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Full text of "Kirby's wonderful and eccentric museum; or, Magazine of remarkable characters. Including all the curiosities of nature and art, from the remotest period to the present time, drawn from every authentic source. Illustrated with one hundred and twenty-four engravings. Chiefly taken from rare and curious prints or original drawings"

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THE LIBRARY 

OF 

THE UNIVERSITY 
OF CALIFORNIA 

LOS ANGELES 



KIRB Y'S 
WONDEBFUL 



ECCENTRIC MUSEUM; 



OR, 

MAGAZINE 



INCLUDING ALL THE 

CURIOSITIES OF NATURE AND ART, 

FROM THE REMOTEST PERIOD TO THE PRESENT TIME, 
Drawnfrom every authentic Source. 



ILLUSTRATED WITH 

ONE HUNDRED AND TWENTY-FOUR ENGRAVINGS. 

CHIEFLY TAKEN FROM RARE AND CURIOUS PRINTS 
OR ORIGINAL DRAWINGS. 



SIX VOLUMES. 

VOL. I. 



LONDON: 

R. S. KIRBY, LONDON HOUSE YARD, ST. PAUL'S. 

1820. 



o 

PREFACE. 



-fi 

r" 



J. HE Public are respectfully informed, that the 
present publication of KIRBY's WONDERFUL 
MUSEUM, is undertaken in consequence of new 
arrangements and connections, that will effectually 
secure its permanence, without let or hindrance, 
upon the most liberal and extensive scale, as long- 
as the annals of history, the discoveries of art and 
ingenuity, and the efforts of labour and learning- 
shall be capable of administering to the entertain- 
ment or information of the human intellect : That 
taste for inquiring into all the arcana, perfections, 
and even the eccentricities, of art and nature, which, 
from various causes, seem growing with our 
growth, and strengthening with our strength, will 
most probably find its true and genuine aliment in 
the panacea, which it shall be our duty and pleasure 
to present to our Readers, as much as possible 
adapted to this diversity of taste, inclination, and 
propensity. That which is truly curious positively, 
or relatively wonderful, will, at all times, be our 
study to procure and collect from the inexhaustible 
regions of animate or inanimate nature ; from the 
records of history, or the improvements of art. 

Nor 



IV PREFACE. 

Nor will our efforts be confined to the mere ar- 
rangement of what has been before written by 
others. To a very competent share of Original and 
Eccentric Biography, which is intended to consti- 
tute a distinguishing feature in KIRBY'S WON- 
DERFUL MUSEUM ; it is intended, from time to 
time, to present the Reader with Translations from 
the most scarce and valuable Originals in the mo- 
dern languages, with Extracts from the same, with- 
out waiting, as many of our competitors have been 
compelled to do, for the translation and publica- 
tion of the whole of such works in English. And 

O 

as all our measures are taken for realizing the pro- 
fessions we have now made to the ingenious in- 
quirers into the wonders and curiosities of Art and 
Nature ; we are probably justified in presuming, 
to appropriate that ample share in public patro- 
nage, which will crown our labours, and set every 
degree of rivalship at that distance it must ever 
keep, from a more correct taste, superior exertions, 
industry, and ability. 



AN 



CONTENTS 



TO 



VOL. I. 



'* I * 



Page 
The Life of the celebrated Sir John 

Dinely, Bart. . .1 

The Earthquake of Lisbon ; de- 
scribed by an Eye-witness, 1 j. 96. 166 
The Egyptian Mirage^ or Deception 

of the Sight . . .21 

Account of the Pigmies of Mada- 
gascar .... .23 
Whimsical Manner of punishing 

Bakers and Butchers at Cairo . ib- 
Antidote to Curiosity . , . 25 
Singular Trial and Acquitrnent . ib. 
A Dutch Miser and Recluse . ib. 

The late W. Fuller, Esq. -, a penu- 
rious Character . . .27 
Description of the Sphynx of Egypt 31 
Extraordinary Bill of Fare at Bristol 32 
Whimsical Interment at Tiverton ib. 
A Puir of Portraits . . .33 
Interesting Particulars of George 
Forster, and the Galvanic Experi- 
ments upon him after his Exe- 
cution ,. 34 
Curious Account of Mermaids > 41 
Astonishing Deliverance of a Fowler 44 
A Case of circumstantial Evidence 40 
Account of Giants . . . ib. 
Rarieties from Egypt . . 49 
Surprising Faculty of sustaining 

Heat and Cold . . .51 

A Forest under Ground . , 52 

Account of the late S. Matthews, of 

Duhvich . . . . 53 

Wonderful Power of Imagination, in 

a Dream . . G7 

Explosion oflron Mines . - CS ,' 



The Stone of the Field of Lamen- 
tation . . . .71 
Extraordinary Birth . . ib. 
Account of the Big Naked Bear . 72 
The Haze of 1801 . . 73 
Curiosity from the Reports of the 

Irish Society of Arts . . 74 

Natural Curiosities of Sicily . 7f> 

Singular Animal Flower . ib, 
An Aquatic Castle . . 77 

Extraordinary Fecundity . . 7i 
Waives in France . , ib- 

Extraordinary Facts respecting the 

Preservation of Human Bodies . 81 
Of a Human Body found in a Bear- 
skin . . . .82 
Description of the groat Tun at Hei- 
delberg . . . Si 
Large Tuns of modem Date . 86 
Account of Earthquakes . . 87 
Codicil to the last Will of James 

Clegg, Conjuror . . .88 

'Account of Fairlop Oak . . 91 

of Damory's Oak . . &J 

Description of the Palace of the 

Escurial . . .93 

Wonderful Works of Art Curious 

Workmanship . .101 

Watch -worn by the Emperor Charles 10-3 
Curiosities in Miniature at Dresden ib. 
Extraordinary Incidents . 104f 

Miraculous Deliverance . 109 

A foitunate Discovery . . ib. 
John Richards, a Blind Man . 110 
The Salt Mines of Poland . . 1 1 
A Pop'-;h Miser . U* 



"Ruins, &c. in the Holy Land 
Extraordinary Chesnut Tree on 
Mount Etna .... 
A remarkable Hog 
Green Serpent at Deptford 
Real Origin ofPompey's Pillar dis- 
covered by a British Officer 
A Man not born to be hanged or 



Page 
119 



drowned . . . 

Awful Instance of a Breach of Con- 
fidence 



CONTENTS. 

Tuge 

L Burning Well . .210 

ireat Fire of London . .21.3 

'lie Destruction of the City of Mos- 
cow, by Five . . . 2 1 G 
Remarkable Deaths ; Posterity, &c. 220 
\dvertisenient for an Husband . 221 
l,otteries in Queen Elizabeth's Time ib. 
Singular Character . . . 222 
Roger Crab . . . 223 
Singular Preservation the Groaning 
Tree . 228 



121 
ib. 



V 



126 



Ajiii&ifigsj a conspicuous Character 128 
A shorkir;; Discovery . . ISO 

True Relation of a horrid and long 

concealed Murder of Thomas 

Kidderminster . , 131 

Natural Curiosities in Norway , 151 
A singular Deliverance . . 153 

A modem Anchoret . .154 

A singular Propensity . .156 

A complete Account of Thomas 

Topham, culled the Strong Man 157 
Egyptian Earth ; Us singular Qua- 

lities . . ,163 

Instance of Bravery . .1(34 

The Black Lake in Switzerland . ib. 
A Whimsical Sign . .170 

Artificial Manner of hitching 



The Great Gun, or Turkish Piece 

of Ordnar.ce in St. James's Park 
\ccountofaremarkableFish . 
The Roirir.n Emperor Maxhnii:, 

his a in;; zing Strength . . 

New Di-covcries and Inventions 

the P;-bgostop, &C. . . 

Stones supposed to have fu'.lenfrom 

the Skies . . . . 

The largest Bel! in the World . 
Various' Feats of Strength . . 
A strange Propensity in a Prince . 
Similarity of Persons, wonderful , 
A dreadful Whirlwind . . 

Founder of Fairlop Fair . 
Life an-J Character ot the r.elel, rated 

Mr. Martin \'an Bute'iei! . . 
Mucking Murder in Lam^-hlre , 



171 



173 
176 



10 
181 



Chesnut Tree, largest in England . 229 
Account of Dr. Andrew Boord, the 

original Merry Andrew . . 230 
Mrs. Bridgets Death and Burial . 232 
The Wonders of Nature, &c. . 235 
The late William Jennings . 237 

More Curiosities from Egypt . 241 
Extraordinary Instances of Gene- 
rosity and Virtue . .242 
Deaths, extraordinary an Her- 
maphrodite . . 243 
Life of John Overs & his Daughter 247 
Striking Vicissitudes of Fortune 250 
Life of the celebrated Sir Richard 

WhiUingiou . . 253 

Account of Colonel Sloper . 2GO 

Antiquities in the Isle of Dogs 261 
Two very extraordinary Deaths ib. 

The Pkun of the Caffres . 26.3 

The Funeral of Mr. Rich. Bunn . 26-i 
Murder of Miss Eully, at Bath . 205 
Life of Mr. Thompson, late of 

Mansfield . . . 26* 

A Ball of Lire . . . 27:J. 

A striking l;>:;ruicc of retributive 

Justice . . . 275 

The Lue of John Jo-u-ph Merlin, 

the great Mechanic . . 274 

An ici-.entiic Life and V>iirial . i'79 

\ entriloquism-. Navigation im- 
proved . . 21,0. 280 
ReiiKirkalile Earthquakes in Eng- 




CONTENTS. 

Pace 



Life of Mr. G. Benneville . . .1"J-i 
A Near olitan Quack Doctre>s, and 

the Burning Chamber . . 2-J7 
Of a Cat that lived 'J5 Mouths with- 
out drinking .... -'300 
Miraculous Preservation of a Child o02 
Particulars of the Ruins of Heixu- 

laneum 

A remarkable Shipwreck . . 08 
Life of John Hatfield, the Seducer 30 f) 
An Account of Samuel Horsey, an 

unfortunate Labourer . -1-3 1 

Singular Species of Monkey . '352 
J. Hatneld's Letters and Poetry . 333 
A singular Meteor . 15 

Escape from a Shark . . ib. 

Particular Warnings before Death 1'3 
An unfortunate Family . . 13 

Extraordinary Instance of Vegetation ib. 
A Thunder Storm in Norfolk -. Hail- 
stones In the Sju.oe of an iunian 
Eye . . . -'350 

Surprising Faculty of su;taining 

Heat in a Spani. rd, al Paris . ,35.' 
A vtonderi'jl Cure cf Lameness, ef- 
fected by An;s . . . 5.j 
Balloon liitoli'igcnce improved . S55 
Account of Mrs. Mary Honyvionc!, 

who left 07 lawful Descendants 57 
Origin of the l-'ema'es exposing their 

Bosoms . . . jS 

Dreadful Effects of Famine . . ib. 
Richard Joy ; the suon:; Man of 

Kent .... -359 

Strange Substance* found in the 

Human Body . ';.y. ; and 41'J 

A full and authentic Account of the 
strange and imperious Aivair be- 
tween Mary Squires, a Gipsy, and 
Elizabeth Canning . ')-3 400 

A. Journey to Mount Perdu, the 

highest of the Pyrenees . i-'7 

Ci:-ciim;t:mtial Detail of Stone-: 
f.-JIiny from -h" Clouds . '. * 



Page 
Mr. Thomas Jenkins, an English 

Banker at Rome . .401 

Character of the Empre<s Elizabeth 

of Austria . . . 40.2 

More Instances of sustaining Heat 409 
Curious Cotton Fly . . ib. 

Mr. Robertson's second Ascent in 

a Balloon . . . 410 

Ac.rxmt of Sir W. Staines, late 

Lord 'ivor of I..,i;don . 413 

Extr lordii.ary CV..-J of Isabella 

Wilson . . 4~3. 429 

An uncommon Aurora Borealis . 430 
A large Cucumber, itc. . . ib. 
Particulari of ?-Iarv Squires and 

T .iiz. Can, ling, corclud-jd . ib. 

i'homa- Ci'i 'k and James Rogers; 

the! 'Obituary . 4-1-4 

Reinavkabl-. 1 Mountain in North 

America, inhabited by the Judges 

of Ciurles I. . . ib. 

Mej;:;jirs of Nath. Bentl'-y, Esq. 

of Leadmhall- street . . 44J 

Eighty-two small Gold Beads found 

in j Duck . . . 457 

^.iiifjitune-, f.f C.ipt. Guyer at Seu ib. 
Cli-i:-acter of Niclu.las Richmond, a 

meroile;-. Usurer . . . 4J'j 

An extnio!'!i!-,ary \"olcano in the 

South of Ru-v-'.a . . , 4CO 

Further Particulars of the Great 

f i-eof Lond',-11 . . 4T.' 

Fortitude of a ijriti.ih Sailor . 4ii-> 

Particulars <>i an i:r,en;;:'.-.ion Me- 
teor, (.;l Suiv'.'.v, :S,)\. i.-t-l . 4';8 

The Tartarian Lamb ; a s.irprising 

\ 'egetable . . .47} 

Preservation of Piorra Rtgolet in a 
St () n-,-Bath . . . i!,. 

Puirnir.c; Moiir-.'V.in- in Soutli Anie- 
rica, described bv Mr. Hum- 



Sir John Dinely, 
George Forster, 
Samuel Mathews, 
Great Tun of Heidelberg, 
John Richards, 
Ann Siggs, 
Thomas Topham, 
Egyptian Gun, 
"Martin Van Butchel!, 
Andrew Borde, 



DIRECTIONS TO THE BINDER. 

to face Page 1 Sir Rich. Whittington, to face Page 232 

S4 John Joseph Merlin, 274 

53 John Hatfield, 509 

84 Samuel Horsey, G31 

110 Mary Honywood, 557 

128 Eliz. Canning, ^64 

157 Mary Squires, 381 

173 Sir William Staines, 413 

191 Nathaniel Bentley, 445 

230 Tartarian Lamb, 471 



AN AUTHENTIC AND ENTERTAINING 

ACCOUNT 

OF THE CELEBRATED 

SIR JOHN DIN ELY, BART. 

OF WINDSOR. 



J.\. NUMBER of persons forming their judgment from va- 
rious circumstances, \\hich they have hoard of this truly ec- 
centric character, have imagined that this gentleman's litle to 
the distinction of knighthood, is no better founded than those 
of the late Sir Jeffery Dunstan, or Sir J. Harper : but this 
is a mistake of the grossest kind, as we shall shew in the 
course of this sketch. Sir John Dinely is actually of a very 
ancient and honourable family, the particulars of which we 
reserve till we have recorded the more remarkable history of 
his later years. Sir John having run through his portion of 
the family entailments, for nearly twenty years past, at least 
as far as reports and advertisements in the papers will vouch, 
has been a most chivalrous knight among the ladies. He has 
not only been incessantly advertising for a wife since the 
period just mentioned ; but even within the last five years, 
since he was made one of the poor Knights of Windsor, he 
has never ceased soliciting the hand of some favourite fair, 
blessed with fortune as well as beauty. Report says, that 
Sir John once obtained a wife, in consequence of one of his 
newspaper notices ; but of the events attached to this acqui- 
sition, we shall be silent here. 

In appearance, viz. in dress, Sir John is no change! ng, 
for neatly twenty years past he has been the faithful resem- 

VOL. i. B blance 



2 AN ACCOUNT OV 

blance of his likeness, as it appears in this work. It was en- 
graved from a portrait taken by an ingenious artist. 

Since Sir John's residence at Windsor, as one of the poor 
knights, he has no settled residence in town: but when 

O J 

he receives his quarterage or fees, we are informed he 
posts away to London, and makes his appearance at some 
public place, under the flattering idea that some lady of 
fortune may fall in love, either with his person or his 
title. And hence, in advertising for a wife, the principal 
object which he professes to have in view, is to be enabled 
with that fortune to prosecute his suit for the recovery of 
his vast estates. Whether Sir John has any legal preten- 
sions ; or why he was not able to keep quiet possession of 
those estates, is not apparent from any account he has given. 
Sir John, as we are told, was for a number of years 
past, such a scrupulous martyr to Platonic gallantry, that 
to shew the ladies that he lived quite alone, disengaged and 
unconnected, he even chose to dispense with the attend- 
ance of a servant-maid. Accordingly, in pursuance of that 
disposition, since he has been a poor knight, he is still as 
solitary as before, being entirely without companion or do- 
mestic. Partly through this partial seclusion when at 
home, Sir John is uncommonly loquacious when abroad. 
His conversation also, is overcharged with egotisms, and 
such a mixture of repartee and evasion, as to excite doubts 
in the minds of superficial observers, as to the reality of his 
character or abilities. With respect to his exterior, it is 
really laughable to observe him when he is known to be 
going to some public place to exhibit his person. He i.s 
then decked out in his second-hand finery, viz. a velvet 
embroidered waistcoat, satin breeches, silk stockings, and 
a full bottomed wig. On these occasions, not a little in- 
flated with family pride, he seems to imagine himself as 
great as any lordling : but on the day following, he may 
be seen slowly pacing from the chandler's shop near his 
country retreat, with a penny loaf in one pocket; a mor- 
sel 



SIR JOHN DINELY, BART. 3 

sc\ of butter, a quartern of sugar, and a three farthing can- 
dle in the other. Sir John is still in the habit of receiving 

O 

epistles in answer to his advertisements, and several whim- 
sical interviews, and ludicrous adventures have occurred in 
consequence. He has more than once paid his devoirs to 
one of his own sex dressed as a fine lady. At other times, 
when he has expected to see his fair er.amorato at a win- 
dow, he has been rudely saluted with the contents of the 
Jordan. But none of these things have been able to allay 
the fervors of his passion, as may be seen by perusing the 
Reading Mercury, only of a few weeks past, where his re- 
cent advertisements for a wife, appear dictated with the 
same warmth, and under the very same extravagant ideas 
which distinguished Sir John, at a period when the hey- 
day of his blood must have beaten considerably higher than 
at present. 

Sir John, we are told, once practised physic, but in 
many respects, the Medice Curate ipsum could never be re- 
torted \\ith more propriety, than upon him. Books of the 
Medicinal art, however, are still purchased by Sir John, 
when he attends sales, &c. It is still a habit with him, to 
attend t\\ice or thrice a year at Vauxhall and the Theatres, 
according to appointment, by advertisement in the most 
fashionable daily papers. At Vauxhall, he parades the 
most conspicuous parts, and at the Theatre, he is to be 
found in the front row of the pit ; and whenever it is known 
that he is to be there, the house, especially by the females, 
is sure to be well attended. When in town, Sir John al- 
ways makes it a point to attend the different auctions, to 
which he is particularly attached; but if he buys a cata- 
logue, he is always sure to make a purchase to the value of 
a shilling to cover the expense. Lord Fitzwilliam, it is 
said, is among the number of Sir John's benefactors, as he 
makes him an allowance of ten pounds per annum. Of 
late, Sir John has added a piece of stay-tape to his wig, 

B 2 which 



4 AN ACCOUNT OF 

which attaches on the other side, passing under his chin ; 
from this circumstance, some persons might infer that he is 
rather chop-fallen; an inference by no means fair, if \ve still 
consider the gay complexion of his advertisements and ad- 
dresses to the 1 atlies. 

We have before spoken of the dignity of Sir John's de- 
scent ; the following particulars are well attested. The 
family of Dinely continued to flourish in great repute, in 
the county of Worcester, till the present century, when it 
expired at Charlton, in the person of Sir Edward Dinely, 
Knt. sometime Justice of Peace and Deputy-Lieutenant 
for this County ; \vho, by Frances his \\ife, daughter of 
Lewis AVatson, Lord Rockingham, left an only surviving 
daughter, Eleanor, his heir; who was married to Edward 
Goodvere, of Buighope, in Hertfordshire, Esq.; which 
Edward was created a Baronet, ,5th December, 1707, sixth 
of Anne, and \vas member in several parliaments for the 
Borough of Evesham, and sometime Knight of the Shire 
for the County of Hereford. He died at a great age, 29th 
March, 1739, and was succeeded by Sir John Dinely Good- 
yere, Bart, his eldest son; which Sir John Dinely Good- 
yere, of Charlton, Bait, assumed the name of Dinely, in, 
respect of the large estate he inherits from his mother. He 
\vas the last of the family \\lio enjoyed it, for having lived 
upon bad terms with his younger brother, Samuel Dinely 
Goudyeie, Captain of the Hub} man of war, and threaten- 
ing to diMiiheiit him in favor of his sister's son, John Foote, 
of Truro, in Cornwall, Esq. ; it so alarmed and disgusted 
the said Samuel Gooduie, that he came to ihe bloody reso- 
lution of murdtiit'ii Ins brother, which he executed on the 

O 7 

17th of January, 1741. 

John Fot'te, E^q. son of Eleanor, sister to Sir John, and 
ehici bvothsM io Samuel Foote, Esq. the celebrated come- 
dian, w as hen io his uncle, and assumed the name of 
Dmely ; but Dame Mary Dinely Goodyere, the widow of 

Sir 



SIR JOHN D1NELY, BART. 5 

Sir John, surviving her husband, and holding the Charlton 
estate in dower, remarried with William Rayner, a painter, 
in White Friars, London, who being thus in possession, 
partly by marriage, and partly by purchase from Mr. John 
Foote Dinelv, became seized of the whole in fee, and sold 
Charlton to Joseph Biddle, of Eversham, Esq.; whose ex- 
ecutors sold it in 1774 to Messrs. Beesley, Socket, -Lilly, 
and Bevington, of Worcester, in partnership, who, or their 
representatives, weie the present possessors in 1779- 

A friend at Bristol, who knew the mortal antipathy of 
these brothers, had invited them both to diiint , i;i hopes of 
reconciling them, and they purled in the evening in seeming 
friendship; but the Captain placed some of his crew in the 
street near College Green, Bristol, with orders to seize his 
brother, and assisted in hurrying him on board his ship. 

The account of the unhappy fate of Sir John's father, 
contained in the trial to which we have alluded, is so re- 
markable, that we shall lay the following particulars before 
our readers. 

At the sessions held before the worshipful the mayor of 
the city of Bristol, and Michael Foster, Esq. recorder, and 
other of his Majesty's-- justices of the peace for the said city, 
March 26, 1741, Samuel Goodyere, laie commander of his 
Majesty's ship Ruby, was indicted for aiding, assisting, and 
abetting, the murder of Sir John Dim ly Goodyere, Burt. 

At the same time, Matthew Mahouy and Charles White, 
were separately inflicted for the actual murder of the said 
Sir John Dnicl,- Goodyere, Bart. 

Mr. Smith, an attorney at law, in College Green, Bristol, 
deposed, that the Sunday before this murder was committed, 
the deceased, by the deponent's invitation, was to dine at his 
house the Saturday following, of which the prisoner being 
apprized came into the neighbourhood, and sent for this de- 
ponent, and earnestly interceded with him to admit him into 
the company of his brother, the Baronet, under the pretence, 

as 



AN ACCOUNT OF 

as the prisoner said, to accommodate and reconcile their dif- 
ferences in an amicable manner. 

The prisoner being at College Green coffee-house, Mr. 
Smith went to him, and was greatly pleased with the propo- 
sals of the prisoner, and the hopes of all disputes between 
them settled ; he, without the least hesitation, introduced the 
prisoner into the company of his brother, the deceased ; and 
,the prisoner behaved so well, that he and the deceased seem- 
ed to be as good friends as ever; and just as the deceased 
was about to depart, he took leave of the Baronet in the 
most affectionate manner imaginable. It. v, as then dark, and 
about six o'clock in the evening. 

Mr. Roberts, who kept the White Hart on College Green, 
opposite to Mr. Smith's house, deposed, that the prisoner 
came to his house early in ihe morning, the day before the 
murder was committed, and ordered him to get a dinner 
ready for six men, who were to dme there that day. 

Mahony was not one of the six that dined, but the com- 
pany talked much about one Mahony; he was a man well 
known to Roberts, and had been often at his house : the 
people that dined there were dressed like seamen, and Ro- 
berts took them for Captain Goodyere's men, and that the 
Captain had a mind to treat them at his house. They dined 
in the balcony up one pair of stairs towards the Green, and 
in the afternoon, after dinner was over, Goodyere sent word 
to Roberts to make tea for the six men, which greatly sur- 
prised him, it being very uncommon drink for jack tars. 
They all went away of a sudden, and Roberts bid them wel- 
come without going out of doors. 

Charles Bryant being called upon by the Court, deposed, 
that he was one of the six men hired by Captain Goodyere, 
to seize the deceased, and forcibly to run him aboard the 
Ruby man of war, then lying in King's Road. They met 
by the prisoner's directions, at the White Hart, on College 
Green, where a handsome dinner was provided. They were 

2 placed 



SIR JOHN DINELY, BART. 7 

placed in the balcony to receive a signal, and obey the word 
of command, without giving the least suspicion to the peo- 
ple of the house. About six o'clock in the evening the 
signal was given, and they left the White Hart, and overtook 
the deceased just before he came to College Green coffee- 
house, where Bryant, and others, seized him at the word of 
command of the prisoner. They then rushed on the de- 
ceased, and dragged him along to the Rope Walk, where 
was a gang of twelve more of them, who were ready to 
assist according to the prisoner's instructions. The deceas- 
ed was hurried towards the Hot Wells, where a boat was 
waiting purposely to receive him. 

The prisoner was with them all the while, directing, aid- 
ing, and assisting all the time, and when the deceased cried 
out, murder! murder! I am Sir John Dinely Goodyere ; 
the prisoner stopped the deceased's mouth with his cloak, so 
that the people not knowing his name, only asked what was 
the matter ? The answer the prisoner and the ruffians gave 
was, that he, the deceased, was a thief and a murderer, and 
had made his escape from the ship, and that they were going 
to take him aboard to secure him, in order for his trial; the 
prisoner still stopping the deceased's mouth, to prevent his 
crying out. 

When the deceased got into the boat he had a little more 
liberty than before, and he made use of it to speak to the 
prisoner to this effect: " Brother, I know you have an in- 
tention to murder me: I beg that if you are resolved to do 
it, that you would do it here, and not give yourself the 
trouble of taking me down to your ship." To which the 
prisoner replied, " No, brother, I am going to prevent 
your rotting upon land ; but, however, I would have you 
make your peace wilh God this night;" and so without 
more ado, the prisoner hurried the deceased aboard the ship. 

When the deceased was put on board the Ruby, he cried 
out loudly for help, and made a great noise ; but the prisoner 

took 



8 AN ACCOUNT OF 

took the precaution (o tell the crew, " That they need not 
mind his noise, because he was mad; and that he had 
brought him on board, on purpose to prevent his making 
away with himself." They then conveyed him to the pur- 
ser's cabin, and all of them, except Mahony and White, 
were ordered ashore, with directions to conceal themselves, 
and keep out of the way of inquiry. 

Bryant further deposed, that he and five more were hired 
by the prisoner, at a guinea a head, to bring the deceased on 
board ; that neither of them belonged to the lluby, but to 
the Vernon schooner. 

Mr. ISerry, the first lieutenant of the prisoner's ship, de- 
posed, that being on deck he saw the deceased brought on 
board late in the evening on the 23d of January last. The 
deceased was immediately carried into the purser's cabin, 
and there kept till five o'clock in the morning. That the 
prisoners Goodyere, White, and Mahony were with the de- 
ceased. That he saw the prisoners and deceased through 
a crevice in a cabin adjoining to the purser's cabin. That 
the deponent, and the cooper of the ship, and his wife, were 
together, and bv means of the crevice saw the whole trans- 

O ' ^ 

action. The agreement between Goodyere, White, and 
Mahony was, that Mahony should have L 200 ; White, 
l50, and what money the deceased had in his pockets, and 
his gold watch. After the agreement was concluded on, 
Mahony and White went about their bloody work, the pri- 
soner Goodyere standing centry with his drawn sword in one 
hand, and a pistol in the oilier, to kill the first person that 
should make any opposition to what they were about. 

The first thing they did, they took a handkerchief out of 
the deceased's pocket; White held his hand, while Mahony 
put it about his neck, and then each of them pulled as 
hard as he could, in order to strangle the deceased at 
once; but Sir John making a desperate struggle, the 
prisoners could not effect it, so as to prevent his crjing out 

" murder! 



THE MURDER OF SIR JOHN DINELY. 9 

" murder ! for God's sake don't kill me, take all I have, but 
save my life: dear brother! what! must I die? Help! 
help! murder!" &c. To prevent any further noise, the pri- 
soner Goodyere ordered Mahony to take a cord he had laid 
ready. The prisoner Mahony then slipped off the handker- 
chief, and put the cord about the deceased's neck, which 
cord had a noose at the end : then Mahony holding the cord 
in one hand, thrust the other in the deceased's throat, and his 
knee against his stomach. In the mean while White held 
the deceased's hands, and took out of his pockets eight gui- 
neas and a gold watch. Then White came directly to the 
prisoner Goodyere, and acquainted him with what was 
done, and shewed him his brother's watch and money. 
The prisoner then asked Mahony and White, whether 
the job was quite completed ? they answered, Yes. Then 
the prisoner gave Mahony and White what money he 
had about him, and bid them get ashore directly, that they 
might the more easily make their escape before day-light 
came on. 

Mr. Jones, the cooper of the ship, and his wife, confirmed 
the evidence of the lieutenant ; and Mr. Ford deposed, that 
he had Mahony under cure for the foul disease for three 
weeks, when he told him he had a private job to do for Cap- 
tain Goodyere, for which he was to have 200, and then he 
would reward him handsomely for his trouble. 

The prisoner, by way of defence, said, it was a very hard 
case, and a great hardship on an innocent man, who, because 
his brother had been killed, must, right or wrong, be the 
murderer. He was innocent of the fact, and had no hand in 
the murder laid to his charge. His brother was a lunatic, 
and in a fit of the phrenzy, strangled himself, which he said 
he could prove by his witnesses ; and calling one Sarah Get- 
tings, she swore the deceased was mad by turns, and very 
often attempted to make away with himself. One Ann 
Gettings swore, that the deceased had been a long time 

VOL. i. c subiect 



JO MURDER DISCOVERED 

subject to strange whims and phrenzies, and often talked of 
shooting, drowning, and strangling himself. 

An Account of the Discovery of this horrid Murder. 

Mr. Smith, (the gentleman at whose house Sir John 
Dinely Goodyere, and his brother Captain Goodyere, spent 
a sociable hour together the day before) accidentally heard 
that evening, that a person who had the appearance of 
a gentleman, was hurried in a very violent manner 
over College Green, and that a gentleman, who by 
the description of him, answered to the person of 
the captain, assisted ; and Mr. Smith knowing the ship 
was to sail the first fair wind, and remembering that 
they went out of the house nearly together, it came 
directly into his head, that the captain had took him 
on board, with intent to destroy him when he came upon the 
high seas. This suspicion being strengthened by other cir- 
cumstances, made so deep an impression on his mind, that 
early in the morning he applied himself to Henry Coombe, 
Esq. the mayor, for an officer to go and search the ship, 
before she was sailed out of the liberty of the city, which 
reaches ten or fifteen miles down the river. The officer the 
mayor thought fit to send was the water bailiff, with proper 
assistance, and full orders to search the ship for Sir John 
Dinely Goody ere, Bart. The officer obeyed his orders; 
ad coming to the ship, the cooper, his wife, and lieutenant 
Berry, acquainted him, that they had been just consulting 
about the affair, and discovered to him what they knew of 
the whole matter, the captain being then safe in his cabin. 
The water bailiff sent immediately this account to the city 
magistrates, who thought proper to reinforce him with a 
strong guard to secure the captain; but before the guard 
came, the cooper and lieutenant had done the business. 

A letter was sent, wrote with Captain Goodyere's own 
hand, and directed to Mr. Jarit Smith, attorney at law, 

on 



FAMILY AFFAIRS. 11 

on College Green, Bristol, purporting, that to his (the cap- 
tain's) great surprise, he had discovered that his brother, Sir 
John, had been murdered by two ruffians, and that the villains 
suspected, had made their escape. This confirmed Mr. Smith 
in his suspicions, and the captain being seized, as before 
mentioned, was brought before the mayor at the town-hall, 
where many of the aldermen and magistrates of the city 
were also assembled. 

On the death of Sir Edward (the father of these unhappy 
brothers), and of Mr. Dinely, Sir John, to whom the title of 
Baronet devolved in right of his father, had a very pretty 
estate, when his father's, and that for which he changed his 
name were both joined. It is said, that he was possessed, 
in the counties of Hereford and Worcestershire, of up- 
wards of 4000^. per annum ; but we are assured his 
income was a good 3000/. Sir John, about the age of 
twenty- three, married a young lady, the daughter of a 
merchant of that city, who gave her a fortune of upwards 
of 20,000/. 

But it so happened, some years after, through domestic 
jars in Sir John's family, that Sir Robert Jasen, a neighbour- 
ing Baronet, who came pretty frequently to visit Sir John, 
was suspected of familiarity with Lady Dinely. Sir John's 
suspicions were raised to such a degree, that he forbid 
Sir Robert his house. The consequence of this was, 
that Sir John brought an action in the Court of Common 
Pleas, at Westminster, for criminal conversation, and 
laid his damages at 2000/. The jury gave Sir John, 500/. 
damages. 

Sir John, after this, indicted his lady for a conspiracy to 
take away his life; and by the evidence of a servant-maid, 
the lady was found guilty, and committed to the King's 
Bench prison, for twelve mouths, and to pay a small 
fine. While she remained in prison, he petitioned for 
a divorce; but she being assisted with money by Captain. 

c 2 Gcodyere, 



12 THE MURDERERS EXECUTED. 

Goodyere and other friends, opposed it so strongly, that 
the House of Lords were of opinion that it could not be 
granted ; and so dismissed the petition. 

The Captain's view in furnishing the distressed lady with 
money, as he himself told Sir John, was, that he should not 
marry a young woman, and so beget an heir to his estate ; 
and this was one of the principal motives that induced 
Sir John to leave the greatest part of his estate to his sister's 
sons. 

Thus the principal occasion of this horrid and barbarous 
murder, was the injury Captain Goodyere apprehended Sir 
John had done him, in cutting off the entail of his estate ex- 
cept 600/. per annum, \\hich he could not meddle with, in 
order to settle it on his sister's sons. 

By the death of Sir John, an estate of 400/. per annum, 
devolved to the Lady Dinely, his widow, not as a jointure, 
but as an estate of her own; which Sir John, while living, 
kept in his own hands. 

Captain Goodyere, Mahony and White, received sen- 
tence of death, and they were accordingly executed, and 
hung in chains to the north of the Hot Wells, in sight of 
the place where the ship lay when the murder was com- 
mitted. 

But, to return to the eccentric relative of these unfortu- 
nate men, Sir John, who has no ideas of slaughter, except- 
ing that of ladies' hearts ; it is probable he will still persist 
in discharging the shafts of Cupid, as long as he continues 
to breathe. His application to the ladies of Great Britain, 
it should be observed, are addressed both to young and old. 
Those who object to his age, he treats as envious revilers ; 
and as to their saying that he is upwards of 59 years of age, 
referring to his portrait, or his person, he challenges them to 
believe it if they can. 

Sir John Dinely lives at Windsor, in one of the habita- 
tions appropriated to reduced gentlemen of his descrip- 
tion; 



HUMOROUS ADVERTISEMENTS. t3 

lion; and in one of the many advertisements imputed to 
him, he is supposed to expect that the name rous candi- 
dates for his hand, would present themselves individually, 
or in a body before his residence. His fortune (if he could 
recover it) he estimates at 300,000 /. The woe-begone 
widow, whose weeds, he conceives, are insupportable, he 
invites to his arms, to be relieved of her burden ; as well as 
the blooming miss of sixteen, to whom he supposes the 
restrictions of a boarding-school are quite intolerable ; and 
these he has addressed in printed documents that bear his 
own warrant and signature; and in \\hich he enumerates, 
like a judicious dealer, the sums the ladies must possess, 
who are candidates for his hand. 

Here it is remarkable, that the younger they are, the 
less property is required ; \\hile with age and widowhood, 
the demands of Sir John increase in due proportion; and 
though he modestly asserts, that few ladies will be eligible 
with less than a thousand a year, he is persuaded that these 
sums are mere trifles, compared with his high birth and 
nolle descent, for the proof of which, he is fond of refer- 
ring every inquirer to Nazi's History of Worcest irshire. 
To conclude, that our fu-aders may not suppose that we 
are trifling v,ith their credulity, in the delineation of this 
extraordinary character, and as our limits \\ill not admit 
of more, we shail content ourselves with reprinting two 
only, of Sir John's fruitless advertisements for a wife; 
though notwithstanding the reluctance of the ladies, we 
are well warranted in saving of this Knight, 

" Take him for all in all, 

" They ne'er may look upon his like again." 

FOR A WIFE. 

As the prospect of mv marriage has much increased 

1 Ji * " 

lately, 1 am determined to take the Lest means to discover 
the lady most liberal in her esteem, by giving her fourteen 

4 days 



14 ADDRESSES TO THE LADIES. 

days more to make her quickest steps towards matrimony, 
from the date of this paper until eleven o'clock the next 
morning ; and, as the contest evidently will be superb, 
honourable, sacred, and lawfully affectionate, pray do not 
let false delicacy interrupt you in this divine race for my 
eternal love, and an infant Baronet. For 'tis evident I'm 
sufficiently young enough for you. 

An eminent attorney here is lately returned from a view 
of my very superb gates befOiO my capital house, built in 
the form of the Queen's-house. I have ordered him, or the 
next eminent attorney here, who can satisfy you of my 
possession in my estate, and every desirable particular 
concerning it, to make you the most liberal settlement you 
can desire, to the vast extent of 300,000^. Where is your 
dutiful parents, brothers, or sisters, that has handed you to 
my open arms ? Venus indeed with her bow and quiver 
did clasp me in her arms at the late masquerade ; but give 
me the charming Venus who is liberal enough to name the 
time and place for our marriage, as I am so much at your 
Ladyship's command; 

WINDSOR CASTLE, JOHN DINELY. 

June gth, 1801. 



For your rank above half the kingdom fly, 

^\ hat's two hundred pounds with an amorous eve i* 

I'm fam'd for looks of good-nature and sense ; 

Detect then all envy's impertinence. 

Your first step with rny fair plan must agree, 

By sending your qualin'd line to me, 

A beautiful page shall carefully hold 

Your Ladyship's train surrounded with gold ! 



EARTHQUAKE AT LISBON. 15 

An Advertisement for a Wife in the Reading Mercury, 
May 24, 1802. 

Miss in her Teens, let not this sacred offer escape your 
eye. I now call all qualified ladies, marriageable, to cho- 
colate at my house every day at your own hour. With 
tears in my eyes, I must tell you that sound reason com- 
mands me to give you but one mouth's notice before I part 
with my chance of an infant Baronet for ever: for you 
may readily hear that three widows and old maids, all aged 
above fifty, near my door, are now pulling caps for me. 
Pray, my young charmers, give me a fair hearing; do not 
let your avaricious guardians unjustly fright you with a 
false account of a forfeiture, but let the great Sewel and 
Rivet's opinions convince you to the contrary ; and that 
I am now in legal possession of these estates, and with the 
spirit of an heroine command my three hundred thousand 
pounds, and rank above half the ladies in our imperial 
kingdom. By your Ladyship's directing a favourable line 
to me, Sir John Dinely, Baronet, at my house, in Wind- 
sor Castle, your attorney will satisfy you, that if I live but 
a mon'h, eleven thousand pounds a year will be your Lady- 
ship's for ever. 



INTERESTING ACCOUNT OF THE EARTHQUAKE AT 
LISBON; BY AN EYE-WITNESS. 

OUR Readers will probably find, that, compared with the 
following, the common run of accounts given of these ca- 
lamities is as different from the thing itself as even report 
and reality, mere description and ocular demonstration. In 
many of these, we are only made acquainted with the out- 
lines, the external movements of the scenery; but, in the 

following, 



16 EARTHQUAKE AT LISBON, 

following, the Reader sees an intelligent being taking part 
in, and witnessing the most intimate scenes of these inter- 
nal convulsions. It is the Great Earthquake at Lisbon in 
1755 which is heie described, in a Letter from a Gentle- 
man to his Friend in London. 

Lisbon, 

" DEAR SIR, NOV. 13, 1755. 

As no instance of the kind hath happened in these parts 
of the world for some ages, I herewith send you an ac- 
count of one of the most dreadful catastrophes recorded in 
history, the veracity of which you may entirely depend on, 
as I shared so great a part in it myself. 

There never was a finer morning seen than the first of 
November, the sun shone out in its full lustre ; the whole 
face of the sky w : as perfectly serene and clear ; and not the 
least signal or warning of that approaching event, which 
has made this once flourishing, opulent, and populous city 
a scene of the utmost horror and desolation, except only 
such as sened to alarm, but scarcely left a moment's time 
to fly from the general destruction. 

It was on the morning of this fatal day, between the 
hours of nine and ten, that I was sat down in my apart- 
ment, just finishing a letter, \\hen the papers and table 
I was writing on began to tremble with a gentle motion ; 
\\hich rather surprised me, as i could not perceive a breath 
of wind stirring; whilst I was reflecting with myself what 
this could be owing to, but without having the least appre- 
hension of the real cause, the whole house began to shake 
from the very foundation ; which at first I imputed to the 
rattling of several coaches in the mam street, which usually 
passed that way, at this time, from Belem to the Palace ; 
but, on heaikeiiing more attentively, I was soon undeceived, 
as I found it was owing to a stiange frightful kind of noise 
under ground, resembling the hollow distant rumbling of 
thunder; all this passed in less than a minute, and 1 must 

confess 



DESCRIBED BY AN EYE-WITNESS. 17 

Confess I now began to be alarmed, as it naturally occurred 
to me, that this noise might possibly be the forerunner of 
an earthquake. 

Upon this I threw down my pen, and started upon 
my feet, remaining a moment in suspense, whether I 
should stay in the apartment, or run into the street, as 
the danger in both places seemed equal ; but in a moment 
I was roused from my dream, being instantly stunned 
with a most horrid crash, as if every edifice in the city 
had tumbled down at once* The house I was in, shook 
with such violence, that the upper stories immediately 
fell, and though my apartment (which was the first floor) 
did not then share the same fate, yet every thing was 
thrown out of its place in such a manner, that it was with 
no small difficulty I kept my feet, and expected nothing 
less than to be soon crushed to death, as the walls con- 
tinued rocking to and fro in the frightfullest manner, 
opening in several places ; large stones falling down on 
every side from the cracks ; and the ends of most of the 
rafters starting out from the roof. To add to this terrify- 
ing scene, the sky, in a moment, became so gloomy, that 
I could now distinguish no particular object ; it was an 
^Egyptian Darkness indeed, such as might be felt ; owing, 
no doubt, to tne prodigious clouds of dust and lime, 
raised from so violent a concussion, and as some reported, 
to sulphureous exhalations, but this 1 cannot affirm ; how- 
ever, it is certain, I found myself almost choaked for near 
ten minutes. 

As soon as the gloom began to disperse, and the vio- 
lence of the shock seemed pretty much abated, the first 
object I perceived in the room, was a woman sitting on 
the floor, with an infant in her arms, all covered with 
dust; pale, and trembling; I asked her how she got 
hither : but her consternation was so great that she 
could give me no account of her escape ; I suppose 

VOL, 1, D that 



IB EARTHQUAKE AT LISBON, 

that when the tremor first began, she ran out of her 
own house, and finding herself in such imminent danger 
from the Tailing stones, retired into the door of mine, 
which was almost contiguous to her's, for shelter, and 
when the shock increased, which filied the door with 
dust and rubbish, ran up stairs into my apartment, which 
was then open : be it as it might, this was no time for 
curiosity. I remember the poor creature asked me, in 
the utmost agony, if I did not think that the world was 
at an end ; at the same time she complained of being 
choaked, and begged, for God's sake, I would procure 
her a little drink ; upon this I went to a closet where I 
kept a large jar with water (which you know is sometimes 
a pretty scarce commodity in Lisbon), but finding it 
broken in pieces, I told her she must not now think of 
quenching her thirst, but saving her life, as the house was 
just falling on our heads, and if a second shock came, 
would certainly bury us both ; I bade her take hold of my 
arm, and that I would endeavour to bring her into some 
place of security. 

I shall always look upon it as a particular Providence, 
that I happened on this occasion to be undressed, for 
had I dressed myself, as I proposed, when I got out of 
bed, in order to breakfast with a friend, I should in all 
probability, have run into the street, at the beginning of 
the shock, as the rest of the people in the house did, 
and consequently have had my brains dashed out, as 
every one of them had ; however, the imminent dan- 
ger I w : as in, did not hinder me from considering that 
my present dress, only a gown and slippers, would ren- 
der my getting over the ruins almost impracticable : I 
had, therefore, still presence of mind enough left, to 
put on a pair of shoes and a coat, the first that came in 
my way, which was every thing I saved, and in this 
dress I hurried down stairs, the woman with me, hold- 

4 ing 



DESCRIBED BY AN EYE-WITNESS. 19 

ing by my arm, and made directly to the end of the 
street which opens to the Tagus ; but finding the passage 
this way entirely blocked up with the fallen houses, to 
the height of their second stories, I turned back to the 
other end which led into the main street, (the common 
thoroughfare to the palace), and having helped the woman 
over a vast heap of ruins, with no small hazard to my 
own life ; just as we were going into this street, as there 
was one part I could not well climb over without the 
assistance of my hands, as well as feet, I desired her to 
let go her hold, which she did, remaining two or three 
feet behind me, at which instant there fell a vast stone 
from a tottering wall, and crushed both her and the child 
in pieces ; so dismal a spectacle at any other time would 
have affected me in the highest degree, but the dread I 
was in of sharing the same fate myself, and the many 
instances of the same kind which presented themselves all 
around, were too shocking to make me dwell a moment on 
this single object. 

I had now a long narrow street to pass, with the houses 
on each side four or five stories high, all very old, the 
sreater part already thrown down, or continually falling, 
and threatening the passengers with inevitable death at every 
step, numbers of whom lay killed before me, or what I 
thought far more deplorable so bruised and wounded 
that they could not stir to help themselves. For my own 
part, as destruction appeared to me unavoidable, I only 
wished I might be made an end of at once, and not have 
my limbs broken, in which case, I could expect nothing 
else but to be left upon the spot, lingering in misery, like 
these poor unhappy wretches, without receiving the least 
succour from any one. 

I, however, proceeded on as fast as I conveniently 
<-ould, though with the utmost caution, and having at 
length got clear of this horrid passage, I found myself 

D <2 safe 



20 EARTHQUAKE AT LISBON. 

safe and unhurt in the large open space before St. Paul's 
church, which had been thrown down a few minutes before, 
and buried a great part of the congregation, that was 
generally pretty numerous, this being reckoned one of the 
most populous parishes in Lisbon. Here 1 stood some 
time, considering what I should do, and not thinking myself 
safe in this situation, I came to the resolution of climbing 
over the ruins of the west end of the church, in order to 
get to the river side, that I might be removed, as far as 
possible, from the tottering houses, in case of a second 
shock. 

This, with some difficulty, I accomplished, and here 
I found a prodigious concourse of people, of both sexes, 
and of all ranks and conditions, among* whom I observed 
some of the principal canons of the Patriarchal church, 
in their purple robes and rochets, as these all go in the 
habit of bishops ; several priests, who had run from the 
altars in their sacerdotal vestments in the midst of 
their celebrating mass ; ladies half dressed, some without 
shoes ; all these, whom their mutual dangers had here 
assembled as to a place of safety, were on their knees at 
prayers, with the terrors of death in their countenances, 
every one striking on his breast, and crying out, incessantly, 
Miserecordia meu Dios. 

In the midst of our devotions, the second great shock 
came on, little less violent than the first, and completed 
the ruin of those buildings which had been already 
much shattered. The consternation now became so 
universal, that the shrieks and cries of Miserecordia 
could be distinctly heard from the top of St. Catherine's 
hill, at a considerable distance off, whither a vast num- 
ber of people had likewise retreated; at the same time 
\ve could hear the fall of the parish church there, where- 
by many persons were killed on the spot, and others mor- 
tally wounded. You may judge of the force of this 

shock. 



THE EGYPTIAN MIRAGE. 1 

shock, when I inform you it was so violent, that I could 
scarce keep on my knees, but it was attended with some 
circumstances still more dreadful than the former. 
(To be continued.) 



OF THE EGYPTIAN MIRAGE; OR, DECEPTION OF THE 

SIGHT. 

ALL the translators of M. Denon, it is observable, 
speak of this delusion as a real phenomenon. Sir Robert 
Wilson also, in his account of the British campaign in 
Egypt, mentions the inconveniencies resulting from the 
supposition indulged by the troops that they were ap- 
proaching water at a time when nearly famishing with 
thirst, they were actually labouring under the most 
complete deception that ever imposed upon the visual fa- 
culties. In this phenomenon, according to the French 
writer, objects projecting on the oblique rays of the 
sun, refracted by the whiteness of the burning earth, of- 
fer so Complete a resemblance of water, that the traveller 
is as much alarmed the tenth time he sees it, as at the 
first, and which is generally the more tormenting as it 
occurs precisely in the hottest part of the day. But the 
illusion o f water is not the only object that serves to 
tantalize the traveller ; camels and all kinds of animals, 
at the same time appear to be constantly mdving with 
uncommon rapidity. To the curious it will, however, 
be worthy of consideration, that nothing like the merit 
of a new discovery is to be attributed to M. Denon. 
Neither is what the French writers call a Mirage, pecu- 
liar to Egypt ; Mr. Barrow, author of Travels into the 
Interior of Southern Africa, has exactly described the 
same effects in that quarter, as proceeding from a large 

portion 



22 THE EGYPTIAN MIRAGE. 

portion of nitre upon the surface of the ground. He ob- 
serves, that in looking through the exhalations of these 
beds of nitre, a meteorological phenomenon, of a differ- 
ent nature, was accidentally observed. In marking 
about sunrise, the bearing, by a compass, of a cone-shaped 
hill, that was considerably elevated above the horizon, a 
peasant well acquainted with the country, observed that 
it must either be a new hill, or that the only one which 
stood in that direction, at the distance of a long day's 
journey, must have greatly increased its late dimen- 
sions. Being directed to turn his eyes from time to 
time towards the quarter on which it stood, he per- 
ceived, with amazement, that, as the day advanced, the 
hill gradually sunk towards the horizon, and at length 
totally disappeared. The errors of sight, occasioned by 
the refractive power of the tiir, are so singular, and 
sometimes, so very extraordinary, as hitherto to have 
precluded the application of any general theorem for 
their correction, as it is not yet ascertained even through 
what medium rays of light, in their passage, suffer the 
greatest and least degree of refraction. Were this pre- 
cisely known, observations on the subject might lead to 
a more intimate knowledge of the nature of the differ- 
ent currents of air that float in the atmosphere, and 
without doubt are the cause of extraordinary appearances 
of objects viewed through them. A gentleman, to 
whom the world is much indebted for his many ingenious 
and useful inventions and discoveries, once proposed to 
determine the refractive power of different liquids and 
aeriform fluids ; and it is to be hoped he still means to 
prosecute a course of experiments on a subject of so 
much importance and curiosity. 



BAKERS, BUTCHERS, &C. PUNISHED. 25 



OF A PIGMY RACE OF MEN IN THE ISLAND OF MADA" 
GASCAR. 

JL HE Abbe Rochon in his justly celebrated Voyage Ma- 
dagascar, published about eight years since, asserts that 
he was a resident among these Lilliputian race of people 
some time. He says they entirely confine themselves 
to the middle region of the island. The common size of 
the men, he says, is three feet five, by exact measure- 
ment ; and that the ladies are some inches shorter. 
They are possessed of much wit and intellect, and are 
the boldest and most active warriors on the island. To 
accommodate this fairy race of mortals, the Abbe adds, 
that the plants and the vegetables growing on the moun- 
tains inhabited by these people, are naturally dwarfs, al- 
so but he has unaccountably forgotten to state, whe- 
ther the mountains are dwarfs as well ; therefore, says 
his translator, we may naturally conclude that these 
mountains are about the size of the artificial knolls in 
our English pleasure gardens. 



WHIMSICAL MANNER OF PUNISHING BAKERS, BUTCHERS, 
SfC. AT GRAND CAIRO. 

AF a baker sells short weight, or bad bread, and is taken 
in the fact by the inquest (who go about daily to in- 
spect provisions, and examine weights and measures) 
for the first offence, the inquest gives all the bread that 
they find in his shop to the poor, and then the offender 
is nailed to his own door, sometimes by one ear, and 
.sometimes by both, for the space of twelve hours. For 
the second offence, his bread is distributed as aforesaid, 

am* 



24 BAKERS, BUTCHERS, &C. PUNISHED. 

and he receives the punishment of the bastinado, by re- 
ceiving two or three hundred blows upon his feet, and 
sometimes upon his back, and afterwards they put a 
large and broad board, heavily loaded \vith lead, upon 
his shoulders, which board has a large hole in it for his 
head to come through ; with this mark of infamy they 
Ibrce him to walk through most of the capital streets of 
the city, till his strength is nearly exhausted ; and, if 
he survives this punishment, and commits a third of- 
fence, he is condemned to be beheaded. 

If a butcher sells short weight, or stinking meat, for 
the first offence, his stock of meat is given to the poor, 
and he is tied to a post where the sun may shine all day 
upon him; they then hang a piece of putrid flesh close 
to his nose, and leave him in that position till the piece 
of flesh produces worms, and they fall down upon his 
body; besides this, he is sentenced to pay a sum of 
money. For the second offence he undergoes severe 
corporal punishments, and is obliged to pay a very 
heavy fine, and the third offence is punished with death. 
Thieves and house-breakers are also put to death, 
after suffering torture. If a pick-pocket or thief is taken 
in the fact he is beheaded without any formal trial ; but 
an house-breaker is placed naked upon a camel, and his 
legs are tied under the camel's belly: the executioner 
rides behind him, having in his hands thin candles 
made of brimstone. The driver of the camel drives him 
through most of the capital streets, and in the mean 
time, the executioner having lighted the candles, puts 
them upon the criminal's skin ; the candles being very 
long, hang down over his shoulders, on his breast 
and back, burning from the bottom upwards, and when 
all his candles are burnt out, carries him into a square 
called Karameitan, or the black square, where all cri- 
minals are beheaded, who suffer that punishment; there 

he 



SINGULAR TRIAL FOR MURDER. 25 

he cuts his head off, and, if he is a Mahometan, places his head 
under his right arm : but, if he is a Christian, under his seat. 



AN ANTIDOTE TO CURIOSITY. 

J. HE Athenians had a law, which was well observed among 
them, whereby every man was forbidden (of whatever de- 
gree or quality soever he \vere) to inquire of any stranger, 
newly arrived in their city, from whence he came, what 
he was, or what he sought for ; under penalty upon him 
that demanded such questions, to be well whipped \vith 
rods, and banished his country. The end for which our 
grave ancients made such laws, was to keep men from the 
vice of curiosity, which is always over-ready to pry into 
other men's affairs, and to be regardless of its own. It is 
not many years since, that both in France and Spain, it 
\vas usual for the inhabitants of towns in general, to sur- 
round strangers, as they arrived, demanding what news. 

A VERY SINGULAR TRIAL AND ACQUITMENT OF CECELY 
DE RYGEWAY, FOR THE MURDER OF HER HUSBAND. 

JL HE following is one of the most singular on record. 
Cecely de Rvgeway was indicted for the murder of her 
husband, in the 3 1st year of Edward III. 1347. She re- 
fused to plead, and continued mute; notwithstanding all 
the threats and arguments the judges could use. They 
adjudged her to fast forty days, in close confinement; 
which she actually did, and was pardoned. The v>iiginal 
record is in the Tower of London. Pressure had used 
to be inflicted upon such stubborn subjects; but, at this 
period, it was probably supposed, that a secret was as liable 
to be squeezed in as squeezed out. 

A DUTCH MISER AND RECLUSE. 

VV HILE Mr. Barrow, the late ingenious traveller, was tra- 

versing the banks of the Hartebeest River, in one of the most 

VOL. i. E solitary 



6 A DUTCH MISEH AND RECLUSE. 

solitary co'onies of the Cape of Good Hope; our next 
encampment, he observes, was at the house or hovel of 
a Dutch peasant, situated at the entrance of a narrow defile 
between two ranges of mountains. The figure that presented 
itself at the door, truly represented a being of a different 
country from that which we had left behind. It was a 
tall old man, with a thin sallow visage, and a beard of dingy 
black, that, extending to the eyes, where it met the strag- 
gling hair of the forehead, obscured the face like a visor. 
Never was a finer figure for the inhabitant of a black tower, 
or enchanted castle, in the page of a romance. Not ac- 
customed to receive strangers, he seemed, on our arrival, 
to be somewhat agitated. In one corner of the chimney of 
his hovel, which consisted of one apartment, sat an old 
Hottentot woman, over whose head had passed at least a 
century of years. To her natural sallow complexion wa 
superadded no small quantity of soot, so that she was at 
least as black as her bearded master. A female slave next 
made her appearance, of a piece with the two former. The 
faggot presently crackled on the hearth ; a quarter of a 
sheep was laid on the coals to broil ; and the repast was 
speedily served up on the lid of an old chest, for want of a 
table, and covered with a remnant of the same piece of 
cloth worn as a petticoat by the female slave, which, it 
seemed not unlikely, had also once been employed in the 
same sort of service. 

It turned out in conversation, that the old gentleman had 
long resided in this sequestered spot far removed from all 
society; without wife or child, relation or friend, or any 
human being to converse with or confide in, except the 
old Hottentot and the slave, who were his only inmates, 
mid a tribe of Hottentots in straw without. With the ap- 
pearance of wretchedness and extreme poverty, he pos- 
sessed imni' nse herds of sheep and cattle, and had seve- 
ral large sums of money placed out at interest, lie was 
Jitr-rally *,vhM tl:r world has properly called a miser. In 

justice, 



ACCOUNT OF THE LATE \F. FULLER, ESQ.. 27 

justice, however, to the old man, he was one of the civil- 
est creatures imaginable. On our return, we were much 
indebted to him for the assistance of his cattle, which he 
very obligingly sent forward to fall in with our waggons on 
the midst of the Karroo desert. 

It is singular enough, that a brother and sister of this 
man, botli old, and both unmarried, should each have 
their habitations in separate and distant corners of these 
mountains, and live, like him, entirely in the society of 
Hottentots: they are nearly related to one of the richest 
men in the Cape. In civilized countries the miser distin- 
guishes himself by refusing the necessaries of life. But, in 
Africa, as food is too plentiful to be an object of saving, the 
miser is only known, by his constant rejection of all life's 
ornaments and superfluities. 

THE LATE w. ruLLER, ESO. A Penurious Character. 

AH is gentleman, though he had no patrimony to com- 
mence with, eventually accumulated, by his own industry 
and parsimony aione, little less than half a million sterling. 
The father of Mr. Fuller, says the relator of these anec- 
dotes, as I have been informed, was a dissenting minister; 
and he himself, in the earlier part of his life, was the mas* 
ter of a reputable academy. But the practice of pounds, 
shillings and pence, was more congenial to his feelings than 
the theory: and when h-inking was far less common than 
in the present day, he relinquished the care of his academy, 
and established himself in this more profitable line. No- 
thing could exceed the miserable and miserly appearance of 
this man, arrayed, as he commonly was, in an old crimson 
velvet cap, and a suit of clothes for which no wandering Jew 
could have afforded him half-a-crown without being a loser. 
The confined and impure atmosphere of Lombard-street 
did not, however, agree with his health ; and he, like Elvves 
and others, was compelled to burden himself with the 

E '2 expense 



28 ACCOUNT OF THE LATE 

expense of a country-house. This house, however, was. 
pot quite so large as those occupied by some monied mise- 
rables. It was a little cottage, or rather hut, as we are in- 
formed, in the hamlet of Ponder's End, just affording one 
parlour, and two chambers for himself and his son, who 
proved effectually to be bone of his own bone, by the 
equal avidity with which he uniied in the hunt after gold ; 
and who, dying a few years anterior to his own father, 
added his own bulky savings to those his father was already 
in possession of. In this rural retirement, a mutton chop 
a-piece, and a pint of porter between the two, formed an 
ample banquet for the day; and, like Sir Harvey Elwes 
and his nephew, wljen the evening darkened around 
them, they retired to bed to avoid the expense of candle- 
light. Old Fuller, nevertheless, did not, like the family 
of the Ei \ves_, exhibit in his own person the portrait of fa- 
mine : his form was less meagre than bloated, and inclined, 
in no inconsiderable degree, to that dropsical character un- 
der v\hich the Spanish poet, Ercilla,, has represented the 
insatiable passion of avarice. 

\Vhile the old man was able, he used to walk to town on 
foot every morning, and return into the country in the same 
manner every afternoon, as soon as the business of the day 
was transacted. But when he became debilitated by the in- 
firmities of age, it was necessary to travel either on horseback 
or in the stage, and to be attended by a servant to take care 
of him. 'i ins was altogether an expense which he was per- 
petually fearful would be the ruin of him; and particularly 
as, in consequence of the man's incapacity for writing, he 
could not be employed in the counting-house. To dimi- 
nish this expense, ;u some measure, he thought of an in- 
genious contrivance, and actually hired him out every day to 
a druggist, during the time cf his beirg in town, for the 
purpose of beating the mortar, engaging the druggist to 
provide him with a breakfast and dinner for the labour the 
5 man 



W. FULLER, ESQ. 29 

man thus performed. A very few years before his death, 
and when he was totally incapable of propagating his like- 
ness in any other way, he conceived a strange desire to 
have his portrait taken, and applied to an ingenious artist in 
the city, to this effect, in a dress of more than ordinary 
poverty, that he might be the better able to make a good 
bargain. Upon demanding the price of a three-quarter 
picture, the painter asked him seven guineas and a half. 
This the old miser thought a most enormous sum, and de- 
clared himself totally unable to advance it with conveni- 
ence. He offered five guineas ; and the artist, who was at 
that time in want of business, at length agreed to his pro- 
posal, and took his address. On the ensuing morning he 
paid him his first visit, and was astonished to find that the 
man who had applied to him in a state of such apparent in- 
digence was the wealthy and well-known William Fuller. 

O *' 

Having made the bargain, nothing, however, remained for 
him but to fulfil it; and this he did so much to the satis- 
faction of the old banker, that he requested, as a particular 
favor, that the artist would take it home and make two 
copies from the original painting. The young artist rea- 
dily assented ; and, upon producing the whole together, 
Fuller offered him the rive guineas for which he had at rirst 
agreed. The painter, however, demanded fifteen, being- 
five for each picture. Fuller was extremely indignant* 
and declared that he was most unconscionably imposed 
upon ; that the original agreement was for five ; and that, 
as to the copies, they were to be given him as a matter of 
favor. The painter, nevertheless, would not relax, and he 
threw him the money with most abusive wrath. 

In a manner not dissimilar, he once sallied forth for a 
physician of eminence, to attend, as he told linn, a poor sick 
woman, who was aa object of reul charity, and whom he 
largely contributed to support. The physician accompa- 
nied this truly charitable man, and found, on an old mat- 
trass 



30 ACCOUNT OF THE LATE \V. FULLER, E5g. 

trass in a garret, with a most scanty supply of furniture and 
nourishment, the woman referred to, who, from age and 
infirmities, it was very plain, had nearly numbered her 
days. He prescribed for her, was most heartily thanked 
by his employer, and earnestly requested to repeat his visits 
daily; but beyond these hearty thanks, he never received 
one farthing : and yet the reader will be astonished to learn, 
as the physician was himself on his first discovery of the 
fact, that this indigent old woman, who was so truly an 
object of chanty, was no less than the very sister of the pe- 
nurious hero of our tale. 

It should be stated, to the honor of the executors of this 
extraordinary miser, that the physician here referred to 
has been lately remunerated in a more solid and satis factor} 7 
manner than by the empty gift of thanks. 

The fact alluded to, concerning his having retained his 
clerks upon lower wages than were offered in any other 
banking-house in the city, by promising them legacies upon 
his decease, is a well known truth : promises, nevertheless, 
which he adhered to in no one instance whatsoever. His 
will he drew up himself, to save the expense of employing 
an attorney, and upon the scrap of an old letter, one night, 
as it is supposed, \\hen he was at his lodgings in the coun- 
try, but of \\hich no one was apprized at the time; and in 
this extraordinary manner he bequeathed the enormous 
sum of very liule less than five hundred thousand pounds, 
accumulated by an equal proportion of industry and ava.- 

ricc. 

And vet it is said that even this miser, as well as some others 
of recent date, did not pass through life without his good 
deeds; and that if he were unjust to those immediately around 
him, lie was occasionally generous to strangers, and exercised 
some few acts of charitable contribution. If this be true, 
and it has been mentioned from quarters that prohibit doubt, 
it only demonstrates, by an additional example, the resemv 

blarice 



OF THE SPHYNX. 31 

blance of all extremes ; and teaches us that it is easier for 
the miser, as well as for the spendthrift, for William Fuller 
as well as Charles Surface to be generous than to be just. 



OF THE SPHYNX. 



JLJLAVING chosen this hieroglyphical figure as an embellish- 
ment to our cover, and though the Sphynx has been a com- 
mon ornament in all Egyptian architecture, it may be here 
proper to notice, that the whole and individual figure which 
we have chosen to represent, is accurately taken from the 
celebrated monument of Egyptian antiquity which is still to 
be seen about sixty yards to the right of the great pyramid, 
from the eastern point, and opposite Cairo. This enor- 
mous figure, carved out of one stone, was considerably di- 
minished in its bulk by the accumulation of sand, till the 
industry of the French had lately uncovered more of this 
figure than had been seen for centuries past. The most of 
its features have been mutilated by different barbarians from 
time to time ; its face, perfectly Nubian, still preserves a 
considerable degree of feminine beauty ; it has no breasts, 
neither aie the feet visible; and as the rock seems to have 
been cut fur the particular purpose of exhibiting the back 
of a lion, this representation is said to intimate that when 
the sun passes from Leo into Virgo, the increase of the 
Nile is sure to follow. The height of the Sphynx is 26 feet, 
the circumference of the head J2, v.'hi'e the length of the 
back is supposed to be nearly (JO feet. But relative to the 
supposition of a subterraneous passage from thence to the 
pyramids, it is proved tot'^'v unfounded. A very elegant 
print has hitely been published of the Sphynx in tius metro- 
polis. 



Ejctraor- 



( 32 ) 

^Extraordinary Bi LL of FARV,, furnished at the Bush Tavern, 
Bristol, for Christmas 1 789. 

r l^ 

.1 URTLI', British turtle, giblet soup, pease soup, gravy 

soup, 9 cod, 5 turbots, 7 brills, 8 carp, 2 perch, 1 new 
salmon, 3 plaice, '200 herrings, sprats, 29 soles, 32 eels, 
salt fish, 5 docs, 36 hares, 18 pheasants, 2 grouse, 29 
partridges, 90 wild ducks, 4 wild geese, 28 teal, 24 \\igeon, 

5 bald coots, 1 sea pheasant, 2 mews, 12 moor hens, 1 
water dab, 5 curlews, 1 bittern, 121 woodcocks, 67 snipes, 
8 wild turkies, 12 golden plovers, 17 quists, 5 land rails, 

6 galenas, 4 pea hens, 16 pigeons, 110 larks, 24 stares, 
98 small birds, 44 turkies, 24 capons, 13 ducks, 7 geese, 
62 chickens, 14 ducklings, 8 rabbits, 5 pork griskins, 14 
veal burrs, 2 roasting pigs. Oysters, stewed and scol- 
loped, eggs, 15 hogs' puddings, Scotch collops, veal cut- 
lets, harricoed mutton, maintenon chops, pork chop?, 
mutton chops, rump steaks, sausages, tripe, cow-heel, 
4 house lambs. Veal, 5 legs and a loin. Beef, 7 rumps, 
1 sirloin, and 5 ribs. Mutton, 14 haunches, 8 necks, and 
4 legs. Pork, 4 loins, 1 leg, 2 chines, and 2 spare-ribs. 
Cold, Baron of Beef, 2 c. 3 qrs. Jib. 3 hams, 4 tongues, 
6 chickens, 11 collars brawn, 2 rounds beef, collared veal 
and mutton, collared eels, hearts, tongues, French pies, 
560 minced pies, 10 tarts, 211 jellies, 200 cray fish, 
pickled salmon, 7 crabs, sturgeon, pickled oysters, pot- 
ted partridge, potted pigeons, 24 lobsters, and 44 barrel? 
P_yfleet and Colchester oysters. 



V.IIIMSICAL 1NTRIIMENT. 

Extract of a L,clter from Thcrton, in Devonshire ; dated 
January 9, 1746. 

l\JLiiS. WKKKES, an aged gentlewoman, of a peculiar 
turn of mind, was buried here last Sunday : she was car- 
ried to her grave by six men, whose wives supported the 

pall, 



A PAIR OF PORTRAITS. 33 

pall, and wore hoods and belts made of dowlas, of about 
thirteen pence a yard, tied with white tape : the men had 
gloves, haif-a-crown each, and a quart of cider heated 
with ginger; her servant-maid was mourner in chief, and 
followed the corpse in a hood and scarf of the order above ; 
the minister (who had half-a-guinea and a pair of gloves) 
and the coffin-maker led the way ; and no other persons 
were invited to the funeral. The procession began about 
nine in the morning ; but not a tear was shed on the occa- 
sion, as the peculiarity of the sight rather excited mirth 
than grief. Though she was buried at nine, as above, six 
persons attended with lighted flambeaux, and wore dowlas 
hatbands, and were rewarded with thirteenpence halfpenny 
eacli for their trouble. Mrs. Weekes's funeral was agree- 
able to her life, which was a series of whim and incon- 
sistency, and that the last effort of a singular vanity." 

A PAIR, OF PORTRAITS. 

IRATELY died, at her house in Canterbury, Mrs. Celestina 
Collens, widow, aged 70. Although possessing an in- 
come of 70 per annum, her habits of life were singu- 
larly disgusting, her disposition and peculiarities so ex- 
centric, that she may be truly said to have verified the 
old adage, de giistibus nil disputandum ,- that is, there is 
no disputing about tastes. 

During many years her constant companions were from 
sixteen to twenty fowls, whose ordure defiled as well her 
bed and every article of her furniture, as the plate out of 
which she ate ; a favorite cock, whose age might be cal- 
culated from his spurs, being three inches long, and an 
equally favored rat, were for a length of time constant 
attendants at her table. 

Her predilection for vermin prevailed so much, that, 
at her death, a nest of mice was found in her bed. The 
house where she resided, besides the room in which she 

VOL. j. P constantly 



34 INTERESTING ACCOUNT OF 

constantly lived and slept, contained two others, that had 
not been permitted to be opened for many years. 

.Among the bequests in her will, are 50 to the Kent 
and Canterbury Hospitals; the same sum to the parish of 
St. Peter; 5 to the minister of the parish for a funeral 
sermon, and one guinea to each of the persons who should 
carry her to the grave ; besides many other legacies, ge- 
nerally to persons in no degree related to her. 

And a few days after, aged about 43, in the parish of 
Frees, in the county of Salop, a very singular character, 
of the name of Booth. He was by trade a cobbler; had 
existed (for he could hardly be said to have lived, having 
deprived himself of common necessaries) upwards of 
twenty years in a miserable hut, the roof of which had 
fallen in some time ago. He was about six feet two or 
three inches high ; very pale and meagre, his voice weak 
and feminine, and had no beard either on his lip or chin. 
In an old box in his possession, there were found upwards 
of thirty love letters and valentines, which he had received 
from different females in the neighbourhood ; and also 
money and bonds to the amount of near 500. The for- 
mer, no doubt, were the effects of sport among the fair 
sex; to whom such characters appear, beyond measure, 
ridiculous. 



Interesting' Particulars of GEORGE FORSTER, lately exe- 
cuted for the MURDER of his WIFE and CHILD, by 
drowning them in the New Canal at Paddington. 

JLius unhappy malefactor was tried at the Old Bailey, 
on Friday, January 14, 1803, and was one of the very 
few instances of persons convicted upon circumstantial evi- 
dence only : though on the morning of his execution, on 
Monday following, he confessed his crime, and the justice 
of his sentence ; and frankly owned, that he actually 

pushed 



GEORGE FORSTER, FOR MURDER. 35 

pushed -his \vife and child into the river. Forster was about 
6 years of age, a coach-harness maker by trade, and of a 
strong athletic make. A very uncommon circumstance is 
said to have occurred to Forster, at the Chapel in Newgate, 
previous to his receiving the sacrament, usual with con- 
demned criminals; a sudden noise being then heard, which 
could not be accounted for, the minister started, and look- 
ing at the criminal, who was much agitated ; and, at the 
same time, exclaiming " Jf hat can that be!" Forster 
replied " 'Tis my wife, and she has not left me a moment 
since 1 murdered her." Forster, it is observed, never ate any 
food from the time of his condemnation till his execution. 
And v\hat renders the exit of this criminal infinitely more 
interesting than it otherwise might have been, is the Gal- 
vanic experiments which were performed upon his body, 
and which were the first of the kind ever made in this 
country. Leave, it seems, was granted for this purpose, 
through the medium of Mr. White, Surgeon to his Majesty, 
to Professor Aldiui, an Italian gentleman, inheritor of this 
science, from his uncle, Laiigi Galvani, Professor of Ana- 
tomy; the particulars of which, with the outline of the his- 
tory of the surprising art of Galvanism, are to be found in 
the following pages. 



The science of Galvanism, which may be called a 
stronger degree of electricity, being new to the greatest 
part of the world, the carious will rejoice to hear, that, 
from the recent experiments of Professor Aldini, upon 
the body of Forster, above-mentioned, it is generally in- 
ferred, that the process luiviug such power to agitate the 
muscles and even the limbs of the dead; applied to 
the living, it is highly probable, that some stubborn dis- 
orders in the human ^economy, which have hitherto baffled 
all other means, may yield to this new discovery ; and 
thus, justly, enhance the importance of Galvanism. 

F 2 From 



36 EXPERIMENTS ON THE BODY 

From a perusal of the account of these late experiments 
(lasting seven hours and a half), published by Professor 
Aldini; it appears, that a hand of the deceased, was made 
to move, lift up, and clench the fist, and an eye seen to 
open, the legs and thighs set in motion; and all this, some 
hours after his death had been inflicted. It is also to be 
noticed, that these were the first experiments of Galva- 
nism ever tried in this country, or upon the body of any 
person that had been hanged. Nor were Mr. Aldini' s 
experiments begun till the body of Forster had been ex- 
posed for a whole hour in a temperature, two degrees be- 
low the freezing point of Fahrenheit's thermometer ; at 
the end of which long interval, it was conveyed to a house 
not far distant, where Mr. Aldini was in waiting, to com- 
mence his operations. 

In the course of this process we find, that, to assist the 
Galvanic conductor, volatile alkali was applied to the nostrils 
and mouth ; incisions made in the wrist; the short muscles 
of the thumb dissected, and lastly, the thorax, or stomach, 
and the pericardium opened, and the heart exposed. But 
here the endeavours to excite action in the ventricles were 
without success. Salt-water was also applied by the Pro- 
fessor to several parts of the body, as a stimulant, but the 
longer the experiments lasted, the weaker they became in 
their effects ; though Mr. Aldini had no doubt, but that if 
his apparatus had been stronger, the muscular motion of the 
dead body might have been much longer continued, and 
from the whole of the process upon Forster, he concludes : 
1st. That Galvanism, considered by itself, exerts a con- 
siderable power over the nervous and muscular systems, and 
operates universally on the whole of the animal (Economy. 
2d. That the power of Galvanism, as a stimulant, is stronger 
than any mechanical action whatever. 3d. That the effects 
of Galvanism on the human frame differ from those pro- 
duced by electricity communicated with common electrical 

4 machines. 



OF GEORGE FORSTER, FOR MURDER, 37 

machines. 4th, That Galvanism, whether administered by 
means of troughs or piles, differs in its effects from those pro- 
duced by the simple metallic coatings employed by Galvani, 
(its original discoverer). 5th. That when the surfaces of the 
nerves and muscles are armed with metallic coatings, the in- 
fluence of the Galvanic batteries is conveved to a greater 

* o 

number of points, and acts with considerably more force in 
producing contractions of the muscular fibre. 6th. That the 
action of Galvanism on the heart is different from that on 
other muscles. For when the heart is no longer suscep- 
tible of the Galvanic influence, the other muscles remain 
still excitable for a certain time. It is also remarkable that 
the action produced by Galvanism on the auricles is different 
from that produced on the ventricles of the heart, as is de- 
monstrated in Experiment the tenth. 7th. That Galvanism 
affords very powerful means of resuscitation in cases of 
suspended animation under common circumstances. The 
remedies already adopted in asphyxia, drowning, &c. when 
combined with the influence of Galvanism, will produce 
much greater effect than either of them separately. 

Mr. Aldini concludes with a short but accurate account 
of the appearances exhibited on the dissection of the body, 
which was performed with the greatest care and precision 
by Mr. Carpue. " The blood in the head was not extra- 
vasated, but several vessels were prodigiously swelled, and 
the lungs were entirely deprived of air; there was a great 
inflammation in the intestines, aiid the bladder was fully 
distended with urine. In general, upon viewing the body, 
it appeared that death had been immediately produced by 
a real suffocation." 

The Professor employs much acute reasoning to prove, 
that the first application of Galvanism to drowned persons, 
would almost generally ensure their safe recovery : and re- 
lative to the assistance he received from the Members of the 
College of Surgeons, he expresses his heartfelt gratitude. 

To 



S3 INTERESTING ACCOUNT OF GALVANISM. 

To improve these trials, lie adds, that Mr. Keate, the 
Master, in particular, proposed to make comparative ex- 
periments ou animals, in order to give support to the de- 
ductions resulting from those on the human body. Mr. 
Bliche observed, that on similar occasions it would be pro- 
per to immerse the body in a warm salt b.ilh, in order to 
ascertain how far that poweiful and extended coating might 
promote the action of Galvanism on the vvhole surface of 
the body. Dr. Pearson recommended oxjgen gas to be 
substituted instead of the atmospheric air blown into the 
lungs. Mr. Aidini observes, it gives me great pleasure to 
have an opportunity of communicating these observations 
to the public, in justice to the emment characters who 
suggested them ; a.id, as an inducement to physiologists, 
not to overlook the minutest circumstance which may tend 
to improve experiments that promise so greatly to relieve 
the sufferings of mankind. 

For a clear and concise history of this interesting dis- 
covery, our Readers are referred to the following parti- 
culars : 

About forty years since, Sutzer and Cottuni made some 
evident advances in this science; yet, Vassale, a Member 
of the Academy of Turin, published a variety of experi- 
ments upon if, in l?8y. But it was reserved for another, 
to throw new light upon this important subject. 

Luigi Galvani, Professor of Anatomy, in the University 
of Bologna, after interrogating nature with all the patience 
and ability of a philosopher, communicated her re- 
sponses, bv pronouncing the existence of an electrico-ani- 
mal fluid. In his celebrated Book, " De viribits electrici- 
talls in mctu musculari" lie describes the various facts col- 
lected by him, in consequence of long and scientific re- 
searches. The first thing that arrested his attention, was 
the contractions manifested by a frog, every time that a 
spark was drawn from an electrical machine, provided the 

crural 



GALVANISM CONNECTED WITH ELECTRICITY. 39 

crural nerves of the animal were touched at the same period 
with the blade of a knife. I?y repeating and varying this 
experiment, he was persuaded that these contractions did 
not proceed from any mechanical irritation, and he con- 
cluded that the phenomena were occasioned by the influence 
of electricity alone. 

In the course of his labours, being anxious to ascertain 
whether natural and artificial electricity produced the same 
effects, he placed an animal, prepared for this purpose, so 
as to communicate with a conductor, and every time that 
a cloud charged with lighcning passed over his house, the 
living subject notified the event by violent spasms. Soon 
after this, he was led in the course of his enquiries to con- 
clude, that there existed two kinds of fluids in the animal 
system ; the one, negative in the muscles, and the other 
positive in the nerves. Further researches conducted him 
to the irritation excited by the operation of metals in con- 
tact, or the muscles when they were placed so as to com- 
municate with the external part of the nerve. 

Anterior to the demise of Galvani, (\\hich occurred De- 
cember 4, 1798), Valli, a physician of Pisa, still further 
developed this new theory; he termed the conductor of the 
Professor of Bologna, an excitator, as exciting the nervous 
fluid, or the nerve itself to produce certain results ; he 
also demonstrated the close resemblance, or rather identity 
of the Galvanic with the Franklinian system. 

The philosophers now took different sides, and while 
Fontana, an Italian, asserted that the phenomena did not 
proceed from electricity, Lamethrie, a Frenchman, main- 
tained in the Journal de Physique, (42 d vol.) that there 
was no difference whatever betwe 'ii the two powers, ex- 
cept that the one was weaker than the other. 

Gaillard, the countryman of the latter, endeavoured to 
arrange the metals in the express ratio of their action on the 
animal ceconomy; and 5 according to him, they rank in the 

following 



40 PROFESSOR ALDlNl'g WORKS. 

following order : Zink, tin, lead, antimony, bismuth, 
copper, mercury, and silver. 

Dr. Aldini, an Italian Professor, is the nephew of Gal- 
vani. He has not only superintended the experiments that 
have lately taken place, and which have been repealed and 
varied a thousand different ways on the Continent, but writ- 
ten several Treatises on this subject, viz. 1. De animali 
electricitate dissertationes duae; 2. Del' uso e dell' attivita 
dell' arco conduttore nelle contrazioni dei mnscoli ; and, 
3. Memorie sulla electricita animale di Luigi Galvani, &c. 

In line, many novel and extraordinary phenomena have 
been produced in consequence of this recent discovery. 
The legs of men and horses, a considerable time after se- 
paration from their respective bodies, have been excited to 
motion, and the dormouse has been aroused out of its win- 
ter's sleep, and irritated before the approach of summer, 
into premature action. 

How far future researches may reach, it is impossible 
to determine ; as it appears, however, at present, that 
the Galvanic susceptibility survives unaltered, in certain 
cases of suffocation, some practical good may be already 
derived from it, as although it does not apply to the general 
practice of medicine, it may yet be employed with suc- 
cess, in that branch under the immediate protection of the 
Humane Society. 

It should be noticed, that the present Professor Aldini, 
is the nephew of Galvani, the author of the discovery; 
and that the former has already exhibited his experiments 
at Oxford; at Mr. Wilson's Anatomical Theatre in Lou- 
don ; and at St. Thomas's and Guy's Hospitals. The 
Lecturers and Pupils of which, have presented the Pro- 
fessor with a gold medal, in honorable testimony of their 
approbation. The art of Galvanism, however, is still in 
its infancy; but it will be the province of this Museum, to 
report every thing new and striking. 

CURIOUS 



CURIOUS ACCOUNT OP MERMAIDS. 

J. HOUGH the existence of this creature has been ques- 
tioned by many persons, it has only been in consequence 
of false accounts which have been mingled with the true. 
The most ingenious and impartial investigators of natural 
history, have now rescued the truth from a mixture of 
error. Some of the latest writers have more consistently 
called this creature the Sea Ape. In the sea of Angola, 
we learn, that they are frequently caught, as the negroes 
eat their flesh, which is said to eat like pork. When 
taken, they are heard to shriek and cry like women. 
And in the Universal Dictionary, published by John 
Theodore Jablonsky, we find the following description 
of them : Meer-man, Meer-weib, Meer-minne, that is ? 
Sea-man, Mer-maid, or Siren, called by the Indians, Am- 
bisiangulo, otherwise Pesiengoni, and by the Portuguese, 
Pezz Muger, is a fish found in the seas, and some rivers in 
the southern parts of Africa and India, and in the Phili- 
pine and Molucca islands, Brazil, North America, and Eu- 
rope, in the North Sea. The length of this fish is eight 
spans, its head is oval, and the face resembles that of a 
man. It has an high forehead, little eyes, a flat nose, and 
large mouth, but has no chin or ears. It has two arms, 
which are short, but without joints or elbows, with hands 
(which are not very flexible), connected to each other by 
a membrane, like that of the foot of a goose. Their sex is 
distinguished by the parts of generation. The females 
have breasts to suckle their offspring ; so that the upper 
part of their body resembles that of the human species, 
and the lower part that of a fish. Their skin is of a 
brownish grey colour, and their intestines are like those 
of a hog. Their flesh is as fat as pork, particularly the 
VOL. i. G uppe 



42 CURIOUS ACCOUNT 

upper part of their bodies ; and this is a favorite dish with 
the Indians, broiled upon a gridiron. 

Our author proceeds thus : As I may safely give credit 
to this person, namely, the Rev. Mr. Peter Angel, who is 
still living, and minister of the parish of Vand-Elvens 
Speld, on Sundmoer, I shall relate what he assured me of 
last year, when I was on my visitation journey. He says, 
that in the year 17 19, (he being then about twenty years 
old), along with several other inhabitants of Alstahoug in 
Norland, saw what is called a mer-man, lying dead on a 
point of land near the sea, which had been cast ashore by the 
waves, along with several sea-calves, and other dead fish. 
The length of this creature was much greater than what 
has been mentioned of any before ; namely, above three 
fathoms. It was of a dark grey colour all over ; in the 
lower part it was like a fish, and had a tail like that of the 
porpesse. The face resembled that of a man, with a mouth, 
forehead, eyes, &c. The nose was flat, and as it were, pressed 
down to the face, in which the nostrils have ever been visi- 
ble. The breast was not far from the head ; the arms 
seemed to hang by the side, to which they were joined by 
a thin skin or membrane. The hands were, to appearance, 
like the paws of a sea-calf. The back of this creature was 
very fat, and a great part of it was cut off, which, with the 
liver, yielded a large quantity of train oil. That this crea- 
ture, which is reckoned among the whale kind, is a fish of 
prey, and lives upon the smaller sort, may be concluded, 
from what Mr. Luke Debes relates, in his description of 
Faroe. He tells us that they have there seen a mer-maid 
with fish which she held in her hand. The words are in 
p. 171, as follows : There was also seen in 1670, at Faroe, 
westward of Quelboe Eide by many of the inhabitants, as 
also by others from different parts of Suderoe, a mer-maid 
close to the shore. She stood there two hours and a half, 
and was up to the navel in water ; she had long hair on her 

head, 



OF MERMAIDS. 43 

head, which hung down to the surface of the water all round 
about her; she held a fish with its head downwards, in her 
right hand. I was told also, that in the same year, the 
fishermen in Western) an-haven, on Stromoe, had, in their 
fishery north of Faroe, seen a mer-maid. 

That these creatures being fish of prey, sometimes quar- 
rel with the sea-calf, is confirmed by a relation sent me, 
with sevei-al others, by the Rev. Mr. Hanstrom, at Bergen. 
It runs to this effect : " It happened at Nerae, in Nume- 
dalen, that there was found a mer-rnan and sea-calf on a 
rock, both dead and all over bloody ; from which it is con- 
jectured that they had killed one another." 

In the year 1624, a mer-man, thirty-six feet, long, was 
taken in the Adriatic Sea ; according to Henry Seebald's 
Breviar Histor. to this the last mentioned, was but a dwarf. 
See p. 535. As to their form, it is said, that some have 
a skin over their heads like a monk's hood, which, perhaps, 
serves them for the same purpose ; as does the skinny hood, 
which a certain sort of sea-calves have on their heads, 
winch from thence are called Klap-mitzer, as has been ob- 
served in the description of that creature. Olaus Magnus 
speaks, in lib. xxi. cap. 1 . of several monsters in the North 
Sea, all which resemble thehuman kind, withamonk'shood 
on the head. His words are, " Cucullate hominis forma ;" 
he adds, that if any of this company be catched, a number 
of them set up a howl, put themselves in violent agitations, 
and oblige the fishermen to set the prisoner at liberty. But 
this last article is a mere romance, to which this too credu- 
lous author in this, as well as some other particulars, has 
given too much credit, without sufficient grounds. 

Of this mer-man with a hood, Rondeletius writes thus, in 
Gesner.de Aquatilibus, lib. iv, which I ought not to omit. 

As this account confounds Norway with the Sound, and 
Malmoe, which the Dutch call the Elbow, I conclude this 
strange fish here spoken of, to have been just the same 
with that which Arild llvitfield in vita Christ, iii ad 

anno 



44 ASTONISHING DELIVERANCE 

anno 1550, speaks of. He says it was caught in Oresund, and 
brought to Copenhagen, and there burned by his Majesty's 
orders, because the head resembled that of a human crea- 
ture, with cropped hair, and covered with a monk's hood. 
There is yet a difference observed in this mer-man or mer- 
maid's lower parts and the tail. These are represented in 
most of the drawings, with fins like other fish, and with a 
flat and divided tail, something like that of the porpesses ; 
from this, that print of a Siren, which Thorn. Barthol. 
gives us in Historia. Anatomica. centur. ii. No. IX, page 
188, differs entirely; for the lower extremity is there re- 
presented with a round protuberance, without the least 
sign of a fin, or any thing like the tail of a fish. 

Astonishing Deliverance from imminent Danger in the Case 
of a Fowler, on the Coast between Hampshire and the 

Isle of Wight. 

(Related by the Rev. W. GILPIN.) 

rp 

JL HE hazardous occupation of a Fowler, once led him 

into a case of great distress; this being in the day-time, it 
shews still greater danger of such expeditions in the night. 
Mounted on his mud-pattens (flat pieces of board tied on 
his feet), he was traversing one of these midland plains in 
quest of ducks ; and being intent only on his game, he 
suddenly found the waters, which had been brought for- 
ward with uncommon rapidity, by some peculiar circum- 
stances of tide and current, had made an alarming pro- 
o-ress around him. Incumbered as his feet were, he 

O 

could not exert much expedition ; but to whatever part 
he ran, he found himself completely invested by the 
tide. In this uncomfortable situation, a thought struck 
him, as the only hope of safety. He retired to that part 
of the plain, which seemed the highest, from its being 
yet uncovered by water ; and, striking the barrel of his 
o-un (which, for the purpose of shooting wild fowl, 
was very long) deep into the mud, he resolved to hold 

fast 



ASTONISHING CASE OF A FOWLER. 45 

lu^t by it, as a support, as well as a security against the 
waves, and to wait the ebbing of the tide. A common 
tide, he had no reason to believe would not, in that place, 
hove reached above his middle; but as this was a spring- 
tide, and brought forward with a strong westerly wind, 
he durst hardly expect so favourable a conclusion ; in, 
the midst of this reasoning on the subject, the water 
making a rapid advance, had now reached him. It 
covered the ground on which he stood, it rippled over 
his feet, it gained his knees, his waist, button after button, 
swallowed up, till at length it advanced over his very 
shoulders; with a palpitating heart, he gave himself up 
for lott. Still, however, he held fast by his anchor. 
His eye was eagerly in search of some boat, which 
might accidentally take its course that way ; but none 
appeared. A solitary head, floating on the water, and 
sometimes covered by a wave, was no object to be de- 
scribed from the shore, at a distance of half a league; 
nor could he exert any sounds of distress, that could be 
heard so far. While he was thus making up his mind, 
as the exigence would allow, to the terrors of a certain 
destruction, his attention was called to a new object. 
He thought he saw the uppermost button of his coat be- 
gin to appear. No mariner, floating on a wreck, could 
behold a cape at sea, with greater transport, than he did 
the uppermost button of his coat. But the fluctuation of 
the water was such, and the turn of the tide so slow, that 
it was yet some time before he durst venture to assure 
himself, that the button was fairly above the level of the 
flood. At length however a second button appearing at 
intervals, his sensations may rather be conceived, than 
described; and his joy gave him spirit and resolution, to 
support his uneasy situation four or five hours longer, till 
the waters fully retired. 

No. II. ii Circum- 



[ 46 J 
Circumstantial Evidence. 

.BOUT forty years ago, at one of the provincial As- 
sises, a gentleman was tried and convicted, upon circum- 
stantial evidence of the murder of his niece. The cir- 
cumstances sworn to were as follow: That the uncle and 
niece were seen walking in the fields ; that a person at a 
small distance heard the niece exclaim " Don't kill 
me, uncle ! Don't kill me!" and. that instant a pistol or 
fowling-piece was fired off. Upon these circumstances 
the gentleman was convicted and executed. Near twelve 
months after, the niece, who had eloped, arrived in Eng- 
land, and hearing of the affair, elucidated the whole 
transaction. It appeared that she had formed an attach- 
ment 'for a person whom her uncle disapproved : when 
walking in the fields, he was earnestly dissuading her 
from the connexion, when she replied <{ That she was 
resolved to have him, or it would be her death, and there- 
fore said, Don't kill me, uncle! Don't kill me!" At 
the moment she uttered these words, a fowling-piece was 
'discharged by a sportsman in a neighbouring field. The 
same night she eloped from her uncle's house, and the 
combination of those suspicious ciremnstanceSj occa- 
sioned his ignominious death. 



Account q/'GiANTb: from a Memoir lately r^ml before, 
the, Acadc,;>y of Sciences at Rouen. 

By M. LE CAT. 
rr\ 

I nr Bible mentions several races of Giant,:, as the 

Rephaims, the Anakiins, the Emims, the Zoi ^ -rums., 
and others. Profane historians also r~or.tica Giants ; 
they gave seven feet of height to Hercules their first 
hero, and in our days we have seen men eight feet high. 
The giant who was hhewn hi Rouen, ui 1735, measured 
eiirht feet sowo inches; the Emperor Max hnian was of 



ACCOUNT OF GIANTS. 47 

that size; Skenhius and Plateries, physicians of the last 
century, saw several of that stature; and Goropius saw a 
girl that was ten feet high. 

The body 1 of Orestes, according to the Greeks, was 
eleven feet and a half; the giant Galbora, brought from 
Arabia to Home under Claudius Caesar, was near ten 
feet; and the bones of Secondilla and Pusio, keepers of 
the gardens of Sallust, were but six inches shorter. 

Funnani, a Scotsman, who lived in the time of Eugene 
the second, king of Scotland, measured eleven feet and 
a half; and Jacob le Mairc, in his voyage to the Streight 
of Magellan, reports, that on the 17th of Dec. 1615, they 
found at Port Desire several graves covered with stones, 
and having the curiosity to remove the stones, they dis- 
covered human skeletons often and eleven feet long. 

The: Chevalier Scory, in his voyage to the Pike of 
Tencri^Fe, says, that they found in one of the sepulchral 
caverns of that mountain, the head of a Guanche, which 
had eighty teeth, and that the body was not less than 
iiftcen feet long. 

The giant Ferragus, slain by Orlando, nephew of Char- 
lemain, was eighteen feet high. 

Ixevland, a celebrated anatomist who wrote in 1G14, 
savs, ijiat some years before there was to be seen in the 
suburbs of St. Germain, the tomb of the giant Isoret, who 
was tvvcntv feet high. 

In liouen, in 1,309, in digging in the ditches near the 
Dominicamo, they found a stone tomb containing a ske- 

J O 

leton, whose skull held a bushel of corn, and whose shin 
hone reached up to the girdle of the tallest man there: 
being about four feet long, and consequently the body 
must have been seventeen or eighteen feet high ; upon 
the tomb was a plate of copper, whereon was engraved, 
'-' In this tomb lies the noble and Puissant Lord, the 
Chevalier Iluon cle Vullemont, and his bone;-." Plateru.3, 
n C 2 a famous 



48 ACCOUNT OF f.IAXTS. 

a famous physician, declared that he sa\v at Lucarne t\\r 
true human bones; of a subject, which must have been at 
least nineteen feet high. 

Valance, in Dauphine, boasts of possessing the bones 
of the giant Bucart, tvrant of the Vivarais, who was slain 
by an arrow by the Count de Cabillon, his Vassal. The 
Dominicans had a part of the shin bone, with the/irticu- 
lalion of the knee, and his figure painted in fresco, with., 
an incriptiou shewing that this giant was twentv-two Icet 
and a half high, and that his bones were found in 170."; 
Dear the banks of the Morderi, a little river at the foot of 
tlie mountain of (.'r*i>ol, upon which (tradition says), the 
&- r iant dwelt. 

v 1 

January 1 1, I6l;>, some masons digging near the ruin< 
ui' a castle inl)auphine,in a field* which (by tradition) had 
long been called the giant's field, at the depth of 
eighteen feet discover d a brick tomb thirtv feet long, 
tv.elve fe<i_t wide, and eight feet high, on which was a 
gray stone, with the words Theutobochus Rex cut there- 
on; when the to;ub was opened,, they found a human 
skeleton entire, twenty-five feet and a. half long, ten feet, 
wide across the sho-:ilders_, and five feet deep from tin 1 
Liva-t-bone to the Lack, his teeth were each about the 
size of an o.Vs foot, and his shin bone measured four 
feet. 

.Near Mag'irino, in Sicily, in 1.5 1(3, was found a giant 
thirtv tct-t high; his head was the size of a hogshead, ami 
each of his teeth weighed live ounces. 

3ear Palermo, in the valley of Magattl in Sicily, a 
skeleton of a giant, ihiri.y feet long, was found in the year 
1.-3-1-8, and another of thirty-three feet high, in ],).)(), and 
liKiny curious persons have preserved several of the 
gigantic bones. 

The Athenians found near thirtv- two famous skeleton-, 
one of thirty-four, and another of thirty-six feet high. 

At 



AC rot. NT OF GIANTS, 4<) 

At Totie, in Bohemia, in 758, was found a skeleton, 
the head of which could scarce be encompassed bv the 
arms of two men together, and whose legs, which thev 
t;ll keep in the castle of the citv, were twenty-six feet 
long. 

The skull of the giant found in Macedonia, September 
lO()l, held two hundred and ten pounds of corn. 

The celebrated Sir Hans Sloatte, who treated the mat- 
ter verv leanJedly, does not doubt these facts, but. thinks 
the bones were those of elephants, whales, or other ani- 
mals. Elephants bones mav be shewn for those of 
giants, but this can never impose on Connoisseurs. 

Whales, which, by their immense bulk, are more pro- 
per to be substituted for the largest giants, have neither 
anas nor lc:>;s, and the head of that animal hath not the 
least resemblance with that of a man: if it be true, there- 
lore,, that a ^reat number of the <rii2.'antic bones which we 
have mentioned have been seen by anatomists, and have 
by them been reputed real human bones, the existence of 
U'iants is nrov< d. T. \\ . 



11 A R i T 1 1 : s / / o ni J:' c, v p T . 

.in Ai-cnnnl of P'tccr* of Antitnt Sculpture taken by tlie 
British forces under Lieutenant (Jtjural Lord Hutch- 
tii^on in Egijjtt, from the Trench anni/ In Alexandria, 

and vent to i'Ji^dirtd iiruu-r the charge of Colonel Tar- 
mi', September IbfJ'J. 

\ 

1. -i'\x Egvptiiin Sarcophagus oi a stone, called bv 

the l ; r'-n<;ii Brcchf. I'atc, ironi the Mosouc of St. Aihu- 
jii'.^ius, i n Alexandria. 

1 J. j):ti(j, ditto of bkiek uTunite, from Cairo. 

3. LKtio, unto uf basaltcs, lioin Mcnouf. 



50 RAEITIES FKOM EGYPT. 

4. The fist of a Colossean statue, supposed to be Vul- 
can, found in the ruins of Memphis. 

5. Five statues of lions, with lions heads, black gra- 
nite, brought from the ruins of Thebes. 

6. A mutilated figure,, kneeling, black granite. 

7. Two statues, white marble, supposed to be Septimus 
Severus, and Marcus Aurelius, found in the researches 
made in Alexandria. 

8. A stone of black granite, with three inscriptions, 
Hieroglyphic, Coptic, and Greek, found near Rosetta. 

9. A statue of a woman, sitting, with a lion's head, 
black granite, from Upper Egypt. 

10. Two fragments of lion's heads, black granite, from 
Upper Egypt. 

11. A small figure, kneeling, with hieroglyphics, black 
granite, from Upper Egypt. 

1C. Five fragments of statues, with lions heads, black 
granite, from Upper Egypt. 

13. A fragment of a sarcophagus, black granite, from 
Upper Egypt. 

14. Two small obelisks, remarkably line, v.ith hiero- 
glyphics, basaltcs, from Upper E'.rvj*'. 

15. A colossean ram's head, of a stone, railed bv the 
French rouge gi'dis, from Upper Egvpt. 

}(>. A statue of a woman sitting on the ground, of black 
granite; between the feet is a mom-l of the capital of a 
column of a temple of Isis, at Dendera. 

17. A fragment of a statue with a lion's head, black 
granite, from Lpper Egypt. 

A chest of oriental manuscripts, amounting to sixty- 
two, (."optic, Arabic, and Turkish, belonging 1.0 the library 
of the French Insiiiuie at. Cairo. 

W. TnSN'EI!., 
Col. aud Cap i. of Guards. 

Surprising 



[ 51 ] . 

Surprising Faculty of sustaining EXTREME HEAT and 
COLD. 

Till within a vory short period since, the customs and manners 
of no parts of the world have been less known, than those of 
the North. The scenes of luxury which you have described 
in your last number, in the fete given by Prince Potemkin, and 
the Winter Garden at Petersburg!! would, were they not well 
authenticated, appear almost incredible; but that the Nor- 
thern regions are the theatre of some other extremes not less 
striking, will probably appear from the following sketch of 
Vapour Bathing in Finland, as witnessed by a very ingenious 
and intelligent traveller. Your's S. S. 

-/XLMOST all tlic Finnish peasants have a small house 
built on purpose for a bath; it consists of only one 
small chamber) in the innermost part of which are placed 
a number of stones, which are heated by fire till they be- 
come red. On these stones, thus heated, water is thrown 
until the company within be involved in a thick cloud of 
vapour. In this innermost part the chamber is formed 
into two stories for the accommodation of a great number 
of persons within that small compass; and it being- the 
nature of heat and vapour to ascend, the second story is 
of course the hottest. Men and women use the bath pro- 
miscuously, without any concealment of dress or being 
in tbe least influenced by any emotions of attachment. 
Though not in total darkness, yet they are in great cb- 
sc-uritv, as there is no other window besides a small hole, 
nor any light but what enters in from some clunks in the 
roof of the house, or the crevices between the pieces of 
wood of which it is constructed. 

The Finlanders, all the while they are in this hot- 
bath, continue to nil) themselves, and lash every part of 
their bodies with switches,, formed of the twigs of the 

birch 



52 EXTREME HEAT AND COLD. 

birch trees. In ten minutes they become as red as raw 
flesh, and have altogether a very frightful appearance, 
In the winter season they will frequently go out of the 
bath, naked as they are, to roll themselves in the snow; 
and will sometimes come out, still naked and converse 
together, or with any one near them in the open air. If 
travellers happen to pass by, whilst the peasants of any 
hamlet, or little village, arc in the bath, and their assist- 
ance is needed, they will leave the bath, and assist, in 
yoking or unyoking, and fetching provender for the hor- 
ses, or any thing, without .any sort of covering whatever, 
while the passenger sits shivering with cold, though 
wrapped up in a good sound wolf's skin. There is noth- 
ing more wonderful than the extremities which man is 
capable of enduring through the power of habit. 

TheFinnish peasants pass thus instantaneously from an 
atmosphere of seventy degrees of heat, to one of thirty 
degrees cold, a transition of one hundred degrees, which 
is the same thing as going out of boiling into freezing 
watc-r; and what is more astonishing, without the least 
inconvenience J 

Those peasants assure you, that without the hot vapour 
baths they could not sustain, as they do, during tin* 
\\ holc dav, their various labours, J5y the bath thev tell 
you that their spirits are refreshed as much as by sleep. 
The heat of the vapour molifies to such a degree tiieir 
skin, that. the men easily shave themselves with wretched 
razors, and without soap. 



A FOREST under GROUND: 
rp 

JL n n remains of which are said to have been discover* 

rd in the course of the digging" of the .New Hocks in the 
Isle of ! 'o;;s, having excited the attention of the. curious, 
si;pp<'><'.l hv saline to be the greatest natural Curiosity' in 

this 



FOREST UNDER GHOU'ND. 



tliis empire, perhaps in Europe. All that is called anti- 
quity seems but a yesterday, compared with this' wonder- 
ful rain, of which there is no tradition whatsoever. Im- 
mense tree?, with their burl; uninjured,, although their 
trunks are rotten, glass, charcoal,, filbert shells, perfect 
human bones,, c;v. Sec. are amongst the contents of this 
unexplored subterranean. 

Rut with, due deference to the opinion here expressed, 
the idea of a forest under irround, in England,, is not 
altogether without a parrallel, Joseph Coriea de Seira, 
L. L. D. has latelv published a paper, in which speaking 
of a subterraneous marine forest on the eastern coast of 
Lincolnshire,, he observes,, the islands discoverable a t 
some distance from the coa^t of Lincolnshire, at the 
lowest ebbs, chiefly consist of roots, trunk-, and branches 
of trees, intermixed with leaves of aquatic plants; the 
bark and roots are fresh, but the timber, which is oak, 
birch, and fir,, soft, except at the knots ; the trunks and 
brandies considerably flattened. Leaves of the ilex aqui- 
toliii'.n and the willow, and the roots of the arundo phra- 
ein'tes, are distinguishable. These islets extend about 
twelve miles in length, and one in breadth, opposite to 
Sutton shore : the channels between them from four to 
twelve feet deep ; the strata around afford similar appear- 
ances of decayed vegetables; gravel and water are found 
at M nc hundred and forty feel below the present surface. 

Account of the laic SA:.U EL MATTHEWS of Duhcick, 
cuttJ/iiGtid/ called tlii.' V. ILD MAN of the WOODS ; in- 
c'liiUng /us Mann, / a/' l.h'ino- ///.- Murder on Tuesday 
Dec. '2:~, i\nd his l-ttcnncnt in 1'ic ~ra.:ud of Didj^ich 

C/iaiK-1, d( Tutsdu-.i Jan. G, 1803. 

^ ^ ^ 



und 



54 ACCOUNT OF SAMIT.L MATTHEWS. 

and inoffensive man, who has been so cruelly deprived 
of existence, we can assure our readers, that poor Mat- 
thews never was a professed gardener, though he had for 
so many years past, occasionally jobbed in the neigh- 
bourhood. The general obscurity of his origin, how- 
ever, is to be accounted for chiefly from his constant re- 
luctance to the answering of all questions put to him on 
the subject. It was, perhaps, the only thing to which 
he alwavs shewed a disposition for leaving the enquirer 
unsatisfied, and in ihe dark ; but from good information 
upon the spot, we leuni that when Matthews first made 
his appearance in that part of the country, he was com- 
paratively a person of genteel address, and in the habits 
every wav corresponding He not only dressed well, but 
was remarkable for wearing two watches, and was also 
possessed of property; as for a considerable time before 
he took to living in the cave, his cloaths, Sec. were de- 
posited at. the house of a widow woman at Norwood, 
who used to dress his victuals; but as a difference took 
place between them, and the poverty of Matthews 
seemed to follow as an immediate consequence, it has 
been conjectured that her conduct might have been ac- 
cessary to this change, though the loss of his wife was 
not (infrequently indicated by the deceased, as having 
vorne distant intluen-'c upon the solitary course of life 
which he afterwards adopted. 

Previous to Matthews':- arrival in that neighbourhood, 
it. is also understood that he had lived with some trades- 
man near Cheapsicle : probably when he first caine from 
Shropshire, in which county he was born. 

When 1)!.' v, as iirsi known as a person in di-trcss at Sv- 
duuhi-.in and .Duiwich, and attempted to take up bis re- 
sidence as a native of the wood, he experienced consi- 
derable opposition from some ot ihe inhabitants, v, ho 
repeatedly had him seuL avr.iy as: a vagrant; but as he 

continually 



ACCOUNT OF SAMUEL MATTHEWS. 55 

continually returned again as soon as lie was set at liber- 
ty,, they at length suffered Iiiiu to dig his cave aud re- 
main, as he chose, without anv interruption. 

The simplicity of his manners and appearance, and 
the inofFensivencss of his behaviour, very soon con- 
vinced the people about Duhvieh, that they had nothing 
lo fear from him. He seldom entered into conversation 
u ith any person unless lirst accosted bv them ; but was 
very often observed talking to himself, and in his lonely 
walks, generally looking towards the ground. When he 
came to he more kno\vn bv the people about Dulwich, 
ir v. as his common custom to salute them by the name 
of neighbour, and after the first introduction to a dis- 
course, repugnance felt on either side, insensibly wore 
off, and in a very short time there were very few of his 
visitors, but, generally speaking, found themselves as 

easy as if they had been acqua nted with this solitary 
^nan, for a number of years. 

Still, though dwelling in this lonely state, and in a part 
of the neighbourhood, then less frequented than any 
other, his residence, and the reports of those who visited 
him, at length brought so many people to the place, es- 
pecially on Sundays, that the v, ay to his cave, though 
at first iu an obscure, or rather unfrequented spot, for 
some years past, was nearly as well knoun, and as often 
traversed as some turnpike roads. I n fact, enquiries 
after the II ihl Man of the IVooih, as he was then called, 
were so often repeated by strangers, that it at length be- 
came necessary for the people that knew him, to point 
out to sueh at a distance, a clump of birch trees, close 
to his cave; and which being once known, served as a 
kind of land-mark, naturally leading to the object of 
enquiry. 

