Skip to main content

Full text of "King's handbook of Springfield, Massachusetts : a series of monographs, historical and descriptive"

See other formats


3 3433 08183154 1 





' V*': Wit 

r ^> 


















870464 A 



R iS30 U 

•<• ■■' ■ " ' ' ■ in 

Copyright, 1884, 





JFranRIin tyttzs: 



TN making this " Handbook of Springfield," the aim has been to make a 
readable and trustworthy description of the city as it now is. The 
volume contains nearly four hundred octavo pages, with almost two hundred 
illustrations, nearly all of which were made expressly for this volume. At 
the end are full indexes comprising nineteen pages, with more than twenty- 
seven hundred references, so that any part of the contents can be referred 
to instantly. The views are intended to show some of the historic, unique, 
and prominent features of the city. The portraits will bring to mind the 
faces of men who have been prominent in civil government, who have 
gained places in the local literary annals, or have been active in those enter- 
prises which have brought wealth and fame to the city. No attempt has 
been made to furnish an elaborate history of Springfield ; yet for all practical 
purposes, the book contains as much history as the ordinary citizen cares to 
know or could well remember. It is believed that this book is the most 
pretentious one as yet issued of its kind, for any city of the size of Spring- 
field, in this country. The original design was a much smaller volume ; but 
after the work was begun, so much interesting matter was found for the 
reader, and so many enthusiastic and patriotic citizens were met, that the 
book was materially enlarged, and many illustrations were added. It is 
hoped that it now will be acceptable, not only to the former and present resi- 
dents, but also to those who may have occasion only to visit the city. 

It will be apparent that much valuable aid has been rendered by many 
well-informed citizens, most of whom are credited at the end of their respec- 
tive chapters. Many persons not having furnished whole chapters ought to 
be mentioned here, in brief acknowledgment of their services : among them, 
the Rev. Dr. William Rice, the venerable city librarian; J. Newton Bagg 
of West Springfield ; Thomas At. Dewey, late secretary of the Business- 



Men's Association ; and Oscar B. Ireland, the scholarly actuary of the Massa- 
chusetts Mutual Life Insurance Company. Albert H. Hardy, a newspaper 
writer, has rendered some good help, especially in the business chapter. 
Among those who have furnished valuable material besides the chapters 
to which their names are attached, are, Henry Morris, Solomon B. Griffin, 
Wilmot L. Warren, Charles H. Barrows, Charles G. Whiting, and Albert 
H. Kirkham. It may also be said, that nearly two thousand pieces of proof 
have been sent out in the mails for corrections, and hundreds of persons 
have kindly returned their pieces with useful comments. For photographs 
from which pictures have been made, we are indebted to Chauncy L. Moore 
and E. J. Lazelle. Several illustrations were furnished through the courtesy 
of the Springfield Printing Company. 

Owing to circumstances over which there was no control, the book 
appears several months later than was expected. Every thing, as far as 
possible, has been corrected to Jan. I, 1884; but no changes that have taken 
place since then, with rare exceptions, have been made, and these excep- 
tions are almost wholly in the business chapter, which, as far as possible, 
has been corrected up to the time of going to press. 

In preparing a volume of this size and in this style, for a city like Spring- 
field, it becomes necessary to sell many thousand copies in order to realize 
a profit on the undertaking; and the publisher feels confident he will receive 
a generous patronage from the hundreds of earnest, thrifty, and devoted 
citizens of the prosperous and delightful city described in the following 



Cambridge, Mass., Sept. i, 1884. Editor and Publisher. 


Just as the book is finished, I find myself so overburdened with work 
that I have disposed of all my interest in it to James D. Gill, one of the 
most enterprising business men of the city, whose art and literary establish- 
ment is unequalled in any other city of the size of Springfield. I trust he 
will receive the full reward that the book, as well as his own industry and 
capacity, deserves. M. K. 


An elaborate detailed index to the text, and a complete list of the illustrations, will be found at the 
close of the volume, from pages 375 to 394. 

Chapter. Page. 


Bird's-eye View of Springfield from the United-States Arsenal Tower 

Preface 7 

Springfield's Past History . . . Henry Morris. I. 9 

Early Settlers. — Indian Troubles. — Wars.— Growth, etc. 

Geology and Geography . . Nathatiiel Soitthgate Shaler. II. 27 

Prominent Features of the Geology and Geography of the Region 
about Springfield. 

Springfield as a City. . . . Clark Whitman Bryan. III. 33 

Its Growth from a Town of Fourteen Thousand to a City of Thirty- 
five Thousand Inhabitants. 

Surroundings of Springfield . . John Wheeler Harding. IV. 51 

An Outline History and Description ; Anecdotes, Comments, and 

Highways and Byways Heman Smith. V. 6i 

Old and New Streets and Roads, their Names and Ages, Bridges, 
Brooks, and Horse-cars. 

Traffic and Transportation . Moses Foster Sweetser, et al. VI. 77 

Early Boats, Stage-coaches, and Canals, and the Later Steam-railroads. 

The Public Hospitality .... James Beebe Smith. VII. 93 

The Taverns of Old, and the Hotels and Restaurants of To-day. 

Public Buildings and Government Charles Henry Barrows. VIII. m 
Public Buildings, Fire, Water, Sewer, Police, Judicial, Post-office, 
and Other Departments. 

The Educational Institutions . Admiral Paschal Stone. IX. 125 

The Public and Private Schools ; Colleges ; Educational Matters. 


Literature and Science . . William Steele Shurtleff. 
Literati and Scientists, Libraries, and Reading-rooms; Literary, His- 
torical, and Scientific Organizations. 

Art and Music 

Artists and Musicians, and the Art and Musical Organizations. 

The Religious Organizations 

The Churches, Past and Present Places of Worship, Christian and 
Kindred Associations. 

Charities and Hospitals . . Burton Monroe Firman. 
Charities, Relief Associations, Aid Societies, Hospitals, and Alms- 

The Cemeteries .... Samuel Giles Buckingham. 
Past and Present Places of Burial. — Springfield, Oak-Grove, and 
Catholic Cemeteries. 

Parks and Squares . . . Charles Goodrich Whiting. 
Parks, Squares, Fountains, Statues, Monuments, Hills, and Ponds. 

United-States Armory. . . Albert Harleigh Kirkham. 
The Arsenals, Water-shops, Superintendents, Arms, Statistics, and 

The Sociability of the City . Charles Martyn Prynne. 
Theatres. — Athletic Associations. — Secret Organizations. — Clubs. 
— Halls, etc. 

Newspapers and Periodicals . Solomon Bulkley Griffin. 
Early Journalism. — " The Republican." — " The Union." — " The 
News." — " The Democrat." — Later Periodicals. 

The Financial Institutions . . Wilmot Lillie Warren. 
State and National Banks, Savings Institutions, Clearing-house, Pri- 
vate Banks. 

The Insurance Companies 

The Mutual Fire. — Springfield Fire and Marine. — Massachusetts 
Mutual Life, etc. 

Merchants and Manufacturers 

Brief Descriptions of some Noteworthy Factories and Mercantile 

The Bibliography of Springfield . . William Clogston. 
Printed Matter relating to Springfield in general, and to its Institu- 
tions and Citizens. 

Index to Text 

Index to Illustrations 

Chapter. Page. 
X. 141 

XL 163 

XII. 173 

XIII. 211 

XIV. 223 

XV. 233 

XVI. 245 

XVII. 265 

XVIII. 283 

XIX. 295 

XX. 309 

XXI. 319 

XXII. 371 

XXIV. 375 

XXIII. 393 


THE scenery of Springfield and its 
vicinity has long been regarded as 
beautiful. A few years ago a native of 
Springfield, during a visit in Scotland, 
spoke enthusiastically to his Scottish 
host, of a particular view, as the finest 
he had ever seen. The host, who at the 
• time was not aware that his guest resided in 

Springfield, replied that it was the finest he himself had ever seen, excepting 
one from the tower of the United-States Arsenal, on the Connecticut River. 
Only five years after the settlement of Boston, in the year 1635, many 
of the inhabitants of the towns about Boston, attracted by the glowing de- 
scriptions given them by Indians of the fertility of the valley of the Con- 
necticut, were desirous to remove to the banks of this river: considerable 
parties removed from Dorchester, Cambridge, and Watertown, and settled 
in Windsor, Hartford, and Wethersfield. On the 6th of May, 1635, the 
inhabitants of Roxbury had liberty granted them to remove themselves to 
any place they should think meet, not to prejudice another plantation, pro- 
vided they should continue«under the government of Massachusetts. In 

Copyright, 1883, by Moses King. 


accordance with this permission, William Pynchon, a patentee and magis- 
trate under the colony charter, and others, came with their families from 
Roxbury, and located themselves, in the spring of 1636, at Springfield, then 
known by its Indian name of Agawam. There is little doubt that a small 
pioneer party of explorers was sent here by Pynchon in 1635, and built a 
house on the west side of the Connecticut, in the meadow. This site was 
abandoned on account of its exposure to freshets, and a new location selected 
on the east side of the river. 

On the 14th of May, 1636, Mr. Pynchon, Henry Smith (Pynchon's son-in- 
law), Matthew Mitchell, Jehu Burr, William Blake, Edmund Wood, Thomas 
Ufford, and John Cable signed a written agreement, containing numerous 
articles for the future government of the settlement. 

The first article is in the following words : " Wee intend by Gods 
o-race, as soon as we can, with all convenient speede to procure some Godly 
and faithfull minister with whome we purpose to joyne in church covenant, 
to walk in all the ways of Christ." 

The second article expressed their intention that the town should be 
composed of forty families, unless they should think meet afterwards to 
alter their purpose, yet not to exceed fifty families " rich and poore." 

None of the signers of this agreement, except Pynchon and Smith, 
remained here long. Most of them left within three years. Other settlers 
came, and on the 16th of May twelve persons received allotments of land. 

Soon after their arrival the settlers entered into negotiation with the 
Indians for the purchase of a site for the plantation. The land was valua- 
ble to the Indians mainly as affording a range for hunting and fishing, and 
the o-athering of nuts and wild fruits that grew spontaneously. In addition, 
they had small patches of cultivated ground, where they raised their corn. 
They were willing to sell to the planters the land they required, reserving 
to themselves only such uses of it as they were accustomed to enjoy. 

Accordingly, by a deed executed with due formality on the 1 5th of July, 
i^e, — the purport of which was explained to them by an Indian interpreter 
from the Bay, — two of the "ancient Indians of Agawam," for themselves 
and eleven other Indians who claimed to be proprietors of the lands, con- 
veyed to William Pynchon, Henry Smith, and Jehu Burr, their heirs and 
associates forever, a large tract of land on both sides of the river, including 
the greater part of the land now occupied by the city of Springfield. For 
this deed Pynchon and his associates paid a consideration which was satis- 
factory to the Indians, and of which they never complained. 

The first settlers built their houses on the westerly side of the town 
street, which was about eighty rods easterly of the river, and substantially 
parallel with it. 

The first allotment of lands was made in May, 1636, to the eight signers 

A Patentee and Magistrate under the Colony Charter. 


of the agreement, and four others who had joined them. As most of these 
twelve persons left the plantation soon, this allotment of lands was after- 
wards greatly altered by a new division, which was the basis of the perma- 
nent settlement. This new division assigned to each man a home-lot 
extending from the street to the river, with a portion of the meadow and 
upland of equal width on the easterly side of the street. In general these 
home-lots were eight rods wide. Pynchon and a few others had lots much 
wider. The town street of that day corresponded, substantially, with the 
present Main Street of the city, in its general course. Besides this principal 
street, there were three narrow lanes leading from it to the river. These, 
with greatly increased width, are now represented by Elm Street, York 
Street, and Cypress Street. The only road running easterly from the town 
street was in some part of its course the same as the present State Street. 

In 1636 the Plantation of Agawam was supposed to be in the same 
jurisdiction with Windsor, Hartford, and Wethersfield; and the government 
of these four towns was administered by commissioners appointed by the 
General Court of Massachusetts. Pynchon and Smith were members of 
this commission, and Pynchon attended its session at Hartford. A more 
accurate survey of the division-line between Massachusetts and Connecti- 
cut established the fact, that Agawam fell within the jurisdiction of Massa- 
chusetts, and left the settlers here temporarily without any magistrate, and 
at such a distance from the Bay as to be practically beyond the reach of 
the authorities located there. 

In this exigency, the planters at Agawam met on the 14th of February, 
1639, an d voted that Mr. Pynchon should execute the office of a magistrate 
in the plantation, with all the powers necessary to administer justice, until 
the General Court should otherwise order. Under this authority Mr. 
Pynchon acted until June, 1641, when he was duly commissioned by the 
General Court with similar powers. 

On the 14th of April, 1641, the name of the town was changed, by a 
vote of the inhabitants, from Agawam to Springfield. This is said to have 
been a compliment to Pynchon, whose residence in England had been a 
place of that name. The General Court recognized the town by the name 
of Springfield in 1641. 

Rev. George Moxon had been settled as the minister in 1637. In 1639 
a house was built for him upon a home-lot fourteen rods wide, which was 
granted him. He had at first a salary of forty pounds sterling, which 
was raised by an annual tax. In 1645 tne first meeting-house was erected. 
It stood near the south-easterly corner of Court Square, and extended into 
the present Elm Street, and fronted southerly. 

Prior to 1647 the bounds of the town were quite indefinite. In 1638 
old style (1639 as t ' me ' s now reckoned), a committee, appointed for the 

The Chief of the Wampanoags. 


purpose, described the northern boundary as at a brook on the other side 
of the river, about a quarter of a mile above the mouth of Chicopee River. 
The brook at the lower end of the long meadow on the east side of the 
river, and the brook a little below on the west side, are mentioned as 
the southerly boundary. No east or west boundary is given. 

In the year 1647 the General Court made very large additions to the 
territory of Springfield : so that it included Westfield, Suffield, a consider- 
able part of Southwick, and the whole of West Springfield, Holyoke, and 
Agawam, on the west side of the river; and the present Springfield, Chico- 
pee, Enfield, Somers, Wilbraham, Ludlow, Longmeadow, and Hampden, on 
the east side. 

Over all this territory Massachusetts claimed and exercised jurisdiction 
until about the year 1748, when the towns of Enfield, Suffield, and Somers 
united with Connecticut. The limits of Springfield have been further 
greatly reduced, from time to time, by the incorporation of the other towns, 
named above, which remained in Massachusetts. 

The growth of Springfield in population was not at first very rapid. 
Twelve settlers received allotments of land in May, 1636, two days after 
the agreement to establish the plantation was signed. 

In 1642 there was a second division of planting-lands among the settlers 
then here. Seventeen persons received allotments under that division. In 
1643 there were allotments to twenty-two. 

In the year 1649 the subject of witchcraft attracted some attention in 
Springfield. One Mary Parsons, wife of Hugh Parsons, had circulated 
a report that a widow named Marshfield. who had removed from Windsor 
to Springfield, was guilty of witchcraft, — an offence then punishable with 
death. For this story the widow commenced an action before Mr. Pynchon 
against Mary Parsons; and the magistrate, finding her guilty of the slander, 
sentenced her to pay three pounds to the plaintiff, or else to be whipped 
twenty lashes by the constable. 

Two years later, in May, 1651, Mary Parsons was herself charged with 
the crime of witchcraft. She was indicted for having " used divers devilish 
practices by witchcraft, to the hurt of Martha and Rebeckah Moxon," two 
daughters of the minister. For this offence she was tried at Boston before 
the General Court, but acquitted for want of satisfactory evidence. Upon 
the charge of murdering her own child, on which she was tried at the same 
time, she was convicted, and sentenced to death. 

About this time (1651) Mr. Pynchon incurred the displeasure of the 
General Court on account of a theological book, published in England, 
which was alleged to contain heretical sentiments. The charge of heresy 
was a very serious one at that day; and when Pynchon admitted the author- 
ship of the work, and after being admonished by the Court, and dealt with 


J 5 

by leading divines of the colony, selected to convince him of his errors, 
failed to make a satisfactory recantation of them, he felt himself to be, and 
was, in no little peril. As the result of this difficulty, he left America, and 
returned to England, in 1652, where he died a few years afterwards. Henry 
Smith, his son-in-law, — although designated as his successor in the magis- 
tracy at Springfield, — and Mr. Moxon the minister, accompanied Pynchon 
to England. Neither of them ever returned to this country. Two mem- 
bers of Mr. Pynchon's family remained in Springfield, — his son John 
Pynchon, and his son-in-law Elizur Holyoke. 

After the departure of Pynchon and Smith, Springfield was destitute of 
any local magistracy. To provide for this exigency, the General Court, in 
October, 1652, appointed three commissioners as magistrates, to govern the 

town. These were John Pynchon, Elizur Holyoke. 
and Samuel Chapin. These three men had jurisdiction for the trial of all 
causes, civil or criminal, except those criminal cases of so grave a character 
as were proper to be tried before the General Court at Boston. 

In May, 1653, these three commissioners were appointed by the General 
Court a committee to lay out two new plantations at Nonotuck, or Norwot- 
tuck. They reported, in 1654, that they had laid out a plantation on the 
west side of the river, and reserved land on the east side for another when 
required. The first of these became the town of Northampton; the other, 
on the east side of the river, became the town of Hadley. 

In 1662 Springfield, Northampton, and Hadley were made a county 
called Hampshire, of which Springfield was made the shire-town. The 
three commissioners were authorized to hold courts, both at Springfield and 

In 1660 was built the first brick building ever erected in Springfield. It 
was the dwelling-house of John Pynchon, who is called in the records " The 

1 From a painting in possession of the City Library. 



Worshipful Major Pynchon" and, later, " The Worshipful Colonel." The 
bricks used in its construction were made at Northampton. The carpenters 
and masons were from Windsor. The building was forty-two feet long, and 

twenty-one feet wide. The walls were very thick 
and solid, rising about twenty-two feet from the 
ground to the eaves. The roof was very steep, 
and the ridge was about twenty-two feet in per- 
pendicular height above the garret-floor. It was 
designed to be a fortified house, and was actually 
used as such during the Indian war. This build- 
ing remained in the occupation of the Pynchons 
until it was demolished, in 1 831, to make room 
for a more modern house. It was long known 
as the "old fort." The wooden house which 
had been the home of William Pynchon was connected with the new brick 
house, and made to serve as an appendage to it. It was removed in 1831 to 
the easterly part of Cross Street, where in an altered state, in 1883, it serves 
as a dwelling-house and laundry. There are still marks of antiquity about it. 
John Pynchon was engaged in a very large business as a merchant. He 
purchased furs very extensively of the Indians and others. These were 



sent down the river to his warehouse, at what is now known as Warehouse 
Point in East Windsor, and thence to Hartford: from which place they 
were shipped to Boston and England. He was an owner, or part owner, of 
several vessels. 

Until the year 1675, the relations of the people of Springfield with the 
Indians were amicable and pleasant. William Pynchon, and, after he left, 
his son John, had frequent and friendly intercourse with them in the way 
of trade. The Indian sold his beaver and other furs to Pynchon. and, in 
return, purchased from him such goods as Pynchon kept in store as suited 
to the Indian's needs. Fire-arms and ammunition only were prohibited 
articles. The red men roamed the streets of the town, and visited freely 
the houses of the whites. No cause of disaffection or discontent was known 
to exist on the part of the Indians. They had what was called a fort in the 
southerly part of the town, but this created no uneasiness on the part of 
their white neighbors. Their wigwams and their planting-grounds were 
on both sides of the Connecticut. Probably the whole Indian population in 
the town, and its immediate vicinity, did not exceed two hundred persons. 

In 1675 the disturbances fomented by Philip, the chief of the Wampa- 
noags, began in the south-eastern part of the State, and gradually spread 
westward until they reached the valley of the Connecticut. Philip himself 
was said to have visited the Agawam Indians, and induced them to join the 
confederacy against the whites. About three hundred hostile Indians were 
secretly introduced into their fort, and every preparation made to assault 
Springfield, and slaughter its inhabitants. The time was favorable for the 
attempt: the soldiers who had been stationed here as a garrison were 
temporarily absent, with Major Pynchon their commander, on an expedition 
about twenty miles up the river, to check some hostile demonstrations there. 
The intention of Philip's men became known to the people at Windsor 
through the disclosures made by a friendly Indian; and timely warning was 
sent to Springfield, and to Major Pynchon at Hadley. The people generally 
took refuge in the fortified houses, of which there were three, — one of them 
the Pynchon house, and the others in the south part of the street. Three 
men and one woman were killed by the Indians. Thirty-two houses and 
twenty-five barns were burned, with Major Pynchon's corn-mill and saw- 

Discouraged by these disasters, occurring just as winter was approach- 
in-; and fearful of the suffering likely to follow the destruction of their 
houses, and the stores of provisions which they had gathered for the winter, 
— many of the inhabitants were inclined to abandon the town, and seek a 
home elsewhere. But wiser counsels prevailed, and most of them remained 
to repair the losses they had sustained. After this manifestation of their 
treachery, the Indians withdrew from Springfield. No considerable number 


of them were seen here. But for some years they continued to visit this 
vicinity, and perpetrate deeds of violence upon the persons and property of 
unwary settlers as they found opportunity. 

Within a few years after this Indian outbreak. Springfield lost three of 
its most prominent men. Samuel Chapin, who came here in 1642. and had 
been a deacon in the church from that time, and was one of the magistrates 
appointed by the General Court to hold the courts for the county, and per- 
form other important duties, died on the nth of November. 1675. An ideal 
statue is soon to be erected in his honor in Court Square. On the fifth 
day of February following, the '-honored Capt. Elizur Holvoke," another 
of the magistrates, died. John Pynchon survived these colleagues in the 
magistracy about twenty-seven years, and died in 1703, at the age of about 
eighty years. Probably no man, before or since, ever had so great an influ- 
ence in the affairs of Western Massachusetts, especially in the Connecticut 
Valley, as Major Pynchon. He was the commander of the military forces 
here. He was chief judge of the local courts of the old county of Hamp- 
shire, a member of the court of assistants at Boston, and often employed 
as a commissioner to negotiate and adjust affairs of importance with the 
other Colonies. 

In 1696 the settlers on the west side of the river were incorporated into 
a new parish, and not long afterwards the southerly part of Springfield was 
incorporated as the parish of Longmeadow. 

In 1723 a court-house was built, and the town contributed largely toward 
the expense. The money was in part raised by the sale of some of the 
common lands belonging to the town. It was a plain two-story wooden 
structure, its front projecting some distance into Main Street. It was for 
years the only public building in the town, and near by stood the whipping- 
post. It was a quaint little building : and " it would seem that our venerable 
ancestors, who arranged the room, attempted to indicate, in the different 
grades of the floor (of which there were at least half a dozen), the relative 
rank and importance of the occupants of the place, from judge and jury 
down to prisoner and public." In those times the judges appeared in the 
old English style, attired in robes and wigs. 

During the French and Indian wars, covering the period from 1744 to 
1760, in which New England bore so prominent a part. Springfield men 
served in the army, and many of them perished. In the year 1745. at the 
siege and capture of Louisburg, 18 soldiers from this town lost their lives. 

In 1774 that part of Springfield lying westerly of the Connecticut River 
was incorporated as a town, by the name of West Springfield. 

The difficulties between England and her American Colonies were now 
drawing to a head. The colonists everywhere were taking sides. It soon 
became apparent at Springfield, that, while a respectable and influential 



minority clung closely to their relation with the mother country, the large 
majority of the people were determined to resist oppression, and looked 
forward to a possible separation from England in no distant future. 

At a town-meeting held on the 27th of June, 1774. certain letters which 
had been received from the town of Boston were referred to a committee of 
9 persons; viz., Deacon Nathaniel Brewer, Capt. George Pynchon, Dr. 
Charles Pynchon, Capt. Simeon Colton, Moses Field. Jonathan Hale, jun., 
Ensign Phineas Chapin, James Sikes, and Deacon Daniel Harris. 

First Court-house just before its Demolition in 1871. 

July 12, 1774, this committee reported several resolutions, condemning,- 
taxation without representation; denouncing the Boston Port Bill as a meas- 
ure that "ought to alarm us, and fill us with deep concern." They add: 
'• Impressed with just concern for our privileges, and at the same time gov- 
erned by sentiments of loyalty to our sovereign, and with warm affection for 
our mother country, we ardently wish that all the Colonies, and every indi- 
vidual in them, may unite in some prudent, peaceful, and 
measure for the redress of our grievances, the security of our liberties, and 
the restoration of union and mutual confidence between Great Britain and 


the Colonies." Another resolution expressed disapprobation of all meas- 
ures unnecessarily affrontive of the Parliament, and all tumults and riots. 
These resolutions were adopted, in town-meeting, by a large majority. At 
an adjourned meeting, July 26, it was voted that the resolutions should be 
sent to the town-clerk of Boston. 

Sept. 20, 1774, the town appointed a committee to devise a plan of asso- 
ciated action, and suggested the calling of a county congress, to which it 
elected three provisional delegates. It also appointed a committee to 
procure necessaries for the subsistence of the industrious poor in Boston, 
and a committee to correspond with neighboring towns. 

In January, 1775, various other resolves were voted by the town, and 
William Pynchon, jun., was chosen a delegate to the Provincial Congress to 
meet in February. Jan. 10 the town appropriated ,£25 to procure a town 
stock of ammunition. July 12, 1775, John Hale and William Pynchon. jun., 
were chosen delegates to the General Court to meet at Watertown, July 19. 
Nov. 14, 1775, a committee was chosen to consider the subject of providing 
for the soldiers and minute-men. Nov. 20, 1775, the town granted ^52 14.5-. 
zd. for this object. March 5, 1 776, nine persons were appointed a committee 
of safety. 

While a very large majority of the people of Springfield were preparing 
to throw off their allegiance to Great Britain, there were some of its most 
prominent and influential men who shrunk from the dissolution of the ties 
that bound them to the mother country, and clung to the hope of an adjust- 
ment of the existing difficulties without a resort to arms. One noteworthy 
instance was Col. John Worthington, a native of Springfield, born Nov. 24, 
1 719, a graduate of Yale in 1740, and afterwards a tutor there. He prac- 
tised his" profession of the law extensively in the old county of Hampshire, 
and the county of Worcester, and was regarded as a very able advocate. 
He was popular among his own townsmen, courtly in his manners, and was 
thought to stand high in favor with the provincial government. He was 
king's attorney in Hampshire County, and could have been attorney-general 
for the whole State if he had chosen to accept the office. His relations to 
the government, and his association with its officers, kept him from sympa- 
thy with the popular cause ; and from 1774 to the time of his death in April, 
1800, he lived a retired life. 

During the Revolutionary War, Springfield was a recruiting-post, and a 
depot for military stores. Works for repairing arms were carried on here, 
which led ultimately to the establishment of the national armory. 

After the war, — and as a result of the expenses incurred in the war, the 
heavy taxation, and the depreciation of paper money, — came on those dis- 
orders, with which Springfield was intimately associated, commonly called 
Shavs' Rebellion. One of the earliest actors in fomenting this rebellion 


was one Samuel Ely, a pretended minister, who had preached at Somers, 
Conn. He instigated a mob, which obstructed the holding of a court at 
Northampton. For this he was indicted, and sentenced to imprisonment 
in the jail at Springfield. Taking advantage of the absence of a large 
number of people from the town, a mob assembled, and rescued him. 

From this time onward, until the year 1787, there was a series of dis- 
orders, more or less violent, which pervaded the Commonwealth. The ses- 
sions of the courts were obstructed by mob violence, and the law was 
defied. Springfield was the scene of some of these outbreaks. In May, 
1782, a mob collected here, to prevent the session of the Court of Common 
Pleas, but was dispersed by the action of the orderly citizens. In the year 
1786, the insurrection had reached its highest point. The Supreme Court 
was to hold a session at Springfield on the fourth Tuesday of September. 
About 1,200 rebels, variously armed, assembled to prevent the transaction 
of the regular business. Under the protection of about 600 militia-men and 
volunteers, commanded by Gen. Shepard, the court was in session about 
three days ; but, for want of a grand jury, the proper business of the session 
was left undone. The most prominent leaders of the rebellion were Daniel 
Shays of Pelham, and Luke Day of West Springfield, both of whom had 
been officers \\\ the Revolutionary army. The town of Springfield was 
loyal, and passed votes instructing its representative in the General Court 
of a decidedly conservative tendency. To protect the courts, and suppress 
the rebellion, the government issued orders to, raise an army of 4.400 men 
under the command of Gen. Benjamin Lincoln. Of this number. 1.200 
were raised by the county of Hampshire. They were under the command 
of Gen. Shepard, and ordered to rendezvous at Springfield. 

On the 25th of January, 1787, Shays approached Springfield from the 
east with a large force, intending to seize the Arsenal. Shepard was pre- 
pared to meet him, and notified him that if he persisted in advancing he 
would be received with a discharge of cannon. Shays disregarded this 
warning, and continued to advance, notwithstanding shots were directed on 
either side and over the heads of his men. Shepard then ordered a shot to 
be discharged at the centre of the column. Upon this the rebels raised an 
outcry of murder, and fied. This was virtually the end of the rebellion. 

Oct. 21, 1789, Gen. Washington arrived in Springfield on his visit to 
New England. He lodged at the tavern there kept by Zenas Parsons, 
which stood on what is now Court Square. The large old elm near the 
south-easterly corner of the square was directly in front of the principal 
entrance to the house. In his diary. Washington mentions that "Col. 
Worthington, Col. Williams, adjutant-general of the State of Massachu- 
setts, Gen. Shepard, Mr. Lyman and many other gentlemen, sat an hour or 
two with me in the evening at Parsons tavern where I lodged, and which is 

Tr v ; 

t#r?-' |~yU I 


a good house." This building now stands on Court Street, near Water 

By an Act of the Legislature passed on the twenty-sixth day of February, 
[794, all the courts of the county of Hampshire were directed to be held 
at Northampton, which was made the shire town of the county. The rea- 
son assigned for making this change was stated to be, that Northampton, on 
account of its central situation, was the most suitable place for holding the 
courts of the county, and most likely to give general satisfaction. What- 
ever force there may have been in this reason in 1794, later years have 
shown that the centre of population and business is to be found nearer 
Springfield. Until the passage of this Act, Springfield had always been a 
shire town; and a session of the court had been held here from the fust 
settlement. This change probably had an unfavorable effect upon Spring- 
field, from which it was not entirely relieved until this creation of the new 
county of Hampden in 181 2. 

Although Springfield became an important military post and a depot for 
military stores during the Revolution, it was not until April, 1 7<;4, that Con- 
gress established the National Armory here. This was followed in June, 
1798, by an Act of the Legislature of Massachusetts, consenting to the pur- 
chase by the United States of 640 acres of land here for military purposes. 

With the war of 1S12-15, Springfield had but little immediate connection. 
When, near its close, British cruisers were hovering off the coast of New 
England, and threatening the safety of our ports, the Governor of Massa- 
chusetts ordered a draft from the militia of the State to march to Boston to 
repel a threatened invasion : two regiments of infantry and one of artillery 
went from the old county of Hampshire. The principal officers from 
Springfield were Brig.-Gen. Jacob Bliss, Major Solomon Warriner, and 
Capt. Ouartus Stebbins. The troops from this vicinity were stationed at 
Commercial Point in Dorchester, and remained in camp about forty days, 
when they were dismissed. 

In the summer of 181 2 the southerly part of the old county was formed 
into a new count}-, by the name of Hampden, of which Springfield was 
made the shire town. This made necessary the erection of a new court- 
house. To provide a suitable location for this, a tract of land in the central 
part of the town was purchased by individuals, and conveyed to the county. 
The buildings previously upon it were removed, and a new court-house 
erected in 1821, fronting upon this common, now known as Court Square. 

March 2, 1824, one of the principal workshops of the United-States 
Armory in Springfield was destroyed by tire. The scene was pictured by a 
West-Point graduate, and shows the method of dealing with fires, when 
fire-engines were worked by hand, and supplied with water by a line of men 
passing buckets from hand to hand. 


March 24, 1828, the first town-hall here, which had been finished the 
month previous, was formally opened with an historical address delivered 
by George Bliss at the request of the town. 

In 1831 the brick dwelling-house built by John Pynchon in 1660, a 
structure intimately associated with the early history of Springfield as the 
scene of many interesting events, was demolished, and its site occupied by 
a modern dwelling. 

Oct. 1, 1839, the Western Railroad was opened to travel from Worcester 
to Springfield ; and soon afterwards trains for transporting merchandise 
began to run. 

Sept. 5, 1 841, the large and beautiful ground of the Springfield Cemetery 
was consecrated, and an address delivered by Rev. William B. O. Peabody. 

April 29, 184S, the northerly part of Springfield was set off and incorpo- 
rated as a new town by the name of Chicopee. The effect of this division 
was to defeat for the time a movement that had been started, in the central 
part of the town, for a city charter. It deprived the town of about half its 
territory and two-fifths of its population. 

In 1852 the population of the town had increased so much that a new 
application of the town for a charter was successful, and on the 12th of 
April the city of Springfield was incorporated. 

The organization of the city government was completed by the election 
of officers, and Caleb Rice was chosen mayor. 

The need of a city-hall was soon felt, and the erection of such a building 
determined upon. On the Fourth of July, 1S54, the corner-stone was laid 
with a few simple ceremonials. The hall was finished in 1855, and on the 
first day of January, 1856, was dedicated. On that occasion, Dr. J. G. 
Holland delivered an address, which was published by order of the city 

The Rebellion of 1861-65 caused as great excitement in Springfield as 
elsewhere in New England. The raising of soldiers and other war meas- 
ures were prosecuted vigorously. Public meetings were presided over by 
the mayor, at which patriotic speeches were made and volunteers enlisted. 
The Tenth, Twenty-seventh, and Forty-sixth Regiments were encamped 
here before going to the seat of war. Companies for several other regi- 
ments were raised here. 

In 1 87 1 the county commissioners decided to erect a new court-house 
on the south side of Elm Street. It was built of Monson granite, and 
finished in 1874, at a cost of $289,785.30, exclusive of the furniture with 
which it was fitted up. This carried the whole expense up to $304,543.29. 
The house was dedicated April 28, 1S74, when an address was delivered by 
William G. Bates of Westfield. 

On Sunday, May 30, 1875, a disastrous fire broke out on Taylor Street, 



and soon raged with such fury that many buildings on Worthington Street, 
Wights Avenue, Main, Vernon, and Water Streets, were in flames. 

While Springfield from the first had the advantage over the other Massa- 
chusetts towns in the Connecticut Valley, of being the oldest settlement and 
the seat of justice, and the residence of the magistrates and other leading 
men, it shared with Northampton, a later-settled town, the advantage of an 
attractive site upon the river. Very early a rivalry sprang up between the 
two towns, that lasted nearly a century and a half. For the greater part of 
this time, each of them was a half shire town. In 1794 the courts were all 
removed to Northampton, and Springfield lost the prestige it had derived 
from them in the time of the Pynchons. At the time of this change neither 
of these towns could boast a large population. By the census of 1790. 
Northampton had a population of 1,628, while Springfield had only 1.574. 
The census of 1800 gave Springfield an excess of 222 over Northampton. 
From that time Springfield gained steadily over its competitor, until by the 
United-States census of 1880 it had a population of 33,340 against one of 
12,172 at Northampton. All rivalry in respect of numbers has long since 
ceased. Each still claims the advantage of a beautiful location and charm- 
ing scenery. Northampton rejoices in the excellence of its educational and 
charitable institutions. Springfield feels a just pride in the success of the 
various commercial and manufacturing enterprises which have distinguished 
its past history, and which promise so much for its future. 



(Gcologu antj ffirograplju. 


THE topography of a country is the key to its history, so we should first 
notice the general geographical features of this district. The Con- 
necticut Valley, from the northern border of Massachusetts to the sea, is 
not an ordinary river-channel: it is, in fact, a wide trough between two sys- 
tems of mountains. On the west lie the worn-down remnants of the once 
lofty Berkshire Mountains: on the east, the yet more degraded ridges that 
constitute what we may call the Eastern Massachusetts set of mountain 
ridges. These worn-down old mountains were elevated at different times. 
That on the east was probably the first to begin its upward movement, in 
very ancient days. The elevation of the Berkshire chain probably began 
at a little later date. As these mountain chains grew, they left between 
them a broad trough, from ten to thirty miles wide, extending from the sea 
to some distance north of Springfield. This trough probably assumed 
something like its present form just after the close of the coal-measures 
was formed, but it was begun ages before that time. During the coal-mak- 
ing time this valley was probably the seat of the forests of those ages, and 
may have had coil-beds deposited within it : if so. they were soon worn 
away: for, shortly after the coal-time, the thick and extensive beds of the 
new red or triassic sandstone were laid down directly upon the surface of 
the old crystalline rocks which then, as now, formed the sides and floor 
of the valley. 

Durino- this triassic time the Connecticut Valley formed a shallow arm 
of the sea, extending nearly as far up as where the Vermont line now lies. 
It probably received a number of considerable streams rising in the hills to 
the east and west; and at its head was the delta of the upper Connecticut. 
This period of the New Red Sandstone, or trias, occupied a long portion in 
the earth's history, and saw many great changes of climate. Once, at least, 
during this time, it is likely that this region was the seat of extensive glaciers, 
that discharged a great deal of pebbly sediment into their Connecticut basin. 
These pebbles were sorted and arranged in strata, and now appear in the 
extensive reddish-colored pudding-stone beds that abound in the valley. 
But the greater part of the time seems to have been one of moderate 
climate, as is shown by the animal and plant life that then existed in this 
part of the world. 


Of the plant-life of the Connecticut, the fossils left then give us little 
information ; but of the animals we have some very remarkable remains, 
— remains that give to these rocks a singular, indeed we may say an un- 
equalled, interest among all formed in this period of the earth's history. 
These fossils do not give us the forms of the creatures themselves, for 
hardly any thing that entered into their structures has come down to us : 
they consist of the footprints made by the ancient creatures on the shores 
of the bay, when they were left bare by the retreating tide. These foot- 
prints have been found in various parts of the new red sandstone beds in the 
Connecticut Valley ; but they are best known in the shaly sandstones found 
at Turner's Falls, a few miles above Greenfield. At that point they have 
been extensively quarried for flagging, and as a source of supply of speci- 
mens for natural-history museums. The best collection of these specimens 
is that brought together by the late Dr. Hitchcock, contained in the museum 
of natural history at Amherst College ; another of nearly if not equal value 
is at Yale College. 

Examining either of these collections, we see large slabs of stone, some- 
times ripple-marked, oftener covered with the obscure mud-flow lines so 
common along the soft beaches that form in brackish water-bays of our 
coast; exactly such beaches as are now to be seen left bare along the banks 
of the Hudson when the fresh water sent down by the river is lifted and 
lowered by the tide. These fossil mud-flats are stamped over with the foot- 
prints of many different species of animals, varying in size from a robin to 
a creature that must have weighed some hundreds of pounds. When these 
footprints were first studied, it was supposed that they were the tracks of 
bird-like animals : and at first sight their general shape, and the fact that 
each animal appears ordinarily to have walked on two feet, support this 
idea. But a more careful inquiry has shown that these creatures are very 
far away from the birds. Looking closely at the footprints, we see that 
many of the animals, though walking for most of the time on two legs as a 
kangaroo does, had two other, shorter legs, which they occasionally applied 
to the ground : moreover, in many cases there is trace of a tail, indicated by 
a furrow where it dragged on the mud as the animal walked along. 

So far, though acres of these ancient sea-shores have been closely scru- 
tinized, we have not found a single bone or other fossil remain, that can 
confidently be asserted to have belonged to these creatures. At this point, 
they have left us nothing but these footprints on the sands. From the 
fossils of other regions, we conclude that they were creatures in many ways 
more closely akin to our frogs and toads than to anv other living creatures. 
They were hatched in the water from eggs, lived for a while in a tadpole 
state, and then passed through a change in which lungs took the place of 
gills, and legs sprouted in their places, as in our living amphibians. In 


their perfect state, these creatures were often of great size, weighing several 
hundred pounds. It is almost certain they were cold-blooded : and, as their 
laro-e bodies could not during the winter have found shelter under ground 
as our living amphibians do, their existence is good proof that the winter 
season in their day, in this region, could not have been any thing like as 
cold as it is at present. 

The physical history of this triassic time was as curious as its organic 
life. While for long ages these red sandstones and shales were making in 
the Connecticut Bay, the volcanic forces were very active in this region: 
from time to time crevices opened in this shallow sea-floor, and great sheets 
of lava were poured out upon its surface, or forced between the beds of rock 
that had been already formed. These trappean rocks, being harder than 
the sandstones amid which they lie, now form many sharp hills and moun- 
tains in the valley, lending it much of its picturesque beauty. Mount Tom, 
Mount Holyoke, and many other hills, are in part composed of them. 

After the period of the trias we have little record of the changes in the 
Connecticut Valley, until the time of the last glacial period. One important 
series of events happened in this long interval. The rock beds of the triassic 
period were squeezed together, folded and tilted by the mountain-building 
forces, until they were built into many ridges and furrows, most of which 
have been planed away by glacial action. This mountain-building was 
probably connected with the further elevation of the old ridges of the Berk- 
shire mountains and those of Eastern Massachusetts. Some of the lava 
outflows of the Connecticut Valley may have occurred while this dislocat- 
ing was going on. 

It is likely, that, during the ages from the trias to the last glacial period, 
this region was continually above the level of the sea : this is shown by the 
fact that there are no deposits formed during this interval within the limits 
of the valley. 

With the beginning of the last glacial period, we come again to records 
of the geological history of this region. This is one of the most interesting 
chapters of the great stone book: though much of its print is scarcely legi- 
ble, we can decipher enough to make a most interesting story, were it not 
necessary to give it in mere outline. 

The conditions in this district just before the coming of the last glacial 
period are not known to us, for the reason that the erosion of the surface 
which took place at that time destroyed the rocks which were formed in this 
district just before the ice-period commenced. Enough is known of other 
regions, however, to make it pretty certain, that, at the outset of the glacial 
period, there was a climate here not very different from that now prevailing 
in this region: many large animals existed then that are no longer found in 
this country, including the large form of elephant called the mammoth, 


and his smaller kinsman the mastodon, himself as large as an ordinary 

The glacial period came suddenly. — by what change of climate, we do not 
as yet well know: even less do we know the cause of the change itself. It is 
likely, that, without any great change in the average temperature of the year, 
the summers became much cooler, and the winters less cold, while the 
deposition of water in the form of snow was very greatly increased, so that 
the cool and probably short summer could not melt it away. Even with our 
present warm summer, if the snow-fall were to be increased so that the 
winter fall gave a depth on the average of ten feet, it would probably remain 
unmelted on the highlands of the Berkshire and Eastern Massachusetts 
mountain ranges, and, re-enforced by the snow-fall of the following winter, 
give us glaciers that would creep down the valleys and slowly possess the 
lowlands. Be this as it may, the glacial sheets grew in this country until 
the Connecticut Valley was filled to far above the tops of the hills on each 
side. At its time of greatest thickness, this sheet was probably somewhere 
near half a mile in depth. It flowed slowly, a few feet a day, down the 
valley to the sea. This ice-stream was not peculiar to this valley: it was 
a part of a great sheet that covered nearly all the northern half of North 
America. In New England, when this dreadful time was at its worst, the 
ice reached south to beyond Long Island of New York, and ended in a vast 
sea-wall of ice, and stretched as a vast rolling icy plain far to the north. 
It swept over the top of Mount Washington in the White Mountains, 
though that mountain rises three-quarters of a mile above the general level 
of the country on which it stands. From the valley of the Hudson, where 
the ice was even deeper than in the Connecticut basin, the ice flowed over 
the Berkshire Hills, augmenting the tide of frozen water that poured through 
this way. As this enormous weight of ice ground its way to the sea, it wore 
down the rocks over which it moved. The soft red sandstones and shales 
gave way readily, and a large part of their beds that were in the Connecticut 
Valley before the glacial period were ground away by the ice-mill. Where 
there were thick masses of lava, a much denser and harder rock, these parts 
remained projecting, forming the sharp ridges such as Mounts Tom and 
Holyoke. The pudding-stones were also solid enough to resist better than 
the sandstones, and so frequently stand up in ridges, while the softer rocks 
are worn down on either side of them. 

After a long period of desolation, when this region was in the condition 
that Greenland is now, the ice vanished as mysteriously as it came, leaving 
a vast amount of rocky waste strewn over the land. One of the peculiar 
features of the glacial period was, that all the regions covered by the glacial 
sheet seem to have been pressed downwards to a depth proportionate to 
the thickness of the ice that had lain on their surfaces. When the ice 


went away, the land crept up slowly to something like its old level; but for 
a while after the ice went away, this valley, in common with the neigh- 
boring regions, was very much depressed below the sea-level. This down- 
sinking of the valley seems to have been greater near its head than near its 
mouth. About Long Island Sound, the depression probably did not exceed 
a hundred feet or so; while, as far up as Bellows Falls, the down-sinking 
was probably more than three hundred feet: so that, for a while after the 
"■laciers disappeared from the valley, it seems to have been returned to the 
conditions of the triassic period; it became once again a broad but shallow 
arm of the sea. 

When the ice went away, it left the surface of the land deeply covered 
with a rubbish of sand, clay, and bowlders. The heavy rainfall that marked 
this ice-period continued to exist, though probably in a less intense form, 
after the ice had fallen back towards the north pole: so that much of this 
glacial rubbish was carried away by the streams ; and, from the hill-region 
about the Connecticut Valley, a vast amount of the lighter part of the 
waste, that the streams could easily handle, was swept out into the Con- 
necticut Valley, and laid down beneath the water that covered its surface. 
This falling of glacial waste, transported and re-arranged by the action 
of water, formed a very thick sheet in the Connecticut Valley: it was at 
least a hundred feet deep near its mouth, and over three hundred feet 
thick in the region near the New-Hampshire line. 

Soon after this filling-in of mud, sand, and gravel was completed, the 
floor of the valley was lifted above the sea, and the river began to wear 
the waste away. If it were the rule that rivers kept their places unchanged, 
it would merely have cut a deep channel through this rubbish, leaving steep 
high banks on each side; but it is a law of rivers, that they swing to and 
fro in their valleys, cutting first against one bank and then the other. In 
these swings, the Connecticut River has crossed its valley nearly from side 
to side, leaving here and there scraps of the old stratified drift in the form 
of bits of plain ground called terraces. Constantly swinging to and fro. 
and as constantly cutting downwards towards its bed, these platforms, or 
terraces, have been left at different heights above the present level of 
the river. The highest are the oldest, the smallest in area, and the most 
ruined by the action of frost, rain, and snow. About Springfield, the 
most prominent and extensive of these terraces is at the height of about a 
hundred and eighty feet above the level of low water in the river: but it 
varies more or less in height. Some have thought that the uppermost of 
these terraces are as much as four hundred feet above the sea; but. above 
the level of three hundred feet about Springfield, the evidence becomes 
too obscure to be trusted. 

If the reader will go to some convenient hill-top that commands a wide 



view of the Connecticut Valley, and in his mind restore the vast mass of 
sand and gravel included below the level of the highest terraces and the 
present level of the river, he will then see how great has been the work 
done since the close of the post-glacial period. If he will remember that 
this post-glacial period probably occupies not over one five-hundredth part 
of the time that has elapsed since the building of this valley began, he 
will get a better idea of the wonderful changes that have been witnessed 
by it, only a small part of which have been recorded in any way that we 
can read. 




SpringMti as a (Eitrj. 


TN the autumn of 1S52, — the year that Springfield took on the swaddling- 
-L clothes of a city, and had civic incorporation, — I set permanent foot in the 
then " Infant City," and from that time made it my home for almost a third 
of a century of years. I went to it at the time named, on a locomotive, from 
the Berkshire hills, with the complete vote of every town of Berkshire 
County in my pocket; it being the night of both the National and State 
elections of that year, the 2d of November. An iron horse, with the long- 
time faithful locomotive-engineer, — first of the Western, and afterwards of 
its successor the Boston and Albany Railroad, 
— the late Louis Sherts, for driver; a young 
stoker, now a successful officer of a celebrated 
line of railway at the West, and myself, in the 
cab, — dashed into the old Springfield depot, at 
1 1 p.m. ; at which hour the vote of every town 
in the four western counties of Massachusetts, 
save that of one of the towns in eastern Hamp- 
den, — that being lost through a misunderstand- 
ing as to the meeting-place of the post-riders 
sent out for it, — was in the " Springfield-Re- 
publican " office, ready for tabulating and com- 
piling for the next morning's issue of that paper. And this successful gath- 
ering of election-returns from the remotest towns of Hampden, Hampshire, 
Franklin, and Berkshire Counties, was compassed with but limited aid from 
the telegraph; as the telegraphic service was then both very feeble in quality 
and small in quantity quite generally throughout the Western Massachusetts 
towns. Almost the whole election-return collection service was then done 
by special horse and locomotive expresses. And in this connection it is 
but simple justice to say, that in the State election of 1883, with all the 
aids and assistances which a complete and thorough telegraphic service 
in nearly every village and hamlet in the State, with the addition of efficient 
and widely established telephonic service, the morning papers of the 
next day after the election had no better or more complete returns than 
were given thirty-one years ago, when horse-flesh and steeds of steel were 

The City Seal. 



the main factors relied upon forgathering the election-returns for newspaper 
publication. On the occasion referred to, fifty miles by rail, and nearly as 
many by carriage or on horseback, — about one hundred in all, — were com- 
passed by myself, after the counting of the votes at their respective polling- 
places, reaching Springfield before midnight. Other messengers did equally 

efficient service in different directions, 
but none had so wide a reach of country 
to gather from as the one who scoured 
the Berkshire hills. 

Springfield, at that time, had 14,000 
inhabitants, and was often called by 
would-be smart people, outside its new- 
ly made boundaries, the " Infant City ; " 
and more appropriately, by smarter ones 
inside its legitimate limits, the "City of 
Magnificent Distances," for it was, in- 
deed, a city made up from three or four 
almost distinct villages, or, more prop- 
erly speaking, localities. Court Square 
was the acknowledged centre of the 
city. The Armory Grounds on the hill, 
bounded by State, Federal, Pearl, and 
Byers Streets, was one locality, com- 
paratively by itself. Uncle Sam's Upper Water-shops, on Mill River to the 
eastward, was another. The Lower Water-shops — farther down the same 
stream, but since entirely demolished, all marks of buildings, dams, etc., 
being now obliterated — was still another. The river-bankers bounded the 
city on the westward, and multiplied exceedingly, as they do now, and prob- 
ably will to that very indefinite period when "time shall be no longer." To 
the northward, the railway-depot, into which the tracks of the Western, the 
Hartford and Springfield, and Connecticut-river Railroads were then laid, 
was the centre of another settlement, substantially its own ; and it took 
some brisk examples of pedestrianism to compass all these points in the 
course of an ordinary " constitutional " walk. 

The Springfield Armory was then the lion of the town : and it was shown 
up to all strangers as such, where 

" From floor to ceiling. 
Like a huge organ, rose the burnished arms." 

It had prominence, — its grounds for their beauty, and its buildings for 
their business. At times it was a very busy industrial centre, and brought 
much money to the town in the support of the skilled workmen who held 
positions there. To be " an Armorer," in those days, was to be one of the 

Caleb Rice, the First Mayor 



noted men of the town, or city when city it became. The railway-depot 
was then quite " out of town," and the distance between it and Court 
Square was broken and badly disconnected. A few scattered blocks and 
dwelling-houses were arranged along on the west side of the street, with 
fewer still on the east side ; " Barnes's Lot," a large open space where cir- 
cuses blossomed annually, having prominent place, about midway, with 
Town Erook, which forks at the corner of Main and Worthington Streets, 
locating its western boundary, and flowing thence, both northwardly and 
southwardly, through the city, to the Connecticut River, the southern 
branch running under the sidewalk on the east side of Main Street, from 
Worthington Street to York Street. 

The young city grew slowly but steadily, and became pretentious only 
by degrees ; but every day of its city growth has added materially to its 
beauty, wealth, and permanence. The word " boom " had not then been 
written down in the popular vo- 
cabulary ; but a boom neverthe- 
less, of no ordinary dimensions, 
came to the city with the opening 
of the war of the Rebellion. The 
Armory just before the war — for 
reasons more apparent since than 
were obvious at the time — had 
had its stock of arms almost en- 
tirely removed, and its force of 
employees reduced to a very few 
men, enough only remaining to 
keep the grounds in order, the 
machinery from rusting, and the 
property in general from going to 
decay. But all this was changed 
when President Lincoln found 
himself obliged to call repeatedly 
for troops with which to fight the 
battles of the Union, and when 
the loyal heart of the North responded so patriotically, as they came to the 
rescue beneath banner and bunting, with shout and song, — 

" We're coming, Father Abraham, three hundred thousand more." 

Workmen were called from all quarters, gun-making machinery was built 
and bought as best it might be, old buildings were enlarged, and new ones 
erected on the grounds, until the Springfield Armory was enabled to equip 
a full regiment with arms in a single day. This tact necessarily made 

Philos B. Tyler. 



Springfield famous, and gave much occasion for its name and locality to be 
kept constantly before the eyes of the people, not only of our own land, but 
incidentally of the world at large. Over three thousand men were at work 
at gun-making early in the war; while, just before its breaking-out, only 
some two hundred and fifty could be counted. The city limits had scarcely 
room to contain all its new-comers, — had not food and shelter sufficient for 
the proper accommodation of all the workmen who had been so suddenly 
gathered upon the grounds of our national Armory. From sheer necessity, 
many of these swarmed into the outlying regions of country, in search of 
temporary homes. The cars brought to the city, each morning, scores of 

workmen from Chicopee, Chico- 
pee Falls, Holyoke, Northamp- 
ton, West Springfield, Mitten- 
eague, and Westfield ; while 
hastily improvised vehicles 
came loaded, daily, from Long- 
meadow East and West, Aga- 
wam, Wilbraham, Ludlow, and 
intervening farmhouses, — all 
returning at night, with weary 
workmen and empty dinner- 
pails. Every house in the city 
was stowed full of humanity, 
from basement to attic ; board- 
ing-houses sprang up, like Jo- 
nah's gourd, in a night, and 
were ready to " take boarders " 
in the morning; and prosperity 
reigned on all hands. When 
the war ended, and the occasion for more arms had passed away, many 
of the men who had sought and found work in the Armory had seen enough of 
Springfield to convince them that it was an excellent place in which to make 
homes for themselves and their families ; that it had good church, school, and 
general social privileges and advantages, with the promise of a rapid growth 
and development. As a consequence, many found ways and means for 
becoming permanent residents ; and the building of houses, stores, and 
blocks, the opening and improving of streets and thoroughfares, and the 
successful development of industrial interests, have been constantly and 
steadily made. Three or four years before the outbreak of the Rebellion, 
the manufacture of the Smith & Wesson pistol was commenced, in a 
modest way, in hired apartments on Market Street; prospering marvellously, 
and <rrowin<r from small bejrinninirs to the rearing of the immense manufac- 

Eliphalet Trask. 




turing buildings now located on Stockbridge Street ; finally overshadowing 
the Armory, both in amount and value of its productions, making great 
wealth for its projectors, and securing to the city a remarkably prosperous 
and very valuable industry. The railway-car-building industry of the Wason 
Manufacturing Company, now located at Brightwood, — a northern district 
of the city, — has also had a rapid and successful growth and development 
within the limit of years under discussion in this article, until, like the 
Smith & Wesson estab- 
lishment, it far outranks 
the Armor)-, both in 
amount and value of its 

As the Armory in 
the turn of years lost 
caste in the matter of 
being the lion of the 
town, other lions came 
into existence, growing 
apace, until strangers 
who wanted to "see the 
town " came by degrees 
to be shown or told of 
the Smith & Wesson 
Pistol Works, the Wa- 
son Car Manufactory, 
the establishment of 
" The Springfield Re- 
publican," — which pa- 
per had won for itself, 
while the city was still 
very young in years, not 
only a valuable national 

reputation, but a wide fame abroad as being a leading representative of dis- 
tinguished American journalism, — the large printing and publishing house 
of Samuel Bowles & Co., the modest quarters of G. & C. Merriam (where 
Webster's Unabridged Dictionary was, and still is, published with much 
honor and profit to all who have ever come within the charmed circle of its 
interested parties), and the great Indian Orchard Mills at Indian Orchard, 
one of the villages of the city. 

Springfield, as a town or village, was not, however, unknown to the world 
in the field of manufacturing, or in the general run of business marts. In- 
deed, it had a wide name as being the home of one of the earliest and most 

Ansel Phelps, jun. 



successful paper-manufacturing establishments in the country,- — that of D. 
& J. Ames. Their works were located on Mill River, where the shops of 
the Springfield Silk Company now stand. Their paper went to every city, 
village, and hamlet of our civilized country; and their name and fame were 
spread through all the world. In addition to their mills in the suburbs 
of Springfield village, they had others at Chicopee Falls, at South-Hadley 
Falls, at Northampton, and at Suffield, Conn., with their business head- 
quarters for all of them at Springfield. Of the founders of that then 

wealthy and weighty 
paper -making firm, 
the junior member 
and the inventor of 
much of the paper- 
making machinery 
both then and now 
in use, — John Ames, 
— still lives a quiet, 
retired life, enjoying 
a fair degree of 
health, in the old 
Ames homestead on 
the easterly slope of 
Ames Hill; while the 
; senior member, Da- 
vid Ames, died at 
the age of 92, on 
March 12, 1882, after 
reaching the rank of 
the oldest and one of 
the most extensive 
paper-makers of the 
United States. 

The origin of the paper-making industry of the Connecticut Valley, now 
so prominent and prosperous, and of such vast dimensions, can easily be 
traced to the Ames family : the builder of the first paper-mill in Holyoke, 
Joseph C. Parsons (the president of the Third National Bank of Springfield), 
having had prominent connection with the Ameses,- at the time of their 
greatest prestige and prosperity ; and George L. Wright, one of the oldest 
and best practical paper-makers, still in active business-life, at the head 
of the Worthy Paper Company of West Springfield, acquired his mastery of 
the paper-making business at the Ames Mills, and had prominent connection 
with them in their palmiest days. For many years, in the long ago, it was 

William B. Calhoun. 



a difficult matter, indeed, to find a sheet of foolscap or letter-paper — the 
only kinds of writing-paper made in those days — in any bookstore, school- 
house, or household even, that did not have the stamp of " D. & J. Ames " 
upon it. And the writing-down of this fact recalls to mind the circumstance, 
in evidence of the correctness of this statement, that the sheet of paper upon 
which the hand that writes these lines first attempted to make " pot-hooks " 
bore the Ames stamp. 

Springfield was then broadly known for its Ames paper, while still a 
town; so that, when it took on city life and airs, it had the advantage of 


m m 


:' * ?W> 

' 1 

lillllllwlk HOT fc ?l 
Stephen C. Bemis. 

'■■> IV ,' 

being formally introduced, at least in a business way, to "all the world, and 
the rest of mankind." 

Its first mayor was Caleb Rice, who, some half a score of years ago, with 
the armor of business warfare belted and buckled closely about his loyal 
heart, as he went to his long home on one of the sunny hillsides of the city 
of which he was the first official head, was as proud of Springfield, and as 
free to proclaim her good name and deeds, and as bold to fight for these, as 
Springfield was appreciative of him in its early days of city life. His busi- 
ness ability, and faithfulness in official life, have full acknowledgment in the 
recognized fact, that the Massachusetts Mutual Life Insurance Company 
was built up, under his 22 years' presidency, from a crude local society, to 


a gigantic national organization. The love for and loyalty to Springfield 
and its interests, so pleasantly prominent with him, were by no means ex- 
ceptional in his case. The same record that is made of him in this respect 
may with equal pertinence and force be accorded to all the city fathers, who 
have in turn kept up the line of succession most nobly and well from the 
first days of the mayoralty to the present time. 

Nine of the city fathers — including Mayor Rice, Philos B. Tyler, Ansel 
Phelps, jun., William B. Calhoun, Daniel L. Harris, Stephen C. Bemis, Henry 
Alexander, jun., Albert D. Briggs, and Charles A. Winchester — have joined 
the great majority on the other side of the River of Life : while Eliphalet 
Trask(the third mayor, and the only surviving ex-mayor from the incorpora- 
tion of the city to the year 1870), William L. Smith, Samuel B. Spooner, John 
M. Stebbins, Emerson Wight, Lewis J. Powers, William H. Haile, E. W. 
Ladd, and Henry M. Phillips the present worthy mayor, still remain, — nine 
again ; thus drawing the line equally between the living and the dead, as to 

It would be a pleasant thing to do, with time and space at command, to 
write here, at some considerable length, of all the mayors of the city, with 
every one of whom I have had most agreeable — never any other — business 
and social relations ; so much so, indeed, that I cannot allow the occasion 
to pass without having pleasant thoughts, or of giving a good word or two 
of the many which I find in my heart for each and every one of them. 
Limited time and space narrow me down to the following hastily made 

In looking over the occupations of those who have filled the office of 
mayor, it will be noticed that they have been chosen from many walks in 
life ; and, although a few were in the legal profession, a large number have 
been active and thrifty manufacturers. 

Philos B. Tyler, the city's second mayor, was an active, wide-awake 
business man, who had much prominence, both at home and abroad, as the 
president and presiding genius of the American Machine Works, which 
built cotton-presses for the South, and steam-engines and the like for 
anybody who wanted them. He controlled a large trade throughout the 
Southern States before the war, and had much prestige and popularity at 
home, especially so among his employes and immediate business acquaint- 

Eliphalet Trask knows all about Springfield as a city, from A to Z, hav- 
ing already passed far beyond the prescribed threescore-and-ten milestone 
on the highway of life, having been a prominent actor in both the political 
and business circles of the city. His political predilections won for him 
the lieutenant-governorship in the Know-nothing regime, and he served the 
State in that capacity from 1858 to 1861. His kindly nod of recognition 

Cx^Cs^ jS&tZ/H . S 



and warm grasp of hand for friends are still among the pleasantest features 
of every-day life on the city streets. 

Ansel Phelps, jun., came to Springfield from Greenfield to practise law. 
and was well known as the attorney for the Western Railroad, where his 
ability and industry won for him much fame among the railway magnates of 
his time. 

William B. Calhoun, a dignified, scholarly, and pleasant gentleman of the 
old school, was a popular mayor, who left a city full of mourning friends 
when he went out for- 
ever from among them. 
His early years were 
given up to the legal 
profession; but later in 
life he took the presi- 
dency of the Hampden 
Fire Insurance Com- 
pany, — then a pros- 
perous institution, — 
edited -'The Connecti- 
cut Valley Farmer " 
during its publication 
by Samuel Bowles & 
Co.. and was also, for 
a few years, an edi- 
torial writer on "The 

Daniel L. Harris, 
whose business - life 
had been largely spent 
in successful railroad 
building and manage- 
ment, gave the city a year of vigorous and valuable administration, after the 
Andrew Jackson style of dispensing authority. His really warm heart and 
tender nature, hidden as they were at times behind the uprisen walls of his 
positive nature, were duly accepted and fully appreciated only by those who 
were the closest to him, or who knew- him the most intimately. 

Stephen C. Bemis, as one of the leading coal-merchants and hardware- 
dealers, was one of the best-known men of the city, when the mayoralty 
reins were placed in his hands, during the stormy days of the war of the 
Rebellion, and when recruiting and drafting for the army were the order of 
the day. But his energy and faithfulness, all through those trying days. 
gave the city most excellent service during that exciting emergency. 

Albert D. Briggs. 



Charles A. Winchester. 

Henry Alexander, jun., one of the ablest financial men of the city, first 

as cashier of the Pynchon Bank, and afterwards as president of the old 

Springfield — now the Second Nation- 
al — Bank, was a notably active and 
efficient mayor, who was never hap- 
pier than when he was serving Spring- 
field, or some of Springfield's people 
or its interests. His capacity for busi- 
ness was marvellous ; and his physical 
endurance during the last years of his 
official life, which was the closing 
period of the war, was noteworthily 

Albert D. Briggs was well known 
to the business world, in and outside 
of Springfield, as a successful bridge- 
builder. His official life as mayor was 
characterized by the same excellent 

management as had won for him much success in his business. He was 

one of the promptest in action, as well as one of the most intelligent mayors, 

the city has had; always keep- 
ing well up with the procession 

of his predecessors, who had 

come in and gone out so hon- 
orably before him, in loyally 

laboring at all times for the 

city, and its well-being and 


Charles A. Winchester, a 

lawyer of good reputation and 

sterling worth, was a careful. 

pains - taking, and excellent 

mayor, whose death, occurring 

as it did when just coming 

into the prime of life, was a 

great loss to the city to which 

he gave valuable and efficient 


Of the later ex-mayors, all 

of whom still survive, William 

L. Smith has a large practice, and a valuable reputation in legal circles, 

where he is still active and prominent. Soon after coming to Springfield, 

William L. Smith. 



he took the editorial chair of "The Hampden Daily Post," which brought 
him, I imagine, more honor than profit; and he has consequently devoted 
his energies and later years entirely to law and its profits. 

Samuel B. Spooner, now register of deeds for Hampden County, fur- 
nishes abundant evidence of his merits and popularity, by holding, as he 
does, a virtual mortgage on the registry office, with no one to rise up and 
dispute his claim thereto. 

John M. Stebbins snatched a year from his legal profession, that he 
might serve the city a little while as mayor; and he served it well, putting 
on his legal mantle again at the first turn of the tide, and retiring to pri- 
vate life to grow old and good 
as he does, quietly and grace- 

Emerson Wight walked so 
correctly the strait and narrow 
path of the perfect man as 
mayor, that the city called him 
back repeatedly for a continu- 
ance in public life. He always 
found time to devote to the 
city's affairs, in addition to 
those which came to him in 
his legitimate business as a 
builder and real-estate owner; 
and he has been for years, until 
1884, president of the Morgan 
Envelope Company, one of the 
prosperous manufacturing in- 
dustries of the city. 

Lewis J. Powers, newsboy, 
bookseller, paper and envelope manufacturer and dealer, a successful boy 
and man in all these, was equally successful in his labors for good man- 
agement in city affairs, while mayor. He was born and bred in Spring- 
field, and has ever been one of its most active and public-spirited citizens, 
ready at all times to help bring fame and a good name to Ids native 

William H. Haile, jolly, genial, and good, lavishly dispensed his smiles 
and sensible ways of managing the city while mayor, and in such a manner 
as to secure the good-will of his city family, all of whom said " Well done " 
when he retired from the field of local public life. He came to Springfield 
from Hinsdale, N.H., where he still has large manufacturing interests; but 
he has become so thoroughly and happily "acclimated" in the city of his 

Samuel B. Spooner. 



adoption, that he has come to believe that there is no place better than 
Springfield as a place of residence — and there isn't. 

John M. Stebbins. 

Edwin W. Ladd, a practical builder, and a good one, took the city gov- 
ernment over into the camp of the Democracy, from Repyblicanism, when 
he was made mayor; but the whirligig of time brought about such reverses, 



that it was hard to tell, before his year of earnest and faithful service was 

over, just where his politics were to be found. 

Henry M. Phillips, the present father of the city, though with a very 

large city family on his hands, 

is still far from round-shouldered 

from the weight of official cares, 

and makes a dignified, doting, and 

dutiful city father. He, like all of 

his predecessors, including his 

father-in-law Henry Alexander, 

takes great pride and pleasure in 

saying, at all times and in all 

places, that his home is in Spring- 
field, and that " there is no place 

like home." 

The town, while vet a town, 

had grown up such a diversity of 

interests, — to such a reach of area 

and number of population, — that 

its governmental functions and its 

vital interests suffered much from 

the unwieldiness of its administra- 
tive machinery, which was speedily put into good working-order when once 

it fairly became a city. And 
that machinery, having been 
kept well oiled, and quite gen- 
erally driven by competent and 
steady-going motive power, is 
in excellent condition, and prom- 
ise for worthy achievements in 
coming years. The improve- 
ments of the streets and side- 
walks were soon apparent when 
the new order of tilings was 
fully established. Educational 
facilities were largely increased, 
and quickly took rank among 
those of older and larger neigh- 
boring cities. The last score ot 
vears have witnessed the erec- 

Lewis J. Powers. .. . ,. 

tion of seven fine, commodious, 
and well-appointed school-houses. The school-buildings are well up to the 

Emerson Wight. 


times, both in construction and appointments; and the schools, with scarcely 
an exception, have earned proud positions in management and achieve- 
ments. The Catholic Parochial School on Everett Street in connection 
with the Church of the Sacred Heart, and that on Elliott Street belonging 
to St. Michael's Cathedral, provide excellent facilities for children of the 
Roman-Catholic faith. Taken as a whole, probably there is no city of its 
size in the Union that has better or more perfectly maintained schools than 
has Springfield. 

The erection of church edifices since the incorporation of the city is 
something quite remarkable. With one exception the writer has watched 
with much interest the building of all the church edifices which have been 
erected since Springfield became a city, — fifteen in all, — four Methodist, 
four Congregational, three Catholic, one Baptist, one Episcopal, one Univer- 
salist, one Unitarian, besides Brightwood Chapel in Ward One, and Faith 
Chapel in Ward Six. The First Congregational Society has also erected 
a large chapel and parlors, — a church really in size and appointments ; and 
the First Baptist has raised and altered its building at considerable cost. 
With one or two exceptions, all of these church buildings have chapel 
accommodations in some one form or another, such as church parlors and 
kitchens, and all " modern conveniences." 

The public buildings erected since the city organization are the City 
Hall, the City Library Building, the new Court House, and the new Alms- 
house, — all valuable acquisitions to the city's growth and prosperity. 

The city was fortunate indeed in being one of the earliest " railroad 
centres " of note in the country. The Western, the Hartford and Spring- 
field, and the Connecticut-river Railroads were all running trains regularly, 
either through or into the Springfield depot, several years before she became 
a city. The Western, now the Boston and Albany, was opened for travel 
and traffic, from Worcester to Springfield, on the first day of October, 1839. 
The Connecticut-river road was opened from Springfield to Cabotville, on 
the 28th of February, 1845 ; the Hartford and Springfield Railroad, now the 
New-York, New-Haven, Hartford, and Springfield, preceding it only a few- 
months, that having "come to town" on the 9th of December, 1844. 
These roads, in combination, made what might be called a railroad " four 
corners." They furnished an excellent "distributing centre;" and as our 
country has since reached out, from year to year, almost to the ends of the 
earth in every direction, Springfield has improved its opportunities, and 
reached out, likewise, over its daily lengthening line of radway connection, 
to the outer rim of Uncle Sam's domain, and even far beyond. Her peo- 
ple could early go easily and readdy, North. South, East, or West; and 
they went, many, it is true, to build homes for themselves elsewhere, and 
many others to return, "bringing their sheaves with them." Later years 

The Present Mayor. 



have added to the railroad facilities first enjoyed, in the Springfield and 
North-eastern Railroad, formerly known as the Athol ; and the New- York 
and New-England Railroad, which comes to the city from the land of wooden 
nutmegs, over the Springfield and Longmeadow road-bed. These open up, 
and turn Springfield-ward, a local trade of some considerable volume and 
importance. Thus has Springfield grown in goodness and grace, in brains 

Edwin W. Ladd. 

and brawn; and while it may not appropriately be called a great manufactur- 
ing city, it holds a prominent place by reason of its several large manufac- 
tories and its many small ones, and also as the centre of a commercial 
manufacturing region of country. Besides the Smith & Wesson and Wason 
Manufacturing Company establishments, before mentioned, there has been, 
and still is, much manufacturing done in the belongings of paper: the natu- 
ral consequence, doubtless, of so large an amount of paper being produced 
within easy reach of the city limits. During the war, and when photograph- 
albums were in the height of fashion, it had the largest album manufactory 

4 8 


in the country. And, again, when paper collars were first introduced as 
wearing-apparel, Springfield men were early in the field, and profitably en- 
gaged in their manufacture. At one time four large and profitable paper- 
collar manufactories were in the full tide of " successful experiment ;" but 
these, by means of combination, have reduced the number in the ''survival 
of the fittest" process, until one alone remains to represent the business and 

William H. Haile. 

emoluments of a large and valuable industry. The manufacture of envelopes 
has also been introduced extensively and profitably. Papeteries, now so 
generally used in a wide range of styles, had their origin with the Morgan 
Envelope Company, which also had the first contract with our government 
for the manufacture of postal-cards. The manufacture of envelopes and 
papeterie has been large and, in the main, remunerative; and the "storm 
centre" — so to speak — of the envelope and papeterie business still hangs 
over the city of Springfield. Card-board and glazed-paper making, though 
of later introduction than paper collars and papeteries, are a prominent 



branch of business, which is increasing in volume yearly. Counting-house 

calendars are also made by the 

million in their season, each year, 

and sent broadcast throughout the 

land, as an advertising medium of 

different branches of trade, the 

most prominent of which, however, 

is insurance. Paper boxes were 

early manufactured in Springfield, 

and a large trade is still had in 

this line of manufactures. 

buttons, skates, small hard- 
ware, steam-boilers, foundery-cast- 

ings, watches, spectacles, thimbles, 

games and toys, candy, rubber 

tvpe, woollen goods, cotton waste, 

sewing - machine needles, wire 

goods, and other lines of greater 

or less prominence, are made and 

sold with much success, aggre- 
gating a very handsome manufac- David Ames 

turing business, and keeping many 

thousands of hands busy, and many thousands more of mouths well filled. 

The banks and insurance-compa- 
nies of Springfield, though smaller 
in number and capacity than those 
of Hartford, rank well with them, 
however, both in character, and capa- 
bility of management. Especially is 
this the case with its insurance-com- 
panies, — the Massachusetts Mutual 
Life being one of the soundest and 
most successful of American lite- 
insurance companies : while the 
Springfield Fire and Marine, in its 
special line of insurance, ranks 
among the best, both as regards its 
able management, its immense as- 
sets, and its financial results. The 
Mutual Fire Assurance Company 
had existence, success, and much 

prestige, a quarter of a century before the town became a city, having been 



incorporated in 1827. It has a wide reputation for furnishing trustworthy 
insurance at a minimum rate of expense, and this has been secured by 
writing only on property that might well be considered " fire-proof."' 

Springfield put a very handsome feather into its cap of notoriety the first 
year after its incorporation, in originating the Simon-Pure horse-show busi- 
ness. "Mammoth three-sheet posters," with a spirited "group" of two 

horses' heads for illustration. 

were sent out far and wide, and 
attracted much attention, and 
succeeded in bringing large 
crowds of people to the first 
horse-show ever known. Hamp- 
den Park had its origin in 
that horse-show ; and although 
Henry Ward Beecher, at its 
first public opening, dedicated 
the park to horse-shows, it has 
often of late years been crowd" 
ed with people who came to 
witness bicycle and other mod- 
ern forms of amusement. 

Interesting details of what 
Springfield has been and done 
might here be given to a com- 
paratively indefinite extent : 
but the space is limited, and 
there is no end to what might 
be said in admiration and praise 
of Springfield. "The people are the city," as Shakspeare has said. Her 
people have made Springfield what she is. Daniel Webster said of Massa- 
chusetts, "There she stands." The same may be as pertinently said of 
Springfield, and she will stand the closest scrutiny and criticism. Who ever 
knew of either a native or adopted citizen of Springfield, who did not feel a 
just pride in claiming that there is where "the noble have their country"? 
Springfield boys are found everywhere, and Springfield girls everywhere 
else, scattered all up and down the earth, from " Dan to Beersheba," from 
the Orient to the Occident, and from the North Pole to Patagonia. Some 
of these have become millionnaires, some have secured a firm footing on 
the ladder of fame, and some, like Micawber, are still waiting for "some- 
thing to turn up; " but all have a warm place in a corner of their hearts for 
Springfield, the metropolis of the Connecticut Valley. 


Joseph C. Parsons. 


Surroundings of Springftrlo. 


IT is well to premise, that the surroundings of Springfield belong to a 
civilization lining the Connecticut River, that taken in its total elements 
of good ancestral foundations, a generally diffused intelligence, religious 
and social culture, agricultural, manufacturing, and commercial thrift, facili- 
ties of education, and the most charming of natural accessories, is unsur- 
passed within American limits. When the Indian sachems of Agawam and 
Woronoco emerged from time to time from the Bay Path, to bring their 
packs of beaver, mink, and other peltry, to William Pynchon and his Rox- 
burv neighbors, their glowing talk about their great river Quonektacut, and 
its tributaries the Agawam and the Chicuppe, alive with fish and beaver, 
their luxuriant meadows, and outlining forests full of game, was no exag- 
gerated story. As the Western fever grew, and one company after another 
started from Roxbury, Dorchester, and Watertown, for this El Dorado of 
the Connecticut Valley, they were of the choicest and most enterprising- 
spirits: and none of them more so than William Pynchon and his followers, 
who settled Springfield and its surroundings. The original settlement 
included the present Springfield, West Springfield, Agawam, Feeding Hills, 
Westfield, Suffield, a part of Southwick, Enfield, Somers, Longmeadow, 
Wilbraham, Hampden, Ludlow, and Chicopee, a territory about 25 miles 

We should bear in mind, as we survey the environs of the present 
Springfield, the fact of a thoroughly homogeneous population of the best 
English stock, the traces of whose religious, social, patriotic, and industrial 
energy, and high intelligence, are everywhere to be observed. 

Let us take our stand upon the tower of the Springfield Arsenal for a 
bird's-eye view of the surroundings to be delineated. Towards the north, 
midst the interval of wooded hills and spreading meadows, with the Chico- 
pee River flowing through, and framed in by the graceful outline of Mount 
Tom and the Holyoke range, are the manufacturing chimneys, towers, and 
spires of Chicopee, Chicopee Falls, and Holyoke, the fertile bottom-lands of 
old Chicopee Street, and the higher plain of Ludlow. Towards the east is 
the wide expanse of champaign country through which the old Pay Path 
highway and the Boston and Albany Railroad thread their course towards 


Palmer, with the Wilbraham road diverging to the "Springfield Mountains" 
on the right. Towards the south, the lovely Pecousic vale, and Pecousic 
hill merging into the wide stretches of the Longmeadow forest, with East 
Longmeadow on its left, and on its right the old village ot the " long-med- 
dowe " itself, its spacious street and elevated plateau looking down upon 
the fair expanse of level acres whence it derives its name, and along which 
glides and winds and gleams the bordering river. The westward view be- 
yond the silver stream includes the green expanse of the farther meadows 
belonging to West Sp'ringfield and Agawam ; the towering elms and leafy 
maples under which nestle the village mansions and the scattered farm- 
houses; the old sentinel white meeting-house on West Springfield Hill: the 
fresher beauty of Mittineague as it creeps up the terraces of the fretful 
Agawam; and the magnificent stretch of broken interval that vanishes in 
the distant horizon of the Berkshire Hills. 

Let us now take these surroundings in their details. Passing by the 
cavernous entrance of the old bridge, an ancient marvel of clumsy architec- 
ture, with its huge superfluity of massive timbers, intricate in construction 
as that schoolboy puzzle of Julius Caesar's, we will cross the Connecticut 
by the light, spacious, and airy North-end Bridge, — said to be the noblest 
highway structure in the country, — for a ride among the western environs of 
Springfield. As we strike the ancient common of West Springfield, its gen- 
erous breadth lined with quaint homesteads of the olden time, and the more 
elegant mansions of a recent date, and adorned with the new Town Hall 
and Park-street Church, historic scenes begin to throng the memories of 
other days. This old common was the camping-ground of two British 
armies. Gen. Amherst with 7,000 men halted here for two days and two 
nights, on his march to Canada. Gen. Burgoyne with his captive army were 
encamped on this spot as long a time, on their way to Boston; and here 
several of his men, attracted by the advantages of the location, deserted, and 
settled in the vicinity; their descendants, the Millers, Worthvs, Ewings, 
Silcocks, and others, being of well-known families in this valley. Gen. 
Riedesel, the Hessian officer, was the guest of the parson, Joseph Lathrop, 
in the old parsonage on the green; and they conversed together in Latin. 
His magnificent charger was shod here by blacksmith White. 1 Here Capt. 
Luke Day drilled his insurgents in the "Shays Rebellion." It very likely 
was the plain advice given him in the old parsonage, that hindered the junc- 
tion of the West Springfield rebels with Shays at the attack on the Spring- 
field Armory. Capt. Day insisted on divulging the secret of the proposed 
attack to Parson Lathrop, whose judgment he very highly valued, and 
received the following rebuff: "Capt. Day, your army is deficient of good, 
true, and trusty officers. You are engaged in a bad cause, and your men 
know it. I advise you to disband them, and let them return peaceably to 

1 His son, Sevvall While, is our main authority for these local incidents. 


their homes ; for, as sure as you advance upon the public stores. *tis as 
certain that you will meet with sore defeat." 

Leading eastward from the common, to the river and the old ferry, is 
" Shad Lane," thus called because of the great supply of shad, — so plentiful, 
that, according to Sewall White the West Springfield chronicler, a single 
man could take with a scoop-net a thousand in a day. In Horace White's 
day-book for May, 1770, shad are charged to several persons at 2 cents 
apiece. Sewall White records his seeing 100 fine salmon lying together on 
the bank of Heman Day's and Tilly Merrick's fishing-place, one of them 
weighing 42 pounds; and that, with the roe of a shad for bait, he had him- 
self in a single morning thrown upon the shore, as he stood in a fish-boat, 
eight fine bass. The largest he had ever caught weighed 12 pounds, while 
his neighbor Justin Ely took one on his line weighing 22 pounds. 

It was in Shad Lane that Jonathan Parsons was driving his two yoke of 
fine cattle, and a horse, attached to a load of stalks, when two horsemen 
overtook him with the order to turn out for Gen. Washington, whose 
coach was making for Springfield Ferry. He refused, probably doubting 
the courier's word, and declared that he had as good a right to the road as 
the General. While the coach was waiting for the boat, Parsons, who had 
come up, overheard the General say, " That man was right: he had as good 
a right to the road as I have." 

At the east end of this old common was a ship-yard, where the sloops 
'• West Springfield " and " Hampshire," and the schooner " Trial," ranging 
from 60 to 90 tons burthen, were built by Daniel Ely and Benjamin Ashley. 
In the centre of the common stood the old meeting-house of 1702, — 42 feet 
square, with its quaint three-storied hipped and gabled roofs, the highest 
coming to a central point, surmounted by a huge sheet-iron vane cut into 
curious devices, and above it the weathercock of gilded copper. The win- 
dows were of diamond panes set in lead, and the interior wood-work of 
massive oak and yellow-pine. 

In those days, and through that century, West Springfield exceeded 
Springfield in population by about 800, and was, indeed, in most respects 
the leading town in Western Massachusetts. 

The second meeting-house, yet standing on its sightly eminence of 
"Orthodox Hill," was located there by the gift of John Ashley, which stip- 
ulates that it shall remain there for a hundred years from 1800. It was 
contracted for $1,400 and 10 gallons of good rum, and occupies the most 
commanding site of any building in the re«ion, — unless it be the Arsenal, 
— rejoicing also in historic memories of a notable succession of able 

As we cross the Agawam not far from the lower end of the old common, 
we leave to the left picturesque Mittineague perched upon the rugged 


banks and bold headlands of the turbulent little river, and made busy by the 
Agawam and the Southworth paper companies. Across the grand reaches 
of the meadow, and beyond the silver river. Springfield stands in bold relief. 
Historic suggestions multiply. The Agawam was famous in the olden time 
for its beaver-dams, and it also swarmed with fish, while the fertile meadow- 
lands were of easy tillage. For these reasons a large Indian population re- 
sorted to its banks. Not far off, on the sides of the old river-bed, is one of 
the four Indian burying-grounds that lie within the limits of West Spring- 
field ; and manv interesting relics have been found with the exhumed skele- 
tons. As our road winds around the edge of the high plateau that rises 
from the southern side of Agawam River towards the village of that name, 
we look down on the '•house-meadow,'' where John Cable and John 
Woodcock in 1635, having been sent forward by William Pynchon and his 
friends, built, at the common charge of the planters, the first house. They 
were the first English tillers of the soil: occupying the house and adjoining 
ground "all that Sommer," and perhaps all the winter, although probably 
returning in the late fall to Roxbury. 

Another wide and leafy street, pervaded by the quiet rural beauty and 
still life of roomy and thrifty farmhouses, is Agawam. The query is sug- 
gested, Why have all these Connecticut-river villages the same spacious 
breadth of the long central street? It was from no aesthetic inclination of 
the founders; but because, with deep forests and the wild beasts in their 
rear, and lurking Indians all about, they would provide for the '-home 
commons," where the domestic animals might have a roaming-place, guarded 
bv fences, and within sight and call. 

There are parallel roads going down the river-side; one skirting the 
western bank, with charming prospects of land and water, and meeting the 
Thompsonville Ferry; another turning back to Feeding Hills : another to 
the Southwick ponds; and another stretching on to the goodly old town of 
Suffield, and, if one would take a longer ride, to the old ruin of the Sims- 
bury copper-mines, long famous by prison romance as the Newgate of Con- 
necticut. Each of these roads is replete with an attractive beauty of 
continual changing prospects, and not the least, that which is lent by a 
fertile soil and a thrifty agriculture. The luxuriant, and, as it were, spon- 
taneous growth of trees and crops belonging to the Connecticut Valley, 
together with its sheltered situation, gives it a tropical aspect as compared 
with other portions of New England. 

Returning to Springfield by the South-end Bridge, another costly and 
recent iron-and-stone structure of light and elegant proportions, and com- 
manding, alike with its northern compeer, a magnificent sweep of the 
river, with its outlying scenery of city spire and tower, and woodland 
height crowned with arsenal and mansion, the broad meadows and over- 


lookino- headlands, and the more distant mountains, let us take the southern 
highway to Longmeadow. For a while it skirts the river, with the Han- 
ford and New-Haven Railway between. On the left rises Long Hill, 
whence from their palisaded fort 300 of King Philip's Indians stole forth 
to burn the infant settlement of Springfield : and at its foot, crosses Pecousic 
Brook, where John Keep of Longmeadow, with his wife and child, when on 
their way to Springfield church, were killed by ambushed Indians, and 
others of their party wounded. Here in Pecousic valley was an Indian 
village. Rising Pecousic Hill, and now within Longmeadow boundaries, we 
look back from its elevated plateau on Springfield, set like a gem upon the 
arm of the circling river, expanding here to the proportions of a lake. If 
one leaves the highway to the left for the views from either the Goldthwait 
or the Huck estate, or the open field between them, he will find them of 
surpassing loveliness. Or if he traverses the woods on the other side of the 
highway till he comes to the outlook towards the north, or west, or south, he 
will discover other views of changing beauty, which must by and by attract 
the eye of future builders, as Mr. Barney has been attracted by the site on 
which his beautiful house is being erected on the northern side of Pecousic 

This southern highway brings us next into the spacious street of Long- 
meadow, which was laid out by the founders for a "home commons," to the 
breadth of 16 rods, for a distance of about three miles. As we approach its 
centre, the straggling houses become a compact village, and the generous 
street becomes a park-like lawn, shaded by lofty elms or spreading maples. 
On each side of the green expanse and the double highway, are roomy and 
well-kept homesteads ; combining in their varied architecture the flavor of 
a quaint antiquity with the elegance of modern taste, and generally blending, 
without any division barriers of inhospitable fences, their private grounds 
with the public green. Longmeadow, like West Springfield, has an ancient 
and honorable history belonging to sturdy settlers, a permanent ministry, 
and a stanch fidelity to New-England principles and institutions, which has 
well preserved the unbroken unity, both social and religious, of the former 
days when it was the third parish of Springfield. 

The quaint old meeting-house, which antedated the incorporation of 
Longmeadow as a town a hundred years ago, was not long since removed 
from its place in the centre of the green to the adjacent front of the ancient 
cemetery, and thoroughly renovated : the only apparent reminders of the old 
structure being the massive beams (wrought by the recent architect into 
forms of beauty), the venerable weathercock, and the ancient bell. There i> 
a tradition that this bell, remarkable for its sweet tones, was intended by 
Lord Somers for the neighbor town, which was named after him, but found 
its way, by some cross-purpose, into the Longmeadow belfry of the still 


more ancient meeting-house reared in 1716. "Thirty eight feet square.'" 
the old specifications describe it, "if the timber that is already gotten will 
allow it; or, if the timber be too scant, to make it something less." For 
a century and a half it has magnified its office, ringing out the old and 
ringing in the new. Until a recent date it tolled off the age of every 
person in the village who had died, rang a merry peal at noon, and again at 
nine o'clock at night the curfew chimes. It rang the Lexington alarm, and 
echoed the Declaration of Independence. It rang so furiously at the joy- 
ful news of the peace that concluded the war of 181 2, that it was cracked, 
and had to be recast. It tolled the funeral knell for Washington and for 
Lincoln, and has celebrated all the decisive victories, from the surrender of 
Cornwallis to that of Lee. It has called to united worship an undivided 
people, who, since their separation from the mother church in Springfield. 
have retained their original and unsectarian name, " The First Church of 
Christ in Longmeadow." 

The cemetery in the rear of the church is remarkable for its serried ranks 
of primitive gravestones, monumental tablets, and quaint inscriptions, call- 
ing to mind an English churchyard. The chapel which stands adjacent to 
the church has been long familiar to Springfield and its surroundings as the 
place of a popular annual festivity, " The Longmeadow May Breakfast." 
Always closely allied with Springfield, Longmeadow promises to become 
yet more intimately connected by reason of its local attractions as a sub- 
urban place of residence. Its broad and level streets, stretching three miles 
from the Springfield line to that of Enfield, and elevated ninety feet upon 
the plateau which commands the "long meddowe " and the river, so beauti- 
ful as well as healthy for situation, will continue to attract the lookers-out 
for roomy sites and rural homes. Its manufacturing interests in buttons, 
spectacles, and thimbles, once considerable, have, since the civil war, de- 
parted to Springfield, save one belonging to William W. Coomes, who 
continues the thimble and spectacle manufacture. 

If we continue our southern route, the thriving factories of Thompson- 
ville soon appear ; and next, Enfield with its wide and handsome street, in the 
former days allied to Springfield before Connecticut claimed its jurisdiction. 

If we turn now from the main southern highway to the left, we shall 
strike into the Longmeadow forest, which began from Pecousic Hill. It 
extends from that point eastward, as well as southward, for several miles, 
and with such an adaptation of soil that it will probably continue indefinitely 
to be a forest. A few years ago a wild boar, imported when young from 
Smyrna into Longmeadow, escaped from its owner, Francis T. Cordis ; and 
such were the wild and intricate recesses of this forest, that a band of expert 
hunters with their dogs pursued him for many clays without success. Cap- 
tured at last, though not alive, his effigy may be seen, and further inquiries 


made, at the shop of the Springfield naturalist and taxidermist, Mr. 

This forest is traversed by a labyrinth of roads, some of them in their 
winding mystery leading into open fields or cleared wood-lots ; and others 
debouching at Enfield, or the Shaker villages, or East Longmeadow. One 
attractive terminus is at the Shaker Pond, a little gem of a lake skirted by 
a lovely grove, and well provided by its proprietor with all conveniences for 
a picnic-dav of rare enjoyment. At the terminus of another road, is the 
former site of a hermit's residence, one of Longmeadow's eccentric charac- 
ters, who, in the depths of this forest, trained a number of domestic animals 
to follow him about in dumb procession, while he preached in stentorian 
tones his warnings to the Longmeadow people on the village green. Near 
his cave was a clearing watered by a brook, from which by skilful care he 
produced luscious fruits. This Longmeadow forest, already attractive to 
the inhabitants of Springfield for the natural beauty of its secluded and 
shady drives, promises to be far more so if Pecousic valley shall by 
and by be utilized as a public park. In that case, the system of park-roads, 
which should connect all the environs of Springfield in circuits unsurpassed 
for variety and beauty of natural scenery, will connect also Pecousic valley 
with the labyrinth of roads already traversing this widely extended forest, 
and which, with advantage to its proprietors, as well as to the public, and the 
adjoining towns, might without much extra cost be widened and variously 
improved, and still leave intact that peculiar charm of the wild woods which 
no artificial care can equal. 

Among the surroundings of Springfield, the quaint establishments of the 
Enfield Shakers must not be forgotten. In their plain living, combined 
in such an unworldly way with large wealth, their exquisite domestic neat- 
ness, their broad and well-tilled acres, their hospitable welcome to the 
stranger, and the singular repose of their unambitious life, they illustrate 
the only permanent success of the communistic theory. 

East Longmeadow is a thrifty section of the old town, separated from 
the parent village by several miles of the intervening forest. It promises 
to outstrip the elder settlement in material wealth, through the increasing 
enterprise of its quarries of the red sandstone, a beautiful building-material, 
already famous in many of our American cities. From early times the out- 
croppings of surface-stone have been quarried more or less by many small 
proprietors; but during recent years the capital and machinery needful for 
more extensive operations have been supplied, and especially by the firms 
of Norcross Brothers, and James & Mara. In agriculture, too. the inhab- 
itants of East Longmeadow are moving on, as is apparent by the neat and 
thrifty look of its farmhouses and their outlying grounds. 

As we ride on towards Ludlow, through -Sixteen Acres,'' Springfield's 


farming district, Wilbraham and Hampden — the latter recently set off from 
Wilbraham — are well worthy of a detour. The '-Springfield Mountains" 
draw nigh, distinguished for their quiet, rounded woodland beauty, and also 
as the dwelling-place of that " likely youth nigh twenty-one, Leftenant 
Mirick's onley son," whose untimely death by "a pisin sarpent at his heal" 
is celebrated in famous song. 

While the staple occupation of Wilbraham and Hampden is farming, 
which has been productive and remunerative, the cloth-mills at Hampden, 
and the extensive paper and grain mills at North Wilbraham, or Collinsville, 
lend to these towns the stir of active business. Although, at this distance 
from Springfield, there is wanting the peculiar charm of the "great river" 
and its characteristic valley scenery, yet the diversified surface of hill and 
vale, and stream and grove, has everywhere its own charms; and these are 
enhanced by worthy historical associations, the high-toned character of 
society, and the special literary culture centred in the Wesleyan Academy 
in Wilbraham Centre, it being the oldest institution under the patronage 
of the Methodist-Episcopal Church, and one of the best. 

We enter Ludlow — once, like Wilbraham, the "outward commons'' 1 of 
Springfield — at Jenksville, where the falls of Wallamanumps recall the 
legend of the " Indian Leap," in the old war times, of a party of Indians 
surprised and hemmed in upon the little peninsula elevated 80 feet above 
the dashing stream, who, finding no escape, sprang, in their desperation, over 
the precipice, into the foaming waters. 

It is more credibly handed down, that here King Philip encamped with 
600 of his warriors the night after the burning of Springfield in 1675. In 
this vicinity, and, indeed, all along the Chicopee River, a favorite hunting 
and fishing ground of the Indians, have been found abundant specimens of 
their arrow-heads, hatchets, mortars, and other implements of domestic or 
warlike use. 

Ludlow, a thriving and intelligent agricultural community, is chiefly 
interesting to the inhabitants of Springfield for its water, of which it has 
abundance in numerous ponds and brooks, two of which, Higher and Broad 
Brooks, main affluents of the Chicopee River, flood the reservoir of 445 
acres, upon which Springfield depends for its supply. The main industry 

1 The " commons," variously designated as the " outward" and " inward commons," were large 
tracts of undivided lands, used, under certain restrictions, for pasturage and other common uses. These 
lands were owned by the town of Springfield, remaining after individual proprietors had received their 
"grants," or "allotments." When Gov. Edmund Andros, among his other tyrannical extortions, 
began in some parts of the Province to sequestrate those " commons," and the danger impended that 
they would all revert to the Crown, Springfield took quick advantage of a saving clause which would 
except from this operation the private ownership of individual estates, by extending the town jurisdii rion 
several miles eastward and westward of the original town boundary, which extension was called the 
" outward commons," and then distributing both the outward and inward undivided lands among the 
individual inhabitants according to their several polls and ratable estates. 


of Ludlow is farming, varied by the prosperous and extensive operations of 
the Ludlow Manufacturing Company. 

We follow down the Chicopee River, as useful for its vast water-power 
as it is beautiful in its winding and impetuous flow, to Chicopee, a territory 
of about 25 square miles, and three miles north of Springfield. A dense 
wilderness two centuries ago, when Japhet and Henry, the sons of Deacon 
William Chapin of Springfield, made the first settlement, it is now the seat 
of many prosperous manufactures, and the home of mechanics distin- 
guished for their skill and their inventions. The Chicopee Manufacturing 
Company, the Lamb Knitting-machine Manufacturing Company, the J. 
Stevens & Company, B. & J. W. Belcher, the Chicopee Falls Screw Com- 
pany, the Massachusetts Arms Company, the Belcher & Taylor Agricultural 
Tool Company, and the bleachery of Anderton & Dunn, are located at 
Chicopee Falls. 

In Chicopee proper, formerly known as Cabotville, the Dwight Manu- 
facturing Company presents, with its seven five-storied mills, a front extend- 
ing a third of a mile. The Ames Manufacturing Company, founders of arms 
and works in bronze and other metals, has long been famous, both at home 
and in foreign countries, for its skilled and artistic work. Besides these are 
the Ames Sword Company, the Blaisdell Cotton Waste Company, the bob- 
bin-factory of Edwin Wood, and the new Southworth Mill, all testifying to 
the vast amount of manufacturing capital and enterprise employed in this 
portion of Chicopee. The old street on the Connecticut River, with its 
ample breadth, fertile meadows, and ancient and comfortable homesteads, 
bears much the same relation to Springfield as do the similar farming com- 
munities of Longmeadow, West Springfield, and Agawam. As a manu- 
facturing town, Chicopee is unsurpassed in its educational facilities, in 
the generous and stanch support of its various churches, in the general 
intelligence of its people, in the varieties of its skilled labor, in the number 
of its prominent and influential citizens, — our Governor, George D. Robin- 
son, being among them. — in the general look of domestic comfort and 
taste that characterizes its homes, and in the remarkable diversity of its 
natural scenery, having, as it does, the peculiar advantages of two such 
rivers as the Chicopee and the Connecticut. 

Holyoke will hardly permit itself to be numbered among the environs ol 
Springfield; and vet it is near enough to be included in the general land- 
scape, and close enough by various ties of daily intercourse to rejoice in the 
friendly rivalry of mutual advantages, and the reciprocities of a common 

Our brief survey of Springfield's surroundings will be completed U 
crossing the Connecticut-river bridge at Chicopee to return to our starting- 
point,— the West Springfield common, — by wa\ of Ashleyville and the 


river's western bank. Again the shining river and the fertile meads, and 
the old white meeting-house on the hill keeping guard. " The pastures are 
clothed with flocks ; the valleys also are covered over with corn ; they shout 
for joy, they also sing." Here is the country, that God made, while man 
made the town. 

