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Full text of "The king's regulations and admiralty instructions for the government of His Majesty's naval service. 1913"

te-y; 

Q JO &USI9ATUJ 





THE LIBRARY 

OF 

THE UNIVERSITY 
OF CALIFORNIA 

LOS ANGELES 




THE 



KING'S REGULATIONS 



AND 



ADMIRALTY INSTRUCTIONS 

FOR THE GOVERNMENT OF 

HIS MAJESTY'S NAVAL 
SERVICE. 

1913. 

VOLUME I. 

Revised Edition, embodying the alterations effected in the 

Regulations by Addenda, or otherwise, up to the 

3lst December, 1912. 

(Complete in two Volumes.) 




LONDON: 

PRINTED UNDER THE AUTHORITY OF HIS MAJESTY'S STATIONERY OFFICE 
BY SIR JOSEPH CAUSTON & SONS, LIMITED, 9, EASTCHEAP, LONDON, E.G. 

To be purchased, either directly or through any Bookseller, from 
WYMAN AND SONS, LIMITED, 29, BREAMS BUILDINGS, FETTER LANE, E.C., and 

64, ST. MARY STREET, CARDIFF ; or 
H.M. STATIONERY OFFICE (SCOTTISH BRANCH), 23, FORTH STREET, EDINBURGH ; or 

E. PONSONBY. LIMITED, 110, GRAFTON STREET, DUBLIN ; 

or from the Agencies in the British Colonies and Dependencies, 

the United States of America and other Foreign Countries of 

T. FISHER UNWIN, LOOTED. LONDON, W.C. 

1913. 



(REPRINTED 1916.) 

Five Shilling* 
for the two Volumet. 




By the Commissioners for executing the Office of LORD 
HIGH ADMIRAL of the United Kingdom of GREAT 
BRITAIN AND IRELAND, &c. 

The Regulations and Instructions contained in this Volume and in Volume II. 
(which are to be designated the King's Regulations and Admiralty Instructions, 
1913), for the Government of His Majesty's Naval Service, having been 
established by His Majesty's Order in Council, we do hereby require and direct 
you to observe and obey the same, and to take care that the several Officers 
and others under your command also pay the most strict attention and 
obedience thereto. 

Given under our hands this 13th day of June 1913. 

WINSTON S. CHURCHILL. 
LOUIS BATTENBERG. 
J. R. JELLICOE. 
A. G. H. W. MOORE. 
W. C. PAKENHAM. 
GEORGE LAMBERT. 
FRANCIS J. S. HOPWOOD. 



By Command of their Lordships, 
W. GRAHAM GREENE, 



To the respective Flag Officers. 
Captains, Commanders, and 
Officers Commanding His 
Majesty's Ships and Vessels. 



CONTEXTS. 



A5" 



CHAPTER. 



SUBJECT. 



I. 



II. 



III. 



IV. 



V. 



VI. 



EXPLANATION OF TERMS 
GENERAL REGULATIONS - 



/'Section I. 
II. 
III. 

IV. 

V. 
VI. 



CEREMONIES 

and 
DISTINCTIONS. 



, VII. 

, VIII. 
IX. 

X. 

, XI. 

XII. 
, XIII. 
, XIV. 
, XV. 
. XVI. 
, XVII. 

,xvm. 
, xix. 



Royal Salutes and Flags - - . 

Salutes and Flags in India - 

Salutes to Civil, Naval, and Military 

Authorities - 
International Salutes and Salutes to 

Foreigners - 
Salutes in General - 
Salutes which are to be Returned or not 

Returned ------ 

Flags to be Hoisted when Saluting or 

Returning Salutes - - - - 
Visits of Ceremony - 
Distinguishing Flags and Pendants of 

Naval Authorities - 
Distinguishing Flags of other Authorities 
Ensign, Jack, and Pendant Navy and 

not Navy ------ 

National Colours - - - - - 

Military Honours and Marks of Respect 
Naval Salutes and Marks of Respect - 
Funeral Honours ----- 

Uniform ------ 

Special Decorations and Medals - 
Foreign Orders and Medals - - - 
Manner of Wearing Decorations, Orders, 

and Medals - 



RANK 

and 

COMMAND. 



Section I. Officers in General - 

II. Flag Officers, Captains of the Fleet, and 

Commodores - - - - - 
III. Captains and Commanders - 
,, IV. Lieutenants and other Officers of the 

Military Branch - 

V. Officers other than the Military Branch 
VI. Ship's Company - - - - - 
VII. Relative Rank of the Officers of the Navy 

and Army - 



APPOINTMENT f Section 

of 4 ,. 

OFFICERS. (^ 



I. Officers in General 

II. Officers Authorised 

ments, &c. 



to make Appoint- 



DEFINITIONS 

of 
SERVICE. 



OFFICERS 

QUALIFI- 
CATIONS and 
EXAMINA- 
TIONS for 
PROMOTION. 



Section I. General 

II. Military Branch Commissioned Officers 

' III. Non-Military Branches Commissioned 

Officers ------ 

IV. Commissioned Warrant Officers and 

Warrant Officers - 
V. Retirement and Half Pay - 

'Section I. General ------ 

II. Military Branch - - - - - 

,, III. Engineer Branch - - - - - 

,, IV. Medical Branch - - - - - 

,, V. Accountant Branch - - - - 

,, VI. Commissioned Warrant and Warrant 
Officers 



Ill 



13034G4 



CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER. 


SUBJECT. ' PAGE. 






"Section I. Military Branch and Marine Officers - 


86 


VII. 


OFFICERS 


,, II. Engineer Branch - - - - - 


91 


. 


TRAINING 


- III. Medical Branch - - - - - 


92 




and Ex AM IN A- 


,, IV. Accountant Branch - 


92 




TIONS 


V. Warrant Officers - - - - - 


93 




GENERALLY. 


,, VI. Interpreters and Foreign Languages 


94 






^ VII. Examinations generally 


100 






r Section I. Medical Examination and Inspection - 


102 


VIII. 


MEN 
and BOYS 


II. Raising and Entering - - - - 
III. Continuous, Non-continuous and Special 

Service - - - 


102 
107 




ENTRY, 
QUALIFICA- 


IV. Training, Instruction, Qualification and 
Examination - - - - - 


110 




TION 

and 


V. Transfers ------ 


116 




INSTRUCTION. 


VI. Non-substantive Ratings - 
VII. Qualifications for, and Service in, Coast 


116 






Guard ------ 


121 


IX. 


INSTRUCTIONS to OFFICERS in GENERAL ------ 


123 


X. 


INSTRUCTIONS "" 









to 








COMMANDERS- 








IN-CHIEF 








and 


Section I. General Duties of Commander-in-Chief - 


128 




OFFICERS IN 


II. Duties of the Senior Officer present - 


138 




COMMAND 


III. Commanders-in-Chief at Home Ports - 


148 




of 


_IV. Officers recommended for Promotion 


151 




FLEETS, 








SQUADRONS, 








and 








STATIONS. 






XI. 


INSTRUCTIONS to a FLAG OFFICER or a COMMODORE of the FIRST 






CLASS not COMMANDING-IN-CHIEF 


152 


XII. 


INSTRUCTIONS to the CAPTAIN OF THE FLEET - - - - - 


153 






"Section I. On Appointment - - - - - 


154 




' 


,, II. Fighting Efficiency - - - - 


155 




>?*" |'* 7 ' 


III. Exercises and Instructions as to Arma- 








ments and Magazines ~ 


155 




9 r 


IV. Fire Precautions - - - - - 


157 




f " r"" 


V. Regulations for Closing Water-tight Doors 


159 


XIII. 


INSTRUCTIONS 


VI. Smoking Regulations - - - - 
,, VII. Clothing, Cleanliness, and Health - 


162 
162 




to> 


,, VIII. Logs, Register and Signal Books, &c. - 


164 




* 


IX. Instruction of Officers - - - - 


165 




CAPTAINS. 


,, X. General Instructions - - - - 
,, XI. Letters and Mails - - - - 


166 

170 






,, XII. Anchors and Cables - - - - 


171 






XIII. Payments, Cash and Store Accounts and 








Surveys ------ 


172 






,, XIV. Discharge of Officers and Men 


175 






XV. Miscellaneous - - - - - 


178 






XVI. In Case of Wreck - 


180 


XIV. 


INSTRUCTIONS "\ 






to LIEU- [section I. Lieutenant 


182 




T SUB*LIEU- | " n< Su - Lieutenani > & c - 


185 




TENANTS. J 





IV 



CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER. 


SUBJECT. 


PAGE. 


XV. 


INSTRUCTIONS 










to the 


Section I. 


The Gunner ------ 


187 




GUNNER, 


., II- 


The Boatswain - - - - - 


189 




BOATSWAIN, 
& CARPENTER. 

j 


III. 


The Carpenter - - - - - 


190 


XVI. 


INSTRUCTIONS "1 
to the 
CHAPLAIN 
and NAVAL 
INSTRUCTOR. 


Section I. 

- ., n. 


Chaplain ------ 
Naval Instructor - - - - - 


193 
195 


XVII. 


COURTS-MARTIAL - - - - - -- 


196 


XVIII. 


COURTS of INQUIRY and NAVAL COURTS - - . - 


214 


XIX. 

XX. 

XXI. 

XXII. 


DISCIPLINE. - 


'Section I. 

JLA. 
III. 

IV. 
V. 
VI. 
VII. 


Chaplain, Divine Service, &c. 
Discipline generally - - - - 
Good Conduct Badges - - - - 
Good Conduct Medal and Gratuity 
Summary Punishments - - - 
Desertion and Rewards for Apprehension 
Civil Power - - - - - 


216 
222 
229 
231 
236 
261 
267 

270 
273 

285 
290 
291 
292 


MESSING, 
CABINS and < 
CANTEENS. 






[Section I. 
II. 
HI. 
,, IV. 


Messing Officers ------ 
Cabins ------- 
Messing Ship's Company - - - 
Canteens ------ 


XXIII. 


LEAVE OF 
ABSENCE. 


i Section I. 
i II. 


Officers 
Ship's Company - - - - - 


298 
299 


XXIV. 


GUNNERY 
and 
TORPEDO. 


'Section I. 

:: ft 

I ,. v. 


Captain General Duties - - - 
Gunnery Officer Duties of - 
Torpedo Officer Duties of - 
Royal Naval Reserve Instruction of 
Officers ------ 
Gunnery Trials of Ships - - - 


305 
312 
313 

314 
314 


XXV. 


SIGNALLING, and WIRELESS 


TELEGRAPHY - 


315 


XXVI. 


PHYSICAL TRAINING --------- 


316 


XXVII. 


ENGINE 
DEPARTMENT. 


r Section I. 

ill: 

,. iv. 

I .. v. 


General Instructions - - - - 
Coaling ------ 
Engineer Rear Admiral or Engineer 
Captain ------ 
Engineer Officer - - - - - 
Engineer Officer of Watch - - - 


317 
321 

325 
326 
331 


XXVIII. 


NAVIGATION f Section TT L 
and 4 " j{ 
PILOTAGE. IV ' 


General ------ 
Pilotage ------ 
Compasses, Chronometers, and Charts - 
Navigating Officer . - - - 


332 
335 
337 
342 


XXIX. 


REGULATIONS f( 
BOATS, &c. 


it PREVENTING COLLISIONS, and LIGHTS for TORPEDO 


348 







CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER. 



SUBJECT. 



PAGE. 



XXXI. 



XXXII. 



XXXIV. 



XXXV. 



XXXVI. 



XXXVII. 
XXXVIII. 



XXXIX. 



XL. 



COMMISSION- 1 Section L Fitting-out and Refitting 
EgmPMENT. J H. Drawings, Plans, ^c. 



PRESERVA- 
TION, 
REPAIRS 
and DOCKING 



} Section I. Preservation - - - - - 
,, II. Repairs, Alterations, and Additions 
III. Docking 



OFF 



ROYAL 
MARINES. 



Section I. General ------ 

II. Instruction and Training - 

III. Prizes for Shooting - - - - 

IV. Band 

,, V. Arms, Clothing, &-c. - - - - 

VI. Discharges and Re-engagements 

VII. Officers, Royal Marines employed on 

Special Duties - - - - - 

,, VIII. Marines employed on Special Duties - 

IX. Classification for Conduct, &-c. 

X. Service Certificates - - - - 

XI. Good Conduct Badges and Restoration - 

XII. Good Conduct and other Medals and 

Gratuities ------ 

,, XIII. Pensions for Service, Wounds, &c. 



His MAJESTY'S f Section I. When embarked for Passage - 

LAND FORCES I ,, II. Hired Transports 

and TRANS- | III. Landing and Embarking Troops 
PORTS. Army Stores - - - - 



and 



MEDICAL. 



Section I. Surveys on Invalids 

II. Hospital and Sick Quarters 
III. Duties of Medical Officers 
IV. General - - - 



INSTRUCTIONS to the ACCOUNTANT OFFICER - 



FULL PAY, 
ALLOWANCES, 
and DEDUC- 
TIONS. 

EXTRA PAY 
and COM- 
MITTEE- 
ALLOWANCES. 

TRAVELLING 

EXPENSES, 

SUBSISTENCE, 

and 

LODGING 
ALLOWANCES. 



Section I. General - 

II. Flag Officers and Commodores 

III. Officers 

IV. Petty Officers, Seamen and Marines 



Section I. Extra Pay - - - 
II. Committee Allowances - 



Section I. Travelling Expenses generally, and at 

~ 



II. Travelling Expenses Abroad - - - 

III. Lodging and Provision Allowance 

IV. Passages of Officers and Men in Merchant 

Ships .._--- 
V. Contribution on account of Messing 



VI 



361 
364 



366 
372 
378 



387 
392 
394 
395 
397 
402 

404 
404 
407 
408 
409 

412 
415 

423 
427 

429 

431 
433 
436 
452 



454 

458 
465 
469 
483 



499 
507 



508 
513 
513 

514 

520 



CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER. 


SUBJECT. 


PAGB. 


XLI. 


PASSENGER ^ 






ALLOWANCES SectUm L AUowances 


522 




CoM^ENSA- r IL Compensation 
SON 10? " IIL Re P lacement f Medals 


526 
528 




LOSSES. |J 








Section I. Books and Returns connected with Pay 








and Numbers Victualled - - - 


530 






II. Ledger - - - - - 


530 






,, III. Register of Services, and Monthly Returns 


541 






IV. Transfer Lists - - - - - 


543 




1 


V. Pay Tickets 


544 






, VI. Payments ------ 


547 






, VII. Settlements on Discharge - 


553 






, VIII. Paying off 


554 


XLII. 


PAY 


IX. Allotments - - - . - 


555 




ACCOUNTS. 


, X. Tenders ------ 


559 






, XI. Disposal of Dead and Run Persons' 








Effects 


559 






XII. Differences on Audit of Ledger 


561 






XIII. Work done for Private Individuals, or for 








Dependent or Foreign Governments - 


562 






,, XIV. Bounty Regulations 


563 






XV. Pay of Officers and Men, while Prisoners 








of War 


563 






,, XVI. Savings Banks 


564 




["Section I. Obtaining Supplies of Money 


565 


[XLIII. 


CASH and ,, II. Banking - - 


573 




CASH < ,, III. Remittances ------ 


574 




ACCOUNTS. ,, IV. Disbursement of Public Money 


576 




(_ V. Cash Accounts to be kept and rendered - 


579 




1 Section I. Allowance of Provisions - - - 


584 




,, II. Messing Allowance - - - - 


590 


XLIV. 


III. Supplies, &>c., of Victualling Stores 


591 




,, IV. Issues and Returns - - - - 


599 




V. Losses ------- 


604 




,, VI. Accounts ------ 


605 


XLV. 


PURCHASE of STORES and PROVISIONS - 


609 






Section I. Allowance and Care of Naval, Naval 








Ordnance, and Whitehead Torpedo 








Stores, Books of Reference, and Forms 


615 






,, II. Demands for Naval, Naval Ordnance, 




XLVI. 


STORES and 
STORE 
ACCOUNTS. 


and Whitehead Torpedo Stores. Books 
of Reference, and Forms 
III. Charge and Accounts of Naval, Naval 
Ordnance, and Whitehead Torpedo 


617 






Stores, Books of Reference, and Forms 


619 






IV. Supply of Stores and Provisions to, and 





Receipts from, Foreign Powers, other 
Departments, 



623 



Vll 



CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER. 




SUBJECT. 


PAGE. 






'Section I. Surveys on board by Ships' Officers - 


627 






II. Naval and Naval Ordnance Stores As to 




XLVIL 


SURVEYS 


Quality ------ 

III. Chain Cables, Steel-Wire Hawsers, Dis- 


629 




and 
STOCKTAKINGS 


mounting Chains of Heavy Guns, &-c. 
,, IV. Naval Stores and Fixtures, and Naval 


629 




OF STORES. 


Ordnance Stores As to Quantity 


631 






V. Provisions, Clothing, Candles, Imple- 








ments, and Medical Stores - - - 


632 


XLVIII. 


RETURNS and 


[Section I. Returns and Accounts in General - 


634 




CORRESPON- * 


,, II. Miscellaneous Books and Returns - 


634 




DENCE. 


III. Correspondence - - - - - 


640 


XLIX. 


PRIZES and 
PRIZE MONEY, 
PRISONERS 


Section I. Prizes ------ 
> ,, II. Prize Money - 

III. Prisoners of War - 

J 


646 
646 
647 




of WAR. 






L. 


QUARANTINE 
and CUSTOMS 
REGULATIONS. 


^Section I. Quarantine ------ 
II. Customs ------ 


648 
648 


T T 


c 






JL/Ji, 


oALVAGE 


r Section I. Pensions for Wounds and Injuries 


659 






II. Gratuities for Wounds and Injuries 


662 






III. Retiring Pensions to Commissioned War- 




LII. 


PENSIONS 


rant Officers, Warrant Officers, and 






and , 


Coast Guard Officers - - - - 


663 




GRATUITIES 


IV. Disability Pensions to Subordinate Officers 


667 




to OFFICERS. 


,, V. Good Service Pensions - - - - 


667 






VI. Naval, Greenwich Hospital, and Travers 








Pensions - - - ' - 


669 






,, VII. General ------ 


671 


LIII. 


PENSIONS 


r Section I. Naval Pensions and Gratuities for 






and 


Wounds or Hurts, and for Disability - 


672 




GRATUITIES 


,, II. Naval Pensions for Service - - - 


675 




to PETTY 


,, III. Greenwich Age Pensions for Naval Pen- 






OFFICERS, 


sioners ------ 


683 




SEAMEN, 


IV. Greenwich Special Pensions for Seamen 






and 


and Marines - - - - - 


684 




BOYS. 


v, ,, V. General ------ 


687 


LIV. 


PENSIONS and 


^ Section I. Widows of Naval Officers - - - 


689 




GRATUITIES 


,, II. Widows of Marine Officers - - - 


693 




to the RELA- 


,, III. Widows and Children of Officers killed in 






TIVES of 


Action ------ 


693 




OFFICERS and 


,, IV. Children of Officers Compassionate 






MEN of the 


Allowances 


694 




ROYAL NAVY 


,, V. Mothers and Sisters of Officers 


695 




and MARINES, 


,, VI. Education of the Children of Officers and 






and EDUCA- 


Men- ------ 


695 




TION of their 


VII. Pensions, Allowances, and Gratuities to 






CHILDREN. 


Relatives of Men killed on Duty 


699 


LV. 


HALF and RETI 


RED PAY and PENSIONS PAYMENT of 


702 




COMPARATIVE ' 


PABLE of ARTICLES and APPENDICES in the 1906 


Vol. 




EDITION with 


those in the PRESENT EDITION - ... 


II. 




INDEX 








Vlll 



EXPLANATION OF TERMS. 



In the construction of these Regulations and Instructions unless there be 
something in the context or subject-matter repugnant to, or inconsistent with, 
such construction, the following terms shall have the meanings given below : 

ADMIRALTY. The Lord High Admiral for the time being of the United 
Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, and, when there shall be no such 
Lord High Admiral in Office, any two or more of the Commissioners for 
executing the Office of Lord High Admiral of the United Kingdom. 

SUPERIOR AUTHORITY. The officer under whose immediate orders a Flag or 
other officer may be placed, or is serving at the time. If the Flag or other 
officer is acting under Admiralty orders, and is not in the presence of a 
Senior Officer, it shall mean the Admiralty. 

COMMAND. The authority vested in officers over their subordinates within 
their own department. 

MILITARY COMMAND. The general authority vested in an officer of the Military 
Branch to command a ship or boat, or to direct any work or undertaking 
which requires the co-operation of different branches of the Service. 

OFFICER. Commissioned, warrant, and subordinate officers, but not to extend 
to petty and non-commissioned officers except when the words " Superior 
officer " are used. 

SUPERIOR OFFICER. To include all officers, and petty and non-commissioned 
officers. 

SHIP. Any ship or vessel belonging to His Majesty. 

FLAG SHIP. A ship bearing the flag of a Flag Officer or the broad pendant 
of a Commodore of the 1st Class. 

A FIRST CLASS SHIP FOR PILOTAGE. A ship drawing not less than 16 feet 
of water. 

HOSPITAL. To include hospital ships and sick quarters. 

THE NAVAL DISCIPLINE ACT. The Naval Discipline Act or Acts now, or which 
may hereafter become, in force. 

COMMANDER-IN-CHIEF. An officer appointed as such to the chief command 
of a fleet, squadron, or station ; and in general routine duties, the officer 
in command of a squadron or station, or on whom such command may 
have devolved. 

THE CAPTAIN. The officer appointed to command the ship, or upon whom 
the actual command may have devolved. 

THE COMMANDING OFFICER. The officer or other person on board and in 
actual Command at the moment. (See 173.) 

THE EXECUTIVE OFFICER. The officer, next in command to the " Captain," 
carrying on the executive duties of the ship. 

i\ 



EXPLANATION OF TERMS. 

THE GUNNERY OFFICER. The Lieutenant or other officer in charge of the 

gunnery duties. 
THE TORPEDO OFFICER. The Lieutenant or other officer in charge of the 

torpedo duties. 
THE NAVIGATING OFFICER. The officer in charge of the navigating duties of 

the ship. 
THE ENGINEER OFFICER. The Engineer Commander or other engineer officer 

in charge of the machinery and boilers. 

ENGINEER LIEUTENANTS (Senior List). Officers of that rank of eight years' 
seniority and upwards who have qualified and have been selected. 

ENGINEER LIEUTENANTS (Junior List). All other officers of that rank. 

THE MARINE OFFICER. The officer in charge or command of the detachment 
of Royal Marines embarked in the ship.* 

THE PRINCIPAL MEDICAL OFFICER OF THE FLEET. The medical officer of the 
senior flag ship of a fleet or detached and independent squadron, j 

THE MEDICAL OFFICER. The Fleet or Staff-Surgeon or the Surgeon in charge 
of the medical duties of a ship or establishment.! 

THE ACCOUNTANT OFFICER. The Paymaster-in-Chief or other officer in charge 
of the pay and victualling duties. 

MIDSHIPMAN, NEW SCHEME. A Midshipman who passed out of the training 
cruiser on or after 15th May 1908. 

MIDSHIPMAN, OLD SCHEME. A Midshipman who passed out of the training 
cruiser on or before 15th May 1907. 

COMMISSIONED WARRANT OFFICERS. Chief Gunner, Chief Boatswain, Chief 
Signal Boatswain, Commissioned Telegraphist, Chief Carpenter, Chief 
Artificer Engineer, Commissioned Mechanician, Commissioned Electrician, 
and Chief Schoolmaster. 

WARRANT OFFICERS, R.N. Gunner Boatswain, Signal Boatswain, Warrant 
Telegraphist, Chief Master-at-Arms, Carpenter, Artificer Engineer, Warrant 
Mechanician, Warrant Electrician, Warrant Armourer, Head Wardmaster, 
Head Schoolmaster, Warrant Writer, Head Steward and Instructor in 
Cookery. In all matters concerning stores, surveys, and routine duties, 
it shall be taken to include commissioned warrant officers. 

CONVENING AUTHORITY. The Admiralty or the officer authorised, pursuant 
to section 58 (9), (11), or (12) of the Naval Discipline Act, to order courts- 
martial. 

PRESCRIBED. Prescribed from time to time by the Admiralty. 

THE JUDGE ADVOCATE. To include a Deputy or an officiating Deputy Judge 
Advocate. 

THE ACCOUNTANT GENERAL. The Accountant General of the Navy. - 

THE MEDICAL DIRECTOR GENERAL. The Director General of the Medical 
Department of the Navy. 

* The term S.O., R.M. (Senior Officer, Royal Marines), is applicable to the Senior 
Marine Officer of H.M. Fleets and Squadrons, and at the Home Ports. 

t The term P.M.O. (Principal Medical Officer) is applicable only to Officers of or above 
the rank of Deputy Surgeon-General who are in medical charge of establishments. 

J The term S.M.O. (Senior Medical Officer) is applicable to the senior of all other 
grades of medical officers when two or more are serving together in the same ship or 
establishment. 



EXPLANATION OF TERMS. 



A MONTH "I For all purposes connected with pay and time, the following scale 
A YEAR / is to be observed whenever the word month or months is used 

in these Regulations as a measure of time, unless otherwise provided by 

statute : 



1 month shall be equal to, and vice versa - 

2 months 
3 

4 
5 
6 
7 
8 



10 
11 



30 days. 

61 

91 ,, 

121 

152 

182 ,, 

212 

243 

273 

303 

334 

365 



12 months or one year 

Notwithstanding the above service is to be reckoned by the calendar for 
the following purposes, but in no other cases : 

(a) For purposes connected with continuous service, special service, and 

non-continuous service engagements, and for re-engagement pay 
under Art. 1434. 

(b) For sentences of imprisonment or detention. 

(c) As regards officers for deprivations of time or seniority. 

(d) For the promotion of the under-mentioned officers : 

Sub-Lieutenants. 

Midshipmen. 

Engineer officers, when promotion depends upon seniority ; in cases 

where qualifying service at sea is required it is to be reckoned 

according to the definitions given above. Tune awarded for 

certificates is to be reckoned by the calendar. 
Marine officers. 
Medical officers, except for promotion to the rank of Surgeon- 

General. 
Accountant officers, except for promotion to the rank of Paymaster- 

in-Chief. 

YEARLY. On 31st December of each year. 
HALF-YEARLY. On 30th June and 31st December. 

QUARTERLY. On 31st March, 30th June, 30th September, and 31st December ; 
or, by the Quarters ending on those dates. 

JUNIOR SERVICE. All service as Acting Lieutenant, Sub-Lieutenant, Assistant 
Paymaster, Engineer, Assistant Engineer, Engineer Lieutenant (Junior 
List), or Engineer Sub-Lieutenant. 

SENIOR SERVICE. All other service as a commissioned officer, except service 
as commissioned warrant officer. 

SEAMAN CLASS. Men and boys of the ship's company who take military 
command, as laid down in column 1 of Appendix XV., Part L 

MARINE (when used in an unqualified sense). To include all ranks of the Royal 
Marines other than commissioned officers. 



XI 



ABBREVIATIONS. 



The following abbreviations in books and accounts signify : 
A.D. Artificer Diver. 

C.S. A man or boy engaged for continuous service. 
D._ Diver. 

D. Discharged. 

DD. Dead. 
D.P. Detained Pay. 
D.S.Q. No longer borne for pay, having been in hospital or sick quarters 

for the full period for which pay is authorised. 
E.A. Efficiency allowance. 
E.P. Extension pay. 
F.T. Passed Field Training 
G.B. Bedding gratuity under Art. 1437. 
G.C. Clothing gratuity under Art. 1436. 

I G.C.B. A man wearing one good conduct badge, and so on. 
G.L. Gunlayer. 
G.M. Gunner's mate. 
G.M. Grog money. 
G.S.A. Good shooting allowance. 
H.L.M. Hard-lying Money. 

Invalided. Discharged from the Service on account of sickness. 
L.T.O. Leading Torpedo Man. 
M.P.A. Musical proficiency allowance. 

Non-C.S. A man or boy entered for non-continuous service. 
N.S. New system. 
O.F. Qualified in oil fuel. 

O.G. Outfit gratuity to chief petty officer under Art. 1436. 
O.S. Old system. 

P.T.I. Physical Training Instructor. 
Q.A. Qualified in Armourer's work. 

Q.A.E. Qualified for Artificer Engineer and noted for promotion. 
Q.M. Qualified Man in Gunnery, R.M.L.I. 
R. Run. 

R.M. Recommended for good conduct medal. 
R.M.G. Recommended for good conduct medal and gratuity. 
R.Q. Run, with a query. 
S.A. Qualified in small arms. 
S.G. Seaman Gunner. 

S.S. (when signifying Engagement). A man entered for special service. 
S.T. Seaman Torpedo Man. 
T.B. Passed torpedo-boat training. 
T.B.D. Passed destroyer course, Art. 831. 
T.C. Torpedo Coxswain. 
T.G.M. Torpedo Gunner's Mate. 
Turbines. Qualified in turbine machinery. 
V.S.A. Victualling store allowance under Art. 1455. 
W.S. Working Suit to Marines. 
W.S.A. Working Suit Allowance. 
W.T. Wireless Telegraphy. 

W.T.B. Qualified in Water Tube Boilers (" large " or " small " to be 
stated). 

xii 



THE KING'S REGULATIONS 



AND 



ADMIRALTY INSTRUCTIONS 



FOR THE 



GOVERNMENT OF HIS MAJESTY'S NAVAL SERVICE. 



CHAPTER I. 

A 

GENERAL REGULATIONS. 

1. Observance and enforcement of Regulations, &c. Every officer shall 
make himself acquainted with and shall duly observe and obey, and so far as 
he is able enforce the due execution of the Naval Discipline Act or Acts in 
force, the King's Regulations and Admiralty Instructions and all other regu- 
lations, orders or instructions that may be issued by the Admiralty or with 
their authority, and shall further in all respects conform himself to the 
established customs and practices of His Majesty's Service at sea. 

New Orders to Ship's Company. Any new orders concerning the ship's 
company are to be read to their men by the Divisional Lieutenants and the 
Marine Officer, and copies are to be displayed in some accessible place for at 
least a week. When such orders affect particular duties care is to be taken to 
ensure that the ratings concerned are thoroughly instructed as to their contents. 

2. General application of Regulations. Although for convenience of 
reference the King's Regulations and Admiralty Instructions are divided into 
chapters, it is to be distinctly understood that every direction contained therein 
is to be considered as applicable to all whom it may concern, notwithstanding 
that it may appear in a chapter addressed to a particular class of officer. 

3. Attendance on board. Every officer so long as he belongs to a ship 
shall be constant in his attendance on board ; no officer subordinate to the 
Captain shall quit the ship without permission, except for some pressing reason 
on the public service. See 727 (Sleeping out of the Ship). 

4. Uniforms. The officers, men and boys of His Majesty's Fleet and the 
Royal Marines shall wear such uniforms as the Admiralty in pursuance of 
His Majesty's pleasure shall from time to time direct. See 154 et seq. (Uniform 
Regulations). 

5. Conduct to be observed. Every person in the Fleet is to conduct himself 
with the utmost respect to his superior officer and with strict obedience to^his 
orders ; he is at all times to discharge every part of his duty with zeal and 
alacrity, and so far as circumstances admit to assist all officers in the duties 
they have to perform. He should on all occasions strive to promote^the 

(B485) Wt. 7872 S87. 6000. 5/16. Sir J. C. & 8. Qp. 48. 



5 CHAP. I. GENERAL 

welfare of the naval service, and by the good order and regularity of hi? conduct 
show an example to those who may be subject to his command. 

6. Conduct to be avoided. Every person in the Fleet is to discountenance 
and endeavour to repress all cursing, swearing, drunkenness and dissolute 
conduct in the Fleet ; he is to abstain from gaming, rioting, quarrelling, and 
from abusive or irritating language, especially to inferiors, and is at all times 
to exert his influence against all that tends to the disparagement of religion 
and the encouragement of vice and immorality. 

7. Conflicting Orders. If an officer should receive from his superior an 
order which he deems at variance with his obedience to any Article in these 
Regulations and Instructions, or with any particular order that may have 
been issued by the Admiralty or other his superior officer he is to represent 
verbally or in writing if it does not require immediate obedience such 
contrariety to the officer from whom he receives it ; and if after such repre- 
sentation that officer shall still direct him to obey the order, he is to do so ; 
but if he thinks it necessary, he may report the circumstances, as the case 
may require, through his Captain to his Commander-in-Chief or to the 
Admiralty, to which every officer has the right of ultimate appeal through 
the proper channel. See 1863, 1864 (Correspondence of Officers through their 
Superiors). 

8. Complaints. If an officer or other person should observe any misconduct 
in his superior, or should suffer any personal oppression, injustice, or other 
ill-treatment at his hands, he is not on that account to fail in any degree in the 
respect and obedience due to such superior, but he may represent such 
misconduct or ill-treatment in the first instance to the Captain of the ship to 
which he belongs, or subsequently, as the case may require, to the Officer 
Commanding the squadron in which he serves, the Commander-in-Chief, and 
finally to the Secretary of the Admiralty, in the order given. In each instance 
the representation is to be sent through the proper channel, and the applicant 
is only justified in appealing direct to a superior authority when the authority 
to whom the appeal is made has refused to forward it. 

2. Should any petty officer or man consider that he has been treated unjustly 
in any way, he may, after a lapse of at least 24 hours, request to see his Captain, 
to whom he should state his complaint verbally, and, should the Captain refuse or 
be unable to remedy it, he may respectfully request that his complaint in writing 
should be forwarded as provided in clause 1. He is to be given 24 hours to 
reconsider his decision, and is to be allowed the advice and assistance of an 
officer in stating his case, but the officer is to warn him that, should there 
be no reasonable grounds for his complaint, he is liable to be treated as having 
made a frivolous or vexatious complaint, which is an act to the prejudice of 
good order and naval discipline. Although the superior authority to whom 
the matter has been submitted may not see fit to alter the ruling of the 
Captain, the latter is not thereby justified in dealing with the appeal as a 
breach of discipline, and is only to do so when expressly authorised by such 
superior authority. 

9. Letters of Complaint. If a letter of complaint is received from any 
officer or other person, containing a request that it may be forwarded for the 
consideration of a superior authority, the Captain of the ship will deal with 
it in the exercise of his discretion as may seem to him best in the interests of 
the Service, being guided in his judgment by the general rule that, while every 
person in His Majesty's Service has the right of representing to his superiors 
any just cause of complaint, frivolous complaints, and such demands as are 



REGULATIONS. 9 

contrary to the regulations or subversive of discipline, are to be checked. The 
procedure laid down in this and the preceding Article will alone be recognised, 
and any other method of obtaining redress from a superior authority is 
forbidden. 

10. Remarks or criticisms on Superiors. Every officer is to refrain from 
making remarks or passing criticisms on the conduct or orders of his superiors 
which may tend to bring them into contempt, and is to avoid saying or doing 
anything which, if seen or heard by or reported to those under him, might 
discourage them or render them dissatisfied with their condition or with the 
Service on which they are or may be employed. If an officer should so far 
forget his duty as either by his conduct or remarks to detract from or to lessen 
the respect due to his superiors or to dishearten those under him or to render 
them dissatisfied, every officer who may witness such conduct or hear such 
remarks is enjoined to report the same immediately to his Captain, or through 
his immediate superior to the Commander-in-Chief as circumstances may 
require. 

11. Combinations. All combinations of persons belonging to the Fleet 
formed for the purpose of bringing about alterations in the existing Regulations 
or customs of His Majesty's Naval Service, whether affecting their interests 
individually or collectively, are prohibited as being contrary to the traditions 
and practice of the Service and injurious to its welfare and discipline. Every 
person is fully authorised individually to make known to his superior any 
proper cause of complaint, but individuals are not to combine either by the 
appointment of committees or in any other manner to obtain signatures to 
memorials, petitions or applications, nor are they collectively to sign any 
such documents. 

12. Communication with other Services, &c. No person in the Fleet is to 
enter into direct communication with any Service or Department of the State 
or with any subordinate officer of such Service or Department, at home or 
abroad, on subjects connected with the Naval Service or with his particular 
duties or present ^or future employment, unless authorised to do so by the 
Regulations of the Service or superior authority ; but all communications on 
such subjects are to be made through the proper channels to the Admiralty 
or to the Commanders-in-Chief abroad, in order that such steps may be taken 
therein as may be necessary. See 1864 (Officers to write through their Captains). 

13. Civil Service Examinations. No person actually serving in the Navy 
is eligible to attend an open competitive examination for a situation in the 
Civil Service unless he produces to the Civil Service Commissioners, when called 
upon to do so, the permission of his commanding officer to attend the examina- 
tion dated before the commencement of the competition. 

2. Before an applicant is granted permission to attend an examination 
under this rule, his commanding officer is to satisfy himself that the application 
is made for valid reasons, and that the applicant's retirement or discharge 
from the Navy will probably be allowed, in the event of his proving successful. 

14. Publication, &c. All persons belonging to the Fleet are forbidden to 
write for publication, or to publish or cause to be published, either directly 
or indirectly, any matter or information relating to the Naval Service unless 
the permission of the Admiralty has been first obtained. See 411 (Communi- 
cating Confidential Reports a breach of confidence). 

2. All such persons are further forbidden to deliver any lecture, or to read 
any paper, at a public meeting on any subject connected with the Naval 



14 CHAP. L GENERAL 

Service, unless a copy of such lecture or paper has been previously submitted 
to the Admiralty, and permission has been granted. 

15. Unnecessary Expense, Fraud, &c. Every officer is strictly enjoined 
to avoid all unnecessary public expense, and, so far as may depend upon him, 
to prevent it in others ; and every officer is to report to the Captain of the ship 
to which -he belongs, or through the proper channel to the Commander-in- 
Chief, or to the Secretary of the Admiralty, as circumstances may require, 
any neglect, collusion, or fraud which he may discover or know of in any 
contractor, agent or person concerned in supplying His Majesty's Naval Service 
with stores or provisions, or in executing any naval works either ashore or 
afloat. See 1373 (Deductions for improper expenditure). 

16. Interest in Contracts. Every officer is forbidden to have any pecuniary 
interest or personal advantage in the purchase of, or in contracts for, the 
supply of provisions or stores of any kind for the use of His Majesty's ships 
or the Naval Service generally, or in contracts made for the executing of any 
naval works on shore. 

2. Directorships of Companies. An officer on the active list on full pay, 
or holding an appointment under the Admiralty, is forbidden to hold the 
post of director of a company. 

An exception to this rule will be permissible in cases in which the following 
conditions are fulfilled, viz. : 

(a) That the company is a private one ; 

(b) That the stock is neither quoted nor sold in the open market ; 

(c) That the directors do not give personal attendance, but are allowed 

in all cases to vote by proxy. 

In every such instance the sanction of the Admiralty must be obtained, 
each case being decided on its merits. 

17. Duels. Every officer in His Majesty's Fleet is hereby ordered neither 
to send nor to accept a challenge to fight a duel. See 726 (Duelling forbidden, 
further regulations). 

18. Relations with Foreign Officers, All officers of the Fleet in their 
relations with officers of foreign ships of war are, if they meet them in any 
port in His Majesty's dominions, to show them such attention and respect as 
their rank and condition may entitle them to, and are to offer such assistance 
as they may stand in need of and as a Power in amity with His Majesty may 
reasonably expect. If they meet them in any foreign port, they are, in addition 
to fulfilling all the obligations of international courtesy elsewhere prescribed, 
to be careful to avoid causes of offence, and to show due deference to the 
regulations and customs of the port. See 480 (Foreign Ships at British Ports). 

19. Foreign Orders. No subject of His Majesty shall accept a foreign 
order from the Sovereign of any foreign country, nor wear the insignia thereof, 
without having previously obtained His Majesty's permission, which "will be 
signified by warrant under His Royal sign-manual. See 162 (Foreign Orders 
and Decorations). 

20. Presents. Officers belonging to His Majesty's Naval Service or to 
the Royal Marine Corps are not to accept presents from any foreign Sovereign 
or Stale nor from any foreign functionary unless the permission of the 
Admiralty has been previously obtained. Nor shall any officer allow himself 
to be complimented by presents or by any collective expression of opinion 
from officers or ships' companies. 



REGULATIONS. 21 

21. Military Command. No officer of the Royal Navy or Royal Marines 
shall be entitled to any " Military command " unless he is serving on full pay 
and borne on the books of one of His Majesty's ships. 

22. Command by Officers of Non-military Branches. Officers of branches 
other than the Military branch are to have command over the subordinates 
of their own branch, but no officer of a branch other than the Military branch 
is to assume military command, either afloat or ashore, over the officers and 
men of other branches unless the latter have been appointed or detailed for 
duty in his department or placed under his orders by superior authority. 

23. Royal Marines embarked. The officers, non-commissioned officers and 
men of the Royal Marines embarked on board His Majesty's ships, whether as 
part complement, for service on shore or otherwise, are to be borne on the 
books of His Majesty's ships, and shall be entitled to the same advantages 
and subject to the same discipline as the rest of the ship's company. See 1134 
(Marines when embarked or employed on shore}. 

24. Land Forces embarked as Marines. When any of His Majesty's land 
forces shall be embarked in the Fleet to serve as marines they shall be considered 
as Royal Marines in every respect except as regards pay, clothing and stoppages, 
which will be governed by the Regulations of the Army. 

26. Command of Land Forces by Naval Officer and vice versa. Nothing 
contained in these Regulations is to be considered as giving a claim to any 
officer of His Majesty's Navy to assume command of His Majesty's land forces 
on shore, nor to any officer of the Army to assume command of any of His 
Majesty's squadrons or ships, or of any of the officers or men thereunto 
belonging, unless under special authority from the Government of His Majesty. 
Sec 220 (Naval Officers employed with Land Forces on joint Service). 

26. Courts-Martial. Courts-martial shall be held, charges framed, offences 
tried, sentences pronounced, and the execution of such sentences carried into 
effect according to the Naval Discipline Act or Acts in force for the time being, 
and according to the rules of procedure, and the forms established from time 
to tune under the authority of the said Act or Acts. See 663 to 701a (Courts- 
Martial) . 

27. Prisoners of War. Officers are to take particular care that all 
prisoners of war are treated with humanity, that their personal property is 
protected, and that they receive their proper allowance of provisions ; they 
are to have every comfort of air and exercise which the circumstances will 
admit of, but they are to be carefully watched and guarded to prevent their 
committing any hostile acts. 

2. The permanent detention of both naval and military prisoners of war 
will be on shore (in the United Kingdom if possible) under arrangements made 
by the military authorities. They will only be embarked in H.M. ships, or in 
transports, for temporary custody or for transit over sea. 

3. Instructions in regard to prisoners of war when embarked in transports 
are laid down in the Instructions for Officers for Transport Service, and 
Instructions for Masters of Transports. 

28. Responsibility of Flag Officer. The Flag or other Senior Officer is 
responsible for the safe conducting of the fleet, squadron, ships or ship present 
with him and acting in concert under his orders ; the Senior O Hi errs in < harge 
of divisions or columns bein.^ r<'-pmi>il>le for the ships under their immediate 
ord< 

6 

B 



89 CHAP. I.- GENERAL 

29. Movements of Ships. The movements, i.e., the arrival and intended 
departure of all H.M. ships are to be at once made known by telegraph to the 
Admiralty, to the Commander-in-Chief or Senior Officer within the limits ^of 
whose command the movement takes place, and to the Commander-in-Chief 
or Senior Officer of the fleet or squadron to which the ship or ships belong. 
The actual departure is also to be telegraphed to the Admiralty. These reports 
are to be made either by land wire or by wireless, as may be most expeditious. 
This regulation applies to home stations as well as to foreign stations. The 
gunboats employed on river service in China will report as directed by the 
Commander-in-Chief. They need not telegraph their movements to the 
Admiralty. 

2. In the event of a vessel whilst on passage in home waters from one port 
to'another putting into an intermediate port, she is also to report the fact by 
telegraph or wireless to the Commanders-in-Chief or Senior Officers at the 
ports of departure and destination, if this would not be done under the orders 
contained in clause 1. 

3. If the Flag Officer of the fleet or squadron to which the ship belongs is 
present the necessary telegrams are to be despatched by him. 

If the ship is detached from her own fleet, and is in the presence of any 
other Flag or Senior Officer, the telegrams are to be sent by the latter officer. 

30. Responsibility of Captain. The Captain is responsible for the safe 
conduct and steering of the ship which he commands. See 979 (Navigation, &c.}. 

31. Evolutions. Every officer is to follow the motions of the Senior 
Officer present in regard to the performance of any evolution or the carrying 
out of any duty which should be done at the same time as they are done in 
the Senior Officer's ship, unless such Senior Officer should dispense with his 
doing so. See 409 (Surveying Ships, &c., not to follow motions). 

32. Classification, Armament and Complements. The ships of His Majesty's 
Fleet, in respect to their stores and the pay and allowances of their officers 
and ship's companies, shall be classified or rated as laid down by the Admiralty. 

2. They shall be equipped with such proportion and description of ordnance 
as the Admiralty may, from time to time, direct ; and they shall be denom- 
inated, as to their ordnance, according to the number of guns of 4-inch calibre 
and above, which they actually carry, and exclusive of boat, field, and all 
other natures of guns. 

3. Should circumstances arise which render necessary any change in a 
ship's armament or in her established proportion of arms, without the previous 
sanction of the Admiralty, the Senior Officer, sanctioning, or, on being informed 
of such change, is immediately to report the particulars for the information 
of the Admiralty, but no such change is ever to be made unless absolutely 
necessary for the fighting efficiency or for the safety of the ship. 

4. They shall be established with complements of such proportions, 
denominations, and ratings of officers and men as the Admiralty may direct. 
The established number of officers and men in a ship (form S.591) is not to be 
altered without the express authority of the Admiralty. 

5. The Admiralty may from time to time change the classification or 
rating, armament, or complement of any ship or class of ships if they think fit. 

33. Accounts. Every officer who is required to keep accounts of the 
receipt and expenditure of public money, stores or provisions is to take care 
that they are rendered correctly, and that every transaction is set out in the 
documents precisely as it occurred. 



REGULATIONS. 34 

34. Clerical Duties in War-time. In time of war the ordinary regulations 
for the conduct of clerical duties on board ship are to be observed and carried 
out in their entirety, unless the Commander-in-Chief, if the ship is with the 
fleet, or the Captain, if the vessel is on detached service, directs otherwise. 

The modified procedure given in Appendix XIX. represents the limit of 
the alterations which may be allowed in ships affected by the outbreak of 
hostilities. 

2. The returns, accounts, &c., which may be dispensed with in time of war 
are indicated by an asterisk in the first column of Appendix XVIII. , Part I. 

35. Books, Accounts, &c., when to be signed. Every Flag Officer and 
Commodore before he strikes his flag or broad pendant, and every Captain 
or other officer who may be a signing officer, before he leaves the ship to which 
he belongs, is, so far as practicable, to sign all books, accounts, and certificates 
which may be necessary to enable the officers to pass their respective accounts, 
provided he is satisfied that the same ought to be signed by him ; every officer 
is to examine very carefully all ship's books, accounts of the receipt, expen- 
diture or other disposal of money, stores or provisions, and all other books, 
accounts or papers before he signs them ; he will sign such only as he shall 
know to be correct, and he is never to sign a certificate for any service without 
being satisfied that such service has actually been performed. 

36. Officers performing Special Duties. Every Flag Officer holding a 
command, and every Captain of a ship in the Fleet, is to afford to every officer 
under his command charged with special or particular duties, the means of 
performing them properly and faithfully, so that no officer may be enabled to 
allege the want of such means in case of default, 

37. Powers of Customs Officers. Every officer of the Fleet in command 
of any ships or ship is to bear in mind that by statute His Majesty's ships may 
be searched by Custom House officers in the same manner as merchant ships 
for the protection of the revenue, that officers of Customs may freely go on 
board all such ships in the performance of their duties, and that these ships 
are subject to such Custom Regulations as the Treasury may from time to 
time issue. See 1884 et seq. (Regulations as to Custom House Officers and 
Customs Duties). 

38. Personal Copy of King's Regulations and Admiralty Instructions. 
Every commissioned officer of His Majesty's Fleet is to provide himself with 
a copy of the King's Regulations and Admiralty Instructions which are at the 
time in force. 



39 



CHAPTER II. 
CEREMONIES AND DISTINCTIONS. 

SECTION . PAGE 

I. Royal Salutes and Flags 
II. Salutes and Flags in India - - 11 

III. Salutes to Civil, Naval, and Military Authorities - 14 

IV. International Salutes and Salutes to Foreigners - -20 
V. Salutes in General - 

VI. Salutes which are to be Returned or not Returned 

VII. Flags to be Hoisted when Saluting or Returning Salutes - 23 
VIII. Visits of Ceremony 

IX. Distinguishing Flags and Pendants of Naval Authorities 27 

X. Distinguishing Flags of other Authorities - - 28 

XI. Ensign, Jack, and Pendant Navy and not Navy - 30 

XII. National Colours - - - 32 

XIII. Military Honours and Marks of Respect 33 

XIV. Naval Salutes and Marks of Respect 35 
XV. Funeral Honours - - 38 

XVI. Uniform - - 39 

XVII. Special Decorations and Medals - - 39 

XVIII. Foreign Orders and Medals - -40 

XIX. Manner of Wearing Decorations, Orders, and Medals - - 42 

SECTION I. ROYAL SALUTES AND FLAGS. 

39. Royal Salutes. All Royal salutes are to consist of 21 guns, except in 
India, for which see 55 and 56. 

40. The Sovereign. Whenever the Sovereign shall arrive at any place in 
the British dominions where there is a fort or battery from which salutes 
are usually fired, a Royal salute shall be fired from such fort or battery, and 
also from all His Majesty's ships and vessels of war present ; and similar salutes 
shall be fired on the Sovereign's final departure, and on such other occasions 
as shall be directed. 

2. Whenever the Sovereign shall go on board any ship of war the Royal 
standard shall be hoisted at the main, the flag of the Lord High Admiral at 
the fore, and the Union Flag at the mizen of such ship, or if on board a vessel 
with less than three masts, they shah 1 be hoisted in the most conspicuous parts 
of her ; a Royal salute shah 1 also be fired from such ship or vessel on the 
Sovereign going on board, and again on leaving her ; and every one of His 
Majesty's ships present shall likewise fire a Royal salute on the hoisting of those 
flags, and such further Royal salutes shall be fired, on the Sovereign quitting 
the ship or vessel or passing in a boat, or on such other occasions as may be 
directed. 

3. Whenever the Sovereign shall be embarked in a ship or vessel at sea 
and the before-mentioned flags shall be hoisted in her, every one of His Majesty's 
ships meeting, passing, or being passed by her shall fire a Royal salute. 

4. Whenever any ship or vessel, in which the before-mentioned flags are 
flying, shall pass a fort or battery from which salutes are usually fired, a Royal 
salute is to be fired by such fort or battery. 



ROYAL SALUTES AND FLAGS. 40 

5. The Royal standard, being the personal flag of the Sovereign, is to be 
hoisted on board His Majesty's ships, or on official buildings or in enclosures, 
only on occasions when His Majesty the King is actually present. 

41. Standard of the Queen. When Her Majesty the Queen is embarked 
in any ship or vessel, her standard shall be hoisted at the main, and it shall be 
treated with the same respect d.nd saluted in the same manner as the flags 
denoting the presence of the Sovereign. 

:.. Standard o! Queen Alexandra. When Her Majesty Queen Alexandra is 
embarked in any ship or vessel, her standard shall be hoisted at the main 
and it shall be treated with the same respect and saluted in the same manner 
as the flags denoting the presence of the Sovereign. 

3. Standard of the Prince of Wales. When His Royal Highness the Prince 
of Wales is embarked in any ship or vessel, his standard shall be hoisted at 
the main, and it shall be treated with the same respect and saluted in the 
same manner as the flags denoting the presence of the Sovereign. 

4. Standard of other Members of the Royal Family. When His Royal 
Highness the Duke of Connaught or His Royal Highness Prince Arthur of 
Connaught or other members of the Royal Family are embarked in any ship 
or vessel, with neither of Their Majesties the King and Queen, Queen Alexandra, 
not the Prince of Wales on board, the standard appropriated for Their Royal 
Highnesses' use shall be hoisted at the main of such ship, and it is to be saluted 
as directed in Article 42. 

Her Royal Highness the Duchess of Connaught will use the standard of 
the Duke of Connaught. 

42. Salutes to Royal Family. Whenever any members of the Royal 
Family shall arrive at, or quit, any place where there is a fort or battery from 
which salutes are usually fired, they shall receive a Royal salute on their first 
arrival and final departure, from such fort or battery, and from all His Majesty's 
ships present. 

2. Visiting Ships. Whenever any member of the Royal Family shall go 
on board any of His Majesty's ships, the standard of His or Her Royal Highness 
shall be hoisted at the main on board such ship, and a Royal salute shall be 
fired from her, on such member of the Royal Family going on board, and 
again upon leaving her. 

3. Met with at Sea. Whenever any member of the Royal Family shall be 
embarked in any ship or vessel, and the standard of His or Her Royal Highness 
shall be hoisted in her, every one of His Majesty's ships meeting, passing or 
being passed by her shall fire a Royal salute. 

43. Royal Standard on Shore. Whenever any of His Majesty's ships may 
arrive at a port, or pass the immediate neighbourhood of a place, where the 
Royal standard or the standard of any member of the Royal Family is flying 
on shore, marking the presence of the Sovereign or of a member of the Royal 
Family at such port or place, they are, on arriving or passing, to fire a Royal 
salute. 

44. Foreign Sovereigns or Chiefs of States. Whenever any foreign Crowned 
Heads or Sovereign Princes, or the consorts of any foreign Crowned Heads 
or Sovereign Princes, or the President of a Republic, shall arrive at or quit 
any place in His Majesty's dominions where there is a fort or battery from 
which salutes are usually fired, they shall receive a Royal salute on their first 
arrival and again on their final departure, from such fort or battery and from 
any ships present, and a similar salute is to be fired upon their going on board 
or leaving any of His Majesty's ships On such occasions during the salute, 



44 CHAP. H. CEREMONIES, &c. 

the Senior Officer's ship shall display at the main the flag of the nation of 
such Royal or distinguished personage. 

2. Whenever any of His Majesty's ships meet, pass, or are passed by any 
vessel flying a standard of any foreign Crowned Head or Sovereign Prince, 
or the consort of any foreign Crowned Head or Sovereign Prince, or the 
President of a Republic, they are to salute that standard. 

45. Foreign Royal Family. Whenever any Prince, being a member of a 
foreign Royal Family, shall arrive at any British port, or visit any of His 
Majesty's ships, the same salutes shall be fired and compliments paid to him 
as are directed by Article 42 to be paid to the members of the Royal Family 
of England, the flag of the nation of such foreign Prince being displayed at 
the main. 

2. In Foreign Ports. Whenever such visits to His Majesty's ships shall 
take place in a foreign port, corresponding salutes shall be fired, and the flag 
of the nation of the Royal visitors hoisted, as already explained. 

3. At Sea. Whenever any of His Majesty's ships meet, pass, or are passed 
by any vessel flying the standard of any member of a foreign Royal Family, 
they are to salute that standard. 

46. Order of Salutes to more than one Standard. Whenever any of His 
Majesty's ships meet, pass, or are passed by any ship or ships which are flying 
more than one standard, or arrive at any port or place where more than one 
is flying, or when two or more standards are broken simultaneously, they 
are to fire Royal salutes in the following order, saluting the standards of 

(i) His Majesty the King, Her Majesty the Queen, Her Majesty Queen 

Alexandra, His Royal Highness the Prince of Wales, 
(ii) The Sovereigns, consorts, or heirs-apparent of foreign nations, or the 

Presidents of Republics. 

(iii) Other members of the British Royal Family, 
(iv) Other members of foreign Royal Families. 

2. Under these circumstances only one salute is to be fired for the standards 
of any one nation, no matter how many may be flying. 

47. Standards of Royal Personages at Foreign Ports. Whenever any of 
His Majesty's ships arrive at a foreign port in which salutes are returned (see 
Article 78), and where the standard of any Royal or Imperial personage, British 
or foreign, or that of the President of a Republic, is being flown, the customary 
salute to the flag of the nation to which the port belongs is in all cases to be 
fired first, the standard or standards present being subsequently saluted in 
the order directed in Article 46. 

2. Salute to National Flag. In case the standard of any member of the 
Royal or Imperial Family or of the President of the Republic of the nation 
to which the port belongs is flying in the port, the salute to the national flag 
is to be considered as personal to that standard as representing the nation. 

48. Another authority in presence of Standard. In the presence of any 
Royal or Imperial standard, British or foreign, or that of the President of a 
Republic, no other authority of that nation is to be saluted by His Majesty's 
ships, except as provided in clause 2. 

2. The Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland and the Viceroy and Governor-General 
of India, when within the territorial limits of their Vice-Royalties, as defined 
in Articles 51 and 64, are to be considered as junior to the Sovereign of Great 
Britain and Ireland only, and are to be saluted accordingly by His Majesty's 
ships before any other members of the British Royal Family, foreign Sovereigns, 
Presidents of Republics, or any members of foreign Royal or Imperial Families. 

10 



ROYAL SALUTES AND FLAGS. 48 

The standards of such Royal, Imperial, or distinguished personages are 
subsequently to be saluted in the order laid down in Article 46. 

49. Dates for Salutes. The fixed dates for firing salutes in celebration of 
British anniversaries are as follows, viz. : 

(a) The anniversaries of the birth, accession, and coronation of the reigning 
Sovereign ; 

(/>) The birthday of the consort of the reigning Sovereign ; 

(c) The birthday of the Queen Mother ; 

on which days a Royal salute shall be fired at noon from all His Majesty's 
ships in port, and from all the forts and batteries from which triumph salutes 
are usually fired. 

When any anniversary falls on a Sunday, the salute shall be fired at noon 
on the following day. 

2. Sovereign's Birthday. The day on which the anniversary of the 
Sovereign's birth is intended to be kept will be notified in the " Gazette." 
In His Majesty's colonies and possessions abroad it is officially celebrated on 
the actual date of the anniversary. Where the day of the official celebration 
differs from the actual date of the anniversary, salutes are to be fired on 
both days. 

50. Birthday of Member of Royal Family. Whenever any of His Majesty's 
ships are in immediate proximity to the Court on the anniversary of the birth 
of any member of the Royal Family, a Royal salute is to be fired by such ships. 

51. The Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland is entitled to receive a Royal salute 
from the forts and batteries within his Vice-Royalty, and from His Majesty's 
ships, if met within three leagues of any part of the coast of Ireland in a ship 
flying the Lord-Lieutenant's flag, or on His Excellency visiting any of His 
Majesty's ships within the said limits. 

52. Birthday of Foreign Sovereigns or other National Festivities, On the 

occasion of the celebration of the birthday of the King or Queen of a foreign 
nation, or of other important national festivals and ceremonies, by any ships 
of war or batteries of such nation, His Majesty's ships present may, on previous 
official information being received by the Senior Officer, fire such salutes in 
compliment thereto, not exceeding 21 guns, as are fired by the ships or batteries 
of the foreign nation ; the flag of such nation being displayed on these occasions 
at the main of the Senior Officer's ship. 

53. These Salutes not returned. None of the foregoing salutes will be 
returned, and they are only to be fired from ships authorised to salute under 
Article 85. 

54. The term " Royal Family " as used in these instructions, is to mean 
all personages, being subjects of His Majesty, who bear the title of " Royal 
Highness." 

SECTION II. SALUTES AND FLAGS IN INDIA. 

55. Table of Salutes in India. The following is the special table of salutes 
established for the Indian Empire : 

Scale. 



The King and Emperor when present in persoa - 101 guns 

Members of the Royal Family - - 31 
Royal Standard and Royal Salutes '.'I 

11 



55 CHAP. II. -CEREMONIES, &c. 

Scale. 



The Viceroy and Governor-General of India - - 31 guns. 

Ambassadors - 19 

Governors of Presidencies - - 17 

The President of the Council in India - 17 

Governors of His Majesty's Colonies - 17 

The Governor of the French Settlements in India - 17 ,, 

The Governor of Portuguese India - 17 ,, 

Lieut enant-Governors of Provinces in India - 15 ,, 

Members of Council - - 15 
The Naval Commander-in-Chief, East Indies Station according 

to Naval rank with two guns added. See 61. 
General Officers of the Army in India : 

Commander-in-Chief (if a Field-Marshal) - - 19 

Commander-in-Chief (if a General) - 17 ,, 

Army Commanders - - 15 ,, 
Lieutenant-Generals and Major-Generals Commanding 

Divisions - - 13 ,, 

Major-Generals and Brigadier-Generals Commanding Brigades 11 ,, 

Plenipotentiaries and Envoys 15 ,, 

Lieutenant-Governors of His Majesty's Colonies 15 ,, 

Agents to the Viceroy and Governor-General - - 13 ,, 

Residents - - - 13 ,, 

Chief Commissioners of Provinces and Commissioners - 13 ,, 

Political Agents and Charges d' Affaires - 11 

The Governor of Damaun - - 11 ,, 

The Governor of Dew (Diu) - - 11 ,, 

2. The King and Emperor. The Regulations laid down in the first Section 
of this Chapter shall, within Indian waters, be applicable to His Majesty the 
King and Emperor and to the other Royal personages and Presidents of 
Republics, as therein mentioned, but subject, in the case of foreign Royal 
and other personages, to the provisions of Article 66. 

56. Viceroy. The Viceroy and Governor-General of India shall be entitled 
to receive a Royal salute of 31 guns from the forts and batteries within the 
Indian Territories, and from His Majesty's ships on being met afloat within 
the Indian waters and on visiting any of His Majesty's ships within such 
waters. 

57. Ambassadors and others. Whenever an Ambassador, a Governor of 
a Presidency, or the President of the Council of India, shall arrive at, or depart 
from, any place within the Indian Territories where there are forts and batteries 
from which salutes are usually fired, and, whenever an Ambassador, a Governor 
of a Presidency, or the President of the Council of India, shall visit, embark 
on board, or disembark from, any one of His Majesty's ships, within the Indian 
waters, he shall be saluted by the fort or ship, as the case may be, with the 
number of guns specified in the scale. 

58. Governors, &c. Governors of His Majesty's colonies, Lieutenant- 
Governors of Provinces in India, Lieutenant-Governors of His Majesty's 
Colonies, Agents to the Viceroy and Governor-General, Residents, Chief 
Commissioners of Provinces, and Commissioners, shall be entitled to be saluted 
with the number of guns specified for their rank in the scale, within their 
respective jurisdictions, and when on duty elsewhere in the territories under 

12 



SALUTES AND FLAGS IN INDIA. 58 

the authority of the Government of India, and when they shall visit, embark 
on board, or disembark from, any one of His Majesty's ships within the 
jurisdiction of their respective Governments. 

59. Members of Council. Members of Council in India shall be entitled 
to be saluted with the number of guns specified in the scale, within their 
respective Presidencies, and when they shall visit, embark on board, or 
disembark from, any one of His Majesty's ships within the same limits. 

60. Envoys and Agents. Plenipotentiaries and Envoys, and Political 
Agents and Charges d'Affaires shall be entitled to be saluted with the number 
of guns specified in the scale, within the precincts of the territories to which 
they are accredited, and when they shall visit, embark on board, or disembark 
from any one of His Majesty's ships within the said limits. 

61. Naval Commander-in-Chief, East Indies Station. The Commander-in- 
Chief, East Indies Station, shall be entitled in Indian territories and Indian 
waters, as defined in Article 64, to a salute consisting of the number of guns 
laid down in Article 69 for an officer of his rank with two guns added ; provided 
that if he meet with the flag or broad pendant of a senior naval officer he 
shall salute as directed by Article 74. 

2. Officers of Navy. Other officers of the Navy shall be saluted in India 
according to their respective ranks, with the number of guns specified in the 
table of salutes and under the regulations laid down in Section III. 

3. Officers of Army serving in India. Officers of the Army, in India, 
including officers of H.M. Indian Military Forces, shall be entitled to be 
saluted when within the limits of their command, with the number of guns 
specified in Article 55, subject, in the case of salutes by His Majesty's ships, 
to the conditions laid down with regard to military officers in Article 69. 

A military officer shall not be saluted as such in India unless he is in actual 
military command and is the senior military officer on the spot. 

62. Fixed Anniversaries. The fixed days for firing salutes, in celebration 
of anniversaries, in Indian territories and waters are : 

(a) The anniversaries of the birth, accession, and coronation of the reigning 

Sovereign ; 

(b) The birthday of the consort of the reigning Sovereign ; 

(c) The birthday of the Queen Mother ; and 

(d) The First of January of each year. 

When any anniversary falls on a Sunday, the salute shall be fired at noon 
on the following day. 

63. Discretionary authority of Viceroy. The Viceroy and Governor- 
General of India has power, in cases in which he may deem it expedient, to 
authorise salutes, and to issue local regulations for the guidance of the authorities 
in Indian territories with respect to civil or military officers holding positions 
or commands not included in the scale of " Salutes in India." 

64. Indian Waters. For the purposes of this Section : 

(a) Indian waters shall be understood to extend from the North-west 

entrance of the Straits of Malacca to Cape Comorin, excepting Ceylon, 
and from Cape Comorin to Aden, including the Maldive and Laccadive 
Islands and the Persian Gulf. 

(b) Indian Territories. Indian territories shall include all the waters of 

India within three miles of the coasts thereof. 

13 



65 CHAP. H. CEREMONIES, &c. 

66. Return Salutes and Flags. The rules in regard to return salutes, and 
as to the flags to be hoisted during salutes, as laid down in Sections VI. and VII. 
of this Chapter, are to be observed in India so far as they may be applicable. 

66. Foreign Ships. His Majesty's officers are not to expect from foreign 
ships of war in India any departure from the established custom under which 
no salutes are to exceed 21 guns. 

67. Native Princes. The salutes to which the native Princes and Chiefs 
in India are entitled will be communicated to the Commander-in-Chief of the 
Station. 

68. Distinguishing Flags in India. The following rules are established by 
the Government of India in respect to the hoisting of the Viceroy's flag in 
Indian waters : 

(a) When the Viceroy and Governor-General is on board, the Viceroy's 

flag is to be hoisted at the main. 

(b) When a Governor or Lieutenant-Governor is on board, within the 

limits of his Government, or on duty elsewhere in territories under 
the authority of the Government of India, the Viceroy's flag is to be 
hoisted at the fore. 

(c) When a Chief Commissioner or Political Officer is on board, within the 

limits of his jurisdiction, or on duty elsewhere in the territories under 
the authority of the Government of India, the Viceroy's flag is to 
be hoisted at the fore. 

2. With reference to the foregoing Rule (a), whenever the Viceroy and 
Governor-General shall be embarked on board one of His Majesty's ships, his 
distinguishing flag is to be hoisted at the main, and kept flying while the 
Viceroy is on board in Indian waters. 

3. With reference to Rules (b) and (c), the Viceroy's flag is to be hoisted 
at the fore whenever any of the functionaries referred to are saluted on visiting 
the ship. 

4. Whenever a requisition is received for the embarkation or conveyance 
of a Governor, Chief Commissioner, or Political Officer, the senior officer present 
may direct the Viceroy's flag to be hoisted at the fore of the ship in which he 
is embarked, provided that the senior officer, after -consultation with and on 
requisition from that official, considers it for the benefit of the service about 
to be performed that such flag should, within the prescribed limits, be hoisted. 
Should the senior officer consider it in the circumstances undesirable to hoist 
the flag, he is to inform the official of his reasons, and at once report the same 
to the Commander-in-Chief for the information of the Admiralty. 

5. In the event of such functionary being detached on a foreign mission 
in his official capacity outside his particular jurisdiction, a special intimation 
will be given by the Government of India in each case as to the flag being 
carried by the man-of-war in which he may be embarked ; in the absence of 
which the senior officer present is to exercise his discretion in consultation 
with the official proceeding on the mission. 



SECTION III. SALUTES TO CIVIL, NAVAL, AND MILITARY AUTHORITIES. 

69. His Majesty's civil, naval, and military functionaries shall be saluted 
when in their official capacities as laid down in the following table : 

14 



SALUTES TO CIVIL, &c., AUTHORITIES. 



GO 
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The 
the 



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Canada, the 
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castles or fortres 



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15 



CHAP. H. CEREMONIES, &c. 





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SALUTES TO CIVIL, &c., AUTHORITIES. 





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CHAP. H. CEREMONIES, &c. 





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19 



70 CHAP. H. CEREMONIES, &c. 

70. Salutes to Foreign Functionaries. Salutes, in conformity with the 
table of salutes, shall be fired in compliment to foreign officials, from either 
ships or forts, in the same manner and in circumstances similar to those in 
which salutes to a British official would be fired. 

71. Salutes on embarking and disembarking. When the ship, from which 
a diplomatic or colonial functionary or a General Officer entitled to be saluted 
on embarking or disembarking under the foregoing Article 69, Classes II. 
to VIII., and XIX. to XXIIL, shall be either a ship of war not authorised to 
salute under Article 85, a packet, or a merchant ship, the Senior Naval Officer 
may direct the prescribed salute to be fired from any ship present. 

72. Acting in higher posts. His Majesty's naval or military officers, 
temporarily acting in any higher command, are entitled, during their temporary 
tenure, to all the honours and salutes that may appertain to such command. 

2. Officers, temporarily acting in any civil office, are entitled, during their 
temporary tenure, to all the honours or salutes that may appertain to such 
office. 

73. In presence of Superior Authority. No inferior naval authority is to 
be saluted in the presence of a superior naval authority. 

2. Similarly no inferior military authority is to be saluted in the presence 
of a superior military authority. 

3. Personal as well as other salutes are included in both cases. 

74. Salutes to Flag. The flag or broad pendant of the superior naval 
authority present is to be saluted as follows : 

(a) By the next senior officer present 

(i) on being first hoisted ; 
(ii) on being shifted, or rehoisted, on promotion. 

(b) By a single ship or ships on meeting or on arrival subject to clause 3 ; 

but on such occasions the Senior Officer only of two or more ships 
belonging to the same fleet or squadron is to salute such superior. 

(c) By a junior Flag Officer or Commodore on arrival, on first hoisting his 

flag or broad pendant, or on shifting it on promotion. 

2. Return Salutes. These salutes are to be returned according to the 
scale ; but if more than one salute has been fired, the return salute in answer 
to the whole shall consist of the same number of guns as that to which the 
officer receiving the salute is entitled. 

3. No Flag Officer, Commodore, Captain, or other officer in command, 
shall salute the same Flag Officer or Commodore more than once during his 
command, except in case of promotion. 

75. Limitation as to rank. None of His Majesty's officers under the rank 
of Commodore or Brigadier-General are to be saluted in any part of the world ; 
nor are salutes to be exchanged between His Majesty's ships, castles, or forts. 



SECTION IV. INTERNATIONAL SALUTES AND SALUTES TO FOREIGNERS. 

76. International Salutes. The following regulations, in which the 
maritime powers generally have concurred, are to be observed in reference to 
the interchange of salutes between His Majesty's ships and foreign ships of 

20 



INTERNATIONAL SALUTES, &r. 76 

war which bear the flag of a Flag Officer, or the broad pendant of a Commodore 
or Captain commanding a squadron or division : 

Guns. 
The flag of an Admiral of the Fleet or Flag Officer who ranks with a 

Field Marshal is to be saluted with - 
The flag of an Admiral is to be saluted with 
The flag of a Vice-Admiral ,, ,, 

The flag of a Rear-Admiral ,, ,, 13 

The broad pendant of a Commodore or a Capitaine de Vaisseau Chef 

de Division in the French Navy 11 

2. For the purpose of this Article, as the rank of full Admiral does not 
exist in the French Navy, Vice-Admirals of that nation whose flags may be 
hoisted at the main are to be regarded as full Admirals, and are to be saluted 
with 17 guns. 

77. Foreigners of distinction. If a foreigner of high distinction, or s 
foreign Flag Officer or General Officer should visit any one of His Majesty's 
ships, he may be saluted on his going on board, or on leaving the ship, with 
the number of guns which he, from his rank, would receive on visiting a ship 
of war of his own nation, or with such number not exceeding 19 guns as may 
be deemed proper ; should the number of guns to which he is entitled from 
ships of his own nation be less than is given to the officers of his rank under 
Article 70, he is to be saluted with the greater number. 

78. National Salutes. The Captain of a ship, or the Senior Officer of more" 
than one ship on anchoring at a foreign port where there is a fort or battery 
or where a ship of the nation may be lying, shall salute the national flag with 
21 guns, on being satisfied that the salute will be returned. 

79. Foreign Flag Officers and Commodores. If one or more British ships 
of war should meet a foreign ship of war bearing the flag of a Flag Officer, 
or the broad pendant of a Commodore commanding a station or squadron, 
and superior in rank to the Senior Officer in command of His Majesty's ship 
or ships, such Senior Officer shall salute the foreign Flag Officer, with the 
number of guns accorded to his rank in Article 76. If the meeting takes place 
in port, the salute is not to be fired until the proper national salutes shall have 
been interchanged, and then only if the local regulations admit thereof. 

80. Ships unable to salute. If from any special cause one of His Majesty's 
ships from which a salute may reasonably be expected, is unable to salute, 
the circumstances are to be explained on the spot. 

81. Recognised Governments. Salutes to foreign Royal personages and 
other foreign authorities and flags are only authorised in the case of a 
Government formally recognised by His Majesty. 

82. Lowering Flags. His Majesty's ships shall not, on any account, lower 
their flags to any foreign ships whatsoever, unless the foreign ships shall first, 
or at the same time, lower their flags to them. 

SECTION V. SALUTES IN GENERAL. 

83. Permission of Senior Officer. With the exception of salutes to the 
Senior Officer himself, no salutes are to be fired from His Majesty's ships 
without previous communication, by signal or otherwise, with the Senior 
Officer present. 

21 



84 CHAP. H. CEREMONIES, &c. 

84. For one Office only. Should any one of His Majesty's officers fill more 
than one office entitling him to a salute, he is to be saluted in that which 
entitles him to the greatest number of guns. 

85. Ships authorised to Salute. Salutes are to be fired by 

(a) All ships except destroyers, commanded by a Captain or Commander 

and carrying four or more light O.F. guns of the same nature suitably 
placed, or provided with a saluting armament of light Q.F. guns. 

(b) The number of guns to be employed is never to be less than as specified 

in (a). 

(c) Top guns are not to be used for saluting. 

2. Where light Q.F. guns of more than one nature are carried, the heavier 
are to be used for saluting, provided four or more of them form part of the 
armament. 

3. Unless in exceptional circumstances no gun larger than a 12-pr. is to 
be used for the purpose of firing salutes. 

4. In cases where, from any special circumstances, omitting to fire a salute 
to a foreign power or officer cannot be explained without giving offence, the 
salute is to be fired, by any ship which can possibly do so with safety, whether 
entitled to salute by the foregoing regulations or not. 

86. Salutes in the Thames. Salutes are not to be fired from ships in the 
Thames above Gravesend, unless specially ordered. 

[ 87. Time of firing. As a general rule no salutes should be fired between 
sunset and sunrise. 

p^ 88. Sundays. When it may be necessary to salute on Sundays care is 
to be taken not to do so during the hours of Divine Service ashore or in the 
ships. Should any salute to a foreign flag or ship be delayed on this account, 
the cause is to be explained. 

89. Salutes not authorised. No other salutes than those authorised are 
to be fired, except on the occasion of a great victory to His Majesty's arms, 
or other important national event, when the Governor of His Majesty's 
possessions abroad, in conjunction with the Senior Naval Officer present, may 
direct such salutes to be fired as the occasion may require ; but unless the 
Senior Officers of the Navy and Army concur in the propriety of the proposed 
salutes, they are not to be fired by one Service only when both could have 
done honour to the occasion. 

& 90. Customary Salutes in Colonies. The Governors of His Majesty's 
possessions are to continue to sanction such salutes as have been customary, 
and which they deem proper and right, at religious ceremonies, and also when 
opening or closing the Houses of Parliament or of Assembly, but no such 
salutes are to exceed 19 guns. 

SECTION VI. SALUTES WHICH ARE TO BE RETURNED OR NOT RETURNED. 

91. Return Salutes. The following regulations are to be observed in regard 
to return salutes to or from His Majesty's ships and forts or batteries : 

(a) Royal. Royal salutes are not to be returned. 

. (b) From Foreign Ships of War. All salutes from foreign ships of war, 
either to His Majesty's ships or forts, are to be returned, gun for gun. 
Should there be no fort or battery from which such salutes can be 
returned, the Senior Naval Officer present will return them gun 
for gun. 

22 



SALUTES WHEN TO BE RETURNED. 91 

(c) His Majesty's subjects. No salutes to His Majesty's subjects are to be 
returned except salutes to superior naval authorities under 
Article 74. 

92. To Foreign Royal Personages and Authorities. In the case of salutes 
from His Majesty's ships, forts, and batteries to foreign Royal personages 
and other functionaries, the following arrangement entered into with the 
maritime powers, is to be observed : 

1. Salutes not returned. Salutes from ships of war which will not be 
returned : 

(a) To Royal personages, Chiefs of States or members of Royal Families, 

whether on arrival at, or departure from, a port, or upon visiting 
ships of war. 

(b) To diplomatic, naval, military, or consular authorities, or to Governors 

or Officers Administering a Government, whether on arrival at, or 
departure from, a port, or when visiting ships of war. 

(c) To foreigners of high distinction on visiting ships of war. 

(d) Upon occasions of national festivals or anniversaries. 

2. Salutes returned. Salutes from ships of war which will be returned gun 
for gun : 

(a) To the national flag on anchoring at a foreign port. 

(b) To the flags of foreign Admirals and Commodores when met with at 

sea or in harbour. See 76 (International Salutes). 

3. Reciprocity with Foreign Ships. When foreign ships of war salute the 
British flag or British Royal or other personages, or any of His Majesty's 
functionaries in similar circumstances, the same rules are to be reciprocally 
observed by His Majesty's ships present, as to returning or not returning the 
salutes. 

4. Lord Lieutenant and Viceroy. Salutes to the Lord Lieutenant of 
Ireland and to the Viceroy of India are not returned. 

5. Admiralty return Foreign Salutes. When the flag of the Lord High 
Admiral or the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty is saluted by a foreign 
ship of war on her arrival or on meeting, such salute will be returned gun 
for gun. 

93. Admiralty Flag. The Admiralty Flag does not return salutes from 
any of His Majesty's ships, whether bearing Admiral's flags or the ordinary 
pendant. Whenever it may be deemed necessary by the Admiralty when 
embarked, orders will be given by signal or otherwise for the flag or some 
other ship in company to return the salute of a foreign man-of-war. 

94. From Merchant Ships. When foreign or British merchant ships or any 
ships not in the Royal Navy, salute His Majesty's ships, the return salute is 
to be five guns to a single ship and seven to more than one sailing in company. 

SECTION VII. FLAGS TO BE HOISTED WHEN SALUTING OR RETURNING 

SALUTES. 

95. During Salutes. When salutes are interchanged with foreign ships of 
war or forts, or when personal salutes are fired in honour of foreigners, the 
following rules as to the flags that shall be displayed are to be observed by 
His Majesty's ships : 

(a) Royal Personages. In the case The flag of the nation of such Royal 
of a foreign Royal personage or personage, &c., is to be hoisted at 
Chief of a State. the main. 

23 



95 CHAP. H. CEREMONIES, &c. 

(b) Festivals. When salutes are The flag of the foreign nation in 
fired, whether in British or in honour of which the day is being 
foreign ports, on the occasion celebrated is to be hoisted at the 
of a foreign national festival. main during the salute and for such 

further time as the ships of the 
nation may be dressed, or if none 
are present, until sunset. 

(c) National Flag. On anchoring The flag of the foreign nation which 
at a foreign port. is being saluted is to be hoisted at 

the main during the salute. 

(d) Foreign Flag Officers. When The flag of the foreign nation is to be 
meeting a foreign Flag Officer hoisted at the fore during the salute 
or when returning the salute of or return salute. 

any foreign Flag Officer or ship 
of war. 

(e) Visits of Foreign Authorities. The flag of the foreign nation to which 
On the occasion of visits from the person saluted belongs is to be 
foreign diplomatists, Cover- hoisted at the fore during the 
nors, or naval, military, or con- personal salute. 

sular authorities, or of dis- 
tinguished persons entitled to 
salutes. 

2. Distinguishing Flags. The distinguishing flags particularised in Article 
114 are to be respectively hoisted at the fore whenever any of His Majesty's 
military, diplomatic, colonial, or consular functionaries are receiving salutes 
to which they may be entitled ; should, however, the proper distinguishing 
flag not be on board the ship saluting, the blue ensign is to be hoisted when 
saluting consular officers and the red ensign when paying the same 'honours 
to any of the other functionaries. 

3. Alternative Flag. Should the ship have neither a red nor blue ensign, 
a white ensign may be hoisted at the fore when saluting any of the British 
functionaries referred to. 

SECTION VIII. VISITS OF CEREMONY. 

96. To Foreign Naval Officers. The following rules, in which the maritime 
powers generally have concurred, are to be observed by all naval officers in 
reference to the interchange of visits with officers of friendly foreign men-of-war 
in all ports, whether British or foreign : 

(a) Preliminary visit. On the arrival of any ship or ships of war of another 

nationality, the Flag or other officer in command of one or more 
ships of war in port, whatever may be his rank, will send an officer 
to such arriving ship, or in case of a fleet or squadron, to the ship 
of the officer in chief command of it, to offer the customary courtesies. 
The captain of the ship to which this visit is paid will send an 
officer to return it. 

(b) Official visit. Within 24 hours of his arrival the Flag or other officer 

in chief command of the arriving ship or ships will visit the officer 
in chief command of the fleet or squadron or single ship of war of 
another nationality present at the port, if he be his equal in grade, 
and the visit will be returned within 24 hours of being paid. In the 
case of officers of different grades the inferior will pay the first visit, 
the same limits of time being observed as to the visit and its return. 

24 



VISITS OF CEREMONY. 96 

The grades are : 
(i) Admiral, 
(ii) Vice- Admiral, 
(iii) Rear- Admiral, 
(iv) Commodore, 
(v) Captain, 
(vi) Commander, 
(vii) Lieutenant or other officer in command. 

(c) Return visit. Officers of superior grades will return visits as follows : 

All Flag Officers, including Commodores, will return the visits of 
Captains and those of grades superior to Captains ; they will send 
their Flag Captains or Commanders to return the visits of Com- 
manders, Lieutenants, and other officers in command. 

Captains and officers of a lower grade will return the visits of 
Commanders and officers of inferior rank in command. 

(d) Visits o! other than Senior Officers. After the interchange of visits 

between the Senior Officers shall have taken place, the Captains 
or other officers in command of the several ships of war arriving 
will visit the Captains or other officers in command of the ships of 
war in port, who will return their visits. 

(e) Reciprocity from Foreign Officers. His Majesty's officers may expect 

that strict reciprocity will be observed in similar circumstances by 
foreign naval officers in respect to these visits of ceremony. 

97. British Diplomatic Functionaries. Every Flag or other officer in 
command will, on arrival, pay the first visit to His Majesty's diplomatic func- 
tionaries in charge of embassies or legations, of or above the rank of Charge 
d'Affaires, but they will receive the first visit from diplomatic functionaries 
below that rank. 

2. In case of doubt as to the status of a diplomatic functionary in charge 
of an embassy or legation, an officer should be sent on shore to ascertain it 
previous to the interchange of visits. 

98. Consular authorities. On the arrival of a fleet, squadron, or ship at a 
foreign port, the first visit will be made by the naval or consular officer who is 
subordinate in relative rank to the other, according to the following scale : 

(a) Agents and Consuls- To rank with, but after Rear-Admirals, except 

General or Commis- in the cases of the Agents and Consuls-General 
sioners and Con- in Egypt and Zanzibar, who, occupying 
suls-General. positions similar to those of Governors, take 

precedence of all Flag Officers. 

(b) Consuls-General - To rank with, but after Commodores. 

(c) Consuls - - To rank with, but after Captains of the Royal 

Navy of three years' standing, and before all 
other such Captains. 

(d) Vice-Consuls - - To rank with, but after Lieutenants of eight 

years' standing. 

(e) Consular Agents - To rank with, but after all other Lieutenants. 

99. Governors ol Colonies. The following procedure in regard to the 
interchange of visits between naval officers and Governors, Lieutenant- 
governors, and Administrators of His Majesty's colonies, possessions, &c., 
abroad, is to be observed. 

2. Occasions. Official visits are to be exchanged on the following 
occasions : 

(a) On the arrival of one or more of His Majesty's ships at a port at which 

25 



99 CHAP. H. CEREMONIES, &c. 

the Governor, Lieutenant-Governor, Administrator, or Commis- 
sioner of the colony, territory, or dependency is present, between 
such officer and the Senior Officer in command of the squadron or ship. 

(b) On the first arrival at such a port of any Flag Officer or Commodore 

since taking up his appointment,, between him and the Governor, 
Lieutenant-Governor, Administrator, &c. 

(c) On a Governor, Lieutenant-Governor, Administrator, or Commissioner 

newly appointed assuming office, between him and all Flag Officers 
and Commodores present.. 

(d) These visits need not be exchanged more than once during the respective 

tenure of office of the King's representative and the naval officers 
mentioned above. 

3. Visits : how to be paid. 

(a) A Governor is always to receive the first visit from the Senior Officer 

in command of the squadron or ship. 

(b) A Lieutenant-Governor is to pay the first visit to a Flag Officer or 

Commodore First Class who is a Commander-in-Chief, but is to 
receive the first visit in all other cases. See Clause 7_ (b) (Definition 
of the term " Lieutenant-Governor "). 

(c) An Administrator or Commissioner is to pay the first visit to all Flag 

Officers and Commodores, but is to receive the first visit in all other 
cases. 

4. Return visits. To be paid within 24 hours. 

(a) A Governor will return visits in person to all Flag Officers and Com- 

modores. 

(b) A Lieutenant-Governor will do so in person to all Flag Officers and 

Commodores not being Commanders-iri-Chief. 

(c) An Administrator or Commissioner will do so in person to all Captains. 

(d) A Flag Officer or Commodore will do so in person to all Lieutenant- 

Governors, Administrators, or Commissioners. 

(e) In all other cases the return visit will be paid by an Aide-de-Camp or 

other officer deputed. 

5. Inability to visit. Should the Governor or any other officer administering 
the Government find that from indisposition or pressure of important business 
he is unable to return or pay a visit in person, he will depute his Aide-de-Camp 
or some other officer to do so. In like manner, should a Flag Officer or Com- 
modore from indisposition or pressing occupation be precluded from paying 
or returning a visit, he will depute his Flag Lieutenant or other officer not 
below th'at rank to do so. In each case the officer failing to pay the required 
visit in person will report the circumstance and assign the reasons which led 
to the omission, to the department under which he is acting. 

6. Acting Officers. Officers acting temporarily in higher civil offices or 
commands are, in respect to these visits, to be upon the same footing as if they 
were confirmed in such offices or commands. See 115 and 116 (Distinguishing 
Flag and Embarkation). 

7. " Governor," " Lieutenant-Governor," &c., Definition. For the purposes 
of this Article : 

(a) The term " Governor " includes the Governors-General of the Dominion 
of Canada, the Commonwealth of Australia, and the Union of South 
Africa, the High Commissioners for the Western Pacific, Northern 
Nigeria, Cyprus, and the Federated Malay States, and the Lieutenant- 
Governors of the Channel Islands, the Isle of Man, Bengal, Eastern 
Bengal and Assam, and Burma. 

26 



VISITS OF CEREMONY. 99 

(b) The term " Lieutenant-Governor " means a Lieutenant-Governor 

administering the Government as such. It does not include an 
Officer merely holding the title of Lieutenant-Governor, except when 
he is actually administering the Government in the absence of the 
Governor, in which case Clause 6 would apply. As regards visits, 
the status of the Commissioners of Somaliland and Wei-hai-Wei is 
that of a Lieutenant-Governor. 

(c) The terms Administrator and Commissioner signify the Administrator 

or Commissioner of a colony, territory, or dependency, acting in 
subordination to a Governor or High Commissioner. 

100. Boats for Visits. The senior naval officer present will arrange, when 
necessary, to provide a suitable boat to enable the diplomatic, colonial, or 
consular officer to pay any official visits afloat, and to re-land him, on the 
officer notifying his wishes to that effect. 

SECTION IX. DISTINGUISHING FLAGS AND PENDANTS OF NAVAL 

AUTHORITIES. 

101. Lord High Admiral or Admiralty. The Lord High Admiral's flag is 
to be worn in ships in which the Lord High Admiral or the Commissioners for 
executing the office of Lord High Admiral are embarked. 

102. Admiral of the Fleet. The Union flag is to be worn at the main by 
an Admiral of the Fleet as his proper flag. 

103. The following flags are to be worn by Flag Officers except Captains 
of the Fleet, as their proper flags : 

Admiral. A white flag with the red St. George's Cross thereon. 
Vice-AdmiraL A white flag with the red St. George's Cross thereon, with 

one red ball in the upper canton of the flag next the staff. 
Rear-Admiral. A white flag with the red St. George's Cross thereon, with 

one red ball jn the upper canton and one in the lower canton, next the 

staff. 

The diameter of the red ball is to be half the vertical depth of the white 
<>f the cantons next the staff, and the ball is to be in the centre of the canton. 

104. Painted on Boats. When Vice and Rear Admirals have their flags 
painted on their boats, the same distinctive balls, at least 2 inches in diameter, 
are to be shown on the flag. . 

105. Two Officers with same Flag. When two Flag Officers of the same 
rank shall be serving together, either of them may be ordered by superior 
authority to wear temporarily some other distinguishing flag ; but this i- 
not to interfere with their proper rank and command. 

106. Commodore, First Class. A commodore of the First Class shall wear 
a white broad pendant with the red St. George's Cross thereon. 

107. Captain of Fleet's Boat. A Captain of the Fleet, if a Flag Officer, 
may wear in, and have painted on, his boat the flag proper to his rank ; if not 
a Mag Officer, he may wear in, and have painted on, his boat a white broad 
pendant, when not in the presence of a senior Captain. 

108. Commodore, Second Class. A commodore of the Second Class shall 
wear a white broad pendant with the red St. George's Cross with a iv.l lull 
in the upper canton of the broad pendant next the staff. 

27 



108 CHAP. H. CEREMONIES, &c. 

The diameter of the red ball is to be half the vertical depth of the white 
in the cantons next the staff, and the ball is to be in the centre of the canton. 

109. Two Commodores with same Pendant. When two Commodores of 
the same class are present, either may be ordered by superior authority to 
wear some other distinguishing mark or pendant, under the conditions laid 
down in Article 105. 

110. Flags and Pendants ashore. Under the provisions of Order in Council 
of 16th February 1903, the Admiralty may authorise an officer entitled to 
wear a flag, broad pendant, or pendant afloat, to fly the same flag, broad 
pendant, or pendant ashore, at any naval establishment or other place on 
shore where naval jurisdiction may, for the time being, prevail. 

111. Flags and Pendants displaced. An Admiral's flag, a Commodore's 
broad pendant, or the ship's pendant is to be hauled down from the masthead 
of a ship when the Admiralty flag is hoisted in that ship. 

2. Royal Standard, &c. The Royal standard, the flag of the Viceroy of 
India, and the flag of the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland are, when indicating the 
presence on board of the personages entitled to hoist those flags, the Sovereign 
excepted, to be always hoisted at the main, the flag of an Admiral or the broad 
pendant of a Commodore, if necessary, being shifted to another mast or ship 
as the case may require ; except in the case provided for in clause 1 of 
Article 68 in regard to the flag of the Viceroy of India. 

3. The flags of other functionaries ordered to be hoisted in ships of war 
by Articles 114, 115, 116, and 68, clause 1, are not to displace at the masthead 
the flag of an Admiral of any grade, nor the broad pendant of a Com- 
modore of either class. When, therefore, a flag or broad pendant is flying, 
the distinguishing flag of the civil or military functionary is, if possible, to be 
hoisted at another masthead ; but if not possible, then it is to be hoisted side 
by side with the other, subject to the discretion conferred on the Senior Naval 
Officer in Article 116. 

112. Senior Naval Officer. When two or more of His Majesty's ships are 
present in a port or roadstead, a small broad white pendant, not exceeding five 
breadths, the length being twice the breadth at the head, with the St. George's 
Cross, is to be hoisted at the starboard topsail yard ann by the Senior Officer's 
ship as a distinguishing flag in addition to the masthead pendant. 

SECTION X. DISTINGUISHING FLAGS OF OTHER AUTHORITIES. 

113. Lord Lieutenant o! Ireland. The flag of the Lord Lieutenant of 
Ireland is to be hoisted on board any of His Majesty's ships in which His 
Excellency shall embark, within the Irish waters or in St. George's Channel. 

114. Other Functionaries. The flags authorised by His Majesty to be 
displayed afloat are : 

(a) By General Officers Commanding Stations. The Union flag, bearing 

in the centre, as a distinguishing mark, the Royal initials on a blue 
ground encircled by a garland, and surmounted by the Crown. 

(b) By His Majesty's diplomatic servants and Commissioners and Consuls- 

General. The Union flag, with the Royal Arms in the centre thereof 
on a white ground encircled by a garland. 

(c) By the Governors or High Commissioners of His Majesty's colonies 

and possessions abroad, and by Lieutenant-Governors or other officers 
administering the Government. The Union flag, with the anus or 

28 



FLAGS OF OTHER AUTHORITIES. 114 

badge of the colony emblazoned in the centre thereof on a white 

ground encircled by a garland. 
(d) By Consuls-General, Consuls, and Consular Agents. The blue ensign, 

with the Royal Arms in the centre of the fly thereof, that is, in the 

centre of that part between the Union and the end of the flag. 
2. No other distinguishing flag or flags are authorised to be worn afloat 
by any of these functionaries. 

115. When to be flown. Whenever any of the functionaries particularised 
in Articles 99 and 114 are embarked : 

(a) In a boat for the purpose of paying visits of ceremony or on other 

official occasions. The proper distinguishing flag within the respective 
limits prescribed by the following clause (b) (ii) may be hoisted at 
the bow, but when the boat belongs to one of His Majesty's ships 
she is to keep her white ensign flying. 

(b) In one of His Majesty's ships for passage : 

(i) If a General Officer Commanding a Station. The proper distinguishing 
flag, with the approval of the Senior Naval Officer, may be 
hoisted at the fore and kept flying within the General Officer's 
command, provided he is proceeding on public military service ; 
(ii) // a Diplomatic Functionary and in charge of a Mission. The proper 
distinguishing flag, with the approval of the Senior Naval Officer, 
may be hoisted at the fore, and be kept flying within the limits 
of the Mission, provided the diplomatic functionary be proceeding 
on the public service ; 

(iii) // a Governor or High Commissioner., or a Lieutenant-Governor, or 
other Officer Administering the Government. The proper dis- 
tinguishing flag, with the approval of the Senior Naval Officer, 
may be. hoisted at the fore, and kept flying within the limits of 
his Government, or, in the case of a High Commissioner, within 
the limits of his Commission, provided the colonial functionary 
or High Commissioner be proceeding on the public service ; 
(iv) The distinguishing flag of consular authorities is to be hoisted in 

boats only and not in ships, except when they are being saluted. 
(() In one of His Majesty's ships on the occasion of an official visit. 
The distinguishing flags are to be respectively hoisted at the fore 
whenever any of His Majesty's military, diplomatic, colonial, or 
consular functionaries are receiving salutes to which they are entitled. 
(d) In British ships and boats, other than those of His Majesty, these 
functionaries, except consular officers as to ships, are, with the 
sanction of the owners or masters, authorised to fly their proper 
distinguishing flags on the same occasions and within the same 
limits, and these regulations shall be deemed a sufficient warrant to 
the master under the Merchant Shipping Act for so doing, but the 
permission to hoist such masthead flags indicative of the presence 
on board of any of these functionaries in no way affects or alters 
the character or status of the merchant ship in time of peace or in 
time of war, whether His Majesty is belligerent or neutral. 

116. Approval of Senior Officer. With regard to the previous approval 
of the Senior Officer, whenever a requisition is received for the embarkation 
or conveyance of any of the functionaries particularised in Articles 99 and 114, 
the Senior Officer present, in the absence of special orders from superior authority, 
will issue the necessary directions, provided that, after consultation with, 
an 1 on requisition from, the official to be embarked, he considers it for the 

29 



116 CHAP. H. CEREMONIES, &*. 

benefit of the service about to be performed that such flag should be hoisted 
within the authorised limits. Should the officer who has to determine the 
question consider it, in the circumstances, undesirable that the distinguishing 
flag should be hoisted, he is to inform the functionary of his reasons, and at 
once report the same for the information of the Admiralty. 

2. When Ambassador, &c., is embarked. In the event of an Ambassador 
being embarked, or a Governor, High Commissioner, &c., of a colony being 
detached on a foreign mission in his official capacity as Governor or High 
Commissioner, special instructions will be issued in each case as to the flag 
which should be carried by a man-of-war in which he may be embarked ; 
in the absence of instructions from superior authority, the Senior Officer present 
is to exercise his discretion in consultation with the official about to embark. 

117. General Officer in combined operations. In combined operations of 
the Navy and Army, should the General Officer commanding the military 
forces be embarked in a ship of war or transport, the distinguishing flag 
authorised by Article 114 may be hoisted at the fore of such ship or transport 
to denote the presence of the Head-quarters. 



SECTION XL ENSIGN, JACK, AND PENDANT NAVY AND NOT NAVY. 

118. Ships in Commission. All His Majesty's ships of war in commission 
shall wear a white ensign, with the red St. George's Cross, and the Union in 
the upper canton ; and when it shall be thought proper to do so, they may 
display the Union Jack at the jackstaff. See 119 (Masthead Pendant}. 

119. Masthead Pendant. All His Majesty's ships in commission, when 
not bearing a flag or broad pendant, are to wear at the main masthead a pendant, 
having a St. George's Cross on a white field in the part next to the mast, with 
a white fly. 

If necessary, in order to avoid fouling wireless telegraphy gear, a shorter 
pendant may be worn, provided it can be easily seen at a short distance from 
the ship. 

120. Ensign, hoisting and hauling down. His Majesty's ships, when at 
anchor in home ports and roads, shall hoist their ensigns at S o'clock in the 
morning from 25th March to 20th September inclusive, and at 9 o'clock from 
21st September to 24th March inclusive ; but when abroad, at 8 or 9 o'clock 
as the Commander-in-Chief shall direct ; arid they shall be kept flying, if the 
weather permit, or the Senior Officer present see no objection thereto, throughout 
the day until sunset, when they are to be hauled down, the sentries firing 
their rifles. See 143 (Ships in the presence of His Majesty afloat) . 

2. Whenever a ship shall come to anchor, or get under way, if there be 
sufficient light for the ensign to be seen, it is to be hoisted, though earlier or 
later than aforesaid ; also on her passing, meeting, joining, or parting from ; 
any other of His Majesty's ships ; and also, unless there should be sufficient 
reason to the contrary, on her falling in with any other ship or ships at sea, 
or when in sight of, and near, the land, and especially when passing or 
approaching forts, castles, batteries, lighthouses, or towns. 

121. Flags, &c., which are forbidden. No Flag Officer, Commodore, 
Captain, or officer in command, shall carry in any ship or boat any other flag 
or pendant than that which belongs to his rank, except as herein provided 
for, or unless he is directed to do so by the Admiralty, or by his superior officer. 

30 



ENSIGN, JACK, AND PENDANT. 122 

122. Colonial Ensigns. The following are the regulations as to the flags 
to be worn by any vessel maintained by any colony under the Colonial Defence 
Act of 1865 : 

(a) Any vessel provided and used as a vessel of war shall wear the blue 

ensign with the badge of the colony in the fly thereof, and a blue 
pendant. 

(b) All vessels belonging to, or permanently in, the service of the colonies, 

but not commissioned as vessels of war under the Act, shall wear a 
similar blue ensign but no pendant. 

123. Ensigns of Public Offices. Ships and vessels employed in the service 
of any public office shall carry a blue ensign, and a small blue flag with a Union 
described in a canton at the upper corner thereof next to the staff, .as a jack, 
but in the centre of the fly of such ensign and jack, that is, in the centre of 
that part between the Union and the end of the flag, shall be inserted the 
badge of the office to which they belong. 

124. Hired Transports. Hired transports are to wear the blue ensign, 
with the yellow Admiralty anchor in the fly ; and when such vessels are in 
charge of commissioned officers of the Royal Navy, they are, in addition, 
to carry blue pendants with the Admiralty badge in the upper part next to 
the mast. 

125. Hired Surveying Vessels. Hired vessels employed in the surveying 
service, when commanded by officers in His Majesty's Navy, are to wear the 
blue ensign and pendant. 

126. Merchant Ships commanded by R.N.R. Officers. British merchant 
ships commanded by officers on the retired list of the Royal Navy, or officers 
of the Royal Naval Reserve which fulfil the following conditions, will be allowed 
to wear a blue ensign : 

(a) The officer commanding the ship must be an officer on the retired list 

of the Royal Navy, or an officer of the Royal Naval Reserve. 

(b) Ten of the crew must be officers and men belonging to the Royal Naval 

Reserve, but men belonging to the Royal Fleet Reserve, naval 
pensioners and men holding Royal Naval Reserve deferred pension 
certificates may be included in the number specified. 

(c) Before hoisting the blue ensign the officer commanding the ship must 

be provided with an Admiralty Warrant. 

(d) The fact that the Commanding Officer holds a warrant authorising him 

to hoist the blue ensign must be noted on the ship's articles of 
agreement. 

2. Failure to Fulfil Conditions. Commanding officers failing to fulfil the 
above conditions, unless such failure is due to death or other circumstances 
over which they have no control, will no longer be entitled to wear the blue 
ensign. 

3. Subsidised Merchant Ships. British merchant ships in receipt of 
Admiralty subvention will be allowed to fly the blue ensign, under Admiralty 
warrant. 

4. In order to ascertain that the above conditions are strictly carried out, 
the Captain of one of His Majesty's ships meeting a ship flying the blue ensign 
may send on board an officer not below the rank of Lieutenant, at any con- 
venient opportunity. This restriction as to the rank of the boarding officer 
is in no way to limit or otherwise affect the authority or the duties of naval 
officers either under the Merchant Shipping Acts or in time of war. 

31 



126 CHAP. H. CEREMONIES, &c. 

5. Applications for permission to wear the blue ensign on board British 
merchant ships in receipt of Admiralty subvention, should be made direct to 
the Admiralty by the owners ; for other merchant ships the applications 
should be made through the Registrar-General of Seamen. 

The Board of Trade will issue regulations as to the mode of proceeding. 

SECTION XII. NATIONAL COLOURS. 

127. Other Ships and Colonial Merchant Vessels. In accordance with the 
provisions of the Merchant Shipping Act, 1894, all other ships and vessels whch 
belong to His Majesty's subjects shall wear a red ensign free from any badge 
or distinctive mark, with the Union in the upper canton next the staff, except 
such yachts or other vessels as may have warrants from the Admiralty to 
display other ensigns, colours, or pendants. 

2. Colonial merchant vessels shall wear the red ensign as above, except 
those of Canada, the Commonwealth of Australia and New Zealand, which 
may, by Admiralty warrant, wear the red ensign with the badge of the colony 
in the fly thereof. 

3. Any Colonial merchant vessel may, however, carry a distinguishing 
flag with the badge of the colony thereon, in addition to the red ensign, provided 
that such flag does not infringe the provisions of Section 73 of the Merchant 
Shipping Act, 1894. 

128. Pilot Mag. All ships and vessels shall use the British Union flag, 
with a border of white of one-fifth of the flag, as a pilot flag, in all parts of the 
world. 

129. Improper Colours, Penalties. With respect to the carrying of 
improper colours by British merchant vessels, the 73rd Section of the Merchant 
Shipping Act, 1894, provides as follows : 

" (1) The red ensign usually worn by merchant ships, without any 
defacement or modification whatsoever, is hereby declared to be 
the proper national colours for all ships and boats belonging to 
any British subject, except in the case of Her Majesty's ships or 
boats, or in the case of any other ship or boat for the time being 
allowed to wear any other national colours in pursuance of a 
warrant from Her Majesty or from the Admiralty. 

" (2) If any distinctive national colours, except such red ensign or except 
the Union Jack with a white border, or if any colours usually worn 
by Her Majesty's ships or resembling those of Her Majesty, or if 
the pendant usually carried by Her Majesty's ships or any pendant 
resembling that pendant, are or is hoisted on board any ship or 
boat belonging to any British subject without warrant from Her 
Majesty or from the Admiralty, the master of the ship or boat, 
or the owner thereof, if on board the same, and every other person 
hoisting the colours or pendant, shall for each offence incur a fine 
not exceeding five hundred pounds. 

" (3) Any commissioned officer on full pay in the military or naval service 
of Her Majesty or any officer of customs in Her Majesty's dominions, 
or any British consular officer, may board any ship or boat on 
which any colours or pendant are hoisted contrary to this Act, and 
seize and take away the colours or pendant, and the colours or 
pendant shall be forfeited to Her Majesty. 

" (4) A fine under this section may be recovered with costs in the High 
Court in England or Ireland, or in the Court of Session in Scotland, 

32 



NATIONAL COLOURS. 129 

or in any Colonial Court of Admiralty or Vice-Admiralty Court 
within Her Majesty's dominions. 
" (5) Any offence mentioned in this section may also be prosecuted, and 

the fine for it recovered summarily, provided that 
" (a) where any such offence is prosecuted summarily, the Court 
imposing the fine shall not impose a higher fine than one 
hundred pounds ; and 

" (b) nothing in this section shall authorise the imposition of more 
than one fine in respect of the same offence." 

2. Procedure. In any case of a ship or vessel belonging to any of His 
Majesty's subjects, including colonial merchant vessels, hoisting improper 
colours, the Captain is first to send a communication in writing to the master 
of such ship, calling his attention to the above section of the Merchant Shipping 
Act, and is further to allow a reasonable time to elapse from the delivery of 
such communication, before proceeding to exercise the powers conferred upon 
him under those Acts. 

3. Precautions. In a home port the Captain will also, should he think it 
necessary, "apply to superior authority for instructions ; in a foreign port he 
will, by communicating with the consul, or otherwise, endeavour to avoid 
giving offence to the local authorities. 

130. National Colours, hoisting ofc Provision is made in respect of the 
hoisting of proper national colours by merchant ships under the 74th Section 
of the same Act, as follows : 

" (1) A ship belonging to a British subject shall hoist the proper national 

colours 

" (a) on a signal being made to her by one of Her Majesty's ships 
(including any vessel under the command of an officer of 
Her Majesty's Navy on full pay), and 
" (I) on entering or leaving any foreign port, and 
' (c) if of fifty tons gross tonnage or upwards, on entering or leaving 

any British port. 

" (2) If default is made on board any such ship in complying with this 
section, the master of the ship shall for each offence be liable to a 
fine not exceeding one hundred pounds." 

This section does not apply to a fishing boat duly entered in the Fishing 
Boat Register and lettered and numbered as required by the Fourth Part of 
that Act. 

2. Refusal to hoist. Should a ship or vessel belonging to any of His 
Majesty's subjects, including colonial merchant vessels, refuse to show her 
national colours to one of His Majesty's ships, the names of the ship, of the 
master, and of the owners are to be ascertained, and one or more affidavits 
of the facts are to be taken on the first occasion that offers, before a consul 
or other competent authority, and transmitted to the Admiralty with a full 
report of the occurrence. 

SECTION XIII. MILITARY HONOURS AND MARKS OF RESPECT. 

131. Admiral of the Fleet, Admiral, or Commander-in-Chief. An Admiral 
of the Fleet, an Admiral, and a Commander-in-Chief, being a Flag Officer or a 
Commodore of the First Class, shall be received on board any of His Majesty's 
ships by a guard of marines, or land forces serving as such, commanded by a 
Captain or Major under Article 1138 ; the officers saluting, the bugles sounding 
the flourish, with arms presented, and the band playing a march. 

33 



131 CHAP. H. CEREMONIES, &e. 

2. " God Save the King," when played. " God save the King " is only 
to be played at the reception of Their Majesties, members of the Royal Family, 
the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, and the Governor-General and Viceroy of 
India, within their respective jurisdictions. 