But though "Matthews'* Cine, has been the subject of 
so much curiosity and observation, he was literally an 

i 2 inhabitant 



56 MATTIIEWS'S MANNER OF LIVING. 

inhabitant of the Wood ; as all his culinary and ordina- 
ry avocations were performed in the opo.i air. There 
in the manner of the Gypsies, he kindled his fire, there 
he hoilecl his meat, and to the branches of a tree, or to 
the foilage of a bush was the bread and cheese geiu '-ral- 
ly suspended, which lie always brought out when visited 
on Sundays., and at other times: while, the neighbouring 
brake or fern covered his bo; tics of beer from the eye ot 
the officious or intrusive wanderer ; and which, on the 
contrary, were always within the ken and comprehension 
of the observing recluse, who having but very tV.w ob- 
jects to divert his attention, was never at a loss to distin- 
guish them with the utmost ease and promptitude. 

But whatever was Matthews'* motive for sparing hhr- 
pcl:. the convenience of a knife, fork, or plates, yet 
a,v he would say, '"' so it va-."--- liis method at least at 
first,, was, after lie had boiled his meat (having no conve- 
nieKcy to roast) to turn U cur. into the pol lid' in lieu of a, 
plate, and then to krr.r.v or tear it \vith his lingers ; and 
as ibr his bread, lie always made a practice of pulling 
or tearing it to piece.-. 

Una the accumulation of monev been any part of his 
object, there is no ciouht of his obtaining it. 

Many iesp<~ ct:;h;e lYuriihes seni him gifts at Chi'Mnuts ; 
but the love of money was not predominant in. bin', as 
lie would very frequently rcii;se it when ojfered him. 
To p.uiny, to mv.;i. of his summer visitors, he may be 
said to have sold his brrad and l.^x-r ; otliers ii>;wcvcr, 
have partaken oi' it, wiihoi.t beiiig i;sl;ed ior, ar.d 
T ,\iM!or.t oiV' rivM.; inm any recotnj^enfi^. 

To the reiication of drinkin;:', it \vas not a rare., but a 
rr:n:;-:nf practice of Matthews s visitors to ha\e recourse 
to J-.moaking of tobacv'o ; but in this cussosn lie never 
join f -<-!, oh>-oi^in f j to a friend that nscrl to visit liiin, thai. 

sinoukino: 



MATTHEWS'S MANNER OF LIVING. 57 

smoaking was an indulgence he had never used since the 
death of his wile. 

In complexion rather meagre and sallow, Matthews 
\vas in some measure tunned Tor an enthusiast; but of 
religion or anv of its appendages little indeed was ever 
heard of from this solitary character. Even this, how- 
ever, like the reasons of his resolution lor living so 
much sequestered from society might have been a secret. 
But that another state of existence did sometimes occu- 
py his attention, is clear from his being at one time sur- 
prised by a. company who happened to approach him 
near has Cave, at the instant, when starting, he ex- 
claimed, " There are ten thousand going into Hell at this 
moment." A degree of earnestness, and something 
rather uncommon in his manner, at this time, says the 
rclator of this anecdote, seemed in some measure to 
shock the companv, among whom were several very 
genteel females ; but as some of the Duhvich people. 
were then present, and knew ^Jatthews, and as they 
soon turned the course of the conversation to a more 
agreeable subject, even the ladies became s4 far reconcil- 
ed, as to partake of his homely refreshment. 

Ac or.e period he indulged himself with the society of 
a cat, and which of course was much caressed ; but 
through the difficulty of keeping it near his cave, in his 
absence, he found it necessary to part willi this small 
portion of intelligent society, long before his decease. 

Being once questioned by a friendly visitant, whether 
lie never met with any object to affright or terrify him, 
in the drcarv solitude to which he was accustomed: lie 
confessed that one instance only execptcd, he never 
knew what fear was. It was then night, and being 
without the least suspicion, about to enter his cave, and 
repo-e upon his fern, and the rug that covered it, he 
perceived by the sense of feeling, that another living, 

and 



58 ROBBERY OX' MATTHEWS. 

and wandering wight, had occupied it l:cfore him. It 
was a poor man ; but unlike the other degraded wretches 
who have since disturbed that peaceful habitation,, he 
was civil, upon which, poor Matthews was content to 
share the bed with him, and, as he told his friends, gave 
him a good breakfast in the morning, and afterwards saw 
him no more. 

Strange as it may appear, neither the most unfavour- 
able weather nor the bitterest of the seasons could induce 
Matthews even to sleep from his beloved cave; and dur- 
ing one of the severest of the late winters, we have been 
told that it was not without the utmost persuasion, that a 
"Wclehman, in Dulwich, very partial to Matthews, could 
induce him to sleep a few nights in his hay -loft, at the 
back of his premises, lie soon became wearv of a su- 
perior accommodation, and returned to the fatal spot 
v, here a laic act. of violence put a period to his existence. 

'.1 he newspapers have asserted that about five or six 
v\'u:s since, some villians breaking into Matthews'* cave, 
their ii! usage of him at the time, vi/. breaking his arm, 
raid rohhi";i him of twelve shillings, made him absent 
himself from i< a year am! half, during which time he 
:-!i-pr in h^v-lofts &c. ; but the fact seems to be, lhat 
!i!att.;>f-w? v.'iis never absri.il from ii above three months, 
-u'-d in tn;;t interval went down to Pembrokeshire, or 
Shropshire , but could not be prevailed upon to make a 
longer stay. This journey, he ib.cd to tell iiis friends 
C'-i-t hii:i tv,cntv pounds. 

1'YoL.i tue s t ;;ac channels of intelligence we icani, 
tii<;T aho;:t thirty year.-- n^) he lost his wife, and was leit 
v,-, h oru^ daughter, and, having placed her in a siluaiion 
3.1 London, he \\s-nt to live tn the neighbourhood .>r 
C'u.mberwell, v/htire i;e \\orkcd a; a r.-a'dener. Soon 
after his goinv; t ; (.'amberwe'il, he <,bta.i\cd Lavr of the 
riiu .iiiLic rs o;' ihil iich college, to form iiimsi U' a dwelling 

on 



MU11DER OF MATTHEWS. ^9 

oil the land belonging to the college, which was partly 
:ni excavation of the earth, and partly covered in with 
teni, underwood, ixc. Here, lor u series of years be 
lived umnolesting uud unmolested, following his daily 
avocatioi>s in performing undcr-gurdeners work in the 
gardens of some of the neighbouring gentlemen; bv 
Avhom, for his inotfeiiMve and gentle demeanor, he was 
much liked. Jiis return tohis cave to sleep was constant, 
where o-n the Sundav lie used to sell beer to such persons 
(of whom in the summer t he-re were m;uiv) as from cu- 
rio-sity miifht be drawn to vi-.it his lonelv cell. 

After the temporary de>e;!;on of his cave, live or si.s 
years ago, hi consequence of his ^oing ''own into Shrop- 
shire, we are further informed 1 th;-t he altered its con- 
struction, digging it 1'rom a mouth like thai: of an oven, 
into which he just lett liimself room to craw! ; and when 
he laid down, contrived to fix a board against the 
entrance, v\hieh he propped up \vilh his feet. All 
this precaution did not, however, operate to save hna 
from fuiure attack; for on Tuesday morning, Deeem- 
in-r '_!H, 1S')'J, he \va^ t'ound at the mouth of his cave, 
D i:..\n, \\ith hi^ ja\v-l)one broken in tuo places. lie 
ua:- disi-overed by a bov, who had for tv, o or three vears 
};ast paid the old man a vi-.it, ihrce or fc;ur times a year. 
I, nder his an.", v. u:? an oaken branch, abe.ut six or seven 
feet long, which it is supposed the villaius had put into 
tht cave 1'or the purpo-e. of hooking th.e poor old man 
out, as the hooked part, which completely matched with 
the stick, \va~ found broken oil'; and from the nature of 
the wound in his ehe.-k. through which there is a large 
hole, it appears that it mu-'-t have bern hitched into h ; - 
moiir.h, and by the viuienee wi;icii wa- used in dra\ving 
him out of his cave (the body when fuund being witii 
the head towards the eu'runec) bioke. the jaw ; from 
which, as is the opinion of a nro ; e.v-;io::al gentleman on 

the 



60 MURDER OF MATTHEWS. 

the spot, the extravasated blood in nis throat caused 
suffocation 

The branch of the tree with which it has every ap- 
pearance the deed was perpetrated, was cut immediately 
in the neighbourhood of the spot, as the t v .vi?s which 
were cut oil' it, were found scattered about the ground, 
and were preserved to be she\vri to the coroner's im;uest, 
at the French Horn, Dulwich ; at which house the de- 
ceased had been on the Monrh'V evening, and had 
changed half a guinea, with which he had beiviht some 
provisions, and was known to have si.v or seven ^hillings 
change when he lei't. Duhvieh, ::one of which were to be 
found, his pockets having been turned cue, as wu^ a secret 
pocket, which was oniy discovered after his death, and 
was not known to any of th-*: persons who were acquainted 
v/iui him, but had not escaped the prying eye of his 
murderers. 

This unfortunate man was r.car seventy years of age, 
and was as much remarked for civiiitv as sinu'licitv; was 
punctual in all his little dealings in ti:e neighbouring 
villages, and might., perhaps, by the gipsies who infest 
the vicinity of Norwood, !><:'. wi'-h, &c. U- supposed 
worth money. Three men of this description, and who 
were the vagrant tenants of a cam?), Lard by the retreat 
of Matthews, have bec-n committed on suspicion of know- 
ing something oi' this iuinujM i Iran-action, by Mr. 
Bowies and Mr. i'ulloclc, 'wo or tlic Surrv Ah s .:?;istr:i'cs. 

Sir K. .Ford sent a oar!.\' of t;u; uov. -su'et-t. 



information that may i-'Lid to a detection oft!: 

On Fri'.iav, !)(..'eemi;er :) i , in the forenoon, 
for the county <>!' Surrey hi 
Wood's, th 
Samuel Ala' 





LaLitath 



INOUKST ON" MATTHEWS. 6l 

Mr. Bulcock, Mr. Bowles, and a Kentish Magistrate, 
attended. Mr, Allen, the venerable master of Dulwich 
College, \vns foreman of a jury of twenty four respect- 
able inhabitants. 

The first witness examined was Nathaniel Field, a boy 
of eighteen years of ago, who had long been in the 
habit of visiting the po..r old man at his hut, particularly 
nt holiday time. In consequence on Tuesday last, about 
eleven o'clock, went to seek him. When he came to 
the cave he found him lying with his head and shoulders 
nut of it, and tin lower part of his body within. His 
face was very bloody ami covered with fern. The boy 
being frightened run upon Sydenham Common, and told 
some gravel-diggers what lie had seen, who went with 
him and found Matthews in that condition. This was 
between the hours of ten and eleven in the forenoon. 
Naturally alarmed they went to communicate the cir- 
cuinsUmce to the neighbourhood, leaving one with the 
body ; they met with a man of the name of Turner, 
who returned with them, and on viewing the body, ap- 
plied to Mr. Tuck, the churchwarden of the district, for 
a shell to remove it; this was obtained, and Mr. Hick- 
ward, the constable of the parish, attending, the bodv 
was taken to the French Horn, to wait the decision of 
the Coroner's inquest. 

Mr. Kitchen, a surgeon and apothecary, happened to 
be at Dulwich on the afternoon of Tuesday, the C8th day 
of December; on being apprised that a murder had been 
committed on Old Matthews, he went to the wood, and 
there found him just by his cave, lying on his back, his 
mouth filled with co-agulated blood, his right lower jaw 
broken in two, one part of the bone being through his 
cheek; there were no particular marks or bruises about 
liis body, his head was a little brvi-ed, and his face a 
little scratched, but this ail might be accounted for by 
No. II. Ai'i 1 S eric s.l K the 



HQ iS'orrvT ON MATTIIEfVS, 

the fo:of u?cd in drawing him out of his cave; his 
cloathing v.' us then pattieularly searched; ali his pockets, 

including <"t s err tone he hud, wore empty, not a coin 
being round upon him: near the bodv, close under his 
head, was found a large ;i;rccu oaken crooked stick, partly 
rut oft, and partly twisted irom ' stump close by die cave, 
and which , on searching for, they found, and matching 
it with the stump, it appeared to belong to it. At the end 
of this stick was a. hooh about seven indict in length,, and 
the doctor gave it as his opinion that this was in part, it 
not altogether, the means of his dvath, which he explain- 
ed, nearly as follows: " It was the custom of the de- 
ceased to get into Ins cave, or hut, by crawling in, for it 
was not accessible otherwise; when he was in, lie would 
turn about, and on laying down he always lay with his 
feet towards the board, or mat, that covered the oven-like 
entrance of his cave, to prevent a repetition of the dis- 
graceful scene that occurred some years since. With the 
stick in question hi- supposed that the persom who made 
u- : e of it, pu'.'cd U iu:o the cave, to endeavour to get hold 
ot his hend to uirn I;hu round, ior ia no other \vav could 
lie be gc> eat, lh t!;; t pursuit, it is presumed, that the 
hoc!-: of ih(; aiick >va? got iuto hi:- mouth, and i'rom the 
rr.ii-,tance, tliat IL ;auKi h:r.\ pen*;rated through liis ja.\v-- 
bone :iud cheek; thai it wo-.ild most probably have oeea- 
.-'.e/'.i.'id a ooiisi'.U ruble disehargc; of blood, which he, 
laying en liU back, coaguiuied in his mouth, and thereby 
t.eeaiioii*.'!.! the iiiflbcarion, that inevitably was the cause 
of his death/' On being questioned as to h;s opinion 
ishoiher rlie any died :i i^iitintl death, or met \\\-, death 
1-v anv //A'jwro^r/ 1 means, iiis opinion he declared to be. 



MATTHEWS S P.UTIIAL. D;! 

ucecased; and as to the probability of it several witnes- 
ses were, examined. The first \vu:s 

Thomas Turk, jun. v, 'ho deposed, that on Monday last> 
between the hours of twelve and one o'clock, the de- 
ceased came to his father's shop, and said, ""master, I 
am come TO p;<v you what I ov.o yon,, Cs. 4u." The wit- 
jioss ob-ervtd, he would look in the book, and see what 
it was, lie could not iind his name there; but as Mat- 
;hev\s insisted he had it on r i hursday lastj he took the 
half-'niinea he olliivd, a;:<i gavo lu'm 8:-.. Ccl. in 
change tor it. .-\fu.-r that, business was settled, the wit- 
ness said, "' Matti'.evv-, ^,rt;ii"L you have a breast of mut- 
ton :""' Xo," said he." Su;r won't y<n have it if I 
u'ivc it to yo;i " said tb-;: witness. " O ycij [will," re- 
>ii(-d \Fatthe\vs. '{"hi- witness iiicii eho[*j)ef! it, and -ave 
it to the cleeci.scd as a [>rt >cat, \\'\io ijiimediately went 
a\vav \\iih if. 

Thomas Daw. a eonstal;l<^ and watehman, at Syden- 
harn, ^ave i\.a account, \\hn-u \\ a- verv strongly eor- 
roboratcd !>v janits L^ro\vn_. of a <'o::vc i ;-siition tb;y heard 
and had \vi::. two :nea tiicn in v'l.-iocb-. 

The Jurv t.ht u took a \icv> u' tht^ bodv, and on their 
ri-turn, after an excellent charge from the Coroner, 
and a fe'.v iuinnu-s eonsiihutlcm, returned a verdict of 
H i/Jul 31urcl,:r } a^-atwi sc//u ^nt:vn or persons unknoicn, 

On Siindii'- t'nc 1 sccc/p.d insruin, ihe remains of Mat- 
thews, the JHH,;- I)i.ir,v!eh Uennii, uere interred in the 
chapel ground ai Dulv.it-h. The eorp-e was followed by 
Ins daughter, and r.er hii>.band : after them went several 
of the respectable inhabitants of the parish, and an im- 
mense number ol' m-.-n, \\oiiien, and children, who had 
knovvii, and respected the deceased, in his life time, 
brougnt up the rear. 'I ho cer< ;uoiiv was altogether 
conducted in a wuv hii'li'v creelitaLle to the oarties con- 

o ^ 

cerned.The uiiaistrr, it. is added, cielivered a very suitable 
discourse on the scl'Mnnhy of tiK- occasion. 

K '2 On 



64 EXAMINATION OF SPRANG, &C. 

On Wednesday after his interment three persons ap- 
prehended on buspieion of the murder were examined 
before the Magistrates at Union Hail, viz. 

Joseph Spragg, Arthur Bowers, and Rohert Bowers, 
three gypsies lately apprehended upon suspicion, for the 
murder of this' inoffensive man Matthews, commonly 
called the Dulwich Hermit, were brought up on Wed- 
nesday for examination. 

Thomas Davy the first witness, stated, that he is a 
watchman, and carries on the business of a fishrnun, at 
Sydenham, and that he is also a constable of (,'amber- 
Avell, which is the adjoining parish ; that on the morning 
of Tuesday, the 28th of December, a few minutes after 
two o'clock, as he was coming down towards his part- 
ner's box, he saw the two chimney-sweeps at the bar, 
Spragg, and the boy Robert Bowers, at the watch-box ; 
as his box was much more under the wind than his part- 
ners, lie let them go down with him, and gave them some 
of the pea-straw he had in his box, to put his feet, on, to 
i-ii: on, that they might be kept from the ground, and an 
old split sack to put over them ; this he did because he 
had known something of Spragg before', and that he 
underwood they were out at. tb.a! tinu through a mistake, 
in getting up between one and two, s.'nd had not to go to 
work till six. As they t.at or lay tlu-re, he entered into a 
conversation with Spragg, as to how he ordered it to get 
away from Muidstone Gaol, -A here lie had been eon- 
fined. ---Spragg explained how, which, he did bv getting 
a conditional pardon, '(his led to a eonver>;U;on, as to 
\vhcrc they slept last, and where they came from. This 
he al>-o explained, by saying that he came from Dorking; 
that their tents were pitched on the side of Sydenbam 
Common, about COO yards IVv.m Ma!thew>'s cave. Oil 
speaking of MaUh-ws, Spnurg observed, that they ha<l 

been to his ci.ve vesterdav ai'iernoon, or evening, the 

< - 

witness 



EXAMINATION OT SPRAGG, &C. 65 

witness could not swear which ; that Matthews was very 
angry, and said go along,, I have nothing to give, no- 
thing to sell, and want nothing of you, so go along. The 
sweeps remained by his box, conversing at intervals, till 
six oVlock in the morning, when they went away. 

The witness saw them go to Mr. Sadleir's door and 
ring at the bell, when the servant maid answered them. 
On the following day, when he heard that Matthews had 
been found dead near his cave, he could not but suspect 
that Spragg might have a hand in it, partly from the 
conversation he had with him, and from the particular 
circumstance of his leaving his family and tent four or 
live hours before he was wanted, and to lay out all night 
in such desperate weather; from all together he thought 

I O O 

that it was proper they should be taken up, and which 
led to their apprehension. 

James Brown is a farmer's servant, living atSydenham; 
got up in tin" morning of the C8th December, and in 
going to fetch up his master's horses, he stopped at 
Daw's box, just at five o'clock ; he heard the conver- 
sation with Spragg, which he recited word for word, as 
previously done by Davy, with the addition that the old 
man appeared very much frightened when they went to 
him. 

The evidence for the prosecution was here closed for 
the present. Spragg and the boy Bowers were taken 
from the bar, and the prisoner, Arthur Bowers, was left 
there, and underwent a long examination. 

lie said he was an American born, and had been in 
England since the conclusion uf the American war, and 
that his only relationship to Spragg was, that the latter 
l.v-'d wi r h his wife's daughter by a former husband ; that 
he follows much the same line of life as most of his set, 
selling a few toys, knives, and other articles, working 
yrheu IK. could get any thing to do, and when he couid 

nor, 



OO EXAMINATION OI 

not, begghu;- for charity. III? general habits of life, and 

* OO O ^ 

those of bis family, were to sleep, wh-n they eoulcl gel 
lcave ; in the i'armers barns or out-houses; when they 
could not. obtain leave, they pitched their tents in some 
lane near a farm-house, for the convenience oi gelling 
a little straw to make their beds with. 

On Sunday, the <2fith of December, they were en- 
camped in the lane by the Half .Moon, at Stivatham : 
early on Monday, they struck their tents nd inarched 
on to Sydenham Common; the women and the children 
went with the beasts of burthen, the men and boys 
coming on round to look for work. Bowers and his wiie 
going through Dulwich, where, as he could not gel 
any v, ork to do, they begged their way, got some few 
pence, some broken victuals, and some mutton, which a 
butcher in the town cut off and gave her. At four 
o'clock, and 1.0 later, he was certain Spvagg and tie- 
whole of the family wore at their Ik lie encampment ; 
that about five: o'clock, just about dark, his wiic ent the 
boy into the village io buy .sonu lea and sugar; as he 
flid not immediately return, Sprang and his wife went, as 
they said, in search of him, a;id staid away about iiaii an 
hour; in the mean time the bov retunu-d uleue. .1 rom 
tiieir returntb.cn, till eight in *he evening, the taniily 
we're en^;r.; - ed i;i cooking, eatin;:-, and drinking iheir lea 



o'clock, as he considers it, from the time be had been in 
bed, and being very ill, he. was attentive ':> the hours, 
F'pra.'.^r, get up, and asked what time it was; he was 
told it could not be more that) one or i.\vo o clock ; he 
pai'i it must i>e more, for it looked as light as four or five 
o'clock, a.'. id h<" was afraid, if thev staid, loo late, they 



H 



e 






and calling the f;ov, who very reluctantly go 
went, out :(!gv iher. lie ne>e:'.sav ti;e,i: again tul they 

came 



EXAMINATION OF BOV.T.R?, SvO. ftl 

eunie In to hreahfti.-t, at e'^ht o'clock ; at that time a 
conversation took place bet\veen him and Spragg, who 
jjekiiuwlcil^ccl that he had o-ot up too soon; that he 
pa-^i-d one watch-i ;ox a:;d came to another, \\hcrc the 
v, utehman was so civil a-; to L'ive him a little pea-straw to 
lie ori. and a split --ark to cover them over 

Nothing farther having trnnspiivc! in the oxaniination 
of tlie-^e. pei'i-oiis fouinu'd on suspicion of the murder of 
Matthews, excepting Spra^tr's l)..-:ii4 i';;!ly comuntted for 
Trial, vre nu^t deior the ei;:uin;:atii>n of llie artiele to 
f. future period. 



IA th.e \vinfor of IT^o- :1 youna: man of rh-' 1 name of 
'\\'i:'i;>;!i i ! ,o\vir:ili, .tboMt l\\i j !ity-ronv veaT.s of -ajc. t.he:i 
s-.-rvar.t :> Mr-;;-. Senf.-hiierd ami \\'iiitakcr, 13ookseilers 

i:i Avv- 'M;ir:;i Lane, ht-inu: hi ierj, ;i L^'nih man sloe;, ing 
iu ;::> ; next L^ia^tmciit, v.'as suddenlv uv.a.kened bv t;;e 
j. roans and moaning on ilic <auie floor, anc' \vas so i:u;cii 
;:i;inned that he \\"a^ iininerlitifoly induceti to wbru':^ a 
huh?, it f;eiiUi ir.C'ii ;:!-oui" three;, in rhe J:^;^!!!:i2; > and ;::i- 
i.erinii' the ne:-;t iM''H> \vi;.s ahnosl stnu:k ',\irh astonish- 
u,v-.;: on ihidiiiL: ihe vo\-\\-^ muij bet,vi.-*.'n ti;u eieiiiij; aact 
;: rooi'oi' th<- liou.se, a i-ijusideraiiic ap.-rt'.a": bciu- 1 ;i;st; 
rtiado :i:iox-L ; ;h t!;.;t and rhe le^r of ;.h-.r b-d. L^a 




yuiiU d. -;:-rptiuii : :.ao uppi.-r p.:rt o li 

rared b\ liie naili, laths, ixe. v.hieh };- had perfomt : .:d b, 

n d'.-iuve cru:.- \ nble. Hi.-? .:hi -c \\uiliiorullv tern iiom 



68 I'OWTR O!-' IMAGINATION*. 

blood. When perfectly brought to hi. 1 -: recollection., <Lc 
reason he gave fur the slate in which he was fount],, was 
the dreadful prepossession he had felt in hi.s mind, which 
seemed to operate upon him as a certain conviction that 
he was really buried alive; while another circumstance. 
that confirmed this horrid idea, was the imperfect sensa- 
tion that he felt from the noise of the carriages in the 
street, which lie then imagined were rolling over his 
head upon the surface of the ground Tinder which he 
actually conceived he was buried alive; lie then made 
use of his utmost exertions to liberate himself from a 
dilemma so uncommonly distressing, as in n few minutes 
more he might have been dashed to pieces from the top 
of the house. His efforts on this occasion, and the loss 
of blood that followed them, had reduced him to such a 
degree of weakness, that he was totally unable to follo%v 
his business for near a month afterwards; and a still 
more considerable time elapsed before he recovered the 
usual flow of his health and spirit?, from the circumstance 
con-tinning TO prey upon his mind. This we can assure 
our reader:; i., r:n undoubted fact, being related by a gen- 
tleman now in the bookselling business, who assisted the 
young nuu) on thai occasion from his dreadful situation. 
But anv per.-ou doubting tin.: fact, may be sati.-'ikd of the 
truth of these particulars by an application to the pub- 
lisher. Related January 17, 1S!0... 

EXPLOSION of' luo:s MINES z SWKBEN. 

rp 

.!. HI: minr.-' ui Dalmoru, savs a modern traveller, arc 

celebrated for procluein^ the finest iron ore in lv.;ropf. 
It is not dug as in the mines of tin and coal in England, 
but torn up by powder. This operation is p< rf:>n:<od 
every day at noon, and is one of the most tremendous 
and awful it is ossible to conceive. \\ e arrived ui 



EXPLOSION OF IRON MINES. 69 

the mouth of the great mine, which is nearly half an 
English mile in circumference, in time to be present at 
it. Soon after twelve, the first explosion began ; I can- 
not compare it to any tiling so aptly as subterraneous 
thunder, or rather volleys of artillery discharged under 
ground, and the concussion is so great as to shake the 
surrounding earth, or rock on every side. 

o */ 

As soon as the explosions were finished, I determined 
to descend into the mine There is no way to do this 
but in a large deep bucket, capable of containing three 
persons, and fastened by chains to a rope. The inspec- 
tor, at whose house I had slept the preceding night, took 
no little pains to dissuade me from the resolution, and 
pointed out the frequent and melancholy accidents that 
happened on such occasions, from which no case could 
absolutely deter me. Pinding however, hat I was deaf to 
all his remonstrances, he provided a clean bucket and put 
t\vo men in it to accompany me I am not ashamed to 
own, that when I found myself suspended between heaven 
and earth by a rope, -and looked down into the deep and 
dark abyss before me, to which I could see no termina- 
tion, I shuddered with apprehension, and half repented 
my curiosity. This was however, only a momentary sen- 
sation, and before I had descended one hundred feet, I 
looked round on the scene with very tolerable composure, 
I was near nine minutes before I reached the bottom, it 
beina; eighty fathoms, or four hundred and eighty feet 

O Q / O J 

deep. The view of the mine, when I set my foot to 
the earth, was awful and sublime in the highest degree: 
whether terror or pleasure formed the predominant feel- 
ing, as I looked at it, is hard to say. The light of the 
day was very faintly admitted into these subterraneous 
caverns, in many places it was absolutely lost, and 
flambeaux supplied its place ; I saw beams of wood across 
from one side of the rock to another, where the miners 
?so. II. iVfit.' Series.'] L sat 



70 EXPLOSION OF IRON MINES. 

sat employed in boring holes for the admission of pow- 
der,with the utmost unconcern, though the least dizziness, 
or even a failure in preserving their equilibrium, must 
have made them lose their seat, and dashed them to 
pieces against the ragged surface of the rock beneath.--- 
The fragments torn up by the explosion previous to my 
descent lay in vast heaps on all sides, and the whole 
scene was calculated to inspire a gloomy admiration. 

I remained three quarters of an hour in these gloomy 
and frightful caverns, and traversed every part of them 
which was accessible, conducted by my guides. The 
weather above was very warm, but here the ice covered 
the whole surface of the ground, and I found myself 
surrounded with the colds of the most rigorous winter, 
amid darkness and caves of iron. Tn one of these, which 
ran a considerable way under the rock, were eight 
wretches wanning themselves round a charcoal lire, and 
eating the little scanty subsistence produced from their 
miserable occupation. They rose with surprise at seeing 
so unexpected a guest among them, and I was not a little 
pleased to dry mv feet, wet with treading on the melted 

i J s O 

ice, at their fire. 

There are no less than one thousand eight hundred of 
these men, constantly employed in these mines, and their 
pay is only a copper dollar, or three-pence English, per 
day. They were first opened about 1580, under the 
reign of John III. but have been worked constantly sinctt 
that time. After having gratified my curiosity with 
a full view of these subterraneous apartments, I made 
the signal to be drawn up, and felt'so little terror while 
re-ascending, compared with that of being let down, that 
1 am convinced that in five or six times, I should have 
been perfectly indifferent to it. So strong is the effect 
of custom on the human mind, and so contemptible does 
clanger or horror become, when familiarized by continual 
repetition. TJic 



C 71 ] 

The STQNJE of the FIELD of LAMENTATION, near the 
City of Dot, in Normandy. 



ms is a sino;lc stone, standing in the midst of an 

o * o 

orchard; it is between forty and fifty feet high ; its cir- 
cumference near the base, equals its height. There are 
IK> certain accounts when, or on what occasion it was 
erected ; but the traditions relative to it, are equally nu- 
merous and contradictory. " I had/' says the relator, "in 
1779, the pleasure to see and converse with the gentle- 
man, on whose estate it is situated. He said, the most 
approved opinion was, that Julius Caesar had caused it 
to be erected as a trophy, to mark the extent of his con- 
quests, after a bloody engagement, which he gained over 
the inhabitants of Armorica. The peasants arc fully 
persuaded that the Devil set it up, in one of his idle 
hours; but added he, I have myself caused the earth 
to be removed round its base, to the distance of forty 
feet on every side ; and I find that it joins to a prodi- 
gious rock, from which it seems to have sprung ; so that 
I am induced to think, notwithstanding its name, that it 
may be a natural production." 



Extraordinary BIRTH. 

J.JLBOUT the beginning of February Jl 7^)4, a girl was 
born near Toulon, in France, whose whole face resem- 
bled a hare, excepting her ears; she was otherwise fair 
and well shaped. Her mother declares, that at the be- 
ginning of pregnancy she had a strong inclination to eat 
the raw heart of a hare, which her husband brought 
home one day, but could not prevail with herself to 
make known her desires. Another very remarkable fact, 
comes authcnciated from the same quarter. The vnfe of 

i. 2 a con- 



72 EXTRAORDINARY BIRTH. 

a considerable merchant, who constantly attended mass, 
and used to give chanty to a poor man who had lost his 
right arm, was soon after brought to bed of a son who 
wanted his right hand, which the mother attributed to 
the impression the maimed appearance of the man made 
upon her mind. But what is still more remarkable; this 
son is grown to maturity, married, and has now a son, 
who, without any such impressions, was born without a. 
hand. How will the naturalists account for this phamo- 
mcnon ? 



Account of the BIG NAKED BEAU, from the American 
Philosophical Transact ions. 



HEIR reports run thus: that among all animals 

that had been formerly in this country, this was the most 
ferocious. That it was much .larger than the largest of 
the common bears, and remarkably long-bodied : all 
over, (except a spot of hair on its back of a white 
colour,) naked. That it attacked and devoured man and 
beast, and that a man, or a common bear, only served 
for one meal to one of these animals. That with its teeth 
it could crack the strongest bones. That it could not 
see very well, but in discovering its prev bv scent, it ex- 
ceeded all other animals. That it pursued its prey with 
unremitting ravenousncss, and that there was no other 
way of escaping, but by taking to a river, and cither 
swimming clo\vn the same, or saving one's self by means 
of a canoe. That its heart being remarkably small, it 
could seldom be killed with the arro\v. That the surest 
way of destroying him was to break his back-bone. That 
when a party went out to destroy this animal,, they first 
took leave of their friends and relations at home, con- 
sidering themselves aj going on an expedition, perhaps 

never 



THE BIG NAKED BEAR. 73 

rver to return again. That when out, they sought 
for his track, carefully attending to the course the wind 
blew, and endeavouring to keep as near as possible to a 
river. That every man of the party knew at what part 
of the body he was to take his aim. That some were to 
strike at the back-bone, some at the head, and others at 
the heart. That the last of these animals known of, 
was on the east side of the Mohicanni Sipu (Hudson's 
River) where, after devouring several Indians that were 
tilling their ground, a resolute party, well provided with 
bows, arrows, &.c. fell upon the following plan, in 
which they also succeeded, viz. knowing of a large high 
rock, perpendicular on all sides, and level on the top, in 
the neighbourhood of where the naked bear kept, they 
made ladders, (Indian ladders) and placing these at the 
rock, they reconnoitred the ground around, and soon 
finding a fresh track of the animal, they hastily returned, 
getting on the top of the rock, and drawing the ladders 
up after them. They then set up a cry, similar to that 
of a child, whereupon this animal made its way thither, 
and attempted to climb the rock, the Indians pouring 
down their arrows in different directions, all the while 
upon him. The animal now grew very much enraged, 
biting with its teeth against the rock, and attempting to 
tear it with its claws, until at length they had con- 
quered it. 

The HAZI; of 178:3. 

AN some very ingenious Meteorological observations, 
lately published by W. Patcrson, M. 1). of Londonderry, 
he observes the Haze of 1783, slightly mentioned by 
English meteorologists, was noticed by those on the Con- 
tinent; and, in the months of February and March of 
the same year, happened the great earthquake of Cala- 
bria. 



74 THE HAZE. 

bria. It seems to have been caused by the immense 
quantity of inflammable air extricated from the bowels 
of the earth during those earthquakes., strongly electrified 
and impregnated with sulphureous bituminous earthy and 
metallic particles. The quantity was such as to dilVuse 
itself, after a few months, over most parts of Europe. 
While these heterogeneous particles were held in solu- 
tion, the transparency of the atmosphere was not altered; 
it was otherwise when they began to precipitate. The 
obscurity and dark red colour of the haze may be attri- 
buted to the sulphureous, metallic particles, which ab- 
sorbed all but the least refrangible solar rays, particularly 
at sun-rise and sun-set: and the unusual load of metallic 
and other particles thrown into it affected the height of 
the barometer. Such a haze was observed after the 
great earthquake which destroyed the city of Tauris, in 
Georgia, 17C1. The darkness which obscured the sun 
after the death of Ctusar may probably be assigned to a 
similar case; for, Julius Obsequens (de Prodigiis) tells 
us there were earthquakes about that time. 

Curiosities from the REPORTS of the IRISH SOCIETY c/ 
Arts and Sciences. 



I. A ii r. account of the Antique Stones called the\ icar 
Cairn, in the county ofArmagh,was communicated to the 
Committee of Antiquities in two letters, one from Dr. 
Browne,senior fellow of Trinity College, Dublin; the other 
from theRev.JohnYoung,curate oi'Mullabrack. Dr. 1$. was 
extremely incredulous' as to the existence of the Ogham 
character on any monuments, till the late Primate Nw- 
coinbc pointed out. to him one on a high hill, about thre-..: 
miles from Armagh, on the summit of which was a. small 
conical mount or heap of small stones, surrounded by a 
regular circle oi' lur^,.- ones, upright, about 2- feet high. 

II* 



CURIOSITIES. 75 

He copied the lines, which, on comparison, he found 
very different from natural impressions irregularly in- 
dented on the other stones, and on some part of this. It 
was pointed out to him by a peasant passing by, as t( the 
written stone;" but that he did not believe they were 
letters; and he, with a friend, copied the lines by rule 
and compass: and, going round the hill, they observed 
marks of the entrance of a cave, which impressed them 
with a strong persuasion that the hillock was excavated, 
the entrance being very like that at New Grange. They, 
observed more indented lines towards the bottom of the 
interior face of the written stone by taking up the earth; 
but, having lost the ruler, they did not copy them, nor 
did they satisfactorily trace any transverse horizontal line 
crossing the others. Within seven miles of .Dublin, on 
the t.jp of a hillock on the descent of the Dalkey hills, 
is a circular range of stones,, with a stone elbow seat in 
their centre. Mr. Y. adds, the Vicars Cairn has fur- 
nished stones to repair the roads. The area is circular, 
44 vards diameter. The written stone stands declined in 
an angle of 5 degrees from the perpendicular. In 1785 
John M ''Carrol, proprietor of the ground, opening the 
\\ r cst side for stones, found a wooded door-case, which, 
ou being touched, fell to du>t, with a wall, East and West, 
on each side of it, of hewn >tones with cement, which he 
followed for ten feet iu length, and never opened it after- 
wards. 

II. An account of some antient Trumpets dug up in a 
bog near Armagh. By Arihur Browne. Four of them 
had been dug up at the same time, and nearly in the same 
place where tradition settled a great battle and the King 
of Lister's palace; and one being made by an artist 
wind-tight, and sounded by a trumpeter of the 23d regi- 
ment of dragoons, produced a tremendous sound. Dr. B. 
supposed it the Dudag or Shch trumpet of brass, men- 
tioned bv Gen. Vallancev. 



[ 7(5 ] 
NATURAL CURIOSITIES of the. Island of ; 

r Centorbi they have a kind of soft stone that dis- 
solves in water, and is used in washing instead of soap, 
from whence it is called, Pictra Saponaro. Here, as well 
as in Calabria, is found the celebrated stone, which being 
watered and exposed to a pretty warm degree of heat, 
produces a plentiful crop of mushrooms. Soda, also, 
which is lately come into so much repute in England, 
was first cultivated in the island of Sicily ; the Pistachio 
nut, and the Cantharides fly, are likewise natives of 
that island. 

In several places they have fountains that throw up a 
kind of oil on their surface, which is used in lamps, &c. 
The Fonte Canoeletto, is covered with a scum like pitch, 
which the country people esteem good for rheumatisms; 
and the water of a small lake near Naso, is celebrated 
for dying every thing black that is put into it, though it- 
appears remarkably pure and transparent. 

Singular ANIMAL FLOWER, found 1764. 

O ' - 

rp 

J. HE inhabitants of SaintLucia have discovered an ani- 
mal flower. In a cavern of that isle, near the sea, is a 
large bason, from twelve to iiftcen feet deep, the water of 
which is vrrv brackish, and the bottom composed of 
rocks, from whence at all times proceed certain sub- 
stances,, which present at iirst sight beautiful flowers, of a 
bright shining colour, and pretty nearly resembling our 
marigolds: onlv that their tint is more lively. These 
seeming flowers, on the approach of a hand or instrument, 
retire, like a -mail, oat of sight. On examining this sub- 
stance elo-M-lv, there appears in the middle of the disk 
four bro\ n iilaments, resembling spiders legs, which move 
round a kind of yellow petals, with o pretty brisk and 

sponta- 



ANIMAL FLOWER. 77 

spontaneous motion. These legs re-unite pincers to 
sei/e their prev ; and the yellow petals immediately close 
to shut up that prey,, so that it cannot escape. Under 
tills appearance of a iiuvver is a brown stalk of the big- 
ness of a raven's quill, and which appears to be the body 
of some animal. It is probable, that this strange animal 
lives on the spawn of fish, and the small insects which 
the sea throws up into the bason. 



An AQUATIC CASTLE, &;c. 

rp 

JL nis is the name of the machine which is formed to 

be used in the fisheries between the coasts of Italy and 
Sicily; this consists of strong nets fastened to the bottom 
of the sea, by anchors and heavy leaden weights, at a 
great expence. A narrow passage is left open, and as 
soon as the tunny fish have entered the enclosure, it is 
shut. These engines are called Tonnuros, and contain a 
great number of apartments, which are shut one after 
the other, till the fish are forced to the chamber of death, 
as it is called; where the slaughter begins with spears 
and hc'ipoons. 

The mackarel are can gut there with a harpoon. As 
soon as it is dark, t>vo men get into a boat, one of them 
holding a lighted torch over the surface of the water, 
and the other a harpoon, the light soon brings Lne fish to 
the surface, at which instant, he is pierced by the har- 
pooncr. 

The coral fishery is al^o performed by means of an 
engine, composed of a great cross of wood, to the centre 
of which, is fixed a laru'c stone, capable of sinking the 
frame to the bottom. Pieces of small net work arc tied 
to each limb of the cross, which is poised horizontally by 
a rope, and let down into the water, and touching thy 

No. II. .Via" ^ tries.'] M bottom, 



?8 AN AOUAtlC CASTLE. 

bottom, is made fast to a boat above ; and being dragged 
over the beds of coral, the consequence is, that the 
pieces broken off by the great sione, are collected in the 
netting; and from this simple invention, the coral 
fishery in those parts have been carried to a considerable 
degree of profit and importance. 



Extraordinary Fecundity i 



ANUAKY 1, 180,5. The wife of Moses Solomon, a 
Jew, in Stoney Lane, Petticoat Lane, was safely deliver- 
ed of four children, three girls and one boy, all likely to 
live. 

In the year 17-iQ, the wife of the Rev. Mr. Mills of 
Gallway, was delivered of three children at a birth, ai'ter 
twenty vears marriage without children. 



\\ oi. YES in FRANCK. 



INURING the war in 17.39, Count tic B , a youn-j: 

nobleman not twenty years of age, going on horseback 
from ;\ town in Burgundy to join his regiment, was at- 
tacked bv a mad wolf ot an extraordinary size. The 
furious animal first sei/ed the horse, and tore off such 
large pieces of flesh, that M.de B. \\assoon dismounted. 
Then the wolf ilew at him, and would certainly have 
torn him to pieces, had he not great presence of mind. 
11 itii one hand he seized the wolf's foaming tongue, 
and \vi,h the other hand laid hold of his paws; after 
struL'rlin"- a while with the rerribie creature, the tongue 

L. .,- O O 

dipt, from him. and his right thumb was bitten off; upon 

which, 



WOLVES IN FRANCE. 79 

which, notwithstanding the pain he was in, he leaped 

upon the wolf s hack, clapt his knees fast, to his flanks, 
and called out for help to some armed peasants who were 
pa ing by, hut none of those fellows dared to advance; 

.veil then/' says he, " fire if you kill me, I forgive 
y. >!;." One of them fired, and three bullets went through 
i lie brave officers coat, hut neither he nor the beast were 
.v'Muidecl. Another, bolder than his comrades, seeing 
tiie cavalier was intrepid, and kept firm upon the wolf, 
came very near and let fly at him ; the animal was 
mortally wounded by this shot, and after a few more 
furious motions expired. In this dreadful conflict, be- 
sides the losing of his right thumb, the young count's 
left arm was torn, and he got several bites in his legs and 
thighs. A\ hen he arrived at Bon le Hoy, where his regi- 
ment lay, he was advised to go do\vn with all speed to 
the sea ; which lie accordingly did. 

In addition to this singular instance of the ferocity of 
these animals, it may be proper to add the following, 
which recently occurred in France last winter, while Mr. 
Dressing, the messenger was 501111: with a dispatch to 

O o O 1 

Lord Cornwallis the particulars were as follows: 

As Mr. .Dressing, the messenger, was on his last jour- 
ney to Marquis Cornwallis, he was alarmed during the 
night, not far from Boulogne, by the cries ef the post- 
boy, who called out to him to " fire!" His horses stop- 
ping suddenly, he iired a pistol ont of each window, 
thinking lie had been attacked by highwaymen ; but on 
enquiry, he found that the boy's outcry was occasioned 
by t<vo wolves, one of which attempted to bite his leg, 
hut v. as prevented by the jack-boots worn bv French pos- 
tillions : they then each seized one of the horses by the 
iiosc, and hud (as appeared on examination) torn their 
lips oil'. 

M 2 But 



80 WOLVES IN TRANCE. 

But as the relation of this extraordinary affair, excited 
some doubts, expressed in the public papers they were 
iutirely dissipated by the following letter from one of 
the gentlemen connected with the parties in France, to 
the Editors. 
Gentlemen, 

Seeing it stated in your paper that Mr. Dressing, the 
messenger, had been attacked by two wolves near Bou- 
logne, and finding upon my arrival in England, that not 
only the fact was doubted, but that several persons in- 
sisted that no wolves were to be found in Pienrdy, I beg 
leave, through your channel, to give my testimony to this 
e x t r a o r d i n a r y fa c v . 

I must premise that I run perfectly acquainted both 
with the person and character of that gentleman, and 
vras an eye-witness of the dreadful situation of the pos- 
tillion, Mr. 1). and th^ youn:r lady who accompanied him 
in his journies to and from Amiens, being then at. Bou- 
logne waiting for a passage to England. 

The lady was taken out of the cabriole lifeless, with 
the fright occasioned by the sudden discharge of Mr. 
D's pistols; and the po^ti'ihon's bocis, though made of 
wood, hooped with iron, as is the ia>h:on in France, v-.es 
nearly bitten through. He says he is si. re thin one of the 
animals must be wounded, n.> the blood eouid be traced 
all the way from the road to the wood. 

I am, Sir, an old traveller myself, having been in 
almost everv part of Europe; but i never thought that 
wolves were to be found uiiic.is among the Alps, the 
Pyrenees, the Kick parts of Poland, and the unculti- 
vated forests of the north; nor did I ever hear of their 
Bi.-.k.ing their app:--:rarice, except when literally starved 
out cf their lurking place's by severe weather. 

.Mr. 1). however,, asoiires me, that a -!;il more dreadful 

accident 



WOLVES IN FRANCE. 81 

accident happened to him at the conclusion of Lord 
Malmesbury's first mission to Paris, when his Lordship 
thought proper to dispatch a messenger to the Court of 
A ienna, to announce the termination, of that affair. He 
apj.Led to the directory for a passport, which was granted 
accompanied by an intimation., that the road was danger- 
ous, for that no person had travelled that way durin- the 

1 * O 

war. ISo less than eight of his Majesty's messengers 

O *) +/ O 

who were there, she.ved ^reat reluctance at undertaking 

O 

this perilous business; when M. Dressing voluntarily 
offered his services. This spirited act had like to have 
cost him clear, for, on the fifth day of his journey, about 
four in the morning, he was alarmed by the cries of the 
postillion for help, and being awoke from sleep, jumped 
out of his cabriole, lie found the boy attacked by four 
huge wolves, which every moment threatened him with 
destruction ; but lie was incapable of rendering him any 
assistance, having left his double barrelled pistols in the 
carriage. He instantly sprung back for his fire-arms, 
with which lie laid the four dreadful monsters dead ! 
Now, Sir, from such respectable authority, it will, I pre- 
sume, be impossible for any man longer to doubt, that 
wolves may not only be found in France, as well as in 
the forests of Poland and White Russia, but that they 
abound even in the vicinity of Paris. 1 am, Sir, your 
humble servant. 

JOHN MARTIN. 
A ic and Gale, Westminster, Feb. lj, 180-2. 



Extraordinary facts re lathe to preservation of HUMAN 
BODIES after their decease. 

/\N intelligent tourist who visited the city of Bremen, 
in Germany, in 1774, says, there is one peculiarity be- 
long-in <r 



in; MAN BODIES. 

longing to this city, of the reality of which nothing but 
f>ccular demonstration could have convinced me. Under 
the Cathedral church, is a vaulted apartment, supported 
on pillars; it is near sixty paces luivr., and half as many 
broad. The light and air are constantly admitted into it 
t?y three windows, though it is several feet beneath the 
level of the ground. Here are five larije oak colT<'rs, 
each containing a corpse, which without being embalm- 
ed, have suffered no corruption. I examined them se- 
verally for near two hours. The most curious and per- 
fect, is that of a woman. Tradition says, she was au 
English countess, who dying at. Bremen about two hun- 
dred and fifiv years ago, ordered her body to be placed 
in this vault uninlerred, in the apprehension that her re- 
lations would cause it to be brought over to her native 
roaniry. Though the muscular skin is totally dried in 
everv part, vet so little are the features of the face or skin 
changed, that nothing is more certain than she was 
yoi;n_, and c\en beautiful, It is a small countenance, 
round in its contour: the cartilage of the nose and the 
nostrils have undergone no alteration : her teeth are all 
rlnn in the sockets, but the lips arc drawn away from over 
them. The clucks are shrunk in, bid. vet less than 1 ever 
have seen in embalmed bodies. The hair 
is at this time more than eighteen inches 
!:, and :so Just, that 1 heaved the corpse 
mT bv it : the colon; is a light brown, and 
los.-.v .'is that ;{' a living person. That this 
!i:;h rani: stems evident from the extrcme- 
hncn which covers her body; bui I HI vain 
avjiind to procure any lights into her history, IKT 
or any other particulars, though i took no httie 
for tl'.at purpose. The landlord of the i;;n, who 
.1 ;.; rav coii..Uu't("\ said he remembered it ior forty 

veins 




HUMAN BODIES. 83 

years past, during which time there is not the least per- 
ceptible alteration in it. In another coffer is the bodv or" 
a workman, who is said to have tumbled off the church, 
and was killed by the fail. His features evince this most 
forcibly. Extreme agony is marked in them; his mouth 
is wide open, and his eye-lids the same; the eyes are 
dried up. His breast is unnaturally distended, and his 
whole frame betrays a violent death. A little child, who 
died of the small pox, is still more remarkable. The 
marks of the pustules, which have broken the skin on hi- 
hands and head, are very discernible; and one should 
suppose, that a bodv, which died of such u distemper, 
must contain, in a high degree, the seeds of putrefaction. 
The other corpse are likewise very extraordinary. 

There are, in this vault, likewise turkeys, hawks, wea- 
sels, and other animals, which have been hung up here, 
from time immemorial, some very lately, and are all 
in the most complete preservation, and unaltered in their 
parts. The cause of this phenomenon is doubtless 
ilie dryness of the place where they are la.d. It is in 
vain to seek for any other. The magistrates do not per- 
mit anv fresh bodies to be brought here, and there is no 
other subterranean chamber which has the same pro- 
pertv. It would have made an excellent miracle two or 
three centuries ago in proper hands ; but now mankind 
are irrown too wise. 



Hemarka'bh case of a lltima/i Body found i/t a Star Ski'i, 

August, 10, 17 CM. 

A dead body' was landed at Cadiz, inclosed in along 
-kin nearly resembling that of a bear ; it was found, 
vvith several others of the same kind, in some caverns i:i 
the Canary Islands, were thcv" are supposed to have bee:s 
buried before the conquest of those islands by John c'e 

Bretancotirt. 



84 II U MA NT BODIED. 

Bretancourt, a Norman, in 1417, or by Peter de Vera, a 

Spaniard, in 1483. The flesh oi' this body is perfectly 
preserved, but is dry, inflexible, and hard as wood, so 
that to the touch it seems petrified, though it is not. The 
features of the faee arc very perfect, and appear to 
be those of a young man ; nor is that, or any other part 
of the body, decayed. The body is no more shrunk 
than if the person had not been dead above two or three 
days. The skin only, appears a little shrivelled, this 
body was sent to Madrid, to be deposited in the royal 
academy of surgery. The case, in which it was placed, 
had another small case within it, containing two or three 
vases, and a hand-mill, which were found in the same 
cavern. 

A third instance of this nature, occurs at a celebrated 
convent of Capuchins about a mile without the city of 
Palermo, in the Island of Sicily. The burial place is a 
great curiosity.-.-- It is a lar^o subterraneous apartment, 
divided into commodious galleries, the walls of which 
are hollowed out into nitehes, each of them filled with 
dead bodies, ail set: on their legs, and fixed by the back 
to the inside of the recess. They are all dressed in their 
usual clothes, und form a most venerable assembly. 
Their skin and mu-elcs hy a ccri.yui preparation become 
us dry and hard as a piece of stoek-ilsh ; ;ind though 
many of the bodies have bee a dead more than one hun- 
dred and Hfr.y years, none are vet reduced 10 skeletons. 
Here the people of Palermo pay frequent visits, nor is 
the sight of ili!',e corpse so lull of horror as might be 
imagined. 

Description of ike G HE AT TUN of Heidelberg, in Germany. 

(Vide iLu Plate.) 
rp 
JL HE famous English traveller Thomas Coryat, who 

commenced his travels ou the Continent in iGOS, during 

the 



A REMARKABLE TUN. 85 

the reign of James I. mentions this great tun, as the 
ptrangest spectacle he saw in his travels, and the greatest 
size of a vessel that he had seen in his time. In the re- 
presentation he gives of it> his effigy appears standing 
on the top of it, with a glass of Rhenish wine in his 
hand. It is enclosed in an apartment representing a large 
hull, and was nearly three years building. It is not com- 
posed of boards as other vessels of this kind are, but of 
great solid beams one hundred and twelve in number, 
and every one of them twenty-seven feet long. Each 
of the extremities is sixteen feet high, and the belly 
swelling to eighteen. It is hooped with sixteen iron 
hoops, so massy as to enclose eleven thousand pounds 
weight. Its sides are supported by five pillars each, 
made of timber, ornamented at the top, and the ends 
'vith figures of lions; a fair escutcheon being affixed to 
every ima^e. When the person who serves out the wine, 
ascends to the top of it for that purpose, he goes up a 
flight of wooden stairs. The bung as it is called, is 
about the middle. The instrument he makes use of is 
about a foot and a half long, resembling a spout. It 
contains, he observes, 132 suders, 3 omes, and as many 
strikes. Every suder contain one tun, or 4 hogsheads ; 
so that 132 suder?, reckoning the value of the wine at 

* O 

]J/. sterling each, the whole is worth 1980/. 8s. English 
money. Yet, says this author, I heard it reported at 
Frankfort, that this famous tun was drank out in eight 
days, at a time when there was a certain noble meeting 
of princely gallants at that court. Another writer says, 
that in measure the Tun of Heidelberg contains 200 
English tuns. Heidelberg is the capital of the Palati- 
nate of the Rhine, and formerly belonged to the Elector 
of Bavaria; but though the city was nearly destroyed 
by the French in l6gs, they spared the tun, which was 
first made in 1591. 

No. II. y Large 



Large Tims of Modern date. 

JT is in no small degree curious that this antient mi- 
Tacle of Germany, and the whole continent should be 
equalled, and even surpassed in the metropolis of Eng- 
land. Mr. Thomas Pennant, in his London, speaking of 
the great improvements in the making of wines and 
vinegar in this metropolis, observes, there is a magnifi- 
cence of business in this ocean of sweets and sours, 
that cannot fail exciting the greatest admiration : whether 
\ve consider the number of vessels, or their size, the 
boasted tun at Heidelberg docs not surpass them. On first 
entering the yard, a small distance from Mr. Coade's, 
Narrow Wall, Lambeth, two rise before you, covered at 
the top with a thatched dome; between them is a circular 
turret, including a winding staircase, which brings you to 
their summits, which are above twenty-four feet in dia- 
meter. One of these conservatories is full of sweet wine, 
-and contains fifty-eight thousand one hundred and nine 
gallons; or eighteen hundred and fifteen barrels of Win- 
chester measure. Its superb associate is full of vinegar, 
to the amount of fifty-six thousand seven hundred and 
ninety-nine gallons, or seventeen hundred and seventy- 
four barrels, of the same standard as the former. The 
famous German vessel yields even to the last, by the 
quantity of forty barrels. 

Besides these, there; is a double range of lesser vessels, 
which hold from thirty-two thousand five hundred, to six- 
teen thousand nine hundred and seventy-four gallons 
each. After quitting this Brobdignagian scene, we pass 
to the acres of ground covered with common barrels: we 
cannot diminish our ideas so suddenly, but at first we 
imagined we could quafi' them off as easily as Gulliver 
did the little hogsheads of the kingdom of Lilliput. Mr. 
Meux, brewer, of Liquorpond Street, has abo a tun, con- 
taining four thousand five hundred barrels, besides twen- 
ty-four others, which hold thirty-five thousand barrels. 

Further 



[ 87 '] 
Further account of the late EARTHQUAKES, fyc. 

LETTER from Corunna, in South America, dated 
August It), says " Yesterday, by a smart shock of an 
ean.hquake, the land seemed to be agitated like the waves 
of the sea. The bottom of the river Oroonoko was 
thrown up with such violence as to snap the rudder of a 
vessel. The people all ran out of their houses and fell 
upon their knees in the; open air, where they remained 
a considerable time. A great deal of new land has been 
brought to view all along the right side of the river* 
while another tract, about 100 feet long and 40 broad, 
kas disappeared with several buildings thereon, and a 
lake sprung up in its place : several trees were torn up. A 
second shock was attended with greater violence, and the 
houses in the town which still remained, were observed 
to rock like a ship in a storm. At eight in the evening 
there was a third shock, less violent than the preceding ; 
but though every house was damaged more or less, very 
few people were missing. .During the storm, the fish 
were observed to rise upon the surface of the river, and 
endeavour to gain the ocean." 

At Neustadt, in Lower Austria, another shock of an 
earthquake was felt in the night between the 29th and 
30th of October, stronger than the first. It lasted six 
Seconds only, and damaged but a few houses. 

From Petersburg!!, Nov. 23, it appears, that the earth- 
quake of the 26th of October, extended over the greatest 
part of Russia. One side of the river Oka was strongly 
agitated, and the other not in the least affected. 

At Falmouth in the afternoon of Sunday, December 
',26, the morning was most remarkable in its appearance, 
the agitation of the wind and waves, the motion of the 
clouds, Sec. having long portended some coining change, 
about noon came on a most violent gust of wind, tor- 
nado, 



S8 A WHIMSICAL WILL. 

nado, or whirlwind, which lasted about two minutes, 
carrying every thing before it. A bam that had lately 
been erected was removed to a distance of six feet from 
its former situation; several houses were unroofed,, and a, 
great number of chimnies and slate, was blown down, 
several trees torn up, &c. It fortunately only tookasmal! 
part of the town, or the damage must have been im- 
mense. A new vane eighteen feet in length, lately 
erected on the steeple, was bent quite double. 



A Codicil to the last Will and Testament of JAMES 
CLEGG, Conjurer. 



it known to all men, by these presents, That 1^ 
James Clegg, of Broad Lane, within Castleton, in the 
parish of Rochdale, and county of Lancaster, conjurer; 
having made my last will and testament, bearing date 
the 18th of February, 1749, do hereby codicil, confirm, 
and ratify my said will ; and if I die a natural death, i. e. 
elude the gallows, and within two miles of Shaw Chapel., 
then I will that my executors John Collier, and Paul 
Greenwood, come to my house the day following, and 
with the advice and assistance of James Worral, order 
my funeral, as follow : 

I. I will that they invite to my funeral, sixty of my 
friends, or best acquaintance, and also live fidlers; to be 
there exactly at two o'clock. 

II. That no woman be invited; no man that wears a 
white cap, or apron, that no tobacco or snuif be there j 
to prevent my sneezing. 

III. That they provide sixty-two spiced cakes, value 
ten shillings; and twenty shillings worth of the best 
ale that is within two miles; allowing the best ruby nose 
present, Roger Taylor, and John Booth, to be judges. 

IV, 



A WHIMSICAL WILL, 89 

IV. That if my next relations think a wooden jump 
too chargeable, then I will that my exeoutors cause me 
to be dressed in my roast meat cloaths, lay me on a bier, 
stangs, or the like; give all present a sprig of rosemary, 
hollies, or gorges, and a cake : tiiat no tears be shed, 
but be merry for t\vo hours. 

V. Then all shall drink a gill bumper,, and the fidlers 
play Britons Strike Home, whilst they are bringing me 
out, and covering me. This shall be about five minutes 
before the cavalcade begins: which shall move in the 

O * 

high road to Shaw Chapel in the following order, riz.: 
The best fidler of the five shall lead the van, the other 
four following after, two and two, playing The Conjurer 
goes Home, in the aforesaid tune. Then the bier and 
attendants, none riding on horseback, but as Hudibras 
did to the stocks, i. e. face to tail, except Mr. George 
Stansfield of Sowerby, (which privilege 1 allow him for 
reasons best known to myself.) Then the Curate of 
Shaw Chapel shall bring up the rear, dressed in his pon- 
tifical ibus_, and riding on an ass ; the which, if he duly 
and honestly perform, and also read the usual office, 
rny executors shall nem. con. pay him twenty one 
shillings. 

VI. If the singers at Shaw, meet me fifty yards from 
the chapel, and sing the anthem ; beginning O clap 
your Hands, Sic. pay them five shillings. 

VII. Next, I will be laid near the Huge ruins of James 
Woolfeudei;, late landlord of Shaw Chapel ; which done, 
pay the sexton half a-crown. 

VIII. Then let all go to the alehouse I most frequent- 
ed, and eat, drink, and be merry, till the shot amounts 
to thirty shillings; the fidlers playing, The Conjurer';; 
gone Home, with other tunes at discretion, to which I 
leave them : and then, pay the fidlers two shillings and 

sixpence each, 

TV Tf 



90 A WHIMSICAL WILL. 

IX. If my next relations think it worth their cost and 
pains to lay a stone over me, then I will that John Col- 
lier of Milnrow, cut the following epitaph on it : 

Here Conjurer Clegg beneath this stone, 

By his best friends was laid, 

Weep, O ye Ikllcrs, now he's gone, 

Who lov'd the twcetling trade ! 

Mourn all ye brewers of good ale, 

Sellers of books and news ; 

But smile, ye jolly priests, he's pale, 

Who grudg'd your pow'r and dues. 

further, As I have some qualities and worldly goods 
not disposed of by my said last will, I do give and devise, 
as follows ; that is to say, I give unto the Rochdale 
Parish Methodists all my religion, and books of free- 
thinking, as believing they'll be useful and very ne- 
cessary emoluments. 

Item, I give unto any one of that whimsical sect, who 
is sure the Devil is in him, my slice of the liver in Tobit's 
fish, which my ancestors have kept pickled up above two 
thousand years; being certain that a small slice fried, 
will drive Belzebub himself, cither upwards or down- 
wards, out of the closest made Methodist in hi.s Majesty's 
dominions. 

Item, I give unto any three of the aforesaid Methodist's 
v/ho are positive that they have a church in their bellies, 
my small set. of squirrel-bells to hang in the steeple ; 
being apprehensive that a set of the size of Great Tom of 
Lincoln, would prove detrimental to a fabric of such an 
airy and tottering foundation. 

Jteni, 1 give rny forty-five minute sand glass on which 
is painted Old Time sleeping, unto that clergyman living 
vithiu three miles of my house, who is most noted for 

preaching 



FAIRLOP AND DAMORY OAKS. 91 

preaching long-winded, tautologizing sermons: provided 
he never turn it twice at one heat. 

Item, I leave all my spring-traps, flying nets, and all 
my other valuable utensils whatsoever, belonging to that 
new invented and ingenious art of cuekow-catchinar, unto 

O O- 7 

my generous, honest, and open hearted friend, Mr. Ben- 
jamin Bunghole, late of Rochdale, being thoroughly sa- 
tisfied of his good inclination, and great capacity of the 
proper use of them. 

Item, \ give unto one Timothy Bobbin, wheresoever he 
may be found, a pamphlet entitled, a View of the Lanca- 
shire Dialect; being fully persuaded few others capable 
of reading, or making any sense of it. 

Item, I give all my humilty, good nature, benevolence, 
and hospitality, with all my other good qualities what- 
soever, not before disposed of, unto that person in the 
parish of Rochdale who can eat the most raw onions 
without crying. 

Lastly, I will that this codicil be, and be adjudged to 
be, part of my said last Will and Testament, as fully as 
if the same had been there inserted. 

In witness whereof I have hereunto fixed my hand 
and seal, this 24th day of May, in the year 1751. 

JAMES CLEGG. 

Witness, 

Robert Lees. 
Joshua Warren. 



Particular Account of FAIRROP OAK of immense Size, 
and DAMORTS Oak, near Bedford, in Dorsetshire. 

J. N a glade of Hainhault-forest in Es<ex, about a mile 
from Barkinside, stands an oak, which has been known 
through many centuries, by the name of Fairlop. The 
tradition of the country traces it half way up the Chris- 
tian 



92 FATKLO? AND DAMOftY OAKS. 

tian ra. It is still a noble tree, though it has now suf- 
fered greatly from the depredations of time. About a yard 
from the ground, where its rough fluted stem is thirty-six 
feet in circumference, it divides into eleven vast arms; 
yet not, in the horizontal manner of an oak, but rather in 
that of a beech. .Beneath its shade, which overspreads 
an area of three hundred feet in circuit, an annual fair has 
long been held, on the 2d of July ; and no booth is suf- 
fered to be erected beyond the extent, of its boughs. But 
as their extremities are now become sapless, and age is 
yearly curtailing their length, the liberties of the fair seem 
to be in a desponding condition. The honour, however, 
Is great: but honours are often accompanied with in- 
conveniences; and Fairlop has suffered from its honour- 
able distinctions. In the feasting that attends a fair, fires 
are often necessary ; and no places seemed so proper to 
make them in, as the hollow cavities formed by the heav- 
ing roots of the tree. This practice has brought a speedier 
decay on Fairlop, than it might otherwise have suffered. 

Not far from Blanford, in Dosetshirc, stood very lately 
a tree, known by the name of Damory's oak. About five 
or six centuries ago, it wa? probably in a state of maturity. 
At the ground its circumference was sixty-eight feet; 
and seventeen feet above the ground its diameter was four 
yards. As this vast trunk decayed, it. became hollow, 
forming a cavity, which w;:,< fifteen feet wide, and seventeen 
feet high, capable of holding twenty men. During the 
civil wars, and till after the restoration, this cave was re- 
guiorly inhabited by an old man, who sold ale in it. In 
the violent storm in the year 1703, it suffered greatl}', 
zvnnv of its noblest limbs haying been torn from it. But 

*j O 

if, was still so grand a ruin, above forty years after, that 
some of its brunches were seventy-five feet high ; and 
extended seventy- two. In the year 175,5, when it was fit 
for nothing but firewood, it wa? sold for fourteen pounds. 

The 



C'93 ) 

The ROYAL PALACE of the ESCURIAI, ; 

A Modern Wonder of the World. 

< HIS superb edifice, so called from a village of the 
same name in the neighbourhood of which it stands, 
at the distance of twenty-two miles from Madrid, is not 
only the most magnificent palace in Spain, but perhaps 
in Europe, and is reckoned by the Spaniards one of the 
Wonders of the world. This palace, including a monas- 
tery, church, college, library, and other buildings, was 
erected by Philip the Second, in memory of a victory ob- 
tained by his forces over the French, near St. Quintin, in 
Picardy, in the year 1557, on. St. Laurence's day, to the 
honour of which saint, the king made a vow of building 
this superb edifice, in case his troops came off victorious. 

The whole pile is a vast square, about 3000 feet in com- 
pass, and consists of a tine grey stone, dug out of a neigh- 
bouring mountain, and so well polished, that it looks like 
marble. The windows in the front, including those of a 
pavilion at each corner, amount to upwards of 1100; but 
those within are computed at as many thousands; the prin- 
cipal front, which faces the west, has three noble gates, 
particularly that in the middle, which leads to the church. 
This is a large and beautiful structure, built in imitation of 
St. Peter's church at Rome. It is SG4 feet long, 230 broad, 
and of a proportionable height ; the roof, which is finely 
gilt and painted, is supported by columns of the Doric or- 
der, dividing it into six stately aisles, with forty-eight cha- 
pels and altars, besides the grand one at the east end, which 
is magnificent beyond description. The tabernacle of the 
great altar is of porphyry, wrought with the point of a 
diamond; it is made in the form of a cupola, supported by 
eighteen columns of agate, and adorned with gold and 
precious stones. The altar itself is of fine black marble, 
and behind it the wall is lined with a square piece of por- 
phyry, wherein the inside of the church may be seen as 

o plain 



94 DESCKIPTION OI THE 

plain as in a looking glass. It is astonishing to view the 
sacristy or vestry, filled with the vestments, chalices, and 
other costly vessels and utensils belonging to the church. 
Here are a great number of statues of saints, 8cc. of excel- 
lent workmanship, and several of the smaller sort are of gold 
and silver. The paintings, which are reckoned above 
1 600, are many of them large, and done by the most emi- 
nent masters. Underneath the grand chapel is a large and 
beautiful mausoleum, or burial-place for the royal family, 
which is called the pantheon, being a rotunda, built after 
the manner of the pantheon at Rome. The descent to it 
consists of more than lifty marble steps, and the gate that 
opens into it is of brass, gilt, and of very curious workman- 
ship. The dome is lined with jasper, intermingled with little 
plates of brass, and the pavement is likewise composed of 
squares of jasper and marble, forming a star in the middle. 
Facing the entrance is a kind of chapel or oratory, adorned 
in the most sumptuous manner imaginable, particularly 
with a crucifix, enriched with diamonds and other precious 
stones. In the middle of this noble vault is a large brazen 
candlestick, supported by figures of angels, and the four 
evangelists, of the same metal : and in twenty-six niches, 
which are embellished with the richest ornaments, are 
placed as many urns or sepulchres of black marble, thirteen 
or fourteen whereof are already filled with the deceased 
kings and queens of Spain, and the rest wait to receive the 
remains of succeeding: monarchs. As to the royal apart- 
ments, or what may be properly called the palace, a parti- 
cular description of them would fill a. large volume. It will 
be therefore necessary to observe in general, that these 
apartments are large, stately, furnished in the most mag- 
nificent manner, and adorned with every thing that is rich 
and beautiful. Throughout the whole, there is a vast variety 
of marble, jasper, and other curious stones, carved by the 
best masters, and in the grandest taste; and all the halls, 
galleries, staircases, &c. are filled with excellent paintings. 

The 



ROYAL PALACE OF THE ESCURIAL. Q5 

Tire monastery, in which there are two hundred religious 
monks, of the order of St. Jerome, consists of five courts or 
squares, each of which is adorned with a marble fountain. 
The grand cloister, which is 210 feet square, is paved with 
black and white marble, as are likewise the walks of the 
garden within it ; and at the bottom of it is a beautiful cha- 
pel in the form of a dome, open on all sides, and supported 
by marble columns. The refectory or hall, where the re- 
ligious take their meals, is very long, and adorned with fine 
paintings ; amongst which, there is one representing Charles 
the Fifth and Philip the Second, carried to Heaven by 
angels. There are several infirmaries for the sick belonging 
to this monastery, two grand apartments to entertain stran- 
gers, nine kitchens, above forty rooms under ground for 
offices of divers kinds, and eleven vast cisterns, that will 
hold '200 tons of water. 

The college, where a number of young students are 
maintained at the king's expence, is a very handsome build- 
ing; and the library is, in all respects, answerable to the 
rest of this noble edifice. It contains a fine collection of 
books in all languages and faculties, both printed and 
manuscript, disposed in a very elegant manner. The floor 
is beautifully paved with marble, and the ceiling adorned 
with admirable paintings, representing the liberal arts and 
sciences. The books, which are about 100,000, are placed 
in rive galleries, one above another, all finely painted by 
Titian, and other celebrated masters. 

But to give the reader some general idea of the sur- 
prising grandeur of this palace, it must be observed, that, 
according to F. Francisco de los Santos, who wrote a de- 
scription of the Escurial in a large folio volume, it would 
take up more than four days to go through all its rooms and 
apartments ; the length of the way being reckoned thirly- 
three Spanish leagues, which is above 120 English miles ; 
and besides the many thousand windows in this vast pile, 

Alvarez 



96 EARTHQUAKE AT LISBON, 

Alvarez de Colinenar, in his Deliccs de rEspagne, aflirms, 
that there are 14,000 doors belonging to it. Historians 
agree, that if this palace is not the most elegant, it is cer- 
tainly the most magnificent residence in Europe. 



INTERESTING ACCOUNT OF THE EARTHQUAKE AT 
LISBON, DESCRIBED BY AN EYE-WIT* 1 ? ESS. 

( Continued front page 21.) 

ON a sudden I heard a general outcry. " The sea is 
coming in, we shall be all lost." Upon this, turning my 
eyes towards the river, which in that place is near four 
miles broad, 1 could perceive it heaving and swelling in a 
most unaccountable manner, as no wind was stirring; in an 
instant there appeared, at some small distance, a large 
body of water, rising as it were like a mountain, it came 
on foaming and roaring, and rushed towards the shore with 
such impetuosity, that we all immediately ran. for our lives, 
as fast as possible ; many were actually swept away, and 
the rest above their waist in water at a good distance from 
the banks. For my own part, I had the. narrowest escape, 
and should certainly have been lost, had I not grasped a 
large beam that lay on the ground, till the water returned 
to its channel, which it did almost at the same instant, with 
equal rapidity. As there now appeared at least as much 
danger from the sea as the land, and I scarce knew whither 

O / 

to retire for shelter, 1 took a sudden resolution of return- 
ing back with my cloaths all dropping, to the area of St. 
Paul's ; here I stood some time, and observed the ships 
tumbling and tossing about, as in a violent storm ; some 
had broken their cables, and were carried to the other side 
of the Tagus ; others were whirled round with incredible 
swiftness ; several large boats were turned keel upwards ; 
and all this without any wind, which seemed the more 
astonishing. It was at the time of which I am now speak- 
ing, that the line new quay, built entirely of rough, mai ble, 

at 



DESCRIBED IJY AN EYE-WITNESS. Q7 

at an immense expense, was entirely swallowed up, with 
all the people on it, who had fled thither for safety, and had 
reason to think themselves out of danger in such a place : 
at the same time a great number of boats and small vessels 
anchored near it, (all likewise full of people, who had re- 
tired thither for the same purpose,) were all swallowed up, 
as in a whirlpool, and never more appeared. 

I had not been long in the area of St. Paul's, when I felt 
the third shock, which though somewhat less violent than 
the two former, the sea rushed in again, and retired with 
the same rapidity, and I remained up to my knees in water, 
though I had gotten upon a small eminence at some dis- 
tance from the river, with the ruins of several intervening- 
houses to break its force. At this time I took notice the 
waters retired so impetuously, that some vessels were left 
quite dry, which rode in seven fathom water : the river 
thus continued alternately rushing on and retiring several 
times together, in such sort, that it was justly dreaded, 
Lisbon would now meet the same fate, which a few years 
ago had befallen the city of Lima; and, no doubt, had 
this place lain open to the sea, and the force of the waves 
not been somewhat broken by the winding of the Bay, the 
lower parts of it at least would have been totally destroyed. 

I was now in such a situation, that I knew not which 
way to turn myself ; if I remained there, I was m danger 
from the sea ; if I retired further from the shore, the houses 
threatened certain destruction ; and, at last, I resolved to 
go to the Mint, which being a low and very strong building, 
had received no considerable damage, except in some of 
the apartments towards the river. The party of soldiers, 
which is every day set there on guard, had all deserted 
the place, and the only person that remained, was the 
commanding officer, a nobleman's son, of about seventeen 
or eighteen years of age, whom I found standing at the gate. 

As I thought it would be the height of rashness to ven- 
ture buck through the same nairow street I had so provi- 

denliallv 



98 EARTHQUAKE AT LISBON, 

dentially escaped from, I judged it safest to return over 
the ruins of St. Paul's to the river side, as the water now 
seemed a little agitated. From hence I proceeded, with 
some hazard, to the large space before the Irish convent 
of Corpo Santo, which had been thrown down, and buried 
a great number of people who \vere hearing mass, besides 
some of the friars; the rest of the community were stand- 
ing in the area, looking, with dejected countenances, to- 
wards the ruins : from this place I took my way to the 
back street leading to the Palace, having the ship-yard on 
one side, but found the further passage, opening into the 
principal street, stopped up, by the ruins of the Opera- 
house, one of the solidest and most magnificent buildings 
of the kind in Europe, and just finished at a prodigious 
expense ; a vast heap of stones, each of several tons weight, 
had entirely blocked up the front of Mr. Bristow's house, 
which was opposite to it; and Mr. Ward, his partner, told 
me, the next day, that he was just at that instant going 
out at the door, and had actually set one foot over the 
threshold, when the w : est-end of the Opera-house fell 
down, and had he not in a moment started back, he should 
have been crushed into a thousand pieces. 

From hence I turned back, and attempted getting by the 
other way into the great square of the palace, twice as 
large as Lincoln's-inn-fields, one side of which had been 
taken up by the noble quay I spoke of, now no more; but 
this passage was likewise obstructed by the stones fallen 
from the great arched gateway : I could not help taking 
particular notice, that all the apartments wherein the Royal 
Family used to reside, were thrown down ; and themselves, 
without some extraordinary miracle, must unavoidably have 
perished, had they been there at the time of the shock. 
Finding this passage impracticable, I turned to the other 
arched-way which led ito the new Square of the Palace, not 
the eighth part so spacious as the other, one side of which 
\\as taken up by the Patriarchal Church, which also served 

foi 



DESCRIBED' BY AN EVE-WITNESS, <J(> 

for the Chapel Royal, and the other by a most magnificent 
building of modern architecture, probably, indeed, by far 
the most so, not yet completely finished ; as to the former, 
the roof and part of the front walls were thrown down, and 
the latter, notwithstanding their solidity, had been so 
shaken, that several large stones fell from the top, and every 
part seemed disjointed. The Square was full of coaches, 
chariots, chaises, horses, and mules, deserted by their 
drivers and attendants, as well as their owners. 

The nobility, gentry, and clergy, who were assisting at 
divine service when the earthquake began, fled away with 
the utmost precipitation ; every one where his fears carried 
him, leaving the splendid apparatus of the numerous altars, 
to the mercy of the first comer : but this did not so much 
aftect me, as the distress of the poor animals, who seemed 
sensible of their hard fate ; some few were killed, others 
wounded, but the greater part which had received no 
hurt, were left there to starve. 

From this Square, the way led to my friend's lodgings, 
through a long steep and narrow street : the new scenes of 
horror I met with here, exceed all description; nothing 
could be heard but sighs and groans, 1 did not meet with u 
soul in the passage who was not bewailing the death of his 
nearest relations and dearest friends, or the loss of all his sub- 
stance ; I could hardly take a single step without treading 
on the dead, or the dying : in some places lay coaches, 
with their masters, horses, and riders, almost crushed in 
pieces ; here, mothers with infants in their arms ; there, 
ladies richly dressed, priests, friars, gentlemen, mecha- 
nics, either in the same condition, or just expiring ; some 
had their backs or thighs broken ; others vast stones on their 
breasts ; some lay almost buried in the rubbish, and crying 
out in vain to the passengers for succour, were left to perish 
with the rest. 

At length I arrived at the spot opposite to the house 
where my friend, for whom 1 was so anxious, resided ; 

and 



100 EARTHOUAKE AT LISBON, &c e 

and finding this, as well as the contiguous buildings 
thrown down, (which made me give him over for lost,) 
I now thought of nothing else but saving my own life in 
the best manner I could, and in less than an hour got to a 
public house, kept by one Morley, near the English bury- 
ing ground, about half a mile from the city, where I still 
remain, with a great number of my countrymen, as well 
as Portuguese, in the same wretched circumstances, hav- 
ing almost ever since lain on the ground, and never once 
within doors, with scarcely any covering to defend me 
from the inclemency of the night air, which, at this time, 
is exceeding sharp and piercing. Perhaps you may think 
the present doleful subject here concluded ; but, alas ! the 
horrors of the first of November, are sufficient to fill a 
volume. 

As soon as it grew dark, another scene presented itself, 
little less shocking than those already described the whole 
city appeared in a blaze, which was so bright that 1 could 
easily see to read by it. It may be said, without exag- 
geration, it was on fire at least in an hundred different 
places at once, and thus continued burning for six days to- 
gether, without intermission, or the least attempt being 
made to stop its progress. 

It went on consuming every thing the earthquake had 
spared, and the people were so dejected and terrified, that 
few or none had courage enough to venture down, to save 
any part of their substance ; every one had his eyes turned 
towards the flames, and stood looking on with silent grief, 
which was only interrupted by the cries and shrieks of 
women and children calling on the saints and angels for 
succour, whenever the earth began to tremble, which was 
so often this night, and indeed 1 may say, ever since, that 
the tremors, more or less, did not cease for a quarter of an 
hour together. 

(To be concluded in our next.) 

WONDERFUL 



( 101 ) 

WONDERFUL WORKS OF ART. 

" SIR, X\.NOWING that many very minute objects have 
been performed by art, I transmit you the following hand- 
bill, as it was actually published by Mr. Boverick, in the 
Strand, in the year 1745, and another nearly of the same 
date. Your's, &c. J. J . B." 

To be seen at Mr. BOVERICK'S, Watchmaker^ at the DIAL, 

facing Old Round Court, near the New Exchange^ in 
the Strand, at One Shilling each Person, 

The little furniture of a dining-room ; consisting of a 
dining-table, with a cloth laid, two figures seated as at din- 
ner ; a footman waiting; a card table, which opens with a 
drawer in it; frame and castors ; looking glass; two dozen 
of dishes, twenty dozen of plates, thirty dozen of spoons ; 
and twelve skeleton-back chairs with claw feet. All the 
above particulars are contained in a cherry-stone. 

A landau, which opens and shuts by springs, hanging on 
braces, with four persons sitting therein ; a crane-neck car- 
riage, the wheels turning on their axles, coachman's box, 
&c. of ivory; together with six horses and their furniture; 
a coachman on the box, a dog between his legs, the reins in 
one hand, and whip in the other; two footmen behind, and 
a postilion on the leading horse, in their proper liveries : 
all so minute as to be drawn along by a flea. It has been 
shewn to the Royal Society, and several persons of dis- 
tinction. 

The curious little four-wheel open chaise, with the figure 
of a man in it; all made of ivory, drawn by a flea, which 
performs all the offices of a large chaise, as running of the 
wheels, locking, &c. ; weighing but one grain. Shewn 
to the Royal Family, and several of the Nobility and 
Gentry. 

A flea, chained by a chain of 200 links, with a padlock 
and key, curiously wrought; the chain and flea, padlock 
and key, weighing but one-third of a grain, 

r A camel, 



1O2 WONDKillUI. WORKS OF ART. 

A camel, that passes through the eye of a middle-size 
needle. 

And a curious pair of steel scissars, so minute, as six pair 
may be wrapped up in the wing of a fly, The said scissars 
cut a large horse-hair. 

To be seen from nine in the morning till eight at night ; 
and those that please to see them at their house, may be 
waited upon, on Thursdays, at the same hours. 

We can inform our Correspondent, that the particulars 
here asserted of the ilea, are confirmed by the authority ol 
the ingenious and indefatigable author of Animal Biography, 
see vol. iii. cage 489- 



Without a tedious long oration here is another information 
To all that's curious in the nation. 

THAT a poor, poetical, penurious mortal, who has been 
a long time out of employment, and whom it has pleased 
Heaven to bless with a wife and three small children, the 
senior not four years old ; being, by the cruel destiny of 
the planets drove impetuously to the gaping jaws of De- 
struction, all on a sudden set his invention to work, and has 
made what is quite astonishing to behold, viz. A tea table, 
tea board, dozen tea cups and saucers, slop bason, sugar 
dish, tun, bottle, funnel, fifteen drinking glasses, five 
punch bowls, ten rummers, pestle and mortar, with two 
bowls, and two sets of ninepins. 

What most amazes is, to see them all contained in the 
compass of a common Barcelona filberd shell ; yet so ex- 
quisite is the workmanship, that the eye can clearly dis- 
cover them without the help of optic glasses. They are 
made of the finest ivory, polished exceeding well, and will 
bear the inspection of the most curious artist that the world 
can boast of; so that the virtuosi may here at once both 
satisfy their curiosity, and relieve a destitute son of Apollo. 
They are made by no foreigner, but a poor native of 

England 



WONDERFUL WORKS OF ART. 103 

England this is no quart-bottle scheme, nor lifeguard- 
man's King prophecy no pun, no ridiculous bombast no 
empty puff, nor scandalous humbug but what has a 
foundation that is able to bear it up to the latest posterity. 
N. B. They are shewn by the inventor and maker, who 
is well known by the name of Lancelot Poverty struck, at 
his lodgings, up one pair of stairs, at Mrs. Kim mister's, 
facing the Lamb in Salisbury-street, in the Strand; from 
ten in the morning to eight at night, for a few days only, 
by reason of his going to remove, at so easy a charge as one 
shilling each. They will not be advertised. 

All that can such a trifle spare undoubtedly will soon repair 

To LANCELOT, and ope' their purse, and own they've spent a shilling worse. 



To the above we may add, that, among other instances 
of art in miniature, the Emperor Charles V. had a \vatch 
in the jewel of his ring, and King James I. of England, 
another of the same kind, both made in Germany. But 
since the days of Tompion, the first English watchmaker 
of eminence, a good author observes, the works of English 
mechanics, are seen in the palaces of the greatest princes 
of the known world. 

In the cabinet of curiosities at Dresden, it is related by 
Dr. JSugent, in his Grand Tour, there is a cherry-stone, 
upon the surface of which, an hundred and twenty heads arc 
carved. 'There is also an ostrich made out of its own shell, 
with golden feathers ; a purse of incombustible linen; cups 
made of mother-o'-pearl; emeralds an inch in diameter, as 
they grow on the rock ; and several unpolished topazes, 
ten inches in diameter. There is also a great variety of 
clock-work ; as a horseman riding ; a ship under sail ; a 
centaur running and shooting ; and a crab crawling on the 
table. The stables likewise at Dresden, are furnished with 
iron racks and copper mangers. 

EXTKAOR- 



( 104 ) 

EXTRAORDINARY INCIDENTS: 

AMONG others that have not, nor probably never might 
have found their way into the public papers; in the course 
of last winter a circumstance occurred, that occasioned no 
small degree of speculation, near Spital-square, Bishops- 
gate-street. In the emptying of a cess-pool belonging to 
the house of a respectable inhabitant, a human skeleton was 
found, supposed to have lain in that situation near thirty 
years. And about that time, it was recollected by some of 
the oldest inhabitants in the neighbourhood, that a young 
man, the heir of the estate, was suddenly missing, and 
never after heard of. 

A fortunate Discover?/. There was very lately an emi- 
nent tradesman in Oxford-street, or Tyburn-road, whose 
father owed a sudden rise in his life and fortune, entirely to 
his honesty towards a singular character, who lodged in his 
house, in Hanover-yard, near that street, about thirty years 
since. The person here spoken of, rented a single room 
under this tradesman, into which he never suffered any per- 
son to enter upon any account whatever. In fact, though 
then in years, he was himself very seldom at home, as he 
\vas a regular attendant at the Stock Exchange every day. 
And besides this, was so exceedingly reserved, as scarcely 
ever to be seen by any person at home, excepting when lie 
came in at night and went out in the morning. In the pay- 
ment of his rent, the old man was scrupulously exact, 
never neglecting it an hour on the evening it became due, 
every week. But after lodging upwards of nine years in 
this house, without ever having a single follower to enquire 
after him ; and being one morning missed by his landlord, 
in not coming down stairs as usual, he went up, fearing he 
might be ill, and knocked at his door.- But no manner of 
answer being relumed, after deliberating within himself a 
few hours longer, and then coming to the resolution of 

bursting 



A FORTUNATE DISCOVERY. 105 

bursting open the door, he did so, and, as he expected, 
found his tenant lifeless and cold. That he was possessed 
of great property had long been supposed by the landlord, 
\vho, though a very poor tradesman himself, and incum- 
bered with a large family, without searching his room, or a 
bureau that stood in it, resolved to go early the next morn- 
ing to a General, who then lived near Cavendish-square ; 
whom, from the sameness of the name, &c. he, as it after- 
wards appeared, rightly conjectured was certainly some re- 
lative to his deceased lodger. But having arrived at the 

O 

house, and owing to his appearance, with some difficulty 
gained admittance into the great man's hall, he found it no 
easy matter to persuade his footman, that he had business 
which required Ins speaking to the General in person. He 
was repeatedly told he must send his message up, and as 
repeatedly refused it. At length, as the General was pro- 
bably told, that there was a ragged or mean looking fellow 
below, who must see Mm he came down into the hall, 
when, eyeing him from top to toe, " Well, good man," 
said he, (without offering to take him into any other 
apartment, or out of the hearing of the servants,) " What 
is your business r" " Private" said the tradesman 
lc Private!' 1 replied the General, (whose surprise seemed 
kindling into a degree of alarm,) "well then, follow me ?" 
" You have," said the tradesman, " a relation of the 
name of St n pe, apparently in low circumstances :" 
the General pausing " He is," continued the trades- 
man, " certainly a relation." " There is," said the 
General in reply, " a dirty fellow in the city of our 
name ; he wants I suppose ? I can say nothing to you." 
" lie wants nothing, Sir," continued the tradesman, 
" unless it be an heir to his property." " Properly," re- 
joined the General, " be explicit " " Sir," continued 

the other, " Mr. has lodged in one of my upper 

rooms these nine years ; he has died suddenly, and sup- 
posing 



106 ANOTHEll INSTANCE OF HONESTY. 

posing you to be his relation, I am come to inform you, 
that his corpse, as well as his cash, will remain sacred and 
untouched by me till you chuse to inspect it." The Ge- 
neral seemed struck with surprise ; first bid his butler give 
that good man some refreshment, and then ordering his 
chariot to be made ready, got into it with the poor trades- 
man, and drove immediately to Hanover-yard, where he 
not only found every thing as it had been described, but 
as the most happy and convincing proof of the tradesman's 
honesty, in one of the drawers of the bureau, the deceased 
had left, written in Latin, an exact account and inventory 
of every article in his room, and also directions to find me 
secret drawers, where property, and documents of the 
same were deposited, to the amount of ^60,000. Not 
more surprised than gratified with the extraordinary in- 
tegrity of this poor man, the General determining he should 
not lose his reward, immediately took and furnished a house 
in Oxford-road, for him, stocked his shop, and recom- 
mended him to all his friends. Beyond all this, he had the 
satisfaction to see his bounty had been well bestowed. A 
course of industry and sobriety marked the conduct of the 
father, and has since descended to the tradesman's sou. 

Another instance of integrity, but not so fortunate in its 
issue, came within the knowledge of a person of veracity, 
about twenty years since : Occasionally employing two 
shoemakers, Davis and Lindsey, of Hand Court, Holborn ; 
who were men in years, and lived together, he had frequent 
opportunities (as old age is always talkative) of hearing 
them complain of the hardness of the times, merely because 
they had remembered when some articles of food had been 
still cheaper than they then were! However, being at that 
advanced age, when the eyesight generally begins to fail, 
he gave them credit for having some cause at least for com- 
plaint ; heard them patiently, and endeavoured to divert or 
condole with them, just as circumstances offered. As a 

contrast 



ANOTHER INSTANCE OF HONESTY. 10? 

contrast between these two characters, here let it be observed, 
that both of them were professedly religious, both sober- 
both sparing. One of them was really so, from absolute 
necessity ; as not being so ready a workman as the other, 
he was known to make three or four shillings a week less. 
He was unable to earn more than nine shillings a week, with 
his utmost exertions. But though an Antinomian by pro- 
fession, it was well known he had long been a considerable 
helper in small sums of money to a poor family, which had 
been left without a father. But the bounties of his co- 
partner and fellow-workman, if any, were kept a secret; 
he, however, kept equal pace, and often exceeded the other 
in occasional complaints of hard times, clearness of provi- 
sions, Sec. It should have been observed, that both these 
old murmurers had been single many years, if not all their 
life-time. The latter, however, dying suddenly, a secret 
he had constantly retained in his breast, could then be con- 
cealed no longer. lie had much property, principally con- 
sisting of money and plate, hid between the lath and plais- 
ter of the walls of his garret. r He had neither the time, 
nor the disposition to make a will ; therefore, to his faith- 
ful and sympathizing friend, he had not left any thing. 
The latter, notwithstanding, knowing of an apothecary, a 
nephew of the deceased, at some distance from him, 
honestly acquainted him with the circumstances of his 
uncle's sudden death and property ; and assisting him in 
the search, found hidden articles to the amount of 300, 
which, in all probability, no other person could have ob- 
tained. However, notwithstanding this poor man's fidelity, 
his loss of time, his known circumstances, and the long 
habits of intimacy lie had maintained with the deceased, 
the ungrateful heir never rewarded him with a single 
guinea ; nor even offered him the accommodation of a 
cloak or a hatband, to attend the funeral. 

In October 1787; a Mr. Duplex, a young gentleman, 

being 



108 EXTRAORDINARY ADVENTURK. 

being on his return from Margate, took a boat on the 
Thames, almost as soon as he left the hoy, near the Tower, 
into which he put his trunk, and \vas coming on shore, 
when being boarded by several persons, calling themselves 
revenue officers, they carried it alongside a sloop lying at 
anchor very near, and under pretence of searching it, car- 
ried it down into the cabin. Mr. D followed the chest 

without any interruption, and saw it searched; but to his 
great surprise, he found the vessel in motion, and was, in a 
very short time, nearly abreast of Greenwich College. 
Just at this time he was told by the crew, that as he could 
not be put ashore, he might as well make himself con- 
tented; and though he had five guineas in his pockets, they 
never offered to deprive him of them ; however, his shirts 
they took from his chest, and they were worn by them in 
common. From this time, and during the whole term of 
three months that he remained with them, he was con- 
stantly confined to the cabin, from whence he could fre- 
quently hear part of the crew leaving the vessel, and when 
they came on board again, he thought they always brought 
hampers, boxes, &c. with them. Their food, the same 
as his own, was always ship beef, with grog, &c. At 
length being permitted to go on deck, he found the vessel 
upon the coast of North Wales, in the Bay of Beaumaris, 
and the man at the helm, telling him he might leave the 
vessel, he gladly availed himself of a fisherman's smack 
coming alongside, and who agreed to put him on board a 
Welch sloop, then under way, and bound to Dublin. . 

From Dublin, Mr. D finding himself quite at liberty, 

soon contrived to get to London, where he found the 
Thames had been dragged for his body ; and that a reward 
had been offered by his friends for finding him, dead or alive. 
This statement was given from one of Mr. D.'s friends, who 
lias often heard him relate the particulars of this extraor- 
dinary adventure. 

EXTRAOR- 



EXTRAORDINARY DELIVERANCE. 

1 HE wooden bridge over the Usk, in Wales, is remark- 
able for its construction, which is similar to that erected 
by Ctesar, over the Rhine ; and it may perhaps be consi- 
dered, as formed on the plan adopted by the Romans. 
The great floods to which the Usk is subject, have some- 
times carried away part of this bridge. An accident of this 
kind, in October 1772, occasioned a singular event, which 
would scarcely obtain credit, were it not authenticated by 
the most respectable testimony. " As Mrs. Williams, wife 
of Mr. Williams, brazier, was returning from the village of 
Caerleon to the town, at eleven o'clock at night, with a 
candle and lantern, the violence of the current forced 
away four piers, and a considerable part of the bridge. 
On a fragment of this mass, consisting of an entire room, 
with the beams, posts, and flooring, she was hurried down 
the river, but preserved sufficient presence of mind to sup- 
port herself by the railing. On arriving near St. Julian's, 
the candle was extinguished ; she immediately screamed out 
for help, and was heard by several persons, who started 
out of their beds to assist her ; but the violence of the 
stream had already hurried her out of their reach. During 
this time she had little apprehension, as she entertained 
hopes of being delivered by the boatmen of Newport ; her 
expectations were increased by the numerous lights which 
she discerned in the houses, and she accordingly redoubled 
her cries for assistance, though without effect. The frag- 
ment on which she etood, being broken to pieces against 
a pier of Newport bridge, she fortunately bestrode a beam, 
and after being detained some minutes by the eddies of the 
bridge, was rapidly hurried along towards the sea. In this 
perilous situation, she resigned herself to her approach- 
jug fate, and addressing herself to Heaven, exclaimed, 
' O, Lord! I trust in thee, thoii done cctmt save mt!' 

9 About 



110 EXTRAORDINARY DELIVERANCE, &C. 

About a mile from Newport, she discerned a glimmering 
light in a barge moored near the shore; and, redoubling 
her cries, was heard by the master of the vessel. After 
hailing her, and learning her situation, he cried out, 
' Keep up your spirits, and you will soon be out of dan- 
ger ;' then leaping into the boat, with one of his men, 
rowed towards the place from whence the screams pro- 
ceeded ; but some time elapsed before he overtook her, 
at a considerable distance from the anchorage of his barge, 
The night was so dark, that they could not discern each 
other, and the surf swelling violently, the master re- 
peated his exhortations, charged her to be calm, and not 
attempt to quit her station. Fortunately a sudden dis- 
persion of the clouds, enabled him to lash the beam fore and 
aft to the boat. At this moment, however, her presence 
of mind forsook her, and eagerly attempting to throw her- 
self forward, she was checked by the oaths of the seamen, 
who were at length enabled to heave her into the boat, but 
could not disengage themselves from the beam, till they had 
almost reached the mouth of the Usk. This being effected, 
not without great difficulty, they rowed to the shore, and 
embayed themselves till the first dawn of the morning, when 
they conveyed her in the boat to Newport. Though Mrs. 
Williams was in an advanced slate of pregnancy, she received 
so little injury from this perilous accident, that after a few 
hours repose, she returned to Caerleon. The disinterested 
conduct of the master and boatman, ought not to be omitted : 
notwithstanding the peril to which they were exposed, and 
their active exertions, they repeatedly declined the liberal re- 
compence offered by Mr. Williams." 



JOHN RICHARDS, A BLIND MAN A SINGULAR CHARACTER, 

/Vs satirists of all ages, with writers of every description, 
who have much claim to a knowledge of human nature, 
|iave paid so much attention to the mendicant tribe, as fre- 

quently 



JOHN RICHARDS, A BLIND MAN. Ill 

tquenlly to attempt the delineation of their characters, and 
even to decypher their slang or lingo, in which Mr. Francis 
Grose has eminently succeeded, following their steps ; 
especially as the person before us had some time since 
caught the attention of an artist ; to aid the pencil with the 
pen, we probably need only to remind our readers, that, 
till within a very short period, they may have recollected 
the above figure very frequently about the streets of this 
metroplis ; his motion continually upon the see- saw, bal- 
lads in his hand, and his tones between high and low, the 
former resembling the braying of an ass, and the latter the 
grunting of a hog ; his head was always in motion, and 
might have reminded one of Sir Archy Macsycophant's 
booing and booing : his feet, however, were so slow in their 
progress, that he would be sometimes nearly a day in pacing 
a street's length. The charity he had bestowed upon him, 
was certainly not given him as a retaining fee; but rather 
to get rid of a dissonance and a discord, which, together 
with his own squalid figure, were as disgusting as cau well 
be imagined. Like several of his fraternity, not a word he 
uttered was intelligible; but with all these disagreeable qua- 
lities, as he had a bag slung before him for alms, he had 
certainly established a walk, where he collected what has 
been called skran and brass knocker ; a portion or the whole 
of which, is generally disposed of on an evening, at the pub- 
lic houses used by the mendicant or begging tribe, to poor 
women, who come there for the purpose of purchasing, while 
these pretended objects of charity order fowls, geese, Sec. ; 
and, at one time, frightened one of their betters, an Alder- 
man and Brewer of London, who accidentally dropped in- 
to their company; by calling for an Alderman hung in 
chains, for their supper ! viz. a turkey roasted with pork 
sausages ! At these evening meetings, when all restraints, 
viz. lame legs, bandages, crutches, patches, and plaisters 
are laid aside, and the pleasures of the bowl are 
nought to drown the cares of the dav, this John 

Richards, 



] 12 JOHN RICHARDS, A BLIND MAN } 

Richards, who was regarded by his competitors in th 
cringe as a queer Jile, was nevertheless so far from a 
bad chaunt or singer, that he was frequently called upon 
from the chair to amuse the company. But he was not the 
only one, who, after being in the practice of a self-denying 
silence all day, rioted in a contrary extreme at night. 
For, at the evening meetings, at which he, with many 
others, attended in the neighbourhood of Dyot-street, 
St. Giles's, it seemed as if a daily, and a universal miracle 
had been wrought. Scarcely had these jovial companies 
assembled together in one place, and with one accord ; or 
rather scarcely had the liquor appeared upon the table, 
when the blind could see. the dumb speak the deaf hear 
and the lame begin to walk ! Here, indeed, as Pop 
has said, one might 

" Seethe blind beggar dance, the cripple sing." 
Or, as he has nearly said upon a more solemn occasion, 

" Hear the dumb sing ; the lame his crutch forego, 
" And leap, exulting, like, the bounding roe." 

However, to descend from the imitation of these poetic 
strains, of such assemblies * as we have just described, John 
Richards was a visiting member; and as a beggar's life is 
avowedly made up of extremes, from these midnight orgies 
he used to adjourn to a miserable twopenny lodging, in the 

neighbour- 

* From some such meetings as these, we conceive the following Club Bill 
to have been issued : 

The Company of all Mumpers, Cadgers, Match-makers, Dandelion-dig- 
gers, Dragon Fogrum Gatherers, Water-cress Fishers, and others, is earnestly 
requested, to-morrow evening, at the Old Blind Beak's Head, in Dyot-street, 
St. Giles's, at nine o'clock precisely. As the house has been altered, the 
company will be accommodated with a large room up stairs ; but those who 
are not really lame, are desired to leave their sticks artel crutches at the bar, 
to prevent mischief. After the admission of new members the President will 
give directions from the chair, for avoiding of Beadles and all other unlucky 
persons ; point out, for the benefit of Country members, the best parts for 
strolling, the method of making artificial sores, c. 

Mr. Nick-froth, the Landlord, also informs his friends arid customers, that, 
on account of the many Evening Lecture*, and Methodist Meetings in the 



A SINGULAR CHARACTER. \\$ 

neighbourhood of Lewkner's-lane ; where, with the regular 
return of morning, as a carpenter putteth on his apron, or 
as a trowel is taken into the hand of a bricklayer ; even so 
John Richards, la} ing aside all the freaks of the evening, 
and lengthening his face into the accustomed line of gra- 
vity, again sallied forth in quest of those objects of credu- 
lity, that will ever be found in a population so extensive as 
that of this metropolis. John Richards was about 50 yeura 
of age; but a disease, and death, which was deaf to all 
his entreaties, and could not be soothed by those sweet sounds 
which he was in the daily habit of uttering, put a final 
period to his perambulations some months since. 

THE SALT MINES OF POLAND. 

IMESE are wonderful caverns, several hundred yards 
deep, at the bottom of which are many intricate windings 
and labyrinths. Out of these are dug four different kinds 
of salt ; one extremely hard, like crystal ; another, softer, 
but clearer; a third, white, but brittle ; these are all brack- 
ish ; but the fourth is somewhat fresher. These four kinds 
are dug in different mines near the city of Cracow ; on one 
side of them is a stream of salt water ; and on the other, 
one of fresh. The revenue arising from these and other 
salt mines, is very considerable, and formed part of the 
royal revenue, till they were seized by the Emperor, being- 
situated within the provinces which he dismembered from 
Poland ; the annual average profit of that of Wielitska, was 
3,500,000 Polish florins, or 97,2<2<2 4s. 6d. sterling. 
The latter, indeed, is the most considerable salt mine in 

Winter Season, the Club will meet an hour later than usual. He will ak-o 
allow sprats to be broiled on the tap-room fire, let his boys fetch hogs' maw* 
and sheeps' heads. And that he likewise sends strong betr in white jugs or 
black tin pots (out of a blind) to any of the stands, at a reasonable distance 
from his house. 

X. B. A good Stand to let, now occupied by a person, who i? under t!i- 
necessity of going into the Lock !Iospital. 

tit- 



114 THE SALT MllTES OF POLAND. 

the world, and from it a great part of the Continent is sup" 
plied with that article. Wielitska is a small town, about 
eight miles from Cracow ; the mine is excavated in a ridge 
of hills at the northern extremity of the chain which joins 
to the Carpathian mountains, and has been wrought above 
600 years ; for they are mentioned in the Polish Annals, 
so early as 1237, under Bolessaus the Chaste*, and not 
then as a new discovery : how much earlier they were 
known cannot be ascertained. There are eight openings 
or descents into this mine, six in the field, and two in the 
town itself, which are mostly used for letting down the 
workmen, and taking up the salt; the others being chiefly 
used for letting in wood and other necessaries. The open- 
ings are rive feet square, and about four wide ; they are 
lined throughout with timber, and at the top of each there 
is a large wheel, with a rope as thick as a cable, by which 
things are let down and drawn up; and this is worked by 
a horse. When a stranger has the curiosity to see the works, 
he must descend by one of these holes : he is first to put on 
a miner's coat over his cloaths, and then being led to the 
mouth of the hole by a miner, who serves for a guide, the 
miner fastens a smaller rope to the larger one, and ties it 
about himself; he sits in this, and, taking the stranger in 
his lap, gives the sign to be let down. When several go 
down together, the custom is, that when the first is let 
down about three yards the wheel stops, and another miner 
takes another rope, ties himself, takes another in his lap, 
and descends about three yards further; the wheel then 
.stops for another pair, and so on till the \\hole company 
are seated ; then the wheel is again worked, and the whole 
stiing of adventurers are let down together, It is no un- 
common thing for forty people to go down in this manner. 
When the \\luel is finally set-a-going, it never slops till 

* Lfiijfiiioh, Jus, F'ub. vol. i, p. 249, 



Tllli SALT MINES OF 1'OLAND. llj 

they are all down; but the descent is very slow and gra- 
dual, and it is a very uncomfortable time, while they all 
recollect that their lives depend upon the goodness of the 
rope. They are carried down a narrow and dark well to 
the depth of GOO feet perpendicular; this is in reality an 
immense depth, but the terror and tediousness of the de- 
scent, makes it appear to most people, vastly more than it 
is. As soon as the first miner touches the ground at the bot- 
tom, he slips out of the rope and sets his companion upon 
his legs, and the rope continues descending till all the rest 
do the same. The place where they are set down is per- 
fectly dark, but the miners strike fire and light a small 
lamp, by means of which, (each taking the stranger he has 
care of, by the arm,) they lead them through a number of 
strange passages and meanders, all descending lower and 
lower, till they come to certain ladders,, by which they de- 
scend an immense depth, and this through passages per- 
fectly dark. The damp, cold, and darkness of these places, 
and the horror of being so many yards under ground, gene- 
rally make strangers heartily repent before they get thus far; 
but when at the bottom, they are well rewarded for their 
pains, by a sight that could never have been expected after 
so much horror. At the foot of the last ladder the stran- 
ger is received in a small dark cavern, walled up perfectly 
close on all sides. To increase the terror of the scene, it 
is usual for the guide to pretend the utmost terror on the 
apprehension of his lamp going out, declaring they must 
perish in the mazes of the mine if it did. When arrived in 
this dreary chamber, he puts out his light, as if by acci- 
dent; ami, after much cant, catches the stranger by the 
hand, and diags him through a narrow creek into the body 
of the mine, when there bursts at once upon his view a 

world; the lustre of which is scarcely to be imagined. It 

is a spacious plain, containing a whole people, a kind of 
subterranean republic, with houses, carriages, roads, &c. 

This 



Jltj TUT; SALT MINES OF POLAND. 

This is \\holly scooped out of one vast bed of salt, which i.s 
all a hard rock, as bright and glittering as crystal, and the 
whole space before him is formed of lofty arched vaults, 
supported by columns of salt, and roofed and floored with 
the same, so that the columns, and indeed the whole fabric, 
seem composed of the purest crystal. They have many 
public lights in this place, continually burning, for the ge- 
neral use; and the blaxe of those reflected from every part 
of the mine, gives a more glittering prospect than any 
thing above ground can possibly exhibit. Were this the 
whole beauty of the spot, it were sufficient to attract our 
\vonder ; but this is only a small part. The salt (though 
generally clear and bright as crystal,) is in some places 
tinged with all the colours of precious stones, as blue, 
yellow, purple and green; there are numerous columns 
wholly composed of these kinds, and they look like masses 
of rubies, emeralds, amethysts, and sapphires, darting a 
radiance which the eye can hardly bear, and which has 
given many people occasion to compare it to the supposed 
magnificence of Heaven. ---Besides the variety of forms in 
those vaults, tables, arches, and columns, which are 
framed as they dig out the salt for the purpose of keeping 
up the roof, there is a vast variety of others, grotesque and 
finely figured, the work of nature; and these are generally 
of the purest and brightest salt. The roofs of the arches 
are in many places full of salt, hanging pendent from the 
lop in the form of icicles, and having ail the hues and co- 
lours of the rainbow; the walks are covered with various 
congelations of the same kind, and the very floors, when 
not too much trodden and battered, are covered with glo-- 
bules of the same sort of beautiful materials. In various 
parts of tins spacious plain, stand the huts of the miners and 
families, some single, and others in clusters like villages. 
They have very little communication with the world above 
j and many hundreds of people are born and live all 

their 



THE SALT MINES OF POLAND. 117 

their lives here. Through the midst of this plain, lies the 
great road to the mouth of the mine. This road is always 
filled with carnages loaded with masses of salt out of the 
farther part of the mine, and carrying them to the place 
where the rope belonging to the wheel receives them ; the 
drivers of these carriages are all merry and singing, and the 
salt looks like a load of gems. The horses kept here are a 
very great number, and when once let down, they never 
see day-light again ; but some of the men take frequent oc- 
casions of going up and breathing the fresh air. The in- 
struments principally used by the miners are pick-axes, 
hammers, and chissels; with these they dig out the salt in 
forms of huge cylinders, each of many hundred weight. 
This is found the most convenient method of getting them 
out of the mine, and as soon as got above ground, they are 
broken into smaller pieces, and sent into the mills, where 
they are ground to powder. The finest sort of the salt is 
frequently cut into toys, and often passes for real crystal. 
This hard kind makes a great part of the floor of the mine; 
and what is the most surprising in the whole place is, that 
there runs constantly over this, and through a large part of 
the mine, a spring of fresh water ; sufficient to supply the 
inhabitants and their horses, so that they need not have any 
from above ground. The horses usually grow blind, after 
they have been some little time in the mine, but they do 
as well for service afterwards as before. After admiring the 
wonders of this amazing place, it is no very comfortable re- 
membrance to the stranger, that he is to go back again 
through the same dismal way he came, and, indeed, the 
journey is not much better than the prospect; the only 
means of getting up is by the rope, and little more cere- 
mony is used in the journey than in the drawing up of a 
piece of salt. The salt dug from this mine is called Ziebua, 
or Green Salt, but for what reason it is difficult to deter- 
mine, its colour being an iron grey ; when pounded, it has 

K a dirty 



118 tHE SALT MINES OF POLAND. 

a dirty ash colour, like what \\e call brown salt. The mine 
Appears to be inexhaustible, as will easily be conceived, fronj 
the following account of its dimensions, given by Mr. Coxe. 
" Its known breadth (says he) is 11 15 feet, its length 6f)Ql 
feet, and depth 743 :" this, however, is to be understood 
only of the part which has been actually worked ; as to the 
real depth or longitudinal extent of the mine, it is not pos- 
sible to conjecture. 