Here Miles Morgan, whose statue adorns Court Square in Springfield, 
tilled his original "allotment. 1 ' Here the Ashleys, Baggs, Elys, Smiths, 
and other notable farmers, throughout their generations, have "tickled the 
earth with hoes till it has laughed with harvests." No better farms nor 
market-gardens than here ; and no such barn anywhere as belongs to our 
fellow-citizen Warren H. Wilkinson, the profits of whose manufactures 
enable him to become a public benefactor in farming experiments, which 
may serve for general instruction free of cost. Could we all farm it in his 
way, the temptation would be to leave Springfield for such surroundings, 
and to adopt Virgil's motto without the " if," — 

" O fortunatos nimium, sua si bona norint 
Agricolas ! " 

O too happy farmers, if they their own 
Bonanza knew ! 

With such surroundings and such antecedents, Springfield is peculiarly 
rus in urbe, — a rural city. It stands in the relation of a foster-parent to 
its neighbor towns. They all originally belonged to its jurisdiction, and 
only as they became of age were they set off upon adjacent homesteads to 
take care of themselves. With no divisive interests, springing from the 
same ancestral stock, pervaded by the same general intelligence, sharing the 
enjoyment of that natural scenery — the rare combination of hill and stream, 
mountain and meadow — which distinguishes the Connecticut Valley, favored 
by a sheltered situation and a comparatively even and healthy climate, braced 
by the moral helpfulness of good principles and steady habits, prospered by 
the mutual helpfulness of a thrifty agriculture and diversified manufactures. 
Springfield and its surroundings may well rejoice together in the prospect 
of an increasing population which shall combine the best elements of 
society, and in an outlook altogether worthy of the prestige established by 
the historic past, and replete with encouragement and hope for coming times. 



Higijfoags anti Butoaus. 


EVERY one who gets an opportunity of seeing the streets of Springfield, 
at once notices that there are many of unusual beauty. The irregular 
picturesqueness of State Street, winding broadly up the hill, with its gigantic 
elms, its grass-plats, and elegant residences, churches, and public buildings. 
would be hard to surpass anywhere. Chestnut and Pearl and Maple Streets 
are lined with the homes and villas of the well-to-do, the cultured and old- 
time residents. The immense elms of North Main Street, combined with 
its ample width and its strips of verdure, make it particularly noticeable. 
And along the streets the passer-by will here and there be attracted by an 
old-time house, and may be led to conjecture whether its history would not 
be an interesting one by reason of its age. It would make a unique collec- 
tion, to get together views of these reminders of past days, such as. for 
example, the Rockingham House, the Washington Tavern, the Ely Ordi- 
nary, and many others shown elsewhere in this volume: and the Lombard 
House, and the old house on Hillman Street, shown in this chapter. 

While it is not possible here to go into a description of the attractions 
along the streets, it will be found that a brief account of the streets and 
their nomenclatures alone will afford considerable entertainment. Long ago 
in the year 1635, when the white man left the Massachusetts Bay, and on 
horseback wended his way through Nature's trackless forest, inhabited only 
by Indians and wild beasts, his wanderings towards the setting sun brought 
him to a halt at the eastern shore of the " Ouinetticutt " River, his journey 
thither having brought him over the hitherto untrodden "Bay Path." The 
'■Indian trail" along the westerly edge of a marshy fen. — in those days 
called "marish," — which served as a frog-pond in the spring, a skimpy cow- 
pasture in the summer, and a skating-rink in the winter, served the settlers 
as a horse-path ; and after the introduction of cattle it was widened for a cart- 
path, which with sundry improvements has become what might lie called 
the "Broadway "of Springfield, — that is. our Main Street. The settlers 
mutually agreed to appropriate four rods of land for the width of the road, 
measuring westerly from the little brook running near the edge oi the marsh. 
This was the only highway constructed for a long time: the Bay Path, al- 
though never surveyed, was used for travel to and from the Bay. 



This Indian trail, after a vast amount of filling-in and grading-up, and 
with considerable paving, has become the main artery of the town, and is 

kept in excellent 
condition. The 
settlers divided 
the land between 
the marsh and 
the river into 
narrow strips of 
various widths, 
and assigned a 
house lot or strip 
to ever y n e w- 
comer, who, by 
custom, con- 
st r u c t ed the 
front line of his 
house even with 
the west line of 
the street. Some 
having appropri- 
ated part of the 
highway for the 
erection of 
shops, barns, 
and pig-pens, in 
1759 a commis- 
sion from the 
Court of Ses- 
sions, authoriz- 
ing a survey and 
location, result- 
ed in the impo- 
sition of fines, 
amounting in the whole to eight pounds, fourteen shillings, eleven pence, 

Note. — The map on the opposite page shows the main part of Springfield in 1883. The letters 
are explained as follows: Churches. — A. First Baptist; B. First Congregational; C. Memorial; D. 
North Congregational; E. Episcopal; F.St. Paul's Universalist; G. Trinity Methodist; H. Church 
of Sacred Heart; I St. Joseph's French Catholic; J. Grace Methodist; K. South Congregational; 
L. State-street Baptist; M. Church of the Unity; N. St. Michael's Roman Catholic; O. Olivet 
Congregational; P. State-street Methodist. PUBLIC BUILDINGS. — R. 

Brigham's Clothing House; S. City Library and Museum; S R. Skating Rink; T. City Hall; U. 
Court House; V. High School; W Massasoit House; X Cooley's Hotel ; Y. Haynes Hotel; Z. Hotel 
Warwick; • Fire-alarm Boxes; 2. Post-Office and Springfield Republican; 3. Massachusetts Mutual 
Life Insurance Building. 

The plate is used by permission of D. H. Brigham. 

North Main Street. 


and three farthings, upon thirty-six of the abutters on the west side : one 
of the victims being the parson of the parish. These fines were imposed 
because the parties had trespassed on the highway with certain buildings : 
but it does not appear that the fines were ever paid, or that the buildings 
were moved off during the last century. More than a century ago Major 
Joseph Stebbins, who kept a tavern on what is now the south corner of 
Main and Sargeant Streets, assisted by his sons, Festus and Ouartus, 
brought from the West-Springfield meadows a score or more of thrifty 
young trees, and planted them in a row in the middle of the ''town street," 
against the Stebbins premises, which then extended from the Morgan Road 
to Ferry Lane. Some of these trees are still standing, and afford a goodly 
shade. Another row of large elm-trees once stood on the easterly side of 
Main Street, northerly and southerly of Hillman Street, one of which, felled 
in 1825, is said to have measured twelve feet in diameter at the axe-man's 
point of attack. Main Street was once studded with trees on each side, 
some of which attained large size ; but nearly all have given way to the 
•• march of modern civilization." 

To afford easy access to the river, three lanes were opened from the 
" town street.'' The northern one, popularly called the upper landing, led 
to the ferry where travellers going to " Waronoco,'' and beyond, crossed the 
river: it was known as Ferry Lane, — the present Cypress Street. It was 
originally one rod wide, and was designed more particularly to afford a 
crossing to the meadows on the other side. The lower landing, of the same 
width, — now called York Street, — was opened for a ferry to the meadows 
south of the mouth of Agawam River. The middle landing, also one rod 
wide, was instituted for ferriage to the meadows on the other side, and also 
to receive freight which came up the river in flatboats. It ran straight to 
the river from the " town street," and afforded a passage to the first burial- 
ground on the north side of the lane along the bank of the river, and also 
to the " training-ground " on the south side, — two acres then owned by the 
town and afterwards used as a second burial-ground. It was called Meet- 
ing-house Lane, because the meeting-house stood on the northerly side, two 
hundred feet from the "town street." The lane has since been widened to 
forty feet ; and in the hedge on the old south line, sprang up an elm-tree 
which grew and spread itself extensively, so that sixty years ago it was 
looked upon as a very large tree, and was so represented on a map of the 
town made at that time. This tree is still in a good state of preservation. 
Its circumference at the smallest diameter of its trunk is twenty feet, and its 
height is over ninety-seven feet. Its age is not known, but long ago it 
caused the name of the old meeting-house lane to be changed to Elm Street. 

In course of time it became necessary to make a passage across the 
marsh. The first efforts to that end proved ineffectual; but the settlers 



Hit upon the expedient of offering the privilege to capitalists, of constructing 
a causeway, and of taking ''four pence a load of any person crossing there 
with a team who had not joined in the enterprise." This causeway, between 
Main Street and the old town-hall, was two rods wide. The old foundation 
put in there in 1648 was so well put in that it is there to-day. It consisted 
of large logs, trunks of large trees laid crosswise; and successive layers 
furnished a foundation for the earth-filling, which is five or six feet below 
the present pavement. This crossing furnished an outlet to the high land 
east of the town street, and was the beginning of the Boston Road, which 
was at first the old Bay Path. It extended up the hill, near where the most 
southerly of the Armory buildings now stand ; and the row of trees beside 
them still indicates its location. The town having appropriated twenty rods 
for the width of the road after reaching the present Spring and School 
Streets, and the old Bay Path as travelled being very steep, a new path was 
sought farther south. It turned to the right above Myrtle Street, and, fol- 
lowing the edge of the dingle south of State Street, passed through the 
region of " Skunk's Misery," back of the Olivet Church, and brought up on 
the plain a little west of Walnut Street. This route was discontinued about 
fifty years ago, and the hill graded to the present track of State Street. The 
Boston Road was from time to time extended to the east, and in 1822 the 
county made a complete survey and location into the town of Wilbraham. 

After the comj:>letion of the causeway, new enterprises sprang up. A 
winding path was made from the Boston Road, near the mouth of Maple 
Street, and along the brow of the highlands. It passed through the lands 
now owned by Col. H. N. Case, William Merrick, George B. Holbrook. 
Lombard Dale, William Gunn, and James B. Rumrill ; and occupied mainly 
the veritable sites of the present beautiful dwellings as the path fol- 
lowed the brow of the steep hill. This serpentine path was called - the 
road to Charles Brewer's," and was continued to near the Springfield Ceme- 
tery gate, — a region known as Thompson's Dingle. Charles Brewer's 
house stood on the site of William Gunn's house, and overlooked the valley. 
About sixty years ago this road was surveyed and straightened, leaving the 
houses standing between the old road and the new; but the old houses have 
succumbed to time, and new and comely ones have been erected in their 

It is said that Charles Brewer in early days brought from Thompson's 
Dingle several maple-trees which he set out by the wayside; giving the old 
path the name of Maple Street, which adheres to it and to several extensions 
of the same in later years. Other roads were afterwards located: the road 
over Long Hill to Pecowsic Brook was laid out in 1754; Wilbraham Road, 
starting from the Boston Road at "Goose Pond," in 1769; and Plum-tree 
Road in the same year. Pine Street formerly included Oak Street, and was 



laid out in 1764. It took its name from a huge, wide-spreading white-pine 
tree, standing in the dooryard of the home of John Stevenson, on the 
easterly side of the street, about half way between State and Union Streets. 
In hot weather Stevenson was in the habit of resting himself on a couch he 

had constructed high 
up among the branch- 
es of the tree. A road 
leading from the five- 
mile school - house 
easterly, passing near 
" Peggy's Dipping- 
lb ilc," was laid out 
about the same time ; 
and also a road, two 
rods wide, " begin- 
ning at the corner of 
• Murphy's field,' and 
running by marked 
pine-trees to a pine 
standing a little north of the house where Experience Hancock lately lived." 
No surveyor's compass was used in Springfield until 1670 : hence the absence 
of field-notes in locating roads previous to this time. One road began at 
; ' Kibbee's fence," another at a " white-birch bush," another was bounded 
by a white-oak bush ; all showing inefficiency as well as indefiniteness. 

In 1769 a road was located, taking its starting-point from Long Mill, and 

Eim on Elm Street 


extending easterly : it was known as the X road, because its crossing an- 
other road resembled a X- It is now called Sumner Avenue. Hickory 
Street received its name in honor of Andrew Jackson's heroic cognomen 
"Old Hickory." 

St. James Avenue was opened in 1770; and the town many years after 
voted to call it Factory Street, because it led to the cotton-factories at 
Chicopee Falls, or Skipmuck. Carew Street, named in remembrance of 
the Carew family living at the north end of Main Street, was laid out in 
1770, and called the Morgan Road, because it passed by the house of one 
Morgan. Parker Street, running from Longmeadow line, through Sixteen 
Acres, to Eli Putnam's bridge across Chicopee River at Ludlow, was laid 
out in 1796, and named after Zenas Parker, who assisted in the locating 
survey, and in i860 was still living in his wayside cottage at the age of 84 
years. Mill Street, running near the edge of Mill River, took its name 
from the mills on the stream. Walnut Street, first opened in 181 1 to ac- 
commodate the United-States Armory in transporting their gun-materials 
from the water-shop to the shop on the hill, was named by Ethan A. Clary 
for a walnut-tree which formerly served as a monument for the west line 
of the street. Blake Street derives its name from an ancient family who 
once lived on the westerly side of the street, not far from an old Indian 
Fort. The old Blake house, still standing, and owned and occupied by J. G. 
Chase of this city, is situated near the foot of "Blake's Hill," and is the 
locality of mysterious surroundings, which furnished the basis of a good- 
sized and readable novel written by Frederick A. Packard, a resident here, 
about 50 years ago. Blake's Hill and Long Hill, both together, were known 
as Fort Hill after the conflagration. White Street was named from a 
physician of that name, who lived near the southern extremity of the street; 
Allen Street, from Joel Allen, whose house constituted almost the only 
remaining monument of the location of the street in i860; and Benton 
Street, from the Benton family, through whose farm the street was laid 
in 1789. State Street was the name voted by the town to be applied to 
that part of Boston Road between Main Street and Factory Street. Bliss 
Street derived its name from the Bliss family, who opened the street 
through their own land ; and Howard Street, from the family of Rev. 
Bezaleel Howard. Union Street received its name from the fact that it 
was opened by Charles Stearns and others, unitedly, across their respec- 
tive lands. Wilcox Street was opened by Philip and Philo F. Wilcox 
through their own land, and named by them. Margaret Street was opened 
through the homestead allotted to widow Margaret Bliss, who came from 
Hartford with so many children that the town, more than a century ago, 
granted her a lot with extra width, reaching from the town street to the 
river. Her heirs, in 1850, opened a street through the middle of it: and 



the surveyor gave to it her name. Loring Street was opened through land 
once owned by the Loring family, and named for Joshua Loring, a surviving 
bachelor of the same. Lombard Street was opened across land purchased 
of the heirs of Justin Lombard. Stockbridge Street was laid out in part 
through land of Elam Stockbridge. Cross Street was opened by Abraham 
G. Tannatt through his homestead : and being very narrow, unwrought, and 
crude, it soon acquired the cognomen of " Pig Alley ; " but the name has 
now fallen into 
disuse. On it 
now stands the 
oldest house ex- 
tant in Spring- 
field, noticed 
and illustrated 
in a preceding 
chapter. Emery 
Street was laid 
out in 1844, by 
the heirs of 
Capt. Robert 
Emery, who had 
been the owner 
of the land. 
School Street 
was opened by 

the town in 1827, from State to Union, for the purpose of access to the 
high-school house that the town had built on the corner of Union and 
the new street. The building is now owned and occupied by J. S. Marsh 
and Lyman King as their residence. 

Spring Street was laid out at the foot of the first slope from the high 
plain, in the vicinity of the numerous springs which ooze out of the ground 
on that plateau. Byers Street was laid out across the homestead of the 
Hon. James Byers. Worthington Street was opened by Charles Stearns 
across his own land, from Connecticut River to Spring Street, and was 
named after its former owner, Col. John Worthington. Butler Street was an 
old road without name, and in i860 was re-surveyed and straightened, and 
named for James H. Butler, who contributed to the straightening. Stebbins 
Street was named for Ithamar Stebbins, who lived near by. Armory Street, 
laid out in 1822, leading to Chicopee from the United-States Armory, was 
dubbed " Toddy Road," because the workmen in the Armory used to go 
over this road to Japhet Chapin's tavern in Chicopee to drink toddy. Andrew 
Street was laid out in 1868, and named in honor of Gov. John A. Andrew of 

The Lombard House on Main Street. 



Massachusetts ; Ashley Street in 1847, receiving its name from John Ashley, 
through whose land part of the street was laid; and Bancroft Street in 1863' 
by Wells P. Hodgett, who named it after his admired political friend, George 
Bancroft the historian. Calhoun Street was laid out in i860, on land of the 
city, and named for William B. Calhoun, whose residence was near by. 

Dickinson Street was an old, nameless road, re-laid and straightened 
in i860, and then named after Isaac P. Dickinson, through whose land the 

straightening was partly made. Dwight 
Street has its name from having been 
laid across the homestead of James Dwight; Edwards Street, from having 
been laid out across the homestead of Col. Elisha Edwards ; and Gardner 
Street, from Gideon Gardner, one of the proprietors of the land through 
which it passes. Greenwood Street was laid out by Samuel Green, who 
intended to call it by his own name, but was prevented from so doing 
because another street bore the name. Grovener Street was laid out by 
Grovener B. Bowers, and thus named by the engineer who surveyed the 
property. Harrison Avenue was named for President William H. Harrison. 
Hillman Street gets its name from Seth Hillman Barnes, one of the owners 
of the land through which it was laid ; and Magazine Street, because it runs 
past the old magazine of the colonial army. Just as indicated above, many 


streets have been named for persons who were at some time owners of the 
whole or a part of the property through which the street passes. Among 
other streets so named are: Marion Street, opened in 1883, for the late 
Marion D. Tapley; Mattoon Street, opened in 1872, for William Mattoon: 
Morgan Street, for Albert Morgan; Morris Street, for Hon. Oliver 11. 
Morris ; Pynchon Street, opened in 1842, for the Pynchon family; Sargeant 
Street, for Horatio Sargeant, etc. Osgood Street was opened by Dunham 
& Sleeper, across land formerly owned by the Rev. Dr. Samuel Osgood, 
Ringgold Street was opened by George S. Lewis, and named in memory of 
Major Ringgold, who was slain in the Mexican War. Sherman Street was 
opened across land of the Tapley family, and named after Major-Gen. Sher- 
man of the United-States Army. Thompson Street was formerly the north 
erly part of Hancock Street; and Haynes & McKnight, having purchased a 
large tract of land bordering on the street, re-named it in honor of Col. 
James M. Thompson. Water Street gets its name from its contiguity to 
the river, and was laid out piecemeal during a period of thirty years. Court 
Street is coeval with the first court-house of Hampden County, and was 
laid out by the side of the court-house grounds in 1822. Everett Street, the 
first north of Linden, was named in honor of Edward Everett. 

Garden Brook is a contribution of springs issuing from the several 
slopes of the sandy plain forming the highest table-land of the city east of 
Main Street. It formerly ran down a deep ravine which extended far into 
the level plain ; and, reaching the marshy meadow, the channel extended 
across the marsh to the western edge, disposing of itself in a singular man- 
ner by an equal division of its waters, one-half going north, and in a circuit- 
ous, or serpentine manner, finding its way into the "Great River" above 
Round Hill. The other division, forming a channel, ran down the westerly 
edge of the swamp, and, constituting the easterly line of the " town street," 
found its outlet in the Connecticut, just above the mouth of Mill River, two 
and a half miles below the outlet of the northern branch. This division 
took place near the east line of Main Street, at its junction with Worthing- 
ton Street, and still continues, although the bed of each branch has been 
considerably lowered, of late years, for the purpose of drainage ; and the 
same, being known as the " Town Brook," performs duty as a common 
sewer. Sixty years ago tin's rivulet of clean water, running in the little 
channel by the side of Main Street, was used for domestic purposes ; and 
the little belt of hard land between it and the marsh afforded room for 
an occasional store or other building ; and by crossing the stream on a 
plank, and climbing up a flight of a half-dozen steps, or stairs, the flooring 
of the one-story buildings was reached, as they stood on tall posts, like the 
houses in Siam. 


The Ferries were once the highways for crossing the Connecticut River: 
and hand-power boats were the first vehicles of conveyance, the smallest 
being canoes, made by scooping out the trunks of large trees, and shap- 
ing them like a skiff. Rude flatboats carried over the horses, cattle, and 

The ferry at the upper landing was most used, it being the main highway 
from the Massachusetts Bay to the Hudson River. When the people who 
had settled on the west side of the river became so numerous that the flat- 
boat was not able to carry them across in time for sabbath service, thev 
petitioned the town, in 1674, to furnish them with free ferriage on Sundays. 
At that time the only meeting-house in the vicinity was on the east side, 
and all the people were required to attend. It does not appear that their 
wish was granted: but 22 years afterward they obtained permission of the 
" Create and General Courte " to organize a parish of their own, and thus 
get relief from Sunday ferriage. It is supposed that several persons were 
drowned in returning from church, March 18, 1683 ; as the names of two 
men and one woman are recorded as drowned on that day. Gen. George 
Washington was ferried across the river at this place as he travelled up 
from Hartford on the west side, fording the Agawam River a little below 
the Agawam Bridge in his private two-horse carriage, led by his colored 
coachman, when he made his only tour into New England during his Presi- 
dency. West-India rum and other army supplies, drawn by oxen from Bos- 
ton to the Hudson River, when New York was in the hands of the British, 
were often carried over. No steam or horse power was ever used at this 
ferry. This ferry-privilege was annihilated by the city in i860, by permit- 
ting the Connecticut-river Railroad to erect buildings on the landing. 

It is said that the middle ferry, at the foot of Elm Street, was used 
mostly for crossing over into the West-Springfield meadows. One autumn 
day, as the story goes, several families crossed on the boat in the morning 
to spend the day in harvesting corn, and at night returned. But a young 
maiden and her lover, having strolled over the meadow and out of sight. 
were forgotten. They were surrounded by water, and had no means of 
escape, and of necessity remained over night under the shelter of a deserted 
building. When they returned the next day to the east side, on being 
questioned about their absence, they were complained of to the magistrate, 
and subjected to a fine for breach of the law forbidding an unmarried couple 
to occupy a house together over night without the intervention of a third 

Another private ferry was used, starting from the lower landing at the 
foot of York Street, which afforded access to what is now termed the Island, 
and is still in use. The usual manner of urging boats of large size across 
the water was by the use of " setting-poles." In later years another ferry 


furnishing a public highway between Springfield and West Springfield was 
ordered by the county commissioners, and was located farther down the 
river, below the several mouths of the Agawam. This ferry was called the 
"South End" or Agawam Ferry; and, as "setting-poles'" could not grapple 
with the amount of travel, a horse-power boat was placed on the river by a 
company, and after many years a steam ferry-boat took its place. Later 
the ferry-privilege was used by Springfield and the town of Agawam, by 
steam-power, until the building of the present " South End " iron bridge. 

The Bridges. — At the beginning of the present century frequent dis- 
cussions took place between the people of Springfield and West Spring- 
field about the feasibility of constructing a bridge across the Connecticut 
River. The business-men and middle-aged people had faith in the project; 
but the old men wagged their heads in opposition, one prominent rich man 
saying, "Gentlemen, you might as well undertake to bridge the Atlantic 
Ocean." Finally, after much hesitation, the seemingly ponderous job was 
undertaken. The planting and rearing of the sub-structure was difficult : 
the two abutments and five piers had to be embedded in the river, and that 
without previous experience, or the use of modern appliances. Pile-driving 
was clone by horse-power, as steam hammers were not then known to the 
world. A large floating platform was constructed, and anchored in the river 
near the site fixed for a pier; on it was placed the necessary machinery for 
raising the hammer: this was operated by a horse winding a rope around a 
drum, or cylinder. This horse " swung around the circle " from morning 
till night, from Monday till Saturday, and from spring till early winter; but 
no man has numbered the revolutions he performed, nor the thousands of 
miles he travelled during the process. On the platform was a stable for his 
shelter and repose at night; for he slept on the "bosom of the deep," not 
being taken ashore till the close of work for winter. Verily his memory is 
entitled to a monument. The site of the bridge did not occupy the place of 
any ferry, nor was it within 50 rods of any road or highway. The bridge 
company bought land on each side of the river for their approaches, the 
location being where the old toll, or wooden, bridge now stands. 

The first bridge was opened for travel Oct. 30, 1S05. It was 1,234 feet 
long, 30 feet wide, and 40 feet above low-water mark, and cost *36.27o. It 
was uncovered, and painted red; and consisted of six arches supported by 
two abutments and five piers, each 21 feet wide and 62 feet long. Up the 
river, in the vicinity of the present railroad-bridge, were built three "ice- 
breakers,"' or piers like the bridge-piers, with the up-stream sides sloping 
down to the water, designed to allow the immense sheets of ice in the spring 
to slide up into the air, and by their own weight fall down in smaller p 
thus preventing the choking of ice under the bridge. The name of the de- 
signer or builder of this bridge is not now known. During the construe- 


tion, by an accident several of the workmen were injured, and one kiiied: 
and also, in the month of March, several of the armorers crossed on the 
timbers of the framework, to the west side, on a spree, and in returning, 
late at night, one of them lost his balance, and was drowned. 

The bridge was opened with imposing dedicatory exercises, — a proces" 
sion, prayer, sermon by the Rev. Dr. Joseph Lathrop of West Springfield, 
music, and the ringing of bells. When the procession reached the bridge, 
a national salute of 17 guns was fired three times; and 3,000 people, stand- 
ing on the uncovered bridge, gave three rousing cheers. 

This bridge was a vast accommodation to many towns on either side of 
the river, and was duly appreciated. But after nine years effective service 
it showed signs of weakening; and, after the spring freshets of 1814 had 
subsided, the company began strengthening the arches, and set up "horses " 
under the eastern span to support it while undergoing repairs. But on the 
14th of July a heavy Pennsylvania wagon, heavily laden with army supplies 
from the east, attempted to cross. When the team had got well on to the 
bridge, the first span crippled and went down ; but the " horses," or trusses, 
being equal to the pressure, held up bridge and team, so that the load was 
saved, and nobody killed. This ended travel across the bridge ; and it was 
soon taken down, having become too much weather-beaten to endure longer 
service. It was mongrel in style, the travel being on neither the bottom nor 
top of the chord, but ascending and descending with the curve of the arches 
of eacli span. 

The present bridge was constructed in 1816; the builder being Capt. 
Isaac Damon of Northampton, a man of great capacity for construction and 
superior workmanship, his work having stood the test of 67 years of strain 
as a bridge, and is now likely to stand 40 or 50 years longer. It was 
partially carried off by the spring freshet of 1818, and the lost portions 
supplied in 1820; but never since has it suffered by ice or water. At the 
last fracture in 181 8 Gen. Bliss, one of the directors, thought to save the 
east end of the bridge, by securing an immense cable or rope to the main 
timbers, and fastening the rope to a large tree on the bank of the river 
above the bridge ; but the next large sheet of ice that struck the bridge 
hardly straightened the sag of the cable before it parted, and away went the 
eastern span of Capt. Damon's superstructure. 

The present is the second bridge, and was covered at the time of building. 
The travel is on an even plane at the bottom of the chord. The heavy pine 
timber of the arches was cut far up the river, rafted down, and hewed out by 
hand. Tolls were taken until July 1, 1872, when it was made free by Act of 
the Legislature. 

The next bridge was that of the Western Railroad, completed July 1, 
1 84 1, made of wood, on the " Howe " plan, and uncovered. This was taken 


down in 1855, and replaced by another; the trains all the while continuing 
their usual trips. The second bridge was covered, and continued in use 
until the erection of the present iron bridge in 1S73. 

The North-End iron bridge was completed Sept. 1, 1877, and dedicated 
by a large concourse of people on the West-Springfield side. Dinner-tables 
were placed in the goodly shade of a row of maple-trees, refreshments 
offered to the crowd, and speeches made by the friends of the enterprise; 
William Chapman of West Springfield leading off with much enthusiasm. 
It affords the centre of that town an additional and more convenient privi- 
lege of access to the Union Railway Station. It is one of the handsomest 
highway bridges in the United States. 

The South-End iron bridge, connecting the city with Agawam, was built 
in 1878, and completed and opened for travel Feb. 1, 1879. It takes the 
place of the old steam-ferry, and is a great advantage to the towns of Aga- 
wam, Suffield, Southwick, and Granby. From the above it will be seen that 
there are now four bridges across the Connecticut within the space of two 
miles and a half. 

The Springfield Street-Railway Company was organized in 1869, with 
a capital of $50,000. The first board of directors included G. M. Atwater. 
Homer Foot, C. L. Covell. Gurdon Bill, and Willis Phelps. The first officers 
were : G. M. Atwater, president and treasurer ; J. E. Smith, superintendent ; 
and Gideon Wells, clerk of the corporation. The station and stables were 
built at the corner of Main and Hooker Streets ; and the first trip was made 
on March 10, 1870. Since then the company has made a gradual develop- 
ment. It carried during the first year, 257,280 passengers; and now it 
carries about 1,100,000. At its opening, the total length of track was 2.7 
miles; now it is i\ miles. Then the track extended from Hooker Street 
to Oak Street; in 1873 it was extended from the corner of Main and State 
Streets to Mill River, and also from Oak Street to the Boston Road ; and in 
1874 it was again extended from Hooker Street to Wason Avenue. In 1879 
the capital stock was increased to $100,000, and the track again extended 
from the corner of State and Maple Streets to the United-States Water- 
Shops. It was then found necessary to enlarge the old buildings, and to 
erect a new stable and station at the corner of Main and Carew Streets. In 
1882 the capital stock was increased to $125,000, and a second track was 
laid, making a double track on Main Street, from State .Street to Carew 
Street, and also on parts of State Street. The equipment consisted, in 
1870, of 4 cars and 25 horses; in 1883, of 22 cars and 96 horses. The 
president is John Olmsted; the treasurer, A. E. Smith; the superin- 
tendent, F. E. King; and the clerk of the corporation, Gideon Wells. 



^Traffic atrti transportation. 


THE advantageous location of Springfield gave it, from the start, a 
pioneer place in the development of inland commerce and transporta- 
tion. The Connecticut River became the first great north-and-south highway 
of the country. Palfrey, in his " History of New England," shows how it 
became the singular fortune of Springfield, as the first town upon a river in 
a jurisdiction foreign to that which controlled its mouth, to assert the princi- 
ples of free trade, and of the free navigation of rivers by all the communities 
upon their banks, — principles which finally reached their perfection in the 
complete freedom of the internal commerce of the United States. Spring- 
field had been established less than ten years (1645) when the Connecticut 
Colony attempted to collect an export-duty upon goods descending the river 
from Springfield, for the purpose, as was alleged, of paying for a fort at Say- 
brook. Springfield resisted this imposition upon her commerce, and carried 
her grievances to the General Court of Massachusetts, which appealed to 
the commissioners of all the New-England Colonies, then constituting the 
germ of the American Union. The case was decided against Springfield ; 
but the infant town refused to submit, and effectually maintained the free- 
dom of the river through a long controversy. 

For the first two centuries the river-navigation by primitive flatboats — 
poled up the stream, and floating down — bore the burden of freight to the 
interior. The river, however, was of inferior navigability, and made a place 
for roads rather than a substitute. Early in this century the valley-roads 
were in comparatively good order. President Dwight of Yale College, 
speaking of the Connecticut Valley in 1803, praises its roads and inns, and 
says, "The time has not been long passed since the roads on the hills were 
almost universally too rough to be travelled for pleasure. At that time the 
roads in this valley were generally good throughout a great extent. Hence 
the inhabitants were allured to a much more extensive intercourse with 
each other than those in any other part of New England, except along the 
eastern coast. For the same reasons a multitude of strangers have at all 
times been induced to make this valley the scene of their pleasurable trav- 
elling. The effect of this intercourse on the minds and manners of the 
inhabitants needs no explanation." 


Professor Silliman, who made his trip to Quebec, coming home through 
this valley, in 1819, says, " We found the inns, almost without exception, so 
comfortable, quiet, and agreeable, that we had neither desire nor inclination 
to find fault. Almost everywhere, when we wished it, we found a private 
parlor and a separate table ; and rarely did we hear any profane or coarse 
language, or observe any rude and boisterous deportment." 

The era of river-men and stage-coaches was picturesque. The ancient 
mariners of the Connecticut had all the refinement of topography, of phil- 
osophy, and of profanity, which Mark Twain has ascribed to the pilots of 
the Mississippi. Prom Saybrook to the mouth of Wells River, Yt.. they 
wrestled with the shifty bottom and the numerous rapids of the Connecticut. 
Their picturesque designations of every mile of its length have mostly passed 
into oblivion, and it would be vain to attempt to reproduce the life which the 
Connecticut river-men led. The advent of steam-navigation gave a great 
impetus to their commerce, inspired the formation of rival lines, and gave a 
tremendous fever of activity to the little world of fifty years ago, which 
seemed to the people of those times just as big as ours does to us. Steam- 
ers were built in Springfield ; and competition for steamboat business became 
so hot between Springfield and Hartford, that passengers were carried either 
way for 12^ cents, and sent home in a carriage at their journey's end. The 
stage-coach, meantime, had reached a great development. Coaches ran be- 
tween the same cities both ways each clay, and upon both sides of the river. 
The Albany coach-and-six came smoking in at high speed, blowing a warn- 
ing blast upon the horn before it reached the Connecticut-river bridge; and 
similarly, from Massachusetts Bay, more than once a clay, great coaches 
rolled across the sandy plain at the eastward of the city, and halted their 
panting teams at the Rockingham House first, and then at Warriner's, or 
the other taverns. There were six lines and 18 coaches running between 
Boston and Albany at the close of the coaching-period. The freighting- 
business of those days, by heavy wagons, was immense ; and it has left a relic 
in Gunn's Block, at the corner of State and Walnut Streets, which was built 
in 1836 to accommodate a large West-India-goods business with towns east 
as far as Charlton. These goods came around from Boston by water, and 
were then distributed by teaming. The movement of freight between 
Springfield and Boston, when the Western Railroad was first discussed, was 
found to be 12,000 tons, moved by horse-power at a cost of $17.50 or $18 a 
ton; and it was calculated that the way-freight between Boston and Albany, 
by railroad, might reach 84,000 tons a year. The present rare of way-freight 
between the same points, by rail, is from $2.80 per ton upward. 

The railroads reached Springfield, or started from there, in speedy suc- 
cession, from 1839 to 1S45, largely by Springfield capital, and under the 
control of men like Justice Willard, George Bliss, Chester W. Chapin. and 


their associates. Springfield had received a considerable impetus to its 
growth from the development of manufacturing at Chicopee, from 1830 to 
1840, increasing from 6,784 to 10,985 inhabitants. Now it received a new 
impetus from the railroads; and although Chicopee was set off in 1848, the 
census of 1850 gave Springfield 11,766, and Chicopee 8,291 inhabitants. 
The railroads have been of a certain value in the development of the city; 
but it had a substantial start before they came, owing to its natural advan- 
tage of situation upon the Connecticut, as a north-and-south line at the point 
most favorable for the intersection of a great east-and-west line. It was a 
town of 10,000 inhabitants before it was entered by the locomotive; because 
it was the natural commercial centre of a rich valley, and commanded the 
most practicable route over the mountains to Albany and the Great West. 

The railroad-routes converging at Springfield were built amid great dis- 
couragements, through a wild and rugged country, and at a time when the 
prostration preceding and following the financial panic of 1837 made it diffi- 
cult to raise the necessary capital. William Savage, one of the committee 
of forty-six appointed by the Western corporation, endeavored to give the 
matter of construction a high religious aspect, by preparing a circular 
"directed to the ministers of the gospel," requesting them to preach to their 
people on the morality of railroads. 

The Union Passenger Depot is on Main Street, at the corner of Rail- 
road Street. It is a huge brick-and-iron structure, with its elliptical roof 
trussed and braced with iron. The depot is double in its arrangements, each 
side having all the appurtenances of a complete depot. The northern side, 
or right hand as you come from Boston, is used for the westward business of 
the Boston and Albany Railroad, and also by the Connecticut-river Railroad, 
the cars of which approach on the outside of the building, as well as by a 
side-track in the building; the southern side of the depot is used for the 
eastward business of the Boston and Albany Railroad, and also by the New- 
York, New-Haven, and Hartford Railroad, the cars of which enter the build- 
ing by a side-track. The depot is about 401 feet in length, and 113 feet in 
width. It has two arcade extensions, each 225 feet long. The depot is 
lighted by electric lamps ; and on one side is a chronometer clock in con- 
nection with the Cambridge Observatory, as well as with the large and ele- 
gant granite building containing the offices of the Boston and Albany 
Railroad. A new union depot has been much talked of, and is evidently to 
be built within a few years. 

The Boston and Albany Railroad, the main route traversing Springfield. 
is a noble monument to the foresight and enterprise of its citizens of half a 
century ago. In the happy and conservative old times of the Adams and 
Jefferson administration, Massachusetts found her only routes of internal 
transportation on the highways which wound through her picturesque valleys 


and glens, and across her highland passes. Stages lumbered away over the 
old Bay Road, between Springfield and Boston, at the rate of ioo miles in 
iS hours; and baggage-wagons made the trip of ioo miles and return in a 
leisurely two weeks. 

When Gen. Henry Knox was Secretary of War, he caused surveys to be 
made for a route for a canal from Boston to the Connecticut Valley, and 
westward ; and New-England capitalists laid plans for a canal from Boston 
to Worcester, and thence to the valley, and onward to the Hudson. This 
was in I 791 ; but "the proprietors of the Massachusetts Canal," incorporated 
by the Legislature, were content with filing away their maps and estimates. 
In 1825 Gov. Eustis appointed commissioners to locate a canal-route from 
Boston to Albany. It was estimated to cost (with a tunnel through Hoosac 
Mountain) $6,024,072. 

But the construction and profitable operation of railways and steam- 
carriages in England had been carefully watched by the men of New Eng- 
land, and the newspapers began to advocate similar public works here. In 
1827 a commission established by the Legislature made surveys for a railroad 
route from Boston to the Hudson River, near Albany; and two years later 
the board recommended that this line should be built bv the State, with a 
horse-path between the rails, and paths for the attendant railroad-men along- 
side. The flat iron rails were to be laid on granite slabs. In 1831 the 
Boston and Worcester Railroad Company was organized, with 10,000 shares 
of Si 00 each, by business-men who saw the need of such a route to the 
Hudson Valley; the subscribers reserving the right to withdraw if the more 
definite surveys and estimates should be unsatisfactory in their results. The 
engineers of that clay planned the construction of a gravity road, where 
the cars should be hauled over the upward grades bv means of stationarv 
engines. In a pamphlet published about fifty years ago, they demonstrated 
that the power for these upward hauls could be procured by hydraulic 
machinery, moved by the clear and abundant waters of the .Massachusetts 

In 1827 Joseph T. Buckingham wrote, in " The Boston Courier," that the 
scheme of a railroad from Boston to Albany was "a project which every 
one knows, who knows the simplest rule in arithmetic, to be impracticable 
but at an expense little less than the market value of the whole territory 
of Massachusetts; and which, if practicable, every person of common sense 
knows would be as useless as a railroad from Boston to the moon." Capt. 
Marryatt, the celebrated English novelist, while riding by stage through 
Western Massachusetts, denounced "certain crazy spirits who have conceived 
the idea of building a railroad through this savage region.*' 

In the springtime of 1X34 trains began to run between Boston and 
Newton; in November, they reached Westborough ; and on July 4. 1835, 


they ran into Worcester. The directors reported that a '"locomotive-en-int 
has been run three times daily, to Newton and back, with from two to eight 
passengers to a trip." The first engine was the '"Meteor," imported from 
England for the Lowell Railroad, which, not being then in running-order, 
sold it to the Worcester line for $4,500. It was soon followed by the Mas- 
sachusetts-built engines, " Yankee," " Comet," and " Rocket," and by two or 
three dozen cars, named for the counties in the State, and accommodating 
24 persons each, who paid their fares to the "train-master." This official 
(the '•conductor" of later days) carried a whip to keep the boys off the cars. 
The Western Railroad was incorporated in 1833. Its first grading was 
begun in the town of Charlton, in the winter of 1836-37; and in October, 
1839, the entire line from Worcester to Springfield was opened for travel. 
Soon afterward the Western was continued to the State line, where it met 
the Hudson and Berkshire Railroad, which had been built in 1837-38, and 
the Albany and West-Stockbridge Railroad, built in 1840. Among the chief 
promoters of this system of routes were Messrs. P. P. F. Degrand, N. 
Appleton. David Henshaw, T. B. Wales, Josiah Ouincy, jun., and E. H. 
Derby, of Boston ; Harmanus Bleecker of Albany ; Charles Allen, Emory 
Washburn, and William Lincoln, of Worcester; George Bliss, Justice Wil- 
lard, William B. Calhoun, and Charles Stearns, of Springfield. 

In 1845 George Bliss was elected president of the Western road; and 
in 184S Ansel Phelps, jun., of Springfield, became solicitor. 

In 1854 the company bought for $273,131.78 the road, franchises, and 
property of the Hudson and Berkshire line, from Hudson to Chatham Four 
Corners and the State line. The means for this purchase, and for new 
equipments, came from a loan of ,£100,000, negotiated in London. In 1857 
the cost of moving each passenger one mile was 1.171 cents, and each ton 
of freight 2.342 cents. In 1858 began the laying-down of a second track, 
which was completed throughout the entire route about five years later. 

In 1849 the stockholders were as follows: in Boston, 1,095; Roxbury, 
43 ; Charlestown, 42 ; New York, 1 1 ; Springfield, 209 : and in 75 other 
places, 549. 

The chief source of trouble with the lines between Boston and Worces- 
ter, and Worcester and Springfield, was in the division of receipts from 
through passengers and freight. The earlv railroad-laws of the State con- 
templated the use of horse-power only, and provided that the lines should 
be used by the public with their own conveyances, on payment of toll at 
established toll-gates. This primitive principle worked badly with swift 
locomotives, and various compromises were attempted by the Worcester 
and Western lines. Contested depot expenses, equated distances, decisions 
of referees, appeals to the Legislature, followed in dire succession. In 1S45 
the Springfield road endeavored to unite with the Worcester, but was re- 


pulsed. In 1862 the matter was referred for arbitration to a committee of 
the Boston Board of Trade, which strongly recommended a consolidation. 
The Western road was not averse to such an arrangement ; but many influ- 
ential men of Worcester fought sturdily and successfully against it, main- 
taining that such a union would take away from their city her eligible 
position as a railroad-terminus, and leave her a mere way-station on a grand 
through route. 

At last, however, the Western company, in effect, compelled the Worces- 
ter line to unite with it. by securing the passage of an act of the Legislature 
enabling them to survey and construct a parallel route to Boston, unless the 
same end could be achieved by the union of the existing road with their 

In the year 1867, therefore, occurred the consolidation of the Boston 
and Worcester and Western Railroads, and their leased lines and branches; 
forming a noble avenue of travel from the Hudson River, through the hill- 
country of Berkshire, and across the Connecticut Valley to Boston. 

The Hon. Chester W. Chapin, who had for many years owned the great 
stage-lines centring at Springfield, and run a steamboat on the Connecticut 
River between Springfield and Hartford, was the most prominent leader in 
all enterprises connected with the development of the interior counties. 
Holding the presidency of the Western Railroad from 1854 to 1S68, he 
assumed the control of the united line at the time of the consolidation, and 
directed it, with great sagacity and enterprise, for eleven years. The man- 
agement of this great route has had its centre in Springfield, to which belong 
the present president, William Bliss, and vice-president James A. Rumrill 
(both of these gentlemen married daughters of the Hon. Chester W. Chapin I, 
besides assistant general-superintendent Edward Gallup, general ticket-agent 
Joseph M. Griggs, chief engineer William H. Russell, paymaster Albert 
Holt, auditor Myron E. Barber, cashier Andrew S. Bryant, and Arthur B. 
Underhill, superintendent of the motive power. C. O. Russell, for so many 
years the general superintendent of the line, also has his home at Spring- 
field. Under a recent re-arrangement of the departments of the company, 
president William Bliss and general-superintendent Walter II. Barnes have 
their offices in Boston. There, also, is the post of division-superintendent 
Harry B. Chesley; while division-superintendent Charles E. Grover is sta- 
tioned at Springfield, and division-superintendent William H. Russell, jun., 
is at Albany. 

The presidents of the Western Railroad were as follows : — 

Thomas B. Wales 1S36 to 1842 

George Bliss 1842 to 1843 

Edmund Dwight 184-5101844 

George Bliss 1S44 to 1846 

Addison ( iilmorc 1 846 to 1 S; i 

William II. Swift 1851 I 

; ! W. Chapin .... 185410 1867 



The superintendents were: — 

James Barnes 1S39 to 1S4S | Henry Gray 1848 to 1866 

CO. Russell iS66toi8S2 

The presidents of the Boston and Worcester Railroad were : — 

Nathan Hale 1831 to 1849 I George Morey . . ( 11 weeks) 1S56 to 1S57 

T. Hopkinson 1849 to 1S56 | Daniel Denny Feb. 2-5, 1S57 

Ginery Twichell 1S57 to 1867 

The superintendents were : — 

Amos Binney 1833 William Parker 1839101849 

Nathan Hale 1833 to 1834 Ginery Twichell 1S49 to 1S5S 

J. F. Curtis 1835 t0 l8 39 E - B - Phillips 1S5S to 1865 

Nathan Hale . . . April 13 to July 10, 1S39 Abraham Firth 1865 to 1S67 

The presidents of the Boston and Albany Railroad were : — 

Chester \V. Chapin .... 1S67 to 1S7S I John Cummings, fro tern. . July 1-22, 1S80 
D. Waldo Lincoln 1S78 to 1SS0 | William Bliss 18S0 until now. 

In 1836 the company built a terminal station on Beach Street, Boston, 
which was burned out in 1865, but rebuilt and occupied until 1S81, when the 
present magnificent station on Kneeland Street was finished and occupied. 

The station of the Boston and Albany Railroad at Springfield is an 
ancient structure, hardly adequate to its uses. Seven or eight years ago the 
company made extensive preparations for the construction of a new and 
elegant station on the other side of Main Street, with such alterations in 
the grades of the street and the tracks, that the latter should be carried over 
the carriage-way, thus obviating the present inconvenient and dangerous 
crossing of Main Street at grade. But the project was defeated, before the 
board of railroad-commissioners, by the active opposition of some citizens 
of Springfield, and the lukewarmness of the other contributing railroads. 
It is but a question of time, however, when, with proper co-operation, the 
Boston and Albany Railroad shall provide for Springfield a commodious 
and worthy station-building. 

The Springfield, Athol, and North-eastern Railroad, 30 miles long, was 
built through the agency of the Hon. Willis Phelps of Springfield, the city 
contributing $300,000 towards its construction, and taking stock therefor. 
In 1880 the line passed, under foreclosure, into the possession of the Boston 
and Albany Company, for the consideration of #438,000, or about the price 
of the bonds, the original shareholders losing all their investments. The 
purchase was made through the agency of the Hon. Chester W. Chapin. 
who sought by this acquisition to secure new connections for the Albany 
road, and to insure to Springfield the beneficial operation of a route for 
whose construction she had paid out so much. 

1 wilOBl 

K # m i IN 

North Mam Street. 



The importance of Boston, as one of the great American seaports of 
modern times, is largely clue to Springfield energy and tact, moving at a 
time when the freighting-business of the Bay town had fallen off so greatly 
that the Cunard Line found itself obliged to cease running steamships there. 
As soon as the Boston and Albany Railroad had acquired the Grand Junc- 
tion Railroad (nine miles long, from Cottage Farm on the main line to the 
wharves at East Boston), the Hon. Chester W. Chapin had an interview 
with Sir Samuel Cunard, and requested him to renew the steamship service 
to Boston. Cunard objected, that he could find no freight there: and 
Chapin thereupon guaranteed to load one of his vessels if she were sent to 
Boston. Unable to secure co-operation from merchants or shippers, Mr. 
Chapin and Commodore Vanderbilt went West, and obtained grain enough 
for a full cargo, which they brought through over the New-York Central 
and Boston and Albany lines, and successfully placed upon the Cunard boat 
at East Boston. Having shown the high feasibility of transporting goods 
between the Far West and Europe by way of his road and its eastern port, 
Mr. Chapin withdrew, leaving others to follow in the route where he had 
been the pioneer, until the annual clearances of ocean-steamships from Bos- 
ton for the European ports averaged one for each secular day. 

The Boston and Albany Railroad now has 244 locomotives (193 of which 
were built in its own shops), 219 passenger-cars, 5,396 freight-cars, and 700 
other cars. Upwards of 5,000 persons are in the employ of the company. 
In 18S3 it carried 8,079,072 passengers. In 18S1 its charges were at an 
average rate of fare of 1.98 cents each per mile, or 2.13 cents for local pas- 
sengers, 1.95 cents for through passengers, and .83 cent for season-ticket 
holders. It also transported, in 1883, 3,41 1,324 tons of freight, at an average 
rate for local freight of about 1.60 cents a ton each mile, and .79 cent for 
through freight. The total number of miles run by its locomotives amounted 
to 5,651,302 in the year 1883 alone. The net earnings from passengers and 
freight in 1883 were $2,380,971.81. 

The total receipts of the Boston and Worcester line, for its first year 
(1835), for passengers and freight, were $161,806.95; and in 1867, the last 
year of its independent existence, they reached the sum of $1,742,909.72. 
The receipts of the Western Railroad rose from $182,309.99 in 1841, to 
$3,826,116.13 in 1867. The total transportation earnings are now in excess 
of $8,500,000 a year, and the expenditures are above $6,000,000. The 
annual receipts from local passengers are $2,100,000: from through passen- 
gers, $1,200,000; from local freight, $2,250,000; from through freight, 
$2,500,000; from mails, etc., $800,000. Of the capital stock of $20,000,000. 
the sum of $17,700,000 is held in Massachusetts, where dwell 5,093 of the 
5,935 stockholders. The total property and assets of the company reach 
535.412,158.75, and the total gross debt is $10,858,000. 


The total length of the main line, with double track, is 201.65 miles: 
and there are also about 140 miles of leased lines and branches. 

The precision and foresight with which the affairs of the line have always 
been managed have given it a singular immunity from accidents. During 
the first 32 years of its career, not ten passengers were killed in its cars, out 
of over 32,000,000 who had been transported. In 1S40 the directors re- 
ported, with great astonishment, " the accidental and unexpected meeting of 
two trains of cars, carrying passengers, upon the same track.'' And the 
subsequent double-tracking of the road rendered such surprises still less 

The Boston and Albany Company is thus highly commended in the 
Massachusetts Railroad Commissioners' Report fur 1882: " Having adopted 
a comprehensive policy for the renewal of the track of the main line, so as 
to raise the track construction from its present high standard to one still 
more perfect, the management of this road has now commenced a thorough 
improvement of the track construction of all its branches. In the main line 
it is proposed to have all the ties of uniform length and width, and steel 
rails weighing 72 pounds per yard, and to make the track, by careful con- 
struction and supervision, the very best of its kind. The management has 
also commenced a thorough improvement of the motive power of the read. 
The same improvement is noticeable in passenger-cars. . . . The stations of 
the road maintain their high standard. The management appears anxious 
to further the interests of the travelling public, by such improvements in 
and about the stations as experience indicates from time to time."' 

As it is now constituted, the Boston and Albany Railroad is one of the 
most important routes in America, joined on the west to the great lines 
which run to the Lake States and Canada; and on the east, delivering its 
freight at the magnificent Grand Junction wharves in East Boston, with 
elevators, warehouses, emigrant sheds, and docks in which the largest ocean- 
steamships load and unload. As Miss Sedgwick said, many years ago. it is 
••a road far superior to the Appian Way." Aside from its national impor- 
tance as a great factor in the east-and-west route from the grain-bearing 
prairies to the seaboard, this line has a peculiar interest from its connection 
with some of the most delightfully picturesque regions in America, bringing 
tourists to the lovelv meadow and mountain towns, and quaint old historic 
villages of the Connecticut Valley, and to that glorious Berkshire region of 
which Beecher says, '-From Salisbury to YVilliamstown, and then to Ben- 
nington in Vermont, there stretches a country of valleys, lakes, and moun- 
tains, that is yet to be as celebrated as the lake-district of England, or the 
hill-country of Palestine." Or, as another eloquent writer has said, " berk- 
shire is a region of hill and valley, mountain and lake, beautiful rivers and 
laughing brooks, — the very Piedmont of America.'' All this great park of 


the hills, together with the thronged towns of Central Massachusetts, are 
made tributary to Springfield by the admirable route which her citizens have 
been so enterprising in founding, and so sagacious in conducting. 

The New- York, New-Haven, and Hartford Railroad is one of the most 
important lines running to and from Springfield. By shrewd and careful 
management, the company have prospered almost from the first day of their 
organization, so that to-day their passenger and freight departments rank 
with those of the larger roads of the country. The terminus of the road is 
at Springfield ; but, by connecting with the Boston and Albany Railroad, a 
through line is established between New York and Boston, without change 
of cars. In October, 1883, arrangements were made with the Connecticut- 
river Railroad, whereby drawing-room cars were run from New York to 
Montreal. Travel over this line is very heavy, especially during the sum- 
mer months. The New- York, New-Haven, and Hartford Company have a 
capital stock of $15,500,000, with 123 miles of double track, from Williams 
Bridge, N.Y., to Springfield. By an agreement dated March 17, 1848, the 
company have used the New-York and Harlem tracks from Williams 
Bridge into the city of New York, paying a toll therefor. The company 
also have in Connecticut a three-mile branch running from Berlin to New 
Britain, a ten-mile branch from Berlin to Middletown, and a 3^-mile branch 
from Windsor Locks to Suffield. All these branches connect with the main 
line. In addition to these, they have a perpetual lease of the Shore-line road 
from New Haven to New London, a distance of 50 miles; one of the Har- 
lem-river and Port-Chester railroad, double track, from Harlem River to 
New Rochelle ; and also a lease of the Boston and New-York Air-line 
Railroad, from New Haven to Willimantic, Conn. The majority of the 
officers, directors, and stockholders of the road have been, and still are, 
citizens of New-York State and Connecticut; but a local interest has always 
centred in the road, from the fact that Chester W. Chapin of this city was 
a prime mover in its organization. There was no one who did more toward 
extending the through line of railroad to New York, and no one who was 
better qualified to promote its interests. First interested in the stage-coach 
lines running from Brattlebororough, Yt., to Hartford, Conn. ; and, later, a 
controller, and afterward owner, of the steamboat-lines from this city down 
the river, — Mr. Chapin became thoroughly identified with local travel. The 
foundation of this road was largely due to him ; and upon its completion he 
became a director in the corporation, a position which he held up to the 
time of his death, in 1883. The New-York, New-Haven, and Hartford 
Railroad Company was formed by the consolidation, July 24, 1S72, of the 
New- York and New-Haven and the Hartford and New-Haven railroad 
companies. The New-Haven Railroad was chartered in Connecticut in 
May, 1844, and in New York in January, 1846; and the road was opened 


in January, 1849. The Hartford and New-Haven Railroad Company was 
chartered in Connecticut in May, 1833, and was opened in 1S39. The Mas- 
sachusetts portion of the road was built under the charter of the Hartford 
and Springfield Railroad Company, April 5, 1839, but was not completed 
until December, 1S44. The several branches of the road were built at 
different times, under separate charters. 

The Connecticut-river Railroad Company is a consolidation of the 
Northampton and Springfield Railroad Corporation and the Greenfield and 
Northampton Railroad Company, which were united on equal terms, in July, 
1845, according to the provisions of the Act to incorporate the Greenfield 
and Northampton Railroad Company, passed Jan. 25, 1845. 

An Act to establish the Northampton and Springfield Railroad Corpora- 
tion was approved March 1, 1842, and made John Clarke, Samuel L. Hinck- 
ley, Stephen Brewer, Jonathan H. Butler, Winthrop Hillyer (all citizens of 
Northampton), their associates and successors, a corporation, with power to 
locate and construct a railroad from a point in Northampton, commencing 
within one mile of the court-house, crossing the Connecticut River near 
Mount Holyoke, and passing down the valley of said river, on the east side 
thereof, through a portion of Hadley, South Hadley, and Springfield, to meet 
the track of the Hartford and Springfield Railroad Corporation at Cabot- 
ville in said Springfield, or diverging from said line at or near Stony Brook, 
in South Hadley, and passing over the plain, and crossing the Chicopee 
River near the falls, uniting with the Western Railroad, easterly of the depot 
in Springfield. By an Act passed March 21, 1S45, the corporation was 
authorized to change its location, thus: "Commencing at a point in North- 
ampton defined in the Act to whicli this is in addition, passing down on the 
west side of the Connecticut River, and near the same, through a part of 
Hadlev, Easthampton, Northampton, South Farms (so called), and West 
Springfield, and crossing said river at or near the village of Willimansett, 
in the town of Springfield, to a line designated in the Act to which this Act 
is in addition." The corporation was also authorized to construct a branch 
railroad from the main track of their road, in the village of Cabotville, 
passing up the south bank of Chicopee River, near the same, into Chicopee 
Falls village. 

The Act incorporating the Greenfield and Northampton Railroad Com- 
panv was passed Jan. 25. 1S45, and names Henry W. Clapp, Ralph Williams. 
and Henry W. Cushman, as corporators, with their associates, successors, 
and assigns, who were authorized to locate and construct a railroad from 
some convenient point on the location of the Northampton and Springfield 
Railroad, at or near the terminus of said railroad in the town of Northamp- 
ton, northward, across the canal of the New-Haven and Northampton 
Company in said Northampton, passing near the bend in the Connecticut 


River; thence through the westerly part of the town of Hatfield, and the 
easterly part of the town of Whately, near the villages of South Deerfield 
and Deerfield, crossing Deerfield River at Cheapside in said Deerfield, and 
terminating at some convenient point in or near the village of Greenfield 

An Act was passed April 16, 1846, authorizing the Connecticut-river 
Railroad Company to extend their road from Greenfield to any point on the 
north line of the State, west of the Connecticut River, in either of the 
towns of Bernardston or Northfield. On the 28th day of February, 1845. 
the road was opened for the transit of passengers and freight to Cabotville 
(now Chicopee), a distance of about four miles. 

Dec. 13, 1845, the road was completed and opened for business to North- 
ampton, and three trips per day were made each way over the road. The 
road was extended and opened for use to South Deerfield, 1 1 miles above 
Northampton, on the 17th day of August, 1846; and to Greenfield, on the 
23d day of November, 1846. 

On the first day of January, 1849, the road was completed to the south 
line of the State of Vermont, thus adding 14 miles to the length of the 
main road, which, with the branch of two miles to Chicopee Falls, made the 
entire length 52 miles. Since that time a branch from Mount Tom to East- 
hampton, 3^ miles, has been added, making the total road belonging to the 
company 55.85 miles, while it controls and operates 129.85 miles. 

In 1866 a second track was completed from Springfield to Chicopee, 
3^ miles. In 1873 the second track was extended to Holyoke, and brought 
into use in August of that year; and in August, 1874, a further extension of 
8£ miles of second track to Northampton was completed and opened for 

In 1S83 the company began the work of building a second track from 
Northampton to Greenfield. A section of this last extension was finished 
and opened for business between North Hatfield and Deerfield, on the third 
day of December, 1883. 

It is said, that, when the people were contemplating the building of the 
railroad from Northampton to Springfield, they estimated that the passenger 
traffic would be double the amount of that of the two stage-lines then run- 
ning between the two places. Now, for the year ending Sept. 30, 1883. the 
Connecticut-river Railroad carried 1,484,155 passengers, and 632,865 tons 
of freight. The total traffic earnings for the same period were $870,038.14. 
The road pays 8 per cent dividends. The capital stock paid in, $2,370,000; 
surplus, $919,039.91. 

Thus it is seen that the results of the building and operating of this 
railroad — the success of which its projectors and many other persons along 
its line viewed as doubtful — have been a great increase in productive in- 


dustries, and an astonishing growth in the population and wealth of the 
whole valley through which the road runs. Within a year after the road 
was opened to Northampton, preparations were made for the founding of a 
lar"-e manufacturing town at Hadley Falls, on the line of the road; and 
from these beginnings has sprung the important and prosperous city of 
Holyoke, now numbering about 25,000 inhabitants. 

The road was practically at first an institution of Northampton, where 
the main offices and workshops were located: but, after a while, it passed 
chiefly into the hands of people of Springfield, where the headquarters now 
are, in the building on the east corner of Main Street and Commercial Row. 
almost opposite the Union Passenger-Depot. Here, too, are the shops, just 
north of the freight-house, — which is itself on the river-bank north of the 
Union Passenger-Depot. The connections of the road are important, and 
lead in all directions. The first president was Erastus Hopkins, who also 
served again after the retirement of President Clapp; the others being suc- 
cessively Chester W. Chapin, Henry W. Clapp, and Daniel L. Harris, who 
remained until his death, which occurred in 1S79. For a short interregnum. 
Mr. Chapin acted as president, until N. A. Leonard, for a long time the 
company's legal adviser, was chosen in 1880, and who is now in office. The 
superintendent is J. Mulligan. The treasurer for the past 25 years has been 
Seth Hunt, who has been the clerk of the corporation for 21 years, and 
whose connection with the company began 38 years ago. He has been 
longer in the service of the company than any person now living. His 
predecessor was the late Samuel F. Lyman of Northampton, who was the 
first clerk and treasurer, and who served until 1S58. He was the register 
of probate for Hampshire County for 30 years ; and, after retiring from the 
treasury of the Connecticut-river Railroad Company, he became the judge 
of probate. 

The Springfield and New- London Railroad was begun and finished in 
1875. The records of the road show that a meeting was held July 24, 1S74, 
when Willis Phelps was chosen president, and William Mattoon clerk. It 
was voted to issue 2,000 shares of stock at $100 each. Of these, 1,500 
shares were taken by the city, and the rest divided among 70 stockholders. 
At the next meeting, July 14, 1S74, Charles Marsh was chosen treasurer; 
and in the next November, T. M. Dewey was made clerk in place of William 
Mattoon. Jan. 27, 1875, a memorable annual meeting of the officers, direct- 
ors, and stockholders of the road was held ; Daniel L. Harris appearing in 
behalf of the city, and Willis Phelps for the directors. The meeting was a 
stormy one, and resulted in an entire change of directors and officers. The 
following board of officers was chosen, April 9, 1875: President, Guidon 
Bill; vice-president, Lewis J. Powers: clerk, Daniel L. Harris; treasurer, 
James Kirkham. The contract to construct the road was given to Birnie 


& Warren, $100,000 having been paid to them for grading. The entire cost 
of the road was about $200,000. The road is about eight miles long, and 
extends from the Union Depot to the Connecticut State line. One mile and 
a quarter of the new road was leased from the Athol road. In 1875 the 
Springfield and New-London road was leased by, and run in conjunction 
with, the Connecticut-valley Railroad ; and in 1SS0, the New-York and New- 
England leased it for a term of five years, paying $5,500 per year. At this 
time the New-York and New-England road leased the Connecticut Central 
road for 15 years, thus making a direct line from Springfield to Hartford. 
In 1881 or 1882, Charles O. Chapin succeeded Gurdon Bill as president, 
and Chauncey L. Covell succeeded Lewis J. Powers as vice-president. 
That portion of the line lying between the junction with what was formerly 
known as the Athol Railroad, and the Connecticut State line in Long- 
meadow, is owned and controlled by the Springfield and New-London 
Company, of which the following are the officers : President, Chauncy L. 
Covell ; vice-president, William Birnie ; clerk, T. M. Dewey ; treasurer, 
James Kirkham. In August, 1883, the New- York and New-England road 
rented ground from the Boston and Albany Railroad Company, and built a 
passenger-station at the corner of Spring and Lyman Streets. The station 
up to this time had been in the Athol Depot building, opposite the Union 
Depot. The division now has two passenger-trains running daily to Hart- 
ford and Rockville, Conn. ; but the freight business is the chief revenue of 
the division. 



ftfte public hospitality. 


SPRINGFIELD has always been famous for its hospitality, not only in 
the homes of which it is justly proud, but in the many houses of public 
entertainment which have flourished at this centre of travel. Before the 
time when the question of fame or of history trembled in the balance, — 

The Ely " Ordinary," or Tavern, as it is 

ght and Sanford Streets. 

before the hamlet's future was established against the Indian's efforts to 
blot out even the brief note of a settlement, — there was need of a public 
house; for the village was at the outset the county-seat, and the county 
court must have entertainment. For this reason, the court in 1665 licensed 
Nathaniel Ely to keep an "ordinary." Ely had appeared in the village six 


years previous, and was not one of the original settlers. The license pro- 
vided for the keeping of a " house for common entertaynment, also for selling 
wines and strong liquors for the year ensuing, provided he keepe good rule 
and order in his house." He was further released from " Trayning in ye 
Towne soe long as he continues to keepe ye ordinary." This license was 
renewed, year by year, till his death in 1675. H e must have been no 
ordinary man in the community, for tavern-keeping was no sinecure. He 
was twice before the court for violation of his duty: in 1667 he sold four 
quarts of cider to an Indian, and was fined £\6\ in 1674 the court then 
sitting in his house found fault with his beer, claiming that it was not up to 
the legal standard, — "four bushels good barley-malt to ye hhd.," — and 
accordingly fined him 40 shillings. His house stood just south of the 
present Belmont Hotel, and is still standing, at the corner of Dwight and 
Sanford Streets, having been moved there 40 years ago. 

For a century after the death of this pioneer in tavern-keeping, the court 
records are sprinkled with licenses to numerous persons ; but none made 
the business successful enough to leave any noteworthy record. By the 
close of the Revolutionary War, powdered wigs and small-clothes were 
passing out of use ; and the town, although small, was putting on a recog- 
nizable aspect. Alain Street was less of a cart-path than formerly, and com- 
munication with Boston had made the Bay Path something more definite 
than an Indian trail. Yet all the houses in the town were confined to three 
streets, — Main Street, State Street, and "the road to Charles Brewer's." 
The present site of Court Square was always the centre of attraction ; for 
here were the church, the court-house, the whipping-post, and most of the 
trading-shops. No wonder that here, too, was one of the most famous 
taverns of the day. It stood 18 feet north of the great elm now standing on 
Court Square, — a huge, rambling, unpainted building, with a lofty wing, 
which, when afterward detached, was called the "light-house." Here the 
famous Zenas Parsons held sway a hundred years ago, and many an anec- 
dote remains of those days of flip-irons and toddy. Gen. Washington 
tarried here over night, while on his New-England inspecting tour. But 
Parsons retired with the century in which he was born : and the dignified, 
slow Eleazer Williams succeeded him. When James Monroe paid Spring- 
field a visit, early in his presidency, he found John Bennett in charge. Soon 
afterward the property was sold to Erastus Chapin : and in 1819 he sold the 
place to a company of public-spirited townspeople, who forthwith bought the 
adjoining homestead and opened Court Square. In its last days the tavern 
is remembered as the humble lodging-place of two boys, who slept together 
on the attic floor, and were up early in the morning to drive ox-carts from 
the middle landing, and deliver the river merchandise to the various stores. 
Their names were Chester W. Chapin and Willis Phelps. The main part 

r '- \ - • - 

i American House. 2 Steblmis's Tavern. 3 Hampden House. 



of the old tavern was moved back toward the river at the foot of the then 
new thoroughfare, Court Street, where it now stands, still guiltless of paint 
and in its simple colonial architecture. 1 

A few rods north of the Parsons tavern, stood the public-house of Moses 
Church, the postmaster. Walking up the village street, the stranger in 
town would find a hearty welcome from Lieut. John Worthington. His 
estate ran back to the river, and included Bridge and Worthington Streets. 
Lieut. John died in 1774; and his son, "Hon. John," a Yale graduate. 
was too proud to mix toddy. But some time after his death in 1800. the 
house reverted to its former use : being kept during the War of 181 2-1 5 by 
Elijah Goodrich, the founder of Springfield's fame in horse-trotting. Charles 
Stearns, the pioneer real-estate speculator of the town, got possession of 
the building about the time the Boston and Albany Railroad opened, after it 
had been used as a dwelling-house about 20 years, and moved it back to 
Water Street. As western travel was opened, early in the present century- 
several small taverns were opened on Ferry Lane, the northern of the three 
approaches to the river from Main Street. Still farther north, opposite the 
buildings of the Street-railway Company, stood the house of Major Joseph 
Stebbins, who died in 1819. The Major was said to be in league with 
Capt. Joseph Carew, who operated a tannery on the other side of the street, 
along the town brook. When the Captain's customers came to buy leather, 
he would invariably tell them that he had none "ready;" advising them 
to stay over night at the Major's, and get the leather in the morning. 
So, while the Major's pocket was being enriched to the extent of four-and- 
sixpence, the Captain dipped his hides in the brook, and in the morning 
weighed them out, dampness included. The Major's name will not be lost 
to sight as long as his elms, now a century old, remain in sentinel row in 
the centre of North Main Street. The tavern has since been occupied by 
Thomas Bond and Horatio Sargeant. 

Retracing his steps, the ideal tourist finds a tavern on the south-westerlv 
corner of State and Main Streets, although there was no such "corner" a 
hundred years ago. This was known as the Bates Tavern. It does not 
appear who built it; but it was kept by Elijah Goodrich from 1815 to 1820. 
and then by Thomas Bates, whose daughter Phoebe married Jeremy War- 
riner. This famous couple (Uncle Jerry and Aunt Phoebe, as the older gen- 
eration now living knew them) made their reputation in the Bates Tavern: 
and it was indeed enviable, not only locally, — although their suppers were a 
matter of jealousy to housewives and a marvel to husbands, while Uncle 
Jerry's bar-room was the rendezvous of all the wild and reckless youngsters 
of the day, — but not triflingly cosmopolitan: for travellers from across the 
Atlantic have been known to take stage, immediately upon their arrival in 

1 A view of the building as it now is may be seen on page 22. 


Boston, for this famous Springfield resort. Uncle Jerry outgrew the Bates 
Tavern, and his fate is seen farther on. The old building still stands, on 
the southerly side of State Street, a few rods west of its earlier location. It 
has been known, late years, as the Springfield House, and became quite 
famous in connection with a beer-garden when run by August Sheppert, 
who died recently in Germany. South of the Bates Tavern stood the " Old 
Gaol," — the second which the village had, — built in 1677, and used for 114 
years. The building was mostly upon the site of the present Belmont 
Hotel; but the jailer's house, adjoining it on the north, projected into what 
is now Bliss Street. This house is known as the " Old Gaol Tavern ; " as 
the jailer has always, until recently, kept open house for the court and 
bench. This tavern naturally succeeded to the patronage previously ac- 
corded the Ely '' Ordinary ; " but the jailers took greater pains to please the 
court than did the persecuted Nathaniel, for they were never brought to 
account for the quality of their beer. When the county sold the property in 
1794, it was taken by the last jailer, William Colton, who continued to keep 
open house (although not for criminals) until 1810. The property came into 
the possession of the late Elam Stockbridge, who occupied it for some time. 
Not long after the opening of Bliss Street, it disappeared. 

Capt. Charles Colton is supposed to have '-kept tavern" as early as 1774,. 
on the "old Dwight homestead," at the southerly corner of State and Maple 
Streets. But the establishing of the Armory was the first impetus to the 
development of the forest tract on the plateau east of the " marish ; " and 
when, about the same time, Capt. Levi Pease, who started his Boston and 
Hartford stage-line, Oct. 20, 1783, secured the first charter for a turnpike 
granted in the State, and began to improve the highway between Spring- 
field and Palmer, tavern-keeping became a business on the hill. Curiously 
enough, the oldest of these inns sprang up five miles east of the centre of 
the town, and was known as the Five-mile House. When Rev. Bezaleel 
Howard came from Cambridge on horseback, in 17S4, for a six-months T 
trial as pastor of the First Church, he stopped over night at this house. 
When it gave up its fame as a caravansary, it continued for years to be the 
favorite, as it was for a time the only, suburban resort for sleighing-parties. 
In this connection, the names of Willys Russel and Orrin Dimmock com- 
mend themselves to many persons now living. In the days when the freight 
conveyance between the river and Boston was by team, the goods from the 
river-boats would be loaded at the wharf, and drawn to the top of the hill; 
and there the teamsters delighted to stay over night, so as to get a fresh 
start early in the morning. Of these taverns patronized chiefly by teaming 
people, the first was kept by Elisha Tileston, at the corner of State and 
Walnut Streets. It was also a loafing-place for the Armorers; and for this 
reason, as well as for its nearness to the government shops, it was called the 


Armory House. In 1825 it was taken by Stephen O. Russell, who ran it a 
half-dozen years, and turned it over to Henry Stocking. It soon passed into 
the hands of Henry Adams and Solyman Merrick, and ultimately came into 
the possession of Aaron Nason, whose son-in-law, S. W. Sexton, now runs 
it under the name of the Rockingham House, by which it has been known 
for 20 years. It ceased to be a stopping-place for transient guests some 
time ago, but is still a pleasant home for some residents who do not care 
to keep house. In 1S32 N. B. Moseley, now of Philadelphia, moved his 
fathers inn from the Boston Road, a quarter of a mile west of the Carlisle 
Brook, to its present location, just east of the Rockingham House, and used 
it as the terminus of his two stage-lines, —the Springfield and Lowell, and 
the Springfield and Norwich. He called it " The Eagle,'' and, after keeping 
it two years, sold it to S. O. Russell. In two years more, when the railroad 
supplanted the stages, it became a boarding-house. Off toward Cabotville, 
on what is now called Armory Street, Japhet and Austin Chapin succes- 
sively kept a tavern, which was mostly patronized by toddy-loving Armorers, 
so that the way thither was nicknamed " Toddy Road." About the same 
time (1S30-40) Ezra Kimberly kept a guast-tevern, maintained mostly by 
regular boarders, at the Water Shop. The jailer's house connected with 
the present county jail, midway down State Street, was until half a century 
ago used as a tavern, like the " Old Gaol Tavern " on Main Street ; among 
the better-known keepers being Harvey Chapin and Col. Ebenezer Russell. 

The growth of the stage business early in this century, and the opening 
of Court Square in 1819, led to the building of two new taverns in the 
centre of the growing town. In 1820 Thomas Sargeant, who came to 
Springfield as a jeweller in 1785, built the Exchange Tavern. It was ihe 
first brick tavern in town, and was first known as the Springfield Hotel. 
But it was a stage-house from the first, and ought to be called a tavern ; 
indeed, a lantern still hangs in front of the building, with transparencies 
lettered " Exchange Tavern." Benjamin Phelps was the first landlord ; and 
among his successors are Moses Chapman, John J. Bishop, Marvin Chapin, 
A. P. Chapin, Zorister Bonney, Philo A. Rockwell, D. D. Winchester, Ezekiel 
Adams, and N. S. Chandler. This building is owned by William B. Walker, 
who thoroughly renovated it not long ago, increasing its conveniences and 
attractions. The present proprietors, F. Kingman & Co., strive to make it 
a popular business-man's house ; but this doesn't bar out theatrical people, 
who have always been its patrons. The other new tavern was the Hampden 
Coffee-house, built by Erastus Chapin in 1821, partly on the site of the old 
Moses Church Tavern, at the north-westerly corner of Court and Main 
Streets. After trying the business a couple of years, Mr. Chapin sold out 
to Miner Stebbins of West Springfield, who does not seem to have had 
better luck. He in turn sold it to Col. Ebenezer Russell, who had just 



stopped running a tavern on State Street for the county. It obtained and 
maintained an excellent reputation under his management and that of his 

several successors, who include 
Horatio Sargeant, Harvey Rock- 
wood (who was afterward identi- 

fied with the United-States Hotel at Hartford), James Worthington. Vinton 
& Tucker, A. M. Alden, and I. M. Parsons. While Chester White was 
proprietor, 30 years after its erection, the place was accidentally burned. It 



was most noted as being the starting-point of Chester W. Chapin's stage- 
line, his horses being kept in barns on the site of the present City Hall. 

-Uncle ferry Warriner" and "Aunt Phcebe " first made Springfield 
hotels famous, in the old Bates Tavern. By way of humoring the old 
couple's ambition, some of their friends built a fine brick building on the 
southerly corner of Bliss and Main Streets, investing about $150,000 in the 
enterprise. The new hotel was christened the Union House, and the local 
god and goddess of hospitality were duly installed. But both of them were 
homesick, and somehow things didn't go right in the new palace. Further- 
more, the opening of the railroad from Boston drew everybody up town ; 
and Uncle Jerry and Aunt Phcebe gave up the struggle. The premises 
have since been leased for short terms by various parties, none of whom 
met with great success, until Hiram M. French bought the property. Under 
his management the Union House gained a good reputation : and when he 
retired, six or seven years ago. Lewis W. Cass became its proprietor. He 
re-christened it the Belmont, and under this name C. R. Gowen now keeps 
it as a family hotel. 

The Massasoit House, the most noted of the local hotels, is practically 
a result of the opening of the Western Railroad from Worcester to Spring- 
field in 1S39. which created an era of great change in various important 
matters in the town and its vicinity. Court Square had always been the 
centre of business, but the railway-station soon gathered about itself a large 
share of the town's activity, particularly all that falls in the line of hostelries, 
This epoch also marks the transition from the plain, free-and-easy tavern, 
the resort in common of travellers and of village loafers, and the more pre- 
tentious hotel, with its modern conveniences, designed exclusively for the 
travelling public. The Judge John Hooker property, next south of the rail- 
wav-station on Main Street, was put up at auction in 1842. It contained 
about one acre and a half, of irregular shape, fronting 180 feet on Main 
Street, and falling away in the rear to a width of 75 feet. Men are still 
living in Springfield who pass the Union Depot with a sigh of regret that 
they were not far-sighted enough. 40 years or more ago. to buy a homestead, 
or a part of one. in this locality. But there was one shrewd man who knew 
that if his project of building a famous hotel near the railway-station should 
fail, the buying of land in the vicinity could not prove an unprofitable in- 
vestment. This man was Marvin Chapin. a native of Somers, Conn., who 
in 1S36 began "keeping tavern" with his brother at Cabotville. A West- 
field tavern-keeper, Israel M. Parsons, was interested in the scheme: and 
these two bought the Hooker homestead for SS,ooo. The Hooker house 
was moved back, and has since been known as the Nayasset House. A 
contract was at once made with Charles McClallan of Chicopee to 1 build a 
brick hotel : but Parsons soon became scared at the venture, and gladly sold 


^SQ'l'A! ^ m 





his interest to Mr. Chapin, who at once took into partnership his Chicopee 
brother, Ethan S.. and the firm of M. & E. S. Chapin has ever since Lecn 
identified with Springfield's most famous hotel. McClallan fulfilled his 
contract, and the house was opened late in June. 1S43. E. S. Chapin 
says that he intended to call it the Massachusetts House, but gave up 
the idea, by reason of the unpopularity of a Boston hotel by that name. 
His friends suggested several local Indian names: among others. ■■ Massa- 
soit," which was at once adopted. Shortly before the house was opened to 
the public, the barber-shop in the basement was fitted up: and its colored 
proprietor, Charles W. Hall, wishing to advertise his new stand, announced 
in the local newspaper the opening of his barber-shop under the new 
•• Massasoit House," before the name had authoritatively been given to 
the public. The name thus given was never recalled, although for years it 
was very unpopular; few knowing how to pronounce it, and scarcelv anv 
one venturing to spell it. In its early days, people wishing to engage 
rooms by letter would resort to the most comical circumlocutions to avoid 
using the name. The original Massasoit was a small affair, about one- 
fifth of the size of the present building. It was built as it now stands, on 
the corner of the lot, about ten feel from the east and north lines. A three- 
story wood addition was built in 1S47 on Main Street, joining the brick 
building on the south : this gave place, ten years later, to the present brick 
extension. In 1S53, another addition of brick was built in the rear, con- 
taining the large dining-room and kitchen. 

Thus enlarged, the house has T30 sleeping-rooms, two fine parlors, and 
two ladies" reception-rooms. The smoking and reading room in the front 
corner on the office-floor, with its iron balcony, is perhaps the best-known 
part of the house : the writing-room is more quiet, being retired behind the 
office and coat-room. The large dining-room usually seats 150, while the 
ladies' ordinary accommodates So. The house cannot, perhaps, lay claim to 
general elegance in its furnishing equal to that of its more modern rivals, 
but the Massasoit has well earned its wide-spread fame for solid comfort 
and good living, and for large and comfortable rooms. Few hotels can 
show a longer list of famous guests, not only in later years, but when the 
supper-tables were lighted by tall candles placed in silver-plated sticks, one 
at each plate. The name of Horace Mann is the first enrolled upon the 
register. At other times appear the names of Daniel Webster. Edward 
Everett. Wendell Phillips. Louis Kossuth, Charles Dickens. President 
Johnson, President Grant, Jefferson Davis, Stephen A. Douglas. Secretary 
Seward, Gens. Sherman and McClellan. and Grand Duke Alexis. To this 
list should be added the names of nearly all the great actors and actresses 
and singers of the last 40 years. During this time supplies have trebled 
in value, and hotel-rates have risen accordingly. Vet the Massasoit, while 


it has never been known as a low-priced house, has never held out for 
exorbitant or "fancy" charges. It has had a monopoly of the tourist pat- 
ronage, which always wants the best, and is willing to pay for it. This 
class of hotel guests has diminished in the last decade, largely owing to the 
through-train service on the roads centring in Springfield ; but at every 
meal-hour may be seen a goodly number of travellers enjoying the always 
satisfactory bill-of-fare of the Massasoit. This house has been a training- 
school for several noted hotel-keepers : among them are Edward Chapin of 
the Occidental, San Francisco; S. H. Moseley of the New-Haven House, 
New Haven ; Major Field, formerly of the Delavan, Albany ; Charles Vinton 
of the Continental, Philadelphia ; and Henry Warner of the Metropolitan, 
New York. Several who held subordinate positions in the Massasoit have 
gained honorable positions outside of hotel-keeping: of these, may be men- 
tioned Messrs. Davis and Bridgman of San Francisco, and Lawyer Pelham 
of New York. The Massasoit-house farm, or the "Chapin farm " as it is 
frequently called, has been locally famous for a dozen years. It has fur- 
nished most of the vegetables and dairy-produce used at the hotel. A 
couple of years ago, as its manager, H. J. Chapin, a brother of the hotel 
proprietors, engaged in other business, its usefulness was considerably cur- 
tailed ; and part of the land has since been sold to the city. 

The American House is one of the hotels of the past, and its history is 
short. Just north of the railroad, on both sides of Main Street, lay the 
estate of Capt. Robert Emery. The homestead occupied the site of the 
Boston and Albany Railroad's massive granite office building. This plat 
was sold for $7,500 in 1845, by the captain's widow, to Albert Morgan and 
Samuel S. Day; who turned the dwelling into a hostelry, and named it the 
American House. It attained considerable favor locally as a family hotel, 
but changed proprietors frequently. It was leased successively by James 
Warren, Thomas D. Winchester, and Henry Adams, and in 1857 was 
bought by James E. Russell, whose father has been mentioned as proprietor 
of two Armory-hill taverns. Mr. Russell kept- the property six months, and 
sold it to his brother Charles O. Russell, who leased it to Daniel P. Kings- 
ley. Mr. Kingsley ran the hotel till Chester W. Chapin bought it, and 
turned the property over to the railroad-company. The building was re- 
moved to Sharon Street. 

The Cooley House, like the American, was built on the Emery estate. 
Chester W. Chapin bought the greater part, if not all, of that estate lying on 
the east side of Main Street; but the railroad would not take it all off his 
hands, so he disposed of it in parcels to different individuals. The plat at 
the corner of Liberty Street was bought, in 1848, by Justin M. Cooley, who 
had just come to Springfield from New York. He was not a stranger in the 
Connecticut Valley ; for all but the previous two or three years of his life 



had been spent at his birthplace, Whately in Franklin County. He saw the 
prosperity of the then young Massasoit, so in the next year built, and in 
1850 opened, the Cooley House. It was a brick building, four stcries high, 
45 x 100 feet on the ground. In 1856 he bought of John L. King a piece of 
land in the rear of the hotel; and in 1861 another piece was added, bought 
from Chester W. Chapin and the heirs of John Childe. In 1S64 Mr. Cooley 
built upon these purchases, doubling the capacity of the first- building. At 
the same time he leased of Daniel L. Harris his brick building adjoining the 
original Cooley house, fronting 49 feet on Main Street, and in 1867 bought it. 
The present Cooley House, a monument of shrewd and unostentatious man- 
agement, is one of the most popular hotels in New England. Year in and 
year out it has a 
steady patronage, 
and yet there 
seems to be no 
inclination to lie 
back on its good 
reputation. Dur- 
ing the past sum- 
mer many im- 
provements have 
been made. A new 
hydraulic passen- 
ger-elevator has 
been put in, the 
parlors have been 
refurnished, and 
modern steam- 
heating-apparatus has replaced the old. The hotel numbers 85 rooms, has 
a large and convenient office, with reading, smoking, and writing rooms in 
the pleasantest part of the house, and a large and inviting dining-room. Al- 
though the hotel may be surpassed in elegance, none surpass it in neatness, 
comfort, and good order. These qualities, together with its nearness to the 
Union Depot, are the causes of its popularity. 

The Haynes Hotel rose phcenix-like upon the site of one of the largest 
fires that ever threatened the business part of Main Street. The fire oc- 
curred on the 24th July, 1S64, and burned the old Music Hall on the south 
corner of Pynchon Street, and several small wooden buildings on the 
north corner. The losses were heavy, and the property-owners were glad to 
sell their smouldering building-sites to Tilly Haynes, a clothing-dealer, who 
came to the city in 1849 from Boston, where he now resides as proprietor of 
the United-States Hotel, after amassing ample means and gaining a lasting 

Cooley House, North Main Street. 


reputation as the result of his thirty years of indefatigable and quite success- 
ful work in Springfield. Mr. Haynes rebuilt Music Hall on the scale of a 
modern theatre, and on the opposite corner built the Haynes Hotel, which is 
to-day the largest and most elegant of Springfield's famous hotels. The 
ground floor, in addition to its several large stores, was designed to meet 
the needs of the United-States Post-Office, which had outgrown its old quar- 
ters on Elm Street. The open court, having a broad entrance from Main 
Street, and smaller ones from Pynchon Street, was protected from the 
weather by a skylight, and for a decade was known as the "post-office 
rotunda." When Mr. Haynes bought the United-States Hotel at Boston, 
the Haynes House passed into the hands of C. H. Goodman and Emerson 
Gaylord of Chicopee. After six years of joint ownership, Mr. Goodman, in 
1882, bought out his partner's interest in favor of his son-in-law, H. H. 
Waters, who had been associated with the old firm for three years. The 
post-office had been removed some time before the expiration of the lease, 
July, 1883 ; and the deserted rotunda had an uninviting appearance. But as 
soon as the lower floor of the building passed from the control of the gov- 
ernment, Mr. Goodman began to carry out his long-cherished plans for 
renovation. In three months the rotunda was transformed into one of the 
finest hotel-offices in New England outside of Boston. The floors are of 
marble, the wainscoting of party-colored marbles and slates, while the walls 
and ceilings are richly frescoed. The toilet accommodations are most con- 
veniently located ; and the barber-shop, bar-room, and billiard-room have 
been given new and richly furnished quarters. These improvements cost 
somewhat over $15,000. The dining-room, seating 150, is still on the second 
floor; and the admirable arrangement of kitchen, store-rooms, and servants' 
quarters in a separate building, connected with the hotel proper by a half 
dozen bridges at different floors, is not disturbed. The parlors are on the 
second and third floors, and handsomely furnished. The house numbers 
108 large, completely furnished rooms; and other accommodations, held in 
reserve, make the number of guests provided for on special occasions not 
far from 300. On the ground-floor, in rear of the office, is a neatly arranged 
cafe. The Haynes Hotel had the first hydraulic elevator used in the c i ty, 
a double car for passengers and baggage, put in in 1874. Landlord Good- 
man has been in the hotel business since 1833, trying it first in New Haven, 
Conn., and then in South Carolina. He has managed a hotel in Chicago, 
the Allyn House and City Hotel of Hartford, the Bonney House in Buffalo, 
and came to Springfield from St. Louis, where he had had charge of the 
great hotel at the gigantic East St. Louis Stock Yards. 

The Hotel Warwick is the latest addition to the hotels for which 
Springfield is famous. It is just north of the Union depot on Main Street. 
The building was begun 10 years ago by W. H. Allis, and was bought in 


1875 by Horace Kibbe, who finished it at an outlay of $40,000. It met with 
varying success as the Allis House and then as the Marshall House, until 
1882, when it was thoroughly renovated and vastly improved. Major William 
D. Field took it in its renewed state, and christened it the Warwick. His 
training at the Massasoit House, and his experience at the Delavan in 
Albany, would doubtless have established the success of this new venture, 
had not a long sickness deprived the Major of the oversight necessary to 
prosperity. In April, 1883, he turned over his lease to William Hill, whose 
name is a household word in the Connecticut Valley north of Springfield, 
and also with many summer visitors, by reason of his long and successful 
proprietorship of the noteworthy Mansion House at Easthampton, which 
he still retains, and keeps up in its ever satisfactory manner. The War- 
wick has a spacious corridor and office on the first floor, with barber-shop 
adjoining, and billiard and bar rooms in the rear. The large dining-rooms 
and parlors are on the second floor. It numbers 127 rooms, about half of 
which are heated by steam. An hydraulic elevator connects the five floors. 
The hotel is fast growing in popularity ; its modern furnishings, and near- 
ness to the railroad-station, backed by Mr. Hill's experienced management, 
are likely to make the house as famous as its older rivals. 

The Hotel Gilmore is another big venture in the hotel line, which will 
probably soon be launched upon the city and the travelling public. Tilly 
Haynes sold his theatre property, in 1881, to Dwight O. Gilmore, who had 
built, more than a dozen years before, the brick building adjoining. More 
recentlv Mr. Gilmore has bought the large brick building around the corner 
on Court Street, for many years occupied by the Adams Express Company, 
and has just completed the work of tying these buildings together by a 
tSiree-story structure in the rear. The original Main-street building, adjoin- 
ing the theatre, has been used for some years as a boarding-house, and of 
late, under the management of H. A. Converse, some attention has been paid 
to transient patronage. The Court-street building has at times been used 
similarly, and is commonly known as the " Hampden House." Mr. Gil- 
more's plan is thoroughly to rejuvenate both buildings ; to banish the kitchen, 
laundry, store-rooms, and servants' quarters to a separate building; to put in 
elevators and similar conveniences ; and to fit up the Main-street portion as 
a transient house, and the Court-street building in suites for a first-class 
family hotel. When completed, the Hotel Gilmore will number 150 rooms, 
a supper and breakfast room seating 75 or 100, and a dining-room accommo- 
dating 200. 

The Evans House is the leading family hotel. It was started by Mrs. 
C. F. Evans, more than a dozen years ago, on State Street. Outgrowing its 
modest quarters, it became necessary to seek larger accommodations ; and 
arrangements were made to have the greater part of the new and handsome 

If o 

i F 



Third National Bank building, on Main and Hillman Streets, fitted up for a 
convenient, pleasant, and home-like hotel. All the modern fittings, steam- 
heat, elevators, running water, baths, and the like, were provided ; and these, 
with satisfactory management, have caused the house to enjoy a a modest 
but none the less substantial success. It is now under the management 

of Mrs. Evans's daughter, 
Mrs. Lizzie E. Hutchinson. 
The Other Family Ho- 
tels include the Mansion 
House, between Bliss and 
State Streets, and the Pyn- 
chon House, once a some- 
what famous hotel, near the 
depot : both deserve men- 

The Evans House, Main and Hillman Streets. 

Restaurant s. — That 
Springfield is a " city of 
homes.'' precludes the pos- 
sibility of supporting many 
noteworthy restaurants, 
cafes, or public dining-halls. 
There is, however, one first- 
class restaurant. Edwin C. 
Barr came to Springfield in 
1858, from California, where he had spent a few years after giving up the 
bakery-business in Clinton, Mass. He opened a bakery down town, and 
kept a lunch-counter. His ice-cream soon created a great demand, and 
led to a patronage which enabled him to move into his present quarters 
at No. 384 Main Street, on the west side near Vernon Street. Here, 
during 18 years, by shrewd management he has built up a large business, 
amounting to $75,000 a year. His fancy baking is still carried on, and in 
connection with it is a restaurant and a salesroom for fruit and confec- 
tions. In the latter department is found the largest and choicest stock 
of fine confectionery in the city, with all sorts of fancy and staple fruits. 
The main dining-hall on the ground floor, 75 feet deep, is elegantly finished 
and richly furnished. A toilet alcove opens from the left of the entrance, 
opposite the cashier's desk. There are three private dining-rooms cosily 
located above stairs, seating altogether 50 people. A large sum is expended 
every year or two in new and fashionable decorations, $3,000 being laid out 
in this way last season. In connection with the industries mentioned as 
carried on harmoniously under this roof, is one of the largest and best 



catering establishments in the State outside Boston. Any thing in this line, 
which customers will pay for, can be furnished in creditable shape. The 
kitchen, besides the ordinary modern conveniences provided for culinary 
purposes, is equipped with the novel contrivances for cooking by steam. 
Steam-power is used in the bakery and for freezing ices. Mr. Barr gives 
personal oversight to the work in all the departments, and has associated 
with him his eldest son, George E. Barr. Not content with even this large 
business, two branches have been for some time successfully run, one in 
Holyoke, and the other in Northampton. Both are in charge of sons of the 
senior Mr. Barr; Edward E. Barr taking charge of the former, and Jesse 

Barr's Dining-Rooms, 384 Main Street. 

C. Barr the latter. The pay-roll of the three restaurants shows from 65 to 
75 employees. 

Although there is nothing seasonable in " flesh, fish, or fowl,"' that can- 
not be had at Barr's, yet there has for years been one place where game has 
abounded. In this connection the middle-aged and older residents remem- 
ber the basement resort kept by "Uncle" Aaron Howe. Uncle Aaron 
came from Worcester County, and had two or three locations in town before 
he reached the well-known place under the Adams Express Company's 
office. There was no game-law in those days, and Uncle Aaron used to 
furnish his tables with game of all sorts the year round; for, besides being 
a o-ood cook, he was a tolerable hunter, and used to scour the woods with 
Moses Cooley, Joe Blair, George Ashmun, and Chester Harding. 

Among other old-time victuallers were Amasa I'.. Parsons (who is still 
living), Aleck Pease, and Charley Jc-t'ts. But the legitimate successor of 


Uncle Aaron is Maurice Conrad, familiarly called " Dutchie." He has been 
in the business 20 years, the major part of the time in the basement at the 
corner of Main and Sanford Streets, the stand which Parsons had for 
nearly 30 years. 



public Builtrmgg anti ffiofomiment. 


THE resident of Springfield has the advantage of living in a city large 
enough for him to enjoy all that variety and activity of life which easy 
communication with the rest of the world, good newspapers at home, and 
the best educational and social opportunities, are able to give; and a city, 
at the same time, so moderate in size, that with the public institutions, local 
government, and the movements of civic life, he feels a personal interest, 
both because he knows the chief actors, and because, as an individual, he 
knows that his vote and influence count for more than if he were part of 
a much larger municipal body. He also has a share in those valuable tradi- 
tions, which imperceptibly influence for good such of the old New-England 
towns and cities as have had the fortune to develop slowly, and have merely 
absorbed the immigration from other lands without having their native char- 
acteristics destroyed by it. The government of the city is conservative of 
what is best in the experience of the past, and progressive wherever the 
changing circumstances of the day demand progress. Spacious school- 
houses, ample water-supply, good drainage, and efficient fire-service, bespeak 
the ambition to make the city as good to live in as any other; while a low 
tax-rate, moderate salaries, and absence of all suspicion of "jobs"' in the 
construction of public works, indicate that the control- of civil affairs is in 
the hands of men who realize that public place is not for the subserving of 
private interest. The disposition to retain faithful officers when once 
secured, and thus to place the public interests above the spoils of party, is 
seen in the long tenures of a number of the public servants. The tax-col- 
lector, Francis Norton, has been in office twenty-four years ; the city clerk 
and treasurer, Albert T. Folsom, twenty-one years; the chief engineer of the 
fire-department, Abner P. Leshure, ten years ; and the terms of most of 
the county officers, in whose election the citizens of Springfield have no 
small influence, seem to be practically during good behavior. 

In this chapter we shall give some account of how the city is governed 
by the differently constituted bodies that represent its citizens ; and oi 
buildings devoted to public uses, — local, county, state, and national. 

The City Government is vested in a mayor, a board of aldermen, and a 
common council, all annually elected, and serving without pay, except the 


mayor, who receives a compensation of $1,200. The number of aldermen 
(8) corresponds with the number of wards ; but there may be, and occasion- 
ally are. 2 aldermen from one ward. The members of the common coun- 
cil represent the wards, and the number in each ward is proportioned to 
the population of the ward. The other departments of administration are the 
board of overseers of the poor, the board of public works, the board of 
water-commissioners, the board of health, the board of park-commissioners, 
and the school-committee. Besides these, there are the board on claims, 
and the board of supervisors of highways and bridges, each composed 
entirely of members of the city council. The board of overseers of the 
poor have charge of the almshouse and the city farm, and employ an agent 
at a salary of $1,400, an important part of whose duties consists in looking 
after neglected children, and placing them in comfortable homes. The 
board of public works is composed of 3 able and discreet citizens, whose 
duties are to investigate and report upon such matters pertaining to streets, 
sidewalks, sewers, and drains, as may be committed to them by the city coun- 
cil. They receive a compensation of $3 per day. The city engineer is the 
clerk of the board. The board of water-commissioners have entire charge 
of the aqueducts and other works for the supply of water to the city. 
They are three in number, one of whom is the mayor. The board of health 
is composed of the mayor, one alderman, and the city physician, who is the 
clerk. They have a general supervision of sanitary affairs, and are a court 
of appeal from the decisions of the inspector of provisions. The board of 
park-commissioners consists of 5 citizens, appointed by the mayor with the 
consent of the city council, after the city had accepted the provisions of 
the act of 1882, providing for the establishment of parks in cities and towns. 
The school-committee is composed of 9 members, besides the mayor who is 
chairman ex officio. Their representative in the oversight of the schools is 
the superintendent of schools, who has a salary of $3,000 per year. The 
present superintendent is Admiral P. Stone. Those of the foregoing offi- 
cers who are voted for directly by the people are elected on the Tuesday 
following the first Monday in December. 

The City Hall is situated near to what is generally reckoned the centre 
of the city ; that is, the vicinity of Court Square. Near this spot was the 
first church of the village, and the first schoolhouse, as also the court-house 
which was besieged by the insurgents at the time of the Shays Rebellion. 

The old town-hall building, now standing on the corner of State and 
Market Streets, was constructed in 1828, and dedicated with an address by 
the Hon. George Bliss, whose historical sketch delivered on this occasion is 
the reservoir of facts connected with the early history of the town. In the 
construction and ownership of this building, the town united with some indi- 
viduals and the Masonic organizations ; and the city continues to own the 



second floor, the lower floor being owned by individuals, and the third floor 
by the Masons. For many years after the new City Ha^l was built, the old 
town-hall was used as an armory by the local military companies. 

