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Full text of "Kirby's wonderful and eccentric museum; or, Magazine of remarkable characters. Including all the curiosities of nature and art, from the remotest period to the present time, drawn from every authentic source. Illustrated with one hundred and twenty-four engravings. Chiefly taken from rare and curious prints or original drawings"

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THE LIBRARY 

OF 

THE UNIVERSITY 

OF CALIFORNIA 

LOS ANGELES 




F JROTTTIS FIE CIE . 



Pi.h'fSFji'.i.oi^o, hv t; .'.K,i hv l.ctidcnHci,srTardA:.T.Jt-cUJt,n>,./ . 



KIllD Y'S 
WONDERFUL 

AND 

ECCENTRIC MUSEUM 

OR, 

MAGAZINE 

OF 
INCLUDING ALL THE 

CURIOSITIES OF NATURE AND ART, 

FROiVI THE RKMOTEST PERIOD TO THE PRESENT TIME, 
Drawnfrom every aul/ientic Source. 

ILLUSTKATED WITH 

ONE HUNDRED AND TWENTY-FOUR ENGRAVINGS. 

CUIEFLY TAKEN FROM RARE AND CURIOUS PRINTS 
OR ORIGINAL DHAWINGS. 



SIX VOLUMES. 

VOL. II. 



LONDON: 

R. S. KIRBY, LONDON HOUSE YARD, ST. PAUL'S. 
1820. 



MR, MATTHEW BUCHINGElRc 



Having given the Lives and Portraits of several Original Characters, 
2» oi<r First Volume, which zee have the satisfaction to fnd, has been jnost 
corcliaUi/ received by the CvKiovs, and the Lovers of Oricih alii v ; in pur^ 
suanceof the same entertaining Plan, u-e commence our SzcoaOf ivith an Ac- 
count and Portrait of the above 5 conimonhj culled, 

THE WONDERFUL LITTLE MAN OF NURExMBERG, 
IN GERMANY. 



JVIr. Buchinger was born June. 2, 1674, without hands, 
feet, or thighs. He was the last of nine children, by one 
father and mother, viz. eight sons and one daughter ; and 
after arriving at the age of maturity, from the singularity 
of his case, and the abilities he possessed, he attracted the 
attention not only of the Continent, but of this country 
also ; the public at that time being anxious to obtain the 
likeness of a person, whose abilities seemed peculiarly ori- 
ginal, and not less remarkable for his acquirements, tlian 
for the singular privations he laboured under, from tlie pe- 
culiarity of his formation. 

To come to particulars, as co liis capacity, it was re- 
marked of him, by his cotemporaries, *' that this little man 
performed such wonders as had never been done by any 
but himself. It was said, that he played on various sorts of 
music to admiration, as the strange flute in consort with 
the bagpipe, dulcimer and trun)pet. He was likewise sup- 
posed to possess considerable abilities for the mechanics, 
having conceived the design of constructing machhies to 
play on all sorts of music. 

Vol. II. ^ He 



8 UNCOMMON ELEVATION IN A BALLOON. 

He was no less eminent for writing, drawing coats of 
arms, sketches, &c. with a pen ; was an adept at cards* - 
and dice. He also performed tricks with cups and balls, 
corn, and living buds, and could play at skittles and 
nine-pins with great dexterity ; with other particulars, not 
less surprising-, in a person so mutilated by nature, as he 
appeared to be. — But among the most remarkable of hij> 
drawings, is his own portrait ; and as an embellishment in 
the delineation of his wig, he most curiously contrived, that 
its curls should exhibit in several fairly Avritten lines, tho 
fl7th, 121st, 128th, 130th, 140th, 149th, and the 150th 
Psalms, concluding with the Lord's Prayer. As another 
singularity in his domestic affairs, it is remarkable that 
he was married four times, and had eleven children ; viz. 
one by his first wife, three by his second, six by his 
third, and one by his last. — His whole stature was no more 
than 29 inches in height ; the portrait accompanying this 
description of his person, was copied from diat drawn bj 
himself. 

C7«6ww;ww Elevation m a Balloon, at Hamburgh. 

JMr. Robertson, whose experiments we have before 
heard of, renewed his late attempts about the 7th of No- 
vember. This balloon, constructed of taffety, was 30 feet 
in diameter, and was filled so as to carry a w^eight of 445 
pounds. Mr. Robertson ascended with a friend, having 
ballast to the Aveight of 140 pounds. They continued 
rising till the barometer stood at 1 2 deg. and they were 
supposed to be 3,679 toises, or measures of 6 feet from the 
earth. No Aeronauts had ever ascended so high ; nor did 
Mr. Robertson, or his friend, even think it possible. — But 
here they soon found, that the apathy, inactivity, and 
di'owsiness that began to seize upon them Avas inexpres- 
sible. Their ej^es were suffused with blood, their lips 
swelled, their veins distended, and their pulse beat un- 
coiiiinonly hi^h. Their throats, in the next place, became 

affected ; 



jC galvanic battery, &c. 5 

affected ; and they found it very difficult to swallow. In 
fact, a degree of numbness and drowsiness, that must in- 
fallibly have brought on death, began to gain very fast 
upon them, so that if they had not taken the resolution of 
fastening a cord round their bodies, by which they could 
pull each other heartil}"^ ; and made use of some stimulants, 
M'hich they applied, upon the principles of electricity and 
magnetism, they certainly must have perished. In the 
course of five hours they descended in the Hanoverian ter- 
ritory, 78 miles from the spot where they ascended. One 
of the birds they carried Avith them was dead, the other was 
unable to fly. When at the vast height from whence they 
descended, though they spoke to each other veiy loud, 
they could hear but with great difficulty. The sun was 
no longer of that dazzling brightness in which it appeared 
on the earth, being a fine day ; but all the whole circle of 
the heavens appeared of a most beautiful blue. Maugre 
these difficulties which Mr. Robertson met with, he proposed 
making another excursion, in order that he might enlarge 
his physical experiments. 



A GALVANIC BATTERY AND INFLAMMABLE AIR-PISTOL. 

VV HiLE the Philosophers of the Continent are busied with 
Galvanic experiments upon the dead, we are glad to find 
the subject occupying the attention of some gentlemen of 
science in this country, Avith a laudable vieAV of applying 
tlie powers of this surprising principle to objects of general 
utility. The battery which Mr. Wilkinson, of Soho-square, 
has constructed, and by which he some evenings since made 
numerous curious experiments, exposes a surface of nearly 
30,000 square inches, containing more than a ton Aveicrht 
of metal. Gold and silver, till lately considered as indis- 
tructible by fire, Avere, by INIr. Wilkinson, together Avith 
popper and tin^ deflagrated Avith an uncommon brilhancy ; 

» 2 a platina 



4 BRUTALITY IN ITS PURITY. 

a platina wire, 1-1 0th of an inch thick, was greatly dis- 
tended, and fused with a globular form ; steel harpsichord 
wire was ignited, and fused into red-hot balls ; brass, cop- 
per, and silver, produced the same eifect. On applying 
charcoal to the Galvanic apparatus, the most intensely 
brilliant light ensued, so luminous in fact, that the blaze 
of a patent lamp exposed to it, was so far eclipsed as to be 
scarcely distinguishable ; the light continued about ten 
minutes, and the Umiinous extremities of the charcoal pro- 
duced a most beautiful radiation, rendering every part of 
a large room, previously darkened, as light as if exposed to 
an unclouded sun. The inflammable air-pistol was, for the 
first time, fired by Galvanism, Mr. Wilkinson, among 
some interesting observations on the influence of Galvanism, 
in the important science of Magnetism, remarked, that the 
polarity of any metallic substance, as lately mentioned by 
a continental Philosopher, did not appear correct. With 
steel and iron ueevlies he had frequently magnetised by 
Galvanism^ 

TO THE EDITOR, 

*' Sir,— If the foTIwving Miscellaneous Articles are any waj'S useful to you,, 
to be inserted in the Number commencing the Second Volmne of your truly 
Entertaining Magazine, they are wholly at your service } and by cemplying^ 
will, at the same time, greatly oblige your occ^ional Correspondent, 

Nottivghamy Dec. 15, 1803. D. B. L." 

BRUTALITY IN ITS PURITY, 

A Farmer, on Friday evening, January 9th, 1795, 
sittins]j amoncn a small circle of his neio-hbours, fuddlins: 
their noses over a large fire and a full tankard, in order to 
prove the degree of subjection and command he had over 
a fine young mastiff (then lying before the fire), took a large 
blazing coal and applied it to the belly of the animal; at 
the same time ordering him.to lie still, which the poor crea- 
ture actually did, until his entrails had nearly appeared ; 

wlien 



REMARKABLE INSTANCES OF SAGACITY IN DOGS. S 

when extreme torture forcing hini to fly, his tender-hearted 
master, as a reward for his htleUty, took a gun and imme- 
diately shot him. The scene wiicre this singular act of hu- 
vianity took place, was at the Robinhood public-house, 
near Helsby, in the county of Chester. The authenticity 
of which, many of the inhabitants of that place can testify. 



TWO REMARKABLE INSTANCES OF SAGACITY IN DOGS. 

In the latter end of the month of February 1795, as Mr. 
Boustead's son, of Great Salkeld, Westmoreland, was 
shepherding upon Great Salkeld Common, he had the mis- 
fortune to fall and break his leg. He Avas then at the dis- 
tance of three miles from home, no person within call, and 
evening ftist approaching. Besides fciie anguish he was suf- 
ferine from the fracture, how dreadful must his feelinjis 
have been, from the accumulated distress of his situation. 
At a moment when distraction was likely to overcome the 
powers of reason and reflection, Providence directed him 
to the following expedient : — He folded one of his gloves 
jn his handkerchief, which he tied round the neck of tJie 
do"-, and ordered him home. The do^s which are trained 
to an attendance on the flock, are known to be under ad- 
mirable subjection to the commands of their masters. The 
animal instantly set off, arriving at the house, scratched at 
the door for admittance. The young man's parents were 
alarmed at his appeai'ance, and more especially when they 
took off and unfolded the handkerchief ; concluding, be- 
yond a doubt, that some accident had befallen their son, 
they instantly went in search of him. The dog needed no 
instruction, apparently .sensil)le tliat the chief part of his 
duty was yet to be performed, he led the way, and con- 
ducted the anxious parent to the spot where their son laid! 
Happily this was eiVec.ted before night had set in ; the 
young man was brought home, and the necessary aid pro- 
cured ; 



$ REMARKABLE INSTANCES OF FECUNDITY, &C. 

cured ; and he shortly after Recovered. A writer of no 
small eminence, says, " There is a moral obligation between 
a man and a dog:" in the present instance, that obligation 
is very strong, indeed. The shepherd owes his release, 
from a situation the most dreadful that can be conceived^ 
to the wonderful sai?;acity of a faithful doii:. 



In the month of June ISOO, as Mr. J. Seaman, of Rupert- 
street, was going from the Hay-market to Bond-street, he fell 
tlown in a fit ; a crowd of people soon collected : but a 
Newfoundland dog, belonging to Mr. Seaman, kept them at 
a distance from him, thereby promoting his recovery, by the 
jadmlsion of air, and preserving a large sum of money which 
he had iii his pockets ; and of wliich, it is probable, he had 
otherAvise been deprived. This dog, about two years pre- 
ceding the above time, saved his master's life at Ports-, 
mouth, when he fell into the harbour ; and, but for th^ 
exertions of this animal, must have been drowned. 



Three remarkable Instances of Fecundity in different 

AXIMALS, 

j^i. SINGULAR instance of which Avas proved in the Vipef, 
on Monday, August 16, 1791, by George Dickinson, a 
Labourer, at Edwinstowe, in the county of Nottingham ; he 
being at work in a rushy meadow, observed a female vipef 
basking in the sun, upon an old bank. He took up a rail 
and killed her ; v. hen seeing the belly uncommonly large 
for that species of serpent, he opened her down from the 
jaw to the tail, with the point of his scythe ; when there 
came out 18 young vipers, in full vigour, and snapped at 
the scytlic Avith the greatest avidity ; and most of theni 
lueasuved eight inches in length : the old viper was two 
feet eight inches in lenG,th. 

Aa 



^ 



AN EXTRAORDINARY CASE IN SURGERY, &;C, If 

An Ewe belonging to J. Horton, Esq. of Elliot's-Hall, 
in Warwickshire, which brought three lambs in 1800, and 
four in 1801 ; and on the 3d of March 1802, yeaned fivcj 
all alive. 

In the month of July of the present year, a Sow lie- 
longing to Mr. Porter, of Marham, Lincolnshire, had a litter 
of 25 pigs, all alive; 18 of which were living a fortnight 
after, 

AN EXTRAORDINARY CASE IN SURGERY, 

riAPPENED in February 1796, in the county of 3Icatli- 
Hospital, on the Coomb : — A woman of the name of Sarah 
Dillon, who had been pregnant for two years and two 
months, underwent the C^efarean operation, and had a full- 
grown child extracted, which had not tlic least appearance 
of putrefaction. The woman was shortly after discharge^ 
from the Hospital perfectly healed and Aveil, 



Singular Instance of Shells being found under a solid 
Stratum of Rock. 

In working a stone-quarry, in 1795, belonging to Lord 
Dncie, on the road leading from Tedbury to I^ath, tlie re- 
mains of a large tree, supposed to be oak, was discovered 
\5 feet from the surface of the ground, and under a solid 
stratum of rock, several feet thick. Near the tree, which 
was of a considerable size, and measured in length 20 feet, 
(lying in a Sbuth-East direction,) an oyster, and some other 
shells were found. This is one of the singular occurrences 
Avhicli confound philosophy, and demonstrate the sup^r- 
ficialness of human conception. 



REMARKABLE AURORA BOREALIS. 

About eight o'clock on Thursday night, the 21st of 
October 1791, a remarkable Aurora Borealis was seen, 

near 



S REMARKABLE HISTORY OF A CANADA GOOSE.. 

near Mansfield, in the county of Nottingham ; its appeal*-* 
ance was that of a Avhite steady hght, without any of those 
shooting streams of the electric fluid, which are always seen 
in the common Aurora Borealis ; it seemed to extend from 
N. E. to S. W. and where it was observed from a high situ- 
ation, it formed the segment of a large circle.. There had 
been a little frost in the morning, the day was fine, and 
the evening perfectly clear. — Tlie wind N. W. ; barome- 
ter 30 deir. and thermometer 47 deo-. 



A Pig of Lead, 2 feet long, 7 inches thick at top, 
3| inches at bottom, and 185 pounds weight, was found in 
the year 1795, at Snelbitch, in Shropshire, with the in- 
scription, " J. M. P. Hadriani A. V. C. ;" supposed to 
have lain there since the reign of Adrian the Emperor, who 
died in the year 139, being 1657 years ago, from the time 
of bcino; found. 



REMARKABLE HISTORY OF A CANADA GOOSE. 

The following Stoiy is extreme!)' well attested, and furnishes a very curious 
Article in Natural History. 

1 HE following account of a Canada Goose, is so extraor- 
dinary, that I am aware, it would, with diflicult}^ gain 
credit ; was not a whole parish able to vouch for the truth 
of it. 

The Canada Geese are not fond of a poultry-yard, but 
are rather of a rambling disposition : one of these birds was, 
however, observed to attach itself in the strongest and 
most affectionate manner to the house-dog ; would never 
quit the kennel, except for the purpose of feeding, when 
it would return again immediately. It always sat by the 
dog, but never presumed to go into the kennel, except in 
rainy weather ; whenever the dog barked, the goose would 
cackle and run at the person she supposed the dog barked 
at, and try to bite them by the heels. Sometimes she would 

attempt 



REMARKABLE HISTORY OF A CANADA GOOSE. 9 

attempt to feed with the dog : but this the dog, who rather 
treated his faithful companion with indifference, would not 
suffer. 

This bird would not go to roost with the others at night, 
unless driven by main force ; and, when in the morning, she 
is turned in the field, she would never stir from the yard- 
gate, but sit tliere the whole day in sight of the dog. At 
Jast orders were given that she should not be molested, but 
suffered to accompany the dog as she liked : being thus 
left to herself, she ran about with him all night, and what 
js particularly e!xtra ordinary, and can be attested by the 
whole parish, that Avhenever the dog went out of the yard, 
and ran into the village, the goose ahvays accompanied 
him, contriving to keep up with by the use of her wings ; 
and in this way of running and flying, followed him all over 
the parish. 

This extraordinar}^ affection of the goose towards the 
dog, which continued till his death, two 3-ears after it was 
first observed, is supposed to have originated from his hav- 
ing saved her from a fox, in the very moment of distress. 
While the dog was ill, the goose never quitted him, day 
nor night, not even to feed ; and it was apprehended she 
would have been starved to death, had not the orders been 
given for a pan of corn to be set every day close to the 
kqnnel. At this time the goose generally sat inside the 
kennel, and would not let any approach, unless it was the 
person that brough the dog's or her own food. 

The end of this faithful bird was melancholy ; for when 
the dog died, she would still keep possession of the kennelj 
and a new house-dog being introduced, which in size and 
colour resembled that lately lost, the poor goose was un- 
happily deceived, and going into the kennel, the new in- 
habitant seized her by the throat and killed her. 

A similar affection was observed between a cat aixl a 
pigeon, some years ago, at the house of the late Robert 
James, Esq. of Putney ; with this difference, that it ap- 

c pearod 



no FROM hutton's history of derby. 

peared to be reciprocal. — What rendered it more extraor- 
dinary was, that they were both found one day on the 
wall of the garden, and both became domesticated ai 
Mr. James's, where they continued to be inseparable 
companions, ^^-^.^^-^^^ Carolus. 

FROM button's HISTORY OF DERBY. 

J\ Regiment of troopers in 1647, in the Parliament 
service, marching over St. Marj^'s bridge, in their way to 
Nottingham, observed a girl of 15 years of age, a few 
yards below the bridge, lading water into her pail, w^hile 
standing upon a bating lag, (beating log, upon Avhich the 
dyer stands to beat his cloth) ; some soldiery jokes ensued, 
Avhen one of them dismounted and cast a large stone, with 
a design to splash her ; but not being versed in directing a 
stone so well as a bullet, he missed the water, and broke 
her head. Alarmed at this unexpected result of his rude 
attack, he hastened to the front of the regiment, to avoid 
the consequence: Thus, the man who had boldly faced the 
enemy in the field, fled with fear from an helpless female. 
Nothing disarms like offered injuries. She instantly, with 
tears and cries, left her pail, Ment home, when her mother 
Ava'i frightened to behold her covered with blood. The un- 
known consequences of this adventure, hung heavy upon 
the trooper's mind : lie rode in the regiment eleven years 
after. — When discharged, the Avorld was all before him, 
whei'e to chuse, he fixed on Derby ; followed his occu- 
pation, courted and married a young woman. In the 
course of their conversations, he proved to be the very man 
that cast the stone, and she the woman with a broken head. 
They lived in Bridge-Gate, and in harmony about thirty 
years : during that period, they produced ten children, 
the eldest of whom was my grandfather {the Author), — His 
sword, in my possession, w'as drawn for liberty, at Mars- 
ton Moor, under the Earl of Manchester ; at Naseby, un- 
der Fairfax ; and at Worcester, under Cromwell ; and was 
carried in pursuit of the unfortunate Charles, to Boscobel." 

T/ic 



( n ) 

The History of the famous Bottle Conjuror, in the 
Year 1148 — 9, (now for the first J^ime collected) .• being 
the Advertisements, &(c. ti(c, that appeared in all the public 
Papers of that Period, relative to that entertaining and 
extraordinarij Imposition, 

January 12, 1749. — At the New Theatre in the Hay* 
market, on Monday next, the 16th instant, is to be seen, 
a person who performs the several most surprising things 
following; viz. — 1st, He takes a common walking cane 
from any of the spectators, and thereon plays the music of 
every instrument now in use, and likewise sings to sur- 
prising perfection ; 2dly, He presents you with a common 
wine bottle, which any of the spectators may first exa- 
mine ; this bottle is placed on a table in the middle of the 
stage, and he (without any equivocation) goes into it, in 
the sight of all the spectators, and sings in it; during his 
stay in the bottle, any person may handle it, and see 
plainly that it does not exceed a common tavern bottle. — 
Those on the stage, or in the boxes, may come in masked 
habits (if agreeable to them] ; and the performer, if de- 
sired, will inform them Avho they are. — Stage, 7s. 6d. 
Boxes, 5s. Pit, 3s. Gallery, 2s. Tickets to be had at 
the Theatre : — To becfin at half an hour after six o'clock. 
The performance continues about two hours and a half. 

Kofc, If an}^ gentlemen or ladies (after the above per- 
formance), either single or in company, in or out of mask, 
is desirous of seeing a representation of any deceased per- 
son, such as husband or wife, sister or brother, or any in- 
timate friend of cither sex, upon making a gratuity to the 
performer, shall be gratilied by seeing and conversing 
with them for some minutes, as if alive ; likewise, if de- 
sired, he will tell you your most secret though'ts in voiir 
past life, and give you a full view of persons who have 
injured you, whether dead or alive. For those gentlemen 

c 2 an4 



12 THE HISTORY OF THE 

and ladies who are desirous of seeing this last part, there 
is a private room provided. 

These performances have- been seen by most of the 
crowned heads of Asia, Africa, and Europe, and never ap-- 
peared public any where but once ; but Avill wait on any at 
their houses, and perform as above, for fiv-e pounds each 
time. A proper guard is appointed to prevent any disorder. 

The following is an account of the performance, as? 
published in one of the ncAvspapers the following day : — 
January 13. — Last night the much-expected Drama of the 
Bottle-Conjuror of the New Theatre in the Hay-market, 
ended in the tragic-comical manner following. Curiosity 
had drawn together prodigious numbers. About seven, 
the Theatre being lighted up, but without so much as a 
-single fiddle to keep the audience in a good humour, many 
grew impatient. Immediately followed a chorus of catcalls, 
heightened by loud vociferations and beating with sticks •<, 
when a fellow came from behind the curtain, and bowing, 
*aid, that if the performer did not appear, the money should 
be returned. At the same time, a wag crying out from the 
pit, that if the ladies and gentlemen would give double 
prices, the Conjuror would get into a pint bottle ; pre- 
sently ayoung gentleman in one of the boxes seized a lighted- 
candle, and threw it on the stage. This served as the charge 
for sounding to battle. Upon tliis the greatest part of the 
audience made tlie best of their way out of the Theatre ^ 
some losing a cloak, others a hat, others a wig, and others 
hat, wig, and swords also. One party, however, stayed in 
tlie House, in order to denjoUsh the inside ; when the mob 
breaking in, they tore up the benches, broke to pieces the 
scenes, pulled down the boxes, in short dismantled the 
Theatre entirely, carrying away the particulars above men- 
tioned into the street, where they made a mighty bonfire ; 
tlie curtain bcmg hoisted on a pole by way of Hag. A large, 

party 



FAMOUS BOTTLE CONJUROR. 13 

party of the guards Avere sent for, but came time enough 
only to Avarm themselves by the fire. We hear of no other 
disaster than a young nobleman's chin being hurt, occa- 
sioned by his fall into the pit, with part of one of the boxes, 
which he had forced out with his foot. It is thouirht the 
Conjuror vanished away with the money, &c. 

Another account says ; — January 13, — Last night there 
was a very numerous and polite modern company of choice 
spirits J to see the extraordinary performances of the Hay- 
market Conjuror, When the time was elapsed, according- 
to his conjuring advertisement, a great uproar was made ; 
when one of the conjuring tribe appeared on the stage, and 
made a speech ; declaring, among other things of equal im- 
portance, that if the gentleman did not appear in a quarter 
of an hour, they slwuld hav^ their money returned : but 
to the great surprize of the company, their money was 
<;onjured away, without any other performance. Imme- 
diately a great confusion ensued ; the benches were torn up, 
i)onfires were made of them ; and happy were they who 
got off safe with their watches, &c. It was reported, that 
a great General * lost his sword in the quarrel ; cmii multia 
£iliis. ^^^^^^^^ 

January 13. — Lost, last Monday night, at the Little 
Play-house in the Hay-market, a Sword, with a oold hilt 
and cutting blade, with a crimson and gold sword-knot 
tied round the hilt. Whoever brings it to Mrs. Cheveiiix'3 
Toy Shop, over-against Great Suffolk-street, near Cliariiio-. 
•cross, shall receive 30 guineas reward, and no questions 
asked. -^^^^^^^^ 

II Inch was antuered by the following Adverti^emtni : 

January 18.— Found entangled in the slit of a Lidv's 
demolished smock-petticoat, a Gold hiked Sword, of mar- 
tial length and temper, nothing worse for wear, with tlie 
spcy curiously wrought on one side of tl)e blade, and th.e 

(• The Duke of Cumbe/land was there:) 

scheld 



14 THE HISTORY OF THE 

scheld on the other ; supposed to have been stolen fronnf 
the plump side of a great Genei'al, in his precipitate retreat 
from the Battle of Bottle Noodles, at Station Foot. En- 
quire at the Quart Bottle and Musical Cane, in Pottei^'s- 
row. 

N. B. Every word of a certain late advertisement is 
true, except all the advertisement. 

January 18. — To the Public. — As I am accused of bein^ 
accessary to the cheat imposed upon the town, on Monday 
night, in the Hay-market, I hope the Public will pardon, 
as my reputation and interest are so essentially engaged, 
my taking this method to acquit myself of the least concern 
in that transaction. Mr. Potter, the Proprietor of the 
Play-house, sent me word last week, that the Theatre was 
engaged for Monday night ; for what purpose, the Public 
were informed in the next day's Advertiser. 

On Monday morning I called upon Mr. LeAvis, who is 
Attorney to Mr. Potter, and has the direction of the House 
in his absence ; I gave him my opinion, that a fraud on the 
Public was intended ; and advised him, on no account, to 
open his doors. His answer was, that if the man complied 
with his agreement, the doors must be opened. I then de- 
sired him not to suffer, on any pretence, the man himself, 
or any of his confederates, to receive a shilling ; but to 
sppoint a treasurer of his own, who might, if the audience 
were either disappointed or displeased, return them their 
money. This advice he took. I, in confidence of his 
promise, told a gentleman near me in the Boxes, who was 
clamorous for his money, the measures I had taken for his 
security. This is all that I know of the affair ; and to Mr. 
Lewis, I appeal for the truth of it in every circumstance. 
^^^^^^^^ Sam. Foote. 

January^ 19. — To the Public. — Whereas I read an adver- 
tisement in this Paper yesterdav, signed Sam. Foote, wherein 

h& 



i-AMOUS BOTTLE CONJUROft. 15 

he makes use of Mr. Lewis's name ; in answer to whieh I 
think it incumbent on me to declare, that Mr. Lewis neither 
lett, or had any concern whatsoever, directly or indirectly, 
in letting, or advising about letting my Theatre on Mon- 
day last. w#-^^-#-^^^^ John Potter. 

January 19. — To the Public. — All the facts related in Mr. 
Foote's advertisement of yesterday, are true, except that 
the conversation was with Mr, Lewis's Clerk, Avho is Ne- 
phew to Mr. Potter, and transacted the business of the 
Theatre for INIr. Potter ; and not Mr, Lewis, as by mistake 
■was inserted. ^.^-^^^^.^■^ Sam. Foote, 

From Mr. John Potter, the Proprietor of the Ne^i? 
Theatre in the Hay-market. 

As the resentment of the town for the disappointment of 
the performance advertised to be exhibited in my Theatre, 
on Monday last, falls entirely upon me, I hope I may be 
allow^ed to acquaint the Public with the nature of my case. 

It is never yet been expected, (nor I presume is it rea- 
sonable) that I should answer for the misbehaviour of any 
person that takes my House, nor did I ever think any thing 
(in that respect) incumbent on me, more than to caution 
the persons who took it, against acting contrary to the 
la\vs in being, and to acquaint them witli the consequences 
thereof; which I have always done. But in this particular 
case, as the performance proposed was so very extraor- 
dinary, I was under some apprehension of an imposition, 
and therefore insisted, tliat there should be a person of my 
own appointment in the Office ; and in case there should 
be no performance, or that there should appear any noto- 
rious equivocation in it, that the money should be returned ; 
all which the person readily consented to. And as he paid 
the rent of the house, and must consequently be at some 
other necessary expences before the doors would be opened, 
I was thereby strongly induced to believe, that he intended 
po real imposition, but that something (of that kind) would 

be 



J^ THE HISTORY OF THE 

be exiiibited to the satisfaction of the spectators. All the 
caution above mentioned was taken, and the money locked 
up in the Otfice, guarded by persons of reputatior*, who 
would have returned it ;■ and publicly on the stage tdd 
them, that if the person did not appear, their money should 
be returned. But instead of accepting ef that offer, my 
house Tras pulled down, the Office broke open, the money 
taken out, and the servants obliged to fiy to save their lives. 
I liope, therefore, this may be deemed a sufficient justification, 
iu my behalf, and all that could be reasonably expected of 
me : and that those gentlemen who are conscious of having 
injured me, will be so generous as to make me a reasonable 
satisfaction, considering the damage I have suffered ; which, 
which on a moderate computation, will amount to upwards 
of o£'400. John Potter. 

Note^ The person who took the House, was a man of 
genteel appearance, said his name was William NichoUs,. 
and directed letters to be left for him at th^ Bedford Cof- 
fee-house, Covent-garden. 



Jannar}' 20. — Wl>ereas a Letter signed S. M. ; dated 
the 18t.h inst. was sent j'csterday by the Penny Post, di- 
rected to Mr. Potter, in the Hay-market ; which, by the 
contents^ seems to come from the person who took Mr. 
Potter's Theatre for Monday last ; wherein he complains 
of roucii ill usage, and insists that the man can perform, 
the things he advertised, and would have performed them„ 
and was actually in a coach in order to come, but was in- 
timidated by two gentlemen Avho came from tlie Gun Ta- 
Tcrn, vv^ho told him he would be taken up if he performed : 
And in his letter he threatens, that in case Mr. Potter will 
not give him c£22, which he says he was ©ut of pocket, 
that he will apply to some Court of Law or Equity, for 
justice : He also desires an answer in this paper. — In an- 
swer to which, S. M. is desired to appear personally, and 

to 



FAMOUS BOTTLE CONJUROR, 17 

to give an account of his name and place of abode ; and he 
shall have such satisfaction as in justice he deserves. 

^^^^^^ John Potter. 

Jan. 20. — Whereas the Public v;b.s on Monday last basely 
abused by an impostor, who pretended to perform what was 
impracticable, at the Theatre in the Hay- market; the same 
imposition someevil-minded villains imagined John Coustos, 
Lapidary, to be the author of: this is to assure the Public, 
that the said John Coustos had never such design, nor ever 
hired, or caused to be hired, the House on any occasion 
whatever ; and to caution those his enemies, who are the 
authors of this report, not to assart a thing which they 
know to be a gross falsity : And thei;e are those, who are 
ready to attest on oath, that he was in their company that 
evening, and was at the Theatre as a spectator onlv- 

-^^■^-^-^-^ John Coustos. 

The following Advertisement tvas inserted, assigning the 
reason xihy the Bottle Conjuror did not perform. 

"Whereas various stories have been told the Pubhc, about 
the Man and the Bottle, the following account seems to be 
the best as yet given of that odd affair ; viz. A gentleman 
went to him the same evening he was to perform in the 
Hay-market, and asking liim what he must have to perform 
to him in private, he said £S, on which they ao-reed, and 
tlie Conjuror getting ready to go into the bottle, which 
was set on a table, the gentleman having provided a parcel 
of corks, fitted one to the bottle ; tlien the Conjuror havino- 
darkened the room as mucli as was necessary, at last with 
much squeezhig got into the bottle, which, in a moment, 
tile gentleman corked up, and whipt into his pocket, and 
in great haste and seeming confusion, went out of tlie 
liouse, telling the servants who waited at the door, that 
their master had bewitched him,. and bid them go i-n and 
t;ike care of him. Thus, the poor man being bit himself, 
y[\. being confined in the botije, and in a gentleman's 

o l)ocket. 



1$ THE HISTORY OF THE 

pocket, could not be in another place ; for he never adver- 
tised he would go into two bottles at one and the same 
time. He is still in the gentleman's custody, who uncorks 
him now and then to feed him, and to let in some fresh 
air to him ; but his long confinement has so dampt his spi- 
rits, that instead of singing and dancing, he is perpetually 
crying, and cursing his ill fate. But though the town have 
been disappointed of seeing him go into tlie bottle, in a 
few da3-s they will have the pleasure of seeing him come 
out of the bottle ; of which timely notice will be given in 
the daily papers. ^^^^^^ 

This Datf is published, (puce Sir-pence, J 

A Letter to the Town, concerning the Man and the 
Bottk. — Printed for W. Reeves, in Fleet-street ; and A. 
Dodd, opposite St. Clement's Church in the Strand. 

Thif: Da;/ ore published, {^price Six-pevce,) 

The Bottled Heroes; or, Madness and Folly A-la-mode. 

Humbly inscribed to Mr. H — g — h, and Mr. G k. 

With a humorous Copper-plate Head-piece. By Angli- 
canus, M. D. To be had, by the Author's appointment, 
of T. Ewart, Publisher, facing Slaughter's Coffee-house, 
St. Martiu's-lane ; P. Griffin, in Fleet-street ; and all shops 
in Town and Country. 

Jan. .30 — This Day at Noon will be published, fprice 6d. plain ; \s. coloured, > 

English Credulity ; or, Ye're all bottled : — A humorous 
Print. Exactly representing the particular Characters 
that attended at the Hay-market Theatre ; together with 
their different requests, according to their several stations, 
to converse with the Inhabitants of the Lower Resions ; 
viz. the Soldier, Engineer, Parson, Phjsician, Fop, Sailor, 
Fille de Joye, &c. To which is an?iexed, a Poem, pro- 
pex'ly adapted to the subject- — Printed for B. Dickinson, 
the corner of the Bell-Savage Inn, Ludgate-hill. 

NotCj All the Bottle Prints that have been published, 
arc l)y this Print out-bottled. 

Jusf- 



FAMOUS BOTTLE CONJUROR, 19 

Just published, (price Six-pence,) 

A IVIodest Apology for the Man in the Bottle. By Him- 
self : — Being a full Answer to all that ever was, or ever 
will be said on that important occasion. Containing 
amongst other curiosities, a particular account of the 
Scheme ; some Sketches of a late Minister ; the Year 1720, 
with the S. S. Directors ; a Dialogue between Mordecai 
^nd a Christian, on Foreign Loans ; the Bottloman's Name, 
what, and who the greatest Impostors, and why? the Blind 
lead the Blind ; Foreigners most encouraged ; the Bottle- 
man not the Aggressor ; Miracles proved ever since the 
Revolution, &c. — Ridentan dice e Verum. — Printed for 
J. Freeman, near St. Paul's ; and sold by the Booksellers 
in London and Westminster. 



Feb. 8, — This Day at Noon tcill be published^ f price Six-pence, J 

An Apology to the Town, for Himself and the Bottle, 

By J. Nick-all. N. B. Mr. P was mistaken in the 

name. To which is prefixed, an exact Representation of 
the Scene of Harlequin's Escape into the Bottle, intro- 
duced in the Pantominc Entertainment of Apollo and 
Daphne, or the Burgo^Master tricked ; — the Character of 
Harlequin, by Mr. Phillips. — Printed for B. Dickinson, 
the corner of Bell Savage Inn, Ludgate-hill. 



ftb. 2b— -This Day is published, f price ^d. plain; Is. coloured), a comical Print of 

The Bottle Conjuror's reflecting Mirror : or. One Fool 
makes many, from the Head to Foot, without Equivoca- 
tion. — Sold in May's Buildings, Covent Garden. Where 
may be had, The Wheel-barrow Cries of Europe. 

Apollo and Daphne ; or, the Burgo-Master tricked. In 

v^hich will be introduced, an additional ScQue of the 

Escape of Harlequin into a Quart Bottle. — Boxes, 5s. 

pit, 3s. First Gallery, 2s. Upper Gallery, Is. To begia 

^xagtly at six o'clock. 

U ^ - Apollo 



20 THE HISTORY OF THE 

Apollo and Daphne ; or, the Burgo-Master tricked, Tn 
V'hich M'ill be introduced the Escape of Harlequin into a 
Quart Bottle. Also Don Jumpedo (though not the origi- 
nal) will jump DOWN his own throat ; and (as a new ad- 
dition) afterwards jump up again I — Boxes, 5s. Pit, 3s. 
First Galler}-, 2s. Upper Galler}'-, Is. — Tickets delivered 
out for this night will be taken. Places for the Boxes to 
be taken of Mr. Page, at the Stage Door. — To-morrow 
will be presented, the Careless Husband ; for the Benefit 
of Mr. Leveridge. w#-^-*-^-r-^ 

Lately arrived from Italy^ 

Sig. Capitello Jumpedo, a surprising Dwarf, no 
taller than a comvion Tavern Tobacco Pipe; who can per- 
form many wonderful Equilibres on the Slack or Tight 
Rope : likewise he Mill transform his Body in above ten 
thousand different Shapes and Postures ; and after he has 
diverted the spectators two hours and a half, he M'ill open 
his Mouth ■uu'de, and Jump doxim his oxen Throat ! He being 
the most wonderfullest wonder of wonders, as ever the 
world wondered at, would be willing to join in perform- 
ance with that surprising Musician, on Monday next, in 
the Hay-i^arket. He is to be spoke with at the Black 
Raven in Golden-lane, every day from seven till twelve, 
and from two to all day long. 

Latehi arrived fi am Et/'iopia, 

The most wonderful and surprising Doctor Benimbe 
Zammampoango, Oculist and Body Surgeon to the Em- 
peror of jMoncemungi, who will perform on Sunday next, 
at the Little P in the Hay-market, the following sur- 
prising operations ; viz. 1st, He desires any one of the 
spectators only to pull out his own eyes, Avhich as soon as 
he has done, the Doctor will shew them to any lady or 
<Tentleman then present, to convince them there is no cheat, 
and then replace them in the sockets as perfect and entire 
as ever. 2dly, He desires any officer or other, to rip up 

b.is 



FAMOUS BOTTLE CONJUROR. 2J, 

Kis own belly, which when he has done, he (without any 
equivocation) takes out his bowels, Avashes them, and re- 
turns them to their place, Avithout the person's suffering the 
least hurt. 3dly, He opens the head of a J — of P — , takes 
out his Brains, and exchanges them for those of a Calf; the 
Brains of a Beau, for those of an Ass ; and the Heart of a 
Bully, for those of a Sheep ; which operations render the 
Persons more sociable and rational Creatures, than they 
ever were in their lives. And to convince the town that 
no imposition is intended, he desires no money until the 
performance is over. Boxes, 5 guin. Pit, 3. Gallery, 2. 
N. B. The famous Oculist will be there, and honest 
5 — F — H — will come if he can. Ladies may come 
masked, so may Fribbles. The Faculty and Clergy gratis. 
The Orator would be there, but is engaged. 



January 27, 1748 — 9. — Don John de Nasaquitine, 
sworn Brother and Companion to the INIan that was to have 
jumped into the Bottle at the Little Theatre in the Hay- 
market, on Monday the IGth past ; hereby invites all such 
as were then disappointed, to repair to the Theatre afore- 
said, on Monday the 30th ; and that sliall be exhibited unto 
them, Avhich never was heretofore, nor ever will be here- 
after seen. All such as shall swear upon the Book of Wis- 
dom, that they paid for seeing the Bottle-Mau, will be ad-, 
mitted gratis ; the rest at Gotham prices. 



This is to inform the Public, 

That notwithstanding the great abuse that has been put 
upon the Gentry, tiiere is now in Town a Man, who, 
instead of creeping into a Quart or Pint Bottle, will change 
himself into a Rattle ; which he hopes -will please ijoth 
young and old. If tiiis Person meets witli Encouragement 
to this Advertisement, he will then acquaint the Gentry 
^vherc and when he performs. 

But 



22 SKELETON OF THE MAMMOTH. 

But not\\ithstaiKling all this exercise of wit and humour 
upon the credulity of the times, it seems, a Foreigner stili 
thought there was some room left for a further trial ; he 
therefore published tlie following advertisement very soon 
after, and which we insert, that nothincf mi^ht be wanting: 
to shew the extent of some people's efforts, then to avail 
themselves of the general disposition of the day. 

To- l)c xecn, at Mr.LEAOER's, the Old JTorse-slioCy in Wood-street yCfieapside, from 
Nhic (ill Twelve, and from Four to Seven o''Clock, lately brought from France, 

A full-grown Mouse alive, confined in a small two-ounce 
Fhial, the neck of which is not a quarter of an inch dia- 
meter. This amazing Creature hath lived in the Phial three 
Years and a half without drink, or any sustenanee, but 
bread only. It cleans out its little habitation, and hatb 
xyany other pretty actions, as surprising as agreeable; but 
particularly creates wonderful diversion Avith a Fly, and is 
allowed to be an extraordinary curiosit}^ never before seen 
in England ; at the expence of 6d. each Person. 

Note, Gentlemen or Ladies who don't chuse to come, it 
sliail be carried to them, by sending a line to Mr. Leader, 



A Skeleton of the Mammoth, found in Essex^ 
October 1803. 

jjY tlic falling down of a piece of the cliff, on Walton 
shore, near Harwich, the skeleton of an enormous animal 
was discovered, measuring nearly 30 feet in length. — Some 
of the bones were nearlj- as large as a man's body, and six 
or seven feet long ; the cavities which contained the mar- 
row^ were large enough to admit the introduction of a 
man's arm \ the bones, on being handled, broke to pieces. 
One of the molar teeth was carried to Colchester, by Mr. 
W. Jackson, who took it from the spot, in whose posses- 
sion it now is ; it weighs seven poinids, is of a square 
form, and grinding surface is studded tvith several zig-zag 
vows of lamina', wliich seems to denote that it belonged to. 

a car* 



DREADFUL INUNDATION AT MADEIRA. 2i 

s carnivorous animal, — There were more teeth, which were 
unfortunately hroken, one of which weighed twelve pounds. 
It is probable that the tusks will be found, by searching 
further into the cliff, or amongst the earth which has fallen 
down. The above skeleton is supposed to belong to an 
animal of the same species as that called, the Manmioth ; 
the remains of which liave been found in North x'Vmerica, 
Great Tartary, &c, -*-^^-#~^^ 

DREADFUL INUNDATION AT MADEIRA, 

31adciiuy \3tk OcL 

1 HE weather had continued fine with us till the end of 
September. The wind then changed to the Southward and 
^V'estward, attended with much rain. On the 2d October, 
the major part of the vessels were obliged to put to sea. 
The weatlier continued bad, with occasionally fair intervals, 
till the 9th. On the morning of that day I took a walk up to 
a place in the neighbourlwod, and returned about eleven 
o'clock. — Up to that hour, scarce any rain had fallen ; but 
it then came on violently, and rained incessantly for the 
remainder of the day. While it was light, no accident 
happened ; but, in the course of the niglit, the rivers 
swelled prodigiously, overwhelming in their progress a 
considerable part of the town. 

Tiie river of St. John's, after destroying every thinw in 
its course, carried SLway the upper bridge at St. Paul's, and 
rose to such a height, as to throw down the Cypress tree at 
the church, carrying away the travendas as far up as Capm, 
Memuel Henriquez's house on the ascent from the bridoe. 
Luckily the bridge attlie Beco das Arenhas escaped. — 
About thirty persons are supposed to have lost their Jives 
by the overflowing of this river, Avhich carried out such an 
immense quantity of stones to sea, as to forU) a sta-t of bay 
for boats to the Westward of the Trantcs, and siieltercd 
from the wind in that direction. A reniarkubJe circumstance 
kippened on this river. In Hying from oiie of the fallin"- 

liouses. 



24f DREADFUL INUNDATION AT MADEIRA* 

houses, a maid-servant dropped an infant from her arms, 
■vvhich ^^•as supposed to have perished. Next day, however, 
it was found unhurt, on a dry piece of ground, along with 
a lap-dog belonging to the same family. The dog was close 
by tlie child, and it is imagined that the child was kept 
alive by the waraith of the aninmrs body. The river of St. 
Lucia, or the Praca, came doM n with the utmost violence. 
At a small quinta, or country-house, near the Dean's, Mad. 
Lucia Vulpa and eight persons were drowned ; the current 
of the river proceeded with the utmost impetuosity, fortu- 
nately, however, leaving the buildings standing at Pombal 
and Porto Nova, The Valle Verde, the bridge at the 
Recedas Fe^rieres, were swept away Avith the greatest vio- 
lence: From thence it rolled with increased impetuosityj 
sweeping av.ay in its course the whole of the streets. 
Tinocnos Piquina, the back part of the houses on the West- 
side of the Rua Directa Avere destroyed, and the stream, 
after carrying away the Ponte da Piaca, a great part of 
Mr. Cock's, and sevei'al other adjacent houses, dis- 
embogued itself into the sea by its old channel. 

A new channel was formed close by Mr. James Gordon's 
house at the Piaca. The number of persons who perished 
here cannot be accurately ascertained. Among the persons 
of most note, were the family of Jere Ignacio de Sorias, 
consisting of eighteen persons, of whom only one Avas saved. 
Rilta, Fostei''s relation, Avho, a short time ago, had been 
married to his son, also perished. Her body Avas afterwards 
found at the Varadoveres, buried amidst the boats, with all 
her trinkets and other valuable articles in her pockets. 
The Morgyda de Palhas's daughter also fell a victim, and 
many other individuals. A boat laden Avith Avine from 
Machito, Avith ten men on board, anchored off the Piaca, 
and Avas never seen after dark. It Avas of course destroyed 
with the crew and cargo. 

The river of Joao Gemes distended with, if possible, still 



DREADFUL INUNDATION AT MADEIRA. 25 

greater violence, carrying with it stones of an immense 
size. A little way above the bridge, near the Roxenha, it 
broke through the town-wall on the right, carrying with it 
every thing till it joined the main branch ; which keeping 
to the left, swelled to such a degree, as to level the parapets 
of the bridge and the sides of the road several feet above it, 
in the direction of Manoel de Santeago's house, though the 
arch of the bridge did not give way. It then carried away 
almost the whole of the street Des Panguinos, not long since 
built ; the wall keeping off the Avater almost the whole length 
of the Hospital Velpo, and from the Church of Nra. Sacra 
Calhor, except the Tower, and Perlro Mendanca's new 
granaries and stores. The bridge afterwards giving way, a 
house built by him some years since, and occupied by Mr. 
Tatlock's family, was overwhelmed, and every one of the 
family perished. A part of the fort and all the adjoining 
small houses were either carried away or greatly damaged. 
The Rebecccnho swelled prodigiously, and joining the 
former river, contributed to increase the mischief, though 
its bridge stood. The bridge over the river Gencalo A3'res 
was partly destroyed, and rendered impassable. The vil- 
lages of Santa Cruz and Machico were more than half swept 
away. At the former, three or four, and at the latter, 
23 persons perished. Cristeras de Embdos's house was 
carried away. Other accidents of the same kind hap- 
pened in other quarters ; and though it is impossible to 
form an accurate estimate, I think I may safely say, that 
two hundred persons at least have lost their lives in the 
island. 

The British that perished, are Mr. and Miss Tatlock, 
Mr. and Mrs. Morris and child, and Mr. Richard Sealy. 
The effects of this disaster were extended to the North-East 
parts of the island, but to the Westward, they were not 
much felt beyond Magdalcna. Betwixt that place and Funchal 
M)e rivers did much damage, but only nine persons were 

Ji drowned. 



26 A SINGULAR DISPOSITION FOR BLEEDING, &C. 

droM'ned. The Friarj- at Series de Decs was carried away, 
but the Church stood. It will require many years, and all 
the attention of our Government, to repair so dreadful a 

calamity. Another aocount from Funchal, in the ^ 

island of Madeira, dated October 15th, says; — " By 
eight o'clock in the evening, the three rivers which 
pass through the city, had increased far beyond what was 
ever known, and made a most tremendous noise, with vast 
stones continually collecting, and coming down rapidlj' 
with them. Four of the bridges out of seven in the town, 
gave May nearly at the same time with a dreadful crash. 
A Church, with whole streets and rows of houses, exclusive- 
ly of many detached buildings, were almost instantaneously 
swept away or laid in ruins, with whole families, and all 
their propert}' and effects. The destruction has been dread- 
ful, and the loss of lives estimated at 500 in the town and 
its vicinity. It appears by the accounts from the different 
parts of the island, that this calamity has been general, and 
about the same time, though the extent of the damao-e is 
not yet correctly ascertained." 

A SINGULAR Disposition for Bleeding, inherent in 
several Families. 

[Related by Dr. Otto, of Philadelphia.] 

J_)r. Rush, says this author, has informed me, he has 
been consulted twice in the course of his practice upon 
this disease. The first time by a family in York, and the 
second by one in Nortiiamptonshire, in this State. He 
likewise favoured me with the following account, which he 
received some years since, from Mr. Boardley, of a famiU' 
in Maryland, afilicted with this singular disease.. 

" A. B. of the State of Maryland, has had six children, 
four of whom have died of a loss of blood from the most 
trifling scratches or bruises. A small pebble fell en the 
nail of a fore-finger of tlie lust of them, when at play^ 

beino; 



AN INSTANCE OF FEMALE FORTITUDE. 27 

being a year or two old. In a short time the blood issued 
from the end of the finger, until he bled to death. The 
physicians could not stop the bleeding, two of the brothers, 
still living, are going the same way, they bleed copiously 
upon the slightest scratch ; and the father looks every day 
for an accident that will destroy them. Their surviving 
sister shews not the least disposition to that threatening 
disorder, although scratched- and wounded. The father 
gave me this account two days since ; but I was not in- 
quisitive enough for particulars." 



Extraordinary Instance of Female Fortitude. 

1 HE followino^ interestinjy account of Mons. and Mad. O, 
is taken from Mr. Carr's Stranger in France ; or a Tour 
from Devonshire to Paris : — 

*' M. O. spoke of his lady with all the tender eulogium 
of a young lover. Their union Avas entirely from attach- 
ment, and had been resisted on the part of Madame O. 
when he first addressed her, only because her fortune was 
humble, compared with his. He informed me, and I must 
not suppress the story, that in the time of blood, this amiable 
woman, who is remarkable for the delicacy of her mind, 
and for the beauty and majest}^ of her person, displayed 
a degree of coolness and courage, which, in the field of 
battle, would have covered tlie hero with laurels. One 
wening, a short period before the family left France, a 
party of those mmxlerers, who were sent for by Robe- 
spierre, from the frontiers whicli divide France from Italy, 
and who were by that arch-fiend employed in all the 
butcheries and massacres of Paris, entered the peaceful vil- 
lage of la Reinc, in search of Mons. O. His lady saw them 
advancing, and anticipating their errand, had just time to 
give her husband intelligence of their approach, who left 
his cliatcau by a back door, and secreted himself m the 

E 2 house 



28 AN INSTANCE OF FEMALE FORTITUDE. 

house of a neighbour. Madame O. with perfect compo- 
sure, went out to meet them, and received them in the 
most gracious manner. They sternly demanded Mons. O, 
She informed them that he had left the country ; and after 
enoaoinor them in conversation, she conducted them into 
her drawino-room, and regaled them with her best wines, 
and made her servants attend upon them with unusual de- 
ference and ceremony. Their appearance was altogether 
horrible ; they wore leather aprons, Avhich were sprinkled 
all over with blood, they had large horse-pistols in their 
belts, and a dirk and sabre by their sides. Their looks were 
full of ferocit}', and they spoke a harsh dissonant, patois, or 
country language. Over their cups they talked about the 
bloody business of that day's occupation ; in the course of 
which they drew out their dirks, and wiped from their 
handles clots of blood and hair. Madame O. sat with 
them, undismayed by their frightful deportment. After 
drinking several bottles of Champaign and Burgundy, these 
savages began to grow good-humoured, and seemed to 
be completely fascinated by the amiable, unembarrassed, 
and hospitable behaviour of their fair landlady. After 
carousing till midnight, they pressed her to retire, observing, 
that they had been received so handsomely, that they were 
convinced Mons. O. had been misrepresented, and was no 
enemy to the good cause ; they added, that they found the 
wines excellent, and after drinking two or three bottles 
more, they would leave the house, without causing her 
any reason to regret their admission. Madame O. with all 
the appearance of perfect tranquillity and confidence in 
their promises, wished her unwelcome visitors a good night ; 
and after visiting her children in their rooms, she threw her- 
self upon her bed, with a loaded pistol in each hand, and 
overwhelmed with suppressed agony and agitation, she 
soundly slept till she was called by her servants, two hours 
after the wretches were gone. 

SINGULAR 



( 29 ) 

SINGULAR INSTANCE OF INSANITY. 

In the village of Bedlington, near Morpeth, in Nor- 
thumberland, a very extraordinary instance of insanity, 
well worth the attention of the medical philosopher, 
has lately occurred. The father of the young man who 
is insane, having some time ago experienced considerable 
pecuniary difficulties, became at length so reduced in 
his circumstances, that he was obliged to work as a 
day-labourer. His eldest son was so much affected by 
this alteration in his father's affairs, that he grew gradually 
melancholy, and at length entirely desisted from speaking 
or moving his eyes, hands, or legs. He is put to bed 
at night, and fed like a child during the day, without 
the least apparent feeling of pain or pleasure. When he 
awakes, he walks to the centre of the room, where he 
stands all day long immoveable, directing his eyes con- 
stantly to the fire; and amidst all the work and bustle 
which may be going forward in the house around him, he 
is still the same. The position he stands in, is with his 
hands linked in each other, and with a downcast melancholy 
look ; and if he is forcibly moved from that position, he 
resumes it the first opportunity. 

A REMARKABLE THUNDER STORM, 

Occurred at Batheaston, in Somersetshire, on the 2 1st 
Nov. 1 803 ; when the Rev. Mr. Webber and his spouse, 
sitting in their parlour, a hail-storm came on, attended with 
lightning, and instantly burst open the Avindow shutters. — 
The window was shattered to pieces, and two pieces of 
slate-stone were driven into the apartment. It appears iJjat 
the house was struck in three directions, East, West, and 
South. It Avas totally stripped of the thatch, some of 
which, by the violence of the wind, was carried to a great 
distance. Twelve, out of fifteen windows, were literally 

shivered 



30 UNCOMMON STRENGTH. 

shivered to atoms, and the lead of one of the chamber win«* 
dows melted. The roof of a barn, a stable, and several 
out-houses, Avere blown in ; and the roof of the church 
slightly struck. Many trees torn up by the roots, and one 
apple tree carried away 24 feet ftom where it stood. The 
lightning continued very vivid, and with very little inter- 
mission the W'hole niglit. As a circumstance singularly 
coincident with the above, on tlie 27th of the same month 
of November, in 1723, there was a similar storm in that 
neighbourhood ; when Bishop Kidder and his lady were 
killed in the Palace of Wells, by the falling in of one of the 
chimnies, which buried them both in the ruins. 



UNCOMMON STRENGTH. 

C-oUNf Orlow, the Russian Minister, so famous under 
the late Empress Catherine, vras at Rome some years 
since, when he was much at the house of the Marchioness 
Gentili Bocca Padidi; where being one day disposed to 
exhibit some of his performances in this way, he took up 
several pieces of chrystals, iron, and other hard substances, 
which he broke between his fingers with the utmost facility. 
He afterwards placed an apple between two fingers only, 
and compressing them, the apple bursting immediately, 
Hew about the apartment in all directions. Another time, 
he made the experiment before the Duke of Glouces-ter, 
brother to his Majesty ; and though one of the fragment*) 
Hew very forcibly in his Highness's face, and the com- 
pany, in general, testified their regret at the circumstance. 
Prince Orlow, it was remarked, whose manners were 
nearly as brutal as his strength, never attempted the least 
apology ; and the relator remarks, that the scoundrel who 
liad strangled his own Sovereign, the unfortunate Emperor, 
Peter, cou'd not be supposed to entertain much respect 
for the brother of a King ! 

LONGEVITY, 



( 31 ) 

LONGEVITY. 

Perhaps no Presbytery in the Church of Scothnd, nor- 
?ny Society consisting pf only 29 Members, can produc<} 
so many instances of Longevity, as are at present to be 
found among the Members of thfc Presbytery of Ayr, — - 
Each of the five senior Ministers of the Presbytery, have 
enjoyed a Benefice within its bounds more than half a cen- 
tury. The dates of their respective ordinations, as entered 
on the Presbytery records, are the following : — Rev. John 
Steele, Stair, 14th Aug.* 1755, above 68 years ; Rev. Dr, 
William Dalrymple, Ayr, 18th Dec. 1746, nearly 57 years; 
Rev. Dr. David Shaw, Coylton, 29th June, 1749, above 
54 3^ears*; Rev. Dr. Andrew Mitchell, Monkton, 11th 
July, 1751, above 52 years; and the Rev. Matthew Big- 
gar, Kirkoswald, 5th October, 1752, above 51 years: — 
In all 282 years. 

The joipt ages of these gentlemen amoimt to 419 years. 
The advanced age to A\hich they have attained, affords a 
striking proof how much temperance and regularity con- 
tribute to prolong the period of human existence. Mr, 
Steele is the father not only of the Presbytery of Ayr, but 
pf the Church of Scotland. 



A SINGULAR CHARACTER. 

iVlR. George Crank, of Shrewsbury, died there last 
week, (Dec. 19, 1803,) aged 91 years. He was formerly 
a Clothworker, and very abstemious, eating very little ani- 
mal food, and drinking nothing but water and milk from 
his earliest years. He had some innocent peculiarities ; 
one of which was, that he never wore a hut, but when he 
■was going to church, where he was a regular and devout 
attendant, be the weather how it might. He was constantly 
present in Court during the Assizes, and before the Mayor 
and sitting Justices in the Exchequer ; from whence the 

public 



32 AN INSTANCE OF TEMERITY IN A CHILD. 

public entertained such an estimation of his opinion, that it 
was always received with great attention and respect. He 
was also a constant attendant upon the new buildings in 
Shrewsbiu-v^ erected during the last half century. He died 
iiniversallj' respected. 

ASTONISHING INSTANCE OF TEMERITY IN A CHILD, 

A WELL-DRESSED little girl, about 11 years of age, was 
taken before the Lord Mayor, on Monday, Dec. 5, beir^ 
apprehended on Saturday evening, about nine o'clock, 
riding up and down the streets on horseback, without any 
saddle or bridle, only a rope round the horse's head. 

The constable said sbe would give no account of herself, 
nor who the horse belonged to ; that they took her to the 
Poultry Compter, and sent the horse to the Green- Yard ; 
that she then told them different directions where her parents 
Jived, all of which they found to be false; and she still per- 
sisting to deceive them, the keeper uf the Compter thought 
the only way to find out who she was, was. to let her go 
out the next morning, and send a person to follow her : 
but she having observed the person, led him a dance of, 
five or six miles ; at last she v'ent to her father's house in 
the neighbourhood of Grosvenor-square. At the solicitation 
of lier mother she was left, on promising to bring her to 
his Lordship next day. The mother of this child appeared 
with her ; she had a brass collar round her neck, with a 
padlock like a dog. The mother told the Lord Mayor, this 
little girl had run away so often, and played such tricks, 
that they were under the necessity to keep a collar round 
her neck, with her name and place of abode ; that on Satur- 
day they Avere persuaded to take off her collar, when she 
ran away about two o'clock, and they knew not where she 
went ; that they had tried to get her into the Philanthropic 
Society, but could not. 