Under the mountains adjoining the Kiow, on the fron- 
tiers of Russia, and in the deserts of Podolia, t'.re several 
catacombs, or subterranean vaults, which the ancients used 
for burying-places, and where a great number of human 
bodies are still preserved entire, though interred many ages 
since, having been better embalmed, and become neither 
so hard nor so black as the Egyptian mummies. .Among 
them are two princes in the habits they used to wear. It is 
thought that this preserving quality is owing to the nature 
of the soil, which is dry and sandy. Of antiquities, Poland 
can boast of but few, as ancient Sarmatia was never per- 
fectly known to the Romans themselves. Its artificial cu- 
riosities also are not numerous, consisting chiefly of the 
gold, silver, and enamelled vessels, presented by (he kings 
and prelates of Poland, and preserved in the cathedral <>J" 
G ne$na. 

A POPISH MISEU. 

A CHRONICLE, of the City of Venice, for the yr-r UJRj, 
mentions a person of great property in that city, who had 
such a love of sold, that the bare mention oi a large sum 

O ? 

had the same operation upon his pulse, as though he had 
been seized with a violent fever. The spirit of Mammon is 
also said to have possessed him in such a degree, that even 
\vhen Lc made the sign of the cross, as he affected much 
devotion, he always made use of a gold coin called a 
zequiu. His chc:;ly, drawers, &.c. which were filled with 



RUINS AND STRUCTURES IN THE HOLY LAND. 119 

bags of gold, \vcre each of them named after some Saint. 
One large leathern bag, \vliich it was thought he wor- 
shipped, he, as it were, dedicated to God the father, an- 
other to the Son, and a third to the third person in the Tri- 
nity. These bags also on holidays, saints-days, and other 
festivals of the Church, he used to decorate in the same 
manner as others do their images. Being upon his death- 
bed, finding no hope of life, he desired every person to 
withdraw ; when after being absent about a quarter of an 
hour, his friends returning, found him stretched out, grasp- 
ing with his arms the largest of his bugs, and with both his 
hands tilled with various pieces of gold. In line, such was 
the enormous avarice of this wretch, that nothing but ihe 
quality and interference of his friends prevented a printed 
account of his whole life from being published. They, 
however, could not prevent the circumstances here related 
from being descanted upon in several of the pulpits of that 
city. 



Famous II u i ys^and STRUCTURES in the Holy Land, $c. 

[Described by a. late Traveller.] 

U YViiKN you (says this writer) approach the Isthmus, 
on the peninsula of ancient r l}" re ? you see some gar- 
dens planted with mulberries to feed silk worms. .Near 
these are three curious basons built with stone, of a circu- 
lar form, and raised about ten feet above the surface of the 
ground 1 , the largest of them is about sixty yards in circum- 
ference, and has steps all round its inside like an amphithe- 
atre, narrowing gradually from the surface to the bottom. 
But the force of the springs which fill these basons is such, 
that a stone near three pounds weight will be some time 
carried about before it sinks to the bottom. These basons 
afford so much water, that all the adjacent gardens and 
some water-mills are supplied with their streams. They 
were constructed by the ancient Tynans, and though tiie 

moderns 



120 EXTRAORDINARY CHESTNUT-TREE. 

moderns have endeavoured to discover the spring which 
supplies them, they could never succeed. The ruins of 
ancient Tyre consist of the remains of the walls scattered 
in different parts, and mostly buried in the sand ; they were 
composed of brick and stone, and now appear about ten 
feet thick. An old arch which was the gate of the harbour 
is still to be seen, but though the harbour has been nearly 
filled up with rubbish, small boats can still enter it. Those 
who read the prophecies of Isaiah and Ezekiel may form 
some ideas of the astonishing wealth and magnificence of 
the once-famous cities of Tyre and Sidon, which, in the 
end, as many others have been, were ruined only by their 
excessive wealth. Siddn seems to have been to Tyre very 
nearly what Westminster is to London, as it stood on a 
neck of land over against Tyre, and both together formed 
a bay about sixteen miles in length. In the country in the 
neighbourhood you meet with gardens planted with orange, 
lemon, and all sorts of fruit trees, with springs of water 
very sweet and fresh; but though the inhabitants from the 
loss of trade are comparatively poor, they are under no 
apprehensions of the want or scarcity of provisions, as it is 
not worth the attention of the rich to embark their capitals 
iu any kind of agency or traffic in the prime articles of the 
necessaries of life." 



The Extraordinary CHESTNUT-TREE on MOUNT 
called the Castagna de Cento Cavalli; as related by BRY- 
DONE and others. 

XT had then the appearance of five distinct trees, the space 
"within them he was assured had once been filled with solid 
timber, when the whole formed only one tree. The pos- 
sibility of this could not at first be conceived, for the five 
trees contained a space of 204 feet in circumference; but 
the truth of the same was not only proved by the testimony 
of the country, and the accurate examination of the Canon 

Rempero, 



AN EXTRAORDINARY SNAKE. 121 

Recupero, a learned naturalist in those parts, but by the 
appearance of the trees themselves, none of which had any 
bark on the inside. Brydone tells us it was so ancient he 
had seen it marked in an old map of Sicily, published an 
hundred years before. 

A REMARKABLE hog, now in the possession of W. Fos- 
ter, Walsall, which he bought about two years and a half 
since for 3. 5s. and he is still in a growing state. In 
length he is, from the point of the nose to the tail end, nine 
feet 10 inches, in height 3 feet 11 inches, in girt 8 feet, 
the cleft of his fore hoof is 5 inches and a half, and his 
weight is supposed to be 60 score pounds. He has been in 
feeding most of the time his present owner has had him, and 
has cost him 40 guineas in meal, but it is not yet fat, and 
it is supposed, when properly so, he will weigh about 1800 
pounds. The owner has been offered \00 for him by a 
person who intended to have carried him about as an ex- 
hibition. 

April, 1803. A most singular discovery was lately made 
at Deptford. While a number of sailors and others were 
employed in unloading the cargo of the Admiral Aplin, an 
East Indiaman, who arrived at the above place a fortnight 
ago from Madras (laden with sugar, saltpetre, and some 
bale goods,) then being in the act of dragging out of the 
hold some bags of sugar, they discovered through a board 
in the hold of the ship a green snake of an amazing size, 
whose appearance was so terrific that it gave a general 
alarm, and it being well known that its bite is instantaneous 
death, it was found necessary to procure weapons for its 
destruction, which they completed by tying a spade to the 
end of one of the oars of the boat, by which they caught 
it by the neck, and confined it till they severed the head 
from the body. It was as green as grass, 15 feet long, and 
18 inches in circumference. It is supposed that this ani- 
mal 



]GC ORIGIN OF POMPFA'S PILLAR. 

rnal in the night time found its way on board the ship, 
while lying at Madras, by the means of concealing itself ni 
one of the bags of sugar, or sliding on one of the planks, 
into the hold, following the scent of the sugar. Its bite is 
always understood to be more venomous than the bile of 
a rattle snake. 



DISCOVERY of the ORIGIN O/POMPEY'S PILLAR. 

^i s this is principally owing to the intrepidity of British 
seamen, in the first instance, and the learning and investi- 
gation of British soldiers in the next place, a concentration 
of the various accounts of their recent enquiries can neither 
be devoid of entertainment or interest. It does not appear, 
though so much indebted to the French as we are upon so 
many other accounts in Egypt, that they have thrown much 
light upon this famous pillar. Even Sir Robert Wilson, 
taking a recollective view of the ascent of some British 
seamen to its top, makes it a mutter of doubt whether they 
could or could not ascertain the former erection of a statue 
upon its summit! But by referring to the account pub- 
lished in 1793 concerning this affair, it will appear that one 
foot and ancle of this statue was positively remaining in 
1781, the time the visit was paid to the column by the 
British tars. To begin uith a short description of this 
monument, it has been justly observed, u That which 
mostly engages the attention of travellers who pass through 
Alexandria, is the Pillar of Poinpey, as it is commonly 
called, situated at a quarter of a league from the southern 
gate of the city. It is composed of red granite. The Co- 
rinthian capital is nine feet high. The hhat't and the upper 
member of the base are of one piece of ninety feet long, 
and nine in diameter. The base is a square of about fif- 
teen feet on each side. This block of marble, sixty feet 
in circumference, rests on two layers of stone bound toge- 
ther with lead ; which, however, has not prevented the 

Arabs 



rnnciN OF POMPEVS PIU.AU, 123 

Arabs from forcing out several of them, to search for an 
imaginary treasure. The whole column is 114 feet high, 
It is perfectly well polished, and only a little shivered on 
the eastern side. Nothing can equal the majesty of this 
monument; seen from a distance, it overtops the town, and 
serves as a signal for vessels at sea. Approaching it nearer, 
it produces an astonishment mixed with awe. One can 
never he tired with admiring the beauty of the capital, the 
length of the shaft, nor the extraordinary simplicity of the 
pedestal. This last has been somewhat damaged by the 
instruments of travellers, who are curious to possess a relic 
of this antiquity ; and one of the volutes of the column was 
immature]}- brought down about 1781, by a prank of some 
English Captains, which is thus related by Mr. Irwin: 

" These jolly sons of Neptune had been pushing about 
the ran on board one of the ships in the harbour, until a 
stnuige freak entered into one of their brains. The eccentri- 
city of the thought occasioned it immediately to be adopted, 
and its apparent impossibility was but a spur for the putting 
it into execution. The boat was ordered, and \\ith proper 
implements for the attempt, these enterprising heroes 
pushed ashore, to drink a bowl of punch on the top of Porn- 
pey's pillar! At the spot they arrived ; and many contriv- 
ances were proposed to accomplish the desired point. Hut 
their labour was vain, and they began to despair of success, 
when the genius who struck out the frolic happily suggested 
the means of performing it. A man was dispatched to the 
city for a paper kite. The inhabitants were by this time 
apprized of what was going forward, and flocked in crowds 
to be witnesses of the address and boldness of the English. 

O 

The Governor of Alexandria was told that these seamen 
were about to pull down Pompcy's piilar. But whether he 
gave them credit for their respect to the Roman warrior, or 
to the Turkish government, he left them to themselves, 
ai id politely answered, that the English were too great 

patriots 



124 ORIGIN OF POMPEY'S PILLAR. 

patriots to injure the remains of Pompey. He knew little, 
however, of the disposition of the people who were en- 
gaged in this undertaking. Had the Turkish empire rose 
in opposition, it would not perhaps at that moment have 
deterred them. The kite was brought, and flown so di- 
rectly over the pillar, that when it fell on the other side, the 
string lodged upon the capital. The chief obstacle was 
now overcome. A two -inch rope was tied to one end of 
the string, and drawn over the pillar by the end to which 
the kite was affixed. By this rope one of the seamen as- 
cended to the top; and in less than an hour, a kind of 
shrowd was constructed, by which the whole company went 
up, and drank their punch amid the shouts of the astonished 
multitude. To the eye below, the capital of the pillar 
does not appear capable of holding more than one man 
upon it; but our seamen found it could contain no less 
than eight persons very conveniently. It is astonishing 
that no accident befel these madcaps, in a situation so ele- 
vated, that would have turned a landman giddy in his 
sober senses. The only detriment which the pillar receiv- 
ed was the loss of the volute before-mentioned ; which 
came down with a thundering sound, and was carried to 
England by one of the captains, as a present to a lady who 
commissioned him for a piece of the pillar. The discovery 
which they made amply compensated for this mischief: as 
without their evidence, the world would not have known at 
this hour, that there was originally a statue on this pillar, 
one foot and ancle of which are still remaining. The statue 
must have been of a gigantic size, to have appeared of a 
man's proportion at so great an height." * 

But to put the origin of this pillar beyond all doubt, 
since the Greek inscription upon the same has been decy- 
pherecl, it appears that this monument, contrary to all 
former opinions, was erected in honour of Diocletian, by 
the then Prefect of I>'gvpt. For this discovery, the learned 

are 



A MAN NOT BORN TO BE HANGED. 125 

are indebted to Lieutenant Dundas, of the Royal Engi- 
neers, and Lieutenant Desude, of the Queen's German Re- 
giment, aid-de-camp to Lord Cavan, who accomplished it 
with much perseverance and difficulty. The letters were 
so much defaced by time, that it was only during the hours 
when the sun cast a shadow from them that any observation 
could be made. In some parts a few characters are totally 
incapable of being traced. These characters have been 
filled up by Mr. Hales, an English clergyman, at Naples, 
employed in decyphering the ancient manuscripts found 
at Herculaneum. These filled up characters are of course 
open to criticism. The most material part, however, the 
name of the person to whom the pillar is dedicated, is quite 
legible. The following is a translation of the inscription : 
To Diocletianus Augustus, most adorable Emperor, the 
tutelar deity of Alexandria, Pontius, Prefect of Egypt 
consecrated this. 

A Man evidently not born to be Hanged or Drowned. 

T 

JL HE following catalogue of calamities are inserted, as 
having actually occurred to one man; and are asserted in 
a letter from Uttoxeter in Staffordshire, dated as under, 
and of which the following is an extract. 

" I cannot but imagine that the following narrative of 
accidents, which have fallen to the lot of one man, now 
perfectly sound and hearty, and in his 45th year, will find a 
place in your valuable Miscellany ; they are so numerous, 
and many of them so generally fatal, that it is almost 
necessary for me, (in order to gain the credit I am entitled 
to), to premise that the subject (or hero if you please) 
of this letter, is very much engaged in horse-breaking, 
from which dangerous employment most of these misfortunes 
have arisen. 1. Right shoulder broken to pieces ; 2. Scull 
fractured and trepanned ; 3. Left arm broken in two places ; 
4. Three ribs on the left side broken a cut in the fore- 

VOL. I. s head 



126 AN AWFUL INSTANCE OF 

head lancet-case, flue-case, and knife, forced into the 
thigh ; 5. Three ribs broken on the right sideand the 
right shoulder, elbow, and wrist, dislocated ; 6. Back 
dislocated ; 7. Scull fractured and trepanned ; 8. Cap of 
the right knee kicked off; 9. Left ancle out ; 10. Cut for 
a fistula ; 11. Right ancle out, and hip knocked down ; 12. 
Seven ribs broken on the right and left sides ; 13. Cap of 
the right knee kicked off; 14. Kicked in the face, and the 
left eye out of the socket: 15. Back dislocated ; 16. Two 
ribs and breast bone-broken; 17. Got down by a horse 
and kicked till he had five holes in his left leg, the sinew 
just below the right knee cut through, and two holes in 
that leg, and also two shocking cuts above the knee. 

" He has been taken apparently dead, seven times out of 
different rivers. Besides the above, he has had many 
other kicks, bruises, and other accidents. 

" As several of your friends, many of whom live in this 
neighbourhood, may wish to satisfy themselves of the ve- 
racity of the foregoing enumeration, I shall give them that 
opportunity, by informing them, that Mr. George Talking- 
ton, of Uttoxeter, is the person alluded to; and that 
every doubt may be removed by applying to Mr. Madeley, 
surgeon, of this place, who was operator in the tenth in- 
stance, and who attended in most of his disasters; or to 
your humble servant and constant reader, 
" Uttoxeter, Oct. 7th, 1793. " BAN JERSEY." 



An Awful Instance of a Breach of Confidence. 



I 



_T is the business of Christians, amidst these trials, to 
hearken to the declaration of the inspired apostlo, and to 
follow his counsel : "But the day of the Lord will come as 
a thief in the night, in which the heavens shall pass away 
with a great noise, and the elements shall melt with 
fervent heat: the earth also, and the works that are there- 
in 



A BREACH OF CONFIDENCE. 127 

in shall be burnt up. Seeing then that all these things shall 
be dissolved, what manner of persons ought ye to be in all 
holy conversation and godliness, looking for, and hastening 
unto the coming of the day of God." 

The following narrative was lately communicated to Mr. 
A. Fuller, by Mr. John Bignell, jun. He resides at Mr. 
Robert Bowyer's, Pall Mall, who also can testify the truth 
of it. 

"In the year 1778, there died at Meonstoke, in Hamp- 
shire, a Mr. Thomas Wyatt, by trade a wheel-wright. He 
had, through his own industry, accumulated a sufficiency 
to live the latter part of his days independent. Messrs. 
John and Francis Bignell being his nearest relations, he 
made them his executor?, and left them the greater part of 
his property. Having many distant relations, however, 
and being of a generous disposition, he bequeathed to each 
of them a trifling legacy. For this purpose, he had con- 
cealed a certain sum of money under the floor, at the bot- 
tom of a closet, specifying particulars in a letter which he 
had left written hi Latin, directed to Mr. John Bignell. 
After the funeral, the above-mentioned money was searched 
for, but could not be found. Mr. Wyatt, having only a 
servant-maid in the house with him for some years before 
his decease, the executors concluded that she must be the 
person who had taken it ; and accordingly accused her of 
havingdone so. She denied it in the most solemn manner, 
wishing that God might strike her dead if she had ever seen 
it. After being discharged, she went to a lodging in the 
same village. The executors still concluding that the 
money must have been taken away by her, procured a 
warrant and proper officers, in order to search her lodg- 
ing. Upon their entering the house, she met them with 
the greatest cheerfulness, still declaring that she had never 
seen the money. They proceeded first to search the upper 
part of the house. After having gone through several 

rooms, 



128 ANN SIGGS; 

rooms, she said, ' Now we have been in all the rooms up 
stairs, we will go down.' But they perceived another 
door, which they soon found led to her apartment. As 
soon as they entered this room they observed a box, which 
was locked. Upon demanding the key, she said she had 
lost it. In consequence of their threatening to break it 
open, however, she took the key out of her pocket, and 
unlocked the box herself; but immediately on its being 
opened, she was observed to take out something, and at- 
tempt to put it into her pocket. On stopping her hand, 
they found it to be a silver tooth-pick, which belonged to 
Mr. Wyatt; and searching further into the box, they dis- 
covered sheets, table-cloths, spoons, a pair of silver 
buckles, &c. all which she had taken from him. At the 
bottom of the box, they found the money in a smaller box, 
which Mr. Wyatt had particularly described. Finding her- 
self thus detected, she fell down on the bed, and expired 
immediately. 

" N. B. Among other legacies which Mr. Wyatt left, 
he had bequeathed fifty pounds to his maid-servant, and 
which bequest was thus expressed : ' To my true and 
faithful servant Elizabeth Earwaker,' &c. 

" After her death there arose a dispute between two of 
her relations, concerning whose right it was to receive her 
legacy, in consequence of which, one of them went and 
haned himself." 



ANN SIGGS; A CONSPICUOUS CHARACTER. 
( With her Portrait.) 

W HENEVER any person, in consequence of any thing- 
peculiar in their dress, their manners, or the frequency of 
their appearance in public places, has rendered themselves 
conspicuous, the enquriry, who or what they are, is so na- 
tural to the human mind, that any attempt to gratify such 

a degree 



A CONSPICUOUS CHARACTER. 129 

a degree of curiosity, instead of being criminal, becomes a 
laudable, and very often an useful source of amusement. 
In the case in hand, the public, especially those in the 
habit of passing through the principal streets of this capital, 
leading from Bond-street to Cornhill, cannot have been in- 
sensible to the daily appearance of a tall woman, walking, 
with apparent facility with crutches, mostly dressed in 
white, sometimes wearing a jacket or spencer of green 
baize, but always so remarkably clean in her dress and ap- 
pearance, that upon the whole she cannot fail to excite con- 
siderable attention. In consequence of the natural enqui- 
ries who, and what such a person is, or has been, and from 
the remains of a good face and figure, it has generally been 
considered that the person in question was a relative to 
Mrs. Siddons ; but this report is entirely unfounded. Ann 
Siggs is the daughter of an industrious parent, who was 
many years a breeches maker, at Dorking in Surry, who, 
after bringing up a large family of eight children, died when 
this daughter was about 18 years of age, and settled in 
the family of Capt. Duvernet ; from whence, after under- 
going a long vicissitude of much better and worse circum- 
stances, she finally gained a, permanent settlement, by living 
with a family in Birchin-lane. From whence, through her 
inability to remain in her latter situation, in consequence of 
an obstinate rheumatism, she receives from the parish of 
St. Michael's, Cornhill, a weekly allowance, which, with 
the benevolence of some well-disposed persons, probably, 
does much ; 

" But cannot minister to the mind diseased." 

Ann Siggs has lived in Eden-court, Swallow-street, and 
in the same street where she now resides, ever since the 
year 1791, the lonely occupant of a small back room, but 
which she is observed to leave every morning at nine 
o'clock, and to return about five in the afternoon. But 

thus 



ANN SIOGS J A CONSPICUOUS CHARACTER. 

thus reduced, she still claims much property of which she 
says she has heen wronged. However she still has abrother 
in an opulent way of business on the Stirry side of the 
water, and had a sister that lived at Isleworth, dead some 
time since. She is about 54 years of age ; but probably dis- 
appointment, or that neglect which the weakest minds are 
by no means calculated to sustain, have in some measure 
wrought upon the intellect. Many, indeed, have been 
among the number of those whom Gray has said 

The stings of Falsehood those shall try, 
And hard unkindness alter 'd eye, 
That inocks the tear it forc'd to flow ; 

Thus, iu the character of Ann Siggs, there is nothing sin- 
gular but her exterior ; the apparent burden of warm, 
though exceedingly clean clothing, which she constantly 
wears, is not from affectation, but from the necessity of 
guarding against the least cold, which she says always in- 
creases her disorder. Many who receive alms publicly in 
their dress and conduct are generally an outrage to decency 
and delicate feeling. If the present subject possesses any 
singularity besides that of dress, it is chiefly in the silent 
appeal of an appearance that involuntarily calls forth a 
degree of enquiry, and at the same time affords a kind of 
prepossession, urging the probability that the present pre- 
dicament of the object of research has certainly been pro- 
duced by some of the freaks and eccentricities of fortune ; 
hence the common curiosity of learning the particulars, 
which are always the more agreeable in proportion as they 
are harmless. 



A SHOCKING DISCOVERY. 

[Translated from the German Politischcs Journal.] 

T is well known that during the French Revolution, the 
wood Kusel, near Deux Pouts was often the scene of 
various actions, and that the Prussians encamped in it a con- 

siderable 



A SHOCKING DISCOVERY. 131 

siderable time ; consequently (lie wood was so nearly ruined, 
that only a few oak trees were left standing, here and there. 
These trees were sold in the month of March last, 1803, and 
one lot fell to a citizen of Strasburgh for fifty florins. Soon 
afterwards ordering two of them to be cut down, one of 
them, the largest, was no sooner divided for the purpose of 
removal, than to the astonishment of the labourers they dis- 
covered a human skeleton, from which all the flesh having 
wasted away, nothing remained near the body at the bot- 
tom of the tree but some bits of blue cloth, and part of a 
hat. A purse half decayed was also found, containing 
about 100 louis d'ors in gold ; and from the buttons about 
the blue cloth, it was concluded that the deceased had been 
a Prussian officer, who not knowing the tree to be hollow 
or, probably sleeping near the top of the trunk of it, had 
slipped in, and from cold, or a variety of circumstances, 
being unable to extricate himself, had there perished. The 
fact, however, can be attested by the proprietor, the 
purchaser of the trees, and several other persons. 



A True Relation of a Horrid and Long -Concealed 
Murder committed iqion the Person of Thomas Kid- 
derminster, Gent, of Tupsley in the County of Here- 
ford, at the White Horse, Chelmsford, Essex, in April 
1654. 

J. HIS unfortunate person was the only son of Walter 
Kidderminster, of Tupsley in the county of Hereford ; but 
bein- wronged out of his paternal estate by the intrigues 
of his step-mother, he was compelled very early in life to 
enter into the service of the Bishop of Ely, who at length 
employed him as his steward till the commencement of the 
civil war, and the commitment of that Prelate to the Tower 
for his unshaken loyalty. Mr. Kidderminster was after- 
wards employed in the management of other gentlemen's 

estates 



132 LONG CONCEALED MURDER. 

estates in Cambridgeshire, till thinking it prudent to con- 
vert his property into money, and endeavour to settle upon, 
or sell his estate which he still claimed in Herefordshire, 
after sending his wife to London, who was then big with 
child, and telling her he would return in about ten days, 
he departed from Cambridgeshire through Essex, with a 
number of writings, taking with him about five or six 
hundred pounds in gold, most of which he had obtained 
in exchange for silver. 

Going a bye- road for safety, Mr. Kidderminster took a 
guide with him, but on reaching Chelmsford at night he 
was discharged. Mr. Kidderminster then put up at the 
White Horse Inn, where it appears he had lain at other 
times, and was very well acquainted ; but there he was 
murdered on the same night, and, as before said, in April 
1654, as will further appear from the following relation : 

He not coming to London according to appointment, 
about three weeks after Mr. Bainbridge, the parson of 
Wilburton that married them, came up to Mrs. Kidder- 
minster, and asked her for her husband, who replied, " I 
hoped you had brought me news of him ; what's the reason 
of it ?'' " I know not," says he, " but he has made off all, 
and gone from thence ;" which mightily surprised her, in- 
somuch that it threw her into a fit of sickness which had 
almost cost her her life : but desirous to know the reason of 
it, she desired Mr. Maidstone, a gentleman that had business 
there, and was going thither, to send her a particular ac- 
count, who confirmed the parson's relation. The last place 
she heard of him was Cambridge. Then a report was 
spread that he was gone to Amsterdam, where she sends to 
enquire for him, but was assured he was not there. After 
some time she heard he was at Cork in Ireland, and thither 
she sent, and made a most diligent and exact search for him, 
both in Cork and_Munster by the interest of a parson there, 

but 



OF THOMAS KIDDERMINSTER, GENT. 133 

but heard nothing of him. Then again there was a report 
that he was in Barbadoes; and the same clergyman sent 
to a minister in Barbadoes to make enquiries after him, but 
could hear nothing of him there. Then she heard he was 
in Jamaica, (for then Oliver, the Usurper, having a design 
upon the Spaniards, had sent out a fleet under the com- 
mand of Pen and Venables, who missing of their chief 
design, took Jamaica, by-the-bye of which place Sir John 
Reynolds was made governor,) and Mr. Kidderminster 
having been in the king's army, and formerly condemned 
for his loyalty, it was generally supposed he was in the 
fleet, because a great part of the loyalists were sent thither. 
Mrs. Kidderminster in the mean time (in August, 1654) 
being brought to bed of a daughter, and exposed to get a 
livelihood, was entered as a wet nurse in Sir Christopher 
Guy's family in Glocestershire, and there suckled Sir John 
Guy, at which time she received a letter from a friend, 
whereby she was informed that her husband, Mr. Kidder- 
minster, died in Jamaica, and had left Sir John Reynolds 
executor for her and her young daughter : and by the 
same letter she understood that Sir John Reynolds was 
come to London. So accordingly she comes to London to 
enquire of him ; where she hears he was drowned coming 
over seas for England from the coast of Dunkirk : but she 
meeting in London with one that did belong to him, he 
assured her that there neither was, nor had been any such 
person in Jamaica; for he had enquired of Mr. Hodges, 
who kept a register of all the passengers to and from Ja- 
maica; and she herself had searched the register two or 
three times. 

From Sir Christopher Guy's she went to Tupsley in the 
Parish of Hampton Bishop, near Hereford, where she had 
been informed by her husband that he had an estate ; and 
Mr. John King, Sir Christopher's steward, \vent along with 
her to the house where her husband was bom, then in the 

T possession 



134 LONG CONCEALED MURDER 

possession of Thomas Baker, who was married to Mrs. 
Kidderminster's step-mother. She asked Mr. Baker whether 
Mr. Kidderminster had been there lately ; for her husband 
had been missing a long while, and she thought to hear of 
him there. However she demanded the arrears of rent, 
and expected they would pay her, if her husband were 
dead. But they, as is believed, had heard of her husband's 
being missing, and therefore pretended they had purchased 
the estate, and so ought to pay her nothing. But Mrs. 
Kidderminster was informed by the neighbours that there 
was no such thing; and was advised by them to look after 
it, for it was really her right by the custom, as her free 
bench, if her husband was dead. 

She left Sir Christopher Guy's family about a year and 
a quarter after, and came to London to live with her sister ; 
and constantly enquiring after her husband, her sister one 
day, in 1662 or 1663, reading the then news-pamphlet, sud- 
denly cries out, " Sister, here's news of your husband !" 
upon which she read the news in these words, or to this 
effect, viz. " that the bones of an unknown person, sup- 
posed to be robbed and murdered, were found buried in a 
back yard in Chelmsford. Whosoever can give notice of 
any person missing about that time, let them give notice 
to Mr. Talcott, coroner, in Peering ; or to the constable of 
Chelmsford ; or to Mr. Roper, bookseller, over against St. 
Dunstan's Church in Fleet-street :" and upon comparing 
the time of her husband's being missing with the time in 
the newspaper of the supposed murdered body's lying 
concealed, it appeared to be extremely probable : upon 
which she immediately, as directed in the newspapers, went 
to Mr. Roper's, and he advised her to go to Sir Orlando 
Bridgman, then lord chief justice of the common pleas, 
\vho had been the home circuit. She went to my lord's 
secretary, Mr. Edwards, and acquainted him with her 

business, 



OF THOMAS KIDDERMINSTER, GENT. J35 

business, who took a note of her name and the place of her 
abode, and promised to acquaint my lord of her being then 
upon such an occasion, \vhich he did accordingly; but by 
some misfortune could not find the note, and so could not 
send for Mrs. Kidderminster. 

Here the matter rested for some time. Mrs. Kidder- 
minster however continued her enquiries ; and imparting 
the particulars of the discovery of Chelmsford to several of 
her acquaintances, .they all persuaded her to desist ; alleg- 
ing the uncertainty, the trouble, and expence of such a 
prosecution, especially considering how destitute she was 
both of friends and money at that time. Being so per- 
suaded, she did desist. Some short time afterwards her 
husband appeared to her several times, both by day-light 
and in the night, in the habit he usually wore, looking very 
sternly upon her : but oue night as she lay in her bed, her 
husband came to her in a white sheet, with a streak of blood 
upon it ; whereupon she was resolved (being much dis- 
turbed in her mind) to go to Chelmsford, in order to make 
the utmost discovery she could. In pursuance to this reso- 
lution, she went to one Mr. Jeremy Maidstone, and desired 
him to go along with her, and they both agreed to go down 
a-foot, and so went on their journey as far as Stratford, 
where a little beyond the town they lost their way, turning 
to their left hand of the road, that they were four miles 
out of the way. At last they came to Rumford, and by 
that time they were very weary, and went into a house at 
die further end of the town, at the sign of the Black Bull, 
being the house of one Kendal, where they accidentally 
found one Mary Mattocks, a sawyer's wife, who lived at 
Horn Church, two miles from Rumford, and was come to 
town for a piece of chalk which she had forgot the day 
before, and for want of which her husband could not work. 

Mrs. Kidderminster being now very weary, and not able 

T 2 to 



136 LONG CONCEALED MURDER 

to go a-foot any further, enquired of the people of the 
house whether any horse could be hired in that town: Mrs. 
Mattocks being present, interposed, and answered, <l that 
there was no horse to be hired, nor any conveniency of 
coach or waggon to be had upon that day." They asked 
Mrs. Mattocks " how far it was to Chelmsford ?" she an- 
swered, tc fifteen miles." Mrs. Kidderminster asked her 
again, " whether she knew Chelmsford ?" she replied, 
" that she did very well ; for she was born and bred there." 
Question. " If she knew the White Horse ?" Answer. 
" Very well ; and that one Turner, a very honest man, 
kept it ; but that he that kept it formerly was one Sewell, 
\vho, if he had had his deserts, had been hanged long ago, for 
there was certainly a gentleman murdered in the house." 
Thereupon she was moved to make a further enquiry ; and 
told Mattocks that her husband was lost much about that 
time ; who informed her, that the hostler who lived in 
SewelPs time at the White Horse, did live then at Rum- 
ford. She having a mind to speak with the hostler, (not 
at all suspecting him to be one of the murderers, but only 
with an intention to gather from him what circumstances 
she could,) sent for him ; but he refused to come : the mes- 
senger who was employed upon this errand having heard 
part of the discourse, as it seems imparted it to him, which 
made him unwilling to come. Then Mrs. Mattocks ad- 
vised Mrs. Kidderminster to go to one Goody Shute, her 
aunt, at the sign of the Cock on the hither side of the 
bridge, and that she could give her such intelligence as 
would answer her expectation. Upon this Mrs. Kidder- 
minster and her friend departed on their journey towards 
Chelmsford. Mrs. Mattocks, after their departure, told 
the people of the house that a guilty conscience needs no 
accuser ; and that she had heard he (meaning the hostler) 
had a hand in the business, and had 60 and a suit of 
clothes. 

Being 



OP THOMAS KIDDERMINSTER, GENT. 137 

Being come to Chelmsford, she found that Mrs. Shute 
was dead of the plague a fortnight before ; so they went 
directly to the White Horse Inn, where, after some discourse 
with Mr. Turner, then master of the house, he advised 
them to go the back way out of his house, and to make as 
if they were just come to town, and to go to Mrs. Sewell's 
house at the Shears in Colchester-lane, at which place she 
then lived; where, being come, and sitting in a rooni by 
themselves, Mr. Maidstone went out to Mrs. Sevvell, and 
inquiring for the White Horse Inn, Mrs. Sewell asked 
what business he had there ? to which Mr. Maidstone made 
answer, that he was come to inquire about a gentleman 
that had been murdered there some years ago. To which 
Mrs. Sewell replied, aye, this is Mr. Turner's doings, 
who hath put us to a great deal of trouble about it already ; 
but I will be avenged on him ; and so fell out into pas- 
sionate discourses; but upon Mr. Maidstone's calling in 
Mrs. Kidderminster, she immediately was silent, not speak- 
ing one word to them afterwards ; so they paid, and went 
their way to the White Horse again, where Mr. Turner 
gave his account concerning the finding and digging up of 
the corpse, viz. that he, Mr. Turner, had pales between 
his neighbour's meadow and his orchard, which he could 
never keep long standing ; for if he mended them one day, 
there would be some of them down the next ; at last there 
happened a great wind which blew them down altogether; 
so he resolved to make a mud wall, and his neighbour gave 
him leave to dig the ditch on his side in the meadow ; and 
his men having made an end of casting up the mud wall 
about four of the clock in the afternoon, being Whitsun 
eve, were sitting down washing their feet, when Mr. Turner 
<:ame to them, who said, It is yet a winter's day till night, 
therefore you must abate me two-pence a man, or else go 
to work again ; which they were willing to. Then he bid 

them 



138 LONG CONCEALED MURDER 

them make up as much of the neighbour's fence which lay 
open turning on the corner, till he should have made up 
their full day's work. They had not digged about half a 
yard on, ere they digged into a quagmire where the corpse 
had been buried, and the first thing they hit against was 
the scull. Master, saith one, see here's a brown bowl ! 
Turner bid them not break it, but take it up carefully, for 
it might serve for some use or other : so they took it up, 
and found it a scull, with all the teeth in it but one, and a 
hole on the left side of the said scull about the bigness of 
a crown. The rumour of this spreading abroad, caused 
several of the country people to come to see it, who had 
formerly observed a new turf to be often laid upon the 
place, but could not guess the meaning of it. Now upon 
digging on they perceived, by the position of the corpse, 
that it had been crammed in double. Turner took the 
scull and threw it over into his orchard, where the grass 
was high and ready to mow; and the scull was observed 
to run up hill, through the thick grass, for a dozen yards 
towards the house, till it stopped against a fallen tree ; and 
he followed it, thinking there might be something alive in 
it that caused its motion ; but groping for it under the tree, 
he found it, and nothing in it but dirt and gravel. He told 
us further, that it was observed by some of the town, that 
formerly there had been a pied horse kept above half a year 
in a back stable, without being led out to water, as is usual ; 
after that they turned him out, and he was taken up as a 
stray for the lord of the manor, they making no further in- 
quiry after him ; which gave occasion to the town's people 
to suspect that there had been somebody murdered there : 
but the horse getting loose, and coming again to the stable 
door, Mrs. Sewell owned him, saying, it was her horse, and 
that she had bought him of a kinsman. But notwithstand- 
ing all the care they took to feed him well, he grew leaner 
and leaner till he died. 

That 



OF THOMAS KIDDERMINSTER, GENT. 139 

That night Mrs. Kidderminster came to the White Horse, 
she lay in a room which was contiguous to that wherein her 
husband had been murdered, and the bed's head in the room 
where Mrs. Kidderminster lay was answerable to the bed's 
head in the other room where Mr. Kidderminster was 
killed. Mrs. Kidderminster being afraid to lie alone, de- 
sired the maid might lie with her. It was somewhat late 
before the maid came to bed, where shortly after she fell 
fast asleep : Mrs. Kidderminster being awake, heard a 
great noise in the next room, which went out into the gal- 
lery, where something seemed to fall with that violence 
that she thought the room shook, and afterwards came to 
the chamber door, and lifted up the latch. Whereupon 
Mrs. Kidderminster, being much affrighted, with great 
difficulty awaked the maid, who spoke to her, and imme- 
diately the noise ceased. Mrs. Kidderminster told Mr. 
Turner of this adventure, who made answer that such 
things had been often heard before. 

After the discovery made, the coroner sate upon the 
bones, and the jury found it a murder; and that a blow 
upon the side of the head was the cause of the person's 
death, the impression whereof was plainly visible upon the 
scull. Mr. Turner was much prejudiced by this discovery ; 
for no passenger or traveller would come near his house, it 
being reported abroad that the people of that inn did use 
to murder travellers, and bury them in the dunghill. At 
this time Sewell, who kept the inn formerly, and his wife 
and two daughters were alive, and the hostler and the maid- 
servant who lived in their family. 

Mr. Turner, to vindicate the reputation of the house, 
and to clear himself and his family from any suspicion 
which they might otherwise be liable to, had sometime be- 
fore applied himself to some of the justices of the peace of 
the county, who issued out their warrant against Sewell 
and his wife, who were both convened before iUe justices, 

where, 



140 LONG CONCEALED MURDER 

where, upon their examination, they denied all ; but, how- 
ever, the justices of the peace thought fit to bind them 
to appear at the next assizes, and also Mr. Turner was 
bound to prosecute. Sewell died about a fortnight before 
the assizes, but suspected to be poisoned by his wife ; for 
this Sewell shexved very visible signs of a troubled spi- 
rit, ever since the bones had been found, and walked about 
like a man who had been crazed in his undo standing. 
One day he was met by a man who had been his fellow- 
trooper in the parliament army, who asked him, " Brother, 
how do you do?" He answered him, "He was very ill:" 
Then he told him, " that there was a report that a gen- 
tleman was murdered in his house." Whereupon Sewell 
shook his head, and said " The blood of that man will be 
required at my hands." Then his friend bid him not to dis- 
cover any more to him, lest he should be forced to come in 
as an evidence against him. Shortly after he fell so very 
ill, that he was forced to keep his bed, and was thrice 
thought to have been dead, but came to life again. He 
often desired his wife that he might speak with some of the 
chief men of the town, for otherwise he could not die ; 
which his wife would not admit of : so that he died, having 

7 O 

his tongue swollen in his mouth, and seemed to be choked 
in his own blood. This was a fortnight before the 
assizes. 

At the assizes Mrs. Sewell appeared, and nothing being 
positively proved against her, she was continued under bail 
till the next assizes : At which time the lord chief jus- 
tice, Sir Orlando Bridgnian, went that circuit, and finding 
nobody could give a clear account of the person murdered, 
nor that they were the murderers, he ordered an account of 
it to be put into the public diurnal, at Lent assizes, by 
which means Mrs. Kidderminster had the first intimation 
of it. 

Mrs. Kidder- 
o 



OF THOMAS KIDDKRMINSTER, GENT. 141 

Mrs. Kidderminster returning 1 from Chelmsford, made 
enquiry at Rumford for the ostler, Moses Drayne, \vlio was 
shewed to her, standing at a glover's shop in the street : so 
she went into discourse with him, at the One Bell, where 
he sets himself down in the chimney corner,- She asked 
him, " What kind of a man that was that, left his horse 
behind him, when he was ostler at the White Horse in 
Chelmsford' What clothes he wore r for she had some 
suspicion it might be her husband." He answered, " That 
the gentleman was a tall, big, portly man, with his own 
hair, dark bro'wn, not very long, curled up at the ends ; 
that he, wore a black satin cap, and that his clothes were of 
a dark grey :" All which she found agree With her hus- 
band's. Then she asked him, " What hat he wore r" lie 
replied, u A black one," (i Nay, (saith she) mv hus- 
band's was a grey one r'' At which words, he changed 
colour several times, and never Ic-okecl up in her face aiter- 
wards r but told her, " that one Mary Kendall, that lived 
at Kilden.; nenr Feering, who had been a servant at Chelms- 
iord, at the time of the geutlcmSn*^ being there, could in- 
form her much better." So she left him ; but before she 
left the town, she went, again to the Black Bull, and spoke 
*o the master of the house, who advised her to speak again 
with Mrs Mary Mattocks, for she wtiu'ld be her best evi- 
dence, Accordingly, my lord chief justice Bridgman, wa-> 
acquainted with whra Mrs. Mary Mattocks could evidence, 
and he advised her to return ,".-ain to RumfoT<j, and get 
Mrs. Miittocirs to make oath of it before a justice of the 
peace, which she did before justice Mildthav, S'ir. being 
-\vorn, justice Mitdmay is-u>r-s out a wan-ant for the appre- 
ivnsi'ni o: Moses Druvne the ostler, vlio wr-s ijtnrnediately 
<eiii to jait. Alter wh,)'-;!!. Mrs. KicWernrinst^r was to go 
into the Isle of Ivlyj to -.-cck foi v.'itucs^s who know her 
Jmsband, and Jus habit and l:'o/sg ; ^.vhcre she found his 
jtiiM). \\iio came afterwards to the assizei to prove tlie clpthej 

u anci 



l-J-2 LONG CONCEALED MTRDER- 

and the horse. Mrs.- Kidderminster went from the Isle of 
F.lv to the coroner** house in Essex, within twelve miles of 
Chelmsford ; whence she went to find out Mary Kendall, 
who lived about a niile from the coroner's house. Mary 
Kendall seemed to be mightily surprised at Mrs. Kidder- 
minster's coming, and could not be prevailed with to make 
any discovery. Before Mrs. Kidderminster went to the Isle 
ofElv, she had been examined by the coroner's means, be- 
fore three justices of the peace, .Sir Thomas Abdv, Sir 
Capel Lucking, and Sir William Ayloife, who could not 
persuade her to confess any thing. Mrs. Kidderminster, 
together with the coroner, went the second time to the 
place where she lived, and sent for her to a tavern in the 
"nine town; but by all the means they could use, she would 
confess no more than that she waited on Mr. Kidderminster 
in his chamber ; and shortly after, she and one of her bail 
(for she was bound over by one of the said justices) fled; 
and lived together like man and wife. She and her bail 
having thus absconded themselves, there was no news of 
them for some time, until by accident the coroner wa^ 
riding bv her brother's house in Kilden, and espied a carrier 
delivering a letter to her brother, arid so went on his wav ; 
the coroner followed him, and asked him whether he knew 
where Mary Kendall lived ? The carrier answered, that 
he had just before delivered a letter from her to her brother ; 
but lie cottkl not tell where she was at that time ; that he 
came from Mile-End Green, and promised in his next re- 
turn to acquaint him ; Avhich accordiugly he did : That 
she ] ay at the \\"alnut.-tree in Miki-End Green ; which the 
coroner signified by a letter to Mrs. Kidderminster, then 
at London ; who, upon receipt of the letter, repaired to 
justice Manlev at Ratcliffe, \vi>o granted his warrant to ap- 
prehend her, and to bring her before him, which was put m 
execution, and justice Manlev committed her to Newgate. 
Tins was done oa Wednesday, and the assizes was to be 

held 



Or THOMAS KIDDERMINSTER, GEXT. 113 

held at Brentwood the Saturday following. During her 
being in Newgate, she was told by the prisoners there, 
that her running awuv was an argument of her guilt, and 
that therefore she should be certainly hanged ; upon which 
she presently confessed all to Mrs. Kidderminster, and told 
her she would not have continued so long in an obstinate 
denial, but that SewelTs daughters had threatened her, that 
if she confessed, they would swear against her, and have 
her hanged first. SeweiTs wife died of the plague some 

O l o 

time before this, and was buried in her orchard, and so 
could not be brought to justice ; in regard no e\ Silence could 
l>e brought in time against her. Mrs. Kidderminster, with 
much difficulty, and not without the special assistance of 
my lord chief justice Bridgman, procured the said Mary 
Kendall to be removed from Newgale to Brent wood, upon 
Friday the dav* before the assizes. One thiiiir is further 

L. O 

remarkable in relation to Mos.es Dravne, that he being out 
upon bail after his commitment by justice Mildmav, and at. 
liberty in the tov, :i of llumford ; the Friday before the 
assi/es, Mrs, Kidderminster passing through the town in a 
roa.-h, some of the townsmen acquainted Dravne, that the 
woman whose husband was murdered, was just then gone 
through the town : upon \\hieh, instead of providing for 
.his own safety by ilight, he, bv a strange, infatuation, fell 
TO removing ot his goods. Ju.-tice Mililmay remembering 
L letter sent to him bv the lord chief justice Bridgman some 
nine before, to take him into strict custody, v hich he had 
iorgot then to do, does now immediately cause him to be 
apprehended, carried to the count v "jail, and from thence 
next morning to Brent wood, where he expressed himself 
to some about him. that he knew what would become of 
htm, but w<;e be to them th;it brought hiia to it: vet he. 
ieared none, but t;ie dyer, I 'pon this arraignment he pleads 
Not Gmlt\ ; so M;iry Kendall u as sworn, \vho ga^e in this 
c : . iUenee ; 1 a'iat she s'.'js a svi'vaiit-uiaid in the inu 



114 LONG CONCEALED MURDER 

where tlie gentleman was murdered, and that she having 
dressed herself in her best clothes, had leave of her master 
to go to Kildcn, where her father lived; and upon her re- 
turn home that night, her mistress hid her fetch a pair of 
sheets, and lay them upon the bed in the room called the 
King's Arms : When she came into the room, she found 
the gentleman standing "With his back towards the fire, and 
with his hands behind him ; he drank to her, and made 
her drink up her glass of beer, and bid her go and fetch him 
a napkin to make him a cap : He asked her, whether she 
was the man of the house, his daughter, or his maid r She 
answered, she was his servant. The master and mistress 
being in the room all this while, and having supped together 
with the gentleman, he, in the presence of the maid and the, 
mistress, delivered his cloak-b::g to the master of the house, 
and tojd him there was in it near .oOO, and writings of 
considerable value. Then her mistress bid her go to bed, 
and lie with the younger children in the farther end of the 
house, that being not her visual lodging, where she was 
locked in that nigin, and her mistress unlocked the door in 
the morning. She said, that between one and two of the 
clock in the morning, she heard a great fall of something, 
that it shook the room where she lav, though it was at the 
furthermost part ot the house. When she came down in 
tlie. morning, she tound her master and mistress, and tin. 
6?tJk-r, sitting very merrily at, the fire, with a. f.aggon of 
drink before them, none of them having been in bed that 
night,- nor the t\vo daughters, .Hetty and Priss, who were 
appointed to lie in the tame, room where the maid used ro 
lie. Sue not seeing the. rrentleiman stirring in the morning, 
alter S'Oine tr.v.e she. aAed her mistress it the gentleman was 
none.' ' if us, i ,'inswered she) though you were so good a 
jiou ewife that vou cotiLl not gel up ;' and blamed her for 
lymg in he,i so ir.ng. She asked h'.r mUtr^s whether the; 
gentleman left IKT anything? 1 ' Yes, (said the mistres.<;j 



OF THOMAS KIDDERMINSTER, CENT. 145 

>ic left you a groat ;* and put her hand in her purse, and 
gave it her. ' Then (said the majd) I will go and make 
clean the chamber, 7 ' No, (said the mistress) my daughters 
and I have set that to rights already; do you what you are 
about, and then go to your flax wheel ;' (the maid being 
vised to spin flax when she had nothing else to do.) Tim 
chamber door was kept locked for eight or nine weeks after- 
wards, and no person admitted to go into it but themselves. 
One time she asked her mistress, ' Why that room was 
locked, and not kept clean for guests, as usually ?' the mis- 
tress answered, ' They hud no guests fit for that room, for 
it was kept for gentlemen.' Some time afterwards, on a 
Sunday, her master gave tier the key to fetch his cloak out 
of his chest in his chamber ; there she saw the gentleman's 
suit of cloaths, and his cloak-bag, which she sa\v him de- 
liver to them. About nine weeks afterwards, her mistress 
sends her Up into the room where the gentleman had been 
murdered, to fetch something, it. being the first time she 
had been in that room since it had been locked : she. 
PL-arched over the room, and looked upon the tester of 
the bed, and then- she saw the gentleman's hat, his 
hanger, boots, unl the satin cap which she took otV the 
gentleman's head, and hnnged upon his hat, and laid it 
upon the table, when she made a cap of the napkin, and 
put it on the gentleman's he. id. Site took the gentleman's 
hat, his hanger, boots, and c;ip, and carried them do\vn 
to her mistress and the o^ler : she asked her mistress, 
* You said the gentleman was gone to London in a coach ; 
dui he go without clothes, or did you lend him some r for 
I saw Ins clothes in my master's chest, and these things are 
{is too.* Said the ostler, ' You lie, like, a whore, those 
filings are mine.' The maid answered, c You are a rogue ; 
I am furc thcv were the gentleman's, I know not whose. 
tiiev are now.' Her mi -tress hearing the maid ;ind the 
ostler quarrelling, she fell upon the majci, and there, arose 

some 



146 LONG CONCEALED MUHDLR 

some hot words betwixt them, that her mistress broke her 
head in three several places, so that the blood did run 
about her ears. The maid talked the louder, and asked 
her, ' Whether she intended to murder her, as she did the 
gentleman?' Then her roaster, hearing this disturbance, 
came to them, and persuaded her to hold her tongue and 
be quiet. She further deposed, that the ostler had fro-n 
his master J?tlO of the gentleman's money ; for that some 
short time after the murder, he lent the jfGO to a woman 
that kept the Greyhound Inn in the same town ; and that 
that must be the money, for the ostler was worth nothing of 
his own at the time of the murder ; and that the ostler had 
the gentleman's clothes, which she had seen in her master's 
chest ; arid that the ostler sent them to one Clarke, a dyer, 
in Mousam, to have them dyed into a liver colour ; the 
dyer asked him, ' why he would have, the colour altered, 
since they were of a better colour before r' The ostler 
answered, ' that he would have them dyed, because he did 
not like the colour ;' and that about a twelvemonth after, 
he dyed the grey hut black. Then she deposed further, 
that her master raised himself to a good condition iipon a 
Midden ; for before he \vas so poor, that Ills landlord would 
not trust him for a quarter's rent, but would make him 
pay every MX weeks ; and that he could not be trusted 
with malt, was forced to pay for one barrel under another. 
That shortly after they bought a ruined malt-house, and 
new built it, and did usually lay out .40 in a day to buy 
barley. There was .seen, upon a sudden, a great change 
in tiie daughters' condition, both as to their clothes and 
otherwise ; and if she bought but a hood for one of the 
daughters, there was a pie-"c of gold changed ; and they 
\vere observed to have gold in great plenty." 

Marv Mattocks deposes " She says, the ostler carried 
11 gn.-y hat to the hatters : which being left there, alter the. 
ostler uonl ay. ay she went thither and \ie-.ved it, and 



OF THOMAS KIDDERMINSTER, GEKT. 147 

begged the head lining 1 , which she proved to be of a rain- 
bow colour : as also, that goodwife Shute, and she the said 
Marv Mattocks, being drying their clothes in the church- 
yard, Mary Kendall came there also to dry her basket of 
clothes ; and she complains to goodwife Sluite, saving, 
* My mistress Sewell, has beaten me crnellv to-dav, and 
broke my head in three places, and almost killed me ; but 
I have told her pretty well of her roguery.' * What roguery, 

i .' . ' n i ~ 

saith goodwife Shute?' * It is (saith she) conc.eniing the 
gentleman they murdered there.' ' Murdered there!- 
(saith Share) dust thou know of any murder done there ?' 
(and her kinswoman Mattocks being going awav, she wirli- 
iield her bv the apron, that s!ie might stav to hear wha} 
she would say) ' No, goody Shute, (says she) I don't 
know it ; but there is a great suspicion of it. 1 So she fell 
a telling them the story, that in the heat of the quarrel 
her master pulled her out of the room, and cried, * Marv, 
will you leave your prating, and be quiet ? can't you be 
quiet ; but you must talk at this rate : your mistress is a 
perverse woman, and FI1 give you .20, and you shall be 
gone, and live no longer with her;' and (saith she) goodv 
Shute, I have the c'20, and I do intend to be gone.' 
Suilh goodv Shute, l Marv, Marv, take heed what you 
f\o : I would 2,'ive them the .,-20 as/am, and ^o and acquaint 

? O * .' -* O i 

~omc justices of the peace with it ; for the .'10 may hang 
thee twenty years hence :' so they parted. l>y the next 
morning all w;:s hushed up at home, and Mary Kendall 
came to jjoothvilo .Shute, and beefed of her to say nothing 

j O O * 

cf their ye.sierdx-y's discourse ; i'or \vhut she had then said, 
proccr-dea from passion, or else she had never said it. 
Says Shure, if 1 do not hear it. questioned, I shall sar no- 
thing of it ; but if at imv time if. conies in question, I vriii 
both ,:,ay it, and make you say it too." But Mary Ken- 
dall being examined to this mutter at the trial, denied die 
receiving of the /JO. 

Mr. Turuer 



14S LONG CONCEALED MURDF.R 

Mr. Turner gave in evidence what you have read be* 
fore, concerning the finding of the murdered body ; and, 
according' to the judges' order, he brought the scull into 
court, where, by their directions, Moses Dray ne, the pri- 
soner, was bid to take it up ; but he trembled so much* 
that he. could hardly hold it in his hand. 

Memorand. " There was a boy that served in SevvelFtf 
house at the time of the murder, and Sewell falling angry 
\vith him, carried him up stairs, and tied him to a bed- 
post, where he whipped him with a cart whip unmerci- 
fully, that he cried so vehemently, tlmt the maid, Mary 
Kendall, came up and got him at liberty ; when she heard 
him say, ' that it was well for him she came, or else his 
master would have murdered him, as he did the gentleman + 
when he blooded him into the hogs' pail.' And the boy 
said likewise, he had heard l that the gentleman was knocked 
ou the side of the head with a pole axe, and afterwards his 
titroat was cut by his mistress, with the help of her daughter 
Betty.' These circumstances were proved at the trial bv 
several persons 5 and it seems the rumour had been spread 
m the town by means of this boy. In some short time 
niter this boy was sent to Barbadoes, and sold to a mer- 
chant that lived near Billingsgate, at whose house Mrs, 
Kidderminster was- to enquire for him. This matter relat- 
ing to the bov's sending awav, was discovered by the ho- 
liest diligence of Mr, Talcott, the coroner, who directed 
Mrs. Kidderminster to trace this matter, and who hath the 
notes relating to it.-" 

O 

There were two women, ons of them a washerwoman of 
that town, and the other a Quaker, that lived next house 
to Mr. Sewell, who both gave evidence at the trial. The 
washerwoman was going by the ho^se. very rvirJv, between 
one and two in the morning, to wash ;n the town ; and 
the Quaker was sitting up for her husband, who was not 
tlwa conic home. They both of them uvulc oath, ;i Th:t 

about. 



OF THOMAS KIDPERMIVSTER,- GENT. 149 

a^out those hours they heard a noise in Mr. SewelFs house, 
and a man's voice crying, * What, will you rob me of my 
money, and murder rue too i It you take my money, 
spare mv life. 1 Then they heard something that fell, very 
beavv, and a noise as .it were of chairs and stools thrown 
about the room, and all the lights put out, and after that 
1*0 further noise heard." 

The next morning these -vomon enquired at the house, 
what might be the occasion of the noise the n:g 1; t before ; 
for thev thought they heard somebody cry out n-imler ! * 
15 ut they were answered, they must needs be mistaken; 
ior there was no poise there, nor was any body in the house 
but their own family, 

Vv'illinni Dcnton, Mr. Kidderminster's servant in the 
Isle of l.lv, was produced as evidence, to prove the horse 
and the gentleman's clothes and hut, which he did. 

There was a washerwoman who washed the next wash 
after the srentleman was murdered, who beino- examined 

J 7 O 

by a justice of the peace, and asked whether she found in 
<.:ie wasli any linen more bloodv than ordinarv ; she utterly 
denied tlut she did with this imprecation, " That if there 
vas any such, she wished she might rot alive ;'' and so it 
happened ; for a little time aiVjr li'.v bowels began to rot 
away, and she became detestably loathsome till she died, 

Mr. Turner and his wife related to Mrs. Kidderminster, 
that some time after the murder of her husband, there came 
a tanner tu lodge at Sewell's inn. who received ,,'20 in the 
i.j.vn for barley, which Sc'.vell had heard of: And in the 
:iii>ht thr.'C Sewcli came to rt.is f'nmers chaniber door, ut- 
tempting to get in ; bi:t the fan.ncr had very carefu x h- set a 
taolo. chairi and stocli to blockade the entrance. Tiie 
jio.-se lie mcide awaked him ; whereupon he ivrore, (hat the 
v st man t!i.,t broke in unc'-i him. 'jhouM fneet his death, 
Upon v\-h:c!i he lieard Scwcil-'s vc'ice. wiiich Ire knew very 
v-'eii, speaking to somebody tlu.: was with hinl; so thev 

x \ven$ 



150 LONG CONCEALED MURDER 

went down stairs without attempting any further, and the 
farmer got up, put on his clothes, and the next morning 
by break of day, took his horse and rode awav, without 
taking his leave.' 

Upon the aforesaid evidence, the jury found Moses 
Drayne, the ostler, guilty ; and being after sentence re- 
manded to prison, with live other condemned persons, as 
also Mary Kendall, Avhom the judges had remanded to 
prison during pleasure. Being all together, one of them, 
>vho was condemned for having two husbands, spake thus 
to Moses Dravne : " You see, we are all here condemned 
to die; you \\ill do well to confess the whole truth had 
this Mary Kendall a hand in the murder of the gentleman, 
or not ? Speak the truth, for we are all to die soon." 
Tie made answer, " No, she had no hand in the murder, 
but what she had sworn was truth; but the gentleman was 
murdered there, and by his master and mistress, and their 
eldest daughter, Betty ; but, for his part, he knew of it, 'tis 
i cue, and was there, but did not strike the blow, nor help 
K> kill him; but helped to bury him, and had 60 /. of his 
money, and all his clothes, given him by his master and 
mistress." He was going on to make a sincere confession, 
how all things were ; and his wife coming in in the mean 
time, took hold of him, and bade him hold his tongue, and 
confess no more; for if lie died for it, he should hang no- 
body else: and ever after he would say nothing, nor make 
any answer, neither to the minister nor any body else, nor 
;aid a word at the gallows. 

Moses Drayne having confessed, that Betty, the eldest 
daughter, had a hand in the murder ; and Mary Kendall 
having sworn at the trial, that the two sisters were not in 
bed that night the murder was committed, moved Mr. Tal- 
oott, the coroner, to procure a warrant from a justice of 
the peace, to apprehend the two sisters; which being done, 
jnd they brought before the justice, ha bound them to 

appear 



OF THOMAS KIDDERMINSTER, GENT. 151 

Appear at the next assizes to be held for the county of 
E.-sex, \vhich was the assies after Closes Drayne was con- 
victed. When the ^ssixes came, both the daughters ap- 
peared, and a bill of inaictirent was preferred against 
3 hem to the "rand, iurv : against whom Marv Kendall ^ave 

tj .' ' ~ < C5 

liie same evidence that she had done before at the trial of 
Moses Drayne, and also what Moses had confessed in the 
prison. 

Thegrand jury thinking the evidence not to be s: MCI- 
ent to I'm Ji the bill, they returned an i^iioramus; and bo 
the two sisters \\ere discharged bv proclamation. 

INIrs. Kidderminster marrying again some time after, her 
claim upon her husband's estate devolved upon tae daugh- 
ter she was preg'uaia \\ith. Mrs. Kidderminster carried on 
a suit for her against leaker, upwards of ten years, with- 
out success ; he died, as did also his son, still the widow 
-f yoimv; liuker elijos-ed it. At length Mrs. Kiddermin- 
sh:i''s diUightev \vas married, and to recover the estate, lu-r 
husband \vas Left carrying on a suit in chancery some yeurd 
after, 



XATUKAI. CURIOSITIES IN NORWAY. 

The Forg-liatten, Mucl.^'roi/i, Cataract*, JsV. 

lNo!i\vAY, has been justlv said, to be one of the most 
iiiOimta'.r.ions (.oimtries in the world. To pass some of its 
hit's, u; is necessary fur a person to travel riftr or seventv 
n.'ik's a'joni : cue cragu'v smiimit, in particular, is called 
J'*i'ff-,'iiitfcn, a.iid takes its name from t!ie resemblance it. 
l;c':irs to ;; mail's brad with his hat on. This appearance is 
br.rprisingly hi-i^hrened hy tliat of an eijc. formed bv an 
t.pemn'jj of the rock, througli which the sun and ihe ligfit 
may be seen ; and tiiere are r.ianv others that afford pro- 
vMc-els nc)i a lliile entertaining. 

lb>v,v.ver, the whirlpool near i!ie bleof Moskoo, railed 
*--\ r.ic [uitivos, 3fu<.-kii'i>m. is a most i'ingular curiosity : - 

> 2 Ever 



152 NATURAL CURIOSITIES IN NORWAY. 

Ever fatal to vessels that approach it too nearly, especially 
at high tide, the utmost caution is used by mariners. The 
surf and foam thrown up by this aquatic volcano, forms a 
circle of more than two leagues in circumference. At this 
time the violent agitation of the waves, and the force with 
which the water is attracted and repulsed, exhibit an ob- 
ject truly lerriilc. The reflux of the waters, however, 
from this whirlpool, offers a good opportunity to the fisher- 
men who dare to hover round its surface to catch fish, as 
the' ebullition is then too violent to permit them to sink. 
The violence and the roaring of this whirlpool is greater 
than any cataract ; and this without any intermission, ex- 
cept a quarter every sixth hour ; viz. at the turn of high and 
Jow water, when its impetuosity seems at a stand. 'I his in- 
terval is the only time the fishermen venture near ; but this 
motion soon returns, and however calm the sea may be, 
gradually increases with such a draught and vortex, as to 
draw in anv thing 1 that comes within its sphere of action, 

t-' O 1 

a pircurnference nearly six miles, and kocp it ur.cler water 
several hours, when the fragments of any large body 
shivered by the rocks, frequently come to view. At the 
time when ilie otream is most violent, arid its fury height- 
ened by a storm, it is dangerous to come within a .Norway 
rnile of it ; boats, yatcbs, and even shipj having been carried 
av ay, by not guarding against it, before they were 
within its reach. It is added, as a r.iosi singular circum- 
stance, that whales soi-.etirnes coming too near the stream, 
are overpowered by its violence, and then it is impossible 
to describe their hov. li;igs and bellowings, in their iVuitiL.-j 
endeavours to d^fng'ige themselves, A bear a.:-o, c:;ct 
attempting to swim irom Lofoedcn to Mpskoe, with a de- 
feign of proving ur;on the sheep on the ii;l\!ic!, the stream 
cuiioiit him anil bore him down 5 v;lu!;;t he roared so ter : - 
^ibiy '-$ tc bo heard on shore, 

A IjipfT*' 
** ur ^ 



NATURAL CURIOSITIES IN NORWAY, 153 

A large ship once driven into this stream, was first ob- 
served with its prow mounted foremost; then reverted with 
its stern uppermost, the surf flying over the mast-head, and 
in a short time seen no more, 

From these circumstances, the judicious reader may con- 
ceive, what a perilous place such a vortex must be in a hard 
gale of wind and a full tide ; since even in a calm, when 
the current is most gentle, and at the turn of the tide, ' the 
only time the fishermen can venture near, the boats arc 
whirled round upon its surface. 

A cataract near Gottersburg, is no less remarkable for 
its torrent, than the Isle of Moskoe for its whirlpool. Here 
the waters that run into the sea from a considerable distance 
in the inland country, at length arriving at the brink of a 
precipice, arc from thence precipitated into a deep chan- 
nel of their o\\n forming, with a sound at a distance, re- 
sembling thunder. This r;:pid current, the country dealers 
ill timber, make use of to float their rafts down towards the 
jea. The precipice is so high, and the channel into which 
the timber fuli--, so deep, that the largest masts are carried 
<iown by the impetuosity oi the current, remain at the bot- 
tom a considerable time before they re-appear upon the 
surface ; some of them are out of sight tweiitv, some forty 
minutes, and others near an hour. It is added, that this 
channel has often been sounded, but ^'iihout any success 
in finding a bctUnn. 



A SINGULAR 

[From a scarce Black Letter Pamphlet, impn-.v-: I in >*:: Street, Lo^'o-; 
,:. t'.i>; Ve>.r Iti07 j coacj;n;n- th-j jro.xt h^n.-V.tion^ ;;i Wiioi.j 

A MO K r o Qth.er incidents, it appears hi this curious rela- 
t;o!i; that a voung woman in Monmouthshire, having been 
pVdkinr, before she could complete that business, she was 
Jo iie^r'y sun-ouiivlcd with tl;e waters, thiiL vith much dif- 
ficulty, 



J54 A SINGULAR DELIVERANCE. 

fkulty, she got up a high bank, where she was compelled 
to remain all that day, the next night, and till eight o'clock 
the next morning, before she was seen. By this time, the 
waters had gained so muea all round her, that there was 
only a very small space left about her that was uncovered ; 
and having no boats in those parts, some of her friends who 
attempted to reach the spot upon a fine gelding, were 
obliged to return. At length, as they happened to con- 
ceive, that two broad troughs in which they had used to 
salt bacon, could be iixed together, the experiment was 
tried ; two men got into them with long poles, and happily 
getting to the bank on which she stood, nearly overcome 
with hunger and cold, she was miraculously saved : But 
the most singular circumstance attending this adventure, 
and which was witnessed by the two men sent to fetch her, 
was, that the hill or bank upon which she stood, Cf was so 
covered over with wild beasts and vermin that came thither 
to seek for succour, that she had much ado to save herself 
from taking of hurt by them, and keep them from creeping 
upon and about her, The beasts and vermin there, were 
dogs, cats, moles, foxes, hares, rabbits, and even mice. 
and rats. And that which is more strange, not one of 
them once offered to annoy the other, though they were 
deadly enemies by nature : vet in this danger, in a o-enteel 

/ ~ ~ * o 

sort, they freely enjoyed the liberty of life ;" which, in 
mine opinion, says the author of the pamphlet, was a most 
wonderful work in nature. 



A MGDLRN ANCHORET. 

i-^ 
IIF, name of Hermit, though formerly the ideas attached 

to such characters were comparatively common, is at pre- 
sent seldom found, excepting in the annals of ancient his- 
tory, or romance. Still though the denomination, equally 
with the (maliues of u hermit or solitary person, have been 

S.O 



A MODERN ANCHORET. 153 

so much abused, that the original has been nearly lost sight 
of; a very remarkable instance and illustration of that 
character, is probably now living, -where he was seen 
since the French Revolution, by the same ingenious 
writer, from whose travels, our account of the Black 
Lake, is translated. He observes, that taking a boat at 
a place where the River A a enters the Lake of Lanwerts, 
he met wit.ii an aged boatman, who received him in his 
light skiff, though the waves were then much agitated. 
The wind redoubling its fury, my boatman (said he) re- 
peated his pravers with a loud voice ; while in the room of 
a sail, as 1 was directed to open a large umbrella against 
the wind, which was Iving at the bottom of the boat, we 
soon gained a small island, or rock, where, in the act of 
goinc; on shore, we were received bv a very tall man, with 
a black beard, clac! in the long dress of a hermit, who with 
much courtesv, immediately conducted us to his hermi- 
tage, situated upon this rod;, about a hundred paces over, 
and afforded us cverv refreshment in his power. This hermit, 
rr religions solitary, we found to have been former! v one 
of the old Swiss guards under the late French monardn ; 
but who. being v, eary of the anti-chambers of Versailles, 
r.r,d the l-.tit-.trici* Hcketiqne, determined to seclude himself 
from the bre,v world, just before the i'e.rv of the Parisian 
populace nearly destroyed the whole of those brave men. 
Upon this small rock, whie.h in comparibon with the broad 
expanse of the surrounding waters, seemed no more than a 
bare nest upon the branch of a tree his cell, his breviary, 
his boat, a ^mall garden, and a little ailev to walk in, form- 
ed the whole of his torrilorv and possessions. This volun- 
tarv hermit seems to have known the world well, having' 
had its share of it": troubles. His manners announce him to 
have been a man not. unused to good company, and his con- 
versation of course is bv no mean;; uninteresting". In speak- 
ing of the uncertainty and complication of the affairs of the 

world, 



156- A SINGULAR PROPENSITY. 

*r oriel, ami contrasting them with his own way of living, he 
has the talent of disarming every kind of censure, and al- 
most to persuade one to embrace the system of simplicity 
and .retirement which he has adopted, and with which lie 
appears perfectly satisfied. When we left his rock, the 
hermit detaching his own little boat, accompanied us to the 
largest of the islands in this Jake, where there is another her- 
mitage, very commodious, with a handsome chapel . Upon 
tliis island, there is also a noble and majestic tower, the 
remains of the castle of Schwanau, at present the melan- 
choly habitation of owls and ravens. 

The history of this ruined castle, which contains a noble 
instance of the love of liberty, and the just and successful 
resistance of tyranny among the Swiss, may be notice^ 
hereafter. 

~r~~r~-jr'^-^f-^*^r^f* 
A SINGULAR PROPENSITY. 

JL/ANCING in Kus-ia, we have been informed, is the fa- 
vourite, diversion of all ranks. In Petersburg!), it is not 
uncommon for a company of middling persons to practise it 
on two successive days in the week. Not long since an o!d 
man belonging to one of these clubs, ma.de himself remark- 
able by his mania for this diversion, ^bich was the more 
striking in him, it being so singularly in contrast with liis 
trade, as he was a coffin-maker. Carrying on his business 
in the wholesale way, he earned a great deal of money, 
which he not only spent in frequenting every place where 
he heard of a dance, but even, wrote to foreign parts for ail 
the new dances that came out, with their music ; which were 
=.cnt him bv the post, that he mi^ht be sure to have them 
tariier than any oilier person, 

DfRiN'G the excessive heats of the Summer of 1802, the 
river ."joane, in France, was so far dried up, that the in- 
LabLiunts iu getting stones from the bottom for building, 

discovery 1 




STRONG 



A COMPLETE ACCOUNT OF THOMAS TOPHAM. 157 

discovered some marble columns and valuable fragments, 
with some copper instruments, and a figure of bronze 
about ten inches high, representing a naked woman in the 
act of rising, and with her hands wringing the water out of 
her hair. This little figure is remarkably graceful, and 
bears the finest proportions. In subsequent researches in 
the bed of that river, a number of surgical instruments have 
been found, with bronze medals of the Emperors Nero, 
Antoninus, Vespasian Uomitian, Nerva, &c. 

// complete Account <)/" THOMAS TOPHAM, commonly called 
(he STRONG MAN ; for the jirxt Time collected, wit/imam/ 
Particulars never before made public; together with the 
Portrait of this singular Character, performing one of his 
amazing Exhibitions of Strength. 

O fc/ O 

' I ^ 

I HIS extraordinary person, whose muscular exertions 
astonished so many persons in this metropolis, about the 
year 1741, was then in the prime of life, viz. of the age 
of 31. lie was born in London, and when he had obtained 
his full growth, was about five feet ten inches high. His 
father being a carpenter, he was brought up to the same 
business; but feeling his superior strength, he did not fol- 
lo'-v it after he was 2-i years of age, but became a jxubli- 
ean ; and in order to be near the scene of the mo:>t athletic 
exercises then exhibited in London, viz. the famous ring 
for cudgelling, wrestling, backsword and boxing, over 
which old Vinegar presided in Moorfields, (before the pre- 
sent magnificent buildings were erected.) Topham took 
the Red Lion pnblic house at the corner of the Citv Road, 
nearly opposite the Old Hospital of St. Luke's, for in- 
curables. In this house, however, notwithstanding all his 
strength of body, Topham failed, probably for want of 
strength of mind, to bear up against the inconstancy of his 
ivjfe. The same house, if we maybe allowed to make any 

Y remark-;. 



158 DR. DESAGULIF.RS ACCOUNT OF 

remarks upon names <w/y, was not less unfortunate to a 
man of the name of Samson, who, as well a stronger 
man than himself, went out from this same Red Lion, 
much worse than he came in. 

The first public feat performed by Topi jam, of much 
notoriety, viz. his pulling against a horse, was in the 
neighbourhood where he then lived, viz. Moorfields; 
neither was it against stumps that he put his feet ; Lut 
against the dwarf wall dividing Upper from Lower ^Tour- 
fields. He afterwards pulled against two horses, but as 
his legs were placed horizontally instead of rising parallel 
to the traces of the horse, he was ierked from his seat, and 

* v ' 

had one of his knees much bruised and hurt ; whereas it 
was the opinion of Dr. Desaguliers, that had he been in a 
proper position, he might have kept his situation against 
the pulling of four horses, without the least inconvenience, 

The feats, which Dr. Desaguliers says he himself saw him 
perform, are as follow : 

By the strength of his fingers he rolled up a very strong 
and large pewter dish he broke seven or eight short pieces 
of a tobacco pipe by the force of his middle finger, 
having laid them on his first and third finger having 
thrust the bowl of a strong tobacco pipe under his gar- 
ter, his legs being bent he broke it to pieces by the ten- 
dons of his hams, without altering the bending of his legs. 
Another bowl of this kind he broke between his first and 
second finger, by pressing them together sideways he 
lifted a table with his teeth six feet long, with half a hun- 
dred weight hanging at the end of it, holding it in a hori- 
zontal position a considerable time. 

He took an iron kitchen poker about a yard long and 
three inches round, and struck upon his bare left arm be- 
tween the elbow and the wrist, till he bent the poker nearly 
to a right angle. 

With such another poker, holding the ends of it in his 

hands, 



THOMAS TOPHAM, THE STRONG MAN. 159 

hands-, and ,the middle of it against the back of his neck, 
he brought both ends of it together before him ; and what 
was yet more difficult, lie pulled it almost strait again. 

He broke a rope of two inches circumference, though in 
consequence of his awkward manner, he was obliged to 
exert four tiaies more strength than was necessary. 

lie lifted a rolling stone of SOOlbs. weight, with his 
hands onlv, standing in a frame above it, and taking hold 
of a chain that was fastened thereto. 

Doctor H utton of Birmingham, speaking of Topham, 
is right in asserting that he also kept a public house 
at Islington; he likewise confirms what was said of him 
bv Dr. Desaguliers ; besides his lifting two hogsheads 
of water -heaving his horse over the turnpike-gate 
carrving the beam of a house as a soldier carries his fire^ 
lock. These, Dr. H utton observes, were the reports cir- 
culated respecting Topham in the country ; but however 
belief might be staggered, he observes, she recovered her- 
self, when this second Samson appeared at Derby as a 
performer in public, at a shilling each Upon application 
to Alderman Cooper, to exhibit, the magistrate was sur- 
prised at the feats he -proposed ; and as his appearance was 
like that of other men, he requested him to strip that he 
niiirht examine whether he was made like them, but he 
was found extremely muscular, What were hollows under 
the anus and hams of others, were filled up with ligaments 
i!i him. 

From the jerk he received from the two horses, Dr. 
1 1 Tit', on observed, that he limped a little in his walk ; and 
though a well-made man, had nothing singular in his ap- 
pearance. 

The performances of this wonderful man at Derby, in 
whom the Doctor observes, the strength of twelve men were 
united ; were the rolling up of a pewter dish of seven 
pounds, as a man ruils up a sheet of paper holding a 

pewter 



160 DR. HUTTON'S ACCOUNT OF 

pewter quart at arm's length, and squeezing the sides to- 
gether like an egg-shell lifting 200 weight with his little 
finger and moving it gently over his head. The bodies lie 
touched, seemed to have lost the power of gravitation. 
He also broke a rope fastened to the floor, that would have 
sustained twenty hundred weight lifted the oak table with 
half a hundred weight to it ; a piece of leather being fixed 
to one end for his teeth to hold, and while two of the feet 
stood upon his knees, he raised the end of it with the weight, 
higher than that in his mouth. Mr. Chambers, then Vicar 
of All Saints, in Derby, who weighed 21 stone, he took 
and raised with one hand, his head being laid on one chair, 
and his feet on another. Four people also, 14 stone each, 
sat upon Topham's body, and these he heaved at pleasure, 
At one blow he struck a round bar of iron, one inch in dia- 
meter, against his naked arm, and bent it like a bow. 
Weakness and feeling seemed fled together. 

Being a master of some music, Dr. Hut ton sr,vs he en- 
tertained the company at Derby, with Mad Ttnn. The 
Doctor also heard him sing a solo to the organ (then the. 
only one in Derby) in St. Werburgh's Church; but though 
he might perform with judgment, yet the voice more ter- 
rible than sweet, scarcely seemed human, The ostler at 
the Virgin Inn, where Topham put up, having instilled 
him, he took one of the kitchen spits from the mantle-piece, 
and bent it round hi neck like a handkerchief; but as lie 
did not chuse to tuck the end in the oiler's bosom, the 
cumbrous ornament only excited the laugh of the com- 
pany, until Topham undertook to untie Ins iron cravat. 
jlad he not abounded with ^ood-nuture, the men mi^ht 
have been in fear for the safety of their persons, and the 
women for that of their pewter shcKes. On,- blow from 
him would for ever have silenced tho.se heroes of the ti>t . 
V. bo boast so muc'! of boxing. 

But Uie circumstances here related by Dr. Dcsrgubers 

and 



ORIGINAL ANECDOTES OF TOPHAM. 1G1 

Jind Dr. Hutton, were only the common place perform- 
ances of Topliam, when he went about purposely to shew 
himself; some aged persons who knew him in his neigh- 
bourhood, relate a variety of pranks which he was occa- 
sionally in the habit of playing : for instance, one night 
finding- a watchman fast asleep in his box, near Chiswell- 
s-treet, he took both, and carrying the load with the greatest 
rase, at length dropped the watchman and his wooden case 
over the wall of TindalPs burying ground, where the poor 
fellow, cnlv half a\vake, and doubting whether he was in 
the land of the living, in recovering from his fright, seemed 
to be waiting for the opening of the graves around him. - 
Another time, sitting ;.t the window of a low public house, 
iu the same street, while, a butcher from a slaughter-house 
was going bv with nearlv half an ox on his back, Topham 
K'licved him cf it, with so much ease and dexterity, that the 
fellow almost petrified with astonishment, swore that 
7)Ot!ii':<;- but tl'.e devil could have llown away with his load, 
.A third time, thinking to enjoy a little sport with some 
brickh:vcrs, bv re-moving part of a scaffold just before they 
intended to strike it, from a small building, his grasp was 
o rude, that: a part of the front wall following the timber, 
riie fellows concei\-cd it hud been the effects of an earth- 
quake, ami immediately ran, without looking behind them, 
;Mto an adjoining field. Here, however, Topham was 
:;e;;r paving dearlv for his jest, as one of the poles struck 
liim on his side, and gave him great pain. 

Another time being persuaded bv one of his acquaint- 
ance, to r.ccompnnv him on board a V\\.-.>t Indiaman in the 
liver, and l)eing presented with a cocoa nut, he threw one 
cf tlio sailors into the utmost astonishment, bv suddenly 
ci\-< Ling ;t close to his ear, with the same, facility as we 
crack an egg-shell ; and upon some remark being made 
Moon an observation deemed rather insolent, bv the mate 
i_>i tat; skip, Top'uun replied, that he could have cracked 

the 



|62 HUMOROUS EXPLOITS, &C. 

the bowsprit over his head ; and of the truth of which, there 
\vas not the least doubt. 

Another time, a race being to be run on the Hackney- 
Hoad, when a fellow with a horse and cart, would attempt 
to keep elose to the contending parties, much to the displea- 
sure of the spectators in genval ; Topham, who was one 
of them, stepping into the road, seized the tail of the cart, 
and in spite of all the fellow's exertions, in whipping his 
horse to get forward, lie drew them both backwards, with 
the greatest ease and velocity ; and while the pleasure of 
the beholders was at the highest point of gratification, the 
.surprise and rage of the driver seemed to be beyond all ex- 
pression, nothing preventing him from exercising his whip, 
: pon the immediate cause of his chagrin, but the probable 
fear of his being pulled or crushed to pieces, 

During the time he kept a public house, two fellows, ex- 
tremely quarrelsome, though patiently borne with for a 
considerable time, at length proceeded so far, that nothing 
, \vould satisfy them, but fighting the landlord. But as they 
'could be appeased no other way, Topham, at length, seiz- 
.ing them both by the nape of the neck, with the same faci- 
lity as if they had been children, he knocked both their 
-heads together, till perfectly sensible of their error, they 
became as abject in asking pardon, as they had befi re been 
insolent in giving offence. 

Still this second Samson was net without his Balilah ; 
the infidelity of his wife was hinted at before; but though 
not generally known, her partiality for some other person, 
had such an effect upon Topham, that, unable to bear the 
reflections it excited in Ins mind, after beating her very 
severely, he put a period to his own existence, and died in 
the ilosver of ins age. 

The circumstance represented in our piate, was another 
in which strength operated to the surprise and astonishment 
of ii n:.imb<:r of beholders ; and in fac t ; L-UCU was the im- 
pression 



EGYPTIAN EARTH. 163 

pression that he left on the minds of the people in London, 
that he was represented in some of his feats upon several 
sicrns, more than one of \vhich are- still remaining : one 

o O * 

in particular, over a. public house near the May-pole iu 
East Smithfieldj represents Iiim in the act of pulling against 
t\vo dray-horses. 

It should have been noticed, that our representation of 
Thomas Topbam was, in consequence of his lifting three 
hogsheads of \vatcr, weighing 1836 pounds, in Bath-street, 
Cold -bath-fields, on the 28th of May 1711, in honour as 
ii is said, of Admiral Vernon, or rather in commemoration 
of his taking Porto Bello with six ships onlv. Thousands 

O J 

of people were assembled en this occasion. 



SINGULAR QUALITIES of ihc EGYPTIAN EARTH. 

JL HE earth in the neighbourhood of the River Nile, is 
found to have a remarkable quahtv. Keep it for months, 
and no alteration will be perceived in its weight, however 
variable the state of the atmosphere, even if repeatedly 
weighed the same day, and so in succession until the mid- 
tile of June, when the river begins to rise, precisely at 
which time the earth which has been preserved from waste 
and moisture, becomes more ponderous, and its weight 
will be daily found to increase, till the river has attained 
its height. This seems to be occasioned by the whole 
body of the air in the neighbourhood of the Nile becoming 
more condensed ; and it has been remarked, that on the 
very day when the river begins to rise, the most inveterate 
plagues have been found to break out suddenly in Cairo.- 
In Egypt, they prepare and clarify the water of the Nile, 
by stirring it about in large- stone jars with a few bruised 
almonds : some little time after which it is dra\vn off for 
use. Perhaps some method of this kind might have the 
effect of clarifying beev and other Jkjuoi's,-- 

BRAVERY, 



BRAVERY. 

f We arc indebted for the following Communication to a Gentleman who holds 
a high Rank in the British Service.] 

IN a sortie made some time since, from Dunkirk, a severe 
contest was held for some time with a part of the army 
under his Royal Highness the Duke of York. Towards 
the close of the action, and during the retreat of the 
French, an officer of cavalry belonging to the garrison, per- 
ceived a national standard lying on the ground, either 
dropped in the flight, or fallen from the hands of an en- 
sign, killed or wounded. Though he was himself at the 
same time most closely pressed by a detachment, after hav- 
ing twice valiantly eut his way through bodies of Hanove- 
rian infantry, he leaped from his horse, and seizing the 
standard, remounted. Scarcely, however, had he seated 
himself, when the pursuers came up, and a grenadier of 
the British cavahy, demanded him as his prisoner, with 
the surrender of his flag. The French officer replied, that 
he was determined to carry it to the fortress, or perish in 
the attempt. He fought bravely in defence of his charge ; 
and when at last fortune had given the advantage to his ad- 
versary, he persisted in declaring, that he would neither 
be made prisoner, nor give up the colours ; that he knew 
how to die, but not to dishonour himself or the nation. 
The result was, that he actually suffered himself to be shot 
through the head, and thus did this standard fall into our 
possession. The Duke of York, with one of his aid-du- 
camp, came up at the instant, and were spectators of the 
unexampled bravery and resolution of this magnanimous 
son of Mars. 

THE BLACK LAKE IN SWISSERLAND. 
[Translated from the French.] 

GERMANY has to boast of its Black Forest, and the 
"writers of Romance, of their Black Castles and Cavern* 

wit ho ui 



THE BLACK LAKE IN SWISSERLAND, 165 

\vithout number ; however, the Swiss Finstersce, situated 
in the Canton of Zug, has appeared a singular phenome- 
non to the few travellers who have visited that romantic 
quarter on foot. It is situated, says a late traveller, in a 
circular bason, and concealed till you come directly upon 
it by the surrounding hills. From a declivity rather steep, 
he says, having the first vie\v of this water, ! could not 
readily account for its appearance; my eyes seemed 
as if suddenly affected by the reflection of the sun-beams 
from a surface of ice ; but in a moment aficr, the smooth 
level, beneath iny feet, seemed changed to a deep green. 
This hue, from which it has derived the name of the 
Black Lake, is naturally accounted for by the foliage 
and pasturage, which rising thickly all around it, cannot 
do otherwise than darken the surface of tin's Lake, Its ex* 
tout is not large ; but in a country where your ears arc 
nearly deafened by the roaring of distant torrents, the rip- 
phng of the smaller brooks and rills down the rocks and 
precipices, together with a continu?.! rustling of leaves and 
saplins shaken by the winds ; any image, which, like that 
of a lake, suggests the idea of stillness, cannot be other- 
wise than agreeable, On the other hand, when a stranger 
is saluted by the hospitable peasants in this quarter, the 
rude symphony proceeding from various objects I have just 
described, compel them to speak so Joud, that the former 
v/oulJ. imagine they were displeased with him an idea 
entirely misplaced, as the Swiss peasant is so cordial, even 
in his manner of shaking hartils wi*h a visito - , that you 
would uimo.it apprehend the dislocation of vour finders. 

* J, k. O 

Another peculiarity in these lonely regions, is the parti*. 
cu!:ir cry of the cow hc;db ; which being conveyed by 
the echoes from mountain to mountain, the docile beasts 
on hearing; it, will immediately collect themselves together, 

O ' - W 9 

and follow the cry wherever it may lead them, 

2 INTEREST* 



ACCOUNT OF THE E ARTTiaUAXF, AT 
LISBON, DESCRIBED BY AX EYE-WITNESS. 

f Concluded from page iooj 

I COULD never learn that this terrible fire was owing to 
any subterraneous eruption, as some reported, but to three 
causes, which all concurring at the same time, will natu- 
rally account for the prodigious havoc it made ; the. first of 
November being All Saints Day, a high festival among the 
Portuguese, every altar in every church and chapel (some, 
of which have more, than twenly) was illuminated with a 
number of wax tapers and lamps, as customary ; these set- 
ting fire to the- curtains and timber-work that fell with the 
shock, the conflagration soon spread to the neighbouring 
houses, and being there joined with the fires in the kitchen 
chimnies, increased to such a degree, that it might easily 
have destroyed the Avhole city, though no other cause had 
concurred, especially as it met with no interruption. 

With regard to the buildings, it was observed, that the 
solidest, in general, fell the first*, among which, besides 
those already mentioned, were, the Granaries of the public, 
C'orn Market; the great Royal Hospital in the Rocicu, that 
called the Misericordia, for the maintenance of poor orphan 
girls, most of whom perished ; the fine church and convent 
of St, Domingo, -u here was one of the largest and noblest 
libraries in Europe ; the grand church of the Carmelites', 
supported by two rows of white marble pillars, with the 
miraculous image of our Lady of Mount Carmel, who 
could not save her favourite temple from rum ; the oM 

* Tlii-; circumstance seems to favour Dr. Stufceley's opinion, that earth- 
nu)ke; arc, n: a ;;veat mo.uiDv, ov.-ing to electrical shocks; and I remember, 
-. hiTi *}>e i-.i:'}i!Ui.vko' ',',(-, ft It in London, that the greatest f'orrc was reported 
in M.T. f Li'."-} p'-n'c'ivi. 1 '! bv ihi;e persons who \veie placed \vith tlieir backs nor.t 
;.-i<- ,.-ju"'n v,-:ii; dt'tln; Courts ,,/.' (Jh;inccry and the King's Bouch, in WesttnirK 
/:'.:.; i 1'iil, ''' (. a-, iliur-kncs- -^v.'.; :..ijd to Ue uol lc*s thiq seven or eijjht fct-t. 

Cathedra^ 



rARTHQUAKE AT LISBON. I<57 

Cathedral, which was of an excessive thickness ; the mag- 
nificent church of the regular Canons of St. Augustine, not 
much unlike our rft, Paul's, though not to be compared to 
it. for hi guess, and reckoned by connoisseurs, the finest 
piece of architecture in Europe, where lay the bodies of 
the Jate King John, and several of the Royal Family, whose 
monuments, by the fail of the cupoja, were crushed in 
pieces ; the Castle, or Citadel, wherein the ancient archives 
and records w.ere repositcd ; the Prison of the Inquisition, 
or Holy Office, as it is called, with that, of the Limueira, 
which was a palace of the Moorish King's, o\er wiajch the 
supreme court of justice was held, for the trying of cri- 

t' ' O 

imnals, In .short, it is impossible to enumerate the parti- 
/ular damages in buildings onlv ; to say all in one word, 
nverv parish church, convent, nunnery, palace, and public 
edifice, nidi an infinite number of private houses, were 
either thrown down, or so miserably shattered, that it was 
rendered dangerous to pass by them. As to the people 
A!I') lost their lives r,ii this occasion, to say nothing of 
ill use \\iio wore crushed to death in their own houses, in 
Home of v.'Jiich no less than forty persons were killed, (as 
a family lived on every iloor) either meeting with imme- 
diate death, or having had their limbs broken bv the fall of 
the stones in the streets; you may easily judge what pro- 
riii.yuHr;; numbers must have perished in the churches and 
convent-^ as tiie first sii.ock happened at high mass, when 
they were assembled at their devotions, f have already 
given you some insianc.es, and you may judge- of the resji; 
bv what fallows . 

In the large convent of St. Francis, which consisted of 
near three hundred fiiars, the roof fell do\\ n as they were 
singing m the cho;r, and, at the same, ume. a high gallery 
over the' west door fronting the gieat altar, and buried all, 
Ncept about eighteen ot the communitv, \vitfi tht; nmno- 
t:xi> congreiration beiuu . in the monastery of S t ;m a ('k(.-;, 

/ 2 onu 



163 EARTHQUAKE AT LISBON, 

One hundred and fifty of the nuns, with their waiting 
women ; in that of the Calvario, which stands in the road 
leading to Belem, most of the nuns then in the choir, as 
Veil as a great part of the congregation in the body of the 
church, shared the same fate. The English nunnery was 
likewise thrown down, hut whether any were killed I can- 
not learn. In the convent of the Trinity, I am credibly in- 
formed, above fifteen hundred were killed. Those in every 
other church and chapel suffered in proportion. In the 
prison of Limoeira, near four hundred were crushed by the 
sudden- falliqg down of a wall, though the greatest villains 
there escaped to do further mischief. 

The whole number of persons that perished, including 
those who were burnt, or afterwards crushed to death whilst; 
digging in the ruins, is supposed, on the lowest calculation, 
to amount to more than sixty thousand ; and though the 
damage in other respects cannot be computed, yet you may- 
form some idea of it, when I assure you, that this extensive 
and opulent city, is now nothing but a vast heap of ruin?, 
that the rich and poor are at present upon a level, some 
thousands of families which but. the day before had beet; 
easy in their circumstances, being now scattered about in 
the fields, wanting every convenicncy of life, and finding, 
none able to relieve the.n. 

Amidst such scene? of universal aftlicrion, the fate of in-, 
dividuals may seem of top little consequence to be taken 
notice of ; however I cannot forbear mentioning two or 
three instances, especially as I was acquainted with the 
unhappy suiTciers, and believe you had some knowledge of 
them : the first is of Mrs, Perichon, who running out of 
her house nt the beginning of the shock, in company with 
her husband, whom she followed at a small distance, wa? 
bwied under the ruins of a building, which suddenly fell 
down before he perceived it ; and when he looked back 
expecting to fu:d her near him, there was not the least ap- 
pearance 



DESCRIBED BY AN EYE-WITNESS. 169 

pearance of her, and to attempt any search in such a place, 
xvould have been only exposing his own life. The second 
is of a Mr. Vincent, who had been absent from Lisbon a 
considerable time, at a town called Martinico, eighteen 
leagues from Lisbon, but his ill fate prompted him to come 
to this city, at which he arrived upon the evening of the 
fatal day, in order to partake of some diversions ; but he 
never left the house he slept in, being suddenly crushed to 
<leath before he was dressed, and buried in the ruins, which 
is the onlv tomb he is ever like to have, for though his 
friends after many fruitless searches, discovered, as they 
supposed, the remains of his body, they found them so 
putrid, broken, and scattered, thai, it was impossible to re- 
move them. The last case is still more, lamentable ; it is 
of a voung hid, brother to Mr. Ilolford of London, remark- 
able for his modesty and affable behaviour: lie was -walking 
through one of the streets near the front door of a parish 
church when the first shock happened, at which time hcs 
had both his legs broken bv the fall of a large stone : m 
tins miserable condition he lay some time, in vain beseech- 
ing the terrified passengers to take some pity ; at length a 
tender-hearted Portuguese, moved by his cries, took him 
up in his arms, and carried him into the church, as ima- 
gining this a safeL place than the open street ; at this in 
stant, the second shock entirely blocked up the door, ar.-i 
the body of the church being soon all on lire, the lad wns 
burnt alive, with his generous assistant, and many oilier 
poor wretches, vvho hoped to have found there s<;in 
shelter. 

They have been employed now for several <Iav~> past in 
taking up the dead bodies, which arc carried r>ut into the 
neighbouring fields, but the greater part still remain under 
the rubbish, nor do I think it Mould be safe to remove thcin, 
even though it were practicable, on account of the strnch : 
the King, they sav, taiks of building a new city at Belcni, 
but be tills as ii. lAill. ir is certain he will have no thoughts 

of 



170 EARTHQUAKE AT LISBON. 

of rebuilding the old, until those bodies have Jain long 
enough to be consumed. 

Thus, my dear friend, have I given you a genuine, 
though imperfect account, of this terrible judgment, which 
>ias left so deep an impression on my mind, that I shall 
never wear it off; I have lost all the money I had by me, 
and have saved no other clothes than what I have on my 
back; but what. I regret mast, is the irreparable loss of my 
books and papers. To add to my present distress, those 
friends to whom I could have applied on any other occasion, 
are now in the same wretched circumstances with my sell. 
However, notwithstanding all that I have suffered, I do ma 
think I have reason to despair, but rather to return my 
pratefulest acknowledgments to the Almighty, who hath 
to visibly preserved my life amidst such dangers, where so 
many thousands perished ; and the same good Providence, 
I trust, will still continue to protect me, and point out sonio 
means to extricate myself out of these difficulties. 

As. the place is in such disorder and confusion, that the 
administration of justice js put a stop to, and it is not likely 
that any business will be carried on for some time I intend 
to take my passage for England as soon as a convenient 
opportunity oilers. I am, &c." 

A \VIIIMSICAL SIGN". 

U i' ON the door of a house near Bridgcwater, occupied 
by a father and son, the former a blacksmith and publi- 
can, the latter a barber, is a board, with the following in- 
scriotion : " Barnes and Son, blacksmith and barber's 
v. ork done here ; horse-.shoing' and shaving, leeks mend- 
el, hare curling, bleeding, teeth drawing, and all other 
furriery work. A!! sorts of spiratus liekers according to 
the late comical treaty. Take notis my wile keeps skool 
and lays Cokes as n:?'ia!l, teaches reding and nting, and 
oilier langwatcbes, and has a si>t aunts if required to teach 
horitorv, sou ing, the inuthew inalieKs,. und all other ia- 

s.ioaai '/.e un eiVioj is. 

Arllll Uil 



( ni ) 

Artificial Manner cf HATCHING CHICKENS, in l^gifpt, 

[Described by LIP. English Traveller, in the Rei^rii of Queen Elizabeth. j 

\ WE XT into a house, where I saw a vevv strange secret 
of hatching of chickens, bv artificial heat or AVarmth ; the 

hta: I had seen before at Grand Cairo, nut not in such ex- 
traordinary numbers or multitudes as here ; the manner 
whereof I Avill declare as followed! : the country people 
inhabiting about this town, four or five miles distant every 
way, bring their eggs in apt. carriages for the purpose, 
upon asses or camels, to this place, where there i^ an 
oven or iurno.ee, purposely kept temperately warm, ami 
the turner or master thereof, slandeth rcadv at at a little 
door, to receive the egg< of every one, bv tale : unless 
that when the number arises M> high, (as to ten camels 
loading, or mure/, then he filleth a measure bv tale, and 
after that order, measure-- all the rest :---.\nd 1 tell von this 
fora truth, that 1 saw there received bv the ftirner, cook, 
or baker, in one duv, by tale, and by measure, the num- 
ber of thirtv-tive or forty thousand eggs ; a.nd thev told 
me, that for three dav- space together, he doth nothing, 
but still receive in eggs : and at twelve davs end, thev 
come again to fetch dickens, sometimes at ten davs, and 
sometimes (but not verv oiten) at seven da\ - s, according 
as the weather falleth out ; perhaps, some. t\vo hundred 
persons are owners of one rangeful, some having two thou- 
sand, some one : or move or less, as the. quantities amount 
to; the furner iKucili tlie. nances and port'uons of e\'ery 
bringer ; and il he chancetb to ha\'c a hundred and fifty 
thousand, or two hundicd thou.-:and at one heat, (as many 
tunes it chanceth that he ha'Ji.) vet doth he mingle them 
all together, not respecting to >>hom they severally belong. 
Tlienhe laycth them, on>: by one. upon b;-; range, so near 
as tJhjy can lie, and touch each other ; having lirst made 

a bed 



17'2 ARTIFICIAL MANNER OF 

a bed for them, of camels' dung burnt, and the place 
whereon the ashes do rest, is of a very thin matter made of 
earth, but mixed with the camels' dung in the making, 
and some pigeons' dung amongit it : yet herein consisteth 

1 o o ' 

not the secret only j for there is a concave or hollow place^ 
about three feet breadth under it, whereon is likewise 
spread another layer of camels 1 dung, and under that is the 
place where the tire is made : yet, can I not righty call it 
lire, because it appeareth to be nothing but embers ; for I 
could not discern it, but to be like ashes, yielding a tem- 
perate heat to the next concave ; and the heat being resisted 
by the layer of dung next if, (which dung being green, 
and laid upon pieces of withered trees,) delivereth forth an 
extraordinary vapour, and that vapour entereth the hol- 
low concave, next under the eggs, where, in time, it 
pierceth the aforesaid mixed earth, which toucheth the 
ashes whereon the eggs are laid, and so serve th as a neces- 
sary receptacle for all the heat coming from underneath. - 
This artificial heat, gliding through the embers, whereon 
the eggs lie, doth by degrees warm through the shells, 
and so infuseth life by the same proportions of heat : thus, 
in seven, eight, nine, ten, or sometimes twelve days, life 
continueth by this artificial means. Isow, when the furncr 
pcrceiveth life to appear, and that the shells begin to 
break, then he beginneth to gather them; but of a hun- 
dred thousand, he hardly gathers three score thousand, 
sometimes but Hi'ty thousand , and st-metinrjs (v.hen the day 
is overcast) not twenty thousand ; and if there chance any 
lightning, thunder, or rain, then, of a. thousand, lie ga- 
thers not one ; for then they all miscarry and die, And 
this is to be remembered withal, that be the weather never 
so hi;r, tiie air perfectly clear, and everv thing as them- 
selves can uesire, and let the chickens be hatched in the 
best manner that may be, yet have they either a claw 
tou iiiu Ji or loo iittie j for sometimes ti>ey ha. ye live claws, 

some* 



HATCHING CHICKENS, IN EGYPT, 173 

pomctim.es six, some but two before and one behind, and 
Seldom, very few or any in their right shape. Afterwards, 
%vhen the people come to receive their eggs, that they be- 
fore had brought to the fnrncr, lie gives to every one rate- 
ably, according as the furnace yieldeth, reserving to him. 
self the tenth for his labour. Thus, have you the secret of 
hatching e.ff'-s, by heat artificial, at the town of Philbites, 

O Q O * > ' 7 

in the Land of Goshen, which, I think, were in vain to be 
practised in England ; because the air there is hardly ten 
days together clarified, neither is there any camels 1 dung-, 
though they have dung of other beasts every way as hot j 
therefore, when the Sun is in Cancer, Leo, or Virgo, 
you mar. if yon please, try what may be done. Perhaps 
some \viil think this to be a Ive, or fable ; but to such I 
answer, I can urs;e their credence no further than my faith 

O i 

;md truth can persuade them : And if thereon they will 
not believe me, let them take pains to make their own 
ove.s a witness, and when they have paid as dearly as I 
have done, (for the sight of this and other things, cost me 
an hundred murks in fifty days j) their judgments will by 
better confirmed* 

'The GREAT GUN ; or, Turkish Piece of Ordnance, in 
iS'f. James's Park : Being a circumstantial ^Icconnt of its 
Capture at Alexandria in Egypt, and the plying of it 
upon the Parade near the llar.se Guards. 
IT is to bo presumed, that the present, r.s well as the for- 
mer situation of this singular curiosity, will long remain 
distinguished in history, It mav be recollected, that a. 
handsome piece of brass ordnance, much more portable 
than this Turkish or F.gvptian piece of cannon, stood on 
this part of the parade before, :u;d v.vs thought to have 
been removed, principally because it appears to have boeu 
the design of the conspirators under Colonel Despard, in 
f'eij, 1SOJ, to have seized upon tais gun, aud used it ;u; 

A a uu 



174 THE CHEAT 

an instrument for the destruction of his Majesty and 
Ix-i-s of his peaceable subjects. If any doubt could be en* 
teilai'iod of this horrid design, the evidence against Wood, 
one oi' tiie culprit-?, would sufficiently remove it, This de- 
sperado, it appears, said " he would contrive to post 
himself ybeir.g one of the guards) as sentinel over the great 
gun in the park, and load it, and as his Majesty's carriage 
was passing to the Parliament-house, fire it off, and blo\v 
the carriage all to pieces." Upon the evidence also of 
John I.mblin, it appeared, that \vhen some oi' these pcr 
sons were at the Oak ley Anns public-house, the evidence 
being' present, he heard one of tliem, Broughton say 7 " My 
hoys, we have <;ot ti;e completest plan in the world, to do 
the business "without any trouble : load the great gun in the 
par]; \vit!i four balls or chain shot, and fire it ut his Majesty 
i:i t'e coach- he'd be d nM if it would not send him to 
Hell." This expression, shocking the witness, the latter 
said, " Do you consider how many lives you will take 
av/av." J'u-, then said, " d n the;n, let them keep out of 
the way." He a!r-o said, " the cannon would play hell 
with tlie houses about the Treasury." Some said the can- 
non '.vovdvi be too low ; another said it might easily be 
raised a:i inch : and another objecting that it might nii^s hi^ 
Mujestv, Bronghton replied, " TJien, d n him, we must 
w,iii-hitr<d!c him." Thus, tlie shocking design of these 
men, niav be consider;;..! a.-; the cause of t!ie removal of 
that handsome piece oi ordnance. But, to return to this 
Ti:rki'-!i piece of ordnance, which lias succeeded that brass 
piece which was placed on 'ihe parade of St. James's in the 
reign of Charles H. ; though its origin he doubtful, it is 
Wv-il knoMn io .h;;--.' b._-e;i t.-,ke i upon a redoubt near 
-Mex.i5K.ir a, w.uch im:l i/cen occupied by the French in the 
famous uat.tie of t'>c 2lst of March 1801. Like many of 
<.: 'i i!rL,bh c* i... n ::.'..; i, tiiis jjiece sec.med to liave been partly 
iuuaouible \vhere ii was llxed, e^ccuti:)"' the capacity ol" 

A O L ' 

turning 



IN ST. JAMES'S PARK. 175 

turning it a little on either side. Other Turkish pieces, 
we are told, are at the Dardanelles, which are so long and 
cumbrous, that they can neither be moved nor used with 
safety. 

Sir Robert Wilson, v, ho seems to have no ta^tc for an- 
tiquities, throws no light upon the capture of t:us cur ous 
piece of Turkish ordnance, on the 21st of March ; he only 
remarks, that one of the two pieces of cannon taken that 
da',-, was an Austrian piece, and that the four horses i'. at 
<irew it, were killed. The curious piece now in the Park, 
xvhcn fiv.-t taken was twenty feet long- ; but as we learn, 
beinc>- much battered and bruised in the muzzle, was alter- 

O ' 

v. ar-db cut down to the length of sixteen feet one inch. It 
z-j of a fluted make, with raised-work of hieroglyphics, 
\vith two inscriptions on it, not yet decvpherecl ; it is live 
feet, three inches in circumference, seven inches and a half 
in the bore, and sixteen feet one inch IOMU; ; its ueig. t is 
ei^'itv-f iitr hun, [red, two quarters, and fourteen pounds : 
ir-, c.irriapv on which it is pi. .ceil, is a new one, and stands 
live feet iii^'i, and is about iourteen feet loii, It is ele- 
gantlv curved, and was executed uv Mr. Ponsonbv; it is 
ids.) >-o well painted, that it is hard to distinguish it from 
bronze. 1 ne carved- work represents Britain!, a seated upon 
a Lio.i, withu complete \";ew of l^rq^t and Us 1'yramiv.is ; 
{i Crocodile hi;r'iiv ii;iii : ''ed ; a 'i urLsli .^'iure, a '1 ru;;- 
chcon, a Crown witli (.r. H. and a. Star and ( ; aru-r. Tiie 
bre; ch of t!ie cannon rc-ts u..>on a Sphvnx ; and 'o protect 
the mischief which miglit be occasioned i>v t-e atl- 
of the people too near it, wiien it v>;.s broug-'-t 
ii!.: '/V.ik on Monday M.iiv'i .!;, it va-- -urroiaided by 




,i . on purpose lor it, the we!<j;?l of it 

v.\.i L-O great, that it L)ro!;e and sunk t e stoi:es on which it 
iv.j^ [jiaced. Iv.'ino- tak -u at Alexandria, bv (Jen. 1.;;- n.n 
ci *!K. J loyal Artillery , tlu:' oriicer inspected its putting 

A a up 



176 AN ACCOUNT OT* A REMARKABLE FTSW, 

up on tlie parade. It had laid at Malta a considerable 
time, an 1 had been likewise laid up at Woolwich, till it 
iva* removed to St. James's Park. His I? oval Highness the 
Duke of York inspected it on the Sunday preceding, and 
so ;n:mv people visited the spot on the same dav, to witness 
t'>e preparations making for its reception, that it was found 
iK'cessarv to cajl in a guard to keep o!f the populace ; and 
a secant's guard was afterwards stationed at the post till 
a railing eonid be fixed up. When the cannon was placed 
there, a band of music played, the populace were so well 
pleased, thai they gave t.nree cheers ! 

On l-Yidav May 14, his Majesty and the Duke of Cum- 
berland, attendee! by Gen. Gwynne, visited the parade, 
ii-MJ viewed this celebrated great gun, having never seen it 
be lore. 

An Account c,f a REMARKABLE FISH, taken in King's- 
Jioad, near Bristol; in a Letter from Mr. James Fer- 
guson to Thomas Jji/'c/i, 1). J). Secretary to the Jicyal 

SociL'ty, 

[From the Philosophical Transactions, for 17 Go.] 