The present City Hall was built in 1S54. It is of brick, with trimmings 

The Old Town-Hall, State Street, corner of Market. 

of sandstone from the neighboring quarries of Longmeadow. and Roman- 
esque in its architecture. In the basement are the police-station and the 
lockup. On the first floor are the rooms of the mayor, aldermen, the com- 
mon council, the school-committee, and the superintendent of schools, at the 
right of the entrance ; and on the left, are seen the rooms of the city clerk, 
treasurer, the city marshal (salary $1400), the overseers of the poor, the city- 
auditor (salary $400), and the assessors and tax-collector. The upper floor 


is almost entirely occupied by the large audience-hall capable of seating 2.300 
persons. In this hall, whose acoustic properties are not good, has been held 
many a mass-meeting, caucus, and fair, that had much to do with the political 
and social life of the city for the time being. At the dedication, Dr. J. G. 
Holland delivered the address ; and, eleven years after, a crowded and sad- 
dened multitude gathered to hear his eulogy on the death of Lincoln. Here 
John B. Gough has drawn full houses, especially when, in a notable series of 
temperance lectures in 1862, he aroused an unusual public interest on that 
subject. On the rostra, Charles Sumner and Wendell Phillips have spoken 
stirring words. With the unexpended proceeds of the last Soldiers' Fair, 
held here near the close of the war of the Rebellion, the soldiers' monument 
in the cemetery was purchased. A photograph taken at that time, and now 
treasured as of great local value, contains likenesses of nearly all the lead- 
ing citizens in attendance at the fair, and is an accurate representation of the 
interior of the hall. The clock in the tower used to be kept at Boston time, 
which was nearly five minutes earlier than the true time, but for convenience 
was generally used throughout the city, but on Nov. 20, 1883, the new- 
standard time was adopted. Not till a few years since was the old custom 
abandoned of ringing the bell at the hour of nine in the evening, and on such 
momentous occasions as the straying of a child away from its mother. The 
bell is the heaviest in the city, its weight being 4,400 pounds. Its use is 
now confined to the announcing the hour of day and the occurrence of a 
fire, in accordance with the following mottoes cast upon its surface : — 





(Behold, O man ! I proclaim the hours to thee. So passeth away the 
glory of life. When the fire rages, I summon the people.) 

The Water-Department consists of a board of commissioners com- 
posed of the mayor and two citizens elected by the council. They are 
assisted by a clerk and superintendent. The office of the board is a com- 
modious building on Bridge Street, where also is the office of the city 
engineer. George A. Ellis. In this building each day's flow and pressure 
of water is automatically recorded for every minute of the day, and the 
results filed for future comparisons. The city is supplied with water 
through 68 miles of pipe, — most of which is of wrought iron, cement-lined, 
— connecting with 4 different reservoirs, 3 of which are north of the 
Boston and Albany Railroad, at a distance of less than two miles from 
the City Hall: but the last-built and main reservoir is situated in the town 
of Ludlow, nine miles from the city. The capacity of the three old reser- 

In Court Square. 


voirs is 110,570,000 gallons; of the new one, 2,132,817,000 gallons. The 
aqueduct from the Ludlow reservoir is brought across the Chicopee at Indian 
Leap, on an iron bridge, the two chords of which serve also as water-mains. 
The parts of the city below Spring and School Streets are supplied with 
water for domestic purposes from the old reservoirs, at a low pressure of 
40 pounds to the square inch; and the rest of the city, including all that 
region known as the " Hill," has only the Ludlow water, whose pressure is 
65 pounds to the square inch. The pipes of the two systems can be 
connected, and the fire-hydrants made to discharge the water of the new 
reservoir at the rate of 150 to 250 gallons per minute, through an ordinary 
nozzle. The entire cost of the water-works, up to 1883, has been $1,258,752: 
and the receipts for rates for 1882 were $77,407, having nearly doubled 
since 1875. The water from the main reservoir is, during the winter 
months, pure in taste and color, but, during a part of the summer, becomes 
less clear and somewhat unpalatable. A view of the reservoir itself, during 
the warm season, reveals a green scum on the surface at the lee side of 
the pond, whose growth was commented on, in 1875, by Professor Nichols the 
consulting chemist, and said to be a peculiar alga belonging to the nostoc 
family. It at first caused no serious alarm, but with the lapse of years it 
has begun to be feared that its effects upon the water would need to be 
counteracted by the use of a filtering gallery. Upon an examination made 
of this vegetable growth by Dr. George Dimmock, the biologist, he pro- 
nounced it to be parasitic; and specimens of the numerous fish that every 
year are found dead on the shore of the reservoir were found by him to 
have been fastened and fed upon by this vegetable parasite, until their life 
had been literally eaten away. The evil caused by this pernicious nostoc 
has been less of late years ; and it is hoped will eventually disappear, though 
the large amount of shallow water in the reservoir is conducive to its 
growth. Deleterious influences have not generally been attributed by the 
local physicians to the Ludlow water; and, even at its worst, it may be said 
to be, like a singed cat, better than it looks. The advantages of a boun- 
tiful water-supply are seen all over the city, in the 400 fire-hydrants, the 
trim, well-watered lawns, and streets free from dust. 

Of the earlier history of water-supply, it may be said, that, prior to 1S43. 
the city was supplied mainly by private wells; and, in June of that year, 
the Hon. Charles Stearns built a reservoir on the site of the present Lom- 
bard Reservoir, and laid about eight miles of log pipes through various 
streets. In June, 1848, the Springfield Aqueduct Company was chartered; 
and on Sept. 10, 1S60, the City Aqueduct Company was organized. The 
Aqueduct Company's works comprised the Lombard Reservoir, lying north- 
east of the Armory, in Ward 1 ; and the two Van Horn reservoirs, north of 
the Armorv, in the same ward, and divided, or split, by Armory Road. In 



1873 the city bought all these works, retaining them for a low-service supply, 
and, proceeding to construct the high-service reservoir in Cherry Valley, in 
the town of Ludlow, completed it in 1875. 

The Fire-Department is well equipped and manned, and under the 
charge of a chief-engineer, Abner P. Leshure, of ability and lifelong experi- 
ence ; who is also the building commissioner, and as such has an oversight 
of the construction of buildings within the fire-district. There are 4 assist- 
ant engineers, 8 foremen, and 93 men connected with the force, besides 
a superintendent of the y fire-alarm. There is also a 

hose-company in Tr 3 Indian Orchard. The ap- 

paratus in the 
steam fire- 

service consists of 4 

engines (3 of which 

\ were built by the 

^VWI :I '■^v Amoskeag Man- 

$& ufacturing Com- 

| \ pany), 2 hook- 

Fire- Department Headquarters, on Pynchon Street. 

and-ladder trucks, and 10 hose-carriages. There are 3 bell-strikers con- 
nected with the fire-alarm, and located at the City Hall, the Bond-street 
engine-house, and the Walnut-street hose-tower. Fourteen horses, and 
13,000 feet of hose, are in use. The signal-boxes of the fire-alarm are 33 in 
number. Upon this department the city spends annually upwards of $35,- 
000, and receives its return in a sense of real security against disastrous 
fires. As an aid to the city fire-department, when needed, the " Waterspout " 
engine belonging to the United-States Government, and kept at the Armory, 
is sometimes called out. The work of the engines in subduing the flames 


is supplemented, and often made unnecessary, by the 400 hydrants located in 
all sections of the city, and each affording a supply of 250 gallons of water 
per minute, at the pressure of 125 pounds. The principal engine-house is on 
the south side of Pynchon Street, about midway between Main and Water 
Streets, and will repay a visit. The careful preparations to save every 
second at the outbreak of a fire, the appearance of order and neatness pre- 
vailing, and the substantial character of all the equipments, — impress the 
beholders, and suggest a comparison with the old system; when the general 
populace turned out at the sound of the alarm, rushed pell-mell along the 
sidewalks with the shaky old hand-engine, and often celebrated the extin- 
guishment of a fire with scenes of drunkenness and riot. Firemen's 
musters in those times were days of much fun, but of much disgraceful 
disorder. They are now simply the exhibition days of the department in 
its dress-clothes, — but a department in which every man is required to be 
strictly temperate and orderly, whether on or off duty. At the Pynchon- 
street engine-house, the visitor will be shown the well-oiled engine, with 
water always warm in its boiler ; the harnesses fastened to the pole, and hang- 
ing from overhead, ready to drop upon the backs of the horses at a touch, 
when, as the alarm is struck, as if by magic the gas in the building, by a 
change in the electric circuit, immediately springs into brilliancy, the horses 
are automatically set free, and take of their own accord their places before 
the wheels ; and the men, aroused from their numerous cot-beds in all parts 
of the building, jump into their clothes, slide down to the lower floor on a 
brass-bar, without waiting even to run down the stairs, and are out into the 
dark street, with the thunderous machine, in from 15 to 2,0 seconds from 
the moment when the first blow of the alarm was sounded. Such are the 
changes since, in 18 10, a fire at the Dwight House (page 209) was extin- 
guished by buckets passed from hand to hand from the "town-brook." 

The first known local fire-company was organized on Jan. 17, 1794. By 
its articles of association, each member was required to keep "two fire-bags 
and buckets, with his name thereon, hung up by the front door of his house," 
and to repair with them to fires, at which the members exercised supreme 
authority. * The town, however, owned a fire-engine a few years previous to 
the formation of the company just mentioned. It was built in Philadelphia, 
in 1792. The firemen of those clays carried brass-tipped staves. The pres- 
ent fire-department was organized in 1830 by Elijah Blake. 

The firemen have formed among themselves two associations for the 
relief of each other, — one called the Firemen's Mutual-Relief Association, 
which pays a sum weekly to any of its members that are injured at a fire, 
or suffer from exposure thereat; and the Fireman's Aid Association, which 
relieves in cases of sickness from other causes. The last, and indeed the 
only, great fire from which Springfield has suffered, occurred in 1875, when 


nearly $400,000 of property between Main, Vernon, and Worth ington 
Streets was destroyed ; but, as the buildings were mostly of wood, they 
have since been replaced, to the great advantage of the city. 

The Police-Department is not a separate branch of the government 
inasmuch as its administration is entirely vested in the mayor and aldermen ; 
who annually, in the month of January, make appointments to the offices of 
city marshal, assistant marshal, captain of the watch, and night and day 
watchmen. The office of marshal is so intimately connected with the 
administrative policy of the mayor for the time being, that the incumbent of 
this office is frequently changed, and a new mayor generally appoints a new 
marshal. Public praise or criticism of this functionary turns mostly on his 
vigor or laxity in enforcing the liquor-law. 96 licenses were granted for the 
year 18S3. The popular vote then in favor of granting licenses was 2,128, 
against 1,044 opposed to this policy; but in December the vote was against 
granting licenses for 18S4. The city marshal the present year is Robert 
J. Hamilton : he receives a salary of $1,400. The night and day watchmen 
are 26 in number. The justice of the Police Court is Gideon Wells. There 
is a criminal term of this court held daily except Sundays, and civil causes 
are tried on Mondays. An important official in attendance on this court is 
the probation-officer. His duty is to investigate the character and offence of 
every person arrested for crime, with the purpose of ascertaining whether 
he may reasonably be expected to reform without punishment. If he sees 
reason to hope for reformation, he so advises the court ; and, if the justice 
places him upon probation, it is on such terms as the court pleases, and 
the officer follows up the career of the released person, makes a record of the 
same, and reports the results of each case to the commissioners of prisons 
and to the county commissioners. The statistics of this officer, Rev. jioseph 
Scott, for the year ending Sept. 30, 1883, are as follows : — 

Number placed on probation (all but 9 ar- 
rested for drunkenness.) 164 

Number who have kept the conditions of 
their probation, the term of probation 
having ended 32 

Number who have violated the conditions of 
probation, and have been returned for 

sentence 23 

Number still on probation 109 

Total number of arrests examined (about) . 1,600 

The Sewer-Department embraces over 33 miles of sewers, which have 
cost, up to Dec. 31, 1882, the sum of $423,000. The key to the system of 
sewerage is readily seen when it is considered that a large portion of the 
city is situated on land sloping directly to the Connecticut River, and that 
the highest point of the lowlands is near the corner of Main and Worth- 
ington Streets, whence the land slopes north and south. The great trunk 
sewers through Main Street run north and south from the last-named point ; 
one discharging its sewage into the river above Hampden Park, ami the 
other at the foot of York Street. It is at this corner that Garden Brook, 


which takes its rise east of the Armory, divides, and enters the river by two 
natural channels, one running south under Main Street to Mill River, and 
the other north through the meadows east of Main Street to the Connecti- 
cut north of Hampden Park. This brook has naturally been made a part 
of the sewerage-system, and one of the mains running to the hill follows in 
part the course of this stream. The other main sewers draining the hill 
are laid through State, Union, and Mill Streets. The branch of Garden 
Brook south of Worthington Street is called the " Town Brook," though 
now covered for most of its course. The superintendent of the department 
is Henry D. Foss. 

The first effort at drainage was a sewer constructed through Elm Street 
in 1842, for the purpose of draining the marshy fen east of Main Street; 
which resulted in making that previously impassable swamp dry and usable, 
several streets having since been laid out over it without difficulty. The next 
sewer was placed in Worthington Street, in 1863. The next in order was 
through Ferry and Cypress Streets, in 1866. Then followed Union Street in 
1868, Garden-brook sewer in 1873, and Locust Street in 1874; and, lastly, 
the great sewer from Lyman Street, down Main to York, and thence through 
York, to the Connecticut River. 

The United-States Post-Office is in the fine four-story, brick, fire-proof 
building, with granite trimmings, on the corner of Main and Court Streets, 
extending back to Market Street. It is well fitted with 1,000 Yale-lock boxes, 
stamp-window, register and money-order window. The large, well-lighted 
mailing-room on Market Street, with the many other conveniences, make 
this an excellent office. The building is owned by the Five Cents Savings 
Bank, for which it was completed in 1879. Among the earlier postmasters 
were Moses Church, Daniel Lombard, Albert Morgan, and Col. Harvey 
Chapin. The present postmaster 1 is Gen. H. C. Lee, who was, during the 
late war, colonel of the Twenty-seventh Regiment of Massachusetts Vol- 
unteers. In Postmaster Church's time, the office was on very near its 
present location ; it having then occupied the site of the present "Springfield 
Republican" building. It was kept for many years in a small room of the 
postmaster's house, corner of Main and Elm Streets. Postmaster Morgan 
removed it to a small wooden building, corner of State and Market Streets, 
where it remained several years, and was then again moved to a new brick 
building on Elm Street, near its former location. The business of the office 
once more outgrowing its room, it was removed, in 1866, to the Haynes 
Hotel building; and. after several years of service there, it was in 1879 
transferred to its present convenient locality, which is a compromise 
between the centre of population and centre of business. 

The County Buildings are the court-house, the jail, and the truant- 
school. Springfield was, on the first organization of the old county of 

1 While this book is in press E. Chapin has been appointed. 


Hampshire, which extended from Connecticut to the Vermont and New- 
Hampshire lines, the original county-seat; and, though this honor was after- 
wards gained by Northampton, yet on the setting off, in 1812, of the county 
which bears the name of the patriotic John Hampden, it again became a 
shire town. Here is holden the Superior Court for the county; and twice 
a year is held a term of the Supreme Judicial Court, so called in distinction 
from the General Court, the constitutional appellation of the supreme legis- 
lative body. 

The Hampden-county Court-House, a fine building constructed in the 
later Italian style, of gneiss from the quarries at Monson, and popularly known 
as Monson granite, stands on Elm Street, and, though somewhat obscurely 
placed, adds much to the views in the neighborhood of Court Square. 

The original court-house, built about 1723, and only demolished in 1871, 
was a building of much historic interest. It was built mainly at the expense 
of the town, and stood on the spot where Sanford Street now enters Main. 
It was used as a court-house until 1792, from which date, to the organiza- 
tion of Hampden County, the courts were held at Northampton. It seems 
to have been used as a town-house before the construction of the old town- 
hall, shown on page 113. It passed through a succession of ownerships 
after its sale, about 1828, to the First Parish, and was several times removed, 
until it was finally demolished by Kibbe Brothers. It was this building, of 
which the forces of the insurgents in Shays' Rebellion took possession 
on Christmas Day 1791, and prevented the holding of the term of court 
which was to begin on a following day. 

In 1 82 1 this building gave place to the court-house standing on the 
west side oi Court Square, but now owned by the Odd Fellows, and devoted 
almost entirely to their use. In the latter building, which had formerly a 
tower in which the merry clatter of a bell used to summon the suitors to 
the sessions in the room below, Judge Lord, then of the Superior Court, was 
once holding a session, when he found himself much disturbed by the noise 
of the band of a passing procession. The sheriff having been sent out to 
remonstrate, without avail, the judge had the whole band arrested and 
brought in for contempt of court. In the court-room of this building for 
thirty years, beginning in 1830, was seen each year the portly form of the 
celebrated Chief Justice Shaw, when he came with the full court to hold 
the September term ; and in this room Reuben Atwater Chapman, the future 
chief-justice, and his partner the brilliant George Ashmun, a favorite friend 
of Webster, won their earliest triumphs. 

At the beginning of the last decade, it became evident that the growth 
of population demanded ampler and more convenient quarters for the courts ; 
and, proceeding under the act of 1871, the county commissioners purchased 
some [3,000 square feet of land extending from Elm Street to State; and 


upon it the present structure was built, being completed in 1874 at a cost of 
$300,000. Its extreme length is 1583 feet, and its extreme width 891 feet. 
The tower is 150 feet high, and is modelled after that of the Pa'azzo Vecchio 
of Florence, Italy. The woodwork on the outside of the building is painted 
in India-red. There is a noble flight of steps in front, and in the centre of 
the building the word LEX is inscribed. 

In adaptation to its uses, and in general appearance, it is not excelled by 
any public building in the city ; being in these respects much more fortunate 
than in its location, whose only recommendation is its central character and 
the quiet that makes easy the transaction of business within its walls. The 
facade, with its imposing arches and tower with crenellated battlements, 
makes an attractive background to the view beyond the elms of Court 
Square. On approaching the main entrance on Elm Street, the visitor 
ascends a flight of stone steps, and, passing beneath one of the three arches 
supported by massive piers, finds himself within a portico floored witli 
mosaic and opening into the middle hallway. On the right of this hallway 
one arrives first at the registry of probate. This room, as well as the regis- 
try of deeds and the clerk's office, is built fire-proof. Opposite the registry 
of probate is the registry of deeds, where the ancient muniments of title will 
be shown upon request. Beyond these rooms are staircases ascending to 
the court-room on the second floor; and, still farther, doors open into the 
police court-room, deputy sheriff's office, and county commissioners room. 
At the end of the corridor, are tne rooms of the court of probate and of 
insolvency, and of the clerk of the Supreme and Superior Courts. In the 
clerk's office hangs a portrait of the late James W. Hale, the founder of the 
Hale fund for the relief of the poor by supplying them with stoves and fuel. 
There are also portraits of George Ashmun, and other past and present 
members of the bar. At the end of the hallway, another staircase provides, 
for the judges and members of the bar, a passage to the rooms above, the 
largest of which is the court-room, which is called one of the best in 
the State. It is finished in ash, and upon the fall of the plastering overhead, 
a few years since, was ceiled in the same wood. On the left of the bench is a 
painting, perfect in likeness, of the late Chief Justice Chapman ; and, on the 
right, a similar portrait of the Hon. John Wells, who, upon his death, was 
on the bench of the Supreme Court, which place he took upon resigning 
the office of judge of the court of probate for this county. Both these por- 
traits are the gift of the members of the Hampden-county bar. In the rear 
of the court-room, is the law library, purchased and annually increased from 
an appropriation by the county commissioners. Besides a good selection 
of text-books, it contains the common-law and equity reports of England, 
together with the reports of all the New-England and Middle States, and 
some of the Western and Southern States. Adjoining the library, is a con- 

"&>:,' ''■ ■' '•'' 

On Court Square. 



sultation-room for lawyers, in which the visitor's attention is attracted bj 
a portrait in oil of the late William G. Bates of Westfield, for half a century a 
prominent member of the Hampden bar. A photograph of Chief Justice Shaw 
also adorns the walls. The front of the building, on this floor, is occupied by 
the offices of the county treasurer, the high sheriff, and rooms for witnesses. 

County Jail, on State Street. 

On the third floor 
are the retiring- 
rooms of the juries, 
from whose windows the light, 
streaming out over the city in the 
small hours of the night, tells ot 
the imprisoned citizens within 
striving for an "agreement."' 
The Hampden-county Jail and House of Correction is located on State 
Street, nearly opposite the City Library; and the importance which that 
vicinity has now attained, by reason of the public buildings and finer resi- 
dences, makes it an inharmonious object in an otherwise pleasing view. Its 
exterior is presentable; its interior neat, and as well-arranged as the limited 
space will allow. Besides the small apartments for women, there are 1 20 
cells for men ; and the increase of crime makes it impossible to accom- 
modate all the offenders within the county, and some are sent to adjoining 
counties. The county is indictable for not providing better accommoda- 
tions, and the time is not far distant when a new jail must be built. The 
prisoners confined here are engaged in making harnesses, upon a contract 
with the county and a private citizen. 



Z\)t Educational Institutions. 



HPHE educational advantages of Springfield have long maintained a 
-L character for general excellence and thorough instruction that has 
added to the desirability of the city as a place of residence, and attracted 
residents from elsewhere. Even from China have come those to whom 
their own government saw fit to give such a New-England education as 
these schools had to furnish. A liberal policy has not been wanting in the 
city government, which expends annually over $1 00,000 for public-school 
purposes ; the public-school committee are inclined to retain and encourage 
faithful teachers : and the desire of the community for careful supervision 
was long since shown by the appointment in 1840 of the first superintendent 
of schools in the Commonwealth, and the second in New England. The 
ambition of .Massachusetts as a manufacturing State to excel in the arts of 
design has manifested itself in Springfield in an attention to drawing which 
has produced, even in the lower grades, extremely creditable original designs. 
And, in addition to the usual curriculum of studies pursued, careful attention 
is given to moral instruction and to the formation of character. In these 
schools the children of the ricli and the poor, the native and the foreign 
born, meet together in a healthful competition in which no favorites are 
known: and it is a noticeable fact, that among those who have here received 
an excellent training for business and for college, are many sons of foreign- 
born citizens. Besides the public schools, there are several private institu- 
tions which have gained a reputation far beyond the limits of the State ; 
and there are also secular schools, that compare favorably with those of 
cities much larger than Springfield. 

The Public-school System in this community, according to history, 
practically had its beginning with the first settlers, who gave early attention 
to the education of their children. In 1641 "ye selectmen "' were ordered 
"to see that all children be taught to read and learn a chattechisme," and 
"to see schools erected and maintained." Twelve years later a "parcelle 
of land at ye lower end of Chickkuppy plaine " was set apart for the sup- 
port of schools and other "town charges." In 1677 William .Maddison 
was employed as schoolmaster, receiving "three pence per week" for those 
who learned to read, and four pence if writing was added. In the follow- 

i 26 


ing year David Denton was engaged as teacher at a salary of ^20 per year. 
During this year, as the town-records show, there was a school in the tower 
of the meeting-house ; although it is evident that some of the schools were 

kept in private houses, 
for in 1679 the town 
paid to " Goodman 
Merricke \os. 6d. for 
his house for school- 
ing," and gs. to Sam- 
uel Ely for the same 
purpose. The younger 
children were some- 

times taught by married women 
at their homes, and such schools 
were called " dame schools." 
The records show that Good- 
wife Merricke was employed by 
the town for such a school. 

The town authorities had 
charge of the moral training of children at church as well as at school. In 
1679 the selectmen assigned certain seats for the children, " near the deacon's 
seat ; " and Deacon Parsons and others were directed " to have an eye on 



the boys." It was in this year that the first schoolhouse was built, "in the 
lane going to the upper wharf." This lane is the modern Cypress Street, 
north of the Boston and Albany Railroad, extending from Main Street west- 
ward towards Connecticut River. The length of the house was "twenty- 
two foot, breadth seventeen foot, and stud six foot and a halfe," with "three 
light spaces on one side, and two on one end," and a "rung chimney 

daubed." The contract price was /14 ; but it was agreed that if the builder, 
Thomas Stebbins, jun., should " have a hard bargain," he should "have \os. 
more of the towne." Samuel Ely was paid "3J. Sd. for entertaining the 
schoolhouse raisers." 

In 1685 all parents and householders were required to send their chil- 
dren and servants to school ; and a vote was passed, that all persons living 
between "Round Hill and Mill River," who failed to send their children 
between the ages of 5 and 9 years, should "pay two pence per week for the 
space of half a year." This was compulsory education. In 1708 each 


person sending a child to school was ordered "to send a load of wood with- 
in two weeks, or pay enough to buy a load." It was easier, in those days, to 
pay taxes and bills in produce than in money; and hence we find, that, in 
1709, the salary of the "Grammar-school master, John Sherman," was "£40 
in grain ; viz., Pease, Rye, Indian corn, and Barley, at the town price." 

The "grammar school" of this period was a school for the common and 
also for the higher branches. Such schools were required by a law of the 
Province, of 1647, in all towns of one hundred families or more ; and it was 
furthermore required, that the master of the school should be "able to 
instruct youth so farr as they can be fitted for ye university." It is a 
matter of record, that, from their establishment onward, schools continued 
to be maintained in the town ; and it is also known that many of their 
teachers were persons of scholarship and ability. The schools were under 
the care of the selectmen. School-committees were not appointed regularly 
until about 1827. 

About this time there was much public agitation of the subject of educa- 
tion, and the records of town-meetings show that the leading citizens of the 
town made strenuous efforts for the improvement of the schools. In 1840 
the late S. S. Green was appointed town superintendent of the schools, the 
first appointment of the kind in Massachusetts. He remained two years, 
and did a good work for the schools. Afterwards he became well known 
as the author of a popular series of English grammars for schools, also as a 
teacher in Worcester and in Boston, and, during the latter part of his life, 
as professor in Brown University. 

Prominent among the firm and active friends of the public schools, is 
the name of the late Josiah Hooker, for nearly twenty years a member 
of the school-committee. By his wise counsels, and unceasing efforts for 
their improvement, he contributed largely to their advancement and high 
character. In this work he received the hearty and efficient co-operation of 
members of the school-board, of the city council, and of citizens interested 
in the general welfare of the city. In 1865 E. A. Hubbard was appointed 
superintendent of the schools ; and during his administration several new 
schoolhouses were erected, a better organization and grading of the schools 
were secured, and improved methods of instruction introduced. Mr. Hub- 
bard resigned in 1873, and was succeeded by Admiral P. Stone, the present 

The organization of the schools includes three grades, — primary schools, 
grammar schools, and high school. The primary grade occupies three years, 
• and the grammar grade six years. In these schools, thorough and system- 
atic instruction is given in all the common English branches, including 
book-keeping, and United-States and English history ; and special teachers 
give instruction in penmanship, music, and drawing. 

i 3 o 


The number of pupils in the day schools is more than 6,000, with 125 
teachers. There are maintained, during the winter months, two free evening 
schools for adults, in which the last enrolment was about 450; also a free 
evening draughting-school, where more than 200 persons, during the past 
winter, were taught mechanical drawing. 

The total value of the buildings, with their lots, furniture, and fixtures, 
is $550,000; and the current expense of the schools, including repairs of 
buildings for 1882, was about $101,000. The control of the schools is 
vested in a school-committee, composed of the mayor as ex-officio chairman, 
and 9 persons, one-third elected annually by the people. 

The High School dates, in its first organization, to the year 1827, when 
the town established a high school for boys on the north-east corner of 

School and High Streets, which was main- 
tained for about ten years, and in which 
many of the city's present business men, 
of the elder class, were educated. The 
late Rev. S. H. Calhoun, missionary to 
Syria, was one of its principals; and two 
principals are now residents of this vi- 
cinity, — Dr. Henry R. Vaille, and C. C. 
Burnett. A high school for the centre 
district of the town was established in 
1841, on State Street, on the site of the 
present court-house. Its first principal 
was the late Rev. Sanford Lawton, who 
was succeeded in 1844 by Ariel Parish. 
In 1848 the school was transferred to a 
new building on Court Street, now known as the "old high-school building," 
but occupied by the Court-street primary school. In the following year it 
became the high school for the whole town ; and Mr. Parish continued as its 
principal until 1865, when he was succeeded by the Rev. M. C. Stebbins. 
The high-school building now in use was completed in 1874. It stands on 
State Street, nearly opposite the City Library. In 1874 W. W. Colburn, 
the present incumbent, became principal of the school. The cost of the 
building, including the lot, was $170,000. It is of brick, with Ohio gray 
sandstone trimmings. It is situated within a short distance of the old high- 
school building of 1827, and as near as practicable to the centre of popu- 
lation. Its proximity to the city library offers facilities for the use of books 
of reference, and the room in the library building containing the natural- 
history collection is found a convenient place for recitations in that branch 
by the classes pursuing it in the school. The facade of the building is 
defectively narrow in its proportions, and the stone ornamentation is un- 

Old High-School Building, Court Street. 



finished; but within, the rooms are commodious and cheerful. In the base- 
ment is the draughting-school and chemical laboratory. The first floor 
contains a reception-room, principal's room, and a schoolroom seating 135 
pupils, a room for scientific lectures, beside cloak-rooms and recitation- 
rooms. Here also is the philosophical apparatus, valued at $3,500. The 
second floor is nearly a duplicate of the first; and on the third floor is an 
assembly-room, capable of seating 800 persons. The high-school course 
occupies four years, and embraces the higher English branches, including 
American and English literature, higher book-keeping, the science of 
government and political economy, the higher mathematics and metaphys- 
ics, the sciences, and the ancient and modern languages. Pupils are pre- 
pared for college, for business, and for high intellectual culture. Classes have 
been regularly graduated from this school for nearly thirty years. In 1883 
the number of pupils in the school was 322, 46 of whom graduated in June. 

The Grammar Schools are six in number, including the one at Indian 
Orchard. In these schools, thorough instruction is given in all the common 
English branches, including book-keeping, and United-States and English 
history; and special teachers give instruction in penmanship, music, and 

The Hooker School on North Main Street, built in 1865, is the finest of 
the grammar-school buildings in external appearance, for which it is in- 
debted to its imposing tower (containing a clock with illuminated dial), as 
well as to the beautiful network of vines which in summer relieve the bare- 
ness of its brick walls. It contains nine rooms devoted to the grammar and 
intermediate grades, and in this last respect resembles the other grammar- 
school buildings, except the Worthington-street and Central-street Schools, 
which have rooms for the primary grade. 
The building is named for Josiah Hooker, 
whose portrait may be seen in the hall. 
J. Dwight Stratton has been the principal 
for 28 years. 

The Elm-street Grammar School (fin- 
ished in 1 867) is one story too high for prac- 
tical use, but possibly was built to rival 
the magnificent elm which stands in front 
of it, and which Oliver Wendell Holmes 
has commended to fame in his " Auto- 
crat of the Breakfast Table," calling it 
"beautiful and stately beyond all praise.'' 
The principal is Simeon F. Chester. 

The Worthington-street School was built in 1869; and, on the organiza- 
tion of the new district in this locality, E. F. Foster became principal, and 

Worthington-street Grammar School. 


still remains such, having previously held for 15 years a like position in the 
Central-street School. 

The Central-street Grammar School (building constructed in 1S71) be- 


Oak-street Grammar School. 

longs to an ancient district sometimes 
known as the Water-shops. Its prin 
cipal is Elias Brookings. 

The Oak-street Grammar School, 
which, like all the foregoing, is a sub- 
stantial brick structure, was finished 
in 1868, and replaced a building on 
Union Street. In the hall for public 
exercises hangs an excellent portrait in 
crayon of the present principal, Charles 
Barrows, placed there by the alumni of 
the school at the time of a celebration 

in his honor in 1876. Mr. Barrows was appointed master of this school in 

1841, and has now under his instruction a boy whose father and grandfather 

have both been his pupils since he began to teach in Springfield. 

The Hampden-county Truant School is located on the Armory road, 

and connected with a farm, upon which the truants, who average about 25 

in number, are to some extent employed. 

Oak-street Primary School House, corner of Oak and Union Streets, is 

cons idered 

the finest 

ing in the 

city. It was 

built in 1883, 

by Amaziah 

Mayo, jun., 

contractor; J 


and Seabury 

being the 

architects. It 

is of brick, 

two stories 

high, besides 

a light and 

dry base- Oak-street Primary School House, corner of Oak and Union Streets. 

ment, and contains four schoolrooms for fifty-six pupils each. For each 
school there is also a recitation-room, cloak-rooms, and a marble sink. 


The sunlight is admitted to each schoolroom during the entire school day. 
Cost, ci 4,000. 

The Private Schools begin their history with the year 1812, about which 
time a private academy was established on the north side of Elm Street, 
and continued nearly a dozen years. Miss Julia Hawkes opened a private 
school for young ladies, in 1829, on Maple Street, near Union Street, which 
was of a high order, and received a generous patronage. It was succeeded 
by a school at the corner of Main and State Streets, taught by Rev. George 

Miss Howard's Family School for Girls, Union Street. 

Nichols, who removed it the next year to Court Street, in the building next 
west of the old Court-House, where it continued, under different teachers, 
until about 1881. It was latterly known as the Springfield English and 
Classical Institute; was for both sexes ; and its reputation and patronage 
extended far beyond the limits of the town and county- Its later and best- 
remembered principals were Misses Celia and Mary Campbell, and Messrs. 
E. D. bangs and C. C. Burnett. 

Miss Catherine L. Howard's Family School for Girls leads the private 
schools in point of age, and is behind none of them in point of reputation. 
Among its pupils are the representatives of many States. It is pleasantly 
located on the corner of Union and School Streets. This is strictly a 


family school, and such of its pupils as are not provided for in the home of 
the principal are placed among families of culture and refinement in the 
immediate vicinity. The course pursued is both English and classical, 
especial attention being paid to mathematics and to composition ; a feature 
of the latter branch being the writing out, on Mondays, of abstracts of the 
sermon heard on the previous day. 

The Elms is on Ingraham Avenue, upon the brow of the hill, "beauti- 
ful for situation," and commanding a fine view of the valley. The school 
was founded in Hadley, in 1866; and its principals are Misses Porter and 
Champney. It is for girls and young ladies only. The Harvard examina- 
tions are the standard of requirement for work done in the school; and, 
beside English branches, the classics, and modern languages, music, draw- 
ing, and painting are taught. Parlor-concerts, by the most advanced pupils, 
afford opportunity to gain experience in public musical performance. 

Mr. and Mrs. J. Giles's Day and Boarding School was commenced at its 
present location, 359 Central Street, in the year 1S66. Its primary object 
was to receive only a sufficient number of pupils to occupy their immediate 
supervision ; thus endeavoring to secure thoroughness in whatever studies 
pursued, either in fitting students for college, or for practical business. This 
course has been pursued to the present time. 

St. Michael's Hall and School is the name of the new building on 
Elliot Street, designed for the children of the cathedral parish. The school 
is in charge of the Sisters of St. Joseph. The building itself is 120 feet 
frtnt, and has 2 wings, each 94 feet in length. The 10 schoolrooms will 
seat about 700 pupils; and the large hall on the third floor, excellently 
adapted for the uses for which it is intended, and provided with a stage and 
scenery, has a seating capacity of 1,200. The course of study embraces 
nearly all the branches taught in the public schools, including French, Ger- 
man, Latin, vocal and instrumental music. The school is designed to 
accommodate girls and boys of all grades. It was opened in 1883. Near 
the building may be seen the convent of the sisters who form its corps of 

The Sacred Heart Parochial School, on Everett Street, was established 
in 1877. and is conducted by the Sisters of Notre Dame. It is exclusively 
for girls, and has an average attendance of about 450. One afternoon in 
the week is especially devoted to needlework. The school-building stands 
near the convent, and, besides eight schoolrooms, contains a hall capable 
of seating over 1,000, and well equipped for dramatic entertainments. The 
library comprises 700 volumes. The superintendent is Sister Mary Johanna. 

The Kindergartens are several in number, of which 2 are mission- 
schools: one of these being exclusively for colored children, and located in 
the old town-hall. 



The Charity Kindergartens. — One was started at 186 Worthington 
Street, September, 1S82, for children of the poorest families in the neighbor- 
hood. Another was opened in November for the colored children on and 
near Willow Street. These were supported by contributions and under the 
charge of the Women's Christian Association. Each was in charge of a 
trained kindergartner, with assistants from Miss Brooks's training-class ; and 

St. Michael's Hall and School, on Elliot Street. 

twenty-five children in each were taught in accordance with Frobel's method. 
In June, 1883, the Springfield Kindergarten Association was formed to carry 
on the work for the following year, with Mrs. J. R. Hixon as president; 
Miss E. M. Ames, vice-president ; and Miss A. A. Pease, secretary. The 
kindergartens opened Sept. 10, 1883 ; and twenty children are taught in each, 
ranging in age from three to five. All the materials used are donated by 
the Milton Bradley Company. 

The Springfield Collegiate Institute, established in 1874 by Rev. M. C. 

On Everett Street. 


Stebbins, is an English, classical, and business school for both sexes. Its 
principal is C. E. Blake, A.M., and its location 346 Main Street. Its gradu- 
ating exercises are held in the Opera-House, and combine with the literary 
features, military drill, that branch being taught in the school. This school 
fits for all the colleges, and in its business and commercial course pays 
especial attention to bookkeeping. It has a valuable set of philosophical 

The Springfield Business College, under the management of G. C. 
Hinman, gives students a training especially fitted for a business-life. The 
methods in use in Bryant & Stratton's Business College, and in Rochester 
University, are adopted ; and celerity in reaching practical results is particu- 
larly sought in the instruction given. This college occupies a fine, large, 
well-lighted room on the second floor of the " Springfield Republican " 
Block ; and any visitor will be favorably impressed with the earnestness with 
which the students — young men and women, boys and girls — carry on their 
work. In the specialty of plain, practical business writing, there is probably 
no school in the country where the results will average better than they do 
here under Mr. Hinman's personal instruction. There is also a type-writer 
department, where instruction is given in the use of the Remington type- 
writer. The college was founded in 1S76; opened in Madden's Block; 
moved later to Hampden Block, and finally, three years ago, to its present 

Geer's Commercial School is taught by George P. Geer, the most accom- 
plished practical bookkeeper in the city, and the author of " Geer's Analysis 
of the Science of Accounts." The instruction is mostly confined to book- 
keeping, business arithmetic, and commercial practice. It occupies room 
No. 4 in the Union Block. 

The Dr. Windship Graduated System of Health Movement is taught at 
an institution devoted to physical culture and mechanical treatment. Most 
of the apparatus used in this system of movement was invented by Dr. G. 
B. Windship, who founded this system in Boston in 1865. It was introduced 
in this city by Dr. C. B. Cone, its present director, in September, 1876, as a 
branch of the Springfield Collegiate Institute, then at Court Square under 
Principal Rev. M. C. Stebbins ; and was removed to its present attractive 
quarters in Central Hall, No. 389 Main Street, opposite Haynes's Hotel, in 
June, 1882, where its facilities and patronage have been greatly increased. 
It does not aim to qualify persons for extraordina'ry feats of strength or 
agility, but to promote their general health. The apparatus is constructed 
so as to exercise in turn every muscle in the body. An experienced in- 
structor takes care to prevent undue exertion or danger. A little time 
spent in this exercise each day is a practical safeguard against the whole 
brood of nervous diseases. The methods originated by Dr. Windship, and 

tj en 


applied by Dr. Cone, condense into an agreeable half-hour enough muscular 
work to refresh and restore the brain and body wearied by a day of seden- 
tary occupation. The system is said to be a curative for many special and 
local ailments, and a preventive of certain kinds of disease. Many pro- 
fessional and business men, and many ladies and children, who are patrons 
of the establishment, speak well of its methods and their effects. 

The International Institute was established in Springfield at the begin- 
ning of 1882, to assist youth and adults, especially foreigners, to attain those 
various ends which they may have in view. Its director says, " It extends 
counsel to those who seek its assistance, and begins at once the work of 
preparation for some definite career, employing teachers and recommending 
institutions in accordance with the purposes of its patrons. It thus aims to 
supply in part the place of parents and guardians in the way of educational 
supervision, and has become quite a centre for South-American youth and 
students of languages." Its headquarters are at No. 629 Chestnut Street, 
and its director is Paul Henry Pitkin. 

The Hampden-County School-Committees' Association was founded in 
1877; and its membership includes school-committees, school-superintend- 
ents, and friends of popular education. Its purpose is to discuss questions 
relating to the management and conduct of public schools ; and its meet- 
ings, held at the call of the officers, are intended to be semi-annual. Offi- 
cers : L. F. Mellen, West Springfield, President; E. A. Hubbard, Springfield. 
Secretary. Executive Committee, A. P. Stone, Springfield; W. H. Eaton. 
Westfield ; H. C. Strong, Springfield. 



literature anti Science. 


IN the world of literature, from the days of the Pilgrims to the present 
time, Springfield has held high place. Here William Pynchon, one of 
the most cultured of the earliest civilizers of this continent, composed his 
famous "heretical" book, " The Meritorious Price of Man's Redemption," 
which was as truly the pioneer of religious freedom of thought as its author 
was of civil liberty of action. Here were established, among the earliest, 
some of the best newspapers in this western world ; and here, from those 
days to these, have been maintained daily and weekly journals powerful for 
the formation of public opinion and the direction of public action. Here 
Hon. William B. Calhoun, afterwards a member of Congress, established 
the first agricultural journal in the country. Here the elder Samuel Bowles 
published the first daily newspaper, out of Boston, in the State ; and here, 
succeeding him, his son made it one of the leading journals of New Eng- 
land, and himself one of the first and most noted independent journalists in 
the country. Here Josiah Gilbert Holland began and grew to eminence 
in his literary career as a journalist, novelist, essayist, and poet; finding, in 
the local records and traditions of the colonial past, the material for his 
romantico-historical story of " The Bay Path." At his cosey, modest house. 
115 High Street, now occupied by Tim Henry, he composed his "Bitter- 
Sweet;" and later, at his villa at Brightwood, now the residence of George 
C. Fisk, he wrote " Kathrina." Here, from his editorial desk in the office of 
•■ The Springfield Republican." he sent forth successively the " Timothy Tit- 
comb Papers," "Gold Foil," "The History of Western Massachusetts," — 
perhaps as valuable a contribution to local historical literature as has ever 
been made. — and the " Life of Abraham Lincoln," accorded the first place 
among the biographies of the " Martyr President;" while, at the same time, 
he was enriching the columns of his newspaper with prose and verse of 
such excellence as to place its literary department on a plane with the best 
magazines of the country, a position which it has held, under succeeding 
managers, to this day. Here, in the rooms now the law-office of Bos- 
worth & Barrows on Elm Street, George Bancroft wrote the second volume 
of his History of the United States. On the westerly side of Maple Street, 
in the mansion now owned by James B. Rumrill, the saintly William B. O. 

x 4 2 


Peabody, first pastor of the Unitarian church, for many years taught Re- 
ligion poetry, and Poetry religion. His musing-ground, it is said, was the 
romantic ravine then called "Martha's Dingle," now the cemetery, where 
he was inspired to the sermons, essays, and poems which so greatly influ- 
enced his own and succeeding generations. 

Here, also, the second Samuel Bowles supplemented his journalistic 
service to the world with his "Across the Continent," " The New West," 

Josiah Gilbert Holland 

and " The Switzerland of America," works not yet succeeded by superiors 
upon the subjects of which they treat ; and here his son, the third of his 
name, following in his footsteps, devotes himself to independent journalism. 

Here Frederick A. Packard, more than half a century ago, wrote and 
published the first remembered novel of Western-Massachusetts authorship, 
entitled "The Insurgents." 

Here Edward King, now of world renown as a journalist, newspaper- 
correspondent, novelist, essayist, linguist, and poet, began his career. Here 


the distinguished political economist, scientist, and statistician, David 
Ames Wells, was born and bred, and commenced and continued his intel- 
lectual work until called away to become a national adviser. Here Gen. 
Francis A. Walker lived and labored in his chosen field, until, like Wells, 
summoned by popular demand to a wider sphere. Here, now, the author- 
architect, E. C. Gardner, lives and labors in his Brightwood cottage, cultur- 
ing the American people to better taste in house-building. 

From here, only lately, has westward gone Rev. Washington Gladden, 
famed as a preacher, essayist, and poet, the founder while here of " Sunday 
Afternoon." Here the Merriams, George, Charles, and Homer, the pro- 
prietors of those sine-qua-nons of literature, the spelling-book, and Webster's 
Dictionary, for more than half a century made their home ; and here the two 
latter still reside, and maintain, with other partners, the business office of 
their publishing-house. Here lived and died the brilliant preacher, essayist, 
and eke novelist, the Rev. Dr. George B. Ide. 

Here, a generation and a half ago, C. Teresa Clark, one of the earliest 
women in the local field of literature, wrote essays and poems for the maga- 
zines of her day. And here are, or lately were, as successors of her own 
sex, these: Marion Harland (Mrs. E. P. Terhune), author of "Judith'' and 
other novels, " Common Sense in the Household," " Eve's Daughters," 
and other works upon social science and domestic economy : Adeline Traf- 
ton, author of " The American Girl Abroad," etc. ; Katharine B. Foot, author 
of "Tilda," " Marcia's Fortunes," "Orphan in Japan," and other stories, 
and a contributor to the magazines and journals ; D. Ellen Goodman, a 
contributor of prose and verse to the magazines and the local press ; Mrs. 
William L. Smith (" Aunt Carrie "), author of " Popular Pastimes for the 
Field and Fireside," " The American Home Book," and other works of the 
kind, and a contributor to juvenile literature; Mrs. William Rice, a contrib- 
utor of essays and poems to the magazines ; Mrs. Maria Pabke, an Austrian 
by birth, now Americanized, author of stories and sketches, and correspond- 
ent of several foreign journals, compiler and translator with "Margery 
Deane" (Mrs. M. J. Pitman) of "Wonder World," — published by the Put- 
nams, a collection of wonder-stories of all nations, — also the author of a 
hygienic cook-book; Mrs. Edwin W. Seeger {nee Christine Kipp), a poet and 
magazine contributor; Miss Ambia Harris, a writer of essays and sketches; 
Mrs. Albert T. Folsom, a frequent contributor of stories and verse; Miss 
Lillie Palmer, a poet ; Miss Mary A. Chapman, daughter of the late Chief 
Justice Chapman, a translator from the German and French ; Madame 
E. D. R. Biancciardi (formerly Miss Elizabeth Rice), now in Italy, a poet, 
essayist, story-writer and literary critic; Mrs. Zadel B. Gustafson, a novelist 
and poet ; Mrs. C. A. Judkins, a writer of society essays ; Mrs. W. S. Gompf, 
a frequent contributor of stories; Mrs. L. E. Poole {nee Newell), a writer 



of stories for the juveniles ; Mrs. George D. Field, poet and essayist ; Mrs. 
F. H. Cooke, a story-writer, essayist, and critic ; Mrs. Charles Peet {nee 
Currien, author of " Hubbub," etc. ; Miss Julia R. Smith, author of " How 
they made a Man of him," etc.; Miss Annie B. Williams, a contributor of 
stories to the "Atlantic' 7 and other magazines; Miss Alice I. Pennell and 
Miss Delia Foot, occasional contributors of verse to the local press; Mrs. 
Dora (Dennison) Keeney, a poet whose verse is familiar to the readers of 
•• The Homestead " and " The Union." So many names of women are known 
as frequent or occasional contributors to literature, but in the quiet homes 

of Springfield there are doubtless many 
others deserving mention in this chapter. 
,.*-.-- Of men with whom authorship in lit- 

erature is or was an avocation, or an 
interlude to vocation, there are, or have 
lately been, resident in Springfield the 
following clergymen : Samuel Osgood, 
formerly of the First Congregational 
Church ; Francis Tiffany, formerly of the 
Church of the Unity; and Richard G. 
Greene, formerly of the North Congrega- 
tional Church, — frequent contributors of 
essays, literary and religious, the latter 
one of the editors of the " Library of Uni- 
versal Knowledge;" William Rice, D.D., 
author of "The Pastor's Manual," now 
librarian of the city library, the compiler 
of a cyclopaedia of poetry, and the editor 
of the revision of the hymn-book now in 
use by the Methodist-Episcopal Church ; William T. Eustis of the Memorial 
Church, compiler of a hymn-book for church use, and an essayist ; Charles 
A. Humphreys, formerly of the Church of the Unity, compiler of a hymn- 
book for Unitarians, and a poet ; E. P. Terhune, D.D., of the First Church, 
an essayist, religious and general ; Charles Van Norden, of the North Con- 
gregational Church, author of "The Outermost Rim and Beyond," and an 
essayist upon social science and political economy as well as upon religious 
subjects ; William N. Rice, now professor of natural history in Wesleyan 
University, author of a variety of articles for scientific journals, and of some 
published sermons; James F. Merriam, author of essays on religious and 
other topics; George E. Merrill, author of "Three Christian Mothers," etc.; 
Theodore C. Pease, a graduate of the High School, author of numerous 
essays, poems, and reviews ; A. D. Mayo, formerly pastor of the Church of 
the Unity, an essayist, particularly upon education, now actively engaged in 
missionary effort in that behalf at the South. 

Rev. Dr. Samuel Osgood. 


Besides the clergymen authors, there have been Charles A. Beach, a 
humorist and historical writer, author of " Pitzmaroon," etc.; Dr. George 
S. Stebbins, a writer of scientific essays, and author of a humorous auto- 
biographical sketch entitled "My Satchel and I;" George S. Merriam, 
an essayist and a frequent contributor to the press and magazines; John 
Baker, a Pole by birth, a story-writer, a translator from several languages, 
and a political essayist ; Louis N. Roberts, author of " High Art,*' a humor- 
ous essay; Stephen T. Hammond, one of the editors of "Forest and 
Stream," author of essays on field-sports ; George D. Field, a magazine 
story-writer; Edward H. Lathrop, a member of the bar, an essayist, and a 
poet ; George W. Taylor, writer of humorous sketches and verse ; Henry 
Denver, a frequent contributor of verse ; Herbert Myrick, a contributor to 
" The Youth's Companion " and other periodicals ; Christopher C. Merritt, 
a writer of prose and a poet, who has published one volume of poems, which 
is soon to be followed by another; Aella Greene, a journalist and a poet, the 
author of three separately published volumes of poems, of sentiment, piety, 
and patriotism, and delineative of New-England life (they are, " Rhymes of 
Yankee Land," " Into the Sunshine, and other Poems," and, just from the 
press, " Stanza and Sequel," a romance in verse); John L. Rice, a writer, of 
prose and poetry, whose " Dartmouth College and the State of New Con- 
necticut." contributed to the papers of the Connecticut Valley Historical 
Society, and published in its first volume, excited great interest among his- 
torians throughout the country. His poem delivered before the Grand 
Army of the Republic on Memorial Day, on the occasion of the dedication 
of the Soldiers' Monument, is perhaps the most notable of his verse. 

Among those who have contributed to local historical literature, the 
earliest was the Hon. George Bliss, the first of his name, whose address at 
the opening of the Town Hall, March 24, 1828, is a work of the highest 
authority and the basis of many later productions. His son, of the same 
name, once President of the Massachusetts Senate and later Speaker of 
the House of Representatives, contributed many valuable historical 
articles to Springfield newspapers. The address of the Hon. Oliver B. 
Morris, formerly for many years judge of probate for Hampden County, 
delivered May 25, 1836, on the two-hundredth anniversary of the settle- 
ment of Springfield, — first printed in the "Papers and Proceedings 
of the Connecticut Valley Historical Society," — was a masterly produc- 
tion. He made many other valuable contributions to the archives of 
history; but following him in the same field, his son Hon. Henry Morris. 
formerly judge of the Court of Common Pleas, now the senior member 
of the Hampden bar, and president of the Connecticut Valley Historical 
Society, has contributed more biographical and historical matter than any 
local writer, with exception, perhaps, of Dr. Josiah G. Holland. The pub- 



lished volume of the Historical Society contains five papers read by him 
at its meetings, — "The Old Main-street Jail and House of Correction," 
"Elizur Holyoke," " The Old Pynchon Fort and its Builders," " Slavery in 
the Connecticut Valley," and " Miles Morgan" (an account of the Puritan 
whose memorial statue stands in Court Square). In addition to these, are his 

" History of the First Church," 
published in book-form, his con- 
tributions to the " History of the 
Connecticut Valley," and his 
"Early History of Springfield, 
1636-1675." Mason A. Green, 
now of the staff of " The Spring- 
field Republican," author of a 
novel called " Bitterwood," a 
prose contributor to the maga- 
zines, and a poet as well, takes 
rank also as an historian bv 
his " Springfield Memories," in 
which are told anecdotes of local 
persons and events which, but 
for him, might have passed from 
Springfield memories. He also 
contributed to the above-named 
volume an account of "The Breck Controversy in the First Church in 
Springfield." Willmore B. Stone, a lawyer, and author of a "History of 
the High School of Springfield," is also an essayist upon political economy, 
and matters pertaining to the law and general literature, — notably on " The 
Attitude of our Government toward Polygamy," and a " Eulogy on Charles 
Sumner," in 1S74. 

The papers published in the Historical Society's volume, other than 
those already mentioned, are from these Springfield writers: Joseph K. 
Newell, "The Old Springfield Fire Department;" William L. Smith, 
"Springfield in the Insurrection of 1786 (Shays' Rebellion); " T. M. Dewey, 
"Early Navigation of the Connecticut River, the first Steamboat;" Everett 
A. Thompson, "Count Rumford and his Early Life;" Mrs. William Rice, 
"Ryefield; or, a Town in the Connecticut Valley at the Commencement of 
the Nineteenth Century;" and Dr. Alfred Booth, " Salmon and Shad in the 
Connecticut River." Dr. Booth is also a writer upon hygienic and other 
subjects. Joseph K. Newell, a soldier of the Tenth Regiment M. V., now 
of the firm of T. M. Walker & Co., has written and published the history of 
his regiment, entitled " Ours." William P. Derby has published, during the 
year, a history written by him of his regiment, the Twenty-seventh M. V., 

George Merriam. 


x 47 

with the title, " Bearing Arms in the Twenty-seventh Massachusetts Regi- 
ment." James L. Bowen, a contributor of stories, is now preparing the 
history of the Thirty-seventh Regiment M. V. Rev. John W. Harding of 
Longmeadow i-s entitled to mention in the list of historiographers of Spring- 
field; for his history of Longmeadow, contained in his address delivered at 
the centennial celebration of that town in October last, involved necessarily 
that of Springfield, from which Longmeadow separated ioo years ago. Mr. 
Harding is also an essayist, and a contributor to "The Springfield Repub- 
lican." Admiral P. Stone, the superintendent of schools, is an essayist on 
educational topics, and has published several text-books, among them a 
"History of England." 

Journalism and general literary work have been combined by these 
local writers: Solomon B. Griffin, managing editor of "The Springfield 
Republican," a political essayist, a writer of sketches of fiction and fact, and 
a poet. A notable piece of his work was " The History of the Hoosac 
Tunnel," published in "The Republican" in 1873. Wilmot L. Warren, 
leading editorial writer of " The Republican," is an essayist upon politi- 
cal economy, social science, and 
finance. He delivered an address 
at the commencement of Tufts Col- 
lege, his alma Dialer, in 1882, upon 
" The College in Civil Affairs." He 
has also contributed to the litera- 
ture of travel by his late letters to 
"The Republican," upon his recent 
trip to the Pacific Slope, upon the 
occasion of the opening of the 
Northern Pacific Railroad. Charles 
G. Whiting, literary editor of " The 
Republican," a poet, and author of 
the series of papers published in 
his department of his paper entitled 
" The Saunterer." William W. Gay 
of the " Republican " staff, a con- 
tributor of verse. Harry R. Dorr, 
lately of " The Republican," now of 
the " Boston Herald's " staff, a prose-writer and poet. Joseph Hood, for- 
merly of " The Republican," now deceased, a remarkably versatile writer of 
pungent essays. Clark W. Bryan, for many years connected as a part 
owner with "The Republican," afterwards with "The Union," and at pres- 
ent owner of "The Berkshire Courier," "The Paper World," "The Manu- 
facturer," and "The Builder." J. O. Davidson, of the " Republican " estab- 

Dr. George B. Ide. 


lishment, a contributor of sketches and verse. L. H. Taylor, formerly of 
" The Union,'' a journalist, a humorist, and a newspaper-correspondent. He 
is the " Miss Ward " of " The Berkshire Courier." Edwin Dwight, " Graph " 
of " The New-England Homestead," an essayist, poet, and humorist. Albert 
H. Hardy, a journalist, story-writer, a poet, and a contributor to various peri- 
odicals and magazines : some of his poetical work has lately appeared in 
English magazines. Joseph L. Shipley, editor-in-chief and part owner of 
" The Springfield Union," a journalist, and an essayist on political economy 
and social science. E. Porter Dyer, the literary editor of " The Union," an 
essayist, humorist, and poet. Elijah A. Newell of the " Union " reportorial 
staff, a journalist, an occasional writer of verse, author of several stories, — 
among them, " Tom Tilden," " Only a Tramp," " My Brother's Wife," " The 
Son-in-Law," etc. Edward H. Phelps, editor and chief owner of " The 
New-England Homestead," a journalist, an essayist, a musical critic, and, 
by occasional avocation, a composer of music. Edward Bellamy, author 
of " Doctor Heidenhoff's Process," " Six to One," etc. ; and Charles J. 
Bellamy, author of " Breton Mills," " Man of Business," etc., are brothers, 
— both journalists, novelists, essayists, and poets. The latter is editor, and, 
with the former, owner, of " The Springfield Daily News." Henry D. 
Tavlor, a writer of stories; George W. Taylor and I. C. Stoddard, humor- 
ous verse; William H. Bliss, a story-writer and a poet; Edwin L. Johnson, 
a satirist and humorist; N. I. West, a contributor of verse; Ezra Wilkins, 
prose; Theodore W. Ellis, a retired manufacturer, formerly superintendent 
of the Glasgow Mills, a prose-writer and poet; Henry M. Burt, editor and 
owner of the summer newspaper printed on the summit of Mount Washing- 
ton, called " Among the Clouds." 

The literature of medicine has had contributions in Springfield, from Dr. 
William Tully, who, during his residence here from 1851 to his death in 
1S59, gave to tne medical world his " Materia Medica," and other kindred 
works. Dr. David P. Smith, professor of surgery and medicine in Yale 
College, a life resident here, was a frequent contributor of essays and papers 
to the periodicals and journals of his profession. Stephen W. Bowles, 
George S. Stebbins, and others of the present resident physicians, are also 
occasional contributors of medical and surgical essays. 

The literature of the law has received contributions from these, among 
others, of the members of the local bar: Ex-mayor William L. Smith, the 
author of a work upon " Law and Practice in the Probate Courts," which has 
passed through several editions, and will soon come from the house of 
Little, Brown, & Co., in another, revised and adapted to the changes made 
by legislation up to the present time. Charles H. Barrows, lately Assistant 
Attorney-General, now of the law firm of Bosworth & Barrows, who is as 
well an essayist upon political economy and social science, and an occasional 



writer of reviews for " The Literary World," author of several professional 
essays, among them "The Maxim Res inter alios Acta" which has been 
republished abroad. While in college he was an editor of " The Harvard 
Advocate." Edmund P. Kendrick, a member of the legislature, author of 
" The Ashford Tragedy," " Jack's Speculation," and other stories, and a 
contributor to " The Waverley Magazine " and "The Yankee Blade ; " author 
of essays on " Fence Law," " Marriage Settlements," etc. Charles J. Bel- 
lamy, before mentioned, author of a hand-book entitled " Everybody's 
Lawyer." James G. Dunning, 
a contributor to the law-column 
of " The Homestead." 

The scientific literature is 
indebted to these local writ- 
ers : Col. James G. Benton, late 
Commandant of the United- 
States Arsenal, who contrib- 
uted the articles on Military '■ 
Science to "Johnson's New ■'"■ 
Universal Encyclopaedia," and 
was the author of numerous 
other works on military sub- 
jects, notably of a " Course of 
Instruction on Ordnance and 
Gunnery." Col. A. R. Buffing- 
ton, the present Commandant 
of the United-States Arsenal, 
■who has contributed largely to 
the literature of his profession. Capt. David A. Lyle of the United-States 
Ordnance Department, lately stationed at the L T nited-States Arsenal, the 
author of many essays, scientific, military, and hygienic. Professor Charles 
Mayr, a contributor of essays upon scientific subjects. George Dimmock. 
Doctor of Philosophy by the grace of Leipsic University, wherein he com- 
pleted the education begun at Harvard College, now the editor of " Psyche." 
an entomological journal, author of essays on biology, etc. Ethan S. Chapin. 
of the firm of M. & E. S. Chapin, of the Massasoit House, the writer of 
" Conservation of Gravity and Heat," etc. Bradley Horsford, a long-time 
and devoted student of natural history, and an occasional writer upon the 
favorite subjects of his study. Bennett Allen, a generation ago one of 
the ablest servants of science. He constructed telescopes of the largest 
and most perfect lens-power ever made in this country. The extent to which 
he contributed to the literature of science is not known, but surely he aided 
effectually to the reading of nature's works on astronomy. 

Clark W. Bryan. 



Milton Bradley, of the firm of Milton Bradley & Co., the first manu- 
facturers of kindergarten material in this country, has contributed largely 
towards the education of children, by the publication of " Paradise of Child- 
hood, a Practical Guide to Kindergartners," and the manufacture of 

educational aids and apparatus for 
illustrating the elements of physics 
in common schools, and by the vari- 
ous instructive games which he has 
invented and published. 

It has not been attempted, — in- 
deed, it would have been impractic- 
able, — to give, in the limits of this 
chapter, the names of all of Spring- 
field's literati. There are, it is grati- 
fying to believe, many others not 
mentioned here, who are students, 
appreciators, and many of them pro- 
ducers, of literature, whose modesty 
prevents, or whose opportunity has 
not come for, publicity ; and the fre- 
quent contributions of prose and 
verse of merit and promise which 
appear in the local papers, over pen-names unidentifiable, or anonymously, 
give assurance that Springfield, though essentially a commercial community, 
has a large and increasing class of the lovers of literature. 

The Libraries of Springfield are not surpassed in number or value of 
volumes by those of any other city of its size in the country. The earliest 
public collection of books of which any record can be found was that of 
The Springfield Library Company, the catalogue of which, published in 
1796, gave about 320 titles. The Franklin Library Association was the 
next. It was composed of workmen in the United-States Armory. It 
existed as a separate organization until 1844, when its collection was made 
over to the Young Men's Institute. The Hampden Mechanics' Associa- 
tion was established in January, 1824. It founded a library called The 
Apprentices' Library, and maintained for a time a weekly evening school 
for apprentices, and annual courses of lectures. The catalogue of this 
library, in 1S34, gives 627 titles. This association continued until 1849, but 
its library was added to that of the Young Men's Institute in 1845. The 
Young Men's Institute was founded in 1843, "for the improvement of its 
members." It established a library and reading-room, held meetings for 
discussion, and, occasionally, courses of literary and scientific lectures 

Milton Bradley. 


were given under its auspices. The Young Men's Literary Association 
was organized in 1854. Its objects were similar to those of the Young 
Men's Institute. It also established a library and reading-room, had its 
weekly meetings for debate and intellectual culture, and its occasional lec- 
ture courses. The libraries of all these various associations were small, 
aggregating only about 1,500 volumes, and were, it seems, accessible only to 
their members. 

The City Library Association originated in a widely expressed desire 
for the establishment of an institution that should be of more public benefit 
than those that have been mentioned, and in 1855 a petition was presented 
to the City Council asking for the appropriation of two thousand dollars for 
the establishment of a city library ; but, failing to obtain the aid solicited, 
the friends of the enterprise set to work to accomplish their purpose by 
means of a voluntary association, and the help of private subscriptions and 
contributions. To this end the present association was formed, Nov. 27, 
1857. The Young Men's Institute and the Young Men's Literary Asso- 
ciation were merged in, and their libraries were turned over to, the new 
association. Subscriptions of money and donations of books were sought 
by a committee, and obtained to the amount of about $8,000 and a large 
number of volumes. The collection was removed to rooms in the City Hall 
(those now occupied by the city assessors, and rooms adjoining). A 
museum of ethnology and natural history was founded in 1859, under 
the auspices of this association, in which were gathered collections of 
interest and value, especially in the department of zoology. The library 
grew rapidly, and in 1864 the demand for more ample accommodations was 
imperative. Hon. George Bliss of Springfield met the need of the asso- 
ciation with the offer to donate the land adjoining his residence, and 
forming a part of his grounds, for the site of a suitable building. The 
offer was, of course, accepted. John L. King, then president of the asso- 
ciation, by request of its directors personally solicited subscriptions for the 
erection of a building, and in February, 1S64, had obtained $77,000. George 
Hathorne of New York was accepted as the architect, and Amaziah Mayo as 
the builder of an edifice; and in the spring of 1871 the present structure was 
completed, at a cost of $100,000. It was opened to the public in the autumn 
of 1S71, with a catalogue of 31,400 volumes. The association is now acting 
under a charter granted in April, 1864; its former charter not allowing it to 
hold estate sufficient for its purposes. The City Library Building, so-called, 
stands near the north-east corner of State and Chestnut Streets. It is 100 
feet wide upon its State-street front, and 65 feet in depth. It is in the 
mediaeval Renaissance style. Its exterior is chiefly of brick with Ohio free- 
stone trimmings. The main library-room proper is in the upper story, is 
domed, and, midway of its height, has a gallery extending completely round 

i5 2 


its walls, accessible by spiral iron staircases. Below the library-room, one 
entering from State Street finds, on his right, the museum ; on his left, the 
reading-room, supplied with a good list of daily and weekly newspapers, 
magazines, and reviews, and furnished with every convenience and comfort, 
for the free use of all persons. The reading-room was established in Octo- 
ber, 1SS1, by a committee of citizens, who raised $2,300 for the special pur- 
pose. The reading-room and the library and museum rooms are adorned 
by portraits of distinguished men, many of whom have been officers or 
patrons of the association. At the first landing of the staircase leading to 

the second or library floor, are 
clustered, in glass cases, the bat- 
tle-flags of some of the local 
regiments of the Rebellion. 
Among the interesting articles 
in the museum are the veritable 
pikes that constituted a part of 
the armament of the martyr John 
Brown, who resided and carried 
on business in Springfield for 
several years, and was one of 
the earliest and most practical 
and energetic of the anti-slavery 
party, and maintained here, it is 
said, an important station of the 
" Underground Railroad," one 
of the termini of which was in 
Canada. The library catalogue 
now shows 49,325 volumes, and 
more than 5,000 pamphlets. It 
is rich in every department of 
literature. In addition to the volumes belonging to the association, the library 
contains a collection of the public documents of the United States, deposited 
for reference by the Trustees of the State Library, numbering over 2.000 vol- 
umes. This is one of the most complete collections of public documents 
in the United States. The present officers of the association are: Presi- 
dent, Ephraim W. Bond; vice-president, James M. Thompson; clerk and 
librarian, William Rice; treasurer, James D. S afford ; directors, Charles 
Merriam, John B. Stebbins, James Kirkham, Horace Smith, Orick H. Green- 
leaf, George E. Howard, Samuel Bowles, Azariah B. Harris, William Merrick, 
and, ex-officio, the mayor of the city, the president of the common council, 
and the chairman of the school committee. A vacancy was made in this 
board by the decease of Chester W. Chapin during the present year. Rev. 

Rev. Dt. William Rice 


Dr. William Rice has been in charge of the library since the foundation of 
the association, and its excellences are in a great measure due to his assi- 
duity, taste, and judgment. The library is free to all for use in the rooms, 
but an annual fee of one dollar is required to entitle one to take books 
away from the building. It is open on Mondays from 12 M. to 9 p.m., on 
other days from 10 a.m. to 9 p.m. The reading-room is open at the same 
hours, and also on Sundays from 1 to 6 p.m. The museum is open, free, 
on Wednesdays and Saturdays from 1 to 8 p.m. 

The Hampden-County Law-Library is in the south-west corner of the 
second story of the Court House on Elm Street. It was established in 1S60, 
at the request of the bar, by means of an appropriation made by the county 
commissioners, and is maintained by the county. It contains over 2,000 
volumes, including the valuable set of reports donated from his library by 
the late Hon. William G. Bates of Westfield. 

The Indian-Orchard Library was established in 1859, for the use of the 
inhabitants of that part of Springfield called Indian Orchard, a manufac- 
turing village. It contains about 1,500 volumes, and has in connection a 
reading-room supplied with Boston and Springfield daily papers, and with 
some of the best of the weekly and monthly journals and periodicals. It is 
maintained wholly by the Indian- Orchard Mills Corporation, but is free 
to all residents. 

The Central Circulating Library is at 115 State Street, and was estab- 
lished in 1867 by Misses Leavitt, Gillespie, and Gilmore, and maintained by 
them until 1S79, when it passed into the hands of Miss L. A. Gilmore, who 
is now the owner. 

Gill's Circulating Library was established about 1S70, by Jennison & 
Kendall, — two ladies, — from whom it was purchased by James D. Gill, who 
now owns and maintains it, in connection with his book and art store, on the 
corner of Main and Bridge Streets. It contains about 1,500 volumes. 

Kendall's Circulating Library is in the store of G. F. Kendall, 473 State 
Street, on Armory Hill, opposite the Armory grounds. It was commenced 
about 14 years ago by A. J. Newton, who was succeeded by the present pro- 
prietor in April, 1877. It contains about 1,000 volumes. 

Private Libraries, ranging from 1,000 to 3,000 in number of volumes, are 
numerous in Springfield, and among them are several rare and many valu- 
able collections. 

The Railroad-Men's Reading-room is on the north side of the Union 
Depot. It was opened Aug. 19, 18S2, and formally dedicated Oct. 11, 1882. 
It was established by the International Committee on Reading-rooms of the 
Young Men's Christian Association, whose railroad work was begun in 1S72, 
and is rapidly and widely extending. Railroad companies co-operate heart- 
ily, and yearly contribute about $50,000 to the work. Similar reading-rooms 


are established and flourishing in many cities of the North and West. This. 
at Springfield, was the second one regularly established in New England. 
Its affairs are managed by an executive committee of railroad-officers, with 
the assistance of an advisory committee of citizens. The rooms appro- 
priated for this use are : a reading room, where a supply of periodicals, daily, 
weekly, and monthly, may be found ; a smoking and chess room, isolated 1 iy 
partitions from the reading-room, a bath-room, and an ample parlor in the 
story above the other rooms, comfortably and tastefully furnished with carpet, 
tables, chairs, and lounges, and a piano. The payment of 25 cents a month 
admits members to all the privileges of the rooms. Addresses and musical 
entertainments are given monthly. Instruction in penmanship and in me- 
chanical drawing is provided for those desiring it; during the present year, 
in the former by F. P. Frost of the Boston and Albany Railroad Freight 
Office, and in the latter by C. E. Alger, civil engineer in employ of the 
Boston and Albany Railroad. The rooms are open daily; on week-days 
from 8 a.m. to 9.30 p.m. ; on Sundays, from 3 to 6 p.m. Religious services 
are held on Sundays from 5.30 to 6.30 p.m. The secretary is Theodore 

F. Judd. 

The Reading-rooms of the Armory-hill Young Men's Christian Asso- 
ciation are in the Association's Building on State Street, opposite Winches- 
ter Park, and are open afternoons and evenings. They are supplied with 
newspapers and magazines. The secretary is E. H. Byington. 

Literary Clubs having conspicuous social features have long been estab- 
lished here. Among the social house-to-house clubs, the leading one is 
known simply as "The Club,'' comprising 16 gentlemen, in professional and 
business life', who meet fortnightly through the winter, usually on Tues- 
day evenings, and discuss subjects assigned to members at the beginning 
of the season. The assignee for the evening prepares an essay which 
forms the basis of the conversation, which is participated in by turn: 
the host calling on the members to give their views informally in suc- 
cession. A substantial refreshment is served at the beginning of the even- 
ing. This club is the successor and junior of a similar one which existed 
for many years, in which leading citizens participated. Timothy M. Brown 
was the originator of the present club, which has been in active life for 
about 10 years. The club now comprises the following members: H. W. 
Bosworth' Dr. S. W. Bowles, E. S. Bradford, T. M. Brown, Col. A. R. Buf- 
flngton, W. W. Colburn, G. A. Denison, Clemens Herschel, Judge M. P. 
Knowlton, Capt. D. A. Lvle, E. C. Rogers, J. L. Shipley, A. J. Smith, Rev. 
Dr. E. P. Terhune, W. L. Warren, Judge Gideon Wells. The character of 
the papers read and discussed may be judged from the following list of 
assignments for the present winter, [883-84: "Organized Philanthropic 
Effort as a Means of Reform;" " The Principle of Heredity;"' '•Northern 


Pacific Railroad ; " " Review of Henry George's ' Progress and Poverty; ' " 
"The Jury System;" " Immigration: Its Value and Danger to the Repub- 
lic;" "The Indian Question;" "The Negro in History;" "The Proper 
Disposition of Convict Labor;" "Modern Italy, politically and socially;" 
" Gladstone ; " " American Collegiate Education : Should it be reformed ? " 
"Municipal Government in this Country;'' "Mexico: Its Present and its 
Future;" "Education in the South: Should National Aid be given it? if 
so, how?" "Protoplasm and Spontaneous Generation." 

The Young Ladies' Literary Club is one of two clubs of some years' 
standing, and similar character to " The Club," composed exclusively of 
ladies. It was originated by Mrs. Sallie Bowles Hooker and Mrs. Julia 
Alexander Phillips in their maiden days, and numbers about 20 members, 
who meet periodically around the tea-table, and spend the evening discussing 
assigned topics. Married ladies are not admitted as new members. This 
club has the honor of having first brought George W. Cable before a 
Springfield audience. 

The Cosmian Club is an association similar to the above, and of nearly 
equal duration, composed largely of teachers. A series of topics is selected 
for the winter's work, in regard to which a printed list of questions is issued 
to the members to guide their reading upon the subject. Miss E. M. Priest 
is president; Miss Alma S. Brigham, secretary; Miss Ella J. Ross, treasurer; 
who with Miss E. P. Bigelow and Miss Harriet E. Child constitute the 
board of managers. 

The Springfield Lyceum was organized in 1 88 1. Its special purposes 
are the acquisition of knowledge of, and practice in, parliamentary law: 
the cultivation of its members for controversial discussion, in debate, and 
otherwise, and general culture, particularly in the direction of affairs of 
local and general public interest and importance. Any person of good char- 
acter, and in earnest sympathy with its objects, is welcomed to membership. 
The initiation fee is 50 cents, which, with a monthly assessment of 25 cents, 
covers all the pecuniary liability of membership. Honorary membership, 
conferred by election and subject to the payment of one dollar a year, entitles 
to all privileges of the association, except those of voting and office. The 
meetings are held on Wednesday evenings, from October to May or June, 
each year. The exercises include debates, written criticisms, and essays, 
with occasional lectures. Its officers, consisting of a president, two vice- 
presidents, a secretary and treasurer, and an executive committee of three. 
are chosen every two months. Its assembly-room has been, during the 
present year, the French Chapel in Bill's Block, 358 Main Street. 

The Connecticut-Valley Historical Society was organized April 21, 
1876, in Springfield. Its formation was an important movement in the in- 
terests of historical literature. Its aim is "to procure and preserve what- 

(Once a Resident.) 


ever may relate to the natural, civil, military, literary, ecclesiastical, and 
genealogical history of the country, and especially of the territory included 
in the Connecticut Valley." Its present officers are: President, Henry 
Morris; vice-presidents, Augustus L. Soule, Samuel O. Lamb, L. Clark 
Seelye; clerk and treasurer, William Rice; executive committee, Samuel G. 
Buckingham, Ephraim W. Bond, William L. Smith, William S. Shurtleff, 
John W. Harding, Henry S. Lee. The society has now about 100 members. 
Its annual meeting is held on the first Monday in April; and quarterly 
meetings are held on the first Mondays of July, October, and January. 
Members are chosen by ballot, upon recommendation of the executive 
committee, the affirmatives of two-thirds of a quorum being necessary to 
an election. The membership-fee is $3. No further payment is required 
unless a special assessment therefor is made, and no member can be 
assessed more than $2 in any one year. The payment of $25 frees a mem- 
ber from any further payments. In December, 1881, the society published, 
under the editorship of William L. Smith, William Rice, and William S. 
Shurtleff, its first volume, entitled " Papers and Proceedings of the Con- 
necticut-Valley Historical Society;" containing selections from the essays 
and papers contributed and read at its quarterly meetings, nearly all of 
which are of historical and literary value. The volume is published at $2. 
This society has already drawn the attention of scholars and historiogra- 
phers to fields for further historical harvesting; and it is confidently expected 
that its purposes will be aided to accomplishment by the research, and the 
contributions from pens and pockets, of interested co-operators throughout 
the Connecticut Valley. Its meetings have been held, hitherto, sometimes 
in the City Library Building, but generally in the vestry-room of the South 
Congregational Church; but it is hoped that at no distant date, by the 
liberality of wealthy well-wishers, it may be provided with a suitable build- 
ing of its own, wherein to hold its meetings and preserve its library and 

The Springfield Botanical Society was organized April 20, 1877. It 
numbers now about 30 members. Meetings are held weekly at the High- 
school building on State Street, on Friday afternoons at 4^ o'clock, — except 
during July and August, when assemblies are held at the houses of its 
members; and during the winter months, when meetings are temporarily 
suspended. All persons interested in its objects are welcomed at its meet- 
ings. It has an herbarium, which now contains specimens of nearly all the 
ferns to be found in the vicinity, more than 70 species of marine alga, 
and numerous flowering-plants, — in all, nearly 1,000 specimens. Papers on 
botanical subjects are read and discussed at its meetings; and, occasionally, 
rambles a-field are taken, and exhibitions of its collections, with contribu- 
tions, are given to the public. Although its members are few, they are en- 


thusiastic, and are doing much to add to the reputation of the city as a 
scientific centre. 

The Springfield Science Association was organized in March, 1881, "for 
the promotion of scientific knowledge among its members." Capt. (then 
Lieut.) David A. Lyle, of the Ordnance Department of the United-States 
Army, was chosen its first president. He was succeeded, upon his re- 
moval from the city, by Prof. J. H. Pillsbury. F. H. Morgan is chairman 
of the executive committee ; W. W. Colburn, corresponding secretary; and 
Oscar B. Ireland, recording secretary. Meetings are held in the High- 
school building on State Street, on the second Wednesday of each month, 
at which original papers upon scientific subjects are read, and discussions 
had. It also has occasional "field-days ; " and courses of lectures have been, 
and will continue to be, given under its auspices. It is in flourishing con- 
dition, and cannot fail to be of great practical benefit to the community, as 
well as a means of intellectual culture and social enjoyment to its members. 

The Springfield Natural History Society was organized March 17, 18S2. 
for the purpose of cultivating a taste for the study of nature. At first the 
membership was mostly made up of graduates and pupils of the High 
School. After a time others became interested in its work, and it now 
includes among its members several of the professional men of the city. 
Meetings are held on the first and third Friday evenings of each month 
except July and August. At these meetings papers are read on various 
topics of natural history, specimens which have been collected exhibited, 
and observations made by the members discussed. It has contributed a 
large number of specimens to the High-school collection. The second 
meeting of each month is usually devoted to some branch of microscopical 
science. The officers for 1884 are. President, J. H. Pillsbury; vice- 
presidents, Rev. Charles Van Norden, J.J.Walker; corresponding secre- 
tary, Miss Louise Knappe ; recording secretary, F. E. Wheeler; curator, 
C. D. Montague; treasurer, Miss Fanny M.Vilas. Its meetings are held 
in the lecture-room of the High-school building on State Street. 

The Stationary Engineers are represented here by Hampden Lodge 
No. 3. Their object is to aid the members in gaining further knowledge of 
their own line of work, and in elevating themselves mentally and socially. 
At their meetings, held once a week, they exchange views and narrate ex- 
periences regarding different kinds of engines and boilers. Their constitu- 
tion and by-laws make ineligible to membership any person addicted to 
strong drink, or of immoral character, and forbid any participation in strikes. 
The chief engineer is Charles H. Mead; the treasurer, George R. Reed: 
and the recording secretary, J. H. Ford. 

The Hampden District Medical Society is composed of the Fellows of 
the Massachusetts Medical Society residing in Hampden County. It was 



instituted May 30, 1840, under a charter from the Massachusetts Medical 
Society granted to Drs. Joseph H. Flint, William Bridgman, George Hooker, 
Aaron King, Bela B. Jones, Reuben Champion, John Appleton, and L. W. 
Humphreys. The officers are : President, Dr. Stephen W. Bowles ; vice- 
president, Dr. George S. Stebbins ; secretary, treasurer, and librarian, Dr. 
George C. McClean. Its meetings are held, usually, in Springfield, — the 
annual meeting on the last Tuesday of April, and others, from two to four 

during the year, at ap- 
pointed times. At these 
meetings, essays from 
members, designated to 
prepare them, are read, 
and subjects important 
to the medical profes- 
sion are discussed, re- 
ports of interesting 
cases made, and gen- 
eral professional fel- 
lowship cultivated. 

The Hampden- 
County Agricultural 
Society was chartered 
in 1844. Among its 
projectors and original 
corporators were Wil- 
1 Ham B. Calhoun and 
Daniel W. Willard of 
Springfield, and Forbes 
Kyle of Chester, with 
many of the leading ag- 
riculturists of the coun- 
ty. Its declared objects 
were the encouragement and improvement of agriculture and the mechanic 
arts. Its first meeting, under its charter, was held in Springfield, April 9, 
1S44. Its first cattle-show and fair was held in Springfield, Oct. 16, 17, 1S44, 
at which $269 was awarded in premiums. It has since held annual fairs in 
Springfield, West Springfield, Westfield, Holyoke, and Chicopee. In 1856 
sixty acres of land were purchased for the purpose of a fair-ground be- 
tween the Connecticut-river Railroad and the bank of Connecticut River, 
adjoining southerly what is called " Plainfield." This purchase was the re- 
sult of the interest excited by the success of "The Great National Horse- 
Show," held on Federal Square on "The Hill" in 1856. This was the first 

Judge Henry Morris. 


of the kind ever held in the United States. George Dwight was chief 
marshal ; and the equine and human attendance was so remarkable as to 
leave it in history as not only the first, but one of the best to the present day. 
The surplus of receipts over expenditures, together with a very considerable 
sum raised by subscription, was appropriated to the purchase of the above- 
mentioned land, title to which was taken in the name of the society. The 
area was immediately laid out as a show and racing ground, and named 
" Hampden Park." It was held by the society until 1878, when it was sold, 
and passed eventually into the ownership of the present Hampden Park 
Association, by which it is still held. Some of the most extensive horse 
and cattle shows and race-meetings ever held in this country have taken 
place on this ground, under the auspices of its successive owners. Since 
parting with Hampden Park, the meetings and fairs of the society have 
been held at various towns in the county. It now has about 1.000 mem- 
bers. During the nearly 40 years of its existence, it has paid about $20,000 
in premiums. Its presidents have been successively these : William B. 
Calhoun, John Mills, Josiah Hooker, Thomas J. Shepard, Francis Brewer, 
Horace M. Sessions, George Bliss, Chester W. Chapin, Phineas Stedman, 
William Birnie, Eliphalet Trask, George Dwight, Norman T. Leonard, 
William Pvnchon, Chauncey L. Buell, and Ethan Brooks. It has a vice- 
1. resident from each town in the county. Its secretary is, and has been for 
the past 25 years, James Newton Bagg of West Springfield. James E. 
Russell was treasurer for 15 years, when he resigned, and was succeeded by 
the present incumbent, E. S. Batchelder of Springfield. The life-member- 
ship fee is $5.00 for men, $2.50 for women. 

The Hampden Harvest Club was organized in 1857, for scientific and 
social purposes, and the promotion of agricultural interests. It has a mem- 
bership of 20, divided among an almost equal number of towns in the 
county. Its meetings are held, in the winter, fortnightly, at houses of mem- 
bers, where supper is provided by the host of the occasion, and intellectual 
entertainment by the guests, through the reading and discussion of papers 
of interest to the farming community. At each meeting a chairman is 
chosen to preside over the next assembly. The secretary is James Newton 
Bagg, who has served as such since the organization of the club. It has 
proved of social, intellectual, and material benefit to its members. 

The Hampden-County Horticultural Society, organized in January, 
1 86 r , has for its object the promotion of, and improvement in, the cultiva- 
tion of fruits and flowers; and it has been largely successful in its purpose. 
Its first public exhibition, given in June, 1S61, in Union Hall, netted $196, 
and aroused very considerable interest among the people of the county. It 
was followed by others, annually, for several years, with success. Of late 
the public exhibitions have been less frequent, but the interest of its mem- 


bers is said to be unabated. Its first board of officers was : President, John 
B. Stebbins ; vice-presidents, Thomas L. Chapman, George E. Howard, 
and William L. Smith ; secretary, Clark W. Bryan ; treasurer, James Birnia. 
The officers chosen at the last annual meeting were: President, John E. 
Taylor; vice-presidents, Daniel B. Wesson, E. Dickinson, James E. Russell; 
secretary, Dr. T. L. Chapman; treasurer, Gurdon Bill; and sixteen directors, 
viz., Messrs. C. L. Covell, I. P. Dickinson, Richard F. Hawkins, Horace 
Kibbe, Henry S. Hyde, Dexter Snow, Adolphe Mielliez, Mrs. Albert D. 
Briggs, Mrs. B. F. Warner, Mrs. V. L. Owen, Mrs. George T. Bond, Mrs. 
George C. Fiske, Mrs. R. F. Hawkins, Mrs. James E. Russell, Mrs. John 
E. Taylor (since deceased), and Mrs. Charles A. Nichols. 



8rt anti fflustc. 


ART and artists have naturally made their home in Springfield, as befits 
a place so beautiful for situation; and within the last ten years the city 
has earned a reputation for appreciation and patronage of art, and distinc- 
tively of American art, which ranks it, probably, above any other place of its 
size in the country, and, indeed, above most of the minor cities. It supports 
an annual artists' exhibition of a hundred carefully selected paintings from 
New-York studios, possesses one of the finest art-gaileries in the United 
States, has an art association which maintains a school of drawing and 
painting, and numbers a considerable list of intelligent and liberal buyers. 
Among the more notable of the artists who have made their home in Spring- 
field, the first to be named is Chester Harding, a portrait-painter of more 
than national reputation, who resided here for many years, and whose ashes 
rest in our cemetery, distinguished by a monument of freestone, bearing 
upon it a palette and a wreath of bay, with the classical inscription, " Ars 
longa, vita brevisP Mr. Harding, who was a native of Conway in Frank- 
lin County, came to Springfield in 1830, in his 39th year, and four years after 
his return from a prolonged sojourn in England, where- he had won a high 
professional and social standing, and had painted portraits of the Dukes of 
Sussex and Norfolk, the Earl of Aberdeen, Samuel Rogers, and other 
men of rank and note. Mr. Harding was an intimate friend of Daniel 
Webster, and of George Ashmun of Springfield. Mr. Webster gave him his 
recipe for his favorite dish, fish-chowder, and ended with, " Have ready 
good mealy potatoes, beets, drawn butter, and oil, have it all served up hot, 
and then send for Ashmun and me." Mr. Harding painted the full-length 
portrait of Webster that now hangs in Faneuil Hall in Boston, and a por- 
trait of Henry Clay for the City Hall in Washington. He made a journey 
into the backwoods of Kentucky, in order to paint Daniel Boone ; and the 
original picture, the only likeness for which the great pioneer sat, is now 
owned in Springfield. He also painted John Randolph of Roanoke, and the 
brothers Amos and Abbott Lawrence ; and his last portrait was of Gen. 
W. T. Sherman in 1865, to which he gave the last touches at his home in 
Springfield in 1866, a few days before his death. 

William S. Elwell, for a long while a valued and beloved citizen, and 


known in his later years as "The Crescent-hill Artist," was a pupil of 
Chester Harding, and in his prime approached closely the style and color- 
ing of his master. He made several tours as portrait-painter, and on one 
of these journeys painted at Washington, in 1848, the famous and charming 
Mrs. Dolly Madison, widow of the third president of the United States, in 
her old age, and had the honor of her friendship. His portrait of Mrs. 
Madison became the property of William Seaton of "The National Intelli- 
gencer." He made two copies of the Stuart Washington, in Hartford, one 
of which hangs in the common-council chamber in the City Hall, and the 
other in the town-hall of Brimfield, his native place, to which he bequeathed 
it. Mr. Elwell was a clerk in the Treasury Department from 1850 to June, 
1854; and overwork at his desk and in his profession brought on a stroke 
of paralysis in 1855, partially disabling him. Another stroke twelve years 
later confined him to his house, and to a wheeled chair; but in this crippled 
condition he took up a new line of work, and until his death executed the 
most delicate miniature landscapes. He was fitly described as "a person- 
ality of rich and gracious type, and an influence of the sweetest and most 
enduring kind, — that of a spirit maintaining itself clear and true against 
great odds, and giving a lesson to the impatience and triviality of his friends 
which will not be forgotten." He died in 1881, at the age of 71 ; and his 
grave in the Springfield Cemetery is marked by a rough granite bowlder, 
bearing on a palette sculptured on one side his name, and the dates of birth 
and death. 

Among other artists temporarily connected with Springfield, is Willis 
Seaver Adams, who has made the city more than any other place his home 
for the past 16 years. He has studied at the Royal Academy, Antwerp, at 
Munich, and Venice. His last return to Springfield was in 1881, when he 
was immediately recognized as an artist of remarkable genius. Two of his 
paintings, " Morning in Venice," and " Night in Venice," were accepted for 
the exhibition of the National Academy in 18S2; and one, "Spring in 
Bavaria," was in the exhibition of the Society of American Artists of that 
season. He was teacher of the local Art-association classes for a short 
time, and is now in Rome. Joseph O. Eaton, a New-York artist of note, 
spent parts of two or three summers here, painting portraits ; among them 
those of the late Chief-Justice Chapman for the Hampden-County bar (now 
in the County Court-house), of the noted advocate E. B. Gillett, and the late 
railroad-presidents Chester W. Chapin and Daniel L. Harris. T. W. Wood, 
vice-president of the National Academy, and president of the American 
Water-color Society, has likewise painted portraits in this city, during his 
summer vacations ; including that of the late Samuel Bowles for the City 
Library, and its replica for "The Springfield Republican," also of Rev. Drs. 
Samuel G. Buckingham and William Rice. Several artists now have stu- 


dios in the city. Miss Irene E. Parmelee, portrait and figure painter, studied 
with Professor Weir at the Yale Art School, and in Paris with R. T. Fleury, 
Lefebvre, and Cot. Edmund E. Case, landscape-painter, was a pupil at the 
Academy in New York, painted in J. O. Eaton's studio, and in Paris under 
Bouguereau and R. T. Fleury. He has exhibited in the Academy at New 
York. George N. Bowers, portraits and landscapes, studied at the Art 
Students' League in New York, and with Bonnat and Ferrier in Paris : he 
is established as a teacher of drawing and painting. R. L. de Lisser, pupil 
of the Munich school, is the present teacher of the Art-association's classes, 
having his studio in their rooms. R. G. Shurtleff, though not a professional 
artist, paints landscapes with rare beauty and a refined skill. George Har- 
rington has lately set up a studio, and is becoming known as a painter of 

Gill's Art-Store and Galleries are among the famous sights in Spring- 
field; and it is an unquestioned fact, that James D. Gill has made his store 
a true art-centre, and led the public taste by feeding it with the best art of 
the country. He began business in art-books, stationery, and other things, 
in the winter of 1871, in Goodrich Block, having then a partner. Gradually 
increasing the variety and quality of his art-stock, he gained a reputation, 
not confined to the local public, as an intelligent and enterprising dealer. In 
the winter of 1877 Col. James Fairman of New York showed a number of 
his paintings in an exhibition-room fitted up for the occasion ; and the next 
winter Mr. Gill added a larger room adjoining, and gave his first annual 
exhibition of paintings selected from the studios of New-York artists. G. 
W. V. Smith, a connoisseur well known in New York, assisted the enter- 
prise, and himself selected the paintings, — fifty-six in number. — and de- 
voted his invaluable services to make the display a success. The catalogue 
comprised an excellent representation of American art, including a large 
and important work by Frederick E. Church, the first celebrated American 
landscapist. Thirty-six of the paintings were sold. The next year Mr. Gill 
had removed his business to the block on the corner of Main and Bridge 
Streets, built expressly for him by Hinsdale Smith, and containing two art- 
galleries on the second floor, extending to the height of two stories, which. 
for their liberal wall-space, excellent light, and tasteful decoration, are not 
excelled by any others in New England, and will bear comparison with those 
in New York. His second annual exhibition, selected by Mr. Smith and 
Mr. Gill, was opened in these galleries Feb. 1, 1879; anc ^ tne success, both 
in popular attendance and in sales of pictures, was repeated, and, indeed, 
exceeded. The result was, that in two years the people of Springfield, be- 
fore almost unknown as patrons of the fine arts, had taken the first rank 
among the smaller cities ; and they have maintained that position ever since. 
Many of the best works of the leading painters of New York have been 

1 66 


first seen on Mr. Gill's walls, and many of these have remained in Spring- 
field. Among the large works shown as central attractions for the public 

Gill's Art Galleries. 

on these occasions, have been " The Pioneer's Home," by F. E. Church ; 
"In the Autumn Wood," by James M. Hart; Walter Shirlaw's famous 
" Sheep-shearing in the Bavarian Highlands;" Edgar M. Ward's "Tobacco 
Field, Old Virginny; " " La Cigale," by F. A. Bridgman ; and one of George 


Inness's greatest landscapes, — the three last mentioned, before their appear- 
ance in the National Academy. Among works from these sales, owned in 
the city, may be mentioned J. G. Brown's " Pull for the Shore " (a double- 
bank crew of Grand-Manan fishermen); Wordsworth Thompson's "The 
Great Review at Philadelphia, Aug. 24, 1777 ; " A. F. Bellows's " Old Strat- 
ford, Conn. ; " " Reminiscence of Vermont," and " Early Autumn,"' by A. 
H. Wyant; " Scituate Cliffs," by A. T. Bricher; R. S. Gifford's "Dart- 
mouth Moors ; " S. R. Gifford's " The Coming Storm, Lake George ; " " The 
Beach at Flushing, Holland," by M. F. H. de Haas; "Winter Gloaming," 
by T. L. Smith; Winslow Homer's "By the Seaside," and "Peach Blos- 
soms;" "Up the Hill," by James D. Smillie; "The Jungfrau," by H. A. 
Ferguson; "The Camp-Fire," and •• At the Day's End," by Gilbert Gaul; 
and works of Bierstadt, James and William Hart, McEntee, Casilear, Nicoll, 
Arthur Parton, David Johnson, H. P. Smith, Ouartley, Bristol, T. W. Wood, 
W. S. Macy, Shattuck, Hubbard, Van Elten, Guy, Whittredge, and others. 
Of the six exhibitions already held, the summary is as follows: 1878, fifty- 
six pictures shown, thirty-six sold, average price $271 ; 1879, seventy-nine 
shown, thirty-five sold, average $292; 1880, seventy-nine shown, forty sold, 
average $361.25: 1881, eighty-five shown, thirty-nine sold, average $267: 
1882, ninety-two shown, thirty sold, average $323 ; 1S83, ninety-seven shown, 
thirty-six sold, average $298. Total, two hundred and sixteen paintings, 
sold for $65,270. Meanwhile Mr. Gill's galleries are always hung with 
engravings, photographs, and paintifigs, and occasionally occupied by 
special exhibitions, so that they are always contributive to the cultivation 
of the popular taste for art. His seventh exhibition is to occur in Feb- 
ruary. 1884. 

The Springfield Art- Association was established in 1879. Here, as in 
other portions of the country, there had been a wonderful increase of in- 
terest in art and in art-education, owing to the stimulus of the exhibitions 
at the Philadelphia Centennial, and our rapid national growth in prosper- 
ity and intelligence. — an interest that in Springfield, as in many other 
places, was speedily followed by the discovery that opportunities for art- 
study were extremely limited. When the association was started, there 
was already adopted the teaching of mechanical drawing as an adjunct 
to the city high-school, and this has been made very useful and excellent 
under the skilled tuition of Charles A. Emery; but there was no other 
teaching in art. no cast-drawing, and scarcely a chance for more than 
amateur work. The association was formed in public meeting, and was 
incorporated in 1879, with Elisha Morgan as its first president. At the first 
meeting after its incorporation, E. C. Gardner, the noted literary as well 
as practical architect, delivered a fine address concerning the objects of 
the society. His plan was the inclusion of all students and workers in the 


various arts of design, whether for pleasure, self-culture, or serious pro- 
fessional purpose ; lectures relating to art, in general or for specific branches ; 
the gathering of an art-library, the holding of social re-unions from time to 
time, with papers read, or exhibitions given, to increase the interest; clubs 
or classes developing in distinct branches of art, industrial or decorative. 
These and many other things were included in the plan of the projectors of 
the art-association. During its existence the association has lacked the 
necessary popular support ; and its continuance has depended upon a few 
who have liberally bestowed their labor, their influence, and their money, to 
keep it going. Several artists have been employed as its instructors ; and 
the teaching has been nearly all the time of a very good order, and some- 
times quite as good, within its limits, as could be obtained in New York or 
Boston. The association is now officered as follows : President, Elisha 
Morgan; vice-presidents, P. P. Kellogg, W. W. Colburn, Charles Bill; 
treasurer, W. F. Ferry; clerk, Louis C. Hyde; directors, Avery J. Smith, 
Milton Bradley, James D. Gill, W. F. Adams, E. C. Gardner, Chauncey L. 
Covell, Mrs. C. O. Chapin, Mrs. J. S. Hurlbut, Mrs. E. Morgan, Mrs. H. 
S. Hyde, Mrs. A. J. Smith, Miss Isabel P. Newell. The instructor is 
R. L. De Lisser, a pupil of the Munich school, who received in 1874 the 
bronze medal of the Munich Academy. The classes include one for ele- 
mentary teaching, beginning with the flat if necessary, and including geo- 
metrical work, as on cubes, spheres, pyramids, etc. ; an intermediate class, 
beginning with casts of leaves, fruit, etc., and ending with the blocked head; 
an antique class, on casts of the human head, first on features, and then to 
busts and full figures ; a life and painting class, to do still life, and draw and 
paint from the living draped model. There are also evening classes. The 
art association, in the winter of 1S83, held its first annual exhibition of oil- 
paintings, — excellent in the quality of works displayed, and successful in 
popular appreciation. The works shown were by many artists having 
national and even European reputations. The association has now about 
two hundred members, and it seems to be in a fair way to a prosperity where 
it may be able to accomplish the high purposes which its unrivalled oppor- 
tunity opens to its efforts. The association occupies comfortable and well- 
adapted quarters in the Evangelist Building, on the north side of State 
Street, at the corner of Dwight Street. 

Music, like literature, science, and art, has been given considerable at- 
tention here for a place the size of Springfield. Professional concerts, 
operas, and musical entertainments are of frequent occurrence ; and their 
early history is given in a later chapter on "The Sociability of the City." 
The amateur organizations have produced works that are of the highest 
grade, and have performed them in a manner that would be creditable to the 


most noted organizations. Many of the local churches have choirs for 
which they make a liberal expenditure. 

