. ridicule; to throw into the shade. 
Hpmoicffin (be-moi-sn) v.t. to moisten; to 
UClllUiaLCH dampitowet. 
HprnnHHIp (be-mud-l) v.t. to muddle ; to confuse ; 
UCUIUUUIC to bewilder ; to stupefy. 
Kptniicp (be-muz') v.t. to put into a muse ; to con- 
ucixiuac fuse; to stupefy. 

Kpfi (ben) n. [Gael.] a mountain peak, used as part of 
"*-** the name of various Scottish mountains. 
Kf»« (ben) n. [A.] the horse-radish tree. Ben-nut, the 
'-"^** seed or fruit of a species of Moringa, from which 
a valuable oil is extracted. 

bench (bensh) n. [A.S. bene] a long seaj ; a long 
" ^ table at which mechanics work ; the seat 
where judges sit in court ; the persons that sit as judges. 
Bench-marks, marks left in a line of survey, for refer- 
ence. Bench of bishops, the bishops in the House of 
Lords. Bench-show, an exhibition of animals on 
benches. Bench-warrant, a process issued by a court 
against a person guilty of contempt, or indicted for crime. 
Front bench, in parliament, the leaders of a party. 
HptlpVlPr (bencher) n. one of the senior members 
UCIlCIlCr of an inn of court. 

KpflH (bend) v.t. [A.S. bendan, bind] to crook by 
UCllU straining ; to curve ; to turn out of the direct 
course— hence, to incline ; to render submissive ; to 
subdue ; to fasten, as one rope to another, or as a sail to 
its yard ; — v.i. to be moved out of a straight line ; to 
bow ; to be inclined with interest, or closely ; to be 
directed ; to bow in prayer or in submission \—n. a turn 
or deflection from a straight line or direction ; a curve ; 
a knot by which one rope is fastened to another or to an 
anchor. Bend-leather, stout leather for shoes. Bend 
sinister, a band on an escutcheon, from the sinister 
corner to the dexter base, denoting illegitimacy. To 
bend a sail, to make it fast to its yard, ready for setting. 
Kfan/1olkl/a (ben^a-bl) a. capable of being bent or 
UCnUdUiC curved'; flexible. 

DGnder (ben^ler)«. one who, or that which, bends. 

Kckri/aar^^irJ (be-nepf) a. stranded by the neap 
UCnCcipCU tide; neaped. 

Kpfipaf Vl (be-neth') prep. [A.S. beneothan] under; 
UCllCdLll lower than in rank or excellence; un- 
worthy of ; unbecoming ■,—adv. in a lower place ; below, 
as opposed to heaven, or to any superior region. 
Kpflfirlipf (ben-e-dikt) n. [Benedick, Much Ado 
UCIICUI^L (i()(yut, Nothirig] a man newly married. 
RptlpHicf itIP (ben-e-dik^tin)a. pertaining to St. 
XJCllCUii^ Line Benedict or his order \—n. one of 
an order of monks established by St. Benedict in the Gth 
century ; a liqueur. 

1-vpripHipi"int1 (ben-e-dik-shun) n. [L. bene, well, 
uc:ili::uil.^tiUll and dicere, speak] act of blessing ; 
the form of prayer used at the close of worship. 
Kptl pH i pf i VP (ben-e-dik'-tiv) a. tending to bless ; 
UCXICUII., LX V c imparting a blessing. 
Kpfififapfi/^n (ben-e-fak^hun) n. [L. bene, well, 
ucxxc:xct,v.,Liu>xx and/acere, do] act of conferring a 
benefit ; a benefit conferred, esp. a charitable donation. 
Vipn pfa plrir (ben-e-fak-tur) n. one that confers a 
UCXlClctL.LLlx benefit; one that makes a bequest 
to a religious or charitable institution. 
K<:i« £if"i of t-^aoc! (ben-e-fak-tres) n. a woman that 
Deneianrebb confers a benefit. 
Kprip-fipp (ben-e-fis) n. literally, a benefit, advan- 
ucllCil«...C tage, or kindness; an ecclesiastical living. 
Kprip-fipfifl (ben^-fist) a. possessed of a benefice 
uc;xxcixi.^c;u or church preferment. 
KptlpfipPflPP (be-nei-i-sens) n. the practice of 
uc:xxc;xxi.>c;xxi.,c; doing good ; active goodness. 
Kpfipfnpptif (be-nef-i-sent) a. doing good; per- 
ucxicxx^cxxu forming acts of kindness. 
Koitifi'fir'finf Itt- (be-nef-i-sent-li) adv. in a benefi- 
UCXlCXXL,CXlux_y cent manner; bountifully. 
\\cmcif\n\n\ (ben-e-fish^l) a. conferring benefits; 
UCllCllUlcll ugefui . profitable ; helpful ; gainful. 
Kptip-fipiollTT (ben-e-fish-al-i) adv. in a beneficial 
ucxxc;xxi...xctxxy or advantageous manner. 
KoriofioinlrKiecs (ben-e-fish-al-nes) n. the 
UCHCllClcHHC5>Ss quahty of being beneficial. 
Kptipfipiarv (ben-e-fish-i-a-ri) n. one that holds 
ucxicxx^xctx y a benefice, and uses its proceeds ; a 
feudatory or vassal ; one that is maintained by charity. 
Kpfipfif (ben-e-fit) n. [L. benefactwni] an act of 
ucxxcxxt kindness; a favour conferred; whatever 
contributes to promote prosperity, happiness, or property ; 
a performance at a theatre or elsewhere, the proceeds of 
which are given to a particular person or object ; — v.t. to 
do good to ; to advance in health or prosperity ; to be 
useful to •,—v.i. to gain advantage ; to prosper. Benefit- 
society, a friendly-society ; a society for mutual benefit. 
K/ariPVolpfir'P (be-nev^o-lens) n. [L. benevol- 
ucxxc;vuxcxx\.,c cntid] disposition to do good; 
good will ; charitableness ; an act of kindness. 
K p tl P vnl P n f (be-nev'-o-lent)a. having a disposition 
UCXIC VLFXCXlL to do good ; generous ; charitable. 
K<iri«iTr/-k1«anf Kr (be-nev-o-lent-li) adv. in a spirit 
DeneVOienLiy of good win ; charitably. 
HpnO*a1 'ben-gawl') n. [Bengal, India] a thin stufl 
^^^^&*** for ladies' wear, made of silk and hair. 
Bengal-light, a kind of firework, giving a vivid blue light. 

Bengali, Bengalee Safn^So,V.U 

or its inhabitants or language ;—n. a native of Bengal. 
hpniP'llf (be-nif) v.t. to involve in darkness; to 
UClxXgXlt involve in moral darkness or ignorance. 
hptl i P*11 (be-nin') a. [L. benignus] of a kind or gentle 
UCXXXgxi disposition ; of a mild type. 

Fate, far, ^do ; m§, h§r ; mine ; note ; tune ; moon. 

benignancy 79 

Hpn 1 frn 3 n CV (be-nig'-nan-si) n. benignant qual- 
UCXiigxictiiv^jr ity ormauners; good naturedness. 
K^riirrnorif (be-nig-nant) a. kind; gracious; 
UcniglldllL favourable ; beneficial. 
Koni o-n 3 nf lir (be-nig'-nant-li) adv. with benign- 
UClllgHctlltiy ity ; graciously. 
hpni PTlifv ^he-nig^ni-ti)n. goodness of disposition; 
UCiiigiiitj^ kindness; graciousness ; salubrity. 
hpnip*tl1v (be-nln-li) adv. in a benign manner; 
uciixgixijr f a voui-ably ; graciously. 
hpniQrin 0>en-i-zn) n. [L. bene, well, and dicere, 
uc;iiiov/ix .say] blessing ; lienediction. 



hpnifif^r ('^■nSt^yrO n. [F.] in Eoman Catholic 
uciii Lici churches, a font containing holy water. 
1 3 fY\ i n (ben-ja-min) n. [corruption oi henjoin, 
|ctiiiiii i,e.,benzoin%Qnzom\ extract of benzoin. 
j o frii-n (ben-ja-min) n. [Benjamin, a tailor] a 
I ctiiiiii ijjjjj Qf overcoat worn by men. 
1-%p*-|4' (bent) n. [bend] curvity ; leaning or bias ; pro- 
UCii L pensity ;--{A.S. beonet] any stifi" or wiry grass ; 
stalks of withered ; a heath ; a hillside. 
R^^nffiamicm (ben-tham-izm) n. the utilitarian 
j^CllLlldlliiaill doctrines of Jeremy Bentham. 
bpniimb (be-num') v.t. [A.S. beniinan, pp. 
uciiuxiiu benumen, take away] to deprive of 
sensation ; to make torpid through cola ; to stupefy. 
K*»niitnK«arl (be-numd') pp. numb; torpid; para- 
UCliUillUCU lyzed ; inactive. 
KiariitmK<ir1ri<»ee (be-nurad-nes) n. the state 
DenumueaneSjb of being benumbed. 
KfinnmKmPknf (be-nura-raent) n. state of being 
UCll Uill UlllCll L torpid or inactive. 
Kort-yono (ben-zen) n. a hydrocarbon obtained 
DCnzene from coal-tar. 

hpn^inP (ben-zen) n. a liquid substance obtained 
ucii^xiic; hy the distillation of petroleum. 
\\f^r\'7f\\n (ben-z<"Mk) a. pertainmg to, or obtained 
u^ii^yjiy., from, benzoin. 

h*^n7nin (ben-zo-in, -zoin) n. [F. benjoin, fr. A. 
ucii^VJixi lubdnjdvxi] gum benjamin; a fragrant 
resinous substance, obtained from a tree of Sumatra, 
Java, etc., used as a cosmetic, and for incense. 

benzol, benzole (l>en'zol, -zoD n. benzene. 

benzolin, benzoline SKSSam^for 

impure benzene ; sometimes applied to benzine. 

hpnP i n f (be-pant) v.t. to cover with paint; to paint 

ucpctiiit over ; to colour. 

KfifAfscf <ar (be-pes^ter) v.t. to pester constantly ; to 

ucpca LCI plague ; "to vex. 

hpnif V (be-pit^i) v.t. to sympathize with greatly ; to 

ucj^iLjr pity very much. 

Korxloof <a*- (be-plas^ter) v.t. to plaster over; to 

uepidbier i„jdaub. 

K«ar>t-!aio<a (Ije-pmz) v.t. to praise greatly or ex- 
UCpidibC travagantly. 

bf»ni1f*afll (be-kwexH') v.t. [A.S. becwethaii] to 
ucv^uc:;ct.Lii giyg or leave, by will; to make a 
bequest of ; to hand down : to transmit. 
K^aniKaofVioKlck (l>e-kwe-THa-bl) a. capable of 
UCqUCdindUie l,eing bequeathed. 

bequeather SjSiS"™''^ "• ''°' ""^^ ^' 

Kcinn^afVim«»rif (be-kweTH-ment) n. act of 
UCqUCctUllllCllL bequeathing; a bequest. 
hp>nnpkcf (bc-kwesf) n. act of bequeatlung; some- 
ucqucat thing left by will ; a legacy. 
bPfinnff* (be-kwof) v.t. to quote frequently; to 
ucqutjtc adduce many illustrations. 
Kpi^o f p (be-rat) v.t. to rate or chide vehemently ; to 
ui ^ 1 d. LC scold vigorously. 

Rprbpr (ber'-ber) n. a native of, or the language 
j^^i uci spoken in, Barbary, in Africa ;— a. per- 
taining to the Berbers or their language. 
hprHpHnp (ber-be-rin) the base of the barberry 
utii wci iiic plant, a bitter yellow alkaloid. 

berberry (ber'-ber-l) «. see barberry. 

KprpavP (be-rev') v.t. [A.S. beredfian] to make 
uci cave destitute ; to deprive of. 
K|at*Pa VPmpnf (be-rev^ment) n. the act of 
•^\:;ic;ci,vciiiciiL bereaving; state of being be- 
reaved ; deprivation. 

(berg) n. [iceberg] a large mass or moimtain of 

ice ; an iceberg. 


'[3/&fo*a ms qIt (ber^ga-mask) a. of, or pertaining 
j-fcx ga.iiici.oA. to, Bei^amo v— n. a rustic dance. 
hprfTflmot (ber'-ga-mot) n. [Bergamo, in Italy] a 
*^^* gaiiiv^i, species of orange, from whose rind ac 
essential oil is extracted ; the essence or perfume itself ; 
snutf scented with bergamot ;— [TurkJ a pear. 
hprp'a nHpr (ber-gan-der) n. [Etym. doubtful] the 
uci gaiiuci sheldrake or burrow-duck. 
hprf mplll (berg'-mal) n. [Ger. berg, mountain, 
*-*^*' giiitiiii and mehl, meal] an earthy substance 
resembUng fine flour, composed of the shells of infusoria. 
hf»ro*V (ber-gi)a. studded with icebergs ; resembling 
^^^Sy an iceberg. 
bpribpri (ber-i-ber-i) n. [Singhalese] a disease 
uci luci 1 marked by anaemia, paralysis, and drop- 
sical symptoms. 
K«arim«a K«»rViT7m«a (be-rim') v. <. to celebrate 

uenme, uernyme or glorify in verse. 

Kprin irprl (be-ringd') a. encircled with rings ; fur- 
uci ixigcu nished with rings. 
Rprlin (ber-hn, ber-lin) n. a four-wheeled carriage, 
j-fcxxxxx ijij'g a chariot, invented at Berlin, Prussia. 
Berlin-blue, Prussian blue. Berlin-iron, a very fusible 
iron, made from bog ore. Berlin-warehouse, a ware- 
house for fancy goods. BerUn-wool, a tine wool. 
hprm hprmP (berm) [F.] a narrow ledge; a 
wv.,1 ill, u\.^i iiiv, space lietween the fortress and 
the ditch; the bank of a canal opposite to the towing path. 
R^arriarHinp (ber'-nar-din) n. one of an order of 
X3C1 liai UIXIC ni5nks named after St. Bernard. 
hprnPQnilP (ber-nesk) a. in the burlesque style 
ucx xxcoquc of Francesco Berni, an Italian poet. 
Kpff r^^4-3 (l>er-ret^i) n. [It.] a square cap worn by 
ucxxcLLo. the clergy of the E.G. church; for car- 
dinals, red ; for bishops, violet or black ; for priests, black. 
hprripH (ber'-id) a. furnished with berries; like a 
•^^^ * icu. berry; havingeggs— said of a female lobster. 
hprrv (ber'-i) n. [A.S. bene] a pulpy, juicy fruit ; a 
'-'^** J simple fruit with succulent pericarp; one of 
the eggs of a fish •,—v.i. to produce berries. 
bpr^a 0*1 i Pri (bar-sal-ya^r«) [It.] the riflemen 
UCX octgixci 1 or sharpshooters in the ItaUan army. 
hpr^Prtpr (ber^er-ker) n. [Icel.] a savage Scan- 
UCi OCX A.CX dinavian warrior of ancient times ; 
one given to fits of frenzy or violence. 
Upf^U (berth) n. [EtjTn. doubtful] the place where a 
UCX LXl gjjip lies at anchor or at a wharf; a place 
in a ship, etc., to sleep in ; official situation or employ- 
ment: — v.t. to give anchorage, or a place to lie at; to 
allot berths to. To give a wide berth to, to sail, or 
keep away, from. 

K<it-fVi a crp (ber'-thaj) n. dock or harbour dues ; 
UCl LlXctgC harbourage. 

Kot-fViino* (ber'-thing) n. arrangement of berths 
UCi LllXll^ ina ship ; the berths. 
Hprvl (ber'-il) n. [G. beruUos] a green or bluish-green 
'-'*^* J * mineral of great hardness. 
Hpcainf (be-sant) v.<. to make a saint of; to con- 
ucoctxxxL sider as a saint. 

beSCatter (be-skat^r) v.t. to scatter over. 

KpcrTPPn (be-skren') v.t. to cover with a screen ; 
UCd«..x ccxx to conceal ; to shelter. 
hp^Prihhlp (be-skriW) v.t. to write in a scrib- 
UCol.^x Luui^ bling fashion ; to scribble over. 
KpcpppVi (be-sech) v.t. [seek] to ask or entreat 
UCoCC^xx with urgency: entreat; supplicate. 

KpopppViitlO'lv^'^^'^^*^^"'"^''''' '"^^' ^^ *" ^^' 
UCoc:cv..xxxxxgxy treating or importunate manner. 

Koc^f^m (be-sem') v.t. to be fit for, or worthy of ; 
ucaccxxx to become ; to befit. 

beseemingly SS" SSfer:"^ '^''- '° " ^^'"^' 

Kckock£»rnincrnpc:Q (be-se-ming-nes) n. the 
ucaccxxxxxxgxxcaa quality of being beseeming. 
Kpcpf (be-sef) v.t. [A.S. besettun] to place on, in, or 
UCoCL around: to waylay; to blockade; to hem in 
or press on all sides ; encircle ; embarrass. 
Kpcpf mpni" (be-set^ment) n. the state of being 
UCoCLXXXCXXU beset; a propensity to sin. 
K£ke<af finer (be-set^ing) ppr. habitually attending 
UCSCLLXXXg or pressing. 

hp^ll m pf (besh-met) n. [native name] grapes made 
ucoxxxxxd. jjjto a pulp, used as food in Asia Minor. 
UpcVifp-Txr (be-shroo') v.t. [prefix fie and shrew] to 
ucoxxx c w ^jgb a curse to ; to execrate. 

Fate, far, aAo ; me, her ; mine : not* ; tune ; moon. 




beshrouded ^^^^r"^^^^ "• '""''''* ""'^^ ' 

hp^lHf* (be-sid') prep, and adv. [A.S. be sidan] at 
UCoiUC t}ig side of ; aside from ; out of tlie regular 
course or order ; out of ; over and above ; distinct from. 
Beside one's self, highly excited. Beside the mark, 
away from the subject ; inappropriate ; irrelevantly. 
"f~ Hp^iHp^ (be-sldz') adv. moreover; in addition;— 

l^iji:' ucoiuco prep, over and above ; in addition to. 

Kpoipcrp (be-sej') v.t. to lay siege to; to surround 

ucoiCgC ^itii armed forces ; to throng about. 

V» <a o i o cr<a m *a n f (be-sej-ment) n. act of besieging ; 

UCaiCgCXllCllL state of siege. 

K«aci*ao*Ar (be-se^jer) n. one that besieges; a be- 

ucaiCgci leaguerer. 

Kficipcrin O* (De-se-jing)ppr. surrounding a city or 

ui:;oi\;;giiig fortification in a hostile manner. 

hf^QlavP* (be-slav') v.t. to make a slave of; to 

ucaict V c enslave ; to call slave. 

HpiQlavPr (be-slaV-er) v.t. to cover or soil with 

UColct V Ci slaver ; to cover with fulsome flattery. 

hpQm pa r (be-smer') v.t. to smear with any viscous, 

UColllCctl glutinous matter ; to bedaub. 

bpsmirrh (be-smerch) v.t. to soil; to sully; to 

Kckonz-kTTT (he-an6')v.t. to cover with snow ; to make 
UebnOAV white like snow. 

beSOll (be-soil') v.t. to soil ; to stain ; to tarnish. 

hp<?nni (be-zum) n. [A.S. besina] a brush of twigs 
ucouiix JQj, sweeping ; a broom. 
hp^nf (be-sof) v.t. to make sottish by drink; to make 
ucout ^yii Qj. stupid ; to cause to dote on. 
Kpcrkfmpnf (be-sot-ment) n. act of stupefying 
ucau UliXCllL one's self by drink ; muddled state. 
beSOttpdlv (be-sot^d-li) adv. in a besotted 

K<iC!r»ff<ir1ri/ic«cj (be-sot^d-nes) n. state of being 
UCbOlteunebb besotted ; infatuation. 
hpQoff inO"lv (be-sot^ing-li) adv. in a besotting 
ucouLtiii^ijr manner; stupidly ; idiotically. 
Koor»!3 ri cri «a (be-spang'-gl) v.t. to adorn with, or as 
UC&pdll^lC with, spangles. 
HpQr\affpr (be-spat^er) v.t. to throw dirt and 
ucspctLLCi water on ; to foul with slanders. 
hp^npat Cje-spek') v.t. to engage beforehand; to 
ucopcdi^ betoken ;— ». an actors benefit. 
Hp^riPptlp (lie-spek-l) v.t. to mark with speckles 
i^c^opc^A-ic or spots ; to variegate. 
bp^nifP (b^-spis') v.t. to sprinkle with spices; to 
"^*^P*^^ season ; to drug or poison. 
hp*»noWpn (be-spS^kn) pp. of the verb bespeak, 
UKiis^JKjT^^ii applied to ordered goods of any kind. 
hpQr»r»f (be-spof) v.t. to mark with spots ; to mark 
ucopuL with blots or blemishes. 
HpQnrpa H (be-spred') v.t. to spread or cover over ; 
KJ^o^Ji cctu to spread with ; to adorn. 
hp^nrPflf (be-sprenf) :pp. [A.S. besprengan, be- 
i^^o^i v^iiu sprinkle] sprinkled over ; besprinkled. 
KpQt^rinlrlp (be-spring'-kl) v.t. to sprinkle over ; 
ucopj. iiii^ic to scatter over ; to bedew. 
beSDUtter (^^"^P"*:?^)'^''-*'^ sputter over; to soil 

Bessemer process SJ^f^f^T^SmS 

inventor] a process of forming ingot iron and steel by 
forcing a blast of air through the metal while molten. 
best (best) a.superl. [A. S. betst} having good qualities 
** in the highest degree; most advanced; most 
correct or complete •,—adv. in the highest degree ; beyond 
all other ; to the most advantage ; with the most success, 
profit, or propriety ;— n. utmost ; highest endeavour. At 
best, in the highest possible degree or extent. Best man, 
a groomsman. For the toest, with honest motives. To 
have the best of, to have the advantage in or over. To 
make the best of, to derive the greatest advantage out of. 
Kpofain (be-stan') v.t. to mark with stains; to 
i^v.oLa.111 stain all over ; to discolour. 
Kpcffiarl (be-sted') v.<. to help; to assist; to re- 
uc^OLCdU ligye . to avail ; to be of use to. 
hp«:f ial (bes-ti-al) a. [L. bestia, beast] belonging to 
wtOLieti^a beast, or to the class of beasts ; brutish. 
nP«;f ialif V (bes-ti-al-i-ti) n. the quality of a beast; 
wv,o 1,10,11 cjr brutism : connection with a beast. 

bestialize j?kf a St. ""'• '" ""^^^ ^^'"^*' "" 

HpQfiallv (bes-ti-al-i) adv. in a brutal or inhuman 

ucoLictiijr manner ; after the fashion of a beast. 

HpQfiaHflfl (bes-ti-a^ri-an) n. a favourer of kind- 

ucoLictx idii nesstoanimals ; ananti-vivisectionist. 

Hp^fipW (be-stik') v.t. to stick over, as with sharp 

UCoLiui^ points ; to pierce through and through. 

Kpcfill (be-stil) v.t. to make quiet or still; to 

ucsLiii silence ; to hush. 

hp^f ir (be-ster) v.t. [A.S. bestyrian, heap up] to put 

uco Lii into brisk or vigorous action. 

V»pcf orm (be-storm') v.t. to attack with a storm ; 

*^^° ^^* 111 to agitate with storms. 

Kjacf nw (be-sto') v.t. [stow] to lay up in store ; to 

u/^oLv/w make use of; to employ; to expend; to .^ 

apply ; to give, confer, or impart. dUfirvv-tiX* 

Kfiof rkf xra 1 (be-sto^al) n. the act of bestowingTois- 

UC&LUWdi posal; a gift; a donation. 

Kpcf r»f xrm Pti f (be-sto^ment) n. the act of giving 

UC&LUWmCHt gratuitously; donation. 

beStraddle (be-strady) v.t. to bestride. 

hp^frpalr (be-strek') v.t. to mark or cover with 

ki^oLi ^d,!^ streaks ; to overspread with streaks. 

hp^frPTXr (be-stro', be-stroo') v.t. to scatter over; 

u/^o Lx ^ w to besprinkle ; to strow. 

1-vpcf i*if1p (be-strld') v.t. to stride over ; to stand or 

uc;oLi luc sit with the legs extended across. 

KpcfiiH (be-stud') v.t. to set or adorn with, or as 

ufC^OLUU, with, studs or bosses. 

Kpf (bet) n. [Etym. doubtful] a stake or wager; — v.t. 

'^^*' to stake ; — v.t. to wager. 

Kpf Q il (be-tal') v.t. to provide with a tail ; to cut off 

UCLdll the tail of. 

betake (be-tak') v.t. to have recourse to ; to apply; 

to resort. 
hiCkt-exf^rvi (be-tem') v.t. [teem] to bring forth ; to 
ucucciii shed; to permit; to suffer. 
Kp4-p1 (be-tl) n. [Pg. fr. Malay] a species of pepper, the 
uc;lc:i leaves of which are chewea by the inhabitants 
of the East Indies. Betel-nut, the nut of the areca palm. 
l-vp4-1-|p1 (bethel) n. [H. beth-el, house of God] a 
ucLiici hallowedspot; a houseof worship forseamen. 
Kp4-1-|4«->1^ (be-thingk')v.<. tocalltomind; to recall; 
uc^tiiiiiJ!^ — v.i. to have in remembrance; to consider. 
RofVi1<»Vi<am (beth-le-hem) n. a hospital for 
OCtllienern lunatics. See bedlam. 
Kp^J-i |-o 1 (be-thrawl') v.t. to enslave ; to subject ; to 
ucuiiiai reduce to bondage. 

Kf^fViiimrv (be-thump') v.t. to thump or beat 
UCUlUllip soundly; to belabour. 
bpflHp Oie-tid') v.t. [6eand ittie; A.S. iidaw, happen] 
ucLiuc to happen to ; to signify •,—v.i. to happen. 
bp1"imP<N (be-timz') adv. in good season or time ; 
ucLiiiico seasonably ; in a short time ; soon. 
Kp4-|-|1^p4-| (be-to^kn) v.t. to signify by some visible 
uc^Ldvcii object ; to foreshow ; to presage. 
1-kAf rkti (bet-un) n. [F.] cement consisting of sand, 
UCtOn lime, and rubble. 
Kp4-Q«-tp><ip (be-tung') v.t. to scold; to rail at; to 

Kp4-y^*-|'ri' (bet-u-ni) n. [L. betoniea] a plant used to 
UK:n,\Ji.Ly jye wool a fine dark -yellow colour. 
llp^'f^Qc (be-tos') v.t. to shake violently ; to agitate ; 
ucLUoo to put into violent motion. 
hpf rav (be-tra') v.t. [fr. 6eand O.F. trair, fr. L. tra- 
ucuicty dere, give up] to give up treacherously or 
faithlessly; to violate the confidence of; to deceive by 
treachery ; to disclose or discover a secret. 
Kpf ra Tra 1 (be-traAal) n. act of betraying ; breach of 
UC Ll <xy dl trust ; a divulging. 
hpf ra "Vf^r (be-traAer) n. one that betrays ; a traitor ; 
uc Li cty ci a seducer ; a beguiler. 
hpfrim (be-trim) v.t. to trim or set in order; to 
UCLllill deck; to adorn ; to embellish. 
hpfrnfVl (be-troTH', be-troth') v.t. to contract to 
UC Ll VJ Lll anyone, in order to a future marriage. 
K<»ft-rkf Vial (be-troTH-al, be-troth^l) n. act of be- 
UC tl U Llldl trothing ; betrothment. 
Koif rr»f Vi m «an f (be-troTH-ment,be-troth-ment)n, 
UC LI ULlllllCllL the actor stateof being betrothed. 
Kpf f Pf" (bet^r) a. [A.S.] having good qualities in a 
UCLUCi greater degree than another; preferable in 
rank, value, use, fitness, acceptableness, or other respect ; 
inproved in health ; — n. advantage or superiority ; im- 
provement ; greater excellence ;— usually pi. superiors ; 
those that have a claim to precadence •,-^adv, in a 

Fate, far, ?ido ; me, hgr ; mine ; note ; tune ; moon. 




iuperior or more excellent manner ; more correctly ; in 
a higher or greater degree ; more ; — v.t. and i. to improve. 
Better half, a wife. Better off, in more prosperous 
circumstances. For the better, in the direction of 
improvement. To think better of, to reconsider. 
Kfiff pt-rrifafif (bet^er-ment) n. a making better; 
UCLLCi iiicixi. improvement in value of property. 
Ktif f fii-m rkcf (bet^r-most) a. best; of the highest 
UCLLCllllUldL rank or quality. 
Kpff prnP^^ (bet^r-nes) n. state or quality of 
UCLLCi iicoa being better ; superiority. 
Hfif finer (betting) n. proposing or laying a wager. 
uc;i.i.iiig Betting-man, one that makes his living 
by betting. 

hpffv (bet^i) n. [dim. of Elizabeth] a man that 
uc LLjr meddles with domestic affairs. 
hpflimHlp (be-tum-bl) v.t. to tumble; to dis- 
ucLUiiiL^ic arrange; to disorder. 
VjffTXTPf^n "(be-twen') prep. [A.S. betwednum] in 
uci. wccii tjie space that separates two persons or 
things ; from one to another ; shared by two ; having 
mutual relation to two or more ; — n. a grade of needles. 
A go-between, an intermediary. Between-decks, the 
space between any two decks. Between ourselves, not 
to be divulged. 

hpf"\A;"i vf (lJ«-t^kst') prep. [A.S. betioyxt, betweox] 
uc L w 1 A. L jjj jhg intermediate space or ; l)etween. 
hpilHfltlf if P (bu^an-tlt) n.[/ieiMi«n< (1787-1850), 
ucuuaiiLiLC French mineralogist] a mineral. 
Kpvpl (l^^^-^l) '"'■ [O.F.] a slant of a surface at 
UC V ci an angle greater or less than 
a right angle ; an instrument of two 
limbs, called the blade and the stock, 
jointed together by a pivot, for adjusting 
the surfaces of work to the same inclina- 
tion ;— a. having the form of a bevel ; i»evei. 
slanting •,--v.t. to cut to a bevel angle ; — v.i. to slant. 
Bevel-gear, a species of wheel-work, in which the axis, 
or shaft of the leader or driver, forms an angle with the 
axis, or shaft of the follower, or wheel driven. 
KpirpllpH (l^V-eld)a. having a bevel; sloping; [Her.1 
ucvciicu having an acute angle: [Min.] replaced 
by two planes equally inclined to the adjacent planes. 
Kp VpI 1 i n P* (bev^l-ing) n. hewing of timijer to the 
*^^ * Ciiiii^ proper or desired curve. 
Kpvpl tn f*n f (oev^l-ment) n. the act of bevelling; 
ucvciiiiCiiL (;jie replacement of an edge by two 
similar planes, equally inclined to the including faces. 
KpVPr ('^^-v^'") ^- [O.F. bevre, fr. L. biberc, drink] a 
•^^^ ' ^* light hieal ; a collation : a snack. 
KpTrpra $>•<* (bev'-e-raj) n. [O.F. bevrage, fr. L. 
uc^vci ctgc bi()ere, drink] liouor for drinking. 
hp W C^^v-i) ^- [probablv fr. O.F. bevee, drink] a flock 
*J^^ J of birds, esp. quails ; a company ; an assembly 
or collection of persons, esp. ladies. 
Kp'TTT'itl (Ije-wal) v.t. to express deep sorrow for;— 
uc w ctii ,, J [q express grief or sorrow. 
KpTTToiloKIp (be-wa-la-bl) a. to be l)ewailed or 
uc vv cxixcxuic lamented ; worthy of lamentation. 
Kpwo |1 j« ^ (be-wa^ling) n. lamentation ; intense 

Kp-iTTQ i 1 i ri p"1 V (be-wa^ling-li) adv. in a bewailing 
^^^>^ "-'^^'■'■'^^'■y manner; with deep sorrow. 
Kp-TTrailrnpnf (be-wal-ment) n. act of bewailing 
1^^ wcxiiixic^iii. orgrieving; a mourning. 
VMatxra rtx (be-war") v.i. to guard one's self ; to take 
UC Wctl C care ; to take heed. 
Vvp'><Tpp«-| (be-wep')v.<. to weep over ; to lament; to 
UC w i:;cp yygj ^jjh tears ; — v.i. to weep. 
KgTTTp*- (be-wef) v.t. to wet ; to moisten ; to damp ; 

KpTiritrcrpH (b^-wigd') a. wearing, or covered 

wtwiggcu with. awig. 

bpwilHpr (be-wil-der) v.t. to lead into perplexity 

^ iiuci Qf confusion ; to confound. 
h P"Wri 1 H P ri n cri V (be-wiiyer-ing-li) adv. so as to 
ut vv iiu\:;i iiigiy bewilder or confuse. 
KpTzri1Hpkrm«^nf (be-wiMer-ment) n. the state 
UCWUUCrilieni of being bewildered. 
KpTsritifpf (be-win-ter) v.t. to make like winter; 
UC w 111 LCI to renderwintry. 
45p'T«r ifpt-i (be-wich') v.t. to charm or fascinate ; to 
7^^ w 1 ucii afiect by witchcraft or sorcery ; to subdue 
by means of charms or incantations. 
VvpTiTif-r^Vlpt- (be-wich^r) n. one that bewitches, 
UC w 1 LCiici fascinates, or charms. 

HptxrifrVlinP* (be-wich-ing) a. having power to 
UC w 1 bciiiiig bewitch ; fascinating ; charming. 
hpiX7ifrhinP"1v (be-wich-ing-li) adv. in a fas- 
uc wiLCiiiiigijr cinating or enticing manner. 

bewitchingness ^fa^oKucU. '"' 

hp-wrifrVimPnf (be-wich-ment) n. power of 
UC vviLCiiiiiciii. charming; fascination. 
yifx-tTtrraXT (be-ra) v.t. [prefix be and A.S. wregan, 
UC W 1 a.y accuse] to disclose perfidiously ; to betray. 
\\(x\]ijx'ji vpr (be-ra^r) n. a bietrayer ; one that com- 
UC W 1 ctjr CI municates secrets. 
hp-W7Tavin£rlv (be-raAing-li) adv. in a manner 
UC w 1 a.y iiigij^ to bewray, disclose, or divulge. 
HPTwra vm Pn f (be-raAment) n. act of bewraying, 
u c w 1 ct jr 1 1 1 c 1 1 u disclosing, or divulging. 
Kpv (ba) n. [Turk, beg, bey] a governor of a town or 
fJ^y district in the Turkish dominions. 
hpvlik (ba^^'''') '"•■ ''be territory administered by a 

HpvnnH (b^-yond') prep. [A.S. be and geond, 
*J^y^*'*'^^ yonder] on the farther side of ; before, in 
place or time ; out of reach of : past ; in a degree exceed- 
ing or surpassing ;—adv. at a distance ; yonder. 
hp 7a n f (be^nt, be-zant') n. a gold coin, first made 
uc^ctiit at Byzantium; [Her.] a gold roundel. 
hP7anflpr (bez-ant^ler) n. [L-ois. twice, and E. 
uc^ctll Lici antler]the second antler of a stag. 
Kp7p1 (bez^l) n. [O.F. besel, bisel] the part of a ring 
UC^Ci that encompasses and fastens the stone ; 
the groove in which the glass of a watch is set. 
Kp 7pf f Q (be-zet^) n. [It.] a pigment got by steeping 
UC^CLLct linen rags in a colouring liquid. 
hpzinilP (be-zek') n. [F.] a game with four packs of 
uc^iy^uc cards, usually played by two persons. 
Kp^rxof (be-z6r)n.[Per.]a calculous concretion found 
uc^v^cti jjj the stomach of certain ruminants. 
hP7nni3n (be-zo^ni-an) n. [It. bisogno, beggar] a 
uc^uiiictii pQQj wretch; a oeggar; a mean fellow. 
hVlfltlO* hanp* (bang) n. pHind.] an Indian 
uiiixixg^ ua.ixg variety of hemp, having nar- 
cotic properties (it is sucked, eaten, or drunk). 
KVi ppcf TT (bes^ti) n. [Anglo-Indian] an East Indian 
uiiccoLy water-carrier. 

hi?l^ (bi^s) n. [F. biais] a weight or bulge on the 
Uicto gijg Qf a bowl, which turns it from a straight 
line ; the curved path of such a bowl ; inclination ; pro- 
pensity ;— a. slanting ; diagonal ;—v.t. to give a particular 
direction to ; to prejudice ; to prepossess. 
Kiaval Hi o vial (bi-ak-sal,-si-al)a.[L.&is,twice, 
UltXAcXly uictJS.ictl and axis] having two axes. 
Hi H (^'^^ '"" [^' ^^^^^^' drink] a small piece of cloth worn 
Uiu hy children over the breast ; — v.t. and i. to drink. 
HiHa/'irnie (bi-baAshus) a. [L. bibere, drink] ad- 
OlDaClOUb dieted to drinking. 
HiHa^ip (bi-ba^ik) a. containing two atoms of 
uiuctoic hydrogen displaceable by a base. 
H i H a f i Tr<a n «> c c (bio^-tiv-nes) n. a disposition or 
UlUctL,lVCllC&& proneness to drink. 
1-^iKl-v (bib) n. [bib] a bracket bolted to the hounds of 
Uiuu a mast to support the trestle-trees. 
KiHHpr (bib^r) n. a man given to drinking; a 
ui u ucx tippler— used mainly in composition. 
RiHlp (bl-Di) n. [G. hiblos, book] the volume that 
j-iiuic contains tne Scriptures of the Old and New 
Testaments. Bible-society, a society for the distribution 
of the Bible throughout the world. 
Hi HI i pal (biWi-kal) a. pertaining to the Bible, or 
uiuiicai to the sacred writings. 
HiHliPflll V (bib^li-kal-i) adv. in a biblical manner; 
uiuxiccxiijr in accordance with biblical doctrines. 
KiKli/^iem (bil>-li-sizm) n. adherence to the letter 
U1U11L.12>111 of the Bible; biblical doctrines. 
HiHlir»ief (bib^li-sist) n. one that adheres to the 
Uiuiiciat letter of the Bible ; a biblical scholar. 
HiHlincrranHpr (bib-li-og'-rafer) n. [G. biblion, 
UlOllOgrapner ^ook, and graphein, writei 
one skilled in bibliography ; one that writes about books. 

bibliographical SSLVitrhSS^o^fttr 

HiHlirkcrra r^Vitr (bib-li-og^ra-ti) n. the description 
UlUllUgl dpiiy or knowledge of books ; a fist of 
the best books on a subject. 

HiHliol a f Pr (bib-li-ol^-ter) n. a book-worshipper; 
ui uiiuio. LCI Que given to' excessive regard for the 
letter of the Bible. 

Fate, far, stdo ; me, her ; mine ; note ; tune ; moon. 




HiHllolafrv (bib-li-ol-a-tri) n. [G. hiblion and 
UluliUictti jr latreia, worship] homage paid to 
books ; excessive regard for the letter of the Bible. 
hihiinliff* (bib^n-o-llt) n. [G. hihUon and lithos, 
uiuiLKJin,^ Stone] bookstone ; a schistous stone 
with figures, like leaves, between the laminaa. 
Kihlinlrkcriml (bib-li-o-loj-i-kal) a. relating to 
UlUilOiU^lCai bibliology. 
KiHlirklrkcrxr (bib-li-ol^-ji) n. [G. logos, speech] 
uiuiiuiugy biblical literature ; bibliography. 
hlHIintnaflPV (bib^li-6-man-si) n. [G. hiblion 
uxuiiuxiictiiv^jr and manteia, divination] divina- 
tion performed by selecting passages of Scripture at hazard. 
Hinlintnania (bib-li-o-maini-a) n. [G. biblion 
uiuiiuiiictixicx a,jj(j mania, madness] a rage for 
possessing rare and curious books. 

bibliomaniac, bibliomanist ^}!^^ 

ni-ak, -om-a-nist) n. one affected by bibliomania. 
bihlinnpcricf (bib-li-op-e-jist) n. [G. biblion and 
uxuiiupcgioL pegnunai, make fast] one that 
collects books for the bmdings ; a bookbinder. 

bibliophile, bibliophilist ffiS:!: 

list) n. [G. philein, love] a lover of books. 
hihlinnfiiliQtn (bib-li-of-i-lizm) n. love of 
DlDllOpnUlbm books; book-fancying. 
KtK1i/^i-v'hr\Ki»i (bib-li-6-fo^bi-a)n.[G. 6i6Wo>iand 
DlDllOpnUUld phobia, fear] a dread of books. 

bibliopole, bibliopolist at!!pS.6 

n. [G. polein, sell] a bookseller ; a dealer in rare books. 
hiKlir»f ar\li (bib^li-6-taf) n. [G. biblion, book, and 
uxuxxu tctpxx taphos, tomb] one that keeps books 
under lock and key. 

KiKli/^fh^r^o (bib-li-o-the-ka)7i.[G.] a library; a 
UlUliOineca collection of books. 

bibliothecal ffiSy^^^^-'^ "' ^"^°°^'"« *^ 

bihlinfflP^'fl rv (bib-li-oth^-ka-ri)n. a librarian ; 
uxuxxvJtxxcv^ctx j^ jj library ;— a. of, or pertaining 
to, a library orjibrarian. 

Hihlicf (bi-blist, biW-list) n. one that makes the 
ux uxxa u Bible the sole rule of faith; a biblical scholar. 
hi hll 1 oil ^ (bib^u-lus)a. [L.] imbibing fluids or moist- 
uxuuxv^uo ypg . given to drinking strong liquors. 
biblllnil^lv (bib-u-lus-li) adv. in a bibulous 
uiuixiKJUOiy manner ; so as to absorb moisture. 
bipa.mprfll (bi-kam^-ral) a. [L. bis^ twice, and 
i^xi^ctixxc^x ctx camera, chamber] pertaming to, or 
consisting of, two legislative or other chambers. 

bicapitate, bicapitated ?i^ted)^a. 

haying two heads ; two-headed. 

hipar>Qlllar (bT-kap-su-lar)a. having two capsules 
i^xv^cv^ouxtax containing^ seeds, to each flower. 
HiparHr»naf *^ (bl-kar-bo-nat) n. a carbonate 
i^xv^cxx i^v^xxcxLC containing two equivalents of 
carbonic acid to one of a base. 

Kjoa ij fig 1 (bi-kaw^al) a. [L. bis, twice, and cauda, 
tji.\,a.\x\xfxi. (;g^jn havingtwotailsortail-like processes. 
bicP ^^^^^ '"'■ [^■^■^ ^ "^^^ paint got from the native 
i^xv^v.. blue carbonate of copper, or from smalt. 
bipptlfptiarrr (bi-sen-te-na-ri, bl-sen-te^na-ri) a. 
r" ^*^***** J' pertaining to two hundred years ; 
— n. the two hundredth anniversary of an event. 
HlPf^nf *^nnial (bl - sen - ten - i - al) a. occurring 
UXUCXXtCXXXlldi every two hundred years ;-n. 
the two hundredth anniversary. 