J>ri*tul t JA'<y 5, 17G3 

JL HE length of the Hs'i is four feet nine inches, and its 
t'-iekne^s wii^pj great e-,t, or in the middle, about ill teen 
itu >: ics. 1 he moiif'i i:i a. loot in viidth, and uf a sijUiaash 
form; it has three rows of sharp small teeth, vc-rv irregit- 
larlv set, and ,it. some di>tance from each oilier; it ha^ io 
t-.). ; igue, nor narrov/ gullet, but i^ ail ihe w;iv down, a^i Jar 
a-> oae c.iii see, like a great liollow tu'oo ; in tiie back i;t the 
r.-ou't witiiin t!'.ere iii'e two openings like nosinls; m\([ 
aoout nine ine '.es i,K.'!</w the ;aw, and inuk.r these open- 
ing are t\vo 'urge Knobs, from which proceed ;-<..veriiJ r-lwt 
teei ; a i trie bei')\s r wiiich, on the biedsi bj<.:e, is uiiot::er 
i\ o'o wjt'i Mie' 1 ' ieet:!. On cacii side Witiu;;, antl a'/out a 
toot Lui'jw lac .^v.-s, iiicru aic three crus;> ribs, souicwlnit 



P710WESS OF THE ROMAN EMPEROR MAXIMTN. 177 

fftsembling the strait bars of a chimney* grate, about an 
inch di>tant from each other, through which \ve see into a 
great cavity within the skin, towards the breast; and un- 
der the skin, these cavities are kept distended by longitu- 
dinal ribs, plain to tiic touch on the out:.u!c. I put my 
ami clown through the mouth quite to niv shoulder, but 
cou'J feel nothing- in the way ; so that its hr-art, stomach 
nd bowels, must be in a very iiule compass near its rail, 
the bodv thereabouts being- verv sin;;!!. From the neck 
proceeds two long horns, hard nud very elastic, no! io.Y.ied 
by rings as in lobster; ; and 0:1 ej.ch ti'.ie of t u b:-:ck there 
tire two considerable sharp-celled rising'-', or a bl.tck and 
long- substance. Between eac's eye and the breast, there 
i:> a cavity soinewhat like tie ie Me c t' a i:u;,'-ui ear, 
but it doth not penetrate to the i: 1 .'e. I-'roia c;H-li 
shoulder proceeds a strong muscular h 1 .;, closo bv u },.:]], 
towards the breast is an opening', throu;.'-!! \vliic:i one may 
thru^v his iiand a:ri ar:n quit^ n t > tiirt)n._;h t!ie njotitii ; a;;Ll 
bet\\vcn these (Ins procee-l from tlic bre.iat t'.vo short ]xnv>- f 
<.iuiewiiut like t'le fore-haif of a hamu'i f.iot, v;itii five toes 
K)i!ie I together, iu^ ing the appean-iee <./i nails. Near :iie 
tail are tv,o large iiin, one on the b;njk, ', <e oi' er iriiiei* 



spotted in several place,-.;, and entirely \\.tliouL .setdes. 



J'-IAZIKG TROWKS? 01- THE ROM \ >: E/rp^TJOR MAXIMI?:. 
,- I ^ 

JL :i F, tumults occusioned !>,' the death ' ' v 1 :N-I ; Aer be'-ng 
ajipease:l, .Maxintin, v,!-,o ii...i hv'eii t c '.ei prniiioter of 
the seuiiK>;i, \vas ci.'osen emperor. : I'v-raordinary 

jnan, whose chrUaC^'i- (icsvrves pur '-:! ;."'. "ition, \vas 
bora of vs-rv ob.-c.;r j n.-.rep.i. .<-;.', ;;:; '' :::. oi'a ; .::or 
rdsuian o;' i-.- -- '.V-. ! = 



ha 



113 PROWESS OF THE ROMAN EMPEROR MAXIMIN. 

he lived. Soon after, his ambition increasing, he left his 
poor employment, and enlisted in the lioman army, where 
he soon became remark. ib!e for his great strength, disci- 
pline and courage. This gigantic man, we are told, was 
eight i\.'\ and a half high ; he had strength corresponding 
to !> si/e, bei;:g not more remarkable for the magnitude, 
than the. symmetry ci' his person. His wife's bracelet 
usually served him for a thumb-ring ; and his strength was 
so givvr, that he was able to drt;w a carriage ^hich t\\ o 
oxe-i could not move, lie: could, strike, out a horse's teeth 
wit'i a !;i>..w of his f:st, and bre..k its thigh vith a kick. 
II;-; dLt was as exiruer u;;arv ;us his endowments : he ge- 
ne r,>iU ; ei't tortv pounds \ve;i;'-t ot iit^'i everv our, and 
drank MX t'\div'!i!^ of wiiie ? v/itliout coniinitf.r.g unv dc- 
b.iuch in either. ^^ ith a frame so aililetic, he \\'as pos- 
se: sea of a mind undaunted in d.mger, ;:nd neither fearing 
nor regurd'mg a:iv i:\an. r l he fsrs* vimo he was made known 
via-, to the eniperor Severns, w!:o was then celebrating 
gun:es on t!ie birth-Jav of his son Gera. Pduximin v us at 
t;;.u time o rude countr*. man, 2 nd requested the emperor 
to be permitted to re- -.tend for the pn/.es which were dis- 
tributed to the [>est runners, v/reiiier' 1 , and boxers cf the 
;ir:nv. Sevtini-s, nnwiiiiri 1 .!; to ii.Iringe the military di;-e.u 

jK-ri],,t ji i.!i ;.r iii'.-t, .1.3 iie v. as a T i^racian 
. except v.-ith slaves, against whom Iv.r. 

vi a.-toni^^iis. 1'e o'.'ereame sixteen in 




NEW DISCOVERIES AND INVENTIONS. 179 

found to be one of the greatest monsters of cruelty that had 
ever disgraced power : tearful of nothing himself, he seemed 
to sport with the terrors of all mankind. 



NEW DISCOVERIES ANT) INVENTIONS. 

ANOTHER ANTIPAROS ; or, a NATURAL GROTTO Uiscortred, 

IN the district of Falicon, near Nice, say the lute Italian 
Journals;, a. grotto has been descried ; which, we -ire. 
assured, in respect to its beauty, is efjtuil either to that of 
the Sybil at Rome, or that of Antipinos. The entrance to 
this newly-discovered curiosity, is through a .small emi- 
nence, and in its form bearing resemblance to a a egg. > 
Its first appearance, at the extremity of this entrance, is 
similar to a saloon, tolerably regular, and sufficiently spa- 
cious to contain 400 persons. The alabaster pillars upon 
v.'hich ir is supported are uniform, and beautiful in the ex- 
treme. Citi/en Barbesis, of Nice, has taken the pains to 
illuminate this grotto, and is now employed in making; a 

O > 1 ^ O 

drawing of the sum?. 

THE FELAGOSTO?. 

JYL C/OLLIN, a Swede, and by profession a matliemriti- 
cal instrument maker, has lately constructed an instrument 
calculated to discover any of the objects at the bottom of 
trie sea. at least to a very considerable depth : for instance, 
c piece of m^tal may be seen at the depth of 53 feet from 
riie surface of the water, and darker objects from a distance 
of 27 feet. And from a peculiar mode in the direction of 
this instrument, there is no difference in its discovery of 
objects under water, either in clear or cloudy weather. 
Neither is the wind any hindrance to its operation, and it 
is at the same time so portable and convenient, that it irav 
be managed by one person only. It has Litelv been proved 
at Stockholm, and its utility accurately delined, 



180 NEW DISCOVERIES AND INVENTIONS* 

AN account of a curious magazine pistol, which IIK* 
been some time past used by Lord Camel ford, in various 
parts of the world, lias Jatelv been published by Mr, IX U 
cholson. When loaded, it is capable of being dischargee* 

'O D 

nine times successively through the same barrel, and is so 
constructed, th.it the use of it is neither attended with dan- 
ger or uncertainty. 

Baron Edelcrantz has presented to the Society for the 
Encouragement of Art.s at Paris, a new lamp, in which, 
by means of mercury and a weight, the oil is made to ascend 
to, and remain at any particular height. 

CAVALIER LANDOLINA, of Syracuse, lias re-discovered 
the art of making paper of the papgms, which grows abun- 
dantly in Svracu.se. 
j j 

^r-*jr~~r--Jf~ -f -* jr~S* 

STONES SUPPOSED TO HAVE FALLEN FROM THE SKIES, 

CITIZEN VAUGELIN, of the Vrench National Institute, 
has latelv procured specimens of the stones analysed by 
Mr. Howard, brought from Benares in the East Indies r, 

O -' 

from Yorkshire in England ; from Sienne >M I'alv ; and- 
from Bohemia, to which he has joined those which fcJl in 
France in 1789 and 1790. He has remarked, as well as 
Mr. Howard, that these small stones resemble each other 
so exactlv, that it. is almost impossible to distinguish them, 
DifTerenl a;ia!vs.'s have convinced him, that they all con- 
tain the same, principles; jKiiriely, silex, magnesia, iron, 
nickel, and sulphur. All thc-.-.c resuU.-, v/ith th.e experi- 
ments of !v I. Cl:!adni, well I:no\vn bv his experiments upon 
the vibration of surfaces, concur to render it. probable that 
the origin of the Atones above-mentioned, is exterior lo our 
globe, for hitherto no similar stones ha^ e been found in iu 
interior. 

It i-; luvther observed, tlnit none of the stones emitted by 
any VL the volcanoes hitherto knovn, h;r\'e any identity 
with the s.to;;ci ^i..^uiTicd to Luve iu.L..n from the sky. 

A curicu-i 1 



( isi ) 

A curious Description of the LARGEST CELL in the World: 

[Versified by W. TANS'UR, Senior; 1772.] 
The greatest Bell the World can show, 
Is that in Russia at Mosco. 



1 HIS woiid'rous bell, from skirt unto its crown 3 
Is nineteen feet, three thick its bole around ; 
Feet twenty-three diameter in skirt, 
And more than seventy feet its circle-girt. 
Its weight, (if, justly, Fame the. truth resounds.) 
Three hundred, sixty, and six thousand pounds ; 
And, if tiiese pounds are right, and justly numbered, 
They make three thousand, sixty, and six hundred. 
Then, deem each score of pounds so many one's, 
They'll make one hundred, eighty-three, in tons : 
Should every hundred take one real pound 
Of clapper weight, (to give its tone or sound ;) 
Then Might and ball must very nearly be 
In hundred weights, the number thirty -three. 
One hundred able men this bell can raise, 
(Which only rings on some peculiar days ;) 
Whose pow'rful sway each artful ringer feels, 

I O 7 

By well-made ropes which work on various wheels 
Its frame being burnt by fire, it fell tc th' around, 

O <J ' O 

Whereby 'twas broke, and lost its weight and sound , 

More than two hundred men with ease may stand 

Within the compass of its circle band : 

This wond'rous boll's vast magnitude is seen 

By th' Harp and Crown, on Howe's Hill, lofty Green, 

TJu-full^ing FEATS cf STRENGTH arc thought much of; 
but n'/uit arc they xhcn compared to the Strength of 
TOP HAM. 

A MAN lately, (May 1803) in the city of Chester, for a 
trilling wager, carried a load of TOOlb. weight. This will, 
however, appear no extraordinary act, when compared 

B b with 



1S2 A STRANGE PROPENSITY IN A PRINCE. 

with the herculean feat performed by the present newsman 
oJ' the Hereford Journal, on the Ross cireuit (Turner.)- 
This man, about 33 years ago, when employed at the 
Castle Mill, near that city, for a considerable- sum, carried 
three 1 times round the town-hall, no less than twelve bushels 
of wheat, (the customary measure of ten gallons) amount- 
ing with the bags to the enormous weight of 9 7 'Jib. and 
upwards. The wheat was contained in three bags of pecu- 
liar construction, one on each shoulder, the other thrown 
across, and lashed together. 



A STRANGE PROPENSITY IN A PRINCF. 
[Tra.n-lated from the Fivnrli.] 

J''or Kirbtfs Magazine of Remarkable Characters. 
1 itiNCE BATHIANI, a descendant from one of the rir-t 
families in Hungary ; but who was an inhabitant of Rome 
in 17D7j seems to have placed the highest pinnacle of glory 
in possessing the most exact, and minute ideas of the game 
of chess. If it were possible to realize the ideas of the 
celebrated Mr. Addison, and, according to him, to dissert 
and analyse the bodv of mis Prince, nothing, it is presumed, 
could be found in his head or his heart, but the mo'Iels of 
the various pieces made use of i>v chess-players, frcin the 
Pawn to the King.' lie sees, he hear,-;; bespeaks of no- 
thing but chess : chess is the first thoughts of his waking 
hours and the last of his slumbers. All the; motives that 
move, agitate, or inilarne other men, are to him lifelc.-:.- 
Jind inert. " In vain (says M. Joseph Gorani) did I en- 
deavour to detach him, but for a moment, from tiie pre- 
cious chain of ideas which lie- caresses. The stare oi in-> 
country, to which I wi.-.hed to recall his recollection, \...- 
MI imhliercnt, that lie made noansv. er io my observations ; 
but puil'ng a small chess-board out of his pocket, assured 
me it \\ as made in Lo;y.hjn, bv one of tiro ablest tirtiiicers 
iluit Enland couk! oou?t olV 



A STRANGE PROPENSITY IN A PRINCE. 1S3 

Resembling the ancient knights errant that ranged 
throng]) hills and dales in search of able antagonists, this 
Prince has traversed all Europe to obtain the supreme en- 
joyment of putting some of the most accomplished chess- 
players at defiance. I have even heard that it was his in- 
tention to pass into Asia, to discover whether anv cf tire 
descendants of Palamedes are in existence ; but I am not 
informed \vhether he has realized this noble project. 

Prince Bathiani's journey to Rouse, however, had no 
other object but to find able players, whom lie flattered 
himself he should be sufficiently skilful to confound. But 
though lie has lost considerable sums in the pursuit of this 
idea, his passion has not been corrected by his disappoint- 
ments. Presumptuous to excess, and but an indifferent 
player ; yet instigated by the incitements of artful adven- 
turers, more skilful than himself, he still continues to ex- 
change his solid ducats for those fallacious eulogiums, 
which he receives with more relish and avidity, than if he 
really merited them. 

l)i::ing one day at his banker's, an Abbe, being a stran- 
ger, proposed a game at chessaccepted by the prince 
with great pleasure. Five times had the Abbe obtained an 
advantage ; when some inattention throwing him off his 
CiT.ard, recollecting; himself, he suddenly exclaimed What 

O . 

ujcol a>n J? I was proceeding as if I had as much conceit 
as Prince Bathiam. "Why, do you say, (answered the. 
Prince) that you are as conceited as the Prince Bathianir" 
<: Because (replied the Abbe) I have heard numysav, that 
this German Prince is a tolerable good chess-player ; while 
unhappily, his presumption leads him to think, he is the 
best player in die world ; though the proof oi the contrary 
exists at Vienna, Avhere he lo^t 50.000 crowns." That is 
false, (answered the Prince) the loss was only 10,000 
wo was." " A\ ell, (said the Abbe) that proves him forty 
ti;ue^ a tool." It is needless to sa", this partv toon broke 

B b 2 m, 



134 A WONDERFUL INSTANCE OF 

up. The Prince paid, and went out abruptly. The Abbe 
soon learned that this was the Prince Bathiani himself; 
but was not satisfied, till following his carriage, he saw it 
proceed towards the place De Espagne ; but this knowledge 
he confessed, only made him regret, that he did not make 
a better ad vantage of the opportunity which had escaped him. 



A WONDERFUL INSTANCE OF SIMILARITY OF PERSON. 

IN the year 1727, Thomas Geddely lived as a waiter witl} 
Mrs. Hannah Williams, who kept a public-house at York. 
Jt being a house of much business, and the mistress very 
assiduous therein, she was deemed in wealthy circumstances. 
One morning- her scrutoire was found broke open and rob- 
bed, and Thomas Geddely disappearing at the same time, 
there was no doubt left as to the robber. About a twelve- 
month after, a man calling himself James Crow, came to 
York, and worked a few days for a precarious subsistence, 
in carrying goods as a porter. By this time he had been 
seen by many, \vho accosted him as Thomas Geddely. 
He declared he did not know them, that his name was 
James Crow, and that he never was at York before. Thk 
was held as merely a trick, to save himself from the con- 
sequences of the robbery committed in the house of Mis, 
Williams, when he lived with her as a waiter. 

He was apprehended, his mistress sent for ; and, in the 
midst of many people, instantly singled him out, called 
him by his name, (Thomas Geddely) and charged him 
with bis unfaithfulness and ingratitude in robbing her. 

He was directly taken before a justice of the peace; but, 
on his examination, absolutely affirmed that he was not 



never \vasat Yoik before, -and that his- nam<: was James 
prow. Nor, however, giving a gcod account of himself, 
but r.'Livior ;:dii:iLting hiniocif to be a petty rogue and vaga- 
bond , 



SIMILARITY OF PERSON. 18o 

bond, and Mrs. Williams and smother swearing positively 
to his person, he was committed to York Castle for trial, at 
the next assizes. 

On arraignment, he pleaded Not Guilty; still denying 
that he was the person he v,-as taken for. Bat Mrs. Wil- 
liams and some others swearing that he was the identical 
Thomas Gedclely who lived with her when she was robbed, 
and who went orT immediately on the commitment of the 
robbcrv ; and a servant girl deposed, she saw the prisoner 
that very morning in the room where the scrutoire was 
broke open, with a poker in his hand ; and the prisoner 
being unable to prove an alibi, he W;TS found guilty of the 
robbery. He was soon after executed, but persisted to 
Ms latest breath, that he was not Thomas Geddelv, and 
that his name was James Crow. 

And so it proved ; for souse time after the true Thomas 
Geddelv, v-ho, on robbing his mistress, had fled from 
York to Ireland, was taken up in Dublin, for a crime of 
the same stamp, and there condemned and executed. Be- 
tween his conviction and execution, and again at the fatal 
tree, he confessed himself to be the verv Thomas Gecldely 
who had committed the robbery at York, for which the un- 
fortunate James Crow had been executed ! 

We must add, that a gentleman an inhabitant of York, 
happening to be in Dublin at the time of G^ddely's trial 
an.! execution, and who knew him when he hvecl with Mrs. 
Williams, declared, that the resemblance between the two 
men was so exceedingly great, that it was next to impos- 
sible for the nicest eye to have distinguished their person* 
asunder. 

An Account of a DREADFUL WHIRLWIND, in South 

Carolina y in -V^j/ 1161. 

0:c the 4th of May, at half past two, P. M. a most vio- 
jknt whirlwind, commonly called a tvphon, passed dov. u 

Ashl-y 



186 AN ACCOUNT OF 

> 

Ashley river, and fell upon the shipping in Rebellion road, 
Charles Town, with such violence, as threatened the de- 
struction of the whole licet. This phenomenon was first 
seen coming down Wappo creek, like a column of smoke. 
Its motion was irregular, tumultuous, and swift in its pro- 
gress. Its bulk, and its prodigious velocity, gave it such 
a surprising- momentum, as to plough Ashley river to the 
bottom, and lay the channel bare ; occasioning such a flux 
and reiiux, as to float even sloops and schooners, which 
were before Iviug dry, at. some distance from the tide. 
"\Vhik 1 coming clown Ashley river, it; noise resembled thun- 
der. Its diameter at that time was about :jOO fathoms, and 
its height about 3 5 degrees. It w;is met at White, Point by 
another gust, \vhieh came down Cooper's river, but not 
, equal to the other ; when the tumultuous agitation of the 
air increasing, the froth and vapour seemed thrown up to 
the height of 40 degrees ; while the clouds driving in all 
directions to this place, seemed precipitated, and whirled 
round with incredible velocity. Just after this, it fell upon 
the shipping in the road, and was scarce three minutes in 
its pussagc, though the distance v. as near two leagues. 
There wt-re -t-o sail in the road, five of which were sunk ; 
and the Dolphin ship of war, with eleven others, lost their 
masts, ikr. The damage to the shipping, is valued at 
cjO.OOO sterling, was <ione almo.-.t in.- tantancouslv ; and 
some that were sunk, ware buried so suddenly, as almost 
to prevent ^'ie m^n below from getting upon deck, though 
only lour hves were lost. The sirong gust which came 
down Cooper's river, hcwever checked the progress of that 
piiiar of destruction. Iroui V, appo creek, which otherwise 
r.ni.st have driven the town of Charles Town befcrv it like 
cha;f. This column, first seen about noon, tip> \vards of 
50 m;i-js \V\bv S. IVc>:n ( iiark-s Town, destroyed in its 
coarse several houses, ivgro huts, c\.c. on trie plantations. 
Maay \\-ijitc people: and uegroe.'; AVCIC, ^^ it!: cuttle, &c. killed 

and 



A DREADFUL WHIRLWIND. 187 

and hurt ; and in its way it tore up every tree and shrub. 
About four o'clock the wind abated, the sky was as clear 
and serene, as if no such dreadful scene had been so re- 
cently exhibited ; only the sinking- an d dismasted vessels 
still remained, as so many melancholy proofs. The sink- 
ing- of the five ships in the road \vas-so sudden, that it was 
a doubt whether it was done by the immense weight of this 
column pressing them instantaneously into the deep, or by 
the water being forced from under them. Most of the dis- 
abled ships were towed up to the town the next eiuv ; and 
Captain Scott, of the -Scarborough, appointed to couvov 
those able to put to sea, in the room of the Dolphin ship oi' 



THE FOUNDER OF FAIRLOP FAIR. 
" MR. EDITOR, 

" OBSERVING in Number II. of vein Ciih-rtain- 
ing Magazine, an account of the Great Gak at i'uiriop in 
}'s>ex ; I thought it would be more complete, if vour itead- 
crs knew something of that singular character to v.hich that 
tree and the fair held about it, owe ail their celebrity. 
The authenticity of the following anecdotes cannot bo 
called in question. " I am yours, <xc, J, J. B."'* 

AIR. DANIEL DAY, whose eccentricity wi<s the cau-e of 
Fuiiiop Fair, was well kno'.vn many years a.-, an eminent 
pump and engine maker, in the pari.-.h of St. John's Vv'i'p- 
ping ; where, to this day. his memory is respected as that 
of a great benefactor, particularly in his gift oi' the great 
bell at the consecration of the new church in 17oO. Mr. 
Day v, as born in St. Mary Overv's parish, when:- hi; father 
v/as an opulent brewer. Mr. Day, after being in business 
some years, having a small estate near Fairlop Oak, \\a~- 
in the habit of going there every year about a fortnight after 
Midsummer, to receive his rears ; and being of a convi-.-icil 

turn, 



18S THE LATE MR. DANIEL DAY, OF WAPPING; 

turn, it was his constant custom to invite a few of his neigh- 
bours to accompany him from town, and treat them with a 
repast of beans, bacbn, &c. under the canopy of the oak ; 
the accommodations being provided from the May-pole, a 
small public-house. At length Mr. Day's friends were so 
v/ell pleased with the rural novelty, that they pledged them- 
selves, one and all, to accompany him on the same occasion 
every year, the first Friday in July, during their lives. 

This meeting being noticed by the neighbouring gentry, 
farmers, arid yeomanry, they could not resist visiting the 
place annually, on Mr. Day's jubilee ; and as suttling booths, 
were soon found necessary, various others sprung up in 
succession around this huge oak ; so that about the year 
1725, this pleasant spot began to wear every kind of re- 
semblance to a regular fair ; and puppet-- shews, wild beasts, 
fruits, gingerbread., ribbands, and toys of all sorts suc- 
ceeding, this new generation of Mr.- Day's creating, be- 
came his principal hobby-horse ; and as he thought some 
return due to the lads and lasses who had paid him so much 
attention, he provided several sacks of beans and a sufficient 
quantity of dressed bacon, which were distributed from the 
trunk of the tree to the multitude in pans full ; and thi> 
custom he continued till hi? death in 1767. 

Tn the former part of Mr. Day's life, he usually walked 
to his favourite spot and back again ; later in life, lie rode 
a horse, but receiving a fall, he declared he would never 
cross another, and kept his word. He then kept a mule ; 
l>ut beinp* again tnrov.'H into the mire, he discarded the 

O O -7 

mule as he had done the horse, and determined never to 
tru.it liimteif upon the back of any four-legged animal. 
His i:e\r it source wa? a post-chaise ; but again meeting 
v it.! i an accident, lie was even resolved not onlv to ride nj 
moi< in coach or chaise, but that his remains should be con- 
veyed, at, the L-afest mode, by water, to the place of buriaL 
lie next invented a machine to o without horses to Fairloi* 



THE FOUNDER OF FAIRLOP FAIR. 1BQ 

Fair, which after two years of successful trial, broke do\vu 
in attempting the third expedition. The dernier resort of 
this wealthy tradesman, was a jockey-cart, in which, at- 
tended by music, he took his annual trip, up to the July 
preceding his death. 

His favourite oak receiving a shock by a storm a few years 
before Mr. Day's death, it operated upon him like the 
warning of an old friend, and he set about that task with 
alacrity, the very conception of which would have made 
some men shudder. Under favour of the Lord of the Ma- 
nor of Fairlop, he procured a limb of his favourite tree, 
and employed Mr. Clear, a carpenter, to convert it with- 
out delay into a coffin. This being brought home, neatly 
panne! led and highly polished with bees' wax, Mr, Day, 
looking with the greatest calmness upon his future habi- 
tation, and punning upon the carpenter's iv.une, observed, 
" Mr. Clear, it is not very dear to me that you have made 
this coffin long enough." 'Then laying himself down in it, 
" Never mind, (says he) if it be so, you must remind my ex- 
ecutors to have my head cut off after my decease, and place 
Jt between my legs." 

In bequeathing his property, as Mr. Day ever remained 
u bachelor, the fatherless children of his niece, eight in 
number, became his principal heirs; yet he still carried 
his harmless oddities to the last action possible, in order- 
ing his executors to convey his corpse to Barking in Essex, 
by water, accompanied by six journeymen pump and block- 
makers, as bearers, to each of whom he gave a new white- 
leathern apron, and a guinea in money. Upon the birth of 
each of his niece's children, it was also his custom to present 
the mother with a gold coral, a pap-boat, and a purse of fifty 
guineas. The poor also found a liberal benefactor in Mr. 
Day, to many he lent money, always without interest, and 
often forgave the principal. 

Mr. Da} r , though by some persons deemed formal, was 
' or/, r c f an 



1QO THE LATE MR. DANIEL DAY, OF WAPPING. 

an amateur in music, as it applied to dancing; to fashionable 
refinements, however, he had an insuperable aversion ; for 
being once invited to a ball, where he was informed it would 
be necessary to wear ruffles of the finest point lace, and a 
pair of the same presented to him, he viewed them with 
some degree of contempt, and said, " if it was the custom 
he must comply; but it should be in his own way :" and or- 
dering: his housekeeper to get the lace dyed green, lie wore 
them at that assembly, and upon all similar occasions. Mr. 
Day retained his health till within a day or two of his death, 
and his faculties to the last. 

Mr. Day's kindness to his faithful servants was remark- 
able ; he had an old housekeeper, who dying after she had 
lived with him thirty years, for her fondness for tea, of 
which he never drank any, he ordered a pound of green tea 
to be placed in each of her hands, and buried with her in her 
coffin ; and knowing her to have been extremely attached to 
her wedding-ring, he would not suffer it to be taken from her 
finger, saying if that was attempted, she would come to life 
again. 

With all his facetiousness, Mr. Day, as an old-fashioned 
tradesman, was a constant attendant at his own parish- 
church : and as much as possible would enforce the at- 
tendance of his nephews and nieces, their children, and his 
own servants, upon divine worship. In line, he lived- as 
lie would say, we?yy arid wise ; and dying in the 84th year 
of his age, was buried in his own oak coffin : and at Bark- 
nig church-yard in Essex, the following inscription may be 
seen near his tomb, upon that of his sister, Mrs. Sarah 
K 5.1 lick, who died in August 1782, in the 93d year of her 



:\ Woman remarkable for the Deauty of her Person, Sweetness of 
Disposition, and tin Share of Health she also enjoyed through Life. 
- Tili iir l)<>at)i <.-IK- < i nlil play at Cards, and read and work without 
,-PM t M-)e? " 

LIFE 



( 191 ) 

LIFE and CHARACTER of the celebrated Mr. MARTIN VAN 
BUTCHELL, Surgeon Dentist and Fistula Curer, of 
.Mount- street, Berkeley-square. 

J HOUGH eccentric individuals have lately obtained to such a frequency in 
re/search and recital, that ancient Biographical History no longer bears the 
palm, in consequence of the late numerous additions to this kind of 
entertainment ; yet in the present subject of our pages, we flatter ourselves, 
that also those modern eccentric Characters that have justly superseded 
the formar, amused the public, and promoted the laudable investigation of 
the moral composition of man, may still hide their diminished heads before 
that of Mr. MARTIN VAN BUTCHCLL ; who, as a person of uncommon merit 
and science, is, therefore, so much the move remarkable, by the singularities 
of his manners and appearance ; because, as many others ha\\; made use of 
these means to excite that attention which they did not deserve, and to obtain 
credit for qualifications they never possessed, it will be found as an unusual 
deviation from- this line of conduct in Mr. VAN BUTCUELL, that his singulari- 
ties and eccentricities have tended rather ifHi fortunately more to obscure than 
exalt or dispLiy the sterling abilities, which even the tongue of Envy lias never 
denied him. 



IIIE father of this extraordinary man, was well known in 
the early part of the reign of George II. as tapestry maker 
to his Majesty, to which a salary of 50l. per annum was 
attached. Martin Van Bntchell, the elder, whose family 
was originally from Flanders, was born m February 173(J, 
in the parish of Mary-le-bone ; but he afterwards settled 
with his father, in a large house in the parish of Lambeth, 
between Westminster Bridge and the Dog ami Duck, to 
which a very extensive garden was annexed, and was then 
known by the name of the Crown House. His education 
was suitable to his father's circumstances ; but as he did 
not like the profession of tapestry making, and at length re- 
jected the business when oft'ered him, it was natural that he 
should accept of other recommendations, which we were 
informed were not wanting, from the circumstance of gen- 
ii y occasionally lodging in the house of his father for the 
c o 2 sake 



192 LIFE AND CHARACTER OF THE 

sake of the air, and its situation. It is to be noted, that as 
a ground-work of these recommendations, to the knowledge 
of the French language, and other accomplishments, a good 
character, and a prepossessing address, were no trivial stimu- 
lants towards his advancement in life. Hence, his first re- 
commendation to the family of Sir Thomas Robinson, was 
for the purpose of that gentleman's making him a travelling 
companion to his son. This offer, however, from a misre- 
presentation of the temper and disposition of Sir Thomas, 
Mr. Van Butchell did not think advisable to accept of; but 
in lieu of the same, very soon after went into the family of 
the Viscountess Talbot, where, as Groom of the Chambers, 
he remained nine years. As this situation was probably 
lucrative, it enabled him, on leaving it, to pursue his favourite 
studies of mechanics and medicine, and particularly anatomy. 
And as the human teeth accidentally became a principal 
object of his attention, through the breaking of one of his 
own, and having engaged himself as a pupil to the celebrated 
Dr. J. Hunter, the profession of a Dentist was that by which 
he first appeared in the world as a public character. In this 
he was so eminently successful, that for a complete set of 
teeth, he is known to have received a price as high as eighty 
guineas. 

And of one lady we have heard, that being dissatisfied with 
her teeth for which she had paid him ten guineas, he volun- 
tarily returned her the money, though in a very early, and 
consequently not the most lucrative period of his practice ; 
however, he had scarcely slept upon the contemplation of 
this disappointment, before she returned, soliciting the set of 
ieclh \\liicl; he had made her, as a favour, with an immediate 
ttudev of the pik , which she had originally paid for them, 
.UK! vercr.vrd them back again accordingly. 

Of anoilirr lady we have been told, who in the course of 
Mr. Van Buicheil's practice as a dentist, exhibited a strik- 
ing proof m her own person, that the character of tlu 

painted 



CELEBRATED MR. MARTIN VAN BUTCHELL. 1Q3 

painted Prude, drawn by Mr. Pope, was by no means out 
of nature the latter, when dying, directs her maid, saying, 

" And Betty give this cheek a little red, 

" One would not sure look frightful when one's dead !" 

But the former, of whom we have just been speaking, 
when Diving, expressly insisted that Mr. Van Butchell 
only, after her decease, should actually iix and replace the 
teeth in her head which he had made for her while living, 
and which he performed accordingly. We cannot say, 
that to obviate the stiffness that seizes the jaws, that it was 
necessary for him to begin his operations before the body 
was cold ; but every one should know, that it is necessary 
to take an artificial set of teeth out of the mouth every 
night on going to sleep, and sometimes to steep them in 
water to preserve their whiteness ; of course there is not 
the least improbability of the removal of this lady's teeth 
during her illness, and consequently her wish to have them 
handsomely restored after her decease, probably only for 
the reason urged by Mr. Pope's Lady, 

" One would not sure look frightful when one's dead !" 

After successfully figuring as a Dentist for many years, 
Mr. Van Butchell became not less eminent as a maker of 
trusses for ruptured persons ; and m the course of this 
practice his reputation had spread so far, that a person of 
eminence, as a physician in Holland, having heard of his 
skill, made a voyage for the purpose of applying to him, 
and was so successfully treated, that in return for the bene- 
fit he had received, he taught Mr. Van Butchell the secret 
of curing fistulas, which he has practised ever since with 
astonishing and unrivalled success. 

While Mr. Van Butchell was engaged in making 
trusses-, ixLc. he also made spring-waistcoats or a spencer, to 
act instead of braces to the small clothes; but being neces- 
sarily 



LIFE AND CHARACTER OF THE 

sarily dear, it precluded them from coming into general 
use. This kind of spring- waistcoat he now wears, or rather 
his shut, his waistcoat, his breeches and stockings, are all 
in one piece or contexture of elastic worsted, all white 
from head to foot, which, contrasted with his bushy beard, 
had one time nearly thrown, not a lady, but the stouter 
heart of a gentleman, into a degree of terror, approaching 
nearly to fainting. This occurred m consequence of the 
former going into Van Butchell's stable when he was stand- 
ing behind the door, and as it happened, without his coat, 
having at the same time a white cap on, and being without 
his boots. He likewise projected a surcingle for race-horses, 
which was presented to his Majesty, and consequently spoken 
of as a most ingenious contrivance. 

Mr. Van Butchell, for many years past, being noted for 
the singularity and eccentricity of his manners, never ex- 
cited more attention than after the death of his iirst wife ; 
whom, for the extreme affection he bore towards her, he 
was at first determined should never be buried. Ac- 
cordingly, with the assistance and direction of Dr. Hunter, 
the celebrated Anatomist, after embalming the body, he 
kept her in her wedding clothes a considerable tune m the 
parlour of his own house, which, on that account, had the 
honour of being visited by great numbers of the nobility 
and gentry, who soon found, that though it was quite fo- 
reign to the intentions of Mr. Van Butchell to make a shew 

O 

of his deceased wife, some consideration would not be a dis- 
agreeable return for the trouble and attendance which these 

O 

visits occasioned. 

Some say this resolution of keeping his wife unburied, 
was occasioned by a clause in the marriage settlement;, dis- 
posing of certain property while she remained above ground. 
How far this may be fact, we will not decide ; but we arc 
now well-informed that she is since buried. One singu- 
larity in his manner of imposing terms upon his \\ivv.s, ib 

remaikabie, 



CELEBRATED MR. MARTIN VAN BUTCHELL. 1<J5 

remarkable, and points out his astonishing propensity to 
every tiling in direct opposition to other persons; that is, 
he gives them the choice of the two extremes, of black and 
while in clothes ; and after they have made it, will not 
sailer them to wear any thing else. His first \\ife chose 
black; his present wife, white, which she always appears 
in. He also, it is said, makes it an invariable rule to dine by 
himself, and for his wife and children also to dine by them- 
selves. It is added also to be his common custom to call 
his children by no other method than whistling. 

Respecting the management of Mr. Van Batchell's latter 
wife, an anecdote singularly characteristic of the man is in 
circulation. This gentlewoman, it is said, when he kept 
an housekeeper after the death of his first wife, was origi- 
nallv a servant under her ; and finding the temper of her 
superior extremely unpleasant and difficult to please, at 
length took an opportunity of informing her master of the 
circumstance, and also of hinting her intention to quit his 
service. To remedy this, Mr. Van Butchell, it appears, 
replied in a few words ; saying, that if she thought proper 
only to take a walk with him, he would effectually put an 
end to all occasion of complaint. This the young woman 
promised, and accordingly, instead of a simple walk 
merely for recreation or converse, her master, who had pre- 
viously paid a visit to Doctors' Commons, led her to the 
altar, and made her his lawful wife. The cream of this 
business, however, was still to come. Upon their return 
home, the lady of the house, who had not the least con- 
ception of \\hat had happened, began, as it is phrased, 
upon the young woman like a fury, for going out with- 
out leave, and leaving her mistress to get the breakfast 
ready. The young woman, no doubt, instructed how to 
act. soon allayed the thunder-storm, by another clap, which 
at once both silenced and astonished her antagonist ; in 
telling her to walk out of the parlour, as she was then no 

longer 
i 



196 LIFE AND CHARACTER OF THE 

longer the maid, but the mistress of the house ; and that 
neither herself nor Mr. Van Butchell had any further occa- 
sion for her services. And as this unexpected news was 
duly affirmed by the grave Doctor and administrator of justice, 
submission was the only alternative that remained; while the 
triumph of one party, and the mortification of the other, may 
be more easily conceived than expressed. 

Next to Mr. Van Butcheli's dress, and the wearing of 
his beard, one of the first singularities which distinguished 
him, was his walking about the streets with a large Otaheitan 
tooth or bone in his hand ; but some say it is the jaw-bone 
of an ass. The latter we believe to be the fact, as he says 
it is to defend man. This, in the hands of Martin Van But- 
chell, was only intended to deter boys from insulting him, as 
they were used to do, before his person and character were 
so well known, as they were in the course of a few years 
after he came to reside in Mount Street, Berkeley Square. 
A string is fastened to this implement, which he attaches to 
his wrist. 

Soon after his being in Mount Street, he had the following 
notice painted upon the front of his house : 

BY 
HIS MAJESTY'S 

Thus, said sneaking Jack, ROY AT speaking like himself, 

I'll ue first ; if I get my Money, 1 don't care who sutlers. 

LETTERS PATENT, 

MARTIN 
VAN BUTCHELL's 

NEW- IN VENTED 
With caustic care and old Phim 

SPRING BANDS 
AND FASTENINGS 

l-uiii'itim's in ix dnys. and a!\v.-iy>. i^n the Fii-tula: in Ano. 

FOH 



Rl.KKR A TSI> MR. MAKTIN VAN KtJTCIf K I.L. 1 ( J7 

FOR 

THE APPAREL 
AND FURNITURE 

July 6. 

OF 

Li. f'nsed to deal in Perfumery, i, f, 

HUMANE BEINGS 

Hydrophobia cured in thirty day>, 

AND 
BRUTE CREATURES. 

made of Milk and Honey. 

which remained some years. But his next door neighbour 
thinking proper to rebuild part of his front, he obliterated 
half of the notice, which had before run from Mr. Van But- 
chell's house over his own. But for the gratification of our 
readers, we have obtained a copy of the whole; and in order 
to understand this the better, some years ago he had a 
famous dun horse, and having some dispute with the stable 
keeper, the horse was detained by the latter to pay for his 
keep, and was at length sold by the Ranger of Hyde Park, 
at Tattersal's ; where, from the character given him by 
Mr. Van Butchell, he fetched a considerable price. This 
affair was the occasion of a law-suit, and caused Mr. Van 
Butchell to interline the curious notice we before men- 
tioned, with small gold letters, and nearly at the top of it, 
as follows : " Thus, said sneaking Jack, speaking like 
himself, I'll be first ; if I get my money, I don't care 
who suffers." 

Probably this notice, which was the cause that attracted 
so many people to look at Mr, Van Butchell's house, occa- 
sioned his neighbour to ob'iterate the part that \vas upon 
his own. His eccentricities are very numerous, and we 
Have only selected a fr\v ; from which it will appear, that 

VOL. j. i) d his 



198 LIFE AND CHARACTER O# THE 

his equal will not easily be found. After he had lost his 
famous dun horse, he purchased a small white poney, which 
he will not suffer to be trimmed in any degree whatever. 
The shoes for the poney he will always have made fluted, 
to prevent his slipping, and never suffers him to wear any 
other. His saddle is also of a curious make; in one of the 
stirrups he has lately fixed a piece of cork to keep his foot 
from slipping. The reason lie gives for not using cork on 
the other side, is, that he cannot mount so well.' This said 
poney he sometimes has the humour to paint all purple; 
sometimes with purple spots, other times with black spots, 
and with streaks and circles upon his face and hinder parts ; 
and of these various colours, he says each spot costs him a 
guinea. He rides him in Hyde Park very frequently, 
especially on Sundays, and also about the streets of Lon- 
don. When he goes into the Park, to save a distance of 
going round, he dismounts his poney, goes on the other 
side of the railing, and holding out a biscuit, the animal 
leaps over to him, and away they go. The curious appear- 
ance of his horse and himself in the streets, generally col- 
lects a great concourse of people; for the one being painted, 
and the other dressed more resembling a Jew than any 
thing else, have a most ludicrous effect. His beard has not 
been cut or shaved since the year 1791 ' his hat is shallow and 
narrow brimmed, and though originally black, is now almost 
white with age : his coat, a kind of russet brown, he has 
also worn a number of years, with an old pair of boots the 
colour of his hat. He has a most curious bridle which he 
occasionally uses : to the head of it is fixed a blind, which 
HI case of t hehorse taking fright, or startling, he can let 
down over his horse's eyes, and draw up again at pleasure. 
And this- he also does, if there be any object which he does 
not think fit the horse should see. He once rode his poney 
a race against a high bay horse jn Hyde Park for a wager, 
aud ttat hiuj. in u conversation with u gentleman the 

othei 



CELEBRATED MR. MARTIN VAN BUfCHELL. 199 

other day, to whom he presented some of his famous cof- 
fee which he sells in packets, he observed, " it was made 
from every thing good, and nothing bad." The gentle- 
man remarked, that he and his friends might want more 
if they found it good ; to which he replied, " he would 
supply them all, Cor a bit of gold now and then." As well 
as to purchase his cork stirrups, he wanted to persuade a 
gentleman in the army to send the saddles to him belong- 
ing to the whole regiment, and not to suffer the horses to 
he trimmed any more : sayincr, the ancients never suffered 
their horses to be trimmed. He never ;illo\vs his own 
favourite poney to go into a farrier's shop, because the 
hammering, he says, hurts the horse's hearing: and for 
this poney, he says he would not take an hundred guineas. 
Not from any thing like narrow circumstances, but from 
one of his own peculiar whims, a very short time since, 
he used also to sell apples, nut?, gingerbread, and half- 
penny cakes to children, at his door in Mount Street ; or 
probably, this might be one means of keeping his own 
children employed. In one of his advertisements, it may 
be observed, that he notices the " Corresponding Lads." 
Mr. Van Butchel!, probably to cure some of these of their 
infidelity, which they had imbibed from Tom Paine, used 
to attend on a Sunday evening in the \Vestminster Forum ; 
where, as every cue had a right to read or speak, Mr. Van 
Butchell always chose to read a chapter from the New Tes- 
tament, which he never failed to deliver with uncommon 
gravity. And this probably accounts for what some people 
have said about his being occasionally a Preacher. 

In one of the advertisements under the name of Van 
Butchell, we recollect a kind of notice, that Lord Salisbury 
need not trouble himself about getting him appointed Den- 
tist to the King J The fact we have heard was, that Mr. 
Van Butchell had previously applied to Lord Salisbury for 
that appointment; who, of course, not having his Majesty's 

D (i ^ nomination. 



00 LIFE AND CHARACTER OF THE 

nomination, could not answer his wishes ; but after he had 
obtained it, it seems Mr. Van Butchell thought his refusal 
would enhance his consequence, more than his acceptance 
of it; and accordingly he made it the finale of his advertise- 
ments soon after. 

Another anecdote is related of him ; viz. that meeting 
his Majesty in Windsor Great Park, his Majesty knowing 
him, rode up, and addressed him thus : " Mr. Butchell, 
how do you do how do you lijce the day's sport ?" To 
which his answer was, " Pretty well, I thank you, Sir." 
And Van Butchell's curious bridle and blind, which he 
occasionally threw over his horse, did not escape his Ma- 
jesty's attention. 

It is not a little surprising, though the public have been 
so long used to Mr. Van Butchell, that the lower orders are 
not yet perfectly reconciled to the singularity of his appear- 
ance. It is only a few weeks since, that so many boys and 
others assembled about him while he was in Hyde Park, and 
endeavouring to mount his poney, who started and ran at the 
hooting and hallooing of these fellows, that for upwards of 
an hour he was not able to effect his purpose ; but kept 
walking the poney round and round the great tree. Two 
gentlemen on horseback, however, at length pitying his situa- 
tion, rescued him from this dilemma, and held the poney, till 
being enabled to mount him quietly, he rode home between 
them to Mount Street, unmolested. 

Another time in the course of last summer, ju*l as the 
Westminster Cavalry had broke up after a field day, Mr. 
Van Butchell being in the park with his poney, it. took, 
fright and threw him ; happily he received no harm : 
however, having mounted again, the cavalry beginning 
to disperse, and two of the corps, not thinking, or pro- 
bably not caring for the consequences, rode after Mr. Van 
Butchell full speed, while the jolting of their swords and 
pouches renewing the fright of his horf-e, he again *ef oft 

with 



CELEBRATED MR. MARTIN VAN BUTCHELI.. 201 

with his rider as hard as he could go, till he came to Cumber- 
land Gate; this race, as it was called, affording most excel- 
lent sport for those who stile themselves Lovers of Fun. 

\Vith Mr. Van Butchell, Hyde Park is a favourite place. 
On Sunday mornings it is common for him to attend about 
the spring, above the Serpentine river, near the Guard-house, 
where he distributes the water to the people after he has 
added something to it, and shaken it up in a bottle, till it be- 
comes very white. This water, it is then said, is of a very 
pleasant taste, and is probably medicinal. 

Jt would further appear to be one of the foibles of this 
singular man to exhibit himself in eccentric habiliments as 
often as possible to the public view. On this ground, he 
is sometimes seen shaking a bottle with medicines in it, for 
an hour together, at his own door ; and his painted horse, 
preparatory to his riding out upon him, is not unfrequently 
combed and accoutred in the same place, and in that public 
manner. 

When he used to ride his other dun poney, concerning 
which he had a law-suit with the stable keeper, he had a 
curious pair of stirrups cut open on one side, on purpose 
to prevent the foot from hanging in the stirrup, in case of 
being thrown. 

When at home in the forenoon, we are informed, Mr. 
V an Butchell always used to sit in the two pair of stairs 
front room ; where, by the communication of a spring, he 
immediately knows when he is enquired for. When the 
shop tax was first levied, we are informed, that the com- 
missioners wished to include Mr. Van Butchell's apartment 
where he saw patients, because a few teeth, spring- 
bands, &c. were there exposed to view; but as in reply 
to his objections, as they admitted that a free egress and in- 
gress was the distinguishing quality of a shop, they were 
compelled to exempt him from the tax, as he soon con- 
vinced them that it was as im-possible to get out or into his 

apartment 



202 LIFE AND CHARACTER OF THE 

apartment without his instructions, as to have entered the 
bower of Fair Rosamond without the clue of thread, which, 
in the King's absence, was only confided to the trustv 
Knight, Sir Thomas . 

We have before spken of his inestimable beard ; the 
accounts of the time he has worn it, certainly differ; but it 
is generally admitted that it is now about twelve years 
since. The original reason of this determination, we have 
been told, did not arise from the mere affectation of sin- 
gularity, but from a philosophical conversation with the 
late celebrated Anatomist, Dr. John Hunter; in which, 
from the practice of the ancients, it was agreed that the 
wearing of the beard was conducive to the strength and 
vigour of the human body. Probably for some such pur- 
pose, all the younger children of this extraordinary character, 
were dressed in calico. 

Still like some people who have any personal pecu- 
liarities, Mr. Van Butchell can bear to be pleasant upon 
his own by tucking his beard, as we are told, under 
his neckcloth, in imitation or derision of the fashionables of 
the present day. And yet though the virtues and the pub- 
lic utility of this extraordinary man and excellent physi- 
cian, are by no means so well known as they merit, it is 
seldom, indeed, that he has been exposed, from appear- 
ance only, to any personal insult. One instance we have 
heard of, was that of a footman or knight of the rainbow, 
who, presuming to take this venerable man by the beard, 
as he merited, had very nearly paid for his temerity, with 
the fracture of one of his ribs. This was done by a sudden 
blow with an umbrella, which the party offended carried 
in his hand; but as a warning to the unthinking, since that 
period, Mr. Van Butchell has thought proper to carry a 
bone when he goes abroad, in some degree resembling a 
battledore ; and which is sdid to have been used as a war- 
like weapon in the island of Otaheite : others call it the 

jaw- 



CELEBRATED MR. MARTIN VAN BUTCHELL. 20, V 5 

jaw-bone of an ass. To use his own expression-^-" It is to 
defend man." 

To sum up the component parts of the character of this 
singular personage, it seems that his native ingenuity, per- 
severance, and skill in his various professions, all producing 
a succc&sful practice, have seldom been equalled ; and to 
which, as we have noticed before, his eccentricities have 
served rather as a shade than a foil. These, of course, form 
no essential part of the moral character; and when assumed, 
are very seldom beneficial or profitable to the man truly up- 
right. Of the qualities of Mr. Van Butchell's mind, there 
is the most undoubted testimony. The references which he 
makes to persons whom he has healed, in his advertisements, 
are not men of straw mere non entities, as most of those 
names are, which are brought forward by constantly adver- 
tising quacks. On the contrary, speaking as we have found, 
they are not only living, but rejoicing, they seem to consi- 
der themselves as almost raised from the dead translated 
from the dreary regions of despair to those of joy and hope, 
and as having commenced a new existence ; they, therefore, 
speak of their benefactor, not merely in terms of gratitude, 
but often in those of rapture. But to the multiplication of 
these happy instances, these salutary aids, and sweeteners of 
the bitter cup of humanity, sorry we are that any serious ob- 
stacles should exist. The fact is, that Mr. Martin Van But- 
chell, finding himself subverted by others in some of his fa- 
vourite inventions, it has compelled him to raise the consi- 
deration for curing the Fistula to so high a price, that many 
now are probably compelled to languish and die for want of 
assistance. What is supposed by many, that Mr. Van 
Butchell's refusing to visit any patients whatever, with his 
manners and appearance, have been great hindrances to 
his profits, will not be controverted here. But if a person, 
thus possessing superior skill and ability, may be esteemed 

a public 



204 1.1PK AND ( HARACTF.R OF TH 

a public blessing, all eccentricities being allowed for, it is in- 
cumbent upon those who have the means of bettering society, 
to remove such obstacles as may occur, and if possible, even 
to enlarge the sphere of individual, and particular]) of un- 
rivalled utility. But how difficult, we will not say impos- 
sible, it would be to persuade Mr. Van Butcheil to rescind 
a resolution which he has once taken, may be inferred from 
a well known fact, of his refusing to attend a gentleman emi- 
nent in the law, at his own house ; because he had before 
said in his advertisements, " I go to none." Mr. Van But- 
cheil, no doubt, had his reasons for framing this resolution at 
first ; but the most extraordinary part of the business is, that 
we know he even refused Jive hundred good solid reasons, 
which were offered him for altering this said resolution ! 
This singular determination of refusing 500 guineas did riot 
rest here ; the lady of the gentleman who was afflicted, we 
have heard, even offered 1000, and to send her carriage every 
morning to Mr. Van Butcheil's house to fetch him. This, 
however, was to no purpose, the Doctor still referred to the 
words of his advertisement, " I go to none/' and expatiated 
very largely upon the propriety of the resolution he had 
taken. But here, if obstinacy is to be imputed to the Doc- 
tor, we presume that folly may be added to that of his more 
opulent patient, who chose rather to keep his alarming dis- 
ease than condescend to attend upon the Doctor. Again, 
the secresy which is required in his manner of treating pa- 
tients at his own house, may be a further obstacle to the en- 
largement of his practice, and also deter many delicate and 
timid persons from attending him. Male or female lie suf- 
fers no third person to be present, and even bars the door of 
his apartment before he commences his operation, or ra- 
ther his dressing ; for as he never uses the knife, some 
people might falsely imagine that such an idea was intended 
by that term. We once heard, that it was his intention to 

bring' 
I 



CELEBRATED MR. MARTIN VAN BUTCHELL. 205 

bring up his eldest son in his profession; but that the young 
man is since gone abroad. The character, which with all 
its oddities, the late Dr. John Hunter caressed and recom- 
mended, must surelv deserve encouragement, if not pre- 
ference; and if, as \ve have been lately informed, Mr. Van 
Butchell has considerably enlarged the sphere of hig prac- 
tice, by no longer confining it to Fistulas, &c. ; we hope 
this may be some means of enabling the public more justly 
to appreciate his merits, who, either as an individual or a 
professional man, has so many strong and genuine motives 
to their recommendation, besides a large family of nine 
children. 

As a proof of Mr. Van Butchell's general talents, we 
have been credibly informed, that when he first heard that 
Lord George Gordon died of a fever, he was extremelv 
concerned, and expressed his certain persuasion that he 
could have cured Iwm, had he known of his illness in time, 
having been a frequent visitor to him while in confinement. 
After that period, Mr. Van Butchell used his utmost ex- 
ertions to prevent the fever from urging in Newgate, by 
the recommendation of various preventives, and by making 
it a common practice to pay a number of friendly visits to 
that prison, while a number of persons were confined there 
at the period when Tom Paine's Rights of Man, &c. made 
so much noise in the world. 

Of Mr. Van Butchell's taste as a writer, the reader will 
make his own conclusions, from the following specimens of 
his advertisements taken from the public papers. 



Causes of Crim. Con. Also Barrenness And the King's 
Evil : Advice new Guinea ; come from Ten till One : 
for i go to none. The Anatomist and Sympathizer, who 
never poisons, nor sheds humane blood : Balm is always 
good, 

VOL, i. L c Correspond- 



'206 CURIOUS ADVEKTISEMF.NTS OT THE 

Corresponding Lads Remember Judas: And the 
Year 80 ! Last Monday Morning, at Seven c? Clock, Doctor 
Merryman, of Queen Street, May-fair, presented Elizabeth, 
the Wife of Martin Van Butchell, with her Fifth fine Boy, 
at his House in Mount-street, Grosvenor-square, and 
they all are well. Post Masters General for Ten 
Thousand Pounds ( We mean Gentlemen's Not a Penny 
less ) I will soon construct Such Mail-Coach-Perch 
Bolts as shall never break ! 

Tender hearted Man. User of the Knife, would'st 
thou cut thy Wife : ( Unless two* were by ? Fearing her 
might die? ) Is not Blood the Life? 

* Alluding to the regular mode of eminent Surgeons, 
who seldom cut for Fistula and Piles, but in the presence 
of their assistants : because, a few patients have died un- 
der the operation, and a few more have died, some days 
after the day of cutting. Not so our Author : Mais tout 
an contraire. If the Empress of Russia, the Emperor 
of Germany, the King of Prussia, an Immaculate, 
or the Pope of Rome; were sorely smitten with bad 

Fistula and tormenting Piles, visited Martin to be 

made quite whole : Without Confinement, Fomentation, 
Risk, Injection, Poultice, Caustic, or Cutting : bring- 
ing two per Cent, of Five Years Profit. ^" Less is not his 
fee. Nor would he suffer a third person to be in the room. 
Not wanting help, he won't be hindei'd ; by half-witted 
spies ; slavish informers: nor sad alarmists. All his patients 
live : and Jehovah praise. 

To the Knrrou of a Morning paper. Ego 

secundus. Of God every man hath his proper gift : glory 
be to him- -that mine is healing: ( Not miraculous, 1101 
by Satan's aid : ) being vigilant while gay lads gamed 
at the tennis court, 1 found it in Schools Anatomical.- 

Fistula 



1ELKUHA 1T.D MR. MARTIN VAN HUTCHE1.L. '207 

Fistula? and Piles best my genius fit : very broad is art- 
narrow human vit: llio' man was complete: ( As he 
ought to be with an hairy chm. ) Lovely women hate 
fops effeminate. Time approaches \vhen among ceitam 
men in another age beards will be the rage ! 

To many I refer for my character : each will have the 
grace to write out his case ; soon as he is well an history 
tell: for the public good ; so save humane blood : as all 
true folk shou'd. Sharkish people may keep them- 
selves away. Those that use men ill / never can heal ; 
being forbidden to eatt pearls to pigs ; lest t/in/- turn 
and tear. Wisdom makes dainty : patients come to me, 
^ith heavy guineas, between ten and one: hut 1 go to 
none. 

Mgnthr rf Mankind : in a manly way. 

In another advertisement he says, That your Majesty's 
Petitioner is a British Christian Man aged fifty-nine with 
a comely beard full eight inches long. That your Ma- 
jesty's Petitioner was born in the County of Middlesex 
brought up in the County of Surrey and has never been 
out of the Kingdom of England. That your Majesty's 
Petitioner ( about ten years ago ) had often the high 
honour ( before your Majesty's Nobics) of conversing 
with your Majesty ( face to face--) when we were hunt- 
ing of the stag on Windsor Forest. 

British Christian Lads. ( '" Behold now is the day 
of salvation. Get understanding : as the highest gain. ) 
Cease looking boyish : become quite manly! (Girls are 
fond of hair: it is natural.) liet your beards grou 
long: that ye may be Mrvng: - m mind and body: as 
were great grand dad;>: centimes ago; vt hen John did not 
owe a sinplr penny : movr than ht vJc-uM pay. 

Phi- 



208 cunious ADVERTISEMENTS ov TIIK 

Phi lo so fie sirs. " Heaven gives a will : 

then directs the way." Honor your Maker: And " Be 
swift to hear : slow to speak : or wrath" Leave off 
Reforming : each himself reform : wear-- the marks 
of men: In-con-les-ti-ble! Jesus did not shave : for 
H-e knew better. Had it been proper out chins should 
be bare, would hair be put there: by wise Jehovah? 
" Who made all things good." 

Fistula and Piles, by the b.elp of God zee eradicate. 
Having wit enough to heal those complaints, my small fee 
must be twelve heavy guineas: large, six-score thousand: 
We mean 2 pr. cent, on five years profit put it in rou- 
leaus, of an hundred each. Come from ten till one : for 
/ goto none. 

Sympathising Minds ! " Blessed are they that con- 
sider the poor." Kings, Princes, Dukes, Lords, 

Knights, Esquires, Ladies, a Or the Lord knows who," 
are hapless mortals ! Many do need me : to give them 
comfort! Am not I the first healer ( at this Day ) 
of bad Fistula; ? ( With an handsome Beard ) like 
Hippocrates ! The combing I sell one guinea each 
hair: ( Of use to the Fair; that want fine children: 
I can tell them how ; it is a secret. ) Some, .-are 
quite auburn ; others, silver white: full half- 
quarter long, growing (day, and night, ) only 

fifteen months! Ye must hither come, ( As I go to 
none ) and bring one per cent, of five years profit: 
that's my settled fee: it shall be return'd if I do not cure 
( In a little time ) the worst Fistula : let who will 
have fail'd! Lie tellin - is bad: sotting makes folk 

o o 

sad ! See ( Ananias ) Begjnning Acts V. Pot-i-cary 
bow thy iiiz'd mealy pate ! " Despisers, behold 
wonder and perish!" "God gives grace to man ! Glory 



be t<> God ! He doth all things well!' 



I'JSlulct; 



CELEBRATED MR. MARTIN VAN BUTCHF.LI.. 209 

Fistula -- Patients - Fee is according to ability ! 
let those- who have much give -- without grudging ! 
( -heavy guineas down : I don't like paper ; unless 
from the Bank of goad old England. ) Plain folk do 
comply -- very readily : so shall the gaudy : -- or keep 
their complaints ! Many -- are in want of food ; and 
raiment, for large families ; such, will be made whole 
just so speedily as the most wealthy; "that's one right of 
man," and he shall have it : while God grants me health ! 

' O 

( Philosophers say " Mankind are equal : and pure 
religion kindly promotes good.") Lofty ones read 
this, then pause a little : down your dust must lay ; pro- 
mises won't do : I can't go away to receive some pay from 
other people ! 

Though to the abovementioned advertisements many cases 
might be added, it is not less remarkable, that Mr. Van 
Butchell has by no means availed himself either of the num- 
ber, or the desperate nature of those that might have been 
brought forward. It is however certain, that many of them 
would astonish belief, or otherwise appear next to miraculous ; 
but conscious, that in this account we have neither extenu- 
ated nor aggravated any of the circumstances in the lift: of this 
truly extraordinary character, we now leave them to the con- 
sideration of every curious and candid reader. 

LovooN", June, 1303. 



Particulars of a SHOCKING MURDER lately committed by 
a Man of the Name of HESKETH, at Hollingwood in 
Lancashire. 

IT appears that Hesketh was a man of property, and had 
had several children (one only then living) by the deceased 
woman, \\\\o dwelt with him in the double capacity of house- 
keeper and mistress. Frequent quarrels happening between 
them, accompanied with blows, the neighbours seldom inter- 

fered. 



AN ACCOUNT OF A BURNING WELL, 

fered. Heskelh's house standing at some distance from any 
other; and on the evening which produced the horrid ca- 
tastrophe, although a great noise was heard in the house bv 
several persons passing, no one thought proper to go in. 
The next morning early, a stream of blood was observed 
running under the door ; an alarm was given, and a passage 
forced into the kitchen, where Hesketh was extended near 
the fire-place, with a pair of tongs in his hand much bent ; 
and by the side of him his child, about three years old* 
wrapped in the shades of death, over which his arms were 
thrown, either for defence, or from a last effort of affection. 
The woman was lying at a small distance from them, not 
quite dead, still grasping a fire-poker; but did not survive 
above a few minutes. Thus, drawing an impenetrable veil over 
particulars of the transaction : little doubt however remains, 
that the man and woman had fought with the poker and 
tongs, till loss of blood exhausted their strength ; that during 
the affray the child had continued for some time to scream, 
and was at length silenced by violence, as the poor innocent's 
tongue was nearly torn out, and its body much bruised. 
May 1803. 



An Account oj fa BURNING WIH.L, at Broseley in Shrop- 
shire; being Part of a Letter from the Rev. Mr. Mason, 
Woodwardian Professor at Cambridge, and F.R.S.; dated 
June IS, 1746. 

AT Broseley, in 1711, was a well found, which burned 
with great violence, but it has been lost many years. The 
poor man in whose land it was, missing the profit he used 
to have by shewing it, applied his utmost endeavours to re- 
cover it ; but all in vain, till May last, when attending to 
a rumbling noise under the ground, like what the former 
well made, though in a lower situation, and about thirty 
yards nearer to the river, he happened to hit upon it again, 
i That 



AT I5ROSELEY, IN SHROPSHIRE. 21 i 

That you may have some notion what it is, I will lay before 
you such an account of it, as the cursory view I had will 
permit. 

The well for four or five feet deep is six or seven feet 
wide ; within that is another less hole of like depth dug in 
the clay, in the bottom whereof is placed a cylindric earthen 
vessel, of about four or five inches diameter at the mouth, 
having the bottom taken off, and the sides well fixed in the 
clay rammed close about it. Within the pot is a brown 
water as thick as puddle, continually forced up with a vio- 
lent motion, beyond that of boiling water, and a rumbling 
hollow noise, raising or falling by fits, five or six inches; 
but there was no appearance of any vapour rising, which 
perhaps might have been visible, had not the sun shone so 
bright. Upon putting down a candle at the end of a stick, 
at about a quarter of a yard distance, it took fire, darting 
and flashing in a violent manner, for about half a yard high, 
much in the manner of spirits in a lamp, but with greater 
agitation. The man said that a tea-kettle had been made 
to boil in about nine minutes time, and that he had left it 
burning forty-eight hours together, without any sensible 
diminution. 

It was extinguished by putting a wet mop upon it, which 
must be kept there a small time, otherwise it would not go 
out. I pon the removal of the mop, there succeeded a sul- 
phureous smoke, lasting about a minute ; and yet the water 
was very cold to the touch. 

The well lies about thirty yards from the Severn, which, 
iu that place, and for some miles both above and below, 
runs in a vale full 100 yards perpendicular below the level 
of the country on either side, which inclines down to the 
vale, at an angle of 20 or 30 deg. from the horizon, but 
somewhat more or less in different places, according as the 
place is moie or less rocky. 

The 



*2J'2 TIJE BURNING WELL AT BROSE1.EY, JS.C. 

The country consists fcf rock, stone, earth, and clay ; 
and as the river, which is very rapid, washes away the soft 
and loose parts, the next successively slip into the chan- 
nel, so as by degrees, and in time, to affect the whole slope 
of the land ; and as the inferior strata yield coal and iron 
ore, their fermentation may produce this vapour, and force 
it to ascend with violence through the chinks of the earth, 
and give the water the great motion it has. This might be 
obstructed in one place by the forementioned subsiding of 
the sloping bank, and might afterwards find vent in another, 
in like manner as happened at Scarborough a few years 
since. 

A gentlemtm writes, June J(), 17()l ; when I was there 
eight years ago, the cylinder had been taken up, or other- 
wise destroyed ; the well no longer appeared any thing else 
but a miry hole of clay. Other waters had been suffered 
to mix with those of the burning spring, which, though 
they considerably diminished the effect, did not, howcvor, 
wholly destroy it; for upon the application of a piece of 
lighted paper, a stream of clear flame shot up from tin: 
well, which very much resembled that of a tea-kettle lamp 
fed by spirits ; but as we could not keep out the other 
water, the flame presently went out of itself. 

I forgot now to what cause they told us this shameful 
neglect was owing; whether to a contest between two rival 
claimants to the property, or whether the curiosity of the 
circumjacent inhabitants had been fully gratified, it no 
longer attracted a concourse of visitants sufficient to reward 
the attention of the proprietor. It were to be wished, that 
some of the gentlemen in that neighbourhood, (which I 
have left now many years) would give us the present state 
oi tins wonderful phenomenon. 



( 21.) ) 

Circumstantial Account of the GREAT FIRE of LONDON, 
which happened on Monday, September 2, 166G. 

[The reason of giving tins Xavrativii a place HI 01:1 Miscellany, i.; grounded 
upon the circumstance of the rarity of any particular account of this 
singular event j but to which the following, we presume, will be admitted 
as a satisfactory exception.] 



/AFTER twenty years civil war, a great plague, and an 
uncommon dry summer, this city, iu the year and on the 
day above mentioned, that is to say, about one o'clock in 
the morning, was visited by a dreadful fire, which made 
its first appearance in Pudding-lane, near the Monument. 
This part of the town being closely built with old lath 
and plaister, it was so violent in its outset and its early 
progress, that people had no time to save any thing 
more than their lives ; nor yet to think of means to re- 
sist the devouring element, before the expiration of next 
day ; when as common fire-engines had no effect upon it, 
it had spread up Gracechurch-street, and downwards from 
Cannon-street to the water-side, as far as the Three Cranes 
in the Vintry. 

But while most of the people, as the only means left 
them, were busily occupied in removing their goods from 
the houses which had not caught fire, some attempts were 
made to prevent the spreading of the flames, by pulling 
down houses, and leaving great spaces ; but even this was 
in vain; for the tire seizing upon the timber and rubbish, 
it consumed every obstacle of a combustible kind, and is 
said to have continued in a bright flame all Monday and 
Tuesday, notwithstanding his Majesty's and his Royal 
Brother's indefatigable and personal pains to apply all pos- 
sible remedies to prevent it. Not only the guards but a 
great number of nobility and gentry also assisted, and 

VOL. j. F f were 



'214 CIRCUMSTANTIAL ACCOUNT OF THK 

were requited with a thousand blessings from the poor dis- 
tressed people. However, by Tuesday night the wind 
had somewhat abated ; and besides, the flames which were 
driven westward as far as the Temple, there meeting with 
brick buildings, they began to lose their strength. And 
on Wednesday morning, through the blowing up of a 
number of houses with gunpowder, a complete stop was 
put to the progress of the flames, at the Temple Church ; 
at Holborn Bridge, near the end of Fleet Market; at Pye 
Corner ; at Aldersgate ; at Cripplegate, near the lower 
end of Coleman-street ; at the upper end of Bishopsgate 
and Leadenhall-streets ; at the Standard in Cornhill; the 
Church in Fenchurch-street ; at the middle of Mark-lane ; 
and at Tower Dock. 

On Thursday, it might have been said to have been 
quite extinguished, had it not broken out again near the 
Temple, by the falling of some sparks upon a pile of 
wooden buildings. But here, the then Duke of York, 
brother to Charles II. having remained all night in person, 
was the cause of the flames being again subdued before 
day-light, by the blowing up of the houses adjacent to 
those that were on fire. But though the fire came up to 
the very gates of the Tower, the houses being previously 
pulled down, the pow'der, stores, &c. there lodged were 
carefully preserved. To remedy the inconveniences occa- 
sioned by so many people being deprived of shelter, tents 
and booths were erected, particularly in Moor-fields ; and 
farther, to relieve those that were in immediate want, his 
Majesty ordered great quantities of biscuit to be sent there 
from Chatham ; but as no monopolizers had then availed 
themselves of a temporary period of distress, the markets 
were so well supplied from the country, that most of the 
provision, the people being unused to it, was returned to 
the King's stores untouched. 

This great fire, though it was not the destruction of the 

whole 
i 



GREAT TIRE OF LONDON, IN SEPTt l6t>(3. '215 

whole city, however, destroyed full four parts of it out of 
five. The number of houses burnt were estimated at about 
twelve thousand, eighty-seven parish-churches, seven conse- 
crated chapels, and the cathedral of St. Paul, together with 
the Custom-House, the Royal Exchange, and Guildhall, 
became the prey of the flames. In addition to these, were 
the Halls of the Companies, and in private warehouses a 
quantity of wine, spices, tobacco, &.c. almost incredi- 
ble. Still the greatest havoc was made in books. It was 
said by the booksellers, who then resided, as they do now, 
about the Cathedral of St. Paul, that having obtained leave, 
they sheltered their bocks in a subterraneous arch under that 
edifice, named St. Faith's, which was supported by so strong 
an arch, and such massy pillars, that it seemed impossible 
that fire could do any harm to it; but the tire having crept 
through the windows, it seized upon the pews, and so loosen- 
ed the arch and the pillars, that when the top of the Cathe- 
dra! fell upon it, it beat it flat in, and set all things in au 
irremediable flame. 

The loss of books at St. Paul's Church, Stationers' Hall, 
and from other public libraries, was estimated at least at 
150,000. The writer of the original account, from 
whence this is taken, says, he saw bells and iron wares 
melted, and glass and earthenware all in one consistence 
together. The largest and most solid stones, were split and 
scaled, and in some parts completely calcined. Yet the 
most miraculous circumstance he- knew of was, that not 
above half a dozen people in all perished by that dreadful 
conflagration. One of them was an acquaintance of his, 
a watchmaker, living in Shoe-lane, named Paul Lawell, 
born in Strasbourg ; who being about eighty years of age, 
and dull of hearing, was also deaf to the admonition of his 
son and friends, and would never desert the house till it 
fell upon him ; his bones and his keys being afterwards 
found in the cellar. The whole loss of property on this 

F f '2. occasion. 



216 CIRCUMSTANTIAL ACCOUNT OF THE 

occasion, was estimated at about seven millions and a half. 
There is also a traditionary report, that during this 
fire, an elderly woman, \vho was surprised by it, in a house 
in a coiner near Angel-street, St. Martin's-le-grand, took 
refuge in the chimney, while the building fell, and by that 
means escaping unhurt, that place, from the name of the 
old woman, has been distinguished ever since by the name 
of Nans Hole. 

But this lire, though a great calamity, was also a 
great mercy ; this will further appear from a contrast of 
the same, with the following account of the tire at Moscow 
in Russia, in 1571, including a description by an eye-wit- 
ness, which we may safely pronounce, has in history no 
parallel. It is also considered by the most enlightened, 
that had it not been for these dreadful disasters, the plague, 
which used very frequently to appear, making the most 
destructive ravages, would have still continued, instead of 
ceasing, as it has done ever since. And in respect to the 
still more dreadful fire at Moscow, we find that also was 
preceded by a plague, which, in the course of four months, 
swept away above 250,000 people. 

This extraordinary misery (the plague), was followed 
the year after, on the 15th of May, by a strange ruin 
and conflagration; the occasion was, that the Emperor of 
the Tartarians, being discontented that the Russians did 
not pay him some annual tribute ; and hearing besides, 
that the Great Duke, by his tyranny and massacres, had 
so depopulated the country, that he .should iind no great 
resistance that way, did summon him to pay the said tri- 
bute; but the Great Duke returned nothing in answer, but 
spiteful and reproachful words : wherefore the Tartarian 
came out of his country about the end of February, fol- 
lowed with an army of 100,000 horse, who within the 
space of two months and a half, did ride about 500 Ger- 
man leagues, which make (2000 English miles. When they 

were 



GRKAT FIRE OF MOSCOW, IN MAY 157J. 217 

were come about two days journey from the Frontiers of 
the Duke, he resolved to meet them, and to give them 
battle ; but he lost it with a prodigious slaughter of his men. 
The Duke knowing that the Tartarian would seek him out, 
ran away as fast and as far as he could. He was only 
\vithin nine leagues of Moscow, when the Tartarians came 
and encompassed the town, thinking he was wkhin ; they 
set a-fire all the villages round about it; and seeing that 
the war would prove too tedious for them, resolved to 
burn that great city, or, at least the suburbs of it. For 
this purpose, having placed their troops round about it, 
thev set tire on all sides, so that it seemed a burning "lobe ; 

* I O O ? 

then did arise so fierce and violent a wind, lhat it drove 
the rafters and long trees from the suburbs into the city ; 
the conflagration was so sudden, that nobody had time to 
save himself, but in that place where he was then. The 
persons that were burnt in this fire, were above 200,000 ; 
which did happen, because the houses are all of wood, 
and the streets paved with great fir-trees, set close toge- 
ther, which, being oily and resinous, made the incendy 
unexpressible ; so that in four hours time, the city and 
suburbs were wholly consumed. I, and a young man of 
Rochelle, that was my interpreter, were in the middle of 
the lire, in a magazine vaulted with stone, and extraordi- 
narily strong, whose wall was three feet and a half thick, 
and had no air but on two sides ; one wherein was the 
coming in and going out, which was a long alley, in which 
there were three iron gates, distant about six feet from 
each other ; on the other side there was a window or grate, 
fenced with three iron shutters, distant half a foot one from 
another : we shut them inwardly as well as possibly we 
could ; nevertheless, there came in so much smoke, that it 
was more than sufficient to choak us, had it not been for 
some beer that was there, with the which we refreshed our- 
selves now and then. Many lords and gentlemen were 

stifled 



'JI18 CIRCUMSTANTIAL ACCOUNT OF THE 

stilled in the caves, where they had retired, because, theis 
houses being made of great trees, when they fell, they 
crushed down all that was underneath ; others being con- 
sumed to ashes, stopped all the passages of going and 
coming out, so that for want of air, they all perished. 
The poor country people that had saved themselves in the 
city, with their cattle, from threescore miles round about, 
seeing the conflagration, ran all into the Market-place, 
which is not paved of wood as the rest ; nevertheless, they 
were all roasted there, in such sort, that the tallest man 
seemed but a child, so much had the fire contracted their 
limbs; and this, by reason of the great houses that were 
round about, a thing more hideous and frightful than any 
can imagine. In many places of the said Market, the 
bodies were piled one upon another, to the height of half a 
pike ; which put me into a wonderful admiration, being not 
able to apprehend nor understand, how it was possible they 
should be so heaped together. 

This wonderful conflagration caused all the fortifica- 

o 

tions of the town-wall to fall, and all the ordnance that 
were upon it to burst. The walls were made of brick, 
according to the ancient way of building, without either 
fortifications or ditches. Many that had saved themselves 
among them, were nevertheless roasted, so fierce and vehe- 
ment was the tire; among them, many Italians and Wal- 
loons of my acquaintance. While the fire lasted, we 
thought that a million of cannons had been thundering to- 
gether, and our thoughts were upon nothing but death, 
thinking that the fire would last some days, because of the 
great circumference of the castle and suburbs ; but all this 
was done in less than four hours time ; at the end of which, 
the noise growing less, we were curious to know, whether 
the Tartarians, of whom we stood in no less fear than of 
the fire, were entered. After we had hearkened awhile, 
we heard .some Russians running U> and fro through the 

smoke. 



GREAT FIRE OF MOSCOW, IN MAY 1571. 21Q 

smoke, who were talking of walling the gates, to prevent 
the coining in of the Tartarians, who were expecting when 
the fire went out. I and my interpreter being come out 
of the magazine, found the ashes so hot, that we durst 
scarce tread upon them ; but, necessity compelling us, we 
ran towards the chief gate, where we found 25 or 30 men 
escaped from the fire, with whom, in a few hours, we 
did wall that gate, and the rest, and kept a strict watch 
all that night with some guns that had been preserved from 
the fire. In the morning, seeing that the place was not 
defensible, with so few people as we were, we sought the 
means to get into the castle, whose entry was then inacces- 
sible ; the governor was very glad to hear of our intention, 
and cried to us, we should be very welcome ; but it was 
a most difficult thing to come in, because the bridges were 
all burnt, so that we were fain to get over the wall, hav- 
ing instead of ladders, some high fir-trees thrown from the 
castle to us : wherein, instead of rounds to get up, they had 
made some notches with a hatchet, to keep us from sliding. 
We got up then with much ado ; for, besides the evident 
inconveniency of those rough ladders, we did carry about 
us the sum of 4000 thalers, besides some jewels, which was 
a great hindrance to us to climb along those high trees ; and 
that, which did double our fear, was, that we saw before 
our eyes some of our company, that had nothing but their 
bodies to save, yet tumble down from the middle of those 
high trees into the ditch, full of burnt bodies, so that we 
could not tread but upon dead corpses, whose heaps were 
so thick every where, that we could not avoid to tread 
upon ihem, as if it had been a hill to climb up ; and that 
which did augment our trouble was, that in treading upon 
them, the arms and legs broke like glass ; the poor limbs 
of these creatures being calcined, by the vehement heat of 
the fire, and our feet sinking into those miserable bodies, 
the blood and the filth did squirt in our faces, which begot 
such a stench all the town over, that it was impossible to 
subsist in it. 

After 



220 A 1.1RT OK REMARKABLE DEATHS. 

After remaining a short time in the caslle, finding that the 
Tartais hud retired, the writer observes, that the few in the 
castle, and himself, left that desolate place. 



SINGULAR POSTERITY OF THE DUTCHESS OF 

B L A N K E N BO U RG 11. 

r -^ 

1 HE Dutchess of Blankenbourgh, great grandmother of the 
present reigning Duke of Brunswick (1803), lived to see u 
posterity of 62 princes and princesses, of whom she beheld 
53 alive at one time ; amongst this offspring, were three 
emperors, two empresses, two kings and two queens. 



A LIST OF REMARKABLE DEATHS. 

JVlR. WILLIAMS, a tailor of Maidstone, died there the 
latter end of the year 1795, very suddenly, on the road be- 
tween that town and Dartford. He had a presentiment of 
a sudden death, and always carried a paper about him, 
that in case he died in such and such places, he might be 
carried to his friends who lived there. 

An extraordinary circumstance attended the death of 
Mr. Greensmith at Nottingham, in the year 1790. lie 
went to bed in perfect health; early in the morning, with- 
out dressing himself, he went to the street-door, and after 
telling his neighbours his hour was come, returned to bed 
and expired in a few minutes. 

In the year 1796, died at Wordley Workhouse, Berks, 
Mary Pitts, aged 70 ; on being accused of having rum- 
maged the box of another pauper, she wished God might 
strike her dead if she had ; and instantly expired. 

On Mai eli the loth, i/96, died at Kilberry, in Ay re, 
Scotland. Mr. Wyllie, at twelve at noon; and at twelve 

on the same iilght, died his wife, aged 70 : they had been 

58 years married, 

lu 



EXTRAORDINARY ADVERTISEMENT. 21 

In the church-yard of Willingham, in Cumberland, an 
epitaph sets forth a memorable lad of that village, who, 
before he was a year old, had marks of puberty ; before 
he was three years old, was above three feet and a half high ; 
and before he was six, died as it were in an advanced age, 
in 1741. 



EXTRAORDINARY ADVERTISEMENT, WHICH APPEARED 
JUNE 16, 1803. 

1 o MEN OF HONOUR. If it were asked at Delphos, 
why there is so much infelicity in human nature ; the 
Oracle might urge, that it arose from the misapplication of 
our passions. If Sappho or Heloisa existed now, they 
might pine in vain for suitors correspondent with their ele- 
gant desires : yet there are such amiable beings ; but they 
are denied the contemplation of high good, by the spells of 
ambition and wealth. The coarse may believe, that Love 
can triumph, independent of sentiment, and the assiduities 
of the Graces ; but such persons are not organized for the 
supreme happiness ; the laws of Cyprus are inapplicable 
to a table of interest. A refined spirit is anxious to par- 
ticipate in the enthusiasms of tenderness and sympathy, 
and tremblingly departs from her accustomed habits, to 
allure a kindred soul. A noble mind only can understand 
and appreciate the genuine tenor of this declaration. Ex- 
plicit letters directed for D. E. See. &c. 



MANNER of DRAWING LOTTERIES during Ihe Reign of 
QUEEN ELIZABETH. 

[/ the very early part of the reign of James I. (hat is, in 1608, a quarto pamph- 
let was printed in London, intituled, " THE GREAT FROST;" or, Cold 
Doings in London ; except it he in the Lattery : Being a familiar Talk be- 
tween a Countryman and a Citizen, touching this terrible Frost, and the great 
Lottery.~\ 

J. HE description of the frost, the sports excepted, has 

nothing remarkable in it; but after a brief representation 

of the lotteries which had been drawn in the late (Queen 

VOL. i. o g Elizabeth's) 



MANNER OF DRAWING LOTTERIES, &.-:, 

Elizabeth's) reign, the author of the pamphlet describe? 
more particularly that lottery which was then carrying 
on in London by some foreigners ; and how greedily the 
poor adventurers strove to make themselves beggars in it. 
The prizes in the lottery were all of plate, the highest 
worth a hundred and fifty, or threescore pounds. Though 
the tickets were but one shilling a-piece, to one prize there 
were no less than forty blanks. The manner of drawing 
'.seems to have been very tumultuous. The doors ever 
crowded, the room continually rilled with people : every 
mouth bawling out for lots: every hand stretched forth to 
snatch them : both hands lifted up at once, the one to de- 
liver the condemned shillings, the other to receive the 
papers of life and death. It is said lo have been as divert- 
ing as so many comedies, to have seen tlm entrance into 
the place; but grievous to consider what tragical ends be- 
fel many of the poor housekeepers, servants, and others 
of that simple flock, who, in the end, were stripped and 
plumed in such a manner, as to have no more feathers left 
on their backs, than geese that had been newly plucked. 
Such infatuation was still more excusable than at present, 
since time has supplied so many fatal instances of its pre- 
judice. 



A SINGULAR CHARACTER. 

J. HE village of Threlkeld, in Cumberland, a curacy, 
was once in the possession of a clergyman, remarkable for 
the oddity of his character. This gentleman, by name 
Alexander Naughley, was a native of Scotland. The cure 
in his time was very poor, only eight pounds sixteen shil- 
lings yearly; but as he lived the life of Diogenes, it was 
enough. His dress was mean and even beggarly: he lived 
alone, without a servant to do the meanest drudgery for 
him : his victuals he cooked himself, not very elegantly we 
may suppose: his bed was straw, with only two blankets 
But with all the.se outward marks of a sloven, no man pos- 
sessed 



A SINGULAR CHARACTER. 223 

sessed a greater genius ; his wit was ready, his satire keen 
and undaunted, and his learning extensive ; add to this, 
that he \vas a facetious and agreeable companion ; and 
though generally fond of the deepest retirement, would un- 
bend among company, and become the chief promoter of 
mirth. He had an excellent library, and at his death left 
behind him several manuscripts on various subjects, and 
of very great merit. These consisted of a Treatise on 
Algebra, Conic Sections, Spherical Trigonometry, and 
other Mathematical Pieces. He had written some Poetry, 
but most of this he destroyed before his death. His other 
productions would have shared the same fate, had they not 
been kept from him by a person to whom he had entrusted 
them. The state they were found in is scarcely less ex- 
traordinary ; being written upon sixty loose sheets, tied to- 
gether v. ith a shoemaker's waxed thread. 

Mr. Naughley never was married; but having once 
some thoughts of entering into that state, he was rejected 
by the fair one to whom he paid his addresses. Enraged 
at this disappointment, and to prevent the fair sex having 
any farther influence over him, he castrated himself, giv- 
ing for lus reason, " If thy right eye ofi'encl thee, &.C." 
in consequence of this operation, he grew prodigiously fat, 
and his voice, which was naturally good, improved very 
much, and continued during his life. He died April the 
. vUih, i 7o6, at the age of 76 ; having served this curacy 47 
years ! 



ROGEE CRAB, AN ENGLISH HERMIT. 

1 His \\as a religious man, and one of the Sectaries, who, 
after the termination of the civil wars, during the usurpa- 
tion of Oliver Cromwell, that is to say, in 1655, was living 
in a caw near Oxbridge. Being a zealot, he had served 
.n the army of the Parliament, and between that period and 

G 2 C 'he 



224 SINGULAR PRESERVATION, &C. 

the time of his final retirement from the world, had kept a 
shop at Chesham, in Buckinghamshire. This he not only 
gave up, but sold a considerable estate to give to the 
poor, in compliance with what he esteemed a command, in 
Mark, chap. x. verse 21. Go thy way, sell whatsoever thou 
hast) and give it to the poor. After this, he esteemed it a 
sin against his body and soul to eat any sort of flesh, fish, 
or living creature; or to drink any wine, ale, or beer. 
It was even said, he would live upon three farthings a- week, 
as his constant food was cabbage, carrots, dock leaves, tur- 
nips, or grass; also bread and bran, without butter or 
cheese. 



SINGULAR PRESERVATION IN AN UNCOMMON ACCIDENT. 

ON Friday, June 3, 1803, a brewer's dray with two horses, 
coming down Snow-hill from Cow-lane, a very deep cavity 
being dug for the foundation of a large house where the 
leatherseller's stood, one of the horses being restive, they 
ran against the rail put there to prevent accidents, and 
precipitated themselves with the man, who had hold of the 
fore horse, into the deep declivity. Having by the sudden 
motion detached themselves fron. the dray, it hung upon 
the brink ; and though the three butts of beer rolled down 
from the dray in quick succession after the horses, to the 
farthest end of the cavity, happily neither man nor horse 
received the least injury. To release them from this un- 
toward situation, and form a slope for their ascent, it was 
found necessary to dig away a great part of the wall aud 
the ground. 

On Monday, June C, a coroner's inquest, held at the sign 
of the Hospital, near Mile-End Turnpike, on the body of 
Jeseph Williams, landlord of the Three Cranes public- 
house, and those of his wife, her mother, and three children, 
who were all burnt to death on the Saturday morning 

preceding , 



DREADFUL F1RK AT MILE-END. 225 

preceding ; the particulars, as appeared before the Jury, 
were as follows : Mr. Williams sent a female child of his to 
a friend in White Horse-street, Stepney, on Tuesday, to 
be out of the way during Bow Fair ; which child (with the 
exception of a daughter, who is married,) is now the only 
one of the family left. The cause of the melancholy acci- 
dent cannot be discovered ; some assigning one cause, and 
some another : the servant-maid, who is in the hospital, 
says, that when she retired to bed, at one o'clock, Mrs. 
Williams put a horse at the tap-room lire, with some wet 
clothes to dry. A little after two o'clock, the patrole dis- 
covered the house to be on lire, and gave the alarm ; 
on which several persons assembled, and strove to break in 
the door, but could not. At length the windows were forced, 
but too late, as the tire was so rapid that no person could go 
in. Mr. Williams, and some of the unfortunate sufferers, 
slept in the one pair of stairs back room, the front room 
being a sitting room. It is believed, that when they awoke, 
the fire was too great for them to come out at the door ; 
and, unfortunately, the windows were strongly barred with 
iron, owing to the house having been robbed last year. It 
is thought that Mr. Williams advanced rapidly in this dread- 
ful dilemma to the window, as his body and four others 
were found together, and a sixth separate ; on the arrival of 
the engines the exertions of the firemen were rendered 
useless for near a quarter of an hour, on account of the 
want of water. At that time the house was in a complete ir- 
resistible flame, and it is remarkable, fell in less than an hour 
after the first alarm. There were four lodgers slept in the 
attic story, three of whom made their escape out on the 
tiles, viz. a bricklayer, a carpenter, and his daughter, a 
child of thirteen years of age ; the fourth, a drover of the 
name of Andrew Springet, thought to save himself by run- 
ning down stairs ; but finding the staircase in a blaze, he 
was forced to return ; when the fire was raging with such 

I fury, 



2'i>f> DREADFUL FIRE AT MILE-END. 

fury, that ho could not get to the top, and had conse- 
quently to leap out of one of the three pair of stairs win- 
dows into the street, nearly in a state of nakedness, being 
in his shirt ; his hands and thighs were much scorched by 
the fire, but he received no material injury from the fall. 
The servant-maid was in the two pair back room, and 
made her escape by leaping out of the window. She was 
very much bruised, but had no bones broke, except one 
of her great toes. A Mrs. Williams, who lodged in the 
two pair front room, and whose husband was on!; on duty, 
being a patrole, threw a bed out of the window, and then 
leaped after it, but was very much bruised; she is sixty 
years old. Mr. Liptrap had his carriage sent for, and took 
the three to the London Hospital, about half a mile distant: 
they are in a fair way of recovery. The drover, Andrew 
Springet, came on Monday to the jury, in order to give 
his evidence. The six bodies were put into one shell or 
cofiin, but so reduced, that they occupied no more than 
two-thirds of it. The poor survivors lost their whole pro- 
perty ; the premises and stock were insured. It is thought 
there has been a very large amount of bank notes and cash 
destroyed, Mr. Williams being in a very good way of busi- 
ness. The following are the names and ages of the six, 
who unfortunately lost their lives ; viz. Joseph Williams, 
the landlord, aged 43 ; Mary Williams, his wife, aged 38 ; 
Barbara Ford, her mother, aged 84; Esther Williams, the 
daughter, aged 14; Joseph Williams, the son, aged 12; 
and Richard Williams, the son, aged 10. The jury returned 
i verdict, Accidental death. 

Tuesday the 7th of June, about three o'clock in the af- 
ternoon, a thunder-cloud passed over the metropolis, which 
during a short period exhibited a very alarming aspect; 
the discharge of the fluid was directly over head, and very 
near the earth, and was evident, from the flashes of light- 
ning and the report of the thunder, the former very vivid, 

and 



TREMENDOUS THUNDER-CLOUD, &.C. 22? 

and the latter tremendously loud, happening both at the 
same instant. During the tremendous storm, which lasted 
about half an hour, the streets were deluged with rain. At 
the King's Anus, College-street, Westminster, the light- 
ning struck the chimney of the house, which is damaged; 
the electric fluid entering the attic story, it was conducted 
by the bell-wires to the landlord's bed-room, and from thence 
down the staircase into the parlour, in which a number of 
persons were sitting, who fortunately received no injury. 
A 11 the bell-wires were broke, except one, the communica- 
tion being cut off, and some parts of them were melted into 
little balls, the size of a pin's head; the side of the stair- 
case had the appearance as if smoked by a caudle, as had 
also the parlour; the report was said to be equal to that of 
a 24 pound-shot from a cannon. In Parliament-street, and 
other places, persons walking experienced sensations as if 
receiving an electric shock. At Mr. Gosling's, Belvidere- 
row, Narrow Walk, Lambeth, it entered the garret window, 
and set tire to several of the apartments ; but by the activity 
of tiie Westminster firemen, it was prevented from doing 
much damage. The thermometer in the morning rose se- 
veral degrees above summer heat; but after the storm, in 
the open air it fell two degrees below the freezing point. 
During the storm, a horse in a chaise took fright on the 
Kent road, threw out a gentleman, who was very much 
bruised, and laid in the road for some time unable to move, 
till he was relieved by one of the stages. 

On Thursday evening, the 9th of June, at five o'clock, 
a. most singular phenomenon took place in Panton-street, 
Hay-market. The inhabitants were alarmed by a violent and 
tremendous hail and shower storm, which extended uo farther 
than Oxendon-street, Whitcombe-street, Coventry-street, 
and the Hay-market, a space not more than about COO acres. 
The torrent from the heavens '-vns so great, that it could 
only be compared to a wonderful cascade from th.' brow of 

the 



'228 THE GROANING TREE, 

the most tremendous precipice, for seven minutes, so that 
the cellars of all the inhabitants in Panton-street and Oxen- 
don-street were filled with water. Astonishing to relate, in 
the midst of this hurricane an electric cloud descended in 
the middle of the street, and fell in the centre of the coach- 
way, and sunk in a great depth, without leaving a vestige 
or any particle of matter, but formed a complete pit. The 
smell of brimstone for some considerable seconds was so 
strong, that the inhabitants expected every minute to be 
suffocated. Mr. Maden, who keeps a public-house near 
the spot, had water and beer butts thrown flat from the 
stillions, arid no other damage whatever done. 



THE GROANING TREE, AT BADESLY, NEAR LYMINGTON. 

J. HE history of the Groaning Tree is this: about forty 
years ago a cottager, who lived near the centre of the vil- 
lage, heard frequently a strange noise behind his house, 
like that of a person in extreme agony. Soon after it 
caught the attention of his wife, who was then confined to 
her bed. She was a timorous woman, and being greatly 
alarmed, her husband endeavoured to persuade her that the 
noise she heard was only the bellowing of the stags in the 
forest. By degrees, however, the neighbours on all sides 
heard it ; and the thing began to be much talked of. It was 
by this time plainly discovered, that the groaning noise pro- 
ceeded from an elm which grew at the end of the garden. 
It was a young vigorous tree, and to all appearance perfectly 
sound. 

In a few weeks the fame of the groaning tree was spread 
far and wide, and people from all parts flocked to hear it. 
Among others, it attracted the curiosity of the late Prince 
and Princess of Wales, who resided at that time for the 
advantage of a sea-bath at Pilewell, the seat of Sir James 

Worslev, 



AT BADESLEY, NEAR LYMINGTON. 

Worsley, which stood within a quarter of a mile of the 
groaning tree. 

Though the country people assigned many superstitious 
causes for this strange phenomenon, the naturalist could 
assign no physical one that was in any degree satisfactory. 
Some thought it was owing to the twisting and friction of 
the roots : others thought it proceeded from water which 
had collected in the body of the tree, or perhaps from pent 
air. But no cause that was alleged appeared equal to the 
effect. In the mean time, the tree did not always groan, 
sometimes disappointing its visitants : yet no cause could 
be assigned for its temporary cessations, either from sea- 
sons or weather. If any difference was observed, it was 
thought to groan least when the weather was wet, and most 
when it was clear and frosty : but the sound at all times 
seemed to arise from the root. Thus the groaning tree con- 
tinued an object of astonishment during the space of eigh- 
teen or twenty months to all the country around : and for 
the information of distant parts, a pamphlet was drawn up, 
containing a particular account of all the circumstances 
relating to it. At length the owner of it, a gentleman of 
the name of Forbes, making too rash an experiment to dis- 
cover the cause, bored a hole in the trunk. After this it 
never groaned. It was then rooted up, with a farther view 
to make a discovery, but still nothing appeared which led 
to any investigation of the cause. It was universally, how- 
ever believed, that there was no trick in the affair, but that 
some natural cause really existed, though never understood, 



THE LARGEST CHE9NUT TREE THAT EVER EXISTED 
IN ENGLAND. 

1 HIS Chesnut grows at a place called Wimley, near Hit- 

chen Priory in Herefordshire. In the year 1789, at five 

VOL. I, nh feef 



230 DR- ANDREW BOARD, 

feet above the ground, its girth was somewhat more than 
fourteen yards, its trunk was hollow, and in part open, but 
its vegetation was still vigorous. On one side, its vast arms 
shooting up into various forms, some upright, and others 
oblique, were decayed and peeled at the extremities, but 
issued from luxuriant foliage at their insertion in the trunk ; 
on the other side, the foliage was still full, and hid all decay. 



DR. ANDREW BOARD, the original Merry Andrew ; or, 
BORDE : In Latin, ANDREAS PERFORATUS, as he wrote 
himself. 

\\ AS a native of Pevensey, in Sussex, and educated at 
Wickham's School, Oxford; but before he took any de- 
gree, entered himself among tke Carthusians at or near 
London ; yet, being weary of their severities, he returned 
to his University, applied himself to Physic, travelled almost 
throughout all Europe, and some parts of Africa. In the 
years 1541 and 2, he commenced Doctor of Physic at 
Montpelier, and on his return to England, was admitted to 
the same degree at Oxford. He lived some time as a phy- 
sician at Pevensey, and aftenvards at Winchester ; and, 
lastly, at London. He was a man of great superstition, 
and a weak and whimsical head; he frequented fairs and 
markets, and harangued the populace in public ; and to 
use the words of one of his cotemporaries, " He made hu- 
morous speeches, couched in such language as caused 
mirth, and wonderfully propagated his fame." From the 
Doctor's method of using such speeches at markets and 
fairs, it came that in after tunes, those \vho imitated the 
same humorous jocose language, were stiled Merry An- 
drews. He was author of the Merry Tales of the Wise 
Men of Gotham The Introduction of Knowledge a 

O s 

Poem The Miller of Abingdon The Principles of Astro- 

nomical 



THE ORIGINAL MERRY ANDREW. 31 

noraical Prognostications The Doctrine of Health The 
Promptuary of Medicine and the Doctrine of Urines. 
He lived in the days of Henry the VHIth, Edward VI. 
and Queen Mary: and after having been a Carthusian, pro- 
fessed celibacy still drank water three times a week, 
wore a shirt of hair, and every night hung his burial sheet 
at bis bed's feet. He wrote against such priests and monks 
as iiiained after the dissolution of the monasteries. But 
Bishop Poynet tells us, he kept three wenches, and so 
stained his pretensions to purity, as did some others ; but 
some say, they were three women patients. Be that as it 
may, he was acknowledged a learned man, a good poet, 
and an excellent physician; and as such, was first phy- 
sician to King Henry the VHItfi, and a Member of the 
College of Physicians, London. 

The title-page of his Introduction to Knowledge, runs 
thus : " The First Book of the Introduction of Knowledge, 
the \\hich doth teach a man to speak part of all manner of 
languages, and to know the usage and fashion of all man- 
ner of countries, and for to know the most part of all man- 
ner of coins of money, the which is current in every 
region." From this darning title it appears, that the art of 
puffing was not then unknown to authors and booksellers. 

A Work of his was printed in London 1575, intitled, 
"The Breviary of Health; v\ herein doth follow remedies 
for all manner of sicknesses and diseases in man or woman; 
expressing the obscure terms of Greek, Araby, Latin, Bar- 
bary, and English. Compiled by Andrew Boorcle, Doc- 
tor of Phi<ic:ke." A small qu;irto, printed in black letter. 
There is also a Jest Book of his writing, which is exceed- 
ingly scarce. 

There is no doubt he was a man of considerable abilities 
and learning ; for the period in which he lived, (says Dr. 
Tabor) " lie is not mentioned in the Biographica Bri- 
fannica, though many are inserted there of less note." He 

n h 2 died 



232 ACCOUNT OF THE DEATH AND BURIAL 

died a prisoner in the Fleet, April 1549; yet it is pro- 
bable, not for debt, because he left in his will, two houses 
at Lynn, in Norfolk, and his goods and chattels in his 
house at Winchester, to one Richard Matthew, whom he 
constituted his heir, without any mention of kindred at all. 

In the first chapter of his Introduction to Knowledge, 
he has characterized an Englishman; and there is a wooden 
print of a naked man, with a piece of cloth hanging on his 
right arm, and a pair of sheers in his left hand. Under the 
print is an inscription in verse. These are the four first 
Jines : 

" I am an Englishman, and naked I stand here, 
" Musyng in my mynde what rayment I shall were : 
" For now I will were tbys, and now I will were that, 
" And now I will were, i cannot tell what, Sec." 

He had such promptitude in writing, that it is said, he 
wrote his Treatise on Astronomy in four days, and with an 
old pen, without mending. 



Account of the DEATH and BURIAL of the notorious 
Mrs. BRIDGEK, Female Chimney Sweeper. 

rr\ 

1 HIS woman ditd on the 24lh of November 1802, at a 
great age, at her house in Swallow-street; she was com- 
monly known by the name of Mother Brownrigg. The 
morning previous to her departure, she had taken a pint 
of gin. The conviction of her foreman, for his cruel usage 
to Pettr Cavanage, a kidnapped child, lor which he was 
sentenced to six mouth's imprisonment, made hf-r, as she 
said, low-spirited, and therefore she drank harder than 
usual ; for, at every ten minutes she had recourse to her 
glass, to keep up her drooping .*piuts. She knew that 
she, imiht be brought to trial, and (f, im what appeared on 
the tiial of her forenuni) what she had to expect. Since 
the death of Biidger, about nine or ten months ago, with 
whom she lived as a wife, and whose name she bore, this 

cruel 



OF THE NOTORIOUS MRS. BRIDGER. 233 

cruel woman was, through intemperance, almost constantly 
confined to her bed, having very bad ulcerated legs, the 
relics of a cruel disease, which, through her hard drink- 
ing, were like to mortify. Every morning, during this 
period, before breakfast, she generally drank three or four 
glasses of liquor, and a couple of pints of beer; the re- 
mainder of the day she spent in like manner, in conver- 
sation with any person who came to enquire her state of 
health, and to whom she always complained that her spirits 
%vere very low, and then would take a glass from her bottle, 
which always stood by her bedside; sometimes, by way of 
amusement, she had one of her unfortunate apprentices 
brought to her bedside, and having stripped him naked, 
would make shift, bad as she was, to sit up and beat him 
in a most cruel and barbarous manner with a large stick, 
which she generally kept by her bedside for that purpose ; 
at other times, when in good humour, she would have her 
apprentices brought to her bedside, and made to box each 
other, giving a piece of plumb-pudding or a halfpenny to 
the victor. She made the poor boys get up every morn- 
ing at three o'clock, and go out, without shirt, shoe, or 
stockings, to sweep chimnies ; when they came home, they 
were forced generally to scour the stairs, and do every 
other kind of drudgery before they got their scanty meal. 
Two or three days previous to her death, she sent for a 
Divine, to administer the Sacrament to her; but on his 
coming, finding her very much intoxicated, and instead 
of being penitent, railing at her neighbours, he took his 
leave, remarking, that it was not him she wanted. About 
an hour before her death, she ordered the carpet to be 
spread, that she might look somewhat decent when dead. 
She then ordered the boy to bring her a pint of beer ; but, 
being somewhat tardy, she exclaimed, "You **** dog, 
make haste, or I shall be in hell before you come back !" 
He brought the beer, \Ahich she only tasted, being rather 
weak, and shortly after expired. She took a considerable 

quantity 
o 



234 ACCOUNT OF THE DEATH AND BURIAL 

quantity of laudanum before her death, which accelerated 
that event. After her decease, till the day of her inter- 
ment, she was publicly exhibited, the neighbours and pas- 
sengers wishing to see a monster, concerning whom they 
had heard so much. Before her departure, she conveyed 
her money to some particular friend. Thus ended the life 
of a woman who was a disgrace to her sex and to humanity, 
as well as the torment and scourge of all who had the mis- 
fortune to have any connection with her. The honest in- 
dignation of the multitude was never displayed more pro- 
perly than at the interment of so infamous a character. 
The most romantic imagination can scarcely conceive, a 
more horrid exit to an infamous and execrable life than the 
pen of truth describes on this occasion. It is to be hoped, 
that the world contains but few such persons, and that, 
when they do appear, they may only serve to render vice 
more detestable. Her remains were interred in St. Mary- 
le-bone burying-ground. The body was borne by four 
men belonging to an undertaker, with two small sweeps fol- 
lowing as chief mourners. Next followed the old woman 
whom she had from the workhouse, to attend her during 
her illness. The latter was in black, having been left the 
mourning which the deceased wore for her late husband 
Bridger. The other distinguished personages \vho foimed 
the chief part of the cavalcade, were composed of the 
mobility, who followed, loudly vociferating very hideous 
mock lamentations, with ragged sheets of paper in their 
hands as substitutes for weeping handkerchiefs. As she ad- 
vanced to the place of interment, the concourse rapidly 
increased, the name of Mrs. Bridger exciting universal 
curiosity. We may unequivocally affirm, that a prince 
could not have more come through curiosity to see him 
buried, than had the notorious Mrs. Bridger, until such 
time as she was consigned to the earth. There was a Mrs. 
Voyer, the widow of another chimney-sweep, who sup- 
plied the deceased with money in her \\ants, in consider- 
ation 



OF THE NOTORIOUS MRS. BRIDGER. 235 

ation of having the house, and some trifling effects, toge- 
ther with the good-will, after Mrs. Bridger's death. Sfie 
owed Mrs. Voyer ^70, and as a kind of security, she de- 
posited her lease in her possession. She stiil continued to 
demand more money ; and, having lost her custom, she 
commenced an artf'id project two days before her death ; 
which was-, to make over all her property, not excepting 
any thing, to a Mr. Woodward, for *5, without ap- 
prising him that Mrs. Voyer had a prior engagement. 
He poid her the money on the 21st, and on the 23d he 
came to take an inventory of her effects. Seating himself 
by the bed, she began to state to him the articles which he 
was to enumerate. When she came to mention the silver 
spoons, which, she said, were in the drawer at her bed- 
head, the old nurse contradicted her, saying, " Surely 
you forget, you made me pawn them Jast night, and you 
burnt the duplicate!" She exclaimed in a rage, " I'll 
make no more of my will, until ihe ***** is turned 
out of the room!" When the inventory was completely 
finished for that room, they went up stairs, to take an ac- 
count of what was there ; she took that opportunity of 
having her clothes made up in a bundle, then took the 
ring off her finger, and made them be conveyed away pri- 
vately to some person unknown, although they were twice 
before disposed of. 



THE WONDERS OF NATURE. 

1 HERE is an extraordinary tree of Japan which cannot 
endure any moisture. The moment it is wetted, it withers 
and dies, unless a speedy remedy be applied. If you wish 
to bring it again to life, it must be cut down close to the 
root, dried in the sun, and transplanted to a very dry soil. 

The wife of Jean Gourdin, wood-cutter, living at Cig- 
ney, one of the suburbs of St. Dizier, was delivered on the 
7th of June 1771, at the end of about seven months, of a 
monstrous child, weighing five pounds, and being fourteen 

inches 



236 THE WONDERS OF NATURE. 

inches in length. This child, says Marisy, physician of 
St. Dizier, had two perfect heads. Each of them had two 
eyes, two ears, and was hairy down to the eye-hro\vs. 
The mouth of the head on the right side had three teeth in 
the upper jaw, with a hare's lip, whilst the lower jaw con- 
tained only one. 

A similar instance occurs in Tulpirus, with this differ- 
ence, that Tulpirus's monster was joined by the two heads, 
that its feet were turned inwards, and that the two arms 
were joined together behind its back down to the wrists. 

In the month of December 1664, near the city of Salis- 
bury, a woman who had been brought to bed of a daugh- 
ter, was an hour after delivered of another female child, 
having two heads diametrically opposite, four arms, four 
hands, one body, and two legs. This monster, which 
lived about two days, took nourishment at both mouths, 
and evacuated in the usual manner. 

In 1702 were born at Brest, two female children, joined 
together at the breast from below the paps, which were 
very perfect in both, to the common navel. They had 
between them but one heart, one liver, one spleen; but each 
had two kidnies and all the parts of generation. They were 
each baptized individually, and both died soon after. 

Mary Anne Collin, 39 years old, of the parish of Saint 
Remy, was delivered on the 22d of April 1776, at the com- 
mencement of the sixth month of her pregnancy, of five 
living and perfect female children, according to the report 
of the surgeon of the village, who was an eye-witness of 
the circumstance. There was but one placenta for the five 
children, all of whom weighed a pound each, excepting 
one that wanted an ounce. They exactly resembled each 
other. They all received baptism, but in returning from 
the church, they died one after another, in the space of an 
hour. The mother recovered. Her sister, married to a 
stone-cutter of the same parish, was delivered in July 1760, 
in the 8th month of her pregnancy, of three children, a boy 
and two girls. Thf 



( 237 ) 

The late WILLIAM JENNINGS, Esq. 

A remarkable Character. 