The 



JEMMY TAYLOR; THE SOUTHWARK MISER. 33 

The Lord Maj'^or asked the girl where she got the horse ; 
she said she found it in Holborn, about five o'clock, but did 
not know to whom it belonged. She refused to answer 
questions, but did not complain of any bad usage in her 
parents. She was threatened to be sent to Bridewell 
and flogged, or kept in the Compter for some days, 
when she cried, but at last the Lord Mayor told her he 
would suffer her to go home with her mother, if she would 
promise to behave better ; with which she was so well 
pleased that she fell upon her knees, and attempted to kiss 
his Lordship for gratitude. The mother was asked if she 
thought this child was not sometimes deranged. This, she 
said, she was not sensible of; a doctor had examined her, 
but he could not find out that slie Avas insane. 



JEMMY TAYLOR; THE SOUTHWARK MISER. 

1 HIS character, whose penurious peculiarities attracted 
so much notice till 1793, when he died, was a native of 
Leicestershire ; originally a weaver. — He afterwards be- 
came a stock-broker, in which pursuit he is known to have 
accumulated o£'200,000. — He, however, fared worse than 
the meanest mechanic. His raiment was ragged, his food 
indifferent and scanty, and his bed hard ; for he lay upon 
nothinc: but raG:s and straw on the bare Hoor, and in a 
house which was hardly habitable. Gold was all his de- 
sire. His constant prayers were, Oh! Mammon, grant me 
more money ! Two bankers clerks once called upon 
Jemmy, at his earnest invitation, to tzke. pot-lack with him : 
they found the old boy boiling a solitary mutton chop, in 
an ocean of water, to make, what he called, some iwiifort- 
ablc broth, for himself, and for his old friend, Mr. Daniel 
Dancer, whom he hourly expected. After some compli- 
mentary solicitations, they prevailed upon him to fetch a 
pot of porter ; and while he was gone, they threw three 
halfpenny candles and two pieces into his cookery ; which, 
no doubt, ameliorated the culinary moss, and made it more 
Vol. IL F delectable 



34 JEMMY TAYLOR ; THE SOUTHWARK MISER. 

delectable to these old hunks, who, from the sequel, de- 
voured it with keen appetites. But the next time Jemmy 
Taylor met them upon the 'Change, he accused them of 
theft and robbery, in stealing his candles. But of this 
they cleared themselves, by solemnly declaring, they had 
only committed them to the pot, at the bottom of which he 
would find the wicks, if his hunger had not swallowed 
them. Old Mapps, the itinerant quill and pen merchant, 
of Stepney Green, shared also in the friendship of these 
saving wights, who were not a little edified with each 
other's experience and refinements in the art of living 
cheap. Jemmy Taylor always appeared in the streets 
with a long stick and clouted shoes, and innumerable darns 
and patches in his clothes. He never went to market for 
more than a twopenny steak at a time, and this he generally 
chose for its savoriness ; an outside piece, grown black by 
the wind, and mostly flj'-blown, was his choice ; for he 
thriftily observed, " that meat was nothing, unless it smelt 
as well as tasted." The people at the Black Horse, in the 
Borough, used often to represent to liim his folly in being 
so parsimonious and self-denying ; and as he was fast 
growing old, observed to him the propriety of indulging 
himself a little in comfortable things : but to all idea of ex- 
pence, Jemmy Taylor was deaf : his reply used always to 
be, " that if his successors had as much pleasure in spend- 
in"- his property, as he had in hoarding it up, they need 
not complain of their lot in the world." By this obser- 
vation, verifying the old adage, that says, •' there is a plea- 
sure in madness, which none but madmen know." If parity 
of3-ears is the first step to friendship, parity of pursuits 
may be said to be the second. Mr. James Taylor knew 
all the miserables of the metropolis ; among the most con- 
spicuous of whom, he ranked his quondam friends, the two 

brothers F I's, of Spital fields. These were likewise 

weavers ; and in their time had accumulated, by usury and 

sj^eculation. 



JEMMY TAYLOR; THE SOUTHWARK MISER. 35 

speculation, the enormous sum of =£300,000, which they 
kept at interest in the funds, and thereby were always able 
to oblige z. friend with any sum at a moment's warning. — 
Tliese worthies are lately dead. Previous to tlie tax upon 
legacies, they had made wills ; but upon the necessity of 
using stamps, they made over their pro]:)erty to their 
nephews and nieces, in order to evade the duty, and thereby 
saved from Government, into their own pockets, upwards 
of ofSOOO. The eldest of these saving ones, ordered a very 
old shirt to be put on him but a day before he departed 
the world, in order to disappoint the nurse of a good one ; 
it being customary to give the things the deceased has on, 
to those who have the care of them in their last moments. 
Had Jemmy Taylor lived to have heard of the deaths of 
these friends of his, he, no doubt, would have very much 
approved of these saving contrivances. A short time after 
the conclusion of the American war, the Earl of Northum- 
berland having occasion for ofl'ljOOO, to make a purchase, 
applied to his broker, and appointed a certain day to do 
the transfer. At the place and time of meeting, which was 
the round room in the Bank, there was posted in waiting 
Mr. Taylor, whose appearance was exactly that of a coach- 
man's Avatering-man. Upon the Duke's appearance, the 
broker brought Jemmy forward to his Grace ; who, not 
knowing him, thought he was a beggar that wanted alms ; 
but being assured by Mr. Consols, tiiat he was a xcarm^ 
man, his Grace at last shook hands with him, and Jemmy 
accommodated the Peer with the o£'74,000, out of one 
stock, in the 4 per cents, where Jemmy usually kept his 
largest bulk of cash ; and from Avhence it appeared by the 
books, he could have sold out as much more, and yet have 
had as much left, as would have made him coiiifortable 
all the rest of his days. One day, observing some ladies, 
near the Bank, buying some very fine fruit, he kept his 
eyes so wishfully fixed upon them, that one, thinking 

F 2 him 



36 JEMMY TAYLOR; THE SOUTHWARK MISER. 

him in gi-eat want, sent him out sixpence, which he re- 
ceived with a low bow, and immediately set off, and bought 
a twopenny steak, which he brought past the ladies, to let 
them see he had not misapplied their bounty. This anec- 
dote need not be doubted, as it appeared in the papers at 
the time, and all his acquaintance talked of the fact. — 
Jemmy, though an inhabitant of a populous city, some- 
times exercised the severe virtue of self-denial, in circum- 
stances which might have shewn his readiness to accom- 
modate the parties that called upon his probity to pay his 
assessment of the parish-rates. When the officers Avaited 
at the door of his house in King-street, and inquired for 
]\Ir. Taylor, they were told, " there was not a soul in the 
house." The collector perceiving old Hunks peeping be- 
tv.'een the bannisters, replied to the girl who answered, 
** that she was quite right, as he could only perceive her 
master, who was notoriously well known to be no soul at 
all I" In his last testament he forgot all his London rela- 
tions : his cousin Taylor, of the Borough, and his nephew, 
of the Marlborough, in Bishopsgate-street, were equallj' 
unremembered in his will. These can say with truth, 
*' he is gone a long journey : he has taken away the bags 
of money, and the devil knows what has become of them.'* 
Though Jemmy had but little religion in his life^ yet to- 
wards his latter end he' discovered some thoughts of an 
hereafter. Finding himself ill, and fearing his illness might 
finish his days, he sent for the parish officers, the parson, 
clerk, and curate, and, after intimating his intention of 
rcakino- a handsome bequest, paid them down ofl200 for 
their prayers for the rest of his soul ; but this bargain was 
not entirely settled until the gentlemen had returned him 
twelve months' interest by way of discount — his usual de- 
mand for prompt payment ! It appears that his enormous 
fortune devolved to tAvo relatives in the country ; whilst 
those of his kindred in London, in consequence of being 

cut 



STONES FALLING FROM THE CLOUDS. 21 

Cut off, have, no doubt, altered the tenoi* of their prayers, 
in one article at least, by praying for their deceased uncle, 
as the Papists pray for the souls of Luther and Calvin.— ~ 
His name now adorns the donation board of the ancient; 
church of St. Saviour, in the Borouah. 



Another Imtance of S-tot^-Rs falling from the Clouds, 

On the 14th of Nov. 1803, about half past 10 in the morn, 
ing, about a quarter of a league from the city of Apt, ia 
the department of Vaucluse, in the South of France, a 
whistling noise being heard by several persons, for the 
space of five or six minutes, which increased as it ap- 
proached ; a -woman of the name of Jully, percei\'ed a 
black substance descending from the air, and which fell on 
the ground in a neighbouring vineyard, on the side of tlie 
toad where they then were, and about thirty paces from 
them ; the descent of wliich, she and her husband distinctly 
heard. Several other persons also heard the Avhistling and 
noise at the same time. It Avas afterwards discovered, that 
this stone, in its fall, buried itself to the depth of about 10 
inches. It was of a black substance, extremely hard, 
"Weighing about seven pounds six ounces : — It had a foetid 
smell resembling sour milk : — Struck with steel, it emitted 
very little fire. In the neighbouring Communes, several 
persons tiiought they heard a trembling of the earth on the 
same morning ; but nearly at the instant in Avhich it fell, 
a noise resembling that of a camion, Avas heard, seemingly 
at a quarter of a league distance. After the full of the 
stone, the whistling ceased entirely. This stone is now in 
the custody of the Prefect of Vaucluse, and kept by liim 
for the purpose, as it is said, of making experiments, to find 
Out, if possible, from whence this singular j)henomenon 
could originate. 



aVONDERFUi 



( 3S ) 

WONDERFUL ESCAPE OF LORD WILLIAM STEWART. 

The Crescent and Virginia frigates were cruizing off 
Goree, on the 10th December 1803. The former being 
ordered into port, her Captain, Lord Wiiham Stewart, 
went on board the senior officer to receive instruc- 
tions, AA hen a sudden gale of wind arising, he, at the most 
imminent peril, endeavoured to regain his ship, from whence 
he was not perceived to quit the commodore : night com- 
ing on, he lost sight of both ships ; the gale increasing to 
a perfect hurricane, after three hours tossing and strugghng 
in a heavy sea, frequently overwhelmed by its spray, the 
water up to the boat*s tbwart and men's tnees, wave after 
Wave threatening inevitable destruction, worn out Avith- 
fatigue, they calnil}'^ lay on their oars, shook hands with each 
other, took an affectionate farewell, waiting that sea that 
should consign them to oblivion ; when the Crescent, having 
by mere accident totally altered her course, drove imme- 
diately upon the boat. So miraculous was then their es- 
cape, that before they had well discovered the ship, they 
were under her bows, unable to make themselves heard : 
the foam of the sea, caused by the ship's velocity, totally 
filled the boat ; o]5portunity just offered for the captain and 
crqw to cling to the ship's side, Avhen the boat swamped,^ 
and, fiill of watei", disappeared in an instant. 



ANOTHER AURORA BOREALIS, 

vVas particularly distinguished in the neighbourhood of 
Norwich, on the night of Tuesday, the 29th November. 
The light was not variable, as it usually is, and of the dif- 
ferent prismatic colours, but of a pale gold colour, fre- 
quently approaching to white. The form was sometimes 
round, but generally resembled the tail of a comet. About 
2 }). 8. South of Lynn, and below it, a bright gold-coloured 
meteor, resembling Jupiter, was observed for eight or ten 

seconds ; 



SUBSTANCES FOUND IN THE HUMAN BODY, 39 

seconds; and another occurred in an hour afterwards. 
These, and several smaller meteors, called shooting stars, 
and some faint lightning appeared southerly, and seemed 
to approach the direction of the magnetic meridian. Their 
lustre must have been very considerable, as it Avas not 
effaced by that of the moon, which had just passed the 
full. 

STRANGE SUBSTANCES FOUND IN THE HUMAN BODY, 

On the 24th May 1766, Eleonora Kay lock entered the 
hospital at Gloucester, to be cured of a pain in her side, 
occasioned by three pins, which she had swallowed nine 
months before. This pain was on the right side. Three 
montlis after, there gathered a tumour near the left shoulder. 
It was suppurated and opened, and the three pins came 
out by this wound. The case is given by Lysons, Physician 
to the liospital, in a letter to Nichols. 

A citizen of Besancon, named Conlon, wrote to the 
Abbe Bignon, that a young cow, of three years old, belong- 
ing to one of his farmers, had had a tumour on its right shoul- 
der. The farmer, when he judged it sufficiently ripe, had 
opened it, and freed it from a quantity of pus ; but he had 
been much surprised to discover in it the end of the blade 
of a little knife, which, by the process of nature, gradually 
projected more and more. He attempted to extract it ; 
but after bringing forward the blade, he found a resistance 
which prevented him from obtaining the whole of the ex- 
traneous body. This resistance was occasioned by the 
liaft of the knife, and he w^as obliged to leave the whole to 
natm-e. The blade of the knife remained out of the 
wound, sometimes more, and sometimes less ])rojected, ^ 
and without preventing the cow from bearing two calves. — 
Some time after, the extraneous body disappeared ; but it 
was not at first known, whether it had entirely come out 
and fallen, or whether it returned within ; whb;ther tJic 

cow 



40) SUBSTANCES FOUND IN THE HUMAN BODY* 

COW had lain upon it, or whether she had been struck oti 
the part. The incertitude did not continue long. — The 
cow was seen to waste; and, at length, it died. — The knife 
was found within its body ; but the author does not say, 
whether in the shoulder it was, in the ann, or what other 
part of the body. All that can ha conjectured as to the 
arrival of this accident, is, that a little shepherd boy, who 
always carried salt in his pocket, of which the cow was 
rery fond, had put the knife into her manger, and that she 
bad swallowed it. 

Vanhelmont giv'es an account of an ear of barley, swal- 
lowed before it was ripe, by a child which had put it into 
its mouth in play, and which was some time afterwards 
withdrawn from a purulent tumour on the right hypochon- 
dre, where the ear had acquired a yellow colour. Fernel 
records a fact nearly similar. 

Volgnad assures us, on the authority of the surgeon of 
Duke Frederic William of Altenburg, that a labourer's child 
having put an ear of corn in its mouth, and swallowed one 
of its awns, an abccss was formed in the child's arm, whence 
it was extracted by this surgeon. 

Dr. Pierce, of Bath, informs us, that a, lady of twenty- 
eight years of age, having died after frequent vomiting 
and fever, he opened the body. Besides an abcess in the 
pancreas, he observes, which had sphacelated a part of the 
stomach and intestines, and doubtlessly been the cause of 
the vomitings that she had experienced, he found, in one of 
the reins, an extraneous body, which, at first, he had taken 
for a stone ; but having washed it, and freed it from the 
mucus with Avhich it was enveloped, he found that it was a 
little tubinated shell, the cavity of Avhich was filled with a 
viscous matter, little different in consistence from the body 
of a snail, but of the colour of blood. This little shell had 
five or six spiral volutes. The surface was checquered, 
and the squares alternately projecting and sunk. 

GREAT 



( 41 ) 
GREAT EARTHQUAKE AT JAMAICA, IN 1692. 

Jamaica has been always a place i-ernarkable for cartli- 
quakes, and, indeed, they are so common, that the inha- 
bitants expect one every year. Dr. Sloan gives us the 
history of one in 1687, and we have accounts, by several, 
authors, of the following, still more terrible, in 1692. In 
two minutes time, it shook down, and drowned nine-tenths 
of the town of Port-Royal. The houses sunk outright 
30 or 40 fathoms deep. The earth opened and swallowed 
up the people in one street, and threw them up in another ; 
some rose in the middle of the harbour, and yet wei*e saved. 
— While the houses on one side of a street were swallowed 
up, on tJie other they Avefe thrown on heaps ; and the 
sand in the street rising like waves in the sea, lifted up 
every body that stood on it, and then suddenly sinking into 
pits, and at the same instant a Hood of water break in o- in^ 
rolled them oyer and over, some catching hold of beams 
and rafters, or whatever came in their way. Ships and 
sloops in the harbour were overset and lost ; and the Swan 
frigate in particular, by the motion of the sea and sinking 
of the wharf, was driven over the tops of many house^. 
All this was attended with a Itollow rumbling noise, like 
that of thunder. In less than a minute, three quarters of 
the houses, and the ground they stood on, with the inhabi- 
tants, were all sunk under water : and the little part left 
behind, was no better than a heap of rubbish. The shock 
Avas so violent, that it threw people down on their knees or 
their faces, as they ran about to seek a place of safety. The 
earth heaved and swelled like the rolling billows, and seve- 
ral houses still standir^g, were shifted and moved some 
yards out of their places. A whole street was now twice 
as broad as before ; and in many places the earth cracked 
(Opened and shut, with a motion quick and fast, and of thesi; 
Openings, two or three hundred might be seen at a time; 

Vol. II. <^ in 



42 GREAT EARTHaUAKE AT JAMAICA, IN 1692. 

in some of these the people were swallowed up ; in others 
they were caught by the middle, and pressed to death ; 
and in others the heads only appeared. The larger of thes^ 
openings swallowed up houses, and out of some, whole 
rivers of water spouted up a prodigious height into the air, .. 
threatening a deluge to that part spared by the earthquake. 
And besides from all the wells, from one fathom to six or 
seven deep, the water flew out at the top with a surprising 
and irresistible violence. The whole was attended with 
stenches and offensive smells, and the noise of falling moun- 
tains at a distance ; while the sky, in a minute's time, was 
turned dull and reddish, like a glowing oven. Yet, as 
great a sufferer as Port-Royal was, more houses were left 
standing in it than on the whole island besides. Scarce a 
planter's house, or sugar- work, was left standing in all Ja- 
maica. A great part was swallowed up, houses, people, 
and trees, at one gape : in the room of which there after- 
wards appeared great pools of water, which, when dried 
up, discovered nothing but sand, without any mark, that 
ever tree or plant had been there ; 2000 people lost their lives ; 
and had this terrible scene happened in the night, it is 
thought very few would have escaped : 1000 acres of land 
were sunk : one Hopkins had his plantation removed iialf a 
mile from its place. Yet the shocks were the most violent 
among the rocks and mountains, in whose caverns the 
matter that produced the earthquake was supposed to lie. 

Not far from Yallhouse, part of a mountain, after it had 
made several leaps or removes, overwhelmed a whole 
family, and a great part of a plantation, though a mile dis- 
tant ; and a large high mountain near Port Morant, about 
a day's journey over, was quite swallowed up, and in the 
place where it stood, nothing remained but a lake of four 
or five leagues oVer, The tops of high mountains swept 
down with them in their fall, trees and other things in 
their way ; and these vast pieces of mountains, with all 

their 



GREAT EARTHQUAKE AT JAMAICA, IN 1692. 43 

their trees thereon, falling together in a confused manner, 
stopped up most of the rivers for near 24 hours, till swelling 
up, they made themselves new channels, tearing up in 
their passage every thing that opposed them, and carrying 
with them into the sea several hundred thousand tons of 
timber, floating in such prodigious quantities, that they 
seemed like moving islands. In Liguania, the sea retired 
from the land in such a manner, that for two or three hun- 
dred yards the bottom appeared dry, and the fish Avere left 
behind ; but in a minute or two's time it returned again, 
and overflowed a great part of the shore. At Yalihouse, 
the sea retired above a mile. After the violence of these 
convulsive throws /were over, those who escaped in the city 
of Port-Royal, got on board the ships in the harbour, 
where many continued above two months ; the shocks all 
that time being so violent, and coming so thick, some- 
times two or three in an hour, attended with a frightful 
noise, resembling a hollow rumbling thunder, with brim- 
stone blasts, that they durst not come on shore. The con-* 
sequence of this eartliquake was a general sickness, occa- 
sioned by the vast quantity of noisome vtipours belched 
forth, which swept away about tliree tliousaud persons. 

It is observed at Jamaica, that in Avindy weather there 
ne*/er happens a shock ; but when the air is extraordinary 
calm, it is always expected : that after rain, the shocks 
are generally smarter than at other times, which may be 
caused by the shutting up the pores of the earth, whereby 
the force is more pent in, and hath not so free a passage to 
perspire and spend itself. That since this earthquake, the 
land-breezes often fail, and instead of it, tlic sea-breezes 
blow all night; a thing scarfcely known before, but since 
very common. In Port-Iloyal, and in many places all over 
the island, nmch sulphureous combustible matter hath been 
found, winch would flame and burn like a candle, upon the 
Jeast touch of fire. 

(To be continued. J 

c 2 A Rat- 



44 EXTRAORDINARY STRENGTH OF 

A Rat-catcher, ^vllo lived at Oxford in 1788, had a 
very famous dog ; for some time he perceived that the 
animal was very uneasy, and walked inclining on one side. 
To relieve him, if possible, he had often examined his 
side, but never found any thing that could account for it ; 
till one day, when examining him, for the same purpose, 
he felt something slightly prick his hand, when getting a 
pair of scissars to clip away the hair, he accidentally caught 
hold of the point of a needle, which proved a large one, 
used for darning stockings, and he drew it out of his 
bodv, with a piece of worsted attached to it a yard and a 
lialf long. — What was more extraordinary, the dog was 
instantaneously cured of the inconvenience he had laboured 
under, without any further aj:)plication whatever. 

Extraordinary Strength ofDE Courcy, Earl of Ulster , 
in the Reign of King John; which teas the Cause of the 
Eamih/ Privilege of being covered bifore the King. 

1 HIS privilege appears to have been granted by that 
INIonarch, in 1203 ; when John de Courcy, Earl of Ulster, 
was supplanted, and lost the King's favour ; Hugh de 
Lacy, the younger. Earl of Meath, who was formerly 
joined with him in the government of Ireland, alledging he 
liad spoken several disrespectful words, highly rcHecting 
on the King about the murder of his nephew Arthur, 
Duke of Britany in France (whose right to the crown was 
before that of King John) ; at which the King being sorely 
displeased, ordered the said Lacy, who was then Governor 
of Ireland, to seize the Earl of Ulster, and send him pri- 
soner to England. Lacy, who was the Earl's grand enemy, 
gladly obeyed the command, and several times attempted 
to take him by force ; but finding that would not do, he 
at last hired some of the Earl's own servants to betray 
their master into his hands, v hicli took effect on Good- 
Friday, 1203 ; for on that day, the Earl (according to'the 

devotion 



©E COURCY, EARL OF" ULSTER. ' ' 4j 

devotion of the times) was walking unarmed and barefoot, 
round the church-yard of Downpatrick, for penance ; Lacy 
and his party came upon him imawarcs, and he having 
nothing to defend himself but the pole of a wooden croiis 
which stood in the church-yard,- was overpowered and 
forced to yield, after he had killed thirteen of Lacy's men. 
This great Earl, after being thus betrayed, Avas sent prisoner 
to London, and after he had been confined some time in 
the Tower, a dispute arose between King John, of England, 
and Philip, august King of France, about the title to the 
Dutchy of Normandy ; which, to hinder the greater eftusioa 
of human blood, was referred to two champions to decide : 
the French champion was ready, but none of King John's 
subjects would answer the challenge ; upon which the King 
was informed, that John de Courcy, late Earl of Ulster, 
who was then a prisoner in the Tower of Loudon, %vas the 
only man in his dominions who could do it, if he would 
undertake it : the King being thus informed, sent twice to 
the Karl for that purpose, but he refused it each time, 
saying, *' Not for him, for I esteem him unworthy the ad- 
venture of mv blood, bv reason of the uns;ratefLd returns 
he made for my services and loyalty to the crown, in 
imprisoning me unheard, at the suit of my rival and enemy, 
AiHugh de Lacy :" But the King sending the third time, to 
^iw-'iow if he would fight for the honour of his country, he 
made this answer; " That for the crown and dignity of the 
realm, in which many an honest man livetb, against his 
will, (meaning the King,) I shall be contented to hazard my 
life." The day of combat being appointed, (in Normandy,) 
the Earl's own sword was sent ibr out of Ireland ; but when 
the day came, and every thing was ready for the fight, 
and the champions were entered the lists, in the presence 
of the Kings of England, France, and Scotland ; the 
French champion, not liking the strong proportion of the 
Carl's body, Jior the terrible weapon he bore in lii? hand, 

when 



46 EXTRAORDINARY STRENGTH OF D£ COURCy. 

when the trumpet sounded the last charge, he set spurs 
to his horse, broke through the lists, and fled into Spain, 
from -whence he never returned. The French champion 
thus taking his flight, the victory Avas adjudged to the 
Earl of Ulster; but the Kings hearing of his great strength, 
and being willing to see some trial of it, they ordered an 
helmet of excellent proof, full-faced with mail, to be laid 
upon a block of wood, which the Earl with one blow cut 
asunder, and struck his sword so deep into the wood, that 
none there present but himself could draw it out again ; 
which sword, together with his armour, are to this day pre- 
served in the Tower of London. After this noble per- 
formance, the King restored him to his former titles and 
estate, which was valued at that time at 25,000 marks ster- 
ling per annum, a vast income in those days ; and likewise 
bade him ask for any thing else in his gift he had a mind 
to, and it should be granted ; upon which the Earl replied, 
he had titles and estate enough, but desired that he and his 
successors, the heirs male of his family (after him) might 
iiave the privilege, after their first obeisance, to be covered 
in the royal presence of him and his successors. Kings of 
England, which the King granted, and the said privilege 
is preserved in the family to this day. The Earl after- 
Avards arriving in England, attempted fifteen several times 
to cross the seas from thence into Ireland, but was every 
time put back by contrary v.-inds ; Avhereupon he altered 
his course, and went into France, Avhere he died in the year 
1210, leaving issue by Africa his widow, daughter to God- 
frey, King of the. Isle of Man, and of the Western Isles of 
Scotland, INIyles his heir and successor. 



A HORNED MAN : 

In the year 1598, was exhibited for a shew, at Paris, two 
months successively, and from thence carried to Orleans, 

where 



MISS GRAHN, OR DE VERDIO>r. 41 

■where he died soon after, — His name was Francis Tro- 
villou ; of whom Fabritius, in his Chirurgical Obser- 
vations, gives the following description: — "He was of a 
middle stature, a full body, bald, except in the hinder 
part of the head, which had a few hairs upon it ; his tem- 
per was morose, and his demeanour altogether rustic : he 
was born in a little village called Mezicres, and bred up in 
the woods amongst the charcoal men. About the seventh 
year of his age, he began to have a swelling in his forehead ; 
so that about the seventeenth year of his age, he had a horn 
there as big as a man's finger end, which afterwards did 
admit of that growth and increase, that when he came to be 
thirty-five years old, this horn had both the bigness and re- 
semblance of a ram's horn. It grew upon the midst of his 
forehead, and then bended backward as far as the coronal 
suture, where the other end of it did sometimes so stick in 
the skin, that, to avoid much pain, lie Avas constrained to cnt 
off some part of the end of it ; whether this horn had its 
roots in the skin or forehead, I know not ; but probably 
being of that Aveight and. bigness, it grew from the skull 
itself: nor am I certain whether this man had anv of those 
teeth which we call grinders. It was during this man's 
public exposure at Paris, (saith Urstitious) in 1598, that I, 
in company with Dr. Jacobus Facschius, the public Pro- 
fessor of Basil, and Mr. Joannes Eckenstenius, did see .md 
handle this horn." 



An original ar^d circmmtaniial Accoiird nf the late celebrated 
Miss Theodora Grakn, ccmmvnlij called Theodora 
DE Verdion, Exchange Broke/-, Amanuensis, Teacher 
of Languages y ike. bkc. , a Kati-je of Bolin: — Wlio, ever 
since her Ilcsidencc in England, appeared onlij in a Mans 
Habit.^With her For trait. 



[Of 



43 ACCOUNT OF THE LATE MISS. THEODORA GRAHN ; 

[Of this celebrated Female, of whose real origin, all tlie accounts hitherto 
publishfid, liave beea widely erroneous ; we are enabled to present the fol- 
lowing particulars respecting her early life, from some Memoirs of her, just 
published at Berlin, the real place of her hativiiy.] 



1 HIS person was the only daughter of an architect, of the 
name of Grahn, who erected several edifices in. the city 
of Berlin, particularly the Church of St. Peter's ; and who 
died in 1740, at Bayreuth. After his decease, his daugh- 
ter returned to Berlin, and resided with a relative. With 
much natural capacity, she was proportionayy eccentric in 
her manners. She wrote an excellent hand, and had learned 
tl>e Mathematics, the French, Italian, and English languages. 
Her auiit dying in 1758, she left her a legacy of 1000 rix- 
dollars ; v/hieh to improve, she immediately commenced 
the business of an Exchantje Broker. Durinfj the seven 
years' war, which was very favourable for her occupation, 
she did a great deal of business, and was to be seen every 
day from one counting-house to another, all through the 
city. In dirty weather she began to wear boots, and with 
two large bags on each arm, though slie had not then 
thrown by the drx?ss of a female, cut a very remarkable 
figure. At the end of the war, she had more than doubled 
her capital : .she then went again to Bayreuth, in Prussia ; 
but when she returned, appeared altogether in man's attire, 
dressed like a huntsman : — This was in 1768. — She then, 
for the first time, styled lierself, Baron de Verdion, pre- 
tending' slic ]iaJ some estates to justify the title. She was, 
however, not taken much notice of, till M. Basedow, ajt 
the end of \169, commenced his Scholastic Reforms in 
Germany. Bcron de Verdion, with other persons of in-. 
<rcnuitv, became an entlnisiast in his cause , and in fine^ 
engati-cd with him as his secretary and amanuensis. Hence, 
being shut \\\-> with liim in private, Avhole days together, 
it oave occasion to the tongue of rumour, which knew De 

Verdiou. 




died Juli/ JJ. 21^01. 



COMMONLY CALLED DR. DE VERDION. 49 

Verdion to be a woman, to fabricate a number of ludicrou.^ 
tales. Basedow, however, after being compelled to part 
with De Verdion, would never admit she was a woman. — 
The offence also, which he gave her in this removal, she 
was equally as loth to forgive ; and therefore made it her 
business more than ever to visit the coffee-houses at Berlin, 
there introducing the subject of the dispute between them, 
upon every possible occasion , and shewing a letter she had 
received from him. At length, some young men belong- 
ing to a merchant's counting-house, inviting her to an inn, 
took advantage of her inebriation, a vice to which it seems 
she was attached in early hfe, and verified her sex bej'ond 
all possibility of doubt. 

After this untoward exposure, as she could no lono-er 
support the idea of remaining at Berlin, she embarked for 
England, where she commenced Teacher of the German, 
language, under the name of Dr. John de Verdion ; and 
after some time, it is said, obtained tlie notice of Madam 
Schwellenberg, who came from Germany with our present 
Queen ; and who, it is supposed, was well acquainted 
with her circumstances and her sex. From this lady, it is 
generally supposed. Miss De Verdion occasionally received 
pecuniary aid, probably to make up the deficiencies of her 
litei'ary exchanges in books, which it will be made to a})pear, 
were not so profitable to her as those she made at Berlin, 
before her arrival in England. 

In her exterior she was extremely grotesque : from her 
large cocked hat and bagged hair, with her boots, cane and 
umbrella, which she carried in all weathers. The latter of 
which she invariably carried in her liand, resting upon her 
back. She was a great deal at Kurnival's-inn coilec-house 
in Holborn, dining there almost ever}- day. Here thoufh 
slie concealed her sex, she could not iielp cxhibitino- her 
natural disposition as an extraordinary lover of o-ood eatincr 
She would have the first of every thing iu season, and was 

Vol. li. H a^ 



50 ACCOUNT OF THE LATE MISS THEODORA GRAHM ; 

as strenuous for a large quantity, as she was dainty in the 
quality of v.hat she chose for her table. At times, it is well 
known, she could dispense with three pounds of solid meat. 
A friend being once in her company, Avas absolutely wit- 
ness to her eating eighteen eggs, and a proportionate quan- 
tity of bacon, which were all broken into the frying-pan 
at once ; as much to the surprise as the entertainment of 
her friend, and all that were acquainted with the circiun- 
stancc. She was also as much inclined to extravagant 
drinking, and once in particular, was so completely intoxi- 
cated at Furnival's-inn coffee-house, that being incapable 
of walking home, two persons were compelled to assist 
lier : but though she never suffered any person whatever 
to go into her room, at this time she was necessitated 
to miike an exception, or rather, these persons in some 
measure intruded tliemselves, in order thatt'iey might then 
perform tNe friendly oiiice of undressing her and putting 
her to bed : th s, however, they did not complete, nor 
whollv gratify their curiosity. But in the morning, find- 
ing what had been attempted, slie waited on the master of 
the coffee-house, and earnestly requested, whatever might, 
happen to her in future, tl^at she might not be again sent 
lionie m such a manner ; dreading, as we imagine, froui 
what had occurred to her at Berlin, the probable exposure 
of her sex. She wouk'l often drink two bonJos of wine at 
a sitting, and she has been frequently Icit in the coflee- 
house rolling upon the lloor. She was particularly well 
known in the Book trade, generally haA'ing her pockets full 
of books,- which she used to procure for gentlemen at cofiee- 
houses, and her various friends. She also attencicd sales, 
and would buy to a large amount, sometimes a coach 
load, &c. Here her singular figure generally made her the 
jest of the company, and sometimes t!ie object of thetf 
waggery. }Icr general purchase at these sales ■\\as odd 
volumes : and these she used to carry to other Booksellers 

and 



COMMONLY CALLED DR. DE VERDION. 51 

<a:id endeavour to sell, or chop and cliange for other books. 
She was likewise a considerable collector of medals and 
foreign coins of gold and silver; but none of these were 
found after her decease. At home she was literally her 
own servant ; even cleaning her own room ; but this, it is 
to be noticed, she always performed in a woman's cap and 
bedgown ; and neither in Winter or Summer was slie ever 
known to have any fire in her apartments. 

A little before her death she complained of the lowness 
of her finances, when Mr. Dcnner, the master of the Furni- 
val's-inn coffee-house, generously ollered to open a sub- 
scription ; but she was very much offended, saying, that if 
she chose it, she could apply to the hrst personages in tlie 
kingdom. But notwitlistanding this appearance of a high 
spirit, she had accepted of various sums of money from dif- 
ferent gentlemen, a short time before her death, who then 
recommended her to use a more frugal way of living ; — 
upon which she replied, that it was impossible for her to 
exist under three guineas per week. It was her common 
practice towards the latter end of her life, to intrude very 
much upon her friends for eating and drinking, upon the 
strength of indications and indirect promises of making tlicm 
amends, and remembering them in her will. Under a similar 
pretence, she also obtained a valuable com from one of her 
acquaintances in Stanhope-street,- Clare-niarket. She iiad 
been a frequent attendant upon the dr.iwing-room at St. 
James's, appearing in full dress, and with a very elegant 
sword : this could not be found ut her decease, — She was 
so remarkably timid, that being out after dark, she never 
cared to go home unattended ; for uliic i she satisfied her 
attendants, seldom with money, but mostly with liquor. 
Once in particular a^ she, was crossing Lincoln's-inn-fields, 
>vhilc some young men were running, yhe laiscd such a cry, 
mingled with oaths and invectives as to bring a "rcatnum- 
.bcr of people about her. Another evening some young 

H 2 gcntlcmcu 



52 >nsS CRAHN, OR DE VERDION. 

gentlemen wlio knew her foibJes, followed her from tlid 
coffee-house, surrounded and jostled her, insisting upon it 
that she had picked one of their pockets. To get rid of 
this charge she referred tliem to the master of the coffee- 
house, who, of course, spoke in her favour, and with Avhich 
pretending to be satisfied they went away, highly delighted 
with their frolic ; as it had no object but to frighten her, 
they having very strong suspicion that she was a woman. 

At another time, several gentlemen using the coffee- 
house, expressed their positive assurance that she Avas a 
disguised female, and their intention to leave the house 
luiless she was excluded from the room ; being called to 
the bar, and acquainted with this circumstance, she made 
no reply but by an oath, that these gentlemen were ' ' Rogues,^ 
and took no further notice of the matter. 

The disorder of a cancer, which terminated the existence 
of this extraordinary character, was brought on by an ac- 
cidental full down stairs, by which her breast was hurt. 
This circumstance she was at length compelled to commu- 
nicate to a friend, a German physician, who lived in the 
same house, who prescribed for her, when the disorder 
turned to a dropsy, and defied all cure. 

By her will, dated June 8, she bequeathed all her property 
to Mr. Denner, the master of Furnival's-inn coffee-house ; 
but upon his taking possession, it proved inadequate to 
discharge her bill, merely for eating and drinking, as very 
little remained besides her wardrobe. — She was so much 
tferrified with the idea of being buried alive, that she made 
it a part of her will, to be kept above ground eight da3'S 
after her decease ; but this was dispensed with, owing to 
the state of her complaint. Till the last she had no ex- 
pectation of her speedy dissolution, as she ordered the 
making of some new articles of dress, saving she was going 
cut, and which came home the day preceding her death. 

It was her desire that her funeral should be as little ex- 
pensive 



^-REAT EARTHQUAKE AT JAMAICA, IN 1692, 5^3 

pensive as possible ; and as her will was signed John dc 
Verdion, the same was at first engraved on the coffin-plate, 
but afterwards altered to Miss De Verdion. 

Her remains were deposited in the burying-ground of 
St. Andrew's, Holborn, in Gray's-inn-lane, at the age 
of 60. — She died at her lodgings in Upper Charles-street, 
Hatton-Garden, July 15, 1802. 



GREAT EARTHQUAKE AT JAMAICA, IN 1C92. 

( Continued froin Page AS. J 

The following Letters from the Minister of Port-Royal in Jamaica, serve to 
convey an idea of the manner in which the minds of the people oi' Jamaica 
were affected under this terrible stroke of Providence. 

*' DEAR FRIEND, JllTie 22, 1692. 

" I DOUBT not but you have heard of the dieadl'ul cala- 
mity that hath befallen this island, by a terrible earthquake 
on the 7th instant, which hath thrown down almost all the; 
houses, churches, sugar-works, mills and bridges Jn tije 
island. 

" On Wednesday the 7th, I had been at prayers, which 
1 did every day since I was Rector of Port-Royal, to keep 
lip some shew of rehgion amongst a most ungodly >and de- 
bauched people ; and was gone to a place near the church, 
where the merchants used to meet, and where the President 
of the Council then was. 

" To this gentleman's friendsliip, under the direction 
of the gracious and over-ruling will of Providence, I 
ascribe my own happy, and I may add, miraculous escape^ 
for b}' his pressing instances, I was prevailed upon to de- 
cline an invitation, which I had before accepted, to xline 
T\-ith Capt, Rudend, Avliose house upon the first concussioa 
sunk into the sea, and with it his wife, Jiis children, himself 
and all that were with him, who every soul perished in tliis 
Heneral , this dreadful devastation. Had I been of the Jium- 
Jber of his guests, m}'^ fate had been involved in theirs. — • 
JBut, to return, wc had scarce dined at the President's, 

i)cfore 



54" GREAT EARTHQUAKE AT JAMAICA, IN 1692v 

before I t'cit tlie eurtli begin to heave and roll under me-^ 
Said I, ' Lord, Sir, what's this r ' He replied, very com- 
posedly, ' It is an earthquake, be not afraid, it will soon 
he over.' But it increased, and we heard the church and 
tower fall ; upon a\ hich we ran to save ourselves. I quickly 
lost him, and made towards Morgan's Fort, which being 
a wide open place, I thought to be there secure from the 
falling houses : but as I made towards it, I saw the earth 
open and swallow up a multitude of people, and the sea 
mounting in upon us over the fortifications. 

*' I then laid aside all thoughts of escaping, and resolved 
to make towards my own lodging, there to meet death in 
as good a posture as I could. From the place where I was, 
1 was forced to cross and run througli fwo or three very 
narrow streets.- The houses and walls fell on each side of 
me : some bricks came rolling over m}- shoes, but none 
hurt me. When I came tc mv loclii:inii, I found all thinos 
in the order I h;id left them. I then went to my balcony 
to view the street in which our house stood, and saw never a 
house down there, nor the ground so much as cracked. 
The people seeing me, cryed out to come and pray A^ ith 
them. When I came into the street, ever}^ one laid hold 
on my cloaths, and embraced mc ; so that I was almost 
stifled with their kindness. I persupdcd them at last to kneel 
down and make a large ring, .which they did ; I prayed 
with them near an hour, when I was almost spent with the 
beat of the sun and the exercise. The}' then brought me a 
chair, the earth working all the while with new motions 
and tremblings, like the rollings of the sea ; insomuch, that; 
sometimes when I was at prayers, I could hardly keep upon 
jny knees. 

'' By that time I had been half an hour longer with them, 
in setting before them their sins and heinous provocations, 
and seriousl}- exhorting them to repentance, there came 
some merchants of the })lacej w ho desired me to go aboaixi 

some 



GREAT EARTHQUAKE AT JAMAICA, IN 169 2. 55> 

some ship ia the harbour, and refresh myself, telhng me 
that they had a boat to carry me off. I found the sea had 
swallowed up the wharf, with all the goodly brick houses 
upon it, most of them as fine as those in Cheapside, and 
two entire streets beyond that. From the tops of some 
houses which lay level with the water, I got first into a 
canoe, and then into a long boat, which put me aboard a 
ship called the Siam-Mcrchant. There I found the Presi- 
dent safe, who was overjoyed to see me ; I continued in it 
that night, but could not sleep for the returns of the earth- 
quake almost every hour, which made all the guns in the 
ship to jar and rattle. 

" The next day I went from ship to ship to visit those 
who were bruised and dying ; likewise to do the last office 
at the sinking of several corps which came floating from 
the point. This, indeed,', has been my sorrowful employ- 
ment ever since T came aboard this ship : we having hud 
nothing but shakings of the earth, with thunder and liglit- 
ning ever since. Besides t!ie people being so desperatelv" 
wicked, it makes me afraid to stay in the place : for every 
day this terrible earthquake happened, as soon as niglit 
came on, a company of lewd rogues, whom they CviU pri- 
vateers, fell to breaking open warehouses, and houses dc^ 
serted, to rob and rille their neighbours, while the earth 
trembled under them, and the houses fell on some of them 
in the act ; and those audacious whores, who remain still 
U})on the place, are as impudent and drunken as ever. 

" I have been twice on shore to pray with bruised and 
dying people, where I met too many drunk and swearing. 1 
did not spare them, nor the magistrates neither, who have 
suffered wickedness to grow to such a height. I have, T bless 
God, to the best of my skill and power, discharged my duty 
in this place. In the last sermon I di\livered in the: churcli, 
I set before them what would Irc the issue of their impeni- 
tence and wickedness .so clearly, that they liavc since ac- 

knowledtred 



55 GR.EAT EARTHCIUAKF AT JAMAICA, IN 1692, 

knowiedged it more like a prophecy than a sermon. I had, 
I confess, an impulse on me to do it; and many times I 
bare preached in this pulpit things, which I never preme- 
ditated at home, and could not, methought, do otherwise. 
" The day when all this betel us was veiy clear, and 
afforded not the suspicion of the least evil ; but in the space 
of three minutes, about half an hour after eleven in the 
morning, Port-Royal, the fairest toAvn of all the English 
plantations, the best emporium and mart of this part of the 
world, rich, plentiful of all good things, was shaken and 
shattered to pieces, sunk into, and covered for the greater 
part of the sea ; few of the houses are left whole, and every 
day we hear them fall. 

" I came on board this ship in order to return home ; but 
. the people are so importunate with me to stay, that I know 
not what to say to them. I must undergo great hardships 
if I continue here, the country being broke all to pieces and 
dissettled ; but it looks verj' imnatural to leave them in their 
distress ; and, therefore, whatever I suffer, I Avould not have 
such a blame lie at my door ; so that I am resolved to stay a 

year longer.'* 

SECOND LETTER. 

June 28, 169x'. 

^' Ever since that fatal day, the most terrible that ever I had 
in my life, I have lived on board a ship ; for the shaking of 
the earth returns every now and then. Yesterday we had 
a very great one ; but if seems less terrible on ship board 
than on shore ; 3'et I have ventured to Port-Royal no less 
than three times among the shattered houses, to bury the 
dead, pray with the sick, and christen the children. Sun- 
day labt I preached among them in a tent, the houses which 
remain being so shattered, that I durst not venture in them. 
The people are overjoyed to see me among them, and wept 
bitteriv as I preaclied. I ho^^e, by this terrible judgment, 
God Will n:al^c them rcfornr their lives ; for there was not 

i-Kiore ungipdlv people on the face of the eartli. 

It 



EXTRAORDINARY ACCOUNT OF A SHEEP. 57 

** It is a sad siirht to see this harbour, one of the fau-cst 
1 ever saw, covered with the dead bodies of people of all 
conditions, floating up and down without burial ; for our 
burying place was destroyed by the earthquake ; which 
dasJied to pieces the tombs, the sea washed the carcasses 
of t!iose who had been buried, out of their graves. We 
have had accounts from several parts ef this island, but 
none suffered like Port-Royal, where whole streets, with 
their inhabitants, were swallowed up by t!ie opening of the 
earth, which when shut in upon them, squeezed the peo- 
ple to death. And in that manner several are left with 
their heads above ground ; only some heads the doi^s have 
eaten ; others ar(2 covered with dust and earth by the 
"people who yet remain in the place, to avoid the stench. 

*' Thus I have told you a long story ; and God knows 
what worse may happen yet. I am afraid to stay, and 
yet know not how, in point of conscience, at such a junc- 
ture, to quit my station. I am, Sir, Yours, &c." 



TO THE EDITOR. 

•' Sir, — Finding my last and former requests compiled witli, to my satis- 
faction, it has encouraged me now to offer you other miscellaneous articles 
for your acceptance and leave, to be inserted in your next Magazine'" and I 
flatter myself, these will add to the numerous and astonishing Accounts with 
■which your excellent Publication abounds 3 and you will confer an obli'^ation 
on your occasional.Carrcspondcnt, 

Kottingliam, Jan.Ci, 1804. D. B. L." 

EXTRAORDINARY ACCOUNT OF A SHEEP. 

i HE following curious aqd extraordinary circumstance 
occurred during the month of January 179G : — A ewe 
sheep, big with lamb, the property of Mr. Mulling, of 
Hcnstridge, in the county of Somerset, was found dead in 
the field, occasioned by her falling into a trench or fur- 
row. On opening her, she Avas found to contain six: 
lambs, all perfectly formed, but materially differing in 
Vol. II. I si2e 



58 IKSTAKCES OF ATTACHMEx\T — Fl^CUNDlTY. 

size and maturity; one of the couple was as large as 
lambs usually are at the time of yeaning, and covered 
with wool ; the second couple smaller, and were without 
wool ; and the third appeared about half-grown ; from 
whence it is probable, the}- were the effect of three sepa- 
rate and distinct conceptions. 



SINGULAR INSTANCE OF UNWEARIED ATTACHMENT, 

In the beginning of the month of November 1803, was 
married, I\Ir. Thomas Dufty, a respectable farmer of Ep- 
perstone, near Mansfield, in the county of Nottingham, to 
Miss Grame, a lady of fortune, in the county of Westmore- 
land. The annals of matrimony scarce afford a more sin- 
gular instance of unwearied attachment than tlie follo^ving : 
The parties were known to each other in their youth, and 
became mutually enamoured ; but the unrelenting oppo- 
sition of parents broke off the match. Mr, D. found ano- 
ther connection, he married and was the father of several 
children, and became a -widower. His first love was again 
by correspondence renewed, again frustrated. By the 
same means he sought consolation in the arms of a second 
wife, his family again increased, and he a second time be- 
came a widower. His first flame still unextinguished, 
once more renewed, and former obstacles being extinct, 
After a lapse of 25 years, without ever seeing each other 
in the interval, this couple have at length united. 

TVrO REMARKABLE INSTANCES OF FECUNDITY. 

On the 31st of August 1803, Mary, the wife of Thoniai 
Cooke, an industrious cottager, of Haggon-field, near 
Worksop, was safely delivered of one boy and two girls^ 
all fine children. The parents are each in their 46th year, 
have had ten children prior to this treble birth, at one time 
twins. Their eldest daughter is married, and has had three 

children : 



A FLOATING ISLAND — AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT. 59 

children ; a grandmother is therefore the mother of the 
three new-born infants. 

To keep pace, however, with the prohfic family above 
described, a few days after, Mrs. White, of Thrumpton, 
near Retford, Nottinghamshire, was safely delivered of 
three children, two giris and one boy, all now living. 



A remarkable Floating Island in this Country. 
Adjoining Easthwaite-Mater, near Hawkshead, Lanca* 
shire, there is a tarn (or small lake) called Priestpot, upon 
which is an island, containing about a rood of land, mostly 
covered with wdllow' s ; some of them 1 8 or 20 feet high. — 
This island is distinguished by the name of The Car. At 
the breaking up of the severe frost in the year 1795, a boy 
ran into the house of the proprietor of this island, who lived 
■within view of it, and told him that " his Car was coming 
up the Tarn." The proprietor and his family soon proved 
the truth of the boy's report, and b^ield with astonishment, 
not " Bernavi-wood removed to Dunsinane P' but the woody 
island approaching them with slow and majestic motion. — 
It rested, however, before it reached the edge of the Tarn, 
and afterwards frequently changed its position as the wind 
directed : being sometimes seen at one side of the lake, 
■which is about 200 yards across, and sometimes in the cen- 
ter. It is conjectured to have been long separated from 
the bed of the lake, and only fastened by some of the roots 
of the trees, w-hich were probably broken by the extraot- 
(linary rise of the water on the melting of the ice. 



AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT, 

X HE following Agricultural experiment was made by 
Mr. Alsagar^^of Acton Bcauchamp, in Herefordshire. — In 
August 1795, he set a single grain of wheat j as soon as it 
iis.d properly taken root, he took it up aiid divided it into 

I Z several 



60 SUDDEN AND VIOLENT INUNDATION. 

several parts, and transplanted them. — In August 1796, it 
Av as reaped, when it produced 137 ears; the average of 
Avhich was 80 grains in each ear ; the total produce 10,960 
grains of wheat, besides the straW' , most of which was seven 
feet high. This clearly shews, what a prodigious saving 
there is even in the common mode of setting, or what is 
termed dibbling, in comparison with the general practice 
of sowing the seed corn. 



SUDDEN AND VIOLENT INUNDATION, 

In the beginning of April 1792, the inhabitants of Broms- 
grove, were alarmed and distressed beyond description, by 
one of tlie most violent and sudden inundations ever known. 
Between three and four o'clock, during a storm, accom- 
panied with loud and continued claps of thunder, and the 
most vivid lightning, a water-spout fell upon tiiat part of 
the Lickey which is nearest the town. The pouring down 
of the cataract was heard to a considerable distance, and 
the body of water taking a direction towards Bromsgrove, 
soon swept away every thing before it, laid down the 
hedges, washed quantities of grain from barns and rhalt- 
houses, destroyed tan-yards ; and so strong was the current, 
that it floated tlirough the to\^ n a waggon loaded with 
skins. The inhabitants of the place had no time to take 
the necessary precautions ; idmost in an instant, tlie cellars 
and under-kitchens wei"e filled to the top, and every thing 
in them overturned. In a few minutes the water entered 
at the parlour sv indows, covered the counters of shops, and 
in the principal street it rose and continu*.:d upwards of live 
feet perpendicular from the pavement. The horses in 
some of the inn-stables, stood up to tljcir tails in water. — 
Pigs washed from their styes, were sv/imming through the 
passages of the houses situated between the brook and the 
principal street ; down which quantities of furniture, brew- 
ing utensils, cloathing, shop articles, grain, garden-pails, 

wheoi- 



ANTlaUITIES FOUND IN LEADENH ALL-STREET. Oi 

'wheelbarrows, pigs, dogs, timber, &c. wore carried in one 
mass by the iinpotuous torrent. Many of the inhabitants, 
vho happened to be at the neighbours, could not that 
evening return home. A house on the borders of the 
Lickey was thrown down by the force of the water, thiongli 
"we do not hear any were destroyed in Brom?grove ; but tiie 
damage sustained by the shopkeepers, (and particular! r 
hucksters,) was very great. The hedges and other fenced 
to fields and gardens on the side of the town, were enurelr 
demolished, numbers of sljcep and pigs were drov.ncd ; 
and, in addition to tlje calamity, we have to add, tliatsomu 
young ciiildren also lost their lives. 



Curious Antiquities in Leadenhall-Street. 

J. HE curiosities found since New- Year's dav, in di<roii))T 
opposite the East India House in Leadenhfjl -street, proved 
to be exceedingly valuable. About ten feet below the sur- 
face of the street, the workmen finding something hard, it 
was immediatel}^ inspected by that respectable antiquarian 
IVIr. Wilkins,' by whose directions and assiduity a perfect 
urn Avas soon brought out. It contained a quantity of 
bones, among which a finger and jaw-bone were plainlv 
discernable. A beautiful Roman tesselated pavement was 
also discovered ; and by the nice attention of the same 
gentleman, on,e piece of about four feet by two, was raised 
uninjured. The entire pavement seems to have been a 
square of nine feet, in the centre of which is an elegantly 
adorned circle of four feet, containing a Bacchus holdinn- 
a Mand, and riding on a Tiger ; the figure is in a purple 
robe, and the attitude of the beast is very grand ; liis head 
looking at the figure o:i liis back, on(! of liis fore-feet raided, 
stepping well forward, and the tail extended. Under tlie 
able direction of the librarian, there is no doubt of the whole 
being rendered well worthy the attention of the antiquarian. 

A WOKD^Pv- 



( 62 ) 

A WONDERFUL PRESERVATION. 

The ship Actaeon, Capt. Groat, being taken into the Dock 
at Hull, to repair the damage she received, in consequence 
of having been 1 4 daj's upon a rocky strand on the Island 
of Gothland, during her vo3-age from Narva to Hull, a 
large piece of rock, ^reighing lODlbs. was discovered fixed 
in a plank on the larboard-side, nearly in the midships, 
and close to the keel, which dropped out immediately oa 
the sheathing being removed, leaving a large opening intO: 
the hold. Had it fallen out during her passage, she musfe 
inevitably have been lost. — A singular circumstance i^ 
pientianed in Cook's Voyages. 



Longevity. — Seven persons have died in the course of 
a few weeks, whose united ages amount to sir hundred and- 
seventif-scven years, namely, — Mr. William Shipley, Pro- 
jector of the Society for the Encouragement of Arts, &c. 
89 years — Mr. G. Pudney, Parish Clerk of Kelvedon, 
Essex, 90 — Mrs. Fisher, Roydon, Norfolk, 90 — Mrs. Oli- 
ver, Vine-street, Piccadilly, 95 — Mr. John Page, Gardener 
to the Asyluni, 101 — Mr. John Pusell, at Lanvlhangel, 102 
A female Pauper in Manchester Workhouse, 110 — In all 
677 years. 

ACCOUNT OF JOHN OF KENT. 

CJf the atchievements of this subject of antiquity, the 
tongue of rumour, in the town of Grosmont, in Mon- 
mouthshire, is never at rest. — Old and 3'oung Avomen, 
men and boys unite in relating, Avith extreme volubility, 
and without any material disagreement, a series of extraor- 
dinary tales concerning this wonderful personage ; and 
whom they generally believe, had certainly made a com- 
pact with the devil. 

John 



ACCOUNT OF JOHN OF KEXT. €?, 

John of Kent, Gwent, or Went, though a scholar and 
a Franciscan, following their most celebrated schools at 
Oxford, was originally bred at Chepstow, in Monmouth- 
shire ; and being once employed by a farmer, and wantuig 
to go to Grosmont Fair, it is related that he confined a 
number of crows in an old barn without a roof, to Iceep 
them from the corn ; and sure enough, says the Tradition, 
when Jack came back, they were all there ; for though 
thfey made a terrible clatter, they would not fly away till 
Jack came himself and broke the spell that confined them. 
Kentchurch House, the neisJ-hbourino- seat of the Scudamorc 
family, by whom some accounts say, Jack was hired as a 
servant, became afterwards the scene of his more marvel- 
Jous exploits. — But after he came to maturity, as he built 
the bridge over the river Monnow, leading to Kentchurch, 
and which is still called John of Kent's Bridge, it is said 
to have been done in one niglit, by the help of familiar 
spirits. 

At Kentchurch House, a cellar was shewn so late as 
1801, as the stable Avhere John kept horses, on wliich lie 
traversed the air with the speed of Lapland Witches -^ an3 
his portrait on wood, painted in oil, is likewise preserved 
there. 

An old tomb-stone in the church-yard of Grosmont, 
close to the East wall of the chancel, is said to cover liis 
body ; and the legend reports, that he was buried thereto 
evade the compact which he made with Satan, which was, 
tliat if he was buried either within or without the thurcli^ 
he should become his property. 

'J'he famil}'^ of the Kentchurches, who liavc been lately 
applied to for the true character of this reputed isorcerer 
could afford no specific or positive information. Accord- 
ing to general tradition, he was a learned Monk, educated 
at one of the Universities, and remarkable for his acquire- 
ments, which made the vulgar, in an ignorant age, sup- 

^cs& 



61- A MAN BOHN WITHC'JT LEGS 0?. KNEES, 

pose him anotlicr Friar Bacon. As a proof of bis industry sf 
it is Icnown, that a Latin Translation of the Bible, on vel- 
Lim, cither made, or copied Vj}- him, Avas once in the Kent- 
church family ; but has been mislaid or destroyed a long 
feimc since. 

His other known uorks ivcre, Commentaries on the 
jVIastcr of the Sentences — Sermons to the People — and 
Disputed Questions. He died iji 1348, in the reign of 
Henry V. ; and the Catalogue of the Provincial Ministers, 
says of him — " Brother John Went, Doctor of Oxford, 
•who Avrought miracles in his lifetime, lies at Hereford."' — 
According to others, he was a Bard>of Owen Glendower, 
who, on the defeat of tliis chieftain, became domesticated 
in the family of the Scudamores ; one of whom married 
the daughter of the celebrated Owen. 



A MAN BORN AVITHOUT LEGS OR KNEES. 

1. HERE is now living in the parish of Ednam, the birtli- 
pluce of the immortal poet Thomson, a young man IS years 
oC age, "vvho was born without legs or knees, and his tliighs 
defective. His father was a day-labourer, but has been' 
dead some years : — he sits upon a table in the cottage 
through the day, and when the weather is fair, his mother 
carries him into a field, where he reads and enjoys the air. 
He h:us taught himself to read, to write a legible hand, to 
play on tlic flute, to draw.Avith a pencil, although one of 
})is arms he cannot raise to his breast ; aiid he attempts 
poclrv. He is, notwithstanding the want of exercise, very 
}ie;ilthv, alwavs cheerful and contented, though his support 
entirely depends on the wages of his younger brother, who 
is servant to a respectable farmer at Ednam. He is very 
rrrateful to any person v/ho lends him books, drawings to 
coDV, or pajs the least attention to him. His diet is ex- 
ceedingly sparing. The lameness of one of his legs pre- 

* vents 



THE HAMMERSMITH GHOSTS. G5 

Vents him from learning any business to earn his Hving.— 
He converses with great propriety upon every subject, 
althousfh his articulation is also clefectiv-e, 

o 

A case similar with the above, occurred some years ago 
in the South of France ; where the unfortunate subject hav- 
ing neither legs nor thighs, was kept in a kind of case, and 
occasionally lifted about. What made the situation of this 
person tlie more lamentable, was his being endowed with 
an uncommon share of sensibility*, which rendered him 
so much the more susceptible of the peculiarity of his 
situation. From the smallness of his size, it should be ob- 
served, he was deemed a dwarf. 

Dec. 14, 1803. Yours, &c. J— s. R— n. 