132. Vice-Admiral. A Vice-Admiral, not being a Commander-in-Chief, 
shall be received by a guard of marines, or land forces serving as such, com- 
manded by a Captain or Major under Article 1138 ; the officers saluting, the 
bugle sounding the flourish, with arms presented, and the band playing a 
march. 

133. Bear-Admiral. A Rear-Admiral, not being a Commander-in-Chief, 
shall be received by a guard of marines, or land forces serving as such, com- 
manded by a subaltern ; the officer saluting, the bugle sounding the flourish, 
with arms presented, and the band playing a march. 

134. Commodore and Captain of the Fleet. A Commodore, not being a 
Commander-in-Chief, or a Captain of the Fleet, when not a Flag Officer, 
provided there be no Captain senior to him in a ship present, shall be received 
by a guard of marines, or land forces serving as such, commanded by a 
subaltern ; the officer saluting, the bugle sounding the proper flourish, with 
arms presented, and the band playing a march. 

136. Captain and Commander. A Captain may be received by a Sergeant's 
guard of marines, or of land forces serving as such ; Captains and Commanders 
also, when attending at courts-martial, are to be received by a Sergeant's 
guard. 

136. Officers on Half and Retired Pay. The above marks of respect are 
equally to be paid to officers on half or retired pay, according to their respective 
ranks, when they go on board any of His Majesty's ships in their proper 
uniforms. 

137. Flag Officer, &c., passing in Boat. When a Flag Officer, a Captain 
of the Fleet, or a Commodore, with his flag or broad pendant hoisted in his 
boat or tender, is passing a ship, the guard shall turn out, and the bugles shall 
sound, as directed in the preceding Articles ; provided in the case of the 
Captain of the Fleet, who is not a Flag Officer, that there be no Captain senior 
to him present. 

138. Officers of Marines and Land Forces. Officers of the Royal Marines, 
and of His Majesty's land forces, being in their proper uniform, shall be received 
on board any of His Majesty's ships with the same honours and respect as are 
above directed to be paid to officers of corresponding rank in the Navy. 

139. Viceroys. Viceroys within their jurisdiction or while proceeding on 
the public service, shall be received on board His Majesty's ships with the 
military honours and respect due to the Sovereign ; and Governors of His 
Majesty's colonies, with those prescribed for Flag Officers who are Commanders- 
in-Chief ; but, except where it may be otherwise directed, the officers of His 
Majesty's diplomatic, colonial, and other non-military Services are not entitled 
to the military honours prescribed in the foregoing Articles. 

140. Honours from Troops. His Majesty has also directed that in all his 
forts and garrisons the officers of His Majesty's Navy, being in their proper 
uniform, shall have the same honours and respect from the troops as the 
officers of corresponding rank in the Army. 

34 



MILITARY HONOURS. 140 

2. Officers of branches other than the Military Branch, are not to be saluted 
with cannon, nor received by garrison, regimental, or ship guards. In all other 
respects, however, they are entitled to the same military honours as officers 
of corresponding rank in the Military Branch. See 224 (Honorary Admiral 
of the Fleet, dye.). 

141. Morning and Evening guns. When a Flag Officer or a Commodore 
shall have his flag or broad pendant flying in any port or roadstead in His 
Majesty's dominions at home or abroad, he may fire from his ship a morning 
and an evening gun, as hereinafter explained. If more than one Flag Officer 
or Commodore is present, the senior only may fire a gun, and the others in 
succession shall each fire a volley of musketry ; and from all other slu'ps, when 
in any such ports or roadsteads, whether in the presence or not of a Flag Officer 
or Commodore, the sentries shall fire their rifles. Immediately after the morning 
gun is fired, the reveille, or daylight call, shall be sounded, and for a quarter 
of an hour previous to the firing of the evening gun, the tattoo also, in every 
ship present ; and the same may be done in foreign ports if the local regulations 
shall admit. 

142. Time of firing. On home service, the morning gun. shall be fired at 
daybreak ; and the evening gun, at 9 o'clock, from 25th March to 2'lth 
September inclusive, and at 8 o'clock from 21st September to 24th March 
inclusive ; but on foreign Service, as the Commander-in-Chief on the station 
shall direct. 

143. When the King or Prince of Wales present. Whenever His Majesty 
the King is on board His Royal yacht or any of His Majesty's ships, with his 
standard flying, or when His Royal Highness the Prince of Wales is repre- 
senting His Majesty at any special ceremonial, and is on board one of the Royal 
yachts, or any of His Majesty's ships, with his standard flying, the above 
regulations for firing the morning and evening gun are to be adhered to on 
board all His Majesty's ships present, but the time is to be taken from the 
gun which will be fired from the Royal yacht or ship bearing His Majesty's 
standard, or that of His Royal Highness the Prince of Wales. 

2. Ensigns. This regulation as to taking the time, is, in the same circum- 
stances, to apply also to the hoisting and hauling down of ensigns in the morning 
and evening, under Article 120. 



SECTION XIV. NAVAL SALUTES AND MARKS OF RESPECT. 

144. Naval personal salute. The naval salute is to be made by bringing 
up the right hand to the cap or hat, naturally and smartly, but not hurriedly, 
with the thumb and fingers straight and close together, elbow in line with 
the shoulder, hand and forearm in line, the thumb being in line with the outer 
edge of the right eyebrow; with the palm of the hand turned to the left, the 
opposite being the case when using the left hand. 

2. When passing an officer, the salute is to be made with the hand furthest 
from him, and commenced just before meeting, and continued until well past 
the officer, the person saluting looking towards him at the same time. 

3. Every officer should return a salute made to him, a salute made to two 
or more officers being returned by all the officers. 

4. The term " officer " includes all commissioned, warrant, and subordinate 
officers. 

35 



145 CHAP. H. CEREMONIES, &c. 

145. Salutes between Officers. The junior officer of whatever rank should 
on all occasions salute his senior when passing, addressing, or being addressed 
by him, making the salute, which the senior should return. 

146. Salutes on board. When coming over the gangway, or on to the 
quarter deck, the salute is to be made. 

2. Petty officers and men are to salute all officers : 

(a) When addressing, or being addressed by an officer, and again on 

withdrawing. 

(b) When passing, or being passed by an officer. 

3. Officers passing a ship in a boat are to be saluted by those men on board 
who may be in sight of the boat. 

147. Salutes on shore. All officers in uniform, both naval and military, 
and also those in plain clothes who are known to be officers, are to be saluted. 

It is to be understood that there is no excuse for not seeing an officer, or 
for not recognising an officer in plain clothes, who, either from his position, 
or by belonging to the same ship as the man, ought to be known by him. 

2. Should a petty officer or man be standing about, and an officer pass 
him, he is to face the officer and salute ; if sitting when an officer approaches, 
he is to rise, stand at attention and salute. If two or more petty officers or 
men are sitting or standing about, the senior petty officer or man will call 
the whole to attention and alone will salute. 

3. When men are marching, or are fallen in, in charge of an officer or petty 
officer, the officer or petty officer is to salute, giving the usual command. See 
Salutes, Rifle and Field Exercises for His Majesty's Fleet. 

4. Salutes by Marines. Non-commissioned officers and men of the Royal 
Marines are to salute all commissioned, warrant, and subordinate officers of 
the Royal Navy on the occasions prescribed for seamen, but the mode of salute 
is to be that laid down in military regulations, and as taught at Head-quarters. 

5. Officers and men passing a funeral will salute the body. 

148. Inspections, &c., without arms. When inspected by a Flag Officer, 
or Captain, or by the officer in command of the ship, of whatever rank, all 
petty officers and men are to take off their hats or caps on the order being 
given by the officer in charge 

2. When being mustered by a Flag Officer, or Captain, or by the officer 
in command of the ship, of whatever rank, all petty officers and men are to 
take off their hats or caps as they pass round. 

3. When a petty officer or man is brought before an officer as a defaulter, 
or for the purposes of any investigation, he is to take off his hat or cap. 

4. When inspected by an officer at Divisions, Quarters, W T atch fall in, and 
on all other occasions of falling in for inspections without arms, the men are 
to be called to attention, the petty officers saluting as the officer passes them. 



36 



NAVAL SALUTES. 



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37 



149 CHAP. H. CEREMONIES, &c. 

2. Laden boats, or those towing or in tow, are not included in above rules. 
The officer or coxswain will only salute. 

3. Coxswains of boats, when an officer is in charge, do not salute except 
at landing-places, and then only when ordered to do so by the above rules. 

4. Officers of branches other than the Military Branch are to receive the 
same salutes as officers of the Military Branch of corresponding rank, with 
the exception of tossing or laying on oars and letting fly sheet, which are to 
be considered in the same category as salutes by cannon and guards, from 
which they are bebarred by Article 140, clause 2. 

5. In the case of boats conveying officers of branches other than the Military 
Branch passing, or being passed by, boats con veying, officers of the Military 
Branch of the same relative rank, the officers in charge of the boats, or the 
-coxswains, should there be no officers in charge, are to mutually salute. 

6. Boat-keepers are to stand up and salute officers who pass their boats, 
unless the boat's awning is spread, when they will sit up smartly and salute. 

7. When passing a funeral party afloat with the body, oars will be tossed 
by double-banked boats or corresponding marks of respect paid by either 
pulling or steamboats. 

NOTE. In boats fitted with crutches, oars are never to be tossed, but the 
salute given by laying on oars. 

SECTION XV. FUNERAL HONOURS. 

150. Flag and General Officers, &c. At the funerals of Flag and General 
Officers, and of Commodores and Brigadier-Generals, who have died on service, 
minute guns are to be fired whilst the body is proceeding to the place of inter- 
ment, but these minute guns are not to exceed the number to which the officer's 
rank entitled him when living. There shall also be fired, after the body is 
deposited in the grave, or in the sea, a salute of cannon, amounting to the 
same number of guns as the deceased officer was entitled to when living ; in 
the event of a Flag or General Officer dying afloat and being buried at a place 
on shore where there is a fort, minute guns are to be fired from the ship whilst 
the body is being conveyed to the shore ; and after the body is landed minute 
guns are to be fired by the fort while the funeral procession is moving from 
the landing-place to the place of interment ; the minute guns, both from 
the ship and the fort, shall not exceed twice the number of the guns the officer 
was entitled to when living. 

151. Captains and Commanders. At the funeral of a Captain or Commander 
of a ship, such number of minute guns as the senior officer present shall direct, 
not, however, exceeding 20, shall be fired by the ship he commanded, or to 
which he belonged, when the body is put into the sea, or when it is put off 
from the ship to be carried on shore. If the ship be alone, the officer succeeding 
to the command shail order this to be done. 

152. Other Officers and Men. At the funeral of any other officer, man, or 
boy, of any of His Majesty's ships, three volleys of musketry shall be fired 
over the grave or over the body when put into the sea. 

2. The firing party is, when possible, to be composed of seamen in the 
case of naval officers and naval ratings, and of Royal Marines if the deceased 
be a marine officer or marine. 

3. On all occasions of naval funerals the Senior Officer present is to regulate 
the strength and composition of the funeral and firing parties in accordance 
with the table laid down in the " Rifle and Field Exercises for His Majesty's 
Fleet." The number of officers and men forming the parties being, however, 
subject to the means at the disposal of the Senior Officer present. 

38 



FUNERAL HONOURS. 153 

153. Civil Officials. Civil officials shall have at their funerals the same 
number of guns fired as minute guns, while the procession is going to the burial 
ground, as they were entitled to as salutes when living. 

Those who are not entitled to salutes of cannon when living, are not to 
have guns fired at their funerals. 

SECTION XVI. UNIFORM. 

154. Uniforms generally. In accordance with the provisions of Article 4, 
the uniforms directed to be worn are specified and described in the Book of 
Uniform Regulations, and are also published from time to time in the Navy 
List. 

2. The prescribed patterns are to be strictly adhered to. 

155. When to be worn. Every officer, from the time of his joining the 
fleet, squadron, or ship to which he shall be appointed, to that of his being 
removed from it, shall wear the uniform established for his rank, except when 
he shall have leave from the Admiralty or the Senior Officer to be absent from 
his duty, or as hereinafter provided. 

'2. Public occasions. At reviews, public balls or entertainments given by 
naval or military authorities, by civil functionaries, or by military messes at 
ports at which their ships may be lying, officers are to wear the uniform of their 
rank, as prescribed for the various occasions specified in the Uniform Regu- 
lations under " Dresses, and occasions on which they are to be worn," and no 
deviations are to be authorised without special authority previously obtained 
from the Admiralty. 

3. Officers are not to wear naval uniform at fancy dress balls. They are 
not prohibited, however, from appearing at such entertainments in uniforms 
of a date anterior to 1843. 

4. Plain clothes. Permission may be given to officers to wear plain clothes 
on ordinary leave. 

5. Subordinate Officers. Subordinate officers, when on ordinary leave, are 
to wear the uniform of their rank ; but permission may be granted to them 
to wear plain clothes when going into the country, or to ride, shoot, play 
cricket, or for exercise. 

6. Foreign Ports. In foreign ports great discretion should be exercised in 
allowing officers to appear out of uniform, as in such cases they have no right 
to expect to be recognised as British officers. 

7. Marines. Officers of the Royal Marines are to wear their full dress on 
the occasions when ball dress and frock coat with epaulettes dress are worn. 

156. Officers on Retired and Reserved lasts. Officers on the retired and 
reserved lists, whose names appear on the list of the Navy, are permitted to 
wear the uniform of their respective ranks on state and other occasions of 
ceremony. 

SECTION XVII. SPECIAL DECORATIONS AND MEDALS. 

157. Victoria Cross, &c. The rules and ordinances relative to the Victoria 
Cross, Royal Red Cross, Conspicuous Gallantry Medal, Distinguished Service 
Order, and Conspicuous Service Cross are given in the quarterly Navy List. 

158. Albert Medal If any person in the Fleet should save or attempt 
to save life from shipwreck or otherwise, in such circumstances as to merit 
his being recommended for the Albert Medal of the 1st or of the 2nd Class, 
the full particulars are to be forwarded to the Admiralty for consideration. 

39 

Dl 



158 CHAP. H. CEREMONIES, &c. 

2. The rules and ordinances relative to the Albert Medal are given in the 
quarterly Navy List. 

159. Conspicuous Gallantry and Distinguished Conduct Medals. The 

Conspicuous Gallantry Medal may be awarded to such Petty Officers, Seamen, 
Non-commissioned Officers, and Privates of the Royal Marines as may at any 
time distinguish themselves by acts of conspicuous gallantry in action with 
the enemy. 

2. At the discretion of the Admiralty this medal may be accompanied by 
the grant of an annuity, not exceeding 201., to Chief and First Class Petty 
Officers of the Navy, and Sergeants of Royal Marines, and also to all recipients 
of this medal whatever their rank or rating may have been when the medal 
was awarded, on their promotion to Chief or First Class Petty Officers in the 
Navy or Sergeants of the Royal Marines, provided the amount authorised 
from time to time for such annuities by the Treasury be not exceeded. 

3. A seaman or marine who is awarded the Conspicuous Gallantry Medal 
or the Distinguished Conduct Medal of the Army may, at the discretion of the 
Admiralty, be awarded a gratuity of 20/. on discharge at the completion of 
his term of active service, or on being invalided from the Service, or on pro- 
motion to a commission, except when such seaman or marine is in receipt of 
a medal accompanied by an annuity. Should he die while serving the gratuity 
will be credited to his estate. 

4. The regulations as to the award of the Distinguished Conduct Medal 
which prohibit the payment of the gratuity to a soldier in receipt of extra 
pension are not applicable in the case of a seaman or marine, who, on account 
of gallantry, has been or may be granted an extra pension under naval 
regulations. 

160. Qualifications. As these rewards are intended for such men only as 
shall have rendered themselves pre-eminent by some individual act of 
conspicuous gallantry in action with the enemy, great care is to be taken that 
the cases recommended come strictly within the spirit of this Regulation, and 
that each case be accompanied by a full statement of the grounds on which 
the claim to the distinction is founded. 

161. Humane Society's Medals. Officers and men may wear the medals 
and clasps awarded to them by the Royal Humane Society, on the right breast, 
as directed in Article 167, clause 14. 



SECTION XVIII. FOREIGN ORDERS AND MEDALS. 
Under Regulations dated May 1911. 

162. Foreign Orders and Decorations. No subject of His Majesty shall 
accept a foreign Order from the Sovereign of any foreign country or wear the 
insignia thereof without having previously obtained His Majesty's permission 
to do so, signified either : 

(a) By warrant under the Royal sign-manual, or 

(b) By private permission conveyed through His Majesty's private secretary. 
2. Permission given by warrant under the Royal sign-manual will enable 

the insignia of the foreign Order to be worn at all times and without any 
restriction. 

Private permission will only enable the insignia to be worn on the occasions 
specified in the terms of the letter from the King's private secretary conveying 
the Royal sanction. 

40 



FOREIGN ORDERS AND MEDALS. 162 

3. The full and unrestricted permission by warrant under the Royal sign- 
manual is designed, subject to the exception mentioned in clause 4 (a) respecting 
British naval or military officers during hostilities, to meet cases where the 
Decoration may be said to have been earned by some valuable service rendered 
to the Head of the State conferring it, or to the State itself. The private or 
restricted permission is contemplated for Decorations which are more or less 
of a complimentary character. In either case, the matter will be submitted 
to the King by His Majesty's Principal Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs. 

4. Full and unrestricted permission by warrant under the Royal sign-manual 
is contemplated in the following cases : 

For a Decoration conferred 

(a) On an officer in His Majesty's naval or military forces lent to a foreign 

Government ; on an officer in His Majesty's naval or military forces 
attached by his Government to a foreign navy or army during 
hostilities ; or on any British official lent to a foreign Government 
and not in receipt of any emoluments from British public funds 
during the period of such loan. 

(b) On any person not at the time in the service of the Crown, who, while 

himself outside the limits of His Majesty's dominions, has rendered 
valuable services to the Head of the State conferring the Order, or 
to the State itself, within the period of two years immediately preceding 
the notification of the Decoration to His Majesty's Government 
provided for in clause 5. The term " service of the Crown " comprises 
any person holding a commission, or any person in receipt of a salary 
from public funds in the United Kingdom, or in any British dominion, 
colony, or protectorate. 

(c) On any British subject employed in a foreign embassy or legation in 

the United Kingdom. 

5. The desire of the Head of a foreign State to confer upon a British subject 
the insignia of an Order, or the fact that he has done so, must be notified to 
His Majesty's Principal Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, either through 
the British diplomatic representative accredited to the Head of the foreign 
State, or through his diplomatic representative at the Court of St. James. 
His Majesty's Principal Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs shall be under 
no obligation to consider claims that are not brought to his notice through 
one of these channels. 

163. Procedure after the King's Permission is given. When His Majesty's 
Principal Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs shall have taken the Kings 
pleasure on any such application, and shall have obtained His Majesty's 
permission for the person in whose favour it has been made to accept the foreign 
Order and wear the insignia thereof, he shall signify the same to His Majesty's 
Principal Secretary of State for the Home Department, in order that he may 
cause a warrant, if it be a case for the issue of a warrant as defined in Article 162, 
clause 4, to be prepared for the Royal sign-manual. 

2. When such warrant shall have been signed by the King a notification 
thereof shall be inserted in the Gazette, stating the service for which the foreign 
Order has been conferred. 

Persons in whose favour such warrants are issued will be required to pay 
to His Majesty's Principal Secretary of State for the Home Department a 
stamp duty of 10s. 

3. Registration in College of Arms. The warrant signifying His Majesty's 
pennission may, at the request and at the expense of the person who has 
obtained it, be registered in the College of Arms. 

41 



163 CHAP. H. CEREMONIES, &c. 

4. No style or rank to be assumed. Every such warrant as aforesaid shall 
contain a clause providing that His Majesty's licence and permission does not 
authorise the assumption of any style, appellation, rank, precedence or privilege 
appertaining to a Knight Bachelor of His Majesty's Realms. 

5. Acceptance of Higher Class. When a British subject has received the 
Royal permission to accept a foreign Order, he will at any future time be 
allowed to accept the decoration of a higher class of the same Order, to which 
he may become eligible by increase of rank in the foreign Service, or in the 
Service of his own country ; or any other distinctive mark of honour strictly 
consequent upon the acceptance of the original Order, and common to every 
person upon whom such Order is conferred. 

164. Naval and Military Attache's. Naval and military attaches to His 
Majesty's missions abroad may, at the termination of their appointments, be 
given restricted private permission to wear on certain specific occasions, the 
insignia of a foreign Order conferred upon them by the Chief of the State only 
in which their headquarters were situated. 

165. Foreign Medals. Medals which constitute a particular class of a 
foreign Order are subject in all respects to the above Regulations in the same 
manner as higher grades of the Order, except that permission to wear will be 
given by letter and not by Royal warrant. The King's permission must be 
obtained for any other medal to be worn. 

166. Foreign Medals not worn. No permission is necessary for accepting 
a foreign medal, if such medal is not to be worn. 

SECTION XIX. MANNER OF WEARING DECORATIONS, ORDERS, 
AND MEDALS. 

167. Knights Grand Cross. The insignia of Knights Grand Cross of 
Orders, consisting of the badge suspended from a broad ribbon over the shoulder, 
and the star, are to be worn with full dress and ball dress ; with the former 
the ribbon should be worn under the epaulette and sword belt ; with the latter, 
under the coat and over the waistcoat. With full dress on collar days, the 
collar takes the place of the ribbon. 

2. With frock coat and epaulettes the star of the Order only is to be worn. 
With frock coat the star may be worn at discretion. 

3. With uniform coats other than full dress and ball dress, the ribbon of 
a Companion of the Order is to be worn, except that with mess dress, miniature 
badges but not stars may be worn in lieu, and with mess undress, miniature 
ribbons. 

4. Knights Commanders. The insignia of Knights Commanders of Orders, 
consisting of the badge suspended from a ribbon round the neck, and the star, 
are to be worn with full dress, ball dress and frock coat with epaulettes. The 
ribbon should be worn inside the collar of the coat and under the necktie. 

The above rule applies to such classes of British and foreign Decorations 
as are ordered to be worn round the neck. 

5. With the frock coat the star only may be worn at discretion. 

6. With uniform coats, other than full dress and ball dress, the rules laid 
down in clause 3 are to be observed. 

7. Companions of Orders. The badges of Companions of Orders are to be 
worn together with medals, with full dress and ball dress, but in the circum- 
stances stated in clause 12 miniature badges and medals may be worn with 
the latter dress. 

42 



WEARING OF DECORATIONS. 167 

8. With all other uniform coats the rules laid down in clause 3 are to be 
observed. 

9. Bar for Decorations, &c. The several Decorations, badges, and medals 
are to be worn on the left breast in one horizontal line, one inch below the 
point of the shoulder, suspended from a single bar of which no part is to be 
seen, and commencing with the end furthest from the shoulder. 

10. Order in which to be worn. Decorations, Orders, and medals, and the 
ribbons appertaining thereto, are to be worn in the following order : 

(a) British Decorations, Orders, and Medals. 

1. Victoria Cross. 

2. Order of the Garter.* 

3. Order of the Thistle.* 

4. Order of St. Patrick.* 

5. Order of the Bath. 

6. Order of Merit (immediately after Knights Grand Cross of the Bath)-t 

7. Order of the Star of India. 

8. Order of St. Michael and St. George. 

9. Order of the Indian Empire. 

10. Royal Victorian Order (1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th Class). 

11. Distinguished Service Order. 

12. Imperial Service Order. 

13. Royal Victorian Order (5th Class). 

14. Order of British India. 

15. Indian Order of Merit (Military).! 

16. Kaiser-i-hind Medal. 

17. Order of St. John of Jerusalem in England. 

18. Queen Victoria's Jubilee Medal, 1887. (Gold, Silver, and Bronze.) 

19. Queen Victoria's Police Jubilee Medal, 1887. 

20. Queen Victoria's Jubilee Medal, 1897. (Gold, Silver, and Bronze.) 

21. Queen Victoria's Police Jubilee Medal, 1897. 

22. Queen Victoria's Commemoration Medal, 1900. (Ireland.) 

23. King Edward's Coronation Medal. 

24. King Edward's Police Coronation Medal. 

25. King Edward's Durbar Medal. (Gold, Silver, and Bronze.) 

26. King's Medal, 1903. (Ireland.) 

27. King George's Coronation Medal. 

28. King George's Police Coronation Medal. 

29. King's Visit Commemoration Medal, 1911. (Ireland.) 

30. King George's Durbar Medal. (Gold, Silver, and Bronze.) 

31. Medal for Distinguished Conduct in the Field (Military). 

32. Conspicuous Gallantry Medal (Naval). 

33. Conspicuous Service Cross (Naval). 

34. War Medals (in order of date). 

35. Arctic Medal, 1815-1855. 

36. Arctic Medal, 1876. 

37. Antarctic. Medal. 1901-1903. 

38. Constabulary Medal. (Ireland.) 



In undress uniform, no badge of an Order will be worn round the neck except the 
Order of Merit. 

* These Orders are not worn in miniature. 

t Order of Merit comes immediately after G.C.B. ; it is not worn in miniature, but 
is to be worn round the neck on all occasions. 

J The Indian Order of Merit (Military and Civil) is distinct from the Order oi 
instituted in 1902. 

43 



167 CHAP. n. CEREMONIES, &c. 

39. Albert Medal.* 

40. Board of Trade Medal for Saving Life at Sea.* 

41. Indian Order of Merit (Civil). f 

42. Edward Medal. 

43. Indian Distinguished Service Medal. .* 

44. King's Police Medal. 

45. Long Service and Good Conduct Medal. 

46. Naval Long Service and Good Conduct Medal. 

47. Medal for Meritorious Service. 

48. Indian Long Service and Good Conduct Medal (for Europeans of Indian 

Army). 

49. Indian Meritorious Service Medal (for Europeans of Indian Army) . 

50. Royal Marine Meritorious Service Medal. 

51. Indian Long Service and Good Conduct Medal (for Native Army) 

52. Indian Meritorious Service Medal (for Native Army). 

53. Volunteer Officers' Decoration. 

54. Volunteer Long Service Medal. 

55. Volunteer Officers' Decoration for India and the Colonies. 

56. Volunteer Long' Service Medal for India and the Colonies. 

57. Colonial Auxiliary Forces Officers' Decoration. 

58. Colonial Auxiliary Forces Long Service Medal. 

59. Medal for Good Shooting (Naval). 

60. Militia Long Service Medal. 

61. Imperial Yeomanry Long Service Medal. 

62. Territorial Efficiency Medal. 

63. Territorial Decoration. 

64. Special Reserve Long Service and Good Conduct Medal. 

65. Decoration for Officers of the Royal Naval Reserve. 

66. Decoration for Officers of the Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve. 

67. Royal Naval Reserve Long Service and Good Conduct Medal. 

68. Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve Long Service Medal. 

69. Union of South Africa Commemoration Medal. 

70. Royal Victorian Medal. (Gold and Silver.) 

71. Imperial Service Medal. 

72. Medal of the Order of St. John of Jerusalem in England.* 

73. Badge of the Order of the League of Mercy. 

74. Royal Victorian Medal. (Bronze.) 

The above order of Decorations applies to those of similar grades. 

When the miniature of a higher grade of a junior Order is worn with the 
miniature of a lower grade of a senior Order, the higher grade miniature should 
come first, e.g., the miniature of a K.C.I.E. will come before a C.B., and a 
G.C.M.G. before a K.C.B. 

(b) Foreign Orders. In order of date. 

(c) Foreign Decorations. In order of date. 

(d) Foreign Medals. In order of date. 

11. Bar, Full dress. On the full dress coat the bar must not project beyond 
the centre seam, and when the Decorations, Orders, and medals cannot on 
account of their number be suspended from the bar so as to be fully seen, they 
are to overlap, the highest showing in full. 

* If more than one of these medals is awarded for the same act of gallantry, only one 
medal may be worn, viz., that which appears highest in the list. 

f The Indian Order of Merit (Military and Civil) is distinct from the Order of Merit 
instituted in 1902. 

44 



WEARING OF DECORATIONS. 167 

12. Bar, Ball dress. With ball dress the bar is to go over the lapel, if 
necessary, but not beyond, and if from the number of Decorations, Orders 
and medals, it should be too long to be worn conveniently, miniatures may be 
worn in lieu. 

13. Buckles of Companions. The buckles of the Companions of the Orders 
of the Bath and of St. Michael and St. George are, as part of the badge of the 
Order; to show half-way between the upper and lower edge of the ribbon. 

14. Medals awarded by Societies. Medals awarded by the Royal National 
Lifeboat Institution, the Royal Humane Society, or other similar societies for 
bra very in saving human life, if specially authorised to be worn, are to be worn on 
the right breast, similarly to those on the left, and on the same horizontal line. 

If the ^tanhope Gold Medal is awarded to an officer or man by the Royal 
Humane Society, it is to be worn in place of, and not in addition to, the Silver 
Medal previously granted. 

15. Bar, description of. In all cases the bar for the suspension of Decora- 
tions, Orders, and medals is to be provided at the expense of the wearer. It may 
be of any metal or material, and of any pattern consistent with the above 
instructions, provided that the bar and the buckle are wholly concealed by 
the ribbons. 

16. Length of Ribbons. The ribbons of Decorations, Orders, and medals 
are to be of the following lengths : 

(a) When the Decorations, &c., are worn : 

Full size 1 inch. 

Miniature f ,, 

(b) When the ribbons alone are worn : 

Full size i inch. 

Miniature f ,, 

These lengths are not to be exceeded, unless, in the case of medals, the 
number of clasps should necessitate it. 

17. Ribbons sewn on the coat. When ribbons, either full-sized or 
miniature, are required to be sewn on the uniforms the same order of arrange- 
ment is to be followed as that laid down in clause 10 for the Decorations, Orders 
and medals. Knights Grand Cross and Knights Commanders will, however, 
add the ribbon of a Companion of the Order or Orders to which they belong, 
under clauses 3 and 6. The ribbons are to be sewn plain on the cloth of the 
uniform, without intervals, and when the space between the shoulder to the 
edge of the lapel is insufficient to accommodate them in one row they are not 
to be made to overlap as on the bar, but are to be arranged in two or more 
rows placed immediately under each other, with an interval of half an inch 
intervening between each row. 

Ribbons of Orders and medals, to wear which private permission has been 
given, are -not to be sewn on the coat. 

18. Decorations, &c., with white uniform. With white undress, Decora- 
tions and medals or ribbons of Decorations and medals are to be worn as 
prescribed for the dress in lieu of which white undress is being worn. The 
broad ribbon of Knights Grand Cross should be worn under the shoulder strap. 

When worn with white uniform the ribbons of Decorations and medals are 
to be placed on a removable bar. 

19. Miniatures. Miniature Decorations, badges of Orders, and medals are 
to be arranged on a bar in the same manner and order as the full-sized. Knights 
Grand Cross and Knights Commanders will wear thereon, senior to all other 
Decorations, $c., except the Victoria Cross, the miniature Badge of the Order 
or Orders to which they belong, omitting the buckle in the case of the Orders 
of the Bath and of St. Michael and St. George. 

45 



167 CHAP. H. CEREMONIES, &c. 

The precedence of the various Orders of Knighthood concerned is as shown 
in clause 10 for the Companions of those Orders. 

20. If necessary, the bar should extend over the lapel of the coat. 

21. Decorations, &c., with plain dress. Stars of the Orders, and miniature 
Decorations, badges of Orders, and medals, are authorised to be worn in evening 
dress (plain clothes) in the presence of members of the Royal Family or Viceroys, 
and of Governors-General, and on public and official occasions. 

22. Only one set of miniatures need be maintained. The miniatures of 
companionship or membership will not be removed when the riband or badge 
of a higher grade is worn by Knights Grand Cross, Knights Commander, &c. 

23. Retired Officers. Retired officers are authorised to \vear stars and 
badges of Orders, and miniature Decorations and medals in evening dress on 
all public and official occasions. 



168 



CHAPTER III. 

RANK AND COMMAND. 

SECTION PAGE 

I. Officers in General - 47 

II. Flag Officers, Captains of the Fleet, and Commodores - 52 

III. Captains and Commanders - - -55 

IV. Lieutenants and other Officers of the Military Branch - - 56 
V. Officers other than the Military Branch - - 56 

VI. Ship's Company - - 57 

VII. Relative Rank of the Officers of the Navy and Army - 57 



SECTION I. OFFICERS IN GENERAL. 

168. Branches. The officers of His Majesty's Navy are divided into the 
following branches, namely, Military, Engineer, Medical, Accountant, Naval 
Instructor, Artisan. 

169. Military Branch. The Military Branch is comprised of the under- 
mentioned officers who, with the exception hereinafter mentioned, shall rank 
and command in the following order : 

1. Admirals of the Fleet. 

2. Admirals. 

3. Vice-Admirals. 

4. Rear-Admirals. 

5. Commodores. 

6. Captains. 

7. Commanders. 

8. Lieutenants. 

9. Sub-Lieutenants. 

10. Chief Gunners. ^ 

.11. Chief Boatswains. I . 

12. Chief Signal Boatswains. f According to dates of commissions. 

13. Commissioned Telegraphists. 

14. Gunners. 

15. Boatswains. 

16. Signal Boatswains. ^-According to dates of warrants. 

17. Warrant Telegraphists. 

18. Chief Masters-at-Arms. 

19. Midshipmen. 

20. Naval Cadets. 

170. Commodores. Commodores, when in the presence of Captains senior 
to them, shall rank and command according to their seniority as Captains. 

171. Command of Ship, Order of. A ship must always be represented by 
an officer of the Military Branch in the following order of command : 

1. Captain. 

2. Commander. 

3. Lieutenant. 

4. Sub-Lieutenant. 

47 



171 CHAP, m. RANK AND COMMAND. 

5. Chief Gunner "1 

6. Chief Boatswain. 

7. Chief Signal Boatswain. >According to date of commissions. 

8. Commissioned Telegraphist. J 

9. Gunner. ^ 

10. Boatswain. 

11. Signal Boatswain. ^-According to date of warrants. 

12. Warrant Telegraphist. 

13. Chief Master-at-Arms. 

14. Midshipmen. 

15. Naval Cadets. 






172. Order of Command. All officers of the same denomination in the 
Military Branch shall rank and command according to the order in which 
their names stand in the official list of the officers of the Royal Navy, or, when 
not inserted in the list, according to the dates of their first commissions, warrants, 
or orders, in their existing rank. If only acting in the rank they shall rank 
and command after officers holding the corresponding confirmed rank, and in 
relation to each other shah 1 rank and command according to the order in which 
their names stand in the official list of the officers of the Royal Navy, unless 
the Admiralty may otherwise direct. 

Officers of the non-military branches shall rank with each other and with 
the officers of the Military Branch, the Royal Marines, and the Army in the 
order given in the table attached to Article 219, and shall command in the 
same order the officers and men of their own branch as well as those of any 
other branch or of the Royal Marines who may be appointed or detailed for 
duty in their respective departments or placed under their orders by superior 
authority. 

173. Officers in command. Officers in command of His Majesty's ships 
must take rank and precedence of the officers placed under their command 
on all occasions, whether on shore or afloat. 

2. When Captain absent. In the absence of the Captain the officer next 
in command is responsible for everything done on board ; as Commanding 
Officer he is to see that every part of the duty is as punctually performed as 
it could be if the Captain were present. He may put under arrest any officer 
whose conduct he shall think so reprehensible as to require it ; and he may 
confine such men as he shall think deserving of punishment. See 178 (Command 
in absence of Captain) and 766 (Limit as to Corporal Punishment). 

174. Officer of the Watch. Every officer or other person, under the 
rank of Captain, not being either the Executive Officer or the /Commanding 
Officer of the ship for the time being, shall be subordinate to the Officer of the 
Watch whatever may be his rank, in regard to the performance of the duties 
with which he is charged. 

175. Officers promoted. An officer who shall have received from his 
superior authority official intelligence of his promotion, if he continues to be 
borne by competent authority in a ship in commission for full pay in the rank 
to which he has been promoted, shall take rank and command before any 
officer who has only an acting order for the same rank. If not so borne by 
competent authority, he will perform the duties of the inferior station he held 
previous to hearing of his promotion until superseded or discharged ; and he 
is not to assume any superior command, notwithstanding that he may have 
received official notification of his promotion. 

48 



OFFICERS IN GENERAL. 176 

176. In Tenders or Boats. An officer absent on service in a tender or 
boat attached to the ship in which he is borne for full pay, shall have the same 
command and authority as he would have were he actually on board the ship 
in which he is borne. 

177. When wrecked or lost. When one of His Majesty's ships shall be 
wrecked, or otherwise lost or destroyed, or taken by the enemy, the command, 
power, and authority given to the Captain, and to the other officers and the 
crew with respect to each other, shall remain and be in full force, as effectually 
as if such ship were not lost, until a court-martial shall have inquired into 
the cause of the loss or capture of such ship, or the officers and crew shall be 
otherwise disposed of and separated, as directed by the Naval Discipline Act. 
Sec 616 (In case of Wreck). 

178. Officers for Navigating Duties. When Commanders, Lieutenants, or 
Sub-Lieutenants, who are senior to the Executive Officer, are appointed for 
navigating duties, they will succeed to the command of the ship in the absence 
of the Captain ; but they are not to take upon themselves the routine duties 
of the Executive Officer except by order of the Captain, or in case of necessity. 

179. Navigator of the Fleet. When it may be deemed expedient to do so. 
the Admiralty may appoint an officer to do duty as a Navigator of the Fleet 
in the ship in which the flag of the Commander-in-Chief or Senior Officer of 
the station or squadron may fly. 

180. Navigating Officers. A Navigating Officer shall be a Commander, 
Lieutenant, or Sub-Lieutenant duly qualified to perform the navigating duties 
of the ship and appointed for such duties by the Admiralty or other competent 
authority. 

2. Officers liable for Navigating Duties: All officers of the Military Branch 
are liable to be called upon to perform navigating and pilotage duties in His 
Majesty's ships, but the additional pay to Commanders, Lieutenants, and 
Sub-Lieutenants for the discharge of such duties is contingent on their having 
passed the necessary examinations in pilotage. See 323 (Pilotage and Navigating 
Duties). 

3. Lieutenants and Sub-Lieutenants appointed for navigating duties are 
to take a share in the ordinary duties of their ships, such as watch-keeping, 
acting as divisional officers, &c., but this participation in the ordinary duties 
is not to interfere with their special navigating duties, and is to be arranged 
at the discretion of the Captain. 

181. Presiding Officer at assemblages. At courts of inquiry, surveys, 
and other similar assemblages of officers, the officer who, in virtue of his office, 
would under the foregoing Regulations take the Military Command, is in all 
cases to preside, irrespective of the relative rank of the other members, whose 
precedence on such occasions shall be determined by Article 219. 

182. When promoted to Flag Rank abroad. A Commodore of the Second 
Class, or a Captain, who receives when abroad official notification from the 
Admiralty of his promotion to Flag rank is, in the absence of special directions 
from the Admiralty, to be discharged to the supernumerary list for passage 
home, and another officer is to be placed in temporary command of the ship, 
unless the ship is under orders to return to England, in which case the officer 
promoted is to retain the command until paid off or superseded. 

2. If the Senior Officer present should deem it for the benefit of His Majesty's 
service that the promoted officer should be retained in the temporary command 

49 



182 CHAP, m. RANK AND COMMAND. 

of the ship, although not under orders for England, he may be retained, the 
Senior Officer reporting his reasons to the Admiralty. 

P 3. Promoted Officer, if temporarily retained. No promoted officer, while 
retained in temporary command, is to hoist his flag, or assume any rank or 
command beyond that which he held previous to his promotion. 

183. Commodore of First Class promoted. If the promoted officer is a 
Commodore of the First Class appointed by the Admiralty, he may at once 
hoist his flag and take rank and command as a Flag Officer unless ordered by 
the Admiralty to the contrary ; but in the case of a Commodore of the First 
Class otherwise appointed, he shall not hoist his flag, nor take rank or command 
as a Flag Officer, on promotion, but shall continue in the capacity of Commodore 
of the First Class until directed by the Admiralty or by a Flag Officer to be 
discharged to half-pay, or to revert temporarily to the command of his ship 
as Captain. 

2. Senior Officer promoted. If the promoted officer is himself the senior 
officer present, he will act under Article 182 and as above, as he deems best 
for His Majesty's Service. 

184. Promotions generally. An officer who receives official intelligence of 
his having been promoted, is to be retained in the inferior rank in the ship 
in which he is serving, until instructions are received from the Admiralty or 
the Commander-in-Chief as to his disposal, and as to the manner in which 
the vacancy caused by the promotion is to be filled. This information may be 
requested by telegraph if necessary. 

2. In the event of the Commander-in-Chief considering it necessary for the 
benefit of His Majesty's Service that an officer, although promoted, should 
continue for a time to perform the duties of the inferior station from which he 
has been advanced, he may require him to do so ; reporting for the information 
of the Admiralty the particular circumstances which induced him to retain 
the promoted officer in the inferior capacity. 

3. Placed on Retired List. If an officer is placed on the retired list he is 
to be retained in the ship in the rank in which he has been serving, and is to 
continue to do duty until superseded or discharged by order of the Admiralty, 
or of the Commander-in-Chief if abroad. See 1562, clause 13 (Officers Superseded 
or Discharged Abroad). 

4. Acting Orders. In giving acting orders under this Article, attention is 
to be paid to the provisions in regard thereto contained in Articles 231 and 
235. 

185. Senior Officer in Ship other than his own. When it shall be absolutely 
requisite for the Senior Officer of two or more ships, not being a Flag Officer 
or a Commodore of the First Class, to be absent from his own ship and to go 
on board another ship under his orders, for the better conducting any important 
service on which he may be engaged, he is to direct the officer commanding 
such ship to bear him in his proper rank, as lent for particular service, and 
while so borne the said Senior Officer shall have the same command and 
authority in every respect as he would have had if present in his own ship, 
and, if a Commodore of the Second Class, he will hoist his broad pendant. 

In the event of the ship commanded by the Senior Officer of two or more 
ships, who is not a Flag Officer, being wrecked or lost, such Senior Officer 
may direct himself to be borne as additional in his proper rank, in one of the 
ships under his orders ; and while so borne, or until an officer senior to him 
shall arrive on the spot and otherwise direct, he shall have the same command 
and authority as he had before his own ship was lost. 

50 



OFFICERS IN GENERAL. 185 

In either of the above cases, the Senior Officer is to relinquish all command 
and authority on board the ship in which he is temporarily borne by his own 
order as soon as the exigencies of the Service will admit thereof, and he is 
forthwith to report to his superior authority, for the information of the 
Admiralty, the circumstances which rendered it necessary for him to avail 
himself of the provisions of this Article. 

186. Officers lent. Officers on full pay, lent by competent authority to 
do duty on board any other ship, although borne as supernumeraries, shall 
take the same rank and command, and be considered in every respect for the 
time they are so employed, as if they actually belonged to the complement. 
See. 21 (Military Command). 

187. Officers taking passage. Any officer on full pay, taking a passage 
in one of His Majesty's ships, may, though borne as a supernumerary, be 
ordered to do duty if of inferior rank or junior to the Executive Officer pf the 
ship in which he is embarked ; and while so employed he shall take the same 
rank and command, and shall be considered in every respect as if he actually 
belonged to the complement ; but if the Captain of the ship shall die, the 
acting command thereof is vested in the officers mentioned in Article 232, and 
in no case shall it be assumed by a supernumerary officer, except he shall 
have received the express authority mentioned in the following Article, or be 
in the position of the Senior Officer described in Article 185. 

188. " Additional for Special Service." Captains and other officers of 
the Military Branch, borne on the books of any of His Majesty's ships as 
" Additional, for special or particular service," are never to assume the charge 
and command of the ships in which they are so borne, nor any other charge 
or command, except that which may appertain to the special or particular 
service for which they are borne, unless they receive from the Admiralty, or 
irom the officer in command of a foreign station, express authority to the 
contrary. 

NOTE. This Regulation is not to affect the powers given by Article 752, 
clause 4, to the Captain of a ship or establishment to which tenders are 
attached. 

189. " Additional " not for Special Service. Captains and other officers 
of the Military Branch who are borne on the books of any of His Majesty's 
ships as " Additional," but not for any special or particular service, are to 
take rank and command in the ships in which they are so borne, and be 
considered generally, to all intents and purposes, as if they belonged to the 
complements of such ships. 

190. Other Officers " Additional." Officers of branches other than the 
Military Branch and all persons not included in the two previous Articles who 
are borne on the books of any of His Majesty's ships as " Additional," are to 
perform the duties for which they are appointed, are to be considered as 
belonging to the ships in which they are borne, and are to take .rank and 
precedence according to their several positions in the Royal Navy. 

191. Retired Officers required to serve. Whenever His Majesty may be 
pleased, by his Order in Council, to call officers from the Reserved, Retired, 
Pensioned or Emergency Lists into active service in case of war or emergency, 
such officers shall be entitled to the pay and emoluments of their corresponding 
ranks on the Active List, together with a bonus of twenty-five per cent, for 

51 



191 CHAP, m. RANK AND COMMAND. 

every pound of th'e full pay earned by them, exclusive of allowances, except 
as mentioned in clause 3. 

2. All steps in rank given on or after retirement while conferring the title, 
uniform, and other advantages of the higher rank, will not give the right of 
command amongst naval officers, which is always to be governed by the date 
of commission in the rank held on the Active List at the date of retirement. 

3. If recalled to active service in case of war or emergency, Lieutenants, 
Carpenter Lieutenants, or Engineer Lieutenants, who were given such rank on 
being pensioned from the List of Commissioned Warrant Officers, will receive 
the rates of pay and allowances of the rank last held by them on the Active 
List, together with a bonus of twenty-five per cent, for every pound of the 
full pay earned by them exclusive of allowances. 



SECTION II. FLAG OFFICERS, CAPTAINS OF THE FLEET, AND 
COMMODORES. 

192. Flag Officers. Flag Officers shall be classed, and shall rank and 
command, in the order and manner following : 

Admirals of the Fleet. 

Admirals. 

Vice-Admirals. 

Rear-Admirals. 

2. Officers on whom a step of temporary or local rank has been conferred 
under the provisions of Order in Council of 21st November, 1855, shall, subject 
to the provisions of Article 172, be entitled to take command and precedence 
and to enjoy all the privileges and emoluments of the rank in which they are 
acting. 

193. Captain of the Fleet. When the Admiralty shall deem it expedient 
to appoint a Captain of the Fleet, he shall be a Flag Officer or Captain of such 
seniority as the Admiralty may consider desirable ; if a Captain, he shall be 
constituted a Commodore of the First Class, and be given an appointment as 
additional Captain of the ship in which the Flag Officer or Commodore with 
whom he is serving is borne. 

2. When he is not a Flag Officer he shall take precedence, and shall command 
according to his proper rank as a Commodore ; but should he meet with a 
senior Captain, who is not a First Class Commodore, he shall, while present 
with such senior Captain, rank only as additional Captain of the ship in which 
he is borne for the time being. 

194. On Vacancy in Chief Command. If the Commander-in-Chief should 
die, or give up his command, the Captain of the Fleet is to preserve his office 
under the officer who succeeds to the chief command, if there should be an 
officer senior to him in the fleet ; but should the Captain of the Fleet be himself 
next in rank to the Commander-in-Chief, and consequently hoist his flag or 
broad pendant, and assume the command, he may appoint such officer as he 
may think proper to act as Captain of the Fleet, until the pleasure of the 
Admiralty, or of his superior officer, be known ; but the officer appointed 
must be one of the senior Captains in the fleet, who shall be willing to accept 
the appointment. 

2. In the event of the command having devolved on a Commodore of the 
First Class, the Captain of the Fleet appointed by him under the provisions 
of this Article must be nominated additional Captain of the ship in which 
such Commodore of the First Class is borne. 

52 



FLAG OFFICERS, CAPTAINS OF THE FLEET, &c. 195 

195. Chief of the Staff. When the Admiralty shall deem it expedient to 
appoint a Chief of the Staff he shall be a Captain of such seniority as the 
Admiralty may consider desirable, and he shall be given an appointment as 
additional Captain of the ship in which the Flag Officer or Commodore with 
whom he is serving is borne. 

2. When Senior Officer present, he shall take precedence and shall command 
according to his proper rank and seniority, and shall act in all ways as Senior 
Officer ; but he is not to be required to keep any accounts as Captain, nor to 
sign any books or papers, nor to do any other duty than is required of him as 
Senior Officer and Chief of the Staff ; and the Captain under him in the same 
ship is to continue to execute all the duties of Captain of the ship, in the same 
manner as the Captain of a flag-ship. 

3. On Vacancy in Chief Command. If the Commander-in-Chief, or Com- 
modore, with whom he is serving shall die or give up his command, the Chief 
of the Staff is to continue in his appointment under the officer who succeeds 
to the chief command ; but should the Chief of the Staff succeed to the chief 
command, he may appoint a Captain to be acting Chief of the Staff pending 
instructions from the Admiralty, which are to be asked for immediately. 

196. Commodores. A Captain, when authorised to wear a broad pendant, 
shall have the temporary title and rank of Commodore, of which there shall 
be two classes : 

(a) A Commodore of the First Class, when he shall have a Captain of the 

same ship under him ; 

(b) A Commodore of the Second Class, when without a Captain of the 

same ship under him. 

197. Commodore, First Class. A Commodore of the First Class shall be 
constituted as such by order of the Admiralty, and shall receive an appoint- 
ment as First Captain of the ship on board of which his broad pendant shall 
be hoisted. 

2. He shall rank and command next below a Rear-Admiral, and shall wear 
his broad pendant in presence of all Flag Officers and Commodores, provided 
there be no senior Captain present. Commodores shall take rank and command 
of each other according to their seniority as Captains. 

3. When transferred to another ship for merely a temporary object it 
shall not be necessary for him to have an appointment to such ship as First 
Captain, but should it be found necessary for him to remain on board such 
latter ship more permanently, an appointment is then to be made to the ship 
in which he is borne in order to meet the case of his broad pendant being struck 
under the provisions of clause 4. 

4. Meeting a Senior Captain. If a Commodore of the First Class shall 
meet with a Captain senior to him, who is not a First Class Commodore, he 
shall immediately strike his broad pendant, and shall rank and command, 
while it is so struck, only as First Captain of the ship in which he is borne, 
and according to his seniority as Captain ; but on his separating from such 
senior Captain, he shall re-hoist his broad pendant and resume his rank and 
command as a Commodore. 

5. During the time that his broad pendant is temporarily struck, he is not 
to be required to keep any accounts as Captain, nor to sign any books or 
papers, nor to do any other duty than would have been required of him as 
First Class Commodore ; but the Captain under him in the same ship is to 
continue to execute all the duties of Captain of the ship, in the same manner 
as the Captain of a flag-ship. 

r,3 

E 



198 CHAP, m. IBANK AND COMMAND. 

198. Commodore, Second Class. A Commodore of the Second Class is a 
Captain of one of His Majesty's ships authorised to hoist a distinguishing 
broad pendant on board such ship ; but it is only in such ship, her tenders 
and boats, that his Second Class broad pendant is to fly, except in the circum- 
stances provided for in Article 185. 

2. A Second Class Commodore shall wear his broad pendant in the presence 
of all Flag Officers and Commodores, provided there be no senior Captain 
present ; but he is to be considered only as a Captain, except as to honours 
and emoluments. 

3. Meeting a Senior Captain. If a Commodore of the Second Class should 
meet with a senior Captain, not a Commodore, he shall immediately strike his 
broad pendant, and shall wear only the ordinary pendant during the time he 
is in the presence of such senior Captain ; but on separating from him, his 
broad pendant is to be re-hoisted. See 170 (Commodores). 

199. Shifting Flags or Broad Pendants. Flag Officers and Commodores of 
the First Class, subject to the special provisions for action in the signal manual, 
may shift their flags or broad pendants to, and may remove on board of, any 
other ship, as the circumstances at the moment may induce them to deem 
proper for the good of the Service. 

2. The case of a Senior Officer who is not a Flag Officer or Commodore 
of the First Class is provided for by Article 185. 

200. Officer Commanding disabled. If an Officer Commanding a fleet or 
squadron be from any cause rendered incapable of directing the operations of 
the fleet or squadron in battle, or in the presence of an enemy, he may send 
for the officer next in command to come on board his (the Senior Officer's) 
ship and to direct from thence all operations whilst the enemy continue in 
sight ; and such Second in Command, if he be a Flag Officer or a Commodore, 
is to leave his flag or broad pendant flying on board his own ship, notwith- 
standing his absence from her on such duty. 

201. Killed in Action. If a Flag Officer or a Commodore, commanding a 
fleet or a squadron, should be killed in battle, his flag or broad pendant is to 
be continued flying until the battle is ended, or the enemy is no longer in 
sight ; but the officer next in command is to be immediately informed of the 
event by private signal previously concerted, or otherwise, as may, at the 
time, be most advisable ; and he is forthwith to assume the chief command, 
repairing to, and managing the fleet or squadron from the ship of the former 
Commander-in-Chief, should he judge it expedient to remove to her ; in which 
case, if he be a Flag Officer or a Commodore, he is to leave his own flag or 
broad pendant flying on board the ship he quits until the battle is ended. 

202. Junior Flag Officer Killed in Battle. If any other Flag Officer or 
Commodore, not commanding a fleet or squadron, should be killed in battle, 
his flag or broad pendant is to be continued flying until the battle is ended ; 
but the Commander-in-Chief is to be immediately informed of the event, by 
signal or otherwise, as may be most advisable. 

203. Death, &c., of Commander-in-Chief at Home. In the event of the 
death, or of the absence on leave of a Commander-in-Chief of a home port or 
of the Home Fleets, the officer on whom the command may devolve, if a Flag 
Officer or a Commodore of the First Class, shall be considered in all respects 
as Commander-in-Chief, subject to the regulations as to table money ; but 
if he be a Captain he shall hoist a broad pendant as a Commodore of the Second 
Class only. See 513 (Commander-in-Chief at Home Ports}. 

64 






FLAG OFFICERS, CAPTAINS OF THE FLEET, &c. 204 

204. Commander-in-Chie! dying on Foreign Service. If a Flag Officer or 
a Commodore of the First Class, on foreign service, having a commission as 
Commander-in-Chief, should die, or if the state of his health should make it 
absolutely necessary for him to quit his command without waiting for per- 
mission from the Admiralty, the officer next in command, if he be a Flag 
Officer, or a Commodore of the First Class with an Admiralty commission as 
such, shall be considered as Commander-in-Chief in all respects until the 
pleasure of the Admiralty shall be known ; but should the officer on whom 
the command may devolve be a Commodore of the Second Class, or a Captain, 
he shall hoist the broad pendant and assume the rank of a Commodore of the 
First Class, giving an order to some other officer to act as Captain of the same 
ship until the pleasure of the Admiralty be known ; and during the time that 
he or a Commodore of the First Class not holding an Admiralty commission 
as such, may remain in such command, he shall be considered as a Commander- 
in-Chief in all respects, except that he is not to assume the title of Commander- 
in-Chief, but only that of Commodore Commanding on the station ; and every 
officer who may have hoisted a broad pendant of the First Class, and assumed 
a command under this authority, shall, on hearing officially of the arrival of 
an officer senior to him on the station, immediately strike such broad pendant, 
and revert to the position he filled previous to his hoisting it, without waiting 
to be superseded by the personal presence of such Senior Officer, or to receive 
an order direct from him to do so, unless some order for the continuance of 
his broad pendant, notwithstanding the arrival of such Senior Officer, shall 
have been received by him from competent authority. 

2. Should such Senior Officer arriving on the station be a Captain, or 
Commodore of the Second Class, he shall be authorised to hoist a broad pendant 
of the First Class, according to the restrictions and directions above stated, 
and the same course is to be observed should other senior Captains arrive, 
until the pleasure of the Admiralty relative to the command of the station 
has been made known. 

205. Temporary absence of Commander-in-Chief. The foregoing Article, 
authorising the assumption of temporary command as Commodore, is not to 
be understood to apply to an officer becoming the Senior Officer on a station 
or of a squadron abroad, in consequence of a Commander-in-Chief going 
beyond the limits of his station, or quitting his squadron upon any temporary 
duty, or in any other circumstances than those specified in the preceding 
Article, unless the Commander-in-Chief so quitting his station or squadron 
abroad should deem it necessary to order the officer entrusted with the command 
during his absence to act as temporary Commodore Commanding on the station 
in the manner prescribed in the preceding Article ; under which order an 
officer left with the command, in cases coming under this Article, is to be 
entitled to assume similar distinction and enjoy the same advantages as if 
succeeding to it in consequence of the death or resignation of a Commander- 
in-Chief, always observing the same exception. 

206. Transfer of Command at Home. During the day on which a Com- 
mander-in-Chief or an Admiral Superintendent at home transfers the command 
to his successor the flags of both officers in each case will remain flying. See 
1386 (Flag Allowances). 

SECTION III. CAPTAINS AND COMMANDERS. 

207. Captain. A Captain shall be a duly qualified officer, appointed to a 
ship as such, by the Admiralty, or other competent authority. 

65 



208 CHAP. IIL RANK AND COMMAND. 

208. Commander. A Commander shall be a duly qualified officer, 
appointed to a ship as such, by the Admiralty, or other competent authority. 

209. Commander acting as Captain. A Commander who shall be 
appointed by a Commander-in-Chief, or by other competent authority, to act 
as Captain of a ship, shall not be entitled to any permanent advance of rank 
by such appointment ; but until removed from such acting command by the 
Admiralty, or by any officer authorised by these Regulations to supersede 
such acting appointment, he shall be considered in all respects as Captain of 
the ship, and, while so acting, he shall take command of all Commanders and 
other inferior officers, except at courts-martial, where he shall be called upon 
to sit according to his confirmed rank only. 

210. Lieutenant acting as Captain. If a Lieutenant should from necessity 
be appointed by a Commander-in-Chief to act as Captain of a ship, he shall 
receive an acting order as Commander, and be appointed to act as Captain 
of such ship ; and being so appointed, he shall be considered, while he continues 
under the said appointment, to act in the command of such ship, as a Captain, 
subject, however, to the orders of all Captains, though the date of his acting 
order may be prior to the dates of their commissions, for all purposes except 
sitting as such at courts-martial, with reference to which he is to be considered 
as a Lieutenant only, and is to sit according to his seniority as a Lieutenant. 

211. Acting Commander. Any inferior officer who shall be appointed to 
act as Commander of any ship, shall rank and command, and be considered to 
all intents and purposes, as a Commander during the period he so acts, except 
with regard to sitting at courts-martial. 



SECTION IV. LIEUTENANTS AND OTHER OFFICERS OF THE 
MILITARY BRANCH. 

212. Lieutenant. A Lieutenant shall be a duly qualified officer, appointed 
to command as such or to be Lieutenant of any ship, by the Admiralty, or 
other competent authority. 

213. Sub-Lieutenant. A Midshipman will receive a commission as Sub- 
Lieutenant in accordance with Article 268. 

214. Subordinate Officers. Midshipmen shall take command according to 
seniority, after Boatswains, and naval Cadets after Midshipmen ; they shall 
respectively rank as laid down in Article 169, and if two or more are of the 
same standing, they shall take rank and command according to the order of 
their names on the list of the officers of the Navy. 

SECTION V. OFFICERS OTHER THAN THE MILITARY BRANCH. 

215. Chaplain ol the Fleet and Chaplains. Chaplains shall not hold any 
naval rank, but shall retain when afloat the position to which their office 
would entitle them on shore. The Chaplain of the Fleet shall be considered the 
head of the Chaplains. 

216. Command of Non-military Branch by Senior Officer of Military Branch. 
Notwithstanding the relative rank and authority conferred by the Regulations 
on officers of branches other than the Military Branch, they are, whatever 
their rank, to be under the command of the Captain and the Executive Officer 
of the ship in which they may be and of the Officer of the Watch for the time 

56 



OFFICERS OTHER THAN THE MILITARY BRANCH. 216 

being, and in all matters outside their own departments they are to be subject 
to the authority of the Senior Officer of the Military Branch present or in 
charge of the service on which they are employed. 

In no case shall officers of the non-military branches be deemed to be 
superior in rank to, or take precedence of, the officer appointed to command 
the ship or establishment in which they are employed, or the officer or other 
person on whom the command of such ship or establishment may properly 
devolve in the absence of the officer appointed to the command thereof. 

217. Officer of Military Branch Present. If two officers not of the Military 
Branch are in the presence of an officer of the Military Branch under whose 
command the senior of the two is serving, the junior, whatever his rank and 
standing may be, cannot take precedence of the officer of the Military Branch. 



SECTION VI. SHIP'S COMPANY. 

218. Ship's Company. The crews of His Majesty's ships shall consist of 
the classes and ratings specified in column 1 of Part 1, Appendix XV. ; they 
shall rank after subordinate officers, and take command after naval Cadets 
in the order in which they therein stand ; men of the same rating, according 
to the dates on which they were so rated, but if rated on the same day, then 
according to the order in which they stand on the ship's books for the time 
being. Men who may have been disrated and restored to the same rating 
shall only reckon their seniority from the date of their restoration, and men 
who hive any break in their service, from the date of their last re-entry. 

2. Non-military Branch Ratings. Men and boys holding ratings printed in 
italics are not to assume military command, but they shall have all necessary 
authority to enable them to carry on the duties appertaining to their particular 
ratings. 

SECTION VII. RELATIVE RANK OF THE OFFICERS OF THE NAVY 

AND ARMY. 

219. Navy and Army Officers. The relative rank of officers of the Navy 
with each other and with the officers of the Army, shall, subject to the exceptions 
provided for in this chapter, be as laid down in the following table, and shall 
in every case take effect according to the dates of their respective commissions 
or appointments, unless the relative rank is granted at the discretion of the 
Admiralty or is dependent on the attainment of seniority, or completion of 
service. In the latter case it shall take effect from such attainment of seniority 
or completion of service, in the particular rank. 

The rank of retired officers holding honorary rank is, when they are called 
into active service, governed by Article 191. 



[TABLE 
57 



219 



CHAP, DX RANK AND COMMAND. 



Military Branch. 


Engineer Branch. 


Medical Branch. 


Accountant Branch. 










I. Admirals of the 
Fleet. 








2. Admirals 
3. Vice-Admirals- 


Engineer-in-Chief, if 
Engineer Vice- Admiral. 


(Medical Director- 


----- 


4. Rear- Admirals 


Engineer-in-Chief, if 


General.* 


----- 




Engineer Rear Ad- 


J 






miral, and Engineer 


Surgeon-General. 






Rear-Admirals. 






3* Commodores, 
ist and 2nd 
Class. 
ji6. Captains of 


Engineer Captains of 


Deputy Surgeon-Gen- 


Secretaries to Admirals of the 


three years' 


eight years' service 


eral. 


Fleet according to service in 


seniority. 


in that rank. 




that rank. 


Ky. Captains under 


Engineer Captains 


_ _ _ _ 


Secretaries to Commanders-in- 


three years' 


under eight years' 




Chief of five years' service 


seniority. 


service in that rank. 




in that rank. 


8. Commanders. 


Engineer Commanders 


Fleet Surgeons 


Secretaries to Commanders-in- 








Chief under five years' ser- 








vice in that rank. 


9. Lieutenants of 


Engineer Lieutenants 


Staff Surgeons 


Secretaries to Flag Officers 


eight years' 


of eight years' seni- 




other than Commanders-in- 


seniority. 


ority duly qualified 




Chief, to Commodores, ist 




and selected. 




Class, and to Captains of the 








Fleet. 


to. Lieutenants 


Engineer Lieutenants 


Surgeons 


Secretaries to Commodores, 2nd 


under eight 


under eight years' 




Class. 


years' seni- 


seniority.or over that 






ority. 


seniority but not duly 








qualified or selected. 






n. Sub - Lieuten- 


Engineer Sub-Lieuten- 


_ _ _. _ 


_ _ _ * _ 


ants. 


ants. 






12. Chief Gun- 


Chief Artificer Engineers 






ners, Chief 


and Commissioned 






Boatswains, 


Mechanicians. 






Chief Signal 








Boatswains, 








and Commis- 








sioned Tele- 








graphists. 




- 




^13. Gunners, 


Artificer Engineers 


Head Wardmasters. 


______ 


Boatswains, 


and Warrant 






Signal 


Mechanicians. 






Boatswains, 








Warrant 








Telegraphists 








and Chief 








Masters - at- 








Arms. 








V4- Midshipmen - 









the Admiralty ' "* rdativ 



58 



RELATIVE RANK OF OFFICERS NAVY AND ARMY. 



219 



Accountant Branch. 



Naval Instructor Branch. 



Artisan Branch. 



Army Ranks. 



6. Paymasters-in 
Chief. 



8. Fleet Pay mas- 

ters, t 

9. Staff Paymas- 

ters. f 
Paymasters. 



10. Assistant Pay- 
masters of 
four years' 
seniority. 

ir. Assistant Pay- 
masters under 
four years' 
seniority. 

12. - - 



Naval Instructors of 
15 years' seniority. 

Naval Instructors of 
eight years' seniority. 



- Field Marshals. 

- Generals.J 

- I Lieutenant-Generals.J 

- Major-Generals. J 



Brigadier-Generals . 

Colonels. 

Lieu tenant-Colonels . 



Carpenter Lieutenants 
of eight years' senior- 
ity. 



Navallnstructorsunder 
eight years' seniority. 



13. Warrant wri- 
ters, Head 
Stewards and 
Instructors 
in Cookery. 



14. Clerks - 



Chief Schoolmasters - 



Head Schoolmasters - 



Carpenter Lieutenants 
under eight years' 
seniority. 



Chief Carpenters and 
Commissioned Elec- 
tricians. 



Carpenters, Warrant 
Electricians and 
Warrant Armourers. 



Lieutenant-Colonels.but Juniors 
to this rank. 

Majors. 



Captains. 



Lieutenants. 



Second Lieutenants. 



ist Class Staff Sergeant Majors, 

Army Service Corps ; 
Conductors, Army Ordnance 

Corps; 

Master Gunners, ist Class ; 
ist Class Staff Sergeant Majors, 

Army Pay Corps ; 
Army Schoolmasters ; 
but Senior to the above ranks, 
ist Class Staff Sergeant Majors, 

Army Service Corps ; 
Conductors, Army Ordnance 

Corps ; 

Master Gunners, ist Class ; 
ist Class Staff Sergeant Majors, 

Army Pay Corps ; 
Army Schoolmasters ; 
but Junior to the above ranks. 



t " Officers who had attained eight and four years' seniority as Paymaster before 17th February, 1886, will take rank from 
dates of attaining such seniority instead of from dates of commissions as Fleet and Staff Paymaster." 

t The relative precedence is not affected by a General Officer happening to be Ueu tenant- Governor of a Fc 

Take rank from date of appointment as Paymaster, instead of from date of appointment as btau Paymaster. 

59 



220 CHAP. HI. RANK AND COMMAND. 

220. Joint Service with Land Forces. When officers of the Navy are 
employed on shore, on joint service with His Majesty's land forces, their relative 
rank shall carry with it all the precedence and advantages, except command, 
attaching to the rank with which it corresponds, and shall regulate the choice 
of quarters, rates of lodging money, servants, forage, fuel, and lights, or allow- 
ances in their stead. See 25 (No Naval Officer to command Land Forces). 

221. Naval Commander-in-Chief in India. The precedence of the naval 
Commander-in-Chief in the East Indies is regulated by the Royal Warrant 
of precedence in India. 

222. Precedence in Colonies. It is His Majesty's pleasure that the follow- 
ing rules be observed in the colonies in regard to the precedency of members 
of the Royal Family and of naval and military officers in command of His 
Majesty's forces : 

(a) Royal Family. Any member of the Royal Family present in a colony 
shall rank therein next after the Governor thereof. 

(6) Flag Officers and General Officers. The officer in command of His 
Majesty's naval forces on the station, if of the rank of a Flag Officer, 
and the Senior Officer in command of the troops, if of the rank of a 
General Officer, are to have precedence next after the Governor 
and any member of the Royal Family present, their own relative 
rank and precedence being determined by the King's Regulations 
on that subject ; Governors of other colonies shall rank next after 
such naval and military officers. 

(c) Captains, Commanders, Colonels, and Lieutenant-Colonels. The officer 

in command of His Majesty's naval forces on the station, if of the 
rank of Captain or Commander, and the Senior Officer in command 
of the troops, if of the rank of Colonel or Lieutenant-Colonel, their 
own relative rank and precedence being determined by the King's 
Regulations on that subject, are to have precedence next after the 
Chief Justice. The Bishop is granted precedence of an honorary 
nature immediately before the Chief Justice, and this rank is to 
be accorded to him by courtesy. 

(d) The officer in command of His Majesty's naval forces on the station, 

if below the rank of Captain or Commander, and the Senior Officer 
in command of the troops, if below the rank of Colonel or Lieutenant- 
Colonel, are to take precedence next after the Solicitor-General, 
their own relative rank and precedence being determined by the 
King's Regulations on that subject. 

2. Special Rules in some Colonies. Whilst, however, these rules will take 
effect in every place in which His Majesty's Instructions, communicated 
through the Secretary of State, avail for the purpose, they will not override 
the precedence which in a few colonies is conferred on certain officers, either 
by law or by the terms of Letters Patent from the Crown ; which instruments 
cannot be set aside or altered except by the issue of others having the same form 
and equal authority. 



60 



223 



CHAPTER IV. 
APPOINTMENT OF OFFICERS. 

SECTION p AGE 

I. Officers in General - 61 

II. Officers AutJiorised to make Appointments, <5-c. 63 

SECTION I. OFFICERS IN GENERAL. 

223. Officers shall be promoted or nominated in the first instance, as 
the case may be, to the undermentioned ranks by commission given by the 
Admiralty : 

Military Branch. Commissioned Officers. 

Admiral of the Fleet. 

Rear- Admiral. 

Lieutenant promoted from Chief 
Gunner or Gunner, Chief Boatswain 
or Boatswain, Chief Signal Boat- 
swain or Signal Boatswain, Com- 
missioned or Warrant Telegraphist. 



Sub-Lieutenant. 
Chief Gunner.* 
Chief Boatswain.* 
Chief Signal Boatswain.* 
Commissioned Telegraphist.* 



Other Branches. Commissioned Officers. 



Chaplain of the Fleet. 
Chaplain. 
Surgeon-General. 
Naval Instructor. 
Carpenter Lieutenant. 
Assistant Paymaster. 
Engineer Sub-Lieutenant. 



Engineer Lieutenant promoted from 
Chief Artificer Engineer or Artificer 
Engineer. 

Chief Carpenter.* 

Chief Artificer Engineer.* 

Commissioned Mechanician.* 

Commissioned Electrician.* 

Chief Schoolmaster.* 



Surgeon. 

2. The following shall be promoted by warrant given by the Admiralty : 
Military Branch. Warrant Officers. 



Gunner. 
Boatswain. 
Signal Boatswain. 



Warrant Telegraphist. 
Chief Master-at-Arms. 



Other Branches. Warrant Officers. 



Carpenter. 
Artificer Engineer. 
Warrant Mechanician. 
Warrant Electrician. 
Warrant Armourer. 



Head Schoolmaster. 
Head Wardmaster. 
Warrant Writer. 
Head Steward. 
Instructor in Cookery. 



3. Officers appointed by Orders. Officers shall be promoted or nominated 
to all other ranks by order of the Admiralty, or, in the case of Midshipmen 
and Clerks, by order of their Captains. Except as specified in footnote, com- 
missions will not be issued to officers on promotion to such ranks, but their 
promotion will be notified to them by the Admiralty, and published in the 
" London Gazette." See 228 (Appointment of other Officers). 
* Commissioned Warrant Officer. 

61 



223 CHAP. IV. APPOINTMENT OF OFFICERS. 

4. Retired Rank. Commissions will not be issued on promotion to retired 
rank of any description. 

NOTE. Officers holding commissions on the 25th March 1901, will receive 
a second commission when next promoted, after which no other commission 
will be given them except as laid down in clause 1. 

224. Flag Officers. Flag Officers shall be appointed by the Admiralty in 
pursuance of His Majesty's pleasure, and shall hoist their flags only in pursuance 
of orders from the Admiralty, except in the cases provided for by Article 183. 

2. Honorary Admirals of the Fleet or Honorary Admirals, when afloat and 
in naval uniform, may fly the distinguishing flag of their rank on board one 
of His Majesty's ships, should they desire to do so. 

The flag when hoisted in the presence of His Majesty's ships is to be saluted 
as indicated in Article 69 ; and the honours and marks of respect due to the 
rank are to be paid as provided for by Articles 131, 137, and 140. 

225. Captain o! the Fleet. When an Admiral of the Fleet hoists his flag 
a Captain of the Fleet may be appointed to assist him ; a Captain of the Fleet 
may also be appointed to assist any other Flag Officer in command of a fleet 
or squadron whenever from its size and importance the Admiralty may consider 
it necessary. 

226. Commodore of First Class. Commodores of the First Class shall be 
appointed by the Admiralty, or, when any exigency of the public service may 
render it absolutely necessary to constitute an officer of that rank, by a 
Commander-in-Chief abroad. 

2. This rank may be assumed as provided for in Article 204. 

227. Captains and Navigators o! the Fleet. The Captain of the Fleet, 
Chief of the Staff, and officer required to do duty as Navigator of the Fleet, 
shall be appointed by the Admiralty ; vacancies for these appointments 
occurring abroad may be filled up temporarily by the Commander-in-Chief 
under whom they may be serving until the pleasure of the Admiralty is known. 

228. Other Officers. Other officers will be appointed by or received on 
the verbal or written order of the Admiralty, or the verbal or written order 
of any other their superior officers duly authorised to appoint. These orders 
will be signified to officers in such manner as the Admiralty may at any time 
think proper. 

2. Clerks. Assistant Clerks are to be rated Clerks by their Captains on 
being found qualified (form S. 432). A duplicate of the certificate is to be 
forwarded to the Admiralty. 

3. Secretaries and Flag-Lieutenants are to be nominated by the Flag Officers 
or Commodores with whom they are to serve, and appointed by the Admiralty ; 
but if abroad by the Commander-in-Chief. 

4. Chaplains qualified for the duty of Naval Instructor may be appointed 
as Chaplains only. 

5. Assistant Paymasters in charge. Assistant Paymasters, who are to be 
responsible for the Accountant Officer's duties, will be appointed as Assistant 
Paymasters in Charge, but officers who entered the Service in or after the year 
1909 will not be eligible for such appointment until they have passed the 
examination for Paymaster. (Appendix X., Part IX.) 

229. Officers waiting disposal. The undermentioned officers when waiting 
disposal and not ordered to be borne elsewhere are to be entered on the books 
of the General Depot at Sheerness-Chatham, Portsmouth, or Devonport, as 
the case may be : 

62 



GENERAL REGULATIONS. 229 

Lieutenants on the supplementary list. 

Lieutenants, Carpenter Lieutenants, and Engineer Lieutenants promoted 
under the provisions of Article 299. 

Engineer Lieutenants (Junior List). 

Sub-Lieutenants. 

Engineer Sub-Lieutenants. 

Assistant Paymasters. 

Midshipmen. 

Clerks. 

Assistant Clerks. 

Chief Boatswains ") 

Chief Signal Boatswains > except Torpedo Boatswains. 

Boatswains J 

Signal Boatswains. 

Chief Masters-at-Arms. 

Chief Carpenters. 

Carpenters. 

Chief Artificer Engineers. 

Artificer Engineers. 

Commissioned Mechanicians. 

Warrant Mechanicians. 

Head Wardmasters. 

Warrant Writers. 

Head Stewards. 

Instructors in Cookery. 

The case of an officer of any of the above ranks, except commissioned 
warrant officers or warrant officers, who may have been invalided, will be 
specially dealt with by the Admiralty. Officers discharged or sent home for 
misconduct are not to be entered on ship's books without the authority of the 
Admiralty. 

The depot selected by a supplementary officer is to be reported to the 
Admiralty. 

2. Under the same conditions, Chief and other Gunners, Royal Marine 
Gunners, and Warrant Armourers, are to be borne in the gunnery schools at 
Chatham, Portsmouth, or Devonport. Chief and other Torpedo Gunners and 
Boatswains, Commissioned and Warrant Telegraphists, and Commissioned and 
Warrant Electricians, are to be borne in the torpedo schools at Sheerness, 
Portsmouth, or Devonport. Signal Boatswains are to be borne in the general 
depot at Chatham, Portsmouth, or Devonport, under the orders of the Super- 
intendent of Signal Schools. Chief and Head Schoolmasters are to be borne 
on the books of H.M.S. " Impregnable." 

3. The depot selected by a warrant officer on promotion is to remain his 
depdt during the remainder of his service, and is not to be changed without 
Admiralty authority. See 1129 (Disposal of Officers on Paying off). 

SECTION II. OFFICERS AUTHORISED TO MAKE APPOINTMENTS, &c. 

230. Commander-in-Chief. A Flag Officer, or a Commodore of the First 
Class who is appointed Commander-in-Chief of a station, and who is senior 
in rank to the officer he is to supersede, shall be entitled to all the advantages 
of Commander-in-Chief from the period of his arriving within the limits of the 
station, and assuming the command ; but unless the required declaration of 
liability be signed by him he can have no claim to freight money. His prede- 
cessor shall enjoy the other advantages only of a junior officer, from the date 
of his successor coming within the limits of the station, which advantages are 

63 



230 CHAP. IV. APPOINTMENT OF OFFICERS.^ 

to cease, as relates to the station when he (the junior officer) finally parts 
company to quit the station. When the succeeding Flag Officer, or Commodore 
of the First Class, is a junior officer, he shall be entitled to the advantages only 
of a junior officer, from the date of his arrival within the limits of the station 
until the command be transferred to him, and the senior officer either finally 
parts company to quit the station, or permits the junior officer to part company 
from him, after which the advantages of the Commander-in-Chief are to devolve 
on the succeeding officer. 

231. Acting Appointments. When a vacancy for a commissioned officer 
occurs in the complement of a ship, which for service reasons should be filled 
up immediately, and there is no officer of the same rank available, the 
Commander-in-Chief, or in his absence the senior officer present, shall order a 
suitable commissioned officer, of the rank next below that of the officer dead 
or removed, to act in the vacancy ; but a Surgeon is not eligible for appoint- 
ment as Acting Staff Surgeon unless he has passed the qualifying examination 
for Staff Surgeon. 

In a ship in which alternative ranks are allowed, e.g., Captain or Commander, 
Commander or Lieutenant, &c., the acting appointment is to be in the lower 
rank, regardless of the rank of the officer dead or removed. 

In a vacancy for Fleet Surgeon, Fleet or Staff Paymaster, Engineer 
Commander, Chief Gunner, Chief Boatswain, Commissioned Telegraphist, 
Chief Carpenter, Chief Artificer Engineer, Commissioned Mechanician, Com- 
missioned Electrician, or Chief Schoolmaster, the officer is only to be appointed 
to act as Staff Surgeon, Paymaster, Engineer Lieutenant (Senior List), Gunner, 
Boatswain, \Varrant Telegraphist, Carpenter, Artificer Engineer, Warrant 
Mechanician, Warrant Electrician, or Head Schoolmaster respectively. 

In selecting men for appointment as acting warrant officers on a foreign 
station preference is to be given to men who hold the necessary qualifications 
under Articles 301 and 337 in the case of Acting Gunners and Acting Torpedo 
Gunners, 302 and 306 in the case of Acting Boatswains and Acting Carpenters 
respectively, 338 in the case of Acting Warrant Telegraphists, 307 in the case 
of Acting Artificer Engineers, 308 in the case of Acting Warrant Mechanicians, 
310 in the case of Acting Warrant Electricians, and 311 in the case of Acting 
Warrant Armourers. 

2. Commissioned warrant officers, warrant officers, and subordinate officers 
are not eligible for acting appointments to fill vacancies in other ranks. 

3. In the event of the death or invaliding of the Boatswain of a ship in 
which a warrant officer for quarter-deck duties is borne, such warrant officer 
is to be temporarily appointed boatswain of the ship, unless special reasons 
exist to the contrary, the vacancy thus created being filled by an acting 
appointment. - 

4. Except as regards advancement to acting warrant officer, chief or other 
petty officers and men are not eligible for acting appointments as officers. 

232. Death o! Commanding Officer. On the death of an officer in command 
of a ship, elsewhere than in a port of the United Kingdom, and not in the 
presence of a senior officer, the following acting ranks are to be assumed and 
acting promotions made : 

(a) Captain. If the deceased be a Captain, the Commander, if any, shall 
take command of the ship as Acting Captain, and shall order the 
senior Lieutenant to act in his stead, and a Sub-Lieutenant to act as 
Lieutenant ; but if there be no Commander, the senior Lieutenant 
will take command as Acting Commander, and order a Sub-Lieutenant 
to act as Lieutenant. 

64 



AUTHORITY TO MAKE APPOINTMENTS. 232 

(6) Commander. If the deceased be a Commander, the senior Lieutenant 
shall take command as Acting Commander, and shall order a 
Sub-Lieutenant to act as Lieutenant. 

(c) Lieutenant. If the deceased be a Lieutenant and there is no other 

Lieutenant, the senior Sub-Lieutenant shall take command as an 
Acting Lieutenant. 

(d) Other Officer. If the command of the ship should devolve upon any 

other officer or person he is not to assume any rank superior to that 

which he held at the time when the command so devolved upon him. 

2. Senior Officer rejoining. An officer assuming a command in any of these 

circumstances is not entitled to retain it in the event of any officer senior to 

him belonging to the same ship joining or rejoining her ; but in such case the 

senior officer so joining or rejoining is to assume the temporary command, and 

may supersede the temporary appointments made by his junior officer on 

board, should he consider it necessary. 

233. Acting Orders, how and when cancelled. All temporary command 
assumed or appointments made under the authority of Articles 231 and 232 
are to remain in full force and effect until cancelled or altered by the Admiralty 
or by the Officer Commanding the station ; but if the ship in which the vacancy 
occurred was under the command of a senior officer at the time and he shall 
decide in special circumstances to make any change, he will in such an excep- 
tional case report fully his reasons to the Commander-in-Chief for the informa- 
tion of the Admiralty, but no other senior officer is to interfere therewith. 

234. Removal o! Officer in Command. A Captain, Commander, Lieutenant, 
or other Officer Commanding, is not to be removed without his consent by any 
superior officer from the command of the ship or vessel to which he has been 
properly appointed, nor obliged by such superior officer to change with the 
Captain, Commander, Lieutenant, or other officer of any other ship, except 
in circumstances which render the removal of such officer essentially necessary 
for the public service, which circumstances are to be reported to the Admiralty 
with as little delay as possible ; but the Captain of a ship bearing the flag of a 
Flag Officer, or the broad pendant of a Commodore of the First Class, may be 
removed to another ship, and the Commander-in-Chief may appoint to succeed 
him, if he should consider it necessary, such other Captain as he or the Flag 
Officer or the Commodore shall select ; and one of the senior Captains com- 
manding a smaller ship may be removed to the command of any ship of a 
higher class becoming vacant if the Commander-in-Chief shall deem it expedient. 

235. Appointment of Half-pay Officers. An officer on half-pay shall not 
be appointed to a ship, nor shall he have any commission, order, or employment 
whatsoever given him by a Commander-in-Chief or by any other officer, without 
express authority from the Admiralty ; but officers of the Military Branch 
under the rank of Commander, and all officers of other branches whose ships 
may be captured or lost, may be appointed to vacancies without such authority, 
if acquitted by court-martial abroad ; and any such officers who had been 
dismissed their ships by sentence of court-martial, or who, after being invalided, 
had sufficiently recovered before an opportunity had offered of sending them 
home, may also be appointed or ordered to do duty without such ex] 
authority, should the exigencies of the Service require it. Every such case is 
however, to be reported by separate letter. 

236. Death during War. During a period of war, the Admiralty will 
issue such special regulations as may seem to be required in respect to vacancies 
caused by death on foreign stations. 

65 



237 CHAP. V. DEFINITIONS OF SERVICE. 



CHAPTER V. 

DEFINITIONS OF SERVICE. 

SECTION PAGE 

I. General - - 66 

II. Military Branch Commissioned Officers - - 66 

III. Non-Military Branches Commissioned Officers - 68 

IV. Commissioned Warrant Officers and Warrant Officers - 70 
V. Retirement and Half Pay - - 70 

SECTION I. GENERAL. 

237. Officers in General. The definitions of " Service " contained in this 
chapter are applicable to all officers except where otherwise specially provided 
for. 

238. Half-pay Time. Time on half pay will not count for increase of full 
or half-pay, or for promotion except when the latter depends upon seniority. 

239. Civil Employment. Civil employment at or under the Admiralty, or 
service under any other Department which may be declared by the Admiralty, 
with the consent of the Lords Commissioners of His Majesty's Treasury, to 
be for this purpose Naval Service, if it does not count for or towards civil 
superannuation, and service as Naval Attache, shall count as " Service " for 
all purposes, except that it shall not qualify for promotion without the requisite 
period of " Service in a Ship-of-War at Sea." See 247 (Service for Medical 
Officers) . 

SECTION II. MILITARY BRANCH COMMISSIONED OFFICERS. 

240. " Service " shall mean service on full pay, subject to^the exceptions 
provided for in Articles 317, clause 2, and 321, clauses 5 and 6. 

241. " Service in a Ship-of-War at Sea " shall mean : 

(a) All time served on board His Majesty's ships or vessels commissioned 

for sea service, or in vessels actually employed in surveying, or on 
board His Majesty's ships or vessels during trials before being com- 
missioned, from the date of the arrival of the navigating party on 
board to the date of its departure. 

(b) Service in such tenders as the Admiralty may declare to be sea-going 

tenders. 

(c) Time on leave to the United Kingdom (Article 869), subject to the 

approval of the Admiralty, and not exceeding the maximum foreign 
service full pay leave to which the officer will be entitled by length 
of foreign service. 

(d) Service in a ship-of-war maintained by a Dominion Government and 

commissioned for sea service, at the discretion of the Admiralty, 
under conditions similar to those prescribed in Appendix XIV., 
Section III., paragraph 10. 

2. " Service." All other time on full pay shall count as " Service." 

3. Officers attending signal, gunnery, and torpedo courses, and receiving 
the difference between full and half pay, shall count the period for which such 
difference is paid as " Service " in the same manner as officers borne on ship's 
books for the courses. 

66 



MILITARY BRANCH COMMISSIONED OFFICERS. 



241 



4. How " Service " counts. All " Service " shall count in fall for pro- 
motion and for increase of full pay, half pay, and retired pay, provided : 

(a) that as regards promotion, the officer has completed the minimum 

qualifying period of " Service in a Ship-of-War at Sea," and has 
never avoided service ; and 

(b) that as regards increase of full and half pay, he has completed the 

necessary periods of " Service in a Ship-of-War at Sea." 

(For definitions of " Service prior to 1st April 1890," See King's Regulations, 
1899.) 

242. Colonial Employment. An officer who with the consent of the 
Admiralty may accept and hold employment under a Colonial Government,, 
under the rules contained in Appendix XIV., shall, if his employment appears 
to the Admiralty to be of a nature affording practical experience likely to be of 
public advantage, in the event of his return to employment in the Royal Navy,, 
count his time under the Colonial Government, if the Admiralty think fit, 
as " Service." 

2. Such officers will be borne on the books of the flag-ship on the stations 
on which they may be employed, and will consequently be subject to the 
Naval Discipline Act. 

243. Shore Employment. No officer of the Military Branch will be allowed 
to hold an appointment or appointments that may be defined by the Admiralty 
to be " Shore Employment " for more than five consecutive years, or, in the 
case of members of the Board of Admiralty, for more than seven consecutive 
years, except in special circumstances which may in the opinion of the Admiralty 
justify an extension of the appointment in particular cases. 

2. In calculating the period of employment ashore, time on half pay will 
be included. 

3. Temporary employment in any capacity during naval manoeuvres will 
not qualify an officer for a further period of employment on shore. 

244. Acting Time. Service as Acting Lieutenant, Acting Commander, or 
Acting Captain shall count as time served in the confirmed rank only, for all 
purposes, and in no case as time served in the superior rank in which the officer 
was acting. 

245. Commissioned Warrant Officers, &c., promoted. Time served prior 
to promotion to the rank of Lieutenant under Article 299, clause 4, will reckon 
as follows : 



Time served. 


Full pay. 


Half pay. 


Retired pay- 


As commissioned 


Not to reckon - 


Not to reckon until com- 


As full time. 


officer or warrant 
officer. 




pletion of six years' 
service as Lieutenant, 








afterwards to reckon as 








full time. 




In lower ranks - 


Not to reckon - 


After six years' service as 
Lieutenant, as half time. 


As half time. 



Time served prior to promotion is in no case to count as service for 
promotion to the rank of Commander. 

67 



246 CHAP. V. DEFINITIONS OP SERVICE. 

SECTION III. NON-MILITARY BRANCHES COMMISSIONED OFFICERS. 

246. " Service " shall mean service on full pay except as provided in 
Article 331, clause 3. 

247. Medical Officers. As regards medical officers : 

(a) Acting time is not to count for increase of full and half-pay in the 

superior rank. See 253 (Acting Time). 

(b) " Service " as resident medical or surgical officer in a recognised civil 

hospital, not exceeding one year from the date of entry, will count 
as full pay service for all purposes except for gratuity on withdrawal 
after four years. 

248. Engineer Lieutenants (Senior List). Engineer Lieutenants (Senior 
List) will count junior service for half and retired pay as laid down in Article 251. 
Officers promoted to the rank of Chief Engineer or advanced to Engineer 
Lieutenant (Senior List), after having been passed over on account of un- 
satisfactory conduct or failure to qualify, will not count junior service for full 
or half pay, subsequent to the date of being passed over, nor for retired pay 
if they did not elect to come under the new conditions of retirement introduced 
on 1st April 1908. Junior service subsequent to the date of promotion to the 
rank of Chief Engineer may, however, be allowed to reckon for increase of 
half and retired pay, in accordance with Article 251, in the cases of officers 
considered deserving of such consideration. 

2. Additional time granted for 1st and 2nd class certificates gained at the 
Royal Naval College, to engineer officers entered between 1st April 1877 and 
30th June 1885, counts in all respects as service as Assistant Engineer. 

3. Acting Time is not to count for increase of full pay in the superior rank. 
See 253 (Acting Time). 

4. Engineer officers entered for temporary service and transferred to the 
permanent list will, on promotion to the senior ranks, and subject to the 
exception in clause 1 hereof, count junior service in the proportions laid down 
in Article 251, as follows : 

(a) Those transferred to the permanent list by Order in Council, 26th. 

August 1893, from date of seniority as Engineer on the permanent 
list. 

(b) Those transferred to the permanent list by Order in Council, 27th June 

1894, from the completion of four years' service on the temporary 
list. 

249. Accountant Officers who entered prior to the 1st October 1910 and 
did not elect to be paid at the new rates of full and half pay established on 
that date shall count time as follows : 

2. Paymasters. Time served as Secretary to a Flag Officer or Commodore 
of the 1st Class, after passing for the rank of Paymaster, and time served by a 
Paymaster as Secretary to a Commodore 2nd Class, is to reckon as Paymaster's 
time, except for the purpose of calculating seniority. 

3. Assistant Paymaster as Secretary. Time served by an Assistant 
Paymaster of four years' seniority as Secretary to a Flag Officer or Commodore 
1st Class, shall reckon as Paymaster's and Secretary's time, though not for 
the purpose of calculating seniority, except in the case of those officers who 
entered the Service in or after the year 1909, whose time shall not count as 
Paymaster's time until they have passed the examination detailed in 
Appendix X., Part IX. 

68 



NON-MILITARY BRANCHES. 



249 



4. Assistant Paymaster. All service as Assistant Paymaster will count for 
increase of full pay in the proportion set out in Article 251, except where an 
officer is promoted to the rank of Paymaster after having been passed over 
on account of unsatisfactory conduct, in which case junior service subsequent 
to the date of being passed over will not count. 

Junior service subsequent to the date of promotion to the rank of paymaster 
may, however, be allowed to reckon for increase of full, half, and retired pay, 
in accordance with Article 251, in the cases of officers considered deserving 
of such consideration. 

250. The provisions of Article 249, so far as the Article affects the counting 
of time for purposes of retired pay, shall apply also to those accountant officers 
who entered on or after the 1st October 1910, and to those who entered prior 
to that date and elected to be paid at the new rates of full and half pay then 
introduced. 

251. Junior Service. Subject to the provisions of Articles 248 and 249, 
Engineer Officers and Paymasters shall count the time of their junior service 
in the following proportions, fractions of a year being included in both 
instances, viz. : 

Engineer Officers. For half-pay, one-third of the period in excess of 
12 years. 

For retired pay, in full in the case of officers entered since 1st April 190& 
and of those serving on that date who accepted the conditions for retire- 
ment then introduced. Officers serving on 1st April 1908 who did not 
accept the new conditions of retirement shall reckon half the full time 
until the completion of 11 years' senior service, after which they shall 
count the full time. 

Paymasters. Accountant officers who entered prior to the 1st October 
1910 and did not elect to be paid at the new rates of full and half pay 
established on that date shall count time as follows : 

For full, half, and retired pay, half the full time until the completion of 
11 years' senior service, after which they shall count the full time. 

Other accountant officers shall count their time in the same proportion: 
for purposes of retired pay. 

Senior Service reckons from the date of commencing full pay as Chief 
Engineer, as Engineer Lieutenant (Senior List), or as Paymaster. 

252. Carpenter Lieutenants before promotion. Time served prior to 
promotion to the rank of Carpenter Lieutenant under Article 299, clause 4, 
will reckon as follows : 



Time served. 


Full pay. 


Half pay. 


Retired pay. 


As Chief Carpenter or 
Carpenter. 


Not to reckon - 


Not to reckon until com- 
pletion of six years' 
service as Carpenter 
Lieutenant, afterwards to 


As full time. 






reckon as full time. 




In lower ranks - 


Not to reckon - 


After six years' service as 
Carpenter Lieutenant as 


As half time. 






half time. 





253 CHAP. V. DEFINITIONS OF SERVICE. 

263. Acting Time. Acting service shall only count as time served in the 
confirmed rank for promotion on the active list ; for all other purposes it 
shall count as time served in the superior rank in which the officer was acting, 
except in the case of the full and half pay of medical officers, and of the full 
pay of engineer officers. 

SECTION IV. COMMISSIONED WARRANT OFFICERS AND WARRANT 

OFFICERS. 

254. Confirmed and Acting Time. Commissioned warrant officers and 
warrant officers shall be allowed to reckon for every purpose all time served 
in their confirmed rank ; but, if not confirmed, time served as acting warrant 
officer under Article 300 shall count as chief petty officer time, unless failure to 
obtain confirmation is due to misconduct or inefficiency, in which case time 
served in the acting capacity shall count as time in the rating held prior to 
appointment as acting warrant officer. 

2. Any petty officer, seaman class or otherwise, who may be granted 
temporary acting warrant rank by the Commander-in-Chief or Senior Officer 
under Article 231, will revert to a chief petty officer rating on being relieved 
in his acting capacity, the time served therein counting as chief petty officer 
time only, unless covered by a warrant from the Admiralty. Should, however, 
his relief be due to misconduct or inefficiency, he will revert to his former 
rating, his time served in the acting capacity counting only as petty officer 
time. 

3. Forfeited by Court-MartiaJ. Time forfeited by sentence of court-martial 
by any of these officers, is provided for under Article 1915, sub-clause (j}. 

SECTION V. RETIREMENT AND HALF PAY. 

255. General Regulations. The regulations in force in regard to half pay 
and retirement are contained in the several Orders in Council relating thereto. 
See also 2017. 

256. Resignation of Commissions. Applications from officers to resign 
their commissions are to be made in accordance with the regulations as to 
correspondence laid down in Article 1864, with the approval of the Captain, 
and with the certificate prescribed by Article 595 ; they will be duly considered 
with reference to the urgency of each individual case and the exigencies of 
the Service. 

Confidential and other books belonging to a ship, which may have been 
lent to individual officers for information, and also " personal copies " of such 
books, are to be dealt with as provided for in Article 1847, clauses 8 and 11. 



257 



CHAPTER VI. 



OFFICERS. QUALIFICATIONS AND EXAMINATIONS 

FOR PROMOTION. 

SECTION PAGE 

I. General - - 71 

II. Military Branch - - 71 

III. Engineer Branch - ----- 75 

IV. Medical Branch - - - - - 76 
V. Accountant Branch - - - - - - 79 

VI. Commissioned Warrant and Warrant Officers - -80 

SECTION I. GENERAL. 

257. Service for Promotion. The service required by Flag Officers, 
Captains, Commanders, and Lieutenants, and other officers for promotion is 
regulated by the definitions of " Service " and " Sendee in a Ship-of-War 
at Sea," given in Chapter V. 

Service for promotion will be calculated from 1st April 1899 under the 
rules given in Chapter V., and before that date under the former rules of the 
King's 'Regulations of 1899. 

258. Numbers of Officers. The numbers of officers and warrant officers of 
the Military and other branches of His Majesty's Fleet shall be determined by 
the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty, with the concurrence of the Lords 
Commissioners of the Treasury, and under authority of His Majesty's Order 
in Council. Any changes in the numbers, of the various ranks will be published 
in the Quarterly Navy List. 

SECTION II. MILITARY BRANCH. 

259. Admiral of the Fleet. Admirals of the Fleet will be selected by 
His Majesty from the Admirals on the active list who have served as Commander- 
in-Chief or who have commanded at sea as Flag Officer for two years. 

260. Vice and Rear-Admiral of the United Kingdom. The office of 
Vice-Admiral or of Rear-Admiral of the United Kingdom shall not be held by 
Admirals of the Fleet ; nor shall any officer be appointed to either of these 
offices unless he shall have hoisted his flag. 

261. Admiral. Vice-Admirals will rise to the rank and title of Admiral 
on the active list according to seniority. 

262. Vice-Admiral. Rear-Admirals will rise to the rank and title of 
Vice-Admiral on the active list according to seniority. 

263. Rear-Admiral. To qualify a Captain whose seniority brings him in 
turn for advancement tq. the active list of Flag Officers, he must have served 
the following periods, of which three years must in each case have been in 
command of a ship-of-war at sea : 

During peace - - 6 years. 

During war - - 4 ,, 

During peace and war combined - 5 

The first two years of the service necessary to qualify for advancement to 
Flag rank must be in command of a ship-of-war at sea. 

2. Captains who arrive at their turn for promotion without having com- 
pleted the qualifying service will be retired. 

71 



264 CHAP. VI. OFFICERS : PROMOTION. 

264. How Promotion is regulated. The promotions of Flag Officers and 
Captains, when vacancies take place, or when additions are made to the Flag 
Officers' list, are also regulated by seniority. As vacancies occur in the active 
list, the Captain first in seniority who has served his time for his flag will be 
promoted, but His Majesty's undoubted right of selection is reserved. 

2. Captain remaining in that Rank. In the event of a Captain, whose 
seniority brings him in turn for advancement to the rank of Flag Officer, 
preferring to continue as a Captain, he may be placed on a retired list of 
Captains. 

3. Ineligibility for Flag Rank. No Captain who shall have declined service 
when called upon, or against whose character there may be anything affecting 
him as an officer and a gentleman, shall be considered eligible for advancement 
to the rank of Flag Officer. 

265. Captain. To qualify a Commander for promotion to the rank of 
Captain on the active list, he must have completed two years' service as 
Commander, of which one year must have been in a ship-of-war at sea. 

2. A Commander may be promoted to the rank of Captain for gallantry 
in action, provided he has completed one year's service in a ship-of-war at sea. 

3. No Commander is eligible to command a stationary ship at home who 
has not had one year's service in a ship-of-war at sea. 

266. Commander. To qualify a Lieutenant for promotion to the rank of 
Commander on the active list, he must have completed four years service as 
Lieutenant, of which three years must have been in a ship-of-war at sea. 

2. Lieutenants who have passed as Cadets into the " Britannia " or other 
training establishment in or after January 1903, will be required, at any time 
after attaining five years' seniority, to pass a qualifying examination for 
promotion to the rank of Commander, in the following subjects : 

Court-martial procedure. 

International law. 

Knowledge of British and foreign warships, guns, torpedoes, &c. 

Naval history. 

Signals. 

Strategy. 

Tactics and battle formations. 

3. A Lieutenant may be promoted to the rank of Commander for gallantry 
in action, provided he has completed two years' service, of which one year 
must have been in a ship-of-war at sea. 

4. Supplementary Officers. A Lieutenant on the supplementary list may 
be promoted to the active list of Commanders for distinguished service during 
war operations. 

267. Lieutenant. To qualify a Midshipman for promotion to the rank of 
Lieutenant he must have completed three years an4 four months' service in 
that rank. 

The qualifying service required will include the time awarded on leaving 
the training cruisers. 

2. When he has served three years after passing out of the cadet training 
cruisers he will be examined for the rank of Lieutenant. (See Appendix X., 
Part II.) 

3. Before being granted a Lieutenant's commission every officer must 
serve for six months at sea as a Sab-Lieutenant. This service mu=5t take place 
immediately after he has passed all his examinations for the rank of Lieutenant. 

72 



MILITARY BRANCH. 267 

At the end of the six months he will receive from the Captain a. certificate of 
efficiency, on the form provided in form E. 190, to the effect that : 

" He is fit to take charge of a watch at sea as a Lieutenant, and to perform 
efficiently the duties of that rank." 

A duplicate of the certificate is to be forwarded to the Admiralty. 

If it should be impossible to grant the certificate to any Sub-Lieutenant 
on account of inefficiency, a special report is to be made by letter. 

This certificate is to be for professional proficiency only, and without it 
no officer will be promoted. 

4. Accelerated Promotion. After obtaining the certificate officers who may 
be qualified for accelerated promotion will be advanced to the rank of Lieu- 
tenant, at their Lordships' discretion and subject to the above provisions, in 
accordance with the following scale, provided that the officer's conduct has been 
satisfactory : 

A first class in any subject counts two marks ; a second class, one mark ; 
and a third class, nil. 

Marks. Promotion. 



12 - - 9 months from date of seniority as 

Sub-Lieutenant. 

11 - - 11 ditto. 

10 - - 13 ditto. 

9 - - 15 ditto. 

8 - - 17 ditto. 

7 - - 19 ditto. 

6 - - - 21 ditto, 

5 - - - 23 ditto. 

An officer who fails to pass in one of the subjects will not be allowed to 
count a mark towards promotion if he should subsequently obtain a first or 
second class certificate in that subject. 

268. Sub-Lieutenant. On passing the examination prescribed in 
Appendix X., Part II., in all the compulsory subjects, Midshipmen will be 
promoted to the rank of Sub-Lieutenant with seniorities according to the time 
awarded on passing out of the training cruisers, viz. : An officer who is awarded 
four months' time will date his seniority as Sub-Lieutenant three years after 
being rated Midshipman. An officer with three and a half months' time will 
serve half a month longer as Midshipman, and so on. The promotion of 
Midshipmen who have been deprived of time will be delayed by the amount 
of time lost. 

2. Failure to pass examination. Officers who fail to pass in any one or 
more of the five compulsory parts will be sent to sea and will present themselves 
on the next occasion for examination in the part or parts in which they have 
failed. They will lose two months' time in respect of each subject in which 
they fail. A second failure will entail liability to discharge from the Service. 

3. The Sub-Lieutenants' list will be governed by the numbers required to 
fill vacancies on the Lieutenants' list ; the maximum period of service on the 
Sub-Lieutenants' list will be four years ; any Sub-Lieutenants, not passed 
over for misconduct, reaching four years' seniority without sufficient vacancies 
having occurred on the Lieutenants' list to permit of their advancement, 
will be promoted as additional to the list of Lieutenants, and absorbed as 
vacancies arise. 

4. Loss of Time. A Midshipman who loses time through discharge to the 
shore on account of sickness, not attributable to his own fault, may be allowed 

73 



268 CHAP. VI. OFFICERS : PROMOTION. 

by Admiralty order to present himself for examination on the date on which 
he would have been entitled to do so had he not lost time as a consequence of 
such sickness. Any Midshipman whose case comes under this order, and who 
wishes to avail himself of it, must apply through his Captain for the necessary 
permission, in sufficient time to admit of the investigation of his case and 
receipt of reply before the date of the examination ; but it is to be clearly 
understood that officers who present themselves for examination will not be 
shown any special consideration should they fail to pass, or should they be 
classed lower than they might otherwise have anticipated. 

269. Midshipman's Certificate. Every Midshipman on going afloat will 
receive a copy of the established certificate (form E. 190), which is to accom- 
pany him from ship to ship, addressed to the Captain, and should finally be 
handed to the Midshipman for production by him when he presents himself for 
examination for the rank of Lieutenant. 

270. Certificates of Proficiency. On presenting themselves for examina- 
tion for the rank of Lieutenant, Midshipmen must produce the following docu- 
ments : 

(a) Form E. 190 complete, including the following certificates : 

(i.) Naval Cadet passing-out certificate. 

(ii.) A certificate as to professional qualities. This certificate is to be 
filled in by the Captain of each ship in which a Midshipman 
may serve for a period of more than three months, 
(iii.) A certificate showing that they have qualified before a board of 
three officers, of which the president must be of the rank of 
Captain, in the following subjects : 

i. Handling of boats under oars and sail ; 
ii. Handling of boats under steam ; 
iii. Semaphore and Morse. 

(iv.) A certificate showing that they have qualified before a board 
consisting of a Captain and two Engineer officers as to their 
practical knowledge of engine-room duties. 

(v.) A certificate signed by the Engineer Officer of the ship in which 
they have last served, to show that they have performed 
satisfactorily the duty of engineer officer of the watch, under 
the supervision of an experienced engineer officer, if necessary, 
as provided in the Steam Manual, Article 74, paragraph 2. 
The watch-keeping certificate in form E. 190 is to be added 
to accordingly, if necessary. 

(vi.) A certificate signed by the Captain of the ship in which they 
have last served to show that they have completed the pre- 
scribed list of observations and that the book containing the 
worked-out observations has been sent to the office of the 
Director of Naval Education for inspection. 

(b) The journal kept in accordance with Article 624. 

2. If these certificates cannot be produced, a special report is to be made 
to the Admiralty. 

271. Midshipmen about to be examined. In due time before his exa*mina- 
tion for the rank of Lieutenant each officer is to be sent to England, so as to 
arrive at a convenient date for the next examination. Whenever possible 
passage is to be arranged by ship-of-war or transport. 

2. The Commander-in-chief is to report to the Admiralty and to the 
Commander-in-Chief at Portsmouth the names of the officers sent home and 
the dates on which they will be due to arrive. 

74 



MILITARY BRANCH. 271 

3. On arrival in England each officer is to report his arrival and his address 
to the Admiralty, and to the Commander-in-Chief at Portsmouth. 

4. He is to join at Portsmouth for the examination as he may be directed 
in accordance with the instructions contained in the periodical printed letter 
issued by the Admiralty. 

5. While undergoing the examination Midshipmen will be borne on the 
books of the navigation school. 

272. Midshipmen, leave after passing. The amount of full pay leave to 
which a Midshipman is entitled on his return from foreign service is to be 
noted on his transfer list by the Captain of the last ship in which he serves. 
Any leave granted to him after his return will be deducted from this amount, 
and the balance will be allowed on his finally passing his examinations for the 
rank of Lieutenant, provided he can be spared. 

273. Midshipman. Naval Cadets will be rated Midshipmen on the date 
of " passing out " of the training cruisers with priority according to the classes 
awarded and position taken in the final examination, and a notification of the 
number ot months' time gained will be placed in the Navy List. 

2. The seniority as Sub-Lieutenant will be regulated after passing the 
necessary examinations according to the number of months gained as a naval 
Cadet. 

3. Naval Cadets are not to be allowed to pass out of the training establish- 
ments until they can swim. A notation as to their ability is to be made on their 
passing papers. 

274. Naval Cadet. Candidates for admission as naval Cadets will pass 
such educational and medical examinations as may from time to time be 
required, of the nature of which they will be informed on application to the 
Secretary of the Admiralty. 

2. The rules to wlu'ch a Cadet will be subject during the period of training 
are embodied in the regulations respecting the entry of Cadets. 

SECTION III ENGINEER BRANCH. 

275. Exceptional Promotion. The qualifications required for engineer 
officers are set forth in the following Articles, but the Admiralty may in excep- 
tional circumstances promote officers who have not attained the necessary 
qualifications. 