The Orpheus Club is a society devoted to the study and singing of male 
part-songs. It was organized in 1874, on the plan of having an active mem- 
bership of singing-members who attend to the business management of the 
club, and an associate membership of subscribers who, for $10 a season, 
receive five tickets, besides the membership-ticket, to each of the four con- 
certs annually given. No tickets to single concerts are sold. Beginning in 
one of the smaller halls, with a male chorus of 16, the growth of the club 
compelled it to go to the Gilmore Opera House, and then to the City Hall, 
to accommodate its audiences, which of late years have numbered 1,200 
or more, while the singers have been from 30 to 36. Louis Coenen was 
the club's conductor and musical director up to 1879, since which time 
the office has been filled by G. W. Sumner of Boston. Albert Holt held the 
presidency, and Henry F. Trask the secretaryship, from 1874 until 1883, 
when the former resigned, and the latter was elected to fill the vacancy. 
The other officers were, at the start, James D. Safford, vice-president; 
William H. King, treasurer; and Oscar B. Ireland (the present secretary), 
librarian. The vice-president is now Francis D. Foot ; the treasurer is 
James C. Ingersoll ; and the librarian, Henry G. Chapin. Rehearsals take 
place every Tuesday evening from October to May. The club's programmes 
have been made up from the best published male choruses and part-songs ; 
and the club's work has been supplemented by professional assistance, 
sometimes supplied by leading soprano or alto singers of the country, and 
sometimes by noted instrumental performers. Its work has been such as 
to give it a very high rank among shrrilar clubs of the smaller cities, and 
to entitle it to respectful consideration, even in comparison with leading 
clubs of New York and Boston, with whom courtesies are exchanged. 

The Handel Chorus is a musical society numbering from 100 to 125 
ladies and gentlemen, carefully selected and cultured singers, for the study 
and public performance of the best oratorios and other classical concert 
music. It is a continuation of the Conservatory Chorus organized in 
1874, which subsequently took the name of Beethoven Society, but which 
in 1881, with some modifications of its constitution, adopted its present title. 
Its president is Thomas Chubbuck, a city organist and choir-director; and 
the musical conductor is F. Zuchtmann of the Springfield Conservatory of 
Music, and professor of music in Amherst College, — both of whom have 
officially served since 1874. The board of managers are: President Chub- 
buck, E. Porter Dyer, jun., C. C. Burnett, E. L. Janes, and K. A. Dearden. 
This society has steadily maintained a high musical reputation by its pub- 
lic performances of such grand oratorios as Handel's " Messiah,'" Haydn's 
"Creation," Mendelssohn's "Elijah," Costa's "Eli" and " Naaman," and 


other noted works of the great composers, in conjunction with the best solo 
and orchestral talent of the country. The Handel Chorus of Springfield, 
and the Choral Union of Holyoke, have been the nucleus of the societies 
comprising the "Connecticut Valley Musical Association," which has held 
several annual musical festivals, each of three days' continuance, at which 
celebrated oratorios and orchestral symphonies, with choice miscellaneous 
concerts, are given before uniformly large audiences and with gratifying 

The Orchestral Club was organized on May 15, 1875, by n ' ne profes- 
sional and amateur musicians, with George H. Goodwin as president (who 
is still in office), Albert H. Kirkham as secretary and treasurer, and Louis 
Coenen as musical director. Considerable music was bought, and conven- 
ient rooms were fitted up. In the summer of 1876 the club gave three 
concerts a week ; and the following autumn and winter a series of six con- 
certs were given in the City Hall, which, although financially a failure, were 
musically a success. In the autumn of 1877 Mr. Kirkham withdrew ; and 
his successor was H. J. Butler, who was also chosen the business-agent. 
In the autumn of 1878 other withdrawals took place which unfavorably 
affected the club. At this time Southland's Orchestra, which had become 
popular, was also unfortunate in having two of its best musicians taken 
sick, — E. B. Phelps and W. R. Jocelyn. In preference to getting new men 
for each club, a consolidation was made in October, of both ; the name " The 
Orchestral Club" being retained. In April, 1879, Mr. Butler accepted a 
call to the Park Theatre in Boston, where he still performs as contra-bass. 
He is also a member of the Boston Symphony Orchestra. O. L. Southland 
was then appointed secretary and treasurer, and has since continued as 
such. During the autumn of 1880 and the spring of 1881, the club gave 
nineteen concerts on Saturday afternoons, which proved to be successful 
in everyway. On July 1, 1881, Mr. Coenen resigned; and the present 
musical director, R. F. Rollins, was elected in his place. The club has clone 
much to raise the standard of instrumental music, and to train persons for 
professional work. Among those who have gone from this club, besides 
Mr. Butler, are W. T. Herrick (cornet), now at the Boston Park Theatre; 
J. Sheridan (clarinet), at the Boston Museum; and George C. Felker (flute), 
now in Boston. The club's business agent is G. H. Southland; and the 
headquarters are in Room 24, Barnes' Block, No. 396 Main Street. 

The Springfield Tonic Sol Fa Association was organized in April, 
1S83, and takes its name from an English method of teaching vocal music, 
which has been used by Messrs. Seward, Batcheller, and Charmbury in con- 
ducting institutes, singing-classes, and musical instruction in public schools 
in Springfield and its vicinity. This method postpones the reading of 
music from the staff until the pupil has become familiar with intervals and 


scales. The recognition of tones precedes the recognition of the signs of 
tones. Three regular meetings are to be held each year, in October, Jan- 
uary, and April. Professor Thomas Charmbury, teacher of music in the 
West-Springfield public schools, is director of the Choral Union, formed by 
members of the society. Rev. Julius B. Robinson is president of the asso- 
ciation, and Miss A. A. Pease secretary. 

Zuchtmann's Conservatory of Music is conducted by one of the leading 
local instructors in vocal music and the culture of the voice, — Frederick 
Zuchtmann, a German, who received instruction of Walder, Trueutzer, 
Zollner, and Schneider. In 1850 he arrived in Boston, where he received 
pupils, and was organist for several churches. In 1873 ne came to Spring- 
field, and opened a music-school at 345 Main Street. Three assistants are 
now employed. For seven years Mr. Zuchtmann has been leader of the 
glee-club in Amherst College, a position which he resigned the past season 
in order to accept the supervision of music instruction in the public schools 
of this city. He is an enthusiastic conductor of choral societies, and has 
produced here several creditable oratorios. 

Little's Brass Band is named for its originator and leader, E. H. Little, 
a native of Springfield, 111. He came here a dozen years ago, and in 1881 
organized a sextet of brass instruments. This was the nucleus of the pres- 
ent band of twenty pieces, which can, when occasion requires, be increased 
to twenty-six pieces. For three years the band has furnished the music for 
the roller-skating rink. Its services are in greater demand than those of 
any other brass band the city ever had ; and, with its red-and-gold uniforms, 
it makes an attractive appearance. 

Coenen's Orchestra, a new organization, has become known and appre- 
ciated through its series of weekly concerts of high order given during the 
winter of 1883-84. The orchestra numbers ten pieces, half the performers 
being non-residents. Louis Coenen, the leader, was born and received his 
early education in Rotterdam, Holland, and also his musical education partly 
of Vieuxtemps at Brussels. He came to Boston in 1858, and to this city in 
1865. He is a hard worker, always active, and accomplishing more than 
ordinary men. As a violinist, he is a fine performer, and a thorough teacher. 
Most of his pupils, however, are students of the piano and organ. For 
eight years he led the Orpheus Club, and has been organist and choir- 
master at the Church of the Sacred Heart since the organization of the 
parish. As a composer, he is but little known; although he has written 
works for orchestra, piano, and organ. Springfield probably owes more to 
him than to any other person for untiring efforts to raise the standard of 
musical taste in the city. 


CJK ftcltgtous ©rgaimattons. 


ALMOST the first step the settlers of Springfield took was to prepare 
to provide themselves with a house of worship: and this acknowledg- 
ment of a Supreme Being, with all that it implies in the matter of churches, 
charities, and general philanthropy, has ever since been conspicuously para- 
mount among the successive generations. 

Although the predominant denomination is still the old Orthodox, — now 
oftentimes designated Congregational Trinitarian, — there have sprung up, 
and developed into thriving bodies, a variety of denominations; so that, while 
for a long time the town was an Orthodox settlement, it is now almost 
metropolitan in its religious character. That active temperament which has 
characterized the people's movements in all their local enterprises is per- 
ceptible in the development of the local churches. Here we have an aver- 
age of almost one congregation to each thousand of population, and of one 
denomination to each three thousand. The sabbath day, although ob- 
served far differently from what it was in early Puritan days, is nevertheless 
as rigidly observed here as it is in any New-England city of its size. The 
growth of the city, too, can almost be indicated by the increase in the num- 
ber of its religious organizations. And it is proposed in this chapter briefly 
to outline the history of all the existing churches or societies, arranging the 
outlines in the chronological order of the formation of the societies. This 
arrangement gives some idea of the religious development in the community, 
and also indicates the period of introduction of foreign elements, and, fur- 
thermore, how the people, becoming active in mind, seek changes in their 
spiritual as well as in their temporal affairs. 

There are now 32 organizations, which may be classified into denomina- 
tions as follows : ten Congregational Trinitarian, including three chapels or 
missions; four Methodist Episcopal; five Roman Catholic, including two 
French churches; five Baptist, including one colored people's, and two mis- 
sions; and one each of the Protestant Episcopal, Unitarian, Universalist, 
Swedenborgian, Second Advent, French Mission, Zion's (colored) Method- 
ist, and German Union. Among the local architectural structures worthy 
of note, the churches stand out prominently to the credit of the city. A 
view of Springfield from the Arsenal-tower, the Storrs lot, or elsewhere, is 



always bountifully sprinkled with graceful church-spires ; while a closer 
observation of the exteriors, and a visit to the interiors, will make evident 
the fact, that the people endeavor to have their houses of worship somewhat 
characteristic of their own homes and their noteworthy places of business. 

The First Church, or, as it is known legally, " The First Church of 
Christ," and at times " The First Parish Church," dates its history with the 
settlement of the town, when the settlers agreed in writing on May 14, 1636, 

to provide them- 
selves with a min- 
ister of the gospel. 
According to Dr. 
Holland, it was the 
fourteenth church 
organized in the 
Colony of Massa- 
chusetts Bay. It 
was some months 
after this, proba- 
bly in 1637, that 
George Moxon be- 
came the first min- 
ister of Spring- 
field. In 1645 the 
first meeting-house 
was built, about 
where the large 
elm stands, near 
the south-east cor- 
ner of Court 
Square. It was 40 
feet long and 25 
feet wide, faced south, and had two large windows on each side, and a smaller 
one at each end. with a large door on the southerly side and two smaller ones. 
It had a shingled roof, — a rare thing at that time, — and two turrets, one 
for the bell, the other for the watch-tower. This church narrowly escaped 
destruction by Indians in 1675, and was succeeded in 1677 by the second 
house of worship ; a more commodious structure than its predecessor, and 
situated a little farther west, almost within the limits of the present Court 
Square. After 75 years service, this gave way, in 1752, to the next (or third) 
meeting-house. This in turn surpassed the two former structures. It was 
60 feet long by 46 wide, and 26 feet high between joints, and stood directlv 
east of the present edifice, with a main entrance on the east side, and a 

Frst Parish Church, Court Square 


second entrance through the tower. In 1S19 the present (or fourth) church 
was built west of Court Square, on the north side of Elm Street. It is 90 
feet long and 72 feet wide. Its cost, beyond what could be realized from 
the old meeting-house, was not to exceed 515,000, which was to be raised 
by disposing of 300 shares at $50 each. About 1826 the people began to 
weary of carrying to church their foot-stoves, and of trying "to grin and 
bear the cold.'' They accordingly voted to put in a furnace, and also " to 
put in frames of doors covered with flannel, and with hinges on one side, to 
be hung inside of the doors leading into the body of the house." In 1S42 
action was taken toward building a vestry or parish-house. Ten years later, 
came some of those interior alterations which make the difference between 
the old and modern styles of churches. First gas, with gas-fixtures, was 
introduced. In 1854 the old-fashioned high pulpit made its first descent, 
and some years later made its second. In 1862 cushions were put in. In 
1.864 general alterations were made. In 1867 a new chapel was voted for, 
but was not fully consummated until 1872, when, from plans by E. C. Gard- 
ner, the present brick chapel just west of the church was built, chiefly on 
land bought of Dr. Jefferson's church for $8,000. In 1881 still further 
alterations were made : the organ-loft was transferred from front to back, 
the old lowered pulpit replaced by the present desk, the grand organ and 
the handsome brass chandelier put in, and the Holly steam-heating appa- 
ratus introduced. 

A strange custom seems to have prevailed, from the time of the building 
of the first church to the present one, of periodically assigning seats to the 
congregation, " higher or lower," at the discretion of the committee appointed 
for the purpose. In January, 1665, an order of the selectmen is recorded, 
in which it appears that " Hee or shee that shall not take his or her seate 
ordered y m fro tyme to tyme, but shall in ye days or tymes of Gods Publike 
worship Goe into & abide in any other seate, appointed for some other. 
Such disorderly person or persons for ye first offence shall forfeit three 
shillings four pence to ye towne's treasury." It was also ordered that the 
seat called the guard seat should be for smaller boys to sit in, " that they 
may be more in sight of ye congregation." Up to 1751 great care was 
taken to seat the men and women in separate seats. Such have been the 
only four places of worship in nearly 250 years ; and a glance at the record 
of the eight successive settled ministers, until the present, shows that the 
average service was over 30 years. Mr. Moxon was pastor until 1652, when 
he withdrew. Then followed seven years during which the church was un- 
able to secure the services of a settled minister for any length of time, and 
the services were often conducted by laymen. In July, [659, 1'elati.ih Glover 
preached his first sermon, and received ordination June [8, 1661, as the 
second minister of Springfield, and remained as such until his death, .Match 



29, 1692. It was in 1675, during his pastorate, that the town was almost 
wholly destroyed by hostile Indians. The next pastor, Daniel Brewer, a 
graduate of Harvard in 1687, was ordained May 16, 1694, and served 40 
years, until his death on Nov. 5, 1733. 

Three important events during his ministry were the formation of a new 
parish, on the west side of the river, in 1696; the subsequent separation of 
the first parish from the town government; and later, in 1703, the separation 
of the church and parish of Longmeadow. His successor was Robert Breck, 
_________ a graduate of Harvard 

in 1730, at the age of 
17. His ordination 
took place Jan. 26, 
1736; and he, like his 
two predecessors, re- 
mained in office "un- 
to death," being in the 
forty-ninth year of his 
service when he died, 
April 23, 1784. Dur- 
ing this time 331 per- 
sons were admitted to 
full communion. The 
next pastor, Bezaleel 
Howard, was also a 
Harvard graduate in 
1 78 1. He was or- 
dained April 27, 1785, 
and preached until 
1803, when by reason 
of ill health he retired 
from active service, 
but continued nomi- 
nally as the pastor until the ordination of Samuel Osgood, Jan. 25, 1809, 
who held office until Nov. 15, 1854. There is probably good reason for the 
remarkably long service of the settled pastors, when it is considered how 
much effort was put forth to get satisfactory persons. For instance, Mr. 
Osgood was the thirty-seventh who preached on trial between the pastorate 
of himself and his predecessor. Among the thirty-seven was one who had 
been urgently called, and who accepted ; but there was one point to which he 
steadfastly adhered, while the society with equal firmness resisted. He in- 
sisted on the society paying him lawful interest on any arrearages of salary 
that might not be paid at the designated times of payment ; and, as the 
society declined to allow this, he decided not to come. 

The Tnird Meeting-House of First Parish. 


Mr. Osgood was a graduate of Dartmouth in 1805, and received the 
degree of D.D. from Princeton in 1827. At the time of his settlement 
many churches and ministers were drifting away from Trinitarian Orthodoxy 
to Unitarian views, but Dr. Osgood held firmly to the old Orthodox stand- 
ards. In June, 1815, a number of his parishioners more liberally inclined 
withdrew from the church, and petitioned the Legislature for an Act of incor- 
poration as the Second Society of the First Parish of Springfield, claim- 
ing they could no longer profit by Dr. Osgood's ministry. This was granted 
Feb. 15, 1819, and was the origin of the present Church of the Unity. Dr. 
Osgood was succeeded Nov. 15, 1854, by Henry M. Parsons, a graduate 
of Yale, who remained for 16 years, resigning in 1870 to take charge of the 
Columbus-avenue Union Church in Boston, which he left later for a church 
in Buffalo, and still later for a church in Toronto. He, like his successor, 
went away from Springfield very much against wishes of the parishioners, 
who were well pleased with both of these ministers. His successor was 
E. A. Reed, who, although not a graduate of a college, was a successful 
young preacher in New-York State. He was ordained June 14, 1871, and 
remained till July n, 1878, when he accepted a call to the Dutch Reformed 
Church in New-York City. After some months endeavors to find a satis- 
factory pastor, a call was extended to Edward P. Terhune, D.D., who now 
officiates, and with his talented wife (Marion Harland) gives great satisfac- 
tion to the parishioners. He is a graduate of Rutgers College, and was for 
a long time settled in Newark, N.J. Just previous to his settlement in 
Springfield he had been spending several years in Europe in recreation and 

Music, instrumental and vocal, has long been a part of the divine 
service; and the old records show where provision was made for "drum 
call" and a '-bass-viol." They also show that in 1S10 only $15 was pro- 
vided for singing, while now a generous expenditure is made for a choir 
and organist. In 1S48 it was voted to build an organ if subscriptions 
amounting to $1,500 could be raised for that purpose. This was done : and 
th.e first organ was put in in 1S49, which lasted until 1881, when a grand 
organ, costing $8,000, was put in. It was built by Steere & Turner of 
Springfield. It has 51 stops, 2,31 1 pipes, 9 pedal movements, and an infinite 
variety of combinations. It is probably the largest and finest organ in the 

First Methodist-Episcopal Church. — The date of the earliest Method- 
ist church organization is not definitely known According to Rev. Dr. 
William Rice, Bishop Asbury visited Springfield as early as 1 791 ; and he 
was followed by other Methodist itinerants, among whom were George 
Pickering, Thomas Cooper, Nicholas Snethan, and George Roberts, men 
distinguished among the Methodist ministers of that day. A society was 


formed, and services were regularly held at the houses of a Mr. Sikes and 
of Deacon John Ashley. This society, however, soon dwindled, owing to 
death and removals ; and, from 1801 to 1S15, only occasional services were 
held by local preachers living in the vicinity. In 181 5 the society was 
re-organized under the ministry of William Marsh, and the first Methodist 
church gained a permanent foothold in Springfield, although the society was 
connected at first with the Tolland (Conn.) Circuit. In 1819 it became a 
separate church, and Daniel Dorchester was appointed its pastor. During 
this period the meetings were held alternately at the " Water-shops," and 
on the "Hill." At the Water-shops, they were held in the old schoolhouse 
which stood near the corner of Hancock and Central Streets, until it was 
closed against them by vote of the district ; and then, sometimes in private 
houses, and sometimes in a grove. On the " Hill," the services were held 
in the Armory Chapel. Occasional services were also held in the old Court- 
house. In 1820, under the ministry of Moses Fifield, the chapel since 
known as Asbury Chapel was built at the Water-shops. This chapel was 
28 feet by 36, a plain structure, unpainted in the interior, costing about 
$300. In this year, throughout Massachusetts, there were only 15 Method- 
ist churches. In accordance with the usages of the Methodist-Episcopal 
Church, which limits the term of its pastorates, Mr. Fifield was followed by 
T. C. Pierce, and Mr. Pierce by John W. Hardy. In 1823, during the min- 
istry of Mr. Hardy, a new and much larger church-building was erected on 
Union Street, to which the society was transferred, although preaching 
services were held in Asbury Chapel occasionally from 1823 to 1S32. In 
1832 regular services were resumed in Asbury Chapel, in connection with 
the church on Union Street ; two ministers being appointed, although the 
church organization was one. In 1835 the church was divided, and a pastor 
was appointed to each. The ministers at Asbury Chapel from 1835 to 
1844 were: Ebenezer Blake, H. H. White, J. D. Bridge, W. H. Richards, 
E. Potter, J. Flemming, and E. A. Manning. In 1844 a new church was 
organized (now Trinity Church), and a new church edifice erected on Pyn- 
chon Street ; and the membership of Asbury Chapel was transferred to this 
new organization. About 1856 preaching was resumed at Asbury Chapel : 
and the pulpit was supplied by M. Raymond, D.D., principal of the Wes- 
leyan Academy at Wilbraham. 

Florence-street Methodist Church. — In i860 the society whose history 
has been briefly traced in the above introductory sketch was constituted 
once more a separate church, and Samuel Jackson became its pastor. This 
church, therefore, is regarded as the legitimate successor of the first Meth- 
odist church in Springfield. Mr. Jackson was followed by John C. Smith, 
Plinv Wood, and N. Fellows. During the pastorate of Mr. Fellows, a new 
church was built on Florence Street, at a cost of $25,000; and .then the name 

i Grace M. E. Church. 2 Florence-street M. E. Church. 3 Church of the Unity 



of the society was changed to the Florence-street Methodist Church. The 
new church was dedicated in November, 1866, Bishop M. Simpson preach- 
ing the dedication sermon. Mr. Fellows was followed in the pastorate by 
Samuel Roy and Charles D. Hills. During the ministry of Mr. Hills the 
church edifice was thoroughly remodelled and improved, and a new and con- 
venient chapel was erected. Mr. Hills was succeeded by F. K. Stratton, 
\Y. C. High, Joseph Scott, and E. P. King. The present pastor is V. M. 
Simons. The membership in the church is now 192. There is a sabbath 
school connected with the society, with 28 teachers and 272 scholars, and 
about 500 volumes in the library. The Florence-street Church has been 
largely indebted to the liberality of Horace Smith in the erection both of 
its church and its chapel. Mr. Smith also gave the largest subscription to 
the Trinity Methodist Church, and has contributed generously for the erec- 
tion of other churches in the city. 

The First Baptist Church was started early in this century, in the 
Water-shops District, where there had been for some time a few believers 
cherishing Baptist views. These met occasionally for prayer and mutual 
instruction, and were strengthened by visits of some evangelist or mission- 
ary. Their number increased; and May 13, 181 1, they were organized into 
a church with 19 members. Remote from the centre, without means, with- 
out social status, in its weakness and poverty, it struggled on for ten years 
without a pastor, or a settled place of worship, holding its meetings in pri- 
vate houses or in schoolhouses, and only occasionally supplied with preach- 
ing. Yet it grew stronger, and received 17 members by baptism, and 12 by 
letters from other churches. In 1821 it bought a lot near the Upper Water- 
shops, and built a meeting-house 26 by 36 feet. Then, with a membership of 
50 in 1822, it ordained Allen Hough as its first pastor. Ever since that time 
it has had an almost constant growth, with occasional times of apathy and 
retrogression. In Mr. Putnam's six-years service, the church prospered so 
greatly, that its humble sanctuary, which had become too strait for its num- 
bers, was sold, and a more commodious one erected on the corner of Maple 
and Mulberry Streets, which was used by the society until, through the 
enterprise and energy of Mr. Clark, who became pastor in 1846, it was sold, 
and a more eligible site selected in the very heart of the rapidly increasing 
population; and in September, 1847, the present house on Main Street, 
corner of Harrison Avenue, was completed at a cost of about $18,000. Esti- 
mated by the pecuniary ability of the church at that time, such an achieve- 
ment forcibly demonstrated the large faith and liberality of its prominent 
actors. As an instance of this spirit, it maybe mentioned, that one member 
(then quite unknown to the world, but who has since become prominent for 
his large-hearted benevolence, and his liberal gifts to enterprises for intel- 
lectual and spiritual progress) gave nearly one-half of all his possessions to 


aid in the completion of the house. When George B. Ide became pastor, 
the prospects of the church were dark and discouraging. Want of unanimity 
in the settlement and the dismissal of the last pastor had caused divisions 
and alienations. The society was heavily in debt, and the great depression 

in business had discouraged the mem- 
bers, and crippled their means ; and 
many of its stanchest supporters were 
compelled from the latter cause to 
seek homes in the West. By Dr. 
Ide's conciliating and judicious man- 
agement, old divisions were healed, 
the scattered congregation was again 
gathered, and the church once more 
filled. During the first five or six 
years of his ministry, although more 

than ioo heads of families were 
dismissed to join churches in 
Chicago and elsewhere, union 
and harmony were restored, the 
church edifice thoroughly re- 
paired and remodelled, a new 
organ put in at a cost of $2,000, 
and a debt of over $8,000 paid 

off. Many seasons of awakening marked his ministry. In that of 1858. 
136. and in that of 1864, nearly 200, were baptized. An event which has 
hardly a parallel in local church history occurred during the revival of 181.4. 
when, in September, 121 of the church-members, 23 teachers, and over 250 
members of its sabbath school, were dismissed to form the State-street 
Baptist Church; and $12,000 was given them by those who remained with 



the mother church, to help build the new church. Dr. Ide died suddenly, 
April 1 6, 1872, after 20 years devoted service. His successor was George 
E. Merrill, who served nearly four and a half years. During Dr. Anable's 
ministry, in 1878, extensive alterations were made in the church edifice. 
The whole building was raised six feet from its foundation; the floor of the 
lecture-room brought to a level with Main Street; the front portico and 
stone steps were taken away, and their place filled with a solid wall, through 
which, on a level with the sidewalk, large folding-doors open into a vesti- 
bule, where two flights of stairs lead to the audience-room ; and, from the 
vestibule, folding-doors open directly into the lecture-room, or chapel, and 
committee-rooms, which were fitted up for lectures, social meetings, and 
sabbath school. The audience-room was repaired and frescoed, and a new 
baptistery, pulpit, and chandelier added. Since Lester L. Potter of West 
Newton commenced as pastor in December, 1882, the congregation, which 
had become much reduced and scattered, has been gathered together again, 
and largely increased. Its total membership is 1,871. Of these, 19 were 
original members ; 870 were received by baptism, and 982 by letter, experi- 
ence, etc. ; 281 have died; 971 have been dismissed to other churches ; 157 
names have been dropped as unknown ; and 54 have been excluded. The 
present membership is 408. The pastors from the beginning have been: — 


Term of Service. 




By Baptism. 

By Letter. 

Benjamin Putnam .... 

Hiram O. Graves .... 

J. W. Eaton 

Humphrey Richards . . . 

George B. Ide, D.D. . . . 
George E. Merrill .... 
C. W. Anable 






1838 1 

1840 1 

1843 ( 

1 846 J 














Christ Church (Episcopal). — The earliest Episcopal services in Spring- 
field were held in 181 7, by Rev. Titus Strong, rector of St. James's Church at 
Greenfield, in the United-States Armory buildings, in an upper room which 
had been granted by the Government to Col. Roswell Lee, the superin- 
tendent, for use as a chapel. The smallness of the beginning may be best 



realized, perhaps, when we consider that there was but one building for 
religious worship in the town at this time, and that there were but four 
families belonging to the Episcopal Church. Indeed, services were held 

but occasionally for the four years fol- 
lowing ; the organization of a parish 
not being attempted until 1821, when 
the Rev. Edward Rutledge became rec- 
tor, and wardens and vestry were duly 
elected. This settled condition was 
broken up, however, by the resignation 
of Mr. Rutledge at the close of a year's 
ministry, during which confirmation had 
been administered for the first time to five persons. Then ensued a period 
of sixteen years, from 1S22 to 1838, when it seemed as if the devoted labors 
of past years on the part of the struggling few had been in vain. But at 
last, after sundry efforts, regular services were resumed in 1838, the parish 
re-organized, and incorporated under the original name of Christ Church. 


As the first courageous inception of the church in 1S17 ought ever to be 
associated with the names of Rev. Titus Strong and Col. Roswell Lee, so 
this permanent revival must always be traced to the strong personality and 
piety of Rev. Henry W. Lee, son of Col. Lee, who now became rector, and 
whose hand has left its impress upon the parish for all time. After holding 
services in the Town Hall, upon State Street, for a year and a half, the then 
new church-building on State Street was consecrated on April 1, 1S40; it 
having been completed at a cost of $6,500. Henceforward the parish grew 
rapidly; and during Mr. Lee's rectorship of nine years, 144 were baptized, 97 
buried, 84 confirmed, and the 20 communicants increased to 190. In 1847 
he was called to St. Luke's, Rochester, N.Y., and finally became Bishop of 
Iowa; but, large as his life-work was, he nowhere left more lasting results 
of his labor and character than here. Christ Church since 1847 has been 
constant in its growth. The rectors and their period of ministry have been 
as follows : Rev. Henry W. Adams, 1848-49; Rt. Rev. A. N. Littlejohn, D.D., 
now Bishop of Long Island, 1850-51 ; Rev. William S. Child, D.D., 1S51-59; 
Rev. George H. McKnight, D.D., 1859-69; Rt. Rev. Alexander Burgess, 
D.D., now Bishop of Ouincy, 1869-78. The present rector, John Cotton 
Brooks, entered upon his duties in the parish, in December, 1878. The 
church now has 530 communicants, and Sunday schools with a regular 
attendance of upwards of 200 children. The choir consists of 10 men and 
25 boys. In 1851 the first church-building was enlarged to meet the wants 
of the congregation, at an expense of $8,000; and in 1874 the corner-stone 
of a new stone church was laid on Chestnut, near State Street; and on 
the 1 st of May, 1876, the building was completed, with the exception of the 
tower, at a cost of $65,000. It will seat 900 persons. Upon the same lot 
stands the rectory, and it is proposed to erect a parish building for the 
various needs of the congregation. 

The Church of the Unity, on State Street, above Maple, is the house 
of worship of the Third Congregational Society, the Unitarians of Spring- 
field. This society was formed by about 117 members of the first parish, 
who sought an administration of their religious affairs different from, and 
more liberal than, that they enjoyed at the hands of the then minister of that 
parish, and who were incorporated as the Second Congregational Society in 
the First Parish, Feb. 15, 1819; in the following year the name was changed 
to the Third Congregational Society as above given. It is noticeable that 
distinctively Unitarian doctrines were not avowed by the seceders at the 
time of the division in the church, but were adopted by many of the mem- 
bers of the new society during the early part of the ministry of their first 
pastor, William B. O. Peabody. The church first occupied by the society 
was a wooden building at the corner of State and Willow Streets, built for 
and presented to the society by Jonathan Dwight; this was used from Jan- 


uarv, 1S20, to February, 1869; it has since been destroyed by fire. The plate 
deposited in its corner-stone, May 20, 1819, was transferred to the corner- 
stone of the present edifice just 48 years afterward : and the new building 
was dedicated on the 17th of February, 1869. It is of Longmeadow free- 
stone, and was built according to the plans of H. H. Richardson, the Bos- 
ton architect, who was also the architect of Trinity (Episcopal) Church 
in Boston. Its beauty of form and of decoration are almost universally 
admired, and have attracted much attention from travellers, as well as from 
those to whom they are more familiar. The names of Col. James M. 
Thompson, chairman of the building committee, the Rev. Charles A. 
Humphreys, who served as one of its most active members, and the late 
Chester W. Chapin, a member of the committee, and a generous contributor 
to the funds, are worthy of special mention in this connection. The minis- 
ters of the society have been William B. O. Peabody, Oct. 12, 1820, to May 
28, 1847; George F. Simmons, Feb. 9, 1848, to Oct. 12, 1851 ; Francis Tif- 
fany. Dec. 30, 1852, to Jan. 1, 1S64; Charles A. Humphreys, Nov. 29, 1865, 
to Jan. 24, 1872; A. D. Mayo, Nov. 1, 1872, to April 1, 1880; E. B. Payne, 
since December, 18S0. A bust of the first pastor stands in a niche in the 
south wall of the church. 

State-street Methodist-Episcopal Church. — This church is the suc- 
cessor of the Union-street Methodist Church, which was established (as has 
been elsewhere noted in the history of the First Methodist Church) in 1823, 
under the ministry of J. W. Hardy. Mr. Hardy was followed in the pastor- 
ate by D. Dorchester, Daniel Webb, Timothy Merritt, Orange Scott, T. C. 
Pierce, H. H. White, and B. Otheman, — all of them ministers of ability, 
and several of them afterwards distinguished in the history of their denomi- 
nation. From 1832 to 1835 the Union-street Church and the Asbury-Chapel 
Church were united in one organization, but with two ministers, one of them 
being pastor and the other assistant pastor. In 1835 the final separation 
occurred between these two societies. The pastors of the Union-street 
Church subsequent to that date were A. D. Merrill, William Livesey, J. Rice, 
C. K. True, M. Staples, D. Wise, R. S. Rust, A. D. Merrill, W. R. Clark, 
G. Landon, J. W. Mowry, F. A. Griswolcl, M. Dwight, C. P. Bragden, J. M. 
Bailey, O. S. Howe, A. O. Hamilton, Daniel Steele, Isaac Cushman, Nelson 
Stutson, J. Scott, J. H. Mansfield, J. C. Smith, and R. R. Meredith. In 
1 87 1, during the ministry of Mr. Mansfield, an effort was begun for the 
erection of a new church, which was completed and dedicated in 1873, during 
the ministry of R. R. Meredith. The building, which is situated on State 
Street, is beautiful and convenient, and its interior arrangements arc admir- 
able. Its seating capacity is 1,000, and its cost was >7o,ooo. The dedi- 
cation sermon was preached by Bishop Wiley. On removing to the new 
church, the name of the society was changed to the State-street Methodist 


Church. Mr. Meredith was followed by Merritt Hulburd, J. H. Twombly, 
D.D., D. Dorchester, D.D., and W. T. Perrin. The pastor now is W. E. 
Knox. There are two sabbath-schools connected with the church, with 46 
teachers and 400 scholars, and about 1,000 volumes in the library. The 
membership in 1883 was 354. 

St. Paul's Church (Universalist), on the corner of Chestnut and Bridge 
Streets, is a plain brick structure, with commodious auditorium and vestry, 
and convenient parlor and kitchen. The building was erected, and is owned, 
by the First Universalist Society. This organization dates back to 1827, 
when Edmund Allen, Alexander Stocking, Dudley Brown, Israel Phillips, 
jun., Etham A. Clary, and Moses Y. Beach, were incorporated as a religious 
society by the name of the First Independent Universalist Society in 
Springfield, with all the privileges, powers, and immunities to which other 
religious societies in this Commonwealth are entitled. The society were 
authorized to hold property with an annual income not exceeding $5,000, 
and " to raise funds for the purpose of supporting a Universalist minister, 
provided the annual income thereof should not exceed $800." The charter 
was approved Feb. 13, 1827, by Governor Levi Lincoln. The society thus 
formed worshipped, at first, in a chapel on the Armory grounds, in the office 
building, called Government Chapel, and subsequently in Beacon Hall, in 
Gunn's Block, at the corner of State and Walnut Streets. About 1840 the 
society acquired new strength by the adhesion of men like Eliphalet Trask 
and T. W. Wason, and a meeting-house was erected on the corner of Main 
and Stockbridge Streets in 1844. The property was held upon shares: and 
at one time, to prevent dissension by Spiritualists, Gov. Trask bought in all 
the shares, and carried the property himself. The subsequent rise in real 
estate, however, relieved him from loss ; but the church had the use of the 
premises rent free. In 1S69 the present edifice was erected. The church 
was organized by Rev. J. J. Twiss, Feb. 25, 1855. The church and con- 
gregation numbers each about 300. There is a prosperous Sunday school 
under the auspices of the church. The early records of the society have 
been lost. Among the pastors of the church have been the following 
clergymen : Lucius R. Paige, D.D., Charles Spear (" the prisoner's friend"), 
D. J. Mandell, A. A. Folsom, R. P. Ambler, J. W. Ford, J. J. Twiss, Josiah 
Marvin, H. R. Nye, Oscar F. Safford, A. H. Sweetser, George W. Perry, 
and Joseph K. Mason, the present incumbent, who is now serving his fourth 

Olivet Church (Congregational) was organized when Springfield town- 
ship, including Chicopee and Chicopee Falls, comprised the whole territory 
from Longmeadow to South Hadley, — from the Connecticut River on the 
west, to Wilbraham on the east. At that time the " First Church of Christ " 
was on Court Square, the Second at Old Chicopee, and the Third (now the 


I8 7 

Unitarian) at the corner of State and Willow Streets ; and it was believed 
a church was needed " in the Armor}- village on the Hill," for it was a long 
distance for those living on the Hill to go to the existing places of wor- 
ship. Accordingly the Fourth Congregational Church was organized on 
Jan. 8, 1833, securing its first place of worship in the Conference House, 
— a brick building that stood near the corner of High Street and Wood- 
worth Avenue ; and on April 26 following, an ecclesiastical society was 
formed, with Charles Wood as moderator, and Robert G. H. Huntington as 
clerk. Its first church edi- 
fice was erected on State 
Street, in 1834. In 1854 
that was remodelled, en- 
larged, and dedicated Feb. 
22, 1855. In 1878 a new 
vestry, for sabbath-school 
and social purposes, was 
completed, utilizing all the 
space under the audience- 
room. Funds have been 
raised, and plans are now 
under consideration, for 
the enlargement of the 
vestry on the east side of 
the church, to accommo- 
date the increasing num- 
bers of the sabbath school. 

The name Olivet was 
first used in March, 1855, 
in the call extended to 
George DeF. Folsom to 
become pastor, and was authorized by an act of the Legislature bearing date 
March 31, 1875. The pastors and ministers have been as follows: Waters 
Warren (minister), Jan. 8, 1833, to April 8, 1833; Abraham C. Baldwin 
(pastor), Dec. 4, 1833, to Jan. 8, 1839; Ezekiel Russel, D.D. (pastor), May 15, 
1839, to July 17, 1849; Samuel W. Strong (pastor), March 27, 1850, to Oct. 
10, 1852; Henry B. Elliot (minister), Jan. 16, 1853, to Oct. 29. 1854; George 
DeF. Folsom (pastor), May 23, 1855, to Sept. I, i860; W. W. Woodworth 
(minister), Sept. 23, i860, to March 3, 1862; George H. Gould, D.D. (min- 
ister), June 1, 1862, to June 1, 1864; William K. Hall, D.D. (minister), April 
15, 1865, to April 2, 1866; John A. Hamilton (minister), April 1, 1S67, to 
July 1. 1S67; Luther H. Cone (pastor), Oct. 30, 1S67, — in service now. 

"The special object, stated in the very first articles of the church at its 

Olivet Congregational Churrh, State Street. 


organization, was 'the preaching of the gospel in the community, and to pro- 
mote a revival and missionary spirit.' That has been accomplished in good 
degree. The church has been blessed with revivals. The missionary spirit 
has been cherished. Benevolence has increased." The Ladies' Benevolent 
Society has been very active and successful in missionary work, and in 
aiding the ecclesiastical society. Rev. George H. Gould was ordained an 
evangelist in this church, Nov. 13, 1862; and Rev. Charles W. Kilbon was 
ordained a missionary in the service of the A. B. C. F. M., April 10, 1873. 
The sabbath school is only two weeks younger than the church. It began 
with four teachers and twelve scholars, — Charles Wood being the first 
superintendent. It now numbers 340, with average attendance 225, under 
the superintendence of John B. Chapman. During the last 15 years alone, 
the average of benevolent contributions for each year has been in round 
numbers $1,000, or $15,000 nearly, without reckoning what has been raised 
for the support of worship, enlargement of vestry, and necessary repairs. 
The whole number connected with this church from its organization to the 
present has been 995, and the number of members now on the catalogue is 
348. Of the original 19 members, only four survive, — Mrs. Persis Burn- 
ham and Mrs. Ruth Kilbon, members of Olivet Church ; Robert G. H. 
Huntington of Rochester, N.Y. ; and Miss Eunice Morgan of East Long- 
meadow, Mass. 

The South Congregational Church, corner of Maple and High Streets. 
This church and parish were organized in 1S42. It was an offshoot from the 
First Church, and was required by the growth of the town, when the rail- 
roads began to enter it. Among those first interested in its organization 
were Rev. Sandford Lawton, Chief-Justice Chapman, William Stowe (editor, 
and for a number of years clerk of the Massachusetts House of Representa- 
tives), G. and C. Merriam (the publishers of Webster's Dictionary), H. and J. 
Brewer (the old firm of druggists), Philip Wilcox, Henry Adams, Elijah Bliss, 
and a few others ; to whose help there soon came such men as Thomas 
Bond, Daniel Bontecou, Edward Morris, Samuel Reynolds, Daniel L. Harris 
the civil engineer and railroad manager ; and the success of the enterprise 
was determined. Noah Porter, jun., was the first pastor, from 1843 to 1S47, 
when he was called to the professorship of mental and moral philosophy in 
Yale College, of which he is now the president. His successor was the 
present pastor, Samuel G. Buckingham, D.D., who was installed June 16, 
1847, and who, during his 36 years' pastorate of this society, has fairly earned 
his reputation of being one of the most dearly beloved men in the Common- 
wealth. The church, which was organized with 40 members, now has a 
membership of 422. Eli H. Patch, George H. Deane, Emery Meekins, and 
J. Stuart Kirkham are its present deacons. Services were first held in the 
little old court-house on Sanford Street. The first house of worship was 

Maple and High Streets. 


erected on Bliss Street, and, with the chapel, cost less than $10,000. The 
present church edifice, completed in 1874, with its new and more desirable 
location, cost about $145,000, and is regarded, in point of durability, con- 
venience, and beauty, as a rare specimen of church architecture. The two 
large windows, with their mosaic glass, the unique and effective organ- 
front, the great amount of wood and stone carving, and the convenience 
of the chapel arrangements, are worthy of examination. 

Trinity Methodist-Episcopal Church. — The Trinity Methodist Church 
occupies a fine brick edifice on the north side of Bridge Street, east of Main 
Street. This church was organized in 1844, and numbered at that time 
about forty members, principally from the Union-street Methodist Church. 
The small membership of the old Asbury-chapel society also transferred 
their relation temporarily to the new organization. The early services of 
the new society were held in the grand-jury room of the court-house, and in 
the Worthington-street grove. Its first church was erected on the north side 
of Pynchon Street, a short distance west of the Haynes Hotel, where it still 
stands. This building was finished and dedicated in March, 1845, when the 
dedicatory sermon was preached by Rev. Dr. S. Olin, president of the Wes- 
leyan University. The first pastor was Jefferson Haskell, who was followed 
by G. Landon, M. Trafton, I. A. Savage, J. D. Bridge, and F. H. Newhall. 
During the pastorate of Mr. Newhall, the church was enlarged and very much 
improved. He was followed by J. Hascall, the first pastor, who was returned 
to this church for a second term. Mr. Hascall was succeeded by M. Traf- 
ton, who was also returned for the second time ; and he was followed by 
N. Stutson, J. S. Barrows, A. McKeown, W. R. Clark, and C. D. Hills. In 
1869, during the ministry of Mr. Hills, — the old church having again be- 
come too small, and unsuited to the demands of the society, — the present 
handsome church edifice was erected on Bridge Street, and the name of the 
society was changed to the Trinity Methodist-Epi-scopal Church. The 
church is in the Romanesque style of architecture, 122 feet long and 74 feet 
wide, with a tower and spire 185 feet high. Its cost, including land, was 
$73,000. The pastors here have been C. D. Hills, J. O. Peck, D.D., Merritt 
Hulburd, S. F. Upham, D.D., and F. J. Wagner. Their pastor now is 
Frederick Woods. There is a Sunday school connected with the society, 
with 38 teachers and 377 scholars, and a library of about 1,000 volumes. 
The church-membership, in 1883, was 447. 

The Sanford-street Congregational Church (colored) was the outgrowth 
of an independent church known as the Zion's Methodist, which was for 
several years aided by liberal contributions from both Congregationalists 
and Methodists. It is a fact of some historic interest, that the famous 
John Brown, subsequently called " Ossawatomie Brown," while residing in 
Springfield as a wool-merchant, from 1846 to 1849, was a frequent attendant 

On Budge Street. 


at this church. By an almost unanimous vote, on the 23d of February. 
1864, it was re-organized as a Congregational church. The articles of faith 
presented by the church were approved, and the recognition of the Congrega- 
tional churches was given by Rev. E. B. Clark of the First Church in Chico- 
pee. The council then ordained and installed William W. Mallory of New- 
Haven, Conn., as the pastor. The introductory exercises were conducted 
by Rev. H. M. Parsons ; Rev. J. W. Harding of Longmeadow offered the 
ordaining prayer ; Rev. Dr. E. Davis gave the charge to the pastor; Rev. 
S. G. Buckingham, of the South Church of this city, gave the right hand of 
fellowship ; the charge to the people was by Rev. Roswell Foster. The 
longest pastorates have been those of W. W. Mallory, Samuel Harrison, 
and John H. Docher. The church has an aid society, and the ladies have 
a missionary society auxiliary to the Woman's Board. The present mem- 
bership of the church is about 50. Their house of worship is owned free 
from debt. 

St. Michael's Cathedral is the outgrowth of meetings held in 1846 by 
the Roman Catholics of the town. For a few months they used Military 
Hall for their services ; and early in 1847 they bought the then unoccupied 
Baptist church building, at the corner of Maple and Mulberry Streets, mov- 
ing it down to Union Street, a few rods east from Main Street, where they 
christened it St. Benedict's. G. T. Riorden was the first pastor, and the 
society numbered 800. His successor was J. J. Doherty, who was succeeded 
by M. Blenkinsop. He, in turn, was soon displaced, in 1857, by M. P. Gal- 
lagher, whose pastorate of 12 years was a period of marked prosperity in 
the parish. The society trebled its numbers in a few years, and the hand- 
some St. Michael's Church on State Street was built and consecrated. 
Father Gallagher thoroughly enjoyed his untiring work for the parish, 
although he did not live to see the church of his building made the seat of 
a diocese. He died June 1, 1869, beloved by his people, and respected by 
the whole city, and was buried beside the main entrance to the cathedral. 
Thomas O'Sullivan succeeded him; and at his death, Sept. 14, 1870, the 
parish passed into the temporary charge of Fathers Haley of Chicopee and 
McDonald of Boston, until Sept. 25, 1S70, when P. T. O'Reilly was con- 
secrated first bishop of the newly created diocese of Springfield. The 
first settled pastor of St. Michael's, under the new regime, was J. J. McDer- 
mott. His successor was C. E. Burke, who was ordained at Troy, May 25. 
1872. After ten years he was transferred to North Adams ; and William 
H. Goggin, who has been connected with the parish for several years, suc- 
ceeded him. Father Goggin's assistants are G. H. Dolan and William 

The cathedral building, completed in i860, and consecrated in 1867, is 
on State Street, at the corner of Elliott Street. It is of brick, with stone 



trimmings. Its length is 175 feet, and its width is 105 feet at the transepts, 
and the height of its spire is 190 feet above the street. The interior is 
elaborately and costly finished. On the ceiling are four large circles fres- 
coed with scenes representing the life of the Blessed Virgin Mary, — 1. The 

St. Michael's Cathedral, State Street. 

Espousal: 2. The Annunciation; 3. The Nativity; and, 4. The Flight into 
Egypt, — and two large panels, one over each transept gallery, represent our 
Lord blessing little children, and the expulsion of rebellious angels from 



heaven. The high altar is of pure marble; the tabernacle is a fine piece of 
workmanship ; and in the panels back of the main altar are five oil paintings, 
— "The Agony in the Garden," "Carrying the Cross," "The Crucifixion.*' 
"The Resurrection," and "The Ascension." The altar of the Blessed 
Virgin Mary is richly carved, and above it is a statue of the Virgin ; and in 
a canopy above are represented Virtue, Humility, Charity, and Mercy; and 
above all is a large painting of the Holy Family. The other altar is similar, 
and is dedicated to St. Joseph, a statue of whom is above it, and over which 
is a fresco of Christ healing the ruler's daughter. The semicircular ceiling 
over the organ has a picture of David playing the harp. The organ was 
built by E. & G. G. Hook (now Hook & Hastings), the celebrated church- 
organ builders of Boston. The church contains 380 pews, with seats for 
about 2,000 persons. In a niche on the outside of the tower is a life-size 
statue of St. Michael, a spear in hand, and the dragon at his feet. 

The Evangelical Religious Society of Indian Orchard is the later out- 
growth of what, March 23, 1848, was organized, with 15 members, as " The 
First Congregational Society of Indian Orchard," and whose first pastor was 
L. H. Cone, who served until 1855, and who is mentioned elsewhere as the 
pastor of Olivet Congregational Church. The Ward Manufacturing Com- 
pany, in 1856, deeded to the First Society two lots on the north side of Main 
Street, corner of Oak; and in 1863 a church building was completed. Soon 
after this the society became disorganized, and the building passed first into 
the hands of Harvey Butler, and from him to the Indian Orchard Mill 
Company, who own it now. Feb. 10, 1865, a meeting was called by n 
persons, to organize a church ; and a week later they, joined by members of 
the former First Church, formed the existing society, and chose Mr. Rice 
as their first pastor; and, after several changes, F. M. Sprague became, on 
Dec. 1, 1879, the pastor, and has remained there since. The church has 
an average attendance of 150 members, and a Sunday school of 125 pupils. 

The North Congregational Church, at the corner of Salem Street and 
Salem Avenue, is one of the newest and most attractive of the local church 
edifices. It was designed by the architects of Trinity Church in Boston, 
and also of the South Congregational Church in Springfield. The material 
is freestone ; the style is Norman, and the shape is cruciform, with a massive 
tower in the angle between the nave and south transept. West of the tower, 
on the south side of the nave, is a cloister; on the north side, is a chapel 
seating 150 persons. The pulpit is in a chancel : above and behind it is the 
organ-loft, with the gallery for the choir. The nave is 100 feet long by 44 
feetwide. The chapel is 56 by 18 feet. The tower is 150 feet high. The cost 
of the building, including the chapel, was $53<39 8 "> and of the land ' £26,000. 
The last was bought in 1871, and the new church dedicated on Sept. [8, 
1873, the sermon being preached by the Rev. Dr. Joseph Parker of London. 


J 95 

The society dates back to 1846, and is practically the fifth Congregational 
church of Springfield. The first minister was Robert H. Conklin of War- 
saw, N.Y. The first pastor was Raymond H. Seeley of Bristol, Conn., who 
was installed March 1, 1849, and dismissed Jan. 26, 1858, to take charge of 

North Congregational Church, Salem Street and Salem Avenue. 

the American Chapel in Paris, France. His successors here have been 
James Drummond of Lewiston, Me., June 16, 1858, to December, 1861 ; L. 
Clark Seelye of Amherst, Jan. 20, 1863, to May 31, 1865 ; Richard G. Greene 
of Drooklyn, N.Y., May 13, 1866, to October, 1S74; Washington Gladden of 
Brooklyn, Jan. 2, 1875, to May, 1883 ; C. Van Norden of St. Albans, Yt.. who 
was installed May 31, 1883, is now the pastor. At first, public services 


were held in Frost's Hall, the third story of a building on the corner of 
Main and Sanford Streets. In October, 1847, the society hired for the 
winter the edifice known as the " Free Church " in Sanford Street. In Sep-' 
tember, 1847. a lot on the south-east corner of Main and Worthington Streets 
had been bought on which to erect a chapel; but two months later it was 
decided to sell this lot, and buy a site on the west side of Main Street, north 
of Bridge Street. Here the society's first building was dedicated March 1, 
1849, on the day that its first pastor was installed. In 1871 this property 
was sold for $46,000, and the site of the present church, above described, 
was bought. The society began with a membership of 22: in 1883 it has a 
membership of about 450. The Sunday school was organized in 1846, with 
George H. White as superintendent. It is still successfully conducted, with 
an average attendance of 200, superintended by W. F. Ferry. 

The Spiritualists' Union holds its meetings at 11 and 7 P.M., on Sundays, 
from Oct. 1 to May 1 of each year, at Gill's Hall, on Main Street, corner of 
Bridge Street. Some of the phenomena of Spiritualism are shown at these 
meetings, and its philosophy is discussed from the platform. The attend- 
ance is said at times to reach 500. 

The president of the society writes as follows: "The society has no 
written creed. Morality, honesty, temperance, chastity, and help for the 
afflicted, are among the cardinal principles of its members. They think it 
is better to love humanity than to love God. They believe in the revela- 
tions of science rather than in the 'so-called ' revelations of the Christian 
Bible. In frequent converse with their friends who have 'passed on,' they 
do not fear death, but greet the change as a great blessing, when the spirit 
can no longer hold itself in the dissolving body. Their last hours are often 
made bright by visions of their waiting angel friends." 

The society had its beginning about the year 1850, and is now managed 
by a stock-company, organized under the General Statutes of Massachusetts. 
The officers for 1883-84 are: H. A. Budington, president; James Lewis, 
vice-president; John S. Hart, clerk; James U. Johnson, treasurer. These, 
with a board of managers and committees, attend to the details of the meet- 
ings. The society is in a prosperous condition, and is constantly receiving 
many additions. 

The New-Jerusalem Church. — The Springfield Society of the New 
Jerusalem — more commonly known as the Swedenborgian — was instituted 
March 27, 1853 (seventeen persons uniting to form it), for this use : — 

" The worship of our Lord Jesus Christ in his divine humanity, the only 
God of heaven and earth, and other than whom there is no Saviour. The 
study of his word, that we may in verity shun all evils as sins against him, 
and may obey his commands, in his strength, thus enabling him to build us 
up in true spiritual manhood, — the only image and likeness of himself in 



which he creates us, and in which we can work with and for him, either on 
the earth or in the heavens." 

This society has had 40 members. They met at each other's homes, and 
in the " Studio" on Chestnut Street, till March 3, 1869. when they dedicated 

New-Jerusalem Church, Maple Street. 

the chapel on the east side of Maple Street, near the corner of State, which 
they now occupy, with sittings for over 100. The average attendance, how- 
ever, is much below that number. They have never had a settled minister. 
The services, which are conducted by different clergymen or students, and 
to which all are cordially welcomed, are sustained wholly by voluntary 


The Second Advent Church was organized in i860; built a house of 
worship on Vernon Street in 1867; was burned out in 1875; and now holds 
regular Sunday services in Franklin Hall (formerly the Pynchon-street 
Methodist-Epi6copal Church), on Pynchon Street. The congregation num- 
bers about 300, and the Sunday school 100. Its present pastor is Elder 
George H. Wallace, formerly of Castleton, Vt. ; and its Sunday-school super- 
intendent, T. R. Weaver. Its pastors have been Elders Joseph O. Curry, 
Randolph E. Ladd, F. H. Burbank, William N, Pine, H. E. King, and George 
W. Sederquest. 

St. Matthew's Roman-Catholic Church at Indian Orchard, at the corner 
of Worcester and Pine Streets, was organized in 1863, under Father William 
Blenkensop. The next year Bishop O'Reilly officiated at the laying of the 
corner-stone. Father Patrick Healy then took charge, and during his term 
the church was completed. The successive pastors have been P. D. Stone, 
D. F. McGrath, James Fitzgerald, and John Kenney. The parish now 
numbers about 900. 

The State-street Baptist Church was organized Aug. 17, 1864, with 131 
members, all but ten of whom were dismissed from the First Baptist Church 
of this city. This church originated not in a quarrel with the parent church, 
but from necessity. At the sale of pews in the First Baptist Church, in 
April, 1864, a large number of families were unable to obtain sittings for 
themselves; and on the 10th of the same month, a meeting of the society 
was called to consider the situation, and to provide for those without church 
privileges. This meeting was called to order by the pastor, the late Dr. 
George B. Ide, and Deacon J. E. Taylor was made chairman. The meeting, 
with great unanimity, voted to permit such members as desired, to hold 
separate meeting and obtain preaching in some suitable hall, under the 
name of " The Colony of the First Baptist Church.'' This arrangement 
continued, and the " Colony " as such prospered till its organization as a 
church. The pulpit was supplied by various individuals, without any set- 
tled pastor, till Jan. 1, 1S65, when A. K. Potter of South Berwick, Me., 
began his pastorate of this people, which lasted till Feb. 18, 1883. This 
church has been vigorous from the start, and has had a prosperous career, 
both as to numbers in its congregations and members of its church, as well 
also as in its pecuniary success. Just after the settlement of a pastor, a 
lot was secured, money raised for a church edifice, which was completed and 
dedicated in December, 1S67. The building, with the site, cost $60,000, 
upon which was a debt at the time of its dedication of $12,500, but which 
has since been paid. This church employs the weekly payment by envelopes 
to defray its current expenses, and by this means has met all its bills, and 
has had not less than $200 surplus at the close of each year. During the 
20 years of its existence, it has dismissed some 75 of its members to form 



the First Baptist Church of West Springfield; and has also assisted them 
to the amount of some $4,000, in building their house of worship. 

State-street Baptist Church has 
its roll, about one-half of whom 

Rev.W. H. P. Faunce,ayoung 
ise. in the latter part of 1883 ac- 
come their pastor, and is to enter 

The Hope Congregational 
mission Sunday school started 
of the South Congregational 
Sunday afternoon, they stopped 
a colored woman, on Ouincy 
religious services were held in 
to open a Sunday school. Mrs. 

had nearly 1,450 members upon 

still retain their membership. 

man of marked ability and prom- 

cepted a unanimous call to be- 

upon his labors in June, 1884. 

Church is the outgrowth of a 

by two young men, members 

Church. Walking out one 

at the house of a Mrs. Brown, 

Street ; and, learning that no 

the vicinity, it was proposed 

Brown tendering the use of 

State-street Baptist Church. 

a room in her house, a school was opened, and the first session held in 

January, 1865, with an attendance of 16 scholars. The attendance incri 

so that it became necessary to provide larger quarters; and a barn was 


bought and fitted up on Union Street. This soon proved to be too small ; 
and the friends of the enterprise, who had become numerous, soon raised 
the means for the erection of a comfortable building on Union Street, which 
they named Hope Chapel, and dedicated it in July, 1870. In addition to 
the Sunday school, weekly prayer-meetings had been sustained; and, after 
opening the chapel, Sunday-evening services were held, with preaching by 
local pastors and others. In 1875 Charles L. Morgan, who had preached 
occasionally, was engaged to preach for one year; and, before the year 
closed, it became evident that a church organization could be sustained : 
and in March, 1876, a council was called, a church organized, and Mr. 
Morgan ordained as pastor. He remained till Nov. 1, 1880, when he ac- 
cepted a call from Green Bay, Wis. Rev. David Allen Reed, then at 
Auburn Theological Seminary, accepted a unanimous call ; and June 7, 
1881, was ordained, and entered at once upon the duties of pastor. In 
1877 the chapel was removed to the corner of State and Winchester Streets. 
It had been enlarged at times; and still being too small to accommodate 
the numbers who desired to worship here, and the Sunday school being 
excessively crowded, it was decided to make an effort to build a church on 
the site of the chapel. On Sunday, March 19, 1882, the pastor preached 
a sermon, giving a brief history of the past, and the needs of the church 
and Sunday school. In response to his appeal for subscriptions, $13,000 
was raised on the spot, which was largely increased by gifts from friends. 
Plans were secured, and the preliminaries settled; and on the 24th of Sep- 
tember, 1882, the corner-stone of the new church was laid, and the new 
church became ready for occupancy in October, 1S83. As the result of 
an effort to free the church from debt, $15,000 was raised at this time, and 
the whole debt removed. The new building is of brick and wood, in the 
low rambling style of English architecture, and cost about $26,000. The 
architects were Francis R. Richmond and B. Hammett Seabury. A mission- 
school under the auspices of this church is successfully sustained in White 
Street, numbering about 100 (noticed later in this chapter). The member- 
ship of the church is over 400 ; and, of the Sunday school, 700. 

The Memorial Church, so called in love to the memory of the deceased 
ministers of New England, was organized Oct. 29, 1865, as a union evan- 
gelical church. The church was recognized by an ecclesiastical council of 
neighboring churches. The Rev. Mark Trafton supplied the pulpit for 
one year as acting pastor. The Gothic stone edifice on Round Hill, at the 
junction of Main and Plainfield Streets, was built at the cost of $100,000; 
and the parish is free from indebtedness. It was opened for the worship of 
God, March, 1869. The present pastor, W. T. Eustis, was installed June 
3, 1869, in the presence of an ecclesiastical council representing the evan- 
gelical churches of the county, and also of churches in other States. The 
principles of the church are expressed in the following resolutions : — 


Adopted Oct. 29, 1866. 

Resolved, That the Memorial Church of Springfield, having declared in its creed its belief in the 
Holy Catholic Church, welcomes to its membership and communion all who love the Lord Jesus Christ 
in sincerity and truth, and who agree with it concerning the essential doctrines of the Christian religion, 
1 iy whatever name they may be called. 

Adopted Oct. 27, 1867. 

Whereas, The Memorial Church, in its plan of organization, declares that it will seek the relations 
of Christian fellowship with other evangelical churches by the mutual transfer of members, by minis- 
terial exchanges, by sacramental communion, by mutual councils, and by all suitable modes of co- 
operation ; 

Resolved, That, in its action in pursuance of these principles, it does not intend to merge itself in 
any denominational organization. 

The church at present has a membership of 350, a large and growing 
congregation, and a Sunday school with over 400 scholars. 

Grace Methodist-Episcopal Church. — In the autumn of 1866 the ques- 
tion of forming a Methodist church, to be located on Main Street south 
of State Street, — there being no Methodist church in that section of the 
c ity ; — was agitated. As a result, on Jan. 1, 1867, 29 members of the then 
Pynchon-street — now Trinity — Methodist-Episcopal Church were organ- 
ized as a society to be known as the Central Methodist-Episcopal Church. 
Edw. Cooke, D.D., principal of the Wesleyan Academy at Wilbraham, 
Mass., was their first minister ; and the first service was held on the first 
Sunday of January, 1867, in Union Hall. The same day a Sunday school 
was organized. In April, 1867, the Rev. C. A. Merrill became their pastor. 
At this time several of the original members, discouraged by the slow 
growth, proposed to give up the organization, and decided to withdraw. 
Those who remained, believing that a church was needed in that part of the 
city, again engaged the Rev. Dr. Edw. Cooke to supply the pulpit for a 
year. Jan. 1, 1869, the society changed its place of worship to Institute 
Hall, and in the following June rented the old Universalist Church. In 
April, 1870, the Rev. C. T. Johnson became pastor; but, his health failing, 
he was obliged to resign in October, 1871. J. R. Tiddy was his successor, 
and served till his death, Nov. 2, 1872. John A. Cass followed as pastor, in 
December, 1872, which position he filled till April, 1876. During his pas- 
torate the present fine house of worship, situated at the corner of Main and 
Winthrop Streets, was built, and the name of the society was changed to 
the Grace Methodist-Episcopal Church. The building is Norman in its 
architecture, of brick, with stone trimmings, and is one of the finest church 
edifices in the city. Its seating capacity is 900; and cost, with furnishings 
and organ, $72,000. It was dedicated Jan. 20, 1875, by Bishop Thomas 
Bowman, D.D. The other pastors have been E. A. Smith, J. O. Knowles, 
S. B. Sweetser, and the present incumbent, T. W. Bishop. The present 
membership is 192. The Sunday school has 30 teachers and 300 scholars. 


This is the last formed of the local Methodist-Episcopal churches. The 
building is one of the most attractive ; and its erection is due largely to the 
generous gifts of the late David Smith and his son William H. Smith, and 
Elijah Nichols. 

Memorial Church, on North Main Street. 

The Third Baptist Church (colored), of which Thomas Henson is pastor, 
worship in the old Town Hall, corner of Market and State Streets. It was 
organized in 1871 as the Pilgrim Baptist, with 16 members; and re-organized 
under its present name February. 1 881. It has a membership of about 120. 


a sabbath school of 130, and a congregation of over 200. Its pastors, up to 
the present incumbent, have been Spencer Harris, Peter Smith, Moses 
Mathews; its various places of worship, Institute Hall, South Church 
Chapel, Union Hall, and Town Hall. There is at present a growing in- 
terest in its membership. 

The Church of the Sacred Heart was formerly included in the parish of 
St. Michael's ; but in 1873 the parishioners had so greatly increased that one 
church no longer sufficed ; accordingly the bishop divided it, and decreed 
that all Catholics living north of the Boston and Albany Railroad — now 
numbering about 4,000 — should form the parish of the Sacred Heart. 
Rev. J. J. McDermott has had charge of it since its organization, assisted 
by Rev. James F. Fitzgerald until his death, Nov. 24, 1880; then by Rev. 
James Boyle until June, 1881, since which time Rev. M. J. Howard has 
been the assistant. The parish at present holds services in a hall in the 
brick Catholic-school building known as the Notre Dame Convent, on 
Everett Street, which was dedicated as a church by the Right Rev. P. T. 
O'Reilly, June 14, 1874, the first services being held Easter Sunday, April 
5, 1874. The church has bought land on Chestnut and Linden Streets, on 
which it hopes, in the course of the next two or three years, to erect a 

St. Aloysius Church at Indian Orchard was organized March 3, 1873, 
with a membership of 180 French Roman-Catholic families. The first 
services were held in the hall of the Indian Orchard Mills Company, who 
later, through the efforts of their agent, C. J. Goodwin, presented to the 
society the piece of property on Main Street, where the church now stands. 
The erection of the church, 95 feet long and 55 feet wide, was immediately 
begun, and the corner-stone laid Aug. 5, 1873, w ^h appropriate ceremonies; 
Bishop Fabre of Montreal officiating. Services were first held there Dec. 
2 5> 1873. Rev. L. G. Gagnier had charge until Jan. 5, 1876, when the pres- 
ent pastor, H. Landry, assumed the care of the parish, which now claims 
about 2,000 persons, including French Catholics at Jenksville. His assist- 
ant is A. J. Charland. In 1877 a commodious parsonage was built, adjoining 
the church. 

St. Joseph's Church was organized for French Roman Catholics in 
March, 1873, with a membership of 240 families, under the direction of the 
present pastor, Rev. L. G. Gagnier. Two months later, May 5, the society 
purchased a building-lot and a house on Howard Street, near Water ; and 
July 7 the foundations of the church were laid. The basement was roofed 
in, and occupied for divine worship from November, 1873, until July, 1877, 
when the erection of the whole structure was successfully completed. It is 
built of brick, in a simple but imposing style of architecture. The dimen- 
sions of the building are 144 feet by 65 feet, including the tower. The base- 



ment is 14 feet high, and the side walls of the main building are 21 feet 
high, with a clear-story that gives a central aisle of 52 feet from floor to 

ceiling. The tower and steeple 
are 172 feet high. The net cost 
of the property as it now stands 
is about $60,000. The member- 
ship is over 400 families. A pa- 
rochial school, under the direc- 
tion of the Sisters of St. Joseph, 
is soon to be in operation. 

St. Josephs Church, Howard Street. 

Brightwood Chapel, on the corner of Birnie and Wason Avenues, is an 
attractive little structure, built in 1879, by subscription, to meet the local 
wants of 30 to 40 families at Brightwood. Any who accept the essential 
doctrines of the Christian religion are in accord with this church. Preach- 
ing is for the most part gratuitously supplied by ministers of different 


denominations in the vicinity. Its Sunday school ranges from 50 to 75, 
and Mrs. Albert F. Blodgett is the superintendent. 

Faith Chapel, on Long Hill, at the junction of Fort Pleasant and Sum- 
ner Avenues, is two miles from the City Hall, a convenient and tasteful 
structure, that cost $7,000. It is one of the South-Church mission enter- 
prises, like Hope Chapel (which has now become Hope Church), and was 
designed to provide for the sparse population of that part of the city, until 
a church shall be required there. A Sunday school is sustained, and re- 
ligious meetings. And when the growth of the city reaches that hill, as it 
is likely to do, this chapel will be found well located for its purposes, and 
capable of supplying the religious wants of that community for a consid- 
erable time. Some of the views from that hill, particularly from the " Storrs 
lot," and from a point farther north, opposite the " Burbank cottage," are 
among the finest in the city. 

The Carlisle Mission owes its beginning to Miss Mary Worthington, 
formerly a teacher in the schoolhouse at the corner of the Boston road and 
Benton Street. It was opened Sept. 20, 1868. Laborers from the First 
Baptist Church have never been wanting to assist in the work. The super- 
intendents have been George A. Lawrence, O. S. Greenleaf, S. F. Merritt, 
A. J. Rand, H. H. Bowman, and F. M. Tinkham who has charge in 1883. 
The Sunday school now numbers 60 scholars, and its average attendance is 
35. It has a small library. In 1881 Alden Warner gave land for a chapel 
on Benton Street; and the mission building was built at a cost of $1,600, 
mostly private gifts. 

The "Women's Christian Association was first formed as an auxiliary to 
the Young Men's Christian Association. After two or three years of united 
labor, this became an independent organization in February, 1870, for the 
improvement of the religious, intellectual, social, and temporal welfare of 
women in this city, especially of young women. On May 3, 1S75, the 
building containing the Association rooms was burned. Oct. 22, 1S7S, a 
Boarding Home for Young Women was opened, where young women em- 
ployed in the city, in the varied avocations, should find a boarding-place 
under Christian influences, and have the advantages of a pleasant, attractive, 
and well-regulated Christian home. It progressed so favorably, as mani- 
fested in the demand for more commodious quarters, that in 1S79 a hand- 
some new boarding-house at 27 Yernon Street was erected. With its 
attractive parlors, its piano, — which was to be free for the use of all the 
boarders, — books, daily and weekly papers and periodicals (furnished by 
kind friends); with its pleasant social gatherings, and the daily evening 
assembling of the family for their devotional exercises, consisting of read- 
ing the Scripture, prayer, and singing, — it was hoped that no young woman 
could long- be an inmate of the Home, and be indifferent to its kind and 



loving atmosphere. Prices for board ranged from $3 to $4.75 per week, 
according to location of room. Table-board, alone, $3 per week; tran- 
sients, $1 per day, or $5 per week. After conducting the Home for four 
years, it was found necessary to abandon it for a while ; and the Associa- 
tion headquarters were removed temporarily to No. 3 Pynchon Street. 
A sewing-school for chil- 
dren and women who 
choose to avail them- 
selves of its privileges 
meets at the headquarters 
every Sunday afternoon. 
During the year 1882 two 
free kindergartens were 
successfully carried on 
under the auspices of 
this Association. $500 
was donated by Daniel 
B. Wesson ; and this, to- 
gether with other dona- 
tions, provided the means 
for a kindergarten, which 
was opened in Septem- 
ber, 1882, on Worthing- 
ton Street. In the win- 
ter of 1882-83, sufficient 

funds were raised in the different churches to support a colored kinder- 
garten. The president is Miss Maria S. Foot ; the treasurer, Mrs. A. F. 
Jennings ; and the recording secretary, Mrs. P. H. Derby. 

The Quincy-street Mission is under the care of the State-street Method- 
ist-Episcopal Church; yet it is self-supporting, and ever since it began, in 
1 S77. has done good work. Regular services are held in a chapel originally 
erected for a church, which was bought for about $1,200. Previous to 1S80 
the superintendents were James F. Brierley and Augustus A. Howard. 
Since then W. D. Stevens has been in charge. The Sunday school has an 
average attendance of about 90: there are nine classes. It owns a library 
of about 200 volumes. 

The Ward-One Mission was begun by some members of Trinity Method- 
ist-Episcopal Church in 1878. They brushed up the lower story <>t' the old 
hoop-skirt and cotton-batting factory, at the corner of Chestnut and Ring- 
gold Streets, and started a Sunday school, with Cyrus W. Atwood as 
intendent. W. F. Potter served the mission as superintendent the second 
year, but in 1880 the church withdrew its support in favor of a Stronger 

Women's Christian Association, Pynchon Street. 


mission in West Springfield. The field was then taken by members of the 
First Baptist Church living in the neighborhood. The Sunday school 
opened with 98 scholars, and now has a membership of 250, with an average 
attendance of 150, in 15 classes. D. H. Joyce was superintendent the first 
18 months under the Baptist regime, W. H. Fales the next two years, and 
W. C. King is now the superintendent. A good library is supported. 
Preaching and prayer services are held every Sunday, and a prayer-meeting 
on Wednesday evening. Above 30 converts are counted. This mission — 
the fourth in size in the Westfield Baptist association — is supported by 
those who enjoy its privileges, at a cost of about $400 a year. 

The Mission Francaise. — This French mission is composed of converts 
from Romanism, and is independent of all other church organizations, and 
manages its own affairs. Its adherents take the Bible as their sole rule of 
faith, and subscribe to no formulas or creed. The services are conducted 
in French, and are marked by their social character and the absence of all 
forms. The mission was begun by Rev. Samuel S. Etienne of Worcester, 
in Grace Methodist-Episcopal Church, Sept. 15, 1S81, with two members. 
Services were held in the old Episcopal Church from Oct. 2, 1881, to June I, 
1882; when, the members having increased to 30, they moved into a hall 
in Bill's Block, 358 Main Street. Mr. Etienne soon removed to Holyoke. 
The present pastor, J. Syvret, preaches every alternate Sunday, and the Rev. 
Mr. Williams of Providence once a month. The affairs of the organization 
are in charge of a committee, whose secretary and treasurer is A. S. Nadow. 
Daniel B. Wesson has largely contributed towards the furnishing and sup- 
port of the mission, and might very properly be called its founder. The 
stewards appeal to Christians of all denominations to aid them in supporting 
the mission, which now includes some 15 families in this city, besides a 
sabbath school of about 20 members. 

The White-street Mission was started Dec. 11, 1881, by young men 
from Hope Church, — the first gathering being a Sunday school at the 
schoolhouse on White Street. Sunday-evening and fortnightly neighbor- 
hood meetings began shortly after. Between 40 and 50 families are inter- 
ested in the mission, and most of those who attend seldom go to other 
places of worship. The average attendance has been about 60. There are 
99 names on the school-roll, and eight classes are sustained, about one-half 
the number being children. Their library contains 200 volumes. This mis- 
sion has always been superintended by W. A. George. Its financial support 
comes chiefly from Hope Church, and from private gifts, amounting in all 
to $200 a year. A chapel is to be built for this mission. 

The Evangelist Mission, which occupies the old Christ Church building, 
182 State Street, grew out of the Christian Union Mission, which was or- 
ganized Dec. 13, 1882. The property was bought by S. G. Otis, publisher 


j£3f JM&fafJ 



State Street, corner of Dwight Street. 


of " The Domestic Journal *' and " The Weekly Evangelist," and a leader 
in the formation of this mission. At first the mission was intended " to 
brino- under the influence of the gospel those who have fallen, through in- 
temperance and other indulgences, and to do general mission work." Ed- 
ward Ingersoll was chosen president; Dr. John Blackmer, vice-president ; 
Hattie Glover, secretary; and A. L. Covell, treasurer. May 8 found the 
mission existing only in name; and as Mr. Otis had repaired the building 
at an expense of nearly $6,000, he, with three others, — representing as 
many religious denominations, — took it upon themselves to carry out the 
proposed evangelistic work, under the name of the Evangelist Mission. 
The original constitution was abandoned. A city missionary was hired to 
conduct meetings, and to look after families who are spiritually neglected 
and needy. The large auditorium of the church building was divided, a 
good-sized chapel being kept for the mission services, and several smaller 
assembly-rooms being finished off to rent to various organizations. The 
Women's Christian Temperance Union and the Reynolds Reform Club 
have quarters here, and several rooms are occupied temporarily by the 
Springfield Art Association. The mission work is supported by voluntary 

The Armory-Hill Young Men's Christian Association has its building 
on State Street, opposite Winchester Park. Its membership numbers about 
200. The average daily attendance is about 100 ; and the average attendance 
at evening prayers, 30. About 50 attend the sabbath service. The object 
of this Association is the physical, social, intellectual, and religious improve- 
ment of young men. The fee is $1 a year. The rooms of the Association 
are open every week-day evening from 7 to 9.30, and five afternoons from 
2 to 6. The reading-room is free to all young men. It contains 25 papers 
and magazines and 30 books for use in the rooms. The gymnasium is a 
room 40 feet square, fitted out with apparatus. The parlor is in the rear of 
the building, a room 20 by 30, carpeted, and supplied with games and a 
piano. The religious work consists of evening prayers at 9.30, a sabbath 
service for young men only at 4.30 p.m., and the personal work of the mem- 
bers. The president is H. I. Goulding; the vice-president, Charles H. Bar- 
rows ; the treasurer, J. S. Kirkham ; the recording secretary, Charles George; 
and the general secretary, E. H. Byington. 


Cljarttirs antj hospitals. 


SPRINGFIELD is favored beyond most cities in the State with a sys- 
tem of charitable and benevolent work, far-reaching in its scope, and 
effective in its organization. The most important features of the work are 
of recent growth. Up to the year 1877 the city was not distinguished for 
more than ordinary benevolent work ; but within the past five years a num- 
ber of noble and intelligent men and women have labored individually and 
unitedly to develop a system of charities which is an honor to them and of 
the greatest value to the city. A strong impetus was given to the subject, 
in 1877, by the late Samuel Bowles, who spent considerable time, the last 
year of his life, in forming the Union Relief Association. He was able 
to supplement his outside efforts in this direction with timely and convincing 
discussions in " The Springfield Republican,"' and since his death the paper 
has done much to foster and carry to successful completion the work its 
founder began. Intimately associated with Mr. Bowles in this work were a 
few unselfish spirits, some of whom managed to conceal themselves behind 
their work, while others were forced into notice by the amount and kind of 
assistance they rendered. Among the latter must be mentioned the Rev. 
Dr. Washington Gladden, late the pastor of North Church, now of Colum- 
bus, O., who was a remarkable man in all charitable and philanthropic enter 
prises. Mrs. Clara T. Leonard, of the State Board of Health, Lunacy, and 
Charity, is a woman whose efforts have been of inestimable value to the 
city, as well as to the State. Among others who have stood close to these, 
may be mentioned Mrs. Adelaide A. Calkins, Mr. and Mrs. Gurdon Bill, 
Dr. C. C. Chaffee, the late A. D. Briggs, the late Mrs. Solyman Merrick, 
the late Charles O. Chapin, Mrs. William Rice, and, in a marked degree, the 
several members of the Merriam family. Not all of these have been asso- 
ciated in the same organization, but many have been identified more or less 
closely with more than one line of effort; while all have given their time, 
money, and influence to building up the network of relief now firmly estab- 
lished in the citv. 

The Union Relief Association is an organization of individuals who 
pledge themselves "to abstain from the indiscriminate giving of food, 
money, or clothing." Its object is to discourage mendicancy, and to afford 


judicious relief to the destitute and helpless, and those who need employ- 
ment. The office is in the City Hall, so that the association can co-operate 
with the city authorities in caring for the sick and infirm poor, and aiding 
those who deserve temporary assistance. The society divides the city into 
districts, and visitors from among the members of the organization are ap- 
pointed to visit the poor in the several districts. Since its organization, in 
1877, the association has greatly reduced the amount of, and lessened the 
tendency to, pauperism. As far as practicable, the association seeks to do 
for Springfield what the Associated Charities are accomplishing for Boston. 
The officers are : President, Dr. C. C. Chaffee : secretary, George H. Ueane ; 
treasurer, A. T. Folsom ; board of managers, A. T. Folsom, A. D. Stone, 
E. Brookings, Dr. C. C. Chaffee, Rev. Dr. E. P. Terhune, Charles Hall, 
Daniel P. Crocker, Rev. John C. Brooks, Rev. Lester L. Potter. 

The Hampden County Children's-Aid Association is an offshoot of, and 
in work closely connected with, the Union Relief. The organization is an 
independent one, however; and, as its name indicates, the work is not con- 
fined to the city, but, the last annual report says, "our greatest failure has 
been in the effort to make this a county society." Its original work was to 
take young children out of the poorhouses, and place them in families. To 
this end, legislation was procured forbidding overseers of the poor to place 
children over four years of age in almshouses ; and the society has sought 
to have this law enforced by finding homes for such, and organizing a system 
of visitation for their benefit. Alleged abuses and sufferings of children 
are also investigated, and, when necessary, the proper steps taken to prevent 
abuse, neglect, or a lapse into pauperism. The meetings of the society- 
are held at the City Hall. The managers are Mrs. Clara T. Leonard, 
Mrs. T. L. Chapman, Mrs. C. L. Mowry, Dr. C. C. Chaffee, Rev. Henry G. 
Spaulding, Frances E. Stone, Gurdon Bill, Charles H. Barrows, Rev. J. K. 
Mason. Among efficient members of the society in the towns, are Mrs. A. C. 
Woodworth of Chicopee, Mrs. C. H. M. Newell of Wilbraham, and others. 

The Flower-Mission is another offshoot of the Union Relief, having 
been organized May 15, 1877, for the purpose of distributing flowers, fruits, 
and delicacies to the sick, during the summer months only. The mission 
relies wholly upon voluntary contributions, the surplus of greenhouses and 
gardens, which are brought to the City Hall and prepared for the needy 
suffering. Occasional free picnics for children and invalids are given. The 
mission is popular with the members of all the city churches, and is annually 
increasing in usefulness and influence. The ladies meet every Wednesday, 
at the rooms of the Union Relief Association. The officers are : Presi- 
dent, Miss Sarah P. Birnie; vice-presidents, Miss Mary Bill, Miss Fanny 
Stebbins, Mrs. L. S. Brooks; secretary, Miss Sarah E. Heywood; assistant 
secretarv, Miss Frances E. Stone. 


2I 3 

The Hale Fund is so called from the name of the donor, James W. 
Hale, who died Aug. 31. 1863, leaving about $34,000 as a permanent fund 
to assist the deserving poor of the city. He belonged to the First-Church 
parish during his lifetime, and was always helping the poor. As he left no 
children, he directed, that, after the death of his wife, the income of this 
money should be devoted to charitable purposes. The fund came into the 
hands of the committee, Oct. 25, 1880. and was invested, as directed, in first 
mortgages on real estate in Hampden County. The income is annually 

The Children's Home, on Buckingham Street. 

spent in purchasing fuel, stoves, and flour, for the deserving poor of Spring- 
field. The fund is in charge of the pastors of the First Congregational, 
First Baptist, and Trinity Methodist Churches, and the clerk of the Superior 

The Taylor Benevolent. Fund consists of an invested fund in Spring- 
field, left by Ethan Taylor of Longmeadow, Feb. 17, 1864, the income of 
which is devoted " to the promotion of such religious, benevolent, and 
charitable objects as shall be approved and designated by a committee of 
three persons, to be chosen from time to time by the South Church Society 
in said Springfield.'' The income may be devoted to any work in the limits 
of Hampden County. W. L. Wilcox is trustee of the fund, and the expend- 


iture of the income is under the direction of Henry S. Lee and E. Meekins, 
with the trustee. 

The Springfield Home for Friendless Women and Children is the 
corporate name of the management of two separate homes. The movement 
in favor of the Home started with a number of men and women interested 
in the destitute and unfortunate. Their idea was to give temporary protec- 
tion and relief to needy women and young girls, to encourage them to self- 
support and reformation when necessary, and to care for children whose 
natural guardians could not, or would not, care for them. The Home was 
incorporated in 1865, a house bought on Union Street at a cost of $4,500, 
and $2,000 additional raised for expenses. There were 60 inmates, in- 
cluding 20 children, during the first year. The number of children increased 
so much, year after year, that a separate home was provided for them on 
Buckingham Street, in 1870. The building cost $15,000, and $10,000 was 
invested for the support of the homes. The whole of this amount was con- 
tributed by citizens of Springfield and adjacent towns. The Home received 
$2,000 yearly from the State, during the first six years, on condition that a 
like sum was raised by the managers; but in 1872 the legislature withdrew 
all aid, and since then the whole expense has been met by annual collections 
and donations. There is $10,000 in mortgages, and $9,000 in other invest- 
ments, belonging to the Home, the income of which is devoted to the annual 
expenses. A recent gift was $3,000 from Mrs. Dorcas Chapin. The Home 
on Buckingham Street is a substantial brick building, 50 x 40 feet, con- 
taining 21 rooms, furnished with all modern conveniences. Visitors are 
admitted every day except Saturday and Sunday. The officers are : Presi- 
dent, Mrs. John R. Hixon; vice-presidents, Mrs. Henry Brewer and Mrs. 
Richard F. Hawkins ; clerk, Miss Mary L. Jacobs ; treasurer, Mrs. Heman 
Smith ; corresponding secretary, Mrs. George W. Tapley; auditor, Charles 
Marsh. The board of managers consists of 30 women, from all the different 
religious societies of the city, with an advisory committee of seven men, and 
a board of five physicians, who serve gratuitously. 

The Springfield Society for the Prevention of Crime was organized in 
1880, with the object of aiding the public authorities in the prevention and 
punishment of crime ; and, as far as practicable, of eradicating the sources 
and causes of crime and vice by all suitable methods, and especially by the 
enforcement of the liquor-laws. Its proposed means of operation are, to 
arouse a correct public opinion ; assist in the prosecution of law-breakers; 
to disseminate information by means of the press, and by public addresses 
and meetings. Its membership is open to any citizen upon the payment of 
two dollars. Upon its first organization, it accomplished a perceptible gcod 
by the use of the means above proposed, and was felt as something of a 
force in the community; but the vigorous enforcement of the laws against 


the illegal sale of intoxicating liquors, and against the various forms of 
immorality, on the part of the public authorities, has diminished the useful- 
ness of the society ; and it now lies dormant, ready to awake to active life 
at the demand of any public emergency. 

Mutual Relief Associations are numerous in Springfield. These aim 
to assist members' families when accident, sickness, or death removes the 
source of support. These associations are all managed on the same general 

The Home for Friendless Women, on Union Street 

plan, and with the same end in view. The important features of the princi- 
pal organizations are here given : — 

The Masonic Mutual Relief Association of Western Massachusetts has 
its headquarters in Kinsman's Block, on Main Street; but its work is not lim- 
ited to this city. The membership is composed exclusively of Masons. On 
the death of a member, a sum equal to as many dollars as there are members 
in the association (though in no case exceeding $2,500) is paid to the family 
of the deceased. President, George W. Kay: vice-president, Henry S. Lee; 
treasurer. E. P. Chapin; secretary, Arthur I. Bemis. 

The Odd Fellows' Mutual Relief Association of the Connecticut-river 
Valley is a Springfield institution, only by reason of its head office being 


located here. It was organized in 1S73 by members of different lodges, 
of Odd Fellows, who desired to secure greater assistance to the families of 
deceased brethren than was provided by the by-laws of their respective 
lodges. It now numbers upwards of 4,000 members, divided into four classes. 
The deaths in the oldest class were but 72 during the last 10 years. A 
member can belong to one or more classes ; and, upon his death, his friends- 
receive $1 from each surviving member of the class or classes to which he 
belonged, not exceeding $1,000 from any one class. The amount thus paid 
last year was $37,640, and the whole amount for the 10 years since its organ- 
ization has been $178,180. The office is in the old court-house. Officers: 
President, John M.Wood; first vice-president, F. A. Judd ; second vice-presi- 
dent, J. F. Severance; treasurer, Henry S. Lee; secretary, W. H. Winans; 
auditors, S. C. Downs, T. M. Dewey, and W. M. Gray; finance committee, 
J. K. Wiley, F. E. Winter, and George H. Ireland. 

The Mutual Relief Association of the Employees of the Boston and 
Albany Railroad Company was organized in March, 1870. It had been cus- 
tomary, previous to that time, when an employee of the road died, to start a 
subscription-paper, and raise as large a sum as possible for the family of the 
deceased. It was found that the burden was not equally borne, and this asso- 
ciation was formed with the distinct understanding that members should not 
contribute to a subscription-paper as heretofore. At first no distinction was 
made in the age of the members, but in 1875 a by-law was inserted grading 
the admittance-fee according to the age of the applicant. On the decease 
of a member, his family receive one dollar from each surviving member. 
The present membership is 455. Meetings are held in the secretary's office 
of the Boston and Albany Railroad Company, the first Wednesday evening 
in every month, and annually on the fourth Wednesday of March. Trustees,. 
C. O. Russell, J. W. Clark, H. C. Hamilton, A. S. Bryant, W. H. Stearns, 
Robert Eccles, E. W. Brown ; secretary and treasurer, Albert Holt. 

The Roman-Catholic Mutual Insurance Company of the Diocese of 
Springfield was organized .May 10, 1877, and includes all the towns west of 
South Framingham. Membership is confined to Catholic males between 21 
and 50 years of age, residing in the diocese. At the death of a member, the 
family receive as many dollars as there are members at his death. The 
present membership is 260. The annual meeting occurs the first sabbath in 
May. The officers are: President, Bishop P. T. O'Reilly; vice-president,. 
John O'Donnell of Holyoke; secretary, Edward A. Hall; treasurer, Rev. J. 
J. McDermott. 

The Firemen's Mutual Relief Association aims to assist members of 
the fire-department who become disabled in the discharge of duty. The 
amount usually allowed is $10 per week. Each member contributes a small 
amount annually, and the proceeds of the firemen's ball are added each year 


to the fund, which now amounts to about $7,500. The officers are : Presi- 
dent, W. A. Withey; vice-president, W. H. Waterman; secretary, Abner P. 
Leshure ; treasurer, Henry S. Lee; trustees, A. P. Leshure, W. A. Withey, 
W. H. Waterman, E. D. Stock, W. J. Landen, William Heffner, C. H. Lewis. 
F. L. Howard, D. E. Chapin. 

The United-States Armory Mutual Benefit Association was organized 
Dec. 1, 1 88 1, to aid sick members, and to pay a small benefit to the family of 
any member in case of death. An admission-fee of $1 is charged; each 
member thereafter pays 25 cents per month ; and a weekly benefit of 55 for 
ro weeks of each year is paid to sick members. Each member of the asso- 
ciation is assessed $1 on the death of any of their number. The board of 
managers meet the second Monday in each month ; and a meeting of the 
whole association occurs once a year on the Armory grounds, generally the 
first Wednesday in January. The membership is 285. Officers : President, 
Charles E. Bailey ; vice-president, T. B. Wilson ; secretary, N. J. Benjamin ; 
treasurer, Edwin Farrar; trustees, F. B. Miller, James McKechnie, A. H. 
Dodge ; auditing committee, G. F. Clemens, James Dolan, James Kimball ; 
visiting committee, G. A. Spooner, S. L. Tuttle, Larkin Newell, A. G. Per- 
kins : collectors, G. R. Otto, Francis Daggett, C. W. Bradbury, Alfred 

The Wason Company's Mutual Relief Association was organized in the 
early part of 1SS1, by the employees of the Wason Manufacturing Company. 
Any one who has been in the employ of the company a month is eligible for 
membership. Any member who is disabled sufficiently to prevent his attend- 
ance at his work receives $5 per week until he is able to resume his duties; 
but there can be no allowance for a period exceeding 10 weeks in succession. 
The relatives of each member receive $50 at his death. The annual meeting 
occurs the third Wednesday in January. Officers : President, George C. 
Fisk; vice-president, E. H. Dodge; secretary, A. C. Reed; treasurer, C. A. 
Fisk; directors, George C. Fisk, N. W. Pease, A. J. Babbitt, E. H. Dodge, 
C. A. Fisk, S. D. Wilson, A. C. Reed, O. A. Dodge, W. E. Sanderson. 

The Orient Lodge, Knights of Honor, No. 230, was organized Feb. 16, 
1876, with twenty charter members. Total membership, at the close of 
1883, is about 140. Five members have died, and $10,000 has been paid 
their families. The lodge has paid on assessments, $11,500. The current 
expenses are paid by yearly dues of $5 each. Each member is entitled to 
sick-benefits of $3 per week, and $850 has been thus paid out. The lodge 
has also a fund of $1,200 in the hands of its trustees. The reporter is 
George A. Kilborn. 

The Springfield Council of the American Legion of Honor was insti- 
tuted April 12, [880, and provides weekly sick-benefits for members and life- 
insurance for from $500 to $5,000. Membership is open to both sexes. 


Male members receive $3 per week during sickness, and females $1 per week. 
Meetings occur fortnightly in Bicycle Club Hall, 413 Main Street. Officers: 
Commander, H. A. Prouty ; vice-commander, P. A. Deman ; orator, E. A. 
Hendricks; secretary, Dr. W. F. Andrews; collector, S. E. Goodyear; treas- 
urer, F. Merritt Alden. 

The Hampden Conference and Benevolent Association represents all 
the Congregational churches of the county, and especially of Springfield. 
Contributions are distributed by the association to the various mission-boards, 
and religious and educational societies, under Congregational management. 
The office of the treasurer, Rev. L. H. Blake of Westfield, is with the Pyn- 
chon National Bank in this city. The other officers are : Moderator, Rev. 
John H. Lockwood of Westfield; scribe, Rev. E. H. Byington of Monson ; 
treasurer of the Benevolent Association, Charles Marsh ; auditors, Henry S. 
Lee, T. S. Stewart. 

The St. Jean Baptiste Benevolent Society, at Indian Orchard, was 
organized in 1874 for general benevolent work among the local Catholics. 
Regular meetings are held the first and third Sundays of each month. The 
membership is confined to Catholics. Officers : President. Louis Rientard ; 
vice-president, E. F. Tetrault ; secretary, E. Lariviere ; treasurer, W. F. 

The St. Jean Baptiste Benevolent and Mutual Relief Society is also 
restricted to Catholics in its membership. Sick members receive $4 per 
week, for not more than 16 weeks in the same year, however; and, at the 
death of a member, his friends receive $20. The society also has a fund for 
the relief of the poor of St. Joseph's Parish. Regular meetings are held the 
first and third Sundays of each month, in the basement of the Howard-street 
Church. Officers : President, Eli Deschamp ; vice-president, Louis Belan- 
ger ; recording secretary, Gregoire Yalliancourt. 

The Union Mutual Beneficial Society was founded by colored people 
in 1866. Besides attendance in sickness, members receive $3 a week, and 
$30 is paid for funeral expenses in case of death. Regular meetings are 
held the first Wednesday evening in each month. Officers : President, Eli S. 
Baptist ; vice-president, Mrs. Louisa Adams ; secretary, Mrs. Jennie Sawyer. 

The Daughters of Cyrus are colored women united to relieve their 
members in sickness. Besides $2 per week, a sick member receives the 
care of associates, and at death $15 is paid for funeral expenses. Regular 
meetings occur the first Wednesday evening in each month, at the Loring- 
street Church. Officers : President, Mrs. Anna Washington : vice-president, 
Mrs. Mary Thompson; secretary, Mrs. Elizabeth Rhodes. 

The Day Nursery was opened June 18, 1883, at 256 Water Street, to 
care for the small children of those mothers who must work away from 
home during the day for the support of their families. The importance of 


such a nursery had long been felt by the officers and visitors of the Union 
Relief Association ; and. as the experiment was known to have proved suc- 
cessful in other cities, it was determined to try it here. A committee was 
appointed to act as managers of the institution, funds were solicited, and 
a matron engaged. The results of the first five months' work are very 
encouraging. There have been nearly 500 entries ; and, as the nursery 
becomes better known, mothers are more anxious to take advantage of it. 
That the institution may not be regarded as purely charitable, a small 
admission-fee is charged. The children are provided with one meal each 
day, and a collection of toys is furnished for their amusement. A number 
of young women kindly devote a part of each afternoon to amusing and 
instructing the children. Besides caring for the bodily needs of the chil- 
dren, the nursery aims to exert an ennobling and purifying influence upon 
them. It endeavors, also, to cultivate in the minds of the parents a desire 
to make their homes brighter and better for their children's sake. Both 
mother and child are afforded a glimpse of some higher possibilities in life; 
and it is hoped, that, as time goes on, the results will justify an enlarge- 
ment of the work. Officers: President, Mrs. Charles Hall; vice-president, 
Mrs. Marshall Calkins; secretary and treasurer, Mrs. Albert H. Kirkham; 
purchasing agent, Mrs. C. D. Hosley; visiting committee, Mrs. A. E. Smith. 
Miss Stella Warren, Miss Lucy P. Brewer. 

The Soldiers' Rest was one of the noblest charities, as well as one of 
the most successful, ever attempted in the city. At an early stage of the 
Civil War, it became nowhere more apparent than here, where muskets were 
being turned out in great quantities, that there would be need of all kinds 
of relief for the men who took part in the struggle. In 1S62 a commission 
of young men was formed to send supplies and assistance to the front; 
and in 1863, as soldiers, wounded, injured, and ill, came passing through the 
city, it was suggested that relief and a resting-place should be afforded 
them. At once a building of small dimensions was secured on Railroad 
Row, and fitted up with simple accommodations. This charity, from the 
start, had the sympathy of the people; and in [864 a new building, much 
larger and finer, took the place of the old one, and within its walls many a 
soldier has received the aid of the best of the Springfield people. This 
building, after it outlived its original purpose, was disposed of. and is now 
occupied by the Loring-street (colored) American Methodist Church. It 
was this Soldiers' Rest that caused the great fair under the presidency of 
Mrs. James Barnes, by which was raised $18,593; and it was part of this 
fund that provided for the soldiers' monument in the Springfield Cemetery. 
This organization raised in all about $32,000; of which about $17,000 was 
given in cash to soldiers, and the remainder spent in various aids for their 
benefit, including the monument. Almost 17,000 soldiers were helped in 



some way by this Rest. The treasurer of the funds from the beginning to 
the end was Henry S. Lee. 

The City Hospital, situated a mile and a half beyond the Armory, on 
the Boston road, was re-organized in 1879, chiefly through the exertions of 
Rev. Dr. A. K. Potter, now of Roxbury, who was determined to have some 
place where young working-people could be sent while sick, without great 
expense. The present hospital is good for what it is, but the day cannot be 
far distant when Springfield will demand as large and well-appointed quarters 
as her sister cities. The management of the hospital is in the hands of a 
board of trustees, three of whom must be women, and one of whom must be 

WIS E Iffl^pS 

f-?Sv^ ;£.-«*>- The City Hospital, on the Boston Road. 

the mayor. They are appointed by the mayor, subject to the approval of 
the board of aldermen. The physicians of the city contribute their services 
without charge, and a body of them form a medical staff who relieve each 
other in attendance on the inmates. The admission to the hospital is not re- 
stricted; but the terms of compensation are fixed for each individual case, and 
persons for whose support the city is responsible are admitted as free patients. 
The matron is Miss Millie H. Jacobs, a graduate of the Massachusetts 
General Hospital Training-School for Nurses. The board of trustees are 
the Mayor, ex officio, Henry S. Hyde, Lucinda O. Howard, Rev. David A. 
Reed, Charles Marsh, Mrs. J. A. Callender, and Mrs. Charles A. Nichols. 
The members of the medical staff on duty at the hospital are Alfred Lambert, 
V. L. Owen, William G. Breck, Marshall Calkins, L. S. Brooks, T. F. Breck, 
S.W. Bowles, S. D. Brooks. George C. McLean, S. F. Pomeroy, F. W. Chapin, 
Charles D. Brewer. 