THE. HAMMERSMITH GHOSTS. 
Being an authentic and -particular Account of that mysterious and complicatei 
Affair^ ichich has excited so much Curiosity and Conversation ; the Characters 
and Appearances of the supposed Spectre, the Circumstances that led to the 
Death o/'Thomas Millwood ; the Trial of his Murderer, §c, S^c. 

JtIammersmith, it appears, has been disturbed for some 
months past, by more than one supposed spectre, to the 
great annoyance of the male and female inljabitants. — In 
the church-yard, and several of the avenues about tlie 
place, it seems that various persons had been very mucli 
alarmed, by what they understood to have been super- 
natural beinos, whicli had of course filled the minds of 
numbers with a variety of' apprehensions ; and these ap- 
pearances latterly became particularly troublesome in tlie 
lower part of the town, near Dorvell's-row. Sev^eral of the 
inhabitants, aware of the imposture, during this time, had 
given themselves much trouble to detect it, but without 
success. — But on the night of Tuesday, January 3, Francis 
Smith, an exciseman, M'ho lodged at Mr. Oakley's ad- 

* The poor youth of Ednivm, having a portion of this gift, has published 
some very pretty verse?, and in comnjiscration of his case, some well-disposed 
persons have lately opened a siibscriptionfor his benefit. 

Vol. II. X joining 



6* THE HAMMERSMITH GHOSTS. 

joining the White Hart, in Hammersmith ; bchig at that 
liouse on the same evening, and we may suppose, Avarm 
over his hquor, vrought liimself up to the resolution of 
going in quest of the ghost. — Unhappil}- supposing some- 
thing more substantial than a mere airy form, he loaded a 
gun, and sallied out with William Girdler, the watchman 
of tliat part of Haunnersmith, who had previously agreed 
upon a ])ass-.word, wheriby they might distinguish each 
other, which was — " Who comes there ?" *' A friend.'* 
** Advance, friend." Girdler then continued upon his re- 
gular beat, while Smith, that evening, went down Black 
Lion-lane. The circumstances that immediately followed, 
we cannot exhibit in a clearer point of view, than that of 
the ensuing evidence given before the Coroner, and upon 
the trial. It appeared before the Coroner, that Smith 
took his station in Black Lion-lane, one of the places where 
the ghost used to make his escape when hard pressed by 
his pursuers. He had not long been in waiting before he 
fancied he saw the wished-for object. A figure dressed in 
M'hitc (tliat is, Thomas Millwood, the plaisterer, in a white 
jacket and trousers) approaching, Smith fired, and the 
mistaken object fell to the ground. Millwood was then on 
his way to ,a house in the neighbourhood, where his wife 
was at work, to fetch her home, which his sister also re^ 
lates upon the trial : — She said her brother was about 23 
years of age, and was a plaisterer by trade. On the even- 
ing of Tuesday last, he was at the house of his father, in 
Black Lion-lane, with whom the Avitness resides. He left 
the house between ten and eleven o'clock, and the witness 
l.ieing almost immediately struck with a presentiment that 
some accident would befal him, she accordingly went to 
the door, and stood on some bricks, in order to look out 
for him. She then heard a voice say, " D — n you, who 
are you ? — Stand, else I'll shoot you !" and the report of 
a gun immediately succeeded. Her brother was perfectly 
• sober. 



THE HAMMERSMITH GHOSTS. C7 

sober. The neighbourhood had for about two months been 
disturbed with the report of a ghost ; but she did not be- 
lieve, nor had ever heard, that her brother had assumed 
such an appearance. 

INIr. John Lock, wine merchant, in Black Lion-lane, Ham- 
mersmith, said, that as he was returning home from the Plouo-h 
and Harrow, on the evening of Tuesday last, about half past 
10 o'clock, in company with Mr. Geo. Stow, he was accosted 
by Francis Smith, one of his Majesty's officers of excise, 
■who asked to speak with him. Upon going aside. Smith 
informed him that he had shot a man, who he believed to 
be the ghost. The witness informed Mr. Stow of the cir- 
cumstance, and they accompanied Smith to the place. 
They found the deceased lying in a cross lane leading from 
Beaver-lane to Black Lion-lane, upon his back, apparently 
dead. The wound was under his left under jaw, and tlie 
skin of his face was exceedingly black. Smith did not ap- 
pear sensible that he had done any thing wrono-, till the 
witness warned him of the consequences of such a stew. He 
then seemed much affected, and said, that he had spoken 
twice, but had received ne answer, and that the ni'o-ht Avas 
very dark. 

William Girdler, a watchman, said, that he had a slio-lit 
acquaintance with the deceased. That the neighbourhood 
had been much alarmed for two months past, with the ru- 
mour of a ghost walking through Black Lion-lane. That 
he went his rounds as usual on Tuesday evening last. That 
he had appointed to meet with Francis Smith, in order to o-o 
in search of the ghost. They had exchanged a watcli- 
word, which they were to use. — ^^Vhen the witness came 
near Mr. Stow's house he heard the report of a o-un, and a 
few minutes afterwards, as he was going to the White Hart 
public-house, he met a young woman, who told him that 
he was wanted. Having gone on a little way, he met 
^raitb, and asked him what intelligence ? Smith answered, 

K 2 very 



6$ THE HAMMERSMITH GHOSTS. 

very bad. They then met Mr. Stow, and went to the place 
where the deceased lay. Smith said that he would deliver 
himself up ; that he had spoken to the deceased twice be- 
fore he tired, but he would give him no answer. 

The Coroner summed up the evidence with great abiUty 
and humanity , Avhen the Jury, after some deliberation, 
returned a verdict of Wilful Murder. A warrant was then 
made out, and Smith committed to Newgate. 

On Friday, Jan. 13, he took his trial at the Old Bailey, 
being charged with "Wilful INIurder. 

The first witness called, was Mr. John Lock, who added 
very little to what he had said before the Coroner, excepting 
that he consulted Mr. Stow, who was with him, going to a 
cross lane, called Lime-Kiln-lane, what was best to be done 
with the body. They sent for the high constable of the 
parish, and it was agreed to remove the body to the Black 
Lion public-house. It was evident, upon examining the de- 
ceased, that the head was shot just below the lower jaw on 
the left side. — The prisoner, tlien he said, wished to surren- 
der himself into the hands of justice ; but the witness ad- 
vised him to go home to his lodgings. 

Mr. Lock, on his cross-examination by Mr. Const, Counsel 
for the prisoner, said, that the neighbourhood of Hammer- 
smith had been much alarmed for upwards of five weeks 
previous to the deatii of Mdlwood, by means of a supposed 
"■host. He iiad, however, never seen any such appearance, 
but believeil parties went out for the purpose of appre- 
liendin?" the person who was assuming the character. — 
The night was extremely dark, and the lane in which tiie 
imfortunate afi'air occurred, so nmch so, that a person could 
not be perceived on the opposite side of it. The witness 
said that he had known the prisoner some time ; his dispo- 
sition was exceedingly mild and generous, and he was 
very much liked in the neighbourhood. 

Wilham Girdler, the watchman, corroborated the account 

<ri\H.-a 



THE HAMMERSMITH GHOSTS. 69 

given by l\Ir. Lock, as to the manner in whicli tlie de- 
ceased was found, and stated tliat the prisoner and himself 
parted about half past ten o'clock. Just after they parted, 
he heard the report of a gun, but did not attend to it, having 
been in the habit of hearing guns frequentl}'- fired in the 
night. After he had gone his rounds, he went to Mr. 
Horner's, the White Hart public-iiouse, where the servant 
girl came out tc him, and said that Smith wanted him, who 
told him that he had hurt a man ; the witness said he 
hoped not much. Smith replied, that he was afraid he had 
hurt him very bad. 

On his cross-cxamination by ]Mr. Gurney, Counsel for 
the prisoner, he said, he heard of the rumour of a ghost, 
and had seen it himself on the Thursday preceding the ac- 
cident. It was standnig on the opposite side of the road near 
to Bcaver-lanc, and was covered either w-ith a large sheet 
or tablecloth. He pursued it, and the figure pulled off the 
covering and I'an away. The prisoner he described as a good- 
tempered young man, certainly not of a cruel disposition. 

Ann Millwood, a very genteel young woman, sister of 
the deceased, stated, that her brother was at her father's 
house about eleven o'clock on Tuesday evening, the 3d of 
January. His wife was absent from home, having gone to 
Mr. Smith, the out rider ; her mothei and the family were 
going to bed, and she requested that he would go and fetch 
home his Avife. He was going to bed himself, but at their 
intreaties got up and left the house for that purpose. She 
then repeated the same circumstances which were detailed 
before the Coroner. 

Mr. Flower, surgeon, stated, that he examined the body 
of the deceased, by order of the Coroner, on the Gth of 
January. He found a gun-shot wound on the left side of 
the face, just below the under jaw. There were some 
small shot lodged in his neck, the size appeared about 
No. 4, the shot penetrated the vertebrce of the neck and 

injurv-d 



TO THE HAMMERSMITH GHOSTS. 

injured the spinal marrow. This, no doubt, in his mind, 
Iiad occasioned his death. The deceased's face was ex- 
ceedingly black, and was so in consequence of the powder 
which had lodged in it. This gentleman also gave Smith 
a good character, and said his disposition was far from 
being vindictive. 

William Brooks, the constable, stated his apprehension 
of Smith at his lodgings, who had voluntarily come down 
when he knocked at the door, and surrendered himself. — • 
He also bore testimony to liis good character j and here the 
evidence for the prosecution closed. 

The Lord Chief Baron then informed die prisoner, that 
he might cfier any thing he had in his defence to the 
charge. 

The prisoner saying he left his defence to his Counsel; 

The Lord Ciiicf Baron informed him, that his Counsel 
could only examine the witnesses, and that if he wished to 
say any thing, he must address the Court himself. . 

The prisoner then, in extreme agitation, said, that when 
he went out from Jiome, it was with a very good intention ; 
an intention of iinding out the person who had alarmed the 
niiighbourhood, by assuming a supernatural appearance ; 
that meeting with the deceased, and having called to him 
twice, and not receiving an answer, he was very much 
frightened, and knew not what he did. He must most 
solemnly declare liis innocence with respect to any inten- 
tion of taking away the life of the unfortunate man, or any 
man whatsoever. 

His Counsel then proceeded to call the witnesses on liis 
behalf; the first, 

Mrs. Fullbrook, a relation of the deceased, stated, she 
resided in the same house with him ; and on Saturday pre- 
ceding his death, being at home together, he informed her, 
that two ladies and a gentleman, on account of the dress 
he wore, had been frightened at him on the Ten-ace. — 

One 



THE HAMMERSMITH GHOSTS. 11 

One of them cried as be came near, *' There goes the 
ghost !" To which he repHed, using a bad oath, " I am 
no more a ghost than yourself ; do you want a punch o' the 
head ?" On this account she had advised him to put on a 
great coat to screen himself from danger ; but he "would 
not attend to the suggestions of the witness, observing there 
was no danger. 

Thomas Groom, servant to Mr. Burgess, a brewer at 
Hammersmith, stated, that he heard a great talk about the 
ghost ; that one night he was passing through, the church- 
yard, when some pcrsca caught h'nn fast by the throat, 
and on his calling out for assistance to his fellow servant, 
w ho was a short distance from him, the latter turned back, 
but the}' could not see any tiling. 

Mr. George Stow, Mr. Hill, Mr. Rult, !\Ir. BoswcU, 
]\Ir. Dowding, and several other very respectable persons, 
were called ; they all concurred in giving him the best of 
characters. 

Mr. Millwood, cousin to the deceased, spoke in the same 
terms of the prisoner, and said that they had no quarrel 
with each otlier as far as he knew. 

The Lord Chief Baron then charged the Jury. The 
prisoner, he observed, stood indicted for the murder of 
Thomas Millwood, by shooting him with a gun, so as to 
bruise his head, injure the spinal marrow of his back, and 
produce instant death. It would be necessary for him to 
state, that although to constitute the crime of murder, it 
was generally requisite that malice propcnsc sliould be 
proved, yet it was not absolutely so in all cases. 1'he law 
did not of necessity imply, that where a person met with iiis 
death from the hands of another, that malice, or what was 
called in vulgar speaking, spite, should be proved. Thd dis- 
position of a pcrsoii's viind to kill xcas sn(jii:iL'nt , in the eye of 
the law to adjudge him guilty of murder. For instance, if 
one person should have taken it into his liead to fire into 

the 



72 THE HAMMERSMITH GHOSTS. 

the very hall in which the Court was sitting, and kill any 
one in tlic Conrt, then he wonld be guilty oi murder. So, 
in another case, if a person should shoot at one man and kill 
another, he would be equally guilty. The law would con- 
sider his disposition of mind, which was evidently to kill, 
without having legal authoritj-, just provocation, in self- 
defence, or in the absence of his reasoning facult}'. There 
were oronnds of miti";ation Avhich would serve to lessen the 
crime. His Lordship professed; that he could not, in the 
case now before the Court for its consideration, distinguish 
any one of these features of alleviation or mitigation ; 
therefore, if the prisoner at the bar, had taken aw ay the 
life of another, without authority, permission, or in de- 
fence of his own life, then his ofience Avent to murder. — 
If it was not so, no one person could be safe. It would be 
in the power of any one to say, such and such a one has 
committed some oflerice which I think deserves death, and 
I will go and dispatch him. It would, indeed, be grievous 
if such proceedings were to be tolerated — -because some 
"wicked and malicious person, taking advantage of tl)e cre- 
dulity which belonged to a great portion of mankind, had 
committed a misdemeanour, in going about in an impious 
manner, assuming the appearance of a supernatural agent, 
was another person to sav, " I will go and deliberately 
shoot that man w ho frightens the peaceable neighbour- 
liood." Certainl}^ not. All that he could be authorised to 
do, would be to apprehend him for that misdemeanour. — 
Even if the very person appearing in this manner as a 
ghost had been killed, such killing was mui'der. But here 
a man thought he had a right to go and kill any person lie 
saw in a light coloured coat. This was actually the case 
with the prisoner at the bar. He went out Avith a loaded 
gun, intending to kill, contrary to law, and killed a man 
who was perfectly innocent. " Gentlemen," continued 
his Lordship, '* I should be betraying my duty as a Judge, 

and 



THE HAMMERSMITH GHOSTS. 73 

and acting contrarv to the opinion of my Brother Judges 
near me, if I did not toll you that this act of the prisoner's, 
provided you believe the facts given in evidence, amounts 
to notliing less than murder. In this case there was no ac- 
cident ; there was no sudden or violent provocation ; nor 
"was there any attempt made on the part of the prisoner to 
apprehend the supposed ghost. — He went and thought 
himself entitled to kill that person ; and with a degree of 
rashness, which the law would never allow, he killed another 
person. The crime w^oidd admit of alleviation or excuse, 
and might be denominated manslaughter, if some of these 
cases which he had before enumerated had occurred, nameh', 
such as authority from the law% or self-defence. With 
what view the prisoner fired he knew not, but certainly it 
"was with a great deal of rashness. In his defence he had im- 
puted his conduct to apprehension and fear, but what had 
been the consequence, the death of an innocent and un- 
offending person. All the Jur}^ had to consider in the case, 
was the veracity of the witnesses, if they believed them, they 
would find tlie prisoner guilty. Whatever else might be 
drawn from the case was fit for a higher tribunal. His 
Lordship then recapitulated the evidence for the prosecution 
and the prisoner, and observed, that the character Avhich 
had been given of him Avould be of no avail here, however 
painful, the}' must do their duty, and in conformity to the 
sacred oath which thev had taken, o-ive a verdict according 
to the facts laid before them, under sanction of the law." 

The Jury retired for upwards of one hour, and on their . 
return delivered a Verdict of — Guillij of Manslaughter. 

The Lord Chief Baron informed them, tliat the Court 
could not receive sucli a verdict, and they were bound by 
the solemn obligation which they had taken, to decide ac- 
cording to the facts. If they believed t!ie evidence, their 
verdict must be guillij ; or il the}' discredited the witnesses, 
they would acquit the prisoner. Tlie law he had clearly 

Vol. II. L laid 



74 THE HAMMERSMITH GHOSTS. 

laid down, and by that they must abide. It -was not foi* 
them to assume the King's prerogative, and mitigate the 
punishment. 

Mr. Justice Rooke was of the same opinion ; and 

]\Ir. Justice Lawrence enlarged upon tlie arguments of 
the Chief Baron, saying the prisoner could have no right 
to destroy Millwood. It was in evidence that the sister of 
the deceased heard the prisoner call out to her brother to 
stop, or he would shoot him, and immediately the gun was 
discharired. The law laid down, that in cases of felon v, 
where a person stands charged as a felon, and proper per- 
sons are sent to apprehend him, and he escapes, after 
bein"' in custody, and runs away, and the party from 
whom he escapes shoots and kills him, that person is 
deemed, in the eye of the law, guilty of murder. Mr. 
Justice Forster has laid it down, that if a person trips 
another's heels, and he thereby meets his death, then such 
person is guilty of manslaughter ; but if he uses a deadly 
w^eapon, then he is guilty of murder. In this case it was 
evident that the gun was discharged so near that the gun- 
powder blackened the unfortunate man's face. The Jury 
were to recollect the oaths they had taken, and administer 
that justice which the safety of society demanded. 

The Recorder perfectly agreed in the doctrines laid 
down by the other Learned Judges, and desired the Jury 
to reconsider their verdict, who, turning round in their 
box, almost instantly pronounced the prisoner Guilti/ of 
Murder. 

The Lord Chief Baron told the Jury, that he should re- 
port the case immediately to his Majesty. 

The Recorder thought the Jur}^ had very properly found 
him guilty. The law of God, which ought to be written 
in the hearts of all men, had declared, " That whosoever 
sheddeth human blood, by man shall his blood be shed." — ■ 
Iff tlifn passed the usual sentence. 

The 



THE HAMMERSMITH GHOSTS. 75 

The prisoner stated his age to be 29. He was dressed 
in black, and conducted himself throughout the trial witli 
decent firmness. During the time he remained at the bar, 
his countenance did not appear to express much agitation, 
until the Jury left the box. Upon the return of the Jur}', 
he appeared still more agitated ; and particularly so, when 
he was pronounced guilty of murder. While the awful 
sentence was passing upon him by the Recorder, he sup- 
ported himself with difficulty, and was led out of the Dock 
by Mr. Kirby's assistant, overwhelmed with the horrors of 
his situation. I\Ir. Dignum, of Drury Lane Theatre, sat 
by him, and was extremely affected ; he wept, clasped his 
hands together, and suffered the greatest agitation. Seve- 
ral of his relations were also present, and apparently in 
great distress. The Sessions House was croM-ded in every 
jiart by nine o'clock, and the Yard was filled Avith an 
anxious multitude, all making inquiry, and interested in 
the fate of the prisoner, — He was as usual taken back to 
Newgate ; but at seven in the evening, a respite arrived 
for him, till his ]VIajest)''s pleasure should be known. 

"W^'ith respect to the fate of this unfortunate man, though 
we do not pretend to state our opinion against that of the 
Jury, the sentiments of the majority of the people, unre- 
servedly ascribe the respite of Smith, to the possible pre- 
sumption in the breast of the Judge, that the Jury,. after 
liaving returned a verdict of manslaughter against the pri- 
soner, should have declared him not guilty of murder, 
when they reconsidered the verdict. — And if the Jury were 
out an hour and twenty minutes in the first instance, when 
the}' returned the verdict of manslaughter, the few minutes 
they occupied the second time, when they brought in that 
of wilful murder, must, to common apprehensions, appear 
rather too short. However, having given in our preced- 
ing pages, a faithful detail of this important trial and sin- 
gular verdicts, we now proceed to a retrospective history 

L 2 ©f 



1G. THE HAMMERSMITH GHOSTS. 

of the circumstances some months preceding this cata- 
strophe, containing the particulars of the persons engaged 
in the imposition, and an impartial description of these dis- 
tnrbers of the public peace. 

So far back as October last, it is well known, that the 
first rumours of a ghost were in circulation in the neigh- 
bourhood, near tlie church; which is thus accounted for : 
It was then reported, that a mad woman' Avas in the 
habit of disturbing the neighbours, by perambulating the 
church-yard and other walks, in strange and uncouth 
dresses, Avhich, after a little time, was discovered by Mr. 
Mood\-, of the Six Bells,, who well knew his face, to be 
nothing more tiian a youth belonging to Mr. Kilberton, a 
neighbouring butcher, avIio, by way of frolic, and to plague 
the maid his felloAv-servant, liad dressed himself in her 
clothes, in which he frequently appeared in the church- 
yard and other places. Being reprimanded by INIr. Moody 
^nd others, and the ill consequences which might attend it, 
pointed out, he desisted froin the practice altogether. — 
Notwithstan(Ung, another supposed phantom soon sprung 
up, and was seen all hi u-hite, at various places. This 
ghost also Avas so clever and nimble in its retreats, that 
they could never be traced, till one evening, when one 
Brazier, a chimney SAveeper, going through the lower 
part of Church-lane, and the night being verj' dark, he 
was in his turn alarmed at the appearance of this siqDposed 
spectre ; and as he related the story the next morning, it 
seems he stood still some moments before he diu'st proceed. 
However, having a stick in his hand, he extended it at 
arm's length, and advancing towards a tree, against which 
he saw the object, he was induced to exclaim — Ghost ! or 
Avhatever you may be, pray be civil. — But as he still con- 
tinued advancing with a sIoav pace, instead of penetrating 
a body of thin air, he found his stick in contact with the 

clothes of a female, who i)roved to be a Miss G , a 

Younc: 



THE HAMMERSMITH GHOSTS. 11 

young lady of Hammersmith, with her companion. After 
this second discovery, nothing of the kind ^v as seen or 
heard of in this quarter, excepting what has been re- 
lated by Thomas Groom, a servant to Messrs. Burgess 
and Winter, brewers. — He, a stout able man, asserted for 
a truth, M'hat he related upon the trial, of being nearly 
choaked by the rude caresses of one of tlie phantoms 
which lie met in the church-yard. — He did not keep his 
bed, as it is reported in the newspapers, but he was seve- 
ral days before he got the better of the fright. 

An old proverb says, " The third time generally pays 
for all :" Accordingly, the next disturber of the peace, 
made its appearance not in the churcli-yard, but lower 
down, towards Eeavcr, Black Lion, and Plough and Har- 
row Lanes, Avhich served it as a retreat when pui-sued, from 
the hijrh road. A drummer belonQ-inac to the Chiswick 
Volunteers, an inhabitant of Hammersmith, and a rat- 
catcher by his profession, was one of the first that was 
panic-struck by this new spectre. — The next was a clerk 
to Mr. Cromwell the brewer, who thought he saw a super-t 
natural appearance about five o'clock one morning in 
Plough and Harrow-lane, and was considerably alarmed. 
The pretended spectre, on Thursday the 29th of Decem- 
ber, made a more public appearance ; for as Girdler, the 
watchiuan, came out of the house of Mrs. Samuel, No. 2, 
Queen's- place, adjoining Beaver-lane, an apprentice boy 
belonging to Graham the shoemaker, ran across the road 
towards him, dreadfully frightened, at what he supposed to 
be a gliost I In consequence of this, the watchman looking 
towards the opposite side of the road, on the left hand of 
the pump, was witness to an object all in white. Ap- 
proaching the spot wjjere it stood, he observed some per- 
son divest himself of a sheet or tablecloth, he could not dis- 
tinguish wliich, wrap it up under his coat, and run away. 

Bejnff 



75 THE HAMMERSMITH GHOSTS, 

Being- dark, this person was soon out of sight. — Girdkr 
followed, but saw nothing. — He therefore went to the 
White Hart, and inquired if any strange person was just 
come in there. — While Girdler was going by, the pre- 
tended ghost, it is supposed, hid himself behind INIr. Hill's 
house ; but leaving the spot in Girdler's absence, he was 
seen by some of Mr. Hill's family, Avho observed a corner 
of the cloth hanging below his coat. 

While he stood near the pump, he Avas also seen by a 
Mrs. Steward, and her servant, at No, 4, Teresa Terrace, 
who were much alarmed, till it was generally known, next 
day, that the pretended ghost was an impostor. This last 
appearance caused much discussion ; and as it Avas a 
species of imposition that had then been put in practice 
three times successively, with very short intervals, it may 
be admitted, as a very powerful incentive to that provoca- 
tion, which Smith, as well as others, may be supposed to 
have felt on the occasion ; and which, no doubt, prompted 
him to the commission of that rash act, which terminated 
in the death of an inoffensive man, totally unconnected 
with any impostor whatever. 

A day or two after Smith was committed to prison, one 
John Graham, a shoemaker, who resides in Dorvell's-row, to 
liis shame, confessed that he was the person, who, in the 
last instance, on the 29th of December, had dressed him- 
self in a sheet, as he said, to terrify his apprentice, who 
had been in tlie habit of scratching the walls of the house, 
and otherwise teazing his master's children upon the sub- 
ject of ghosts and apparitions. 

A young woman, named Sarah Francis, servant to INIrs. 
Brookes, of Wester of t-place, being at Graham's house, 
he judged it to be a good opportunity to put his plan in 
execution. Sending the boy home with her, with an in- 
tent to meet biin as he came back, in his supernatural 

capacity ; 



THE HAMMERSMITH GHOSTS. 79 

capacity ; he dressed himself in the meanwhile for that 
purpose, and waited for the apprentice, in the manner re- 
presented by our Engraving. — But this opportunity would 
not have occurred to him, had not the one armed postman, 
who lodged in Graham's house, been than in bed ; as he 
generally had the office of seeing this young woman home 
when she happened to come that M'^g.y. — But though Gra- 
ham has acknowledged this to be his first ofience, liis 
mind must, upon reflection, be considerably hurt, at what 
lias lately occurred. 

This Mr. Graham, it is to be noticed, was known as a 
serious person, a constant attendant, and one of the first 
singers in Trinity Chapel, and always boj-e an excellent 
character before. — We have since heard a rumour that he 
means to leave his house ; and some circumstances having 
transpired, have increased the dislike the foregoing affair 
has naturally occasioned. 

Among others, we are told, that a few days after the ex- 
hibition at the pump, Graham meeting Girdler, he said in 
a jeering tone, ** Were not you very much frightened the 
other night'?" To which tlie other replied, "No — he was 
not — but whoever the ghost was, be will go to hell, die 
when be will ;" and immediately left Graliam to enjoy 
bis own feelings. — But possibly, Mr, Graham might think 
the pains he took, and his singing at the funeral of poor 
Millwood, would be some reparation for the folly in which 
he had been so deeply implicated. The report that a lady 
of Brooke Green, had also died in consequence of the ap- 
pearance of a spectre, we are happy to find is totally un- 
founded ; she having received her fright from a person in 
a state of intoxication. And the report of a figure diesscd 
in a skin with horns, together with that of cutting the traces 
of the Hammersmith coachman's horses, have uo foundation 
in fact J but owe their rise to newspaper iabrication. 

^ONDER- 



C 80 ) 

WONDERFUL ESCAPE. 

A. PRIVATE information having been received by Mr. 
Bond, that Sylvester Godlia, one of the persons concerned 
in the late forgery on the Bank of Portugal, and who was 
sent thither a few months ago with Gillington and Farrell, 
against whom he was a principal witness, had escaped out 
of the prison at Lisbon, and had been seen in the neigh- 
bourhood of Bethnal-green, two of the officers were yes- 
terday morning sent in search of him, and who apprehend- 
ed and brought him before Mr. Bond and Sir Wm. Par- 
sons, at Bow-street, when he made a sad confession of the 
means used foe his escape out of the prison at Lisbon, 
which he effected by an old nail he found in his cell, and a 
chain with which he forced up a plank in the floor, and 
made his way through it to another dungeon, where he 
found a cutlass, which enabled him to open a door, and 
having engaged the sentinel placed near the door, in his 
favour, tliey both went off together ; that he was seven 
weeks in making the aperture in the floor, and he was forced 
to act with the greatest caution to elude the observation of 
the guard that brought him his victuals, when putting his 
cloak over the spot, and sweeping the dungeon himself, he 
contrived the piece of plank cut out, to fix in at that time ; 
he concealed himself at an English Avoman's house, at a 
place called Bonisiras, and then went on board the Lord 
Nelson privateer, and after cruising about ten days, was 
cast away at Vigo, in Spain, and remained eight hours in 
the sea ; that the cramp taking him, he clung to a piece of 
wood, and in that situation, almost senseless, was taken up 
by a Portuguese vessel, Avhich also saved the rest of the 
crew of the privateer, except four who Avere drowned, and 
who landed them at Vigo ; that undergoing many hardships 
by land, he got to Bilboa, and from thence to England by 
a Spanish vessel bound to Cork ; but which, on account of 

the 



CURIOUS DISPLAY OF THE GALVANIC TROUGH. SI 

Uie damao-e she had sustained at sea, put in at IliVacombe, 
in Devonshire. He was committed to Tothill-fields Bride- 
well. Godlia is a remarkable good swimmer, and fiimous 
for remaining under water a long time ; he Avas tfie person 
employed to dive for a quantity of the forged Portuguese 
notes that had been sunk in the Thames, near Lambeth, 
and -who succeeded in recovering them. He is a Maltese 
by birth. Gillington, Fan-eil, and Joseph De Ban on, were 
confined in the same prison with him at Lisbon, but had 
not been tried when he cume away. 



Cmioits Display/ of the Galvanic Trough. 

VV^iTH respect to the property of metals, Mr. Wilkinson 
is amply convinced, that gold and zinc, form the most 
powerful Galvanic combination. He has lately illustrated 
these principles • giving the preference ♦^o the trough, and 
proceeding, by experiments, to evince its Avonderful 
powers. Four troughs, hung on swivels, each containing 
fifty plates, and eiglit inches in diameter, the weight of 
each trough being between two and three cwt. were charged 
with a mixture, consisting of one gallon of nitrous acid, to 
nineteen gallons of water. These are so arranged, as to 
communicate with two brass rods under the leciurer's 
table, Avhicli communicate witii brass pillars upon the top 
of the table. A piece of harpsichord wire, four feet in 
length, being rested upon the two pillars, was in an in- 
stant red-hot, fused, and fell upon the table in the form of 
red-hot balls, which retained their heat for a surprising 
length of time. Wires of silver, brass, an J copper, wete 
placed in the same manner, and with si:nilar rcauits. But, 
when five or six feet of steel wire was so placed, it did not 
fuse, although its whole extent was rendered rcd-not, and 
remained so long as the contact was preserved. Platma, 
a metal known to be indestructible in the most pov.criul 
Vol. II. Ai fiunace. 



82 CURIOUS ANTIQUITIES IN AFRICA. 

furnace, when exposed to this astonishing principle, was 
rapidly ignited, and fused into a spherical form. A dia- 
mond, placed in a piece of charcoal, was instantaneously 
consumed. But tlie following experiment exhibited the 
most beautiful phenomenon we ever witnessed : — Two 
pieces of charcoal, in the form of pencils, were placed in 
the circuit, and instantly a rapid inflammation foUoAved, 
forming the most brilliant light ever yet artificially pro- 
duced. The shadows of all surrounding objects were 
strongly defined, as if a sun was formed between the two 
charcoal points. The hght approached the nearest to in- 
tense solar light of any wc ever saw. When an Argand's 
lamp was placed near it, the light of the lamp appeared 
small and obscure, as a distant rush-hght. Those who 
have seen brilliant deflagrations in oxygen gas, may form 
some idea of it, jet but faintly, so extremely beautiful is 
its appearance. 

There Avere various other pleasing phenomena, produced 
by the Galvanic principle ; after which, Mr. Wilkinson 
announced his intention of giving Cin the second lecture) a 
.series of cxj)eriments, to shew its power as a chemical 
agent, as well as its influence on animals ; an account of 
which we shall, on a future day, communicate to our 
readers. 

CURIOUS ANTIQUITIES IN AFRICA. 

At the last meeting of the Antiquarian Society, Mas 
read a letter of Mr. Jackson, on the dntient Utica, which 
was next in extent and magnitude to Carthage^ and in the 
same gulph. Here Mr. J. visited the subterraneous vaults, 
in which the cielings were covered with bats of enormous 
size, called by Virgil h&rpieSj which being disturbed, left 
their places, and nearly extinguished the flambeaux, and 
but for a lunthorn, the curious visitors might have been lost 

in 



STRIKING INSTANCE OF SAGACITY IN A DOG. 8j 

in the dark. In the same place, Mr. J. found foxes, biir- 
rowing in the under-ground ruins. The air in these caverns 
^vas pppressive, but by firing pistols was much cleared, and 
became more respiruble. 

^ recent and striking Instance of Sagacity in a Dog, 
nearly approaching to Iimnanf 

London, Junuari/ 23, 1804. 

On Saturday, January 21, Thomas Tweed, apprehended 
in Old-street-road, charged with stealing a box from a 
person named Scott ; being examined at the Public- 
Office in Worship-street, it appeared that Tweed was 
drinking in the Pitt's Head public-house, Old-street, when 
a small terrier dog entered, and seeing tlie prisoner, in- 
stantly flew at him. The circumstance was so marked, as 
to excite the observation and suspicion of the landlord, 
who knowing the dog to belong to Scott, he sent for him ; 
and Scott, on his arrival, recognized the coat which Tweed 
wore, to be one of the articles which had been stolen from 
him. He was taken into custody, and the pawnbroker's 
tickets which were found in his possession, led to tlic 
discovery of several of the other articles. 

On Monday, Jan. 24, Thomas Tiveed underwent a final 
examination, charged upon the oath of Thomas Scott, 
with breaking open his box ; the property being sworn to, 
the prisoner was committed for trial. 

Since this occurrence took place, several persons have 
made considerable offers for the dog. The owner, how» 
ever, has not thought proper to accept of any which have 
been made him, at least till the trial has taken place. — 
That the dog should not be stolen in the interval, it has 
been found necessary to keep him tied up. Tlie master 
of the dog, it seems, was in the habit of using the pubhc- 
house ; and though the dog had frequently been in the 
house before, the manner in which he singled out the rob- 

M 2 ber. 



84 THE BOILING VVATER-SFOUTS OF ICELAND. 

ber, had something in it uncommon ; for holding his nose 
close to the skirt of his coat, and growling all the while, he 
would not move from the spot, which exciting the admi- 
ration of all present, led to the iiiunediate discovery of th? 
offender. 



THE BOILING WATER-SPOUTS OF ICELAND ; 

Commonly called the Geysers. 

X HE principal of these is found in the neighbourhood of 
Scalholt, the capital of the place ; and it was very lately 
visited by Mr. Olafeen, a native of that country, and Mem^ 
ber of tlie Academy of Sciences at Copenlmgen. Taking 
4 friend with him, he says,—" tlie moment we arrived at 
Geyser, the water filled the bason, and overflowed on all 
^ides. Soon after a subterraneous noise was heard, the 
usual signal for the gushing of the water. It tlien began tQ 
ppout in an instant ; but did not rise above 60 feet in 
height. This spouting ceased suddenly, but was frequently 
renewed after a few miniitc-s iiUcrval ; its violence diminish- 
ing also, till the bason was quite empty. In this state it 
<;ontinued for a moment, but as t'le water is hot, its vapouj- 
and heat j^-evented us from seeing the bottom . By means 
of a plummet, we however contrived to measure the depth 
of the bason, and found it 12 feet j its diameter at the 
orifice, or opening, 57 ; and at or near the bottom only 
18, ^o that it seemed to terminate like a funnel. i\gaiu 
throwing our plummet, in hopes of sounding some of the 
holes that afforded a passage to the water, the lead had no 
sooner reached the bottom, than a body of boiling Avater 
spouted up from the rock ; but happily did us no harm. — 
This encourag»?d us to throw it in again, but another spout 
of water obliged us to retreat in haste ; while our guide was 
terribly alarmed, because it is the opinion of the Iceland- 
ers, that any man visiting these mysterious places, will 
incur the displeasure of the powerful spirits that rei^icic in 

then). 



THE BOILING WATER-SPOUTS OF ICELAND. S:^ 

them. The ah" being agitated ever so little in the small 
ppenjngs at the bottom, it deranges the ordinary course of 
the water, and causes it to rise immediately with violence. 
To fathom the small openings at the bottom, we repeatedly 
tfied in vain ; nor could \ve divine the cause of our mis- 
carriage. 

After these spoutings, the great Geyser remaixied quiet 
the whole night; the water in the meanwhile rose gradually, 
and the bason was filled about four in the morning. To try 
the force of the spout, we continued near the place, and 
threw several flaojs and other stones into the bason. At lenstli 
the spoutings were announced by a hollow noise under- 
peath us, like the distant reports of a cannon. Five re- 
ports followed^ each louder than the other. At the same 
time we felt tiie earth shaking and heaving, as if it would 
burst. 

In each successive spouting also, the water w^is thrown 
to a greater height than the time preceding, while the flags 
jmd stones which we threw into the bason, were darted up, 
broken in a thousand pieces, and were carried higher than 
the pillars of water, which always terminated in a point.<T— 
From a motive of caution, wc stood to windward of the 
smoke ; at every spouting, th.e water in the bason ^vas 
yaised, and though it overflowed every side of the crater 
or bason, on the north side, it fell into a little valley, and 
formed a rivulet ; wliich, though at a good distance from 
the fountain-head, v/ould severely b\u'n tlip feet of anv 
aninuil tiiat passed it. 

There is a mountain called Langfell, near the Geyser, 
about 70 fathoms in height. The general height of the 
spouts is 60 ; but tiie inhabitants said, whan a storm, or 
rainy weather is exj^ected, they will rise to the full height 
of the Lang fcl. The spoutings in all, l^isted about tea 
minutes ; and tliere was an interval of three seconds be- 
tween cvt:ry subterraneous report that anapunceci them j 

so. 



BS TftE BOrttNG XS-ATER-SPOtrXS or ICELAND. 

SO tliat the total number at this time was about two hun* 
drcd. The water of the Geyser, is supposed to come front 
the ileighbouring mountains. . There is a tradition, that 
before the present spring existed, there were other spouts 
in tlie neighbourhood, which, from their singular violence, 
were also called Gey.^i'r , but that an earthquake destroyed 
these, and at the same time produced the water-spout now 
known by that name. 

The hot water of the Gejser converts the stalks of 
plants and little ])ieccs of wood into a hard and pale- 
coloured stone. Even in the rock itself, from which the 
spring issues, petrified stalks of plants maybe found, with 
bones of sheep, horse-dung, all transmuted ; gnd in a 
petrifaction of the small leaves of the birch-tree, the fibres 
were distinctly visible. Among the inferior water-spouts 
near the great spring, some of them have remarkable qua-. 
Jities. One of them named Styder, is called a dry spring', 
because its turvnel contains no water, but emits a thick 
smoke ; its heat is so intense, that the neighbours employ 
it to dress their victuals, whicli they say is done with ease 
and dispatch ; and that the food while doing, contracts hq 
strange or smoky taste. There is two hot-wells in the 
neighbourhood, called Akrahver ; in throwing the sound- 
ing lead into one of them, the water instantly sunk a foot 
and a quarter, while trying the same experiment upon thq 
other, it overflowed on all sides. Several of the natives 
affirmed that they had seen birds swimming in these hot- 
wells, made like a mallard ; the body of a brown colour ; 
the eye encircled with a white ring, very visible. In fact, 
they even go so far as to say, that these birds have been 
seen to dive in the hot water I In swimming, the legs and 
bills of these birds, armed with a callous skin, might en- 
dure the heat ; but in diving, it would be impossible. It is 
well known, that owing to the property of the blood,^ sea- 
birds cannot dive j so that these birds, if they really pos- 



"DISCOVERIES UPON THE PEAK OF TEN£3lIFF£. Bl 

sess that faculty, must be of an amphibious class ; and 
hence the discovery of tliem, would be a very great deside- 
ratum in Natural History. As yet their existence may be 
very fairly questioned. In all these hot-springs, the de- 
gree of heat is generally the same. In the ^vater, Fahren- 
heit's thermometer rose to 182 degrees ; out of it the smoke 
or vapour near the surface, stood at 90. Severul springs 
are so much agitated, that the thermometer cannot be in- 
troduced. The water in this quarter, however, is some- 
what hotter than that of any other -springs in Iceland." 



Pardon of Francis Smith, /or killing T. Millwood 3 

See Page 65 of the present Number. 
Much to the satisfaction of the people at hirge, he received a pardon oa 
Wednesday the 25th instant, upon condition of remaining in prison one 
twelvemonth ; and thus it appears, that the intent of the Jury'a first ver- 
dict, has been very properly acted upon. 



New and accurate Discoveries upon the Peak (^ 
Teneriffe. 

]V1» CoRDiER, in May last, 1803, ascended to the sum- 
mit of this mountain, on a scientific survey. He found 
the height of the Peak to he 1901 toises above the level 
of the sea. The crater, which is of an elliptic form, is 
about 1200 feet in circumference, and \\0 in depth; its 
edges are perfectly steep in the inside, and consists of a 
snow-white earth, the result of the decomposition of the 
blackest and hardest vitreous and porplmitis lava — crystals 
of sulphur covered all tlie surrounding rocks. M. Cordier 
slid to the bottom of the crater, from whence issued a warm 
sulphureous vapour, proceeding tlirough innumerable cre- 
vices, from, he supposes, the depth of several leagues, and 
retaining a great intensity of heat. Thi^ thermometer, ex- 
posed in a crevice, speedily rose to SO degrees, and would 
have risen higher had the length of the tube atlmitted ; the 
:. • \'apour 



88- MAO FOXES ON THE BORDERS OF SWITZERtATJfi". 

vapoar consisted solely of sulphur and vater, pei'fectly in-* 
sipid, without containing, as was supposed, sulphureous 
acid, soda, or hydrogen gas, 

^I. Cordier contradicts, in the most decided terms, the 
current opinion as to the intensity of the cold, the weak- 
ness of spirituous liquors, and the difficult}'' of respiration 
on the Peak— he did not experience tlie least incon- 
venience from the cold vapours, or rarit}' of the air ; and 
iifi ridicules the report respecting the appearance of the 
sun's disk being seen from this elevated spot. 

j\I. Cordier was three hours on the summit of the Peak ; 
tlie snow in the channels cut in the mountain by the lava, 
which on his ascent was hard, had become thawed on his 
descent, so far, that iu moving over it, he repeatedly sunk 
a foot or two ; the guide clambered up and Aown therocks^ 
and was horrored at the temerity of his companion, in ven- 
turing on the snow, Avhich probably covered abysses of im- 
measurable depth. 

MAD FOXES ON THE BORDERS OF SWITZERLAND. 

Accounts from hence, dated Dec. 21, 1803, say — ''The 
number of this species is lately said to have become so nu- 
merous in the Valais country, that the natives have given 
them the name of Rcnards enrages; they approach the 
houses of the inliabitants in broad day, and attack both 
man and beast : only one man, however, has yet been bit- 
ten. The Officers of Health have already dissected somci 
of these animals, and have found all the symptoms of mad- 
ness in the process. To ascertain the fact beyond dispute, 
they lately confined some dogs and a pig, which beintr 
wounded by these furious animals, the symptoms that fol- 
lowed, have been closely observed ; but whether they ex- 
actly resemble tho5.e of the hydrophobia, does not yet 
appear. 

Since 



ECCENTRIC OBITUARY. 89 

^iftce the abovementioned alarm has gone forth, the 
Swiss Government, who seem to have no doubt of the fact, 
have issued a monition, stating, that in the districts of 
Morsey and Gossan}^, where these animals have been most 
frequently seen, as there is a probability that the hares 
also may have been affected, it will be advisable not to eat 
any of the latter for tlie present ; and in the interim, 
inn-keepers and others, are strictly forbidden to bring any 
hares to their tables. 



ECCENTRIC OBITUARY. 

A Mr. Edwards, a respectable Dyer, of Sherrard-strcet, 
Goiden-square, was interred on Tuesday, Jan. 17, at 
Lambeth Church. By his Avill, he dh-ected that his fune- 
ral procession should stop at the Magpies, in Bridge-street, 
Westminster, and the mourners be regaled with a gallon of 
porter, which they were to drink at the door of the house ; 
they were then to proceed on a long trot along the bridge 
to the Jolly Sawj-ers in Lambeth \Valk, there to have an- 
other gallon of beer ; from thence to the grave, Avhere, 
after his interment, a pint of gin was to be drank by them 
over his grave, wishing him a pleasant journei/ ! The re- 
quest was literally complied with. 

Mr. John Barker, formerly a Farmer, near Bawiry, 
in Yorkshire, died lately. — Though possessed of consider- 
able landed property, some time before his death he was 
constantly complauiing of poverty ; and a very sliort time 
ago, actually borrowed six guineas to relieve his exigen- 
cies. Immediately after his death, 1000 guineas were 
found in the seat of his armed-chair, and two bags con- 
.taining 500 each, upon which was written tiie word soundj 
meaning good weight, with several other sums, besides 
.£500 m Bank notes, and a considtjrable quantity of silver 
in his bureau. 

Vol. IL ' N Jromkr- 



( 90 ) 

Wonderful Discovny o/" a Murder, after the Body had been 
buried thirty Days, 

\Communicated by Carolus.] 

The most extraordinary Discovery of a Murder committed upon the Body of 
Mrs. Joan Norkett, as it appeared on Evidence, at a Trial at Hertford 
Assizes, before Lord Chief Justice Hyde, the 4th Year of King Charles 
tlie First. — Attested by Serjeant Maynard. 

1 HE case, or rather the history of a case that occurred 
in Hertfordshire, I thought good to report here, (though 
it happened the 4th year of King Charles the First,) that 
the memory of it may not be lost, by miscarriage of my 
papers, or otherwise, I wrote the evidence that was given, 
which I and many others also did hear ; and I wrote ex- 
actly to what was deposed at this trial at the Bar, in the 
King's Bench ; viz. 

Joan Norkett, wife of Arthur Norkett, being murdered, 
the question was, how she came by her death > The Coro- 
ner's inquest, on view of the body, and depositions of 
Mary Norkett, John Oakham, and Agnes his wife, in- 
clined to find Joan Norkett, Felo de sc ; for they informed 
the Coroner and the Jury, that she was found dead in her 
bed, and her throat cut, and the knife sticking in the 
floor of the room : That the night before she was so found, 
she went to bed with her child, now Plaintiff in this Ap- 
peal, her husband being absent, and that no other person 
(after such time as she was gone to bed,) came into the 
house, the examinants lying in the outer room, and they 
must needs have seen or known if any stranger had come 
ia. Whereupon the Jury gave up to the Coroner their 
verdict, '* that she was Felo de se.'* 

But afterwards, upon rumour among the neighbours, 
and their observation, divers circumstances, which mani- 
fested that she did not, (nor according to those circum- 
stances) could possibly murder lierself ; thereupon the 

Jury 



WONDERFUL DISCOVERY OF A MURDER. 91 

Jury (whose verdict was not drawn into form by the Coro- 
ner,) desired the Coroner, that the body which was buried, 
might be taken up out of the grave, which the Coroner as- 
sented to : and thirt}' days after her death, she Avas taken 
up, in the presence of the Jury, and a great number of 
people ;" whereupon the Jury changed their verdict. 

The persons that Mere tried at Hertford Assizes, were 
acquitted ; but so mucli against tlic evidence, that the 
Judge let fall his opinion, " That it Avas better that an 
Appeal were brought, than so foul a murder slionld escape 
unpunished." And Pasch. 4 Car. they Avere tried on die 
Appeal, Avhich was brouglit by the young child against the 
father, grandmother, and aunt, and her husband Oakham. 
— And because the evidence Avas so strange, I took parti- 
cular notice of it, and it v,ns as folloAveth : — After the mat- 
ters abovementioned Avere related, an ancient and grave 
person, Minister to the parish, Avhere the fact Avas com- - 
mitted, being sworn to giA-e evidence according to the 
custom, deposed, That the body being taken up out of 
the graA^e thirty days after the party's death, and lying on 
the grass, and the four Defendants present, they AA^ere re- 
quired each of them to touch the dead bod}-. Oakham's 
wife fell on her knees, and prayed to God, to shcAv tokens 
of her innocence, or to some such purpose (as her very 
Avords I forgot). The parties did touch the dead body, 
Avhereupori the brow of the dead, Avhich Avas before of a 
livid t^nd carrion colour, (that Avas the verbal expression, 
in terminisy of the Avitntss,) began to have a dcAv, or gentle 
sweat, arise upon it, Avhich increased by degrees, till the 
sweat ran down in drops on the face, and the broAv turned 
and changed to a lively and fresh colour, and the dead 
person opened one of her eyes, and shut it agcdn; and this 
opening of the eyes Avas done three several times. She 
likewise thrust out the ring, or marriagp finger, three 
times, and pulled it in again and the finger, and dropped 

N 2 blooci, 



92 WONDERFUL DISCOVERY OF A MURDER. 

blood from it on the grass. Hyde (Nicholas), Chief Jiis^ 
tice, seeming to doubt the evidence, asked the witness, 
'^ Who saw this besides you ?" — 1st Witness — '' I cannot 
swear what others saw, but, my Lord, I believe the whole 
company saw it ; and if it had been thought dpubtful, 
proof would have been made of it, and many would have 
contested with me." Then the witness observing some 
admiration in the auditors, spoke thus ;— '^ My Lord, I am 
Minister of the parish, long knew all the parties, but never 
had any occasion of displeasure against any of them, nor 
had to do with th(rn, nor they with me; but as I was Mi- 
nister, the thing was wonderful to me ; but I have no' in- 
terest in the matter, but as called upon to testify the truth, 
Tvhich I have done," 

The witness was a reverend person, as I guess about 70 
3'ears of age ; bis testimony was "delivered gravely and 
ternfierately, but to the great admiration ot the auditory. 
Whereupon applying bimscli to the Chief Justice, lie said, 
*' My Lord, my brother here, is Minister of the next 
parish adjacent ; and I am sure saw all done that I have 
affirmed. " \Vhereupon ttiat person -.vas sworn to give 
evidence, and did depo>c in cverv point; viz. the sweat- 
ing of the In ow, the changing of the colour, opening of 
the eyes, and the thrice motions of the hnger, and drawing 
it in again ; only the first witnu-ss added, that be dipped 
his finger in the blood that canie from the dead bod}^, and 
SAvore, he believed it was really bJood. I conferred after- 
wi.rds with Sir Vowell, Bdrri^ler at Law, ana others, who 
all concurred in this observation ; and for myself, ifl were 
upon oatli, can depose, that these depositions (especially 
the first witness) are truly reported in substance. 

Tiie other evidence was given against tlic prisoner, viz, 
asainstthe Q,randuiother of the PlaintiiF, and against Oak- 
ham and his wife, that they confessed they lay in the next 
room to the dead pcrton that night, and that none came into 

the 



WONDERFUL DISCOVERY OF A MURDER. 93 

the house, till they found her dead next morning ; there-r 
fore, if she did not murder herself, they must be the mur^ 
derers ; and to that end further proof was made. — First, 
that she lay in a composed manner in her bed, the bed^ 
clothes nothing at all disturbed, and her child by her in the 
bed. — Secondly, that her throat was cut from ear to ear, 
and her neck broken ; and if she first cut her throat, she 
could not break her neck in the bed, nor e contra. — 
Thirdly, there was no blood in the bed, saving, there was 
a tincture of blood on the bolster whereon her head lay ; 
but no other substance of blood at all. — Fourthly, from the 
bed's head there was a stream of blood on the floor, which 
run along on the floor, till it ponded on the bending of the 
floor, to a very great quantity, and there was also another 
stream of blood on the floor at tlie bed's feet, which ponded 
also oh the floor, to another great quantity ; but no conti- 
nuance or continuation of blood of either of tliose two 
places, from one to the other, neither upon the bed, so that 
she bled in two places severally : And it was deposed, turn- 
ing up the mat of the bed, there were clots of congealed 
blood in the straw of the mat underneath. — Fifthl}'-, the 
]jloody knife, in the morning, was found sticking in the 
floor, a good distance from the bed ; but the point of the 
Jinife, as it stuck in the floor, was towards the bed, and 
\he. haft from the bed. — Lastly, there was a print of a 
thumb and four fingers of a left-hand on the dead person's 
left hand. 

Hyde, Chief Justice, to tlie Witness — " How can yoa 
know the print of a left-hand from the print of a right- 
liand in this case ?" 

Witness. — " iVIy Lord, it is liard to describe ; but if it 
please that Honourable Judge to put his left-hand on your 
left-hand, ijou cannot possibh/ place your right-hand in the 
faine posture ; which being done, and appearing so, the 

Defendants 



S4 A PROGRESSIVE WATER-SPOUT, 

Defendants had time to make their defence ; but gave no 
evidence to any purpose. 

The Jury departed from the box, and returning, ac- 
quitted Oakham, (tlie aunt's husband,) and foi\nd the 
other three guilty ; "who being severally demanded what 
they could say why judgment should not be pronounced ? 
— Eacii of them said nothing ; but I did not do it — I did 
not do it. Judgment was then given, and the grand- 
mother and husband were executed ; but the aunt had the 
privilege to be spared from execution, being with child. 
^^^^^^^^ ' CAROLUS. 

A PROGRESSIVE WATER-SPOUT, 

On the 5th of May, 1752, about seven in the evening, 
a water-spout fell from the clouds on Deeping Fen, in the 
county of Lincoln, and took its progress in a very indirect 
manner, to the county bank or dike, whence it carried every 
thing that lay loose thereon, such as straw, hay, and stub- 
ble, violently before it. When it came into the middle of 
Flowbit Wash, where it was first seen, it was a dreadful 
sight to behold this moving meteor there fixed for several 
minutes, spouting out water to a considerable height, per- 
haps two }■ ards ; so that it seemed as if the law of nature 
was inverted, to see water ascending, and all the time at- 
tended with a terrible noise. — Upon the second rout, it 
made to the river ; on its arrival there, it discovered its 
length with some certainty, for it reached from side to 
side, the river being about three yards over; in its march- 
ing along it drove the water before it in a rapid torrent, 
tearing in its passage a fishing-net : Avhen it arrived at the 
church, it there stopped again, but not above a minute, 
Avhence it arose, and made its passage through the space 
that is between the church and the parsonage-house, with- 
out doins: hurt to either ; so that however natural the cause 
may be, yet surely its progression could not be without 

the 



ACCOUNT OF TWO DWARFS AND A NEGRO. i)5 

the direction of him who rides in the whirlwind, and directs 
the storm. On its departing hence, the straw, hay, and 
stubble fell down upon the land in showers. This strange 
phenomenon ascended not far before it fell down again 
upon the land ; in passing through a small tract of seed 
turnips, it broke in its way the stems from the roots. A 
gate it forced from off its hinges, and a stone it broke to 
pieces, and when at a distance it looked like a pillar of 
smoke ; Avhen it passed a little beyond Molton Chapel, it 
evaporated into a cloud, and was succeeded by a violent 
storm of hail, and after that of rain. 



.^cW2(w/ o/'Two Dwarfs and a surprising 'Negro, exhibited 
in this City^ in December 1151 ; 

A Dwarf from Glamorganshire, in his 15th year, two 
foot six inches high, weighing only 12lb. ; yet very pro- 
portionable. 

John Coan, a Norfolk dwarf, aged 23, weighed last 
year, with all his clothes, but 34lb. ; and his height with 
his hat, shoes and wig on, was but 38 inches ; his body is 
perfectly strait, he is of a good complexion, and sprightly 
temper, sings tolerably, and mimicks a cock's crowing 
very exactly. A child 3 years 8 months old, of an ordi- 
nary size with his clothes on, weighed 36lb. ; and his 
height without anything on bis head was 37 inches 7-lOths, 
which, on comparison, gives an idea of the smallness of 
this dwarf. 

A Negro, who, by a most exti'aordinary and singular di- 
latation and contraction of the deltoid and biceps muscles 
of the arm, those of the back, ccc. clasps his hands full to- 
gether, throAvs them over his licad and back, and brings 
them in that position under his feet : tliis he repeats back-' 
wards or forwards as often as the spectators desire, and 
with the greatest facility. 



THE 



( 96 ) 

THE ORIGIN OF THE REAL ROBINSON CRUSOE, 
A^ thefabdousHistovy of Robinson Crusoe, ■written by Daniel De Foe'y 
has afforded so muc'tv entertainment to the public, for so many years past, 
and has proved uncomilionly amusing, the true Account of the real Origin 
of that Story, with the sufferings of the adventurous person who gave rise 
to it, will, no doubt, add to the pleasing effect of your very interesting 
Miscellany. Yours, cic. .Curiosa. 

il//-. Alexander Selkirk, u'ho icas origrinallj Master of a BTerchanfman, 
in the Reign of King fViltlum the Third, having had a Dream, that the Ship he 
teas on board of' icon Id be lost, he desired to be leji on a desolate Island, in the 
South Seas, uhere he lived Four Years and Four 3Tonths, without seeing tl^e Face 
of Man, the Ship being aj'teitcards cast away, cs he drear>ied. He teas aftencards 
miraculousbj preserved and redeemed from that fatal Place, by two Bristol Priva- 
teers, called The Duke and Duchess ; that took the rich Aquapulco Ship, worth 
100 Ton of Gold, and brought it to England.— Attested by ttiost of the eminent 
Merchants upon the Royal Exchange. 

In the voyage of the Duke and Duchess privateers belong- 
ing to Bristol, -who took the rich Aquapulco ship, they 
came to an island called Juan Fernandez ; where sending 
their pinnace on shore, she returned, after some time, 
bringing with her a man clothed in goat-skins, who seemed 
as wild as the goats themselves. 

Being brought on board the Duke, he said, he had been 
on the island four years and four months, liaving been left 
there by Captain Stradling, in a ship called the Cinque- 
Ports, about the year 1705, of which ship he was master ; 
and Captain Dampier, who was then with him, and now on 
board the Duke, told Captain Rogers, he was the best man 
then on board the Cinque-Ports, who immediately agreed 
with him to be a mate on board the Duke. His name 
was Alexander Selkirk, a Scotchman ; and the manner of 
his being found there, w-as by his making a fire the night 
before, when he saw the two privateers aforesaid, judging 
them to be English, b\' which, judging it to be an habit- 
able island, they had sent their boat to see ; and so he 
came miraculously to be redeemed from that solitary and 

tedious 



ORIGINAL ROBtNSON CRUSOE. 9/ 

tedious confinement, who otherwise,- in all probahility, 
must have miserably ended his life there. He said, that 
during his stay there, he iiad seen several ships pass by> 
hut only two of them came in to anchor, which he judg- 
ed to be Spaniards, and retired from them, upon which 
they fired at him ; had they been French, he said he 
would have submitted himself; but chose rather to ha- 
zard dvins: on the island, than to fall into the hands 
of the Spaniards in those parts, because he believed they 
would either murder him, or make him a slave in their 
mines. The Spaniards landed so near him, before he 
knew where they were, that he had much ado to escape ; 
for they not only shot at him, but pursi^.ed him into the 
woods, where he climbed up to the top of a tree, at 
the foot of which they made water, and killed several 
goats just by, but went off without diseovering him. — 
He told them, that he was born at Largo, in the county 
of Fife in Scotland, and was bred a sailor from his youth. 
The reason of his being left on this melancholy island, 
was a difference |)etwi.\t him and his captain, whieh, to- 
gether with the ship being leaky, made him willing 
rather to stay there than go along with him at first, and 
when he was at last willing to go, the captain would not 
receive him. He had been, he said, on the island to 
w^ood and water, when two of the ship's company were 
left upon it for six months, till the hhip returned, being 
chaccd there by two FrtMieh South-sea ships. He had 
with him his clothes and bedding, with a lirelock, some 
powder, bullets, and tobacco, a hatchet, a knife, a kettle, 
a bible, some practical pieces, and his mathematical 
instruments and books. He diverted and provided for 
himself as well as he could ; but for the first eight months 
he had much ado to bear up against melancholy, and the 
terror of being left alone in such a desolate place. He 
built two huts with Piemento trees, covered them with 
Vol. H. O Ion? 