276. Engineer-in-Chief. The appointment of Engineer-in-Chief will be 
filled by selection. 

277. Engineer Rear-Admiral. The qualification for Engineer Rear- 
Admiral is long and meritorious service. 

278. Engineer Captain. To qualify an officer for promotion to the rank 
of Engineer Captain he must have served as Engineer Commander or Engineer 
Lieutenant (Senior List), in one or more ships on full pay for five years, including 
two years' service in sea-going ships as Engineer Commander, or Engineer 
Lieutenant (Senior List), in charge of engines. 

279. Engineer Commander. Eight years as Engineer Lieutenant (Senior 
List) is required to qualify an officer for the rank of Engineer Commander. 

Until 31st December 1912, Engineer Lieutenants who entered the Service 
before 1st April 1900, will be promoted to the rank of Engineer Commander 
at the discretion of the Admiralty after four years on the Senior List. Alter 

75 



279 CHAP. VI. OFFICERS : PROMOTION. 

that date promotions of such officers to the rank of Engineer Commander will 
be made as requisite, provided that they shall, at the latest, be granted Engineer 
Commander's rank on attaining eight years' seniority on the Senior List of 
Engineer Lieutenants. 

In the case of officers entered after 1st April 1900, promotion to Engineer 
Commander is contingent also on the recommendation of the Engineer-in-Chief 
and Admiralty approval. 

280. Engineer Lieutenant (Senior List). To qualify an Engineer Lieuten- 
ant for advancement to the Senior List he must have eight years' seniority 
as Engineer Lieutenant (Junior List), with service as watchkeeper for not less 
than three years as Engineer Lieutenant or Engineer Sub-Lieutenant on board 
sea-going ships in commission ; he must also have passed the examination 
specified in Appendix X., Part VI., and be selected by the Admiralty. 

2. He cannot receive advancement to the Senior List until he has obtained 
the requisite educational certificate. 

3. Failures. A second failure to pass the practical examination will render 
a candidate finally ineligible for advancement to the Senior List of Engineer 
Lieutenants. 

281. Engineer Lieutenant. To qualify an Engineer Sub-Lieutenant for 
promotion to Engineer Lieutenant (Junior List) he must have passed the 
examination specified in Appendix X., Part V., and be selected by the Admiralty. 
See 299, clause 4 (Promotion of Artificer Engineer). 

282. Provisional Examination. An Engineer Lieutenant or Sub-Lieutenant 
who may, on the completion of the requisite service, be serving where the 
proper examining officers cannot be obtained, may be provisionally examined 
under the directions of the Senior Officer present, by one, two, or three Engineer 
Commanders or Engineer Lieutenants (Senior List), according as such officers 
may be available, in the presence of his own or any other Captain or Com- 
mander. 

2. In case no engineer officers of the above rank are available, an Engineer 
Lieutenant may provisionally examine an Engineer Sub-Lieutenant for higher 
rank, but every engineer officer passing provisionally must present himself 
before the proper officers for examination on the first occasion that offers. 

3. Neither marks nor class are to be aw r arded at such provisional examina- 
tions. 

4. Passing on arrival home. An engineer officer who has passed provi- 
sionally abroad and returns to England with an acting appointment from the 
Admiralty as Engineer Lieutenant, Senior or Junior List, shall be allowed four 
months from the time of his arrival to afford him the opportunity of passing 
the required examination before being deprived of his acting appointment. 

283. Acting Orders and Confirmation. No engineer officer is eligible to 
receive an acting order for a rank for which he has not passed, at least, a 
provisional examination, neither will he be eligible for confirmation in the 
rank until he has passed the established examination before the proper officers, 
when he will be confirmed by the Admiralty. 

SECTION IV. MEDICAL BRANCH. 

284. Surgeons-General will be selected from the Deputy Surgeons-General 
who have completed in that rank three years' full pay service, and who have 
not at any time declined foreign service, except for reasons which the Admiralty 
regard as good and sufficient. 

76 



MEDICAL BRANCH. 284 

Promotion will be confined to officers who have proved themselves to be 
fitted both professionally and administratively for the higher rank. 

285. Deputy Surgeons-General will be selected from the List of Fleet 
Surgeons. Promotion will be confined to officers who have proved themselves 
to be fitted both professionally and administratively for the higher rank. To 
be eligible for advancement two years' sea service in the rank of Fleet Surgeon 
will be required, or five years' combined service at sea in the ranks of Fleet 
and Staff Surgeon. 

2. Officers on the list on the 8th August, 1911, who may be unable for 
Service reasons to complete the qualifying period of sea service, may be exempted 
at Admiralty discretion. 

286. Fleet Surgeon. Subject to the approval of the Admiralty, rank as 
Fleet Surgeon will be granted to Staff Surgeons at the expiration of eight years 
from the date of promotion to Staff Surgeon provided they possess the following 
qualifications : 

(i.) Have served three years at sea in that, rank ; 

(a.) Are recommended for advancement by the Medical Director-General ; 
(iii.) Have never declined service except for reasons which are accepted as 

satisfactory by the Admiralty. 

Officers on the list on the 8th August, 1911, who may be unable for Service 
reasons to complete the qualifying period of sea service, may be exempted at 
Admiralty discretion. 

2. Special Promotions from the rank of Staff Surgeon to that of Fleet 
Surgeon will be made, at the discretion of the Admiralty, in cases of distin- 
guished service or conspicuous professional merit. Special promotions for 
professional merit will be exceptional, and will not exceed the rate of one in 
two years ; the total number at any one time of Fleet Surgeons holding that 
rank by such promotions is not to exceed six. Promotions for gallantry in 
action will not be limited to any specific number. 

287. Staff Surgeon. Subject to the approval of the Admiralty, rank as 
Staff Surgeon will be granted to Surgeons who are qualified as follows : 

(i.) Have completed eight years from date of entry (except as provided 

for in clause 2 and in Article 289) ; 
(ii.) Have served three years at sea ; 

(iii.) Have undergone the course and passed the qualifying examination 
before the medical examining board in London prescribed in 
Appendix X., Part VII. ; 

(iv.) Are recommended for advancement by the Medical Director-General. 
Officers on the list on the 8th August, 1911, who may be unable for Service 
reasons to complete the qualifying period of sea service, may be exempted at 
Admiralty discretion. 

2. Accelerated Promotion. Accelerated promotion to the rank of Staff 
Surgeon will be granted to Surgeons who obtain a special or a first class certifi- 
cate in the qualifying examination for promotion, as follows, viz. : 

(i.) An officer obtaining a special certificate will be eligible for an advance 
of 18 months' seniority ; 

(ii.) An officer obtaining a first class certificate will be eligible for an 

advance of 12 months' seniority. 

Accelerated promotion will not be granted on examination results alone, 
and an officer must also be recommended as deserving of advancement. It 
will be open to their Lordships to reduce the amount of seniority allowed if 
considered advisable by the Medical Director-General. 

77 



287 CHAP. VI. OFFICERS : PROMOTION. 

3. pecial Promotion. Special promotions to the rank of Staff Surgeon 
will be made, at the discretion of the Admiralty, in cases of distinguished service 
or conspicuous professional merit. Special promotions for professional merit 
will be exceptional, and will not exceed the rate of one a year. The total number, 
at any one time, of Staff Surgeons holding that rank by such special promotions 
shall not exceed eight. Promotions for gallantry in action will not be limited 
to any specific number. No officer will be specially promoted unless he passes 
the examination prescribed for other Surgeons. 

4. Failure to qualify as Staff Surgeon. A Surgeon who fails to obtain a 
pass will be allowed a second trial, but will not be granted accelerated promotion 
on the results of the second examination. Should an officer fail to pass at the 
second attempt he will be compulsorily retired on attaining eight years' seniority, 
with such gratuity as the Admiralty may see fit to grant, but not exceeding 
500/. 

The case of a Surgeon who entered prior to 9th August, 1911, and did not 
elect the new scale of pay introduced by Order in Council of that date and 
whose promotion to the rank of Staff Surgeon has been retarded by failure to 
pass the qualifying examination, will be dealt with as follows, should he 
subsequently pass and be promoted : 

(a) He will be granted the seniority as Staff Surgeon he would have 

received had he passed in ordinary course ; 

(b) He will reckon service for increase of full and half pay only from the 

date of appointment to full pay as Staff Surgeon ; 

(c) If on half pay, or if placed on half pay when promoted, he will receive 

the lowest rate of half pay of the new rank from the date of passing 
the qualifying examination ; 

(d) Where delay in passing the qualifying examination may be due to 

unavoidable circumstances, special consideration will be given. 

288. Entry of Surgeons. A candidate successful at the examination for 
entry into the Medical Branch of the Royal Navy will be appointed as Acting 
Surgeon, and will be required to pass through such courses as the Admiralty 
may decide. 

At the end of the courses the Acting Surgeon will be examined, and, after 
he has passed, will be given a commission as Surgeon in the Royal Navy. The 
commission will date from the day of passing the entrance examination. An 
Acting Surgeon who fails to qualify at the above examination that is to say, 
who fails to obtain 50 per cent, of the marks in each subject at the examination 
at the end of the courses referred to will, if he so elects, be allowed a second 
trial at the next opportunity, and should he then qualify, he will be placed 
at the bottom of his list ; should he again fail, his appointment will not be 
confirmed, and he will be required to withdraw. The period between the two 
examinations will not be counted as service for either promotion, withdrawal 
with gratuity, or retirement after 20 years' service, nor will the candidate 
be allowed pay from Naval funds for this period. 

2. Seniority of Surgeons. The seniority of Surgeons on entry will be 
determined by the sum total of the marks they obtain at the London examina- 
tion, and those at the conclusion of their probationary period as Acting Surgeon. 
Their names will then be placed in the Official Navy List. Candidates who hold 
or are about to hold a post as resident medical or surgical officer to a recognised 
civil hospital will retain the position in the list which they obtained on entry, 
and when their period of service as resident officer is over, they will join the 
next Acting Surgeon's course, and will be required to obtain qualifying marks. 
Surgeons entered without competition will take seniority next after the last 
Surgeon entered at the same time by competition. 

78 



MEDICAL BRANCH. 289 

289. Civil Hospital Appointments. Earlier promotion to the rank of Staff 
Surgeon may be granted to those Surgeons entered prior to 1st January, 1910, 
who before entry held the post of legally qualified resident medical or surgical 
officer to a recognised civil hospital of not less than 100 beds for a period of 
not less than six months, provided their conduct and professional abilities 
have been favourably reported on during the time they have served in the 
Navy. They may be granted from six months' to one year's seniority according 
to the time they held their civil appointments, but in no case will more than one 
year's seniority be granted. The eligibility of the appointment to count for time 
will be decided by the Medical Director-General. This only applies to officers 
who entered by competition. 

2. A candidate who, at the time of passing the examination for entry into 
the Medical Branch of the Royal Navy, holds, or is about to hold, an appoint- 
ment as resident medical or surgical officer in a recognised civil hospital, may be 
allowed to serve in such civil appointment, provided that the period of such 
service after the date of entry into the Royal Navy does not exceed one year. 

Pay from naval funds will be withheld from officers while thus serving, 
but the time concerned will reckon for increase of full and half pay while on 
the active list, and retired pay or gratuity on retirement or withdrawal, except 
that no officer will be allowed to retire on a gratuity until he has completed 
four years' service exclusive of the time spent as resident medical or surgical 
officer. 

The eligibility of this appointment to count for time will be decided by the 

Medical Director-General. 



SECTION V. ACCOUNTANT BRANCH. 

290. Secretaries. To qualify an officer to receive an appointment as 
Secretary to a Flag Officer or Commodore of the First Class, he must be on the 
list of Secretaries, Paymasters-in-Chief, Fleet or Staff Paymasters, or Pay- 
masters, or in the case of a Commodore First Class or a Flag Officer, not 
being a Commander-in-Chief, must be an Assistant Pajmaster of four years' 
seniority. 

2. To qualify an officer to receive an appointment as Secretary to a Com- 
modore of the Second Class, he must be on the list of Secretaries, Paymasters, 
or Assistant Paymasters. 

3. On completing eight years' service in the rank of Secretary to Flag 
Officers or Commodores of the First Class, the officer will be placed on the 
permanent list of Secretaries, but his name will also be continued on the list 
of Paymasters. 

291. Paymaster-in-Chief. To qualify an officer for the Active or Retired 
rank of Paymaster-in-Chief he must have completed 20 years' service, which 
is to include not more than four years' time as Assistant Paymaster, and all' 
the time as Acting Paymaster, Paymaster, and Secretary. 

292. Fleet Paymaster. To qualify an officer for the rank of Fleet Pay- 
master he must have four years' seniority as Staff Paymaster. 

293. Staff Paymaster. To qualify an officer for the rank of Staff Pay- 
master he must have four years' seniority as Paymaster. 

294. Paymaster. To qualify an officer who entered the Service prior to 
the year 1909 for the rank of Paymaster, he must have served as Clerk to the 
Secretary of a Flag Officer, or as a Clerk in the Navy, or in those capacities 

79 



294 CHAP. VI. OFFICERS : PROMOTION. 

combined. He must be 21 years of age, and he must have passed the required 
examination. 

2. Assistant Paymasters who entered the Service in or after the year 1909 
will not be eligible for promotion to the rank of Paymaster or for appointment 
as Assistant Paymasters in Charge until they have passed the required examina- 
tion (see Appendix X., Part IX.), which may not be taken until three years 
after passing for Assistant Paymaster. 

295. Assistant Paymaster. Clerks will be examined, as prescribed in 
Appendix X., Part VIII., for Assistant Paymaster at the end of 3| years from 
date of entry as Assistant Clerk, provided that they produce a certificate from 
the Accountant Officer of their ship approved by the Captain that they are in 
all respects deserving of promotion (form S. 4336). 

296. Clerk. Assistant Clerks are to be rated Clerks 12 months from date 
of entry, or as soon afterwards as they are certified by the Accountant Officer 
of the ship as likely to make good accountant officers. The certificate (form 
S. 432) is to be attested by the Captain of the ship, and a duplicate is to be 
sent to the Admiralty. 

In the event of an officer not being considered as qualified for advancement 
to Clerk on attaining one year's seniority, a special report is to be made to the 
Admiralty stating the reasons. 

2. If an Assistant Clerk fails to obtain his certificate for advancement to 
Clerk within 18 months of his date of entry, application is to be made by the 
Captain to the*Commander-in-Chief for an inquiry to be held. The result is to 
be reported to the Admiralty, and if it is unfavourable to the officer he will 
be liable to discharge from His Majesty's Service. 

297. Entry of Assistant Clerks. Candidates for admission as Assistant 
Clerks will pass such examination as may from time to time be required ; they 
will be informed of its nature on application to the Secretary of the Admiralty. 
They must produce certificates of proficiency in swimming before they are 
permitted to enter His Majesty's Service. 



SECTION VI. COMMISSIONED WARRANT AND WARRANT OFFICERS. 

298. Commissioned Warrant Officers will be selected from the respective 
ranks of warrant officers, at the discretion of the Admiralty. 

299. Promotion to Lieutenant. Chief Gunners, Chief Boatswains, Chief 
Signal Boatswains and Commissioned Telegraphists, Gunners, Boatswains, 
Signal Boatswains and Warrant Telegraphists are eligible for promotion to 
the rank of Lieutenant, for long and zealous service. 

2. Chief Carpenters and Carpenters are eligible for promotion to the rank 
of Carpenter Lieutenant, for long and zealous service. 

3. Chief Artificer Engineers and Artificer Engineers are eligible for promo- 
tion to the rank of Engineer Lieutenant, for long and zealous service. 

4. Commissioned warrant officers and warrant officers of exemplary conduct 
who may distinguish themselves by acts of gallantry and daring in the Service 
shall be eligible for promotion to the rank of Lieutenant, Carpenter Lieutenant, 
or Engineer Lieutenant. 

5. Promotion to the rank of Lieutenant, Carpenter Lieutenant, or Engineer 
Lieutenant, under clause 4, is restricted to officers who are under 45 years of 
age. See 245 and 252 (Time for pay served before Promotion). 

80 



COMMISSIONED WARRANT AND WARRANT OFFICERS. 



300 



pass 



300. Candidates for Warrants. All candidates for warrants must 
such examinations as the Admiralty may from time to time direct. 

2. Character. They must be recommended by officers commanding His 
Majesty's ships, and their character must be such as would, if continued, qualify 
them for the Good Conduct Medal. The award at any tune of a character 
inferior to " Good " will, however, disqualify a candidate. 

The cases of candidates who are considered exceptionally deserving or who 
have distinguished themselves by meritorious or special services, but who 
have not attained to the foregoing standard of character, may be submitted to 
the Admiralty for consideration. 

3. Recommendations. The following candidates must be recommended for 
warrant continuously on the half-yearly returns : 



Rank. 



Warrant Electrician - 



Warrant Armourer - 



Returns to begin. 

After passing examinations pre- 
scribed in Appendix X. Part 
XV. 

On confirmation as Chief Arm- 
ourer. 



To be sent to. 


H.M.S. 
H.M.S. 


Commanding Officer 
" Vernon." 

Commanding Officer 
" Excellent." 



In the case of candidates for Warrant Armourer the return is to record the 
candidate's ability as a mechanic, his capacity to design and modify articles 
from ideas given him, and his powers of controlling men and organising work. 



Rank. 



Chief Master-at- 

Arms. 

Warrant Writer. 
Head Steward. 



Instructor in Cookery J 



Returns to begin. 



After attaining age of 32 



To be sent to. 



Admiralty. 



4. In all cases of the first recommendation of a man for warrant rank a 
copy of his service certificate is to accompany the recommendation, with the 
column of ability as Seaman or Artificer, etc., carefully filled in. 

5. Misconduct. If a qualified candidate for warrant rank should misconduct 
himself in a manner which would disqualify him for the Good Conduct Medal 
Ms misconduct is to be reported to the Captain of the "Excellent" in the case 
of a candidate for Gunner or Warrant Armourer ; to the Captain of the 
" Vernon " in the case of a candidate for Torpedo Gunner, Warrant Tele- 
graphist, or Warrant Electrician ; to the Superintendent of Signal Schools in 
the case of a candidate for Signal Boatswain ; and to the Admiralty in other 
cases ; and his name will be removed from the roster for promotion. 

6. Acting Rank. Except in the cases of Head Schoolmasters and Head 
Wardmasters, candidates for warrant rank will be given acting rank only on 
promotion. At the expiration of one year's service an acting warrant officer 
will be eligible for confirmation in rank, provided his conduct and qualifications 
have been satisfactory, and he is recommended from the ship in which he is 
serving ; his seniority to reckon from the date of his acting appointment. 

301. Gunner and Gunner (T). A candidate for Gunner or Gunner (T) 
must be not more than 35 years of age. Before he can undergo the examination 
for promotion he must have held a rating not lower than that of Leading 
Seaman of two years' seniority. He must have passed for petty officer and have 
served seven years at sea as boy or man ; the actual period served in seagoing 
ships is to be stated in his passing certificate. He must produce his service 

81 



301 CHAP. VI. OFFICERS : PROMOTION. 

certificate and certificate as Seaman Gunner or Seaman Torpedo Man, and 
must state whether he elects to pass for Gunner or Torpedo Gunner. He must 
pass the prescribed examination in seamanship as laid down in form S. 440, 
and hold the gunnery and torpedo certificates required by Article 337. 

2. Educational Test.- If the candidate for Gunner or Gunner (T) is not a 
Gunner's Mate or Torpedo Gunner's Mate he must pass the educational test 
provided for in form S. 440. This test is to be held in the ship in which the 
candidate is serving and is to be carried out by the Naval Instructor when 
available, otherwise by a Lieutenant appointed for navigating duties. 

3. Seamanship. The seamanship examination is to be held in the presence 
of a Captain or Commander by a navigating officer and three Chief or other 
Gunners, Torpedo Gunners or Boatswains. 

4. Gunners' Course. After passing the examination in seamanship the 
candidates for Gunner are, if recommended and in all respects eligible, to be 
sent home for the Gunners' course as soon as practicable. 

Where a candidate has failed to pass for a higher gunnery or torpedo rating 
within three years of his passing in seamanship, and is thus ineligible under 
Article 399, clause 3, to qualify at once for warrant rank, the fact is to be 
noted on the passing certificate (form S. 440) in the space provided for further 
remarks, and he is not to be sent home for the Gunners' course until qualified. 

5. Before being eligible for promotion to Acting Gunner or Acting Gunner 
(T), a candidate must be a petty officer or acting petty officer with not less 
than one year's service in the actual performance of the duties of such rating 
as laid down in Article 337, and must hold the certificates required by that 
Article. 

6. Whenever passed candidates for the rank of Gunner or Gunner (T) are 
discharged from any ship or depot, a return on form S. 515 is to be forwarded 
to the Captain of H.M.S. " Excellent " or of H.M.S. " Vernon," showing the 
disposal of the candidates. 

302. Boatswain. A candidate for a Boatswain's warrant must be not 
more than 35 years of age. Before he can undergo the prescribed examination 
the candidate must have held a rating not lower than that of Leading Seaman 
of two years' seniority. He must have passed for petty officer and have been 
seven years at sea as boy or man ; the actual period served in seagoing ships 
is to be stated in his passing certificate. He must produce his service certificate 
and his certificate as Seaman Gunner or Seaman Torpedo Man. He must also 
pass the prescribed examination in seamanship as laid down in form S. 440. 

2. Educational Test. If he has not passed the petty officers' educational 
test, or an educational examination of equal value, he must also pass the 
educational examination as laid down in form S. 440. 

3. Seamanship. The seamanship examination is to be held in the presence 
of a Captain or Commander by a navigating officer and three Chief or other 
Boatswains, Gunners or Torpedo Gunners. 

4. Before promotion the candidate must have served one year as a petty 
officer, or acting petty officer, and must pass the further examination laid down 
in Article 337. 

Leading Seamen after passing for warrant rank will be given the rating of 
acting petty officer in time to ensure their having served in that capacity for 
a year before their turn for promotion is expected to arrive. 

5. Gunnery Course. A candidate for Boatswain before obtaining his acting 
warrant is to go through the course of gunnery and torpedo instruction provided 
by Article 337. 

82 



COMMISSIONED WARRANT AND WARRANT OFFICERS. 303 

303. Signal Boatswain. A candidate for a Signal Boatswain's warrant 
must be not more than 35 years of age. To be eligible to undergo the prescribed 
examination the candidate must have held a rating not lower than that of 
Leading Signalman of two years' seniority ; he must have passed for petty 
officer and have been seven years at sea as boy or man ; the actual 
period served in seagoing ships is to be stated in his passing certificate. 
He must produce his service certificate. He must pass the examination and 
obtain the marks for first or second class, given in detail in the passing certifi- 
cate of qualification, form S. 445. He will retain this class during his whole 
sendee. 

2. Before promotion to warrant rank the candidate must have served one 
year as a petty officer or acting petty officer. Leading Signalmen after passing 
for warrant rank will be given the rating of Acting Yeoman of Signals in time 
to ensure their having served in that capacity for a year before their turn for 
promotion is expected to arrive. 

3. Failure. If a candidate should fail to pass, -he will not be re-examined 
until after an interval of at least six months, and will only be entitled to obtain 
a second class certificate. 

4. Examination Abroad. On foreign stations the examination for Signal 
Boatswain is to be held in the presence of a Captain. The examiners are to be 
three officers, two of the rank of Commander or Lieutenant who have made 
signalling a study and are specially selected by the Commander-in-Chief for 
their knowledge of signal duties (one being if possible a Lieutenant and qualified 
in signalling), and the other a Signal Boatswain. ' 

Examinations held abroad will be provisional only. Acting Signal Boat- 
swains will be required, on their return to England and before being confirmed 
in rank, to pass the prescribed examination in the signal school at Ports- 
mouth. 

5. Examination at Home. Candidates on the home station and officers 
who have returned to England after passing provisionally abroad will be 
'examined at the school of signalling at Portsmouth, by the Commander in charge 
of the school, assisted by a Lieutenant specially selected by the Commander- 
in-Chief for his knowledge of signals, and a Signal Boatswain. 

304. Warrant Telegraphist. A candidate for Warrant Telegraphist must 
be not more than 35 years of age. To be eligible to undergo the prescribed 
examination (see Article 338) the candidate must have served seven years at 
sea as boy or man, and must have served at least one year as Chief Petty 
Officer Telegraphist or Petty Officer Telegraphist. The actual period served 
in seagoing ships is to be stated in his passing certificate. 

305. Chief Master-at-Arms. A candidate for Chief Master-at-Arms must 
be not less than 35 years of age and must be a Master-at-Arms with five years' 
service as such. 

306. Carpenter. A candidate for a Carpenter's warrant must be not more 
than 35 years of age. To be eligible to undergo the examination prescribed in 
Appendix X., Part XIV. (1), for a Carpenter's warrant, he must have attained 
the rating of Shipwright and have served for not less than twelve months in 
all in one or more of His Majesty's ships. 

2. Examining Officers. The examination is to be held in the presence of 
a Captain or Commander by a navigating officer not below the rank of Lieutenant 
and by three Chief or other Carpenters. 

3. Confirmation. No Carpenter shall receive a confirmed warrant as such 
until he passes a final examination before a board of dockyard officers 

83 



306 CHAP. VI. OFFICERS : PROMOTION. 

[for details see Appendix X., Part XIV. (2)], notwithstanding that he may have 
already passed in the subjects as a skilled Artificer. Prior to passing this exami- 
nation, and at the first opportunity after his promotion to Acting Carpenter, 
he is to undergo a course of instruction in a dockyard for a period of six months. 
If a candidate is rejected, he must present himself for re-examination within 
six months of such rejection. 

307. Artificer Engineer. Artificer Engineers will be selected from Chief 
or other Engine-Room Artificers who have passed the prescribed examination 
(see Appendix X., Part XIII.), are recommended, have served four years in 
seagoing ships in commission and have served for eight years with continuous 
" Very Good " character with previous character not inferior to " Good " in 
time counting for pension. In the case of candidates entered as Boy Artificers, 
service prior to being rated Acting Engine-Room Artificer 4th Class will not 
be reckoned. The examination and promotion of candidates will be subject to 
the condition that nothing in their previous records points to their being 
unfitted for advancement. 

2. Candidates will not be allowed to present themselves for examination 
unless they are eligible as regards sendee and character, and are recommended. 

3. Certificates. Before examination every candidate must produce the 
following certificates : 

(a) That he is capable of taking charge of the machinery of a small ship ; 

and 

(b) That he is considered fit in every respect for advancement to warrant 

rank ; the certificate is to be signed by the Captain and Engineer 
Officer of the last ship in which he served. 

308. Warrant Mechanicians will be selected from Mechanicians who have 
passed the prescribed examination (see Appendix X.,Part XIII.), and who have 
served not less than five years in that rating (acting and confirmed), three of 
which must have been in a ship-of-war at sea. 

2. Certificates. Before examination a candidate must produce certificates 
from the Engineer Officer of the ship, approved by the Captain, to the "effect 

(a) That he is capable of taking charge of the entire watch in the engine- 

room department of a large ship under way ; 

(b) That he is considered fit in every respect and is recommended for 

advancement to warrant rank. 

309. The Candidates for Artificer Engineer or Warrant Mechanician will be 
informed whether they have qualified or not. If successful, their names will be 
placed on a roster for promotion at the Admiralty, and the following notation 
is to be made on their service certificates : " Qualified for Artificer Engineer 
" (or Warrant Mechanician, as the case may be), and noted for promotion " 
(Q.A.E.) or (Q.W.M.), and also in the report on Engine-Room Artificers and 
Mechanicians, form S. 189, in which it should be added if they are recommended 
for promotion. 

2. Any case of grave misconduct or inefficiency on the part of a man placed 
on the roster is at once to be reported to the Admiralty with a view to his 
name being removed from the roster and the notation on his service certificate 
is to be cancelled. 

310. Warrant Electrician. Warrant Electricians will be selected from 
Chief or other Electricians who have served not less than eight years from date 
of entry, of which four must have been at sea, and have passed the examination 
prescribed in Appendix X., Part XV. 

84 



COMMISSIONED WARRANT AND WARRANT OFFICERS. 310 

2. Certificates. Selected candidates must produce certificates : 

(a) From the Captain of the torpedo school at the port to which they 

belong that they are recommended for advancement. This recom- 
mendation will be based on the marks obtained by the candidates in 
their previous examinations in the torpedo school and their general 
ability as workmen ; 

(b) From the Captain of the ship in which they are serving that they are 

considered fit in every respect for advancement to warrant rank. 

311. Warrant Armourer. Warrant Armourers will be selected from Chief 
Armourers who have passed the examinations prescribed in Appendix X., 
Part XVI., and have served not less than five years as Chief Armourers, of which 
two years must have been in a fully-manned ship at sea. Candidates must be 
not less than 35 years of age. 

2. To be eligible for the provisional educational test [see Appendix X., 
Part XVI. (1)], the candidate must hold the confirmed rating of Chief Armourer. 
From Chief Armourers who have passed the provisional test a selection will be 
made by the Captain of H.M.S. " Excellent " of candidates to undergo, after 
paying off, the instructional course and final examination in the gunnery school. 
[see Appendix X., Part XVI. (2)]. 

312. Chief and Head Schoolmasters will be appointed by the Admiralty on 
the recommendation of the Director of Naval Education. 

313. Head Wardmasters will be appointed by the Admiralty on the 
recommendation of the Medical Director-General, and will be selected from 
Chief Sick Berth Stewards who have had adequate experience in that rating, 
and are not less than 35 years of age. 

314. Warrant Writer. To be eligible for Warrant Writer the candidate 
must be a Chief Writer with five years' service as such, and must be not less 
than 35 years of age. 

315. Head Steward. To be eligible for Head Steward the candidate must 
be a Ship's Steward with five years' service as such, and must be not less than 
35 years of age. 

2. Acting Head Stewards must undergo a meat and victualling course at 
the first opportunity after promotion, and they will not be confirmed until 
they have passed through the course successfully. 

316. Instructor in Cookery. To be eligible for Instructor in Cookery a 
candidate must be a Chief Sbip's Cook, with five years' service as such, and 
must be not less than 35 years of age. 



85 



317 



CHAPTER VII. 
OFFICERS. TRAINING AND EXAMINATIONS GENERALLY. 



SECTION 

I. Military Branch and Manne Officers - 
II. Engineer Branch - 

III. Medical Branch - _ . . - 

IV. Accountant Branch 

V. Warrant Officers - - - 93 

VI. Interpreters and Foreign Languages 
VII. Examinations generally - - 100 

SECTION I. MILITARY BRANCH AND MARINE OFFICERS. 

317. War Courses for Flag Officers, Captains, Commanders, and marine 
officers extending over a period of about 15 weeks are held at the Royal Naval 
War College, Portsmouth, twice a year on the dates shown in the table of 
courses. 

2. (a) Flag Officers selected to attend the course will receive, in addition 
to half pay, a special allowance of 15s. a day, and lodging allowance of 4s. 6d. 
a day, if no accommodation is available, and it is required. 

The period of attendance at the course will reckon as half pay time. 

(b) Captains and Commanders will be paid full pay without command 
money, and lodging and provision allowance, according to scale, if there is no 
accommodation available. 

3. Flag Officers who, while undergoing the war course, are permitted to 
visit the Staff College at Camberley, or to carry out a coast reconnaissance with 
the military officers of the Staff College, will be granted a subsistence allowance 
of II. a day, for any period of absence from the war course exceeding 24 hours. 
This allowance will be in lieu of the allowance of 15s. a day which they receive 
while at the War College. 

318. Signal Course. Courses of instruction in signals and fleet tactics for 
Flag Officers, Captains, and Commanders will be held in each year at the signal 
school at Portsmouth, as laid down from time to time in the table of courses. 

The pay and allowances of officers attending the course will be the same 
as for those undergoing the war course (Article 317, clause 2). 

319. Torpedo Course for Senior Officers. Special courses of instruction in 
torpedo for officers of and above the rank of Commander, lasting 15 working 
days, will be held in the spring and autumn of each year in the " Vernon." 

2. (a) Flag Officers selected to attend the course will receive, in addition 
to half pay, a special allowance of 15s. a day, and lodging allowance of 4s. Gd. 
a day, if no accommodation is available, and it is required. The period of 
attendance at the course will reckon as half pay time. 

(b) Captains and Commanders will be paid full pay without command 
money, and lodging and provision allowance according to scale, if there is no 
accommodation available. 

3. Officers, R.M.A., below the regimental rank of Lieutenant-Colonel and 
above that of Lieutenant, and officers, R.M.L.I., below the rank of Lieutenant- 
Colonel, are eligible for the course. 

86 



MILITARY BRANCH AND MARINE OFFICERS. 320 

320. Gunnery Course for Senior Officers. Special courses of instruction in 
gunnery for officers of and above the rank of Commander, lasting 15 working 
days, will be held in the spring and autumn of each year in the " Excellent." 

2. Officers permitted to attend this course will be under the same conditions 
as to remuneration and counting time as are laid down in the preceding Article. 

3. Officers R. M.L.I., below the rank of Lieutenant-Colonel, are eligible for 
this course. 

321. Gunnery and Torpedo Lieutenants. Lieutenants desirous of qualifying 
as Gunnery and Torpedo Lieutenants are to apply through the Captains of 
the ships in which they are serving, or, if on half pay, to the Secretary of the 
Admiralty direct, sending copies of their certificates or of other testimonials 
they may wish to produce. All applications should reach the Admiralty by 
1st December in each year. 

2. Officers selected to qualify must have previously served one year at sea 
as Lieutenant. 

3. The final examination for Gunnery and Torpedo Lieutenants will be irt 
March, after passing which, unless otherwise required, they will assist in the 
gunnery and torpedo instruction of the schools. 

4. Should it be found, during any part of the course of instruction, that a 
Lieutenant is not likely to prove efficient as a Gunnery or Torpedo Officer,, 
his name is to be submitted to the Admiralty with a view to his removal front 
the books of the " Excellent " or " Vernon." 

5. Time. Officers qualifying within the prescribed period and officers going 
through a short course in gunnery or torpedo will be allowed to count the 
whole time they are borne in the " Excellent " or " Vernon " for instruction 
as time on full pay. 

Officers who fail to qualify, and short course officers who fail to obtain a 
certificate, or of their own accord leave before the completion of the course in 
either gunnery or torpedo, will count the time as half pay time. 

6. Officers who may be removed on account of misconduct or inefficiency 
are only to count time as half pay time. 

7. The cases of officers leaving on account of illness will be specially con- 
sidered. 

8. The qualifying course for Lieutenants Gf and Tf is laid down in the* 
" Courses of Instruction in Gunnery and Torpedo." 

!). Short Courses of instruction in gunnery and torpedo, each of 40 working 
days, will be held annually for Lieutenants R.N. and officers R.M.A., R.I.M., 
and R.N.R. Officers should state, when applying to join these courses, to 
which gunnery or torpedo school they would prefer to be attached, and they 
will be appointed on the dates published in the official list of courses. 

10. Pay. Officers appointed for gunnery or torpedo duties to ships not 
carrying a Gunnery or Torpedo Lieutenant will receive Is. a day additional pay- 

The Captains of all sea-going ships are to report annually the names of any 
Lieutenants serving under their command whom they would recommend for 
these duties. 

322. Second Lieutenants R.M.A. and R.M.L.I., who pass a satisfactory 
examination at the end of the course at the Royal Naval College, Greenwich, 
will proceed to headquarters and subsequently to the " Excellent " for 
instruction in gunnery. 

2. Second Lieutenants R.M.A. will, in addition, undergo a torpedo course 
in the " Vernon." 

323. Navigating Officers will be selected from those who volunteer for 
navigating duties and who have passed the examination in signals laid down 

87 



CHAP. VH. OFFICERS : TRAINING, &c. 

in Appendix X., Part III. Preference will be given to officers who have obtained 
a 1st Class in pilotage in the examination for the rank of Lieutenant, and good 
classes in the other subjects. 

2. Selected candidates will go through a course of instruction in the 
navigation school at Portsmouth. The course of instruction will last for 90 
working days, part of the time being spent at sea and the remainder on shore. 

a. Training Afloat. Qualified candidates, after leaving the school, will be 
appointed to serve for a short period in the large ships of the Home and 
Mediterranean Fleets, in order that they may gain experience under the 
Navigating Officers in the work of a fleet in regard to navigating duties. 

4. At the end of the first three months of this period, and subsequently 
every succeeding three months, the Captain is to forward to the Admiralty 
with his covering remarks a report from the Navigating Officer on the qualifica- 
tions of the candidate and his general suitability for navigating duties. Upon 
these reports, and the result of the examination in the navigation school, the 
permanent appointment of officers for navigating duties will depend. 

5. The letter (N) will be prefixed (in the seniority columns of the Navy List) 
to the names of all officers who have qualified for navigating duties. This 
letter will be retained against their names only while they are actually employed, 
or are available for employment on those duties. 

6. Lieutenants (N) will be placed on exactly the same footing as regards 
executive command and ship's duty generally as Gunnery and Torpedo Lieu- 
tenants, and are not to be excused from any ship's duties, except those which 
interfere with the special duties pertaining to them. They will be appointed 
and succeed to the position of First Lieutenant, if a vacancy occurs, in all ships 
except flag-ships where a Commander is borne, exactly in the same manner 
as any other specialist officer ; but in ships where no Commander is borne 
they will not be appointed for First Lieutenant's duties, except in special 
circumstances. 

7. Officers who perform navigating duties as Lieutenant will not be required 
to continue those duties after promotion to the rank of Commander, unless 
they wish to do so. A Commander when borne for navigating duties will not 
be appointed as the executive officer of the ship. 

8. Short Courses of Gunnery and Torpedo. Navigating Officers, while 
borne in ships in commission with nucleus crews, will be given every opportunity 
of going through short courses of gunnery and torpedo, in order to keep them- 
selves efficient in these duties. 

9. Lieutenants (N) will be permitted to attend a course of five weeks' 
instruction at the navigation school prior to examination in pilotage for first 
class ships. The pilotage examination, the syllabus of which is given in 
Appendix X., Part III., is partly viva voce and partly paper work. First and 
second class certificates of proficiency only will be awarded. 

10. .Examination. The examination will be compulsory for all Navigating 
Officers, who will be obliged to present themselves for examination within a 
reasonable time after completing three years' sea service as Lieutenant (N). 
An officer who fails to pass at the second trial will have his name erased from 
the list of Navigating Officers. 

11. Navigating Officers will also be granted facilities for attending the school 
for a month's course of study at periodical intervals during their subsequent 
career. 

12. The letter (Nf) will be prefixed (in the seniority columns of the Navy 
List) to the names of Commanders and Lieutenants who have passed the 
examination in pilotage for first class ships. This letter will be retained against 



MILITARY BRANCH AND MARINE OFFICERS. 323 

their names only while they are actually employed, or are available for 
employment, on navigating duties. 

13. Provisional Examination. Should it be probable that the exigencies 
of the Service will cause an officer to be absent from England at the date he 
will complete the three years' service required to render him eligible to pass 
for first class ships, he may be examined before leaving England, provided 
that he has completed two and a half years of such service ; but he will not 
be eligible for appointment to navigating charge, of a first class ship, nor be 
entitled to the corresponding increase in navigating allowance until he has 
completed the full period of three years' qualifying service. 

14. Provisional examinations may also be held in the following circum* 
stances : 

(a) A Lieutenant (whilst serving as a Navigating Officer on a foreign station), 

if he happen to be at sea or in a ship on detached service on the date 
he completes the service required to qualify him to present himself 
for examination for first class ships, may apply to his Captain for a 
provisional certificate in pilotage for first class ships, and such cer^ 
tificate is to be given 'at the discretion of the Captain, based on his 
knowledge of the capabilities of the applicant as a Navigating Officer, 
and will hold good until the ship meets the Commander-in-Chief or 
Senior Officer. The officer must then apply for a passing day to 
be fixed, and a board of examining officers is to be appointed, con- 
sisting of three officers qualified for first class ships (or two if only 
that number be present) and presided over by a Captain. 

Should the officer pass the examination, the examiners will award 
him a provisional certificate of qualification for first class ships, and 
such certificate will entitle him to increase of allowance from the 
date of the certificate granted by his Captain, but dependent on his 
passing the regular examination on returning to England. If, after 
his arrival in England, an officer neglects to take an opportunity of 
passing the regular examination, and, before passing, receives another 
appointment for navigating duties, he will not be allowed to receive 
the increased allowance. Should the officer eventually fail to pass> 
he will be called upon to refund the amount of the increased allowance 
which he has received since passing the provisional examination. 

(b) A Lieutenant who completes the service required to qualify him to 

present himself for examination for first class ships whilst serving as 
a Navigating Officer on a home station, may apply to his Captain for, 
and may be granted, a provisional certificate as provided for in 
sub-clause (a) of this clause. The intermediate examination by a 
board of officers will not be required in such, cases, but the officer 
must present himself at the next general examination on board the 
navigation school ship, when, if he pass, he will become entitled to 
the authorised increase of allowance from the date of his provisional 
certificate. Should, however, an officer be prevented, by duty or 
sickness, from presenting himself on the first examination day, he 
must produce a certificate from his Captain to that effect when he 
does present himself, as otherwise he will not be entitled to the 
increase of allowance until the date of passing. 

On an officer passing provisionally, a notation is to be made against 
his name on the ship's books, stating the date of such passing. No 
payment at the increased rate is to be made until he has passed the 
final examination on board the navigation school ship. 



323 CHAP. VH. OFFICERS : TRAINING, &c. 

15 All provisional certificates are to be granted in duplicate, and are to be 
attached to the final passing certificates, upon which the dates* of the Captain's 
certificate and of the provisional passing are to be noted. 

324. Command of Destroyers and Torpedo Boats. No officer will be 
considered for the command of a torpedo boat destroyer or torpedo boat until 
he has passed practical examinations in navigation and pilotage, in gunnery 
and torpedo, and in signals, as set forth in Appendix X., Part IV. 

2. In the event of an officer appointed to command a torpedo boat destroyer 
or torpedo boat not having passed the prescribed examinations he will be 
required to do so within three months of the date of his appointment. Failure 
to pass will necessitate the supersession of the officer. 

325. Signal Lieutenant. An officer desirous of qualifying as Signal 
Lieutenant must possess the following qualifications : 

(a) He must have completed at least one year's watchkeeping duties as a 

Lieutenant in a ship at sea. 

(b) He must be recommended by his Commanding Officer as having a good 

knowledge of signalling, and as being likely to make a good signal 
officer. 

2. Officers selected to qualify for signal duties will undergo a course of 
14 weeks' duration in the signal school, followed by a 5 weeks' course of wireless 
telegraphy in H.M.S. " Vernon." 

3. The letter (S) will be prefixed (in the seniority columns of the Navy 
List) to the name of each officer who has qualified as Signal Lieutenant. 

326. Officers specialising. Officers who passed into the service afloat as 
Midshipmen in or after May 1908 must serve for not less than two years as 
commissioned officers at sea, the proportion of time as Sub-Lieutenant and 
Lieutenant depending on the class of certificate obtained ; but at least one 
year must be as a Lieutenant in charge of a watch in a sea-going ship. At 
the end of this service officers will be selected to specialise in the various 
branches. Those who are accepted for gunnery, torpedo, navigation or 
engineering, will attend a course of two terms, approximately six months, at 
the Royal Naval College, Greenwich. This course of instruction will comprise 
such studies as will fit the officers to prepare for the practical courses of 
specialisation. The marks obtained in the Lieutenants' course will be carried 
forward and contribute to determine the class taken on qualifying after the 
practical course at the specialist schools. These Lieutenants' courses will take 
place three times a year. Lieutenants who do not wish to specialise will also 
be allowed to go through a course at Greenwich when their services can be 
spared. 

327. Junior Lieutenant, &c., Training in Navigation. When practicable, 
arrangements are to be made for one junior Lieutenant or Sub-Lieutenant to 
be taken partially off watchkeeping (keeping a dog or morning watch) so as to 
work with the Navigating Officer for 10 working days under way, but not 
necessarily all in one trip. 

The officer thus told off is to be on deck when coasting, making the land, 
going in and out of harbour, &c., and is to be in every way encouraged to get 
an insight into navigating duties. If, at the end of the 10 days, the Captain 
is satisfied with his work, he is to be relieved, and another officer told off for 
this duty. A special report is then to be forwarded to the Admiralty that 
the course has been duly performed by the officer. 

328. Midshipmen, Training afloat. On leaving the training cruiser, 
Midshipmen will serve for a minimum of three years at sea in that rank, during 

90 



MILITARY BRANCH AND MARINE OFFICERS. 328 

which period they will work with the executive officer for training in officers' 
duties and in seamanship, and with the specialist officers for training and 
instruction in gunnery, torpedo navigation and pilotage, and engineering. 

2. The instruction is to be mainly practical, but facilities are to be afforded 
for voluntary study as indicated in Appendix X., Part I. (26). 

The instruction is always to be given by officers. This work is never to 
be delegated to seaman instructors. 

3. The general system of instruction to be followed is indicated in 
Appendix X., Part I. In regard to details, however, the Commanding Officer 
is to exercise his discretion in directing the work of the Midshipmen, the object 
being to secure that when the Midshipman's sea service as such is completed 
he will be fit, without further instruction, to perform satisfactorily all the 
duties which may be required at sea of a Sub-Lieutenant or Lieutenant, having 
a competent practical knowledge not only of seamanship and the general duties 
of an officer, but also of gunnery, torpedo, engineering, and navigation. 

4. It is highly important that the Midshipmen should learn early to assume 
the habit of responsibility which is essential to the formation of their character, 
as naval officers. Officers in charge of Midshipmen are accordingly to endeavour 
to test their fitness for responsibility, and should not hesitate to delegate 
responsible duties whenever possible, at the same time watching the manner 
in which the Midshipman acquits himself. 

329. Midshipmen are not to be employed more than is necessary on the 
ship's clerical work, such as writing up engineering, gunnery, and torpedo 
logs, or filling in returns. 

SECTION II. ENGINEER BRANCH. 

330. Knowledge as to Fittings of Ship. Before a ship is commissioned 
the Engineer Officer, the Second Engineer Officer, and such other of the engineer 
officers as the Admiralty may direct, are to be examined by the Engineer 
Rear-Admiral at the port to which the ship is attached, to ascertain that eacli 
has a competent knowledge of such details of the ship as are under his charge, 
such as valves, cocks, water-tight doors, hatches, sluices, the system of flooding 
and ventilating, and the particulars of the pumping arrangements ; and if 
they have, they are to be granted a certificate on form S. 451. 

2. If subsequently appointed, these officers are to be examined by the 
Engineer Captain attached to the fleet to which the ship belongs. In fleets 
where no Engineer Captain is borne they are to be examined by the Engineer 
Officer of the flag-ship, and in the case of Destroyer Flotillas, by the Engineer 
Commander borne in the flotilla depot ship for Torpedo Boat Destroyers and 
Torpedo Boats. 

In these cases the examination should be applied for within three months 
of the officer being appointed. 

3. The certificates are in all cases to be in duplicate, one copy being for 
the candidate and the other being dealt with as follows : 

(a) In the case of an officer examined before a ship commissions in accordance 

with clause 1, the duplicate is to be retained by the Commander-in- 
Chief at the port for local record. 

(b) In the case of an officer examined after the ship commissions, under 

clause 2, the duplicate is to be retained by the Commander-in-Chief 
of the fleet to which the ship belongs. When the ship leaves the 
fleet it is to be forwarded to the Commander-in-Chief of the fleet or 
port to which she is transferred. 

91 



331 CHAP. VH. OFFICERS : TRAINING, &c. 

331. Instruction in Whitehead, &c. AU engineer officers, unless circum- 
stances prevent it, are to undergo a course of instruction in the Whitehead 
and electric light apparatus, and hydraulic machinery as applied to working 

heavy guns. 

2. There will be four such courses during the year on board the Vernon 
and " Excellent " at dates arranged by the Admiralty. 

Details of the course and examinations will be found in the " Courses of 
Instruction in Gunnery and Torpedo." 

3. Should an officer fail to pass, the time under instruction will count as 
half pay time only, though he will receive full pay. 

SECTION III. MEDICAL BRANCH. 

332. Course for Surgeons. The examination for Staff Surgeon will be 
preceded by a six months' course of instruction, as detailed in Appendix X., 
Part VII., which is to be taken when a Surgeon has between 4J and 6^ years' 
seniority, and as near the date when the latter period is completed as the 
exigencies of the Service admit. The courses will take place twice a year. 

333. Course for Senior Medical Officers. Medical officers of not less than 
14 years' seniority will be allowed to undergo a post-graduate course of three 
months' duration if the exigencies of the Service permit. During this course 
the medical officers will be borne on ships' books for full pay. They will be 
accommodated at the Royal Naval College, Greenwich, and will be under the 
general control of the President. They will come under the ordinary regu- 
lations (Chapter XL.) in respect of travelling expenses to and from the College ; 
the fees for each course, not exceeding 251., will be paid by the Admiralty on 
the production of vouchers at the end of the course. Medical officers will be 
required to produce separate certificates of efficient attendance. 

2. This course is designed to afford senior medical officers the opportunity 
of refreshing their general knowledge of surgery and medicine, and of making 
themselves familiar with modern improvements. There will not be any fixed 
syllabus of instruction or examination, but arrangements will be made in each 
case by the medical officer in charge of studies at Greenwich to meet individual 
requirements, and a report will be made by this officer to the Medical Director- 
General at the close of the course. 

334. Voluntary Courses of instruction of about six weeks' duration are 
held at the naval hospitals at the three home ports, for the benefit of medical 
officers of ships and naval establishments at these ports, and every facility 
is to be afforded to such officers (especially those at the naval barracks) for 
the study and practice of bacteriology, clinical pathology, skiagraphy, &c., in 
the hospital laboratories, a report from the Surgeon-General of the hospital 
being transmitted to the Admiralty through the Commander-in-Chief at the 
close of each course. 



SECTION IV. ACCOUNTANT BRANCH. 

335. Instruction in Small Arms. In addition to instruction in their 
professional duties (Article 1338, clause 2), Assistant Clerks are to undergo a 
short course of instruction in revolver and sword exercise and in rifle drill, 
including the simpler movements in squad and company drill, and a note is 
to be added to the certificate of service, form S. 450, stating whether the 
Assistant Clerk has satisfactorily qualified therein. 

92 



ACCOUNTANT BRANCH. 

The instruction is to continue until the results are certified to be satis- 
factory, but will cease to be obligatory in the case of officers who entered the 
Service prior to the year 1909, after they have passed their intermediate 
examination. 

2. In Boats. Clerks and Assistant Clerks are also to be practised in rowing 
and sailing boats as opportunities offer. 

SECTION V. WARRANT OFFICERS. 

336. Qualification in Navigation. Warrant officers who desire to qualify 
in navigating duties must first pass the educational examination laid down in 
Appendix X., Part XII. The names of warrant officers who pass the educational 
examination will be placed upon a list from which a final selection will be made 
of the officers to be appointed to the school of navigation. 

2. Those who fail to pass the educational examination will be allowed a 
second trial. Should any officer fail a second time, no further trial will be 
allowed. 

3. Warrant officers appointed to the navigation school will go through a 
three months' course in pilotage and coastal navigation. An examination will 
be held at its conclusion, and the names of the most promising officers will 
be noted. 

4. Officers qualified will have the letters P.N. placed against their names 
in the Navy List, and will receive rates of extra pay, when employed, as laid 
down in Appendix I. 

5. Warrant officers who have qualified in navigation will be required to go 
through a re-qualifying course of about one month's duration at intervals of 
not more than five years. 

6. Warrant officers who have qualified or re-qualified at the navigation 
school since it was established in 1903 will generally be held to have re-qualified 
if they have served in appointments for navigating duties or in command of 
small vessels, and thereafter it will not be necessary for them to re-qualify 
until five years have elapsed since the termination of such appointments. The 
case of each officer will, however, be considered on its merits by the Captain 
of the navigation school. 

337. Qualifying Course for Gunner and Boatswain. Before a candidate 
can be examined in gunnery and torpedo for the rank of Gunner, Torpedo 
Gunner, or Boatswain, he must be qualified as to service and character under 
Article 300 and must have obtained the certificates required by Articles 301 
and 302. 

2. He will undergo the courses of instruction as laid down in the printed 
" Courses of Instruction of Officers and Seamen in the Gunnery and Torpedo 
Schools," and must obtain certificates of qualification. 

3. Allowances. On passing the final examinations in the gunnery and 
torpedo schools, candidates for Gunner or Torpedo Gunner will be classed as 
first or second class for gunnery and torpedo allowances, and they will retain 
this class during their whole service. 

4. Advanced Course. At the conclusion of the Gunners' course, the most 
promising men will be selected to undergo an advanced course. Before being 
selected for this advanced course, candidates must pass an eyesight test, the 
standard required being 6/6 Snellen. Warrant officers who have passed the 
advanced course will be distinguished in the Navy List by the symbol f. When 
fully qualified for warrant rank the candidates are to be dealt with as follows : 

(a) Petty officers of one year's service in that rating who have qualified 
for Gunner| are to be retained in the gunnery school to await 



337 CHAP. VH. OFFICERS : TRAINING, &c. 

promotion. They will be promoted to Acting Gunner as vacancies 
occur irrespective of their position on the roster. 

(b) Leading Seamen qualified for Gunnerf are to be sent to sea at once, 

with the rating of Acting Petty Officer. On completing one year's 
service in the acting rating and on being confirmed, they will be 
promoted as vacancies occur. 

(c) Other qualified candidates for Gunner or Gunner (T) are to be sent to 

sea, the Leading Seamen being given the rating of Acting Petty 
Officer in time to ensure their having served in that capacity for a 
year before their turn for promotion is expected to arrive. 

(d) Passed candidates for Gunner or Torpedo Gunner are to be given the 

rating of Gunner's Mate or Torpedo Gunner's Mate if not already 
held by them. 

(e) Leading Seamen given the rating of Acting Petty Officer are to be 

confirmed as Petty Officer at the expiration of 12 months if recom- 
mended in all respects for warrant rank. If not so recommended 
or if found unsuitable for warrant rank at any time before the 
expiration of 12 months, they are to revert to Leading Seaman, 
being eligible for subsequent advancement to Petty Officer in the 
ordinary course. 
5. Re-qualification. All Gunners, Torpedo Gunners, and Boatswains will 

be required to re-qualify in both gunnery and torpedo as laid down in the 

" Courses of Instruction." 

338. Course for Warrant Telegraphist. Candidates for Warrant Tele- 
graphist must undergo the course of instruction laid down in the printed 
" Courses of Instruction of Officers and Seamen in the Gunnery and Torpedo 
Schools." The candidates will be selected by the Captain of the " Vernon " 
from a roster of those who are eligible under the conditions in Articles 300 
and 304. The names of eligible men recommended for the course are to be 
forwarded to the Commanding Officer of the " Vernon " together with copies 
of their service certificates and wireless telegraphy history sheets. 

339. Carpenter's knowledge of Fittings. The officer appointed to the ship 
in charge of carpenter's duties is to be examined to ascertain if he has a thor- 
oughly competent knowledge of such details of the ship as are placed in his 
charge, such as the construction of the ship, watertight doors, hatches, sluices, 
the system of flooding and ventilating, and the pumping arrangements. If he 
is appointed to the ship while she is building, the examination is to be held 
before the ship is commissioned, or on first arrival at a dockyard in the case 
of those built by contractors. 

In all other cases the examination is to be held within six months from 
the date of joining. 

Whenever possible the examination is to be conducted by dockyard officers, 
whether at home or abroad, but when no opportunity for this occurs the fact 
is to be reported to the Commander-in-Chief, or Senior Officer, who will issue 
directions for the Carpenter of the senior ship, assisted by another Carpenter, 
to examine the officer in the presence of his Captain or some other officer not 
below the rank of Lieutenant. 

On passing the examination he will be granted a certificate on form S. 451. 

SECTION VI. INTERPRETERS AND FOREIGN LANGUAGES. 

340. Study Abroad. Naval officers of or below the actual or relative rank 
of Commander, and marine officers, who are desirous of qualifying for Inter- 
preter in any of the languages mentioned in Article 341, clause 3, and officers 

94 



INTERPRETERS AND FOREIGN LANGUAGES. 



340 



holding the actual rank of Captain, may, with the permission of the Admiralty, 
proceed to the Continent on full pay, for the period specified in clause 6, for 
the purpose of studying the language selected, of which they will be required 
to possess an adequate preliminary knowledge (see clause 5). 

2. Japanese. The special arrangements laid down as regards the study of 
the Japanese language will be found in Article 343, and officers serving on the 
China station should be encouraged to acquire a knowledge of the language. 

3. Pay and Time. Full pay and time will be allowed for the period of 
study abroad, but candidates will not receive any allowance for victuals nor 
any other allowances in addition to full pay. 

4. The privilege of studying abroad will not be granted to any officer more 
than once for the same language, except when re-qualifying for Interpreter, 
and not more than 20 officers of all grades will be allowed to be abroad for 
study on full pay at the same time. 

5. Scheme of Study. Before proceeding abroad, candidates will be required 
to submit a scheme of study, stating where they intend to reside, and what 
facilities the place of residence affords for the study of the language. Officers 
will further be required either to satisfy the Civil Service Commissioners that 
they possess an adequate preliminary knowledge of the language which they 
have selected, or, should they have studied the language at the Royal Naval 
College, to obtain a certificate to the same effect from the authorities of the 
Royal Naval College, Greenwich. In arranging for study abroad, officers 
should bear in mind the dates at which the passing examinations for the grade 
of Interpreter are held by the Civil Service Commissioners. Candidates will 
be expected, as far as possible, to present themselves for the preliminary test 
before the Civil Service Commissioners at the times when the quarterly examina- 
tion for the grade of Interpreter is held. 

6. Gratuities. To meet the outlay to which officers may be put by residence 
abroad, gratuities according to the following scale will be paid, to those who 
succeed in qualifying after residence abroad on full pay under the foregoing 
conditions, for the periods specified in the table or for a substantial proportion 
thereof : 



Language. 


Duration of Residence 
Abroad. 


Gratuity on Qualifying. 


For Higher 
Standard 
(Inter- 
preter). 


For I/>wer 
Standard 
(Acting 
Interpreter). 


Higher 
Standard 
(Inter- 
preter). 


I^ower 
Standard 
(Acting 
Interpreter) 


_ 


Months. 
12* 
9 


Months. 
6 


L 
200f 
150 


loot 

75 


f 


6 


4 


70 


35 


eek J 

k ^ _ _ _ I 


4 


3 


50 


25 



Japanese 
Russian 
German 
Dutch - 
Danish - 
Swedish 
Norwegian 
Modern Gi 
French - 
Italian - 
Spanish 



* In special cases the period in Japan may be extended to two years. 

t The gratuity of SOW. is to be paid only to those who study in Japan for two years ; the gratuity for those 
who study for one year only being 1001. The 1001. gratuity is to be paid in instalments of 50/. at the end of the 
first and second six months, subject to the candidate passing the test prescribed in Article 343 and in Appendix X. , 
Part XI., on each occasion : the additional 100J. for those who remain for two years being paid on finally passing 
for the Higher Standard. 

95 



340 



CHAP. VH. OFFICERS : TRAINING, &c. 



7. Study interrupted. When an officer who has been given leave to study 
abroad in order to qualify as an interpreter is, for reasons approved by the 
Admiralty, unable to complete the authorised period of residence abroad, but 
succeeds in passing the prescribed examination, he may be repaid his actual 
outlay in travelling expenses and tuition fees up to a sum not exceeding the 
gratuity for which he would have been eligible if he had completed the 
authorised period of residence. 

8. Qualification without study abroad. In addition to the number allowed 
to study abroad the Admiralty may permit a certain number (not exceeding 
five in any one year) to take lessons in a foreign language, and if they pass 
the prescribed examination they may be reimbursed the expenses actually 
incurred by them in travelling to obtain tuition and in tuition fees, but the 
sum so payable shall not exceed the amount of the gratuity for which they 
would have been eligible on passing for the lower standard, and shall not in 
any case exceed 35/. 

No officer will be eligible to receive any payment under this clause who 
does not obtain the sanction of the Admiralty before commencing his studies. 

9. Refund if retired within three years. Should an officer who has qualified 
for Interpreter under the above conditions be permitted to retire, resign, or 
withdraw within three years from the date of passing for Interpreter, he will 
be required to refund the difference between the full and half pay received by 
him during his period of study abroad and the gratuity awarded on passing, 
or such proportion of both amounts as the Admiralty may decide. 

In the case of an officer permitted to study Chinese or Japanese, he may 
also, at the discretion of the Admiralty, be required to refund his passage 
expenses and the special allowances for lodging and provisions. 

341. Examination for Interpreter. Naval officers of or below the actual 
or relative rank of Commander, and marine officers, who are desirous of quali- 
fying for Interpreter, may offer themselves as candidates for examination. 
(See Appendix X., Part X.) 

2. Candidates, if on full pay, are to apply through their Captains, stating 
the language in which they wish to be examined ; if on half pay, their applica- 
tions should be addressed direct to the Secretary of the Admiralty. 

The application should state whether the officer desires, before presenting 
himself for examination, to take advantage of the regulations in Article 340, 
as to residence in the foreign country concerned. 

3. Allowances. Officers who pass successfully will be eligible for employ- 
ment as Interpreters or Acting Interpreters, according to the standard reached 
by them. When appointed, service as Interpreters will be added to their 
other duties as officers of the ship and they will receive additional pay as 
shown in the following tables : 

Additional pay while employed 



language. 






As Interpreter, 
per diem. 


As Acting Inter- 
preter, per_diem. 






5. d. 


s. d. 


Japanese 
Chinese -- _ 


-1 






Russian - - 


- -h 


2 6 





Turkish - - - - - - 


- -j 







INTERPRETERS AND FOREIGN LANGUAGES. 



341 



Additional pay while employed 









language. 


As Interpreter, 
per diem. 


As Acting Inter- 
preter, per diem. 




s. d. 


s. d. 


German ------- -"j 






Dutch --__--__ 






Danish - - - - 
Swedish ------- -T 


2 


1 


Norwegian 
Modern Greek - - - - 






French - - - - -~| 






Italian ______ 

Spanish f 
Portuguese - - - J 


1 6 


~ 



Officers appointed as Interpreters or Acting Interpreters will receive this 
additional pay concurrently with any other allowances attaching to their 
appointment, e.g., senior, gunnery, torpedo or navigating allowances to Lieu- 
tenants. 

4. Provisional Examination. Officers when serving abroad may be permitted 
to pass a provisional examination to be conducted on board a Flag or Senior 
Officer's ship in the presence of a Captain and Naval Instructor, by an 
experienced teacher of the language selected, or by an officer who has passed 
in it for Interpreter. 

The successful candidate is to be granted a certificate, and will be eligible 
to act as Interpreter should his services be required. He will be entitled to 
the additional pay as Acting Interpreter for any period during which he may 
be actually employed. He will not, however, be considered as qualified unless 
within a reasonable period after his return to England he passes the usual 
examination before the Civil Service Commissioners. 

All provisional examinations and appointments are to be reported at once 
to the Admiralty. 

5. Re-qualification. Officers on the list of Interpreters will be required to 
re-qualify every five years in so far as the convenience of the Service may admit, 
and, prior to re-examination, they may be allowed full pay during study 
abroad for a period not exceeding one month, such period to count as " service," 
but no gratuity or other allowance will be payable in respect of such 
re-qualification. 

342. Interpreters' Appointments. Interpreters qualified in the languages 
commonly spoken within the command, will be appointed to flag-ships and to 
such other ships as the Admiralty may direct. 

In any case in which it is considered necessary by the Captain that a duly 
qualified officer serving on board should be appointed as Interpreter or as 
Acting Interpreter, a representation to that effect should be made through 
the Commander-in-Chief to the Admiralty. 

An Interpreter qualified in French or German will be allowed in each -hip 
carrying Midshipmen. 

2. Instruction of Junior Officers. Interpreters and Acting Interpreters who 
from time to time undertake the instruction of junior officers in French and 
German may be paid 5s. for each lesson given to classes of junior officers on 
board His Majesty's snips, provided the number of officers under instruction 

97 



342 CHAP. VH. OFFICERS : TRAINING, &c. 

is not less than four. Such lessons, of one hour each, are not to exceed four 
a week. 

In exceptional cases, where circumstances do not admit of a class of four 
junior officers being formed, the question of payment of the allowance is to 
be submitted to the Admiralty for special consideration, with a report of the 
circumstances which rendered it impossible to form a larger class. 

Instruction in any other languages may be given, subject to the approval 
of the Admiralty, 

The names of the officers instructed on each occasion are to appear on the 
vouchers for payments. 

3. A winner of the Ryder prize may be employed as an instructor when 
no Interpreter is available, and may receive the pay of an Acting Interpreter. 

4. The Interpreter of the flag-ship, or of such ship as the Senior Officer may 
appoint, should direct the education in foreign languages of the junior officers 
on the station. 

343. Japanese Language. The following special arrangements have been 
laid down as regards the Japanese language. 

2. Officers on the station should be encouraged to acquire a knowledge of 
the language, those who pass a preliminary test and apply for further oppor- 
tunity for study being, with the approval of the Commander-in-Chief , discharged 
to the shore, in order to continue the study of the language on the ship leaving 
the station. The Commander-in-Chief on the station will arrange for the 
preliminary test. 

3. Officers may also be allowed to proceed to Japan to study the language 
after passing a preliminary test examination at home, arrangements for which 
will be carried out at the Royal Naval College, Greenwich. 

4. The period of residence allowable is as shown in the table in Article 340, 
clause 6. While studying in Japan officers will receive full pay, and a con- 
solidated allowance of 150/. a year in lieu of lodging and provision allowances. 

5. Officers will be tested at the end of six months', twelve months' and 
two years' study, in accordance with the instructions in Appendix X., Part 
XI. 

6. Officers granted permission to proceed from England to study in Japan 
will be sent out in one of His Majesty's ships, or by packet, at the discretion 
of the Admiralty, and will be allowed full pay from the date of appointment, 
the period allowed for residence abroad to be reckoned from the date of arrival 
in Japan. Officers to whom this permission is granted are to be prepared to 
be appointed to any ship without returning to England. 

7. Passage to England will be provided for officers who complete a term 
of study in Japan. 

8. A Japanese teacher will be engaged at Wei-hai-wei with a view to 
assisting officers to study the language. He will be always in his room at 
certain hours in the day, and ready to give lessons to any officers willing to 
come to him. There will be no compulsory examination at the end of a course 
of lessons. 

344. Purchase of Foreign Literature. A sum not exceeding five pounds 
per annum may be spent by the commanding officer of every ship bearing 
junior officers under instruction prior to passing for Lieutenant upon the pur- 
chase of such literature for use in the study of foreign languages as may be 
deemed suitable and necessary. 

2. The allowance is to be taken on credit by each ship quarterly in advance, 
and care is to be taken that it is expended to the greatest advantage, having 
regard to the numbers and proficiency of the junior officers. 

98 



INTERPRETERS AND FOREIGN LANGUAGES. 



345 



345. Prizes to Midshipmen. Prizes for proficiency in foreign languages 
will be offered to Midshipmen for competition at each examination for the 
rank of Lieutenant, as laid down in Appendix X., Part II. (10). 

346. Oriental Languages, Allowances, &c. Officers serving on board 
His Majesty's ships on the East Indies station and in the Red Sea, who so desire, 
will be examined, and, if found qualified to act as Interpreters by the lower 
standard test in oriental languages, will be granted the following allowances, 
the moonshee allowance being payable on passing, and the Interpreter's 
allowance being payable only when appointed by the Admiralty to act in that 
capacity. 





Moonshee 


Interpreter's Allow- 





Allowance 


ance per Mensem 




on passing. 


on Appointment. 




Rupees. 


Rupees. 


For Swahili -- 


180 


75 


Arabic 


300 


75 


,, Hindustani and Persian (two languages) - 


360 


75 


Hindustani (revised test) 


180 


50 


Persian -- - 


180 


50 



2. Gratuities, &c. The payments of the gratuities and Interpreters' 
allowances, when authorised, are to be made by the accountant officer on 
separate vouchers, and brought to account under " Secretary of State for 
India," except in cases where they are chargeable to naval funds, viz. : 

(a) Swahili. 

(b) Interpreter's allowances in the Cape command ; 

(c) When the ship is outside Indian waters. 

3. In the case of Hindustani the payments are also chargeable to naval 
funds, with the exception of the allowance to the Interpreter at the Royal 
Naval Depot, Bombay, which is chargeable to the Indian Government. The 
Interpreter's allowance will be payable only at the Royal Naval Depot, Bombay, 
and to officers in ships in the Persian Gulf, but the moonshee gratuity will be 
paid to officers belonging to any ships on the East Indies station who qualify 
in .that language. 

4. The Interpreter's allowances, when authorised, are to commence from 
the date of the certificate of qualification if there is a vacancy in the ship in 
which the officer is borne, and if not, from the date of a vacancy, or of appoint- 
ment to a ship in which a vacancy exists. They are to cease on the ship passing 
the prescribed limits within which the allowance is payable, on passage home, 
or when the officer is invalided, paid off, or discharged for passage to England. 

5. No ship will be allowed more than one Interpreter in each language, 
and should an officer draw an allowance of Rs. 75 a month as Interpreter in 
Arabic or Persian and Hindustani (two languages), the allowance will not be 
admissible to any other officer in the vessel as Interpreter. 

6. Qualifications in Swahili will be tested before a board of examiners at 
Zanzibar or Aden, or provisionally before two or more officers of His Majesty's 
ships, who have already qualified in that language, in the presence of a Captain, 
who will attest the certificate ; but officers so provisionally passed are to be 
again examined by a duly authorised civil board as soon as an opportunity 
presents itself. The standard of Swahili is purely colloquial. 

7. Examinations in Arabic, Persian and Hindustani will be held by the 
sanction of the Indian Government at any place on the East Indies station 

99 



346 CHAP. VH. OFFICERS : TRAINING, &c. 

where a duly qualified board of officers, or one officer fully capable of conduct- 
ing the examination, can be found ; but the report of the committee passing 
the candidates will be sent to the examining board at the nearest Presidency 
town. 

Candidates will be required to pass in Persian, or in Hindustani, by the 
lower standard, or a colloquial examination in Arabic according to the following 
test : 

(a) Conversing with the examiner, or in his presence with persons selected 

by him, with fluency and such correctness of expression as to be at 
once intelligible ; 

(b) Writing with accuracy a translation into Arabic in the English character 

of a paper of English sentences based on subjects in connection with 
which the candidates might ordinarily be called on to interpret. 
8. Examinations in oriental and African languages are also held by the 
Civil Service Commissioners. 

347. May Remain on Station. Officers qualified in oriental languages 
when belonging to ships ordered home may be transferred to ships remaining 
on the -station, if not inconvenient to the Service. 

2. Re-qualification. Officers who have left the station three years will be 
required to re-qualify before re-appointment. 

SECTION VII. EXAMINATIONS GENERALLY. 

348. General Regulations. The regulations relating to the examination of 
officers are issued under the authority of the Admiralty, and are given in the 
King's Regulations or in the established forms. 

Eligibility of Candidates. Examining officers are, before commencing an 
examination, to satisfy themselves that the candidate is in all respects eligible 
by age and service according to the regulations in force on those points, and 
that he is able to produce certificates of sobriety and good conduct for the 
full period of service necessary to qualify him for examination, from the Captain 
or other officers under whose command he has served and especially from the 
officer under whom he is at the time serving. 

Certificates for time on passage in a contract ship, or while borne for pay 
only, are to be dispensed with, and the Admiralty record of time accepted in 
lieu. 

2. The Commander-in-Chief, or Senior Officer present, shall give the neces- 
sary directions for the required examinations to take place, except in the 
cases otherwise specially provided for. 

3. Such examinations should be held immediately the qualifying service is 
completed if the candidate is ready to appear ; but if the passing day should 
fall on a Sunday, the examination is to be postponed till the following day, 
seniority being allowed from the Sunday. 

4. Date of Certificate. No passing certificate is to be dated prior to the 
commencement of the examination ; but if the exigencies of the Service or any 
other cause prevent the examination or provisional examination from being 
held at the proper time, though the certificate must be dated on the day of 
passing, the circumstances are to be fully reported to the Admiralty to enable 
their Lordships to consider whether according to the merits of the case any 
alteration of officers' seniority is justifiable. 

5. All passing certificates of officers are to be in duplicate unless otherwise 
directed ; one copy is to be forwarded to the Commander-in-Chief for trans- 
mission to the Admiralty, and the other is to be given to the officer examined. 

100 



EXAMINATIONS GENERALLY. 349 

349. Documents required. The Captain of the ship from which a candi- 
date is sent for examination is to be careful that he takes with him certificates 
of service and of good conduct up to the day of examination, certificates of 
previous examinations, log books, work books, and all other documents that 
may be required for the information and inspection of the examining officers. 

Clerks who entered as Assistant Clerks prior to the year 1909 on attending 
the examination for the rank of Paymaster are also to produce proof that 
they are of the age required, viz., certificate of birth, or declaration thereof 
made before a magistrate. 

350. False Certificates, Penalty. If any candidate for examination shall 
knowingly produce false certificates of his age, service, or conduct, as his 
qualification for examination, lie shall thereby be rendered incapable of ever 
receiving any commission in His Majesty's Navy ; and if the falsehood of such 
certificates shall not be discovered until after he has obtained promotion, he 
shall be dismissed from the Navy, whenever it may be discovered, and from 
whatever rank he may at the time have attained. See 348 (General). 



101 



361 CHAP. Vm. MEN AND BOYS. 



CHAPTER VIII. 



MEN AND BOYS. ENTRY, QUALIFICATION AND 
INSTRUCTION. 

SECTION PAGE 

I. Medical Examination and Inspection - 102 

II. Raising and Entering 102 

III. Continuous, Non-continuous, and Special Service - 107 

IV. Training, Instruction, Qualification, and Examination - 110 
V. Transfers 116 

VI. Non-substantive Ratings - 116 

VII. Qualifications for and Service in Coast Guard - 121 



SECTION I. MEDICAL EXAMINATION AND INSPECTION. 

361. Medical Examination. All men and boys on first entry, whether 
for continuous, non-continuous, or special service, are to be medically 
examined under the direction of the Captain, as laid down in Article 1312 
and in the " Recruiting Instructions." All men and boys on re-entry are to 
be similarly examined, except in the case of men who re-engage without a 
break in their service. 

352. Final Examination. Newly raised men or boys who have passed 
before a surgeon and agent, or civil medical practitioner, are not to be after- 
wards rejected solely on the opinion of the medical officer of the general depot 
or other ship ; but in all cases of alleged unfitness they are to be surveyed at 
the naval hospital, and their cases reported on separately by two of the 
principal medical officers ; great caution is to be observed in regard to defects 
or diseases that can easily be simulated. 

2. In the case of newly-raised men or boys examined by naval medical 
officers either on board ship or in the recruiting departments on shore, the 
examination is to be considered final in all respects. 

SECTION II. RAISING AND ENTERING. 

363. Religion and Precautions to be observed. Officers entering or raising 
men or boys are to admit only such as are fit for the Service, but without any 
regard whatever to their religious creed ; they are also to be careful 

(a) That no person under the age of 18 is entered to fill a man's rating. 

(b) That, if under 17 years of age, the consent of their parents, or, if 

orphans, the consent of their guardians, is obtained on form B. 204, 
notwithstanding that such consent is not essential to the validity 
of the entry and the engagement. 

(c) That no apprentice is knowingly entered ; if an apprentice should be 

entered, the master has no legal right to recover him,' but every case 
of such entry will be dealt with by the Admiralty. 

(d) That in the case of boys the written proofs of age and parents' consent 

which are adduced are not falsified or forged, but the age as stated 
by the man or boy on entry is conclusive against him, and no altera- 
tion is to be made in the books without the sanction of the Admiralty. 

102 



RAISING AND ENTERING. 353 

Should, however, an attempt at deception by falsification of papers 
be detected, the candidate is to be rejected. 

(e) That the candidate understands that the condition attaching to the 
award of a long service pension is that he shall, on completing his 
time and attaining his pension, join the Royal Fleet Reserve and 
serve in it until the age of 50, should his services be so long required. 

354. Questions on Entry. Whenever men and boys offer themselves as 
fresh entries, whether for continuous, non-continuous, or special service, they 
are to be asked the questions set out in forms S. 55, S. 56 and S. 56#. 

2. A record of the questions put, and of the answers thereto, in addition 
to those recorded in the form, must be kept by the Captain or receiving officer 
in case of future reference becoming necessary, together with the signatures 
of at least two witnesses to the answers given, in order that evidence may be 
forthcoming in case a man should be proceeded against for making false state- 
ments.* 

3. Suspected Deserter. Should there be grounds for suspecting that a man 
or boy offering himself is a deserter or straggler from His Majesty's Service, 
the Captain should deal with him in accordance with Article 609. 

4. From B.N.R. The naval reserve certificate (R.V. 2) of a man entered 
from the Royal Naval Reserve is to be transmitted to the Registrar-General 
of Shipping and Seamen with a report of his entry in the Navy, when his 
retainer ceases. 

5. Army Reserve. No man belonging to the Army Reserve is to be 
entered. 

Should, however, an army reserve man be entered in error, and subsequently 
be found to belong to that reserve, particulars of the case, including proofs 
of his identity, are to be forwarded to the Admiralty for decision as to his 
disposal. 

For directions as to the entry of men serving in the Royal Naval Volunteer 
Reserve, the Special (Army) Reserve, or the Territorial Force, see the " Instructions 
relative to Recruiting for the Royal Navy and Royal Marines." 

355. Date of Birth. Unless otherwise ordered by the Admiralty, the date 
of birth as given by a man or boy on entering the Service shall be the date 
from which his age is to be determined so long as he is in the Service. 

2. No alteration is to be made in the date of birth recorded on the service 
certificate of a man or boy without previous reference to the Admiralty. 

356. Foreigners are not to be entered or re-entered without the sanction 
of the Admiralty, and in no case are they to be entered for continuous service. 
No foreigner entered after 24th April, 1900, is eligible for a pension. 



* NOTB. By the 16th section of the Act 16th and 17th Victoria, chapter 69, every 
person who, upon entering or offering himself to enter the navy, shall make any false 
statement, with intent to deceive any officer authorised to enter seamen or others for the 
navy, is deemed a rogue and vagabond, and liable to punishment accordingly, under 
5 George IV., chapter 88, sec. 4, and the Prevention of Crimes Act, 1871, sec. 15. The 
wages due and effects of a person so convicted are not forfeited to the Crown, but as the 
committing magistrate may, out of his money or effects, recoup the cost of the expenses 
of his arrest and maintenance in gaol, the man's effects are to accompany him when taken 
before the magistrate, who should be asked in each case to make an order to that effect. 

Prosecutions for false statements cannot, however, be instituted after six months hare 
elapsed since the date of the offence (i.e., the date of entry in the Service). See llth and 
12th Victoria, chapter 43. 

103 

H2 



356 CHAP. Vm. MEN AND BOYS. 

Men of Colour, whether British subjects or not, have no claim to count 
their time towards pension unless they entered the Service before 1st January, 
1904. 

Those entering on or after this date may only count their time towards 
pension in exceptional cases that are considered to warrant the grant of a 
pension under the special sanction of the Admiralty. 

In such cases this sanction is to be obtained through the Commander-in- 
Chief before the man is entered. 

357. Officers' Stewards and Cooks. Subject to the provisions of Article 356 
(Foreigners) and Article 358, officers may nominate their own stewards, cooks 
and servants, "with the approval in each case of the Captain. 

358. Officers' Stewards, &c., Training. In certain harbour ships and 
home establishments, youths between 16 and 18 years of age are to be entered 
as personal servants to ward-room officers and as mess waiters, and trained 
in the general duties of Officers' Stewards or Cooks. While under training they 
are to be borne on the books of the depot of the port to which they are attached, 
and paid as Boy Servants (Appendix XV., Part I., No. 108). 

2. Engagement. Youths so entered are to sign a non-continuous service 
engagement, in order that they may serve a commission at sea. After serving 
for not more than two years in the depots, if considered fit for the rating of 
Officers' Steward or Officers' Cook they are to be drafted to sea as soon as 
possible ; if unfit they are to be discharged. They are not eligible for selection 
to fill vacancies in the complements of shore establishments or stationary ships 
until they have served for a period of 18 months in a sea-going ship. 

3. Except in the case of serious misconduct, Officers' Stewards and Cooks 
who have been trained as Boy Servants are not to be discharged to the shore 
within their first five years' service without previous reference to the depot. 

4. Roster. A roster is to be kept at the drafting office at each port of all 
Officers' Stewards and Cooks available for draft, and so long as any depot 
bears disposable men of a class required, officers except flag officers and 
officers in command of His ^lajesty's ships or naval establishments are to take 
their servants from the number so borne. When the depots are unable to 
supply the necessary men, the special authority of the Commander-in-Chief 
at a home port for their entry from the shore is required in home waters. In 
the event of any such entry from the shore the Commander-ih-Chief s approval 
is to be noted on the man's non-continuous service engagement and in the 
" Remarks " column of the ship's ledger. 

5. A return in manuscript is to be forwarded from each port to the Admiralty 
monthly, showing the names of all Officers' Stewards and Cooks whose entry 
has been approved by the Commander-in-Chief, the dates of their entry, and 
the ships for which they have been entered. 

6. Register. A register of Officers' Stewards and Cooks who have already 
served in the Navy is to be kept at each home port, for the convenience of 
officers wishing to select a servant. 

The register will be open to inspection by officers at any time. 

The register will contain the names, ages, service, character, ability and 
addresses of the men, so far as known, and also a summary of private recommen- 
dations from officers, etc. 

Before paying off, all Officers' Stewards and Cooks are to be required to 
leave the necessary information at the depot for record in the register. 

7. Great care should be taken in assessing each man's capabilities in the 
various roles of cook, steward, valet, &c., on paying off, or on his leaving the 

104 



RAISING AND ENTERING. 358 

ship. No man should be discharged from a ship without the reasons for such 
discharge being clearly reported to the depot. This is especially necessary in 
the case of men discharged for misconduct or incapacity. 

8. Leave. Officers' Stewards and Cooks discharged from His Majesty's 
ships, whether in commission or on paying off, are eligible, unless discharged 
for misconduct or incompetence, or at their own request, for the same amount 
of full pay leave as continuous service ratings. 

9. Bearing as Disposable after Discharge. As a convenience to the Service 
and in order not to lose touch with men of good character and ability, all 
Officers' Stewards and Cooks (except Maltese, foreigners, and men of colour) 
who are discharged from His Majesty's ships after having served continuously 
for not less than six months in such ships (or on return cured from hospital 
or sick quarters after invaliding from abroad) may, if they desire it and are 
recommended by their commanding officers, be borne on the books of the 
depot for a limitad period as disposable for further service in the Royal Navy, 
provided they re-engage and sign the undertaking referred to in clause 17. 

10. The period of retention on the " Disposable List " is in no case to exceed 
91 days, and all time during which men are borne as disposable on the books 
of the depot is to be reckoned as part of the period, whether they have been 
lent for temporary service elsewhere or not. 

11. No man who has been discharged from the books of the depot to any 
employment (however temporary) before the expiration of this period of 91 
days is to be replaced on the books of the dep6t as disposable until he has 
again completed six months' service in a ship. If he has not completed such 
service, his name should be placed on the register referred to in clause 6, pro- 
vided that his character and ability are satisfactory. 

12. In the case of men who have leave due to them on discharge from their 
ships, the period in question is to commence from the date of expiration of such 
leave. 

13. Men specially entered for service in the manoeuvres are not entitled to 
be borne as disposable under this regulation. 

14. Any man retained on the books of a depot under this regulation who 
declines employment when offered is to be at once discharged to the shore. 

15. Boy Servants drafted to sea on completion of their training in shore 
establishments are to be placed on the " Disposable List " on leaving their 
first ship, unless discharged for misconduct, and the condition of six months' 
qualifying service is not applicable in their case. 

16. When Officers' Stewards and Cooks are discharged from ships to their 
depots the following particulars are to be inserted on their transfer lists : 

(a) The number of days' leave to which they are entitled. 

(b) Whether desirous of being borne as disposable on the books of the 

depot, and, if so, whether eligible and recommended. 

17. Non-continuous Service Engagement. On the expiration of their period 
of leave, or on return cured from hospital or sick quarters, and before being 
re-entered on the books of a depot to await re-employment, all Officers' Stewards 
and Cooks are to be required to sign the usual non-continuous service engage- 
ment under Article 366, and also an undertaking (a) that they will accept no 
private shore engagement outside the Service while so borne, and (b) that they 
will take whatever naval employment is found for them. 

18. Dress Gratuity. Officers' Stewards and Cooks employed as personal 
servants to officers, or as mess waiters in certain naval establishments at home, 
are, when the Admiralty so direct, to be paid a dress gratuity of 2/. a year, as 
provided in Article 1439. Sec 1426 (Pay of Officers Stewards and Cooks sent 
Sick from Abroad). 

105 



369 CHAP. Vm. MEN AND BOYS. 

359. Officers' Stewards and Cooks, Age for Rating. The Commander-in- 
Chief's approval of the entry of an Officers' Steward or Cook from the shore 
under the preceding Article will, as a rule, only be given when the candidate 
for entry is over 18 years of age. If, as an exceptional case, it is desired to enter 
a person under 18 the circumstances are to be fully explained when the case 
is submitted, and if the Commander-in-Chief approves the entry, the person 
entered is to be rated Boy Servant, and paid at the rate of Is. a day until he 
attains the age of 18. See 1433 (Natives entered to Fill Naval Ratings). 

2. If a person under the age of 18 should be entered with the Commander- 
in-Chief 's approval to fill a vacancy for a Second or First Class Officers' Steward 
or Cook, he is to be shown on the ledger as a Boy Servant borne in lieu of Officers' 
Steward or Cook, Second or First Class. 

360. Port Divisions of all Men. All men entered from the shore, including 
Officers' Stewards and Cooks, and boys on completing their course of instruction, 
are to be appropriated to one of the three naval ports, namely, Portsmouth, 
Devonport, or Chatham, according to the locality in which they have been 
recruited, so far as it is consistent with the requirements of the ports. They 
will belong to that port division during their service, unless for sufficient reasons 
they be allowed to 'be transferred to another, on application (form S. 1298). 

Commodores of depots will regulate these transfers under the approval of 
the Commander-in-Chief. 

See 1594, clause 5 (Annual Return of Ratings appropriated to Home Ports). 

361. Newly-raised Men, Information to be given. Newly-raised men are 
to be informed that they are responsible to the officers of their divisions for the 
condition of their kits. The usages of a lower deck, the customs and routine 
of the Service, and the pay, pensions, and badges to which seamen are entitled, 
must be explained to them. They are to be told to apply to the officer of their 
division, and not to the ship's office, in the event of their requiring advice or 
information ; and that if they should have a complaint to make, they must 
represent it to the officer of the watch, and, if necessary, through him to the 
Captain of the ship. 

362. British Seamen from Foreign Ships. Should any British seaman 
serving in a foreign vessel arrive on board one of His Majesty's ships, and 
demand the right to enter His Majesty's Service, and should it be proved that 
when he entered on board such foreign vessel he stated that he was a British 
seaman, he is entitled to be received and protected, notwithstanding any 
contract or agreement he might have entered into with the commander of such 
foreign vessel ; but His Majesty's officers are not authorised to send on board 
a foreign ship to take from her any British seaman against thn will of the foreign 
commander ; nor, in the case of a British seaman having found his way on 
board one of His Majesty's ships, and having been received into the Service, are 
they authorised to insist on the payment of wages or delivery of clothes to such 
seaman against the will of the foreign commander, he (the foreign commander) 
having full right to take on the spot his own view of the forfeiture he deems the 
seaman to have incurred (according to the law of the nation to which the vessel 
belongs) by his breach of contract in leaving her. And if the foreign commander 
act unjustifiably in that respect, he can be sued for reparation on his return 
to such country ; but His Majesty's officers have no right to interfere with him 
regarding it, nor indeed to go on board the foreign ship against the will of the 
commander for any such purpose. While affording the authorised protection 
to any acknowledged British seaman arriving on board His Majesty's ships, 
anxious to return to his allegiance to his Sovereign, the officers in command of 

106 



RAISING AND ENTERING. 302 

such ships are to be most careful not to molest or interfere with any foreign 
vessels or authorities, so as to give the slightest ground for offence or complaint 
on any of the points alluded to See also 805 (Recovery of Deserters from Foreign 
Ships). 

SECTION III. CONTINUOUS, NON-CONTINUOUS AND SPECIAL 

SERVICE. 

363. Engagement and Re-engagement. Men or boys entered in any of the 
ratings marked C.S. in column 1 of Appendix XV., Part I., must engage for 
continuous service as directed in clause 2 of this Article, form S. 55, provided 
that no person be engaged, unless he is in every respect desirable, form S. 508. 
No applicant for first entry who is over 28 years of age is to be allowed to 
engage for continuous service without Admiralty authority, and no non- 
continuous service man over 38 years of age or who has served over 10 years 
as such, is eligible for continuous service. 

2. The first continuous service engagement of a man on first entry, or with 
previous non-continuous service, shall be for 12 years ; that of a boy shall be 
to serve until he attains the age of 30. 

The second continuous service engagement shall be to complete time for 
pension. 

3. Re-engagement after completing time for pension will only be allowed 
in the case of men whose retention is specially desirable, and in all such cases 
the special sanction of the Admiralty is to be obtained prior to re-engagement. 
Application for the requisite permission to re-engage is to be made sufficiently 
early before the expiration of time for pension to allow of information as to the 
decision arrived at being received before completion of time. 

4. Except as provided in Article 1428 continuous service men who are 
premitted to continue to serve after completing their continuous service engage- 
ments must execute re-engagements ; those who have not completed time for 
pension re-engaging as required by clause 2, and those who have completed 
time for pension re-engaging for five years, or to serve to the limit of age allowed 
by the Regulations. See 1942 (Retention after completing time for Pension). 

5. The engagements and re-engagements of men must never be so worded 
as to appear to commence at a later date than the date of their being signed. 

364. Continuous Service. Each man or boy who enters for continuous 
and general service must sign an agreement to that effect (form S. 55), which, 
when completed, is to be sent to the Accountant-General , who will assign his 
official number, and every man or boy so entered or borne is to be distinguished 
in the ledger, in all pay documents and certificates, and in the conduct book, 
by the letters C.S., and the official number against his name. The date of 
commencement of his continuous service engagement is to be noted under 
the name of each boy on the ledger where he first appears for pay, but it need 
not be repeated on subsequent ledgers. It is important that the date in every 
case should be copied on to the ledger direct from the boy's service certificate, 
and not from any other document. 

2. The " Consent Paper " (form B. 204), and the certificate of birth or 
sworn declaration of age, mentioned in Article 353, are to accompany each 
boy's engagement when sent into office. Where documentary evidence of men's 
age is produced it should be similarly forwarded. 

3. The first continuous service engagement of a man with non-continuous 
service is to commence on the date of his actually volunteering to engage. 

4. Re-entry. Time-expired continuous service men discharged on paying 
off, if they rejoin within the period of'their paying-off leave, may re-engage 

107 



364 CHAP. Vm. MEN AND BOYS. 

from the date of paying off, and receive their pay and count time from that 
date. No man is to be re-entered in a higher rating than the one held when 
discharged from the Service. See 873 (Non-continuous service Men). 

365. Non-continuous Service. Men and boys entering from the shore for 
non-continuous service are to be required to answer the questions and sign 
the declaration set out in form S. 56, which is to be forwarded to the Accountant- 
General with the return on form S. 52. They may be required to serve for a 
period not exceeding five years from the date of their entry. 

2. Remaining Abroad. Non-continuous service men who volunteer to 
remain abroad, on their ships being ordered home, or to continue serving after 
being paid off or after completing their current engagements, are to be called 
upon to sign a fresh engagement (form S. 56) for a further period of five years 
which will date from the day of its execution. 

3. Leave. Non-continuous service men discharged on paying off are not 
entitled to any paying-off leave, except as provided for in Articles 873 and 
358, clause 8. 

366. Special Service. Men entered for special service are required to serve 
under the conditions stated in Appendix XV., Part II., of these Regulations. 
They must sign an agreement to that effect (form S. 56a) which, when com- 
pleted, is to be sent to the Accountant-General, who will assign his official 
number. Every man so entered or borne is to be distinguished in the ledger, 
in all pay documents and certificates, and in the conduct book, by the letters 
" S.S." and the official number against his name. 

367. Duties of Special Rating. No man or boy, when it can be avoided, 
is to be employed in performing the duties of any special rating other than 
that which he holds. See 1432 (Men doing duty in higher rating). 

368. Re-entry after Invaliding. Continuous service men, who, after being 
invalided, are allowed to re-enter, will resume and complete their original 
engagements, reckoning from the date they were entered into, provided they 
present themselves for re-entry within 12 months from the date of the last 
medical survey held upon them. If they do not re-enter within that period, they 
are to execute fresh engagements on re-entry in the same manner as men who 
re-enter after discharge by purchase. 

2. Invalided men, whether continuous, non-continuous, or special service, 
who remain absent from the Service for five years or more, are not to be re-entered 
until the special authority of the Admiralty has been obtained, with a decision 
in each case as to whether the man may or may not resume his former time 
towards pension, badges, &c. See 744 (Time that does not reckon). 

3. Re-entry after Discharge by Purchase. Should a person who has pur- 
chased his discharge before completing 12 years' continuous service be allowed 
to re-enter, his previous service will count in every^ respect as if no break in the 
original engagement had occurred, provided it be within five years of discharge ; 
and such service will reckon as part of the first term of 12 years' continuous 
service, for all purposes, unless otherwise specially provided, on the following 
conditions : 

(a) On re-entry, a fresh engagement must be entered into for 12 years. 

(b) On completion of the first term of 12 years' continuous service., includ- 

ing the service previous to discharge by purchase, a further engage- 
ment " to complete time for pension " may be entered into, and that 
executed on re-entry cancelled. 

(c) In the event of a man declining to enter into this further engagement 

he will continue to serve under that which he executed on re-entry. 

108 



CONTINUOUS, ETC., SERVICE. 369 

369. Period of Engagements. The period for which a petty officer, seaman, 
or boy can be compelled to serve is to be reckoned from the date upon which 
he entered into the engagement under which he is serving, without regard to 
any break in its continuity that may have been occasioned by desertion, 
invaliding, imprisonment, or any other cause. 

2. Passage of Time-expired Men Abroad. Men serving on foreign stations, 
who have not undertaken to remain out for the ship's commission and who 
upon the expiration of their engagements decline to re-engage, and men whose 
time for pension is complete, are to be sent home if they desire it. 

3. Special Service Men Abroad. Special service men serving on foreign 
stations are to be sent home so as to arrive before they complete five years' 
service in the fleet, and a notification of the names and ratings of those sent 
home for transfer to the Royal Fleet Reserve is to be forwarded to the Commo- 
dore of the depot stating the ship in which passage has been provided. (See 
Appendix XV., Part II.) 

4. If the exigency of the Service should require the retention of men, as 
provided for in Article 428, when they have declined to re-engage, they are to 
receive their full pay and allowances until they are discharged in England, and 
also the extra 2d. a day allowed for detention in Article 1448. Whenever a 
man is so detained the reason is to be reported on form S. 221. 

5. The Commanders-in-Chief on foreign stations are to receive from the 
ships under their orders quarterly returns of the men who will complete their 
engagements within the following six months, in order that they may be sent 
home by the most convenient opportunity of one of His Majesty's ships or 
transports. In special cases when there is no likelihood of such an opportunity 
occurring for a considerable time, or in the case of special service men, in order 
to avoid keeping them over their five years' engagement, Commanders-in-Chief 
may order their passage by contract packet or otherwise, in accordance with 
Article 1533. 

6. The numbers and ratings of men who have completed their engagements 
and are so detained are to be shown on the return of numbers required to com- 
plete complement (form S. 597). 

370. Renewal of Engagements Abroad. At the discretion of the Senior 
Officer, time-expired men serving abroad desirous of renewing their engagements, 
will be allowed leave proportionate to the time they have been absent from 
home, but not exceeding four weeks ; they are to be permitted to volunteer 
for any other ships on the station for the period of their commission, subject 
to the following restrictions, viz. : 

(a) They cannot be allowed to continue on the station after the return to 

England of the ships to which they are transferred ; 

(b) Although allowed to volunteer for a particular ship, they are to be 

made clearly to understand that they are liable to be put into any 
ship the Commander-in-Chief may direct, and they will only be 
allowed the privilege of selecting their ship when no inconvenience 
to the public service will be occasioned thereby ; 

(c) The re-entry of men to remain on the station is only to be permitted 

when there are vacancies in the aggregate, and not when there are 
supernumeraries on the station sufficient to fill the vacancies. 

371. Time-expired Men remaining. Continuous and non-continuous 
service men serving abroad who may be entitled to claim their discharge in 
consequence of the expiration of their engagements, if they desire it, and their 
services be required, may be allowed to remain and retain all the advantages 
as regards pay, and badge pay, until discharged abroad or brought home, as 

109 



371 CHAP. Vm. MEN AND BOYS. 

though their engagements extended to that time. See 1945 (Men who have 
completed their time for pensions) ; 1428 (Time-expired men). 

2. When such men have been discharged invalided, or for passage to 
England in consequence of their services being no longer required, they will 
continue to receive the same pay until their discharge at home. See 1617, 
clauseS (Paying off abroad). 

372. Transfer to another Ship. No man or boy, whether entered for 
continuous, non-continuous, or special service, is to be prejudiced in his rating 
or emoluments by being discharged to another ship ; should there be no 
equivalent rating open to him in the ship to which he may be sent as part 
complement, he will be borne as supernumerary, until the directions of the 
Commander-in-Chief are received ; nothing in this Article is to affect the 
power to disrate for punishment or for proved incompetency under Article 
777. 

373. Supernumerary Ratings. Whenever men or boys are transferred 
from a supernumerary list to the ship's complement or to another ship, they 
are to be taken from the top of the list in the order in which they stand thereon 
unless directions to the contrary are received front superior authority. 

374. Drafting Regulations. The Drafting Regulations are to be observed 
as the authority on all questions connected with the drafting of men and 
boys. 

SECTION IV. TRAINING, INSTRUCTION, QUALIFICATION, AND 
EXAMINATION. 

375. Qualifications and Examination generally. The ratings in the Royal 
Navy for which men and boys are eligible and the qualifications and examina- 
tions for each rating are given in detail in Appendix XV. Before a man or boy 
is given any one of these ratings he must possess the qualifications and pass 
the examinations therein specified. 

2. On the completion or receipt of the certificate in the form prescribed 
for the particular rating, or, if none is required, upon the candidate being found 
qualified, he may be rated accordingly into an existing vacancy, if not contrary 
to the regulations applicable to the case at the time. 

3. When not otherwise provided for, the Captain, should he see fit, will 
order the examination to take place, and in all cases in which the advancement 
is not obligatory he must satisfy himself that the candidate is of good character 
before he is allowed to present himself. 

4. Special Promotion for Distinguished Conduct. The Admiralty may 
advance any rating specially in such cases as they may consider warrant special 
promotion for distinguished conduct, notwithstanding any rule as regards 
qualifying service laid down herein. 

376. Boys under Training. When boys are under training, the instructions 
laid down in the " Training Service Regulations " are to be followed. 

2. Exemption from Instruction. Ship's Steward's Boys and Boy W T riters 
are exempted from instruction in seamanship ; but no man or boy doing duty 
as Bugler is so exempted. 

377. Instruction of Ordinary Seamen. Ordinary Seamen are to be con- 
tinuously instructed in the qualifications required for an A. B. Their systematic 
instruction is to be part of the routine of every ship, and is to be carefully 
inquired into at inspections. On the first Thursday of each month, or more 

110 



TRAINING, INSTRUCTION, ETC. 377 

often if the Captain should see fit, every divisional Lieutenant is to prepare a 
list of such of them as desire to pass for higher ratings, and the Captain will 
cause the candidates to be examined as laid down in Appendix XV. See 466, 
sub-clause (d) (Signalling). 

2. While under instruction in the use of tools, and in stokehold work (see 
Appendix X., Part XVIIL), Ordinary Seamen are to be considered in every 
respect as attached to the engine-room complement. 

3. The progress of Ordinary Seamen and Boys in seamanship is to be 
recorded in the book established for that purpose. 

378. Recommendations for Promotion. Captains of ships ordered to pay 
off are to prepare, on form S. 507, lists of men of all classes who are qualified 
and recommended for advancement to superior ratings, including petty officers 
for promotion to higher classes. The exact rating for which these men are 
recommended is to be specified. In addition to new recommendations, form 
S. 507 should always contain the names of men who have been already re- 
commended if they are still deserving, as a proof that they remain worthy of 
advancement. 

2. Separate lists are to be made out for the depots at each of the ports to 
which the men will return at the expiration of their leave. 

3. Promotions. If the higher ratings should be required at once at any 
depot the men recommended may be immediately promoted, otherwise they 
are to be noted for consideration as vacancies occur with others who may 
already be on the list for advancement. This record is to be referred to when 
ratings not available at one port are asked for from another. 

4. The Commodores of the depots are responsible for the selection of men 
for promotion, and are to take care that, as far as practicable, the men best 
entitled by character, ability, and service are advanced. 

5. Ships abroad. In the case of ships paid off and re-commissioned abroad, 
similar lists are to be forwarded direct to the depots to which the men will 
return after their leave, &c. 

6. Seamen should not be promoted to petty officer ratings unless recom- 
mended by Captains of sea-going ships. 

379. Petty Officers and Leading Seamen. Leading Seamen are to be rated 
from qualified Able Seamen who have passed the examination, and Seaman 
Petty Officers from Leading Seamen. 

2. In ships commanded by officers below the rank of Commander, petty 
officers are only to be rated as acting, application being made on the first 
opportunity to the Commander-in-Chief that they may be examined as to their 
fitness for their ratings. 

380. Petty Officers' Educational Certificate. All men of the seaman and 
signal classes before advancement to Petty Officer (N.S.), in addition to 
possessing the qualifications set forth in Appendix XV., Part I., must have 
passed the educational examination detailed in Appendix X., Part XVIL, for 
which they may present themselves on attaining the rating of A.B. or Signal- 
man. 

2. Successful candidates will be given an educational certificate, which is 
to be kept with their service certificate and handed to them on their leaving 
the Service. 

3. Other ratings of and above the rank of Leading Seaman may qualify 
for and obtain the certificate. This privilege is also to be accorded to Stokers 
1st Class. 

Ill 



381 CHAP. Vm. MEN AND BOYS. 

381. Gunnery and Torpedo qualification for Petty Officer. In addition to 
the other qualifications required for Petty Officer (N.S.) a man in the seaman 
class must hold at least an Acting S.G. or S.T. rating before advancement. 
On receiving the Petty Officer rating he must cease to hold the paid rating of 
S.G. or S.T., but may retain that of Diver. Petty Officers (N.S.) who have 
held the rating of S.G. or S.T., acting or confirmed, on subsequently passing 
through the gunnery or torpedo school, are to be placed in separate Petty 
Officers' classes with the object of fitting them for employment as Gunnery or 
Torpedo Petty Officers [P.O. (G) or P.O. (T)]. The case of any Petty Officer 
who fails after a second trial to attain the standard laid down for the Petty 
Officers' course is to be dealt with by the Commander-in-Chief of the port, any 
exceptional case being submitted to the Admiralty. 

382. Signal Ratings. A seniority list (form S. 1300), which includes all 
the signal ratings borne in ships at home and abroad belonging to the respective 
port divisions, is kept at each of the home ports. All changes in the super- 
numeraries and men under training in harbour ships and establishments by 
entry, discharge, advancement, or disrating, and continuous service engage- 
ments are to be shown on form S. I12a. Recommendations for advancement 
are to be noted on a man's signal history sheet and shown in the half-yearly 
return (form S. 507). 

2. All signal ratings above Signal Boy are to go through a re-qualifying 
course in one of the signal schools every three years as provided in the Drafting 
Regulations. The fact of their having done so is to be noted on their signal 
history sheets. 

3. Signal Boys and Ordinary Signalmen at sea are to be instructed in buzzer 
signalling for half-an-hour a day, and in elementary wireless telegraphy for 
one hour a week. 

4. Signalmen are to continue their training in aural signalling at sea. The 
number of exercises to be carried out during the week will depend upon the 
percentage obtained in the previous week, on the following scale : 

90 words in 5 minutes, 1 exercise a week. 
80 ,, 2 exercises 

70 3 

Under 70 words 5 ,, 

One hour a week is to be devoted to fleet wireless exercises. 

383. Telegraphist Ratings. The ratings of Petty Officer Telegraphist and 
Chief Petty Officer Telegraphist are to be subject to the same rules as regards 
appropriation, re-qualification and advancement as the higher gunnery, torpedo, 
and signal ratings. The ratings below Petty Officer Telegraphist are to be dealt 
with in this respect as general service ratings. 

2. The courses of instruction and examinations for Telegraphist and Leading 
Telegraphist (see Appendix X., Part XIX.), are to be carried out on board 
ship, and those for Petty Officer Telegraphist at the torpedo schools. 

3. Petty Officer Telegraphists are to re-qualify each time they return to 
their port division, if possible, but in any case at the expiration of four years. 

4. Boy Telegraphists and Ordinary Telegraphists at sea are to be instructed 
in the subjects shown in Appendix X., Part XIX. In order that this training 
may proceed without interference with the signalling arrangements of the 
fleet, a general routine of instruction is to be prepared by the signal officer in 
conjunction with the officer borne for wireless telegraph duties, and submitted 
for the approval of the Commander-in-Chief. 

384. Acting Ratings. Advancements to acting substantive ratings are 
not .to be made in vacancies of a temporary nature or such as will be filled 

112 



TRAINING, INSTRUCTION, ETC. 384 

ultimately by men appointed from the home ports or from other ships. See 
1432 (Men doing Duty in Higher Rating). 

385. Ship's Steward Ratings. Advancement of Ship's Steward's Assistants 
and Ship's Stewards to higher rates of pay is dependent on good conduct and 
qualifications, and is not to be granted without the approval of the Commodore 
of the depot to which they are attached. Applications for such advancement 
are to be transmitted to the Commodore of the depot. 

2. No Ship's Steward's Assistant is eligible for increased rate of pay on 
completing three years' service, until he has passed for the rating of Second 
Ship's Steward. 

3. Should circumstances not permit of a man passing for Ship's Steward 
or Second Ship's Steward on completion of the qualifying service, the fact is 
to be stated on form S. 442, when the examination actually takes place ; his 
rating is then to be antedated for purposes of increase of pay and promotion 
to the date on which he became eligible for advancement. 

4. Ship's Steward's Assistants who qualify for Second Ship's Steward but 
do not attain the standard necessary for Ship's Steward may be advanced to 
Second Ship's Steward in vacancies, but they must qualify for the rating of 
Ship's Steward at a subsequent examination before further advancement. 

5. Ship's Steward's Assistants who fail to pass for Second Ship's Steward 
are to be examined again not later than 12 months after the date of the first 
examination. In the event of a man failing to pass at the second attempt his 
case is to be specially reported to the Admiralty for decision as to his retention 
in His Majesty's Service. 

6. A Ship's Steward's Assistant who fails to pass the examination for Second 
Ship's Steward is to continue to receive the pay of a Ship's Steward's Assistant 
under three years' service, and also rank as such until he passes the necessary 
examination. 

7. Promotions to Ship's Steward are in all cases to be acting until the duties 
of a Ship's Steward have been carried out for 12 months in a ship allowed 
that rating in the complement, at the end of which period a special report is 
to be forwarded to the Commodore of the general depot to which the man is 
attached, before each case is considered for confirmation. 

8. Promotions, and confirmations of acting promotions made as above, are 
to be regulated as far as possible by seniority, provided that the reports on the 
candidates are satisfactory, and that they are recommended by their superior 
officers. 

9. Disrating. Ship's Stewards and Second Ship's Stewards disrated to 
Ship's Steward's Assistants are to be placed on the rate of pay for which they 
are qualified by length of service. 

10. In regard to any offence for the punishment of which a warrant is 
required in the case of a Ship's Steward rating, a copy of the warrant is to be 
transmitted to the Commodore of the depot to which the man is attached. 