Hi PPnVialmic (bT-sef-a-lus)a. [L. bis, twice, and G. 
uxv,cpxxclXUUa> jiephule, head] having two heads. 
Kipprvc (bl-seps) n. [L. his, twice, and caput, head] 
~[ ^^r*"^ a muscle having two heads or extremities ; 
the name of two muscles, one in the arnij one in the leg. 
"Ki pVi t*r»m a f *» (bl-kro^mat) a. havmg two parts of 

... chromic acid to one of the base. 

bicioita.1 (bi-slp-l-tal) «. [L. bis, twice, and caput, 
%JL\,LYJL Lax capitis, head] having two heads; dividing 
mto two parts ; pertainmgto a biceps. 
birkpr (^'^-er) vA. [Etym. doubtful] to skirmish ; 

7 ^ to contend in petulant altercation ; to move 
quickly ; to quiver •,-~n. a confused fight. 
j^j^J^gj- (bikier) n. [beaker\ a wooden bowl or dish ; 

blPlcPrpr (bik'-er-er) n. one that bickers ; one that 
»xv,n.v.x ^x wrangles or disputes about trifles. 

HirlrprinO" (bik'-er-ing) n. a skirmish ; an alterca- 

•-'**-'*»''^* '■'■'■Q tion ; petty nuarrelling. 

U{pK.p^f. (bik^rn) n. [L. oicornis, two-horned] an 

'^^*'*^*'* '■^ iron instrument ending in a point or beak; 

an anvil with two taper ends. 

\^i/^f\t-%r*ntTe^ (bl-kon-kav) a. hollow or concave on 

DlCOncave both sides. 

HiponvP V (bi-kon-veks) a. convex on both sides ; 

uiy,\jix V c A, doubly convex, as a lens. 

Hipnrnoil^ (bl-kor^nus) a. [L. bis, twice, and 

uxi^uxxxuuo cwnu, horn] having two horns or 

antlers ; crescent-like. 

l-kir»/-kt- rvi-kt- n f o (bi-kor^p6-rat) a. having two bodies 

UlCOrporate ^^ith one head [Her.]. 

bipil <sniH (bi-kus-pid) a. [L. bis, twice, and cuspis, 

uxv.,uo|jxvx cuspidis, point] having two points or 

fangs ;— «. a bicuspid tooth. 

bicvcle (b'-^i''^^) '"'• t^* ^*> ^^*> t^o, and G. kuklos, 

vehiclewith two wheels, ' 

one behind the other, 
driven by the feet;— r.i. 
to ride on a bicycle. 


n. the art or practice 
of riding on a bicycle. 

bicyclist ^kn'so B^^yci^- 

n. one that rides on a bicycle ; a wheelman. 

\\\A (bid)v.<. [A.S. biddanj ask, and ieodaw, command] 

"^'^ to ask or request ; to invite ; to order or direct ; to 

offer a price ; to give greeting, farewell, threat, etc.;— n. 

an ofter of a price, esp. at auctions. 

hiHHahlp> (bid-a-bl) a. ready and willing to obey; 

uxuvxctuxc. complying ; docile. 

blHHpr (bid-er)n. one that bids; one that invites; 

*-'^'^'-^^'* one that makes a bid at an auction. 

biHHtnP' (bld-ing) n. act of one that bids; invita- 

'-'^'-*'^** _& tion : command ; order. 

hiHp ^^^^ ■^•^- [-A-.S. bldanA to endure ; to suffer ; to 

"^'^^ wait for \—v.i. to dwell permanently; to inhabit. 

hirlptlf (bMent) n. [L. bis, twice, and dens, dentis, 

*J'-^^*-'-y' tooth] an instrument with two prongs. 

HiHpnfal (bi-den-tal) a. having two teeth, or 

uxucxxLdX tooth-like processes. 

bt H f f (bi-def) n. [F.] a small horse ; a pony for carry- 

'-'**^^'' ing baggage ; a kind of bath. 

hipnnisl (bi-en-i-al) a. [L. biennium, a space of 

uxc:xxxxxctx £^q years] happening once in two years ; 

continuing for two years, and then perishing, as certain 

plants ; — n. a biennial plant. 

hiiannialliT' (bl-en-i-al-i) adv. once in two years; 

UXCXXXXXctxxy ^t the return of two years. 

Vjl p«- (ber) n. [A.S. boir] a frame of wood for conveying 

'-'**^^ the dead to the grave. Bier-toalk, a passage 

through a field for funerals. Bier-right, a former ordeal, 

in which one accused of murder had to touch the corpse 

on the bier. 

biesting'S (bes-tingz)»i.p?. See beestings. 

hifapial (bi-fSsh-yal) a. [L. bis, twice, and fades, 

uxxctv^xctx face] having the opposite surfaces alike. 

h i fp ri ni 1 ^ (bl-faAri-us) a. [L.] twofold : in two rows; 

uxxctxxuuo pointing two ways. 

Uiforirkiicl-tT- (bi-faAri-us-li) adv. in a twofold or 

Uliai lUUaxy diverse manner. 

Hifprnn^ (bif-e-ms) a. [L. bis, twice, and ferre, 

uxxcx UFUo bear] bearing fruit twice a year. 

UirCf- (bif-in) n. [bee.f] a cooking apple grown esp. 

UXXIXXX jfj Norfolk (named from its colour) ; a baked 

apple pressed flat. 

KifiH (bl-fid) a. [L. bifidus] cleft or divided into two 

L»lliU parts ; forked. 

Hifilar (bl-fi-lar) «. [X. bis, twice, and ^Zwm, thread] 

UXXXXctx two-threaded ; fitted with two threads. 

hiflorflfp (bi-flo^rat) a. [L. his, twice, and ^os, 

UXXXt^X dLC jHoris, flower] bearing two flowers. 

Kifrklrl (bi-fold) a. [L. bis, and E. fold] twofold; 

UllUiU double ; of two kinds. 

hifnliaffk (bi-fo^li-at) a. [L. bis, twice, and folium, 

UXXUXXctLC leaf ] having two leaves. 

Ui^l^|.ofi:k (bi-fo-rat) a. [L. bis, twice, a.nd forare, 

•-'**'^* clLC bore] having two perforations. 

Hifnrtn (bi-form) a.VL. bis, twice, and forma, shape] 

uxxux XXX baving two bodies, or shapes. 

Fate, f iir, gido ; me, her ; mine ; note ; tune ; m66n. 




V\ifr\fmH-Tr (bl-for-mi-ti) n. the state of being 
DllOrmity biform ; a double form. 
Hiflirpflff* (bl-fur-kat) v.i. to divide into two 
UliUiv^cttv; forks, prongs, or branches. 

bifurcate, bifurcated St'U. S 

twice, and /urea, fork] forked; divided into two branches. 
Hiflirr*af ion (bl-fur-kaAshun) n. a forking, or 
uiiui ^ciuiuix division into two branches. 
hlP" ^^^^^ *• t^tym. doubtful] bulky or huge in size 
'-'*& or magnitude ; great with young ; pregnant with 
something portentous ; ready to produce ; having great- 
ness, importance, distension, etc. Big game, the lion, 
elephant, and other hunted animals. Big-sound^Lg, 
having a pompous sound. Big-wig, a person of im- 
portance ; one of liigh rank. 
Kjp-nrjiicf (big-a-mist) n. one that has committed 

UirrotTinil^ (big^-mus) a. of, or pertaining to, 
^^o**^^^^"*^ bigamy; guilty of bigamy. 
U« n*o mv (big'-a-mi) n. [L. bis, twice, and G. gamos, 
*J*'^o.*-^^y marriage] the crime of having two (or 
more) wives or husbands at one time. 
Kicrarrinn (big-a-roon') n. [P. bigarrer, variegate] 
Ulgctl UUii the large white-heart cherry. 
Uip-p> (big) 71. Heel, bugg, barley] a variety of winter 
'-'^oo barley, having four tows of grains. 
l^ip<rrif| (big-in) n. [F. biguin, a hnen cap] a child's 
•^^oo*** cap or hood; a night-cap; a coif;— [fr. the 
inventor] a coflee-pot furnished with a strainer. 
Hip'linm (big-hom) n. a wild sheep of the Eocky 
"^S***^* ** Mountains, named from its large horns. 

f KirrVif ^^'''^ '"'■ (A-S- ^J/^'] a bend in the sea-coast; 

\ J-'igAlt' the double part of a rope when folded ; a loop. 
hit>*1v (''•?^'') "^''- '" * swelDng, pompous, or blus- 
•"»*&* jr termg manner. 

HioTlf^*? (big-nes) n. bulk; size; largeness of 
uiglicoo dimensions or capacity. 
Ri o-r» r»n i a (big-no^ni-a) n.{A.hhkBignon, librarian 
JDlgllUllid to Louis XlV.] a genus of tropical 
plants, with beautiful, trumpet-shaped flowere. 

/. Kirrof' ("''^'-nt) n. [F.] one obstinately and unreason- 

A" •JA^'-'t ably wedded to a particular religious creed, 
opinion, practice, or ritual. 

i»l p'ofpH (big-ut-eii) a. obstinately devoted to a sys- 
*^*&'-' ''^'-* tem or party, and illiberal towards others. 
V\\crr\¥ciA\iT (big-ut-ed-h) adv. in a bigoted or 
DlgOLCaiy illiberal manner. 
f-v«p>pw4-<>^ (big'-ut-ri) n. perverse or blind attachment 
'-'^S'-'^* J' to a particular creed, or to certain tenets ; 
excessive prejudice ; the practice or tenets of a l)igot. 
\\\ i nil (be-zhoo') n. • pi. bijoux (be-zhoo') [F.] a little 
ULjyjyx Ijojj . a jewel or trinket. 
Hiinnfrv (be-zhoc^-tri) n. small articles of vertu, 
uij KJ\x\,iy jewelry, trinkets, etc. 
V\\ ill P*?! tp (bi-j66-gat) a. [IJ. bis, twice, and jthgum, 
'-'v u&cti-c yoke] having two pairs, as of leaflets. 
Hi 1 a Hi a f** (bl-laAbi-at) a. [L. labium, lip] having 
uixauictLC tw^o lips, as the corolla of flowers. 
hi 1 fl n H fr (bil-an-der, bl-land-er) n. [D. fr. bij, near, 
uiictixuci a,nd land] a small two-masted trading 
vessel, used upon the Dutch canals. 
Hilafpral (bl-lat^-ral) a. having two sides: per- 
uiicit^icii taining to two sides. 
HilH<art*Tr (bil-ber-i) n. [Scand.] the whortleberry 
UHUCl 1 y and its blue-black fruit. 
HilHn (bil-bo) 11. [Bilbao, in Spain] a rapier or sword ; 
uiiuu — p;.l)ilboes(biliboz)barsof iron, withshackles 
sliding along them, to confine the feet of prisoners. 
Hilp (bll)n. [L. 6i^/s] a yellow, greenish, bitter, viscid 

1 1 '^■^■^c fluid, secreted by the liver. Bile-duct, a vessel 
to convey bile ; the hepatic duct and its branches. 
bilestoriP (button) n. a biliary calculus or gall- 
Kjl p-p (bilj) n. [bulge] the protuberant part of a cask; 
'-'**& ^ the broadest and flattest part of a ship's bottom; 
—v.i. to sufler a fracture in the bilge ; to spring a leak by 
a fracture in the bilge. Bilge-pump, a pump for dis- 
charging bilge-water from a ship. Bilge-water, water 
that enters a ship, and lies upon her bottom. Bilge- 
ways, the timber supports of a vessel in launching. 
HilinrTT (bil-ya-rl) a. pertaining to the bile ; convey- 
Ullldry ing the bile. 

bilinp"lial (blling-gw^D a. [L. bis, twice, and 
■./liiixg u.a.1 lingua, tongue] having two tongues, or 
speaking two languages ; written in two languages. 

bilin^uist ("^^-'J^K'-Kwist) n. one versed in two 

Hilinil^ (bil'-yus) a. [L. bilis, bile] pertaining to the 
^■^*^'-'"'' bile ; disordered in respect of bile ; having 
an excess of bile ; choleric. 

Hi1irmcn<acjo (bil-yus-nes) n. the condition of 
OlllOUbnebb heiiig bilious. 
Hilif pral (bl-lit^-ral) a. [L. bis, twice, and litera, 
um tCl cli letter] coiisisting of two letters. 
HilifHnn (bl-li-thun) n. [L. bis, and 6. lithos, 
UlliLliCFli stone] a monument consisting of an 
upright stone supporting a horizontal one. 
HilivPrHin (bl-li-ver'-din) n. [L. bilis, bile, and F. 
Uiix V ci uiii ^^crd, green] a green bile-dye. 
Ill 11^ (bilk) v.t.lEtym. doubtful] to disappoint, deceive, 
'-'*■'•"■ or defraud, by non-fulfilment of engagement. 
Hill (Wl) n. [A.S. bile] the beak of a fowl \—v.%. to join 
'-'*** bills ; caress ; fondle ;— [A.S. bil] a hook-sha;)ed 
cutting instrument, fitted with a handle ; an ancient 
battle-axe ; the point of the fluke of an anchor. Bill- 
hook, a small hatchet with curved edge. 
\\\\\ (bil)n. [L. bulla] a note or written document; a 
"■••** note of charges ; an account ; a statement of 
goods sold, work done, service rendered, with annexed 
prices ; a public notice or advertisement ; a measure pro- 
jected, and proposed to become law ; a written declara- 
tion or charge of injury, injustice, or crime ; a written 
obligation to pay money, under the hand or seal of the 
granter; — v.t. to announce by means of bills ; to placard 
with bills. Bill-book, a book in which a person keeps 
an account of his notes, bills of exchange, and the like. 
BlU-broker, one that negotiates the discount of bills. 
Bill-chamber, a department of the Court of Session for 
dealing with summary cases, actions of interdict, etc. 
Bill of adventure, a writing by a shipper or carrier, 
showing that the goods shipped or carneil are the pro- 
perty of another, the shipper or carrier being responsible 
only for delivery. Bill of credit, a letter of credit ; a 
legal-tender note issued by a state. Bill of entry, a 
written account of g(»ods entered at the custom-house. 
Bill of fare, list of dishes to be served at dinner, etc. 
Bill of health, a certificate given to the master of a ship, 
respecting the health of passengers and crew. Bill- 
sticker, one that posts up bills or placards in public 
places. To And a true bill, to send a prisoner to trial 
on the strength of the evidence (said of a grand jury). 
Hi11«ar1 (bild) a. having a bill or beak of a certain 
UXllCU kind, as h^LTii-bUled, soft-billed, etc. 
Hillpf (bil^t) n. [F. fr. L. bulla] a small paper or 
UiilCL note in writing ; a short letter ; a ticket from 
a public officer directing soldiers at what house to lodge ; 
lodgings ; appointment ■,—v.t. to direct, by a ticket or 
note ; to ((uarter. or lodge soldiers in private houses. 
Billet-doux (bil^-doo) a love-note or letter. Billet- 
master, he that issues billets to soldiers. 
Hillf f ('J''^') ^- ^^- bille, stock of a tree] a small 
Uiiicu log; an ornament in Norman architecture 
resembling billets of wood. 

Hi 1 1 i a rH ^ (bil-yardz) [F. billard, f r. bille, ball] 
Ulliicti U.O jj game played with ivory balls and cues 
on a rectangular table with pockets at the sides and ends. 
Billiard-cloth, a fine green cloth, used to cover billiard- 
tables. Billiard-marker, one, that waits on players at 
billiards and marks the score. 

Hillinp" (bil-ing) n. caressing like doves; fondling; 
uiiixiig love-making. 

RillinP'Cjp'afp (oil-lngz-gat) n. a fish market in 
j_>xxxxxxgoga.LC London, notorious for foul lan- 
guage ; foul or profane language ; ribaldry. 
Hi 1 lint! (bd-yun) n. [L. bis, twice, and E. million] 
UXXIXUXX according to the French method of numera- 
tion, a thousand millions, or 1,000,000,000; according to the 
English method, a million of miUions, or 1,000,000,000,000. 
Hi 1 1 fn 3 fl (bil-man) n. one that uses a bill or hooked 
Ulliixxctxx axe— applieii esp. to soldiers. 
Hi linn (tjil-*^!!) '*• t^ • ^^- Low L. billus, log] an alloy, 
UXXXVJXX three parts copper and one part silver, used 
in making coins, tokens, and medals. 
HilloTV (b''^"*) '"'■ [Icel. bylgja] a great wave or surge 
uxxxuw Qf tijg gga, occasioned by violent wind; — 
v.i. to swell ; to roll in large waves. 
Hill niAT-p H Hill n-wrir (bil^d , bil'-o-i) a. s well- 
DlllOWeU, UlllOW^y in„ or swelled, into 
large waves ; marked by, or resembling, billows. 
HillvHov (bil-i-boi)M. [Etym. unknown]abargeused 
uxxxy uyjy on the river Humber; a coasting vessel. 


F»te, far, ado ; me, hgr ; mine ; note ; tune ; modn. 

a low- 

billycock 84 

f^illvPOPt (bil'-i-kok) n. [Etym. doubtful] 
umy \^\JK,r^ crowned felt hat, with a broad i 
hillvO*nai" (bil-i-got) n. [billy = Willie] a he-goat; 
Uiliy gLlctL a tufted beard resembling a biilygoat's. 
Kilr\Ka f *i (bl-lo^bat) a. [L. bis, twice, and E. Tobate] 
UllUUctLC divided into two lobes. 
hilnPlllflr (bi-lok-u-lar) a. [L. locus, place] divided 
UllU^UXcti ijjtQ^ Qj containing, two cells. 
Hilfotlf*" (bil-tong) n. [S. Afr.J thin pieces of lean 
UllLViilg meat dried in the sun. 
V| < |-|-| o n o (bim^-na, bi-ma-na) n. the highest order of 
uiiildilcl Mammalia, of which Man is the solegenus. 
hitnatlOllQ (bl-ma-nus) a. [L. bis, twice, and 
uilllctilUUo rnamis, hand] having two hands. 
Ki*-n»jriit»il (bi-man-u-al) a. requiring the use of 
Dimanuai both hands. 

himpn^fll (bi-men-sal) a. [L. mensis, month] 
Uixiiciioo \ occurring once in two months. 
hi m OQf ri a 1 (bl-mes-tri-al) a. lasting two months ; 
Ulllico Ll ictl returning every two months. 
himpfallip (bl-me-tal-ik) a. of, or pertaining to, 
Ulllic Lctlli^ ^y/Q nietals. or to bimetallism. 
Ki m <afo 1 1 i cm (bl-met-al-izm) n. in currency, the 
uiiiictctiiisiii use of two metals, as gold and 
silver, in a fixed relative ratio. 

hi m pf a 1 1 i Qf (bi-met^al-ist) n. one that advocates 
UlllXC:tclllioL or supports bimetallism. 
Himnnf Vll V (bi-munth-li)a. [L. bis, and E. month- 
ULiii\jii.\,iiiy iy-\ happening every two months. 

.J, hitl (^^'^^ ■"■• l-A-.S. binn, crib] a box or inclosed place, 
yy^^^K^T uiil used as a repository ;— v. f. to stow in a bin. 

*- Hinarv (bi-na-ri) a. [L. bini. two by two] com- 
uiixctijf pounded of two; double. Binary star, a 
double star, whose components revolve round the common 
centre of gravity. 

hiriflfp (bl-nat) a. being double or in couples; 
uiixatc growing in pairs ; dual. 
hi n ail r3 1 (M-naw-ral) a. [L. bim, two by two, and 
uiiiaui cti auris, ear] to be used by both ears. 
hitlH ("^ind) v.t. [A.S. bindan] to tie together, or 
uiiivi confine with a cord, ligature, chain, etc. : to 
confine, or hold by physical force ; to constrain or oblige 
by promise, vow, or other moral influence ; to restram 
from customary or natural action ; to strengthen by a 
band or border ; to sew or fasten together, and inclose in 
a cover ; to place under legal obligation to serve ■,~^.i. to 
contract ; to grow hard or stiff ; to be obligatory ;— n.. 
anything that binds ; a tendril. 

Kinf^pf (binder) n. a person that binds; one, or a 
uiiivid machine, that oinds sheaves ; a bandage, 
(binding) a. having power to bind or 
oblige ; obligatory -.—n. act of fastening 
with a band ; anything that binds, as a bandage, the 
cover of a book, or something used to secure the edge of 
cloth from ravelling. Bind-weed, a plant of different 
species, of the genus Convolvulus. 
bindin^lv ^^^^^^^^]^^'^^- in aMndlngmanner; 

hinf1incrn#acc (bln^ing-nes) n. the quality of 
UlllUlll^llCbb being binding or obligatory. 
hi n p (bin) n. [iind] the stem of a twining plant, as the 
unx\^ hop or honeysuckle. 

hinPrva.f"P (bl-ner^vat) a. [L. bis, twice, and ner- 
Kjxt.i\,x V a,\,\^ ^y^g^ nerve] having two ribs or nerves. 
hinP" ^^^^^^ '"'■ [^cel. bingr, heap] a heap or pile ; a 

* o weiglit of lead ore equivalent to 8 cwt. 
hinnaplf* (bin^-kl) n. [L. kabitaculum, dwelling- 
kmiixdv,!^ place] a box containing the 9 

compass of a ship. Binnacle-list, the sick- 
list on board a man-of-war. 
hinoplp (bin^-kl) n. [L. bini, two 
^^*^ and two, and oculus, eye] a 
telescope fitted with two eye-tubes. 

hinoplilar (bi-nok-u-lar) a. having 
uiiiuuuicU t^o eyeg. ^jtjj^ Qp pgj. 

taming to, both eyes ; adapted to the use 

of both eyes ;—n. a binocular telescope or 


binomial (bi-noimi-a,l) n. [L. bis, K-^'le- 

.. **"** twice, and noroen, name] an expression 
consisting of two terms connected by the sign plus or 
minus, as, a + b, or 7-3;— a. consisting of two terms; 
pertaining to binomials [Alg.]. 

hit! om i n 9 1 (bl-nom-i-nal) a. having two names— 
""V"",""'*'* the first indicating the genus, the 
second indicating the species [Bot.]. 



hinPf^nfrip (bi-6-sen-trik) a. [G. fcen^row, point] 
UlUl.<dlLiiv.. treating life as a central fact. 
Ki/-krlTrriomi/'o (bi-o-di-nam'iks) n. [G. bios, 
DlOaynamiCb ^fe^ and E. dynamics] the 
doctrine of vital forces ; the energy of living functions. 

biogenesis, biogeny SSf)^"[t'6.-,t 

life, and genesis, generation] the doctrine that living 
organisms develop only from living organisms ; opposed 
to spontaneous generation. 

hirkO-rQr»h«ar (bl-og'-ra-fer) n. one that writes 
UlUgiapilCl biography: 

hi n ora nh i pa 1 ("i-o-graf-i-kal) a. pertaining to, 
uiugictpiiiv,cxi or containing, biography. 
hinoTarihiralhr (bl-o-graf-i-kal-i) adv. in the 
DlOgrapniLdliy manner of a biography. 
Kiz-kpranhv (bl-og'-ra-fi) n. [G. bios, life, and 
*-'*'-'&-^**P^^J' graphein, write] the history of the 
life and character of a particular person ; biographical 
writings in general. 

biologic, biological SSl&Sg?: 

hin1nP*V (bi-ol^-ji) n. [G. bios, life, and logos, dis- 
Ukyjiyj^y course] the science of physical life. 
hi nm a crn P^f i cim (bI-6-mag^ne-tizm) n. [G. bios'] 
UlUllia^llCLl&>lll animal magnetism. 
hinm Ptrv (bi-om^-tri)n. [G. metron, measure] cal- 
uiuiiic: Li y culation of the probable duration of life. 
hinnnmv (bi-on^-mi) n. [G. bios, life, and nomas, 
'^*'-'**'^^^^J' law] the science of living functions. 

ocrn (bI-o-plazm)n.[G. 6ios, life, and ptosma, 
doiil form] living matter ; protoplasm. 


hint" aw (bM-tak-si) n. [G. taxis, arrangement] 
lJi\JLtXA.y classification of living organisms. 
hitiarnnQ (bip-a-rus) a. [L. bis, twice, and parere, 
uijJcLi uuo bring forth] bringing forth two at a birth. 
hinarfif nf (bi-par-shent) n. a number that 
uipcti tic:iit divides another into equal parts. 
hinarfifp (bl-par-tlt) a. [L. bis, twice, and paj'S, 
uipdi LlLC: partis, part] having two correspondent 
parts, as a leaf divided from the apex to near the base. 
hir>arfif"inn (bi-par-tish-un) n. act of dividing 
uipcti l/iLiUli jjjto two corresponding parts. 
hir>f*H (bl-ped) n. [L. bis, twice, and pes, pedis, foot] 
^^Jr^*^ an animal having two feet, as man. 
hir\fir1 a 1 (bi-pe-dal, bip'-e-dal) a. having two feet, or 
Uipcuai the length of two feet. 
hinpnnaf pH (bi-pen^i-ted) a. [L. bis, twice, and 
"*H^**^*'*^^*^ penna, wing] having two wings. 
Kir\<if nli-kiio (bi-pet-a-lus) a. having two flower- 
UipctaiUU^ leaves or petals. 
hint a tip (blplan) n. [L. pref. bi-, double, and F. 
uipidiic; 2)lane fijitj an aeroplane or flying-machine 
heavier than air, supported by two plane surfaces, and 
propelled by a motor. 

hinnlar (bi-po^lar) a. [L. bis, twice, and E. polar] 
'-'■'•r"-'^'** doubly polar ; having two poles. 
hit-»t-iom (bl-prizm)n. a glass prism whose angle is 
Uipi l&m nearly 180°. 

bipunctual J,Ss"^'''"'*^"-^^ ""• ^*'''"'' *''° 

hiniiaHrafp (bl-kwod-rat) n. the fourth power 
Uit^UctulctLC of a number or quantity. 
hiniiaHrafip (bi-kwod-rat-ik) a. pertaining to 
ui^UdUi clLi^ tbe biquadrate, orfourth power;— 
n. the fourth power; an equation with the unknown 
quantity raised to the fourth power. 
hifamnil^ (bl-ra-mus) a. [L. bis, twice, and 
Uil tXlllKJUii ramus, branch] having two branches. 
hirph (berch) n. [A.S. beorc] a tree of several species 
Ull 1.^11 (tbe small twigs were used for rods in schools) ; 
— v.t. to beat with birch rods : to punish. Birch-water, 
the sap of the birch tree. Birch-wine, a drug obtained 
from the sap of the birch. 
hirphpn (ber'^chen) a. made of birch ; consisting 

hi rH (berd) n. [A.S. brid] a two-legged, feathered, 
uii u flying animal, oviparous and vertebrated ; — v.i. to 
catch birds. Bird-bolt, a blunt arrow for shooting birds. 
Bird-cage, a cage for keeping birds confined. Bird-call, 
a little stick cleft at one end, in which is put a leaf for 
imitating the cry of birds; a small metal cylinder, having 
a circular plate with a small aperture in the centre, used 
to decoy birds. Bird-catcher, one whose trade it is to 
catch birds : a fowler. Bird-cherry, a tree whose fruit 
is much liked by birds. Bird-eyed, quick-sighted. 

Fate, far, ?ido ; me, her ; mine ; note ; tune ; ra66n. 





Bird-fancier, one that rears birds for show or sale. Bird- 
lime, a viscous substance used to catch birds. Birds of 
a feather, persons associated in virtue of like tastes and 
inclinations. Bird of Jove, the eagle. Bird of night, 
the owl. Bird-of-paradise, a perching bird of several 
species, found in New Guinea. Bird 
of peace, the dove. Bird of prey. 
eagle, hawk, etc. Bird-organ, a small 
organ used in teaching birds to sing. 
Bird-seed, hemp, canary, millet seed, 
etc., given to feed birds. Bird's-eye, 
seen at a glance, or from a distance- 
hence, general ; not entering into 
details. Bird's-mouth, a notch cut in 
the end of a piece of timber to receive 
another piece. Bird's-nest, the nest 
in which a bird lays eggs ; in China, 
the nest of the swallow ; a table 
delicacy. Bird's-nesting, searching for birds' nests. 
Bird's-tongue, the door-weed plant. Bird-witted, 
lacking the faculty of concentration ; flighty. To hear 
a bird sing, to get private information. 
hirfrnP (bi-rem) n. [L. his, twice, and remus, oar] 
Ull CiiiC an ancient galley with two tiers of oars. 

biretta, birretta (bi-ret^i)n. see berretta. 

Kirrkofraffi (bl-ros^trit) a. [L. rostrum, beak] 
UliU:M.lctLC having a double beak. 
hirfVl (berth) n. [A.S. beran, bear] act of coming into 
Ull Lll lifg^ or of being born; lineage; extraction; 
natural state or position ; act of bringing forth ; that 
which is born, animal or vegetable ; origin ; beginning. 
/ Birth-mark, some peculiar mark or blemish on the body 
at birth. Birth-rate, the ratio of bu1;hs to the total 
population. Birth-sin, original sin. Birth-strangled, 
strangled or suflbcated at birth. Newbirth, regeneration. 
HirfllHav (berthklii) n. the day on which one is 
Ull LllUcty {jorn ; the anniversary of that day. 
Ki rf Vi H r»m (bertbyum) n. rights acquired by birth; 
Ull LllUUlll birthright. 

Kir4"Vil<acc (berth-les) a. of ignoble origin ; not en- 
uii Liiicaa titled to privileges by birth. 
hirfVinlarf^ (berth-plas) n. the place where a 
Ull Liij^la.\^^ person is born ; place of origin. 
Hirf Virif^Vlf (oerth-rit) n. any right or privilege to 
Ull Liix igiiL ^iiich a person is entitled oy birth. 
Kio (bis, tws) adv. [L.] twice; again: encore;— n. 
*J^^ [Mus.] a direction to repeat a passage. 
hi^Pnfin (bis^kO-tln) n. [¥. fr. L. bis, twice, and 
uiouOLiii coquere, pp. cocius, cook] a sweetmeat 
consisting of flour, sugar, eggs, and marmalade. 
'Ufepiiif (bis^kit) n. [F.J a kind of bread, in small 
uiov^uiL cakes^ baked hard; earthenware that has 
undergone baking before glazing. 

Kicfi (bez) n. [F.] a biting wind that sweeps southern 
uisc: France, proverbial for affliction or calamity. 
bi^f^pf (bi-sekt) v.t. [L. bis, twice, and secure, cut] 
uiod.<L to cut or divide into two parts. 
hic#ar^fir»n (bi-sek'-shun) n. division into two 
uiac:<.,Liuil parts or branches. 
Kicf^crmf^nf (bi-seg-ment) n. one of the parts of 
uioc;giiiciiL a bisected magnitude. 
hi^Prisl (bi-se-ri-al) a. [L. bis, twice, and E. sei-iaZ] 
uioci icti arranged in two rows. 
bi^Priallv (bl-se^ri-al-i) adv. in a double row; in 
uioc;i itxny a biserial arrangement. 
bi^PVllfll (bi-seks^u-al) a. having the organs of 
uioc:.A.ucxi both sexes in one individual. 
t-vjcVirvn (bish-up) n. [G. ejnskopos] a spiritual over- 
uioiiup seer ; a dignitary ranking beneath an arch- 
bishop, and above the priests or presbyters and deacons ; 
one of the pieces in chess ; a mixture of wine, oranges, and 
sugar. Bishop's-lawn, a fine kind of lawn. Bishop's- 
aleeve, a wide sleeve resembling that of a bishop. 
Bishop's-weed, a common weed, dlflicult to eradicate. 
HicVirkririr' (bish-up-rik) n. the diocese, jurisdic- 
uiaiiupi IV, tion, or oftice of a bishop 
hitst Kicnn#a (bisk) n.[F.6i"sgMe] soup made from 
uioA., uiavj^uc several meats boiled together. 
bi^millah (Ws-mil^i) int. [A.] in God's name (an 
uioiiiiiictxi exclamation among Mohammedans). 
HlQmnfVl (biz^muth) n. [Ger.] a reddish-white metal. 
uiaiiiULii gigjjjy^jj.gjajice, an ore of bismuth, 
composed of sulphur and bismuth (often bismuthine). 
hicmiifVial (biz^rauth-al) a. consisting of bis- 
uisiiiULliai muth, or containing it. 

Kicr»n (bl^un, bis^un) n. [L. bison] the wild ox of 

Uiauii the Kocky Mountains 

and Central Europe. 

Kicnn*a (bisk) n. [biscuit'] 

UIS4UC unglazed white 

porcelain, used for statuettes, etc. 

hi<5nilf» (b'sk) n. [F.] odds 

uiovj^u^ given to a player 

at tennis, croquet, etc 

DlSSeXtlle [L bis twicej American bison. 

and sextus, sixth] leap year ;— a. pertaining to leap year. 

HlQfpr HlQfrf* (bis^ter) n. [F.] a dark-brown 

uio LCI J uio ui c pigment extracted from the soot 

of wood ; a dark-brown colour. 

\\\ Qf nrf (bis^tort) n. [L. bis, twice, and torta, twisted] 

uioLCil u a plant— snakeweed or adder's-wort. 

hi<5f nnrv (bis^tu-ri, -ta-ri) n. [F.] a siu^ical iustru- 

Ulo LU ui y ment for making incisions. 

Kiciil/^of «i (bi-sul-kat) a. [L. 6i's, twice, andst^w*, 

Ul&UlUdLC furrow] cloven-footed [Zool.]. 

Ki C1 1 1 r»fi a f Pk (bl-sul-fat) n. a salt of sulphuric acid 

uiauipiicttc in which one-half of the hydrogen is 

replaced by a metal. t 

\\\^ (bit) n. [A.S. bita] the iron mouth-piece of a bridle, tM^^ 

*J*-*' to whicn the reins are fastened ; a mouthful ; a 

morsel ; a mite •, a small coin : a small instrument for 

boring ; the edge of a carpenter s plane ; — v.t. to put a bit 

in the mouth of a horse. Bit by bit, by degrees. To 

give a bit of one's mind, to express one s opinion 

openly and unreservedly. To take the bit in the teeth, 

to become unmanageable. 

hifpll (bich) n. [A.S. hicce] the female of the dog, 

Ul LV,ll wolf, and fox; a name of reproach for a woman. 

Kif p (bit) v.t. [A.S. bltan] to crush or seize with the * 

^•^''^ teeth; to pinch with cold; to cut sharply; to *nV t * ' 4 H 

take hold of and adhere to ; to eat into, or corrode ; to 

hurt with reproach or sarcasm ; — v.i. to use the teeth in 

biting ; to be pungent ; to pain ; to grip : — n. act of seizing 

with the teeth ; the wound made by the teeth ; a morsel ; 

the purchase of a tool ; a cheat ; a trick ; a sharper. To 

bite in, to corrode, like an acid. To bite the dust, to be 

worsted or killed. To bite the thumb at, to show 

contempt for 




(bMes) a. without bite ; with no power to 

bite ; harmless. 
u:4.p|. (bT-ter) n. one who, or that which, bites ; a 
U1L.C1 trickish person ; a cheat. 
HifinO'lv (bi-ting-li) adv. in a biting, cutting, or 
UlLlllgiy sarcastic manner. 

Hif incrnfQC (bl-ting-nes) n. the quality of being 
uiLiiigiicoo biting or pungent ; acridity. 

bitleSS (bit^les) a. without bit or bridle. 

t^:i.i. (bit) ». [Scand.] a vertical timber for securing 
^*^^ cables, supporting windlasses, etc. ; — v.t. [Naut.j 
to put round the bitts. 

bittacle (bit^-kl) n. see binnacle. 
1-jl4-4-pf. (bit^r) a. [A.S. biter, fr. bitan, bite] having a 
UlLLCl peculiar, acrid, biting taste, like wormwood ; 
causing pain or smart to the sense of feeling, or pain or 
distress to the mind; characterized by sharpness, severity, 
or cruelty ; mournful ; distressing. Bitter-almond, a 
plant and its fruit. Bitter-earth, magnesia. Bitter- 
spar, dolomite. Bitter-sweet, a slender climbing plant, 
\diose root, when chewed, produces first a bitter, then 
a sweet, taste. To the bitter end, to the last extremity ; 
to the death. 

K iff Of (bit^r) n. a turn of the cable which is round 
DlLter the bitts. 

\\\^\-ett'\ncr (bit^r-ing) n. a bitter preparation used 
UltLCllllg to adulterate beer. \\ 1/ ^ 

bitterish iS"'^^ "' '"^^"^ 

Uj^-i-pfl'^ (bit-er-H) adv. in a 

ulLLCiijr bitter manner; severely; 

angrily ; cruelly ; grievously. 

1-l<4-4-pf|^ (bit^rn) n. [P. butor] a 

Ul L LCI 11 wading bird of the heron 

family ; it makes a peculiar sound. 

1-li4-fp|<«-| (bittern) n. [bitter] the 

uiLLCiii brine that remains in 

salt works after the salt is concreted. Bittern. 

Kif f £k|<«-| pec (bit^er-nes) n. state or quality of being 

uiLLCiiicoo bitter; extreme hatred or enmity. 

Fate. fdr. ado ; me, hgr ; mine , note ; tune ; m66n. 




1^{i.^p|.c (bit^rz) a liquor in which bitter herbs 
Ul LLC! o Qf roots have been steeped. 
hifnmPfl (bi-tu-men, bit^u-men) n. [L.] an in- 
Ui tUlllCll flammable mineral substance, as asphalt, 
naphtha, petroleum, etc. 

bituminiferous ;,^jetgtt°imer^ " ^"- 

■hifiimini ^af inn (bi-tfi-mi-ni-za^shun) n. con- 
UlLUllillli^auUlX version into bitumen. 
Hifnminiyfs (bi-tu-mi-nlz) v.t. to form into, or 
UlLUXllllll^C impregnate with, bitumen. 
hifliminnn«5 (bi-ta-mi-nus) a. having the 
uiLuiAiixiwuo qualities of bitumen ; compounded 
with bitumen ; containing bitumen. 
hi va 1 Vf^ (bl-valv) a. [L. bis, twice, and valva, valve] 
UlVdlVC havingtwovalves;— r^. an ^..s^-3^ 

animal having a shell consisting of 
two parts or valves, which open and 
shut ; a seed-case of this kind. 

bivalved, bivalvular 

(bi-valvd, bl-val-vii-lar) a. having two 
valves ; bivalve. „. , 

hivanifpH (bl-vawl^ted) a. hav- Bivalve. 

Ul V ctui LCU Jug two vaults or arches [Arch.]. 
hi violin (bl-vi-us, biv-i-us) a. [L. bis, twice, and 
Uiviviuo ^^-(j^ way] having, or leading, two ways. 
hivnnaP (biv'-oo-ak, biv-wak) n. [F. fr. Ger. bei, 
uivKJlKXy, by, and wache, watch] an encampment 
without tents or covering ; the place of such an encamp- 
ment ; — vA. to encamp without tents or covering. 
KitTToolrlTr (bl-wek-li) «. occurring once in every 
UlWCCK.iy two weeks. 

hi T^rre^ (bi-zar') a. [F.j odd in manner or appear- 
Ul^di i C ance ; fantastical. 

hi ah (blab) v.t. [Dan. blabbre, babble] to reveal 
uictu secrets without cause or motive ; to publish 
indiscreetly ; — v.i. to talk much; to tell tales; — n. a 
blabber ; a chatterer ; babbling. 

hlahh<ar (blabber) n. a tattler; a tell-tale ; a chat- 
UldUUCi terer ._y_i_ to babble ; to blab. 
hlarV (blak) a. [A.^.blcec] dark; night-like; des- 
uictv.,jv titute of light ; incapable of reflecting light ; 
darkened or overshadowed, as by clouds ; gloomy ; sullen; 
atrociously wicked or horrible ;— n. the darkest colour, or 
destitution of colour ; a negro ; a person whose skin is 
black ; a black dress or mourning ; — v.t. to make black ; 
to blacken ; to soil. Black and white, print or writing. 
Black-art, enchantment ; magic. Black-band, a car- 
boniferous iron ore. Black-beer, a beer of a dark 
colour, and syrupy consistence, chiefly from the 
Baltic. Black - boding, prognosticating evil. Black- 
book, a book of sentence and doom ; a book compiled 
by the visitors of monasteries, under Henry VlII., 
detailing the enormities and crimes that led to their 
suppression ; a college book recording the students' faults 
or misdemeanours ; a book of necromancy or the black 
art. Black-browed, gloomy ; forbidding. Black-cap, 
a cap worn by judges when giving sentence of death. 
Black-cattle, cattle of the bovine genus, reared for 
slaughter. Black-country, a district noted for coal-pits 
and ironworks, esp. that between Wolverhampton and 
Birmingham. Black-currant, a garden fruit, used for 
jellies, jams, etc. Black-draught, an aperient of senna 
and salts. Black-earth, rich, fertile soil. Black-face, 
a black-faced sheep or other animal. Black-flsh, a 
female salmon in spawning season ; a kind of whale ; the 
tautog; the tadpole-fish; a fish of New England. 
Black-flag, the flag of a pirate ; signal of an execution. 
Black-foot, a matchmaker; a go-between. Black- 
hearted, having a black or wicked heart ; malignant; 
Black-hole, any place of punishment ; a prison dungeon; 
a guardroom. Black-jack, an ore of zinc— zinc-blende ; 
a species of oak ; a drinking cup, usually of leather. 
Black-letter, the old English or Gothic letter. Black- 
list, a list of debtors ; a list of delinquents. Black- 
martin, a kind of swallow ; the swift. Black-Monday, 
Easter Monday, 1360, a day of a severe storm ; a day of 
misfortune. Black-monks, the Benedictines, who wear 
black clothes. Black-pigment, a very fine lamp-black, 
used in making printers' ink. Black-pudding, a kind of 
sausage, made of blood, suet, etc. Black-rod, the usher 
belonging to the Order of the Garter ; the usher of the 
House of Lords. Black-rust, a disease of wheat. 
Black-sheep, a discreditable character. Black-snake, 
a snake found in the United States, Jamaica, and 

Australia. Black-strap, a mixture of spirituous liquor 
and molasses ; a dark-coloured wine. Black-tin, tin 
ore ready for smelting. Black-vomit, a vomiting of 
dark matter, a fatal symptom in yellow fever. Black 
walnut, an American tree with dark-coloured wood. 
Black-water, a disease in cattle or sheep, accompanied 
by the discharge of black urine. Black-work, wrought 
iron ; blacksmiths' work. 