1 HIS gentleman is said to have been a neighbour and an 
acquaintance of Mr. Elwes of penurious memory. Mr. 
Jennings died in 1797, and in the 97th year of his age ; 
leaving behind him property t'o the amount of nearly one 
million sterling. The character of this miser is in some 
respects different from that of the former, and although 
not quite so extravagant in his penury, he seems to have 
exhibited a more depraved mind. His father died when 
he was on the point of completing a most sumptuous and 
magnificent country-seat, which, for the grandeur of its 
hall, and the massy elegance of its marble chimney-pieces, 
as well as the beauty and extent of its stables and other 
offices, is totally unrivalled in that part of the country, and 
is excelled in few others. The staircase, however, and one 
entire wing of the house, which was to have been princi- 
pallv devoted to a vast and superb ball-room, were left 
totally incomplete ; and notwithstanding the son, when he 
attained his majority, found himself possessed, in real and 
personal estate, of not less than f200, 000, he never added 
another stroke to the unfinished structure, which remains 
to this moment in precisely the same state in which it was 
left on the decease of its more worthy projector. In this 
extensive palace, nevertheless, for it sc^rcelv deserves a 
meaner appellation, Mr. Jennings resided, when in the 
country, to the latest hour of his life yet not in the 
iinisned and family apartments, but merely in the base- 
ment rioor alone, which, by being not less than \0 or 15 
ll-et below the surface of the coiut, ana illuminated bv 
small and heavy windows, admitted but very seldom Lie 
reviving rays of the sun in any direction. Here, on n 
level with most of the offices of this super!./ pile 01' buiLlin^;, 
I":, the miust i-.f his servants, was his brotikiast-rcom, bis 

i i di.ihj^T 



2SS THE LATE WILLIAM JENNINGS, ESft, 

dining-room, and his bed-chamber, the entire furniture of 
which was of his own procuring) and consequently very 
mean, and its whole value perhaps not exceeding <20 : 
nor were the rooms above, although (excepting those in 
the wing I have already pointed out) all completely finished 
and magnificently furnished by his father, ever opened bui 
once during the whole period of his possessing them, which 
extended to nearly a century. He had, nevertheless, more 
family pride than Mr. Elwes, and maintained a table in 
some degree superior. In this dark arid miaerable com- 
partment of the house his dinner was always served up, 
even when he was alone, and he was seldom otherwise, in 
family plate: nor, if any portion remained after the wants 
of his diminutive household had been satisfied, would he 
suffer it to be again introduced to assist in the dinner of 
the ensuing day. The poor, however, were never bene- 
fited by this profusion of diet; for it was his express order, 
and an order uniformly adhered to, that the surplus shouki 
be distributed atnon^ his dot>'s. He was never known, 

O O 

throughout the whole period of his life, to exhibit one single 
charitable action ; and so cold and unsocial was his animal 
constitution, that a male friend was scarcely ever invited to 
sleep beneath his roof, and there is no instance of a female 
of any description having been indebted to him for the 
hospitality of a single night. In these respects he was a 
character infinitely more despicable than his neighbour, 
who at all times evinced the utmost degree of politeness 
and gallantry to the fair sex ; and who, if he with-held his 
hand from the needy, with-held it in an equal degree from 
himself. In his mode of increasing his property, Mr. 
Jennings was also a more contemptible miser. Elwes, 
when in London, frequented occasionally the gaming-table, 
but it v. ;< c - to participate with his associates in the various 
chances of the dice. Jennings, too, frequented it, and 
v.-;>': in vej;li',yj at one period of his life, an habitual at- 
tendant 



A REMARKABLE CHARACTER. 

tenclant at Brookes'" s or White's : but it was not to par- 
take in the multiplied fortunes of gambling, hut to accom- 
modate the unlucky with money for the evening, and to 
draw an enormous profit from the general loss. I have 
been informed, that for every thousand pounds he thus ad- 
vance;!, he? received the next morning a thousand guineas. 
To enable him to persevere steadily in this profitable con- 
cern, he ventured to purchase a house in Grosvenor-square ; 
where, indeed, he occasionally resided to the day of his 
death, and long after the infirmities of age compelled him 
to relinquish his nefarious traffic. Upon quitting either his 
town or countrv-house he was accustomed to draw up, 
with his own hand, an inventory of articles left behind, 
even to the minutest and most insignificant ; and to examine 
them with the most rigid scrutiny on his return, to satisfy 
himself that he had not been wronged of his property. 
The arrangement of this catalogue, when he was quitting 
the country, was attended with no small degree of labour ; 
for, according to the fashion of our forefathers, almost all 
the chimney-pieces throughout the house had been left to 
him furnished with an infinite variety of pieces of china, 
minute as well as large: every little dog and duck, how- 
ever, every little tea-cup, ewer, and other toy, was duly 
noticed, and expected to be found on his return, not 
only uninjured, but accurately occupying its immediate 
post. 

To diminish the expence of wages paid to his house- 
keeper (or rather the old woman who kept his house), he 
used to allo'.v it to be seen by strangers; and, like a noble 
duke and duchess of the present day, to permit her to add 
to her wages the gratuities oilered on such occasions. The 
bargain being thus mutually acceded to, the house was 
equally open for inspection whether he were within it or 
aot ; and., in the former case, when the company had 

I i 2 reached 



THE LATE WILLIAM JENNINGS, 

j-eached the subterranean floor where he constantly resided , 
he used to remove from room to room till the whole had 
been visited. He maintained but a small circle of acquaint- 
ance in the country; he did not like, however, to be 
totally without occasional company, and induced some few 
gentlemen to pay him morning visits, and to profess a 
considerable friendship for him by the promise of legacies 
in his will. And so far indeed as related to the literal pro- 
mise itself, he punctually fulfilled it for he not only made 
his will, but bequeathed the expected legacies : yet he 
took effectual care, at the same time, that neither his pro- 
mises nor his will should be possessed of much validity, for 
he never executed the latter ; and his entire property, on 
his death, amounting to little less than a million sterling, 
ivas iu the first instance likely to become the subject of a 
chancery-suit between two noble families who advanced an 
equal claim of heirship. This suit, however, was shortly 
afterwards dropped, upon an agreement between the par- 
ties to divide the property in tranquillity. The only trait 
I have ever heard creditable to the character of this miser is, 
that he never oppressed his tenants: he would never ad- 
vance them a shilling for their accommodation, but he never 
raised their rents, nor distressed them for want of punctu- 
ality in their payments. And yet, while he thus rigidly 
forbore from every act of kindness and charity, he was, for 
the last twenty years previous to his death, losing upwards 
of two thousand pounds annually by the large sums of 
money he retained unemployed in the hands of his bank- 
ers. He kept cash at two separate houses ; and it was dis- 
covered, at his death, that in one of them he had never 
possessed less than twenty thousand pounds for the twenty 
years previous : and in the other he had uniformly had a 
larger sum for a longer period of time. 

>^<4r\4*^^r^4**0**f 

MORE 



( 241 ) 

MORE CURIOSITIES FROM EGYPT. 

ABOUT the beginning of last month, a number of curious 
remains of antiquity arrived at Portsmouth, in a transport 
from Egvpt ; they are the property of the Earl of Cuvan* 
and were put on board a vessel to be conveyed to his Lord- 
ship's seat at Fa w ley : among them are the following : 
A case containing Mummies of an ancient Egyptian family, 
viz. a nude, female, and t\vo children, the gentleman mea- 
sured 5 feet 9 inches in height, and as the upper half of 
the body had been stripped of the linen swathes, we could 
discern the tlesh, the nail* of the fingers, and even the 
features very distinctly, the arms weiv bent upwards, cross- 
ing each other on the breast, the fingers of the right hand 
touching the left shoulder, and the left hand clenched as if 
holdin"- something. The lady measured 5 feet 6 inches 

r? o / 

in height, and the infant children about 22 inches ; there 

O > 

were also mummies of an Ichneumon, a dog, t\vo hawks, 
two owls, and six Ibis's, some of which were in covered 
urns of red earthen- ware ; another case contained a com- 
plete mummv, with the external case beautifully painted 
with hieroglyphics; and several cases in which were a bust 
of Isis, a large frog in grey granite, a large slab of whitish 
granite, with hieroglyphics cut in bass-relief; a broken 
sarcophagus in black granite, and many antique fragments 
of marble porphyries, jaspers, agates, and masses of the 
various rocks of Upper Egvpt, which will be highly in- 
teresting to the mineralogist, as well as amusing to the an- 
tiquarian ; a perfect sarcophagus cf red granite, its inside 
dimensions are 6 feet 6 inches long, 2 feet 4 inches wide, 
and 1 foot 6 inches deep a large column of red porphyry. 
also a bowl of red granite, intended for die Lord Mayor of 
London: its out dimensions near six feet it is cut out of 
the base of a Corinthian column, the mouldings are very 
perfect, and the whole height of the column must have been 

about 



212 EXTRAORDINARY INSTANCES OF 

about 54- feet : this will be a suitable piece of furniture for 
the Fgvptian Hall of the Mansion House. 

From the same transport was landed at the gun-wharf, 
a brass cannon, being the identical one which was captured 
from the French \vhile on its passage to St. John d'Acre. 



EXTRAORDINARY INSTANCES of VIRTUE and GFNE- 
ROSITY ; or, the dreadful Distress of a Dutch Merchant, 
it'ho, after eating Part of his 0:01 Children, was compelled 
through Famine to murder himself, io prevent being the 
IL. realtor of his Wife. 

IN the year 1682, this person, named Van Essel, return- 
ing from the Fast ladies in the ship De Ruyter, of Rotter- 
dam to- Holland, they became suddenly becalmed, so 
much, that for several weeks they could scarcely determine 
whether they had made a single league. During this time 
an infectious disease increasing among them, sixteen seamen 
and the master died of it. Provision gradually growing 
shorter and shorter, after living four davs without any sus- 
tenance, and the merchant's two children dying, on these 
bodies, notwithstanding the tears and iutreaties of him and 
his wife, the crew were forced to feed. Their next decree 
of distress was to cast lots for violently undergoing the fata 
of death for the preservation of the rest ; and it was also 
agreed that the person that drew number 1 should be slain, 
and the person drawing number 2, tr be the executioner. 
The famished crew, however, -would not excuse the Dutch 
lady from the chance of sharing the same fate with the 
rest, notwithstanding the exertions of her own servant-man, 
iind George Carpinger, a stout English seaman, in herbe- 
h:i]f ; and the lot for death fell on this unhappy woman, 
and that of her own husband to be her executioner. Cut- 
ting, indeed, were the lamentations of the husband and 

wife, 



VIRTUE AND GENEROSITY. 243 

wife, that so f.:tal a mischance should ever part them ; and 
though Carpinger and the merchant's servant stood reso- 
lutely against the rest and resolved to spare them, the mer- 
chant knowing their efforts would be useless, spoke to them 
in substance as follows : " Honest friends, lor such you 
have approved yourselves, you have seen the hardship of 
my fate ; and since it is drove to this point, I am resolved 
never to be my wife's executioner but to be the sacrifice 
in her stead ; and therefore what I have to say is, that you 
stand her friends when { am dead What is in this vessel, 
you know, belongs to me ; spare nothing of it to serve 
her and with these notes, if ever you arrive at Rotterdam, 
though all this cargo be lost, you shall be plentifully re- 
warded."' Having said these words, which they heard with 
tears, being about to answer him, he drew a pistol from his 
pocket, and dischj|rged it so suddenly through his head, 
that he died almost immediately. 

The frantic grief of his unfortunate kdy on this occasion, 
is not in the power of wcvJ.s to express. She w*buld soon 
have followed his example in patting an end to her own 
existence, if she had not been prevented and narrowly 
watched by her servant and Carpinger ; and as no intreaties 
could persuade her to join with the rest in partaking of the 
remains of her husband, all the while from the time of his 
death till it was again proposed to draw lots who should die 
next, she had no food but two rats, which were fortunately 
taken and presented to her by Carpinger. In this draw- 
ing-, however, notwithstanding the persuasions of her 
friends, she was determined to take her chance ; and when, 
strange to tell, she again drew her own sentence, which 
she welcomed more than a bricai day, and being just reatlr 
to vield her thro.it to the executioner's knife, she would 
certainly have fallen, liao not Carpinger, with two more 



:w their swcrds. four ^srscr.s leli 

in 



244- EXTRAORDINARY INSTANCES, &C. 

in the quarrel, and among them her faithful servant. Thd 
survivors being now reduced to five or six persons, beside^ 
the lady, these bodies lasted them some time ; but just as 
they arrived within sight of the lands' end of England, they 
found themselves involved in another calamity, being driven 
so near shore by the large shoals of ice, that they could 
not disengage the ship. Here they were again compelled 
to remain, till all but two persons, besides Carpinger and 
the ladv, were dead, and even these two were so reduced 
by weakness, that they could not leave their cabins. At 
length the persuasions of Carpinger upon the lady, not to 
vise any violence to her own person being attended to, he 
ventured by the help of a plank, to attempt crossing the ice 
towards the shore, and taking charge of her and, a casket 
of jewels, in six hours time they were safely landed, and aF 
soon as convenient, took up a temporary residence at a pri- 
vate house at Plymouth ; the master of which, in conclud- 
ing this narrative, observes of Carpinger, that " the lady 
Svjems mr.'jh to favour him ; and when the time of mourn- 
ing is over, will undoubtedly make him happy in her em- 
braces. 1 ' This narrative is dated Plymouth, Feb. 2, 1683, 
and attested by John Cross and William Atkins, Seamen. 



TO THE EDITOR OF KIRBY's MUSEUM. 

" SIR, Your ready attention in inserting part of irr. 
communications, I acknowledge with pleasure ; according: 
to promise, I forward the remaining part of the li<t of 
Remarkable Deaths. 1 intend shortly to send you several 
Remarkable Accounts, which, I flatter myself, will be 
found more worthy of insertion than the foregoing. I ap- 
prove of your Work exceedingly, as do a number of my 
}'ric:;us, on account of its being Original. Wishing you. 
iverv success, } remain, vours, &.C. 

,.';. *;>, 1'^j, A." 

F.XTRAOR- 



EXTRAORDINARY DEATHS. 

IN August 1796, died at Crookhavcn, near Cork, Patricly 
Grady and Eleanor his Wife : they were born in the same. 
house on the same day : were married in the same house. 
they v ere born in : fell sick at the same time, arid died on 
the same day, after having lived 96 years. Their bodies 
were escorted to the grave by 96 of their children, grand 
and great grand children. 

TN the year 1797, died at Harpenden, Herts, Mr. and 
Mrs. Wetherell, of St. Alban's. Mr. Wetherell (who was 
33 years of a are) was not taken ill till his wife's decease ; 

.' O ' ? 

but after giving the necessary orders for the funeral, he 
took to his bed, and died one day after. What is very 
remarkable, Mr. Wetherell, for many years, was very de- 
sirous that they might both be interred on the same day, 
which they were, and in one trrave. 

/ O 

IN March 1791, died at Ilorsham in Sussex, Joseph 
Gatford, and on the same day, Mary his wife, each aged 
78 years. It is extraordinary that the above old couple 
were both bora on the same day, and died within two hours 
of each other They have since been interred in the same 
grave at Horsham. 

IN May 1797, William 7vladdison of Sundcrland, very 
much intoxicated, being warned bv the bye-st.ander.s net 
to leap oil' the Q,uay into a Keel, which he wa:> meditating : 
be replied with a volley of o^ths, that, be would go to hell 
m a ilyiug leap : Lie instantly jumped off, and liL, breast 
having struck against the gtr.inei, caused his in.-t-uu death. 

ON the morning of the action between tl;o .Portland 
packet and the Temeraire French private 
loupe, on die 14th of October iTLo. M 
pass.-ngcr. who, in a previr.u.; LLioT.LVi.'i 
die Purtiand packet with anotlier pr^- 

K k 



"HERMAPHRODITE. 

great courage, observed to the captain, that he felt a strong 
impression that his dissolution was at hand ; and on the 
enemy bearing in sight, he went below and made his will, 
declaring his hour was come ; returning to his station on 
deck, in a, few minutes a bullet verified his prediction. 

IN December 1796, a young man named Graham, a re-* 
sident of Lancaster, went to Workington, to fulfil a pro- 
mise of marriage made to a young woman of that town. - 
On entering the room in which she was, he became indis- 

O * 

posed, and tottering to where she sat, fell dead at her feet. 



KIRBY'S WONDERFUL MUSEUM. 
HERMAPHRODITE, 

AT the Warwick Lent Assizes, in 1797, a prisoner in 
the gaol, was indicted by the name of Michael William 
Burdett Oliver, for an assault on a youth, with intent to 
commit an unnatural crime. Previous to any trial, it being 
suggested that doubts were entertained as to the prisoner's 
sex, it was thought advisable to have the prisoner examined 
and inspected by two surgeons and anatomists; which being 
done by Mr. Weule and Mr. Lipscomb, two eminent and 
respectable surgeons at Warwick, they made their report 
to the Court in writing, as under : 

" We find that the prisoner has the internal parts of gene- 
fe ration essential to the female, and the external parts of 
" the male; but, in our opinion, without perfection." 

Consequent!}*, upon the above report, it was recom- 
mended that the prisoner should be acquitted, which was 
accordingly done. 

The writer of the above vouches for the truth of it, 
being in Court at the lime. 

JWi/7, 1803. VEKITAS. 

The 



( 247 ) 

The LIFE of JOHN OVERS and his DAUGHTER ; including 
the Account of the Origin of London Bridge, and the 
Church of St. Maiy Ovoy's in the Bo rough of Southwark. 

X>EFORE there was any bridge built over the Thames, the 
conveyance v.-as by a ferry, which used to carry passengers 
&c. from Southwark to the city by boats ; which ferrv was 
rented of the city by John Overs, who enjoyed it for many 
years. This man, though lie kept many servants, w^s of 
so covetous a mind, that he would not, even in his old age, 
spare his own weak body, nor abate any tiling of his un- 
necessary labour, only to save expense?. From his first 
increase of wealth, 'he always put hi^ money out to use, 
which in time crew to such a mighty increase, that it was 

O O t 

almost equal to the first nobleman's in the land ; notwith- 
standing, in his habit, housekeeping, and expenses, he 
expressed nothing so much as miserable po^ertv. This 
Charon had one daughter, both pious and beautiful ; and 
he took care enough to see her liberally educated; but 
when s'ie grew up, and fit for marriage, he would suffer no 
man (by his good \vi!l) to have an'' access to her. How- 
ever, a young gentleman took the opportunity, when he 
was picking r.p his penny fares, to get admitted to her 
company. The first interview pleased well, the second 
better, and the third concluded the match. In all this in- 
terim, the silly, rich ferryman not dreaming but things 
were as secure by land as they were by water, continued 
iu his former course, wiiich was as follows : He was of so 
poor and wretched n disposition, that, when he would not 
be at the charge of a (ire, he has roasted, or at least heated, 
a black pudding in his bosom, and eat it ; and has given 
liis servants some of the pudding out of his bosom, which 
lias been heated by I'.i^ rowing over the water, Puddings 
were then a yard for . penny ; and whenever he rave them 

*- * o 

their ailov* .nice, he ujed to say, " There, you hungry 

K k i tloo-s. 



245 THE LIFf OF JOflfo OVtRS, 

dogs, you will undo me with eating." He would scared 
afford a poor neighbour the lighting of a candle, lest they 
should in some part impoverish him* by taking some of the 
light. He has also in the night gone to scrape upon the 
dunghill, and if he could find any bones, he would bring 
them home in his cap, and have them stewed for pottage ; 
and instead of oatmeal, he would buy the siftings of coarse 
meal, and with this make the poor servants their broth. 
He bought his bread at the market, not caring how mouldy 
or stale it was ; and when he brought it home, he cut it 
into slices, and laid it in the sun, that it might be the harder 
to be eaten. Meat he would not buy, unless it were tainted, 
and therefore would go further in the family ; and when 
his dog has refused it, he said he was a dainty cur, and bet- 
ter fed than taught, and then eat it himself. He needed no 

O * 

cats, for all the rats and mice voluntarily left his house, as 
.there were no crumbs left by his servants to feed them. It 
is farther reported of him, that, to save one day's expenses, 
he first counterfeited himself sick, and the next day to die, 
and his bod}" to be laid out, for no other purpose than to 
save one day's provisions ; apprehending that, whilst his 
body was above ground, his servants would not be so un- 
natural as to take any manner of Food till they had seen him 
in the earth, purposing to recover the next morning ailci 
the charge was saved ; and with this he acquainted hi.-; 
daughter, who, against her O\MI will, consented to satisfy 
his humour. He was then laid out for dead, and wrapt up 
in a sheet (for he would not be at, the cxpence of a coffin ) ; 
he was laid out in his chamber, with one candle set bum- 
ing at his head, and another at his feet; v. inch v as the 
custom of the time. His apprentices hearing of t^e glad 
tidings, hoping to be rid of their penurious servitude, 
-came to see the joyful spectacle, and supposing him realjy 
dead, began to dance and skip about the corpse. One run 
into rr-e kitchen, and breaking open the cupboard, brought. 

out 



AND HIS DAUGHTER, 

but the brown loaf ; another fetched out the cheese ; and a 
third drew a flagon of beer, and be^an filling their empty 

OO O <J 1 * 

bellies (being almost starved', ^nd rejoicing among them- 
selves, thinking they were in expectation of future help 
and comfort, and to be freed fi\>m the hard us.' ge they had 
endured. The old man lay quakaig all this while to see 
the waste, and thinking he should be undone, he coniu en- 
dure it no longer, but stirring and struggling in his sheet 
like a ghost, and taking a candle in each hand, was going 
to rout them for their boldness, when one of them, think- 
ing it was the devil in his likeness, in amazement caught 
hold of the butt end of a broken oar, and at one blow 
struck ont his brains. Thus he, who thong -t only lo coun- 
terfeit death, occasioned his own death in earnest; and the 
taw acquitted the fellow of tne act, as he was the prime oc- 
casion of his own death. The daughter's lover hearing- of 
her father's death, made all possible haste up to London ; 
but, alas ! with more haste than good speed, for- in riding 
fast, his horse unfortunately threw him, just at his entrance 
into London, and broke his neck. This, and her father's 
death, had such an effect on her spirits, as bereaved her of 
her senses. The father, who, for his usury, extortion, 
and the sordidness of his life, had been excommunicated, 
therefore was not allowed Christian burial ; but Vie daugh- 
ter, for money, prevailed on the friars of Bcrrnondsey 
Abbey, in the absence of the abbot, to get him buried ; 
when the abbot came home, and seeing a new gr^ve, en- 
quired who, in his absence, hud been buried there : on 
being truly informed, he caused the body to be taken up, 
and commanded it to be laid on his own ass's buck (ior it 
was the custom of the times for the heads ot rei/j'iouS 

*~j 

houses to ride upon asses)", then making a short prayer, ae 
turned the beast with his buruen out at the abuev fates. 

*' \^? ' 

desiring of God that he mifht carry him to some place 

C7 O > J 

where he be-jt deserved to be buried, The ass went with a 

solemn 



250 A STRIKING INSTANCE OF THE 

solemn pace, unguided by any, through Kent Street, til} 
he came to St. Thomas- a- watering, which was then the 
common execution place, and then shook him off, just un- 
der the gallows ; where a grave was instantly made, and, 
without any ccremom-, he was tumbled in, and covered 
with earth, This was the remarkable end of his infamous 
and abominable avarice, These disasters on the daughter 
coming one upon another, and being troubled with a num- 
ber of new suitors, she resolved to retire into a cloister of 
religious nuns; and determined, that whatsoever her father 
had left her by his death, she would dispose of as near as 
she could to the honour cf her Creator, and ihe encourage- 
ment of his religious service; and caused near to the place 
where her father lived, and she was born, the foundation 
cf a famous church to he laid, which, at her own charge, 
was finished, and by her dedicated to the blessed Virgin 
Mary; in memory of which pious act, and that her name 
might live to ail posterity, the people added her name also 
to that given by her, and called it St. Mary Overs, which 
titie it in general bears even to this day. London Bridge 
originated from the public spirit of the priests of St. Mary 
Overs. Before, there had been a ferry, left by her parents 
to their only daughter Mary, who founded a nunnery, and 
endowed it with the money received from the pro [its of 
the boats. This house was afterwards converted into a. 
college of priests, who not only built the bridge, but kept 
it iii ropair: but it muot be understood, that the first 
bridge was of timber, the materials at hand, and most, 
probably rudely put together. 

A siruiiiig Instance of ihc VICISSITUDES fl/" FORTUNE, ha$ 

been n-Litcd by Dr. LETTSOM. 

1 KE Doctor observed, that the following history of a 
Convict, uv.s first narrated by I\Ir. Liviu:^ a native of New 

Ilurupshjye, 



VICISSITUDES OF FORTUNE. 

fjampshire, in America, and then Chief Justice of Quebec, 
tinder General Carleton. He was once in London, and on 
reading a Morning paper, he observed a paragraph to the 
following import: " To-morrow, the noted house-breaker, 
Cox, and , of Piscataway, in New Hampshire, for re- 
turning from transportation, will be executed at Tyburn.'* 
The Chief Justice had never seen Newgate ; and observing 
that a person from his native country was condemned to 
expiate his crimes on the gallows, was induced to visit this 
prison, and see his countryman. The convict had been 
an American sailor, and passing in a boat from the ship, 
lying off Wapping, to the shore, the boatman informed 
him that he could sell him some canvas, sufficient to make 
him a hammock, very cheap ; the price was IGs. Witliia 
a short period afterwards, he was arrested for purchasing 
stolen goods ; and proof being adduced to the Court, ihat 
the canvas was worth 21.?. he was condemned to be trans- 
ported to America, then under the Crown of Great Bri- 
tain : this, he said, he did riot much regard, as he could 
work his way thither, from his seamanship ; his father lived 
in New Hampshire. Some time i;fter his arrival in Ame- 
rica as a transport, he hired himself in a vessel chartered to 
Lisbon, and which he understood was not to touch in En<r_ 

* .O 

land. The agent at Lisbon, however, received orders 
from a merchant in London, to loud the vessel for the latter 
port : this at first alarmed him oreativ ; but he reconciled 

O v ' 

himself to the voyage, under a resolution r.evev to go on 
shore while on the river Thames : he kept his resoh-itioa 
till the day before the vessel was appointed to s.J], uj;on 
which occasion the captain had given all his men the pri- 



vilege of going on shore, and u.king leave cf the;] 
quairitanee. The unfortunate American was the or.lv Bailer 
who did not accept the offer; the captain ren;..i;;ed rj?o an 
board, and recollecting something that he "-a:iteci injr.o-u 
shore, requested the only seumau he hid ivith him to -t:;ks 
'he sandl boa, and sculler her ca shore, to i-roci:re v.-ia 



252 A STUIKINO INSTANCE, &C. 

be then wanted : he made some excuses, till at length t>v 
the persuasion of his captain, he consented to go on his 
errand; but scarcely had he stepped on shore, before he 
was recognized and arrested. In the presence of his judges 
he was identified, and the gallows was his sentence. Chief 
Justice Livius observing to him, that he seemed to have 
some comfortable food in his cell, inquired how he could 
aiibrd to purchase it : he replied, that a person, he be- 
lieved a Roman Catholic Clergyman, gave him money, in 
hopes of his dying a Papist ; but, added he, I am no Papist 
in my heart ; and as for dying, I have hardships enough nov, 
to care so much about it as about my wages, which I want 
it iv wife and children to receive for me. lie was a^ked if 
he knew Mr. Livius' s family, which he described immedi- 
ately. The whole history appeared to the Chief Justice to 
merit further investigation, and instantly he proceeded to 
inquire respecting the circumstances attending the charter- 
ing and sailing of the ship, and also the particulars cf the 
original trial and subsequent sentence, which correspond- 
ing with the sailor's narration, the worthy Magistrate 
hastened to Lord Weymouth's office, and thence to the 
lung at. Windsor, and returned to London just in time to 
stay the fatal rope. After the trials and circumstances at- 
tending them were revised, the King was pleased to change 
the sentence to transportation during his natural life, and 
he was shipped oil from Lpndou soon after this act of 
mercy. Livius, however, who felt a lively interest in the 
fate of his countryman, whom he believed guilty from ig- 
i.orance uiid not design, renewed his importunities, and at 
length got an prder lor pardon : he hurried with the glad 
:: .iintj:i down the river, and overtook the convicts at Graves- 

O ? - ... 

end, where lie found on board the transport-ship the poor 
sailor chained to another convict. lie conveyed the con- 
vict: to London, where a few merchant.-; 01-. C:r.-nge, on hear- 
ing the whole transaction, collected 10 L.'ui'.ieas. with which 

O ' O 

the tar, honest in principle, sailed a free ir;un to .the Ame- 
rican Continent, PARTIC'J- 



( 253 ) 

PARTICULARS of the LIFE of the celebrated SIP. RICHARD 
WHITTINGTON, thrice Lord Mayor of London, in the 
Years 1397, 1406. and 1419. 

[Never before collected.] 

VV HI LE all accounts of this great man and opulent citizen, 
are cither locked up in cumbrous, expensive, or unwieldy 
volumes, and confined to the libraries of the learned, or 
disguised by silly and uncertain traditions, handed down to 
posterity ; for the purpose of furnishing our readers with a 
more clear and comprehensive account of so worthy a sub- 
ject, in addition to a portrait faithfully executed from a very 
ancient painting, we have availed ourselves of all the pre- 
ceding accounts which could possibly throw any light upon 
.\ ; ir Ru.'liard Wiuttingtoivs character ; and from wl:ich, we 
uiay be permitted to repeat and assure the modern reader, 
'hat these particulars are o::iy to be found in the pages cf 

KL'lHY'x -3ZAGAZIXE QT TIE MARK ABLE ClfARACTEl^S. 
Of Sir Richard Whittin^ton, of whose origin there are 

O w 

>;o many fabulous anecdotes, we learn very little till after 
the commencement of his public character in the reign of 
Kichard the Second, in the year 1397, in which he was 
i-.rst made Mayor of London ; further, than that King Ri- 
chard tiie Second, and Thomas of Woodstock, Duke of 
Gloucester, were special Lords and Promoters of Whittmg- 
torfs fortune. The second and third times Sir Richard 
Whittington filled the Chair, was in the years 1406, and 
the last time in the reign of Henry the Fifth, in 1419, 
when he gave an entertainment to this monarch and his 
queen at Guildhall, after the conquest of France. It seems 
tne Ling had borrowed money of him and of the citizens, 
i;o pay the soldiery ; whe:i S.r Richard, with a truly 
patriotic spirit, highly woitl-.v of imitation, especially at 
this juncture, having cuu.-eJ. a llr ; to be made of wood, 
nnxed witii cinnamon and other :-;icc> and aromatic-:, to 



254* PARTICULARS OF THE LIFE OF Till 

discharge bis sovereign of all obligation, threw 1m K;iid 
for 10,000 mavks clue to the Company of Mercers, into 
the flames, Avith another of 10,000 marks due to the 
Chamber of London ; a third due to the Grocers of 2000 
marks ; and a fourth of 3000, to several other companies, 
amounting in the whole to cfGO.OOO sterling : and he after- 

O ' O 

wards informed his Majesty that he had taken the whole of 
those debts upon himself. This occasioned the King to say, 
" Never had King such a subject 1" which Whittington 
hearing of, replied, " Never had subject such a King !" 
J3ut tins generous action, as AY ell as that of his cat, is not 
Avithout its parallel in history. The Emperor Rodolphus of 
Germanv, being once upon his travels in the southern parts 
of his empire, a merchant of Uhn, to Avhom lie owed a 
great sum, ordering a fire of cedar wood to be made, 
threw in the born!, and thus acquitted the Emperor of his 
obligation to pay him. 

Mr. Pennant, in his Account of London, does not posi- 
tively deny the good fortune of Whittington respecting his 
cat ; but he Avould not omit saving, that this good fortune 
was not without a parallel aho : for it is recorded, " Hov/ 
Alphonso, a Portuguese, being A\ recked on the coast of 
Guinea, and being presented by the king thereof Avith Ins 
weight in o-oki for a cat to kill their mice, and an ointment 
to kill their flies : this he improved Aviihin fiA'e years to 
ofGOOO on the place, and returning to Portugal, alter fifteen 
years traffic, became, not like Whittington, the second, 
but the third man in the kingdom, 

IL is to be noticed, tiiat even the reports that have been 
handed down 10 posterity by tradition, agree with the most 
authentic documents of Whittington'' s history, Avith respect 
to t!u; name of the merchant, that is to say, Mr. Fifzwarren, 
t') \\ horn he had been a servant ; because- , in IMS will, con- 
cerning the College of St. Esprit, founded by Whittingtori, 
is the manner tiieii was, the members were bound to pray 

fur 



CELEBRATED SIR RICHARD \VHITTIXGTOX. 2:- j 

roF the souls of Hugh Fifzwarren and Dame Molde, his 
wife, as well as the fathers and mothers of Whittington 
and his wife Alice, hereby intimating that he had been 
singularly indebted to both; to the one for his birth, and 
io the other, most probably for Misfortune. 

If anv thino- can add to the strength of the traditionary' 

JO o 

reports concerning- Whittington' s rise from beggary to 
opulence, it might be derived from the circumstance of 
"what is still called Whittington's stone near Hollo way. 
Here it is to be remarked, that tradition reports him ori- 
ginally a poor bov corning up to London, fatherless, and 
without either friends or acquaintance ; when sitting down 
at the door of a Mr. Fitawarren, a merchant in the citv, 
he took him into the house to assist in his kitchen ; but the 
usage he received from the cook -maid, to whom he was a 
perfect drudge, at length became so intolerable, that he 
determined to leave the house, and go back into the coun- 
try. For this purpose, getting; up verv soon one morn- 
ing', he reached Hollo'.vay, as before mentioned, when 
hearing Bow bells ring, and say, as he fancied, 



he was induced to go back, and happily got home again^ 
before the tyrant cook-maid or any of the family were 
stirring. 

How Whittington came to have a cat, is er.silv accounted 
for : the old wooden houses, and the plenty of food in those 
tune's, were favourable to the breed of mice ; and he, as a 
poor bov, being put to sleep in what is called, a loft, or a 
garret neurlv in the roof of the house, it is i.o wonder. he 
should be pestered wku these vermin in the night, to such 
a degree, that iVequentlv running ov.:r his face, they hin- 
dered him from sleep. This inducing Wliittinston tormr- 

1 O 1 

cr:ae a cat with a penny, a large sum in tho.se days, it so 
:-?pp:;;:ed that his master, being a irxTchant., oii'jred his 

L i 'J servants 



255 PARTICULARS OF THE LIFE OF THE 

servants an opportunity of sending something for a venture, 
by one of his ships named the Unicorn, that was going to 
the coast of Africa ; Whittington having nothing but his 
cat, and unwilling to part with his favourite, it was most 
happily for him, accepted. 

On the coast of Africa where the ship touched, the 
monarch's residence, and even his table were so pestered 
with vermin, that every attempt to destrov them had proved 
abortive. But Whittington's cut being brought in, through 
the suggestion of the captain of the vessel, she. made sxich 
havock, that the monarch and his queen were so pleased 
and surprised, that they thought no price too great for a 
creature of such amazing usefulness and activity. The 
consequence is said to be, that the return for Whittington's 
venture was so great, that his master immediately advanced 
him from his servile condition ; and seeing his industry and 
attention to business, first made him his son-in-law, then 
Lis partner, and dying, left him the whole of his trade, 
and which it will appear in the sequel, was no more than 
what was due to his integrity and the excellent qualifica- 
tions of both his head and his heart. 

It docs not appear that Whittington was married more 
than once, for the daughter of this merchant was certainly 
named Alice, and was the person Avho, in his will, ac- 
cording to the manner of the times, is there designated 
under the title of Dame Alice, wife to Sir Richard Whit- 
tington. 

o 

The munificence of Whittington, it would appear, 
though he was an inhabitant of V in try Ward, and near 
the To:ver Royal, was felt and acknowledged ail over the 
citv. The library of the famous Church of the Grey 

Tru.r., near the spot where Christ Church, in Ne'.'-gate- 
Etreel, nou- stands, was founded by hi.n in 1420. It was a 
12j feei long, and 31 broad; i; was cieled with wainscot, 
bar'i '2,-j dc:-,k>, and a double s^Lllc^ of v.'iunscot. In three 



CELi-.KRAT., SIR EICHARD WHITTINGTON. 257 

years it was hlled with books to the value of ,556, of 
which Sir Richard, contributed =4-00, the rest beino- sun- 
plied bv Dr. Thomas Winchelsey, a friar. This va< 
about thirty years before the invention of printin"-. IK- 
al.->o rebuilt Newgate, and contributed largely to the repairs 
of Guildhall. 

Whittington, as well as his master, Mr. Fitzwarren, wen- 
both mercers. Ho\v long he lived is uncertain, as his Latin 
epitaph in the church of St. Michael, Paternoster, in the 
Vintry, where he was buried, does not specify his birth. 
His will, hoy. ever, is signed December 21, 1423, and the 
yere of Xing Henry VI. the thyrd after the Conquest of 
France. 

In this church of St. Michael, in the Vintry, Sir Richard 
Whittington was three times buried ; first by his executor:-, 
under a fair monument ; then in the reign of Edward VI. 
when the parson of that church thinking to find gre.it. 
riches in his tomb, broke it open and despoiled thebodv c.i 
its leaden sheet, then burying it a second time. In the 
reign of Queou Mary, she obliged the parishicners to take 
i;p the bodv, and to restore the lead as before, and it wa ; 
again buried ; and so lie remained till the Great Fire of 
London violated his resting place a tnird time. Thi.; 
church also, which ins piety had founded, together with a 
college a:icl alms-houses near the spot, became the prey of 
the flames in 1666 though in Ki30, the church cost the 
parishioners c ICO !?'. for repairing arid beautifying. 

The capital ho.; : called YVhittiiigtcni Ccllt ge, Avith the 
garden, c:c. was cold to Armagili Wade, in the second 
", eir of L\.hv:trd VI. fer ,^2 '2s. The alms-houses which 
he founded tor thirteen poor men, is stiil supported by the 
Mercers Company, of which he was a member, and in 
whose custody there, is still extant in fair writing, the origi- 
nal ordinances of Sir Richard Whittington' s charity, made 
by his executors, Covcritre, Carpenter, and Grove. The 
first nag' 1 , curicusly illuminated, represents the said Whit- 

tinjrton 



i;^ PAP.TICTJT.AHS a- THE LIFE OF THE 

tiiigton lying" on his death-bed, a very lean consumed 
meagre body, with his three executors, a priest, and divert 
others standing by his bed-side. 

The following is the Latin epitaph upon Sir Hicham 
Whittington, in thy church above-mentioned, which 
specifies 

Ut frag'/aiw Nardus fa ma fs.it istc Richardus 
Atbfjicans i-itlam t\\ ju.ite rexcr.it iliani. 
rios Mercatorum Fundator Prcsbyterorum, 

Sic ct egonoium, tcstis <>it ceruis oovi-.m. 
Ornne--. er'.crnplum barathrum vincoiKio moro;.mr:, 
CoiKiuiit. ho: t<; m plu in Mirhariis quam sjiccio.-iuni ' 
Kccia Sj,,es !' pves : d'.vinis res nata tr.rbls. 
PjupCM-ihus Puf -.'V o: Mujo,' (ji:i fai; urlv.s, 
?v!artius hunc vicif, rn ! Annos : T f!is tibi di'.'lr, 
i" i nit . ipsc dits ; ses sibiChriste quies. Ame;!. 
i-.jr.s s;,oiira pa, goiieros'.i, probata, sophi;i, 



Thus, stating in substance, " That his reputation Wu.-- 
like the fragrance of Nard that lie wr.s the flower of mer- 
chants the founder of pious establishments the. father of 
the poor the hope and delight of the kingdom that his 
pious spouse lies with him and that he was the builder ct 
that beautiful edifice.''' 

It is particularly mentioned in the account of this foundation 
and college bv Sir II. Whittington, that the church war- newly 
built, and made a College of St. Esprit, or the Holy Ghost, 
hv Iiichard Whittington, three times Mayo/; for a Master, 
four Fellows, Masters of Art, Clerks, Conducts, Chorists, 
.isle, and an alms-house, called God's house, for thirteen 
poor men one oi then: to he Liter, and to have ]>d. t'x 
week ; the other twelve of them to have 1 id. the wceh, 
forever, w'ilh oilier necessary provi.-io;!, an hutch wita 
thre'- loot-:, a cv.-ur.uoi: seal, &.e. The licence for this foun- 
*.,u.;o;i was granted during the lite-time ot Whit'Ungton, i?) 
?/;.' iv.igi: oi ][e.'"i'v IV. )>ut \vas not continued ti;l tijcthw'tl 
year ef Henry VI. to John Coventre, Jen!. in Carpenter, 
ii'.:u \\ iiiiaai Grove., c.\L'cutors lo llichard Wr-itlington. 



CELEBRATED SIR THCKARD WHITTINGTON. 259 

In tills ordinance it is ju sly observed, that tins M'orthy 
nad notable merchant " while he lived" had right liberal 
iind large hands to the needy ; and on his death-bed straitly 
charged his executors to ordain a house of alms alter 
hib decease for perpetual sustentatiou of such poor people 
as has been before mentioned. 

In the manner of those time-:, it was further ordeved. 
that the thirteen poor folkc be able in conversation, ami 
honest in living. 

The tutor to have a place by himself, that is to say, n 
cell or little bouse with a chimuev, a prevy and other 
necessaries, in which lie shall lye and rest, and \vithout let 
of any other person, attend to the contemplation of God, 
if he v.-oll. 

That the said persons in the aforesaid houses and ceils, 
cloisters and other places, have themselves quietly and 
p.'j'ibiv, without noise or disturbance of his fellow.-, 
'K-i'U; occupied in prayer reading, or the labour of their 
homlos. 

The clothing of these people shall be derk brown, not 
mriny, ne blaizing, and esey prised, according to their 
degree. 

ft Y,T.S further ordered, that every tutor and poor folk 
every day, first when they rise from their beds, >hoiili sey 
a Pi'.ternoster a:id an Ave Maria, v.'ith special aiul Itc-rty 
recommendation of the foresaid Iiic'iard \Vhittinglon ;-:id 
Alice, to God and our blessed Lady Maidvn M^rv : And 
at otlic:' times of the day, to scy two or thr.-c. sauter:i and 
otiier pruyers aijout t'le tomb of die louiui;:r 'uithin the 

Coiit-iTO. At the conclusion, they that stonJ about, were 
o ? %. 

ordered to say openly in linglish, <; God have mercy oa 
our founders toi-is, and al Chr'-'.-ten." 

The Ordinances cf Whittington's College, vhich arc 
called ;\ little bcjok, conclude tinis : 

csr.il>;-r, ia tht y-rc I'fo.i: Lc.\: .. thuu^nd CCC'C X'XIIII, ic. 



2GO COLONEL SLOPER. 

<( Go litel boke, golitelTregedie 
Thee lowly submitting to all correction, 
Of them being rnaisters now of the mcrcriy 
Olney, Felding, Bolcyne and of Burton ; 

Herteley them beseeching with liumble salutation 
Thee to accept and thus to take in gre 
For ever to be a servant 

"Within your Commonaltie." 

The plate which we have now given, is the original por- 
trait of this great character, though it was at first repre- 
sented with a skull under his right hand, but that not be- 
ing liked, it was altered to the Cat, as we have now pre- 
sented it ; and not more than two portraits of the former 
description were ever seen. 

To conclude, making every allowance for the darkness 
and superstition of these early times, we think the exam- 
ple of Whittington may be brought forward, as still say ir.;- 
to others, 

" Go then and do likewise. 1 ' 



COLONEL ELOPER. 

1 HE father of this celebrated Colonel walked for sever; 
years as a private postman between Headford and Bailie- 
robe in Ireland. He was ingenious, but so extreme], 
poor, that not being able to purchase paper, he polished 
the shoulder-bone cf a horse, and learned to write en it. 
Having occasion afterwards to go to London, he plied ;> 
porter to one of the offices in the Treasury, during the- 
administration of Sir Robert Waipole j and in this tin:.-:: 
improved himself so amazingly, that on presenting a pe- 
tition for relief to IMiss Skerret, Sir Robert's niii-trc,s>, .she 
vas so pleaded with the correct writing cf her CG.H 
U'vaiaiij tln'.i she procured hi; a siriali employment in tl- 
very oPnce where he attended as porter. lie afterward.; 
rose by mere fiint of merit and intc-grity, a; id ditd po- 
;i,.-<--;"i r-i . '.- ; I'-orne ibrtur.e. 

CURIOUS 



( 261 ) 

CURIOUS ANTIQUITIES DISCOVERED IN THE ISLE OF DOGS. 

ON perusing the account of a Forest under Ground, (in 
No. II. of your Magazine,) the remains of which were 
discovered in the course of the digging of the New Docks 
in the Isle of Dogs, has induced me to send you other ac- 
counts of Antiquities found there, to be inserted (if deemed 
worthy) in your next Magazine. 

Some time in the month of April 1800, the men at work 
upon the Canal, there found at the depth of six feet, a 
spur of uncommon dimensions ; it measured eleven inches 
from shank to shank ; it was quite black, but, on exami- 
nation, the man who found it, discovered it to be pure 
gold. Sir Henry Banks purchased it for 35 guineas. A 
few davs afterwards they came to the skeleton of a horse, 
about the same depth, standing erect in a perfect state : 
On being exposed to the air, however, it fell to pieces. 

D. B. L. 

TWO VERY EXTRAORDINARY DEATHS. 

ON Saturday July Ifi, a most remarkable circumstance 
happened in Wych-street near the Strand, opposite the 
gates of the New Inn. About ten o'clock in the morning, 
a woman very decently dressed, came, up to a man who was 
coming that way, and attempting to lay hold of him. full 
back and immediately expired. On being searched, there 
was nothing tiiat could iead to a knowledge of her name, 
or who she was ; for though some duplicates were found in 
her pocket, the articles appeared to have been pledged 
under some other names, as the pawnbroker declared he 
was unacquainted with the person of tin: woman. She 
was conveyed to the parish-workhouse, where, on the day 
following, tiie coroner's iurv foiuid a verdict of" J)ic.i bit 
flic I'ti'iditton '// (/<'(/.'' iiut the most extraordinary p 

M in 



?-?3 THE PLAIN' OF THE CAFFRES, IN THr 

this r.ircnmstance is, that the man so accosted by tlie de- 
ceased woman, and who appears to have been a porter in 
the Brownlow-strect. Lying-in-Hospital ; as soon as he 
came Dome, said he had received a shock, from which he 
should never recover, and died in the course of the same 
day. 



The PLAIN of the CAFFRES, in the FRENCH ISLAND cj 
BOURBON, in the INDIAN OCEAN. 



those plains which are in the mountains, the 
most remarkable and of which nobody hitherto has taken 
any notice, is that called the Plain of the Caff'res, because 
a troop of CaH'res, the slaves of the inhabitants of the isle, 
went and hid themselves there after they had run away from 
their masters. From the sea side, one ascends gently for 
about seven leagues, to arrive at that plain : there is only 
one road to it, along the river of St. Stephen, which may 
also be travelled on horseback. The soil is good, and even 
till a league and a half before you come to the plain, and 
adorned with large and beautiful trees, the falling leaves 
of which afford nourishment for the tortoises which are 
very numerous there. We may reckon the height of the 
plain to be two leagues above the horizon ; and it appears 
from below quite lost in the clouds. It may be four or 
five leagues in compass. The cold is insupportable there, 
and a continual fog, which wets as much as rain, hinder* 
one from seeing ten paces forward. As night comes on, 
one sees clearer than in the day; but then it freezes terri- 
bly, and in the morning before sun rises, the plain appears 
all fro/en. But the most extraordinary thing to be seen 
there arc certain elevation? of earth, cut almost in the 
form of pillars, round and prodigiously high, for they can- 
not be lower than the towers of Notre-Dame at Paris. 
They arc placed like a sort of nine pins, and so like one 

another, 



f-RENCH ISLAND OF BOURBON. 2u3 

another, that one may be easily out in reckoning them. 
They call them the spikes. If one has a mind to stop and 
rest himself near one of them, .those who go on to some 
other place must not advance ahove two hundred paces. 
If they do, they run the risk of never finding the place 
they left. The spikes, as they call them, are s.o nume- 
rous, all so like one another, and disposed so much after 
the same manner, that the Creoles, who are the natives of 
the country, are themselves deceived. To remedy this 
inconvenience, when a company of travellers stop at the 
foot of one of these spikes, and some of tliem have a mind 
to separate themselves, they leave somebody there, who 
makes a fire or smoke which serves to direct the other the 
way back again 5 and if the fog proves so thick as to hin- 
der the sight of the fire or the smoke, they pro- Lie certain 
large shells, one of which they leave with the person who 
stays at the spike, carrying the other along with them ; 
and, when they have a mind to return, they blow into this 
shell with all their force, as if it were a trumpet, which 
makes a very shrill sound, and is heard a great way off. 
In this manner answering one another, thev avoid losing 

O * *t O 

themselves, and easily meet again. 

There are abundance of aspen trees in this plain, which 
are continually green ; the other trees are troubled with a 
moss above a fathom long, which covers their trunk and 
branches. Thev have no boughs with leaves on, but ap- 
pear withered ; and are so moistened with water that there 
is no making a fire with them. If, after much trouble, 
you get some of the branches kindled, you have only a fire 
without flame, with a reddish smoke, which smokes the vic- 
tuals instead of dressing them. It would be difficult to 
find a place in that plain to make a fire in, except you 
pitch upon some rising ground about those spirej, for the 
Kvil is so moist that the water springs out of it every where, 

M in '2 and. 



264 ACCOUKT OF THE FUNERAL OF 

and one is always up to the calf of the leg in dirt and pud- 
dle. One sees there a great number of blue birds, which 
build their nests in the grass and crater-fern. This plant 
was unknown before the flight of the Caffres. To descend, 
one must take the same way one came up by, unless one 
has a mind to hazard oneself in another, which is very 
rugged and dangerous. 



TO THE EDITOR OF KIRBY's WONDERFUL MUSEUM. 

" SIR, If the following arc any way worthy of insertion 
in your Periodical and Scientific Production, they are 
wholly at your service and discretion ; and by placing the 
inclosed therein, you will much oblige, 

Your constant Reader, 

LINCOLNSHIRE, CAROLUS." 

Spalding, JULY 1803. 

ACCOUNT OF THE FUNERAL OF MR. RICHARD EUNN. 

JL HE following account of a very singular funeral proces- 
sion which occurred some time back, in consequence of 
the death of a Mr. Bunn, from his corpulency, &c. vulgarly 
called the Bag of Grains. This person, though originally 
a foundling of Stepney parish, and brought up to the 
driving of a dust cart, had amassed a great sum of money, 
and was the owner of a great many houses, which he let 
out in tenements in Shoreditch parish. 

The rookery being (according to common report) in 
chanccrv, Bunn and some other people took possession of 
the same, when it was customary to sell a key for 5s. 
which entitled the purchaser to an apartment, 'rent free, 
though such was often ejected by main force, dustmen, 
beggars, and prostitutes occupying the same as long as it 
remained tenable. In fine, the '-.vlioK: was repaired by 
Bunn, and let to considerable profit, tiii reclaimed by the 

' rrul 



MR. RICHARD BUNN 265 

real proprietor a few years past, when lie purchased many 
others, where he died. Mr. Bunn, to the period of his 
death, retained the dress of a dustman, as lie never wore 
anything but a jacket, a short blue apron, and his gar- 
ters below the knees. The procession began -by twelve 
boys bearing links ; alter them twelve men with shovels, 
whips, kc. reversed. After this a favourite horse, which 
the deceased used frequently to ride on, not as a charger, 
but decorated with a pair of cloth spatterdashes affixed to 
;i pair of nightman's poles, and implements of the like 
nature. This was succeeded with a cart covered with black 
baize , and drawn by four horses, which contained the body, 
in u vcrv handsome coffin, and a large plume of white fea- 
thers, supported upon tassels, from which the pall de- 
scended, winch was borne by twelve of the principal brick- 
makers and dustmen in the neighbourhood, dressed in 
white flannel jackets, new leather breeches, &.c. After 
this followed another cart, ornamented as before, contain- 
ing several people in black cloaks, supposed to be the 
friends of the deceased ; and another of the same descrip- 
tion, totally empty, closed the procession ; though these 
were followed by a co-eat number of carts filled with female 

o 

cinder sitters, chimney sweepers, and others of the lowest 
class. They proceeded down Cock-lane, and through 
Bethnal Green to Stepney, the place of his nativity, with 
the greatest decorum. After the interment, the whole 
company of mourners were plentifully entertained at the 
expense of the deceased, ai the Star in Kingsland lload. 

A clrcurmtdntial jlcccunt of the MURDER of Miss MARIA 
BALLY, at Bath , A.D. 1795. 

ABOUT two years since, William White came to Bath to 
work as a journeyman shoemaker. Being a Sectary, and 
frequenting one of those places of worship, he became 

acquainted 



C<56 A CIRCUMSTANTIAL ACCOUNT OF THE 

acquainted \vith Maria Bally, the daughter of a person oi 
that name, who lived many years in Milsom-street, as a 
hair-dresser and perfumer, but who had heen tenderly 
brought up in the family of her uncle, a clergyman, and 
succeeded- her mother's sister, a few months since, in keep- 
ing a day-school for children in Corn-street. Theacquaint- 
iiiice between White and the young woman, about a year 
since, kindled into mutual regard, and he appears to have 
been constant and fervent in his attachment. Some time 
before Christmas, he went up to London, and being em- 
ployed there in collecting various sums of money, (as he 
said) for some relatives, he purchased a pair of brass 
pocket pjstols, to protect such property as he might get 
into his possession. He shortly afterwards returned to 
Bath, when the same regard subsisted between them ; 
sometimes, indeed, interrupted by slight quarrels. Thus, at 
length, they began seriously to think of marriage the fur- 
nishing of an apartment, was talked of, and the disclosure 
ui their intentions to her friends seemed to have been re- 
solved upon. However, at this juncture, the young 
woman supposing she had detected him in son$e untruths, 
tucklenly resolved to break off the connection. 

On the Sunday night she gave him a peremptory refu- 
sal, and insisted upon never seeing him again. The fol- 
lowing evening he went down to her house, but find in"- 

<D ? O O 

the \vindqw- shutters closed, and the door locked, he re- 
tired, supposing her either to be gone to bed, or engaged 
in the neighbourhood. 

o 

When he arose on Tuesday morning?, the dreadful resolve 

4 . ' ' . . -O ' 

nf murdering the object of his afTection, seems first to have 
entered his rnind. His pistols being pledged at a pawn- 
broker's, he went immediately and redeemed them iv- 
mrned to his lodgings iu Walcot-strect melted some lead 
}n the bowl of a tobacco pipe cast two bullets ; and 
jiving charged both pistols, saJlied cut about ton o'clock. 



MURDER OF MISS MARIA BALLY. 267 

to effect the hellish purpose he had formed. Fearing his 
courage might fail him, he stopped at a public-house on 
the way, arid drank (to which he was no ways accustomed) 
a pint of strong beer and two glasses of brandy. Thus 
fortified, and impelled by the miseries of contemned love, 
desperation, enthusiasm, and the baneful effects of the 
liquor, he entered into the apartment of Miss Bally, who 
was at work with her needle, surrounded by twenty chil- 
dren. He sat himself down in a chair, and asked her a 
fe\v questions, which not being answered to his satisfac- 
tion, in less than three minutes, whilst her head was turned, 
lie pulled out the pistol and immediately fired it the ball 
entered her head about an inch above her left ear : she 
dropt from her seat, and died instantaneously. The chil- 
dren ran out crying, " Murder! the man has murdered 
Ma'am !" He hurried out with them, the discharged pis- 
tol in his hand, crying, " I surrender myself to justice I 
demand the justice of tlic law, for I murdered her !'' At 
the same time yielding up the pistol to one man, and giv- 
ing the second to another, cautioning him that it was 
charged, he was secured ; and a coroner's inquest being 
taken before W. Anderson, Esq. Mayor of the city, the 
jury brought in a verdict Wilful Murder, by the said Wil- 
liam White ; and he was consequently committed to 
Ilchcster goal, to take his trial at the assizes. 

Miss Bally was 19 years of age, pleasing in her manner, 
and with a beautiful placid countenance. It is remarkable 
that the murder was committed in the very room iu which 
she first drew breath. 



IN the year 1800, Missives, of Spalding, in Lincoln- 
shire, spun 300 hanks from one pound of wool, which, if 
extended, would reach ?5 miles. 

C A no L ITS. 



TO 



( 268 ) 

TO THE EDITOR OF KIRBY's WONDERFUL MUSEUM. 

Nottingham^ JULY 10, 1803. 

" SIR, Having been a purchaser and peruser of the 
Wonderful and Scientific Museum, I have also been desirous 
to become a contributor to so valuable a Work ; and by 
inserting the following account of the late Mr. Charles 
Thompson, who is buried on Sherwood Forest, about a 
mile from Mansfield, in the county of Nottingham, 
on the left hand, and near the turnpike-road leading 
from Mansfield to Newark, in your next. Magazine, will 
make me emulous of meriting your future approbation ; 
and I flatter myself, will add one to the Remarkable Cha- 
racters already published in it, and prove entertaining to 
your readers ; the authenticity of which, you and they 
may fully depend upon, as the former part was related by 
himself, and I was present at his funeral, and have since 
frequently seen the spot, where he lies interred. 

Your constant Reader, D. B. L Y," 



LIFE and ADVENTURES of Mr. THOMPSON, late .of 
MANSFIELD, NOTTINGHAMSHIRE. 

JYlR. THOMPSON died a bachelor, in the year 1784 r 
aged 70 ; was a native of Mansfield, his fa liter a maltster 
in the same place, and died when his son was a minor : 
After receiving a tolerable education, at. the age of twenty- 
two he went to London, seeking employment, and was 
nearly six months before he could meet with a suitable 
situation ; his finances being low, he applied to the late 
Mr. William Wright, of Mansfield, who generously re- 
lieved him. Mr. Thompson at length had the oiler of 
being accepted in the house of Richard Chauney and Co. 
merchants, provided he could give surety by bond to an 
unlimited sum, to make good in three months ; on which 

he 



LIFE A:;D ADVENTURES OF MR. THOMPSON. 269 

he applied again to Mr. Wright, who entered into a bend 
upon the aforesaid conditions. He was fixed upon by the 
Russian merchants as a proper person to be sent . s agent 
into Persia ; after receiving a variety of dre. s.-s pronc-r to 

* O A ; 

appear in at different courts, a vessel was laden and sert 
for Persia, but was detained by the Trnpress of P. ussia. at 
Petersburg!], having taken umbrage at ill's predecessor's 
conduct, who had taught the Persians the art of building a 

C7 O 

ship. The L'mpress, however, gave Mr. Tho.npso.i an 
audience ; and he, explaining the matter to her satisfaction, 
wa.-; su lie-red to proceed. In his passage up the river Volga, 
he observed great numbers of tulips a;iu auriculas growing 
spontancou^lv on it:, bank.j ; the iurmer cf which were of a 
dullish colour, owing to tire roots continuing from year to 
year in the cart!]. Mr. Thompson was in Persia at the 
time that Kouli Kan was assassinated ; and on the very day 
on which he met his fate in the evening, Mr. Thompson 
applied to Kculi Kan for redress of grievances, none of his 
officers having paid for the clothing their men had received ; 
but hi> attendants advised him not to takeanv notice of h..s 
eompLunts ; upon which lie turned to them, and said, ' ; lie 
is an Kugi'ishman, and shril have justice done ; 1 would 
sooner take an Englishman's word than believe a native of 
any oilier country, though he confirmed it by an o^th." 
Mr. Thompson declared th.,t he had seen several governors 
of provinces, appointed bv Kouli Kan, straii'j;L-d by the 
Usurper's order, that he m:ght get mto possession of their 



lest - 

Mr. Thompson was at Lirfbondurin 
Eai-thqualie, "and lived in en elega'nt h.cu 
Tiie ':!iock terrified them so much, ih^ 




on 



*70 LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF 

prevented their entering several nights ; on which they 
sat up in a place some miles distant from the city. After 
staying there a few weeks, he set out for London. Sup- 
posing that all his property had been swallowed up ; he 
again applied to Mr. Wright for relief, begging him to de- 
sire a stocking-weaver of Mansfield, who had received 
many favours from Mr. Thompson, to send him two pairs 
of stockings onlv, which he refused ; upon which Mr. 
Wright purchased a dozen pairs, and sent them ; together 
with a note of some value, to Mr. Thompson, for which 
Mr. Wright did not expect any return. Mr. Thompson 
again ventured to Lisbon, and found his house in ruins; 
but on digging, recovered an iron client, containing the 
bulk of his property, the other part having been burnt. 
A servant of Mr. Thompson's was liberated, after a con- 
finement of three weeks in his arched cellar, during which 
time he had amused himself, like a sensible man, with 
tasting of the; choicest wines, Mr. Thompson having 
amassed a fortune of seven thousand pounds, came to 
Mansfield, and was a visitor at his friend Mr. Wright's, 
two years, and afterwards lived in the house now in- 
habited by Mr. Brown, turner, Leemiftg-lane ; where, by 
some accident, he fell betwixt his bed and a piece of fur- 
niture, and could not extricate himself; his servant hear- 
ing an uncommon noise, went to his assistance and relieved 
him: this circumstance led him to make a temporary will, 
in which he mentions every particular relating to his fune- 
ral, which will be found as follows : He daily visited the 
spot on which he had fixed for his grave, and enquired of 
the clergy as to the propriety of being buried on the 
forest ; and notwithstanding their discountenancing of it, 
he persisted, win-re we will leave him, in hopes of a joyful 
resurrect on. 

Mr. Thompson had not. only the gift of continency, but 
withal was a very religious man, and was shocked, in pass- 
in a 



MR. THOMPSON. 271 

ing through the church-yards, by observing human bones 
ex nosed, which mioht lead him, I imagine, to his fixing 

1 ' O f \J 7 O 

on the spot where he now lies. He honoured the remains 
of his parents, by erecting their present monument in 
Mansfield church-yard, enclosed by iron rails, and upon 
which is the following inscription : 

RICHARD THOMPSON, 

AND 

ELIZABETH, his W I F E. 

The former died August 21, 1128, aged 60. 
The latter died February 15, 1737, aged 66. 

Notwithstanding his many good qualities, he must be 
pronounced ungrateful, in bequeathing a paltry sum to the 
heirs of his late worthy friend Mr. Wright, whose gene- 
rosity laid the basis of his fortune. 

The following directions relating to his funeral, are taken 
from his will : 

" I desire that Edmund Bulbie be employed as under- 
taker, that he make me a good strong plain coffin without 
any ornaments ; that I be dressed in a flannel shirt better 
than two yards long, a flannel cap, a slip of flannel rouncl 
my neck, and in that state to be put into my coffin, and 
then to have two yards of plaid flannel thrown over, no 
.hroud snipt or cut. About the coffin after I am put in, 
I would have three iron hoops or plates, one towards the 
head, another about the middle, the third towards the feet, 
fastened to the coffin, in each of these plates to have an 
iron ring inserted at the upper part of the coffin for the 
ropes to run through, to let me down into the grave ; that 
six or eight poor men be employed as bearers to put me 
into the hearse and ti.ke me out, and that they be allowed 
[is. each ; that George Allen and asMstants be employed to 
make my grave, and if they can make it six yards deep, 

N n 2 to 



272 A BALL OF FIR-E. 

to be handsomely paid for their trouble, but to make it iu 
deep us they can. I would have my interment private a? 

possible, no bell to toll, and the hearse to go down Bath- 
laiie. 1 desire that George Allen may be employed to 
binkl me a good strong square wall, by way of enclosure, 
seven Yards withinside. I desire that after my funeral as 
in; jo earth be brought as will raise a mount, and that 
poaie trees may be planted thereon, and then finish u wall." 
All w;iich was punctually fulfilled, and the trees tair- 
roniiiihig his grave- are now grown to a great height. 
l\ot\v;t:^!<.nding his wish to have his interment private as 
fjcssiijie, the no vch v attracted the attendance of about four 
Tl)or..;aiK! persons. Few travellers, who are curious, passing 
that way, emit vibitir.g the place where he lies interred. 



A BALL CF FIRE. 

OK" t v f e -uh J'-.lv 1803, a ball of fire struck the White Bull 
p'lhlic ho.ise, ke;^t bv Jo'm Ilubburcl, at East Norton. The 
e'v.mnev was t'irown down by it, the roof in part torn nfT. 
t':e windov.-.s shattered to atoms, and the dairy, pantry, &c. 
converted into a heap of rubbish. It appeared like a Ju- 
?n:!ious o.ui of considerable magnitude ; and on comiiio- i;> 
contact wit.i t,:e hon e, exploded with a great noise and 
a very oppressive sulonureous ^meli. iScn:e f'rcr;meiits 
of this bail were Icnnd near the spot, and have been sub- 
ject _\l t ) chemical analvsls bv a gentleman in tliat ;;c;o!:- 
boarbood, who has found them to consist of nearly one halt' 
Eihcious clay, 35 j;arts cf oxidated iron, 12 of magnesia, 
jjnd a siuall portion of nieliei, with some sulphur. The 
surface of these stones is ofadarlc colour, and varnished as 
if in a state of fusion, and bearing numerous globules of;: 
Trhir.sh metal, combining sulphur and nickel. From some 
indentures on the surface, it appears probable, that trie 
ball was soft when it descended, and it was obviously in a. 

state 



AN' INSTANCE OF RETRIBUTIVE JUSTICE. 213 

rate of fusion, as the grass, &<?. is burnt up where the 
fragments fell. Its motion while in the air was very rapid, 
and apparently parallel to the horizon. This ball appears 
to agree in most respects with those which have fallen in 
Portugal, Alsace, Yorkshire, Sienna, Bencres, Bohemia, 
France, <xc. ; and which have for some time engaged the 
attention of philosophers in all countries. 



A STRIKING n;sTA::ci: OF Rr.TRir.UTivi; JUSTICE. 

ABOUT t'ia beginning 1 of this July 1803, it was reported 
in the public newspapers, that two men out of a number 
impressed in St. James's 1'urk. and conlinedin St. Martin's 
watch-house, were svilY'X-ated. The fact was, rl.at outv 
one of these unfortunate persons was actuallv hihied ; the 
other beincr taken out i:i time and led awav. Hut in iho 

C2 . 

year 17-H, it is well known, that watch-house being ii;e:i 
kept by one Bird, he was -so cruel and inconsiderate, in 

forcing a great number of people, mostly women, into the 
;.amc siuuli apartment, whie'.i ai^rKTirs on the outsiJc Jiiu: 
a cellar, that an indictment was brought auaii!.>t him for 
me murder o-f one woman, that Fuppcsc-1 to fiave perisiicd 
:r,rough his neglect ; and as r.o criminals during the iv;v:u 
of George II. thougli ever so rich or high in rv,:;k, were 
Mullered to evade the Imnds of Uistice, this Bird, though 

> * O 

cast for death for the t.i'ience, w.is ai;ie to obtain DO more 
through fie intercession of his friends, than to g-. t tlse .sen- 
tence of death changed into th;:t of transportation f-jr Lie. 
The vengeance of heaven, however, icM-owecl this cruti 
man, in a manner so i-ingular, t'nat t::e neglect r.rd pu- 
iiishment which he had inliicted upon < tiier^, seenu'-d to be 
rhe oiilv mc'o.ns c!iosen as a. retribution upon iiim.velf, a^ 
too m^ny of these convicts Leii^g uecidejitaliv put into i!:j 
l:old of the ship that wa- carrying- them to Americ.i, l;t 
WTi.s the only person among i!ie:n aiithat v;as ^iiilbd-ten. 



( 274 ) 

THE LIFE OF MR. JOHN JOSEPH MERLIN. 
Supposed to be the greatest J\lcchanlcc1 Genius that ever appeared in this Country. 

" Come Patron of Merit, bright Goddess of Fame ! 
" Aloud to the World MERLIN'S Talents proclaim ; 
" To the Favourite of Genius you surely should raise, 
" A Tribute of lasting and glorious Praise." 

JOHN JOSEPH MERLIN was born September 17, 1735, at 
St. Peter's, in the city of Iluys, between Naniur and Liege, 
five leagues from Maastricht. After residing six years at 
Paris, lie was recommended from the Royal Academy 
there, to come over to England with the Spanish Ambas- 
sador Extraordinary, Count de Fuentes, who resided in 
Soho-square. He arrived in England, May the 24-th, 1760. 

_i O ' * 

Soon after this be became the first or principal mechanic 
employed at Cox's Museum in Spring Gardens, which he 
left in 1773. He also professed himself a maker of engines, 
mathematical instruments, and a watch and clock-maker 
in general. After leaving Cox, he lived in Little Queen 
Ann-street, Mary-le-bone, and there obtained a patent fox 
his Rotisseur, or roasting-screen ; and also a second patent 
for another invention, combining the harpsichord and 
piano-forte in one, which answered every expectation. 
Respecting this invention, we have heard that the opposi- 
tion that he met with from a number of teachers of music, 
A\ ho refused to recommend hi.s instruments, without a bribe, 
induced him to decline making any more. 

Alter some years he removed from Queen Ann-street to 
liis late residence, Ts'o. II, Princes street, Hanover-square,, 
v, hen he gave up all thoughts of obtaining patents, but 
trusted entirely to his own superior ingenuity, and to his 
exertions in the hue of mechanism. 

Respecting his abilities in general, we arc constrained to 
confess, that nothing but ocular demonstration can possibly 
convev any thing like a tolerable idea of his Museum, all 



THE LIFE OF MR. JOHN JOSEPH MERLIN. 275 

Ins own work. Among many, we shall only enumerate a. 
few instances, to detail in our Miscellany, the whole being 
too numerous ; and first, his gouty-chair is certainly a 
master-piece. It is easily and readily convertible into a 
sopha, an easy-chair, Cxc. &c. ; and by the addition ot" 
t\vo small iron handle.; easily put upon the elbow, the 
patient can run the vehicle any where at pleasure. 

He had also a curious dial or regulator, which never re- 
quired winding up, as that is done only by the door open- 
ing. He had likewise a great number of large and small 
pieces of mechanism, resembling- various things, and a 
number of many curious musical pieces. But what sur- 
passes everv thing that can be imagined, is two particular 

i~ O 1 

figures, yet unfinished, representing women about 15 inches 
high, one in the attitude of d.incin^, and the other walk- 

w ' O ? 

ing. They are made in brass, and clock-work, so as to 
perform almost every motion and inclination of the human 
bony ; \\z. of the head, the. breasts, the neck, the arms, 
the fingers, the h'gs, 6:c. even to the motion of the eve- 
lids, and the lifting up ot' the hands and fingers to the 
face. The dancing figure is still more astonishing than the- 
walking figure. Be ides these, he is possessed of thtj 
model of himself, with his carriage, in clock-work, which 
3 re rnude oi* bras.-;, to go and perform every natural motion 
resembling life peculiar to the man or the horse, being 
made to ruu round ahour an artificial garden. He has also 
t'.vo di.ierent models of what he intended to erect at Pad- 
(iingtoii, ar.u to give it the name of Meiilr's Ccrjc. These 
mu.it have been curious in the extreme, had he lived cO have 
executed tuem. In what he calls his unrivalled mechanical 
chariot, he was to be- seen, for many years past, very frc- 
nuent'iv riding about I'vde. Turk and various parts of the 
lo'-vn, particn'r.rly on Runduys. In the front of this car- 
riage, ^.omcthinc; re-e:iibhi ;; a dhd w;:s placed. By a ine- 
chauical coniiiiunicatiou iry=u the left wheel to this dial, 

which 



which 3u: called ;v:y vise, be was informed, by the hand 
a: id f'gnres thereupon, how 11, r he liad travelled. His 
general course, unless on particular business, was about 
eight, mile.;; in and out. in this carriage he never hud the 
trouble to open the doors or windows, and cvc-n the hcive 
was whipped, if ncccssarv, by his pulling a string towhicTi 
r. whip \vas attached bv a spring, I roni this curious car- 
riage and his portrait, we have presented our readers with 
an exact engraving. To have this carriage painted with 
v:;rions einblciuatic-il lir-'ures oi' Mt/rliii, the. ancient British 
Magician, it cost .Mr. Aierlin last summer the jimi of eight\ 



an c-xtraordinarv genius, but ainazii.gly eccentric in his 
priv:ito piirsiiiis. lie had ina.le hims.jli' a vJieel resemb- 
ling that of FortiKie ; ar.d ;is tMe (Modeless Fortune used tJ 
.11 'end at ahnov all the masquerades, rolling along in the 
car. v. hich he moved by the motion ofhis Jeot, and at the. 
-.:nne time di-tri'Dutiiig his favours, par'.ieularly to the 
i.idiv.s. lie was not less fend a I' representing the character 
>i' Cupid at tlse/e pl.-ces c.-i. public amusement ; and as he 
.it the same time, imi'ated t!:e ciuiracter of \'ulcan, in 
foig'mg hisovrn darts, for which he had a (ire and a i'or:>;c, 



jair sex. 

lie was ah'o in the habit of airmen.! ing as a bar-maid in 
these pnbhc place.-;, where he had a b^r of Ins own fitting 
;;i), \vith all the ij)pencL;ges of glaiies, ^;c. ccc. And iu 
i':;e, was so much esteemed forms inexhaustible ingenuity 
in these (ii^rti b en;ent^, that he was frequently employed 
bv the Prince of Wai : , tlie IVlargrave of An-pach, the 
Jato Miir:j[ui'j of llockinghnai, and bo\eral cf the Fn^li^h 



In 



THE INGENIOUS MECHANICIAN. 277 

In his easy mechanical chair, he used to attend at various 
masquerades as a quack doctor. Underneath this chair, 
as it was always charged with an electrical apparatus, 
many have repented of their temerity in coming to consult 
him as patients, through the frequent electrical shocks they 
received, and of which not having the least conception, 
they found themselves completely caught in his trap. 

This truly eccentric man and original genius, died but 
in the beoinnincr o f Mav last, at the a-e of 68. The 

O O > ' o 

world is thus not only deprived of the abilities of one of 
the most extraordinary characters, but may also very soou 
lose the gratification of contemplating the various instances 
of this great mechanic's ingenuity, unless some patron of 
the arts should purchase the whole, this ample collection 
must go to the hammer. For ingenuity and workmanship, 
we can take upon ourselves t6 affirm, that a parallel collec- 
tion is not to be found in the United Kingdoms. Havin^ 
died a single man, he has left his property to two brothers 
nncl a sister, who are abroad. His foitune was but small, 
owing to fiis great expenditure during his life, makim- 
experiments in mechanism. Our limits not beino- sufficient 
to admit a description of every article which he has repre- 
sented in machinery, &c. ; we have only to notice, that 
they are enumerated in a catalogue, which is distributed 
at his Museum near Hanover-square. We conclude the 
life of this extraordinary genius, with a poetical sketch of 
the contents of his most scientific collection. 



At Merlin's you meet with delight, 
His Cloci-'- of magnetical pcw'r, 
Keeps motion by day and bv night, 
By oi:0 Inuicl tells the minute & hi-ur. 
J-Iis Hydraulic Vaso shews his skill, 
lie wi.t T c.'.n ra'ne i'.t his pleasure ; 
His iund K;v.id of Music his 



M' I ! 1 . 



The Musical Cabinet shews, 

His wonderful skill ho\v to please , 

Four people It r.hvays allow.-;, 

To s ; t clown and play at their e;'.:c-. 

His Morpheus Chair for the ;;c-i.f, 

Gives ease to th.- Lur.2 and i::(irm ; 

HH Air-Gi-i. make-:- bills flv ubou:, 



Tac.oa!'.uej-out0' j .uicwit}ioutnicasi:re. I When shot by ths p:>:Le or stern. 

O o i ' 



TT-IE LIFE F MR, JOHN JOSEPH MERLIN, 



His Libra- T-fble likev.-is-, 
To the student much pleasure affords; 
And givn; case to the aged avid wise 1 , 
When reading or writing of word?. 
His Mechanical Garden delights 
Every one who's so happy to vi-w ; 
Tho' it's shown them on several nights, 



With such wonderful pow'r to please, 
That ladies by day or Ly night, 
May sit down and fill at their ease. 
The Balance Sanctorius they call, 
Will shew you your weight in a trice; 
Will measure your height great or 

small 

And to nieasiivenicnt comer, very nice. 
The Circus of Cupid must please, 



he sometimes deprives them of 



Tiie Fisherman rows in hi.; boat ; 
";-.; Goddess of Fortune appear; ; 
.To di-ess'd in his nautical coat. 
She i',:-:'d on the circle of Years. 
'i lie Goddess of Love now appear-,, 
in her favourite Car drawn by doves ; 
Her hair Howing loose, she appears 
As May, the kind mother of loves. 
The Swan proudly swims on the waves 
The Flv'i.ig I'Th waits in the air; 
The Frigate the elements braves, 
I ','} iiii'.sts and her saiis always fair. 
'i lie Temple of Fior;: be.-'ov.--, 
^ v.rospcct of plenty ai'd peace ; 
The UuUerlly snoit:!:;;'y goe-;, 
' ;o;:> 1'owcr to fiowcr v. :'.h en e. 
The \\'ind;r.i!Is !hei" n;ot ioi: 
The -([ Ti'ghr evarv eye and o. 
Tii'.-.v e:\cul <:!! t!;.: bios 'Oi;is 




FOU may speak from each end of the 

room, 

r be heard by the company by ; 
And converse with each friend that 

should come, 
r any one give you the lie. 
There's a Juggler so wise as to know 
Which hand shall contain the round 

ball, 

And he frequently lets you down low, 
When you find you have made a wrong 

call. 
There's the Swings where you'll find 

exercise, 

At once will restore you to health ; 
And if you're both prudent and wise, 
No longer you'll value your wealth 
If you wish to amuse at the Game, 
And Whist is your favourite play, 
The cards, tho' you're blind, you maj 



If you'll follow the rules and obey. 
You may gamble at even and odd, 
And never be sure you shall win ; 
You may run o'er the ground you ha4 

trod, 

And yet meet with a double take-in. 
r l here's a Harpsichord next you will 

view, 

An Organ it keeps-, by the hand ! 
(You'll certainly think it quite new,) 
You can play seven tunes in a band. 
There's another twelve tunes you will 

find, 

By clock-work continually plays ; 
And amuse both the body and 

miiid, 

And enrapture tho poetic lays. 
There's t!ie Turk, w,hu eats all he can 

get, 

Of stones when put into hi-i mouth, 
; !e's ;. : ; gi!re yon';; ri.ivlv forget, 
. ho' r.-:nov'J ir-jiu l..i j aor.h to th-- 



THE INGENIOUS MECHANICIAN. 



The rerown'iUVelchHarp youwiil find 
On one sid?, laid to play on with 

pleasure; 
Without boasting of knowledge of 

mind, 

You'll always be sure of true measure. 
Five instruments ahvays in tune, 
It's a sight you can't always 

survey , 

Composed in one instrument's une, 
All of which one Musician can play. 
The Fire-screen next may be seen, 
Where reading and writing you'll do; 
The Bedstead and Couch too is e'en, 
A snug place of rest, when your due. 



The Pump with the Hygcan aid, 
Draws foul air from the house or the 

ship ; 
Keeps your rooms always free, nor 

afraid 

Are you cv:r on d inr^rs to slip. 
There's four Hordes ! you'll ik'.e in the 

air! 

\nd above all the company placed, 
Wlio-'V-jr takes most ring', oil fair. 
With the title of Hero '11 bo graced. 
Then let every one quickly ro;,a'i, 
To the Tem:>le of comfort and jov ; 
Merlin's ahvays both open and fair, 
Other treats are no more than a lov. 



AN ECCENTRIC LIFE AND BURIAL. 

IVlR. JOHN OLIVER, the eccentric miller, of Highdown- 

hill in Sussex, born in 1710, died lately at the age of 8:5 
vears. His remains were interred near his mill, in a tomb 
he. had caused to be erected there for that purpose near 
thirty years ago, the ground having been previously con- 
secrated. His coffin, which he had for many years kept 
under his bed, was painted white ; and the body was borne 
by eight men clothed in the same colour. A girl about 
twelve years old read the burial service, and afterwards ou 
the tomb, delivered a sermon on the occasion, fiom Mieah, 
rhnp. vii. ver. S 9, before at least two thousand auditors, 
whom curiosity had led to this extraordinary funeral. The 
threat concourse of people present occasioned some rioting, 
which but ill accorded with the solemn ceremony. The 
deceased, notwithstanding lu's eccentricity, was a man of 
good moral character, and a liberal benefactor to the poor, 
hi his neighbourhood. His tomb is covered with passages 
vVnii fe'cripture, and hieroglyphical figures. 



o o 



( 2SO ) 

FOR KIRBY's. WONDERFUL MUSEUM. 

VENTRILOQUISM. 

T 
HE Writer of this Note, was on the 3d of Jan. 1789, 

in a company, where a Ventriloquist, an Irishman, of the 
name of Burns, made his appearance, for the purpose of 
displaying his talent. He had with him a little figure 
dressed up as his son, from the mouth of which figure he 
made his voice apparently to issue both in speaking and 
singing he transferred his voice from one part of the room 
and house to another he made a complete and perfect imi- 
tation of the bagpipe going through a whole tune, the 
fcound ail the time issuing; as it were from under his arm; 

O 

he si 1 . rig a song, and during the time of his singing, held a 
pint of beer to his mouth drinking ; he performed many 
other extraordinary things, and all of them with his mouth 
closed ; insomuch that the relator held the flame of a 1 ghted 
candle close to his mouth, without being able to perceive 
the smallest decree of breath : lie did not during; the whole 

O O 

of his performance, appear himself to speak, or open his 
mouth, and had no distortion of countenance, or change 
of any feature. 

Jufyl, 1803. VERITAS. 

In addition to the above instance of this surprising faculty, 
v.*e have selected the following : One Gillc, says the abbe 
Chapelle, who has written on the subject, desired me once 
ro enter into his back shop, where, as we were sitting by a 
corner of the fire-side, and were face to face to each other, 
he amused me for the space of half an hour, by telling me 
many droll stories of his skill in ventriloquism. In a 
moment of silence on his part, and of absence on mine, I 
heard mvself called by name in a very distinct tone of 
voice, which seemed to be so distant, and at the same time 
so very strange, that I was quite alarmed at it. 

A* 



VENTRILOQUISM. .232 

As I was nov/ aware of the cause, I believe, said I to him, 
that von mean to speak to me as a ventriloquist. J-Je re- 
turned for answer only a smile ; but while I was pointing 
out to him the supposed direction of the voice, which to 
me seemed to come through the floor from the top of the 
opposite house, I again heard very distinctly the same 
voice which said, it is not on that side, and seemed now. to 
proceed from the corner of the chamber where we were 
sitting, and to rise from the ground. I could not get the 
better of my astonishment ; the voice seemed to be abso- 
lutely annihilated in the mouth of the ventriloquist ; it ap- 
peared as if shifting its quarters at his pleasure, and coming 
and goin<>* as it had a mind. But if the foregoing; scene 

O O *-j O 

was singular, the following was infinitely more curious. 

O O 

This ventriloquist happened to be walking with an old 
military man, who alwavs assumed a stately air as lie wc-irt 
along. His discourse was ever about sieges and battles, 
and he himself was sure to be the hero of the campaign. 

To repress tiiis inordinate vanity, Gille took it into his 
head to give him a dose in his own way ; since nothing is 
more amusing than a vain man set in action. Being ar- 
rived in a bye-place, near the borders of a forest, our sol- 
dier imagined that he heard some one from the top of a 
tree cry out, " It is not every one that wears a sword 
knows how to make use of it." " V/ho is that, im- 
pudent icllov,' r" (asked the sou of Mars.) " Probably, 
(rejoined the other) it is some shepherd a bird-nesting. "- 
*' Come hither, (ihen exclaimed the voice, which now 
seemed to descend along the tree,) come hither, if 
you be not afraid !" " As fur that, (returned the soldier, 
with a most martial air, and setting himself in a posture 
of attack,) I shall soon make you easy!" *' What 
are you about then ? ('..-tied Giile, taking him by the arm,) 
Do not you know that vou will be made game of r" " A 
bullving air is liot. ;;l\vays the sryn of true courage," (in- 
terrupted 



232 VENTRILOQUftltf. 

terrupte.d the voice ; which still appeared to be sliding 
ylong the tree as before.) '' This is no shepherd," (observed 
Gale.) " But still I will chastise him for his impertinence," 
(cried out the other.) " Witness Hector flying before 
Achilles!" (cried out the voice immediately after ;) upon 
which the exasperated solJier, drawing his sword, plunged 
it with all his might into a bush that grew at the foot of the 
tree, A rabbit instantly started from it, and ran off with 
ail its might. " Behold Hector, (said Gille) while you 
yourself are Achilles." 

This stroke of pleasantry disarmed the warrior,, while it 
confounded him. He demanded of his companion what 
was- meant b-y it, and the other then explained to him that 
lie iMCi two voices, which enabled him to act the part of 
two distinct persons ; the one was that which he was then 
using, and the other which was heard, as if at a considera- 
ble distance. 

But what, upon the whole, are the causes of this pheno- 
menon ? With these, the abbe Chapelle seems to have been 
well acquainted, when he attributes them to a particular 
plav of the muscles of the pharynx and the throat, which 
every man who is organised like the rest of his species, 
may acquire by constant and persevering exercise, and by 
an obstinate determination to bend the organs that way. 
This- faculty, however, was not the labour of-a wi.-Ji to Gillc, 
xvho had acquired it at Martinique, by closely imitating 
a ventriloquist with whom he had contracted a friendship. 

A straitening or restriction of the muscles of the pharynx, 
that chouk or enfeeble the voice, by which means the sound 
becomes modified, and steins to reach MS from afar, is the 
ouiv cause by which this phenomenon is/produced. 

One thing, however,, must be observed, which, donbt- 
!es.-iv, concurs to increase the illusion ; and it is this, that 
in the manner in which the ventriloquist speaks, the air 
ieing particularly struck in the interior of the thro-.it, at the 

time 



VENTRILOQUISM, 2sS 

nne of the expiration, and not externally, as is the case in 
the usual method of speeeli : this circumstance may concur 
r.o give a certain character to the voice, as if it caine from 
afar. 

What, in fine, seems to confirm the opinion, that with 
'.he ancients, as well as with us, the whole art of the ventri- 
loquist consisted in this voluntary construction of the throat 
is, that Hippocrates, in speaking of a particular disorder 
in that part, says, that it causal those who were afflicted 
with it, to speak as if they had been engastrymithized. 
But if this faculty may be acquired by any particular indis- 
position of the organ, art, when well directed, may pro- 
duce the same effect. 

The ignorance of those who have gone before us, with 
respect to engastrymism, has not a little contributed to im- 
pose upon numbers of persons, not to say that it has been 
the origin of a thousand tricks arid impositions. Hence we 
ou^ht not to be surprised. at hearing- a number of advea- 

O 1 O 

lures, each one more singular than the preceding. 



AN IMPROVEMENT IN NAVIGATION. 

1 HE following account of the origin and progress of the 
iisc of buoys, as marks for vessels, &c. will no doubt amuse 
and inform most of our readers. The first account of buovs 
being placed as guides to navigators on the coasts of this 
island, is in 153S, when the v were laid down at the mouth 
of the Thames, to point out the situation of the flats. Since 
that time, notwithstanding the accidents which happen in 
:onsequence of their removal bv storms or other accidents, 
ovhig in a great menus tc the clumsy construction of them, 
DO means have been taken to guard against the continuance 
of this evii ; nor has any improvement taken place in the 
sy.-,U;Ui of buoyage, though much has been done in ever 7 
other branch of naviation, 



234; AN IMPROVEMENT IN NAVIGATION. 

A plan proposed by a correspondent of the Naval Chro-* 
nic'c, seems so \vell calculated to remedy some of these 
defects, that we feel it our duty to give every publicity to 
it in our power. Two modes are pointed out by this gen- 
tleman, both of which we shall insert, though the second 
appears to us to be the best. His first scheme is to have 
a three-inch plank, eighteen inches wide at bottom, and 
nine inches wide at top, Ut through the center of a piece 
of timber one foot square and six feet long, and made 
fast to it ; about six or seven feet of the plank is to be be- 
low the timber, and the whole must be moored with a chain 
of such a length as that the timber may be four feet below 
the low-water line. The use of this timber is to keep the 
plank always in a perpendicular position. The other con- 
sists in mooring a spar of a convenient diameter in a similar 
manner, except that instead of nji.red piece of timber, he 
proposes that, in this case, the timber shall be conical, or 
rather in tlie shape of a weaver's shuttle, tapering in its 
thickness, and bored through like a water-pipe ; the bore 
to be large enough for the float to pass freely up and down, 
the spar as the tide rises or falls. A bolt may be put across 
the top of the spar to prevent the possibility of the float 
clipping oft'. The benefits likely to arise from the adoption 
of either of these buoys seem to be; 1st, That in conse- 
quence of offering less resistance to the winds and waves, 
a buoy on this ccii-struction will be less liable to be dis- 
placed by stormy weather; and 2d. That us its length will 
be known, that part of its perpendicular height which is 
-een above the water, will shew the depth upon the bank, 
Bv this means vessels may be ahvays apprised when they 
tan pass in safety. This plan appears to be simple and 
practicable, and at the same time fnmght with such ad- 
s;u:iUi<j.-cj y> to render it, at least, worth" of trial. 



( 285 ) 

The HISTORY e/" REMARKABLE EARTHQUAKES in England, 
and elsewhere. 

THE account of the dreadful Earthquake at Lisbon having 
been given in the former Numbers of this MUSEUM, as we 
were led to suppose, that a history of those that have hap- 
pened in this country might be still more interesting, the 
reader may look upon the following details as copious as 
the work will allow ; and without going too far into any 
elaborate disquisition as to the recondite causes of this 
calamity, the chronological order in which they are stated, 
M'ill, no doubt, considerably refresh the memory. And 
though England has had several awful visitations of this 
kind, it will be observed, that almost all of them have oc- 
curred since the year 1580. The shocks of any of them for 
700 years past, have in general been neither great nor ex- 
tensive, and have also been mostly confined within the 
compass of a few miles. This may be caused partly from 
the scarcity and distance of the subterraneous caverns, 
which are supposed to abound in hot countries ; but where 
these are more numerous, the mineral fire runs through 
little openings from one great cavity to another, and as 
many mines may be sprung with one continued train of 
powder, so this forces its way to an incredible distance. 
Thus, in 1586, an earthquake in Peru, ran from south to 
north 900 miles ; and in 1601 another extended from Asia 
to the sea which washes the French coast, at the same time 
shaking Hungary, Germany, Italy, and France. In this 
case, as Mr. Boyle observes, it is not to be doubted, but 
that the shock of the explosion may extend cinch farther 
than the danger, 

On Wednesday April 6, 1530, about six in the evening, 
an earthquake was felt all over England. The great clock 
in the palace of Westminster struck of itself ao- d inst the 
.hammer, as did several clocks ar4 belli iu the" citv and 

? p country- 



2S6 REMARKABLE EARTHQUAKES 

country 4 part of the Temple- church fell down, some stones 
were thrown from St. Paul's and at Christ-church, during 
divine service, a boy and girl were killed by a stone fall- 
ing frbm the top of the church, and many were hurt by the 
fall of chimnies. At the same time a piece of the cliff' at 
Dover., and part of the castle wall were thrown down, as 
'altfo.ii part of Salt wood- Castle in Kent. In the east part of 
Kent there were three shocks, at six, at nine, and at eleven 
at night. 

January 13, 1583. In the parish of Armitagc, apiece 
,of ground, containing three acres, was torn up by an 
earthquake, removed from its original station, and thrown 
over another close to the distance of forty perches ; the 
hedges with which it was surrounded, enclosed it still, and 
the trees stood upright. Mr. Stowe says, that it stopped 
up a highway leading to the market town of Cerne : and 

1 *.. ., O * 

. tlrat the placu from whence this Held was torn, resembled 
a. great pit. 

January 19, 1665 G. Towards evening a small earth- 

.quake was felt near Oxford ; it A\as perceived at Belch- 

.iiigtori, and also at Bostol, Jlorton, Stanton, St. John's, 

:,and Whately. It was not felt at all those places at the 

same time, but moved successively from Belchington to 

. Whately.. It was very considerable at a. place called Brill, 

.where a gentleman's house -shook very much, so that the 

-stones in the parlour evidently moved to and fro; but this 

is not Tory wonderful, since the hill on which it stood is 

stored with mineral substances. 

. ,ln the year ItuT, al about eleven at, night in Christmas 

rime, au earthquake was folt at Wittenhall, near Wolver- 

harnpton in Staffordshire ; it consisted of only one shock, 

*:nd In the; nqisQ which attended it, was thought to move 

from south to nor!'!). 

November 4, I6't3. At about ck-von at night. there hap- 
_ };<".;i<'d another earthquake at . Breevrxjod,. in the same 

county : 



IK ENGLAND, AND EL-SEWHE-RE, ; . : 

county ; it began -with a noise like a fiat rumbling., distant, 
thunder, yet so loud as to awaken people in their be<jb.*- 
The earth moved very sensibly three several times, each 
motion being at about half an hour's distance from tl>e, 
other. The night following was attended with another of 

O *--" ' 

A less kind, yet not without noise. 

January 4, 1680. About seven in the morning an 
earthquake was felt at Chedsey, in Somersetshire, which 
extended some miles round. It shook the houses pretty 
much, and was attended with a noise resembling a sudden 
gust of wind ; or, as others imagined, the shock and noise 
was not unlike that of some great thing thrown, upon. the. 
ground. It was of very short continuance. The air WQS 
very calm, it having been a frost v night, and the snow 
which fell the day before lying upon the ground. 

September 17, 1683. There was one at Oxford. It 
was preceded by a remarkable calmness in the air ; it shook 
the earth with a tremulous and vibratory motion extremely 
quick; the pulses were a little discontinued, and yet they 
came so thick that there was no reckoning them, though 
the whole earthquake continued here scarce more than six 
seconds of time. As tremulous and vibratory motions ar<; 
proper to produce sounds, so this earthquake was accom* 
panied with a hollow murmuring, like a distant thunder j 
which sound kept time so exactly with the motion, and 
and was so conformable to it in all respects, that it plainly 
appeared there was the same reason for both. 

September 8, 169.1. At two in the afternoon, an earth- 
quake was felt at Deal, Canterbury, Sandwich, and Ports,- 
mouth. The houses were shaken, the pewter and brass 
tottered on the shelves, and several chimneys were throwu 
down ; this earthquake was said to continue near six; 
minutes. 

December 28, 1703. An earthquake was felt at Hall, 
about three or four minutes after five in the evening; it 

P p 2 made 



288 REMARKABLE EARTHQUAKES IN ENGLAND. 

made the windows rattle, shook the houses, and threw 
down part of a chimney ; the shock came and went very 
suddenly, and was attended with a noise like wind, though 
there was then a perfect calm. It was felt in much the 
same manner at Beverly and other places, and particularly 
at South Dalton ; but was more violent near Lincoln. It 
was felt pretty much at Selov and Navenby, where it was 
attended with a sudden noise, which resembled the rumb- 
ling of two or three coaches driven furiously ; it shook the 
chairs on which people sat ; and even the very stones were 
seen to move. It extended into Nottinghamshire, where 
there were three shocks, each of which resembled the 
rocking of a cradle. A little before there was a violent 
storm. 

In 1727, there was another in England, which was felt 
at Reading and several parts adjacent; and in 1732 one at 
Strontian in Argyleshirc, which extended all along the west 
coast of Great Britain ; but to no great breadth. 

October 10, 1731. At about four in the morning an 
earthquake of the vibratory kind, was felt at Ayriho in 
Northamptonshire ; it alarmed all the neighbouring vil- 
lages, it proceeded from east to west, the concussion last- 
ing about a minute ; and in the morning the sky looked of 
a. sand colour, It had been over about a minute, when 
some of the inhabitants observed a great flash of lightning. 

October 25, 1734. Between three and four in the 
morning, an earthquake was felt at Havant in Sussex ; the 
shock was very considerable, so that a church bell was 
lieard to sound. The beds shook with a quick tremulous 
motion, which continued about two or three seconds, and 
then ceased ; but after a short intermission, was again re- 
tieated for the same length of time. The air was perfectly 
though it rained, and the wind rose presently after. 

(T<i be continued,) 



( 289 ) 

/ 

A singular NARRATION of a GRAND MASQUE and ANTI- 
MASQUE, exhibited by the Law Societies, btfort Charles I. 
and his Queen. 

[Extracted from WHITE LOCKE'S Memorials.] 

IN 1633, in the Middle Temple, were chosen of this 
committee, Mr. Hyde and Whitelocke; Inner Temple, 
.Sir Edward Herbert and Mr. Selden ; Lincoln's Inn, Mr. 
Attorney Noy and Mr. Gerling; and for Gray's Inn, Sir 

John Finch and Mr. , to conduct a Royal Masque. It 

was the finest thing ever seen in England. There was also 
at the same time an Antimasque. 

On Candlemas day, in the afternoon, the masquers, 
horsemen, musicians, dancers, and all tiiat were actors in 
this business, met at Ely House in Holborn ; in this order 
down Chancery-lane to Whitehall. 

The first that marched were twenty footmen in scarlet 
liveries with silver lace, each one having his sword by hi* 
side, a 'tx;ton in his hand, and a torch lighted in 'the other 
hand ; these were the marshal's men, who cleared the 
streets, made way, and were all about the marshal wait- 
ing his commands, After them, and sometimes in toe 
midst of them, came the marshal, then Mr, Darrel, after- 
wards knighted by the King. -He was of Lincoln's Inn, 
an extraordinary handsome proper gentleman ; he was 
mounted upon one of the King's best horses, and richest 
saddles, and his own habit was exceeding rich and glorious, 
his horsemanship very gallant, and besides his marshal's 
men, he had two lacquies, who carried torches by him, 
and a page in livery went by him, carrying his cloak. 
After him followed a hundred gentlemen of the Inns of 
Court, twenty-five chosen out of each house, of the ino-t 
.proper and handsome young gentlemen of the Societies, 
n" one of them was gallantly mounted on the best 
and with the bebt furniture that the King's stable, 

and 



2DO A SINGULAR NAURATION OF 

and the stables of all the noblemen in town would afford ; 
and they were forward on this occasion to lend them to the 
Inns of Court. Every one of these hundred gentlemen 

J O 

were in very rich clothes, scarce any thing but gold and 
silver lace to be seen of them, and each gentleman had a 
page and two lacquies waiting on him in his livery, by his 
horse's side : the lacquies carried torches, and the page his 
master's cloak. The richness of their apparel and furni- 
ture, glittering by the light of a multitude of torches at- 
tending on them, with the motion and stirring of their met- 
tled horses, and the many and various gay liveries of their 
servants . but especially the personal beauty and gallantry 
of the handsome young gentlemen, made the most glorious 
and splendid show that, ever was beheld in England. After 
the horsemen came the Antimasquers, and as the horsemen 
had their music, about a dozen of the best trumpeters pro- 
per for them, and in their liveries, sounding before them, 
KO the first Antimasque being of cripples and beggars on 
horseback, had their music of keys and tongs, and the like, 
snapping, and yet playing in a concert before them. 
These beggars were also mounted, but on the poorest, 
leanest jades that could be gotten out of the dirt carts or 
elsewhere ; and the variety and change from such noble 
music and gallant horses as went before them, unto their 

o ' 

proper music and pitiful horses, made botli of them the 
more pleasing. The habits and properties of these cripples 
were most ingeniously fitted (us of all the rest) by the 
commissioner's direction. After the beggars Antimasque, 
came men on horseback, playing upon pipes, whistles, and 
instruments, sounding notes like those of birds of all sorts, 
and in excellent consort, and were followed by the anti- 
rnasque of birds ; this was an owl in an ivy bush, with 
many several sorts of other birds in a cluster about the owl, 
^.I/ring as it were upon her: these were liltlo boys put into 
covers of the shapes of those birds, rarely fitted; and sitting 

on 



A GRAND MASQUE AND ANTIMASQUE. 29.1 

on small horses, with footmen going bv them, with torches 
in their hands, and there were some besides to look unto 
the children ; and this was very pleasant to the beholders. 
After this Antimasque came other musicians on horseback, 
playing upon bagpipes, hornpipes, and such kind of 
Northern music, speaking the following- Antimasque of 
projectors to be of the Scotch and Northern quarters, and 
these, as all the rest, had many footmen with torches wait- 
ing on them. First, in this Antimasque, rode a fellow upon 
a little horse, with a great bit in his mouth, and upon the 
man's head was a bit, with head-stall and reins fastened, 
and signified a projector, who begged a patent, that none 
in the kingdom might ride their horses but with such bits a.s 
they should buy of him. Then came another fellow with a 
bunch of carrots upon his head, and a capon upon his fist, 
describing a projector, who begged a patent of monopoly, 
as the first inventor of the art to feed capons fat with car- 
rots, and that none but himself might make use of that in- 
vention, -and have the privilege for fourteen years, acconl- 
ing to tlie statute. Several other projectors were rn .like 
manner personated in this Antimasque; it pleased the spec- 
tators the more, because by it an intimation was covertly 
given to the King of the unritness and ridiculousness of these 
projects against the law; and the Attorney, Moy, who had 
niost knowledge of them, had a great hand in this Anti- 
masque of projectors. After this-, and the rest of the. Anti- 
masques were passed, all which are not kere remembered, 
there came six of the chief musicians on horseback upon 
foot-cloths, and in the habits of heathen priests, and foot- 
men carrying of torches by the. n. After these musicians 
followed a large open chariot, drawn with six brave horses, 
with large plumes of feathers on their heads and buttocks ; 
the coaciiman and postillion in rich antique liveries. In the 
chariot were about u dozen persons, in several habits of the 

God* 



A SINGULAR NARRATION OF 

Gods and Goddesses, and by them many footmen on all 
sides, bearing torches. 

After this chariot followed six more of the musicians on 
horseback, with foot-cloths, habited, and attended with 
torches, as the former were : after them came another large 
open chariot, like the former, drawn with six gallant 
horses, with feathers, liveries, and torches, as the other 
had. These chariots were made purposely for this occasion ; 
and in this latter chariot were about a dozen musicians in 
like habit (but all with some variety and distinction) as 
those in the first chariot. These going immediately next 
before the grand masquers chariots, played upon excellent 
and loud music all the way as they went. After this chariot 
came six more musicians on foot-cloth horses, habited and 
attended as the other. Then came the first chariot of the 
grand masquer, which was not so largo as those that went 
before, but most curiously framed, and painted with ex- 
quisite ait, and purposely for this service and occasiosi. 
The form of it was after that of the Roman triumphant 
chariots, as near as could be gathered by some old prints 
and pictures extant of them. The scats in it were made 
of an oval form, in the back end of the chariot, so that 
there was no precedence in them ; and the faces of all them 
that sat in it, might be seen together. The colours of the 
first chariot were silver and crimson, given by lot to 
Gray's Inn, as I remember. The chariot Avas all over 
painted richly with these colours, even the wheels of it 
most artificially laid on; and the carved work of it was as 
curious for that art, and it made a stately show. It was 
drawn by four horses all a-breast, and they were covered 
to their heels all over with cloth of tissue, of the colours of 
crimson and silver ; huge plumes of red and white feathers 
on their heads and buttocks ; the coachman's cap and 
feather, his long coat, and his ve.rv whip and cushion of 

the 



A GRAND MASQUE AND ANTIMASQUE. 293 

i. he same stud' and colour. In this chariot sat the four 
grand masquers of Gray's Inn, their habits, doublets, 
trunk-hose and caps, of most rich cloth of tissue, and 
wrought as thick with silver spangles as they could be 

t? - 

placed ; large white silk stockings tip to their trunk-hose, 
and rich sprigs in their taps, themselves proper and beau- 
tii'ul young gentlemen. On each side of the chariot were 
four footmen in liveries of the colour of the chariot, car- 
rying huge flambeaux in their hands, with winch the torches 
gave such a lustre to the paintings, spangles, and habits, 
that hardly any thing could be invented to appeal more 
glorious. After this chariot came six more musicians, like 
the former ; these were followed by the second chariot, us 
the lot fell for the Middle Temple: this differed not in any 
thinir from the former, but in colours only, which were of 

. O ' tJ * 

this chariot, silver and blue ; the chariot and horses were 
covered and decked with cloth of tissue, of blue and silver, 
ss the former was with silver and crimson. In this second 
chariot were the four grand masquers of the Middle Tem- 
ple, in the same habits as the other masquers were, and 
with the like attendance, torches and flambeaux, with the 
former. After these followed the third and fourth chariots, 
and six musicians between each chariot, habited as before ; 
the chariots were all of the same make, and alike carved 
and painted, differing only in the colours. In the third 
chariot rode the grand masquers of the Inner Temple, and 
iu the fourth chariot went those of Lincoln's Inn. 

They continued in their sports till it was almost morn- 
ing, and then the King and Queen retiring, the masquers 
and Inns of Court gentlemen were brought to a stately 
banquet. 

The Q'.iccn, who was much delighted with these solem- 
nities, was so tiiken with this show and masque, that she 
uesiivd to see it acted over again ; A\ hereupon an intima- 
Uou being given to" the Lord Mayor of London, he invited 



294f THE REMARKABLE LIFE OF 

the King and Queen, and the Inns of Court Masquers td 
the city, and entertained them with all state and magnifi- 
cence at Merchant Taylors' Hall. This also gave great 
contentment to their Majesties, and no less to the Citizens, 
especially to those ot the younger sort, and of the female 
sex ; and it was to the great honour and no less charge of 
the Lord Mayor, Freeman. 

The King and Queen, and all their noble train, being 
come in (the banqueting-house), the masque began, and 
was incomparably performed in the dancing, speeches, 
music and scenes ; the dances, figures, properties, the 
voices, instruments, songs, airs, composures, the words 
and actions, were all of them exact, and none failed in 
their parts of them, and the scenes were most curious and 
costly. 

The Queen did the honour to some of the masquers to 
dance with them. The persons employed in this masque 
were paid justly and liberally : the music cost clOOO ; a sum 
in 1 803 equal to ofSOOO and the whole cost 20,000 guineas, 

TO THE EDITOR OF KIRBY's WONDERFUL MUSEUM. 
" SIR, I send you for insertion, a short sketch of the 
remarkable life of Mr. GEORGE DE BENNEVILLE, not 
more remarkable than true, as it was attested by the Count 
de Marsay ; and an account was published by him in 
French and German, soon after the remarkable scene hap- 
pened : a further account was also published by the Rev. 
Elhanan Winchester, the celebrated lecturer on the Univer- 
sal Restoration t)f Mankind. From these undoubted autho- 
rities, and coming from the pen of those truly pious men, 
J hope you will 'think it worth v of a place in your 
MUSEUM. .A." 

GicoKOE-STF.r.KT, Hdnoier-Squarc, ^ 

jVI. G. DE BENNEVILLE, was 'born in London, July the 
vTcth, 1103; his father was a French refugee, persecuted 

fci 



M. G. DE BENNEVILLE. 295 

for his religion : he retired into England with his family 
and connections, upon the invitation of his Majesty King 
William III. His mother died as soon als he was born, she 
imagined she should die at that time ; and therefore was 
induced, while pregnant, frequently to pray for her child; 
and it appears the Lord heard her prayers, and grantedjier 
requests. After the death of his mother, Queer) Anne 
provided him a nurse, and took on herself the care of his 
infancy. At the age of twelve years he was sent to sea in 
a vessel of war bound to Algiers ; at which time he was a 
very wild youth, but as extraordinary as it may appear, 
was convicted of his sinful ways, by the conduct of two 
Moors at Algiers. He soon after returned to Ens, land, 

O O / 

and became a very zealous Christian preacher ; and not- 
withstanding the persecutions that was then carrying on 
in France against the Protestants, he was determined to 

O * 

preach the Gospel there. The first sermon he preached 
was at Calais, and as soon as he was done, he was taken 
into custody ; and as the magistrates were examining him, 
there came in an old man with a white beard, all the jus- 
tices saluted him, and he said to them, have nothing to do 
with this man, for I have suffered much this night on his 
account, and immediately retired. As this was his first 
.crime, he was sentenced to eight clays imprisonment, und 
was afterwards conducted cut of thy bounds ojt" the city, 
with this caution, that 1m life would be in danger for the 

> . o 

second offence. He was about seventeen years of ai;e when 
he first began .to preach in France, and he spent iwo rears 
in preaching in Upper ant 1 , Lower Normandy ; .at last he, 
and the Rev. Mr. Dunint, his companion, were surrounded 
by soldiers, as he was preaching near Dieppe, and taken 
prisoner, with a number of his audience. After a month's 
imprisonment, those two were condemned to die, Mr. Du- 
rant to be hung, and Mr. Do Benneville to be beheaded. 
They were conducted together to the place of execution j 



296 THE REMARKABLE LIFE OF 

Mr. Durant was hanged, he died joyfully, singing the' 
11 6th Psalm : Mr. De Benneville was then conducted on 
the scaffold, and his eyes ordered to be bound ; but upon 
his earnest request, that was omitted : he then fell on his 
knees in prayer, and the executioner then bound his 
hands. While he was thus employed, a courier arrived 
trom the King (Louis XV.), with a reprieve for the crimi- 
nal : he was then reconducted into prison, where he re- 
mained some time, till he was at last set at liberty, through 
the earnest intercession of Queen Anne. He then retired 
into ( fornumv, and there became acquainted with the Count 
<!;; r\ \ir.sav, a zealous Protestant : their acquaintance with 
r.-ich other happened by means of a vision. Alter eighteen 
years residence in Germany and Holland, he became sicklv 
nl. ?) consumptive disorder, and retired to the city ofMons, 
in Hanau't ; while h< lay in this weakness, he was favoured 
v. it!) svvr;il visions. The Brethren in Germany, also had 
a. v:.-.:r;n of his death, and sent the Count de JMarsav to 
visit him : when he arrived, he found him in the agonies of 
loath, and in a short time, to all appearance, he died. 
His body was washed according to the custom of the coun- 
try, and was then put in acofh'n, and after having laid in 
that state forty-one hours, he began to survive, to the 
astonishment of all present. What was very remarkable, 
he had while in that state a vision of Heaven and Hell, and 
the restoration of fuilen souls. A full account of which, he 
himself related to the. iiev. K. Winchester, and which ac- 
count was published in the year 1191. Beginning then to 
preach the Universal Gospel, he was presently put into 
prison, but soon sot at liberty ; he then took his departure 
tor America, where lie was living in July 1181. 