11. All promotions and appointments of Ship's Steward ratings will be 
communicated direct to the ships affected, by the Commodore of the general 
depot to which they are attached. 

386. Artisan Ratings. Advancements of the undermentioned artisan and 
sailmaker ratings in any vacancies which may occur in ships on sea service 
(see Drafting Regulations), except ships in the home fleets, other than those 
caused by men whose time on the station has expired being sent home, may 
be made by the Commander-in-Chief, or Senior Officer, provided fit men are 
serving in the ships under his command : 

113 



386 CHAP. Vm. MEN AND BOYS. 

Carpenter's Mate. Armourer's Crew. 

Carpenter's Crew. Sailmaker's Mate. 

Leading Shipwright. Blacksmith's Mate. 

Shipwright. Plumber's Mate. 

.Leading Carpenter's Crew. Painter 2nd Class. 

Armourer. 2nd Cooper. 

Armourer's Mate. Cooper's Crew. 

A roster is to be kept on board the flag-ship for this purpose, and a quarterly 
return of these ratings is to be forwarded to the Commander-in-Chief from 
each ship on the station, giving information as to their character and qualifi- 
cations. 

Should a suitable man not be available on the station, application is to be 
made to the Admiralty for a man to be sent from home. 

2. When vacancies occur in ships on home service (see Drafting Regulations) 
and in ships of the home fleets they are to be filled by promoting the most 
deserving men available in the port division, who may be serving in the depots 
or in other ships on home service. 

Rosters are to be kept at the depots at the home ports, and, when a vacancy 
occurs in a ship at home, application is to be made to the Commodore of the 
depot for a man to fill it. Should there be a man serving in the ship where the 
vacancy occurs, who is specially qualified for advancement, a representation 
to that effect is to be made in the application, and in the event of the Commodore 
of the depot considering that there is a man in the depot or other ship on home 
service with a stronger claim to advancement, the Commander-in-Chief is to 
decide which man should be promoted. 

3. In order to keep the number of higher ratings in the port division complete, 
Commodores of depots are from time to time to advance the senior men on the 
roster who have passed and are recommended, due consideration being given 
to the date of passing. Those who are serving in ships on home service are to 
be advanced under the authority of the Commodore of the depot to which they 
are attached, who will also approve of the advancement of those serving in 
ships on sea service, provided their Captains still consider them deserving. In 
the latter case the Commodore of the depot will inform the Commander-in-Chief 
under whom the man is serving of the advancement. Men so advanced are to 
be retained in lieu of the lower rating until relieved. 

Return S. 507 is always to show the names of artisans, etc., recommended 
for advancement, in order that Commodores of depots may have the necessary 
information at their disposal. 

387. Sick Berth Staff. The examinations for promotion of sick berth 
ratings are to be held at Haslar, Chatham and Plymouth hospitals. The 
examination for promotion to Second Sick Berth Steward is also to be held at 
Malta hospital when necessary. 

2. They are to be held monthly on fixed days, which are to be announced 
in the local Port Orders. Notice of candidates who desire to present themselves 
is to be given to the hospital 48 hours before the day of examination. 

3. Second Sick Berth Stewards and Sick Berth Attendants who may be 
away from an examination centre on completion of three years' service in their 
rating are to be allowed to pass a provisional examination for advancement 
at a foreign hospital, or on board a flag-ship if there should not be a hospital 
on the station, but they must pass at one of the recognised examination centres 
before being confirmed in rating. 

4. Increase of pay is not to be granted until the final examination has been 
passed. It is then to be ante-dated to the date of completion of three years' 

114 



TRAINING, INSTRUCTION, ETC. 387 

service, or, if the mail fails at the first attempt, to the date of successful pro- 
visional examination. 

5. Particulars of provisional examinations of sick berth ratings are to be 
noted on the certificate of examination (forms S. 1236 and S. 1237) and on the 
ledger. 

6. No sick berth rating is to be allowed to re-enter or re-engage without the 
approval of the Commodore of the depdt. 

388. Swimming Instruction. In all ships instruction in swimming is to be 
given under proper supervision, either from the ship or from boats, for half- 
an-hour daily whenever the state and temperature of the water permit ; and 
advantage should be taken when the ship is in a suitable locality of sending 
parties of non-swimmers away for instruction. Economical arrangements may 
also be made in suitable localities.if considered necessary, for the use of swimming 
baths when available. The payments on this account should be shown in the 
cash accounts, under the head of Vote 11 Z, " Miscellaneous Payments." 

2. Bathing in the sea should not take place when the temperature of the 
water is below 53Fahrenheit, and the men under instruction should not remain 
in the water more than 10 minutes at any one time, unless the temperature is 
over 60 Fahrenheit. 

3. As a test of ability to swim all men must swim 100 yards with clothes on 
(duck suit as a rule). 

4. Life-saving should be taught to the more proficient, advanced classes 
being formed for this purpose as opportunity offers. 

5. The record of instruction in swimming (S. 406), showing the number of 
men who have passed through a course of instruction since the last inspection, 
and the number of non-swimmers remaining in the ship, distinguishing those 
still under instruction, is to be produced at all inspections and is to be examined 
and signed by the inspecting officer. 

6. In a fleet where a Lieutenant is borne for physical training duties, it is 
part of this officer's duties to encourage the practice of swimming, and to 
supervise generally the swimming instruction of the fleet. For this purpose the 
record of instruction in swimming is to be examined by him whenever he visits 
one of His Majesty's ships in connection with his physical training duties. 

389. Naval Schoolmaster. The Captain will take care that the Naval 
Schoolmaster shall 

(a) Instruct seamen, marines, and boys, under the Chaplain's direction, 

and assist at examinations when required ; 

(b) Assist the Chaplain by playing the harmonium or other suitable 

instrument, and instructing the choir, if competent to do so ; 

(c) Act as librarian and superintend the arrangements for the ship's com- 

pany to read and make use of the library. 

2. The Naval Schoolmaster is not, however, to be employed in any of the 
police duties connected with the boys. 

3. Substitute. When no Naval Schoolmaster is borne the Captain may 
direct any competent person to undertake the duties who may be willing to 
peform them ; and for so doing such person shall be entitled to receive pay as 
directed in Article 1451, under the following conditions : 

(a) The average length of a lesson over the period for which payment is 

made to be not less than one hour ; 

(b) The average number of names on the school register for the same 

period to be not less than 10 in ships with complements of 350 and 
over, and not less than six in ships with complements of less than 
350. 

115 



390 CHAP. Vm. MEN AND BOYS. 

390. School. In sea-going ships the afternoon school is to be open to all 
the boys, and to any petty officer, seaman or marine desirous of attending it, 
but the attendance is not to be compulsory. 

2. The Naval Schoolmaster is to keep a register (form S. 396), in which the 
attendance of the men and boys and the duration of each attendance is to be 
regularly entered. This register is to be forwarded annually on 31st December 
by the Captain to the Commander-in-Chief for the Admiralty. 

SECTION V. TRANSFERS. 

391. Transfers Generally. Transfers from one rating to another will be 
allowed only when the transfer is in the interests of the Service and the applicant 
has been recommended by the Captain of his ship or the Commandant of his 
division and possesses the necessary qualifications for the new rating. 

2. To Unskilled Ratings. All applications for transfer to unskilled ratings, 
in the case of seamen or marines serving at home, are to be referred to the 
Commodore of the depot or Commandant of the division to which they are 
attached, for final decision by the Commander-in-Chief or the Deputy Adjutant- 
General, Royal Marines. Similar applications from men serving abroad are to 
be dealt with by the Commander-in-Chief or Senior Naval Officer, but are to 
be allowed only in vacancies on the station. 

3. To Skilled Ratings. A roster is established at each home depot and 
marine headquarters on which are noted the names of men who are recommended 
for transfer to a skilled rating, i.e., a rating in which certain trade knowledge 
and experience are necessary qualifications. Men whose names are placed on the 
roster are to be considered available for transfer in vacancies at any of the 
home ports, irrespective of their proper port divisions. Applications to be 
placed on the roster from seamen or marines serving at home or abroad, are to 
be referred to the Commodore of the depot or Commandant of the division to 
which they are attached, for final decision by the Commander-in-Chief and 
Deputy Adjutant-General, Royal Marines. 

4. Qualified men serving abroad who are recommended for transfer to a 
skilled rating may be authorised by the Commander-in-Chief to perform the 
duties of the new rating should a vacancy exist, and receive the advantages 
of pay prescribed by Article 1432, but no acting rating is to be conferred. 

5. Marines. In the case of marines transferred under the foregoing rules, 
the date when the men cease pay as marines is to be notified to the Deputy 
Adjutant-General, Royal Marines, in order that the necessary discharge docu- 
ments may be prepared and transmitted. 

6. See also Appendix XV., Part II., as to transfer of special service men 
to continuous service. 

7. Transfers between Seamen, Stoker, Officer's Steward and Cook and 
miscellaneous classes of ratings are to be reported to the Accountant-General 
on form S. 52, as provided in Article 1593, clause 4. 

392. Signalmen incapable. If an Ordinary Signalman or Signalman 
should be reported by his Captain as incapable of performing his duty efficiently 
the Commander-in-Chief may order his rating to be changed to any rating in 
the Seaman class for which he may be qualified. 

SECTION VI. NON-SUBSTANTIVE RATINGS. 

393. Courses in Gunnery and Torpedo. The courses of instruction for 
officers and men qualifying and re-qualifying in the gunnery and torpedo schools 

116 



NON-SUBSTANTIVE RATINGS. 393 

are laid down in the handbooks of " Courses of Instruction in Gunnery and 
Torpedo " issued from time to time by the Admiralty. 

394. Seaman Gunner and Seaman Torpedo Man. Able Seamen rated at 
sea and recommended for Seaman Gunner (S.G.) or Seaman Torpedo Man (S.T.) 
are, on paying off, to be sent to the gunnery and torpedo schools respectively 
to qualify as such. 

2. About one-third of the Seamen who do not hold gunnery or torpedo 
ratings should be recommended to qualify as S.G., and about one-quarter to 
qualify as S.T., but these proportions are to be considered as a guide only. 

3. Captains of sea-going ships will have the power of making acting S.G.'s 
and acting S.T.'s, but additional pay will only be allowed in the case of men 
actually filling a vacancy in the complement. 

4. The examination for Acting S.G. is to be conducted by the Gunnery 
Lieutenant of the ship, or of another ship if no Lieutenant (G) is borne. 

5. The examination for Acting S.T. is to be conducted by the Torpedo 
Lieutenant or Torpedo Gunner of the ship, or of another ship if no Lieutenant 
(T) or Gunner (T) is borne. 

6. Acting S.G.'s and Acting S.T.'s are, on paying off, to be sent to the 
gunnery and torpedo schools to qualify as S.G. and S.T. 

395. On Completing Course. At the completion of the course in the 
gunnery and torpedo schools men who pass will be rated S.G. and S.T. respec- 
tively. Men who fail to qualify will be discharged to the general depot. 

2. The regulations for the re-qualification of S.G.'s and S.T.'s are given in 
the " Courses of Instruction in Gunnery and Torpedo." 

3. Re-entries in G. and T. Ratings. Subject to any revised regulations 
which may have been issued since their discharge, men who have been out of 
the Service over a year, including those who have served in the Coast Guard 
and those reverting to a seaman class rating after service in a. non-combatant 
rating, may re-qualify in the gunnery or torpedo schools in their former non- 
substantive rating, but they are not to receive non-substantive pay until they 
have successfully re-qualified. 

4. Subject to any revised regulations which may have been issued since 
their discharge, men who have been out of the Service for not more than a 
year may return to the general dep6t and be available for service with the 
non-substantive rating they held before leaving. They must re-qualify as in 
clause 2. 

5. Petty officers and men holding gunnery or torpedo ratings who are within 
two years of completing their continuous service engagements are not to be 
sent to the gunnery or torpedo schools to re-qualify unless they are allowed 
to re-engage to complete time for pension. 

396. Gunner's Mates and Torpedo Gunner's Mates. Men selected to 
qualify as Gunner's Mates (G.M.) or Torpedo Gunner's Mates (T.G.M.) must 
hold a rating not lower than that of Leading Seaman passed for Petty Officer 
and be of very good character. 

2. The only other non-substantive gunnery rating which Gunner's Mates 
are allowed to hold is that of Gunlayer 1st Class. 

3. Torpedo Gunner's Mates are divided into two classes for pay, the propor- 
tion of Torpedo Gunner's Mates with the higher rate of pay to the total number 
of Torpedo Gunner's Mates being so regulated as to be approximately the same 
as is the proportion of Gunner's Mates holding the rating of Gunlayer 1st Class 
to the total number of Gunner's Mates. To be eligible for the higher rate they 
must have served as Torpedo Gunner's Mates in a sea-going ship for at least 
two years subsequent to leaving the torpedo school, be Petty Officers or Chief 

117 



396 CHAP. Vm. MEN AND BOYS. 

Petty Officers, and be strongly recommended. The selection of the Torpedo 
Gunner's Mates to receive the higher rate of pay is to be made by the command- 
ing officers of the torpedo schools at the expiration of each re-qualifying course. 
Men receiving the higher rate are to be distinguished as " T.G.M. (H.S.)." 

4. Captains may give the paid acting rating of Gunner's Mate, or Torpedo 
Gunner's Mate with the lower rate of pay, to suitable men in actual vacancies 
occurring abroad. 

397. Gunlayers 1st Class, L.T.O.'s and Torpedo Coxswains. The rating of 
'Gunlayer 1st Class (G.L. 1 cl.) is to be held only by Petty Officers and Leading 
Seamen. Except in the case of Gunner's Mates and Acting Gunlayers 1st Class, 
trained afloat, men are not eligible for the rating who have not been to sea as 
Gunlayer 2nd Class (G.L. 2 cl.) or Gunlayer 3rd Class (G.L. 3 cl.). 

2. The rating of Leading Torpedo Man (L.T.O.) may be held by Able 
Seamen and all higher ratings. 

3. Petty Officers (G) not holding a higher Gunnery rating are eligible to 
qualify for Torpedo Coxswain (T.C.). When Torpedo Coxswains are sent to 
ships in their Petty Officer capacity only, they may continue to draw the pay 
attached to the non-substantive rating. 

4. Torpedo Coxswains are to cease to hold any other non-substantive 
rating, except Diver. 

(See 381 as to re-qualification of Petty Officers who have held rating of S.G., 
S.T., or L.T.O.) 

398. Acting Gunnery and Torpedo Ratings. As soon as practicable after 
being placed in commission with a full crew, every sea-going ship is to train 
and keep in hand a proportion of (unpaid) Acting Higher Gunnery ratings, 
both Seaman and Marine. The number of Acting Gunlayers 1st Class to be 
thus trained is to be 50 per cent, of the total number of confirmed ratings 
allowed in the complement, but this percentage may be increased to 100 at 
the discretion 'of the commanding officer. The numbers of Acting Gunlayers 
2nd Class and Acting Gunlayers 3rd Class to be trained are not to exceed in 
each case 15 per cent, (but with a minimum of 1 of each class) of the total 
number of these confirmed ratings actually allowed in the complement. 

2. The men to be trained are, as a rule, to be taken from those gunnery 
ratings in the complement next below the rating for which they are intended, 
but Gunlayers 3rd Class and Acting Gunlayers 3rd Class are eligible for training 
as Acting Gunlayers 1st Class provided that in the case of Seamen they have 
passed for Leading Seaman. 

3. Men so trained are to be given a course of instruction with shooting 
apparatus at the guns for which they are being trained, and are also to carry 
out from these guns the following firings : 

Men qualifying for Acting j 100 rds. aiming rifle. 

Gunlayer 1st Class. f 30 ,, sub-calibre. 

f 100 rds. aiming rifle. 

Men qualifying lor Acting I 1Q sub -calibre. 

Gunlayer 2nd Class. | 1Q V 4 _ in to 

(reduced charge if available). 

Men qualifying for Acting i 100 rds. aiming rifle. 
Gunlayer 3rd Class. ( 20 ,, 12-pr. or 3-pr. 

4. In ships on sea service (see Drafting Regulations) vacancies for gunnery 
and torpedo ratings, except those caused by the periodical relief of men whose 
time on the station has expired, may be filled by the Captain, who may confer 
the acting rating upon trained Seamen and Marines who satisfy the prescribed 
conditions. 

118 



NON-SUBSTANTIVE RATINGS. 398 

If no suitable man is available for the acting rating, application should be 
made, through the Commander-in-Chief or Senior Officer, for a man to be sent 
from England. 

5. In ships on home service vacancies for higher gunnery or torpedo ratings 
are only to be filled by acting ratings, if qualified men are not available to fill 
them from the port to which the ship is attached for manning. 

6. All acting ratings are to be held only so long as there is a vacancy in the 
complement for them, and in any case men are to cease to hold the higher 
acting ratings when they leave the ship in which the rating is given. 

7. The fact of a man having held an acting rating is to be noted on his 
gunnery and torpedo history sheet. The reason for his ceasing to hold the 
acting rating is also to be stated. 

8. Men holding acting gunnery and torpedo ratings are to receive the pay 
of the rating only while borne on ship's books for the duty. 

399. Higher Gunnery and Torpedo Ratings. No man who has qualified 
for a higher gunnery rating shall be eligible for training for a higher torpedo 
rating and vice versa. 

2. Gunlayer 3rd Class is to be considered a higher gunnery rating, and 
Leading Torpedo Man a higher torpedo rating. 

3. Failure to Qualify. Any man who fails to pass for a higher gunnery or 
torpedo rating shall not be eligible to qualify for a higher rating in either branch 
until three years have elapsed since the date of failure. 

4. In the case of men failing as in clause 3, a notation to this effect is to be 
made on their gunnery and torpedo history sheets, with a special notation by 
the Captain of the school in which they failed as to what was in his opinion the 
cause of failure, and in such case the above notation is to receive full weight 
when the question of the men's advancement to higher substantive rating is 
considered. 

5. Until the opportunity is given to men to re-qualify in one of the gunnery 
or torpedo schools their gunnery or torpedo pay is to be continued ; but should 
they fail to do so, their pay is to be reduced to the pay of the rating for which 
they have re-qualified, a notation to that effect being made on their gunnery 
and torpedo history sheets. 

6. -Marines. The allowances attached to higher gunnery ratings, Royal 
Marines, are payable continuously so long as a man remains efficient and 
available for sea service, but are to lapse should he fail to re-qualify at the 
proper time after due opportunity, or should he obtain a permanent appoint- 
ment on shore whilst occupying which he is noted " not available " on the roster 
for sea service. Where failure to re-qualify is due to want of opportunity, 
payment may be continued. 

7. With the exceptions stated, payment for all non-substantive ratings is 
to be continuous, commencing from the date on which the rating is given. 

400. Physical Training Instructor. Men showing proficiency are to be 
encouraged to volunteer for the rating of Physical Training Instructor, and 
those selected by the Superintendent of Physical Training to qualify as such are 
to be discharged, on paying off, to the Royal Naval Barracks. Portsmouth, for 
the school of physical training, if vacancies exist at the time. 

An advanced class of such men should be formed when practicable, in order 
that they may assist in the daily exercise of seamen. 

2. Men appropriated to qualify as Physical Training Instructors arc to 
be selected by the Superintendent of Physical Training from candidates 
who possess the qualifications specified in Appendix XV., Part III., Nos. 65 
and 66. 

119 

12 



400 CHAP. Vm. MEN AND BOYS. 

3. Physical Training Instructors (N.S.) other than Staff or Senior Staff 
Physical Training Instructors, will be allowed to hold the rating of Diver and 
the following gunnery and torpedo ratings under the regulations applying to 
such ratings : 

Petty Officers. Gunlayer 2nd or 3rd Class. 

Leading Seamen. Gunlayer 2nd or 3rd Class, S.G., S.T. 

4. Re-qualification. All Physical Training Instructors are to re-qualify as 
such every three years, but not. at shorter intervals (see Note to No. 66c of 
Appendix XV., Part III.). If within two years of completing their continuous 
service engagement, they are not to be allowed to re-qualify, unless they are 
allowed to re-engage to complete time for pension. 

5. Petty officers or men who are within two years of the expiration of their 
first engagement are not to be appropriated to qualify or re-qualify for Physical 
Training Instructor, unless they have been permitted to execute re-engagements 
to complete time for pension. Petty officers or men who have completed their 
first engagement are not to be appropriated to qualify. 

6. Volunteers recommended. On the arrival at a home port of a ship not 
under orders to pay off,' a return is to be rendered to the Commander-in-Chief 
for transmission to the Superintendent of Physical Training, showing what 
volunteers recommended for Physical Training Instructor are serving on board. 

7. When a ship is to be paid off a similar return is to be rendered showing 
the disposal of such men on paying off. 

401. Non-substantive Ratings, Cancellation, &c. If any man holding a 
non-substantive rating, acting or confirmed, should evince a decided want of 
knowledge of any of his duties, or show himself unfit for his position, the Captain 
may order an inquiry by officers of the ship. If the man is found to be incom- 
petent the Captain may at his discretion reduce his non-substantive rate to a 
lower grade, or cancel it altogether. 

2. A man holding a non-substantive rating acting or confirmed, who is 
disrated below the lowest substantive rating allowed to hold the non-substan- 
tive rating, is to have the pay of the latter stopped, and is not to wear the 
distinctive badge of the non-substantive rating until he regains a substantive 
rating which qualifies him for it. 

3. Men who may be reduced to the second class for conduct whilst qualify- 
ing or re-qualifying in one of the schools may be allowed to complete their 
course in the case of gunnery and torpedo ratings, but not if qualifying for 
Physical Training Instructor. If the Captain of the school considers the conduct 
of men qualifying or re-qualifying for gunnery or torpedo ratings is such that 
their removal from the establishment is desirable, he is to make application 
to the Commander-in-Chief accordingly. 

4. Men who are discharged from a school as unfit to qualify, or for mis- 
conduct during the course, are not to be allowed to rejoin for a second trial for 
a period of at least two years, during the last year of which they must have 
been in the first class for conduct. 

5. Non-substantive pay, being conditional on the due efficiency and diligence 
required for the rating, will not be payable, should the Captain so decide, where 
such efficiency and diligence are not maintained. Such break in the continuity 
of non-substantive pay, however, is not to exceed a month at any one time. 

This provision is not to apply to cases of actual incompetence which are to 
be dealt with under clause 1. 

6. Stoppage or reduction of non-substantive pay is not to be recorded as 
a punishment. 

120 



NON-SUBSTANTIVE RATINGS. 402 

402. Rifle and Field Exercises. AU Stokers 2nd Class, Sailmaker's Mates, 
and Blacksmith's Mates are to receive instruction in rifle and field exercises 
on joining the Service, and, as regards the former, a fair knowledge of the subject 
is one of the qualifications for advancement to Stoker 1st Class. 

403. Armourer's Work. The Captain is to detail the following propor- 
tions of Seamen or Marines for continuous work with the Armourer's staff of 
the ship, preference being given to volunteers who have shown skill in mechanical 
and stokehold work : 

Battleships and 1st class cruisers 4 

2nd class cruisers - - 2 

Special service vessels, such as instructional ships, to be excepted. 

2. The period of training is to be six months in the case of men who have 
previously undergone instruction in mechanical and stokehold work, and 
twelve months in the case of men who have not previously undergone such 
instruction. 

3. At the expiration of their period of training the men are to be examined, 
and, if found efficient, the notation " Qualified in Armourer's work " (" Q.A.") 
is to be made on their certificates. 

4. Men who have so qualified are to be employed for three months during 
a commission, in order to keep up their knowledge, but are not to be granted 
extra pay while so employed. 

5. Seamen and Marines who have qualified in armourer's work in the above 
manner may be employed as Armourer's Assistants in vacancies under authority 
of the Captain, or under the special authority of the Commander-in-Chief, 
when required to assist the Armourer's staff in any special or unusually heavy 
work. When employed in either capacity they are to receive extra pay at the 
rate laid down in Article 1468, clause 3, Class II. 

SECTION VII. QUALIFICATION FOR AND SERVICE IN COAST GUARD.* 

404. A seaman whose character has been assessed as " V.G." during the 
last four years and who has not been previously awarded a lower character 
than "Good," whose ability for the last five years afloat is " V.G.," and who 
has completed ten years of continuous service, is eligible for entry in the 
Coast Guard, subject to the following conditions : 

(a) He must be recommended by his Captain on form S. 233. 

(b) He must possess at least one good conduct badge. 

(c) He must not exceed 37 years of age. 

(d) He must be able to swim. 

(e) He must be prepared if necessary to execute a re-engagement for 

continuous service to complete time for pension, such re-engagement 

commencing on date of execution. 
(/) He must be able to read and write. 
(g) He must have a good knowledge of semaphore and Morse (by day and 

night) and a fair acquaintance with flags and their meanings naval 

and international codes. 

2. There is no restriction as to the number of candidates who may be 
recommended from any particular ship, but the admissions will depend upon 
the number of vacancies. 

3. Men holding gunnery or torpedo ratings are not allowed to retain their 
non-substantive pay after admission to the Coast Guard, except when specially 

* * Entries into the Coast Guard of signal, telegraphist, and carpenter rating sare suspended 
until further notice. 

121 



404 CHAP. Vm. MEN AND BOYS. 

provided for in the case of Instructional rates, but all men except Divisional 
Carpenters are allowed to receive gunnery pay of Id. a day. 

4. All Coast Guard men are liable to be embarked in turn for such cruises 
as the Admiralty may appoint, and if found unfit for active service at sea, 
they will be discharged with such pension or gratuity as they may be entitled 
to from their service. 

5. The age for absolute discharge from the Coast Guard, whether fit for 
service or not, is for 



Boatmen - -") 

Leading Boatmen - - ( 

Petty Officers (Coast Guard) - - f 



Divisional Carpenters 

Chief Petty Officers (Coast Guard) - - 55 

6. A limited number of Stoker Petty Officers, Leading Stokers, and Stokers 
1st Class, will be admitted provided they are eligible under clause 1 of this 
Article, except that only nine years' continuous service will be required instead 
of ten, and no Signal qualification will be necessary. Knowledge of signals 
will, however, be taken into consideration in selecting candidates for appoint- 
ment. Stoker ratings who have previously held other ratings will be eligible 
with one year less than the qualifying period as Stoker in force at the time of 
application. Not more than two years as Stoker 2nd Class wil be allowed to 
reckon towards the qualifying period. 

7. Divisional Carpenters of the Coast Guard will be appointed, as vacancies 
occur, from artisans of the carpenter class who have served for 10 years in the 
fleet with Very Good character and hoid the qualifications stated in clause 1, 
except as regards continuous service and sub-clauses (b) and (g) of clause 1 . 

8. Lists of vo unteers for the Coast Guard (form S. 233) , showing their 
names and ratings, and accompanied by copies of their service certificates, are 
to be transmitted from all ships paying off, whether at home or abroad, but 
only from such other ships as may from time to time be directed. 

405. Coast Guard men embarked. A Coast Guard man when embarked 
will retain his actual or equivalent rating ; but when discharged into a sea-going 
ship for misconduct, or at his own request, he will be rated A.B., unless the 
District Captain shall note on his transfer list that his original rating afloat 
was superior to A.B., and that he is worthy of being allowed to resume it, 
when he is to be rated accordingly. 



122 



406 



CHAPTER IX. 

INSTRUCTIONS TO OFFICERS IN GENERAL. 

406. Officers on Special Services. All officers belonging to or having 
duties to perform in connection with Cadets' training colleges, Boys' training 
ships, or the Coast Guard, transport, and recruiting services, will respectively 
be guided by the special instructions issued relative thereto in so far as they in 
any way add to, or modify, the Regulations contained in this Volume and in 
Volume II. 

407. Meeting with a Senior Officer. If an officer in command of one or 
more of His Majesty's ships should meet with a senior officer, and the state of 
the weather admits, he is to wait on such senior officer, to show all the orders, 
which are not secret, that he is acting under, and inform him of the state and 
condition of the ship or ships under his orders. Officers commanding His 
Majesty's yachts in home waters are not to be required to wait on any officer 
under the rank of Commander ; but on foreign stations they are to report 
to the senior officer present, whatever may be his rank. 

408. Senior Officer's Conduct towards Junior. A senior officer is not to 
require a junior officer to show him any secret orders, nor is he to divert him 
from his service, take him under his command, or interfere with the orders 
he may have received ; should, however, any pressing exigency of the public 
service require the senior officer to depart from these injunctions, and his 
measures have tended to delay the junior officer, he is to allow him to proceed 
in execution of his orders as soon as possible, if it is still advisable that they 
should be carried out. He will lose no time in acquainting the Admiralty 
with what he has done, and if the ship or ships so diverted belong to another 
officer's command, he is to inform that officer also, without delay. 

409. Surveying Ships. Although a surveying ship is to be considered as 
under the orders of the Commander-in-Chief of the station on which she happens 
to be, her programme of work and the directions for her movements will as a 
rule emanate directly from the Admiralty. Should it be necessary for the good 
of the Service to divert her from her important duties or to interfere with her 
establishment, full particulars of any change are to be reported to the Admiralty 
without delay by the senior officer so acting. 

2. Surveying ships, when not diverted from their special duties, are not 
to be required to follow the senior officer's evolutions for exercise. 

410. Signals to Foreigners and Merchant Ships. The commercial code of 
international signals, being now recognised by the principal maritime States 
of the world, is to be made use of when communicating by signal with foreign 
men-of-war and merchant ships. When communicating with British merchant 
ships the British signal manual is to be used in addition to the international 
code. 

411. Confidential Reports. All officers and others belonging to the Fleet, 
having any communication to make containing professional and political 
information concerning foreign countries, or their naval and military prepara- 
tions, are invariably to mark such reports " Confidential," and they are distinctly 
to understand that it will be considered a breach of confidence on their part 
to communicate a copy, an extract from, or the substance of, a " Confidential " 

123 



411 CHAP. IX.- INSTRUCTIONS TO 

document to any one other than their superior naval authority without the 
permission of the Admiralty. See 1866 (a) (Method of despatch}. 

412. Addresses of Officers. Every officer discharged abroad for any cause, 
except a commissioned warrant or a warrant officer, on arrival in England, 
is to report by letter, addressed to the Secretary of the Admiralty, Whitehall, 
London, the date of his arrival and his address. 

2. When commissioned officers are discharged to half -pay or to full-pay 
leave from His Majesty's ships either at home or abroad, their addresses are 
to be reported, on form S. 227, to the Secretary of the Admiralty. 

The only exceptions to the foregoing rule are as follows- : 

(a) Medical officers are to be dealt with under Article 1319. 

(b) The addresses of the officers enumerated in Article 229, clause 1, 

need not be reported from their ships to the Admiralty in the 

circumstances stated. 

The addresses of officers who are to be placed on ship's books on arrival 
in England, and also of officers discharged to full-pay leave on paying off at 
home, are to be noted on form S. 48. 

3. Any change in the permanent address of an officer on half -pay or full-pay 
leave is to be at once reported to the Secretary of the Admiralty, and an officer 
when absent from his recognised address is to take care that provision is made 
for any Admiralty communication to be forwarded to him without delay. 

In the case of an officer on full-pay leave the change of address is also to 
be reported to the Commanding Officer of the depot or ship on the books of 
which the officer is borne. 

4. When officers are discharged to a flag-ship or general depot for any 
purpose, and are granted leave without joining such flag-ship or depot, their 
addresses are to be noted on their transfer lists. 

413. Illness of Officers not serving. When, owing to illness, an officer on 
half pay or foreign service leave is not immediate!}' available for appointment, 
a report to that effect is to be made to the Secretary of the Admiralty, accom- 
panied by a medical certificate stating the nature of the illness and its probable 
duration. 

414. Care of Machinery or Articles. Officers in charge of or responsible 
for the proper use of machinery or articles of store are to be careful to make 
themselves masters of the purposes for which they are respectively fitted or 
furnished, and are to take care that they are kept in efficient working order 
and in a proper state of preservation, and when necessary, properly packed, 
that as a general rule the articles are not used for purposes other than those 
for which they were intended, and that no alterations are made in them without 
the sanction of the Senior Officer ; this injunction is specially applicable to 
labels on shells and other naval ordnance stores of a combustible character. 

415. Applications for Patents. No officer, or other person employed 
under the Admiralty, is permitted to apply for, or obtain, a patent, except 
in the manner laid down in these Regulations. 

2. Should permission to apply for, or obtain, a patent be granted, it will be 
subject to these Regulations, from which there will be no appeal by the patentee 
either to the Treasury under Section 29 of the Patents and Designs Act, 1007, 
or otherwise. 

3. British Patents. In the case of British patents the inventor must, in 
the first instance, apply to his Commanding Officer, or the head of his establish- 
ment or department, for permission to apply for a patent and to lodge at the 
Patent Office a provisional specification for his invention. In no case will he 

124 



OFFICERS IN GENERAL. 415 

be allowed to lodge a complete specification with the Patent Office in the* 
first instance. 

Application for permission is to be made on the form prescribed in clause 6, 
which gives the conditions on which such permission is granted and the further 
steps it is obligatory on the patentee to take before finally obtaining a patent. 
At this stage the inventor will not be required to give more than the title of 
his invention. 

Such application may be made confidentially direct to the inventor's 
Commanding Officer or the head of the establishment or department, who will 
take steps to see that the application and all subsequent proceedings in the 
matter are dealt with confidentially, so as to safeguard the inventor's interests 
as well as those of the Crown. 

4. Provisional Protection. In order that an inventor may not be prejudiced 
in any way by delay in obtaining provisional protection, Commanding Officers 
of H.M. ships and heads of H.M. naval establishments and Admiralty depart- 
ments are authorised to approve of applications made by those serving under 
them in the form prescribed in clause 6 unless they have reason to doubt that 
the applicant is the true inventor, and they are at once to forward the original 
form approved by them to the Secretary of the Admiralty (C.P. Department), 
a copy of which should be given to the inventor for his retention. 

5. Secret Patent. If the officer authorised to approve such applications is 
of opinion that the invention is one which should be kept permanently secret, 
he is to forward at once to the Admiralty the provisional specification, accom- 
panied by the agreement referred to in clause 6 duly signed by the inventor, 
and is to withhold permission from the inventor to apply to the Patent Office 
until the Admiralty has decided whether a secret patent shall be obtained. 

6. Form of Agreement. The following is the form of agreement referred 
to in the preceding clauses. It is to be prepared locally, and must be signed 
and approved before any application to patent is made. 

AGREEMENT. 

Address 

Date 

I hereby request permission to apply to the Patent Office for a patent 

for (here give title of Invention) on the following 

conditions : 

(i) I will not leave a complete specification with the application nor will 
I subsequently leave a complete specification or take any further 
steps in the matter after applying for provisional protection, without 
the direction or permission of the Admiralty. 

(ii) Within 48 hours of the despatch by me to the Patent Office of my 
application I will inform the Admiralty through my Commanding 
Officer or head of department of the application, and forward such 
a description of the invention as may enable their Lordships to 
judge of the course to be pursued and will subsequently give any 
further information as to my invention and forward the provisional 
specification if required. 

(iii) I will, if so ordered, assign to the Admiralty or the Secretary of State 
for War on behalf of His Majesty as may be required the benefit 
of the invention and any patent that may be granted, or enter into 
such agreement for its use by the Government and its contractors 
as may be directed by their lordships. 

125 



415 CHAP. K. INSTRUCTIONS TO 

(iv) I will not assign or deal with the invention or patent, or grant any 
licences or rights to the use of it, to anyone except with the previous 
authority of their Lordships, or under the terms of my agreement 
(if any) with the Admiralty. 

(v) I fully understand that the terms of payment (if any) for the assignment 
of the invention or patent to the Admiralty, or for its use in His 
Majesty's Service, will be decided by the Admiralty, and that regard 
will be paid to any facilities in originating, working out, and per- 
fecting the invention, which I may have enjoyed by reason of my 
official position and that all payments will be made subject to the 
approval of the Treasury. 

(vi) I will not apply for a patent in any foreign country, or in any British 
colony or dependency, without the authority of the Admiralty. 

Signature 

Rank 

Approved : 

I have informed the inventor by_ 



dated , that he may apply for provisional protection 

for a British patent and have furnished him with a copy of this agreement. 

Signature 

Rank_ 
Date 



The original agreement when approved is to be sent to the Secretary of 
the Admiralty (C.P. Department), London, S.W. 

7. Foreign and Colonial Patents. Applications for permission to obtain 
patents or similar rights in any foreign country or in any British colony or 
dependency, must be forwarded to the Admiralty for approval accompanied 
by a general description of the invention. When, however, permission has 
already been given to lodge a complete specification and obtain a British 
patent for the same such description need not accompany the application. 

8. General Information. It may be useful for the information of inventors 
to state that generally there are three alternative courses which are adopted 
by the Admiralty in dealing with an invention or patent, viz. : 

(i) Where the Admiralty, or War Office, desires to retain complete control 
of the invention or patent. In this case assignment to the Admiralty 
or Secretary of State for War will be ordered, and the inventor will 
not be allowed to dispose of the commercial uses of his patent, if it 
has any. 

(ii) Where the Admiralt}', or War Office, requires only partial control. 
In this case their Lordships would ordinarily be satisfied with an 
agreement giving the Government and its contractors a right to use 
the invention or patent, but otherwise leaving the inventor free to 
dispose of his invention or patent for commercial purposes. 

(iii) Where their Lordships do not consider that they have any interest in 
the invention or patent. In this case they would leave it to be dealt 
with entirely by the inventor, and release him from the obligations 
he had entered into. 

If an inventor wishes his invention or patent to be dealt with 
under heads (ii) or (iii) above, he must make a written application 

126 



OFFICERS IN GENERAL. 415 

through the usual channel for that purpose. It must be understood 
that the matter is entirely in the discretion of their Lordships, and 
that they cannot undertake to deal with any particular invention 
or patent according to any one of the above-mentioned methods, 
but may adopt some different course in the matter. 

9. An applicant for remuneration will be required to give full detailed 
particulars of any out-of-pocket expenses on experiments, &c., incurred by 
him personally, as well as of any consideration he may have received directly 
or indirectly in respect of the invention. 

416. Inventions, Improvements by Officers. Whenever it happens in the 
course of a trial of the invention of any person outside the Service, or during 
discussion between officers and inventors, that improvements are suggested by 
officers conjointly, a careful record should be kept of the trial and of the 
suggestions made, which should at once be reported to the Admiralty, so that 
in case of an outside patent and a dispute as to price, the Treasury may have 
before it all the circumstances, supposing appeal be made to it under Section 29 
of the Patents and Designs Act, 1907 (7 Edw. VII., cap. 29). If it is discovered 
by any means that there is any intention on the part of inventors to apply for 
a patent for an invention to which officers have contributed, the Admiralty 
should at once be informed. 

417. Official Residences. All King's taxes, with the exception of the land 
tax due in respect of houses or premises occupied in their official capacities or 
permitted to be occupied by naval officers, are to be paid by the occupiers ; 
and all the Regulations of the establishment within which the residences may 
be situated, or to which they may be attached as to furniture, coal, repairs, 
and other matters of detail, are to be observed by the occupants. 

418. Notification of Marriage. Every officer, whether on full, half, or 
retired pay, shall, in order to facilitate the decision upon the claim of his family 
after his decease, to the benefit of these Regulations, notify his marriage, 
within one month of its taking place, to the Admiralty, according to the form 
shown in the Quarterly Navy List. 

2. With respect to marriages contracted in Scotland, none will be admitted 
for the purposes of these Regulations, which cannot be proved either by an 
extract of the Register of the Kirk Session, or other legal record of the place 
in which the marriage shall have been celebrated, or by an acknowledgment 
of a marriage to be transmitted to the Admiralty, made and subscribed by the 
parties themselves in Scotland, in presence of a magistrate, according to the 
form given in the Quarterly Navy List, or a decreet of Declaration of Marriage. 



127 



419 CHAP. X. COMMANDERS-IN-CHIEF, &c. 



CHAPTER X. 

INSTRUCTIONS TO COMMANDERS-IN-CHIEF AND OFFICERS IN 
COMMAND OF FLEETS, SQUADRONS, AND STATIONS. 

SECTION PAGE 

I. General Duties of Commander-in-Chief - 128 

II. Duties of the Senior Officer present 138 

III. Commander s-in-Chief at Home Ports - - 148 

IV. Officers recommended for Promotion - 151 

SECTION I. GENERAL DUTIES OF COMMANDER-IN-CHIEF. 

419. Acquaintance with Ships and Officers. As soon as possible, he is to 
make himself acquainted with the state and condition and the capabilities of 
the ships placed under his orders, and with the manner in which they are 
officered and manned. He is to ascertain the skill, capacity, and intelligence 
of the several Captains, in order that he may make the fittest selection for 
any particular service. He is to use every exertion to equip the ships 
expeditiously, and keep them ready for service, and if he should discover any 
defects in their stores or fittings, or in the ships themselves, of such a character 
as to render them in any way unfit for their destined service, he is at once to 
inform the proper department of the Admiralty. See 1851, clause 2 (Report 
on Officers Commanding Ships) ; 1095 (Defects in Ships from other Ports) ; 
1093 (Defects on Foreign Stations) ; 409 (Surveying Ships). 

420. Station Orders. On assuming command, he is to forward to the 
Admiralty six copies of his station orders. If, however, he should adopt those 
of his predecessor, it will suffice to report the fact ; but six copies of every 
fresh edition, and of all additions or alterations emanating from himself, are 
to be sent to the Admiralty as soon as issued. He is to be governed by the 
special standing orders issued from tune to time by the Admiralty. 

2. All orders issued by an officer in command of a fleet, squadron, or station, 
are to remain in force after he ceases to hold such command, until cancelled 
or modified by any of his successors. 

421. Limit to Movements of Ships. When commanding a station, he will 
not send any flag officer, squadron, or ship beyond the limits without orders, 
except upon some very urgent considerations, which are at once to be reported 
to the Admiralty. 

422. Information to Admiralty ol Ships' Movements. Commanders-in- 
Chief will take care to give such instructions to the officers serving under them, 
when at a distance, as will ensure the Admiralty being at all times kept fully 
and promptly informed of the movements of the ships, and of all occurrences 
of moment or of important intelligence obtained. See 570, clause 2 (Conveyance 
of Important Intelligence) ; also 1863 (Direct communication with the Admiralty). 

423. Master and Inspection. He is to muster and inspect every ship 
placed under his orders as follows : 

(a) So soon as practicable after he assumes command ; 

(b) So soon as practicable after a ship joins his flag ; 

(c) Annually from the date of such first inspection ; 

(d) Immediately before her departure from the fleet or station ; 

128 



GENERAL DUTIES. 423 

retaining for his own information forms S. 425 to 4256 and reporting the result 
to the Admiralty on forms S. 426 to 4260. 

2. Inspecting Officer. If he should be prevented from performing this 
important duty, he will depute it to an officer under his orders, senior to the 
Captain of the ship to be inspected, who will render to him the report, which 
is then to be dealt with as directed hi clause 1. 

3. Intermediate Musters, &c. In addition to these periodical musters and 
inspections, he will arrange for other intermediate musters or inspections, or 
musters only, when he deems it necessary, whether the ships are present or 
on detached service. These reports are not to be sent to the Admiralty unless, 
from special causes, he should think it expedient to do so. 

4. At Home Ports. When commanding at a home port, he is to muster 
and inspect every ship when ready for sea on first commissioning or on newly 
commissioning after long refit out of commission, but a ship commissioning for 
a flag shall be inspected before the flag is hoisted on board, and a ship which 
has been a flag-ship shall not be inspected by the Commander-in-Chief if the 
Flag Officer shall have returned home in her. 

5. In the case of a ship arriving at a home port to pay off, recommission, 
and return to her own fleet, he is to hold a muster, on the ship recbmmissioning, 
to see that his responsibilities for her prompt and complete equipment have 
been fulfilled, that the ship is in all respects ready for service, and that the 
organisation and stationing of the men are understood and put in train by the 
officers. The result of the muster is to be reported to the Admiralty on such 
of the forms S. 426 to 4260 as deal with the organisation of a newly commissioned 
ship. 

6. A similar procedure is to be followed in the case of a ship completed 
from nucleus or reduced nucleus crew for the purpose of conveying reliefs to 
ships on foreign stations, or for the purpose of being refitted at naval yards 
abroad, the muster being held before the vessel sails and the result reported 
to the Admiralty as directed in clause 5. On returning to England vessels 
conveying relief crews are to be inspected before the complement is reduced, 
forms S. 426, S. 426, and S. 4266 being completed as far as possible having 
regard to the service on which the ship has been engaged and forwarded to the 
Admiralty. 

7. In the case of a ship in commission with full crew which either 

(a) Pays off from a fleet at a home port and recommissions with a nucleus 

crew for another fleet ; or 

(b) Pays off from a fleet at a home port, recommissions with a full crew and 

joins another fleet ; 

the inspection by the Commander-in-Chief at the port which is held before the 
ship pays off may be restricted to the object of deciding whether the vessel 
is in good condition and fit for her further service. 

8. In the case of a ship paying off into dockyard hands, he may inspect 
such ship or not at his discretion. 

9. In the case of a nucleus crew ship recommissioning with a nucleus crew 
for service in the same fleet, he may inspect such ship at his discretion. See 
1142, clause 2 ( [Marines when embarked). 

424. Inspections, General observations. In conducting this important duty 
the inspecting officer will always take into consideration the length of time that 
the ship has been in commission. Should any other considerations weigh with 
him in forming his judgment, such as any particular service that the ship 
may have been employed on or engaged in, he is to refer to it in his report. 

2. He is to make all inquiries and examinations that are necessary to enable 
him to fill in the details of his report accurately. Any opinion he may give 

129 



424 CHAP. X. COMMANDERS-IN-CHIEF, &c. 

as to the ship's proficiency in any particular may be based on previous 
observation and knowledge of the ship. 

3. In all replies to questions in the report which involve an opinion, he is 
to specify, whenever from want of time or other causes, he relies on the Captain's 
statements. 

4. Notwithstanding the precise character of the instructions which follow, 
and the completeness of the report required of him, the inspecting officer is 
fully authorised to examine and inquire into any other subjects which bear 
upon the order, discipline, and efficiency of the ship, or upon the proper obser- 
vance by all on board of the regulations and customs of the Service. 

5. He is to look into any suggestions offered by the Captain or any of the 
other officers calculated to improve the ship, so that he may be enabled to give 
his own opinion upon them in forwarding the report. 

6. Books and Accounts. He is to examine, or cause to be examined, the 
several books and accounts referred to in the report of inspection as well as 
the officers' logs or journals ; he is to inspect the remark books which may be 
produced by Lieutenants, and is to take notice of any which show marked 
aptitude, zeal, or powers of observation on an officer's part ; he is to satisfy 
himself, so far as practicable, that all punishments, by whomsoever awarded, 
are duly recorded ; that the men's certificates and the conduct book are care- 
fully and regularly filled up ; that the good conduct badges are properly 
awarded ; that the cash accounts are regularly examined and rendered ; and 
that the balances of public money are jjeriodically counted as required by 
Article 588. See 1014 (Register of Hydrographic Documents) ; also 1133 (Ship 
paid off Abroad). 

I. Officers' Instruments. He is to take such steps as he may deem necessary 
to ascertain that the instruments which the Lieutenants, Sub-Lieutenants, 
and subordinate officers are required to possess are good in quality and in 
efficient order. 

8. Smoking. He is to inquire into the arrangements made as to smoking 
and as to the precautions observed in regard to the use of matches. 

9. Messes and Wine Bills. He will take all necessary steps to ascertain 
whether the whole of the officers' messes are properly and economically con- 
ducted or otherwise, that no excessive wine bills are permitted, and that all 
outstanding debts and liabilities, mess as well as wine, are brought to his 
notice. 

He is to take care that ail the statements he may call for to enable him to 
complete his report are signed by the responsible officers, especially all the 
mess statements, and he will preserve them for future reference in case the 
Admiralty should consider his report to require further explanation. 

10. Complaints. He is to take care to inquire into any complaints that 
may have been made as to the quality of the provisions supplied, in case the 
subject should not already have been investigated. He will also ascertain 
that there have been no undue delays in the payments to the ship's company. 

II. Signalling. He is to inquire into the efficiency of the Signalmen, 
especially as to their proficiency in night signalling, and will ascertain that the 
instructions in Article 466, sub-clause (d), are carefully complied with ; and 
he is to examine the signal logs of all ships inspected by him. 

12. Preparation for Battle. In the report of preparation for battle, he is 
to note whenever from any cause the required exercise was not gone through ; 
the primary object of an inspection being to give the Admiralty the benefit 
of the inspecting officer's own judgment in each particular, so that they may 
be informed as to how far the ship would be in a condition to engage an enemy 
with advantage, if brought into action. 

130 



GENERAL DUTIES. 

13. Closing Water-tight Doors. He is to make strict inquiry as to the 
observance of the Regulations laid down in Articles 542, 545, and 957 in respect 
to closing water-tight doors, and is to satisfy himself of the efficiency of the 
system adopted for carrying them out. 

14. Guns in Cabins. All guns mounted in or masked by cabins should be 
cleared away and prepared in every respect for action except in the special 
cases provided for below. Inspecting officers are to satisfy themselves that 
this has been carried out once in every three months subject to the following 
exception. In special cases, where the periodical removal of semi-permanent 
fittings would cause much damage and expense, this order may be dispensed 
with at the discretion of the Captain, but in such cases the inspecting officer is 
to satisfy himself that arrangements are made for clearing away everything 
rapidly, when necessary, and for having all the small gear, &c., in readiness 
for immediate use. No other exceptions are to be made unless by the special 
orders of the Commander-in-Chief, which are to be reported by him to the 
Admiralty. 

15. Preservation of Hull, &c. He is to look particularly into the means 
taken to preserve the hull, decks, fittings, machinery and boilers, guns and 
mountings, as well as the masts, rigging, and stores, and he should not fail 
to notice in his report any neglect he may discover on the part of the Captain 
and officers in the important duty of preserving the ship in the highest possible 
state of efficiency. See 1831 (Re-testing Chain Cables). 

16. He is to satisfy himself that the arrangements made for the treatment 
of the sick and wounded in action are satisfactory, and that instruction is given 
and efficiency maintained in ambulance work. 

17. Confidential Documents. He is to call for the confidential books and 
papers which are on the Captain's charge, arid he is to satisfy himself, not 
only that they are complete and are kept in a proper place of security, but 
in the case of the private signals that the officer entrusted with them understands 
their use. 

18. Physical Exercises. When practicable a division is to be put through 
physical exercises by its own officer ; and the general activity, physique and 
carriage of the men composing it are to be noted in the report, together with 
the name of the officer in charge. 

425. Gunnery and Torpedo Training. He is to maintain the gunnery and 
torpedo efficiency of the ships placed under his orders at the highest standard. 

2. The primary object to be kept in view in the training of officers and men 
is to be good shooting and efficiency in gunnery and torpedo. In judging the 
general state of efficiency of a ship these considerations should therefore take 
priority. 

3. In the event of any ship displaying a marked degree of excellence, a 
special report is to be forwarded bringing to their Lordships' notice the names 
of the Executive Officer, Gunnery Lieutenant, Torpedo Lieutenant, or any 
other officer to whose efforts the good results may be considered to be due. 

4. In the event of any ship obtaining very markedly poor results at either 
the battle practice or the Gunlayers' test, a full inquiry is to be held into the 
circumstances, especially as regards the method of training employed in the 
ship, and the conditions under which the practices were carried out. The 
report, with the minutes of evidence and an expression of the opinion of the 
Commander-in-Chief on the conclusions arrived at, should be forwarded to 

Lordships. 



426. Inspection ol Hospitals. Except as provided for in clause 2 of this 
Article, he is to make a quarterly inspection of the naval hospitals and of any 

131 



426 CHAP. X. COMMANDEES-IN-CHIEr, &c. 

permanent sick quarters within his command, reporting to the Admiralty, on 
form S. 601, the state in which he may find them, and whether every proper 
attention is paid to the care and comfort of the patients. When unable to 
perform this duty himself, he will direct one of the Flag or other Senior Officers 
under his orders to do so, whenever he may see fit. When temporary sick 
quarters are hired or established, he will take care that they are frequently 
visited and inspected, in such cases not necessarily by one of the Senior Officers. 
See 1246 (Temporary Sick Quarters). 

2. In the case of the Royal Naval hospitals at Chatham, Haslar, and 
Plymouth, it will be sufficient if his inspection is made once a year. 

427. Gaols. He is to obtain information as to the state of the gaols on 
his station as directed in Articles 770, clause 2, and 771, clause 2. 

428. Discharge of Time-expired Men. If abroad, he is to order the 
discharge of all men entitled thereto under 5 & 6 Will. IV. cap. 24, and 16 & 17 
Viet. cap. 69, when they ask for it, unless he shall see fit to detain them under 
the provisions of those statutes on account of any special emergency, the 
reasons for such detentions being reported to the Admiralty on form S. 221. 
See 369, clause 5 (Return of Men who will complete Time) ; 602, clause 3 (Discharge 
by Purchase) ; and 758, clause 6 (Dismissed with Disgrace or from H.M. Service). 

429. Time of Discharges or Transfers. So far as practicable, he win 
arrange that the days and hours at which discharges or transfers are to take 
place are fixed in sufficient time to admit of the accounts being properly closed 
by the Accountant Officers, and that they are not afterwards altered. See 
1586 (Discharges before and after Noon) ; 1611 (Quarterly Settlement). 

430. Filling Vacancies. The Commander-in-Chief or Senior Officer present 
is to fill up vacancies for commissioned officers as directed by Article 231, but not 
by an officer on half pay without express permission from the Admiralty. 
See 236 (Vacancies during War). 

Vacancies in the complement are -to be filled up as directed in Article 373. 

431. Divine Service. Commanders-in-Chief and officers in command are 
to take care that effect is given, by those under their orders, to the provisions 
of Articles 707 to 715 (Divine Service, &c.). 

432. Examinations. The Commander-in-Chief or Senior Officer present is 
to give the necessary orders for all examinations as directed by Article 348, 
clause 2, and is to arrange, when required, for the return of officers to England 
to complete their examinations as provided for by the Regulations in Chapters 
VI. and VII. 

433. Suggestions as to Supplies. He is to offer any suggestions that may 
from time to time occur to him for improving the mode of receiving supplies 
of provisions and stores from home, or of obtaining local supplies, and he will 
inform Captains on detached service where they can most readily and economic- 
ally replenish their provisions, coal, and stores, in case of need. 

434. Stores and Store Officers. He is to correspond with the Admiralty 
on all matters connected with supplies of stores to his ships, and to report all 
important or exceptional orders he may give ; he is to report any neglect 
or unfitness for duty he may observe in the local officers of the Store Depart- 
ment ; and he is to point out any improvements which his experience may 
enable him to suggest in reference to supplying ships. See 460 (Civil Estab- 
lishments). 

132 



GENERAL DUTIES. 435 

435. Replenishing Stores. In making arrangements for the disposition of 
the ships under his orders he will take measures to obviate, so far as practicable, 
the necessity of their replenishing their stores, coal, and provisions, by local 
purchases in the open market, instead of from the naval establishments ; when 
from necessity he authorises local purchases, he will be careful to attend to 
the Regulations under that head, and he will adopt every proper measure to 
ensure their due observance in the ships under his orders. 

2. He is to cause all coal, stores, provisions, and public money that can be 
spared from ships returning home, to be returned or transferred to other ships ; 
but even in time of peace, the cartridges and projectiles, including small arm, 
machine, and quick-firing gun ammunition, are never to be reduced below 
two-thirds of the proportion of each description allowed to the ship. 

436. Regulation of Demands. Commanders-in-Chief when called upon to 
regulate the demand for coal, stores, and provisions for their stations, are 
always to bear in mind that it is generally far more advantageous to keep up 
adequate supplies which will enable ships to replenish from the naval estab- 
lishments than to rely on local purchases, excepting when the required articles 
are the produce of the country or procurable there at cheaper rates than 
from home. 

437. Standing Contracts. Whenever the Commander-in-Chief on a foreign 
station shall deem it for the good of the Service that standing local contracts 
should be entered into for the supply of provisions or other articles of store,, 
for the use of ships or of naval establishments, he is to cause tenders to be 
invited as laid down in Article 1770. 

438. Accidents. All accidents affecting the readiness for sea of any of 
the ships or vessels under his orders, or which involve, or are considered likely 
to involve, any disciplinary action by the Admiralty in regard to an officer or 
warrant officer, are to be reported to the Admiralty with an expression of his 
opinion where necessary, whether an inquiry under Article 568, clause 2, is 
held or not. 

439. Defects. When dealing with ships' defects on foreign stations, he 
will take care that they are made good with all economy that may be consistent 
with due expedition and efficiency ; and he will be guided, so far as they may 
be applicable, by the directions given in Articles 1092 and 1093 as to whether 
defects are to be made good by the ship's own artificers ; by artificers of other 
ships ; by a dockyard ; or by hired men ; but, except in special cases, he is 
not to sanction the employment of other men than those of the ship, or those 
of other ships present. See 1095 (Defects in Ship fitted at another Port). 

440. "Large Repairs." He is to cause a report to be forwarded, to 
reach the Admiralty not later than the end of September in each year, containing 
the names of any ships and vessels under his command that will probably 
need to be taken in hand for " large repairs," at a home dockyard, during the 
ensuing financial year. 

2. The report is to be accompanied by brief statements describing the 
nature and extent of the important items of work expected to be required in 
each of the ships concerned, and particulars of any auxiliary machinery that 
may need replacement are also to be given. 

3. In the event of it being desirable to drill test the boilers of any vessel, 
to enable a more accurate forecast of the requirements to be furnished, he is 
to cause the test to be made so that the facts may be known before the report 
above referred to is transmitted. 

133 



440 CHAP. X. COMMANDERS-IN-CHIEF, &c. 

4. The term " large repairs " is to be understood as covering a thorough 
overhaul by dockyard, and items of work which can be done during the period 
of an annual refit in commission should not be regarded as bringing a ship 
within the scope of this instruction. 

441. Docking of Ships. Subject to the general instructions contained in 
Article 1102, Commanders-in-Chief are to make arrangements for the periodical 
docking of His Majesty's ships to ensure the preservation of the hulls and 
prevent undue loss of speed. 

442. Ship ordered Home. When a ship is ordered to return to England, 
or to proceed to another station, he is to call on the Naval Store Officer for the 
particulars of any special articles, such as instruments of a delicate character 
like range finders, &c., which may be waiting conveyance ; and if they can be 
conveyed conveniently and without impairing the fighting efficiency of the 
ship, he is to arrange for such articles to be taken on board the departing ship 
for conveyance. He is also to send home in such ships all invalids and others 
entitled to passages. 

443. Change of Armament. On all occasions of a change of armament 
in any ship, at home or abroad, the trials of the new gunnery or torpedo fittings 
are to be carried out by officers deputed by the Commander-in-Chief, acting in 
conjunction with the dockyard officials. 

2. The provisions of Articles 903 and 904 are to be carried out. 

444. Courts-Martial. The Commander-in-Chief is to examine carefully 
the proceedings of all courts-martial held on board ships under his command 
with a view to enable him to comply with the provisions of Articles 700, clause 3, 
and 701a, clauses viii. and ix. 

445. Deserters. Commanders-in-Chief on foreign stations are to make 
such special local regulations in regard to the apprehension of deserters and 
payment of rewards, as the circumstances may require, subject to the 
instructions contained in Articles 804 to 808, clause 4 (Desertion, &c.). 

446. Admiralty Moorings. Whenever there are any Admiralty moorings 
laid down within the limits of his station at such a distance as to render it 
impracticable for the dockyard officer responsible for them to examine them 
frequently and regularly, he will make arrangements for their being periodically 
examined by one of the ships under his command. The result is in every 
case to be communicated to the officer in charge of the moorings, who will 
make thereon such representations as he may deem necessary. 

447. Communications with Governors, Ministers, &c. On arriving within 
the limits of his command, the Commander-in-Chief or Senior Officer is to 
lose no time in placing himself in communication with the Governors or 
Commanding Officers of His Majesty's settlements or fortresses within the 
limits of his station, as also with His Majesty's ministers or consuls residing 
at places within or bordering on the same. See 97 and 99 (Visits to Governors 
or Ministers). 

448. Duties to Governors, &c. It being a general obligation on all His 
Majesty's civil and military officers to afford mutual assistance to each other 
in cases affecting the King's Service, the Commander-in-Chief of a station or 
the Senior Officer present at a port is to pay due regard to such requisitions 
as he may receive from any of His Majesty's ministers, governors, or consular 
officers which have for their object the protection of his Possessions, the benefit 

134 



GENERAL DUTIES. 448 

of the trade of his subjects, or the general good of his Service. In urgent cases 
when the requisitions may conflict with the instructions from his superior 
naval authority under which he is acting, and when reference by telegraph 
or otherwise to such superior authority is impracticable, he is to consider the 
relative importance and urgency of the required service as compared with his 
instructions, whether general or special ; and he is to decide as in his judgment 
may seem best for His Majesty's Service ; in so doing he is always to bear in 
mind the grave responsibility that would rest on him if the circumstances 
were not such as to fully warrant the postponement of the instructions from 
his naval superior to the more pressing requisition from His Majesty's civil 
servant. See 479 (Aids to Civil Power}; 486 (Landing Armed Men); 496 
(Foreign Enlistment Act), &c. 

449. Admiral's Contingent Account. The account of the Commander-in- 
Chief's postage and other contingent expenses is to be made up to the last 
day of each quarter and for the broken period to the date of his striking his 
flag and the amount thereof will be repaid to him, under his own order, by 
the Accountant Officer of the flag-ship. The account itself (form S. 589) is 
to be delivered to the Accountant Officer, who will transmit it as a voucher 
to his cash account. 

450. Officers and Men retained on paying off. The Commander-in-Chief 
will regulate in accordance with Article 1397 the officers and men who are to 
be retained after paying off, to close accounts, complete surveys, or replace 
machinery, as the case may be. 

451. Correspondence. Commanders-in-Chief and Senior Officers in 
command are to be guided in regard to correspondence by Articles 1865 to 
1874. 

452. Returns and Reports called for by the table of returns, Appendix 
XVIII. , are to be transmitted to the Secretary of the Admiralty. 

453. Money for Fleet. Whenever the circumstances render it necessary, 
the Commander-in-Chief or Senior Officer in command may direct that money 
shall be taken up when required for the supply of the fleet, in accordance with 
the provisions of Article 1638. 

454. Unexecuted Orders on giving up Command. A Commander-in-Chief, 
or officer in command of a fleet, squadron, or station, on resigning his command, 
will deliver to his successor the originals or authenticated copies of all 
unexecuted orders, general regulations, books of reference and other documents 
he may have received for his information or guidance, and he will furnish him 
with all other information likely to be of service. He will also forward to the 
Admiralty a list of the unexecuted orders of an important character. 

455. Attendance at Admiralty. A Commander-in-Chief or officer in chief 
command on striking his flag on the expiration of his appointment is to attend 
at the Admiralty to give such information respecting his command as he may 
think likely to prove beneficial to the public service. 

456. Staff and Servants on decease. If a Commander-in-Chief should die 
at home, the Flag Lieutenant, the Secretary and his Clerks, and the Coxswain 
are to continue their services until the arrival of his successor ; should he die 
abroad, they are to continue their services, should they be required, with 
the officer upon whom the command devolves, until the successor arrives. 
Should their services not be required, they are to be sent home, as well as any 
servants who do not wish to remain in vacancies open to them. 

135 

K2 



467 CHAP. X. COMMANDERS-IN-CHIEF, &c. 

Civil Establishments. 

457. Authority over Civil Establishments. The Commander-in-Chief or 
Senior Officer is to have authority and control over all the dock and victualling 
yards, the jiaval hospitals, naval ordnance store department, and other naval 
establishments within the limits of his command, in regard to the general 
transactions of the Service ; but he is not to interfere with the management 
of any of those establishments at home, nor abroad where there are super- 
intendents, unless in his opinion a particular and sufficient cause shall render 
it necessary, in which case he is to report to the Admiralty the nature of the 
order given, and his reasons for interfering. If a superintendent or an officer 
in charge should consider that any public inconvenience is likely to arise from 
compliance with an order received from the Commander-in-Chief, such super- 
intendent or officer in charge is to represent the same to him, stating the 
objections, after which, if the Commander-in-Chief should still direct his order 
to be complied with, it is to be obeyed without further delay or discussion, 
the officer so repeating the order becoming wholly responsible to the Admiralty 
for the necessity of the measure ; but the superintendent or the officer in charge 
on receiving the order, if he deem proper, may send to the Admiralty any 
observations upon it he may be desirous of submitting for consideration. 

458. Vacancies in Establishments Abroad. If a vacancy should occur 
among the officers of a civil establishment abroad the Commander-in-Chief 
or Senior Officer is not to fill such vacancy by appointing an officer from the 
fleet with an acting order. If, however, in consequence of the vacancy, the 
temporary services of an officer are urgently needed, the Commander-in-Chief 
or Senior Officer may lend to the establishment a qualified officer from one of 
the ships under his orders, if his services can be spared, reporting his reasons 
for so doing to the Admiralty, by whom any question of remuneration beyond 
the officer's naval pay and allowances will be dealt with. 

459. Establishments Abroad without Superintendents. In regard to civil 
establishments out of the United Kingdom in charge of which there are no 
superintendents, the Commander-in-Chief is to be further guided by the 
directions contained in Articles 460 to 464 ; and ah 1 officers and persons belonging 
to such civil establishments are to obey his orders in all matters relating to 
the public service. 

460. Supervision of Officers. He is to do his utmost to ensure that all 
the officers of these establishments perform their duties satisfactorily, and 
that they comply with their special instructions ; he is not to give any orders 
contrary to, or differing from, the established practice of the navy, nor from 
the instructions issued for the guidance of officers of the civil establishments, 
except for good cause, which is to be duly reported. 

2. Economy. He is to be careful that all work undertaken is performed 
with proper economy, and that no supplies are purchased from, nor repairs 
executed by, private persons for His Majesty's Service, except through the 
proper officers, unless otherwise specially directed. 

3. New Works, Repairs, &c. Subject to such powers as are conferred upon 
him in connection with reserves under sub-head K. of Vote 10, and with petty 
services up to 101., each under sub-head L. of the navy estimates, he is not to 
order any new works or alterations to be undertaken without express directions ; 
nor any repairs except such as may be absolutely necessary for the preservation 
of the buildings ; but he is to submit, as proposals for estimates, any new 
works, alterations, or improvements he may consider necessary, placing them 

136 



GENERAL DUTIES. 460 

in the order of relative importance, and certifying that they can be undertaken 
within the year if approved. 

4. Replacing Officers. Under Article 468, he may lend an officer from 
the fleet in the place of any officer of these establishments who may die or be 
obliged to quit his station on account of ill-health, but he is only to permit an 
officer so to quit his station on the report of three of the senior medical officers 
present, including the officer in charge of the naval hospital, if any. Leave 
is not to be granted to officers of the civil establishment to return to England 
without the sanction of the Admiralty. 

f>. Suspending Officers. He may suspend any officer in these establishments 
for misconduct, lending, if necessary, an officer in his place under Article 458 ; 
but he is to report at once most fully his reasons for so acting. In the case of 
the suspended officer being in charge of money or stores, he will cause surveys 
at once to be held to transfer the remains to the officer lent to do the duty, 
and will direct him to open new accounts, in order that those of the suspended 
officer may be properly investigated. 

6. Creating New Office. He is not to create any new place or office, nor 
to make any alterations in the arrangements or emoluments of the persons 
he shall find established or employed ; nor is he to add to the numbers employed 
on day pay, beyond those sanctioned, except in case of urgency which is to be 
reported to the Admiralty. When working parties are sent from ships, he is 
to be careful that the men are only employed as laid down in Article 510. 

461. Cash, Supplies of. He is to approve all requisitions for money upon 
the Treasury Chest for naval services, if satisfied of their necessity ; but before 
so doing he will take care that they contain statements 

(a) Of the balance of the public money in the hands of the cash accountant 

officer ; 

(b) Of the services for which the further supply is required ; and 

(c) That the amount, except in special cases, to be explained by letter, 

does not exceed the probable requirements for a month when there 
is no specified amount authorised. 

2. If there be no Treasury Chest, and he is satisfied of their necessity, he is 
to approve bills drawn by the cash accountant officer on the Accountant- 
General, taking care that the most favourable terms for the public are secured. 
Whenever he may deem it necessary, he will cause the sums required to be 
advertised for. 

3. Upon every occasion of his approval being given to bills, he will receive 
from the cash accountant officer, and forward to the Admiralty, a letter of 
advice containing the above particulars, and, when bills are drawn, the rate 
at which they were negotiated. 

462. Cash Accounts. On the expiration of every calendar month, the 
Commander-in-Chief will receive from each cash accountant officer of the 
several civil establishments within his command, in charge of which there is 
no superintendent, an account (form D. 607) of his receipts and disbursements 
of public money in the precise form of the first part of the cash book, showing 
each item of receipt and expenditure under the date and in the exact order 
of its occurrence, accompanied by the requisite vouchers. 

2. He is to cause the cash account to be compared with the vouchers and 
the balance in the hands of the cash accountant officer, by such person or 
persons as he may depute, and upon their certificate he will approve and 
transmit it, with the vouchers, to the Accountant-General. 

3. He will at other times inspect, or cause to be inspected, the remains 
of public money in the chest, and compare the same, or cause it to be compared, 
with the balance shown in the daily cash book. 

137 



462 CHAP. X. COMMANDERS-IN-CHIEF, &c. 

4. He will receive at the end of each quarter an abstract of the three 
" monthly " accounts from the cash accountant officer, who will produce to 
him or to some other person or persons deputed by him, his cash book containing 
copies of the monthly accounts ; and he will approve and forward the abstract 
to the Accountant-General upon being satisfied of its correctness. 

5. On the discovery of any difference between the balance shown and the 
money found in the public chest, he is to call on the cash accountant officer 
for an explanation, which he is to send to the Admiralty with any remarks 
he may have to make on it. 

6. Should there be no Commander-in-Chief or Senior Officer present, the 
punctual transmission of the account is not to be delayed, but the cash 
accountant officer is directed to transmit the account, and to certify thereon 
the absence of a Senior Officer, and he is to report the circumstance to the 
Senior Officer who shall first arrive at the port, submitting to him the copy 
retained in his office of the account so transmitted. 

463. Local Audit and Stocktaking He will take care to observe the 
regulations that may from time to time be issued to the civil establishments 
in charge of which there are no Superintendents, in reference both to the local 
audit of the naval store ledgers and to stock-taking, whether continuous or 
special, and also in reference to the payments of extra pay with respect to 
those duties, and, when necessary, he will give directions to the Senior Officers 
of Divisions within which any such establishments are situate, to ensure their 
attention to these important duties. 

464. In the absence of the Commander-in-Chief, all the control and authority 
vested in him over the civil establishments of the navy under Articles 457 
et seq. are to be exercised fully and effectually by the Senior Officer of His 
Majesty's ships present, provided such officer is not below the rank of 
Commander. 

465. Definition of " Superintendent." For the purposes of the regulations 
contained respectively in Articles 457 et seq. the Rear-Admiral at Queenstown, 
the Commodore at Hong Kong, and the Captains or Commanders in Charge at 
Bermuda and Sydney, and the Marine Officer in Charge at Ascension, are to 
be considered as Superintendents. 

SECTION II. DUTIES OF THE SENIOR OFFICER PRESENT. 
General. 

466. As to Ships. The Senior Officer present is in all roatters relating to 
ships, which may be at the time under his orders, to be guided by the instruc- 
tions to Commanders-in-Chief as well as by the following : 

(a) Evolutions. He is frequently to exercise the ships in the general 

evolutions of a fleet, as well as in gunnery, torpedo practices and other 
exercises. 

(b) Keeping Station. When at sea, he is to insist on ships in company 

keeping their stations by day and night. 

(c) Exercise. He is to use his judgment in regulating the amount of general 

exercise, which should depend on the state of the ships. He will 
impress on the Captains that divisional exercises, patient instruction, 
and judicious organisation are the foundation of an efficient and 
seamanlike performance of every evolution, and that men already 
perfect should not be exercised more than may be requisite to keep 
up their knowledge and activity. 

138 



DUTIES OF THE SENIOR OFFICER PRESENT. 466 

(d) Signalling. He will take care that the general orders and instructions 
as to signal exercises in His Majesty's ships (forms S. 1308 and 
S. 1309) are carried out. See 185 (Senior Officer away from his own 
Ship). 

467. Royal Yachts. He will take care that no orders are issued or authority 
exercised in respect to His Majesty's yachts while His Majesty's standard or 
the standard of His Royal Highness the Prince of Wales is flying, or while 
His Majesty's yachts are acting under special instructions from His Majesty 
or from the Admiralty in accordance with His Majesty's commands. See 141 
(Morning and Evening Gun). 

468. Speed of Ships. On every occasion of ordering a ship to sea, he is to 
indicate to the Captain generally or specifically at what speed the service is 
to be performed according to the circumstances of the case. 

469. Conveyance of Troops. When His Majesty's ships are required to 
convey troops, the Senior Officer present will take the necessary steps in 
accordance with Article 1214. 

470. Hiring Vessels or Wharves. He is only to sanction the hire of vessels, 
boats, wharves, or warehouses when absolutely necessary ; and he will be 
careful to set out the manner and period of their use in the order for so doing. 
He is not to authorise the purchase or hire <jf any vessel to be armed and fitted 
as a ship-of-war or tender, except under the most urgent circumstances. When, 
however,, it becomes necessary to do so, he will take every precaution to ensure 
her being thoroughly surveyed by the best officers at his command, and that 
the price to be paid for her, or the rate at which she is to be hired, is fair and 
reasonable in the circumstances. The responsibility of the whole transaction 
and the duration of any such hiring will rest solely with him as the officer 
ordering and approving of the purchase or hiring. See 471 (Purchasing Prizes). 

471. Purchasing Prizes. He is never to order a prize to be purchased into 
the Service unless on some pressing exigency ; if purchased, he is to be careful 
that no person interested in the capture is employed in the survey or appraise- 
ment. See 470 (Purchase of Vessel to be armed). 

472. Communication with Colonial Authorities. In a British colony or 
possession, the Colonial Secretary should in no case be the channel of com- 
munication with the naval officer. Should the Senior Naval Officer be of, or 
above, the rank of Commander, the Governor will communicate with him ; 
otherwise the Private Secretary in the name of the Governor. This rule, 
however, is not applicable to India. 

473. Consular Court. Consuls are not authorised to call upon naval 
officers to assist them in enforcing the civil process of a consular court. 

474. Distressed British Subjects. No person shall be received on board 
any of His Majesty's ships as a distressed British subject, at a port where there 
is a British consular officer, without his written requisition. 

2. If there should be no consular officer present, the Senior Naval Officer 
on the spot is to exercise his discretion in regard to the claim of any applicant 
for a passage at the public expense. The relief is only to be granted in case 
of destitution, and, in his order to the ship, he will state fully the circumstances 
under which he has ordered the passage. 

3. The requisition and order, or a full report of the circumstances, are to 
accompany the ledger for the period. 

139 



474 CHAP. X. COMMANDERS-IN-CHIEF, &c. 

4. Lunatics. Lunatics not belonging to the naval or military service are 
not to be received on board His Majesty's ships-of-war, or hired transports, 
except with the special sanction of the Admiralty. 

475. Prisoners from Merchant Ships. No British merchant seaman is to 
be received in one of His Majesty's ships abroad as prisoner, unless the witnesses 
necessary to substantiate the charges, or the depositions taken upon the charge 
under which the prisoner is in custody, accompany him, or unless the Senior 
Naval Officer is satisfied that the witnesses will be in attendance on the arrival 
of the prisoner at the place where he will be handed over to the civil power. 

476. Fugitive Slaves. The regulations in respect to fugitive slaves will be 
found in the book of instructions for the guidance of Captains and Commanding 
Officers ef His Majesty's ships-of-war employed in the suppression of the 
slave trade. 

477. Piratical Acts. If any armed vessel, not having a commission of 
war or a letter of marque from a foreign de facto Government, should commit 
piratical acts and outrages against the vessels and goods of His Majesty's 
siibjects or of the subjects of any other foreign power in amity with His Majesty, 
and if credible information should be received thereof, such armed vessel is 
to be seized and detained by any of His Majesty's ships falling in with her, 
and sent to the nearest British port where there is a court of competent juris- 
diction for the trial of offences committed on the high seas, together with the 
necessary witnesses to prove the act or acts, and with her master and crew in 
safe custody, in order that they may be dealt with according to law. In the 
case, however, of an attack by a ship in the possession of insurgents against 
their own domestic Government, upon ships-of-war of that Government, upon 
merchant ships belonging to their own country, or upon the cities, ports, or 
people within the territorial limits of their own nation, His Majesty's ships 
have no right to interfere, except in the case mentioned in Article 487, and in 
any such case the operation must be restricted to such acts as may be necessary 
to attain the precise object in view. 

478. Recourse to Force. Recourse to force can, however, never be 
sanctioned, except in such peculiar and urgent circumstances as may not have 
admitted of the delay which reference to superior authority would have entailed ; 
the justification of a naval officer so acting, would, of necessity, depend upon 
all the attendant circumstances, which would vary with each case. 

Aid to Civil Power. 

479. Aid to Civil Power. The following instructions as regards aid to the 
civil power within the United Kingdom are to be observed by His Majesty's 
Navy : 

(a) The landing of a naval force for the express purpose of aiding the civil 

power is never to be resorted to- except in cases of emergency, when, 
in the opinion of the magistrates, no other sufficient means are 
available to quell civil tumults on shore. 

(b) The party landed is to be employed only on the requisition of the civil 

authority, and the officer in command is to act in aid of, and in 
subordination to, the civil authority. 

(c) The officer in command of the party landed should not use force unless 

called upon to do so by the magistrate present, and even then he 
must exercise his own judgment as to whether force is really necessary, 
and as to the mode and degree of force to be used. He should not 
order the men to fire unless the use of firearms is plainly necessary ; 

140 



DUTIES OF THE SENIOR OFFICER PRESENT. 473 

and generally he should bear in mind that it is his duty to use no 
more force than is necessary, and to discontinue its use altogether 
the moment he can safely do so. 

(d) The officer in command is alone to give the order to fire, but he shall 

give no such order until he has consulted with the magistrate who 
accompanies the force as to the urgent necessity of firing upon the 
rioters, and has been commanded by him to disperse them by force. 

(e) Full and distinct warning must be given to the rioters that the party 

is about to fire, and that the fire will be effectual. The officer in 
command, and the magistrate who accompanies the force, shall 
consult together as to the best practicable means of giving such 
warning. 
(/) Every possible care should be taken that innocent persons may not 

suffer from the fire. 

(g) The above directions to act under the orders and by the authority of 
and after consulting the magistrate, are to apply to all cases except 
those of special emergency where, in order to secure the safety of the 
force employed, it becomes indispensably necessary to take immediate 
action, and where such action cannot safely be deferred until the 
order or authority of the magistrate has been obtained, or consultation 
with him has taken place. 
(h) It is undesirable that firing should take place over the heads of rioters, 

or that blank cartridge should be used. 

. 2. It will generally be advisable that the party should be divided into four 
sections, two sections to have their arms always loaded, and every precaution 
should be taken, according to circumstances, to guard the party from being 
surprised or overpowered by the rioters. 

3. Officers are to understand that while a close adherence to the sub-clauses 
(a) to (g) is imperative, it is not intended to be so with regard to sub-clause (h), 
liberty being left to them to use their own discretion or to give discretionary 
orders to the officers under them in regard to making such modifications as 
may be deemed expedient. 

Relations with Foreigners. 

480. Foreign Ships at British Ports. When a foreign friendly ship-of-war 
visits a port in His Majesty's dominions, at home or abroad, care is to be taken 
that the regulations laid down in Articles 18, 79, 96, and 621 are complied 
with according to circumstances. See 1109 (Docking Foreign Ships of War). 

481. Conduct in Foreign Ports. When visits are paid to foreign ports or 
places, particular care is to be taken to avoid giving any just cause of offence 
or dissatisfaction to the authorities or inhabitants ; due deference is to be 
shown by officers and men to the established rights and local regulations, 
and to the ceremonies and customs peculiar to the place ; and all are to do 
their best by their correct conduct to ensure the goodwill and respect of the 
inhabitants. See 78 (Salutes to National Flag) ; 79 (Salutes to Foreign Flag 
Officers) 96 (Visits of Ceremony). 

482. Dealings with Foreigners. In all dealings with foreigners, naval 
officers are to show an example of moderation and courtesy. They are to 
preserve a strict neutrality in all cases of civil dissensions, and are not to 
interfere directly or indirectly in any political questions which may bt- in 
imitation ; and in the absence of any diplomatic or consular officer, the Senior 
Officer should urge upon British subjects the like forbearance. See 493 (Terri- 
torial Waters). 

Ill 



483 CHAP. X. COMMANDERS-IN-CHIEF, &c. 

483. Foreign Ships of War. Communications from Governors to Captains 
of foreign men-of-war are not to be made through officers of His Majesty's 
naval service, except in cases when, having been made through the ordinary 
channels, they have failed to produce any effect. 

484. Remonstrance with Civil Authorities. Any remonstrance with 
foreign civil authorities which may be necessary can only be the duty of a 
naval officer in the absence of the British resident or consul, and in such cases 
it must only be made by the senior naval officer present. 

486. Communications with Local Authorities. As a general rule, all 
communications with the local authorities or with the foreign consuls at a 
foreign port should be made through His Majesty's diplomatic or consular 
authorities at the place. 

486. Landing armed Men. No armed force is to be landed from His 
Majesty's ships for exercise or any other purpose, on foreign soil, without the 
permission of the local authorities, nor should leave be given to large bodies 
of men, nor any measure taken for apprehending leave-breakers without such 
permission. 

487. Protection of British subjects. As a general rule, protection to 
British subjects in foreign lands is to be limited to affording them an asylum on 
board ship, and to securing them by boats an escape from the shore, when 
their departure may be a measure of necessary precaution. Interposition by 
the landing of an armed force is only to be had recourse to when the lives or 
property of British subjects are actually in danger from violence which cannot 
otherwise be controlled. 

488. Refugees. Ships in the ports of a foreign country are not to receive 
on board persons, although they may be British subjects, seeking refuge for 
the purpose of evading the laws of the foreign country to which they may have 
become amenable. 

2. During political disturbances or popular tumults, refuge may be afforded 
to persons flying from imminent personal danger. In such cases care must 
be taken that the refugees do not carry on correspondence with their partisans 
from His Majesty's ships, and the earliest opportunity must be taken to transfer 
them to some place of safety. 

3. Except in extreme cases, passages should not be given to the subjects 
of foreign Governments. 

4. Whenever circumstances may permit, naval officers should communicate 
with His Majesty's diplomatic or consular officers on the spot, before taking 
steps for the reception of refugees on board their ships. 

489. Joint Action with Foreign Ships. The foregoing limitations apply 
equally to cases of joint action with foreign ships-of-war, when the interests 
of their fellow-subjects are involved with those of British subjects. In such 
cases naval officers may act in concert with the foreign naval officers so far 
as amicable representation is concerned, but such concert is not to be carried 
beyond the limits prescribed to them in cases where British interests alone 
are concerned. 

2. Protection to Foreigners. Applications for the protection of subjects of 
foreign Powers in amity with His Majesty may be entertained, in case none 
of their ships-of-war are present ; the application should, however, be made 
through His Majesty's minister or consul, and should only be acceded to where 
the protection does not interfere with any important public service nor with 
the orders under which the naval officer is acting. 

142 



DUTIES OF THE SENIOR OFFICER PRESENT. 490 

490. British Ships in Foreign Ports. The foregoing rules are also applicable 
to the protection to be afforded to British ships in foreign ports ; they are only 
to be protected by force against actual and wrongful violence and when 
remonstrance has failed. 

491. Neutrality. When Powers in amity with His Majesty are in a state 
of war, or are engaged in hostilities, it is the duty of all His Majesty's officers 
to observe a strict and impartial neutrality between the contending parties, 
and to respect unreservedly the just exercise of their respective belligerent 
rights. 

492. Entry into Neutral Ports. Subject to any limit which the neutral 
authorities may place upon the number of belligerent cruisers to be admitted 
into any one of their ports, at the same time, the Senior Officer, by the comity 
of nations, may enter a neutral port with his ships for the purpose of taking 
shelter from the enemy or from the weather, or of obtaining provisions or 
repairs that may be pressingly necessary. 

2. He. is bound to submit to any regulations which the local authorities 
may make respecting the place of anchorage, the limitation of the length of 
stay in the port, the interval to elapse after a hostile cruiser has left the port 
before his ships may leave in pursuit, &c. 

3. He must abstain from any acts of hostility towards the subjects, cruisers, 
vessels, or other property of the enemy which he may find in the neutral port. 

4. He must also abstain from increasing the number of his guns, from 
procuring military stores, and from augmenting his crew even by the enrolment 
of British subjects. 

493. Respect of Territorial Limits. The territorial limits of foreign powers 
in amity with His Majesty are to be scrupulously respected. No exercise of 
authority over the persons, the ships, or the goods of another nation is per- 
missible in territorial waters, nor are any gun firing or torpedo explosions to 
take place within such limits without the permission of the authorities for 
each place and occasion. 

494. Coercion of a British Ship. If any British merchant ship, the 
nationality of which is unquestioned, should be coerced into the conveyance 
of troops or into taking part in other hostile acts, the Senior Naval Officer, 
should there be no diplomatic or consular authority at the place, is to remon- 
strate with the local authorities and take such other steps to assure her release 
or exemption, as the case may demand, and as may be in accordance with 
these Regulations. 

495. British Seamen ill-treated. If it should come to the knowledge of 
the Senior Naval Officer that any British seamen serving in foreign merchant 
ships are being ill-treated, he will at once apprise the consul ; should there 
be no consular officer on the spot, he will inform the local authorities of the 
circumstances. 

INSTRUCTIONS AS TO THE COURSE TO BE PURSUED BY NAVAL OFFICERS IN 
CARRYING INTO EFFECT THE PROVISIONS OF THE FOREIGN ENLISTMENT 
ACT, 1870. 

496. Foreign Enlistment Act, 1870. The responsibility for the due 
execution of the Foreign Enlistment Act of 1870 (which will be found in the 
Admiralty Statutes) does not rest with the civil authorities only ; direct 
responsibilities will devolve upon naval officers, under the Act and under 
these Instructions. 



498 



CHAP. X. COMMANDERS-IN-CHIEP, &c. 



2. It will be the duty of the Commander-in-Chief or senior officer present 
to make known and to satisfy himself that every commissioned officer under 
his command makes himself acquainted with the provisions of the Act ; he is 
to be vigilant against any breach thereof, and to assist the civil authorities 
with the naval force under his command. 

3. In addition to this, in virtue of Section 21 of the Act, and these Instruc- 
tions, he is created a local authority within that section ; and as such, he will 
have special duties imposed on him under various sections. 

The most important of these duties will relate to the seizing and detaining 
of ships in respect of offences committed against Section 7 and Section 8, but 
he will also assist in enforcing Sections 4, 5, 6, 10, and 11. 

4. An offence against Section 4 is committed if, without the licence of 
His Majesty 

any British subject anywhere accepts"! 

or agrees to accept 

or j any commission or engagement in 

any person of any nationality in I the military or naval service of 

British territory, or in British 

territorial waters, induces any 

other person of any nationality to 

accept or agree to accept 

5. An offence against Section 5 is committed if, without the licence of 
His Majesty 

any British subject does 

or 
any person of any nationality in 

British territory, or in British 

territorial waters, induces any | 

other person of any nationality to J 

6. An offence against Section 6 is committed if 
any person of any nationality any- 
where induces any other person 

of any nationality to quit His 
Majesty's dominions, or to em- 
bark on any ship in British terri- 
tory, or in British territorial 
waters, under a misrepresentation 
or false representation of the 
service in which such last-named 
person is to be engaged 

7. An offence against Section 7 is committed if 

the master or owner of any ship oi~] on board such ship in British 

whatever nationality, without the I territory or in British territorial 

licence of His Majesty, knowingly j waters, any illegally 

takes, or engages to take, or has J 
Illegally enlisted persons are 
any British subject anywhere who 

has anywhere, without the licence 

of His Majesty, accepted or agreed 

to accept 
or 
any British subject who, without the 

licence of His Majesty, is about to 

quit His Majesty's dominions with 

intent to accept 

144 



any foreign State at war with 
any friendly State. 



quit, or go on board any ship with 
a view of quitting His Majesty's 
dominions with intent to accept 
any such commission or engage- 
ment as above. 



with the intent or in order that such 
last-named person may accept or 
agree to accept any such com- 
mission or engagement as above. 



enlisted per- 



son. 



any commission or engagement in 
the military or naval service of 
any foreign State at war with a 
friendlv State. 



DUTIES OF THE SENIOR OFFICER PRESENT. 



496 



or 



any person of any nationality who" 
has been induced to embark in any 
ship in British territory, or in 
British territorial waters, under a 
misrepresentation, or false repre- 
sentation of the service in which ; 



any commission or engagement in 
the military or naval service of 
any foreign State at war with a 
friendly State. 



such person is to be engaged, with 
the intent or in order that such 
peison may accept or agree to 
accept 

8. An offence against Section 8 is committed if any person of any nationality 
on British territory, or in British territorial waters, without the licence of His 
Majesty 

builds or agrees to build 

or 
causes to be built 



equips 



or 



or 



any ship with intent or knowledge, 
or having reasonable cause to 
believe that the same shall or will 
be employed in the military or 
naval service of any foreign State 
at war with any friendly State. 



issues or delivers any commission for 

or 

despatches, or causes, or allows to be 
despatched j 

9. An offence against Section 10 is committed if any person of any nationality 
on British territory, or in British territorial waters, and without the licence of 
His Majesty, by adding to the number of the guns, or by changing those on 
board for other guns or by the addition of any equipment for war increases or 
augments, or procures to be increased or augmented, or is knowingly concerned 
in increasing or augmenting, the warlike force of any ship which at the time 
of her being in British territory or in British territorial waters, was a ship in 
the military or naval service of any foreign State at war with any friendly State. 

10. An offence against Section 11 is committed if any person of any 
nationality in British territory, or in British territorial waters, and without 
the licence of His Majesty, prepares or fits out any naval or military expedition 
to proceed against the dominions of any friendly State. 

11. Information as to the meaning in the above Sections and these Instruc- 
tions of the terms " Territorial waters," " Licence of His Majesty," " Foreign 
State," " Friendly State," " Military service," " Naval service," " Ship," 
" Master of ship," " Building " and " Equipping " respectively, will be found 
hereinafter in clause 33 of these Instructions. 

12. The following acts are not breaches of the Foreign Enlistment Act, 
1870 : 

(a) Building or equipping a mer- 

chantman, in order that, as 
such, she may carry a cargo 
contraband of war ; 

(b) Putting on board a merchantman 

a cargo contraband of war ; 

(c) Despatching a merchantman with 

or in order that, as such, she provided that such ship is not to be 
may carry a cargo contraband > employed in the military or naval 
of war ; service of any foreign State at war 

(d) Building,equipping or despatching with any friendly State. 

145 



496 CHAP. X. COMMANDERS-IN-CHIEF, &c. 

a merchantman, in order 
that, as such, she may run a 
blockade ; 

(e) Building, causing to be built, or 
equipping a ship in any of the 
cases mentioned in the proviso 
in Section 8 of the Act ; 

13. Whenever any officer has reason to suspect that any offence against 
any of the above Sections has been or is about to be committed, he will at 
once report to his superior authority. 

14. The Commander-in-Chief or Senior Officer present will not exercise 
authority over any ship unless he shall have received a written requisition or 
warrant to do so from the civil authorities, except in cases of extreme urgency 
admitting of no delay. 

15. Should he have reason to believe that an offence against Section 7 has 
been committed, he will communicate with the civil authorities, as directed in 
clauses 19 and 20 of these Instructions, except in case of emergency admitting 
of no delay ; but in such cases of emergency he will proceed himself to seize 
and detain such ship, without waiting to communicate with the civil authorities, 
and take, or cause to be taken, on shore all illegally enlisted persons, and will 
not allow them to return to the ship. 

16. With respect to breaches of Section 8, he will in no case exercise authority 
over any ship without such written requisition as aforesaid, unless it be credibly 
represented to him that there is reasonable and probable cause for believing, 

that a ship in British territory or in British territorial waters, not only 
has been, or is being built, commissioned or equipped, contrary to 
Section 8, but is about to be taken beyond the limits of British territory 
and British territorial waters ; 

or 

that a ship is about to be despatched contrary to Section 8. 
But where it is so credibly represented to him, it will be his duty at once to 
detain such ship on his own responsibility, under Section 24, and forthwith to 
communicate the fact of her detention to one of His Majesty's Principal 
Secretaries of State, or to the chief executive authority, and await their further 
instructions. 

What is meant by a chief executive authority will be ascertained by reference 
to Section 26 of the Act, and to the interpretation clause, Section 30.- 

17. Every officer of His Majesty's Navy or Marines may be called on under 
Section 22, by any of the local authorities mentioned in Section 21, to aid in 
seizing or detaining any ship liable to be seized or detained in respect of any 
offence against the Act. 

When called upon he will give his aid with the naval force (if any) under 
his command. 

18. Every commissioned officer on full pay in the naval service of the 
Crown, on receiving a warrant from any of His Majesty's Principal Secretaries 
of State, or the chief executive authority denned in Sections 26 and 30 of the 
Act, stating that there is reasonable and probable cause for believing, 

that a ship within His Majesty's dominions has been or is being built ; 
commissioned, or equipped, contrary to the Act, and is about to be taken 
beyond the limits of such dominions, 

or 

that a ship is about to be despatched contrary to the Act, 
will have the power, defined under Section 23, and it will also be his duty at 
once to seize, search, and detain the same. 

146 



DUTIES OF THE SENIOR OFFICER PRESENT. 496 

19. In the event of the Commander-in-Chief or Senior Officer present having 
reason to suspect that any oftence against the above Sections of the Act has 
been or is about to be committed by or on board any ship, except where it is 
his duty at once to seize and detain the ship himself under these Instructions, 
he will forthwith communicate with the civil authorities and await the arrival 
of their requisitions, taking up in the meantime a position whence he will be 
able to observe the movements of the ship, and to comply without delay with 
an}' requisitions he may receive to prevent her putting to sea ; and for this 
purpose he will keep his ship under steam when he thinks it expedient. 

20. As soon as he has received the requisitions or warrant of the civil 
authorities, he will take proper measures to give effect to them, using his 
own discretion as to the mode of disposing of the naval force under his com- 
mand. 

21. Special caution is to be used in dealing with armed ships. 

22. Whenever he or any other officer is required to act under these Instruc- 
tions, a commanding force is, if possible, to be employed, so as to prevent all 
resistance. 

23. The powers of seizure and detention given to officers as above are 
exercisable in British territorial waters over any private ship, whatever be 
her nationality. 

24. These powers are also exercisable on the high seas, not being territorial 
waters, over British ships, but over no other ships. 

25. They are not exercisable over any ship in foreign territorial waters. 

26. They are not exercisable in any waters over any ship-of-war of any 
foreign State. 

27. As soon as the determination has been arrived at, to exercise the powers 
of seizure or detention given, the Commander-in-Chief or Senior Officer present 
will announce the fact to the master of the ship, and take proper measures to 
secure the ship. 

28. The officer seizing or detaining any ship will use his own discretion, in 
the absence of special orders, as to whether he will detain her on the spot, or 
bring her into the nearest British port, and as to whether he will take possession 
of her, or allow her to be navigated by her own crew. 

29. He will not use force, except in the last resort ; but he is authorised, 
in the absence of special orders to the contrary, to use force should he meet 
with resistance from the ship, or if the ship, after having been duly warned, 
should pertinaciously attempt to escape. 

30. Any officer authorised to seize or detain any ship in respect of any 
offence against the Act may call in such assistance as is mentioned in Section 
22 of the Act, for the purpose of enforcing such seizure or detention. 

31. Having secured the ship, the officer seizing or detaining her will forthwith 
apply to the civil authorities for instructions. 

32. In addition to the above duties, he will have the power, on receipt of 
a warrant under Section 18 of the Act, to convey any prisoner to any place or 
places named in such warrant, and to deliver him, on arrival, into the custody 
of any authority designated by such warrant. 

33. In the Act, and in these Instructions, the following terms are to have 
the meaning hereinafter respectively assigned them. (See also Section 30 of 
the Act.) 

(a) " Licence of His Majesty " means a licence under the sign manual of 
His Majesty, or signified in Council or by proclamation of His Majesty. 
(See Section 15 of the Act.) 

147 



496 CHAP. X. COMMANDERS-IN-CHIEF, &c. 

(b) " Territorial Waters " include : 

1st. Ports, harbours, bays, mouths of rivers, and adjacent parts of 

the sea enclosed by headlands belonging to the same State. 
2nd. The waters to the distance of a marine league from the shore 
all along the coast of the same State. 

(c) '* Foreign State " includes any Foreign Prince, colony, province, or 

part of any province, or people, or any person or persons exercising, 
or assuming to exercise, the powers of government in or over any 
foreign country, colony, province, or part of any province or people. 

(d) " Friendly State " means any foreign State at peace with His Majesty. 

(e) "Military Service" includes military telegraphy, and any other 

employment whatever in or in connection with any military opera- 
tion. 

(/) ** Naval Service," as respects a person, includes service as a marine, 
employment as a pilot in piloting or directing the course of a ship- 
of-war or other ship, when such ship-of-war or other ship is being used 
in any military or naval operation, and any employment whatever 
on board a ship-of-war, transport, storeship, privateer, or ship under 
letters of marque, and as respects a ship, includes any user of a ship 
as a transport, storeship, privateer, or ship under letters of marque. 

(g) " United Kingdom " includes the Isle of Man, the Channel Islands, 
and other adjacent islands. 

(h) " British Possession " means any territory, colony, or place, being 
part of His Majesty's dominions, and not part of the United Kingdom 
as denned above. 

(i) " The Secretary of State " means any of His Majesty's Principal 
Secretaries of State. 

(j) u The Governor," as respects India, means the Governor-General or 
Governor of any presidency, and where a British Possession consists 
of several constituent colonies, means the Governor-General of the 
whole possession, or the Governor of any of the constituent colonies, 
and as respects any other British possession, means the officer for the 
tune being administering the government of such possession ; also 
any person acting for or in the capacity of a Governor is included 
under the term " Governor." 

(A) ** Ship " includes any description of boat, vessel, floating battery, or 
floating craft ; also, any description of boat, vessel, or other craft 
or battery made to move either on the surface of or under water, or 
sometimes on the surface of and sometimes under water. 

(/) '** Building," in relation to a ship, includes doing any act towards or 
incidental to the construction of a ship, and all words having relation 
to the building shall be construed accordingly. 

(m) " Equipping," in relation to a ship, includes the furnishing a ship with 
any tackle, apparel, furniture, provisions, arms, munitions, or stores, 
or any other thing which is used in or about a ship for the puipose of 
fitting or adapting her for the sea or for naval service, and all words 
relating to equipping shall be construed accordingly. 

(ri) " Master " includes any person having the charge or command of a 
ship. 

SECTION III. COMMANDERS-IN-CHIEF AT HOME PORTS. 

497. General Duties. The Commander-in-Chief at a home port is to be 
guided in the conduct of his general duties by the foregoing instructions to 
Commanders-in-Chief and those to the Senior Officer present, and is also to 

148 



HOME PORTS. 497 

observe the following instructions relative to the special duties connected with 
his command. 

498. Ships and Officers generally. He is to be responsible for the prompt 
and complete equipment and manning of all ships at the port when cbmmission- 
ing, refitting, or paying off. He is to consider all Flag Officers who are junior 
to himself and all ships present as under his orders, except such as are actually 
under the orders of a senior Flag Officer then present, but such vessels are to be 
under his control in all matters provided for by the regulations of the port. 

He will not interfere with ships arriving or lying at ports within his station 
but not in sight of his flag, unless specially directed to take them under his 
orders ; and, except in some emergency which does not admit of reference to 
the Admiralty, he is not to send any ship to sea except those which have been 
specially placed under his orders. 

2. During War he is to see that the authorised local regulations for the 
control of traffic are properly enforced, and he will further ensure the safety 
of the port by disposing the vessels under his special command in whatever 
manner may seem to him best suited to secure that end. 

499. Letters, &c., from Ships. He will receive all letters, returns and 
reports from the Flag Officers and ships placed under his orders, as well as from 
such ships as may become subject to his control by the regulations of the 
port, but in that case only in regard to such matters as are affected by those 
regulations. 

In the case of ships under the actual orders of a senior Flag Officer, the 
letters, returns and reports are to be transmitted through that senior Flag 
Officer, but in the case of other officers in command of any particular squadron 
they are to be sent direct, and duplicate returns, reports, &c., should be sent 
to such officers in command, for information, by their ships. 

500. Test of Fittings. Prior to any of His Majesty's ships or vessels being 
placed in commission for the first time, and on any occasion of the armament 
being altered, the gunnery fittings generally are to be examined and tested 
by the Captain of the gunnery school at Portsmouth, Devonport and Sheerness 
respectively, and the torpedo and electrical fittings are to be tested and examined 
as directed in Article 903, the dockyard officials responsible for the fittings 
being represented at the trial in each case. 

The reports of these trials are to be forwarded by the Commander-in-Chief 
to the Admiralty. See 1052 (Gunnery and Torpedo Trials) . 

501. Alterations and Additions. He is to refer all applications for altera- 
tions or additions in duplicate to the Admiralty in accordance with Article 
1094. 

502. Completing Ships. On the commissioning of a ship he will appropriate 
her ship's company from the men in the general depot or port in accordance 
with the Drafting Regulations. 

503. Test ol Electrical Fittings. Shortly after commissioning, a trial of 
all the electrical fittings is to be made by officers of the ship under the direction 
of the Commander-in-Chief, in the presence of the dockyard officers, in order 
to ensure that everything is in perfect order. In cases where the final electrical 
trials were carried out while the nucleus crews were on board, the commissioning 
trial need not be held. 

504. Postponement o! Completion. Whenever the time fixed for tin 
completion of a ship's refit or readiness for any purpose is postponed, he i 

149 



504 CHAP. X. COMMANDERS-m-CfflEF, &C. 

require from the Captain a report of the cause, which he will communicate, if 
necessary, to the Admiralty by telegraph or letter, adding his own opinion as 
to the necessity for the delay. 

505. Delay in Sailing. He is not to allow the Captain of any of His 
Majesty's ships to prolong his stay in port after receiving his sailing orders, 
should the state of the weather permit him to put to sea, and he is to report 
whenever he considers that a ship has been put back or brought into port 
unnecessarily. 

506. Returns before Sailing. He is to take care that ships just com- 
missioned shall forward the return S. 165, and their allotment lists, to the 
Accountant-General before leaving port, and that they duly forward for trans- 
mission to the Admiralty the return of weights. See 1594 (Return of Numbers 
borne) ; 1595 (Monthly Return of Entries and Discharges). 

507. Important Information to Admiralty. He is to keep the Admiralty 
informed by telegraph of all matters of importance that occur, including the 
arrival, sailing, and passing of all ships-of-war. 

508. Disposable Officers and Men. When occasion requires it, he is to 
make use of the services of all officers and men borne for disposal, when they 
are needed to facilitate the commissioning or paying off of ships, or are required 
in ships' offices. 

509. Officers exempt from general Port Duties. So far as the convenience 
of the Service will admit, he is to arrange that the Captains and officers of the 
Military Branch belonging to the gunnery and torpedo establishments as well 
as the officers in training, surveying, and store ships, and the Captain of the 
Dockyard and officers of the Military Branch specially borne on the books of 
the general depot for duty under him, are not called upon to Attend surveys 
out of their own ships, nor to perform any other of the ordinary duties of the 
port, which are unconnected with the special services on which they are 
respectively employed. 

510. Working Parties for Dockyard. On receiving an application from the 
Superintendent to the effect that an additional number of men are required to 
perform any work connected with the yard, he is to send them if they can be 
spared, under proper officers, to be employed as the Superintendent shall direct ; 
but he is not to allow them to be employed on work other than that ordinarily 
done by seamen, except upon his special authority, and he is to be careful to 
define in his order the nature of the exceptional work so permitted, and the 
period of its duration. 

511. Moorings. He is to take care that no moorings are laid down without 
the sanction of the Superintendent. 

512. Ship ordered to Commission. He is to acquaint the heads of the 
several local departments concerned whenever a ship is ordered to be com- 
missioned or paid off. 

513. Flag Officer entering Port. Any Flag Officer in command entering 
the port limits at Portsmouth, Plymouth, or Sheerness-Chatham who is senior 
to the Commander-in-Chief of the port, is not in any way to interfere with the 
port duties, but is, after receiving the visit of such junior Flag Officer, to direct 
by order or signal that the duties of the port are to be carried out by the 
appointed port authorities without reference to him even should his flag remain 
flying. 

150 



HOME PORTS. 513 

2. Ships under the actual command of such a senior Flag Officer are, while 
in the port, to be subject to the control of the Port Commander-in-Chief in all 
matters governed by the Port Regulations. 

3. Absence of Port Commander-in-Chief. In the absence of the Port 
Commander-in-Chief, his duties are to be carried out by the Admiral Super- 
intendent, and, failing him, by the senior officer present. At Portsmouth, in 
view of the special duties of the Flag Officer Commanding the Royal Naval 
War College, he will not, in the absence of the Admiral Superintendent, take 
over the port duties when senior officer, but is to direct the officer next in order 
of seniority to do so. 

514. Residence, Termination of. A Commander-in-Chief at a home port 
who has had due notice of his successor's appointment, or who has been enabled 
otherwise to reckon with certainty on the date of his supersession, is not to 
occupy his official residence for more than one week from such date ; in other 
cases, when the termination of his command could not have been foreseen, the 
occupancy is to be extended to 14 days. 



SECTION IV. OFFICERS RECOMMENDED FOR PROMOTION. 

515. Commanders and Lieutenants. The names of Commanders and 
Lieutenants recommended by Commanders-in-Chief and officers in command 
of fleets, squadrons, and stations, each half-year, for promotion in the proportion 
laid down from time to tune, are to reach the Admiralty not later than 31st 
May and 30th November. 

2. Additional Commanders. Officers in command of a station are also at 
liberty to add to the number allowed one or two names of younger Commanders 
who have come specially under their notice, and might be considered for early 
promotion, as showing promise of becoming capable officers in the higher ranks 
of the naval service. 

3. Additional Lieutenants. Additional recommendations of Lieutenants in 
the proportion laid down from time to time are also allowed for the purpose 
of enabling Commanders-in-Chief to recommend younger Lieutenants who have 
come under their notice as worthy of being considered for early promotion, 
and as showing promise of becoming capable officers in the higher ranks of the 
naval service, viz., above the rank of Commander. 

4. In every recommendation of a Lieutenant for promotion a report is to 
be made whether, so far as can be judged, he is likely to do well in the higher 
ranks of the Service. 

5. It is not necessary that the officer recommended should be actually 
serving at the time on the station ; therefore in considering officers for recom- 
mendation, the claims of those who have recently left a station should be 
considered with those on the station. 



151 

L2 






CHAPTER XI. 

INSTRUCTIONS TO A FLAG OFFICER OR A COMMODORE 
OF THE FIRST CLASS NOT COMMANDING-IN-CHIEF. 

516. General Duties. He is to superintend, with great attention, all the 
ships of the division of the fleet or of the squadron which is put under his 
directions ; he is to see that their crews are properly disciplined ; that all orders 
and regulations are punctually attended to and obeyed ; and that the coal, 
stores, provisions, and water are kept as complete, and the ships in every respect 
as fit for service, as circumstances will admit. 

517. Reports, &c., from Division. He is to receive all reports of the state 
of the ships and of their defects, applications for repairs or refitting, demands 
for stores or provisions, and representations of the state of their crews or of 
the misconduct of their officers or men, as being responsible to the Commander- 
in-Chief for the good order, discipline, and efficiency of the division or squadron 
which he commands. 

518. Keeping Station. When at sea, he is to be particularly attentive in 
observing that the ship which carries his flag, and all the division or squadron 
under his orders, preserve very correctly their station in whatever order or 
formation the fleet may be ; when any evolution is being performed, he is to 
be attentive to the manner in which the ships under his direction carry it out, 
always correcting immediately, by signal or otherwise, as he shall think fit, 
every apparent want of activity and exertion, and every mistake or appearance 
of neglect. 