Kl 1 r>t^ n mr\r\f (blak-a-moor) n. [black and moor] 
DiaCKaniOOr ^ negro ; a black. 
hi a plrha 1 1 (blak-bawl) n. a composition for black- 
UldK^rLUsxll ing shoes, boots, etc.; a ball of black 
colour, used as a negative in voting ■,—v.t. to reject by 
putting black balls into the ballot-box. 
hlaplrhfrrv (blak-ber-i) n. the berry of the 
L^ictv^Jvucii jr bramble; a popular name applied 
to difierent species of the genus Rubus, and their fruit. * '■ 
Klo^l^Kifrl (blak-berd) n. a singing bird of the 
DiaCKDira thrush famllv. 

blackbirding 'S^f-J:%i; 

kidnapping of negroes for slaves. 
hlarlrhnarH (blak-bord) n. a 
DiaCKDOara i^o^rd used to 
write or draw on with chalk. 

blackcock larg^e' bird, "'the i^'acKoira. 
heath-cock, or male black grouse ; female, gray hen. 
hlaplrftl (blak'-n) v.t. to make black; to darken; 
UictV.>A.c;ii to sully ; — v/i. to grow black. 
Rl a f Wfri a r (blak-fn-ar) n. a friar of the Domini- 
'-'*'*^**"^* *""* can order, so caUed from his black 
mantle, worn above a white woollen garment. 
hi a n\r o*i i a rH (blag-ard) n. orig. the menials that 
Uid^n.^ Ucti u lookedafterthepots, kettles, etc.; an 
ill-conducted fellow •,—v.t. to revile in scurrilous language. 
Kl Q r'lr o"i 1 a rA i c m (blag'-ard-izm) n. conduct or 
UldUK.^ Udl Ul&iil language of a blackguard. 
hi 3 /^Ircrii a rrlhr (blag'-ard-h) a. characteristic of 
UldV.K.g Udl uiy a blackguard ; scurrilous. 
hlaplrinp* (blak-ing) n. a preparation used for 
Llldl.^i^iiig blacking shoes, boots, etc. 
hlaflri^h (blak-ish) a. slightly black or dark;. 
"•^"''— *^*^** somewhat black ; darkened. v- 

hlapU'lpaH (blak-led) n. a mineral composed of 
uld^A.lCdU carbon; plumbago; graphite; — v.t.' 
(blak-led') to cover with plumbago. 
hlacWlf^P" (blak'-leg) n. a notorious gambler and 
'-'■'■'-*''^'**"''*'o cheat ; a non-unionist workman (in 
contempt) ; — pi. a disease in the legs among sheep. 
hla plrl V (blak-li) adv. in a black manner ; darkly ; 
\Jla.K^rk.iy gloomily: threateningly; atrociously. 
hlaplrmail (blak-mal) n. [A.S. mal, tribute] 
uidv^Jviiidii money, cattle, or produce, paid to 
secure protection from pillage ; payment extorted by 
threats \—v.t. to levy blackmail on. 


hlapWnP^*^ (blak-nes) n. the quality of being 
Uldv^ivlicoo black, in a literal or figurative sense. 
hlar^lrci'^^i (blak-sTz) v.t. to cover leather with a 
Uld«^i:s.sii£.c coat of size and tallow. 
hla plc^m ith (blak'-smith) n. a smith that works 
uld\^i\.oiiliLix jjj Iron, and makes iron utensils. 
h1ar>lrfhr»rn (blak-thorn) n. the sloe; a stair 
UIdL.l^L,iIUi H made from the wood. 
hla pItv hla pItpv (blak-i)n. a black person, or 
ula,K^r^y ^ uidi^i^Cjr any black creature; a negro. 
hlaHHpT (blad-er) n. [A.S. bl&dre] the receptacle 
UXdUUC:! for the urine ; a blister ; a vesicle ; a dried 
membrane or bag, inflated with air. Bladder-fern, a 
fern with bladder-like spore-cases. Bladder-wort, a genus 
of slender aquatic plants with floating leaves. Bladder- 
wrack, a seaweed with floating-bladders in its fronds. 
hi a Ai^f^retA (blad-erd) a. swelled or inflated like a 
UldUUCl CU bladder; puflFed up J conceited. 
hi a HHfrv (blad-er-i) a. thin and inflated; blis- 
UXdUUCi y tered ; pustular ; consisting of bladders. 
hlaHf (blad) n. [A.S. bleed] the leaf, or flat part of 
UldUC the leaf, of a plant ; the cutting part of an 
instrument ; the broad part of an oar ; a dashing fellow. 
Blade-bone, the scapula or upper bone in the shoulder. 
hi a HpH (bla^ded) a. having a blade or blades ; com- 
UldtiCU. posed of long, narrow plates. 

(blan) n. [A.S. blegeiij an inflammatory 



swelling or sore ; a pustule ; a blister. 

Fate, i&T, ^do ; me, h§r ; mine ; nSte ; tune ; moon. 




KtorvioKlfi (blaAma-bl) a. deserving of censure; 
DiailldUlC faulty; reprehensible. 
l-klomoKlckrie»c«c! (bia^ma-bl-nes) n. State of 
UldlllclUiCliC^da being blamable. 
1-jl o t-ri a K1 V (W3^nia-bli) adv. culpably ; in a manner 
UlctliXctuiy deserving of censure. 
U1ofT-ip (blam) v.t. [F. bldmer, fr. G. bktsphemein, 
Ui'O.lil^ speak evil of] to censure ; to express dis- 
approbation of ; to find fault with ; — n. expression of 
disapprobation ; responsibility ; fault. 
K1am*afiil (blam-fool) a. meriting blame; repre- 
UidlllCiUi hensible; faulty; criminal. 
KlomckfnIiTT (blam-fool-i) adv. in a culpable or 
UldnieiUliy blamable manner. 
Kl'imci-fiilnoc'o (blam-fi)ol-nes) 71. the state of 
DiameiUinebS being Wameful. 
K1am<^li^CQ (blam-les) a. free from blame; with- 
Uiaiiicicsa out fault; stainless; guiltless. 
Klorrittl^aoolTr (blam-les-h) adv. innocently; 

Diameiebbiy without fault. 

K1»im«1tf>ooriiac!o (blam-les-nes) n. freedom 
UldlllClCbbllCbb from f^^^ qj blame. 

blameworthiness aLrwS;"''^ " 

KlamAfxrrkrfViTr (blam-wur-XHi) a. deserving 
DiameW^Ortny blame; censurable; culpable. 
Klanr'arH (blang-kard; n. [V.] a species of linen 
UiailL.clX U ciotb made in Normandy. 
Hia npVl (Wansh) v.t. [F. bl^inc, white] to whiten; to 
Uldli^ii ta]jg out the colour of; to strip off the 
peel ; to give a favourable appearance to ; — v.i. to grow 
or become white. Blanch-iaxm, rent paid in silver. 
Blanch-holding, a farm held at a nominal rent [Scot.]. 

hlanchpr ('^'4"-sh§'") "• o°^ ^^O' o' t^*' which, 

K1anr»Viim*»f <ar (blan-shim^-ter) n. [F. blanc, 
Ulctliv^lliiiic LCI white, and U. metron, measure] 
an instrument for measuring bleaching power. 
Klanr^Viino" (blan-shing) n. the act of whitening 
UXctllt^lllllg or making blanched. 
hlanp matlP'P (bla-mawngzh') n. [F. blanc 
ulciiiV^-iiiciiigc and manger, food] a prepara- 
tion of dissolved isinglass, corn-flour, milk, sugar, etc. 
hlfltlH (^l^'i'^) *• [L- blaivdus, smooth] mild; 
UlctliU. smooth ; gentle ; courteous. 
hlanHilnniif^nrp (blan-dil^-kwens) n. [L. 
DianailOquence iUi^^du^^ mUd, and loqui, 
speak] fair, mild, flattering speech. 

blflnHi^sVl^^''^'^^^^^ ^•*" f^' ^^"r^diri] to flatter 
uictiiuioii ajj(j coax ; to soothe ; to caress. 
HI S f1 H 1 (?ll Pr (blan^ish-er) n. one that blandishes, 
Uictiiuiaiicx flatters, or coaxes; a cajoler. 
h1anHi<5Vimf*nf (olan^lish-ment) n. words or 
uictiiuioiiiiic^iiL actions expressive of aflfection 
or kindness ; artful, winning caresses. 
H1anHn#iQC (bland-nes) n. the quality of being 
uidiiuiicas bland ; mildness : gentleness. 
KlanHlTr (bland-li) flK/v. in a bland manner; gently; 
UldllUiy mildly ; soothingly. 
blanW (^'''"S'^) <*• W- ii- ^-'Cr. blanch, white] of a 
Uictiii^ white or pale colour; pale from rear or terror ; 
dejected; lacking something; void; witiiout mixture; 
pure ; without rhyme ; — n. any void space ; a space in a 
written or printed instrument ; a ticket in a lotterv on 
which no prize is indicated ; a paper unwritten ; a legal 
instrument, with vacant spaces left to be filled with 
names, dates, etc.; the point of a target at which aim is 
taken, marked with a white spot ; a piece of metal 
prepared, but not stamped or finished, as a coin ; — v.t. to 
make pale; to annul; to confuse. Blank-cartridge, 
cartridge without lead-shot. Blank-credit, permission 
to draw money to a certain amount. Blank-door, a 
recess in a wall, like a door. Blank-verse, unrimed verse. 
blanW'Pf (blang'-ket) n. [O.F.] a coarse, loosely 
'^■*******'^^ woven cover, to protect from cold; — v.t. 
to cover with a blanket ; to toss m a blanket ; [Naut.] to 
take the wind out of the sails of. A wet blanket, one 
who, or that which, damps or discourages. 
HI a nlr<af in cr (blang'-ket-ing)n. cloth for blankets ; 
UldllK-CUng tossing in a blanket. 
blanklv (Wangk-U) adv. in a blank manner ; with 
i^idiii^iy paleness or confusion. 
Klanl?-n<ace (blangk'-nes) n. the state or quality 
UicLlliS.llCbb of being blank. 
blarP e^liir) ^-t- and i.TImit.] to sound loudly ^—n. 
uia.1. c noise ; loud sound. 

Hlflrtlf^V (I'l'ir-ni) n. [Blarney-stone in Castle 
UM.ct.1 iitjr Blarney, near Cork, Ireland, reputed to 
make anyone that kisses it a shameless flatterer and 
deceiver] smooth, deceitful talk ; flattery ; —v.t. to deceive 
or flatter by smooth talk ; to cajole. 
Vjloo/i (bla-za) a. [F.] having the strength impaired 
uidoc; by excessive indulgence ; tired of life. 
KloQf-tlifxtTIP (blas-fem') v.t. [G. blasphemein, 
uidopiiciiic; speak evil of] to speak reproachfully 
or impiously of ; to utter abuse or calumny against any 
person ■,—v.i. to utter blasphemy. 

blasphemer [,£^^1;°'^'^ ~- °°^ **^* ^^^'- 

Klacr»ViAmr»iic (blas^f e-mus) a. uttering or con- 
DldbpnemOUb tainlng blasphemy. 
hlaQnliP^mnnQlTr (blas-fe-mus-li) adv. in a 
DiabpnemOUbiy blasphemous manner. 
hla^nVlfmv (^las-fe-mi) n. FG. bUisphemia'] an 
uxctopiiCiiiy indignity oflered to God uy reproach- 
ful, contemptuous, or irreverent words or writing. 
Klo cf (blast) n. [A.S. bU'est] a gust or sudden pufl"of 
uxctob air; a forcible stream of air from an orifice; 
the blowing necessary to smelt ore in a furnace ; exhaust 
steam from an engine, used to create draught through 
the fire ; the sound made by blowing a wind instrument ; 
an explosion of gunpowder in rending rocks, or of inflam- 
mable air in a mine ; a blight ; a flatulent disease of 
sheep ; — v.t. to injure, as by a noxious wind ; to blight ; 
to afi'ect with some sudden violence or destructive 
influence ; to split, as by an explosion of gunpowder. 
Blast-furnace, a furnace for smelting, in which the 
supply of air is furnished by a powerful bellows, or other 
pneumatic apparatus. Blast-pipe, the exhaust pipe of 
a steam-engine. 

Klocf^iH (blas^ted) a. blighted; confounded; ac- 
UXcl&LCU cursed; detestable. 
Kla cf <ir (blas^ter) n. one who, or that which, blasts 
UXaOLCX or destroys. 

Klpcfinp* (blas^ting) a. that blasts; — n. a blast: 
'^*'*"^***& destruction; explosion; splitting and 
breaking up of rocks by gunpowder or other agency. 
Blasting-cartridge, a cartridge inclosing an explosive. 
Blasting - compounds, preparations for blasting. 
Blasting-oil, nitro-glycerine. 

Kl a cf r»H *»rm (blas^to-denn)n. [G. blastos, sprout, 
UXas>tUUCXXXX and derma, skin] the superficial 
layer of the young embryo. 

Klof on/'TT- (b!a-tan-si) n. the quality of being 
UidLdllCy blatant. 

Ulof ofif (blaAtant) a. [Etym. doubtful] bellowing; 
UXdLctXXL noisy; brawling. 

Kl o f o n f Kr (bla^tant-li) adv. in a blatant manner ; 
UldLdllLiy with bellowing. 
Klafffir (blat^r) v.i. [L. olaterare] to patter; to 
UXdLLCX rail ; to prate idly. 

Kloff^rAr (blatr^r-er) «. one that blatters or talks 
UXdLLCX ex volubly and foolishly ; a babbler. 
Kloff ofirirr (blat^r-ing) n. senseless raihng ; vain 
DldtLCring babbling ; blustering. 
t-wlo^p (blaz)n. [A.S. bhvse] a flame; the stream of 
UXd^c ligbt and heat from any body when burning; 
j — [Icel. blesi] a white spot on a horse ; a spot made on 
; trees by chipping off the bark ; — v.t. to mark a tree by 
! chipping oft the bark;— [A.S. bl&san, blow] to noise 
abroad •,—v.i. to flame ; to send forth a bright light ; to 
be conspicuous. 

hlfl 7Pr (Wa-zer) n. one that publishes and spreads 
uxct^cx reports ; a flannel jacket of bright colour, 
orig. a jacket of a bright red colour. 
Kla^iriD* (bla-zing) ppr. radiating flame or heat. 
uxct^ixx^ Blazing-star, a comet. 
Hla^nn (Wa-zn) v.t. [F. blason, shield] to display 
UXct^UXX conspicuously; to embellish ; to explain in 
proper terms, as the figures on armorial ensigns;— n. art of 
drawing or explaining coats of arms : the representation 
on coats of arms; ostentatious display; publication; show. 
■Ul o 7/-)ripr (t)laizn-er) n. one that blazons; one that 
UXct^l^xxcx proclaims or displays from vanity. 
HI a y r»n m *»n f (bla-zn-ment) n. the act of blazon- 
UXd^UXXXXXc:xxL jn^ . jbe act of proclaiming. 
HI a 7nn rv (tlS^zn-n) 7?,. artof describing or explain- 
uia^Kjin y jj^g coats of arms in proper terms. 
■klfiopVi (blech) v.t. [A.S. blc'ecan] to make white by 
uxc^civ^ii exposure to sun and air, or by chemical 
agency :— I'.ti. to grow white. Bleach-field, a field where 
cloth fabrics are oleached. 

Fate, far, ado ; me, her ; mine ; ndte ; tune ; moon. 




HI P9 pVi ^r (^l^her) n. one that bleaches ; a vessel 
•J**-**^**^* used in bleaching. 

Kl ^ *» oVi Of TT (ble^her-i) n. a place or establishment 

Dieacnery for bleacMng. 

hlpapllino* (We-ching) n. act or art of whitening. 

UlCcx^lllii^ ggp_ Qf whitening fabrics by chemical 

agents, etc. BleacMog-powder, chloride of lime. 

Hlfat (bl^k) a. [A.S. bl^c, pale] without colour; 

UiCctlv pj^jg . qqJjJ . cheerless ; — n. a small fish. 

KlckO t-ioVi (ble-kish) a. moderately bleak or chill ; 

UlCciK.lS>ll somewhat bleak. 

KIooItItt (blek-li) adv. in a bleak manner; coldly; 

OiedK.iy desolately. 

Kloitr-nocc (blek-nes) n. the state or quality of 

OieaKueSsb being weak. 

hl**ar (bier) a. [Etym. doubtful] dim or sore with 

UlCctl rheum (applied to the eyes); dull ; dim •,—v.t. 

to make sore ; to affect the eyes with watery humour ; to 

make dim, as the sight. Bleax-eyed, havmg sore eyes ; 

dim-sighted ; lacking in perception or understanding. 

blearedness, blearness Si^S "'^: 

the state of being bleared. 

HI f»a f (blet) v.i. [A.S. blcetan] to cry as a sheep ; — n. 

UiCctt tbe cry or noise of a sheep. 

bleater (ble-ter) ». an animal that bleats; a sheep. 

HIpH (Web) n. [perhaps Imit.] a small tumour or 
UlCU blister ; a bubble, as in water or glass. 
Hlpbbv (''^^''^^^ *^' ^^^^ ^^ blebs, bubbles, or pus- 
Hi ppH (bled) v.t. [A.S. bledan] to take blood from; 
l^iCCU tQ (jjaw money from ;—v.i. to lose blood ; to 
die by slaughter; to drop, as blood; to pay or lose 
money ; to feel great pity. 

HlfpHinp* (ble^ing) n. an issuing of blood; the 
uic:c:uiiig operation of drawing blood, sap, etc. 
H1f*mi«%H (blem'-ish) v.t. [Icel. otdr, livid] to mark 
Uidiiioii ^jtb deformity; to mar, or make de- 
fective; to tarnish; to defame; — n. any mark of deformity, 
whether physical or moral. 

HI *»m i cH 1 pcc (blem-ish-les)a.havingno blemish; 
uiciiiisxiicos spotless ; untarnished. 
HIphpH (blensh) v.i. [A.S. blencan, deceive] to 
uiciil.,11 shrink ; to start back ; to flinch. 
HlpnH (blend) v.t. [A.S. blandan] to mix together; 
uicixu (;q confound;— v.i. to be mixed; — n. a mix- 
ture. Blend-corn, wheat and rye grown together. 
Blend-water, a urinary disease in cattle. 
HlpflHp (blend) n. [Get. blenden, dazzle] an ore of 
Lrxciivzc zinc, consisting of zinc and sulphur. 
HlpnHf^r (blender) n. one who, or that which, 
k>ic;iivic;i blends ; a brush used by artists. 
Rl^anHAim (blen^m) n. [Blenheim, residence of 
J^lCllllCiXil Duke of Marlborough, in Oxfordshire] 
& kind of spaniel. Blenheim orange, a kind of apple. 
Hlptinv (blen-i) n. [G. blennos. mucus] a fish of 
uic^iiiiy different species, usually of small size— so 
called from the shining mucus covering the skin. 
Hl#ar»Harif ic (blef-a-rl-tis) n. [G. blepharon, eye- 
uicpxicti luis lid] inflammation of the eyelids. 
HlpcHnlr (blesi-bok) n. [D. bles, white mark, and 
ui.\^i3u\ji\. j,o^_ gQ^y ajj antelope of Gape Colony. 
Klpcq (bles) v.t. [A.S. bletstan] to make happy, 
i^x^oo blithesome, or joyous ; to invoke a blessing 
upon ; to praise or glorify for benefits ; to consecrate. 
Bless me, an expression of wonder. 
HIpqqpH (bles^d, blest) a. happy; enjoying happi- 
yi«^oov^va jjggg OP bhss; favoured with blessings; 
imparting peace or felicity ; pertaining to spiritual happi- 
ness ; hallowed ; heavenly. 

Hl<acsc<aHlT7 (bles^d-li) <wiv. in a happy or fortunate 
UXCaacuiy manner ; joyfully. 
HlpciQ*»Hn<acc (bles^d-nes) n. happiness ; divine 
UlCbbeaneSS ^vour ; heavenly joy. 
blGSSinP" (bles-ing) n. a means of happiness ; that 
• \_ 7 ° which promotes prosperity and welfare ; 
a wish of happiness pronounced ; a benediction. To ask 
a blessing, to say grace before meat. 
Hlectf (blest) a. blessed; made happy; making happy; 
tjM.\,^\, cheering. 

blpt (blet) n. [O.F. blet. overripe] decay in overripe 
kTAv^b frmj ;_^ ,:_ to soften, as overripe fruit. 
HlpfHpr HlafHpr (blcTH^r, blaTH^r)n.[Icel. 
UlCLilCr, Uldiner Wod/ir," nonsense] voluble 
nonsense •,—v.i. to talk fluent, garrulous nonsense. 

bletherskate, blatherskite gSK 

blaTH-er-sklt) n. one that talks sheer nonsense ; a 
blustering fellow. 

"Rlofrknicm (blet^un-izm) n. [fr. M. Bleton, a 
JJXC tuxxxaxxx Frenchman] the pretended faculty of 
perceiving subterraneous springs by peculiar sensations. 
blettitlff" (blet^ing) n. the slow decay of overripe 

Hlip"Ht (bl^*-) ^- [Etym. unknown] anything nipping 
'-'•^*o*'^'' or blasting, as mildew or frost; that which 
frustrates one's plans or withers one's hopes; — v.t. to afl'ect 
with blight ; to stop the growth of ; to frustrate : to ruin. 
Hlio-Hfino-lir (bli-ting-h) adv. with blighting re- 
UllgllLlXlgiy suit- with withering effect. 
HliflH (blind) a. [A.S.] destitute of the sense of see- 
uxxxxu. jjjCT ; not having the faculty of discernment ; 
unable to understand or judge; morally depraved; dark- 
obscure ; admitting no light ; having no outlet ; closed 
at one end ; reckless ; imperfectly addressed ; — v.t. to 
deprive of sight ; to darken or obscure ; to deceive by 
concealment ; to cheat by false appearances ; to mystify; 
— n. something to hinder sight or keep out light ; a 
screen ; something to mislead the eye or the understand- 
ing; a pretext. Blind-coal, a coal that burns without 
flame or smoke. Blind-flre, a fire set in a grate ready 
for lighting. Blind-side, side on which one is most 
easily assailed ; weak side; foible. Blind-worm, a small 
reptile without feet, like a snake, called also slow-worm 
(its eyes being very minute, it has often been supposed 
to be blind). 

HlinHaP'P (blln^aj) «. a shelter of fascines and 
UXiXXUctgC earth covering a trench ; a mantlet. 
Hlin HpH (blinded) a. without sight; without dis- 
UXXXXUCU. cernment ; having blinds. 
HI i n H Pr (blinder) «. one who, or.that which, blinds; 
UXXXXUCX _p^ a horse's blinkers. 
HI i n H fnl H (blind-fold) a. having the eyes covered; 
LJXXXXUXCIXU blinded ; having the mental eye dark- 
ened ;— v.i. to cover the eyes of ; to hinder from seeing. 
HlinHiflO' (blin'-ding) n. act of making blind; a 
UXXXXVlxxxg substance composed of sand and line 
gravel, spread over the stones in road-making. 
HlinHlv (blind-li) oav. in a blind manner; without 
uxxxxuxy sight or understanding. 
HlinHmatl (blind-man) n. a post-office clerk who 
UXXXiUXXXaXX deals with imperfectly addressed letters. 
Blindman's-bufF, a game in wnich one person is blind- 
folded and tries to catch some one of the company, and 
tell who it is. 

hlitlHnP^Q (blTnd-nes) n. state of being blind; 
UXXXXUXiCoo want of discernment or appreciation. 
Hlinlr (bhngk) v.t. [M.E. blenken] to snut out of 
UXXXXJv sight ; to avoid, or purposely evade •,--v.i. 
to wink; to see with the eyes half shut, or with frequent 
winking ; to glimmer, as a lamp ; — n. a glimpse or 
glance, as of sunshine; the dazzling whiteness about the 
horizon occasioned by the reflection of light from fields 
of ice at sea. Blink-beer, beer that becomes sour or acid. 
HlinVarH (bling-kard) n. one that blinks; that 
UXXiXA.clx u which twinkles, as a dim star. 
Hlintpr (bling'-ker) n. one that blinks; whatever 
UXXXXi^CX checks or obstructs sight or discernment ; 
—pi. broad pieces of leather shading a horse's eyes. 
HlinlrinO" (bling-king) n. the nabit of abandoning 
UXXXXXLXXXg game when caught (said of dogs). 
Hlinlrincrlv (Wing'-king-h) adv. in a blinking 
L7xxxxA.xxxgxj^ manner ; so as to shirk or evade. 
UIIqc (blis) n. [A.S. bliss] the highest degree of 
UXXoo happiness ; the happiness of heaven ; heaven. 
Hli^«5fll1 (blis^fool) a. full of joy and felicity; 
UXXooXUX supremely happy. 

HliQQfllllv (blis^fool-i) oav. in a blissful manner; 
UXXoaXUXXy with supreme happiness. 
Klioofiilrioeo (bhs-fool-nes) n. fulness of joy; 
UllbbIUiIlC2»b supreme felicity. 
Hiicclocc (blis^les) a. bereft of bliss; miserable; 
UXXas>XCaa unfortunate. 

Hli^f Pr (blis-ter) n. [M.E.] a thin, watery bladder on 
UXXSLCX tbe skin ; any tumour made by the separa- 
tion of the film or skin, as on plants, or by the swelling 
at the surface, as on steel ; a vesicatory; a plaster applied 
to raise a blister;— v.t. to raise blisters upon; to give 
pain to, as if by a blister;— v. ?'. to rise in blisters. 
Blister-fly, the Spanish fly, used in raising a blister. 
Blister-steel, steel with a blistered surface. 

Fate, far, ado ; me, her ; mine ; note ; tune ; m66n. 




blisterv (^IJ^^'^'^'i) '^^ ^^ of bUstere ; marked by 

KlifVi** (bllTH)a. [A.S. blithe] gay; happy; joyous; 
UlltllC sprightly; mirthful. 

KlifVicklTT- (DliTH-li) adv. in a gay, joyful manner; 
Dlltneiy minhfuUy : jocundly. ! 

KlifHptlPQQ (bllTH-nes) n. sprightUness ; gaiety; 
uiiciic;;iic;oo joyousness; mirthfulness. 
Klif Vi<acrkm«a (bllTH-sum) a. gay; merry; cheerful; 
UilLllC^dUiiiC happy; jocund. 
Vklif Vi<acrkmori<aoc! (bllTH'-sum-nes) n. state of 
UilLllCbUIIlCnCbb being blithesome, 
bl i 77arH (Wizard) n. [Etym. doubtful] a vollev; a 
uii^^di u, violent snow-storm attended by a nigh 
wind and intense cold. 

1^1 nsf (blot) v.t. [Icel. blautr, soaked] to swell or 
uiKJai, make turgid; to puff up; to cure (fish) by 
smoke ; to make vain -—v.t. to grow turgid ; to dilate. 
hlnsfpH (bla-ted)a. swollen or inflated with glut- 
uiUdLCU tony; pampered; puffed up with pride. 
hi naffer e^'o^ter) n. a dried and smoked herring, 
UlUctLCi primarily from Yarmouth. 
U|l^l-j (blob) n. [perhaps Imit.l anything small and 
UIKJU globular, as a dewdrop, blister, bubble, etc. 
l-.1rtKK<:ir> (blob^r) n. [blob] a bubble; blubber. 
UlU U UCI Blobber-Up, a thick Up. 
hi npW" (^'o'*) /(..[Etym. doubtful] a solid mass of wood, 
UiUL.A. stone, etc. ; the piece of wood 
on which criminals were oeheaded: a 
pulley with its framework ; the wooden 
mould on which something is formed; 
a connected mass or row of buildings ; 
any obstruction, or cause of obstruction ; 
a stupid fellow; a dolt;— 1'.(. to inclose Blockg. 
or shut up: to sketch out roughly; to 
obstruct. Block-letters, wood type of large size, used in 
printing. Block-like, like a block ; dull ; stupid. Block- 
printing, printing from engraved wooden blocks. 
Block-system, the system of marking off a line into 
sections by block-signals to stop a train m one section till 
the next section is clear. Block-tin, tin in blocks or 
ingots. To block in, to get in the broad outline. 
hlnplrflHp (Wo-kad') n. guarding the approaches 
uiv^^jvctuc to a town or garrison, or the mouth of 
rivers or harbours, so as to prevent the entrance or land- 
ing of provisions, reinforcements, etc., to the besieged ; 
—v.t. to shut up by troops or ships, so as to compel a 
surrender from nuBger and want ; to beleaguer. Paper 
blockade, a resultless blockade. Blockade-runner, 
a vessel that forces its way into a blockaded port. 
b1opW?lH<*r (hlo-kaider) «. one that blockades; a 
i^iv^i...A.ctuci vessel employed in blockading. 
hlnptpr (hlok'-er) n. one that blocks; one that 
u»iuv^ivc:x blocks a parliamentary bill. 
blockh63.(l (^I'^'^h^*^) '^- * stupid, dull fellow; 

KlrintVirkiio** (blok'-hous) n. a place of defence 

U1UUK.11UUS>C made of logs, and pierced for 

musketry ; a small fort. 

Klrkr^lrioVi (blok-ish) a. like a block ; stupid ; dull ; 

UlUCK.lbn rough : clumsy. 

Kl r»nlri o Vi It T (blok-ish-li)adv. inablockish manner; 

UlUV,K.lS»my roughlv ; clumsily. 

Klrkr^lricVirK^oo (blok-ish-nes) n. the quality of 

UlUCK-lbUnCbb being blockish. 

blomary, bloomery gf T&hfm^^f 

metal] the first forge tlu-ough which iron passes after it is 
smelted from the ore. 

blond hlonHp (Wond) n. [F.] a persoii with 
UlUllU, UlOnue fair complexion, light hair, and 
light blue eyes ;— a. of a fair colour or complexion ; fair. 
Blond-lace, a fine kind of lace made of silk. Blond- 
metal, a variety of clay-ironstone. 
hlnnHn^^cc (blond-nes) n. the state of being 
i^ivfiiuiicas blond, or fair in complexion. 
hlnnH (hlud)Ti. [A.S. Mod] the fluid that circulates 
L71UUU. through the arteries and veins of men and 
animals ; the juice of anjthing reddish : relation ; con- 
sanguinity; lineage; honoiinible birth: munler: temper of 
mind; disposition: excited feeling: passion; a man of fiery 
spirit; a rake:— v.*. to let blood from: to stain with blood; 
to inure to blood, as a hound. Bad-blood, discord ; 
enmity. Blood-baptism, in the ancient church, the 
martyrdom of those that had not been baptized. Blood- 
iMUght, gained at the price of blood. Blood-brother, a 

brother by both parents. Blood-feud, a vendetta, or other 
feud. Blood-frozen, having the blood chilled or frozen. 
Blood-guiltiness, the crime of shedding blood. Blood- 
guilty, guilty of murder. Blood-heat, heat equal to the 
temperature of blood, or about 98° Fahr. Blood-horse, 
a horse whose blood is derived from the purest stock. 
Blood-hot, as warm as blood in its natural temperature. 
Blood-hound, a ferocious, blood-thirsty variety of dog, 
remarkable for the acuteness of its scent, and employed 
to pursue men or animals by tracing them by the scent 
of their tracks. Blood-orange, an orange with blood- 
like pulp. Blood-pudding, a black pudding. Blood- 
rain, blood-coloured rain, due to particles of dust, etc. 
Blood-red, red with blood ; of the colour of blood. 
Blood-relation, one connected by blood or descent. 
Blood-spavin, a dilatation of the vein inside the hock of 
a horse. Blood-stained, stained with blood ; having 
shed blood. Blood-swoln, swollen or suffused with ^ 
blood. Blood-vessel, any vessel in which blood circu- Vj** 
lates in an animal body ; an artery or a vein. Blood- 
warm, warm as blood ; lukewarm. Blood-wite, a fine 
paid for the shedding of blood. Blood-won, won by 
shedding blood. Blood-worm, a small red earthworm, 
used in angling. Blue-blood, aristocratic blood. Flesh 
and blood, human nature. Half-blood, connection 
through one parent only. In blood, robust and powerful. 
KlonH#aH (blud^d) a. having blood (in composi- 
uii^v^vicu tion); of good pedigree. 
Kl r\rk/1 i n O.OC (bluQ-i-nes)n. state of being bloody; 
UlUUUlllCso disposition to shed blood. 
h1r»r»rll*icc (blud^es) a. without blood; without 
UiUUUlCos shedding of blood : spiritless. 
Klr»nHl«^<!Ql\r (blua-les-li) adv. in a bloodless 
UHJUUlCocJiy manner; without bloodshed. 

bloodlessness SSffanSiia" ''"°'^' '' 
bloodletting IKfplSelt'Smf °' ^^"™' 

KlrkrkrlmrknPkTr (blud-mun-i) n. money earned by 
UlUUUlilUllcy bringing about the capital con- 
viction of a person. 

Kl r\r\A o Vi ck /I (blud^hed) n. the shedding or spilling 
UlOOUbneU of blood: slaughter; waste of life. 
KlnrkHcVi*iHHin£r (blud-shed-ing) n. the crime 
DlOOaSneaaing of shedding blood. 
KlrkorlcVirkf (blud^shot) a. red and inflamed by a 
UlUUUbilUt turgid state of the blood-vessels. 
Kl/^rkHcf rkn*i (blud^ton) n. a green silicious stone 
UiUUUS>LUlic; sprinkled with red jasper, as if with 
blood ; hematite ; a brown ore of iron. 
Klz-krkrl en nirf^r (blood^uk-er) n. any animal that 
UHJUUau*.,i^.Ci sucks blood; an extortioner. 

bloodthirstiness ffi^SeikTbU: 

KlA\<^/4f ViifcjfTT (blud-thers-ti) a. desirous to shed 
DlOOatnirbiy blood ; murderous. 
Kli-wrk/^fXTi-ki-krl (blud-wood) n. one of various trees 
DIOOUAVOOU having red wood or sap. 
HI nnt^^T (tilud-i) a. stained with, or containing, blood; 
"*'-'*-'*^J given to the shedding of blood ; murderous ; 
attended with bloodshed -.—v.t. to stain with blood ; to 
make bloody. Bloody-bones, a children's bugbear. 
Bloody-eyed, having bloody eyes : savage. Bloody- 
flux, dysentery. Bloody-minded, having a cruel dis- 
Eosition. Bloody-sceptered, having a sceptre obtained 
y shedding blood. 
HI nnm (bloom) n. [Icel. blom] a blossom ; the flower 
iJiyJyJ*^*-*' of a plant; the opening of flowers in 
general : an opening to higher perfection, analogous to 
that of buds into blossoms ; the powdery coating upon 
certain fruits;— [A.S. bloma] a mass of crude iron that 
has come through the blomary, and is undergoing the 
first hammering ; — v.i. to produce blossoms ; to flower ; 
to be in a state of youth and vigour. 
V\^r\r\me^t• (bloo^mer) n. [Mrs. Bloomer of New 
UIUUIIICI York, who introduced it in 1849] a 
costume for ladies, consisting of a short dress, with 
loose drawers gathered round the ankle ; a woman that 
wears such a costume ; a broad, low-crowned hat to be 
worn with the bloomer dress. 

bloomery (blooi^me-rl) n. See blomary. 

Hlrinmino* (bloo^ming) a. flowering; thriving in 
uiuuiiiiiig health, beauty, and vigour ;-n. the 
process of making blooms ; a clouded appearance which 
varnish sometimes assumes on a picture. 

Fate, far, ?ido ; me, h^r ; mine ; n6te ; tune ; moon. 




bloomingly SS!"^""^ '^^- ^^ * ^^°°""'"« 

KlnrvminoTiP»c:c (bloo-ming-ness) n. the state 
DlOOmingneSS of bein„ blooming. 
hloom V (bl66-mi) a. full of bloom ; flowery ; flom-- 
'-'■^^'-'•'**J' ishing with the vigour of youth. 
hln^^nm (blos-um) n. [A.S. blostma] the flower of 
uiLraol^iil a plant ; the essential organs of repro- 
duction, with their appendages; — put forth blossoms; 
to blow ; to flower ; to flourish and prosper. 
Hlr»QQr»m<aH (blos-umd) a. showing blossoms; 
Uiudouixicu producing flowers. 

(blos^um-i) a. full of blossoms ; rich 

with bloom. 


hlnf (^^o') ^•^- [Etym. doubtful] to spot or bespatter ; 

UX\J L JQ jisgrace ; to disfigure ; to obliterate ; to 

obscure ; to cause to be unseen or forgotten ; — n. a spot 

or stain, as of ink, on paper; an obliteration of somethmg 

written or printed ; a spot in reputation ; disgrace ; 

blemish ; a piece liable to be taken at backgammon. 

blof pfl (bloch) n. [blot] a pustule or eruption upon 

UlULV..!! tiig sijju ;_^.^. to mark with blotches. 

l-klr\4-/>Vi'cr (bloch-i) a. covered, marked, or stained 

DlOLCny ^ith blotches. 

|-^1|-^4-i-p«> (blotter) n. one who, or that which, blots ; 

UlUtUd a blotting-pad ; a waste-book. 

t-^l^ff f^c^iick (blo-tesk') a. characterized by heavy 

UlULLCa4UC blot-like touches;—^, a daub; a 

vigorous sketch. 

Ul^f f-i«-l o- (blotting) n. a blot ; the drying of blots. 

uiu t tiiig Blottin«-paper, a kind of unsized paper, 

serving to imbibe superfluous ink. 

K1/-w||CA (blouz) n. [F.] a light, loose over-garment; 

uiuusc; y^ French artisan. 

hlo'W ^^^^^ '"'• t-^-^- bluwan, blossom] a blossom; a 

uiKJ w niass or bed of flowers ; — v.i. to blossom. 

Klr»fxr (bio) n. [Etym. doubtful] a stroke; a sudden 

calamity; [A.S. bkiwan] an 
•" ■ th( " " 

. . ^„ deposited 

by a fly in flesh, or the act of depositing it ; a violent 
wind; a gale; — v.t. to throw a current of air upon; 
to drive by a current of air; to sound, as a wind 
instrument ; to spread by report ; to publish ; to deposit, 
as eggs by flies ; to form by inflation ; to swell by inject- 
ing air ; to put out of breath ;—v.i. to produce a current 
of air with tne mouth ; to move, as air ; to breathe hard 
or quick ; to pant ; to sound on being blown into. 
Blow-ball, the downy head of the dandelion, etc. 
Blow-cock, a cock for blowing out water from a steam- 
boiler. Blow-gun, a tube through which South American 
Indians hurl arrows by the breath. Blow-hole, the nostril 
of a whale ; a hole in the ice for whales, etc., to breathe 
through. Blow-milk, milk with the cream blown off'. 
Blow-pipe, an instrument by which a current of air is 
propelled through the flame of a lamp, so as to concen- 
trate the heat on some point. To blow hot and cold, 
to contradict oneself ; to be inconstant. To blow over, 
to pass away ; to vanish. To blow up, to explode ; to 
reprove ; to scold. To blow upon, to bring into discredit ; 
to inform against. 

hlo'WPr C^lo^r) n. one that blows; a contrivance 
uxyj w K,i fQp creating a current of air. 

blowing (blowing) n. the motion or action of wind. 

Hlo-wrn (blon) a. swelled ; inflated ; tainted ; out of 

UlUWU breath; exhausted. 

blOWV ^^'°^*) '^^ characterized by blowing ; windy ; 

hln'W75»'<a (blouz) n. [connected with blush] a blowzy 
ui\jvM^^ woman. 

K 1 01X7 7 P H (blouzd) a. blowzy ; fat and ruddy-faced ; 
UlUW^CU bloated; slatternly. 
hln'\X7'7V (Wou-zi) a. coarse and ruddy -faced ; fat 
Kfi.\j w ^y a,jj ruddy. 

blubber (Wub^er) n. [Imit.] the fat of whales and 
T . '-' •^'-* other large sea animals, from which oil is 
obtained ;—v.t. to swell or disfigure the face with weeping;— 
v.i. to weep noisily, or so as to disfigure the face. Blubber- 
spade, a spade for taking off blubber from whales. 
R1 11 r h f»r (bloo^her) n. [Field-marshal von Bliicher] 
jjiuunci a strong leather half-boot. 
nlll H P*f^nn (bluj'-un) n. a short stick with one end 
uiuvigcciii loaded, or heavier than the other. 
blue (?'oo') '^- [0- H. Ger. blao] the colour of the clear 
. skv ; one of the seven primarv colours ^-—pl. low 

spirits ; melancholy ;— a. of the colour called blue ; sky- 
coloured ; cerulean \-^.t. to make blue ; to dye of a blue 

colour. Blue-bird, a sweet-singing bird of North America. 
Blue-bonnet, a Scottish soldier (before 1603) who used to 
wear a blue cap ; a blue titmouse. Blue-book, a parlia- 
mentary publication, so caUed from its cover. Blue- 
bottle, a plant that grows among corn ; a fly with a 
large blue oelly. Blue-cap, a blue titmouse : a species 
of salmon. Blue-coat, a boy of Oln Hospital. 

Blue devils, lowness of spirits ; appearance of imaginary 
things to a peraon, after long intoxication. Blue-eyed, 
having blue eyes. Blue-fish, a tish, often called dolphin, 
found in the Atlantic ; a fish allied to the mackerel, 
but larger (called also horse-mackerel). Blue-gown, a 
beadsman, formerly patronized by the king, named from 
the dress [Scot.]. Blue-jacket, a sailor. Blue-light, a 
blue-flamed signal light. Blue-peter, a blue flag with 
a white square in the centre ; a signal that the vessel 
is to sail. Blue-pill, a pill of prepared mercury, used 
as an aperient, etc. Blue-ribbon, the ribbon of the 
Garter ; the highest award or honour ; an emblem of 
teetotalism. Blue-ruin, inferior gin, whisky, etc. Blue- 
stocking, a literary lady ; a female pedant. Blue- 
vitriol, sulphate of copper (often blue-stone). 
KIiioKaU (bloo-lJel) n. a plant that bears blue 
UlUCUCll bell-shaped flowers. 
hi 11 eHprrv (bl66-ber-i) n. a plant and its fruit, of 
uiucudiy several varieties. 

blUCly (bl66-li) adv. with a blue colour. 

|-|1|lp«-lpco (bloo^nes) n. the state or quality of 
uiuciiCoo being blue ; the hvid mark of a bruise. 
hlnff (bluf) a. [Etym. doubtful] steep ; bold ; rude or 
UiUll coarse in manner or appearance ; blustering; 
roughly frank ; outspoken ;— w. a high bank presenting 
a steep or precipitous front ; a game of cards ; — v.i. to 
impose on oy pretending to greater strength than one 
possesses. Bluff-bowed, of a ship, with broad bows. 
hlnffl V (Wuf-li) adv. in a bluff manner; in a blunt 
UiUiiiy Qr outspoken manner. 
Kliiffricioc! (bluf-nes) n. the state or quahty of 

uiunnebb being bius: 

hlllffv C'luf-i) ^- like a bluff"; steep ; having a full, 

uiuiiy frank face ; abrupt in manner. 

hi 111 tip' (bl66-ing) n. act of rendering blue; some- 

uiuillg thing to give a bluish tint, as indigo. 

K1iiic?Vi (bl66-ish) a. blue in a small degree; some- 

UlUlbn what blue. 