The Dorcas Chapin Hospital. — Mrs. Dorcas Chapin, widow of Chester 
W. Chapin, recently signified her desire to make an endowment of $25,000 
for a hospital for this city. She says that the endowment of a hospital was 
a favorite idea with Mr. Chapin ; and often, in driving about town with her, 
he discussed sites for it and the service which it might be to poor people. 
He left his purposes in this respect unfulfilled, and Mrs. Chapin is now 
urgent that they shall be carried out at an early day. It is her desire that 
only a portion of the fund be used for the erection of plain and economical 
hospital buildings, and that the rest be reserved as an endowment, and as a 
nucleus for future gifts and bequests by the charitably disposed. Steps are 
to be taken immediately to incorporate a board of trustees; and the city 
is to be asked to turn over the present hospital site and buildings to the 
same corporation, upon suitable conditions that a hospital shall be main- 

The Almshouse and City Farm are situated on the Boston Road, about 
two miles east of the Armory. The management rests with the Board of 
Overseers, who elect officers annually to take charge of the institution. Z. F. 
Chadwick and wife are the present master and matron. The main building 
is the most imposing object on the plain east of the city. It is built of 
pressed brick, three stories high, with a French roof, and surrounded with 
well-kept grounds. The upper part of the house is devoted to those harm- 
less inmates who do not require the stricter confinement of a lunatic-hospitaL 
The entire property is valued at about $63,000. The whole number of per- 
sons annually supported at the almshouse is a little less than 200, of whom 
about one-eighth are insane. The average cost of support is about $2.50 per 
week. The overseers of the poor are the Mayor, Chauncey L. Covell, James 
H. Lewis, F. A. Burt, and Dr. A. R. Rice. 



Efjc Cfrmctrrirs. 


THE OLD BURYING-GROUND was on the bank of the Connecticut 
River, back of the First Church, — a lane leading to it called "Meeting- 
house Lane," now Elm Street; and it lay on both sides of this street, on 
the west side of what is now Water Street. The first recorded burial there 
was in 1641 ; and the oldest monument is in memory of Mrs. Mary Holyoke, 
daughter of William Pynchon, the founder of the colony, who was born in 
England, and whose stone bears this inscription: — 

Here Lyeth the Body of 




Who Died Oct. 26, 1657. 

She yt lyes here was while she stood 
A very glory of womanhood 
Even here was sown most pretious dust 
Which surely shall rise with the just 

William Pynchon was not buried here, for he died in England. But 
his associates were, like Capt. Elizur Holyoke ; Deacon Chapin, a magis- 
trate with Pynchon and Holyoke; Henry Burt, who was associated with 
them in affairs of Church and State; Rev. Pelatiah Glover, the second 
minister of the town, who died in 1692; "the worshipful Major Pynchon;" 
and so on with the ministers and magistrates, and all classes of the people, 
for two hundred years. 

This continued the " churchyard " of the old church, and the principal 
burial-place of the town, until the new cemetery was opened in 1841. 
Then the railroad came ; and it was necessary to remove this sacred dust, 
which was clone in 1849, with 'he utmost care and reverence, under the 
charge of Elijah Blake. Such remains as were not removed by friends were 
transferred to the new cemetery, and their stones and monuments with 



them; so that there were 2,404 of such remains, and 517 monuments and 
tablets, which may be found in a portion of the cemetery set apart for them, 
adjoining Pine Street, where is also a common monument erected for those 

air* , 

who had no monuments, 
or whose remains could 
not be recognized. 

The Springfield Cem- 
etery was opened in 1 841. 
It is in the heart of the 
city, being only half a 
mile from the City Hall ; 
and yet, from the nature 
of the grounds, it is quite 
retired, and peculiarly well adapted to its purpose. It was " Martha's Dingle," 
a succession of hillsides and ravines, springs and brooks, old trees and tangled 
bushes ; which, by the art of landscape-gardening, has been converted into 
graded banks, numerous plateaus, shaded nooks, fountains, with a brook 
that drains the whole, running like a silver band through the meadow, which 
furnishes as secluded and pleasant a resting-place for our dead as though 

Springfield Cemetery Entrance. 

The Receiving-Tomb. General View. 



it had been sought miles away. Turning out of Maple Street, — a street of 
choice residences, — and passing up an arch of elms, under the brown-stone 
entrance, the place is revealed in striking contrast to all around it. One 
looks up the several ravines, takes in more or less of the grassy meadow, 
the brook, the fountains, the terraced hillsides, the trees, the shrubbery, and 
the monuments scattered everywhere, and wonders where else the several 
roads and paths are to lead him. They will lead him through a considerable- 
continuance of the same characteristics ; and finally, going south, up to a 
broad plateau, he will come to the most recent burials and the most modern 
monuments, or, going north, come to the " Methodist Burying-Ground," 
where interments were first made in 1825, which has been incorporated witli 
this. Originally the cemetery consisted of only twenty acres, but it has been 
enlarged until now it is double that size. Besides Maple Street, the bounda- 
ries of the cemetery are Mulberry, Cedar, and Pine Streets. 

,;■■ " p-itki ivtH m warn of m$ 

/ ] WHO 0'EI>-_OCto|jh^^5|, 

rwWh *v^ft4>i»i 

Mary Holyoke Gravestone, Springfield Cemetery. 


" VfA'R,if„» 

laphat Chapin Gravestone. 

The cemetery contains an appropriate monument, on Willow Avenue, to 
the memory of the soldiers and sailors of the late war. It is the figure of a 
soldier, in bronze, on a white granite pedestal, guarded by four bronze can- 
non, the gift of the government. This is the " Soldiers' Lot ; " and there is 
a fund that was raised during the war to sustain a " Soldiers' Rest*' in the 
city, the balance of which is still used for the relief of soldiers who are 
needy, and to bury them when they die. 

It contains also an appropriate monument to the memory of Rev. W. B. 
O. Peabody, D.D., "erected by citizens of Springfield, in grateful recognition 
of his services in securing for them this beautiful resting-place for their 
dead." It is a graceful memorial in the shape of a Gothic shrine of light 
freestone, erected on a knoll near the Maple-street entrance. To him, for 

The Soldiers' Monument. One of the Tombs 


his early suggestions, unremitting supervision, and tender address of con- 
secration ; to George Eaton, then a citizen of this town, for his untiring 
assiduity in laying out and ornamenting the grounds; and to the Hon. 
George Bliss, for his wise counsel, and constant devotion to its interests for 
more than thirty years, who sleeps himself in the spot he loved so well, — 
to these pre-eminently are we indebted for this resting-place of our dead. 

Among the men of widest repu- 
tation, whose remains rest here, 
are Samuel Bowles, the editor of 
" The Springfield Republican ; " 
Dr. J. G. Holland, the poet, 
novelist, and editor of "Scrib- 
ner's Monthly," — whose monu- 
ment, in Hudson -river blue- 
stone, bears a bronze portrait 
relief by Augustus St. Gaudens ; 
Chester Harding, the portrait- 
painter; William S. Elwell, his 
pupil, so long known as " the 
Crescent- hill artist:"' Chester 
W. Chapin. the president of the 
Boston and Albany Railroad, 
and Congressman: Gen. James 
W. Ripley, from 1841 to 1854 
commandant at the United- 
States Armory: and Gen. James 
Barnes of the United-States 
Army: also Hon. William B. 
Calhoun, lawyer, member of Congress, secretary of state, and mayor of the 
city: and Hon. Reuben A. Chapman, Chief Justice of the Supreme Judicial 
Court of Massachusetts: to which list should be added Rev. Daniel Brewer, 
the third minister of Springfield, who died in 1733, after nearly forty years 
of service; and Rev. Samuel Osgood, D.D., the sixth minister, who died in 
[862, after forty-eight years of Service. Dr. C. C. Chaffee is president of 
the Cemetery Association, and Frederick H. Harris clerk and treasurer. 

The Oak-Grove Cemetery, which was bought in 1881 by the Oak-Grove 
Cemetery Association, and which was required by the growth of the eastern 
part of the city, comprises a tract of ninety acres, a considerable portion of 
which is covered by a pine and oak growth, and has been laid out, under the 
superintendence of Justin Sackett. into well-arranged paths, and extensive 
drives, that promise to make it another interesting spot of this kind. Sev- 
eral pretty ponds and side-hill springs, — so well done that no one would 

W. B. O. Peabody s Monument. Springfield Cemetery. 



suspect their motive power to be from Ludlow Reservoir — and the natural 
irregularities of the ground, are used to excellent advantage. This cemetery 
was opened for burials in April, 1882, and has already received over 100 occu- 
pants. The grounds are situated on Bay Street, or the old " Bay Path " 
that led from the river to the Bay, which was once the only road from here 
to Boston. It lies within two miles of Court Square, the centre of the city, 
and about a mile beyond the Armory. The improvements are well under 
way; a chapel of Longmeadow sandstone having been erected, and also a 
receiving-tomb, immediately in front, on the sandy hillside, facing the Bay- 
Road entrance. Next season these are to be followed by a well-designed 
entrance of stone. The Association has these officers : Daniel B. Wesson, 
president; James Kirkham, treasurer: Gideon Wells, clerk. It may be 
added that Mr. Wes- 
son, Mr. Kirkham, and 
Mr. Sackett also own 
a tract of more heavily 
forested land on the 
opposite side of the 
Bay Road, of more 
than 100 acres, through 
which they have had 
roads cut, and propose 
to maintain it as a wild 
park, open to the pub- 
lic, under the name of 

Maplewood Ceme- 
tery, which was organ- 
ized 1882, is situated 
in the eastern part of 
the city, on the road 
from Indian -Orchard 
station to Sixteen 
Acres. The old part, 
which contains three- 
fifths of an acre, was 
opened Oct. 3, 1816; the new pari, adjoining the old. contains one acre, and 
was opened April 20, 1882, in connection with the old, under the name ol 
the Maplewood Cemetery, the old part having upon that date been voted 
by the proprietors into the control of the Maplewood Cemetery Association. 

Local Burial-grounds. — There are several of these in the city, some of 
which are not much used now: such as. the Methodist Burying-ground on 

Dr. Holland Monument, Springfield Cemetery. 

2 3° 


Union Street, the burial-place connected with the Methodist-Episcopal church 
once located there, which has been incorporated into the Springfield Ceme- 
tery; the Baptist Burying-ground, on Cherry Street, in the vicinity of which 
once stood a Baptist church ; another on Sumner Avenue, Long Hill, west- 

erly of Faith Chapel ; another still on 
Allen Street, three miles out, on the 
road to Hampden ; and still another 
on Parker Street, between Sixteen 
Acres and Ludlow Mills. 

The Catholic Cemeteries. — There are two Catholic cemeteries. The 
old one at the junction of Liberty and Armory Streets, containing five or 
six acres, was opened in 1847; and, being the only one for what is now 
Springfield and Chicopee, the lots were all taken up long ago, and it is now 
used only by those who own the lots. In 1871 Bishop O'Reilly, the present 
bishop of the diocese, purchased a suitable tract of 83 acres between the 
Boston and Wilbraham roads, 3^ miles from the City Hall, which belongs 
to St. Michael's Church, the cathedral church, but is ample and convenient 
enough to accommodate all the churches, both here at the centre and at 
Indian Orchard, and is being rapidly taken up. It is well located, and can 
easily be enlarged. The only two of their clergy who have died here were 
not buried in either cemetery, but under white marble tables at the main 
entrance to the cathedral. One was Father M. I'. Gallisrher, the revered 


and beloved old priest, who was in service here from November, 1856, till 
June, 1879. T ne other was Father Thomas O. Sullivan, whose service was 
from February, 1864, to September, 1870. He was an old man when he 
came here, and had been for many years in missionary service, particularly 
among the Indians of Maine. 

" Beautiful twilight at set of sun. 
Beautiful goal with race well run, 
Beautiful rest with work well done. 

Beautiful graves where grasses creep. 

Where brown leaves fall, where drifts lie deep 

Over worn-out hands, — oh, beautiful sleep !" 



Partis antj Squares. 



SPRINGFIELD possesses no large park for the use of its people, prob- 
ably from the fact, that, by the nature of its position, it is a park-like 
city. Its first settlement along the bank of the Connecticut River was 
shaded with elms and maples, a hundred years ago; and although, as the 
business blocks and the factories spread, the trees have to fall, there are but 
few sections so compactly built that some street does not intersect them with 
shade-trees. The hills that rise at a short distance from the river, for tin- 
whole length of the Main Street, are naturally, as the city grows farther and 
farther, occupied for residence, and the planting of trees has never been 
neglected: so that, viewed from the summit of the Arsenal tower in the 
grounds of the United-States Armory, the city seems like a piece of wood- 
land, into which churches and dwellings, and even the brick blocks, have been 
somehow inveigled; and this impression is even more notably given by views 
from Long Hill, at the south end, whence the rare beauty of the site of 
Springfield may be best appreciated. The river here makes a bold sweep 
eastward : and the city — its spires and towers piercing the tree-tops, and the 
Arsenal tower, with its ever-flying stars and stripes, presiding eminent over 
all — embraces the curve, giving its whole fortunate beauty to the gaze of the 
spectator from "the Storrs lot." The "hills "of the city are really points 
of a plateau which stretches eastward, at an elevation of about 200 feet 
above sea-level. The northernmost of these points is Rock Rimmon, near 
the Chicopee line, — a wooded height occupied by residences, among them 
the house built by Dr. J. G. Holland nearly 20 years ago, and named " Bright- 
wood;" which was one of the first examples of the versi-colored cottages 
which have since become the fashion. Prospect Hill is the name sometimes 
given to the rising ground at the eastern end of Franklin Street, just north 
of the Boston and Albany Railroad track. Round Hill, at whose southern 
end the Memorial Church stands, is an isolated knoll whose grove contains 
several handsome houses. Armory Hill is the highest point in the city; and 
other points are Stearns Hill. Ames Hill. Crescent Hill. — the latter private 
grounds, which their hospitable owners leave open for the public to drive 
through, in order that they may enjoy a view of the city, which, though 
nearer and less embracing, is like that gained from bong Hill. Blake's Hill. 


across Mill River, is notable for its grove of tall pines. Long Hill, still 
farther south, closes in the amphitheatre of the city's site ; and on its slope 
still stands a great chestnut which is believed to have been an old tree when 
the Indians had their fort on this commanding point, 200 years ago. All 
these hills afford charming views of the winding river, the tributary Agawam. 
the meadows, and the distant hills. 

There are now many projects for securing some tract or tracts of land for 
park purposes : but nothing has yet taken positive shape, except that an 
elaborate plan has been conceived for the purchase of the ground between 
the New-York and New-Haven Railroad and the river, south of the old toll- 
bridge, for a hundred rods or so, which, by the clearance of a number of 
cheap and noisome tenement-houses, could be made a beautiful spot for the 
recreation of working-people, who largely occupy the vicinity. Part of this 
strip is already owned by the city, having been deeded to it by the late Ocran 
Dickinson in 1851, "to be held and kept open and unobstructed for the free 
and common use of the same, by all citizens of the Commonwealth, as a way 
and a landing-place. " Another proposal is to buy strips of young wood, 
mostly pine and oak, bordering the Water-shops Pond, — a beautiful sheet of 
water on Mill River, caused by the dam of the United-States shops. The 
whole matter is now in the hands of a Park Commission, organized in 1883, 
of which John Olmsted is chairman ; and that the cause reports progress to 
this extent, is very likely due, in some measure, to a former city improve- 
ment association, which, for a while, kept the matter before the people. 

Court Square is practically the central common of the city. It is a small 
plat on Main Street, between Court and Elm Streets, which was made over 
to the county of Hampden, April 14, 1821, by these well-known citizens: 
Edward Pynchon, Daniel Bontecou, Eleazer Williams, Justice Willard. and 
James Wells. " In order," to quote their express phrase, "that there may be 
an open square or yard for the use of the inhabitants of the county near the 
court-house, divers persons, inhabitants of the town of Springfield, have, at a 
great expense, purchased this land of Elizabeth Sheldon, in said Springfield, 
in order that a court-house may be built thereon, and an open square or com- 
mon be in front thereof." It was "never to be aliened, leased, or encumbered 
in any manner," except that it might be fenced, secured, and ornamented 
with trees. There were already two or three elms on this ground : and under 
one — that in the south-east corner of the square — was the old tavern, now- 
standing on Court Street, in which Gen. George Washington drank his flip 
when on his way between New York and Cambridge. It is recalled by "the 
oldest inhabitant," that there was just room for the old yellow-bodied, thor- 
ough-braced stage to swing around in fine style between this elm and the 
tavern door. The old Court House, the much older First Church, the City 
Hall, and the new Court House, dignify the surroundings of the square. 


There are two small drinking-fountains, — one at the north-east, the other 
at the south-east, corner of Court Square, — which were presented to the 
city by Charles Merriam: but its pretentious fountain is a thing of the past. 
In 1841 James Byers gave a very handsome marble fountain, in which the 
water, descending from its jet, fell into three successive basins ; but it came 
in after-years to be considered a nuisance, and was taken to pieces, and 
removed. Soon there is to be, midway on the Main-street side, a fountain 
described later in this chapter.- Here also is the Miles Morgan Statue, and 
later there will be the Deacon Samuel Chapin Statue. 

City-hall Park, a small piece of land on Pynchon Street in the rear of 
the City Hall, was purchased by the city after the safety of that edifice had 
been much endangered in the burning of Music Hall and other buildings : 
it was then cleared of the wooden dwellings upon it, in order to keep it 
open, and lay for several years unimproved and in a waste and slovenly 
condition. It is now a neat, turfed, and shaded square, surrounded by an 
iron fence, which was built in 1872; and when the city shall have put in a 
fountain, and the proprietor of the Gilmore Opera-house shall carry out his 
purpose of covering the blank rear wall of his building with ampelopsis, the 
place will be a pretty ornament to the city. 

Stearns Park, a plat extending from Worthington to Bridge Streets, 260 
feet, and fronting 80 feet on each, was given to the public for their use by 
the late Charles Stearns, 30 years ago. It contains a few trees and a foun- 
tain, but is not fenced. In the fire of May, 1875, it served Avell as a barrier 
against the spread of the flames in one direction. 

Winchester Park is a triangle of land at the separation of the Boston 
and Wilbraham roads, at the head of State Street. It derives its name 
from the late Charles A. Winchester, in whose mayoralty it was first enclosed 
and made a park, being already common-land. There was for a time talk 
of enlarging the area by buying further territory eastward ; but as that 
territory is now occupied for manufacturing purposes, and crossed by a rail- 
road, doubtless nothing of the sort will ever be done. This park has lately 
been adorned by a fountain. 

Kibbe Park is another small triangle, also adorned by a fountain, at the 
junction of Federal and Armory Streets, which was given to the city by 
Horace Kibbe. 

Buckingham Park (formerly known as McKnight Park), bounded by 
Buckingham Place, Buckingham and Bay Streets, is a pretty little plat, 
laid out with fountains, by the brothers John D. and W. H. McKnight, and 
given by them to the public. 

Clarendon Fountain is similar to Buckingham Bark, and was given by the 
same persons ; and, although both were designed to make more desirable cer- 
tain pieces of real estate, they are, nevertheless, useful ornaments to the city. 

i \ Guard. 2 Officers' Quarters. j Guard-house and Barracks. 



The last-named four parks are situated on Armory Hill, east of the 
grounds of the Federal Government, which form the largest open tract in 
the city, part of which is open to the public under certain restrictions. 

There are also a few other squares or small parks, such as the following : — 

Gladwood Park, at the junction of Armory Road with North Main Street. 

Hanover-street Park, on the corner of Elmwood and Hanover Streets. 

Jefferson-avenue Parks, on Jefferson Avenue, between Sheldon and 
Montmorenci Streets. 

North Main Street Parks, on North Main, from Vine Street to Carew 


Sherman Square, at the foot of Farnsworth Street. 

Edgewood is a forest tract of about ioo acres, bought by Daniel B. Wes- 
son, James Kirkham, and Justin D. Sackett, at the time of the purchase of 
Oak-Grove Cemetery. It borders the Bay Road on the east, directly oppo- 
site the cemetery ; and the owners are now opening drives through it for the 
benefit of the public. The forest comprises many comparatively old and 
laro-e trees, oak, white pine, yellow pine, hemlock, soft maple, chestnut, 
and the birches among them ; and it is designed to leave the woods as they 
are. without even cutting the underbrush, the owners justly thinking that un- 
touched nature will be more interesting in Edgewood than the trimmest of 
landscape-gardening. A marsh of three or four acres in the midst of this 
wood is to be closed by a low dam at the south end, so as to transform it 
into a pond ; and the surface of the land is sufficiently broken to allow of 
much variety and pleasing picturesqueness of view by a judicious laying-out 
of the roads. 

The United-States Armory Grounds have been acquired by purchase at 
various times since Congress (in 1 794) established the national gun-factory 
in Springfield. The main portion of the grounds on which the Arsenal 
and the various shops and officers' houses stand was bought in 1801, and 
Federal Square, northward, in 181 2, of the town of Springfield; both these 
tracts being then known as the " training-fields " of the militia. The slope 
of the hill south-westward from the rear of the Arsenal to Byers Street, and 
north-westward from behind the long sheds to Pearl Street, was added in 
Col. Ripley's administration, by separate purchases from various citizens. 
Union or Armory Square, lying like a court-yard between the shops and quar 
ters, is laid out with walks, and handsomely set with various forest-trees, and 
the slopes are likewise planted ; the western corner, on Pearl and Byers 
Streets, being the favorite resort of birds all summer. The tasteful land- 
scape gardening and skill in forestry displayed in these plantations are due 
principally to Major Edward Ingersoll. under direction of the several super 
mtendents and commanding officers who have succeeded each other during 
his almost 42 years' service as paymaster, from which he was retired in 


1882. The square with its various shops, and the Arsenal tower for its un- 
rivalled general view of the city and surrounding country, are objects of 
especial interest to every visitor to the city. The public are permitted to 
enter, under certain restrictions, tobacco and dogs being altogether forbidden ; 
and an air of military surveillance rather oppresses the common citizen as he 
walks through. Federal Street, on the north, divides these principal grounds 
from Federal Square, which is now closed to the public, although it was 
formerly opened to them, for a variety of purposes, by the late Col. Benton, 
whose liberal and friendly participation in the life of the city will long be 
remembered. Base-ball games were played therein, and 111 the winter skat- 
ing-ponds were formed for the safe pleasure of the children of the vicinity. 
The first horse-show ever held in this country — and those who managed it 
think the best one ever held — took place on Federal Square in 1855. The 
square formerly contained the storehouses, the block-house and magazine of 
the Armory, and likewise a schoolhouse where the children of those who 
dwelt on federal territory were taught. The last of these buildings was 
removed more than 30 years ago, and the only building now on the ground is 
the experiment gallery for testing the accurac of the guns. The square is 
symmetrically laid out, and set with trees, and contains, inclusive of that part 
of it opened as Benton Park. 16 acres; the main Armory grounds comprising 
some 57 acres. 

Benton Park, which border., Federal Square on the south-east, and ex- 
tends from Oak to Federal Streets, is the fortunate result of joint action by 
the Federal Government and the city; the co-operation of the government 
having been obtained by Col. J. G. Benton, commandant at the Armor)- for 15 
years, who died, before the work was completed, in the fall of 1881, and whose 
memory the grateful city preserves by attaching his name to this refreshing 
spot. The fence around Federal Square was set back on all sides, on Fed- 
eral. Lincoln, Magazine, and State Streets : the city, on its part, discontinued 
a road on the north side of the fine row of elms which then divided State 
Street : the whole space was then graded, turfed, and provided with a foun- 
tain ; and the generosity of a citizen placed seats therein. Benton Park pos- 
sesses an interesting monument in the " Boston stone," so-called, which 
stands at the south-west corner, enclosed by a stone curbing. This stone, 
which is adorned with Masonic emblems, and bears the marks of the bullets 
of Gen. Lincoln's troops when they dispersed the Shays' rioters in January, 
1787, was erected in 1763 by Joseph Wait, a Brookfield merchant, — who had 
lost his way at this point in a fearful snowstorm. — -for the benefit of travel- 
lers." as the inscription states. To judge by a motto inscribed above, — 
" / '///us est sua merces" — Mr. Wait was sceptical of human gratitude. 

Hampden Park lies north of the Union Depot, between the Connecticut- 
river Railroad and the river: its boundaries being Plainfield and Fulton 



Streets, Town Brook, and the river. Its area is 63 acres. It was bought in 
[857, by the Hampden County Agricultural Society, in direct consequence of 
the success of the great horse-show on Federal Square before referred to. 
It was diked at once, and was occupied by the society and used by them for 
their exhibitions, and leased for horse-races until [879, when J. H. South- 
worth bought it, to dispose of it the next year to the Hampden Park Associa- 
tion, incorporated with a capital of $25,000, who are its present owners. It 
is known as one of the best trotting-tracks of the country, and many of the 
fastest trotters and pacers have shown their speed here. It is provided with 
a grand stand, stables, and all other appurtenances : it also comprises a base- 
ball ground. It has two trotting-tracks, one being a half-mile and the other 
a mile in length. The dike, some 20 feet above the river, is set with trees, 
and affords a pleasant promenade. Circuses and menageries commonly 
exhibit on this park. It is also a favorite place for bicycle tournaments, and 
here also exhibitions of fireworks are given ; and it has been the scene of 
militia encampments, and during the war was at times occupied by troops in 
temporary camp. 

Statues are not numerous in Springfield, there being only two publicly 
displayed, but they are both worthy of praise. 

The Soldiers' Monument in the Springfield cemetery is the first of these 
in point of time. It crowns a knoll above the receiving-tomb, and faces 
the entrance from Maple Street. It is the work of Manuel Power of New 
York, and represents a private soldier standing in the attitude of guard-rest. 
The face is excellently American, — intelligent, nervous, resolute, and quiet. 
The statue stands beneath a great oak, and upon a pedestal of granite, on 
whose front is wrought a branch of leaves very effective sculpturally, though 
not exactly like any familiar palm. On the lot around the monument arc- 
placed four bronze cannon which were presented by the United-States Gov- 
ernment, at the request of Hons. H. L. Dawes and C. C. Chaffee. The 
monument itself was erected from the unexpended balance of the "Soldiers'- 
Rest Fund,*' which was established in 1X64, for the relief of soldiers going 
to or coming from the front and needing rest or doctoring; and it was dedi- 
cated on Memorial Dav, 1S77. 

The Miles Morgan Statue, erected in Court Square by "a descendant 
of the fifth generation" of an early settler, is the work of J. S. Hartley. It 
shows the sturdy, bearded Puritan, in his high-crowned hat, with his rude 
hoe in the right hand and his bell-mouthed musket on his left shoulder, evi- 
dently on his morning way to the field, with a sharp eye out for Indians. 
The figure is full of spirit and character, and the details are well worked out. 
It is, in tine, one of the most admirable works of the kind in the country; 
surpassed by only one or two in New York, and far surpassing the greater 



number of the statues of that city : it would do credit to a European capi- 
tal, and considerably enhances the fame of the sculptor of " The Whirl- 
wind." The statue stands on a pedestal of granite, encircled at the top with 

festoons of oak-leaves — the civic wreath. 
The donor was the late Henry T. Morgan, 
a well-known banker of New-York City. 

The Deacon Samuel Chapin Statue, 
it is expected, will shortly keep company 
with the Miles Morgan statue. Deacon 
Chapin was one of the early settlers, and 
was the progenitor of the great family of 
that name throughout the country. The 
late Chester W. Chapin. shortly before his 
decease, gave a commission for this statue 
to Augustus St. Gaudens, who is now ac- 
tively at work upon it. 

The Drinking- Fountains in the city are 
six in number. There are two at the Main- 
street front of Court Square, one on Bridge 
Street near Stearns Park, one on the corner 
of Walnut and 
State Streets, an- 
other on Armory 
Street near Sum- 
mer Street, and 
the newest is 
near Smith & 
Wesson's manu- 
factory. The lat- 
ter is a unique 
marble pump, 
erected by the 
generosity of D. 
13. Wesson in 
1883 ; and, stand- 
ing at the corner of the street, it furnishes a continual stream of pure water to 
the thousands of operatives who are engaged in this vicinity. There is also 
an ample supply of watering-troughs in and around the city. 

The Wesson Fountain, to be erected early in 1884, is the generous gift 
of Daniel B. Wesson. It is the most pretentious drinking-fountain the city 
has yet had, and when put in its assigned place, midway on the Main-street 


v^~ -g§ 

Miles Morgan Statue in Court Square. 

In Court Square. 



side of Court Square, will draw the admiration of all passers-by. To make 
suitable provision for it, the city has voted to remove the present iron gates, 
and run the iron railing backward in semi-circular form. The characteris- 
tic quality of the design is an imposing simplicity. Its material is mainly 
o-ranite, and its chief ornament a bronze lion's head, from the mouth of 
which will come a constant stream of water. The extreme height will 
be about gk feet, and the long diameter of the elliptical-shaped shaft will be 
about 3^ feet. The design is by Gilbert & Thompson 1 of New York, and the 

marble and gran- 
ite work is by 
John H. Cook & 
Co. of this city. 
The entire cost, 
by the time the 
fountain is in 
running order, 
will reach $2,- 

Ponds. — 

Within the city 
limits, there are 
seven ponds, 
popularly known 
by the following 
names : Five- 
mile Pond, in 
Ward 8, between 
Boston Road 
and the Boston 
and Albany Rail- 
road, \\ miles east of the City Hall. Four-mile Pond, in Ward 8, being 3^ 
miles east of the City Hall. Harmon's Pond, in Ward 7, being 2% miles 
south-east of City Hall. Long Pond, in Ward 8, being 5 miles north-east of 
City Hall. Loon Pond, in Ward 8, being 5 miles east of City Hall. Water- 
shop Pond, in Wards 5 and 7, being 2 miles south-east of City Hall. The 
Card-factory Pond, in the rear of the Olivet Church, and on the eastern edge 
of the region once known as " Skunk's Misery," took its name from a wool- 
card factory, to which, over half a century ago, its water furnished so scant 
a motive power that it had to be supplemented by the labor of two huge 
mastiff dogs confined in a treadmill. 


1 The design has since been modified by John H. Cook & Co., who construct the fountain. 

Granite Pump, Stockbridge and Willow Streets. 


! 45 

3lnite&=,&tateg ^rmoro. 


/GENERAL GEORGE WASHINGTON, passing through Springfield 
^-* in October, 1789, on his way to Boston, — on public business, — saw, and 
probably approved of. the present site of the United-States Armory. "The 

The Arsenal Building and Gateway, from State Street. 



establishment of this Armory was by Act of Congress, passed in April, 
1794; and in 1795 the work commenced with about forty hands." The 
first deed of land to the United States, after the passage of the above Act, 
was recorded 1795. The United-States Government had previously pur- 


chased land upon the "Hill ;" and where the Water-shops are now situated, 
suitable buildings were constructed, and work upon small-arms fairly com- 
menced in 1795. Before it was decided by the authorities which of the three 
places then being considered — Hartford, Springfield, and West Spring- 
field — was the most desirable site for the manufacture of such ammunition, 
muskets, appendages, and accoutrements, as might be wanted by the United- 
States Government, the inhabitants of West Springfield decidedly objected 
to having the Armory located within their borders ; and for a good reason : 
the most skilful mechanics in those days were discharged soldiers, deserters 
from the British regulars, and foreign troops who had been under British 
authority, — mercenaries, — all of whom were lawless and unprincipled, who 
defied all control ; and the good people of West Springfield, most of them 
farmers, had visions of robbed hen roosts, ravaged gardens, depredations 
committed on Sundays while they were, or would like to be, peacefully at 
church. Where the Water-shops now stand, there stood, previous to 1809, a 
powder-mill, which from accident blew up, and, the land being clear, the 
" upper Water-shops " were constructed ; buildings erected both sides of 
Mill River, in which was to be executed the work requiring water-power. 
Previous to the completion of the " upper Water-shops," the operations of 
forging, drilling, boring, grinding, and polishing were done by hand. From 
time to time, as circumstances demanded, land, buildings, and machinery 
have been added, till the United-States Armory of 1S83 has a world-re- 
nowned reputation, which has been earned for it by the efficiency of its 
successive superintendents and commandants, civil and military, their high 
standing morally, socially, and politically, not only in this immediate com- 
munity, but over the whole country ; by the skill, genius, hard work mentally 
and physically, and loyalty of the artificers and artisans employed; and by 
the liberality displayed by the government in its fostering, favoring, and 
sometimes partiality to, this branch of its War Department. 

Arsenals. — " Beautiful for situation " indeed, can be said of the city of 
Springfield; and, the Main Arsenal having been erected upon almost the 
highest point of land within the limits of the city, the view from its top, 
or bell-deck, is in many respects surpassed by few, if any, in New Eng- 
land. Before the late civil war, there were four arsenals which were used 
solely for the storage of small-arms and their appendages, — three, the Mid- 
dle, East, and West Arsenals, facing and but a few feet from State Street ; 
and the new, or Main Arsenal, upon the brow of the hill which overlooks 
the city. In i860, during the superintendency of Capt. George Dwight, the 
Middle Arsenal was converted into a workshop. This building is situated 
upon the highest point of land in Springfield ; being 1 59^ feet above the aver- 
age level of the Connecticut River, and 199^ feet above tide-water. Later, 
when Major A. B. Dyer was commandant, the East and West Arsenals were 

At United-Stales Armory. 


also used as workshops. The Main Arsenal, which was built during the 
superintendency of Col. James W. Ripley, and under his personal supervis- 
ion, was copied to some considerable extent from the East-India House in 
London, England. It was begun in 1846, and finished a few years later. 
The building is 200 feet long by 70 wide, three stories high, with a storage 
capacity of about 300,000 arms, — 100,000 upon each floor. It is impossible 
to describe the impression which is made upon one's mind at the first view 

of the interior, where 

" From floor to ceiling, 

Like a huge organ rise the burnished arms." 

As you enter the door, and pass down the "aisle" to the lower or south end 
of the room, 50,000 stands of arms are brought into view; retrace your steps, 
and by walking to the upper or north end, another 50,000 are seen ; and 
from their peculiar arrangement in racks, or stanchions, it requires no vivid 
imagination to see before you one hundred regiments of infantry in brigade 
or division columns. In 1864 Col. T. T. S. Laidley commandant, an at- 
tempt was probably made to destroy the Main Arsenal by means of an 
infernal machine. Two men, just at night, asked permission to ascend the 
stairs to the top of the tower. The arsenal-keeper, at that time suspicious 
of every stranger who entered its doors, endeavored to dissuade them from 
the undertaking: it would be a long, tedious ascent; it was late, and not 
much could be seen in the then almost twilight; in fact, it would not pay for 
the trouble. The strangers had a ready answer to all objections: " Not go 
to the top of the world-renowned Springfield Arsenal when we are once in 
the building? Pooh ! of course we will take any amount of trouble, so as not 
to return home and say, 'Yes, in Springfield we visited the Armory, went 
through its workshops, saw the muskets in the arsenal, but did not think it 
worth the trouble to climb to the top of the tower.' No, we will go up, 
then we will be satisfied." And up went the arsenal-keeper and the two 
strangers. The stay upon the top was short; and with, "It is late, gentle- 
men: it is growing dark," the keeper hurried his visitors down the stairs 
to the ground floor. A watchman, whose duty it was to ascend to the top 
deck every night before closing, found a bundle near the clock, envel 
oped in a newspaper. The bundle was taken down to the lower floor, and 
examined enough to know that it was something dangerous, and then 
handed over to the proper authorities. The next day it was found to be 
made of iron covered with some substance which made the whole appear 
like a lump of anthracite coal, had a fuse, was hollow, and filled with some 
substance unknown. With proper caution it was sawn through (this opera- 
tion was done with the machine immersed in water), and the filling proved 
to be powder. What is left of this curiosity is now in the museum, which 
is in a room near the commandant's office. From a pencil memorandum 


found upon a piece of paper with the bundle, deciphered with the aid of a 
magnifving-glass, a clew was obtained from which it appeared that the 
strangers had come from Canada to the States. 

Varieties and Qualities of Small-Arms. — From 1 795, in which year the 
United-States Government made their first musket, to the present time, 
there have been fabricated from twelve to fifteen different kinds, or models, 
of small-arms at the Springfield Armory: such as, the King's Arm, the 
Queen's Arm, the French Model, the 1S22, 1840, and 1842 models, all of 
which were "flint-lock" guns; the 1847; the 1855. or Maynard Primer 
Model, which was the first rifled gun made by the Government; the 1862, 
and the 1865, or Springfield Model, these last two being percussion-lock, 
and all thus far enumerated models being muzzle-loading; the 1873 breech- 
loading gun, etc., etc. The King's and the Queen's Arm each had a large 
bore or calibre : the barrel was long, and the arm completed was heavy and 
clumsy. The French Model had a small calibre, short barrel, light stock, 
and for those days, 1 795-1 809, was a handsome fire-arm. At the com- 
mencement of this century, the United States were at peace with the world 
in general; and having no particular or immediate use for the arms they 
were then making, and finding that if not disposed of, — the accumulation 
in 1809 would have been about 53,000, — they would have to stop the manu- 
facture of them, and not being disposed to do this, used to sell from their 
stores; and the Indians were the purchasers in most instances. The first 
model made was the French : a large number of these were in use : in fact, 
the French furnished most of the small-arms used by the army through the 
war with England. The King's and the Queen's Arm were much in vogue, 
had a good reputation, and there were plenty of them scattered through the 
States, being often sold at auction in large and small quantities. The 
Indians were first persuaded to trade for the French Model, but soon their 
demand was "Small gun no good : big gun, big noise, big bullet; no boy's 
gun for Indian." And thereafter they would buy only those of large calibre : 
the King's Arm or the Queen's Arm was the gun for them. The 1822 model 
was the first American gun, and was at the time superior to any foreign 
arm. The 1840 model was the musket used in the Polk or Mexican war. 
The 1855, or Maynard Primer Model, was used with good results by the 
" regular army " on the western and north-western frontier in engagements 
with the Indians. Of this model, when the late war began, only about 
40,000 had been made; and, as many of these had been distributed to the 
army, what remained in store were in use early in 1861, so that until 
the 1862 model could be made and put into the field, the regulars and the 
volunteers were provided with such arms as could be procured for them, 
either at home or abroad ; accordingly " Enfields," " Austrians," " Bel- 
gians," flint-locks, rifles, fowling-pieces, any thing in the shape of a gun that 

In Water-shops, 


would carry a leaden ball when backed by powder, were in use by the sol- 
diers of the North. The 1873 "breech-loader" is — with perhaps slight 
modification — the model breech-loader of the day. Thomas Blanchard's 
machine for turning irregular forms was introduced into the Armory in 1820, 
during Col. Roswell Lee's administration. An "old Armorer" distinctly 
remembers the following circumstance, he being at the time a fellow-boarder 
with Mr. Blanchard: "One Sunday we particularly noticed Mr. Blanchard, 
for he had in his hands a musket which he seemed to be meditating upon. 
This meditation was nothing new ; for he was a man who said but few words, 
a man who communed with himself, or, rather, did a great deal of head or 
brain work in a quiet way. But now he had something in his hands upon 
which his thoughts seemed to rest, and this was uncommon. The gun was 
turned over and over ; it was looked at from tip to breech ; evidently he was 
thinking hard ; after a long time thought became words, ' I believe that I 
can turn a stock like this,' and eventually he did." The first machine made 
to turn irregular forms was constructed and put into operation at the Upper 
Water-shops : shoe-lasts were the things produced. The next machine was 
made for the purpose of turning the stock for a musket, and proved to be 
just what was to be expected from the first experiment, and just what was 
wanted for that time, and also — what was not then thought of — the fore- 
runner of all machines, models, or forms which are now used to make every 
component part of a gun "interchangeable." 

The whole number of arms made at the close of the year 1854 was 
629,660; whole number made at the end of 1878, 1,751,341. The grand 
total, including rifles, pistols, musketoons, carbines, cadet arms, etc., is now 
not far from 2,000,000. In 1795 there were from 40 to 50 men employed, 
and 245 muskets made. In 1817 there were 14,000 muskets manufactured; 
and — what is significant in these days of steam — it was said, "The water- 
privileges already owned by the United-States Government will warrant the 
extension to 30,000 stands annually ;" the privileges alluded to being what 
were then, and for almost a half-century after, called "the Upper, Middle, 
and Lower Water-shops." In 1S36 there were 260 men employed, and 
13.500 guns made; and at the close of the year there were 170,000 on hand 
stored in the arsenals. In 1864 there were 3,400 men employed, and 276,200 
arms manufactured. It was this year that the production was brought to 
1,000 per day, twenty hours of the twenty-four being the hours of labor: day 
and night the "works" were running, and some months of this year the 
pay-roll amounted to the sum of $200,000. When Fort Sumter was fired 
upon, about 1,000 guns per month was the production; three months after, 
the number was increased to 3,000 per month ; and gradually the number 
was increased till, as before noticed, in 1864 the product for a day's work 
was 1,000; and many days the same number were boxed and shipped to the 


quartermasters of the army in different parts of the country; each box con- 
taining 20 muskets complete, that is, with bayonets, ramrods, screw-drivers, 
tompions, spring vises, etc. 

A lar< r e amount of money has been expended by the Government, from 
1795 till the present time, for land-improvements, buildings, machinery for 
the manufacturing of machinery, tools, small-arms, and their necessary ap- 
pendages, accoutrements, repairs, etc. The whole amount will exceed $32.- 
500,000, of which probably $26,225,000 was for manufacturing purposes ; the 
balance, $6,225,000, being expended for land, buildings, improvements, etc. 

Superintendents. — David Ames, the first superintendent, was a resident, 
but not a native, of Springfield; a distinguished man in many respects : a 
pioneer in paper-manufacturing, and for many years far in the lead in this 
industry. Benjamin Prescott was appointed from civil life, and stood high 
in the estimation of the employees: he was a man of fair executive ability. 
a good citizen, and of sturdy honesty. Col. Roswell Lee was appointed from 
the army, 1812-1815. More than six feet in height, erect, dignified, "he 
was every inch a soldier; and I used to look up at him, and think that he 
was about equal to Gen. Washington," was the remark of an old Armorer 
only a few days ago. Loved by all, employees and citizens, Col. Lee's name 
is and will be oftener in the thoughts, and spoken by men's lips, than that 
of any superintendent, living or dead. Roswell Lee Lodge of Free and 
Accepted Masons derived its name from him, and he was also the first 
worshipful master of Hampden Lodge. Andrew Jackson had fairly com- 
menced his second term of office, when it became necessary to select a 
suitable successor to Col. Lee. There were many aspirants: politics ruled, 
favoritism ruled, the army ruled, the navy ruled, etc. But Old Hickory was 
equal to the occasion : •• I will appoint a man to that position whom I know, — 
a man above reproach ; a man of integrity; a man I respect; a man that is 
capable, and just the one for that situation;" and he appointed John Robb, 
a Methodist minister, who proved to be all that Gen. Jackson had asserted 
of him. It is said that he was a chaplain in the army, and was at the battle 
of Xew Orleans. Lieut.-Col. James W. Ripley was a thorough, practical, 
energetic officer, under whose administration the Armory, as regards its 
efficiency, received an impetus so wholesome and judicious, that its results 
will be perceived as long as fire-arms are manufactured. The Main Arse- 
nal, the superintendent's house, and the long storehouse were erected, the 
iron fence around the grounds commenced, the grounds beautified anil other- 
wise, improved, during his administration. E. S. Allin, acting superin- 
tendent, was a native of Springfield, a good citizen, well known in the 
community, and master armorer for more than a quarter of a century. 
Gen. James S. Whitney was a genial, social man, who had a pleasant tare. 
and a kind word for every person. Under his administration the imposing 



iron fence commenced by Col. Ripley was finished, and the Water-shops 
improved at the expense of many hundreds of thousands of dollars. Capt. 
George Dwight was a native of Springfield ; a man who had a host of 

Viaduct over Mill River, at the Water-shops. 

friends, and not one enemy ; who was directly or indirectly connected with 
almost every public improvement to the town or city ; prominent in local 
military organizations, and especially in the fire-department. As a citizen, 
as a man who has filled many important offices of honor and trust, his 
memory will "always be green" in the hearts and minds of all who knew 


2 55 

him. Capt. A. B. Dyer was appointed from the Ordnance Department as 
commandant. Without doubt, no superintendent before or since came so 
near to the hearts of the employees, especially the subordinate civil officers. 
With almost unlimited power and means, his whole energy and force were 
directed to one object, and that was to give promptly to the armies in the 
field all the fire-arms they needed. He was determined, also, that the arms 
should be of the best model, best material, and of better workmanship than 
ever before. Cols. T. T. S. Laidley and James G. Benton, graduates at 
West Point of the class of 1842, with Rosecrans, Doubleday of "Sumter 
fame," Pope, Longstreet, and Johnston, were two highly accomplished ord- 
nance officers, whose reputation is not confined to the United States, foreign 
countries acknowledging their great ability in matters pertaining to small- 
arms and ordnance. Col. Laidley is living. Col. Benton died Aug. 23, 
1 88 1 : by his death, Springfield lost a beloved citizen, and the Ordnance 
Corps one of its eminent members. Col. I. H. Wright held office only ten 
months, and had no opportunity to show the executive or constructive ability 
which the Government and the public expected from one whose prestige was 
unexceptional. Capt. C. C. Chaffee was a young, gallant ordnance-officer, who 
bade fair to stand as a peer of any in the department, and whose untimely 
death was lamented not only by his family, relatives, and brother officers, 
but by a great number of personal friends and the public. The following 
table gives the complete list of superintendents and their terms of office: — 




*David Ames ....•• 


Oct. 31, 


*Joseph Morgan 

Nov. I, 


Oct. 31, 


*Benjamin Prescott 

Nov. I, 


Aug. 31, 


♦Henry Lechler 

Sept. 1, 


Jan. 15, 


♦Benjamin Prescott 

Jan. 16, 


May 31, 


fLieut.-Col. Roswell Lee 

June i, 


Aug. 25, 


*Lieut.-Col. Talcott, Acting 

Oct. 31, 


♦John Robb . 

Nov. 1, 


April 15, 


*Lieut.-Col. J. W. Ripley 

April 16, 

i8 4 t 

Aug. 16, 


*E. S. Allin, Acting 

Aug. 17, 


Oct. 18, 


*Gen. James S. Whitney 

Get. 19, 


March 1 , 


*E. S. Allin, Acting 

March i, 


June 27, 


Col. I. H. Wright 

June 27, 


April 25, 


♦Capt. George I hvight . 

April 25, 


Aug. 21, 


*Capt. A. B. Dyer 

Aug. 25, 


Oct. 27, 


Col. T. T. S. Laidley . 

Oct. 27, 


May 1 \. 


*Capt. C. C. Chaffee, Acting 

May 14, 


June 14, 


tCol. James G. Benton . 

June 14, 


Aug. -•:. 


1 tpt. J. K. Greer . 

Aug. 2J, 


Oct. 3, 


Lieut. -Col. A. R. Buffington 

Oct. 3, 


♦ De« 



Died in office. 


The Present Officers are: Lieut.-Col. A. R. Buffington, commanding; 
Capt. Frank Heath, Capt. James C. Ayres, Lieut. W. M. Meclcalfe, assistants. 
Col. Buffington has the reputation of being an efficient officer, a rigid disci- 
plinarian, and of excellent executive ability. He is assisted by three mem- 
bers of the Ordnance-corps. 

Reminiscences, Facts, and Anecdotes. — After the Armory was estab- 
lished, for a number of years the parts of arms which were to be carried to 
and from the Water-shops were conveyed in a wheelbarrow. The wheeler, 
an employee of Government, lived on public ground, so as to be near at 
hand when required for service. Walnut Street, now one of the main 
avenues of the city, was in those days merely a lane. The " Old Armorers " 
made for themselves beautiful homes on Walnut, State, Main, and other 
streets in the town ; and in the records of the town, of the churches, of 
benevolent and educational institutions, appear the names of many of them, 
whose memory will be always dear to their descendants, and to the institu- 
tions of the city in which they were the first in good works, deeds, and 
counsel. It is not surprising that these men became attached to the town, 
the Armory, and to the homes they had made for themselves. Many of 
them commenced working in and about the Armory when only 13 years 
of age ; and they not only made homes in and about Springfield for them- 
selves, but induced others, either relatives or acquaintances, to come here, 
and take up their residence. Whilst digging for the foundations of the long 
storehouse which stands upon the terrace overlooking Pearl and Worth- 
ington Streets, the remains of 12 or more soldiers dressed in regimentals 
were uncovered. During the 1812 war, the United-States Armory being a 
Government post, the United-States soldiers were often quartered in the 
barracks and in the dwelling-houses which were on "public ground." The 
houses were commonly occupied by Armorers ; but, at a short notice that 
soldiers were coming, they moved out, and the soldiers moved in, and they 
remained in these comfortable quarters a longer or shorter time, "according 
to orders." A portion of the ground now occupied by the storehouse was 
then used as a graveyard ; and soldiers were often buried there, and buried, 
too, in their uniforms. "In the last war of 1812, a part of a regiment of 
infantry which had been quartered in the barracks was ordered away : and 
they left in the hospital one of their comrades, a drummer, very sick with 
typhus-fever; the man had a young son who staid with him. The drummer 
died, and the Armorers left their work to go with his body to the grave ; 
and all wept as they saw the poor drummer covered with earth, and his 
young son sobbing over his father's grave." The first quarter of this cen- 
tury witnessed many exciting, curious, and laughable scenes and incidents 
between the superintendent and the employees, among the workmen them- 
selves, and between the workmen and the townspeople. According to the 


2 57 

fashions of those days, there arose many quarrels ; for intoxicating drink 
was used by every one, high and low, rich and poor, — all drank. The 
workmen were allowed to carry their bottles or jugs of rum into the shops, 
where, properly labelled, they stood on a ledge or shelf just above the 
washing-place, which was a long sink or trough ; and often officials, coming 

into the workshop upon business, would walk 
up to the array of jugs, select their favorite 
"rum," take a good respectable drink, de- 
posit a pistareen or a Spanish quarter by the 
side of the jug, and then go about their busi- 
ness. Benjamin Prescott, the third superintendent, was capable of managing 
any number and all kinds of men; but as he had some " rough-and-ready " 
ones to deal with, he drew the reins of discipline very close at times. In 
1812-1815 the usual license was restricted: Government was at war with 
England ; the State militia as well as the regulars wanted muskets ; the men 
must be ready at their working-hours: boys, even the workmen's sons. 
must not enter the shops. At this time military enthusiasm was high: the 


boys caught the spirit ; and the Hill boys formed a company of artillery, and 
paraded with wooden guns and a battery of a dozen lead cannon. One clay 
as Superintendent Prescott was on his way to the Water-shops, driving his 
horse as was his habit, the boys were having a parade in the street; and, 
seeing " Old Prescott " driving towards them, one of the elder boys cried 
out, "Here comes Old Prescott: let's fire at him." A line was formed on 
each side of the street, and a half-dozen loaded lead cannon were placed 
in front of each rank; the cannon were about five inches long, by three- 
quarters of an inch diameter. Mr. Prescott, intent upon his business, gave 
no heed to the hostile display, and rode through the open ranks, and was 
saluted from right and left with "twelve guns;" he turned, feeling obliged 
to return the compliment, which he did by saying, " Well done, well done, 
boys." It was probably during his administration that the following incident 
occurred. The United-States Congress had made appropriations for erecting 
a suitable dwelling for the Armory superintendent, who personally saw that 
the work should be done according to his wishes, and, what was of more 
consequence to see, that the appropriation should not be exceeded. The 
sides as well as the top of the house were to be shingled ; and when it was 
near completion, the carpenter notified the superintendent that there were 
not enough shingles to finish : " It is all done but part of one side of the 
house, and that needs about a half of a bundle more of shingles." Uncle 
Sam was rather penurious in those days, and no one knew it better than the 
superintendent. For him there was no more money except by an appropria- 
tion, no appropriation until Congress convened. There was a short whispered 
conference with the carpenter. A few days after, the house was completed : 
a lumber-dealer in the town was "out" a bundle of shingles, Uncle Sam 
" in " the same, said bundle of shingles disappearing from the lumber-dealer's 
yard one uncommonly dark night. 

Uncle Sam, — U. S., — U. S. A., — how many minds have been mysti- 
fied by the cabalistic letters U.S. ! Many years ago there were two ne'er-do- 
wells to be seen almost every pleasant day lounging along and about the 
streets of Springfield. One pleasant day it was noticed that Joe had lost 
his companion: Jake had disappeared, and Joe was alone. It was not at 
all Joe's mind to loaf alone, and he tried to find something to do. When it 
was known that he was willing to earn his daily bread, a place was found 
for him in the Armory, where soon he was earning $25 a month. Four or 
five years passed away ; and one pleasant summer's evening, as Joe, well- 
dressed, was walking down Main Street, he saw coming towards him his 
old companion. " Why, Jake, is that you? Where have you been? Where 
did you come from ? What are you?" — " Hold on, Joe; hold on ! don't you 
dress better than you used to? Where did you get those good clothes ? " — 
" Why, Jake, don't you know ? ain't you heard ? I've worked for Uncle Sam 


for ever so long; 25 dollars a month, Jake, 25 dollars a month." — "Uncle 
Sam ! Uncle Sam ! I didn"t know that you had an Uncle Sam. Joe, Joe, 
for old acquaintance' sake, you just ask your Uncle Sam if he won't hire 

Fires have been of frequent occurrence. A coal-house upon the Hill 
accidentally took fire, and thousands of bushels of charcoal burned for two 
or three days. Water thrown upon the outside of the coal served only to 
intensify the heat in the centre of the burning mass, and the coal was all 
destroyed. Some time afterwards, a coal-house at the Middle Water-shops 
was burned, but most of the coal was saved. The coal-house was situated 
over the river, or dam. The ignited coal was thrown into the river, where it 
floated down the stream, and was afterwards drawn ashore ; the partially 
burned coal was raked to some distance from the burning building, spread 
out upon the ground, water put on it, and most of it saved in fair condition. 

" 1824, March 2, wind extremely high, the United-States- Filing-shop took 
fire, and burned to the ground; loss estimated at $15,000," but afterwards 
found to be about $30,000. It was a raw, cold, blustering day. The cinders 
were carried as far as the Water-shops. There was not much snow on the 
ground: the heat was intense, and blankets were spread upon the ground 
to prevent the burning of the roots of grass. July 4, 1842, the building 
called the barracks was burned. In July, 1864, the polishing and a portion 
of the milling department buildings were burned. Major A. B. Dyer, then 
superintendent, acted as chief engineer, and proved himself capable of filling 
that office satisfactorily to the city firemen and to the public generally. 

Henry Lechler, fourth superintendent, was a German, impetuous, irrita- 
ble, capable in small affairs, in managing a small number of men, but fail- 
ing in execution when great results were expected from great effort on the 
part of the chief. " I have seen him, his coat-tails streaming behind him 
straight out, riding like Jehu from the Hill to the Water-shops, — he always 
rode on horseback : he would enter the shop, and go to the forger, or 
tool-maker, as the case might be, and producing a piece of steel from one 
of his pockets, say six inches long by three-quarters of an inch square, 
would give the steel to the workman, saying, 'Cast-steel is scarce: you 
must be careful how you use it.' On an occasion when there was quite 
a demand for cast-steel, on account of tools to be made, and the supply had 
given out, he said, ' No cast-steel? I will take my horse and cutter, and go 
to Boston, and I'll bring back cast-steel enough to last one while;' and, sure 
enough, Superintendent Lechler drove down to Boston, and returned with a 
good supply of the necessary material in his cutter." It appears that there 
was quite a scramble for office, even in those early days of the Union ; and 
Benjamin Prescott, after eight years of service, was obliged to give place to 
Henry Lechler, who remained in office one year and three months, when Mr. 


Prescott received his second commission from Government. He brought 
the news of his appointment and the requisite papers to Springfield, walked 
up to the Armory, entered the well-known room, — it was in the month of 
January, 1815, — took down Superintendent Lechler's greatcoat from its 
peg, hung his own in its stead, and, having lighted his cigar, drew his old 
familiar arm-chair to the blazing wood-fire, and waited for his predecessor's 
appearance. Mr. Lechler soon entered the room; and the new superintend- 
ent, without quitting his arm-chair, or even looking away from the fire, 
handed — over his shoulder — the "document" to Mr. Lechler, who, after 
reading it, rushed out of the office into the workshops with the words, 
" Men, I am no more ! men, I am no more ! " However, he peaceably re- 
signed his powers to Mr. Prescott. 

At this time the workmen, some of them at least, were rough and law- 
less : they could not forget their old camp habits, and foraged in all direc- 
tions. One Sunday quite a number of them, about 20, started upon one of 
their expeditions, the "objective point " being a particular watermelon-bed 
in the vicinity of Longmeadow. The good people of the town were at 
church ; but the news was soon conveyed to the town constable, for watchful 
eyes had been for many days and nights upon that melon-patch. The con- 
stable soon had a posse at his command : the watermelon-bed was sur- 
rounded ; the depredators were captured, and in a short time safely impris- 
oned in Colton's tavern. Most, if not all, were barefoot. When meeting was 
done, the people by twos and threes went to the tavern " to have a look at 
the rascals." After the people had seen, the boys and the girls had seen, 
probably almost every inhabitant of Longmeadow had seen the robbers, the 
landlady thought that she would have a peep at them. One of the number 
had only four toes on one of his feet : the great toe had been lost by some 
accident or otherwise. The landlady, with spectacles on the end of her nose, 
after looking over the crowd, happened to espy Mr. B.'s foot, — the foot that 
had only four toes : she noticed that the great toe was missing, whereupon 
she walked close to him, and pointing a finger at him said, "You are a thief! 
you are an arrant thief, for I've seen your tracks in our watermelon-bed 
more than a hundred times." 

The Corner Tavern was a famous place for the workmen to frequent, 
where they would tell stories, drink their toddy, and pass their leisure time. 
In the war of 1812, a company of infantry was recruited in Boston to serve 
on the Lakes. Every man was tall, strong, and physically well qualified for 
the service. Upon arriving at headquarters, by some hocus-pocus they were 
drafted into the marine corps, and served through the war. When pretty 
well scarred, — for they had made their marks, and in return were pretty well 
marked by scars from gun-shot and sabre wounds, — they one by one, what 
there was left of the company, made their way back to Boston. As most if 



not all of them walked the whole distance from Buffalo to Boston, they 
would naturally go through Springfield, as it was the most directly travelled 
route. One of these naval heroes chanced to enter the bar-room of the 
Corner Tavern one forenoon at just the time when quite a number of men 
were taking their toddv. His story was soon told, his scars shown, and then 

The Commandant's Quarters. 

they treated; one treated, another and another and another treated: the 
veteran drank his rum every time, and was happy. " How are you going to 
get to Boston?" asked one. "Walk." — "What! walk all the way? it's a 
hundred mile, almost." — "Well, that makes no difference: folks are very 
good, just the same as you are; I'll get along." — " Come, boys, pass the 
hat for the old fellow." The hat was passed; and a little more than $2 in 
silver was raised, and handed to him. He was overcome. Food, drink, 
and lodging had been given him freely; but money, hard cash, — this was 
something, and demanded gratitude, in words at least. "My friends, 1 — 1 


— thank you; and, my friends, I thank God for every thing, for all his 
marcies; I — I — I thank God for every thing, — for every thing, every thing. 
My friends, for every thing I thank God, — for everything, my friends, — 
except bread — I can buy that now of the baker." 

Another time, a seedy, impecunious individual walked into the bar-room, 
seated himself in a chair by the fire, and seemed to be occupied solely in 
resting. The usual time brought the workmen for their forenoon's nip of 
bitters, toddy, or rum. After a while they noticed the stranger, who, when 
he saw that their curiosity was aroused, took a newspaper from the table, — 
not many newspapers in those days, — and read in a distinct voice, "Adver- 
tisement. Lost where it was dropped, an empty bag with a cheese in it ; 
never was missed till it was gone. Run away from the subscriber, a little 
boy about the size of a man ; he rode away a two-year-old heifer, natural 
pacer, easy to trot; had a white streak on her fore-shoulder behind. Who- 
ever will find the same boy, return him where no man will ever find him, 
shall receive 20 shillings out of his own pocket. Signed, John Knockem- 
down when I catch 'em. Springfield Hill, 1829." After reading he put the 
paper upon the table, and awaited developments. Soon one man, then an- 
other, then another, till a half-dozen or more, took the paper, and looked for 
the strange advertisement; but it was not found. " Finally," says our nar- 
rator, " I took up the newspaper, and looked it all through, and I couldn't 
find it ; so I says to the man, ' You just tell me where that advertisement is, 
and I'll treat.' The stranger agreed, and took his rum; and he drank a 
tumbler just about full of grog. ' Now,' says I, again taking up the paper, 
' where did you find it? ' He took off his hat, and just tapped his head, and 
nodded to me, as much as to say, ' In my own head, there's where I found it.' " 

In Gen. Jackson's time, politics were red-hot; only two parties, Whigs 
and Democrats ; the Democrats were sometimes, especially if they were 
Armorers, called "administration men." The Fourth of July was the great 
day of the year. The Whigs on the Fourth generally had their dinner, 
speeches, and toasts in the Town Hall; the Democrats held their festivities 
in the " Ordnance Yard," which was on Federal Square, with other public 
buildings, the block-house, the magazine, and the like. At each toast a "six- 
pounder" was fired. The Town Hall was situated in the centre of the town, 
so that the Whigs had their cannon placed in the meadows back of " Frost's 
Pond," not far from the junction of Dwight and Hillman Streets. A boy 
was stationed at the top of the north window of the hall ; and when the toast 
was given, the boy waved a small American flag which could be seen by the 
gunners, there being no buildings then to intercept the range of sight. At 
the Ordnance Yard, which was surrounded by a high board fence, the Demo- 
crats had their feast with tables set under cover, but upon the ground, and 
the tables were but a short distance from the cannon outside the walls ; the 


only signal given was the clapping of hands after the toast was given. One 
Fourth the rain came down without cessation all through the day; but the 
dinner, the speeches, all came off regularly notwithstanding. The "toucher- 
off " of the cannon, on account of the rain, had an assistant, whose duty was 
to hold an umbrella over the priming. In the intervals between the toasts, 
the gunners had recourse to the punch, which was furnished without stint. 
From punch to argument, from argument to controversy, was the result ; and 
soon there was a confusion of words, as well as ideas, upon the subject, 
" Does the king of England, or the king of France, entertain the kindliest 
feelings towards the United States ?" As the dispute grew quite warm, each 
advocate had his followers : some were for Louis Philippe, and some for 
William the Fourth. It was getting to be serious business, when loud shout- 
ing and clapping of hands from the dinner-table announced a toast. The 
powder-man ran, and in his haste deposited a liberal allowance of gun- 
powder in, on, and about the touch-hole ; the toucher-off ran, with his iron 
red-hot, and his assistant, who just then was having rather the best of the 
argument ; and with his eagerness to cover the priming with the umbrella, 
and his unwillingness to stop disputing, he did not calculate distances very 
close, when — pough — fizz — bang! and away went the umbrella, 20 feet 
into the air, and when it came down, alas ! it was an umbrella no more ; only 
a stick and a few pieces of rattan. 

A pleasant walk of ten minutes, or thereabouts, up State Street, from its 
junction with Main Street, passing through the gate at the southern corner 
of " Public Grounds," by the uniformed guard at the gate-house, up a short, 
sharp hill, and you are upon the plateau, upon and around which most of 
the buildings connected with the United-States Armory, such as the arsenals, 
storehouses, workshops, offices, officers' quarters, etc., are situated. Keeping 
to the right, you pass the officers' quarters, the barracks, the guard-house, the 
middle arsenal, and the east arsenal, all upon the south-east side of Union 
Square. Thence due northerly by a long brick building, occupied by the 
ordnance storekeeper, the general offices, the milling department, etc. Along 
the north side of the square, and also fronting Federal Street, is a long, 
irregular brick building, in which are the machine, stocking, filing, polishing, 
carpenters', and paint "shops." Across Federal Street, looking east, out- 
side the iron fence, is the long, low, wood building of the experimental de- 
partment. There are now about four hundred men employed, making one 
hundred and twenty "breech-loaders" each working-day. During working- 
hours, most of these buildings are open to the public. Passes can be obtained 
by application to the proper authority in the general office. Continuing your 
walk, now almost due west, you pass the fire-department building; while 
away to the left is seen the storehouse, — nine hundred feet long, — one end 
of which contains the government stables. Upon your right is Union Square 


proper, with its trees, — a great variety, — its beautiful velvety turf, and bat- 
tery of a half-dozen twelve-pounders, one of which is used for the sunrise 
and sunset gun. A few yards from the corner where you turn to the south- 
east, towards State Street, is the commandant's quarters ; passing which, 
south-easterly, you come to the main arsenal, having almost completed the 
circuit of Union Square. The arsenal is capable, with its basement, of 
storing nearly half a million stand of arms. A long, but comparatively easy, 
ascent of its tower, and you are where Thomson might have written, — 

" Meantime you gain the height, from whose fair brow 
The bursting prospect spreads immense around; 
And snatch o'er hill and dale, and wood and lawn, 
And verdant field, and darkening heath between, 
And villages embosom'd soft in trees, 
And spiry towns, by surging columns mark'd 
Of household smoke, your eye excursive roams." 

It is impossible to estimate what proportion of the growth in population 
or wealth of Springfield is due to the establishment of the United-States 
Armory within its limits. Indirectly, without doubt, it was the chief cause 
of its growth and prosperity: other factors have, in later times, played an 
important part in making Springfield what it is to-day, — an enterprising, 
thrifty, prosperous inland city. A complete history of Springfield is some- 
thing yet to be written ; and when this is accomplished, con amore, the 
United-States Armory will occupy the front rank in its chapters relating to 
religion, politics, mechanics, and many local and physical improvements. 



&\)c Sociability of tije (STttjj. 


SPRINGFIELD has an enviable record socially. Its homes are attrac- 
tive on the outside, and elaborately furnished on the inside. The 
places of amusement and the large variety of social organizations also show 
that the people keenly feel that there are enjoyments outside and beyond 
the pursuits of money-getting. No stranger can surmise, and few citizens 
probably realize, how great and varied are the local associations for social 
and physical development. In this chapter, it is intended to give a brief 
historical and descriptive outline of these features of Springfield life; be- 
ginning with the professional theatricals and operas, and continuing through 
the list of athletic, secret, amateur, and other organizations, and the club- 
rooms, the public halls, and outdoor places of exhibition. 

Theatricals and Operas. — Springfield is what is called by theatrical 
people a "good show town." Its citizens are generous, and, in the main, 
discriminating, patrons of the drama. This reputation, a pretty theatre, and 
the geographical position of the city, combine to make it a rather more popu- 
lar place with travelling theatrical companies than its size alone would war- 
rant ; and few famous players fail to visit it. The history of the theatre in 
Springfield, however, is practically confined to the present generation ; and 
its chief promoter was a former citizen, the Hon. Tilly Haynes, now the 
owner of the United-States Hotel in Boston, who built Haynes's Music Hall 
in 1857. Before this time, theatrical representations here were crude, and 
partook much of the nature of the performances of the tramping, "barn-storm- 
ing" players. The sole place for entertainments of this class was Hampden 
Hall, which long occupied the site of the present handsome "Springfield 
Republican" block on Main Street. This was a rude, ill-seated room, with 
a gallery across the rear end, and a small and poorly furnished stage. So 
small, indeed, was the stage, that it is recalled that on one night a rather 
tall actor, who had occasion to stand upon a chair, found his head up 
among the flies and out of sight of the audience. Lanergan and Fiske were 
the chief purveyors of amusement here in those days ; and they used to 
bring companies, and remain weeks at a time. They were great favorites, 
as, indeed, Moses W. Fiske has never ceased to be in Springfield. Morris 
Brothers' minstrels were also frequently heard here. It is worth noting. 


that the reverence for Sunday was so great in Springfield, in those days, 
that no performances were ever given on Saturday evenings. The one-time- 
famous Black Swan once sang in this hall, and the anti-abolition sentiment 
of the day found a noisy expression, which almost resulted in a riot : but 
when the hotel opposite took fire, the same night, white men risked their 
lives to save the black singer. Madame Bishop's singing used to draw 
crowds to the hall, for the fee was only fifty cents. But the place was 
neither large enough nor fine enough for Jenny Lind; and this singer's 
memorable appearance in Springfield was made at the First Church, the 
streets about which were thronged with people anxious to hear even a note 
of the "Swedish Nightingale's" voice, but not able to afford the then high 
price of admission. Concerts were occasionally given also at Union Hall, 
in the present Belmont Hotel building, and the famous pianist Gottschalk 
played there. Concerts were also occasionally given in what was known 
as Burt's Hall, a low, dark, dismal hole, on Bliss Street near Main. The 
opening of Music Hall put an end to the business of the other places ; 
for, though a barn-like structure, it was then considered a fine house of 
entertainment. Old Hampden Hall was long occupied as the store-room 
of a furniture-shop, but its interior was practically unchanged to the time of 
its tearing down. 

Haynes's Music Hall, now known as Gilmore's Opera House, is the 
result of Mr. Haynes's purpose to give the city a theatre. This resolve 
at the time aroused strong and almost bitter opposition on the part of the 
public in general, and even of the newspapers, on purely moral grounds, of 
course. Nevertheless, the house was opened in November, 1857, by W. J. 
Fleming, who staid three weeks, and, in fact, provided most of the enter- 
tainment during that winter. In 1858 J. B. Howe played here for three 
weeks, and presented "The Sea of Ice" with special scenery, — the first 
Springfield ever had. But the engagement was unprofitable in spite of this, 
and finally one night Mr. Haynes refused to light the house. George 
Pauncefort appeared the same winter, with his wife as " leading lady." and 
the late Charles R. Thorne, jun., as his chief male support. " Ingomar" was 
first played here by them. Mr. Thorne became a great favorite here, on 
the stage and off; and Pauncefort was so jealous of him, that he one night 
refused to let Thorne answer to a recall, which so angered the audience that 
he was forced to come before the curtain and apologize. Matt V. Lingham 
was also a visitor here in those days; J. C. Myers and John Murray were 
frequently here together, and were the first to present " The Ticket-of- 
Leave Man ; " and brought Addie Anderson, who introduced " Mazeppa " to 
Springfield. In this play, R. E. J. Miles, now a well-known manager, and 
the originator of the late dramatic festival at Cincinnati, played a part. The 
house was burned on the night of July 24, 1864, but was rebuilt, and re-opened 




in July, 1865, with a concert by local singers, for the benefit of Mr. Haynes. 
The first dramatic performance in it, after a week of variety-show and a 
concert and two lectures, was of " London Assurance," Aug. 7, by Mrs. John 
Woods's Olympic Theatre company of New York, under the management of 
the late J. H. Selwyn. Among the company were J. H. Stoddart, B. T. Ring- 
gold, George Stoddart, T. J. Hind, Harry Pearson, C. H. Rockwell, Alice 
Placide, and Eliza Newton. They remained three weeks, playing many 
standard pieces, and deservedly made something of a social furor. The en- 
gagement ended with six nights of " The Streets of New York," which was 
played to an average of 
900 people, and on some 
nights many were turned 
away from the doors. Mr. 
Haynes, who had removed 
to Boston, sold the proper- 
ty in the spring of 1881, 
to Dwight O. Gilmore, 
who entirely remodelled 
the house at large ex- 
pense, and made it one 
of the handsomest and 
cosiest country theatres in 
New England ; and it was 
re-opened in the follow- 
ing September, by Frank 
Mayo in "Macbeth." The 
house is beautifully deco- 
rated, has a stage 54 by 35 feet in size, a curtain-opening 27 feet wide and 
30 feet high, and a generous quantity of scenery. There are two handsome 
boxes upon each side of the stage; and the seating capacity is put at 1,200, 
with standing-room for 300 more. Of these seats, 175 are folding orchestra- 
chairs, 330 are in the parquet-circle, 305 in the dress-circle, or first gallerv, 
and 350 in the upper gallery. W. C. LeNoir, who has been connected with 
the house almost since the start in 1857, is the treasurer and acting manager. 
The Skating-Rink on East-Bridge Street, between Dwight and Hillman 
Streets, was opened Dec. 23, 1879, under the management of A. S. Lalime, 
who has since been drowned in Lake Champlain. It is owned by H. H. 
Bigelow of Worcester. The building has two towers in front, and an ellip- 
tical roof. Its length is 1S0 feet, and its width 84 feet. It is built of corru- 
gated iron, with an arched roof, and has a fine skating-fioor 150 by 60 feet. 
The interior is gayly decorated with Chinese-lanterns and bunting, and. 
when lighted at night with electric lights, produces a brilliant effect. Its 

Gilmore's Opera House, Main and Pynchon Streets. 



name indicates its chief use, and it has popularized in Springfield the pre- 
viously unknown pastime of roller-skating. For two summers, perform- 
ances of light opera were given in it, at low prices of admission ; but they 
failed to be profitable, partly because the location and construction of the 
building make it peculiarly uncomfortable upon a hot night. Political meet- 
ings and pedestrian-matches have occasionally been held in it; and the 
Bicycle Club has given frequent exhibitions in it, outside of the regular 

The Springfield Club, the only purely social organization of consequence 
in the city, was formed about 15 years ago as a sporting-club, and first met 

Springfield Club-House, Chestnut and Worthington Streets. 

in a Main-street business-block. Its scope was gradually changed, and a 
few years later it took possession of its present house at the corner of 
Chestnut and Worthington Streets. It is made up of prominent business 
and professional men of the city, and its elegant quarters have been the 
scene of many a banquet to leading actors and other important visitors. 
H. S. Hyde is the president, and William P. Alexander the secretary and 

The Springfield Turnverein, a prosperous German organization devoted 
to social, physical, and mental advancement, was organized April 5, 1855, 
and has for many years met in Gilmore's Hall, on the upper floor of the 
block adjoining the Opera House. A small stage has been erected, and 
furnished with one or two scenes ; and here the members and their families 
meet regularly on Sunday nights, and frequently at other times, and enjoy 


themselves in characteristic German fashion, singing, recitation, dramatic 
representation, and on week-nights dancing. A gymnasium has been fitted 
up in a room in the rear of the hall, and prizes are occasionally offered for 
competition by the young men. The public social gatherings of the Turn- 
verein have become popular in the city; and its annual masquerade ball has 
attracted such crowds that it is now regularly held in the City Hall. The 
handsome decorations, gay costumes, and fine music have made these occa- 
sions an attractive and popular feature of Springfield's winter life. The 
Turnverein has bought a lot on West State Street, near Main, and intends to 
begin the erection of a handsome building there in the spring of 1884. The 
society has steadily increased in its membership, except during the years of 
the Civil War, when a number of its members, particularly some of the most 
active, enlisted in the United-States Army. At present there are upwards 
of a hundred members, two of whom were among the founders of the 
Society. On May 28, 1883, it was incorporated under the laws of Massachu- 
setts. This society is also one of the great number which constitute the 
" Nordamerikanischen Turnerbund," which has a membership of about 

The Springfield Schiitzen-Verein was organized April 13, 1882, with a 
membership of 23, which has since increased to no, — 40 active, 70 passive 
members. The main object of the Verein, or Club, is rifle-practice: but it 
does much to promote sociability ; and, although it is a German organiza- 
tion, it receives members of other nationalities. There is semi-annual target 
and prize shooting, on which occasions the active members are uniformed 
in cadet gray trimmed with green. Drill-meetings take place on the second 
and fourth Fridays in each month, and the business-meeting on the first Fri- 
day in each month. The headquarters are in Union Hall, on Main Street. 
The captain is H. Buchholz, the first lieutenant A. Kron, and the corre- 
sponding secretary Franz Oetiker. 

The Rod-and-Gun Club, whose object is the comprehensive one of the 
enforcement of the game-laws, the stocking of forests and streams with birds 
and fish, the promotion of skill in shooting and fishing, the fostering of 
public opinion concerning the preservation of birds and fish, and mutual 
social improvement, was organized Dec. 12, 1874, and was incorporated 
Oct. 3, 1881. It met until 1880 in the Opera-house Block, in rooms now 
taken into the auditorium of the theatre ; and has since occupied spacious 
and well-furnished quarters in Parsons's new block, near the corner of Main 
and Bridge Streets. The club gave, in 1875, one of the first bench-shows 
of dogs ever held in the United States, and has also held large pigeon and 
poultry shows ; and it has sown much wild rice hereabouts, and has in the 
past three or four years imported and liberated many Messina quail. The 
membership of the Rod-and-Gun Club is now 128. 


The Rod-and-Gun Rifle-Team is an offshoot of the Rod-and-Gun Club, 
though having no direct connection with it. It has, after wandering from 
Longmeadow to West Springfield, finally fitted up 200, 500, 800, and 1,000 
yards' ranges across the Water-shops Pond. The team includes some fine 
marksmen, and has been considered one of the strongest in New England 
outside of Boston. 

The Glass-Ball Team is another offshoot of the Rod-and-Gun Club, 
and its grounds are at the easterly end of State Street. 

The Springfield Caledonian Club, composed of Scotchmen and descend- 
ants of Scotchmen, was organized Oct. 11, 1883, with 75 members. It holds 
regular monthly meetings, and has for its object the cultivation of social 
relations and of the patriotic ardor and sports of Scotland. George H. 
Bleloch is the chief; and George Bruce, James Ritchie, William Holley, 
and Dr. A. A. Forbes are the first, second, third, and fourth chieftains 
respectively. It meets in Odd Fellows' Hall in Savings Institution Building. 
The Armory Rifle-Club is a team of mechanics at the United-States 
Armory. They use the Springfield military rifle, and number some uncom- 
monly fine shots, who have taken good rank in national competitions. One 
of their number, M. W. Bull, was a member of the American international 
team which contested in England in the summer of 1883. 

The Springfield Rowing- Association, organized in the spring of 1879, 
has already become one of the recognized and popular sporting institutions 
of the city, by reason of the regattas which it holds regularly every autumn. 
It is pleasantly quartered at the foot of State Street, in a roomy boat-house, 
with a broad piazza commanding a fine view of the river including the course 
usually followed in races. It has a membership of about 50, and owns 
one four-oared shell, two double gigs, four single gigs, and four pleasure- 
boats. Frank D. Foot is president, H. W. McGregory secretary. A. H. 
Cooper commander, and J. D. Norton captain. 

The Atlanta Boat-Club was organized in the summer of 1880, and now 
numbers about 30 members. It has a commodious boat-house at the foot 
of William Street ; and its fleet consists of one four-oared shell, two double 
cdgs, five single gigs, and two double-oared Whitehalls. The officers for 
the current year are: President, John H. Chine; secretary, John M. Mehi- 
gen ; captain, James A. Clune. 

The Nelson C. Newell Boat-Crew is made up of members of the At- 
lanta Club, and is : T. B. McCormick, captain and bow ; D. Ouinn, G. T. 
French, and J. M. McHiggins, stroke. 

The Springfield Canoe-Club was organized in 1S82, and now numbers 
19 members. The club-house is built upon a float in the Connecticut 
River at the foot of Howard Street, and contains three rooms. The canoes 
owned are six Shadows, four Stella Maris, three St. Pauls, two St. Law- 



rences, and one birch-bark. F. A. Nickerson is commander, and C. M. Shedd 
secretary and treasurer. Mr. Nickerson is also the chief officer of the 
American Association of Canoeists. 

The Springfield Bicycle Club was formed May 6, 1 88 1, with 9 members, 
who then constituted all the bicyclers of the city; for Springfield, generally 
fond of sports, long frowned upon this modern innovation. But the club 
has grown rapidly ; and though the average age of its members (23 years) is 
called the lowest in the country, few bicycle-clubs are better known, or 

have done more to popularize this form of recreation. The club had no 
quarters, but met at each others' houses, and rendezvoused at street-corners, 
till December, 1882, when the entire second floor of the Massachusetts 
Mutual Life Insurance Building was engaged. Here it is very comfortably 
settled ; the quarters containing large and attractively furnished assembly, 
reading, and billiard rooms. The present membership is over 100. The 
finances are in good condition; and the club spent $26,000 upon a tourna- 
ment on Hampden Park in September, 1883, which is claimed to have been 
the greatest bicycle meeting ever held, and which attracted bicyclists from 
all parts of the United States and from Canada and England. Most of the 
fastest records have been made under this club's auspices ; and one of its 



members, George M. Hendee, is the champion amateur rider of the United 
States, for all distances up to and including 20 miles. The club was in- 
corporated in December, 1883. The president is Henry E. Ducker, treasu- 
rer Andrew L. Fennessy, and the secretary is Sanford Lawton. 

The Free Masons have had an interesting history in Springfield. At 
the beginning of the century, there was no organized Masonic body in this 
immediate vicinity, though there were Masons in the town. A lodge was 

formed at Southwick in 
years later was removed 
field, then a more impor- 
the neighbor which has 

1807, and three 
to West Spring- 
tant place than 
since overshad- 
owed it. This 
lodge met in the 
old tavern near 
the park, now 
known as the 
Belden House; 
and existed un- 
til 1838, though 
many of its mem- 
bers left when 
Hampden Lodge 
was started in 
Springfield, on 
March 11, 181 7, 
with 16 charter 
members. The 
.,. first master, and for years one of its most 
active members, was Col. Roswell Lee, 
commandant at the United States Armo- 
ry. Rev. Dr. Samuel Osgood, the famed 
and long-time pastor of the First Church, 
was another active member, was long 
chaplain of the lodge, and was the first high priest of Morning Star Chapter 
of Royal Arch Masons, which was instituted on Sept. 15, 1817, with 10 charter 
members. Springfield Council, the next higher body, was formed on May 28 
of the following year. The first meeting-place was a hall in the Hampden 
House, a tavern kept at the corner of Main and Court Streets, under the 
shadow of the historic elm. In May, 1819, the lodge moved to Gunn's Hall, 
near the corner of State and Walnut Streets, marching pompously up the 
hill to the solemn music of a bass-viol played by Brother Ziba Stevens. But 
the stay there was short; for in 1820 all three bodies were lodged in Carew's 

Judges' Stand, Hampden Park. 

The Champion Amateur Bicycler of America. 


Hall, now a store-room over Webber's drug-store. Here Springfield Com- 
mandery of Knights Templar was formed on June 19, 1826, with 9 members, 
and Henry Dwight as commander. Eleven months later the four Masonic 
bodies laid the corner-stone of the town-hall at the corner of State and San- 
ford Streets, the upper story of which was built by them for their own pur- 
poses, and is still owned by the four bodies then existing. This was the 
home of Masonry in Springfield till 1874, when the growth of the order 
necessitated larger quarters ; and the various organizations removed to the 
spacious, handsome, and convenient rooms in the two upper floors of the 
Massachusetts Mutual Life Insurance Building on Main Street, where they 
still remain. What is known as the Morgan excitement began about the 
time the old town-hall was built, and had for many years a damaging and 
almost fatal effect upon Masonry in Springfield ; although its adherents had 
included many of the most active Christians of the town, and the religious 
character of Hampden Lodge was so pronounced that at this time it was 
regularly contributing to the missionary work in the Orient, and had voted 
money to the fund for translating the Scriptures into Eastern tongues. The 
admissions into the lodge grew steadily less. Only one man joined in each 
of the years 1829, 1830, and 1831. The last was Lucius C. Allin, for many 
years a foreman at the Armory. The lodge stopped working from 1832 till 
1846, as did the other bodies : but it refused to obey the order of the Grand 
Lodge to surrender its charter; and the late Ocran Dickinson took posses- 
sion of the precious document, and secreted it among other papers in a bank- 
vault. Members meanwhile met about once a year to elect officers. From 
1S46 down to the present time, the history of Free Masonry in Springfield 
has been one of almost uninterrupted prosperity. The parent lodge had 
grown to be almost unwieldy in 1865 ; and on March 9 of that year a new 
lodge, named in honor of Roswell Lee, was chartered, with 16 members, and 
E. W. Clarke as master. This lodge now numbers about 375 members, and 
Hampden Lodge 365 ; but this by no means represents the number of Free 
Masons in the city, as both bodies have within a few years suspended a large 
number for non-payment of the Grand-Lodge tax. Hampden Lodge alone 
once struck off 532 names in a bunch, for this cause. The Chapter now 
had a membership of 280, and the Commandery of 391. In the Scottish 
Rite, the working bodies are Evening Star Lodge of Perfection, chartered 
Feb. 1, 1865; and Massasoit Council Princes of Jerusalem, chartered May 
19, 1865. A woman's lodge, called Adelphi Chapter No. 2, Order of the 
Eastern Star, was formed Feb. 8, 1870. A lodge of colored men, working 
under an English charter, and named for Charles Sumner, was established 
June 24, 1866, and holds its regular communications in Foot's Block, 
corner of Main and State Streets. The Masonic Mutual Relief Association 
is mentioned in another chapter. 


The Odd Fellows, though of recent origin in Springfield, have taken a 
remarkable hold upon the city. Their first footing in America was gained 
at Baltimore, Md., in 1819; a lodge was instituted at Boston the next year, 
and the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts was formed in 1823. But it was 21 
years later before any steps were taken to institute a lodge in Springfield : 
and up to that time there was, as far as is known, but one Odd Fellow in 
the town, --the late Dr. James Swan. Hampden Lodge, the 27th in the 

The Second Court-House (now Odd-Fellows' Hall), Court Square 

State in the order of institution, was organized Feb. 7, 1844, with six charter 
members, of whom the only survivor is Col. James M. Thompson, though he 
is not now identified with the order. The late Addison Ware, then chief 
clerk in the Western Railroad office, was the first Noble Grand; and Col. 
Thompson was the next officer. The first meeting-place was an upper room 
on Main Street, now occupied by Metcalf & LutheV as part of their furni- 
ture warehouse. The lodge prospered moderately, and soon removed to 
Stockbridge Hall, at the corner of Main and Stockbridge Streets. Here it 
remained till January, 1847, when, to gam more room, it removed to Burt's 
Hall nearly across the way. Agawam Encampment was organized the same 
month, with 15 members, eight of whom lived in Springfield, and seven in 


Westfield. Col. Thompson was the Chief Patriarch. Both bodies flour- 
ished for a year or two longer ; but, from causes partly local and partly com- 
mon with the brotherhood throughout the country, there was no increase 
from 1850 to i860, if not, indeed, a positive falling-off. Interest revived 
during the war, and has since been steadily maintained. The two bodies 
meanwhile moved to the old Masonic Hall on State Street, and later to the 
upper floor of Foot's Block, at the corner of Main and State Streets. 
Hampden Lodge had reached a membership of 146, when De Soto Lodge 
was formed, March 9, 1871, with about 25 members, mostly from the parent 
body. De Soto's meeting-place was, as now, the upper part of the Institu- 
tion for Savings Building, at the corner of Main and State Streets ; and 
here it was finally joined by the other bodies. About 25 members of De 
Soto Lodge formed a new organization, Amity, Sept. 15, 1875, and met in a 
hall in the Third National Bank Building; but that was soon absorbed by 
the Evans House, and Amity Lodge thereupon removed to the old home. 
The growth of Odd Fellowship in Springfield, in the last half-dozen years, 
has been very marked, and still shows no signs of abating. Hampden 
Lodge now numbers nearly 575 members, De Soto 515, and Amity about 
250 ; while a lodge of Daughters of Rebekah, called Morning Star, has a 
membership of 201. Hampden Lodge bought the old court-house property 
in 1882, and handsomely fitted it up for the uses of the order. All the 
bodies now have their home there, save De Soto Lodge, which has expen- 
sively refitted its old quarters in the Savings Institution Building. In the 
chapter on " Charities and Hospitals " is a notice of the Odd Fellows' 
Mutual Relief Association. 

The Knights of Pythias. — This order has had a history of vicissitudes 
in Springfield. A lodge, called Myrtus, was instituted July 2, 1869, and met 
in Gilmore's Block. It was the second lodge in the State; the first estab- 
lished being one at Fall River, one of whose members introduced the order 
to Springfield. The lodge prospered for a time; and in December, 1S70, a 
new lodge, called Massasoit No. 53, was established, and occupied the same 
rooms. This sapped the vitality of the parent lodge, and probably fanned 
the flames of dissension already started. Massasoit Lodge died in 1872, and 
Myrtus Lodge ceased to exist the following year. Massasoit Lodge was 
re-established Jan. 29, 1879, with about a dozen members, most of whom 
were new men; and it met for a time in Amity Hall, in the Third National 
Bank Block. Later it removed to Grand-Army Hall, in the Massachusetts 
Mutual Life Insurance Building; and when the veterans removed into the 
Savings-Bank Building, Massasoit Lodge followed them, and there it now 
meets regularly. The lodge is moderately prosperous. An endowment 
rank was established in March, 1SS2 ; and the present membership is about 
75. A uniformed division, named the Warwick, has been organized the 
past summer, and is the only uniformed division in Massachusetts. 


Grand Army of the Republic. — The E. K. Wilcox Post No. 16 was 
organized Aug. 9, 1867, with 10 members, and Gen. (late postmaster) 
Horace C. Lee as commander. It took its name from Capt. Wilcox, a gal- 
lant officer of the Twenty-seventh Massachusetts Regiment, who was killed 
while leading a desperate charge at Cold Harbor. The post steadily grew 
in numbers and prosperity for some years, but during the hard times follow- 
ing the panic of 1873-74 the membership was reduced from about 300 to 
JS- But in the last four years there has been a great revival of interest in 
the local post, in common with the rest of the country; and under the com- 
mandership of Major S. B. Spooner, and his successor J. O. Smith, the 
membership increased to about 400. During the latter's administration, the 
post was also largely prospered in money affairs, and now has over $5,000 
invested as its relief-fund. The post has spent several thousand dollars in 
charity, and has borne on its roll the names of between 600 and 700 vet- 
erans, among them many men prominent in the city's business and official 
life. Of the 150 posts in the State, only three exceed it in membership. Its 
commanders have been, in their order: Horace C. Lee, L. A. Tift, H. M. 
Phillips, J. L. Rice, S. C. Warriner, E. A. Newell, A. H. Smith, J. L. Knight, 
S. B. Spooner, J. O. Smith, and E. W. Lathrop. The post met for some 
time in Gilmore's Block, and, later, occupied quarters in the Massachusetts 
Mutual Life-insurance Building, now used by the Springfield Bicycle Club. 
In 1883 it became located at Institute Hall, in the building of the Springfield 
Savings Institution, at the corner of Main and State Streets. 

Other Secret Societies include a division of the Ancient Order of Hiber- 
nians, whose headquarters are in the First National Bank Building. It was 
organized in June, 1S82, and has about ioo members. Thomas E. King is 
the president. There is also a division at Indian Orchard, which has a 
membership of about 40. It was organized May 10, 1877, and has long met 
in a room in the Indian Leap Hotel. Germania Lodge of the Harugari is a 
flourishing body of about 85 members. It formerly met in the Third Na- 
tional Bank Block, but is now located on the third floor of Foot's Block, at 
the corner of Main and West-State Streets. Court Massasoit, Independent 
Order of Foresters, also met originally in Amity Hall. Its present quarters 
are in the old Masonic Hall, at the corner of State and Market Streets. It 
was organized May 10, 1878. Equity Council of the Royal Arcanum was 
formed May 29, 187S. It meets in the Massachusetts Mutual Life Insur- 
ance Building. 

Good Templars. — Crescent Lodge of Good Templars, the senior tem- 
perance organization of the city, was instituted in .March, 1S72, with a 
charter membership of about 25. At the burning of the Massachusetts 
Mutual Life Insurance Building the following winter, it lost all its property, 
except the charter, which was saved by a member at the risk of his life. 


Until the coming-on of the business depression, the growth of the lodge 
was very rapid ; its own membership rising to some 400, while offshoot 
lodges were established on Armory Hill and at the Water-shops, raising the 
membership to some 700 in the city. The two latter bodies finally suc- 
cumbed to the financial stress, the members returning to the parent lodge. 
Crescent has now a membership of about 150, and has for some years met 
in the old Masonic Hall, at the corner of State and Market Streets, on 
Tuesday evenings. Silver Star Lodge was formed in February, 1881, by a 
withdrawing faction from Crescent, with some outsiders, and started with 
about 20 charter members. It has grown steadily to its present number of 
about 130. Its meetings were held in Temple of Honor Hall, in Foot's 
Block, till the removal of Wilcox Grand Army Post to its present quarters, 
when Silver Star occupied the former hall of that organization in the Life 
Insurance Building, where it now meets on Wednesday evenings. 

Catholic Temperance Societies. — Though Father Mathew visited 
Springfield in 1848, his work here was confined to the pledging of single 
individuals to temperance ; and it was some seven years later before the 
first Father Mathew Total Abstinence Society was formed, and that soon 
died. Another society was organized in 1866, flourished for a while, grew to 
a membership of 100 or more, and died about 1872 because of misunder- 
standing concerning the appropriation of its mutual-benefit fund. This fea- 
ture has been eliminated from the present flourishing organizations, which 
have received additional strength from the active co-operation of the priests. 
The society of the Sacred Heart Parish was organized July 9, 1877, and now 
numbers 135. It meets every Sunday, at 4.30 p.m., and has these officers: 
president, Edward Dowling; treasurer, J. J. Leonard; secretaries, M. J. 
Leonard and P. J. Griffin. The Father Mathew Society of the Cathedral 
Parish was organized Sept. 14, 1877, and has about 65 members and these 
officers : president. T. S. Walsh ; secretaries, C. F. McKechnie and W. S. 
Fitzgibbon. It meets every other Sunday. The Springfield Cadets of the 
Cathedral were organized July 14, 18S3. W. W. Ward is captain, and J. E. 
Ryan and J. E. Shea are the lieutenants, and the membership is 35. The 
Sacred Heart Cadets were organized Oct. 25, 1883. There are 56 members; 
and S. E. Leonard is captain, and C. J. Shea and J. T. Donovan are the 
lieutenants. The St. James Cadets of the same parish were formed Oct. 28, 
1883. Thomas Hanley is captain, and Thomas Moriarty and T. E. Sullivan 
are the lieutenants. The membership is 40. 

Other Temperance Societies are numerous. They include Massasoit 
Temple of Honor, which meets Monday evenings in Foot's Block ; Hope 
Temple of Honor, of Indian Orchard, which meets Tuesday nights ; the 
Temple of Honor and Temperance, which meets Monday evenings ; Enter- 
prise Section of Cadets of Honor and Temperance, a juvenile branch of the 


Temple ; Golden Star Commandery of the Golden Cross, which meets on 
the second and fourth Fridays of each month ; Friendship Lodge of Sons of 
Temperance, which was organized in 1883, with 54 members, and meets 
Monday evenings in Kinsman's Block; Liquid Light Division of Sons of 
Temperance, whose meeting night is Friday; and the Springfield Reform 
Club, whose headquarters are the old Masonic Hall. A withdrawing faction 
formed the Reynolds Red Ribbon Reform Club in the autumn of 1883. 

The City Guard, Company B, Second Regiment M.V.M., was organized 
in August, 1842, and served for three years during the Rebellion as Com- 
pany F, Tenth Regiment. It was in the Sixth Army Corps, and took part in 
these engagements with the Army of the Potomac : Williamsburg, May 5, 
1862; Fair Oaks, May 31, 1862; Glendale, June 25, 1862; Malvern Hill. 
July 1, 1862; Fredericksburg, Dec. 11-13, 1862; St. Mary's Heights, May 
3, 1863; Salem Heights, May 3, 1863; Fredericksburg, June 10, 1863; Get- 
tysburg, July 2 and 3, 1863; Rappahannock Station, Nov. 7, 1863; Wilder- 
ness, May 5-7, 1864; Spottsylvania, May 12, 1864; Spottsylvania Court- 
house, May 18, 1864; Cold Harbor, June 3, 1864; Petersburg, June 18, 1864. 
More than 50 commissioned officers were furnished from its ranks for active 
service in the war. The City Guard was long considered one of the leading 
companies in the State ; and, at the reception given by the city of Boston to 
the Prince of Wales, it was chosen to represent Western Massachusetts. Its 
first captain was John B. Wyman, who was killed at Vicksburg while colonel 
of an Illinois regiment; and other captains before the war were Horace C. 
Lee, — afterwards colonel of the Twenty-seventh Massachusetts Volunteers, 
and brigadier-general, — Ex-mayor William L. Smith, and John Taylor. 
Hosea C. Lombard was its first captain in the war, and was succeeded by 
George W. Bigelow. Its commanders since the war have been Robert J. 
Hamilton — afterward lieutenant-colonel Second Battalion M.V.M., and now 
city marshal — and John L. Knight. The present officers are: captain, 
Frederick S. Southmayd ; first lieutenant, Henry McDonald ; second lieu- 
tenant, Thomas F. Cordis. 

The Peabody Guard, Company G, Second Regiment M.V.M., was or- 
ganized Aug. 29, 1868, by members of Post 16, G.A.R., who named it in 
honor of Col. Everett Peabody, who was killed at the battle of Pittsburg 
Landing. Its first officers were: Major S. 15. Spooner. captain ; Col. H. G. 
Gilmore, first lieutenant; Col. (now mayor) H. M. Phillips, second lieuten- 
ant; Joseph K. Newell, first sergeant. Its successive captains have been: 
H. M. Phillips, F. Edward Gray, A. H. G. Lewis, G. F. Sessions, and 
H. M. Coney. Major George F, Sessions has recently been a^ain elected 
captain, and John J. Leonard is the present first lieutenant. At this date 
(Jan. i, 1884), there is no second lieutenant. The company is proud of 
its marksmanship ; and in 18S3 its team won the first prize in the State 


match, against 37 competitors. Milan W. Bull, of the American team in the 
1SS3 international match in England, is a private in this company. 

Base Ball is just now a dormant institution in Springfield. The game 
has always had many admirers here, and at different times has aroused, 
even among business-men, an interest which has almost bordered on a furor; 
but for three years back there has been no professional club in the city, and 
the amateur organizations have been mostly confined to young lads. Yet 
Springfield has been counted a "good base-ball town," and, when the popular 
fancy has run that way, has supported the sport in princely fashion. Sixteen 
or eighteen years ago, in the days when scores often ran up to thirty for 
each side, Springfield had three famous nines of amateurs. The Mutuals, 
who could beat any thing else in the State except the Harvard-college team, 
are remembered by many of the growing generation. Their predecessors, 
the Smith & Wesson team, and the Young Pioneers, were made up of young 
men who wound up their base-ball career more than a decade ago, and some 
of them are now staid and influential business or professional men. The 
Young Pioneers were the most aristocratic company, but they finally dwin- 
dled into a consolidation with the Hampdens of Chicopee, and as such 
waged many memorable contests. Professional base-ball in Springfield had 
its origin at the beginning of 1878: its history was brief, and its glory still 
briefer. The interest in the game grew steadily through the summer of 1878 ; 
and the next spring a club which was expected to beat any thing in the 
then National Association was formed. Some of the best-known and most 
skilful ball-players in the country were members of this club. They were 
paid large salaries, and for a while bade fair to realize the high hopes enter- 
tained of them. Excitement ran high for a time ; but internal quarrels 
destroyed the efficiency of the club, and during the season of 18S0 it was 
disbanded. It seemed then that no new endeavor would ever be made to 
form a professional ball-club here, but there are indications that at least a 
semi-professional nine may be organized the coming spring. 