The Rev. }'., Winchester relates in bis account, that lie 
:.!;;'! ;-n hitimaK- acquaintance with him, from March 1182 
> Jt:iv 11S1, ami v;as glad that he was ever acquainted 

i.h him; for sucli a humble, ])ious, hole man, he had 

scarce 



M. G. DI: BE:;Nn*.'iLr.T:. IV t 

scarce.' ever seen. And it was his opinion, as it was of seve- 
ral others, that he had been permitted to depart from the 
boclv for u time, that he might bo satisfied, both of the cer- 
tainty of the Universal Doctrine, nn:1 of the manner oi its 
bein< v carried on in the invisible, sta'o. 



\CCOU\T of ti'i'.' NEAPOLITAN- Q IT \c<< D^CTI'.^S 
To FAX A ; tn ichidi is (//;.','' r<Y/, {lie JJi.-^'/-y <<r I /it- 
Court calh'd the BURNING CKAMBEII. 

U XDT:R the administration of Cardinal T.nn.vols, dmvi'j 
tin: rei<;'U or" Louis X'V., an Italian apothecary he.vii'g 
assisted the lover of the March'one^s of I3rinvil!iers, who 
lu>d been sent to t'le j>as''.;e, te, poi>on the lather ai-d bro- 
ther of the hi;.!'.", eiVipoisounieni n;u:;-;!;'au-!v became t;!e 
topic of the dav, and a superstitious opinion \v;is soon ge- 
nerated amonu; tlic mnltitLulc, tj;:c drn^g-ists and p!ii{i>so- 
pliers can compo.se venoms, '.vhiea operate, not at the season 
of administration, but at definite remote periods: that thcv 
can draw drafts upon death pavable at one, two or three 
usances, or even at one, two or three years after accept- 
ance of the order ; and that these drafts are unfailingly dis- 
charo-ed at their elapse, without a protest or a day of ymce, 

o i * o 

Not only Quintilian and Theophrastus were ransacked fur 
corroborations of this mischievous credulity ; but the annals, 
or rather the libels, of the modern Italians, were pressed 
into the service of these calumniators of human nature.-- 
To Alexander VI. and Ca-sar Ijorgia, more than t'n' po^- 
sible was imputed, in order to come at a fund of baleful 
anecdotes. Catastrophes of tragedies translated into prose, 
were made; to pass for history : entomology, mineralogy, 
botany, were employed only to catalogue their banes. 

The name of t[ie Sicilian quack-doctress, Tofann, wa? 
peculiarly efficient in exciting public attention. She wa 
said to have resided tir.it at JVlermo. afterwards at Naples, 

and 



298 ACCOUNT OF THE NEAPOLITAN 

and to be still living in impenetrable privacy at some for 
saken hermitage. She was stated, for a time to have sold 
thes^ drops, which from her acquired the name Aqua To- 
fania, Acqua ddlq Tot ana, and' Acquctta di Napoli ; and, 
at length, with a truly disinterested love of crime, to have 
charitably distributed the preparation among such wives as 
wished to have other husbands. From four to six drops of 
this water of Tofana's, it was asserted, "were sufficient to 
destroy a man ; and the dose could be so proportioned as 
to operate in any limited time. Watched by the state, 
but never detected in mal-practices, .she had wandered 
from one ecclesiastical asylum to another, and thence dis- 
tributed, under the superscription, Manna of Saint Nicolas 
of Bari, her little bottles, ornamented with the picture of 
the Saint. Dozens, grosses of these vials of wrath were 
pretended to have been sent to Paris. The regular physi- 
cians willingly compared the pious, but, perhaps, dram 
vending Tofana, with Hicronyma Spara, who had bee-n 
hanged at Rome in 1G51>, for selling venomous philtres to 
young married women. A mortality of husbands was in- 
ferred from the purchase of cordials by their wives, and a 
well-meant " IMv dear, it will do you good !" was mis- 
construed as an assignation in the church-yard. 

The jealousies of domestic life once inflamed, women 
thought their innocence, and men their security concerned, 
in inveighing with bitterness indiscriminate against the 
buyers of this Daily's elixir. Every sudden, every linger- 
ing, every conspicuous, every critical disease was ascribed 
to the Aqua Tofana. ' The chief distributors were soon 
rumoured to be the Italian apothecary Kxiii, who admi- 
nistered for secret disorders; one Lavoisin, an accommo- 
dating midwife; one Gluser, a German, who printed che- 
mical pamphicts, and pretended to raise ghosts; and one 
l.avigourcux, a she fortune-teller, who professed to dis- 
cover stolen goods. Le Sage, a priest and astrologer, was 

employed 



QUACK-DOCTRESS 1 OF AN A. 299 

employed to detect, or hired to betray, the combination. 
Visits, sometimes social, sometimes solitary, but always 
mysterious, from an apprehension of sneer, v, ere found to 
have been made by women of rank, and me'n of intrigue, 
to these botchers of flaws. Some alledged the pretext of 
having a nativity cast, some had venture:! into the crypts 
of sorcery, where were evoked with magic lanterns a phan- 
tasmagoria of the conspicuous dead. Disease and vice had 
convened their thousands curiosity her ten thousands : it 
was easy to find out or to decoy, among audiences so 
mixed, the persons most obnoxious to the public, and the 
persons most obnoxious to the Minister. The Chambrc 
Ardente well knew that the art of oppressing was To sacri- 
fice them conjointly ; and its proceedings were conducted 
accordingly. 

It was evulgated that the Archbishop had been informed, 
from different parishes, that tiie crime of poisoning Mas 
frequently confessed, and that traces of it were remarked 
both in high and low families. Tellkn* and his brother 
Jesuits corroborated the alarm, by hair-bristling instances 
ot enormity and villfi'my, which wanted, indeed, the defi- 
nition of time, place, and person ; but of these, the so- 
lemn oaths of the confessional, were supposed to prohibit 
the revelation. The public mind became die dupe of an 
honourable indignation, and out of horror to cruelty, called 
aloud for victims. Arrests were now begun. In the pos- 
session of the midwife, Lavoisin, was found or placed a list 
of those who had dealings with her. Ail the.se, above 40 
persons, were dragged before the tribunal of the Burning 
Chamber, which, without following the u:>ual course of 
justice, detected secret ct-iraes by means of spies, \vho:c 
tattle, to escape the reproach of frivolity, mast always be 
-'exaggerated. The trials were private, and in every thing 
the example of tiie Inquisition was imitated. Acquittal, 
iu-spicioii, conviction, were measured out, at the discretion 

of 



of this secret tribunal. In t!u: midwifes li.->t appeared the 
names, the distinguished names of the Countess of Soissons, 
of her :! -ter, the Dut chess of Bouillon, and. of Marshal 
Luxembourg, ail three personal enemies of the Minister. 
At the perfidious hint ofihe Xing, the Countess voluntarily - 
banished herself to Brussels. The Dutehess fled to Kng- 
Iciiid, fearing (she said) to be interrogated, though un- 
conscious of guilt. -The Marshal went, calmly to the Bas- 
tile. Exorcism'., or rather the reverse, sale of himself to 
the devil, were forged around his signature, and other 
tricks employed to render hmi the object of vulgar sus- 
picion and abhorrence. While in confinement, proposals 
were made <o him, through u priest, named D'Avaux, to 
agree on a manage between ius son and the daughter of 
Louvois, wiiicli the M.a'bhai had already treated as a dis- 
paragement. Like a true nobleman, he repeated in prison 
all the haughtiness oi his answer ; and was kept live weeks 
in a narrow dungeon, until disease threatened his life, and 
awoke in Louvois the apprehension of passing himself for 
a drug-mixer. The culprits of ordinary rank were punished 
by the common hangman : those of an elevated class, after 
a confinement more or less rigid, were suffered to retire into 
obscurity, loaded with dark unanswerable suspicions. 
Glaser was acquitted. Lxili, after being in durance, was 
suliereu, for unknown reasons, to escape. The two women, 
who were supposed chiefly to have vended thesiqua Tofana, 
Lavigoreux and Lavoisin, were both burnt alive. 

Thus ended an alarm and an inquisition, which still fur- 
nish calumny with charges, and injustice" with precedents. 




AN ACCOUNT OF A CAT, &C. 

Academy is indebted for several curious observations, was 
pleased to communicate to it in 1753 a very singular one. 
Having remarked how eats often habituate themselves, and 
ultener than one would \vish, to dry \varrens, where they 
certainly cannot find drink but very seldom, he iancied 
that these animals could do for a very long time without 
drinking. To see whether his motion was well grounded, 
he made an experiment on a very large and fat castrated 
cat he had at his disposal. He began by retrenching by 
little and little his drink, and at last debarred him or it en- 
tirely, yet fed him as usual with boiled meat. The cat 
had not drank for seven months, when this observation was 
communicated to the Academy, and has since passed nine- 
teen without drinking-. The animal was not less well in, 

D 

health, nor less fat ; it only seemed that it cat less than, 
before, probably because digestion was somewhat slower, 
The excrements were more firm and dry, which were not 
evacuated but every second day, though urine came forth 

' . ' O 

six; or seven times during the same time. The eat appeared 
to have an ardent desire to drink, and used his best en- 
deavours to testify the same to M. Fontenu, especially 
when he saw a pot of water in his hand. He licked 
greedily the mug, the glass, iron, in short, every thing 
that could procure for his tongue the sensation of coolness ; 
but it does not appear in the least, that his health suffered 
?,ny alteration by so severe and so long a want of all sorts 
of drink. Ic may be inferred from hence, that cats may 
support thirst tor a considerable time, without risk of mad- 
ness, or other fatal accident. According to M. de Fon- 
U'nu's remark, these animals are not perhaps the only that 
c ;;'i')\ t.his faculty, and this observation might lead perhaps 
to more important objects. 



R v MIR AC u- 



( 302 ) 

MIRACULOUS PRESERVATION OF A CHILD. 

[In consequence of an Explosion of Gunpowder.] 

IN- the year 1649, raid during the civil wars between 
Charles and his Parliament, the particulars of which are 
thus described by Stow : 

" Over against the wall of Barking church-yard, a sad 
and lamentable accident happened by gunpowder, in this 
manner : One of the houses in this place was a ship- 
chandler's, who, upon the 4th of January 1649, about 
seven of the clock at night, being busy in his shop about, 
barrelling up of gunpowder, it took fire ; and, in the 
twinkling of an eye, blew up not only that, but all the 
houses thereabouts, to the number towards the street, and 
in back alleys of fifty or sixty. The number of persons 
destroyed by this blow could never be known ; for the next. 
Jiouse but one was the Hose Tavern, a house never empty 
at that time of night, but full of company ; and that day 
the parish dinner was in that house. And in three or four 
days after digging, they continually found heads, arms, 
legs, and half bodies, miserably torn and scorched, besides 
many whole bodies, not so much as their clothes singed. 
In the course of this accident, I will instance only t\vo, 
one a dead, the other a living monument. In the digging, 
as I said before, they found the mistress of the house of the 
Rose Tavern, sitting in her bar, and one of the drawers 
standing by the bar's side, with a pot in his hand, onlv 
sti-flcel with dust and smoke, their bodies being preserved 
Thole, by means of great timbers falling across one an- 
other: this is one. Another is this: the next morning 
there was found upon the upper leads of Barking Church, 
a young child lying in a cradle, as newly laid in bed ; 
neither the child nor cradle having the least sign of am- 
tire or other hurt. It was never known whose child it v.'as; 



ACCOUNT OF THE RUINS OF HERCULANEUM. 303 

so tliut one of the parish kept it for a memorial : for, in 
the year 1666, I saw the child grown to be then a proper 
maiden. 

To preserve the memory of so notable an event, and that 
no doubt might remain of the fact, on a table which was 
hung up in the said Church of Barking Allhallows, in Tower 
Ward, it \vas thus written : " This church was much de- 
faced and ruined by a lamentable blow of 27 barrels of 
gunpowder that took fire, the 4th day of January 1C-19, ia 
a ship-chandler's house, over against the south bide of the 
church. It was afterwards repaired and beautified by the 
parishioners." And escaping the Great Fire of London, it 
has, between that and the present period, undergone seve- 
ral other repairs, being new pev/ed, <.c. 



A CURIOUS ACCOUNT cf the RUINS of MERCULANEUM, 
a subterraneous Toic-n in the Neighbourhood of Naples ; 
discovered in 1741. In a Letter from j\Ir. GEORGE 
SHELVOCKE, written from actual Swvey, to ike arl of 
LEICESTER. 

1 HE writer begins by observing, that this ancient town 
probably stood on the spot where now stands that called 
Torre di Greco, as what is now seen of it, is not above 
half a mile from the Tower, and was probably a very large 
place. He then proceeds ' Before I give such a descrip- 
tion of these remains as 1 am able, it mav first be necessary 
to acquaint you, that for fear of accidents, the passages 
they have dug out, which have been quite at a venture, 
are seldom higher or broader than is necessary for a man of 
my i='/e to pass along conveniently. This is the cause that 
T ou have but an imperfect view of things in general ; and 
.:% these narrow passages are quite a labyrinth; there is no 



30i A CURIOUS ACCOUNT OF THE 

guessing at whereabout you are after two or three 
turnings. 

" At the further end of Portici. towards Torre di Greco* 
you descend by 50 stone steps, which convey you over the 
wall of a theatre, lined with white marble, which, if the 
hearth and rubbish were cleared out of it, would, I believe, 
be found to be very entire. By what is seen of it, I don't 
imagine it to have been much bigger than one of our ordi- 
nary theatres in London. And that it was a theatre and 
not an amphitheatre, appears by a part of the scene, 
wniclr is to be plainly distinguished. It is, I think, of 
stucco, and adorned with compartments of grotesque work? 
r.f which and grotesque paintings, there is a greal deal, 
scattered up and down- in the several pans of the town. 

" W 7 hen you have left the theatre, you enter into the 
is: "Trow passages, where on one hand of you, (for you sel- 
dom or never see any particular object to be distinguished 
on each hand at once, because of the narrowness of the 
passages,) YOU have walls lined and crusted over, some- 
times with marble, sometimes with stucco, and sometimes 
you have walls of bare brick ; but almost throughout, you 
see above and about you, pillars of marble or stucco crushed 
or broken, or lying in all sorts of directions. Sometimes 
you have plainly the outsides of walls of buildings that have 
apparently fallen inwards ; and sometimes the insides of 
buildings that have fallen outwards ; and sometimes have 
apparently both the insicles and outsides of buildings that 
stand upright ; and many of them would, I daresay, be 
found to be entire, as several of them have in part been 
found to be. 

'' To mak an end of this general description, you have 
all the way such a. confusion of brick and tiles, and mortar 
and marble cornices and frieze:-:, and other members and 
'>m;;nx:nts, u'gcthcr with stucco, and beams and rafters-, 

511 !1 



RUINS OF HERCULANEUM. 305 

in id even what seem to have been the trees that stood iu 
.the town, and blocks and billets for fuel, together with the 
earth and matter that appears to have overwhelmed the 
place, all so blended and crushed, and, as it were, so 
mixed together, that it is far easier to conceive than to de- 
scribe. The ruin in general is not to be expressed. 

" 1 Living- given your lordship this general account, I 
will now run over the most remarkable particulars I saw, 
just as they occur to me, without pretending to order : for 
as I have hinted already, it was impossible for me to know 
in what order they stand in respect of each other. 

" I saw the outside of a rotunda, which may have been 
XL temple; it is crowned with a clove; it may be about 
thirty feet in diameter : but I forbear to say anv thing of 
measures ; for thev will allow of none to be taken. Near 
it I saw the lower part of a Corjnthiarj column upon the 
loftiest proportioned brick pedestal I ever observed, and 
thereabouts some very solid buildings. I soon after passed 
.over what, bv the length we saw of it, appears to have 
been a very vast ?>lo.<iic pavement. We soon afterwards 
perceived ourselves to be got into the inside of a dwelling- 
house: the rooms appear to have been but small; thev are 
lined with stucco, and painted with a ground of deep red ; 
adorned with compartments either of white or light yellow, 
and some other colours : our lights were not good enough 
to make us distinguish. In these compartments were 2ro- 

O 1- O 

tesque paintings of birds, beasts, masks, festoons, and the 
like. 

u Soon afterwards, with some difficulty, and by creep- 
ing up a very narrow hole of loose earth, we got into an 
upper apartment of another house. The floor was of 
stucco, and the earth and rubbish was cleared away from 
under a great part of it, and found a room lined and 
adorned in the same manner, and in the same colours, and 
with the same ground of deep red as the sides, This 

room 



306 A CURIOUS ACCOUNT OF THE 

room may have been about tea or eleven feet high ; but 
the danger of our situation would not permit us to do 
otherwise than to get out of it as soon as we could. 

" Shortly afterwards we were carried t rather ascending 
as we went, into what seems to have been a principal room 
of some great house. At the end of it, which is to be seen, 
there were three large boufets in the wall, all three most 
admirably painted, partly in grotesque, and partly in per- 
spective, representing temples, houses, gardens and the 
like, executed with the greatest freedom, judgment, and 
variety, and very much enlivened with the lightest and 
most airy ornaments; as is the Avhole of the room, a^ far 
as can be seen ; not excepting the roof, which seems to 
have been a sloping one : and all the lines of the compart- 
ments of the painting of it, seem to tend to some orna- 
ment that must have been in the middle or centre at the 
top. What the height of this room may have been, is hard 
to say ; for by the boufets, it appears that there is a good 
depth to be dug out to get at the floor. I must not omit, 
that between the painted compartments of this room there 
is continually a palm tree, represented in so very pictu- 
resque a manner, that I think it is one of the most pleasing 
ornaments 1 ever saw. What may be the length and 
breadth of this room is not to be guessed at ; for they 
have not cleared away above, I think, live feet of the end 
of it I have been giving an account of. 

" We afterwards passed through some ordinary" rooms 
belono-inir to the same house, and through the inside of 

O O 7 O 

some other houses, seemingly of less note. Of these in- 
sides in general, I shall only say that they are almost 
always painted of a deep red, sometimes plain, and some- 
times adorned with figures, &c. 

" It seemed to me twice or thrice, as we passed along, 
that we turned the corners of streets. T wice I thought \ve 
parsed frowts of -houses; and once particularly we putted 

by 



RUINS OF HERCULANEUM. 307 

by the front, as it seemed, of some very large public edi- 
fice, with very broad fluted pilasters of stucco. 

" But nothing is more extraordinary relating to this 

O ^ o 

place, than what is demonstratively evident to have been 
the catastrophe of it. 

" That it was partly destroyed by an eruption of the 
mountain, can never be doubted, and in the following 
manner : First, it was set on fire by burning matter from 
the mountain, and by the time it was well in flames, it was 
overwhelmed, and the fire was smothered. 

" Your lordship will be convinced of this, by what I am 
going to observe : I have taken notice, that there are 
every where great quantities of beams and rafters, and 
trees, and billets of wood scattered up and down. All 
these arc burnt to as fine and perfect a charcoal as ever I 
saw, and as any body ever made use of. The very largest 
beams are burnt to the heart, though they have perfectly 
preserved their form : insomuch, that in all of them I ex- 
amined, I could perceive everv stroke of the axe or too| 
they were hewn or shaped with. 

" That the town WHS burnt, is as plain as that it was 
overwhelmed. Now if it had continued to burn for any 
time, all the beams and rafters would have been consumed 
to ashes, or have been quite defaced ; whereas, by the fires 
being suddenly smothered, they became true and perfect 
charcoal as they are. This seems to have been the case of 
that part of it which is hitherto discovered. 

" That this destruction was effected by two such violent 
accidents, suddenly upon the back of each other, may be 
more natural than to suppose that it was burnt by the same 
matter that overwhelmed it ; for if that had been the case, 
I don't know how the paintings could have been preserved 
so fresh as they are, or indeed at all : nor can it be con- 
ceived, that there should not appear some marks of burn- 
jng in the brick, the marble, the stucco, and the rest. 



308 REMARKABLE SHIPWRECK. 

Now there i? as yet no such thing to be observed ; notf 
does there appear to be any sort of combustible substance 
mixed with the earth or rubbish. Both above and below, 
it seems to have been buried in common earth ; which 
could naturally have no share in the burning of the town. 

" This may mukc it to be believed, that it was rather 
buried by some extraordinary effects of an earthquake 
which happened at the same time, than by burning- matter 
thrown out of the mountain. That it was set on fire by 
burning matter from the mountain, cannot well be doubted : 
but that it was buried by the burning matter from the 
mountain, appears net to have been at all the case. In 
whatever manner the fate of this town was brought upon 
it, it seems to have been as dreadful a one as could have 
been inflicted by Nature. 

" I will trouble you with but one other observation, 
about it, which is, that the inhabitants seem to have had 
some dismal warning to forsake it ; for in the digging of 
above a mile and a half, which they compute the several 
windings and turnings at, they have as yet found but one 
dead bodv." 



REMARKABLE SHIPWRECK. 
[Cnritmunicafed b>j Mr. C'OLI.VHR, of Church Street, 31i!< End, Neu- Toicn."] 

JLiEUT. DRUMMOXD, of the Royal Navy, having re- 
ceived permission from the Lords of the Admiralty, to serve 
as master of a trading vessel, and continue in that line of 
employment during their pleasure, obtained soon after the 
command of the Anastatia merchant-ship. On the 22d of 
September 1783, he sailed from Providence, in the State 
of Rhode Island ; and on the iM-th of that month, from stress 
of weather and contrarv winds, bore up for Rhode Island, 
iind anchored in the Narragansct passage. 1 he gale 
MHiiimud ro increase, and at half past 5, A. M. the storn?. 

became 



THE NOTORIOUS JOHN HATFIELD. 309 

became so violent as to strain the ship's sides, and open 
her seams : her pumps were set to \vork, and all hands 
employed to lighten her. The sea broke so violently on 
the ship, that it washed overboard 39 oxen out of 40, 
which were a part of the ship's freight. These were car- 
ried with the tide, and most of them perished. At this 
time the ship parted from her anchors and drove on shore, 
where the sea in a short time broke over her d-ecks. The 
people from the shore perceived the^ship in distress; but 
the violence of the sea, "which besides being mountains high, 
ran in a current, prevented any relief from boats. Thus 
situated, and expecting momentary dissolution, the weary 
crew clung to the wreck, where they remained till ten 
o'clock. At this period, Lieutenant Drummond. directing 
his notice towards the ox that remained on the forecastle, 
with his head and neck barely out of the water, ordered a 
rope to be fastened round its horns. The ox was in this 
state put over the ship's side, and it swam with amazing 
prowess, and made the shore. The rope fastened to the 
ox's horn being part of a coil which lay on the forecastle, 
the ship's crew were able to keep one end of it on board 
the wreck till the animal reached the shore, when the 
people on the land made it secure ; and a raft being con- 
structed of spars and the loose part of the wreck, Lieute- 
nant Drummond and the ship's crew lashed themselves to 
it, and were all providentially brought safe to land. 



PARTICULARS OF THE LIFE OF JOHN HATFIELD; 
An vrcom::wn Impostor, Swindler, Seducer, Bigamist, Hypocrite, c. 

AMONG the list of those names that swell the numerous 
instances of human depravity, we believe not one will 
scarcely be found with so many claims to the notice of our 
readers, as the present. John Hatfield has not become a 
victim to the offended laws by any sudden gust of human 

s s frailtv 



310 PARTICULARS OF THE LIFE CF 

frailty or passion, any deep-laid scheme, or dangerous 
situation, prepared for him by others. Neither are his 
crimes the effects of youthful inexperience, any of which 
might have claimed on his behalf the sigh of sympathy, or 
the tear of pity. On the contrary, for twenty years past, 
John Hatfield has been the calm, the studious, and the de- 
liberate over-reacher of the industrious, the innocent, and 
the unwary. This disposition, so destructive to the peace 
and good of society, it will be found, has by him been 
carried to such a degree, that as far as his propensities 
itfere to be gratified, either by swindling or intrigue, he 
may be compared to our Henry VIII. of whom it has been 
said, that he neither spared man in his anger, nor woman 
in his lust. 

John Hatfield is about 45 years of age ; was born in 1159, 
at aplacecalledCracldenbroke,at the extremity of the county 
of Chester, adjoining to Yorkshire and Derbyshire. His 

/ O / 

father being a clothier, he followed that business under his 
father, then removed near Chester, and afterwards to Li- 
verpool, where he passed for a gentleman, and where we 
find nothing of his character, but pleasure and extrava- 
gance. Our friends may judge somewhat of his early cha- 
racter, by the following anecdote ; that is to say, that 
while living near Manchester, he never failed being a pub- 
lic visitor to assemblies and balls. But he had so frequently 
cheated the chairmen of their fares, that at length they 
would not carry him ; upon which being forced to walk 
on foot, he made it his common practice to tie a handker- 
chief round each leg to keep his silk stockings clean, and 
these handkerchiefs he used to pull off upon the stairs. 

His amours, it is said, he commenced near his own 
native place, with ensnaring the natural daughter of a 
no! ile parent, it is said of the late Lord Robert Sutton, 
brother to the late Marquis of Gran by, with a handsome 
independent fortune, who ran away Avith arid married him. 

He 



JOHN HATFIELD ; THE SWINDLER, &C. 311 

He soon squandered her property, and left her a beggar. 
For some time she existed on a stipend provided by her 
friends, and then died of a broken heart. By her he had 
three daughters, whom he deserted, and one of them is 
now living in the lowest state of servitude. In the course 
of his career he visited America, arid travelled over many 
parts of Europe, representing himself as a major in the 
army, and was much in Ireland, where he was engaged in 
many duds. The next scene of his exhibition, we hear, 
wiis Scarborough ; and the particulars of his transactions 
at that place, are thus detailed in the following letter : 

Scarborough , \"ih Nov. 180:2. 

" Hat field came to Scarborough in March 1792, with- 
out any attendants. Possessed of a good address and in- 
sinuating manners, he soon introduced himself to persons 
of the first respectabilitv in the place. He stiled himself 
Major Hat field in a regiment of foot, which had served iu 
America during the late war between that country and 
Kngland. He further added, that he was connected with 
the Duke of Rutland by marriage, and that he expected 
(through the patronage of that interest) in a few weeks to 
be proposed to represent this borough in parliament, upon 
the acceptance of the Chilfcern Hundreds by Lord Tyrcon- 
nel, who was then one of the Members. On his arrival at 
this place he took up his abode at one of the principal inns, 
and in the course of a few davs invited to dinner with him 
such gentlemen of the Corporation, and others, as seemed 
to pay too credulous an attention to his specious tales. 
He apologized to his new acquaintance for his humble ap- 
pearance, intimating that he had left his carriages, ser- 
vants, arid horses at York, not having intended to make 
more than tv.o or t'iree ;iuvs -stay at Scarborough, as the 
object of this visit , he said) was merely to i:ee the place 
which he should so soon represent in parliament. -Lie ac- 
quitted himself at the head :A ' ni: n.bie with a p-ernlemaniy 
eu-,e ; and his convev:.ut'.on un tlul day chiefly turned on 

i S 2 hi : ; 



312' PARTICULARS OF THE llfE OF 

his services in America, and when in Ireland, as aid-de- 
camp to the late Duke of Rutland, the Lord Lieutenant of 
that kingdom. The fate of the unfortunate Major Andre 
being mentioned, conversation was suspended for some 
few minutes, by attending to Hatfield, down whose cheeks 
a copious flow of tears was seen to roll. He apologized for 
this st'cuih'ig u^'ff/v.'m, as he termed it, by saying, that the 
Major (his most intimate friend) a few hours before his 
death, Imd committed two amiable sisters to his care and 
protection A similar sudden display was exhibited by 
him on the sight of a portrait print of the late gallant and 
unfortunate Lord Robert Manners, with whom Hatlield 
pretended to have lived on terms of the closest intimacy 
uric! friendship. 

" A fortnight or three weeks having elapsed, I fat- 
field's worthy host ventured to ask for some .<-() on 
account, when the former readily offered a draft on hi> 
banker in London, but which draft was never accepted 
or paid. In consequence of this, and some other 
suspicious circumstances, by giving drafts to a trades- 
man in Scarborough upon house in London, to the 
amount of near o'80, which were never honoured, his 
pretensions began to be very generally disputed, and at 
length it was thought prudent to arrest him for the tavern 
debt. On the 25th of April 1792, not being able to pro- 
cure bail, he went to the gaol of this place ; and in 
June 17,93 a detainer was lodged against him by Mr. Ha- 
milton of London, for eiirhtv iruineas, ami others. 

' O . O ' 

'' During his confinement, which lasted till Septem- 
ber IHOO, he experienced many vicissitudes, receiving from 
riome quarter unknown to anv person at Scarborough ex- 
cept himself, several remittance's, which many times ex- 
ceeded his debts, but which hi: hastily spent in ;d!e extra- 
v;vg;:.i;'je;i, :i'ul thus reduced himself to the common ;.:llow- 
an< % e OL i.he gi:oi, except: when mistaken Benevolence 
occasionally inUrpo.-; !.- -In one instance, in particular, 

he 



JOH?J HATFIELD ; THE SWINDLER, &.C. 313 

he received by sale of some property belonging to his first 
wife, a sum near of 180, and about this time he reported 
that he had been promoted to the rank of Lieutenant-Colo- 
nel, and applied for the militia band to play to him ou 
that happv event. 

" Every half year during his imprisonment, he had the 
impudence to request the attendance of a magistrate to 
swear him to an affidavit, in order to obtain half-pay as 
Major or Lieutenant-Colonel Hatfield. At other times, 
impatient of his confinement, he would indulge himself 
with writing supplicant or threatening letters to the Bailiils 
of Scarborough, respecting the state of the prison ; and lie 
even had the assurance to misrepresent its condition to the 
late Lord Kenyon, although it is generally allowed to be 
by all, if not superior, in cleanliness and comfort, the best 
borough gaol in the kingdom. On the door of his apart- 
ment he inscribed an amusing conceit, " llcrc ices interred 
John Hatjidd" and the walls of the prison-room still bear 
testimony to the sportings of his muse. At the end of 
eight years and a half he obtained his discharge, and also 
the hand of Miss Nation, a young lady who had a window 
opposite the prison : being fond of music, it is supposed, 
they corresponded first by signs, and then by letters, as 
it is well known she never went to the prison to him, as has 
been reported. Nor did they ever speak to each other, till 
Hat field obtained his deliverance, though having interested 

' O O 

her mother in his behalf, they ..were much his benefactors 
while there ; but previous to his marriage, in his usual 
li'uy, he made a settlement of some estates in Derbyshire 
upon the lady, which never belonged to him. And who, 
with misplaced confidence, applied part of her own fortune 
in procuring his release. At ten o'clock of the night of 
the 13 th of September he was liberated, and the next 
morning was married at Scarborough, and immediately 
after with, lus second wife, left the place," 

With 



314 PARTICULARS OF THE LIFE OF 

With this lady he returned to Heal-Bridge in the parish 
of Dulverton. And while there his extravagance con- 
tinued ; insomuch, that in one instance, though he lived 
only two miles from the church, he sent to Tiverton, the 
nearest place, being twelve miles distant from his home, 
for a post-chaise, only to carry himself and his wife to 
church. 

Another time heing at a friend's house on a visit, within 
a few miles of Dulverton, one morning, while waiting in 
the room for the gentleman, he observed on the wall these 
lines : 

" When you've made a friend, 
" Be sure stick by him." 

Under which Hattield immediately wrote with his pencil, 

" But e'er you make a man your friend, 
" Be sure you try him." 

Soon after he arrived at Dulverton, he carried his impo- 
sitions so far, as to endeavour to purchase estates,.and abso- 
lutely employed several persons as agents to procure them ; 
and had very nearly succeeded in more than one instance. 

It was not long after his arrival in Devon, by. the most 
artful means and insidious misrepresentations, he prevailed 
on a worthy clergyman, Mr. Nucella, to accept his drafts 
to a large amount, on the persuasion of his remitting pro- 
perty to provide for them when due. On the strength of 
this property, and other insinuations, he became a partner 
in the firm of Dennis and Company, in that county. Ho 
now visited town, and, with his carriage and establishment, 
made a splendid figure ; and, turning his talents to a seat 
in parliament, previous to the general election, canvassed 
the borough of Queenborough ; to many electors of which 
place he must be well known. Suspected, however, hv 
some of his creditors, and threatened with being arrested, 
he gave up the parliamentary scheme, and having procured 

a few 



JOHN HATFIELD ; THE SWINDLER, &C. 315 

a few hundreds he decamped, leaving his second wife in 
Devonshire with a young infant, and pregnant with an- 
other, dependent on the charity of the world. The clergy- 
man who had accepted his drafts, was obliged to fly his 
duty and his country, to save himself from a prison, and 
II at field was instantly made a bankrupt, to screen himself 
from his own villainies. 

While in London he sported a cream-coloured charger, 
by which he was then very conspicuous as a public cha- 
racter. At this juncture also, he met an old friend and 
school-fellow, and acting from his usual habits, after 
shaking him by the hand, seemed to avail himself of the 
opportunity to assure him, how happy he was to have it 
in his power to serve him. He accordingly called on him 
a day or two after, when his friend being a silver-smith, 
he ordered silver spoons of him to the amount of o40, for 
which he never paid, nor ever after saw him moie. 

But the event which gave the greatest eclat to his name, 
was in consequence ot his visiting Keswick in Cumber- 
land, on a fishing party, in August 1802. This he under- 
took ia his own carriage, but without any servants ; and 
then took up his abode at the house of old Mr. Robinson, 
the father of Mary of Buttermere, who kept a small ale- 
house at the foot of the small Lake. Here he called him. 
self the Hon. A. A. Hope, Member for Dumfries, and 

first paid his addresses to Miss D , a young lady of 

fortune, from Ireland, who was there at the same time. 
He had even obtained her consent, and gone so far as to 
buy the wedding clothes. However, a friend that was in 
the interest of the lady, as it will appear in the sequel, 
happily prevented this union. Fortunately for her, the 
marriage day was not fixed ; for, previously to its being 
fixed, she had persisted, in insisting, " that the pretended 
Colonel Hone should introduce the subject formally to a 
genllcuiiiu her friend." He was hourly expected to do so, 

and 



316 PARTICULARS OF THE LIKE OF 

and the gentleman was prepared to have required, that 
" Colonel Hope's enthusiasm should not seduce him into 
an impropriety. They were strangers to each other. lie 
must beg that Colonel Hope would write to certain noble- 
men and gentlemen both in Ireland and England, whose 
names and addresses he would furnish him with, and ob- 
tain from them every necessary information respecting him- 
self and the young lady under his protection. As some 
days would elapse before the answers could be received, 
he proposed to employ that time in a trip to Lord Hope- 
toun's scat," &C. &c. This we know, from the best pos- 
sible authority, to have been the gentleman's intentions ; 
and our adventurer knew it likewise ; and this knowledge 
determined and precipitated his public marriage with Mary 
of Buttermere. 

. Thus, our adventurer, well aware that perseverance in 
this pursuit: would inevitably lead to his detection, applied 
himself wholly to gain possession of Mary Robinson's per- 
son. He made the most assiduous enquiries among the 
neighbours into every circumstance relating to her and to 
her family ; and declared his resolution to marry her pub- 
licly at the parish-church by a licence. Mary told him, 
that she was not ignorant that he had paid his addresses to 

Miss D , a match every way more proportionate. 

This he treated as a mere venial artifice, to excite her 
jealousy in part, perhaps, an effect of despair, in conse- 
quence of Mary's repeated refusal. The conclusion is 
already well known. The pretended Colonel Hope, in 
company with the clergyman, procured a licence on the 1st 
of October, and they were publiclv married in the church 
of Lorton, on Saturday October 2, 1802. Is there on 
earth that prude or that bigot, who can blame poor Marv ? 
She had given her lover the best reasons to esteem her, and 
h.;d earned a rational love bv innocence and wise conduct. 
Nor cun it be doubted, that the man had really and dceply 

en slaved 



JOHN HATFIELD; THE SWINDLER, &c. 317 
eh"-a2;ed her affections. On the Friday our adventurer 

O O * 

wrote to Mr. Moore, informing him tliat he was under the 
necessity of being absent for ten days on a jo'urney into 
.Scotland, and sent him a draft for <30 drawn on Mr. 
Crump of Liverpool, desiring him to cash it, and pay 
some small debts in Keswick with it, and send him over 
the balance, as he feared he might be short of cash on the 
road. This Mr. Crump immediately did, and sent him 
ten guineas in addition to the balance. On the Saturday, 
Wood, the landlord of the Queen's Head, returned from 
Lorton, with the positive intelligence that Colonel Hope 
hud married the Beauty of Buttermere. As it was clear 
that, whoever he was, he had acted unworthily and dis- 
honourably, Mr. Moore's suspicious were, of course, awak- 
ened. He instantly remitted the draft to Mr. Crump, who 
immediately accepted it ; and at least ninety-nine in a hun- 
dred of the people of Keswick were fully persuaded that 
he was a true man and no cheat. Mr. M , however, 
immediately on this wrote to the Karl of Hopetoun. : Be- 
fore the answer arrived, the pretended honourable returned 
with his wife to Buttermere. lie went only as far as 
Lon<no\vn. He had bought Marv ro clothes, pretending 

O O y * O 

that ou his arrival at the first large to\vn they mioht be all 

O ,' O 

procured in a few hours. A pair of gloves was the only 
present he made her. At Long-town he received two let- 
ters seemed much troubled that some friends whom he 
expected had riot arrived there; stayed three days, and 
then told his wife that he would again go back, to Butter- 
mere. From this time she was .seized with fiMrs and suspi- 
cions. They returned, however, and their return was 
made known at Keswick. A Mr. Hardinq-e, a Welsh Jud^e, 

o / O ' 

a;icl a very particular gentleman, passing through Keswick, 
heard of this adventurer, sent his servant over to Butter- 
mere, with a note to the supposed Colonel Hope, who ob- 
served thai it was a mistake, and that the note was for ci 

T t brother 



315 PARTICULARS OF THE Hil, or 

brother of his. However, he sent for four horses, and came 
over to Kcswick, drew another draft on Mr. Crump for 20/. 
which the landlord of the Q.uccn\s Head (Oh, the wise land- 
lord !) had the courage to cash. Of this sum lie imme- 
diately sent the ten guineas to Mr. - , Avho came and 
introduced him to the Judge, as his old friend Col. Hope. 
Our adventurer made a blank denial that, he had ever 
assumed the name ; and a person, a creature of his, who had 
been his companion at Buttermere, assisted him in it, but 
in vain ; for Sir Fred, Vane, a magistrate near Keswick, 
granted a warrant for Hatfield's apprehension, on the 
ground of his having forged several franks, as the Member 
of Llinlithgovv. Hatiield, however, made so light of the 
matter, that ordering a dinnerto be got readv at the inn 
at three o'clock, laughing, threatening, cc. he said that 
till then he would go and amuse himself on the Lake. 

He Went out in a boat, accompanied by his old friend ? 
the fishing-tackier ; and a little before three o'clock, a 
considerable number of inhabitants assembled at the foot of 
the Lake, waiting anxiously for his return, and by far the 
greater part were disposed to lead him back in triumph. 
" If he was not this great man, they' were sure that he would 
prove to be some other great man;" but the dusk came 
on, neither the great man nor his guide appeared. Burkitt, 
is I believe I have before informed you, had led him 
through the Gorge of Borrodale, up through Rossthwaite. 
and so across the Stake, the fearful Alpine, pass, which 
!;>ads over Glaramara into Langdale, and left, him at Lano> 

O ' O 

dale Chapel a tremendous journey in the dark! but his- 
neck was probably predestined to a less romantic fate. It 
will hardly be believed, how obstinately almost iM classes 
at Keswirk v, ere infatuated in his favour, and how indig- 
ii.mtly they spoke of the gentleman who had taken such 
(.niduit and prompt measures to bring the impostor to 
direction. The truth is. the good people of the Vales had 



JOHN" HATMKLD ; THE b\V iNDLI-:R . &.C. 319 

as little heard, and possessed as little a notion, ot the 
existence of the rort of \vickedness practised by Hatfie;d, 
as of the abominations of Tiberius at Capnv. " Vv hat 
motive (said they) could he have to marry poor Mary : 
Would a sharper marrv a poor girl without fortune or con- 
nection : If he had married the Irish young lady, Miss 1) , 
"there Avould.be something to say for it." It was no doubt 
delightful for the neonle of the Vales, that so great a man, 

3 I A ^_ 

that a man so generous, so condescending, so affable, so 
ft'/"// good, should have married one ot' their own class, and 
that too a ycn: 1 .^ woman who had been so long their pride, 
and so much and so deservedly beloved by them. But 
our adventurer, in his Might from Keswick, leaving behind 
him in his carriage a handsome dressing-box, alter the. 
lapse of some days, an order was procured from a neigh- 
bouring magistrate, the dressing-box was opened and, 
searched. It contained a pair of very elegant pistols, and 
a complete assortm-nt of toilet trinkets, all silver. The 
whole value of the box could not be less than eighty pounds. 
There were discovered only one letter, a ca^h-book, and 
the list of several cities in Italy, with a couple of names 
attached to each. From the cash-book nothing could be 
learned, but that he had vested divers considerable sums 
(some stated to be on his own account,) in the house of 
Baron Dimsdale and Co. But from the letter, aided by 
the list of towns, a marvellous story was extracted. The 
letter was said to be from an Irish banditti, urging this 
Colonel Hope to escape with all possible speed, informing 
him that a price had been set upon his head, and statino- 
the writer's eagerness to assist him, but that his wounds 
confined him to his bed. It was concluded, therefore, by 
the people, that this pretended Colonel Hope? was a oreat 
leader in the Irish rebellion; but this letter in fact was 
neither more or less, than a grateful epistle from a poor 
.'xciseman at Glenavm. who had escaped with his life from 

T t 2 an 



320 PARTICULARS OF THE LIFE OF 

an overset boat, and to whom our adventurer had per- 
formed some acts of kindness. For some days nothing else, 
was discovered but a bill for 100/. drawn on a Devonshire 
bank, which he had left behind him with Mary's father and 
mother ; and with which they were to have paid oft' a 
mortgage on their little property. 

Among other villainous schemes of this merciless wretch, 
he had attempted to persuade the old people to sell their 
little estate, to place the money in his hands, and to go 
with him into Scotland. The bill proved to be an old bill 
that had been long paid, and (as it will after appear) drawn 
on his own bank, under the names of Dennis and Co. in 
Devon. 

We heard nothing more concerning the impostor till 
the 27th or 23 th of October, when Mary Robinson dis- 
covered, at the bottom of a trunk, which had been left at 
Buttermere, a large mass of letters. These she delivered 

to Mr. , who, with his wife and the young lady under 

their protection, have behaved to her with a kind of 
tenderness and respect, which does infinite credit to their 
hearts and understandings. Never, surely, did an equal 
number of letters disclose a thicker swarm of villainies 
perpetrated by one of the worst, and of miseries inflicted 
on some of the best of human beings. 

In this research, she also found various letters addressed 
to Hatfield, from one of his former wives and children ; a 
circumstance, which added that of a Bigamist, to the rest 
of his crimes. 

Buttermere, near the Lakes, is about nine miles from 
Kes\vick by the horse road, and fourteen by the carriage 
road. From hence we learn, that immediately after his 
escape from that place, a* we have before related, with 
the assistance of a fisherman, he took refuge on board a 
sloop off. Raven glass. Finding that he should be detected, 
he went in the coach to Ulverston, and was seen at the 

hotel 



JOHN HATFIELD; THE SWIXDLER, .Sec. 321 

hotel at Chester about ten davs after, where lie had, in his 
usual way, a good supper, and drank his bottle of Madeira ; 
but not being able to obtain a chaise the next morning, he 
Walked away in a great passion to Northwhich. 

The supposition of so great a man as Colonel Hope, 
Member for Llinlithgow in Scotland, and brother to the 
Earl of Hopetoun, having married a poor young woman 
at a village in Cumberland, as it could not fail being de- 
scanted on in the newspapers, was also very .soon contra- 
dicted upon the best authorities, by the Lord Advocate of 
Scotland, &c. &c. 

These contradictions, which appeared only ten days after 
HatSeld was married, were succeeded in November bv an 
advertisement of <50 reward, describing him as a notorious 
impo<tor>, swindler, and felon, who lately married a young 
woman, commonly called the Beauty of Buttermere, un- 
der an assumed name. Height about 5 feet 10 inches, 
age about 44, full face, bright eyes, thick eye-brows, 
strong but light beard, good complexion, some colour, 
thick but not very prominent nose, smiling countenance, 
line teeth, a scar on one c.f his cheeks near the chin, very 
long thick light hair, with a great deal of it grey, done 
up in a club ; stout, square shouldered, full breast and 
chest, rather corpulent and stout limbed, but very active, 
and has rather a spring in his gait, with apparently a little 
hitch in bringing up one leg ; the two middle fingers of his 
left hand are stiff from an old wound, and he frequently 
has a custom of putting them straight with his rio-ht, &c. 

1 O O O f 

It was not many davs after the appearance of these ad- 
vertisements, that Hatfield was apprehended near Breck- 
nock in Wales ; and at that time was so incautious as to 
wear a cravat marked with his initials, " J. H." which he 
attempted to account for, by calling himself " John Henry." 
When brought before the magistrate, he declared himself 
to be " Tudor Henry;" and in order to prepossess the. 

honest; 



322 PARTICULARS OF THE LITE OF 

honest Cambrians in his favour, boasted that he was de- 
scended from an ancient family in Wales, for the inha- 
bitants of which country, he had ever entertained a most 
sincere regard. 

O 

However, on Sunday evening December 12, this famous 
character was brought to town from Brecknock in Wales, 

<^y 

by Pearks, one of the. Bow-street officers, under authority 
of a warrant, signed by Sir Richard Ford, .. He was 
afterwards examined before Sir Richard Ford and T. Ro- 
binson, Fsq. Hatiield -wrote a note to Sir R. Ford, re- 
questing lie might be permitted to have his irons taken off, 
while under examination, which request Avas complied with ; 
and Mr. Fenwick, the q;overnor of Tothill-fields Bride- 

' O 

well, brought him into the Office himself. Nothing could 
be fully entered into at the first examination, the neces- 
sary witnesses not being present. Mr. Taunton, the Soli- 
citor for the Bankruptcy, produced the Gazette, where ii 
was recorded on the 15th of June last ; and also the Lord 
Chancellor's order for enlarging the time of appearing to 
the 18th of September ; but stated that he did not appear 
to such order. Mr. Taunton also produced a bill of ex- 
change for the sum of <oO drawn in the name of Hope, 
which he had reason to believe had been written and nego- 
tiated by the prisoner. The gentleman to whom the said 
bill had been passed, not being in town, this affair stood 
over. A copy of the register of the prisoner's marriage, 
in the name of Alexander Augustus Hope with Mary Ro- 

O 1 J 

binson (the Beauty of Buttermere), at Lorton, on the 2d 
of October 1802, by the Rev. John Nicholson, was pro- 
duced ; and Sir R. Ford said, he should certainly write to 
this unfortunate young woman immediately, to inform her 
that he was in custody, that she might come and prefer the 
charge against him. The prisoner made hardly any reply, 
except in answer to some few questions respecting the said 
yiarnage : he complained much of the inconvenience of 

his 



JOHN HATFIELD; THE SWINDLER, &c. 323 

his situation, und wished to go to Newgate ; which could 
not be complied with. Mr. Taunton, however, said, he. 
would undertake to allow him a guinea and a half per 
week for the present. The prisoner WHS then remanded 
back to Tothill-fields Bridewell. 

II at field, on Saturday preceding his removal from Bre- 
con gaol to London, wrote a letter, addressed to a friend 
in London, signed with his real name, " John Hat Held ;" 
in which he mentioned, that he never had any intimation 
of his being declared a bankrupt, until the il2th of Novem- 
ber last ; nor did he ever see or hear of the Post Oflice 
advertisement against him, until he was in custody ; and' 
that lie had taken the name of Tudor Henry, to avoid the 
too probable effects of the misrepresentation that had been 
made public against him. 

On the third examination of Ilatfieid at Bow-street, 
some objections were made in his favour, but were over- 
ruled. In his fourth examination, being put to the bar. 
Sir Richard Ford addressed him as follows: 

" Mr. Hat field ! You are now brought up to answer the 
last charge against you, viz. the bigamy I mean the false 
and base marriage you contracted with poor Mary of But- 
termere; and a more vile transaction lies not in my re- 
membrance. I have received a letter from you, written 
in an extraordinary style of complaint, as to the asper- 
sions thrown upon your character; but, notwithstanding- 
the insinuation of your manner, and the probable supc- 
rioritv of your talents, which you have so shamefully pro- 
stituted, I shall persist in branding vice with die name of 
vice, wherever 1 meet with it, and it is the fullest convic- 
tion on my mind which induces me now to tell you, Mr. 
Hatfield, that, in my opinion, a more infamous character 
than yourself never stood at the bar. Not content with 
basely imnosins; unon the credulity of an innocent p-irl, 

L O i .. O * 

u.;;d robbin-'- her of the only jewel in her possession an 

CP V A. 

unspotted 



324 PARTICULARS OF THE LIFE OF 

unspotted fume yoii have, tb pamper your own luxury, 
contracted a considerable debt with her poor aged parent, 
which, unless relieved by the hand of liberality, will in- 
i'allibly be his ruin !" 

' Here Hatfield exclaimed,- with visible emotion, " Not 
true ! (and laying his right hand upon his heart) Not true, 
upon rny so til !" Sir R. Ford. " It is true ; and, in con- 
firmation of it, hear this from a respectable 'magistrate at 
Keswick : The villain has contracted a debt with the dis- 
tressed father exceeding ISO/." Hatfield. " It is not 
true ; and I entreat, Sir Richard, that I may not be thus 
devoured piece-meal. T solemnly declare, that altogether 
I do not owe 10/. in the whole county." Sir 11. Ford. 
" Sir, your whole life has been one unexampled scene of 
villainy. I have my table covered Avith debts that you 
have fraudulently contracted, and I can trace you back 
for thirty years. Do you remember this bill for 'JO/, 
drawn on a very respectable gentleman, standing at pre- 
sent on your right hand, Capt. Smith of die navy." Cap- 
tain Smith here observed, " that he did not wish to prefer 
it as a charge." Hatrield. " I am sure Captain Smith 1 
will not say I meant to defraud him ?" Captain Smith. 
<c I do not know what you mean by a fraud ; but this I 
know, that the bill lias not yet been paid." Mr. Robinson. 
" About 20 years ago you defrauded Mr. Noades, the 
silver-smith." Matfield. " Sir, I never knew him." 
Mr. Robinson. " I saw your signature to the bill." Sir 
Rich. Ford. " Mr. Reeves, read this letter aloud, which 
I .have received from poor Mary of Buttermere." 

Universal silence prevailed ; the auditors were full of 
expectation, whilst Mr. Reeves read the following letter, 
which had on it the post mark of Kcswick : 

" Sir, The man whom I hcidtlie misfortune to marry, and who has ruined 
" me and my aged and unhappy parents, always told me that Lev. as tin: 
" Hon. Colonel Hope, the next brother to the Earl of Hopetoun. 

" Your grateful and unfortunate servant, MART Ro:: UN SON." 



JOHN HATFIELD; THE SWINDLER, &c. 325 

The unaffected simplicity of this letter, coming from 
rme who, though wounded in the most feeling manner, 
abstained from the severity of reproach ; and though it 
breathed the soft murmur of complaint, yet was, through- 
out, remote from virulence or abuse, excited in the breast 
of every person present, the sympathetic emotion of pity 
and respect for the unmerited sorrows of a female, who 
has manifested a delicacy of sentiment, and nobleness of 
mind, infinitely beyond her sphere or education. 

Another letter was also received by Sir Richard Ford, 
from a gentleman at Keswick ; by which it appeared, that 
Mary Robinson declined prosecuting Hatfield for bigamy, 
being very far advanced in her pregnancy; although she 
expresses the greatest detestation of his actions, &c. 

However, he had not much to fear from the charsre of 

7 O 

bigamy ; his second \vife travelled two days and a night 

O . ' t O 

from Devonshire, to spend Christinas Day with him in Tot- 
hili-tields Bridewell : and set off the following morninsr at 

7 O O 

5 o'clock on her return to the same country. 

On the ICth of December, a cause, in which Hatfield 
was interested, was brought into the Court of Common 
Pleas, before Lord Alvanley and a special Jury, as follows: 
NUCELLA versus DENNIS and Co. This was an action to 
recover a large sum of money advanced to Mr. John Hat- 
field, to enable him to establish a bank at Tiverton in De- 
vonshire, in concert with the defendant his partner. It 
appeared that 3,500/. Four per Cent. Bank stock had been 
advanced, and that when the time for payment came 
round, Hatfield attempted to amuse the plaintiff by put- 
ting him off, stating, that lie was on the point of marriaye 
with a young lady of great fortune and connection, and 
that when the nuptials were solemnized, he \vould most 
faithfully discharge the debt. The plaintiff, however, not 
feeling disposed to be entertained with " Lome's Labour 
Lost" arrested the defendant, Mr. Hat field's partner in 
the bank, for the amount of his demand. The partnership 

V u was 



326 PARTICULARS OF THE LIFE Of 

was clearly proved, when the defendant set up a plea of 
usury; but not succeeding in proof, a verdict was given 
for the plaintiff to the full amount of his demand. 

Hatfield appears on many occasions undaunted, but in 
none more than this. During one of his examinations at 
Bow-street, he said that he had received an anonymous 
letter, and requested that it might be read aloud ; but Sir 
Richard observing that it might be improper, llatlield 
then said, " If the writer, or any one concerned in it be 
present, I could wish he would stand forth and boldly de- 
clare his motives for persecuting a man whose mind is al- 
ready sufficiently harrassed." No answer being returned 
to this appeal, Hatfield was remanded, and retired with 
the air of a man \vho conceives his reputation and charac- 
ter unjustly calumniated. 

Among the various theatres of his address, we have also 
heard that this itinerant swindler once figured in Dublin-; 
it wa> during the administration of the Duke of Rutland, 
he lodged at the most eminent hotel in that city, professing 
to be a relative of his Grace, and affected to have accom- 
panied the Viceroy in his travels on the continent, every 
part of which he described with the confidence of intimate 
and personal knowledge. He had all the appearance of a 
man of fashion, and on going out every day he was accus- 
tomed to furnish his pockets with a large quantity of half- 
pence, which he distributed to the beggars with ostenta- 
tious liberality. At length having involved himself con- 
siderably in debt, he was arrested ; but had the address 
to extricate himself from prison, by appealing to the gene- 
rosity of the Duke himself; and, on being enlarged, he 
contrived to renew his debts with the same creditors, and 
to borrow several sums of money proportioned to the cir- 
cumstances or confidence favouring his demands, among 
\\hich was a small sum from the owner of the hotel where 
he lodged. Thus supplied, he changed the scene of his 
impositions, and repaired the first opportunity to Scot- 
land. 



JOHN HATFIELD; THE SWINDLER, &e. 327 

Jam!. It is recollected that his person then, with the ad- 
vantage of more youth, corresponded with the description 
now given of him, and he was attended by a servant niari 
of more than common appearance and address, and who, 
in a subordinate character, was probably the accomplice 
of his deceptions. 

Account of his Trial and Conviction, on Monday the \5th 
qfdugust, at Carlisle, before Baron Thompson, 

THERE were three indictments preferred against him. 
In the first of these he stood charged with assuming the name 
of the Hon. Alexander Augustus Hope, and under that 
name drawing a Bill of Exchange oa one John Crump, Ksq. 
payable to George Wood, a publican, in Keswick. In 
the second he was charged with forging, under tbc same 
name, another Bill for thirty pounds, with intent to defraud 
tiie same persons. The third indictment charged him with 
counterfeiting Colonel Hope's hand-writing, in superscrib- 
ing various letters, with a view of defrauding government 
of the postage. 

The prisoner pleaded Not Guilty. 

Mr. Scarlet, Counsel for the Crown, opened the case 
with a great deal of moderation, drew an outline of the 
prisoner's conduct, from the time lie became known to the 
world, in the assumed character of Colonel Hope. He 
had, he said, committed many crimes, under cover of the 
name of a most respectable gentleman, who belonged to a 
noble and an ancient family. He came into this country to 
reside, in autumn last, in his own carriage, but unattended 
by a servant ; this excited some degree of surprise among 
the inhabitants, but he cleared up this, by saying he had 
given his servant leave to go away from him, he being 
much terrified with the tremendous mountains of Keswick 
and its neighbourhood. During his residence in this 
county, he partly lived at Keswick, partly at Buttermere, 
'vhere he amused himself with fishing and other innocent 

O 

diversions : during this time his behaviour was always cor- 
rect 



328 ACCOUNT OF THE TRIAL AND CONVICTION 

rect and proper ; he was constant at public worship, and 
appeared in every respect with the manners and character 
of a gentleman. And several passages of his letters were 
read by Mr. Scarlet, written to the Rev. Mr. Nicholson, 
from Longtown ; in one of these describes particularly an 
affecting sermon he heard from the Rev. Mr. Graham, bro- 
ther of Sir James Graham, Bart, of Nethenley, and in 
the same letter copied an inscription from a tomb-stone in 
Arthuret church-yard. In this letter he speaks with great 
affection of his beloved Mary. Indeed it was allowed upon 
all hands, that the prisoner conducted himself with singular 
propriety, and always made it a point to attend public 
worship. 

It appeared that Mr. Hardingc, a Welsh Judge, being 
upon a tour to the Lakes, and suspecting Hatfield, in con- 
sequence of a previous knowledge with Col. Hope, sent 
an invitation to the adventurer to dine with him. This he 
declined, but came afterwards; when Mr. Harrlinge's sus- 
picions being realized, he ordered the landlord of the inu 
to stop Hatfield's horses, and took proper measures to have 
him secured ; but under pretence of amusing himself on 
the Lake, Hatfield decamped. 

Mr. , a gentleman, whose name was not distinctly 

heard on the trial, being called and sworn, said, he knew 
the prisoner at the bar by the name of Hatfield. He entered 
into the firm in 1801, of" Dennis, Hatfield, and Co. ;" saw 
the prisoner in April 1802, when he left Tavistock, on pre- 
tence of transacting some of the Company's concerns. The 
next time he saw him was in the gaol, in Brecknock- 
shire, in December 1802. The deponent swore positively 
to the hand-writing of the prisoner, both in the letters pro- 
duced and in the bills of exchange. 

Rev. Mr. Nicholson called. He became acquainted 
with the prisoner on Sunday September 12, 1802, on 
which clay he attended the chapel of Loweswater, of whicli 
the deponent is chaplain was introduced to the prisoner 

by 



OF JOHN HATFIELD; THE SWINDLER, &:c. 329 

Ijy Mr. Skeltpn ; soon after he understood him to be the 
Honourable Colonel Hope, brother to Lord Hopetoun ; 
when asked his name by deponent, he said it was a com- 
fortable one Hope he said at the same time that he 
would be no way averse to telling his name, but did not 
like it to be inquired, after by inquisitive people. About 4 
week previous to October 2, deponent accompanied the 
prisoner to Whitehaven, to procure a licence for his mar- 
riage to Mary Robinson of Buttermere, who was spoken of 
by the prisoner as a lovely girl ! 

Mr. Nicholson also swore to his being the person who 
married the prisoner to Mary Robinson, commonly called 
Mary of Buttermere, on the 2d of October 1802 that 
after his marriage, he was on terms of intimacy with the 
prisoner that the prisoner made him his confidential 
friend, told him of various concerns that happened to his 
family, &C. 

Mr. George Wood, of Kesuick, inn-keeper, had seen 
the prisoner at his house frequently, with a Col. Moorr 
and Mr. Crump, in the summer of 1802; he travelled in 
his own carriage, und passed for Col. Hope ; parcels came 
directed for him, " The Hon. A. A. Hope, M. P. Wood's 
Hotel, Kesvrick." He knew the prisoner had div.wn a biii 
for SO/, on Mr. Crump of Liverpool, in favour of Colonel 
Moore, which bill was sent and accepted, and paid; and 
Colonel Moore, on receiving the money, paid witness's 
bill upon the prisoner, out of it. On the 13th of Octo- 
ber 1802, witness came in from his farm, and met the pri- 
soner and the Rev. Mr. Nicholson at breakfast, at the wit- 
ness's house ; when the prisoner enquired if his bill upon 
Mr. Crump, in favour of Col. Mooro, had been paid ; to 
which lie answered in the affirmative. 

After a variety of evidence, Col. Parker was sworn. 
Said he was well acquainted with Col. Hope, brother to 
the Earl of Hopetoun, a General in the Army, and Col. 
of the 17th Regiment of Dragoons. He had been in Ire- 
land 



330 ACCOUNT OF THE TRIAL AND CONVICTION 

land about three years. He said the prisoner at the bar is 
not Col. Hope; he did not know- whether the regiment. 
was in Egypt or not. Here the evidence for the prosecu- 
tion closed. 

The prisoner then addressed himself to the Jury. ' He 
said he felt some decree of satisfaction in being able to 

O O 

have his sufferings terminated, as they must of course bu 
by their verdict. For the space of nine months he had been 
dragged from prison to prison, and torn from place to 
place, subject to all the misrepresentations of calumny. 
Whatever will be my fate, (said he) 1 am content ; it is 
the award of justice, impartially and virtuously admi- 
nistered. But I will solemnly declare, that in all my 
transactions, I never intended to defraud or injure the 
persons \vhose names have appeared in the prosecution. 
This I will maintain to the last of my life." 

The prisoner called in his defence, a Mr. Newton, attor- 
ney at Chester; whose evidence was of very little purpose. 

The Judge having summed up the whole, the Jury 
consulted about ten minutes, and then returned a verdict 
Guilty of Forgery. 

At eight o'clock the next morning (Tuesday), the Court 
met, when the prisoner appeared at the Bar, to receive 
his sentence. 

After proceeding in the usual form, the Judge addressed 
him in the following terms: '' John Hatfield ! after a 
lono" and serious investigation of the charges which have 

O O O 

been preferred against you, you have been found guilty by 
a Jury of your country. You have been distinguished for 
crimes of such magnitude as have seldom, if ever, re- 
received any mitigation of capiuil punishment, and in your 
case it is impossible it can be remitted. Assuming the 
person, name, and character of a worthy and respect- 
able officer, of a noble family in this country, you have 
perpetrated and committed the most enormous crimes. 
The long imprisonment which you have undergone, has 

afforded 



OF JOHN HATFIELD; THE SWINDLER, &c. 331 

afforded time for your serious reflection, and an opportu- 
nity of vour being deeply impressed with a sense of the 
enormity of your guilt, and the justice of that sentence 
which must be inflicted upon you ; I wish you to be 
seriouslv impressed with the awfulness of your situation, 
and to reflect with anxious care and deep concern on your 
approaching end, concerning which, much remains to be 
done lay aside now your delusion and imposition, and 
emplov properly the short space of time you have to live. 
I beseech you to employ the remaining part of your time 
for eternitv, that you may find mercy at the hour of death, 
and in the day of judgment. Hear now the sentence of 
the law/' 

His Lordship then pronounced sentence of death upon 
the prisoner, in the usual form ; who heard it wiih firm- 
ness, bowed respectfully, and was taken away from the 
Dock, and thence to the Gaol. 

Happily for Mary of Buttermcrc, the child with which 
*i)ie WHS pregnant bv Hatfield, was still-born. However, 
it. has been observed, that to beauty, in the strictest sense 
of the word, her pretensions could be but small. She is 
said to be rather gap-toothed, and somewhat pock-marked. 
Those, therefore, who gave her the epithet of the Beauty > 
should rather have styled her the Grace of Buttermere ; as 
her figure, her movements, her face, and accomplish- 
ments, are highly entitled to such a distinction. She is 
now about thirty, and added to her personal attractions, 
has ever maintained an irreproachable character, as a good 
daughter, and a modest, sensible, and observant woman. 
She was also noticed fur writing a verv fine Italian hand. 
JV. B. HATFIELD" s Letters, Poetry, .sY. &Y. in our nc.it. 



SAMUEL HORSEY, AN UNFORTUNATE LABOURER; 

With his Portra.it. 

1 HI.? person, who hns so Ions: past, that is to sav, durin^ 

O 1 * / * O 

19 years attracted the notice of the public, by the severity 

oi' 



332 A SINGULAR SPECIES OF MONKEY, &C. 

of his misfortunes, in the loss of both his legs, and the sin- 
gular means by which he removes himself from place to 
place, by the help of a wooden seat constructed in the 
manner of a rocking-horse, and assisted by a pair of crutches, 
first met with this calamity by the falling of a piece of tim- 
ber from a house at the lower end of Bow-lane, Cheapside. 
He is now 55 years of age, and commonly called the King 
of the Beggars ; and as he is very corpulent, the facility he 
moves with is very singular. From his general appearance 
and complexion, he seems to enjoy a state of health re- 
markably good. The frequent obtrusion of a man natu- 
rally stout and well-made, but now so miserably mutilated 
a.s he is, having excited the curiosity of great numbers of 
people daily passing through the most crowded avenues of 
this metropolis, has been the leading motive of this ac- 
count, and the striking representation of his person here 



A SINGULAR SPECIES OF MONKEY AND OURANG OUTANG, 

Sometime since caught in Koutli America. 

1 HE first is now shewing in New York ; it is low in 
stature, not more than ten inches high ; walks erect, and 
has a strong; resemblance of the human features. Its sa^a- 

o {3 

city appears in a very retentive memory and a quick con- 
ception. Hence it has been taught a variety of scientific 
tricks, which it occasionally varies, and combines in such a 
manner as to prove it is possessed of the powers of reasoning. 
An American ship has also brought an ourang outang- from 
Java, of prodigious strength, and upwards of six feet 
high. During the voyage lie was taught most of a .seaman's 
duty, and could even hand and reef as well as any man c-n 
board. Since on shore, he can cut wood, carry water, 
turn a spit, and wait at table. "We also hear of another of 
these animals that was brought from Sierra Leona, that 
made beds, washed tea cups, aud was in many respects an 
active and obedient servant. 

The 



( 333 ) 

The following is a COPY of LETTERS /row Mr. HATFIELD, 
under the Name of COLONEL HOPE, to the REVEREND 
Mr. NICHOLSON. 

(Concluded from Page QQ\.j 

Longtown, Monday Evening, 4th October. 
" VERY DEAR AND REV. SIR, 

WE arrived here on Saturday evening about eight, 
went to the church on Sunday, and Mr. Graham, the bro- 
ther of Sir James, gave one of the finest lectures I ever 
heard. We attended his evening discourse, at the end of 
which he addressed me, begging I would not return to 
my quarters without a light, and his footman stood ready 
with one. All this flurried my dear Mar} a little, but 
nothing can be more pleasing than the manner she at all 
times possesses. To-morro\\ evening-, we may perhaps pro- 
ceed further; but Mrs. Hope likes the quietude of this 
place muchj and her wishes are my laws. In the church- 
yard we found the following inscription, which I copied on 
purpose to send you, thinking it rnav amuse some of our 
friends ; pray road it to Dr. Head, and present him my 
best respects : 

Out life is but a winter's day $ 
Same only breakfast, and away. 
Others to dinner stay, and are full fed ; 
The oldest man but sups, and goes to bed. 
4 Large is his debt, who lingers out the cUy ; 

Who. goes the soonest, has the least to pay . 

<: Be pleased to say for us both, whatever vou think will 
be acceptable to those, who, from kind motives, may en- 
quire after us ; and at BiUterrnere, Mary desires you will 
tender to father aud mother the most ailbctionate dutv, and 
the most lively assurances of our mutual happiness. I find 
happiness is not very loquacious, so this will be a short let- 
ter ; let us have a long one as soon as pos: UKO, addressed 
for Col. Hope, I\I. P. Post-Cilice, Longtov.-n, Cumber- 
land. And you will greatly oblige, 

Ver dear and Rev.. Sir ou':., ir.o.Sv tntlv 




{ 334 ) 

FROM TUT: SAME TO THE SAME. 

Lvngtowxy Si^rJuy XigLl, IQih Oct. 1802 

" VERY DEAH A>"i> REV, SIR, 

ANXIOUS that my dear Mary might hear from her 
parents as soon as possible, we returned from Scotland to 
this town on Friday evening, and bhall most probably pro- 
ceed for Carlisle to-morrow ; indeed your letter received 
this afternoon makes me very desirous of returning to But- 
termere, that I may properly answer all such persons as 
assume the privilege of censuring my conduct, and arc 
mean enough to disturb the peace of our parents. 

" We are, thank God ! very well, and happy as our 
friends can wish us. The Colonel has given himself much 
unnecessary trouble, and I am sorry for it, because in this 
lie will be sorry too. I wrote to him on Wednesday last, 
and this day find his hand-writing on the superscription of 
a letter forwarded to me from Keswick. If I had ever ex- 
pressed to him any affection for Miss D , except such as 
you have witnessed if I had ever dropped a word on the 
subject to him, he might have had some plea for com- 
plaint. But God kno\vs, and he knows, I never did. 
He has my free leave to write to all the world, if he finds 
any pleasure in such proceedings but no person, who 
really knows me, will believe, that Miss D has been de- 
ceived by me. 

" I wish I could be certain where this will reach you, but 
fearing it may not be at Cockermouth soon enough for you 
to get it by the market people on the morrow, it is not m 
mv power to say where or when we can meet previous to 
my arrival at Bnttenr.crc', which will very probably be be- 
fore the middle of this v.vck. 

" Be pleased to prest:i-v. >nv ln:st re-pects to Mrs. and 
Miss Wood. I will iva;c'inbcT with ..permanent gratitude; 
1?ic:r goo<hie.-;s 0:1 this occasion, ;:nd amuUt the strange 
vk:~ .itude.s of this verv eventful liiv, perhaps I may be 
with some oMportu;,h;rs c [' shewing how truly sen- 
-M,;o ! :ui; >.>;' CVLV. kindness due 10 me on thii occasion. 

< With 



HATFIELD S ELEGIES OR EPITAl'US. 

" With the truest respect, esteem, and gratitude to all 
my well-wishers, 

I am, very dear and Rev. Sir, yours ever, 

A. HOPE." 

' Love and duty attend those to whom they are due ; 
and I beg you will tell them not to make any preparations 
for our return, for I shall have to move about almost as 
soon as I arrive, and my Mary will love quietness.' 



If any tiling could add to this man's hypocrisy, it can 
only be his impudent assumption of innocence, to this his 
verse, as well as prose, beara ample testimony ; especially 
the following, which lias been published at Chester, a^ 
being written by him : 

" Loud howl the winds around my prison-house, 

Dull arc the days, and wearisome mv nights ; 
Cure-worn, my spirits nothing now can rouse, 

Ev'n gen'rous wine itself no more delights. 
Lost to the world, from ev'ry comfort torn, 

111 us'cl by tho.se who should have been my friend-;., 
I almost curse the hour that I was born, 

And sigh for that when worldly sorrow endc. 
By knaves and fools I've been so long abused, 

By slanderous lips have been so much bely'd, 
Without a cause have been so much accus'J, 

And have so long in vain for justice cry'd, 
That my whole soul abhors this wretched life. 

One boon alone I from your town would crave, 
That, vrhen I've shuffled oft this mortal strife, 

1 he Corporation may give me a grave $ 
On winch, whe:i some kind hand has placed ?. stone, 

It may in plain but modest langur.ge tell, 
And briefly to inquirers make kno-.vn, 

By W!\O.-.L- vile arts the harmless stranger fell."' 

'' Here rest the remains of John Iltitneld, who died broken-hearted, in thr 
jr.iol of this town, where he v/as confined by * * * *, at the instigation and 
uy the advice of * * * *'. A keen sense of the injuries heaped on him by 
his persecutor, who, after confining his person, did all he could, by letters 
r.-id otherwise, to vilify him, preyed too powerfully on his spirits, and he fell 
n victim to midicioiK falsehoods in h.is HSd year, A. D. 17?;?." 

X X 2 ANOTHER^ 



336 PARTICULARS OF HATFIELD. 

ANOTHER. 

" Lo ! where the ancient marbles weep, 
And all the worthy Hatfields sleep, 
Amongst them soon may I recline, 
Oh ! may their hallowM tombs be mine. 
When in that sacred vault I'm laid, 
Heaven grant it may with truth be said, 
His heart was warm'd with faith sincere, 
And soft humanity dwelt there. 
My children oft 1 will mourn their father's woe, 
Heart-easing tears from their sweet eyes will flow 5 
My * * * *, too, relenting, when Tin dead, 
QVr past unkindnesSj tender tears will shed. 

J. H. 10th July 1794. 



In addition to the particulars we have already mentioned, 
during Uatfield's trial, we have now to mention what oc- 
curred to an eye-witness at Carlisle, who writes as follows : 

Carlisle, August 29, 1803. 

" Of the trial of Hat field, and of his condemnation, 
you have already been amply informed. I send you now 
a few particulars of his behaviour since sentence of death 
was passed upon him. You have heard that his behaviour 
was firm and collected during the first part of his trial : he 
attended minutely to the evidence, and took notes, and 
transmitted them to his Counsel, Messrs. Topping and 
Holroyd ; but when Mr. Quick, who was clerk in the house 
at Tivertorj, in which Hatfield was a partner, swore to his 
hand-writing to the c30 bill drawn upon Mr. Crump of 
Liverpool, he then seemed deeply agitated, took no more 
notes, and appeared prepared for the verdict that war, 
given against him. The Court was amazingly thronged, 
but he did not once look round upon the persons present. 
I [is eyes were fixed upon the witnesses., and the Judge 
and Jury; as soon as the verdict was giver., he bowed to 
the Judge, and retired without saving a word. A post- 
Chaise conveved him from the hall to the prison ; he was 

coo] 



PARTICULARS OF HATFIELD. 33? 

.tool and collected during the time he was in tlae chaise ; 
and as soon as he got back to his room, he fell upon his 
knees, and prayed in a fervent and serious manner for 
about half an hour ; after which he desired some refresh- 
ment. Misbehaviour, when sentence of death was passed 
upon him next morning, was equally cool and deliberate. 
lie knelt, look fixedly at the Judge, bowed, but said not. 
a worcl. 

'* I had an opportunity of seeing him soon after his rer 
turn to prison on the morning of his condemnation. He 
was writing when I entered his room, but seemed perfectly 
resigned to his fate. I conversed with him a c,'ocol deal, 

o o * 

and he told me that he had been fairly tried arid convicted 
by the laws of his country; that indeed the world was 
now, and had long been, a misery to him that he had 
been unhappy iu his mind for nearly twenty years. The 
original cause of that unhappiness I could not learn, nor, 
.ns he did not think proper to disclose it, did I press him 
upon the subject. He said, lu: had for some time pa^t 
been employed in making his peace with the Almighty, 
whose pardon, he humbly hoped, he should, obtain, and 
who, he Ivrvcntlv pivyc-d, would give him fortitude to 
bear the last great event, that should close this world upon 
him for ever. I left him in a lev,- minutes after he had ex- 
pressed this hope, and as I quitted the room, I observed 
ji:m drop on his knees in prayer. lie does not seem to 
entertain the slightest hope of being pardoned. 

" lie pusses much of his thne in reading and writing; 

O O * 

a great part of every day has been employed in writing 
.letters to his acquaintance : the number of these letters are 
very great. The rest of his time he passes in prayer, and 
reading the Bible. Xonc cf his relations have visited him 
since iiis condemnation. He keeps entirely in his own 
room, and will see no one but those belonging to the gaol, 
.Hid two clergymen of the Church of England, Mr. Pattison 
f't Carlisle, and Mr. Marke cf Burgh on Sands, They 

have 



338 PARTICULARS OF IIATFIELD. 

have been much with him, and he expresses himself under 
great obligations to them for their humane assistance, as 
well as to the keeper of the gaol and his assistants, for their 
kindness and attention to him. Neither before his trial, 
nor since his condemnation, has he ever alluded to his con- 
nection with Mary of Buttermcre, nor even mentioned her 
name. This morning he desired all his hair to be cut off; 
it was flaxen, and remarkably long and thick. He says 
he intends sending it to some of his friends." 

Another letter of the 31st says, " Since I wrote to you 
last, Hatfield continues to pass his time in writing to his 
friends, and in reading. His appetite has failed him, and 
he lives chiefly upon coffee. I had an opportunity of see- 
ing and conversing with him to-dav for some time. He 

O tJ v 

applied this morning to one of the clergymen who attends 
him, Mr. Pattison, to recommend him a tradesman to 
make his coffin. Mr. Joseph Bushby, of this town, took 
measure of him about half an hour ago. He did not ap- 
pear to be at all agitated while Mr. Bushby was so em- 
ployed. He told the latter that he desired the coffin to be 
a strong oak one, plain and neat. e I request, Sir,' he 
added, ' that after I am taken down, I may be put into 
the coffin immediately, with the apparel I may have on, 
and afterwards closely screwed down, put into the hearse 
which will be in waiting, carried to the church-yard of 
Burgh on Sands, and there be interred in the evening.' 

" From the hour when the Jury found him guilty, he 
has behaved with the utmost serenity and cheerfulness. 
He received the visits of all those who wished to sec him, 
and talked upon the topics of the day with the greatest in- 
terest or indifference. He could scarcely ever be brought 
to speak of his own case. He neither blamed the verdict, 
nor made any confession of his guilt. lie said that he had 
no intention to defraud those whose names lie forced ; but 
was never heard to say that he was to die luijustlv." 

A third 



THE EXECUTION OF HATFIELD. 339 

A third letter from Carlisle, dated Saturday Sept. 3. 
" I now send you the account of the Execution of Hat field. 
His irons were struck off this morning about ten o'clock : 
he appeared as usual, and I did not observe any alteration 
or increased agitation whatever. Soon after ten o'clock he 
sent for the Carlisle Journal, and perused it for some time; 
a little after he laid aside the paper, two Clergymen at- 
tended, and prayed with him for about two hours, and 
drank coffee with him. After they left him (about twelve), 
lie wrote some letters, and in one inclosed his pen-knife : it 
was addressed to London. The Sheriff, the Bailiffs, and the 
Carlisle Volunteer Cavalry attended at the sjaol door about 

.- o 

half past three, tog-ether with a pest-chaise and a hearse. 
He was then ordered into the Turnkey's Lodge for the 
purpose of getting pinioned, where he inquired of the 
Gaoler who were going in the chaise with him r lie was 
told the Executioner and the Gaoler. He immediately said, 
* Pray where is the Executioner, I should wish much to 
see him.' The Executioner was sent for ; Hatficld asked 
him how lit-, was, and made him a present of some silver in 
a paper. During the time of his being pinioneci, he stood 
\vith resolution, and requested he might not be pinioned 
tight, as he wished louse his handkerchief when on the 
platform, which was complied with. He then left the 
prison, and wished his fellow-prisoners might be happy. 
When he came in sight of the tree, he said to the Gaoler, 
he imagined that was the tree (pointing at it) that he was 
to die on. On being told yes, ' O ! a happy sight, I see 
it with pleasure.' Then he desired the Hangman to be as 
export as possible about it, and that he would wave a hand- 
kerchief when he was ready. The Hangman not having 
fixed the rope in its proper place, lie put up his hand and 
turned it himself. He also tied his cap, took his handker- 
chief from his own neck, and tied it about his head also. 
Then he requested the Gaoler would step upon the plat- 
form 



340 THE EXECUTION OF HATFIELD. 

form and pinion his arms a little harder, saying', that when 
he lest his senses, he might attempt to place them to his 
neck. The rope was then completely i:xed about five 
minutes before four o'clock it was thick, and he merely 
said, ' May the Almighty bless you <///.' Nor did he faulter 
in the least when he tied the cap, shifted the rope, and 
took his handkerchief from his neck. He hung in the 
midst of a great number of spectators for one hour, when 
he was cut down, and interred i:i St. Mary's church-yard, 
the usual place of interment for those who come to an un- 
timely end ; the parishioners of Burgh objecting to his 
bcino; laid there." 

O 

Another account says, " A notion very generally pre- 
vailed that he would not be brought to justice, and the 
arrival of the mail was daily expected with the greatest im- 
patience. No pardon arriving, Saturday the 3d was at 
last fixed upon as the day of execution. Accordingly the 
post coming in a little before three o'clock, and bringing 
neither pardon nor reprieve, the Under-Sheriff and a de- 
tachment of the Cumberland Yeomanry immediately re- 
paired to the prison near the English gate. A prodigious 
crowd had previously assembled. This was the market: 
clay, and people had come from the distance of many miles 
out of mere curiosity. A post-chaise was brought for him 
from the Bush Inn. Having taken farewell of the Clergy- 
man, who attended him to the door, lie mounted the steps 
with much steadiness and composure. The Gaoler and the* 
Executioner went in alonir with him. The latter had been 

O 

brought from Dumfries upon a retaining fee often guineas, 
" It was exactly four o'clock when the procession moved 
from the gaol. Passing through the Scotch gate, in about 
twelve minutes it arrived at the Sands, Half the Yeomanry- 
went before the carriage, and the other behind. Upon 
arriving on the ground, they formed a ring round the scaf- 
fold. It is said that Hat field wished to have had the Uii:;li 



THE EXECUTION OF HATFIELD. 341 

drawn up, but that such an indulgence was held inconsist- 
ent with the interests of public justice. 

" As soon as the carriage door had been opened by the 
Under-Sheriff, Hattield alighted with his two companions. 
A small dung-cart boarded over, had been placed under 
the gibbet. A ladder was placed to this stage, which he 
instantly ascended. He was dressed in a black jacket, 
black silk waistcoat, fustian pantaloons, white cotton stock- 
ings, and ordinary slices. He wore no powder in his hair. 
He seemed at least fifty, and there was something grave 
and reverend in his aspect, which for a moment made one 
forget ail the crimes laid to his charge. He was. perfectly 
cool and collected ; at the same time he shewed no dis- 
position to die game. His conduct displayed nothing of 
levity, of insensibility, or of hardihood. He was more 
anxious to give proof of resignation than of heroism. 
His countenance was extremely pule, but his hand never 
trembled. 

" He immediately untied his neck-handkerchief, and 
placed the banviage over his eyes. The Executioner was ex- 
tremely aukward, and Hatfield found it necessary to give 
various directions as to the placing of the rope, and the 
proper method of driving away the cart. He several times 
put on a languid and piteous smile. He at last seemed 
rather exhausted and faint. Having been near three weeks 
under sentence of death, he must have suffered much, not- 
withstanding his external bearing, and a reflection of the 
miserv he had occasioned must have given him many an 
agonizing throe. 

" Having taken leave of the Gaoler and the Sheriff, he 
prepared himself for his fate. He was at this time heard 
to exclaim, ' My spirit is strong, though my be .ly is weak.' 

" Great apprehensions were entertained that it would 
be necessary to tie him up a second time. The noose 
slipped t '.vice, and he foil down above eighteen inches. 
Hiafcct at last were ulmoit touching the ground. But his 

Y y excessive 



542 REMARKABLE EARTHQUAKES 

excessive weight, which occasioned this accident, speedily 
relieved him from pain. He expired in a moment, and 
without any struggle. 

" He was cut down after he had hung about an hour. 
On Wednesday last, lie had made a carpenter take his 
measure for a coffin. He gave particular directions that 
it should be large, as he meant to be laid in it with all 
his clothes on. It was made of oak, adorned with plates, 
and extremely handsome every way. A hearse followed with 
it to the ground, and afterwards bore him away.' He was 
then buried in a corner of the church-yard of St. Mary's, 
Carlisle, at a distance from the tombs, without any cere- 
mony ; and in less than two hours, the u hole of the crowd 
had dispersed." 

We have been thus minute in the particulars of the life 
of a man, who, having- occupied so much of the public at- 
tention, had made himself of importance. But Hatfield, 
however, did not persist in his innocence, as some bur- 
dened criminals have done ; nor did he insult the ears or 
understandings of the multitude that came, to see him die., 
with any fanatical effusions that often do more harm than 
good the law had laid him under the sword of justice, a.m 
he received the final stroke without murmur or complain* , 



t ; viz. a report thai 
cd on a correspond- 



One thing still we ought not to cm 

Mary of Buttermere opened and carr 

t'nce with him by letters, while he was in confinement, 

i .:id was scarcely dissuaded by her friends from paying him 

a personal visit. 

!/7/t'HisTonY O/"REMARKABLE EARTHQUAKES in England, 
and elsewhere. 



THE Philosophical Transactions, page 30^., give an account 
of an earthquake felt very sensibly at a place called Skeathill , 
about eight miles south-west from Dartibixl, and that the: 
some morning a piece of ground in a nleadow in Farning- 

ham, 



IX E.VCf A!\D, AND ELSEWHERE. 3 K3 

ham, about five miles south of Dartford, sunk so as to leave 
a pit about eight or ten feet over, and nearly of the same 
depth, which was that morning filled with water, within 
three or four feet of the top, though that spot of ground 
was supposed to have been as sound as any about it, carts 
having scvend times gone over that very place. 

April 30, 1736. At noon, and at twelve next morning, 
there was a violent earthquake along the Oekhil Hills in 
Scotland, which rent several houses, and put the people to 
flight. These two shocks were each attended with a great 
noise under ground. 

December 30, 1739. In Halifax, Eland, Tluddersfiejd, 
and other towns in the West Riding of Yorkshire, was felt 
a suclclen and violent .earthquake, the moveablc utensils 
rattling and rolling about, and people fearing to be tum- 
bled out of their beds. It seemed as if tlie earth had 
moved out of its place, in a line parallel to that of the 
horizon, and again returned to its former situation, with 
reciprocal vibrations, which ended in a minute or two with 
a hissing hollow report, and a quivering of all the* things 
on its surface. 

Tuesday, Feb. 8, 174950. At about thirty minutes 
after twelve, an earthquake was suddenly felt throughout 
London and Westminster, and also at Deptibrcl, Green- 
wich, and even as iv.r as Gravescnd, at Payne's Bridge 
between Rumford and B rent wood, at Coopcrsale near 
Kpping, cit Woodford, Walthamstow, Hertford, High- 

i i C> ' ' / ' O 

gate and Finchley but not at BavnU. It was ju^t per- 
ceived at Richmond in Surrey, and Bromley in Kent 
though not at all at Deal or Canterbury. The counsellors 
in the Court of King's Bench and Chancery in Westmin- 
-ter Mall, e>.pcetcd the building to fall, a.:d in the new 
buildings about Gro-venor Square, people ran out of their 
houses, the chairs shaking, and the. pewter rattling on the, 
-.iidvcs. Li South v.'arkj a slaughter-house, with a hay-loft 

v v _; ovev 



344 REMARKABLE EARTHQUAKES IN ENGLAND, 

over it was thrown down, as was a chimney in Leadenhall 
Street, another in Billiter Square, and several chimnies 
and part of a house near Horselydown. This earthquake 
ivas attended with a fiat noise, but not very loud. The 
weather had been rainy and close for some days. That 
morning there had been a thick fog, and at the time of the 
shock the air was remarkably calm. 

Thursday, March 8, 174950. Between five and six 
in the morning, another earthquake was felt in London 
and Westminster, more violent, and attended with a 
greater noise than the former, the sound, as in many other 
places already mentioned, resembling a hollow distant 
thunder. Just before the shock a bah of fire Avas seen in 
the air to the west of the city. The shock (like that in 
1580, and many others in England, as well as the great 
earthquake at Lima in 1637,) was of the vibratory kind. 
People were shook in their beds with a violent motion, 
which with the noise of the earthquake and rattling of the 
vvindo'.vs, awoke almost all who were asleep, and in an in- 
stant, as far as it extended, filled every one with con- 
sternation. 

A spring burst out in a cellar at the corner of Dean 
Street, Fetter Lane ; and the next dav the water was c:one 

7 ' \J \,J 

as remarkable as it came, and the floor left as dry as if no 
water had been there. Two stacks of chimnies, and part 
of a building in Bermondsey Street, were thrown down, 
and one stack of chimnies on Saffron Hill. At Islington, 
the bells at several gentlemen's doors rang, as if pulled by 
a sudden jerk. It seemed to roll along from west to east, 
like a wave in a violent storm, and was sensibly felt as far 
as Epping in Essex, as also at Chiselhurst, Beckenham, 
and Croydon ; at the two last places the hammers of the 
clocks struck against the bells. It is asserted by many, 
that this was preceded by a small shock, at about two in 

the morning. 

(j.o r>c continued. ) 



ESCAPE FROM A SHARK. A METEOR, &C. 345 



I HE following is an account of a most alarming accident 

O C? 

to a boy oa board the Ganges, on her passage to China : 
" During our detention at Angar Point, on the coast of 
Java, on the 5th of May last, John Walker, boatswain's 
boy of the Ganges, aged 13, swimming alongside of the 
ship when at anchor, and at a few yards distance from 
our boat with three seamen in it, was discovered by a 
shark, who immediately approached him, and independ- 
ent of the exertions of the boat's crew to intimidate the 
hungry monster, he laid hold of the unfortunate bov, by 
including in his mouth the whole of his right leg and more 
than half the thigh, pulling him beneath the water close 
alongside the ship, when upwards of 100 men were spec- 
tators of the scene, and kept linn below for near two 
minutes, in which time he had tore off the leg and thigh to 
the extent above mentioned. The boy once more made his 
appearance on the surface of the water, and the shark 
upon his back, with his jaws once more extended to make 
a finish of his prey, when a lad from the boat struck him 
with the boat-hook, and by the same instrument laid hold 
of the boy and brought him on board.-*-The bov had lost 
a vast deal of blood, the stump was dreadfully lacerated., 
and the bone splintered near an inch and a half, which re- 
quired an amputation of the thigh close to the hip-joint. 
Und'-r all these untoward circumstances, the boy has re- 
covered quite well within three months from the date of the 
operation. The fleet, as it was an extraordinary case, 
jiave subscribed upwards of c280 for him." Bombay 
Courier, Feb. 19. 



SINGULAR METEOH. 

Stones floating in the immense S/mce, &V. 

AN English Gentleman, who is a prisoner atFontainbleau, 
writes under date of the 13th Jnh-, as follows : " I was 
bathing a few evciunsrs cLr.ce, with sonic Englishmen my 

V -w O 

fellow- 



A SINGULAR. METEOR, &C. 

fellow-prisoners, whoa we saw a most beautiful and sin- 
gular Meteor. About half an hour after Sun-set, two 
balls appeared in the air above where the Sun had set, re- 
^enabling the Sun in colour, size, and brightness. They 
were about the height at which the Sun is two. hours before 
its. setting. They lasted about ten minutes, moving almost 
imperceptibly jtoxvards the South, and giving an amazing 
light, when they gradually appeared to dissolve into fiery 
smoke, which reddened the atmosphere to a considerable 
distance round where they had been, for an hour alter- 
wavcls. Some said this was a reflection of the Sun, but it 
could not be, as it had been set half an hour, and besides 
they would never have dissolved into smoke. Mr. Pigot, 
a celebrated astronomer here, with whom I was talking 
about it, says that these are the same class as tho^e which 
we call falling Stars, which are large stones continually 
floating about in the immense space of Nature, when they 
come within 60- or 70 miles of the earth by which they are 
attracted, thoy fall to it. Several of these stones have 
been picked up in dull-rent parts of the world, and they 
have not been found to resemble any earthly substance." 
Of the analysis of some of these stones, we spoke iu 
page 180 of our IVth Number, 



PARTICULAR WARNINGS BEFORE DEATH. 
" Air. EDITOR, Observing in Number.-! V. and VI. of your Entertaining: 
Museum, a list of Extraordinary Deaths by your attentive Correspondent A, 

reminded me of some particular Warnings some poisons have had of the death 
of some of their family,, as the Allowing will appear. . 1 could, produce several 
more i;i>.t:ince> of the like nalup', but I rather wave being prolix on this head, 
least I >hould be charged with n ridiculous credulity, by those who disbelieve 
every thing of this kind, and o;;ly /--quest vou !o insert the three following in 
vour Work. The authenticity of which, cannot be called hi question, as they 
.-c'-urrcd to persons of respectability j whose veracity may be fully depended 
Uj'oii. li ' .\ , or any of your Correspondents has any thiii^ of the following 
tlv-'.'-r:; tion to comr.v.niicaie, v. oithy of insertion in vour J/,/.w-?//w, by doing 
i% ! have r.o doubt \\'\\ prove entertaining to your numvious renders ; and at 
-'-i:. some lime viii rmcb.rbLi; ':, vour humble ser.Tut, P &. L.? 



NOTICES OF APPROACHING DEATH. '34*7 



ix 1727 S, in the month of Febriiarv, at which time 
Lang-ford Collin, Esq. lived at York, one night coming- 
home, he immediately and very speedily undressed himself 
find \vent to bed to his latlv, v. ho being awake, he spoke to 
her, asking her concerning something bethought she could 
inform him of; but lie had hardly exchanged six v. - crds, 
when he was surprised at a sudden knock given to the 
street-door, so loud, as if it had been with a great sledge- 
hammer, which made him as suddenly rise up out of his 
bed, and with a pair of pistols in his hand, he hasted acres?, 
the landing-place to the dining-room, but before he could 
reach the door of it, lie heard a second knock, full as loud 
as the first ; at which impatient, and fearing it might in- 
jure his lady then pregnant, and near her time, he with a!! 
expedition did run to the window, during which a third 
knock was heard, not only by himself, but several of his 
family ; but throwing the sash open, he saw nobodv, 
neither at the door, not: on One side or other of the hov.se, 
though it was clear moon-light, and nothing to obstruct, 
his sio;ht cither wav for a considerable space ; still think- 

O * 1 

in' it was done bv some unlucky persons out of fame or 

o * *- ^ 

wantonness, he discovered next morning his uneasiness at 
such usage, at the coffee-house, declaring with son.i- 
warmth, ho\v highly lie would resent ir, could lie ccrno 
at the knowledge of that rude person who had been tniiltv 

o A O . 

6f that ridiculous action: nor did he change his first opi- 
nion till the next post brought him a letter, which informed 
him of the death of his cousin, Thomas Smith, of Notting- 
ham, Ksti. who died at London, at the time the said knock- 
ing was heard. 

About tiuve years after that, the same gvntlcmsn sitting 
tip with his next brother, Mr. Abel (Y-'li;), heard iron: 
t \velve o'clock at ni^bt till it struck one, a continual noise 
of driving mrils Into a coffin, in the wcrksbo'} cf Jehu 



348 PARTICULAR NOTICES BEFORE DEATH. 

Baker, a joiner, which abutted upon their yard ; at this 
lie was very much offended, as thinking it very unkind 
from an intimate acquaintance of the sick person, when 
soon after he heard a noise as if t\vo or three men were 
landing a coffin in the room over his head, which made 
him suspect it to be a fore-runner of his brother's death, 
who departed this life exactly ;:t one o'clock the next day. 
From riotfs History of Oxfordshire. As to what con- 
cerns death, I must add a relation as strange as it is true, 
of the family of Captain Wcocl, late of Bampton, now of 
Brise-Norton, Captain in the late wars of the King ; some 
whereof before their deaths have had signal warning given 
them by a certain knocking, either at the door without, or 
tables and shelves within the house. The number of strokes, 
and distance between them, and the place where, for the 
most part, respecting the circumstances of the persons to 
die, or their deaths themselves, will be collected from the 
following circumstances and relation. The first knocking 
that was observed, was about a year after the Restoration 
of the King ; in the afternoon, a little before night, at or 
upon the door, it being then open, Mrs. Eleanor Wood, 
mother of the Captain, only heard it. She was much dis- 
turbed, thinking it boded some ill to her or her's : fourteen 
days after she heard news of the death of her son-in-law, 
Mr. George Smith. 

o 

Three years after that, there were great knocks thrice 
given, very audibly to every person in the house, viz. to 
Mrs. Eleanor Wood, Mr. Basil Wood, and his wife, Mrs. 
Hester Wood, and some servants, which knocks were so 
remarkable, that one of the maids came from the well, 
which was about twenty yards from the place, to see what 
was the matter ; and another nuiid saw three pans of lard 
shake and totter so upon a shelf in the milk-house, that she 
was like to fall down. Upon the violent knocking, Mr. 
Basil Wood and his wife being then in the hall, came 

presently 



EXTRAORDINARY INSTANCE OF VEGETATION. 349 

presently running into the milk-house to their mother, 
and (hiding her much disturbed, she replied, " God knew 
the matter she could not tell but that she heard the knock- 
ing." Mr. Basil Wood concluded it must be for some of 
the family at home; and that upon the door for a friend 
abroad, which accordingly fell out: three of the family, 
according to the number of the knocks, dying within half 
a year after, viz. Mrs. Hester Wood, a child of Mr. Wood's 
sister, and Mrs. Eleanor Wood his mother, 



AN UNFORTUNATE FAMILY. 

4-N the month of June, in the present year, Mr. I?aac 
JCvans, of Ashovcr, Derbyshire, was thrown from his 
horse, and received such injury as to occasion his death in 
a few hours. One of his sons, some time back, unthink- 
ingly placed the butt-end of a loaded gun between a wall 
and a tree, which went off instantly and killed him. 
Another of his sons shooting rooks at Alfretton a few days 
preceding the death of his father, the gun burst, and so 
violently shattered his hand, that it was obliged to be im- 
mediately amputated, and he is now nearly recovered. 
And about ten months since, his daughter (an infant) was 
scalded to death by falling into some hot liquor. 



EXTRAORDINARY INSTANCE OF VEGETATION. 

AN extraordinary instance of vegetation in an esculant 
plant was observed on the morning of June 4th (of this 
present year,) at Hoi beach. 

During the preceding night, a mushroom in its growth, 
had completely rolled out of its place a pebble in the pave- 
ment, immediately before the house of Mr. J. Biggerdike, 
which weighed seven pounds and a quarter ; the plant it- 
self weighed twelve ounces, and the circumference of the 
stalk measured six inches and a quarter. 

z z La 



330 AN ACCOUNT OF A 

Last year mushrooms grew in Mr. Biggerdike's housc^ 
with sueh strength as to become extremely troublesome, 
frequently raising the bricks from the floor ; and the cir- 
cumstance is the more extraordinary, as the oldest inha- 
bitant does not remember any mushrooms to have grown 
near the spot, and the soil is not considered congenial to 

the plant. 

^f^.r^f~ ^-~*~~*-~f*j* 

Account of a THUNDER STORM in NORFOLK, with Hail- 
stones, bearing the Figure of a human Eye. 

[From a Pamphlet printed in London, 1056 .] 

ON the 20th of July, being the Sabbath Day, about four 
of the clock in the afternoon, there was a great and sudden 
tempest in the city of Norwich, and the country there- 
abouts ; the flashes of lightning were most dreadful and 
violent, and the loud claps from the clouds did so amaze 
and affright the people, that they thought the spheres came 
thundering down in flames about their ears. About an 
Lour afterwards, there appeared to the view of many, a 
black eioud of smoke, like unto the smoke of a furnace, 
and ever and anon it did cast forth flames of fire ; it was 
attended with a white cloud, which, sailing along the air, 
did seem to labour for all the advantages of the wind, to 
overtake the other ; but, the black cloud being first come, 
and covering the face of the citv, there arose a sudden 
whirlwind, which. in the streets of the city did raise such a 
dust, that it was almost impossible for one man to discern 
another, but only at a little distance ; and, to increase this 
wonderful darkness, the clouds e;re\v thicker and thicker, 
especially at the south and south-west, when behold ihc. 
lightning from them did leap forth again, and the thunder 
chid, and there followed such a rattling storm of "stupen- 
dous hail, that being afterwards measured, the hail-stones 
7'cre found to be five inches about, and some more; all the 

jrlass 



THUNDER STORM IN NORFOLK. 351 

glass windows that were on the weather-side of the city 
were beaten down. 

Some letters from Norwich do affirm, that three thou- 
sand pounds will not repair the windows. This which I 
now speak, may in other countries seem incredible, and so 
it might in our own also, were it not to be attested by 
iibout ten thousand witnesses. And surely it% well worth 
the observation of the best philosophers to take notice, that 
those hail-stones (as they exceeded all others in their big- 
ness, so they were unlike them in their form), for many of 
them were mere pieces of flat ice, and had not the least 
similitude of roundness in them. It is to be admired be- 
sides, that in many of these hail-stones, there was to be 
seen the figure of an eye, resembling the eye of a man, and 
that so perfectly, as if it had been there engraved by the 
hand of some skilful artificer. 

If your eyes, possessed with these unusual spectacles, 
have yet the leisure to look into the country, in hope there 
to behold some more comfortable objects, you will find in 
some places whole fields of corn destroyed by the light- 
ning ; you will behold the tempest wrestling with the 
trees, and having torn them \ip by the roots, to lay them 
on their backs with their heels higher than their heads ; the 
burrows could not protect the listening conies, nor the 
trees the birds ; but On the next moruino- the travellers 

* O 

found them dead in great numbers on the ground, and in 
some places a horse or a cow Ivinp- bv them. The lip-'m_ 

v O . O 

ning \vhirled through the whole country, and passing 
through some houses where the windows were made one 
;:j'*ainst the other, it \vas seen aftenvnrus to rnr, till alon^, 

v_J / :-^ J 

and to lick the p";vand ; many house:, were fired by it, 
and hfid it net pleased God to send an extraordinary shower 
>f rain, t^ome towns that had taken lire, had been v,n- 
tfSoubtedly destroyed. It struck some men ; ; .i;J women 

't z '2 dead 



352 SURPRISING FACULTY OF SUSTAINING HEAT. 

dead for the present, whom it pleased God to recovci* 
again to life, to magnify his mercies, and to declare his 
wonders. 



SURPRISING FACULTY OF SUSTAINING HEAT. 

-A SPANIARD, who is now in Paris, has lately filled almost 
every mourn with a topic of conversation. He is a young 
man, a native of Toledo in Spain, 23 years of age, and 
free of any apparent peculiarities which can announce any 
thing remarkable in the organization of the skin ; after ex- 
amination, one would be rather disposed to conclude a 
peculiar softness than that any hardness or thickness of the 
cuticle existed, either naturally or from mechanical causes. 
Nor was there any circumstance to indicate that the per- 
son had been previously rubbed with any matter capable 
of resisting the operation of the agents with which he was 
brought in contact. 

This man bathed for the space of six minutes, and Avith- 
ont any injury either to his sensibility or the surface of the 
skin, his legs in oil, heated at 97 of Reaumur, (250]- deg. 
of Fahrenheit ;) and with the same oil, at the same degree 
of heat, he washed his face and superior extremities. He 
held for the same space of time, and with as little incon- 
venience, his legs in a solution of muriate of soda, heated 
to 102 of the same scale, (261 I Fa4ir.) He stood on and 
rubbed the soles of his feet with a bar of iron heated to a 
white heat ; in this state he held the iron in his hands, and 
rubbed the surface of his tongue. 

He gargled his mouth with concentrated sulphuric and 
nitric acids, without the smallest injury or discoloration ; 
tiie nitrous acid changed the cuticle to a yellow colour; 
with the acids in this state he rubbed his hands and arms. 
All t'lese experiments were continued long enough to prove 
their ineiliciency to produce any impression. It is said ou 

un question- 



A WONDERFUL CURE OF LAMENESS. 353 

Unquestionable authority, that he remained a considerable 
time in an oven heated to 65 or 70, (178 189 Fahr.) 
and from which he was with difficulty induced to retire, so 
comfortable did he feel that high temperature. 

It may be proper to remark, that this man seems totally 
uninfluenced by any motive to mislead, and, it is said, he 
has refused flattering offers from some religious sectaries of 
turning to emolument his singular qualities ; yet, on -the 
whole, if seems to be the opinion of most philosophical 
men, that this person must possess some matter which, 
counteracts the operation of these agents. To suppose 
that nature has organized him differently, would be un- 
philosophic : by habit he might liave blunted his sensibility 
against those impressions that create pain under ordinary 
circumstances ; but how to explain the power by which he 
resists the action of those agents which are known to have 
the strongest affinity for animal matter, is a circumstance 
difficult to comprehend. It has not failed, however, to 
excite the wonder of the ignorant, and the inquiry of the 
learned at Paris. 



A wonderful CURE of LAMENESS ; effected by ANTS. 

I WAS once, says the relator, well acquainted with thr 
late Mrs. June Crabley, relict of Stephen Crablcy, who 
officiated as parish-clerk of Sindermeer, from Aug. 1752, 
till the 10th of the same month, 17 OS ; (and it is remark- 
able, ihat lie was buried in a grave which he dug the 
week before his death, for Mr. Baddely, not knowing that 
Mr. 13. was to be interred at Frebley near Sutton.) On the 
death of her husband, Jane, then 56 years of age, removed 
to Stancot, her native place ; where she had no sooner set- 
tled herself, than shebe^an to complain of a most torturing 
pain, and considerable enlargement of the patella (orkneu- 

pan?, 



354 A WONDERFUL CURE OF LAMENESS. 

pan), which she described as, and which her neighbours 
believed to be, a smart paroxysm of gout. Karly in Fe- 
bruary 1799, the inflammation and pain entirely ceased ; 
but the swelling continued, and rather increased ; the joint 
of the knee from disuse, became perfectly stiff; and owing 
to the very particular size and form of her breast, no re- 
lief could be gained from the use of crutches. Free, how- 
ever, from pain, the natural cheerfulness of her disposition 
returned, with its concomitant circumstance a Avish for 
constant society ; and as her house stood in a particular 
retired lane, she was the more impatient of a confinement, 
that amounted to the most helpless state of lameness. 
When the weather became tolerably mild, she was every 
mcrnino- at her own earnest desire, carried in her chair to' 

O ' * ' . 

the gravel-pit by the side of the great road leading to Bir- 
mingham, where she could converse with the villagers as 
she sat knitting (her usual occupation), and be amused by 
the comparative cheerfulness of the scene. And here it 
was that the remarkable circumstance I am about to relate 
took place. At the commencement of the hot weather, 
towards the end of May, the ants, or pismires, became so 
strangely troublesome to her, that she waj sometimes 
obliged to avail herself of the help of travellers to a^ist 
her in changing her station. Still, however, they followed 
her, and seemed entirely attracted bv her now useless 
knee. She was at first considerably annoyed bv tho>c 
troublesome insects ; but, in a few days, she became inn 
only reconciled to their intrusion, but v- as desirous of hav- 
ing her chair placed where she imagined them n:o:t to 
abound, even giving them freer access to her knee by 
turning down her stocking ; for she told me, that " the 
cold numbness she suffered jiibt round the patella, :.Y/,V eased 
and relieved by their bite ; that it was even pleasurable-.:"" 
aud, strange to say, they bit her no where else. Th<" 

ski.u 



BALLOON INTELLIGENCE IMPROVED. 35q[ 

akin, which she described as having been deadly pale, now 
assumed a lively red colour ; a clear and subtile liquid 
oozed from every puncture the ants had left ; the swelling 
and stillness of the joint gradually abated ; and on the 25tb| 
evenkig of July, she walked home with the help of a stick, 
and before Winter, perfectly recovered the use of her 
limb. She continued the full enjoyment of her health till 
this Spring, when she. caught the measles, which, added 
fo repeated attacks of influenza, carried her off the 
day of June last past 1802. 



BALLOON* INTELLIGENCE IMPROVED ; 

Qr new Anecdotes r,f the Afcsnsion of Mr. ROBERTSON and Mr. LIIOEST, of 

Hamburgh , in July last, 
f"r* 

1 HIS account seems the most useful and truly scientific 
of any we have yet read, Mr. Robertson and his friend 
ascended to the height of 2GOO toiscs, when the cold be- 
came so intense, as to compel them to descend, which they 
did near Winsen on the Luhe ; but the inhabitants taking 
them for spectres, (led with the utmost consternation, car- 
rying with them their cattle, &c. ; and the aeronauts, fear- 
ful of being fired at, were obliged to reascend, and con- 
tinued their voyage to Wichtenbeck, near Zell, having; 
traversed over a space of 25 French leagues in live hours. 

When the balloon rose, says Mr. Robertson, the baro- 
meter was at 28 inches. At eleven o'clock the machine, 
which had not been entirely filled, became so dilated, 
that the inflammable air issued with a loud noiso from tlie 
lower tube. As this aperture was not sufficient, I was 
obliged lo open the upper valve. It remained open nearly 
n quarter of an hour, during which time the balloon 
ascended in a perpendicular direction : at intervals we. 
threw out some ballast. The atmosphere below us was. 
ierene, but above us, it was sornesvhat cloudy. 