519. Mistakes of Ships in other Divisions. He may correct, by signal or 
otherwise, the mistake or negligence of a ship in another division or sub-division, 
whenever it is probable that, from their relative situations, the ship cannot be 
distinctly seen by the officer commanding the division to which she belongs ; 
or whenever, being in the presence of an enemy, the officer commanding the 
division or sub-division whatever may be his situation, does not himself imme- 
diately correct such mistake or negligence. 

520. Conduct of Ships in Battle. When in battle, he is to observe the 
conduct of every ship near him, whether of the division he commands or not ; 
at the end of the battle he is to report his observations to the Commander-in- 
Chief, so that the conduct of every officer may be represented as he shall really 
deserve. Should he observe any ship evidently avoiding battle, or not doing 
her duty properly, he is immediately to make such signal to her, or to take 
such steps, as the case may appear to him to require, for ensuring her more 
efficient co-operation ; and he is to report, without loss of time, to the Com- 
mander-in-Chief any case of this nature in which he shall have so interfered. 



152 



521 



CHAPTER XII. 

INSTRUCTIONS TO THE CAPTAIN OF THE FLEET. 

521. General Duties. The Captain of the Fleet is, under the direction of 
the Commander-in-Chief, or Senior Flag Officer of the fleet, to attend to the 
various details and arrangements, for the management of such fleet and for 
the maintenance of it in the most efficient state possible, giving, as may be 
necessary, with the sanction of the Commander-in-Chief, or Senior Flag Officer, 
such orders for the above objects as circumstances may require ; and all orders 
so given by him are to be obeyed by every person in the fleet as well by officers 
superior to him as by those inferior. 

522. Matters he is to deal with. The Captain of the Fleet will also deal 
with the following matters on behalf of the Commander-in-Chief, subject to his 
sanction, and give such orders with regard thereto as circumstances may require, 
and such orders are to be obeyed by all concerned in the fleet as if given by the 
Commander-in-Chief : 

Passages of ranks and ratings ; 

Discharge, exchange, transfer, or lending of men in the fleet ; 

Examinations of ranks and ratings ; 

Coaling, oiling, storing, provisioning, and money requirements ; 

Royal Naval Reserve and Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve Receipt, 

training, and discharge of ; 
Advancement and confirmation of ratings ; 
Transfers from one rating to another ; 
Defect lists, examination of ; 
Colliers damages, suitability, &c. ; 
Applications for extra pay ; 

Leave of officers, except Flag Officers and Captains ; 
Closing accounts, officers and men to be borne for ; 
Surveys of stores ; 

Medical surveys on officers and men ;- 
Patrol reports ; 

Contractors, all matters relating to ; 
And other miscellaneous subjects which are not of sufficient importance 

to be dealt with by the Commander-in-Chief. 



153 



523 CHAP. Xm. INSTRUCTIONS TO CAPTAINS. 



CHAPTER XIII. 

INSTRUCTIONS TO CAPTAINS. 

SECTION PAGE 

I. On Appointment - - 154 

II. Fighting Efficiency - - 155 

III. Exercises and Instructions as to Armaments and Magazines - 155 

IV. Fire Precautions - 157 
V. Regulations for Closing Water-tight Doors - 159 

VI. Smoking Regulations - - 162 

VII. Clothing, Cleanliness, and Health - 162 

VIII. Logs, Register and Signal Books, &c. - - 164 

IX. Instruction of Officers - - 165 

X. General Instructions - - 166 

XI. Letters and Mails - 170 

XII. Anchors and Cables - - 171 

XIII. Payments, Cash and Store Accounts, and Surveys - - 172 

XIV. Discharge of Officers and Men - 175 
XV. Miscellaneous - - 178 

XVI. In case of Wreck - 180 

SECTION I. ON APPOINTMENT. 

523. First Inspection. On appointment to the command of a ship the 
Captain will visit her throughout with the officers of the ship named in 
Article 1097, and he will be accompanied, in the case of dockyard-built ships 
by the Captain of the dockyard and the Manager, Engineering Department, 
and in the case of contract-built ships, by the Naval Superintendent of Con- 
tract-built ships and the Engineer Overseer. These latter officers are to inspect 
the ship with him to afford him such general information in regard to the 
armament, hull, engines, boilers, internal fittings, etc., as he may require. 

2. Alterations. They are to acquaint him with any alterations which the 
Admiralty may have authorised, and if further alterations or any additions 
are deemed by the Captain to be necessary, they are to inform him that they 
cannot be made without obtaining the special sanction of the Admiralty. 

3. In such a case application is to be made by him immediately through 
the proper channel, with all necessary explanations, but such applications after 
commissioning, are to be avoided as much as possible. 

524. Hastening of Equipment. When a ship is first commissioned, as well 
as at ah 1 other times, the Captain is to be very diligent in getting the ship ready 
for sea, or for any other service ordered ; he is to inspect continually and 
forward, so far as he is able, all work on board ; and he is to report daily to 
the Commander-in-Chief the progress made and the state of the ship. If it 
is found necessary to extend the date originally, fixed for being ready, he is 
forthwith to report the reasons by letter to the Commander-in-Chief for the 
information of the Admiralty, and in the event of there being any neglect or 
delay in her fitting on the part of the dockyard he is to represent the same, 
when no Senior Officer is present, to the Superintendent or to the Admiralty 
as circumstances may require. 

2. Local Regulations, &c. He is to make himself acquainted with the 
regulations of the dockyard, victualling yard, gun wharf, etc., in respect of all 

154 



OX APPOINTMENT. 524 

matters necessary for his guidance, and he is to co-operate with the heads 
of all the public departments in the furtherance of the service. 

525. Provisioning. He will take on board such quantities of provisions 
as may be considered necessary, having due regard to the service and station 
on which the ship is to be employed, but the quantities are not to be less than 
the minimum, for the several natures of provisions, given in Article 1705, and 
the stocks of these articles are so far as possible to be kept up to this limit 
throughout the period of the commission. 

2. If it is considered desirable to take on board as much provisions as can 
be conveniently stowed, the proportion of each kind is to be regulated by the 
average consumption so far as it can be estimated from general experience. 

526. Quartering Officers and Men. As early as possible after commission- 
ing he is to make arrangements for quartering all the officers and men of the 
ship, including marines, as laid down in the Gunnery Manual. 

527. Armament Ready for Use. The Captain is to take care that the 
armament is all on board, and, whether in peace or in war, that everything is 
kept ready for immediate use. 

SECTION II. FIGHTING EFFICIENCY. 

528. Readiness for War. When at sea the Captain is at all times to keep 
the ship in readiness for war, and in time of war he will every evening before 
dark cause the quarters to be cleared and every other arrangement made for 
a night action to prevent surprise by a better-prepared enemy. 

2. When at anchor in any harbour or roadstead he is, especially at night, 
to be constantly and fully prepared to repel any attempt of an enemy to board 
or to destroy the ship by torpedoes or otherwise. 

529. Approaching Foreign Ships. He is not to approach a foreign ship- 
of-war at any tune without being prepared to defend his ship in case of necessity ; 
but in taking all proper precautions he is to give no reasonable cause of offence 
to such foreign ship by exhibiting any outward marks of preparation. 

530. Night Quarters. The Captain is to exercise the crew by night at 
general quarters once every three months, at a time not earlier than 10 p.m. 

Ships newly commissioned are not to carry out night firing until the guns' 
crews are sufficiently trained, and have been exercised for this purpose in the 
daytime, to show the ship's company clearly what would be required at night. 

531. Gunnery and Torpedo System. He is to take care that the systems 
of gunnery, of torpedo and of drill laid down in the current issues of the 
Gunnery Manual, in the Torpedo Manual, in Rifle and Field Exercises for the 
Navy and in gunnery and torpedo drill books are strictly carried out ; he is 
to allow no deviations whatever therefrom, unless compelled to do so owing 
to special fittings or peculiarities in the armament, but any alterations that 
his experience or that of the Gunnery and Torpedo Lieutenants suggest as 
likely to be improvements may be submitted to the Admiralty. 

SECTION III. EXERCISES AND INSTRUCTIONS AS TO ARMAMENTS 
AND MAGAZINES. 

532. Drills and Exercises. He is to take care that the prescribed drills 
and exercises, as laid down in the Gunnery and Torpedo Manuals and in the 

155 



532 CHAP. Xm. INSTRUCTIONS TO CAPTAINS. 

annual reports (forms S. 285, S. 285a, S. 303 and S. 3030), are carried out, and 
he is to see that the officers and instructors adhere strictly to the established 
exercises. General quarters should take place once a week. 

2. Use of Ammunition, &c. He will take care that the officers and men 
are carefully instructed in the description, and use of all the ammunition, &c., 
supplied to the ship, and that the details of their action and application are 
periodically shown and explained to them by the Instructors. 

533. Practice Expenditure. The Captain is to cause the quantities of 
ammunition and stores specified in the Gunnery and Torpedo Manuals as 
allowed for practice to be expended according to the instructions therein laid 
down. 

2. He is not to suffer the quantity of ammunition to be reduced below 
two-thirds of the proportion of each description allowed to the ship. 

534. Accident to Armament, &c. He will report to the Commander-in- 
Chief for the information of the Admiralty any accident which may happen 
to the armament, arms, or ammunition of the ship, as provided for in Article 
895. 

535. Reports, &c., on Armament and Fittings. The Captain is to make 
himself acquainted with the details of the reports of gunnery and torpedo trials 
and other reports and correspondence relating to the armament and electrical 
fittings of the ship, and copies of these are to be kept in the Captain's Ship's 
Book. 

536. Opening Magazines. He is to take care that the main magazines 
are never opened except by his orders, or by the orders of such officers as he 
may authorise. 

2. When hatches of shell rooms or magazines, necessarily left open for 
ventilation, are not under the immediate eye of a sentry, one is to be specially 
placed during the time the hatches are open to prevent the entry of unauthorised 
persons. 

537. Important Keys. He will cause the keys of the magazines and 
spirit-rooms and all other important keys in the ship to be kept in a box, having 
a glass front, supplied for the purpose and provided with two keys ; it is to 
be fixed outside the door of the Captain's cabin, and is to be in the charge of 
the sentry. In ships where there is no sentry, the box is to be placed inside 
the door of the Captain's cabin. 

2. The keys of the important key box are to be kept by the Captain, who 
may, at his discretion, place one key under the charge of the sentry. In the 
latter case, the sentry is to be furnished with a list of persons to whom access 
to the key box is authorised. 

3. The name of each key will be marked distinctly over its hook in the 
box, so that the absence of a key from its hook will show that the key is in 
use. 

4. A board is to be hung above or below the box, and is to be painted red 
on one side, with the words " Magazine Open," and black on the other side, 
with the words " Magazine Closed," and every time the key of a magazine 
is taken away or returned the board is to be turned accordingly. When the 
box is placed inside a cabin, this board should be hung up outside in a con- 
spicuous place. 

5. When it is necessary to open the box the Gunner, Gunner's Mate, or 
other authorised person to whom the keys of the magazines, etc., may be 
entrusted, is himself to obtain the key of the box from the Captain or sentry, 

156 



ARMAMENTS AND MAGAZINES. 537 

as the case may require. When the purpose for which the keys were removed 
from the box is accomplished he is carefully to lock the magazine or room, 
return the keys to the box and the key of the box to the Captain (or sentry). 

The person to whom magazine keys are issued is responsible that the 
indicator board (referred to in clause 4) is turned. 

6. When the ship is fitted with a ready-use saluting magazine, the key of 
this magazine may, at the Captain's discretion, be permanently issued to the 
Officer of the Watch or the Gunner, care being taken that it is not interchange- 
able with other magazine keys. 

538. Admission to Secret Booms, &e. In order to maintain their secret 
nature, he is to take care that with the exception of 

(a) Officers and men of His Majesty's Navy, 

(b) Marine officers attached to marine barracks, 

(c) Dockyard officers and workmen acting under the orders of the Admirals 

Superintendent, 

no one be allowed inside the submerged torpedo rooms or transmitting station, 
or on the fire-control platforms of the ship without the written sanction of the 
Admiralty, or the approval of the Commander-in-Chief. 

2. Wireless Telegraphy Office. No person except 

(a) An officer or man of the Royal Navy or Royal Marines, 

or 

(b) An officer or man in the civil employment of the Admiralty, 

whose duties are directly connected with wireless telegraphy or with the execu- 
tion of duly authorised repairs, is on any account to be allowed inside the 
wireless telegraphy office, which is to be securely locked when unoccupied. 

3. No Communication outside Service. All details of submerged torpedo 
tubes, wireless telegraphy and fire-control fittings and arrangements, and the 
methods of using them, including range finders, are to be considered as of a 
strictly confidential nature, and information on these subjects is not to be 
communicated, directly or indirectly, to any persons outside His Majesty's 
Service. 

539. Explosives on Docking. The Captain is strictly to observe the 
instructions laid down relative to the removal or otherwise of explosives, in 
the case of his ship going alongside a dockyard wharf, or into a basin or a dock. 
See 896 (Explosives on board Ships). 



SECTION IV. FIRE PRECAUTIONS. 

540. The Captain will observe, and cause to be observed by everyone on 
board, the following regulations against fire : 

1. Naked Lights. No naked lights are to be used in any part of the ship 
below decks, except in the usual hand lamps in the engine and boiler rooms. 

2. Lights in Confined Spaces. Lights, other than the fitted electric lights, 
when used in store-rooms or other confined spaces, except in coal bunkers 
(see Article 514, Steam Manual), are to be in lamp, Pattern 275. 

Spirit-room, &c. No lights or lamps whatever are allowed to be taken 
into the spirit-room, nor into the store-room specially appropriated for inflam- 
mable liquids. 

3. Workmen's Lights. Care is to be taken that all lights which have been 
used by dockyard or other artificers are properly extinguished. 

4. Lights after Rounds. Only the authorised lights are to be used after 
the evening rounds of inspection, except by permission. 

Iff 



540 CHAP. Xm. INSTRUCTIONS TO CAPTAINS. 

5. Officers' Lights. Lights are to be extinguished in officers' mess-rooms 
at the following times : 

Gun-room and warrant officers' /At sea, 9.30 p.m. 
mess - - \ Harbour, 10.0 p.m. 

(At sea, 10.30 p.m. 

Ward-room -\Harbour, 11.0 p.m. 

In sleeping cabins lights should be extinguished half-an-hour later. 
Lights beyond the foregoing hours may be allowed with the special authority, 
in each case, of the Captain on the application of a responsible officer. 

6. Electric Lighting. As any danger of fire from electric lighting can only 
be due to improper fitting of the circuits or neglect of the necessary precaution 
in working the lights, strict attention is to be paid to the instructions contained 
in the Torpedo Manual and in any circulars bearing on the subject. No altera- 
tions in the circuits fitted by the dockyard are to be made without Admiralty 
sanction. 

The connections of portable lamps in store-rooms and confined spaces are 
to be unshipped from their sockets when not in use, and the switches of all 
portable lamps left " off " when done with. 

7. Mineral Oil. No mineral oil of any kind other than that specially 
approved by the Admiralty is to be used for lighting or any other purposes. 

8. Matches. Only safety matches are to be allowed on board, and pre- 
cautions are to be taken in their use and stowage. They are not to be allowed 
in magazines, store-rooms, bread-rooms, slop-rooms, or holds. 

At inspections the inspecting officer is to satisfy himself that proper pre- 
cautions have been taken to prevent accidents from their use. 

9. Inflammable Liquids, store-room for. A special store-room should be 
appropriated for spirits of turpentine, varnishes and any other highly inflam- 
mable liquid which may be specially allowed and where this cannot be done 
fittings for the -stowage of these inflammable liquids are to be provided in the 
spirit-room. They are not to be stowed elsewhere. 

10. Issue of. They are never to be drawn off from any cask or receptacle 
anywhere else than on the upper or main deck, and only in daylight, away 
from any fire, and, if possible, from any light, but if a light is absolutely 
necessary a safety lamp is to be used. 

11. Bottom Composition. The supply of composition for the ship's bottom 
is to be limited to the small quantity necessary to make good defects at the 
water-line, and is on no account to be used inside the ship. 

12. Stowage. Inflammable liquids are to be stowed and used with special 
care, and such stores are only to be received and kept on board in approved 
pattern casks, drums or cans with screw bungs, as specified against each in the 
list mentioned in clause 15. 

13. For completing Defects. No inflammable liquids other than those 
specified on the Sea Store Establishments are to be received on board for 
completing defects. 

14. Limit to Inflammable Liquids on Board. No inflammable liquids other 
than those specified on the Sea Store Establishments, and spirits for consump- 
tion, are to be received on board except for conveyance, or in accordance with 
Article 1800, clause 4. 

15. Authority for Conveyance. No inflammable liquids other than those 
included in the list inserted in the Guard Book containing Special Memoranda 
are to be received on board for conveyance, without special written authority. 

16. Private Inflammable Liquids. No inflammable liquid nor any substance 
of an explosive or dangerous character, nor anything susceptible of spontaneous 

158 



FIRE PRECAUTIONS. 540 

ignition is to be on board as private property, without the special sanction 
of the Admiralty, except the following, which are to be stowed as indicated : 

(a) Spirits for the use of officers : If in casks, to be stowed in the spirit- 

room, and, if in bottles, in the proper store-rooms ; 

(b) Oil for lamps : To be kept in tanks similar to those provided for this 

oil as supplied on the Sea Store Establishments ; 

(c) Private ammunition : Filled cartridges to be kept in the small arms 

magazine in proper boxes. Gunpowder to be stowed in the 
magazine in the same way as spare service powder. 

17. Report at Evening Quarters. At evening quarters the responsible 
persons are to ascertain and report that all tanks, casks, drums and cans con- 
taining inflammable liquids in use are in good condition, do not leak, and are 
stowed in their proper places with their taps and bungs properly turned off or 
screwed down. 

18. Oil, Tallow, Cotton Waste and other wipings are to be kept in the iron 
tanks supplied for the purpose which should be placed as far from the boilers, 
or from any high temperature, as possible. Cotton waste and other wipings 
which are saturated with oil or grease are to be destroyed immediately after 
use. 

19. Ventilators. All ventilators are to be periodically examined to guard 
against accumulations of rubbish in them. 

20. Phosphide of Calcium Lights, for night life buoys and for Whitehead 
torpedoes, etc., are always to be kept in the boxes provided for them, which 
are not to be stowed in the magazine ; they are to be kept in a store-room 
where they are not likely to ignite by being damaged and coming into contact 
with water. Any leak in the cases will be readily detected by the strong odour 
of phosphorus it will emit. Immediate attention should be given to this, and, 
if damaged, the case should be thrown overboard. 

21. Acids are not to be kept near any substance or article of an easily 
inflammable character, nor where they can damage other stores. 

22. Engine Department. The special precautions against fire which are 
applicable to the engine and boiler rooms, and to coal and the coal bunkers, 
will be found in detail in the Steam Manual, and are to be strictly observed. 

23. Notices. Printed copies of this Article are to be hung conspicuously 
on the mess decks and in engine-rooms and officers' quarters. 

541. Fire Stations. The Captain will establish proper fire stations and 
regulations for the guidance of the officers and men, in case a fire takes place 
in the ship, either during " Action " or at any other time ; in doing this he 
will be guided by the Admiralty Watch Bill and Gunnery Manual at the time 
in force. 

2. He will cause copies of the drawings showing the position and lead of 
all pumps, pipes, cocks and valves connected with the fire service and flooding 
arrangements of the ship to be hung in some conspicuous position for the use 
of the officers and men. 



SECTION V. REGULATIONS FOR CLOSING WATER-TIGHT DOORS. 

542. The Captain will take care that the following rules relative to closing 
water-tight doors and valves are strictly observed : 

The signal for closing water-tight doors is to be given in all ships by 
continuous short sharp blasts on the fog-horn. In every ship and vessel a 
fog-horn is to be kept ready for use at a moment's notice, both by day and 
night in such a position as will ensure its being heard at all stations. In large 

159 



542 CHAP. Xm. INSTRUCTIONS TO CAPTAINS. 

vessels, or in those of peculiar construction, it may be necessary, for this pur- 
pose, to place more than one, in different parts of the ship. 

2. When to be closed. In every ship and vessel, as soon as the anchor is 
off the ground, all hatches, doors and valves, automatic or otherwise, below 
the armoured deck, are to be closed by hand, and not opened until the anchor 
is let go again, except in the following cases : 

(a) For purposes of ventilation for half-an-hour in the day, or for so long 

as is considered absolutely necessary by the Captain. 

(b) In parts of the ship which it is absolutely necessary to keep constantly 

ventilated, such as where men are employed or sleeping. 
In both the above cases men should be specially stationed to close by hand, 
when required, all openings which are left open by necessity. 

3. At sea, doors are to be kept closed in the engine-rooms and stokeholds 
with the exception of the bunker doors in each stokehold from which the coal 
is being worked, and one door between each two bunkers. 

4. The instructions contained in the preceding clause as to closing of doors 
in the engine-room department at sea are to apply for the present to the follow- 
ing classes of ships only : 

BATTLESHIPS, CRUISERS. 



" Dreadnought." " Invincible." 

" Lord Nelson," " Minotaur," 

" King Edward VII," " Duke of Edinburgh," 

" Bulwark," " Drake," 

" Duncan," " Devonshire," 

" Triumph," " Monmouth," 

" Canopus," " Cressy," 

and any future ships. 

5. In ships, other than the above, the doors referred to may be opened at 

sea, provided that men are stationed to close them at once, if required, deck 

hands being employed for this duty when the circumstances render this 

necessary. 

All bunker doors, however, other than those from which the coal is being 

worked, are to be kept shut. 

543. Precautions in Action. In action, at general quarters, or in a fog, 
when water-tight doors would be closed generally, certain doors such as maga- 
zines, ammunition passage doors, etc., will have to be opened, but men who 
are working in these spaces are to be told off to be responsible for closing the 
doors and hatches in case of collision or damage to the ship. Special means 
are to be provided for conveying the orders for closing all such doors in the 
most expeditious manner possible. 

Thus, at sea, ships will be under the same conditions in regard to water- 
tight doors as if going into action, except that the magazines, etc., will be 
closed. 

2. The collision bulkhead is always to be kept intact. 

3. Doors, &c., which are to be kept closed. All empty water-tight com- 
partments are to be kept closed. Doors or openings which are required for 
giving the necessary facilities for removing certain parts of the auxiliary 
machinery should be kept closed and water-tight until required for use. 

4. Gunports, Armoured Doors and Automatic Valves. The collision stations 
are to include the closing of gunports and armoured doors. If necessary, ladders 
are to be rigged for facilitating traffic on these occasions. The means of closing 
automatic valves by hand are to be periodically examined in order to ascertain 
that they are in working order. 

160 



REGULATIONS FOR CLOSING WATER-TIGHT DOORS. 644 

544. Test of Water-tight Compartments. The water-tightness of the com- 
partments of His Majesty's ships is to be tested periodically. Commanders-in- 
Chief are to order a compartment of each ship to be flooded at least once a 
year, care being taken that a sufficient head of water is obtained. 

If the compartment selected is a small one, such as a wing compartment 
or small passage, no previous notice should be given, but if it is a large one, 
notice should be given and due precautions taken to remove any stores or 
fittings liable to damage, and opportunity should be taken of the ship being 
in dock on the blocks, but with the dock full of water. 

If the compartment tested should not be found water-tight, full investiga- 
tion is to be made of the cause, and a report forwarded. 

2. Officers in command of His Majesty's ships are to pay constant attention 
to the care of all water-tight fittings, so that the efficiency of the ships may 
not be impaired through any defect in the water-tightness of the compart- 
ments. 

3. Inspection. Whenever ships are inspected, inspecting officers are to 
satisfy themselves that the condition of the water-tight compartments, fittings, 
&c., is satisfactory, and that the periodical tests have been properly carried 
out. 

546. Practice in closing Water-tight Doors. The Captain is to pay the 
strictest attention to the necessity of frequently exercising the crews in closing 
water-tight doors without previous warning, in order that the fullest advantage 
may be derived, in case of need, from the means provided for the protection 
of ships from the risks incident to collision or fire, and a record of such practice 
is to be inserted in the log. 

2. Stations. In every ship men are to be detailed whose duty it will be 
when the fog-horn sounds, to proceed with all speed and close the doors to 
which they are severally appointed. This is to be a peremptory arrangement 
in all ships, and the Captain is to take special care that the numbers of men 
so detailed shall be sufficient to provide for the casualties from sickness and 
other causes of absence. 

3. All water-tight doors are to be kept clear for immediate closing. No 
fitting of any kind is to be allowed which will require to be removed before the 
doors can be shut. 

546. Charge of Water-tight Doors. Water-tight doors, which include 
horizontal trap or flap doors as well as vertical hinged doors between decks, 
armoured hatches, are in the charge of the Engineer Officer, who is responsible 
for their efficiency, and for their being closed when not in use. 

2. Examination of Cocks, Valves and Slides. Cocks, sluice-valves and 
water-tight slides in connection with water-tight compartments and ventilation, 
and water-tight doors, armoured hatches and their securing arrangements are 
to be examined and worked at least once a week, under the directions of the 
Engineer Officer, to see that they are in proper and efficient working order. 

3. Artificial Ventilation. In ships with artificial ventilation the various 
water-tight cocks and slides which can only be worked below the water-line 
are to be carefully closed immediately after the ventilating fans have ceased 
to work, so that, in the event of accident, the water shall be prevented from 
passing from one compartment into another. 

547. Letters on Water-tight Bulkheads, etc. The distinguishing letters of 
water-tight bulkheads and doors, as shown in the drawings furnished by the 
dockyard (Article 960), are to be painted on them in prominent positions and 
in conspicuous characters, and when necessary the lettering is to be renewed 
so that the letters may at all times be readily distinguishable. 

161 



548 CHAP. Xm. INSTRUCTIONS TO CAPTAINS. 

SECTION VI. SMOKING REGULATIONS. 

548. The following regulations with regard to smoking are to be observed 
in all His Majesty's ships : 

1. Appointed Places. The Captain will appoint the places in the ship 
where during the prescribed hours the officers and ship's company are to be 
permitted to smoke, subject to the approval of the Commander-in-Chief at 
every inspection, but no smoking is to be allowed below the gun-deck, except 
in the cabins of Flag Officers and Captains, or in smoking rooms authorised by 
the Admiralty. 

2. Regulation Hours. The hours when smoking is to be permitted, provided 
it does not interfere with the work in hand at the time, are : During the meal 
hours of the ship's company, and, as regards the officers, until 8.55 a.m. In 
the evening, after quarters in harbour, for officers, till 11 p.m. ; ship's company, 
till 9.20 p.m. At sea, for officers, till 9.30 p.m., and for ship's company, till 
8.20 p.m. 

3. Sundays and Thursdays. On Sundays and also on Thursdays, when it 
does not interfere with the work going on, or the necessary drills in newly- 
commissioned ships, smoking may be permitted in the afternoon until the 
pipe " clear up decks." 

4. Night Watches. The Captain may also, at his discretion, permit smoking 
during the night watches for a period not exceeding one hour in each watch. 

5. Divine Service. Smoking is not to be allowed during Divine Service. 

6. In Boats. Smoking in the boats of His Majesty's ships is prohibited 
when on duty, unless such boats are detached on service for any length of 
time, in which case smoking may be allowed within the hours already pre- 
scribed. 

7. Alongside Yards, &c. Officers and men of ships alongside dockyards, 
wharves, or jetties may be permitted to smoke on board at the hours and places 
sanctioned by the Regulations, but not in ships in docks or basins unless with 
the written sanction of the Superintendent. 

8. Officers on shore in uniform are prohibited from smoking in the public 
streets. 

9. Age. No officer or boy under 18 years of age is to be allowed to take 
up tobacco, nor to smoke either on shore or afloat. 

10. All officers and men are to be careful to obey any regulations which 
prohibit smoking on board ships under dockyard control, in dockyards, ordnance 
stores, magazines, &c., or while embarking explosives. 



SECTION VII. CLOTHING, CLEANLINESS AND HEALTH. 

549. Divisions. The Captain is to divide the ship's company, except the 
marines, into divisions, and is to place a Lieutenant in charge of each division, 
who is to have under his orders as many Sub-Lieutenants and Midshipmen as 
the number on board will admit. 

He is to take special care that the divisional officers conform in every 
particular to the directions contained in the Instructions for Lieutenant. 

550. Adherence to Regulation Kit. The Captain will take care that the 
established uniform and regulation kit for petty officers, seamen, and boys is 
strictly adhered to ; he is not to permit any deviation from the sealed patterns 
or drawings, and is to require that attention shall be paid to every detail, so 
that on transfer to other ships men and boys may be spared the expense of 
alterations. 

162 



CLOTHING, CLEANLINESS AND HEALTH. 550 

The numbers of the articles may, however, be exceeded when of the 
authorised pattern, if they can be conveniently stowed. 

2. Ribbons and Medals. He is to see that the men are in possession of, 
and wear the proper ribbons for, the medals which may have been awarded 
to them, as noted on their service certificates. 

Any cases of missing medals or clasps should be dealt with as shown in 
Article 1560 (Replacement of Medals). 

551. Inspections of Clothing and Bedding. He will cause the men's 
clothing and bedding to be inspected by the divisional officers periodically, 
taking care that the inspections are so conducted as not to be unnecessarily 
irksome to the men. (See also Article 620, clause 5.) 

2. Issue of Clothing. Facilities are to be provided for the issue of clothing 
to the men as frequently as is necessary, and the Captain is to satisfy himself 
that the arrangements are adequate. The issue of clothing to boys is to be 
regulated so that they may generally be kept clear of debt. The procedure 
for issuing clothing is shown in Article 1743. 

552. Proper and Dry Clothing. The Captain is to see that the men are 
properly clothed in the established uniform, according to the nature of the 
climate in which they may be serving ; that they are generally clean in their 
persons and dress, and that they are never permitted to remain in wet clothes, 
nor sleep in wet bedding, when it can be possibly avoided. 

2. Bedding. The bedding is to be aired once a week when the weather 
will permit it, each article being exposed separately to the air. Twice in every 
year the blankets are to be washed with soap, in warm water, and once a year 
the bed tickings are to be washed and the hair beaten and teazed. 

553. Beards and Moustaches. The Captain is to permit all the officers 
and men of the ship, including the Royal Marines, to wear beards and moustaches 
if they so desire. 

When the permission is taken advantage of the use of the razor is to be 
entirely discontinued, as moustaches are not to be worn without the beard, 
nor the beard without moustaches, except in the case'of officers' stewards and 
cooks, and marines, who, whether afloat or ashore, may wear their beards and 
moustaches or moustaches only, as each may elect. 

2. The hair of the beard and moustaches or whiskers is to be kept well cut 
and trimmed. The Captain is to give such directions as may seem to him 
desirable upon these points, and is to establish, so far as practicable, uniformity 
as to the length of the hair, beards, moustaches or whiskers of the men. 

554. Cleanliness, Ventilation, etc. The Captain will use his best endeavours 
to ensure that cleanliness, dryness and good ventilation prevail throughout 
the ship ; that all compartments are kept dry, and that the drains are frequently 
flushed and maintained in good order, also that all ventilation pipes and fittings 
are efficient and ready for use. 

He is to take every means to ensure a thorough natural circulation of air 
throughout the ship at all times, subject to the regulations in regard to the 
water-tightness of compartments, and he is frequently to examine the ship in 
company with the Medical Officer, and when any part is found to be not 
perfectly clean or free from obnoxious smells, he will cause a thorough examina- 
tion to be made, so as to detect the cause and remove whatever may tend to 
engender disease. 

2. He is to cause an officer to inspect all parts of the ship below every 
morning, and to report to him whether they are in a clean and well-ventilated 
state or otherwise. 

163 



554 CHAP. Xm. INSTRUCTIONS TO CAPTAINS.- 

3. He will take care that such parts of the ship below as are usually dis- 
tempered are re-coated every six months or as often as may be necessary. 

4. If the weather should prevent the ports from being opened for a con- 
siderable time, fires are to be lighted in the stoves and windsails freely used, 
so that the mess decks and flats may be kept as dry and airy as possible. 

5. Poisons. No poison or poisonous acid is to be used to clean mess traps ; 
nor is virus or poison to be used for the extermination of rats without the 
prior concurrence of the Medical Officer. 

555. Washing Facilities. He will take care that the officers and men are 
permitted to avail themselves of the special fittings provided in the ship for 
personal ablutions ; that as much fresh water as practicable is issued for the 
purpose ; that the bathroom, when so fitted, is kept supplied with both hot 
and cold water ; that it is open for use every evening after quarters ; and 
that proper times are appointed for men to wash their persons so that it may 
be part of the daily routine. 

556. Bill of Health. The Captain will take care before the ship sails from 
a home or colonial port for any foreign port, to obtain a bill of health from the 
proper officer of Customs. 

SECTION VIII. LOGS, REGISTER AND SIGNAL BOOKS, &c. 

557. Ship's Log. The Captain is to examine the ship's log book every 
day after noon, in order to see that it has been properly kept, and at the end 
of every 12 months he is to receive the log book from the Navigating Officer 
in a complete state, and to give that officer a receipt for it. 

2. Deck Log. He is frequently to examine the deck log book to ascertain 
that the officers in their respective watches have entered with accuracy, and 
according to the instructions, all the particulars required to be recorded. 

3. Night Order Book. When the ship is at sea, and at such other times as- 
he may think necessary, the Captain is to leave his orders for the night in the 
book supplied for the purpose. 

558. Engine-room Register. The Captain is to inspect the engine-room 
register every day soon after noon, taking care to satisfy himself that all the 
information required is fully and properly noted, so that a complete record of 
work done and changes made may be preserved. 

559. Signal Log. The signal log is to contain an accurate record of all 
visual and sound signals addressed to, or made by the Ship, with the exception 
of wireless telegraphy signals which are to be recorded in the wireless tele- 
graphy log. 

2. A list of the ships in company is to be entered in the log for each day, 
and the arrivals and departures noted in the " Remarks " column for the 24 
hours. 

3. In the " Remarks " column should also be noted, so far as can be, all 
ships-of-war passed or met with, salutes fired, land, lights or lighthouses sighted, 
and any other observations of interest made by the signalmen which are 
deserving of record. 

4. The Captain is to select an officer or other competent person to keep 
the log, and is to inspect and initial it once a week. It is also to be examined 
by the officer who inspects the ship. 

5. Disposal of Signal Logs. The signal log book, when filled up, is to be 
kept until the ship pays off, and is then to be sent to the Deputy Cashier-in- 
Charge, Royal Victoria Yard, Deptford, to be kept for record. Each log should 
be labelled on the back with the name of ship and date before being sent in. 

164 



LOGS, REGISTER, AND SIGNAL BOOKS, &c. 559 

Signal logs of flagships will be preserved for five years, and other signal 
logs for three years. At the end of these respective periods they will be 
destroyed. 

560. Safe keeping of Signal Books. The Captain is responsible for the 
safe keeping of the signal books, and is to appoint a convenient place for the 
box in which they should be kept when not in use. Every care is to be taken 
in the treatment of the signal books ; they are not to be exposed to the weather, 
and at the end of each watch the Officer of the Watch is to satisfy himself 
that they are correct. 



SECTION IX. INSTRUCTION OF OFFICERS. 

561. Course of Instruction. The course of instruction to be observed in 
the ship as laid down from time to time is to be diligently pursued, under the 
inspection of the Captain, during the whole period of the commission. See 
328 and Appendix X., Part I. (Instruction of Midshipmen). Whenever possible, 
the Captain is to detail a Lieutenant from the ordinary complement who is 
to be responsible to him for the general arrangement of the Midshipmen's 
instruction. 

2. Midshipmen. Subject to the Captain's approval, the Lieutenant will 
arrange their time tables in consultation with the Naval Instructor and other 
instructing officers, so as to permit of their school and other training proceeding 
continuously in the various subjects with as little interruption as possible. 

3. He will generally watch the progress of each junior officer in every 
department, and will see that advantage is taken of any opportunities that 
may offer for assisting in or witnessing any work of special interest which may 
be in progress. If a Midshipman should be backward in any particular branch 
he should arrange his work individually, with a view to making good the 
deficiency before the examination. Any special degree of success in progress 
will be noted in favour of the Lieutenant. 

4. Midshipman's Journal. He will see that the journal of each Midshipman 
is properly kept according to the instructions contained therein. The Captain 
is to have the journal produced for his inspection from time to time, and is 
to initial it at each inspection. 

5. Progress Book. A progress book (S. 398) recording the instruction 
given to, and the progress made by Midshipmen, is to be kept in every ship, 
by the officer appointed to supervise the general instruction. 

6. An extract from the progress book, with a statement of his progress and 
the marks he obtained at the last examination, is to accompany each Mid- 
shipman on going to another ship, except when going to be examined for the 
rank of Lieutenant. 

562. Steam Instruction. The Captain will appoint one of the engineer 
officers to carry out the Steam Instruction of such of the commissioned officers 
of the Military Branch as may desire to avail themselves thereof, and from 
time to time he is to ascertain the progress made by these officers in this impor- 
tant branch of knowledge. 

563. Opportunities for Instruction. The Captain is to take advantage of 
all opportunities afforded by the sendee upon which the ship is employed to 
cause the officers whom it may concern to be instructed in manoeuvring the 
ship, signalling, pilotage, surveying, handling boats under all conditions, and 
in such other branches of knowledge as will add to their professional efficiency. 

165 



564 CHAP. Xm. INSTRUCTIONS TO CAPTAINS. 



SECTION X. GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS, 

564. Machinery and Boilers. The Captain will pay the most careful 
attention to all matters connected with the preservation of the machinery 
and boilers, and he will at all times, except in cases of extreme urgency, take 
care that the fires are lighted sufficiently early to prevent injury to the engines 
and boilers from getting up steam too quickly. 

565. Engine-room. The Captain is to visit the engine-room at least once 
in every 24 hours. 

566. Defects. The Captain is to keep the ship as free from defects, and 
as ready for service, as the means on board will permit. 

2. He is to cause the artificers and artisans of the ship to repair all such 
defects, including those of guns, mountings, torpedoes and their discharges, 
and other naval ordnance stores, as may be within their means, in order that 
on arriving in port as little assistance as possible may be required from the 
dockyard or other establishments. For detailed list of defects to be made good 
by ship's staff, see " Memorandum of Instructions to Sea Stores Establishment," 
also Home Dockyard Regulations, Article 676. 

A weekly return (form S. 163) is to be rendered to the Captain in all ships 
in commission, except torpedo boat destroyers and torpedo boats, by the 
Executive and Engineer Officer, of the employment of artisan and engineer 
ratings respectively, showing the defects made good and any new defects 
which may have been developed. This return is not to be rendered in war time, 
or by vessels which are commissioned temporarily for manoeuvres. 

3. No proposals are to be made for any alterations that would not add to 
the efficiency of the ship. 

567. Boats. The Captain is to take care that all the boats of the ship 
are kept efficient and ready for any service at the shortest notice, and that the 
men are properly stationed for getting them out or in, and exercised in manning 
and arming them. 

2. He is to cause the special regulations in Article 645 to be observed, with 
the view of preserving the non-sinking properties of steam and other boats 
which are fitted with air-cases. 

3. He is to take care that the instructions in regard to boats contained in 
the signal manual, boarding book, and boats' signal book, as well as any other 
instructions that he may have received or issued on the subject, shall be known 
and observed by the officers and men. 

568. Losses of Stores.- The Captain is to report for the information of 
the Admiralty, in detail, and by the earliest opportunity, whenever any gun, 
boat, anchor, or any other valuable or important stores are lost, or any mast, 
yard, or spar is materially injured, or whenever any accident of a serious nature 
occurs to the ship's hull, machinery, or boilers. 

2. Accidents and serious Defects. When any accident happens which 
causes entire or partial disablement of the ship for service, or when any serious 
defect is discovered in the hull, machinery, or boilers, the cause of which is not 
clear, the senior officer present should direct an inquiry to be at once held as 
to the cause of the accident or defect, and a full special report with evidence, 
finding, and sketches should be forwarded to the Admiralty. Pending the 
inquiry, the defective parts are, if it can be done without inconvenience to the 
Service, to be left as nearly as possibje in the condition in which they were found 
immediately after the accident occurred or the defect was discovered. 

166 



GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS. 568 

3. Contact with Floating or Sunken Objects. In the case of a ship coming 
into contact with floating or sunken objects, or with wharves or piers, the 
facts are to be fully stated, with a view to a careful examination being made 
of the plating affected, in case it should seem to be necessary. See 1104 (Ships 
entering Docks or Basins). 

569. Working Parties. The Captain will take care that detached working 
parties are, when practicable, placed in charge of a commissioned officer, with 
a proportion of subordinate and petty officers to assist him. When marines 
form part of it, a non-commissioned officer is to accompany them if possible. 
The officer in charge is on no account to quit the party to follow his private 
affairs, nor is he to allow any person under his orders to do so, and he is to 
conform to the regulations of the establishment in which he may be employed 
at the time. 

2. Arrangements are always to be made for men in working parties, or 
employed out of the ship, to return to their dinners at the usual time, as no men 
should be absent from the ship during the meal hours except in cases of necessity. 
Working parties for the shore are on all ordinary occasions to breakfast before 
being sent away from the ship. 

570. Reporting Proceedings. The Captain is by occasional and proper 
opportunities to send particular accounts of his proceedings to the officer 
under whose orders he may be placed, or if not under the orders of any officer, 
to the Admiralty. He is to report all circumstances that have occurred, and all 
intelligence he may have obtained worthy of notice. 

2. Important Intelligence. If the Captain should in time of emergency 
obtain intelligence which he may think necessary to send to his Commander- 
in-Chief or to any ambassador or minister, squadron or ship, army or fortress 
of His Majesty or his allies, and which he is unable otherwise to communicate, 
he is to hire for the purpose on the most reasonable terms possible such a fit 
private vessel as he is able to procure. 

He is to make an agreement in writing with the owner, or with the master, 
if the owner is not present, in which is to be particularly specified all the 
service the vessel is to perform, and the rate at which she is to be paid for 
performing it. 

He is only to take such a step if the intelligence is of such urgent consequence 
as to justify the expense, and he is to be extremely careful to whom he entrusts 
the conveyance of the actual despatches. 

571. Port or Station Orders. On commissioning, and during the com- 
mission on arrival from sea, the Captain will take care to obtain or complete 
from the office of the Commander-in-Chief or Senior Officer, his copies of the 
standing orders of the port or station, and ships abroad falling in with each other 
are to compare and correct to the latest date, the Admiralty or station orders 
they may each have received, the Senior Officer being careful that this 
is done. 

572. Charge of Ship. The Captain is not to entrust the charge of the 
ship when under way to any officer, whether confirmed or acting, or to any 
other person, unless he has satisfied himself that such officer or person is 
acquainted with the regulations for preventing collisions at sea. 

2. The Captain is never to allow an officer of a foreign navy, who may be 
borne as a supernumerary, to be placed in charge of a watch. 

573. Collision with Merchant Ship. The Captain, in every case of collision 
between his ship and a merchant vessel, in addition to his special report which 

167 

Ma 



573 CHAP. Xm. INSTRUCTIONS TO CAPTAINS. 

in the United Kingdom should be by telegraph, and should include a statement 
as to where the merchant vessel, if in default, is to be found, and up to what 
date is to transmit, without delay, statements in detail from such of the 
officers and crew as he may consider desirable, as to the circumstances of the 
occurrence, and especially as to the following points, so far as they may be 
applicable to the case : 

(a) The time and place of the collision. 

(b) The name and owner of the merchant ship. 

(c) The force and direction of the wind. 

(d) The state of the weather. 

(e) The state and force of the tide. 

(/) Whether His Majesty's ship was at anchor or under way ; if under 

way, the course and speed to be stated. 
(g) The time when the other vessel was first seen. 
(h) The lights, if any, carried by His Majesty's ship, 
{ft) The distance and bearing of the other vessel when first seen. 
(/) The lights, if any, of the other .vessel which were first seen. 
(K) Whether any lights of the other vessel, other than those first seen, 

came into view before the collision. 
(/) What measures were taken on board His Majesty's ship, and when, 

to avoid the collision. 

(m) The parts of each vessel which first came into contact. 
(n) Whether either ship was in charge of a tug or pilot. 
(o) Whether blame is attributable, and, if so, to whom, and to what extent. 
(P) An approximate estimate of the cost of making good the damage done 

to either or both ships. 

Under Section 688 of the Merchant Shipping Act, 1894, power is given to 
detain any ship at fault, that has caused injury to any of His Majesty's ships, 
or to any property of His Majesty, and therefore the special report, mentioned 
at the commencement hereof, should contain all particulars necessary to enable 
the Admiralty to place the matter at once in the solicitor's hands, if thought 
desirable. 

It is to be observed that, except in extreme cases, to save life or to avert 
further serious damage to ship or cargo, no steps should be taken to effect 
repairs, nor anything done that may be construed into an admission of liability, 
until orders from the Admiralty have been received. 

574. Derelict Vessels. Should any of His Majesty's ships fall in with any 
water-logged vessel abandoned at sea, which constitutes a danger to naviga- 
tion, the derelict is to be examined, and unless the cargo is composed of such 
large baulks of timber as would themselves become a danger if released, or the 
position of the wreck is such as to make it probable that she may soon be towed 
into port, every effort is to be made to sink or to otherwise destroy her. 

2. Officers in command are to report by telegraph to the Admiralty from 
the first port of call, the position of any derelict vessel which may have been 
sighted during the voyage. 

575. Officer's Grave Illness. Whenever an officer's illness gives cause for 
grave anxiety, a report is to be telegraphed without delay to the Admiralty, 
who will take steps to inform the relatives. Should the Commander-in-Chief 
not be present, the telegram is to be despatched direct to the Admiralty by 
the Captain of the ship, or the Principal Medical Officer of the hospital or 
hospital ship, as the case may be. 

2. Deaths. The death of an officer, man, or boy, together with the cause 
<?f death, and in the case of a man or boy the rating and official number, is to 

168 



GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS. 575 

be reported by telegraph to the Admiralty. When the death occurs at a Royal 
Naval hospital or sick quarters, the Principal or Senior Medical Officer is to 
forward the telegraphic report, but in all other cases the Commanding Officer 
of the ship on whose books the man is borne is to forward this report. In the 
case of an officer, the Commander-in-Chief is also to be at once informed. 

3. The Captain will also report without loss of tune on form S. 1121 direct 
to the Admiralty, as well as to the Commander-in-Chief, the death of any 
officer, man, or boy who is borne on the books of the ship, for pay (including 
cases referred to in Article 1427), for victuals, or, as provided for in Article 601, 
for discipline only, whether the death occurs on board or elsewhere, taking 
care also that in the case of a man or boy the death is at once communicated 
by letter to his nearest relatives or friends. See 1857 (Deaths to be recorded in 
Log and reported to Registrar-General of Births, Deaths, and Marriages). 

4. Telegrams which may be sent from a ship in the above cases direct to 
the relatives must be considered as private messages and paid for accordingly. 

5. Officers or Men Drowned. In cases of drowning, when the body is not 
recovered at the time, particulars of the occurrence, with a full description for 
purposes of identification, are to be forwarded to the District Captain of Coast 
Guard concerned at home, or left with the consular authority abroad. Form 
S. 243, altered as necessary, should be used for the purpose. 

576. Accidental Deaths. In the event of the accidental death of, or 
serious bodily injury to, an officer or other person belonging to His Majesty's 
Navy and borne on ship's books, the circumstances are to be at once investigated 
by a court of inquiry composed of members specially qualified to deal with 
any technical questions involved. 

2. The court is to be convened by the senior officer present under the 
provisions of Article 703. It is to sit with closed doors, and no part of the 
report or of the proceedings is to be divulged without the sanction of the 
Admiralty, except on foreign stations, when the senior officer present may 
use his discretion in the matter. 

* 

3. The minutes and proceedings are to be forwarded to the Admiralty 
with as little delay as possible, a copy being sent to- the Commander-in-Chief 
in the case of ships detached from the flag. 

577. Inquests. When it may be necessary to hold an inquest in England, 
Wales or Ireland touching the death of any person on board and belonging to 
a ship, the Captain will acquaint the coroner, within whose jurisdiction the 
ship may be, with all the circumstances of the case, care being taken to have 
all the witnesses in attendance at the time the coroner may appoint for holding 
the inquest. In no case will any officer of the fleet, on actual service and full 
pay, be called upon to serve as a juror on these inquiries. 

If any person on board of or belonging to a ship is killed by accident or 
dies suddenly in Scottish waters, information should be given to the local 
Procurator Fiscal who is charged with the duty of collecting evidence for the 
information of the Crown Authorities. A public fatal accident or sudden death 
inquiry may be ordered, and if so intimation as to time and place will be made 
by the Sheriff Clerk. 

2. In order that the Admiralty may, if possible, be legally represented at 
the coroner's inquest or, in Scotland, at the public fatal accidents and sudden 
deaths inquiry, the Captain will immediately acquaint 

(a) if in England the local agent of the Treasury Solicitor, or, if there 

is no local law agent and if time permits, the Admiralty. 

(b) if in Scotland the legal adviser to the Admiralty in Scotland. 

(c) if in Ireland-- -the Treasury Solicitor in Ireland. 

169 



CHAP. Xm. INSTRUCTIONS TO CAPTAINS. 

3. The legal representative's report of the inquest or fatal accidents and 
sudden deaths inquiry is to be forwarded to the Commander-in-Chief for the 
information of the Admiralty. In cases where the Admiralty was not legally 
represented, the Captain is to furnish a report. 

578. Messes. The Captain is to take care that all the messes are conducted 
in an orderly manner, and as a rule so economically as to be within the means 
of every member. He is to see that the Regulations as to the use of wine 
and spirits, and for the adjustment and payment of mess debts, are strictly 
complied with. 

2. Mess Accounts. If the Captain should discover from any of the books 
<or mess statements brought before him, or from the audited accounts or by 
any other means, that excess, extravagance, or irregularity has occurred, either 
in the case of any mess generally or in that of individual officers, he is to give 
such directions as he may think proper in order to prevent a repetition of it, 
and, if necessary, report the matter to the Commander-in-Chief. 

Wine Bills. In particular he is to limit or stop any wine bills which he 
may consider excessive or extravagant, having regard to the description of 
liquor consumed and the amount of hospitality exercised. 

3. Canteens. If he permits a canteen to be established on board he is to 
give special attention to the system upon which it is formed, and the regulations 
drawn up for its control, as directed in Articles 855 to 859. 

SECTION XL LETTERS AND MAILS. 

579. Postman. The Captain is to take care that a trustworthy non- 
commissioned or petty officer is selected to do duty as postman, to whom 
he will give authority to receive all letters from the post office, and to sign 
the necessary receipts for all registered letters. 

2. Letters arriving. On the arrival of the letters on board they are to be 
delivered to the Executive Officer, who will entrust them to the Master-at-Arms 
for distribution. Letters addressed to persons no longer serving in the ship 
are to be re-addressed and forwarded, or returned to the post office authorities 
without delay. If returned to post office authorities, the reason of non-delivery 
must in every case be endorsed upon the cover by the Master-at-Arms. 

3. Registered Letter Book. A book is to be kept by the Master-at-Arms, 
form S. 568 (at depots, form B. 46), in which all registered letters are to be 
inserted. This book is to be certified by the postman, and all such letters 
are to be signed for on delivery by the parties to whom they may be addressed. 

580. Registered Letters sent. At Home, all letters sent from a ship to 
a post office to be registered are to be given to the Master-at-Arms, to be recorded 
by him and signed for by the postman, who, on his return to the ship, is to 
hand the post office receipts to the Master-at-Arms, for delivery to the senders 
of the letters in question. 

2. Abroad, letters intended for registration, which are sent in the ship's 
bag, should be made up hi packets marked " Registered Letters," and should 
be accompanied by a h'st. This list, in which the addresses and destination 
of the letters are to be entered, is to be prepared in triplicate, one copy being 
retained on board and two copies enclosed in an envelope marked outside 
" Registered Letter List " and tied to the outside of the packet of registered 
letters. When more than one list is used, the lists should be numbered con- 
secutively and the total number of registered articles should be entered on the 
last list, which should be marked " Final." When only one list is used this 
list should also be marked " Final." One copy of the list will be retained at 

170 



LETTERS AND MAILS. 580 

the post office at which the mail is opened, and the other copy will be returned 
as a token of receipt to the ship in which the letters originated. In the absence 
of printed forms the list may be prepared on ordinary sheets of paper, each 
sheet to be headed : 

List of Registered Letters from H.M. Ship " 
at . (Date) 

When no registered letters are forwarded in the bag, the list should never- 
theless be sent in duplicate, marked " nil." 

A receipt on the form supplied for the purpose, in each case, is to be given 
on board His Majesty's ships to the sender of a registered letter when handed 
in for posting. 

3. Registered letters sent from England to His Majesty's ships on a foreign 
station, which may be undeliverable, should not be re-posted on shore, but 
should be returned to England by the next mail enclosed in the registered 
packet and accompanied by the original list sent to the ship. 

581. Letter Bags for Home. The Captain will take care that the bags 
containing letters for England are directed as follows : 

From His Britannic Majesty's Ship " 

at 
For the Post Office, England. 

582. Letters to Foreign Stations. Separate bags are made up for each of 
His Majesty's ships on foreign stations, and such registered correspondence as 
there may be for each ship is enclosed in the several bags and entered on a 
"' Letter Bill," which is also enclosed in each bag, and which is to be signed 
by the senior Executive Officer who opens the bag, and promptly returned 
to the Sub-Controller, Foreign Branch, General Post Office, by the first home- 
ward mail, not in an envelope, but so folded that the printed address on the 
outside may be visible. No postage need be paid on these forms. 

2. Registered Letters received. The officer who signs the " Letter Bill " is 
responsible for the distribution of the registered letters, and should be careful 
to obtain a receipt from the persons to whom they are addressed in the column 
provided for the purpose. 

3. Unpaid Postage. In cases where insufficient postage has been prepaid 
on a letter, the amount of the deficiency marked on the letter should be recovered 
from the recipient. These sums are to be collected by the Master-at-Arms and 
handed to the Accountant Officer who is to debit himself with the amount 
in his current cash account, as an extra receipt, under the head of " His Majesty's 
Postmaster-General, Unpaid Postage recovered." 

The debit in the cash account is to be supported by a voucher, made out 
on a form supplied by the Admiralty (Accountant-General). 

4. In all cases of disputed charges the amount charged should be paid, 
and the covers of the letters sent to the General Post Office with the letter 
bills, in order that an explanation may be furnished. 



SECTION XII. ANCHORS AND CABLES. 

583. Chain Cables. The Captain is to attend most carefully to the state 
and preservation of the chain cables to ensure every precaution being taken 
to keep them from undue wear or corrosion, and he is to see that the Navigating 
Officer and the Boatswain pay the same attention to this very important 
subject. See 1829 to 1833 (Surveying and Testing Cables). 

171 



584 CHAP. Xm. INSTRUCTIONS TO CAPTAINS. 

584. Cables Cut or Slipped. The Captain is never to cut or slip a cable 
while there is a possibility of weighing the anchor, except in a case of emergency, 
such as chasing an enemy or for the safety of the ship, but if necessary to do 
so, or if the cable is parted, he is to use his utmost endeavours to recover it 
and the anchor, immediately the weather and other circumstances admit of 
the attempt being made. If the ship should be sent to sea, the Senior Officer 
left at the anchorage is to recover them if possible. 

2. Loss of Anchor or Cable. If an anchor or cable should be lost in any 
harbour or roadstead, or if an attempt made to recover it should prove un- 
successful, the Captain is to report it to the Admiralty through the Commander- 
in-Chief, if under the orders of one, and also to the Superintendent of the nearest 
dockyard, detailing the circumstances in which the loss occurred, and trans- 
mitting a plan of the harbour or roadstead on which is marked, as near as 
possible, the spot where the anchor is supposed to lie, giving also any cross 
marks or the bearings and distances of the nearest points of land that may 
have been taken from the spot. 

3. He is to leave similar full written particulars with the Consul or other 
chief British authority at the place, for the guidance of the Captain of any of 
His Majesty's ships caUing there, who, if consistent with his orders, is to 
endeavour to recover the lost articles. 

585. Report of Loss. On every occasion of the parting of a cable or the 
loss or breakage of an anchor, a report, on form S. 541, is to be at once made 
to the Admiralty through the Commander-in-Chief, giving full information as 
to the cause of the parting or breakage and the circumstances in which it 
occurred. 

586. Precautions as to Moorings. When lying at moorings he is to take 
care to observe every precaution with regard to them which the Captain of 
the Dockyard may think necessary, and he will see so far as he is concerned 
that no moorings of any description are laid down at any of His Majesty's 
naval ports without the permission of the dockyard authorities. 

SECTION XIII. PAYMENTS, CASH AND STORE ACCOUNTS AND SURVEYS. 

587. Precautions as to Payments. The Captain, whenever payments are 
to be made, is to be careful that they take place at regular hours, and that all 
persons who are to be paid are in attendance so far as practicable. See 1602 
(Payments in General). 

2. Miss-muster Payments. He is to give all necessary facilities for miss- 
muster payments, removing any causes for money transactions being conducted 
except by strict Service methods, and is to ensure that form S. 6 is kept con- 
spicuously exhibited on the notice boards and in the pay office of the ship. 
See 1332, clause 4 (Officers authorised to receive and disburse Public Money]. 

588. Cash Account and Balances. In regard to the cash account and 
cash balances he will observe the following regulations : 

1. Counting Balance. He, or two or more officers specially appointed by 
him on each occasion, when the proper time arrives, will count the balance of 
the public money in the Accountant Officer's charge, and compare it with 
that shown by the cash book, viz. : 

(a) At uncertain periods, but once at least in each quarter. 

(b) On the last day of each month, after all payments for the month and 

quarter have been made or on the first day of the succeeding month 
before any transactions have taken place. 

172 



PAYMENTS, CASH AND STORE ACCOUNTS, &c. 588 

(c) On paying off, except when abroad, and the instructions contained in 

Article 1133 are consequently carried out. 

(d) On the supersession of the Accountant Officer, or on his being relieved 

of his duties, from illness or any other cause. 

2. The following instructions show the procedure to be followed by the 
examining officer in conducting the verification of the Paymaster's money 
balances on board His Majesty's ships, but they are not intended to relieve 
the examining officer of any responsibility for the thoroughness or correctness 
of his examination, or to prevent him from adopting any additional precautions 
he may consider necessary : 

(a) With the exception indicated in Article 1654, the examining officer 

should have before him, at one and the same time, the whole of the 
cash, postal orders, postage stamps, &c., on board, with the bank 
certificate of balance in the case of a ship allowed to have a banking 
account, together constituting the balance of public money in the 
hands of the Accountant Officer, and also the cash constituting the 
balances on any other accounts entrusted to the Accountant Officer 
either under these Regulations or otherwise with the approval of 
the Commanding Officer (e.g., moneys deposited for custody under 
Article 1639, Canteen Funds, under Article 857, Canteen Ship's Fund, 
Mess, Wine, Sports, and Band Funds, &c.}. After satisfying himself 
that these balances are correct and in accordance with the record 
thereof in the cash balance book he is to countersign the latter book 
in the space provided (Article 1666). The statement required by 
Article 858, showing the amount of canteen, &c., money on hand is 
also to be produced for inspection at the time, and with the cash, &c., 
should remain in the presence of the examining officer till the veri- 
fication of the balance has been completed by him and the certificate 
signed. In the case of mess and any other accounts which are only 
audited quarterly (Article 846) the balance found to be due as the 
result of such audit is, as soon as the audit is completed, to be 
compared with the cash balance thereon, verified by the examining 
officer, and recorded in the cash balance book, any discrepancy being 
reported to the Commanding Officer. 

(b) Bank notes, postal orders, &c., should be counted in detail, and loose 

cash either counted, measured in pay trays, or weighed, if there be 
means at hand, as may be considered necessary or desirable. 

(c) Bags of gold should be opened and counted, but bags of silver and 

copper, sealed up by bankers or other responsible persons, may be 
taken at their marked contents, should the examining officer be 
satisfied on a close inspection that they have not been opened or 
otherwise tampered with, subject, however, to his opening and 
verifying the contents of one or more bags, which he will himself 
select. 

(d) Money conveyed in cases, boxes, or bags, for a yard or for another 

ship, &c., which may form part of the Accountant Officer's balance, 
may be taken at its marked value, unless the examining officer should 
see any reason to suspect that any such case, box, or bag has been 
opened, or otherwise tampered with. 

3. Monthly Examination of Cash Account. On the last day of each month 
he will examine, or cause the before-mentioned officers to examine, the cash 
account for the month, and in so doing the vouchers or other necessary docu- 
ments in support of the debits and credits are to be inspected, and the amounts 
compared with the several entries in the cash account, and the balance of public 

173 



588 CHAP. Xm. INSTRUCTIONS TO CAPTAINS. 

money, as shown in the Account, is also to be compared with the balance actually 
found, and the account and certificates signed as required by Article 1670. 
Should any corrections be necessary, they are to be made in red ink, and 
initialled by the Captain or by the examining officers, and a detailed statement 
is to be forwarded to the Commander-in-Chief for the information of the 
Admiralty. 

4. Transmission of Cash Account, &c. Within the first ten days of each 
month the cash account of the preceding month is to be delivered open by 
the Accountant Officer to the Captain, who will give him a receipt for it. The 
Captain is to sign it and fill in the summary form S. 452, with his own hand, 
noting the date and the position of the ship at the time. The cash account 
and summary are to be retained in the Captain's own possession until the 
first opportunity that offers of forwarding them. The Captain will personally 
transmit the account and summary under separate covers to the Accountant- 
General as soon as possible, appending to the summary a certificate on form 
S. 452#, of the cash balances, other than that due on the public account, verified 
in accordance with clause 2 (a) of this Article, and the statement required by 
Article 858. When despatched he will notice in his letter-book the date, and by 
what conveyance, he personally forwarded them. 

5. Paying-off Abroad. Should the ship be paid off abroad, he will take 
care that the cash book, cash account, and vouchers are promptly completed 
by the Accountant Officer, and he will personally forward them to the 
Accountant Officer selected by the Flag or Senior Officer, in order that they 
may be immediately examined in the manner prescribed by Article 1133, 
before the cash account and vouchers are transmitted to the Accountant- 
General. 

6. Balance on Supersession, &c. On the supersession or relief of the 
Accountant Officer, or on paying off at home, he will see that the balance due 
to the Crown has been duly taken on charge, noting to whom it has been 
actually transferred. 

589. Demands for Money. The regulations to be observed by the Captain 
in approving demands for the supply of money for the public service are laid 
down in Article 1638, and those for remittances in Article 1650. 

590. Payments made under the Captain's authority for services not imme- 
diately connected with the Accountant Officer's duties, will be allowed on the 
production of satisfactory vouchers, but the amounts will be charged against 
the Captain should there be any irregularity or deficiency in the vouchers 
attributable to him, or should he have sanctioned an excessive or improper 
expenditure. 

591. Accounts of Officers in charge of Stores.-- When Officers in charge of 
Stores are ordered to be discharged, the Captain is to satisfy himself that 
their accounts have been kept in accordance with the Regulations and are 
complete. Should this not be the case the Captain is to report the circum- 
stances for the consideration of the Admiralty. In the event of an officer 
who is required by the Regulations to keep a log-book or journal having failed 
to do so, the same course is to be adopted. 

592. Officers' Receipts before sailing. Before sailing, or on being ready 
for service ordered, the Captain is to take care that the respective officers in 
charge sign the necessary receipts for supplies obtained and procure receipts 
for stores returned. 

593. Surveys. The Captain's approval is required to all Surveys connected 
with the ship he commands, except surveys upon invalids ; he is to deal with 

174 



PAYMENTS, CASH AND STORE ACCOUNTS, &c. 593 

or report any partiality or injustice on the part of the surveying officers that 
may come to his knowledge, and, should he dissent from the recommendations, 
he is to state his reasons either on the report or by separate letter. 

594. Death or Removal of Accountant Officer. The Captain will take care, 
on the death of the Accountant Officer, or on his removal from any cause, 
that the necessary steps are taken for an immediate survey on the public 
money, and all stores in his charge. See 1343, 1344 (Death or Incapacity of 
Accountant Officer), and 1642, clause 4 (Keys of Money Chests). 



SECTION XIV. DISCHARGE OF OFFICERS AND MEN. 

595. Applications for Discharge or Transfer. The Captain will bear in 
mind that no application for the discharge or transfer of an officer from 
his ship, nor for such lengthened leave of absence as might render his return 
improbable will be entertained unless he shall certify on the application that 
he is satisfied with the conduct of such officer ; and he is also to certify in 
every application for survey on an officer, as well as for his discharge or transfer, 
that the request is not made for the purpose of removing the officer from the 
ship in consequence of any misconduct. 

2. Exchanges. When application is made for the discharge of officers, men, 
or boys (form S. 222), or for their exchange from one ship to another, the 
Captains of the respective ships, on forwarding such applications to the 
Commander-in-Chief, are to state that they have no objection to the request 
being complied with ; if, however, they have objections, they are to be specified. 
See 1347, clause 3 (Officer delayed in Hospital). 

596. Officers absent, Ship about to sail. If any officers should be absent 
from the ship, when the Captain receives orders to sail, or to hold himself in 
readiness to sail, from a home port, he is to report, on form S. 219, their names 
for the information of the Admiralty, with such particulars as he may be able 
to furnish, so that, if necessary, other officers may be appointed in their stead. 

597. Discharge from Ship. He is not to discharge any person from the 
ship's books without the authority of the Admiralty or of his superior Officer, 
except for one of the following reasons, namely : death, desertion, transfer 
to some other ship, discharge from hospital after being invalided from the 
Service, discharge to half-pay on supersession, or dismissal by sentence of 
court-martial ; and, at home, discharge to shore on expiration of continuous 
service engagement in cases where the men have not completed time for pension. 

598. Special Service Men unfit for R.F.R. The case of any special service 
man entered before 1st October 1908, who on account of unsatisfactory char- 
acter cannot be recommended for enrolment in the Royal Fleet Reserve, is 
to be specially represented to the Admiralty. The case of any man entered 
on or since that date who is not considered to be in all respects fit for enrolment, 
is to be reported to the Commander-in-Chief of his port division for decision, 
whether the man is serving at home or abroad. 

599. Men in Hospital on sailing. Petty officers, seamen, marines, and 
boys, belonging to sea-going ships, if in hospital or sick quarters at home, when 
the ship is about to sail for foreign service, or for a cruise of any length, are 
to be transferred to the books of the general depdt or receiving ship at the 
port nearest to the hospital or sick quarters, the vacancies so occasioned being 
filled up before the ship sails. See 1600 (Pay Ticket). 

175 



599 CHAP. Xm.- mSTRUCTIONS TO CAPTAINS. 

2. On the discharge of such men to the general depot, or receiving ship, 
care is to be taken in the case of those men who are still borne for wages, that 
the date on which they were checked to hospital is noted on the transfer list 
in addition to the other particulars required by the form, so that all requisite 
abatements on account of allotments, hospital stoppages, &c., may be duly 
charged, and that the men may be D.S.Q. at the proper time. 

3. The Captain is to acquaint the Principal Medical Officer of the hospital, 
by letter, of the date when, and the name of the ship to which, such men and 
boys have been respectively discharged, so that the necessary notations may 
be made at the hospital. 

4. When men and boys are dealt with under clauses 1 and 2 of this Article, 
their service certificates are to be sent to the depot, or receiving ship, as the 
case may be. If it subsequently becomes necessary to invalid them out of the 
Service, their certificates are to be sent to the hospital, in time for the survey. 

600. How borne when discharged from Hospital. Petty officers, seamen 
and boys who may be left in hospital when the ships to which they belong sail 
from England, are, when sent from the hospital to the depot, to be borne for 
disposal, with the exception of officers' stewards and cooks, and non-continuous 
service band ratings, who are, if so entitled, to be dealt with as laid down in 
Article 1426, prior to their discharge to the shore, or they may be further 
retained if a written request has been received from the Captain of their last 
ship to the effect that when discharged cured from hospital they may be sent 
to rejoin her. Marines are to be sent to the nearest divisional headquarters. 

601. Persons in Hospital, how borne. All officers, seamen and boys who 
may be patients in home hospitals or sick quarters under Articles 1396, 1425, 
and 1426, and who may be remaining there on the completion of the periods 
for which they may be respectively entitled to pay under those Articles, are, 
on the completion of such time, to be marked D.S.Q. on the ship's books, 
and, for purposes of discipline, are to be transferred to a special sub-section 
of list 17 for " persons in hospital borne for discipline only " ; they are to 
be retained on that list until finally discharged from the hospital or sick 
quarters. Patients who may remain in hospital after being " invalided " are 
similarly to be transferred to this list from the date of their being invalided. 

The foregoing provisions as to entry on a list of persons in hospital borne 
for discipline only, do not apply to officers who are placed on half pay on the 
cessation of their full pay, nor to marine officers, commissioned warrant officers, 
or warrant officers. 

602. Discharge by Purchase. Men and boys serving in the Royal Navy 
under continuous or special service engagements are permitted, in exceptional 
cases, to purchase their discharge. 

Discharge cannot be claimed as a right, however, and nothing in these 
Regulations shall interfere with the power of the Admiralty to suspend discharge 
by purchase at any time, or to refuse discharge in a particular case. 

2. Application for the discharge of a man or boy by purchase should be 
made to his Captain. The Captain is to be careful not to entertain or forward 
an application without fully satisfying himself that the applicant has good 
and substantial reasons for seeking the discharge. 

3. On the home stations discharge by purchase may be authorised by the 
Commanders-in -Chief, the Rear Admiral of the Coast of Ireland, and the 
Admiral Commanding Coast Guard and Reserves, without reference to the 
Admiralty in the following cases : 

(a) Where the applicant has less than three months' service. 

176 



DISCHARGE OF OFFICERS AND MEN. 602 

(b) Where the applicant has over six years' service and satisfactory evidence 

is produced that he has good employment to go to. 

A quarterly return is to be rendered to the Admiralty, showing the numl>er 
of discharges granted under the above authority. 

In other cases at home, Admiralty authority is to be obtained. 

4. On foreign stations, discharges are not to be allowed, except under 
pressing circumstances, when the decision will rest with the Commander-in- 
Chief, or, in his absence, with the senior officer present, if of Flag rank. 

In all cases of discharge by purchase abroad, form S. 222, showing the 
circumstances, is to be forwarded to the Admiralty. 

5. Scale of Payments. The following is the scale of payments for discharge 
from the Service for men and boys, including marines : 

Within three months from date of entry 10 

After three months from date of entry : 

(a) Boy Artificers and Engine-room Artificers trained from Boy, 

under four years' service from date of being rated Acting 
Engine-room Artificer, 4th Class 30 

(b) Others: 

Boys, and marines under 18 years of age - 20 

Men : 

(i) With less than four years' service from age of 18 24 
(ii) After four years' service from age of 18 18 

(in) After six years' service from age of 18 12 

(iv) After 16 years' service from age of 18 Free. 

NOTE. Service under (a) and (b) must be actual service in receipt of wages, 
as recorded on the service certificate. Free discharge under (iv), either at 
home or abroad, is only to be granted with prior Admiralty approval. 

6. The above scale applies also to men entered for " Special Service." 

7. The amount of any debt due to the Crown at the time of discharge must 
be paid in addition to the purchase money. 

8. As a rule payment of the purchase money will not be required before 
the discharge has been approved. Men who are sent to a depot for discharge 
will pay the money to the Accountant Officer of the depot. 

In any case, however, where the Captain may consider it desirable, he may 
require or allow the purchase money to be deposited at the time of application, 
or before sending the man home or discharging him to a depot after the discharge 
has been approved. 

9. Kits on Discharge. Boys discharged on payment of 10/. are not to be 
allowed to take away the whole of their kit. 

Men discharged for 101. are not to be allowed to take away the whole of 
their kit if they hold ratings allowed a free kit on entry under Article 1738. 

It is left to the discretion of Captains to determine the actual articles of 
clothing to be taken away, but they should only be sufficient to enable tin- 
men or boys to return to their homes decently dressed. The articles retained 
arc to be sold in the customary manner for the benefit of the Crown. 



603. Re-entry after Discharge by Purchase. One-half of the amount 
for a man's discharge from the navy will be refunded if he is allowed to re-enter 
tin S-rviee within two years of discharge. 

2. One-half of the purchase money paid for the discharge of a boy ii<>n 
the navy will be refunded if he is allowed to re-enter within six mouth?. No 
iv payment will be made if the period of absence exceeds six months, whether 
lie i' 1 enters in a man's rating or not. 

177 



603 CHAP. Xm. INSTRUCTIONS TO CAPTAINS. 

3. No part of the purchase money paid for discharge from the army will 
be refunded in respect of entry in the navy and vice versa. 

NOTE. No repayment will be made in respect of enrolment in the Royal Fleet Reserve 
or re-entry in the navy for non-continuous service. 

604. Where Discharged. Men and boys whose discharge from the navy 
is due (or has been ordered) in the United Kingdom, are to be discharged to 
the shore direct from their ships without passing through the depots, except 
as stated in clause 2. See 1505 (Travelling Warrants). 

2. Men who are about to enrol in the Royal Fleet Reserve are to be sent 
to their depots for discharge, and are to be enrolled prior to the settlement 
of their wages and the delivery to them of their service certificates. 



SECTION XV. MISCELLANEOUS. 

605. Legal Actions. In case an action is brought in any court of law on 
a Foreign Station, which has reference to his ship, the Captain will make a 
full report to his Commander-in-Chief of all the proceedings in the matter, 
together with all papers connected therewith, for transmission to the Admiralty. 

2. In the event of the Captain finding it necessary to institute proceedings 
against any vessel or property, he will take care that all costs and expenses 
incurred in any such proceedings are paid either by himself, or by arrangement 
with the ship's agent. 

Captures. When a capture is made he will forward to the ship's agent all 
the necessary documents to enable him to claim the bounties or proceeds, 
if any, to which the captors are entitled, or repayment of any expenses which 
may have been incurred in their behalf. 

606. Legal Assistance. In criminal cases of such urgency that immediate 
action is absolutely necessary, legal assistance may be obtained, as follows : 

(a) In England from the local agent to the Treasury Solicitor. 

(b) In Scotland from the legal adviser to the Admiralty in Scotland ; 

but when an ordinary criminal prosecution requires to be conducted 
application should be made direct to the local Procurator Fiscal, 
who undertakes such prosecutions in the public interest. 

(c) In Ireland from the Treasury Solicitor in Ireland. 

In every case a report of the circumstances is to be forwarded to the 
Admiralty. 

2. In criminal cases which are not so urgent, and in all other cases, except 
inquests (see Article 577), when legal aid is required, the matter is to be referred 
to the Admiralty. 

607. Treasure Shipped. The Captain will make, a report, on form S. 192, 
of all treasure shipped, as soon as it is received, as well as in the half-yearly 
returns. Upon the receipt of freight on treasure he will pay the proportion 
due to Greenwich Hospital to the Accountant Officer, who is to debit himself 
therewith in his cash account and transmit with it the vouchers descriptive of 
the sums received. 

608. Arrest of Offenders. When he has occasion to send on shore in any 
part of His Majesty's dominions to arrest an offender against the Naval Dis- 
cipline Act, he is to furnish the person sent on that duty with a warrant, form 
S. 244, as provided by Section 50 of the said Act. See 804. clause 4 (Arrest by 
Naval Warrant). 

178 



MISCELLANEOUS. 609 

609. Deserters from other Ships. If he should discover in the ship deserters 
or absentees from other ships, he will forthwith report the particulars to his 
superior authority, or he will send them to their proper ships, if present, and 
if the directions of the superior authority for their disposal cannot be obtained 
without inconvenience. In the event of deserters being discovered from the 
army, royal marines, or militia, information is to be immediately forwarded 
to his superior authority as above directed, with a description of their persons 
and every particular likely to lead to their identification. On foreign stations, 
if the regiment or corps to which the deserters belong be present, he is also to 
communicate with the Commanding Officer thereof, and on the offenders 
being identified, with the permission of his Senior Officer, he is to deliver them 
up to him ; but no such deserters are to be sent to England from ships abroad, 
without orders from the Admiralty. See 804. clause 7 (Investigation in case 
of Deserters). 

610. Boiling and Pitching. The Captain is to utilize every favourable 
opportunity of observing the rolling 'and pitching of his ship, especially if an 
armoured vessel, under various conditions of wind and sea ; and, in order to 
obtain as much information as possible in regard to the motion of His Majesty's 
ships, the instructions contained in form S. 561 are to be strictly attended to. 

2. A series of observations is to be recorded in return S. 561, at least 'every 
six months during a ship's commission. The officers taking the observations 
are to be detailed at the discretion of the Captain and the return is to be 
forwarded to the Admiralty on each occasion of the ship paying off. 

3. A report of the observations made relating to the rolling and performance 
of any of His Majesty's ships at sea will be called for by the Admiralty should 
it be required from a ship at any time other than on the occasion of paying off. 

611. Cases of Life-saving. Cases of extraordinary merit in saving life, 
which, in his opinion, deserve the Albert Medal or the rewards of the Royal 
Humane Society, are to be represented through the proper channel, to the 
Admiralty. Recommendations for the Royal Humane Society are to be made 
in the form given in form S. 1 Supplement. 

612. Watch Quarter, Station and Fire Bills. The Captain is to cause the 
established watch and quarter bill and station and fire bill books, which are 
supplied on commissioning, to be used as far as they are applicable to the 
ship. Copies of these books (S. 250 and S. 250a) are to be distributed] as 
follows : 

Two copies of each to the Executive Officer, one for deck use, for the correct- 
ness of which he will be held responsible ; one copy of each to the senior 
Lieutenant in ships where a Commander is borne, and to the Gunnery, Torpedo, 
and Engineer Officer, to the Gunner and to the Master-at-Arms. 

These copies are to be considered as belonging to the ship during the period 
of the commission, and on any of these officers leaving the ship the copyjin 
his charge is to be delivered to his successor. 

2. A printed skeleton form of quarter bill is to be filled in and hung up 
in a conspicuous place on board. 

3. Ship's Steward Ratings. Ship's Stewards, Second Ship's Stewards, 
Ship's Steward's Assistants, and Ship's Steward's Boys are to be stationed at 
general quarters and fire stations only. 

Officers' Stewards, Cooks and Servants are to be excused from the ordinary 
duties of the ship, but they are to be stationed at quarters and drilled at fire 
quarters and fire brigade duties. 

179 



613 CHAP. Xin. INSTRUCTIONS TO CAPTAINS. 

613. Men Navigating Merchant Ships. Men sent to assist in navigating 
merchant ships are to be checked of their pay and provisions, but are to be 
allowed time towards pension while so employed. Their allotments are not 
to be stopped ; preference, therefore, is to be given to those who have none 
in force in selecting men for this duty. Arrangements should, if practicable, 
be made that the men so sent are not to receive wages less in amount than 
their naval pay and the established navigating extra pay, with all necessary 
travelling expenses, to enable them to return to the Service. They are to be 
discharged with pay tickets, in accordance with Article 1599, to the Flag or 
other ship-of-war nearest to their destination, the Captain of which is to be 
informed when they may be expected to arrive, and every case of so lending 
men is to be reported at once to the Admiralty. 

614. Customs Officers, Assistance to. When officers of the Customs arrive 
on board one of His Majesty's ships in pursuance of their duty, the Captain 
is to give them every possible assistance in discovering such articles of contra- 
band as may be on board, and is to take 'care that they are allowed to execute 
their duty without obstruction or ill-treatment. His Majesty's Commissioners 
of Customs, on the other hand, engage that their officers will exercise their 
right of search with discretion, and will only proceed to a detailed and 
exhaustive search on receiving information which would render such a course 
desirable. 

2. Victualling, &c., of. If the duty on which the Custom House officers 
are sent shall require their remaining on board more than one day, the Captain 
is to order them to be borne as supernumeraries at full allowance, and to be 
provided with hammocks and bedding, in a screen berth so situated as may 
best admit of their doing their duty ; but government stores of any kind, 
however small in quantity, are not to be given them, nor to any other person, 
under any pretence whatever. See 1884 (Customs Regulations). 

615. Naval Marriage Instructions. The Captain is to take care that the 
instructions issued by the Admiralty with regard to the publication of banns 
of marriage and issue of marriage certificates on board ship are in all respects 
complied with. See. 716-719. 

SECTION XVI. IN CASE OF WRECK. 

616. Lives, Stores, Books and Papers. If a ship is wrecked or otherwise 
lost or destroyed, the Captain will use every exertion to preserve the lives of 
the crew ; and when as many of them as possible have been saved, he is to 
use his utmost endeavours to save the stores, provisions, and furniture of the 
ship. He is to give his particular attention to the saving of all books and 
papers relating to the ship's accounts, that he may be enabled to cause the 
necessary books to be made out for transmission to the Admiralty, immediately 
after the court-martial to inquire into the loss of the ship has taken place. 
Should he find himself unable to comply with these directions, he is immediately 
to report the cause to the Admiralty, in order that, if judged proper, directions 
may be given for the books to be made out from the last accounts received 
in office. He is himself to take especial care to preserve all secret orders, 
signals, and instructions, or, if necessary, to destroy them, to prevent their 
falling into improper hands. 

2. Disposal and Guarding. He is to dispose of the crew in the manner most 
conducive to their comfort and to economy, that the circumstances admit. 
He is to place sufficient guards over the stores and provisions saved to prevent 

180 



IN CASE OF WRECK. 616 

their being embezzled, and is to be careful that the wine and spirit are so 
disposed of that they cannot be tampered with. He is to keep the crew together, 
and is to be very particular in preserving regular and perfect discipline among 
them, and in preventing the committal of any irregularities or the giving 
offence to the inhabitants of the country they are in. Should there be no hope 
of being assisted by any of His Majesty's ships, so soon as he shall have saved 
all that can be got from the wreck, he is to hire, on the most reasonable terms, 
such vessels as are necessary to convey him and all the officers and crew, as 
well as the stores and provisions, to the nearest port where he may expect to 
find some of His Majesty's ships, or to a port in England, according to circum- 
stances ; observing that, without very sufficient reasons to the contrary, he 
is always to prefer that course which will be attended with the least expense 
to the public. Should a sufficient quantity of provisions not be saved, he is 
to authorise the Accountant Officer to purchase whatever may be required ; 
and should the men be in want of clothes, he is to cause whatever may be 
absolutely requisite for their comfort to be purchased, and duly charged against 
them as clothing. Should the ship be wrecked on the coast of a foreign Power 
in amity with His Majesty, he is to apply to the Governor or chief officer of the 
place, for such assistance as he may stand in need of, and he is to be particularly 
attentive in observing and conforming to all the laws and regulations of the 
country, so long as he shall continue in it. . 

3. Offer of Assistance. In case of emergency, when there is not time to 
obtain the previous authority of the Admiralty, the senior naval officer present 
before accepting an offer of assistance in raising the ship, saving stores, or 
for any other service, is to arrange the form or manner in which payment is to 
be made, and he is to satisfy himself, by independent evidence if possible, that 
the offer made is fair and reasonable. Should he be unable to arrange such 
terms to his own satisfaction, he is to make the necessary provision for the 
matter to be referred to arbitration. See 177 (Authority of Captain and others), 
and 1355 (Pay to continue). 



181 

N 



617 CHAP. XIV. LIEUTENANTS, &c. 



CHAPTER XIV. 

INSTRUCTIONS TO LIEUTENANTS AND SUB-LIEUTENANTS. 

SECTION p AGE 

I. Lieutenant - 182 

II. Sub-Lieutenant, &c. - 185 

SECTION I. LIEUTENANT. 

617. Preservation of Order, &c. He is to see that all on board subordinate 
to him perform their duties with diligence and propriety. He is to check all 
profane swearing, and improper or obscene language ; and all disturbances, 
noise, or confusion. 

618. In time of Action, he will take care that all the officers and men 
under his command are at their quarters, and do their duty with spirit and 
alacrity ; and that, so far as practicable, all the regulations laid down in the 
latest Manual of Gunnery and in any subsequent additions, are strictly observed. 

619. When Officer of the Watch, he is responsible for the safety of the 
ship, subject, however, to any special orders he may have received from his 
Captain. 

2. Keeping Station. On every occasion before taking charge of a watch, 
when the ship is in a squadron, he will see that she is in her station ; if out 
of station, he will not take charge until the Captain has been informed and 
his order received to take charge. In every such case the bearings and distance 
of the next ahead and of the Flag, are to be noted in the log book. (See also 
Clause 6.) 

3. Approaching Land. At all times when at sea, so far as practicable, he 
will keep himself informed of the position of the ship. When approaching 
land or in pilot water he is to ascertain whether land or lights are in sight, 
and if not whether any are likely to be seen, and all other particulars which 
may be of use in keeping the ship out of danger ; also that the anchors and 
cables are clear. 

4. General Duties. After- taking charge of the watch, he is to be constantly 
on deck until properly relieved ; he is to see that the watch are alert and 
attentive to their duties ; that every necessary precaution is taken to prevent 
accident ; that when approaching land or pilot water, soundings are obtained 
with sufficient frequency ; and that the ship is as perfectly prepared for battle 
as circumstances admit. He is to be careful that the ship is properly steered, 
and that a correct account is kept of her way by the use of the log, and that 
the notations necessary for navigation are made in the deck log, together 
with every other occurrence worthy of notice, and all accidents occasioning 
loss of stores. He is to be careful, if not in a flag ship, that all signals are 
recorded as the Captain may direct. At the end of the watch he is to sign 
the deck log book, properly filled up, with his initials ; and when the occurrences 
of the day have been entered in the ship's log book, he will in the same manner 
place his initials at the end of each watch, in proof that the entries are correct. 

5. Subordinate Officers, Night Watches and Lifeboats. He is to see that 
the Sub-Lieutenants and subordinate officers are constantly at their posts, 
and attentive to their duties ; when he takes charge at night, and at any other 
time he may think necessary, he will muster the watch, and the lifeboats' 

182 



GENERAL DUTIES. 619 

crew ; and he will satisfy himself that the lifeboats are ready for lowering, 
that a compass, lantern, and Very's lights are in each of them, and that the. 
boxes supplied for the stern and quarter boats are in them, or at hand. 

6. Keeping Station. He is to be extremely careful to keep station with 
other ships and is to report at once to the Captain if unable to do so. 

7. Signals. He will take care that a good look-out is kept for all signals, 
whether general or to the ship ; that none are answered until made out and 
understood ; that during the night the flashing apparatus, lanterns, and 
everything else necessary for making signals are in good order, and ready for 
instant use, including the signal guns ; and that at sea none but the authorised 
lights of the ship are visible. 

Signal Books. Signal books, when kept on deck, are to be under the charge 
of the Officer of the Watch, who is to satisfy himself, on relieving the deck, 
and on being relieved, that they are in the box provided for that purpose. 

8. He is not to make any signal either by day or by night, without authority 
from the Captain, except to warn ships of immediate danger. 

9. Fog. During a fog he is to be most attentive that the " Regulations 
for Preventing Collisions at Sea " referred to in Article 1041 and in the Signal 
Manual are very carefully observed. 

10. Important Occurrences. He is to inform the Captain, or cause him to 
be informed, of all strange vessels seen ; of all signals made ; of all changes 
of rate of speed made by the leader of the squadron or fleet, if in company 
with other ships ; and in general of all occurrences worthy of notice. 

11. Changing Course. He is never to change the course without directions 
from the Captain, unless to avoid immediate danger. 

12. Look-out Men. During the day, when the weather permits, he is to 
keep look-out men at the mast-head, and, during the night, in their proper 
stations ; he will frequently caution them to be on the alert, and cause them 
to be visited ; he will take care at all times to have them sufficiently frequently 
relieved. 

13. Meeting Strange Vessel at Night. If during war a strange vessel is 
seen in the night, he is to send to inform the Captain whilst he makes such 
immediate preparations for action as the circumstances may require. 

14. Rounds. During the night he is to be careful that the police of the 
watch go the rounds, and visit every part of the ship each half-hour, to see 
that there are no irregularities, no unauthorised lights burning, and no un- 
authorised smoking, and that they report to him the result ; he will also cause 
a Sub-Lieutenant or Midshipman of the watch to go the rounds frequently 
during each night watch. 

15. He will take care 

(a) Reports from Carpenter. That the Carpenter or one of his mates 

sounds the well and looks to all the ports which should be barred, 
at least twice in each watch ; and whenever water ballast is 
admitted into the ballast compartments, that the Caipenter 
himself reports the state of the water at 8 a.m., and in the 6 to 8 
watch ; 

(b) Gunner. That the Gunner or one of his mates examines and reports 

to him at least once in each watch whether the guns are properly 
secured ; 

(c) Boatswain. That the Boatswain examines the state of the rigging. 

boats' falls and derrick purchases, and the Carpenter that of the 
masts, yards, davits, derricks, &c., as necessary, and that they 
report to him the result. 

183 

N _ 



619 CHAP. XIV. LIEUTENANTS, &c. 

16. Instruction of Subordinates. He is to take pains to instruct the 
Midshipmen and the men of the watch, in their respective duties, pointing 
out any mistakes that may have been made in the discharge of them, and 
how they should be avoided in future. 

17. In Harbour, he is to see that the routine duties are carried out on 
deck ; that a careful look-out is kept on all boats under sail ; that boat Mid- 
shipmen always sail their boats when it is possible to do so, to accelerate the 
duty on which they are employed ; and should the ship be 1 anchored in a 
tide-way, that a buoy is always ready to be veered astern. 

18. Hawse. When the ship is moored, should the hawse become foul, he 
is immediately to report to the Captain, and cause the Navigating Officer to 
be informed as well. See 1033, clause 3. 

19. Information to Relief. In giving up charge of the watch, he is to be 
careful to inform his relief of ah* the orders, whether conveyed by signal or 
otherwise, which remain unexecuted. If in company with other ships, he is 
to point out the position of the Commander-in-Chief , of the officer commanding 
the division to which the ship belongs, and of the ships generally ; he is to 
inform his relief under what steam they were when last ascertained ; whether 
the ship is coming up or dropping astern ; and generally he is to give him all 
information that may serve to enable him to keep station and out of danger. 

620. As Officer of Division. He is to be particularly attentive to the 
division of seamen put under him, keeping a list of their names, ratings and 
conduct ; he is to see that the subordinate officers in charge of sub-divisions 
are constant in their attention to their men, and he is to encourage them to 
perform their duty with strictness, but in the spirit of kindliness and thought- 
fulness for the comfort of their men, checking them whenever he may observe 
any tendency to undue harshness or irritating language. 

2. Cleanliness. He is to see that his men are at all times as clean as the 
duties of the ship will allow, and particularly that they keep their persons 
clean, and that they are properly dressed. He is to take opportunities of 
examining those who may be habitually careless or dirty ; and to adopt such 
measures for correcting them, and leading them into better habits, as may be 
necessary and proper. 

3. Clothing and Bedding. He is to see that all clothing and bedding is 
properly marked, and that accurate lists on form S. 264 are kept of the clothing 
and bedding in the possession of every man in his division ; should he find 
that any of them have improperly sold or made away with any of their clothes 
or effects, he is to report the same to the Captain. With the Captain's approval, 
when clothing is being inspected, he will take only a few bags at a time, so 
that it shall not be necessary to detain the whole of the division during the 
operation. 

Medals are to be produced at inspections, and any cases of missing medals 
are to be reported to the Captain. 

4. Men Joining. On the arrival on board of men transferred from another 
ship, their kits are at once to be placed under the charge of an officer of a 
division, who is to verify their state and enter them on his division list. See 
550 (Regulation Kit). 

5. Requisitions for Clothing. When initialling the clothing issue notes 
(Article 1743) for men of his division, he is to satisfy himself that they do not 
demand any articles that are not necessary for their use and comfort. 

6. Recommendations for Advancement, &c. He is to submit to the Captain 
and to the Executive Officer the names of such men as from zeal and ability 
in the discharge of their duties may be worthy of advancement, and he is to 

184 



GENERAL DUTIES. 620 

encourage and bring forward those who are specially desirous of improving 
themselves in the knowledge of their duties. 

Good Conduct and Misconduct. He is also to submit the name of any man 
who by good conduct is, in his opinion, deserving of reward or special 
indulgence ; and, on the other hand, he is to report any man who by his 
conduct, either on shore or on board, is unworthy of those indulgences, or 
of being retained in the first-class for leave. 

7. Claims for Medals, Badges, &c. He is to ascertain whether any of the 
men of his division have claims for medals, clasps, good conduct badges, or 
arrears of pay or prize money, arising out of service in their present or former 
ships, and he is to give them his advice and assistance in bringing their claims 
forward and establishing them in the proper quarter, keeping notes of them 
as necessary. He is to explain the facilities afforded to them of lodging their 
money for safe custody by placing it in the savings banks, or of remitting it ; 
and he is to assist them with his advice, when asked, as to the disposal of it. 

8. Service Certificate. He is to see that such men as desire it are furnished 
with a copy of their service certificates on form S. 537. 

621. Officer of the Guard, or Boarding Officer. When he is Officer of the 
Guard, or Boarding Officer, he will attend to the directions relative to those 
duties contained in the boarding book (form S. 554), and, when required to 
do so, he will make his report on form S. 555 (Report of Guard}. 

622. Instruments. He is to provide himself with a sextant, telescope, and 
such other instruments and books, not supplied at the public expense, as are 
necessary for the purposes of navigation ; their condition will be ascertained 
and reported on at inspections. 

2. Reckoning and Collision Regulations. He is to comply with Article 327, 
as to keeping a reckoning, and he will make himself thoroughly acquainted 
with the regulations for preventing collisions laid down in Chapter XXIX. 

623. Officer Acting as Lieutenant. The instructions in this Chapter are 
to be observed respectively by all officers, of whatever rank, who, under the 
authority of the Captain, may be called upon to perform duties usually assigned 
to Lieutenants. 



SECTION II. SUB-LIEUTENANT, &c. 

624. General Duties. A Sub-Lieutenant is to be attentive to his duties, 
and zealous in carrying into effect the several orders and directions he may 
from time to time receive from the Captain or from other his superior officers. 

2. Inferiors. So far as is practicable, he is to see that all the subordinate 
officers, and all others of inferior rank to himself properly perform the duties 
required of them. 

3. Mess Duties. He is at all times to assist in preserving order and regularity 
in his mess, and when he is senior member he is to take care that any directions 
the Captain may give as to the expenses of the mess are adhered to. 

4. When keeping Watch he is to see that the men do their duty, especially 
when they are employed on duties requiring attention and vigilance. When 
the hands are on deck he is to take care that men employed at his station obey 
orders with silence and alacrity. 

5. Journal. A Sub-Lieutenant is to keep a log book or a journal, wind 
is to contain professional observations on the various places visited in the 
course of service, and the usual astronomical and other observations, also 
the daily position of the ship, and the winds, currents, and other like particulars. 

185 



624 CHAP. XIV. LIEUTENANTS, &c. 

The log book or journal should contain track charts, as well as plans and 
sketches of harbours, and all other information likely to be useful in the future 
in navigating, or to His Majesty's Service. 

He is to produce the log book or journal to the Captain whenever required. 

6. Midshipman's Journal. A journal (form S. 519) is to be kept by each 
Midshipman during the whole time of his service as such, and is to be produced 
at the examination for the rank of Lieutenant. [See Article 270, and 
Appendix X., Part II. (13).] 

7. Instruments. Every Sub-Lieutenant and every Midshipman is to provide 
himself with a sextant and a telescope, the condition of which is to be reported 
on at inspections and at other appointed times. 



186 



625 



CHAPTER XV. 

INSTRUCTIONS TO THE GUNNER, BOATSWAIN, AND CARPENTER. 

SECTION P AGE 

1. The Gunner 187 
II. The Boatswain - 189 

III. The Carpenter - 190 

SECTION I. THE GUNNER. 

625. General Duties. On first appointment to a ship being brought forward 
for commission, he will prepare the warrant for the armament and Gunner's 
stores (should they not be already on board), and, if so directed, he will acquaint 
the Naval Ordnance Officer when they can be received. 

2. He is responsible that the proper proportion of spare gear is on board, 
and has been tried in place. 

626. Relations with Gunnery Lieutenant. He is at all times to communi- 
cate directly with, and attend to the directions of, the Gunnery Lieutenant 
upon the fitting and working of the guns and magazines, and relative to his 
duties generally, but he is not the less to be responsible that all the stores in 
his charge are kept in good order and properly expended. 

627. Magazines and Shell-rooms. He is to make himself thoroughly 
acquainted with the construction, ventilation, and the flooding arrangements 
of the magazines and shell-rooms, and assure himself that they are properly 
fitted, and that the magazines are perfectly dry before ammunition is received. 
He is especially to ascertain, by close inspection at the flooding inlet in the 
magazine, that the flooding valve is effectually shut after it has been screwed 
down, locked, and the deck-plate cover put on. 

628. Stowage of Ammunition. He is responsible for the stowage of all 
ammunition, and when it is stowed he is to see that the battens and stanchions 
are in place. 

2. When receiving ammunition, he will cause the utmost care to be taken 
of the cases in which it is packed ; and he will take care that the detail of 
cordite lots is duly received from the issuing magazine. 

629. Magazine Precautions. He is never to allow the magazine to be 
opened but by himself, a petty officer, or some other trustworthy person. 
He, or the petty officer in charge, is to be very careful to ascertain that persons 
who go into the magazine have no -matches nor anything else about them 
which can strike fire. 

2. Before the magazine is closed, on each occasion, he will examine and 
arrange the cases of cartridges which have been opened, and secure all that 
contain ammunition as before. 

3. He will take care to have a sufficient number of keys or spanners near 
to the cases which require to be opened ; and that nothing is stowed in the 
handing-rooms or magazines except what is actually required for the issue and 
supply of ammunition. 

4. He will immediately report any defects which may exist in the fittings 
of watertight scuttles, hatches, and doors.. 

Candle lamps are never, in any circumstances, to be allowed in the maga- 
zines or handing-rooms of ships. 

187 



CHAP. XV. GUNNER, BOATSWAIN, 

630. Guns, Sights, and Mountings. The Gunner, or in his absence his 
representative, is frequently to examine the state of the guns, sights and 
mountings, so that anything defective may be immediately repaired or 
exchanged ; and he or his representative is to personally ascertain every day 
that the gun sights are correct, and to report to this effect to the Executive 
Officer at such time as the Captain may direct ; also, he is to take care that 
all other detachable fittings of guns and mountings in his charge, except those 
kept in locked store-rooms, are seen daily by himself or his deputy, in order 
that any loss of such stores may be detected and reported without delay. 
He is frequently to examine the rifles, and all other small-arms, to see that 
they are kept clean and in every respect perfectly fit for service. 

2. When demanding arms to replace those of any previous issue, he will 
state the number which had been marked by the Naval Ordnance Department 
on those originally supplied. 

631. Pistols. The pistols supplied to ships are to be kept together in 
racks near a sentry's post, in such a position that the absence of one of them 
could be readily observed. 

2. The pistols are not to be removed from the racks, except for action, 
drill, or cleaning purposes, and at such times an Armourer or other fitting 
person is to be stationed at each rack to superintend their removal. 

3. The pistols, when in the racks, are to be secured from removal by a 
chain passed through their trigger guards, and locked. 

632. Blank Cartridges. He is to personally supervise the preparation of 
cartridges for blank firing and saluting, to ensure that the several operations 
are carried out strictly in accordance with the instructions on the subject. 

633. Survey after Action. After an engagement, he will apply to the 
Captain for a survey on the ammunition and other stores remaining in his 
charge, that the quantity expended in the action may be ascertained. 

634. Tin Boxes o! Combustibles. He is never to allow the hermetically 
closed tin boxes, in which tubes, fuses, lights, and other combustibles are 
issued for service, to be opened until required for use, to guard against 
deterioration from damp or other causes. 

635. Arms of parties detached. When a detachment of seamen or marines 
shall at any time be sent from the ship, he will make a list of the arms, 
ammunition, and stores belonging to his department sent with it, which is 
to be signed by the officer appointed to command the detachment ; on the 
return of the detachment the Gunner, in the presence of the officer who com- 
manded it, is to examine the arms, &c., brought back, and report any 
deficiencies to the Captain, who, from the statement of the officer, will determine 
in what manner the articles shall be expended by the Gunner in his accounts. 

636. Armourers. He is to see that the Armourers discharge their duty 
properly. 

2. Small-arms, &c. He is to take care that the small-arm materials and 
spare parts of arms are constantly inspected, oiled, and kept free from rust, 
and that the whole of the seamen's rifles are stripped, examined, the parts 
cleaned and re-assembled at least once in every six months, but oftener if 
necessary. 

3. On receipt of a requisition in writing from the officer or non-commissioned 
officer in charge of the detachment of marines, he will give directions to the 
armourer to strip and examine or repair such of the marines' rifles as are 
specified on the requisition ; and on the completion of the work, he will make 

188 



AND CARPENTER. 636 

a notation to that effect on the requisition, and return it to the marine officer 
or non-commissioned officer in charge of the detachment. 

637. Naval Ordnance Stores in Packages. Whenever naval ordnance 
stores are received in packages, he is to verify the contents of the packages 
with as little delay as possible, reporting any deficiency to the Captain, in 
order that immediate communication may be made through the proper channel 
to the Naval Ordnance Depot from which the stores were received. This 
correspondence is to be attached to the supply note in support of any alteration 
of figures thereon. 

638. Materials to be used. He is never, unless specially ordered to do so 
by the Captain, to use or permit the use of other than the proper materials 
with which he is supplied, for all purposes in connection with the ammunition 
and the stores in his charge generally. 

639. Register of Guns. He is to insert in the " Memorandum of Examina- 
tion " of each gun the number of rounds fired, specifying with or without 
projectiles and the nature of the explosive of which the cartridge was made 
up ; and whenever the gun is returned into store, this form, properly filled up 
with the number of rounds fired from the gun previous to being supplied to 
the ship, as well as when on board, is to be delivered, with notes of all accidents 
or exceptional occurrences to the gun, to the local naval ordnance officer. 

2. These registers or " Memoranda of Examination " are to be kept on 
board the ship until the guns are finally landed, so that each succeeding Gunner 
may at all times be perfectly competent to furnish a complete history of every 
gun in his charge. 

640. Manual of Gunnery. The Gunner will conform with the rules and 
the system of teaching laid down in the Manual of Gunnery and Drill Books. 

641. Lifebuoys and Sea-boats. The directions respecting the lifebuoys 
and sea-boats, as laid down in the Handbook on Ammunition, are to be 
strictly observed. 

2. On proceeding to sea and each evening at sea, the Gunner will take 
care that Very's lights and a pistol, signal lights, &c., are placed in each 
sea-boat, and will report to the Captain that this has been done. 

642. Torpedo Gunner. If a Torpedo Gunner not doing duty as Gunner of 
the ship should be borne, the instructions relating to Gunners' duties are to 
apply to him in so far as they relate to torpedo armament and fittings, to 
magazines, and to store-rooms for torpedo gear and stores in his charge, 
including explosives supplied for torpedo purposes. 



SECTION II. THE BOATSWAIN. 

643. General Duties. He is to be frequently on deck in the day and at 
all times day and night when the hands are employed. Assisted by his mates, 
he is to see that the men severally go quickly on deck when called and do their 
work well and with alacrity- 

2. Rigging, &c. He is responsible that the standing and running rigging, 
boats' falls and derrick purchases are in a thoroughly serviceable condition, 
taking care that they are refitted as necessary, and acquainting himself of 
their state by frequent examination, reporting the result to the Executive 
and Navigating Officers, so that immediate steps may be taken to refit or 
replace whatever may require to be so dealt with. 

189 



643 CHAP. XV.-GUNNER, BOATSWAIN, 

When the ship proceeds to sea he is to see that the anchors are secure, 
and again on returning to harbour to see that the anchors and cables are ready 
for immediate use ; he is to keep a sufficient supply of anchor strops for clearing 
foul anchors and to see on commissioning that the necessary strops for laying 
out Bower anchor are fitted and ready for use. 

He is to report at morning and evening quarters when at sea that the sea-boat 
is properly secured and ready for immediate service, and to see that all booms 
and gear on deck are secured for sea, also that the boats and appliances for 
getting them out are ready for immediate use, and that their sails and rigging 
are in good order, also that all gear used for coaling is in good condition and 
so stowed as to be readily provided when required. 

3. Stores. He will be guided by the instructions relative to the accounts 
of the stores in his charge, and keep the necessary books and documents for 
accounting for their receipt and expenditure, exercising at all times a proper 
economy in their consumption and care in their safe stowage. 

4. Canvas Gear. He is to examine any sails and all canvas gear received 
on board which are on his charge, and is to take the proper steps to keep all 
such stores repaired and fit for use, or, replaced if necessary by the dockyard ; 
he is responsible that none of them may suffer from damp or vermin, and 
that they are properly tallied and conveniently stowed in the appointed places 
so as to be at hand when wanted. He is to keep the Navigating Officer informed 
of these particulars. 

5. On Paying off. When the ship is ordered to be paid off, he is to see 
that none of the rigging is damaged or cut, that all rigging for returning into 
store is properly tallied, and that the necessary documents relative to the 
return of stores or their retention on board, as may be ordered, are duly 
rendered into office. 

SECTION III. THE CARPENTER. 

644. On first appointment to a ship he will inspect very minutely the state 
of her hull, masts, yards, and all derricks. He will also at all times report 
at once any defect or deficiency he may discover. 

2. Masts, Derricks, &c. He is responsible that the masts, yards, davits, 
guard rails and ridge ropes are in a thoroughly serviceable condition, and is 
to make frequent inspections of them for the purpose of informing himself 
of their state, reporting the result of his inspection to the Executive Officer. 

3. Water Ballast. Whenever water ballast is admitted into a ballast 
compartment of a ship fitted with them, he is to attend when they are being 
filled or emptied, and to report any sign of stress or weakness in the bulkheads 
that he may observe. He will examine and report to the Officer of the Watch 
the state of the water at 8.0 a.m. and in the 6 to 8 watch. 

4. Ports, Scuttles, &c. He is to take care that all the ports, scuttles, and 
their fittings are kept efficient and in good order, and, when barred in, he and 
his mates are frequently to see to their being properly secured, reporting their 
condition during each watch to the Officer of the Watch. Also that all upper 
deck, battening-down fittings to hatchways, sky-lights, &c., are in a thoroughly 
serviceable condition. 

5. Pumps. He is to attend to the rigging of the pumps, care of the hoses 
and to the sounding of the well and of the different compartments. He wil 
take care to have always at hand such Carpenter's stores as may be required 
for their repair. He is to keep all lift pumps where fitted in a serviceable 
condition. 

6. Wings and Passages. He is frequently to examine all wings and passages 
to see that they are kept properly clear, so that all parts of the ship accessible 

190 



AND CARPENTER. 644 

through them can be got at instantly if required. He is to assist at all inspec- 
tions of the double bottoms, wings and spaces, made by the Engineer Officer, 
and to sign the quarterly report of their condition in conjunction with that 
officer. 

7. Preservation of Ship. He is to take care, so far as in him lies, to keep 
every part of the structure of the ship and all her fittings in the highest possible 
state of efficiency, being guided in regard to this by the instructions for the 
Captain contained in Chapter XXXII. He will report at once to the Captain 
whenever he is of opinion that any particular repairs or other work should be 
taken in hand, whether for preservation or to arrest further deterioration. 
He will take care that all the seams are frequently examined, and when caulking 
is required, that it is done well. 

8. Fire Precautions. He is to be careful to keep the sheathing of the holes 
through which any funnels pass, in good order, to guard against fire. Also 
that all special fire appliances supplied to the ship in his charge are ready 
for immediate use. 

9. Docking Ship. He is to be most careful, should the ship be docked for 
any purpose, to see, himself, that every proper precaution is taken to guard 
against accidents. 

10. Pumping Systems. He is to be thoroughly acquainted with the 
ventilating, draining, and pumping systems of the ship he is serving in. 

11. Defects. He is to keep an accurate account of all defects to hull and 
boats, as they may be developed, and record the steps taken for their repair 
either by the ship's staff, or by the dockyard when the ship is taken in hand 
for refit, taking care that the services of his mates and crew are devoted to 
maintaining the ship, boats, and fittings in the highest possible state of 
efficiency. 