The Hampden-park Association is an organization of business and pro- 
fessional men who own the park which gives them name, and direct the 
yearly meetings of the National Trotting Association in this city. The 
first of these trotting-meetings was held on Federal Square in 1853, and 
the profits were given to the Hampden Agricultural Society on condition 
that it should buy a suitable park. Accordingly this tract of 60 acres, part 
of the farms of Festus Stebbins and Horatio Sargeant, was bought for $250 
an acre, and named in 1857; and over $10,000 was spent in improvements 
the first year. The second national horse-show was held on the park in 
1857, the third in 1858, and the fourth in i860. The first exhibition of the 
New-England Agricultural Society was held on these grounds in 1864. 
Seats to accommodate 3,000 spectators were built in 1867, at a cost of over 


$12,000. At one time the property with its improvements was valued at 
590,000; but it was sold in 1878, under a foreclosure of a $24,ooo-mortgage- 
for $18,000. The Hampden-park Association bought it soon after, and 
spent $5,000 in improving the tracks and buildings. Though the park is 
most closely identified with the big circuit races held each summer, it has 
long been the chief gathering-place in cases of large out-door displays. The 
professional and other base-ball games have been played upon it ; the big 
circuses, like Barnum and Forepaugh, have of late years regularly been 
held there ; so have the meetings of the bicycle-clubs ; and many thousands 
have, on various occasions, been gathered to witness displays of fireworks. 
Hampden Park was for several weeks the camp of the Tenth Regiment 
before it went to the front; and once, before the war, the muster of the State 
militia was held upon it. The capital stock of the Hampden-park Associa- 
tion is $25,000. William H. Wright is the president; H. H. Harris of 
Chicopee the secretary; and George M. Stearns, Charles O. Russell, and 
James Kirkham are trustees. 

The Public Halls, other than those already mentioned in this chapter, 
are : Gill's Hall, in Gill's Art Building, at the corner of Main and Bridge 
Streets, — a neat little room, much sought by quiet and fashionable dancing- 
parties, and for semi-private lectures and concerts. Hampden Hall, 419 
Main Street, in the "Springfield Republican " Block, built in 1878, occupies 
the site of the building bearing the same name which was for many years the 
city's only place of dramatic entertainment. It seats 350 persons, and was 
much used for church-sociables and musical rehearsals, but is now occupied 
by Hinman's business-school. Central Hall, in Kibbe's Union Block. 383 
Main Street, at the corner of Harrison Avenue, was long the meeting-place 
of the Second Adventists, but is now occupied by Dr. Cones's health-move- 
ment establishment. Gilmore's Hall, 418 Main Street, in the block adjoining 
the Opera House, has been the quarters of the German Turnverein for many 
years, and has sheltered one or two newly formed and homeless churches. 
It is also much used for dances, and it seats 600. Franklin Hall, at 2<S Pyn- 
chon Street, with a seating capacity of 500, is now occupied by the Second 
Advent Society. It is the upper part of what was, till 1870, the meeting- 
house of the Trinity Methodist Church. Union Hall in the Belmont-house 
Block, 528 Main Street, now occupied largely for the social gatherings of 
the German Schutzen Gesellschaft, was occasionally used before the war for 
public concerts, and is still much frequented by dancing-parties. The Old 
Town Hall at the corner of State and Market Streets, once a popular place 
for social gatherings, is now the meeting-place of the Third Baptist (colored) 
Church. The Hill has two halls for dancing and other social purposes, — 
Gunn's Hall at the corner of State and Walnut Streets, and Beacon Hall 


adjacent on State Street. The meeting-place for the Water-shops section 
is Lincoln Hall, at the corner of Mill and Walnut Streets, with a seating 
capacity of 500 persons. The dances held here each winter attract numbers 
of young people from even distant parts of the city. The Peabody Guard 
Armory in Shaw's Block, 322^ Main Street, and the drill-room of the City 
Guard in what was once Sovereign's Hall, 11 1 Bridge Street, are also much 
used for dancing. The public meeting-place of Ward Eight, or Indian 
Orchard, is Wight's Hall, built in 1875. This serves for all the public 
purposes of the village, — dances, political meetings, church-fairs, and theat- 
rical performances. 

The City Hall is on Court Street at the west corner of Court Square. 
The corner-stone was laid in 1853, under Caleb Rice, the first mayor of the 
city, and on land deeded to the city by Chester W. Chapin. The super- 
structure was begun the next year, under the mayoralty of P. B. Tyler, 
then a manufacturer of cotton-presses on the hill; and it was finished, clock, 
bell, and all, in 1855, just as the mayoralty of Eliphalet Trask was drawing 
to a close. The hall in this building, which has been described in the chap- 
ter on the public buildings, is, and has been for years, a popular place for 
all kinds of entertainments and gatherings. Its seating capacity is 2,300. 

St. Michael's Hall on Elliott Street, near State, will seat 1,200 persons. 
It is the hall of the St. Michael's Cathedral parish, and is in the parochial 
school building, and was dedicated in 1882. It has a good-sized stage, well 
equipped with scenery; and several creditable dramatic performances have 
been given there by the dramatic club of the parish, which contains some 
clever amateur actors. 

Sacred Heart Church Hall is a good-sized and well-appointed hall in the 
convent-building on Everett Street. In this, and in St. Michael's Hall, now 
practically centre all the social entertainments of the Irish Catholic popula- 
tion of Springfield. 



Neto0papcrs anti grrtoUtcate. 


THE newspapers of Springfield are her creditable heralds abroad. They 
exhibit, in an exceptionally thorough and intelligent way, the most at- 
tractive New-England civilization; for in Western Massachusetts, of which 
this city is the centre, one of the finest phases of American life has its 
choice exhibition. The American who would show the best that our new 
country has reached would take an Englishman up through the fertile Con- 
necticut Valley, and among the hills of Berkshire. Towns were here 
founded in austere piety, and the land has been steadily cultivated with 
splendid patience until the region literally blossoms as the rose. The spirit 
of manufacturing enterprise has labored for a generation and more in com- 
pany with a catholic literary growth that has appropriated a culture of 
which no country need be ashamed. This is not the place in which to 
speak of the colleges, seminaries, and schools, that are famous the world 
over. The late Dr. J. G. Holland, in a chapter of his history, places the 
newspaper "foremost of the agencies now moulding, swaying, educating, 
impelling, and leading the American mind." 

That was in 1855. In the 28 years since, this "foremost agency" has 
so visibly broadened its field, that a great profession has taken its recog- 
nized place to command a wider influence than any of what were once known 
as the learned callings. Modern journalism owes much to Springfield, and 
to that pioneer in its higher development, the late Samuel Bowles. He 
made the daily newspaper an indispensable factor of the region, its faithful 
map, and honored guide, philosopher, and friend. Nowhere in the world 
are newspapers more generally read, and everywhere the constituency 
reached from Springfield is the envy of journalists. 

Let us see how this local development of newspaper influence has come 
about. The first settled among Western Massachusetts towns, so Spring- 
field was the first to publish a newspaper. " The Massachusetts Gazette, 
or The General Advertiser," begun here in May, 17S4, was a pretty direct 
offshoot from the ancient "Worcester Spy." Its publishers were Anthony 
Has well, who had run "The Spy" for a year, and Elislia Babcock, a paper- 
maker. Two years later Haswell had retired, and Babcock sold out the 
establishment to Brooks & Russell. John Russell, a brother of Major 


Benjamin Russell, well known in Boston journalism, was the real editor, 
and changed the name of his sheet to "The Hampshire Herald and Weekly 
Advertiser." It lived until 1787, when Russell issued from his office, near 
what is now Ferry Street, "The Hampshire Chronicle." The following 
year Isaiah Thomas, founder of "The Worcester Spy," bought out "The 
Chronicle," and put an apprentice of his, Mr. Weld, in charge of it. Their 
office was on the corner of Elm and Main Streets; and in 1790 Thomas 
had retired, and Mr. Weld was editor and proprietor of "The Hampshire 
and Berkshire Chronicle," — the admission of another county to the name 
of the paper no doubt evidencing its growth in circulation, for Berkshire 
County had been incorporated 29 years before. Edward Grey bought out 
the paper in 1793. 

A newspaper which had changed its name four times in 11 years was 
evidently not a steadily prosperous affair, but " The Hampshire and Berk- 
shire Chronicle " had done well enough to tempt Isaiah Thomas into an- 
other venture here. In January, 1793, he set up his son-in-law, James R. 
Hutchins, as proprietor of " The Federal Spy : " and that killed " The 
Chronicle," and sent Edward Grey over to West Springfield to buy out "The 
American Intelligencer," which existed there for three years. But Son-in- 
law Hutchins was not a good permanent investment for Mr. Thomas; for it 
is said that he absconded not long after, and John Worth ington Hooker and 
Francis Stebbins took the property. Mr. Stebbins became sole proprietor 
in May, 1796, and kept the paper until Sept. 26, 1799; then Timothy Ashley 
ran it until 1801, when Henry Brewer became his partner; Mr. Brewer 
owned "The Spy" from 1803 to 1806, then Thomas Dickman of Green- 
field bought it. With the new editor came another, and politically descrip- 
tive name, " The Hampshire Federalist ; " and Dickman continued in charge 
13 years. Lawyer Frederick A. Packard next bought "The Federalist; " A. 
G. Tannatt of Boston went in with him, and the firm of A. G. Tannatt & 
Co. continued until 1822. The rival "Hampden Patriot" was established in 
1818 by Dr. Ira Daniels; and it lived six years, Mr. Tannatt owning it for 
the last two. In 1829 Mr. Tannatt bought out the "Federalist" establish- 
ment, — the name of the paper having been changed to "The Hampden 
Journal," — and conducted it for six years; and in 1835 "The Journal" was 
swallowed by "The Springfield Republican," which had been founded by 
Samuel Bowles in 1824. 

An interesting glimpse of local journalism at this period is given by 
William Hyde of Ware, who came to Springfield near the close of 1828. 
There were two papers here then, "The Hampden Journal," and "The 
Springfield Republican : " they were of essentially the same political char- 
acter ; as the old Federal and Democratic parties had become mixed, and the 
National Republican party (which afterwards became the Whig party) was 



the leading one. When the Jackson party (later the regular Democratic 
party) arose, its adherents wanted a local organ; and John B. Eldridge, who 
had edited a newspaper at Westfield, began to publish "The Hampden 
Whig'' on the Hill in 1830. Lawyer E. D. Beach bought him out in 1835, then 
David F. Ashley became a partner, and Alanson Hawley was editor in 1843. 
But these details outrun the sequence of our story. To go back: In 1831 
George W. Callender, Henry Kirkham, and Lewis Briggs established " The 
Springfield Gazette," with Mr. Hyde, who had previously done some work 
for •' The Hampden Journal," as editor. He was paid $100 a year, by the 
way. To the four papers then existing, J. B. Clapp added a fifth, in 1831, 
— "The Hampden Intelligencer," an anti-Masonic sheet, which died young. 
At the end of Editor Hyde's first year of service, Briggs, Josiah Hooker, 
and Hyde bought " The Gazette ; " when the second year had closed, Mr. 
Hyde went into the law exclusively, and Lawyer Josiah Hooker became the 
editor ; in 1837 Josiah Taylor took " The Gazette ; " and three years later it 
passed into the hands of W T illiam Stowe, afterwards postmaster, and a bril- 
liant politician. Apollus Munn, who founded "The Independent Demo- 
crat" in 1S41, seems to have been the Brick Pomeroy of the local journalism 
of his day. His paper was published on the Hill, and boosted him into a 
clerkship in the Boston custom-house, when he sold out to Dr. Elisha 
Ashley, who removed the publication-office to Elm Street; and " The Inde- 
pendent Democrat" was absorbed by "The Hampden Post" in 1844. 
Munn started "The Hampden Statesman" in 1845, and "The Post" 
bought that out in 1847. Mr. Munn wrote on the latter paper for a time, 
became interested in spiritualism, and soon died. We have thus hastiiy 
sketched the growth of the weekly press, omitting a few ephemeral sheets 
which took no hold on the local life. 

We now come to the birth of daily newspapers in this city. Samuel 
Bowles, the second, was alert to the possibilities of his profession ; and the 
young man dreamed dreams, put in long days of the closest work, and was 
growing up to his opportunity. The elder Bowles had begun to print two 
"Republicans" a week, soon after "The Gazette" was started, one on 
Tuesdays to suit the post-riders, and another on Saturdays. Before 1833 
the daily journals of this country were huge blanket sheets, wedded to 
party politics, and lumbered with dead advertising. They might more 
properly have been called political tracts than newspapers. Then came 
•"The New-York Sun," born in 1833, and founded by a Springfield man. 
Benjamin H. Day; "The New- York Herald" came into being in 1835; in 
1841 Horace Greeley's "New-York Tribune" saw the light, and the mod- 
ern newspaper was fairly started on its career of wonderful achievement. 
"The Daily Republican," conceived and created by the junior Bowles, 
was given to this city on the evening of April 1, 1844. It was pre- 


eminently a child of faith, for it began without a subscriber; but it was not 
an April enthusiasm. "The Springfield Gazette,' 1 under Mr. Stowe, began 
to publish an evening daily, two years after " The Daily Republican " en- 
tered the field. Both were Whig in politics, and in 1848 "The Republican" 
absorbed " The Gazette." " The Springfield Sentinel," a Democratic semi- 
weekly, edited by Mr. Hawley, came here in 1847 from Palmer, lived a few 
years, and was then sold to " The Northampton Courier." Valuable details 
about the newspapers of that time are given by Lawyer William L. Smith, 
who came here in 1847, after some experience in Boston journalism, and 
was editor of "The Daily Post," which was begun June 1, 1848. Before 
"The Republican" bought out the "Gazette" list, "The Post" was the 
strongest daily. An editor's life was a busy one then as now; and Mr. 
Smith did his own local reporting and editorial writing, besides scissoring 
miscellany. When, therefore, in 1853, Gov. Clifford proposed to make 
Editor Smith register of probate, the office was accepted as a welcome 
relief from newspaper drudgery. Mr. Ashley at the same time wanted to 
sell the "Post" property to Mr. Smith, and, failing in that, leased it to 
Trench & Dwight. The new editor, Lawyer Henry W. Dwight of Stock- 
bridge, was a bright, companionable man, but averse to "boning down." 
After eight months he gave up " The Post: " in 1853 Mr. Ashley took it back, 
the property ran down, and in 1854 "The Post" died. The next effort to 
establish a Democratic daily was in 1856, when Elon Comstock came from 
"The Albany Argus." Abundant money was raised for him, and "The 
Springfield Daily Argus " began with a fine job-office plant near "The Repub- 
lican" on Sanford Street. Comstock had a promising opportunity; but he 
was afflicted with an itch for office, neglected business, and "The Argus" 
lasted only a year or more, when the local Democrats paid its losses. Samuel 
Bowles & Co. offered to buy the establishment for William L. Smith, be- 
lieving that some opposition was desirable ; but he had become settled in 
the law, and his recollections of the amount of work involved in publishing 
a daily did not tempt him to go back to newspaper life. He believes that 
a great opportunity was thrown away when " The Argus " was permitted to 


"The Springfield Republican" is still conducted by Samuel Bowles. 
The first editor of that name founded "The Weekly Republican " in 1824; 
his son developed " The Daily Republican " into a newspaper of national 
character and influence ; and the grandson established " The Sunday Repub- 
lican" in 1878. The establishment as it now stands is an educational insti- 
tution in the community, and from it the late Editor Bowles sent out what 
might be fairly enough called the ideal provincial newspaper of America. 
The first Bowles was 27 years old when he tempted fortune here, bringing 
with him from Hartford the first lever-press the town had possessed. The 



liid'ail) Lvcning fiopubliuo, 

C'i'ilf^e of one square d.uly, (chan-rd uhen 
iahed).nd - a card ,n JJusinesa, Directory, 
Ufcxharged $:o ■ year,, 

U L< i month.,, 5.50 

Eusinfwqjirscioij, (I^Tcar) 600 

M rVonehalf'aTaquan»y,jtwn; third* ofilfco 

CuOKtrarc* w .11 t>e ch»rged,- .Twenty 'lmci 

OlTjLu a .square, 

(C/"A l irpniifT«r«-fe<]op»tc] io nand'a 
Ibcirjasor* before noon of ilirdny at publi- 
cation^ ,And they are particularly rrquesled 
to note on the eopy^ Uic number of insertions 

C7*"Jhc*omVe oflhe bpvUcm, Is in the 

publ.-hcJal ihe sarnc- office evrry' Satu'rdav 
men :n v „^ B > for $2 p, f;) „ r _ 

A liberal*. and companies. 
Adutiisomeiiu inserted.for (I pnuiu^ fur 
1 week*, wdiOcCTliJojfiaciif KccLjJierej 


J. BOW KER Jr. & CO. 

importers and Dealers in.. 
Fonigo nod .Domestic l)rf Good?, 

KajO.^Voicr, ttmerof Con™« Street. 

l-.v : .tsuD* «c, riiKKM^...^' uomEsim; 

"'J '-VMun: ,; ( »im iailoks- 

Tln.iMtV^ £,•,,_,.,,,,,, „, y . ,„,.,; „ 
»a«B..j (tj-o>..n, '•-••■*■. •«-* la.ffjticlt il*«j lu» 
W- ",r ..,,,n.«i •npntth«rnL> 
B. 9m, Uanklaflsic 6.» 

. I' 1 A. . 


jr>nt.,..i„.u,..j ,...,„.,. .,., [,„„j . c.. 

«i lu.*3. £»"o~«'l<X"" '" ''"°»* ,u ' "*"• 
H p: RA7E1. 


TO 1,1/1'. 

HKOVIII I (II || v. 

«P p., •■-! .«-l...... q-..U., of »o,l U,-l Alu. 


Arr'r •- !■•«■■ roor t Oft Spn.tfi.LI. hi 


> « 1 IWllil- • in 
SCJ-o.**,,,. Ti. *,.(!. M. |tMl Mfta*t 



SAMULLO CAV»CO ,«,.,_, ... N . 
"lli'il-". "<••" */» 

»>. ■>« ^tMrtrt Mfk fo» U*o<l«M*|. HA ft 


Jinn < i it i I - ,v < <> 

Ha»e eonjlftnUy on hanJ, for »alc, a l»rga 


Notary I'ublic for Hampden l'ou»iy. 

;. elm si. 8 pf ;i.iri;.id. 

AAKOV 8. {ii:iii \ 

O. R. lOWKtllY. 

FRENCH BOOT MAKER, llie .Sure ..f L\ & .«. IVoodnurtb. 



Puli'iil 1 i ml ■ ' ■ |> i- i,ii,i rump 


Al H, SAop of L Trmk, .Spr,rgMJ„ 


3000 i-Si^ 



New Milliner) KslaWishnicnt. 

11.°-.. i nv 

r..rii..ll «n<l > nilaloi' 


J-w.RT.ii a. ....««..• »■*■ 
» Hvr, . rt..,„ t . »*-.«», *rsel If •'••''•« 
*•«■• UrVe. .1-1 «^,c .«!', otftn M F lr««a. 

in* irp».ii.r>i aaafaUi MiniMk- 


A Of i ■ i n' ii o- •-*... «... - 

a. rtn ,ii.H, M.rrLtl, 



er«, iKi- fuHomn^ fj<-!< ami .iUU'l;r.: in n'.^ 
lion In ibp ScbooN of ihi-i lowii.lfor'tlm pajl 
year ,— but we rannol ray th.Jl wo do il « ill] 
pride or r>ea willi a feeling of satisfaction — 
The fact lii-rcin alatMl, llwl Itie a»rr,:;:r' at. 
i been only 170", while ll e num.* 
jfilm proper ig«*| u 
<*0, should brin^ab!u*h upunMhe 
every namit ai.J -njrili.m, and in- 
n tu tedoubtcd elfon* in order Io 

ii.-i baabtWDI rromtdo mind.oft*. 
jf u* ; — '■ Promote oj objru ofpnmtf 
lantt. tn-'hiutiarufurtki genital <l>f- 
hole number of ?rholar» in all ine 



About 50 hare 

Khoob ha."njl 

■neemeni of the 
(here now bcin 3 

rti.illio \V,„l*r. 

mile, jbelndui9 


,t the meeling of Lbe Board of Manager* 

'rum ihi- Rer.Ja,*on Lee, the*'aut*ennteri. 

le rsih of October, and oimo . via IVnvi- 
i. Tlitce deUchmenl* of emi»7anU from 

Wes^m si-rlion of the United Slate* had 
ted al the Columbia river, some of whom 

suffered severely by mcLucss, and want. 

lading l 

B ValUf. I 

led t w find 

Many of tliem, afic 

e«l tho ministry of the missionaiies and nan 

nn prnSitmn, nnj .t w.f* emdenl lhallhc»e\. 
' The Rev' Dr Whitman, Llonjjin- Io the 

. bua 

d of Mis 

Columbia, in crood healtN. 

of christian" fellowthsp. 
pet.aJedihr enlirc family of the Methodist 

Mwbrrm! mSmH^s. They baft "of- 
fervid bolh by sickness and deallC. but wben 
the»e letier* were despatcheit, M'. Leesars, 
fho*e who had been nek. were reeovennrj — 

Mr ll'ru.r ii spoken of as having been Jan< 

The Rev air. Perkins had been, a«aulle,V 
by one of ihe tndiani from the micnor Tho 
chief) haJ assembled in eaunoil, llltaHi'PJ 
Or While, Ihe United States ay.-nt, and de> 

»hipp-d. an. I hnreeeived lv*ent_ 

Hi 1*. r.irw inlercedrd for the prisoner, 

was an \ io in thai he should be pardort 

n wii Unm^hl Lhat prudencu reci^iired 


lhrl,'p.oflb< " 
.« durinythe 


nfMr n»v\ 
•asion diini 
of E i - »cl E*evett, 

i the Senate — ■hat *es*ion during 


... Nim, nation of Mr. Everett, >ra*l 

sa«pen«eanj an.i.ty.-ero UN IhroojUil 

1 tae wuntrj, as LottkacsNiM wlucbUM fwsut< 

UE OF THE DAILY REPUBLICAN. (FouMcnths of Original Size.) 

slowly backward and forward near ihe doc 

nfih" Seriati- eiprctiiia'ier\ muinnil wbc 

.,„ ad.r.urnmrnt u ,. , I.I ■„ L- ■ , , J -Hi., 

I -i rrespo>wlenct> 
which he held in Ins hand, between Mf Ev 
rretl and certain al-.htioi„.ts who had ad* 

ihe snhjeel of slavery. Tlie corrr>peAndenr» 

llian we of should! 

e been jusiifiahle -TheSen- 
jj the corTespoinleiice,^m.iilo 

Mronj, denunciatory speech 


reierlinj thcnomjnalionof the 
they were pjl forth. This corrr^.inJertce^ 
Ir.-elher u ilMbc spewli ef the Stnjtor who 
r-rv,.:_-M'il f.-ii«-aril. arreted the allention.ef 
llicwholo Senate, and awakened new and 
strong nnprehensionj ariion^ tiie fnends of 
Mr.-Ever.-ll.'as to ihe fate of nil nomination. 
Soon after iho Senator in question had arisen 
frum his seat ami comnsrnced speaking, Mr. 
Cluy via* obseneiitn j>ause in hn walk',10 
and fro. ond a* ihe Senator from the .Soul* 
proeeedud in huspe.-ch, he (Mr. C.jbecanie, 
evidently, more and more in t crested t til I, at 
length, he gradually tciumnl to hi* accai' 
Tomed seat, and was'slanilin:; ^y h w+ieu ihe 
niitlemu who vraa occupying iho noor.'fin- 
ished Ins speech wilh the lollo wing emphatic 

taking up tlie not.'s of iho llonoraMft Sena- 
tor ■■thai ,f U,,. Senate, nuing on Inn nomi. 
nation of Mr Everett, or any oiherman.'a* 
HJiniMer 10 a foreign Court shall take upon it' 

thai the person nominated, has, expressed. to 
his neighbors and (cllowciluens of the Stals> 
Io which he belon 3 »,l*eplimeni* not,in^ac- 

peaching his character, or atTcctinr. hisquali* 
luations for ihe posi (o which he is nomiruv 
r^-J. then. Sir.' 'anid Mr. Clav, elevauog him- 
self to hii fulLjhe.ghl and raising hn voice'lo 

quencefur which he, above all living men! i» 
.njn.tiv -ii'iinruished, "then, Sir; I tell Ihe 
llonoratile -er.ilrman and <U: Senate THAT 
To DISSOI.v hi"' Pneecd 
point, Mr. C. pouted forth, for tho space 'of 
about tcrL*nnmles, lbe mcsl eloquent speech 
I ever heard from him in all mv hfe. V And 
thu! «peeeh," said, the jrentleman from w bona 
these farts w ere derived, ■ itttltd lie cwtfiaa, 
of fit/ BMnlfi no 

rmnau, sold ha 

Srsvts laar.SU 

bung SuA, Or Bus 
Charleston, South 1 

lhal he would redei 

night last On Sunday .they «»« put ou 
board of iha Valley Fc-ge, and starteJ, With 
their U-uefactor, for (Imcirosaii ll x> the to- 
lention of Dr Brisbane to settle tlrrm'eanv 
(orul-le oa land which he has porchasssj *n 
Hamilton Cj Ohio, thus nol only pvioglaca 
ihnr freed.-m, but an ad.anU.-eeu* si.rt ui 
life, ll wilt be *eca now, whether the] can 
•lakeeawof themselves.' 

Tim act of henevoiejieC commend* jw»o5 

sPDUii Dkatn — MMTaaddtnsj tmm 
^,, aii-ia* .lore ef Mr> Pitefc iff rtsfm. 
HavaaTveslrfdav afternoon, -and srtthani da* 

shuhlei* premooils-ia.jviiaessi.'. 

there was no' t ntbie C*ui* for has sodden g>- 

f. " 


outlook was not particularly promising; but the lever-press was set in op- 
eration, and the initial copy of " The Republican " was issued Sept. 8, 1824. 
The title proved a happy selection ; for the name afterwards stood for that 
party whose best ideas the paper consistently advocated for a score of 
years, until the editor of the daily had grown into the full practice of his 
ideal of independent journalism. The weekly began with a circulation of 
350 copies. Growth during the weekly period was steady and substantial ; 
and, as time went on, " The Republican " absorbed " The Springfield Ga- 
zette " and " The Hampden Journal." From the start the paper was tena- 
cious of its own convictions, but its columns were open to the presentation 
of both sides of political questions : it deprecated useless religious contro- 
versies, and represented that independence of sect which marks the highest 
religious expression of to-day. William Hyde says of the two Bowleses, 
"The senior Mr. Bowles was an industrious, painstaking man, with great 
tact to use all available material. He was a contrast to the second Bowles, 
whose active mind and quick insight led to great success." The first editor 
of "The Republican" died Sept. 8, 1851, at the age of 54. 

The second Samuel Bowles was, like Greeley and Weed, educated in the 
practical school of the printing-office. What other preliminary education 
he had came through " Master " Eaton's school. While a mere stripling, 
his occasional writing for the paper displayed a bright and forcible quality 
that attracted attention. At 18 Mr. Bowles was singularly mature, with all 
a man's ambition ; and after much persuasion the conservative father was in- 
duced to enter the field of daily journalism, then untried in the State outside 
of Boston. Business men doubted the feasibility of the enterprise, but the 
young man counted confidently and intelligently on the signs of the future. 
" The Daily Republican " began as an evening paper, and in its first year 
ran $200 behind ; but by the end of the fourth year 800 subscribers had 
been secured, and the paper placed on a firm footing. The time of publica- 
tion was changed to the morning, Dec. 4, 1845. It was originally a single 
sheet, 17^ inches by 24, with four columns to the page. These dimensions 
were enlarged from time to time till 1855, when the double-sheet form was 
introduced. The doubling-up was at first confined to the weekly and Satur- 
day issues : nine years later Wednesday's paper was made double, and in 
1872 the double sheet became the permanent form of the paper. 

Daily journalism 40 years ago was pioneer work, calling for an exhaust- 
ing expenditure of personal energy in the most varied directions. The 
Western Railroad then reached Springfield, a town of 11,000 people, and a 
line of telegraph connected us with the outside world ; but the press had 
not yet called in the aid of electricity in news-gathering. It was a time of 
experiment, and the organization of forces; and young Bowles plunged into 
the work with such ardor that in a year his strength gave out, and he was 

On Main Street. 


compelled to take a journey South. The trip was extended to New Orleans ;. 
and its fruits were a series of letters to " The Republican," which exhibited 
the editor's aptness in his calling. This, too, was the first of a series of 
vacation-travels, both in this country and Europe, taken in later years, 
which served to enrich the columns of " The Republican," enlarge the 
knowledge and sympathies of its editor, and give to the public several, 
books. He grew by contact with the world, gathered the culture of many 
peoples, and through cosmopolitan associations built up a newspaper of. 
wider scope than its immediate surroundings seemed to warrant. 

Samuel Bowles was a shrewd student of men, and was happy in the selec- 
tion of his early editorial associates. After the untimely death of Samuel 
Davis, Dr. J. G. Holland was invited into the service of the paper; and for 
16 years he wrote constantly for its pages, publishing therein the material of 
various volumes, and compiling, at the suggestion of Mr. Bowles, the valuable 
" History of Western Massachusetts." The keen political sense and admir- 
able organizing faculty of the editor were thus re-enforced by Dr. Holland's 
nice literary taste, so that the paper reflected the thought of New England. 
As a political force, " The Republican " was pretty steadily kept in advance 
of public sentiment. When the Whig party disintegrated under the de- 
moralization of defeat, " The Republican " exposed and denounced the 
"Know-Nothing" craze; and in 1855 Mr. Bowles headed the call which 
resulted in the formation of the Republican party in Massachusetts. " The 
Republican " did its full duty as a news-gatherer, and an ardent supporter 
of patriotism, during the war. Never subservient to parties, the editor 
declared his full independence of them when national progress was impeded 
by partisan fanaticism ; and in 1872 he was foremost in calling for a political 
departure which should promote reconciliation between the North and 
South. The paper has steadily advocated honest money, a reformed civil 
service, and does not abate its demand for high character in candidates for 
public office. 

One may be pardoned for introducing into such a limited review as this 
some of the conspicuous contributions which Mr. Bowles made to the busi- 
ness of newspaper-making. He presented the sense and kernel of things, 
and spared no pains to himself and others in stripping meaningless words 
and husks from the current news of the day. His sense of proportion was 
admirably developed, his taste was delicate and true, his art a noble simpli- 
city. The fact that a piece of news came by telegraph did not confuse his 
judgment of its value. He edited the Associated Press, and matters whose 
transmission cost money, with the same remorseless intelligence that con- 
densed the beginner's column into a crisp line or two. His paragraph was 
clone with the completeness of a sonnet; and his editorial, clothed in the 
language of the people, was full of sharp purpose. He made his writers 


master their work before the people got it. He recorded the local life inti- 
mately and as a pioneer, — witness the early-begun review of the news of all 
New England, — but made religion, art, literature, charity, and social affairs 
the field of the journalist, no less than politics. He was the first to recog- 
nize religious news as a regular feature of the daily paper. The department 
of correspondence was magnified, and individuality in all departments was 
encouraged. Bright young writers who had studied out something were 
encouraged to turn their labors over to •' The Republican ; " and in its pages 
Professor Perry's " Political Economy," Washington Gladden's first books, 
Adeline Traf ton's "American Girl Abroad," and Edward King's "My 
Paris," came to the public. " Warrington " made himself famous through 
his Boston letters ; Bret Harte wrote California letters ; Kate Field, Mary 
Clemmer, "Dunn Browne," "John Paul," and "Van," all gained an audi- 
ence in this paper. The list might be greatly extended, but these names 
illustrate the editor's sagacity and generalship in the front of journalism. 
He was a master-mechanic, the versatile spirit that dominated the counting- 
room, the press and composing floors. "Warrington" (the late William S. 
Robinson) was coming out of the " Republican " office one day, and met 
the late Editor Fisk of Palmer on the steps. " There," said Robinson with 
emphasis, " is Sam. Bowles inside, striving after unreasonable perfection. 
He will sit up all night to save a turned letter from appearing in his news- 
paper, that is too good already ! " " The Republican " has always been 
regarded as one of the best schools of journalism accessible to voung men, 
many of whom it has trained, and launched upon successful careers. Its 
graduates are scattered throughout the country ; and some of them, like 
Charles R. Miller, editor of " The New-York Times," and Robert G. Fitch, 
editor of " The Boston Post," have risen to leadership in the profession. 

Between the years 1853-72, a large miscellaneous printing business and 
bindery were connected with "The Republican," all conducted under the 
firm name of Samuel Bowles & Co. In 1858 the business was first housed 
altogether in the block on the corner of Main Street and Townsley Avenue, 
now occupied by D. H. Brigham & Co.'s clothing-store. Ten years later, 
the firm having outgrown its quarters, another and larger building for it 
was put up on the opposite corner of the avenue, by the Second National 
Bank. In 1872 the business was divided; Mr. Bowles retaining "The 
Republican," and selling out his other interests to his partners, Messrs. 
Bryan and Tapley. In 1878 the present handsome quarters of the paper, 
planned by Mr. Bowles only a short time before his death, were occupied by 
" The Republican." 

Our people are familiar with the paper as it is to-day. Its latest busi- 
ness improvement is a Hoe perfecting-press, which prints, cuts, folds, and 
pastes, — "the best." Its old ideals of public service are not lowered, and 


ambition and equipment grow apace with the broadening opportunity of its 

"The Springfield Union" never before so satisfactorily filled its mis- 
sion as an evening newspaper. Every candid journalist must admit that it 
ranks high among papers of its class, both in enterprise, news arrangement, 
and editorial sense. The management see their field and opportunity 
clearly, and few evening papers anywhere surpass " The Union " as a piece 
of careful, intelligent newspaper- work. " The Union " dates from the late 
war days, having been founded in January, 1864, by Edmund Anthony of 
New Bedford, who conducted it until December, 1865, when it passed into 
the hands of "The Union" printing-company. During the next few years 
the paper changed owners several times ; but in 1872 it had become a paying 
property under the ownership of Lewis H. Taylor, who made the evening 
paper one of our institutions. When the firm of Samuel Bowles & Co. was 
dissolved in 1872, and the Clark W. Bryan Company was formed by the men 
who withdrew from the former firm, the new company bought " The Union," 
and incorporated it with their printing and binding business. William M. 
Pomeroy, who had been managing editor of "The Republican," was made 
editor of "The Union;" and he retained that position until March, 1881. 
He was succeeded by the present editor, Joseph L. Shipley, who began his 
newspaper life on " The Republican " in 1863, and became connected with 
"The Union" a few weeks after it changed hands in 1872. Mr. Shipley 
held the position of editor under the ownership of the Springfield Printing 
Company, which had succeeded the Clark W. Bryan Company, until May, 
18S2, when he bought the paper, and transferred it to a stock company, 
retaining a majority interest, and assuming the responsible management of 
the paper. He has placed it upon a solid and substantial financial basis. 
It is the only evening paper in New England, west of Worcester and north 
of Hartford, which has the Associated Press franchise ; and its present man- 
agement aims at giving its constituency the promptest and completest news 
service, both in the local and general field, which it is possible for an even- 
ing paper to accomplish. Never so much as now has " The Union " seemed 
to realize the distinctive features which characterize successful evening 
journalism, and working out that line of journalistic effort is proving advan- 
tageous for both the owners and readers of the paper. 

" The New-England Homestead " occupies a field peculiarly its own, 
and under the direction of Edward H. Phelps, who received his journalistic 
training during nearly ten years of service with the late Samuel Bowles, is 
a conspicuous business success. " The Homestead" was, until Mr. Phelps 
bought it, a purely agricultural paper. It was founded in 1867, as a monthly, 
by Henry M. Burt, now of "The Newton Graphic," and began its career at 
Northampton, but was soon moved to this city. Mr. Burt continued to pub- 


lish "The Homestead'' until October, 1S78 (meantime printing in turn 
" The Saturday Evening Telegram *' and " The Sunday Telegram," local 
papers, both now dead), when Mr. Phelps and Herbert H. Sanderson, then 
employed on " The Evening Union," bought the " Homestead " plant ; in 
1880 Mr. Phelps purchased his partner's interest, and established the Phelps 
Publishing Company, a corporation which he controls. "The Homestead" 
has had a remarkable growth since 1878, mounting in circulation from 1,350 
copies to more than fourteen times that figure ; and its agricultural edition is 
edited with a freshness, vigor, and point novel in journals devoted to the 
fanning interest. The editor's training in daily journalism gives him an 
obvious advantage over competitors who have become wonted to slower 
methods, and he is assisted by many practical and successful farmers who 
contribute to " The Homestead." To utilize his familiarity with local news, 
Mr. Phelps added a city edition to his agricultural paper : and that is what 
Springfield knows as " The New-England Homestead." The farm matter 
is replaced by the social chat of the town ; the paper ranging with freedom 
over all fields, taking many matters which the dailies do not care to glean, 
and sampling life in every circle. The editor makes a strong point of 
musical criticism, and has introduced original caricatures as a weekly 

" Farm and Home " is a sixteen-page monthly, which was begun in 
1880, and has gained a circulation of 30,000 through its price of fifty cents a 
year. It is a compilation from the agricultural edition of "The Home- 
stead ; " and it, too, is published by the Phelps Publishing Company men- 
tioned above. 

" The Daily News," the first penny daily in the field, and edited by E. 
and C. J. Bellamy, — favorably known as writers of fiction, — was begun in 
February, 1S80, and in May of the same year came out every evening. In 
September the proprietors bought a double cylinder press. The establish- 
ment was practically burned out Dec. 9; but it did not miss an issue, and 
the paper was soon enlarged. " The Sunday News " was begun Jan. 28, 
1883, and has since been changed to "Every Saturday." "The News" is 
now commodiously quartered on Worthington Street, in the building so long 
occupied by the Morgan Envelope Company. It employs a force of 20 in 
all departments, and is a four-page paper of 28 columns, measuring 21 by 
36 inches when unfolded. Its editor says, "'The Daily News' has made 
its more particular aim to interest and entertain its public, always keeping 
a full record of the news of the day. than to attempt to set forth in its 
limited space the opinions of the editors, and the tedious homilies of moral- 
izing contributors." 

"The Daily Democrat " was founded in September, 1883, to meet the 
demand of local party men for a Democratic paper. Its stockholders include 


prominent Democrats in various parts of Western Massachusetts, and Law- 
son Sibley of this city is president of the Democrat Publishing Company. 
The paper is sold for a cent, and it displays more ambition in the collection 
of news than is common in low-priced dailies. The editors of "The Demo- 
crat " are B. F. Arrington, formerly of " The Salem News," and W. T; Tucker, 
who has had newspaper experience as correspondent of " The Boston 
Journal " and " The Boston Advertiser." " The Democrat," of course, takes 
an active hand in politics. 

The Religious Weeklies comprise " The Herald of Life," " The 
Weekly Evangelist," and "The Springfield Herald." 

"The Herald of Life " has been published here since 1872, with Rev. 
W. N. Pile as editor, and is now in its 21st volume. It is the organ of the 
Life and Advent Union, that branch of the Advent body which believes in 
no resurrection for the finally impenitent. Rev. Mr. Pile is one of the ablest 
men of his denomination. 

"The Weekly Evangelist" is published by S. G. Otis & Co., from the 
Evangelist Building on State Street; and among its contributors are some 
of our Congregational clergymen. 

"The Springfield Herald," formerly published by John C. O'Hara in 
the Union Block, gleans thoroughly the Catholic Church and secular news 
of this region. Its management, in the latter part of 1883, passed into 
the hands of Philip J. Ryan. 

"The New-England Journal of Dentistry" is a monthly publication, 
whose mission is sufficiently explained by its name. 

"The Domestic Journal" is an unsectarian religious, family, and tem- 
perance monthly, sold at 50 cents a year, and published by S. G. Otis & Co. 



Efje JFtnanctal Institutions. 


THE growth of Springfield in institutions of capital and credit follows 
the law which has characterized all its development: it has been in- 
digenous to its own soil, and entirely independent of aid from other commu- 
nities. It has leaned upon no other centre of business, but on the contrary 
has been itself metropolitan to a surrounding circle of communities, one of 
which has already become a thriving city. Before the introduction of banks, 
the moneyed men of the town loaned to a large extent upon land and 
mortgage. The names of the Dwights, who were the rich merchants of the 
early part of the century, recur frequently in the old records of real-estate 
transactions and pledges. 

It is a curious fact, that the first bank of discount was established in 
1S14, when the country was in the midst of the war with Great Britain, 
which, up to that time, had resulted only in national disaster and damage, 
It must have taken a hardy spirit, at such a time, for the corporators to 
gather in Uncle Jerry Warriner's tavern to proceed to the organization of a 
bank, whose capital should be "$200,000 in gold and silver," paid in in four 
instalments. This was March 24, 1814, when our entire coast was block- 
aded, and five months before the capture and burning of Washington. 
Springfield then included a much larger territory than now, and had about 
3,000 inhabitants. 

The founding of the bank at that time is a strong illustration of the 
light thrown upon the history of the nation by the history of the town. It 
was, in fact, part of a general movement throughout the country for the 
expansion of banking facilities. In 1811 the first United-States bank had 
been refused a re-charter by the casting-vote of Vice-President George Clin- 
ton. A great impetus was thus given to the development of State banks. 
The war, and the interruption of commerce on the ocean, had had two im- 
portant results, — to drain the country of specie, and to protect native indus- 
try. New England, which was opposed to the war, nevertheless experienced 
a powerful stimulation in all her manufacturing interests : the Legislature 
of Massachusetts, under the Federalist Gov. Strong, chartered numerous 
cotton and woollen manufacturing companies ; and, at the same session 
■which chartered the Springfield Bank, about 30 other banks were chartered 


in this State, which then included Maine. On the 1st of January, 1811, 
there were 15 banks in Massachusetts, with a capital of $6,292,144; in four 
years the number had increased to 21, and the capital to $11,050,000; on 
the 1st of January. 1S14. the six banks of Boston held nearly $5,000,000 in 
specie, and had out notes to the amount of only $2,000,000. New-England 
banking then established its high character for conservatism, and continued 
to redeem its notes, while the banks throughout the rest of the country 
all suspended specie payments about the time of the capture of Wash- 

The Springfield Bank, now the Second National Bank, had as its cor- 
porators the two Jonathan Dwights, father and son, James Byers, John 
Hooker, Moses Bliss, jun., James S. Dwight, George Bliss, Justin Ely, 
Edward Pynchon, and Oliver B. Morris. The first list of directors included 
the first five of these. Pynchon was the first cashier, and Jonathan Dwight 
the first president. The subsequent cashiers were. Moses Bliss in 181 ;. at 
$500 salary, and Benjamin Day, both serving for short terms, until in 1823 
John Howard was chosen, and paid a salary of $1,000: he retained the office 
until Lewis Warriner took it in 1836. Mr. Warriner served for over 45 
years. The presidents were as follows: Jonathan Dwight, 1S14-17: John 
Hooker, 1S17-19; James Byers, 1833-36; John Howard, 1836-49; Benjamin 
Day, 1849-56; E. A. Morris, 1856-59; Henry Alexander, 1859-78. John 
Howard was with the bank, as cashier and president, 38 years. During a 
large portion of this time the bank owed much to another director, William 

Mr. Morris was one of the ablest men ever at the head of the bank. 
and during his brief term did much to repair its fortunes. A leading bank- 
officer of our city, who received his first tuition in "the old bank," entered 
upon service there in 1838. In those days, under the Suffolk-bank system, 
the bank kept a deposit of specie with the Suffolk Bank at Boston, to 
redeem its bills when they were presented there for payment. It was the 
custom for each bank to collect the bills of other banks, as a balance against 
its own, and send them to Boston by trusty citizens whenever business 
called them that way. Periodically. Mr. Howard would go to Boston 
by stage, and return with perhaps $100,000 of the bank's notes in his 
valise. His clerk recalls more than one occasion in which he had taken 
charge of this precious baggage, of an evening, from Mr. Howard's house 
(James D. Brewer's present residence), down to the Bank Building on State 

One of the first acts of the bank, upon its organization, was to buy a site 
for the building, which Jonathan Dwight had already purchased, on State 
Street, in his own name, from Rufus Colton. The building was erected im- 
mediately, and was a handsome two-story brick structure, with a Grecian 


porch of pillars. It has now been enlarged and remodelled out of all 
resemblance to its original form, and is occupied by Wilder & Puffer as a 
grain-store. The bank had difficulty in getting all its stock subscribed, and 
in 1816 reduced its capital to $100,000. This was increased in 1S19 to 
Si 50.000, and in 1828 to $250,000, and would have been raised at a later 
period to $400,000 if the starting of other banks had not forestalled its 
action. Notes were circulated, and were destroyed when finally redeemed ; 
so that none are now in existence, so far as is known. No interest was 
paid on deposits, to any extent, until after the last war. Forty and fifty 
years ago the manufacturers in this vicinity, instead of drawing cash for 
their pay-rolls from their deposits, were accustomed to make six months' 
drafts on their Boston agents. These drafts were discounted by the banks, 
thus affording the ready funds for the payment of help. The risks thus 
taken required banking ability of the first order to prevent loss. In 1839, 
for instance, a vote of the directors was passed requiring D. & J. Ames to 
reduce their indebtedness to the bank to $100,000, — a risk upon one firm 
which no bank at the present time in the city would be disposed to take, 
even if it were not forbidden by law. Several years after, the Ameses, 
indeed, failed, and spread wide ruin over this section of the country; for 
they were the Spragues of their day, at least in the paper manufacture. 
The Springfield Bank was not, however, seriously crippled by their failure, 
as it had been inevitable for some years. It lost much more heavily by the 
total and unexpected failure of Ben Jenks, the great manufacture of Jenks- 
ville, about 1853. The bank lost $100,000 at that time, and the stock went 
down to about 70. The habit of the bank to loan heavily to large manufac- 
turing concerns in Western Massachusetts had given occasion for criticism 
in stockholders' meetings, and for the organization of other banks ; and it 
took some years to recover from the effects of this policy. Yet it may be 
questioned, whether the old bank did not follow the course best calculated 
to develop the manufacturing interests of this section of the State at that 
period, though it was done at a loss to itself. 

The Second National Bank is the Springfield Bank, re-organized in 
1863 under the National Bank Act, and was one of the first to apply for 
organization. It was managed with great ability through the whole period 
of the war, and subsequently, by its president, the late Henry Alexander. 
Lewis Warriner, the late cashier, served the bank over 50 years as clerk 
of the corporation, and cashier. The present building, on the corner of 
Main Street and Townsley Avenue, called Franklin Block, was erected 
in 1866. The present organization of the bank is as follows: President, 
Alfred Rowe ; directors, Alfred Roue, Horace Kibbe, Gurdon Bill. Hins- 
dale Smith, Albert T. Folsom, Henry M. Phillips, Virgil Perkins. I'. I'. 
Kellogg, W. H. Wright, Emerson Wight, William 1'. Porter; cashier, Charles 


H. Churchill; teller, C. A. Kibbe ; bookkeeper, G. VV. Hubbard; clerk, 
P. M. Taylor. 

The Chicopee National Bank was started as "The Chicopee Bank," 22 
years after the Springfield Bank, by the class of small traders and mechanics 
whose needs were looked upon with some disdain by the aristocracy of the 
old bank, whose funds were all absorbed in carrying the great manufactur- 
ing enterprises of the time. Its first president was George Bliss; first 
cashier, Henry Seymour ; and among its early patrons and directors were 

The Chicopee National Bank, Main and Elm Streets. 

Dr. Edwards, James Brewer, and Henry Fuller, for the last 15 years presi- 
dent. Mr. Fuller's place of business, as a tailor, was on the corner of 
Elm and Main Streets, in a wooden building then used in part for post- 
office. About 1834 James Byers built the sober and now rather old-fash- 
ioned brick blocks, extending from the same corner on Main Street and on 
Elm Street. The Chicopee Bank soon took quarters on the same corner 
where it has since remained, and has always continued to be the favorite place 
of deposit of retail traders, and of loans to people of small means. It became 
a national bank in 1865; and had for its cashier, for many years, Thomas 
Warner, jun., whose death is announced as these pages are being prepared. 


» 99 

The present organization of the bank is as follows: President, Henry 
Fuller, jun. ; directors, H. Fuller, jun., James D. Brewer, Horace Smith, 
Henry S. Lee, Varnum N. Taylor, Andrew J. Mackintosh, George L. Wright ; 
cashier, A. B. West; teller, Edward Pynchon ; bookkeepers, Myron E. Cha- 
pin, G. H. Kemater, E. C. Knapp; clerk, L. W. White. 

The Agawam National Bank was organized in 1846, with $100,000 capi- 
tal, as a State bank, and accommodated the upper end of the town, then 
created by the advent of the railroad. It included in its directors the lead- 

^t^^mm^^ml^yf^'z^ --~ 

The Agawam National Bank, Main and Lyman Streets. 

ing railroad and steamboat men, — namely, Chester W. Chapin, John B. M. 
Stebbins, Roderick Ashley, and J. B. Vinton. Mr. Chapin was the first 
president, and was succeeded in 1850 by Albert Morgan, who continued 
until his decease. Since then the presidents have been Theodore Stebbins 
and Marvin Chapin, who resigned in 1869, when the present president was 
elected. It became a national bank in 1865. In May, 1865, the bank was 
re-organized as a national bank, with $600,000 capital, $300,000 of which 
was paid in. Subsecmently the capital called in amounted to $200,000, 
making the capital now $500,000, with a surplus and an undivided profit of 
$130,000. At this time its president and active manager is Henry S. Hyde, 


a leading member of the Wason Car Company, and of numerous and varied 
business enterprises. He is interested in telephone stock, and an active 
director of the American Exchange, London. Frederick S. Bailey has been 
cashier ever since the organization of the bank, 37 years. The corporation 
erected, at the corner of Main and Lyman Streets, its fine banking-house 
opposite the Massasoit House, in 1870, this site having been occupied by 
the bank ever since it began. In the basement is a large fire and burglar 
proof safe deposit vault for the storage of valuable property. Like the 
Chicopee Bank, the Agawam has always been noted for its attention to 
local patrons and its own customers. It has New-York and Boston corre- 
spondents, and also draws on the American Exchange in London, furnishing 
small drafts or letters of credit to any reasonable amount. The directors 
are: Marvin Chapin, John H. Southworth, Charles A. Nichols, Timothy M. 
Brown, Peter S. Bailey, Lewis J. Powers, Henry S. Hyde. Andrew J. Wright, 
and Benjamin F. Hosford; cashier, F. S.Bailey; assistant cashier, W. M. 
Willard ; teller, Sanford Lawton ; bookkeeper, C. L. Robinson ; assistant 
bookkeeper, A. L. Spooner. 

The John Hancock National Bank was organized as a State bank in 
1850, with $100,000 capital, and located on "the Hill," in the building now 
occupied in part by C. C. Merritt's drug-store. The building bore in the 
pediment of the front, for many years, a white bust of the celebrated first 
signer of the Declaration of Independence, carved in wood. The bank, 
however, moved down town about 1857, and is now at 288 Main Street. 
Roger S. Moore has been its president since 1863; and among the members 
of the original board of directors is Col. James M. Thompson, who was 
president from 1850 to 1863. Edmund D. Chapin has been its cashier from 
the first. It became a national bank in 1865, with $150,000 capital, subse- 
quently increased to $250,000. The present organization follows : Direc- 
tors, R. S. Moore, W. H. Wilkinson, John Kimberly, J. M. Thompson, 
E. C. Rogers, William Merrick, E. D. Metcalf ; cashier, Edmund D. Chapin ; 
teller, E. Dudley Chapin; clerk, F. W. Russell. 

The Pynchon National Bank was organized in 1853, to serve the south 
end of the town especially ; and it was designed that it should be as far 
south as the corner of State Street. The site of its present building, which 
was immediately erected on the west side of Main Street, between Elm 
and State Streets, proved, however, the most eligible. Up to that time 
the corner of State and Main Streets had been the business centre of the 
town; the Western Railroad offices having been in the upper stories of 
the bookstore block which had been erected by the Ameses, and which was 
then occupied by the Merriams. Upon the bookstore corner were disbursed 
the large sums paid out monthly by railroad-contractors ; and across the street, 
where Homer Foot's block now is, was Warriner's tavern, where a good deal 



of the same money was consumed in drinks. Among those interested in 
the Pynchon Bank were Willis Phelps, " Gov." Beach, Homer Foot, J. B. 
Rumrill, George and Charles Merriam, the late Samuel Bowles, and William 
Stowe. Col. H. N. Case was the first president, and is the present execu- 
tive head, having served during the whole history of the bank except four 
years. Henry Alexander was the first cashier, and Frederick H. Harris and 
J. D. Safford have served in that capacity. Charles Marsh has been the 

The First National Bank, No. 455 Main Street. 

cashier for 17 years. The bank has paid 312 per cent in dividends in 30 
years, and has never passed a semi-annual dividend. The present directors 
are : H. N. Case, Homer Foot, Ephraim W. Bond, N. W. Talcott, James 
Abbe, Lawson Sibley, Charles Marsh ; cashier, Charles Marsh ; teller, George 
R. Bond; bookkeeper, W. C. Marsh. 

The First National Bank was the first bank in the country to apply for 
organization under the National Bank Act. Other applications reached 


Washington first, but its number is 14. It was also the first child in Spring' 
field of the financial era of the war, and has been managed from the first by 
its present head, James Kirkham. Dustin A. Folsom, the cashier, has held 
his position for 11 years. It occupies the first story of its own fine three- 
story granite bank building, No. 455 Main Street, opposite Court Square. 
The directors are: James Kirkham, Henry Morris, Orrick H. Greenleaf, 
George E. Howard, Henry J. Beebe, Eliphalet Trask, Walter H. Wesson, 
John Olmsted, John S. Carr, John West, B. Frank Steele ; cashier, D. A. 
Folsom ; assistant cashier, J. W. Kirkham ; teller, F. L. Safford ; bookkeeper, 
C. P. Johnson. 

The Third National Bank was the second outgrowth of the national 
system, having been organized in 1864, and having already secured a 
renewal. Its originator and first president was George Walker, former 
bank-commissioner of Massachusetts under the State system, and now our 
consul-general at Paris. It has averaged somewhat over 10 per cent divi- 
dends since its organization, and is a United-States depository. Joseph C. 
Parsons of Holyoke is president; but the active manager of the bank is 
Frederick H. Harris, cashier since its organization. Its massive iron-front 
block, at the corner of Main and Hillman Streets, is a recent construction. 
The directors are : Joseph C. Parsons, Charles R. Ladd, A. B. Forbes, E. 
C. Taft, H. A. Gould, N. A. Leonard, C. L. Covell, J. S. McElwain, Freder- 
ick H. Harris; cashier, F. H. Harris; assistant cashier, Frederick Harris; 
teller, C. C. Haynes ; bookkeepers, G. A. Buckland, A. F. Hitchcock; clerk, 
S. H. Chamberlain. 

The Chapin National Bank, at the corner of Main and Lyman Streets, 
was originally the Chapin Banking and Trust Company, organized in 1872, 
as a banking adjunct of Chester W. Chapin's large interests. It became a 
national bank in 1878, having as president William K. Baker, who had been 
for many years the confidential business adviser and right-hand man of Mr. 
Chapin. The directors are: William K. Baker, James A. Rumrill, Charles 
O. Russell, Azariah B. Harris, E. S. Bradford, Ethan S. Chapin, John Mulli- 
gan, William Whiting ; cashier, W. F. Callender; teller, C. M. Shedd; book- 
keeper, G. R. Yerrall ; clerk, J. C. Kemater. 

The City National Bank, on the corner of Main and Worthington 
Streets, was organized in 1879, with James D. Safford as president, and is 
the newest of the local banks. The directors are: James M.Thompson, 
John B. Stebbins, Marcus P. Knowlton, Nelson C. Newell, George B. Hol- 
brook, Elisha Morgan, James D. Safford ; cashier, Henry H. Bowman ; teller, 
E. A. Carter; bookkeeper, C. C. Morgan; clerk, Frank Coenen. 

The stock of all the national banks, it may be added, is quoted above 
par; and that of those banks of any age, at a considerable premium. 



National Banks. 






121 ,000 

1 90,000 




Totals (nine banks) . . . 





The Savings Banks have had a development quite as interesting as that 
of the banks of discount, and are the Best monuments of popular industry, 
sobriety, and thrift. There are three savings banks, and none of them have 
ever asked advantage of any stay-law to meet the full demands of depos- 
itors. They all pay the same rate of interest, and are of equal standing for 
soundness. It will be observed that the number of depositors in these 
banks is equivalent to more than three-fourths of the entire population of 
the city. The observant reader, also, cannot fail to note the number of fidu- 
ciary officers, in all these banks, who have held their terms for remarkable 
periods. Several have been in office more than 25 years, and will probably 
remain so long as they continue to serve their institutions with equal fidelity. 
During all the period from the crisis of 1857 down to the present time, no 
defalcation of any magnitude, embezzlement, or breach of trust, has occurred, 
to bring loss and misery to those who commit their investments to these 
institutions. There have been cases of petty dishonesty in subordinates ; 
but they have been early detected, the losses have been made good by 
bondsmen, and the perpetrators have been turned out of their opportunities 
to prey upon the public. 

The Springfield Institution for Savings, which was organized in 1827, is 
the oldest of these. It was the tenth organized in the State, dating 11 
years after the first, " The Boston Provident." The meeting for organiza- 
tion was at the court-house, Aug. 2, 1827; and its purpose was declared to 
be "to provide a safe and profitable method of enabling the industrious and 
economical to invest such part of their property and earnings as they can 
conveniently spare, in a way which will afford security and profit." This 
purpose has been nobly fulfilled, all by the management of an uncompen- 
sated board of trustees, and by faithful service from its fiduciary officers. 
Josiah Hooker was the first president ; the vice-presidents were George 
Bliss, Jonathan Dwight, jun., David Ames, Roswell Lee, John Chaffee, 



Joshua Frost, Robert Emery, and John Ingersoll; the trustees, Daniel Bon- 
tecou, John B. Kirkham, Diah Allen, Samuel Henshaw, William Child, 
Joseph Weatherhead, Benjamin Day, W. F. Wolcott, George Colton, George 
Bliss, jun., Charles Stearns, Moses Bliss, 2d, Oliver B. Morris, Justin Wil- 
lard, Samuel Raynokls. 

Marshall Blake, a lad who had earned $20 driving the village cows to 
pasture, was the first depositor. He is now a well-known friend of Presi- 
dent Arthur, and Unit- 
ed-States collector of 
internal revenue for 
New-York City. John 
Howard was the first 
treasurer, and Samuel 
Raynolds secretary. 
For the year 1829 the 
deposits amounted to 
$1,130.42, and up to 
1837 they were only 
$29,689. In those days 
the bank's office was 
with the Springfield 
Bank (as above de- 
scribed); and the 
funds were deposited 
with that institution, 
which paid 4 per cent 
interest. In 1844 the 
deposits reached $49,- 
401 ; and the Spring- 
field Bank issued a notice to depositors to withdraw their funds, as it wished 
to relinquish them. This was a crisis in the history of the institution, but 
fortunately there were not lacking men with the courage to place it upon an 
independent foundation. A committee consisting of William Dwight, John 
Howard, Theodore Bliss, James Brewer, and Samuel Raynolds, advised 
'•that the institution be continued." Henry Sterns was chosen treasurer, 
Dec. 24, 1849, thus separating the administration from that of the bank of 
discount: the office was then removed from the Springfield Bank Building 
to Foot's Block. Mr. Sterns remained treasurer till May, 1858, when the 
deposits reached $614,907. Henry S. Lee was then chosen treasurer, and 
has continued in the office. During his 25 years of service he has received 
in deposits $27,615,000, and paid 54.674.000 in dividends; thus passing over 
S32,ooo,ooo to the credit of depositors. The bank has owed much to the 

Springfield Institution for Savings, Main and State Streets. 



fidelity of its presidents, John Hooker from 1827 to 1844; Theodore Bliss 
and William Dvvight for short terms; Josiah Hooker from 1847 to 1870; and 
since then, Col. James M. Thompson. Since 1862 Judge Shurtleff has been 
secretary, and examiner of titles. The bank has never closed its doors, or 
failed to meet a depositor's demand. The rate of interest was at first 4 per 
cent, subsequently 5 per cent, with occasional extra dividends, and is now 4 
per cent. 

Of the 20,170 depositors, 10,415 are women, with $3,572,850 to their 
credit; 5,870 deposits are of sums less than $50; 1,940 between #50 and 
$roo; 2,490 between $100 and $200; and 3,516 between $200 and #500. 
The bank formerly had agents at Chicopee to receive deposits. The 
organization of savings banks at Chicopee, Holyoke, and other points within 
its original district, as well as in this city, has not seemed to check its growth. 
It erected its fine building in 1867. The present officers are: James M. 
Thompson, president ; 
John B. Stebbins, vice- 
president ; Henry S. 
Lee, treasurer; William 
S. Shurtleff, secreta- 
ry; trustees, James M. 
Thompson, John B. 
Stebbins, Horace 
Smith, Elisha Gunn. 
Charles Marsh, Julius 
H. Appleton, Lawson 
Sibley, William H. 
Haile, Henry S. Lee; 
auditors, Homer Foot, 
James D. Brewer, James 
D. Safford. Deposits 
are received up to 
#1,000, and principal 
and interest may ac- 
cumulate to $1,600 for 
each depositor. 

The Springfield Five Cents Saving Bank was organized in [854. Its 
presidents have been Willis Phelps and Dr. Joseph C. Pynchon. Daniel J. 
Marsh has been treasurer since 1858. Trustees, James E. Russell, R. O. 
Morris, Charles A. Nichols, H. Q. Sanderson, Oliver Marsh, Henry M. 
Phillips, T. D. Beach ; vice-presidents, E. W. Bond, W. L. Smith, William 
Rice; clerk and treasurer, D.J. Marsh; teller, W. R. Hetherington ; book- 
keeper, F. M. Lander. The fine granite block occupied by this bank and 

Five Cents Savings Bank, Main and Court Streets. 

3 o6 


by the United-States Post-office, on the corner of Main and Court Streets, 
was completed in 1876. The bank also erected and owns the adjoining 
granite building known as the Republican Block, occupied by " The Spring- 
field Republican." 

The Hampden Savings Bank was organized in 1852, with Albert Mor- 
gan as its first president. Its present president is Eliphalet Trask ; and 
its treasurer is Peter S. Bailey, who has served in that capacity since 1872. 
Trustees, Lewis J. Powers, Charles O. Russell, John Mulligan, J. M. Steb- 
bins, Timothy M. Brown, William H. Wright, Arthur I. Bemis, Hinsdale 
Smith, I. B. Lowell, John Olmsted, Richard F. Hawkins, Samuel Bigelow: 
vice-presidents, J. A. Rumrill, Marvin Chapin, H. S. Hyde, Frederick S. 
Bailey : secretary and treasurer, Peter S. Bailey ; teller, John B. Phelps : 
clerk, C. E. Snow. The banking-quarters are under the Agawam National 
Bank, at the corner of Main and Lyman Streets, and have unusual facilities 
for safe deposits. 

Savings Banks. 


Market Value of 


Springfield Institution for Savings . . . 








The Springfield Clearing-House was organized in 1873. Since that 
date, clearings have taken place daily at the Chicopee Bank, all the national 
banks being members of the association. Its officers at present are as fol- 
lows : President, Charles Marsh of the Pynchon Bank; secretary, Henry 
H. Bowman of the City Bank ; manager, A. B. West of the Chicopee Bank. 


1874 $29,691,073 






The Springfield Co-operative Bank was incorporated April 13, 1882, and 
commenced business May 9, 1882. At the end of 18 months' business 
(Oct. 31, 1883), there are 1,757 shares in force, $22,600 loaned on first 
mortgage on real estate, and #2,625 loaned shareholders on their shares in 


the bank. It is intended especially for the benefit of all whose income is 
received at stated times, as weekly or monthly. Its operation teaches the 
value of the constant and regular saving of even small sums, and, by its plan 
of working, aids in the formation of the "saving habit." By the aid of 
this bank, any industrious person may become the owner of his own 
home, either by building, purchase, or the removal of an existing mort- 
gage. Its plan is as follows: The capital stock of «r,ooo,ooo is divided 
into 5,000 shares of an ultimate value of $200. Any one desirous of receiv- 
ing the benefits of the bank takes as many shares (not exceeding 25), 
as he is able to save dollars monthly; that is, if he is able to save $5 per 
month, he will take five shares of stock, as the shares are to be paid for 
at the rate of one dollar on each share each month. These payments on 
shares are called dues, and are continued till the shares have reached their 
ultimate value of $200. It would, of course, take 200 months for the shares 
to reach their ultimate value, were it not for the profits which are added to 
the value of the shares as often as divided (usually each six months), and are 
in no case to be drawn till the shares mature ; this reduces the time so that 
the average age of shares at maturity in similar institutions has been eleven 
years. The profits for the year ending Oct. 31 were 5 per cent for the 
actual time the money was in the bank, as each dollar begins to earn profit 
from the time it is paid in. Each month all money which is to be loaned is 
put up at auction, and sold to the bidder who will pay the highest premium 
for it, premium being what is paid above the regular rate of 6 per cent. 
Each shareholder is entitled to borrow $200 on each share he owns, pro- 
vided he can give satisfactory security, and is a successful bidder. In case 
payments cannot be kept up, the money paid in can be withdrawn, together 
with three-fourths of the profits, after one year, by giving one month's 
notice. Its officers are as follows : Oscar S. Greenleaf, president ; Edward 
H. Phelps, vice-president ; Francke W. Dickinson, secretary; Charles H. 
Churchill, treasurer. Directors, F. A. Judd, H. E. Durkee, P. P. Kellogg, 
E. A. Hall, W. F. Cook, John Sharrocks, E. D. Metcalf, N. J. Benjamin, 
R. H. Smith ; auditors, F. E. Cooper, G. H. Bleloch, R. H. Cleeland. 

J. G. Mackintosh & Co. are private bankers; but no account of banking 
as at present conducted in Springfield would be complete without a notice 
of this house, which was started at Holyoke in 1876, and came to Spring- 
held in 1878. The head of the house was formerly treasurer of the Germa- 
nia Mills at Holyoke. The house is the largest dealer in commercial paper 
between New York and Boston, and has led to something of a revolution in 
the manner of obtaining credit among the leading manufacturers of this sec- 
tion. Formerly they obtained their stocks and materials on five or six 
months' time, and went to the banks directly for any discounts needed: 
now they pay cash for their supplies by making commercial paper, which is 


placed with Mackintosh & Co., and is disposed of by them to banks all over 
New England. It is, in short, the adaptation to this locality of methods of 
credit long in use in Boston and New York; and the immediate effect of its 
introduction was to reduce materially the current rate of discounts in this 
vicinity. Mackintosh & Co. have at times handled #5,000,000 of commercial 
paper in one year. They have a branch house in Holyoke, under the man- 
agement of Thomas Shepard, which has about $100,000 in deposits, and 
does a large discount and banking business. They do also a general com- 
mission business in stocks and other securities for a large patronage, and 
the house has the reputation of a conservative counsellor in the manage- 
ment of investments. 

The Active Banking Capital of Springfield in 1883 is thus about $5,000,- 
000; deposits in national banks, $4,000,000; circulation, $2,640,000; deposits 
in savings banks, $11,600,000, secured by assets good for $12,400,000. In 
short, the banking interest of the city commands over $20,000,000. The 
clearings at the clearing-house rank in magnitude with those of cities much 
larger in population, being only exceeded in Massachusetts by those of 
Boston and Worcester. 




petual by Act of June 3, 1856. The following extract from the charter 
explains the kind of business done : " That, \\hen the sum subscribed by the 
associates to be insured shall amount to $50,000, said corporation shall then 
be authorized to insure, for the term of six years, any dwelling-house or 
other building in the county of Hampden." 

By an Act of June 3, 1856, authority was granted to insure in the New- 
England States and in the State of New York; and by Act of March 17, 
1883, "to insure personal property against loss or damage by fire to the 
extent and in the same manner as they are now authorized by law to insure 
real estate." The mutual plan aims to provide insurance at cost to the 
members. That this has been successfully done by this company, the table 
of the percentage of its dividends returned will show : Five years ending 
1838, average dividend 80 percent; five years ending 1843, average divi- 
dend 76 per cent; five years ending 1848, average dividend 80 percent; five 
years ending 1853, average dividend 73 per cent: five years ending 1858, 
average dividend 86 per cent; five years ending 1863, average dividend 79 
per cent; five years ending 1868, average dividend 86 percent; five years 
ending 1873, average dividend 88 per cent; five years ending 1878, average 
dividend 75 per cent; five years ending 1883, average dividend 75 per cent. 

In 1849 the company moved into the offices now occupied on the second 
floor of the old brick building at the south-west corner of Main and Elm 
Streets. The present officers are : President, Warner C. Sturtevant ; secre- 
tary and treasurer, Frank R. Young ; directors, Warner C. Sturtevant, Henry 
Fuller, Alfred Rowe, Henry S. Lee, James Kirkham, Eliphalet Trask, Henry 
Morris, Charles L. Shaw, and V. N. Taylor; auditors, Col. James M. Thomp- 
son and Charles Marsh. The condition of the company, as shown by the 
last annual report to the corporation, is as follows : Risks outstanding, Sept. 
30, 1882, $3,886,200; market value of the assets, $124,502; total liabilities, 
$30,239 ; cash surplus over all liabilities, $94,263. 

The Springfield Fire and Marine Insurance Company was incorporated 
by the legislature of Massachusetts, in the year 1849, with a capital stock 
of $150,000, and with permission to commence business whenever a third 
of that sum should be paid in. The persons named in the act of incor- 
poration were Edmund Freeman, George Dwight, and John L. King; 
and the first board of directors consisted of Edmund Freeman, Daniel L. 
Harris, Chester W. Chapin, Marvin Chapin, Andrew Huntington, Edward 
South worth, John L. King, Jacob B. Merrick, Albert Morgan, and Waitstill 
Hastings. These gentlemen, with the exception of Marvin Chapin and 
Waitstill Hastings, are all dead. Mr. Hastings is not now a stockholder, 
and Mr. Chapin is the only director who was a member of the original 
board. The company commenced business in 1851, with Edmund Free- 
man president, and William Conner secretary. The company was fortu- 


nate at the start in the selection of its officers and directors, and in having 
for stockholders the best and most substantial men of this community. 
Mr. Conner continued secretary until 1866, when he resigned to take the 
vice-presidency of a New-York company ; and he, was succeeded by J. N. 
Dunham, who held the office for two years, when he resigned, and was suc- 
ceeded in 1868 by Sanford J. Hall, the present incumbent. Mr. Freeman 
held the office of president until ill-health compelled him to resign in 1874, 
and was succeeded by D. R. Smith, who had held the office of vice-president 
for the preceding six years. Mr. Smith died in 1880, and was succeeded by 
J. N. Dunham, formerly secretary ; and he continues to hold the office of 
president. Andrew J. Wright, the present treasurer, became connected 
with the company as bookkeeper early in 1864, and in 1872 was elected 
treasurer (which office had previously been combined with that of the secre- 
tary). The capital stock has been increased from time to time until it is 
now $1,000,000, and the assets are over $2,500,000. This company stands 
at the head of all the Massachusetts fire-insurance companies ; having the 
largest capital, largest assets, greatest amount at risk, and the largest yearly 
business. Moreover, it stands at the head of all the companies in New 
England, excepting only some of those at Hartford. It is doing business 
from Maine to California, and from the Great Lakes to the Gulf of Mexico; 
having 2,500 agents scattered throughout the United States. It has paid 
losses" of $10,000,000 since its organization. The fact that it passed unshaken 
through the Chicago fire, though suffering a loss of $525,000 ($25,000 greater 
than its then cash capital), and the Boston fire, paying $250,000, sufficiently 
attests its financial integrity and vitality ; for many strong companies went 
down with those disasters. The income of the company for the year 1883 
was over $1,500,000. The company has built up its immense business in 
its own quiet way, with the utmost conservativeness, without pressing, and 
without any attempt to crowd out competitors. It has avoided every at- 
tempt to get business on any other than remunerative basis, and has taken 
care to invest its assets so that they could be immediately utilized in case of 
need. Its management has been successful in getting as agents men who 
were respected in their respective localities, and has retained them as long 
as possible. In Eastern Massachusetts, for example, the representatives in 
Boston have been Reed & Brother, for nearly 30 years; the office being 
over a quarter of a century in the historic Old State House at head of State 
Street. It is the only local joint-stock fire-insurance company, and has, like 
the Massachusetts Mutual Life, been of inestimable value to Springfield, in 
providing trustworthy indemnity, in making the city known to the business 
men all over the country, and in bringing here a great amount of capital. 
Its directors have always comprised men recognized as being among those 
foremost in business standing. At present, the board includes J. N. Dun- 


ham, Marvin Chapin, William Birnie, C. L. Covell, Frederick H. Harris, 
N. A. Leonard, William H. Haile, Azariah B. Harris, Sereno Gaylord of 
Chicopee, H. E. Russell of New York, and Marshall Field of Chicago. The 
company for many years has had its offices at the corner of Main and 
Fort Streets, in its own brick building called the " Fort Block," by reason 
of its occupying the site of the old Pynchon house and fort (illustrated on 
p. 15). In the early history of the company, some very large dividends were 
paid to its stockholders ; although it always aimed to keep a large surplus 
for contingencies, such as the Portland, Chicago, and Boston fires. The 
stockholders at the time of the Chicago fire were assessed 65 per cent, and 
at the Boston fire 30 per cent; but, notwithstanding these disasters, the 
company was never so large or prosperous as to-day. A Massachusetts law 
now limits the cash dividends of fire-insurance companies to 10 per cent 
annually. This is an excellent law, — good for the assured and well for the 
company, as it tends to increase its assets and add to its solidity. The 
" Springfield " has always paid all just claims in full, and has a list of stock- 
holders who have great faith in its future; and it is constantly increasing its 
premium receipts. 

The Massachusetts Mutual Life-Insurance Company was organized in 
1 85 1, by a few of Springfield's citizens, who, with very little notion of the 
size the business was destined to reach, still had the idea that a local insti- 
tution might supply the life-insurance that was wanted by their fellow- 
townsmen. It was chartered by special Act of Legislature in May, 1S51, 
and began to issue policies in the following August. The original guar- 
antv capital stock was divided into shares of $ 100 each, and taken by some 
thirty different persons, several of whom mortgaged their homesteads for 
the purpose. The early records of the company give some curious hints of 
how little its founders knew of the nature or the size of the structure they 
had begun. After accepting their charter, they appointed a committee of two 
" to visit Boston and other places, to collect information on the subject of in- 
surance.'' And the directors from time to time authorized such venturesome 
things as the borrowing of $400, and the engaging of a clerk to assist the 
secretary in doing the necessary office-work, which he had before done alone. 

The Hon. Caleb Rice was the first president of the company ; and for 
nearly 22 years he served it as president and treasurer, with a faithfulness 
that became enthusiasm and an integrity absolutely unquestioned. He was 
a prominent citizen in various ways, was chosen first mayor ' of the city, and 
had a promptness and decision of character that fitted well with the title of 
"Colonel," by which he was commonly known. At his death, in March, 
1873, vice-president Ephraim W. Bond was chosen president and treasurer, 
and still fills those offices. 

' Sec p. 34. 


For nearly as long a term was the secretaryship filled by F. B. Bacon, 
who had no small hand in the work of building up the company. He served 
from 1851 until February, 1870; when, having been stricken with the illness 
that terminated his life in the following year, he was succeeded by Charles 
McLean Knox, who had been one of the company's general agents. Mr. 
Knox was promoted to the vice-presidency in March, 1873; at which time 
Avery J. Smith, assistant secretary, was made secretary. Mr. Smith con- 
tinued in the office for eight years, and was followed by John A. Hall, who 
was elected Feb. I, 1881, and is the present incumbent. 

The vice-president since January, 1874, has been Henry Fuller, jun., who 
has been connected with the company from the beginning; and the com- 
pany's actuaries have been James Weir Mason from 1869 to 1872, and Oscar 
B. Ireland since that time. M. V. B. Edgerly, the second vice-president 
and manager, is a well-known and long-experienced life-insurance officer. 

This record shows a remarkably small number of changes ; and, even of 
these, a considerable proportion were merely promotions in natural order, a 
state of things, that, it has been remarked, "speaks volumes for the integrity 
of the men chosen to the positions of trust, and also of the care and fidelity 
with which the directors of the company discharged the duties of selection." 
The following list of directors shows a group of men who have fairly 
earned the positions of trust for which they have been chosen: Ephraim 
W. Bond, Henry Fuller, jun., Gideon Wells, Warner C. Sturtevant, James 
Kirkham, D. P. Crocker, Homer Foot, Julius H. Appleton, Lewis J. Powers. 
Henry S. Lee, Nelson C. Newell, Alfred Lambert, John A. Hall, all of 
Springfield; William A. Tower and F. A. Brooks of Boston; William Bross 
of Chicago, 111.; William McGeorge of Philadelphia, Penn.; H. S. Wal- 
bridge of Toledo, O.; G. W. Bentley of New London, Conn.; C. W. Stanley, 
P. C. Cheney, M. V. B. Edgerly, and George B. Chandler, of Manchester, 
N.H.; George C. Kimball of Grand Rapids, Mich.; James M. Warner of 
Albany, N.Y. ; Martin A. Knapp of Syracuse, N.Y. ; John R. Redfield of 
Hartford, Conn. ; Remington Vernam and John F. Anderson of New York : 
and John K. Marshall of Brookline, Mass. 

The office of the company was in rented rooms in Foot's Block from 
1851 until early in 1868, when it was removed to the company's own hand- 
some and well-known building on Main Street. The next move was a 
sudden one ; for on the evening of Feb. 5, 1873, a ^ re broke out in the lower 
part of the building (which was rented for mercantile purposes), and raged 
all night, destroying all the rear and much of the front part of the structure. 
The company's safes, and most of its books and papers, were preserved ; and 
business was transacted, with but little interruption, in temporary quarters 
in the Hampden House Block on Court Street. By December of the same 
year the company's own building had been rebuilt, re-arranged, and im- 

On Main Street. 


proved, under the supervision of George Hathorne, the New- York architect, 
and its own offices were re-occupied. The lofty brown-stone front and iron 
mansard roof form a handsome and conspicuous feature of the street: while 
the Masonic lodges and other organizations that occupy the floors over 
the company's offices, and the stores that are on the ground floor, make the 
inside of the building familiar to a great number of people. 

It will probably be a surprise to many, even of its neighbors, to know 
that the business of the Massachusetts Mutual at the home office gives 
constant employment to three officers and fifteen clerks, besides janitor, 
real-estate man, and the local agency force ; while, in nearlv all the Northern 
States it has a force of agents at work securing new business. Rut when it is 
remembered that accounts have to be kept with over 14,000 separate policies ; 
that perhaps a tenth as many cease, and a sixth as many new ones are 
added, in a year: that some $7,000,000 are to be kept safely invested and 
accounted for: and that 19 separate State departments have to be furnished 
with an elaborate annual statement of the company's affairs. — it will be 
seen that there is plenty of work for all. 

If we look into the business that is the mainspring and motive power of 
this institution, we find much that is interesting and gratifying to its friends. 
When the company had been three years in operation, the whole number of 
policies in force was 502, insuring $720,780: and the accumulations, not 
including the guaranty capital, amounted to $16,704.79. Yet, even in that 
little time, it had paid death-claims on 14 policies, amounting to Si 2.1 50, 
and so illustrated the nature of the good work it had begun. At the end of 
the year 1S83, the thirty-second annual report showed 14.313 policies in 
force, insuring $32,860,164, and gross assets of $7,588,727.32: while the 
payments for death -claims, since the foundation of the company, had 
amounted to $6,189,178.65, and for matured endowment policies to $92o.8go 

To realize the amount of good thus done by what may be called a great 
collecting and distributing agency, one should be familiar with the circum- 
stances of those to whom claims are paid, and realize in how large a pro- 
portion of cases the insurance money is the principal part of what is left for 
the heirs, and how generally it is true that neither the premiums paid to the 
company, nor the interest they have earned, would have had any visi bit- 
existence in a man's estate if he had invested or spent his money in any 
other way. The interest account of the Massachusetts Mutual for the 32 
years shows earnings of over $5,000,000: it is not easy to believe that more 
than a small portion of this would have been earned by the same principal if 
it had not been applied by its owners to the purchase of life-insurance. 

The laws of Massachusetts, no less than the disposition of the managers 
of this company, have favored conservative methods of doing business, and 


an economical expenditure of money. The companies chartered by the 
State have been few; but not one of them has failed, and their members 
have had the protection of law to a greater extent than any other class of 
insured persons in the country. The celebr; ted non-forfeiture law of the 
State, that went into effect April 1, 1861, provided that the lapsing policy- 
holder, the one on whom the disappointments and hardships of the busi- 
ness had fallen, should receive a return for what the company had gained 
by his membership, in the form of an extension of the time during which 
his full amount of insurance should be in force and valid; and a great many 
thousands of dollars have been paid, and will hereafter be paid, by the mere 
force of that law, after the failure of the insured to pay his stipulated clues. 
The law that took the place of this, with reference to policies issued after 
1880, was for the same general purpose, but gave the return in the form of 
a smaller amount of insurance, good for the whole time covered by the 
original policy, and allowed the insurer in some cases to collect the sur- 
render value of his policy in cash. It also revised the mathematical basis 
of the law, and adapted it to more modern theories, and more modern forms 
of business. It can hardly be doubted, that, the more widely the nature of 
the Massachusetts laws becomes understood, the greater will be the demand 
for insurance in Massachusetts companies ; for it is only to the members of 
Massachusetts companies, wherever they may live, that the protective laws 
above described apply ; residents of this State who are insured in other State 
companies are not, as is sometimes supposed, included in their provisions. 

It is a matter of no small gratification to those interested in the Massa- 
chusetts Mutual, that during the years 1880, '81, '82, and '83, it did over 34 
per cent of all the business done in this State by the five Massachusetts 
companies, when it insured #4,254,155 out of a total of $12,472,134; and 
that in each of those years its total receipts were handsomely ahead of that 
of either of the four other companies. 

The Hampden Mutual Fire-Insurance Company was organized at the 
close of the year 1883, to insure, "against loss or damage by fire or light- 
ning, manufacturers', city, and village property, real and personal." The 
charter received on Jan. 1, 1884, bears these names as incorporators : 
Stephen C. Warriner, William Patton, A. N. Mayo, Emerson Wight, 
E. W. Ladd, Gurdon Bill, James Abbe, Edwin D. Metcalf, W. C. Newell, 
W. H. Wilkinson, and Benjamin Weaver. The officers chosen are Emer- 
son Wight, president; Gurdon Hill, vice-president ; P. P. Kellogg, treasurer; 
John R. Hixon, secretary. It has secured the $500,000 of insurance requisite 
under the State statutes, and has entered the field of the mutual fire-insur- 
ance companies. It will probably enjoy that long-lived and prosperous 
career for which Springfield institutions, and especially her insurance-com- 
panies, have become so widely and so justly noted. 


The Springfield Board of Underwriters was organized in January, 1883. 
It was started by the "New-England Exchange" of Boston, which, by 
means of the combined experience of leading underwriters, advises and con- 
trols this and other local boards, and assists them intelligently to fix rates 
on the numerous kinds of insurable property. The board is in fair opera- 
tion, and maintains the fixed rates, although they have been somewhat 
advanced. Regular meetings are held monthly, for adjusting rates and fur- 
thering insurance interests. Almost all the large and conservative com- 
panies are represented in the board. The officers are : Joseph C. Pynchon, 
president; S. C. Warriner, vice-president; F. A. Judd, secretary and 

Agencies of life and fire insurance companies are as numerous here as 
anywhere; the leading fire-companies regarding Springfield as a very desi- 
rable place in which to take risks, and the life-companies knowing that a 
thriving and prudent community like this is one in which much effort can 
profitably be spent to secure patrons. For these reasons, as well as the all- 
powerful one that business is here to be had, there are many agents, repre- 
senting many companies, and putting forward their utmost energy and 


Co-operative Life-Insurance and Mutual-Benefit Associations have 
made inroads into this community ; but, as societies offering their peculiar 
class of protection can hardly be recognized as legitimate life-insurance 
companies, they will be found noticed in the chapters on " The Sociability 
of the City," and " The Charities and Hospitals," where they seem most 
appropriately to belong. 



pany has built cars for almost every important railroad in the United States, 
and has also supplied railroads of other countries. Many of the contcacts 
taken for home and foreign governments have been very extensive, among 
which was one from the Egyptian government, finished in [860; $300,000 
being received for the work. In 1869 seventy-five coaches were turned out 
of these workshops for the Central Pacific Railroad Company, which, with 
2,600 freight-cars constructed about the same time, represented in value 
$1,700,000. This company has furnished the Central Railroad of New 
Jersey, since the year 1862, over 240 coaches (passenger, baggage, mail, 
and express cars), the total value of which has amounted to over $1,500,000. 
This is probably the largest number of coaches ever constructed for one 
railroad-company by one concern. On the 1st of March, 1884, ten passen- 
ger-coaches will be completed for the Ferro Carril del Sur railroad of Chili, 
South America, some of which have exteriors of solid mahogany. 

The Wason works were established in 1845, by Thomas W. and Charles 
Wason, and were carried on in a small way until 1851, when Thomas W. 
Wason became sole owner. From that time, under his management, the 
works increased rapidly; and in 1853 a company, with a capital of $20,000, 
was formed; and in 1862 the Wason Manufacturing Company was incorpo- 
rated, with an increased capital of $150,000. This was afterward increased 
to $300,000. Thomas W. Wason was the first president. From a small 
shed, which was too small in which to manufacture the first freight-car, the 
works were at times added to, until they included a large brick manufactory 
on Lyman Street, which, in time, became too small. Then a sixteen-acre 
tract of land at Brightwood was selected, and the extensive works of to-day 
were erected. The property is bounded by Plainfield and Fairfield Streets, 
and Birnie and Wason Avenues. The transfer was made in 1873; and since 
that time a flourishing little village has sprung up at Brightwood, the place 
having derived its name from the residence in that vicinity built by Dr. J. G. 
Holland as his home, and now occupied by George C. Fisk. The founder 
of the business, Thomas W. Wason, died in 1870; and his successor as 
president has been George C. Fisk, who began in the workshops, and has 
been connected with the Wason Company from its earliest days. He is 
thoroughly a self-made man, and prides himself upon the fact that his busi- 
ness success is due entirely to personal efforts ; but he never forgets Mr. 
Wason's kindly aid. Mr. Fisk is thoroughly familiar with the smallest 
details of the workshops, as well as counting-room and business depart- 
ments. As truly said by one of his business associates, " he carries the 
Wason Manufacturing Company in the palm of his hand. 1 ' Henry S. Hyde 
is treasurer of the company. He is a son-in-law of Mr. Wason, and repre- 
sents a large portion of the company's stock. He is recognized as one of 
the most thorough business men and successful financial managers in the 



city, and, aside from his position with the Wason Company, is treasurer of 
the Springfield Steam-Power Company, and also president of the Spring- 

field Club, the Agawam National 
Bank, and the City Hospital. He 
is also treasurer of the Spring- 
field Electric Light Company, vice- 
president of the Hampden Savings 
Bank, secretary of the Riverside 
Paper Company, besides holding 

other offices of less importance. The secretary of the company is Louis C. 
Hyde, and the superintendent of works is Henry Pearsons. 

To give an idea of the magnitude of the works, it may be said that when 



they are running to their fullest capacity, 35,000 feet of lumber is used per 
day, 700 workmen have been employed at one time at the manufactory, and 
$1,500,000 worth of cars a year have been turned out. It is easy to see that 
a large amount of room, as well as a vast deal of material, and a great quan- 
tity of machinery, must be brought into use at the Wason works. The 
buildings, constructed of wood and brick, are commodious, and complete in 
every particular. They are said to be the best arranged of any of the sort 
in the United States, if not in the world. The offices are by themselves, in 
a neat wooden building but a few rods north of the Brightwood railroad- 
station, on the line of the Connecticut-river Railroad. The railroad-supply 
rooms are in the same building with the offices. Back of these are the 
workshops and lumber-yards. Here every part of the car is made. The 
workshops are arranged in two parallel structures, extending the entire 
depth of the grounds, each side of a wide-gauge railway. This forty-feet 
gauge track is traversed by a steam-engine and carriage. By this arrange- 
ment the cars, when completed, are transferred from the shops to the tracks, 
and thence, by the means of switches, to the tracks of the Connecticut- 
river Railroad. The dimensions and capacity of the shops are as follows : 
Foundery, 170 by 62 feet, with a daily capacity of 100 car-wheels, and 10 
tons of other castings; machine-shop, 96 by 45 feet; smith-shop, 150 by 45 
feet; passenger-car shop, 117 by 75 feet; wood-working and cabinet shop, 
200 by 62 feet; lumber-shed, 420 by 40 feet; passenger-car paint-shop, 500 
by 75 feet; freight-car erecting-shop, 250 by 60 feet; freight-car paint-shop, 
250 by 45 feet; tire-and-bolt-cutting shop, 50 by 40 feet: this, with the build- 
ing where the upholstering, seat-trimming, and varnishing is carried on, is of 
two stories. The truck-constructing room is 60 by 45 feet; engine-house, 
50 by 20 feet, the upper floors being used for veneering rooms. There is 
one double dry-house 42 by 35 feet, together with one having four compart- 
ments furnished with the Foss Patent Exhaust method of drying lumber. 
This makes an aggregate of nearly 1 50,000 square feet, and over 6 acres of 
flooring. The lumber-yards cover 12 acres of space, and during the busiest 
times 4,000,000 feet of lumber are kept in stock. The arrangement of detail 
in all the various departments of the manufactory seems to be as near per- 
fection as present times will admit. 

Smith & Wesson represent one of the greatest, most important, and 
widely known of the diversified interests which characterize the industries 
of Springfield ; and none deserve more prominent mention, or have been 
more closely identified with the growth and prosperity of the city during the 
past quarter of a century. 

The firm under its present style began to manufacture revolvers in 1857, 
the partners at that time being Horace Smith and Daniel B. Wesson. 


In 1874 Mr. Smith retired from the business ; and Mr. Wesson continued 
alone until Jan. 1, 1882, when he associated with himself his son Walter 
H. Wesson as a partner, the original style, however, always remaining 
unchanged. From a small beginning in 1856, when no more than 75 men 
were employed, and the annual production amounted to only a few thou- 
sand revolvers, the enterprise has grown to be the largest of its kind on the 
globe, employing from 400 to 500 men, and producing yearly from 80,000 to 
90,000 of these arms. 

The plant of the firm is one of the most extensive in the city, and is 
remarkably complete in every department. The main factory, which fronts 
on Stockbridge Street, is a four-story brick building 150 by 40 feet, with an 
L 100 by 40 feet; and besides a two-story blacksmith-shop 150 by 45 feet, 
there are a number of smaller buildings. The works are equipped with 
about $250,000 worth of machinery, a large part of which was invented by 
this house for its own special work; and it is all operated by a 135-horse- 
power engine. 

This remarkable industry seems to owe its development to inventive and 
executive ability of high order. Previous to 1856, there was no fire-arm in 
which any form of metallic cartridge was fired other than the " Flobert," 
a French cartridge, which consisted of a small copper shell containing ful- 
minate, and a small ball, used only in the so-called " Saloon " pistol, a 
single-barrelled arm made in France. On the 8th of August, 1854, Smith 
& Wesson patented a rim-fire metallic cartridge ; and a little later they 
conceived the idea of constructing a revolver that should use some such 
style of cartridge. On such an arm they obtained patents in July, 1859, a "d 
December, i860. 

At first two styles of arm were made, but some 40 or 50 models have 
since been formed. At present seven models only are made. The revolver 
produced here for military purposes is a superior article. To make this 
improved arm, the firm purchased certain patents of other inventors, which 
gave them the automatic cartridge-shell extractor; thus obviating the neces- 
sity of the detachment of the cylinder, either for this purpose or for loading. 
A recent new model is a navy revolver. The automatic extractor applies to 
all models. No revolver yet invented consists of comparatively so few 
parts, and accomplishes so much ; its operations are largely automatic. 
The proprietors claim that it is "unequalled in excellence of material and 
workmanship, force, accuracy of firing, safety, simplicity of construction, 
and convenience in loading." As evidence of the superiority of the Smith 
and Wesson military revolver, it may be stated that it was recommended for 
adoption by the United-States troops, by the commission of which General 
Schofield was president, and has been extensively adopted by the Russian 
and other governments. About the time our war of the Rebellion closed, 

3 2 4 


the firm were producing nearly 60,000 revolvers annually. The demand for 
them in the United States was such, that, up to 1867, Smith & Wesson made 
no effort to sell them abroad. At the Paris Exposition in that year, a case 
of their various models was exhibited, which at once attracted attention, and 
created a foreign demand which has constantly increased, resulting in large 
shipments to Japan, China, England, Russia, France, Spain, Peru, Cliili, 
Brazil, Cuba, and, in fact, to almost every nation on the globe. They made 
for the Russian government alone, 150,000 of this arm. They received the 
highest awards at the International Expositions held at Paris in 1867, at 
Moscow in 1872, at Vienna in 1873, at Philadelphia in 1876, and at Australia 
in 1880. Agencies are established in all important parts of the globe, the 
most noteworthy being Birmingham, England ; Paris, France ; Germany ; 
Havana, Cuba; Mexico City, Mexico; Buenos Ayres, Argentine Republic; 
Shanghai, China; Tokio, Japan; St. Petersburg, Russia; Toronto, Canada; 
Turkey, India, and Australia. 

Nearly all the Smith & Wesson improvements have been patented both 
in this country and in Europe, and are owned by the firm. For the purpose 
of securing a perfect interchangeability of all parts of every arm made at 
this establishment, a system of inspection has been adopted of the most 
rigid character. Only the very best wrought steel is used, and great atten- 
tion is paid to the smallest details. The system of inspection adopted is 
such that the least imperfection in material or workmanship is detected, 
and causes the piece to be condemned. The very best skilled labor is em- 
ployed, and almost every department is let out under contract to old and 
long-experienced workmen who are the heads or superintendents. When it 
is known that no fires or serious accidents have ever occurred on these 
premises, the care and precaution of the firm will be understood. An explo- 
sion took place, however, at one time when they made cartridges, and sev- 
eral men were injured. But this department was abandoned when the 
centre-fire cartridge was adopted. One secret of the success of the firm, 
and the popularity of their revolvers, lies in the fact that they have never 
been slow to take advantage of all new inventions and suggestions: they 
have kept pace with the demand for an increased perfection in small fire- 

The Powers Paper Company, ever since its business was begun, has had 
a steady growth, until to-day it stands in the foremost rank among houses 
of the sort in this country. Lewis J. Powers, its founder as well as pro- 
prietor and active manager, has devoted the whole of his business life to 
the paper-trade. Beginning as a newspaper-carrier in 1845, when but eight 
years of age, in the employ of L. B. Brockett, then in business on Sanford 
Street, in this city, young Powers, by integrity and strict attention to busi- 


P -o 


ness, became a partner in the newspaper-house of Marshall Bessey & Co., 
who had succeeded to the business of Brockett. This was in 1857. In 
1 861 Mr. Powers, with his twin brother Lucius H. Powers, bought Mr. 
Bessey's interest in the concern ; the firm then adopting the style of L. J. 
Powers & Brother. Mr. Powers was born in this city, Jan. 15, 1837, and 
is one of its most popular and public-spirited citizens. He has often held, 
and continues to hold, many positions of trust among the money-making, 
public, and charitable institutions of the city. During the years 1862, 1867, 
and 1869, he was a member of the common council, and in 1874 and 1875 
he was an alderman. In 1878 he was elected mayor of Springfield, an office 
which he held two terms. He was the youngest executive officer ever elected 
in the city. Mr. Powers was one of the prime movers in organizing the 
Hampden-park Association ; and as a mark of appreciation of his successful 
management, he was presented with a magnificent timepiece, which was 
made to order at a cost of $1,000. He still retains his interest in fine 
horses, and is now treasurer of the National Trotting Association. He is 
also a director of the Agawam National Bank, the Hampden Savings Bank, 
the Massachusetts Mutual Life Insurance Company, the Springfield Tele- 
phone and Electric-light companies, the Wason Car Manufacturing Company, 
and various other enterprises. His residence, on Pearl Street, is one of the 
most artistic and well-appointed homes in the city. Mr. Powers's first 
extensive business speculation came in 1862, when he put into his store, 
under the Massasoit House, a magnificent line of holiday goods. It was a 
daring move ; and no local dealer had ever undertaken to carry such a stock 
of costly books, engravings, and the like. He sold $50,000 as the result of 
his venture. In 1863, finding the Massasoit-house store too small, he fitted 
up a large store in Goodrich Block. As in the past, he continued to prosper 
financially ; but too close attention to business caused a general breaking- 
down in health. At the advice of his physicians, he secured a farm at 
Northfield, and remained there during the summer. Again returning to 
business, he saw that an avenue for speculation and trade was opening 
in the sale of photograph-albums. These goods were manufactured by 
Samuel Bowles & Co., and the books of that house show that in 1864 Mr. 
Powers bought over $90,000 worth of albums. This same year the firm 
became the selling-agents for the Glasgow Paper Company ; their annual 
sales amounting to over three-quarters of a million of dollars. In 1872 they 
again moved, this time to the Agawam Bank Building, and again, in 1875, to 
the building erected for them on Lyman Street. This establishment is 
extensive and complete. It is a splendidly built business structure, four 
stories high above a fine basement. It is of brick, with granite trimmings. 
Here all kinds of business papers, papeteries, envelopes, blank-books, and 
miscellaneous stationery are prepared for the market. Here the firm have 


one of the largest envelope-manufactories in this country, and the numerous 
machines are constantly rolling off millions of envelopes of all varieties. 
The United-States Pencil Company, of which Mr. Powers also has control, 
have headquarters on the fourth floor of the building, and the book-bindery 
and notion department are very extensive. Mr. Powers's private offices, on 
the first floor, are exquisite in design and finish, and perhaps as costly as 
any private office in the country. The newspaper and periodical business is 
still carried on by the firm in the basement of the Massasoit House, and 

Hon Lewis J Powers's Private Office 

this branch by itself reaches the sum of $100,000 a year. The Powers 
Company have offices and agencies in New York, San Francisco, Baltimore, 
Philadelphia, and Chicago, and have men travelling throughout the United 

The Morgan Envelope Company is another of those great local corpora- 
tions with national reputations. It is a striking example of what one man 
can accomplish when he has ability combined with ambition. Twenty years 
ago Elisha Morgan gave up his position as general freight agent of the Con- 
necticut-river Railroad, and came to Springfield, and in a small way began 
to manufacture envelopes in the building on Hillman Street now occupied 
by the National Papeterie Company. Later, the business was moved to 
Taylor Street; and from time to time portions of other buildings were added, 
until the factory included a group of structures extending from Taylor to 

On Harrison Street. 