Althoug^ 



356 BALLOON INTELLIGENCE IMPROVED. 

Although we approached the sun, the beat decreased as. 
we ascended, and we could look at that luminary without 
being dazzled. When the barometer was at 14 inches, it 
appeared to become stationary. The thermometer was 
at 4 1 degrees below Zero; the cold was not excessive, 
but the singing in my ears increased, and all our faculties 
seemed to be palsied by a general indisposition. Having 
taken some wine to recruit our strength, we threw out 
more ballast, the mercury in the barometer fell to i 2| inches. 
At that height the cold out of the car was insupportable, 
although the thermometer was only one degree below the 
freezing point. We were obliged to respire faster, and 
our pulse beat with extreme rapidity.- We could scarcely 
resist the strong inclination to sleep with which we were 
seized. The blood rushed to our heads, and Mr. Lhoest 
remarked that it had entered my eyes ; my head was so 
swelled that I could not put on my hat. In this region, 
where the balloon was invisible from the earth, Mr. Ro- 
bertson made the following experiments : 

1. Having let a drop of ether fall on a piece of glass, 
it evaporated in four seconds ; 2. He electrified by friction 
glass and sealing-wax. These substances gave no signs of 
electricity which could be communicated to other bodies. 
The voltaic pile, which, when the balloon was sui free from 
the earth, acted with its full force, gave only a tenth part 
of its electricity ; 3. The dipping needle seemed to have 
lost its magnetic virtue, and could not be brought to that 

O ' O 

direction which it had at the surface of the earth; 4. Pie 
struck with a hammer oxygenated muriate of potash. The 
explosion occasioned a sharp noise, which, though not very 
strong, was insufferable to the ear. It is also to be ob- 
served, that though the aeronauts spoke very loud, they 
could with great difficulty hear each other ; 5. At that 
height ?Jr. Robertson was not able to extract any electricity 
from the atmospheric electrometer and condenser; 6. In 

consequence 




es 



f 




AN ACCOUNT OF MRS. MARY HONYWOOD. 3,57 

consequence of a suggestion from Professor Hennbstacit, of 
Berlin, Mr. Robertson carried with him two birds; the 
rarefaction of the air killed one of them ; the other "was not 
able to ny ; it lay extended on its back, but fluttered with 
its wings ; 7. Water began to boil bv means of a moderate 
degree of heat maintained with quicklime ; $. According 
to observations made, it appeal's that the clouds never rise 
above 2000 toises, and it w,as only in ascending and de- 
cending. through cloutls that Mr. Robertson w r as able to 
obtain positive electricity. 

An ACCOUNT/?/" Mrs. MARY HOXYWOOD, li'ko left behind 
her 367 toilful Descendants. 

[With her Portrait.] 

i. HTS lad}-, who was one of the ancestors of the present 
Honywood family, in Kent, was b.prn at'J-ehham in that 
county, about the year 1533, and was united by marriage 
very early in life to Robert Honywood, Esq. of Charing, 
in the same county, who was her only husband. She was a 
widow 44 years; but notwithstanding tliat, at her decease, 
in the 93d year of her age, on the 18th of May, in 1620, 
though she bore only 16 children, in lier own person had 
then lawfully descended from her, 114 grand children; 
that is to say, 228 in the third generation, and 9 in the 
fourth ; making in the whole 367. Her long life and health 
was in a great measure accounted for, by the even and 
Christian temper of her life, not being reckoned a restless 
or censorious fanatic, bu| a truly pious, resigned, and 
charitable Christian, Her long course of life and widow- 
hood, she at length finished, not where she began it, but 
at Markeshall, in the count" of Essex, t'<c dwelling of 
one of tlio.se numerous relatives before mcr.tioned, then 
wanting less than seven of a hundred yenrs of age. Her 
maiden name was Mary Waters, and her eldest son, Sir- 
Robert Honywood, alter her decease, caused a monument 
to be erected to her memory, at Markeshall Church, in 
the county of Essex aforesaid. 

A a a 77:^ 



( 358 ) 

The ORIGIN of the FEMALES exposing their BOSOMS, 

\VHEN the Sicambrii, a clan in France, began to retire 
?ind fly from the field of battle, their women met them, 
uncovered their bosoms, and said, " Strike there, ye 
cowards ! we wish that you would slay us, rather than ex- 
pose us to the disgrace attendant on slavery !" This beha- 
viour, and their reproaches, raised the courage of the 
Sicambrii, and alarmed their pride : they rallied, returned 
to the charge, repulsed and entirely defeated the enemy, 
In commemoration of the share their women had in the 
honour of that day, they were permitted to let their bosoms 
remain bare; and thus this fashion, which still prevails, 
owed its origin to the undaunted behaviour of their females 
on that occasion. 

So far respecting a stimulus to courage, from the sudden ^ 
and almost never-failing presence of mind, inherent in the 
fair sex in all acres, the c^ood effects of it were here most 

O ' O f 

sensibly felt ; and had our females of the present day, 
waited the dreadful period of a defeat from an implacable 
enemy, they would then have done well, in imitating this 
conduct of the Sicambrian women. But imitating them 
prematurely, and without a cause, in the exposure of what 
modesty should conceal, has left us almost destitute of any 
hope to be derived from their assistance in the hour of 
pxtremity. 

DREADFUL EFFECTS OF FAMINE. 

J3uRiNG the siege of Paris in 1690, after the inhabitants 
had eaten the straw of their beds, old hides, &c. they 
took up the bones from the church-yards, ground them, 
and eat them. Upwards of 1000 persons died of famine, bin 
when a search was made in the different religious houses, 
flour, biscuit, salt meat, and other provisions were found, 
sufficient to support these priests .eight months, procured 
by begging and intrigue. Yet the priests during 'this siege, 

would 



RICHARD JOY; THE STRONG MAN OF KENT. 359 

would daily impose on mankind, by false intelligence and 
vain hopes ; the same time they were meeting at every 
step, infants expiririg on the breasts of their famished 
mothers. That these men should be thus insensible, is the 
highest pitch of the most atrocious barbarity. 

The Duke de Nemours, during this siege, going to visit 
some posts towards St. Michael's gate, met a man, who said 
in a fright, " Sir, dont go in that street, I am just come 
from there it is full of serpents ; I saw a woman there; 
half dead, whose neck and hands were all twined round with 
them" The Duke sent some of his attendants, who hastily 
returned and confirmed the account given him. 



RICHARD JOY ; THE STRONG MAN OF KENT. 
[Communicated by J s R .] 

1 HIS remarkable person was born May 2, 167o, at St. 
Lawrence, a small village, one mile from Ramsgate ; and 
died May 18, 1142, aged 67 years; and lies buried in" 
St. Peter's church-yard, on the south-side of the church, 
twelve miles from Margate. 

During the reign of William the Third, he enjoyed 
such an extraordinary reputation for his uncommon feats' 
of strength, that he obtained the name of the English 
Sampson ; and his reputation was so much increased in 
1699, that his portrait was engraved, together with are- 
presentation of several of his amazing performances ; 
among which are his pulling against a strong horse, break- 
ing a rope capable of holding 35 cwt., and lifting to the 
amount of 2,200 Ibs. 

STRANGE SUBSTANCES FOUND IN THE HUMAN BODY. 

AMONG the wonders of nature j of which it is still verv 
difficult to give any satisfactory account, these will Lc 
found not the least. We have, therefore, collected several v 
us deservinp 1 a nlacc in this Scientific Museum, 

O i >- 

A u a 2 Jtn 



360 STRANGLE sUffSTAN'CEs FOGKD 

In February 1802, a child of Jonathan and Elizabeth 
White, living at Mrs. Holden's, in the West Pallant, 
CJhichcster, having- the care of its infant suckling brother* 
aged six month's, whilst in the cradle* put to its mouth a 
two-bladed knife, with a horn or bone handle (for the pre- 
sent appearance of the evacuated fragments do not warrant 
either conclusion), which the infant swallowed with some 
pain, but with no consequent dangerous symptoms. 1 
does not appear that medical assistance took place, but 
only that castor-oil was recommended and given, also 
poppy-water by the mother, as a narcotic. The infant's 
linen soon assumed the appearance of iron-mould, and on 
May 24, (three months after the' accident) the shortest 
blade was evacuated in a very corroded and diminished 
state ; and on June 16, one half or side of the handle was 
cast up in a doubled, but not softened state, which, Upon 
attempting to straiten, was broken in two at the rivet-holes j 
a piece of iron was at the same time cast up, (probably 
the living iron) much corroded. Nothing more appeared 
until Sur.uav July 25, when one of the blades came away* 
corroded but not diminished. Fourthly, on Wednesday 
the 1 ith instant, the iron back-piece was cast up, in ales* 
corroded or diminished state than the others; this mea- 
sured near three inches and a half, and is at one end as 
pointed as a common packing-needle. The whole instru- 
ment thus appears to have come away at the above four 
times, except the rivets, which, it is presumed, are either 
become dissolved or escaped inspection. The chalybeate 
property lias not c:ily shewn itself upon the infant's linen, 
but even wood which tilt* fivccs have touched, has inerTace- 
abiy ivcLtived the iron-mould stain. The child is described 
a.>> haviug s'ilieivd much p;iin, particularly near the times 
or r>e s':'/cral - jidings taking place. It has rather an 
'" -aiunce, and has much loathed its food. It 
,cii d.iy since the accident, but is 

now 



IN THE fefUMAN BODY. 361 

more at the breast, ami there is every reason to ex- 
pect its full recovery. The above principal paints are 
from the notes of a practitioner, who has occasionally 
(only) seen the infant, and who is in possession of some of 
the above extraordinary vestiges ; the mother keeping the 
remainder. The knife must have been full three inches 
long, and was of the sort attached to pocket-books* 

On the 1st of July 1720, a country-woman of Tornin 
(a village within the bishopric of Warmia), aged about 
47 years, felt herself incommoded at her stomach ; and 
was desirous of exciting vomition by means of the handle 
of a knife, which she introduced into her throat. Unfor- 
tunately she introduced it too far. The blade slipped out 
of her hand, the knife fell into her throat. Her efforts to 
withdraw only increased the evil. Three days, however, 
went by, before she suffered any pain : on the fourth she 
began to feel pain near her navel, and soon after the point 
of the knife hurt her right side. The evil increasing clay 
br day, her husband carried her on the 10th of July to 
Hastenbourgh, where she was put into the hands of an 
able surgeon, and of Hubner, a physician. 

At first, these practitioners distinguished the point of 
the knife which appeared to be four fingers to the riglrt of 
the navel, and at two fingers above it, where it caused a. 
little red tumour. The first application was that of a 
cataplasm of emollient herbs, which they renewed the next 
day. 

At tliis period, remarking that a quantity of pus had ac- 
cumulated under the tumour, thev resolved to make an 
incision without delay ; and accordingly prepared tike 
patient by cordials ; and, by the application of a plaster 
into the composition of which there entered powdered 
loadstone : but Hubner, who had little confidence in the 
magnetic virtue of this plaster, employed the loadstone in 
mass when he approached the tumour. Immediately, ;ts 
was remarked by all the assistants, the skin became dis- 

tendc-;L 



362 SUBSTANCES FOUND IN THE HUMAN BODY, 

tended, the point of the knife making an effort to approach 
the loadstone, arid the pain of the patient consequently in- 
creased. At length, after having bound her to a plank, in 
a standing posture, they proceeded to the incision, which 
Hubner chose to perform himself. He began by making 
a little opening in the skin and muscles. Afterwards, 
more distinctly perceiving the point of the knife, he en- 
larged the opening, and extended it to the peritoneum. 
There issued about a spoonful of pus, mingled with blood ; 
and, at the same time, appeared the blade of the knife, 
which Was extracted with forceps. The operation took 
about the time, says the author, of saying the Lord's 
Prayer. The incision was closed and properly dressed. 

With regard to the stomach of the patient, which the 
knife had pierced, no other precaution Avas taken than that 
of ordering a very strict regimen, which, for the first day, 
consisted in a decoction of vulnerary herbs and two lumps 
of balsamic sugar. On the 24th of July, the wound being 
entirely healed, and the patient judging herself sufficiently 
restored, she was sent back to her village. On the 2cl of 
August, she was visited by Hubner, who found her, not 
only in good spirits and health, but strong enough to carry 
tvvft pails of water. The motion of the carriage had done 
her harm. On her arrival she had been obliged to take 
to her bed ; but she had almost immediately recovered 
herself. The knife which had been extracted from her, 
she assured him was seven inches in length. The stay it 
had made in her stomach had in no degree injured the 
blade, which had only become black. Before the making 
of the incision, the patient had frequent eructations, the 
taste of which resembled that of hartshorn, of which sub- 
stance the handle was made. This narrative demonstrates 
that we must not wholly believe the aphorism of Hippo- 
crates ; asserting, that " It is mortal to be pierced in the 
bladder, the brain, the heart, the diaphragm, certain of 

the lesser intestines, or the liver.' v 

AJull 



A full and authentic ACCOUNT of the strange and mysterious 
Affair between MARY SQUIRES, a GIPSY, and ELIZA- 
BETH CANNING ; who swore she was robbed and confined 
by the Gipsy till she was almost starved; for which the 
Gipsy received sentence of Death, but was afterwards 
pardoned by his Majesty George II. 

With a particular Account of both the Trial?, and various Papers, and Persons 
who interested themselves in that popular Event. 

IT is not less strange than true, though during the years 1753 and 1754, the 
press literally groaned with publications for and against the then celebrated 
Elizabeth Canning ; and notwithstanding almost every person, public or 
private, was interested in her behalf, and took every opportunity of declaring 
their sentiments upon her affairs. Yet, at the present period, there is no 
possibility of procuring the various publications concerning it, under a mOjt 
enormous price 5 and after all, these publications are so uncommonly scarce, 
and out of print, as hardly to be met with, at any price whatever. 

To rescue articles thus scarce and valuable from oblivion, especially when 
they refer to any remarkable Characters, ancient or modern, has, and ever 
will be, the particular province of KIRBY'S M us KOI ; we therefore flatter 
ourselves, that our readers v/ill find a singular gratification in being now made 
acquainted with the particulars of a. case, which after puzzling the wisest 
heads in the nation for some years, still remains a mystery, as it were in 
defiance of all the zeal, the labour and ability bestowed upon its investigation. 

What we have hinted about zeal, and a strong party-spirit in this affair of 
Elizabeth Canning, can be well attested by many aged persons still living. 
Besides, the whole series of the British History does not afford but two soli- 
tary instances of an insult put upon a Judge or supreme Magistrate ; of which 
that of the enraged populace in favour of Betty Canning, is one ; Sir Crisp 
Gascoigne * being then assaulted on his way to the Old Bailey, and the 
other, is the striking of Chief Justice Gascoigne, his namesake, while upon 
the Bench, by Henry V., then Prince ot" Wales. Party-spirit, however, 
did not rest there, private families were divided as the people then termed 
it into Caqaanites and Egyptians; and it was then as common for them 
to ask one another " who they were for," as it was afterwards to ask a similar. 
question about \VUkea and Liberty! 

The popularity of Canning ai this time was also increased by Oratory Hen- 
ley's taking the matter up, at his Oratory near Newport Market, where he 
loaded her adversaries with all the invectives his genius and volubility sup- 
plied him with. Her enemies, and consequently the friends of the Gipsy, in- 

In this instance the mob proceeded to the most violent outrage, as they 

V>:cktj his Lordship's coach window?, and even tin vattriicd his life. 

creased, 



36 -1 A FULL AND AUTHENTIC ACCOUNT OF 

creased after the first trial ; and in consequence of the enquiries laid before tire 
King, he referred the whole to the Attorney and Solicitor^General, Sir Dnd- 
foy Rider aiKi the late Earl MaTS.Wd, then William Murray, Esq. ; -wiio, 
towning that the weight of evidence was hi favour of the Gipsy, she received a 
free pardon. It now being Elizabeth Canning's turn to be prosecuted, she 
was brought to the bar of the Old Bailey, May 1, 175':, and charged with 
wilful and corrupt perjury. The trial lasted seven days; when the alibi or 
abfence of Mary Squires being proved, by one of the most extraordinary chains 
of evidence ever produced, Canning toss found guilty, and sentenced to seven 
years transportation. Dr. Hill wrote .first in her favour Barry Fielding on 
tl*e contrary ; and even Allan R-aimay in Scotland, is said to have engaged in 
the controversy, finder a fictions name. In fiae, 36 pamphlets, &c. were pub- 
lished pro and con, and Canniwg ended her life in America ; where, it is said,, 
she married a planter of opulence, and a Quaker by profession. 



VVE now proceed to the narrative ; Elizabeth Canning 
was, as she swore, forcibly seized upon in the evening of 
the 1st of January 1753 ; and as she further said, by two 
men, who met with her in the quarters of Moorfrelds s 
about ten o'clock, nearly opposite Bethlehem Gate ; who, 
after robbing her of half a guinea in gold and three shil- 
lings in silver, of her hat, gown and apron, violently 
dragged her into a gravel-walk that leads down to the 
gate of Bethlehem Hospital ; about the middle of which, 
one of the men, after threatening to do for her, gave her 
a violent blow with his fist on the right temple, that threw 
her into a fit, and entirely deprived her of her senses. 
These fits, she says, she hath been accustomed to ; that 
they were first occasioned by the fall of a cieling on her 
head ; that they are apt to return upon her whenever she 
is frightened, and that they sometimes continue for six or 
seven hours ; that when she came to herself, she perceived 
that two men Avere hurrying her along in a large road-way, 
and that in a little time after she was recovered, she was 
able to walk alone ; however, they still continued to pull 
and drag her along ; that she was so intimidated by their 
a^uge, that she durst not call out ; nor even speak to them; 

that 




B IN T II ( ' A^JNT IT7 G, An'f d 10 
tQie remarkable Quaker 



MARY SQUIRES, A GIPSY; AND ELIZ. CANNING. 365 

that in about half an hour after the recovery of her senses, 
they carried her into an house, where she saw in the kitchen 
an old gipsy woman and two young' women ; that the old 
gipsy woman took hold of her by the hand, and promised 
to give her fine clothes if she would go their way ; which 
expression she understanding to mean the becoming a pro- 
stitute, she utterly refused to comply with ; upon which 
the old gipsy woman took a knife out of a drawer, and cut 
the stays off this Elizabeth Canning, and took them away 
from her, at which time one of the men likewise took off 
her cap, and then both the men went away ; that soon 
after they were gone, and about an hour after she had been 
in the house, the old gipsy Avoman forced her up an old 
pair of stairs, and pushed her into a back room like a hay- 
loft, without any furniture whatsoever in the same, and 
there locked her up, threatening that if she made the least 
noise or disturbance, the old gipsy woman would come up 
and cut her throat, and then fastened the door on the out- 
side and went away. She says, that when it was day-light, 
upon her looking round to see in what dismal place she was 
confined, she discovered a large black jug, with the neck 
much broken, filled with water, and several pieces of 
bread, amounting to about the quantity of a quartern loaf, 
scattered on the floor, where was likewise a small parcel 
of hay. In this room she says she continued from that 
time till about half an hour after four of the clock in the 
afternoon of Monday the 29th day of the same month of 
January, being in all 27 days and upwards, without any 
other sustenance than the aforesaid bread and water, ex- 
cept one small minced pye which she had in her pocket, 
which she was carrying home as a present to her litde bro- 
ther. She likewise says, that she had some part of this 
provision remaining on the Friday before she made her 
escape, which she did by breaking out at a window of the 
room or. loft in which she was confined, and whence hav- 

B b b ins- 



566 A FTTLL AND AUTHENTIC ACCOUNT OF 

ing escaped, she got back to her friends in London, in 
about six hours, in a most weak and miserable condition, 
being almost starved to death, and without ever once stop- 
ping at any house or place bv the way She likewise says, 
that during her whole confinement no person ever came 
near her to ask her any question whatever, nor did she 
see any belonging to the house more than once, when one 
of the women peeped through a hole in the door, and that 
she herself was afraid to call or speak to any one. 

It is remarkable, that on the 6th of January 1753, the 
following advertisement appeared in the Daily Advertiser ; 
viz. " Whereas Elizabeth Canning went from her friends 
between Hqunsditch and Bishoppgate, on Monday last, 
the 1st instant, between nine and ten o'clock : Whoever 
can give any account where she is, shall have Two Guineas 
Reward, to be paid bv Mrs. Canning, a Sawyer, in Alder- 
manbury Postern ; which will be a great satisfaction to 
her mother. She is fresh-coloured, pitted with the small- 
pox, has a high forehead, light eve-brows, about five feet 
high, eighteen years of age, well-set, had on a masquerade 
purple stuff gown, a black petticoat, a white chip hat, 
bound rounu \v:tl.! green, a white apron and handkerchief, 
blue stockings, and leather shoes. 

" Aote, It is supposed she was forcibly taken away by 
some evil-disposed person, as she ^as heard to shriek out 
in a hackney-coach in Bishopsgate-street. If the coach- 
man remembers any tiling of the affair, by giving an ac- 
count as above, he shall be handsomely rewarded for his 
trouble." 

Upon this advertisement, Dr. Hill, a writer on the side 
of the gipsy, thus remarks : " Why supposed to be taken 
ii .cibly away? Are these transactions common ? or was 
there any thing in the present case to authorise such an 
imagination? To what purpose should she he forced 
: i,way'l She is not handsome ; so that the design could 

not 



MARY SQUIRES, A GIPSY; AND ELIZ. CANNING. 367 

not be upon her person ; and certainly the dress that is 
described so largely, could not tempt any one to carry her 
off to rob her ; nor was it necessary, for that might have 
been done where she was seized ; nay, and in the latter 
accounts we are told it was done there. 

" Who heard her shriek ? or what is become of the 
hackney-coach part of the story ; no syllable has been, 
since uttered of it. Who should know the voice of a ser- 
vant of no consideration, calling in a strange part of the 
town from a coach? What must the ruffians have been 
doing; who suffered her to shriek; or who that heard 
such a voice, and did, or that did not know the person, 
would not have stopped the carriage ? How came he, 
uho heard so much, not to call persons to assist him? 
There are enough in the streets at ten o'clock ; or, where's 
the coachman ? for coaches do not drive themselves, and 
certainly he might be found to justify the story. 

" If a coach carried her, Avhere therefore is the clriver 
of it ? or, if she was dragged along, how did the people, 
who were taking all this pains, and running all this hazard, 
to no sort of purpose, get her undiscovered through the 
turnpikes r" And he supposes that this was a preparative 
for all that followed, and inserted on purpose to prepare 
the public to receive her story. But some of these parti- 
culars in the advertisement were accounted for on the 
late trial. 

However this was, Elizabeth Canning,' the mother, 
having a very good character, and being well esteemed 
in the neighbourhood where she has lived for many years, 
and the girl having always bore a good reputation, and 
being no more than eighteen, the neighbours interested 
themselves greatly in the poor woman's misfortune, and 
premised to contribute to a larger reward for the discovers 
of the g'rl, which was accordingly advertised, and every 
other method that, could be thought of, put in practice, 
but without gaining the least intelligence of what wa:- be- 

B b b 2 come 



363 A FULL AND AUTHENTIC ACCOUNT OF 

come of the girl. No place was left unscarched by the 
afflicted mother ; even gaols and hospitals were not omit- 
ted, lest peradventure some mistake or accident might 
have brought her daughter into one or other of them ; but 
all in vain, and week after week rolled on in this miser j 
able state of suspense, without the least news of the girl, 
till the 29th day of January, when she returned to her 
mother's house about ten o'clock at night, in a most fright- 
ful and miserable condition, and gave the account we have 
just stated. 

We now proceed to relate what followed the girl's 
coming home. Her absence had made so much noise, 
and appeared so unaccountable, that as soon as the news 
of her being returned was known, a great many people 
went to her mother's house to see and talk with her ; but 
her weak condition would not permit her to answer a great 
many questions. In answer to the general enquiry, if she 
could not tell where she had been, she answered that it 
was somewhere upon the Hertford Road, because she had 
seen the coachman who used to carry her mistress to Hert- 
ford, go by, and that she had once heard the name of 
Wills or Wells mentioned in the house : Upon this some 
of those who came to see her, said, " It must certainly 
be Mother Wells, at Enfield Wash, a house of very ill- 
. fame." This appearing probable to her friends, and the 
rest of the company who were present, it Was determined 
that the girl, though in a most weak condition, should go 
before the sitting alderman, and make affidavit of the affair, 
in order to obtain a warrant for the apprehending of 
Mother Wells. Accordingly $ on the 31st of January, the 
girl was carried before him, and her deposition taken ; in 
which she declared, the room she was confined in was a 
darkish little square room 5 that she lay upon the boards, 
vhat there was nothing in the room except a grate \vkh 
a gown in it, and that there was a. picture over the 

chimney. 

This 



MARY SQUIRES, A GIPSY ; AND ELIZ. CANNING. 369 

This account differing in some circumstances from what 
she deposed afterwards, and from what the room was 
found to be, (especially in regard to the dimensions, it 
being 30 feet long, and only 9 broad ; and in respect to 
her lying on the boards, for she had said at first that there 
\vas hay in the room, and has deposed the same on oatli 
since,) has been strongly allcdged against her, as a proof 
of her whole story being false : But on the other side it 
is said, that as the girl was extremely faint and weak at 
the time of this examination, as there was a great number 
of persons present, so that even the aldehflari himself 
owned on the late trial, that he did not know how Mother 
Wells' s name came to be put down in the warrant he signed 
for apprehending her ; us being the person Avho had eut 
Canning's stavs off, he not remembering that the jnrlevei* 

O ^ ' O O 

mentioned her name ; considering all these circumstances, 
those persons that espouse her cause say, that the difference 
which was in her deposition at this time, might probably 
arise from the mistake of the clerk, who took it amidst the 
talk of so many persons. A warrant being granted by the 
alderman, it was resolved that the girl should be carried 
down in a coach the next day, and several of her friends 
agreed to accompany her on horseback ; among which 
were Mr. I.yon, her master whom she lived with, Mr. 
Wintlebury, with whom she had lived before, Mr. Xash, 
Mr. Mage, Mr. Aldrich, Mr. Adamson, Mi-. Skcrret, Mrs. 
Woodward, and several others of her neighbours and ac- 
quaintance. When they came down, the girl was first car- 
ried out of the coach in a man's arms into the kitchen of 
Mother Wells's housL*, and set on the dresser, where she 
seemed verv faint and ill ; upon which her master, Lvon, 
bid her not be frightened, for she was among friends, but. 
at the same time charged her to be sure not to sweat 
any thing rashly, but to be cruite certain before she fixed 
any one. She was then carried into the parlour, ivert 

Mother 



370 A FULL ANG AUTHENTIC ACCOUNT OJ* 

Mother Wells the gipsy, her son and daughter, Vertue 
Hall and Judith Natus, were under the care of an officer, 
who had apprehended them early in the morning. As 
soon as she was brought into the room, the girl pitched 
upon the gipsy as the person who had cut her stays off, 
and said that Lucy Squires and Vertue Hall stood by ; as 
to Mother Wells, she said that she did not know she had 
ever scon her before, and she could not say any thing as to 
George Squires ; however, they were all put in a cart 
together, and carried before Justice Tyshemaker. Before 
they came hither, George Squires, the gipsy's son, having 
got his great coat on, the girl, as soon as she saw him be- 
fore the Justice, said he then looked much more like one of 
the men who had robbed her in Moor fields ; however, she 
wouid not swear against him, so that the justice discharged 
him and the rest, except the gipsy and Mother Wells, one 
of whom he committed to prison, as being swore against 
by the girl for robbing her of her stays, and the other for 
keeping a disorderly house. 

But before the sessions came on, that they were to take 
their trial at, the friends of Canning thought they should 
be able to go more to the bottom of the affair, by appre- 
hending Vertue Hall, who was a servant in Mother W ells' s 
house; thev therefore applied to Justice Fielding, who, 
upon Cunning's making an information upon oath before 
him, granted a warrant for apprehending Vertue Hall. 

It will be seen that thr-re was some disagreement between 
this information of Canning's, sworn before Justice Field- 
ing, with that made before the alderman, and likewise 
with what she deposed on the trial of the gipsv, which was 
one of the m;;:n foundations of the indictment brought 
against her for wilful and corrupt perjury. 

Vertue Hall, who first became a witness in her favour, 
and afterwards wished to recant, also deposed before Jus- 
tice Fielding, that on Tuesday the 2d day 'of January last 

past, 



MARY SQUITIES, A GIPSY ; AND ELIZ. CANNING. 371 

past, about four of the clock in the morning, a young 
woman, whose name she since heard is Elizabeth Canning, 
was brought (without any gown, hat or apron on,) to the 
bouse of one Susannah Wells, of Enfield Wash, widow, 
by two men, the name of one of whom is John Squires, 
the reputed son of one Mary Squires, an old gipsy woman, 
who then, and some little time before, had lodged at the 
house of the said Susannah Wells, but the name of the 
other of the said two men, she knows not, never having 
seen him before or since to the best of her knowledge. 
When Elizabeth Canning was brooght into the kitchen of 
the said Wells's hous-j, there were present the said Mary 
Squires, John Squires, the man unknown, Katharine 
Squires, the reputed daughter of the said Mary Squires, 
and herself, and she does not recollect that any one else 
was in the said kitchen at that time. That immediately 
upon Elizabeth Canning being brought in, John Squires 
said, " Here, Mother, take this girl ;" words to that 
effect : and Mary Squires asked him where they had brought 
her from ; John said irorn Moornelds, and told his said 
mother that they had taken her gown, apron, hat, and half 
a guinea from her. Whereupon Marv Squires took hold 
of Elizabeth Canning's hand, and asked her if she would 
go their way, or words to t i;.t e-lect ; and upon her answer- 
ing no, Mary Squires took a knife out of tite drawer of 
the dresser in the kitchen, and cut the lace of Elizabeth 
Canning's stays, took them from her, and hung them on 
the back of a chair, and the said man unknown, took the 
cap on Cunning's head, and then with John Squires, went 
out of doors with it. Quickly after they were gone, Mary- 
Squires pushed Eli/ali^t j Canning along the kitchen, to- 
wards and up a j.a'r of a tairs leading- into a large back- 
room, like abuviolt, <_aiied the workshop, where there 
was some bay j and whilst she was so pushing her towards 
the stairs, SusamiiiU Weils came into the kitchen, and 



$12 A FULL AND AUTHENTIC ACCOUNT OF 

asked what she was going to push the girl up stairs for ? 
Mary Squires Answered, " What is it to you ? You 
have no businqss with her." About two hours after, a 
quantity of water in an o|d broken-mouthed large black 
jug, was carried up the said stairs, and put down upon 
the tioor ; and soon after. Elizabeth Canning was so put 
into the said workshop ; John Squires returned again into 
the kitchen, and took the. stays from off the chairs, and 
went away with the same, and in about an hour's time re- 
turned, aiid went into the parlour with the said Susannah 
Wells ; M'ho said to her, " Vertue, the gipsy man lias 
been telling- me that hjs mother had cut the girl's (meaning 
the said Elizabeth Canning's) stays oft' her back ;" and 
further said, " I desire you will not make a clack of it, 
for fear it should be blown.'" And from the time of Eliza- 
beth Canning being so confined in the morning of the said 
second day of January, in manner as aforesaid, she was 
iiot missed, or discovered to have escaped, until Wecjnes- 
day the 31st day of the same month of January, as she 
verily believes ; that to the best of her recollection and 
belief, she was the person that first missed Elizabeth Can- 
ning thereout. And the said Susannah Wells harboured 
and continued Mary Squires in her aforesaid bouse, from 
the time of Mary Squires vcb^mg Elizabeth Canning of 
her stays, until Thursday the 1st day of February last 
past, when Susannah Wells, Sarah her daughter, Mary 
Squires, John Squh'es, his two sisters Katharine and Mary 
Squires, Fortune ^s,a;us, and Sarah his wife, and this in- 
formant, were, apprehended, and carried before Justice 
Tyshemaker. And that Fortune Natus, and Sarah his 
wife, to the best of her belief, have lodged in the house 
of Susannah Wells about eleven weeks next before Mon- 
day the 5th day of February instant, and continued lying 
thereuntil Thursday; when all, except Susannah Wells 
and Mary Squires, were discharged, and thej that evening, 

the 



MARY SQUIRES, A GIPSY; AND ELTZ. CANNING. 373 

the said Fortune Natus and Sarah his wife, laid up in the 
said workshop where the said Elizabeth Canning had been 
confined : so that as this informant understood, it might 
be pretended that they had lain in the said workshop for 
all the time they had lodged in the said Susannah Wells's 
house, c. &c. 

The next day an advertisement appeared in the news- 
papers, offering a reward of ten pounds for taking of John 
Squires, the gipsy son, and ten pounds for taking his ac- 
complice.. Nothing very material happened in the affair 
after this, (except that the gipsy engaged an attorney to 
undertake her cause, and subpoena several witnesses in 
her behalf) till the sessions at the Old Bailey, which be- 
gan on Wednesday the 21st of February 1153, where the 
gipsy and Mother Wells Avere indicted. What passed 
there, according to the sessions paper, was as follows, 
the substance of which was read in Court at the late trial : 

" Mary Squires, widow, and Susannah Weils, were 
indicted ; the first, for that she, on the 2d day of January, 
in the dwelling-house of Susannah Wells, widow, on Eli- 

O ' 

zabeth Canning, spinster, did make an assault, putting 
her, the said Elizabeth Canning, in corporeal fear and 
danger of her life, one pair of stays, value [Os. the pro- 
perty of the said Elizabeth, from her person in the dwell- 
ing-house did steal, take, and curry a'vuv. 

" And the latter, for that she, veil kno-wing that she, 
the said Mary Squires, to have done and committed the 
said felony aforesaid on the- 2d of January, her the said 
Mary did then and there feloniously receive, harbour, 
comfort, conceal, and maintain, .tgainst las Majesty's 
peace, and against the form of the statute. " 

Elizabeth Canning. I had been to Saltpetre Bank to 
see an uncle and aunt ; his name is Thomas Collcy : I set 
out from home about two in the afternoon, and staid there 
till about nine at night on the 1st of January ; then 1113' 



r 
c c c uncle 



A FULL AND AUTHENTIC ACCOUNT OP 

uncle and aunt came with me as far as Aldgate, where we 
parted ; I was then alone, so came down Hounsditch and 
over Moorfields by Bedlam Wall ; there two lusty men, 
both in great coats^ laid hold of me, one on each side ; 
they said nothing to me at first, but took half a guinea in 
a, little box out of my pocket, and three shillings that were 
loose. Q. Which man took that r E. Canning. The 
man on my right hand : they topk my gown, apron, and 
hat, and folded them up and put them into a greatcoat 
pocket. I screamed out ; then the man that took my 
gown put a handkerchief, or some such thing, to my 
mouth. Q> Were there any persons walking near you at 
that time?- E. Canning. L saw nobody: they then tied 
my hands behind me ; after which one of them gave me a 
blow on the temple, and said, 1) n you, you b h, tee 
tall do for you by and by. I having been subject to con- 
vulsion fits these four years, this blow stunned me, an4 
threw me directly into a fit. Q. Are these fits attended 
with a struggling ? E. Canning. I don't know that. 
Q. What happened afterwards r E. Canning. The first 
thing that I remember after this was, I found myself by a 
large road, where was water, with the two men that rob- 
bed me, Q.. Had you any discourse with them ? E. 
Canning. I had none ; they took me to the prisoner Wells' s 
house. Q. About what time do you think it might be ? 
E. Canning. As near as I can think, it was about four 
o'clock in the morning ; I had recovered from my fit about 
half an hour before I came to the house. Thev luo-o-ed me 

CO 

along, and said, You b /?, why don't you walk faster? 
One !ia.tl hold of my right arm, and the other on the left, 
and so pulled me along. Q. Can you form any judgment 
in w at manner you was conveyed to the place before you 
recovered of your fit ? E. Canning. I think they dragged 
me along by my petticoats, they being- so dirty. Q. When, 
you came to Weils's house, was it day-light < E. Can- 
ning. 



MARY SQUIRES, A GIPSY; AND ELIZ. CANNING. 373 

hing. No, it was not ; I think it Avas day -light in about 
three hours, or better, after I was there, which is the rea- 
son I believe I was carried in about four o'clock.- - 

Q. When you was carried in, what did you see there ? - 
E. Canning. I saw the gipsy woman Squires, who was 
sitting in a chair, and two young women in the same room ; 
Vertue Hall, the evidence, was one : ,they were standing 
against a dresser. Q. Did you see the prisoner Wells 
there r E. Canning. No, I did not. As soon as I was 
brought in, Mary Squires took me by the hand, and asked 
me if I chose to go their way, saying, if I did, I should 
have clothes ; I said no. Q. Did she explain to you what 
she meant by going their way ? E. Canning. No, sir : 
then she went and took a knife out of a dresser drawer^ and 
cut the h;cc off my stays, and took then) from me. - 
Q.. Had you, at that time, any apprehensions of danger ? 
E. Canning. I thought she was going to cut my throat, 
when I saw her take the knife. Q. Did you see the pri- 
soner Wells at that time ? E. Canning. No, I did not. 
Q. Was any thing else taken from you ? E. Canning. 
There was not then, but Squires looked at my petticoat, 
and said, Jlere, you b h, you may keep that, of, 7 1 // give 
you that, it is not worth much; and gave me a slap on the 
face. Q. Had she the petticoat in her hand ? E. Can- 
ning. No, it was on me ; after that she pushed me up 
stairs from out of tht'kitchen where we were. Q. Describe 
the kitchen ? E. Canning. The kitchen was at the ri^ht 

o o 

hand going in at the door, and the stairs are near the fire. 
Q. How many xteps to them ? E. Canning. There are 
four or five of them. Q. What did they call the name of 
the place where they put you in? E. Canning. They 
call it the havloft : the room door was shut as soon as I 
was put in. Q,. Was it fastened ? E. Canning. 1 don't 
know that ; it was at the bottom of the stairs in the kitchen. 
After she shut the door, she said, if ever she he^rd me stir 

c c c 2 wi 



376 A FULL AND AUTHENTIC ACCOUNT Of 

or move, or any such tiling, she'd cut my throat. Gi. Diet 
you see any thing brought up to eat or drink ? E. Can- 
ning. I saw nothing brought up : when day -light ap- 
peared, I could see about the room ; there was a fire-place 
and a grate in it, no bed or bedstead, nothing but hay to 
lie upon ; there was a black pitcher, not quite full of 
water, and about 24 pieces of bread, (a pitcher produced 
in Court,) this is the pitcher, which Avas full to near the 
neck. Q,. How much in quantity do you think these 2t 
pieces of bread might be? E. Canning. I believe about 
a quartern loaf. Q. Had you nothing else to subsist on ? 
E. Canning. I had in my pocket a penny minced pye, 
which I bought that day to carry home to my brother. 
Q. How long did you continue in that room ? E. Can- 
ning. A month by the weeks, all but a few hours. 
Q.. What do you mean by a month by the weeks ? E. Can- 
ning. I mean a four weeks month. Q.. Did any body 
come to you in the room during that time .? E. Canning. 

v O O 

Noj sir, nobody at all. On the Wednesday before I came 
away, I saw somebody look through the crack of the door, 
but don't know who it was. Q. Did you, during the time 
you Avas in this confinement) make any attempts to comu 
down stairs, or make your escape : E. Canning. No, sir, 
I did not till the time I got out. Q,. Had you any thing 
to subsist on during the time, besides the pieces of bread, 
penny pye, and pitcher of water ? E* Canning. No, I had 
not. Q.. At what time did you get out ? E. Canning. I 
got out about four o'clock in the afternoon on a Monday, 
after I had been confined there four weeks, all but a few 
hours. Ilow did vou -et out t E. Cannin<>-. I broke 

* O O 

down a board that was nailed up at the inside of a win- 
dow, and got out there. Q. How high was the window 
from the ground : E. Canning. (She described it by tho 
hcightofa place in the sessions-house, M'hich was about 
eight or teu feet high.) Firjt I got my head out, and 

kept 



MATlY SQUIRES, A GIPSY; AND fcLIZ. BANNING. 377 

kept fast hold by the Avail and got my body out ; after that 
I turned myself round and jumped into a little narrow place 
by a lane with a field behind it. Q. Did not the jump 
hurt you ? E. Canning. No, it was soft clay ground. 
Q. Was it light then ? E. Cunning. It was. Q. What 
did you do for clothing rE. Canning. I took an old 
sort of a bed-o-own and a handkerchief that were in this 

C? 

hayloft, and lav in a orate in the chimney (produced in 

fc- > J O V \ 1 

Court). I made my ear bleed at getting out ; the hand- 
kerchief I tied over my head instead of a cap, it was very 
bloody. Q, Did you see any body when you jumped out 
at the window ? E. Canning. No, nobody at all ; then 
I went on the backside the house up a lane, and crossed a 
little brook, and over two fields, us I think, but I did not 
take notice how many fields ; the path-way brought me 
by the road-side : 4hen I went by the road strait to Lon- 
don. Q.. Did you know the way r E. Canning. I did 
not. Q.. Did you call at any house ? E. Canning. No, 
I did not ; it struck ten o'clock just as I came over Mcor- 
fiekls. I got home about a quarter after to my mother's 
house in Aldermanbury. Q. Did you acquaint any body 
with your misfortune coming along ? E. Canning. No, 
I did not. Q. Who did you meet with first : E. Can- 
ning. I met with the apprentice first ; then I saw mv 

mother and the children : she went into a fit directly. 

Q,. Did you give an account to any body "how you had 
been treated r E. Canning. Yes, I did to Mrs. Wood- 
ward, who came to see me, that I had lived on bread and 
water. She was so affrighted, she could not ask me manv 
questions then. Then Mr. WhrileburV came in, with. 
whom I lived servant before I went to lire with Mr. LVOTI ; 
he took me by the hand, and asked me where I had been; 
I said, sir, in the Hertfordshire Head ; he said B-,-t, how 
do you know that ? I said, because I saw mv mistress's 
coachman go by, which, she used to go in into the country 

int 



378 A FtJLL AND AUTHENTIS ACCOUNT OP 

into Hertfordshire, (that was Mrs. Wintlebury,) I knew 
the coach, -because I used to carry things to it, and fetch 
them back again. Q.. Was you asked any questions about 
the room or jug that night, and what you had to subsist 
on? E. Canning. Yes, there were many people cama 
in, and I told them I had a jug which was not quite full of 
water ; they asked me how much, and I said, I believe, 
better than a gallon of it ; they asked me also how I got 
out, and I said I broke out of the window, and had torn 
my car in getting out, which bled ail the way coming 
home. Q. What things did you observe, in this hayloft? 
E. Canning. There was a barrel, a saddle, a bason, and 
a tobacco mould. Q,. What do }'ou mean by a tobacco 
inould f E. Canning. I mean such a thing that they do 
up pennyworths of tobacco with. 

CROSS EXAMINATION. 
Q.. How long might these two men continue with you 

in Moorfields ? E. Canning. About half an hour. 

Q. Did any body pass at the time ? E. Canning. Nobody 
at all. Q.. Was this box, that contained your half guinea, 
taken out of your pocket ? E. Canning. Yes, sir, it was. 
Q. Had vou any thing else in your pocJiet ? E. Canning. 
I had a pocket handkerchief with a pye in it, which I did 
not lose. Q.. Was there any light near this place where 
you was first attacked r E. Canning. There was a lamp. 
Q. Have you recollected how long you lay in this tit be- 
fore you came to yourself? E. Canning. I cannot be 
^ure, but it was about half an hour before I arrived at 
Wells' s house. Q,. During the time of your first being 
attacked, whether you had any degree of sense at all ? 
E. Canning. T\ ; ot till half an hour before I came to that 
house. Q.. Had you sense enough of any sort to know 
by what means you was conducted r E. Cunning. I think 
they dragged me along by my petticoats, they were made 
BO dirty, but I was uot sensible. Ci. Was you in any sur- 
prise 



MARY SQUIfcES, A GIPSY; AND ELIZ. CANNING. 375 

prise when she took your stays ? E. Canning. I was in a, 
great surprise, and all of a tremble. Q.. Then how can 
you tell who was there at the time ? E. Canning. Tl>e 
terror made me look about me to see what company was 
there. Q,. How long did the two men stay in the room ? 
E. Canning. They staid no longer than till they saw my 
stays cut off, then they went away, before I was put up 
in the loft. Q. Did not you make an attempt to get out 
before that Monday you talk of I E. Canning. I did not. 
Q. How came you not to make an attempt before ? E 4 
Canning. Because J thought they might let mo out ; it 
never came into my head till that morning.- Q. Where 
was you sitting when you saw somebody peep through tl)Q 
erack _of the door f E. Canning. I was walking along 
the room. Q.. How wide was this crack ? E. Canning. It 
was about a quarter of an inch wide. Q^ Did not you, in 
the whole 21 days, perceive where you was ? E. Can- 
ning. I did in about a week alter, by seeing the coach go 
Joy. Q.. Was not you extremely weak ? E. Canning. I 

was pretty weak. Q^ Was you ever that way before r 

E. Cunning. No, I never was. Q^ Did not you pass 
many houses in your way home f E. Canning. I did, 
and asked my way of people on the road. Q^ How came 
you being in that deplorable condition, not to go into 
some house, and relate the hardships you had gone 
through? E. Canning. J thought if I did, may be I 
mio-ht meet somebody belonging to that house. Q^ Did 
you see the prisoner Wells while you was in that confine- 
ment r E. Canning. I never saw her in the house at ail 
till I went down afterwards. Q_. Had von any of your 
fits while in that room ? E. Canning. I had not, but w;:s 
fainting and sick. Squires. I never saw that witness in 
i*iv lifetime, till this day three weeks Q^ How was the 
prisoner Squires dressed when yon was carried in? E. 
(Canning. She was sitting in her gown with a handker- 
chief. 



380 A FULL AND AUTHENTIC ACCOUNT OF 

cliief about her head. -Q^ Did you never during all the 
time, try if the door was fastened or not ? E. Canning. I 
<Iid or.ce push against it with my hand, and found it fast. 

Q^ Had you used to hear any body in the kitchen ? E. 

Canning. I heard people sometimes blowing the fire, 
and passing in and out. There was another room in 
which I heard a noise "at nights, but the house was very 
quiet in the day-time. Q^ Did you eat all your bread ? 
E. Canning, I eat. it all on the Friday before I got out ; it 

was quite hard, and I used to soak it in the water. 



Q^ When did you drink all your water? E. Canning. I 
drank all that about half an hour before I got cut of the 
room. 

Vertue Ha]]. I know the two prisoners at the Bar ; 
Wells lived at En field W r ash ; I went and lived there as a 
Jodgcr. Mary Squires Jived in the house, and had been 
there about seven or eight weeks. Q^ Mow long before 
E. Canning was brought in ? Vertue Hall. About a fort- 
night before, which was on the 2d of January, about foun 
in the morning, she was brought in there by two men ; 
John Semi res was one of them, he is son to Mary Squires, 
the other man I don't know any thing of, I never saw him 
before. Q^ How was she dressed when brought in ? Ver- 
tue Hall. She had no gown on, or hat or apron. Q^Who 
was in the house at the time? Vertue Hall. There was 
I and Mary Squires, the prisoner and her daughter ; the 
gipsy man said, Jftit/>cr, 7 haie brought you a girl, do you. 
talc, HIT; u>cn she asked E. Canning whether she would 
go her way. -Q^ What did she mean by that. 3 Vertue 
Hall. She meant for her to turn whore, but she would 
not. Q^ Do you mention this by way of explanation, or 
as words as she said ? Vertue Hall. As words as she 
s;i.id : t':en Mary Squires took a knife out of a dresser. 
drawer, in the kitchen, and ripped the lace off her stays, 
and pulled them oli", and hung them on the back of a 

chair 



MARY SQUIRES, A GIPSY; AND ELI2. CANNING. 381 

cluiir in the kitchen, and pushed her up into the room, 
and said, D -n you, go up there then, if you please; 
then the man that came in with the gypsy's son, took 
the cap off Elizabeth Canning's head, and went out of 
doors with it ; the gypsy man John Squires, took the 
stays off the chair, and went out with them. Q. Where 
was E. Canning, when the two men took awav the 

O y *> 

things ? Vcrtue Hall. She was then up in the room. 
Q. Had you ever hecn in that room ? Vertue Hall. I 
had, before she was brought there, several times. Q 4 
What was the name they called it by? Vertue Hall. 
They called it by the name of the work-shop; there was 
a great deal of hay in it; they only put lumber in it; 
there was a great many pieces of wood, a tobacco mould, 
and this black jug: About three hours after the young 
woman was put up, Mary Squires filled the jug with 
water, and carried it up. Q. How do you know it was 
three hours after ? Vertue Hall. Then it began to be 
Jightish. Q. Did you hear any talk between them after 
she was in the room ? Vertue Hall. They took care I 
should know but. little. Q. Has Susannah Wells a hus- 
band : Vertue Hall. No, she has not; when I went out 
of the kitchen, I went into the parlour; Wells said, 
Vertue Hall, the gipsy man came in and told me that his 
mother had cut the stays off the young woman's back, 
and he had got them ; and she bid me not say any thing 
to make a clack of it, fearing it should be known. Q. 
How long was you in that house ? Vertue Hall. I was 
there a quarter of a year in all, if not more ; I was there 
the whole time E. Canning was there, but I never saw 
her once after she was put up into that room ; I was the 
first that missed her; I asked the gipsy woman once, 
whether the girl was gone; she answered, What is that 
to you, you have no business with it; but I durst not, go 
to see if she was gone ; if I had, very likely they would 

BSD have 



582 A FULL AND AUTHENTIC ACCOUNT OF 

have served me so. Q. Did you ever see the other man 
after that night : Venue Hall. No, I never did. Q. 
Who lodged in the house at the time besides? Vertue 
Hall. There was Fortunatus did. Q. Did Mary Squires 
continue in the house long after this ? Vertue Hall. She 
did, till we were all taken up, which was, I think, on the 
Thursday after the young woman was gone. Q. What 
was you in that house? Vertue Hall. I went there as a 
lodger, but J was forced to do as they would have inc. 

Q. "From Mary Squires. What day was it that the 
young woman was robbed? Court. She says in the morn- 
ing of the second of January. M. Squires. I return 

O ** I 

thanks for telling me, for I am as innocent as the child 
unborn. 

Q. From Wells. How long were these people (mean- 
ing the gipsies) at my house in all, from first to last ? 
Vertue Hall. They were there six or seven weeks in all ; 
they had been thereabout a fortnight before the you ncr 

/ O V '*- 

woman was brought in. Q. Did you ever see this cap or 
bed-c;own before? Vertue Hall. Not to mv knowledge. 

O / Q 

Thomas Colley. 1 am Elizabeth Canning's uncle.; I 
live at Saltpetre Bank :'on the New Year's day she dined 
and supped at my house, and went away about nine in 
the evening, as near as I can guess ; I and my wife went 
along with her to Hoimdsditch, almost to the Blue Bail, 
there we parted with her, about a quarter or very near 
half an hour after nine o'clock. Q. How was she cloatli- 
cd ? Colley. She had a gown, hat, and white apron on, 

Elizabeth Canning. E. Canning, that has given her 
evidence, is my daughter; after she was missing from 
New Year's day, I advertised her three times; she came 
back on the day before King Charles's martyrdom, about 
a quarter after ten o'clock at night ; she had nothing but 
this ragged bed-gown and a cap, 1 fell into a fit directly ; 



MARY SQUIRES, A GIPSY ; AND ELIZ. CANNING. 333 

my daughter is subject to fits ; there was a garret ceiling 
fell in upon her head, which first occasioned them ; and 
at times, when anv hodv speaks hastily to her. or on anv 

* ' i *f ' ,/ 

surprize, she is very liable to fall in one; she has some- 
times continued in one, seven or eight hours, sometimes 
three or four ; she is not sensible during the time she is 
in one, no more than a new born babe: when I came to 
myself, my daughter was talking to Mrs. Woodward and 
Mr. Wintlebury ; they asked her where she had been, 
she said on the Hertfordshire Road, which she knew by 
seeinor a coach s-oino; bv ; she ;ave the same account she 

O O O */ ' O 

has here. When she came into her warm bed, she was 
very sick, and had no free passage through her for stool 
or urine, till she was supplied with glisters for seven days 
/irter she came home, but what was forced by halt' a cup 
full at a time. 

John Wintlebury. I saw Elizabeth Canning the night 
she came home ; she appeared in a very bad condition, 
and had this dirty bed-gown and cap on. Hearing she was 
come home, I went to her mother's house, and said, Bet, 
How do you do: She said, I am very bad. Said \. } Where 
have you been : She said, she had been somewhere on the 
Hertfordshire Road, because she had seen the Hertford- 
shire Coach go backwards and forwards. Q. Have you 
heard the evidence she lias given here in court? \\ intle- 
bury. I have ; she gave the same account that night, but 
not quite so fully that night as she did before the sitting 
Alderman, on the Wednesday after, but all agrees with 
what she has said there ; I found her in a great flurry, so 
did not ask her many questions that night. 

Joseph Adamson. I have known E. Canning the 
younger for some years ; 1 never saw her after she came 
home, till the day we went down to take the people up ; 
L and several neighbours of us agreed to go to the place, 
K-'iiie on horseback and some in the coach with E- Can* 

D D D <2 liin 9 



584 A PULL AND AUTHENTIC ACCOUNT OF 

ning ; I was down about an hour, or an hour an half, 
before the coach came, and had secured all the people we 
found there ; I seeing the room before she was brought 
in, thought she was capable of giving some account of 
it; I returned to meet her, and asked her about it; she 
described the room with some hay in it, a chimney 
place in the corner of it, an odd sort of an empty room ; 
I went with her to the house, and carried her out of the 
chaise into the kitchen, and set her on the dresser, and 
ordered all the people to be brought to her, to see if she 
knew any of them ; she was then very weak ; I took her 
in my arms like a child : Upon seeing Mary Squires, 
she said, That is the woman that cut my stays off, and 
threatened to cut my throat if I made a noise. Q. 
' .Did any of the people seem unwilling to be inspected. 
Adamson. Yes, they were very unwilling to be stopped, 
when we went down in the morning, particularly Mary 
Squires j after the girl had said this of Squires, Squires 
said to her, she hoped she would not swear her life away, 
for she never saw her before ; E. Canning pointed to 
Vertuo Hall, and said, That young woman was in the 
kitchen when I was brought in ; she pointed also to 
another young woman, and said, She was there at the 
time. Then we carried her up to examine the house; 
she said, none of the rooms she had seen, was the room 
in which she was coniincd : Then I asked if there were 
any other room ; they said, yes, out of the kitchen, (I had 
before been in it, but did not. say so then, because I had 
a mind to see if she knew it;) we had her up into it; she 
gaid, This is the same room in which I wns, but here is 
more hay in it than there was then ; I laid my hand upon, 
it, and said, It has lately been shook up; it lay hollow : 
fche was then pretty near a casement. Said I, If you have 
been so long in this room., doubtless you are able to say 

what 



MARY SCUIEE5, A GIPSY; ANDELIZ. CANNING. 385 

what is to be seen out here : she described a hill at a dis- 
tance, -which is Chinkford-Hill ; I believe she could not 
see it at the time she spoke about it, for I was between 
her and the casement, with my back towards the case- 
ment ; she also said there were some houses on the 
other side of the lane; then I opened the casement, 
w.e looked, and it was as she had described : I asked 
where was the window she broke out of; she shew- 
ed it us (there were some boards nailed up against it), and 
i ; aid, That is the window I used to see the coach go by 
at ; then we pulled down ihe boards, it was big enough 
fer me to have got out of it, it appeared to me to be the 
same window be i ore she came to the house, for I saw 
some of the plaister broke off on the outside ; that win- 
dow v, as one storv high, 

Edward Lyon. The young woman lived servant with 
me till she was missing ; I live in Aldenn anbury, I was 
one of the persons that went down to Wclls's house, I 
went after the rest of the gentlemen on the first of Fe- 
bruary, we were there some time before she came, and 
had taken the pccplo up; when she came, she was car- 
ried into the kitchen, and set on the dresser, and the peo- 
ple sat all round her; I said to her, Bet, don't be fright- 
ened or uneasy, yon see your friends about you, and on 
the other hand don't be too sure, without you really caa 
swear to what you say, therefore be very careful. She 
pitched upon Mary Squires to be the person that cut her 
stays off; she pitched upon a young woman that was said 
to be daughter to Alary .Squires, and said she was in the 
kitchen at the time, and likewise Vertue Hall, but said 
thev did nothing to her: this black jua; was brought 

v ' *} O 

down, a bason, and the tobacco mould; she said tiiev 
were both in the room where .she was confined ; she had 
described this jug before, and said it was broken at the 
mouth., as it now appears to be. 

Robert 



58C> A FULL AND AUTHENTIC ACCOUNT OF 

Robert Scarrat. I went down to Enfield-Wash , 
there were six of us in all, her mother and two women 
were with her in the chaise; she described the fields, and 
likewise a bridge, that night she came home, near the 
house ; I asked her if she perceived a tanner's house 
near, she said she believed there was. Q. Have you 
heard the other evidences that went down, give their evi- 
dence ? Scarrat. I have, and what they said is the truth, 
which I heard also; I also heard E. Canning examined 
before the sitting alderman, she gave the same account 
she has done here. Q. Was John Squires in the room at 
the time she pitched upon his mother and the rest r Scar- 
rat. He was; she said she could not swear to him; he had 
his great coat on at our first going there, but he had 
pulled it off; she said he looked like the person, but she 
could not swear to him; they made him put his great 
coat on before the Justice, then she said, he looked more 
like one of the two men that brought her there. 

Edward Rossiter. I went down with the rest on the 
Thursday ; I heard E. Canning examined before Mr. 
Tyshemaker the Justice ; she gave the same account then 
as now ; she said John Squires was much like one of the 
men, when he had got his great coat on? she said, she did 
not see Wells in the house, but she once saw her out at 
a window, but did not know she was the woman that be- 
longed to the house. 

Sutherton Tiakler. I am an apothecary ; I saw E. Can- 
ning the day after she came home, on the 30th of Janu- 
ary about noon, she was extremely low and weak; I 
could scarcely hear her speak, her voice was so low, and 
her pulse scarcely to be felt, with cold sweats; she told 
me she had no passage during the whole time of her 
confinement, she was then in such a condition she had a 
glyster administered the same day; she had many glys- 
U-TH given her, which after some time relieved her. 

Q. Whether 



MARY SQUIRES, A GIPSY; AND ELlZ. CANNING. 38? 

Q. Whether a person that is extremely costive cannot 
subsist longer without food, or with less food, than a per- 
son that is not so? Balder. I cannot answer to that. 
Hach of the persons that said they went down to take the 
prisoners were asked where they went to, and answered 
to Endfield-Wash, the house of the prisoner Wells. 

Mary Squires said nothing in her defence, but called 
the following witnesses: 

John Gibon. I live at Abbotsbury, six miles from 
Dorchester, I am master of the house called the Old 
Ship; on the first of January, 1753, the prisoner Squires 
came into the house; there was George her son, and 
Lucy her daughter with her, as she called them- she 
came with handkerchiefs,, lawns., muslins, and checks, to 
sell about town ; she staid there from the first to the ninth 
day of the month, and lay at my house. Q. How long 
have you kept that house ? Gibon. I have kept it two 
years, come Lady-day. Q. Look at the woman, are you 
sure that is her? Gibon. lie looks at Squires, and says, 
I am sure it is. 

CROSS Y.XA MIX A TIO \. 

Q. How long have you known her? Gibon. I have 
known her three years, and have seen her there thive 
years ago. Q, How long have you lived there r Gibon. 
I was born at that town, I am a married man, have a 
wife and one child, i was bred in the farming way at 

l : isherton. Q. By what do you recollect the day?- 

Gibon. There came an exciseman to officiate there for 
one John Ward that was sick, and I put the day of the 
month down when he came ; the excise office is kept at 
my house, the man that came was Andrew Wicks, or 
Wick. Q. Did you see the prisoner sell any of these 
goods you mentioned : Gibon. No, I did not ; they 
offered them to sell to me, and others ; my wife bought 
two checque aprons, 

William 



S88 A FULL AND AUTHENTIC ACCOUNT OF 

William Clark. I live at Abbot&biny, and have for 
seven years ; I remember seeing the gipsy there ; the last 
time I saw her,, was on the lG:h of January last ; I met 
with them on the road,, we went some way together, we 
parted at Crudeway Foot., four miles from Abbotsburv, 
and there from Dorchester. Q. Where was they goiriG; ? 
Clark. I can't tell that. Q. Had you ever seen her 
before r Clark. I saw her, and her son and daughter., 
three years ago come March, at Abbotsbury ; they came 
with handkerchiefs, lawns, and muslins to sell ; I sa\v 
the landlord's wife at the ship buy some aprons of them 
the last time they were there. 

CROSS EXAHt^ATIOS. 

Q. How came you to take particular notice of the clay i' 
Clark. l>y keeping my other accounts ; 1 carried 
goods out with me the same day to Portesham. Q. Have 
you your book with you ? Clark. JXo, I have not, but ] 
can't forget the day, because I don't go so often. Q. 
Which way were they going: Clark. The v \\ere making 
for London, they talked so. Q. Did thev give you any 
account to what place they v.vrc bound next, ; Clark. 
Thev did not; they lodged at this mail's house' (pointing 
to Gibon) at Abbotsbury. (<. Did you sec them there ? 
Clark. I did, on the first ot January ; I commonly 
go there of an evening to ha 1 , o a not of liquor. Q. Do 
YOU remember when you kept Christinas day. Clark. I 
do not. Q. Can you give any account of the ^New-style 
or Old : Clark. No, I cannot; but if I was to die for 
the woman, I'll speak the truth. Q. How was she 
cloathed there ': Clark. The same a.~, now, and th:> son 
in a blue coat and red waistcoat, and hud a greatcoat 
with him. Q. What size is he ; Chirk. He is about 
rive feet seven or eight inches high ; t;ie girl was in it 
eamblet govrn. Q. Yon arc sure you saw her the time 
, you mention r Clark. I undertake to swear positively 

to 



MARY SQUIRES, A GIPSY J AND ELIZ. CANNING. 389 

to that, that I saw her there on the first of January last, 
and either on the ninth or tenth afterwards, and saw 
them going about the town in the time to sell things. Q. 
What are you? I am a housekeeper, and have been ill 
business about six years ; I am a cordwainer* 

Thomas Grevil. I live at Coom, three miles from 
Salisbury ; I keep a public house there, the sign of the 
Lamb ; I saw Mary Squires at my house on the 14th of 
January. Q. How many miles is Coom from Dorches- 
ter? GreviK I cannot tell. Q. Who was with her there? 
Grevil. There was her sister and her brother, as she 
said ; they sold handkerchiefs, lawns, and such things. 
Q. How long did she stay at Coom ? Grevil. They stop- 
ped there but one night. , 

CROSS EXAMINATION. 

Q. What January do yon mean ? Grevil. I mean last 
January, five weeks ago last Sunday. Q. How came 3*011 
to take such particular notice of it? Grevil. There was 
a carpenter at my house, he having spent the biggest part 
of his mon 63*, it being Sunday, night, I would have him 
go about his business, and put him out of the house two 
or three times, and after that he went over the way to 
another house, and pawned his axe.- These three wit- 
nesses shewed their subpoenas, as the cause of their com- 
ing to give their evidence. 

FOR THE CROWS. 

John Iniser. I sell fish and oysters about Waltham? 
Crosa and Theobalds. I know the prisoner Squires very 
well bv sight} the last time I saw her before now, was at 
the time she was taken at Susannah Wells's house ; be- 
fore that I had seen her several times every day up and 
down before she was taken, Q. Are you very certain of 
that? Iniser. I am that I saw her three weeks before^ 
that she walked into people's houses pretending to teli 
fortunes : sbe told ins mine once. Q. Did you see any 

E S 



S(jO A I'ULL AND AUTHENTIC ACCOUNT OF 

goods she had to sell ? Iniser. No, I did not, I always? 
saw lier by herself: I saw a young man in blue-grey when 
she was taken up, and two young women, all taken in the 
house of Wells. 

Wells being called upon to make her defence, said, 
As to her character it was but an indifferent one, that she 
had had an unfortunate husband who was hanged. And 
added, she never saw the young woman (meaning E. 
Canning) till they came to take us up ; and as to Squires, 
she never saw her above a week and a day before they 
were taken up. Squires guilty, DEATH. Wells guilty. 

Squires, the last day of the sessions, being asked what 
she had to say before she received sentence, answered, 
that, " On JN'ew Year's Day I lay at Coom, at the widow 
Grevil's house; the next day 1 was at Stoptage; there 
were some people who were cast away, and they came 
along with me to a little house on the top of the moor, 
and drank there ; there were my son and daughter with 
me. Coming along Popliam Lane, there were some peo- 
ple raking up dung. I drank at the second alehouse in 
Basingstoke on the Thursday in the new year week. On 
the Friday 1 lay at Bagshot-ilcath, at a little tiney house 
on the heath. On the Saturday I lay at Old Brentford, 
at Mrs. Edwards's, who sells greens and small-beer. I 
could have told this before, but one pulled me and ano- 
ther pulled me, and would not let me speak. I lav at 
Mrs. Edwards's on the Sunday and Mondav, and on the 
Tuesday or Wednesday after I came from thence to Mrs. 
Wells's house." 

The trial being thus ended, some days after the con- 
demnation of the gipsy, it began to be talked that Vertur 
Hall, who had sworn so positively to all the particulars 
at the Old Bailey, had or would recant all her evidence: 
that, she had deposed there, and swear the whole to bp 
Jalse. l)r. Hili, a gentleman well known for his many 

writings 



MARY SQUIRES, A GIPSY ; AND ELIZ. CANNING.- 39 1 

vntings, seems to have been principally the first con- 
cerned in bringing out this recantation of Vertue Hall. 
Burip.g which time,, Dr. Hill assures us that the Lord 
Mayor, Sir Crisp Gascoyne, had received proofs as strong 
as even this recantation of \'ertue Hall,, of the perfect 
innocency of the gipsy. 

Dr. Hill's pamphlet warmly insisted upon the improba- 
bility of Canning's story, and the consequent innocence 
of .the gipsy; which iu fact caused public opinion to be 
. c o highly interested in the affair, that after their preju- 
dice in favour of the girl Canning, had subsided, the 
gipsies friends met with very little difficulty in bringing 
her opponentto trial. It is allowed to be incontestably true 
tJiat the girl came home to her mother in a ragged and 
starved condition; but yet, there was no proof but what 
she might have possibly been elsewhere, as her descrip- 
tion of mother Well's house, and a number of other par- 
ticulars, were positively contradictory and defective. If 
she had been elsewhere, the greatest misfortune of the 
gipsy's friends, was they could not possibly prove where 
she really had keen. Elizabeth Canning's friends, par- 
ticularly Henry Fielding, Esq. represented her as a poor, 
inoffensive, simple girl ; this however, the other party re- 
presented as a matter by no means clear. As for Vertue 
Hall, though she seemed at first entirely gained over to 
Canning's cause, she did not appear to have been in the 
least degree acquainted with Canning's secrets or her real 
situation. 

A medical gentleman, Dr. Cox, said much to prove 
that the chastity of E. Canning remained perfectly in- 
violate after her return to her mother's, which was cor- 
roborated by a Mr. Dodd, and others ; however, we now 
proceed to the last scene of this mysterious affair, the 
{rial of E. Canning, she being indicted for wilful and 
K E E 2 corrupt 



A FULL AND AUTHENTIC ACCOUNT OP 

corrupt perjury, at the April sessions of the Old Bailey, 
1753. 

On this occasion, it is to be observed, there were two 
indictments preferred, one against her, and another against 
the Abbotsbury \vitnesses, who appeared in behalf of 
Mary Squires on her trial. On examining the witnesses 
on both sides, the Grand Jury rinding a contradiction be- 
tween them, threw out both the bills, to prevent the per- 
juries on one side or the other, that the trial of these 
causes would occasion in court. But the parties against 
Canning did hot rest here, but again preferred an indict- 
ment against her at the June sessions following ; at which 
time an indictment was preferred the second time against 
the Abbotsbury witnesses ; both which indictments were 
found by the Grand Jury the 8th of June last. In con- 
sequence of this, the Abbotsbury witnesses appeared on 
their trial at the Old Bailey ; but by the neglect or over- 
sight of those who prosecuted them, not a single witness 
was subpoenaed against them, nor any council fee'd to 
attend the trial ; but on the day of trial, certificates were 
delivered to remove the indictments into the Court of 
King's Bench, yet under such circumstances, that the 
court at the Old Bailey ordered the persons indicted to 
the bar; and there being no person then to appear against 
them, they were discharged. Canning's friends, to pre-* 
vent her trial at the Old Bailey till the Lord Mayor, who 
was the gipsy's friend, was out of office, and thinking to 
remove it into the Court of King's Bench, took care to 
secret her so that when the indictment for perjury was to 
be served upon her she could not be found. However, 
Canning's friends fearing the consequences of an out- 
lawry, they gave notice they would surrender her up in 
the April sessions, and Monday the CQrh was the day fixed 
for the trial. 

A* 



MATJY SQUIRES, A GIPSY; AND ELIZ. CANNING. 393 

As this event bad long engaged the attention of the 
public, the court was, early on the day, crowded to an 
uncommon degree. The Right Hon. the Lord Mayor, 
Mr. Baron Legge, Mr. Baron dive, and other Justices 
for London and Middlesex, with the Recorder of the 
city of London, were on the bench. The counsel for 
the prosecution were Mr. Davy, Mr. Willes, and Mr. 
Gascoyne; for the prisoner, Mr. Moreton, Mr. Naires, 
and Mr. Williams. 

Elizabeth Canning 1 was brought into court about nine 

O O 

o'clock, dressed in a clean linen gown, and had a black 
bonnet on. Her behaviour appeared quite modest, and 
she did not seem any ways terrified or discomposed : her 
stature is short, and her complexion fresh. But it is un- 
necessary to suy move of her person, as the portrait in our 
last number is a striking resemblance. The Court pro- 
ceeding to business, she was indicted for that she, not 
having the fear of God before her eyes, did wickedly en- 
deavour, by wilful and corrupt perjury, to take away the 
life of one of his Majesty's subjects (contrary to the laws 
of this kingdom, and his Majesty's crown and dignity), 
in falsely swearing a robbery against Mary Squires, a 
gipsy. To which indictment the prisoner pleaded Not 
Guilty, and put herself upon her trial. Tr>e Jury being- 
then called over, fifteen of them were challenged by the 
prosecutor's council, and only three by the prisoner. 

The gipsy was then brought into Court hi an armed 
chair by two or three men, and appeared very sick and 
faint, her head likewise shaking very much : she was 
dressed in a stuff gown, having- a white whittle over her 
shoulders, a white napkin pinned ever her head, and a 
black bonnet on. She is about eighty years of age: h-.-r 
complexion (either natural or stained) is very swart 1 , v, as 
gipsies always are. The most distinguishing features of 
her countenance, are a very wide mouth, and a large 

nose : 



294 A FULL ANI> AUTHENTIC ACCOUNT OF 

nose; but her portrait, which we have given in the pre- 
sent number, will bettor express her countenance. 

Upon account of the faintness of the gipsy, she was 
carried several times into an adjoining room, for the 
Jbenefit of fresh air, and was brought into court occa- 
sionally as her presence was necessary: her son George 
and her daughter Lucy, attended her all the time. The 

prisoner Canning had likewise liberty to sit down. 

The indictment was opened by the council, that Elizabeth 
Canning did falsely, wickedly, and corruptly swear, that 
she was carried by two men on the first of January, 175 '3, 
about nine o'clock, from Moorfields, and brought into 
the house of mother Wells at En field Wash, about four 
o'clock on the morning of the second of January ; that 
she was there assaulted and robbed by one Mary Squires 
a 2,'ipsv, and afterwards confined there twenty eieht davs, 

O.lv x / O / ' 

Sic. going through the whole of her story as we have 
already given it*. After which he added, that they on 
their side affirmed that the said Mary Squires was at Ab- 
hotsbury, on the second of January, that Elizabeth Can- 
ing was not in that room, nor drank the water out of the 
pitcher, nor took the old gown out of the grate, for that 
there was no grate there, and that therefore she hu4 
falsely, voluntarily, and corruptly sworn. 

Another council., observed, that it was the most wilful, 
corrupt, and impudent perjury, ever committed, that he 
could wish for the sake of the present case, that the hnv 
allowed of a more grievous punishment than could be 
inflicted as it now stands : To destroy the life of a person 
ior any motive of gain, was a most inhuman and wicked 
offencr : and that, that was her motive would appeal- 
plain: thr design was to raise contributions from the 
public. The advertisements and papers handed about to 
rui.-t. compassion, &c. all showed this ; that those papers 

* Sec page 364 of our last Number. 

were 



TuARY SOriRES, A GIPSY: AXD ELIZ. CANNING. 3$5 

were universally known to have had a great effect, and 
that those who endeavoured to raise such prejudices,would 
Le guilty of perjury but lor fear; that he did not know 
but that even the very countenance of the gipsy,, which 
struck horror into the beholder, contributed to prejudice 
the jury against her; that he did not say this to raise pre- 
judices on the ether side (for that he was persuaded there 
was <uch a jury now, as would examine every thing 
thoroughly, and bring in their verdict accordingly, for 
they had proofs that would command the consent, and 
convince every dispassionate man, that she was never rob- 
bed by Mary Squires, nor ever at Enfield Yv'ash ; that 
the proof of one perjury would be sufficient, but that he 
hoped to prove them uli. He then told the jury , that he 
hoped they had seen the house of mother Well's : if so, 
he would spare himself a great deal of trouble, for it was 
impossible for any man who had seen the recur;, to think 
she had been confined there so long, when she might 
have escaped from it in the first half hour; and that it. 
was as improbable, that after remaining so long there as 
she has said, and being so long emaciated by her scanty 
diet, that she should travel so far as ten miles and a half, 
without stopping; that she should pass by so many mag- 
nificent houses as were on the road, (which she could not 
possibly suspect as confederates of mother Wells) without 
going in to tell her storv, and a;et some relief and assist- 

v ./ y O 

ance: however, he acknowledged that it must be owned 
it was possible ; but then it was so improbable, as amount- 
ed to almost the same thing. But he would lav open such 
a chain of evidence, as would wholly prove that her whole 
story was false ; that he would prove that Mary Squires 
was one hundred and thirty miles off on the second of 
January; and then pointed to Marv Squires, he observed, 
that she could not be mistaken i'or any other thing that 
Cod ever made; that they would account bv different 

witnesses 



Sgfl A FULL AND AUTHENTIC ACCJQUNt Of 

witnesses for Mary Squires, from being at South Parrot, 
in Dorsetshire, on the 29th of December, 17.52, to her ar- 
rival at the house of mother Wells, nt Enrield Wash, on 
the 22d or 23d of January, 1/53. That she was at Ab- 
botsbury from the first to the ninth of January, 1753, and 
then she went to Portesham; on the eleventh she was 
crossing the water at Dorchester, the thirteenth at Mar- 
tin, i he fourteenth between Martin and Coom, on the 
road from thence to Basingstoke on the sixteenth and 
seventeenth, and at Basingstoke on the eighteenth ; that 
there \vas a circumstance happened there, .which would 
prove their being there at that time beyond doubt; for 
that he must take notice, that though the gipsy was so 
n.o-1 y aiid (Icibrmcd a creature, she had a very beautiful 
daro-hter, v, ho being courted by one William Clark, of 
_Abbotsbury, she. had at Basingstoke (not being able to 
write herself) got the landlady where they stopped to 
write a letter for her to her sweetheart, (which was read 
in court). It is only needful to rule!, that the gipsies 
being at all these places, was sufficiently proved by more 
than a dox.cn witnesses. 

By all this it appeared, he said, that the gipsy could not 
be at Enficld Wash till the '2 ; 2d or <2;;d of January ; there- 
fore the prisoner was guilty of wilful and corrupt perjury, 
-in persisting so long in charging the gip.\v with robbing 
her, after so manv witnesses had sworn to her bcinir else- 

* O 

where. They then went on to observe the contradictions 
in her several informations; the chief of which were, that 
in the first information which she had sworn to before the 
sitting Alderman, it was put clown, that she had been 
confined in a little, dark, square r<;K,:u, (though she said 
there were two windows, one glaxed, the other partly 
boardod ; partly glazed,) whereas the room itself, instead 
of being small, square, and dark, measured thirty feet, 
by nine broad, and the casement of the window was so 

large, 



A JOURNEY TO MOUNT PEUDU. 397 

largo, that a fat man might have got out of it, and there- 
fore the room must be light; and it was so low, that a child 
might have leaped out of it to the ground. In her iirst 
information it was said that she lav unon nothing; but bare 

j j. O 

boards, whereas there AY as hull' a load of hay in the room: 
That she at first deposed, that her water failed her on the 
Friday before her, escape on the Monday; but, on the 
trial of' Mary Squires, she swore that she drank the last of 
her water about half an hour before she made her eseape. 
That in her first information she had said, there was only 
an old stqol or two, an iron grate, an old table, and an 
old picture over the chimney ; whereas, instead of a grate, 
the floor of the chimney was found covered with cob- 
webs, that seemed the work of many generations of spi- 
ders; three saddles were found in the room, fastened to 
the walls with the webs of the same insects ; and a large 
nest of drawers Avas also found there, Avith a bed made of 
straw; that there Avns no picture over the chimney, no- 
di ing but an old casement, which was covered with dirt 
and cobwebs. It Avas likewise observed, that the defend- 
ant kept out of the way of trial, and that flight was in 
the eye of the law considered as a presumption of guilt, 

\The vhole of these interesting particulars nill bf concluded i/i.our ?ic.it^ 



ACCOUNT of a JOURNEY to MOUNT PERDU, the, highest 

of the PYRENEES. By M. RAYMOND. 
ON the sumitof Mount Perdu, says he, I remained two 
hours, and which -ever way I turned my eyes, could perceive 
nothing that had life, but an eagle, which passed over 
our heads, flying directly againt the wind with incon- 
ceivable rapidity. In less than a minute we lost sight of 
him. We ourselves could scarcely stand against the vio- 
lence of the wind over which an eagle triumphed Avith 
such ease, and it produced an insupportable degree of 
cold. No wind so speedily diminishes animal warmth as 

F F F the 



598 STONES FALLING FROM THE CLOUDS, 

the south, when exposed to its action in the most elevated 
regions of the atmosphere. 11 owes this property to its 
dryness awl rapidity, which* exhaust the evaporation of 
such bodies as are susceptible of it. We were chilled,, 
though the thermometer did not indicate a very low tem- 
perature. This inconvenience is the only one that I there 
experienced. We breathed, without difficulty, an air 
already so ranfied, that many could not have existed in it. 
I have more than once seen many strong people obliged 
to stop at a much lower elevation; and, at Col-du-Geant, 
where the air is only at the same degree of rarefaction, 
Saussure experienced a kind of suffocation, and began to 
feel ill, when he took more violent exercise -than usual. 
Here we met with nothing of the kind. The state of the pulse 
ulone indicated an alteration, independent of the agitation 
of the journey ; the pulse did not become more tranquil 
by repose. During the whole time we remained on the 
summit, it was low and quick, in the proportion of 5 to 4. 
This lever, which is nervous, sufficiently shewed how we 
should be affected at a greater elevation; but, at the height 
at which we were, it produced a quite contrary effect. 
Far from causing a dejection, it seemed to sustain my 
Strength, and .raise my spirits, which generally occurs in 
every region moderately elevated. 



Circumstantial DETAILS of STORES falling from the 

CLOUDS. 

IN a letter written from Benares, in the East Indies, by 
Mr. John Williams, and addressed to the President of 
the K:,'yal Society of London, it is related, that on the 
l.Q'.h of December, 1798, towards eight o'clock in the 
evening, the weather being perfectly calm, the inhabi- 
tants of Benares and the circumjacent places perceived a 
meteor of a dazzling brightness, and which resembled a 
large ball of fire. It was accompanied with a great noise, 

like 



STONES FALLING FROM THE CLOLDS. 399 

like that of thunder. A great number of stones fell soon 
after on the ground, near the village of Krakut, to the 
north-east of the river Goanity, about eleven miles dis- 
tant from Benares. Authentic documents in reference to 
this fact were taken on the spot, by order of the magi- 
strate; they perfectly accord. Several specimens of these 
stones have been sent to Europe; they have been described 
and analised by Messrs. Bournon and Howard. Here 
follows the result of their chemical labours : The stones 
are covered,, through the whole extent of their surface, 
by a very thin crust, , of a dark black, strewed with little 
asperities, which produce, when touched, an impression 
like that of a skin li^htlv shagreened. 

O *-' O 

The interior is of a grey colour, of a coarse texture, 
pretty ranch resembling free-stone. We can easily dis- 
tinguish in it iron in the metallic state. The analysis gives 
likewise silcx, magnesia, oxyde of iron, and oxyde of 
nickel. 

Tlie second example is taken from a letter, dated at 
Sienna, in Italy, by Sir William Hamilton. It announ- 
ces, that on the 12th of July, 1794, in the height of a 
very violent storm, there fell at Sienna stones of different 
magnitude. Their fall took place about eighteen hours 
after a fierce eruption of Mount Vesuvius, distant 250 
miles. This letter was accompanied with a specimen of one 
of those stones. It exhibited the same exterior characters 
as those of .Benares, and the analysis traced in it the same 
substances, although in proportions somewhat different. 

The third example is that of a similar fall, which took 
place in Yorkshire. On the 13th of December, 1795: a 
stone weighing fifty six pounds, fell with a great number 
of explosions, like discharges of artillery .The stone., when 
taken from the earth, was hot and smoking. It present- 
ed the same exterior and interior character* as the two 
preceding, 

F p F 2 A fonrth 



400 STONES FALLING FROM THE CLOUDS. 

A fourth example is that of a stone which fell in Bo- 
hemia, ou the Sd of July, 17.33. It yielded the same re- 
sults. Its specific weight was 4281. We shall confine 
ourselves to these facts, because they are announced in 

Such a munncr as to acquire much probability. " We 

have seen (says the reporter to the institute) specimens of 
these stones ;. they all present the characters included in 
the preceding description. 

We could find, in the writings of the ancients, a great 
number of recitals, which agree perfectly well with the 
foregoing, but, without going so far back, we shall quoUr 
a remarkable passage found in some observations of Frc- 
ret on the prodigies reported by the ancients. 

" The famous Gassendi, whose accuracy and know- 
ledge are both well known, relates, that on the 27th of 
November, 1CJ17, the sky being very clear, he saw fall, 
about ten o'clock in the morning, on Mount \ aisien, be- 
tween the towns of Guillaumc and Pesne, in Provence., 
an inflamed stone, which appeared about four i'ect in dia- 
meter. It was bordered with a luminous circle of dif- 
erent colours, pretty much like the rainbow. Its fall wa* 
accompanied with a noise like that of many cannon* 
firing at once. This stone weighed fifty nine pounds; it 
was of a dark and metallic colour and extremely hard." 

This description of Gassendi is perfectly conformable to 
thai of Mr. Howard, and gives a great probability to the 
fact we are examining; but, what confirms it in a still 
5troiiger manner, is that all. these stones, composed of 
the same principles, include nickel, a substance whic.h i 
rarely fouiul on the surface of the earth ; and likewise 
iron iii the metallic state, which is never seen in the pro- 
<incts of volcanoes. Vv e cannot, therefore, attribute the 
fall of these stones to volcanic eruptions, ami we have 
eeu th. -it then-- also, exists moral proofs which arc repu^'- 
'4ii! lit to this mode of explication. 

A SING V LAP 



A SINGULAR CHARACTER. 

Mr. THOMAS JENKINS, uit Enghsk Banker, at Rome. 

I HIS celebrated banker,, says a French traveller, for 
some time studied painting; but perceiving that he waf 
not likely to become a proficient, he contented himself 
with the character of an able connoisseur. He was welt 
versed in the theory of painting, as far as it related to de- 
sign,, and was well acquainted with medals, engravings, 
&.C. With their history, he was perfectly familiar, and 
no one was better acquainted with that of a bus relief, 
a statue, or a bust, whatever injury they had sustained 
from the tooth of time. To sum up the character of In.s 
judgment, in a few words; with respect to painting and 
sculpture, he was often consulted by Italian connoisseurs, 
i'i.z. the famous Cardinal Alexander Albani, the celebrated 
Winckelman, and that illustrious painter, Mengs. Mr. 
Jenkins set out as a man of business, in dealing in pic- 
tures, statues, and medals, and afterwards associated this 
profession with that of 'a banker; and as he enjoyed the 
confidence of almost every person of distinction at Koine, 
he succeeded in amassing a considerable fortune. Mr. 
Jenkins's manner of disposing of those articles just men- 
tioned, was truly original.- If you would purchase a 
medal, a picture, &,c. he would relate to you every histo- 
rical particular concerning them.- He would even work 
himself up to a degree of warmth in expatiating upon 
their rarity, their singularity > and would sometimes even 
shed tears on parting with them. A father separating 
from his only daughter going to a distant country, could 
not have testified more affliction. And when the pur- 
chaser has been leaving him, Sir, Mr. Jenkins would say, 
if ever you repent in the least degree of your purchase re- 
turn it to me, and your money shall be immediately forth- 
coming. In restoring me such a medal, yon \\ill cer- 
s,ih)ly restore, me one of the greatest comfort.. I possess. 

And 



. 4()'2 EMPRESS ELIZABETH OF AUSTRIA. 

. And upon the return of any of the articles disposed of 
upon these conditions, Mr. Jenkins never deviated from 
li is word, but surrendered the purchase money with a de- 
gree of satisfaction, not less ardent than that of his re- 
luctance on first parting with the article; besides which, 
it was not unfrequeot with him to invite the person to 
dinner, with whom he had dealt upon these terms. 

With respect to the reality of Mr. Jenkins's professions 
whatever may be the doubts entertained, it is certain that 
he carried the semblance of his sincerity to the highest 
point of perfection, lie was living at Rome, about the 
year, \7[)7- 

CiiARACTr.K of the EMPRESS ELIZABETH of AUSTRIA, 
iniparalhled in Modern History. 

MR. EDITOR, 'Re ad in, a; in the Morning Post some days ago a number of 
unnatural and sanguinary suggestions respecting the justice and propriety 
ol' giving no quarter to prisoner, should the French attempt a landing in 
tliis country I Lave been endeavouring to discover whether there beany 
prccedi ut lor such conduct in the laws of v/ar or nations; :;iu| I mi lit. 
own, that, excepting a very fe'-v obscuro instances, I can discover no- 
tlihi'.; so much like the temper and disposition which that paper inculcates 
a-; the following I listory of the Empress Elizabeth. But thi% it is to be 
noted, occurred in tin.: dan: ages of popery, and even counteracted itself at: 
last, a-; it inspired the Swiss, tftus made deadly enemies to tlie House ot 
Austria, with an haired which they never forgave till they had wrested all 
their Cantons out of its possession. However, as your MUSLIM is a ncep- 
Tucle of Remurkuhie C.'i'.irttdcrt;, this m' tiie Empress Eli/abe'h, i ]>resume, 
you will find in cvoiy respect entitled to .sucis a distinction. Vour's, &,c. 
Oc7. 10, 180:3. A LOVI-K OF Mr.ucv. 

.AMONG the many suflerhigs of the Swiss Cantons under 
liie insupportable tyranny of the House of Austria, its 
\oke was so severe in 1S08, the Emperor Albert then 
reigning, that three or four cantons or districts, pro- 
bably driven to desperation, rose and drove awav the 
German oiiicers employed by the emperor. Albert hear- 
ing this, hastened to 1'aclen to collect the troops neces- 
sary to go against these miserable insurgents, and left 

that 



EMPRESS ELIZABETH OF AUSTRIA. 

that place on the 1st of May, 1308, to see his spouse the 
Empress Elizabeth., whom he had left at Rheinfelden. 
He was accompanied hy his nephew John of Suabia, 
whose possessions he had unjustly withheld, and the Swiss 
Barons, D'Esehembach, De Walt, De Palm, De Tagcr- 
felclen, De Finistigen, and De Castelen. This last Baron 
was entirely ignorant of the plot which, it seems, the other 
six had formed, to destroy their sovereign. Having 
passed the river Rhine, John of Suabia took that oppor- 
tunity to beseech his uncle to restore him the estates of 
which he had deprived him. This request the Emperor 
now refusing with more bitterness than ever,, his nephew, 
enflnmeil with anger, gave him a thrust with a poignard. 
P'Eschembach, then, by a blow with another weapon, 
split the head of the devoted monarch, which was fol- 
lowed by all the rest excepting De Walt, dipping their 
swords in his blood : while De Castelen, unable to defend 
his master, set off at full gallop to carry the news to the 
court of Albert. Hearing of this, most of the nobles, 
and among them one of the Archdukes, took horse with- 
out delay and rode towards Baden ; and some of them 
r.rrived upon the spot soon enough to see the Emperor 
expiring in the arms of a young country girl who had 
come to his assistance, and whom chance only had thrown 
in his way to be witness of his last breath. As this news 
bpread with incredible rapidity, all the towns of Helvetia 
shut their gates, and a general consternation was diffused 
through the empire. Not that this" alarm arose from the 
regret for his fate, but rather from the consequences that 
might follow. His murderers, however, who in the first 
place had only listened to the dictates of revenge 1 , being 
without troops, magazines, or supplies, and incapable of 
following up their resistance to their late monarch, in a 
manner s'uitable to their interests, at first took refuge in 
the castle of Fribotirg, but soon after dispersed in all di- 
rections. 



404 KMT HESS ELIZABETH OF AL'STTlIA. 

rectious. While the Empress Elizabeth, enraged at the 
death of her husband, vowed she would take the most 
ample revenge upon those who had made her a widow. 
To a most sanguinary turn of mind, this princess added 
'A degree of insatiable avarice ; and she therefore thought 
of making the death of her husband the means of en- 
larging and enriching her territory, and she took her 
measures accordingly. She therefore began by industri- 
ously spreading a rumour that the poor Swiss were the 
accomplices of her husband's murderers, and accordingly 
put them under the ban or censure of the empire, toge- 
ther with not only her nephew John of Suabia, and the 
five barons his accomplices, but all their kindred, rela- 
tions, and even all persons of the same name, their friends, 
their neighbours, and even their servants, were devoted 
to death. She even seized upon all the goods belonging 
to these innocent persons for the purpose of bestowing 
them upon those who should assist her in attacking their 
persons. Many gentlemen also increased the number 
of these fatal proscriptions, only because their estates 
were conveniently situated to be added to the House 
of Austria. In a short time after, the Empress's troops 
were collected to begin with their cruel executions ; and 
as the victims of her wrath, knew they had no quarters, 
nor lenity to expect, they defended themselves with the 
greatest vigour even to desperation. But though many 
of the Empress's party were sacrificed in this deadly 
strife, the courage of their opponents could not prevail 
over the numbers brought against them. We are here 
'peaking of some of the Swiss cantons ; and, unhappily, 
the rest of the cantons refused to support them. The 
/uriehers even gave up the passage of Albis to the Aus- 
trians to carry them to the domains of Baron D'Eschem- 
bach, and soon after his castle ; those of the other five 
Barons, and several more, were besieged, taken, razed, 

or 



RMPKKSS ELIZABETH OF AUSTRIA. 403 

or burned by the troops of the Empress. The town of 
Meschwauden was taken by assault, totally destroyed, 
and its inhabitants dispersed or 'killed. Fifty persons, 
mostly nobles, surrendering at discretion, after they had 
for a long- time defended the tower of Althuven, were 
every one beheaded in the presence of Leopold Duke of 
Austria. A number of gentlemen who had taken refuge 
in the fortress of Farvangen, near the lake of Hallweil, 
thinking to maintain themselves there till they had an. 
opportunity of justifying themselves before the Diet of 
the Empire, were attacked on all sides by the Empress 
Elizabeth iu person ; when, after a vigorous resistance, 
sixty-three of them that remained alive were conducted 
to the scaffold in the presence of this cruel monster, who 
saw them beheaded with the utmost complacency ; and, 
to perpetuate her shame, even gave orders that the axe of 
the executioner on this occasion should be deposited for 
a memorial in the castle of Hallweil, exclaiming, at the 
same time " This blood is sweeter to me than a bath of 
roses." The horrors, say the Swiss historians,, that 
she suffered and caused to be committed in the conquered 
countries a a- not to be described. The last branch of the 
familv'D'E.schenibach was an infant in the cradle, and 
which being brought to Agnes, the Queen of Hungary 
juiel daughter to the Empress she wanted to strangle it ' 
with her own hand-, but, however, she was at length per- 
suaded to ki. ^ live, provided its guardians gave it the 
name of Seinvartxcnbourg. In fact, this dreadful car- 
nage never ceased till one thousand families were utterly 
destroyed and extirpated, and of these some were the 
most distinguished in Switzerland. ..After this, the mo- 
ther ami the daughter, having satisfied their thirst of 
blood, but r.ut possibly b^-lng so tranquil in their con- 
science as they might wish, they sought to satisfy this cry 
,)(' vengeance by consecrating a part of their spoil, to 



406 EMPRESS ELIZABETH OT AUSTRIA. 

what they deemed religion, and in consequence of this 
they founded a convent upon the spot where the Emperor 
Albert was assassinated. But what is still more astonish- 
ing,, not one of the principal culprits fell in the war that 
followed the death of the Emperor. John of Suabia, his 
nephew, disguised as a beggar,, flew to Avignon, where, 
confessing his crime to (Moment \ . he pardoned him, but 
sent him for a temporal absolution to the Emperor Henry, 
who adjudged him to perpetual imprisonment in a con- 
vent, where he died soon after at the age of twenty-five 
years. D*Eschembach flew into Vv irternberg, was a shep- 
herd thirty-five years., and never discovered himself till 
lie was nearly expiring. DC Palm got into a convent at 
Basle, and was never discovered. As for the barons, 
Tagerfelden and Finstingcn, their concealment was so 
complete that it was never known. DC \\ art, however, 
was betrayed to the Empress,, and in vain attempted to 
prove his innocence; he was condemned to be broken ou 
the wheel. It was to no purpose thathis young widow came 
to solicit the mercv of the Empress dowager in a most 
affecting manner. Neither her youth, beauty, or quality 
could move the heart of this royal monster; her husband 
v.'ns fastened to the tail of a horse, drawn to the scaffold, 
and broke alive upon the wheel. Tins amiable woman,, 
Avho never quitted him in his toriures till his eves were 
closed, retired afterwards to Basle, and took a religious 
habit, where she was highlv esteemed for her virtue and 
piety. However, the Swiss historian concludes (as all 
extremes commonly work their own destruction) that this 
spoliation of the lielvctic barons, brought on a mortal 
blow to the interests of the House of Austria in Switzer- 
land, and, in its degree, was us serviceable to the cause 
of the S-.yjsj. liberty, as their subsequent \iclorvat the 
battle of Morgarten. 

Curious 



( 407 ) 

Curious ACCOUNT of the INSECT calltdthe Fr.v CARRIER, 

rchich produces Animal Cotton. 

A. MEMBER of the American Philosophical Society (M. 
Baudry des Lobieres) has enabled us to present to the 
public the following interesting Memoir on Animal Cot- 
ton, and the insect which produces it. Every inhabitant 
of the West Indies, says this gentleman, knows and dreads 
the greedy worm which devours their indigo and cassada 
plantations; it is called by some the cassada-worm, by 
others the fly-carrier; and is produced, like the silk-worm, 
from esfo-s scattered by the mother after her metamor- 

OO */ 

phoiis into a whitish butterfly. The egg is hatched about 
the end of July, when the animal is decked with a robe 
of the most brilliant and variegated colours. In the 
month of August, when about to undergo its metamor- 
phosis, it strips off its superb robe, and puts on one of a 
beautiful sea-green, which reflects all its various shades, 
according to the different undulations of the animal, and 
the different accidents of light. This new decoration is 
the signal for its tortures. Immediately a swarm of ich- 

O V 

neumon flies assails it, and drive their stings into the skin 
of their victim, over the whole extent of its back and 
sides, at the same time slipping thcir-eg^s -into the bottom 
of the wounds that thev have made. 

tlaving performed this dreadful operation, the Hies dis- 
appear, and the patient remains for an hour in a motion- 
less state, out of which it awakens to feed with great vo- 
racity. Then his size daily increases till the time of his 
hatching the ichneumon iiies. The e^g-j deposited are 
hatched at the same moment, and the ca?sada is instantly 
i/overed with a. thousand little worms. They issue out of 
him at every pore, and that animated robe covers him so 
Jitirely, that nothing can be perceived but the top of his 
head, Ai soon i>s the worms arc hutched, and without 
G u o u cu'ttinii; 



40S INSECT CALLED THE FLY CATUIIER. 

quitting the" spot where the eggs are, which they have 
broke through, they yield a liquid gum, which, by coming 
into contact with the air, is rendered slimy and solid. 
Each of these animalculae works himself a small cocoon, 
in the shape of an egg, in which he wraps himself, thus 
making, as it were, his own winding sheet. They seem 
to bs born but to die. The.se millions of cocoons all attach 
to each other, and this'new formation of theirs, which has 
not taken two hours, produces a white robe ; in this the 
cassada worm appears elegantly clothed. While they are 
thus decking him, lie remains in a state of almost le- 
thargic torpidity. 

As soon as the covering is woven, and the little work- 
men, who have made it have retired and hidden them- 
selves in their celis, the worm endeavours to rid himself 
of his giK'si'.s, and of the robe which contains them. lie 
monies out of the' inclosure deprived of all his former 
heauty,in a state of decripitude, exhausted, and threaten- 
or! with approaching death, lie shortly passes to the state 
of a cliry's.-ilis; n-:>d. after giving lite to thousands of 
rg'**, su'Mf' ;ny lose.-; his own, leaving to the cultivator an 
id vantage whidi may be so improved as to more than 
t">;npen->ntc the ravages which he occasions. In about 
* ;:'; it days, the. little worms contained in the cocoons are 
UH'tnmorpho.-.ed inr.r; flies, having four wings. Their an- 
l.e tin;.? are long and vibrating; some have a tail, others 
'.'!:> n;;t shew if ; they feed upon small insects of the family 
of Aean;-:. :;,*d c-vidcnllv belong to the ichneumon tribe. 

j O 

The ct;Uon--ih;'il or wrapper is of a dazzling white, and 
tio soor, as the ilies have quitted the cocoon, it may be 
Used without a;jv preparatory precaution-, it is made up 
of t'ne purest ancl'Hnest cottou ; there is no refuse, no in- 
Icrior qualiry in it; every part is as line and beautiful 

M.]). Lozierc-s (the author of this Memoir), -urges the 
rtir.triyans lo or^jurvc, and endeavour to increase the 

fly- 



FACULTY OV SUSTAINING HEAT. 40$ 

fly-carrier, in the same manner, and For similar purposes, 
that the breed of the silk-worm is encouraged. He de- 
clares that be lias frequently seen so abundant a harvest 
of the animal cotton, that in the space of two hours he 
could collect the quantity of one hundred pints, French 
measure. Moreover, animal cotton is attended with none 
of the difficulties which occur in the preparation of vege- 
table cotton, and it requires less time and less trouble to 
procure it, and .there seems to him. no doubt that it will 
stand the competition with bilk and vegetable cotton ; 
these, when applied to wounds, serve only to inflame and 
envenom ; but the animal cotton may be used as lint| 
without the smallest inconvenience. 

t^-^-,^ 1 '.^'^'^^,^",^* 

further IXSTANCF.S of the FACULTY of SUSTAINING 

HEAT. 

[Translated from the French. I 

nn 

1 ins faculty is not peculiar to the young Spaniard at 

Paris (see our last ]S umber, p. 3.50) and whose case was 
expatiated upon by so many of the French Journalists in 
August last. The Mcmoires of the French Academy of 
Sciences for \~(')\, speak of a young girl who could bear 
r'ne heat of an oven upwards often minutes, though heated 
beyond the the degree of boiling water. Dr. Cullen, of 
Edinburgh, also relates a number of similar cases which 
were collected in \1()~), to prove that certain animals pos- 
sess a faculty of producing cold, probably to counteract 
heat. Dr. Fordyee, in \l()j, remained tsvo minutes in a 
stove heated to 3{) degrees, and i^aiinutes in another 
healed to 43 degrees. Sir. Joseph ''auks remained in a 
rooiii heated to 7 { J degrees. It is rue thermometer of 
lie;uHur which is to be understood here. The air, says 
Sir Joseph Banks, at this h':ih temperature, occasions a 
d sensation, which, houcver, it still tolerable. J\ir. 



410 BALLOON INTELLIGENCE IMPROVED. 

Dobson, a physician at Liverpool, has confirmed and re~ 
newcd all these experiments upon various subjects. Mr. 
Park, a surgeon, remained ten minutes in a stove heated 
to 8.5 degrees. Sir Charles Blagden remained eight mi- 
nutes in a room heated to 262 of Farenheit, or 102 of , 
lleamur. During the first seven minutes his respiration 
was perfectly easy; but in the course of another minute 
lie felt a degree of obstruction and sonic pain, which gave 
him notice that it was time to drop his experiments. His 
pulse beat at 114 the minute, or double the time of its 
natural stage. 

The writer from whom these facts are cited, remarks, 
that the Author of Nature has endovved man with the fa- 
culty of sustaining, at least to a very near degree, the 
same temperature of body in spite of all the changes of 
climates and seasons; and with respect to the enjoyment 
of health, to traverse the whole globe with impunity. 
Nature has also most happily adapted the constitution of 
various animals to their different situations The lizard 
and the cameleon remain cold under the equator, while 
the whale and the -,ca-ealf, vrnder'the frozen zone, retain 
a temuerature eon -iderublv warmer than human blood. 



Further particulars of JMu. ROBERTSON'S second Ascent 

in a IV: l, LOON. 



I HAT gc:it.lc!fi;iii, accompanied by ?.!'. Lhocrt, made a 
^eojiui acriiij e.xcmv.iju,, whir!) \\\.\; conlirmed ]n:i:>v ot 
tncii funik-r experiments, ami produced soi;u: new and 
interesting ixstrU;-;. 

M. Hob. /;;.- .>a [i;;s ascertained that sounds inuv be con- 
vey, -<l upv.-iU'd.5 j.6 'lie height of I COO feet, while down 
ward.-; Lhoy eau be co!ive\cd only one half that distance. 

The ii>Lu~ rL,j, i e.;li;^:oj, v>hen ihc -barouu;t(.r siood at 

four- 



BALLOON INTELLIGENCE IMPROVED. 411 

fourteen inches in the focus of a lens, lose one third of 
their intensity, and when refracted by the prisin ; no longer 
exhibited lively and distinct, but weak and confused co- 
lours. Weights attached to a spring balance lost one half 
of their gravity. The magnetic virtue he found decreased 
as the square of the distances; but at the elevation in 
question, the needle began again to put itself in motion. 

When about seven thousand two hundred feet from the 
earth, he enclosed in an instrument by M. Hez, four 
inches of the surrounding air along with mercury, and 
marked exactly the point where the air and mercury were 
united; and when he returned to the earth, he found that 
the mercury filled the whole tube within a tenth. 

M. Robertson passed between two large clouds, which 
seemed to afford a passage to the balloon ; the form of 
these masses of vapour was oblong, and they resembled 
rags suspended above the earth. Their uppermost parts 
did not form in their aggregate a smooth surface, as ap- 
peared to those who viewed them from the earth, but re- 
sembled long pyramids, occasioned probably by caloric 
raising the mass in proportion to the density of the at- 
mosphere ; the\' appeared to plunge towards the earth, in 
consequence of an optic effect, resulting from the ap- 
parent immobility of the balloon, which, however, was 
at ihc time rising at the rate of fifty feet per second. 

A hen the thermometer indicated one degree above 
iVee/.iug. and the barometer stood at fifteen inches, M. 
Robertson set two pigeons at liberty,, and they descended 
with the rapidity of lightning in a plane, slightly inclined, 
without moving their wings. When the barometer stood 
at fourteen inches., he let off another; but after flutter- 
ing with difficulty for a moment, it perched on the net- 
work, and would not quit it. Two butterflies, let go at 
the sain; time, trL-d to use their wings, but in fain. 

M, ii.jbtrtson i> preparing a balloon of between 

forty 



412 STRANGE SUBSTANCES POUND 

forty and fifty feet diameter,, in which lie purposes to 
ascend higher than any aeronaut has yet ventured (22,000 
feet from the earth is the greatest elevation yet attained), 
and is collecting a variety of instruments for further ex- 
periments. 

STRANGE SUBSTANCES FOUND IN THE HUMAN BODY. 

[Continued ir >rn ("Hire '3f>'J.] 

A PATIENT of the hospital of Lisle complained in IG8G 
of a sharp pain of fiie lower belly, in the hvpogastric re- 
gion. .Ho had a tnmoar, inflammation, and pulsation, 
accompanied by fever; all symptoms denoting an ab- 
cess. Haehin and (.'IK-., the one physician and the 
other surgeon to the hospital, made an incision of six 
fingers above the navel. The pus, which flowed freely, 
Avas of a verv ill scent ; it run during several months, and 
the patient died. On opening the body, a pin was found, 
attached to the right ureter, and encrusted with tarta- 
rcons matter. 

On the 31st of July, 1802, a stick of a very extraor- 
dinary size, measuring 20i inches iu length, and -21- in cir- 
cumference, was taken out of the side of an ox a little 
behind the near shoulder, and not far from the back bone, 
in the presence of John Beck, farrier; John Smith, ser- 
vant; and Edward Jones, I^sq. of Brncklcy, the owner of 
the ox, in whose po>session it had boon since the (Jth of 
April last, having been bought the preceding day at 
Northampton fair. The ox, when bought, had a sore place 
on its back, throi'.gh which the stick afu-nvards forced a 
passage ; it did not thrive before the stick was taken out, 
and had been long under the farrier's hand.-, bnt is now in 
good health and getting fat. The stick has the appear- 
ance of a common walking ttick, but is pointed at one 
end; possibly it may have been us^-d for the purpose of 
giving the ox a ball, and through carelessness have r/iip- 

ped 





I ~Wl( iL j(,j[ A ^11 S T All K'E S . 
7 

( '//// of 



SIR WILLIAM STAINES. 413 

peel down the animal's throat. The above facts have 
been attested on oath, before W. R. Cartwright, Esq. of 
Aynho, in Northamptonshire. 

Facts of this kind are doubtlessly more easy of expla- 
nation when they respect pointed bodies, capable of 
piercing the tunics of the stomach, and insinuating- them- 
selves on different sides, according to the directions they 
receive from the movements of the body ; but still it will 
always be surprising, and difficult o be accounted for, 
that pins, needles, and other bodies of this species, should 
traverse the stomach and penetrate every where else, 
without other accidents than those which occur if, at 
length, they become engaged in the muscular parts, or in 
the vessels, whence they cannot escape. 



Some ACCOUNT of Sir WILLIAM STAINES, Alderman, 
and late Lord Mayor of London, with his PORTRAIT, 
including the Vicissitudes of his early Life, and his gra- 
dual Progress through various Degrees of Fortune pre- 
ceding his Advancement to the highest oj all Civic Ho- 
nours. 

J[ HE benevolent character of Sir William Staines having 
often been the subject of much conversation among a 
very large circle of the public, we have presumed that, 
in collecting but a small portion of his history 7 into one 
point of view, we should not only gratify our readers, 
but promote and extend that general approbation which 
is at all times one of the rewards of merit,, besides hand- 
ing down to posterity a subject of laudable emulation and 
an encouraging instance of what can be effected by per- 
severance without the assistance of large capitals, or anv 
extraordinary gifts of fortune. 

H H H Affain, 



414 S'P- VvH-LIAM S 

.Again, nt this period of time, there are many national 
and moral reasons that call for particular attention to such 
ft., character as that of Sir William Staines. In an age 
\vhen the greater part of the upper ranks of society are 
generally immersed in luxury and dissipation, notwith- 
standing some royfii. examples of moderation and do- 
mestic happiness; and wink the trading interest, is chiefly 
bent upon accumulating wealth by the most excessive and 
hazardous speculation and through desperate adventure^ in 
such a period, to find an eminent character nobly despising 
the customary means of amassing sordid gain, and laugh- 
ing at the cares and anxious pursuits of the mercantile 
muckworm, and the mercenary and unfeeling monopo- 
lizer : this, it must be confessed, is an exception, some- 
thing like that of Noah, to the practice of the old 
world. 

In the perusal of universal history, it will appear, as if 
Providence had raided np some such exalted characters as 
a testimony against the torrents of venality, vice, and cor- 
ruption that so often prevail in the world, especially in 
the periods of prosperity or refinement ; and thus, as in the 
principal character before, us, some of the hest of men 
arc often found in the zcorst of times. 

But if the more polished periods of society have not 
produced many, who have thus turned their backs upon 
Mammon, and refused to worship the golden image, the 
preceding age* of mediocrity have been more productive 
oi them. The man of I?oss, described by Pope, would 
not suffer in being compared with the well-known cha- 
racter oi Sir William Staines ; or if a more familiar com- 
p;aison should be reci-.ihx-d; that of Sir \Yilliam Stainc* 
may be found in nearer resemblance to the once famous 
Sir Richard Wiiittington [for the particulars of his life 
*<-(." our IS umber Vj.l ; but we now proceed to u sketch oi 

tin 



SIR VTrLLIAM STA1XES. 

the origin of Sir William before he arrived at his present 
dignity. 
The birth place of this worthy man, we find toliavebeen 

in the parish of St. George, in the Borough ofSouthwark, 
in the year 173 1., where his father was v. stone-mason in so 
small a way of business, that it is- probable the object of 
Mr. Staines, when very young, was to better his fortune, as 
after leaving his parents *, some time, he matlc a vovage 
to Portugal,, as a common sailor. On his- return from 
that trip, the vessel he sailed in was> unfortunately cap- 
tured; and our hero, with the rest of the crew, carried 
into France, and made the tenants of a French prison. 
Young Staines, after remaining iu this situation six 
months, was exchanged, and carue home in a cartel; but 
so changed, so emaciated, and so disguised in tatters, 
that his own mother could only be persuaded of his iden- 
tity by some particular mark upon his person, which ^he 
insisted upon sec-ing before she could be convinced. 