KIiiicsViItt (bl66-ish-li) adv. in a bluish manner; 

UlUlblliy with a bluish tinge. 

bluishness ffiSf^-""'^''- t^^'i'^^^ty^^^^"* 

biuism (bl66-izm) TO. blue-stockingism. 

hllinHer (blunder) v.i. [Icel. blunda, doze] to 
uiuiivic:! mistake grossly ; to err through want of 
care or deliberation ■,—n. a gross mistake. 
KliinH*arKiica (blunder-bus) w. [D. donderbus, 
uiuiiuci uuas thunder-tube] a short gun, with 
a large bore, discharging a number of balls with a wide 
range ; a stupid, blundering fellow. 
blunderer (blun^er-er) n. one that is apt to 

K 1 1 1 ri r1 ck rVi e^nA (Ijlun-der-hed) w. a stupid fellow ; 
DlUnaerneaa one that blunders. 
h1linHerinP"1v (blun-der-lng-li) adv. in a blun- 
uiuiiuciiiigijr dering manner ; carelessly. 
hllltif (blunt) a. [Etym. doubtful] having a thick /f 
UiUlXL edge or point; dull; dull in understanding; ■'<■' 
abrupt ; unceremonious ; — v.t. to dull the edge or point 
of ; to repress or weaken appetite, desire, or power. 
Blunt-witted, dull of intellect ; stupid. 

bluntish (blun^tlsh) «. sllghtly blunt. 

hinnflv (blunt^li) adv. in a plain or abrupt manner; 
uiuiiLijr unceremoniously. 

hllinf ne^^ (blunt^nes) n. want of edge or point; 
uiuiiLiicoo (lulness ; abruptness of address. 
Hllir ^^^^''^) ^- i^learl that which obscures without 
"'■'•*'■ effacing; a stain; a blemish ;— v.i. to obscure 
without quite effacing ; to dim ; to blemish. 
hllirf (blurt) v.t. [Imit.] to utter suddenly or un- 
Uiui I, advisedly; to divulge inconsiderately. 
hill ^Vt C^lu^^) ^•*- t-A^-S. blyscan, shine] to have a red 
UXUoli Qr rosy colour ; to redden in the face, as from a 
sense of shame, confusion, or modesty \—n. a red or rosy 
tint ; a red colour suffusing the cheeks or the face ; first 
glance or view. To put to tlie blush, to shame. 

F&te, fir, ^do ; ra§, h$r ; mine ; n5te ; tQnc ; moon. 


hlimhful (l>lush^fooO a- full of blushes ; modest ; 

KIiioViAiIItt (blush-fool-i) acZt^. with many blushes: 
DlUbniUliy in a blushful manner. 
HllltjVliflP' (Wush-ing)w. the act of turning red; the 
UlUolliiig appearance of colour upon the cheek. 
KliicViino-ltr (blush-ing-li) adv. in a blushing, 
UiU^sillllgiy modest manner. 
KliicVil^acc (blush-les) a. without a blush; im- 
UluaillC&:> pudent ; shameless. 
HlllQfpr (blus^ter) v.i. [allied to Uasf] to blow fit- 
UlUoUCi fully ^th violence and noise, as wind ; to 
talk with noisy violence ; to swagger ; — n. fitful noise and 
violence, as of a storm ; noisy and violent talk. 
hllicjf prfr (blus^ter-er) h. one who, or that which, 
Ul uo tCl Cl blusters ; a swaggerer ; a bully. 
Kliicff^rincr (blus^ter-ing) a. stormy; rough; 
uiuaLCiXiig noisv; boastful ; turbulent. 

blusteringly S^^"^Sner;"^ "'^^^ '"^ * ^^"'*''- 

blll*5tprv (blus^ter-i) a. blustering; noisy; swag- 

bn ^^ ^^^' ^" e.xclamation to frighten or surprise chil- 

*^^ dren. To say bo to a goose, to say even a word. 

t-^^o (bo^) »!. [L.J a genus of serpents, having the 

'-'^** belly and tad furnished with 

scuta (they have no fangs or venom, 

but have great muscular power); around 

fur tippet. Boa-constrictor, a large 

and powerful serpent, sometimes thirty 

or forty feet long, found in the tropical 

parts of America, which crushes its 

prey to death in its coils. 

Boanerges fg;L"l{ai^;>i^- 

17] a loud, bawling preacher. --.~- 

1-k^of (l)6r) n.IA.S. bar] the male of swine, not cas- 
UKJtxi trated. Boar-fish, a fish with a snout like a 
boar's. Boar-spear, a spear used by boar-hunters. 
K^o t-f1 (bord) n. [A.S. bord] a piece of timber sawed 
UUcti VI thin, and of considerable length and breadth 
compared with the thickness : a table to put food upon ; 
food ; entertainment, usually for pay ; the table at wliich 
a court or council sits, or the members of it; the managers 
of a public trustor work ; the line over which a ship runs 
between tack and tack; a table or frame for a game; paper 
made thick and stiff ;—p^. the stage in a theatre ; — v.t. to 
lay or cover with boards ; to go on board of, or enter ; to 
furnish with food, or to place at board for compensation ; 
— v.i. to obtain food or diet staterlly for compensation. 
Board-rule, a scale indicating the surface area of a 
board. Board-school, a school administered by a school 
board. Board-wages, wages allowed to servants in lieu 
of food. By the board, over the ship's side. To make 
a board, to tack into the »nnd. 

KrkQ rH n K1 a (bor-da-bl) a. that may be boarded, as 
UUdlUdUlC a ship: approachable. 
bn^rHpr (bor'-der) n. one that lives and diets in 
uucti U.C1 another's house for a consideration ; one 
that boards a ship in action. 

l-|/-vo t-(\ i ri p* (hoK<ling) n. wooden boards ; a wooden 
Kjyjcti uiiig fence or floor: entering a .ship by force : 
obtaining food and lodgings for a fixed sum of money. 
Boarding-house, a iiouse for boarders. Boarding- 
machine, a macliine for softening leather, to make 
the surface granulated. Boarding-pike, a weapon used 
by sailors. Boarding-school, a school in wnich the 
scholars receive board and lodging as well as instruction. 
KnaricVi (b«r-ish) a. of, or pertaining to, a boar; 
uucti loii swinish : brutal ; cruel. 
bo3 ^f (bost) v.t. [Etym. doubtful] to speak of with 
uv^ctoL nride, vanity, or exultation; to form stone 
with a broad chisel and mallet : — v.i. to vaunt one's self ; 
to exalt or extravagantly praise one's self ; to speak vain- 
gloriously ; — n. expression of ostentation, pride, or 
vanity ; the cause or occasion of boasting. 
bn3 ^f f*r (bos^ter) n. one that leasts ; a braggart ; 
u\j€XO LCI a, mason's broad chisel. 
'hrkocffnl (bSst^fool) a. given to boasting; vain- 
UUclS>UUl glorious ; proud. 

bna«;ffnllv (bost-fool-i) adv. in a boastful 
uuctoLiUiijr manner; vaingloriously. 
Hnacffiilni^cc (bost^fool-nes) n. state of being 
uuctSLiuiiicos boastful; vaingloriousness. 
HoaQfino* (bos-ting) n. ostentatious display; 
uv^ctc^Liii^ vaunting ; bragging. 

91 bodingly 

hoa«sfincrl\7 (bos-ting-H) adv. in a boasting 
uuaatiiigijr manner ; like a braggart. 
K^of (hot) n. [A.S. bat] a small open vessel, usually 
UKfaL moved by oars or rowing; but often by a sail- 
hence, any vessel, usually with some epithet descriptive 
of its use or mode of propulsion ; a utensil Uke a boat ; ■ 
— I'.t. totransport in a Doat ;— r.t. to go in a boat. Boat- 
bill, a South American species of wading bird. Boat- 
fly, an insect that swims on its back. Boat-hook, an 
iron hook with a point on the back, fixed to a long pole, 
to pull or push a boat. Boat-house, a shed on the 
banks, to house boats when not in use. Boat-racing, 
a contest in speed between boats. Boat-shaped, like 
a boat in form, said of a bird's tail, etc. In the same 
boat, in the same condition or plight. 
HnflfitlP* (b6^'i"8) "• rowing or saiUng, esp. for 
uyjaLiiiQ pleasure ; transporting by boats. 
boa.tma.n (bowman) n. a man that manages a 

Knafcixrain (bot^wan, bo^n) n. an officer in 
uuctLSWctiii chaise of a ship's boats, sails, etc., 
who summons the men to their duties with his whistle. 
hnh (bob) n. [Etym. doubtful] a short, jerking action ; 
^^*-' anything that plays with a short motion; oait used 
in angling, as for eels; tne weight at the end of a pendulum 
or plumb-line ; — v.t. to move in a jerking manner ; to 
strike with a quick, light blow ; to gain by fraud ; to cut 
short ; — v.i. to have a jerking motion ; to angle with a 
jerking motion of the bait. Bob-apple, bob-cherry, a 
game m which the players try to catch, with the teeth, 
an apple, cherry, etc., vibrating at the end of a fixed 
string. Bob-sledj bob-sleigh, two sleds joined together 
for transporting timlier. Bob-wig, a short-tailed wig. 
hnhhin (bob^ii^) **• [F. bobinel a small cylindrical '-fxy 
UUUUiil piece of wood, with a Dorder_at one or both ,^pjtjj^ 

ends, on which thread is wound; a spool, 
work woven with Iwbbins. 


Hr»HHi n <af (bob^i-net) n. a kind of lace wrought by 

uv/uuiixck machines. 

Ki-kKKicjVt (boWsh) a. hearty; cheery; in good 

OODDlSn health and spirits. 

HnhHv (bob^i) n. [Sir Robert Peel, who founded the 

UKJlJuy police force in 1829] a policeman. 

KrkKrklinlr (bob^u-lingk) n. [it. its note] an Ameri- 

UUUUlillK. (^n singing bird. 

HnH^f fl VQ (bob^stas) ropes or chains to con- 

UV^UoLctyo gng ^Y^Q bowsprit of a ship downward 

to the stem or cut -water. 

U^U4-o i1 (boiy-tal) n. a short tail, or a tail cut short ; 

UUU Lctii a rabble (used in contemptX 

Kz-^Kf o i1o/4 (bolAald) a. having the tail cut short, 

DODtaiiea as a dog or a horse. 

Ki-kr^acinfi (bok-a-sin) n. [Turk, bohdsl, cotton 

UUL,ctailIC cloth] a cotton fabric of the Levant. 

hk^r^h- K<i<at- (bok'-ber) n. [Ger.] a strong kind of 

DOCK-Ueer German beer. 

hoplri n 0" (bok^ing) n. a kind of baize or drugget, so 

UUUJviiig called from thetown of Bocking.inEssex. 

bockland, bocland &,|^-K!erraid^i 

land] publicproperty granted to private individuals. 

j-v^^ck (bod) v.t. [A.S. bodianjto foretell ; to portend ; 

^'-'^^ — J, i_ to presage. 

hnHpflll (bod-fool) a. full of boding; ominous; 

UtJUdUi portentous; foreboding. 

bodP2*a (bo-de-ga) n. [Sp.] a wine-cellar; a wine- 

bodpment (bod-ment) n. an omen; a prognostic; 

cL prcsciitiiTiGrit. 
HnHipp* (bod-is) n. [properly, pi. of bod7j] stays; 
'-"-'^**-^ a corset ; an inner vest worn above the 
corset ; the close-fitting body of a woman's dress ; an 
outer corset-shaped, laced vest, worn by women. 
\~\r\Aif^e^A (bod-ist) a. wearing a bodice; provided 
UOUICCU with a bodice. 

U|-l^ i pH (bod-i(l) a. having a body or bodies; used in 
UUUICU composition, as an able-6o<i«ed man. 
HnHilpcc (bod-i-les) a. having no body or material 
uuuiicss fornn ; incorporeal. 
HnHilv (bod-i-li) a. having or containing a body; 
uuuiiy corporeal ; pertaining to the body •,—adv. 
corporeally ; entirely ; completely. 
HnHiflP* (boding) a. presaging; ominous; — n. an 
uuuiiig omen ; presage : foreshowing. 
hoHitlfrlv (bo^ing-li) adv. in a boding manner; 
•-'"'^***o*J' ominously ; portentously. 

Fslte, iii, 9do ; me, her ; mine ; note ; tune ; modn. 




HnHlri n (bod-kin) n. [E.] a dagger; a pointed instru- 
uuuivxii ment for maliing holes, etc. ; an instrument 
with an eye, for drawing tape or ribbon through a loop ; 
a pin for dressing hair; a printer's tool, used to pick 
type from a form m correcting. To ride, sit, or travel 
bodkin, to sit, as a third person, between two others. 
hoHlf* (bod-1) n. [Botkwell, a mint-master] an old 
UUUIC Scottish copper coin, one-sixth of a penny. 
"Rrkrll^aton (bod-le^n) a. of, or pertaining to, Sir 
x:>UUlCidll Thomas Bodley, who restored the 
library of Oxford University ; belonging to that library. 
Vw^f3^ (bod-i) n. [A.S. bodig] the frame of an animal; 
UKJKiy tj^g central part, as distinguished from the head 
or extremities ; the part of a dress that covers the body ; 
the material substance and structure, as distinguished 
from the vital force; a person; a number of persons collec- 
tively ; a corporation ; a number of things or particulars 
grouped together ; a system ; a mass or solid substance ; 
the main part ; consistency ; strength ; inherent or 
characteristic quality ■,—v.t. to produce in definite shape ; 
to embody. Body-clothes, clothes for the body; coverings 
for a horse. Body-colour, a pigment that has consistence. 
Body-guard, a guard to protect the person of the 
sovereign ; a life guard ; retinue ; attendants. Body- 
politic, organized society ; the state. Body-servant, a 
valet ; a personal attendant. Body-snatclier, one that 
robs graves of dead bodies for the purposes of dissection. 
Body-whorl, the last-formed whorl of a univalve shell. 
'Df-f^^fion (be-6-shan) a. pertaining to Boeotia, or 
x:>LCULlctll to its inhabitants ; thick ; dull ; stupid. 
Rnpr (boor) n. [D.] a Dutch farmer of South Africa ; 
•*-»<-'Ci a white person of Dutch descent. 
bnf*" (bog) n. [It. and Gael, bog, soft, moist] a quag- 
^'-'6 mire covered with grass or plants ; a marsli ; a 
morass -.—v.t. to whelm or plunge, as in mud and mire. 
Bog-berry, the cranberry. Bog-butter, a fatty substance 
found in masses in peat-bogs. Bog-earth, earth com- 
posed of, or largely mixed with, peat. Bog-land, boggy 
or marshy land. BOg-oak, trunks and branches of oak 
found embedded in peat-bogs. Bog-ore, an ore of iron 
found in boggy or swampy land. Bog-spavin, an 
encysted tumour on the inside of the hough of a horse. 
Bog-trotter, one that lives in a boggy country. 
hoP*£>*lp (bog'-l) v.i [bogle] to exhibit hesitancy ; to 
*-"-'& S*^ start ; to make difficulties ; to equivocate. 
bnP'P'lpr (bog-ler) n. one that boggles ; a doubter ; 
'^^oo*^* a stickler; one that bungles things. 
boffTv (bog'-i) a. pertaining to bogs ; containing 
•-"-'oo J bogs ; full of bogs ; swampy. 
hnirip Vtmrf^v (boigi)n.[Etym. unknown] a low 
uKj^kK^f u\j^^y truck on four wheels ; a revolv- 
ing under-carriage. Bogie-engine, a locomotive engine 
mounted on a revolving under-carriage. 
Kz-vp-lp (bo^gl) n. [Celt.] a hobgoolin ; a bugbear ; a 
"*^o*^ spectre; a nursery ghost or demon. 
Kf\p*iio (bo-gus) a. [Etym. unknown] spurious; 
iJ\JQ no counterfeit ; sham. 

hoPTT Hn0*f*\7 (bo-gi) n. [bogle] the devil; a 
"^SY) "Ogey hobgoblin ; a bugbear. 
V»nlif»a (bo-he') n. [Wu-i Hills in China] an inferior 
UUIlCd, kind of black tea. 

Rnllf^mia n (bo-he-mi-an)a. pertaining to Bohemia 
Ajyjiis^ixnan or jtg inhabitants ; pertaining to the 
gipsies ; characteristic of social Bohemians ;— n. a native 
of Bohemia ; a gipsy ; one that leads an unsettled life, 
and disregards conventionalities. Bohemian-glass, a 
clear, crown glass made in Bohemia. 
Rollfmianicm (bo-he-mi-an-izm) n. life or 
x:>U11C11Uc1111:MI1 jj^bits of a social Bohemian. 

boil ^"°^^^ '"•*■ t^- ^'^llif^^ boil] to agitate by the 
"'-'** application of heat; to dress, or cook, by boiling; 
to subject to the action of heat in a boiling liquid ; the 
state of boiling -—vA. to be agitated by the action of 
heat ; to effervesce ; to be hot or fervid : to be moved 
or excited. To boil away, to evaporate in boiling. To 
boil down, to reduce in bulk by boiling. 
boil (boil) "">■ [A.S. bl/le, sore] a hard, inflamed tumour 
krvrxx y^hich commonly suppurates. 
boilpr (boi-ler) n. one that boils ; a vessel in which 
. "T" anything is boiled ; a strong metallic vessel 
m which steam is generated for driving engines, etc. 
boilerv (b -'''■^) "" ^ place or an apparatus for 
, ... ''■ boiling or evaporating, as salt or sugar. 
boilinp* (boi-ling) n. act or state of agitation by 
7 "o heat; ebulHtion; act of subjecting to the 
action of heat. Boiling-point, the temperature at which 

a liquid is converted into vapour with ebullition. Boiling- 
spring, a spring giving out hot or boiling water. 
Hoi^f frnil«; (bois-ter-us) a. [E.] loud; roaring; 
UCFioLd v^uo e.xhibiting tumultuous violence. 
Krkiof <ii-/-»iiclTr (bois-ter-us-li) adv. in a noisy, 
UUIO LCI U USiy violent manner. 
Krkicf <arr»iicnficc (bois-ter-us-nes) n. the 
UKJl^ LCI U UOllCOS quality of being boisterous. 

bol3.r (bo^lar) a. of, or pertaining to, bole or clay. 

hnlfl^ (bo-las) n. [Sp. fr. L. bulla, bubble] a missile 
uuicto consisting of two or three balls or stones, 
connected by a rope, used by the South American Indians. 
holH (bold) a. [A.S. beald, bald] daring; ready to 
'-"-'*'^ meet danger; exhibiting or requiring courage; 
in a bad sense, forward ; over-confident ; lacking proper 
modesty or restraint ; rude ; taking liberties in composi- 
tion or expression ; prominent ; abrupt. Bold-face, an 
impudent person. Bold-faced, impudent. Bold-spirited, 
courageous. To make bold, to venture. 
holHlv (bold-li) adv. in a bold manner; fearlessly; 
'^'^*'^*J' unhesitatingly ; sharply ; impudently. 
bol H n P^^ (bold-nes) n. the quality of being bold ; 
'^'^*'^**^^" courage ; assurance. 
bolf* ^^^ '"" [I''^l- bolr, bulr] the body or stem of a " 
'-"^■'■^ tree ; any cylindrical body. 
holp ("'"l) '"'■ ^^- ^^^^^> clod] a kind of fine, compact, 
uuic earthy clay. 

bol pro (bo-la-r5) n. [Sp.] a lively Spanish dance; 
ijv/ici \J the air to which it is danced. 
holiHp (bol-id, bWld) n. [G. bolis, bolidos, dart, 
u^/XiUC missile] a meteoric stone ; a tire-ball. 
boll ^^^^ """ t^o^^J the pod or capsule of a plant, as of 
UKJii g^jj . ^ pericarp ; [Scand.] an old dry measure, 
varying from two to six bushels ; a boll of meal is 140 lbs. 
avoirdupois ; — v.i. to form into a pericarp or seed-vessel. 
holl flrH (bol-ard)n. [bole, tree- trunk] a strong post 
uyjiiai u on a wharf, dock, or on board a ship, for 
securing ropes or cables to. 

bol 1 i n P" (bol-ing) n. [bole, tree-trunk] a tree with the 
L/uiixii^ tops and branches cut off. 
bol^fpr (bol-ster)n. [A.S.] a long cushion, generally 
uuistci jaid under the pillows; a pad used as a 
support, or to hinder pressure, or the like ; a compress ; 
any pad, bag, or support ;—v.t. to support with a bolster; 
to hold up ; to maintain, as a false case. 
bol^ff^rpr (bol-ster-er) n. one that bolsters; a 
uv/ioLCici supporter; a maintainer. 
Ki^lof firino* (bol-ster-ing) n. a prop or support; 
UUl^dLCllllg padding; a pillow-fight. 
bolf (bolt) f>'- [A.S.] an arrow; a dart ; a strong pin, 
UKJiL jjsed to fasten or hold something in place; a 
thunder-bolt ; a shackle ; 30 yards of canvas ; the act of 
bolting from ; a sudden running away ; — v.t. to fasten or 
secure with a bolt ; to restrain ; to utter or throw out ; to 
swallow without cnewing;— v.f. to start forth like a bolt; 
to move abruptly ; to spring suddenly aside ; to desert, as 
a party. Bolt-auger, an instrument for boring holes 
for bolts. Bolt-boat, a strong boat that will endure a 
rough sea. Bolt-head, a long glass vessel for chemical 
distillations (called also a matrass or receiver). Bolt- 
rope, a rope to which the edges of sails are sewed, to 
strengthen them. Bolt-upright, quite upright. A bolt 
from the blue, a sudden, unexpected stroke. 
holf (bolt) v.*. [O.F. bulter, sift] to sift or pass through 
UKJiL a sieve; to examine; bring forward for dis- 
cussion ; — n. asieve. 

holfpr (bol-ter)n. one who, or that which, bolts; a 
UUlLCi sieve. 

holfino* (bol-ting) n. the act of sifting; a bundle 
uulLiiig of straw; private arguing of law cases. 
Bolting-cloth, a linen or hair cloth for a sieve. Bolting- 
house, a house where meal or flour is sifted. Bolting- 
mill, a machine for sifting meal or flour. 
holu^ (bo^lus) n. [L.] a rounded mass of anything 
UUlLlo medicinal; a large pill; something disagree- 
able that must be taken or accepted. 
Ki-kt-nK (bum, bom) n. [G. bombos, a humming noise, 
UUIIIU a hollow sound] a ■ m 

hollow ball or shell of cast iron, 
filled with explosive materials, 
to be discharged from a mortar. 
Bomb-chest, a chest filled with 
combustibles, designed to act as 
a small mine. Bomb-proof, 
proof against bombs. Bomb- 


Fate, far, ^do ; me, her ; mine ; note ; tune ; moon. 




vessel, a strong vessel carrying mortars for bombard- 
ments at sea. Volcanic-bomb, a round mass of lava 
ejected from a volcano. 

K^fnKof/l (bura-bard', bom-bard') v.t. to attack 
DOm DarU ^jth shot and shell. 
V||^I^V|pi*f4i/:i|* (bum-bar-der', bom-bar-der") ?!. an 
UUXilUctl uici artilleryman employed in serving 
mortars and howitzers ; a non-commissioned artillery 
oflScer having charge of mortars. 

K /-k m K o f rl m ia ri f (bum-, bom-bard-ment) n. the 
DOmDarament act of bombarding. 
t-l^l-pt-iof/^z-kn (bom-baryun)7i. [ 
UUiiiUdl ViUii hollow sound] a large grave-toned 
musical instrument of the trumpet kind. 
t-ji^lfiKacf- (bum-, bom-bast) n. [U. bombux, silk] 
UUiiiUctoL cotton, or any soft, fibrous material, 
used as a padding ; high-soundmg language ; fustian ;— 
a. bombastic ; — v.t. to pad out ; to inflate. 

bombastic, bombastical teii.^-u: 

kal) a. high-sounding ; inflated ; extravagant. 
Ki-imKoofi/^allTT (bum-, bom-bas^ti-kal-i) adv. 
DUmUdbllCdliy in a bombastic manner. 
Krkt-riKacjf t^r (bum-, lx)m-bas-tri) n. bombastic 
DOmDabtiy words ; fustian. 

bombazet, bombazette g,""?;'! 5"' «: 

[boTTti/azine] a kind of thin woollen cloth. 

bombazine, bombasine S^^lubSa 

bombux, silk, cotton] a twilled fabric, with a silk warp, 
and a worsted weft. 

'Ur-ifYiKi/^ (bom-bik) a. [L. bombyx, silk-worm] of, or 
UijLUUiK, pertaining to, the silk-worm. Bombic 
acid, an acid secreted by the silk-worm. 
V.pif-1-i Ki n a f *» (lx)m-hi-nat) v.i.^h. bombus, buzzing 
UUXllL>llictl,C noise] to hum : to buzz. 
KrkmKoVioll (l)om^hel) n. a bomb or hollow glol)e 
UOmUbneil of iron, filled with powder, to be 
discharged from a mortar. 

hnm h vr i n ni l Q (bom-bis^i-nus)a. [L. fr. bombyx 
DOmoyCinOUS sjikj sllken: of the colour o^ 
the silk-worm ; transparent, with a yellow tint. 
Hr»na fiHf* (l»o^na fl-de) adv. or a. [L.] in good 
uuiict. iivic faith ; without fraud or deception. 
Hnna n 7a (bVnan-za) n. [Sp.] a rich mass of ore ; 
uvJiicLii^cx jj jjjine of wealth ; a profitable thing. 
Rnn a r\a r+i cm (l^na-par-tizm) n. the policy or 
UKJiitxycti Lisiii manners of Bonaparte ; adher- 
ence to his cause. 

hnnbon (bon-bon, bong'-bong) n. [F.] sugar con- 
u\jii.iJKJi.i fectionery ; a sugar-plum. 

bon-chretien S^SIr^^''""*^ "• ^^-^ * ^°^ 

bon H C^"*^) "• [baitd] a band, tie, or link; that which 
uuiiu fastens, confines, or unites ; a bindmg; means 
of connection or union ; moral force or obligation : a 
legal deed by which a person engages himself and his 
representatives to fulfil specific conditions or pay moneys. 
-^l. chains ; fetters ; captivity ; imprisonment ; — «. in a 
state of servitude or captivity ■,-—v.t. to put into a bonded 
warehouse ; to mortgage ; to enslave ; to bind or hold 
together, as brick or .stones. Bond-creditor, a creditor 
secured by bond. Bond-debt, a debt contracted under tlie 
obligation of a bond. Bond-servant, a slave; a bondman. 
Bond-service, condition of a bond-servant ; slavery. 
Bond-slave, a person in a state of slavery. Bond-stone, 
a stone running through a wall from one face to another, 
to bind it togetlier. Bond-timber, timber worked into a 
wall to tie or strengthen it longitudinally. In bond, in 
a bonded warehouse, and liable to duty, 

boflHaP**^ (Iwn^laj) n. state of being bound, or 
udi^actgc under restraint ; binding power. 
botlHaP'Pr (bon^la-jer) n. in Scotland, a cotter 
u v^iiuctg ci on a farm, bound at certain seasons to 
assist, personally or by substitute, the farmer in his work. 
hntlHpH (Don^ed) a. put or placed in bond ; en- 
ut^iiucu cumbered ; mortgaged. Bonded-ware- 
house, a warehouse in which Iwndeii goods are stored. 
bonHf^r (''""-tier) «. one that bonds; one that 
u\./iiud tieposits goods in a bonded warehouse. 
V>nnHVinlH**r (bond-hol-der) n. one that holds a 
u v^iiuiiv^iuci })Qn J oj. bonds granted by a govern- 
ment, corporation, or individual. 

HnnHmaiH (I'ond-mad) n. a female bound to 
wiAUXXictiva serve without wages ; a female slave. 

bondman, bondsman i^anfra'^rv^; 

a man bound to serve without wages ; a surety. 

bondwoman, bondswoman ^^°^: 

an, bondz^woom-an) n. a female slave. 
bnnf* (bon) «". [A.S. ban] a firm, hard, whitish sub- 
u\ji.iKi stance, composing the skeleton in the higher 
orders of animals ; an integral portion of the skeleton ; 
anything made of bone, as castanets [—v.t. to take out 
bones from ; to put bones into. A bone of contention, 
a subject of dispute. Bone-ace, a game at cards. Bone- 
black, a black carbonaceous substance into which bones 
are converted by calcination in close vessels. Bone- 
breaker, one who, or that which, breaks bones; the 
sea-eagle or osprey. Bone-cave, a cave containing the 
remains of animals. Bone-dust, ground or pulverized 
bones, used as a fertilizer. Bone-eaxth, the earthy 
residuum after the calcination of bone. Bone-oil, an oil 
obtained from the distillation of bones. Bone-setter, 
one that sets broken and dislocated bones. Bone- 
spavin, a bony excrescence on the inside of a horse's 
hough. To make bones, to hesitate. 

boned (bond) a. having bones ; freed from bones. 

hntlplP'CC (bon-les) a. without bones; without 
uuiic;ic;oo formal structure ; without stamina. 
hoflPCPf (bonnet) n. a plant, the common com- 
UUliCoCL frey Symphytum officinale. 
bntrfirP e^n-flr) n. [bone^re] a fire made to express 
"^***** ^ pubhcjoyandexultation, orforamusement. 
HntllintTlip (bon-o-me) n. [F.] frank and simple 
UKJiiiiKJim^ good-heartedness ; good-nature. 
bon i ffl PP (bon-i-fiis) n. [the landlord in J'arquhar's 
'J^i*'*'''f*^^ Beaux' Stratagem] an innkeeper. 
hnnifippf inn Cwi-i-fi-ka^hun) n. [L. bonus, 
uuiiiiiUa,l.iuii good, and facere, make] ameliora- 
tion ; betterment. 

K/-kriirtocc (bo^ni-nes) n. the state or quality of 
DOninebb being bony. 

hntlinp" (bo^ning) n. the removal of bones from 
"*^*****& poultry, etc.;— ffeourn, limit] the operation 
of judging the straightness of a surface by the eye. 
hnnif r» (bo-ne-to) n. [Sp.] a fish of the tunny kind, 
•J"*** *''-' growing to the length of three feet. 
Kr»ri mr»f (bong-mo') n.; pi. bons mots (bong-mo') 
UUH lllUt [F.] a witty repartee ; a jest. 
hnntIP (bon) n. [F. fr. L. bonus, good] a child's 
^'^*****' nursemaid of French nationality. 
Hnnnpf (bon^t) n. [O.F.] a round flat cap or cover- 
'-"^****^'' ing for the head; ahead ornament of various 
shapes worn by women ; a part of a parapet considerably 
elevated to screen the terreplein ; an addition to a sail ;-— 
v.t. to knock the hat over the eyes. Bonnet-laird, one 
that farms his own property. Bonnet-piece, a gold coin 
issued by James V. of Scotland. Bonnet-rouge, a 
sans-culotte ; an anarchist ; a decoy or confederate. 
K/^tnn«»f <ir1 (bon^t-ed)a. wearing a bonnet; fur- 
DOnneieU njshed with a bonnet. 
Hntinilv (bon-i-li) adv. in a bonny manner; 
UUiliiiijr prettily ; gayly ; handsomely. 
Krknnin*icc (bon-i-nes) n. the quahty of being 
UUlllllllCS>S> bonny ; beauty. 
hnnn V (bon-i) a. [F. bon, good] handsome ; beauti- 
UKjiiiiy fni . naerry ; blithe ; plump ; well-formed. 
Kr»nm7-r1a'hh#»r (bon-i-kJab-er) n. [It. bainne, 
DOnnyUiaUUCI mllk, and claba, mud] milk 
that has turned sour ; a drink of beer and buttermilk. 
Hnncoipl (bon-spel) n. [Etym. unknown] a match 
UUllopid at archery, golf, curling, etc. 
\\r\ry¥ary (bon-ten) n. [Etym. unknown] a narrow 
DOnten woollen fabric. 

hnn f nn (bong-tong') n. [F.] good style or breed- 
uv^ii uv^ii ing ; fashionable society. 
Hr»nilQ (bo^nus) n. [L. good] a premium given for a 
UUlXUo loan, charter, etc. ; an extra dividend paid out of 
accumulated profits ; money paid to an agent, in addition 
to a share in profits, or to stated compensation. 
hnn vivant (bong-ve-vong') n. FF. bon, good, 
vj\jt.k V 1 V cbxi i. and vivre, to live] a luxurious liver; 
a good fellow ; a jovial companion. 
HotIV (bS^^i) <*• consisting of bone; full of bones; 
UUlijr having large or prominent bones ; hard and 
tough, like bone. 

hnn 7P (bonz) n. [Jap. bonzo, a pious man] a priest 
uoii^c of many diS'erent Oriental sects. 

Fate, far, ^o ; me, her ; mine ; note ; tune ; moon. 

boo 94 

1^f^l-l 0)66) int. an exclamation of aversion or con- 
fJ^^ tempt \—v.t. and i. to hoot. 
hnnhv (bo6-^0 ^- i^V- boho, fr. L. balbus, stammer- 
UVJSJljy i^g j5tupid] the gannet ; a dunce ; a stupid 
fellow. Booby-hatcli, a wooden fi'araev/ork to cover the 
after-hatch in vessels. Booby-hut, a kind of hooded 
sleigh. Booby-hutcli. a clumsy kind of cart or carriage. 
Kr»r»l-»-iTioVi (boo-bi-ish) a. resembling a booby; 
DOOUyibn silly ; stupid. 

boobyism Sta""-''- '^''^^^'^ ' ^'^''"'^"'^ •• 

HnnHlp (booyi) n. [Etym. unknown] crowd ; pack ; 
UUfUUiC lo); (in a contemptuous sense). 
horkll r\r% (boo-hoo') n. loud, unrestrained weeping ; 
lJ%jyjiiKJ\J —y_{^ to weep noisily. 
hoolr (I'ook) n. [A.S. hoc] a collection of sheets of 
IJKJKJJ\. paper, or similar material, blank, written, or 
printed, bound together ; a literary composition, written 
or printed ; a subdivision of a literary work ; a volume in 
which accounts are kept;— v.l to enter, write, or register 
in a book ; to bind one to his word or engagement ; to 
secure by prepayment; to hand in for transmission. 
Book-account, an account or register of debt or credit in 
a book. Book-debt, a debt for goods sold and charged 
in the seller's books. Book-fold, a piece of muslin con- 
taining 24 yards. Book-holder, the prompter at a 
theatre. Book-hunter, a collector of books ; a biblio- 
phile. Book-keeper, one that keeps accounts. Book- 
keeping, the art of recording mercantile transactions in 
a regular and systematic manner; the art of keeping 
accounts. Book-knowledge, knowledge gained from 
books, as opposed to experience. Book-learned, versed 
in books. Book-learning, learning acquired by reading, 
as distinguished from practical knowledge. Book- 
madness, a rage for possessing books. Book-maker, 
one that writes and publishes books ; a compiler ; a 
systematic better on horse races. Book-making, the 

Sractice of writing and publishing books ; compilation. 
look-mark, something placed in a book to assist in 
finding a page or place. Book-muslin, a fine kind of 
muslin, so called from being folded in book form. Book- 
notice, a short notice or review of a book in a magazine 
or newspaper. Book-oath, an oath made on the Bible. 
Book of God, the Bible. Book of reference, a book for 
consultation, as a gazetteer, etc. Book-plate, a label 
pasted on a book to indicate its ownership, etc. Book- 
post, an arrangement by which books and other printed 
matter other than newspapers are conveyed by post at 
red need rates. Book-shelf, a shelf to hold books. Book- 
shop, a shop where Iwoks are sold. Book-stall, a stall 
at which books and periodicals are sold. Book-stand, 
a place for the sale of books in the street ; a support to 
hold books. Book-trade, the buying and sellmg of 
books. Book-tray, a board for holding books. Book- 
work, the study of text-books. 
bookbinder C^ook-bln-der) n. one that binds 

'Krvrkt-Kinr1«ai-TT (book-bin-der-i) n. a place for 

uouKuinaery binding booi-s. 

'hrtrkt-'Ki n r\incr (book-bin-ding) n. art or practice 
UUOKUinUing^ of binding books. 
'hrkrklrr'acck (book-kas) n. a case with shelves for 
UUUl^Ccibe holding books. 
Krinlr^H (bookt) a. registered; provided with a 
UUUltCU ticket ; engaged. 

Konlrfnl (book-fool) a. full of book-knowledge;— 
UUUli^lUl ,j the contents of a book. 
bookitlP* (book-ing) n. act of entering debts or 
KtKjyjr^m^ accounts of sales or charges in a book. 
Booking-clerk, a clerk that issues tickets to passengers, 
etc., or books goods to be forwarded. Booking-office, 
an office where passengers or parcels are booked. 
HnnVicVi (book-ish) a. given to reading; fond of 
UKjyjr^iaii study ; learned ; pedantic. 
HnnlricVilTr (oook-ish-li) adv. in a bookish man- 
UKJ\jx^ls>uiy jjgj. . studiously ; pedantically. 
honticlmiacc (book-ish-nes) n. the state or 
UUUK.iailliC5jS) quality of being bookish. 

bOOkland (book'-land)w. Seebockland, 

hnnlrm a n (book-man) n. a scholar by profession; 
UUUK.lllcin a student of books. 
honlrc!f*11**r (book-sel-er) whose occupation 
UUUiVSCllCr is to sell books. 

bookworm (book-wurm) n. a worm or mite that 
uuuiv w Ul 111 eats holes in books : a student. 


Hnnm (l>oom) n. [D.] a long pole or spar used for 
UKJSJUI extending the Dottom of sails ; a chain cable 
or connected line of spars extended across a river or 
other water ; a pole set up in shallow water, to mark out 
the channel. Boom-irons, rings of iron attached to the 
yard, through which the studding sail booms are projected. 
boom (boom) v.t. [Imit.] to utter with a booming 
UUUlll sound; to force on public attention ;—i;.i. to 
make a hollow sound, as waves or cannon ; to cry, as the 
bittern : to rush or scud, as a ship under a press of sail ; 
— n. a hollow roar; the cry of the bittern; sound of a 
bell, etc. ; rapid advance in price ; a sudden demand for. 
HoomPratlO* (boo-me-rang) n. [native name] a 
uuuiiid ctxig missile weapon used by the natives 
of Australia (when thrown forward from the hand it 
describes very remarkable curves, and finally takes a 
retrograde direction, so as to return towards the thrower). 
boon ('^''0") ^' [Icel. bon, prayer] petition ; that 
•""-"^^^j which is asked ; a blessing ; a privilege ;— 
[Gael, bun, stubble] the refuse stalks of hemp or flax. 
hoon (booo) a. [F. bon] gay; merry; jovial; kind; 
UKJKJii bountiful. Boon-wor^ work or service given 
gratuitously to a farmer, by his neighbours. 
Hoor (boor) n. [D. boer, a tiller] a countrjmaan ; a 
UKJKJL peasant ; a rude and illiterate person. 
boorish (boor^lsh) a. like a boor ; clownish; awk- 

K/^/-ki«iolilTT (boor-ish-li) adv. in a boorish or 
DOOribniy clownish manner. 
Hooric:VinP<5<a (boor-ish-nes) w-. the state of being 
UKjyji loiiiicoo boorish ; clownishness ; rusticity. 

b00S6 (h66z)v.i. See booze. 

Hoof (boot) n. [A.S. bot] that which is given to make 
UKJKJL an exchange equal ; profit ; gain ; — v. t. to profit ; 
to advantage ; — v.i. to avail. To boot, into the bargain. 
boof (boot) n. [F. hotte] a covering for the foot and 
UCPUL part of the leg; a rack for the leg, used to 
torture criminals ; an apron or cover for a gig or other 
carriage ; a receptacle for luggage in a coach •,—v.t. to put 
boots on. Boot-crimp, a frame or last for drawing 
and shaping the body of a boot. Boot-hook, a 
hook for pulling on long boots. Boot-hose, stocking- 
hose or spatterdashes in lieu of boots. Boot-jack, an 
instrument for drawing off boots. Boot-lace, a cord for 
fastening a boot; a shoe-string. Boot-last, an instrument 
to stretch and widen the leg of a boot. Boot-leg, leather 
cut out for the leg of a boot. Boot-stockings, stockings 
of stout materiaH worn over the ordinary shoes in cold 
weather. Boot-topping, the operation of cleaning the 
upper part of a ship's bottom and daubing it with tallow. 
Boot-tree, an instrument for stretching a boot. 
\\c\f\^e^t^ (boo-te') n. a kind of half or short boot ; a 
UUULCC knitted boot for infants. 
U^^^U (booth) n. [Scand.] a house or shed of boards, 
UUULil boughs of trees, or other slight materials 
\\f\r\\-\y^cre>. (boo-thaj) n. dues paid for leave to 
UUU tllctgC erect booths at fairs, etc. 
1-w^^4-<'U.<l-l (boo-ti-kin) M. a little boot; a soft boot 
UUUCli^iii Of glove of oiled silk ; the instrument of 
torture called the boot. 
U^Q^-lpoQ (boot^les) a. unavailing; unprofitable; 

V|^f^^1pcc1v (b66t^les-li)ad!r. in a bootless manner; 
UUULlCooiy without use, profit, or success. 
U|>|r^4-1|aocnP>QQ (boot^les-nes) n. the state of 
\JKJKJ LlCoollCoo being unavailing or useless. 
\\f\r\^m n lr<ai- (boot-ma-ker) n. one whose occupa- 
UUUtlllclK.Cl tion is to make boots. 

DOOty violence; plunder; pillage. To play booty, to 
join with confederates in order to swindle another player. 
\\r\r\'7f^ bnnc<=» (booz) w. [D.l adrinkiiit;-bout; 
UKJKJ^^^y UKjyjo^ _y{ to drinK excessively. 
boozer, bOOSer (boo^-^er) n. one that drinks 

Ho07V hoO^V (boo-zi). a- a little intoxicated; 

to excess ; a tippler. 
6-zi) a. a little in* — ■- 
addicted to boozing. 

bO"Peep (b5-pep') n. a play to amuse children. 

V\f\f'ir>V\\r\ (bo-rach-yo) n. [Sd.] a sMn or leather 

DOraCniO bottle ; a drunkard. 

\\r\f'in\n (bo-ras-ik) a. pertaining to, or produced 

UKJl. a\^lK^ frnm hnrar 

from, borax. 

.'j'ate, far, ado ; me, her ; mine ; note ; tune ; moon. 




1-^^|.o p-f* (bur'-aj) n. [F. bourrache] a plant formerly 

UUlctgc esteemed as a con'.ial. 

t-j^fo f p (bo^rat) n. a salt fonned by the combination 

UKji ctLC of boracic acid with a base. 

txr^fo y (bo^raks) n. [Per. burah] salt formed by a 

UKJi a.A. combination of boracic acid with soda. 

borborygmUS iSS^-^^Se "ea^?eJ t 

wind in the intestines. 

borda.^'e ('?^'^-<^^J) ^^ tr-] the planking on a ship's 

bordel (bor'-del) n. [O.F.] a brothel. 

K^fz-lpf (border) n. [F. bordure] the outer part or 
uui uci e^jge of anything ; the exterior limit of a 
place, district or country; rim ; boundary ; — v.t. to make 
a border for ; to adorn with a border ; to touch at the 
edge or boundary ; — v.i. to touch at the edge ; to be 
adjacent ; to come near to. 

Y\r\r(\(^rfxr (bor^er-er) n. one that dwells on the 
uyjL uci ci border of another district. 
VmrH Pri n P" (bor'-der-ing) n. actof making aborder; 
•^'^* uci iixg material for a border ; a border. 
hnrp 0^^) ^-t- [A.S. borian] to perforate or pene- 
"'-'* ^ trate ; to eat out or make hollow ; to weary ; to 
trouble ; — v.i. to pierce or enter by boring ; to thrust the 
head forward, as a horse;— n.. the hole made by boring; 
the cavity or hollow of any firearm ; one who, or that 
which, wearies. Bore-hole, a hole made in boring for 
minerals, water, etc. 