93 ORIGINAL ROBINSON CRL-SOK. 

long gr<i^s, nnd lined them with the ^kiiis of goats, 
which he killed with his gun as he wanted^ so long as 
liis powder l;isledj which was htit a pound ; and that be- 
ing near spent, he got fire hy rubbing two sticks of Pie- 
mento w ood together upon his knee. In the lesser hut, 
at some distance from the other, he dressed hw victuals, 
and in tlie larger he slept, and employed himself in 
reading, singing psalms, and praying; so that he said he 
was a better Christian while in this solitude, or than, 
he was afraid, he should ever be again. A\ first he 
never eat any thing till hunger constrained him, partly 
for grief and partly for want of food and salt; nor did he 
go to-bed till he could watch no longer; the Pieinento 
wood, which burned very clear, served him both lor 
firing and candle, and refreshed him with its fragrant 
smell, fie might have had fish enough, but could not 
eat them for want of salt, because they occasioned a 
looseness, except craw fish, which are there as large as 
cur lobsters, and very good : these he sometimes boiled, 
and at other times broiled, as he did his goat's flesh, of 
which he made very good broth, for they are not so rank 
as ours : he kcj)t an account of live hundred that he 
killed while there, and caught as manv more, which he 
marked on the car and let go. A\'lien his powder fail- 
ed, he took them by speed of foot ; for his way of living, 
and continual exercise of walking and running, cleared 
liim of all gross humours, so than he ran with wonder- 
ful swiftness through the woods, and up the rocks and 
hills, as we perceived when we employed him to catch 
gou's for us. We had a bull-dog, which we sent with 
•several of our nimblest runners, to help him in catching 
goats ; but he distanced and tired both tiie dog and the 
men, eatched the goats and brought tliem to us on his 
back. He told us, that his agility in pursuing a goat had 
ouec like to havL- cost him his life ; he pursued it with 



i 



ORIGINAL 110BIN80N CRUSOE. §9 

SO much eagerness, that he catched hold of it at tlie 
brink' of a precipice, of which lie was not aware, the 
bushes having hid it from him ; so that he fell Avith the 
goat down the precipice a great height, and was so 
gtunned and brui.sed with the fall, that he narrowly es- 
caped with his hfe ; and, when he came to his senses, 
found the goat dead under him. He lay there about 
twenty-four hours, and was scarcely able to crawl to his 
hut, which was about a mile distant, or to stir abroad 
asraiu in ten davs. He came at last to relish his meat 
well enough without salt or bread, and, in the season, had 
plenty of good turneps, which had been sowed there by 
Captain Dampier^s men, and have now overspread some 
acres of a;round. He had enoaii;h of i^ood cabbacres from 
the cabbage trees, and seasoned the meat with the bark, 
of the Piemento trees, which is the same as the Jamai<JV 
pepper, and smells deliciously. He found there also a 
black pepper, called Malagita, which was very good to 
€xpel wind, and against griping of the guts. He soon 
wore out all his shoes and cloaths by running through 
the woods ; and, at last, being forced to shift without 
them, his feet became so hard, that he ran every where 
without annoyance ; and it was some time before he 
could wear shoes after we found him ; for, not being used 
to any so long, his feet swelled, when he came first to 
"wear them again. After he had conquered his melan- 
chol}", he diverted himself sometimes by cutting his 
name on the tress, and the time of his being left and con- 
tinuance there. He v/as at first pestered with cats and 
rats, that had bred in great numbers from some of each 
species which had got a-shore from the ships that put in 
there to wood and water. The rats gnawed his feet and 
cloaths, while asleep, which obliged him to cherish the 
cats with hi* goats flesh ; by which many of them be- 
came so tame, that they wpuid lie about him in hundreds, 

O 2 and 



100 ORIGINAL ROBINSON CTtUSOE. 

and soon delivered him from the rats. He likewise tamed 
some kids^ and, to divert himself, would now. and then 
sing and dance with his cats; so that by the care of Pro- 
vidence, and vigour of hi-s youth, being now but about 
thirty years old, he came at last to conquer all the in-» 
conveniences of his solitude, and to be very easy. When 
his cloaths wore out, he made himself a coat and cap of 
goats-skins, which he stitched together with little thongs 
of the same, that he cut with his knife. He had no other 
uecdle but a nail, and, when his knife was wore to the 
back, he made others, as Avell as he could, of some iron 
hoops that were left ashore, which he b«at thin an4 
ground upon stones. Having some iinnen cloth by him, 
he sewed himself shirts with a nail, and stitched them 
with the worsted of his old stockings, which he pulled 
put on purpose. He had his last shirt on when we found 
him in the island. At his first coming on board us, he 
had so much forgot his language for want of use, that 
we could scarce understand him, for he seemed to speak 
his words by halves. We offered him a dram, but he 
,would not touch it, having drank nothing but water 
since his being there, and it was some time before he 
could relish our victuals. He could give us account of 
no other product of the island than what we have men- 
tioned, except small black plums, which are veiy good, 
hut hard to come at, the trees which bear them growing 
on high mountains and rocks. Piemento trees are plenty 
here, and we saw one sixty feet high, and about two 
yards thick ; and cotton trees higher, and near four fa- 
thom round in the stock. The climate is so good, that 
the trees and grass are verdant allthe year. The winter 
Ja^ts no longer than June or July, and is not then se- 
vere, there being only a small frost and a little hail, but 
^omejimes great rains. The heat of the summer is equal-? 
iy moderate,, and there is not much thundcf or tempestu-? 



OHIGINAL ROBINSON CRTSOE. 101 

ous weather of any sort. He saw no venomous or savage 
creature on the ishiiid, nor any olhtr sort of beast but 
§oats, &c. as above-mentioned ; the first of which had 
been put a-shorc here on purpose for a breed b}' John 
Fernando, a (Spaniard, wlio settled there with some fami- 
lies for a time, till the continent of Chili be^ran to submit 
to the Spaniards; which, being more profitable, tempted 
them to quit this island, which is capable of maintaining 
a good number of people, and of being made so strong 
that they could not be easily dislodged. Ringrose, iu 
liis account of Ciiptain Sharp's voyage and other Bucca- 
neers, mentions one, who had escaped ashore here, out 
of a ship which was cast away with all the rest of the 
company, and spys, he lived five years alone, before he 
luid the opportunity of another ship to carry him off. 
Capt. Dampicr talks of a Moskito Indian, that belonged 
to Capt. Watiin ; who, being hunting in the woods, 
when the Captain left the island, lived there three years 
?ilone, nnd shifted much in the same manner as Mr. Sel- 
kirk did, till Capt. Dampier came hither, in l0"84, and 
carried him off. The first, that went ashore, was one of 
his countrymen, and ihey saluted one another, first by 
prostrating themselves by turns on the ground, and then 
by embracino-. But, whatever there is in these stories, 
this of Mr. Selkirk I know to be true; and hi.^ behaviour 
afterwards gives mc reason to believe the account, he. 
gave me, how he spent his time, and bore up under such 
an affliction, in which nothing but the Divine Proxndence 
could have supported any man. By this one may sec, 
that solitude, and retirement from the world, is not an 
unsuf^'orable state of lile, as most men imagine, especi- 
ally when people are fairly thrown into it linavoidabh", 
as this man was; who, in all probobility, must otherwise 
have perished in the seas, the ship, w^hich left him, be- 
ing cast away not long after, and few of the company 

escaped. 



50^ ANCIEIST MODE OF BUlLDINt, HOUSES. 

esca})ed. We ma}^ perceive, by tliis story, the truth of 
the Maxim, That necessity is the mother of invtntion '; 
since he found means to supply his wants in a very natu- 
ral manner, so as to maintain his hfe ; though not so 
conveniently, yet as effectually, as we are able to do 
with the help of all our arts and society. It may likewise 
instruct us, how much a plain and temperate way of 
Jivino; conduces to the health of the bodv, and the vigour 
of the mind ; both which we are apt to destroy by excess 
and plenty, especially of strong liquor, and the variety, 
as well as the nature, of our meat and drink ; for this 
man, when he came to our ordinary method of diet and 
life, though he was sober enough, lost much of lus strength 
and agility. 



Upon the ANCIENT mode, and progress of building 

DWELLING HOUSES in ENGLAND. 

J\S one of the plates of our present number contains a 
view of the Cross in Cheapside and some of the antique 
houses of the Citizens, undoubtedly^ looked upon as per- 
fect models in their time, some account of the progress of 
iashion in that art may not be disagreeable to the reader, 
whose time or avocations may not admit of researches 
among the cumbrous volumes of antiquity. 

Though the extent or convenience of houses is a ge- 
neral indication of the condition of the inhabitants with- 
in, it is an undoubted fact, that notwithstanding the 
inferiority of the domestic buildings in England to those 
of the continent, was evident even down to the reign 
of Queen Elizabeth, no nation upon earth fed or fared 
better than the Englii,h. On the contrary, it was said of 
the common people among the French by Sir John Eor- 
tescue, in his treatise de Laudibus Legitm Jngli(c; '' that 
they, theFrench drink water — they eat apples with bread 

right 



AXCIENT MODE OF BUILDING HOUSES. iO.l 

rtgbt browii^ made of rye. They cat no flesh but seldom ; 
a httle laid, or the entrails or heads ofbeasts, slain for 
the nobles and merchants of the land*. And they be com- 
pelled so to watch, labour and grub in the ground for 
their sustenance that their nature is much wasted — they 
grow crooked, are feeble and not able to fight." 

But to return to our ancient mode of building: in old 
time says Harrison, in his description of England, pre- 
fixed to Hollinshed, the houses of the Britons were slight- 
ly set up with a few posts, several hurdles, with a stable 
and all ofliccs under one roof, the like is to be seen in 
the fenny countries and northern parts unto this day, 
wJiere, for lack of wood they are enforced to continue 
this ancient manner of building. — For want of stuff they 
can use no studs v.t all but only frank posts, with here 
and there a girding, to which they fasten their splints, 
or saddles and then cast it all over with thick clay to 
keep out the wind. Certainly this rude kind of building 
made the Spaniards in Queen Mary's days, express their 
surprize, but chiefly when they saw what rare diet was 
used in many of these homely cottages, and which caused 
one of note among them to say *' These English, have 
their houses made of sticks and dirt, but generally fare 
as well as the king." 

It was not till the reign of Ilcnry VIH. that glazed 
windows came into general use among the wealthier sort. 
Somewhat later than that period both yeomen and ftir- 
mers were content with windows of lattice or network- — 
lioonis also, that were provided with chimnies are men- 
tioned as a luxury by the author of Pierce Plowman, and 
liarrison treats them as such b_y his remarks as follows, 

'' Now 

* Here it is to be jioted that the practice of eating of offal, so necessary 
for Uie lower orders of people when meat is at a verj' high price, was first 
introduced iato this country by the Freucii emigrant Weavers that came 
overhere, as persecuted Protestants in the reign of William and Mary. 



lOi A^'C1ENT MODE OF BUILDING HOUSfiS, 

*"' Now liavc we many cbimnics and yet our tenderliilg.x 
complain of rheums, catarrhs, and colds in the liead. 
]u)rmer]y we had none but rcre dorses a kind of iron 
back, or brick coating against a wall made to resist fire. 
Then our heads did not ache ; for as the smoke was sup- 
posed to be a sufficient hardening for the timbers of the 
bouse, so it was thought a better medicine to keep the 
good man and his family from the ague, a disorder at 
tiiat time, but little known." 

In houses partly made of rafters and clay as abovesaid, 
it is not to be supposed that the furniture was very costly. 
Our fathers, says the above author, yea and we our- 
selves have oiten lain upon straw pallets, or rough mats, 
covered only with a sheet, and coverlets made of dag 
i<zcain or Imp harlots, and a good round log under their 
heads instead of a bolster or pillow. And if a man seven 
vears after his marriage, purchased a mattrass or a flock 
bed adding thereto a sack of chaff to rest his bones upon, 
he thought himself as well lodged as a lord of the town, 
who perchance lay seldom on a bed of down or whole 
feathers. Servants were content with an upper sheet 
only, having none underneath to save thcrn from the 
pricking straws that often ran through the canvas of the 
pallet. 

In the external part of the building, the progress of 
improvement was from clay to lath and plaister, such a^> 
distinguish the ancient houses in Cheapside, represented 
m our plate, and such as are still to be seen in Holywell 
StreeJ, the Strand, Sec. At first rude rafters only formed 
the cielings; those of mortar and lime were a later cus- 
tom. Country houses were generally covered with shin- 
gles or thin boards, but slates and tiles were soon found 
necessary in towns and cities to prevent damages by fire. 
These latter buildings were very solid and consisted of 
many stories projecting over each othe*" s«o far that in 

narrow 




07/(i .)/()/<■ //n ( /■(> If // jro /It //if .Aif/'ct o/J o//f/u/i 

Tab. Oil R..S.Kubi/LcnM.on Mcure ra,di.-f.S<uiU. ^4- . Stranti tll!'l./Se4. 



COLONEL BLOOD. lOo 

narrow lanes, &c. the windows on cacli side ncaily met. 
The walls in wealthy houses were decorated cither with 
tapestry, arras, or painted cloths, exhibiting divers his- 
tories, or herbs, beasts, &c. Till pewter was introduced, 
both yeoman and peasants put up with wooden trenchers 
and platters. Silver plate, china, and delft have suc- 
ceeded : and, generally speaking, the convcniencics with- 
in, have kept pace with the improvements without. 

To render this sketch complete, it may be proper to 
observe, that the cumbrous brick building with casement 
windoM's, succeeded those of lath and plaister, while the 
more modern mode at once unites elegance arid capa- 
ciousness. 



Aucient and Modem History funiisli accounts of desperate undertakings by' 
individuals; but none exhibits so resolnte and deterniiiicd an adventurer as 
Colonel Blood ; wlio, it' his pursuits had Ijeen directed to a laudable purpose, 
would have intituled his memory to have ranked with the greatest nameSj 
, both as to courage and plans of operation. Cromwell himself was not pos- 
eesscd of greater requisites to obtain a great name ; and did not coiue so near 
the crown, as this desperate of all rogues. 

COLONEL THOMAS IJLOOD. 

X HIS daring ruliian was notorious for seizing the person 
of the Duke of Ormond*, with an intention to hang him 

at 

* On the 6th of December, 1670, an assault was nnide in the open streets 
upon tb.e Duke of Orniond, of a very singular nature, whether we consider the 
boldness of the attempt, or the villany and barbarity of the design. The chief 
contriver and manager of this monstrous enterprise, was one Thomas IMood, a 
blacksmith's son in Ireland ; a fellow of a fearless courage, but of lli.it worst 
sort, which is equally undamited at dangers or at crimes. 

He had signalized himself once before by a bold attem])t in which he rescued 
one of his wicked comrades in Yorkshire from the sheriff's men, as they were 
leading him to the gallows. After this he laid a design in Ireland to surprise 
the Castle of Dublin, and the magazine there, and to usurp the government : 
but this being discovered by the Duke of Ormond the night before it was to be 
executed, some of his accomplices were taken, and executed as traitors. The 
deaths of these, Blood and the other surviving rogues, bound thcmscKes by -a 

Vol. IL P solemn 



.106 



C0LONEL BLOOD. 



at Tyburri;, and for stealing the crown out of the Tower, 
^e was very near being successful in both these enters 
prises : it was with no small difficulty that the duke es- 
caped, and the crown was wrested from his hands. 

The cunning of this boldest of all thieves was 
equal to his intrepidity. He told the king, by whom 
he was examined, that he had undertaken to kill 
him ; and that he went with that purpose to a place 
in the river where he bathed i but was struck with so pro- 
found an awe upon siglit of his (naked) majesty, that his 
resolution failed him, and he entirely laid aside his de- 
sign : that he belonged to a band of ruffians equally des- 
perate with himself, who had bound themselves by the 
stronijest oaths to revensre the death of any of their asso- 
ciates. Upon this he received the royal pardon, and had 

solemn oath to rcvcngs upon the person of the Duke. Tiiat nobleman lived 
at Clarendon House, and was observed by Blood to go usually late home, and 
attended with only two or three footmen, which gave that villahi occasion to 
lay a plot for the working his intended revenge. 

To this end, himself, with five or six more of his associates, well mounted and 
armed, waited at the Bull Head Tavern at Ciiaring-Cross, till (he Duke came 
'by, and then all took horse and gallopped after him. Tliey overtook him near 
l)is own gate, knocked down hu footmen, took him out of his coach, forced 
Lira up beiiind one of the horsemen, to vvlioju tlicy tied him, and were p^ing 
away with him. The coachman and servants crying out, the porter. came forth, 
and seeing what was done, pursued them. The Duke strove so violently to 
free himself, that at last he got loose, and threw himself with the villain he was 
tyed to, oiF the horse. The rest turned back, and lindhig it impossible to carry 
him away, discharged tvo pistols at hini ; but it being so dark, that they coul^ 
not see to take aim, they missed him both time§. Thp porter and otiier assist- 
ance coming up, they were glad to make ha.ste away, leaving the Duke much 
bruised with his fall. Their design, as it was afterwards found, was to carry 
iiim to Tyburn, and there to hang him with a paper pinned to his breast, ex- 
pressing the reasons of this monstrous piece of villany. The king offered ^ 
thousand pounds for the discovery of any one concerned in it. But with so 
horrible a fidelity were these wretches linked together, that so great a reward 
produced no discovery ; and they had been for ever unknown, had not the 
attempt on the crown led Blood to the confession of this attempt on th$ 
Puke. 

a hand? 



COJ.ONEL BLOOD. 107 

S bandscime pension assigned him of 6001. per year. He 
Was now no longer eonsidtired as an impudent criminal, 
hilt as a court favourite; and application was made to 
the throne by tlic mediation of Mr. Blood*. Ob. 24 
Aug. 1680. 

The particulars of his attempt on the crown and regalia 
in the Tower of London, is related by Mr. Edwards him- 
self, at that time, keeper. 

About three weeks before he put his intended plan in 
execution, he came to the Tower as a stranger, to see 
the curiositiesj habited as a clergyman, with a long 
cloak^ cassock, and canonical girdle, and brought a wo- 
man with him, whom he called his wife^ though it after- 
wards appeared his real wile was ill at the time in Lan- 
cashire : his pretended wife after seeing the crown, &c. 
feigned a sudden indisposition, and desired ]Mr. Edwards 
to procure her some spirits, who immediately caused his 
wife to fetch some ; after wh-ich, appearing to be some- 
what recovered, Mrs< Edwards invited her up stairs^ 
where she pretended to repose herself for some time on a 
bed; after which they departed, with great thanks for 
the attention received. 

In three or four days after, Blood called on Mrs. Ed- 
wards, with a present of iour pair of white gloves j and 
having began the acquaintance, made frequent visits to 
improve it, accompanied by his pretemled wife, who pro- 

* Dt. Walter Pope, in his ''Life of Bishop Ward," riifornis us, "that 
Blood, being of a sviddeu become a grea< favourite at court, and the chief agent 
of the dissenters, bronglit tiie hisliop a' verbal message from the king not to 
molest them ; upon whidi he went to waif on his majesty, and humbly repre- 
sented to him, that there were only two troublesome nonconformists in hiu 
diocese, whom he doubted not, witli his majesty's permission, but that he 
should bring to tlirir duty ; and then he named them. These are the very men, 
replied the king, 7/011 miift not med'Ue uith: to which he obeyed, letting rhe. 
prosecution a^aiwst them fall." 

P 2 fsiiei 



108 COLONEL BLOOD. 

lessed she could never sufiieicutly repay the kindness 
received. 

T3Ioodj in one of his visits to the Edwards's, observed 
that his wife eoidd discourse ot" nothing- but the kindness 
of the good peo[)le in the Tower; adding she had thought 
on a plan to cement a lasting friendship between them, 
which was: Mr. Edwards havinir a duuohter at that tini« 
marriageable, that a match should take place between 
her and a pretended nephew of his, who had from two 
to three hundred pounds a-year. 

This proposal was easily assented to by old Mr. Ed- 
^vards, who invited the person to dine with him, which 
was readily accepted by our adventurer, who taking upon 
him to say grace, performed it with great devotion, and 
concluded a long winded one, with a pra^^er for the king, 
queen, and royal family. After dinner he went to sec 
tiie rooms, and observing a handsome pair of pistols, he 
expressed a great desire to buy them, to present to a 
young lord, his acquaintance; but it wjis afterwards 
thought l)ut to disarm the house against his intended 
depredation. 

At his departure, which was with a cononical benedic- 
tion of the good company, he appointed a day and hour 
to bring his young nephew to his mistress; and it was 
that very day that he made his attempt, viz. the 9th of 
May, about seven in the morning. Anno lG73. 

The old man was got up ready to receive his guest, 
and the daughter had put herself into her best dress to 
entertain her gaUant; when behold Parson Blood, with 
three more, came to the jewel-house, all armed uith 
Vapicr blades in their canes, and every one a dagger and 
a pair of pocket-pistols. Two of his companions entered 
vith him, and the third staid at the door, it seems for a 
watch. The daughter thought it not modest for her to 
l-'oine down till she was called, but sent her maid to view 

the 



COLONEL BLOOD. 109 

the company, and bring Iut a description of her Intended 
liusbaiui. The uiiiid conceived that he was the intended 
bridegroom who staid at the door, because he was the 
youngest oi' the company, and returned to her young 
mistress with the character she had formed of his 
person. 

Blood told ]Mr. Edwards, that they would not go up 
stairs till his wife came, and desired him to shew his 
friends the crown to pass the time. But as soon as they 
entei'ed the room where the crown was kept, and the door 
as usual shut behind them, they threw a cloak over the 
old man's head, and clapped a gag into his mouth, 
which was a great plug of wood^ w^ith a small hole in the 
middle to take breath; this was tied with a wax leather 
round his neck, at the same time they fastened an iroa 
liook to his nose, that no sound might pass that way. 

When they had thus secured him, they told him their 
resolution was to take the ciiown, globe, and sceptre; and 
that if he would quietly submit, they would spare his life; 
otherwise he was to expect no mercy. 

He thereupon made as much noise to be heard ns pos- 
sible; on which they knocked him down with a wooden 
mallet, and told him if he would lay quiet, they would 
still spare his life, but if not, on the next attempt to make 
a noise they would kill him ; but he straining to make 
a greater noise, they gave him nine or ten strokes with 
the mallet, as appeared afterwards by the bruises on his 
liead, and stabbed him in the belly. 

Mr. Edwards was at this time almost eighty years of 
age, and appearing not to breathe, one of them said he is 
dead, i*ll warrant him; but coming a little to himself^ 
he judged it prudent to lay quiet. 

One of them named Parrot concealed the globe in his 
cloaths. Blood held the crown under his cloak, and the 
third was about to file the sceptre in two, it being too 

long; 



liO ColoKel elood. 

long to put in a bag they had brought for the pufposc. 
But before the}' could accomplish this, young Mr. Ed- 
wards, who had been into Flanders, providentially return-' 
cd to England, and arrived at the Tower to visit his aged 
father at the very time they were thus employed; and 
coming to the jewel-house observed tlieir centinely and 
told him if he had any business with his father, he Avould 
go up stairs and inform him. In the mean time the cen- 
tinel gave notice of the son's arrival, on which they hasted 
away with the crown and globe, not havino;' time to file 
the sceptre; and as they did not think of tying the old 
man's hands, lie immediately got up, and cried Treason! 
Murder ! 

His daughter on hearing him, fan out upon Tower Hill, 
and cried Treason! the crown is stolen! and Blood, with 
Parrot, n^aking more than common haste^ were observed 
to jog against each other, which caused them to be sus- 
pected. By this time young Edward?, with a Captain 
Beckman, went in pursuit of the villains, and the alarm 
being given to the warder at the drawbridge, he attempt- 
ed tostop them, but Blood coming up to him, discharged 
a pistol, through fear of which lie fell, though not liurt> 
and they got safe to the little ward-house-gate, where a 
soldier, who had served under Cromwell, seeing them 
shoot at the warder, though he stood ccntinel at the last 
gate, suffered them through cowardice to pass to Tower 
Hill, and were proceeding to St. Catharines, commonly 
called the Iron Gate, where their horses were in waiting, 
crying all the way they ran. Stop the Rogues! They 
being thought innocent by the disguise of Blood's cano- 
nical robes, till Captain Beckman coming up to them. 
Blood discharged his second pistol at his head, but he 
stooping down avoided the shot, and seized the rogue 
>vho bad the crown under his cloak, yet had he the im- 
pudence to struggle a long time, till the crown was fairly 

wrcstc d 



COLONEL BLOOD. Ill 

Wrested from him_, which when he loosed, he said it was 
a gaJlant attempt how unsuccessFul soever; for it was for 
H crown. Parrot was taken hefore Blood hy a servant of 
Captain Sheaburn. Some innocent persons had near 
suffered for the guilty; as young pdwards, overtaking a 
man who was blooded by the scuffle, was going to run 
him through as bjs father's murderer, but v;as stayed 
by Captaiu Beckman, who e-vchumed, he is none of 
them ] 

Hunt, Blood's son-in-law, leaped on his horse, with two 
more of the set, and rode away ; but a cart_, standing 
empty in the street, chanced to turn short, and Hunt run 
liis head against a pole that stuck out, but recovering his 
legs, was remounting; but being known by a coblcr, who 
Was running to enquire the disaster, said_, '' This is Tom 
Hunt, who was in that bloody attempt on the Duke of 
Ormond." A constable being on the spot, immediately 
seized him, and carried him before Justice Smith, who, 
upon liis confident denial of being the same Hunt, was 
about to discharge him ; but the hue and cry coming from 
the Tower, he was committed to s^fe custody. 

Young Edwards proposed to Lieutenant Jiainsford tp 
mount some of his soldiers upon the horses that were left, 
find send them to follow the rest that escaped ; but he 
bade him follow them himself, it was his lousiness, and 
led the horses into the Tower as forfeited to the lieutenant. 

Hunt, as hath been said, was son-in-law to Blood, and 
trained bv him to desueratc undertakings. 

Parrot was a silk-dyer in Southwark ; and in the civil 
wars had been Major General Harrison's lieutenant. 

In the struggle for the crown, the great pearl and a fine 
diamond fell out, and were lost for a time, with some 
smaller stones. But the pearl was found by Catherine 
Maddox, a poor sweeping woman to one of the warder's, 
»ud the diamond by a barber's apprentice^ and both faith- 

full 



112 AN EXTRAOKDINAKT EARTHQUAKE^ 8CC. 

fully restored. O^her smaller stones were by several per- 
sons picked up and brouglil in. The line ruby belonginu; 
to the sceptre was found in Parrot's pocket; so that not 
any considerable thing was wanting. The crown only 
was bruised, and sent to repair. 

The king was immediately informed of the particidars, 
and ordered a proper examination of all the parties; but 
being advised to hear the examination himself. Blood 
appeared to be so little intimidated, that the king was in- 
duced not only to pardon him and his associates, but 
granted him a pension of oOOl. per annum; as Blood de- 
clared, there were hundreds of his friends bound by so- 
lemn engagements to revenge the death of any of their 
fraternity, not excepting even the life of his majesty. 

Mr. Edwards had a grant of '200/. and his son 100/. 
Though many persons solicited a greater reward for the ser- 
vices of the old keeper and his son, no farther notice was 
taken of them, though the old gentleman was so much dis- 
tressed as to sell his order on the treasury of 100/. for 50 /.in 
order to pay his surgeon for drugs, &.c. with th6 best part, 
and dying within a year and a month after he had re- 
ceived the wounds, did not greatly enjoy the little rem- 
nant of reward for his loyalty. 

AN EXTRAORDINARY EARTHQUAKE IN CHINA. 

On the 19th of Juno, 1718, an earthquake extended 
through several inland provinces of China, in some of 
which the shocks were slight, and consequently neither 
long nor terrible, while, in other places, the gates and 
walls of cities were thrown down and laid in ruins ; but 
it was dreadful beyond description at Yong-ning-tchin, 
which was entirely swallowed up, without leaving the 
least mark either of men, houses, or animals ; while seve- 
ral mountains were thrown over a plain to the distance of 
' above 



ACCOLNT OF JOHN FERGUSON, &C. 113 

above two leaoues. The earth opened near the town of 
Tong-ouei, and the mountains f'alhng, rolled over the 
town from north to south; so that, in an instant, tlie 
wiiole town was in a manner overwhelmed: the treasury, 
the public granaries, the houses, prisons, prisoners, all 
were buried in the earth; and of the governor's whole 
family, only himself, a son, and a valet escaped. The 
plain rose in waves to the height of six fathoms or more; 
and so terrible was the desolation, that scarce three per- 
sons in ten were saved. 



J 



A RECOVERY OF SIGHT. 



AMES ORR, of the parish of Comber, in the county 
of Down, in Ireland, died about the year 1752, or 53, in 
the ninety-third of his age. Eight years before his death 
he recovered his eye-sight (having been blind twenty 
years) so perfectly as to be able to read a small print 
without spectacles. 

The ancient and present state of Dozen, 1754. 

.An Account of John Ferguson of Killmellford in the 
shire of Argyh in Scotland, zcho lived Eighteen Yean 
on Hater. 

About the year 1745 he happened to overheat himself 
on the mountains, in pursuit of cattle, and in that con- 
dition drank excessively of cokl water from a rivulet, 
near which he fell asleep; he awaked twenty-four hours 
after in a high fever: during the paroxysm of the fever, 
and ever since that time, his stomach loaths and cannot 
retain ;iuy kind oi" aliment, except water, or clarified 
whev. Archibald CambcU of Incverlivcr, to whont this 
man's father was tenant, carried him to liis own house, and 
locked him in a chamber for twenty days, and supplied 
Vol. n. Q himself 



114 THE CRUEL MIDV.IFE, &,C. 

himself with water, at no greater quantity in a day 
than an ordinary man would use for common drink; and 
at the same time took particular care that it should not be 
] - blc for his guest to supply himself with any other 
ibod ; yet afttr that space of time he found no alteration 
in his vigour or visage. 



THE CRUEL M I DV»'IFE, W ITH HER HORRIBLE PUNISHMENT. 

IN the year If)73, an eminent midwife in Paris had, by 
her great skill in her profession, obtained the favours of 
the greater part of the inhabitants — the genteeler of 
whom she delivered at their own houses j but for those, 
whom either inclination, or a worse cause, made it neces- 
sary to be secretly delivered, she had provided accom? 
modations at her own house, to which great numbert 
resorted. 

It happened that a gentleman who lived next door to 
the midwife had observed, that although many pregnant 
women went to he delivered at her house, yd very few 
children were brought out, and his suspicions of foul play 
towards tiie infants increasing daily; he at length con- 
sulted with some of his neighbours, who joined him in 
requesting a warrant from a magistrate to search for some 
plate, which they pretended to have lost. In order, how- 
ever, not to iihirm the midwife, they began their sham 
searcii at the distance of nine or ten houses from her's. 

\V'lien they came, however, to her abode, she affected 
the utmost unconcern, desiring the gentlemen not to 
hurry themselves, but to proceed in their search, with all 
possible circumspection; — they did so — and on their 
coming to the necessary-house, they put down a hook, 
which they had brought with them on purpose, and took 
up the body of a child newly destroyed. They con- 
tinweJ the fcarch, till they had found no let'.s than sixty- 
two 



THE CRUEL MIDWIFE, Sec. 115 

two children — some of whom were in great measure 
decayed; but many of them appeared to have been 
deposited in that place within a very few weeks at the 
most. 

The consequence of this was, that the midwife was 
immediately apprehended, and brought to trial, and con- 
demned on the fullest evidence, besides her own confes- 
sion. She was sentenced to be executed in the following 
manneiv, and she suiTered accordingly on the 28th day 
of May, 1673. 

" A gibbet was erected, under which a fire was made, 
and the prisoner being brought to the place of execution, 
was hung up in a large iron cage, in which were also 
placed sixteen wild cats, which had been catched in the 
woods for the purpose. — When the heat of the fire be- 
came too great to be endured with patience, the cats flew 
upon the woman, as the cause of the intense pain they 
felt. — In about fifteen minutes they had pulled out her 
intrails, though she continued yet alive, and sensible, im- 
ploring, as the greatest favour, an immediate death from 
the hands of some charitable spectator. No one, how- 
ever, dared to afford her the least assistance j and she 
continued in this wretched situation for the space of 
thirty-five minutes, and then expired in unspeakable 
torture." 

At the time of her death, twelve of the cats were ex- 
pired, and the other four were all dead in less than two 
minutes afterwards. 

However cruel this execution* may appear with regard 

* It has been sugf^csted by some writers that were the crime of murder pim% 
ished ill this country by a more exemplary mode than now practi^^ed, our history 
would not be so often disgraced \vith tli«t most horrid oiTence ; but it has been 
wisely answed, that wliile our laws are justly acknowledged the mildest in the 
world, rn.iece.isnry and lingering torments are as wisely dispensed with j as the 
(;.)nscienc8 of t very offender in this way must be evidently more poignant than 
that uf the greatest outward torture ! 

Q 2^ to 



llG WONDERFUL IISCAPE. 

to the poor animals, it certainly cannot be thought too 
severe a punishment for such a monster of iniquity, as 
could calmly proceed in acquiring a fortune by the deli- 
berate nnudcr of such numbers of harmless innocents. 

The above story is strictly trUe in every part of it, and 
as v\ell known in Paris, as tliose of Mary Blandy, or Eliz. 
Jefferics in Kngland, 

AN INSTANCE OF GKATITUDE. 

oIR William Fitzwiliians the elder, being a merchant- 
taylor, and servant souictinies to cardinal Woolsey, was 
chosen alderman of Broadstreet ward in London, 1506. 
Going afterwards to dwell at Milan in Northamptonshire, 
in the fall of the cardinal, his former master, he gave 
him kind entertainment at his house in the country; for 
vliich, being called before the king, and demanded how 
he durst entertain so great an cnemj- to the state? His 
answer was, "That he had not contempluousl}', or wil- 
fully done it; hut only because he had been his master, 
and partly the means of his greatest fortunes." The king 
was so w ell pleased with his answer, that, saying himself 
had few such servants, he immediately knighted him, and 
afterwards made him one of his privy-council. 



WONDERFUL ESCAPE. 

A. DUTCH seaman being condemned to death, his pun- 
ishment was changed, and he was ordered to be left at 
St. Helleu's island. This unhappy person representing 
t himself the horror of that solitude, fell upon a resolution 
to attempt the strangest action that evc-r was heard of. 
There had that day been interred in the same island an 
officer of the ship: the seaman took up the body out of 
the coffin ; and having made a kind of rudder of the upper 
board, ventured himself to sea in il. It happened for- 
junatcl}' to him to he so gre;it :i calni that the ship lay 

iniBiurQabh: 



t 



THE ORIGIN OF THE NAME OF PIERCY. 1 17 

immoveable witliin a league and a half of the island; 
when his companions seeing so strange a boat float upon 
the waters,, imagined they saw a spectre, and were not a 
little startled at the resolution of the man, who durst 
hazard himself upon that clement in three boards slightly 
nailed together, though he had no confidence to find or 
be received by those who had so lately sentenced him to 
death. Accordingly it was put to the question, whether 
he should be received or not; some would have the sen- 
tence put in execution, but at last mercy prevailed, and 
Jic was taken aboard, and came afterwards to Holland; 
where he lived in the town of Horn, and related to many 
how miraculously God had delivered him. 

THE ORIGIN OF THE NAME OF PIERCY. 

iVlALCOLM, king of Scotland, having laid siege to 
Alnwick Castle, which being unable to resist him, must 
liave inevitably fallen into his hands, as no relief could 
be expected ; whereupon a young Englishman, without 
any other arms than a slight spear in his hand, at the end 
whereof hunoj the kevs of the castle, rode into the ene- 
my's camp, and approaching near the king, slooping 
the lance, as if he intended to present him with the keys 
of the garrison, but at the same time made such a home 
thrust at the king, that piercing him into his brain, 
through one of his e^-es, he fell down dead, and the bold 
undertaker escaped by the swiftness of his horse. 

From this desperate action, he took tipon himself the 
name of Pcrcic, or Pierce-eye. And from him descended 
the ancient earls of Northumberland. 

T<^ TH): r.DlTOR OF THE SeiENTIFIC AND WONDERFUL 

MI'S ELM. 
Sir. 
According to prcmiisc, I now si-nd vou more Miscellaneous Arlicles, wliich 
To'i will liiid no ways inlccior to luv loriuer accounts under the same title, 

aud 



118 TWO INSTANCES OF FECUNDITY. 

and as well authenticated ; which leaves me no room to doubt but they will 
procure a place in the Scientific and Wonderful Museum, which will oblig*. 
niany besides. Your Occasional Correspondent 

Nottingham, February 4th, 18,04. D. B. L. 



A MARVELLOUS TEMPEST OF THUNDER 

Occurred in the year 1558, in the sixth of Queen 
Mary, about four months before her death, viz. on the 
7th of July within a mile of JNottingham, was a marvel- 
lous tempest of thunder, which as it came through two 
towns, Lenton and Wilford, the former on the north, the 
latter on the south side of the River Trent, exactly oppo- 
site, and each one mile from Nottingham, beat down all 
the houses and churches, the bells were cast to the out- 
side of the church-yards, and some webs of lead 400 feet 
into the field writhen like a pair of gloves. The River 
Trent running betwixt the towns, the water with the mud 
in the bottom was carried a quarter of a mile, and cast 
against the trees; the trees were pulled up by the roots, 
and cast twelve score foot distance; also a child was 
taken forth from a man's hands two spear length high, 
and carried an hundred foot, and then fell, wherewith his 
arm was broke, and so died ; five or six men thereabout 
were slain. There fell some hail-stones that were fifteen 
inches about. — Vide Deerino^'s Hist. Nottingham. 



TWO INSTANCES OF FECUNDITY. 

June 21, 1778, the wife of Thomas Robinson, Rope- 
maker, Ouse-bridge-end, "^ orI<, was delivered of three 
girls all lively They had been married ten years, and 
had eleven children, seven of whom v>ere born within 
the last four years and nine months preceding the above 
time. 

Peccmber 



A SINGULAR INSTANCE, &C. 119 

December 20, 1779, "^'^I's. Smithcrs of Red Lion Street, 
was delivered of two boys and a girl ; and what is very 
remarkable, that she was fifty years of age, and never had 
a child before. 



Singular Instance of a Woman s Recovering after hating 
Swallozced about Eighty Pins. 

IN the month of November, 1779, as a joung woman 
named Mary Spclmore (who lived in St. Peter's parish, 
Derby) was hanging out some linen to dry, she had the 
shocking misfortune to swallow a great number of pins, 
which she had put in her mouth, by a sudden emotion 
of the line on which the cloaths were hung. A surgeon 
being immediately sent for, and proper means used, she 
voided several that day, and continued to throw up more 
or less for many days after the accident happened; but 
what is very extraordinary, notwithstanding the violent 
retching fits with which she was attacked v.ith, she never 
voided more than one at a time, though the number 
amounted in foiu" days to 76, all of which came upwards, 
excepting three only. Some of the pins were remarkably- 
long ones; and at first her convulsions were so strong, 
that it was with difficulty several persons could hold her. 
But she being continually troubled with a pain in her 
side, arms, and other parts of her body, shortly after en- 
tered the hospital at Nottingham (part of which hospital 
is for the use of the poor of Derby,) there gathered a 
tumor in her left side and near her left shoulder. These 
were suppurated and opened, and several pins came out 
by these wounds. She was after this discharged from the 
hospital perfectly cured. It was about five months from 
her first swallowing the pins to her being pronounced 
cured. 

A RKMAK- 



( i^^o ) 

A UTlMAllFvAULE IxNSTANCE OF ABSTINENCE FROM F001> 

-Ann, the daughter of Jonathan Walsh, of Harrow- 
Gate, in Yorkshh-e, at the age of twelve years, entirel} 
lost her appetite, and she had not eaten of any kind of 
solid victuals for several years after, and her support was 
nothing but half apintof wine and water, which served her 
three days; notwithstanding so small a quantity, she en- 
joyed to her death a good state of health, which happened 
in the year 1778. 

TWO KEMARKABLE AND PROVIDENTIAL ESCAPES FROM 

DEATH. 

J\T St. Blazey, in Cornwall, a very singular accident 
au'l providential escape occurred in that place in the year 
179-1. — Mr. Potter of that place determining to get rid of 
a large mischievous mastiff, took him to a mine shaft of 
tremendous depth, and having tied a stone round the ani- 
mal's neck, attempted to throw the creature therein; 
when the dog instantly seizing Mr. Potter by the collar, 
they both tumbled iiito the pit together, and notwith- 
standing the amazing height they both fell, neither wa? 
killed; but one of Mr. Potter's Icgts was unfortunatelv 
so much hurt, as to render amputation necessary; how- 
ever, he shortly after recovered. The accident was dis- 
covered about sixteen hours after, entirely through the 
loud and dismal bowlings of the dog. 

October 179f)- — As a lad, named Clarke, was at work 
in a gravel pit at Rowborough, Somerset, the timber 
gave way, and he was buried near eleven fathoms under 
ground. A number of men immediately ^^et to work to dig 
for him, supposing he was crushed to death ; when thej' h.id 
dug down to him, to their astonishment, notwithstanding 
he bad remained inidcr tlie earth near thirty-two hours, 
he was taken out without exp<Miencing the least i-njury. 

si,\- 



( 121 ) 

SINCULAK PHENOMENON. 

On Sunday, the C5th of December, 1790, about tert 
o'clock in the morning there appeared floating in the at- 
mosphere minute particles of ice, which in about an hour 
became condensed, and fell in sleet, covering the surface 
of the ground with ice. The cold was intense that morn- 
ing; the thermometer was i 6 degreesf below the freezing 
point. This phenomenon was never before seen but in 
very high latitudes. — ^Observations on the above were 
taken near Mansfield, in the County of Nottingham. 

D. B. L. 

to THE EDITOR OF KIRBy's SCIENTIFIC itlUSEUM. 

Sir, 
if you think tlie following Letter of the great Dr. Franklin to M. Dubourg, on 
llie Prevailing Doctrines of Life and Death, worth your acceptance to be 
inserted in your truly Valuable Museum, it is wholly at your service. 

Your's, (ice. — A Lover of Facts ' 
DEAR SIR, 

Y OUR observations on the causes of death, and the 
experiments which you propose for recalling to life those 
who appear to be killed by lightning, demonstrate equally 
your sagacity and your humanity. It appears that the 
doctrines of life and death, in general, are yet but little 
wnderstood. 

A toad buried in sand will live, it is said, till the sand 
becomes petrified ; and then, being inclosed in the stone* 
it may still live for we know not how many years or ages' 
The facts which are cited in support of this opinion are? 
too numerous and too circumstantial not to deserve a 
certain degree of credit. As we arc accustomed to see 
all the animals with which we are acquainted eat and 
drink, it appears to us difficult to conceive how a toad 
can be supported in such a dungeon; but if we reflect 

hat the necessity of nourishment, which animals expe 
Vol. II, R rience 



122 LETTER or DR. FRANKLIX. 

rience in their ordinary state, proceeds lioni the continnal. 
waste of th«ir substance by perspiration, it will apj)ear less 
incredible tliat some animals in a torpid state, perspiring 
less because tliey use no exorcise, should have less need 
of aliment; and tlial others, who are covered with scales 
or shells, which stop perspiration, such as land and sea- 
turtles, serpents, and every species offish, should be able 
to subsist a considerable time without any nourishment 
whatever. A plant, with its ilowers, fades and dies im- 
mediately if exposed to the air, without having its root 
immersed in an humid soil, from which it may draw a 
sufficient quantity of moisture to supply that which ex- 
hales from its substance, and is carried &S continually 
by the air. Perhaps, however, if it were buried in quick- 
silver, it might preserve ff)r a considerable space of time 
its vegetables life, its smell, and coIomjt. If this be the 
case, it might prove a commodious method of transport- 
ing from distant countries those delicate plants which 
are unable to sustain the inclemency ©f the weather at 
sea, and which require particular care and attention. 

1 have seen an instance of common flies preserved in a 
manner somewhat similar. They had been drowned in 
Madeira wine, apparently, about the time when it was 
bottled in Virginia to be sent to London. At the open- 
ing of one of the bottles, at the house of a friend where 
I then was, three drowned Hies fell into the first glass that 
Was filled. Having heard it remarked that drowned flies 
were capable of being revived by the rays of the sun, I 
proposed making the experiment upon these: they were, 
therefore, exposed to the sun upon a sieve, which had 
been employed to strain them out of the wine. In less 
than three hours two of them began by degrees to reco- 
ver life. This commenced by some convulsive motions 
in the thighs, and at length they, raised themselves upon 
their legs, wiped their eyes with their fore-feet, beat and 

brushed 



ANIMALS FOUND IN SOLID SUBSTANCES. 12S 

brushed their wings with their hind-feet, and soon after 
began to fly, finding themselves in okl England without 
knowing how they came thither. The third continued 
iifeless till sun-set, when, losing all hopes of hira, he was 
thrown away. 

I wish it were possible, from this instance, to invent a 
mctliod of embalming drowned persons, in such a myn- 
ner that they might be recalled to life at any period how- 
ever distant; for, having a very ardent desire to see and 
observe the state of America an hundred years hence, I 
should prefer to an ordinary death, the being immersed 
ill a cask of Madeira wine with a few friends till that 
time, to be then recalled to life by the solar warmth of 
my dear countr}'. But since, in all probability, we live 
in an age too early, and too near the infancy of science, 
to hope to see such an art in our time brought to perfec- 
tion, I must, for the present, content myself with the treat 
which you are so kind as to promise me of the resurrec- 
tion of a fowl or a turkey-cock. I am, dear Sir, 

Your sincere friend^ 
Benjamin Franklin, 

To substantiate the doctor's opinion, the following will 
be found well worth preserving. 

In l6So, Blondel reported to the academy at Paris 
that there were frecjuently found at Toulon, stones in 
which were oysters, good to eat. 

In 1(585, Cassini mentioned a fact of a similar nature, 
upon the authority of M. Duraffe, who had been sent am* 
bassador to Constantinople, and who had assured him 
that he had found very hard stones in which were in- 
closed little fish, called dacti/ls or razor-Jish; but the 
following appear to be at the least as surprizing^ and are 
much more recent. 

Some workmen in the quarries of Bourswic, i*i Gothia, 
having detached a block of stone, one of them broke it, 

R2 an4 



124 ANI-MAI,S FOUND IN SOLID SUBSTANCKS. 

and found in it a living toad. It was attempted to cut out 
the part which bore the impression, but it fell into sand. 
This animal was of a grey-black colour, with its back 
somewhat spotted, appearing as if incrusted with small 
particles of the stone : the colour of its belly was brighter. 
Jts eyes, which were small and round, sparkled with iirc, 
from under a tender membrane, by which they were co-r 
yered. They vyere of the colour of pale gold. When 
touched on the head with a stick, he closed his eyes, as 
if asleep, and re-opened tliem little by little, when the 
stick was taken away. Besides this, he had no motion, 
The aperture of his mouth was closed by a yellow mem- 
Ibrane, Being pressed on the back, he ejected a clear 
water, and died. Under the membranes which covered 
his mouth, were found in the upper and lower jaws, two 
sharp incisive teeth, stained with a little blood. 

Leprince,'a celebrated sculptor, assures us of his having 
seen in 175G, at Eccrctteville, in a chateau belonging to 
M, Larivierre-Resdo, a toad living within the hollow of 
a hard stone, in which he was confined ; and facts of this 
jiind are by no means singular. 

In 1764, the workmen in the quarries of Savonieres, in 
Lorraine, came to inform the sagacious Grignon that they 
had found a toad in a block of stone at forty-five French 
feet below the surface of the earth. This celebrated nar- 
turalist immcdiaiely went to the spot; but, as he assures 
us, in his excellent work, entitled, Memoires de Physique 
sur Vurt dcfahriqucr Icfcr, he found no vestige of the ani- 
mal's prison. He saw a crack in the body of the stone, 
but no impression of the body of the animal. The toad 
■which had been brought him was of the middling size, of 
a grey colour, and apparently in its ordinary condition. 
He was assured that this was the first he had found during 
thirty years in those quarries. The fact certainly deserved 
t-p be clpsjily foUpwed up ; wherefore Griguou promised 

ye com-? 



ANIMALS POUND IN SOLID SUBSTANCES. 125 

I'ccompencc to him that should find another, so iiichjscci 
in the stone that it could not get out. 

In 1770, he was shewn one in two concave leaves of 
stone, in which he was assured it had been lound; but, 
on examining the fact with scrupulous attention, Grignou 
found that the cavity was the impression of a shell, and, 
consequently, he thought himself bound to regard the 
fact as apocryphal. Nevertheless, in 1771^ tlie same 
fact re-appeared on the spot, and became the subject of 
a curious memoir which was read by Guettard, to the 
royal academy of sciences at Paris. The following arc 
the principal circumstances reported by that naturalist. 

In levelling a wall which was known to have stood 
more than an hundred years, there was found, in the 
midst of a large block of stone, a toad, which, upon in- 
spection, appeared to have only very lately died. No 
passage by which it might have entered the stone could 
be traced. It was presented to the academy in its recent 
state. 

V arious facts of this nature, but particularly this itself, 
and the observations made on it by Guettard, induced 
Herissant, who was then living, to pursue experiments 
adapted to the discovery of the truth. 

On the (2 1st of February 1771, he inclosed three living- 
toads in as many cells of plaster, fabricated in a trunk of 
fjr, covered at all points with a body of mixed brick and 
plaster. On the 8th of April 1774, he opened the trunk, 
and found two of the toads living. That which occupied 
the cell in the centre was dead ; but it was observable 
that this had been larger than the other*, and vcrj 
much straitened for room. A careful examination of this 
experiment led those who were witnesses of it to conclude, 
that those animals had been completely excluded from 
all commuuicatiou with the exterior air, and heat, they 

had 



126 ANIMALS fOl'ND IN SOLID SUBSTANCES. 

had lived during the lapse of time in total privation of 
food. 

The academy engaged this philowpher to repeat liis 
experiment. After having witlidrawn tlie dead toad_, he 
enclosed the two living ones again, and deposited his 
trunk in the hands of the secretary of the academy^ in 
order that that illustrious body might open it v/henevcr 
it should think proper : but he was too much occupied 
with the subject to conline himself to this single experi- 
ment; he continued^ therefore, the three following; 

1. On the 15th of the next April, he enclosed, with 
minute accuracy, two living toads in a nest of plaster, 
covered with glasses, through which he could see the 
animals, and examine them every day. On the Qtl^ o 
the subsequent month he carried this apparatus to the 
academy, and showed them one of the toads alive ; but 
the other had died on the preceding evening. 

2. On the same da\', the 1 jth of the preceding April, 
he had enclosed two other living toads in another nest 
of plaster, but which was still better secured, with a 
funnel of glass. These animals were placed on a little 
sand ; and b}' means of the funnel, at periods of eight 
days, he let fall three drops of water on their backs, be- 
ing afterward careful to close the opening of the funnel 
with mortar. 

3. He further enclosed another living toad in a jug, 
which he surrounded with sand, so as to deprive it of all 
communication with exterior air : this animal, which he 
presented to the academy at the same time with the others 
continued in health, and even croaked whenever her jug 
was shaken. 

It is unfortunate that this naturalist was prevented by 
death from pursuing these experiments a sufficient length 
of time. His first, however, has established that two 
toads lived in healthy during more than three years, in ' 

a stale 



ANIMALS FOUND IN SOLID SUBSTANCES. 127 

-I state of total privavion of all nourishment and exterior 
air. 

We shall observe on this subject, that if these animals 
sustain abstinence during a period whicli, at first sight, 
appears marvellous, this faculty is given them, on the 
one hand, by a slovi^ digestion, and, on the other, per- 
haps, by the nourishment which they derive from their 
skins. Grignon has actual!}'^ observed to this purpose, 
that toads shed their skins several times durini2f a vear, 
and that they swallow them. A large toad ; he tells us, 
sheds it six times in the space of a winter. In fine, 
those which, according to the relations above transcrib- 
ed, may be imagrined Lo have passed several ages with- 
out taking nourishment, have been in a state of total 
inaction, in a suspension of life, and in an atmosphere 
the temperature of which allowed no dissipation of their 
substance: hence they have had no need to repair any 
loss ; aiul it appears certain that the moisture of the 
place has kept up that of the animal, so much only being 
requisite as might serve to prevejit its destruction, by 
the diymg of its parts. 

Toads are not the only animals which have the pri- 
vilege of retaining life during long continuance of fasting 
and exclusion from air. The two facts related at tlie 
commencement of this as shall furnish proofs, and they 
are strongly supported by the following : 

There were found in Spain, in the midst of a block of 
marble, which a sculptor of Madrid was forming into a 
lion of the natural colour, for the royal palace, two 
Jiving worms. These worms occupied two little cavities, 
neither of which had any issue, by which air could have 
introduced itself. They were to all appearance, nou- 
rished by the substance of the marble, for they were of 
the same colour. This fact was authenticated by Cap- 
tain Ulloa^ a celebrated Spaniard^ who conducted tli? 

voyage 



12S ASiMALS found iX SOLID SUBStANCESI. 

voyage made by the French academicans to Peru, to de- 
termine the figure of the earth. He a^-sertcd that he 
had seen the worms. 

A searabtBus, of the species called capiicorni/s mh^ 
found alive in a piece of wood taken from the keel of a 
vessel lying in tlie harbour of Portsmouth. No opening 
could be discovered in the wood. Several considerations 
however render this fact suspicious. 

We read in tlie public papers of Provence, for tlie 
ITlbof.lune 1772, that a living adder Mas found in a 
block of stone of thirty Prench feet diameter, the cen- 
tre of which it occupied. It was twisted nine times round 
itself, in a spiral line. It could not support the weight 
of the atmosphere, but died in a few minutes after it was 
taken from the stone. On examining the stone, not the 
least crevice could be discovered, through which it 
might have cre})t, nor the minutest opening through 
which it could have received fresh air, or inhale any 
sort of substance. 

Misson mentions, in his travels in Italy, a living crab, 
which was found in the midst of a marble at Tivoli, 
Peyssonel, physician to the king, at Guadalonpe, caus- 
ing a well to be dug ai his house, the workmen found 
living frogs in the midst of beds of petrifactions, Peys- 
sonel, apprehensive of some fraud, descended himself 
into the well, caused the beds of rock and petrifactions 
to be dug in his presence, and took out, with his own 
hands, green frogs, exactly similar to the common. 

The following fact may also well demand a place in 
this collection : Vendron, director of the posts, at Dun- 
^•irk, wrote on the iGth of January 1770> that he had a 
very fine peacock, which had disappeared for some 
days,- and that he had searched for it in vain throughout 
his hoiist.' ; that his ^ard being full of snow, to the height 
of four French feet, he had caused the snv>w to be car- 
ried 







rn'j ? I'lj M . S. Kirbij L onUo/i Jfiuue I'Uri *( / Seo/t S/raiid Mivr/, i, /,v,\i . 






ANIMALS FOUND IN SOLID SUBSTANCES. 1G9 

ried into the street (fearing wlien tlie thaw came on, it 
would inundate his cellars), and that his peacock had 
been found alive, confined under a heap of the snow. 
The animal, he adds, was entirely frozen : I set it before 
the fire, where it was thaw<?d, and afterward gave it 
food : it has since done perfectly well. The author 
should have mentioned the length of the time during 
which the aiiimal was lost, and that during vrhich it had 
been buried under the snow. 

Mr. Chaulton, a stone-cutter at Ramsey in Kent, in 
sawing a block of marble asunder, found therein a living 
toad, of a more than ordinary size, lodged in a cavity in 
the middle of the block. The cavity was pretty near the 
shape of the toad, but something larger ; and the animal 
itself was of a dusky, yellow colour. 

At Tivola, in Italy, some workmen, having cleft a 
large block of stone, found in the centre thereof, in a 
hollow space, a large sea-crab, which weighed four 
pounds, which they boiled and eat. 

Alexander ab Alexandre assures us, that he found in 
the middle of a large block of marble, a wrought dia- 
mond i and in another piece, a considerable quantity of 
sweet scented oil. 

Baptist Tulgosus reports a large worm to have been 
found in the middle of a flint. 

At Chillingham in Northumberland, a live toad was 
found in the middle of a large block of stone, of which 
was made a chimney-piece ; the hole being divitk.d ecjual- 
ly, and is still to be seen, each half at equal distance 
from the middle of the chimney-piece, at a gentleman's 
house in that neighbourhood. 

THE MEMORABLE CROSS IN ClIEAPSIDE, 

With an En^ravin^. 
N the first ages of Christianity, a variety of crosses were 
Vol. II. 3 erected 



130 CHEAPSiDE cnoss. 

erected in the highways and public places throughout 
Europe, as monuments of the sufteriugs the Saviour of 
mankind underwent. Many are still to be seen in Italy, 
France, Spain, the Netherlands, and some few in Eng- 
land. But the foundation of llie crosses at Grantham, 
Wooborne, Northampton, Stony-stratford, Dunstable, 
St. Albans, Waltham, West-cheap, and Charing, were 
founded by Edward I. on the following occasion ; 

On the death of Henry the Third, Edward the First 
ivas on an expedition in the holy land, and had been 
there above a year when his father died. When one 
Anzazim, a desperate Saracen, who had often been em- 
ployed to him from their general, being one time, upon 
pretence of some secret message, admitted alone into 
the chamber, with a poisoned knife, gave him three 
■wounds in the body, two in the arm, and one near the 
arm-pit, which were thought to be mortal, and would 
probably so have proved, had not his excellent and 
affectionate Queen Eleanor, daughter to Ferdinand 
the Third, king of Spain, at the hazard of her own life, 
sucked the poison from the w ounds with her mouth, and 
thereby effected a cure. She, however, experienced 
no ill consequences from the poison,- but many 3'ears 
after, in a journey with Edward towards Scotland, she 
was taken ill, and died at Herdehy in Lincolnshire : in 
whose memory, and as monuments of her virtue and his 
affection, he caused the aforesaid crosses, with her sta- 
tue, to be erected in all chief places where the corpse 
rested in the way to its interment in Westminster abbey. 

Having stated thus the foundation of these crosses, 
we shall now confine ourselves to that of Cheapside, 
which occupies a place in this work, more from the re- 
markable transactions and occurrences, at different 
periods, that have distinguished it in our annals, than 
as to the singularity of its distinguished origin. 

Cheapsidev 



Ch£AP31DE-CR0S?, 131 

Chcapside Cross was first built in the year 1290, and 
stood at tlie end of Cheapside, next St. Pauls, from 
which it is called, by Stow, the Cross in West Cheap J 
which being, by length of time, greatly decayed, John 
Hatherly, Mayor of London, procured, in the year 
1441, licence of King Henry the Sixth, in the 21st of 
his reign, to re-edify the same in a more beautiful man- 
ner, for the honour of the city ; and had licence also 
to take up two himdred fodder of lead for the building 
hereof, and of certain conduits, and a common gra- 
nary. 