When ordered to prepare lists of defects he is to be guided by the instructions 
for the Captain contained in Article 1092. Defect lists should be prepared 
from the information contained in the record of defects. 

645. Steamboats with Air Cases. The Carpenter is, under the Captain, to 
carry out the following regulations for preserving the non-sinking properties 
of any steamboats which are fitted with air cases, viz. : 

(a) When the boats are not in use, the valves fitted in the upper part of 

each compartment (when such are fitted), and also in the lower 
parts, are to be allowed to remain open for draining and ventilation 
with the view of preserving the air cases. 

(b) Care is to be taken to keep the valves clear of dirt, for which purpose, 

if necessary, the socket and valve may be removed for cleaning and 
immediately replaced. 

(c) The boats are to be tested at intervals not exceeding six months, as to 

their non-sinking properties, as follows : 

(i) Steamboats with air cases at their sides and ends are to be 
tested by filling the air casing compartments only through 
the valves in the top of the compartment and draining oTf 
the water, after the test, through the valves at the bottom. 
It is important not to fill all the compartments on one side 
of the boat at one time, as the pressure would probably force 
the fastenings. Alternate compartments only should be 
filled at one time. 

(ii) Steam pinnaces with an open well forward, fitted with air 
cases, are to have these tested by filling the fore well with 
water. 

191 



645 CHAP. XV. GUNNER, &c. 

(d) Great care is to be taken that the valves at the top and bottom of 

each compartment are closed on all occasions before the boat is used. 

(e) All the air spaces are to be kept closed whenever the boats are in use, 

except the foremost and after air space in the larger steamboats 
in which there are manholes. A bar with a padlock and key is to 
be fitted to the manhole of the two air chambers to prevent their 
being used for improper purposes. 

646. Keys. He is responsible for the keys of all cabins and fittings in 
his charge until they are delivered to the officers who require them. Each 
officer will then be responsible for his key or keys until returned to the Carpenter ; 
the particulars of each delivery and return are to be entered in a key book, 
which is to be kept by the Carpenter, and occasionally inspected and approved 
by the Captain, who will take the necessary steps to ensure the return of all 
keys to the Carpenter before officers leave the ship. 

2. On paying off, the whole of the keys of the cabins and fittings, after 
they have been proved to belong to the locks, are to* be delivered, properly 
tallied and free from rust, to the Captain of the Dockyard, who wiU give a 
receipt for them, which is to be inserted in the Guard Book, with the final 
accounts. See 1642 (Keys of Money Chests, &c.). 

647. Artisan Ratings. Unless otherwise directed, he is to have charge of all 
artisan ratings, including those lent from other ships, to execute repairs to his 
own ship, and is to supervise their work. He will report any that are negligent 
or unskilful, so that their extra pay may be abated. He will also exercise 
the same supervision over all hired artisans. 

648. Stores and Store Accounts. He will attend to the instructions relative 
to stores and store accounts, and will exercise proper economy in the con- 
sumption of those in his charge. 

2. Inflammable Liquids. He is to be specially careful to comply with the 
regulations respecting the storage and use of inflammable liquids. . See 540, 
clauses 9 to 17 (Inflammable Liquids}. 



192 



CHAPTER XVI. 

INSTRUCTIONS TO THE CHAPLAIN AND NAVAL INSTRUCTOR. 

SECTION p AGE 

I. Chaplain _ 193 

II. Naval Instructor - 195 

SECTION I. CHAPLAIN. 

649. Conduct. The Chaplain is to be most careful that the morality of 
his conduct and the propriety and regularity of his manners and conversation 
are such as become his sacred office, and inspire the officers and the ship's 
company with reverence and respect towards him. 

650. General Duties. He is to conduct the daily morning prayers, and to 
perform the duties of the Lord's Day, whether in his own ship, or in any other 
to which he may be appointed by the Senior Officer, with due solemnity and 
in such a manner that his hearers may be impressed with devotion ; he will 
be careful to adapt his sermons to their capacity and situation in life, so that 
his teaching may be at once intelligible and beneficial to them. 

2. His attention is directed to that part of Chapter XIX., Section I., 
which relates to Divine Service. 

3. Naval Marriages. He is carefully to observe the instructions laid down 
by the Admiralty for his guidance with regard to the publication of banns of 
marriage on board ship. (Articles 716-719.) 

651. Holy Communion. The Chaplain is to take care that opportunities 
are given for receiving the Holy Communion with regularity, and, when 
practicable, at least once a month ; the Captain, with whom he is always 
to consult before giving notice thereof, will ensure every proper facility being 
afforded as to time and place for this service to be held. 

2. Books of Devotion. The Chaplain is to have the personal custody of 
the books of devotion and of the communion plate. See 1726 (Sacramental 
Bread and Wine). 

652. Visits to Sick. He is to be very assiduous in his attendance on the 
sick, visiting the sick berth daily. Should any man who attends his ministra- 
tion be dangerously ill, even though he may not request it, he is to go to him, 
after obtaining the Medical Officer's sanction, to prepare him for death, and to 
comfort and admonish him, as the state of his mind or other circumstances 
may make it desirable. His visits to the sick are to be so frequent, that they 
would not be regarded as in any way betokening that any patients are physically 
in a dangerous or hopeless state. 

2. He is also to visit the sick and others who may require spiritual assistance 
on board other ships or in hospitals, or elsewhere on shore, where there is no 
Chaplain. 

3. The religious denomination of each man and boy is recorded on his 
service certificate. 

653. Funeral Service. Whenever a funeral party is ordered from a ship 
in harbour bearing a Chaplain, the Chaplain of such ship is to accompany it 
and officiate, if it be the funeral of an officer or man who has died on board, 
or who was discharged to hospital while actually serving on board, whether 
as part complement or as supernumerary. 

193 



653 CHAP. XVL^CHAPLAIN AND 

If the death of a Roman Catholic, Presbyterian, Wesleyan, or a member 
of any other denomination should take place, the officiating minister of the 
denomination to which the deceased may have belonged is to be communicated 
with, in order that the funeral service may be conducted by him. 

2. The Chaplain of the hospital is to be responsible for all other funerals. 

3. The officiating Chaplain or Minister is to make the proper entry in the 
register, leaving the registrar's certificate, or coroner's order as the case may 
be, for the information of the Chaplain of the hospital, who is responsible for 
the correct keeping of the register. 

4. Cases not provided for in these Regulations are to be arranged for by 
the Senior Officer present. 

654. Prayer or Consultation. The Chaplain is to make known to the 
Captain whenever he shall have ascertained that any men or boys are anxious 
to be allowed a place of meeting for the purposes of prayer or of consultation 
with him ; the Captain will then cause some suitable place to be appropriated 
for the purpose, at the time desired or at such times as may seem expedient. 

655. Religious Instruction. He is to instruct in the principles of the 
Christian religion all such young officers as the Captain shall put under his 
care, and all the boys in the ship. Every Sunday he is to hear them read, 
and is to explain to them the Scriptures and the Church Catechism ; and 
he is to be always ready to give such assistance and instruction on religious 
subjects as may be required of him by any officer or other person in the ship. 
But he is not to enforce the teaching of the Church of England Catechism 
on any persons who, being of a different religious persuasion, might object to 
receive instruction in a creed at variance with their own ; neither are they 
to be obliged to read books to which, on religious grounds, they have an 
objection ; but the Captain will in every instance satisfy himself as to the 
validity of such objections. 

2. He is to give to men and boys, who may voluntarily attend, religious 
instniction, at such times as the Captain may order to be set apart for the 
purpose. 

656. Supervision of School. When school is held he is to visit it daily 
and see that the Naval Schoolmaster, or the person acting in his place, is 
attentive to his duty and diligent in teaching the boys placed under him and 
those who may choose to seek instruction from him. He is frequently to 
examine the progress made by them in secular education, and, at the end of 
each quarter he is to report the result in writing to the Captain ; noting such 
as deserve commendation or otherwise. He is to examine the school register 
to see that it is kept in accordance with the provisions of Article 390, and 
initial it weekly. 

2. School Books. He will demand from the Accountant Officer and hare 
general custody of such of the established school books as may from time to 
time be required for the use of the school, placing them in the immediate 
charge of the Naval Schoolmaster. The purchase of slates and other school 
necessaries is provided for in Article 1452. When no Chaplain is borne, this 
duty is to be attended to by the Naval Instructor, or some other officer appointed 
by the Captain. 

657. Moral or Religious Books. During the period of the commission he 
may demand books of a moral or religious character which are not included 
in the ship's library, to the value of 11. for every 100 of the ship's complement, 
except in harbour ships at home, in which he may demand these books annually 
to the value of 5s. for every 100 of the average numbers of men borne. The 

194 



NAVAL INSTRUCTOR, 655 

books will be supplied by the Stationery Office on the demand being forwarded 
through the Captain to the Admiralty. The books issued to sea-going ships 
under this Article are to be returned to the Chaplain of the Fleet on the ship 
paying off. 

2. The Chaplain of a dockyard or marine division may select moral and 
religious literature from the list of books drawn up by the Chaplain of the 
Fleet, and approved by their Lordships, to the value of 5s. a quarter, and 
demand it through the Admiral Superintendent or Commandant as the case 
may be. It will be supplied from the Stationery Office. 

658. Library. He is from time to time to inquire into the working of the 
ship's library, and he will suggest to the Captain any alterations which may 
appear to him to be likely to promote the free circulation of the books among 
the ship's company. 

659. Scripture Readers. When the visits of Scripture readers are sanc- 
tioned by the Captain, the Chaplain is to take care that they do not circulate 
tracts of which he does not approve, nor preach, nor perform duties which 
strictly and essentially belong to the office of an ordained person ; he will at once 
report any infringement of this regulation that may come to his notice. In a 
ship not bearing a Chaplain, the Captain will take care that this rule is enforced. 

660. Allowances. Chaplains will be paid allowances for lodging, for 
attending committees, for subsistence while travelling, compensation for 
losses and extra pay, in accordance with the following scale : 

Under 4 years' seniority - As Lieutenants above 5- years' 

seniority. 
Over 4 - As Lieutenants above 8 years' 

seniority. 

8 - As Commanders. 

15 ,, ,, - As Captains under 3 years. 

Chaplains are also entitled to marine servants in accordance with this scale. 

661. Unofficial Duty on Shore. A Chaplain on full pay is not to undertake 
duty in parishes on shore for which payment is received ; but he may assist 
occasionally, without remuneration, in churches on shore, at such times as may 
not interfere with his duties in the Fleet. 

SECTION II. NAVAL INSTRUCTOR. 

862. Duties generally. He is to use his best endeavours to impart instruc- 
tion to the pupils placed under him, to advance them in the several branches 
laid down in these Regulations, and especially to prepare them for their exami- 
nations. He is to superintend the observations and the working out of the 
ship's position every day at sea by those Midshipmen who are not working 
directly under the Navigating Officer or doing duty in the engine room. He 
is to assist the specialist officers with the instruction of Midshipmen in the 
theoretical parts of the various professional subjects. He is to encourage 
voluntary study and to help those Midshipmen who wish to keep up and 
improve their educational acquirements. 

2. Specialising Officers, &c. He is to assist any commissioned officers 
who desire to study with a view to specialising, and any warrant officers pre- 
paring for special courses. 

3. School and Library. When no Chaplain is borne, he is to carry out the 
Chaplain's duty as regards ship's school and library. 

See 342 (Teaching of French and German). 
,, 561 (Instruction of Junior Officers and Progress Books)* 
1013 (Care of Charts for Junior Officers). 

195 



663 CHAP. XVII. COURTS-MARTIAL. 

CHAPTER XVII. 

COURTS-MARTIAL. 

PROCEDURE PREPARATORY TO TRIAL. 

Where a Specific Charge is made. 

663. Application for Trial Circumstantial Letter. An application for the 
trial by court-martial of any person on any charge shall be made as follows : 
There shall be forwarded to the convening authority through the usual channels 
a letter, hereinafter called the circumstantial letter, reporting the circumstances 
on which the charge or charges are founded in the order of their occurrence, 
and in sufficient detail to show the real nature and extent of the offence ; when 
words constitute the substance of the offence, they are to be fully and exactly 
set out. The letter is not to refer in any way to the previous character or 
conduct of the offender, nor contain any reference to facts prejudicial to him 
other than such as bear directly on the charges. 

663a. Circumstantial Letter. It is of the utmost importance that the 
circumstantial letter should state in the clearest possible terms the details 
of the facts upon which the charge is based, not only because it is intended 
to afford to the convening authority the information upon which a decision 
as to the desirability or not of ordering a court-martial must be based, but 
also because it is the means by which the accused is informed of the facts 
which are alleged against him. The charge must be specific in order to give 
notice to the accused of what he is to come prepared to defend. 

ii. Further Explanations. If the complaining officer should desire to enter 
into further explanations as to his reasons for asking for a court-martial which 
would necessarily refer to the previous conduct or antecedents of the accused, 
he should do so verbally or by separate letter to his superior, which must 
not in any circumstances be laid before the court. 

iii. When Investigation by Captain not Desirable. It is undesirable, in 
cases where the Captain of a ship may be required to sit as a member of a 
court-martial, that he should himself investigate a complaint, which, on the 
face of it, may be likely to form the subject of a charge for trial. The investiga- 
tion in such a case should be undertaken by the Executive Officer, who is 
to sign the circumstantial letter and letter enclosing the charges, addressing 
both to the Captain. The Captain shall then forward them to his superior. 

iv. On stations where, on account of the small number of ships available, 
there is difficulty in obtaining the officers necessary to form a court, officers 
should be particularly careful in this matter, because an objection on the part 
of the accused to be tried, based on the fact that one of the members of the 
court had already investigated his case and expressed an opinion upon it, 
would be admitted by the court, and, no other officer of the necessary rank 
being available, a court-martial could not be held until another opportunity 
presented itself. 

664. Accompanying Documents. There shall also be forwarded at the 
same time as the circumstantial letter a further letter enclosing 

(a) The charge or charges drawn in accordance with the prescribed forms 
in the very words in which the offence is described in the section 
of the Naval Discipline Act under which it falls. 

196 



PROCEDURE PREPARATORY TO TRIAL. 664 

(b) A list of witnesses for the prosecution. 

(c) A summary of evidence in support of the charges. 

- 1 nd when the offender is below the rank of subordinate officer : 

(d) A certified extract of all entries of offences and punishments in conduct 

book, or company conduct sheet in the case of a marine, prior to 
the date of the offence charged but subsequent to his joining his 
present ship, and a conduct sheet, or the corresponding part of a 
company conduct sheet in the case of a marine, with his character 
assessed from the previous 31st December to the date of the offence 
with which he may be charged, but excluding all consideration of it. 

(e) A certified copy of the offender's certificate of service. 

664a. Scrutiny by Senior Officer. A Senior Officer is not to forward the 
above documents to the convening authority until he is satisfied that the 
foregoing regulations have been attended to. 

665. Opportunity to prepare Defence. An accused person, for whose 
trial by court-martial an application has been made, shall be afforded full 
opportunity of preparing his defence, and of free communication with his 
witnesses, or with any adviser whom he may wish to consult. 

2. Friend of the Accused. Unless the person charged desires to conduct 
his own case, he may have a person or persons to assist him during the trial, 
whether an officer, legal adviser, or any other person. In case an accused 
person below the rank of officer should not obtain the help of anyone for that 
purpose, it is to be considered part of the ordinary duty of the Officer of his 
division, or detachment if he is a marine, to watch the case in his behalf, and 
assist him should he desire it. See 678 (Functions of Friend of the Accused), 

3. In the event of the Officer of the division or detachment being a witness 
for the prosecution, or unavailable, or ineligible for the duty for any other 
reason, the Captain is to direct another officer to assist the accused. 

Where no Specific Charge is made. 

666. Wreck, Loss, Destruction, or Capture. The convening authority 
may, subject to any orders from tune to time made by the Admiralty, on his 
own motion issue a warrant in the prescribed form in accordance with the 
provisions of Sections 91 and 92 of the Naval Discipline Act, convening a court- 
martial to inquire into the cause of the wreck, loss, destruction, or capture 
of one of His Majesty's ships. 

2. No circumstantial letter shall be necessary, but if the convening authority 
shall have received from the Commanding Officer, or from the senior surviving 
officer of such ship, a report of the circumstances of the loss, &c., such report 
shall be sent with the warrant to the president of the court. 

666a. When Survivors considered not to Blame. A convening authority 
shall not issue his warrant convening a court-martial, under the provisions 
of Sections 91 and 92 of the Naval Discipline Act, to inquire into the cause 
of the wreck, loss, destruction, or capture of the said ship, unless, upon full 
consideration of all the available information, he shall be of opinion that there 
is no reasonable ground for thinking that any one or more of the survivors 
is to blame. 

ii. When considered that Blame is attributable. When in any case the 
convening authority shall, upon full consideration of all the available informa- 
tion, be of opinion that it is probable that any one or more of the survivors 
is to blame for the wreck, loss, destruction, capture, hazarding, or stranding, 
of one of His Majesty's ships, the convening authority shall direct the officer 

197 



CHAP. XVII. COURTS-MARTIAL. 

appointed by him to conduct the prosecution, to prepare a circumstantial 
letter and charge or charges, and shall issue his warrant in the prescribed 
form for the trial of such one or more of the officers or crew under Sections 2, 
5, or 29 of the Naval Discipline Act, as the case may be. See 703 (Use of 
Court of Inquiry). 



DUTIES OF THE CONVENING AUTHORITY. 

667. As to sufficiency of Charges and Evidence. When it is proposed to 
try a person on any charge, the convening authority shall not order a court- 
martial to assemble until he shah 1 have satisfied himself that the charges are 
correct and sufficient, and that they are properly framed and carefully drawn 
up, and until he has also satisfied himself that the evidence, if uncontradicted 
or unexplained, will probably suffice to ensure a conviction. 

2. Warrant to President. The convening authority shall issue to the 
officer appointed by him to preside at the court-martial a warrant under his 
hand in the prescribed form, directing him to assemble a court-martial, and 
shall, when the court-martial is appointed to try any person on any charge, 
transmit to the president the circumstantial letter and the charge or charges 
with the warrant. 

667a. Selection of President. Should the rank of the person to be tried, 
or the character of the offence charged, be such as require that the court 
should be composed of officers of standing and experience, the convening 
authority is to be careful to select as president an officer of such seniority 
as may ensure the attendance of the officers of the highest rank who may 
be present with their ships at the place where the court-martial may be ordered 
to assemble ; but should the nature of the offence be such as may be properly 
dealt with by officers of less experience, he may select any eligible officer to 
preside whom he may consider most desirable, with reference to the convenience 
of the Service. 

ii. Spare Members. The convening authority or the Senior Officer, as the 
case may be, must direct that the two officers next in seniority qualified to 
sit, or such further number as are likely to be required, shall present themselves 
as spare members when the court assembles. 

668. Appointment of Officiating Deputy Judge-Advocate. In any case 
the convening authority, if Commander-in-Chief of any fleet or squadron, 
may, in the absence of the Judge-Advocate of the Fleet or his deputy, and in 
default of any appointment in that behalf by the Admiralty, by warrant under 
his hand in the prescribed form, appoint a person to officiate as deputy judge- 
advocate at the trial, and shall (except when the trial is to be held under 
Sections 91 and 92 of the Naval Discipline Act) send him a copy of the charge 
and of the circumstantial letter, and shall forward to him (or to the president 
for him) in all cases the documents mentioned in Article 664 (b) and (c), and 
in case of the trial of an officer, the list of officers who have been tried by court- 
martial, or a certified extract therefrom, and in the case of the trial of a person 
below the rank of subordinate officer, the documents mentioned in Article 
664 (d) and (e). 

2. Appointment of Provost-Marshal. The convening authority, or, in his 
absence, the senior naval officer present, shall, by warrant under his hand 
in the prescribed form, appoint a provost-marshal to take the accused into 
his custody and safely keep him until he shall have been delivered in due course 
of law. 

198 



DUTIES OF THE CONVENING AUTHORITY. 668 

3. When to appoint a Prosecutor. It is the duty of the Captain of the 
ship to which the accused belongs in ordinary cases to act as prosecutor, but 
if for any reason it is undesirable or impossible for the Captain or Executive 
Officer of that ship to conduct the prosecution, the convening authority shall 
appoint a competent officer to undertake the duty. 

CONSTITUTION AND SUMMONING OF THE COURT. 

669. Constitution and Notice to be given. Whenever a court-martial is 
ordered, such timely notice as may be practicable, and which, as a general 
rule, should not be less than 24 hours, shall be given in general orders or by 
signal to the ships present, so that the proper officers may be prepared to attend 
at the place and hour appointed. The names of the president and of the officers 
whose presence it is anticipated will be required are at the same time to be 
made known, and after such notice no officer junior to the president of a rank 
eligible to sit as a member is to proceed on leave of absence without the express 
authority of the officer ordering the court-martial, or of the senior officer 
present. 

2. On the morning of the day appointed for the court-martial to be held, 
the Commander-in-Chief or senior officer present shall send to the president 
a list of the officers who are eligible and may be required to sit as members, 
notifying if there be any whose attendance is not attainable by reason of the 
exigencies of the public service. This list is also to give the names of any 
officers absent on leave. 

3. Summoning Members. The Commander-in-Chief or senior officer 
present shall, b}' signal, order the president to make a signal not less than 
one hour before the time appointed for the court-martial to assemble, summon- 
ing the officers junior to himself present at the place where the court-martial 
shall be held, to sit thereon, which latter signal shall be deemed to be a com- 
pliance with Section 58 (16) of the Naval Discipline Act. 

670. Order in which Members shall sit. Officers whose duty it may be 
to attend as members of a court-martial shall sit only in the confirmed rank 
they hold in the Service, notwithstanding they may be borne on the books 
of the ships to which they may respectively belong in a superior rank, but 
Commodores when not acting in conjunction with senior Captains shall sit as 
Commodores, otherwise as Captains only. 

2. Any officer who, on promotion, may not be reappointed in the higher 
rank by the Admiralty, but who may temporarily retain his appointment 
in the lower rank, shall sit at courts-martial in the rank from which he was 
promoted, but senior of that rank ; if, however, two or more officers promoted 
to the same rank and similarly circumstanced be present, they shall sit in the 
order in which they stood on the official list in their lower rank. 

671. Absence of Member. A member of a court who may have beem 
absent during any part of the trial of an accused person can take no further 
part in the trial, but the court will not be affected except as provided by Section 
60 of the Naval Discipline Act. 

DUTIES OF THE PRESIDENT. 

672. When officiating Deputy Judge-Advocate appointed by President. 

If the president appoints a person to officiate as deputy judge-advocate, he 
shall forward to him, with the warrant, a copy of the charge or charges and 
circumstantial letter. 

199 

02 



672 CHAP. XVII. COURTS-MARTIAL. 

2. Responsibility in regard to Accused. In every case in which any person 
is about to be tried on any charge the president shall satisfy himself that the 
accused has been furnished, at the earliest possible moment, with a copy of 
the charge sheet and of the circumstantial letter, a list of witnesses for the 
prosecution, and a notice that it is competent for him to give evidence on his 
own behalf. 

3. When less than 24 hours' Notice. If, in pressing circumstances, where 
delay would be very inconvenient to the public service, the above-mentioned 
documents shah 1 not have been furnished to the accused 24 hours before trial, 
this fact shall be recorded in the minutes of the proceedings, together with a 
statement of the pressing circumstances which prevented their being so 
furnished. 

4. In case of Mutiny. Notwithstanding anything herein contained, in 
the case of mutiny the trial may take place immediately after the commission 
of the offence. 

5. Appointment of Officer of Court. The president shall appoint an officer 
to be officer of the court, and shall give him such orders as may be necessary 
for the due transaction of the business of the court. 

6. Responsibility as to Court and Trial. The president shall be responsible 
for the due constitution of the court and for the trial being conducted in 
accordance with the provisions of the Naval Discipline Act in force for the time 
being, with the general orders framed thereunder, arid with any supplementary 
orders given by the Admiralty. 

7. Questions to Witnesses. In the event of there being ^no prosecutor, 
the court and the judge-advocate shall ask such questions o'f the witnesses 
as may be necessary to bring the whole case fully before the court. 



DUTIES OF THE JUDGE-ADVOCATE. 

673. Duty to Accused and to Prosecutor. The judge-advocate shall give 
notice in writing to the accused of the time and date of the trial, and that it 
is competent for him to give evidence on his own behalf. He shall also cause 
the accused to be furnished with a copy of the charges, circumstantial letter, 
the list of witnesses for the prosecution, and, if the prosecutor should at a 
later stage desire to call any further witnesses, the judge-advocate shah 1 give 
the accused immediate notice of his intention to do so. He shall also inform 
the accused that any witnesses whom he may desire to call shah 1 be summoned 
on his behalf, and shall inform the president that he has performed these 
duties. The judge-advocate shall inform the prosecutor of the date and time 
of the court-martial and request him to forward certified copies (in case of an 
officer) of any of the documents mentioned in Article 698 (a) (ii), and (in the 
case of a person below the rank of subordinate officer) of the documents 
mentioned in Article 698 (b) (i). He shall also forward to the prosecutor a 
copy of the charges if the charges submitted have been amended by the 
convening authority. 

2. Attendance of Witnesses. The judge-advocate shall take the necessary 
steps to procure the attendance of the witnesses whom the prosecutor or the 
accused may desire to call, and whose attendance can reasonably be procured, 
serving them with a summons in the prescribed form under Section 66 of the 
Naval Discipline Act. Should it appear that any witness has been summoned 
without due cause, the person requiring the attendance of such witness may, 
at the discretion of the Admiralty at home, or Commander-in-Chief abroad, 
be required to refund the cost of such attendance. 

200 



DUTIES OF THE JUDGE- ADVOCATE. 673 

Expenses o! Witnesses. Without prejudice to this provision, the payment 
of reasonable expenses of the witnesses not subject to the Naval Discipline 
Act, who may have been summoned to give evidence at a court-martial, shall 
be made by the judge-advocate, who shall be repaid under the direction of the 
president by the Accountant Officer of the Flag or Senior Officer's ship at the 
port where the court-martial may be assembled ; and the judge-advocate 
shall report to the Secretary of the Admiralty the particulars of all such 
payments when the minutes of the proceedings are forwarded or as soon after 
as may be. 

3. Duty to Prosecutor and Accused. At all times after the judge-advocate 
has been appointed, the prosecutor and the accused shall, if they ask for it, 
be entitled to his opinion on any question of law relating to the charge or 
trial, subject, should he be in court, to the permission of the court. 

Defect in Charge or Constitution. Whether consulted or not, he shall 
inform the convening authority and the court of any informality or defect 
in the charge, or in the constitution of the court. 

4. Advice to Court. The judge-advocate shall, whether his opinion is 
asked or not, advise the court to the utmost of his knowledge and ability, 
not only on questions relating to naval law and to the procedure of courts- 
martial, as they arise, but also on every question of doubt or difficulty with 
reference to common and statute law, to the law and rules of evidence, and to 
the rules and regulations of the Service generally. 

Any information, advice, or opinion, given to the court on any matter 
before it, shall be entered in the proceedings, if he, or the court, desire it. 

5. Impartiality and Protection of Accused. The judge-advocate shall 
maintain an entirely impartial position. He shall not act as prosecutor. 
He shall take care that the accused does not suffer any disadvantage in conse- 
quence of his position or of his ignorance, or of his incapacity to examine or 
cross-examine witnesses, or of any other cause, and for that purpose, with the 
permission of the court, he may call witnesses and put such questions to any 
witness as may appear necessary to elicit the truth. 

6. Minutes. The judge-advocate shall be responsible for the due recording 
of the minutes in the prescribed form. He, or the shorthand writer, shall 
take down in writing and number consecutively the questions put to, and the 
answers given by, each witness, and shall read the same in the hearing of the 
witness, when required to do so, in order that any mistake may be corrected. 
No erasures are to be made in the minutes, and all corrections or interlineations 
are to be verified by his initials. 

PROCEDURE AT THE TRIAL. 

674. Place of Courts-Martial. Courts-martial shall be assembled and 
held in the convenient part of the ship, and shall be public, and all persons, 
except such as may be summoned to give evidence, shall be admitted. 

675. Opening Court. As soon as the court has been assembled the accused 
shall be brought in and the prosecutor and audience admitted. The judge- 
advocate shall read the warrant for assembling the court and the names of 
the officers whose attendance is stated in the list furnished under Article 669, 
clause 2, not to be attainable, together with the reasons for their absence. 

Objections by Prosecutor. The judge-advocate shall read the names of 
the officers composing the court, and shall ask the prosecutor whether he objects 
to any of them. 

201 



675 CHAP. XVII. COURTS-MARTIAL. 

3. Objections by Accused.- -If the prosecutor shall have made no objection 
or after any objection made by the prosecutor has been disposed of, the judge- 
advocate shall ask the accused if he objects to any member of the court. 

The following provisions shall apply to the case of objections both by the 
prosecutor and the. accused. 

4. No Objection to Judge-Advocate. Neither the prosecutor nor the 
accused can object to the judge-advocate. 

5. Any member may be objected to on any ground which affects his 
competency to act as an impartial judge. 

6. Objections to Members shall be decided separately, that to the officer 
lowest in rank being taken first. Ah 1 the other members, whether objected to 
or not, shall vote as to the disposal of the objection. 

7. When Allowed. On an objection being allowed, the member is at once 
to retire, and his place is to be filled up before an objection against another 
officer is considered. 

8. Objection to President. Should the president be objected to, and the 
objection be allowed, the court is to adjourn until a new president has been 
appointed by the convening authority. 

0. Member summoned as Witness. Should a member be objected to on 
the ground of being summoned as a witness, and should it be found that the 
objection has been made in good faith, and that the officer is to give evidence 
as to facts, and not merely as to character, the objection should be allowed, 
whether made by the prosecutor or by the accused. Should, however, it be 
found that the officer was summoned to give evidence without a sufficient 
cause, and merely to disqualify him from sitting, the court is to exercise its 
discretion in regard to allowing the objection. 

676. Objection to Constitution. The judge-advocate shall then ask the 
accused whethei he has any further objection to make respecting the constitu- 
tion of the court. Should he raise any objection, it shall then be decided by 
the court. 

2. Court and Judge-Advocate sworn. If the accused should have no 
further objection to make to the constitution of the court, the members and 
the judge-advocate shall then take the oaths in the manner prescribed by the 
Naval Discipline Act. 

677. Commencement of Trial. The trial shall commence by the judge- 
advocate reading the charge and the circumstantial letter. 

678. Friend oi the Accused. A person assisting an accused person may 
advise him on all points, may by permission of the president, but not otherwise, 
on behalf of the accused examine and cross-examine witnesses other than 
the accused himself, may in every case, however, suggest to the accused questions 
to be put to witnesses, and may read the accused's defence or statement in 
mitigation of punishment, but he is not to address the court. 

679. Procedure on Plea of Guilty. The accused shall not be called on to 
plead to the charge or charges, but should he voluntarily plead guilty, his 
plea is to be recorded on the minutes. If the accused pleads guilty, he" shall 
be deemed to have admitted the accuracy of all the material statements 
contained in the circumstantial letter. In such a case, before the court proceeds 
to deliberate on the sentence, the accused may make a statement in mitigation 
of punishment ; if written, it must be signed by himself, and shall be read to 
the court, and attached to the proceedings. Should this statement, in the 
opinion of the court, amount to a plea of " Not Guilty," or should the court 
be satisfied by such statement, or by any other means, that the accused does 

202 



PROCEDURE AT THE TRIAL, 679 

not understand the effect of a plea of " Guilty," or should the court be of 
opinion that the circumstances of the case are such that the proper sentence 
cannot be awarded unless the facts are investigated, such plea of " Guilty " 
is not to be accepted, but the trial is to be proceeded with as if the accused 
had not pleaded. It, however, the statement is, in the opinion of the court, 
not inconsistent with a plea of " Guilty," and if the court is satisfied that the 
accused understands the effect of such a plea, and that no further investigation 
is required, such plea is to be accepted. 

680. Calling of Witnesses. If the accused does not voluntarily plead 
guilty, or if his plea of guilt}' is not accepted, the trial shall proceed, and the 
witnesses for the prosecution shall be called. No witness whose name was 
not included in the original list of witnesses shall be called by the prosecutor, 
unless the judge-advocate has given notice to the accused that he intends to 
call such witness. See 686, clause 5 (Additional Witnesses). 

681. Interpreter. At any time during the trial, should the court think 
it necessary, or should either the prosecutor or the accused request it on any 
reasonable ground, an impartial person shall be employed to act as interpreter, 
and sworn in due course. 

2. Shorthand Writer. At any time during the trial, should the court 
think it desirable, an impartial person or persons may be employed to act 
as shorthand writer, and duly sworn. 

682. Objection to Interpreter or Shorthand Writer. Before a person is 
sworn as interpreter or shorthand writer the accused should be informed of 
the person whom it is proposed to employ, and may object to such person as 
not being impartial ; and the court, should it think such objection reasonable, 
shall not swear that person as interpreter or shorthand writer. 

2. Reading over Notes. If a shorthand writer is employed, the evidence 
given by a witness shall, when required by the court or the witness, be read 
over to him by the shorthand writer before the witness leaves the court. 

3. Transcript. The transcript of the shorthand writer's notes, made and 
signed by him, and certified as such by the judge-advocate, shall constitute 
the original proceedings of the court. 

682a. Disposal, &c., of Notes and Transcript. In order to prevent any 
unauthorised publication of the proceedings, the transcribing of the notes 
is to be made under the supervision of the judge-advocate, and only one 
transcript is to be made, unless otherwise ordered by the court, and the notes 
when transcribed are to be delivered with the transcript to the judge-advocate, 
and are to accompany the proceedings when sent to the Admiralty. 

683. Manner of administering Oath. No witness shall be examined until 
he has been duly sworn. Except as hereinafter provided, the oath shall be 
administered in the following manner : 

The person to be sworn shall take a book containing the Old or New 
Testament, as the case may be, in his right hand ungloved and shall distinctly 
and solemnly repeat after the judge-advocate the words of the oath, and after 
saying the words " So help me God," shall reverently kiss the book. 

2. Forms of Oath. Except as hereinafter provided, all persons shall be 
sworn on the New Testament ; the forms of oath to be made use of shall be 
as follows : 

For a Witness : 

/, A.B., do most solemnly swear that in the evidence I shall give before 

203 



683 CHAP. XVH COURTS-MARTIAL. 

the court on the present trial, I will, whether it be favourable or unfavour- 
able to the accused, declare the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but 
the truth ; so help me God. 

For the Accused : 

I, A.B., do most solemnly swear that the evidence I shall give on my own 
behalf shall be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth ; 
so help me God. 

For a Shorthand Writer : 

/, A.B., do most solemnly swear that I will truly take down, to the best 
of my power, the evidence to be given before this court-martial, and 
such other matters as I may be required, and, when required, will 
deliver to the court a true transcript of the same ; so help me God. 

For an Interpreter : 

/, A.B., do most solemnly swear that I will, to the best of my ability, 
truly interpret and translate, as I shall be required to do, touching 
the matter before this court-martial ; so help me God. 

3. If a Jew. The invocation in the case of a Jew shall be "So help me 
Jehovah," and he shall be sworn on the Old Testament. 

4. Scottish form of Oath. If any person to whom an oath is to be adminis- 
tered desires to be sworn with uplifted hand in the Scottish manner, he shall 
be thus sworn : 

He shall stand with his right hand raised above his shoulder and shall 
slowly and distinctly repeat the following words after the judge-advocate : 

I swear by Almighty God as I shall answer to God in the last great day of 

Judgment that 

proceeding with the words of the oath prescribed, omitting the words of 
invocation and not making use of any book. 

5. Affirmation. Any person upon objecting to be sworn on the grounds 
that he has no religious belief, or that the taking of an oath is contrary to his 
religious belief, may make his solemn affirmation as follows, slowly and dis- 
tinctly repeating the words after the judge-advocate : 

/, A.B., do solemnly, sincerely, and truly declare and affirm that 

and then proceed with the words of the oath prescribed, omitting the words 
of invocation and not making use of any book. 

684. Other forms of Oath. In all cases where the above forms of oath 
are not binding on the conscience of the person to be sworn, such person shall 
be sworn in such form as he may declare to be binding on his conscience. 

THE EXAMINATION OF WITNESSES. 

685. Presence of Witnesses in Court. Witnesses must not be present in 
court during any part of the proceedings, unless by permission of the court, 
except when under examination, and except when the court re-opens for 
reading the finding and the sentence. 

2. Prosecutor as Witness. The prosecutor is a competent witness ; but 
when there are other witnesses to the facts, his evidence shall be taken first. 
He may be recalled for examination, or re-examination, by the court, or for 
-cross-examination by the accused, during any part of the proceedings, but 
not for the purpose of giving evidence of any additional fact in support of 
the case for the prosecution. 

3. Members of Court as Witnesses. A member of the court, whether 
previously objected to or not by either side, is not necessarily disqualified 

204 



EXAMINATION OF WITNESSES. 686 

from being examined as a witness should it be found in the course of the 
proceedings that he can give material evidence. 

686. Examination of Witnesses. The examination of all witnesses shall 
be oral, and, except in the case mentioned in Article 687, shall be taken in 
the presence of the court. Unless a strong reason to the contrary exists, 
the evidence of witnesses shall be taken at one examination in regard to all 
the charges. 

2. Order of Examination, &c. The examination of all witnesses shall be 
conducted as follows : First, they shall be examined by the person calling 
them ; after which, they may be cross-examined by the opposite party, should 
he desire to do so ; then re-examined by the person calling them, but only 
on matter arising out of the cross-examination ; and, finally, examined by 
the court and judge-advocate. 

3. Postponement of Cross-examination. On the application of the accused 
the court shall allow his cross-examination of a witness to be postponed, unless 
it should appear that the request had been made for the purpose of obstruction. 

4. Questions by Court and Judge-Advocate. In addition to exercising 
the right of examination above conferred, the court and the judge-advocate 
may put questions to any witness at any period of his examination for the 
purpose of elucidating any answers previously given by him. 

5. Recall of Witness and calling of Additional Witnesses. The court, and 
the judge-advocate with the consent of the court, may at any time during 
the trial recall a witness ; and may before the accused gives evidence, or is 
called on for his defence, also call and examine any other person touching the 
matter in question, whose evidence the court may deem necessary for the 
furtherance of the ends of justice. After the close of the case for the defence, 
they may call and examine any other person whose evidence the accused may 
show to the court to be material in his behalf, or any medical officer whose 
professional opinion as to the accused's condition the court may desire to have. 

6. When Prosecutor must call Witnesses. The prosecutor is not bound 
to call all the witnesses whose names are on the list given to the accused, but 
he shall call such of them as the accused may desire to be called, in order that 
the accused may cross-examine them, if he wishes to do so. Such witness 
or witnesses shall be called before the prosecution is finally closed. 

687. Witness unable to appear. If any material witness should be in 
hospital, or otherwise unable from sickness to appear before the court, the 
court shall adjourn, and his evidence shall be taken on oath before a magistrate 
or consul, in the presence of the judge-advocate, of the accused, of the accused's 
adviser, should there be one, and of the prosecutor ; and full opportunity 
shall be afforded of cross-examining the witness. The judge-advocate shall 
take down the evidence, as in the case of other witnesses, and on his return 
to the court shall lay before it the evidence which has thus been taken, and 
shall attach it to the minutes. 

688. Question objected to. Should a question proposed be objected to, 
the opinion of the court shall be taken, and the question shall be admitted 
or rejected as the majority may decide. The fact of the objection being made, 
the ground thereof, and the decision of the court shall be recorded in the 
minutes. 



Prevarication by Witness. If at .any time it appears to the court 
that any witness is prevaricating in his evidence or behaving with contempt, 
the president shall warn the witness that under Section 00 of the Naval Discipline 
Act he is liable to imprisonment or detention for such prevarication or contempt. 

205 



689 CHAP. XVn. COURTS-MARTIAL. 

The fact that this warning has been given shall be recorded in the minutes of 
proceedings. 

DIRECTIONS AS TO EVIDENCE IN SPECIAL CASES. 
Charges of Loss, Stranding, or Hazarding H.M. Ships. 

690. Special Directions. If a court-martial should be ordered to inquire 
into the loss, stranding, or hazarding of a ship, or to try a charge arising there- 
from, the following points in addition to the customary investigation, are to 
be attended to when practicable : 

(a) Documents to be Produced. The ship's log book and deck log book ; 

the last table of compass deviations ; the subsequent observed 
deviations of the compass at sea, and the compass journal, as directed 
in Article 1004 ; the Captain's night order book ; the Navigating 
Officer's note-book and work-book ; and the chart or charts and 
sailing directions by which the ship was navigated are to be produced. 

(b) Procedure by Court. The court shall ascertain whether the proper 

chart and all hydrographical notices bearing on the case had been 
supplied, and, if so, whether they had been used ; v/hether the 
position of the ship had been fixed, if at sea by means of observations 
at noon and at any later time, if in sight of land by means of fixes 
by the land ; if not, when it was last ascertained so correctly that 
reliance should have been placed on it ; and whether the courses 
steered by standard compass, and the distances run between the time 
when the position of the ship was last correctly ascertained and 
that of the occurrence, were noted in the deck log book. The court 
shall also examine the compass journal to ascertain the degree fo 
reliance that can be placed on the deviations of the standard compass. 

(c) Ship's Reckoning. The court shall direct one or more navigating or 

other competent officers of ships present to work up the ship's reckon- 
ing from the log and the Navigating Officer's note-book and work- 
book (Article 1028), and the rough and fair engine-room registers, 
from the time when her position was last accurately ascertained 
(or from such a time and with such details as the court may require) 
to the time of her taking, or being in danger of taking, the ground ; 
the result is to be delivered to the court, attested by the signature 
of such officer or officers, and to its accuracy he or they are to be 
sworn and to be subject to cross-examination. The positions of 
the ship, so determined, are to be laid off on the chart by which 
she was navigated, and also the determined position when ashore 
or in danger, as noted in the log book. The rate and direction of the 
current and of the tidal stream, and the time of tide should also 
if possible, be ascertained, stated, and equally verified on oath. 

(d) Documents to accompany Minutes. These documents, viz., the result 

and the chart, as well as an attested copy of the ship's log book 
and the engine-room register, commencing from at least 48 hours 
before the ship took the ground or was in danger, if so long from a 
known anchorage, are to accompany the minutes. 

(e) Inquiry as to Soundings. The court shall inquire whether the regula- 

tions contained in Article 982, with regard to the use of the sounding 
machines and hand leads, were carefully observed. 

690a. Documents admissible in Evidence. Sailing directions and similar 
documents which are issued officially for the information of the Fleet are 

206 



DIRECTIONS AS TO EVIDENCE IN SPECIAL CASES. 690a 

admissible in evidence for or against persons whose duties require them to be 
conversant with their contents. 

ii. At courts-martial held under Sections 29 or 92 of the Naval Discipline 
Act, affidavits or statutory declarations made by officers or others having 
special local knowledge of navigation, may by permission of the court be 
put in evidence by the person or persons on trial, but not by the prosecutor. 
It should, however, be borne in mind that such statements have not been 
tested by cross-examination. 

691. Examination of Officers working out Reckoning. The examination 
of the officer or officers, who have been directed to perform the duty mentioned 
in Article 690 (c) is to be limited to ascertaining the accuracy or inaccuracy 
of the document thus laid before the court. 

Charges of Drunkenness. 

691a. Definition of Drunkenness. In cases of trial on a charge of drunken- 
ness, where conflicting or indecisive evidence is given, it may sometimes be 
very difficult to arrive at a satisfactory conclusion. The proper meaning to 
be attributed to the word " Drunk " in such a charge is this that through the 
intoxicating effect of liquor, the accused was unfit to be entrusted with his 
duty. On the one hand, it is not necessary for the prosecution to prove that 
the accused was through liquor in any extreme condition ; nor is the accused 
necessarily entitled to an acquittal by showing that on the occasion in question 
he could, or actually did, do some particular duty without manifest failure. 
If, upon consideration of all the evidence, the court comes to the conclusion 
that he was, through the intoxicating effect of liquor, unfit to be entrusted 
with his duty, they should find him guilty of the charge. If, on the other hand, 
in the opinion of the court, it is not satisfactorily proved that the accused 
was, through the intoxicating effect of liquor, unfit to be entrusted with his 
duty, then, notwithstanding they may infer from the evidence that he had 
drunk more than usual, they ought. to acquit. It is not considered there is 
any offence of the same class as drunkenness involving a less degree of punish- 
ment so as to admit of a modified finding by the court under the general power 
given by Section 48 of the Naval Discipline Act. 

When Medical Opinion desirable. The responsibility for deciding in the 
first instance in cases of alleged drunkenness whether an officer or man is in 
a fit state to perform his duties rests with the Commanding Officer ; but in a 
case of this nature, should there be any doubt as to the reason of the accused's 
condition, it is desirable that the opinion of the Medical Officer should be 
obtained at once. Otherwise a plea of sickness might be brought forward 
at the court-martial or other later investigation, and the omission of this 
precaution may be taken advantage of by the accused, with the result that a 
guilty person may escape the punishment due to his offenc*. 

Charges of Striking. 

ii. Medical Evidence. In charges of striking or using violence the evidence 
of the Medical Officer must very often be of the most material assistance to 
the court in determining where the truth lies in a considerable body of abso- 
lutely conflicting evidence, and it is undesirable that his being called or not 
should be left to the chance of the accused asking for his evidence. As a 
general rule, therefore, in all such cases where the accused or the person struck 
has been attended by the Medical Officer of the ship, the prosecution should 
call the latter as a witness. 

207 



691a CHAP. XVII. COURTS-MARTIAL. 

Inadmissible Evidence. 

iii. The " Summary of Evidence " which is supplied to the judge-advocate 
is not in any circumstances to be brought by him or the prosecutor to the 
attention of the court. 

iv. An Admission or Confession made at the preliminary investigation 
is admissible in evidence provided that when at the preliminary investigation 
the accused was asked whether he wished to make any statement he was 
warned that it might be given in evidence against him. 

v. Statements at Preliminary Investigation. Evidence is not to be given 
by the prosecutor of statements made by the witnesses at the preliminary 
investigation, unless such statements lead up to a confession or denial on the 
part of the accused ; but this instruction must not be construed so as to prevent 
witnesses being cross-examined with the object of showing that the evidence 
given to the court is inconsistent with the statements made at the preliminary 
investigation. 

vi. Antecedents of the Accused. No statement relating to misconduct 
on the part of the accused, other than that with which he is charged, is to be 
made to the court before the finding, it being generally contrary to the recog- 
nised procedure of courts of justice for the prosecution to urge the previous 
bad conduct of the accused as an element in determining the question of his 
guilt ; such conduct is only taken into consideration when punishment is being 
awarded. In cases in which the previous conduct of the accused may be 
admissible in proof or in disproof of the charges, it is open to the prosecution 
or to the defence to adduce evidence which may be rebutted or cross-examined 
upon in the course of the trial. 

vii. Circumstantial Letter. No portion of the circumstantial letter shall 
be accepted as evidence of the facts stated therein, except in case of the 
accused pleading guilty. 

viii. Court of Inquiry. Neither the minutes of a court of inquiry nor any 
confession, statement, or answer to a question made or given thereat shall 
be admissible as evidence against the accused, unless the charge is one of 
making false statements before such court. 

THE DEFENCE. 

692. Time for Preparation. The prosecution being closed, and the 
witnesses, if any, called by the court, having been examined, the accused 
shall be called on for his defence, and shall, on his application, be granted 
a reasonable tune for the preparation of the same. The court shall adjourn 
during that time, and may adjourn again from time to time on the application 
of the accused if he shall satisfy the court that the time granted him has not 
been sufficient for the due preparation of his defence. 

692a. Latitude allowed. The president must take care that considerable 
latitude is allowed to the accused in making his defence. He may caution 
the accused as to the irrelevance of his defence, but should not stop him, unless 
he should persist in disregarding the caution given to him. 

693. When to be made. The accused's statement in defence may be 
either oral or in writing ; if oral, it shall be recorded in the minutes as nearly 
as possible in the accused's own words ; if in writing, it shall be signed by 
him, and attached to the minutes. Such statement shall be made or read, 
if the accused elects to give evidence and is the only witness for the defence, 
immediately after he gives evidence ; in all other cases, after the close of the 
case for the prosecution, and before he himself gives evidence. 

208 * 



THE DEFENCE. 

V 

2. Criminal Evidence Act. The Criminal Evidence Act, 1898, is hereby, 
pursuant to Section 6 (2) (a) of the said Act, applied to naval courts-martial. 

3. Witnesses for Defence. The accused shall produce his other witnesses 
for the defence after he has given his own evidence ; but should the accused 
not have applied to be examined as a witness, he is to be called on to produce 
his witnesses after he has made his statement in defence. The witnesses for 
the defence shall be examined, cross-examined, and re-examined as mentioned 
in Article 686, clause 2. 

4. Accused's right to reply in certain cases, The accused may, with the 
consent of the court, after the conclusion of the evidence, deal with any dis- 
crepancies between his evidence or statement and the evidence of the witnesses 
called by him, and comment on any new fact that may be elicited during the 
examination of his witnesses. 

5. Courts-Martial under Sec. 92 of N.D.A. In applying the above provisions 
to the case of a court-martial held under Section 92 of the Naval Discipline 
Act, they shall be construed as if the words " any officer or member of the 
" crew of any of His Majesty's ships wrecked, lost, captured, or destroyed, 
" against whom any allegation has been made," were substituted for the 
word " accused." 

AMENDMENT OF THE CHARGE. 

694. If at any time in the course of a trial after the court has been sworn, 
but before the accused's guilt or innocence has been determined, the court 
shall be satisfied that there is a variance between the charge or charges and the 
evidence adduced in support thereof, and shall consider that such variance 
is not material to the merits of the case, and that the accused cannot, by the 
amendment of the variance, be substantially prejudiced in his defence, it 
may direct the judge-advocate to amend the charge or charges, adjourning, 
if the court deem it necessary, for a reasonable time, to enable the accused 
to meet the charge or charges so amended. All such amendments shall be 
noted in the minutes, and shall be verified on the original documents by the 
signature of the president. 

ASCERTAINING OPINION OF THE COURT. 

695. In taking the opinion of the court upon all questions the junior 
member shall vote first, and then the other members, in order of seniority 
to the president, all voting orally, and the votes of the majority, except for 
judgment of death (which is specially provided for by Section 53 (2) of the 
Naval Discipline Act), shall decide the question. Should the members disagree 
upon any question, and on a division the votes be equal, the construction 
most favourable to the accused shall prevail. See 699 (Voting on Sentence). 

THE FINDING. 

696. When the evidence has been closed the accused shall be removed, 
and the prosecutor and bystanders ordered to withdraw. The court shall 
then consider the matter in evidence before it, and the judge-advocate, if so 
directed by the court, shall draw up such questions as shall be agreed upon, 
whereon to form a determination in regard to the innocence or guilt of the 
accused. The judge-advocate shall then draw up the finding. 

2. Signatures. The finding shall be signed by every member of the court 
by way of attestation notwithstanding any difference of opinion there may 
have been among the members, and be countersigned by the judge-advocate. 

209 



697 CHAP. XVH. COURTS-MARTIAL. 

697. Reading of Finding. The court shall be re-opened, the accused 
brought in, and the judge-advocate, by direction of the court, shall read the 
finding. 

698. Guilty. If the accused is found guilty, the court, before awarding 
punishment, in addition to any oral evidence of general character that may 
be adduced, shall take into consideration the following documents which shall 
be read in open court : 

(a) In the case of an officer 

(i) Any entries against him in the list of officers who have been tried by 

court-martial. 

(ii) Any previous entries against him in the log of the ship to which he 
may have belonged when the offence or offences for which he is 
being tried were committed, and also any documents, other than 
such entries in the log, of the nature of a definite censure by superior 
authority for a definite offence ; which log and documents the 
prosecution is to produce. 

(iii) Any certificates or other documentary evidence of character which 
the accused may produce. 

(b) In the case of a person below the rank of subordinate officer 

(i) The entries against him in the conduct book, or company conduct 
sheet in the case of a marine, prior to the date of the offence 
charged, but subsequent to his joining his present ship, 
(ii) His certificate of service. 

(iii) His conduct sheet, or the corresponding part of a company conduct 
sheet in the case of a marine, with character assessed from the 
previous 31st December to the date of the offence for which he may 
be under trial, but excluding all consideration of it. 

THE SENTENCE. 

699. Voting. The court shall then be cleared, and the members shall 
consider and determine on the punishment proper to be inflicted in conformity 
with the finding. All the members of the court, whether they have voted 
for an acquittal or not, shall vote on the question of what punishment is proper 
to be awarded for the offence of which the accused has been found guilty. 
In the event of the votes varying so considerably as not to give an actual 
majority in favour of the award of any given punishment, the president shall 
call on the members to revise their votes. 

2. Notations of conduct of Witnesses, &c. If the court should desire to 
draw attention to the conduct or manner of giving evidence of any witness, 
an entry to that effect should be made on the minutes after the sentence, 
of which latter it is not, however, to form any part, unless sentence is passed 
on such witness under Section 66 of the Naval Discipline Act. 

3. Other Representations. Except as above, all representations which the 
court may desire to make with reference to matters arising out of the court- 
martial are to be made the subject of a separate letter signed by the president 
before the court has been dissolved, and are not to form part of the recorded 
proceedings of the court. 

699a. Courts-martial are recommended 

(a) Corporal Punishment Not to include the award of corporal punish- 
ment or birching in any sentence. In the event of a court-martial 
awarding such punishment,* it is not to be carried out without the 
previous approval of the Admiralty. 

* The infliction of corporal punishment is at present suspended. 

210 



THE SENTENCE. 699a 

(b) Imprisonment. Not to award imprisonment when the offender will 

be retained in the Service, except as provided in sub-clause (c). 

(c) Detention. Not to award detention when several sentences of detention 

have previously been served without effect, nor in parts of the world 
where there are neither naval nor military detention establishments 
in which the offender can be confined. 

(d) Not to award detention when the offender will not be retained in the 

Service. 

ii. Solitary Confinement Sentences of imprisonment are not to direct 
that the prisoner shall be kept in solitary confinement. 

iii. Placing Officers at bottom of List. No officer is to be sentenced to be 
placed permanently or for a specified period at the bottom of the list of his 
rank, but this regulation is not to prevent an officer being sentenced to be 
placed at the bottom of the list, allowing him to rise from the date of the court- 
martial. 

iv. Effect of deprivation of Seniority. The sentence of a court-martial 
placing an officer at the bottom of the list of his rank will involve the loss 
of all previous time of service in that rank ; so also when the sentence of a 
court-martial may take away any seniority from an officer, it will thereby 
affect his full and half or retired pay, or pension, in cases where the same 
depend upon seniority ; and it will carry with it the loss of the benefit of the 
service included in the seniority forfeited in cases where the full, half or retired 
pay, or pension, depend upon actual service ; but although the time will be 
forfeited, it will be considered as service in reference to compulsory removal 
from the active list. 

v. Dismissal with Disgrace. Whenever an option is left by the Naval 
Discipline Act, the sentence of dismissal with disgrace from His Majesty's 
Service should, as far as possible, be reserved, in the case of officers, for the 
punishment of offences of a disgraceful nature, which render the offenders 
utterly unfit to serve His Majesty again in any naval, military, or civil service, 
or to associate with officers and gentlemen. 

Great discrimination should be exercised in awarding this sentence to 
petty and non-commissioned officers, seamen and marines, in order to prevent 
the sentence from losing its effect by being used as a punishment for offences 
which are not, according to the custom of the Service, regarded as " disgraceful." 

Dismissal and Forfeitures. A court-martial has always the power to 
sentence an offender to dismissal from His Majesty's Service, without, however, 
sentencing him to dismissal from His Majesty's Service " with disgrace " 
(except in the case of an officer convicted on a charge drawn under Section 28 
of the Naval Discipline Act of cruelty or of any scandalous or fraudulent 
conduct, in which case the offender must be dismissed with disgrace from 
His Majesty's Service). The court also has power, under Section 52 (10) of 
the Naval Discipline Act, to award the whole or any part of the forfeitures 
which, under Section 53 (6) of that Act, accompany dismissal with disgrace. 

700. Drawing up Signature and Pronouncement of Sentence. The judge- 
advocate shall draw up the sentence in the prescribed form ; it shall be signed 
by every member of the court by way of attestation, notwithstanding any 
difference of opinion there may have been among the members, and shall be 
countersigned by the judge-advocate. The court shall then be re-opened, 
and the accused brought in, and the judge-advocate shall, by direction of the 
court, pronounce the sentence. The accused shall be removed and the court 
dissolved. 

211 



700 CHAP. XVH. COURTS-MARTIAL. 

2. Report to Commander-in-chief. As soon as the court has been dissolved, 
the president is to wait upon the Commander-in-Chief or Senior Officer with 
a letter reporting the finding and the sentence of the court-martial. 

3. The Commander-in-Chief or senior officer present, before he takes any 
step to give effect to the sentence, either by issuing his certificate for the 
keeping of the accused in penal servitude or warrant for his imprisonment 
or detention, or otherwise, shall satisfy himself, by a careful examination of 
the minutes of the proceedings, that no fatal error has been committed in the 
conduct of the court-martial, calculated, in his opinion, to invalidate the finding 
of the court-martial. If he should doubt the correctness of the finding, in 
fact or in law, or the legality of the sentence, he shall suspend the execution 
of the sentence pending reference to the Admiralty. See 701a, clause viii. 
(Cases of Doubtful Legality). 

EXECUTION OF SENTENCE. 

700a. Death. When sentence of death is to be executed upon any 
criminal, notice shall be previously given from the ship by a signal, and by 
firing a gun, upon which the Captains of all ships present shall summon their 
ships' companies upon deck to witness the punishment, and shall make known 
to them the crime for which it is about to be inflicted. 

ii. Penal Servitude. If a court-martial awards a sentence of penal servitude, 
a certificate for the keeping of the prisoner in penal servitude must be issued 
either by the Admiralty, the Commander-in-Chief, or the officer ordering 
the court-martial. The senior officer present, unless in command of the station, 
or unless he ordered the court-martial, has not any authority to sign such 
certificate. When the necessary certificate has been issued the prisoner is 
to be sent to the civil prison nearest the port where he is convicted or dis- 
embarked. 

iii. Warrant for Imprisonment or Detention. The Admiralty, or the 
Commander-in-Chief, or the officer ordering the court-martial shall in every 
case issue a warrant in the prescribed form for the imprisonment or detention 
of the person sentenced. By virtue of Section 74 (2) of the Naval Discipline 
Act, such warrant may, hi cases where by reason of a ship being at sea or off 
a place at which there is no proper place of confinement, direct that the offender 
shall be sent to the lawful place of confinement named therein, and that the 
period of his sentence shall commence on his arrival there, subject to a deduction 
from his sentence of any time during which he has been kept in confinement 
in respect of the said sentence. The senior officer present, unless in command 
of the station or unless he ordered the court-martial, has not any authority 
to sign such warrant. 

. iv. Every person upon whom a sentence of penal servitude, imprisonment 
or detention has been passed shall be kept in naval custody until the certificate 
or warrant mentioned above has been issued. See 732 (Naval Custody). 

v. Change of Place of Imprisonment or Detention. Where the Commander- 
in-Chief considers it desirable that a prisoner or person under detention should 
be sent to England to complete his sentence, he shall issue his warrant for 
that purpose. In such case the warrant must be forwarded to the Admiralty 
when the offender is sent to England, in order that an attested copy of it may 
be made as the authority for the governor or other officer in charge of the 
place of confinement to which the offender is transferred to receive and 
detain him. 

vi. Discharge from Prison or Detention. Where it is desired under the 
provisions of Section 78 of the Naval Discipline Act to discharge from custody 
an offender undergoing a sentence of imprisonment or detention, or to direct 

212 



EXECUTION OF SENTENCE. 700a 

that he shall be delivered over to naval custody for the purpose of being brought 
before a court-martial, either as a witness or for trial or otherwise, a warrant 
shall be issued for that purpose This warrant can only be issued by the 
Admiralty or the Commander-in-Chief on a foreign station in the case of an 
offender undergoing a sentence of imprisonment or detention inflicted by 
court-martial, but may be issued by the Commanding Officer of the ship in the 
case of an offender sentenced by him. 

DISPOSAL OF MINUTES OF PROCEEDINGS. 

701a. Documents to accompany. The original minutes of the proceedings 
are always to be accompanied by the original documents which were taken 
into consideration of the court, or an attested copy, or extracts from them. 

ii. Mode of making up. In making up the proceedings the sheets are to 
be securely fastened together and numbered consecutively. 

iii. Order of Documents. All documents which accompany the minutes 
of proceedings of naval courts-martial (such as the warrant for holding the 
court, the charge sheet, the circumstantial letter, the accused's defence or 
statement in mitigation of punishment, the copies of the accused's certificates, 
the conduct sheet, or copy of company conduct sheet, the extract from the 
conduct book, the original shorthand writer's notes and the transcript thereof, 
&c., &c.) are, if possible, to be inserted in their proper places in the minutes, 
in sequence with the record of what has gone before, so that the whole may be 
read in the exact order in which everything took place in court. 

iv. In order to do this, it will frequently be found necessary to leave part 
of a page blank, in which case a line should be drawn transversely from left 
to right across the vacant space. 

v. Sending original Minutes to Admiralty. If the senior officer present 
should deem it expedient to send the original minutes of the proceedings 
direct to the Admiralty, the judge-advocate shall make a transcript of these 
documents and send it through the senior officer to the Commander-in-Chief ; 
but in cases where the Commander-in-Chief may be required to carry the 
sentence into execution, the original proceedings are to be sent to him in the 
first instance, for transmission to the Admiralty in due course. 

vi. If the sentence, or any portion of it, should have to be carried into 
effect in England under the authority of the Admiralty, the original minutes 
should invariably be sent in time to get there before the person under sentence. 

vii. Separate Minutes. The minutes of each particular court-martial are 
to be forwarded separately, except when more than one court may have been 
necessary for the trial of several persons for participation in one and the same 
offence. 

viii. Cases of Doubtful Legality. The Commander-in-Chief shall in every 
case point out to the Admiralty any portion of the sentence, or of the proceedings 
generally, which may appear to him of doubtful legality. See TOO, clause 3 
(Legality of Sentence}. 

ix. Commander-in-Chief's Observations. The proceedings of a court- 
martial are to be forwarded to the Admiralty in a docket sheet, filled up in the 
prescribed form, any observations which the Commander-in-Chief may wish 
to make being written in the place for " Report or Submission." 



702 CHAP. XVm. 

CHAPTER XVIII. 
COURTS OF INQUIRY AND NAVAL COURTS. 

702. Duties and Powers. The duties of a court of inquiry depend on the 
instructions which the authority ordering the court may think proper to give. 
The instructions should always be in writing. 

703. Use of Court of Inquiry. A court of inquiry may be used by any 
officer in command of a fleet or squadron, station, or division of a station, to 
enable him to arrive at a correct conclusion on any matter upon which he 
requires to be thoroughly informed, or upon which there may be a question 
whether it should form the subject of a court-martial. 

2. A court of inquiry has no power to award any punishment ; it can 
only recommend. It may, however, be invested with any power, not exceeding 
that of the convening officer, which may be necessary for the proper conducting 
of the inquiry, such as calling before it naval witnesses and requiring the 
production of official papers. It may be re-assembled as often, and with 
such alterations in its composition as may be directed. 

3. It is not a judicial body ; it has no power to compel the attendance 
of civilians as witnesses, nor to examine on oath. 

4. It may be required to examine witnesses and record their evidence, 
without being required to give any opinion ; no one before it charged with 
any offence is bound to make any statement or answer any questions. 

5. Members of a court of inquiry are not disqualified to sit on a court- 
martial upon the same subject-matter, because they have so acted, but they 
may be objected to, and the objection allowed by the court, and this contingency 
is to be considered in selecting the members. So far as may be practicable 
and consistent with a due regard to this contingency, the president and members 
should be senior to the person whose conduct is under inquiry. 

6. A court of inquiry, unless otherwise ordered, shall sit with closed doors. 

7. The person concerned in the result of the inquiry should be present 
during the whole time that witnesses are being examined, but should he object 
or refuse to be present, the proceedings are to be carried on in his absence, 
except in the case provided for in Article 776, clause 3 (/). 

8. With the exception provided for in Article 776, clause 3 (/), no person 
is to be present in the character of a prosecutor, nor is any friend or professional 
adviser to be allowed to assist any person concerned in the inquiry. 

9. Every person about to make a statement or answer' a question likely 
to incriminate himself should be cautioned by the court that what he is about 
to state may be made use of against him. All such cautions should be recorded 
in the minutes. 

10. If the inquiry should have reference to the loss or hazarding of a ship, 
the course directed by Article 690, with the exception of taking evidence on 
oath, is to be pursued. 

11. The minutes of the proceedings are to be signed by all the members, 
and forwarded by the president to the authority ordering the inquiry. In 
case of difference of opinion on any material point among the members, the 
grounds of difference are to be fully stated. 

704. Disposal of Proceedings. The proceedings are in all cases to be 
sent to the Commander-in-Chief, who, in the absence of special directions,, 
will exercise his discretion as to forwarding them to the Admiralty. 

214 



COURTS OF INQUIRY AND NAVAL COURTS. 706 

705. Caution as to use of Proceedings at Court-Martial. The proceedings 
of a court of inquiry should not be produced before a court-martial, though 
they may be used by the judge-advocate when necessary. 

NAVAL COURTS. 

706.' Instructions to Officers. Officers are to be. guided in regard to naval 
courts by the instructions relating thereto issued by the Board of Trade, and 
approved by the Foreign Office and the Admiralty. 

2. Expenses. When there is no British consul at hand the senior naval 
officer present will order the expenses of such courts to be paid by the Accountant 
Officer of a ship-of-war on a certificate signed by the president of the court 
to the effect that the persons named thereon have performed the duties 
devolving upon them respectively and are entitled to be paid in accordance 
with the Regulations. The order and certificate with the receipts attached 
are to be transmitted as vouchers to the cash account of the Accountant Officer. 



21& 

P2 



707 CHAP. XIX. DISCIPLINE. 

CHAPTER XIX. 

DISCIPLINE. 

SECTION 

I. Chaplain, Divine Service, &c. 
II. Discipline Generally 

III. Good Conduct Badges 

IV. Good Conduct Medal and Gratuity - 
V. Summary Punishments - 

VI. Deserters and Absentees - 
VII. Civil Power - 

SECTION I. CHAPLAIN, DIVINE SERVICE, &c. 

707. Sunday Work. The ship's company is not to be employed on Sundays 
in any work or duty other than that which may be strictly necessary for the 
public service. 

708. Respect to Chaplain. The Captain is to take care that the Chaplain 
is treated at all times by the officers and men with the respect due to his sacred 
office, and that he is not required to perform any executive duties in connection 
therewith, so that nothing may interfere with his being regarded as a friend 
and adviser by all on board. 

709. The Captain is to take care 

(a) Divine Service. That Divine Service is performed every Sunday 

according to the Liturgy of the Church of England, and a sermon 
preached, unless otherwise directed by the Senior Officer present, 
and if the duties of the ship and the state of the weather do not 
absolutely prevent it. The Captain and all officers and men not 
on duty are expected to attend this service, unless permission to 
be absent has been formally obtained on the ground of religious 
scruples ; 

(b) Morning Prayers. That on every week-day after morning quarters or 

divisions short prayers from the same Liturgy are read ; 

(c) When Chaplain absent. That when no Chaplain is on board, the best 

arrangements practicable are made to give effect to these instruc- 
tions as to Divine Service and Morning Prayers. 

710. Ships without Chaplains. When two or more ships are together, 
the Senior Officer is to make arrangements for the attendance at Divine Service 
on Sundays of officers and men of the Church of England belonging to ships 
or transports present which are without Chaplains ; for this purpose the whole 
of the Chaplains present will be at his disposal ; he will arrange the hours 
and the ships in which Divine Service shall be performed in such a manner 
as to bring the men together hi large congregations on board a few ships, rather 
than that more numerous separate services should be held at less convenient 
hours. 

711. Roman Catholics, Presbyterians, Wesldyans, and others who entertain 
religious scruples in regard to attending the services of the Church of England, 
are to have full liberty to absent themselves from these services. When no 
opportunity offers for them to attend their own places of worship they are 
lo be allowed to remain in their mess places or in such part of the ship as may 

216 



CHAPLAIN, DIVINE SERVICE, &c. 711 

be appointed by the Captain, who will take care that the place appointed is 
so situated as not to give the appearance of their being obliged to form part 
of the congregation. 

712. Landing for Divine Service. The Senior Officer will take care that 
whenever the opportunity occurs and the weather permits, every facility is 
given to officers and men who are not members of the Church of England, 
and who can be spared from their duties on board, to attend Divine Service 
on Sundays at their respective places of worship on shore. 

2. Whenever he ascertains or is informed by a minister of any denomination 
other than the Church of England what is the place and hour of Divine Service, 
or whenever he may learn that a particular minister has been appointed to 
attend the men of his denomination, he is to make it generally known. 

3. He will take steps to ensure proper order and decorum being observed 
by each party attending such services, that officers and petty officers sent in 
charge of boats and of each ship's party are, when practicable, of the same 
denomination as the party, and that all men return to their ships unless they 
have leave to remain ashore. Returns of the numbers so sent are to be 
forwarded to the Commander-in-Chief on form S. 157. 

4. List of members of various Denominations. A nominal list of Roman 
Catholics, Presbyterians, Wesleyans, and other denominations is to be kept 
on board every ship, and will be open at any time to the inspection of the 
respective ministers when they come on board. 

713. Visiting the Sick. The Senior Officer will also arrange for the 
attendance of Chaplains upon the sick and others requiring spiritual assistance 
in ships without Chaplains, as well as in hospitals, sick quarters, and prisons, 
where the ministrations of clergymen are not provided for, and he will endeavour 
to afford the same benefits to men of other denominations. 

714. Duties of Ministers. The following duties in regard to the men of 
their denomination will be expected from those ministers who are in receipt 
of a fixed salary : 

(a) To conduct Divine Service at the appointed time and place. 

(b) To give religious instruction to the boys in the training ships, and to 

the children in the marine schools. 

(c) To visit the sick. 

(d) To officiate at Funerals. 

(e) To visit at convenient times, as he may think desirable, those of his 

people who are in ships in harbour, naval barracks, or married 
quarters, and, at the discretion of the Commanding Officer, those 
in cells and prison. 

2. Every facility is to be given to an officiating minister to visit sick 
members of his flock in hospitals and in the sick berth on board ships. 

In the event of any such sick person being dangerously ill or of his having 
received injuries from which he may not recover, the Medical Officer is to 
inform the Commanding Officer, who will cause the minister of the denomina- 
tion to which the man may belong to be informed without delay, and will give 
him every possible facility to visit the patient. 

So far as the discipline and convenience of the Service will allow, officiating 
ministers are also to be afforded facilities for visiting their people in ships 
and barracks, and for instructing the young. 

715. General Instructions. Commanders-in-Chief, officers in command <>f 
stations, and Captains will, so far as practicable, make arrangements for 
carrying out the foregoing Regulations at the several ports used by H'^ M-j* 

217 



CHAP. XIX. DISCIPLINE.- 

:ships ; when no such arrangements have been made, or, if made, when they 
are inapplicable to the actual circumstances, the Senior Officer present is to 
make fitting and timely arrangements so that the largest possible number 
from each ship may have the benefit of Divine Service conducted by ordained 
or authorised ministers. 

716. Naval Marriages Act General Instructions. The passing of the 
Naval Marriages Act, 1908, has thrown upon naval chaplains and officers 
commanding His Majesty's ships the duty of publishing the banns of marriage 
of officers, seamen, and marines borne on the books of His Majesty's ships at 
sea, and has also thrown on Commanding Officers certain of the duties of 
registrars of marriages with regard to the receiving of notices of marriages 
which are intended to be contracted without the publication of banns and the 
duty of giving certificates to enable such marriages to take place. 

These duties must be performed strictly in accordance with the law as 
contained in various statutes, including the Naval Marriages Act, 1908. 

The instructions in Articles 716 to 719 are intended to guide them in the 
performance of these duties. 

2. The duties to be performed are, in nearly all cases, of a quite simple 
character : consisting merely of the publication of banns, or of notices of 
marriage, and the giving of certificates. Forms S. 570 to 574 inclusive are to 
te used in this connection. 

3. In this and the following Articles attention has been drawn to some 
of the complicated provisions of the statute law in order that Commanding 
Officersmay know how to act in the possible event of objections being made 
to intended marriages events which are not at ah 1 likely to occur in practice. 

4. Wales is for the purpose of marriage law part of England, and the forms 
for England are to be used when the marriage is intended to be solemnised 
or contracted in Wales. 

5. Shore Establishments and Harbour Ships. The procedure under the 
Naval Marriages Act is not to be used in the case of men serving in shore 
establishments or in ships permanently stationed in harbour. 

6. Alternative Procedure, England and Wales. A marriage after publication 
of banns, when it is to be solemnised in England or Wales, may only take place 
according to the rites of the Established Church. When the marriage is to be 
contracted by certificate of a superintendent registrar the publication of banns 
may not be resorted to, and the procedure by way of notice of marriage must 
be adopted. (See 718.) 

7. Scotland. When the marriage is to be solemnised in Scotland, it is 
immaterial whether the contracting party on board ship resorts to publication 
of banns or to notice of marriage. It is likewise immaterial in Scotland whether 
the woman resorts to proclamation of banns in the parish church or 
obtains publication of notice of marriage, pursuant to the Marriage Notice 
(Scotland) Act, 1878, either method being equaUy available, irrespective of 
that adopted on board ship by the other contracting party to the intended 
marriage. 

Such marriage may be solemnised, or celebrated, by ministers and priests 
of all churches and of all denominations without exception, or by any other 
persons entitled to celebrate marriages in Scotland, but a minister of the 
Church of Scotland is not obliged to perform the ceremony unless both parties 
have proceeded by publication of banns. 

8. Ireland. A marriage after publication of banns, when it is to be 
solemnised in Ireland, may only take place according to the rites of the Church 
of Ireland and between parties both of whom are Protestant Episcopalians, 

218 



CHAPLAIN, DIVINE SERVICE, &c. 716 

or when the marriage is to be solemnised in a certified Presbyterian place of 
public worship and between parties both of whom are Presbyterians. 

When the marriage is intended to be contracted or solemnised in Ireland 
by the licence or certificate of a district registrar of marriages, the publication 
of banns may not be resorted to and the procedure by way of notice of marriage 
must be adopted. 

717. Request for publication of Banns. The officer, seaman, or marine, 
who desires to have his banns published should be required to fill up and sign 
the form of request for publication of banns (S. 571). It should be pointed 
out to the person requesting publication that it will be necessary for the banns 
to be published also in the church of the parish where the woman resides, 
whether in England, Wales or Scotland, or else, in Scotland, that she should 
duly publish a notice of marriage pursuant to the Marriage Notice (Scotland) 
Act, 1878. In Ireland it is necessary that banns should also be published in 
the church of the parish where the woman resides and where the marriage 
is to be solemnised, or in the certified Presbyterian place of public worship 
frequented by the congregation of which the woman is a member and where 
the marriage is to be solemnised, and the applicant should be asked whether 
the woman understands and agrees that the marriage is to be after publication 
of banns and to be solemnised in the church of the parish where she resides, 
or in such Presbyterian place of worship as aforesaid, as the case may be. 

2. The Chaplain (or, if there is no Chaplain, the officer commanding the ship) 
must then proceed as follows : 

(i) Banns of Marriage Book. He must enter particulars of the banns in 

the banns of marriage book (form S. 572). 

(ii) Publication of Banns. He must publish the banns from the banns 
book on three successive Sundays at morning service on board ship. 
This should be done immediately after the second lesson in accordance 
with the Rubric prefixed to the Office of Matrimony in the Book 
of Common Prayer. 

(iii) Entry of Dates. After the third publication of the banns he must 
fill in in the banns of marriage book the dates when the banns were 
published, and must ^ign the entry in the book. 

(iv) Certificate of Publication. He must then (unless the banns have been 
forbidden) fill in a form of certificate of publication of banns which 
will be found printed in the banns of marriage book, and perforated 
so that it can be torn out, and must hand the certificate to the 
party at whose request the banns were published. 

(v) When Banns forbidden. If the banns have been forbidden on any of 
the grounds on which banns may be forbidden, no certificate should 
be given. The grounds upon which banns may be lawfully forbidden 
appear to include the following : 

(a) That either of the parties to the intended marriage has 
a husband or wife living at the time. 

(b) That the parties to the intended marriage are related 
within the prohibited degrees of consanguinity or affinity ; 

(c) That the man is under 14 years or the woman under 
12 years of age ; 

(d) That either of the parties is an idiot or a lunatic ; 

(e) If either of the parties is under 21 years of age the banns 
may be forbidden by the parent or guardian of either of them. 

718. Notices of Marriage. The officer, seaman, or marine who desires to 
give notice of marriage must do so on one of the forms S. 570-6706 : 

219 



718 CHAP. XIX. DISCIPLINE. 

(i) Form to be used. Form S. 570 is to be used when the marriage is to 
be contracted in England or Wales, form S. 570 a when it is to be 
contracted in Scotland, and form S. 570 & when it is to be contracted 
in Ireland. 

(ii) On receiving Notice. The officer should satisfy himself that the party 
giving the notice has read and understands the declarations which 
are annexed to the notice, and should see that the particulars required 
by the form used are given. He should strike out such parts of the 
form as are inapplicable (as directed by the marginal notes of the 
form). 

(iii) Divorced Persons. If the man or the woman has been previously 
married and the marriage has been dissolved by the Divorce Court, 
the condition of the party should be described as follows : 

(a) In the case of the man, he should be described in column 2 
as " the divorced husband of , formerly 

spinster " (or " widow." as the case may 
be); 

(b) In the case of the woman, she should be described in 
column 1 thus : " Ann Jones, formerly Brown, spinster " (or 
" widow "), and in column 2 as " the divorced wife of 

(iv) Consents required. It will not be necessary for the officer to satisfy 
himself that in cases where the consent to the marriage is required 
by law such consent has been given, but he should see that the 
person giving notice makes the proper declaration. The persons 
whose consents to marriage in England or Ireland are required in 
the case of a person under 21 years of age, not being a widower or 
a widow, are the following : 

(a) The father if living ; 

(b) If the father be dead, the guardian or guardians lawfully 
appointed or one of them ; 

(c) If there is no guardian or guardians, the mother if 
unmarried ; 

(d) If there is no mother unmarried, the guardian or guardians 
of the person appointed by the High Court, if any, or one of 
them ; 

(e) If there is no such person authorised to give such consent, 
no consent is required, and in that case the declarant will declare 
as in the form that there is no person whose consent is by law 
required. 

(v) Signing Notice. The form must be signed by the party giving notice 
in the presence of the officer, who must also sign it as witness. 

(vi) Information to Person giving Notice. The officer should point out to 
the person giving notice that it will be necessary for the woman 
to give notice to the Superintendent Registrar (in England or Wales), 
or the Registrar (in Scotland), or District Registrar (in Ireland) of 
the district where she dwells ; or at the option of the woman, if 
the marriage is to take place in Scotland, to have the banns pro- 
claimed in the church of the parish where she resides. 

2. Entry in Marriage Notice Book. The Commanding Officer must then 
enter a copy of the notice in the marriage notice book (form S. 574), by filling 
in the appropriate form according as the marriage is intended to be contracted 
in England, Scotland, or Ireland. 

3. Marriage Notice Book. The marriage notice book is to be open at all 
reasonable times, without fee, to all persons desirous of inspecting the same, 

220 



CHAPLAIN, DIVINE SERVICE, &c. 718 

The book should be kept by the Commanding Officer, and application should 
be made to him by any person desirous of inspecting it. 

4. Filing Notice. The Commanding Officer must file the original notice 
and keep the same with his official papers, and it will be returned to the 
Admiralty with them in due course. 

5. Form of Public Notice. The Commanding Officer must, on the same 
day on which he enters the notice, affix a public notice of the marriage in some 
conspicuous place in the ship : 

(i) If the marriage is intended to be celebrated in England or Ireland, 
the public notice should be an exact copy of the original notice (for 
which purpose one of the printed forms S. 570-5706, may be used) ; 

(ii) If the marriage is to be in Scotland, public notice must be given on 
form S. 570 c. 

6. Irish Marriage. If the marriage is to take place in Ireland, the Com- 
manding Officer must also, as soon as practicable after receiving the notice,, 
do as follows : 

(a) If the marriage is to take place in a church, chapel, or place of worship 

(and the parties are not Quakers or Jews), he must send, in a registered 
letter, a copy of the notice authenticated by his signature (for which 
purpose form S. 570& may be used) to the minister of the church, 
chapel, or place of public worship stated in the notice as that in 
which the marriage is intended to be solemnised, and a similar notice 
to the minister of the church or place of public worship which the 
woman usually attends ; 

(b) If the marriage is to be according to Jewish rites or in a meeting-house 

of the Society of Friends, he must send a copy of the notice by regis- 
tered post to the registry office of the Society of Friends or Secretary 
of a Synagogue by whom the marriage is to be registered ; 

(c) If the marriage is intended to be contracted in the office of the Registrar, 

and there is not any minister of the church, chapel, or place of worship 
which the woman usually attends, and the parties are not Jews or 
Quakers, the Commanding Officer must, at the expense of the party 
who gave the notice, cause a copy of ithe notice to be published once 
at least in two consecutive weeks, as soon as practicable after he has 
received the notice, in some newspaper circulating in the district in 
which the marriage is intended, or, if there is not any newspaper 
circulating in such district, in some newspaper circulating in the 
county in which the district is situate. 

7. Period for which exhibited. The public notice must remain affixed for 
21 days in the case of a marriage intended to take place in England or Ireland, 
and for seven days in the case of a marriage intended to take place in Scotland. 

8. Objections^ At any time before the issue of a certificate the issue of 
the certificate may be " forbidden " or " objected to " : 

(a) English and Irish Marriages. In the case of an English or Irish marriage 

any authorised person may forbid the issue of a certificate by writing, 
the word " Forbidden " opposite the entry of notice of marriage in 
the marriage notice book, and signing his or her name and place of 
abode, and his or her character in respect of either of the parties 
by reason of which he or she is so authorised. 

(b) Scotch Marriage. In the case of a marriage which is intended to take 

place in Scotland, objections can only be made in writing signed 
by the person taking the objection. The person taking the objection 
must appear personally to lodge it with the officer, and must in his 
presence make and subscribe a declaration in the following form, 

221 



718 CHAP. XIX. DISCIPLINE. 

which the officer must endorse on the written statement of objec- 
tions : 

" I hereby solemnly declare that the facts as stated by me 
in the written statement of objections to the marriage intended 
between and 

on which this declaration is endorsed are true to the best of my 
knowledge and belief, and I make this declaration knowing that 
if the declaration is false I expose myself to the penalties of 
perjury. 

" (Signed) OBJECTOR." 

" I certify that this declaration was made before me and subscribed in my 
presence this day of , in my 

office. 



" Commanding Officer of H.M.S. ' .' ' 

9. Objections How dealt with. The officer must deal with the objections 
in the following way : 

(a) If the objections do not set forth a legal impediment to marriage, but 

relate to some formality or statutory requirement merely, the officer 
may direct the notice to be amended and a certificate granted thereon 
without republication of the notice if he shall see fit, or to be cancelled 
if he shall see fit, in which case a fresh notice of marriage may be 
given. 

(b) If the objection is that the persons intending to contract marriage are 

within the forbidden degrees of consanguinity or affinity, or are both 
or either of them already married, or are both or either of them not 
of marriageable age, or are from any other legal incapacity disqualified 
to give such consent as is necessary for marriage, and generally where 
the objection sets forth any legal impediment to a marriage, the 
officer must suspend the issuing of his certificate until there is 
produced to him a certified copy of a judgment of a competent court 
of law to the effect that the parties are not in respect of the said 
objection disqualified from contracting marriage. 

10. Issue of Certificate. If the issue of the certificate has not been forbidden 
or objected to, the Commanding Officer must after the expiration of the period 
of 21 days (English or Irish marriage), or seven days (Scotch marriage), issue a 
certificate in one of the forms prescribed by the Admiralty (forms Nos. S. 573- 
5736), using the appropriate one according as the marriage is to be in England, 
Scotland, or Ireland. He will fill up and sign this certificate and hand it to 
the person who gave the notice of marriage. 

719. Penalties. The various enactments and the Order in Council impose 
penalties for offences under the Acts. It is not necessary to call attention 
to these in detail. It is sufficient to point out that .the Commanding Officer 
must be careful to carry out his duties punctiliously, and he should warn 
officers, seamen, and marines giving notice of marriage that they are liable 
to the penalties of perjury if they wilfully make any false declarations or sign 
any false notice of marriage. 

SECTION II. DISCIPLINE GENERALLY. 

720. Captain General Instructions. The Captain will at all times and in 
all circumstances show an example of respect and obedience to his superiors, 
of unremitting attention to his duty and of cheerful alacrity in performing it. 
He will see that all the officers obey the several instructions which are addressed 

222 



GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS. 720 

to them, or which, when of a general purport, concern them. He will correct 
or report to his superiors any reprehensible conduct on the part of those under 
his command. He will notice their conduct and abilities in order that he 
may be enabled to give them the testimonials they deserve, or, if called on, 
to make correct reports of their merits. While upholding the legitimate 
authority of all the officers under his command, he will check by timely reproofs 
any tendency he may notice to abuse of power, recommending by his example 
that firm but conciliatory manner of conducting duty, which is the surest 
way to gain the respect and confidence of the men. 

721. Salutes to Superiors, Army or Navy. Every officer and man on 
meeting, passing, or addressing his superior officers, knowing them to be such, 
is to pay them the accustomed marks of respect, whether they are attached 
to the same ship or not, and whether afloat or on shore ; and officers and 
men of the Royal Navy are to pay the customary mark of respect to such 
officers of the army, when in uniform, as are entitled to be saluted by officers 
and men of corresponding rank in their own Service. 

722. Arrest. If an officer should disobey orders or otherwise misbehave 
he may be placed in arrest, and a report of the particulars of the offence shall 
be transmitted by the Captain to his superior authority as soon as possible. 
But if the Captain should be induced from any circumstances to release him 
from arrest, and to withdraw or allow to be withdrawn the charge against him, 
such officer is to return to his duty without prejudice to the future investigation 
of any complaint which he on his part may make relative to such arrest. 

If the Captain or other superior officer should consider the cause for placing 
an officer in arrest to be of such a nature as to necessitate its being brought 
before a court-martial, but circumstances of the Service should render it 
necessary that the officer in arrest should be released without the withdrawal 
of the charge against him, he may so release him, and the officer shall return 
to his duty accordingly, without prejudice to lu's future trial or to the inquiry 
into the charge on which he was placed in arrest. 

2. Unnecessary Restraint. When an officer or man is placed in arrest, the 
Captain is to take care that no more restraint is put upon his personal liberty 
than the discipline of the Service requires and the nature of his offence may 
render expedient. Arrest is not a punishment but is a means adopted to ensure 
the safe custody of an offender until he can be adequately dealt with. See 173 
(Authority of Commanding Officer), and 732 (Naval Custody). 

3. Offenders sent to Hospital. Persons waiting trial for a serious offence, 
by court-martial or otherwise, and offenders waiting transfer to prison, &c., 
are not to be sent to hospital without the sanction of the Senior Officer. 

When so sent, the Principal Medical Officer of the hospital is to be informed 
that they are to be considered as under arrest. Such officers or men are not 
to be brought forward for survey without the special directions of the Com- 
mander-in-Chief at home or of the Senior Officer present abroad. 

4. When a survey is held under such directions the result is to be specially 
reported to the authority ordering the survey, who will, subject to the provisions 
of clauses 5 and 6, decide as to the disposal of the person concerned. 

5. The Senior Officer shall in no case, in consequence of the report of the 
surveying officers, authorise any step which will result in an accused person 
escaping trial unless the surveying officers shall certify that the accused's 
mental condition at the date of the alleged offence was such that he was not 
responsible for his actions, or that the accused's physical or mental condition 
is such that even the fact of being tried, apart from any sentence that might 
be awarded, would be likely permanently to impair his health. 

223 



722 CHAP. XIX. DISCIPLINE. 

6. The Senior Officer shall in no case, in consequence of the report of the 
surveying officers, authorise any step which will result in a person under 
sentence of imprisonment or detention escaping the residue of his sentence, 
unless the surveying officers shall certify that the offender is medically unfit 
to undergo even a modified prison or detention routine, as the case may be. 
If such medical certificate is furnished the offender may be invalided from the 
Service, but care is to be taken that the award is duly entered in his certificate 
and elsewhere as may be necessary. The medical certificate is then to be 
forwarded to the Admiralty in order that the residue of the sentence may be 
formally remitted. 

723. Men placed in the Report. The leave of petty officers and men is 
not to be stopped when they are placed in the report, unless they are placed 
there for any of the offences named in Article 768, clause 2 (a) to (*') inclusive. 

724. Logging Offences. If the Captain should consider an offence com- 
mitted by an officer to be of such a nature as to necessitate its being recorded 
with a view to future reference under the provisions of Article 698, sub-clause 
(a) (ii), he is to cause the facts to be entered in the log, and the statement 
which is logged is to be read by the officer, who is to sign his name to it as 
evidence of his knowledge of the entry. 

725. Misconduct of Officers. Officers who have been guilty of misconduct 
or neglect of duty, or have unfitted themselves for active service by irregular 
and imprudent conduct, will be dealt with under the powers of the Admiralty 
defined in Appendix XI. 

726. Duelling being forbidden by the Regulations, every officer of the 
Fleet who becomes aware of the intention of other officers to fight a duel, 
or has reason to believe that such is likely to occur from circumstances that 
have come within his observation or knowledge, is hereby ordered to take 
every measure within his power to prevent such duel, having recourse, if 
necessary, to his Captain. 

2. Every officer of the Fleet is hereby ordered, in no manner or degree to 
evince dissatisfaction with or to upbraid another officer for refusing, or not 
sending, a challenge ; and all officers are enjoined neither to reject nor advise 
the rejection of a reasonable proposition for the honourable adjustment of 
differences that may have occurred. 

3. Any officer of the Fleet who may be called upon to act as second or 
friend to an officer intending to fight a duel, is to consider it to be his imperative 
duty, and he is hereby ordered, strenuously to exert himself to effect an adjust- 
ment between the adverse parties on terms consistent with the honour of each, 
and should he fail, owing to the determination of the offended parties not to 
accept honourable terms of accommodation, he must be guided by the first 
clause of this Article. 

4. As obedience to orders is the essential and governing principle of the 
Naval Service, those officers may rest assured of the support and approbation 
of the Admiralty, who, having had the misfortune of giving offence to or 
having injured or insulted others, shall frankly explain, apologise, or offer 
redress for the same ; or who, having received offence, injury, or insult from 
another shall cordially accept frank explanation, apology, or redress for the 
same ; or who, if such explanation, apology, or redress is refused to be made 
or accepted shall submit the matter to be dealt with by the Captain or senior 
officer present ; and every officer who shall act as herein directed and conse- 
quently refuse to accept a challenge, will be deemed to have acted honourably 

224 



(iKNERAL INSTRUCTIONS. 726 

and to have evinced a requisite obedience not only to this order but also to 
the pleasure of the King. 

727. Sleeping out of Ship. If the Captain should sleep out of the ship, 
the Executive Officer is not to be absent from the ship on the same night unless 
by special permission of the senior officer present. No officer is to remain 
out of his ship for the night without the previous sanction of the Captain 
or of the Commanding Officer. 

728. Privileges of Petty Officers. All petty officers, leading seamen, and 
non-commissioned officers of marines are to be granted every reasonable 
indulgence. They are to be made to feel that confidence is reposed in them, 
and are to be treated with the consideration which is due to the positions of 
trust which they hold. 

2. The prefix " Chief Petty Officer " or " Petty Officer," or the corre- 
sponding prefix in the case of the non-seaman classes, is to be used by all 
ranks when addressing, or speaking of, men holding those ratings. 

3. On all occasions of men falling in, the petty officers are to be kept separate 
from the lower ratings, and when classes of instruction are formed the petty 
officers are to be classed up by themselves. 

4. Chief petty officers and petty officers are to be shown on the ship's ledger 
distinct from lower ratings. The separation is to be made by classes (Seaman, 
Stoker, &c.}, and the petty officers are to be shown on separate subdivisions 
of their present lists. 

5. Petty and non-commissioned officers are not to be mustered in and out 
of the ship unless for some special reason, nor are they to undergo personal 
search by the police unless the Executive Officer or the Captain, for a special 
reason in any particular case, shall order otherwise. 

Separate lines are to be appropriated for hanging their clothes and hammocks, 
and their hammocks are to be stowed together in a part of the netting reserved 
for them. 

Chief petty officers, petty officers, leading ratings, and non-commissioned 
officers, Royal Marines, dressed in the established uniform are allowed to pass 
dockyard and victualling yard gates, and may also pass out parties of men. 

0. It is the duty of petty officers to preserve order and regularity wherever 
the crew or any portion of them may be employed, and this responsibility 
rests upon them whenever they are with the men, whether on duty or otherwise. 

729. Articles of War. The printed sheets containing so much of the 
Naval Discipline Act as relates to the punishment of offences, viz., the Articles 
of War, are to be displayed in an accessible part of the ship, for the information 
of the ship's company, to whom this portion of the Act is to be read quarterly, 
together with the last return of courts-martial received from the Admiralty. 

730. Naval Ratings in Military Detention Barracks. In the event of a 
naval rating who is undergoing sentence in a military detention barrack com- 
mitting an offence too serious to be dealt with under the rules for military 
detention barracks, the matter will be reported to the Commanding Officer 
of the ship on whose books the man is borne, in order that he may be dealt 
with under the Naval Discipline Act. Members of the staff of military detention 
barracks arc not the superior officers of naval ratings, and charges of in- 
subordination should in such cases be drawn under Section 43 of the Naval 
Discipline Act. 

2. In deciding how to deal with the case, the Commanding Officer will 
bear in mind that before the accused can be tried he must be removed from 
the detention barrack. (See Section 78, Naval Discipline Act, as to effect of such 

225 



730 CHAP. XIX. DISCIPLINE. 

removal, and Section 73, Naval Discipline Act, as to effect of any sentence passed 
by court-martial on a man serving a court-martial sentence.) 

3. An escort should be sent to remove the accused from the detention 
barrack, and, if his original sentence has not expired, should be furnished 
with an order in writing, under Section 78 of the Naval Discipline Act, 
directing 

(a) If the offender is to be dealt with summarily, that he be discharged ; 

(b) If the offender is to be tried by court-martial, that he be delivered 

over to naval custody for trial. 

731. Discharge from Prison or Detention. If a prisoner or person under 
detention should be discharged under the provisions of Section 78 of the Naval 
Discipline Act, such discharge shall be held to remit all that portion of his 
sentence that may be unexpired at the date of such discharge, except in the 
case of his discharge to naval custody for the purposes specified in the latter 
part of the said section. This power should, however, be used with great 
discretion, and should not be exercised except where the services of offenders 
are required in emergency, or when the ship to which they belong is on the 
point of sailing from the port, and even in this latter case an offender should 
not be discharged when it is likely that at the end of his sentence there will 
be a ship present in which he can be received, and from which there would 
be a probability of his rejoining his proper ship within a reasonable time. 
Neither should this power be exercised when the length of an offender's sentence 
renders it possible to transfer him, either in his own or some other ship, to a 
place of confinement in England to complete sentence, or to some other place 
of confinement abroad, from which there would be greater facilities for sending 
him back to his own ship at the expiration of his sentence. Such cases should 
be dealt with under Section 75 of the Naval Discipline Act, and in each case 
of transfer a Transfer Form (S. 550) is to accompany the offender. 

2. When abroad, if an offender should be discharged to a ship from prison, 
or from a detention establishment, before the expiration of the term of his 
sentence, a note is to be made in the " Remarks " column of the ledger, stating 
under which section of the Naval Discipline Act he has been received on board, 
i.e., whether as an offender on passage for transfer to another place of confine- 
ment under Section 75 of the Act, or, as specified in the first paragraph of 
clause 1 of this Article, under Section 78. 

732. Naval Custody. The Captain is responsible for the safe-keeping of 
every person, offender, or prisoner, on board, who is placed in naval custody. 

Such custody may be open or close, according to the circumstances of 
each case and at the discretion of the Captain, it being clearly understood that 
open custody only involves such restraint as may be necessary for safe-keeping, 
whereas close custody involves deprivation of all liberty, continuous super- 
vision, and is equivalent to confinement in the sense in which it is used in 
Article 768, clause 4. 

2. Prisoners, &c., on Passage. Persons under sentence of imprisonment 
or detention while on passage in His Majesty's ships are not to be called upon 
to do duty except in cases of emergency. They may be dealt with as prisoners 
at large, that is, kept in open custody, when the circumstances will permit, 
but they are to be subject to restraint or confinement whenever their safe 
custody or any misconduct on their part may render it necessary. (See 756, 
sub-clause (d), (Confinement for noise or violence). 

733. Visits and Letters of Offenders under Sentence. Offenders who may 
be in naval custody while undergoing a sentence of penal servitude, imprison- 
ment, or detention, are, so far as possible, to be subjected to the following 

226 



GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS. 733 

rules based on those laid down for naval prisons and naval detention quarters. 
(aft They are not to be allowed to communicate by letter with any person 
nor to receive any letter or visit without permission from the 
Admiralty, or the Commander-in-Chief on a foreign station. 

(b) Any letters written by or to them with such permission are first to be 

read by the Captain of the ship. Other letters addressed to them 
should be forwarded to the Governor or other officer in charge of 
the establishment to which they are committed for delivery to them 
on discharge. 

(c) Any visit allowed to them must take place in the presence of an officer 

or the Master-at-Arms. 

(d) Prisoners and persons under detention who are transferred in naval 

custody from one place of confinement to another may be allowed 

any privileges as regards visits or letters earned by them under the 

regulations of the establishment from which they have been removed. 

2. Such measures are to be taken in His Majesty's ships to enforce these 

rules as circumstances will permit, and no departure from them should be 

allowed unless in exceptional cases when the Captain is to act according to his 

discretion, reporting the fact and the special reasons which influenced him to 

the Commander-in-Chief. 

734. Private Firearms. No person below the rank of officer is to carry 
private firearms, or to keep such arms in his personal care on board His Majesty's 
ship, or in any naval establishment. 

The Commanding Officer may grant permission for any man below the 
rank of officer to possess private firearms for use in competitions, but such 
weapons are to be kept in a place of safety, and only temporarily issued under 
proper safeguards. 

735. Trafficking. No sort of beer, wine or spirituous liquor is to be sold 
on board by any person, nor is any person belonging to the ship to sell articles 
of any other description to the ship's company, without the written sanction 
of the Captain ; and all loan, transfer, gift, or barter of spirit or intoxicating 
drink is prohibited on board. 

Men are not to be allowed to sell, exchange, nor in any manner to dispose 
of their clothes or bedding without the permission of the officer of their division. 

2. Men may be permitted to sell a portion of their clothes during the last 
month of their active service engagements only, but in any case they must 
retain one duck suit and the articles comprising the regulation kit required 
by men enrolling in the Royal Fleet Reserve. 

736. Smuggling Spirits on Board, &c. By Act of Parliament, 16 & 17 
Viet. cap. 69, any person who shall, without the previous consent of the 
Commanding Officer, bring on board any ship any spirituous or fermented 
liquor, or shall approach or hover about such ship for the purpose of bringing 
on board, giving or selling spirituous or fermented liquors without the previous 
sanction of the Commanding Officer, or shall approach or hover about any 
such ship for the purpose of aiding any officer, seaman, or marine in His 
Majesty's Service to desert or improperly absent himself from his ship, is liable 
to a penalty not exceeding 10/., and any officer, petty officer, or non-com- 
missioned officer, with or without a warrant may, under the 12th Section of 
the Act, apprehend any offender or person so acting, and may take him or 
cause him to be taken before a Justice to be summarily dealt with, care being 
taken to follow strictly the provisions of the statutes. 

227 



736 CHAP. XIX.DISCIPLINE.- 

2. Assisting, &c., Deserters. Persons not otherwise subject to the Naval 
Discipline Act are also punishable under Sections 25 and 26 of that Aet for 
assisting or persuading men to desert or improperly absent themselves. 

737. Women on Board or on Passage. Neither the 'wife of any officer nor 
of any man, nor any other woman is to be allowed to reside on board nor to 
take passage in a ship except with the express permission of the Admiralty, 
or, abroad, when time and circumstances do not admit of a reference home,, 
by the permission of the Commander-in-Chief. 

2. This authority may only be exercised by a Commander-in-Chief abroad 
when the ship is about to make a direct passage from one port to another 
and back, but on no account is it to be exercised when ships are cruising for 
practice or for evolutionary purposes, and every case is to be specially reported 
to the Admiralty. 

3. Whenever a Senior Officer, on the formal requisition of an ambassador, 
minister, charge d'affaires, or consul, or of the Governor or Lieutenant-Governor 
of a colony, may receive or order to be received any woman for passage, he will 
report the circumstance to his Commander-in-Chief for the information of 
the Admiralty. 

The Captain will include in his quarterly return of passengers the name 
and particulars of every woman embarked for passage as provided for by 
form S. 176. 

738. Landing Rations, &c. Provisions or stores are not to be issued on 
shore or taken out of the ship for any other purpose than for victualling portions 
of the crew when absent on duty or on other public service, and are not to be 
considered as having become private property, except as provided in Article 
1687. 

2. Whenever it may be necessary for officers or others to take their provisions 
on shore when proceeding on duty, the Captain will furnish a pass showing 
the names of the persons in whose favour it is issued, and the exact quantity 
of provisions allowed for their consumption. 

3. When provisions or clothing are sent out of the ship, they must invariably 
be accompanied by written passes (form S. 263), signed by the Accountant 
Officer or Assistant Paymaster, and approved by the Commanding Officer, 
showing the quantities and the date. 

4. Passes will be valid for the quantities and date for which issued, and 
must be produced when required for the information of any police officer or 
constable or any person acting under the Customs or Revenue Laws. 

739. Passengers, Offences by. The following Regulations are to be 
observed with reference to the 89th Section of the Naval Discipline Act : 

(a) Any person, although not belonging to His Majesty's naval or military 
services, who, while on board one of His Majesty's ships as a passenger, 
shall commit any offence against the good order and discipline of 
the Navy, may be placed under such restraint, by the officer in 
command of the ship in which he has embarked, as the offence or 
offences committed by him may appear to justify or render necessary, 
and the officer who has occasion to place any such passenger in arrest 
shall take the earliest opportunity that presents itself of reporting 
the circumstances to the first Senior Officer he may fall in with, in 
order that it may be determined, after due investigation, whether 
the alleged offender shall be released from arrest, or continue in 
arrest until the termination of the voyage for which he is embarked, 
or whether he shall be transferred to some other ship ; but passengers 
who shall be guilty of the offences specified in the 6th and 13th 

228 : 



* 

GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS. 739 

Sections of the Naval Discipline Act shall be tried by naval court- 
martial, and punished according to the provisions of the said Act. 
(b) If any passenger while on board one of His Majesty's ships shall commit 
any criminal offence, punishable by the laws of the United Kingdom, 
he may also be kept under such restraint as is necessary until an 
opportunity shall offer of delivering him over to a civil tribunal 
competent to try him for the same. 

Officers, petty officers, seamen, marines, and boys, who, upon being invalided 
or discharged, may be ordered or permitted to take passage in any of His 
Majesty's ships, and persons sentenced under the Naval Discipline Act, so 
long as they are borne on the books of the ship in which they are embarked as 
passengers, shall be deemed to be persons in and belonging to His Majesty's 
Navy, and shall be subject in every respect, according to their several ranks 
and ratings, to the Naval Discipline Act in force in so far as that Act relates 
to the trial and punishment of offenders. 

SECTION III. GOOD CONDUCT BADGES. 

740. Number and Date of Award. Badges for good conduct not exceeding 
three in number are to be conferred on men entitled by their ratings to hold 
them. 

All men granted badges are entitled to the good conduct pay attached to 
them except in the 'case of honorary badge ratings. 

Badges are to be granted when they become due, whether the man applies 
for the award or not. 

For the details of badge ratings, see Appendix XV., Part I. (index and 
column 3). 

741. Qualifying Service. The following periods of service will be required 
to qualify for the award of a badge : 

For one badge - - 3 years. 

For two badges - - 8 ,, 

For three badges - - 13 ,, . 

2. The whole of a man's service in the Royal Navy may be counted as 
qualifying service, with the following exceptions : 

(a) Time served in the rating of Boy of any class or before attaining the 

age of 18 years. 

(b) Time in the second class for conduct. 

<c) Time for which the character of " Indifferent " has been awarded. 

(d) Time prior to desertion unless the R. or R.Q. is removed. 

(e) Time prior to absence from the Service for five years or more, except 

as provided by Article 368 in the case of men invalided. 
(/) Time for which pay is not allowed ; for example, time lost through 
imprisonment, detention, cells, or civil custody, on account of D.S.Q., 
or during which a man has been out of the Service for any cause. 

3. Two years' " Very Good " Conduct. During the two years of actual 
service in receipt of wages immediately preceding the award of a badge, a 
man's conduct, in the opinion of his Captain, must have been uninterruptedly 
" Very Good " ; he must have conducted himself with sobriety, activity, and 
attention, and have been in the first class for conduct. Conviction by the 
civil power, or an order under the Probation of Offenders Act, may be regarded 
as breaking the continuity of this " Very Good " conduct if this is recommended 
by the Captain and approved by the Commander-in-Chief or other Flag Officer 
whose flag is flying to whom reference can most coimnimtly be made. See 
1187, clause 5 (Royal Marines). 

229 

Q 



741 CHAP. XIX. DISCIPLINE. 

A second or third badge is not to be awarded unless during the same period 
as above the man's conduct has been uninterruptedly " Very Good," and the 
preceding badge has been in his possession continuously ; except in the cases 
of awards made on account of service in non-badge ratings allowed to count 
under Article 742, or on the removal of R. or R.Q. under Article 744 ; in these 
cases two or more badges may be awarded together or at less intervals than 
two years. 

4. Method of Reckoning. The period of two years of " Very Good " time 
required by clause 3 is to be reckoned without reference to " V.G." or other 
assessed character on the service certificate, except " Indifferent. " For example, 
the latter part of a year for which " Good " or " Fair " is awarded may be 
counted ; but although a man may have been given " V.G." character for 
two years, it is within the discretion of the Captain to disallow any part of 
this time served under his command, a higher standard of conduct being 
required for good conduct badges than for the " V.G." character. 

5. In the case of a man who joins from another ship, " Very Good " time 
for badge purposes is to be reckoned from the date entered on his conduct 
sheet. 

NOTE. In reckoning service towards badges, care should be taken that the same 
period of time forfeited is not deducted more than once ; for example, under " Cells" 
and 2nd class for conduct or 2nd class for conduct and " Indifferent " character. 

742. Time in Non-badge Ratings. Subject to the foregoing conditions, 
time served in other than badge ratings is to count towards badges when men 
attain badge ratings, provided that their character has been " Very Good "- 

(a) For the last two years, if claiming one badge. 

(b) For the last four years, if claiming two badges. 

(c) For the last six years, if claiming three badges. 

743. Men Rejoining within Five Years. Men within five years of their 
discharge who rejoin the Navy in badge ratings or in non-badge ratings are 
to resume the good conduct badges and the position, in regard to further 
badges, which they held when they quitted the Service. But those re-entering 
in non-badge ratings are not entitled to further badges until they attain badge 
ratings. 

744. Deserters and Others. Recovered deserters, unless the R. or R.O. 

is removed, men who rejoin after an absence of five years, and men allowed 
to re-enter after dismissal as warrant officers, are to be considered in respect 
of badges as fresh entries from the date of their return to the Service. See 368 
(Re-entry after Invaliding] . 

On removal of R. or R.Q. In the case of a recovered deserter, on the 
R. or R.Q. being removed, the number of badges previously worn, and any 
further badges for which the man may be eligible according to his total service, 
may be granted from the date of the order for the removal as though the 
notation had never stood against his name. 