Kpvi^p (bor) n. [Icel. bdra, wave] a tidal flood of great 
UKJi. c height and force formed at the mouths of some 
rivers ; a sudden influx of the tide. 
y\f\f(>n 1 (bo^re-al) a. northern ; pertaining to the 
uui Ccti north wind ; sub-arctic. 
'D.^t'An c (lx>-re-as) »i. [L.] a cold northerly wind ; the 
JDUlCd,::) north wind. 

hknrf^CcAf^ (bor'-kol) n. [D. 6oer, peasant, and kool, 
'^'-'* CV,*-»1C cabbage] a kind of wmter cabbage with 
curled leaves, which do not form a head. 
llf^l-pi-l^fYi (borklum) n. the state of being a l)ore, 
UKJl cuuili or bored ; bores collectively ; ennui. 
K^««p«* (bor'-er) n. one that bores ; an instrument for 
UKJl CI boring j a genus of worms that pierce wood. 
hnriflfT (boiling) n. the actof perforating; a hole 
UKJl iixg made by piercing. 

hnrn C^'"") PP- of bear, bring forth. Bom again, 
uyjx II regenerate. Bom with a silver spoon in 
one's moutn, born to good fortune. 
Kr-)|*n|a (born) past participle of the verb bear, to 
UKJl nc carry. 

hnrn#^ (bor-na') a. [F.] bounded; limited; narrow- 
UKjkii^ minded. 

boron (^*o^ron) n. [boriax)] an elementary sutetance 
wwi KJiM. characteristic of borax. 
borOUP'b (bur'-o) n. [A.8. fntrh] an incorporated 
"^■'•'^"o** town ; a town that sends a member to 
parliament. Borough-English, a customary descent of 
estates to the youngest son. Borough-monger, one that 
buys or sells the patronage of a borough. Close or 
pocket borough, a borough whose parliamentary repre- 
sentation was in the hands of an individual or family. 
Kfk«««-/%TTr (bor'-o) n. [A.S. bwh, pledge] a pledge ; a 
K>\jn.Kj\}i surety; a ix)rrowing; — v.t. to take from 
another on trust, with the intention of returning or 
giving an equivalent for ; to take from another for one's 
own use ; to appropriate. 

1-^f^«-|-/^•IT7■*a«- (bor'-o-er) n. one that borrows; an 
UKJl X \^ w CI imitator ; a plagiarist. 
borrO'witlP* (bor^-mg) n. the actof obtaining a 
uyjiiyjYV m^ loan. Borrowing days, the last 
three days of March (old style), said to have been bor- 
rowed from April, and supposed to be very stormy. 
KrkrcVi/-»m«af- (bors-nol-der) n. [A.S. bwh, pledge, 
UUl S>ilUlUCl and aldor] prince] the chief of a 
tithing ; a parish constable. 

boH" ^^^^ ^^- [Etym. unknown] minute fragments of 
u\ji. L diamonds used to make powder for lapidary work. 

boscage, boskage ?„".?!? o.^n^'Ger:, a thicket] wood ; underwood ; a thicket ; a landscape 

representing thickets of wood. 

Hnctn (bosh) n. [Turk.] empty talk ; nonsense ; folly; 

uuan _^-^^ gtug-j humbug! 

bo^t Ojosk) n. [bush] a thicket or small forest ; a 

wvofw small natural wood. 

bosket, bosquet SKlifli'^'^''" 

HnclrinPQQ (bos-ki-nes) n. the quality of being 

UUo A-iiiCoa bosky, or covered with thickets. _, • - 

ho«slrv (bos^ki) a. woody; bushy; covered with ^jf,t'i-i<v 

UKJOz^y thickets or underwood. 

HoQOm (boo^zum) n. [A.S.] the breast of a human 

UCfolJlll being ; the breast as the seat of the passions 

and aflections ; eml)race ; afl"ectionate inclosure ; any 

inclosed place ; the interior ; the part of the dress worn 

upon the breast ,—a. intimate ; cherished ; — v.t, to inclose 

in the bosom ; to keep with care ; to hide from view. 

Kr»cc (l^s) '*■ [*-*• ^- ^^'■- ^^^<'> * bundle] a protuberant 

uuos part ; a stud ; a knob. 

W^oc (bos) n. (D. baas, master] a master; a superin- 

UUoo tendent;— a. chief; tirst-rate ;— r.t to manage. 

ho^^fl P*P (bos^^i) n. a stone that is left projecting 

uuooctgc in building, p,nd is afterwards carved. 

1-lf^|i| (lx)s-tan-ji) [Turk.] palace atten- 

UUo Lctllji dantsin Turkevj; orig. gardeners. 

\^r\^^ Koff (bot)ji.;usuallyp^. bots,botts[c/.Gael. 

UKJLf iJyJH, 6o(it5, l)elly-worm] lana- of a species of 

gadfly found in the intestines of horses, under the hides of 

oxen, in the nostrils of sheep, etc. Bot-fly, a gadfly. 

botanic, botanical SSS'JgttaS 

or to their study and culture. 

Krkf oriir'allTr (bo-tan'-i-kal-i) adv. according to 
UULcllliV..dliy the principles of botany. 
1-^p|4-onicf (bot^-nist) 11. one that studies botany; 
UU LctiXloL one skilled in the knowledge of plants. 
hofaniyp (bot^-nlz) v.i. to study plants; to 
UUUctlii^C search for and collect plants. 
Krkf a ri rvm a ri nxr (bot^-no-man-si) n. [G. botane, 
UULclilUillctil(.,y herb, and manteia, divination] 
a method of divination by means of plants. 
i«|-^4.onTr (bot^-ni)n. the science that treats of the 
uutctiiy form, structure, functions, classification, 
and distribution of plants. 

botargo, botarga ??^i1fU?fronPtL^ 

salted roes of mullet, tunny, sturgeon, and other fishes. 
K|^|.pt-| (boch)n. [O.F. boche, a botch] a large ulcer- 
UULCil ous afl'ection ; [D. botsen, strike] a patch of a . 
garment; bungled work; — v.t. to mend or perform in 
a bungling manner ; to mark with botches. 
K r-|4.pti p|- (boch^r) n. one that botches ; a mender ; 
Ul^LV^iiCl a repairer or patcher ; a bungler. 
|^|^i.pU|^t~|r (ooch^r-i) n. the results of botching; 
UU LUllCi y bungling workmanship. 
U^4.pV|.^ (boch-i) a. marked with botches or ex- 
UULClljr crescences ; imperfect; bungled. 
1-.^4.p (Ixit) Ti. [A.S. bot, profit] a fine ; compensa- 
UULC tion; the privilege of using things needful for 
repair or subsistence. 

U^4-i| (both) a. and pron. [Scand.] the one and the 
UKJtxi, other •,—covj. (followed by and) as well as. 
K|~4-V. p«. (boTH^r) v.t. [Etym. unknown] to tease or 
UCItlXCi perplex; — n. one who, or that which, 
bothers ; — int. an exclamation of annoyance. 
U|^f1-liafp4-i/-k|i (boTH-e-raAshun) n. annoyance; 
UULllCi cttiUii trouble ; perplexity ;— used as int. 
\\f\i\yf^rf>'V (boTH^r-er) n. one that bothers, vexes, 
UU Liici CI or annoys. 

U^-i^l-iPl^QnmP (boTH^r-sum) a. full of bother; 
UULllCiouiuc troublesome; annoying. 
Up|4-y.<p HofllV (both-i) n. [Gael.] a residence 
UU LillC, u\J Liiy for unmarried farm servants. 
K^^i-if^p (bo-ten') n. [F.] a half-boot ; a woman's 
UU L LlilC hich shoe of tine quaUty. 
Uf^ 4-4.1 p (botA) J?. [O.F. bouteille, fr. Low L. butis, 
UULLlC vessel] a hollow vessel with a narrow mouth, 
for holding liquors; the contents of a bottle;— [O.F. 
hotel] a bundle of hay ; — v.t. to inclose in bottles. Bottle- 
bellied, l)ig-bellied. Bottle-brush, a brush for cleaning 
bottles. Bottle-companion, a friend in drinking. Bottle- 
glass, a coarse green glass. Bottle-green, a dark shade 
of green, like that of a green glass bottle. Bottle-holder, 
one that aids a boxer, by giving him refreshment and 
attention between the rounds. Bottle-nose, a kind of 
whale. To bottle up, to conceal ; keep hid. 
\\rA-^\t>r (bottler) n. one that bottles liquors of a 
UU L LlCl particular kind. 

Kriffliricr (bottling) n. the act of putting wine or 
UULLlillg other liouid into bottles. Bottllug- 
xnachine, a machine for nUing and corking bottles. 

FMe. f At, ado ; mg, her : trine ; nnte ; tfine ; m66r» 




Hftff ntn (bot^um) n. [A.S. botm] the lowest part of 

Ul^ttV^iii anything; that upon which a thing rests 

or is founded ; foundation ; base ; low land formed by 

alluvial deposits along a river ; a dale ; a valley ; the keel 

of a vessel, and hence, the vessel itself ; power of 

endurance ; stamina ; dregs or grounds ; the posteriors ; 

— v.t. to found or build ; to furnish with a seat or 

bottom ; — v.i. to be based; to rest upon. Bottom-glade, a 

low glade ; a valley ; a dale. Bottom-land, low land 

formed by alluvial deposits along a river. 

Knf f rkm orl (bot^umd) a. having a bottom ; under- 

DOttOmea jaid ; based. 

Krkff r»ml*acc (bot^um-les) a. without a bottom; 

UULLUliilCS>a fathomless; groundless. 

Hr»f fnmrv (bot^um-ri) n. [D. bodemeriJi a con- 

UCltLOlliljr tract by which a ship is bound as 

security for the repayment of money advanced for its use. 

HnilpVlP (boosh) n. [P. fr. L. bucca, cheek] an 

UUUUllc; allowance of provisions to a feudal army ; 

the mouth or bore of a firearm •,-—v.t. to form a new 

mouth or vent in. 

hnilHnir (boo^war) n. [F. fr. bonder, pout, sulk] a 

UViUUtJll lady's small private room. 

hniltrVl (bou) n. [A.S. bog, arm, branch] an arm or 

U\J Ug 11 jarge branch of a tree. 

■hniicrVif Hniif (bout) n. [A.S. byht, a bend, a 

UUUgilL, UUUL turn] a twist or knot ; a bend ; 

a loop ; a fold. 

boil2*ht (^^^''^ preterite and past participle of the 

hnilP'ip (boo^zhi) n. [F. fr. Bugia, a town in 
ucrugic; Algeria] a long flexible instrument which 
is introduced into the urethra, esophagus, etc., to remove 
obstructions, or for other purposes. 
HrkiiillaKaicc*a (bool-ya-bas') n. [F.] a Provencal 
UUmildUdlbbe kind of fish chowder. 
Krmilli (bool-ye, boo-i-yi) n. [F.] meat stewed with 
UUUllIl vegetables. 

hmiillnn (bool-yun, boo-i-yong) n. [F.] a soup; 
"'^ "***'-'** a fleshy excrescence on a horse's foot. 
boil 1 H Pr (boMer) n. [Sw. bvllra, roar] a large stone 
uv^uiuc^x rounded by water ; a loose rock torn from 
its native bed and carried some distance. Boulder-clay, 
a stifi" clayey deposit of the glacial period. 
hnillpVflrH (boo-le-vard, bool-vard, bool-var) n. 
i^v^uic^vdiu, [F.] a rampart ; a street or promen- 
ade {orig. on the site or the ramparts) planted with trees. 
FinillpvPrQPmpnf (boo-le-vers-ment, bool- 
UUUlCVCIbCIIient vers^ment, bool - vers - 
mang') n. [F.] overthrow ; subversion ; confusion. 
bounPf* (bouns) v.i. [D. bonzen, strike] to leap or 
krv/uiiv.^ spring suddenly ; to come or go uncere- 
moniously ; to boast or bully;— w. a sudden leap; a 
heavy, sudden blow or thump ; a boast ; a bold lie. 
boUnPPr (bouncer) n. one that bounces; some- 
"""***"_* thing big ; a vigorous person ; a lie. 
Hm in pi no* (boun-sing) a. stout; plump and 
UUUIlCin^ healthy; lusty. 
hrninpinfrltr (boun^ing-H) adv. in a bouncing 
wuiiv^iiigiy manner ; with a bounce. 
bound (bound) n. [O.F. oomie] external or limiting 
krv/uAiu hne of any object or space ; confine; extent; 
— v.t. to restrain; to circumscribe; to form the boundary of. 
boiinH (bound) a. [Icel. buinn] destined ; tendnig ; 
t^vruAxu going, or intending to go, etc. 
boiinH (bound) v.i. [F. bondir, leap] to leap; jump; 
krvuiAvt spring ;rebound;—K.. a leap; jump: rebound. 
bound ("*'"°4) F^terite and past participle of the 

hoil n H a r\T (bounkla-ri) n. a border or limit ; that 
uv^uiiucti y ^iiich indicates or fixes a limit. 
boundpn (boun^en) a. [biiid] made obligatory;,ix imposed as a duty; obligatory; bmding. 
boundpr (bouncer) n. one that limits or imposes 
,, , bounds; one whose style of dress or 

general behaviour is loud. 

hound Ipcc (bound-les) a. without bounds or 
UUU11UXC£>S> confines: infinite. 
noil n d 1 pc:c:n pcc (bound-les-nes) n. the state of 
uuuiiuic&S>HC&b being limitless. 
nOlinfpnilQ (boun-te-us) a. disposed to give 
wwuiiLCUua frgeiy. generous; liberal; abundant. 
DOUntPOllCilv (boun-te-us-li)rtdi;.inabounteous 
wwuiiLCUUaiy manner; liberally ; generously. 
bOlintP011«JnPcs«i (boun-te-us-nes) n. the 
UUUllLCUUbneSS quality of being bounteous. 

Krkiirififiil (boun-ti-fool) a. free in giving ; munifi- 
UUUllUlUl cent ; generous. 
Hnnnfifnllv (boun-ti-fool-i) adv. in a bountiful 
UClUllLiiUiij^ manner; generously; freely. 
KrMirif ifiiln*acc (boun-ti-fool-nes) w. thequality 
UUUllLllUlllcao of being bountiful; generosity. 
Hoiinfv (boun-ti) n. [L. bonus, good] liberality; 
UUUllLjr munificence; that which is given Uberally; 
a premium offered or given to encourage some object. 
Queen Anne's boimty, a fund instituted by Queen Anne 
to augment poor church livings. 

hminilpl" (boo-ka, boo-ka') n. [F.] a nosegay; an 
uu u^ uc; 1/ agreeable perfume or aromatic odour. 
Roiirhon (boor-bun, boor-bong) n. [¥.} a member 
jjuui uyjii Qf (;j^e deposed royal family of France, 
or of any of its branches. 

RrkiirKr\nicm (boor^bun-izm) n. adherence to 
x:>UUi UUXiiaXiX the Bourbon dynasty; legitimism. 
hoiirdon (boor'-dun) n. [F.] the drone of a bag- 
uuuiuurix pipe; a monotonous sound; a bass 
organ-stop ;—v. i. to drone like a bagpipe. 
hoiirdon (boorklun) n. [O.F.J a pilgrim's staff"; a 
^'-"^* u wii baton ; a silver wand as a badge of office. 
Kr»iircr (boorg) n. [F.] a fortified mediseval town; 
UUUlg a market-fair. 

hoiirP'Poi^ (bur-jois') «.. [F.] a small kind of type, 
uuui gcuio between long-primer and brevier. 
Kr-v|i«*Q-/:a<-v<c (boor-zhwaw) n. [F.] a French citizen 
uuux gcuxo —one of the shop-keeping or middle 
class; — a. belonging to the bourgeoisie; common; mean. 
Hmirirprkicip (b66r-zhwaw-se) n. [F.] the shop- 
uuux gcuxaxc keeping or middle class. 

bourgeon, burgeon ^f^'bS^, 

bud, shoot] to put forth buds ; — n. a bud ; a shoot. 
hoiirn (born, boom) n. [F. borne\ a bound ; a limit ; 
uuux XX jj gQ^j . ^ domain ;— (born) same as bum. 
hoiir^P (boors) n. [F.] the stock exchange, esp. the 
uuLXxac stock exchange in Paris. 

bouse (booz) w. and v.i. See booze. 

honf (bout) n. [bought, bend] a conflict; contest; 
'-"-'"'' attempt ; trial ; a turn. 

houffldp (boo-tad') n. [F.] a sudden outburst or 
UULX Lctuc outbreak ; an impromptu dance. 
l-vf^'rrify^«*IYi (bo-vi-form) a. [L. 60s, bovis, ox, and 
UKJ V xxux XXX jQrma, shape] having the form of an ox. 
Kf^'T^if-ip (bo^vTn) a. [L. bos, bovis, ox] pertaining to 
uu vxxxc cattle of the ox kind ; ox-like ; stupid. 
ho'W (bou) v.t. [A.S. biigan] to bend; to influence; 
UKjvv jq incline the head or body in token of respect, 
etc.; to depress, subdue or crush ■,—v.i. to bend or incline 
through deference or respect; to yield or submit to force ; 
to sink under pressure ;— r?.. an inclination of the head, or 
body, in token of respect, civility, or submission ; — [Icel. 
bogi'} the rounded part of a ship forward ; the stem or prow. 
Bow-chasers, tlie guns pointed from the bows of a ship 
of war. Bow-grace, a frame of junk to protect the bows 
of a ship from injury by ice. Bow-oar, the oar used by 
the bowman in a boat; one that rows at the bow of a boat. 
how ^^°^ ^- t-^-^- boga] anything bent, or in form of 
uyjvw a, curve; a weapon by means of which an arrow 
is propelled ; any instrument or thing having a curved 
form, as a fiddlestick. Bow-backed, having a back 
bent like a bow. Bow-bent, bent like a bow; crooked. 
Bow-brace, a covering to protect the left arm of a 
bowman. Bow-compasses, a pair of compasses, with 
an arched plate of metal riveted to one of the legs, upon 
which the other leg slides ; a small pair of compasses 
furnished with a bow-pen. Bow-drill, a drill worked by 
a bow and string. Bow-hand, the hand that holds the 
bow; the left hand; [Mus.] the hand that draws the 
bow ; the right hand. Bow-knot, a knot in which a 
portion of the string is drawn through in the form of a 
loop or bow, so as to be readily untied. Bow-legged, 
having crooked legs. Bow-net, a contrivance for catch- 
ing lobsters and craw-fish. Bow-pen, a metallic ruling- 
pen, having the part that holds the ink bowed out 
towards the middle. Bow-saw, a saw with a narrow 
blade set in a strong frame, and used for cutting curved 
forms from wood. Bow-shot, the space that an arrow 
may pass when shot from a bow. Bow- window, a window 
projecting from a building in a curved or rounded form. 
Bows and bills, in former times, a call to arms. To draw 
the long bow, to exaggerate ; to lie. To have two strings 
to one's bow, to have more than one resource, etc. 

Fate, f&T, ^do ; me, her ; mine ; note ; tune ; modn. 




hir\-KXTt^ 1 Pri <5m C^-- Iwud-ler-izm) n. the practice 
UU W UlCl loiii Qf omitting offensive or indelicate 
words or passages from an author's writings— so called 
from T.Bowdler's expurgated edition of Shakespeare(1818). 
HnTxrHlf^H^f^ (bbd-, boud-ler-Iz) v.t. to leave out 
UKJ w uici i^c indelicate words or passages. 

■U>-..yj»p^ (boud) a. bent like a bow ; crooked ;— (bod) 
UUWCvl furnished, or plajed, with a bow. 
Hn'wrpl (bou^l) n. [L. ootellus, a small sausage] one 
UU WCl of the intestines of an animal ; an entrail ; 

a gut ;—pL the interior part of anything ; the seat of 
pity ; tenderness -.—v-t. to take out the bowels of. 
U|^.^«j'£kt« (bou^r) n. one that bows or bends ; an 
UU W Ci anchor carried at the bow of ship. 
hriTAJf r (bou^r) n. [A.8. bur} a boudoir ; a cottage ; 
UU WCl a shelter, or covered place, in a garden ; an 
arbour. Bower-bird, a name of certain Australian 
birds that erect towers and adorn them with feathers. 
ho'WT'f^r (bou-er) n. [Ger. bauer, a farmer, the knave 
UUWCi at cards] in euchre, one of the two highest 
cards, the knave of trumps and the other knave of the 
same colour, the right and the left bower respectively. 
HniATf^r Cbo^r) n. a bow-maker ; a bowyer ; one that 
UU W Cx plays with a bow on a violin, etc. 
hnTXTPrfH ('*ou^rd) ^- furnished with bowers, 
UU W Cl CU. recesses, or alcoves. 
Hn'«7P>rv (bou^r-i) a. covering, as a bower; shady; 
UKJ W Ci jr containing bowers. 

hn-WPCl<5 hoiX/f^f (bou^s. -et) n. [bpvffh] a 
UOWCbb, UUWCL young hawk when it begins 
to leave the nest. 

hnixrif Irniff* (b<>e-nlO n. a peculiar kind of 
uuwic-J^.iiiic luiife worn as a weapon— named 
from its inventor, Colonel Bowie- 
hn'lAT'inP' C^'^*-'"^) "■ the Jirt of handling the bow in 
UUWili^ playing stringe<l instruments. 
hn^vl ^'^'^ "• [•^•^- bollu] a concave vessel to hold 
UU Wl liquors ; the hollow part of anything. 
hn^xrl ^^'^ "• [^- ^^f^' anything rounded by art] a 
U\J w 1 ijaii used for rolling on a level surface m play ; 
a ball ■,—pl. a game with twwls ;—^'.t. to roll, as a bowl ; 
to deliver a ball at cricket ;— r.e. to play with bowls ; to 
roll the ball on a level plane ; to move rapidly and 
smoothly, like a ball ; to deliver a ball at cricket. 
hnxvlpr (bo^'^r) n. one that plaj-g at bowls; in 
uu wici cricket, one that delivers the balls. 
howl i n *^ (l)6yTn) /;. a rope used to keep the weather 
UKJ w iiiic ed^e of the sail tight forward, when the 
ship is close-hauled. 

ho'wlitl P" O^^ling) n. the act of playing with or at 
u\j w liiig bowls ; the delivery of the ball in cricket. 
Bowling-alley, a covered place for playing at bowls. 
Bowling-green, a level piece of grounci kept for bowhng. 
bowma.n (bo^^^?''^) "• ^ ^^^ ^bat uses a bow ; an 

hriTATTnan (bon-man) n. the one that rows the 
u\j w man foremost oar in a boat. 
K/^-iiTOfx (bous) v.i. [Etym. unknown] to pull or haul 
uyj w oc yyjtij one accord [Naut.]. 
ho'W^nrif O^^prit) n. [bow (of a ship) and sprit] 
u\jvv zi^ji. X L a large spar that projects over the stem 
of a vessel, to carry sail forward and to stay the foremast. 
hn'W^f'rinfr (bowstring) n. the string of a bow ; a 
Kjyj w oti tiig string used by the Turks for strangling 
offenders ;—v.t. to strangle with a Iwwstring. 
Krkfxr TXTTkTXT- (bou-wou') int. an exclamation imitat- 
UUW WOW ing the j,ark of a dog;-«. the bark of 
a dog. Bow-wow theory, the theory that language is 
developed from imitations of the cries of animals. 
h rstxTtreL r (bowyer) n . an archer; one that uses, makes, 
UOWyer or sells, bows. 

hnx (boks)?!. [A.S. box, fr. L. buxus, box-tree] a small 
^ wooden case or chest ; a rectangular frame, square 
or oblong, made of wood, tin, etc., and used to pack or 
preserve goods, papers, money etc.; the contents of the 
chest or case ; an inclosed space, with seats, in a place of 
amusement ; a hut or temporary house for hunting or 
shooting parties ; a cylindrical, hollow iron, usea in 
wheels, in which the axle-tree runs ; a hollow tube in a 
pump, closed with a valve ; the bucket of a lifting pump ; 
the driver's seat on a carriage ; a present ; — v.t. to inclose 
in a box ; to furnish with boxes. Box-bed. a boxed-in 
bed. Box-coat, a heavy overcoat formerly worn by 
coachmen. Box-day, a day in vacation for lodging 
papers [Scots Law]. Box-drain, a sq^uare drain. Box- 
iron, a smoothing-iron with a cavity for a heater. 

Box-tree, the tree variety of the plant called box. Box- 
wood, the wood of the box-tree, very hard and smooth, 
and much used by turners, etc. To box the compass, 
to name the points of the compass in order. 
Hr»v (boks) n. [A.S. box, fr. L. buxus, box-tree] a 
*JyJ^ shrub flourishing in different parts of the globe. 
U^» (boks) n. [Etym. doubtful] a dIow on the head 
*JyJ^ or ear with the hand;— I'.i. to strike with the 
hand or fist ;—?•.». to fight with the fists. 
U^.^!^!. (bok^er) n. one that fights with his fists; a 
UU.A.Ci pugilist ; one that packs things in boxes. 
HrkvViaiil (boks^hawl) v.t. to wear a ship, when 
UU.A.lictUX close-hauled, round to the other tack. 
U|-jYi»-. 0. (bok-sing) n. the act or practice of fighting 
'-"-'■****& withthe fists, orsparringwith boxing-gloves. 
Hnvin O" C'ok'-sing) n. the sides of a window-frame ; 
'-"-'■*■***& coarse flour separated in the process of 
bolting ; the giving of a lx)x or present. 
Rrk-vino" Hotz (bok-sing-ila)w. the first week-day 
iJUJ^lilg-Uctjr after Christmas, when gifts are 
given to errand-boys, letter-carriers, etc. 
l-jr^.^. (boi) n. [E.] a male child ; a la<l. Boy's tl&y, 
"^y childish amusement; trifling. Old boy, the devil. 
hnvar hnvarH (boi-ar, -ard) «. [Russ.] a 
DOyar, OOyara Russian noUeman. 
HnvPnff (boi-kot) v.t. [fr. Captain Boycott, an Irish 
^jyjj^yj^*' landlord, the first victim] to combine to 
ostracize; to ostracize on account of political or other 
differences ; — n. an act of boycotting. 
hrkirrTkff A<a (boi-kot-e') n. one that is boycotted; 
U uy *., U L UC C a boycotted person. 
HnvPotf Pr (boi-kot-er) n. one that boycotts, or 
^J^yy^yJi'^y^*- takes part in boycotting. 

boycotting, boycottism St'tie 

act or practice of boycotting. 

Hnvpr ('*oi^r) n. ID.] a Flemish sloop with raised 
USJy Cl work at each end. 

KrkTrVirkrkrI (boi-hood) n. the state of a boy, or of 
UUyilUUU immature age. 

K^.^IqV| (boi-ish) a. resembling a boy in manners or 
"'-'J'*^^* opinions: childish; puerile. 
Ki-kTrieVilTT (boi-ish-li) adv. m a boyish manner; 
DOyiSniy chUdishly. 

hrktriclinpcc (boi-ish-nes)n. manners or behaviour 
UUyiJsliiicoo of a boy; the quality of being l)oyish. 
hn 73 (bo^za) n. [Turk.] an Egyptian drink made from 
uu^ct millet-seed ; an intoxicant made from darnel- 
meal, hemp-seed, and water, 

Hrahhlf* (brab^l) v.i. [D. brabbelen, stammer] to 
'-'* "'•-'•-'IC wrangle ; dispute noisily. 
HraPPafp (brak^t) a. [L. braccae, breeches] 
Ul di^Ccttc; having feathers that conceal the feet. 
Kfo pfi (bras)n. [L. brachium, arm]a prop or support, 
*^*- «*^*^ csp. a piece of timber extending across a comer 
from one piece of timber to another; that which holds any- 
thing tightly or firmly; a vertical curve line connecting two 
or more words or lines ; a pair ; a couple ; a thick strap that 
supports a carriage on wneels ; a rope reeved through a 
block at the end of a yard, by which it is turned about ; 
— pi. straps that sustain pantaloons, etc. ; suspenders ; 
— v.t. to furnish with braces ; to support; to tighten ; to 

Eut in a state of tension ; to move round by means of 
races ; to fortify or nerve one's self. 
Ufoppfl (brast) a. strengthened ; [Her.] interlaced; 
"*■ c*v,cvi said of bearings so linked together. 
t>.|.o ppl/af (bras^let) n. [F. fr. L. brachium, arm] an 

UldCClCL ornament for the wrist; _/» ^ 

a piece of defensive armour for the arm. 

U|f.oppt* (bra-ser) n. that which 

Ui cti^Ci braces ; a band or bandage ; 

in archery, a wrist-guard ; a tonic. 

Kt-o n In (brak, orach) n . [O. F. brache] 

Ul etCll a bitch of the hound kind. 

Hra phial (brak^i-al, bra-ki-iil)a. [L. brachiv/m, arm] 

"*■ o-y.,lll<Al belonging to the arm ; of the nature of an 

arm : resembling an arm. 

brachistocephalic g^^'SAffiest 

and kephak, head] having a skull whose breadth is at least 
eighty-three hundre<lths of its length. 
Hrnrhvrpnhalir (brak-i-se-fal'-ik) a. [G, 
UrdCliyCCpildllC hrachus, short] having a 
skull whose breadth is at least four-fifths of its length. 
Kj-a pjn ylQCT^ (bra-kil^ji) n. [G.] conciseness in 




Fate, tkr, ado ; me, her ; mine ; note ; tiine ; mddn. 




Hra PI t10* (l^i^ing) n. act of tightening; state of 
Ul CIU1XX3 tension ;— a. giving strength or tone. 
Kra nXre^n (brak^n) n. LScand.] a coarse species of 
Ul d^K-Cll fern {Pteris aquilina). 
Km rXrf^^ (brak-et) n. \¥. braguette, fr. L. braccae, 
Uldlp^lvCL breeclies] a small projecting support 
fastened to a wall or other surface ; one of two hooks [ ], 
used to inclose one or more words; one of the side- 
pieces of a gun-carriage supporting the trunnions ;— 
v.t. to place within, or connect by, brackets. Bracket- 
light, a gas-light projecting from a side- wall. 
Hrarlrf'finO' (bralt«t-ing) n. a series of ribs or 
Ui ctl.«n.c tliig bracketsforsupportingcornices.etc. 
Hra plridVl (brak-ish) a. [D. brak, briny] saltish, or 
Ul cl<^i\.iolX ga^n jn a moderate degree, as water. 
Krar»lricVin<acc (brak'-ish-nes) n. quality of being 
Ul dUivlSjllliCao brackish ; slight saltness. 
Kra pf (brakt) n. [L. bractea, a thin plate] a small 
Ul du t leaf or scale at the base of a flower. 
Krapf tiol (brak'-te-al) a. pertaining to, or of the 
Ul d^UCdl nature of, a bract. 
Hra pf **a f ** (brak'-te-at) a. formed of metal beaten 
Ul dULCdtC thin ; [Bot.] having bracts ;— n. a thin 
silver coin formerly current. 
braCtleSS (brakti-les)a. destitute of bracts [Bot.]. 

Uf.o A (brad) n. [Icel. brocldr, a spike] a nail without 
Ul dU a head, fitted to be driven in below the surface. 
Brad-awl, an awl to make holes for the insertion of brads. 
\\vnA\Tr\f\A (brad-i-pod) n. [G. bradus, slow, and 
Ul duy puu po^jg^ podos, foot] a sloth. 
hra P (bra)«. [Gael, braigh, upper part of anything] the 
Ul dC gi(je of a hill; a stretch of sloping ground; a slope. 
hrfl P* (brag) v.i. [O.F. bragi^er] to boast ; to praise 
'^^ **o one's self, or what belongs to one's self, in an 
ostentatious manner ; — n. a boast or boasting ; the thing 
boasted of ; a game at cards. 

KratrcruAnnirk (brag-a-do^hi-o) n. [Braggado- 
ui<x^^tXKXKJK,lKJ chio, a boastful character in 
Spenser's Faery Queene] a boasting fellow ; brag. 

bra P'P'fl rf (^^^^"^'^^ ™- tO-^- braguer, brag] a 

•^^ •*&&** *' boaster ; a vain fellow ;— a. boastful. 

K4*o rro-Af (brag'-er) n. one that brags ; a braggart ; 

*-'l «"& & CI a boastful fellow. 

1-v«-a Q-a'f^¥ (brag'-et) n. [W. bragio, sprout] a kind of 

"^ "'&&^^ mead made from ale and honey ; mulled 

ale, sweetened and spiced. 

Hra trcrin o* (brag'-ing) a. that brags ; boastful •,—n. 

" * **& 5 * * * & boastful language. 

Brahman, Brahmin ?^S-T\h"e 

upper or sacerdotal caste among the Hindus. 

nra Vi m a ti a (braAma-na) n. one of the prose por- 

Ul dllllldlld tion3 of the Vedas. 

Brahmanic, Brahminic, Brah- 
manical, Brahminical ^Slik^mini 

i-kal, -min'-i-kal) a. pertaining to the Brahmans, or to the 
religion of Brahma. 

Brahmanism, Brahminism i^J: 

izm, -min-izm) n. thereligion ordoctrines of the Brahmans. 
RraVimrkicm (bra-mo-izm) w. the tenets of the 
x:»l dlllllUlSilll Brahmo-Somaj, a monotheistic 
religion which originated in India in 18.30. 
hraiH (brad) v.t. [A.S. bredan] to weave or entwine 
0,1 VI together ; to plait ;—n. a string, cord, band, or 
tape, formed by weaving together diflferent strands. 
hraiHi^tn (bra^izm) n. hypnotism (from James 
i^A nxviioAii Braid, of Manchester, who explained 
the phenomena in 1842). 

brail (bral) n. [L. braccae, breeches] a piece of leather 
Ul. 0,1.1. to bind up a hawk's wing ;— pt. ropes to haul up 
sails, for the more ready furling of them ;— v.<. to fasten 
up a hawk's wing ; to haul up, or truss up by the brails. 
brain (bran) n. [A.S. brwgen] the whitish, soft 
T 11 J ™^^ which occupies the upper cavity of the 
skull ; understanding ; the anterior ganglion in insects 
and other invertebrates;— v.t. to dash out the brains of ; 
to destroy. Brain-coral, a variety of coral so called 
from Its appearance. Brain-fag, mental fatigue from 
overwork. Brain-fever, an inflammation of the brain. 
Brain-pan, the skull. Brain-sick, disorderad in the 
understanding ; insane ; crotchety ; flighty. Brain- 
sioknesa, disorder of the brain ; insanity. Brain-work, 

mental exertion. Brain-worm, a worm supposed to 
infest the brain : the vermis of the cerebellum. 
HrainpH (brand) a. having a brain of a particular 
Ul diiicu jjjud ; having the brains dashed out. 
Krainlf»Q«! (bran-les) a. deprived of the brain; 
Ul diiiicoo -v^ithout understanding ; witless. 
Krain1<:iCcn#iCQ (brun-les-nes) n. the state of 
Uldiiiicasiicoa being brainless ; stupidity. 
bra inv (bi^ni) a- having brains; possessing a ^ 
Ul dlliy vigorous understanding ; clever. 
brairH (brard) n. [A.S. brerd, brink] the first 
Ul dll VI sprouting of grain ; — v.i. to sprout. 

brait (brat) n. [Etym. unknown] a rough diamond. 

KraiT** Kraicpk (braz) v.t. [F. fr. Dan. brase, 
Ul dl^Cy Ul diac fry] to stew with vegetables, 
etc., and then bake ; — n. meat thus cooked. 
Ki*ai7<ar' Vtraic^r (bra-zer)n. a covered pot or 
Uldl^Cly Ul disci stew-pan used in braising. 
bralrP (brak) n. [Low Ger. brake, brushwood] a 
Ul dA.C place overgrown with brambles or shrubs ; a 
thicket ;— [bracken] fern ; bracken. 
'U.pp'U-p (brak) n. [break] an instrument to break flax 
Ul dA.C or hemp ; the handle by which a pump or 
fire-engine is worked ; an inclosure for horses ; an instru- 
ment to hold them while being shod ; a curricle to train 
them with ; a harrow for breaking clods ; a baker's 
kneading-machine ; a horse-bit ; a large waggonette ; . 
something pressed upon the circumference of a wheel to v,i 
retard or stop its motion. Brake-van, a railway carriage ' 
containing a brake. Brake-wheel, a horizontal hand- 
wheel to control the brake. 

brakeman, brakesman Sks^'m^J 

n. one that works the brake or drag on railways. 
bratv (braAki) a. full of brake, fern, or brushwood ; 
Ul dtvy rough ; thorny. 

Rramab-nrP*?*? ( braima-pres ) n. [Joseph 
J=>ldllldll picsa Bramah] a hydraulic ma- 
chine for compressing goods, and raising great weights. 
bra in blp (bram-bl) n. [A.S. bremel] a species of 
Uldlliuic the genus Rubus, including tne rasp- 
berry and blackberry ; a rough prickly shrub ; — v.i. to 
ick brambles. Bramble-net, a net for catching birds. 



bra m bl i n P" (bram-bling) n. the mountain finch, 
Ul dlliuiiiig a common European bird. 
bra n (bran) n. [Celt.] the husk or outer coat of the 
Uldll geed of wheat, rye, or other grain — often 
applied to all refuse sifted out of flour or meal. Bran- 
bread, bread made of bran, or of unbolted flour. 
brancard (brang^kard) n. [F.] a litter borne by 

bra n pb (bransh) n. [F. branche] a limb ; a bough 
Ul dllv..ll growing from a stem, or from another 
bough ; a shooting from the main body ; a ramification ; 
a part of a body or system ; a section or subdivision ; a 
line of family descent ; a descendant ; a commission 
given to a pilot ; — v.t. to divide, as into branches i—v.i. tc 
shoot or spread in branches ; to diverge. Branch-pilot, 
a pilot that holds a certificate of competency. To 
branch off, to form separate parts ; diverge. To branch 
out, to ramify ; to extend operations ; to digress. 
HratlpVlPT (brani^her) n. that whicn sends out 
Ul dllv^llCl branches ; a young hawk or other bird, 
when it takes to the branches. 

bra nrh Prv (bran^her-i) n. a system of branches; 
Ul dll^llCl y branches collectively. 
Kranpflina (brang^ki-e) [G. branychia] the 
Ul dlll.,lllcC breathing organs of fishes ; the gills. 
\\fr\nr>\y\n\ (brang'-ki-al) a. pertaining to, or per- 
Orancnidl formed by. gills, as of fishes. 
bratlPbinP^S (bran^nl-nes) n. the character of 

Kfari/'liincr (branching) a. shooting out; start- 
Ul dlll^lllllg jng from ; antlered. 
KranpViinrknH (brang'-ki-o-pod) n. [G. brang- 
Ul dliv^iiiupuu chia, gills, and pous, podos, 
foot] one of an order of Crustacea, generally very minute 
—so named because their gills are situated on the feet, as 
in the water-fleas, brine-shrimps, etc. 
KfQ ripVil^aoe (bransh-les) a. without branches or 
Ul dllCiiicas shoots ; without offspring. 

branchlet (bransh-let) n. a little branch ; a twig 

Fate, far, ^do ; me, her ; mine ; note ; tune ; m6da. 





t.^|.gnpViTr (bran-shi) a. full of branches; having 
*J^ tXll^ily spreading brandies; set among branches. 
Ufofifl (brand) n. [A.S.] a burning, or partly burnt, 
Ul ciliU piece of wood ; a sword, so called from its 
glittering brightness ; an iron used for burning a mark 
on, as a cask, or a criminal ; a mark made by Durning ; 
quality; kind; stigma; — v.t. to impress with hot iron; 
to fix a stamp or mark on ; to stigmatize. Brand-goose, 
a species of wild goose. Brand-iron, an andiron; a grid- 
iron ; a trivet ; a sword. Brand-mark, a mark burned, 
cut, or painted, as a means of identification. Brand-new, 
bran-new, quite new, as if fresh from the fire. 
hra n H P>H (branded) a. marked with a brand ; stig- 
Ul ctiiUCU matized ; brindled ; reddish-brown. 
KranH Ar (bran^er) v.t. to broil on a gridiron ; to 
Ul dliuci grill ._^ a gridiron. 
bra.ndie(i (^ran^ld) a. flavoured or treated with 

UfofiHino* (bran-ding) n. the operation of mark- 
Ui ctiiuiiig jjjg flrith a brand. Branding-iron, an 
iron used to brand with. 

V||«o ii f1 i ct-t (brandish) v.t. {brand'] to wave, as a 
Ul ctiiuioii weapon ; to shaKe or flourish ; — n. a 
flourish, as with a weapon, whip, etc. 

brandling, branling &Tf afmaliri 

worm, used as bait for fish ; a salmon of the first year. 

brandreth, brandrith ^^S&^n'l'i 

rail or fence around a well ; a frame to support a rick. 
U|*onHv (bran^i) n. [D.] an ardent spirit distilled 
Ul ctiiuy fpojjj ^ing Brandy-bottle, a name for 
the yellow water-lily, from the odour of the flower. 
Brandy-faced, having a red, blotchy face. Brandy- 
snap, thin ginger-bread wafers, flavoured with brandy. 
K««orip*ip (brang'-gl) n. [a variant of wrangle] a 
Ul cxiigic wrangle ; a squabble ; — v.i. to wrangle. 
U«>o filr (brangk) n. [probably of Celtic origin] ouck- 


Ufot-itr'c (brangks) n.vl. [Gael, brancas, a kind 
Ul ctiiiva Qf pillory] a bridle for scolding women ; a 
kind of bridle for norses and cows ; the mumps. 
brannV (b'^'^-') *• consisting of, or resembling, 

hrflflf (brant) n. [Icel. brandr, brand] the brand- 
ui ctiiL goose, brant-goose, or brent-goose. 

braS6n (bra^zn) a. See brazen. 

KfocVi (bnish) n. [Etyra. doubtful] a slight indis- 
ui ctoii position ; a rash or eruption ; water-brash ; 
refuse boughs of trees ; fragments of rocks ; broken 
fragments of ice; — r.«. to disturb. Teething-brash, 
weaning-brash, infantile disorders. Water-brash, 
acidity in the mouth, from a disordered stomach. 
Kj-3 qc (bras) n. [A.S. brces] a yellow alloy of copper 
uicxsa and zinc; impudence ; — jy^. utensils, orna- 
ments, or other articles made of brass ; effigies cut or 
engraved on brass on tombs or vaults ;— a. made of brass; 
—v.t. to coat or cover with brass. Brass-band, a com- 
pany of musicians who perform on wind instruments of 
brass. Brass-foil, Dutch leaf, formed by l)eating out 
plates of brass to great thinness. Brass-founder, one 
that makes articles in brass. Brass-leaf, brass made into 
very thin sheets. Brass-visaged, brazen-faced; impudent. 
Kj-a ceo p-p (bras^j) n. [O.F.] a charge to pay the 
uicxooagc; cost of coining money. 
hra<5<5a rH (brassard) n. [F. fr. L. brachium, arm] 
Ul (xoocu u. a badge for the arm ; armour for the 
upper part of the arm. In this second sense also brasset. 
HraQCP (bras) n. [cf. Ger. brassen, bream] the pale 
uiaasc spotted perch. 

Hraccilfr (bras-i-li) adv. with effrontery; im- 
UfcibbUy pudently. 