After this, it is understood that Mr. Staines served 
his time as an apprentice to a stone-mason, in Cannon 
Street. Y\ hen hf was out of his time, he worked as 
a journeyman with Mr, Finder, the city mason, who 
married Mr. Staine^'s sister. When he left, off living in 
lodgings, he took a ehandk-r's shop and coal shed in Phi- 
lip Lane, London Wall, wheiv. at the conclusion of his 
day's labour abroad, he used on his return home to earry 
out coals to his customers, who never once dreamed that 

* It was probably about thi? time ttuit .Mr. Staines, btinij at Staines or 
!/-i' hum as a poor lad. ua.s iudueed to go into a chandler's shop kept by an 
old woman, air,!, from the cravings of his appetite, to call for rather mere 
in bread, sincil! bei-; - , ccc. than hi- . :krt v.ouid btav him out in: .. i;acive 
simplicity of his apu'>.::y and nppr au'.; "t- \v-j..^ such, that his Creditor soon 
forgot her first emotions, ami i!isi:i:s^d him with a h^av.y V!(YTHC. TkiS 
act of iorbearaiice ^ as not ibnroti.?n by Sir Wiliuau w'.ien ht arrived at pro- 
sperity; he souaht o:.;t the authoress of this triHir.j beuf.-faction in the decline 
'ji ht-r days, and rewarded her with an annuity as ions: as ghe livt-il. 

jt H n C the 



416 SIR V.' I M.I AM STAINES. 

the man thru doing such apparent drudgery was doomed 
to be their future Lord Mayor. 

But in process of time, when Mr. Staines became a 
little master,, and able to undertake small concerns for 
himsti c , having obtained his freedom by serving his Ma- 
jesty, Bow steeple, about 17tiO, happening to be in want 
of repair, he fortunately conceived that he should be able 
to execute the job, and applying for the same by the 
encouragement of a friend, who was bound for the ful- 
filment of his contract, his proposals were preferred, and 
his performance of the business so well approved of, that 
he was afterwards employed to raise a scaffold for the 
steeple of St. Bride's, Fleet Street; which was struck with 
lightning, r/G3. This scaffolding being suffered to stand 
after the business had been done till some of the ropes 
gave way, a part of it fell, and, what was very re- 
markable, one of the poles pitching down in a perpendi- 
cular direction from that extraordinary height upon a 
tombstone, it penetrated the same just as if it had been a 
soft substance, and perforated a round hole, which, of 
course, was viewed with surprize by a number of spectators. 
Mr. Staines was afterwards employed to take down the 
remainder of this scaffolding; and the Scotch pavement 
being introduced about that time, he was engaged in the 
paving of several streets; and afterwards had the good 
fortune to be appointed mason to the city of London. 
About ibis time he had a house and a mason's yard in 
Barbican. But with respect to Bow church being the 
first means of making his fortune, Mr. Staines seemed to 
entertain such an intimate sense of It, that when he became 
Lord Mayor, this church was represented in painting, in 
tiie back gioundof one of the pannels of the state coach. 
We now come to a particular feature in the life of Mr. 
Staines, respecting some incidents, which., if they had not 
been very well attested, must have rather staggered than 

claimed 



SIR WILLIAM STAIXES. 41? 

claimed a rational belief: we mean the prediction of Jiis 
good fortune by a, clergyman's lady at Uxbridge, where 
he was at work many years ago; as also, of the circum- 
stances which were to attend his mayoralty, as predicted 
by another person, the particulars of which are related as 
follows : 

" Mr. Staines happened, at a very early age, to be em- 
ployed in repairing the Parsonage House, at this place, 
going up the ladder one morning he was accosted by the 
clergyman's lady; who told him, she had a very extraor- 
dinary dream, that is to say that he would certainly be- 
come Lord Mayor of London. Astonished, and perhaps 
nattered in some degree at such a prophecy, Staines 
could only thank her for thinking of such an unlocked 
promotion for him. He further said he had neither 
money nor friends, and in short, the business of the dream 
was only considered as dreams usually are, and was very 
soon forgotten. The lady however, was not so easily to 
be turned from her prognostications t;s the dream had 
evidently left a great and lasting inipression upon her 
mind, and to such a degree that the same dream oc- 

^ o 

curred again, and the same communications were repeat- 
ed to him, and yet Mr. Staines left the piu'sonage house 
at Uxbridge, with no other impression than the kindness 
which had been shewn, and the notice that had been 

taken of him. It was not until he WHS made Slier: il' 

of London, in l/<)7, that this dream returned upon his 
recollection, though it might be supposed to have been, 
a laudable incitement to his industry through life. The 
Uxbridge clergyman had by the time it was thus fulriiled 
become old ; but ;,e lived long enough to be nominate'.' 
Sheriff's chaplain, at least dining six months of the 
shcnfialty, lor being very infirm when he was ;;ppoinv.eti, 
Sir William engaged the liev. Dr. Gregory, of Oippi< 
gate, to do the chaplain's duty, and gor.croii.-;h- p;iid b^tii 
thcs? gentlemen. 

This 



418 Sin VHI.T.IAM STAIN ES. 

This however, was not the only prediction which was 
ha/arcled in respect to the figure that Mr. Staines was ap- 
pointed to display to the world ; an aged lady many years 
ago, is r.aid to have foretold that he would be Lord 
.Mayor during n period of turbulence and scarcity, that 
we should be at war with France; but that during his 
mayoralty, peace and plenty would be restored. The 
vvoniiy magistrate 'during that period related this and 
other anecdotes, which he is fond of, over his pipe and 
glass; but nevertheless he expressed great doubts on its 
being fulfilled with respect to a peace; he, however, 
happily lived to see even this part of the predictions veri- 
fied, it' the peace of Amiens deserved the name. And 
}\c expressed a hope that when he went out of office ; 
bread might be <}d. the quartern loaf; but his bencvolcat 
wishes in this respect were not fulfilled. This dream 
and it? consequences have often furnished the worthy 
Alderman, with a subject for conversation, and for that 
contrast of his former and present situation, upon which 
he is by i;a means averse to reason upon, and to exhibit 
that vein of pleasantry upon so fertile a subject, for which 
with his other virtues, in his intercourse with all ranks of 
people, he is both loved and respected; but. though hu- 
manity has been CV.T observed as the most prominent 
feature of his character. Still in him, this disposition, 
has nothing of weakness or irresolution about it; he has 
always known how to make himself obeyed; and as one 
J.'iS-iunce among many, Lord Nelson's victory at Copen- 
hagen occurring during his mayoralty, instead of ex- 

O *s / ' 

lubiilng a blaxo of candles as had been customary, Sir 
Will: <;H caused the citizens to be informed by posting 
bills, that, it was his particular desire, that such persons 
;<.;' ii;ie;u!ed to expend money in that way, instead of so 
doing would more judiciously add it to the subscription 
then opened, for the l;e;ie-it of the widows and children 
:' those who foil in that sanguinary action. This act 

though 



STi! WILLIAM STAI'NES. 419 

though much more to the glory of the country, and con* 
genial vc the >-:rit and generosity of Englishmen, thaa 
t.he iTar^ient gleam of a few candles, was at that time 
general !v applauded, with the exception of one public 
newspaper, soon after defunct. But by the more sober 
pa it of the ccnnnunity, this act of suppressing a public 
illumination, and probably a degree of riot, was highly 
approved. By such it was esteemed v :it-w ire it of the 
superior goodness of the heart of the chief magistrate 
and the soundness of hisjudgment ; however it was rot, 
carried into effect without some opposition on the part of 
the populace, who making their appearance hi ihe citv 
on the night the illumination was expected, it was fou;id 
necessary to order the constables to d^-wrse them im- 
mediately, and which was accordingly performed in the 
course of a few minutes, though the crowd collected on 
the occasion were both numerous and no;-y. It \vos then 
observed, that the few people who lind put up candles iu 
their windows immediately withdrew them. The dif- 
ference of the conduct of Sir William Staines, in thcs 
opposing a popular propensity from that false lenity, and 
ill-timed forbearance adopted bv the chief ' magistrate, 
his predecessor in the riots of 1780, must strike the in..>n 
partial with some degree of conviction. But with the 
same general approbation with which he had filled the 
City Chair, so he withdrew from it. Sir William was LO 
orator, he had made use of no more than strong plain 
sense, in his harangues to the Livery, and the Citizens at 
large; he had never inflamed their passions. ^ et the 
populace in their way, to express their gratitude dfter the 
resignation of his office, when lie was returning from 
Westminster, they drew him in his carriage. This we 
mention here, because in this instance it is not credible 
that a mob was hired for that purpose, or for shouting 
their huzzas, as has very often been the case. And with 



420 Sill WILLIAM STAI.\i:,1, 

respect to the subscription recommended by Sir William 
instead of an illumination,, we should perhaps be wanting 
if we did not observe that in this, as well as upon all 
other occasions, he was one of the first to realize his 
precepts by his own example. 

During his mayoralty, and for several years before, Mr. 
Staines had been an inhabitant of Barbican, where he 
built a dwelling house adjoining the chapel of the Kev. 
.]. Towers. About, the year 17Q(), he began to put in 
execution the benevolent design of esablishing some alms- 
houses, nine in number. These he built on both sides 
of Jacob's Well Passage, Barbican; not in the ancient 
manner which the facetious Tom Brown has styled Cha- 
rity Pigeon-holes. Sir William Staincs's alms-houses, on 
the contrary, cannot be distinguished from any other 
dwelling houses bv any thing in their exterior. Neither 
does any stone in the front of them proclaim the poverty 
of the inhabitants, or that they were founded in such a 
vcar by such a one, &c. but the tenants of them have 
been in the first place Sir William's aged workmen, 
tradesmen, 8cc. several of whom Sir William had proba- 
bly known personally as his neighbours*. 

These alms-houses, though Sir William belongs to the 
Carpenters Company, we are told, he has put into the gift 
of the Parish of Cripplcgatej and among the present in- 

* One of these, \vho is since dead, \vr have heart!, frcq '.ented the Jacob's 
Well, v.iiere Sir William was in the habit of smoking his pipe of an evening: 
this person failing in business, Sir William presented him with one of his 
alms-houses to live in. The poor man, after this happening to he at the 
iiouse, and going into the kitchen instead of the parlour, Sir William ap- 
peared to be nu'ch offended at the distinction he inndi*, and insisted upon 
his cumiTi.nj again into the room where he had usually .sat with his benefactor, 
and as are 1 i:i:;i, that, he had not bestowed that favour upon him to degrade, 
cut to advance !ii:a in !4fe, and would hear of no apologies on the subject. 
In Yurk'-iiir? syiiie similar institution lias been formed under the auspices of 
Sir William. 

habitants 



S1K "WILLIAM STAIXES, 421 

habitants is a peruke-maker, whom we are also informed 
l.t ad shaved his worthy fnencj and patron during, a period 
of- forty-two years. 

It is now about six months since Sir William Staiues 
entirely left his town residence at Barbican, to go and 
reside at his country-house at Clapham Common ; how- 
ever, though he lias removed from bis poorer neighbours, 
he does not forget them. Sir William still occasionally 
visits and enquires after the health and circumstances of 
each of them individually, and with the same good fan- 
mourand affability which has ever distinguished him both 
before and after his elevation .in life. It should have been 
observed, that Sir William is the proprietor of the ground 
on which Mr. Towers's dwelling-house and chapel now 
stands, which forms a part of the revenue of these alms- 
houses. He also built the Isew Jacob's Well up the pas- 
sage in Barbican. 

It must have have been a singular source of happiness 
to Sir William, that in all his pious and humane efforts, lie 
was never opposed by any of his family. His late lady, in 
particular,, ever shewed a high degree of alacrity in second- 
ing his views. In order to distinguish who were the pro- 
per objects of his bounty, she has not been averse to 
visiting some of the poorest habitations in and about 
Golden Lane and other places. And in the distribution of 
soup, &c. in winter, which Sir William was in the habit 
of bestowing four or five years before it became common, 
it was not his general rule to compel those who received it 
to fetch it from his house, and thus proclaim their humi- 
liation to the censorious, and the world at large; but, to 
prevent this, his servants have been sent with his alms to 
the habitations of those who received them, Still in this 
unusual flow of the purest benevolence, it i> not pretended 
that the donor has met with no abuse in the conduct of 
those who received it; this, notwithstanding, never altered 
his character; his conduct still seemed to speak the lan- 

111 ^ ia( ' 



422 SIR \V1I.LIAM STAIN15S. 

guage of the celebrated Lady Falkland in the reign of 
Charles 1. viz. " that she would rather relieve ten impos- 
tors,, than one person truly deserving should go away 
empty handed." 

Sir William, who has been twice married, is now a wi- 
dower, has had ten children, and has two left at present; 
A daughter who is lame, and a son : his first son William, 
by his first wife, died many years ago of a consumptive 
habit, much regretted on account of his promising abi- 
lities in figures, and a capacity for the mathematics. 

The late spouse of Sir William, who had been his ser- 
vant, has been dead but a few months. This misfortune 
occurred at Clapham : her ladyship, however, was in- 
terred at Cripplegatc church, the charity children singing 
at the burial : and on Saturday, August 14, the funeral 
sermon was preached by the Rev. Dr. Gregory, his lord- 
ship's late chaplain, to a very croudecl audience. 

Sir William has not, though in the 71st year of his age, 
relinquished the character of a tradesman. His masons' 
yard, and his house at Millbank, Westminster, are still 
the objects of a part of his care. As a stone-mason upon 
a large scale, it may be supposed he has been engaged 
in some buildings of magnificence, something approxi" 
mating to the gorgeous palaces and cloud-capped 
towers ; humbler, but, perhaps, more useful dwellings, 
notwithstanding, still find a place in the heart of this 
true philanthropist, this general friend to mankind. 

Sir William has a particular habit that we cannot pass 
over; he is so partial to smoking, that he is never without 
A pipe, as he always takes one of these organs of contem- 
plation with him in his carriage : and so far is he from ad- 
hering to the modern notions of high life .in amassing 
riches for indulgence in extreme luxury, or in heaping 
them up to be disposed of by others after his decease, that 
b.e has more prudently resolved to see to the dispensations 

of 



CASE OF ISABELLA WILSON. 423 

of Ills alms during his own life time, with the pleasure of 
observing that his bounties are properly administered and 
watching their progress; as he has probably heard of 
chancery suits of forty years standing, without any applica- 
tion of the charity, consistent with the will of the donors. 
We have already made several allusions to Sir William's 
general affability and hospitality, and we can only con- 
clude the character of this worthy magistrate by com- 
paringit with that of Sir Roger De Coverley, so admirably 
depicted in Addison's Spectator, and which the author 
intended as a perfect resemblance of that of an old Eng- 
lish gentleman ; for, unlike many others who have been 
intoxicated by promotion and the favours of fortune, Sir 
William has preserved an equanimity of character and 
disposition all through life. 

In fact, without any particular profession, Sir William 
lias uniformly put in practice one of the most difficult, 
and excellent precepts of the Christian religion <( mind 
not hiy/i things but condescend to men of low estate." 



Extraordinary CASE of ISABELLA WILSON. 

[From Buchan's Duty of Mothers.] 

ISABELLA WILSON was in early life a very promising 
child, and the object of her mother's idolatry. This good 
woman had no idea that health and beauty were more 
likely to be destroyed than improved or preserved by ex- 
cessive care. In the choice of diet, clothes, exercise, &.c. 
the delicacv of her sweet girl was always the ruling; idea. 

J 

It is easv, indeed, to render the human frame more deli- 
cate ; but to make it more robust, requires a very dif- 
ferent mode of proceeding. 

As the child did not seem afflicted with any particular 
complaint, the doting mother exulted at the happy ef- 
fects of her own management, and never thought that 

O ^ -!* 

1 i I i? the 



CA~Z OF ISAEELI A WILSON. 

the taper form., the fine iimbs, and the languishing soft- 
ne&s, which she so much admired, were the sure symp- 
toms of debilitv, and of latent disease. 

Isabella's mental improvement, in which she surpassed 
many other young girls of her age at the same school, 
was no. 3 ess flattering to her mistaken parents,. But she 
had scarcely attained her 14th year be lore the fond illu- 
sion vanished, and the regular functions of both mind 
and body were suspended by a fit of the most extraordi- 
nary nature. I cannot avoid making one remark hero* 
which raay be of great practical utility. Il is, that fits, 
though they go by different names, and are ascribed to a 
srreat variety of causes, may all be ranked under the ge- 
neral appellation of nervous affections, and are almost 
a} way s the consequence of bad nursing, or injudicious 
ireatraept in childhood. Few children, properly nursed, 
hare fits; aod of those who are improperly managed, 
few escape them. Poor Bell Wilson was one of the un- 
fortunate class. 

On my being sent for to attend this young woman 
who was then 16, I was informed that she had been sub- 
ject to fits for about three years, and had taken a great 
deal of medicine by the advice of several of the Faculty, 
but without having experienced any benefit. Though 
the person who gave me this account made use of the 
word fits, 1 soon found that, strictly speaking, it was 
only one fit, that assumed two different forms or states, 
which followed one another in constant succession during 
the whole of the above period. 

lit order to give a precise idea of this singular kind of 
fit, J shall call its first state acL ire, and the second pas- 
fjzc. During the former, the voting woman made use of 

V 

-he mo.it vjoiL-ut exertions, springing up, throwing hc r 

ttnris about., .and striking them agninst owry thing which 
fcaiiic wiihin her reach j at the :-ame time, she uttered a 

sor r 



CASE 0V ISABELLA %VILbON. 42} 

sort of noise, consisting of three notes, which was more 
like tiie ciy of some wild beast than any thing human. 

An universal spasm succeeded those strange agitations, 
inul everv limb became as suf'f and in flexible as if it had 
been suddenly petrified. Her whole appearance was that 
of a siatiie made of Parian marble. In this state of rigi- 
dity she continued sometimes for one hour, sometimes 
two, and of; en three or four; but the moment it was over, 
~he bccr.u \\ith the cry and motion above described. 

The active convulsion never lasted .so long as the rigid 
state; h;;.t it was the only time at which any tiling could 
be got duv.'u her throat. As she would not admit sub- 
<ratK-cs of the least solidity into her inoiuh, the little nu- 
iriment which she received was always given in a ilujd 
ionn, and chiefly consisted of small-beer, or \\ine and 
water. Her evacuations, either by stool or urine, were of 
course very trifling, and she was wholly insensible of 
both. Notwithstanding the- thinness of her diet, she did 
not appear emaciated or ghastly ; on the contrary , L-;>^ 
was tolerably well in flesh, and Ler countenance, though 
quite voitl of colour, was rather pleasing. 1 fer figure was 
exquisitely line, the disease did net appear to have pie- 
vented her growth in height, though -it had in i-trenu'.h, 
and in bulk or expansion ; she was very slender, but as 
tall as most yoiuig women of the same nge. Such were 
the most s'u iking peculiarities of her situatx;:! when I 
paid my iirst visit, 

As all the voluntary motions were suspended, and the 
involuntary alone took place, I thought that bv excitiap- 

^ o 

the former I might suppress the hitler, which had so long 
agitated he system. But before I had recourse to stimu- 
lants, I was induced, by the tone of cubiidcnee with 
which I had orten heard anodynes and antispasmodickg 
spoken of by professional men of eminence, to .try them 
iirst: but the experiment, though fairly i::ac!e, and duly 



4<2G CASE OF ISABELLA WILSON; 

persevered in, was not attended with the least success. < 
Ami here 1 jrust observe, that, after forty years farther 
pr..'. lice, I have never found the effect of antispasmo- 
tli< !:s in such eases to correspond with the high reputa- 
tion vihichthey long retained in the medical world. 1 
know it has been the usual method, when the actions of 
the system appear to be inverted, to employ this class of 
medicines, in order to restore regularity, and to take off 
the supposed spasm. I am far from being inclined to 
question the veracity of the favourable reports made by 
others of the issue of their experiments; 1 candidly state 
the result of my own, which lias wholly destroyed mv 
reliance on that mode oi proceeding. 

.Afler the failure of the above attempts, in which I 
was more guided by the example of others than by the 
dictates of my O\YU mind, i resolved to try the effect of 
irritation on the most sensible parts, which were often 
rubbed witl'i tether, and other volatile spirits. I prescrib- 
ed at the same time the internal use of tonicks, particu- 
larly chalybeated wine, and the compound tincture of 
baik.* Appearances soon became favourable: but as the 
change for the better was slow, the parents were persuad- 
ed by somebody to try the cold bath; and this rash step 
proved almost fatal to my hopes, and to their fondest 
wishes. 

The reader should be informed, that the astonishing 
singularity of the girl's disorder had rilled the minds of 
the. country people all around with the wildest and most 
superstitious conjectures. The general opinion was, that 
the complaint nr,:st be owing to evil spirits, and that the 
girl was certainly possessed. Some were for putting her 
into wa or, where they were sure she would swim. Others 

* ] Jinvij here omitted the detail of doses and effects, usually given in 

rneiti' al CCIM-.S, :;s I am not uTitiin instruction*; for, the treatment of diseases, 
bat faiit.io)i;- to mothers' (..iiiecrninjf the niir.siiijj of their children. 

said 



CASE OF ISABELLA WILSON. 4C7 

said that, if she was laid upon the fire, she would un- 
doubtedly fly up the chimney. One bold Captain of 
horse, a man of more resolution than intellect, declared 
his readiness to expel the foul fiend by shooting the girl, 
if the parents would give him leave. Her mother, who 
waS not deficient in natural good sense, though in the 
education of her daughter she had suffered her fondness 

O 

to get the better of her understanding, paid no regard to 
such absurd and ridiculous proposals ; but she yielded to 
the importunities of a friend, who had described to her 
with great earnestness and plausibility the wonderful 
effects of the cold bath. 

A single immersion convinced the parents of their dan-r 
gerous error. All the symptoms were aggravated in the 
most alarming manner. Tiie duration of the rigid state 
of the body was extended irom a few hours to eleven 
days. She would then have been buried, had I riot po- 
sitively forbidden her mother, whatever might happen, 
to have her interred, till I should give my assent. At the 
time of this last attack I wa.s upon a journey to a distant 
part of the country. On my return honu-, I was told that 
my patient was dead ; but that her burial had been de- 
layed till 1 should see her. When 1 called, I found her 
to all appearance what the peopio lu.d described her, a 
lifeless corpse. On exanrniiig the body, however, I 
thought I perceived some decree uf warmth about the 

O 1 O 

region of the heart. This confirmed me in my previous 
design to make eveiy attempt to restore animation. It 
was a considerable time befo/e any symptoms of life ap- 
peared; at length, the girl set up her old cry, and begun 
to throw her arms about as usual. 

Afttsr having so far succeeded, the parents in:plicitiy 
followed my farther directions, and did not throw any new 
obstacle in the way of a cure. I again had recourse to 
the toiiicks before mentioned, with such nourishment as 

the 



4-23 CAST: or ISABELLA WILSON 

ihe girl could be brought to swallow. The violence of 
the convulsive motions gradually abated, and the dura- 
tion of the rigid state of the fit grew shorter and shorter; 
till, in about six months, the whole ceased, a^d the re- 
gular and natural actions of the system returned. 

The state of this girl's rnind, as well as of her body, on 
lier recovery, was as extraordinary as her disease. It is 
common to all persons, who fall into fits, to have no re- 
membrance of what happens during the paroxysm. This 
young woman not only was insensible of every occur- 
rence and of the progress of time during her Ions; fit, 
but her malady had .completely blotted out all recollec- 
tion of every event before that period, and even the 
traces of all knowledge which she had acquired from the 
moment of her birth to her illness. I have indeed known a 
single fit of 24 hour's duration to destroy the powers of the 
mind, and produce absolute idiotism ; but that was not 
the case here. The mental faculties, after a total sus- 
pension for four years, were not destroyed, but reduced 
to an in iant state; and, though void of knowledge, were 
as capable of acquiring it as ever. 

It was just the same with regard to speech, and to the 
proper management of the legs and arms, of which she 
knew as little at the time of her recovery as at the instant 
of her birth. .Nothing could be more curious than to 
hear her lisping for sonic months the namby pamby of a 
chiki, p.iul to trace her progress in the imitation of 
sounds, and the use of "language. As soon as she could 
converse, she was told how long she had bccnilr: she 
cried, bur. could not, believe it. When some books, 
whir'; r-ho had written at school, were shewn to her, she 
!ho'j;'.ht it impossible they could be hers, and was posi- 
tive that the whole must be a mockery. In the coarse of 
lime she viehlrd to the concurrent testimony of other.-; 
but she remained unconscious of any former .state of ex- 
istence. 

II c* 



CASE OF ISABELLA WILSOtti 

new attempts to walk, were as awkward as her at- 
tempts to speak ; and she required nearly as much time to 
recover the perfect use of her legs as of her tongue. 'Even 
after she had acquired a considerable degree of strength, 
she wanted expertness in her motions, and was obliged to 
be led about by the arms like a baby. Whenever I called 
to see her, I made a point of taking her into the garden to 
\valk with me ; but it was with great difficulty that. I could 
prevent her from falling. We often lament the weakness 
of infancy ; yet were we to come full grown into the 
world, we should not only be as long in learning to walk 
as infants are, but our first essays would be infinitely more 
dangerous. 

It is unnecessary to trace any farther the steps by which 
tin's young woman advanced to the full re-establishment of 
her health, and to the perfect use of all her mental and cor- 
poreal faculties. These great ends were gained by a mode 
of treatment the very reverse of the enervating plan which 
had been the cause of her long sufferings ; but which, hap- 
pilv for her, was not afterwards resumed. 

I shall leave tender parents to make their own reflec- 
tions on this case, and shall now only urge it as a farther 
caution against the too hasty interment of persons who may 
seem to expire in a fit. Unequivocal proofs of death 
should always be waited for, and every ad viscable means of 
resuscitation persevered in, when we consider how long 
appearances may be deceitful, and how unexpectedly the 
Intent sparks of life may be rekindled. 

Besides the uncommon instance of this young woman's 
feanimation, as it may be called, I have heard of a youns* 
lady in Holland, who was res tcred to her desponding 
friends, after she hail been for nine clays apparently in a 
state ot death. The day before her proposed interment 
her Doctor called to take IMS final leave of her ; but fan- 
cying that he perceived some vital symptom, ha renewed 

x k k 



430 PRODUCTIONS OF NATURE. ACCOUNT OF 

his before hopeless efforts, and had the happiness to suc- 
ceed. This ghTs case differed from that of my patient it 
one very remarkable particular. I am told, that in her 
seemingly inanimate state, she was all the while perfectly 
conscious of being alive, though she could not stir, nor 
speak, and that her only terror was lest she should be 
buried alive. 

SINGULAR PRODUCTIONS OF NATURE. 

ON the 7th of October 1803, an Aurora Borealis wa* 
seen at Errol in Scotland, between eleven and twelve at 
night, of most brilliant appearance : not only were there 
a great number of bright and vast columns perpendicular 
to the horizon, but all the atmosphere in the Northern 
quarter of the heavens, was covered with one continued 
gleam of lightning. 

A Cucumber, lately cut in the garden of C.Wilson, Esq. 
of Empsall, weighed 5^1bs. and measured 30| inches long, 
and 14 inches in circumference. 

A Potatoe was dug up last month in a. garden, belon Grins 

O i- _ C7 * O C* 

to Mr. David Knight, Brewer, at Arbroath, in Scotland, 
of most extraordinary size ; its largest circumference 
19 inches, the least 17 inches; it weighed two pounds nine 
ounces : it is the kind known there by the name of Ame- 
rican Tartar. There were nine other potatoes at the samu 
stem, weighing on an average, sixteen ounces each. 

A Turnip. Mr. Mutch, at Murtle, (Dee-side,) pulled 
one up on his farm, the beginning of October, weighing. 
eighteen pounds. 



Full and authentic. Account of MARY SQUIRES and 

CANNING, concluded from page 397. 
THE evidence of George Squires, the gipsy's son, was 
peculiarly diverting. He could give a particular account 
of every house they called at on their journey from South 

Perrot 



MARY SQUIRES, A GIPSY; AttD ELIZ. CANNING. 431 

Pcrrot to London, and even recollected that they had two 
fowls for dinner at Litton, in Wilts, who they were 
bought of, &c. ; and, to the observation of the counsel, 
that it was perhaps an extraordinary dinner, he said No, 
they had fowls very often. His manner and acuteness also 
made the counsel observe, that he was by no means a per- 
son of weuk capacity, as had been represented. However, 
being called upon to give an account of another journey 
into Sussex, previous to the former jaunt, lie could not, or 
would not tell the name of the place, nor those of many 
others which he had passed through. In fact, in the course 
of an examinatipn of two hours, he would own to nothing 
that could tend in the least degree to the crimination of his 
mother. 

It was also expected that Lucy Squires, his sister, would 
have been called in by the counsel for the prosecution ; 
and though it was strongly urged by the other counsel, she 
was not called upon for any evidence. After a variety of 
examination Avas gone through, to prove the absence of'' 
JVIary Squires, at the time Canning swore she robbed 
her, the Court proposed an adjournment to the 1st of 
May, which was over-ruled. The prosecutor's counsel 
desired that E. Canning should be delivered into custody 

O . 

of the keeper of Newgate; but this was warmly spoke 
against by the defendant's counsel, so that it was at last 
agreed that she should be admitted to bail ; accordingly 
her former bail entered into a fresh recognizance. The 
girl was then put into a coach as privately as possible ; but 
the populace finding it out, hung upon and followed it 
with the loudest huzzas and shoutings to an house in the 
Old Bailey, where she went to, and they staid about the 
door huzzaing till eleven o'clock; when they had retired, 
she went home. Some of the most vulgar of the populace 
were so audacious as to insult Sir Crisp Gascoignc, as he 
'as coming out of the Sessions-House j which one of the 

K k k 2 friends 



432 A FULL AND AUTHENTIC ACCOUNT O? 

friends of Canning happening to see, he immediately 
pushed in among them, and rescued him from their hands. 
Her friends were very much grieved at this outrage, and 
the next day had hand-bills printed, disclaiming the fact, 
which they got delivered at night to the cro\vd that \va& 
assembled in the Sessions-Hoase-rYard. 

Notwithstanding this, the friends of Canning were 
charged with being the encouragers of these insults, though 
they did every thing in their power to prevent them. The 
greatest care was taken that could be, that the girl should 
go to and coine from the Sessions-House privately, to avoid 
any huzzaing ; and she was put into different dresses, and, 
vent out at private doors, and sometimes windows, that the 
people waiting about the house might not know any thing 
of her going out. 

On Wednesday the Court met again, according to ad- 
journment ; when it \vas informed, in a very moving and 
pathetic manner, of the great danger Sir Crisp Gascoigne had 
been in from the mob on the Monday night before ; and the 
Court was moved that a guard might be appointed for the 
security of his person, when he went from the Sessions- 
House at njo-hts. The iurv likewise fearinq; for themselves, 

o /,> o 

moved that a guard might be allowed to them. The re- 
corder then set forth in a very eloquent speech, the inso- 
lence and ill consequences of such proceedings ; that the 
magistracy of the city of London were too respectable a, 
body to be thus insulted by a mob ; that himself too had 
met with some insults ; but he would have them to know, 
that the magistracy were i.ot to be terrified ; that they 
would go to the bottom of it ; that whoever was concerned ^ 
let them look to it. The counsel for the defendant then 
arose, and told the Court that he would venture to. say that 
none of the friends of his client were concerned in any 
thing of this sort ; but supposing even that their zeal had 
iiarriedsome of them "too far, yet it ought not to prejudice 

bis. 



MARY SQUIRES, A GIPSY; AND ELIZ. CANNING. 433 

his client, who could have no hand in it ; therefore he- 
hoped the jury would not let their minds be prejudice^ 
against her by any thing that an outrageous mob ( who fol- 
lowed nothing but the dictates of passion; had clone, or 
should do, during the course of the trial ; Thut on the? 
part of his client, he had a complaint to make of no less an 
outrage done to. her, which was shameful to the highest de- 
gree, arid might be of the worst consequence to her. Me 
then read a paragraph in the newspaper of the day before, 
wherein the defendant was spoken of in a very virulent 
manner : the insults given Sir Crisp Gascoigne, attributed 
to her or her friends, with an intent to obstruct justice. 
He observed, that to publish such a paragraph during the 
course of the trial, was doing as much as could be done to 
bias and prepossess the jury against the defendant, and 
therefore cruel to the highest degree, unjust and illegal. 
The Court agreed with him in this, and recommended an 
information to be laid against the printer of the paper. 
After this, they proceeded to business ; and Mr. Alderman 
(Jhitty repeated the story told by E. Canning, when lie 
took her deposition at Guildhall, and made remarks upon, 
a number of inconsistencies which he observed in it. 

Mr. Gawen Nash coniirmed these observations, espe- 
cially Canning's then saying she was confined in a small 
dark room. He had been at Mother Wells's with several 
iVicnds, and seen the room. He also gave Eliz. Canning 
and her mother a good character, for dx-cencv, sobriety, 
oic. He then clearly proved that the room, and tilings in 
it, did not at ail agree wit'i E. Canning's descriprion of it. 
He further related, that when E. Canning was first taken, 
down to the house at Enfiekl, to swear to the persons that 
had robbe-J her, she was taken out of the chaise in the arms 
of a man, and carried into Mother Wells's kitchen, where. 
;>he was set upon the dresser for about four or live minutes ; 
jhat the c',oor of the loft was then open ; that afterwards.. 



434> A FULL AND AUTHENTIC ACCOUNT OF - 

she sat upon a stool in the middle of the house, for near 
twenty minutes, the door of the loft remaining all the 
while open ; that when she was carried into the parlour, 
where there were many people, in order for her to pitch 
upon the person who cut off her stays, the gipsy sat oa 
the right-hand side, and Mother Wells on the left ; that as 
soon as Canning came in, she fixed on the gipsy, and said, 
That was the woman ; that he could not then see the gipsy's 
face, and cannot tell whether Canning could. And when 
Squires' s daughter told her mother that she was fixed upon 
as the person who had robbed Canning ; she then got up, 
and came across the room to Canning, saying, Madam, do 
you say I robbed you? Look at this face, and if you have 
ever seen it before, you must remember it, for I believe that 
God Almighty never made such another. When Canning 
told her when it was, she said, Lord, Madam! I was 120 
miles of)' at that time : He asked her where she was, she 
said, at Abbotsbury in Dorsetshire, and that she could 
bring an hundred people to prove it, who had known her 
thirty or forty years. That there were people in the room, 
who said, Lord ! she has been here but a -eery little while; 
and that there was a -woman called Natus, who said she 
had been in the house ten or eleven weeks, and that the 
gipsy had been there but a little while, and that she had 
never seen Elizabeth Canning there before. 

After this, Canning was led to see the place of her con- 
finement, and carried into several rooms, then into the 
loft; she said, she believed that was the room. Bein" 
asked what she remembered in the room, she turning 
about to the left hand, said, she remembered it by that 
hay, but said there was more added to it. Being asked 
then what else she remembered, and a pitcher being 
taken up from the ground, she said, That is the juff I 
drunk my water out of. Then a gentleman took up a 
tobacco mould, and asked her if she remembered that ? 



MARY SQUIRES, A GIPSY; AND ELIZ. CANNING. 435 

She said, she did : Another gentleman asked her, what 
else she remembered, and if there were any saddles in the 
room ? She said, she believed there might be one, but 
she did not remember any thing of a nest of drawers. 
Being asked why she did not escape out of the East win- 
dow, she said, she did not know but it was fast;. 

The conclusion of Mr. Nash's evidence was, That from 
that very time he thought Canning an impostor, or else 
greatly deceived, and that he had given up espousing her 
cause from that very day. He was asked this three or four 
times, and replied, that from that very hour he had left 
Slaving any thing to do in her favour ; that he had often 
declared the same as he had deposed now, in common con- 
versation. Being asked how he came not to declare this 
upon the trial of the gipsy, he said, he was present at part 
of the trial, but being butler to the Goldsmiths' Company, 
and having a great dinner to get for them that da} r , he left 
the Old Bailey by eleven o'clock ; and that though he was 
a little discontented at the evidence of Canning, yet he 
thought the gipsy would not have been convicted, and if 
he had thought so, he would have staid and given the 
same evidence as he had done now ; that soon after he 
heard Mary Squires was respited, he went voluntarily to 
the Lord Mayor, being dissatisfied in his own mind, and 
told him he could let him into the whole affair, 

Mr. Hague and Mr. Aldrich gave much the same account 
as Mr. Nash, only they said there were marks of some 
lock or fastening to the cloor which led to the loft where 
Canning was connned, and a sort of ledge or pent-house 
under the window, from whence she said she o;ot out. 

^ O 

Both said they dropped Canning's cause from that time. 
Being asked, they both owned they were at the trial of 
the gipsy, and gave the reasons why they did not then 
give evidence, to save the life of a woman whom they 
thought wrongfully accused : One said, he was so shocked 

at 



4SG A FULL AND AUTHENTIC ACCOUNT Of 

at it, that he bad not power to speak any thing about It, 
though he staid all the trial, which lasted some hours ; th<* 
other said, he was engaged to dine with a gentleman in 
JBraithfield, therefore left the Sessions-House before the 
trial was qnit'c finished. 

The next witness called, was Fortune Natus, who de- 
posed, That he and his wife lay in that very room during 
the time Canning says she was confined there ; says, 
when they came there, there was half a load of hay in 
the room, which room he says was called the work-shop; 
that his bed was made of hay and straw, and his bolster 
iras a sack of wool ; there was no grate in the room ; 
that there was a nest of drawers and two or three side- 
saddles', a mini's saddle, a large drawer with some pol- 
lard, a tub, an old gun, &e. &c. 

Judith Natus, wife to Fortune Natus, gave much the 
same account as he had done. She seemed to forget 
several tilings which her husband said was in the room, 
and recollected others, never mentioned before^ particu- 
lar! v a parcel of pan-tiles. 

Sarah llcnvell, daughter to Mother Wells, deposed, 
That she was there every day during the month of Janu- 
ary. *Shc said, that Yertuc Hall went as often into the 
hay-loft as she did ; and that upon the 8th of January, 
Edward Allen, Giles Knight, and John Larney, lopped 
tin; trees which were over agains,t the window ; and that 
Vertne Hall and herself were at the window at that time; 
that she opened the casement herself, and it opened 
very easy. 

John Larnev, Giles Knight, and Edward Allen, gave 
an account of their looping the trees on the 8th of Januarv, 
that stood just against the window of the room in winch 
Canning said she was confined, and talked to Sarah 
llowcll and Virtue' Mail the time they were looking out 
lit the window of the hay-loit. 

John 



MARY SQUlfeES, A GIPSY; AND ELIZ. CANNING. 43t 

John Howell deposed, He lived at Enfield Wash, and 
was son to Mother Wells ; that he was in the work-shop 
on the 19th, 20th, and 21st of January ; he said, his 
mother had sent him there on these days to fetch pollard 
to feed the sow and pigs, and that Fortune Natus and his 
wife were the only people that were in that room. He 
says, he attended the trial of Squires, but the mob would 
not suffer him to come in, and tlrat he was forced to go 
away. 

Mr. Deputy Molineaiix deposed, That he happened to 
be with the late Lord Mayor (after Mary Squires was con- 
victed) when Canning and Vertue Hall were brought to 
be examined ; and that, after my Lord Mayor had exa- 
mined Vertue Hall, her answer was, she had nothing to 
say at that time : He says, the pitcher and bed-gown 
were produced ; that Canning took up the gown, to take 
it away ; when my Lord Mayor said, No, you must not 
take it away ; that then she said, It is my mother's. This, 
he says, surprised him a great deal ; because, on the trial 
of Squires, she said, she took it out of the grate in the 
room where she said she was confined. 

The counsel for the prosecution having gone through 
these witnesses, rested it. 

The counsel for the defendant then rose up;, and made 
a very strong and sensible speech ; in which he observed, 
That his client, after suffering to an uncommon degree, 
bv being almost starved to death, was now brought to a 
trial for Wilful and corrupt Perjury ; that he had seen 
with some surprise, the counsel for the prosecution chal- 
lenging no less than sixteen of the jury ; that he believed, 
except in cases of treason, that there had never been an 
instance before of a prosecutor challenging sixteen of the 
jury out of twenty-four ; however, lie was very well 
pleased with it> as he hoped, after this, that the prosecu- 
tor, if a verdict was given against him, would remain 

L 1 1 satisfied 



433 A FULL AND AUTHENTIC AccotrNf OF 

satisfied that justice had been done him. Tie then ob- 
served, that he thought nothing amounting to a positive 
proof had been brought against his client} aijd that whom 
a case was doubtful, the law always inclined to the mer- 
ciful side. That he did not suppose that the witnesses 
who had sworn to the gipsy's being at Abbotsbury at th 
time, had wilfully perjured themselves ; but that the al- 
teration ef the style just at that time, it was well known 
had greatly confounded the people, and that even to this 
day, it was usual with us to say (talking of the seasons, &c.) 
that it is only such a day of the month, according as we 
used to reckon ; that this custom of reckoning by two dif- 
ferent computations or styles, necessarily would puzzle 
any one in fixing some months after on the particular time 
on which any thing happened ; that the gipsy was really 
at Abbotsbury, near about the time in question, he did 
suppose ; but the question was, whether it was at that par- 
ticular time. He then spoke to the possibility of Canning's 
Morv, and even the probability of it, considering all the 
circumstances that, attended it. He observed, that what 
his brother counsel on the other side had said, that villains 
and robbers \vould never do mischief merely for the sake 
of doing it, frequent experience contradicted. As to the 
improbability, which he had observed, of no one passing by 
to see Bedlam at the time the girl was stopt and robbed ; 
he must in reply say, that if his brother counsel had taken 
it in his head to go and see Bedlam at such an unseason- 
able time, between the hours of nine and ten at night., 
that he should not have been surprised had the keeper 
taken and locked him up among the mad people he came 
to see. lie next urged strongly, that notwithstanding all 
(he extraordinary pains that had been taken, thev had not 
been able to prove in the least that the girl was in any 
other place than where site had sworn she was.-*-' 1 What ! 
(says he) could a poor ignorant girl, without money, 

v it! LOU; 



MARY SQUIRES, A GIPSV; AND ELIZ. CANNING, 439 

vithqut friends, have the art and means to conceal herself 
a whole month, undiscovered by any one, to lie-in, or to 
t>e salivated, as has been said ? Strange ! and incredible 
is it, that neither midwife, nurse, or surgeon, under whose 
eare" she was, should have blabbed nothing in all this time ! 
It is well known that ladies of the greatest fortune, that 
have money to buy silence, yet cannot purchase secresy 
on these occasions, but their miscarriages of this kind will 
get abroad ; and yet not a single syllable, for the space of 
sixteen months, has come out to prove Canning's being 
in any other place whatsoever than the house of Mother 
Wells." He next observed, That it was contrary to nature 
for pepple to become desperately wicked and inhuman all 
at once ; that it was always by degrees, and step by step, 
that people arrived to the height of wickedness ; but that 
the defendant's character was proved to hie blameless and 
irreproachable in every respect till the very hour of this 
affair : Modesty, sobriety, industry, and good-nature* 
were her characteristics ; and therefore it was quite incre- 
dible, that all of a sudden she should become wicked 
enough to invent such a story, and to be guilty of the 
vilest perjury and most pre-mcditatcd murder, by wilfully 
and deliberately swearing away the life of an innocent 
person. It has been reported (said he) that the whole was 
a contrivance between her and her mother, to get money 
by the contributions of the humane and charitable ; but it 
was. not a thing to be believed, that any person would on 
purpose- reduce themselves to the deplorable and miserable 
condition., which it was known, beyond all doubt, that 
Canning was ivt, even to within a hair's breadth of death, 
upon the uncertain hopes of getting a little money : It 
was even a contradiction ta reason and common sense, that 
any one would, for the sake, of getting money, reduce 
themselves to so desperate a condition, as to leave littlei 
fcPRes .of living to receive it, &c. &c. 

L 1 1 2 



440 

After the counsel had finished their speeches, the wit- 
nesses for the defendant were called, chiefly consisting of 
her mother's friends, who generally spoke of her former 
character, and her behaviour after she came home. 

James Lord, apprentice to Mrs. Canning, deposed to 
Elizabeth Cannings beins; missed, the en-eat concern his 

O O ' O 

mistress was in on that account, and that when she re- 
turned, his mistress was at prayers for her daughter's re- 
turn ; that when she came to the door, he did not at first 
know her, nor till she spoke, she was in such a deplorable 
condition ; that his mistress fell in a fit upon it ; that she 
had a bit of handkerchief over her head, and an old jacket 
on, and that she was a very sober girl. 

Mr. Backler, an apothecary in Aldermanbury, deposed, 
He was applied to by the girl's mother-, and weut to her 
on the 30th of January ; he found her extremely low, and 
could scarcely hear her speak, with cold ckmmy sweats 
in her bed ; she complained of being very faint and sick, 
and of pains in her bowels, and of having been costive the 
whole time of her confinement. He ordered her a purging 
medicine, but her stomach was too weak for it, and could 
not bear it ; he then ordered her a glyster that evening, 
and on the 3d of February another ; the latter had some 
little effect : He ordered her another on the 5th ; that had 
no effect at all; and, she continuing very bad, and in 
great danger, Dr. Eaton was sent for on the 6th : He 
wrote prescriptions for her for fourteen days, of diuretic 
and gentle cathartic medicines ; that she was tolerably 
well in about a month. When she was at the worst, her 
face was remarkable, her colour quite gone, her arms of a 
livid colour spotted; and that M'hen he heard she was gone 
to Enfield Wash, when the people were taken up, he 
thought her not able to perform the journey, and thought 
it extremely improper for her to undertake it, she being 
Tery much emaciated and wasted, 

Robert 



MARY SQUIRES, A GIPSY; AND ELIZ. CANNING. 441 

Robert Beals, who is one that attends the turnpike afe 
Stamford Hill, deposed, That, at the beginning of Jan u- 
arv, as he was standing by the gate at near eleven at 
night, he heard a sobbing and crying on the road ; it 
eame from towards Newington, and drew nearer and 
nearer ; at last he perceived it was two men and a young 
person, seemingly by her crying ; one said, Come along 9 
y ou i) h, you (/ire dmnk ; the other said, How drunk the 
b h is ! and made a sort of a laugh ; but she scemc4 
unwilling to go. By his light he could see them, one got 
over the style, and the other laid hold of one of her legs, 
or both, and lifted them over, so that she came down up- 
right ; she hung back and fell on her. breech on the step of 
the style, and set out a fresh cry bitterly, as though she 
would go no furtlier ; that he went nearer them, expecting 
she would speak to him ; but there being two men, and he 
alone, he did not think it safe to interpose ; that the one 
pulled her, and the other jostled her along, and so they 
took her out of sight towards Enfield. 

Thomas Bennet deposed, He lives at Enfield, near the 
ten miles stone ; and on the 29th of January 1753, be- 
tween four and five in the afternoon, between Mother 
Wells's and his own house, he saw a miserable poor 
wretch coming along, without either gown, stays, cap, 
iiat, or apron an, only a dirty thing, like half a handker- 
chief, over her head, and a piece of something on, that 
reached down just below her waist, with her hands lvin- 
together before her ; she asked him the way to London. 

David Dyer deposed, He lived at Kn field Wash; that 
about a quarter of a mile from Mother Wells 1 s house, to- 
wards London, at four in the afternoon, three evenings 
before Mot her Weils and her family were taken up, he 
saw a poor distressed creature pass by him, out of the 
common field ; he said to her, Sweetheart, do yen want a, 
husband:' She made no. uuswcj ; she had a thiag tied 

over 



442 A FULL AXD AUTHENTIC ACCOUNT OP 

Over her head like a white handkerchief, walking with her' 
hands before her, very faintly, and was a shortish woman, 
with a shortish sort of a thing on, it did not come very low 
on her ; that he looked at her face as she passed him, and 
Said (upon looking upon Elizabeth Canning) he takes hem 
to be the same person. And several other witnesses tes~ 
tilled to the sanj>e etiect, of seeing her that day. 

After this, a number of witnesses living about Eiifield, 
proved that Mary Quires had been there about Christmas, 
find in January ; but they did not agree in the exact dates. 

The counsel for the prosecution said, He was to tell tli 
jury from the prosecutor ^ that he had nothing against her 
exclusive of that fact. 

After all the witnesses were examined, the recorder 
Cammed up the evidence on both sides, which took up 
about two hours ; it being then twelve o'clock at night, of 
Tuesday May 6th, the jury withdrew, and after being out 
upwards of two hours, brought in their verdict in writing, 
GUILTY OF PERJURY, buf not -iilful or corrupt; but the 
Court telling them, that their verdict must be either Guilt v, 
or Not Guilty, they again withdrew, and in a short time 
after, brought her in Guilty, but recommended her to the 
>ercy 'of the Court ; upon which she was immediately 
committed to Newgate. 

Thus ended this, very remarkable trial, after having 
lasted eight days ; and it is allowed by all, was the most 
extraordinary one that ever came before any Court in thi^ 
kingdom. Her sentence was respited till the next sessions, 
\vhich began I'tlay the 13th: In the mean time, two ox 
*hc jury who tried hey, matte Jin, affidavit, that they did nofe 
jpiean by their verdict, to bring her in Guilty of Wilful 
$nd Corrupt Perjury. When the Sessions began, one of 
the King's Counsel moved the Court for an arrest of judg- 
iuent, or a new trial, and argued very strongly tor it ; but 
this was over-ruled, and the Court proceeded to pass 

sentence ;, 



MARYSQUI&ES, A GlfcSY; AND ELIZ. CANNING. 443 

sentence : But, differing in their opinions what this 
should be, they divided, when eight of them were for 
only laying; a small pecuniary line on her, and nine for a 
month's imprisonment, and at the expiration thereof, to 
be transported to some of his Majesty's plantations for 
seven years : Thus, by a majority of one only, the 
severer sentence took place. 

It is necessary to remark here, that when the jury 
brought in their first verdict, there was a loud shout among- 
the people ; but when they brought in a verdict Guilty of 
the Indictment, there was a remarkable silence. The con- 
clusion of this affair was, that till Elizabeth Canning was 
removed out of the country by transportation, the news- 
papers were still crowded with essays, paragraphs, &c. for^ 
and against the justice of her sentence. One party insist- 
ing upon her innocence, the other upon her guilt. Some 
dwelt upon the depravity of the gipsy, others upon the 
poverty of E. Canning and her mother. Even affidavits 
were made, and printed on both sides. However, all these 
things did not hinder large subscriptions being carried on^ 
for her support ; and, as we before observed, she was in a 
situation, after leaving the country, to attract the notice of 
an opulent Quaker in America, whom she married. In 
tact, the public opinion, though principally expressed 
by people of the middling classes, had assumed such a 
degree of energy, that Sir Crisp Gascoigne, the Lord 
Mayor, paying a proper deference to his constituents and 
tallow-citizens, thought proper to publish an Address to 
the Liverymen on the subject ; in which he was very earnest 
to clear himself of any want of candour, in the part lie 
had espoused respecting E. Canning ; and with Sir C Gas- 
coigne's reasons for his conduct, the public seemed well 
satisfied, 



OBITUARY 



( 444 ) 

OBIT'UARY OF REMARKABLE CHARACTERS. 

L HO MAS CLARKE, died lately in his miserable hut$ 
opposite the lied Lion Inn on Old Down, near Bath, in 
tlie 99th year of his age. Upwards of half a century he 
had resided in this miserable situation ; and though for 
nearly ten years he had been eon fined to a pallet of strawy 
with no covering but a single rug, he never could be pre- 
vailed upon to quit it, or to receive the least degree of 
parochial assistance, for fear that he might be forced to 
give up his hut, which he deemed a kind of freehold, and in 
which it seems he had been originally placed by the person 
V'ho then rented Barrack Farm, and with whom old Clarke 
h..d worked as a labourer. 

As a companion to the above, we give the following, 
upon the credit of a country paper, of the beginning of 
the present month :- 

Lately died, in the parish of Breague, in South Wales, 
at the advanced age of 80, Mr. J. Rogers, of most eccen- 
tric manners ; he had not been shaved since last Easter. 
His usual practice was to go into the sea for the benefit of 
his health, and when in want of food, was' accustomed to 
lie on his back, and suck the goats in the open fields ; and 
when lie was seen going to market, he always had a sack 
on his shoulder, containing- his money, for his attorney to 
lay out at interest ; he left much property. 

CURIOSITIES IN NORTH AMERICA. 

Two miles west of New Haven, is a mountain; on the- 
top of which is a cave, remarkable for having been the re- 
#kience of Generals Whaley and GolVe, two of the judges 
cl Charles the First, who was beheaded. They arrived at 
Boston, July the 27th, 1760, and came to Xew Haven 
the Murch fuliowhi.---May the 1 1th, 1661, they retired 

and 



CURIOSITIES FROM NORTH AMERICA. 445 

and concealed themselves behind West Mountain, three 
miles from New Haven ; and the 19th of August they re- 
moved to Milford, where they lived concealed until the 
13th of October 1664, when they returned to New Haven, 
and immediately proceeded to Hadley, where they re- 
mained concealed for about ten years ; in which time 
Whaley died, and Goffe soon after abdicated. In 1665, 
John Dixwell, Esq. another of the king's judges, visited 
them while at Hadley, and afterwards proceeded to New 
Haven, where he lived many years, and was known by 
the name of John Davis. Here he died, and was buried 
in the burying-place, where his grave-stone is standing to 
this day, with this inscription, 

J. D. Esq. deceased March 18th, 

in the 8.2d Year of his Age, 1688. 



JTcu' and complete Memoirs of NATHANIEL BENTLEY, ESQ. 
the Eccentric Inhabitant of the Dirty Warehouse in 
Leadcnhall Street. Down to the present Time. 

1 HL great variety of censure, observation and remark, that has been bestowed 
upon this singular character, in the public prints, &c. might have been 
thought by some persons to have some effect upon Mr. BENTLEY, in re- 
claiming him from his peculiarities, or altering his course of life ; but this is 
far from being the case, the house may, but the inhabitant is not to be 
changed-' Accordingly, the building having remained near twenty years, the 
wonder of almost every spectator, through its dirty and decaying appearance, 
it is now putting into a state of repair, as it were, perforce. Mr BENTI.EYJ 
it seems, having long withstood every kind of persuasion and remonstrance, 
against its continuance in that state, and to no manner of purpose, in altering 
his inflexibility ; but as the surveyor informed him, that the expenccs for the 
repairs would be about .200, to avoid any legal discussion on the subject of 
dilapidations, Mr. BENTI.EY, without ceremony, paid down the sum de- 
manded for the repairs, telling the gentlemen to go and get what they pleased 
to eat and drink, and he would pay for it; these repairs are now goiug on, 
much to the surprise of people, who are unacquainted with the causes of 
an apparent change, so sudden and unexpected. 



M m m IT 



446 NEW AND COMPLETE MEMOIRS OF 

IT might naturally be imagined, that while the house of 
,Mr. Bentlcy was renairincr, he had left it, both for his own 

j A C? * J 

convenience and for that of the workmen ; no such thing. 
His shop, though all the rest of the house were in ruins, 
he seems determined not to quit. He is at least resolved 
this shall be the hist part of his spacious premises, in which 
the spiders will undergo any disturbance. A perfect 
enemy to all reforms whatever, he does not even suffer the 
labourers to enter the ground-floor, but compels them to 
descend into the cellar through its window, and go up to 
the top and other parts, by a ladder raised against the 
front, without interrupting his business on the ground- 
floor. What he intends to do when every other apart- 
ment, the shop excepted, has undergone the proposed re- 
pairs,, is not yet apparent. But, to preserve the memory 
of the house in its former state, a representation of it 
will be found in this Number. 

This house and shop, near the East India House, Mr. 
Bentley has occupied ever since 1764. In fact, it was 
inhabited by his father, who had the shop glazed, and cer- 
tainly it was the first glazed hard-ware shop in London. 
Mr. Nathaniel Bentley's frugality and parsimony, it seems, 
are hereditary endowments. His father possessed consi- 
derable property in houses at Islington, and died there in 
1160 ; his wife, a lady of great fortune also, died there in 
1764, and left cfoCOO to the fund for the support of the 
widows and orphans of dissenting ministers ; oflOO to a 
dissenting minister at Kingston upon Thames ; and oflOOO 
to St. Thomas's Hospital. When Mr. Bentley the elder, 
married this lady, he immediately Jaicl aside the use of his 
own coach, and made use of her's. To the Church of Si* 
Catherine Cree, in which parish he had lived, he left a 
bell, on condition that a peal should be rung on his birth- 
day as long as lie lived.' This bell bears the innneofthe 
donor, and those of Eastern and Peck, the makers, with 

the 



KATHANIEL BENTLEY, ESQ. 447 

the date of the year 1754. Mr. Bentley became a Dis- 
senter in tlie decline of his life, and had a country-house 
ut Edmonton, before he married. Mr. Nathaniel Bentley 
succeeding to his father's stock and trade, immediately after 
his death, at first intended to dispose of them with the lease 
.of the house, &c. to a Mr. Bliss, of Pall Mall ; but as he 
could not obtain the whole of the money down, and paid 
no regard to good security, though oiTered; in 1764, after 
altering the front of his shops, two of which he threw into 
one, he set out for Paris. 

It is said, that in the early part of Mr. Berkley's life, he 
was such a professed beau and man of fashion > that he made 
twojournies to Paris; in the last of which he was intro- 
duced to Lewis XVI. when he left a Mr. Holiday to take 
care of his business, at the enormous salary of ten shillings 
and six-pence per week : he being a cleanly and indus- 
trious man, placed every article in proper order, little 
thinking that would be the last time some of them would 
ever be cleaned or dusted ; at other times, during his ab- 
sence, his shop has been committed to the care of persons 
he thought lie could trust ; and when he came back, mak- 
ing use of his customary nonchalance, he has paid their 
demands, without asking for any vouchers, observino-, 
" he was most likely to have the truest accounts by havin- 
none.'' 

He has frequently appeared at masquerades some years 
ago, but never, we believe, in character; and it is re- 
ported, that so lately as August 12, 1802, the Prince of 
Wales's birth-day, he made his appearance at the "-rand 
Gala at Vauxhall. It has been said, that when he meets 
ladies, especially of his acquaintance, he is extremely 
liberal ; but this does not appear probable, no more than, 
that such a man so nearlv attached to slovenliness, in his 
t>eneral appearance and manner of living, should be able 
to form connections with any females of elegant habits, or 
M in m 2 {" 



448 NEW AND COMPLETE MEMOIRS OF 

of any high reputation in life and character ; he is, how- 
ever, very fond of the company of females, when at place* 
of amusement. 

As one reason why he is seldom or ever fit to be seen, 
it is said, that the moment he comes home from any place 
of entertainment, his costly attire is thrown aside for his 
shop cloathing, which he mends himself. It is also re- 
ported, that he makes no secret of washing and mending 
his own linen, and that he purchases his shoes at Rag Fair. 
In mild weather, probably to save his coat from the 
nails, &c. he attends his shop in his shirt sleeves ; and as 
his face, his waistcoat, shirt, breeches, &c. are all of one 
colour, his personal appearance, and that of his Avarehouse, 
exactly correspond. Lately, when going out upon any 
particular business, he wears a fustian coat and cocked 
hat, though he has recently been seen in a round one, and 
an old great coat. It is further understood, that in con- 
sequence of his shewing himself at a front window, just be- 
fore he goes out, the people in the neighbourhood never fail 
ranging themselves opposite his house, and waiting till he 
comes down. The same is done by the passengers on an 
evening when he comes out to shut up his shop, a ceremony 
generally attended with much desultory remark and loud 
peals of laughter. But now as he seldom goes out full- 
dressed, he is not under the embarrassment which he used 
to sustain on such occasions, from the curiosity of the 
crowd. Before the powder tax was introduced, Mr. B. 
frequently paid a shilling for dressing that head, which of 
late years, he scarcely seems to think worthy of a comb ! 

J J J 

It is said^ that being once asked six-pence for a powder- 
puff, he went home in a rage, being asked so much, and 
made- use of a dried wing of a goose, or an old stocking. 

One time it is related, that to deceive the people just as 
he was going out, he put a candle in the window to keep 
r'lem in expectation, and then slipped out the back way 

un perceived ; 



NATHANIEL BENTLEY, ESQ. 449 

anperceived ; and, no doubt, highly enjoying their mor- 
tification at the disappointment. 

The front of his house being changed from that of white 
plaster to a dingy black, with various cracks, before the pre^ 
sent repairs commenced, would have beggared all compa- 
rison, excepting the inside of a common shore. The 
broken windows, not one in his shop remaining Avhole, and 
window shutters also, some of them unopened for many 
years, cut a most forlorn figure, the many vacancies being 
stopped up with japanned waiters, tea trays, box lids, c. 
That these things should not be stolen, Mr. Bentley al- 
ways took care to chain them to the window frames. And 
when his neighbours have offered to defray the expence of 
painting and white washing his house, he is said to have 
thanked them for their kind offer, observing he could not 
accept of it, as any repairs would spoil his trade with the 
Levant, where his house is best known by the name of the 
Dirty Warehouse of Leadenhall Street. 

The story of a blue room in his house, is thought to have 
been set on foot by himself, merely to stop the enquiries 
of those who have been in the habit of teazing him about 
his peculiarities, and the reasons of them. 

Many are the reports abroad, concerning his inconceiv- 
able civility, and his manner of attending to the ladies, 
when they honour him with their commands, particularly 
bv his opposite neighbours. It has been also related, that 
several curious females have come to town from various 
parts of the country, on purpose to see him. 

And such has been his celebrity, that himself and his 
house were represented in a pantomime in the summer of 
}S03, at the Royal Circus. In a'ddition to his other sih- 
gularities, it should have been noticed, that on the late 
JL'.Iection for "Middlesex., he refused his vote to every ap- 
plication ; and, as it is said, having never taken an oath, 
and yet uot willing to be deemed a Quaker, he made his 

srutt 



NEW AND COMPLETE MEMOIRS OF 

great hurry of business and want of time, an excuse for Ms 

conduct. 

With respect to the real origin of the story of his sealed 
or secret room, in the house in Leadenball-strect, it is res- 
ported, and it is said by himself, that being many years 
since engaged to marry a young lady, previous to the per- 
formance of the ceremony, he invited her, and several of 
her relatives, to partake of a sumptuous entertainment.- - 
In this sealed room he awaited their arrival, with much im- 
patience, as at length, instead of the lady, a messenger 
arrived with the news of her death. This unexpected 
event had such an effect upon him, that he closed up the 
room, with the resolution that it should never be opened j 
and that there was a room in the house shut up, is not 
doubted, as some of the windows appear to prove it. Some 
persons have assured us, that he has a coffin in the house ; 
but whether it is merely for the purpose of sleeping in it, 
as has been reported, is not clear. If he have abed, it is 
certain that no one is permitted to make it ; nor is any per- 
son admitted further than the shop-door to clean any thing. 

Some time ago, Mr. B. being chosen a collector of the 
tythes, much against his will, the assessment being oflSO, 
c<SO for the- Minister, and the overplus, if any, for the 
poor, he having obtained exactly the rate, would proceed 
no farther, and so far succeeded in defending himself at the 
next vestry, that the matter was heard of no more. 

Relative to his dinner, it frequently happens that his 
hurry prevents him from having any, then he makes- 
shift with a cup of coiTce in the afternoon, his only repast 
for the remainder of the chiv. It is also said, that when he 
does go to market for food, what he buys he puts in his 
pocket, bcin- such as is readv dressed, or Avhat he can 

* O <j * 

readily dress at home with old coal, which he purchases at 
the rate of half a bushel a time ; and by his frugal manner 
of using it, can make it <ro further than any one else. 

This 



NATHANIEL BEXTLEY, ESQ. 451 

This too burns -without smoke, and probably saves him 
the expcnce of a chimney sweeper. All his fire-places, as 
well as every other nook m the house, are filled with 
various floods and boxes. 

o 

Among- other tales related of his frugal contrivances, it 
is said, that lie once purchased a living goose, for the sake of 
the wings, to clean his furniture ; not, perhaps, with a view- 
to throw away the body ; but not chusing to go to market 
in person, he employed a deputy to buy it for him, to 
whom he gave three-pence, with a particular charge to 
get a young one. As it might be expected, the goose 
turned out the very reverse ; however, Mr. Bentlev did 
not complain while eating it, but tried !us strength on its 
breast-bone ; and finding he could not break it, then 
sought the person to recover the three-pence. When he 
sends for any eatables, &c. it is said, he has no objections 
to his people's saying thev are for dirtv Dick. These too 

l i o - y 

are generally in very small quantities., such as a quarter 
of a pound of cheese, and half a pound of bacon; the lat- 
ter, it is said, he docs not approve of. if over-fat, as the fat, 
he thinks, is a loss in his way of cooking. Small bits of 
meat, called cuttings, and cracked eggs, if cheap, are 
with him at all times purchaseable articles, which, with a 
quantity of small beer from a chandler's shop, is reckoned 
by him a very comfortable beverage. Yet whatever his fare 

, j -j o 

ir.av be at home, he takes care that his daily exponces 
upon nu average, do not exceed eighteen -pence per day ; 
observing, that if he were to follow the examples of some 
other people, or even his own custom of living as it was 
formerly, he should run inevitably into a state cf bank- 
ruptcy, or spend the remainder of his days in prison. If 
he is told that other people cannot live as he does, his re- 
ply is, " Every one can that piease ;" and he insists that 
it is no hardship to him, though in the early part of his 
life he had many dishes upon his table at onc%, and ser- 
vants to attend him. Havintr 



452 NEW AND COMPLETE MEMOIRS OF 

Having once invited some persons of consequence t* 
supper, for whom he had done some business, they came 
to appointment, and he being in his shop, instead of ask- 
ing them to any other part of the house, after cordially 
welcoming their arrival, requested them to stop there a 
few minutes. Going out immediately, he was not long 
before he returned, with a pound of cheese, a loaf, and 
two pots of porter ; with the whole of which, without any 
ceremony, he immediately decorated his dirty counter, 
saying, " There, Gentlemen, is as much as I can afford 
upon the business we have had together." He thought 
they would have partaken of it just as it was ; but with 
equal politeness, they declined his offer. If any bills are 
brought to him by bankers' clerks, he always pays them off 
at hand, and as frequently lectures them for, coming with. 
out pen and ink. And it seems he never wishes to leave 
any one alone in a shop, where gold ear-rings, trinkets, 
and other valuable articles, lie confusedly scattered about 
in every direction. As one proof of this assertion, a tra- 
veller from Birmingham, had one time considerable trouble 
to get Mr. B. to settle for some goods sent him ; he saying 
he knew nothing about them ; however, the traveller being 
sure of the delivery, looked about, and there found the 
case unpacked. Mr. B. apologized, and paid the bill with- 
out hesitation. 

When he is above stairs, he is not to be called down 
on any occasion, unless a customer comes ; then if he is 
rung for, down he conies, in whatever state he may be in, 
sometimes half shaved, sometimes with a waistcoat and no 
shirt, or covered with cobwebs, just as it may occur. 
The loss of one customer, he seems to think would ruin 
him. His goods, though excellent in quality, often want 
a little polishing ; however, he is ready to make any al- 
lowance, and is never wanting in an apology where am- 
is required. 

It 



NATHANIEL BENTLEYi, ES. 453 

ft is said, that a gentleman who knew him, once at- 
tempting to give him a little advice, with respect to the 
prejudice he sustained by his dress and appearance ; he re- 
plied, " It is of no use, Sir, if I wash and clean myself 
to-day, I shall be as bad to-morrow." 

He has also an excuse, though in effect it is none at all, 
for keeping no domestic animal in his house ; " that is, that 
they make more dirt, and spoil more goods than their pro- 
fit would amount to." And as it is supposed he keeps 
nothing that will attract rats or mice, of course he is not 
troubled with them. 

It seems that Mr. B. is the only person in his family that 
is governed by these strange propensities. He has a 
sister now living near Chelsea College, the widow of a Mr. 
Lindegreen, formerly a merchant of this city, and who 
forms a strikino- contrast to the oeneral habits of her bro- 

O O 

ther. When it was reported some time since that lie was 
dead, she came with her son to the shop in Leadenhall- 
street, where finding a person placed there instead of her 
brother, to take orders, &c. she learned, that having been 
ill, he was at the house of a surgeon in Hounsditch, but Avas 
then in a fair way of recoverv. The cause of his absence, 
\vas owing to his having scratched his leg with a nail in his 
shop ; and neglecting it, which rendered a considerable ex- 
pence, and the care of a surgeon absolutely indispensable. 
Not wishing to go to Hounsditch, on tins occasion the 
lady, it is said, returned to Chelsea. Mr. B.'s love of 
money is so great, that it is reported he never gives any 
credit, not even to his nearest relatives, if he can by any 
means evade it. Having once kept a servant in the house, 
%vho robbed him, it is said, he determined never to keep 
another, excepting to stund at his door ; for which it is 
understood he pays but little about three-halfpence an 
hour ! An ok! woman once thus employed, he discharged 
for staying half an hour longer upon her errand than she 
Lad oec.isum for. Half an hour, lie thought, was too much 
tiuic to lo.se. It is al.sc the office of the person who stands 

> 11 u at 



451- MEW AND COMPLETE MEMOIRS Of 

at the door, to assist Mr. B. in keeping the unruly boys 
and others at a distance, Avhen the master stands at the 
door, or assists in putting up the shutters. During the 
cold weather, when lie is obliged to he below, to save 
iu'ing, he stands in a box weii lined with straw, to keep 
his i'eet warm, IJis leisure tin;e at night he used to em- 
plov in making shelves, and used very frequently to he 
seen at. one of the broken windows up stairs on a Sunday 
morning, reading a news-paper. But with all his eccen- 
tricities, he is by no means deserving of some ill-natured 
reports circulated about him ; as the character that he has 
had for gallantry and civility to the ladies, is more than a 
counterpoise for the failings which he may be charged 
with : and it is nothing hut his continuance in this singular 

' o O 

stute, which excites so much of the public curiosity, and 
brings so many people to his shop, either to purchase 
goods, or to admire the place and its proprietor. 

There was also a report that Mr. B. kept his father's 
carriage in his cellar; but this we can vouch for as the 
fact, and which has boon ascertained since the workmen 
have been obliged to go into the cellar, viz. that the rumour 
originated entirely from the circumstance of a wheel being 
there belon-in' v to a lathe, which is well known to be used 

O O 

in the cutlery and hard-ware husiness ; and which, it 
seems, could not. escape the prying eye of the curious. 

Though a notice was some months since nailed upon 
the premises adjoining the shop, signifying that the old 
house backwards, with that of Mr. B.'s in the front, were 
to be k-t, and application to be made to Mr. Delight the 

* i. 1 O 

Survevor ; Mr. Bentley never too!; the least notice, hut 
stiH continued putting up fresh shelves. However, as we 
have noticed at the beginning of these Memoirs, the whole 
is now undergoing a perfect renewal ; though this may not 
be the case: wii.h the tenant, who has not yet exhibited any 
svmpUMUs of (j'litting either his habits or his habitation, as 
h is even thought, th;.t he will risk an ejectment heibra 

J:e leaves it. 

Mr, 



NATHANIEL BENTLEY, ESQ. 4^5 

Mr. Bcntley's singularity has, it seems, been the subject 
both of prose and of verse ; a specimen of the latter has 
appeared in tin; European Maga/ine, for January 1K01. 
Hence, the curiosity of the public at large since that time, 
bringing so many people upon idle errands to his shop, 
has created h;m much trouble, and of course, unless upon 
business, rendered all access to him very diilkiilt ; and 
those who come merely to ask questions, he very soon dis- 
covers, and treats them accordingly.' 1 

'flic /JH.->? ><(> allnil.d In, arc ?/o''o::- : 




" \Vlu> but ;i:ij seen ^ii'lio , ui se^ : ah) 
'Tv/ixt Alr'.^it'j's w:;i!-k:Kv,vii pun-,;) niiri Lcadenliull, 
A ciiiiou-. Uau;-v.;iri' s':;o;), iii :,'c!HT.iI full 
():'w;'rcs from Binuin^l'.ani and Poutipool ? 
B':u-iri\i v> ith dirt, behold ils ample front, 
\V;'ii Uiirty years collected filth ujxci't: 
S-.r- i"s\ci')!i"d c.ihv. ot>^ j.^nduiit o\-r tiie door, 
Wiit!!: l/y;:;:s, bales, ami trunks, arc oiu;\v'd uroiiud (lie floor. 



456 MEMOIRS OF NATHANIEL EENTLEY, 

" Behold how whistling wind-; and driving rain, 
Gain free admission at each broken parte, 
Save where the dingy tenant keeps thorn out 
With urn or tray, knife-case, or dirty clout ! 
Here snuffers, waiters, patent screws for corks ; 
There castors, card- racks, cheese-trays, knives and forks ! 
Here empty cases pil'd in hea ; .s on high ; 
There packthread, papers, ro^e, in wild disorder lie. 

" O say, thou enemy to soap and towels ! 
Hast no compassion lurking in thy bowels ? 
Think what the neighbours suffer by thy whim. 
Of keeping self and house in such a trim ? 
The ofncers of health should view the scene, 
i And put thy sho.p and tliee in quarantine. 

Consider thou, in summer's ardent heat, 
When various means are tried to cool the street^ 
What must each decent neighbour suffer then 
From noxious vapours issuing from thy den. 

' When fell Disease, with all her horrid trail}, 
Spreads her dark pinions o'er ill-fated Spain, 
That Britain may not witness such a scene, 
Behoves us doubly now to keep our dwellings cleaa, 

" Say, if within the street where thou dostdwelL 
Each house were kopt exactly like thy cell j 
O say, thou enemy to-brooms and mops * 
I. How long thy neighbours could keep open shop** 

If following thee jn taste, each wretched elf, 
Dnshav'd, unwash'd, and squ.'lid like thyself, 
Resolv'cl to live ? The answer's very plain, 
One year would be the utmost of their reign : 
Victims to filth, each vot'ry soon would fall, 
And one grand jail distemper kill them all. 

'* Persons there are, who say thou hast been seen 
(Some years ago) with hands and face wash'd clean j 
And would'st thou quit this most unseemly plan, 
Thou art ('tis said) a very comely man : 
Of polish 'd language, partial to the fair, 
Then why not wash thy face, and comb thy matted hair y 
Clear f-om thy house accumulated dirt, 
Hew paint the front, and wear a cleaner shirt," 



SINGULAR 



( 45*7 ) 

SINGULAR CIRCUMSTANCE. A person who keeps a 
cook's shop in Point-street, Portsmouth, purchased a couple 
of ducks, Tuesday, Nov. 15; after taking the insides out, 
in cutting open one of the g'.zzj.rds, discovered amongst the 
gravel, &c. eighty-two small gold beads, as bright as if 
just purchased of a jeweller ; worth about nine shilling* 
as old gold. 

CAPTAIN GUYER'S Account of his Misfortunes at Sea. 

Wilmington, America, December 5, 1796. 

As master of the brig Lark, belorging to this port, on 
the 22d day of October last, I was overset at sea, in 
lat. 2 C < N. long. G8 W. being laden with flour, my vessel 
would not sink, and immediately filling with water, I found 
it impossible to s^ve her ; it was with the utmost difficulty 
that I saved my boat and oars, and about nine gallons of 
water. The sea running very high, and night coming on, 
we were obliged to moor the boat under the lee of the 
wreck, with all hands in her ; it then set in to blow a hard 
gale from the Southward, with very heavy rains. On the 
23d we went on the wreck, and got half a barrel of wet 
flour and one of the brio's sails, the gale still continuing 

C? O O 

to blow hard, and all hands in the boat under the Ice of 
the wreck. On the 25th the gale abated, when we went 
on the wreck and procured one of the top-gallant yards, 
with which we made a mast for the boat, and made a tem- 
porary sail: at 10 A. M. we left the wreck (her decks 
being broke up and spars alongside), having on board the 
boat about two-thirds of half a barrel of wet flour, and 
seven or eight gallons of water, without a compass or 
any other instrument, supposing Watlin's island to bear 
S. W. i S four hundred and fifty miles distant. On the 
2 ( Jth, after suil'ering greatly with hunger and thirst, and 
Jiving run auout 5O miles in the boat, we fell in with 

the 



45S NICHOLAS "RICHMOND ; 

the north end of Cat Island. I immediately xvcnt. on shoYe, 
but could find no inhabitants or assistance whatever. At 
this time our damaged flour and water \vas all gone. We 
then proceeded to the South side of tlhi inland, and landed 
at the house of Mr. Seth Doud, by whom I was kindly re- 
ceived, and treated with the greatest hospitality. On the 
4th November Mr. Doud furnished me with plenty of pro- 
visions., and a pilot, with \vhcm we proceeded to New Pro- 
vidence, where we arrived the 5th of November, having 
run 730 miles in a small boat of thirteen feet keei, with 
seven men, a bo}- and a dog ; and out at sea twelve day.s 
without eating- a meal's victuals, during which time nature 
was only supported by a little musty dongh. On my ar- 
rival at Nassau, I applied to Joseph FAX'S, Fsq. for assist- 
ance, who received me with great kindness, and furnished 
me with money and cloaths for rnvself and suffering com- 
panions. From New Providence we sailed on the 20th of 
November, in the sioop Planter, Captain Hess, for Phi- 
ladelphia, and landed at Newcastle on Wednesday morn- 
ing the 2(1 of December. CAROLUS, 



TO THE EDITOR OF THE SCIENTIFIC MUSEUM. 

<: SIH, As your Museum is a receptacle for Remarkable Characters, the 
following v.411, I presume, be entitled to a place in your next Number: 
\vhi:'h request, by complying \vith, v,-iil induce me to transmit you others 
more rem.irkabie than these. Your occasion;)! Corresponilorrt, 

\i>l(i-!iai;!i JN'or. Volh, 180.1 D. li. L." 

e>- * T 



NICHOLAS KICHMOND -A nior/'css Usurer, 

*)\\-.Y> in Leiceste.r about the year 1173; and whose life- 
being handed down to posterity, will serve no other pur- 
pose, than for mankind to detest those actions which have 
ntadc his memory infamous. 

lie \vas born a Quaker, but his life was a perfect con- 
trast to the humanity of tho.>e apparent happy people.-- 

Ahhou^U 



A MERCILESS USURER. 459 

Although he lived amidst scenes of the most complicated 
wretchedness, yet he was an utter stranger to the soft feeU 
ings of com passion. If he had no vices that mark the de- 
bauchee, the intemperate and profane, yet in a round of 
threescore years, not the exercise of one social duty is 
to be found. 

His co Hers were filled from the scanty pittance of the 
miserable, subject to his iniluence through want. When 
the needy parent had stripped the unoffending babe, to 
procure it sustenance, the pledge was unfeelingly by him 
received, while the tender innocent lay folded in its 
mother's arms in rags. 

lie owned a certain district of dwellings, among which 
he lived, peopled by the most indigent, over whom he ex- 
ercised the most unlimited oppressions; sensible that their 
.necessities made him (to use the language of Scripture,) 
their miserable coinjoricr ! 

A poor woman, one of his tenants, with a numerous 
family, who owed him a few weeks' rent, (for he collected 
his rents weekly,) he ejected in this manner : Knocking 
at her door, he says to the good woman, " I want to speak 
to tliee ; go into the entry and take all thy children with 
thee, and I will go to thee. " The poor woman, not sus- 
pecting Ms intention, obliged his request, which was no 
sooner done, than he secured the door, seized her goods, 
and never suffered her to eater therein any more. 

To particularize the steps he took to amass wealth, 
would only irritate ; suffice it to ..My, that his penuriousness 
prompted him to sacrifice the precious gifts of heaven, to 
his voluptuous thirst for gain. Out of the very few times 
which he dared to lav cut three farthings for half-a-pint of 
ale, he had once the misfortune to let his mug fall, and 
spill his drink : the trilling disaster brought from him tliis 
Larsh sentence " Guts ! guts ! ye must sutler for this." 

The food he took was of the meanest sort, he invariably 
weighed before he allowed the pressing calls of nature its 

necessities, 



4GO ERUPTION. OP A VOLCANO j ALLEf> 

necessities. Potatoes were his chief support, four ounces 
of which were a stipulated meal. 

His figure was the picture of want, garbed like a pitiable 
mendicant lean as the watery aliment could make him ; 
his languid countenance under a large hat, seemed absorbed 
in thought. In the midst of his vain pursuits, the hand of 
death seized and forced him from his god of riches to 
tremble at the presence of OMNIPOTENCE. 



ERUPTION OF A VOLCANO ; called the CHIMNEY O/"HELL* 

JP ROFESSOR PALLAS observes, that his curiosity Avas much 
excited by a mountain in Southern Russia, which the Cos- 
sacks call Kuko Obo, or the Chimney of Hell, on account 
of vast columns of fire and smoke, which they have ob- 
served to issue from it at different periods. It is situated 
in the middle of the large and sharp tongue of land, which 
forms the interior Gulf of Taman ; and irom a minute exa- 
mination of the different stratifications, the Professor was 
induced to suppose that the whole of the mountain, which 
was of a considerable extent, had its origin from more an- 
cient eruptions. 

In March 17.04, this hillock exhibited the following ex- 
traordinary events : " At r-rst i.says the author) a roaring" 
noise was heard in the air, which was followed by a violent 
gust of wind that lasted only a minute ; next, a noise was 
heard similar to thunder, which came from the hillock, 
and immediately afterwards there issued from the middle 
of its summit a column of thick inui black smoke : m the 
space of a minute there arose aimlher of violent fire, which 
at a distance appeared to be 50 feet in height and 30 in 
circumference. This Hame lusted i'ro.n half past eight till 
ten minutes before ten, when an express, who had been sent 
to the part at the time that the. noise, lire and smoke seemed 
to decrease, returned, and reported that an aperture had 
been formed on the hillock, the size of which could not 

be 



THE CHIMNEY OF HELL. 461 

t>c ascertained, because the successive eruptions, accom- 
panied by flame and smoke, threw out a bot mud, which 
spread in every direction, and rendered an approach im- 
practicable. The eruption was neither preceded nor fol- 
lowed by any attack of an earthquake. 

" According to the different accounts of ocular wit- 

o 

nesses, who observed this phenomenon, both at Tamau 
and Yenikale, and visited the mountain after its eruption, 
the explosion resembled the rumbling of thunder, and the 
report did not last longer than that of a thunder-clap. A 
noise and hissing was also heard in the air at Yenikale, both 
before and after the explosion. At the instant of the re- 
port, there issued a white vapour, which was followed by 
a smoke as black as soot, and this was penetrated by a 
column of lire, with flames of a bright red and pa!e yellow 
colour, in the form of an expanded sheaf; and which, not- 
withstanding a very strong wind, which blew at the time, 
ro.se to a perpendicular height twice as great as that of a 
mountain. This column of fire disappeared in twenty-five 
minutes, but the black smoke lasted four or five hours, and 
sen I forth thick and black clouds over both sides. It had, 
however, entirely disappeared by the following day. 

' At tiie time of the first explosion, the mountain pro- 
pelled with violence into the air several portions of mud, 
and threw out quantities of a similar substance, in every 
direction around it, to the distance of at least a verst. The 
great mass of mud made its way from the gulf, by displac- 
ing a portion of vegetable- earth, to the extent of a fathom, 
which was at that time frozen : it ran at first with rapidity, 
but afterwards slower, covering all parts of the mountain, 
without having any sensible degree of heat, accordino- to 
the report of many respectable persons, who came on 
horseback to the p'f.ce a few hours after the eruption ; 
yet the mud then continued to throw out a strong smoke 
through a very cold air. Some Cossacks, however, who 
O o o had 



465 FURTHER PARTICULARS OP 

had been sent there, made a contrary report, and insisted 
that the mud was hot at the time of its efflux. A continual 
hissing and boiling were heard in the mountain till night j 
and till the third day, the mud was sometimes thrown out 
to the height of ten or twelve feet. At a subsequent period 
the mountain made a cracking noise, and again began to 
throw out mud in the air, but without exhibiting an appear- 
ance of fire, even during the night." 

The Professor analysed the contents of the eruption, and 
found amongst them many crystals of pyrites, marly schis- 
tus, white and friable earth, grey calcareous stone, white 
chalk, brown iron ore, clay -stone, &c. &c. ; many of these 
Substances probably introduced by the sea-water which 
rushed into the subterraneous space, and which (water) 
mixing with the ashes of the burned strata, occasioned the 
showers of mud. 

Further Particulars of tlie GREAT FIRE of LONDON. 

Mr. EDITOR, 

IN one of your former Numbers, I was very much pleased 
in seeing the variety of particulars which you had collected 
concerning the Great Fire of 1666. One of the principal 
causes of its rapid progress, I presume, did not then strike 
you, and that was- the very early destruction of the Water 
Works upon London Bridge, in consequence of its proxi- 
mity to Pudding-lane, where the fire first broke out at a 
Baker's, in the night between Saturday and Sunday. This 
fact, though Stow omits it, is mentioned by other writers. 
The circumstance also of Bishop Braybrook's body being 
found in St. Paul's Cathedral, just after the fire, I think 
you have also omitted. He had been Bishop of London 
and Lord Chancellor of England upwards of 200 years be- 
fore ; and saith my author, his body, as many do inform 
me, when taken up after the fire, did retain much of its 

inanljr 



THE GREAT FIRE OF LONDON. 463 

ihanly shape, and most of its external parts, to the amaze- 
ment of such as beheld it, and did withal believe it to be 
the body of the said Bishop. Just before this fire happened, 
I further learn, that a number of shops and small houses 
built up against St. Paul's, probably during the twenty 
years civil war, were condemned to be removed as nuis- 
ances to the Cathedral ; but this the great fire prevented, 
by destroying the whole. You mentioned the vast number 
of books that were destroyed, particularly those that were, 
deposited for safety in St. Paul's Cathedral : A cotempo- 
rary writer, and eye-witness of this great calamity, estimates 
the number of Bibles only at 40,000. Many goods of all 
sorts were lost in other churches, where the people at first 
depositing them for safety, had the final mortification of 
seeing them and the building destroyed together, and no- 
thing but the stone Avails of these edifices remaining. It 
was also observed during this fatal calamity, that though 
the wind generally blew to one point, the fire ran the 
contrary way with equal rapidity ; and though blowing 1 
up houses with gunpowder, was the best remedy to stop 
the progress of the flames, it was not thought of by any 
person for some days. In fact, the consternation was too 
great for forethought, and the difficulty of removing goods 
was considerably heightened by the enormous prices re- 
quired by the country carters and others ; these being 
upon an average three or four pounds a load. Boats, 
barges, ce. on the Thames, were also full}- employed ; and 
such numbers of people fled over to the Borough, that for 
some time there was scarcely a shed, barn, or stable, that 
did not contain some of the trading citizens, happy in thus, 
taking refuge from the devouring clement. 

^r~r-*~~**~*~~** ^-~^ 

Characteristics of a BE.ITISH SAILOR, e. i~h Ibitcd in DANIEL 
BRYAN, an old Seaman, now in Greenwich Hospital. 

h)oME of the last services of this agetl veteran, were per- 
formed with Sir Sydney Smith, against the French in 

o o. o a Egypt $ 



464 CHARACTERISTICS OF A BRITISH SAILOR; 

Egypt ; when at Acre, old Dan was captain of the fore- 
top, who had been turned over from the Blanche into Sir 
Sydney Smith's ship Le Tigre. During the siege of Acre, 
this hardy veteran made repeated applications to be em- 
ployed on shore ; but, being an elderly man, and rather 
deaf, his request was not acceded to. At the first storm- 
ing of the breach by the French, among the multitude of 
slain, fell one of the generals of that nation. The Turks,, 
in triumph, struck off the head of this unfortunate officer, 
and after inhumanly mangling the body with their sabres, 
left it, naked, a prey to the dogs. Precluded from the 
rites of sepulture, it in a few days became putresccnt ; a 
shocking spectacle ! a dreadful memento of the horrors of 
war, the fragility of human nature, and the vanity oi all. 
sublunary ambition, hopes, and expectations. Thus ex- 
posed, when any of the sailors who had been on shore re- 
turned to the ship, inquiries were instantly made respecting 
the state of the deceased general. Dan frequently asked 
his messmates, why they had not buried him ? But the 
only reply was, " Go and do it yourself." Dan swore he 
would ; observing, that he had himself been taken prisoner 
by the French, who always gave their enemies a decent- 
burial, not like those Turks, leaving them to rot 

above-board. In the morning, having at length obtained 
leave to go and sec the town, he dressed himself as though 
for an excursion of pleasure, and went ashore with the 
surgeon in the jolly-boat. About an hour or two after, 
while the surgeon was dressing the wounded Turks in the 
hospital, in came honest Dan, who, in his rough, good- 
natured manner, exclaimed, " I have been burying the 
-ges-cral, Sir, and now I am come to see the sick I" Not 
particularly attending to the tar's salute, but fearful of his 
catching the plague, the surgeon immediately ordered hira 
out. Returning- on board, the coxswain enquired of the 
surgeon if he had seen old Dan ? " Yes, he has bei>n bu- 
rying the French general," It was then that Dan's words, 

in 



EXHIBITED IN DANIEL BRYAN. 465 

in the hospital first occurred. The boat's crew who wit- 
nessed the generous action, an action truly worthy of a 
British sailor, in whose character are ever blended the 
nobler and milder virtues, thus related its circumstances: 

The old man procured a pick-axe, a shovel, and a rope, 
and insisted on being let down out of a port-hole, close 
to the breach. Some of his more juvenile companions 
offered to attend him : u No ;" lie replied, " yon are too 
voii'ig to be shot yet ; as for me, I am old and deaf, and 
my loss would be no great matter. ' Persisting in his ad- 
venture, in the midst of the firing, Dan was slung and 
lowered clown with his implements oi action on his shoul- 
der. His first diiticuky, not a verv trivial one, was to 
drive uwiiy the dogs. The Kivnc.'i now levelled their 
pieces they were on the instant of firing at the hero ! 
It was an interesting moment ! but an officer perceiving 
the friendly intentions of the sailor, was seen to throw 
himself across the tile. Instantaneously the din of arms, 
the military thunder ceased ; a dead, a solemn silence pre- 
vailed, and the worthy fellow consigned the corpse to its 
parent earth. He covered it with mould and stones, plac- 
ing a large stone at its head, and another at its feet. But 
Dan's task was net yet completed. The unostentatious 
grave was formed, but no inscription recorded the fate or 
character of its possessor. Dan, with the peculiar air of 
a British sailor, took a piece of chalk from his pocket, and 
attempted to write, " Here you lie, old Crop!" He was 
then with his pick-axe and shovel hoisted into the town, 
and the hostile firing immediately recommenced. 

A few days afterwards, Sir Sidney, having been in- 
formed of the circumstance, ordered Dan to be called into 
the cabin. " Well, Dun, I hear you have buried the* 
French general r" " Yes, your honour." " Had you 
any body with yon ?' " Yes, your honour." " Why, 

J\Ir. says you had not r" " But I had, your honour ; 

God 



466 REMARKABLE EARTHQUAKES 

God Almighty was with me." " A very good assistant, 
indeed : give old Dan a glass of grog." " Thank your 
honour !" Dan drank his grog, and left the cabin highly 
gratified. He is now, as we observed before, kid up (as 
a seaman might say) in Greenwich tier ; there to reap the 
benefit of his long and faithful services. 



The HISTORY (^REMARKABLE EARTHQUAKES in England^ 

and elsewhere. 

C Continued from Page 344. ) 

SUNDAY, March IS, 174950. Between five and six in 
the evening, the inhabitants of Cowes, in the Isle of Wight, 
\vere surprised with a strange rumbling noise in the air, 
which was immediately followed by a sudden shock of an 
earthquake ; arid which was sensibly felt all over the 
island, and likewise at Portsmouth and Gosport ; but not 
so violently at the latter place as at the former. 

Let us now turn our eyes to the dreadful scenes of de- 
solation, which have overspread Sicily, Jamaica, Lima, 
And Calao. 

Sicily has suffered many terrible earthquakes, but none 
more dreadful than that on the 10th of January 1692 3, 
which not only shook the whole island, but even Naples 
and Malta. It was not preceded by any darkness in the 
air, but by an agreeable, a serene, and warm season, 
which was the more observable, on account of its being un- 
usual at that time of the year. The preceding evening 
there was a great light observed in the air, which was 
taken for the reflection of a fire made by the country peo- 
.ple, and which seemed to keep at the same distance, 
though the spectators went directly towards it ; whilst 
they were observing this appearance, the earthquake began, 
upon which the light instantly vanished, and the waves of 
the sea, which before the shock; beat gently 011 the shore, 

b.egajj 



IN ENGLAND, AND ELSEWHERE* 46t 

legan now to make a dreadful noise. The next day tha 
air was overshadowed with darkness, and tinged with a 
tleep yellow, while the darkened suu struck the minds of 
the spectators with the melancholy presage of an earth- 
quake, more terrible than that which happened the night 
before ; and indeed their fears were too well founded. 
The earth during four minutes beat and heaved with a re- 
gular motion, like that of a pulse, but so violent, that it 
was impossible for any body to keep their feet on the agi- 
tated earth ; nay, those who lay on the ground, were tossed 
from side to side, as on a rolling billow, and walls were 
thrown several paces from their foundations. In open 
places the sea sunk considerably, and in the same propor- 
tion in ports and inclosed bays. In several places the earth 
opened in very long clefts, some an hand's breadth, 
others half a palm | and others like great gulfs; from these 
openings in the vallies, there issued such a quantity of 
water as overflowed a great space of ground, which to 
those that were near it, had a strong sulphureous smell. 
The mischief it did is amazing ; almost all the buildings in 

O ' O 

the country were thrown down. Fifty-four cities and 
towns, besides an incredible number of villages, were 
either destroyed or greatly damaged. We shall only in- 
stance the fate of Catania, one of the most ancient and 
flourishing cities in the kingdom, a university, and the re- 
sidence of several monarchs. This once famous city, to 
r,se the words of an author of credit, had the greatest 
share in the tragedy. Father Anthony Serrovita, being on 
liis way thither, and at the distance of a few miles, saw a. 
cloud as black as night hovering over it, while from the 
mouth of Montgibello, arose great spires of flame, which 
spread ah 1 around. The sea suddenly be?an to roar and 

/ *,.- 

rise in billows, and there \vas a clap, as if all the artillery 
in the world had been discharged. The birds Hew about 
astonished, the cattle ia the fields ran up aud down, as it 

were, 



468 ACCOUNT or THE METEOR, WHICH APPEARED 

were, wild with the affright, and roaring and bellowing a9 
if affected w:th the terrors of some dreadful catastrophe. 
The horse on which Father Serrovita rode, and the horses 
of those who accompanied him, stepped short, trembling ; 
so that they were forced to alight, They were no sooner 
on their feet, than they were lifted up above two palms, 
when casting his eyes towards Catania, he with amaze- 
ment saw nothing but a thick cloud of dust in the air : 
This was the scene of their calamity, for of the magnificent 
Catania, there is not the least foot-step to be seen. We 
are assured bv Bonajutus, that out of eighteen thousand 
nine hundred and fourteen inhabitants, eighteen thousand 
perished. And the same author finds, from a computation 
of the inhabitants before and after the earthquake, that 
there perished in the several cities and towns, near sixty 
thousand, out of two hundred fifty-four thousand nine' 
hundred. 



Particular Account of the METEOR which appeared on the. 
Evening of Sunday, the isth inst. 

1 HIS phenomenon occurred about 40 min. after eight 
o'clock, and attracted the notice of all those; who happened 
to be out at the time, for a considerable distance round 
the metropolis. A gentleman coming up from Lea-bridge 
towards Clapton turnpike, saw it very distinctly ; it had 
an oval form, and was followed bv sparks, which gave it 
somewhat the appearance of having a tail. It emitted a 
very vivid white light. The eill-ct of the light was indeed 
so strong, that any small object on tne road could be 
readily perceived. It moved with great velocity in a 
N. W. direction, and disappeared bv entering a thick 

' 11 . O 

black cloud ; and a few seconds after, a most awful 
rumbling noise, like distant thunder, or a hcavv discharge 
of artillery, was heard, and continued a considerable time. 

It 



ON SUNDAY EVENING, NOVEMBER 13. 469 

It was seen also in Whitechapel, Knightsbridge, Hammer- 
smith, and many miles round the metropolis, the whole of 
which was illuminated by it. At the time of its appearance, 
the congregation were coming out of the Broad way Chapel, 
Westminster, and many of them, struck with fear, ran in 
again. The passengers in Leicester Fields were particu- 
larly affected ' by it, and several females were so much 
alarmed that they screamed out. 

Another account says ; the phenomena which happened 
on Sunday evening last, is not calculated to excite that ter- 
ror and dread, which in the dark ages of superstition, de- 
signing men are wont to raise. A comparison of well au- 
thenticated facts authorise a conclusion that similar events 
are by no means uncommon ; but by happening in the day- 
time, or after the inhabitants have in general retired to rest, 
they are observed but by few; and the relation, if made, 
disregarded ; and it is perhaps as much owing to the time 
of the evening in which this meteor appeared, as to its mag- 
nitude and brilliancy, that it has excited so much curiosity. 
From the circumstances of its appearance at Dover, Cran- 
brook, Chehnsford, Lewes, Brighthelmstone, and South- 
ampton, compared with its appearance in London, it seems 
that the body which occasioned this light was moving with 
incredible swiftness at a vast height above the earth, in a 
direction nearly W. or S. W. and in a line passing to the 
Southward of the "coast of Essex. Accordingly \ve expect 
in due course of time, to hear that it was seen in France, 
and probably further, in a South-West direction, and in 
'the contrary direction across England. Wales, and perhaps 
Ireland. It was observed near the Horse Guards, in West- 
minster, to pass about 23 or 30 degrees to the Southward 
of the Zenith, and about 28 or 29 minutes a ter the hour of 
eight by that clock, which is well and constantly regulated 
to true or n;;ar thuj ; the whole tiir.e which the light occa- 
sioned by the meteor lasted, wa.5 not estimated to exceed 

p p p five 



470 ACCOUNT OF A METEOR, &C. 

five or six seconds. From the <jreat heisrht at which this 

O O 

meteor was moving, and its great velocity, we have but 
little expectation of hearing of its fall, or of any of those 
masses of iron and stony matters which have, in so many 
well authenticated instances, fallen from the atmosphere, 
and buried themselves in the earth, or the bursting or 
extinction of many similar meteors. Should, however, the 
noise of the fall of any such masses be heard, or the holes 
be discovered in any part, we hope that the curious will 
not fail to thoroughly investigate the facts, for the purpose 
of increasing our knowledge on this very intricate and 
curious subject. 

The following accounts are from the country papers : 
A letter from Southampton of the 14th, says, " Yesterday 
evening between 8 and 9 o'clock, the inhabitants of this 
town were much surprised at a grand and unusual appear-* 
ance of light in the element, about sixty degrees above the 
horizon, in the W. S.W. quarter, which illlumined the 
buildings, &c. in its passage upon the opposite point of the 
compass. It was not visible more than eighteen or twenty 
seconds ; the night was tine, the hemisphere clear and 
starry, with a moderate breeze from the westward ; the 
streets were in general pretty much crowded ; the evening 
service at the different churches, &c. having concluded 
but a short time before this passing meteor was dis- 
covered." 

" Between eight and nine o'clock Sunday night, a ball 
of fire appeared over Lewes, which for several seconds 
illumined the hemisphere in a very extraordinary man- 
ner. A person who was returning from Brighton, on tha 
roof of our stage coach, asserts, the light was so strong, 
that it enabled him to see distinctly, not only the cattle 
and sheep in the distant meadows, but also the shipping at 
sea. Its bursting was sensibly felt at several houses, which 
we arc told it actually shook, and so alarmed their inha- 



472 MR. VON HUMBOLDT'S 

from any large town , it was night before the few pcopJe 
who saw the accident, could begin to dig for him : this 
they then continued doing the whole of the next day and 
night ; and when from extreme fatigue, and hearing 
nothing of the poor man, they were upon the point of 
leaving off, they had the good fortune to discover that he 
was alive, by hearing his moans, and to release him from 
so dreadful a situation, after he had been there thirty-six 
hours, with little more damage than a violent contusion on 
one arm and one leg, and two of his ribs much bruised. 
He gave an account that he could all the while, very dis- 
tinctly hear the persons speak, who were digging for him, 
though thirty or forty feet below them : and when the 
people were absolutely on the point of giving up the 
attempt to liberate him, they had the good fortune, for 
the first time, to hear his voice, he being then only three 
feet below the ground they had already dug up. When 
discovered, he was kneeling on one knee, with one arm 
lilted up, and both his eyes, as it were, instinctively 
closed. 



TO THE EDITOR. 

" SIR, As the generality of your Readers are probably unacquainted with 
the scientific peregrinations in South America, ill which Mr. VON HUM- 
BOLDT, one of tie German Literati of distinguished eminence, and Director- 
General of Mines in the Prussian service, has been en gaged since the year 1801 j 
the following particulars extracted from a letter of that learned pedestrian to 
his brother, Royal Prussian Minister at Rome, will not, I trust, be deemed, 
unworthy of a place in your interesting and instructive Miscellany." 



Mr. VON HUMBOLDT'S Scientific Researches in Soitf/i 
America. 

L/'NTIL the month of September 1801, Mr. Von Hum-, 
boldt remained with Bonplar.d, his travelling companion, 
at S. Fo de Bogotar, near the equator, on the easternmost 
chain of mountains, formed there by the Andes. In or- 
der 



SCIENTIFIC RESEARCHES, &C. 473 

der to approach the coast of the South Sea on the other 
side of the equa'or, they were obliged to traverse the 
highest arm of that Cordillera. They travelled on foot 
over the snowy regions of Quiridu, and passed seventeen 
days in these deserts, where they were overtaken by sucU 
tremendous falls of rain, that their boots, completely putri- 
fied, dropped fiom their legs, and they entered Cartago 
barefoot and bloo'.lshot. From thence they proceeded to 
Popayan, along the Platina mines, in the mountains of 
Choka. They spent the month of November at Popayan, 
and visited the volcano Purace, which throws out sulphur- 
water with a dreadful noiw. The most difficult road lav 
between that town and Pasto, along the steepest preci- 
pices, and a tremendous volcano. They reached Pasta 
about the end of the year, and after having contended with 
new difficulties, experienced the shock of an earthquake, 
and had a narrow escape from being drowned ; they arrived 
at Quito, "a haiuLome and luxurious town, on the 6th of 
January 1802. 

In that place they continued upwards of six months, 
and made excursions from thence to the memorable vol- 
canoes and stupendous mountains of the province. Our 
bold and intrepid traveller saw more, and climbed higher 
than any European had ever done before him ; so high 
that the native.-; would not follow him, and that from the 
extreme rarefaction of the air, the blood burst forth from 
his lips, gums, and eves, lie examined the volcanoes, 
measured the height of the mountains, and made experi- 
ments with the air ; he asci'mL'd the burning mountains of 
Pichincha, Antisana, and Kotopoxi, and lastly, the Chim- 
bozaco, the highest mountain colossus of our globe. The 
observations made bv Bonguer and Condamine, he has 
partlv confirmed and partly rectiiied, adding such remarks; 
as were suL w ested bv changes, which have taken place 

OO tJ * ' A 

since their departure from that country, The dreadful 

earthquake 



474 MR. VON HUMBOLDT'S RESEARCHES, &.c. 

earthquake which happened on the 4th of February 
shook the whole province of Quito, destroyed 40,000 hu- 
man beings in one moment, and hurled the summits of the 
highest mountains down into the vallies. Since that time 
the subterraneous fire never ceases, shocks of earthquakes 
are constantly felt, volcanoes, extinguished for many 
years, smoke without intermission. Yet unmindful of the 
surrounding dangers, the inhabitants of Quito indulge in 
enjoyments, as refined, luxurious, and extravagant, as 
any which London or Paris can offer, and with a bent fof 
pleasures, which is no where else observable in the same 
degree. The earthquake we have just mentioned, has also 
had a very prejudicial influence over the temperature of 
the air, and rendered it severely cold. An eternal frosfe 
reigns on the snow-clad ridges of the highest mountains, 
where vegetation can be only traced in some small species 
of moss, and where no living being meets the traveller's 
eye, while on the less elevated mountains, the giant of the 
winged tribes, the condor, at times soars over his head. 

At Iliohamba, Mr. Von Humboklt met with some 
highly valuable manuscripts relative to the Ancient His- 
tory of the Nations, inhabiting the part of South America, 
which hitherto has been entirely unknown. It is written 
by one of the ancient Yncas, in a language now dead, and 
translated into Spanish by one of his successors. The. 
King of Lincan shewed this manuscript to our traveller, 
who extracted the most memorable passages. Upon the, 
whole, Mr. Von ITumboldt forms a more favourable judg- 
ment on the knowledge of the Indians, on the ancient state 
of their sciences and arts, and on the beauty and richness 
of their idioms, than other travellers have done, who did 
not reside so long in the country as himself. He afterwards, 
visited the sulphur-mountain at Tiscan, the ruins of the 
palaces of the- ancient Yncas, proceeded to the city of 
C'ueiKu, and from thence through the province of Ja.cn 
along' the bunks of the Amazon Ilivcr to Lima. 

DUTCH 



( 475 > 
REVENGE, AND REMARKABLE 

A SHORT time previous to the present war, when the 
trade was carried on between the port of London and 
Holland, a very singular instance of Dutch revenge 
occurred in the way of traffic, which became a long while 
the subject of conversation among foreign captains, sea-^ 
men, and others concerned with shipping in the river 
Thames. Mr. Stephen Beck, a respectable merchant at 
Wapping, frequently sent goods to Rotterdam, by one 
Brink, the skipper of a Dutch sloop. Jacob Henriqucs, 
another trader, observing the advantage gained by his 
countrvman from the above merchant's employ, formed a 
design to supplant the latter, and obtain the conveyance off 
the goods himself. Influenced by such an intention, he one 
day found means to persuade the merchant's man that 
Brink's vessel had left the river, and prevailed upon him to 
ship several hampers, &c. on board the craft he com- 
manded, with which he got under way. Brink, in the 
mean time, waited as usual for his freight, and finding it 
did not arrive, was obliged to go to sea without it ; but ou 
his next return to London, waited on Mr, Beck, to know 
ho\v he came to be deprived of the goods he had so long 
been accustomed to take on board. He then learned the 
trick Henriques had played him ; and the inflamed skip- 
per, after reprobating the conduct of his countryman in 
the most severe terms, vowed to be quickly revenged. A 
Dutchman seldom fails to remember an injury, and where 
If s interest is concerned, never rests until he receives ten- 
fold satisfaction. In the present instance, it was not long 
before an opportunity offered to gratify this ruling pro- 
pensity. He knew Henriques had been for some time, 
carrying on an illegal trade with English guineas, a great 
number of which he constantly secreted in his cabin, placed 
in the barrels of three blunderbusses, constructed in so 
curious a manner, that when the vessel was searched, 
previous to her sailing, no traces of the deception were 
ever discovered .. The profits of Exchange between Holland 

and 



475 DUTCH REVENGE, &C. 

and England, were frequently very considerable. Brink, 
possessed of this secret, conceived himself at liberty 
to retaliate the attempt made to his prejudice, accord- 
ingly communicated the whole transaction to the Port- 
Master at Gravesend, who proceeded to take the neces- 
sary steps to seize the money, and when Henriques 
tvas going to sea, a shot was fired to bring him to ; the 
latter having, however, a fair wind, the gun was disre- 
garued, the vessel passed without backing her top-sail, and 
ilropped down to the Hope, where the Port-Master fol- 
lowed her, went along side in his barge, entered the 
cabin, and immediately took down the blunderbusses, 
loaded with 6S1 new guineas, which he conveyed on shore* 
Henriques, after the .seizure, applied in vain to have part 
of it restored ; the greatest favour he obtained, being per- 
mitted to put to sea with his vessel, which was liable to be 
detained. On arriving at Rotterdam, a short time after, 
the unfortunate Henriques met Brink on the Exchange, 
to whom he related the circumstances of his loss, littering: 

' O 

at the same time the most bitter execrations against the 
unknown informer. The latter, with a sneer of contempt, 
derided the complaint, and after upbraiding him for his 
former unfair dealings, declared he was the man who had 

O ' 

eiven information of the concealed <rokl to the Port Muster* 

*^ O 

The enraged Henriques, on hearing such a declaration, 
immediately pulled out 'his knife; Brink did the same, 
and by consent attacked each other after the Dutch manner, 
until part of Brink's nose suffered in the conflict, and his 
adversary was much scarified ; the standers-by then parted 
the combatants, inflamed with more than mortal fury. The 
dreadful marks exhibited in their faces recorded the affray, 
und they never after appeared at Wapping or Billingsgate, 
but the laugh became general. The story was repeated 
frequently by Brink himself, who felt much satisfaction at 
the recital. 

THE END OF VOL. I. 



Printed fy T. Keating, Cozc-Lunc, Snow-Hit!, 



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