745. Pensioners, when allowed to serve, are to resume their badges and 
position, on rejoining within five years, provided they do not receive their 
pensions. When allowed to receive their pensions they may wear the badges 
they had earned, but they will not receive the pay for them. 

746. Pensioners, when called out, may wear the same number of badges 
and receive the same good conduct pay as when pensioned, without reference 
to the time that may have elapsed since they last served. 

2. Should any such pensioner not have been in possession of three good 
conduct badges when pensioned, his previous service towards a further badge, 

230 



GOOD CONDUCT BADGES. 746 

as well as his service as pensioner, including any service under Article 745, 
will be allowed to reckon towards further badges, in accordance with the 
foregoing Articles. 

3. Payment for badges awarded after being pensioned depends on whether 
the rating held by the Pensioner is one that entitles the holder to be paid good 
conduct pay. 

747. Marines entering as Seamen. Men who have served in the Marines 

and who enter the Navy in badge ratings, or in non-badge ratings, within five 
years of their discharge from the Marines, are to resume the badges which 
they held on discharge, provided that the maximum number of badges resumed 
does not exceed three. Such men as are not entitled to that number are to 
count their marine time towards the restoration of forfeited badges, and towards 
fresh naval badges, as though it had been naval time ; but those entering in 
non-badge ratings are not entitled to further badges until they attain badge 
ratings. 

748. Army Service. Men, whether Army pensioners or not, who join the 
Navy within five years of their discharge from the Army, and acknowledge 
their former service, will be allowed to reckon towards the acquisition of naval 
badges any " Very Good " time, not exceeding four years, which may have 
been served in the Army, provided that such service was continuous and 
immediately preceded their discharge. 

2. Men invalided from the Army who are allowed to enter the Navy may 
reckon their army service without limitation as to its length or as to the break 
between the two services. 

749. Time in Colonial or Merchant Vessels. A man who has served in 
British or colonial government or merchant vessels, before entering the Royal 
Navy, will be allowed to count any such time towards badges up to but not 
exceeding two years, provided that 

(a) His conduct from first entry in the Navy, to the date of receiving his 

first badge, has been " Very Good " ; 

(b) The said British or colonial ships have been duly registered ; 

(c) Had the service been rendered in the Royal Navy in a similar capacity, 

it could be so counted. 

2. Service rendered in such government or merchant vessels before the 
man attained the age of 18 will not be counted towards badges, and should 
he have been awarded a character inferior to " V.G." during his service the 
time prior to such award will not be reckoned. 

3. A man shall not receive his first badge until a detailed statement on 
form S. 1329 of the service claimed by him has been sent to the Accountant- 
General of the Navy, and verified in office. 

4. If, owing to misconduct in the Royal Navy, a man shall have obtained 
no advantage from his non-naval service in regard to the date of the award 
of his first badge, he will not be allowed to derive any subsequent benefit 
from such service. 

5. Time served in British or colonial merchant vessels after discharge from 
the Navy is not to count on re-entry into the Navy. 

6. Time served in foreign vessels isnot to count towards badges. 

SECTION IV. GOOD CONDUCT MEDAL AND GRATUITY. 

750. Men entered before 1885. Men holding any of the ratings specified 
as eligible for these awards in Appendix XV., Part I., who entered the Service 

231 

Qi 



750 CHAP. XIX. DISCIPLINE. 

prior to 1st January 1885, and to whom they are still applicable, may be 
recommended for the good conduct medal and gratuity under the following 
special rules. Pensioners coming under these conditions who return to the 
Service within five years of their being pensioned, may be recommended for 
the medal, but not for the gratuity. 

2. Conditions for Medal. To entitle a man to a medal 

(a) He must have served for 10 years with continuous " Very Good " 

character, and must never previously have been awarded a 
character below " Very Good," unless for a period not exceeding 
one year in his first five years reckoning for pension ; 

(b) He must have been recommended for it on his service certificate 

for the three consecutive years immediately preceding his applica- 
tion ; 

(c) He must be recommended for it by the Captain under whom he is 

serving when he becomes eligible. 

3. Recommendations for Award. After a man has been awarded seven 
years of such continuous " Very Good " character as will under these Regula- 
tions count towards the medal, and should his character continue to be " Very 
Good," the Captain will add to the character of " Very Good " given on his 
service certificate, whenever he is required to record it, the letters R.M. 
(Recommended for medal), if he should consider him deserving thereof from 
his invariable " Very Good " conduct and exemplary manner of performing 
his duties. After 12 years of such " Very Good " character, the Captain will 
in like manner add the letters G.R. (Gratuity recommended). 

4. Ineligibility. Desertion, reduction to the second class for conduct, 
imprisonment, detention, or the award of character less than " Good " during 
any portion of the time which reckons for pension, shall render a man absolutely 
ineligible for medal or gratuity, except as provided for in clauses 5 and 6 of 
this Article, and clause 4 of Article 751. 

5. Exceptional Cases. In order not entirely to exclude from the honour 
3>f a medal a man who may have committed himself in the early years of his 
service reckoning for pension, but who may have since become a " Very Good " 
character, the Admiralty will consider, with reference to the grant of a medal 
without gratuity, the case of any man who can show 15 years of continuous 
v Very Good " character, and who has been recommended as prescribed in 
clause 2, sub-clause (b), of this Article, notwithstanding any tiling he may have 
done or any character which may have been awarded to him, except " Bad " 
or " Indifferent," in his previous service. 

6. Exemplary Conduct in Action. The Admiralty will also consider the 
case of any man who would be excluded under the foregoing regulations, but 
who may be specially recommended on account of his having shown highly 
exemplary conduct in action or otherwise ; in such cases, however, a gratuity 
will not be awarded. 

7. Continuance of Service. It must be distinctly understood that medals 
are only granted, on the condition that the recipients continue to serve for 
Ipng-service pension, unless invalided ; and that, in the event of a man who 
feas been granted a medal declining to go on serving to complete such time, 
he shall surrender the medal on his discharge, unless he has completed 15 years 
of service reckoning for pension, in which case he may retain it. 

8. Conditions for Gratuity. To entitle a man to a gratuity 

(a) He must have served for 15 years with continuous " Very Good " 
character, and must never previously have been awarded a 
character below " Very Good," unless for a period not exceeding 
one year in his first five years reckoning for pension ; 

232 



GOOD CONDUCT MEDAL AND GRATUITY. 750 

(b) He must have been awarded the medal and have never forfeited it ; 

(c) He must have been recommended for the gratuity on his service 

certificate for the three consecutive years immediately preceding 
his application ; 

(d) He must have been continuously awarded the character " Very 

Good " since he received the medal ; 

(e) He must have completed time for long service pension unless pre* 

viously invalided, and must be recommended for the gratuity by 
the Captain under whom he is serving at the time of application. 

9. The Scale for Gratuities shall be as follows : 

Chief petty officers having served as chief and first class s. d. 
petty officer (O.S.), or petty officer (N.S.), for not 
less than 10 years - 20 

Petty officers (N.S.), having served as such, or as first 

class petty officers (O.S.), for not less than 10 years 15 

Second class petty officers (O.S.), with 7 years' service 
as such, or men of leading seaman rank with over 
3 years' service as such, and 7 years'* subsequent 
service in that capacity - 10 

Leading seamen, having served as such for not less than 
5 years - 700 

Able seamen and others - 500 

10. Lower Rates, when payable. In cases where the man recommended 
may not have served the full period to entitle him to the gratuity applicable 
to his rating, he shall receive such lower rate, with reference to his combined 
service in several capacities, as in the opinion of the Admiralty it may be 
proper to award him. 

11. Gratuity to Widow. If a man should die before receiving the gratuity 
to which he may be entitled, it will be paid to his widow, or next-of-kin if 
dependent upon him, provided he shall have completed time for long-service 
pension. 

12. Clauses 6, 8, and 15 to 22 of Article 751 are applicable to men who 
joined the Service before 1st January 1885. 

751. Entries during and since 1885. Men holding any of the ratings 
specified as eligible for the good conduct medal in Appendix XV., Part 1., 
who entered the Service after 31st December 1884, may be recommended 
for the award under the following rules : 

NOTE. This also applies to all boys who were under the age of 18 on 
31st December, 1884. 

2. Qualifications for Medal. To entitle a man to a medal 

(a) He must have served for 15 years with continuous " Very Good " 

character, and with previous character not inferior to "Good," 

in service reckoning for pension. 
(1} He must have been recommended for the award by his Captain on 

his service certificate for the three consecutive years immediately 

preceding his application. 
(c) He must be recommended by the Captain under whom he is serving 

at the time of application. 

3. Notation of Recommendations. After a man, eligible for a good conduct 
medal under clause 1, has been awarded 12 years' continuous " Very Good " 

* In the case of ratings who are required to pass a qualifying examination for advance- 
ment to Petty Officer, this privilege is not to apply to any time served prior to passing 
the examination. 

233 



751 CHAP. XIX.- DISCIPLINE. 

character as under these Regulations will count towards the medal, and if his 
character should continue to be " Very Good," the Captain, if he considers 
him deserving thereof, is to enter on his conduct sheet or service certificate 
the notations of the recommendations provided for under Articles 828 and 830, 
clause 3. 

4. Disqualifications. Desertion or reduction to the second class for conduct 
will render a man absolutely ineligible for the award of a good conduct medal, 
except one reduction within the first five years of his time, provided that by 
his good conduct he earned his restoration to the first class within eight months, 
and that his character for the year in which the reduction occurred was not 
assessed below " Good." See clause 2 (a). 

5. Special Exceptions. The Admiralty will nevertheless consider any 
recommendation which may be made in special circumstances on behalf of a 
man who can show 15 years of continuous " Very Good " character, although 
he may be disqualified for the award of a medal under the ordinary regulations. 

6. Misconduct pending Presentation. If a man's conduct should not have 
been satisfactory during the interval pending the presentation of the medal, 
it is to be withheld, and the particulars of the case reported to the Admiralty. 

7. Gratuities, Amount and when paid. From the date of the award or 
restoration of a medal, a continuous service man, provided his character is 
maintained, will commence earning a good conduct gratuity at the rate of 
II. a year which is not to be paid until he completes time for pension. If 
invalided before completing time for pension he will be paid 11. for each 
completed year that he has served since the medal was awarded or restored. 

Additions and Maximum. For each year's service in the following ratings 
after the date of the award of the medal will be added 

To chief petty officer, petty officer (N.S.) and first class petty s. d. 

officer (O.S.) - 200 

To second class petty officer (O.S.) and men of leading seaman 

rank, with over 3 years' service as such* 100 

To leading seaman, except as above - 10 

until the maximum is reached, which will be, for a 

Chief petty officer, petty officer (N.S.) and first class petty 

officer (O.S.) - 15 

Second class petty officer (O.S.) and men of leading seaman 

rank, with over 3 years' service as such* 10 

Leading seaman, except as above 7 10 

Able seaman - 500 

8. If it is desired that men who have received medals should also be given 
gratuities, separate application must be made for the latter on the men becoming 
eligible for the award. 

9. " Good " Character after grant of Medal. If a man is awarded the 
character of " Good," instead of " Very Good," after the grant of a medal, 
the period of service during which the character of " Good " is awarded will 
not count for increase of gratuity, notwithstanding that he may not have 
been deprived of the medal. 

10. Effect of deprivation of Medal. If a man is deprived of his medal, he 
will lose all claim to gratuity ; in the event of the medal being restored before 
he is pensioned, not more than the lowest scale of gratuity, viz., 51., will be 
awarded. 



* In the case of ratings who are required to pass a qualifying examination for advance- 
ment to Petty Officer, this privilege is not to apply to any time served prior to passing 
the examination. 

234 



GOOD CONDUCT MEDAL AND GRATUITY. 751 

1 1 . Gratuities of Invalids. If a man is invalided after having been awarded 
the medal, and before completion of the full time for pension, he will be awarded 
the amount of gratuity in accordance with clause 7 of this Article. 

12. Gratuities of Dead Men. If a man should die after the award of his 
medal, any gratuity to which he may be entitled will be paid to his widow, 
or next-of-kin if dependent upon him. 

13. Voluntary Discharge. Any man voluntarily quitting the Service before 
being entitled to a pension will not be entitled to a gratuity. 

14. Men who re-engage. In cases where men who have completed time 
for pension re-engage for a further period of service, and are not at the time 
of re-engaging entitled to the maximum gratuity, such further service may 
count towards it, provided they in all respects comply with the Regulations. 

15. Second Payment on Account. Men who have been paid the gratuity 
for which they are eligible at the date of completing time for pension, and 
who subsequently become eligible by further service for a higher rate of gratuity, 
may be paid the difference between the amount they have already received 
and such higher rate. But in no case will more than two payments on account 
of good conduct gratuity be made to the same man. 

16. Recovery on Discharge. In the case of a man who has been paid a 
gratuity on completing time for pension, and whose pension is not secured to 
him under Article 1946, clause 2, the gratuity paid will be recovered from his 
naval pension if he misconducts himself during subsequent service and becomes 
ineligible for the award on final discharge. 

17. Recommendations withheld. In all these cases if the Captain should 
see fit to withhold the required recommendation for medal or gratuity he will 
fully record in the conduct book his reason for so doing, and draw a line across 
the " R.M.G." column of the man's service certificate or the corresponding 
column of his conduct sheet (form S. 239a). 

18. Service to reckon. No service can reckon for medal or gratuity which 
does not reckon for pension, but Officers' Stewards and Cooks who have not 
performed the necessary service in seagoing ships to qualify for pension under 
Article 1934, clause 4, will not be debarred from an award of the medal, if 
otherwise eligible. 

19. Imprisonment by Civil Power. Imprisonment by the civil power shall 
not prejudice a man's claim to a medal or gratuity, unless it shall have been 
so directed by the Admiralty if the man was serving at home at the time or 
by the Commander-in-Chief if abroad. 

20. Breaks in Service. A break in service not due to desertion, dismissal, 
sentence of imprisonment or detention, or other misconduct on the man's 
part, will not be considered as breaking the continuity of his " Very Good " 
character or of recommendations for medal or gratuity, provided that lu- 
re] oin within five years, or, if invalided, so soon as the state of his health permits. 

21. Recommendations to Admiralty. Names of men recommended for 
medals and gratuities are to be transmitted to the Admiralty so soon as tin- 
men become eligible for them, on form S. 218, accompanied by their service 
certificate, by the Commanders-in-Chief and Senior Officers at home and 
abroad and by the District Captains of Coast Guard ; and when the approval 
of the Admiralty has been received the medals are, if possible, to be presented 
before the ship's company by the Captain of the ship. 

22. Coast Guard. The foregoing Regulations for the award of good conduct 
medals and gratuities apply to the Coast Guard afloat and on shore. 

235 



752 CHAP. XIX. DISCIPLINE. 

SECTION V. SUMMARY PUNISHMENTS. 
Punishments Generally. 

752. Power to award. The Captain is authorised to award, under the 
prescribed conditions, the several punishments given in Table II., Article 757, 
subject in the case of No. 1, " Dismissal with Disgrace," or No. 5, " Dismissal 
from His Majesty's Service," to the approval of the Admiralty at home or 
of the Commander-in-Chief abroad ; he is responsible for all punishments 
inflicted in the ship ; that none are awarded or inflicted other than those 
authorised by Article 757, which are established by the Admiralty under the 
powers conferred by the Naval Discipline Act ; and that no officer or other 
person shall order any punishment, except the Executive Officer, the Officer 
of the Watch or Day, the Engineer Officer specified in Article 753, clause 1 (e), 
the Marine Officer, and the officer in command of any troops on board, if the 
Captain should have seen fit to delegate to them, or to any of them, the authority 
to punish within the prescribed limits, which is provided for in the following 
Articles. 

2. Punishments requiring warrants are not to be inflicted by officers in 
command below the rank of Commander without the approval of an officer 
of or above that rank, except in time of war or in the case of ships abroad 
on detached service for long periods. The Commander-in-Chief or Senior 
Officer will give such directions as may be necessary to carry this into effect. 

3. Tenders, Boats, or Men detached. When a tender is absent from the 
ship to which she is attached, or ship's boats are away on detached service, 
summary punishments, whether by warrant or otherwise, may be awarded 
by the officer in command of such tender or the officer in command of the 
ship's boats, without previous reference to the Captain ; and the order of 
such commanding officer on form S. 245 shall be a sufficient warrant for sending an 
offender to a place of imprisonment or detention, there to undergo his sentence, 
and, until he reaches such place of imprisonment or detention, for keeping him in 
naval custody, or, in the case of a person sentenced to imprisonment, in any 
civil prison or place of confinement. In like manner, the power of awarding 
summary punishments may be exercised by the officer in immediate command 
of seamen and marines on detached service on shore without previous reference 
to the Captain, provided, in the case of marines, that they have not been made 
subject to military law by an order under the Army Act. In all the above 
cases, the punishments awarded are to be reported to the Captain and duly 
recorded in the books and returns of the ships to which the men belong. 

4. Should the Captain of a ship or establishment, to which tenders are 
attached and are in company, be away for such length of time as to cause an 
undesirable delay in investigating complaints, he may delegate to the officer 
next in seniority to him, whether borne part complement or additional, the 
power of dealing with offenders in the vessels under his orders. 

753. Delegated Authority to punish. The Captain may delegate to the 
under-mentioned officers, when and so long as he may see fit, authority to 
award the following punishments specified in Table II., Article 757 : 

(a) The Executive Officer if a Commander 

No. 10, for the whole period. 
No. 11, for 24 days." 
No. 15, to the full extent. 

(b) The Executive Officer if a Lieutenant 

No. 10, for 7 days. 

No. 11, for 14 days, but not to apply to petty or non-commissioned 

officers. 
No. 15, to the full extent. 

236 



SUMMARY PUNISHMENTS. 753 

(c) The senior commissioned officer of Royal Marines to marines for 

military offences connected with guards and clothing, and in the 
case of Royal Marine Band ranks, offences connected with band 
duties, instruments and clothing, but not with reference to the 
general duties of the ship : 

No. 10, for 7 days. 

No. 11, for 14 days, but not to apply to non-commissioned officers. 

No. 15, to the full extent. 

No. 17, to the full extent. 

These punishments, when awarded, are always to be reported 
to the Captain and to the Executive Officer. 

(d) The Officer of the Watch, or Day, if a Lieutenant 

No. 15, for 1 day. 

(e) The Senior Engineer, or the Engineer Officer, if only one is borne, 

provided, in either case, that he is not below the rank of Engineer 
Lieutenant to stokers for offences connected with work in their 
department, but not with reference to the general duties of the 
ship 
No. 15, for one day. 

2. The punishments under (a), (b), and (c) of clause 1 are to be duly entered 
in the Conduct Book, Daily Record, and Punishment Returns. Those under 
(d) and (e) are to be entered in a special book signed by the officer awarding 
them ; the book being examined and initialled by the Executive Officer daily 
and signed by the Captain weekly. .This book is to be produced at all inspec- 
tions. 

3. Officer Commanding Troops. The Captain may also delegate to the 
officer commanding any troops on board the power of inflicting certain summary 
punishments, as laid down in clause 8 of Article 1213. 

754. Investigations into Complaints. Hasty complaints are invariably to 
be discouraged. Punishment for mutiny may, however, take place at any 
time when immediate example is necessary. Investigation of other offences 
is, when the Service and the circumstances admit, to be deferred until the day 
following that of the committal of the offence, but no avoidable delay should 
take place in the investigation of the complaint or in the signing and reading 
of the warrant. The punishment must be carried out immediately after the 
warrant is read (see Article 755, clause 3) except as provided by Article 768, 
clause 4, in regard to sentences of imprisonment or detention. Should an 
unusual interval elapse between the date of the offence and the reading of 
the warrant, the cause is to be stated on the punishment warrant and in the 
daily record of offences. See 723 (Stoppage of Leave of Men placed in the 
Report}. 

2. Place of Investigation. All complaints are to be fully investigated on 
the quarter-deck or other suitable place, in the presence of the accuser and the 
accused, who, as well as their witnesses, are to be heard fully and with 
impartiality. Should the accused be on the sick list or in a military detention 
barrack, the investigation may, at the discretion of the Captain, be postponed 
until the man is fit for duty or discharged from the detention barrack, as the 
case may be. See 730 (Offences committed in Military Detention Barracks). 

3. Should an offender be in such a state of health as to be unable to undergo 
all, or any part, of the summary punishment to which he may have rendered 
himself liable, and should it appear probable that he will be invalided out of 
the Service, or remain a considerable time unfit for punishment, the punishment 
due to his offence is nevertheless to be awarded, and, should it require a warrant, 
the warrant is to be completed and duly signed and read, in order that by the 

237 



754 CHAP. XIX. DISCIPLINE. 

non-infliction of the punishment he may not escape the consequences (such 
as loss of pay, badges, &c.) which accompany the award of certain punishments. 

4. Inconsiderate Punishments. Inconsiderate punishments as well as 
needlessly protracted punishments, should be avoided, and only so much 
severity resorted to as may be necessary for the prevention of crime or offences, 
and for the maintenance of proper order and discipline. The magnitude of 
the punishment should be in proportion to the gravity of the offence and the 
previous character of the offender, but regard should also be had to any conse- 
quences which may arise indirectly as a result of the offence or of the award, 
particularly in regard to the charges against the offender's wages under Articles 
808-810 for offences of absence or desertion, or under Article 1373 for damage 
to or loss of stores, &c. In cases of repeated offences the effect of gradually 
increasing a minor punishment until the maximum is reached should be tried 
before resorting to one higher in the scale. 

5. Excited or Drunken Men. All altercations with excited or drunken men 
are to be avoided ; no man under the influence of temper or drink is to be 
placed in a situation likely to further excite him, and thereby lead him to 
acts of violence or insubordination. 

6. Warning to Accused. In serious cases likely to form the subject of a 
court-martial, the officer conducting the investigation should bear in mind that 
a confession made before him by the accused will not be admissible in evidence 
at a court-martial unless the accused has first been warned that what he is 
about to say may be made use of against him. 

755. Warrants. The Captain, or the officer to whom authority is delegated 
under the provisions of clause 2, Article 752, when ordering punishments by 
warrant, is to be very careful that the warrants are correctly drawn up, and 
that they contain all the required particulars, and also that they bear the 
signature of the complaining officer, in attestation of the complaint having 
been made by him. 

2. Previous Offences. In the first warrant made out for a man, in any 
quarter, all his offences during the preceding six months are to be entered ; 
but for his previous time in the ship, only the punishments by warrant, except 
in the case of corporal punishment,* .when every offence committed in the 
ship must be stated. Should a man be punished by warrant more than once 
during a quarter, only the offences committed since the date of the last warrant 
are to be entered, with a reference to the date of such previous warrant. 

3. Duration and Date of Award. The duration of every punishment, except 
in the circumstances stated in Article 769, in respect to imprisonment and 
detention, is to be reckoned from the date of its award, and such punishments 
as require a warrant for their execution are to be considered as awarded when 
the warrant has been read to the offender. As a general rule the reading is 
to be carried out on the quarter-deck, and should be preceded by the Article 
of War under which his offence falls. Unless the Captain should think it 
necessary for the sake of example, the previous offences entered in the warrant 
are not to be read. 

4. Modification of Sentence. Officers, at any time before the warrant is 
read to the offender, though it may have been signed, are free to modify or 
even withdraw any sentence if, on further consideration, it should appear to 
them desirable to do so, obtaining the concurrence of the superior authority 
who may have approved the proposed punishment. 



* NOTE. The power of Commanding Officers to award corporal punishment for any 
offences tried summarily under Section 56 of the Naval Discipline Act is suspended until 

fnrthpr nt-Hprc 



further orders. 

238 



SUMMARY PUNISHMENTS. 756 

756. Special Directions. In regard to all summary punishments, the 
following further directions are to be observed : 

(a) Suspension on Sunday. Summary punishments which are carried out 

on board except 

Confinement in cells or under a canvas screen ; 

Stoppage of leave ; and 

Stoppage of grog, 

are to be suspended on Sunday, but that day is to count as part of 
the period for which any sentence is awarded. 

(b) Night's rest. Men are not to be deprived of their night's rest at sea 

as a punishment. 

(c) Irons and Handcuffs. The use of irons or handcuffs is to be avoided 

as much as possible ; the only recourse to them should be for the 
purpose of ensuring the safe custody of a prisoner, or for mutinous 
conduct. 

(d) Gags are not to be used. Men who are noisy or violent are to be confined 

in a cell for such time as may be necessary. 

(e) Stoppage of Pay. Pay is not to be forfeited nor are any stoppages of 

pay and allowances to be made for misconduct, except in cases 
expressly authorised by statute, or by the regulations of the Service. 
(/) Applicable Punishment. Every punishment inflicted must be applic- 
able to the offence, and to the offender at the time he committed the 
offence of which he stands convicted. 

Tables of Punishments. 

757. Suggested Maximum Punishments. The Captain, and all officers 
and others to whom they refer, are to observe the directions contained in the 
following Tables I. and II. : 

TABLE I. INDEX of OFFENCES suggesting the NORMAL MAXIMUM SUMMARY 
PUNISHMENT that may in each case be awarded. 

XOTES : (i) This table is not exhaustive as to offences, and is intended to be merely 
suggestive. It is only to be exceeded in aggravated cases, or those of con- 
tinual misbehaviour, when the reasons for doing so are to be stated in the 
Warrant and Record of Offences. 

(ii) No offences, with the exception of Mutiny, can be summarily dealt with, if 
they take place in such circumstances as to make them capital under the 
Naval Discipline Act. 



Offence. 



Normal 

Maximum 

Summary 

Punishment! 



a. ABSENCE OR DESERTION. 

I. Desertion - -- 

II. Quitting ship, boat, working party, or other duty, without leave, but 

not with intent to desert - 
III. Absence without leave - ________ 



b. DECEPTION. 

I. Maliciously making false charges of a nature which, if true, would have 
rendered the accused liable to No. 1 punishment - 



1 



II. Making false charges 

III. Giving false evidence, or prevaricating at investigations, or lying 

IV. Answering call for another man with intent to deceive - 

V. Obtaining leave under false pretences ----- 7 

239 



757 CHAP. XIX. DISCIPLINE,- 

TABLE I. Index of Offences continued. 



OSence. 



Normal 
Maximum 

Summary 

Punishment. 



c. DIRTINESS AND UNTIDINESS. 

I. Being habitually slovenly and dirty - - - - 
II. Committing a nuisance 
III. Not being in proper dress, or being dirty or slovenly in person or dress 



d. DISOBEDIENCE. 

I. Wilful disobedience of orders 
II. Inattention to, or neglecting to carry out orders 



e. DRUNKENNESS. 

I. Drunkenness at sea, or on duty - 
II. Smuggling liquor on board, or into a boat 

III. Habitual drunkenness - - 

IV. Drunkenness _______--- 

V. Trafficking in, receiving, giving away, playing for, or selling any wine, 

spirit, or beer - 
VI. Drunk or disorderly in streets _______ 



f. DUTY, NEGLECT OR AVOIDANCE OF. 

I. Deserting post ___ ---- 
II. Skulking from or neglect or improper performance of important duty 

III. Skulking from, slack or improper performance, or neglect of common 

duty 

IV. Not answering muster ' - - - - 
V. Wilfully producing, concealing, aggravating, or feigning any disease 

or infirmity, to the prejudice of the Service - 
VI. Wilfully omitting to detect and report all offenders against the Naval 

Discipline Act ; or wilfully neglecting to assist others in the detection 

and apprehension of such offenders - 
VII. Inattention at drills or exercises ------- 



g. GOOD ORDER, OFFENCES AGAINST. 

I. Gambling ________ 

II. Lending money at interest - - 

III. Making frivolous or vexatious complaints - - 

IV. Misbehaving at, or neglecting to attend, Divine Service 
V. Making a noise, or talking at quarters or in the ranks 

VI. Spitting about the decks - - - . - - 
VII. Sleeping in the tops, or boats, or other improper places 
VIII. Getting in, or out of, the ports - - - - 
IX. Throwing things overboard from improper places - 



h. HAMMOCKS, CLOTHES, OR BEDDING. 

I. Selling or making away with medals or clasps 

II. Selling or improperly disposing of clothes or bedding without permis- 
sion ----_____ _ 

III. Examining another man's bag or locker 

IV. Using another man's clothes, hammock, or bedding - - 
V. Sleeping in another man's hammock - 

VI. General neglect with regard to hammocks, bags, or clothes 

240 



SUMMARY PUNISHMENTS. 

TABLE I. Index of Offences continued. 



757 



Offence. 



Normal 

Maximum 

Summary 

PonUknent 



i. IMMORALITY. 

I. Indecent assaults, or indecent acts of a grossly immoral character - 1 

II. Cursing, swearing, or making use of obscene language - - - 6 

j. INSUBORDINATION AND DISRESPECT. 

I. Mutiny __________ 

II. Insubordination 

III. Riotous conduct 

IV. Insolence or contempt to superiors 
V. Disrespect towards superiors 

VI. Impeding the police of the ship in the performance of their duties 



k. MISCELLANEOUS. 

I. Wilfully breaking, wasting, or injuring public stores, or wilfully destroy- 

ing or injuring the clothes or effects of persons in the Royal Navy or ! 
others - - - 4 

II. Injuring or wasting public stores through carelessness - - 6 
Note. In either of these cases the amount charged, if any, against the 

offender's wages under Article 1373, is to be taken into consideration ! 
and duly recorded as provided for in that Article. 

III. Culminating offence of a series of small offences - 7 

IV. Maliciously throwing anything from aloft, down hatchways, into engine 

room, &c. 4 
V. Negligently hoisting, lowering, throwing or dropping anything from 

aloft 10 

VI. Carelessness with respect to arms - 10 

1. QUARRELLING, FIGHTING, OR ASSAULT. 

I. Violent assault - 
II. Fighting, quarrelling, or assaulting 
III. Using provoking language tending to create bad feeling or disturbance 4 

m. SENTRY. 

I. Striking or forcibly interrupting a sentry 4 

II. interrupting or not obeying the lawful orders of a sentry or using 

abusive language to a sentry 7 

n. SMOKING AND. FIRE. 

I. Negligently using fire or lights 4 

II. Smoking out of hours or in improper places - 10 

III. Having lights after hours 10 

IV. Persons under 18 years of age smoking - 10 

o. THEFT. 

I. Theft- 1 

II. Receiving stolen goods or money, knowing them to have been stolen 1 

III. Fraud or cheating 3 

IV. Misappropriating public stores or money 1 
V. Pilfering 7 



241 



757 



CHAP. XIX. DISCIPLINE. 



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757 



CHAP. XIX. DISCIPLINE 



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244 



DISMISSAL WITH OR WITHOUT DISGRACE. 758 

DISMISSAL FROM His MAJESTY'S SERVICE WITH OR WITHOUT DISGRACE. 

758. Dismissal with disgrace. This punishment, which is the highest 
in the summary code, is, as a rule, only to be awarded for offences of a dis- 
gracefully immoral character, or for a continued course of misconduct, 
culminating in some gross act of insubordination, which proves the offender to 
be a person of such bad disposition or habits as to be unworthy of again 
serving His Majesty in any capacity. It entails the forfeiture of all pay, 
head-money, bounty, salvage, prize-money and allowances that have been 
earned by, and of all annuities, pensions, gratuities, medals and decorations 
that may have been granted to, the offender. 

2. Dismissal without disgrace. If an offender is considered unworthy 
of retention in His Majesty's Service, but is not deemed deserving of so severe 
a punishment as dismissal with disgrace, or the offence is not liable to that 
punishment under the Naval Discipline Act, he may be dismissed from His 
Majesty's Service. 

3. Unless in exceptional cases, no person is to be dismissed with or without 
disgrace until the various punishments to which he has rendered himself 
liable have been inflicted on him and found to have no effect in reforming him, 
nor is anyone to be so dismissed if the Commander-in-Chief should consider it 
likely that the offender would recover his character if transferred to another 
ship. 

4. Investigation. When either punishment is deserved and is applicable 
under the Naval Discipline Act, the Captain shall, with the assistance of the 
Executive Officer and the officer of the offender's division, inquire carefully 
into the case and fully report the case on form S. 246 to the Commander-in- 
Chief. 

5. Accompanying punishments. The punishments of dismissal from His 
Majesty's Service, with or without disgrace, may be accompanied by corporal 
punishment,* imprisonment, or confinement in a cell, provided the offender 
at the time when he committed the offence, was liable to the penalty. 

6. Authority. The order for the dismissal of a person from His Majesty's 
Service, with or without disgrace, whether accompanied by the punishments 
referred to in clause 5 or not, must proceed from the Admiralty at home or the 
Commander-in-Chief abroad, and no punishment is to be inflicted until such 
decision has been obtained. The reports of inquiry on form S. 246 and form 
S. 243, are to be forwarded to the Admiralty in every case. See 1616 (Disposal 
of Pay Documents). 

1. Information to men dismissed with disgrace. Every person dismissed 
with disgrace is to be informed of his incapacity to serve His Majesty again in 
any naval, military, or civil service, and that, should he re-enter the Navy or 
Marines, he will be summarily discharged forthwith when detected, and further, 
that any pay that may be due to him, as well as any benefits which may have 
accrued to him for his services subsequent to such re-entry, will become for- 
feited. This regulation is applicable to men who have been dismissed with 
ignominy from the Army or Marines. 

8. Dismissal abroad, or passage home. If a person dismissed, with or 
without disgrace, should desire it, and there is no objection on the part of the 
local authorities to his landing, he may be dismissed abroad ; but should he 
wish to return home, he may be sent by the first opportunity of a ship-of-war 
or transport. If sent in a ship-of-war, the Captain is to be informed of his 

* NOTE. The power of Commanding Officers to award corporal punishment for any 
offences tried summarily under Section 56 of the Naval Discipline Act is suspended until 
further orders. 

245 



758 CHAP. XIX. DISCIPLINE. 

offences, and is not on any account to order him to work except in cases of 
emergency ; he is to be victualled in accordance with Article 1682, clause (g), 
and is to receive no pay in accordance with Article 1358, unless he has been 
required to work in an emergency. On arrival in England he is to be 
immediately discharged to the shore. See 1505 (Travelling expenses), also 1173 
(Dismissal of Marines). 

759. Disposal of effects. When any person is dismissed from His Majesty's 
Service with or without disgrace, or when his services are dispensed with on 
account of misconduct, such of his effects as are specified in the Uniform 
Regulations as being strictly uniform (see Quarterly Navy List), are to be sold 
in the same manner as the effects of dead and run men (see 1631), and the 
proceeds are to be credited to his account in the ledger. Before final discharge 
from the Service any balance due is to be paid direct to the man or dealt with 
as provided in 1616, clause 3. See 758, clauses 1 and 8 ; also 1438 (Recovery 
of G.C., G.B., &c.). Medals and decorations forfeited under Article 758 
are to be forwarded to the Accountant-General. 

2. Exceptions. Clause 1 does not apply to marines, to men who entered 
the Service prior to 1st March, 1896, nor to boys in the training ships. The effects 
of marines are to be returned to their headquarters, and those of men who 
entered prior to March, 1896, cannot be sold without their consent (see clause 3), 
as they are their private property. Boys in the training ships are to be dealt 
with under the Training Service Regulations. 

3. Consent. The written consent of men who entered the Service prior 
to March, 1896, to the sale of their effects, is to be obtained previous to the sale. 
A similar procedure is to be followed in the case of ratings entered since that date 
who desire their non-uniform effects to be sold. 

CORPORAL PUNISHMENT. 
(See footnote.) 

760. Conditions under which inflicted. It being requisite for the 
maintenance of the efficiency, discipline, and even safety of His Majesty's 
ships-of-war, that the power of inflicting corporal punishment* when absolutely 
necessary, should be continued, such punishment, under the following conditions, 
may be inflicted under the responsibility and authority of the Captain, who is, 
however, to exercise the power vested in him with the greatest discretion and 
forbearance, compatible with the discipline of the Service : 

(a) Corporal punishment is never to exceed 25 lashes. 

(b) Except in a case of open mutiny, no corporal punishment is to be 

inflicted without a warrant in the established form, which must be 
fully completed 12 hours before the punishment shall take place. See 
761, clause 2 (Warrant). 

(c) No petty or non-commissioned officer, and no seaman, marine, or other 

person in the first class for conduct, belonging to a ship, shall be 
liable to summary corporal punishment except for mutiny, as here- 
inafter explained. 

(d) No seaman, marine, or other person in the second class for conduct 

belonging to a ship, shall be liable to summary corporal punishment 
in time of peace, unless he shall be guilty of 
(i) Mutiny ; or 
(ii) Using or offering violence to a superior officer. 

* NOTE. The power of Commanding Officers to award corporal punishment for any 
offences tried summarily under Section 56 of the Naval Discipline Act is suspended until 
further orders. 

246 



CORPORAL PUNISHMENT. 

(e) Corporal punishment is not to be awarded for using or offering violence 
to a superior officer, should the offence be in its circumstances one 
that can be sufficiently met by summary imprisonment, and if the 
offender can within seven days from the date of the offence be sent 
to a prison in which such imprisonment can be properly carried out ; 
or if, the offence being aggravated in its circumstances, the offender 
can within a reasonable time be tried by court-martial. 

(/) In time of peace, summary corporal punishment is not to be awarded 
in the presence of a Flag Officer or Commodore, for any offence, with- 
out his approval. 

761. Inquiry before Award. When the Captain shall receive a complaint 
against, or observe any misconduct on the part of, any man, for which such 
man is amenable to corporal punishment,* and he is of opinion that no other 
punishment which it is in his power to award would be applicable or expedient 
in the circumstances, then, except in open mutiny, he is to appoint one or more 
officers to inquire into the particulars of the offence with which the prisoner 
may stand charged, and having received the report of such officer or officers as 
to the guilt or innocence of the accused, and after subsequent and full investiga- 
tion on his own part, he is to act as according to his judgment may seem right. 

2. Warrant. If he should determine upon ordering the prisoner to be 
corporally punished, he is to make out a warrant on form S. 271, in which all 
the information required is to be clearly and explicitly set forth. (See footnote.} 

762. In Case of Open Mutiny. Exceptional power is hereby given to 
the Captain, or to the Commanding Officer, in the case of open mutiny. When 
an immediate example is necessary to deter others from joining, any person 
under the grade of subordinate officer, who shall be guilty of open mutiny, 
may be summarily punished corporally* ; in such urgent cases neither warrant 
nor preliminary inquiry by other officers is necessary, but the officer so acting 
is forthwith to forward, for the information of the Admiralty, a detailed state- 
ment of the circumstances which called for such deviation from the general 
rules in this respect, the degree of punishment inflicted, and all other particulars 
required by the usual warrant and a duplicate statement is to accompany the 
quarterly returns. 

763. Definition. By corporal punishment* is to be understood the 
usual punishment at the gangway ; it is to be carried out according to the custom 
of the Service, and in the presence of the Captain, the officers and the ship's 
company, or so many as can be spared from other duties. Every other des- 
cription of corporal punishment by rope, stick, or any other instrument, is 
hereby forbidden, with the exception of the authorised caning and birching of 
Boys. 

764. Accompanying Punishments. Corporal punishment* is to carry with 
it in all cases : 

(a) Disrating to a grade below that of Leading Seaman or non-commissioned 

officer : 

(b) Deprivation of good conduct medal and badges, and reduction to the 

second class for conduct. 

765. Absence of Captain. In the casual absence of the Captain, the 
Commanding Officer is not to order corporal punishment to be inflicted, unless 

* NOTE. The power of Commanding Officers to award corporal punishment tor .my 
offences tried summarily under Section 56 of the Naval Discipline Act is suspended until 
further orders. 

247 

El 



765 CHAP. XIX. DISCIPLINE. 

the Captain shall be absent on Admiralty leave ; or, if abroad, on leave granted 
by a Commander in-Chief for a lengthened period. (See footnote.} 

766. Power of Courts-Martial. Nothing contained in the foregoing 
Articles can be deemed to extend to the nullification or abatement of such powers 
as are vested in naval courts-martial by the Naval Discipline Act, to award 
corporal punishment to persons under the rank of officer. 

IMPRISONMENT AND DETENTION. 

767. When to be awarded. Detention is considered to be a more suitable 
punishment for naval offenders than imprisonment, and should be awarded in 
preference to the latter when the offender will be retained in the Service, unless 
he has already undergone several sentences of detention without effect. Deten- 
tion should not, however, be awarded in parts of the world where there 
are neither naval nor military detention establishments in which the offender 
can be confined. 

768. Limits. Every person below the rank of subordinate officer, with 
the exceptions specified in Article 769, who shall be guilty of an offence triable 
under the Naval Discipline Act, and punishable by imprisonment or detention 
may, provided the offence is not made capital by the Act be summarily tried 
and sentenced by the Captain on the punishment warrant (form S. 271) to a term 
of imprisonment (with or without hard labour) or of detention, not exceeding 
three calendar months, and, in compliance with the Act, shall be committed 
to a proper place of confinement by the Captain's order (S. 245). Detention 
should not in any case be awarded for a period of less than 10 days. The 
maximum period of imprisonment or detention for absence without leave is 
b}' statute limited to 10 weeks. 

2. Hard Labour. Hard labour for the whole or any portion of the period 
of imprisonment may be awarded, but Commanding Officers, in awarding 
sentences of imprisonment, are not to direct that the prisoner shall be kept 
in solitary confinement during any portion of his imprisonment. 

3. Solitary Confinement. Although not awarded sentences involving 
solitary confinement, offenders will, nevertheless, be liable to be kept in separate 
confinement, by direction of the Governor of the prison wherein they may be 
confined, if such action is sanctioned by the rules of the prison. 

4. Postponement. If, by reason of a ship being at sea or at a place at 
which there is no proper place of confinement, a sentence of imprisonment 
or detention cannot be duly executed, the officer awarding the sentence may 
direct in writing on the punishment warrant (form S. 271) that the sentence 
shall not begin to take effect until the arrival of the offender at some place where 
there is such a proper place of confinement, when he shall undergo his sentence 
as if the date of such arrival were the day on which the sentence was awarded, 
notwithstanding that in the meantime he may have become entitled to his 
discharge from His Majesty's Service. An offender in such a case is to be con- 
veyed with all reasonable speed to a proper place of confinement and during 
passage may be kept in open custody, but he is to be subject to restraint or 
confinement whenever his safe-keeping or any misbehaviour on his part may 
render it necessary, provided that in accordance with Section 74, clause 2, 
of the Naval Discipline Act, any time during which he has been in confinement 
shall be deducted from the term of his sentence. See 723 (Naval Custody). 

* NOTE. The power of Commanding Officers to award corporal punishment for any 
offences tried summarily under Section 56 of the Naval Discipline Act is suspended until 
further orders. 

248 



IMPRISONMENT AND DETENTION. 769 

769. Chief Petty Officers, Petty Officers, &c. Chief petty officers, petty 
officers, and non-commissioned officers. Royal Marines, are not to be summarily 
sentenced to imprisonment or detention, except for desertion ; but those who 
cannot be disrated, as shown in Appendix XV., Part I., may be summarily 
sentenced to imprisonment or detention for the following offences only : 

(a) Mutiny or highly insubordinate conduct ; 

(b) Desertion, or deserting post ; 

(c) Indecent acts of an immoral character ; 

(d) Theft or fraud; 

() Smuggling liquor into ship ; 

(/) Quitting ship, boat, or working party without leave ; 

(g) Drunkenness on duty ; 

(h) Violent assault ; 

(*) Aggravated cases of leave-breaking. 

2. Leading Rates. Leading rates, as shown in Appendix XV., Part I., 
and men wearing good conduct badges are not to be summarily sentenced to 
imprisonment or detention, except for the offences enumerated in clause 1. 

770. Uniformity in Awards. In order to secure as much uniformity as 
possible in the award of sentences of imprisonment or detention by officers in 
command of His Majesty's ships, such officers, when in the presence of a 
Commander-in-Chief or Senior Officer, are to submit the punishment warrant 
(form S. 271) for his consideration and approval before causing the sentence to 
be read to the offender. (See 755, clause 4.) 

2. Selection of Place of Confinement. The space provided on the warrant 
(S. 271) for the insertion of the name of the gaol or detention establishment 
to which the prisoner is to be sent, is to be left blank when in the presence of 
a Commander-in-Chief or Senior Officer, so that the latter may fill in the blank 
space at his discretion, according to the accommodation available. 

3. Men in ships in home waters sentenced to imprisonment for civil offences 
who are not to be dismissed or discharged from the Service, and all men in 
such ships awarded imprisonment for disciplinary offences, are (except when 
the travelling expenses would be prohibitive, e.g., from the North of England) 
to be sent to Bodmin Naval Prison, irrespective of the nature of offence or the 
length of sentence. 

In -all other cases, men sentenced to imprisonment at home are to be sent 
to a civil prison ; those from Devonport, Portsmouth, and Chatham respectively 
to the civil prisons at Bodmin, Portsmouth, and Canterbury. These civil 
prisons should also be used by ships at other ports within a convenient distance, 
except that men from ships at Portland should be sent to Dorchester civil 
prison. 

4. Men sentenced to imprisonment abroad should be sent to a detention 
establishment if possible. Should accommodation be insufficient, recourse 
must be had to civil prisons, but, so far as practicable, these should only be 
used for men convicted of offences against the ordinary law. Men sentenced to 
imprisonment or detention for more than nine months should, if practicable, be 
sent to England to complete their sentences. 

5. Men in ships in home waters sentenced to detention are to be committed 
to the following establishments so far as accommodation is available : 

^Station N re i Naval Detention Quarters at Chatham. 



^Statiorf Sm Uth Naval De tention Quarters at Portsmouth. 
! Naval Detention Quarters at Devonport. 
249 



770 CHAP. XIX. DISCIPLINE. 

From Ports in ] Military Detention Barracks at Stirling or York 
Scotland. ] Castle. 

From Ports in j Mmt Detention Barracks at Cork or Dublin. 
Ireland. ) 

They are to wear their uniform, and take their bags and hammocks with 
them. Those who will undergo their sentence in a naval detention quarters 
are to be sent under escort to the Royal Naval Barracks. 

771. Gaols Abroad. The amount of physical punishment involved in 
imprisonment depends in a great measure on the discipline and dietary observed 
in the gaols to which the prisoners are committed, and on the climate ; it is 
advisable, therefore, that officers in command should consider these points, 
especially when they commit offenders to prisons situated out of the United 
Kingdom. 

2. Visiting Gaols. Commanders-in-Chief or Senior Officers are to obtain 
information as to the state of the gaols, by directing a Captain to visit them from 
time to time, with the permission of the civil authorities, and report on them. 

3. At Unhealthy Places. Europeans are not to be imprisoned on shore 
on the West Coast of Africa, nor in other notoriously unhealthy places, when it 
can possibly be avoided. 

772. A medical officer is to examine the offender previous to his com- 
mitment to a prison or detention establishment as the case may be, to ascertain 
whether he is physically capable of undergoing his sentence, and again on his 
return to the ship. 

773. Committal Order. The order for imprisonment or detention, being the 
authority for the Governor or Keeper of a gaol or for the officer in command of 
the detention establishment to receive and detain an offender, and to release 
him at the expiration of his sentence, is to be made out with every technical 
accuracy. 

2. Escorts. A sufficient escort is to accompany each offender sent to 
confinement, and the Commanding Officer of the ship on whose books the man 
is borne at the date of release is to take care that arrangements are made for 
some proper person or persons to be at the place of confinement at the exact 
time when he may be entitled to his release, to receive and conduct the offender 
on board ; when the sentence expires on a Sunday, the offender is entitled to 
be released on the Saturday preceding. 

774. Consequent Penalties. A sentence of imprisonment or detention, 
whether awarded summarily or by court-martial, carries with it stoppage of 
wages and loss of time during the period of imprisonment or detention ; it shall 
carry with it in all cases where applicable deprivation of good conduct medal 
and badges, and, further, in the case of a chief petty officer, petty officer or 
leading seaman, disrating to a grade below that of leading seaman (except as 
provided for in Article 776, clause 1), and, in the case of a non-commissioned 
officer of marines when embarked, to a rank below that of Corporal. See 1180 
(Reduction of Non-Commissioned Officers) ; and 1938, clause 4 (Effect of one term 
of imprisonment or detention on Pension) . 

2. Subsistence of Prisoners. The cost of the subsistence of men in gaol, 
and the expenses attending their removal to and from the prison, will be borne 
by the Admiralty ; and where no local arrangements for meeting such costs and 
expenses exist, similar to those that prevail at the principal home ports, the 
Accountant Officer of the ship to which a prisoner belongs, under the authority 
of the Captain, and on proper vouchers, is to defray the expenses incurred in the 
removal of the prisoner, and to pay to the Governor or Keeper of the gaol, if at 

250 



IMPRISONMENT AND DETENTION. 774 

home, the amount claimed, provided it does not exceed Is. a day for each 
prisoner's subsistence. If abroad, and in the absence of local arrangements, 
the Captain will order the amount claimed to be paid should he consider it 
fair and reasonable. In every case the full particulars are to be given in the 
vouchers. 

77f. Persons sentenced, how borne. Persons sentenced summarily or 
by court-martial to imprisonment or detention are to continue to be borne on 
ship's books unless they are to undergo their sentence in a civil prison and are 
also to be discharged direct from the prison to civil life, in which case they are 
to be discharged from ship's books from the time of arrival at the prison or from 
the time the order for discharge from the Service is received. With this ex- 
ception persons under sentence of imprisonment or detention are to be transferred 
to and borne on the books of 

(a) the depot ship, if there is one in the vicinity of the place of confinement ; 

or if there is no depot ship, 

(b) some other convenient ship in the vicinity ; or if there is no such ship, 

(c) the flag-ship. 

2. Civil Custody. Men convicted by the Civil Power at home or abroad, 
whether or not sentenced to imprisonment, and men whose cases have been 
dealt with by an order under the Probation of Offenders Act, are to continue to- 
be borne on the books of the ship to which they belong unless they will not 
return to that ship, in which case they are to be dealt with as directed in clause 1. 

3. Men from Ships about to Sail. Three days, at least, before sailing for 
a foreign station the Captain is to furnish the senior officer present with a report 
on form S. 219 of the men undergoing imprisonment or detention. Sjich men 
may be removed from confinement for the purpose of rejoining their ship,, 
at the discretion of the senior officer, in cases where a very few days of the 
sentence remain unexpired, or at any time should any serious inconvenience to 
the Service be likely to ensue. (See 731.) 

4. Dismissal after Confinement. When a man is to be dismissed from 
the Service at the expiration of his sentence, notice thereof is to be given by the 
Captain to the authorities at the place of confinement to which he is sent, in 
order that he may be set at liberty at the expiration of his sentence. See 
1505 (Travelling Warrants and Subsistence) ; and 1616 (Pay and Documents). 

DISRATING. 

776. Summary Disrating. Disrating of any person below the rank of 
subordinate officer may be inflicted summarily by warrant S. 271, but no 
rating is to be disrated below the limits laid down in column 5 of Appendix XV., 
Part I., nor lower, either actually or relatively, than the rating in which he first 
entered.* 

2. Chief Petty Officers and Petty Officers. If a chief petty officer or petty 
officer or non-commissioned officer, Royal Marines, is charged with an offence 
which, if proved, would justify his being summarily disrated, the following pro- 
cedure is to be adopted : 

(a) A formal and public investigation is to be held by the Captain, a careful 
summary of the evidence of the witnesses for and against being made 
at the time in such a way that it can, if necessary, be incorporated in 
form S. 270 in due course. 

* For example : A cooper who entered as second cooper when that rating carried 
the relative rank of petty officer, second class, if disrated to second cooper, is to be regarded 
as a petty officer, second class, although a second cooper now r^nks only as a leading rate. 

25] 



776 CHAP. XIX. DISCIPLINE. 

(b) The accused is to have the assistance of an officer belonging to the ship 

to act as his friend and help him in stating his case, in the same manner 
as if he were being tried by court-martial, the necessary facilities being 
afforded. This duty should usually be undertaken by the officer of 
his division, but there is no objection to another officer belonging to 
the ship being entrusted with the duty if specially desired by the 
accused. 

(c) At the conclusion of the investigation the Captain should, if he thinks 

it a case which deserves summary disrating, inform the accused that 
he can, if he desires it, be tried by court-martial, and he is to give him 
not less than 24 hours for the purpose of reflection, informing him at 
the same time that a rate taken away by sentence of court-martial 
cannot be regained without first submitting it to the Admiralty for 
approval, but that the usual authority, i.e., the Commodore of the 
Depot, or the Commanding Officer, as the case may be (or the Colonel 
Commandant or Superintendent R.N. School of Music, in the case of 
Marines), would have the power to restore in the case of disrating by 
warrant. 

* (d) If the accused, after the specified period, indicates that he does not 
wish to be tried by court-martial, and the Captain decides that dis- 
rating is the appropriate punishment, the necessary steps are to be 
taken to obtain the approval of the Flag Officer whose flag is flying 
to whom reference can most conveniently be made, the warrant 
being accompanied by form S. 270, on which each of the witnesses is 
to sign the summary of the evidence he has given. If such approval 
'cannot be obtained within a reasonable period, the Captain may 
formulate the sentence himself, reporting the circumstances without 
delay to the Commander-in-Chief or Senior Officer of the squadron. 

(e) Should the accused elect to be tried by court-martial, the necessary steps 
for that purpose are to be taken. 

(/) Should the exigencies of the Service, as in the case of a single ship on 
detached service, not permit a court-martial to be assembled within 
a reasonable period, the Senior Officer present may, if he considers it 
necessary, direct the Captain to deal with the case summarily. If 
in these circumstances the Captain disrates a chief petty officer or 
petty officer or non-commissioned officer of the Royal Marines, the 
Commander-in-Chief or Senior Officer of the squadron is to order a 
court of inquiry to assemble at the earliest possible date, and if their 
report indicates that a lighter punishment would have been sufficient, 
he is authorised to restore the rating from a date to be fixed by him. 
The accuser and the accused, together with the latter's friend, are to 
be present during the whole of the time that witnesses are being 
examined before the court of inquiry. 

(g) A report of the case, including the minutes of the inquiry, copy of the 
warrant and form S. 240, is to be forwarded to the Admiralty. 

'. E.R.A.s and Electricians. A chief engine-room artificer, 1st class, may 
be disrated to the lower class in that rating or to engine-room artificer of any 
class (see Appendix XV., Part I.). The same rule applies to electrician ratings. 
The approval of a Flag Officer is required in every case [see clause 2 (d)]. Chief 
petty officers thus reduced in class for misconduct are subject to all the penalties 
which may follow disrating under Punishment No. 6 in Table II. of Article 757. 
4. Vacancies caused. If a chief petty officer is disrated to petty officer, 
the total number of chief and other petty officers allowed in the branch is not 
to be exceeded, but in the returns, if necessary, a petty officer is to be shown in 

252 



DISRATING. 776 

lieu of a chief petty officer. No disrated petty officer is to continue to do duty 
of the rating from which he has been degraded. 

5. Leading Bates. It is not necessary to submit to the Commander-in- 
Chief or Senior Officer a warrant for disrating summarily a leading rate. 

6. Restoration. A rating deprived by court-martial for misconduct is 
not to be restored without the special authority of the Admiralty. A rating 
deprived summarily may be restored in the ordinary course by the Commodore 
of the Depot (or in a vacancy by the Captain of the ship). 

7. Old System Ratings. A chief petty officer (O.S.) or petty officer first 
or second class (O.S.), who may be disrated for misconduct is to be allowed to 
regain the rating from which he was disrated, notwithstanding that these ratings 
are to die out. 

777. Disrating for incompetence. Any person below the rank of sub- 
ordinate officer may be disrated for incompetence, but no rating is to be reduced 
below the limits laid down in column 4 of Appendix XV., Part I., nor lower 
either actually or relatively than the rating in which he first joined (see note to 
Article 776, clause 1). Disrating for incompetence is not to be carried out by 
warrant nor included in the punishment return, as it is not awarded as a punish- 
ment. The cause is to be noted in the ledger and in the service certificate 
(as provided in Article 830, clause 8). 

The man may be permitted to volunteer for any other rating for which he 
is fit, subject to the approval of the Commander-in-Chief. Cases in which men 
are allowed to transfer in this manner are to be reported to the Admiralty. 

2. Chief Petty Officers and Petty Officers. If a chief petty officer or petty 
officer be found, after due trial, to be incompetent to discharge the duties of 
his rating, the Captain is to report the particulars to the Commander-in-Chief 
or Senior Officer of the squadron, and, with his sanction, may disrate him to some 
lower rating for which he is eligible, and the duties of which he is able to perform. 

3. A chief petty officer (O.S.) or petty officer first or second class (O.S.) 
of the seaman or signal class who may be disrated for incompetence cannot be 
reinstated in an ofd system rating, but must qualify for a new system rating 
before he is again advanced. 

4. Restoration of E.R.A.S and Electricians. Engine-Room Artificers and 
Electricians disrated summarily or for incompetence may be restored to the 
class from which they have been disrated, or to any intermediate class, by the 
Captain, but the restoration is not to take place before the expiration of six 
months from the date of reduction without special authority from the Com- 
mander-in-Chief or Senior Officer of the squadron. 

5. All cases of disrating for incompetence or of restoration to a higher 
rating are to be reported to the depdt to which the man belongs, on the periodical 
returns. 

DEPRIVATION OF GOOD CONDUCT MEDAL OR BADGES. 

778. Deprivation of Medal. Any person to whom a good conduct medal 
has been awarded may be deprived of it summarily by warrant for misconduct, 
and the deprivation is to take place publicly, and will carry with it the forfeiture 
of any claim to good conduct gratuity on discharge (see 751, clause 10). The 
medal is to be returned to the Accountant-General. 

2. No person is to be deprived of his good conduct medal, nor is any punish- 
ment entailing the forfeiture of a good conduct medal to be awarded, without 
the previous approval of the Commander-in-Chief, or Flag Officer whose flag 
is flying, to whom reference can most conveniently be made (or in the case of 
marines on shore of the Deputy Adjutant-General, Royal Marines). 

253 



778 CHAP. XIX. DISCIPLINE. 

3. Forfeiture is obligatory. Desertion, imprisonment (see 812 as to im- 
prisonment by the civil power), detention, disrating (or reduction in the rank of 
a marine) for misconduct, reduction to the second class for conduct, or the 
assessment of a character inferior to " Very Good " after a medal has been 
awarded, carries with it the forfeiture of the medal, except as provided for in 
the following clause ; but if pensioned within 12 months of his deprivation 
and before regaining the medal, the man will be considered in regard to pension 
as in possession of the medal. 

4. Forfeiture either of Medal or Badge. A man may be deprived of his 
medal without being deprived of any good conduct badge ; and it is left to the 
discretion of the Commanding Officer to take away one badge without depriving 
a man of his medal, if his conduct has been in all other respects satisfactory, 
and notwithstanding that the deprivation of a badge has necessitated the award 
of " Good " at the annual assessment of character. In the case of men serving 
in non-badge ratings, the award of a character inferior to " Very Good " will 
necessitate the forfeiture of the medal. 

5. If a badge should be taken away without loss of medal, the medal is 
not to be worn until the badge is regained. 

6. Medal absolutely forfeited. If two or more badges should be taken 
away, or if a man should again lose a badge, or if a badge is not regained within 
12 months from the date of deprivation, the medal is absolutely forfeited 
and deprivation is to take place publicly. 

7. Restoration. The good conduct medal of a petty officer, non-com- 
missioned officer, seaman, or marine, which has been forfeited for misconduct 
may be restored on the completion of his time for pension, with the sanction 
of the Admiralty, provided his character during the last five years of his service 
has been " Very Good." 

779. Deprivation of Badges. A warrant is required for the deprivation 
of a good conduct badge or badges, except as provided in Article 812. 

2. Restoration. One badge so lost may be regained by six months of 
continuous " Very Good " conduct, and additional badges by further periods 
of six months, reckoned, in each case, from the date of the preceding restoration. 

If, however, a man has been sentenced to deprivation a second time within 
three years, the qualification is twelve months for the first restoration, and six 
months for each subsequent restoration. 

3. The period of " Very Good " conduct qualifying for the restoration of 
a badge is to be reckoned in the same way as the two years of " Very Good " 
time that must precede an award. (See 741, clause 4.) 

4. The following time is not to be reckoned towards the award or restoration 
of badges : 

(a) Time for which pay is not allowed. 

(b) Time in the second class for conduct. 

(c) Time for which a man's character has been assessed as " Indifferent." 
(See note to 741, clause 5.) 

5. Restorations are to be made when they become due, whether the man 
prefers his claim or not. 

REDUCTION TO SECOND CLASS FOR CONDUCT. 

780. Offences for which awarded. Reduction to the second class for 
conduct may be awarded in cases of gross insubordination, dishonesty, or gross 
misconduct on shore when not dealt with by the civil power, and also to men 
for whose continual slackness or misconduct the repeated award of minor 
punishments has proved ineffective. 

254 



REDUCTION TO SECOND CLASS FOR CONDUCT. 780 

2. It is to be awarded by warrant as a specific punishment except when 
ordered by the Admiralty in special cases of conviction by the civil power. 
(See 812.) 

3. Penalties. Men in the second class for conduct should not be employed 
on special or isolated duties. They may be ordered to fall in for inspection at 
such times as the Captain may appoint, and may be given such extra drill in 
the dog watches not exceeding one hour a day as the Captain may consider 
necessary for their improvement. They are also liable to be dealt with excep- 
tionally if they misconduct themselves. Men in the second class for conduct 
are to be placed in the second class for leave, and remain in that class until 
restored to the first class for conduct. (See 786, clause 2.) They cannot be 
advanced to ratings that are not classed for conduct. 

4. The total daily pay of men in the second class for conduct is to be less 
by one-sixth than their pay when not in that class. In order to avoid the use 
of fractions in the daily rates of pay, credit is to be given at the full rate of pay 
and a charge of one-sixth shown on the ship's ledger in the column for " Other 
charges." 

While thus paid the words " 2nd class for conduct " are to be noted in red 
ink after their names on the ship's ledgers, transfer lists, &c. 

Credits of extra pay, compensation, lodging, and kindred allowances are not 
to be subjected to the above deduction. 

781. C.P.O.S, P.O.S, &c. Chief petty officers, petty officers, leading rates, 
and non-commissioned officers of the Royal Marines, can only be reduced to 
the second class for conduct on being disrated below leading rate (or reduced to 
the ranks) and deprived of all good conduct badges. Other men may be reduced 
to the second class for conduct if deprived of all good conduct badges, or if 
not in possession of any. 

2. Classification for Conduct. All men on first entering or re-entering 
the Navy or Reserves are to be in the first class for conduct. Men received from 
other ships are to be placed in the class for conduct last noted on their service 
certificates or conduct sheets. 

782. Restoration. Should the Commanding Officer be satisfied with the 
behaviour of a man in the second class for conduct, and have reason to believe 
that he wishes to reform, he may restore the man to the first class at any time 
after three months. If the man leaves the ship while in the second class for 
conduct, the Captain is to note, on the conduct sheet, the date on which he 
proposed to restore the man to the first class. 

2. Period in Second Class. Notwithstanding any sentence of imprisonment, 
detention, or cell punishment, restoration to the first class is not in any case 
to be deferred beyond six calendar months from the date of reduction. Subject 
to this maximum period in the second class not being exceeded, time for which 
pay is not allowed is not to be counted towards restoration, except periods under 
sentence of imprisonment, detention, or confinement in cells, which may be 
allowed to count in the case of men who conduct themselves well and who are 
considered deserving of such consideration. Men in prison or under detention 
must be recommended for this privilege by the Officer in charge of the Establish- 
ment, the necessary report being obtained by the Captain in the case of men 
received from prison. 

3. Restorations are to be made when they become due, whether the man 
prefers his claim or not. 

4. Exceptional Restoration. If, however, on account of any particular 
act of gallantry, or other exceptionally meritorious behaviour, the Captain or 
Commandant in the case of a marine serving on shore should consider a man 

255 



782 CHAP. XIX. DISCIPLINE. 

to be deserving of restoration to the first class before he has been three months 
in the second class, the Commander-in-Chief (or Deputy Adjutant-General, 
Royal Marines, in the case of a marine serving on shore) may approve of such 
restoration, reporting the particulars of the case to the Admiralty. 

5. The class for conduct is to be noted in the conduct book, conduct sheet 
(or company conduct sheet), and the service certificate as provided for in 
Articles 826, 828 and 830. 

CELLS. 

783. Cell Punishment. Solitary confinement in a cell is limited to 14 days, 
but when the ship is in the close neighbourhood of a detention establishment, 
the desirability of awarding a sentence of detention (if appropriate to the offence) 
in preference to an award of cells, is to be carefully considered. A warrant is 
required in all cases. 

2. Size, &c., of Cells. Confinement in any other closed place than the 
established cells or under a canvas screen is forbidden. Cells are not to be less 
than 6 \ feet in length, 3 feet in breadth, and the fuU height between decks, and 
they are to be properly ventilated. Cells are not to be made or altered without 
the authority of the Admiralty at home or the Commander-in-Chief abroad. 

3. Accompanying Punishments. Confinement in a cell carries with it 
deprivation of badges and forfeiture of time and wages for the period of the 
confinement. 

4. Diet. A man sentenced to cells is to be checked for victualling on the 
ledger for the period during which he is actually undergoing his sentence, and 
is to be victualled as provided for in Appendix XVI. Low diet is limited to 
the first three days, and is obligatory for leave-breaking offences ; when 
awarded it is to be set out in the warrant. 

5. In hot climates no man is to be confined in a cell in which the temperature 
exceeds 80, except where there is direct ventilation through the ship's side from 
the outer air. 

6. Picking Oakum. The offender is daily to pick two pounds of oakum, 
which is to be weighed when given to him and again when received from him. 

7. Bedding. He is not to be allowed the use of his bed or bedding for 
the first four nights, but in cold weather he may have a blanket if considered 
necessary and specially ordered. After the first four nights he is to be allowed 
his bedding every alternate night. 

8. Deprivations, &c. He is to keep himself and his cell clean. He is to be 
allowed a Bible and the use of religious books, and, if a member of the Church 
of England, is to attend Divine Service on Sundays. He is to be deprived of 
tobacco, knives, razors, writing material, and all secular books and papers. 

9. Exercise. After the third day's confinement he is to be brought on 
deck under the sentry's charge for two hours a day, one hour a.m. and one hour 
p.m. 

10. Visits. An offender in a cell is to be visited night and morning in hot 
:limates by a medical officer ; elsewhere one visit a day will be sufficient. He 
is to be visited in his cell once in each watch by the ship's police. With the 

ception of the chaplain, medical officer, and police, an offender is not to be 
permitted to hold communication with any persons, except when authorised 
by the Captain. 

. Relaxation of Rules. The Captain may find it necessary or advisable 
to relax some of these rules, especially when the Medical Officer, whose advice 
on the point is always to be attended to, is of opinion that by strictly adhering 
to them the health of an offender would permanently suffer. 

256 



CELLS. 783 

12. A man sentenced to confinement in a cell may undergo his punishment 
on board a ship other than his own, at the discretion of the senior officer present. 

EXTRA WORK AND DRILL. 

784. Punishment No. 10. Men awarded this punishment are to be subject 
to the following routine : 
Grog to be stopped. 

To turn out half an hour before the hands. 
To do extra work during non-working hours from half an hour before the 

hands turn to until 9 p.m., one hour of which during the dog watches to 

be, if possible, drill or boat pulling. 
To be constantly mustered. 
To have full time for meals, except dinner, for which half an hour will be 

allowed ; to be employed for remainder of dinner hour at drill or work. 

2. Extra work when possible is to be done in the department to which the 
offender belongs. 

3. If a man has to keep night watch either in harbour or at sea this punish- 
ment is to cease at 8 p.m., and he is not to be turned out before the usual time. 

CLASSIFICATION FOR SHORT LEAVE. 

786. Class for Leave. Ratings and Marines are to be divided into two 
classes for leave : 

First Class. 
Second Class. 

2. All ratings on first entry and on re-entry into the Navy are to be placed 
in the first class. Ratings and marines received from other ships or from head- 
quarters are to be placed in the class for leave last noted on their conduct sheets 
(or company conduct sheets). 

3. Scale of Short Leave. The leave which should be granted to men of 
the various classes is shown in Articles 874 to 876. 

First C/oss. 

786. The First Class shall consist of all ratings and marines, except those 
in the second class for conduct and those who have broken their leave frequently 
or for long periods or in aggravated circumstances, or who have continuously 
or grossly misconducted themselves whilst on leave. 

2. Men in Second Class for Conduct. When a man belonging to the first 
class for leave is reduced to the second class for conduct, he is to be placed in the 
second class for leave ; but on restoration to the first class for conduct he is to 
revert to the first class for leave, unless leave-breaking offences or misconduct 
whilst on leave have rendered him ineligible for restoration to that class for 
leave. 

3. Should a man in the first class for leave continually break his leave, or 
continuously or grossly misconduct himself whilst on leave, he is to be placed in 
the second class for leave, and if a man wilfully overstays his leave after having 
been warned that the ship is under sailing orders he may also be placed in the 
second class for leave at the Captain's discretion. 

Second Class. 

787. The Second Class for leave is to consist of men in the second class for 
conduct, and those who, by breaking their leave frequently or for long periods 

257 



787 CHAP. XIX. DISCIPLINE. 

or in aggravated circumstances, or who, by reason of gross or continued mis- 
conduct on shore, are unfit to be allowed the same privilege as the rest of the 
ship's company. Men in possession of good conduct badges are not to be re- 
duced to the second class for leave. 

2. Restoration to First Class.- Men in the second class are to be restored 
to the first class when they have returned to their leave punctually and fit for 
duty during three months continuously, unless misconduct whilst on leave has 
rendered them ineligible for restoration, or unless they are in the second class 
for conduct. 

3. The time necessary for all restorations is to count from the date on which 
the man was reduced, omitting all time forfeited by imprisonment, detention, 
or cells. 

788. Notations. Every man's class for leave and the date from which 
he would be entitled to restoration to a higher class are to be noted on his con- 
duct sheet (or company conduct sheet). 

789. Boys are not to be classed for leave. (See 876.) 

790. Men who have never broken leave. In every seagoing ship a list is 
to be kept of ratings who have not broken their leave since they joined the ship. 
This list should only be made use of on very special occasions, and the utmost 
care is to be taken that it is not used unnecessarily. It is not to be considered 
a class for leave in the ordinary sense, being only intended for use on occasions 
when any cases of leave-breaking would cause great inconvenience. 

791. Absentees on Ship Sailing. Men who miss their passage, owing to 
improper absence from their ships on leaving port, are, after undergoing such 
punishment as may be awarded for the offence, to be sent to their own ships, 
should an opportunity be likely to occur within a reasonable period. 

PUNISHMENTS FOR LEAVE-BREAKING. 

792. Limits of Punishment. The maximum summary punishment that 
can as a rule be awarded is detention, as provided for in Article 768, but except 
in aggravated cases the award is not to exceed 30 days. Any case requiring 
more severe punishment is to be specially reported to the Commander-in-Chief 
or senior officer present. 

2. Offences committed while on leave or during leave-breaking must be 
dealt with as the circumstances may demand. 

3. Mulcts. A mulct of pay is obligatory in all cases, except as provided 
in Article 793, clause 5. 

4. It is to be borne in mind that the act of not returning to duty at the time 
ordered constitutes the main offence against discipline, and that the time which 
a man remains absent is an aggravation of the offence, and is to be dealt with 
on its merits in each case. 

5. Leave-breaking offences are invariably to be described on the punish- 
ment warrant or in the daily record of offences as follows : " Did remain absent 
over leave hours minutes." 

793. Mulcts. Every leave-breaker is to be mulct of one day's pay for 
each three hours or part of three hours for the first 36 hours of improper absence, 
and for the remainder of such absence is to be fined one day's pay for each six 
hours or part of six hours. No leave is to be allowed for the period during 
which the offender's pay is forfeited. 

2. Up to 36 hours. For leave-breaking for periods up to 36 hours of im- 
proper absence (except in aggravated or repeated cases) the punishment is to 

258 



PUNISHMENTS FOR LEAVE-BREAKING. 793 

consist of mulcts of pay and stoppage of leave on the above scale only, but the 
Captain may at his discretion reduce the mulcts by such an amount as he may 
consider reasonable when in his opinion there are any specially mitigating 
circumstances. 

3. Over 36 hours. For leave-breaking for periods of over 36 hours of 
improper absence, or in aggravated or repeated cases of leave- breaking for 
shorter periods, offenders are to be dealt with under summary punishments, 
Nos. 4 to 10 of Table II., Article 757, according to the degree of the offence, in 
addition to the mulcts of pay and stoppage of leave on the above scale, and in 
aggravated or repeated cases may also be placed in the second class for leave 
if not in possession of any good conduct badges. 

4. Stoppage of leave for periods in excess of the scale is not to be awarded 
as a punishment for leave-breaking except in aggravated or repeated cases, and 
men are not to be reduced to the second class for conduct for leave-breaking 
offences unless they are already in the second class for leave. 

5. Remission of Mulcts. If the total loss of pay (i.e., mulcts and time in 
cells or under detention, but excluding expenses and reward for apprehension) 
amounts to 60 days, any mulcts in excess of this sum are to be remitted. See 
clause 2 (Discretionary Remission). 

6. A day's pay for the purpose of this Article is to include all full pay and 
full pay allowances for which credit is given on the ledger, but not extra pay, 
compensation, lodging and kindred allowances. 

7. Deserters. The scale of mulcts does not apply to men who desert and 
who are consequently marked " Run " on the books. 

8. Deductions from the pay of a man reduced to a lower rating are to be 
charged against him on the scale of pay of such lower rating. 

PUNISHMENTS FOR DRUNKENNESS ON LEAVE. 

794. Returning from leave drunk. A man returning from leave drunk, 
whether such return is voluntary or otherwise, or who is drunk at the time of 
being received into naval custody, whether his leave had expired or not, is to 
be mulct of one day's^pay. For the first offence of returning from leave drunk, 
provided he does not "otherwise misconduct himself, he should not receive any 
other punishment, except in the case of leave-breaking, which is to be dealt with 
at the same tune under Articles 792 and 793. Should the offence be repeated, 
or the man otherwise misbehave, he may be dealt with under section (e) of 
Table I., Article 757, in addition. 

2. Chief petty officers, petty officers, and leading rates may be dealt with 
under section (e) of Table I., Article 757, even for a first offence, if the Captain 
considers it necessary, in addition to being mulct of one day's pay. 

3. In awarding punishments for drunkenness on leave, the Captain is to 
take into consideration the circumstances of the case as regards the disgrace or 
discredit brought on the uniform, the Service, or the position the offender holds. 

4. Boys, in addition to being mulct of one day's pay, may be awarded No. 19 
punishment. 

STOPPAGE OF GROG. 

795. Stoppage of Grog, when used apart from No. 10, is to be confined 
to offences comprised under the head of drunkenness, and may not be awarded, 
for more than 30 days except for habitual or repeated drunkenness, when the 
Captain may continue the stoppage for such time as he may consider necessary 
with reference to the habits and disposition of the offender. When the penalty 

259 



795 CHAP. XIX. DISCIPLINE. 

extends beyond 30 days, grog money is to be paid to the man under stoppage 
for the rest of the period. 

2. This punishment does not necessarily involve stoppage of leave, but the 
two punishments may be awarded simultaneously in a proper case. 

EXTRA WORK OR DRILL FOR Two HOURS A DAY. 

796. Extra Work or Drill for not more than two hours a day may be 
awarded for any period not exceeding seven' days. This punishment may also 
be awarded for one day by the Officer of the Watch, the Officer of the Day, or 
the Senior Engineer, and, when so awarded, is to be entered in a special book 
kept for the purpose. (See 753, clauses 1 and 2.) 

REPRIMAND BY CAPTAIN. 

797. To whom awarded. Reprimand by the Captain is confined to chief 
and other petty officers and non-commissioned officers, leading seamen and those 
of corresponding grade. It rests with the Captain whether a reprimand shall 
or shall not be recorded. 

EXTRA GUARD. 

798. When to be awarded. Extra guard is only to be awarded for the 
offences of Gunners R.M.A. or Privates R.M.L.I. while on guard or in the 
ranks. 

BIRCHING AND CANING BOYS. 
(See footnote.*} 

799. Birching. The punishment of birching is to be confined to boys 
rated as such and is to be inflicted with the birch, as supplied from the dockyard ; 
the birching is to be given over the bare breech, and is never to exceed 24 cuts 
or blows ; it is to be inflicted by the ship's police in the presence of the Executive 
Officer, a medical officer, two or more petty officers, and all the boys. 

The punishment is to be awarded by warrant, and in ships carrying a flag 
or broad pendant the approval of the Flag Officer or Commodore is necessary. 

2. Caning on the breech with clothes on is limited to Boys, and is to be 
inflicted with a light and ordinary cane. The number of cuts or blows is not to 
exceed 12, and the punishment is not to be carried out in public. Caning is 
intended for the serious offences of theft, immorality, drunkenness, insub- 
ordination, and deliberate or continued disobedience of orders. In the absence 
of the Captain, the Commanding Officer is not to order caning to be inflicted, 
unless the Captain shall be absent from duty by permission of superior authority 
for more than 48 hours. 

3. Buglers and Band Boys under the age of 18, when embarked, may be 
caned but not birched. 

DEDUCTIONS FROM PAY. 

800. Lascar Ratings. This punishment when not authorised under 
Articles 793 and 794, is to be confined to lascar ratings. Deductions under 
this Article are not to exceed five days' pay (or, as a rule, two days' pay in the 
case of offences for which No. 10 is the maximum punishment prescribed by 

* NOTE. The power of Commanding Officers to award birching for any offence tried 
summarily under Section 56 of the Naval Discipline Act is suspended until further orders. 

260 



DEDUCTIONS FROM PAY 800 

Article 757, Table I.) in respect of any one or more offences punished at any one 
time, and are not to exceed 10 days' pay in all within the space of any one 
calendar month. This punishment is only to be awarded by the Captain. 

2. A day's pay for the purpose of this Article is to include full pay and full 
pay allowances. 

3. Deductions from the pay of a man reduced to a lower rating are to be 
charged against him on the scale of pay of such lower rating. 



SECTION VI. DESERTERS AND ABSENTEES. 

801. Definition of Desertion. By Section 19 of the Naval Discipline Act 
the offence of desertion is defined as the doing of any act by a person subject 
to the Act, which shows an intention on the part of such person not to return to 
his ship or place of duty. 

2. Absentees. Petty officers, seamen, marines, or boys, who may have 
quitted their ships without leave, or have overstayed their leave, or have im- 
properly absented themselves when detached on duty, and who may be ap- 
prehended before the expiration of seven days, beyond the precincts of a 
dockyard or other government establishment in which they may have been 
employed, are to be treated either as absentees or as deserters, according to 
circumstances, which are to be judged by their respective Captains. 

3. Arrest by Civil Power. If an absentee without leave is arrested by the 
civil power on another charge and is subsequently handed over to the naval 
authorities, his absence without leave is to be regarded as ceasing from the time 
of his arrest by the civil power. 

802. When Absentees to be marked " Run." If any person belonging to 
a ship should absent himself from Ms duty without leave, and if he should in 
the judgment of his Captain fail to give a good and sufficient reason for his 
absence, he is to be checked accordingly on the ship's books, on the day of his 
absence, if his absence began before noon, and on the day following his absence, 
if his absence began after noon ; and should he not have returned at the expira- 
tion of seven days, he is to be discharged " Run " on the actual day on which 
his absence began, irrespective of the 12 o' clock rule for checking, and the 
letter R is to be placed against his name on the ship's books, and while it remains 
there he shall not be entitled to receive the pay which has accrued to the date 
of his discharge. 

2. Removal o! the R. If the Captain should subsequently be satisfied 
that there was no intention to desert, he is to remove the R, provided the person 
has not been treated summarily as a deserter, and to cause payment to be made 
of the pay accrued, the case being reported to the Admiralty for information. 

3. Whenever persons are treated summarily as deserters the R is to be 
placed against their names on the ship's books, but in any case in which it may 
be considered desirable, the Admiralty may order the R to be removed and may 
authorise payment of the pay accrued. 

4. Desertion alter Re-engagement. Whenever any person, who has 
previously deserted, is again convicted of desertion after he has re-engaged to 
complete time for pension, the question of his retention in the Service is to be 
referred for Admiralty decision as soon as he has been dealt with. 

803. Penalties for inducing Desertion. The penalties for inducing men to 
desert or to improperly absent themselves, or for employing or concealing 
deserters or absentees, are set forth in the Naval Discipline Act. See 736 
(Aiding Desertion). 

261 



804 CHAP. XK. DISCIPLINE.- 

804. Apprehension of Deserters, &c. Every possible effort is to be made 
to check desertion and absence without leave, and by lawful means to detect 
and apprehend deserters or absentees. Descriptions on form S. 243 are to be 
distributed as may be directed by the Commanders-in-Chief, but at home one 
copy is invariably to be sent by the Captain to the Chief Constable of the 
deserter's or absentee's usual place of residence, When it is known, and also to 
any other place or places where he may be likely to have gone. 

2. Procedure on Arrest. The procedure to be followed in respect of the 
arrest and subsequent disposal of deserters and absentees is governed by the 
provisions of Section 9 of the Act 10 & 11 Viet. cap. 62 ; and by Section 50 of 
the Naval Discipline Act. 

3. When charged before a Magistrate. Under the first of those Statutes 
any person arrested on suspicion of being a deserter or absentee from His 
Majesty's Navy shall be taken and charged before a magistrate, and by him, 
either 

(a) conveyed to prison pending inquiry of the naval authorities as to his 

identity, and afterwards, should such identity be proved, handed over 
to naval custody ; or 

(b) committed direct to naval custody on board any one of His Majesty's 

ships. 

In either of the above cases, after the deserter or absentee has been delivered 
into naval custody, he may be dealt with under the Naval Discipline Act'. 

4. When arrested by Naval Warrant. If arrested on naval warrant under 
Section 50 of the Naval Discipline Act, the deserter or absentee may be received 
direct into naval custody, and dealt with under the Naval Discipline Act ; but 
no deserter or absentee who has not been arrested under such warrant shall 
be received from the police or from any other person, unless such deserter or 
absentee has first been charged before a magistrate. 

5. Voluntary Surrender. A deserter or absentee who voluntarily surrenders 
himself to naval authority may be dealt with under the Naval Discipline Act, 
though no warrant for his arrest may have been issued, and without charging 
him before a magistrate. 

6. False Confession. Under the provisions of Section 10 of the Act 10 & 11 
Viet. cap. 62, any person who voluntarily confesses to being a deserter or an 
absentee without leave, from His Majesty's Navy, unless he surrender himself 
into naval custody, may either . 

(a) be taken before a magistrate, and by him delivered into naval custody ; 

or 

(b) be arrested on a warrant under Section 50 of the Naval Discipline Act, 

and delivered direct into naval custody. 

In either case, however, the question whether he be or be not a deserter or 
absentee, must be duly investigated by naval authority, and for that purpose 
he may be detained for a reasonable time, when, if his confession of desertion 
or absence without leave shall be found not to be true, then he cannot be 
punished at all under the Naval Discipline Act, but he may either 

(c) be detained and received in His Majesty's Navy ; or 

(d) If not received into His Majesty's Navy, and on conviction of false 

confession of desertion before two Justices of the Peace, he may be 
adjudged to be punished if in England as a rogue and a vagabond, 
and if in Scotland or Ireland by commitment to prison, there to be 
kept to hard labour for any time not exceeding three months. 

7. Summary Investigation in Writing. When any deserter, or absentee 
without leave, whether delivered into naval custody by order of a magistrate, 
or by a warrant issued under Section 50 of the Naval Discipline Act, or by 

262 



DESERTERS AND ABSENTEES. 804 

voluntary surrender, shall be brought before the Captain of any one of His 
Majesty's ships to be dealt with summarily, his case is to be thoroughly in- 
vestigated with a view to establishing his identity, and a note taken in writing 
of the proceedings ; the prisoner is at the same time to be formally asked if 
he has any statement to make, and such statement, if made, is to be signed by 
the prisoner "and duly witnessed ; and the accuracy of any such statement is 
to be carefully tested before the case is finally disposed of. 

8. Notice of Recoveries. Whenever a deserter whose description has been 
circulated in the " Police Gazette " is recovered, the fact of his recovery is to 
be at once communicated to the editor of the " Police Gazette " by the Captain 
of the ship in which the man is received for trial, in order that notice of the 
same may be inserted in the " Gazette." 

805. Recovery of Deserters from Foreign Ships. The Captains of His 
Majesty's ships are to be cautious in receiving men from foreign vessels, who 
may represent themselves or are reported to be deserters from His Majesty's 
Navy. See also Article 362 (British Seamen from Foreign Ships). 

2. Searching Foreign Ships. No officer of His Majesty shall in any case 
search any foreign ship for any naval deserter or deserters. This prohibition 
applies whether such vessel be in foreign waters or elsewhere, and whether the 
officer be or be not armed with the warrant mentioned in Section 50 of the Naval 
Discipline Act. 

806. R.Q. When any person, below the rank of officer, belonging to a 
ship under sailing orders remains absent without leave, the Captain is to place 
an R.Q. against his name on the ship's books, and before sailing, or so soon after 
as possible, is to furnish the Senior Officer with a list of any such absentees, 
together with a detailed statement of the circumstances in each case. This 
is not intended to apply to ships merely moving from one home port to another. 

2. Removal of R.Q. If any such absentee should return, or be apprehended 
and brought back after the ship has sailed, the Captain of the ship to which he 
may return or be brought back is, under the authority of the Senior Officer, 
to investigate the case, taking into consideration whether the fact of the ship 
being under sailing orders was generally known, and if it should appear that 
the absentee had no intention of deserting, he is to be summarily dealt with on 
board that ship. The Senior Officer is then to inform the Captain of the ship 
from which the man absented himself of his having been dealt with, when the 
latter officer is to cause the R.Q. to be removed for pay and time. The Senior 
Officer is also to report the case to the Admiralty for information, and is to refer 
for Admiralty decision all cases in which the information available is insufficient 
to enable the Captain dealing with the case to arrive at a just conclusion. 

3. If the R.Q. should have been placed against the name of a man or boy 
absent under the conditions provided for in Article 881, and if the Senior 
Officer should obtain satisfactory proof of the truth of the statement, he is to 
inform the man's Captain of the fact, who is to cause the R.Q. to be removed 
for time and pay, the Senior Officer also acquainting the Admiralty of each case 
so dealt with. 

4. R. substituted for R.Q. Should there be clear proof that any such 
absentee had intended to desert, he is to be summarily dealt with for desertion, 
procedure similar to that indicated in clause 2 of this Article being followed, 
and the notation R. being substituted for R.Q. against his name. 

5. Disposal of Effects. The clothes and effects of such absen .as a 
rule, to be sent to the general dep6t before the ship sails ; but when tin 
not possible, the Senior Officer of the port at which the case of an absent- 
dealt with, after his ship has sailed, is to cause information of the fact to be 

263 

Bl 



806 CHAP. XIX. DISCIPLINE. 

at once furnished to the Captain of such ship, so that the sale of the man's 
effects may be prevented. 

Captains of ships should also ascertain from the depot whether any of their 
absentees on sailing have been recovered, before application is made for per- 
mission to sell their effects. 

6. Restoration of Effects. The clothes and effects of a recovered deserter 
may be restored to him by order of the court-martial by which he is tried or 
of the Captain by whom he is dealt with, unless they have been forfeited or 
sold in pursuance of an order under Section 24 of the Naval Discipline Act, 
in which case the Admiralty alone has power to. remit the forfeiture. 

807. Rewards for Apprehension. Except in the cases specified in Article 
809, the Captain may authorise the payment of a reward not exceeding 3/. 
to any constable or other person by whom a deserter may be brought on board 
or delivered up to any duly authorised person within two years of the date of 
his desertion. 

The amount of the award should be determined by the attendant circum- 
stances, and, in considering these, the zeal shown and the trouble taken by 
the constable or other person by whom the arrest of the deserter has been 
effected, should be duly weighed. 

Voluntary Surrender. The above regulations for the payment of rewards 
will not be held to apply in the case of a deserter voluntarily surrendering 
himself at any police station, or to any constable or other recognised authority 
unless it can be clearly shown that such deserter had been induced so to sur- 
render himself by the vigilance and exertions of any such constable or other 
person, but exceptional cases of this description are not to be dealt with without 
reference to the Admiralty at home, or Commanders-in-Chief or officers in 
command of stations abroad, so that a full inquiry into the circumstances can 
be made if necessary. 

2. Absent more than Two Years. In cases where persons have been more 
than two years in a state of desertion, no reward is to be paid without previous 
reference as above. It has been notified to the Constabulary generally that 
when deserters are apprehended in the United Kingdom after such a period of 
absence, they are not to be removed from their places of confinement until 
the Admiralty has been communicated with. In the case of deserters appre- 
hended abroad, the Commanders-in-Chief and officers in command of stations 
are to make such special local regulations as may seem to them most desirable 
in this matter. 

3. Apprehension of Absentees. A reward, not exceeding 3/., may also be 
paid for the apprehension of any person who without being guilty of desertion 
in the opinion of the Captain of the ship to which he belongs, either gives 
reasonable ground for considering that he intends to desert, or commits any 
one of the following offences, the particulars of which are to be stated in the 
notice to the police : 

(a) Breaks out of his ship. 

(b) When on service away from his ship, quits his place of duty and con- 

tinues to be absent after the time at which he should have returned 
to the ship. 

(c) When his ship is under sailing orders, continues to be absent without 

leave, after the ship has sailed ; provided that the fact of the ship 

being under sailing orders was generally known. 

Leave-breakers. A reward not exceeding II. may be paid for the appre- 
hension of any man who overstays his leave unless there is reasonable ground 
for considering that the man intends to desert, in which case 31. may be paid. 

264 



DESERTERS AND ABSENTEES. 807 

In giving these rewards, the same considerations that govern the payment 
of rewards for the apprehension of deserters are to be taken into account, 
both as to arrest and voluntary surrender. 

4. Arrest of Officers. No reward is to be paid for the apprehension of any 
commissioned, warrant or subordinate officer, without the sanction of the 
Admiralty at home, or of the Commander-in-Chief or senior officer present 
abroad. 

5. Rewards to Naval Ratings. No reward is to be paid to any naval rating 
for the apprehension of deserters or stragglers, except on the Australian station, 
and then only in special circumstances and with the approval of the Commander- 
in-Chief. 

808. Expenses of Apprehension. In addition to the foregoing rewards, the 
constable or other person bringing deserters or absentees on board may be paid 
such expenses attending their lodgment, subsistence and travelling, as may 
appear to have been fairly incurred and to be in accordance with the following 
regulations, viz. : 

(a) Railway fare (return)^ As an ordinary rule not to exceed three- 

of escort. I fourths of the ordinary third class fare, in 

(b) Railway fare (single) of [ accordance with Section 6 (1) of the Cheap 

deserter or absentee. J Trains Act, 1883. 

(c) Other sums expended in the actual conveyance of the deserter or 

absentee, such as for the hire of cabs, boats, etc. 

(d) Subsistence of deserter | Not exceeding Is. a day while under detention, 

or absentee. j or 2s. 6d. a day when travelling. 

(0) Subsistence of escort : At the same rate as that allowed for petty 
officers under Article 1506, according to the time necessarily occupied 
in conveying the deserter or absentee to his destination and return- 
ing. 

(/) Except in special cases, the only other charges which should be sanc- 
tioned are the statutory fees of 2s. to the magistrate's clerk, and 
2s. Qd. to any medical practitioner by whom the deserter or absentee 
may have been examined. 

(g) When more than one deserter or absentee is concerned, the expenses 
under (a), (c) and (e) should be charged against the men proportion- 
ately, provided, however, that no man be charged any part of such 
expenses if not incurred on his behalf. 

2. When no Reward is payable. If no reward should be payable, the 
constable, or other person bringing deserters or absentees on board, should 
be directed, in addition to the above items, to prefer a claim for such other 
expenses as he may consider himself fairly entitled to, but every case of this 
description is to be forwarded to the Admiralty for examination and decision. 

3. Appeal against Award. If the constable, or other person, bringing a 
deserter or absentee on board, should object to the Captain's award, the case 
is to be submitted to the Commander-in-Chief, who, if unable to settle the 
question, will forward it for the decision of the Admiralty. Should such a 
case occur abroad, the decision of the Commander-in-Chief or officer in command 
of the station is to be final. 

4. Charges against Deserter. All expenses, including rewards, incurred in 
connection with the apprehension of deserters and absentees, and with the 
removal of them to the ship to which they may be ordered to be sent, are to 
be particularly inquired into and paid on form S. 25, if found to be just and 
reasonable, by the Accountant Officer of the ship to which the deserter or 
absentee may be brought, and separately charged against his wages on the 
ledger of such ship, except when specially remitted by the Admiralty at home, 

265 



808 CAP. XIX. DISCIPLINE. 

or Commanders-in-Chief or officers in command of stations abroad. The amount 
charged against the offender's wages (or if this cannot be definitely ascertained, 
the approximate sum) is to be noted for information (but not as a punish- 
ment) on the punishment warrant and in the daily record of offences. 

The cost of telegrams sent relative to deserters or absentees is not to be 
charged against them. 

Gaol Charges. The Governor of the gaol will furnish a statement of the 
number of days' subsistence provided, for which the sum of one shilling per 
diem is to be added to the other charges against the man's pay if convicted of 
desertion or absence without leave. This particular charge of one shilling per 
diem is to be shown, with other mulcts, on the ship's ledger. 

Seamen committed to gaol, under the Naval Discipline Act, as a punishment 
for desertion or other offence, remain while in gaol under stoppage of pay, 
but exempt from the charge for subsistence ; no arrangements, therefore, are 
required in their case. 

5. Constables to be Sent. With a view of simplifying the payment of such 
claims, magistrates and governors of gaols when requested to send deserters 
or absentees back to their ships, should be informed that it is desirable that 
the men should be sent in the custody of the constables who actually appre- 
hended them. 

6. Apprehensions by Metropolitan Police. The foregoing mode of payment 
does not apply to cases of deserters or absentees apprehended by the London 
Metropolitan Police. In such cases the following course is to be observed : 

No payment is to be made by the Accountant Officer in respect of the ex- 
penses incurred by the constable, or of any reward which may be due to him. 

The constable will produce a form, prepared for the purpose, in which he 
will include the whole of his expenses, and certify that they were necessarily 
incurred by him. He will then hand the form to the Accountant Officer of the 
ship, who will, with the approval of the Captain, charge the deserter or absentee 
with the sum shown thereon, together with any reward, if due, and note, in the 
space provided on the form, the fact of the charge having been made. 

The form is then to be returned to the constable. 

The payment of the expenses incurred, and of the reward, when due, will be 
arranged between the Admiralty and the Commissioners of Police. 

809. Rewards to Local Police. No reward under the authority given to 
the Captain by Article 807 is in any case to be paid for the apprehension of 
deserters or absentees within the precincts of a place where a police force is 
employed in any naval establishment, but in order to encourage the local police 
at any such port or place to search for and apprehend deserters and absentees, 
the Commander-in-Chief or senior officer present, at his discretion, and under 
such regulations as he may from time to time lay down, may approve a reward 
not exceeding 11. being paid for each deserter or absentee arrested by a 
constable of the local police within a reasonable period. The reward paid 
is to be charged on the ship's ledger against the wages of the deserter or 
absentee. 

810. Extra Pay to Ship's Police. Whenever the ship's police, or other 
persons in the Fleet, are sent on shore for the express purpose of collecting 
deserters or absentees, they are to be paid the amount of extra pay specified 
in Article 1484, provided the Captain is satisfied that the duties have been 
properly performed and without unnecessary delay. 

2. Charge against Deserters. The expenses incurred under Article 1484 
and under Articles 1506 or 1511 are to be paid by the Accountant Officers 

266 



DESERTERS AND ABSENTEES. 810 

of the ships, and the charges in respect thereof are to be preferred against the 
wages of the deserters or absentees as directed in the following sub-clauses : 
(a) Where the expenses have been incurred on account of one deserter or 
absentee, the whole amount, except in such cases as are provided 
for by sub-clause (c), is to be charged against the man's wages ; or, 
if he is not apprehended or has not returned, will be noted in office 
with a view to possible ultimate recovery. 

(6) When more than one deserter or absentee is concerned, a charge for the 
period of his absence equal to the whole expense incurred under 
Article 1484, and under Articles 1506 or 1511, is still to be preferred 
against each man not entitled to be dealt with under sub-clause (c), 
subject to a limit of 3s. for the extra pay and 5s. for the subsistence 
and lodging allowance of the ship's police where the total of those 
sums will cover the cost to the Crown. But where higher individual 
charges are necessary to recoup the total cost to the Crown, the 
Captain is to determine the proportion chargeable against each man, 
including, in order to arrive at this proportion, such men as have not 
returned or been apprehended ; in their case the charges will be 
noted for recovery on board, or in office, in the event of their sub- 
sequent return or apprehension. 

(c) When a deserter or absentee voluntarily returns to his ship, the Captain 

is to decide whether the charge against the man should be assessed 
under the foregoing clauses, or whether the circumstances of the case 
warrant a reduced charge being made ; in the latter case he is to 
determine the amount of the charge, but in no case is it to be less than 
one-half of what it would have been had he been apprehended by the 
ship's police. The men dealt with under this clause are to be specially 
distinguished on the extra pay lists" and vouchers for the expenses. 

(d) Other miscellaneous expenses should be dealt with in accordance with. 

Article 808. 

3. The names of the men, together with the amount charged against each, 
are always to be noted on the extra pay lists and other vouchers for payment 
of the expenses. 

SECTION VII. CIVIL POWER. 

811. Captain to assist. The Captain will afford every facility to the civil 
power in detecting and apprehending persons serving on board whose arrest 
is required on any criminal charge, but he will require any constable or other 
civil officer coming on board to search for or apprehend such persons, to produce 
his warrant or to show satisfactory evidence of the character in which he acts. 

2. The Captain will permit writs and other legal processes to be served on 
board provided that no serious inconvenience is thereby caused to His Majesty's 
Service. 

3. Money payable under bastardy orders or under orders made in pursuance 
of the Act 41 Viet. cap. 19, Matrimonial Causes Act, or of the Act 58 & 59 Viet, 
cap. 39, Summary Jurisdiction (Married Women) Act, 1895, are not debts 
within the meaning of Section 97 of the Naval Discipline Act ; and consequently 
seamen and marines against whom such orders have been obtained are liable 
to arrest by the civil power for non-compliance with the same. 

812. Arrests to be Reported. Every civil or criminal arrest of an ot'tirrr 
or man is to be reported by the Captain to the Commander-in-Chief, who will 
inform the Admiralty in all cases in which the arrest is in respect of a prosecu- 
tion under the Public Stores Act, 1875 (see 1810), and in other cases only wlu-n 
an officer is concerned. 

267 



812 CHAP. XIX. DISCIPLINE. 

2. Attendance at Trial. Whenever any man shall be on trial by the civil 
power for an offence within His Majesty's dominions in the neighbourhood of 
his ship, the Senior Officer, if practicable, will take steps to ensure the presence 
of an officer from the ship to which the prisoner belongs or upon the books of 
which he may be borne, to watch the case, and, if called upon by the Court, 
to testify to the prisoner's character and antecedents. 

3. Naval Penalties. Conviction by the civil power (whether followed by 
imprisonment or not) or an order under the Probation of Offenders Act, entails 
the stoppage of one day's wages and time for every 24 hours or portion of 24 
hours during which the offender is absent, except in such special cases as 
the Commander-in-Chief or other Flag Officer, whose flag is flying, to whom 
reference can most conveniently be made, may consider deserving of the re- 
mission of these penalties. Should a man have been on leave when arrested by 
the civil power, his time and pay are not to be stopped for that portion of his 
absence during which he was on leave. In the case of Royal Marines on shore, 
forfeiture of pay for absence will be governed by Sections 138 and 140 of the 
Army Act, and, with the approval of the Deputy Adjutant-General, may be 
remitted in specially deserving cases. 

4. Should the offence be one that has brought disgrace or discredit on the 
uniform, the Service, or the position which the offender holds, he may also be 
deprived of his good conduct medal, of one or more good conduct badges, or 
of " Very Good " time towards the award or restoration of the same, be reduced 
to a lower class for leave, or be awarded an inferior character at the end of the 
year, if recommended by the Captain and approved by the officer mentioned 
in clause 3. 

5. In specially serious or repeated cases, with the approval of the Admiralty, 
the offender may be disrated, reduced to the second class for conduct, or suffer 
other penalties. In all cases of reference to the Admiralty, a copy of the offender's 
service certificate is to accompany the report. 

6. A decision upon each case is to be obtained as soon as possible after the 
man's conviction, and if any of the penalties specified in clauses 4 and 5 are 
enforced they are to take effect from the date of the conviction or order under 
the Probation of Offenders Act. The decision is to be noted, with all the necessary 
particulars of the case, in the ship's ledger, conduct book (or, if a marine, in the 
company conduct sheet), and on the third page only of the quarterly return o'f 
punishments (S. 181). A warrant is not required. 

813. Debt Cases. The Captain will be justified, under Sections 97 and 98 
of the Naval Discipline Act, in not allowing any petty officer, seaman, non- 
commissioned officer of marines, or marine belonging to the ship to be taken 
under any warrant, process, or writ of execution whatever, which may be issued 
in any part of His Majesty's dominions, for any debt or alleged debt, unless such 
debt shall have been contracted by the debtor at a time when he did not belong 
to His Majesty's Service. 

2. Persons in arrest on Board. He will be justified in not allowing any 
officer, seaman or marine, who may be hi arrest on board to be taken out of 
the ship under a civil process for debt. 

3. No officer or man in lawful custody on board can be brought before a 
civil court by warrant or summons from a Justice of the Peace ; the only way 
would be to bring him up by habeas corpus. 

4. Persons in arrest sent to Hospital. If any person should while in arrest 
be necessarily sent to hospital, the Captain will inform the medical officer in 
charge of the establishment of the fact in order that he may not be surrendered 
under any civil process. 

268 



CIVIL POWER. 813 

5. Seizure of Uniform. He will not permit the seizure by civil process on 
board the ship within His Majesty's dominions of any articles of uniform or 
clothing which may be reasonably necessary to enable the officer or man to 
whom they belong to perform the duties then or likely at any time to be required 
of him. 

6. Report of Refusals to Surrender. Every case of refusal to surrender an 
officer or man to a warrant, summons, or other process, is to be at once fully 
reported to the Commander-in-Chief or senior officer present, with the grounds 
of such refusal, and the offences, if any, with which the officer or man is charged 
on shore and those for which he is in arrest or undergoing imprisonment on 
board. 



814 CHAP. XX. POLICE. 



CHAPTER XX. 

POLICE. 

814. Responsibility for Police. The Executive Officer or the Officer of the 
Watch, as the case may be, is responsible that the ship's police carry out the 
following instructions. 

815. Police. The term police applies to the Master-at-Arms and the 
Ship's Corporals, and to others performing or assisting in the performance of 
police duties. 

2. Prevention of Crime. He and all the police are to consider it a most 
important part of their duty to prevent crime and the committal of offences, 
but he is to take care that the police carry out their duties with firmness and 
good temper, and that all altercations with excited or drunken men are avoided. 

3. Patrols and Escorts are always to include men below the rank of petty 
and non-commissioned officer, in order to remove from drunken men the 
opportunity to strike their superior officers. A petty or non-commissioned 
officer, or the person in charge of a patrol or escort, should not personally arrest 
a drunken man, except when his assistance has become actually necessary. 

4. Police Armlets are to be worn on the left cuff by men temporarily 
employed on police or patrol duties while actually on duty. 

5. Articles taken out of Ship. The Master-at-Arms is to be careful that 
no public stores, provisions or other articles are improperly taken out of the 
ship by any person, and is to prevent all traffic in spirits or grog and their 
introduction into the ship. 

6. Disorderly Conduct. The police are to take special care to check all bad 
language, quarrelling, gambling, trafficking, and disorderly noise among the 
ship's company. 

7. Visiting the parts of the Ship. The Master-at-Arms is frequently to visit 
the various parts of the ship to see that due order prevails, and that his sub- 
ordinates are doing their duty. He or the police on duty are to report to the 
Officer of the Watch all offences and irregularities in the ship which may come 
to their knowledge. 

8. Clear Lower Deck. When the order is given to clear lower deck, he is 
to see that it is obeyed with alacrity, and that no one remains below unless 
authorised. When the decks are clear he is to report it to the Executive 
Officer. 

816. Duties of Master-at-Arms. The Master-at-Arms is to make himself 
acquainted with all the summary punishment regulations, and he will see that 
such punishments as are awarded are properly carried out. 

2. List of Defaulters. At 9 a.m. the Master-at-Arms is to furnish the 
Executive Officer with a list (form S. 241) of all defaulters under punishment 
and of all men in the report whose cases have not been investigated. 

3. Persons under Punishment, &c. He will have the general charge of all 
persons under or awaiting punishment, until released to duty or otherwise 
disposed of. 

4. He is to visit the men in cells at least once in each watch. 

5. In case of Fire, or when the ship is otherwise in danger, he is responsible 
for the release of offenders from cells or irons. 

270 



GENERAL DUTIES. 817 

817. Store-rooms LockedLights out. He is responsible that all the 
store-rooms are locked at the appointed hours, and that no lights are left in 
them, also that the keys are returned to the allotted place ; and will report the 
same to the Executive Officer. 

2. Fires and Lights. He, or the police on duty, are to see that all fires and 
lights are put -out at the proper hours, and that during the night no lights are 
permitted except those authorised by the Captain. He is to report to the 
Officer of the Watch when any unauthorised lights are burning. 

3. Evening Rounds. He is to go the evening rounds with the officer per- 
forming that duty, taking with him the keys of all the store-rooms. 

818. Bumboats. He and the police are to examine articles brought off 
in bumboats to see that no unripe fruit, unwholesome vegetables, or other 
objectionable articles are introduced into the ship, reporting any doubtful case 
to the Medical Officer. See 1294, clause 2 (Supervision of Food). They are to 
watch closely the prices charged, and any case of imposition is to be reported 
to the Executive Officer. 

2. Searching Men. When necessary, the Master-at-Arms is to search all 
boats and boats' crews or men returning from leave, but not petty officers. See 
728 (Privileges of Petty Officers}. 

3. Effects of Absentees. He is to secure and take charge of the effects of 
all absentees and deceased men until they are duly disposed of. 

4. Men going on Leave. He or the police on duty are to pass men going 
on leave out of the ship, and on their return are to inform the Officer of the 
Watch when they are ready for inspection. 

819. Musters. He is to attend all general musters and account for 
absentees. 

2. Sales of Effects. He is to be present at the sale of ah 1 dead and run 
persons' effects at all payments, and at all issues of clothing, tobacco and 
soap. 

3. Descriptions of Men. He is to be present and assist at the ship's office 
whenever the descriptions of men or boys are being taken ; he will point out 
any marks, scars or peculiarities on the person which would be useful for 
purposes of identification, and which should therefore be carefully recorded. 

820. Lights Magazine open. On the opening of a magazine he is to take 
care that all fires and lights are out, except such as are allowed at that time to 
be kept in, under the Captain's special authority. 

2. Orders to Sentries. He is to inform the officer of the guard of the 
magazine being opened, so that orders may be given to the sentries accordingly. 

3. Opening the Spirit-room. One of the police is always to be present 
when the spirit-room is opened, and to remain present until it is closed, or until 
relieved. 

821. Leave and Victualling Check Books. He is to keep the short leave 
book (form S. 247), and the gangway victualling and check book (form S. 257). 

2. He is to take care that the gangway victualling and check book is faith- 
fully kept and that the proper sheets are detached and taken daily to the ship's 
office in sufficient time to enable the men whose names are recorded therein 
to be duly victualled or checked. 

He is to record in the spirit stoppage book (form S. 766), each day, the 
names of all persons (except marines) whose spirit ration is to be stopped for 
that day on account of short leave or punishment ; and he is to take the book 
daily to the ship's office in tune to enable the Accountant Officer to check the 

271 



821 CHAP. XX. POLICE. 

men accordingly. In the case of marines, the book is to be kept by the senior 
non-commissioned officer. 