1-\**occi*^f>cc (bras^i-nes) n. the quality or the 
ui ctoaiiicoo appearance of being brassy. 
Kj«a cc V (bras-i) a. pertainmg to brass ; hard as brass ; 

0,0 Pjr of the colour of brass ; impudently bold ;-=^ 
n. a wooden golf -club with a brass sole. 
K ••a 4- (brat) n. [A.S. bratt, cloak] an apron; a pinafore ; 
"*«**- the scum on lx)iled milk, etc.; a child. 
brattlPf* (brat^is) n. [O.F. breteche] a partition 

a,LLiv,c connected with the ventilation oi a mine; 
a fence round machinery. 

Kj-Q 4-4-1 p (brat^l) v.i. [Imit.] to make a loud rattling 
wi cLkLic noise ; to thunder ;— «. a clattering noise ; 
rapid motion ; a violent attack. 

fate, far, ^o ; mS, h$r ; n^nc ; note ; (&a« ; npEddo, 

hrfllll (^rawl) n. [E. Ind.] a blue and white striped 

Ul auA cloth, manufactured in India. 

K»-Q TTfl H n (bra-va^o, bra-va^o) n. [Sp.] an arrogant 

uici,vci,viu boast or brag; a boasting fellow;— v.t. 

to storm or rage ; to indulge m bravado. 

Kj-a-rrp (brav) a. [F.] courageous; bold; daring; noble; 

uictvc; excellent; showy: — n. a brave person; an 

Indian warrior; a boast or defiance; a bully;— v.t. to 

encounter with courage and fortitude ; to set at defiance. 

hraT7«alTr (brav'-h) adv. in a brave manner; courage- 

UraVCiy ously ; gallantly. 

hraVPrv (braAver-l) n. courage ; daring ; fearless- 

ui d V ci y ness of danger ; undaunted spirit ; showy 

appearance ; ostentation ; finery ; gaudiness. 

br3.VO (bra^vo) n. [It.] a l^ndit ; an assassin \-—int. 

uiavu well done ; — n. an expression of applause. 

Kfnvriil^P (bra-v66^ra) n. [It.] an air with florid 

Ul a, V Ul a. graces, spirited, but dUhcult of execution; 

—a. florid ; brilliant. 

hra^vl (brawl) v.i. [Etym. doubtful] to quarrel 

Ul a,vvi noisily ; to complain loudly ; to flow noisily, 

as water ;—?i. a noisy quarrel ;— [F. bramle] a kind of dance. 

hra'XXrlpr (braw-ler) n. one that brawls; a noisy 

Ul ex w ic;i fellow ; a wrangler. 

hrfl'wlinP" (braV-Ung) n. the act of quarrelling ;— 

uictwiiiig a. contentious: noisy. 

hraTX7lino*1v (braV-ling-li) adv. in a brawling 

UraWiingiy manner; noisily. 

Hravrn (brawn) n. [0. H. Ger. brdto\ the flesh of a 

uia,y^ II boar; full strong muscles; muscular strength; 

pork salted and spiced, and made into sausage. 

brawner (braw-ner) n. a boar fattened for the 

HrawnitlPQQ ( braw^ni-nes ) n. the quality of 
uiawiiiiicoo being brawny; muscularity. 
KraTXTntr (braw-ni) a. naving large strong muscles ; 
UrdWny strong ; hardy. 

hiTji-yrxr (brak'-si) n. [Etym. unknown] a disease in 
Ul a.A.y sheep ; a sheep tainted by the disease, or the 
flesh of such a sheep ;— a. aflfected with braxy. 
K|*pTr (bra) v.t. [O.F. brayer] to pound or grind small; 
Ul ay [O.F. braire] to utter with a harsh sound;— v.i. 
to utter a harsh cry, as an ass ; — n. the harsh sound of 
an ass ; any grating sound. 

hifa-XTf^f (bra^r) n. an instrument for mixing or 
•^^ "'J ^* spreading ink ; one that brays. 
HravinP" (bracing) n. the harsh crying of an ass; 
Ul a,y iiig clamour ; harsh utterance. 
flfP yfx (braz) v.t. [Icel. brasa, harden by fire] to 
uia^C solder with an alloy of brass and zinc ;— 
[brass] to cover or ornament with brass. 
hra 7Pfl (braAzn) a. pertaining to, or made of, brass ; 
Ul cx^cii impudent;— v.i.tofaceimpudently. Brazen 
age, a time of war and violence. Brazen-browed, shame- 
less ; impudent. Brazen-faced, impudent ; shameless. 
Kra 'yoril'tr (bra^zn-li) adv. in a bold, impudent 
Uld^Clliy manner. 

Kra ypnnpcc (braizn-nes) n. quality of being 
Ul ct^ciiiicss brazen ; impudence. 
hra^ipr (brazh-yer] n. an artificer in brass;— [F. 
^* d^ici brasier]a, pan to hold live coals. 
K*-*! Tilin (braz^i-lin) n. the red colouring matter of 
DraZliin BrazU-wood. 

Rro'yil niif (br?i-zil-nut) n. the nut of a large 
JJI d^il-llUt South American fruit-tree. 
Rrfl^il-'WOnH (bra-zil-wood) n. a very heavy' 
xjia.^11 wuuvi wood, of a red colour, growing in 
tropical countries, and used for dyeing red. 
brpapll (brech) n. [A.S. brice] act of breaking, or 
'-'* CdUii state of being broken ; rupture : the gap or 
opening made by breaking; a violation or infraction of 
law, obligation, or tie ; transgression ; a breaking up of 
friendly relations; — v.<. to make an opening in the 
walls by means of artillery. 
Kf-on /^ViTT (brg^hi) a. apt to break fences ; unruly : 

Dreacny (gaidofcattie). 

t^|.pp A (bred) n. [A.S. bread] food made of flour or 
Ul CdU meal ; provisions in general ; subsistence ; 
maintenance. Bread-and-butter, n. tlie means of 
living ;■!-«. boyish, girlish. Bread-com, corn or grain of 
which bread is made, as wheat, rye, etc. Bread-fruit, 
the fruit oi a tree found in the isles oi the Pacific ; the 
name of the tree. Bread-room, a place for keeping 
bread on board a ship. Bread-stufiT. bread-corn. 
Bread-winner, one that supports himself and family 
by his earnings. Brown-bread, wheaten bread made 





from unbolted flour. To break bread, to partake of, or 

dippeinse, communion ; to take a meal ; 

to share hospitality. 

l-»r«aaH nr*aHpk (bred) v.t. [A.S. 

Dreaa, oreaet^ee^a^^tobraidi 

to form in meshes; — n. a piece of 
embroidery ; a braid. 
Kr<aarll«ac!c« (bred-les) a. without 
Ul CclUlCS)S) tread ; without food. 
\\ffx a H f Vl 0?redth) n. [A.S. brcbdu] 
UiCctutii distance from side to 
side; quality of having colours, shadows, 
and arrangement of objects, broad and 
massive, to produce an impression of largeness and 
grandeur ; freedom from narrowness or prejudice. 
f-|«.pp1». (brak) v.t. [A.S. brecan] to part, divide, or 
Ul CdA. j.gj,^ jjy force ; to burst or open by violence ; 
to pierce, as light through a cloud ; to make a gap in, as a 
wall ; to subdue, as the spirit ; to impair, as the strength ; 
to train, as a horse ; to crack, as the skin ; to open, as an 
abscess; to infringe, as a law; to violate, as an obligation; 
to disclose, as intelligence ; to terminate, as friendship ; 
to lessen the force of, as a fall or blow ; to make bankrupt ; 
to cashier or dismiss ■,—^.i. to part ; to come to pieces ; to 
burst asunder ; to open ; to shine forth ; to dawn ; to fail 
in health, busmess, etc. ; to issue with violence ; to fall 
out : to twist, as a ball at cricket ; — n. an opening made 
by force ; an interruption ; a pause ; a dasn indicating 
a suspension or stoppage of the meaning ; the first 
appearing of light in the morning ; the twist of a ball at 
cricket ; a carriage used for training horses ; a large 
waggonette ; a brake ; a brake-van. Break-down, act of 
breaking down, as of a carriage ; a riotous dance. Break- 
neck, n. a steep place, endangering the neck j— a. pro- 
ducing danger of a broken neck ; hazardous. Break of 
day, the dawn. Break-up, disruption ; dissolution ; 
disbandment. To break a jest, to crack a joke. To 
break bulk, to begin to unload. To break cover, to 
start from a hiding-place. To break down, to destroy by 
breaking ; to overcome ; to fail. To break ground, to 
dig ; to begin to execute any plan. To break in, to tame; 
discipline ; make tractable. To break loose, to escape ; 
to shake ofiF restraint. To break off a habit, to cause to 
abandon it. To break one's heart, to be grievously 
afflicted. To break one's word, to violate a promise. 
To break ranks, to leave the ranks ; fall out. To break 
step, to cease marching in cadence. To break the back, 
to break tlie keel of a ship ; to get through tbe greater 
part of. To break the ice, to make a beginning. To 
break upon the wheel to torture or put to death by 
stretching upon a wheel, and breaking the limbs with 
an iron bar. To break with, to cease to be friends with. 

DreakaDie (braAka-W) a. capable of being broken. 

Kj-pal^Qp'p (braikaj)n. a breaking; an allowance 
ui. ^ctA.ctgc; fpj. things broken in transportation. 
hrPaWpr (bra^ker)?!. onewho, or that which, breaks; 
. taxvci a, transgressor: generally, a wave breaking 
into foam on the shore or sunken rocks ; — [Sp. barrioa] a 
small flat water-cask used in boats. 
hrpa Irfa Qf (brek-fast) n. the first meal in the day; 
uicdx^icLSL _^( to furnish with the morning 
meal •,—v.i. to break one's fast in the morning. 
Kffaalf fa cfi no" (brek-fas-ting) n. act of taking 
Ul cdiviciOLiixg breakfast ; a party at breakfast. 
brG3.ksh3,rG (brak-shar) n. [braxy] a disease in 

V\rp»al?"\xrafp»r (brak-waw-ter) n. any structure to 
Ul CdK. WdLCr break the force of waves. 
brPa.m (^rem) n. [F. brime] a fish inhabiting lakes 

»-«**** and deep water, insipid, and little valued. 
brPa.m (^J"^'") ^•^- [<'/• broom] to burn rubbish, as 

*^'* "* grass, seaweed, etc., off from a ship's bottom. 
Vjfpaof (brest) n. [A.S. breost] the fore part of the 
■LTiv^cvoi, ijo^jy^ between the neck and the belly; the 
bosom ; the corresponding part in an animal ; the pro- 
tuberant glands in females, in which milk is secreted ; 
the seat of the aff"ections and passions ; the heart ;— 1'.<. 
to meet with the breast ; manfully to oppose or struggle 
against. Breast-band, a belt of canvas passed round 
the body of tlie man that heaves the lead in sounding. 
Breast-bone, the bone to which the ribs are attached. 
Breast-deep, as deep as the breast is high. Breast- 
dnll, a drill worked against the breast. Breast-fast, a 
large rope or chain used to fasten the midship part of 
a vessel to a dock or to another vessel. Breast-high, 

as high as the breast. Breast-hook, a piece of timber 
in the form of a knee, placed across the stem of a ship. 
Breast-knot, a knot of ribbons worn on the breast. 
Breast-pain, a distemper in horses. Breast-plough, a 
kind of spade used for cutting turf. Breast-pump, an 
apparatus for drawing milk from the breast. Breast- 
rail, the upper rail of a balcony or of the breast-work on 
a quarter-deck. Breast-wall, a retaining wall at the 
foot of a slope ; a wall built breast-high. Breast-wheel, 
a water-wheel that receives the stream of water at about 
half its height. To breast up a 
hedge, to cut the face of a hedge on 
one side, so as to lay bare the upright 
stems. To make a clean breast 
of, to make full confession. 

breasted Kalt!^"-''^'"'"^ 

hrpa<5fincr (hres^ting) n. the 
wi «^ci.o Liiig curved channel in 
which a breast-wheel turns. 


breastpin (i^est-pin.) n._^ 

pin worn for a fastening, or for orna- 
ment, on the breast. 
Kriaacfrilafo (brest-plat) n. defensive armour 
UlCctS>LpicltC ^orn upon the 
breast ; a strap across a horse's breast ; 
a jpart of the vestment of the high 
priest of the Jews, consisting of a rich 
embroidered stuff" set witli twelve 
precious stones, on which were engraved 
the names of the twelve tribes. 
hrP>a «lf -wrnrlr (brest-wurk) n. a 
UreabtWUrK. defensive earth- 
work, breast-high, hastily made ; a „ , 
railing on the quarter-deck and fore- i^reastpiaw. 
castle ; a protection on a balcony, or parapet on a bridge. 
hrPflfVl (''^'■^^'h) n- [A.S. brteth] air respired ; act or 
Ul CctLll power of breathing naturally or freely ; 
time to breathe ; respite ; a single respiration, or the time 
of making it ; an instant ; a word ; a very slight breeze. 
Kf^aafViaKlfa (bre-THa-bl) a. capable of being 
Ul catllctUlC breathed ; that may be breathed. 
Kfoo f 1-1 n K1 An Acc (bre-THa-bl-nes) n. the state 
UredindUienCbb of being breathable. 
|-^«>pofV|A (breTH) v.<. to inhale and expel from the 
Ul CdLllC mouth and lungs ; to infuse or inspire, as 
life, courage, etc.; to emit or exhale, as odour, etc.; to 
utter ; to disclose ; to sound, as a wind instrument ; to 
put out of breath, as by violent exercise •,—v.i. to inhale 
and emit air— hence, to live ; to take breath ; to rest. 
To breathe one's last, to die. 

Uf'ir^of'l-iArl (bretht) a. having breath; long- 
uiccttlicu winded; short-Avinded;— (breTHd)out 
of breath ; [Phil.] uttered with breath only. 
Hrpatllf^r (bre-THer) n. one who, or that which, 
Ul cctLiici breathes ; exercise to try the wind. 
brPa.thful (breth-fool) a. full of breath ; odorous ; 

hrpafVlitIO* (bre-THing) n. respiration; air in 
ulCdLlliii^ gentle motion; any gentle influence 
or operation ; aspiration ; secret prayer ; exercise ; utter- 
ance ; breathing place ; respite ; a mark placed over a 
vowel, giving it tne force and sound of h. Breathing- 
hole, a vent-hole, as in a cask ; a hole in the ice where 
seals, etc., come up to breathe. Breathing-place, a 
vent ; a pause in a sentence or verse. Breathing-pore, . 
a microscopic aperture in the cuticle of plants. Breathing- 
time, pause ; relaxation. 
breathless (brej;h-les) a. out of breath; dead; 

K*-AofVi1cic'o«o,cjc« (breth-les-nes) n. state of 
DreainieSSneSS being breathless. 
Hrpppia (brech-ya) n. [It. cf. O. H. Ger. brecha, 
Ul Cl.< breaking] a conglomerate rock composed 
of angular fragments united by a matrix. 
hrPPpi a f pH (brecli-i-a-ted)a. consisting of angular 
Ul CCCldLCU fragments cemented together. 
hrpH<5nrp' (bred^or) n. a whitlow, or a sore that 
Ul CUoUl C hreeds, as it were, without cause. 
KrAPpli (brech) «. [A.S. brec, breeches] the lower 
Ul CCV^ll and hinder part of the body ; the hinder 
part of anything, esp. of a firearm, behind the bottom of 
the bore;— ?'.<. to put into breeches; to wiiip on the 
breech ; to fasten with lireeching. Breech-loader, a 
firearm loaded at the breech. Breech-loading, receiving 
the charge at tlie breech. 

Fate, f &r, ^do ; va», h^r ; mine ; note ; tiine ; mdda. 




'U|.ppp1ickc (brich^z) a garment worn by 
Ui CCl^nCo men, covering the hips and thighs. 
Breeches-buoy, an apparatus hke a short pair of 
breeches, moving on a rope stretched from a wreck to the 
shore, for saving persons from the wreck. Breeches-part, 
a part in a play m which a woman wears breeches. To 
wear the breeches, to rule (said of the wife). 
t% l*pppl-< i n p- (brich-ing) 7?. that part of the harness 
ui c^cuxiiixg which comes round the breech of a 
horse ; a strong rope fastened to a ship's cannon, to 
prevent it from recoiling when fired ; a whipping. 
Ilf/^pfl (bred) v.t. [A.S. bredan, nourish] to beget ; 
Ul ecu to hatch ; to nurse and foster ; to instruct ; 
to form by education; to produce; to originate; — v.i. 
to bear and nourish young; to be generated, or grow 
before birth ; to be produced •,—n. a progeny from the 
same stock ; a race of men or animals that have an 
alliance by nativity, or distinctive qualities in common ; 
progeny; oflspring, applied to other things than animals. 
Breed-bate, one that causes quarrels. To breed in. 
and in, to breed continually from parents near akin 

Kf/apflfil- (brewer) n. one who, or that which, pro- 
ui ccuci duces or brings up ; one that rears a 
particular species of cattle, horses, fowls, etc. 

V%fpp<4i*^p* (breUling) n. the act of producing ; the 
UL ccuiiig rearing of live stock from one species 
or by crossing or intermingling ; nurture ; formation or 
manners ; good manners ; behaviour or deportment. 
\\rfxfx^fx (brez) n. \F. brize] a light wmd ; a gentle 
Ui cc^c gale ; a quarrel •,—v.i. to blow gently. 
Kfpp^p (orez) n. [A.S. briosa} a fly of various 
ui cc^c species, noted for buzzmg about animals, 
and tormenting them by sucking their i)lood; the gad-fly. 
Ylfpkfiyfx (brez)r?. [F. hriser, break] house-sweepings; 
Ulcere cinders. Breeze-oven, an oven for making 
coke ; a furnace for consuming breeze. 
Kt-pp^fklpicc (brez-les) a. undisturbed by any 
Uicc^cicoa breeze; still; calm; motionless. 
Kfiap7-\r (bre-zi) a. fanned with gentle winds or 
Ui cc^_y breezes; exposed to frequent changes of air. 
OfpU^f.. (brr;-hon) r?. [Ir.] an ancient Irish judge. 
iji Ciiuii Brehon laws, the native Irish laws. 
\\fe>'\r\n\\e^ (lire-lok) n. [F.J a seal, locket, etc., 
UI CIU4UC attached to a watch-chain. 
KfPI^ f^ Q ryc^ (bren^ij) n. [O.F.] tribute formerlypaid 
Ui Ciiiicxg c hy tenants to their over-lord, in lieu of 
bran for his hounds. 

brPtlf (Irent) n. a brant-goose ;— a. [A.S. hranf] 
uio^iiL high; steep; smooth. 

brest-summer, breast-summer 

(brest^sum-er) n. a summer or beam placed breast-wise 
to support a superincumbent wall. 
Kf pf peep (bre-tes) n. [O.F.] a crenelated tower of 
uieLC.oac several stories; a machiolated timber 
projection over a gateway, etc. 

brpthrf n (weTH-Ven) members of the same 
uicLiii^ii association, society, profession, etc. 
Elder Brethren, the corporation of Trinity House, 
London, looking" after lighthouses, buoys, pdots, etc. 
Plymouth Brethren, a Christian sect teaching the 
near coining of Clirist, practising adult baptism, and 
having no regular ministry (Plymouth, 1830). 
Rrpton (bret^un) a. [F.] relating to Brittany or its 
xjL^\,yji.k language or people ;— to. a native, or the 
language, of Brittany. 

brett (bret) n. a britzska, q.v. 
brettice (bretii8)n. See brattice. 

hrpf\xralHa (bret-wawMg,) n. fA.S.] a name 

uiCLWdiuct applied to any chief or Saxon king 

that had attained some kind of superiority over the others. 

brPVP ('""cv)/!, PL. 6rcrts, short] a note equivalent to 

I uk\,M\^ two semibreves, or four minims (©); a curved 

mark (^) used to indicate the short quantity of a vowel. 

*r brpvpf" (breV-et) n. [F. fr. L. brei'ia, short] a royal 

\ i./xv..v«^i, warrant granting a privilege, title, or 

\ dignitv ; a commission to an otticer, which entitles him 

to an honorary rank in the army above his actual rank 

and pay ;— a. assigned or appointed by brevet. 

breVetCy Cbrev'-et-si) n. brevet rank. 

breviarv C'rcv-ya-ri) n. [L. brevis, short] an 
*~ ""* J epitome ; a book containing the daily 
service of the Eoman Catholic and Greek churches. 

1-jfP'^lpf (bre-ver') ». a printing type in size between 

Ui C V iwi KniircrpniQ anrl mininn 

bourgeois and minion 

hrf^iri r\*iH (brev'-i-ped» a. [L. brevis, short, and pet, 
Ui C Vipcu pedis, foot] having short legs [Ornith.]. 
KfATrirkAt-inof A (brev-i-pen^t) a, [L. penna, 
UlCVipCllUdLC wing] short-winged. 
UfATrif xr (brev'-i-ti) n. [L. brevis, short] shortness of 
UlCVlty duration; 

. conciseness. 
brPTV (^'■'^6) v.t. [A.S. breoican] to prepare, as a 
'-'* ^ ''^ liquor, from malt and hops, or other materials, 
by steeping, boiling, and fermentation ; to mix ; to 
concoct ; to contrive ; to plot ;— r.i. to perform the 
business of brewing ; to be in a state of preparation ; to 
be impending;— 7?. the liquid compound made by brewing. 
brP'\A7'a P"** (brod^j) 11. malt liquor ; drink brewed ; 
Ui c w clg c a plan or plot ; the process of brewing. 
brP^ATPr (broo-er) n. one that brews ; one whose 
Ui c w Ci trade is to brew malt linuors. 
hrP'wrPrv (broo^r-i) n. the building and apparatus 
ui c w ci jr for brewing. 

brP'winP* (broo-ing) n. the act or process of pre- 
ui c w iiig preparing liquors from malt and hops, 
etc.; the quantity brewed at once. 
hrP^xri ^ (broo^is) n. [O. H. (ier. brod, broth] broth ; 
Ui c w io pottage; bread soaked in gravy, hot milk, etc. 
hrPTATQ^Pr (broo^ster) n. one that brews ; a female 
uicwsLCi brewer. Brewster-sessions, sessions 
for granting licenses to publicans. 
Krf*"«rcf *arif <a (br66i«ter-it) n. a siUcious mineral 
Ui c w a LCi i LC named after Sir David Brewster. 
Kfj o r (bri^r) n. [F. bruyere, heath] a briar-root pipe. 
Ui icii ggg brier. Briar-root, the root of the white 
heath ; a pipe made from it. 

hriarPfltl (brl-a^re-an) a. pertaining to. or resem- 
^* **** Cdii bling, Briareus, a fabulous giant with a 
hundred hands ; many-handed. 

hribflbtf* (bn-ba-bl) a. capable of being bribed; 
Ui iuctuic open to briliery ; venal. 
hrihp (brib) n. [O.F., a hunch of bread] a gift, place, 
Ui iuc or favour ofiered or bestowed, with a view to 
influence the judgment and conduct; that which seduces; 
—v.t. to influence by gifts ; — v.i. to practise bribery. 

bribee (bri-be') n. one that accepts a bribe. 
briber (brl-ber) n. one that ofiiers or gives bribes. 

hribprv (bn-ber-i) n. act or practice of giving or 
uiiucijr receiving favours corruptly or illegally. 
hrip $i-braP (brik-a-brak) n. [F.] fancy ware; 
'-'**^~**'~'-'***^ curiosities; knick-knacks. 
briplr (brik) n. [O.D. broken, break] clay and sand 
Ui iV„A. tempered with water, moulded into regular 
forms, dried in the sun, and u.sually burnt ; a loaf shaped 
like a brick ; a good fellow ;— a. made of, or resembling, 
bricks ■,—v.t. to lay or pave with bricks. Brick-clay, 
brick-earth, clay suitable for making bricks and tiles. 
Brick-dust, dust from pounded bricks. Brick-kiln, a 
kiln in which bricks are baked or burnt. Brick-nogging, 
brickwork as a filling in timber framing. Brick-tea, tea 
compressed into l)rick-shaped masses. Brick-trimmer, 
a brick arch to receive the hearth of a fire-place. Brick- 
yard, a place where bricks are made. 
nripkba.t (brlk-bat) n. a piece or fragment of a 

brirklaver (brlk-la-er) n. one that builds with 

Kri/^lrl a Trin tr (brik-la-ing) n. the art of building 
UIlCK-lctyillg with bricks. 
Kfi/*lrmal?"*ir (brik-ma-ker) n. one whose trade 
UI lCI:^illciJS.Ci it is to make bricks. 
Kt-i^l^-Txrrkrlr (brik-wurk) n. a structure of bricks; 
UriCK-WUlK. the art of laying bricks. 
hrirnl hrirolp (brik^ul, bn-kol') n. [¥.] a 
Ui iK^yjiy Ui iv^ux^ side-stroke at tennis ; harness 
for men that drag or carry loads. 

Hri H 3 1 (brMal) a. belonging to a bride or to a wed- 
Ui iucti ding ; — n. the nuptial festival ; marriage. 
hfi H P (brid) n. [A. S. bri)d] a woman recently married ; 
Ui iuc a woman contracted to be married. Bride- 
cake, cake made for the guests at a wedding. Bride- 
chamber, the nuptial apartment. 
briHppTOnm (bnd-groom) n. [A.S. br'yd, bride, 
uiiu^gi v^uiii and guma, man] a man newly 
married, or about to lie married. 

KriH^iemaiH (bridz-inad) n. a woman that attends 
Ui lUCailictiU on a bride at her wedding. 

Fate, fdr, ^do ; md, hfr ; mine ; ndte ; tOne ; m6dn. 




hriH<^Qtn9ri Ct^ndz^m^n) n. a man that attends 
ui lucoiiictii a bridegroom at his wedding. 
hriHp'WpIl (brid'-wel) n. a house of correction— so 
ui xuc W Cli called from a hospital near St. Bride's 
or Bridget's Well, in London, subsequently a prison. 
briHp'P ('^"J) ^- CA.S. brycg] a structure erected to 
uxiugc make a continuous roadway over a water- 
course, etc. ; something analogous, as a support for the 
strings of a violin, the bony part of the nose, etc ; — v.t. 
to build a bridge or bridges over. Bridge-deck, a partial 
deck, extending from side to side of a steam-vessel amid- 
ships. Bridge-head, a work protecting the end of a 
bridge nearest the enemy. Bridge-train, a division 
of an army with appliances for building bridges. 

bridg'eleSS (brij-les) «. without a bridge. 

hriHlf* (bri^l) n. [A.S. bridel] the head-gear of a 
*^* iviic horse or other beast of burden ; a curb ; a 
check ; part of a gun-lock ; a moving hawser \—v.t. to put 
a bridle upon ; to guide, or govern ; to curb, or control ; 
— v.i. to hold up the head, and draw in the chin, as an 
expression of pride, scorn, or resentment. Bridle-hand, 
the hand that holds the bridle in riding. Bridle-path, 
a path or way for travellers on horseback. 
KriHrkz-kn (bri-doon') n. [F. bridon] the snaffle and 
Ul iUUUli i-ejn of a military bridle. 
hri#*f (href) a. [L. brevis, short] short in duration; 
Ul ICl short in expression ; concise ; succinct \—n. a 
short writing ; a statement in few words ; an abridgment 
of a client's case for instruction of counsel ; a writ ; — v.t. 
to abridge ; to reduce to the form of a brief ; to instruct 
or retain by brief. In brief, in a few words. 
bripflp^'S (bref-les) a. having no brief; without 

hripfl V (t)ref-li) adv. in a brief manner ; concisely ; 
Ul iciljf in fg^ words. 

hripfmflri (bref-man) n. one that makes a brief; 
uxiciiiictil a copier of manuscript. 
hripfnP^^ (bref-nes) n. the state or quality of 
Ul iciiicoo being brief ; shortness ; conciseness. 
hriPr hriflr (■'''i-?'"' -^^rtn. [A.S. brer] a prickly 
'-'**^*) Ul ictl plant or shrub ; the sweet-brier and 
the wild-brier, species of the rose. 

briery (brl^r-i) a. full of briers ; rough ; thorny. 

(brig) n. [abbreviation of brigantine] a vessel 
with two masts, square-rigged. 



bri P*aHp (bri-gad') n. [P.] a divi- 
_ **o'*'^^ sion of troops, consist- 
ing of an indeterminate number of 
regiments or battalions ; an organised 
body of men wearing a uniform ■,—v.t. 
to form into a brigade, or into brigades. 
bHp*aHtPr (brlg-a-der') n. the 
Kjx xgci,vti^i generalofficerthatcommandsabrigade, 
in rank next below a major-general. 
bri Q'H n H (bng'-and) n. [F. fr. It. briga, an intrigue] 
uii^ctiiu a lawless fellow that lives by plunder; 
a robber ; a freebooter ; a highwayman. 
hrio'anHaO'P (brig^an-daj) n. the practice of 
uiigcxiiuagc brigands; highway robbery. 
brip*anHinP (brig-an-din) n. [O.F. fr. brigand, 
i^x igaixvAiiiv^ foot-soldier] armour composed of 
thin iron plates sewed upon cloth or leather. 
hriP'fltlfinP (brig-an-tin) n. [P. brigantin, a 
uiigciiiLiiic piratical vessel] a light, two-masted 
vessel, square-rigged like a brig. 

brip'nt (brit)a. [A.S. beorht] shining; full of light 
uixgiit or splendour; sparkling; transparent; 
illustrious ; glorious ; having mental activity ; quick ; 
keen ; full of promise or hope ; cheerful : radiant. 
brip'VltPtl (brl-tn) v.t. to make bright ;—2;.i. to 
Ul ig 11 LCii gjo^ bright ; to clear up. 
brip"llflv (brit^li) oav. in a bright manner ; splen- 
uiigiiLiy didly: luminously; vividly. 
hriirllfnpcc (nrlt^nes) n. the quality of being 
uxxjgxiuiicas bright; mental acuteness. 
Rritrlif o rlicoocA (brits-di-zez) n. a disease 
Dngnt S aiSeaSe of ^he kidneys, first de- 
scribed in 1827 by Dr. E. Bright. 

Kri crVx f crkt-n «» (brit-sum) a. very bright ; brilUant; 
ullgllLauiUC luminous ; cheerful. 

brightsomeness i^S--f>,i„rancr' 

hrill nrill C'ril, pril) n. [Etym. unknown] a fish 
uxxxx) ^xxxx like the turbot, much esteemed as food. 

hrillanfp (bril-lan-ta) a. [It.] brisk and lively in 
Ul iiictii LC spirit and manner [Mus.]. 

brilliance, brilliancy r^Sat'lS- 

ness, whether in a literal or tropical sense ; splendour. 
hrillianf (bril'-yant) a. [P. fr. L. beryuus, a pre- 
uiiiiictiit clous stone] sparkhng with lustre; 
glittering ; distinguished ; splendid ; shining ;—n. a 
diamond cut with facets to refract the light in a sparkling 
manner ; the smallest size of printing type. 
hHllifltlfiriP (brll-yan-ten) n. a preparation of 
Ul 11110,11 Liiic castor oil and perfume used to make 
the hair glossy. 

Kfi 1 1 i o « flTT (bril-yant-li)a<Zw.inabrilliant manner; 
UrillldnLiy splend'ldlv ; radiantly. 
Krilliii rif ri«aoo (bril-yant-nes) n. state or quality 
UnilldnLnt^bb of being brilliant. 
Kfjllc (brilz) [Etym. unknown] the hair on the 
Ul Ilia eyelids of a horse. 

bri m (brim) n. [A.S. brim, sea] rim or border of any- 
ui 1111 thing ; edge or margin : the rim of a hat ;— i;.i. 
to fill to the brim •,—v.i. to be full to the brim. 
Kfi m fi 1 1 (brim-fool) a. full to the brim ; completely 
UnmiUl full- overflowing. 

brimmpH (brlmd) a. bnmful ; filled to the brim ; 
Ul iiiiiiicvi having a brim (used in composition). 
K**! m m t^f (brim-er) n. a cup full to the brim ; that 
UnilllllCr which "fills to the brim. 
Krimmino- (brim-ing) a. full to the brim; over- 
Ul llllilllllg flowing ; exuberant. 
hritrmfonP (brim^t6n)n. [M.E.] a hard, brittle, 
uiiiiiouuiic inflammable substance, of a lemon 
colour ; sulphur. Brimstone butterfly, a species of 
butterfly, so called from its yellow colour. 
Krin HpH KrinHI pH (brinyed,-dld)a.[6ran- 
Drinuea, Onnaiea ^ed] having dia^erent 
colours ; variegated ; streaked ; spotted. 
hriflP (brin) n. [A.S. bryne, name, heat, brine] water 
Ul iiic impregnated with salt ; the ocean or sea ; 
tears, so calledf from their saltness. Brine-pan, 
brine-pit, a pit of salt water, for forming salt by 
evaporation. Brine-spring, a spring of salt water. 
Uf^f^p. (bring) v.t. [A.S. bringan] to carry ; to fetch ; 
Ul iiig to convey from one person or place to another; 
to draw in ; to induce ; to prevail on ; to influence. To 
bring about, to achieve ; to effect. To bring down, to 
lower; to degrade; to kill, as game. To bring down the 
house, to produce great applause. To bring forth, to 
bear ; to be the origin of. To bring forward, to pro- 
duce ; to adduce as an argument. To bring home to, 
to find guilty of ; to stamp on the mind. To bring in, 
to introduce, as a bill ; to furnish ; to produce. To bring 
off, to bring away from a place ; to tree from a charge. 
To bring out, to make known ; to publish ; to draw or 
infer. To bnng over, to convert. To bring to, to 
make conscious again ; to cause to stop (said of a ship). 
To bring under, to conquer ; to curb. To bring up, to 
educate ; to produce for discussion. 

bringer (brlng-er) n. one that brings or conveys. 
brini*?h (brl^nlsh) a. like brine; slightly salt; 

Kt-inicVirKioo (bri-nish-nes) n. saltness; the 
UnillbllllCbCs quality of being saltish. 
Hri n i a rrv (brin-ja^ri)n,. [Hind.banjdra] a travelling 
Ul lllj ctl 1 y dealer in grain and salt in the Deccan. 
Hrint (bringk) n. [Dan.] edge, margin, or border, of 
Ul llliv jj steep place, as of a precipice ; verge. 
Hrinv (brl-ni)a. pertaining to brine, or to the sea; 
Ul Illy impregnated with salt. 

briony (brl^-nOn. See bryony. 

hriniipffp (bri-kef) n. [F. fr. brique, brick] a 

Ul I^UCLLC brick-shaped preparation of coal dust. 

Hri^t (brisk) a. [W. brysg, quick] fuU of liveliness 

Ul loi^ and activity; full of spirit or life ; effervescing. 

KriQlrpf (bris^ket) n. [O.P. bruschet] the breast of 

Ul lolvCl. an animal, or that part of the breast that 

lies next to the ribs. 

Kriolrl-ir (brisk^li) adv. in a brisk manner; actively; 

Ul laK-iy with life and spirit. 

hriQlrriPQc: (brisk-nes) n. liveliness; vivacity; 

Ul lolvilCoo efiervescence of hquors. 

hriQflp (bris-1) n. [A.S. byrsf] a short, stiff, coarse Z^ 

Ullotic; hair, as of swine; a species of pubescence . 

on plants, in form of stiff roundish hair \—v.t. to erect j^ 

F&te, far, ^do ; me, hgr ; mine ; nSte ; tune ; moon. 




the bristles of ; to fix a bristle to ■,—v.t. to rise or stand 
erect, like bristles. To bristle up, to resent ; to show 
defiance. To bristle witb, to contain in large quantity. 
Kri cf 1 aH C^ris-ld) a. provided with bristles; covered 
UllotiCU with coarse, stiff hairs. 

bristliness S"Siy"- '^^ ""^"^ °' ''"'^''' °* 

'U|.:Qi.1^ (bris-li) a. thick set with bristles, or with 
Ul lo Lly jiair resembling bristles ; rough ; fierce. 
I3«-ic«4-/>k1 Krkot-rl (bris^tul-bord) n. [Bristol, in 
DrlStOl-DOarU England] a fine pasteboard 
made with a smooth and sometimes glazed surface. 
"Ri-iof rtl l^rinlr (bris^tul-brik) n. a sort of brick 
JDl la LUl-Ul ICR. used for cleaning steel. 
■Q^-iofrkl e4-/-krio ( bris^tul-ston ) n. rock crystal 
DriStOl-StOne found near Bristol. 
Kri f (l>rit) n. [Etym. unknown] minute animals eaten 
Ul 1 1» by whales ; a young herring or sprat. 
TD^I^-ofinio (bri-tan-ya) n. Britain; Britain personi- 
IJI ILctlllllct fied; a feniale form symbolic of Britain. 
Britannia-metal, an alloy of tin, antimony, bismuth, 
and copper. 

'Rfif'innir' (bri-tan-ik) a. pertaining to ancient 
JDl ILctlllllV, Britain, or to Great Britain ; British. 
T^rifici^m (brit^i-sizm) n. a British idiom or 
iJl lLll.,10111 peculiarity of speech. 
Rrif IqIi (Ijrit-ish) a. pertainmg to Great Britain or 
XJllLloll its inhabitants. British-gum, a substance 
of a brownish colour, soluble in cold water, formed by 
heating dry starch at a temperature of about 600° Fahr., 
and used in stiffening goods. Brltisli lion, the emblem 
of Great Britain. 
Briti<>%hpr (^■'i'^i^^'?'') ^- ^ subject of the British 

Rrifnn (brit^un) n. one of the ancient Celtic in- 

XJi iLt/ii habitants of Britain ; a native of Britain. 

U|.|i.i.|£^ (brit-1) a. [A.S. breotan, to break] easily 

Ul iLUic broken ; apt to break ; fragile. 

Krif f1*an<acc (brit^l-nes) n. the quality of being 

UiiLUiCiicaa brittle; aptness to break ; fragility. 

Krif^clra (t)ri ts^ka) n. [Pol. bT^czka] a long carriage 

Ul lL^aJ:^cL ^itb a calash top. 

hri 73 (bri-za) n. [G. brizein, nod] the quaking-grass, 

ux x^ct Of lady's-hair, found m southern Europe. 

briZ6 (brez) n. the gadfly. See breeze. 

K«-/^»j pU (broch) n. [F. broche, an iron pin] a spit; a 
ui \ja.\,ii. tool of steel, generally tapering, for smooth- 
ing or enlarging holes in metal ; a brooch ,—v.t. to 
pierce, as with a spit ; to tap, as a cask, in order to draw 
the liquor— hence, to let out ; to open for the first time, 
as stores ; to make public ; to give out. 
hrna pVi Pr (brother) n. a spit ; one that first opens 
Ul ua,\..,ii^i or utters opinions. 
hroaH (brawd)rt. [A.S. oradj wide; extended from 
Ul uau gjjg Jo side ; diSused ; large ; ample ; com- 
prehensive ; coarse ; gross. As broad as long, equal 
upon the whole. Broad-arrow, the official mark on 
government goods. Broad churcb, a body of men 
holding liberal views of Christian doctrine and fellowship. 
Broad-eyed, taking a comprehensive view. Broad- 
gauge, said of rails whose gauge is greater than 4 feet 
8i inches. Broad-seal, the great seal of England ;— f.i. 
to imprint with the broad-seal ; to assure or be surety for. 
Broad-spoken, vulgar or unpolished in speech. 
hrnaHavf* (brawd-aks) n. an axe for hewing 
Ul KJ€xyicxA.^ timber ; an ancient military weapon. 
Krrva rIKill (brawd-bil)n. the spoon-bill or shoveller- 
Ul UdUUlll juci- (named from their broad bill). 
hrr»a H Kri m (brawd-brim) n. a hat like those worn 
Ul UdU Ul 1111 by ti,g Friends or Quakers; a Quaker. 
hrna H pa Qf (brawd-kast) 71. a casting of seed from 
Ul uci,uv..cia L tjjg j^and in sowing :—adv. by scatter- 
ing widely at large from the hand ;— a. dispersed with tlie 
hand, as seed in sowing ; widely spread or diffused. 
Krrkorlr^lrtf f-i (brawd-kloth) n. a fine woollen cloth 
UlUctU(.,lUUl for men's garments. 
hrO^Hpn (brawyn) v.t. to make broad ; to render 
uiudvicii more comprehensive ; — v. i. to grow 

K J-/-VQ f1 Itt (brawd-li) adv. in a broad manner; widely; 
tji\jcx,\iiy extensively: generally. 
Krrkorltnfioc! (brawd-nes) n. extent from side to 
Ul UdUllCbb gije . large width. 

Kfr^a^cVi A'^f (brawd-shet) n. a sheet of paper 
Ul uctusllcCL printed only on one side. 

'U|«^pi-1ciHf^ (brawd^id) n. the side of a ship; a 
Ul uctuoivic discharge of all the guns on one side 
of a ship at the same time ; a broadsheet. 
Krr»nHoTX7rvrrl (brawd^ord) n. a sword with a 
Ul OciUS> WUl U broad blade and a cutting edge. 
KfrkorlxxricA (brawd-wiz) adv. in the direction of 
DroaUAVlSse the breadth. 

brobdingnagian [Km'ScaT^iingini 

troduced in Swift's Gulliver's Travels] gigantic; — n. a 

person of extraordinary size. 

U|«l-lpo|-1p (bro-kad') n. [Sp. brocado] silk stuff 

^* WUctvlc variegated with gold, silver, or flowers, 

etc. ; any stuff with raised flowers or other ornamentation. 

y\t'r\n^f\f^A (bro-kaAded) a. worked, as brocade; 

Ul U(.,ctUCU dressed in brocade. 

YiTC%Ci\ T(\ (brok^rd) n. [Bishop Brocard, of Worms, 

Ul Ul.,a.l U d.l025]afundamentalruleinlaw;amaxim. 

brocatelle, brocatello ^^7l^^*f stuff 

somewhat like brocade ; a beautiful marble from Sienna. 
Kf^PP^1« (brok'-6-U) n. [It. broccolo, dim. of brocco, 
Ul UI..V..UII sprout] a variety of the cauliflower, 
esteemed best in winter or early spring. 
hrorll (broH) n. [A.S. burh] a prehistoric round 
Ul Ul.,11 tower, often with an inner and an outer wall. 
Ki-rk^Viarif if «a (broch^n-tit) n. [Brochant de 
UlUdldllLltC vUliers, French mineralogist, d. 
1840] a hydrous sulphate of green-coloured copper. 
hmplllirP (bro-shoor') n. [F. brocker, to stitch] a 
•^^ UV,11U1 C printed and stitched work containing a 
few leaves ; a pamphlet. 

Kf/-k/^lr (brok) n. [Gael, broc, fr. breac, speckled] a 
DrOCK badger. 

U|.^p1>.p4. (brok^t) n. [F. brocart, fr. broche, spit] 
Ul u^.^ A.C U a red deer two years old. 
V\^•r\Ae^^^in (brod-kin, brod^-kin) n. [F.] a buskin 
DFOaCKin or half-boot. 