This Cross was then curiously wrought, at the charges 
of divers citizens, John Fisher, mercer, gave 600 marks 
towards it; the same was begun to be set up in 1484* 
and was not finished before the year ]48()\ The second 
of Henry the Eighth it was new gilt all over, in the 
year 1522, against the coming over of the Emix^ror 
Charles V. and was new burnished against the corona- 
tion of Edward VI.; and, in ^553, against the corona- 
tion of Queen Mary ; and gilt again, in the year (554, 
against the coming in of King Phillip. Since which 
time the said cross having been represented bv divers 
juries, or quests of Wardmote, to stand in the highway 
to the hindrance of carriages. Sec. as they alledged, but 
could not have it removed ; it followed, that, in the 
year 1581, on the 21slof June, in the night, the lowest 
images round about the said cross, being of Christ's Re* 
surrection, of the Virgin Mary, King Edward the Con- 
fessor, and such like, were broken and defaced. Where- 
upon proclamation was made, that whosoever would 
give information of the offenders thereof should have 
forty crowns ; but nothing came to light. The imatre of 
the blessed Virgin at that time was robbed of her Son, 
and her arms broken, by which she staid him on her 

S 2 knees J 



132 CHEAPSIDE CROSS. 

knees j lier wliole body ^vas also haled with ropes, and 
left ready to fall : but was, in the year 159-5, again fas- 
tened and repaired ; and, in the year 1596, about Bar- 
tholomezc-t'ide, a male child, mishapen, as if born before 
its time, all naked, was laid in her arras ; the other 
images remaining broken as before. 

On the east side of the same cross, the steps being 
taken from thence, under the image of Christ's Resur- 
rection, which was much defaced, was then set up a cu- 
rious wrought tabernacle of grey marble ; and, in the 
same an alabaster image of Diana, a w^oman, for the most 
part naked, and water, conve^'ed from the Thames, 
falling from her naked breasts for a time ; but the same 
was oftentimes dried up. 

In the year 1599> the timber of the cross, at the top, 
being rotted within the lead, the arms theieof bending, 
were in danger of falling, to the prejudice of passengers; 
and therefore the whole body of the cross was scaffolded 
about, and the top thereof taken down, intending, in- 
stead thereof, to set up a pyramid : but some of Eliza- 
beth's counsellors sent letters to Sir Nicholas Mosley, then 
mayor, by her highness's express command concerning 
the cross, ordering the same forthwith to be repaired, 
and placed again as it formerly stood. 

Notwithstanding the said cross stood heedless more 
than a year after; whereupon the said counsellors, in 
great number, meaning not any longer to permit the 
continuance of such a contempt, wrote to William Ri- 
der, then mayor, requiring him, by virtue of her high- 
ness's said former direction and command, without any 
further delay, to accomplish the same, her majesty's 
most princel}^ care therein, respecting especially, the an- 
tiquity and continuance of that monument, and ancient 
ensign of Christianity, dated the 24th of December, 
Jl(iO0. After this a crosi; of timber was framed, set up, 

covered 



CMEAPSIDE CROSS. 1J3 

tiovcrcd with lead and gilt; the body of the cross dowu- 
Tvards cleansed of dust, and the scaffold carried thence. 
About twelve nights following, the image of our lady 
was again defaced by })lucking off her crown and almost 
her head, taking from her naked child, and stabbing 
her in the breast. 

At the west end of Cheapside was some time a stone 
cross of greater antiquity than the time of Edvvard the 
First, which, by w'ay of distinction, was called the Old 
Cross : and here, according to Ealph IligdiH, in lii.s 
Polichronicon, was Walter Slapleton, Bishop of Win- 
chester, treasurer to Edward II. brought by the bur- 
gesses of London, and beheaded in a most barbarous 
manner. This Old Cross stood and remained at the east 
f-nd of the parish church, called St. Michael in the 
Corn, by Paul's-gate, near the north end of the Old 
Exchange, till the year 1390, the 13th of Rijhard the 
Second, in place of which Old Cross, then taken down, 
the said church of St. Michael was enlarged, and also a 
fair water-conduit erected, about the ninth year of Henry 
the Sixth. 

It docs not appear that Cheapside Cross underwent any 
repair, or was in any shape beautified from the year I6OO, 
until its final destruction in l643; when Puritanical prin- 
ciples so complett.'l}^ prevailed, that few remnants of 
antiquity, relative to the Romish persuasion, have esca- 
ped the zcrath of their intemperate zeal*. Innumerable 
images of the virgin and child, representations of the 
crucifixion, and the various passions of Christ, many of 

which 

• ThoBgh tlie Pimtans were so anxious to demolish alt outward represen, 

tations of the miracles and auffering of Christ, they were extremely desirous to 

keep in remembrance his name, as under the cloak of that they might practise. 

almost every enormity ; thus in the baptism of thsir children ia recorded * 

remarkable christian uame, 

" If 



134 CHEAPSIDn CROSS, 

T\liich were of tlie most excellent Avorkmanship; with 3- 
host of saints and symbols, fell a prey to the levelling 
party; and among others, not least valuable, we have to 
lament the marti/tdoni of thos<" relitpies of ancient times, 
the Crosses of Cheapside and Charing; who fell victims 
to the unbridled rage of about as enlightened a populace, 
as those who so eminently distinguished themselves in 
the memorable religious riot in 1780. 

Cheapside Cross was ever held in great repute as a ge- 
neral rendevouz in party discontent; and like its coeval 
sufferer, that of Charing, must have witnessed many acts 
of justice inflicted on the daring innovatcvs of the laws ot 
their country; and although not regarded as a situation 
for general punishment of offenders, it has still to record 
some of a very particular and interesting nature: these 
punishments are however stated to have taken place at 
the standard in Cheap; but Strype, in his last edition of 
Stow's Survey, expresses great doubt of the situation of 
the old standard, and thinks it occupied the scitc of the 
ancient Cross; as he instances that in the reign of Ed- 
ward the Third, w"hcn Justintrs and RunninLis, on horse- 
back, were practised between the great Cross and the 
Conduit at Soptu-^&-1ane End, there was no such stand- 
ard, or other obstacle between them; neither was that 
street paved with hard stone as it now is. 

But of the executions in Cheap in the year 1G93, tltree 
men had their right hands cut off, for rescuing a prisoner 
arrested by an officer of the city: in the j'car 1381, Wat 
Tyler beheaded Richard Lyons, and others there : in the 
year 1351, the 26th of Edward the Third, two fishmon- 
gers were beheaded at the standard in Cheap; but we do 
not read of their offence: in the year 1399, Henry the 

" If Jesus Christ had not come into tlie world thou hadst been damned" 
BAREBOXE. This worthy was a brother of the cel^'bratcd Praise God 
i>Hreboue, of notorious canting memory. 

Fourth 



CIIEAPSIDE CROSS. ^35 

Fourth caused the Blank Charters, made by Richard the 
Second, to be burnt there: in the year 14j0, Jack Cade 
having gained possession of the city, sent to the Lord 
Scales to bring his prisoner, the Lord Say, from the 
Tower to the Guildiiall, whither he had called the Lord 
a.\Lp'ur With liis brethren; before whom he caused the 
Lord Say to be arraigned, who craving to be tried by his 
peers, was forth .vith taken from his keeper, carried to the 
standard in Cheapside, and there liad his head chopped 
off; which, being pitched upon a pike, was born before 
him to Miie End, whither he went to have conference 
With the rebels of Essex; and by the way, meeting with 
Sir James Cromer, High Sheriff of Kent, who had lately 
married the Lord Say's daughter, he caused his head 
also to be struck off, and carried before him in derision. 

There is several scarce pamphlets, extant, concerning 
Cheapside Cross, some of which bear a wood-cut repre- 
senting the figure of the Cross as it stood just before its 
demolition; and others with the populace, soldiers. Sec. 
pulling it down ; but the most authentic view is that from 
La Sevens scarce book, containing a view of Cheapside, 
from which one view is taken, and the Entr}' of jNIarj 
de jMedicis into London, on a visit to her son-in-law, 
Charles L The body of the pamphlets in contradiction 
to their titles, give little or no historical relation to the 
origin or history of what it promises, 

ji Rcmarkahle thunder storm, zcith the Singular course 

of the LIGHTNING. 
(Communicated by D. B. L, of Nollin(;hom.J 

About two o'clock in the afternoon of Thursda}-, th( 
2] St of August, 1794, two very black clouds were seen to- 
wards the south west, which in their north-east course, 
appeared to attract each other; this attractive power in 

these 



156 A THUNDER STORM-^ &C. 

these clouds was occasioned by their being highly charg- 
ed with a contrary, electricity^ which burst out a violent 
explosion, as soon as the clouds came in contact ; the 
vivid flashes of lightning followed each other in a quick 
succession, amidst a torrent of rain and hail; at this in- 
stant a ball of fire was ?cen to strike the top of a chimney 
in Mr. Wragg's house, * near Mansfield, in the county of 
Nottingham, where it was attracted by an iron cramp, 
from whence it descended to the roof, throwing down 
part of the chimnc}', and scattering the stones to a con- 
siderable distance. The lightning, after running nine 
yards along the roof, penetrated the ceiling of a garret, 
where it tore off a i)iece about seven feet in length, and 
near six inches in width ; it was here attracted by another 
iron cramp in a sloping beam, from whicli it separated a 
piece near three feet in length, and about eleven inches 
in circumference : from this beam it forced its way 
through the floor to a gilt frame of a looking-glass in the 
clrawinc:-room, where it burst open a tea-chest, melted a 
piece of lead in the inside the size of half-a-crovvn, and 
scattered a pack of cards to the other end of the room; a 
stream of the electric fluid appeared, by a black line on 
the floor, to have run ten feet to an iron fender. The 
lightning then took its course downwards to the parlour, 
where it ran round another gilt frame of a looking-glass, 
near to which Mrs. Wragg was sitting with a child in her 
lap, they both received a strong shock, which in all pro- 
bability would have been fatal to them, had not a bell- 
wire, that hung over the glass, conducted the electric 
fluid to the bell in the passage : its course from thence 
js very extraordinary, for the bell in the passage from 
whence the elcciric fluid descended on the wall in a nar- 
row stream to where it divided into two, was attracted by 

:■•• 3Ir, Curlis;, grazier, now lives in tlie house, 

the 



I 



EXTRAOIIDINA.RV DEAtHS. 15? 

the iron hinge of the street door^ and split the wood to 
which the hinges was nailed; the passage of the electric 
fluid to the hinge was through a stone wall eleven inches 
thick; and the aperture it made was so small, that it 
would hardly admit a knitting needle ; the other stream 
was attracted through the wall by an iron bar in the 
kitchen, where it spent its force, without doing any da- 
mage to the parlour. 

EXTRAORDINARY DEATHS. 

UlED on Monday, 23d of January, 1804, at Cowpen, 
Marlow Sidney, Esq. a remarkable eccentric character, 
in the 99th year of his age. For many years he had such 
an antipathy against medical gentlemen, that even in his 
last illness, he would not suffer any to attend him. He 
was very partial to the dress and company of the fair sex, 
but never had the pleasure of tying the liymenial knot. 
When seventy years of age, his thirst for innocent and 
childish amusements was such, that he actually went to 
the dancing school, where he regularly attended, and- 
appeared highly gratified with his youthful associates. 
About two years ago, a sister, v.ho resides in London, 
was at the trouble of paying him a visit; and during her 
short stay, he generously indeed allowed lier milk and 
lodging ; but for bread and other necessaries she was ob- 
liged to provide herself. When he had any money to 
send to his banker at "Newcastle, three of his most trusty 
servants were well mounted and armed with pistols; liis 
principal man rode in the middle with the cash, and the 
other two at proper distances from him, in his van and 
rear. In this defensive manner they marched along, 
the better to resist any attack tliat might be attempted by 
daring highwaymen. Tliough so singular in his hianner, 
no person deserved better the name of a good man. 
t'ebruary 1, 1801. — Mr. J. Packer, in Spinningfield, 
VoLlI. I aged 



13S A DREADFUL ACCIDENT. 

aged 33^ only five feet seven inches high, and weighed 
'\\e enormous weight of 29 stone. 

At Lane End, Staffordshire, at the advanced age of 106, 
Mr. J. Meller; he was attended to the grave by thirteen 
friends, whose ages amounted 1 296- 

August 2d. 1803. — John Parker, aged eight years, a 
servant to Mr. BulUvant, of Stanton in Derbyshire, was 
killed in a most extraordinary manner. He was return- 
ing home on the back of a poney, and by some means 
fastened a basket he was carrying upon the post of a 
gate, which he was endeavouring to open. The basket 
was fixed to the boy by means of a leather strap, which, 
by the accident, being drawn tight across his throat, un- 
fortunately hanged him almost instantly. 

Feb. 1804. — Died suddenly at Kingston, aged 109j» 
George Gregory, supposed to be the last of the crew of 
the Centurion which circumnavigated the world with 
Lord Anson. He never had a day's illness since he 
went to sea, which was in the year 1714,when he was im- 
pressed in the Downs out of the Mary Brig, belonging 
to North Shields. 

A DKEADFUL ACCIDENT. 

rlllE. — On Wednesday, January 25, 1804, a coal-pit 
in the neighbourhood of Renfrew was discovered to be 
on fire, the flames bursting out with great violence at 
the mouth of the pit. Six unfortunate men were work- 
ing under-ground at the time, in reflecting on whose 
shocking situation, the mind flies for relief to the hope 
that their sufferings were not protracted. — It is uncertain 
whether the accident was occasioned by the explosion 
of gunpowder, or foul air. The fire continued to burn 
for nearly two days, at which time the mouth of the pit 
was covered up, in expectation of smothering the flame. 

AN 



( 159 ) 

AN EARTHQUAKE. 

1 HE following is part of a letter from the Hague, dated 

January 23, 1804: — 

'' A society of musical amateurs, on Friday last, gave 

an Oratorio at the Lutheran church here. On a sudden, 
the chandeliers, and other objects, suspended within the 
church, were seen in motion, which was attributed to 
the effect of the musical instruments. But it has since 
been known, that, at the same hour (seven in the even- 
ing), a like phcenomenon was observed at Rotterdam, 
Haarlem, Schiedam, and Maassluis. In the last of these 
cities, the chandeliers of the Reformed Church were in 
motion during the time of divine service, so as to be fre- 
quently removed between two and three feet from their 
usual position. The direction of this motion was from 
west to east. After the motion had been forcibly stop- 
ped during ten mmutes, it recommenced, but was not 
quite so perceptible. This extraordinary event so greatly 
terrified the congregation, that the greater part took to 
flight; and the preacher being left nearly alone, found 
himself under the necessity of abruptly finishing his ser- 
mon. Th<; cause of this phoenomenon is not yet ascer- 
tained. It is attributed to the shocks of an earthquake. 
It is remembered, that the same thing took place at the 
time of the great earthcjuake at Lisbon. 

"■ The shocks were also felt by persons under the organ 
gallery; aiul by two individuals in a cabriolet, between 
Schiedam and Rottcrdcim. Many vessels on the Maesc 
and thf- Seine were moved by the same shock. Letters 
from Bois-le-Duc state, that the same day shocks were 
felt in that city, wliirh could only be attributed to an 
(earthquake. The brass chandeliers in the church of St. 
John were agitated in a very surprising manner. In 
many kitchens, several of the utensils were overturned." 

T2 7SIIR1- 



( 140 ) 

MIRACULOUS PRESERVATION. 

IN the gale of Thursda\^ Janiiar}^, 26;, 1804, whilst the 
Plantagenet^the ship which blockaded the French fleet for 
forty-eight hours,, was working into Cawsand Ba}', the 
main top-mast went over the side^ part of which struck 
one of the midshipmen, who was standing on the main 
chains, and precipitated him into the sea, from which he 
w^as miraculously preserved by -the force of the wave, 
which threw him back, and left him senseless on the 
deck. We are happy to hear, hovv^ever, he soon re- 
covered. 

PEDESTRIAN W^^GER. 

X'EBRUARY 10. — On Friday a young man of the name 
of Gregory set out from St. John's Street, to walk 50 miles 
on the Hertfordshire Road, which he engaged to perform 
in twelve hours ; the original bet was for only tea gui- 
neas, but a considerable sum was sported, some supposing 
he would accomplish it in a much sljorter time than was 
allowed. He started at six in the morning, passed through 
Hatfield between nine and ten, and reached Welling, 
lwent\'-live miles distant, before eleven, where he staid a 
short time, and then returned. He arrived at the place 
from whence he started, twenty minutes past five in the 
afternoon, apparently very little fatigued. 

A Pl'.RSON WALKING IN HIS SLEEP. 

Feb. ]3, 1S04.— Mr. S. Smith, gardncr, of Wheatly, 
near (Jaiiisbarougli, returning from work, called at Mr. 
Justict's, atBolo, where l.e took some refreshment; and 
it being dark, was prevailed upon to take a bed. He 
retired to rest about eight o'cloek ; at eleven he dreamed 
that the house was on fire ; and in his alarm, although a 
.--.tout man, weighing 13 stone, and 70 years of age, he 

forced 



I 



EXTRAORDINAEY TALENTS OF MR. STRONG. 141 

forced his way through the window of his room, which 
is only 13 and a half inches by 12, dropped nine feet to 
the ground, and ran a considerable distance, until (hav- 
ing nothing on but his shirt and night-cap) his feet 
being so much cut, and other parts of his body so much 
bruised, that the pain he experienced awoke him. His 
astonishment at finding himself in such a situation and 
in such a predicament, may be easier conceived than 
described. He hastened again to bed, and is now nearly 
recovered from the effects of the singular adventure. 

A LARGE HOG. 

On Feb. 13, a Leicestershire hog, remarkable small 
bone, the property of Mr. Thomas Matthews of Rothley, 
wa.s killed. The enormous weight was as follows ; — the 
two sides 595 lbs. head 37 lbs. inside fat 87 and a half lbs. 
total 719 and a half lbs. ; the fore feet weighing only 
5lb. 4 oz. 



On Feb. 19, a Sow of the Chinese breed was slaughtered 
at South Coats, near Hull, of the weight and dimen- 
sions as follows : — Length from rump to the crown 40 
inches ; depth at the shoulder 20 inches ; girth at breast 
48 inches; girth at loins 45 inches; girth at chops 45 
inches ; length from the crown to the nose 10 and a quar- 
ter inches ; length of the ears 4 inches ; her eyes were 
closed up with fat ; she was five years old, had brought 
157 pigs, and weighed 18 stone when killed. 

Sin, 

The following is an account of JMr, Strong. By inserting it in your Maoaziuc, 

will oblige. 

Sir, your's, J. T. 

JVIR. Strong of Carlisle, who was born blind, follows 
the business of a diaper weaver. He is at present ad- 
vanced in years; but his mechanical abilities are not yd 

im- 



142 BAKING EXPLOITS OF MR. BOIS-RDSE-. 

impaired to any considerable degree. In the exercise of 
thescj besides making almost every article of household 
furniture, he has constructed various pieces of machinery, 
of which is the model of a loom, the figure of a man 
"working it : to shew his strong propensity to produce by 
his own ingenuity and labour, whatever he thought 
worthy of possessing, I shall add the following cir- 
cumstance : When he was fifteen years of age, he con- 
cealed himself one afternoon in the cathedral, during 
the time of service : after the congregation was gone and 
the doors shut, he got into the organ-loft, and examined 
every part of the instrument. This had engaged his at- 
tention till about midnight, when having satisfied him- 
self respecting the general construction, he proceeded 
to try the tones of the different stops and the proportion 
they bore to each other ; this experiment was not to be 
conducted in so silent a manner. In short, the noise 
alarmed the neighbourhood, and some people went to see 
what was the matter, and Joseph was found playing the 
organ. The next day he was taken before the dean, who 
after reprimanding him for the step he had taken in or- 
der to gratify his curiosit}'^, gave him leave to play it 
whenever he pleased. In consequence of this, he set 
about making a chamber organ, which he completed 
without the assistance of any body. He sold this instru- 
ment to a mecl.anic in the Isle of Man, where it is still in 
being. Soon aiier this, he made another, upon which 
he nows plays both for amusement and devotion. Some 
years ago he walked from Carlisle to London, to visit Mr. 
Stanley, the celebrated organist, and, for the first time> 
made him a pair of shoes. 

J h W m. 



J. enclose for your truiy entcitaining and Valuable Re^ster, a well aulhenti. 
.■atpd fact, respecting a most surprising and hazardous enterprise of a French 

Officer 



DARING EXPLOITS OF MR. BOIS-ROSE. 14S 

" officer with a handful of men, in gaining possession of a fortress of considera- 
ble interest to the Frencli service, in the reign of Henry the Fourth, of that 
nation; and though compared with the many instances of the successes of the 
gallant soldiers and sailors of our own country, it may sink by comparison, is 
still from the novelty of the plan adopted, deemed, in my estinuition, worthy 
a place in your scientific publication. Who am from its intrinsic merit. 

A Constant Reader. 

1 HE manner in which Fescamp (a post and fortress 
in the county of Caux in Normandy) was surprised, is so 
remarkable, that it well deserves a particular recital. 
When this fort was taken by Biron from the league, in 
the garrison that was turned out of it, there was a gen- 
tleman called Bois-rose, a man of sense and courage, 
who making an exact observation of the place he left, and 
having concerted his scheme, contrived to get two 
soldiers, whom he had bound to his interest, to be received 
into the new garrison which was put into Fescamp by 
the Royalists. That side of the fort next the sea is 
a perpendicular rock six hundred feet high, the bottom 
of which for about the height of twelve feet, is conti- 
nually washed by the sea, except four or five days in the 
year, during the utmost recess of the sea, when, for 
the space of three or four hours, it leaves fifteen or twenty 
fathom of dry sand at the foot of the rock. Bois-rose, 
who found it impossible by any other way to surprise a 
garrison, who guarded with great care a [dace lately 
taken, did not doubt of accomplishing his design, if he 
could enter by that side which was thought inaccessible ; 
this he endeavoured, by the following contrivance, to 
perform. 

H e had agreed upon a signal with the two soldiers 
whom he had corrupted, and one of them waited for it 
continually upon the top of the rock, where he posted 
himself during the whole time that it was low water. 
Bois-rose taking the opportunity of a very dark night, 

came 



144 DARING EXPLOITS OF MR. BOIS-ROSE. 

came with fifty resolute men, chosen from amongst th^ 
sailors, in two large boats, to the foot of the rock. He 
had provided himself with a thick cable equal in length 
to the height of the rock, and tying knots at equal dis- 
tances, run short sticks through, to serve to support 
them as they climbed. The soldier whom he had gained 
having waited six months for the signal, no sooner per- 
ceived it, than he let down a cord from the top of the 
precipice, to which those below fastened the cable, by 
which means it was wound up to the top, and made fast 
to an opening in the battlement with a strong crow run 
through an iron staple made for that purpose. Bois- 
rose giving the lead to two Serjeants, whose courage he 
was well convinced of, ordered the fifty sailors to mount 
the ladder in the same manner, one after the other, 
with their weapons tied round their bodies, himself bring- 
ing up the rear, to take away all hope of returning; 
which indeed soon became impossible, for befoi'e they 
had ascended halfway, the sea rising more than six feet, 
carried off their boats and set their cable a floating. 
The necessity of withdrawing from a difficult enterprise 
is not always a security from fear, when the danger 
appears almost inevitable. If the mind represents to 
itself these fifty men, suspended between heaven and 
earth, in the midst of darkness, trusting their safety to 
a machine so insecure, that the least want of caution, the 
treachery of a mercenary soldier, or the slightest fear, 
might precipitate them into the abj'ss of the sea, or dash 
them against the rocks ; add to this the noise of the. 
waves, the height of the rock, their weariness and ex- 
hausted spirits, it will not appear surprising that the 
boldest amongst them trembled, as in effect he who 
was foremost did. This seijcant tellipug,, the next man 
that he could mount no higher, and that^ |sis heart fjuled 
hiui, Bois-rosc, to whom this discourse passed from 

mouth 



I 




( 7'7^^///r/ • ///////y^/i , 

FtviiKUi i'ii(it//n/ JY,/r//r//t //ttrofecffio/i of h'/i'i'Ii (hisr/cy Esq- 



AN ACCOUNT OF MOTHER SHIPTON. l45 

mouth to mouth, and who perceived the truth of it by their 
advancing no higher, crept over the bodies of those that 
were before him, advising each to be firm, and got up 
to the foremost, whose spirits he at first endeavoured to 
animate ; but finding that gentleness would not prevail, 
he obliged him to mount by pricking him in the back 
with his poniard ; and doubtless if he had not obeyed 
him, he would have precipitated him into the sea. At 
length, with incredible labour and fatigue, the vj'hole 
troop got to the top of the rock, a little before the break 
of day, and was introduced by the two soldiers into the 
castle, where they began to slaughter without mercy the 
centinels and the whole guard : sleep delivered them up 
an easy prey to the enemy, who killed all that resisted, and 
possessed themselves of the fort. 

Bois-rose immediately sent notice of this amazing suc- 
cess to Admiral Villars, who thought the government of 
the citadel he had so dearly bought, was the least reward 
he might expect. However, he heard that Villars, or 
rather the commander, de Grillon, had a design to drive 
him out of it. Amidst the first transports of his rage for 
this injustice, he delivered the Castle of Fescamp to the 
king, who provided plenty of all things necessary for its 
security. 



Ursula, or Agatha Sonthiel ; commonly called Mother 
Ship ton. 

From a very ancient and curious original picture, in the possession of Ralph 
Ousely, Esq. of York, preserved in the family of the proprietor for more 
than a century ; and communicated by Sir William Ousely, author of the 
Oriental collections, &c. &c. &C. 

A HIS celebrated character, having been so much mis- 
represented by former writers, we have been particular in 
ascertaining, as far as possible, an authentic memoir of 
her life and actions : — She was born, according to the ge- 
neral accounts, in the reign of Henry the Seventh, near 
^ol. H. u Knaresborough, 



146 AN ACCOUNT OF MOTHER SHIPTON. 

Knaresborough, in the county of York, and baptized by 
the Abbot of Beverley, with the name of "Agatha Son- 
thiel," a circumstance which proves, by the sur-name, her 
being of foreign extraction by her father's side ; who, it 
is most probable, came over with the Bretaigne associates 
of the Earl of Richmond, afterwards Henry the Seventh, 
and resided, if not settled, at Knaresborough. Very little 
notice is, however, taken of her father or mother, by the 
writer of her life and prophecies, nor is she particularly 
remarked until her twenty-fourth year, when she was ad- 
dressed in courtship by one Toby Shipton, a builder of 
Shipton, a village situate four miles north of the city of 
York. This match goes some way to disprove the vulgar 
report of her body being crooked, her face frightful, and 
her whole appearance disgusting. 

With respect to her gift of prophecy, we have no other 
authorities than traditionary revelation, from father to 
son, as no printed account, concerning her life and 
actions, can be found prior to the reign of Charles the 
Second ; and it is more than probable that the chief part 
of the prophecies attributed to Mother Shipton, were 
composed after the restoration ; and ingeniously con- 
trived to answer the equally ingenious explanations, which 
are annexed to every sixpenny edition, extant. 

That there did exist such a person is evident and 
equally so that she had in her time a reputation as a very 
extraordinary woman ; but it is as certain, notwithstand- 
ing an attempt to prove her a virtuous and religious cha- 
racter, that she was^considered by her contemporaries, as a 
mischievous, if not a diabolical person, by the representa- 
tion of the familiar introduced in her picture — a fit emblem, 
whether considered as monkey or fiend, of her wayward 
and mischievous propensity. 

A great stress is laid on her prediction on the famous 
Cardinal Wolsey, who died at Leicester, on the road to 

London, 



AN ACCOUXT OP MOTHER SHIPTON. l47 

London, in the year 1530, at which time, Mother Ship- 
ton could not have been more than forty-two years of 
age, and whatever she might have predicted concerning 
his not being able to reach York, it is highly probable, 
was rather in consequence of the report of the king's de- 
termining he should be conveyed to London, than any 
power or divination in her. 

The last prediction of Mother Shipton was concerning 
the time of her own death, which, it is said, she declared 
to several persons, who visited her in her advanced age. 
And when the time she had prophesied, approached, she 
called her friends together, advised them well, took a 
•solemn leave of them, and laying herself down on her bed, 
she departed with much serenity, being upwards of se- 
venty-three years of age, in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, 
anno 1561. 

After her death, a monument of stone was erected to 
her memory, in the high road, betwixt the village of 
Clifton and Shipton, about a mile distant from the city 
of York. This monument represents a woman upon her 
knees, with her hands closed in a praying posture ; and is 
to be seen there to the present hour. 

The same authority who preserved the invaluable MSS. 
of her authentic prophecies, has saved from oblivion her 
epitaph, but which is stated at this time to be entirely ob- 
literated ; it was as follows : 

Here lies she who never ly'd 
Whose skill often has been try'd ; 
Her prophecies shall still survive, 
And ever keep her name alive. 

We have not attempted to swell the article of Mother 
Shipton to an unnecessary length, by the insertion of the 
prophecies attributed to her ; as the sole aim in this work 
is originality and authentic information. 

u 2 8UR 



{ 148 ) 

SURPRISING AFFECTION IN TWO RIVAL FEMALES. 

X HE Church of the Benedictines at Erfurt, in Upper 
Saxony, bears witness, in a splendid monument, of the 
following circumstance, thus related by a recent traveller : 
Passing through this city, says he, 1 was induced to 
visit the tomb of Louis, Count Gleichen, of the house of 
Schazbourg, which gave an emperor to Germany. The 
Count having been taken prisoner in a battle with the 
Saracens, during the Holy War, he was sold as a slave to 
the Sultan, and suffered a long and irksome captivity. 
One day, while he was working in the garden, the Sul- 
tan's daughter, who happened to be present at the time, 
approached him, and asked him many questions. The 
agreeable person of the Count, his air, and his manner 
so pleased the princess, that she at length offered to effect 
his deliverance, upon condition that he would marry her. 
I have a wife and children, replied the Count! What ob- 
jection is that, said she : it is the custom of my country 
to have as many wives as a man may think proper ? The 
Count no longer hesitated, but accepted the offer, and 
pledged his word to marry his deliverer. She immedi- 
ately took her measures with promptness and activity to 
carry her plan into execution ; and they soon embarked 
on board a vessel prepared to receive them. They ar- 
rived safely at Venice, where the Count found one of his 
domestics, who was then travelling in search of intelli- 
gence concerning him, and who assured the Count, that 
the Countess and her children, were perfectly well. The 
Count hastened to Rome, and obtained permission of the 
Pope to retain both his wives. This took place in the 
year 1240, under the Pontificate of Gregory IX. If the 
Holy Father thus shewed himself indulgent, the Count's 
lawful wife was not remiss in complaisance to the young 
Saracen, who had been the means of restoring her hus- 
band, and conceived an uncommon degree of tenderness 

for 



PROCESSION OF A WINGED DRAGON. 149 

for this rival. The princess also met the advances of 
the Countess with the greatest sensibility, and as she had 
no children herself, she tenderly loved those of the Coun- 
tess. The bed which was occupied by the Count and his 
two wives is still shewn at Gleichen. After their death 
the bodies were all deposited in one tomb. The follow- 
ing is the epitaph placed over them : 

" Here are interred the remains of two rival females, who loved each 
" other as sisters, and had also an invincihle affection for the same husband. 
'' One of them abandoned the religion of IVIahomet to follow her spouse, while 
" the other received her long-lost hushand with open arms. United by the 
" bonds of conjugal love, all three of them during life, had but one nuptial bed, 
" and after death reposed in the same tomb !" 



Procession or show of a Winged Dragon^ at Troyes, in 
France. 

V_/F ancient customs, though ever so absurd, it has been 
rightly observed, that it is both pleasant and useful, to 
bring them to our recollection, whether they are reli- 
gious or profane ; as these are the best means of judging 
of the progress or refinement and improvements in 
society. 

The canons regular of the Church St. Loup, at Troyes, 
formerly carried in their processions during Rogation 
week, a great winged dragon, which the common people 
called chair saUe. This effigy of a dragon, was well exe- 
cuted in bronze. It opened its throat and eyes, flapped 
its monstrous wings, moved by springs and the assist- 
ance of a rope. At this monster, it was the practice of 
the children to throw whatever came to their hands, and 
among the rest, cakes or simnels. At the first procession 
of this figure he was ornamented with garlands of flowers ; 
and then it was understood he was to be contracted in 
marriage : on the second day, (for the procession lasted 
three days;) it being then thought that he was married it 
was decorated with ribbands and trinkets : but on the fol- 
lowing 



150 A SINGULAR INSTANCE OF TERROR. 

lowing day it was supposed to die ; and it was then brought 
to the Place de la Madeleine, with its tail forwards, its 
eyes and its wings totally immoveable, and there de- 
spoiled of its flowers and trinkets by the populace. This 
custom was observed so late as the year 1728. The curate 
of St. Pantalion was the first who refused to countenance 
this superstitious proceeding any longer, by refusing it. 

AN INCOMBUSTIBLE PASTEBOARD. 

XN the Literary Journal of 1785, of Petersburgh, there 
is a new discovery mentioned for which the inventor 
had obtained a premium from Catharine. It is a kind of 
pasteboard which no fire can consume, nor water soften. 
He proposes it as a necessary lining for the wooden houses 
of his country, and for clothing ships of war. As to its 
second property, it is no secret at present ; the former has 
been examined by a chemist, and found to be nothing 
else than a preparation of alum. This secret, however, 
like the Telegraph, had been a very ancient one, and 
used in the time of Sylla, at the siege of Athens. The 
words of Q. Claudius Quadricarius are : — " Sylla then 
brought his forces to set fire to a tower, which Archelaus 
had placed there : he came, he piled faggots; he set them 
on fire ; and after an obstinate labour, he could not make 
the tower take fire, as Archelaus had covered the planks 
entirely with alum." 

SINGULAR INSTANCE OF THE EFFECT OF TERROR. 

IVJLRS. JESSOP, the wife of a respectable gentleman at 
the east end of the city of Chester, in the year 1792, by a 
paralytic stroke, lost the use of her limbs, and the power 
of speech. For several years she remained in this state, 
when one afternoon all her family being out, except a 
maid-servant and a child, who was blind, she ob- 
served a fire burst out of a wooden building, which was 

very 



REMARKABLE PETRIFACTION. l6l 

very near the room she sat in A consciousness that 

she could neither move from her seat, nor c all for help, 
struck her with such terror, as to have the effect of an 
electric shock. She made a violent effort— spoke, reco- 
vered the use of her limb-, and has remained in perfect 
health ever since. 

Feb. 1804. Carolus. 

SURPRISING INSTINCT IN CATS- 

XN the island of Cyprus, near the promontory called 
Cat's Cape, anciently Curias, there is a monastery of 
Caloyerian Greeks, who have the singular custom of 
training a number of cats for the purpose of destroying 
the serpents which are very numerous in that island. — 
These animals are so well instructed in the sport, that at 
the sound of the bell they instantly quit the chace, and re- 
turn to the convent. 

AN ACCOUNT OF THE PERUVIAN LANTERN FLY. 

JL HE Cucujus Peruvianus, or Lantern Fly, is an insect 
of considerable size, and is remarkable for the peculiarity 
it possesses of shedding a vivid lustre during darkness. 
At a distance it resembles a small lantern : for this rea- 
son the inhabitants, when going a journey by night, fas- 
ten several of them to the end of a stick, which enables 
them to see their way with facility. 



REMARKABLE PETRIFACTION. 

In the quicksilver mines at Guiana Villica, there is a 
fountain of hot water, which, after overrunning a piece 
of ground, condenses, and changes itself into a kind of 
rock, easy to be cut ; and after remaining some days in 
this state, is commonly used by the inhabitants in the 
construction of their houses. 

To 



152 REMARKABLE PETRIFACTION. 



TO THE EDITOR^ 

" Sir — Having been induced by your ready attention in inserting the 
several articles I have occasionally transmitted for your truly singular publi- 
cation, to imagine similar communications would not be unacceptable, I have 
inclosed for your consideration two circumstantial and well authenticated 
memoirs of petrified substances discovered, the first in the county of Kent, 
and the other at Nottingham, which I have every reason to think have never 
before been submitted to public knowledge — and am with best wishes for 
the success of your excellent publication, your well wisher and occasional 
correspondent. D, B. L, 

Nntt'uigham, March 8th, 1804. 



REMARKABLE DISCOVERY OF A PETRIFIED SUBSTANCE. 

X HE Parliament in 1762 having given orders for a pow- 
der magazine to be erected at Folkstone in Kent, the fol- 
lowing petrifaction was dug out of an old burial ground 
long before that time disused, being taken out of a grave 
and presented to Roger North, Esq. of Rougham in Nor- 
folk. It was thought by the virtuosi to be a frustrum or 
piece of the muscular part of a human body, weighing 
about ten pounds, on one side of which was plainly to be 
seen two bones lying half out of the mass, one of which 
was about five inches long, and was thought to be the 
tibia with its head and part of the shank or shin-bone, 
the other was shorter and much less ; on the opposite 
side appeared a flat piece of wood (seemingly oak) though 
strongly petrified, which was thought to be a part of the 
coffin it was interred in, The whole mass of flesh as to 
colour looked as near as it could be compared, to a piece of 
mummy or embalmed flesh, interspersed with a great many 
iron-coloured spots, and in its shape resembled a great 
piece of flesh rolled up in four or five folds, and had some 
appearance of the marcasite or iron stone. This was 
esteemed the greater curiosity, inasmuch as flesh of any 
sort seldom or ever is known to have undergone so strong 

a petri- 



REMARKABLE SUBSTANCE IN A HUMAN BODY. 153 

a petrifaction, and seemed to preponderate even iron 
itself. 

The original cause of this so strongly petrified sub- 
stance, is not known; but it is imagined some vitriolic 
juices strongly impregnated with ferugineous particles 
falling upon that part of the body (for there was no other 
piece of the like kind to be found) miglit probably be the 
occasion of that wonderful and uncommon alteration. 

REMARKABLE SUBSTANCE DISCOVERED BELONGING TO A 
HUMAN BODY. 

jOL very extraordinary occurrence happened in the year 
1792, in St. Mary's church-yard, in the town of Notting- 
ham. It was found necessary to improve the passage by 
the side of the church-yard leading to the county-hall, 
which could not be eifected without taking down some 
houses, and the church-yard wall, which stood on the 
south-side ; and the better to widen the road it was also 
necessary to use a part of the church-yard. The 
ground being about ten feet higher here than in 
the street, when the fence-wall was removed which 
parted the church-yard and the street, there hap- 
pened one night a heavy shower of rain, which washed 
away a considerable portion of the earth from the church- 
yard into the street ; in consequence several coffins were 
left bare of covering, and some removed, amongst which 
was one that contained the remains of Mr. William Moore, 
who sometime lived at the sign of the Black Swan, near 
the church, and who had been buried about twelve years. 
The coffin being broken, there was found in his remains 
a concretion not unlike a pumice stone, but rather whiter, 
and as large as the liver of an ox, which was taken pos- 
session of by Mr. Walker, a respectable builder in Not- 
tingham, under whose immediate inspection the fact hap- 
pened, and which he has since divided among his 
curious friends. Mr. Moore was a remarkable man for 
VOL. II. X having 



154 EXTRAORDINARY WORKS OF ART. 

having a large belly, which projected more on one side 
than the other. He often observed to his friends that 
he perceived a hard substance forming within him when 
he was only twenty-two years of age, which grew slowly 
while he lived. He died about the age of seventy. He 
has been also heard to say that he felt but little pain from 
this substance ; but found it troublesome. It may be wor- 
thy of remark, that the ribs on that side it grew, were much 
bowed outwards. Doctors Hodges, Nevil, and Ford, had 
examined him while living, several times ; to the sur- 
vivor of whom he had promised his body to be opened 
when dead ; but he happening to survive those gentle- 
men, his body was interred without being opened. And 
certain it is, that nothing would have brought this curious 
phenomenon to light had it not been for this extraordi- 
nary and accidental occurrence. 

A MYSTERIOUS AFFAIR. 



o. 



'n the morning of the 8th of April, 1790, as two ser- 
vant boys were lading water from the river Trent at the 
lower end of the church-yard. Burton, Nottinghamshire, 
they discovered several guineas lying near the edge of the 
current, which they immediately gathered up and carried 
home. Many other persons continued to search the river 
for several days ; and about 39 guineas have been at 
different times discovered and taken care of. Although 
the above circumstance was advertised in the public 
papers at the time, no inquiry has ever been made after 
this money, nor is there any satisfactory account to be 
given how it came there. 

EXTRAORDINARY WORKS OF ART. 

An the island of Salfete, near Goa in the Brazils, are 
vast recesses cut into the rock one upon another, some 
of which are so large as to form a town of four hun- 
dred houses, and the whole ornamented with ter- 
rific 



FLOATING ISLANDS, &C. 165 

rific idols, besides elephants, tigers, leopards, lions, 
amazons, &c. 



N. 



FLOATING ISLANDS. 



EAR St. Omers, in Flanders, there is a large lake on 
which are many floating islands, for the most part inha- 
bited, and which are moved by means of cords attached 
to posts drove into the earth ; upon one of the islands there 
is a church and a convent of religious Bernardins. 



EXTRAORDINARY FRUIT. 



X HERE is in several parts of Guiana, particular trees 
known by the appellation of Totoch, very remarkable for 
the nature of their fruit, which is so large, and at the 
same time so hard, when ripe, that no one can pass under 
it without instant danger of a fractured skull. 



In many parts of Guinea there is a tree called Mignolo, 
the bark of which being pierced, furnishes an excellent 
liquor held in very high estimation by the inhabitants, 
who find it more agreeable, stronger, and more nourish- 
ing than the most exquisite wines. 

REMARKABLE PROPERTIES OF A DESERT. 

Xn the province of Gazo, in Negroland, there is a 
sandy desert of such a nature, that a number of persons 
perish owing to the driving of the sand ; and what is most 
remarkable, the bodies of such persons never putrify, but 
remain as incorruptible as those of the Egyptian mummies. 

EXTRAORDINARY DAILY RENOVATION OF FLOWERS. 

X HERE is in many parts of the kingdom of Decan, in 
Africa, a remarkable tree called the Nure-tree, which is of 
such a nature that in the morning it is covered with red 
fibrous flowers, which, during the heat of the day, fall to 

X 2 the 



156 REMARKABLE FISH, &C. 

the ground; it flowers afresh during the night, and ap- 
pears in the morning entirely renovated. 



I 



REMARKABLE FISH. 

N some rivers in Guiane there is found a curious fish, 
about the size of a smelt, which has four eyes, two on 
each side, placed one above the other; it is remarkable 
that when swimming, it keeps two eyes above, and two 
below the surface. 



T 



STRANGE CAUSES OF SICKNESS AND DEATH. 

HERE is in Peru a high mountain called Periacaka ; 
very few persons attempt to ascend to the summit of it, 
as those who attempt to do so, are immediately seized with 
a violent vomiting, which compels them to desist. 

The desert of Punas in the same country, travellers in 
vain attempt to traverse, the cause of which is attributed 
to several persons being seized with a chillness, and in- 
stantly dropping down dead upon their entrance into this 
dreary region. 

BOILING LAKE. 

An the valley of Tarapaye there is a hot lake of a circular 
form ; towards the middle the water is perpetually boiling 
for the space of twenty feet square ; and, when the water 
is extremely hot, the earth around it is extraordinary cold. 

Upon one of the branches of the Oroonoque is so large 
a cascade, that the noise the fall of water causes is said to 
surpass that of 1000 bells ringing together at one time. 



AN ARMY INNOCULATED. 
Mr. Editor, — A curious fact appears in the journal of the American Con- 
gress during the war with Eiiglind, which I think merits preservation in your 
entertaining Miscellany ; it is an order by the Congress to innoeulate the 
American army en masse, in the most expeditious manner. Here follows the 
document verbatim, bearing dale, August 13, 1777 : 

"Resolved 



A PETRIFIED KAM, &;C. 157 

" Resolved that major-general Schuyler shall send an 
officer charged with the acceleration of the march of the 
troops of Carolina, to their head quarters. The said 
troops are to halt at Dumfries, Colchester, and Alexandria, 
in Virginia, to undergo innoculation. The surgeons which 
have been sent from Philadelphia to Dumfries, are ordered 
to perform this operation with the greatest celerity." 



A PETRIFIED RAM. 

J\. LABOURER in a stone quarry in the village of Pantin 
near Paris, having detached a large block of Stone, found 
in the middle a skeleton of a ram, petrified. Each part of 
the stone contained a perfect half of the animal, the parts 
were very distinct. The block was dug out of the living 
rock, at the depth of 30 feet from the summit of the 
quarry. A petrifaction so curious, was immediately de- 
posited in the Museum of Natural History. 

This discovery was made in the course of the month of 
Jan. 1804. 

ENORMOUS WEN! 

J\ CIRCUMSTANCE lias lately occurred at Vienna, which 
has excited the attention of all the medical faculty in that 
city. A person who had been afflicted with a wen of a 
most uncommon size for 25 years past, is lately dead at 
the age of 88. This excrescence attained such a magni- 
tude during the latter part of his life, that he was com- 
pelled to keep his apartment. The faculty thought this 
case of such consequence, that they obtained a model of 
the wen in wax, at the same time anxiously waiting for 
the decease of the patient to possess themselves of the 
original. The patient having heard of the design they 
had formed upon this part of his frame, took the precau- 
tion to make a will, in which he strictly forbade the sepa- 
ration of it from his remains after his decease. The phy- 
sicians, both of the academy and the university, finding 

themselves 



158 STORMS AND HURRICANES IN FRANCE. 

themselves so far frustrated in their object of obtaining a 
subject so interesting in anatomy, made without the 
knowledge of each other, several offers of money to the 
patient, to disannul the codicil of his will. He therefore 
took money from all the parties, and by a new codicil had 
it expressed that the wen in question should after his de- 
cease, become the property of the faculty! This vague 
expression in his last testament had produced a singular 
litigation between the University and the Academy, 
which, after some time was amicably settled by an agree- 
ment that the dissection should be made in common by 
both parties. 

STORMS AND HURRICANES IN FRANCE. 

JL he 29th and 30th of Dec. 1803, were remarkable for 
the tempestuous state of the weather at several places in 
France; at Nantz, on the 29th, a most violent storm be- 
gan about midnight, and continued till seven next morn- 
ing. It was thought there was some shock of an earth- 
quake, and considerable damage was done. 

At Chartres, on the following morning, the storm began 
about six, and lasted till noon. So many chimnies, &c. 
were blown down, that the streets were almost rendered 
impassable. The lead upon the church of Notre-Dame, 
was torn off, and pieces from 6 to 1 feet in length carried 
into the air like sheets of paper. 

In the country the damage was not less considerable ; 
many church steeples were blown down, and the houses 
in general, unroofed or overthrown ; the trees broken 
or torn up by the roots. The night preceding the storm, 
the barometer experienced an elevation of nine ; but at 
noon the next day, it fell down to three lines. At Paris 
also, on the same day, several persons got very much hurt 
upon the Qaai des Augustins, by the fall of some tiles im- 
prudently heaped together upon the top of a church wall, 
then pulling down. A slate fell upon the head of a 

woman 



TAPESTRY AT BAYEUX. 169 

woman in the Rue St. Peres, which opened her skull ; she 
was taken to the Hospital de la Charite. An old man 
was thrown against a stone stud, and remained stunned 
during the whole of the day. Many children were 
thrown down upon the Pont-Neuf, in the Thuilleries, 
and in the public squares. The canvas covering the 
Corn Market was torn in many places. Twenty-five 
of the largest trees in the Thuilleries were either torn 
up by the roots, or broken by the wind. The first in the 
avenue parallel to the walk of the Feuillans, fell on the 
marble groupe, at twenty paces from it, overturned it, and 
very much damaged one of the figures. Four sentry 
boxes were thrown down, and much broken. Thick 
ropes were placed from some of the trees to the others, 
in the Thuilleries, which probably has been the means of 
saving them. 



Genuine Account of the Tapestry at Bayeux in Normandy 
said to have been worked by Matilda, Queen to William 
the Conqueror. 

JL HIS ancient tapestry has lately formed a very ample 
theme in the French newspapers, on which account it 
has been surmised, that as some political view was con- 
nected with the object of bringing forward such an obso- 
lete piece of history at this particular juncture, much 
doubt, might be attached to the whole circumstance. — 
The reasons which induced the French government to 
descant so freely upon this event, and others which dis- 
tinguished the reign of William the Conqueror, will not 
at present admit of discussion ; the curious reader, how- 
ever, is here presented with a more particular detail of 
the origin of the tapestry in question, not brought forward 
for any party purpose, being collected by an Englisli 
author of some eminence, several months before it was pro- 
bable that the First Consul thought of reviving the French 
history of this tapestry: 

" A very 



160 THE INTREPID FEMALE. 

" A very curious monument of the art of embroidery at 
the time of the Norman conquest," says this author, " ap- 
pears in the celebrated tapestry at Bayeux, which still 
exists, and is publicly exhibited at stated periods in the 
cathedral of that city. It is a web of linen, nearly two 
feet in breadth, and two hundred and forty-two in length, 
embroidered with a history of that memorable expedition, 
from the embassy of Harold to the Norman court in 1065, 
till his death in the following year. The scenes of this 
busy period are successively exhibited, and consist of 
many hundred figures of men, horses, beasts, birds, trees, 
houses, castles, and churches, with (Latin) inscriptions 
over them, explanatory of their meaning and history. 
This work is understood to have been performed under the 
inspection of Matilda, consort to William I., and was not 
improbably executed by the hands of Englishwomen^ 
whose superiority in performances of this kind, was then 
universally acknowledged." 



THE INTREPID FEMALE: 

Or, surprising life and adventures of MARY-ANNE 
TALBOT, OTHERWISE JOHN TAYLOR. 

A natural Daughter of the late Lord William Talbot, 
Steward of his Majesty's Household, Colonel of the 
Glamorganshire Militia, &c. &;c. &c. comprehending a 
Series of singular and remarkable Adventures she un- 
derwent, in the various Characters of a Foot-boy, Drum- 
mer, Deserter, Powder-Monkey, Sailor, Prisoner, &c. 
&c. &c. particularly her being wounded at the Siege of 
Valenciennes ; also in the Engagement of Lord Howe, 
on the 1st of June, 1794, and of her Imprisonment for 
eighteen Months in France ; being taken in an Expedi- 
tion under the Command of Sir Sidney Smith : Nar- 
rated by herself to the Editor of the Scientific Museum, 
and now first made public. 

Since 



THE INTREPID FEMALE. 161 

Jc^iNCE the publication of the wonderful lives and adven- 
tures of Robinson Crusoe, Moll Flanders, Moll Cutpurse, 
the German Princess, Colonel Jack, Duncan Campbell, 
and many other characters of equal celebrity, whose stories, 
from perhaps a single eccentricity or circumstance, has 
been spun with considerable interest as a romance by the 
prolific brains of celebrated writers, and gained a repu- 
tation of wonderful contrivance and prompt exertions to 
persons who never distinguished themselves by more than 
one occurrence ; yet with all the foregoing advantages, we 
have nothing on record to parallel the extraordinary suf- 
ferings and adventures of this truly unfortunate female. 
Born and bred to elevated expectations ; till the age of 
fourteen, we find in her no disposition to any masculine 
propensity ; and but for the premeditated villany of 
the most seductive arts, would, in all probability have 
passed through life, if not in affluent, yet contented ease. 
We shall not, however, in our observations anticipate the 
interest the curious reader will feel in perusing her own 
narrative, by detailing any opinion we are impressed with 
on the authors of her wrongs and sufferings, but dismiss 
this note, with the reasons which led to a digression from 
the main story : which briefly are, that the public know- 
ledge of the hardships she has undergone, may induce the 
libei'ality of a feeling and liberal public, to undertake 
something for her benefit, in addition to her Majesty's 
bounty of 201. per annum, in order that she may pass the 
latter part of her days in more ease and tranquillity than 
those of her early ones, as being wholly dependant on the 
Royal Bounty, the half-yearly receipt of which is antici- 
pated by an indispensable contract of debt, for daily sup- 
port ; and unless the Providence which has hitherto sup- 
ported her under the most perilous circumstances, should 
still befriend lu-r precarious situation, by inducing the 
wealthy and liberal to contribute towards her future pros- 
voL. II. Y pects, 



162 THB ADVENTURES OF 

pects, in supporting a subscription suggested by the pub- 
lisher of her adventures; she must inevitably remain — 
the Child of Chance, and of Misfortune ! Subscriptions 
towards the relief of Mary-Ann Talbot received 
only by the Publisher, R. S. Kirby, London-house Yard, 
St. Pauls. 

[The veracity of every circumstance stated, will be 
proved in the course of the Narrative.] 

I WAS born to experience in the extremest sense of the 
word, the disagreeables incident to human nature ; and if 
the reader of the following pages should judge harshly 
the inducements that precipitated me into the early 
part of misfortunes which have attended each succeeding 
year of my life, I have only to supplicate commiseration 
towards a being bred in a country village, and from thence 
sent to a boarding-school 180 miles from the metropolis, 
on leaving which, after nine years careful attention to my 
education and morals, I have to date the commencement 
of my future troubles. 

I am the youngest of sixteen natural children, which 
my mother had by Lord William Talbot, Baron of Hen- 
sol, Steward of his Majesty's Household, and Colonel of 
the Glamorganshire Militia, with whom she kept a secret 
correspondence for several years. I never could trace any 
particular event taking place at my birth, which might 
serve as a presage of the singular adventures which I have 
since met with ; unless it was in the circumstance of my 
being a surviving twin, nor do I know any thing relative to 
the juvenile part of my life, but from the information of 
an only sister considerably elder than myself, and whom 
indeed I had taken to be my mother. From her I learnt 
I was born at London, in the parish of St. Giles, on the 
2d day of Feb. 1778, in the house now in part occupied 
by Mr. Gosling, the banker, Lincoln's Inn Fields. The 

hour 



MARY -ANN TALBOT. l6S 

hour which brought me into the world deprived me of the 
fostering care of a mother, whose loss I can never suHi- 
ciently regret, and in a short time I was sent to nurse at a 
small village called Worthin, about twelve miles from 
Shrewsbury, where I remained until I had attained my 
fifth year, under the fostering care of an excellent woman, 
without feeling the irreparable loss I had sustained in the 
death of the only parent who might have been my pro- 
tector and guide through life. 

At the expiration of my fifth year, I was removed, 
(I know not by whose orders, but rather imagine by some 
friend of Lord Talbot's, who died before I left my nurse,) 
to Mrs. Tapperly's boarding school, Foregate-street, 
Chester, in order to receive a liberal education. Here I 
remained nine years, unacquainted with the vices of the 
world, and knew no misery but seeing children more for- 
tunate than myself, receiving the embraces of their 
parents and friends. During my residence at Mrs. Tap- 
perly's, I found a kind protector in my only surviving 
sister, who was married to a Mr. Wilson of Trevalyn, in 
the county of Denbigh, North-Wales. 

In this relative I found every attention and care 
expected from a parent, and whom, indeed, as I have 
before stated, I took to be such. In her society I enjoyed 
the only gleam of happiness I was doomed to experience, 
from the moment of my coming into the world to the pre- 
sent instant ; and even this was but of short duration ; for 
alas, in the bloom of her youth, and the flower of her 
age, she unfortunately fell a victim to childbirth, leaving 
me to regret, by the same visitation of Providence, a 
second parent, in the loss of a sister and friend united, 
and whom I tenderly loved ; and as such, have never 
ceased to lament. She told me the name she was known by 
before her marriage, was the Hon. Miss Dyer, being the 
name of the family she was brought up in, and possessed a 

Y 2 fortune 



164 LEAVING SCHOOL. 

fortune of 30,0001. besides an income of fifteen hundred 
pounds per annum. 

Deprived thus of the only relation and friend 1 knew in 
the world ; and that at an age too, when I stood most in 
need of her advice and assistance, I felt a vacuity in ray 
heart, which rendered existence irksome. The care of 
me now devolved solely on a gentleman of the name of 
Shuker, who resided at Newport, in the county of Salop, 
who, within three months after the decease of my sister, 
taking on himself the authority of a guardian, removed 
me from the school at Chester, and placed me in his own 
family ; where I soon became sensible of the loss I had 
sustained in the death of my dear sister, in a more eminent 
degree than ever ; as the severity of Mr. Shuker seldom 
permitted me to quit the room assigned me but at meal- 
times, and seemed by the general conduct of his man- 
ners, to inspire me with a dread of his person, and 
consequently to avoid as much as possible any con- 
versation on my circumstances, or that of my deceased 
sister. I must confess I was at a loss during the period 
I resided with him, to assign any reason for his conduct 
towards me ; but have since been so perfectly satisfied 
as to its being a premeditated plan of his, to throw me 
in the way of any person whatever, who would remove 
from his care a charge, that, for reasons only known to 
himself, made the sight of me to him intolerable. 

I had not been long under the roof of this inhospitable 
man, before he introduced me to a Captain Essex Bowen 
of the 82d regiment of foot, who I had once before seen 
at Chester, iu company with Mr. Shuker ; and understood 
from him, was then on the recruiting service. This 
was about a week previous to my quitting Mrs. Tapperly'sj 
and who now appeared to be well acquainted with the 
particulars of my birth and family. 

From the moment of his introduction to me at Mr. 

Shuker's, 



CONVEYED TO LONDON. 165 

Shuker's, he paid me particular attention, which I ac- 
counted for in consequence of Mr. Shuker's observing — 
I was to consider him as my future guardian, he being ap- 
pointed to superintend my education abroad ; and requested 
me to pay him every possible regard, as the person to 
whose care I was entrusted. 

In a few days I quitted Mr. Shuker's in company with 
Captain Bowen, who, on our departure, pretended to my 
late guardian, the most inviolable attachment to my 
family ; and assured him in my hearing, that he would on 
his arrival in town, place me under the care of a female 
friend, in order to complete my education, and knowledge 
of the world ; without which, he declared, I should be 
considered as an alien by my own family. 

Unexperienced in the ways of a deceitful world, my 
youthful mind was elated at the thoughts of visiting- 
London, a place which I had heard so much talk of, and 
was highly delighted with the varying scenes which alter- 
nately presented themselves to my view on the road, 
though the season of the year was inauspicious to beau- 
tiful prospects, being in January, 1792. On our arrival 
in the capital, which we reached without any remarkable 
circumstance, I was conveyed by Captain Bowen to the 
Salopian coffee-house, Charing-Cross, kept at that time by 
a Mrs. Wright, to whom 1 was introduced as his charge ; 
and where I soon after experienced a visible change in 
the manners of my pretented protector ; who, in a very 
short period put in practice the villainous scheme which 
he had, no doubt, before our arrival in town, premedi- 
tately resolved on. Instead of exhibiting the least re- 
morse, or endeavouring to soothe a mind, agitated by his 
proceedings, he threw off the mask which had hitherto 
concealed the villain, and placed in my view the deter- 
mined rufhan. Intimidated by his manners, and in the 
knowledge of no friend near me, I became every thing- 
he 



166 EMBARKED FOR ST. DOMINGO. 

he could desire ; and so far aided his purposes as to be- 
come a willing instrument to my future misfortunes. 

I did not remain long before I was to become the ob- 
ject of more degradation ; as, in consequence of an order 
from the regiment Captain Bowen belonged to, he was 
ordered to embark for St. Domingo ; and projecting far- 
ther plans on my happiness, for, conceiving me pro- 
perly subjugated to his purpose, and remarking my 
figure was extremely well calculated for the situation he 
had assigned me, he produced a complete suit of male 
attire ; and for the first time made me acquainted with 
the unmanly design he had formed, of taking me with 
him to the West-Indies, in the menial capacity of his 
foot-boy. 