Worthington Street, with the offices on the Worthington-street side in the 
rooms now occupied by " The Springfield Daily Union." In the latter part 
of 1883 a removal was made from this jumble of buildings to what is the 
equal of the finest manufacturing establishment in any industry in America. 
The new building is on the north side of Harrison Avenue, east of Main 
Street. It is a solid brick structure, 230 feet long by 55 feet wide, with six 
floors including the basement. The front is ornamented with cut brick and 
terra-cotta work. Up just a few easy steps, one enters, through the main 
door of the building, one of the lightest and pleasantest counting-rooms in 
this country. To the left are the offices of the president and treasurer; and 
everybody is at once impressed with the fact that these men realize, that, as 
they spend the greater part of their wakeful hours in their places of busi- 
ness, it is philosophical and sensible to make these places as comfortable 
and cheerful as possible. Here is where the money is earned, and here 
may wisely be spent a portion of it. But in going through the factory, one 
may also at a glance perceive that these employers are mindful of their 
employees as well as of themselves, and have provided for them workrooms 
that cannot be surpassed for ventilation, light, warmth, and all reasonable 
conveniences ; and when it is remembered that employment is given con- 
stantly to from 225 to 275 hands, it will be seen that this establishment is 
entitled to considerable praise. The building was put up by this company 
expressly for its use. The basement is used for packing, clippings, storage, 
and workshops. The main floor contains the counting-room, the sample- 
rooms, the general wareroom for finished stock and shipping-rooms; and in 
the rear part the 200-horse-power engine, to the right of which, on a lower 
floor, are the two immense boilers made in Springfield by R. F. Hawkins. 
The second floor is chiefly the box-shop, where boxes of all conceivable 
kinds are made. The third floor presents a lively appearance when its long 
lines of envelope making and printing machines are in operation: here, 
when running to their full capacity, one and a half millions of envelopes a 
day can be made. The two upper floors are used for the storage of flat and 
finished papers, boxes and envelopes, and materials. Besides these prem- 
ises, the company still retain for woodwork some of the shops in their 
former buildings. 

To utilize all this property requires an enormous business. This the 
company has enjoyed for many years, and it is constantly increasing. It is 
generally known that the Morgan Envelope Company had the original con- 
tract for making the postal cards, and at that time finished and delivered 
fifty-one millions in three months. The envelopes and papeteries made here 
are shipped to all parts of this country, and are sold to stationers, printers, 
jobbers, and consumers of large quantities. Of its papeteries, several brands 
are known everywhere in the trade; particularly the "American Artistic 

33 2 


made a specialty. Here the finest line of covered buttons in the country 
are manufactured. The coverings of soutache, velvet, lasting, mohair, are 
imported, and pure dye sewing-silk braid is of American manufacture. The 
third floor of the main building is used for drilling and finishing the 
vegetable-ivory buttons. The second building, which is directly across 
the street, and reached by a bridge from the main building, has the same 
excellent arrangement. The first floor is devoted to the dyeing of vege- 
table-ivory buttons ; the second floor, to the ornamenting and chemical 
departments ; the third, to carding, and to the packing of the buttons ; and 
the fourth, to the manufacture of boxes. The average amount of work 
turned out by the company is 3,000 gross a day. 

The W. G. Medlicott Company, manufacturers of full-fashioned knit 
goods, have their mills on Morris Street. Since the business was estab- 
lished in this city, the company have prospered and grown so that to-day 

The W G. Medlicott Co.'s Mills, on Morris Street. 

they stand among the leading industries of the valley. They are now the 
only mills in Springfield where textile goods are manufactured; and, while 
there are many in the country that are larger, there are none better equipped 
or appointed. The machinery is all of the most approved patterns, and the 
goods which these mills put upon the market are acknowledged of superior 
make and finish. The products of the mills are men's, women's, and chil- 
dren's underwear, all grades of Shetland Scotch wool, white merino, white 
Scotch wool, scarlet wool ; fancy colored merino goods also being made. 
The market is supplied through the company's selling-agents, — Brown, 
Wood, & Kingman, who have houses at New York, Boston, Philadelphia, 
and Chicago. The W. G. Medlicott Company was established in 1S81, by 



I \ 

.<* * 


{ ™ 





S Jr 21 



£>-i i 

DJ ^ 

rs c 




William G. Medlicott, a pioneer of woollen manufacture in this country, and 
a gentleman whose sterling integrity and fair dealing, together with his 
admirable business qualities, placed him in the foremost rank of knit- 
goods manufacturers. His kind heart and many social qualities made him 
hosts of friends among both rich and poor. A stock-company with a capital 
of $100,000' was formed, and the founder became president and manager. 
This position he held until the time of his death in 1883. when his son, 
William B. Medlicott, was chosen as his successor. The other officers of 
the company are : William B. Wood, treasurer; H. M. Morgan, secretary; 
and W. Tansley, superintendent. The mills are pleasantly and centrally 
located, the original building having been added to from time to time as the 
business increased, until now they extend from Morris to Central Street, 
witli a frontage of 250 and a depth of 120 feet. The buildings are five in 
number, four stories in height, two being built of brick, and three of wood. 
The mills are divided into four general departments, they being devoted to 
the scouring and dyeing, the carding and spinning, the knitting, and the 
making and finishing rooms. The machinery of the mills, which is driven 
by an 80-horse-power engine, includes at present four sets 48-inch cards, 42 
divisions of wrought knitting-frames, 40 heads of circular knitting-machines, 
and four spinning-mules. About 150 operatives are regularly employed. 

The Taylor & Tapley Manufacturing Company, although incorporated 
in the early part of 1884, is practically the consolidation of several old and 
well-known establishments ; and the owners and chief officers are among 
the most respected and successful business-men of this city. The com- 
pany started in 1882 under its present name, but without being incorpo- 
rated. It succeeded to the business of Brigham & Co., founded in 1863; 
Ray & Taylor, in 1865; George W. Tapley, in 1866; The Ray & Taylor 
Manufacturing Co., in 1874. By these several consolidations, this company 
has become the owners of many of the most valuable patents, dies, moulds, 
trade-marks, and patterns in the paper collar and cuff industry. It has 
brought together several of the leading and most experienced manufac- 
turers, and has secured many of the most skilful workmen in this line. It 
has also made this establishment, if not the foremost, certainly the equal of 
any in this industry in this country. The factory is a substantial five-story 
brick building, as shown in the accompanying illustration. It is owned 
by the president of this company, and is occupied in part by the Milton 
Bradley Company. It is situated on the east side of Willow Street, and was 
built only a few years ago, especially for its present uses. It is equipped 
with the most modern machinery in its line, the patents on much of which 
are owned by this company. The business comprises, not merely the mak- 
ing of paper, or, rather, cloth-faced, collars and cuffs, but also the making 

1 The capital-stock was increased in 1884 to $150,000. 


of the cloth-faced paper, which is sold in large quantities to other manufac- 
turers of collars and cuffs, and to many printing-houses everywhere, for 
tags and other purposes, where a durable, strong, and cheap flexible mate- 
rial is desired. Upwards of 100,000 collars and cuffs are made daily, in 
upwards of forty different styles ; and these are sold in all parts of the 
United States, British, Central, and South America. Although most of 
the work is done by automatic machinery, employment is given constantly 
to more than fifty operatives. The president of the company is George 
W. Tapley, and the treasurer is Varnum N. Taylor. The Taylor and 
Tapley families will be found mentioned in any account of the development 
of Springfield enterprises ; for, during several years past, they have been 
identified with many of them. Elsewhere mention is made of Mr. Tapley as 
the owner of the oldest house now standing here, and of Mr. Taylor as the 
president of the Business Men's Association, and Mr. Tapley of the Milton 
Bradley Company. Both Mr. Taylor and Mr. Tapley have been mentioned 
as directors of several financial and other institutions. This is another of 
those many industries which have done so much to bring the city of Spring- 
field so prominently before the eyes of the business men of this country. 

The Milton Bradley Company is the lineal successor of the lithograph- 
ing business established in 1S60 by Milton Bradley, who, two years later, 
was joined by Clark W. Bryan and J. F. Tapley, and still later by Lewis 
Bradley, all under the firm name of Milton Bradley & Co., — a name that 
has become familiar to households throughout North and South America, 
Europe, and Australia. The business now comprises three extensive de- 
partments, each one of which would ordinarily constitute a noteworthy 
establishment. These are, (1) lithographic department, (2) game and toy 
department, and (3) educational department. In lithography the firm employ 
a corps of the best artists, and aim to do better work than is done anywhere 
else than in the largest cities. Work is done here for firms and corporations 
all over the country, and is everywhere admired by reason of the superior 
quality of designs and printing. In games and toys this firm surpass every 
other establishment in the United States in magnitude as well as variety and 
quality of work; the catalogue at present containing about 150 items. In 
educational supplies, the firm now manufacture kindergarten material, and 
primary-school aids and apparatus, and are also preparing a line of physical 
apparatus for graded schools and seminaries not caring to invest in the more 
elegant and costly apparatus now in the market. The wide-spread and 
enviable reputation of this concern has been well earned. No footsteps of 
other enterprises were followed, but all three departments were pioneers in 
their respective lines. When the firm began, they were the only lithograph- 
ers between Boston, Providence, Albany, and Hartford. When they began 


the game and toy business, they were the only house making a specialty of 
this work. When they began with kindergarten materials, they were not 
only the first to make the supplies, but also the first to print a guide to the 
method in the English language, — a fact which was duly credited to the 
firm in the award made by the Centennial Commission; and this same guide, 
entitled "Paradise of Childhood," is to-day the only complete guide. It will 
be a surprise, even to many Springfield people, to know that there is no 
similar establishment in the United States, — excepting perhaps one in New- 
York City, — where all the various operations are done by one firm, under 
one roof. There are many competitors now; some making one class of 
goods, and some another class, but not one who makes all the classes, and 
none solely manufacturing their own lines and handling nothing else. The 
firm make many things for jobbing-houses whose imprint is put upon the 
goods. In this line the Milton Bradley Company have been very successful 
in satisfying their customers, who demand the best style and the finest 
quality at reasonable figures. The first quarters were at No. 184 Main 
Street, over Tinkham & Co.'s store. Jn 1865 larger accommodations were 
found on Main Street, opposite Court Square, where the firm's games and 
miscellaneous goods were sold at retail, as well as a goodly assortment of 
stationery, pictures, and art supplies. In 1869 the property on the corner 
of Dwight Street and Harrison Avenue was bought, and a large four-story 
brick block was added to the small building then standing on the rear of the 
lot. In 1882 a removal was made to the extensive brick buildings on Willow 
Street, owned by George W. Tapley, and occupied in part by the Taylor & 
Tapley Manufacturing Company previously described. In 1884 the firm 
was incorporated as the Milton Bradley Company, with George W. Tapley 
as president, and Milton Bradley as treasurer and general manager. Lewis 
Bradley, now 74 years old, is at the head of one of the departments. No 
one can estimate the good influence that this concern has had, by means of 
its millions of toys and games which have been used to instruct and enter- 
tain children all over the world. 

R. F. Hawkins's Iron Works is one of the most noteworthy of the local 
industries; and, having been established in 1840, it is also one of the old- 
est. Owing to its specialties, there were many reasons for its prosperity 
in a railroad-centre like Springfield. In fact, its existence is due to the 
success of the railroads ; for, coincident with their introduction into this 
country, naturally arose builders of the roads and their appurtenances, and 
among the needs of 1839 was a good railroad-bridge. " Necessity is the 
mother of invention;" and William Howe, then a master-builder at Warren, 
Mass., appeared as an inventor of what has since been everywhere known 
as the Howe truss bridge, — a combination of wood and iron on a plan 



that has not yet been supplanted for its purpose, and on which nine-tenths 
of the railroad-bridges of this country have been constructed. Mr. Howe 
sold his patents to firms in various parts of the country ; and the Hawkins 
establishment is the successor of Stone & Harris as the owners of the 
patent in the New-England States, who commenced their business in 1840, 
and, with Azariah Boody and William Birnie, built some of the first bridges, 
engine-houses, masonry, etc., required by the early railroads. For a short 
time the firm was Harris & Hawkins ; and Mr. Hawkins, who became in 
1867 the sole proprietor, entered the employ of the old firm in 1853, and 

R F. Hawkins's Iron Works, on Liberty Street. 

has always remained in the same concern, doing the same business as his 
predecessors. These works now manufacture not only the Howe truss 
bridge, but build all kinds of iron bridges and turn-tables, as well as operate 
a large iron-foundery and extensive boiler-works and machine-shops. These 
varieties of work, with the business extending throughout the New-England 
and New-York States, make up quite an important item in the manufactures 
of Springfield, and give employment to from 125 to 150 men at the shops, 
and at times to several hundred men in the field erecting bridges and build- 
ing-work. The establishment justly commands a high reputation for first- 
class and trustworthy work, which will, no doubt, long continue. For 20 
years Mr. Hawkins has been assisted by William H. Ikirrall as civil engi- 


neer, and Charles H. Mulligan as superintendent. He aims to keep a large 
corps of tried and experienced mechanics; and his success is attested by 
upwards of one thousand bridges, five hundred boilers, many pieces of 
building fronts, columns, bolts and forgings, engine-houses, bridge founda- 
tions and piers, switches, frogs, turn-tables, etc., scattered over the New- 
England and adjacent States. The plant of the works covers about two 
acres, upon which are erected seven spacious buildings, divided into the 
foundery, machine-shop, boiler-shop, bridge-shop, and carpenter-shop. The 
equipment embraces nearly all the latest improved machinery and tools 
known to the iron-working trade, operated by two steam-engines of 50-horse- 
power each ; and at the rear of the works are the Boston and Albany Rail- 
road tracks, affording the most complete facilities for loading cars direct 
from the workshops. It would not be possible to give in detail the impor- 
tant work done here; but a few of the noteworthy structures may readily 
be mentioned, such as the iron-work and roofs of the stations on the Boston 
and Albany at Springfield, and on the New-York Central Railroad at Buf- 
falo and Rochester. Mr. Hawkins, in 1867, extended the piers on the 
Connecticut River for the Boston and Albany Railroad, — a great engineer- 
ing feat. He also built all the bridges on the extension of the New-York 
and New-England Railroad from Waterbury to Fishkill, and completed 
others on the Delaware and Lackawanna Railroad in Northern New York, 
and also a series of bridges over Lake Champlain for the Lamoille Valley 
Railroad. No bridge built by this concern has ever gone down, although 
many have been subjected to most extraordinary strains resulting from the 
derailment of trains and other causes. The offices and buildings are on 
Liberty Street, and any one will always be interested in a visit to the R. F. 
Hawkins Iron Works. 

The Springfield Steam-power Company was organized in September, 
1881, for the purpose of supplying power to manufacturers. The capital 
stock of the company is $200,000. About the time of organization, the com- 
pany bought the old plant of the Wason Manufacturing Company, only a 
stone's-throw from the Union Railroad Depot. The extent of the purchase, 
for which they paid $400,000, is 160,000 square feet; and it is bounded by 
Taylor, Dwight, and Lyman Streets. Six brick buildings, one of four and 
two others of five stories, each several hundred feet long, have already been 
erected, principally for manufacturing purposes. Others will be erected as 
rapidly as desirable tenants demand them. About half of the land purchased 
is at present unoccupied by buildings. In the spring of 1884, $25,000 will 
be expended in new buildings. While most of the occupants on Lyman 
Street are wholesale merchants, those on both sides of Taylor Street are 
manufacturers. The company also furnishes power for several concerns 


outside its own buildings. The engine is a double Harris-Corliss of 400- 
horse power. Steam is generated in three Pitkin and one Hawkins boilers. 
The directors of the company are : George C. Fisk (president), H. S. Hyde 
(treasurer), and Charles A. Nichols, with J. W. Hyde as assistant treasurer. 

J. H. Cook & Co.'s Monumental Works have been firmly established as 
a thriving industry of this city. The firm began business in Hallowell, Me., 
in 1847, as workers of the celebrated " Hallowell " granite. Three years 
later they removed to Portland, Me., and added the working and wholesaling 
of marble. About the close of the war the senior partner disposed of his 
interests, and went to Boston, where for several years he devoted his atten- 
tion exclusively to granite building work. In the spring of 1872 he came to 
Springfield, where he has ever since resided. He bought the monumental 
works and business of H. K. Cooley, and has steadily improved it in both 
amount and quality, until now it ranks among the foremost in its line in the 
Connecticut Valley. The firm furnish the heaviest and finest monumental 
work that can be procured anywhere, which a few years ago could be ob- 
tained only in large cities. They are also celebrated for their artistic and 
original designs, and for fidelity in the execution of contracts. Among their 
expensive and unique works may be mentioned the family monuments of 
Oliver Holcomb of Windsor, Conn., surmounted by a granite statue of 
Hope 7% feet high, and costing $4,000 ; and of Lewis and Milton Bradley, 
Dr. Nathan Adams, and Chester VanHorn, in the Springfield Cemetery, 
that of Mr. VanHorn being surmounted by a huge globe of highly polished 
Quincy granite, 4 feet in diameter, and weighing over 4 tons, being the 
largest ball of polished granite known to exist ; also of Chaffee and Hyde, 
in the South Cemetery at Somers, Conn., and of Kibbie and Root in the 
Centre Cemetery at Somers, the two latter being beautiful statuary designs, 
the statues having been imported expressly for these monuments. They 
are also the builders of the new granite drinking-fountain recently presented 
to the city by D. B. Wesson, Esq. A few years ago they began to import 
Italian statuary, at first for their own use, but afterwards to supply a flour- 
ishing wholesale trade in lawn, parlor, and monumental statuary; importing 
to order from the leading art-studios of Europe any thing that may be 
desired. They constantly carry a large and fine stock of statuary and monu- 
mental work, as well as a good assortment of native and foreign colored 
marbles, and are prepared at all times to make designs for special wants. 
They also furnish every description of interior marble fittings, such as tiling, 
wainscoting, etc. Recent tiling done by them may be seen at the Haynes- 
house rotunda, the Oak-grove Cemetery chapel, and J. H. Wesson's resi- 
dence on Federal Street. Although the senior member of the firm is still 
J. H. Cook, its founder, the active business management has for the past 



West Worthington Street. 



eight years devolved upon William F. Cook, the junior member, who is 
recognized as a thorough-going and public-spirited business-man. The 
works are centrally located on the south side of State Street, at the corner 
of Willow, and will be found worthy of an inspection. 

Jacob C. Lutz, Lithographer, occupies the two upper floors of the Rav 
& Taylor building on Worthington Street, ten thousand square feet of 
space being used for the works. The business was established by Mr. Lutz 
in Goodrich block in 1867, one small hand-press being used. From this 
beginning the business has steadily grown to its present dimensions, now 
being in the foremost ranks of similar establishments in New England. 
Mr. Lutz has, from the first, given his personal attention to his business, 
and a look through his establishment shows how near perfection he has 
carried his art. The work-rooms are well lighted, and excellently arranged 
throughout the works. Twenty skilled workmen are kept regularly em- 
ployed ; and four hand-presses for proving and transferring, with three Hoe 
steam lithographic presses, are used. The chief products are commercial, 
manufacturers', and colored chromo work ; but all branches of the litho- 
graphic art are carried on. Especial care is given to color-work; the draw- 
ing, engraving, and printing all being done in the building, and under Mr. 
Lutz's supervision. Jacob C. Lutz was born in Germany in 1831, and 
learned his trade in that country. He came to New York in 1849, and to 
Springfield in 1S62. He was, until 1867, in the lithographic establishment 
of Milton Bradley, leaving only to begin work for himself. In 1 881 he was 
elected by the Republicans and Democrats as common-councilman from 
Ward 3, an office which he held with credit until the last municipal elec- 
tions, when he was chosen by the Republicans to represent them in the 
city government as alderman from Ward 3. 

The Springfield Printing-Company is the lineal successor of all the local 
printing-offices and binderies of the early days, and is at the same time one 
of the most prominent industries of the present day. It is also one of the 
largest of its class in this country. Its beginning dates back to 1S31, when 
G. & C. Merriam, the publishers of Webster's Unabridged Dictionary, 
made the first attempt (not including the newspaper-offices) to establish here 
an office exclusively for book and miscellaneous printing, disconnected from 
the publishing of a newspaper. The office was opened in State Street, 
and from that time in its progress of development it has undergone many 
changes of ownership and location. Its main impetus towards success was 
its purchase in 1853 by Samuel Bowles & Co., then composed of Samuel 
Bowles, Josiah G. Holland, and Clark W. Bryan. This firm, by their pre- 
eminent ability and unsurpassed enterprise, brought the original little print- 


ing-office into a great printing and binding establishment. The firm were 
also publishers of "The Springfield Republican." In 1873 a dissolution 
took place, which divided the establishment; "The Republican" remaining 
in the hands of the firm, which continued under the style of Samuel Bowles 
& Co. ; the printing and binding departments being transferred to the firm 
which organized under the name of The Clark W. Bryan Company, which 
continued until 1880, when the name was changed to The Springfield Print- 
ing Company. Shortly after the re-organization in 1873, the building now 
occupied was put up expressly for its uses, by J. L. Worthy ; and with its 
present accommodations, facilities, and workmen, it is enabled to undertake 
and execute almost any work that is expected of large and first-class print- 
ing establishments, and to do all kinds of special or ordinary binding in 
cloth or leather or other materials. Under the same roof is a thorough 
electrotype and stereotype foundery, and within a few miles are scores of 
extensive paper-mills, so that this company has at its command all the 
advantages necessary to enter successfully into competition with similar 
establishments in any part of the United States ; and its wide-spread repu- 
tation shows that it has made known these advantages ; and the enormous 
amount of work annually turned out bears evidence that a large number of 
firms in New York, Boston, and elsewhere have become its constant pat- 
rons. The substantial building now occupied, on the corner of Main and 
Worthington Streets, is well shown in the engraving on the opposite page; 
and from this picture its extensive equipment may be surmised. Without 
going into details as to the extent and variety of work executed here, it may 
be said that beautiful and elaborately illustrated catalogues are a specialty, 
and that one of the first really large illustrated catalogues printed in this 
country was made here in 1866. Various periodicals have also been printed 
here, which have been creditable specimens of typography; and of books 
there has been no end to the number and variety rolled off at this establish- 
ment. One house, in its several successions, as G. & F. Bill, Bill, Nichols, 
& Co., and Charles A. Nichols & Co., has had all of its books made here 
during the past twenty years ; and the demands of this house alone have 
been at times a thousand books a day for every day during many successive 
weeks. "The Clark W. Bryan," or the "Springfield," or the "patent tear- 
off" calendars, as they are variously called, have also been a source of great 
revenue. They are the popular tear-off calendars used in enormous quan- 
tities for advertising purposes by insurance-companies, manufacturers, mer- 
chants, and other concerns. Single orders have amounted to $5,000, and 
some customers have sent in their orders every year ever since the calen- 
dars were introduced. The Springfield Directory and kindred works are 
also published by this company. In the bindery may be seen at all times 
stacks of the current periodicals being put through the processes of plain 

Main and Woithington Streets. 


and elaborate cloth and leather binding, and thousands of books being put 
into covers for various publishers. At one time, when the album business 
was in its glory, this concern was one of the most extensive manufacturers. 
As much as $300,000 worth was sold in a single year ; and a single com- 
pany has bought as high as $90,000 worth of these albums in one year. 
Enough has now been said to show that the Springfield Printing-Company 
has age, experience, facilities, and reputation that have been acquired in 
building up this great industry, which has been an important factor in the 
growth & of the city. The company has the following officers : Charles A. 
Nichols, president ; Avery J. Smith, treasurer ; George H. Noyes, foreman 
of the book and job printing office; and Henry E. Ducker, superintendent. 

G. & C. Merriam & Co. is the name on a modest little sign on State 
Street, that is pointed to with pride by every resident of Springfield. It is 
known to almost all intelligent families in America and Great Britain, and 
to the traders in almost all lands. It is the name of the firm that owns and 
publishes that marvellous volume, Webster's Unabridged Dictionary. The 
early history of the firm, and a description of that part of the business they 
first built up, is given below, under the caption of " The Old Corner Book- 
store of Whitney and Adams." But the part of the business which they 
seemed by nature and cultivation eminently well fitted for was the publish- 
ing of a class of books of infinite service to the whole world. They began 
by the publication of a series of law-books, one of which was " Chitty's Law 
Pleadings." They published more than 200,000 copies of the Bible, and 
many miscellaneous books. They own that little book familiar to every 
child at school, "Webster's Spelling-Book," of which about 75,000,000 
copies have been sold already; and about 1,000,000 copies are sold yearly, 
in spite of the many competitors now in the same field. After the death of 
Noah Webster, they purchased the right to publish his dictionary, a revised 
and enlarged edition of which they published in 1847, which proved to be 
a remarkable success. Two other editions were issued in 1856 and 1859, 
the latter containing illustrations. These editions, notwithstanding the 
immense amount of labor and expense involved in bringing them out, were 
considered minor affairs when compared with the great revision printed in 
1864. The labor on this occupied more than 10 years, involving an aggre- 
gate of more than 30 years of literary labor, distributed among nearly 50 
individuals. Dr. Mahn of Berlin, an eminent European scholar, spent 5 
years upon the etymologies alone. The last edition of this valuable and 
notable book was brought out in 1879; and now Webster's Unabridged 
Dictionary, in the quantity of matter it contains, is believed to be the 
largest volume published, being sufficient to make 75 ordinary l2mo vol- 
umes. It has 1,928 large quarto pages, 118,000 words, and 3,000 illustra- 


tions ; and, in addition, an appendix of almost indispensable information, 
which, if made into books, would form a series of valuable reference vol- 
umes. By reason of the progressive policy of the firm in always improving 
the dictionary, so as to keep it up to date, it is no wonder it has had an 
enormous sale, exceeding that of any other printed in the English language. 
Since the death of Dr. Webster in 1843, the publishers have paid his 
family over a quarter of a million dollars as their share of the copyright 
money. The work has been a success abroad as well as in America, and 
is published in London from plates owned by the Springfield firm. This 
marked success, when analyzed, will be found to be the result of the high- 
est order of merit, combined with the most persistent and intelligent enter- 
prise. " Get the best " has been the motto of the Webster's Dictionary 
publishers, and they have heralded this in almost every conceivable manner 
in all parts of the civilized world. The style of the firm has had but one 
slight change since they began with Webster. Originally, in 1S31, it was 
G. & C. Merriam; and, although Homer Merriam became a partner in 1856, 
it continued unchanged until 1882, when, by the admission of Orlando M. 
Baker and H. Curtis Rowley, it became G. & C. Merriam & Co. In its 
present hands, the enterprise bids fair to sustain fully the prosperous record 
of the past half-century. 

The Old Corner Bookstore. — The famous " Old Corner Bookstore " of 
Whitney & Adams, at the corner of Main and State streets, has come to 
be historical. It is one of the longest-established and best-known busi- 
ness houses in Springfield. It has done a noble work. For many years 
it has been sending out an ever-increasing stream of pure, attractive, and 
instructive literature, until it has reached nearly every part of the land, 
and nearly every town and village. That the house has attained such great 
success in the dissemination of valuable literature, is a matter of hearty 
congratulation ; that they have attained that success by a strict adherence 
to an exalted ideal, is a matter of the highest public gratification. It is now 
53 years since George and Charles Merriam came to this city, and estab- 
lished this business on State Street, in the building now occupied by Wil- 
cox & Co. Three or four years later, the building now occupied by the 
"Old Corner Bookstore" was erected, and G. & C. Merriam secured new 
quarters. They soon began the publication of law-books, and issued more 
than 200,000 Bibles ; but they gained their world-wide reputation in the 
publication of Webster's Dictionary. During the 53 years of its existence, 
a number of changes have taken place in the personnel ol the firm ; the last 
being 13 years ago, when James L. Whitney and W. F. Adams became 
proprietors. Mr. Whitney has, however, been connected with the house 
for about 30 years; and Mr. Adams had previously been six years with tin- 


Second National Bank. These gentlemen fully maintain the probity and 
high integrity of the house. They have a keen insight for business ; and, 
having learned the wants of their customers from long experience, they 
are eminently fitted to meet the requirements of the great reading public. 
For years the business of the house has been steadily increasing. At their 
store can be found every thing that goes to make up a complete book estab- 
lishment. Their stock is particularly rich in the best editions of standard 
American and foreign authors and in fine illustrated works. They also 
have blank-books, office-supplies, and stationers' specialties. They have 
published several works of local history, including Morris's " History of the 
First Church," and " Green's Springfield Memories." Here it is that pro- 
fessional men and students have found their supply of books ; here families 
come ; and here churches and Sunday schools, from all the region about, 
secure their immense supplies. The thousands of school-children buy 
their books here for every term, — indeed, the path is well worn toward the 
" Old Corner Bookstore." Whitney & Adams are also wholesale and retail 
dealers in wall-papers, window-shades, and interior decorations, which yield 
results comparable with the happiest effects of mural paintings. There has 
been a rapid development of taste in this direction ; and Whitney & Adams 
have always been leaders in its fashions, and have secured for themselves 
an enviable reputation. Excellent selections can be made from their exten- 
sive and elaborate stock of artistic goods. The success of this house 
is largely due to the straightforward and honorable policy by which their 
affairs ever have been and are now conducted. 

Gill's Art and Book Store is one of the most popular resorts in Spring- 
field. It occupies the greater part of the handsome brick building, with 
stone trimmings, situated on the corner of Main and Bridge streets. The 
business includes an art-store, with an extensive stock of paintings, engrav- 
ings, fine-art goods, and artists' supplies ; a bookstore, with a choice assort- 
ment of books ; a stationery-store, with an exquisite supply of stationery 
and novelties ; a framing-establishment, where all kinds of frames are made 
to order ; a circulating-library containing 1,500 volumes ; and two art-gal- 
leries, unsurpassed in New England, wherein special exhibitions of noted 
works of art take place once a year, and where all the year round hangs a 
splendid collection. This place always is a surprise to visitors to Spring- 
field, who hardly expect to see, in a city of about 36,000 people, situated 
midway between New York and Boston, an establishment so well fitted up, 
and so creditably stocked ; and the many well-to-do people of the rich coun- 
try, within a radius of fifty miles of Springfield, find here whatever they 
need in fine arts and literature. A very large stock of miscellaneous goods 
is carried for wedding-presents, as well as a full line of the Rogers statu- 




Main Street, Corner of Bridge. 



ary, the exclusive agency of which Mr. Gill has had ever since he began 
in business. In the stationery department is kept, or made to order, every 
thing needed in the way of blank-books, wedding and social outfits, and 
leather goods. The Universal Fashion Company have made this the de- 
pository for their long list of patterns. The proprietor and founder of this 
business is James D. Gill, who was born in Hinsdale, Mass., on the 27th 
of June, 1849. He came to Spring- 
field in 1867, and was employed by 
Lewis J. Powers, with whom he 
remained until 1869, when Mr. 
Powers disposed of his retail busi- 
ness to Charles W. Clark, in whose 
employ Mr. Gill continued till he 
formed a co-partnership in 1 871 
with Frederick R. Hayes. Five 
years later he became sole pro- 
prietor. In 1878 he arranged for 
the erection of Gill's Art Building, 
which he leased for a term of 
years. It was designed to accom- 
modate the business, and has un- 
doubtedly been of great service in 
enabling the proprietor to reach his 
present success. Mr. Gill keeps 
employed, at all times, about fif- 
teen persons ; and in holiday sea- 
sons, thirty-five or more. His good 
work is already felt throughout 
this locality, and many homes have 
been made beautiful as a result of 
his efforts to introduce the highest 
grade of art. As lie is still a young 
man, comparatively speaking, he 
is reasonably certain of securing 
that pecuniary reward to which his 
experience, reputation, and talents 
abundantly entitle him. 

nd 333 Main Street. 

Louis H. Orr & Co. is the only 
young firm noticed in this chapter; 

but their marked ability, and their evident enterprise, have already won 
them a prominent place in the community. The unique architecture of the 


front of their new brick building, at 331 and 333 Main Street, will attract even 
any casual observer; and the exquisite stock, its neat arrangement, and its 
great variety, will meet the tastes of the most fastidious. In some respects 
this is a new industry for Springfield. Heretofore fine steel-engraving and 
plate-printing, and a high grade of wood-engraving, were not actually done 
in the city : but now, under this one roof, may be seen the progressive steps 
of designing, engraving on wood, steel, or copper, and printing any thing 
needed for commercial or social uses. Stationery outfits for weddings, par- 
ties, balls, etc., and supplies of all kinds (blank-books, printing, stationery, 
etc.) for counting-rooms, can be obtained here in as good style and of as 
fine quality as at any establishment in larger cities. Exquisite job-printing 
for menus, ball and entertainment programmes, church and society histories, 
and lists of members, and kindred work, is one of the specialties of this firm, 
and for which they take the lead in this city. The members of the firm are 
two young men, — Louis H. Orr and George B. Hooker; and it is safe, in 
their case, to predict a long and successful career in an occupation for 
which they seem to have exceptional qualifications. The extent to which 
their business has been developed within a few years maintains our position 
in presenting this house as one of the noteworthy industries of this city. 

Forbes & Wallace. — The leading dry-goods house of Springfield suc- 
ceeded to a business begun in an unpretentious manner in 1866, in the 
Barnes Block, at the north-west corner of Main and Vernon Streets. Al- 
though the location has never been changed, the premises have been 
extended from time to time, until now the firm occupy upwards of 12 times 
the area of the original store. The establishment includes the main floor 
of the building, 200 by 50 feet, with a basement corresponding in size, and 
a second story not quite so large. At first the firm were simply the tenants 
of the small corner store : now they are the landlords of the large building. 
The building, too, has been several times altered to suit the demands of the 
business , so that now the quarters of Forbes & Wallace present one of the 
most attractive establishments, as well as the largest of its kind, in the Con- 
necticut Valley. It is well lighted, not merely by numerous side and front 
windows, but also by an immense skylight. It is fitted out with the modern 
appliances for carrying on the business, — elevators, steam heat and power, 
cash-railways, etc. The stock, although nominally dry-goods, practically 
includes an unlimited variety of goods requisite for the wants of men, 
women, and children, — dry -goods, cloaks, millinery, fancy-goods, notions, 
furnishing-goods, toys, books, etc. ; and in quality ranges from the cheapest 
of native to the costliest of foreign goods. Besides the local or retail 
trade, the firm do extensive wholesaling in supplying the dealers up and 
down the Connecticut Valley. The members of the original firm were 

Main and Vernon Streets. 



Alexander Forbes and J. M. Smith, both of whom had had much experience 
in the trade ; Mr. Forbes having been for some years with Churchill, 
Watson, & Co. of Boston. Mr. Smith, in 1874, withdrew from the firm to 
become connected with Churchill, Watson, & Co., afterwards Churchill, Gil- 
christ, Smith, & Co. At that time, Andrew B. Wallace, who for upwards of 
four years had been conducting a store at Pittsfield as an associate of Mr. 
Smith under the firm name of Smith & Wallace, came to Springfield to 
associate himself with Mr. Forbes, under the style of the present firm. Mr. 
Wallace, too, had at one time been in the employ of the firms of Churchill, 
Watson, & Co., and Hogg, Brown, & Taylor, two old and noteworthy firms 
of Boston. The two partners are Scotchmen, and combine, with their 
energy and ability, unquestioned integrity, and a strong characteristic deter- 
mination to bring to the front whatever they put their hands to. It is not 
surprising, therefore, to find that Forbes & Wallace have developed their 
once little retail store into the largest and most prominent wholesale and 
retail dry-goods house in Massachusetts, excepting only some of those in 

Warren D. Kinsman, whose fancy dry-goods and novelties establishment 
occupies the corner stores of the handsome brick structure known as Kins- 
man's Block, on the 
west side of Main 
Street at the corner 
of Bridge Street, 
enjoys the distinc- 
tion of being at 
the head in his line 
in Western Massa- 
chusetts. This 
pre-eminence Mr. 
Kinsman has fairly 
earned by devoting 
his whole lifetime 
to the business in 
which he is still 
actively engaged. 
He began as a clerk 
in a similar estab- 
lishment in 1852, in Manchester, N.H. ; and in 1858 went to Boston into the 
concern of his former employer, J. A. Howard. In 1861 he came to Spring- 
field in the employ of the brother of his then recent Boston employer, J. C. 
Howard, who died in 1862. The next four years he was associated in the 

Warren D. Kinsman's Block, Main and Bridge Streets. 


continuance of this same business with Luther G. Howard, another brother, 
under the firm name Howard & Kinsman, which continued until August, 
1866, since which time Mr. Kinsman has conducted the business alone in 
his own name. At first, the store was on Main Street, a few doors north 
of State Street, now occupied by T. S. Stewart, in the Pynchon Bank Block; 
and continued here until 1870, when it was moved to 360 Main Street, now 
occupied by L. S. Stowe & Co. In 1880 the final move was made into the 
present brick block, which was built by Mr. Kinsman on land purchased by 
him of the Hampden Savings Bank, and of the Trask family, where for a 
couple of generations stood one of the most noteworthy homes of Spring- 
field. Here one can see a model store in its line, — light, convenient, well 
arranged, fully stocked, and ably managed. Here one will be served 
promptly and intelligently, and go away satisfied that the goods are exactly 
what they purport to be. The premises include the first and second floors, 
and the basement, and comprise about S,ooo square feet. The business in- 
cludes not only the choicest local retail trade, but also a good line of whole- 
sale customers among the better class of kindred establishments in the 
Connecticut Valley. 

Haynes & Co. are the leading clothiers of the city ; and, in fact, the his- 
tory of the clothing and men's outfitting business in Springfield can almost 
be written from the experience of the Haynes family, who have taken a 
prominent part in the later development of the city. In the chapter on 
Places of Amusement, may be seen a portrait of Tilly Haynes, who erected 
Haynes Hotel and the Haynes Music Hall, served for some time as State 
senator, and founded the establishment now under consideration. And it 
may be remarked, that while Springfield has been the home of many noted 
people, and has earned an enviable reputation as a model New-England city, 
its present growth and success have, after all, been due, to a great extent, 
to the energetic men of moderate means ; in which class would justly belong 
Mr. Haynes, who in his thirty-years' residence has done his full share in 
making the city what it is. He came here in the spring of 1849, and opened 
a branch of the famous "Oak Hall " in Boston, the pioneer house in this 
trade. His success sufficed in a short time to satisfy him, just then twenty- 
one years old, that he would be wise to buy the business. Up to 1849 ver >' 
little made-up clothing had been sold in this city; and even that little was 
sold by several general stores who kept a small variety of the commonest 
sort, one or two tailors who kept a limited assortment, and one or two small 
shops that attempted to make an exclusive business of it. Mr. Haynes 
opened in a small building on Main Street, near State Street, where the 
Springfield Institution for Savings block now stands. The first year's 
business amounted to $8,000, the second to $20,000; and the third year he 



rebuilt the larger stores adjoining on the north, on the Edwards estate, 
previously occupied by Gunn & Co. Here Mr. Haynes began to demon 
strate his capacity for pushing his business. He published an advertising 
paper, which he distributed at the rate of 80,000 copies per month ; and by 
this and other means he increased the business to upwards of $100,000 

a year. In 1857 he pur- 
chased the house and 
gardens corner Main 
and Pynchon Streets, 
and built the first local 
theatre, and at the same 
time larger quarters for 
this business. Here he 
associated with himself 
four or five younger 
brothers, and the busi- 
ness was brought up to 
over a quarter of a mil- 
lion dollars annually. In 
the great fire of 1864 
tli is property was de- 
stroyed, together with 
other buildings belong- 
ing to Mr. Haynes, on 
the opposite corner. He, 
however, proceeded at 
once to not only rebuild 
the Opera House, but 
also to build the Haynes 
Hotel on the opposite 
corner. At this time the 
younger brothers, with 
Theodore L. Haynes at 
the head, made up a new 
firm, which has since 
continued the business. They have constantly increased it, until now the 
establishment of Haynes & Co. is the leading house in Western Massa- 
chusetts. In 1880 the business was moved into the handsome brick build- 
ing, Nos. 346 and 348 Main Street, which had been built for McKnight, 
Norton, & Hawley, and admirably adapted to admit of an unsurpassed 
exhibition of the great stock of clothing always carried by the firm. The 
main floor is 40 by 204 feet, and 18 feet high. It is excellently lighted, and 

Haynes & Co., Clothing House, 346 and 348 Ma'n Street 


35 l 

is probably the finest clothing salesroom in the Connecticut Valley. The 
building is the property of Theodore L. Haynes, the senior partner, and is 
one of the most attractive on Main Street. The business comprises four 
distinct departments: ist, men's ready-made clothing; 2d, boys' and chil- 

Irvtenor of Haynes & Co 's Clothing Establishment. 

dren's clothing; 3d, custom clothing: 4th, men's furnishing-goods. It may 
surprise even some Springfield people to learn that the firm's ready-made- 
clothing department alone has kept, since 1866, upwards of 150 people con- 
stantly employed. The firm are generally esteemed as thoroughly trust- 
worthy, and the goods they sell are always to be found just as the) are 
represented; and the entire establishment is one of those local enterprises 
in which the citizens take pride. 



underwear, linens, domestics, prints, etc. Occupying the corner of Court 
Square and Main Street, the rooms are well lighted by large windows ; the 
wholesale department in the basement being as favored in this respect as 
the general salesrooms on the two floors above. The firm, finding their 
business still growing, have plans under way whereby the establishment will 
be still further enlarged and improved by the addition of the large stoie on 
Court Street, directly in the rear of that at present occupied by them. 
Messrs. Smith & Murray hold high positions among the merchants of 
Springfield ; J. M. Smith, the senior member of the firm, having come to 
this city in 1866, when he became a member of the dry-goods firm of 
Forbes & Smith, remaining until 1874, when he returned to Boston, and 
became a member of the firms of Churchill, Gilchrist, Smith, & Co., and 
Smith & Watson. In 1S79 he located permanently here. Peter Murray, 
the junior member, was for several years salesman with the well-known 
Boston firm of Hogg, Brown, & Taylor, and also with Churchill, Watson, & 
Co., and Smith & Watson. 

The Fisk Manufacturing Company is situated on Walker Street, in the 
southern part of the city, and is one of the largest soap-works in the New- 
England States. This large and prosperous establishment was founded in 
1853 by T. T. Fisk. Afterward the firm was known as L. I. Fisk & Co.; 
and in 18S0 the present corporation was formed, under the name of the 
Fisk Manufacturing Company. The business has grown year by year, until 
the company's goods are known and used in every State in the Union, and 
also extensively in foreign countries. At these works 40 men are kept 
regularly employed, and an average of 150 tons of soap a week is turned 
out. The brands of soap which are made a specialty of are the "Japanese," 
"White Prussian," "Pale;" and in 1884 the company will put upon the 
market a new brand, called the " Golden Rule," for popular use. Aside 
from these, 15 or 20 grades of manufacturers' soaps — consumed by woollen, 
cotton, silk, and carpet mills — are made by the Fisk company, several 
hundreds of tons of these goods alone being shipped during the year. The 
latter class of soaps do not bear the company's trade-mark, but are sold 
entirely for the use of manufacturers. The works are roomy, well lighted, 
and excellently arranged throughout. The soaps are manufactured upon 
fixed scientific principles ; the boiling all being done by steam, while the 
machinery and ingenious apparatus for moulding and stamping are the best 
known to the trade, and compare favorably with the largest manufactories 
of the kind in the country. Improvements are constantly being made at 
the works, and the business is pushed with enterprise and honest dealing. 
The buildings cover 125 by 250 feet of ground. The main structure is 
of wood, four stories in height, every floor of which is used for some part of 


<£# . C . y'^c^y^ 


the manufacture of soap. The additions are of brick, the most important 
of which is a storehouse 30 by 80. The offices have been newly fitted at 
the beginning of the year 1884, and the private office is elaborate in its dec- 
oration and finish. It is finished in natural wood ; the doors and panels 
being of highly polished cherry, and the floor of maple inlaid with dark 
woods. The furniture is of cherry, the chairs being richly upholstered in 
red leather. The wall-paper is dark in tone, the greens and bronzes being 
traced with gold. The office is a surprise and delight to the visitor, who, 
leaving the busy workshops, is ushered into this snug little room in one 
corner of the company's enclosure. The present officers of the Fisk Manu- 
facturing Company are : president, George C. Fisk ; treasurer, Noyes W. 

Kalmbach & Geisel, the lager-beer brewers, whose establishment is on 
the Boston road, just beyond the eastern terminus of the horse-car line, has 
grown, under the management of the present proprietors, to hold a high 
place among the industries of the city. The business was begun, in a very 
small way, in 1869; but it was not until bought by the present owners, 
Messrs. Kalmbach & Geisel, that it became an assured success. In 1869 
the capacity of the brewery was barely 1,000 barrels of beer per year, while 
at the present time 40,000 barrels may be easily turned out. 

The space now occupied by the company covers about ten acres, and 
the buildings are admirably constructed and arranged. Of these, the main 
brewery building is a three-story wooden structure, 40 by 150 feet. The 
ground floor of this building is used for the company's office; an engine- 
room, where a large hydraulic-pump draws water from an artesian well, 180 
feet in depth; and an immense vat, holding 150 barrels of mash, where the 
first process of beer-brewing is carried on. From this vat the beer passes 
through pipes to a copper caldron, with a capacity of 130 barrels, on the 
floor above. After boiling, the liquid is forced to the cooler on the upper 
floor, and thence to the filterers and coolers, where it is made ready for the 
fermenting-vats in another part of the building. All the machinery and 
appointments of the establishment are of the most approved modern manu- 
facture. The greatest care is taken in brewing the Kalmbach & Geisel 
beer, about fifteen experienced workmen being kept employed during the 
busy season. The brick ice-vaults, erected in 18S0, are considered among 
the best of the sort in the country. The building, 44 by 64 feet, and 90 
feet in height, has three cellars, and holds 4,550 barrels of beer. The ice- 
chamber on the upper floor holds 1,200 tons of ice, the cellars below being 
cooled and ventilated by air-chambers and registers, all admirably planned. 
In addition to this, there is a second and smaller ice-house with a capacity 
of 4,000 barrels of beer. The wooden ice-house, for storage purposes, holds 


2,200 tons of ice, which, with the stables, is in the rear of the main 
buildings. Six delivery teams are kept in constant use. Messrs. Christian 
Kalmbach and Theodore Geisel have a residence in the enclosure, and 
are both gentlemen of German birth, and thoroughly skilled in the art of 
brewing. In addition to the local sale of their beer, the firm have built 
up a good trade all through Hampden County, and at many points in the 
surrounding territory. 

The R. H. Smith Manufacturing Company, although incorporated Dec. 
2, 1883, is the legitimate outcome of some twenty years' effort in this line of 
work by R. H. Smith, whose name has become familiar to all dealers in 
rubber and metal stamps, rubber type, and rubber-stamp goods. Notwith- 
standing there are in the United States many concerns who style themselves 
"manufacturers" of this line of goods, there are in fact but few concerns 
who really manufacture the goods ; and of these there is not one anywhere 
which manufactures on such a large scale, or which has such an extensive 
business, as the one now under consideration. Nor is there any which 
owns or controls so many patented specialties that are associated with this 
industry. The company was incorporated under the laws of Massachusetts, 
with its capital of thirty thousand dollars all paid in. The president is 
R. Hale Smith, the vice-president is Henry M. Smith, and the treasurer is 
Arthur C. Harvey, all of whom have been associated together for a number 
of years, and all of whom are thoroughly practical workmen in this line of 
business. The premises include a large part of the three-story brick build- 
ing on the north-east corner of Main and Worthington Streets, where the 
firm have been located ever since 1873. Twenty-five men are generally 
employed; and this establishment, aside from being the largest of its kind 
in the whole country, is the oldest in New England. The use of rubber 
stamps in hundreds of forms has become within a few years almost un- 
limited, and this is due to a great extent to the many improvements made 
in the same. Among the most important was the introduction, by them, of 
metal-bodied rubber type, changeable like ordinary type, so that with one 
stamp and a quantity of type an endless variety of hand-printing may be 
done. Probably the most important recent invention is "Smith's Patent 
Lever Self-inker," a self-inking stamp, using interchangeable metal-bodied 
rubber type, as well as dating and other solid dies. It is practically many 
stamps in one, and is a simple, ingenious, and well-constructed piece of 
mechanism. It is patented not only in the United States, but in several 
foreign countries ; and the foreign trade already built up by this firm for this 
stamp and their various lines of goods is evidence that Springfield wares 
are acceptable abroad as well as at home. Among the other noteworthy 
specialties of this firm may be briefly enumerated their " Bay State Seal 


Presses," of which tons are sold yearly, and which are used in thousands of 
public and corporation offices ; the " Monitor Check Protector," a machine 
which punches a series of small round holes through the paper so as to 
form figures indicating the amount of the check; the "Automaton Check 
Perforator," another machine, having the same object in view, but finer 
in construction, and more costly; the " Hinged-cover Inking Cushions," 
a simple and serviceable inking pad for rubber hand-stamps ; the " Steel 
Wheel Numbering Machine," for paging books or numbering checks, cer- 
tificates, etc. ; the "Automaton Self-inker," — sometimes called the "Tom 
Thumb " stamp; "The Pencil Stamp," a neat little stamp made to fit on the 
end of a lead-pencil. Besides these specialties, a complete line of goods 
used by metal and rubber stamp dealers is kept. Here many of the rubber- 
stamp makers get their stamps, seal presses, and other articles, into which 
they affix the rubber printing-dies. And although the firm has a long list of 
direct patrons among banks, insurance companies, and firms, its chief busi- 
ness is with dealers and stationers in all parts of the world ; and it is this 
fact that entitles the firm to a notice among the noteworthy industries of 
this city. 

Barney & Berry. — The manufacture of skates, carried on so extensively 
in the beautiful building of which a cut is shown, was commenced in 1864, 
in the building then known as Warner's Pistol Factory at Pecowsic, and 
removed to Mill River in 1866. In 1869 Mr. John Berry retired from the 
firm; and Mr. Barney continued there the firm name until 1872, when he 
moved the business to their own factory on Broad Street, where they em- 
ployed in a building two stories high, 30 by 100 feet, some thirty hands. 
The reputation of the Barney & Berry skate continued to grow, and became 
so world-wide in the next ten years, that they were forced to build the pres- 
ent building in 1882, where they are now located. This factory is 100 feet on 
Broad Street, 200 feet on Hanover Street, and 120 feet on Elmwood Street, 
and three stories high. The most skilled workmen are employed. The 
kinds of skates made are numerous, and have been awarded the highest 
medals for excellence where exhibited. In 1876, at Philadelphia, they re- 
ceived the only medal awarded; in 1873, tne highest medal at Vienna; and 
in 1878, likewise at Paris. The firm's illustrated catalogue of 20 pages 
shows the great variety of styles, such as the ladies' club, clamp, and 
wood-top skates, gents' club and clamp, the American rink-skate, the side- 
walk roller-skate, extra parts, etc. Whatever the firm make, in form, 
quality, and ornamentation, has been thoroughly proven during the last 
twenty years to be of the highest artistic excellence. The New-York office 
is 114 Chambers Street; Boston office, 125 and 127 Pearl Street; and Phila- 
delphia, at 514 Commerce Street. 



K'bbe Brothers & Co., Main Street and Harrison Av 

Kibbe Brothers & Co., manufacturing confectioners, own and occupy 
the building at the corner of Main Street and Harrison Avenue. They 
rank among the oldest and most reliable business houses of the city. The 
house is the largest and most important of the sort in New England, outside 

of Boston, and was es- 
tablished in 1825. Itwas 
not, however, until 1S43 
that the Kibbes became 
identified with the busi- 
ness, when the firm be- 
came known as Simons, 
Kibbe, & Co. ; Horace 
Kibbe being associated 
with George A. Kibbe, 
his brother. The latter 
remained in the firm 
until his death in 1882; 
while the former, to- 
gether with E. McElwin 
and S. D. Porter, make the present company. The factory covers an area 
of 70 x 1 10 feet in dimensions, four floors and a basement being used. The 
work-rooms are thoroughly equipped with all the latest apparatus and appli- 
ances known to the trade ; and between sixty and seventy operatives, men 
and women, are kept constantly employed. Nine wagons are kept on the 
road during the entire year, distributing the company's products within a 
circuit of one hundred miles of Springfield. The quality of the goods 
manufactured by this house is well known. At this factory all varieties 
of fine and fancy confectionery, stick-candy, and toys and holiday novel- 
ties, are made from pure goods and free from adulteration. 

The Phillips Manufacturing Company, manufacturers of steam-heating 
apparatus for public and private buildings, and dealers in steam-and-gas- 
fitters' and plumbers' supplies, was incorporated in March. 1876, and is the 
successor of Phillips, Mowry, & Co. who, in turn succeeded Julius H. 
Appleton & Co. The president and treasurer of the present company is 
Henry M. Phillips, one of Springfield's most active and best-known citizens, 
who has represented the district in the Legislature, and is now the mayor of 
the city, having recently been elected a second time, director of the Second 
National Bank, of the Five Cents Savings Bank. etc. The secretary is G. 
Frank Adams, who has been connected with the company and its predeces- 
sors since 1866. Although executing a great amount of work within this 
immediate vicinity, the company is known throughout New England, and 


often successfully competes for contracts on public work elsewhere. A 
recent contract with the State of Connecticut included the heating, venti- 
lating, lighting, and plumbing of the new Normal School at New Britain ; and 
the work is pronounced as one of the most successful undertakings of its 
kind in the State. The company put the steam-heating apparatus into the 
State Lunatic Hospital at Worcester, where the five large boilers furnishing 
steam are placed several hundred feet from the buildings warmed, also into 
the Women's Reformatory Prison at South Framingham, and innumerable 
other public and private buildings in New England and New York. The 
premises occupied are on the south side of Worthington Street, in the four- 
story brick building Nos. 121 and 123. They include the first floor and 
basement, two lofty and light rooms, each 100 by 40 feet, supplied with 
steam-power, and well equipped with all the requisite tools and appliances 
for the finest or greatest quantity of work. About 25 workmen are em- 

The E. Stebbins Manufacturing Company, brass founders and finishers, 
have their extensive manufactory at Brightwood, only a few rods south of 
the Wason Car Company's Works. The E. Stebbins Manufactory has 
long been recognized as one of the leading industries of the Connecti- 
cut Valley, and the work produced takes its place with the best fine brass 
castings and plumbers' supplies manufactured in America. This house 
was established by Erastus Stebbins, a pioneer in the trade, at Chicopee, 
Mass., in 1848. At that time the work was done in a small wooden shop, 
the chief articles manufactured being a patent molasses gate and faucet, 
of Mr. Stebbins's invention. These patents gave him the control of the 
market for the first named, and aided him in competing so successfully with 
the makers of other faucets that he was able to make his business hand- 
somely remunerative, and so very successful in every respect that his com- 
petition was seriously felt by older and larger establishments. As business 
increased, the shop at Chicopee became far too small for economical man- 
agement ; and, finding better facilities in this city for manufacturing, Mr. 
Stebbins removed his works here in 1S61. His production was largely and 
rapidly added to, not the least of which was a general brass-foundery busi- 
ness. He accumulated a handsome fortune : and in 1868 he sold out his 
entire interest, shop, fixtures, and patents to Messrs. Hayden, Gere, & Co. 
of Haydenville, Mass., and retired from business. In this year, 1S6S, the 
E. Stebbins Manufacturing Company was incorporated, with a capital stock 
of $50,000. But other changes in the management followed. In 1872 
Messrs. F. B. Cook and W. A. Taylor of Hinsdale, Mass., bought out the 
business, and continued it until 1875, when the entire manufactory was 
destroyed by fire. The present works were erected in 1875. * n l &7& H. 

3 6o 


M. Brewster, for many years connected with Messrs. Hayden, Gere, & Co., 
was made agent and manager, a position which he now admirably fills. 
The buildings consist of a four-story brick factory, 40 by 90 feet; and a 
one-story foundery building adjoining, covering an area of 50 by 100 feet. 
The works are thoroughly equipped with the latest improved machinery and 
tools, and a force of 100 skilled workmen are kept employed. The special- 
ties of the house are the Stebbins and Brightwood patent compression and 
ground key work, Broughton's patent self-closing work, the Springfield 
patent universal hose coupling, and diamond bronze. 

Chauncey L. Moore, opposite Court Square, on Main Street. 

Chauncey L. Moore has been a photographer in Springfield for twenty- 
eight years, and is now the longest-established photographer in Hampden 
County. His gallery at No. 441 Main Street, opposite Court Square, has 
been occupied by him for twenty consecutive years, and is familiar to all 
who ever have occasion to come to this city. Since he began here, Mr. 
Moore has photographed almost all the men, women, and children who have 


been noteworthily identified with this locality. Almost every Knight Templar, 
Mason, Odd Fellow, clergyman, public officer, and business man has sat for 
his picture in this gallery; and to-day there are here nearly thirty thousand 
negatives carefully put away, all registered and classified. Here, too, may 
be found the negatives of hundreds of buildings and views made during the 
score of years just passed. In making this Handbook, the publisher has 
had occasion to draw on this collection for much material which could not 
have been obtained anywhere else. But not only does the gallery possess 
a great abundance of material, but it exhibits a grade of work rarely found 
outside of the largest cities. A mere glance through the frames and cases 
will make evident that Mr. Moore has kept abreast of the times, and has 
promptly introduced the improvements in the art or profession to which he 
has devoted his whole lifetime. The work executed here comprises pho- 
tography in all its branches ; portraits in ink, oil, water, or crayon ; and 
enlarging or copying of every kind. The apartments are cosey and neat, 
and the attendants are invariably courteous ; and these facts, combined with 
the excellence of the work, have drawn to this gallery hundreds of patrons 
from New York, Boston, and elsewhere, who from various causes at times 
come to this city. An important branch of the establishment is the exquisite 
framing of portraits. The building occupied is gradually becoming one of 
the relics of the town, and will long be remembered by the present genera- 
tion of Springfield people. 

The Chapman Valve Manufacturing Company have their works in Ward 
8, Indian Orchard, on the line of the railroad owned by the Indian-Orchard 
Mills, running between the main line of the Boston and Albany and the 
Athol Railroads on Pine Street, facing Essex and Hampshire Streets. The 
present buildings consist of machine-shop, brass-finishing shop, pattern 
department, and blacksmith-shop on Pine Street, 285 feet long, and three 
stories high, all of brick, with power elevators, and all modern improve- 
ments. Opposite this is a large brick building for office, and storage for 
finished goods, connected with the finishing-shop by an iron bridge span- 
ning the railroad-track. In the rear of the finishing-shop, and forming a 
square, are the brass and iron founderies, and annex buildings. The brass- 
foundery is of brick, 50 by 75, built expressly for their special work. Their 
new iron-foundery, just completed, is of brick, 60 by 150, with monitor roof, 
2 large Mackenzie furnaces, large core-ovens, cranes, and railroad-track 
running through the entire length. Joined to the iron-foundery, at right 
angles, is an annex building, 175 feet long, for engine and boiler rooms, 
cleaning and tumbling castings, storage of foundery supplies, etc. In the 
rear of the iron-foundery is a brick building, 150 feet long, for storage of coal, 
moulding-sand, etc. The company has also just completed a spur-track 


2,000 feet long, for the better handling of iron-foundery supplies. All of 
the above buildings are new, or nearly so, of brick, and have the most 
approved appliances for fire protection. Their power consists of three 
large boilers, and two 50-horse-power Corliss engines. Their present 
force is 160 men, divided among the several departments, under compe- 
tent mechanics as foremen, who, in turn, are under a skilful mechanic as 

The various goods manufactured by this company are valves and gates, 
for steam, water, gas, oil, ammonia, etc., and a large variety of fire-hydrants. 
Their goods are too widely known to need any description here, or any 
indorsement as to character. They are to be found in use all over the 
country, and in parts of Europe. The capacity of the works has been 
taxed to its utmost for the past 5 years in filling their orders. Their ma- 
chinery, tools, patterns, and every thing pertaining to their equipment, are 
of the best order and most approved design, and the results of large out- 
lays of money, and careful and skilful management. 

The Chapman Valve Manufacturing Company was incorporated in 1874, 
with a capital of $60,000, afterward increased to $100,000, its present capi- 
tal. The first building was completed in 1874, and all the others have been 
built within the past four years. The directors are Samuel R. Payson, 
Percival L. Everett, Harvey D. Parker, and H. S. Hovey (all of Boston), 
Joseph W. Smith of Andover, C. J, Goodwin of Indian Orchard, and James 
D. Safford of Springfield. The president is Samuel R. Payson, the treas- 
urer is Percival L. Everett, and the general manager Jason Giles. The 
general office and works are at Indian Orchard in Springfield; and the 
treasurer's office is at 72 Kilby Street in Boston. 

The Hampden Watch Company was incorporated in June, 1877; since 
which time it has probably done more to popularize the American watch, 
and put it into universal favor, than any other similar concern in the country. 
This has been accomplished by the high standard they have continuously 
maintained in all points of fine and accurate finish of their goods, and the 
wonderful time-keeping qualities which their methods of construction and 
arrangements of the working-parts peculiar to these watches have developed. 
The company is strictly a home enterprise ; the stock being controlled by 
Springfield capitalists, and the officers among the most prominent of her 
successful business men. The plant is located on Armory Hill, covering 
several acres. The four large buildings are complete in every respect. 
The main structure is of brick, three stories in height, with a basement. 
It is finished entirely with hard woods, sheathed with ash, cherry trimmings, 
and floors of maple, while the work-rooms are supplied with cherry work- 
benches 2 inches thick. The windows are large, giving ample light to the 


manufactory. The dimensions of the building are 30 by 120 feet; and to 
this a fifth is to be added of the same size and architecture, with a tower 
between the two, 60 by 60 feet, and four stories high. The special and 
automatic machinery used in the factory was made from their own designs ; 
while the whole is operated by an engine of 85 to 100 horse-power, and two 
boilers of about 100 horse-power. It is expected, that, when the additional 
buildings are completed, the number of operatives will be very largely in- 
creased. The factory has fourteen separate departments, and here all parts 
of the watches are made. Beginning with the peculiar tools required in the 
manufacture of the most delicate parts, and finishing with the adjustment to 
heat, cold, and positions, none of the work leaves the factories until com- 
pleted. Each watch is kept in the adjusting-room until perfectly finished 
for an accurate time-keeper. One of the proofs that this company is enter- 
prising and prosperous in the highest degree is shown by the fact that there 
is probably no manufacturing establishment in Springfield or vicinity where 
help earn larger wages than they do here. This manufactory, like many of 
those mentioned in this chapter, derives its trade almost wholly from firms 
outside of the limits of this city; and it has become a recognized competitor 
in every city of any importance throughout this country, and in fact in 
many other countries. The " Springfield watches " have been success- 
fully brought before the American people, as well worthy of their general 
patronage. The president and treasurer of the Hampden Watch Company 
is Charles D. Rood ; and the directors are James Abbe, James D. Brewer, 
H. J. Cain, N. F. Leonard, and Charles D. Rood. The directors are well 
known as business men of the highest character, and the president has 
gained the esteem and confidence of the jewellers of the country. 

The Cheney Bigelow Wire Works, on Taylor Street, may be classed 
among the most successful and growing manufactories of the city. The 
business was founded in 1842 by Cheney Bigelow, the present company 
having been organized in 1874; since which time they have so rapidly 
grown that the establishment has several times been enlarged, until they 
now occupy two floors, 80 x 100 feet, of the building owned by the Wason 
Manufacturing Co. They make a specialty of wire goods for banks, count- 
ing-rooms, and public buildings, and also wire railings and fencings. The 
productions of the works also embrace all kinds of brass and iron wire 
cloths, also foundery riddles, and coal and sand screens. The " Dandy 
Rolls,'' for producing water-marks in the manufacture of paper, are also 
made by this company. So well and favorably known are the products of 
this house, that not only do they largely supply the United States, but 
Canada and the foreign markets. The management of the business is in 
the hands of W. D. Stevens, who is the treasurer of the company. 


The Bullard Repeating-Arms Company is one of the new industries; 
but as it has started on a noteworthy scale, under favorable auspices, supe- 
rior management, with large capital and unsurpassed facilities, it will proba- 
bly not be long before it will be recognized everywhere as one of the many 
great manufacturing establishments of Springfield. It starts with a capital 
of five hundred thousand dollars, and with George H. Ball of Worcester as 
president, and Horace H. Bigelow of Worcester as treasurer. The man- 
ager, James H. Bullard, is the inventor of the Bullard rifles. His love for 
this work seems to be innate, as may be gleaned from the fact, that, at the 
ao-e of twelve years, he very quickly traded for a rifle, a watch which had been 
given him. From that time he has been keenly interested in fire-arms of all 
kinds, although at times engaged on other mechanical work. For five years 
he was making pistols for Smith & Wesson, and while there obtained 
several patents now held by that firm. For three years past he has been 
perfecting the Bullard rifles, which have been at once recognized as superior 
to all others of their class, — carrying heavier cartridges, shooting more 
rapidly, being safer to operate, easier to handle, and simpler to load. The 
materials are all of the finest quality. The workmanship is as perfect as 
possible. The Bullard rifles are of fourteen different calibres, gotten up in 
about one hundred different styles. Their force and strength have never 
been equalled in any other. A bullet from the Bullard rifle, using the regular 
U. S. cartridge (45 calibre, 70 gr. powder), has, at a distance of 3,000 yards 
from muzzle of gun, penetrated a three-inch spruce plank and eight inches 
of sand. The larger rifle carries twelve loads. The manufacturing estab- 
lishment is worthy of special mention. The buildings are unusually well 
constructed, and compare favorably with any manufacturing establishment 
in this country. They were built all of brick, from the plans of Mr. Bullard, 
who had in mind every demand of the business. They are substantial and 
attractive. The windows have been arranged so as to furnish the utmost 
amount of light. The main building is three stories high, 165 feet long, and 
40 feet wide. The equipment of the finest of metal and wood-working 
machinery is ingeniously arranged; and it is worth the time and trouble of 
any resident or visitor to go through the establishment. There is good 
working room for 200 men, and about 50 guns a day can be made. The 
engine and boiler house seems to be a model in its way, and contains the 
Hawkins boilers and a Hartford engine of 150 horse-power. The situation 
is most delightful; being at the head of State Street, at the crossing of the 
New- York and New-England Railroad. The company's property includes 
two acres, and provision has been made for future enlargement. 

W. H. and J. D. McKnight, and their Improvements. — " Ingersoll's 
Grove " is receiving a vigorous overhauling and beautifying under its new 


owners. Florida Street is being continued out to the Athol railroad-track : 
and 100 men have been at work in different parts of the grove, grading 
building-lots at the west end, and trimming up the old avenues throughout. 
A road is to be cut from Florida Street into the grove, winding about to the 
head of the ravine, whence the two former roads through the ravine are to 
be restored to usefulness. One of these leads down the west bank, past 
the summer-house, and under the New-England railroad-track, to the min- 
eral-spring on the low land. The other road, along the east bank, will 
cross the railroad at grade, and a culvert will be built over the brook. The 
wild growth in the ravine is to be trimmed, and the beauty of the graded 
banks restored as Major Ingersoll left them many years ago. The summer- 
house has been rejuvenated, and is ready, in a bright new dress of paint, to 
receive visitors. The mineral-spring, famous of old for its cures, is to be 
surrounded by a stone curbing ; and its waters are to be made easily accessi- 
ble to those in search of health, or of something new to drink. Several 
culverts are being located in different parts of the grounds. Thus a pleas- 
ant strolling-place, long sought as a measure of public beneficence, is thrown 
open to our citizens by keen-sighted business men, who propose to illustrate 
anew the lesson shown in the " McKnight reservation," that whatever is 
worth doing in the real-estate trade is worth doing well. Dollars and 
beauty come together here. 

A well-done work was that of Major Edward Ingersoll on this knoll. It 
was as for a place he loved, and expected to pass his days in, that he set 
out the shade-trees that will bear testimony of him for generations to come, 
and ran the plough over the slopes, smoothing, grading, and adorning this 
most steadfast of friends. The summer-house held many a gay party, the 
orchards responded bountifully for his care, the brook bubbled its thanks, 
and the spring had a "practice " that doctors might envy. The grove has 
had a history, and has been the subject of much speculation of various 
kinds in the last 40 years. As indicating the fluctuation in its supposed 
value, it is related that William Mattoon once put the price for three- 
quarters of an acre from it at $6,000. The grove was Solomon Hatch's 
property till 1845 or 1S46, when it was bought by Major Ingersoll, who held 
it for 20 years, during which time he changed it from its unkempt state to 
the form which under the scars of time it bears to-day. But it proved as 
hard to keep as a white elephant; and Mr. Ingersoll parted with it to Hins- 
dale Smith and one Billings of Philadelphia, in 1866 or 1868, for $25,000. 
It was sold in 1872 to Henry W. Phelps for $42,500, passing into the hands 
of Willis Phelps and William Mattoon. Great expectations were then 
entertained of its value; but the building of the Athol Railroad, which was 
the chief reason for its purchase, damaged its value for residence purposes 
not a little. Various projects for its use have been conceived. It was pro- 


posed at one time to locate the insane-asylum there instead of at Northamp- 
ton. Major Ingersoll has desired to see it taken as a hospital-site, being 
convinced that its breezes should be availed of. The recent cemetery and 
public-park propositions are familiar. 

The work that W. H. and J. D. McKnight, with occasional associates, 
have done in building up the new district of the Hill, is represented in 
rather impressive figures. Buying land in the rough, by the acre, they 
have paid about $175,000 for some 175 acres of land. Of this, 115 acres 
are partly built on, and divided by 19 streets, which have been mainly 
graded, hardened, bordered with sidewalks, and curbed at the McKnights' 
expense; and 60 acres are still unimproved. They have laid two or three 
miles of curbing, set out 3,000 trees, and built several short sewers at their 
own expense. They have built and sold more than 100 houses; more than 
200 houses stand on land sold by them ; and they have now, complete or 
in the process of construction, six more. They have built, or will have fin- 
ished in a few weeks, five fountains at street-corners, each surrounded by 
a border of turf with a few trees and intersecting paths. These pretty 
spots add greatly beyond their cost to the attractiveness of the neighbor- 
hood, and are found to be a good financial investment. One of the newer 
streets, Dartmouth, running from Bay Street to St. James Avenue, is 100 
feet wide, and has four rows of shade-trees, a wide strip of turf lying be- 
tween the sidewalk and carriage-way. Yale and Harvard Streets are 50 
feet wide. The other streets which they have entirely laid out, or have 
had a large share in making, are : Westminster, Buckingham, Thompson, 
Sherman, McKnight, Catherine, Bowles, Clarendon, Buckingham Place, 
Oak-Grove Avenue, Edgewood, and one new street. East of State Street 
are also Beacon, Colton, Hawley, and Winchester. A tract fronting 900 
feet on the west side of State Street has been built on by them. Their 
fountains and parks are: McKnight Park, Clarendon Fountain, Dartmouth 
Park, Buckingham Fountain, and the Thompson Triangle park yet un- 
named. And to the above-chronicled achievements is now doubtless to be 
added that of building, and presenting to the horse-railroad, a 5,000-foot 
branch, which will make the west part of Ward 5 easily accessible ; and it is 
likely to lead in time to a Worthington-street railroad from the depot to 
Oak-Grove Cemetery, for professed judges claim that this route will be 
more travelled than State Street in the near future, as some say it is so 
travelled at present. 

The McKnight brothers have dealt in real estate in this section for 14 
years, building their first house in 1870; but the "boom" has been in opera- 
tion only since 1879. One result of the covering of this formerly cheap 
territory with attractive houses set in neat yards, and on pleasant streets, is 
seen in the increase of 43 per cent from 1879 to *883, inclusive, in the 



assessors* valuation of all the real estate in Ward 5, an increase of S 1.072,- 
000, of which more than half is. west of State Street. The increase for the 
five years averages about $ioo,coo a year for the district in which the 
McKnight brothers have worked, or a total increase there of 75 per cent. 
The figures from the assessors* books for three of the city wards are as 
follows, showing the total valuation for each year: — 

Ward One. 

Ward Two. 

Ward Five. 












A single tract of four acres, which the McKnights have transformed in 
this period, has been raised from $2,000 to $36,000 in the assessors' 

A significant fact is, that more than three-quarters of the houses in 
McKnight-land have been taken by recent comers to the city, partly busi- 
ness men ; and in smaller part, people who live on their incomes, and have 
been attracted to this city and place by the pleasantness and comparative 
cheapness of the residences procurable. It is believed that from this latter 
class much of the future increase in population is to come. The country 
has a large floating class of these people ; and it is to supply their require- 
ments, and draw them to the city, that the McKnights and their associates 
propose especially to labor. This opportunity is considered good reason 
for the neatness and taste they endeavor to use in their work. Their efforts 
in this line have had a contagious influence in some localities. Particularly 
do they claim credit for the improvement and contemplated improvement in 
the Eastern-avenue region since their invasion of it. One man, who has 
owned much real estate in that neighborhood for decades, is quoted as 
having looked at the method of prettiness as now being exemplified there, 
and declared that "he really believed it paid to fix up things." 1 

The Business Men's Association of Springfield. — This association 
owes its existence to leading men (if influence centred in and about the 

1 The above notice of the McKnights is reprinted from The Springfield Republican, and conveys 
an idea of what permanent good these two workers have done for the city, although their work has 
been done as private enterprises.— EDITOR. 



Agawam National Bank, where the matter was discussed, and its formation 
shaped on March 18, 1879. The next meeting was holden at the rooms of 
the Common Council in the City Hall, on April 2 of the same year; was 
called to order by the Hon. Lewis J. Powers, and the offices of president 
and secretary filled by the election of the late Charles O. Chapin and Henry 
M. Phillips respectively. Meetings were afterward held, vice-presidents, 
executive officers, and treasurer elected, and the good work of promoting 
the business interests of the city of Springfield commenced by this associ- 
ation. The rooms first engaged for its meetings were in the Massachusetts 
Mutual Life Company's building; but they have since been twice changed, 
and now comprise a commodious and well-lighted and pleasantly situated 
store on Pynchon Street. It leads out of the grand rotunda of the lately 
remodelled Haynes House. Here can be found all the leading daily and 
weekly papers, daily stock reports, official stationery for the use of mem- 
bers, and generally in the evening a number of the business men. who 
gather together for the cultivation of a more cordial acquaintance among 
themselves, and to discuss topics of general business welfare. Since its 
organization, the association has materially aided in locating several new 
industries in our city, and a large number of skilled workmen; many of 
whom have found homes in that section of Springfield made beautiful by 
the McKnights. Our enterprising moneyed men, through the agency of 
the Business Men's Association, are ever ready to help locate, start, and 
continue business of every nature, having an apology for existence, when 
brought to their attention; and competent management of such business is 
insured. The present officers of the association are as follows : president, 
Hon. H. M. Phillips; vice-presidents, P. P. Kellogg and V. N. Taylor: 
secretary, C. S. Parkhurst : treasurer, A. T. Folsom ; executive committee. 
James D. Gill, Noyes W. Fisk, L. S. Stowe, H. W. Southworth, Samuel 
Bigelow, E. D. Metcalf, and D. H. Brigham. It must be. and is by all 
competent to judge, conceded, that Springfield offers especial attractions 
to the business man and manufacturer, as a place to establish himself and 
live. With a population of over 36,000 people (than which no city of its size 
can claim a better class), its manufacturers and its merchants prosperous 
and contented, its taxes low, its condition cleanly, its streets good, its 
water-supply abundant, its excellent sewerage, its efficient schools, good 
churches, beautiful drives, its telephones and electric lights, its well- 
appointed street-railroad, express-companies, telegraph-service, sound banks. 
live newspapers, and places of amusement, together with its reasonable 
freight and passenger rates to and from the great markets of the world. 
Springfield commends itself as a place for residence or business second 
to no inland city in the world. 



Eije Bt&ltograpIjD of JSpringficiti. 


Short-hand reports of sermons preached by Rev. 
George Moxon, first minister of Springfield; taken 
by Major John Pynchon. 1637-39. HISS, in 
City Library. 

Warning to the Unclean, in a Discourse from 
Rev. xxi. 8. Preacht at Springfield Lecture, Au- 
gust 25th, 1698, at the Execution of Sarah Smith. 
By Mr. John Williams, Pastor of the Church at 
Deerfield. Boston: Printed by B. Green and T. 
Allen for Michael Perry, at his Shop over ".gainst 
the Town House. 1699. 64 pp. i6mo. 

God's Help to be Sought in Time of War with a 
Due Sense of the Vanity of what Help Man can 
afford: Shewed at Springfield, March 26, 1724. 
By Daniel Brewer, M.A., Pastor of a Church in 
said Town. Psal. 124, 8, Our help is in the Name 
of the Lord, who made Heaven and Earth. Bos- 
ton in New England: Printed by B. Green, 1724 

19 pp., I2IT10. 

A variety of manuscripts relating to the Breck 
controversy in the First Church in Springfield. 
1735-36. MSS in City Library. 

A Narrative of the Proceedings of those Min- 
isters of the County of Hampshire, &c, that have 
disapproved of the late Measures taken in order to 
the Settlement of Mr. Robert Breck, in the Pas- 
toral Office in the first Church in Springfield. With 
a Defence of their Conduct in that Affair. Written 
by Themselves. Boston: Printed 111 the year 173''. 
93 pp., 1 21110. 

An Examination ol and some answer to a Pam- 
phlet intitled, A Narrative and Defence of the 
Proceedings of the Ministers of Hampshire who 
disapproved of Mr. Breck's Settlement at Spring- 
field, with a vindication of those Ministers and 
Churches, that approv'd of, and acted in the Settle- 
ment of said Mr. Breck. Prov. xviii. 17: He that 
is first in his own Cause Seemeth just, but his 
Neighbour Cometh and searcheth him. Boston 
Printed by T. Draper, for H. Foster, at his Shop in 
Cornhil. 1736. 98 pp., 8vo. 

The Work of Ministers represented under the 
Figure of Sowers, in a Sermon preach'd at Spring- 
field, January 26, 1736, at the Ordination of the 
Reverend Mr. Robert Breck to the Pastoral Office 
in the First Church there. By William Cooper, 
M.A. Published at the urgent and repeated Re- 
quest of the Ministers and People that heard it. 
Boston: Printed by T. Draper, in Newbury Street, 
1736. 26 pp., 121110. 

A Letter to the Author of the Pamphlet called 
an answer to the Hampshire Narrative. Prov. 
xxx., xxxii.: If thou hast done foolishly in lifting 
up thyself, if thou hast thought evil, lay thine hand 
upon thy mouth. Boston: Printed in the year 1737 
84 pp., 121110. 

The Ungodly Condemned in Judgment. A Ser- 
mon Preached at Springfield, December 13th, 1770, 
on Occasion of the Execution of William Shaw, for 
Murder. By Moses Baldwin, A.M., Pastor of the 
Church in Palmer. New- London: Printed and 
sold by T. Green, 1771. 14 pp , nmo. 

The Departure of Elijah lamented A Sermon, 
Preached at the Funeral of the Rev Stephen Wil- 
liams, D.D., Pastor of a Church in Springfield, 
who departed this Life, June 10th, 1782, in the 
Ninetieth year of his Age. By Robert Breck, 
A.M., Pastor of the First Church in Springfield. 
Help, Lord, for the Godly man ceaseth. Spring- 
field: Printed by Babcock & Haswell, 1782. 27 pp., 

Past Dispensations of Providence called to Mind 
in a Sermon Delivered in the first Parish in Spring- 
field, on the 16th of October, 1775. Just one hun- 
dred years from the burning of the Town by the 
Indians. P.y Robert Breck, A.M., Pastor of the 
Church there. Hartford: Printed by l 
Babcock. 1784. 28 pp., i2mo. 

A Discoursi Delivered at the Funeral of the 
Reverend Robert Breck, Pastor of the First Church 
m Springfield, who departed this I ife \i ril 
1784: in the Seventy-first year of his Age and in 

1 This list was compiled by William Clogston, a collect 1 ol historical works. 



the Forty-ninth year of his Ministry. By Joseph 
Lathrop, A.M.. Pastor of a Church in West Spring- 
field. Springfield: Printed by Brooks and Russell, 
1784. 23 pp., i2mo. 

A Sermon delivered April 27, 17S5, at the Ordi- 
nation of the Rev. Mr. Bezaleel Howard to the 
Pastoral Care of the First Church of Christ in 
Springfield. By Timothy Hilliard, A.M., Pastor 
of the First Church of Christ in Cambridge. 
Springfield, Mass. : Printed by Stebbins & Russell, 
at their office near the Great Ferry. 18 pp., 8vo. 

Catalogue of Books belonging to the Springfield 
Library Company, April, 1796. S pp., Svo. 

Discourse delivered at Springfield, Oct. 30, 1805, 
on Occasion of the Completion and Opening of the 
Great Bridge over Connecticut River, between the 
Towns of Springfield and West Springfield. By 
Joseph Lathrop, Springfield, 1806. 16 pp., 8vo. 

Sermon preached at the Ordination of the Rev. 
Samuel Osgood as Pastor of the First Church and 
Society of Springfield, by Thaddeus M. Harris. 
Springfield, Mass., 1809. 

First Sermon preached by Rev. Samuel Osgood 
as Pastor of the First Church in Springfield, Janu- 
ary 29. 1809 MSS. in City Library. 

Last Sermon preached by the Rev. Samuel Os- 
good in the Old Church, April 25, 1819. MSS. in 
City Library. 

Historical Discourse delivered at West Spring- 
field, Dec. 2, 1824, by W. B. Sprague. Hartford, 
1825. 8vo. 

An Address to the Members of the Bar of the 
Counties of Hampshire, Franklin, and Hampden, 
at their Annual Meeting at Northampton, Septem- 
ber, 1826, by George Bliss. Springfield: Tannatt 
& Co., printers, 1827. 85 pp., 8vo, with appendix. 

An Address delivered at the Opening of the 
Town Hall in Springfield. March 24, 1828, contain- 
ing Sketches of the Early History of that Town and 
those in its Vicinity. With an appendix. ByGeorge 
Bliss. Published at the request of the Town. 
Springfield: Tannatt & Co., 1828. 68 pp., i2mo. 

Address delivered at the Consecration of the 
Springfield Cemetery, Sept. 5, 1841, by William 
B. O. Peabody. Springfield: printed by Wood & 
Rupp, 1841. 16 pp., 8vo. 

Historical Collections of Massachusetts, by John 
Warner Barber. Worcester' published by Warren 
Lazell, 1844. 

Defence of Major James W Ripley, read before 
the Court oi Inquiry at Springfield, March 16, 
1846. Springfield, 1846. 2opp.,8vo. 

Reply to the Defence of Major James W. Ripley 
by the Memorialists. Springfield, 1846. 32pp. ,8vo. 

Statement of Facts in Connection with the Peti- 

tion of Charles Stearns and Others for an Act of 
Incorporation as an Aqueduct Company. Spring- 
field, 1848. 36 pp., Svo. 

The Ministers of Christ: A Sermon delivered in 
Christ Church, Springfield, Mass., May 17, 1848, 
when the Bishop of Massachusetts admitted the 
Rev. Henry W. Adams, M.A., the Rector 01' the 
Church, to the Holy Order of Priests. By the Rev. 
Titus Strong, D.D., Rector of St. James's Church, 
Greenfield, Mass. Published by request. Spring- 
field: from the office of Horace S. Taylor, opposite 
Court Square, Main Street, 1848. 32 pp., 8vo. 

A Sermon delivered in the First Church in 
Springfield, Mass., Sabbath Afternoon, Jan. 25, 
A.D. 1849, by Samuel Osgood, D.D., Pastor of 
the Church, on the Termination of the Fortieth 
Year of his Ministry. Springfield: George W. 
Wilson, printer, corner Main and State Streets, 
1849. 33 pp., 8vo. 

Sermons by the Late William B. O. Peabody, 
D.D., with a Memoir by his Brother. Boston: 
Benjamin H. Greene, 124 Washington Street, 1849. 
393 PP-> i2mo. 

The Literary Remains of the Late William B. O. 
Peabody, D.D. Edited by Everett Peabody. Bos- 
ton: published by Benjamin H. Greene, 124 Wash- 
ington Street, 1850. 447 pp., i2mo, with portrait. 

A Chart and Description of the Railroad from 
Boston 10 New York, via Worcester, Springfield, 
Hartford, and New Haven, in which are noted the 
Towns, Villages, Stations, Bridges, Viaducts, etc., 
with Numerous Illustrations, constituting a Novel 
and Complete Companion for the Railway Carriage. 
By the author of A Chart of the Western Railroad. 
Boston: published by Bradbury & Guild, 120 
Washington Street, 1850. 84 pp., i2mo. 

Report of the Case of Charles Stearns against 
J. W. Ripley, in the Circuit Court of the United 
States, at Boston, November Term, 1850, for Ma- 
licious Prosecution, his Honor Judge Sprague pre- 
siding. Springfield: G. W. Wilson, printer, corner 
of Main and State Streets, 1851. 76 pp., 8vo. 
Appendix, 14 pp. Map as frontispiece. 

Public Spirit and Mobs. Two Sermons delivered 
at Springfield, Mass., Feb. 23, 1851, after the 
Thompson Riot. By George F. Simmons, Pastor 
of the Third Congregational Society. Springfield: 
Merriam, Chapin & Co. Boston: William Crosby 
and H. P. Nichols. 1851. 31 pp., i2mo. 

Commonwealth of Massachusetts, in the Year 
One Thousand Eight Hundred and Fifty-two. An 
Act to establish the City of Springfield. Spring- 
field: H. S. Taylor, power-presses. 1852. 21pp., 

The National Armories: a Review of the System 



of Superintendence', Civil and Military, particularly 
with reference to Economy and General Manage- 
ment of the Springfield Armory. Springfield, 
Mass., November, 1852. Springfield: G.W.Wil- 
son's steam-power presses. 1852. 78 pp., 8vo. 

Marco Paul at the Springfield Armory. By 
Jacob Abbott. Published by Harper & Brothers, 
New York, 1853. 192 pp , 24010. 

An Historical Sermon, preached by Samuel Os- 
good, D.D., on retiring from the Active Pastorate 
of the First Church in Springfield. May, 1854. 
JI/SS in City Library. 

Letter to Samuel Bowles. Second edition [from 
Charles Steams], Springfield, 1S54. 8 pp., 8vo. 

History of Western Massachusetts, the Counties 
of Hampden, Hampshire, Franklin, and Berkshire, 
embracing an Outline of General History of the 
Section, an Account of its Scientific Aspects and 
Leading Interests, and Separate Histories of its 
One Hundred Towns. By Josiah Gilbert Holland. 
In two volumes and three parts. Springfield: pub- 
lished by Samuel Bowles & Co., 1855. 520 and 619 
pp., i2mo, with map. 

Proceedings on Occasion of the Hundredth An- 
niversary of the Ordination of the Rev. Joseph 
Lathrop, at West Springfield, Mass. By W. B. 
Sprague Springfield, 1856. 102 pp., 8vo. 

Exercises at the Dedication of the New City 
Hall, Springfield, Mass., Jan. 1, 1856, including 
the Address by Dr. J. G. Holland, with a Full 
Description of the Building. Published by order 
of the City Council. Springfield: Samuel Bowles 
& Co., printers, 1856. 

Historical Memoir of the Springfield Cemetery, 
read to the Proprietors at their Meeting, May 23, 
1857. by George Bliss, their President, accompanied 
by an Address delivered at the Consecration of the 
Cemetery, Sept. 5, 1841, by Rev \V. B O. Pea- 
body. Springfield, Mass : Samuel Bowles & Co., 
printers. 1857. 23 pp., 8vo. 

Address at the Dedication .of a Monument to the 
Rev. W. B O. Peabody, by George Walker, with 
a hymn for the occasion by J. G. Holland Spring- 
field, 1S61. 23 pp.. 8vo. 

The Chapin Gathering. Proceedings at the 
Meeting of the Chapin Family 111 Springfield, 
Mass., Sept. 17, 1862. Springfield: printed by 
Samuel Bowles & Co., 1862. 97 pp , 8vo. 

A Discourse delivered on Friday, Dec. 12, 1862, 
at the Funeral of the Rev. Samuel Osgood, D.D., 
Late Senior Pastor of the First Congregational 
Church in Springfield, by William B, Sprague, 
D D , Minister of the Second Pi 
gregation in Albany Albany: - Van Bi nt- 
huyscn, printer, 1863 42 pp . 8vo 

Directory of the Filing Department at the United- 
States Armory, Springfield, Mass. Joseph Miller, 
printer, January, 1863. 10 pp., 8vo. 

A Discourse delivered at Funeral of Rev. Dr. 
Osgood, Dec. 12, 1862, by William B. Sprague, 
D.D. Albany, 1863. 42 pp., 8vo. 

Historical Memoir of the Western Railroad. By 
George Bliss, Springfield, Mass. Samuel Bowles 
& Co., printers, 1863. 190 pp., 8vo. 

Historical Sketch of Christ Church, Springfield, 
Mass., from 1817 to 1863. By Rev. George H. 
McKnight. Springfield, 1864. 24 pp., 8vo. 

Anniversary Sermon delivered in Christ Church, 
Nov. 29, 1863, by Rev. George H. McKnight, 
Rector. Published by request. Springfield: Sam- 
uel Bowles & Co., printers, 1864. 24 pp., 8vo. 

The Nation weeping for its Dead. Observances 
at Springfield, Mass., on President Lincoln's Fu- 
neral Day, Wednesday, April 19, 1865, including 
Dr. Holland's Eulogy. From the " Springfield 
Republican's" Report, Springfield, Mass. Samuel 
Bowles & Co.: L. J. Powers, 1865. 32 pp., 8vo. 

The Springfield Horse Shows. Details and Pro- 
ceedings of the Exhibition of 1867, with a History 
of the Origin and Progress of the Celebrated 
Springfield Horse Shows, as shown by Former 
Exhibitions in 1853, 1857, 1858, and i860. Spring- 
field, Mass.: Samuel Bowles & Co., publishers, 
1867. 28 pp., 8vo. 

A Sketch of the History of the First Half Cen- 
tury of the Third Congregational Society of Spring- 
field, Mass. Address at the Dedication of the 
Church of the Unity. Sermon upon the Character 
and Ministry of Rev. William B. O. Peabody, D.D., 
with an Appendix. Springfield, Mass.: Samuel 
Bowles & Co., printers, 1869. 50 pp., 8vo. 

Description and Rules for the Management of 
the Springfield Breech-Loading Rifle-Musket 
Model, 1868, National Armory. Springfield, Mass., 
1869. jg pp., 8vo, illustrated. 

Address at the Funeral Services of Thomas W. 
Wason, in St. Paul's Church, Aug. 27, 1870, by 
Rev. H. R. Nye, Pastor of the Church. Printed 
by request of the family. Springfield, Mass.: 
Samuel Bowles & Co , printers, 1871. ispp , 8vo 
with portrait. 

The City Library Building: a Descriptive and 
Historical Sketch published in connection with the 
Annual Report of the City-Library Association, 
May 6, 1872. Springfield, Mass. : Samuel Bowles 
& Co., 1872. 

An Address delivered 111 the New Court House 
in Springfield, Hampden County, Mass.. at the 
Dedication of the same, April 28, 1874; containing 
Sketches of the Early History of the Old County 



of Hampshire and the County of Hampden, and of 
the Members of the Bar in those Counties, with an 
Appendix. By William G. Bales. Published at the 
request of the members of the bar by the county 
commissioners. Springfield, Mass. Clark W. Bryan 
& Co., printers, 1874. 96 pp., 8vo illustrated. 

West Springfield Centennial 1774-1874. With 
portraits and illustrations An account of the Cen- 
tennial Celebration of the Town of West Springfield, 
Mass., Wednesday. March 25. 1874, with the His- 
torical Address of Thomas E. Vermilye, D.D , 
LL.D. Compiled by J. N. Bagg. Published by 
vote of the town, 1874. 144 pp., 8vo. 

History of the Fust Church in Springfield. An 
Address delivered June 22, 1875. With an Ap- 
pendix. By Henry Morris. With Portraits and 
illustrations. Published by request Springfield, 
Mass.: Whitney & Adams, 1875. 60 pp., i2mo. 

Springfield Memories. Odds and Ends of Anec- 
dote and Early Doings. Gathered from Manu- 
scripts, Pamphlets, and Aged Residents. By Mason 
A. Green. Springfield, Mass.: Whitney & Adams, 
1876. no pp., 8vo, illustrated. 

1636-75. Early History of Springfield. An 
Address delivered Oct. 16, 1875, on the Two Hun- 
dredth Anniversary of the Burning of the Town 
by the Indians. By Henry Morris. With an 
Appendix. Springfield, Mass.: F. W. Morris, 
publisher, 1876. 85 pp., i2mo. 

Commonwealth of Massachusetts. In the Year 

One Thousand Eight Hundred and Seventy-seven. 

An Act to Revise and Amend the Charter of the 

« City of Springfield. Springfield, Mass.: Weaver, 

Shipman & Co., printers, 1877. 29 pp., 8vo. 

Historical Memoir of the Springfield Cemetery, 
read to the Proprietors at their Annual Meeting, 
May 6, 1878, by Albert D. Briggs, their President, 
with By-laws adopted June 24, 1878; accompanied 
by an Address delivered at the Consecration of the 
Cemetery, Sept. 5, 1841, by W. B. O. Peabody. 
Springfield, Mass.: Atwood & Xoyes, printers, 
1878. 48 pp., 8vo, with map. 

History of the Connecticut Valley in Massachu- 
setts, with Illustrations and Biographical Sketches 
of some of its Prominent Men and Pioneers. 2 vols, 
quarto. 1,111 pp. Published by Louis H. Everts, 
Philadelphia, 1879. 

Secretary's Report, in Annual Report of City 
Library Association, containing a Sketch of the 
Libraries of Springfield, May 5, 1879. Published 
by the Association, 1879. 

Papers and Proceedings of the Connecticut-Valley 
Historical Society, 1876-81. Springfield, Mass.: 
Published by the Society, 1881. 325 pp., 8vo, 


An Historical Addres;, delivered on the Two- 
Hundredth Anniversary of the Settlement of 
Springfield, May 25, 1836 By Oliver B. Morris 
Published from the Papers and Proceedings of the 
Connecticut-Valley Historical Society, by permis- 
sion Springfield, Mass : Press of Springfield 
Printing Company, 1881. 30 pp , 8vo. 

Springfield Illustrated. Thirty-two views taken 
in the city of Springfield. James D. Gill, 1882. 

The City of Springfield, Mass.: its Advantages 
as a Manufacturing Point, together with a List of 
the Officers and Members of the Business Men's 
Association, and other Valuable Information. Is- 
sued by the Association, 1882. Springfield, Mass. : 
Press of Springfield Printing Company, 1882. 32 
pp , 8vo, illustrated. 

The Fortieth Anniversary of the South Congre- 
gational Church of Springfield, Sunday, March 26. 
1882 Sermon by Rev. Noah Porter, D.D. , LL.D., 
first pastor. Historical Discourse by Rev. S. G, 
Buckingham, D.D., present pastor. Appendix. 
Springfield, Mass: M. C. Stebbins & Co., 1882. 
91 pp., 8vo. 

Atlas of Springfield City, Mass. Compiled from 
recent and actual surveys and records under the 
direction of the publishers, George H. Walker & 
Co. Boston, 1882. 

Commerce, Manufactures, and Resources of 
Springfield, Mass., and Environs. A historical, 
statistical, and descriptive review. National Pub- 
lishing Company (limited), 1883. 172 pp., 8vo, 

Indian Deeds of Springfield, 1636. New-England 
Register, vol. xv. p. 140. 

Records of Springfield. New-England Register, 
vols, xviii., xix., xxix., XXX., xxxi. 

United-States Armory at Springfield. Harper's 
Magazine, vol. v. p. 145. 

Springfield as it was and is. Potter's American 
Monthly, vol. ix. p. 241. 

Architecture of Springfield. American Architect, 
vol. x. p. 227. 

A Chart and Description of the Boston and 
Worcester and Western Railroads; in which is 
noted the Towns, Villages, Stations, Bridges, Via- 
ducts, etc., with Numerous Illustrations, consti- 
tuting a Novel and Complete Companion for the 
Railway Carriage. By William Guild. Boston: 
published by Bradbury & Guild, 12 School Street. 
84 pp., 121110. 

Historical Reminiscences. By Dr. A. Booth. 
[Scrap-book, — newspaper clippings, etc., at the 
City Library.] 

United-States Armory at Springfield. Atlantic, 
vol. xii. ]>. 436. 


Abbe, James, 301, 317, 364. 

Active banking capital of Springfield, 308. 

Adams Express Co., 106. 

Adams, Ezekiel, 98. 

Adams. G. Frank. 358. 

Adams, Henry, 98, 102, 188. 

Adams, Henry W., 184. 

Adams, Louisa, 218. 

Adams, Nathan, 338. 

Adams, Willis Seaver, 164. 

Adams, W. F., 168, 343. 

Additions to territory, 14. 

Adelphi Chapter, order of Eastern Star, 274. 

Agawam, 10, 12, 14, 36, 51, 52, 73, 76. 

Agawam, ancient Indians of, convey Springfield to 

early settlers, 10. 
Agawam Bridge, 72. 

Agawam Encampment, Odd Fellows, 275. 
Agawam Indians join confederacy, 17. 
Agawam National Bank, 299, 321, 326. 
Agawam Paper Co., 54. 
Agawam River, 53, 54, 64, 72, 234. 
Albany Argus, the, 286. 
Albums, manufacture of, 47. 
Alden, A. M., 99. 
Alden, F. Merritt, 218. 
Alden, Warner, 206. 

Alexander, Henry, 40, 42, 45, 296, 297, 3or. 
Alexander, William P., 268. 
Alexis, Grand Duke, 101. 
Alger, C. E., 155. 
Allen, Bennett, 149. 
Allen, Charles, 82. 
Allen, Diah, 304. 
Allen, Edmund, 186. 
Allen, Joel, 68 
Allin, E. S., 253, 255. 
Allin, Lucius C, 274. 
Alhs. W. H.. 104. 
Allotment of lands, first, 10. 
Almshouse, 46, 222. 
Ambler, R. P 

use, the, 102. 
American Intelligencer, the, 284. 
American Machine Works, 40. 

I (avid, 38, 39, 49, 253, 25;. 
Ames, I>. & J., 38, 39, 297, 303, 309. 
Ames, E. \I. (Miss] - 

Hill, 38, 233. 
Ames Homestead, 38. 
Ames, John, 38, 49. 
Ames Manufacturing Company, 59. 
Ames Mills, 38. 
Amhersl < College, 28. 
Amherst, < leneral, 52. 
Amity Lodge, < Idd Fellows, 276. 
Am ucturing Company, 1 17. 

Anable, C. W., 182. 

Am icnt ( Irder of Hibernian-., 277. 

Anderson, Addie, 266. 

Anderton & Dunn, bleachery of, 59. 

Andrew, John A., 69. 