Uf.^o>ll p (brog) n. [It. and Gael, brog] a stout, coarse 
^*^o"^ shoe; a corrupt dialect or manner of 
pronunciation, esp. Irish, 

HrniHpr (broiler) v.t. [F. broder] to adorn with 
Ul uiuci figured needlework. 
hrni 1 (broil) »i. [F. brouiller, confuse] a noisy quarrel ; 
*-'* '^** contention ; fray ; tumult ; altercation ; — v.t. 
[O.F. bruiller] to dress or cook over coals or on a grid- 
iron ;— v.i. to DC subjected to heat; to perspire through 
heat ; to be excited by feeling. 

Uf^II^^I* (broi-ler) n. one that excites broils; one 
Ul unci that broils meat ; a gridiron. 

brokage (bro^kaj) n. See brokerage. 

hrntp (brok) v.t. to trafiic in •,—v.i. to transact busi- 
'-'* vli.C ness for another. Preterite of break. 
\\yf\'\rf>n (bro^kn) pp. of break; parted by violence; 
"* Ui^Cll weak; infirm; sulxlued; humbled; contrite. 
Broken-backed, having the back broken; of a ship, having 
both ends drooping. Broken colours, composite colours. 
Broken-hearted, crushed by grief or despair. Broken 
meat, small pieces of food. Broken voyage, an un- 
successful voyage. Broken-winded, having short or 
disordered respiration. 

W|«^1^p*^1^ (bro^kn-li) adv. in a broken, interrupted 
"* Ul^Cliijr manner : in imperfect language. 
Hrntpr (brocker) n. [M.E. brocour, fr. A.S. brucan, 
"* UIV.CI use] one that buys and sells for others ; a 

Eawnbroker; a person licensed to appraise and sell 
ousehold furniture distrained for rent. 
\\rf\\r(^raP'f^ (br6iker-aj)n. the business of a broker; 
l^* Uli-Cl ctg c the fee or commission of a broker. 
HrnlriflO' (brooking) n. the trade of a broker;— a. 
'-'* Uivlll^ employed as a broker ; pandering. 
V\fr\m<^ (bro^ma) n. [G. broma, food] a preparation 
DrOma of chocolate ;-[Med.] solid food. 
Ki-rkm Q f Ck (bro^mat) n. a compound of bromic acid 
UlUlllctLC with a base. 

brOmatOgraphy lr^%ofSi^graphein, 

write] a disquisition on foods. 

Hrnm P (brom) n. [ G. bromos, oats ] a name of 

'-'* uiiic various oat-like grasses ; brome-grass. 

Rrntnpltfl ( bro-me^li-a ) n. [Bromel, Swedish 

XJi uiiiciict botanist] a genus of tropical plants 

cultivated for their beautiful flowers. 

Hrnm i r* (bro^mik) a. pertaining to, or derived from, 

Ul uiiiiv^ bromine. 

Fate, far, ^do ; me, her ; mine ; note ; tune ; modn. 




T^rnmiHp (broimld, -mid)n. a compound of bro- 
•^* WimviC mine with some other element. 
V»rr»rninP (bro^mln, -min) n. [G. bromos, stench] 
•-'* WillillC Q,jg Qf tijg elements, related in its 
chemical qualities to chlorine and iodine. 
Krrkmicm (bro-mizm) n. a condition due to 
Ul UllXiaill iiabitual doses of bromides. 
HronrVlin (brong'-ki-a) [G., the bronchial 
Ul UiiUliict tubes] the ramifications of the wind- 
pipe, which carry air to and from the lungs. 
Vkrrkti filial ( brong - ki - al ) a. belonging to the 
Ul UilCllIctX bronchia, or to the bronchi. 
K«*<-v«<ipt-|ii.<c (brong-kl-tis) n. inflammation of the 

broncho, bronco fef JiSd^ytaTat 

tamed native horse ; a mustang. 

hrnripVinnf 1p (brongf-ko-sel) n. [G. brongchos, 
"••■ vJHUiUJ^-ClC windpipe, and kSle, tumour] a 
morbid enlargement of the thyroid glands ; a goitre. 
hronrlinfntnv (brong-kot^-mi) n. [G. brong- 
ux\jii\^nvj\,\ji.ii.y chos, windpipe, and tome, cut- 
ting] an incision into the windpipe or larynx. 
Ilf.|-If1l-.1->IIQ (brong-kus) n.; pi. bronchi (brong-ki) 
Ul UllCllUo one of the bifurcations of the windpipe. 
hronf nlnf>*V (bron-tol^-ji) n. [G. brontc, thunder, 
'-'* UllUUHJgjr and iogros, speech] a work on thunder. 
hrnn 7P (bronz)n. [L. Brundttsium, Brindisi] an alloy 
'-'*'^**^^of copper with tin or zinc; a work of art 
in bronze; the colour of bronze;— a. made of, or coloured 
like, bronze •,—v.t. to give the appearance of bronze to ; to 
make brown, or of the colour of bronze; to make hard 
or unfeeling. Bronze-age, the period between tlie stone 
and iron ages. Bronze-liquor, a solution for bronzing. 
Bronze-powder, a powder (copper and zinc) used as a 
pigment. Bronze-wing, an Australian pigeon. 
K«*l'>«-| ^if p (bron-zit)n. a variety of uiallage having a 
Ul uii^ikc yellowish-brown colour. 
hrnOpVl (broch) n. [F. broche, a spit] an ornament 
*^* uuv,!! ijj vaiious forms, with a pm or loop for 
attaching it to a garment— [Etym. doubtful] a painting 
all of one colour •,—v.t. to adorn, as with a brooch. 
K««<-v<-kf1 (brood) v.t. [A.S. brod] to sit over, cover, and 
•^^ '^'^'^ cherish; — v.i. to sit on and cover eggs or 
young, as a fowl ; to remain in anxious thought : to 
muse ;-^. offspring ; progeny ; that which is bred or 
produced. Brood-mare, a mare kept for breeding. 
hrnnH V (brooyi) a. disposed to brood, in any sense 
Ul uuvijr of the word ; moody ; sullen. 
l-k|-r^/l1»" (brook) »i. [A.S. broc] a small natural stream 
ui.\J\jr^ or current ; a rivulet. i 

hrnnlr (brook) v.t. [A.S. brUcan, use] to bear; to 
UJ,uuxv endure; to support; to suffer insult or injury. 
brooklet (brook -let) n. a streamlet; a small 

f^mnlrl imp* (brook-lim) n. a flowering plant allied 

UIUUK.11II1C to the speedwell. 

Kf/-)rk'b-iT (brook'-i) a. abounding with little streams 

wx \j\jr^y Qj rivulets. 

V\«-/%f\fi-i (broom) n. [A.S. brom] a genus of legu- 

kjx \j\jiLx minous plants ; a besom or brush with a 

handle for sweeping floors, etc.;-~v.t. to sweep ^vith a 

broom. Broom-corn, a species of Sorghum, bearing a 

head of which brooms are made. Broom-rape, a 

parasitic plant growing on the roots of broom, etc. 

broomstaff, broomstick S'S'^Ihe 

handle of a broom. 

brnomv (broo^mi) a. resembling broom; full of 
tjM. \j\jxxij broom ; consisting of broom. 
K j-Qcp (broz) n. [Gael.] a Scotch dish made by pour- 
^ ing a hot liquid over oat meal or pease meal, 
and stirring it to consistency. 

brntll (broth) n. [A.S.] water in which flesh has 
",*'** been boiled with vegetables or herbs, and 
barley or rice ; a thin soup. 

KrnfllP>l (brothel) n. [A.S. breothan, destroy] a 
uxui.iic:i house of ill-fame : a bawdy-house. 
nrnfllfr (bruxn'-er) n.; pi. brothers, brethren 
'r*'^^"^*^(bruTH^rz, breTH-ren) [A.S. br6thor]he 
that is bom of the same parents ; one closely united to 
another by some common tie or interest ; a fellow- 
member, fellow-creature, etc. Brother-german, a full 
brother. Brother-in-law, the brother of one's husband 
or wife; one's sister's husband. Brother-uterine, a 
half-brother by the same mother. 

Krrkf Vi e^rh nr»r1 (bruTH'-er-hood) n. state of being 
UlUtllClllUUU a brother; an association; a 
fraternity ; a class of the same profession or occupation 
brotherleSS (bruxH-er-les) a. without a brother. 

KrrkfVic»rlinp>cc (bruTH'-er-li-nes) n. state of 
DFOtneninebb being brotherly. 
hrnffl f»rl V (bruTH^r-ll) a. pertaining to brothers ; 
Ul u tiici ijr becoming brothers ; kind ; affectionate. 
Kf/MirrVi'im (broom, broo-am) n. [Lord 
UrOUgnam BroughMm, 1778-1868] a kind of 
two- wheeled or four-wheeled carriage. 
HrniAT (brou) n. [A.S. bru, eye- 
uiuw brow] the ridge over the 
eye, with the hair that covers it ; the 
forehead ; the edge of a steep place. 
Brow-ague, megrim ; pain in the 
forehead. Brow-antler, the first „ . 

branch of a stag's horns. Brow- Brougham. 

bound, crowned. To knit the brows, to frown. 
hrniArhfaf (brou-bet) v.t. to bear down with 
Ul KJ w UCctt stern looks or arrogant assertions. 
K1•/^TIrKA9f Ai« (brou-be-ter) n. one that brow- 
OrOVV Dealer beats, insults, or bullies. 
hrnxXT'tl (broun) n. [A.S. brun, brown] a dark colour 
Ul u w 11 inclining to red or yellow ;— a. of a dark or 
dusky colour, of various shades, inclining to red or 
yellow ; — v.t. to make brown ; to give a brown colour to. 
Brown Bess, an ancient flint-lock musket for British 
soldiers. Brown-bill, a kind of halberd. Brown- 
bread, a coarse wheaten bread made of unbolted meal ; 
bread made of wheat or rye, mixed with Indian meal. 
Brown-coal, wood-coal or lignite. Brown-spar, a 
magnesian carbonate of lime, tinged by oxide of iron and 
manganese. Brown-stone, a dark-red sandston«!. 
Brown-stout, a superior kind of porter. Brown-study, 
serious reverie. To do brown, to deceive ; to take in. 

Brownian movement S't-^St 

Brovm, Scottish naturalist, 1773-1858] oscillations of high 

frequency noticed in small particles. 

hrriTATTlif* (brou'-ni) n. [dim. of broion, in allusion 

UlUWlllc to the colour] a fairy; a good-natured 

spirit, supposed to perform domestic services by night. 

brrklArninP* (brou-ning) n. process of imparting ii 

uiuwiliiig brown colour to gun barrels, etc.; a 

process in cookery; a preparation used in cookery t<> 

colour and flavour. 

Kfi^TTrniol-i (brou-nish) a. somewhat brown; in- 

OrOVVniSn cUned to brown. 

"Rt-niTTriicf (brou-nist) n. a follower of Robert 

OlUWllldL Brown, who, in the 16th century, 

taught the principles of Independency and CJongrega- 

tionalism in England. 

brownness £own'°''^ ""• *^' '^"^"^^''^ ^'°^ 

brOWny Cbrou-nl) «. somewhat brown, 

hrOTV^^P (brouz) v.t. and i. [M. H. Ger. broz, sprout] 
Ul u w oc to feed on the shoots or leaves of plants ; 
— n. the tender branches of trees and shrubs, fit for the 
food of cattle ; the act of browsing. 
hrOTAT^itl P" (brou-zing) n. the action of the verb to 
Ul \j W olllg browse; a place where animals pasture. 
Kf/-kTTTC?t-»/-\f (brou-spot) n. a gland between the 
DrOWbpOt eyes of a frog or toad. 
RmpVll1<5 (broo^kus) n. [G. brouchos] a genus of 
*-'* Ut.llUo insects allied to the weevils. 
Knir'in*! 'hriirin (broo^in) n. [J. ^ntce, Afr. 
DrUCine, UrUCm traveller] an alkalold allied 
to strychnine, got from Nux ixnnica. 
Hri1Ptfp> (broo-sit) n. [Dr. Bruce, New York, 
Ul U^lLC niineralc«ist]anativehydrateof magnesia. 
Hn 1 i n (broWn) n. [D. bruin, brown, from his colour] 
Ul mil a familiar name for a bear. 
Hnii^P (brooz) v.t. [A.S. brysan, break] to injure or 
Ul Uloc crush, as by collision of, or against, a solid 
body ; to injure a part of ; to contuse ; to crush or reduce 
to fragments ; — v.%. to fight with the fists ; to box ;— n. 
a hurt or injury caused by something blunt or heavy. 
KnilQPr (broo^zer) n. a boxer; a machine for 
Ul UloCl crushing grain, cake, etc. 
■hfiiioiatsTnt-f ( brooz -wurt) n. the daisy; the 
DrUlSevVOrX comfrey ; soapwort. 
hrnif (broot) n. [F.] report ; rumour ; fame ; a noise; 
Ul UlL Jin ;—v.t. to report; to noise abroad. 

Fate, far, ^do ; me, h^ ; mine ; note ; tune ; modn. 




12 i-i 1 m n i ro (broo-mar) n. [F. fr. L. bruma, winter] 

JDrUIIlcill C the second month (Oct. 22 to Nov. 20) 

of the first French repubUcan calendar. 

K«-i 1 m a 1 (broc^-mal) a. [L. bruma, winter] belonging 

UI Ulliai to the winter. 

Kriim^ (broom) n. [F. fr. L. bntma, winter] mist: 

Ul UilXC fog ; vapour. 

hriltTimaP'f^m ^^'""™^'j^°^^ ^- Birraingham; 
Ul uiiiiiidgcixi somethmg.esp. something cheap, 
made there ;— a. sham ; showy, but worthless. 
lSri1t1f»ffp (broo-nef) n. [F.] a woman with a 
Ul uiiCLtc hrown or dark complexion. 
hriininti (bnm-yun^ broo^ni-un) n. [L. prunum, 
Ul uiiiv/li plum] a kind of peach ; a nectarine. 
RrnnCTXT'if t" (brunz-wilc) n. {Brunswick, in 
iJi uiio w 1 v^A. Germany] a lady's jacket. Bruns- 
wick-black, a preparation of lamp-black and turpentine. 
Brunswick-green, oxychloride of copper. 
hninf (brunt) n. [Icel. brunt, a burning] the heat, 
Ui uiiL or utmost violence, of an onset ; the force of 
a blow ; shock ; the chief stress or crisis. 
UflloVi (brush) n. [O.F. broche, brosse] an instru- 
Uk uoii nient of bristles, etc., used for removing dust, 
laying on colours, etc. ; branches of trees lopped oft; brush- 
wood ; a thicket of shrubs or small trees ; a skirmish ; a 
slight encounter ; the bushy tail of the fox or squirrel ;— 
v.t. to apply a brush to ; to remove, gather, or sweep 
away ■,—v.i. to move nimbly ; to skim over with slight 
contact. Brush-burn, an injury produced bv friction. 
Brush-tongue d, having a tongue rough and snaggy like 
a brush. Brush-wheel, a wheel without teeth, used in 
light machinery for polishing metals, etc. To brush up, 
to polish ; to revive m the memory. 
hm^llPr (brush^r) n. one that, or that which, 
Ul uoiici brushes" ; a machine for brushing. 
hrnQVliflPQ^ (brush-i-nes) n. the quality of re- 
ui usiiiiicoo sembhng a brush ; shagginess. 

brushing (brush-lng) a. light; brisk; rapid. 

hriiQViTxrnrkH (brush-wood) n. a thicket or coppice; 
Ul Udil WUUU small branches cut from trees. 
hril^VlV (brush-i) a. resembling a brush; rough; 
Ul uoiiy shaggy ; covered with brushwood. 
hm^flllf* (brusk, broosk) a. [F.] rude; abrupt in 
Ul uo^uc manners or speech. 
Kriicmii^rK^QC (brusV-nes, broosk-nes) n. the 
Ul us^uciicoa quality of being brusque. 
RrilQQplQ-Qnrnnfs! (brus^Iz-sprouts) 
DrUbbClb-bprOUtb small green heads sprout- 
ing from the upright stem of a species of cabbage. 
bm<;f 1p (brus^l) v.i. [^A.S. brasUian] to crackle ; to 
Ul uoLic rustle ;— {bristle] to vapour, as a bully. 
bniffll (broo^tal) a. pertaining to, or like, a brute; 
Ul ULcti savage ; cruel ; inhuman. 

brutalism, brutality Sf^Ef!'^™' inhS: 

manity ; savageness ; cruelty. 

bril fa 1 i 7P (broo^tal-Iz) v.t. to make brutal, coarse, 
Ul u Lcxii^c; or cruel ; — v.i. to become brutal. 
hnitallv (broo^tal-i) adv. in a brutal manner; 
Ul u tally cruelly; savagely; inhumanly. 
hrilfp (broot a. [L. brutus, irrational] unconscious; 
Ul u LC irrational ; savage ; ferocious ; — n. a beast ; 
an irrational animal : a low-bred, unfeeling person. 
hrnf pIv (broot-li) a<?v. in a brute or rude manner; 
uiuLC^iy senselessly ; blindly. 
Kriififir^afirkri ( hroo-ti-fi-ka^hun) n. a rendering 
Ul ULlllUcttlUll brutal, or becoming brutal. 
hmtifv (br66^ti-fl)r.<. [L. 6rutMs, brute, and/acerg, 
"* " Liiy make] to make a brute of ; to brutalize. 
V\«»ij4-icVi (broo^tish) a. pertaining to, or resembling, 
uiuLioii a brute; having the qualities or char- 
acteristics of brutes; inhuman; ferocious: sensual; bestial. 
hnii'i'^lllv (brocAish-li) adv. in a brutish manner; 
uiuLi:3iiiy stupidly ; coarsely ; fiercely. 
hrnf i<5Vinf»cc (broo^tish-nes) n. stupidity; in- 
uiuLiaiiiicsa sensibility ; savageness. 
Kfllf icm (broo^tizm) «. the characteristic qualities 
Ul u Liaiii or actions of a brute. 
brilfll^ (broo'-tus) n. [Lucius Brutus^ a way of 
uiuLUo wearing the hair brushed back from the 
forehead and curled. 
brvolofi^t (brl-ol^-jist) n. one that makes a 

J '-'i^-'&ioi' special study of mosses. 
K*-TTf\1/-»p*\r (bri-ol^-ji) n. [G. brwm, moss, and 
w* y uiu^j^ logog^ discourse] the science of mosses. 




onv (bri^-ni) n. Wr. bruonia] a wild climbing 
'-'**J plant. Black bryony, a plant of the yam 
family, with large black roots. , ._ 

hi 1 Hhl f* (buW-l) 71. [D. bobbel] a small vesicle of water ■'-• . i. - 
uuuuic or other fluid inflated with air; anything 
that wants firmness or solidity ; a delusive scheme ; a 
dishonest speculation ;—t'.«. to cheat; to impose on;— •■ 
v.t. to rise in bubbles ; to run with a gurgling noise. ^ ' r^jtv-^^ 
Bubble and squeak, meat and cabbage fried together. 
huhhlfr (bubbler) n. a cheat; a kind of fish, so 
u u u uic;i called from its singular grunting noise. 
KiiKKlxr (bub^li) a. abounding in bubbles; bubbling. 
u u u uiy Bubbly-jock, a turkey-cock [Scot.]. 
hllho (^^-^) ^- 1^- boubon, groin] an inflammatory 
UUUVi swelling of the glands m the groin or armpit. 
KiiKrkriir» (bu-bon-ik) a. of the nature of a bubo: 
UUUUniC attended by buboes. 
HllHnnnPPlp (bu-bon^-sel) n. [G. 6ott5ort, groin, 
uuiJ\JiiKJK,^i\^ and ^.g^ tumour] inguinal rupture. 
hiirT'al (buk-al)rt. [L. tttcca, cheek] pertainmg to 
UUCCdi the cheek. 

hlirr* an hnr^an (buk^n) n. [Carib bouca/n] 
""*-*-«***) uuv.,cl,ii a wooden gridiron on which 
meat is smoked ; a place where meat is smoked ;—v.t. to 
prepare meat on a bucan. 

buccaneer, bucanier fKo^fSfn 

Carib boucan] a pirate ; a sea-robber, applied e.w. to the 

?iratical adventurers who formerly infested the West 
ndies ;—v.i. to play the buccaneer. 
Hi IP Pinal (buk'-si-nal) a. [L. bttccina, trumpet] 
u u I, L. 1 iicti trumpet-shaped, or sounding like a horn. 

hiippina^nr^'-'"'^'""^"''^'^^ ^' ^ ^^^' ^^^^ muscle 

UlXK^s., 11 i€XLKJ I inthecheek; the trumpeter's muscle. 
hllPpinifp (buk-si-nit) n. fossil remains or petri- 
•-' ^^*-**** ^^ factions of the shells called Buccinum; 
univalve shells, called from their shape trumpet shells. 
hllPPnfaiir (bu-sen-tawr)Ti. [G. bous, ox, andien- 
UUv^CllLaul tauros, centaur] a fabulous monster, 
half ox and half man ; the state barge of Venice. 
Kii/»^t-kVi'jliic« (bu-sef^-lus) n. [G. bous, ox, and 
DUCepnaiUb kephale, head] the horse of Alex- 
ander the Great ; a riding-horse. 

hllpVinl^ifp Owo-koK-slt) n.[Buchhol2, chemist] 
UUullUl^ltC a hard mineral of fibrous structure. 
Kii/»Viii (bu-ku, buk-u) n. [Afr.] a plant used for 
U UL^il U diseases of the bladder. 
Hlipt (buk) n. (^Etym. doubtful] lye in which cloth is 
UU^J\. soaked, m bleaching; the liouor in which 
clothes are washed; the cloth or clotnes soaked or 
washed •,—v.t. to soak or steep in lye ; to wash in lye or 
suds : to break up or pulverize, as ores. Buck-basket, a 
basket in which clothes are carried to the washing. 
bllpW (buk) n. [A.S. bucca, 6«c] the male of the fallow 
UU(.,A. deer, goat, sheep, rabbit, 
and hare ; a fop ; a dandy ; a gay, 
dashing young fellow ; — v.i. to 
copulate ; to attempt to unseat a 
riaer by jumping from the ground ^TgSK'^BPV^Z' JUL 
with the back arched and the head "WftO^EAmf iJ '. 
down. Buck-eye, a tree indigenous 
in the western states of America. _ . 

Buck-eyed, liaving a weak or spotted 
eye. Buck-jumper, a horse that bucks or tries to throw 
the rider. Buck-shot, large shot for killing deer. Buck- 
tooth, a tooth that protrudes or projects. 
hliplrpr (buk^r)n. a buck-jumperj one that breaks 
U UL^i^Cl ore ; a machine for breaking ore. 
hliplrpf (buk^t) n. [A.S. buc, pitcher] a vessel 
'^'*^**'^'' for drawing or carrying water or other 
liquids ; one of the cavities on the rim of a water-wheel ; 
the float of a paddle-wheel. Bucket-shop, a gambling 
institution [Amer.]. To kick the bucket, to die. 
Kit ^l^<af fi 1 1 (buk^t-fool) n. the maximum contents 
DUCKetlUl of a bucket. 

Hliptlinrn (buk-horn) n. the horn of a buck or 
UUt.>A.iiUi 11 deer, used for knife-handles, etc. 
\\\ir-\r-\yewifyA (buk'-hound) n. a kind of stag- 
UUCK.llUUIiU hound. Master of the buck- 
hounds, a court oflScial who attends to the buckhounds. 
\\yyc\r\f^ hiiplnr (buk-i) n. [Scot.] a variety of 
DUCKlt:, UUCK.y ghell, including the red whelk; 
a perverse, stubborn person. 

hliplrino" (buk-ing)n. soaking clothes in lye; the 
uuv..jviii^ act of washing dirty clothes. Bucking- 
stool, a washing-block. 



Fate, far, ado ; me, her ; mine ; note ; tune ; mdon. 




hliplf i^Vl (^uk-isli) a. pertaining to a buck, or to 
U UV« A.1011 gay young fellows ; foppish. 

buckishness, buckism ffiS^n! 

foppishness ; foppery. 

HupItIp (buK-1) n. [L. hucca, cheek] a metallic link, 
u uv«J\.ic ^y^jtii a tongue or catch attached to a belt or 
strap, used for fastening things together ; a curl, or a state 
of being curled or crisped, as hair ;— w.t. to fasten with a 
buckle ; to prepare for action ; to set stoutly to work ; to 
confine ; — v.i. to bend; to bow; to struggle ; to contend. 
hllftl^r (buk-ler) 71. a kind of shield, anciently used 
U U V^i^iCl in war ; a piece of wood to close the hawse- 
holes, etc., in a ship ;—v.t. to shield ; to protect. 
Kiir^lr macf (buk-mast) n. [M.E. buk, beech, and 
UUCK.-ilictS>L mast] the mast of the beech tree. 
Hlirlrra (buk-ra) a. [negro word] white, or belong- 
UU^r^i ct iug to the white man ;— n. a white man. 
HllpWra tn (buk-ram) n. [O.F. boucaran, fr. M. H. 
UUl.,A.ictlll Q.gj. jjQc^ he-goat] a coarse linen cloth 
stiflfened with glue ;— a. made of buckram ; stiff; precise ; 
— v.t. to give the quality of buckram to. 
VlllptrQl^in (buk-skin)n. the skin of a buck ; a kind 
U UCi^o A.lil of leather ;—pl. breeches made of buck- 
skin ; — a. made of buckskin. 

Ku/'lrf Virvrn (buk-thorn) n. a genus of plants of 
UUL.IS.L11UX1X many species. 
Kii/'lrTxrlio'if (buk-hwet) n. [Ger. buchweizen] a 
UUCK.WilCclt plant and an edible grain. 
HllPnIip (bu-kol-ik) a. [G. boukolos, cowherd] pas- 
uuui^ii^ toral ; rustic ;— n.. a pastoral poem or poet. 

bucrane, bucranium 2|*!nmT' n^'Va 

houkranionl a sculptured ox head in ancient architecture. 
hllH (b*^") '"'• [Etym. doubtful] a protuberance con- 
'-'"'^ taining the rudiments of leaves or flowers; an 
unexpanded leaf, branch, or flower ; a prominence on 
certam animals of inferior grades, which grows into an 
animal, as a bud grows into a flower \—v.t. to graft by 
inserting a bud \—v.i. to put forth buds ; to begin to grow. 
R 1 1 H H Vi i c m (boo-dizm) n. [Skr. buddha, wise] the 
UUUUlliaill doctrines taught by the Hmdu sage 
surnamed Buddha, in the 6th century, B.C., and adopted 
as a religion by the greater part of central and eastern 
Asia and the Indian islands. 

RnHHVlicf (booklist) n. a votary of Buddhism;— 
j-fUUUXiiOL ^ of_ or connected with. Buddhism. 

Buddhistic, Buddhistical [^Cti% 

a. relating to, or concerning. Buddhism. 
V^nHHiflP" (bud-ing) n. the act of putting forth 
uuuuiiig buds ; the act of inserting a bud of one 
tree under the bark of another, for propagation. 
hlldHlp (l^ud-1) n. [Etym. unknown] a square frame 
uuuvxic Qf boards used in washing mineral ore;— 
v.t. to wash ore with a huddle. 

RllHp lio'Vlf (bud-lit) n. \_Bude, the residence of 
jj u uc-iig 11 L the inventor] an intense white light 
produced by burning a purified coal-gas in a compound 
Argand-lamp of a peculiar construction. 
hill H P'f* (bttj) v.«. and i. [F. bouger, fr. L. bullire, boil] 
uuugc to move ; to stir ;— a. brisk ; jocund. 
hllHp'P ^^^J^ ''^- tL. bulga, bag] lambskin fur, used 
uruvig^ as an edging to scholastic habits •,—a. lined 
with budge— hence, scholastic, austere, or stiS. Budge- 
bachelors, formerly old men in budge gowns who were 
associated with the Lord Mayor's day. Budge-barrel, 
a barrel with a leather cover, for holding powder. 

budgero, budgerow fSfi 'a^^fefie^s 

hll H P*pf (buj-et) n. [F. bougette, fr. L. biilga, bag] a 
i^uugd, bag or sacK, with its contents; a stock 
or store ; the annual financial statement made in the 
House of Commons by the Chancellor of the Exchequer. 

budlet (budilet) n. a Uttle bud or shoot. 

buff 9^^^^ '"'■ [^- ^^^fi. buflfalo] a leather prepared 
>^uiA fjom the skin of the buffalo, ox, elk, and other 
animals, dressed in oil ; a military coat of buff leather ; 
a colour between light pink and light yellow ; a bufly- 
coat ; the bare skin ;— a. made of bufi" leather ; of the 
colour of buff leather; between light pink and light 
yellow. Buff-stict buflf-wheel, a polishing stick or 
wheel covered with leather. In buff, naked. Tbe Buffs, 
the third regiment of the Une. 

Kiifif (buf)n. [O.F. buffe, a slap] a blow, as in bhnd- 
»-'"" m2in's-bvff; — v.t. to .^ 
strike ; to deaden. 
hnffaln (buf-a-16) n. [G. 
DUnaiO 6oM6aios]akindof 
wild ox ; the bison. Buffalo- 
chips, the dry dung of the bison, 
used for fuel. Buffalo-grass, a 
variety of prairie grass. Buffalo- 
robe, the skin of the bison, 
prepared with the hair on. xjuua.iu. 

Huffpr (buf-er) n. [O.F. buffe, a blow] a cushion or 
L/uiici apparatus to deaden — - 
the concussion Detween a moving 
body and one on which it strikes, 
as at the ends of a railway 

hiiffpr (^"f^'') ^- fo.F. 

^uxAv^i l)uffer, puff out the cheeks] a silly or stupid 
person ; a fellow ; a familiar terra of address. 
hnffpf (buf^t, buf-a, boof-a') «.i[F.] a cupboard or 
uuiiCL sideboard for the display of plate, cnina, etc.; 
a refreshment bar or table. 

U|lf¥Uf (buf-et)7i. [O.F.I a blow with the hand; a 
uuiiCL cuff;— ?;.«. to beat; to cuff; to contend 
against ■,-—v.i. to struggle or contend. 
buffeting (buf-et-lng) n. striking with the hand; 


opposition ; contention. 
, i-ing) n. the act of pc"-^^ 
buff-stick or buff-wheel. 

Knfifin cr (buf-ing) n. the act of polishing, as with a 
UUmng buff'-stick or buff-wheef 
Hllfflp (buf-l) n. [F.] a buttalo ; a large-headed duck 
uuiiic found in North America. Buffle-headed, 
having a large head, like a buffalo's ; dull of intellect. 
huffn (boof^, buf^) n. [It] a singer in a comic 
uuiiv opera ; a comic singer \—a. comic. 
hllffnnn (bu-foon') n. [It. bu^a, joke, trifle] a man 
uuiiv^uix that amuses by tricks, antic gestures, 
jokes, and other pleasantries ; a droll ; a mimic ; a clown. 
Hllffnnn Prv (bu-foon-er-i) n. the arts and 
uuiivjuiic;i j^ practices of a buffoon; low jests; 
ridiculous pranks ; vulgar tricks and postures. 
Hi 1 ffnnn i ^ll (bu-f66n-ish)a. like a bufibon; consist- 
u uxxuuxxxoxx ing in low jests and ridiculous pranks, 
(buf-i) a. of a buff colour. Buffy-coat, the 
coat that appears on a clot of blood. 
Kiifr»nif <a (bu-fun-It) n. [L. bufo, -onis, toad] toad- 
U UXUXXX tC stone ; the petrified teeth of fishes. 
Hi IP* (bug)w. [W. btvg] an insect of many species; a 
^"o hobgoblin ; a bugbear. 

Hi 1 P*a Hnn (bug'-a-boo) n. \bug and bo6\ a terrifying 
yju.^a.\JKjyj object; an imaginary fear ; a bogy. 
HllP'Hpar (bug^bar) n. [bug and bear] something 
u ug UCdX frightful, as a spectre; anything imagin- 
ary that frightens;— ^.i. to terrify with anything frightful. 
HllO*P'Pt* (bug^r) n. [N.L. Bulgarus, a Bulgarian 
•-"^oo^* heretic] a sodomite ; a low term of abuse. 
t^ll p.Q.p— ^ (bug^r-i) n. the crime of bestiality ; un- 
•^ "o o ^* y natural vice ; sodomy. 
bu 2*^111688 (bug'-i-nes) n. the state of being 

HuP'P'V ^'^"^"^^ *■ abounding, or infested, with 

Hll P"P~V ^bug'-i) n. [Etym. unknown] a light one-horse 

*^*^ooJ' vehicle, with one seat. 

' (^ (bu-gl) n.[O.F. f r. L. bucvZus, young ox] a horn ; 
^ a military musical brass wind instrument. 
p (bu-gl) n. [M. H. Ger. bone, boug, ring, 
^ bracelet] an elongated glass bead. 
f^ (bu-gl) n. [F.] a deciduous herbaceous plant, 
^ a native of Europe, used in medicine. 
p*. (bu-gler) n. one that plays a bugle ; a soldier 
^* that sounds orders on a bugle. 
l-|oo (bu-glos) n. [G. bous, ox, and glossa, 
'-'^^ tongue] a plant, the ox-tongue. 



HllHI (bool) n. [Boule, a French carver in wood] 
U IXXXX figure work; unburnished gold, brass, mother-of- 
pearl, etc., wrought or inlaid into wood, tortoise shell, etc. 
HllHr^fnnP (bur^ton) n. [Etym. doubtful] a 
U Ltxxx a LCFXXC variety of quartz, used for mill-stones. 
HnilH (bild) v.t. [A.S. byldan, fr. bold, house] to 
ULIXXU frame, construct, and raise, as an edifice or 
fabric of any kind ; to frame or shape into a particular 
mould or form ; to raise on any support or foundation ; 
to increase and strengthen ; to settle or establish ;—^.i. 
to practise building ; to rest or depend for support ;— n. 
form or mode of construction ; shape ; figure. :rta,f--'^'< 

Fate, far, fido ; m§, her ; mine ; note ; tiine ; m66n. 




f^llil Hf^r (bil'-<i?i') n. one that builds; one whose 

U UliUCi occupation is to build. 

hllilHinJJ* (bfl^iig) "• ^ct of constructing, erecting, 

UUllUlllg oj. establishing; architecture; a thing 

built, as a house, churchy etc. 

Hllilf (bilt)pp. of hmld: constracted; raised; formed; 

UUlit established (chieny in composition). 

HnlH (bulb) n. [G. bolbos] a round or spherical body ; 

UUiU a ijmj Qj cluster of partly-developed leaves, 

growing from a plant (usually oelow the ground), and 

producmg a stem above, and the roots below, as in the 

onion ; a protuberance on a stem, as the bulb of a 

thermometer; a knob; a projection. 

hulhpd ('^^1^^) *• iurnished with a bulb; bulb- 

hlllhifprnil^ (bul-bif^-rus) a. [L. bvlbus, bulb, 
UUluiiCi UUo and/erre, bear] producing bulbs. 
Hi ll hi fn rtn (bul-bi-form)a.[L. bulbus, andyoj-mo, 
UUIUIIUI liX shape] resembling a bulb in shape. 
hlllhnil^ (bul-bus) a. having or containing bulbs; 
UUIUUUO growingfrom bulbs; protuberant; Knobby. 
KiilKiil (bool-bool) n. [Per. , nightingale] the nightin- 
UUiUUi gale of the Persians. 
bulchin (^ool^hin) n. [dim. of hvMl a young male 

Rill fra Han (bul-gatrl-an) a. pertaining to Bul- 
xjui^cti i€*ii garja ._^ a native of Bulgaria ; the 
language of the Bulgarians. 

hill P*P (bulj) n. [L. bvlga, bag] the protuberant part 
u Uigc; of a cask ; bilge \—v.i. to swell or jut out. 
bulp*V (biil-ji)a.juttmg out or protuberant; bulging 

; bilge \—v.i. to swell or jut out 
juttmg ' ' * ' ' 

unduly; swollen. 
Knlimia Hiilimv (bu-lim-i-£i,bu-li-mi)n. [G.] 
DUlimia, DUlimy insatiable iiunger [Med.]. 
hlllW (bulk) n. [Icel. 6m^Ai, heap] magnitude; dimen- 
'-''^*'*' sions; mass; the majority; the largest or 
principal portion ; the whole cargo of a ship when 
stowed. In bulk, loose in the hold. To break bulk, to 
begin to unload cargo. 

hllllrPr (bul-ker) n. a person employed to ascertain 
'^'^^•'^^* the capacity of goods, so as to fix the 
amount of freight or shore-dues to which they are hable. 
hllllrVlPaH (bulk-bed) n. a partition in a ship, 
u; niade with boards, etc., to form 
separate compartments. 

K 1 1 1 1^ ] « p o o (bul-ki-nes) n. the quality of being bulky ; 
*^"*'*"***^"'^ greatness in bulk, size, or stature. 
Kill \r\T (bul-ki) a. of great bulk or dimensions ; large ; 
UUiA.y of great size. 

hull (bool) n. [Etym. doubtful] the male of any 
L^uii bovine quadruped, hence, the male of any large 
quadruped, as the elephant ; Taurus, one of the twelve 
sijins 01 the zodiac : in stock-broking, one that nominally 
buys shares for delivery on a future dav at a certain 
price, speculating on their rising in value before the day; 
—a. of large size ; male ;— v.(. to cause a in stocks, etc. 
Bull-baiting, the practice of baiting or exciting bulls with 
dogs. Bull-beef, the flesh of a bull j coarse beef. Bull- 
calf, a male calf ; a stupid fellow. Bull-faced, repulsive 
looking. Bull-flght, a combat with a bull— the favourite 
national pastime in Spain. Bull-frog, a large frog, making 
a loud noise. Bull-nng, the scene of bull-fights. Bull's- 
eye, an oval wooden block without sheaves, having a 
groove around it, and a hole through it; a thick piece of 
glass inserted in a deck, roof, etc., to let in lignt; any 
circular opening for air or light ; a policeman's lantern, 
with a thick glass reflector on one side ; the centre of a 
target ; a thick knob left on a sheet of plate-glass 
by the end of the pipe through which it was blown ; 
an old-fashioned watch. Bull-stag, a castrated bull. 
Bull-terrier, a cross between a bulldog and a terrier. 
Bull-trout, a species of trout larger than the common 
kind. John Bull, England personified ; a typical 
Englishman. To take the bull by the horns, to con- 
front a difticult situation resolutely. 
bull (bool) ^- [L- bulla, a seal] the seal appended to 
*J ***■*■ the edicts of the pope ; an edict of the pope. 
bull (bool) n. [Etym. doubtful] a humorous incon- 

gruity in speech. 
bulla, (bul-a) n. [L.] a pendant or ornament ; a seal 
L/uiicx affixed to papal and Turkish edicts ; a bleb ; a 
swelling of the tympanic bone : the bubble-shell genus. 
Vmi11'i/><» (bool-as) n. [O.F. beloce] a British plant, 
UUlldUC a kind of wild plum. 
bulla tf (booj-at) a. [L. ovZla, bubble] covered with 
uruiictLc; blister-like protuberances ; blistered. 

hullHnP" (booMog) n. a variety of dog of remarkable 

uuiiuvg ferocity and courage, so 

named from being employed in bait- "" 
ing bulls ; a person of determined 
courage; a kindf of revolver; a proctor's 
attendant at Oxford and Cambridge. 
Kiil1#an_nail (bool^n-nal) n. 
DUlien-nail [buUion] an up- 
holsterer's nail, with round head. 
Kiillof (hool-et) 11. [h. bidla, boss] „ „, 

OUliet a small ball, esp. one of ^"ll'^oe- 

lead, to be discharged from small firearms ; a cannon-ball. 
Bullet-proof, capable of resisting the force of a bullet. 
hllllpf in (bool^-tin) ?i. [It.] an official report, esp. a 
uuiiCLiii military or medical report; a brief state- 
ment of facts issued by authority ; any public announce- 
ment of news recently received. Bulletin-board, a 
board on which announcements of news are put up. 
Kiillfin/^V« (bool-finsh) n. a bird allied to the gross- 
UUlllXli^ll beak, having the breast, ~.^sai— 
cheeks, and throat of a crimson colour. 
KiillVic^oH (bool-hed) n. a fish with a 
UUilllCctU large, flat head ; a stupid 
or obstinate fellow. 

hllllinn (bool-yun) n. [Etym. doubt- 
uuiiiuii fuij uncoined gold or silver 
in the mass ; a kind of fringe. 
hnllinni<5f (booKyun-ist) n. one """""<^" 
uuxAiv^xixob {^jiat advocates the use of an exclu- 
sively metallic currency. 

hlllli«sll (bool-ish) a. having the nature of a bull; 
uuxiioii blundering ; of stocks, rising in price. 
Kii11rk/»l^ (bool-uk) 71. [A.S. bulluca] an ox, or 
DUllOCK. castrated bull. 

hllllv (bool-i) n. [Etym. doubtful] a noisy, blustering 
umiy fellow; a quarrelsome person ;— v. t. to insult 
with noise and blustering menaces ; to treat with in- 
solence ■,—v.i. to be noisv and quarrelsome. 
Ki 1 1 ri 1 cVi (bool-rusn) n. a large kind of rush growing 
UUll uaxi jjj ,ygt; land or water. 
Kiilt-iioViTT (bool-rush-i) a. covered with bulrushes ; 
DUirUSny li^e bulrushes. 

hlll^f* (buls) n. [Pg. bolsa, purse] a bag for holding 
UUloC diamonds, etc.: a measure of diamonds, etc. 
hlll'XXT'arW' (bool-wark) n. [Dan. bulvcerk] an out- 
U Ul W ell IV work for defence ; a bastion ; a rampart ; 
any means of defence ; a screen or shelter ;—pl. the sides 
of a ship above the upper deck ;—v.t. to fortify with a 
rampart ; to protect. 

Hum (bum) v.i. [Imit.] to make a noise like abee; to 
UUIIX bum ;— n. [bottom] the buttocks. 
Km-nKoilifir ( bum-baAlif ) n. [perhaps for boimd- 
UUIIlUdlilll bailif) an under-bailiff. 
KiimKl^il-kOia (bum-bl-be) n. [Imit.] a large kind 
DUmDieDee of bee ; the humble-bee. 
V»iit-nKl<»r1/-km (bum-bl-dum) n. [fr. Bumble, the 
UUIIIUICUUIXI i^eadle in Oliver Twist] fussy 
official pomposity and inefficiency. 
hlimhnaf (bum-bot) n. [D.] a clumsy boat, used 
ULXXXXUV^au for conveying provisions, fruit, etc., for 
sale, to vessels lying in port or off" shore. 
blltnlrin (bum-kin) n. [dim. of boom] a piece of 
UUXXXJvxxx timber projecting from the bow of a 
vessel, to haul the foretack to ; also from the quarter, for 
the standing part of the main brace ; a small outrigger 
over the stern of a boat, to extend the mizzen. 
hlimri (bump) n. [Imit.] a thump ; a heavy blow ; a 
UUXXX]^ swelhng or protuberance ;~pi. the natural 
swellings on the cranium or skull, supposed to indicate 
the mental qualities, affections, and propensities of the 
individual :— ^.t. to strike, as with, or against, anything 
large or solid •,—v.i. to make a heavy, or hollow noise. 
Hlimrjpr (bum-per) n. a cup or glass filled to the 
ULXixxpci brim; a crowded house at a theatre, etc. t ^jC 
Hiimr^t'in (bump-kin) n. [6oomA;m] an awkward, **? \ 

heavy rustic; a clown. 