I had not much time to deliberate how to act ; and by 
this time knowing his peremptory disposition, in a fit of 
frenzy and despair, I yielded to the base proposal, and 
assumed the character he had thought fit to assign me, in 
the name of John Taylor, which I ever after retained. 

Thus equipped, I travelled with him to Falmouth, 
where soon after our arrival, we embarked on board the 
Crown transport, Captain Bishop, and set sail for the 
West Indies on the 20th day of March, 1792. We had 
not been long on our voyage before I began to experience 
the hardships of my situation : shipboard even to the ro- 
bust and most daring of the male sex, is at first a very 
unpleasant dwelling; and it must naturally be supposed, 
was to one like myself particularly disagreeable ; and the 
novelty of my new attire did not exempt me from being 
compelled to live and mess with the most menial of tbe 
ship's company, as Captain Bowen never suffered me 
once after I was on board to eat with him, but forced me 
to put up with what he left at meal times. 

Fearful of incurring the raillery which detection 
would have occasioned, I resolved to endure the hard- 
ships 



A STORM DURING THE VOYAGE. 167 

ships I suffered with patience, rather than discover 
my sex. 

During our voyage we encountered a most tremendous 
gale, which continued for several days with such fury, 
that we were obliged to throw our guns overboard, in or- 
der to lighten the ship, and were reduced to such distress, 
as to render it necessary for the pumps to be kept at 
work continually ; in consequence of which every person 
without distinction, (officers excepted,) was obliged to as- 
sist in the laborious office. It was in this extremity I first 
learnt the duty of a sailor ; being obliged on some ne- 
cessary occasion, first to go aloft, which frequent use 
rendered at last familiar, and by no means irksome. 

In addition to our affliction, the storm having driven 
us several leagues out of our latitude, we were compelled 
to put ourselves on half allowance ; having, in our eager- 
ness to lighten the ship, thrown overboard, besides the 
guns, casks of water, bags of biscuits, and many articles 
of indispensable necessity to our future comfort which we 
after severely missed ; in consequence of which, we were 
compelled to put ourselves on the short allowance of a 
biscuit per day ; and for water we were so much distressed, 
as to be wholly without for the space of eight days, during 
which period we were happy in consequence of some fa- 
vourable showers, to wring the rain-water from our watch 
coats, which, on such occasions, we never failed to hand 
out, to retain as much as possible the providential succour 
received. Nay, to such extremity were we reduced for 
want of this necessary article of life, that I have gladly 
flown to any little settlement of water on the deck, eagerly 
to apply my lips to the boards to allay the parching thirst 
I experienced. 

As if the measure of our troubles were not accom- 
plished, our main-top-gallant mast was rent asundei , and 
swept four men busily engaged at the windlass for our 

mutual 



168 MADE A DRUMMER. 

mutual preservation, into the sea, whom we never saw 
more. 

Whether in consequence of the agitation I underwent, 
in the exertion of what I conceived now my duty, or the 
want of necessary provision, I know not; but the sudden 
loss of appetite I experienced, threatened to bring on me 
a fit of illness. After the storm was abated, a strong gale 
sprung up, and being in favour of our caurse, we proceeded 
at the rate of thirteen and fourteen knots an hour. 

We arrived at Port-au-Prince in the island of St. Do- 
mingo, early in the month of June; where, after the 
fatigue and distress I suffered on the voyage, by fortunate 
opportunities of taking moderate rest, my health and 
spirits were quickly restored, except a little weakness and 
debility brought afterwards on by the heat of the climate, 
and occasional melancholy reflections on my own unfor- 
tunate situation ; as during my continuance on this island 
I avoided as much as possible, the sight and company of 
my destructive and abandoned betrayer. 

Our stay at St. Domingo was but of short duration, 
owing to the arrival of a packet from England, which 
missed overtaking us, with orders to countermand our des- 
tination, and to join the troops on the continent, under 
the command of his Royal Highness the Duke of York, 
by the gale before described. Here it was I was doomed 
to undergo another change of character ; for Captain 
Bowen, judging it not convenient to continue me in the 
situation of his foot-boy, proposed my being enrolled in 
the regiment as a drummer, which, on my objecting to, 
he threatened to have me conveyed up the country, and 
sold as a slave. From dread of his really putting his 
threat in execution, I reluctantly acquiesced in his desire, 
and was immediately equipped in the dress of a drum- 
mer, and learnt the art of beating the drum from the in- 
structions of drum-major Rickardson. In pursuance of 

the 



ARRIVED IN FLANDER3. 169 

the orders brought by the packet, we immediately em- 
barked on board some transports appointed for that ser- 
vice; and, being favoured with a brisk gale, during the 
best part of cur voyage, we arrived safely at the place 
of our destination, a port on the coast of Flanders, the 
name of which I cannot well remember ; as, immediately 
after our disembarkation, we marched off to join the main 
army at head quarters ; previous to reaching which,! found 
I was to answer the purpose of Capt. Bowen, as before, in 
the capacity of his drudge and foot-boy, whenever oppor- 
tunity would allow the attendance from my duty as 
drummer. This mode of life was by no means congenial 
to my feelings; and, indeed, was in my eye worse than 
the situation I was in while foot-boy, only although I 
was more immediately compelled to endure the sight of 
a man, now rendered to me detestable. 

I perfectly remember one, among a multitude of ha- 
rassing excursions, which had nearly proved fatal to his 
Royal Highness the Duke of York, a part of his army, 
as well as myself. After a long and heavy march of 
thirty miles in one day, without halting but once for re- 
freshment, while pitching our tents and making intrench- 
ments, a part of our troops, for a time taking rest, were 
surprised and surrounded by the enemy, excepting a small 
space which led to a*i adjacent wood, and furnished a 
means of retreat to a part of the army, among which I 
was one, though without other apparel than my small 
clothes, which I had not taken off. The enemy ob- 
serving our camp at rest, made the attempt in the 
middle of the night, owing to which circumstance many 
others, as well as myself, were equally unprepared in 
point of accoutrements, though the most we suffered on 
this occasion was the alarm, as a large party of Austrians, 
who had doubtless watched the motions of our adversa- 
ries, came timely to our assistance, and compelled the un- 
VoL. 11. z welcome 



170 SIEGE OP VALENCIENNES. 

welcome intruders to make a precipitate retreat, by which 
we regained our former station. 

We continued to have frequent skirmishes with the 
enemy previous to the grand object of our royal com- 
mander, namely, the celebrated siege of Valenciennes, 
at which place I became subject to greater hardships than 
any I had hitherto experienced. Compelled to remain 
among my comrades wherever duty called, in the various 
struggles which preceded the surrender of the place, an 
eye witness to hundreds of friends and foes, indiscri- 
minately falling around me ; where the 11th dragoons, 
conspicuous above the rest, fought with their broad- 
swords hand to hand, over heaps of dead and dying 
soldiers, 1 was shocked to see many a brave fellow at first 
but slightly wounded, meet his death by the trampling of 
horses, spurred on by the contending antagonists ; during 
these conflicts, obliged to keep a continual roll to drown 
the cries and confusion, on the various scenes of action. 
The infantry equally distinguished themselves ; as, where- 
ever the enemy, however superior in numbers, opposed 
their progress, they never failed to meet their fate, on the 
point of the British bayonet. 

Towards the end of this memorable siege, I received 
two wounds, though fortunately neither deep nor dan- 
gerous : the first from a musquet ball, which glancing be- 
tween my breast and collar bone struck my rib ; and the 
other on the small of my back, from the broad sword of 
an Austrian trooper, which, I imagine rather proeeeded 
from accident than design, the marks of which two 
wounds I still bear, though at the same time I carefully 
concealed them, from the dread of their discovering my 
sex, and effected a perfect cure, by the assistance of a lit- 
tle basilican, lint, and a few Dutch drops. These acci- 
dents happened on the same day the Hon. Mr. Tolmache 
was killed by a auisket ball. 

Soon 



DESERTS FROM THE TOWN. 17l 

Soon after Valenciennes surrendered, and we in conse- 
quence marched in and took possession of the town, and 
found most of the women and children had taken refuge 
in cellars and places underground. I need scarcely no- 
tice, every protection possible was afforded to these un- 
fortunate sufferers. On our arrival in the town 1 learnt 
that my persecutor, Captain Bowen, was no more, having 
fallen in the attack; this I was informed by one of my 
comrades: and though I had every reason rather to re- 
joice at such an event than grieve, yet it was with the 
greatest difficulty I could smother the sudden emotion 
I experienced on the intelligence, or conceal the hidden 
character of a woman, in shedding a tear on his fate, how- 
ever unworthy. I had no great difficulty in finding his 
body; nor was it thought strange I should endeavour to 
seek him out, being always in the habit of attending on 
him at his tent when I was off duty : I took from his 
pocket the key of his desk, out of which I took some 
letters, which on perusing in private, I found chiefly re- 
lating to myself; being the correspondence of my former 
guardian Mr. Shuker : these I carefully preserved, and 
sewed them up under the shoulder-straps of my shirt. 

I now felt my situation truly distressing : left in a 
strange country without a friend to consult with, or a place 
where I could find an asylum, I suffered under the most 
poignant grief, at the same time labouring under an ex- 
cruciating pain, and my wounds so situated, that I durst 
not reveal them without a discovery of my sex, which I 
ever carefully avoided. I hazarded every thing to keep 
inviolable my own secret, and committed the care of my 
wounds to my own single endeavour and the hand of 
time. Thus situated, 1 formed a resolution to desert from 
a duty at best imposed on me, and endeavour to return 
to England. This step I might not have thought on, had 
I not discovered by Mr. Shuker's letters I had been grossly 

2 2 imposed 



172 ABRIVfiS AT LUXEMBURG. 

imposed on, as money had been remitted to Captain 
Bowen, and my name mentioned in a way which gave 
rise to suspicions I had hitherto been a stranger to, and 
to explain how he had notwithstanding, treated me, was 
now ray purpose to reveal. Having formed my plan, little 
time was necessary to put it in execution. I set out on 
foot that morning for the first place Providence might 
point out, as my deliverance from an enemy's country ; 
however inexperienced I might be in some respects I 
had the precaution to change my drummer's dress for 
one I had been accustomed to wear when on board, and 
during a long part of my journey I carefully avoided any 
town, or place of considerable appearance ; always on such 
occasions taking a circuitous rout, frequently sleeping in 
a tree, under a hay stack, and sometimes in places much 
less convenient. 

The diminutive and insignificant figure which I made 
in my sailor's attire, served me among the peasantry of 
the country villages, I was under the necessity of passing, 
to obtain refreshment from any straggling boy I could 
meet with on the skirts of the place, as a passport ; for no 
one thought it worth their while to question a person of my 
mean appearance. 

In this manner I arrived at Luxemburg in Sep- 
tember, without meeting the least molestation ; here 
I soon found my ignorance in political matters had led 
me into an error of a very awkward nature ; and that 
being a town in possession of the French, they would not 
suffer me to proceed farther on ray journey. Had I for- 
tunately taken the contrary route, I should most probahly 
have reached Dunkirk or Calais in one third of the time 
it occupied me, in traversing that part of the country ; 
us I have learnt from persons conversant with the miij)s 
of the continent, the distance from Valenciennes to either 

of 



ENTERED ON BOARD A FRENCH LUGGER. 173 

of the last mentioned parts, is small in comparison to that 
I had inadvertently taken to Luxemburg. Finding ray- 
self thus situated and destitute of every necessary of life, 
and in the midst of a country where no one paid me the 
smallest regard, I vras constrained through mere neces- 
sity, though sorely against my wish, to engage with a 
Captain Le Sage, commander of a French lugger, on 
board which I embarked on the seventeenth of Sep- 
tember, 1793. Soon after which we dropped down the 
Rhine, and sailed on a cruise, when 1 was put to the 
most common drudgery of the vessel ; but even this I 
could have borne with patience, had not the painful idea 
occurred to my mind, that in this new situation, I should 
be doomed to raise ray arm against my countryraen, which 
I learnt too late was the purpose of Le Sage, whom I had 
taken for a captain of a merchantman, but found no other 
than commander of a kind of privateer. Fortune, how- 
ever, in this one instance, proved kinder to me than she 
had hitherto been accustomed, as, on this occasion, in- 
stead of falling in with some of the English merchant- 
men, as it was generally thought we should, and the 
ardent wish of Le Sage, our commander; we, after cruis- 
ing about four months without any success, or meeting 
with any thing worthy notice, fell in with the British 
fleet, under the command of Admiral Lord Howe, then in 
the Channel. 

On our lirst sight of the British, Le Sage ordered ever^ 
one to their duty ; and observing me to be missing, he 
followed me to where I was concealed among the bal- 
last, to which I had contrived access through the 
cabin, in fear of being obliged to act against my 
country ; and finding me pereist in an obstinate refusal to 
come on deck, he beat me on the back and sides with a 
rope in a most inhuman manner, and drove me before liiiu 
up the cabin stairs; but when on deck I absolutely re- 
fused 



174 TAKEN BY LORD HOWe's FLEET. 

fused to assist in defence of his vessel ; and he being too 
much occupied to think only of me, left me to my own 
meditation. The British now bore on us, and, after 
a trifling resistance from the French, through desperation 
only, we were captured, and I considered as an English 
boy acting against my country, carried with Le Sage and 
his companions before Lord Howe, on board the Queen 
Charlotte, to be examined. 

Being examined by his Lordship on the cause of 
serving on board an enemy's ship, I briefly told him, 
*' That being without friends in England, I had accom- 
panied a gentleman to the Continent in capacity of foot- 
boy, on whose death, I had in the greatest distress reached 
Luxemburg, in hopes of getting a passage to my native 
country, but finding that impossible, it being at that 
time in possession of the French, I was constrained, though 
much against my inclination, to enter into Le Sage's ves- 
sel, having experienced during the short stay I made in 
the town, no attention paid to my distress, chiefly, as I 
imagined, from being English ; and that my determina- 
tion from the moment I engaged with Captain Le Sage 
was, to desert the first opportunitythat offered to forward 
my passage to England ; but had I known the intention 
of Le Sage was to act in an offensive manner against my 
countrymen, I assured his Lordship, I would rather have 
perished than been induced to have set my foot on board 
his vessel ; having, previous to sailing, taken him to be 
commander of a merchantman, and as such engaged with 
him." 

Fortunately, his Lordship did not think of questioning 
me concerning the place where my late master died ; as 
in such an event I must have unquestionably have acknow- 
ledged myself as a deserter from the British forces at Va- 
lenciennes, being in no way prepared to resist such an en- 
quiry ; as my readers will be convinced the whole of my 

answers 



SENT ON BOARD THE BRUNSWICK. 175 

answers to his Lordship's questions were founded on the 
hardships I had experienced, and in no shape framed to 
deceive. This statement joined no doubt to the French- 
men's declaring my unwillingness to act in defence of the 
lugger, with the beating I had a little before experienced 
from Le Sage, gained me a favourable dismissal from 
Lord Howe, and served as a passport to a situation on 
board one of the ships in his Lordship's fleet, on board of 
which I was immediately sent. 

Elated with joy on beholding myself placed once more 
among my countrymen ; as, after my examination before 
Lord Howe, I was stationed on board the Brunswick, 
Captain John Hervey, where the story of my adventures, 
with the hardships I had suffered, gained me among the 
seamen as many friends as hearers, particularly for those 
I had undergone Avhile on board the Frenchman. Our 
object in this cruise was to seek the fleet of the enemy, and 
bring on an engagement. The service allotted me, was 
to serve at the second gun on the quarter deck, and hand 
cartridge to the men; or, to speak in the seaman's phrase, 
to act in the capacity of powder monkey, I had not however 
been long on board before Captain Hervey, observing my 
cleanliness and manner different from many lads on board, 
called me to him, and questioned me as to my friends, 
and whether I had not run away from some school, to try 
the sea : finding by my answers I had been better brought 
up and educated than most in my present situation, he 
observed, if I would consider him as a confidential friend, 
and tell him the whole truth, 1 should find a protector in 
him, as he had children of his own, and could not tell 
what hardships they might encounter if he was dead ; on 
which I told him I had neither father nor mother living, 
and that oppression from the person to whose care I was 
entrusted, had first caused my quitting home; and that 
in short, I was wholly destitute of any friend in the 

world. 



176 ENGAGEMENT WITH THE FRENCH FLEET. 

world. He appeared concerned at my early misfortunes 
in life, and promoted tne immediately to be his principal 
cabin boy, in which capacity I continued to serve him until 
our fleet came within sight of the enemy. 

Three months after my coming on board the 
Brunswick, our fleet fell in with that of the French, 
which brought on the ever memorable action of the 1st 
of June; an event which will ever be remembered with 
heartfelt satisfaction by the brave fellows who shared the 
toils of that auspicious day, and indeed by every lover of 
our glorious constitution and country. I cannot enter 
into a minute description of the action, being in the first 
part so busily engaged, and in the latter so much wound- 
ed ; and shall, in consequence, commit a description of 
the part our gallant crew took in this exploit by what I 
afterwards was informed while lying under cure of the 
wounds I got while employed on board a ship, the glory 
of every one who had the felicity of belonging to her, I 
mean *' the Brunswick J' 

This ship sustained a most tremendous conflict, being 
singly engaged for a considerable time with three seventy- 
fours. One of these she sent to the bottom ; another, 
conceiving her much weakened from her exertions, de- 
termined to board, and manned her yards and shrouds, 
with a view of running up along-side, and flinging in all 
her crew at once. She observing this, with the greatest 
intrepidity and coolness, reserved a whole broadside, and 
waited her approach. The enemy now drew near, and in 
one discharge the Brunswick brought every mast by the 
board, and scattered her crew like so many mice upQj^^ 
the ocean. The other seventy-four yet remained, and 
now attempted to close with the Brunswick, harassed 
and enfeebled by her amazing efforts. At this moment 
the Ramillies, commanded by Captain Hervey's brother, 
came up, and running in between the Brunswick and the 

Frenchman, 



WOUNDED ON THE FIRsjT OF JUNE. 177 

Frenchman, took the enemy's fire, and relieved our gal- 
lant ship. So closely was she at times engaged, that she 
was unable to haul up her lower deck port lids, and was 
therefore obliged to fire through them. Nine were in 
consequence torn from her side ; and the last broad-side 
she gave, every muzzle of her lower deckers touched the 
copper of the enemy's bottom. The chief part of this ac- 
tion I was spectator as well as actor in, though strange to 
add, was not in the least intimidated. Just before the 
coming up of the Ramilies, I received a severe wound 
above the ankle of my left leg, by a grape shot, that 
struck on the aftermost brace of the gun, which re- 
bounding on the deck, lodged in my leg ; notwithstand- 
ing which I attempted to rise three times, but without 
effect, and on the last effort part of the bone projected 
through the skin in such a manner as wholly to prevent 
my standing, if I had been able to rise ; in addition, to 
complete the misfortune, I received another wound by 
a musket ball, that went completely through my thigh, 
a little above the knee of the same leg, and lay in this 
crippled state till the engagement was over ; every person 
on board not wounded, being too much occupied to yield 
me the least assistance. I remained in this situation the 
rest of the action ; but at length was conveyed, with 
many other wounded, to the cock-pit ; where the surgeon, 
after making me suffer the most excruciating pain, could 
not extract the grape-shot from above ray ankle, so com- 
pletely was it lodged, and surrounded by the swelling 
which soon took place, and prevented his endeavour, 
through fear of injuring the tendons, among which he 
declared it lay. 

Our ship being so much shattered, it was deemed neces- 
sary she should be put in port to undergo repairs ; in con- 
sequence of which we were towed into Spithead soon 
after the action : but the severity of my wounds obliged 
Vol. II. A A me 



178 ENTERED ON BOARD THE VESUVIUS. 

me to keep close to my berth, and was thus deprived of 
the gratifying pleasure of being hailed with those of my 
gallant messmates, who, on their arrival at Spithead, 
were greeted with the loudest acclamations of applause, 
by their grateful countrymen. With the first convenient 
opportunity, I was conveyed to Haslar hospital, at Gos- 
port, and placed under the care of surgeon Dodd, as out- 
patient, there not being sutficient room, from the number 
of wounded seamen, to admit me into the hospital : dur- 
ing the time I lay under his hands, I lodged at No. 2, 
Rieraes Alley, Gosport, and supported myself with money 
I had received from Captain Hervey prior to the engage- 
ment. After four months attendance, and obtaining a 
partial cure, as surgeon Dodd, though the utmost of his 
skill was exerted, could not extract the ball, it having 
lodged among the tendons, as before stated ; to have cut 
among which, he said, would make me a cripple for 
life. 

At length, little remaining but the scars which I shall 
carry to my grave, and having obtained in a great mea- 
sure the use of my leg, I was discharged from the hospi- 
tal, and soon after entered on board the Vesuvius bomb. 
Captain Toralinson, then belonging to the squadron un- 
der the command of Sir Sydney Smith, lying at Spithead. 
and immediately commenced a cruise, in hopes of making 
prizes ; but after some weeks cruising on the French 
coast without success, we steered for the Mediterranean, 
and, on our arrival at Gibraltar, came to an anchor, 
where we continued for three days ; during that time we 
received an order to join the squadron under Sir Sidney 
Smith, on which we immediately weighed, and pro- 
ceeded according to the directions received. Nothing 
worth notice occurred until we fell in with Sir Sydney 
and the ships under his command, in company of which 
we proceeded to Havre de Grace, where we were soon 

after 



TAKEN PRISONER AND CONFINED, 179 

after separated in a gale ; and continuing on the French 
coast with intent to rejoin Sir Sydney, fell in with two pri- 
vateers near Dunkirk ; from whom, observing their supe- 
rior force, Captain Tomlinson endeavoured to make sail. 
The Frenchman observing his determination, crowded 
all the sail he could make, in chase ; and we instantly 
commenced a running fire, which continued seven hours; 
at the end of which their superior weight of metal 
brought us to, and were in consequence immediately 
boarded. What became of Captain Tomlinson, the ves- 
sel, and part of the crew, I know not, as myself, and 
William Richards, a young midshipman, (in which ca- 
pacity I also acted on board the Vesuvius) were separated 
from the rest, and carried on board one of the two pri- 
vateers that captured us ; we imagined the rest were con- 
veyed on board the other ; but I have since reason to think 
the Vesuvius was recaptured, as she now continues in the 
British service. 

When on board the privateer, who had taken us pri- 
soners, we were deprived of our dirks, and conveyed to 
Dunkirk, where we were lodged in the prison of St. Clair, 
in Church-street, which had a little before belonged to 
the nuns of St. Clair, some of whom, since the revolution, 
have settled in England. Here I experienced the hard- 
ships of a French prison for the tedious space of eighteen 
months ; in the course of which time Richards and my- 
self projected a plan for our escape, by getting to the top 
of the prison, in order to jump off; but being observed 
by a centinel on duty, we were both confined in separate 
dungeons, where it was so dark, I never saw daylight, 
during the whole time, of eleven weeks ; and the only al- 
lowance I had, was bread and water, let down to me from 
the top of the cell. My bed consisted only of a little straw, 
not more than half a truss, which I never had changed. 
For two days I was so ill in this dreadful place that I 

A A 2 was 



180 EXCHANGED AND RELEASED. 

was unable to stir from my wretched bed of straw, to 
reach the miserable allowance; which, in consequence, 
was drawn up in the same state it was the day before 
let down. The next morning a person, who, I suppose, 
was the keeper of the place, came into the dungeon with- 
out a light, (which way he came I knew not, but suppose 
by a private door, through which I afterwards passed 
to be released) and called out to me, " Are you dead ;" to 
which I was only able to reply, by requesting a little 
water, being parched almost to death by thirst, resulting 
from the fever which preyed on me : he told me he had 
none, and left me in a brutal manner, without offering 
the least relief. Nature quickly restored me to health, 
and 1 sought the bread and water with as eager an incli- 
nation as a glutton would seek a feast. About five weeks 
after my illness, an exchange of prisoners taking place, 1 
obtained my liberty, but did not see any thing of Richards 
till after my arrival in England, where I met him by 
chance, near Covent-Garden. 

During my residence in the prison of St. Clair, I ob- 
served among the rest of the prisoners, a very ingenious 
man, a German, who employed his time, and obtained 
more comforts in this place, than most others, by working 
gold wire in a particular manner, and which he disposed 
of, in the various shapes of bracelets, rings, and orna- 
mental chains for ladies dresses. This man seemed fearful 
I should learn his method of workmanship, and was 
angry whenever I particularly noticed him at his work; 
notwithstanding, I contrived by frequent sight of the 
method he used, to bring the secret with me to England. 

I was extremely weak, though in excellent spirits, on 
my deliverance from prison, but could scarcely bear the 
light for some days afterwards, it having an effect on my 
eye^, as everything round me was chalk. 1 had thoughts 
of returning to England by the means of those who ef- 
fected 



ENGAGES IN A VOYAGE TO NEW-YORK. 181 

fected my release, but was diverted from this measure by 
the following circumstance : 

Following my fellow prisoners just released, and from 
the pain in my leg, being considerably behind them, it 
was my chance to overhear the conversation of a gentle- 
man making inquiries in English, of some seafaring men 
(by appearance,) in Church-street, near the markef, re- 
specting any lad they knew, willing to make a voyage to 
America, in quality of ship's steward. I immediately 
accosted him, and preferred my service, being des- 
titute of necessaries, and prefering such a situation, 
if 1 could obtain it, to a return to my native country, 
among the rest of my countrymen lately exchanged. 
The gentleman immediately asking me my present 
situation at Dunkirk, which I briefly explained ; in con- 
sequence of which I accompanied him back to the prison 
of St. Clair, where finding by the keepers of the prison 
I had given him a true relation, he engaged me in the 
above capacity to perform the voyage to New-York, 
and from thence to England (which he informed me 
would be his next voyage) for 501. and all I could make, 
at the same time advancing me sufficient cash in part, to 
fit me out: his name was Captain John Field, of the 
Ariel, merchantman, New-York, on board which vessel I 
directly embarked ; and during our short stay at Dunkirk, 
was employed in correcting the ship's books, paying the 
men, victualling the ship, and taking in the cargo. Our 
vessel was chiefly laden with bale-goods, among which 
was French-lace to the value of 50001. We set sail for 
New- York, in the montli of Aug. 1796, and arrived after 
a successful and expeditious voyage of not more than a 
month, at the place of our destination, which, on going on 
shore I mistook for London, and particularly remarked 
a church, so like the one in Co vent-garden, that I abso- 
lutely mistook it to be that church. I was detained little 
more than a fortnight at New-York, and was chiefly em- 
ployed 



182 THE captain's niece in love. 

ployed in taking an account of the goods delivered to the 
respective owners, after which duty, I accepted an invita- 
tion to accompany my Captain in an excursion to Provi- 
dence State, in Rhode Island, where his family resided. 
During this journey, and indeed the whole of the voyage, 
I was considered rather as a friend and companion, by 
Captain Field, than a person in his pay, and under his 
command. 

On our arrival at Rhode Island, we found Captain 
Field's family in good health ; it consisted of his wife, 
four children, and a niece. Here I spent the most agree- 
able fortnight of my life, as the Captain neither paid nor 
received any visits, but I made one of the party : Mrs. 
Field also appeared equally attached to me, which made 
the short time I continued among this worthy family, ap- 
pear to me but as a dream, so few and transient were my 
days of happiness. Among other visits, we made one to 
Mr. Field, the Captain's father, a very agreeable and 
worthy gentleman. The only circumstance of an unplea- 
sant nature that occurred during my stay in America, was 
the great partiality the Captain's niece had to my company, 
and which proceeded to such an extent, as to make me the 
offer of her hand in marriage. I made several excuses, 
but could not divert her attention from what she proposed. 
Mrs. Field at length being acquainted with the circum- 
stance, made my youth and inexperience in the world, a 
great objection ; but neither my excuses, nor Mrs. Field's 
request, had any weight, opposed to the young lady's in- 
clination, which she endeavoured to accomplish to the 
last hour of my residence at Rhode Island. She re- 
quested before Mrs. Field, that I would make her a pre- 
sent of my picture ; for which purpose I sat for a minia- 
ture at New York, in the full uniform dress of an Ame- 
rican officer — for this picture I paid eighteen dollars. 
The time of our departure for England being arrived, 1 

reluctantly 



ARRIVF,:^ IN KNOLANI). 183 

rcliicl.'uilly took my leave of Mr^*. ImcUI, and family; l»uL 
had scarcely proceeded two miles on the way to New- 
\ ork, before I was summoned back, being overtaken by 
a servant, wlio informed the Captain and myself, wo 
must come back, as the young; lady was in strong fits. 
We retui'ncd, and found her still in a fit, out of which, 
with great difficulty we recovered her; and I by making 
her a promise of a speedy return fi-om England, with 
great reluctance on her part, took my final departure. 

Our stay at New-York was but short ; the mate, in the 
absence of Captain Field and myself, having taken chai'ge 
of the cargo consigned to England, and obtained the ne- 
cessary invoices of the goods; chiefiy manufactured cot- 
ion, and camblets. This, had I icmained on board, 
would have been pai't of my duty ; but through indul- 
gence from the captain, was performed by another. We 
proceeded on our voyage to England witli a favourable 
wind, and arrived at Cowes, in the Isle of Wight, wilh- 
out meeting with any thing particular on the wa}'. Our 
provisions falling short, we took in some fresh, and after 
waiting three days for a convoy, j)roceeded to the river 
Thames, where we safely cast anchor on the 20th of No- 
vember, 1796, and cam(» to a mooring in the tier off 
( 'hurch-hole, llotherhithe. Wo delivered our carao, 
and had been some days taking in a fiesh one, Caj)tain 
Field not thinking of staying longer in J'2ngland than ab- 
solutely necessary for taking in an outward bountl cai-go ; 
and the many acts of IViondshi]) 1 had exjierienccd from 
this gentleman, delerniiiied me i% accompany him in 
any voyage he might undertake; particularly as he had 
often inl'ormed me if I continued with him a voyage or 
two more, he would resign the command of the vessel to 
me; it Ijeing his inlentlon to retire from the sea service 
in a slioit time, lie told n)e he had an idea of making a 

tradiuii 



184 BOUNDS AN IMTIUIDI-.U. 

trading voyage up the Mediterranean, and commissioned 
me to purchase some maps, charts, Sec. necessary for such 
an undertaking, which I in consequence bought (at 
Faden's, who tljen resided at the corner of St. Martin's 
Lane, Strand,) by his direction. 

Being short of men to work the ship, the Captain had 
engaged two fresh hands, who came on board the after- 
noon of the samo day, myself being the only officer on 
board ; I took the description of their persons, and entered 
their names on the ship's books, being employed at the 
same time in seltlins^- my accounts in the cabin, and loose 
cash, with some bank-notes lying on the desk. After 
giving them orders to assist in swabbing the decks the 
first thing in the morning, I dismissed them. Soon after 
twelve o'clock at night, I was awakened by a violent noise 
at the \ippcr cabin door, with a crash, as if some part of it 
had given way. Alarmed at the moment, I searched for 
a tinder-box, to strike a light ; hut through hurry, 
could not lay my hand on it, as almost at the same 
instant I catched hold of a brace of pistols, which 
hung on the side of the cabin tire-place ; these to my 
great surprize 1 found unloaded. A second attempt of a 
more violent nature than the iirst, being made at the inner 
<loor, 1 recollected a sword which hung over the captain's 
birth, which suddenly I took down : at the instant the 
cabin door had given way, by a wrench from an iron 
ci'ow, or some such ijistrument, 1 knowing the" situation 
of the door, with the sword in my haml made towards it, 
and immediately made a thrust that I knew must wound 
deep, from the difficulty I found in drawing it back: I 
heard neither groan, or noise ; but found the intruder, 
wlioover he was, retired. I now sought the tinder-box, 
and struck a light, secured the door, and sat up the re- 
ujainderof the niirht. The fust thinir in the mornini>- the 
men observed a cpiantily of blood on the deck, in a track 

from 



iMPHF.SSEn. 185 

from the cabin dour, whicli lliey noticed us being broke, 
and asked me if any thing particular had hajjpened ; to 
which I made no reply; but on finding Mac Gregory, one 
of the new engaged hands, to be absent, 1 inquired alter 
him, and was informed he was unwell from an accident 
he had met with the night before in getting into his birth. 
I made no other inquiries; but waited until the captain 
should come on board, which he did about eleven o'clock 
the same morning; and on entering the cabin, noticed 
the shattered condition of the door. When I informed 
him of the particulars, adding, the man I suspected, 
Mac Gregory, still remained in the ship, the captain in- 
stantly ordered him to be brought forward, when his thigh 
was discovered to be dreadfully swelled, and the marks of 
the wound shewed a sword or some such weapon to have 
passed through his thigh, lie could make no defence to 
my accusation of his attempt to rob the cabin, and break- 
ing the door. Captain Field finding his wound danger- 
ous, sent him to St. Thomas's hospital, where he escajied 
jyrosecution, by the ship's sailing before he could obtain 
a cure. 

A few days after this atiair, the mate John Jones (a na- 
tive of New-Providence) and myself, agreed on a little 
excursion on shore, previous to our leaving England, to 
which purpose we put on a plain seaman's dress, knowing 
the prejudice of most of the lower people about Wapping, 
against officers of any description, whom in general they 
consider as little better than spies on their actions. But 
while about to land at St. Catharij|e's, we were attacke I 
by a press-gang, wiiom we resolutely opj)osed ; I in my 
defence taking up one of tiie skullers of the boat, with 
which I struck one or two who attempted to secure me. In 
this contest I received a wound on my head by a cutlass, 
a large seam from which remains to the present hour. 
After a lonj; str(]f;s;le, durin^r which I was tumbled out of 

Vol. II. B B the 



18G DISCHARGED FKOM THE TENDER. 

the bout up to my arui-pits in water, the mate and liiy- 
self were both secured ; fortunately lor him, he had his 
warrant as an American officer about him, which procured 
his discharge, when taken on board the tender. On my 
examination taking place, not prepared for such an event, 
I had inadvertently left my protection as an American on 
board the Ai'iel, behind me. This circumstance, with the 
treachery of Jones, who informed the regulating cap- 
tain I was an Englishman, thereby thinking to get rid of 
a dangerous rival, (he being particularly attached to the 
niece of Captain Field, but had lost all hope of success 
with her, by her known partiality for me) and moreover 
stated I was the best seaman on board their vessel. This 
declaration, joined with the want of the certificate 1 had 
left in the Ariel, occasioned njy detention on board the 
tender for three days and nights. In this situation my 
indignation at the treachery of Jones, agitated me beyond 
any thing I had hitherto suifered ; and I thought on va- 
rious schemes, but without putting any in practice, to 
effect my deliverance. At length, there being a sufficient 
number of impresed men collected to clear the tender 
for the reception, of others, myself, with the rest of 
the men confined were brought upon deck, in order 
to be sent to difierent ships. Finding I had nothing 
to prevent this, but a disclosure of what I had so long 
kept witiiin niy own breast, 1 accosted the inspecting 
officers, and told ihem I was unfit to sei've his INkijesty in 
the way of njy fellow-sufiei'ers, being a female. On this 
assertion they both appeared greatly surprised ; and at 
first thought I had fabricated a stoi'y to be discharged, 
and sent me to the surgeon, whom I soon convinced of 
the truth of my assertion. The officers upbraided each 
other with ignorance at not discovering before my being 
a woman, and readily gave me a discharge. 

Resolved never to go on board IJ!..' Ariel, after 'he dis- 
closure 



APPLIES TO THK NAVY PAY OFFICE. 187 

closure of my sex, 1 wrote to Captain Field, without men- 
tioning the way in whicii 1 obtained a discharge from the 
tender, only requesting he would meet me as soon as pos- 
sible at a house the corner of Tower Street, Tower Hill ; 
he being on board at the time, my letter had not been dis- 
patched long, before he gave me the meeting, and was 
astonished, at my disclosing tu him the manner in whicli 
I obtained my liberty. It was some time before I could 
convince him I was really a woman ; having for such a 
length of time known me experience hardships so oppo- 
site the delicacy of the fenjale sex. He endeavoured to 
prevail on me to accompany him in his intended voyage, 
but no argument could induce me (after acknowledging 
former favours received) to accompany him, nor indeed for 
the present to think of the sea-service, in any way what- 
ever. Finding his applications fruitless, he honourably 
paid me every shilling due on our engagement, and be- 
side made me a very handsome present. After this in- 
terview I saw him but twice, nothing material passing 
between us, except his earnest desire of my disguising my 
sex, and resuming my former situation, which he could 
never prevail on me to accede to. 

With money in my pocket, I was undetermined how to 
act, but for the present took a lodging in East-Smithheld, 
and during my residence here, made several applications 
at the Navy-pay-office, Somerset House, for money due 
to me, for service on boai'd the JJrunswick, and the Vesu- 
vius bomb, from which 1 was taken by the French, exclu- 
sive of prize-money I was entifledAto, by captures on the 
first of June; at length I was dii'ected to apply respect- 
ing the prize-money to the Agent, No. 4, Arundell-street, 
Strand, where I immediately went, and was desired to 
call another time ; being vexed at tlie disappointment, I 
returned to Somerset House ; where, through many dis- 
appointments, I made u>e of language which gave offence 

B n 2 to 



188 KXAMINl'l) AT BOW-STKEET. 

to some of the gentlemen, and was immediately conveyed 
to Bow-street, on the 31st of December, 179G. Here 
I underwent a lon^ examination, which lasted till near 
twelve o'clock, before the sitting magistrate, now Sir 
Ilicliard Ford, to whom I produced my discharge from 
the tender, and other documents to prove the sutierings 
and hardships I had undergone, so much to his satisfac- 
tion, tiiat I obtained a discharge, and was requested to 
attend the Monday following at two o'clock, which I 
did, and found there several magistrates assembled, where 
I underwent a long j)rivate examination, the consequence 
was, a subscription was immediately made, and by the 
recommendation of some gentlemen present. I was placed 
in a lodging at the house of Mrs. Jones, Falcon Court, 
Shoe Lane, with a strict injunction, if possible, to break 
me of the masculine habit I was so much used to, I re- 
ceived twelve shillings a week for a support till I could 
get the money due to me from Government. Tlie above 
sum was regularly paid me from the above subscription, 
by a Mr. Pritcliard of New-Inn, who was present at my 
last examination, and to whom Mrs. Jones was laundress- 
1 had not yet changed my seaman's attire; but during 
the stay I made with Mrs. Jones, I resumed the dress 
of my own sex, though at times I could not so far forget 
my seafaring habits, but frequently dressed myself, and 
took excursions as a sailor. In less than a month, I re- 
ceived the greater part of the money due to me fpom the 
Navy-pay-office, which I cheerfully participated in the 
family of Mrs. Jones; who, notwithstanding, treated me 
in an ungrateful manner, misrepresenting me to the gen- 
tlemen who had raised the subscription, as a person on 
whom their bounty was mis[)laced, and being inclined to 
uiascuUne propensities, more than what became a female ; 
such as smoking, drinking grog, (fcc. though I never took 
any of the latter, but she was always invited to a part, 

and 



PETITIONS THE DUKE OF YORK. 199 

and of which I never found her backward in taking a good 
allowance. Whenever I dressed myself as a sailor, I 
sought the company of some messmates I had known on 
board the Brunswick, and as long as my money lasted, 
spent it in company with the brave fellows at the Coach 
and Horses, opposite Somerset House, a place where they 
mostly frequented. 

I removed from Mrs. Jones's to Chichester Rents, 
Chancery Lane, and lodged with a very decent woman, 
named Higgins, where the grape-shot which had re- 
mained in my leg from the time of our engagement in the 
Brunswick, June 1794, worked itself out in Feb. 1797 — 
the reason, I imagine proceeded from the wounds break- 
ing out afresh, in consequence of my too free use of spi- 
rituous liquors, since my residence on shore. I kept the 
ball by me for sometime, to which there adhered a quan- 
tity of flesh ; but was obliged at last to throw it in the 
fire, from the offensive smell of the flesh, which soon putri- 
fied ; my leg, notwithstanding the ball was out, continued 
so bad, that I applied for admission to St. Bartholomew's 
hospital, and went in as a female, though I frequently 
wore, while under cure, my sailor's dress, and in conse- 
quence was taken as a man in the woman's ward, by 
strangers. I remained in Watt's ward, under surgeon 
Blake, four months, and during the time had several pieces 
of shattered bone taken from my leg ; and at length it 
being to all appearance well, I was accordingly dis- 
charged. The cure, however, did not prove of any 
long duration, the bone being very much injured, and my 
blood continuing in a bad state, it soon broke out again. 
In this situation, without any place of refuge, or means 
of subsistence, I was advised to petition his Royal Hio-h- 
ness the Duke of York for relief; and accordingly ap- 
plied to a gentleman, who drew up a petition, stating the 
various hardships I had undergone by sea and land, and 

go 



190 EMPLOYED BY A JEWELLER. 

got it signed by her Grace the Duchess of Devonshire, 
and Sir William Pulteney; I left it at the Horse Guards 
with Captain Nowell, secretary to his Royal Highness. 
In less than a fortnight, I called at the Horse Guards, 
and received from Captain Nowell five guineas, with my 
petition signed by his Royal Highness, as well as her 
Royal Highness the Duchess of York, and directions, 
when I called, that I should present it to her Majesty. I 
afterwards got it signed by Sir James Pulteney ; and 
through Mr. Dundas, meant to have presented it to her 
Majesty ; I taking the opportunity of a court day to give it 
to him for that purpose, as he was passing to the royal 
apartments ; he remarking it was not intended for him, I 
told him no — but I wished him to present it to her Majesty 
from myself, and accordingly left it with him. 

Not hearing any thing in consequence of my petition, 
and the money I had received from his Royal Highness 
the Duke of York, being expended, I, for my present 
support, thought if I could obtain a machine similar to 
the one I observed the German use in the prison of St. 
Clair, with which he manufactured the gold wire, I might 
obtain a comfortable subsistence ; and for that purpose 
I called on Mr, Loyer, a jeweller in Denmark-street, St. 
Giles's, in order, if possible, to get a machine from my de- 
scription, made. Mr. Loyer, from my instructions, soon 
produced an instrument that every way answered the pur- 
pose ; and having informed him of the purpose to which 
it was intended, he informed me, if I would manufacture 
it in his house, he had no doubt he could from his con- 
nection, dispose of enough to keep me constantly em- 
ployed. I made no objection to his proposal, and worked 
gold wire in various shapes, so much to his satisfac- 
tion, that I continued in his employ some time, Mr. 
Loyer keeping a number of persons employed, myself, 
as well as others, worked together; among whom was 

a 



Jl 



Admission to st, George's hospital. 191 

a German, named Hieronimo, who, observing the manner 
in which I worked, afterwards practised it as part of his 
profession, and worked on the same, during the time I 
continued in Mr. Loyer's employ. Finding the money 
received not adequate to support me in a proper manner, 
my wounded leg getting so bad as to put me to consider- 
able inconvenience, I applied to Mr. Loyer for an ad- 
vancement of price, which, he objecting to, knowing he 
had Hieronimo to work it if I left him, we parted ; 
before which, being jealous I should learn every thing in 
the jewellery business, having been able to work in more 
branches than the one he engaged me for, he removed me 
for some time previous to my quitting him, to a separate 
apartment from the shop, where I worked by myself. 

On my quitting Mr. Loyer's, my leg getting worse, I 
gained admission to St. George's hospital, and experi- 
enced a tedious confinement of seven months. Being 
carefully attended by surgeons Keate and Grifiiths ; and 
while thus situated, was enabled to enjoy many comforts 
which this charitable institution does not supply, from the 
benevolent attention of Mrs. Emma Raynes, a lady to 
whom I shall ever confess an obligation ; as, immedi- 
ately on my obtaining a discharge from the hospital, she 
provided me with a decent lodging in Tottenham Court 
Road, and supported me for a considerable time at her 
own expence, though I had no other claim to her pro- 
tection than my necessitous condition prompted her at- 
tention to. Previous to my finding a friend in this lady, 
it was judged by several in the hospital, from the low 
state I was reduced to, (my bones coming almost through 
the skin) I should not get over the illness under which I 
laboured, from the pain of my wounded limb, and I pro- 
cured some little necessaries from a subscription made by 
the young gentlemen, pupils, who attend the hospital ; 

one 



192 RELIEVED BY THE DUKE OF NORFOLK. 

one of whom, named Saife, (I imagine) in joke, offered 
me half a crown a week while I lived, to have my body 
when dead : however he might mean it, I knew not, but 
it produced such an aversion to physic in me, that while 
I remained under cure, I would take no more medicine, 
fearing it would hasten my death ; and I remarked, my 
wound healed faster than before. Weary of the hospital, 
I solicited a discharge, though my leg was by no means 
well ; and through the kindness of Mrs. Raynes, had 
every necessary provided for my use. Unwilling to re- 
main a burthen on the generosity of this lady, longer than 
I could possibly help myself, I came to a resolution of 
making my sufferings known to some persons of distinc- 
tion, (having heard nothing relative to the petition I had 
left in the hands of Mr. Dundas, to be presented to her 
Majesty.) I wrote immediately to his grace the Duke of 
Norfolk, whose humane and charitable disposition is too 
well known, for me to enlarge on. The result of my 
application was successful, as I received a very handsome 
present from his grace, to whom I was introduced, after 
waiting some time in the library. 

This seasonable relief was to me of the greatest service, 
though in part it placed me under a very embarrassing cir- 
cumstance. Fearing my little fund would be exhausted 
before I could get another supply, I endeavoured, as far as 
my circumstances would admit, to make as decent an ap- 
pearance as possible, that I might more readily appear be- 
fore the illustrious personages who had recommended the 
presentation of ray petition to her Majesty, and to ob- 
tain, if possible, a knowledge, whether it had been pre- 
sented by Mr. Dundas, or not. At this time I had re- 
moved from the lodging provided me by Mrs. Raynes to 
another near Rathbone Place ; and having at times, pre- 
vious to my arrival, wore a little powder in my hair, when- 
ever 






INFORMED AGAINST FOR WEARING POWDER. 193 

ever I had occasion to call at the houses of Noble per- 
sons, to whom I had made ray case known, I was inform- 
ed against as an unqualified person having no license, 
through the malice of my last landlady's sister, and re- 
received a summons to attend the Commissioners of the 
Stamp Office, from the solicitor Mr. Escourt, in Feb. 
1799, —to answer the accusation; under this situa- 
tion, without money or a fiiend to come forward on my 
behalf, I attended on the day mentioned in the notice 
I had received, and set up in my defence to the accusa- 
tion, that I had never worn powder as an article of di'ess 
though I had frequently made use of it in defence of my 
King and Country ; this assertion from a female excited 
the curiosity of the Commissioners ; who questioned me, 
under what circumstance, I could make use of powder 
in the way understood from my speech, when I related 
the several incidents of my life, in the land, as well as 
sea service, likewise my examination at Bow Street, after 
applying for my pay at the Navy Office. On concluding 
my defence, and remarking the distress of my present 
situation, the Commissioners, and other gentlemen pre- 
sent, made a handsome collection, and presented me 
with it, to the extreme mortification of the informer, who 
rather expected a share of the penalty she supposed I 
should be under the necessity of paying, than that her 
spite against me should turn out so much to my advan- 
tage ; on the contrary, my late landlady her sister, ex- 
pressed herself greatly pleased with the fortunate turn 
in my favour; and her sincerity I did not doubt, from 
the many little kindnesses I had before experienced from 
her. Mr. Escourt, the gentleman from whom I received 
the notice to atteud on the Commissioners, gave me a 
letter to Evan Nepean, Ejq.ofthe Admiralty, on what 
subject I knew not, but rather suppose to be in relation 
to myself; which though I delivered at tlie Admiralty 
Vol. II. c c Office, 



194 WENT TO 0ATLAND9. 

Office, I never heard anything of after. To avoid as 
much as possible future disagreeables, and to obtain a 
sum which might enable me to establish myself in a little 
comfort, I thought on the petition I had long since left 
in the hands of Mr. Dundas ; and as it was originally 
recommended to be presented to her Majesty, by the 
message I had received from his E,oyal Highness the 
Duke of York, I resolved to wait on his Highness at 
Oatlands, to inform him I had never received an answer 
to his royal recommendation ; on my arrival at Oatlands, 
I sent in my name and business, by one of the attendants 
on his Royal Highness — and received in answer a gui- 
nea, and a message that his Royal Highness would make 
an immediate enquiry concerning where the petition 
lay ; and as I had left a direction where I lodged in 
town, a few days after I received a quantity of female 
apparel from Oatlands — sent as I imagine by order of 
her Royal Highness the Duchess of York. 

It will naturally strike many of my readers, the long 
silence I have kept with regard to Mr. Shuker, particu- 
larly as he was the only person, who could have inform- 
ed me of many circumstances relative to my family, and 
interests ; I need not offer as an excuse for my negligence 
in this particular, " that I had been so much occupied 
by a variety of circumstances, each following the other, 
with a rapidity, as wholly to prevent, had it been my 
intention, an earlier seeking his explanation." I had 
in a great measure been prevented applying to Mr. Shu- 
ker before, in consequence of Messrs. Winter and Hay, 
of Long Acre, through the recommendation of Justice 
Bond, having taken the trouble of writing to Mr. Wilson 
of Trevallyn, several times, for the particulars rela- 
tive to my birth and expectations ,• but as he never 
obtained an answer to either of the letters sent, I 
thought it best to apply to Mr. Shuker in person. Du- 
ring the doubt I remained under with respect to the 

succes 



VISITS MR. SHUKER. 195 

success of my petition, I determined to pay this gentle- 
man a visit, and went to Shrewsbury, by the Mail 5 
and put up at the Talbot, kept at that time by Mr. Purs- 
low, 1 then proceeded to Newport, Mr. Shuker's residence, 
in a return post chaise; but finding a difficulty of being in- 
troduced to him as a female, not ch using to send in my 
name, but that a lady wished to speak with him, which 
not succeeding to my expectation, I returned to Shrews- 
bury, and procured an Ensign's uniform of a person in 
Dog Lane, who dealt in clothes from London ; not wish- 
ing to change my dress at Mr. Purslow's, where I 
was known, I went to the Raven Inn, in Raven Street, 
where I changed my female attire, for the one I had 
procured the loan of — in which dress I walked to the 
Elephant and Castle, in Mardol, and hiring a horse, 
rode back to Newport. When I called at Mr. Shuker's 
house, I sent a message in by a servant, that a gentle- 
man wished to speak with Mr. Shuker, and in return 
received an answer to send in my name and business ; 
to which I replied, I waited on him knowing Captain 
Bowen of the 82d regiment, and had something parti- 
cular to communicate ; on which I was immediately intro- 
duced to him, and though labouring under considera- 
ble agitation, I asked him if he knew a Miss Talbot, or 
could inform me what had become of her : he said 
he had known her well, but that she had died abroad 
in the year 1793, of which he was well informed by let- 
ters in his possession, I told him I doubted tiie fact, 
and wished to see the letters mentioned, which he 
evaded ; I then asked him if she had any par- 
ticular mark, or that he should know her well enough 
to swear to her person, if he was to see her ; he replied 
he could identify her among a thousand, that she was 
a twin, and had a deficiency on the left side of her fore- 
head ; I immediately put my hair aside, and pointed my 

c c 2 finger 



196 MR. shuker's sudden death. 

finger to the part of my forehead he had described, 
and briskly drawing my sword, declared he was my 
prisoner, and should account to me for the defici- 
ency of what I supposed he had defrauded me. I 
informed him that I was Miss Talbot, and had visited 
him, for the express purpose of obtaining the property 
he had certainly deprived me of, knowing, that when I 
was intrusted to his care, he had a sufficient indemnifi- 
cation for what trouble or expence he might be put to, 
and had no doubt something considerable in trust for 
my use ; he appeared surprised and confounded, and 
uttering he was a ruined man repeatedly, he trem- 
bled much, and abruptly quilted the room ; I was 
myself greatly agitated, but conceiving myself so 
much injured, I immediately went to Shrewsbury in 
order to take a lawyer's advice how 1 should proceed, 
and applied to a Mr. Locksdale, who unfortunately was 
from home; getting no satisfactory intelligence, I return- 
ed to Newport with a determination, if possible, to get 
from Mr. Shuker, an information of my family, connec- 
tions, and expectations. When I arrived at Newport, I 
learnt to my great disappointment, that Mr. Shuker had 
suddenly retired from his house, and in less than three 
days from the time, was found dead in his bed at a 
place called Longford, near Newport, without any pre- 
vious appearance of illness. Thus frustrated in gaining 
the intelligence I so much needed, 1 left the place in 
great distress of mind, with a scanty pittance in my 
pocket, which wholly prevented my proceeding to Mr. 
Wilson's, at Trevallyn, which I otherwise should have 
done, though his wilful neglect in answering the letters 
sent by Messrs. Winter and Hay, left me in great 
doubt as to the reception he might have given me. 
I now took the road to London, where I soon ar- 
rived, without any other prospect than the uncertain 
hope of a better success with my petition, and thinking 

some 



IMPOSTOR DETECTED. 197 

some money was still due to me for pay, I applied to 
Lord Spencer, then first Lord of the Admiralty, and saw 
his Lordship, who presented me with a guinea, and it 
being in the morning, ordered me some refreshment ; 
when I had an excellent breakfast prepared in an adjoin- 
ing room. 

My existence chiefly depended now, on the liberality of 
many Noble and generous persons, to whom I was neces- 
sitated to make my case known, and the frequent walks 
I was obliged to take in the course of the days I was so 
employed, caused the wounds of my leg to break out 
again, as wholly to deprive me of walking, many 
pieces of the shattered bone occasionally coming out of 
my leg ; to remedy this, 1 got admitted into Middlesex 
hospital, and about a fortnight after my admission, I 
received a message from Justice Bond, to attend, if pos- 
sible at Bow Street, to confront a female, who, in the 
dress of a Light Horseman had taken the name of John 
Taylor, and represented herself in a way to be mistaken 
for me. I accompanied the person who brought me the 
letter to Bow Street, and saw a fine looking woman 
about five feet ten inches high, whom Mr. Bond desired 
me to question as to the situation she had occupied on 
board the Brunswick, where she reported herself to have 
been wounded ; a very few questions brought her to a 
confession, that she was not the person she had pretended, 
and not giving a satisfactory account of herself, was com- 
mitted to the House of Correction for three months, 
as a vagrant. William Richards, my fellow-prisoner 
in France, chancing to pass in Bow Street, I called to 
him from the coach, and he went with me into the Office 
and offered to make oath as to my identity ; but Mr. 
Bond informed him he was sufl&ciently satisfied who was 
the impostor. Several persons in the Office told me this 
woman had been imposing on the public in my name 

for 



198 TRIAL AT CLERKENWELL. 

for some time past, and congratulated me on her detec- 
tion. 

On my return from Bow Street, while getting out of 
the coach at the door of my lodging, where I called pre- 
vious to my return to the hospital, I was followed into the 
passage by a hair-dresser, named Spraggs, of Cleveland 
Street, who mistaking me for a lodger in the same 
house, with whom he had a dispute, respecting a wig she 
had of him, struck me a violent blow, which brought me 
to the ground, and cut my head in a shocking manner, 
and materially hurt my wounded leg by kicking me in 
the passage ; I afterwards learnt the cause of his vio- 
lence was. That he had sold a wig to a lady, and that 
she was prevented paying him, by the assertion of another 
hair-dresser, that the wig was not his property to sell, 
but belonged to him, a Mr. Kennedy. Mr. Spraggs in 
consequence, when he applied for payment, learnt the 
particulars ; and not getting the money he expected, 
brought an action in the Marshalsea Court, but was non- 
suited by not attending to prove the wig his property. 
Thus disappointed, he took the above method of revenge, 
and in rage mistook the person ; my friends advised me 
to get a warrant for the assault, and I immediately re- 
turned to Bow Street, where a warrant was granted me. 
Spraggs, however, kept out of the way for several days, 
but at last it was served on him, and he was obliged to 
find bail for his appearance at the Quarter Sessions, 
Clerkenwell Green ; — by returning to Bow Street, on 
the day I left the hospital, I could not return there that 
night, and was obliged to wait till the regular day of 
taking in patients, before I could regain my former place 
in the hospital. When the trial came on at Clerkenwell, 
I was still in the hospital, but knowing the time it was 
to come on, I requested leave of absence from Surgeon 
Miners, which I obtained, and attended three days 

before 



HER majesty's BOUNTY. 199 

before my cause came on ; Mr. Sylvester, the present 
Recorder of London pleaded my cause, without taking 
the least gratuity ; on the contrary, when I attended 
him to state to him the case, he made me a handsome 
present. Very little defence was attempted in behalf 
of Spraggs, who was found guilty of the assault, and 
sentenced to pay me 101. for the injury he had done. 
This trial over I returned to Middlesex hospital, and 
through the skill and attention of Surgeon Miners, I 
was once more enabled to use my wounded leg, though 
by no means given to understand I had obtained a radi- 
cal cure. Soon after quitting the hospital, I received a 
notice to attend at the War Office, where I received a 
letter directed to Lord Morton, at Buckingham House ; 
struck at once that it related to the petition I had left 
for her Majesty's sight, and which I imagined his Royal 
Highness the Duke of York had sought after, agreeable 
to the message I received at Oatlands, I went to Buck- 
ingham House, and saying I had a letter from the War 
Office for Lord Morton, was directly introduced to his 
Lordship, who, on reading the letter, informed me it 
related to my petition, and conducted me to another 
apartment, where I saw a lady seated, whose hand Lord 
Morton desired me to kiss; after which, I returned with 
his Lordship to the apartment I was first introduced to, 
and received five guineas from his Lordship's hands, on 
quitting Buckingham House. 

The Lady whose hand I kissed, did not ask me a ques- 
tion, nor speak a word : I imagined it might be her Ma- 
jesty, though Lord Morton had not mentioned any 
thino; concerning; her title or rank ; but I was soon after 
confirmed in my opinion by recognizing in the sight of 
her Majesty in public, the lady whose hand I had the 
honour of kissing at Buckingham House. Lord Morton 
directed me to apply to the War-office, where I was in- 
formed 



200 FORTUNATE PRESERVATION OF MY LIMB. 

formed I must attend on a future day, in my sailor's 
dress, to receive a half-year's payment of her Majesty's 
bounty, which I afterwards did, in the name of John 
Taylor, though my name on the War-office book stood 
Taylor, John. This was in August, 1799. 