Andrews, W. F., 218. 

Andros, Gov., tyrannical extortion of, 58, note. 

Anthony, Edmund, 292. 

Appleton, John, 160. 

Appleton, Julius H.. 303, 314,358. 

Appleton & Co., Julius H., 358. 

Appleton, N., 82. 

Apprentices' Library, 150. 

Armory, United Slates, 34, 33,36,37,66,68,97, 

116, 220, 222. 
Armory Hill, 233, 238. 
Armory-hill Taverns, 102. 
Armory-hill Young Men's Christian Association, 

Armory House, 98. 

Armory Rifle-club, 270. 

Armory Square, 238. 

Arrington, B. F., 294. 

Arsenal, 2T. 

Arsenal tower, 233, 240. 

Arsenal tower, view from, 51. 

Art and music, 163, 172. 

Articles of agreement for government of Spring- 
field, 10. 

Asbury, Bishop, 177. 

Ashley, Benjami 

Ashley, David H.. 2S5. 

Ashley, F^lisha, 285. 

Ashley, John, 53, 70, 178. 

Ashley, Roderick, 299. 

Ashley, Timothy, 2S4. 

Ashleys, and other notable farmers, 6. 

Ashleyville, 59. 

Ashmun, George, 109. 121, 122, 163. 
ted < harities, 212. 
iat-club, 270. 

Atwater, G. M. , 76. 

Atwood, Cyrus W., 207. 

Ayers, James C. . 

Babcock, Elisha, 283. 

I . I '■ - . .14. 

!l, l6l. 
j , 300, 306. 

Bailey, J. M., 185. 
Bailey, Peter S., 300, 306. 

I'.aker, John, Ms. 

I trlando M., 343. 
Baker, William K.., 302. 
in, Abraham. 187. 
Bancroft, George, 70, 141. 

: I 1 
Banks and insurance companies, 49. 
Banks, development of State, 295. 
Baptist burying-ground, 230. 

37 6 


Baptist, Eli S., 218. 

Barber, Myron E., 83 

Barnes, Hillman, 70. 

Barnes, James, 84, 228. 

Barnes, James (Mrs.), 219. 

Barnes, Walter H., 83. 

Barnes's Lot, 35. 

Barney, M., beautiful house of, 55. 

Barney & Berry, 357. 

Barr, Edward, 109. 

Barr, Edwin C., 108. 

Barr, George E., 109. 

Barr, Jesse C, 109. 

Barrows, Charles, 132. 

Barrows, Charles H., 124, 148, 210, 212. 

Barrows, J. S., 190. 

Base Ball, history of, in Springfield, 280. 

Batchelder, E. S., i6t. 

Bates, Phoebe, 96. 

Bates Tavern, 96, 97, 100. 

Bates, Thomas, 96. 

Bales, William G., 24, 124, 153. 

Bay Path, 51, 61, 66, 94. 

Bay Road, 81, 238. 

Bay-State Faucet and Valve Company, 59. 

Beach, Charles A., 145. 

Beach, E. D., 285. 

Beach, " Governor," 301. 

Beach, Moses Y., 186. 

Beach, T. D., 305. 

Beaver-dams in the Agawam, 54. 

Beebe, Henry J., 302. 

Beecher, Henry \\ ard, 50, 87. 

Beethoven Society, 170. 

Belanger, Louis, 218. 

Belcher & Taylor, Agricultural Company, 59. 

Bellamy, Charles J., 148, 149. 

Bellamy, Edward, 148. 

Bellamy, E. & C. J., 293. 

Bell, famous, 55. 

Bell in the City Hall, 114. 

Bellows Falls, 31. 

Belmont Hotel, 94, 97. 

Bemis, Arthur I., 215, 306. 

Bemis, Stephen C, 40, 41. 

Benjamin, N. J., 217, 307. 

Bennett, John, 94. 

Bentley, G. W., 314. 

Benton family, 68. 

Benton, James G., 149, 240, 255. 

Benton Park, 240. 

Berkshire Mountains, 27, 29, 30, 52. 

Bessey & Co.. Marshall, 326. 

Biancciardi, E. D. R., 143. 

Bibliography of Springfield, 371. 

Bicycle-club Hall, 218. 

Bigelow, Cheney, 364. 

Bigelow, E. P. (Miss), 156 

Bigelow, George W., 279. 

Bigelow, H. H., 267. 

Bigelow, Samuel \Y\, 370. 

Bigelow Wire Works, the Cheney, 364. 

Bill, Charles, 168 

Bill, Gurdon, 76, 91, 162, 211, 212, 297, 317. 

Bill, Gurdon (Mrs.), 212. 

Bill, G & K.,340. 

Bill, Mary (Miss), 212. 
Binney, Amos, 84. 
l'.irnie. James, 162. 
Birnie, Sarah P. (Miss), 212. 
Birnie, William, 92, 161, 313, 336. 
Birnie & Warren, 91. 
;., Anna, 266. 

Bishop, John J., 98. 

Bishi 'p. 1 . W., 202. 

Blackmer, John, 210. 

Blair, Joe, 109. 

Blaisdell Cotton Waste Company, 59. 

Blake, C. E., 138. 

Blake, Ebenezer, 178. 

Blake, Elijah, 118, 223. 

Blake house, 68 

Blake, L. H., 218. 

Blake, Marshall, 304. 

Blake, William, 10. 

Blake's Hill, 68, 233, 234. 

Blanchard, Thomas, 252 

Bleecker, Harmanus, 82. 

Blelock, George H., 270, 307. 

Blenkensop, Father William, 198. 

Blenkinsop, M., 192. 

Bliss, Elijah, 188. 

Bliss iamily, 68. 

Bliss, George, 78, 82, 83, 112, 145, 151, 161, 228, 

296, 298, 303. 
Bliss, George, jun., 304. 
Bliss, Jacob, 23, 309. 
Bliss, Margaret, 68. 
Bliss, Moses, jun., 296, 304. 
Bliss, Theodore, 304, 305. 
Bliss, William, 83, 84. 
Bliss, William H., 148. 
Blodgett, Albert F. (Mrs.), 206. 
Boarding Home for Young Ladies, 206. 
Bond, Ephraim W., 152, 158, 301, 305, 313, 314. 
Bond, George R., 301. 
Bond, George T. (Mrs.), 162. 
Bond-street engine-house, 117. 
Bond, Thomas, 96, 188. 
Bonlecou, Daniel, 188. 
Boody, Azariah, 336. 
Boone, Daniel, portrait of, 163. 
Booth, Alfred, 146. 
Boston and Albany Railroad, 33, 46, 51, 75, 80, 86, 

87, 96, 102, 114, 127, 228, 233, 244, 337. 
Boston and Albany Railroad, presidents of, 84; 

station at Springfield, 84. 
Boston and Hartford stage-line, 97. 
Boston and Worcester Railroad Company, 81; 

presidents and superintendents of, 84. 
Boston Port Bill, 19. 
Boston Road, 66, 68, 76, 222, 236, 244. 
" Boston Stone," 240. 
Bosworth, H. W., 155. 
Bounds of town prior to 1647, 12. 
Bowen, James L., 147. 
Bowers, George N., 165. 
Bowers, Grovener B., 70. 
Bowles, Samuel, 37, 41, 141, 152, 211, 22C, 283, 

284, 285, 288, 290, 291, 292, 301, 326, 339. 

Bowles, Stephen W . 
Bowman, Henry H., 206. 
Bowman, Thomas, 202 
Boyle, James, 204. 
Bradbury, C. W., 217. 
Bradford, E. S., 217, 302 
Bradley, Lewis, 338. 
Bradley, Milton, 150, 168 
Bragden, C. P., 185. 
Branch, Nicholas, 182. 
Breck, Robert, 176. 
Breck, T. F., 220. 
Breck, William G., 220. 
Brewer, Charles, 66, 94. 
Brewer, Daniel. 176 ,228. 
Brewer, Francis, 161. 

155, 160, 220. 

335. 338, 339- 



Brewer, Henry, 188, 284 

Brewer, Henry (Mrs.), 214. 

Brewer, James, 188, 298, 304. 

Brewer, James D., 299, 305, 364. 

Brewer, Nathaniel, 19. 

Brewer, Lucy P. (Miss), 219. 

Brewer, Stephen, 89. 

Brewster, H. M., 360. 

Brick building, first, erected in 1660, 15. 

Bridge, first, opened for travel, 73; dedication 

services at opening of, 73. 
Bridge, J. D., 178, 190. 
Bridge, second, 74. 

Bridgman, Mr., of San Francisco, 102. 
Bridgman, William, 160. 
Bridges, 73. 
Brierly, James F., 207. 
Briggs, Albert D., 40, 41, 42. 
Briggs, Albert D. (Mrs.), 162. 
Briggs, Lewis, 285. 
Brigham, Alma (Miss), 156. 
Brigham, D. H., 370. 
Brigham & Co., D. H., 291, 333. 
Brightwood, 37, 233, 320. 
Brightwood Chapel, 46, 205. 
Broadway of Springfield, 61. 
Brockett, L. B., 324, 326. 
Brookings, Elias, 132. 
Brookings, E., 212. 
Brooks, Ethan, 161. 
Brooks, F. A., 314. 
Brooks, John C, 184, 212. 
Brooks, Miss, training-class of, 136. 
Brooks, L. S., 220. 
Brooks, L. S. (Mrs.), 212. 
Brooks, S. D., 220. 
Brooks & Russell, 283. 
Bross, William, 314. 
Brown, Dudley, 186. 
Brown, E. W., 216. 
Brown, John, 152, 190. 

Brown, Mrs., Sunday school in house of, 199. 
Brown, Timothy M., 155, 300, 306. 
Brown, Wood, & Kingman, 332. 
Bruce, ( ieorge, 270. 

Bryan, Clark W., 50, 147, 162, 292, 334, 339. 
Bryan & Tapley, 291. 
Bryant, Andrew S., 83, 216. 
Buckingham, Joseph T., opinion of, on railroad to 

Springfield, 81. 
Buckingham Park, 236. 
Buckingham, Samuel G., 164, 188, 192, 232. 
Buckland, G. A., 302. 
Budington, H. A., 196. 
Buel, Chauncy I.., 161. 
Buffington, A. R., 155, 255, 256. 
Bull, Milan W.,280. 
Billiard, James H., 366. 
Bullard Repeating-arms Company, 366. 
Burbank, F. H., 198. 
Burke, C. E., 192. 
Burgess, Alexander, 184. 
Burgoync, Gen., 52. 
Burnett, C. C, 130, 133, 170. 
Burnham, I'ersis (Mrs.), 188. 
Burr, lehu, 10. 

Burrall, William H., 336. 
Burt. F. A., 222. 
Burt, Henry M., 148, 223, 292. 
Burl\ Hall, 266, 275. 

Burying-ground, the old, 223. 
Business Men'-. Association, 334, 369. 
Butler, Harvey, 194. 

Butler, H. J., 171. 
Butler, James H., 69. 
Butler, Jonathan H., 89. 
Byers, James, 69, 236, 298. 
Byington, E. H., 155, 210, 218. 

Cable, George \V\, 156. 

Cable, John, 10, 54. 

Cabotville, 59, 98. 

Cain, H. J., 364. 

Calhoun, S. H., 130. 

Calhoun, William B.,40, 41. 70, 82, 141, 160. 

Calkins, Adelaide A., 211. 

Calkins, Marshall, 220. 

Calkins, Marshall (Mrs.), 219. 

Callender, George W., 285. 

Callender, J. A. (Mrs.), 220. 

Callender, W. F., 302. 

Cambridge Observatory, 80. 

Campbell, Ceha (Miss), 133. 

Campbell, Mary (Miss), 133. 

Cambridge, inhabitants of town of, remove to 

Springfield, 9. 
Card-factory Pond, 244. 
Carew, Joseph, 96, 309. 
Carlisle Brook, 98. 
Carlisle Mission, the, 206. 
Carr, John S., 302. 
Carter, E. A., 302. 
Case, Edmund E., 165. 
Case, H. N., 66, 301. 
Cass, John A., 202. 
Cass, Lewis W. , 100. 
Catholic cemeteries, 230. 
Catholic parochial school, 46. 
Catholic temperance societies, 278. 
Causeway over marsh, 66. 
Chadwick, Z. F., 222. 
Cemeteries, 223. 

Cemetery, Springfield, consecrated, 24. 
Central Circulating Library, the, 153. 
Central Hall, 281. 

Central Methodist-Episcopal Church, 202. 
Central-street School, 131, 132. 
Chaffee, C. C, 211, 212, 228, 241, 255. 
Chaffee, John, 303. 
Chamberlin, S. H., 302. 
Champney, Miss, 134. 
Chandler, George B., 314. 
Chandler, N. S., 98. 
Chapin, A. P., 98. 
Chapin, Austin, 98. 

Chapin Banking and Trust Company, 302. 
1 hapin, Charles O., 92, 211, 370. 
Chapin, Charles O. (Mrs.), 168. 
Chapin, Chester W., 78, 83, 84, 86, 88, 89, 91, 94, 

IOO, I02, I03, I52, IOI, 164, 185, 222, 228, 242, 
282, 209, 302, 310. 

Chapin, Deacon, 223, 242. 
Chapin, 1 lorcas, 214, 222. 

I hapin, I >. !''.., 217. 

Chapin, E. P., 215. 

1 lhapin, Edmund D., 300. 

1 lhapin, Edwar 

( hapin, Erastus, 94, 98. 

Chapin, Ethan S., 94, toi, 149,302. 

Chapin Farm, 102. 

Chapin, V . W., 220. 

Chapin, Harvey, 98, 1 : ■ 

t lhapin, I [enry, 59. 

t hapin. Henry ( '•., 170. 
Chapin, H. J., 102. 
Chapin, Japnet, 59, 69, 98. 



Cliapin, Marvin, 98, 100, 101, 299, 300, 306,310, 313. 

Chapin, Myron £., 299. 

Chapin National Bank, 302. 

Chapin, Phineas, 19. 

Chapin, William, 59. 

Cliapin, Samuel, 15, 18. 

Chapman, John B., 1S8. 

Chapman, Mary A. (Miss), 143. 

Chapman, Moses, 89. 

Chapman Valve Manufacturing Company, 361. 

Chapman, Reuben A., 122, 143, 160, 164, 188, 228. 

Chapman, T. L., 162. 

Chapman, T. L. (Mrs.), 212. 

Chapman, William, 76. 

Charities and Hospitals, 212. 

Charity Kindergartens. 136. 

Charland, A. J., 204. 

Charles Sumner Lodge, 274. 

Charmbnry, Thomas, 172. 

Cheney, P. C, 314. 

Cherry Valley, 1 17. 

Chesley, Harry B., 83. 

Chester, Simeon F., 131. 

Chicopee, 14, 24, 36, 51, 69, 80, 233. 

Chicopee Falls, 36, 3S, 08. 

Chicopee Falls Hosiery Company, 59. 

Chicopee Manufacturing Company, 59. 

Chicopee National Bank, 298. 

Chicopee River, 51, 58, 59, 68. 

Chickkuppy plaine, 125. 

Child, Harriet E. (Miss), 156. 

Child, William, 304. 

Childe, William S., 184. 

Childe, John, 103. 

China, natives of, come to Springfield for educa- 
tion, 123. 

Choral Union, the, 171. 

Christ Church, Episcopal, 182. 

Chubbuck, Thomas, 170. 

Church, Frederick E., 165. 

Church, Moses, 96, 120. 

Church music, 177. 

Church of the Sacred Heart, 46, 172, 204. 

Church of the Unity, 177, 184. 

Churches, new, in Springfield, 46. 

Churchill, Charles H., 298, 307. 

City Aqueduct Company, 116. 

City Government, the, 11 1. 

City Guard, 279, 282. 

City Hall, 24, 46, 100, 112, 113, 114, 1 17, 224, 234, 
236, 244, 282. 

City-Hall Park, 236. 

City Hospital, 220, 321. 

City incorporated, 24. 

City Library Association, 151. 

City-library building, 46, 158. 

City National Bank, 302. 

" City of Magnificent Distances," 34. 

Clapp, Henry W., 89, 91. 
. J. B., 285. 

Clarendon Fountain, 236. 

Clark, Charles \V., 345. 

Clark, C. Teresa, 143. 

Clark, E. B., 192. 

Clark, J. W., 216. 

(.lark, Minor G., 182 

Clark W. Brvan Company, the, 340. 

( I, iik, W. R , 185, 190. 

( larke, E. \V., 274. 

Clarke, John, 89. 

Clary, Ethan A., 68, 186. 

Clearings at the Springfield Clearing-House, 306. 
R. II., 307. 

Clemens, G. F., 217. 

Clemmer, Mary, 291. 

Clifford, Governor, 286. 

Climate in Connecticut Valley, 29. 

Chine, James A., 270. 

Chine, John H., 270. 

Coaches, rivalry of, 78. 

Coenen, Frank, 302. 

Coenen, Louis P., 170, 171, 172. 

Coenen's Orchestra, 172. 

Colburn. W. W., 130, 155, 159, 168. 

Collinsville, 58. 

Colton, Charles, 97. 

Colton, George, 304. 

Colton, Rufus, 296. 

Colton, Simeon, 19. 

Colton, William, 97. 

Committee on revolutionary correspondence, 19. 

Commons, 58, note. 

Compulsory education, 127. 

Comstock, Elon, 286. 

Cone, C. B , 138, 140. 

Cone, Luther H., 187, 194. 

Cones's Health Movement, 281. 

Coney, H. M., 279. 

Conference House, the, 187. 

Conklin, Robert H., 195. 

Connecticut basin, 30. 

Connecticut Bay, 29. 

Connecticut River, 31, 69, 127, 223, 233, 319, 337. 

Connecticut-river Railroad Company, 34, 44, 46, 
72, 80, 89, 90, 240, 328. 

Connecticut Valley, 9; fertility of, 9; formation of, 
27; plant-life of, 28; changes in, 29; fossils of, 
28; settlement of. 51. 

Connecticut-valley Farmer, the, 41. 

Connecticut-valley Histoiical Society, 145, 156. 

Connecticut-valley Musical Association, 171. 

Conner, William, 310. 

Conservatory Chorus, the, 170. 

Cook, B. F., 359. 

Cook & Co., J. H., 244. 

Cook, W. F., 307, 339. 

Cooke, Edward, 202. 

Cooke, J. F. (Mrs.), 144. 

Cook's (J. S.) monumental works, 338. 

Cooley, H. K., 338. 

Cooley House, 102, 103. 

Cooley, Justin M., 102, 103. 

Cooley, Moses, 109. 

Coomes, William W., 56. 

Conrad, Maurice, no. 

Converse, H. A., 106. 

Cooper, A. H., 270. 

Cooper, F. E., 307. 

Cooper, Thomas, 177. 

Co-operative life-insurance and mutual-benefit as- 
sociations, 318. 

Cordis, Francis T., 56. 

Cordis, Thomas F., 279. 

Corner Tavern, 260, 261. 

Cosmian Club, 156. 

( lounting-house calendars, manufacture ol, 49. 

County buildings, the, 120. 

County courts held at Northampton, 231. 

Court-house built in 1723, 18. 

Court-house, new, 24, 46, 234. 

Court-house, old, 234, 

Court Massasoit, Independent Order of Foresters, 

1 nun of Sessions authorize a survey of lots, 62. 

1 ourl Square, 21, 34, 35, 96, 98, 100, 112, 234, 236, 
241, 242. 



Covell, A. L., 210. 

Covell, Chauncey L., 76,92, 162,168, 222,302,31; 

Crescent Hill, 233. 

Crescent Lodge of Good Templars, 275, 276. 

Crocker, Daniel P., 212, 314. 

Cummings, E. E., 182. 

Cummings, John, 84. 

Curry, Joseph O., 198. 

Curtis, J. F„ 84. 

Cushman, Henry W., 89. 

Cushman, Isaac, 185. 

Daggett, Francis, 217. 

1 tally 1 icrnocrat, the, 293. 

Daily News, 293. 

Daily Post, the, 286. 

Dale, Lombard, 66. 

1 lamals, Ira, 284. 

Dame schools, 126. 

Damon, Isaac, 74. 

Daughters of Cyrus, 218. 

Daughters of Rebekah, 276. 

Davidson, J. O., 147 

Davis, E , 192. 

Davis, Jefferson, 101. 

Davis & Bridgman, 102. 

I lawes, H. L., 241. 

Day, Benjamin, 296, 304. 

Day, Benjamin H., 285. 

Day, Heman. 53, 304. 

Day, Luke, 21, 52. 

I (ay nursery, the, 218. 

Day, Samuel S., 102. 

Hay, William O., 331. 

Deacon Samuel Chapin statue, 236, 242. 

Deacon's seat, seats for children near, 126. 

Deane, George H., 188, 212. 

Dearden, K. A., 170. 

Death of prominent men, 18. 

Degrand, P. P. F., 82. 

De Lisser, R. L., 168. 

Deman, P. A., 218. 

Demers, W. F., 218. 

Democrat Publishing Company, 294. 

1 lenison, < < A., 155. 

Denny, Daniel, 84. 

Denton, David, 126. 

Denver, Henry, 145 

Derby, E. H., 82. 

Derby, P. H., 207. 

Derby, William P., 146. 

Deschamps, Eli, 218. 

De Soto Lodge, Odd Fellows, 276. 

Dewey, T. M., 91, 92, 146, 216. 

Dickens, Charles, 101. 

Dickinson, E., 162. 

Dickinson, Francke W., 307. 

Dickinson, Isaac P., 70, 162. 

Dickinson, Ocran, 234, 274. 

I in km. in, Thomas, 284. 

Dimmock, George B., 116, 149. 

I limiiiock, Orrin, 97. 

1 ii 11 !>■ r, 1'iini 1 1 , 192. 
Dod ' , \ 11., 217. 
Dodge, E H.,217. 
I lodge, O. A., 217. 

I l.ill.'llV, |. I . 

Dolan, < 1. H., 

I, |ames, 217. 

tic Journal, the, 294. 
I lonovan, I T., 276. 
Don as < !h ipin I lospital, 222. 

ler, I taniel, 178, 185, 186. 

Dorchester, inhabitants of, remove to Connei ticut 

Valley, 9. 
Dorr, Harry R., 147. 
Douglas, Stephen A., 101. 
1 lowling, Edward, 278. 
1 imviis, S. C, 216. 
1 Innking-fountains, 242. 
I Irummond, James, 195. 
Ducker, Henry E., 342. 
Dunham, J. N., 312. 
Dunham & Sleeper, 71. 
" Dunn Brown," 291. 
Dunning, James G., 149. 
Durkee, H. E., 307. 
I Iwight, Edmund, 83. 
Dwight, Edwin, 148. 

Dwight, George, 161, 246, 254, 255, 310, 352. 
Dwight, Henry, 274. 
Dwight homestead, old, 97. 
Dwight House, fire at, 118. 
Dwight, Janus, 71 1, 
Dwight, James S., 296. 
Dwight, Jonathan, 184, 296. 
I Iwight, Jonathan, jun., 296, 303. 
Dwight, M., 185. 
Dwight Manufactory, 59. 
Dwight, President, on roads in Connecticut Valley, 

7 1 - 
Dwight, William, 296, 304, 305. 
Dyer, A. B., 246^ 255, 259. 
1 Iyer, E. Porter, jun., 148, 170. 

Eagle Hotel, 98. 

Early boats, stage-coaches, and canals, 72. 

Eastern Massachusetts set of mountain ridges, 27, 

29. 3°- 
East Longmeadow, 36, 52, 57. 
East St. Louis Stock Yard, 104. 
East Windsor, 16. 
Eaton, George, 228. 
Eaton, Joseph O., 164, 165. 
Eaton, J. W., 182. 
Eaton, " Master," school of, 288. 
Eaton, W. H., 140. 
Eccles, Robert, 216. 
Edgerly, M. V. B., 314. 
Edgewood, 229, 238. 
Educational institutions, 125, 140. 
Edwards, Elisha, 70. 

E. K. Wilson Post, Grand Army Republic, 277. 
Eldridge, John B., 2S4. 

Election-returns, first complete gathering of, 33. 
Elliot, Henry B., 187. 
F.llis, George A., 114. 
Ellis, Theodore W., 148. 
I Inis of North Main Street, 61. 
Elms, the (school), 134. 
Elm-street Grammar-school, 131. 
Elwell, William S., 163, 228. 
Ely, I laniel, 53. 
Ely, Justin, 53, 296. 
Ely, Nathaniel, 93, 97. 
Ely Ordinary, 61, 97. 
Ely, Samuel, 21, 126, 127. 

Emery, < 'harles A , 167. 

Emery 1 late, 102. 

Emery, Robert, 69, 102, 304. 

Employes ol the Boston and Ubany Railroad 

in) , Mutual Relief Soci 
Enfield, town of. 14, 51, 56, 57. 
E nil. M Shal • 1 . 1 stabhshment of, 57. 
England and her American colonies, difficult! - 
betwei n 

3 8o 


Enterprise Section of Cadets of Temperance, 276. 

Equity Council Royal Arcanum, 275. 

Etienne, Samuel, 208. 

Eustis, Governor, appoints commissioners to locate 

canal-route, 81. 
Eustis, William T., 144, 200. 
Evangelical Religious Society of Indian Orchard, 

J 94- . . . 

Evangelist Building, 168. 
Evangelist Mission, the, 208. 
Evans, C. F. (Mrs.), 106. 
Evans House, the, 106. 
Evening Star Lodge of Perfection, 274. 
Evening Union, the, 293. 
Everett, Edward, 71, 101. 
Every Saturday, 293. 
Exchange, Tavern, 98. 

Fabre, Bishop, 204. 
Fairman, James, 165. 
Faith Chapel, 46, 206, 230. 
Fales, W. H., 208. 
Family hotels, 108. 
Farm and Home, 293. 
Father Mathew, 276. 

Father Mathew Society of Cathedral Parish, 276. 
Father Mathew Total Abstinence Society, 276. 
Farrar, Edwin, 217. 
Faunce, W. H. P., 199. 
Federal Spy, the, 284. 
Federal Square, 238, 240. 
Feeding Hills, 51, 54. 
Felker, George C, 171. 
Fellows, N., 178, 180. 
Fennessey, Andrew L., 272. 

Ferries, formerly highways for crossing Connecti- 
cut River, 72, 73, 76. 
Ferry Lane, 64, 96. 
Ferry, \V. F., 168, 196. 
Field, George D., 145. 
Field, George D. (Mrs.), 144- 
Field, Kate, 291. 
Field, Major, 102. 
Field, Marshall, 313. 
Field, Moses, 19. 
Field, William D., 102, 106. 
Fifield, Moses, 178. 

Financial Institutions of Springfield, 295, 308. 
Fire-department, 117. 
Fire, disastrous, 24. 
Firemen's Aid Association, 118. 
Firemen's Mutual Relief Association, 118. 
Firman, Burton Monroe, 222. 
First Baptist Church, 180, 208. 
First Baptist Society, 46. 
First brick building, 15. 
First Church, 97, 174, 213, 234. 
First Church of Christ, 56, 186. 
First Congregational Society, 46. 
First Independent Universalist Society, 1S6. 
First Methodist-Episcopal Church, 177. 
First National Bank, 301. 
First town-hall opened, 24. 
Firth, Abraham, 84. 
Fisk, C A., 217. 
Fisk, Editor, 291. 

•1 <>rge C., 141, 217, 320, 338, 355. 
Fisk, George C (Mrs.), 162. 
Fisk Manufacturing Company, 354. 
Fisk, Noyes W., 355, 370. 
Fisk, T. T., 354. 
Fisk & Co., L. I., 354. 
Fiske, Moses W., 265. 

Fitch, Robert G., 291. 

Fitzgerald, James, 198. 

Fitzgerald, James F., 204. 

Fitzgibbon, \V. S., 278. 

Five-cents Savings Bank, 120. 

Five-mile House, 97. 

Five-mile Pond, 244. 

Fleming, W. J., 266. 

Flemming. J., 178. 

Flint, Joseph H., 160. 

Flower-mission, the, 212. 

Florence-street Methodist Church, 178. 

Folsom, Albert T., in, 212, 297, 370. 

Folsom, Albert T. (Mrs.), 143. 

Folsom, A. A., 186. 

Folsom, Dustin A., 302. 

Folsom, George De F., 187. 

Foot, Delia (Miss), 144. 

Foot, Francis D., 170, 270, 352. 

Foot, Homer, 76, 300, 301, 305, 314, 352. 

Foot, Katharine B., 143. 

Foot, Maria S., 207. 

Foot & Co., Homer, 352. 

Forbes, Alexander, 348. 

Forbes, A. A., 270. 

Forbes, A. B., 302. 

Forbes & Smith, 354. 

Forbes & Wallace, dry-goods establishment of. 

Ford, J. H., 159. 

Ford, J. W., 186. 

Foreign commercial intercourse, 319. 

Foresters, Independent Order of, 277. 

Fort Block, 313. 

Fort Hill, 68. 

Forty-sixth Regiment, 24. 

Foss, Henry D., 120. 

Foss Patent Exhaust Method, 322. 

Fossils in Connecticut Valley, 28. 

Foster, E. F., 131. 

Foster, Roswell, 192. 

Four-mile Pond, 244. 

Fourth Congregational Church, 175, 187. 

Fourth meeting-house, 175. 

Fourth-of-July dinners, 262. 

Franklin Hall, 281. 

Franklin Library Association, 150. 

" Free Church," 196. 

Freeman, Edmund, 310. 

Free Masons, 253, 272, 274. 

Free navigation asserted by Springfield, 77. 

Freight, cost of moving, from Boston to Spring- 
field, 78. 

French and Indian wars, 18. 

French, G. T., 270. 

French, Hiram M., 100. 

Friendship Lodge of Sons of Temperance, 279. 

Frost, Joshua, 304. 

Frost, F. P., 155. 

Frost's Hall, 196. 

Frost's Pond, 262. 

Fuller, Henry, 298, 299, 310. 

Gagnier, L. G., 204. 

Gallagher, M. P., 192, 230. 

Gallup, Edward, 83. 

Games and toys, manufacture of, 334. 

Garden Brook, 71, 119 

Gardner, E. C, 143, 167, 168, 175. 

Gardner, Gideon, 70. 

(lay, William W.. 147. 

Gaylord, Emerson, 104. 

Gaylord Manufacturing Company, 59. 



Geer, George P., 138. 

Geer's Commercial College, 138. 

General Advertiser, the, 283. 

General Court, delegates to, 20. 

Geology and Geography of Springfield, 27-32. 

George, Charles, 210. 

George, W. A., 208. 

German Schiitzen Gesellschaft, 281. 

Germania Lodge of the Harngari, 277. 

Gilbert & Thompson, 244. 

Giles's Day and Boarding School, 134. 

Gillespie, Miss, 153. 

Gill, James D., 153, 168, 244, 345, 370. 

Gill's art-store and galleries, 165, 281, 344, 345. 

Gill's circulating library, 153. 

Gill's Hall, 281. 

Gillett, E. B.,164. 

Gilmore, Addison, 83. 

Gilmore, DwightO., 106, 267. 

Gilmore, H. G , 279. 

Gilmore, L. A. (Miss), 153. 

Gilmore Opera House, 170, 236, 266. 

Gilmore's Hall, 281- 

Glaciers, Springfield once the seat of, 29, 30. 

Gladden, Washington, 143, 195, 211, 291. 

Gladwood Park, 238. 

Glasgow Paper Company, 326. 

Glass-ball team, the, 270. 

Glover, Hattie, 210. 

Glover, Pelatiah, 175, 223. 

Goggin, William H., 192. 

Golden Star Commandery of Golden Cross, 279. 

Goldthwait estate, view from, 55. 

Gompf, W. S. (Mrs.), 143. 

Goodman, C. H., 104 

Goodman, D. Ellen, 143. 

Goodrich Block, 326. 

Goodrich, Elijah, 96. 

Good Templars, 277. 

Goodwin, C. J., 204. 

Goodwin, George H., 171. 

Goodyear, S. E., 218. 

Goose Pond, 66. 

Gough, John B., 114. 

Gould, George H., 187, 188. 

Gould, H. A., 302. 

Goulding, H. I., 210. 

Gowen, C. R., 100. 

(Irace Methodist-Episcopal Church, 202, 208. 

Grammar-school master, salary of, in 1709, 128. 

Grammar schools, the, 131. 

Granby, town of, 76. 

Grand Army of the Republic, 145, 277. 

Grant, President, 101. 

Graves. Hiram O., 182. 

Gray, F. Edward, 279. 

Gray, Henry, 84. 

Gray, \V. M., 216. 

" Great River," 71. 

Greene, Aella, 145. 

Greene, Richard G., 144, 195. 

( ireenfiekl, 28. 

Greenfield and Northampton Railroad Co., 89. 

( irecnleaf, Orick H., 152, 302. 

Greenleaf, O. S., 206. 

Greenlcaf, Oscar S., 307. 

Green, Mason A., 146. 

< ireen, Samuel, 70. 

i.i' en, S. S,, 128. 

Greer, J. E., 255. 

( trey, Edward, 284. 

Griffin, P. J., 276. 

Griffin, Solomon B , 147, 294. 

Griggs, Joseph M., 83. 

Griswold, F. A., 185. 

Grover, Charles E., 83. 

Growth of Springfield during war of rebellion, 35. 

Gunn, Elisha, 305. 

( !unn, William, 66. 

Gunn's Block, 78. 

Gunn's Hall, 281. 

Gustafson, Zadel B. (Mrs.), 143. 

Hadley, 1=;, 17. 

Haile, William H., 40, 43, 47, 305, 313. 

Hale Fund, 213. 

Hale, James W., 122, 213. 

Hale, John, 20. 

Hale, Jonathan, jun., 19. 

Hale, Nathan, 84. 

Haley, Father, 192. 

Hall, Charles, 212. 

Hall, Charles (Mrs.), 219. 

Hall, Charles W., 101. 

Hall, Edward A., 216, 307. 

Hall, John A., 314. 

Hall, Sanford J., 312. 

Hall, William K., 187. 

Hamilton, A. O., 185. 

Hamilton, H. C, 216. 

Hamilton, John A., 187. 

Hamilton, Robert J., ng, 279. 

Hammond, Stephen T., 145. 

Hampden, r4, 51, 58. 

Hampden Agricultural Society, 280. 

Hampden Block, 138. 

Hampden Coffee-house, 98. 

Hampden Conference and Benevolent Association, 


Hampden-County Agricultural Society, 160, 241. 
Hampden-County Court-house, 121. 
Hampden-County Children's Aid Association, 212. 
Hampden County, creation of, 23. 
Hampden-County Horticultural Society, 161. 
Hampden-County Jail and House of Correction, 

Hampden-County Law-Library 153. 
Hampden-County School Committee's Association, 

Hampden-County Truant School, 132. 
Hampden Daily Post, the, 43. 
Hampden District Medical Society, 159. 
Hampden Hall, 265, 266, 281. 
Hampden House, 106. 
Hampden Fire-insurance Company, 41. 
Hampden Harvest Club, 161. 
Hampden Intelligencer, the, 285. 
Hampden Journal, the, 284, 285, 288. 
Hampden Patriot, the, 284. 
Hampden I odge ol I ree Masons, 253, 272, 274. 

Hampden Lodge of Odd Fellows, 275,276. 

Hampden Mei hanics' Association, 150. 

Hampden Mutual Fire-insurance Company, 317. 

Hampden Park, 50, 119, 120, 161, 240. 

Hampden-Park Association, 241, 280, 281, 326. 

Hampden Post, the, 285, 286. 

Hampden Savings Bank, 306, 321. 

1 [ampden Statesman, 285. 

Hampden Watch Company, 362. 

I [ampden Whig, 285. 

Hampshire and Berkshire Chronicle, 284. 

Hampshire Federalist 

Hampshire Herald and Weekly Advertiser, 284. 

I I U 1 . E> |" 1 I' Hi . . t.y. 

Handel Chum-, 170, 171. 

Hanley, Thomas, 276. 



Hanover-street Park, 238. 

Harding, Chester P., 109, 163,228. 

Harding, John W., 60, 147, 15S, 192. 

Hardy, Albert H., 148. 

Hardy, John W., 178, 185. 

Harland, Marion, 143, 177. 

Harmon's Pond, 244. 

Harrington, George, 165. 

Harris, Ambia (Miss), 143. 

Harris, Azariah B., 152, 302, 31 ;. 

Harris, 1 laniel, 19. 

Harris, Daniel L., 39, 40, 41, v i , 103, 164, 188, 310. 

Harris, Frederick, 302. 

Harris, Frederick H.,228, 301, 302, 313. 

Harris, H. H., 281. 

Hams, Spencer, 204. 

Harris & Hawkins, 336. 

Harrison, Samuel, 192. 

Harrison, William H., 70. 

Hut, John S., 196. 

Harte, Bret, 291. 

Hartford, 12, 16, 69, 72. 

Hartford and Springfield Railroad, 34, 46, 47. 

Hartford, Conn., inhabitants of Massachusetts 

towns remove to, 9. 
Hartley, J. S., 241. 

Harugari, Germania Lodge of the, 277. 
Harvey, Arthur C., 356. 
Haskell, Jefferson, 190. 
Hastings, Waitstill, 310. 
Haswell, Anthony, 283. 
Hatch, Solomon, 367. 
Hathorne, George, 151, 316. 
Hawkins, Julia (Miss), 133. 
Hawkins, Richard F., 162, 306, 335, 336, 337. 
Hawkins, R. F. (Mrs.), 162, 214, 330. 
Hawley, Alanson, 285. 
Hawley, M., 286. 
Hayes, Frederick R., 345. 
Haynes, C. C, 302. 
Haynes Hotel, 103, 104. 
Haynes House, 104. 
Haynes & McKnight, 71. 
Haynes's Music Hall, 265, 266. 
Haynes, Tilly, 103, 104, 106, 265. 
Haynes & Co., clothing establishment of, 349. 
Healey, Father Patrick, 198. 
Heath, Frank, 256. 
Hetifner, William, 217. 
Hendee, George M., 272. 
Hendricks, E. A., 218. 
Henry, Tim, 141. 
Henshaw, David, 82. 
Henshaw, Samuel, 304. 
Herald of Life, 294. 
Hermit's residence, site of, 57. 
Hernck, W., 171. 
Herschel, Clemens, 155. 
Hetherington, W. R., 305. 
Heywood, Sadie (Miss), 212. 
Higher and B road Brooks, 58. 
H igh School, 130. 
High, W. C, 180. 
Highways and Byways, 61-76. 
Hill, William, 106. 
Hills, Charles D., 180, 190. 
Hillyer, Winthrop, 89. 
Hinckley, Samuel 1.., 89. 
Hinman, < '•. C, 138. 
History of Western Massachusetts, 2yo. 
I T 1 1 . hi in k, A. I'., 302. 

ick, I >r., 28. 
'. lixon, John R., 317. 

Hixon, John R. (Mrs.), 136, 214. 

Hodgelt, Wells P., 70. 

Holbrook, George B., 66. 

Holcomb, Oliver, 338. 

Holland, Josiah G., 24, 114, 141, 142, 145, 174, 228, 

233, 283, 290, 320, 339. 
Holley, William, 270. 
Holmes, Oliver Wendell, 131. 
Holt, Albert, 83, 170, 216. 
Holyoke, Elizur, 15, 18, 223. 
Holyoke, Mary (Mrs.), 223. 
Holyoke, town of, 14, 36, 51, 59. 
Hooker, George, 170. 
Hooker, George B., 346. 
Hooker, John, 100, 296, 305 
Hooker, Josiah, 128, 131, 161, 285,303, 305. 
Hooker, Sallie Bowles (Mrs.), 156. 
Hooker School, the, 131. 
Hooker, Worthington, 284. 
Hope Chapel, 200, 206. 

Hope Congregational Church, 199, 200, 206, 208. 
Hope Congregational Mission Sunday-school, 199. 
Hope Temple of Honor, 276. 
Hopkins, Erastus, 91. 
Hopkinson, T, 84. 
Horford, Benjamin, 306. 
Horse-show business, 50. 
Horse-show, National, 160. 
Hosford, Bradley, 149. 
Hosford, naturalist and taxidermist, 57. 
Hosley, CD. (Mrs.), 219. 
Hotel Gilmore, 106. 
Hotel Warwick, 104. 
Hough, Allen, 180, 182. 
Hough, Joseph, 182. 
Howard, Augustus A., 207. 
Howard, Bezaleel, 68, 97, 176. 
Howard, Catherine L. (Miss): family school for 

girls, 133. 
Howard, F. L., 217. 
Howard, George E., 152, 162, 302. 
Howard, John, 296, 304. 
Howard, J. C, 348. 
Howard, Lucinda O., 220. 
Howard, Luther G., 349. 
Howard, M. J., 204. 
Howard-street Church, 218. 
Howard & Kinsman, 349. 
Howe, J. B., 266. 
Howe, O. S., 185. 
Howe, " Uncle" Aaron, 109. 
Howe, William, 335, 336. 
Hubbard, E. A., 128, 140. 
Hubbard, G. W., 298. 
Huck estate, view from, 55. 
Hudson River, 72. 
Hudson, valley of, 30. 
Hulburd, Merritt, 186. 
Humphreys, Charles A., 144, 185. 
Humphreys, L. W., 160. 
Hunt, Seth, 91. 
Huntington, Andrew, 310. 
Huntington, Robert G. H., 1S7, 188. 
Hurlburt, J. S. (Mrs.), 168. 
Hutchins, James R., 284. 
Hutchinson, Lizzie E. (Mrs.), 108. 
Hyde, Editor, 285. 
Hyde, Henry S., 162, 220, 268, 299, 300, 306, 320. 


II. S. (Mrs), 168. 
Hyde, J. W., 338. 
I lydi -, Louis C, 168, 321. 
Hyde, William, 284, 288. 



Ide, George B , 143, 181, 1S2, 198 

Independent Democrat, the, 285. 

Indian Fort, 68. 

Indian Leap, 58, 116. 

Indian Orchard, 38, 117, 131,230. 

Indian-Orchard Library, 153. 

Indian-Orchard Mills, 37, 153, 194. 

Indian trail, 61. 

Indians, ancient, of Agawam, convey Springfield 

to white settlers, 10. 
Indians, relations of Springfield people with, 17. 
" Infant City," the, 33, 34. 
Ingersoll, Edward, 210, 238, 367. 
Ingersoll, John, 304. 
Ingersoll, James C, 170. 
Ingersoll's I in > 

Inhabitants inclined to abandon town, 17. 
Institute Hall, 204. 
Insurance companies, 309-318. 
Insurance, primitive mode of, 309. 
International committee on reading-rooms, 153. 
International Institute, 140. 
Ireland, George H., 216. 
Ireland, Oscar B., 159, 170, 314. 
Iron Works, R. F. Hawkins's, 335. 
Island, the, 72. 
Ives, Dwight, 1S2. 

Jackson, Andrew, appoints superintendent of 

Springfield Armory, 253. 
Jackson, Samuel, 178. 
Jacobs, Mary L. (Miss), 214. 
Jacobs, Millie H. (Mrs.), 220. 
James & Mann, 57. 
Janes, E. L., 170. 
Jefferson-avenue Park, 238. 
Jefferson's Church, 175. 
Jefts, Charley, 109. 
Jenk, Benjamin, 297. 
Jenksville, 58. 

Jennings, A. F. (Mrs.), 207. 
Jennison & Kendall, 153. 
jocelyn, W. K., 171. 
John Hancock National Bank, 300. 
" John Paul," 291. 
Johnson, C. P., 302. 
Johnson, C. T., 202. 
Johnson, Edwin L., 148. 
Johnson, James U., 196. 
Johnson, President, 101. 
tones, Bela B., 160. 
Joyce, D. H., 208. 
Judd, F. A., 216, 307, 318. 
Judd, Theodore F., 155. 
Judkins, C. A. (Mrs.), 143. 

Kabul 1 ' I, 355. 

Keenev, Dora (Mrs.), 144. 

Keep, John, and family, killed by Indians, 53. 

k. /Hogg, P. P., 168, 297, 307, 317, 370. 

Kemaler, G. H., 299, 302 

Kendall, G. F., 153. 

Kendall's . in ulating library, 153. 

Kendrick, Kdimind P., [49. 

Kenney, John, 198. 

Kibbe Brothers, 121, 358. 

A., 298, 358. 
Kibbe, Horace, 106, 162, 236, 297, 358. 
Kibbe Park, 236. 

" Kibbee's fence," a landmark, 67. 
Kilbon, Charles W., 188. 
Kilbon. Ruth (Mrs.), 188. 
Kimball, < Jcorge C, 314. 

Kimball, James, 217. 

Kimberley, John, 300 

Kimberly, Ezra, 98. 

Kindergartens, 134, 136. 

King, Aaron, 160. 

King, Edward. 142, 291. 

King, E. P., 180. 

King, F. E., 76. 

King, H. E., 198. 

King, John L., 103, 151, 310. 

King, Lyman, 69. 

King Philip, camp of, 58. 

King, Thomas E., 277. 

King, William H., 170. 

King, W. C, 208. 

Kingman & Co., 98. 

Kingsley, Daniel P., 102. 

Kinsman, Warren D., diy-goods house of, 34S. 

Kirkham, Albert Harleigh, 171,264. 

Kirkham, Albert H. (Mrs.), 219. 

Kirkham, Henry, 285. 

Kirkham, I. Stuart, 188. 

Kirkham, James, 91, 92, 152, 229, 238, 281, 302, 

Kirkham, John B., 304. 
Kirkham, J. S., 210. 
Kirkham, J. W., 302. 
Knapp, Martin A., 314. 
Knapp, E. C, 299. 
Knappe, Louise (Miss), 159. 
Knight, J. L., 277. 
Knights of Pythias, 276. 
Knowles, J. 0., 202. 
Knowlton, Judge MLP., 155, 302. 
" Know-Nothing" craze, the, 
Knox, Charles McLean, 314. 
Knox, Henry, causes surveys for canal, 81. 
Knox, W. E., 186. 
Kossuth, Louis, 101. 
Kron, A., 269. 
Kyle, Forbes, 160. 

Ladd, Charles R., 302. 

Ladd, E. W., 40, 44, 46, 317. 

Ladd, Randolph E. , 198. 

Ladies' Benevolent Society, 188. 

Laidley, T. T. S., 248, 255. 

Lalime, A. S., 267. 

Lamb Knitting-machine Company, 59. 

Lamb, Samuel O., 158. 

Lambert, Alfred, 220, 314. 

Landen, W. J., 217. 

Lander, F. M., 305. 

Landon, (>., 18 

Landry, H., 204. 

Lanergan and Fiske, 265. 

Lanes lo the river, 64. 

Lariviere, E., 218. 

Lathrop, Edward II , 145. 

Lathrop, E. W., 277. 

Lathrop, Joseph, 52, 74. 

Lawrence, Amos and Abbott, portraits of, 

Lawrence, George A., 206. 

Lawton, Sanford, 130, 188, 272, 300. 

Leavitt, Gillespie, and Gilmore (Misses), 153. 

Henrj .. 260. 

Lee, Henry S., 158, 215, 216, 217, 218, 2 

304, 310, 314. 
Lee, Henry \\'., 184. 
Lee, ] lorace C, 120, 277. 

Lee, Roswell, 182, 184, 252, 253, 272, 274, 303. 
Legion of Honor, 217. 
I • \<>n, W . C, 267. 



Leonard, Clam T. (Mrs.), 211, 212. 

Leonard, John J., 279. 

Leonard; J. J., 278. 

Leonard, M. J., 278. 

Leonard, Norman 1'., 161. 

Leonard, N. A., 91, 302, 313. 

Leonard, N. F., 364. 

Leonard, S. E., 278. 

Leshure, Abner P., in, 117, 217. 

Lew is, A. H. G., 279. 

Lewis, C. H., 217. 

Lewis, George S., 71. 

Lewis, James, 196. 

Lewis, James H., 222. 

Libraries of Springfield, 150. 

Life and Advent Onion, 294. 

Lincoln, Abraham, calls lor troops, 35: eulogy on 

the death of, 114. 
Lincoln, Benjamin, 21, 240. 
Lincoln Hall, 282. 
Lincoln, 1). Waldo, 84. 
Lincoln, Levi, 186. 
Lincoln, William, 82. 
Lind, Jenny, 266. 
Lingham, Matt V., 266. 

Liquid Light Division, Sons of Temperance, 279. 
Lisser, R. L. de, 165, 168. 
Literary clubs, 155. 
Literature and science, I4i-r62. 
Lithographing establishment of Jacob C. Lutz, 

Little, E. H., 172. 
Littlejohn, A. N., 1S4. 
Little's Brass Band, 172. 
Livesey, William, 185. 
Local burying-grounds, 229. 
Lockwood, John H., 218. 
Lombard, Daniel, 120. 
Lombard, Hosea C, 279. 
Lombard House, 61. 
Lombard, Justin, 69. 
Lombard reservoir, 116. 
Long Hill, 55, 66, 67, 68, 233, 234. 
Long Island, 30, 31. 
Long-island Sound, 31. 
Longmeadow, r4, 18, 51, 55, 113, 33r. 
Longmeadow line, 68. 
Longmeadow May breakfast, 56. 
Long Pond, 244. 
Loon Pond, 244. 
Lord, Judge, 121, 
Loring family, 69. 
Loring, Joshua, 69. 

Loring-street American Methodist Church, 219. 
Lots, assignment of, to new-comers, 62. 
Lovers fined for violating Puritan law, 72. 
Lowell, I. B., 306. 
Lower Water-shops, 34. 
Ludlow Manufacturing Company, 59. 
Ludlow reservoir, 229. 
Ludlow, town of, 14, 36, 5r, 57, 58, 68, 114, 116 

Lutz, Jacob C, 339. 
Lyle, D. A., 149, 155, 159. 
Lyman, Mr., 21. 
Lyman, Samuel F., 91. 

Mackintosh, Andrew J., 299. 
Mackintosh & Co., J. G., 307. 
Madden's Block, 139. 
Maddison, William, 125. 
Madison, Dolly (Mrs. ), 164. 
Magistrates appointed to govern town, 15. 

Mahn, Dr., of Berlin, 342. 

Mallory, William W., 192. 

Mandell, D. J., 186. 

Mann, Horace, 101. 

Manning, E. A., 178. 

Mansfield, J. H., 185. 

Mansion House, 106, 108. 

Manufactures, 49. 

Maplewood Cemetery, 229. 

Map of Springfield in 1827, 65. 

Map of Springfield in 1883, 62, 63. 

Marryatt, Captain, on railroads, 81. 

Marsh, Charles, 91, 214, 218, 220, 301, 305, 306, 

Marsh, Daniel J., 305. 
Marsh, Oliver, 305. 
Marsh, William, 178. 
Marsh, W. C, 301. 
Marshall, John K., 314. 
Marshall House, 106. 
Marshfield, widow, 14. , 
" Martha's Dingle," 142, 224. 
Marvin, Josiah, 186. 
Mary Johanna, Sister, 134. 
Mason, James Weir, 314. 
Mason, Joseph K., 186, 212. 
Masonic Mutual Relief Association of Western 

Massachusetts, 215, 274. 
Massachusetts Arms Company, 59. 
Massachusetts Canal, 81. 
Massachusetts Gazette, the, 283. 
Massachusetts General Hospital training-si hool 
for nurses, 220. 

Massachusetts House, 101. 

Massachusetts Medical Society, 159. 

Massachusetts Mutual Life-Insurance Company, 
39. 49. 312, 3'3, 326. 

Massasoit Council Princes of Jerusalem, 274. 

Massasoit House, roo, 101, 103, 106, 326, 328. 

Massasoit Lodge No. 53, Knights of Pythias, 276. 

Massasoit Temple of Honor, 378. 

Mathews, Moses, 204. 

Mattoon, William, 71,91, 367. 

Mayo, Amaziah, 151. 

Mayo, Amaziah, jun., 132. 

Mayo, A. N., 317. 

Mayo, Fiank, 267. 

Mayr, Charles, 149. 

McClean, George C, 160. 

McClellan, Charles, 100, 101. 

McClellan, General, 101. 

McCormick, T. B., 270. 

McDermott, J., 216. 

McDermott, J. J., 192, 204. 

McDonald, Father, 192. 

McDonald, Henry, 279. 

McElwain, J. S. N., 8. 

McElwin, E., 358. 

McGeorge, William, 314. 

McGrath, D. F., 198. 

McGregory, H. W., 270. 

McHiggins, J. M., 270. 

McKechnie, C. F., 278. 

McKechnie, James, 217. 

McKeown, A., 190. 

McKnight, George H., 184. 

McKnight, John D., 236. 

McKnight Park, 236. 

McKnight, W. H., 236. 

McKnight, W. H., & J. !>., 366-369. 

McLean, George C, 220. 
Mi .id, Charles 1L, 159. 

Medcalfe, W. M., 256. 



Medlicott Company, the \V. G., 332. 
Medlicott, William G., 333. 
Meekins, Emery, 188. 
Meeting-house Lane, 64, 223. 
Mehigen, John M., 270. 
Mellen, L. F., 140. 
Memorial Church, the, 200, 233. 
Merchants and manufacturers, 319. 

, R R., 185. 
Merriam, Charles, 143, isa, 188, 236, 301. 
Merriam family, charitable work o(. 211. 
Merriam, George S., 143, 145, 146, 188. 
Merriam, G. & C, 37, 339, 342, 343- 
Merriam, Homer, 143, 343. 
Merriam, James F., 144. 
Merrick, Christopher C, 145- 
Merrick, Jacob B., 310. 
Merrick, Solyman, 98. 
Merrick, Solyman (Mrs.), 211. 
Merrick, Tilly, 53. 
Merrick, William, 66, 152, 300. 
Merricke, Goodman, 126. 
Merricke, Goodwife, 126. 
Merrill, A. D. 185. 
Merrill, C. A., 202. 
Merrill, George E., 144, 182. 
Merritt, C. C, 143, 300. 
Merritt, S. F., 206. 
Merritt, Timothy, 1S5. 
Metcalf, Edwin D., 300, 307, 377, 370. 
Methodist burying-ground, 226, 22j. 
Mielliez, Adolphe, 162. 
Miles, R. E. J., 266. 
Miles Morgan statue, 60, 236, 241, 242. 
Militia, Springfield, march to Boston, 23. 
Mill River, 34, 68, 71, 76, 127, 234, 319. 
Mills, John, 161. 
Miller, F. B., 217. 

Milton Bradley Company, 136 333, 334, 335. 
" Mirick's onley son," 58. 
Mission Franchise, 208. 
Miti hell, Matthew, 10. 
Mitteneague, 36, 52, 53. 
Monroe, James, 94. 
Moore, Chauncey L., 360. 
Moore, Roger S., 300. 
Morey, George, 84. 

Morgan, Albert, 71, 102, 120, 299, 306, 310. 
Morgan, Charles L., 200. 
Morgan, C. C, 302. 
Morgan, Elisha, 167, 168, 302, 328, 331. 

m Envelope Company, 328, 330, 331. 
Morgan, Eunice, 188, 328, 330, 331 
Morgan, F. H., 159. 
Morgan, H. M., 333. 
Moriarty. Thomas, 27S. 

Morning-Star Chapter, Royal Arch Masons, 272. 
Morris, Albert, 71. 
Morris Brothers Minstrels, 265. 
Morns, Henry, 145, 158. 
Morris. ( lliver li . 71 , 14^. 

■ . H. H., 102. 
Mounl I tolyolce, 29, 51. 
Mount Tom, 29, 51. 

Moxon, 1 leorge, 12. 

Mulligan, J., 91. 
Mulligan, 1 lharles H., 337. 
" Mm phy's Field," 67. 

impany, 59. 
Musi< , 168. 
M usii Hall, 104. 
Musii I [all, 
Mutual Base-ball club, 280. 

Mutual Relief Association of Employees of the 

Boston and Albany Railroad, 216. 
Myrick, Herbert, 145. 

Nadow, A. S., 208. 

Name changed from Agawam to Springfield, 12 

Nason, Aaron, 98. 

Natii inal armory, 98. 

National banks, list of, 303. 

National Papeterie Company, 328. 

National Trotting Association, 280, 326. 

Nayasset House, 100. 

Newbury, John, 309. 

Newell, Albert \Y.. 331. 

Newell Boat-club, the Nelson C, 270. 

Newell Brothers Manufacturing Company, 331. 

Newell, CM. .Mrs.;. 2I 2. 

Newell, Elijah A., 148, 277. 

Newell, Howard N.. 1. 

Newell, Isabel P. (Miss), 168. 

Newell, Joseph K., 146, 279. 

Newell, Larkin, 217. 

Newell, Nelson W., 302, 314, 319, 331. 

Newel], W. C, 317. 

New-England Homestead, 292, 293. 

New-England Journal of Dentistry, 294. 

New-England tour of Washington, 72. 

Newhall, F. H., 190. 

New-Hampshire line, 31. 

New-Haven House, 102. 

New-Jerusalem Church, 196. 

New red sandstone, period of, 27. 

News, Daily, 293. 

Newspapers and Periodicals, 283-294. 

Newton. A. J.. 153. 

Newton Graphic, 292. 

New York, 30, 72. 

New- York and New-England Railroad, 47. 

New-York and New-Haven Railroad, 47, 234. 

New- York Herald, 285. 

New-York. New-Haven, and Hartford Railroad, 
47, 80, 88. 

New-York Sun, 285. 

New- York Tribune, 285. 

Nil hols. Charles A., 300, 305, 338, 342. 

Nichols. Charles A. & Co., 340. 

Nichols, Elijah, 203. 

Nichols, George, 133. 

Nichols, Professor, 116. 

Nickerson. F. A., 271. 

Norcross Brothers, 57. 

Nordamerikanischen Turnerbund, 269. 

North America, ice-sheet on, 30. 

Northampton, 15, 16, 21, 23, 26, 36, 38. 

Northampton and Springfield Railroad Corpora- 
tion, 89. 

Northampton Courier, 286. 
Ige, 52. 

North-end iron bridge, 52, 76. 

North Main Street Parks, 238. 

North Wilbraham, 58. 

Norton, Francis, 111. 

Norton, J. D., 270. 

Notre I 'ame Convent, 204. 
1 II, 342. 

Nye, 11. R., 186. 

Oak-gi v. 228, 238. 

1. 132. 
Ihouse, 132. 

IWS* Mutual Relief Association. 215,276. 

Odd Fellows, the, 275. 

3 86 


O'Donnell, John, 216. 

O'Hara, John C, 294. 

Old Corner Bookstore, 343, 344- 

Old Gaol, 98. 

Old-Gaol Tavern, 97, 98. 

Olin, S., 190. 

Olivet Church, 66, 186, 244. 

Olmsted, John, 76, 234, 302, 306. 

Olympic Theatre Company of New York, 267. 

Orchestral Chib, 171. 

O'Reilly, Bishop P. T., 192, 198, 204, 216, 230. 

Organization of city government, 24. 

Orient Lodge Knights of Honor, 217. 

Orpheus Club, 170, 172. 

Orthodox Hill, 53. 

Orr, Louis H., 345, 34°- 

Osgood, Samuel, 71, 144, 176. '77. 22 °. 2 7 2 > 3 QI - 

O'Sullivan, Thomas, 192. 

Otheman, B., 185. 

Otis, S. G., 208, 210, 294. 

Otto, G. R., 217. 

Owen, V. L., 220. 

Owen, V. L. (Mrs.), 162. 

Pabke, Maria (Mrs.), 143- 

Packard, Frederick A., 68, 143, 284. 

Paige, Lucius R., 86. 

Palfrey's History of New England, 77. 

Palmer, Lilhe (Miss), 143. 

Palmer, town of, 52, 97. 

Paper boxes, manufacture of, 49. 

Paper-collar manufactories, 48. 

Paper-making in Connecticut Valley, 38. 

Papeteries, manufacture of, 48. 

Parish, Ariel, 130. 

Park commission organized, 234. 

Parker, Joseph, 194. 

Parker, William, 84. 

Parker, Zenas, 68. 

Parkhurst, C. S., 370. 

Parks and squares, 233. 

Park-street Church, 52. 

Parmelee, Irene E., 165. 

Parsons, Amasa B., 109. 

Parsons, Deacon, 126. 

Parsons, Henry M., 177, 192. 

Parsons, Hugh, 14. 

Parsons, Israel M., 99, 100. 

Parsons, Jonathan, 53. 

Parsons, Joseph C, 38, 302. 

Parsons, Mary, 14. 

Parsons tavern, 21, 96. 

Parsons, Zenas, 21, 94. 

Patch, EliH., 188. 

Patton, William, 317. 

Pauncefort, George, 266. 

Payne, E. B., 185. 

Peabody, Everett, 279. 

Peabody Guard, 279, 282. 

Peabody, William B. O., 24, 141. M 2 . l8 4. l8 5. 

Pearson, Henry, 321. 

Pease, Aleck, 109. 

Pease, A. A. (Miss), 136, 172. 

Pease, Levi, 97. 

Pease, Theodore C, 144. 

Peck, J. Q., 190. 

Pecousic Brook, 55, 66. 

Pecousic Hill, 52, 56. 

Pecousic Valley, 52, 55, 57. 
Pcet, Charles (Mrs.), 144. 
Peggy's Dipping.-holi 
Pelham, Lawyer, 102. 
Pennell, Alice I. (Miss), 144. 

Pennsylvania wagon breaks bridge, 74. 
Perkins, A. G.,217- 
Perkins, Virgil, 297. 
Perrin, W. T., 186. 
Perry, George W., 186. 
Perry, Professor, 291. 
Phelps, Ansel, jun., 4°. 4 J > 82 - 
Phelps, Benjamin, 98 
Phelps, Edward H., 148, 292, 293, 307. 
Phelps, E. B., 171. 
Phelps, Henry W., 367. 
Phelps Publishing Company, 293. 
Phelps, Willis, 76, 84, 91, 94> 3 OI » 3°5. 3 6 7- . 
Philip, chief of the Wampanoags, attacks Spring- 
field, 17, 55. 
Phillips, E. B., 84. 
Phillips, Henry M., 40, 45, 48, 277, 297, 305, 35S, 

Phillips, Israel, 186. 
Phillips, Julia Alexander (Mrs.), 156. 
Phillips Manufacturing Company, 358. 
Phillips, Mowry, &Co., 388. 
Phillips, Wendell, 101, 114- 
Pickering, George, 177. 
Pierce, T. C, 178. 
Pig Alley, 69. 
Pile, Rev. Mr., 294. 
Pilgrim Baptist Church, 203. 
Pillsbury, J. H., 159. 
Pine, William N., 198. 
Pitkin, Paul Henry, 140. 
Pitman, M. J. (Mrs.), 143. 
Plum-tree Road, 66. 
Police-department, 119. 
Pomeroy, S. F., 220. 
Pomeroy, William M., 292. 
Ponds, 244. 

Poole, L. E. (Mrs.), 143. 
Population, rapid increase of, 24. 
Porter, Miss, 134. 
Porter, Noah, jun., 188. 
Porter, S. D., 358. 
Porter, William P., 297. 
Postal-cards, first contract for, 48. 
Potter, A. K., 198, 220. 
Potter, E., 178. 
Potter, Lester L., 182, 212. 
Potter, W. F., 207. 
Power, Manuel, 241. 
Power, William, 192. 
Powers, Lewis J., 40, 43, 45, 91. 9 2 > 3°°. 3°6, 3H. 

324, 326, 345. 370. 
Powers, Lucius H., 326. 
Powers Paper Company, 324. 
Prescott, Benjamin, 253, 255, 258, 259, 260. 
Priest, E. M. (Missi, 156. 
Primitive fire-department, 309. 
Prisoners placed on probation, statistics ol, 119. 
Private libraries, 153. 
Private schools, 133. 

Promoters of railroad system of Western Massa- 
chusetts, 182. 
Prospect Hill, 233. 
Prouty, H. A., 218. 

Provincial Congress, delegate to, 2 °- . 

Public buildings and government of bpringheld, 

in- . _ . ,. ., 

Public-school system in Springfield, 125- 
Public Halls, 281. 
Putnam, Benjamin, 180, 182. 
Putnam, Ely, 68. 
l'ynchon Bank, 42. 
Pynchon, Charle-. ig 



Pynchon, Edward, 234, 296, 299. 

Pynchon, George, 19. 

Pynchon House, 108. 

Pynchon, John, 15, 16, 17, 18, 24. 

Pynchon, Joseph C, 318. 

Pynchon, William, 10, 12, 14, 15, 16, 17, 51, 54, 

141, 161, 223. 
Pynchon, William, jun., 20. 

Quinetticut River, 61. 
(Juincy, Josiah, jun., 82. 
Quincy-street Mission, 207. 
Quinn, D., 270. 

Railroad Men's Reading-room, 153. 

Railroad Row, 219. 

Railroads in Springfield, 72. 

Railroads, value of, in developing city, 80. 

Rand, A. J., 206. 

Randolph, John, portrait of, 163. 

Ray, George W., 215. 

Kay & Tapley Manufacturing Co., 333. 

Raymond, M., 178. 

Raynolds, Samuel, 304. 

Reading-rooms of the Armory-hill Young Men's 

Christian Association, 155. 
Rebellion, Southern, causes great excitement, 24. 
Receipts on early railroads, trouble in dividing, 82. 
Recruiting-post during Revolutionary War, 20. 
Redfield, John R., 314. 
Reed, A. C, 217. 
Reed, David Allen, 200, 220. 
Reed, E. A., 177. 
Reed, George K., 159. 
Religious organizations, 173-210. 
Religious weeklies, 294. 
Restaurants, 108. 

Reynolds Red Ribbon Reform Club, 210, 279. 
Reynolds, Samuel, 188. 
Rebellion, Springfield soldiers in, 24. 
Revolvers, superiority of Smith & Wesson's, 320. 
Rhodes, Elizabeth (Mrs.), 218. 
Rice, A. R., 222. 
Rice, 1 aleb, 34, 39, 40, 282, 313. 
Rice, Elizabeth iMiss), 143. 
Rice, John L., 145, 185. 

Rice, J. L., 277. 

Rice, William N., 144, 152, 153, 158, 164, 177, 395 

Rice, William (Mrs.), 143, 146, 211. 

Rice, Rev. .Mr., 194. 

Richards, Humphrey, 182. 

Richards, \V. II., 178. 

Richardson, H. H., 185. 

Richmond N: Seabury, architects, 152. 

Riedescl, Gen., 52. 

Rientard, Louis, 218. 

Ringgold, Major, 71. 

n, G. '1'., 192. 
Ripley, James W., 228, 238, 248, 253, 254. 

. James, 270. 
Rivalry of Springfield and Northampton, 25. 
River-men ol the Connecticut, ancient, -2. 
Riverside Paper Company, 321. 
Robb, John, 253, 255. 
Roberts, George, 177. 
Roberts, I ouis N., 145. 
Robinson, C. L., 300. 
Robins I '., 59. 

Robinson, Julius B., 172. 
Robinson, William S., 291. 

nmion, 233. 
Ro kingham House, 61, 72, 78, 98. 

Rockwell, 1'lnlo A., 98. 

Rockwood, Harvey, 99. 

Rod ami (inn Club, 269, 270. 

Rod and ( lun Rifle Team, 270. 

Rood, Charles D., 364. 

Rogers, E. C, 155, 300. 

Rogers, Sable, 309. 

Rollins, R. F., 171. 

Roman-Catholic Mutual Insurance Company, 216. 

Ross, Ella J. (Miss), 156. 

Roswell Lee Lodge of Free Masons, 253. 

Round Hill, 71, 127, 233. 

Rowe, Alfred, 297, 310. 

Roxbury, inhabitants of, have leave to remove to 

other towns, 9. 
Roy, Samuel, 180. 
Royal Arcanum, 277. 
Rumrill, James A., 83, 302, 306. 
Rumrill, lames B., 66, 141, 301. 
Russell, Benjamin, 284. 

Russell, Charles O., 83, 102, 216, 281, 302, 306. 
Russell, Ebenezer, 98. 
Russell, Ezekiel, 187. 
Russell, I' . W., 300. 
Russell, H. E., 313. 
Russell, James £., 102, 161, 162, 305. 
Russell, John, 283. 
Russell, Stephen Q.,98. 
Russell, William H., 83. 
Russell, Wyllis, 97. 
Rust, R. S., 185. 
Rutledge, Edward, 182. 
Ryan, J. E., 278. 
Ryan, Philip J., 294. 

Sackett, Justin D., 238. 

Sackett, Mr., 229. 

Sacred Heart Church Hall, 282. 

Sacred Heart Parish, Society of, 278. 

Sacred Heart Parochial School, 134. 

Safford, F. L., 302. 

Safford, James D., 152, 170, 301, 302. 

SafTord, Oscar F., 186. 

Salaries of officials, 112. 

Sanderson, Herbert H., 293. 

Sanderson, H. Q., 305. 

Sanderson, W. E., 217. 

Sanford-street Congregational Church, 190. 

Sargeant, Horatio, 71, 96, 99, 280. 

Sargeant, Thomas, 98. 

Saturday Evening Telegram, 293. 

Savage, I. A., 190. 

Savage, William, 80. 

;s Banks, 303, 306. 
Sawyer, Jennie (Mrs.), 218. 

11 ingfield, 9. 
School-buildings, value of, 130. 
Schoolhouse, first, 1.7. 
Scott, Joseph, 119, 180. 
Scott, J., 185. 
Si nil, I (range, 18s. 
Si ribner's Monthly, 228. 

Seating the people in the meeting-house, 175. 
Seaton, William 

Second Advent Church, 198, 281. 
Second Congregational Soi iety, 184. 
meeting-house, ^ i, 174. 
Sei 1 ind National Hank, 43, . 

- 'i ill. I irsi Pai ish, 177. 
Secret Societies, 277. 

_■ W '., 198. 

. Mis-,, .HI th V R.lll- 

■ 37. 



Seeger. Edgar W. (Mrs.), M3 

Seefey, Raymond H., 195. 

Seelye, I.. Clark, 158, 195. 

Sessions, Horace M., 161. 

Sessions, <',. I'., 279. 

Severance, I. F., 216. 

Seward, Ba'tchelder, & Charmbnry, conductors of 

singing-classes, 171. 
Seward, Secretary, roi. 
Sewer-department, 119. 
Sexton, S. W.,98. 
Shad Lane, 53. 
Shaker Pond, 57. 
Shaker villages, 57. 
Shaler, Nathaniel Southgate, 32. 
Sharrocks, John, 307. 
Shaw, Charles L., 310. 
Shaw, Chief-justice, I2r; portrait of, 124. 
Shays, Daniel, 21. 

Shays' Rebellion, 20, 21, 52, 112, 121, 240. 
Shea, C. J., 278. 
Shea, J. £., 278. 
Shedd, C. M., 271, 302. 
Sheldon, Elizabeth, 234. 
Shepard, Gen., 21. 
Shepard, Thomas, 308. 
Shepard, Thomas J., 161. 
Sheppert, August, 97. 
Sheridan, J., r7i. 

Sherman Square, 238. 

Sherman, John, 128 

Sherman, Gen. W. T., 71, 100; portrait of, r63. 

Sherts, Louis, 33. 

Shipley, Joseph L., 148, 155, 292. 

ShurtlelT, R. G., 165. 

Shurtleff, William S., 158, 162, 305. 

Sibley, Lawson, 294, 301, 305. 

Sikes, James, 19. 

Sikes, Mr., 178. 

Silliman, Professor, on the inns of Springfield, 72. 

Silver Star Lodge, Good Templars, 278. 

Simmons, George F., 185. 

Simons, V. M., 180. 

Simpson, Bishop M., 180. 

Simsbury copper-mines, 54., 

Sisters of Notre Dame, 134. 

Sisters of St. Joseph, 134, 205. 

Sixteen Acres, 57, 68, 229. 

Skating-rink, 267. 

Skipmuck, 68. 

Skunk's Misery, 66, 244. 

Smith, Avery J., 155, 168, 314, 342. 

Smith, Avery J. (Mrs.;, 168. 

Smith, A. E., 76. 

Smith, A. H., 277. 

Smith, A. J., 155. 

Smith, David, 203. 

Smith, David P., 148. 

Smith. D. R., 312. 

S#iiith , E. A., 202. 

Smith, E. A. (Mrs.), 219. 

Smith, G. W. V., 165. 

Smith, Heman, 76. 

Smith, Heman (Mrs.), 214. 

Smith, Henry, 10, 12. 

Smith, Henry M., 356. 

Smith, Hinsdale, ^5,297, 306. 

Smith, Horace. 152, 180, 299, 305, 322, 323. 

Smith, James Beebe, no. 

Smith, John C, 178, 185. 

Smith, Julia R. I Miss), 144. 

Smith, J. E 

Smith. J. <)., 277. 

Smith Manufacturing Company, the R. H , 356. 

Smith, Peter, 204. 

Smith, R. H., 307, 366. 

Smith, William H., 203. 

Smith, William L., 40. 42, 146, 148, 158, 162, 279, 

Smith, William L. (editor), 286. 
Smith, William L. (Mrs.), 143. 
Smith & Murray, 353. 

Smith & Wesson, 36, 37, 47, 322, 323, 324, 242. 
Smith & Wesson team (base-ball), 280. 
Snethan, Nicholas, 177. 
Snow, C. E., 306. 
Snow. Dexter, 162. 
Sociability of the city, 265. 
Soldiers' fair, 114. 
Soldiers' lot in cemetery, 226. 
Soldiers' Monument, 114, 145, 219, 241. 
Soldiers' Rest, 219, 226. 
Soldiers-rest Fund, 241. 
Somers, town of, r4, 51. 
Somers, Lord, bell given by, 55. 
Soule, Augustus L , 158. 
South Church Chapel, 204. 
South Church Society, 213. 
South Congregational Church, 158, 188. 
South-end bridge, 54. 
South-end, or Agawam, Ferry, 73. 
South-end iron bridge, 76. 
South Hadley Falls, 38 
Southland, G. H., 171. 
Southland, O. L., ijr. 
Southmayd, Frederick S., 279. 
Southwick Ponds, 54. 
Southwick, town of, 14, 51, 76. 
Southworth, Edward, 3ro. 
Soulhworth, H. W., 370. 
Southworth, John H., 24T, 300. 
Southworth Paper Company, 54. 
Sovereigns' Hall, 282. 
Spaulding, Henry G., 212. 
Spear, Charles, 186. 
Spiritualists' Union, T96. 
Spooner, A. L., 300, 302. 
Spooner, G. A., 217. 
Spooner, Samuel B., 40, 43, 277, 279. 
Sprague, F. M., 194. 

Springfield and New London Railroad, gr. 
Springfield and North-eastern Railroad, 47. 
Springfield Aqueduct Company, 116. 
Springfield Arsenal, tower of, 51. 
Springfield Art Association, 167, 210. 
Springfield as a city, 33-50. 

Springfield, Athol, and North-eastern Railroad, 84. 
Springfield Bank, 296. 
Springfield Board of Underwriters, 318. 
Springfield Botanical Society, 158. 
Springfield Business College, 138. 
Springfield Bicycle Club, 271. 
Springfield Cadets of the Cathedral, 278. 
Springfield Caledonian Club, 270. 
Springfield Canoe-club, 270. 
Springfield Cemetery, 24, 66, 224, 241. 
Springfield Clearing-house, 306. 
Springfield Club, 268, 321. 
Springfield Collegiate Institute, 136. 
Springfield Commandery Knights Templars, 274. 

Springfield Conservatory of Music, 170. 

Springfield Co-operative Bank, 306. 

Springfield contributes freight to ocean steamships. 

Springfield Council (Free Masons), 272. 
Springfield Electric Light Co., 326. 



Springfield Daily Union. 330. 

Springfield Directory. 340. 

Springfield Engli-h and Classical Institute, 133. 

Springfield Ferry, 53. 

Springfield Fire and Marine Insurance Company, 


Springfield Five-cents Savings Rank, 305. 

Springfield Ciazette, 285, 286, 288 

Springfield Herald, 294. 

Springfield Home for Friendless Women and Chil- 
dren, 214. 

Springfield Hotel, 9S 

Springfield House, 97. 

Springfield Institution for Savings, 303. 

Springfield Kindergarten Association, 136. 

Springfield Library Company, 150. 

Springfield Lyceum, 156. 

Springfield Mountains, 52, 58. 

Springfield Natural History Society, 159. 

Springfield Printing Company, 292, 339, 342 

Springfield Reform Club, 279. 

Springfield Republican, 33, 37, 41, 146, 211, 228, 
265, 284,286,288, 291, 340; noted writers in, 291 

Springfield Republican Block, 281. 

Springfield Rowing Association, 270. 

Springfield, scenery of, 9; a Scotchman's opinion 
of, 9. 

Springfield Schiitzen-verein, 269. 

Springfield Science Association, 159. 

Springfield Sentinel, 286. 

Springfield Silk Company, 38. 

Springfield Society for the Prevention of Crime, 

Springfield Steam-power Company, 337 
Springfield Street-railway Company, 76. 
Springfield Tonic Sol Fa Association, 171 
Springfield Turnverein, 268, 269. 
Springfield Union, 292. 
Si. Aloysius Church, 204. 
St. ( laudens, Augustus, 242. 
St. James Cadets, 278. 
St. Jean Baptiste Benevolent Society, 218. 
St. Jean Baptiste Benevolent and Mutual Relief 

Society, 218. 
St. Joseph, sillers of, 134, 205. 
St. Joseph's Church, 204. 
St. Matthew's Roman-Catholic Church, 198. 

St. Michael's Cathedral, 46, 192. 

St. Michael's Church, 230. 

St. Michael's Hall, and Si hool, 1 -.4, 282. 

St, Paul's Church, 186. 

Stanley, C. W., 314. 

Staples, M , 185. 

State-street Baptist Church, 198. 

State-street Methodist-Episcopal Church, 185. 

Stationary Engineers, Hampden Lodge of, 159 

Statues, 241. 

Steam navigation, advent of, on the Connecticut, 73. 

IS, Charles, 68, 69, 82, 96, 116, 236, 304. 
Stearns, Geoi ge M ., 281. 
Stearns Hill, 233. 

is Park, 236, 242. 
Stearns, W. H., 216. 

1, 280, 309. 
Stebbins, Fran 
Stebbins, George S., 145, 148, 160. 

. 1 ' '< niiar, 69. 

. John B., 152, 162, 299, 302, 305, 352. 
iins, T 'i'ni M ., 40, 43, 44. 
Stebbins, Joseph, 64, 96. 

. I. M., 306. 
Manufacturing Company, the K , 359. 

Stebbins, Miner 98. 

Stebbins, M C, 130, 138. 

Stebbins, Quartus, 23, 64. 

Stebbins, Theodore, 299. 

Stebbins. Thomas, jun , 127. 

Stebbins, Walter, 309. 

Stebbins, Zebina, 309. 

Stedman, Phineas, 161, 

Steele, B. Frank, 302. 

Steele, Daniel, 185. 

Sterns, Henry, 304. 

Stevens, W D., 207, 364. 

Stevens, Ziba, 272. 

Stevenson, John, 67. 

Stewart, T. T., 218, 349. 

Stock, E. D., 217. 

Stockbridge Hall, 275. 

Stockbridge, Elam, 69, 97. 

Stocking, Alexander, 186. 

Stocking, Henry, 98. 

Stoddard, I. C, 148. 

Stone, Admiral P., 128, 140, 147. 

Stone, A. D., 212. 

Stone, Frances K_ (Miss), 212. 

Stone, P. D., 198. 

Stone, William B , 146. 

Stone & Harris, 336 

" Storrs lot," 233. 

Stowe, L. S., 370. 

Stowe, William, 188, 285, 286, 301. 

Stratton, F. K., 180. 

Stratton, J. Dwight, 131. 

Streets of Springfield, unusual beauty of, 61. 

Strong, Governor, 245. 

Strong, H. C, 140 

Strong, Samuel W., 187. 

Strong, Titus, 182, 184. 

Sturtevant, Warren C , 310, 314 

Stutson, Nelson, 1S5, 190. 

Suffield. Conn., Town of, 14, 38, 51, 76. 

Sullivan Father Thomas O., 232. 

Sullivan, T. E , 278, 

Sumner. Charles, 1 14. 

Sumner, G. W., 170. 

Sunday News, 293. 

Sunday Republican, 286. 

Sunday Telegram, 293. 

Superintendent ol 51 bonis, first in State, 125, 128. 

Surroundings of Springfield, 51-60. 

Swan, James, 275. 

Sweetser, A. H., 186. 

Sweetser, S. IV, 202. 

Swift, William H., 83. 

Syvret, J., 208. 

Taft, G. C, 302. 

Tali nit, N. \\\, 301 

Tannatt, Abraham G., 69, 284. 

Tansli y. W\, 

Tapli v. 1 leorge W , ■ t , ,,, 335. 

Tapley, 1 • ■ orge \\ - ( Mrs \ 214. 

1 I 
Tapley, Mm m I »., 71. 
Taylor Benevolent rum 

Ethan, 213. 
Taylor, < few j< W., [45, 148. 

, Henry I '.. 148. 
Taylor, John, 
Tayloi . John I 
I i\ loi . John I . ( Mrs.), 162. 

. -'85. 
I ayloi , I I, 292. 

1 A 



Taylor, Varnum N., 299, 310, 334, 370. 

Taylor, W. A., 359. 

Taylor & Tapley Manufacturing Company, 333, 


Taverns, hotels, and restaurants, 93-110. 

Temple of Honor and Temperance, 278. 

Tenth Regiment, 24, 146, 281. 

Terhune, Edward P., 144, 155, 177, 212. 

Terhune, Edward P. (Mrs.), M3- 

Tetrault, E. T., 218. 

Theatricals and Operas, 265. 

Third Baptist Church, 203, 281. 

Third Congregational Society, 184. 

Third meeting-house, 174. 

Third National Bank, 108, 302. 

Thomas, Isaiah, 284. 

Thompson, Everett A., 146. 

Thompson, James M., 71, 152, 185, 275, 276, 300, 
302, 305, 310. 

Thompson, Mary (Mrs.), 218. 

Thompson's Dingle, 66. 

Thompsonville, 56. 

Thompsonville Ferry, 54. 

Thorne, Charles R., jun., 266. 

Tiddy, J. R., 202. 

Tiffany, Francis, 144, 185. 

Tift, L. A., 277. 

Tileston, Elisha, 97. 

Tinkham, F. M., 206. 

" Toddy Road," 69, 98. 

Tower, William A., 314. 

Town Brook, the, 35, 71, 120. 

Town Hall, new, 52. 

Town Hall, old, 281. 

Town Hall, opening of first, 24, 204. 

Traffic and Transportation, 77-92. 

Trafton, Adeline, 143, 291. 

Trafton, Mark, 190, 200. 

Trask, Eliphalet, 35, 40, 161, 186, 282, 302, 306, 310. 

Trask, Henry F., 170. 

Trinity Methodist-Episcopal Church, 190, 281 

True, C. K., 185. 

Tucker, W. T., 294. 

Tully, William, 148. 

Turner's Falls, 28. 

Turnverein, German, 281. 

" Twain, Mark," on profanity, 78. 

Twiss, J. J., 186. 

Twenty-seventh Regiment Massachusetts Volun- 
teers, 120, 146, 279. 

Tuttle, S. L., 217. 

Twichell, Ginery, 84. 

Twombly, J. H., 186. 

Tyler, Philos B., 35, 40, 282. 

Ufford, Thomas, 10. 

" Uncle Sam," 258 

Underhill, Arthur B., 83. 

Underground Railroad, 152. 

Union Depot, 100, 103, 104, 240. 

Union Hall, 204, 266, 28:. 

Union House, 100. 

Union Mutual Beneficial Society, 218. 

Union Passenger Depot, 80. 

Union Railway Station, 76. 

Union Relief Association, 211. 

Union Square, 238. 

United-States arsenal, view from tower of, 9. 

United-States Armory, 68, 69, 233: established by 
Act of Congress, 245 ; character of early work- 
men in, 245; world-wide reputation of, 245; 
arsenals, 245; probable attempt to destroy, 248; 
variety and quality of small arms, 250, 252; 

number of guns made at different times, 252, 
superintendents, 253; present officers, 256; rem- 
iniscences, facts, and anecdotes, 256. 

United-States Armory grounds, 238. 

United-States Hotel, Boston. 103, 104. 

United-States Hotel at Hartford, 99. 

United-States Pencil Company, 328. 

United-States Post-office, 104, 120. 

United-States water-shops, 76. 

Upham, S. F., 190. 

Upper water-shops, 34. 

Vaille, Henry R., 130. 

Valliancourt, Gregoire, 218. 

" Van," 291. 

Vanderbilt, Commodore, 86. 

Van Horn, Chester, 338. 

Van Horn teservoirs, 116. 

Van Norden, Charles, 144, 159, 195. 

Vermont line, 27. 

Vernam, Remington, 314. 

Vilas, Fanny M. (Miss), 159. 

Vmton, Charles, 102. 

Vinton, J. B., 299. 

Vinton & Tucker, 99. 

Wait, Joseph, 240. 

Wagner, J. T., 190. 

Walbridge, H. S., 314. 

Wales, Thomas B., 82, 83. 

Walker, Francis A., 143 

Walker, George, 302. 

Walker, J. J., 159. 

Walker, William B., 98. 

Wallace, George H., 198. 

Wallamanumps, falls of, 58, 

Walnut-street hose-tcwer, 117. 

Walsh, T. S., 276. 

Ward, Edgar M., 166. 

Ward Manufacturing Company, 194. 

Ward One Mission, 207. 

Ward, W. W., 278. 

Ware, Addison, 275. 

Warehouse Point, 16. 

Warner, B. F. (Mrs.), 162. 

Warner, Henry, 102. 

Warner, James M., 314 

Warner, Thomas, jun., 298. 

Warner's Pistol Factory, 357. 

Waronoco, 64. 

Warren, James, 102. 

Warren, Stella (Miss), 219. 

Warren, Waters, 187. 

Warren, Wilmot Lillie, 147, 155, 308. 

Warriner, Jeremy, 96, 97, 100, 295. 

Warriner, Lewis, 296, 297. 

Warriner, Phoebe (Mrs.), 100. 

Warriner, Solomon, 23 

Warriner, Stephen, 317. 

Warriner, S. C, 277 

Warriner's tavern, 78, 300, 352. 

Warwick House, 104, 106. 

Washburn, Emory, 82. 

Washington, Anna (Mrs.), 218. 

Washington, George, 21, 53, 72, 94, 234, 245, 253; 

portrait of, in City Hall, 164. 
Washington Tavern, 61. 
Wason Manufacturing Company, 37, 47, 326, 359, 

Wason Company Mutual Relief Association, 217. 
Wason, T. W., 186 
Water-department, 114, 116. 
Waterman, W H., 217 


39 1 

Waters, H. H.. 104. 

Water-shops, 34, 98, 132, 282. 

Water-shops Pond, 234, 244. 

Waterspout engine, 117. 

Watertown, inhabitants of, remove to Connecticut 
Valley, 9. 

Weatherhead. Joseph, 304. 

Weaver, Benjamin, 303 

Weaver, T. K., 198." 

Webb, Daniel, 185. 

Webster, Daniel, 50, 101 : portrait of, 163; his re- 
ceipt for fish-chowder, 163. 

Webster, Noah, 342, 343. 

Webster's Spelling-book, 342; Unabridged Dic- 
tionary, 37, 339, 342, 343. 

Weekly Evangelist, 294. 

Weld, Mr., editor and proprietor of " The Hamp- 
shire and Berkshire Chronicle," 284. 

Wells, David Ames, 143. 

Wells, Gideon, 76, 119, 155, 229, 314. 

Wells, James, 234. 

Wells, John, 122. 

Wesleyan Academy, Wilbraham, 58. 

Wesson, Daniel B., 162, 207, 208, 229, 238, 242, 
322, 323, 338. 

Wesson Fountains, the, 242. 

Wesson, J. H., 338. 

Wesson, Walter H., 302, 323. 

West, A. B., 299, 306. 

West, John, 302. 

West, N. I., 148. 

Western Railroad, 33, 46, 100, 288. 

Western Railroad-bridge, 74. 

Western Railroad opened for travel, 24. 

Western Railroad, presidents of, 83. 

Westfield, 14, 51. 

West Longmeadow, 36, 52. 

West Springfield, 14, 18, 21, 51, 52, 76. 

West-Springfield Common, 59. 

West-Springfield Hill, 52. 

West-Springfield meadows, 64, 72. 

Wethersfield, Conn., town of, 12; inhabitants of 
Massachusetts towns remove to, 9. 

Wheeler, F. E., 159. 

White, blacksmith, 52. 

White, Chester, 99. 

White, George H., 196. 

White, Horace, 53. 

White, H. H., 178, 185. 

White, L. W., 299. 

White Mountains, 30. 

White, Sewall, 53. 

White-street Mission, 208. 

Whiting, Charles Goodrich, 147, 172, 244. 

Whiting & Adams, 343, 344. 

Whiting, William, 302. 
Whitney, Alfred, 217. 
Whitney, Junes I.., 243. 

Whitney, James S., 253, 255. 

Wight, Emerson, 40, 43, 45, 297, 317, 331. 

Wilbraham, town of, 14, 36, 51, 58. 

Wilbraham Road, 66, 236. 

Wilcox, Philip, 68, 188. 

Wilcox, Philo, 68. 

Wilcox, W. I,., 213. 

Wild boar, escape of, 56. 

Wilder & Puffer, grain-store of, 297. 

Wiley, Bishop, 185. 

Wiley, J. K.,216. 

Wilkms, Ezra, 148. 

Wilkinson, W. H., 60, 300, 317. 

Willard, Daniel W , 160 

Will. ml, Justice, 78, 82, 234. 

Willard, Justin, 304. 

Willard, W. M , 300 

Williams, Annie (Miss), 144. 

Williams, Colonel, 21. 

Williams, Eleazer, 94, 234. 

Williams, Ralph, 89. 

Williams, Rev. Mr., of the Mission Franchise, 208. 

Willow Avenue, soldiers' lot in, 226. 

Wilson, S. 1 ). , 217. 

Wilson, T. B., 217. 

Winans, W. H., 216. 

Winchester, Charles A., 40, 42, 236. 

Winchester, D. D., 98. 

Winchester, Thomas D., 102. 

Winchester Park, 236. 

Windship, G. B., 138. 

Windship graduated system of health movement, 

Windsor, Conn., town of, 12, 14, 16, 17: inhabit- 
ants of Massachusetts towns remove to, 9. 

Winter, F. E., 216. 

Wise, D., 185. 

Witchcraft in Springfield, 14. 

Withey, W. A., 217. 

Wolcott, W. F., 204. 

Women's Christian Association, 136, 206. 

Women's Christian Temperance Union, 210. 

Wood, Charles, 187, 188. 

Wood, Edmund, 10. 

Wood, Edwin, bobbin-factory of, 59. 

Wood, John M., 216. 

Wood, Plinv, 178. 

Wood, T. W., 164. 

Wood, William B., 333. 

Woodcock, John, 54. 

Woods, Frederick, 190. 

Woodworth, A. C, 212. 

Woodworth, W. W., 187. 

Worcester and Western Railroads, consolidation 
of, 83. 

Worcester Spy, 283, 284. 

Woronoco, Indian sachems of, 51. 

Worthington, James, 99. 

Worthington, Col. John, 20, 69. 

Worthington, Hon. John, 96. 

Worthington, Lieut. John, 96. 

Worthington, Maty (Miss), 206. 

Worthington-street school, 131. 

Worthy, J. L., 340. 

Worthy Paper Company, 38. 

Wright, Andrew J., 300, 312. 

Wright, George L., 38, 299. 

Wright, I. H.. 25;. 

Wright, William H., 281, 297, 308. 

Wyni.m, John B., 279. 

Yale College, 28. 
Yerrall, < '•. R., 302. 
Young, Frank R., 3to. 
. , .1 1 , Literary < lub, 56. 
Young Men's Christian Assoi iation, 153. 

Men's Institute, 1 50, 151. 
Young Miii'-- Literary Association, 151. 

1 ioneers base-ball), 281. 

Zion's Methodist Church, 190. 

Zorister, Bonney, 98. 

Zuchtman, I., 170. 

Zuchtmans < 'conservatory of Music, 172. 


Alexander. Henry, jun., portrait of, 36-A. 
American Hov:- 
Amencan National Bank, 299. 
Ames, David, portrait 
Ames. John, portrait 
Arsenal building and gateway. 245. 
Arsenal, forging, boring, rolling, and annealing de- 
partment. 24J. 
Arsenal, machine, milling, and polishing shops, 257. 
Arsenal, room in the main, 247. 
Arsenal, the commandant's quarters, 261. 
Arsenal, welding and rolling gun-barrels, 251. 

Barr's dining-rooms. 109. 

Barney & Berry, manufactory of, opp. p. 356. 

Bemis. Stephen C, portrait of, 39. 

Benton Park, 99. 

Bicycle Club, billiard and reading room - 

Boston and Albany Railroad bridge. 75. 

Boston and Albany Railroad Company's offices, 85. 

Boston Mile-stone, 99. 

Bowies, Samuel, portrait of, opp. p. 284. 

Bradley, Milton, portrait of, 150. 

-: ringfield Cemetery, 230. 
Albert D., portrait of. 41. 
Brown. John, some local relics of. 
Bryan, Clark \Y\, portrait of 

Calhoun, William B.. portrait of, 38. 

Central-street grammar school, 127. 

Chapin, Chester W., portrait of, opp. p. 80. 

Cheney Bigelow Wire-Works, 365. 

Chicopee National Bank, 298. 

Children's Home, the. 213. 

Christ's Church, Chestnut Street, 183. 

Church of the Unity. 

City Hospital. 220. 

City Library, Reading-room, and Natur. 

Museum. 154. 
City seal. 33. 

Cooley House. North Main Street, 103. 
County Jail on State Street, 124. 

Daniel B. Wesson drinking-fountain, 243. 
Dwight House, 209. 

Elm, the. on Elm Stn 

Elms, the private school of Misses Porter and 

Champney. 135. 
Ely Ordinary 

I list building, 209. 
House, 108. 

in 1824. 25. 
Fire-department headquarters 

: iptist Church, 181. 
I Court-house. 

Firs: National Bank, 301. 
First Parish Church. . 

■rge C portrait of, opp. r 
Florence-street M. E. Churcr 
Forbes & Wallace, dry-goods establishment 

Gill's Art-galleries, 166. 

Gill's Art and Bookstore, opp. p. 344 

Gilmore's Oper 

Grace M. E. Church, 179. 

Granite pump, 244. 

Haile. William H., portrait 
Hampden-County Court-house. 123. 
Hampden Hou- 

Hampden-park Association trotting-cour> 
Hampden Watch Company's manufactory and 

I 'aniel L., portrait of. opp. p. 40. 
Hawkins'^ K. F.; Iron Works, 336. 
Haynes Hotel, 105. 
Haynes, Tilly, portrait of, opp. p. 266. 
Haynes ,i Co.'s clothing-house, 350; interior of, 

35 * ■ 

Hendee. George Mallory, portrait : 

Hig - hool, the State-stre-. 

Hinm. - _ siness College, 1 

Holland, Josiah Gilbert, former home of, 235; por- 
trait c 
Holland monument, Dr.. 22a. 
Home for Friendless Wome: 
Hooker school 
Hope Congregational Church, 201. 

Howai nfly school for girls. 133. 

Hyde, Henry S., portrait of, opp. p. 30S. 

Ide. George B., portrait of. 

Japhet Chapr 

and, Hampden Par 

Kalmback & Gei-cl. brewery of, opp. p. 
Kibbe Brothers jc Co , building of. 
King Philip, portrait of. 13. 
Kinsman's (Warren D.) blo: 

Ladd, Edwin W.. portrait of. . 

Lombard House, the, on Lombard Street, 69. 

Lutz, Jacob C, opp. ;. 

Map of Spring 

Insurance C 


pp. p. 100. 

Memorial Chur 



Merriam, George, portrait of, 146. 

Miles Morgan statue, 242. 

Mill-river dams, 321. 

Morris, Judge Henry, portrait of, 160. 

Moore, Chauncey L., photograph rooms of, 360. 

Morgan Envelope Company, 329. 

New-Jerusalem Church, 197. 
North Congregational Church, 195. 
North Main Street, view of, 62. 

Oak-grove Cemetery, 225. 

Oak-grove Cemetery, entrance to, 231. 

Oak-street grammar school, 132. 

Oak-street primary schoolhouse, 132. 

Oldest house, on Cross Street, 16. 

Old high-school building, Court street, 130. 

Old House on Hillman Street, 70. 

Old tavern where Washington lived, 22. 

Old Town Hall, 113. 

Olivet Congregational Church, 187. 

Orr& Co., Louis H., building of, 345. 

Osgood, Samuel, portrait of, 144. 

Parsons, Joseph C, portrait of, 50. 

Peabody (W. R. O.) monument, 228. 

Phelps, Ansel, jun., portrait of, 37. 

Phillips, Henry M., portrait of, 44A. 

Powers, Lewis J., portraits of, 45, opp. p. 324. 

Powers Paper Companv, 325; blank-book manu- 
facturing and paper-finishing departments, 327; 
private office, 328. 

Pynchon fort and house, 9. 

Pynchon, William, portrait of, n. 

Republican, Daily Springfield, 287. 
Rice, Caleb, portrait of, 34. 
Rice, Rev. Dr. William, portrait of, 152. 
Rockingham House, 99. 

Sacred Heart parochial school and convent, 137. 
Second court-house, 275. 

Smith, William L., portrait of, 42. 
Smith & Murray's " Boston Store," 353. 
Smith & Wesson Manufactory, opp. p. 322. 
South Congregational Church, 189. 
Spooner, Samuel B., portrait of, 43. 
Springfield Almshouse and City Farm, 221. 
Springfield Art-association rooms, 169. 
Springfield, bird's-eye view of, frontispiece. 
Springfield Cemetery, 227. 
Springfield-Cemetery entrance, 224. 
Springfield Club House, 268. 
Springfield City Hall in 1883, 15. 
Springfield Institution for Savings, 304. 
Springfield Fire and Marine Insurance Company's 

building, 311. 
Springfield Printing Company, 341. 
Springfield Republican block, 289. 
State-street Baptist Church, 199. 
St. Joseph's Church, 205. 
St. Michael's Cathedral, 193. 
St. Michael's Hall, and school, 136. 
Stebbins, John M., portrait of, 44. 

Taylor & Tapley Manufacturing Company, build- 
ing of, opp, p. 332. 
Third Meeting-house, 176. 
Trask, Eliphalet, portrait of, 36. 
Trinity Methodist Episcopal Church, 191. 
Tyler, Philos B., portrait of, 35. 

L T nited-States Armory grounds, views in, 237. 

Viaduct over Mill River, at Water-shops, 254. 
Vignette, 9. 

Wason Car Manufacturing Company, opp. p. 320. 
Wason, Thomas W., portrait of. opp. p. 318. 
Wesson, Daniel B., opp. p. 240. 
Wright, Emerson, portrait of, 45. 
Winchester, Charles A., portrait of, 42. 
Women's Christian Association, 207. 
Worthington-street grammar school, 131.