HlltTI^)t■i^U<^ (biimp^hus) n. [bump] rudely self- 

uuxixpLiv./uo assertive; arrogant; quarrelsome. 

hlimnfioil<5nP«;<5 (bump - shus - nes) n. the 

UUIIipUUUbllCbb quality of being bumptious. 

Humnv (bum-pi) a. having bumps; covered with 

uu.t.i.i^y bumps : uneven. 

hlin (bun) n. [O.F. biigne, a swelling (?)] a small 

LIU XX sweet cake. 

hunrll (bunsh) n. [Icel. bunki] a protuberance; a 

u uxxv^xx hunch ; a knob or lump ; a collection, cluxter, 

Fate, f&r, ado ; me, her ; mine ; note ; tdne ; moon. 







or tuft, properly of things of the same kind, growing or 
fastened together;— v.*. to form or tie in a bunch or 
bunches ; — v.i. to swell out; to gather round ; to become 
protuberant. Bunch-backed, hunch-backed. 
hlinpVlitlP^^ (bun-shi-nes) n. thickness ; round- 
uuiii^iiiiiCdo ness; fulness; protuberance. 
KiinoViTr (buni^hi) a. swelling out; growing in 
U UllUiiy bunches or tufts. 

buncombe, bunkum Z^J^tnk<}ni. 

Carolina, whose representative once spoke for Buncombe, 
i.e., merely to please his constituents] idle talk; un- 
meaning words. 

hll tl H Ojund) n. [Hind, hand, a dyke] a promenade or 
UUilu. esplanade ;— <b66nd) [Ger.l a confederation. 
hllflHlf* (.i>un^l)n.[,fr.bindan,hind]a 
UUlXUlc; numberof things bound together; anything 
made into a package convenient for handling or con- 
veyance ; a parcel ; a roll ; — v.t. to tie or bind in a bundle 
or roll ; to put up together ;— t>.i. to set off in a hurry ; to 
proceed confusedly. Bundle-pillar, a column or pier, 
with others of small dimensions attached to it. 
hll tl 0" (^^^S) n. [Etym. doubtful] a large cork stopper; 
UUllg —v.t. to stop with a bung; to close up. Bung- 
IlOle, the hole in a cask, through wliich it is filled. 
Ki 1 ti era 1 r\\xT (bung'-ga-l6)n.[Hind.6awflfia,fr.J5cmefa, 
DUngdlOW Bengaf] the _«^ 
country house of a European in 
India, of a single floor and 
thatched, butof slight materials. 

bungle f,a7i^a\ to make 
or mend clumsily; to manage 
awkwardly •,—^.i. to act clum- 
sily ;— «.. a clumsy performance; 
a gross blunder. 

bungler Sjn-k^ Bun^w. 

ward workman ; an unskilled person ; a blunderer. 

hlll1P*1inP* (bung'-gling) a. unskilful- awkward; 

MUiigiiiig clumsy; clumsily or unskilfully done. 

hlinP*1inP"1v (bung-gUng-li) adv. in a bungling 

i^uxigAiiigijr inanner; clumsily; awkwardly. 

hlininn (bun-yun) n. [Icel. buiiga. elevation] an in- 

uuiiiv^ii flamed swelling on the ball of the great toe. 

hunt (t)ungk) n. [Etym. doubtful] a wooden case or 

1^ uiiiv. ^jQjj, which serves for a seat in the day-time, and 

for a bed at night ; one of a series of berths or bed-places 

arranged in vertical tiers; — v.i. to lie in a bunk; to sleep. 

hlinkpr (bung'-ker) n. a bin or receptacle for coals, 

u uixxwci gtc. J a Hazard on a golf course. 

bunnv (^'^'^-^).^- [Crael. bun, stump] a pet name for 

J a raoDit. 

"Riinc<an Kiifriiif (boon-sen, bun-sen bur-ner) 

DUllOCll UUlllCl n. [Bunsen, of Heidelberg, 

chemist] a gas burner in which a strong current of air 

produces a weakly luminous, but very hot, flame. 

ntinf" (^11"'') '"■■ [Scand.] the middle part or belly of a 

1../ uii V. sail -^—v.t. to haul up the middle part of a sail ; 

— v.i. to swell out. 

l-jv| « 4- (bunt) n. [burnt] a smut or fungus, destructive 

LJ uii b to wheat and other cereals. 

Kit«4-i«-jp- (bun-ting) n. [Ger. bunt, motley] a bird of 

" "*'***& different species, of the genus Eraberiza; 

a woollen stuff used in the making of flags displayed 

on a ship, etc. 

K| 1 n f 1 i n f^ (bunt^-lln) n. one of the ropes fastened to 

kruxAkiiii^ the bottom of a sail, used to haul it up. 

hlinv ^^^^^ ''^- ^- ^^^1 ^ ^oz.i, esp. a floating mark 

kruyjr to point out the position 

of objects beneath the water, or the == 

properdirectionforsafling;— v.«. to keep 

afloat ; to keep from sniking ; to fix 

buoys to ; to mark by buoys ; — v.i. to 

float ; to rise by specific lightness. 

buOVaP*P ("oi^J) '"'■ Ijuoys taken ^^°^- 

J' '*o^ collectively ; the providing of buoys. 

buOVanf*V (bol-an-si) n. tlie quality of floating; 
J ci,i»v,jr specific lightness ; vivacity. 

buOVanf (twi-^^nt) a. floating ; light ; elastic ; 

t^*j.\jj nxAb t)earin]^ up, as a fluid ; vivacious. 
/oUOVanflv (hoi-ant-li) adv. in a light, lively, 
, *jKi.\jj a.xi.\.i.y cheerful manner. 

bur hnrr ^^"""^ *'''• t^-^- ^^"- ^orre, burdock] a 
":> i-ruii rough, prickly covering of seeds of 
certam plants ; a ridge, knot, or lump. 

Hlir hiItT ^^'^'^^ '"'■ {^^^^- borg, inclosure] a bright 
U Ul y u Ui 1 ring encircling the moon. 
Hlirhnf (hur-but) n. [F. barbate, fr. L. barha, beard] 
'-"^* »Jv/L a tigji having barbels on the nose and chin. 
Hlirrlplai«; (bur'-de-la) n. [F.] a species of grape 
'J^'- UCicxio from the neighbourhood of Bordeaux. 
lllirHptl (b'i'^-'i^) '"'■ [-A..S. byrthen] that which is 
•-' "^ '^^^^^ borne or carried ; anything grievous, weari- /yv\ 
some, or oppressive ; a fixed quantity ; load ; weight ; » 
freight ; the capacity of a ship to liold goods ; cargo ;— f.^. i^ 
to lay a heavy load on ; to oppress ; to surcharge. 
hlirH<*n C^i^-dii) ^- CF- bourdon, bass in music] 
^J^*- *-idi the verse repeated in a song ; refrain ; the 
main topic or tlieine. 

hlirHftl^nmP (bur^n-sum) a. grievous to be 
uui uc;iiouiiiC borne ; oppressive ; fatiguing. 
h 1 1 rH Ptl^Nnrnplv (bur-dn-sura-U)aat;. in a weary , 
"**'■ u.v;noviiiviijr grievous, oppressing manner. 

burdensomeness S;'^sS^~;Ss^"- 

hi 1 rH nplr (^^ur^ok) n. [bu/r, ridge] a genus of weeds 
L»ui uciv^A. having a rough, bristlv leaf. 
hn rpa 1 1 (^i^"!"'^' bu-ro) n. [F. , desK] a desk or writing 
u Ui Cctu table with drawere for papers ; an office for 
business ; a particular department of the public service ; 
the body of officers in such department ; a chest of 
drawers for holding clothes, etc. 

Hlirf^ailPrflPV (bu-ro^kra-si) n. [F. bureau and 
UUi Cctui...! ctv*y Q kratetn, govern] a system in 
which the business of government is carried on in 
departments, each under the control of a chief. 
hlirPflllPrflf (bu-ro-krat) n. one that maintains 
UUi v^ctu^ictt the system of bureaucracy; an 
official in a bureaucratic department. 
H 1 1 rf^ a n r* ra f i P (bu-ro-krat^ik) a. pertaining to, or 
UUic;ctul.,ictLiv^ characteristic of , bureaucracy. 
Knr<aQiir»i*afir*a1lTr (bii-ro-krat-i-kal-i) adv. in 
UUl CctUV.1 dLlK^ALiy a, bureaucratic'manner. 
l-lllfpoiipf Q j-icf (bu-r5^kra-tist) n. one thatsup- 
UUi CdUd dLioL ports or advocates bureaucracy. 
hi 1 rPtf P (bu-ret')«. [F.J an ornamented pear-shaped 
UUl c LLC vessel for holding liquids; a graduated 
tube for determining small quantities of a liquid. 
hlirp" (burg) n. [A.S.] a fortified town; a borough 
'^*^* o possessing certain privileges. 
hnrffl P*P (bur^aj) n. a tenure by which houses or 
uui gct^c lands are held at a certain rent, or by 
service of "watch and ward." 

burgamot (bur-ga-mot)«. See bergamot. 
burganet (bur'-ga-net)n. See burgonet, 

hlirP*f»P (bur'-je) n. [Etym. unknown] a swallow- 
'-'"* &^^ tailed flag ; small coal for furnaces. 

burgeOlS (bur-jois')«-. See bourgeois. 
burgeon (bur'-jun) v.t. see bourgeon. 

hlirp*f^^^ (bur-jes) n. [O.F. burgeis,] an inhabi- 
'-"^* o^"* tant, citizen, or freeman of a borough ; a 
representative of a borough; a magistrate of a borough. 
Burgess-sMp, the rank of a burgess. 
hlirfrh (Dur'-6)n. [Scot.] borough. Burgji of barony, 
'-'"* S** a municipality founded by the superior of a 
barony. Paxliamentary burgh, a burgh represented 
in House of Commons by one or more members. Royal 
burgh, a Scottish burgh founded by; royal charter. 
hurp'hal (bur'-gal) a. pertaining, or belonging, to 

hlircVlPT (burner) n. [fr. burgh] an inhabitant or 
'-' "* &**'^* freeman of a burgh or borough ;—/)?. the 
name of a sect of seceders from the church of Scotland. 
hlirj^hfr^hin (bur^ger-ship) n. the condition 
•-'"* 5**^* oiii^ and privileges of a burgher. 
hnrtrlar (b"rg-lar) n. [O.F. borg, borougli, and L. 
"•^^ &**** latro, robber] one that enters a house by 
night with intent to commit a felony. Burglar- 
alarm, an alarm announcing the entrance of a burglar 
into a house. Burglar-proof, able to frustrate burg- 
larious intentions. 

hnro*1arinil«5 (burg-latri-us) a. pertaining to 
»jui giai AV7UO housebreaking and robbery. 

burclariOUSlv (^"'■^-I'i-ri-us-li) adv. m the 


manner of a burglar. 
arv (burg'-lar-i) n. the entering a house by 
•** J night with intent to conamit felony. 

Fate, far. §ido ; i»e Hgr ; tjalije : note ; tiine ; raodn. 




Kliro"lf* (bur'-gl) v.t. to enter with felonious intent; 
"l^* S**^ — v.i. to commit burglary. 
Kiircr/^macf<ar (bur^o-mas-ter) n. [D. burge- 
U Ul gUllldd LCI meester] a chief magistrate of a 
town in Holland and Germany. 

b'lrcrnnpf (bur^go-net) n. [F. baurgmgtwtte, fr. 
ax gUllCt Bourgogne, Burgundy] a helmet, with 
a small visor, first used in Burgundy. 
HlirPTiO (biu'-goo) n. [Etym. unknown] a kind of 
"^*o^^ gruel made on board ship. 

burgrave, burggrave irSltarSeJ 

of a town or castle. 

RlirP"1inHv (bur^gun-di) n. a superior kind of 
ijuiguiiuy wine— so called from Burgundy, in 
France. Burgundy pitch, turpentine from which the 
essential oil has been distilled. 

Hnrial (ber-i-al)». act of burying; funeral solemnity; 
U Ul ictl sepulture ; interment. Burial-place, a place 
appropriated to the burial of the dead ; a graveyard ; the 
precise spot where one is buried. Burial service, a 
religious service suitable for a burial or interment. 
hnriti (bu-rin) n. [O. H. Ger. bora, borer] an 
uuxill engraver's tool, used in working on copper; 
a graver ; manner or style of an engraver. 
blirlrP (burk) v.t.\ix. an Irishman who committed 
'-'^*''*'^ the crime m 18293 to murder secretly, and 
without external marks of violence, so as to sell the 
corpse for the purpose of dissection; to dispose of quietly; 
to put a sudden end to. 

blirl (burl) 71. [O.F. houriC] a knot or lump in thread 
UUll or cloth ;—i;.t. to dress as cloth, by fulling; to 
pick knots, loose threads, etc., from, in finishing cloth. 
hlirl^ri (bur^lap) n. [Etym. unknown] a kind of 
UUi ictp coarse linen fabric. 
V- hlirlp^nilP (bur-lesk')a. [It. 6MrZe«co, fr. frurtorc, 
C u Ui ico^uc; ridicule] tending to excite laughter by 
ludicrous images; jocular; farcical; — n. a ludicrous re- 
presentation; a travesty; a clever imitation or caricature; 
—v.t. to turn into ridicule; to make ludicrous; to lampoon. 
blirlptta. (bur-let^) n. [It.] a comic opera; a musi- 

csi I lire 6. 
blirlitlf*^^ (buri^li-nes) n. the quality of lieing 
uuixxiicoo burly; bulk; gruffness; coarseness. 
hlirlv (bur^li) a. [Etym. unknown] of great bulk; 
u Ui ly gjout ; lustv ; coarse and rough. 
RnrmP^P (bur-mez) n. a native, the natives, or 
iJ Ui liicoc {j^g language, of Burma;— «. pertaining 
to Bunna or its language. 

hum (burn) i'.t. [A.S. hyrnan &nA bfeman] tocon- 
^ *^^ *■*■ sunie with lire ; to injure by fire ; to scorch ; 
' inflame : to cauterize; to combine with oxygen ; — v.i. 
I be on fire ; to flame ; to shine ; to be in a state of 
iinmotion, heat, acidity, or pain ; to feel excess of heat ; 
to 1)0 inflamed; — n. a hurt or injury caused by fire ; the 
operation of burning or baking, as bricks. To bum 
one's Angers, to suffer from speculating, or from inter- 
fering in other men's affairs. 

Kiirn (burn) n. [A.S. burtui, brook] a rivulet; a 
UUni brook. 
burnable ('^"'^-n?-W) «. that admits of being 

hlirnpr (bur^ner) n. one that burns or sets on fire ; 
i^uiiiCA aQ appendage to a lamp or gas-fixture, 
designed to promote combustion. 

blirnpf fi^P (bur-net-Iz) v.t. [Sir Wm. Burnett, 
uuxxiCLtx^c; ^bo patented the process] to pre- 
serve, as timber, by a solution of chloride of zinc. 
blirnitl0" (bur'-ning)a. scorching; ardent : intense ; 
UUi 11111^ fer\'id. Burning-glass, a convex lens 
used for converging the sun's rays to a focus. Burning- 
mirror, a burning-glass in form of a concave mirror. 
Burning-question, one that provokes angry words, or is 
ripe for settlement. 

hlirni^ll (bur-nlsh) v.t. [O.F. bumir, to poUsh] to 
'^ "* iiiOii polish by rubbing ; to render bright or re- 
splendent; — v.i. to grow bright or glossy; — n. gloss; lustre. 
burni^bpr (buKnisn-er) 71. one that burnishes; 
u Ui iiiOiiCi a tool used in burnishing books. 

burnoose, burnous feroLni^t^tie 

with a hood, worn in Arabia and North Africa. 
blirnl" (burnt) a., pp. of burn, consumed, withered, 
*-'*■*■*■ ^■i-^ or injured, Dy fire; heated; inflamed. Burnt- 
ear, a disease in grain, due to a fungus. Burnt-offering, 
something burnt on an altar as an atonement for sin. 


Burnt-stone, a valuable camelian discovered in ruins, 

and seemingly aflected by the action of fire. 

Uj.— |. (bur) v.t. [Imit.] to pronounce with a burr;— v.t. 

'^ "•^ * to speak in a guttural manner ; — n. tlie rou^ 

sound of r ; a whirring noise ; a buzz. 

burr ^"'^ '"'• [Dan. 6ar7^, burdock] a ring of iron 

*J "* *• l>ehind the handle of a lance, or the touch-hole 

of a cannon ; a triangular chisel used to clear the comers 

of mcMtices. Burr-stone, a silicious stone used for 


bllfTPl (bur^l) «• [O.F.] a pulpy pear; a reddish 

uuiici coarse cloth for making cloaKS. etc. Burrel- 

fly, the ox-fly, gad-bee, or breeze. Burrel-shot, case-shot 

used in an urgent necessity. 

blirrnplr (bur'-uk) n. [Etym. unknown] a small 

UUi i UClv y^.gir Qj (j^jy, yggfj fQj. matching fish. 

bll rrn^W (^^r^) n. [A.S. beorh] a hole in the ground 
UUi i u w made by certain animals, as rabbits, etc., 
for shelter and habitation ; a heap of rubbish •,—v.i. to 
excavate a hole in the earth ; to lodge in a hole excavated 
in the earth, as conies or rabbits ; to take refuge in any 
deep or concealed place ; to hide ; to mine. 
blirrv (bur-i) <*• abounding in burs, or resembling 
u Ui i jr burs ; rough ; prickly. 

hlir^ar (bursar) n. [Low L. bursarius, fr. bursa, 
UUX odi purse] a treasurer or cash-keeper; a student 
to whom a stipend is paid out of a burse or fund to aid 
him during his educational studies. 

bursarship ffiiSr-'"''"'^^ "' *^^ ''®'' ""^ * 

bll r^arv (bur^a-ri) n. the treasury of a college or 
U Ui octi y monastery ; an ex} ibition or scholarship 
in a Scottish school or university. 

bnr^P (burs) n. [F. bourse, fr. Low L. bursa, purse] 
UUi ac a purse ; an exhibition or bursary. 
bnr^f (burst) v.t. [A.S. berstanl to breaK or rend by 
UUioU violence; to open suddenly ;—i-.t. to fly or 
break open with force, or sudden violence ; to issue or 
escape by a sudden or violent movement ; — n. a sudden 
lireaKing forth ; a disruption ; a violent rending ; a 
sudden explosion; a spasmodic effort. 
Hlirfnn (bur'-tun) n. [Etym. unknown] a tackle 
UUi LUii formed by two or three blocks or pulleys. 
Hllfv (ber^i) n. [borough] a borough; a manor; a 
'-' ^* J castle ; (used in composition, as C&nteTbury). 
Hnrv (ber'-i) ' t. [A.S. byrgan] to cover out of sight, 
*J***'y as in ; grave, a tomb, or the ocean; to inter; 
to hide. To bury tlie liatcbet, to restore amicable 
relations (among the North American Indians the 
tomahawk was buried in token of peace). 
y\tirTTincr (ber'-i-ing) n. burial; interment. Buiy- 
UUXyiiig ing-place, a graveyard; a churchyard. 

bus (bus) 71. an abbreviation of omnibus. 

HiiqHv (buz-bi) n. [Hung. (?)] a military cap of 
UUouy bearskin, worn by British hussars, artillery- 
men, and engineers. , 
HiiqVi (boosh) n. [0. H. Ger. busc] a thicket, or a f^oL- 
UUoii place abounding in trees or shrubs ; a shrub — 
particularly a thick shrub ; a branch of ivy (sacred to 
Bacchus) hung out at vintners' doors ; a fox's tail ; the 
backwoods of AustraUa and Cape Colony •,—v.t. to set 
bushes for; to use a bush-harrow on, or for covering seeds; 
— v.i. to grow thick or bushy. Bush-bean, the common 

farden bean, of two varieties, kidney-bean and French- 
ean. Bush-fighting, a guerilla warfare carried on among 
bushes. Bush-harrow, a sort of harrow made of bushes, 
for harrowing grass lands, or covering seeds. Bush-hook, 
a bill-hook with a long shank. Bush-ranger, one that 
travels or lives in the bush ; an escaped convict who found 
refuge in the A"stralian bush. To beat about the bush, 
to approach a matter in a roundabout way. 
Kn cfl (boosh) n. [D. bus, box] a metallic axle bearing; 
UUoii —y^t_ to furnish with a bush; to line with 
metal, as an axle. Bush-metal, hard brass; gun-metal, 
used for journals, bearings, etc. 

KtioViKit^l^ (boosh-Duk) 7i. [bush and ftucA;] an 
DUbnUUCK. antelope of South Africa. 
HhqVipI (boosh^l) 71. [O.F. bussel, fr. L. buxits, 
U UoiiCi ijox] a dry measure, containing 4 pecks, or 8 
gallons, or 32 quarts ; a vessel, of the capacity of a bushel, 
used in measuring ; any large quantity. 
hncViplacr*^ (boosh^l-aj) n. a duty payable on 
UUSiiCidgc commodities by the bushel. 
hll<5VlinP<5^ (boosh-i-nes) n. state of being bushy 
u usiiiiicoa Qj overgrown with bushes. 

Fate, far, ^o ; me, b^ ; mine ; note ; tune ; m66n. 




Hll qIi man (boosh-man) n. a woodsman ; a settler 
LlUoXllllctll jn (;iig backwoods of Australia ; one of 
a tribe of savages near the Cape of Good Hope. 
Kiic«Vi«TiAti4- (boosh-ment) n. an ambush; an 
UUblllllCUt, ambuscade ; a thicket. 
Kiicl-iTxr1i9r*lrAi* (boosn-hwak-er) n. one accus- 
UU£>11 W11CICH.C1 tomed to beat about, or travel 
through, bush; an instrument for cutting brush or bushes. 
hl1<5hv (boosh-i) a. full of bushes; overgrown with 
UUoliy shrubs; thick and spreading. 
Hll^ilv (biz^'-li) "f^^- in ^ busy manner; actively; 
uuoliy assiduously ; officiously. 
HllQinPQQ (biz-nes) n. that which busies one; 
uuoiixcoo employment; any occupation for a 
livelihood or gain ; traffic in general ; concern ; right of 
action, interference or interposition: affair; transaction; 
(used in many senses, modified by the connected words). 
To do the business for, to put an end to ; to destroy. 
To mean business, to be in earnest. 
Hncin*icclit"A (biz^nes-llk) a. characterized by 
uuaillCdaiii^c:; much care and attention. 
Hn qIt (busk) n. [F. husc\ a long, thin piece of metal, 
UUoA. whale-bone, or wood, worn in the front of 
women's corsets. 

U|« q1>. (busk) v.t. and i. [Icel. buask, prepare one's self] 
u UoJv tQ prepare or make ready ; to dress or attire. 

D11SK!6Q (buskt) a. wearing a busk; ready; adorned. 

hll^lrin (bus-kin) n. [Etym. doubtful] a covering for 
UUOA.111 ti^g fQQt J^^JJ jgg^ worn by hunters; a high- 
soled shoe worn by the ancient actors in tragedy— 
hence, tragedy in general ; a high and lofty style. 
hll^lriflf^H (bus-kind) a. dressed in buskins; of, 
uuoJi^iiicu Qj. pertaining to, tragedy ; tragic. 

busky, bosky it?iS! ~ 

wooded ; overgrown with trees. 
K|lQc (bus) n. [Etym. doubtful] a 
i^uao kiss;— «!.«. to kiss. 
1-v||co (bus) n. [O.F. busse'l a two- 
u u. o o masted boat for taking herrings. 
hll ^f (bust) n. [It. busto] the trunk of 
uuoi, jjjg body; the portion between 
the head and waist ; a piece of statuary, 
representing the upper part of the human 
figure, from head to waist inclusive. ^"'"'" 

Kiicf orrl (bus-tard) n. [O.F. bistarde, fr. L. avis 
UUS>LcllU tarda, slow bird] a 
large bird. Tiie great bustard is 
the largest land bird in Europe. 
K||oflfa (bus-l)v.i. [Icel. bustla, 
uruoLic splash in] to stir quickly; 
to be very active ;— «,. great 
hurried activity ; commotion. 
K||oflfi (busi-1) 71. [f r. busk, w. (?)] 
uiusLic a kind of cusliion worn 
behind by ladies to expand the skirts. 
Ki|of1p|- (bus-ler) n. one that bustles; an active, 
i^uoLx^i stirring person. 

bimtlinp" (bus-ling)a. active, but noisy; stirring; 
uruo Liiiig making a great fuss or ado. 
Kiicv (biz-i) a. [A.S. bysig] active and earnest in 
J' work; engaged in business; occupied; con- 
stantly in motion ; restless ; officious ; meddling ;—v.t. 
to make or keep busy ; to employ ; to engage. 
hllQvhnHv (biz^i-bod-i) n. one that officiously 
wuojr u\ju.y concerns himself with the afiairs of 
others; a meddling person. 

but (^""^^ P'^^P- f^-^- ^'<*«'^. fr. be and ut, out] except; 
*^"*' besides ;—cory. unless; save that; on the con- 
trary ; yet ; however ; nevertheless ;—adv. only ;— n. the 
kitchen of a two-roomed house, distinguished from ben. 
But-and-ben, a house containing two rooms [Scot.]. 
blltrhpr (booch-er)n. [O.F. boucher, fr. bouc, goat] 
, ^**'^* one that slaughters animals for the 
market, or sells their flesh ; one that recklessly destroys 
human life; one given to slaughter ;— v. <. to kill or 
slaughter, as animals, for food or for market ; to murder 
in a bloody or barbarous manner. Butcher-bird, a bird 
of the genus called Lanius ; the king-bird ; the shrike. 
Butcher-meat, the flesh of animals slaughtered for the 
table. Butcher-row, a row of butchers' stalls ; a meat- 
market. Butcher's-broom, a genus of stifi", spiny-leaved 
shrubs, used as brooms by butchers. 
butrhf rlv (booch-er-ll) a. grossly cruel and bar- 
i^uwv.iic;iijr barous; bloody; murderous. 

stir; -^^ 

Great bustard. 

h 1 1 f P Vl P r V (booch-§r-i) n. the business of a butcher; 

u u tv..xici y great slaughter ; carnage. 

hnf Ipr (but^ler) n. [Low L. butis, vessel] a servant 

UU Lici whose principal business it is to take charge 

of the liquors, plate, etc. 

Hllf Iprfl f>*f* (but-ler-aj) n. an old customs duty on 

uuLid a-^y wine,6riginally paid to the king's butler. 

butlership (but-ler-shlp) n. the office of a butler. 
butlcry (but^ler-i) n. a buttery ; a butler's pantry. 
butmcnt (but^ment)w. See abutment. 

hllff ^^"'^ ^- ^■^- ^"'> mark, bot, extremity] the 
uui'i' larger end of a thing, as of timber; a limit; a 
mark to be shot at ; one at whom ridicule, contempt, or 
jests are directed; the thickest and stoutest part of 
tanned ox-hides ; a kind of hinge, used in hanging doors, 
etc. ; a piece of land left unploughed ; the metal ring at 
the end of the hose of a fire-engine. Butt-end, the thick 
or large end, as of a rifle. Butt-joint, a joint consist- 
ing of the flattened ends of any two pieces. Butt- 
leather, stout leather for boot soles. Butt-weld, a 
junction formed by welding together flat pieces of metal. 
hllfi" (but) v.t. [O.F. boter, strike] to strike by thrust- 
uutl. jj^g jbe head against, as a ram;— j;.*. to join 
at the end or outward extremity; to be bounded; to 
thrust the head forward ; — n. a push or thrust given in 
fencing, or by the head of an animal. 
hlltf (but) n. [Low L. butta, cask] a large cask; a 
UULU measure of wine equal to 126 gallons ; a pipe. 
hll ttpr (butter) n. [L. butyrum, fr. G. bous, cow, and 
uu LLCi <uro8,cheese] an unctuous substance obtained 
from cream by churning; any substance resembling 
butter; soft, insinuating speech;— r.t. to spread with 
butter ; to flatter. Butter-bird, the rice-bunting, much 
esteemed in Jamaica. Butter-boat, a vessel for holding 
melted butter sauce. Butter-fingered, prone to drop or 
let fall, as a ball in a game of cricket; bungling, said of the 
hands. Butter-fingers, one that is butter-fingered. 
Butter-print, butter-stamp, a stamp to form an im- 
pression on butter. Butter-scotch, a sweetmeat akin to 
tofiee. Butter-tooth, a broad, front tooth. Butter- 
tree, an African tree, Bassia, from which buttery oil is 
extracted ; the shea tree. Buttered-ale. beer sweetened 
with butter, sugar, etc.^ without the infusion of hops. 
To know on which side one's bread is buttered, to 
know what is best for one's interests. 
hllffprP1ir> (but^r-kup) n. a plant of the genus 
u u Ltci ^ up Ranunculus, with yellow flowers. 
huffprflv (but-er-fli) n. a diurnal lepidqpterous 
UU.K LCI iiy insect ; an inconstant person. Butter- 
fly-valve, a species of valve, consisting of two semi- 
circular clappers or wings hinged to a cross rib. 
bllf ff^rinP (but^r-in) n. a preparation having the 
uuuLC;! inc appearance of butter, and made from 
lard and other fats ; margarine. 

buff PflQ (but^er-is) n. [F.] a steel instrument, set in 
1^ u t LCI lo wood, used for paring the hoofs of horses. 
blltterma.n (butter-man) n. a man that trades in 

huff f*rmillr (but-er-milk) n. the milk that 
u u L LCI xxiiii^ remains after churning. 
Kiif f e»«-«iif (butter-nut) n. the nut of a tree found 
U U L LCI II U L in gouth America. 
hll f f ffXAT'Drf (but^r-wurt) n. a genus of herbaceous 
ULXLLCX wux L plants growing in bogs and marshes, 
Kiif f <at^r (but^r-i)a. having the qualities orappear- 
UULLCXy ance of butter. 

huf f <=>rv (but^er-i) n. [O.F. bouteillerie, a cellar, fr. 
UULLCXy i(yiUeiUe, boutille, bottle] an apartment 
where provisions, etc., are kept ; a room in colleges where 
refreshments are kept for sale to the students ; a pantry ; 
a larder ; a cellar in which butts of wine are kept. 
Kiiff rk/^lr (but-uk) n. [butt, end] the rump or pro- 
UULLUl-XS. tuberant part of the body behind; the 
convexity of a ship under the stern. 
Hnf f nn (but-n) n. [O.F. boton] a small ball; a knob; 
u u L LUXX g_ catch used to fasten together the different 
parts of dress ; a bud ; a germ of a plant; a piece of wood 
or metal turning on a nail or screw, to fasten doors, etc.; 
a round mass of metal remaining in the cupel after 
fusion \—pl. as sing, a boy in livery; — v.t. to fasten with 
a button or buttons \—v.i. to be fastened by a button or 
buttons. Button-ear, a drooping ear, peculiar to certain 
dogs. Button-hook, a hook for fastening shoes, etc., 

Fate, f^, 9do ; me, hgr ; mine ; note ; tune : m66n. 




with buttons. Button-mould, a disk of bone, or other 
material, made into a button, by covering it with cloth. 
Button-wood, the western plane-tree, growing in North 
America, producing rough balls. 

hiiffnnVinlia (but^n-hol) n. the hole or loop in 
uuttuiiiiuic which a button is fastened ■,—v.t. to 
hold by the button ; to detain in conversation ; to bore. 
1...|i.l|.pq^ (but^res)n. [O.F. bouter, push] a project- 

"^y UUttiCoO ing support to the exterior — — - 

J of a wall; a prop; a support ; — i;.<. to 
support by a buttress ; to prop. 
hlltf V (but^i) ^- I'booty, fr. 6oo<j/-fellow] ^ 
UULty one that purchases the right to 
work a part of a coal-mining district ; an 
intimate friend. Butty-gang, men that j. 
share their earnings equally. 

butyraceous, butyrous 

( bu-ti-raishus, bu-ti-rus) a. having the 
qualities of butter ; resembhng butter. Dumcsa. 

Kiiftrrir* (bu-tir^ik) a. pertaining to, or derived 
UULjrii^ from, butter. 

butyrin, butyrine Sfa^'ei&wSlSITd 

of acid taste, occurring in butter. 

Kii-vin Kiivin<a (buk^in) n. [L. bv,xus, box- 

UUXin, UUXinC tree] an alkaloid of sharp 

pungent taste got from the box-tree. 

hnvnm (ouk^um) a. [A.S. bugan, bend] lively; 

uu.A.KJi.i.1 brisk; frolicsome; wanton. 

buXOnilv (^'jJ^-sun'i-li)'"*^- in agay, lively manner; 

buXOmneSS ('Ju'^H^-PSs)^. briskness; liveli- 

hll V ^^^^ ^•'- tA.S. bycgan\ to purchase ; to acquire by 
" " Jf paying a price for ; to procure for a consideration ; 
to bribe ; to corrupt ; — v.i. to negotiate or treat about a 
purchase. Tobuy in, to purchase for the owner at a sale or 
auction. To buy oflf, to purchase a military discharge ; to 
procure the non-opposition of, by a monetary consideration ; 
to bribe. To buy out, to purchase one's interests, as in a 
joint stock company. Tobuy over, to convert, by paying 
a price. To buy the refusal of, to obtain, by a payment, 
the privilege of purchasing at a future time. 
KiiTraKI*^ (bi-a-bl) a. that may be bought or 
DUydOie purchased. 

hllVPr (bi^'") "• one that buys, esp. a buyer for a 
" " J *^* mercantile house ; a purchaser. 
till 77 (buz) v.t. [Imit.l to make known by whispers ; 
uu^^ to spread secretly ; — v.i. to make a low, hum- 
ming sound, as bees ; to speak with a low voice ; — n. a 
contmuous humming noise, as of bees ; a whisper ; a 
report spread secretly. Buzz-saw, a circular saw. 
KiT^^arH (bu&,ard)n. [F. busard, fr. L. btiteo, a 
U U^^dl U kind of falcon or hawk] a bird of prey of 
the falcon family ; a blockhead ; a dunce. 
KiiyyarH n\r\n'\^ (buz^rd-klok) n. [buzz and 
UU.£.^ctiU CiUCK. c^ocit, beetle] the cockchafer. 
hll77Pr (buz^r) n. a whisperer; a tale-bearer; a 
i^u^^^i polishing wheel ; a kind of call or alarm. 
t-v.r» (bl) prep. [A.S. bl, big] in the neighlx)urhood of ; 
^J near or next to ; from one to the other side of ; 
past ; through or with, denoting the instrument, cause, 
way, and the like ; according to, as in quantity, measure, 
or proportion ; — adv. near ; in the neighbourhood ; be- 
side; passing near; going or gone past. By-and-by 
rt)ye), presently By-the-by (bye), by the way ; inci- 
dentally. By-bidder, one employed at an auction to 
force up prices. By-blow, a side-blow ; a bastard. By- 
business, by-concernment ; a subordinate matter. By- 
comer, a secret comer. By-drinking, drinking between 
meals. By-election, an election between general elec- 
tions, to fill a vacancy in parliament. By-end, by- 
interest, by-view, private end. By-Uuie, a side lane. 
By-law, a secondary or subordinate rule or law made by 
an association or corporation, etc. By-motive, private 
motive ; so by-purpose. Bv-name, a nickname. By- 
pass, a pipe passing round a valve, used to prevent 
a complete stoppage of a flow when the valve is closed. 
By-passage, a private or unfrequented passage ; so by- 
path, by-road, by-street, by-walk. By-play, action 
carried on aside. By-product, soniething produced in 
addition to the principal product. By-speech, an inci- 
dental speech. By-stroke, an incidental or sly stroke. 
BiV-wipe, a secret stroke or sarcasm. To come by, to 
obtain. To stand by, to stand near ; to support. 

hvarH (bl^rd)"- [O.F.] a leather breast-strap used 
vjj ax »a hy miners m dragging waggons. 

byCOCket (bl^kok-et)n. Seeabacot. 

Kxrp ^^^ "• ^^^ * '"° made at cricket when the ball 
•-'J'^ passes the wicket-keeper without having been 
struck by the batsman ; the condition of a person left 
without, in competition. 

hvPTitlP (Di%on) a. past;— n. what is past, as in, 
~j o . * "Let bygones be bygones." 


hv«:s:ifprni1Q (bi-sif-e-ms) a. [L. byssus, 
\jy ooAi^^i \^uo ferre, bear] producing a byssi 
K^cci n *a (bisi^in) a. made of oyssus ; having a 

or flax-like appearance. 

a silky 


hvQ«in1if P (bis^-llt) n. [G. bussos. byssus, and 
uy oov/ii cc lithos, stone] a variety of amphibole. 
Kttocii c (bis^us) n.; pi. byssi (bis^T) [G.] among the 
ufjroouo ancients, a textile fabric; the bunch of 
filaments by which certain bivalve molluscs are attached 
to other objects ; the stipe of some fungi. 
KYstander (^i^'^n-^?'') '*• one standing near; 

UjTWay (bf-wa) n. a private or secluded way. 

bw/TirH (bi-wurd) n. a proverbial saying; the 
M jr w \ji VI object of such a saying. 
Rvy a n f i a n (bi-zan^han) a. pertaining to Byzan- 
oy^ctllLldll tium or Constantinople. 

Byzantine £l^°ibS^r°^ "• ^'"'°- 

(^ P the third letter in the English alphabet has two 
^^y ^i sounds, k and s. The digraph eh has four 
sounds, the first equivalent to tsh, as in church; the 
second eauivalent to sh, as in chaise; the third equiva- 
lent to k, as in chorus; the fourth equivalent to • . 
guttural h, as in loch. In music, C after the clef is the 
mark of common time ; when a vertical line is drawn 
through it, it indicates alia breve time. is also the 
name of a note in the scale— the keynote major, and 
the third minor, of the natural scale. 
Cfl Q Kq (ka^-ba) n. [A.] the sacred shrine of Mecca, 
\^a,<xua. inclosing a famous black stone. 
pah ^^^^^ '^- 1^'"- cabriolet] a kind of covered carriage 
K,a,u drawn by one horse ; the covered part of a 
locomotive ; — v.i. to ride in a cab. 
pa t-j (kab) n. [H.] a Hebrew dry measure, containing 
^"•'-' two and five-sixth pints. 

pa Ha 1 (ka-bal') n. [H. qabal, to receive] a number 
\,a.iJai of persons united to promote their views by 
intrigue ; a junto ; secret artifices ; intrigue ; — v.i. to 
unite in secret intrigues ; to conspire. 
/'oKnla /^aKKalo (kaVa-la) n. a mystical 
i^dUdid) UdUUdld interpretation of the Pen- 
tateuch, consisting in the meaning attached to certain 
forms and combinations of the letters of the law— hence, 
secret science in general : esoteric doctrine. (kal>a-lizm) n. the secret science of the 


Pahali^f (kai)^-Ust) n. one versed in the cabala, a 
^dUdiioi, mystic knowledge of the Jews. 

cabalistic, cabalistical SaOa."^^^- 

taining to the Jewish cabala : mysterious. 
/^aKolicf ir^allfr (kab-a-lis-ti-kal-i) adv. in the 
UdUdll&tiCdliy manner of the cabalists. 
PaHallpr (^^-^^'-?^) n- one that cabals; one that 
^^dudiici unites with others in intriguing. 
r^aKalliriA (kal/a-lin) a. [L. cdbalXus, nag] per- 
l^dUdillllC taining to a horse. . 

PpKprpf (kab^i-ret, ka-ba-ra') n. [F.] a tavern ; an (y^-^^^- 
UdUdiCL ale-house ; a tea-set, or coffee-set. \ 

r'aKoc (ka-ba', kab^) n. [F.] a lady's work-basket 
i,dUd:> or reticule. 

C!x\\Yii\^('' (kab^j ) n. [0. F. cabus, fr. L. caput, head] 
v^dUUdgCa common garden vegetable;— r.i. to 
form a head in growing. CabbJ^e-butterfly, a large, 
white butterfly whose larvae are injurious to the cal)bage, 
etc. Cabbage-daisy, a globe-flower. Cabbage-moth, 
a large, dark-coloured moth, whose greenish-black cater- 
pillar feeds on cabbages. Cabbage-net, a net to boil 
cabbages in. Cabbage-palm, cabbage-tree, any palm 

Fate, far, ado ; me, her ; mine ; note ; tune ; moon. 




with edible leaf -buds. Cabbage-rose, a species of rose 
with a large, round, compact flower. Cabbage-worm, 
any caterpillar inumous to plants. 
PjjUUjjo-p (kab^aj) n. [O.F. cabas, basket] cloth 
K,(XlJlJa,^s^ purloined by one that cuts out gar- 
ments •,—v.t. to purloin; to retain cloth left after cutting 
out a garment. 

nahit^n^ (ka-baisa) n. [Pg. fr. L. caput, hesid] the 
CdUCVfO. finest kind of Indian silk. 
nahif^r (kr»Aber) n. [(iael. cabar, pole]alonj:, undressed 
CcLUCi gtgii^ of a tree, used in the Highland game of 
tossing the caber. 

r^ahin (kab^in) n. [O.F. cabane] a small room ; a hut 
l^dUlll oj. small house ; an apartment in a ship for 
ofHcers and passengers ■,-^.t. to confine in a cabm ;— 
v.i. to live in a cabin; to lodge. Cabin-boy, a boy whose 
duty is to wait on the officers and passengers of a ship. 
r»aKin*if (kaW-i-net) n. a small room; a closet; a 
UaUllXCL private room in which consultations are 
held ; the select council of a sovereign ; a committee of 
ministers of state ; a chest or box, with drawers and door: 
a safe place for valuables. Cabinet-council, a meeting of 
the cabinet. Cabinet-maker, a man that makes cabinets 
and other household furniture. 

r*a Hiri (ka-bl-rl) n. [G.] divinities of oriental origin, 
v^dUlX 1 connected with fire. 
Pahirian Pnhirir (ka-Wr-i-an, -ik) a. per- 
l-,aDirian, V^aOinC taming to the CaMri. 
Pahl^* (kaibl) n. [O.F. fr. L. capere, holdS a large, 
CctUlC strong rope or chain, used to retain a vessel at 
anchor, etc.; a submarine telegraph; [Arch.] a cylindrical 
moulding ; — v.t. to fasten with a cable ; to send by cable. 
Cable-laid, twisted like a cable. Cable's-length, 100 
fathoms. Cable-tier, the place for stowing cables. 
/^oKlckrl (kaibld) a. said of a cross composed of two 
CciUlt^U cable-ends [Her.]. 

/>fiKlAm*'im (kaA)l-gram) n. a message sent by 
CdUlCgl dill a telegraph cable. 

cablet (kaAblet) n. a little cable ; a tow-rope. 
cabman (kab^mg,n) n. the driver of a cab. 

P3 hnh (ka-bob') n. [Per. fr. kab, ox] a small piece of 
K^auKJu meat roasted with spices; in India, roast 
meat in general •,—v.t. to cook in tliis way. 
/*aKrkrko» (ka-b66s')n. [D. kom^uis] the kitchen of 
l,dUUObe a ship ; the galley. 

caboshed, caboched, cabossed 

kei-bosht', -host') a. [O.F.] full-faced [Her.].