On my quitting Middlesex Hospital, Surgeon Miners 
informed me, my leg was not in a state to bear much 
walking, and the obligation I was under to attend in 
person, on many occasions, brought on the complaint 
in my leg as bad as ever; and I was recommended by 
John Bond, Esq., a Magistrate, of Hendon, in Middle- 
sex, to go into Middlesex Hospital a second time ; 
Surgeon Miners was at Mr. Bond's at the time I was 
thus advised, and told me I must in all probability have 
my leg amputated : with this impression on my mind I 
entered the hospital a second time, and only escaped 
from thence without the loss of a limb, by a singular 
though in the first part, unfortunate circumstance : — I 
had, previous to going into the hospital, taken under my 
care a motherless child of about three years of age, 
which when out of my power now to attend, was pro- 
tected by two young ladies, who soon after having an 
engagement to dine on board the Sophia, a West India- 
man, lying oiF Hermitage Stairs, unfortunately took 
their little charge on the party, who, not being suffi- 
ciently attended to, fell overboard and was drowned. 
The intelligence no sooner reached me at the hospital, than 
frantic at the loss of the child, although my leg was sur- 
rounded with bandages in order for amputation, I the next 
morning by seven o'clock, October 24, 1799, quitted the 
hospital, after taking off the screw bandage, and 
walked to Hermitage Stairs, in such distraction of mind, 
that I felt neither pain nor impediment in my leg the 
whole way. But on my arrival where the ship lay, 1 
could gain no information of the body, and though I 

offered 



A FALSE PARAGRAPH. 209 

offered every thing in my power as a reward to find it — 
but without effect, as the child was never after seen ; 
it was afterwards suggested, and on reasonable grounds, 
that the child was not drowned, but carried to the West 
Indies ; as a black boy on board, as well as he could be 
understood, gave me to understand the child was not 
drowned, but carried away. His name was George La- 
Gon Grifiin, and heir to a considerable estate in Shrop- 
shire ; as I was informed by his father, Mr. George 
Griffin, a Carver and Gilder, burnt out in February, 
1804, at No. 16, Charing Cross, who entrusted me with 
the care of the child ; being himself under a pecuniary 
embarrassment, and in confinement at that time, by a bill 
he had accepted for a friend. 

A few days after my leaving Middlesex Hospital a 
second time, the following paragraph appeared in the 
Morning Herald of November 1st, 1799 : — " There is at 
present in the Middlesex Hospital, a young and delicate 
female, who calls herself Miss T — lb — t, and who is said 
to be related to some families of distinction ; her story 
is very singular ; at an early period of her life, having 
been deprived, through the villany of a trustee, of a sum 
of money bequeathed her by a deceased relation of high 
rank, she followed the fortunes of a young Naval Of- 
ficer to whom she was attached, and personated a com- 
mon sailor before the mast: during a cruise in the North 
Seas, in consequence of a lover's quarrel, she quitted 
her ship, and assumed for a time the military character; 
but her passion for the sea prevailing, she returned to 
her favourite element, and did good service, and receiv- 
ed a severe wound on board Earl St. Vincent's ship, on 
the glorious 14th of February ; and again bled in the 
cause of her country, in the engagement off Camper- 
down ; on this occasion her knee was so shattered, that an 
amputation is likely to ensue. This spirited female, we 
Vol. n. D D understand, 



210 ENTERS MARY-LE-BONE INFIRMARY. 

understand, receives a pension of 20/. from an Illustri- 
ous Lady, which is about to be doubled." By whom this 
paragraph was inserted in the paper, I know not ; but 
the reader will easily discover it could be no person who 
really knew my story, having quitted Middlesex hospi- 
tal some time before ; the only part that resembles truth, 
is of her Majesty's Bounty, which had not yet reached 
me ; though in that particular the writer has been pleased 
to announce what I should be happy to receive. 

I had not left Middlesex Hospital more than a fort- 
night, before I experienced new trouble and inconveni- 
ence in my leg; which previous to my so sudden de- 
parture, by the melancholy loss of the unfortunate 
child, had been doomed to amputation, by the universal 
opinion of the surgeons ; and to the general conversation 
on this subject, I attribute the spurious account of my 
adventures, which found its way to the Morning Herald. 
As I did not wait for a discharge from Middlesex Hospi- 
tal, I felt a reluctance to apply there again for relief, but 
applied to the St. Mary-le-bone Infirmary, where I ob- 
tained an order, and was of course admitted : — here I 
continued almost four months ; and after many pieces 
of the shattered bone had been extracted, and the flesh 
by continued rest, a little grown over, I consulted with 
Mr. Phillips, the principal Surgeon, whether I was not 
in a situation to quit the Infirmary ; he told me that with 
care, and the use of bandages he would give me, I might 
do as well out as where I was, but desired I would walk 
as little as possible, while I found the least pain, as it 
would retard the healing of the flesh round the bone : and 
having obtained the bandages of Mr. Waller the House 
Surgeon, I immediately thought of quitting the Infirmary; 
but having made myself useful towards the latter part of 
the time I was there, in keeping account of clothes, and 
marking a variety of articles, for the use of the Infirmary 

and 



ROBBED OF ALL I POSSESSED. 211 

and Parish; Dr. Hooper, the principal of the House, objec- 
ted to my departure, which notwithstanding I insisted 
on, and in consequence came away ; and as Dr. Hooper 
said he would report me to the Board, I told him I would 
save him the trouble, and went the following Friday, 
and stated the whole affair myself, which being satisfac- 
tory to the Gentlemen present, I received two guineas, 
and well pleased left the place. One of the gentlemen 
said, he knew Mrs. Tapperly, of Chester, well, and that 
he had a daughter under her care, during the time I was 
with her, adding that he knew I was related to the family 
whose name I bore, and following me out, made me a 
present of a guinea, and I have since, whenever he met 
me, experienced some mark of his liberality. 

Having engaged a lodging in that neighbourhood, I 
removed the whole of my wearing apparel, which in all 
situations I had hitherto taken the utmost care of, to this 
place. But as if I was to be stripped and persecuted through 
life, one morning while in bed, I was robbed of every 
article I possessed in the world, and but for the kindness 
of some ladies at the next house, should have been with- 
out an article to wear: a woman who lived with a trum- 
peter of the Dragoon Guards, was soon after taken up 
on suspicion of robbing another person, and having in 
her possession a great quantity of false keys, and dupli- 
cates of property in pawn ; I attended her examination 
at Marlborough Street, and discovered several of the 
duplicates to describe my property ! I was desired to at- 
tend on her trial, as a witness, though in applying to 
the pawnbrokers where she had pledged them, I was 
informed the same was taken away by an affidavit of 
the loss of the duplicates ; she was, however, found guilty 
of the robbery taken up for, and sentenced to be trans- 
ported for seven years. 

A little time after this affair, I received a half year's 
D D 2 payment 



212 TURNS ACTRESS. 

payment of her Majesty's bounty, and not forgetting my 
former frolics, of which I was not yet entirely cured, I 
went out in company of a person I knew, in male attire ; 
after walking some time, it was proposed to take a 
tankard of porter, and we went into a public house the 
corner of Berwick Street, Oxford Road ; while drink- 
ing, I was accosted by a Recruiting Serjeant of the 21st 
regiment of Light Dragoons, whose name I understood 
was Jones, who, thinking from my appearance and con- 
versation, I was a fit subject for his purpose, used every 
endeavour, by praising the life of a horse soldier, of 
inveigling me to enlist ; finding the attempt fruitless, 
and doubting to effect it by persuasion, he had recourse 
to artifice, and proposed tossing with me for a pot of 
porter, taking a guinea from his pocket and tossing it on 
the table, thinking I might take it up ; but perceiving 
the drift of his intention, I gave him to understand, I 
was not so easily to be taken in ; my friend also joining 
me, a dispute was likely to ensue, but instantly leaving 
the house, he followed us the distance of several streets, 
and seemed very reluctantly to give up the pursuit. 

Many professions struck my imagination to take up as 
a livelihood, but none appeared more congenial to my 
mind than the theatrical line, to which I was ever par- 
ticularly attached ; knowing a person belonging to the 
Thespian Society, held in Toltenham-court-road, I got 
introduced to perform a character, and attempted that 
of Floranthe, in the Mountaineers, which I got through 
with considerable applause ; Mr. Talbot, afterwards of 
Drury Lane Theatre, performed the part of Octavian, 
and Miss Mortimer of Covent Garden Theatre, played 
Agnes ; I afterwards performed the parts of Adeline, in 
the Battle of Hexham ; Lady Helen, in the Children in 
the Wood ; Juliet, in Romeo and Juliet ; Irene, in Barba- 
rossa; Thyra, in Athelston; the Queen, in Richard the 

Third ; 



RECEIVES A STRANGE ORDER FOR MONEY, 213 

Third ; Mrs. Scout in the Village Lawyer, and Jack 
Hawser in Banyan Day : finding this pursuit, however, 
more pleasant than profitable, I was compelled to give it 
up, and solicit assistance towards my support, from 
several respectable persons to whom I had made my ad- 
ventures and sufferings known. 

A remarkable circumstance which I cannot by any 
means omit, as it had nearly involved me in a situation, 
more dangerous than any I had hitherto encountered ; 
about the time my adventures attracted the attention of 
the first characters in the kingdom, I had received several 
sums of money from persons, who at the time, did not 
discover to whom I was obliged, and one evening a gen- 
tleman called at my lodgings, and on being introduced 
to my apartments, asked me if I was the person who 
had sufi'ered so many hardships abroad ? I replied in 
the afiEirmative ; when he informed me Colonel Gerrit 
Fisher, of the 9th regiment of foot, had been particularly 
inquiring concerning me, and he had no doubt it would 
produce something considerable to my advantage ; he 
shortly took his leave, and about a month after, called 
in my absence, and left with Mrs. Cornish, who kept 
a shop at No. 14, Suffolk Street, at which house I 
lodged, an order signed by Colonel Fisher, on Messrs. 
Cox and Co., Craig's Court, Charing Cross, for nine 
guineas, saying at the same time, it was the amount of 
money received in subscription for my use, by Colonel 
Fisher; he also left a complimentary note, in which he 
stiled himself Captain Grant, and was accompanied by a 
person who was introduced to me to be a servant of Colonel 
Fisher's and confirmed what Grant said : this order came 
as I then thought, providentially to my aid, but it being 
holiday time, I waited a few days, after which in com- 
pany with Mrs. Cornish, I presented it for payment as 
directed, but was informed Colonel Fisher was out of 

town. 



Sl4 NEARLY PROSECUTED FOR FORaERY. 

town, and they could not pay it ; very much disappointed, 
I returned home, and as I did not hear when the Colonel 
was expected in town, it was a considerable time after 
that I thought of calling on him respecting the trans- 
action, which at length I did, at his house, No. 5, Man- 
chester Square, Feb, 2d, 1802,- on saying I wished to 
speak with Colonel Fisher on business, he came into the 
passage, and understanding in part what I had to say, 
introduced me into the parlour, where I saw a lady 
seated, who I afterwards found was the Colonel's lady, 
I now presented him with the note, and asked him if it 
was his hand writing, on reading it over, he asked me 
how I came by if, when I told him it was left at my apart- 
ments by a gentleman, who said it was the amount of 
what Colonel Fisher had raised in subscription for me ; 
the Colonel requested a description of the gentleman's 
person, and gave me a pen and ink to write it down, on 
which I first described the gentleman who had called, 
and reported Colonel Fisher's interesting himself on my 
account, and was about to write the particulars down, 
when Mrs. Fisher prevented me, by saying to the Colonel, 
" It surely must be Gardiner," to which he made no re- 
ply, but putting the order in his waistcoat pocket, said 
he would take care of it, though he did not give me a 
shilling; a few days after, he called at my lodgings, and 
seeing Mrs. Cornish, asked her who, and what I was, 
and whether she did not think I had forged the order ? 
Mrs. Cornish then related the same particulars of my 
possessing the order, as I had before informed him. He 
then left the house, telling Mrs. Cornish if she had not 
given a good account of the way the draught was left, he 
should have prosecuted us both for a forgery. — I after- 
wards called at his house, and sending up my name, was 
told by a servant, my business required no answer, since 
when, I have never heard any thing of him or his order. 

Whether 



SENT TO NEWGATE FOR DEBT. 215 

Whether or not the order was of Colonel Fisher's hand- 
writing, or a trick played on me by the man who styled 
himself Captain Grant, I never could learn, but as the 
clerks of Cox and Co. must have been acquainted with the 
hand-writing of the Colonel, and never attempted to stop 
it, or say it was a forgery, I cannot bring myself to think 
it was so ; nor did the Colonel himself say to me it was not 
his writing, only questioned me how I came by it. 

With the certainty of my income from her Majesty's 
bounty, I removed to the neighbourhood of Whitecha- 
pel, sometime previous to my waiting on Colonel Fisher; 
and having been ever more remiss in my own accounts 
than those of others, the landlady where I had taken my 
abode, brought me in a bill for lodging, &c. amounting to 
1 IZ. 3s. Qd. which being incapable of paying, I was ar- 
rested at her suit in the court of Exchequer, and after 
remaining at a lock-up house, in Carey Street, Lincoln's- 
Inn-fields, a week, and being sufficiently tired of the 
expence. I was removed to Newgate, though not before 
I had been enabled by a friend to offer down six guineas 
in part of the debt, which was rejected; a new scene in 
life now opened to my view, and finding many of my fel- 
low prisoners of a congenial temper with my own, I fre- 
quently joined in parties of conviviality hardly to be 
credited in this place; these pleasures, however, were 
confined to a certain time, as my station in the women's 
ward, compelled a separation by ten o'clock, at which 
hour, the wards are separately locked. 

At one of these meetings I was very near being turned 
out of the prison, as a stranger; having accepted the 
office of president on a club-night, I equipped myself in 
a suit of men's clothes, and took the chair ; after passing a 
few pleasant hours in the midst of our singing, smoking, 
and drinking, the time of separation arrived ; when re- 
turning 



2l6 RELEASED FROM PRISON. 

returning to the women's side, I was followed in by Mr. 
White, the principal turnkey, who asked my business, 
and mistaking me for a stranger, visiting some of the 
prisoners, conducted me into the lobby in order to turn 
me out; but on my remonstrance that I was a prisoner, 
and telling my name, he threatened to send me to the 
felons' side for attempting an escape in disguise, to which 
purpose he went and informed Mr. Kirby, the keeper, 
who shortly after coming into the lobby, I explained to 
him the whole of the transaction, adding, that having 
been used to a male dress in the defence of my country, I 
thought I was sufficiently entitled to wear the same 
whenever I thought proper ; at the same time shewing 
him the wounds 1 had received ; he directed Mr. White 
to conduct me to the women's side as usual, and in a 
day or two after, sent for me to relate to him the whole 
of my adventures, with which he seemed so well pleased, 
that he sent for me two or three times after when he 
had company, from whom I received some handsome 
presents. 

I was advised to petition the Society for relief of per- 
sons confined for small debts, and having obtained the 
form of a letter I should send, got it conveyed, with 
respectable vouchers as to the truth of my memorial : 
five pounds was sent to Mr. Kirby for the purpose of 
settling the debt, but if the plaintiff refused that sum, 
it was to be returned to that charitable institution. Mrs. 
Nicklin, was, however, too good a judge to refuse so good 
an ofier, and accordingly took the money, which was 
given to her friend Mr. Edmonds, on bringing my dis- 
charge ; his expences must have swallowed the greatest 
part of the above sum ; and my landlady was well off 
in not being troubled herself by her own attorney, which 
must have been the case, if she had refused the sum 

offered, 



DISCOVERY OF MY MOTHER'S MINIATURE. 2l7 

offered, as I was determined to have sued her as soon as 
I could, for the sixpences. 

My time in Newgate was rendered more comfortable 
than I had any reason to ex,pect, from the constant at- 
tention of a female Avho had lived with me some time 
previous to my being arrested, for when no longer in my 
power to support her in a way I had been accustomed, 
instead of quitting me, she remained in the prison, and by 
needle work she obtained, contributed greatly to my 
support, she has continued with me ever since, and re- 
mains a constant friend in every change I have since 
experienced. 

By an accidental mistake in arranging the notes I had 
made in the course of my. narrative, the annexed circum- 
stances appear out of the order they should have been 
inserted ; in order to rectify, as far as possible, the de- 
fect, I have referred back to the leading occurrences, 
with which they are connected : 

" When I was about nine years of age, my sister took 
me from Chester, to Trevalyn, on a visit for a few days ; 
I had taken her to be my mother ; and whenever speak- 
ing to her, called her as such: one day while in her own 
room, she opened a kind of cabinet, and taking a minia- 
ture of a lady from a drawer, I asked her who it was? 
she burst into tears, and told me she was not my mother ; 
but that lady was, represented in the picture ; whose 
daughter she also was, and my only surviving sister; and 
would endeavour to discharge the duty of both in her- 
self towards me. The miniature represented a female of 
a small size and a very delicate appearance, with a re- 
markable blue spot on the forehead between the eyes ; 
which though I never saw afterwards, is so strongly 
imprinted on my mind, that nothing has been able to 
erase it from my memory : my sister was so much agitated 
on the occasion, as not to have told me my mothei-'s 

Vol. II. E E name 



218 LASHED TO THE JIB-BOOM. 

name and family, of which I remain in ignorance to the 
present hour ; though I have been informed of a family 
to whom my mother belonged, whose name I do not 
think proper to make use of, not having as I think, suffi- 
cient authority to assert as proof." 

" While on board the Vesuvius, we encountered a most 
tremendous storm, in which I was employed on an occa- 
sion that I can never think of, without reflecting, how 
much hardship in youth, a human being can sustain ; — 
it was necessary for some one on board, to go to the 
jib-boom, to catch the jib-sheet, which in the gale had 
got loose; the continual lungeing of the ship rendered 
this duty particularly hazardous, and not a seaman on 
board, but rejected this office ; I acting on board in the 
capacity of Midshipman, though I never received pay 
on board this ship, but as a common man : I mention 
this circumstance only, that it was not my particular 
duty to have undertaken the task, which on the refusal 
of several who were asked, and the preservation of us all 
depending on this exertion, I voluntarily undertook the 
charge : on reaching the jib-boom, I was under the neces- 
sity of lashing myself fast to it; for the ship every mi- 
nute making a fresh lunge, without such a precaution I 
should inevitably have been washed away, the surges 
continually breaking over me, and I suffered an uninter- 
rupted wash and fatigue for six hours, before I could 
quit the post I had so willingly occupied ; but danger 
over, a sailor has little thought of reflections : and my 
messmates who had witnessed the perilous danger I was 
placed in, passed it off in a joke, " that I had only been 
sipping sea-hroth ;" but it was broth of a quality that 
though most seamen relish, yet few I imagine would like 
to take in the quantity I was compelled." 

" The following anecdote, roused reflections which led 
me to seek a regular employment, and caused my appli- 
cation 



LUCKY ESCAPE. 219 

cation to Mr. Loyer, by whom I was afterwards en- 
gaged. 

*' With the money I had received from Captain Field, 
of the Ariel, I frequented the theatres, and houses about 
Covent Garden, where I became known to persons of 
every description as a good companion ; among others, 
I had formed an acquaintance with Haines, the well 
known highwayman, who some time after was hung in 
chainSj on Hounslow Heath, for shooting one of the 
Bow Street Officers, who was about to apprehend him. 
This man I did not know followed so dangerous an oc- 
cupation ; but one evening, when my cash was nearly 
exhausted, I met him at a well known house in Covent 
Garden, known by the name of the Finish ; being out of 
spirits, he questioned me as to the cause ; I told him, I 
had lived so freely since I came on shore, that my cash 
was quite exhausted, and I was racking my imagination 
to get a fresh supply. He clapped his hand on my 

shoulder and exclaimed, " D n it, my fine fellow, 

I'll put you up to the best way in the world to get the 
supply you stand in need of ;" — we left the house, and 
while walking, he proposed I should join him, on an 
excursion to take a purse on the road ; and observing my 
sailor's habit was not calculated to the occasion, furnished 
me with money to buy Buckskin small clothes, &c. neces- 
sary for the purpose. The road we were to take was not 
settled, but our meeting was fixed for the next night; 
I got the Buckskin small clothes at Ford's, in the Strand, 
and a pair of boots from Newcoinb, in Pall Mall. At 
the hour appointed, I met Haines at a livery stable be- 
hind the New Church in the Strand, and found him in 
company with six more persons, all of whom 1 under- 
stood had met on the same business, though intending 
to take different roads ; 1 was to accompany Haines, who 
furnished me with a pair of pistols, which he told me 

E K 2 cost 



220 MADE AN ODD-FELLOW. 

cost three guineas ; when everything was ready for our 
departure, a sudden recollection of the danger and dis- 
honour of this undertaking, providentially came to my 
aid ; and I informed Haines how very reluctant I was to 
break an engagement, or my word in any particular, yet 
when I considered the consequence of the business in 
hand, I could not think of accompanying him, however 
far I had gone on the occasion ; at the same time re- 
marked, it was not the danger of the enterprise I dreaded, 
but the certain shame attached to a dishonourable ac- 
tion ; the principles of a state of warfare I should not 
mind, but never deliberately would act the part of a Pirate. 
He endeavoured to divert my resolution, and seemed 
very mad and inclined to quarrel, which I think was 
only stopped, by a knowledge of the situation he stood 
in ; I left the place congratulating myself on so narrow 
an escape, without further opposition ; though I saw 
Haines afterwards, he never took the least notice of the 
affair, and I took care for the future what company I got 
connected with." 

" About the time of my working at Mr. Loyer's, I got 
acquainted in my male dress, with a person that in- 
formed me he was Vice-grand at a Lodge of Odd Fellows, 
held at the Harlequin, near the stage door of Drury 
Lane Theatre ; this person discovering in me, a convivi- 
ality, agreeable to such an undertaking, proposed my 
becoming one of their members ; and as there was a 
meeting of their Lodge that evening, he said he would 
propose me as a new member, I readily accepting his 
offer, we adjourned to the place, where I went through 
the whole of the forms used on such occasion, and be- 
came a free member of the society of Odd Fellows, 
Lodge 21. Neither the person who introduced me, nor 
any of the members knowing my sex. It is the boast of 
masonry, that they never had more than one female be- 
longing 



LANDS ON THE MUSQUITO SHORE. 221 

longing to their institution (namely Queen Elizabeth;) and 
I think I may fairly challenge any lodge of Odd Fellows, 
to produce another female member: it being generally 
thought, there is not a female in England (myself excepted) 
belonging to this society. 

" I omitted to relate while on board the Crown trans- 
port, Captain Bishop ; on our voyage to St. Domingo 
after the storm we sufiPered in, for want of provisions and 
water, we put in for repairs, up the windward passage, 
on the Musquito shore, and on one of the islands that 
distinguish (he place, this boatswain and part of the 
ship's company, seven in number, of which I was one, 
went on shore to forage, and perceiving a bear, which 
the boatswain said was of the Hyena kind, approaching 
us in a retrograde position, he fired at it when near us, 
and killed it; having been so long kept on scanty allow- 
ance, we immediately opened our prize, and took out 
the heart, for fresh provision, the hams we conveyed on 
board, and committed them to the pickle tub for curing ; 
before quitting the island, we proceeded farther on the 
search after water, and fell in with a party of the barba- 
rous natives, who make a practice of scalping the unfor- 
tunate victims that fall into their hands; these people 
approaching us in a menacing manner, we fired on them, 
and killed one, on which the remainder fled with preci- 
pitation towards the sea ; on coming up to the dead man, 
we found he was naked, except a whisp round his body, 
like a hay-band, his hair was long, black, and strong as 
horse-hair, and in height about six feet, and proportion- 
ably lusty; he was armed with a tomahawk, or scalping 
hatchet, with which every one of his companions that 
fled were each furnished, and no more clad than their 
deceased friend. These weapons hung dangling to their 
hay-band like girdles, which we observed from some 

of 



222 ATTENDS THE PROCESSION TO ST. PAUL's. 

of the party not having taken them in their hand for use ; 
these people were of a tawny complexion. 

" At the time of my employ by Mr. Loyer, I put on my 
seaman's dress and accompanied the procession, when 
their Majesties went to St. Paul's, and the different co- 
lours of the enemy, went to be hung up in St. Paul's 
Church, as trophies of the victories obtained over their 
enemies by Howe, St. Vincent, and Duncan ; I made part 
of Lord Howe's attendants with his colours, and rode on 
the car, the chains of the bracelets her Majesty wore 
on the occasion were made by me, at Mr. Loyer's, by 
order from Messrs. Gray and Constable, jewellers of Sack- 
ville Street, Picadilly. 

" It was my intention, to insert the whole of the letters 
and family papers relative to my adventures, but have 
been deprived giving any at present, by an unforeseen 
accident, but shall be published in this work, as soon as 
ever recovered. The ensuing statement being the only 
cause of delay, will, I trust, be a sufficient excuse to every 
candid reader, by the difficulties I labour under; no other 
cause would have delayecl their publication. 

" Soon after I quitted Newgate my troubles began again ; 
a Mr. E — , not far from Pump Court in the Temple, em- 
ployed me to wash, mend, &c. he becoming indebted 
to me thirty-eight pounds for that, and money, I had 
pledged my wearing apparel to lend him, though I have 
reason to think he is a man of property, I was under the 
necessity of arresting him to recover the same. I had 
received five pounds, and a letter from him at the same 
time, saying, " he would settle with me honourably ;'' not 
keeping his word was the cause of the arrest, and being 
at this time in the greatest distress through his proceed- 
ings, and the want of money and clothes, I took lodgings 
at the house of Mr. Joseph Bradley, No. 19, Little St. 

Mary- 



DEPRITED OF MY PAPERS. 223 

Mary-le-bone Street, who is butler, and has been for 
many years to a gentleman in Gloucester Place, Hyde 
Park Corner : being in arrear for one week's rent, five 
shillings and sixpence, Mrs. Bradley, his wife, stopped 
not only my trunk, containing the whole of my letters 
and papers, but some needle-work I had to do for ano- 
ther person, which had she suffered me to carry home, 
would have nearly paid her demand ; I summoned her 
for the work to Marlborough Street, but the Magistrate 
saying, they had a right to stop all they could lay their 
hands on, I was advised to arrest Mr. Bradley in an ac- 
tion of trover, as being deprived of the work, which 
they still hold, with my family letters and papers, which 

would have proved my debt against Mr. E ; this 

advice I followed, and Mr. Bradley was arrested. In the 

mean time, Mr. E took the opportunity of entering 

a non pros to my action ; by not having it in my power 
to produce the papers necessary to prove the debt, which 
will compel me to enter a fresh process against him, as 
soon as I can recover my papers, when his must appear. 
"I employed Mr. Worley, an attorney at No. 25, in 
Well's Street, Oxford Road, who directly sued out a writ 
against Bradley, which by some means was not served 
on him that term ; before the next, he was arrested at 
my suit, and gave bail to Mr. Weekly the officer, for his 
appearance, which was entered at the commencement of 
the term, in order to go to trial ; my attorney, Mr. Wor- 
ley, on whom I called several times, informed me, he 
would let me know, when I should be wanted to attend, 
and in the mean time said, if I would procure two pounds, 
he would establish me as a pauper, that I might proceed, 
without a necessity for more money. The above sum a 
gentleman advanced me for the purpose Mr. Worley had 
asked it, and on my paying it into his hands, said, he 
would immediately proceed in the cause, and told me it 

would 



224 UNCERTAINTY OF THK LAW. 

would come on, the present term. The money I gave 
him on Wednesday, April 11th, 1804, and called by his 
appointment on Friday the 13th ; not seeing him, I called 
the next day with no better success ; as he told me it 
certainly would come on the present term, I became 
extremely anxious to see him, and called on Monday 
the 16th, still I could not meet with him, and continued 
till twelve o'clock at night in the neighbourhood, calling 
at his house four times during that period ; the only 
answer I could get, veas, he had not been at home that 
day ; the next morning, April the 17th, I called and saw 
him, when he told me my action had suffered a non-pros 
on the 7th of March, though I have repeatedly seen him 
before and since that time, he never informed me of the 
circumstance till that moment, by which I was deprived 
going to trial ; greatly shocked and disappointed, I told 
him, I should inform the gentleman from whom I had re- 
ceived the money, the whole of the transaction ; on which 
he waited on Mr. Worley, and was informed, the money I 
had given him, he had carried to my account. Thus situ- 
ated, with only part of my letters in my own possession, it 
is out of ray power to give them at present, but having 
the promise of a friend to see me righted, Mr. Bradley, 
unless inclined to give my papers up, must be served with 
another process to compel him. 

" Nothing but troubles and misfortunes for the two last 
years of my life, having occurred, and followed me, step 
by step, I have only to apologize to my readers, for any 
deviation from the paths of propriety, which only to 
ray feelings, could have happened by the greatest neces- 
sity, and the deepest distress, and I trust I shall gain their 
pity, rather than censure, when I assert, had I been 
brought up in a workhouse, or any other situation to 
have gained my bread in the most humble manner, I 
should have preferred it, to the number of misfortunes 

and 



AN ASTHMA CURED BY A MUSKET BALL. 225 

and difficulties, I have been doomed to encounter, as my 
wounds and other afflictions have rendered me incapable 
of almost every exertion to get a livelihood. 

Having described as minutely as possible, the leading 
circumstances of my adventures, I submit the vrhole to 
the decision of my readers, with a solemn assurance, that 
in no particular have I advanced any thing but matters 
of fact ; which, if they should in any way serve as a 
lesson to future guardians and those under their care, in 
avoiding the troubles I have experienced, will answer one 
end to which they were made public by their unfortunate 
sufferer, 

Mary Ann Talbot. 



ERRATA. 

For «' Lord Talbot," read, " Earl Talbot," created 1761 , 
For " Mr. Shuker," read " Sucker." 



TO THE EDITOR OF THE SCIENTIFIC MUSEUM. 

Sir, 
I inclose for insertion, (if deemed wortby of place) in your truly original Mu- 
seum, a few articles for your approbation ; in selecting any of which suited 
to your publication, you will gratify the endeavours of your occasional 
correspondent, 

April, 1804. A. 

A VIOLENT ASTHMA CURED BY A MUSKET BALL. 

W illiam Masters, Esq., who died in March, 1799, 
was a Colonel under the old Duke of Cumberland ; and 
in one of the engagements was shot through the lungs by 
a musket-ball, which entirely cured him of a violent asth- 
ma.— The Duke used to say, when any of his officers la- 
boured under that disorder, that they must get shot through 
the lungs like Masters. 

Vol. II. F F a shep- 



( 226 ) 

A SHEPHERD'S BOY HANGED BY HIS WHIP. 

Xn November 1798, as John Clench, a Sheep-boy to Mr. 
Frost, of Kelvendon, Essex, was descending from a tree 
in which he had climbed to cut a branch in order to stop 
a gap, his whip which he, in his accustomed manner, had 
slung round his neck when within six inches of the ground 
caught between the boughs, and suspended him. In this 
manner he was found hanging and quite dead. 

A BOY HANGED IN A TOWEL. 

An July, 1798, as the servant-boy of the Rev. John Prior, 
at Ashby de la Zouch was wiping himself with a rolled 
towel in the back kitchen, he unfortunately slipped down 
a step, by which means his neck became so much entan- 
gled in the towel, that it was immediately dislocated ; and 
he was soon after discovered by the family entirely life- 
less — proper means were instantly used to recover him, 
but without effect. 

A WOMAN DELIVERED OF SIX CHILDREN. 



I 



N January, 1798, the wife of Pierre Francois Duissans, 
in the Commune of Verchocq, I'Department du pas de 
Calais, was delivered, before she had gone her full time, 
of six children, three boys and three girls ; they were all 
alive at the time of their birth, but died soon after. 



A WONDERFUL DISCOVERY OF THE SKELETON OF A MAN 
IN A TREE. 

X HE beginning of April, 1804, as some boys were seek- 
ing after owls for their amusement, they discovered at the 
bottom of a hollow tree, in the parish of Blockley, in 
Worcestershire, close by the side of a brook which divides 
the counties of Worcester and Gloucester, the entire ske- 
leton of apparently a stout and tall man, the skull being 

very 



ATROCIOUS MURDERERS. 



227 



very large, and the leg and thigh bones of great length ; 
in the shoes (which were in a dry and hard state,) were 
found the bones of the toes, and the nails in tlie shoes 
were so decayed, as on being touched, to fall off, and 
with the fingers were easily pulverised. It is difficult to 
conjecture how the body came there ; but from the ap- 
pearance of the tree and other circumstances, the proba- 
bility seems to be, that the deceased secreted himself in 
the tree, which is hollow from the top to the bottom, from 
whence he could not afterwards extricate himself; and as 
the shoe of the right foot was considerably turned up, and 
retained strong marks of the pressure of the buckle, it 
may be inferred from thence, that efforts had been made 
by the unfortunate man to release himself from so deplo- 
rable a situation. 

ATROCIOUS MURDERERS. 



N. 



OTWiTHSTANDiNG the boastcd accuracy of the French 
police, enormities of almost every description are daily 
and hourly committed in the neighbourhood of their 
commissaries, with impunity. Before the revolution in 
that country, it is a fact well established, — that never a 
street robbery was committed in Paris, but it was ac- 
companied by a murder ; that the practice is not dis- 
continued under the all-wise administration of Buona- 
parte, we may readily conjecture by the recent informa- 
tion of the following shocking relation : 

On the 6th of March, 1804, a gentleman was accosted 
in the street St. Martin, at Paris, by a beautiful little 
girl, about six years of age. She was covered witii rags, 
and told him, that her mother was dying of want in the 
fifth floor of a house in the same street, and that for her- 
self, she had not ate a morsel for forty-eight hours. 
Touched with compassion, the gentleman said he would 
follow her home, and if he found her story true, relieve 
F F 2 her 



228 ATROCIOUS MURDERERS. 

her and her mother. — On entering the room, he saw a 
woman laying on a bed laid on straw, instead of a mat- 
trass. Her looks and voice seemed to confirm the story 
of the child. In taking his purse from his pocket, it fell 
down by accident on the floor ; stooping to take it up, 
he saw clearly a man under the bed. Alarmed, but 
without losing his presence of mind, he said — " Good 
woman, here are four crowns ; I have no more about 
me ; but let your child accompany me home, I will give 
her twenty more." Instead of returning to his lodgings, 
he took the child to a police commissary ; where, after 
some examination, she acknowledged, that the person 
under the bed was her father, and that, within the last 
fortnight, during which they had lodged in the street St. 
Martin, six persons had been stabbed by him, plundered 
and stripped ; that two corpses had been carried out by 
him after dark, some nights before, and thrown into the 
river; but that four corpses yet remained in the closet 
behind the bed. — The police commissary, with the gentle- 
men, and some gens-d'armes, went immediately to the 
house, but they found nothing but the four corpses in 
the closet. The man and woman were gone, and have 
not yet been heard of. — In consequence of the discovery 
made by the child, six former lodgings of this cruel 
couple have been traced, where, according to her report, 
and several other circumstances within the knowledge of 
the police, during the last winter, no less than twenty-two 
persons of both sexes, are supposed to have been mur- 
dered by them. It was the custom of the woman, as 
from gratitude, to take hold of her benefactor's hands, 
and draw them to her lips as she lay in bed, when the 
man stole behind, and stabbed them through their backs. 
— Mad. Murat has taken the child under her protection, 
and pays for her education. 

A n 



A 



( 229 ) 

An extraordinary Movement of the Earth, near Colehrooh, 
in Shropshire. 

MOST remarkable incident happened near Colebrook, 
On Thursday morning, Ma}' 27, 1773, about four o'clock. 
About 4000 yards from the river Severn stood a house, 
where a family dwelt ; the man got up about three o'clock, 
and heard a rumbling noise, and felt the ground shake 
under him ; on which he called up his family. They 
perceived the ground begin to move, but knew not which 
way to run ; however, the people took to their heels, and 
just as they had got to an adjacent wood, the ground they 
had left separated from that on which they stood. They 
first observed a small crack in the ground about four or 
five inches wide, and a field that was sown with oats to 
heave up and roll about like waves of water ; the trees 
moved as if blown Avith wind, but the air was calm and 
serene ; the river Severn (in which at that time was a con- 
siderable flood) was agitated very much, and the current 
seemed to run upwaids- They perceived a great crack 
run very quick up the ground from the river. Immedi- 
ately about 30 acres of land, with the edges and trees 
standing (except a few that were overturned), moved 
with great force and swiftness towards the Severn, attended 
with great and uncommon noise, compared to a large 
flock of sheep running swiftly. That part of the land 
next the river was a small wood, under two acres, in 
which grew twenty large oaks ; a few of them were thrown 
down, and as many more were undermined and overturn- 
ed ; some left leaning, the rest upright, as if never dis- 
turbed. The wood was pushed with such velocity into 
the channel of the Severn (which at that time was remark- 
ably deep) that it Torced the water in great columns a 
considerable height, like mighty fountains, and drove 
the bed of the river before it on the opposite shore many 

feet 



230 THE THREE BRETHREN OAK-TREE, &C. 

feet above the surface of the water, where it lodged, as 
did one side of the wood ; the current being instantly 
stopped, occasioned a great inundation above, and so 
sudden a fall below, that many fish were left on dry land, 
and several barges were heeled over, and when the stream 
came down, were sunk, but none were damaged above. 
The river soon took its course over a large meadow that 
was opposite the small wood, and in three days wore a 
navigable channel through the meadow. A turnpike 
road was moved more than thirty yards from its former 
situation, and to all appearance rendered for ever impas- 
sable. A barn was carried about the same distance, and 
left as a heap of rubbish in a large chasm ; the house re- 
ceived but little damage. A hedge which was joined to 
the garden, was removed about 50 yards. A great part 
of the land was in confused heaps, full of cracks from 
four inches to more than a yard wide. Several very long 
and deep chasms were formed in the upper part of the 
land, from 14 to upwards of 30 yards wide, in which 
were many pyramids of earth standing, with the green 
turf remaining on the tops of some of them. Hollows 
were raised into mounts, and mounts reduced into hol- 
lows. Less than a quarter of an hour completed this 
dreadful scene. 

THE THREE BRETHREN OAK-TREE. 

Standing in Whinfield Forest, in the County of West- 
morland. 

X HE above appellation, by which this singular Tree is 
so eminently distinguished from among its neighbours 
in the forest, is from the circumstance of its affinity with 
two neighbouring trees, of considerable magnitude which 
grew near it, but by no means comparable to this in 
height and dimensions; for the drawing and description 
of this wonderful work of nature, we are indebted for 

the 



i 




'^y/t/ /h'j/r/r/'//f/^Jmr/r ( 'f/A' 



{>iU> 



in Whinfipld Forreft. 



PaimAriil yr JiV-i /ir 'l .<Sin- /if/i./.- 1 /■'.•/»/#}«/..'< / •. . // 



THE THREE BRETHREN OAK-TREE, &C. 231 

the information to Mr. William Todd, of Moor-houses, 
in the aforesaid county. 

Whinfield Forest is the property of the Earls of Thanet. 
This most surprising large oak tree, as represented in 
our plate, has stood in this forest near two hundred and 
seventy years, by the nearest computation of the neigh- 
bouring inhabitants in that country; it is supposed to 
have derived its name from three other trees which for- 
merly stood near this place, which being all of so won- 
derful a size, and nearly resembling one another, were 
therefore called the Three Brethren Trees. — The circum- 
ference of this (which is supposed the most wonderful of 
the three) measures 14 yards, or 42 feet, being nearly 
of this thickness to the height of 15 feet from the 
root, from thence to the branches it diminishes propor- 
tionably ; as to the true height thereof it is a little un- 
certain to account for, especially as the top part, (to- 
gether with most of the principal branches) have been 
broke off many years ; but to the nearest estimation 
possible, according to my observation, it appears to be 
at least 50 feet, or nearly; as to the circumference at the 
top (as it now remains) it may, in respect to that propor- 
tion, be supposed to have been 10 feet higher, exclusive 
of the several tall branches, which consequently have 
been thereto belonging. — Thus it appears that the true 
height, as near as possible, may be said to have been 
60 feet in solid timber, which in respect to so wonderful 
a thickness is also equally admirable. — The spreading or 
side branches are also mostly decayed and broken off, 
yet what is very surprising of those which remain (al- 
though but stumps) there is one which is observed at the 
Spring season to shoot forth and bear leaves.— If it 
were possible an acorn of this most wonderful tree could 
be produced, it certainly would deserve a place in the 
British Museum, and might equally be admired as a cu- 
riosity 



232 THE THREE BRETHREN OAK-TREE, &C. 

riosity not the least inferior to any one contained therein. 
— Having thus particularly described the outside situa- 
tion of this famous tree, I shall without doubt more 
surprize the reader in giving the inside description ; 
and, as near reality as possible, is as follows : — On the 
north-east side, next that of Temple Sowerby, is a large 
entrance cut and broke out, in form of a door-way, 
where people either walk in on foot, or ride in on horse- 
back, which, though however impossible this may appear 
in respect to a ti-ee, the truth of it is well known to those 
persons who have had the curiosity to behold it, several of 
which are now in London, and other parts of England, &c. 
As to the inward prospect, it is rather dismal than other- 
wise, representing, as it were, part of some ruinous castle 
or ancient tower, being so much inwardly decayed as even 
reduced almost to a shell ; near the top, in the cavities 
within, are several of those animals called bats, and the 
martins resort also thither in great numbers; the lower 
part is most wonderfully spacious, and will easily admit, 
as before observed, of a horse and man therein to turn 
about at pleasure ; it is also a very convenient receptacle 
for the deer in stormy weather, which in this forest are 
many in number, and esteemed not inferior to any in 
England. — Thus have I given both the true and original 
description of this most wonderful Three Brethren Tree, 
which has so many years been the admiration of the 
Northern inhabitants, even for several former generations. 
Adjoining to the west side of this forest is Clifton- Moor, 
on which place his royal highness the Duke of Cumber- 
land most gloriously defeated the rebel arm}', in the year 
1746, restored an universal peace throughout the coun- 
try ; and seated the Brunswick family in security on the 
throne, which we trust they will hold to the end of 
time. 

THE 



233 



THE ANCIENT CRIES OF LONDON; 
Or the common daily cries in and about the Metropolis. 

XN the reign of Charles the Second, almost every article 
of life and use, were carried about the streets of London, 
by itinerant venders, vrho accompanied each article they 
sold with a peculiar cry : this set of people attracted the 
attention of Marcellus Laroon, an eminent painter of 
that time, who made nearly one hundred fine drawings, 
which were engraved and published by Pierce Tempest, 
and the following descriptive poem, was doubtless made 
by a wit of the time to accompany them ; though inserted 
in another work, which is now equally scarce with the 
cries themselves, a set of which has lately been sold for 
seven guineas : — 

We daily cryes, about the streets may hear 

According to the season of the year, 

Some Welfleet oysters call, others do cry 

Fine Chelsea cockles, or white muscles buy ; 

Great Mackrel, five a groat some cry about, 

Dainty fresh salmon, does another shout; 

Buy my fine dish of dainty eels cryes one 

Some soles and flounders in another tone ; 

Butter and eggs some cry, some Hampshire honey, 

Others do call for brass or broken money. 

Have ye any old suits, or coats or hats, 

Another says como buy my dainty sprats. 

Box, or horn combs of ivory, or sissers, 

Tobacco-boxes, knives, rasors, or twissers : 

Who buys my bak'd oxe-cheek, here in my pot 

Plump, fresh and fat, well stew'd and piping hot ; 

Dy'd lin for aprons, vinegar some cryes. 

Some hot bak'd wardens, others puddin pyes : 

Vol. IL o g Buy 



234 THE ANTIENT CRIE9 OF LQWDON. 

Buy a Jack line or an hair line, cryes some, 
New books, new books, then doth another come ; 
French beans and parsley, some cry, if ye mind. 
And others, have ye any knives to grind ; 
Some ropes of onions, cry about the town, 
Some pepins, and pearmains up street and down. 
Hot codlins, hot, the best that e'er you see 
Who buys these dainty hot codlins of me ; 
Turneps and Sandwich carrots, one man calls, 
Green bastings in my cart, another brawls ; 
Come buy a steel, or a tinder box, cryes some. 
Old boots or shoes, says one, come buy my broom. 
Maids ha'ye any kitchen stuff, I pray. 
Buy long thread laces does another say ; 
New almanacks some cry, at th' times o'the' year, 
Then others singing ballads you may hear ; 
Some carry painted-clothes, on little poles, 
By which it's known that such men do catch moles, 
Others in clothes, well painted rats hava aiilj, 
Which notifies rat-catching is their trade : 
Have ye any work for a cooper here, 
Old brass to mend, then tincles one in th' rear ; 
Some nettle cheeses cry, and some new milk. 
Others sattin and velvet, or old silk. 
Then ends of gold or silver, cryes a lass. 
Another curds and cream, as she does pass ; 
With traps for rats and mice, do some appear. 
Two hundred a penny, card matches here ; 
Ripe cherries, ripe, come buy my early cherries, 
Who buys my currans or large ripe goose-berries, 
A rubbing brush, a bottle brush, or grater. 
Fine sparrow-grass, then cryes another creature ; 
Here's dainty cowcumbers, who buys to pickle, 
Another then with colly-flowers does stickle. 



Ripe 



THE ANCIENT CRIES OF LONDON. 235 

Ripe rass-berries about, does some then sing, 

Fine young straw-berries does another bring; 

Fresh nettle-tops, or elder-buds, come buy, 

Then water cresses and brook-lime, they cry. 

Any old iron here to sell, cryes one. 

And some maids ha' ye any marrow bone ; 

Ripe Muske mellons, or apricots, some cry, 

Fine civil oranges or lemmons buy. 

Old chairsto mend, then cryes a ragged fellow, 

Come buy a door matt does another bellow; 

Buy a cock or a gelding does one come, 

Come buy my dainty singing bird says some, 

Some dainty fine holly and ivy sayes, 

Then curious fine rosemary and bayes. 

Some pens and ink would sell to all they meet, 

And others small coal cry about the street ; 

Pity the poor prisoners, some with baskets go, 

And others cry come see my rara show : 

Anon, a poor wretch comes crying behind, 

With dog and bell pray pity the poor blind ; 

Who buys these figgs and raisins, new of mine, 

Come buy my bowl of wheat, fine oatcakes, fine : 

Hot mutton pyes, cryes one along the street, 

Who buys my mutton pyes, fresh, hot, and sweet; 

Buy marking stone one cryes, with's smutty face. 

Another says come buy my fine bone lace; 

Buy a cloth or thrum mop, you maids and lasses, 

Another cryes who buyes my drinking glasses. 

A lattice for a window, who will buy, 

Great faggots, five for sixpence does some cry ; 

Have ye any old glass for to renew. 

Some cry bellows to mend, or bowls to sew; 

Some silk or ferrit ribbon for shoe strings. 

With London pins, and tape, and other things, 

G G 2 Have 



236 MASANIELLO, THE EISHERjMAN OF NAPLES. 

Have ye any corns upon your feet or toes, 
Buy a fox-tail, or whiske, another goes ; 
Some walk about, and old silk stockings cry, 
Some ask if socks, or quilted caps you'l buy; 
And thus they trot about and bawl each day, 
For the love they bear Lady Pecunia, 
For her they'l sit up late, and early rise, 
She does appear so glorious in their eyes : 
Think all pains well bestow'd, nothing too much, 
Their zealous dotage to this idol's such. 
Money's the only she, all men admire, 
Both poor and rich this lady do desire ; 
And those that her do want, they are forlorn, 
If she's not there, they're every fellow's scorn ; 
We may conclude, when we've said what we can, 
Tis money at all limes, does make a man. 

THOMAS ANELLO, 

Commonly called Masaniello, the Fisherman of Naples. 

v_/F therevolutions in countries and empires, few have 
claimed more interest or excited so much attention, as 
those in Naples and England, which took place, the first 
in 1647, at Naples, by a poor fisherman, and in England, 
by a set of fanatics, the head of whom was Oliver Crom- 
well, in the year 1648. When this grand dissembler, by 
a mock trial, brought his Sovereign's head to the block, 
very different causes served in either country to foment 
rebellion : in Naples, it was brought about through the 
great burthens and oppressions of the people ; in our own 
country by a dispute as to the mode of worship in our 
churches, which the Puritans imagined, favoured too 
much of Popery, particularly as the altar was removed 
a little before this time, from the middle of the church 
to the east end, and in some cases, more richly ornament- 
ed 




)J(>J/Uf>U> , ^//l///f> 



( ciniui'nlu itillcd 



CC IJajstuuc/lo Tislicrman of Naples. 



MA9ANIELLO, THE FISHERMAN OF NAPLES. 237 

ed than agreeable to this description of people. Archbi- 
shop Laud, on the contrary, as strongly opposed their 
desires, and caused some to be severely censured in the 
star chamber, whereby Prynne, Burton, Bastwick and 
Leighton lost their ears in the pillory, and were fined in 
an amount equal to imprisonment for life: this severity 
drew on Laud a number of enemies, which ended in the 
loss of his head, and was in a few years after followed by 
that of his royal master. 

But if these transactions filled the mind with horror, 
how much more so does the depredations and murders 
daily and hourly committed in France, excite our sur- 
prize and indignation : for not content with the blood- 
shed of their own country, the revolutionary principles 
extend to that of others ; thus Germany, Holland, Swit- 
zerland, Italy and Egypt sufficiently testify : and when 
driven with dismay and disgrace from the latter country 
by the valour of the British forces, like the description of 
vermin, who for want of other food prey on themselves, 
have invented sham plots and diabolical measures, to gra- 
tify the sanguinary appetite of a carnivorous usurper 
and tyrant, whose despotism we cannot but think will be 
of but short duration. For intoxicated by power, like 
the unfortunate Masaniello, (a much less censurable cha- 
racter) he will not be content till his extravagant fancy 
draws a similar fate on his devoted head. 



Thomas Anello, by construction called Masaniello, 
was born in the year 1623, and at the time he attracted 
thenoticeand conversation of the world, was about twen- 
ty-four years of age: this man dwelt in the corner of the 
great market-place at Naples : and it strangely happened, 
that under one of his windows were fixed the arms, and 
the name of Charles V. of a very ancient standing. This 
monarch had granted a charter of privileges to the people 

of 



236 MASANIELLO, THE FISHERMAN OF NAPLES. 

of Naples, which had of late been much violated. Ma- 
saniello was stout, of a good countenance, and a middle 
stature ; he wore linen slops, a blue waistcoat, and went 
barefoot, with a mariner's cap. His profession was to 
angle for small fish, with a cane, hook and line ; as also 
to buy fish and to retail them. This man having observed 
the murmurings up and down the city, went one day very 
angry towards his house, and met wuth the famous Ban- 
ditto Perrone and his companion, as he passed by a church 
where they had fled for refuge. They asked him what 
ailed him ? he answered in great wrath, " I will be bound 
to be hanged, but I will right this city!'' — They laughed 
at his words, saying, " a proper 'squire to right the city 
of Naples!" Masaniello replied, "Do not laugh: I 
swear by G — d, if I had two or three of my humour, you 
should see what I would do — will you join with me V they 
answered, " yes :" " plight me then your faith ;" which 
they having done, he departed. A little after, he fell 
into a gi'eat passion ; for some of the officers of the cus- 
toms having met his wife carrying a small quantity of 
contraband flour in her apron, they laid hold on her, and 
carried her to prison, nor would set her at liberty, till 
Masaniello had sold the whole of his fish and property 
to pay a fine of a hundred ducats which was the price 
they had set on her freedom. He then resolved to make 
use of the occasion of the murmurings of the people 
against the tax on fruits, which particularly lay heavy on 
the poorer sort, and went among the fruit shops that lay 
in that quarter, advising them, that the next day they 
should come all united to market, with a resolution to tell 
the country fruiterers that they would buy no more taxed 
fruit. 

A number of boys used to assemble in the market- 
place to pick up such fruit as fell. Masaniello got 
among these, taught them some cries and clamours suit- 
ed 



MASANIELLO, THE FISHERMAN OF NAPLES. 239 

ed to his purpose, and enrolled such a number of them 
between 16 and 17 years of age, that they came to 500, 
and at last 5000. Of this Militia he made himself Gene- 
ral, giving every one of them in their hands a little weak 
cane. The shop-keepers observing his instructions, 
there happened the next day a great tumult between them 
and the fruiterers, which the regent of the city sent Ana- 
clerio, the elect of the people, to quell. Among the fruit- 
erers was a cousin of Masaniello's ; who, according to the 
instructions given him, began more than any to inflame the 
people. He saw that he could not sell his fruit, but at a 
low price; which, when the tax was paid, would not quit 
cost. He fell into a great rage, threw two large baskets 
on the ground, and cried out, God gives plenty, and the 
bad government a dearth ; I care not a straw for this 
fruit, let every one take of it. The boys eagerly ran to 
gather and eat the fruit. Masaniello rushed in among 
them, crying. No tax! No tax! But Anaclerio threaten- 
ing him with whipping and the gallies, not only the fruit- 
erers, but all the people, threw figs, apples, and other 
fruits with great fury in his face. Masaniello hit him on 
the breast with a stone, and encouraged his Militia of 
boys to do the same ; but Anaclerio saved his life by 
flight. 

Upon this success, the people flocked in great numbers 
to the Market-place, exclaiming aloud against the into- 
lerable grievances under which they groaned; and pro- 
testing their resolution to submit no longer to them. The 
fury still increasing, Masaniello leaped upon the highest 
table that was among the fruiterers, and harangued the 
crowd ; comparing himself to Moses, who delivered the 
Egyptians from the rod of Pharaoh ; to Peter, who was a 
fisherman as well as himself, yet rescued Rome and the 
world from the slavery of Satan ; promising them a like 
deliverance from their oppressors by his means, and pro- 
testing 



240 MASANIELLO, THE FISHERMAN OF NAPLES. 

testing his readiness to lay down his life in such a glorious 
cause. Masaniello repeating often tliese and such-like 
words, wonderfully inflamed the minds of the people, who 
were disposed in their hearts to co-operate with him to 
this purpose. 

To begin the work, fire was put to the house next the 
toll-house for fruit, both of which were burnt to the ground, 
with all the books and accounts, goods and furniture. 
This done, every one shut up his shop; and the numbers 
increasing, many thousand people, uniting themselves, 
went to other jjarts of the city, where all the other toll- 
houses were : them they plundered of all their writings 
and books, great quantities of money, with many rich 
moveables ; all of which they threw into a great fire of 
straw, and burnt to ashes in the streets. The people, 
meeting with no resistance, assumed more boldness, and 
made towards the palace of the Viceroy. The first Mili- 
tia of Masaniello, consisting of 2000 boys, marched on, 
every one lifting up his cane with a piece of black cloth 
on the top, and with doleful and loud cries excited the 
compassion, and intreated the assistance of their fellow- 
citizens. Being come before the palace, they cried out 
amain, that they would not be freed of the fruit-tax only, 
but of all others, especially that of corn. At last they 
entered the palace, and rifled it, notwithstanding the re- 
sistance of the guards, whom they disarmed. 

The Viceroy got into his coach to secure himself within 
the church of St. Lewis ; but the people spying him, 
stopped the coach, and with naked swords on each side of 
it, threatened him, unless he would take off" the taxes. With 
fair promises and assurance of redress, and by throw- 
ing money among the multitude, which they were greedy 
to pick up, he got at last safe into the Church, and 
ordered the doors to be shut. The people applied to 
the Prince of Bisagnano, who was much beloved by 

them, 



MASANIELLO, THE FISHERMAN OF NAPLES. 241 

them, to be their defender and intercessor. He pro- 
mised to obtain what they desired ; but finding himself 
unable, after much labour and fatigue, to restrain their 
licentiousness or quell their fury, he took the first oppor- 
tunity of disengaging himself from the labyrinth of that 
popular tumult. 

After the retirement of the prince, the people finding 
themselves without a head, called out for Masauiello to 
be their leader and conductor ; which charge he ac- 
cepted. They appointed Genoino, a priest of approved 
knowledge, temper, and abilities, to attend his person; 
and to him they added, for a companion, tlie aforenamed 
famous Banditto Perrone. Masaniello, by his spirit, 
good sense, and bravery, won the hearts of all the people, 
insomuch that they became willing to transfer unto him 
solemnly the supreme command, and to obey him accord- 
ingly. 

A stage was erected in the middle of the market-place, 
where, clothed in white, like a mariner, he with his 
counsellors, gave public audience, received petition?, 
and gave sentence in all cases both civil and criminal. 
He had no less than 150,000 men under his command. 
An incredible multitude of women also appeared wiiii 
arms of various sorts, like so many Amazons. A list was 
made of above 60 persons, who had farmed the taxes, or 
been some way concerned in the custom-houses ; and, 
as it was said, they had enriched themselves with the 
blood of the people, and ought to be made exam])Ies to 
future ages, an order was issued that their houses and 
goods should be burnt; which was executed accord- 
ingly, and with so much regularity, that no one was 
suffered to carry away the smallest article. Many for 
stealing but mere trifles from the flames were hanged by 
the public executioner in the market-place, by the com- 
mand of Masaniello. 

Vol. II. H H 



242 MASANIELLO, THE FISHERMAN OF NAPLES. 

Whilst these horrid tragedies were acting, the Viceroy 
thought of every method to appease the people, and 
bring them to an accommodation. He applied to the 
Archbishop, of whose attachment to the government he 
was well assured, and of whose paternal care and affec- 
tion for them, the people had no doubt. He gave them 
the original charter of Charles V. (which exempted them 
from all taxes, and upon which they had all along in- 
sisted) confirmed by lawful authority, and also an in- 
lulgence or pardon for all offences whatsoever com- 
mitted. 

The bishop found means to induce Masaniello to con- 
voke all the captains and chief commanders of the peo- 
ple together ; and great hopes were conceived that an 
happy accommodation would ensue. In the mean time, 
500 banditti, all armed, on horseback, entered the city, 
under pretence that they came for the service of the 
people, but in reality to destroy Masaniello, as it appeared 
afterwards; for they discharged several shots at him, 
some of which narrowly missed him. This immediately 
put a stop to the whole business, and it was suspected 
that the Viceroy had some hand in this conspiracy. The 
streets were immediately barricaded, and orders were 
given, that the aqueduct leading to the castle, in which 
were the Viceroy and family, and all the principal offi- 
cers of state, should be cut off, and that no provision, 
except some few roots and herbs should be carried thither. 
The Viceroy applied again to the archbishop, to assure 
the people of his good intentions towards them, his 
abhorrence of the designs of the banditti, and his reso- 
lution to use all his authority to bring them to due punish- 
ment. Thus the treaty was again renewed, and soon 
completed ; which being done, it was thought proper 
that Masaniello should go to the palace to visit the 
Viceroy. He gave orders that all the streets leading to 

it 



MASANIELLO, THE FISHERMAN OF NAPLES, 243 

it sLould be swept clean, and that all masters of families 
should hang their windows and balconies with their 
richest silks and tapestrys. He threw off his mariner's 
habit, and dressed himself in cloth of silver, with a fine 
plume of feathers in his hat; and, mounted upon a pranc- 
ing steed, with a drawn sword in his hand ; he went 
attended by 50,000 of the choicest of the people. 

While he was in conference with the Viceroy in the 
balcony, he gave him surprising proofs of the ready obe- 
dience of the people ; whatever cry he gave out, it was 
immediately echoed ; when he put his finger upon his 
mouth there was a profound universal silence, that scarce 
a man was seen to breathe. At last, he ordered that 
they should all retire, which was punctually and pre- 
sently obeyed, as if they had all vanished away. On 
the Sunday following the capitulations were signed and 
solemnly sworn to in the cathedral church, to be observed 
for ever. Masaniello declared, that now having accom- 
plished his honest designs, he would return again to his 
former occupation. If he had kept this resolution, he 
might justly have been reckoned one of the greatest heroes 
that any age or country ever produced. But as it is di- 
versely reported, either through the instigations of his 
wife and kindred, through fear, or allured by the tasted 
sweets of rule and power, he still continued his authority ; 
and, what is worse, exercised it in a very capricious and 
tyrannical manner, insomuch that his best friends began 
to be afraid of him. 