3. Record of Offences. A daily record of offences (form S. 240) is to be 
kept by the Master-at-Arms, in which are to be entered all offences committed 
by persons in the ship under the rank of subordinate officer, except marines, 
as well as the punishments awarded to them. 

4. Men off the Sick List. He is to obtain daily the names of men discharged 
to duty from the sick list, and he will take care that the petty officers of the 
part of the ship to which they belong and the police are duly informed thereof. 

5. Patients to Hospital. On a patient, other than an officer or a marine, 
going to hospital, he is to furnish the Accountant Officer with a list of his 
clothes and effects for entry in the sick voucher (form S. 47). 

6. He is to keep the gangway book for wine and spirits as directed in Article 
845, clause 1. 

7. He is to distribute letters and to keep a book for noting registered letters 
as directed in Article 579, clause 3. 

822. Master-at-Arms absent. In the absence of the Master-at-Arms, or 
when none is borne, his special duties will be performed by the senior Ship's 
Corporal, or by such other petty or non-commissioned officer as the Captain 
may appoint. 



272 



CHAPTER XXI. 

CERTIFICATES. 

823. Care in filling up. When filling up certificates the Captain will 
always bear in mind that their value to the individual and to the Service 
depends on the care and deliberation with which this important duty is per- 
formed ; that the future career of the officer or the man may much depend 
on the character and ability awarded, and that a certificate often is a man's 
passport through life ; he will also bear in mind that a lower character than 
"fair" entails the loss, in respect to pension, of the whole of the time so 
recorded. 

824. Officers' Certificates. The Captain is to give to every officer serving 
under him, whether as part complement or supernumerary, on his discharge 
or on other prescribed occasions, a certificate of conduct on form S. 450 ; the 
right-hand certificate is to be given to the officer, and the book with the counter- 
parts of all the certificates given, which are to be exact transcripts of the 
originals, is to be sent to the Admiralty when the ship is paid off, except that 
stationary and other ships at the home ports are to send the book to the 
Admiralty at the expiration of three years from the date of commencement, 
whether completed or not. 

No candidate shall be allowed to reckon as qualifying time any period for 
which he cannot produce certificates of sobriety and good conduct from the 
Captains of the ships in which he has been employed. 

2. Forfeiture of time. The Captain is not indirectly to deprive a sub- 
ordinate officer of any period of his time by withholding from him the certificate 
required by clause 1 ; but if the conduct of a subordinate officer should oblige 
the Captain to exercise his power of depriving him of time under the Naval 
Discipline Act, he is to record his having done so in the log, noting in the ledger 
the time so forfeited and reporting the circumstances to his superior authority 
for the information of the Admiralty ; he will note the forfeiture on any other 
certificate he may be required to furnish. 

3. Officers borne for time in Depots. When an officer is borne for time 
in a general dep6t, but does duty under any Captain other than that of the 
general depot, his certificate is to be initialled by the dep6t Captain for time 
only, and is to be .filled in and signed for conduct, &c., by the Captain under 
whom he is employed. 

4. On Passage in Contract Ship. When an officer takes passage in a contract 
ship, the Captain of the ship to which the officer is discharged is to furnish a 
certificate for time on passage. 

5. R.N.R. and R.N.V.R. Officers. When officers of the Royal Naval Reserve 
or Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve, are appointed to His Majesty's ships they 
are to receive the following certificates : 

(a) The usual service certificate is to be granted on all the usual occasions, 

whether a special certificate of 12 months' training is also given or 
not, and a triplicate is to be forwarded by the Captain to the Admiral 
Commanding Coast Guard and Reserves, Admiralty, London. 

(b) When an officer, Royal Naval Reserve, is appointed for 12 months' 

training in the Fleet, a special certificate form, which will be issued 
to him on appointment, is to be presented by him to be filled up in 
duplicate in every ship in which he may be borne, including time on 
passage, and is to be dealt with in accordance with the instructions 
printed on the form . 

273 



824 CHAP. XXI. 

(c) In the case of Royal Naval Reserve Executive Officers undergoing 

annual or biennial training, this certificate is not to be given, but a 
notation is to be made in their certificate book in lieu, and a report 
rendered on form S. 158. 

(d) A report on form S. 456 is also to be rendered in regard to all Warrant 

Engineers R.N.R. borne for training. 

6. Forwarding Certificates. In cases where the officer has left the ship 
before the certificate can be handed to him, it is to be placed under separate 
cover and sent to him direct. 

825. Assessing Characters of Men. In assessing the character of a man, 
the Captain should take into consultation the Executive Officer and the Officer 
of the man's Division, or the Marine Officer, as the case may be, as well as any 
other officer who may have special knowledge of the man's character and 
abilities ; he is fully to consider all the entries against him in the conduct book, 
or in the company conduct sheet in the case of a marine, and also his general 
character and efficiency, so that this duty, so important both to the man and 
to the Service, may be performed justly and with proper deliberation. 

826. Conduct Book. A conduct book, according to form S. 239, is to be 
carefully kept under the Captain's own immediate superintendence. He will 
be responsible for ah 1 notations in the book relative to conduct, offences and 
punishments ; and the accountant officer for the correctness of those relating 
to dates of entry, ratings, discharges, &c. This book is to be produced whenever 
the ship is inspected, or whenever the Captain is required to produce it, by 
superior authority ; if superseded, he is to deliver it to his successor. 

2. Use of Book. It is to contain a complete record of the conduct of every 
naval rating in the ship in which he is serving, as shown by his badges, class 
for conduct, class for leave, offences, punishments, &c., so as to afford the 
data upon which the record of his character is founded ; and to guide the Captain 
in awarding punishments. Marines are not to be entered. 

3. It is not a record to be kept beyond the period of the ship's commission, 
as it is not desired that all the petty offences committed by men should remain 
on permanent record against them. 

4. Disposal on paying Off. On paying off, or when new books are opened, 
the conduct book is to be sent to the Accountant-General, where it will be 
retained for reference for two years only, at the end of which period it will be 
destroyed. 

5. A folio of the book is to be allotted to each naval rating borne in the 
ship, except in the cases of men on passage and of men awaiting disposal or 
under instruction in general depots, gunnery, torpedo, and signal schools, and 
instructional destroyer flotillas ; the names of these men need not be entered 
in the book, unless they commit themselves. 

6. Particulars from Conduct Sheet. On a naval rating joining, his name, 
and the whole of the particulars noted in the conduct sheet which accompanies 
him, are to be at once recorded in the conduct book ; all subsequent notations 
required by the headings are to be made at the time the occurrences take place. 

On being discharged, the information sent away with him on the conduct 
sheet, including his character assessed to date from the previous 31st December, 
is to be copied into the conduct book, to complete his record. 

7. Offences and Punishments. All offences committed by and punishments 
awarded to any person on board, except marines, under the rank of subordinate 
officer are to be entered in the book. 

8. At the expiration of the year, after the character of each man has been 
assessed, a line in red ink is to be drawn across the page below the record of 
offences committed by him. 

274 



CERTIFICATES 827 

827. Daily Record. The entries in the daily record of offences and punish- 
ments (form S. 240) are to be initialled at the end of each week by the Captain ; 
the punishments awarded by the Executive and the Marine Officer, if any, 
having been previously initialled by those officers. 

2. In abstracting the punishments from the daily record of offences, accord- 
ing to the various sections of Article 757, for the quarterly return of punish- 
ments, the Captain is to be particular in filling up the columns and careful to 
determine the class in which each punishment and offence should be placed 
so as to exhibit a fair and impartial classification. 

Deductions from pay under Articles 808 to 810 are not to be included in 
the return. 

3. Disposal of Daily Record. The records are to be closed on the last day 
of each quarter and forwarded with the punishment return to the Commander- 
in-Chief, who after due examination will transmit them to the Accountant- 
General ; new daily records being opened for the ensuing quarter. 

828. Conduct Sheet. Whenever it is necessary for a man's service certi- 
ficate to accompany him, there is to be attached to it a conduct sheet (form 
S. 239) containing all the information provided for. 

829. Service Certificate. A service certificate, on form S. 536, is to be 
prepared for every man and boy on first entry. When any person offers himself 
for entry, special inquiry is to be made as to whether he has ever been in the 
Service ; and if so, and he fail to produce his certificate, a new certificate is 
not, on any account, to be prepared for him until the necessary particulars 
have been received from the Accountant-General to whom application should 
be made. 

2. Re-entries. In the event of a man's service certificate having become 
defaced during the period he was out of the Service, a new certificate may, when 
necessary, be issued to him on re-entry. 

3. Notations o! Service. The service of every man is to be shown on his 
service certificate, and for this purpose, the name of every ship in which he is 
borne for wages, whether as part complement or otherwise, or waiting trial 
for desertion, is to be noted thereon, together with the dates of Ms entry and 
discharge from ea,ch ship. 

4. Record ot Character. The character of every seaman and marine borne 
on the books of a ship is to be recorded upon his certificate by the Captain in 
his own handwriting, as follows : 

(a) On the 31st December in each year, except in cases of men waiting trial 
for desertion. 

(6) On discharge to prison, naval detention quarters or military detention 
barracks after conviction by naval court-martial. 

Should he rejoin the Service within the year, his character for the 
period subsequent to his return is to be assessed at the end of the 
year, without reference to such period of imprisonment or detention, 
or the second class for conduct resulting from it. See 1186, clause 1 
(Marines discharged to Gaol or Detention by General or District Court 
Martial) . 

(c) On being marked " Run." 

(d) On discharge from the Service. 

In cases coming under (c) or (d), should the man rejoin the Service 
within the year, the assessed character awarded on 31st December 
is to cover the whole of the year, the intermediate character awarded 
on desertion or discharge being ruled out. This does not apply to 
recovered deserters awaiting trial at the end of the year; in these 

275 



829 CHAP. XXL 

cases an assessment of character on 31st December is not to be 
made. 

The Captain's Signature is to be written on the same line as the character 
awarded. 

5. Officers' Stewards and Cooks. The characters of Officers' Stewards and 
Cooks are to be assessed and recorded upon their service certificates on the day 
before they attain the age of 20 years, in addition to the occasions specified 
in clause 4. 

6. Terms for Character. Characters are to be recorded as follows : 

Very Good to be written V.G. 
Good Good. 

Fair Fair. 

Indifferent Indifferent. 

Bad Bad. 

7. Men Absent. Any person who may be on passage, in prison or under 
detention by summary punishment, or in hospital, on the 31st December in 
any year, is to have his character to that date assessed from his conduct sheet 
on his arrival on board the ship to which he is sent or to which he may return, 
the assessment being made by the Captain of such ship. 

Invalids. A man invalided out of the Service at a home port is to have 
his character assessed to date from the entries on Ms conduct sheet by the 
Captain presiding at the survey, except in the case of a marine, whose character 
is to be assessed and his discharge noted on his service certificate at head- 
quarters. 

8. Men recently joined Ship. In the case of men who have been transferred 
from other ships, and of marines who have embarked from headquarters since 
the 31st of the preceding December, the Captain is to take into consideration 
the notations on the conduct sheets (or company conduct sheets) which they 
brought with them on transfer or on embarkation. 

9. General Character Rules. The following general rules are to be observed 
in the assessment of character, but it is to be clearly understood that the 
Captain in each case is to exercise his own discretion within the following 
prescribed limits, viz. : 

(a) " Good." A higher character than " Good " is not to be given to any 
man if during the period for which his character is being assessed, he 
has been sentenced to be punished in any of the following ways : 
(i.) Disrated, reduced or deprived of seniority for misconduct. 
(ii.) Deprived of one or more badges or of medal (see Note), 
(iii.) Sentenced to cells, detention, or imprisonment (see Note). 
(&) " Fair." A higher character than " Fair " is not to be given to any 
man if during the period for which his character is being assessed, he 
has been sentenced to be punished in any of the following ways : 
(i.) Reduced to second class for conduct, 
(ii.) Sentenced to cells, detention or imprisonment, or any two or 

more of these punishments for 22 days in the aggregate. 
(c) " Indifferent." A higher character than " Indifferent " is not to be 
given to any man if during the period for which his character is being 

NOTE. Should the Captain be entirely satisfied with the behaviour, conduct, and 
work of a man for the year, apart from the offence which necessitated the award of good, 
he may assess his character as V.G., although he may have been deprived of one badge, 
or if in the first three years of his service or in a non-badge rating, awarded cells for not 
more than five days, but this consideration is only allowed on one occasion during a man's 
service. An award made under these circumstances should be distinguished by an asterisk, 

276 



CERTIFICATES. 

assessed, he has been sentenced to be punished in any of the following 
ways : 

(i.) Two reductions to the second class for conduct. 

(ii.) Sentenced to cells, detention or imprisonment, or any two or 
more of these punishments for 61 days in the aggregate. 

10. Imprisonment by the Civil Power is not to be taken into consideration 
in the assessment of character unless ordered under the provisions of Article 
812. 

11. Boys' Characters. The characters of Boy ratings of all classes are in 
every case to be assessed on their service certificates on the day before attaining 
the age of 18. When boys have attained the age of 18 years their characters 
are only to be assessed as directed for men in clause 4. 

The characters of boys are also to be assessed upon final discharge from 
training to the general service if they are under 18 years of age at the time, 
but not if they are over that age. 

12. Reading of Characters. After each annual assessment the characters 
recorded are to be read to the men at general muster and at the same time 
each man is to be afforded the opportunity of seeing his certificate. The 
characters, &c., of petty officers are to be read on a different occasion from 
those of the rest of the ship's company. 

13. Verification of Addresses. The name and address of each man's nearest 
known relative or friend are to be verified on 1st September in each year from 
form S. 537 prior to their being recorded on the ledger. (See 1563, clause 2). 

830. Other Notations. The other portions of the service certificate are to 
be carefully filled up from time to tune and all notations respecting medals, 
badges, class for conduct, time forfeited, &c., and other information for which 
columns are provided, are to be made at the time when the occurrences take 
place. The notations are only to be made in the columns provided, and in 
accordance with the headings ; black ink only is to be used ; and all entries 
are to be in manuscript in accordance with the authorised abbreviations. 

2. Dates are always to be filled in thus : 

1 Jan. '85 : not 1 /I /85. 
and the months are to be entered as follows : 

Jan. Apl. July. Oct. 

Feb. May. Aug. Nov. 

Mch. June. Sep. Dec. 

3. R.M.G. or R.M. Whenever a man has completed the required service 
and is recommended for the good conduct medal or gratuity, the necessary 
notations are to be made on his certificate according to the following abbrevia- 
tions : 

In the case of a continuous service man : 

Recommended for medal and gratuity - - R.M.G. 

If non-continuous service : 

Recommended for medal - R.M. 

4. Religion. The religious denomination of every man or boy is to be 
noted on his certificate on first entry ; in the event of any man of good character 
representing himself as having become a member of a religious denomination 
other than that under which he had been entered, and as desirous of having 
the record altered accordingly, the Captain may permit the change to be 
made. 

5. Port Division. On first entry into the Service the name of the port 
division to which a man or boy may be appropriated is to be noted on his 
service certificate in the space provided. 

277 



830 CHAP. XXI. 

6. Bedding. The date of the gratuitous supply of a set of bedding or of 
the last bedding gratuity is to be noted on the certificates of non-continuous 
service men. 

7. Change in List and Number. When a change takes place .in the list 
and number of a man on the ship's books, a new line is not to be used merely 
for the purpose of showing that change, but on the next necessary entry on 
the certificate the latest list and number of a man are to be inserted. 

8. Cause of Discharge. The column for " Cause of Discharge " is only to 
be filled in under the heads given below, using the authorised abbreviations as 

follows : 

'Death. D.D. 
Desertion. R, see 801. 
In other cases the cause is to be restricted to 



(a) From the Service- < 



notations customary in the Service ; in 



invaliding cases the disease should not be 
given. 

(b) To prison, naval detention quarters or military detention 

barracks, by sentence' of court-martial - - C.M. 

(c) To prison, naval detention quarters or military detention 

barracks, by sentence of Commanding Officer, or to cells if 
there is no probability of his returning to the same ship - F. 

(d) To hospital or sick TD.S.Q. The dates of discharge and re-entry 

quarters under pro- I are to be those of ceasing and re -commenc- 
visions of Article ] ing pay, and any corrections that may be 
601. [_ necessary are to be made. 

No entry in the column is required for transfers from one ship to another 
without break of time or pay ; nor for changes in rating, except that when 
disrated for incompetence the notation " Incompetence " is to be made. 

9. Recommendations for B.F.B. The service certificates of all men of 
those ratings which are eligible for enrolment in the Royal Fleet Reserve (see 
" Regulations for the Government of the Royal Fleet Reserve "), of Royal 
Marines and of ah 1 special service men entered in the Royal Navy after the 30th 
September, 1908, are to be endorsed with the words " Recommended for the 
Royal Fleet Reserve " if they are considered to be generally fit and fulfil the 
conditions laid down in the following paragraph. This endorsement should be 
made in the " Special Recommendations " column (page 2), a similar note 
being made at the same time in the " Remarks " column of the ship's ledger. 

Men are not to be recommended for enrolment whose ability is below 
" Good " or who are unlikely to fulfil one of the following conditions when 
ischarged : 

(a) Be in possession of one or more good conduct badges ; 

or 

(b) Have borne a satisfactory character generally throughout their active 

service with " V.G." for two of the last three years and at least " Good " 
for the remaining year. 

The notation is to be made by Commanding Officers during the last year 
ol the men's service, irrespective of whether or not they are desirous of joining 
the Royal Fleet Reserve. If discharged to other ships subsequently to the 
notation being made, except for passage or to await enrolment, the entry 
is to be confirmed by the signature of the new Commanding Officer. The Com- 
modore of the dep6t is to make or confirm the notation in the case of men 
serving in a home depot at the time of discharge. 

In the case of marines the notation is to be made at the divisional head- 
quarters. 

278 



CERTIFICATES. 830 

In the event of any difference of opinion between Commanding Officers as 
to the fitness of any man for enrolment, the case is to be referred to the Com- 
mander-in-Chief of the man's port division for decision, or in the case of a 
marine to the Deputy Adjutant-General, Royal Marines. 

10. Time Forfeited. The loss of time caused by waiting trial for desertion, 
by imprisonment, detention or confinement in cells, by conviction by the civil 
power, or by cases being dealt with by an order under the Probation of Offenders 
Act, is to be shown on the certificate by notations in the division for " Time 
forfeited," using the authorised abbreviations as follows : 

Detention - \ 

Imprisonment for disciplinary offences only 

Imprisonment under the Naval Discipline Act for other than 

disciplinary offences - P. 

Confinement in cells - C. 

Conviction by civil power or cases dealt with by an order under 

Probation of Offenders Act - - C.P. 

Waiting trial for desertion _ . _ - W. T, 

11. Remission of Sentence. When a portion of an offender's sentence has 
been remitted, care is to be taken to amend the notation under the head of 
" Time forfeited " made on the certificate at the date of sentence. 

12. Corner cut off. The corner of the service certificate of a seaman or 
marine is to be cut off when he is discharged with a " bad " character, with 
disgrace, or in the case of a marine with ignominy, and when specially directed 
by the Admiralty. 

Whenever it is considered that a man's antecedents are such as to render 
his re-entry at any future time undesirable, application is to be made to the 
Admiralty for authority to cut off the corner of his certificate if he is not subject 
to the foregoing provisions. 

13. Dead or Run men. On the death or desertion of any person, after 
notation to that effect has been made on the certificate, it is to be transmitted 
into office with the monthly return. 

14. Injuries. Notations of injury received in acts of duty are to be made 
on the service certificates at the time that the hurt certificates are granted. 

831. Ability in Rating. The ability in his rating or rank of every seaman 
or marine is to be carefully assessed and noted on his service certificate by the 
Commanding Officer in his own handwriting on the occasions laid down by 
Article 829, clause 4, for the award of character. The Commanding Officer's, 
signature is to be written on the same line as the ability awarded. 

Before making the assessment the Commanding Officer is invariably to 
consult the head of the department to which the man belongs. 

2. Terms Used. The terms to be employed in assessing ability are the 
following : 

Exceptional, to be written Ex. 
Superior, ,, Supr. 

Satisfactory, Sat. 
Moderate, ,, Mod. 

Inferior, ,, ,, Inf. 

The substantive rating held by the man at the time is to be noted in brackets 
after each assessment, thus : Ex. (A.B.). 

3. Definitions of Terms. As a guide to Commanding Officers when making 
their award the following definitions are given of- the terms to be used : 

Exceptional = A man who performs the duties of his rating in a more 
efficient manner than the majority of men holding the 

279 

TJ 



831 CHAP. XXI. 

same rating, and who is considered eminently fitted for 

special and early advancement. 
Superior = A man who performs his duties in an efficient manner and 

is considered fit for advancement in his turn but not for 

special advancement. 
Satisfactory =A man who performs his duties in an efficient manner 

but who owing to inexperience or other causes is not 

considered fit for advancement at present. 
Moderate = A man who performs his duties in a fairly efficient manner 

and is not considered fit for advancement. 
Inferior = A man who performs his duties in an inefficient manner. 

4. General Rules for Assessment. Commanding Officers should bear con- 
stantly in mind that the ability of a man is to be assessed not only by the 
manner in which he performs the duties of the particular rating which he holds, 
but also by comparison between the man himself and the general average of 
other men who hold the same rating. The mere fact of a man holding the rating 
of petty officer or chief petty officer does not in itself in any way necessitate 
the assessment of his ability in that rating as highly as it was assessed before 
he attained a position of responsibility. 

5. " Ex.," " Supr.," and " Sat." The awards " Exceptional," " Superior," 
and " Satisfactory " are intended to be given to none but efficient men, and 
practically represent the old award " V.G." divided into three classes according 
to fitness for advancement. The ability award of almost every man, however 
efficient, should therefore oscillate to some extent between these three awards, 
and men who have been awarded " Exceptional " or " Superior " before 
advancement should clearly understand that they cannot expect to receive a 
higher award than " Satisfactory " for the first year or so after advancement. 
Before a Commanding Officer gives a higher award than " Satisfactory " to 
any man within a year after his advancement he should satisfy himself that 
there are strong reasons for this course. 

6. Exceptional. The award " Exceptional " is to be used only in the cases 
of men who stand out unmistakably amongst their fellows both in natural 
capacity and in efficiency in the performance of their duties. In every ship's 
eompany there should be no difficulty in singling out the comparatively small 
number of men who are deserving of this award. A fair proportion of the 
remainder of the crew should, in ordinary circumstances, be qualified to receive 

'the award " Superior," and the larger proportion that of " Satisfactory." The 
rest should be easily classed either of " Moderate " or " Inferior " ability. 

7. The number of men awarded " Exceptional " in each ship or establish- 
ment, other than gunnery and torpedo schools, training establishments and 
depots, is not to exceed : 

(a) Four per cent, of the total numbers of ratings borne in ships with over 
400; or 

(6); Five per cent, in ships with 400 or less. 

The awards may be distributed among the various departments of the ship, 
or to one or more of them, at the discretion of the Commanding Officer, but no 
attempt should be made to bring the number of " Exceptional " awards up to 
the maximum authorised. 

In the case of flag-ships, the awards of ability to ratings forming the Flag 
Officer's retinue, or borne for special duty with him, are not included in ^the 
percentage allowed to the ship. 

These ratings are to be awarded such ability as the Flag Officer considers 
they deserve, having regard to the general principles laid down. 

280 



CERTIFICATES. 831 

8. Should there he in any ship or establishment a number of ratings 
considered worthy of this award in excess of the percentage authorised, the 
Commanding Officer may apply to the Commander-in-Chief or Senior Officer 
of the station or squadron for permission to award the additional number. 

9. A list of all men to whom " Exceptional " is awarded at the end of the 
year is to be sent to the Commodore of the depot to which they belong, in order 
that their names may be noted for advancement. In cases where the per- 
centage of " Exceptional " awards authorised in clause 7 is exceeded, the list 
should be accompanied by the written approval of the Commander-in-Chief or 
Senior Officer. 

10. Men in Depots. In the case of men serving in the depots the ability 
brought by a man from his last sea-going ship is to be awarded, except in cases 
in which the Commodore has some special reasons for making a change. 

11. Men without Sea Service. In the case of Stokers 2nd Class and Ordinary 
Seamen who have not served in a sea-going ship since their entry and rating, 
their ability is to be assessed by the Commodore to the best of his judgment. 

12. Failure at an Examination is not to be noted on the candidate's service 
certificate. When such failure cannot be noted on a history sheet the corres- 
pondence relating to it or a notation made upon a sheet of paper, as may be 
most convenient, is to be attached to his service certificate. Examinations 
passed are to be noted under the proper heading on the service certificate when 
there is no history sheet applicable to the subject. Except in the case of men 
passing for warrant officer it is not necessary to retain any passing certificates. 

The educational certificate (Article 380) is to be kept with the service 
certificate. 

13. E.R.A.S. In the case of Engine-room Artificers, notations are to be 
made in the abbreviated form as follows : 

(a) Of their trade. 

(b) When they have been granted a certificate that they are capable of 

taking charge of a watch in the engine-room. (E.R. Watch Cer- 
tificate.). 

(c) When they have been granted a certificate that they are in all 

respects capable of taking charge of the engines of a small ship, 
(Charge Certificate.) 

Acting Electrician, 4th Class. In the case of an Acting Electrician, Fourth 
Class : 

(d) When he is a good workman and deserving of confirmation. (Q. 

Confirm.) 
Electrician, 4th Class. In the case of an Electrician, Fourth Class : 

(e) When he is competent to perform the duties of Electrician, Third 

Class. (Q. for 3rd Cl. Elec.) 
Electricians, all Classes. And for all classes of Electrician : 

(/) When they are fit for the rating of Chief Electrician, Second-Class. 

(Q. Ch. Elec.) 

(g) All engine-room ratings after completion of the instructional course 
in oil-fuel burning are to have the notation " O.F." entered on 
their service certificates. 

14. Stokers. In the case of Stoker ratings who have qualified in one of the 
approved trades, the trade is to be noted. 

16. T.B.D. or Submarine Course. Men holding Seaman ratings who IKI\<- 
completed a course of instruction in torpedo boat destroyers or submarines are 
to have the fact noted on their certificates, the words " T.B.D. Co." or " Subm. 
Co." with the date, being used for this purpose. 

281 



CHAP. XXI. 

832. Authority of Certificate. In all questions relative to a man's character 
or which depend upon it, the notations made upon his service certificate are 
to be considered as conclusive, unless the certificate should appear to have 
been tampered with, in which case the Captain on noticing it is immediately 
to report the particulars to the Admiralty, in order that reference may be made 
to the records in office to clear up the matter, and on the result being communi- 
cated the Captain is to note it upon the certificate, and attest it with his 
signature. 

2. Irregularities. The Captain is to report by letter to the Commander-in- 
Chief any irregularities he may observe in the certificates of men joining his 
ship. The attention of Captains of general depots and gunnery schools is 
especially drawn to this point. 

3. Erasures or Alterations. In no circumstances is any erasure to be made 
on the certificate, but if an error is committed, and detected at the time, it is 
to be at once corrected, without erasure, under the authority of the Captain, 
and attested by his signature. 

Except as provided by clause 5 of this Article, no alteration relative to the 
past is to be made on the certificate without the sanction of the Admiralty. 

4. Custody of Certificates. Certificates are to be kept in the boxes provided 
for the purpose in the office of the ship in which the men may be borne or 
serving, until they are finally discharged from the Service, when their several 
history sheets are to be detached from their service certificates and sent for 
custody to the gunnery or torpedo school, signal school, or general depot, as 
the case may be, of the port divisions to which the men belong; but whenever 
a man may require it, on application to the officer of his division, he is to be 
furnished with a copy of his certificate on the established form. 

5. Annual Inspection. The Commander-in-Chief is to take such steps as he 
may consider best to ensure that the certificates and the various history sheets 
of all men serving on board His Majesty's ships under his command are carefully 
inspected once in each year, in order that any irregularities may be detected 
and corrected. "The fact that such an inspection has been held, and the date, 
is to be noted in the report of inspection of each ship. 

He is to cause all certificates and history sheets passing through his office 
to be examined, and in the event of their being found incomplete or incorrect, 
they are to be returned for correction to the ship from which they were forwarded. 
When this course is not practicable the attention of the Admiralty is to be 
called to any errors or omissions that may be noticed. 

6. G.C.B. and Conduct Awards. Awards and restorations of good "conduct 
badges and restorations to the first class for conduct made by Commanding 
Officers of His Majesty's ships are to be accepted as final and are not subject 
to revision under clauses 2 and 5 of this Article. 

833. Gunnery and Torpedo History Sheet. A gunnery and torpedo history 
sheet, on form S. 1245, is to be provided for each seaman when he is first rated 
A.B., and for Royal Marines on qualifying for a higher gunnery rating in a 
gunnery school or on qualifying for the acting rating afloat. It is to be kept 
attached to the service certificate. 

2. Notations on. The history sheet is to be a complete record of a man's 
gunnery and torpedo qualifications and of individual practice with any gun 
from a 3-pounder upwards ; the latter information is to be filled in immediately 
on the completion of each practice. All acting ratings held by a man are to be 
noted on it, as also the date on which he ceased to hold them. On the man 
leaving a ship it should be filled in most carefully, and should show the man's 
ability whilst in that ship and also his fitness for higher ratings. 

282 



CERTIFICATES. 833 

Use of. The gunnery and torpedo history sheets are important as being 
the chief guide to the officer who may be called upon to select men for advance- 
ment in gunnery or torpedo, whether at sea or in the schools of instruction. 

3. Notation of Qualification, &c. The date on which men qualify or 
re qualify in any gunnery or torpedo rating is to be noted on the ship's ledger, 
as well as on the gunnery and torpedo history sheets. 

4. Disposal on Discharge. On a man being discharged to the shore, his 
gunnery and torpedo history sheet is to be detached from his service certificate, 
and sent for custody to the gunnery or torpedo school at the port division to 
which he is assigned. Should he re-enter, it is to be obtained from the gunnery 
or torpedo school, and again attached to his certificate. (See 832, clause 4.) 
The gunnery and torpedo history sheet of a marine is to be sent to the head- 
quarters of his division. 

5. The selection or appropriation of candidates for higher gunnery and 
torpedo ratings is to be in the hands of the Captains of the gunnery and torpedo 
schools except in the case of Royal Marines, who will be selected at R.M. Head- 
quarters. 

834. Signal History Sheet. A signal history sheet, on form S. 1326, is tc 
be provided for each signal rating when he first passes out of a signal school as 
a Signal Boy, and is to be kept attached to his service certificate. It is to show 
the opinion formed of the man's capabilities, both in the schools of instruction 
and in sea-going ships, and is to be the chief guide to officers in selecting a man 
for advancement or for training. 

2. Acting Rating. Whenever a man is given an acting signal rating, the 
fact is to be noted on his signal history sheet ; if the acting rate should cease 
before the man leaves his ship this is also to be noted. 

3. Disposal on Discharge. On a man being discharged to the shore, his 
signal history sheet is to be detached from his service certificate, and sent for 
custody to the signal school at the port division to which he belongs. If he 
should re-enter, it is to be obtained from the signal school, and again attached 
to his certificate. 

4. W.T. History Sheet. A Wireless Telegraphist's history sheet on form 
T.S. 83, is to be provided for each wireless telegraphy rating when he passes 
out of the harbour training service as Boy Telegraphist, and is to be treated 
generally in the same manner as the signal history sheet. On discharge to the 
shore it is to be sent for custody in the case of petty officers to the torpedo 
school at the port division to which they belong ; in the case of ratings lower 
than Petty Officer Telegraphist it is to be sent to their depdt. 

835. Stoker's History Sheet. A Stoker's history sheet on form S. 1322 is 
to be provided for each man on entry at a depot, and is to be kept attached to 
the service certificate. The stoker's history sheet is to show the man's previous 
departmental qualifications (including experience in running internal combus- 
tion engines, and stoking of small water-tube boilers), and the opinion formed 
of his capabilities, and is to be a guide to the officers who have to allocate men 
to their particular duties, or select them for advancement. 

2. Auxiliary Watch Certificate. A notation (Auxiliary Watch Certificate) is 
to be made on the history sheet in the case of stoker ratings who have under- 
gone, to the satisfaction of the Engineer Officer, a course of instruction in 
auxiliary machinery and the engines and boilers of a vessel or picket boat with 
small tube boilers. 

3. On the discharge of a Stoker 1st Class from a ship, if he is recom- 
mended for Acting Leading Stoker, a notation to that effect is to be made on 
his history sheet. 

283 



835 CHAP. XXI. CERTIFICATES. 

4. Recommendations for the rating of Yeoman of Stores are also to be 
noted on the history sheet. 

5. Disposal on Discharge. On a Stoker rating being discharged to the 
shore his history sheet is to be detached from his service certificate and sent 
for custody to the depot at the port division to which he is assigned. 

836. Sick Berth Efficiency Certificate. An efficiency certificate (form S. 457) 
is to be provided for each sick berth rating on entry, and is to be kept attached 
to the service certificate. The efficiency certificate is to contain a record of the 
man's professional qualifications and ability, which are to be entered annually 
on 31st December by the Medical Officer, and on a man's discharge from ship 
or hospital after not less than three months' service. 

2. The efficiency certificate is to accompany a man to hospital when he is 
examined for advancement. On his discharge to shore it is to be detached from 
the service certificate, and sent for custody to the depot at the port division 
to which he is assigned. 



837 



CHAPTER XXII. 



MESSING, CABINS, AND CANTEENS. 

SECTION P AGE 

I. Messing Officers - - 285 

II. Cabins - - 290 

III. Messing Ship's Company - - 291 

IV. Canteens - - ______ 292 

SECTION I. MESSING OFFICERS. 

837. Designation of Messes. Messes shall be designated as ward-room, 
gun-room, and warrant officers' messes respectively. 

2. Ward-room Officers. The following are ward-room officers, except as 
otherwise provided for in Article 1544 in the case of officers on passage : 

Commanders when not in command. 

Lieutenants. 

Medical Officers. 

Engineer Captains. 

Engineer Commanders. 

Engineer Lieutenants. 

Chaplains. 

Naval Instructors. 

Royal Marine Officers. 

Paymasters-in-Chief, Fleet and Staff Paymasters, and Paymasters, and 

Secretaries not otherwise provided for. 
Assistant Paymasters of four years' seniority. 
Carpenter Lieutenants. 

3. With the exception of Flag Captains, Captains and Commanders in 
command are to keep a separate table, unless in special cases Admiralty 
authority is given for them to mess with the officers. 

838. Mess Committee. Each mess is to be regulated by a mess committee 
of three or four members, of which the senior member of the Military Branch 
shall be the president, the other members of the committee being elected. If 
the mess should fail to elect a committee, the senior officer of the Military 
Branch and the senior of the officers belonging to the other Branches shall be 
the committee, and shall be held responsible for the proper management of 
the mess. 

2. Duties. The internal economy of e^ch mess is to be conducted by the 
committee ; but all irregularities are to be checked by the senior member of 
the Military Branch present, and, if necessary, reported to the Executive 
Officer or the Captain. 

If there are no officers of the Military Branch belonging to a mess, the 
Captain will give such directions as may be necessary for the conduct of the 
mess. 

839. Officers to join Mess. All officers belonging to and doing duty in 
the ship are to join the mess to which by their rank they belong, and to take 
their meals at the public table, unless prevented from doing so by illness. 

2. Supernumeraries. Supernumerary officers living on board who are doing 
duty, or waiting or taking passage, are to join their proper mess. 

3. Assistant Constructors. Assistant Constructors of the Royal Corps of 
Naval Constructors serving temporarily at sea are to have the rank of Engineer 
Lieutenant, and are to join the ward-room mess. 

285 



839 CHAP. XXH. MESSING, CABINS, 

4. Lieutenants formerly Warrant Officers. Whenever Lieutenants promoted 
from commissioned warrant or warrant rank for long and zealous service join 
a ward-room mess, or are in command, they are to be granted an allowance 
of Is. Qd. a day under the conditions stated in Article 843, clause 5. 

840. Mess Traps for the use of Flag Officers, Commanding Officers and 
ward-room, gun-room and warrant officers' messes, will be supplied to His 
Majesty's ships from the victualling yards under the regulations laid down in 
Enclosure No. 24 (revised) to the Guard Book of Special Memoranda. 

841. Advance to Messes. Upon the first formation of a ward-room and 
gun-room mess of a sea-going ship, the Accountant Officer, with the Captain's 
approval, will make an advance from the public money in his charge to every 
such mess, not exceeding 3/. 10s. for each member. In the case of super- 
numeraries, the advance is not to exceed the proportion due for the time they 
will probably remain in the ship. 

2. These advances are to be considered as loans to assist the messes in laying 
in their first supplies, and the Accountant Officer, under the Captain's directions, 
is to recover them within six months by equal monthly instalments from the 
respective messes, but not from the individual officers. 

842. Gun-room Messes are not to be maintained in ships where no Mid- 
shipmen are borne. Cases in which an exception to this rule is considered 
desirable are to be referred to the Admiralty for decision. 

When a gun-room mess is closed in accordance with this Article, the mess 
traps are to be returned into store. 

843. Subalterns of Royal Marines, when embarked, will be paid messing 
allowances at the rate of Qd. a day. 

2. Officers obliged to join other Messes. Gun-room officers in vessels with 
no gun-room mess are required to mess in the ward-room, and to pay their 
proper share of mess money as if they were ward-room officers ; but to meet 
the increased expense they will be allowed the difference between 30s. a month 
and the amount contributed monthly by the officers of the mess, which amount, 
however, is never to exceed the prescribed limit of 3/. 

This allowance is to be paid also to Sub-Lieutenants when in command of 
torpedo boats or other small vessels. 

The maximum amount payable under this Regulation is not to exceed 30s. 
for each complete calendar month. For broken periods payment is to be made 
at the rate of Is. a day. 

3. Warrant Officers living on board a gunboat, destroyer, torpedo boat or 
other small vessel, and obliged to join the mess, which includes all the officers, 
will be allowed Is. Qd. a day. 

4. Warrant Officers in Command, or serving under another warrant officer, 
in torpedo boats, will be granted a mess allowance of 6d. a day when the com- 
mission does not exceed three months. 

5. These allowances are only to be paid for the period during which mess 
contributions are actually and properly paid, and not during the whole period 
of an officer's leave, but they may be continued when the absence does not 
extend beyond seven days, provided mess contribution is paid. 

For messing allowance to Lieutenants on the supplementary list, see 
Appendix I. 

6. All the allowances referred to in this Article are to be credited on the 
ledger. 

286 



AND CANTEENS. OFFICERS. 844 

844. Warrant Officers' Accommodation. In ships which have warrant 
officers for quarter-deck duties there is to be a warrant officers' mess berth, but 
the additional officers are not to be provided with cabins. 

In ships which have no warrant officers appointed for quarter-deck duties 
a mess berth is not necessary ; but where there is plenty of room it should be 
fitted. 

845. Gangway Wine Book. All wine, spirits, beer and tobacco (including 
cigars and cigarettes), of whatever description they may be, and for whatever 
mess or person, are to be entered in the gangway wine book (form S. 251) when 
received on board and also if disembarked. This book is to be kept by the chief 
of police, signed by him weekly, and inspected and initialled by the Captain 
with the other weekly returns, and is to be produced, on request, to the officers 
of Customs. 

'2. Stocks of Wine, &c. The stock of wine, spirits and beer allowed on 
board is to be strictly limited to the requirements of each mess. Before any of 
these articles are ordered by the gun-room mess or obtained by them from other 
messes, a list of what is required, signed by the wine caterer, is to be taken, 
together with the wine book, showing what has already been received or ordered 
by the mess, to the Captain for his approval and signature, and these permits 
are afterwards to be pasted into the wine book. 

3. Sale or Exchange. No wine, spirits or beer is to be sold, exchanged or 
given away (except to guests in the mess room) to any individual in the ship 
not belonging to the mess for which it has been obtained, unless with the 
special sanction of the Captain. 

Issue of Spirits. Spirits are not to be issued in bottle to any officer or other 
person on board. 

4. Supplies of Wine, &c. The Captain may sanction supplies of wine, &c., 
being received for messes at the risk of the wine merchant, provided it is to be 
paid for as consumed by at least quarterly instalments. 

Mess Debts. Before leaving a port, all mess debts, and also all debts for 
wine not at the risk of the wine merchant, are to be discharged, and, if necessary, 
monthly subscriptions in advance may be called for ; but when ships are 
proceeding to a foreign station, or to a more expensive part of a station, the 
Captain may approve of a reasonable amount of debt being left outstanding 
on receiving from the mess an undertaking to pay off a certain proportion 
quarterly, or at other fixed periods, which undertaking the Captain is to see 
carried out. 

In such cases it must be understood that the Admiralty, whatever the 
circumstances, will not be responsible for, nor contribute to satisfy, any claim 
which may be made for losses which may occur ; and officers, for the protection 
of their interests, should make their own arrangements with the tradesmen. 
The Admiralty will not be liable in any case for the loss of mess stock which 
has been taken on board by messmen. 

5. Limit of Wine Bills. The wine bills of gun-room commissioned officers 
are never to exceed 21. a month ; those of other gun-room officers, over 18 
years of age, 15s. a month ; and those of gun-room officers under 18 years of 
age, 10s. a month. No subordinate officers under the age of 20 are to be allowed 
spirits. See 849 (Limit to Subscriptions). 

The above rates apply to supernumeraries as well as to officers of the ship. 

6. Warrant Officers. The Captain is not to allow commissioned warrant 
officers or warrant officers to receive on board wine, spirits, or beer, but, should 
he see fit, he may allow them to draw wines, &c., from the ward-room mess. 
This permission is to be withdrawn at any time if the Captain should think it 

287 



845 CHAP. XXII. MESSING, CABINS, 

necessary to do so. Whenever wine or spirits is so drawn requirements are to 
be written in ink on the chit and counterfoil in the wine chit book (form S. 254) 
and signed by the officer. Collective demands are not to be made. 

7. Commissioned warrant officers and warrant officers allowed to draw 
wines and spirits are to be considered as coming in all respects under the rules 
and regulations laid down for gun-room messes, the books, statements, accounts, 
&c., being kept and inspected accordingly. The counterfoils in the wine 
chit books are to be compared with the ward-room and warrant officers' wine 
books monthly. Commissioned warrant officers and warrant officers are 
only to be allowed to draw wine and spirits by the glass ; bottles are not to 
be supplied to them ; and the limit of 15s. a month is not to be exceeded. 

8. Day and Wine Books. Day and wine books (forms S. 252 and S. 253) 
are to be kept, and, with the warrant officers' wine chit books (form S. 254), 
and the quarterly mess statement (form S. 256), are to be produced whenever 
called for by competent authority. 

Inspection of Books. In the case of the ward-room mess, they are to be 
seen by the Captain, with the mess statement, before the 10th of each month, 
and weekly in the case of the gun-room mess, but all officers' wine books and 
the warrant officers' wine chit books are to be examined by him as often as 
he considers desirable. After each inspection the Captain's initials are to 
be appended as proof of his examination. See 578 (Power of Captain to limit 
or stop Wine Bills). 

846. Quarterly Accounts. At the end of each quarter, after the stock- 
taking, which is to take place during the last fortnight of the quarter, statements 
are to be prepared by the committee, on the forms provided in the wine book 
for wine accounts, and in duplicate on S. 256, for the mess accounts (which 
accounts are to include all the mess funds for which the members of the mess 
as a body are liable), showing the whole of the mess and wine accounts and the 
liabilities of the wine fund, the money in hand to meet those liabilities, the 
amounts, if any, owing by members of the mess, and the stock in hand. 

The statements of mess and wine accounts are to be signed by all the members 
of the committee, and examined and initialled by the Captain, who, in the 
case of the mess accounts, will retain a duplicate copy, the other being returned 
to the mess for the information of the members. 

2. Audit. In all cases these accounts are to be audited not later than the 
10th of the first month of each quarter, by three officers appointed by the 
Captain. Subject to the proviso that no officer should ever be selected to audit 
his own accounts, the Auditing Officers should consist of a Lieutenant, the 
Accountant Officer, and the Naval Instructor. 

The auditing officers should examine all the accounts, whether paid or 
not, within the period over which the audit extends, together with all out- 
standing orders for which the mess may be liable, although accounts may 
not have been received. 

They should also examine the account signed by the wine caterer showing 
the stock remaining in hand at the last stocktaking ; and they are to certify 
that, to the best of their belief after full inquiry, all instructions on the subject 
of the wine accounts have been duly observed during the period under examina- 
tion. 

The gangway book is to be produced at this audit, in order that the quantities 
credited to the messes in the wine books may be compared with those in the 
gangway book. The warrant officers' wine chit books are also to be produced 
and the quantities shown on the counterfoils compared with those shown as 
expended in the wine book. The attention of the Captain is to be caDed in 
the report of the auditors to any discrepancies which may appear. 

288 



AND CANTEENS. OFFICERS. 846 

3. Change of Wine Caterer. Stock is to be taken whenever a change takes 
place in the wine caterership of a mess, and a statement is to be made out and 
signed by the auditing officers. 

847. Settlement of Debts. The Captain is to see that all mess and wine 
debts are settled monthly, in cash or Bank of England notes, by each member, 
as laid down in Article 1609 ; and no private bills or cheques are to be received 
by, or cashed from, the mess or wine funds. 

2. Subordinate Officers. In the case of subordinate officers, a monthly 
list (form S. 15) giving the total of the mess, wine and extra accounts incurred 
by each officer during the previous month, is to be sent by the caterer of the 
mess to the Accountant Officer each month, in time to enable him to abate 
from each officer's advance or private allowance the total of these accounts. 
These sums the Accountant Officer is to pay over to the caterer responsible 
for each account. 

3. Debts on paying off. The president of the mess is to report to the 
Captain if an officer should be in debt to the mess on paying off or on discharge, 
and the Captain is to order the Accountant Officer to pay the amount, or so 
much of it as does not exceed the balance of pay and allowances due, and 
charge it on his pay documents. See 578 (Duties of Captain with regard to 
Alesses) ; also 1606, clause 2. 

4. Monthly Remittances to Creditors. To avoid large accumulations of 
cash in messes, the committees are to take advantage of the facilities afforded 
by Article 1650 to make remittances home monthly, either to their creditors 
direct, or to their creditors' home correspondents, when debts may be due 
abroad, and there are no immediate facilities for paying them direct. 

The payment of mess and wine debts is to be made by remittance through 
the Accountant Officer of the ship and not by means of private cheques or 
bills of exchange, unless such a course is specially sanctioned by the Captain . 
All such remittances and payments are to be verified by the auditing officers. 

5. Balances. In order further to prevent a surplus of money unduly 
accumulating in the wine fund, the balance remaining in hand at the end of 
each quarter is to be placed to the credit of each member in proportion to the 
amount of his wine account ; and when any member leaves after having 
been a month or more in the ship, he is to have his proportion paid to him, 
such proportion to be calculated in complete months, odd weeks and days 
not reckoning. 

The money placed to the credit of each member will represent the amount 
of his interest in the working balance of the fund ; but no portion of it is to 
be paid to him until he leaves the ship, unless there is at any time a surplus 
over the amount of balance which it is necessary to keep in hand for t In- 
efficient working of the fund, in which case it should be divided among tin- 
members in proportion to the amount of their individual interests. 

6. Inspection of Books. When a ship is inspected, a statement of the 
condition of the wine fund is to be produced together with the wine, day, 
and gangway books, to enable the inspecting officer to ascertain that the 
foregoing regulations have been complied with. 

848. In the case of torpedo-boat destroyers, torpedo boats, and otluT 
small tenders, the Captain of the parent ship is responsible for ensuring tli.it 
the foregoing instructions are duly carried out, subject to such special modi 
tions in regard to details as may be approved by superior authority on account 
of the small number of officers "in any particular mess. 

849. Limit to Subscriptions. In the ward-room the monthly mess sub- 
scription is not to exceed \tt. 

289 



849 CHAP. XXH. MESSING, CABINS, 

In the gun-room the monthly mess subscription is not to exceed 30s. ; 
but in addition to this sum 5s. may be charged for replacing mess utensils 
and other necessary expenses, and the following sums may also be allowed 
for extras should a member choose to indulge in them, viz. : 

For commissioned officers, II. a.~] And in addition the difference 
month. I between their wine bills and the 

[maximum prescribed by Article 845, 
For other members, 10s. a month, j clause 5. 

SECTION II. CABINS. 

850. Proper Cabins. The Captain is to allow every officer to occupy 
the proper cabin allotted to his rank in the ship. 

2. Special Cabins are appropriated for the Executive Officer, the Navigating 
Officer, the Chaplain, the Medical Officer, the Accountant Officer, and the 
Engineer Officer, the particular duties of the officer guiding the selection ; 
and in ships fitted as flag-ships, for the Secretary and the Flag Lieutenant. 
A cabin will also be appropriated to the second engineer officer, the position 
being fixed as near the engine room as is convenient and practicable. The 
appropriation of these cabins is not to be altered without Admiralty sanction. 

3. Cabins will be provided where possible for all warrant officers in a ship's 
complement except such as are borne for quarter-deck or instructional duties. 
In ships in which these cabins are marked " Warrant Officer," they are to be 
occupied according to the seniority of such officers, those responsible for stores 
being given the prior claim. 

4. Numbered Cabins. The remaining cabins will be numbered in accordance 
with directions given on the drawings of the ship and such numbers are not 
to be displaced. So far as circumstances permit, numbered cabins will be 
provided for all ward-room officers not mentioned in clause 2. 

5. Occupation of Cabins. When a ship is commissioned, numbered cabins 
will be allocated to the ward-room officers. In the event of the number of 
cabins being insufficient to accommodate all the ward-room officers, the officers 
belonging to each of the following classes will be allowed cabins in priority 
to officers of succeeding classes : 

(a) Watchkeeping officers. 

(b) Marine officers. 

(c) Other ward-room officers. 

6. Warrant Officers. If any cabins remain over when all ward-room 
officers as defined in Article 837 have been accommodated, the remaining 
numbered cabins should be allotted to the warrant officers, other than those 
borne for quarter-deck or instructional duties, who may be without cabins. 

Any cabins then remaining are to be allotted at the discretion of the Captain. 

7. Choice of Cabins. Officers who have been allowed numbered cabins 
under clause 5 of this Article will be permitted to choose their particular cabins 
in the order of their relative seniority. Those who have been allowed numbered 
cabins under clause 6 will have their actual cabins assigned to them by the 
Captain, who will take into consideration the particular duties of the officers 
whose claims he has to weigh. 

8. In applying the foregoing rules it is to be understood that : 

(a) An officer on the complement of whatever rank, is always to have 

precedence in cabin accommodation over a supernumerary or 
additional officer. 

(b) Any officer borne in lieu of one of a higher or lower rank is to be con- 

sidered for cabin accommodation in respect of his actual rank, 

290 



AND CANTEENS. OFFICERS. 860 

9. Changes in Cabins. On cabins subsequently becoming vacant no 
changes are to be made except such as may be optional on the part of officers, 
such option being taken by seniority on the complement being completed. 
No officer in occupation of a cabin to which he has been entitled is to be 
compelled to change it against his will on a senior officer joining. 

851. Ships fitted as Flag-Ships. In all ships fitted as flag-ships, whether 
flying a flag or not, the cabins intended for the Flag Officer and his staff will 
be supplied with furniture in the usual way. 

2. When Flag Officer not borne. With regard to the occupation of these 
cabins when a Flag Officer is not borne, the Captain will occupy the Admiral's 
accommodation, the Executive Officer the Flag Captain's cabins except his 
watch cabin, and the cabins of the Executive Officer, Secretary, and Flag 
Lieutenant may then be occupied by officers to whom other special cabins 
are appropriated, or by officers who are entitled to numbered cabins, if they 
desire to do so, the choice being given strictly according to seniority. The 
labels on the cabins are not to be altered, and in the event of a Flag Officer 
embarking with his staff all the cabins appropriated for their use are to be 
vacated. 

3. It is to be understood, however, that when a ship is commissioned by 
a Captain to proceed to a foreign station for the purpose of receiving a Flag 
Officer, none of the cabins intended for his use and that of his retinue are to 
be occupied by the officers of the ship. 

SECTION III. MESSING SHIP'S COMPANY. 

862. C.P.O.S, P.O.S, and Writers. The Master-at-Arms, the Naval School- 
master, and the Writers, including the Boy Writers, are to mess together. 

2. The other chief petty officers are either to mess together or with the 
petty officers, as may be convenient. 

3. Cooks of Messes. At the Captain's discretion, a sufficient number of 
Ordinary Seamen of each watch are to be attached to these messes to do the 
work of cooks of the messes. 

4. Ship's Steward and Cooper Ratings. The Ship's Steward, Cooper, 
Second Ship's Steward, Ship's Steward's Assistant, and Ship's Steward's Boy 
are not to be allowed to form a mess together, but are to mess with the Chief 
Petty Officers or Petty Officers (Seaman Class). On no account is the bread 
room, or any other part of the ship, except where the men by the customs 
and regulations of the Service are permitted to live, to be used as a mess place. 

5. E.R.A. and Electrician Ratings. If there are two or more Chief or 
other Engine-Room Artificers in a ship, they are to be allowed to form a separate 
mess in the place which will be set apart for the purpose ; and a Stoker is to be 
allowed to attend upon them as cook of the mess, and to keep the place clean 
and in order ; the man so employed is to be relieved from ordinary duties 
in the engine-room. Chief Electricians and Electricians, when borne in His 
Majesty's ships, are to mess with the Seaman Class Chief Petty Officers, and 
not with the Engine-Room Artificers. 

6. The Mechanicians and Chief Stokers are to mess separately from the 
other chief petty officers in ships where separate messes are provided ; in 
other cases they are to mess with the Seaman Class Chief Petty Officers, and 
not with the Engine-Room Artificers. 

7. Hammock-men. While it is to be clearly understood that all clm-f 
petty officers are responsible for their own hammocks, Chief Engine-Room 
Artificers and Engine-Room Artificers, Chief Electricians and Electricians 
may have the option of employing hammock-men as provided by Article 1483. 

291 



8 53 CHAP. XXH. MESSING, CABINS, 

853. Meal Hours. The recognised meal hours are to be five in number, 
and the aggregate time allowed for them 3 hours 35 minutes. 

The routine of meals is, as far as possible, to be as follows : 

5.0 a.m. to 5.35 a.m. - Lash up and stow hammocks. Issue 

cocoa. 

8.0 a.m. to 8.45 a.m. Breakfast. " Clean." 

12.0 noon to 1.15 p.m. Dinner. 

4.15 p.m. to 4.45 p.m. - Tea. Shift clothing. 
7.30 p.m. to 8.0 p.m. - Supper. 

At sea, the ration of cocoa is to be issued to the morning watch after 
mustering, and to the remainder of the ship's company after hammocks have 
been stowed. 

lad 2. The Captain is to detail a Lieutenant to go round the mess decks daily 
when the dinners are served. This officer is to ask if there are any complaints 
as to dinners, and he is to see that the messes are aware of any men being 
away on duty, on watch, in boats, &c. Care is to be taken that his visit does 
not interfere with the general comfort of the men during the dinner hour. 

854. Meals for Guards and Duty Men. To enable the reliefs for guards 
and duty men to obtain their meals without inconvenience, the following 
routine is to be observed, so far as possible : 

Reliefs to take their meals as follows. Relieve at. 



Breakfast at 7.30 a.m. 7.55 a.m. 

Dinner ,, noon 0.30 p.m. 

Tea 3.30 p.m. 4.0 p.m. 

Supper ,, 7.30 p.m. - 8.0 p.m. 



SECTION IV. CANTEENS. 

855. Establishment o! Canteens. As a general rule a dry canteen is to 
be established in each of His Majesty's ships and naval establishments, and 
accommodation is to be set apart for this purpose. Should the Captain for 
any reason consider it inadvisable to establish a canteen, he is to make a full 
report of the circumstances to the Commander-in-Chief or Officer Commanding 
the squadron, who is to transmit it to the Admiralty with an expression of his 
opinion thereon. 

This regulation does not apply to small vessels such as torpedo boat 
destroyers and torpedo boats, in which suitable space for a canteen is not 
available. (See 859.) 

2. System. The canteen is to be conducted on the revised tenant system 
(see 856) except in the special cases provided for in Article 857. 

3. Selection of Tenant. The tenants will in all cases be selected by the 
Admiralty, except on the China station, where they wih 1 be selected by the 
Commander-in-Chief. Due regard will be paid by the Admiralty, whenever 
possible, to any expressed wishes of the Commanding Officer as to the selection 
or non-selection of a particular tenant. Commanding Officers desiring to 
express any wishes of this kind should communicate with the Admiralty 
(Director of Victualling) when the occasion arises. The name of the selected 
tenant will in all cases be communicated to the Commanding Officer, in sufficient 
time, if possible, for the necessary arrangements to be made before a ship 
commissions or recommissions, or before a change of tenancy takes place for 
any reason, ihe actual parties to the contract are in all cases to be the 
Commanding Officer and the selected firm. 

292 



AND CANTEENS. SHIP'S COMPANY. 855 

4. Forms of Contract. The contract between the Captain and the tenant 
shall be in the approved forms drawn up for this purpose (forms C.P. 227 
and C.P. 228). These forms will be issued only direct from the Admiralty. 

5. Adherence to Contract. The various clauses of the contract are to be 
strictly adhered to, especially those in regard to money-lending, and the non- 
payment by the tenant, either to individuals, messes, or the general ship's 
fund, of any moneys or discounts beyond the authorised capitation grant, 
which is intended to be the tenant's only pecuniary liability in respect of his 
tenancy. 

6. Administration. The Captain shall cause proper rules to be drawn 
up for the administration of the canteen, and, in order to ensure uniformity, 
he is to submit them, on arrival on the station, for the approval of the Com- 
mander-in-Chief. 

7. Termination of Contract. In the event of the Commanding. Officer 
deciding to terminate a contract, the circumstances should be reported to the 
Admiralty (Director of Victualling) as soon as possible, in order that steps 
may be taken to select another tenant. 

856. Revised Tenant System. The administration of canteens conducted 
on the revised tenant system is to be carried out on the following general lines : 

1. Committee. The affairs of the canteen are to be administered by a 
finance and scrutiny committee, composed of 

The Executive Officer of the ship, as ex-officio president, 

A senior Lieutenant, as vice-president, 

The Accountant Officer, who is to combine the duties of honorary secretary 
and honorary treasurer, 

The Medical, or another commissioned officer, 

together with such representatives of the ship's company as may be detailed 
or arranged for quarterly by the Captain for this duty. The connection of 
the Executive Officer with the administration of the canteen as ex-officio 
president of the committee is always to be maintained, any assistance that he 
requires on account of his executive duties being given to him by the vice- 
president of the committee. 

2. Ratings excused from Committee. The ship's police and the senior 
non-commissioned officer of marines, as also Messmen, Officers' Stewards 
and Cooks, and Ship's Stewards and their assistants, are to be excused from 
duty in connection with the finance and scrutiny committee. 

3. Duties of Committee. The duties of this committee will be to decide 
upon the administration of the ship's fund, to inspect and examine canteen 
goods, to test weights and measures, to investigate prices, and generally to 
supervise the working of the canteen. 

4. Ship's Fund. The ship's fund, which is formed by the payments in tin- 
nature of rental received from the canteen tenant, &c., is primarily intended 
to meet the cost of recreations for the ship's company, and also for benevolent 
purposes connected with the ship, and the Captain is to satisfy himself that a 
sufficient allowance is made for these objects, due regard being had to the 
proportion of the ship's company who are able to take part in any particular 
form of recreation. In all other respects the committee are to have full 
discretion as regards expenditure. The accumulation of large surpluses is 
not to be permitted, and any balance remaining after making allowance for 
probable current expenses should be returned to the messes periodically in 
proportion to their canteen bills. 

5. Prices. The prices charged by the tenant, except for fresh provi 
&c., purchased locally, are to 1*> tho-r statrd in the approved price list forwarded 
to the ship by the Director of Navy Contracts at the time the agreement is 

m 



856 CHAP. XXH. MESSING, CABINS, 

made, amended when necessary by any subsequent notifications by the Director 
of Contracts of alterations thereto. The tenant will have the opportunity 
of revising his prices quarterly, and during the first week of the last month 
of each quarter will submit the prices he proposes to charge during the next 
quarter to the Director of Contracts, who will scrutinise them and communicate 
to the Captain the approved alterations. The tenant is not at liberty to 
submit to the Captain any higher prices, nor is he at liberty to charge in the 
canteen any higher prices than those approved by the Admiralty. 

6. Reductions in Prices. The Captain may require reductions in prices 
in any instances where he considers that local conditions justify the granting 
of more favourable terms by the tenant, and will signify his written approval 
of the prices in accordance with Article 6 of the canteen tenancy agreement. 

Special Articles and Local Produce. The Captain will also approve the 
prices for all articles sold, which are not included in the price list approved 
by the Admiralty, i.e., special articles and local market produce obtainable 
at home and foreign ports and supplied at fair market prices agreed with the 
Captain periodically for particular ports as necessary. The Captain is to 
lave the proposed prices checked as necessary by the finance and scrutiny 
committee to ensure only fair market prices being charged. 

7. Complaints. All complaints by individuals as to goods sold by the 
tenant, whether in respect of quality, weight, price, or any other particular, 
are to be made to the Petty Officer of the day, and are to be forwarded by him 
in the usual manner. 

8. Payment of Canteen Bills. The Accountant Officer at the end of each 
month, after deducting from the messing allowances the amount due from 
each mess, for provisions taken up on repayment, or for losses, &c., under 
Article 1754, is to pay their canteen bill as far as possible with the balance. 
The Captain is to see that any balance remaining due to the canteen is paid 
by the messes as soon afterwards as possible. 

J). Credit. The tenant is not to be permitted to give credit to individuals, 
and the private bills of individuals when included in the mess bills are not to 
be officially recognised as such, but the mess is to be held responsible for all 
debts contracted in its name. 

10. Accommodation for Canteen Stores. The maximum quantity of 
stores which a tenant, in ordinary circumstances, is to be allowed to embark, 
and the maximum amount of stowage to be allotted for the same, is laid down in 
the official contract. The Captain may, however, at his discretion grant, 
in exceptional cases, a further reasonable amount of accommodation, if available. 

11. Tenant's Money. The tenant is to be allowed, at his own risk, to 
deposit (at convenient times) with the Accountant Officer for remittance 
or safe custody, sums of money which he has received in payment for goods 
sold in the canteen. 

12. Certain Articles forbidden. In order to avoid duplication of stores 
on board ship, the tenant is not to be allowed to stock or sell articles forming 
part of the ship's official supply of stores and available for purchase by the 
officers and men under Article 1700. 

13. Dress of Canteen Staff. The tenant's staff on board ship are to be 
dressed neatly and suitably, and in conformity with any instructions on the 
subject laid down by the Commander-in-Chief or Officer Commanding the 
squadron. 

14. Half-yearly Reports. In order that a complete record may be estab- 
lished with regard to the various firms on the Admiralty list of canteen 
contractors, and also that any new developments likely to promote the useful- 
ness of these institutions may be communicated to the Fleet generally, the 

294 



AND CANTEENS. SHIP'S COMPANY. 856 

Accountant Officer of each ship, establishment, or yacht having a canteen 
established on board, is to forward half-yearly reports to the Director of 
Victualling through the Captain with regard to the working of the canteen, 
stating whether the tenant is giving satisfaction, and indicating briefly the 
action taken to remedy any complaints that may have occurred, and the 
results of any inspections and tests of goods, or weights and measures, cScc., 
which may have taken place : these reports are to be rendered so as to reach 
the Admiralty by the 1st April and 1st October. 

857. Ordinary Service System. In cases in which it is impossible or 
inadvisable to conduct a canteen on the revised tenant system, a canteen 
is to be established on the ordinary Service system i.e., that under which 
goods are obtained by direct purchase from tradesmen, and the general 
administration of the canteen is undertaken by a committee and the Captain 
is to direct the Accountant Officer to act as business manager, and is to hold 
him responsible for all purchases, sale prices, custody of cash, and cash tran- 
sactions in connection with the canteen. 

2. In all such cases, however, the circumstances which lead the Captain 
to consider the establishment of a canteen on the revised tenant system 
impossible or inadvisable are to be fully reported to the Commander-in-Chief 
or Officer Commanding the squadron, who is to transmit the report to the 
Admiralty with an expression of his opinion thereon. 

3. Administration. In all other respects the administration of the canteen 
is to be assimilated as closely as possible to that laid down for canteens on the 
revised tenant system. In particular, the practice of paying a discount on 
the canteen mess bills is not to be permitted, and periodical reports similar 
to those provided for in Article 856, clause 14, are to be rendered. 

4. Shore Establishments and H.M. Yachts. The canteen systems at present 
in existence in the Royal Naval Barracks, the training establishments, and 
other shore establishments, and His Majesty's yachts are, at the option of 
the Captain, to continue in force, subject to the following modifications : 

(a) The practice of paying a discount on the canteen mess bills is not to 

be permitted ; 

(b) Periodical reports as provided for in Article 856, clause 14, are to be 

rendered ; 

(c) At those establishments at which a tenant system is in force, a finance 

and scrutiny committee, composed as laid down in Article 856, 
clause 1, is to take the place of any previously existing canteen 
committee. 

858. Quarterly Audit. All accounts in connection with canteens, including 
all subsidiary funds (e.g., cricket clubs, rifle clubs, &c.) in connection with the 
general ship's fund, are to be audited quarterly by officers nominated by tho 
Captain, who are to be independent of those serving on the canteen comnii' 
and after each audit a statement of accounts is to be prepared, and, after 
approval and signature by the Captain, is to be publicly exhibited. At 
inspections, the accounts are to be submitted for the approval of the inspecting 
officer. 

2. Quarterly Stocktaking. Where a canteen on the Service system is in 
force, stock is also to be taken on the last day of each quarter by the oft 
detailed by the Captain to conduct the audit, and the result of the stocktal 

is to be included in the statement of accounts. 

3. Loss, &c., of Stores. The State is not liable for any loss or damage 
to canteen stores owing to fire, shipwreck, deterioration, or any other cause. 

Mfl 

U2 



858 CHAP. XXH. MESSING, CABINS, 

4. Inspection of Balance. When the balance of money is inspected in 
accordance with Article 588, a statement is to be produced by the Accountant 
Officer showing the amount of ship's fund or canteen money which should 
be in his possession, and in the case of a ship with a Service canteen, the amount 
received by him from the public chest during the month for goods sold to 
the messes. This statement, which is to be signed by the vice-president and 
another commissioned officer of the canteen committee, is to be forwarded 
into office with the summary of cash account (form S. 452). 

869. Torpedo Craft, &c. The following regulations are to be observed 
in torpedo craft and other small vessels which do not possess accommodation 
or facilities for the establishment of a canteen on board : 

1. Supplies. The detailed arrangements for the supply of canteen stores 
to torpedo craft are to remain under the general supervision of the Captains 
of the depot ships, who, while adhering generally to the foregoing regulations, 
should endeavour to develop the system on the lines they consider best suited 
to the requirements of the individual vessels under their orders. 

2. Selected Firm. Indiscriminate bumboating is not to be permitted. 
The Captain of the depot ship may enter into a " Flotilla agreement " with 
one selected firm to supply the wants of any group of vessels which can be 
conveniently treated as a separate unit for canteen purposes, or, in cases in 
which " Flotilla agreements " are not considered desirable, the Commanding 
Officer of each vessel is to enter into an agreement with one selected firm to 
supply the wants of that vessel, the selection being subject to the approval 
of the Captain of the dep6t ship. 

Approval of Captain (D).^-The Commanding Officer of the vessel is to 
submit the name of the proposed firm to the Captain of the depot ship for 
approval, and apply to him at the same time for supply of an approved form 
of agreement ; the Captain of the depot ship is to report the name of the 
selected firm to the Admiralty, as provided in clause 3. 

In the case of torpedo craft cruising, a representative of the selected firm 
may be taken on board (at the firm's expense) to make arrangements for the 
supply of goods at the ports v^ited. 

3. Form of Agreement. The agreement with the selected firm is to be in 
the approved form (C.P. form 230), to be obtained by the Commanding Officer 
from the Captain of the depot ship ; and the latter is to inform the Admiralty 
of his having approved the selection by completing and forwarding to the 
Director of Navy Contracts the detachable sheet provided with the form for 
this purpose. 

This agreement provides for the payment of a small rent, fixed at 5 per 
eent. on the turnover (as shown by the receipted mess accounts) which is to 
be used for the purposes of a flotilla or ship's fund, under such local regulations 
as may be drawn up by the Captain of the depot ship. A small committee 
is to be detailed to deal with the administration of this fund, and is to be guided 
in its distribution by Article 856, clause 4. 

4. Firms allowed to supply. In ordinary circumstances, no firms other 
than the selected firm, are to be allowed to supply, or to send representatives 
on board for the purpose of supplying, canteen goods to messes. In exceptional 
cases, e.g., when a vessel is making a short stay at a port where her ordinary 
contractor is unable to make supplies, ordinary bumboating may be permitted, 
subject to strict supervision, and on the distinct understanding that no discount 
or gzatuities are to be paid to individuals or messes. 

5. Information as to Tenants, &c. Owing to the varying conditions of 
sendee, no Admiralty list of contractors for these small vessels is kept, but 

296 



AND CANTEENS. SHIP'S COMPANY. 859 

the information compiled at the Admiralty with regard to tenants, prices, 
facilities for supplying ships, &c., is available for the assistance of any officer 
in making his canteen arrangements, on application to the Admiralty. 

6. Arrangements in other Small Vessels. The arrangements in other 
small vessels are to conform generally to the above regulations, the entire 
supervision in such cases remaining in the hands of the Commanding Officer. 
In vessels in which an Accountant Officer is borne, the canteen mess bills are 
to be paid by him as laid down in Article 856, clause 8. 

7. Half-yearly Reports. In order that the Admiralty may be kept informed 
of the working of this system, and may be in a position to revise the above 
regulations, if necessary, the officers charged with the supervision of the 
arrangements are to forward half-yearly reports on their working to the 
Director of Victualling, as laid down in Article 856, clause 14. 

8. Loss of Stores. The directions contained in Article 858, clause 3, apply 
to canteen stores in torpedo craft and other small vessels. 



297 



CHAP. XXin. LEAVE OF ABSENCE. 



CHAPTER XXIII. 

LEAVE OF ABSENCE. 

SECTION PAGE 

I. Officers - 298 

II. Ship's Company 299 

SECTION I. OFFICERS. 

860. When to be granted. Leave of absence to officers and men is to be 
granted or withheld, as the circumstances of the Service may render expedient. 

861. Flag Officer or Commodore. No Flag Officer or Commodore on 
home service shall strike his flag or broad pendant for the purpose of going 
on leave of absence without the permission of the Admiralty. 

2. Flag Officer at Home. Whenever a Flag Officer at home proceeds on 
Admiralty leave, his flag is to be immediately struck, and his command and 
authority shall thereupon devolve on the officer next in seniority to himself, 
as provided for by Article 203, or as prescribed for home ports in Article 513, 
clause 3. See 1384 and 1386 (Table Money). 

862. Over 48 hours. No officer shall be absent from his ship longer than 
48 hours, nor proceed from the immediate neighbourhood of the port at which 
his ship may be lying, without receiving the approval 'of the senior officer 
present on form S. 539. 

863. On Home Stations. Officers on the home stations are not to be 
allowed to be absent on leave for more than 42 days in the course of a year 
without the special sanction of the Admiralty, the year to commence from 
the date of appointment to a home ship or from the anniversary of such 
appointment. 

864. Home Ports. The Commander-in-Chief at Sheerness, Chatham, 
Portsmouth, Plymouth, and the Flag Officer Commanding at Queenstown 
may, provided the Service will admit of it without inconvenience, grant officers 
in command of ships present and under his orders, leave of absence not exceeding 
four days, and to the other officers 42 days. 

2. A Flag Officer present, senior to the Officer Commanding for the time 
being at any of those ports, may grant the same amount of leave to the officers 
of the ships under his orders, subject to the same provision. 

3. At other places in the United Kingdom the Senior Officer in the same 
circumstances, may grant leave of absence in accordance with such instructions 
as the Admiralty may from time to time issue. 

865. Applications. All applications for leave, or for extension of leave, 
are to be made by officers of ships through their Captains. 

866. Movements on Leave. All officers on leave are to keep their Captains 
informed of their movements in case the exigencies of the Service should 
require their recall by telegraph or by letter. 

867. Leave Abroad. Officers, whether on the active or retired list, are 
not to proceed abroad without first obtaining permission from the Admiralty. 
Officers serving are to apply through their Commanding Officers. 

298 



OFFICERS. 

868. Disposable Officers. Commissioned and subordinate officers borne foi 
disposal in general depots may be granted leave not exceeding six weeks ; 
but this leave is not to be granted to Acting Sub- Lieutenants when it will 
interfere with their examinations. 



While serving Abroad. Applications from officers serving abroad 
for leave of absence to proceed beyond the limits of the station are to be 
submitted to the Admiralty. The applications are to explain fully the necessi- 
ties of the case, and, in forwarding them to the Admiralty, the Commander- 
in-Chief is to state whether he considers the urgency so great as to justify 
leave being granted. 

Should an officer desire it, the application, in sufficient detail, may be 
forwarded to the Admiralty by telegraph, the cost of the message and of the 
reply being chargeable to the officer. 

At places not in telegraphic communication with England, if the Commander- 
in-Chief should consider that it is absolutely necessary, he may grant permission 
to an officer to leave the station on which he is serving ; but all the circum- 
stances of the case are to be reported fully to the Admiralty by letter. 

870. On return from Abroad. All officers below the rank of Flag Officer 
are, on their return from service on foreign stations, to be allowed leave for 
the period specified in Article 1398. 

871. Ships under Sailing Orders. No application for leave of absence 
from the port from any officer or other person belonging to a ship under sailing 
orders, or about to proceed to sea, will be entertained except in the most urgen* 
circumstances ; and no such leave is to be given at home without the sanctioi 
of the Admiralty. 

SECTION II. SHIP'S COMPANY. 

872. Long Leave. Ships' companies of all ships on foreign service will 
be granted leave according to the following scale : 

(a) Seven days' leave for each completed period of six months' service ; 

(b) Leave for periods of service less than six months to be reckoned at 

one day for each complete months' service. 

The crews of ships on foreign service will receive their accumulated 'annual 
leave on paying off at the end of the commission. 

2. The crews of vessels of the Third Fleet, and of Harbour Ships and Shore 
Establishments, will be granted leave on the same scale at such times as may 
be convenient to the Service. 

In the case of seagoing vessels under the orders of the Commanders-in- 
Chief at the home ports which spend considerable periods away from the 
port, discretion is given to the Commander-in-Chief to grant not more than 
seven days' extra long leave in each year in addition to that laid down in 
the above scale. 

3. The crews of seagoing ships in home waters other than vessels of the 
Third Fleet, and vessels under the orders of the Commanders-in-Chief at the- 
home ports, will be granted 28 days' leave in each year at such periods as the 
Admiralty shall determine. These periods will usually be at Christmas, Easter, 
and during refit. 

Under this rule are included the Training Squadron and the seagoing 
training cruisers for Cadets, with the exception of vessels stationed at Gibraltar 
or employed off the coasts of Africa and North and South America to which 
clause 1 applies. 

290 



872 CHAP. XXnj. LEAVE OF ABSENCE. 

4. Leave due to the ships' companies of vessels under the orders of the 
Commander-in-Chief, Home Fleets, the Commanders-in-Chief at the home 
ports, the Rear-Admiral Commanding the Training Squadron, and the Admiral 
Commanding Coast Guard and Reserves, should be taken before the vessel 
pays off. Leave on paying off will only be granted to the ships' companies 
of such vessels in special circumstances, which should be represented to the 
Admiralty at least a month before the ship is expected to pay off. 

5. Proposals for giving long leave to vessels referred to in clause 3 are to 
be submitted for Admiralty approval, with the exception of leave which may 
be granted while a vessel is under refit. 

6. Long leave to ships' companies of boys' training establishments is to 
be governed by the Training Service Regulations. 

873. Non-C.S. Men paying off. Non-continuous service petty officers 
and men belonging to ships about to be paid off, if they wish to remain in the 
Service with a fresh entry, and are accepted, will be allowed long leave, with 
the advantage of continuing pay and time ; but if they do not return at the 
expiration of their leave they will be discharged from the books of the ship 
in which they are borne, and forfeit their claim to pay and time from the date 
of being paid off. See 358, clause 8 (Full Pay Leave of Officers Stewards and 
Cooks). 

2. Men re-engaging. One month should be granted to men re-engaging 
at the home ports after completing time for pension, and 14 days to men 
re-engaging after completing first continuous service engagement, if no incon- 
venience to the Service is caused thereby. 

874. Classification for Leave. The classification for leave of the ship's 
company is provided for in Articles 785 to 790. 

2. General Holidays. The following days are to be observed as far as 
possible as general holidays by ships in home waters : 

The day set apart for the celebration of the birth of the Sovereign. 
First Monday in August. 
Whit Monday. 

3. Short Leave in Shore Establishments, &c. (a) In shore establishments 
and harbour ships, leave to men in the first class for leave should be arranged 
on the principle of giving them the. maximum amount of short leave which 
can be granted without the ship or establishment suffering in efficiency. This 
leave may be arranged by sections, watches, and parts of watches, or by 
retaining a duty party, but chief petty officers are to be granted leave whenever 
the Service admits of it, irrespective of watch. Attention is directed to the 
necessity of retaining sufficient petty officers for the efficient supervision 
of men not granted leave. 

(b) Men in the second class for leave are to be allowed leave only when 
and where the Captain may decide, but never less frequently than once a 
month if the Service admits. 

Men should be encouraged to return on board at night, and every facility 
given them for so doing. 

As far as possible, the arrangements for all the large establishments in the 
same port should be similar. 

4. Ships at exposed Anchorages. In the case of vessels lying at exposed 
anchorages within the limits of the home ports, leave is to be given to one 
watch only at a time. The above scale is to be applied so far as is possible 
consistently with the observance of this precaution. Fully-manned vessels 
inside the home ports may be allowed to give leave to more than 50 per cent. 
of their complement at one time, but sufficient men are to be retained for the 

300 



SHIP'S COMPANY. 874 

efficiency and safety of the vessels. As regards vessels with less than a full 
complement, when they are in the stream, at moorings, or at their own anchors, 
the general rule should be that 50 per cent, of the reduced complement should 
be on board at night. 

5. Tenders and Auxiliaries. Commanding Officers of tenders and auxiliaries 
to ships and establishments are to make arrangements conforming with the 
above rules for leave as far as possible. 

6. Boys' Training Establishments. Ratings in boys' training establishments 
when in the second class for leave are to receive leave in accordance with the 
above regulations. 

Ratings in the boys' training establishments when in the first class for 
leave are to receive leave as laid down in the Training Service Regulations. 

7. The time of going on and returning from week-end leave to be arranged 
at the discretion of the Commander-in-Chief to suit circumstances (railway 
facilities, &c.) at each port, but as a general rule leave should not commence 
before noon on Saturday, and should expire on Monday morning. See 876 
(Young men and boys). 

875. Short Leave, except at Home Ports. In all cases, other than those 
dealt with in Articles 874 and 876, the scale of short leave will be as follows : 

(a) Chief petty officers are to be granted leave whenever the Service admits 

of it. 

(b) Ratings in the first class for leave are to be allowed leave to the fullest 

extent possible, when such leave can properly be given and the Service 
admits of it. 

(c) Men in the second class for leave are to be allowed leave only when 

and where the Captain may decide, but at least once a month if the 
Service admits. 

2. Foreign Stations. Commanders-in-Chief will give such orders relative 
to leave on their respective stations as the climate or local circumstances may 
make expedient. 

3. Permission of Senior Officer. Captains of ships in company are not 
to grant leave without previous communication with the senior officer present, 
in order that, so far as possible, the same leave may be given to the different 
ships' companies. 

876. Young men of the seaman and stoker classes, except in special 
circumstances, are not to be allowed all-night leave until they become Able 
Seamen, Stokers First Class, or reach the age of 20. The application of this 
rule to ratings of other classes under the age of 20 is at the discretion of 
the Captain. 

2. In barracks, &c., ships alongside dockyards or in enclosed harbours 
where it is easy to bring men off at night, these young men are to be granted 
leave whenever it is given to men in their class for leave, but they are not to 
be allowed to sleep ashore, except when visiting parents or other relatives, 
or in other special circumstances. 

3. In other places where there may be a doubt as to the advisability of 
sending for them at night, they are to return to their ships in time for supper, 
and in these circumstances they are, when possible, to be allowed to land on 
two afternoons a week at 1.30 p.m. The Captain may, however, make an 
exception to this rule when he is satisfied that night leave is required for the 
purpose of staying with parents or other relatives, or in other special circum- 
stances. 

4. Boys are frequently to be allowed leave at such ports as are considered 
suitable for the purpose, but they are not to be allowed to sleep out of the 

301 



876 CHAP. XXm. LEAVE OF ABSENCE. 

ship except in special cases with the Captain's permission. They should, 
as a rule, return from leave in time for supper. 

877. Short Leave Book. All leave not exceeding 48 hours granted to 
petty officers, seamen, marines, and boys is to be recorded in the short leave 
book (form S. 247). Separate short leave books are to be kept for seamen 
and for marines. 

When a man does not return at the expiration of his short leave, he is to 
be immediately checked if his absence should occur before noon, and his name 
is to be entered in the gangway check book kept by the Master-at-Arms, or 
by the senior non-commissioned officer. See 1684 (Victualling and Check 
Book). 

The books are to be sent to the ship's office whenever required ; when 
filled, they are to be lodged in that office for safe custody, and they are to be 
destroyed on paying off. 

Long Leave. All leave exceeding 48 hours s to be recorded in the gangway 
check book (form S. 258). 

Further instructions relative to the record of leave which are printed in 
the short leave book are to be complied with. 

2'. Leave Tickets.- At the home stations and in British possessions abroad, 
all petty officers, seamen, marines, and boys, proceeding on leave exceeding 
48 hours, are to be furnished with leave tickets (form S. 248). 

Tickets may also be given, if considered desirable, in cases of men proceeding 
on leave not exceeding 48 hours. 

The counterfoils of the tickets are to be initialled by the Executive Officer 
and Marine Officer respectively, when they sign the tickets, and are to be 
sent to the ship's office whenever required by the Accountant Officer, for the 
purpose of examination or check. Erasures are not to be made in the tickets 
nor in the counterfoils, nor are any counterfoils to be removed. 

When the book is finished the counterfoils are to be sent to the ship's office 
for safe custody ; and they are to be sent to the Accountant-General on paying 
off, unless called for at an earlier date. 

878. Limits of Leave. Men are never to be granted more than four days' 
leave at any one time without the permission of the senior officer present ; 
nor are they to be allowed to be absent from the port in such numbers as to 
interfere with the efficiency of their ships in the event of their being suddenly 
called upon for service, without the sanction of the Admiralty, or, abroad, 
of the Commander-in-Chief. 

" Blue Peter." Whenever the " Blue Peter " is hoisted in any ship, it 
is to be understood as recalling all persons belonging to her who may be on 
leave, and they are immediately to return to the ship. 

879. Leave after paying off. Men and boys proceeding on paying-off 
leave are to be warned that they are to return to their own ships, or to the 
general depots of their own port division, and that they are not at liberty to 
return to any other port. If, at the expiration of their leave, they should 
be without means to enable them to return to their proper ships they may 
repair to the nearest of His Majesty's ships, recruiting, or Coast Guard stations ; 
but in that case they will forthwith be forwarded to the ship to which they 
properly belong, and the cost of forwarding them is to be charged against 
their wages. They are also to be informed that no magistrate nor other civil 
authority has power to extend leave ; and that if they fall ill and are thereby 
prevented from returning when their leave has expired, they should forward 
medical certificates weekly to their ships or to their general depot. 

302 



SHIP'S COMPANY. 879 

2. Travelling Warrants for return. Officers who issue travelling warrants 
to men on leave, to enable them to return to their ships, are to give immediate 
notice thereof to their Captains, in order that the cost of the warrants may be 
duly charged in the ledger. 

.'!. Loss of Liberty Ticket. Cases having occurred of men improix-rlv 
obtaining travelling warrants, the following rules are to be made generally 
known among the men serving on board His Majesty's ships : 

(a) If he should lose his liberty ticket, he must apply for a warrant in 
sufficient time for inquiry as to the facts of his case. If in London, 
he must apply to the Accountant-General's Department, Admiralty, 
before 4 p.m. 

(6) In no circumstances will a man be granted a warrant unless he applies 
personally in uniform. 

880. Medical Attendance on Leave. If any man or boy should be taken 
ill whilst on leave, he is without delay to- report the fact, or cause it to be 
reported to the Captain of his ship, or, if near any other of His Majesty's ships, 
or a Coast Guard station, to the Commanding Officer of such ship or station. 
If the naval officer who receives the report is not the man's Commanding 
Officer, he will at once inform the Captain of the ship to which the man belongs 
or the Commodore of his division. 

2. If the patient's home should be near a port at which one of His Majesty's 
ships is stationed, or near a Coast Guard station, the naval officer who receives 
the report will make arrangements for him to be visited by a naval Medical 
Officer or a Surgeon and Agent, in order that his sickness may be fully reported 
upon with a view to ascertaining whether he is fit to travel. If so he is to be 
sent at once either to his ship, or to a naval hospital, as the nature of his illness 
may require. If he is not fit to travel, his home, when offering the necessary 
facilities for treatment, is to be regarded as sick quarters, and he is to be treated 
as a naval patient, either under the King's Regulations or the Sick Quarters' 
Regulations, as the particular case may require. 

3. The Surgeon and Agent in charge of a patient is instructed to send at 
the end of 14 days, and fortnightly thereafter, a report on the case to the 
man's Captain. If the man belongs to a ship under orders for a foreign station, 
this report is to be sent to the Captain of the man's dep6t who will, if necessary, 
forward it to the ship. As soon as a patient requiring hospital treatment is 
fit to travel he will be discharged to the nearest naval hospital, accompanied 
by a certificate (form M. 212), a copy of which will be forwarded by the Surgeon 
and Agent to the Captain of the man's ship or the Commodore of the depot 
as necessary. A man who does not require hospital treatment will be sent, 
as soon as he is fit to travel, to his ship, or, if the vessel is not in or near port, 
to the nearest Coast Guard station, a copy of form M. 212 reporting his discharge 
being sent to the Captain of his ship. 

4. If the patient is unfit to travel and his residence is not near a ship or 
Coast Guard station, the Captain of the ship to which he belongs is to require 
him to furnish a certificate from a duly qualified medical practitioner specifying 
the nature of the illness, and stating explicitly that the man is unfit to travrl. 
A similar certificate is to be furnished weekly until the man is fit to tnivrl 
(not necessarily fit for duty) or is removed to a naval hospital or invalided. 

.Upon receipt of the certificates the man may be granted, with Admirnltv 
approval, a sick allowance of 2s. a day, for a period not exceeding one or otlu-r 
of the periods specified in clauses 5 and 6. This allowance is to cover board, 
lodging, and medical attendance ; and it is to be distinctly understood th.it 
the Admiralty will not pay the bills of any private practitioner whom tin- 
patient, or his relations, may have called in. The allowance is not to be paid 



880 CHAP. XXm. LEAVE OF ABSENCE. 

without previous reference to the Accountant-General of the Navy, but the 
Captain, if he thinks fit (particularly in cases of prolonged sickness), may 
apply for authority to pay the allowance weekly from the ship, such allowance 
being granted for the purpose of ensuring that the" patient is properly cared 
for, with a view to his speedy cure and return to his ship. The medical 
certificates should accompany all applications for payment of the allowance. 

5. A continuous service man or boy, or a marine borne on the books of 
one of His Majesty's ships, may be granted the allowance either until pronounced 
fit for return to his ship, or for removal to hospital, or until he is invalided ; 
provided that in no case is payment made for more than 91 days without the 
express sanction of the Admiralty. 

6. A non-continuous service man will not be granted the allowance for 
more than 30 days, except when specially authorised by the Admiralty. 

7. If the officer receiving the report of illness should not be the Captain 
of the ship to which the man or boy belongs, he is to keep such Captain fully 
informed of any action that may ~be taken in the case, and of the patient's 
progress, and ultimate recovery or otherwise. 

8. A special report on the illness of any man or boy sick on shore is to be 
made by the Medical Officer of the ship, through his Commanding Officer, 
to the Medical Director-General as soon as the man or boy completes the 
period of sickness for which full pay is allowed under Article 1425, or earlier 
if the sickness is of such a nature that it is improbable that the patient will 
again be fit for general service. The Medical Director-General will arrange, 
if desirable, that a survey shall be held on the man or boy at his own home 
by a naval or private practitioner, so that, when necessary, the patient may be 
invalided without delay. 

When a man or boy is invalided as the result of the survey, the Commanding 
Officer of the ship in which he is borne will be so informed by the Medical 
Director-General, and the Commanding Officer is to cause the man or boy 
to be acquainted of the fact as soon as practicable. 

9. On the return to his ship of a man or boy, who whilst absent on leave 
has been treated by a Surgeon and Agent, it should be ascertained whether 
he has received any money to enable him to rejoin his ship, and such advance 
should be charged against him in the usual way. 

881. Involuntary Absence without Leave. If it should be proved to the 
satisfaction of the Captain that the absence of a man or boy without leave 
has not been owing to any misconduct or fault of his own, but to circumstances 
that made it impossible for him to return at the appointed time, he is not to 
be considered as a defaulter, nor punished for his involuntary absence. See 
806, clause 3 (Removal of R.Q.). 



304 



882 



CHAPTER XXIV. 
GUNNERY AND TORPEDO. 

SECTION p AGE 

I. Captain-^-General Duties 305 

II. Gunnery Officer Duties of 312 

III. Torpedo Officer Duties of 313 

IV. Royal Naval Reserve Instruction of Officers - 314 
V. Gunnery Trials of Ships 314 

SECTION I. CAPTAIN GENERAL DUTIES. 

882. Manuals of Instruction. In addition to the instructions contained 
herein, officers are to be guided, in the use and management of the armament, 
by the directions given in the manuals of instruction which are furnished 
for their information and guidance, and will conform in every particular to 
the system of teaching laid down therein. 

2. Gunnery Drill Book. Each officer of the Military Branch is also to 
supply himself with a copy of the latest edition of the gunnery drill book. 

883. Expenditure of Ammunition. The expenditure of the authorised 
allowance of ammunition being the most important exercise during the quarter, 
too much stress cannot be laid on the care with which it should be carried 
out, both for purposes of instruction, manoeuvring the ship, and accuracy of 
fire. On no account, therefore, should it be hurried through, and if through 
stress of weather or other causes it is undesirable to continue the practice, 
it should be deferred to another opportunity. 

884. Firing on Shore or in Foreign Port. Before practising at an object 
on shore, he is to obtain the concurrence of any resident authorities ; and 
before firing in a foreign port or in its vicinity, he is to ascertain that he would 
not in so doing infringe any local regulations, or afford cause of complaint 
to the authorities or inhabitants. 

885. Gun Drill, Marines. The Captain will take care that proper oppor- 
tunity is afforded for every marine in the detachment, artillery as well as 
infantry, to be exercised at gun drill at other times than at general quarters, 
at least twice a month. 

886. G. and T. Officers' and Ratings' Drills. He will take care that the 
Gunnery and Torpedo Officers, Gunner's Mates and Torpedo Gunner's Mates 
are not employed on duties which would cause interference with drills, unless it 
is absolutely necessary for those duties to be carried out. 

887. Gunnery and Torpedo Logs. He will cause the Gunnery and Torpedo 
Lieutenants, or, if none are borne, the Gunner and Torpedo Gunner, or. if 
there are none, the Gunner's Mates and Torpedo Gunner's Mates to keep 
tin gunnery and torpedo logs (forms S. 286 and S. 304a and 304ft ivspivtix 
These books are to be produced at inspections; and when the ship is p.ii.l 
off they are to be forwarded to the Captains of the " Excellent " and " Vernon," 

888. Repair of Machinery. The Captain will be responsible that the 
necessary engine-room ratings are told off as may be required to a-^ist the 
Gunnery and Torpedo Officers in the care of the machinery under their eharge. 
Tin- Engine-Room Artificers told off to the Gunnery and Torpedo Lieutenants 

305 



888 CHAP. XXIV. GUNNERY AND TORPEDO. 

are to be at the service of the Engineer Officer for executing repairs to hydraulic 
pumping engines and air compressors. 

2. The gunnery and torpedo staffs are not required to carry oat large 
mechanical repairs, and the Captain will be responsible that the Engineer 
Officer carries out such repairs expeditiously with the engineering staff when 
duly requisitioned. (See Article 947.) 

3. Torpedo Officer's Duties. In ships carrying neither Torpedo Lieutenant 
nor Torpedo Gunner and to which no Lieutenant (T*) has been appointed, 
the Captain is to nominate the fittest person to perform the duties of Torpedo 
Officer, from officers who have gone through a short course or Sub-Lieutenant's 
course in the torpedo school. 

4. Searchlights. It should be remembered that the frequent exercise of 
searchlights at moving objects is most necessary. 

889. Torpedoes and Torpedo Stores. He is frequently to satisfy himself 
that the rules laid down in the Torpedo Manual for the maintenance in proper 
order of the stores supplied for torpedo service, as weh 1 as of the torpedoes 
themselves, are strictly adhered to, and that the officers and men having special 
duties in connection with torpedoes are thoroughly conversant with those 
duties. 

2. He will clearly understand and will cause to be clearly understood 
that no risk whatever to the ship is to be incurred in carrying out Whitehead 
torpedo practice. 

Provided this condition is satisfied, he will, when possible, select a place 
for the practice where the depth of water is not more than 20 fathoms ; but 
if this is impossible, the practice may take place in the open sea under the 
conditions laid down in Vol. III., Torpedo Manual, namely, fine weather is 
to be chosen and every precaution taken to prevent loss of, or damage to, 
torpedoes when being picked up. 

3. Liability to loss will be diminished by liis selecting a range which permits 
of torpedoes being discharged towards shallower water. 

4. He will be careful not to give cause of offence by running torpedoes 
in the waters of any foreign nation without first asking permission where 
authorities of that nation exist. 

890. Inspection of Ordnance Stores on Receipt. On receiving the naval 
ordnance stores, he is to cause the guns and their carriages, the rifles, cutlasses, 
and other weapons to be carefully examined, and to inform the local Naval 
Ordnance Officer, through the Commander-in-Chief or Senior Officer, of such 
as are defective or not fit for service, that they may be exchanged ; but if 
there shall be any indication of neglect, he is to report it to the Senior Officer, 
who, if necessary, will represent it to the Admiralty. 

2. Spare Gear. All spare gear, in the Gunner's and Torpedo Gunner's 
charge, is to be tried in position before the ship leaves port on commissioning. 
This is to be done, so far as possible, while the ship is under dockyard control, 
and on commissioning the Gunner and Torpedo Gunner are to make statements 
to the Captain in writing, showing how far this has been done. Any defective 
gear is to be returned and reported upon. 

891. Projectiles. He will take care that fhe colour and marking of 
projectiles are retained as issued ; and that they are kept free from dirt or 
paint. 

892. Gun Mountings. The gun mountings and torpedo fittings are 
to be frequently and carefully examined by the officers of the quarters, 
and the result reported. If any necessary repairs cannot be carried out 

306 



CAPTAIN'S DUTIES. 892 

by the Armourers, they are to be undertaken by the Engine Depart meat, 
under the superintendence of the Engineer Officer ; if, however, the 
assistance of the Naval Ordnance Department cannot be dispensed with, 
application for the necessary work to be done is to be made to that 
department through the Commander-in-Chief or senior officer present. 

2. The whole of the working parts of the mountings are to be kept in a 
state of thorough efficiency. No working part, bearing, or screw-thread is 
ever to be bright polished, and all such parts as are supplied bright are to be 
kept clean by the careful use of oil only. If required to remain for a time 
without being cleaned, such parts are to be coated with white lead and tallow 
as usual. 

3. In order to maintain in an efficient condition the ball bearings in connec- 
tion with transferable and non-transferable gun mountings, transferable 
gun mountings are to be examined within one month of the ship being com- 
missioned and subsequently at intervals of three months. The examination 
of these gun mountings should include the cleaning and oiling of the balls 
and bearings of the pedestal where so fitted. Non-transferable, including 
6-inch (twin), mountings are to be examined as indicated in the Hydraulic 
Manual and the 6-inch Twin Handbook respectively. 

4. The mountings are to be lifted every six months or oftener, by the 
hydraulic jacks, chocked up, and the under and interior surfaces thoroughly 
cleansed, all rust being removed by scraping, as the process of corrosion is not 
stayed by painting over rusty surfaces ; wherever the steel is exposed, it is 
to be repainted with anti-corrosive paint. 

5. The Gunnery Officer and the Engineer Officer are to examine every 
six months the whole of the carriages, the guns, if necessary, being dismounted 
for the purpose, and the Torpedo Officer and the Engineer Officer, the torpedo 
tubes and their various parts. The result, duly signed by them, is to be noted 
in the annual gunnery and torpedo reports respectively. The gun mountings 
of torpedo boat destroyers in commission are, however, to be examined every 
three months, except as regards destroyers carrying 4-inch guns on P. III. 
mountings. 

In the case of torpedo boat destroyers carrying 4-inch guns on P. III. 
mountings, these guns are to be dismounted every six months. The dis- 
mounting is to take place at a dockyard as convenient, the labour required 
being supplied by the ship's staff and the necessary appliances furnished by 
the dockyard. 

6. Hydraulic Jacks. The Gunnery Officer is responsible for the efficiency 
of the hydraulic jacks ; they are to be examined and reported on periodically 
in the same manner as the gun mountings. 

7. (a) The recoil and run-in-and-out cylinders of all mountings arc to be 
examined every six months, but the first examination is to take place within 
three months of commissioning or recommissioning. 

(6) The recoil valves of 13'5-inch and by-pass valves in run-in-and-out 
rams of later mountings are to be tested for lift and for water tight ness onoe 
in three months. 

(c) Tests for acidity of liquid in recoil cylinders of all mountings are to be 
made in the following manner, viz. : 

The liquid in the recoil cylinders is to be tested by litmus pnpn once every 
month, and if any signs of acidity are shown the liquid should lx- 1. 
by new, the cylinders being thoroughly cleaned out lx Ion i< ulln 
the test should show strong acidity, then the recoil cvlitvlci. |>MOH 
rod, &c., should be completely examined. Reports of such exuminat ions 

307 



892 CHAP. XXIV.- GUNNERY AND TORPEDO.- 

should be inserted in the annual gunnery report. If any corrosion 
of the parts is noted, it should be reported to the Admiralty. 

893. Divers. The regulations for the qualification and re-qualification 
of Divers and Artificer Divers are laid down in the " Courses of Instruction 
in Gunnery." 

2. Superintendence of Diving Party. The Gunner, or in his absence the 
Torpedo Gunner, is always to be in charge of the diving party, and the opera- 
tions are to be carried out under the direction of either the Gunnery Lieutenant 
or the Torpedo Lieutenant, except in ships not bearing all or any of the above- 
mentioned officers, when the place of the Gunner in charge of the diving party 
may be taken by another specially selected warrant or chief petty officer, 
and the duty of stiperintending the diving party by some other commissioned 
officer. 

3. When diving operations are being carried on, all the Divers and Artificer 
Divers on board are to attend, if possible. 

4. Practice in Diving. At least once a month, and oftener if favourable 
opportunities offer, all Divers and Artificer Divers, both in seagoing and 
harbour ships, are to put on the dress and exercise under water, and each man 
should be given a definite task to accomplish. 

At least once a quarter practice is to be carried out, if practicable, in depths 
of 12 fathoms at least when using a two-cylinder pump. When using one 
single-cylinder pump the exercise is to be carried out in a depth approaching 
to, but not exceeding, 5-|- fathoms. \Vhen two or more ships having pumps 
of this description are in company, two pumps are to be coupled together by- 
means of the four-way junction piece, and the exercise carried out in a depth 
of 12 fathoms. 

5. The Diver and his attendant will be paid for the practice in diving 
as laid down in Article 1468. If the Diver should be at any time unwilling 
to dive he may be deprived of his Diver rating and retaining pay for the current 
quarter. Divers and Artificer Divers are to be encouraged to avail themselves 
of other opportunities than the periodical exercises to practise diving and 
increase their efficiency as regards depth and working in a sea-way. For 
scale of remuneration and rules governing it, see 1468. 

6. The Gunnery Officer, assisted by the Divers, is once a quarter to inspect 
all the diving apparatus, reporting the condition in which it is found in the 
annual gunnery report. 

7. All Divers are to be examined by the medical officer of the ship in which 
they may be serving once in each year, to ascertain that they are physically 
capable of working under water ; if found unfit, they will cease to hold the 
rating. They are also, in all cases, to be medically examined daily, immediately 
before they may be required to exercise or work under water, and their physical 
fitness for such duty is to be reported to the Captain, and recorded in the 
gunnery returns. 

8. It is to be stated in the annual gunnery reports of ever}'' ship carrying 
a Diver, whether all the rules in this Article have been complied with, and, 
if not, reasons for non-compliance are to be stated. 

9. In view of the fact that diving in great depths, such as 21' to 25 fathoms, 
requires men of great practice and of ability to sustain the consequent pressure, 
all officers concerned are to satisfy themselves that the depth of water in which 
men may be ordered to dive does not exceed 25 fathoms, which is the greatest 
depth that should be allowed, unless in very exceptional circumstances. In 
such cases the approval of the Senior Officer should be obtained. 

All diving operations at depths approaching the above are invariably to 
come under the notice of the Senior Officer present. 

308 



CAPTAIN'S DUTIES. 894 

894. Examination of Explosives. At least once every four years all 
explosives, including filled shells, on board His Majesty's ships in commission, 
whether with full or with nucleus crews, are to be landed and examined at a 
naval ordnance dep6t. The four years are to be reckoned from the date when 
the outfit of explosives was supplied, or from the date when the outfit was 
last examined at a naval ordnance dep6t, as the case may be. 

2. Reckoning from the same dates, a portion of the explosives, viz. : 

(a) All that are defective ; 

(b) All in packages that have been opened (not including cartridges in 

airtight lockers) ; 

(c) All vent-sealing tubes ; 

(d) All loose electric primers supplied for use with Service ammunition ; 

(e) All loose fuzes ; 

(/) Not less than 10 per cent, of the Q.F. cartridges ; 

(g) All gun-cotton wet charges torpedo (warheads) ; 

are, as a general rule, to be landed at the end of two years and examined at a 
naval ordnance depot. Should this examination indicate that any of the 
explosives remaining on board are likely to be in a bad condition, such further 
quantities as the Senior Officer may direct are to be landed and examined. 

3. Further instructions for the landing and examination of explosives 
will be found in Vol. I., Gunnery Manual, 1907. 

895. Gunnery Delects, &c. The Captain will report to the Commander- 
in-Chief, for the information of the Admiralty, any accident that may happen 
with ordnance, machine guns, mountings, small-arms, or projectiles, stating 
the charge used, and also the supposed cause of the accident. Failures or 
defects in ammunition, projectiles, or other naval ordnance stores are also to 
be reported. 

The particulars of accidents and of failures or defects in ammunition are 
also to be inserted in the annual gunnery reports (form S. 285). 

2. Guns, Ammunition, &c., description of. In any report referring to 
guns or mountings, the correct nomenclature is always to be used in describing 
details, and the numbers and distinguishing marks are to be given in full. 
In describing ammunition, correct copies of all stencilling, labels, and marks 
on boxes, cartridges, small-arm ammunition, fuzes, primers, shell, &c., are 
invariably to be included, and, if possible, it should be stated when the ammuni- 
tion was received and where from. 

When " operation papers " are supplied with the stores found defective, 
as, for instance, in the case of gun-tubes or detonators, they are always to 
accompany the report. 

3. Serious Defects, &c., in Guns. Should a serious accident happen to any 
part of a gun or mounting, or should any material defect be discovered therein, 
the gun and its mounting are to be left as nearly as possible in the condition 
in which they were found immediately after the accident occurred, or the defect 
was discovered, pending an investigation which is at once to be held as to 
the cause of the accident or defect. 

A full special report of the investigation, accompanied by sketches or 
impressions of the injured parts, is to be transmitted to the Commander-in- 
Chief, for the information of the Admiralty, without delay. 

Mention of the circumstance of such special report is to be made in the 
annual returns of ordnance. 

4. In the case of ordnance, a note is to be made in the memorandum of 
examination of any accident or exceptional occurrence, and the round at 
which it happened. 

309 



895 CHAP. XXIV. GUNNERY AND TORPEDO. 

5. Torpedo Accidents and Defects. Accidents to torpedo carriages or 
tubes are to be dealt with as laid down above for gun mountings. 

The method of procedure in the case of Whitehead torpedoes is laid down 
in Torpedo Manual, Vol. III. 

Full particulars of these accidents should be inserted in the annual torpedo 
reports, as also all failures, with electric tubes, primers, &c. 

896. Explosives on Docking, &c. The Captain is to take care to observe 
the following instructions as regards the retention and removal of explosives, 
i.e., powder, shell, wet gun-cotton, Whitehead pistols and warheads, and E.C 
mines, in the case of ships going alongside a dockyard wharf, or into a basin 
or dock. 

2. Explosives need not be removed from ships in commission when coming 
into harbour or placed in basins or docks for limited periods for repairs. 
Discretion as to their removal is left to the Commander-in-Chief. 

3. In case of a ship being damaged and requiring to be immediately docked, 
special arrangements are to be made for the discharge of explosives. 

4. Locking of Magazines. When a ship is about to be docked, the Admiral 
Superintendent of the dockyard will send an officer representing him on board, 
who, in concert with the officers of the ship, and under the directions of the 
Captain, will visit the magazines and shell rooms, and, having ascertained 
that everything is in proper order, will cause the magazines and sheU rooms 
to be locked, and will take the keys, enclosed in a small canvas bag, bearing 
the name of the ship clearly marked on the label, to the office of the Inspector 
of Police at the dockyard gate nearest to the dock in which the ship is to be 
placed. 

5. Custody of Keys. The Inspector of Police will keep the keys in a glass 
case, the key of which is to be in his personal possession, or in that of the 
Sergeant-in-charge. In the event of there being a necessity for opening a 
magazine or shell room, the Commanding Officer of the ship will send an officer 
to the office of the Inspector of Police for the keys, stating on paper for what 
purpose and for how long they will be required. The Inspector of Police 
will then ask by telephone the Superintendent's permission to issue the keys, 
and on receiving it will hand over the keys accordingly. To save time the 
application may also be made by the Commanding Officer of the ship direct 
to the Superintendent by telephone. When the magazines are closed (which 
should be as soon as practicable), the keys are to be at once returned to the 
office of the Inspector of Police at the gate, with the formalities referred to 
in clause 4, not later than 5 p.m., unless special authority be granted. If the 
keys are again required, the same procedure is to be followed daily, or on 
every separate occasion. 

6. Flooding Appliances. The Admiral Superintendent will take the 
necessary steps to have the dockyard hydrants and hoses kept constantly 
ready to flood the magazines if necessary, and, so far as practicable, to have 
everything ready to run water into the docks for the use of the ship in case 
of fire on board. 

7. Fire Stations. Every ship is to go to fire stations daily, at the usual 
time of evening quarters, and care is to be taken to ascertain that everything 

s in readiness for extinguishing fire, and that, in the absence of a portion 
of the crew on leave, or from any other cause, the men remaining on board 
are properly acquainted with and capable of performing all the duties apper- 
taining to such an emergency. 

8. Smoking. -On all occasions of receiving or discharging explosives, 
smoking is prohibited while work is going on. When work is not going on, 
i.e., at meal-times, smoking may be permitted, but not in the vicinity of the 

310 



CAPTAIN'S DUTIES. 896 

ammunition. All fires, except those in boiler furnaces, galleys, sick-bay, 
officers' cabins, and mess places, are to be extinguished. See 1109 (Foreign 
Ships at British Ports). 

9. Removal of Explosives. When explosives are being discharged from, 
or received on board a ship, with her fires lighted, every necessary precaution 
is to be taken. 

897. Returned Shell. Whenever shell is returned from a ship, the Captain 
is immediately to send a written report to the Commander-in-Chief or senior 
officer present that all filled shell have been returned properly marked ; and 
th