It has been thought something had been infused into 
his drink, to deprive him of his senses, or, what is equally 
probable, that he had drank to an excess, wholly to de- 
prive hiui of reason ; but, whatever was the cause, he 
certainly conducted himself at last, in a very improper 
manner ; wantonly cutting and maiming every person 
without distinction, galloping along the streets like a 

H H £ maniac : 



244 MASANIELLO, THE FISHERMAN OF NAPLES. 

maniac : instead of being followed by the people, as 
heretofore, every person avoided his presence ; and at 
last, fatigued and exhausted, he took refuge in the church 
of Carmine. The archbishop sent immediate notice 
to the Viceroy, and Masaniello was in the mean time 
taken care of by the religious of the church, and pro- 
vided with refreshments, after the fatigue he had suffered 
by his violent proceedings. Some gentlemen who thought 
they should be doing the viceroy an acceptable office, 
now entei'ed the church ; and as they passed through the 
cloister cried out, long live the King of Spain, and let 
none from henceforth, wpon pain of deatky ohey Masaniello. 
The people did not oppose these gentlemen in their 
search, but on the contrary made way for them ; and 
th ey proceeded to the convent of the church, searching 
and enquiring for Masaniello. This unhappy man, 
hearing somebody call M;i?a;iiello, runs out to meet his 
foes, saying, 7s it me you look for, my people ? Behold I am 
here ; but all the answer he had was from four muskets, that 
were fired upon him at one time, by Salvatone Cataneo, 
Carlos Cataneo, Angelo Ardezone, and Andrea Rama. 
He instantly dropped down upon the place, having but 
just time to cry out. Ah! ungrateful traitors, he breathed 
his last. Salvatone Cataneo then cut off his head, and 
carried it directly to the Viceroy, to the terror of the 
rabble; who, to the amount of eight or ten thousand, were 
in the church and market-place; and far from avenging 
the death of their captain-general, by that of his mur- 
derers, they seemed satisfied and motionless ; and in 
this occurrence gave a memoi'able instance of the incon- 
stancy of the populace, whose attachment may be justly 
compared to a broken reed, Mhich, whoever bears upon 
is sure of falling. And no sooner was the breath out of 
his bofiy, but his hi herto followers first procured tlie 
body, and after his head, and dragged them through 

evcrv 



r.IANNEn OI' MAKING A NEW FREEMAN. 245 

every kennel and gutter of the city, and finally threw 
each into a separate ditch. But the day following, as 
great a change again took place with respect to his 
memory, his head and body were carefully sought after, 
and when found, were washed free from the filth that had 
defaced them ; and the most sumptuous funeral ever seen in 
Naples was that of Masaniello, being followed to the 
cathedral church by five hundred priests, and forty- 
thousand other persons. The ensigns of the Spanish 
monarchy lowered their banners as it passed ; and the 
viceroy sent out a number of attendants with torches, when 
it passed his palace, to attend the procession, and honor 
him in death. The disturbance in Naples began July 7th 
1647, and ended the 16th of the same month, the day 
Masaniello was killed, after ruling nine days. 

It may not be improper to remark, that about one 
hundred years before, in the year 1547, a Masaniello put 
himself at the head of a mob, on the introduction of the 
inquisition at Naples, by Philip II. This Masaniello was 
Captain of a banditti. 

TO THE EDITOR OF THE SCIENTIFIC MUSEUM. 

Sin, 
If the following s'mgular custom is thought worthy a place in your entertain- 
ing publication, it will be the means of my endeavouring to furnish you 
with similar articles. 

Yours, &c. 

S. D. 

X HE manner of makiuij; anew freeman, of Alnwick, in 
the county of Northumberland, is so remarkable and 
ludicrous, that an able historian has preserved the story 
from whence the custom is derived. This curious mode 
of making a new freeman is practised in its full force to 
^he pres.^nt time, and within a very few )'cars has been 
complied witli. The history and form of it is as follows: 

In 



246 MANNKR 01' MAKING A NEW FREEMAN. 

In the reign of King John, that monarch attempted to 
ride across Ahiwick Moor, then called the forest of Aidon; 
he fell with his horse into a bog or morass, where he 
stuck so fast that he was with great difficulty pulled out 
by some of his attendants. 

The King, incensed against the inhabitants of that 
town, for not keeping their roads over their moor in bet- 
ter repair, or at least for not placing some post or mark 
pointing out the particular spots which were impassable* 
inserted in their charter both by way of memento and 
punishment, that for the future all new created freemen 
should on St. Mark's day pass on foot through that 
morass, called the Freemen's well. 

In obedience to this clause of their charter, when any 
new freemen are to be made, a small rill of water which 
passes through the morass is kept dammed up for a day 
or two, previous to that on which this ciiremonial is to be 
exhibited, by which means the bog becomes so thoroughly 
liquified that a middle sized man is chin deep in mud 
and water in passing over it, besides which, unlucky wags 
frequently dig holes and trenches ; in these, filled up and 
rendered invisible by the fluid mud, several freemen have 
fallen down and been in great danger of sutfocation. 
In short, in proportion as the new made freemen are more 
or less popular, the passage is rendered more or less dif- 
ficult ; at the best, however, it is scarcely preferable to 
the punishment of the horse pond, inflicted by the mob on 
a detected pick-pocket. 

The day being come, the candidates, for they are 
literally so, being dressed all in white, preceded by a 
cavalcade, consisting of the Castle Bailiff, the four Cham- 
Derlains, the freemen of the town, and a band of music, 
repair to the scene of action. And on the word, or a 
signal being given, they pass through the bog, each being 
at liberty to use the method and pace, which to him shall 

seem 



REMARKABLE TRIAL. 247 

seem best, some running, some going slow, and some at- 
tempting to jump over suspected places, but all in their 
turns, tumbling and wallowing, like porpoises at sea, or 
hogs in the mire, to the great amusement of the populace, 
who usually assemble in vast numbers on this occasion. 
This scene being ovei*, the parties return to the town, and 
endeavour to prevent by good cheer the ill effects of their 
mornings exercise. 

REMARKABLE TRIAL. 

In the Court of Kings-Bench^ brought hy a Mrs. Booty, 
against Captain Barnahy, to recover the sum if one 
thousand pounds, as damages for the scandal of his 
assertion, that he had seen her deceased husband, Mr, 
Booty, a receiver, drove into Hell. 



N this remarkable trial, witnesses were brought for- 
ward, who proved the words to have been spoken by 
Captain Barnaby, and afterwards by his wife ; the de- 
fence set up was, that the defendant had spoke no more, 
than had been seen by a number of persons, as well as 
himself; to prove which, the journal books of three dif- 
ferent ships were produced in court, and the following 
passages recorded in each, submitted to the court and 
jury by the defendant's council. 

Teusday, l'2th May, 1687. — This day the weather 
cameS. W. a little, about^three o'clock in the afternoon, and 
about four, we anchored in Manson-road,and there found 
in the road Captain Barnaby, Captain Bristow, and 
Captain Brown, all of them bound for the island of Lis- 
sara, to load. 

Wednesday, 13th May. — This day, about ten o'clock 
in the forenoon, I went on board of Captain Barnaby, 
and about two o'clock in the afternoon, we weighed, and 

sailed 



248 REMARKABLE TRIAL. 

sailed, all of us, for the island of Lissara, the wind was 
W. N. W. and better weather. 

Thursday, 14th of May. — About two o'clock we saw 
the island of Lissara; and about seven we came to an 
anchor off the said island, in twelve fathoms water, and 
then we were at W. S. W. 

Friday, 15th May. — We had the observation of Mr. 
Booty this day, Captain Barnaby, Captain Bristow, 
Captain Brown, I, and Mr. Ball, merchant, went on shore 
in Captain Barnaby's boat, to shoot rabbits upon Strom- 
boli ; and when we had done, we called all our men 
together by us, and about half an hoar and fourteen 
minutes after three in the afternoon, to our great sur- 
prise, we all of us saw two men come running towards us 
with such swiftness, that no living; man could run half so 
fast as they did run; when all of us heard Captam Bar- 
naby say, " Lord bless me, the foremost is old Booty, 
my next door neighbour ; " but he said, he did not know 
the other that run behind; he was in black clothes and 
the foremost was in grey : then Captain Barnaby desired 
all of us, to take an account of the time, and pen it down 
in our pocket books, and when we got on board we wrote 
it in our journals ; for we saw them into the flames of 
fire, and there was a great noise, which greatly affrighted 
us all ; for we none of us ever saw, or heard the like be- 
fore. Captain Barnaby said, " he was certain it was old 
Booty, which he saw running over Stromboli, and into the 
flames of hell." 

Then coming home to England, and lying at Graves- 
end, Captain Barnaby's wife came on board the 6th day 
of October, 1687 ; at which time Captain Barnaby, and 
Captain Brown, sent for Captain Bristow, and Mr. Ball, 
merchant, to congratulate with them : and after some dis- 
course, Captain Barnaby's wife started up, and said, 

" my 



SOME ACCOtNt OF StROMBOLl. 249 

" my dear, I will tell you some news, old Booty is dead ;'* 
he directly made answer/' " we all of us saw hiui run 
into hell !" Afterwards Captain Barnaby's wife told a 
Gentleman of his acquaintance in Loudon, vshat her 
husband had said ; and he went aud acquainted xMrs. 
Booty of the whole affair : upon that Mri. Booty 
arrested Captain Barnahy in a thousand pounds action ; 
for what he had said of her husband ; Cap^ Barnaby gave 
bail to it, and it came to n tri.-d in the Court of king's 
Bench, and they had Mr. Booty's weanugapparei brought 
into Court, and the Sexton of the Pixrish, and the people 
that were with him when he died ; and they swore to the 
time he died, and when he died; and we swore to our 
journals, and it came to the same time within about tw<£' 
minutes : ten of our men swore to the buttons on his 
coat, and that they were covered with the same sort of 
cloth his coat was made ; and so it proved. 

The jury asked Mr, Spinks (whose hand writing in the 
journal that happened to be read appeared) if he knew 
Mr. Booty, he answered " I never saw him, till he ran 
by me on the Burning Mountains." 

Then the judge said, " Lord have mercy upon me, and 
grant I may never see what you have seen ; one, two or 
three may be mistaken, but thirty never can be mis- 
taken." — So the widow lost her cause. 

SOME ACCOUNT OF STROMBOLI, ONE OF TItE LlTAia 
ISLANDS. 

oTROMBOLI, the most northern of the Lipari Islands, 
is a volcano, which rises in a conical foi:n, above the sur- 
face of :he sea. On the east side, it has three or four 
little craters ranged near each other, not at the summit^ 
but on the declivity, nearly at two thirds of its height. 
It is inhabited, notwithstanding its tires ; but care is 
taken to avoid the proximity of the crater ; which is yet 
Vol. IL i x much 



QSO NORTMtJMBEIlLANII 

much to be feared. Of all the Volcanos recorded ill 
history, Stromboli seems to be the only one that buryis 
without ceasing, Etna and Vesuvius often lie quiet for 
many months, and even years, without the least ap* 
pearance of fire ; but Stromboli is ever at work, and, for 
ages past, has been looked upon as the great lighthouse 
of the Mediterranean sea. 



EXTRACT FROM THE NORTHUMBERLAND HOUSEHOLD 

BOOK. 

The following curious Items, were preserved in a Manuscript Household 
Book, kept by the Steward of the Northumberland Family, in the reign of 
'Henry the Fourth : Dr. Percy, Chaplain to the late Duke of Northumberland, 
superintended the printing of this singular book, of which a few copies 
only were distributed among the friends of the family about twenty years 
ago ; from one of which we have extracted the accounts, offcasts aud offer- 
ings of that period; 

JrlRSTE it is thoughte that Cranys muste be hadde nt 
Cristynmas andc outher principalle feists for my lord's 
owne meas so they be bought at x\jd pece. 

At principal Feists. — Item, It is thoughte in-like-wiea 
that Hearonsewis be boughtc for my lordes owne 
meas so they be at xijd. th'e pece. 

At principal Feists. — Item, Pledeschanks to be 
boughte at principalle feists for my lords own meas after 
jd. ob. the pece. 

At principal Feists. — Item, Bitters for my lordc, 
owne meas at principal feists, ande to be at x'ljd. a pece 
io they be goode. 

At principal Feists. — Item, Fessauntis for my lordes 
owne meas, to be had at principalle feists, and to be at 
xijf7. a pece. 

At principal Feists. — Item, PtEis to be hadde for my 
lordes owne meas at principal feists, ande atij(ia pece. 

At 



HOUSEHOLD BOOK. 251 

At principal Feists.— Item, Siiolardis to be hadde for 
my lords owne meas at principal feists, and to be at \jd. 
a pece. 

At principal Feists. — Item, Kirlewis to be hadde for 
my lords owne meas at principal feitses, ande to be at 
xijf/. a pece. 

At principal Feists. — Item, Pacokks to be hadde for 
my lordes owne meas at principal feistes, and at x'ljd. a 
pece ; and no Payhennes to be bowght. 

At principal Feists. — Item. Seepies for my lorde at 
principal feists, ande noone onther tynie. 

At principal Feists. — Item, Wegionnes for my lorde 
at principal feistes, ande noone outher tyme, ande jd. ob. 
the pece, excepte my lordes comandement be outherwis. 
At principal Feists. — Item, Knottis for my lorde at 
principalle feists, and noone outher tyme, ande at jd. a 
pece, except my lords comaundement be otherwis. 

At principal Feists. — Item, Dottreelis to be bought 
for my lorde when they ar in seasonne, ande to be at a 
penny a pece. 

At principal Feists. — Item, Bustardes for my lordes 
owne meas at principall feists, ande noon outher tyme 
except my lords comaundement be otherwis. 

Ai principal Feists. — Item, Tearnes for my lordes 
owne meas oonclie at principalle feists, and noon outher 
tyme aftir iiij a penny, excepte my lordes comaundement 
be outherwis. 

Extracts from the Northumberland Household-book con- 
tinued, p. 331. 

ALMANER of Rewardes Customable used Yerly by 
my Lorde tobeYeven ande Paidcby his Lordischipe from 
Michaelmas to Michaelmas yerely as it doiih appeire in 
the Booke of his Lordshipe Foren Expences of every 
Yere what Customable Payments they be that my Lorde 

I i 2 usith 



^5$ NORTHUMBERLANO 

usith yerly ancle for what causes thej be Yeven ande wher- 
forevery Some is paide ande for what consideracion as well 
for Waiges and Fees paide owt yerely of his Lordes- 
chippe CofFures ' as ' Rewardis Customable used yerly by 
my Lorde at New Yers Day ande other tymes of the 
Yere His Lordschipe ande my Ladies Offerings at prin- 
cipal! Feists yerly accustomed Ande Rewards usede 
Customable to be Yeven yerely to Strangers as Players 
Mynstralls ande others as the Some of every Rewarde 
particulerly With the Consderacion why ande wherefore 
it is Yeven With the names of the Parsones to whom 
the saide Rewards be Yeven more playnly hereafter fol- 
owith ande apperith in this Booke Which be Ordynary 
and Accustomable Payments by my Lorde usede Yerly if 
the tyraes so requier. 



All Maner of Offerings for my Lorde ande my 
Lady ande my Lordis Childeren Customable used 
yerly at Principall Feasts ande other Offeringe- 
Dayes in the Yere as the Consideracion Whye 
more playnly hereafter followith. 

FuRST. My Lordis Offerringeaccustomede uponAlhallow 
day yerely W^hen his Lordshippe is at home at the 
Highe Mas jf he kepe Chapell xijc?. 

Item. My Ladis Offerringe accustomede upon Alhal- 
lowe-day yerely If sche offer at the Highe Masse if 
my L'>rde kepe Chapell to be paid owt of my Lords 
Coffures if sche be at my Lordis Fyndinge ande not ^t 
hir owen viijc?. 

Item, My Lordes Offeringe accustomed upon Cristyn- 
mas-day yerely When his Lordshipe is at home at 
the Highe Mas if he kepe Chapell x\]d. 

Item. lVi\ Ladies Olferince upon Cristynmas-day yerly 
at the Higlie Mas if my Lorde kepe Chapell to be 

paide 



HOUSEHOLD BOOK. 253 

paide owt of my Lordis CoiFures if sche be at my 
Lordis fyndynge ande not at her even v'njd. 

Item. MyLordisOfteringeupon SayntStepbyns dayeWhen 
his Lordschipp his at home a groit to bow at a Lawe 
Mas in his closett iiije?. 

Item. My Lordis Offeringe accustomede upon New-Yers- 
day yerely When his Lordescip is at home at the High 
Mas if he kepe Chapell x'ljd. 

Item. My Ladies Offeringe accustomede upon New- 
Yers-doy yerely at the High Mas if my Lorde kepe 
Chapell to be paid owt of my Lordis Coffures if sche 
be at my Lords fyndinge and not at hir owen — viijrf. 

Item. My Lords Offeringe accustomede upon the xijth 
Day yerely When his Lordschipe is at home At the 
High Mas if he kepe Chapell-^ xijd. 

Item. My Ladies Offeringe accustomed uppon the xijth 
Day yerely at the High Mass if my Lorde kepe Cha- 
pell to be paide owt of my Lords Coffures if sche be at 
my Lordis fyndinge and not at hir owen — viijc?. 

Item. My Lordis Offerynge accustomede upon Candil- 
mas-Day ?yerely to be sett in his Lordschippis Candill 
to offer at the High Mas when his Lordschipp is at 
home V groits for the v joyes of our Lady — xxd. 

Item. My Laidis Offerynge uppon Candilmae-daie yerely 
to be sett in hir Candill to offer at the High Mas iij 
groitts to be paid owt of my Lordis Coffures if sche be 
at my Lordis fyndynge and not at hir owen — xijd. 

Item. My Lorde useth and accomyth yerely upon Can- 
dilmas-Day to caus to be Delyveride for the Offeringe 
of my Lords Son and Hcire the Lorde Percy to be sett 
in his Candill \jd, Ande for every of my Vongc Mas- 
ters my Lords Yonge Sonnes to be sett in the Candills 
afforethe Offeringe jd. for aithcr of them h\jd. 

Item. My Lordis Offeringe accustomrd ycrly upon Saint 

Blayes 



254 NORTHUMBERLAND 

Blayes Day to be sett in his Lordschippc Candill to 

offer at Hye Mas if his Lordschyp kepe Chapell 

iiij<^. 

Item. My Laidis Offer Inge accustomedeyerely upon Saint 
Blayes Day to be sett in hir Candill to offer at the Hye 
Mass to be paid owt of my Lordis Coffures if sche be at 
my Lordis fyndynge and not at hir owen iiijc?. 

Item. My Lorde useth and accustomyth yerly upon Saynt 
Blays Days to cause to be delyveride for the Offeryngc 
of my Lordis Sone and Heire the Lorde Percy to sett in 
his Candill jd. Ande for every of my Yonge Masters 
my Lords Yonger Sonnes to sett in their Cand ills after 
jd. for every of them for ther Offerings this said day 
iijc?. 

Item. My Lordis Offeringe accustomede uppon Goode- 
Fridayyerely if his Lordschipp be at Home and kepe 

Chapell when his Lordschipe crepith the Cros 

iiijc?. 

Item. My Ladis Offerringe accustomede yerely upon 
Good Friday when she crepith the Crosse to be paide 
owt of my Lordis Coffures if sche is at my Lordis fyn- 
dinge and not at hir own iujd. 

Item. My Lorde useth and accustomoth yerely when his 
Lordschip is at home to cans to be delyveride for the 
Offerrings of my Lordis Sonc and Heire the Lord Percy 
upon the said Good Friday when he crepith the Crose 
ijj. Ande for every of my Yonge Maisters my Lordis 
Yonger Sonnes after j^, to every of them for ther Offer- 
inges when they Crepe the Cros the said Good-Friday 

iiijJ. 

Item. My Lordis Offeringe accustomede yerely uppon 

Ester-Evyn when his Lordshipp takyth his Rights 

iujd. 
Item. My Ladis Offeringe accustomede yerely upon Eslur- 

Evyn 



liOUSEHOLD BOOK. ^55 

Evyn when hir Ladischipe taketh hir rights if sche be 
at my Lords fyndynge and not at hir owen iiijc?. 

Item. My Lorde usith and accustomyth yerly to caus to 
be delyyerid to his Lordschippis Children that be of 
Aige to take there Rights for them to offer upon Esters 

^ Even after ijd. to every of them 

Item. My Lorde usith and accustometh yerely to caus to 
be delyvrede to every of his Lordschipps Wardis or 
Hansman or anny other Yonge Gentilmen that be at 
his Lordschipes fyndyinge Ande be of Aige to take ther 
Rights after ijd. a pece to every such Parson 

Item. My Lords Offerynge accustomede yerely upon 
Ester-Day in the mornynge when his Lordshipe Cre- 
pith the Cros after the Resurreccion if his Lordschippe 
be at home and kepe ChapcU iiijrf. 

Item. My Ladis Offering accustomede yerly upon Ester- 
Daye in the mornynge when hir Ladyschip Crepith the 
Cros after the Resurreccion to be paide owt of my Lor- 
dis Coffures if she be at my Lordis findinge and not at 
hir owen iiijc?. 

Item. My Lord useth and accustomethe upon Ester-Day 
in the mornynge to caus to be delyverid to my Lords 
Eldest Son the Lord Percy and to every of my Yonge 
Masters my Lords yonger Sones after jc?. to every of 
them to offer when they Creep the Cross the said day 
after the Resurreccion iijtZ. 

Item. My Lords Offeringe accustomede upon Ester-Day 
yerely when his Lordschip is at home at the High I^Ias 
if my Lorde kepe Chapell xijc/. 

Item. My Ladis Oflerenge accustoniide upon Estir-Day 
yerely at the High Mas if my Lorde kepe Chapell to 
be paid owt of ray Lords Coffures if she be at my Lords 

fyndinge and not at hir owen viijf/. 

Item. My Lorde usith and accustomyth upon Ester-Day 
yerely when his Lordschip is at home if my Lorde 

kepe 



'Si56 NORTHUMBERLAND 

Icepe Chapell to caus to be delyvered to my Lord? 
Eldest Sone the Lord Percy ande to every of ray Yonge 
Masters my Lords Yonger Sonnes After jd. every of 
them for them to offer the said Ester-Day in the Cha- 
pell at the Hye Mass njd. 

Item. My Lordis Offirynge accustomede upon Saynt 
George-Day yerly at the Hye Mas when his Lords- 
chyppe is at home and kepith Saynt George Feast — xd. 
Item. My Lordis Offerlnge accustomyde at the Mea of 
Requiem uppon the morowe after Saynt George-Day 
when his Lordschip is at home and kepith Saynt George 
Feast which is accustomede ycrely to be don for the 
Saullis of all the Knightes of th' Order of the Garter 
Departede to the Mercy of God — iiijc?. 
Item. My Lorde uselh and accustomyth when he is at 
home ande kipith Dergen over Night and Mes of re- 
quiem uppon the morowe my Lord his Father xij. 
Month Mynde to offer at the Mas of Requiem — iiijc?. 
Item. My Lorde usith and accustomyth yerely when his 
Lordschiy is at home to caus to be delyvered to my 
Lordis Eldest Sone and Heyre the Lorde Percy ande 
to ever}'^ of my Yonge Masters my Lords Yonger Sons 
after jd. to every of them for them to offer this said 
daye at the said Mes of Requiem Done for my Lords 
Father xij. Month Mynde — iijc?. 
Item. My Lordis Ofl'erynge accustomed uppon the Assen- 
cion-Day yerly when liis Lordeschip is at home at the 
High Mas if he kepe Chapell — x'ljd. 
Item. My Ladies Offeringe accustomede upon the Assen- 
cion-Day yerly at the Hy Mas in the Chapell to be 
paid owt of my Lordis Coffures if she be at my Lordis 
fyndynge and not at hir owne — viijc?. 
Item. My Lords Offeringe accustomede upon Whitson- 
day yerely at the Hye Mas in the Chapell when his 
Lordschip is at home — xijd. 

A SINGULAR 



( 257 ) 

A SINGULAR MURDER. 

A Singular and Interesting relation of a Murder. 

In the year ]f>13, a Mrs. Clarke, keeper of the Blue-Bell 
Inn, opposite the Free School, in Leicester, was robbed 
and murdered by her servant-maid and seven men. The 
relation being singular and interesting, I shall give it as 
told by Sir Roger Twisden, who had it from persons of 
undoubted credit, who were not only inhabitants of 
Leicester, but saw the murderers executed. " When 
King Richard III. marched into Leicester, against Hen r\'. 
Earl of Richmond, afterwards Henry VH. he lay at the 
Blue Bear Inn, in the town of Leicester, where was left 
a large wooden bedstead, gilded in some places ; which 
after his defeat and death in the battle of Bosworth, was 
left, either through haste, or as a thing of little value, 
(the bedding being all taken from it) to the people of the 
house ; thence-forward this old bedstead, which was 
boarded at the bottom, (as the manner was in those days) 
became a piece of standing furniture, and passed from 
tenant to tenant with the inn. 

In the reign of Queen Elizabeth this house was kept 
by one Mr. Clarke, who put a bed on this bedstead, which 
his wife going to make hastily, and jumbling the bed- 
stead a piece of gold dropped out. This excited the 
woman's curiosity ; she narrowly examined this antique 
piece of furniture, and finding it had a double bottom, 
took off the uppermost with a chisel, upon which sire dis- 
covered the space between them filled with gold ; part of 
it coined by Richard HI, and the rest of it in earlier 
times. 

Mr. Clarke (her husband) concealed this piece of good 
fortune, though by degrees, the effects of it made it 
known, lor he became rich from a low condition, and in 
the space of a feu years mayor of the town: and then 

Vol. II. K k the 



258 A bTNGULAR MURDEE. 

the story of the bedstead came to be rumoured by the 
servants. At his death 'he left his estate to his wife, who 
still continued to keep the inn, though she was known to 
be very rich ; wliich put some wicked persons upon en- 
gaging the maid servant to assist in robbing her. These 
folks, to the number of seven, lodged in the house, plun- 
dered it, and carried off some ho^-se loads of valuable 
things ; and yet left a considerable quantity of valuables 
scattered about the floor. As for Mrs. Clarke herself, who 
was very fat, she endeavoured to cry out for help, upon 
which her maid thrust her lingers down her throat and 
choakedher, for which fact she was burnt; and the seven 
men, who were her accomplices, were hanged at Leicester 
■jome time in the vear l6l3. 



Particular account of Mr. Hastings, who lived at JVoocl- 
lands in the year lG38 ; from an ancient manuscript 
communicated bij, 

May, lSo4, J. P. 

JLN the year 1638 lived Hx. Hastings, by his qualit}^ son, 
brother, and uncle, to'the Earls of Huntingdon. He was 
peradventure an original in our age, or rather the copy 
of our anticnt nobihtv, in huatins; and in warlike times. 
He was low of stature, very strong and very active, of a 
reddish flaxen hair ; his clothes always green cloth, and 
never worth, when new, five pounds. His house was pt- r- 
fectly of the old fashion, in the midst of a large park 
well stocked with deer; and near the house was a rabbit 
warren, to serve his kitchen; many fish ponds, great store 
of wood and timber; a bowling green in it, long but 
narrow, full of high ridges, it being never levelled since 
it was plowed; they used round sand bowls, and it had a 
banquctting house like a stand, also a large one built in u 
tree. Ho kept all manner of sport hounds that run, buck, 

fox. 



PARTICULAR ACCOUNT OF MR. HASTINGS. 2o!> 

lox, hare^ otter^ and badger; aird hawks, long and short 
winged. He had all sorts of nets for fish ; he had a walk 
in the new forest;, in the parish of Christ Church. This 
last supplied him with red deer, sea and river fish, and 
indeed all his neighbours grounds and royalties were free 
to him who bestowed all his time in these sports ; but what 
he borrowed to caress his neiarhboursj wives, s,isters, or 
daughters; there being not a woman in all his walks of 
the degree of a ycomans wife or under, and under the 
age of forty, but it was CMtremely her fault if he was not 
acquainted with her. This made him very popular, alvvays 
speaking kindly to the husband, brother, or father, who 
was to be very welcome to his house whenever he came j 
there he found beef, pudding, and small beer in great 
plent}^ A house not so neatly kept as to shame him or 
his dusty slaves, the great hall strewed with marrow 
bones, full of hawks perches, hounds, spaniels, and tar-' 
riers ; the upper part of the hall hung with the foxes 
skins, of this and the last years killing; here and there a 
pole-cat, intermixed game keepers, and hunter poles in 
great abundance. The parlour was a large long room, as 
properly furnished ; on a great hearth paved with brick,' 
lay some small favourite- tarricrs, and the cJioiccst hounds 
and spaniels; seldom but two of the great chairs had lit- 
ters of young cats in them, which were not to be dis- 
turbed, alw'ays three or four of these animals attended 
liim at dinner, and a little whiU" louud stick of fourteen 
inches long lying by his trencher, that he might defend 
such meat as he had no mind to part with to them. 
The windows, which were very large, served for places to' 
lay his arrows, sling bows, and cross bows, and other such 
like accoutrements. The corners of the room full of the 
best chosen hunting and hawking poles; an ovster table 
at the lower end, which wus in constant use twice a dav, 
all the year round, for he never failed to eat oysters be- 

K k 2 for« 



2()0 PARTICULAR ACCOUNT OF MR. HASTINGS. 

fore dinner and supper through all the seasons; the 
neighbouring town of Poole supplied him with them. 
The upper "part of the room had two small tables and a 
desk, on the one side of which was a chm-ch bible, on the 
other the book of martyrs ; on the tables were haw^ks 
heads, bells, and such like, two or three old green hats 
with their crowns thrust in, so as to hold ten or a dozen- 
eggs^ which were of a pleasant kind of poultry, of which' 
he took much care and fed himself. Tables, dice boxes, 
apd ca ds were not wanting ; in the hole of the desk 
were store of tobacco pipes thai had been used. On one 
side of this end of the room was the door of the closet, 
wherein stood the strong beer and the wine, which never 
came there but in single glasses, that being the rule of 
the house exactly observed, for he never exceeded in drink 
or pcraiitted it; on the other side was the door into an 
old chapel not used for devotion. The pulpit, as the 
safest place, was never wanting of a cold chine of beef 
and venison pasty, gammon of bacon or great apple pye 
with thick crust extremely baked j this table cost him not 
iTjuch, though it was good to eat at, the sports supplied 
almost all but beef and mutton, except Fridays, when he 
had the best salt fish, as well as other fish he could get, 
and was the day his neighbours of best quality most vi- 
sited him. He never w^anted a London pudding, and 
always sung it in, with the best eyes therein .; when he 
drank a glass or two of wine, at meals very often S3Tup 
of gilly-flpwers in his sack^ and had always a tall glass 
w-ithout feet standing by him, hol(iing a pint of small 
beer, which he often stirred with rosemary. He was well 
iiatured, but soon angry, calling his servants bastards, 
cuckolds, and knaves ; in one of which he often spoke truth 
to, his own knowledge, and sometimes in both, though of 
the jame man. He lived to be an hundred, never lost 
^ ■ hi^ 



A REMARKABLE IMPOSTURE. 26l 

his eye-sight^ but always wrote and read without spec- 
tacles, and got on horse back without help till past four- 
\ score; he rid to the death of" the stag as well as any. 



A REMARKABLE IMPOSTURE. 

i-N the year 17G2, a hoy of Bilson, who was onl}- 13 
years of age, by instruction so conducted himself before 
the public that the spectators were induced by his ex- 
traordinary fits, agitations,, and tlie surprising distempers 
wherewith he seemed to be affected, to believe hhn to be 
possessed of a devil and hezvitched. In his fits he seemed 
to be both deaf, and blind, writhing his mouth, continually 
groaning and panting. And although often pinched with 
men's fingers, pricked with needles, tickled on the sides, 
whipped severely with rods, and treated with other cor- 
rections, he was never known to discover the least sense 
of what was done unto him. When he was thought to 
"be out of his fits, he digested nothing given him for 
nourishment, but would often surprize the company by 
casting rags, thread, straws, crooked pins, needles, &c. 
out of his mouth ; by such means his belly grew almost 
as flat as his back ; his throat swelled and grew hard, 
his tongue seemed to be stiff and rolled up to the roof 
of his mouth, so that he seemed always dumb; had he 
not vouchsafed to speak a few words once a fortnight 
or three weeks. This impostor proceeded so far as to ac- 
cuse a poor, honest, industrous old moman, named Joan 
Cook, of Witchcraft, and of bewitching him in particular; 
and by his artful behaviour, when she was brought ever 
60 secretly "into the room where he was, raised a strong 
presumption of the truth of his accusation, for which 
crime of witchcraft the poor woman was apprehended, 
and obliged to take her trial at the Stafford assizes, to 

the 



263 A REMARKABLE IMPOSTURE. 

the manifest danger of her life, but was acquitted by the 

jury- 

The judges then committed the care of the boy to the 

Bishop of Litchfied and Coventry, then present in court, 
who carried him to his palace at Eccleshall ; and there 
having first taken the advice of well approved physicians 
concerning the state of his body; his Lordship did intend 
to proceed with him by severities, but in the mean time 
•was informed that the boy always fell into agitation and 
violent fits, upon hearing the words of St. John's Gospel. 
In the beginning was the zcord, S)'c. he resolved to begin 
with this experiment. 

**" Boy," said the Bishop, '"' it is cither thou thyself or the 
devil that abhorrest those words of the Gospel ; and if it 
be the devil there is no doubt but he understandeth all 
languages ; so that he cannot but know, and shew his 
abhorrence, when I recite the same sentence in the 
Gospel out of the Greek text; but if it be thyself, then 
thou art an execrable wretch who playest the devils part, 
in loathing that part of the Gospel of Christ, which above 
all other scriptures, doth express the admirable union of 
the godhead and manhood, in one Christ and Saviour 
which union is the arch-pillar of man's salvation ; there- 
fore look to thyself, for now thou art to be put unto trial, 
and mark diligently whether it be the same scripture 
which shall be read unto thee out of the Greek Testa- 
ment, at the reading whereof, in the English tongue thou 
doth seem to be so much troubled and tormented." 

Then the Bisliop read untp him the 12th instead of the 1st. 
verse of the first chapter of St. John, which the pretended 
Demoniac supposing to be the first verse, he as usual fell 
into a fit, which being soon over, the Bishop then read the 
real first verse in Greek; buthe supposing this was some 
other text, shewed no ^ort of emotion at this reading. 

Here 



WONDERS ON THE DEEP. £6,'? 

Here the Bishop would have rested the detection of 
.the impostures, and the youngster seemed greatly con- 
founded at his own mistake; hut recovering himself, and 
resuming various sensations and postures, he excused him- 
self to the company by i)retending he was disturbed by the 
appearance of two mice, complained of great sickness; and 
in order to get home to his father's house he would ans'ver 
no more questions; but by writing, as well as hecould,sig- 
nified that he was troubled with a violent pain in his belly. 
To confirm his complaint he next day contrived to make 
water as black as ink, and continued so to do for two 
days with tokens of great pain. A circumstance which 
alarmed the Bishop greatly, and had well nigh obtained 
his dismission before the imposture could be sufiicentlv 
made out to quiet the minds of the divided people. But 
by diligence and narrow watching, it was on the third 
day discovered that he made black water by the help of 
an inkhorn which stood in one corner of the room; and 
being taken in the fact, he confessed, and related the 
manner of imposing so many ways upon the public. 

Yours, &c. 

CAROLUS 

WONDERS OF THE DEEP. 

Being an exact Tcpreseiitation of the River Thames, as it 
appeared during the memorable Frost, zchich began about 
the middle of December, and ended on the 2Sth of 
February follozcing, anno 1683-4. 

1 HIS frost continued with such violence, that men and 
beasts, coaches and carts, went as frequently thereon, a© 
boats were wont to pass before. The curious tieTC zee have 
engraved from a 7)iost rare and valuable original, represents 
an exact prospect ofan assemblage of booths, that reached 
from the Tem})lc to Southwark, and was called Freezland'^ 
Street, alias Blanket Fair ; where was sold all sorts of 

'■ood's 



£64 WONDERS ON THE DEEP. 

goods imaginable : namely, clothes, plate, earthen ware, 
meat, drink, books, prints, toys, and hundreds of other 
commodities, so that the whole trade of London was for 
the time the frost continued, confined to the River 
Thames. 

This most wonderful frost began, the wind being North 
West, about the l6th of November 1683, and thence by 
small thaws continued to the 19th of December; at which 
time the wind shifting the compass to North North East, 
the sun shining, and the weather very clear, till such time 
as, notwithstanding the resistance of the strongest tides, it 
so incumbered the Thames with ice, that divers attempting 
to cross in boats, were frozen in, and there endured much 
misery, and amongst the rest, one person as he was shoot- 
ing sea-pyes, was drove out at Black-Wall, and not being 
able to get off, was starved to death with cold ; but soon 
after, the ice closing, even from the mouth of the river, 
to London Bridge, people began to build booths, which 
by degrees they continued furnishing with all sorts of 
wares for sale ; but a small thaw made them desist for 
two days, after when the wind shifting again, it froze 
more terrible than before. When not onlv a greater 
number of booths were erected, than before ; but all 
manner of sports and pastimes was performed on the 
river, as well below as above bridge, and the Thames was 
now known by the name of Frost Fair. 

The North and South Channels were frozen a league or 
more into the sea ; as likewise were all the Northern and 
Eastern ports of England, Scotland, Leland, Holland, 
Denmark, Sweden, France, and other countries, so that no 
commerce could be had, from nation to nation; but fires 
were kept in the city of Paris in the open streets. Nor 
was the hoL coast of Spain exempted, and many people 
died of the extreme cold ; fuel was so scarce in England, 
that coals were raised irom 20s. to fJ. the chaldern. So 

had 



WONDERS ON THE DEEP. 265 

that had not thek Majesties bouiuy relieved in a liberal 
mariner the distresses of the people, many must un- 
avoidably have perished of hunger and cold. Their lloyal 
Highnesses Princess Anne, and George of Denmark, with 
many of the nobility and gentry, followed the Royal ex- 
ample, and rendered many distressed families a§ happy as 
food and fuel could make them ; notwithstanding which, 
many of a sickly constitution began to despair of living 
througli the winter ; but it so pleased God, that the wind 
suddenly and beyond expectation, turned to South by 
West, on the28tii of February ; when the thaw began, and 
it so happened that the next day, the ice, which most peo- 
ple imagined would be the ruin of London Bridge, 
sunk entirely to the bottom, and large fragments drove to 
sea out of all the ports ; so that the river in a week's time 
was open for trade, which few expected it would be pos- 
sible for a month at least : )'et divers vessels, and a great 
many men were lost, in hastily endeavouring to put in at 
Staines, and many other bridges; abundance of fowl 
and fish were found dead, and the dismal effects of the 
hard weather was in every part to be seen: 

'Three sir/gular poems zcere made at the time, on this ever 
to be remembered Froit, zvhich as they convey a picture 
of the times, zee have given at large, zcithout Abridge- 
ment. Thejirst is imder the plate zee took our view frorn, 

I. 

THE various sports behold here in this piece. 
Which for six weeks were seen upon the ice ; 
L'pon the Thames the great vuriely 
Of plays and booths is liere brought to your eye. 
Here coaches, as in Cheapside, run on wheels. 
Here men (out tipling of the fishes) reels : 
Instead of waves that us'd to beat the shoar. 
Here bulh they bait, till loudly they do roar ; 

Vol. U Li Here 



266 wondehs on the dee?. 

Here boats do slide, M'bere boats were wont to row^ 
Where ships did sail, the sailors do them tow ; 
And passengers in boats the river crost. 
For the same price as 'twas before the frost. 
There is the printing booth of wonderous fame. 
Because that each man there did print his name ; 
And sure, in former ages, ne're was found, 
A press to print, where men so oft were drown'd. 
In blanket booths, that sit at no ground rent, 
^luch coin in beef and brandy there is spent. 
The Dutchmen here in nimble cutting scates,. 
To please the crowd do shew their tricks and feats ; 
The rabble here in chariots run a round, 
C offce and tea and mum doth here abound. 
The tinkers here doth march at sound of kettle. 
And all men know, that they are men of mettle : 
Here roasted was an ox before the court. 
Which to much folks afibrded meat and sport ; 
At nine-pins here they play, as in Moorfields, 
This place the pass-time, us of foot-ball yields : 
The common hunt here, makes another show. 
As he to hunt an hare is vont to go ; 
But though no woods are here, or hares so fleet. 
Yet men do often foxes catch and meet; 
Into a hole here one b}' cliance doth fall. 
At which the watermen began to bawl. 
What will you rob our cellar of its drink? 
When he alas, poor man, no harm did think. 
Here men well mounted do on horses ride. 
Here they do throw at cocks as at Shrovetide ; 
A chariot here so cunningly was made. 
That it did move itself without the aid 
Of horse or rope, by virtue of a spring. 
That Vulcau did contrive, who v. rought therein. 



The 



"6 "^"" : 

2ams_, S. 



WONDERS ON THE DEEP. 26? 

The rooks at nine-holes here do flock together. 
As they are wont to do hi summer weather. 
Three ha'pcrth lor a penny, here they cry. 
Of gingerbread, come, who will of it buy ? 
This is the booth where men did money take. 
For crape and ribbons that they there did make ; 
But in six huurs, this great and rary sliow 
Of booths and pastimes, all away did go. 

n. 

Behold the wonders of Almighty God, 
Whose looks dry up, or chain the swelling flood ; 
See how his breath lock'd up the wavy Thames, 
And under rocks of ice conlin'd her streamsj 
In spight of Phoebus heat contracted be« 
Whilst restless Neptune murmuring underneath. 
His strange captivity durst scarcely breathe. 
A trading mart theharden'd waves become, 
And marble like the watry world intomb ; 
Whilst on its glass glib face strange buildings stand. 
In spite of throbing waves, as on the land; 
Furnish'twith trades, that there most things are sold, 
As vessels of silver, copper, v;ood, brass, gold ; 
Pewter, tinn, glass, and what could trade create. 
Wine, beer, ale, brandy, chockolct; 
Yea, toys, confections, roast-meat, gingerbread. 
Were there produc'd, on whom some thousands {cd : 
These were not all, books and varieties. 
Strange to be seen, were there to please men's e\'es: 
Ne're known before, street crouded ui)on street. 
Signs upon signs, mens admiration meet. 
Printing, an art before ne're public shown. 
Upon the frozen-flood, to thousands known ; 
Bulls and bears baited, pleasant monky-shows. 
Fine eating, swallowing knives, trod iron tiiat glows; 

L I 2 Walk'd 



iomple to the ISarge-housc o er"> 
trcet, the ice long floating borc^ I 
gh out hut one continued shore. J 



26s • M'ONDEKS ON THE DEEP. 

Walk'd on with naked feet, Dutch Flying boats. 

Coaches swift running, ships as if a float. 

Drove upon wheels; Dutch whirling, whimsic chair. 

Turning more swift than unrestrained air. 

A Freezeland chariot, a self-moving coach. 

Whose swiftness rais'd mens admiration much. 

l\ine-pins were play'd at, and cock-fighting found. 

Sliding on scates, fox hunting, as tho' o'lh ground. 

Ox roasted whole, horse-racing, pigin-holes. 

Great football matches, and a game at bowls; 

Whilst scatter'd on strong ice there every where. 

Blanketed, boarded, matted booths appear; 

And from the Temple to the Barge-house o'er 

A wonderousst 

iNIaking throu 

Shrove Tuesday with cock-throwing usher'd in. 

Was on the flood made hard by cold wind seen 

Corn, coles, and wood, o're it daily convey'd. 

And on the starlings kept the brandy trade ; 

Through bridgf, men walk'd, whilst the strong ice below, 

As that above, could numerous buildings show. 

Not ships, but sail-cloath mansions, tent-wise fram'd. 

In which great fires with roast-meat at them fam'd; 

And some their pampi^r'd steeds durst proudly prance, 

Whil.-it music play'd, drums beat, and men did dance: 

Streamers wav'd with the wind, and all was bent. 

To give the kind spectator's due content : 

Who came in crowds to see that wond'rous sight, 

Where people on the Thames dv/elt day and iSight; 

Whilst strong North winds with unrelenting cold, 

Imprison'd nature did in fetters hold. 

But Heaven was kind at last^ the South windblew,*! 

And weeping clouds o're earths hard bosom threw, I 

Eesolvingall ihiugs with a subtile dew. J 

II. Behold 



.WONDERS ON THE DEEP. 269 

II. 

Behold the wonder of this present age, 
A famous river now becomes a stage; 
Question not what I now declare to you. 
The Thames is now both fair, and market too ; 
And many thousands daily do resort. 
There to behold the pastime and the sport: 
Early and late, used by young and old. 
Who valu'd not the fierceness of the cold ; 
And did Jiot think of that Almighty hand. 
Who made the waters bear, like to the land. 
Thousands and thousands to the river flocks. 
Where mighty flakes of ice do lie like rocks : 
There may you see the coaches swiftly run. 
As if beneath the ice were waters none ; 
And sholes of people every where there be. 
Just like to herrings in the brackish sea; 
And there the quaking watermen will stand yc, 
Kind master, drink you beer, or ale, or brandy: 
Walk in, kind Sir, this booth it is the chief. 
We'll entertain you with a slice of beef; 
And what you please to eat and drink, 'its here. 
No booth, like mine, affords such dainty cheer. 
Another cries, here master, they but scoff" ye. 
Here is a dish of famous new made coffee ; 
And some do say, a giddy senseless ass. 
May on the Thames be furnish'd with a lass: 
But to be short, such wonders there are seen. 
That in this age before hath never been. 
Before the Temple there a street is made. 
And there is one almost of every trade: 
There may you also this hard frosty winter. 
See on the rocky ice a working Printer, 
Who hopes by his own art to reap some sain. 
Which he perchance doe^ think he may obtain ; 

ilerc 



270 'VeONDERS ON THE DEEf. 

Here also is a lottery, and music too. 
Yea, a cheating, drunken, bad, and debaucli'd crew. 
Hot codlins, pancakes, duck, goose, and sack. 
Rabbit, capon, hen, turkey, and a wooden jack; 
In this same street before the Temple made. 
There seems to be brisk and lively trade; 
Where every booth hath such a cunning sign. 
As seldom hath been seen in former time; 
And there if you have money for to spend. 
Each cunning snap will seem to be your friend. 
There may you see small vessels tinder sail, 
AU's one to them, with or against the gale: 
And as they pass they little guns do fire. 
Which feedeth some, and puffs them with desire 
They sail therein, and when their money's gone, 
*lts right, they cry, the Thames to come upon. 
There on a sign you may most plainly see't. 
Here's thejirst tavern built in Freezland^street : 
There is bull baiting and bear baiting too. 
That no man living yet e're found so true; 
And foot-ball play is there so common grown. 
That on the Thames before was never known; 
Coals being dear are carry'd on men's backs. 
And some on sledges there, are drawn in sacks ; 
Men do on horseback ride from shore to shore. 
Which formerly in boats were wafted o're : 
Poor people hard shifts make for livelihoods. 
And happy are if they can sell their goods ; 
W^hat you can buy for threepence on the shore, 
W^ill cost you fourpence on the Thames, or more. 
Now let me come to things more strange, yet true. 
And question not what I declare to you; 
There roasted was a great and well-fed ox. 
And there, with dogs, hunted the cunning fox: 

Dancing 



WONDERS ON THE DEEP. £71 

Dancing o'th' ropes, and puppit-plays likewise. 

The like before n'er seen beneath the skies ; 

All stand admir'd, and very well they may. 

To see such pastimes, and such sorts of" play : 

Besides the things I nara'd to you before. 

There other toys and baubles are great store ; 

There may you feast your wandering eyes enough. 

There you may buy a box to hold your suufF: 

No fair nor market underneath the skies. 

That can afford you more varieties ; 

There may you see some hundreds slide in skeels. 

And beaten patlis like to the city streets ; 

There where Dutch whimsies turned swiftly round. 

Faster then horses run on level ground : 

The like to this I now to you do tell. 

No former age could ever parallel : 

There's all that can supply most curious minds. 

With such varieties of cunning signs ; 

That I do think no man dolh understand. 

Such merry fancies e'er were on the land ; 

There is such whimsies on the frozen ice. 

Makes some believe the Thames a Paradice ; 

And though these sights be to our admiration. 

Yet our sins, our sins, do call for lamentation. 

Though such unusual frosts to us arc strange. 

Perhaps it may predict some greater change; 

And some do fear may a fore-runner be. 

Of an approaching sad mortality ; 

But why should we to such belief incline ? 

There's none that knows, but the blest pow'r divine ; 

And whatsoe're is from Jehovah, sent, 

Poor sinners ought therewith to be content ; 

If dreadful, then to fall upon the knee. 

And beg remission of the Deity : 

Bnt 



272 REMARKABLE FROSTS ID ENGLAND 

But if beyond our thoughts he sends us store. 
With all our hearts let's thankful be therefore. 
Now let us all in Great Jehovah trust. 
Who do preserve the righteous and the just; 
And eke conclude sin is the cause of all 
The heavy judgements that on us do fall ; 
And call to mind, fond man, thy time mispent. 
Fall on tliy knees, and heartly repent ; 
Then will thy Saviour pity take on thee. 
And thou shaltlive to all eternity. 

A Chronologj/ of He mark able Fkosts in England, 
from the second year of the Conqueror to the year 1683-4. 

Anno IOGS, being the second year of William the 
Conquerors's reign, a terrible frost began on the 9th of 
October, which continued till the middle of February 
following without intermission; it froze up most rivers, 
particularly the Tweed, Thames, and Humber, and destroy- 
ing green things of the earth, caused a dearth theenstiing 
year. 

Anno 1137, the second year of King Stephen's reign, 
the Thames and Medway were frozen over, so that divers 
people passed on foot from shore to shore upon the ice ; 
as likewise did they over other rivers, and some arms of 
the sea; when the frost continuing from the 10th of No- 
vember, to the igtli of January; most of the fish in 
ponds and small rivers were frozen to death: tind by 
reason of the sudden and unusual snow that fell, some 
hundreds of srtiall cattle were overwhelmed and smo- 
thered. 

Anno 1199, the first year of King John's reign, a great 
and terrible frost began on the 10th of December, and 
continued till the middle of March, so that people were 
forced to make fires in divers streets, to abate the keen- 
ness 



EEMABKaBLE FEOSTS in ENGLAND. 273 

ncss of the air, which notwithstanding numbed divers 
people to deaths and was the cause or" a great dearth and 
mortahty the year after. 

Anno 1380, the third year of Richard the Second, the 
Channel between France and England \vas half frozen 
over, and most rivers lock'd up ; when after about a month's 
continuance, such abundance of snow fell, that a sudden 
thaw ensued, many bridges were broken down by the 
torrent of water, and many houses overwhelmed in the 
low villages of England, and suburbs of London. 

Anno 1484, in the second year of Richard's usurping 
the crown, a frost began in September, and from thence 
without much interruption, continued till the latter end 
of February, so that no grass being to be had, hay was 
/3l. the load, and coals at 3l. the chaldern. 

In the 19th year of Henry the Eighth's reign, a frost 
began on the third of November, and lield to the 7th of 
March, with such extremity, that maiiy people were 
found dead in the streets. 

Anno 1G12, being the 10th year of King James's reiign, 
a frost happenerl, which continued seven weeks; during 
which time the Thames at Lambeth and Whitehall was 
frozen over, and men passed thereon. 

In the J 1th year of King ('harles the First, a terrible 
frost happened, which continuing three months without 
mtermission, caused great scarcity to ensue ; and did 
greatly indannnage most bridges upon its sudden thaw. 

Anno 1()(34, a terrible frost happened, which continued 
from the 10th of November to the middle of March, in- 
somuch that the snow lying on the ground, and the 
rhime on the trees, the wild-fowl in great abundance were 
found dead in the fields, and many people suffered ereaf 
misery, by being frozen into the Thames, as they were 
crossing the water in boats. 
Ann l67f), a terrible Irost began about the l6th of 
Vol. XI. M m December 



274 HUMAN BONES DISCOVEI! KD IN AN ORC'IIARrj. 

December, which continued with such violence, that the 
Thames was frozen over in (Hvers phices, except a nar- 
row channel, over which people passed on planks; then 
and-that the hist tiine in our age, that such k number of 
booths, and all manner of provision, was found upon the 
congealed flood; which frost endured till the 15th of 
I'ebruary, and then by its sudden thaw, broke down many 
bridges, and raised iloods that (how nod many sheep, goats, 
and other small cattle, and otherwise did great damage. 



TO THE EDITOR OT THE WON DERE U L AN 1) SCIENTIFIC 
MUSEUM. 

Sin, 

^Jn my letter to yon (hitod November 13tli, 1S0;5, and which you <lid nie thr 
honour to publisli in Vol. I. page 438, of your Museum, wherein I 
vstateJ my intention of transmitting j'on more TJcmarkable Characters, 
"If "t!ie subjoined was inserted in it; and winch promise I purpose com- 
plying with by giving an account of one or more extraordinary persons 

■_ at the conclusion of the list of Miscellaneous articles, which I have now, 
and in future shall send for the purpose of aj)pcaring to the public through 
the medium of your valuable and autlientic Repository, if you think they 

■ will prove cnteHaininj to your numerous readers, to oblige whom it will 
ever be the wish of your correspondi-nt and constant reader. 

■j!{oUiiighum, April \-i,liO-L D. B. L, 



HUMAN BONES DISCOVEUED IN AN OKCHAUD. 

.I.N the month of April 17G0, as some workmen were 
digging in an orchard, then belonging to Mr. Basil Har- 
rison, near the Cross-Keys, for brick earth, at the depth of 
about five feet, they found a leaden coffin much decayed, 
containing the skull and bones of a woman, as supposed; 
the coffin was six feet long, the head of which was 
fifteen inches over, twelve deep, and the feet nine inches 
over. It lay upon some small tiles thought to be^the bot- 
tom of a vault, and had several characters on them so 
much defaced as not to be understood. What was re- 
markable. 



UNCOMMON' mXIDS AND BEASTS. tlo 

insirkable is, that under the middle of the coffin was ii 
stone sixteen inches by lourteen, vviiii a hole in the centre 
four inches square, lull of small coal and dust. Several 
months before this was found, by digging near the same 
place, an urn fourteen inches deep, and twelve inches 
over, which was likewise full of small coal and ashes. 
Many more human bones having at times been dug up 
in the orchard, makes it believed that it v.as tlie bur^ung 
place belonging to the nunnery or church of St. Sepul- 
chre's, formerly standing near that place for some ages 
past. 



A list of some uncommon Birds atid Beasts discovered in 
this Qounlry. 

A VERY uncommon Woodcock was in March 1760, 
killed near Carmartiien, his head and bill was extremely 
large; the feathers froju the crown of the head, and all 
round his neck to the body, were coal black; his tail 
was very long, and like a black heath-cock's, tipped with 
white ; his wings were large, and every feather in each 
was tipped with about in inch of white, and very beauti- 
fully speckled all over with black and white spots ; the 
feathers of his body were of the common colour, but 
mixed throughout with black feathers tipped with white', 
and all his claws were black. He was made a present of 
by Mr. Dawson, the person who killed him, to a gentle- 
man then going for London, who promised lo get him 
drawn. 

At Colonel Thornton's, Thornvillc Royal, Yorkshire, 
at different periods between the years 1783 and 1702, tlicre 
have been bred a white hare, a white stag, a white mole, a 
white sparrow, and a white rook; and in the nest of the 
last specimen wore three of the common colour, and two 
pye-balled. 

M m 2 la 



276 RECOVERY OF SIGHT. 

In June 178S;, a -vrhitc linnet was caught at Baklock^ 
in Hertfordshire. 

In ISovember 1797, a while yellow-hammer was killed 
in the neighbourhood of Lewes. 

In November 1797, the keeper killed a hare in the 
wood near the HoraC-course, belonging to Andrew Cor- 
betl, Esq. of Shavvbury Park, Salop ; which weighed 
rather more than nine pounds; but what is singular, she 
was quite white. The cause of this change, it is imagined, 
proceeded, from her being over-heated in a hard course, 
which she sustained about two years before with a leash 
of grey-hounds; and though the com^se was very long, 
and one of the dogs caught the hare, and died whilst she 
was in his mouth, jet she then made her escape. The 
othci two dogs were in all appearance dead through fa- 
tigue, but by being immediately, and properly treated 
tney recovered. As a proof of its being the same hare 
she had lost iialf her scut, as appeared when she was 
killed. She was often seen, and at last taken by a pointer 
in her form. Her skin was preserved as a curiosity. 

A EECOVERY OF SIGHT. 

In April J 792, died at Norwich, in the 8Sth year of his 
age, Mr. Nicholas Hubbard. There were two singular 
circumstances attending his life, which are worthy of 
notice ; his having had 26 children by two wives, and 
what is more extraordinary, 13 by each wife, and that of 
his receiving naturally and providentially without any 
medical assistance, several months before hi? death a 
return of his eye-sight, after his being totally deprived 
of that inestimable blessing fourteen years, wliich he re- 
tained with encreasing strength to the hour of his dis- 
solution. 

A KEM ARK ABLE 



A REMARKABLE TORNADO, OR HURRICANE. 277 
A REMARKABLE METEOR. 

A REMyVllKABLE Meteor was seen in March 1795^ 
at Sheffield, at C5 minutes past 11 o'clock, acooinpanied 
with a most tremendous roll, resembling thunder, which 
lasted one minute and a half. The direction of the 
Meteor was northward. its appearance was highly 
beautiful and magnificent. It appeared to descend in 
two balls to the earth. 

A REMARKABLE TORNADO, OR HURRICANE. 

On the 23d of July 1797, about one o'clock in the 
afternoon, a tornado or hurricane happened near Work- 
sop, in the county of Nottingham ; its course was in a 
north-east direction, and its violence was first percfuvcd 
on the forest, between Workso'p and Monton, where it 
strip t large branches from oak'and other trees, scattering 
them to considerable distances, taking up cocks and 
even stacks of hay, drii^ing them in every direction ; and 
a wooden barn there was unroofed and thrown down. 
At Kelton, a little to the north-east, a small cottage aiKl 
an out house was unroofed, and all the aj)ple-trees in the 
orchard adjoining torn up by the roots. The storm go- 
ing on from thence with encrcascd violence, tearing up 
some trees, splitting others, and destroying every thing 
. in its way, till arriving at a plantation of spruce furs near 
Scofton, belonging to Mr. Sutton, where it cut an avenue 
through it about 30 yards wide, aiul threw down every 
tree in its course, except one, which has unaccountably 
stood, though in the very centre of its progress. This 
hurricane did not seem to extend above three miles in 
length, and about 100 yards in breadth. On the day it 
happened, and on the preceding one, the claps of thun- 
der, with vivid lightning, were fre(^uent and violent : the 

atmosphere 



£7S JOHN DUNN, A penuhious ciiatjactek. 

atmosphere seemed to be strongly impregnated with the 
electric fluid, which by its action might rarefy the air in a 
partial or local manner, and thus occasion the above men- 
tioned eftects, till the equilibrum was restored. 



JCHN DUNN, A PENUIIIOUS CHAKACTER. 

l-N the month of July 1795, died in a lodging-house 
Hear Gloucester, John Dunn, well known by the name of 
the Old Fra^h JAnen-Man. He had frequented that 
city upwards of eighteen years; his appearance was 
wretched in the extreme, and his garments worse than 
those worn by a common beggar, whose character he 
frequently assumed ; by which means he procured the 
greatest necessaries of life, and always preferred those 
places to lodge in where beggars resorted. He was 
never seen with more than a piece, or a piece and a half 
of linen in a wretched wallet or bag, thrown across his 
shoulder, with which he called at every door, and usually 
travelled a circuit of eighteen or twenty miles at a time. 
His custom was to go to Ireland six or eight times in the 
j'ear, where it appears, by receipts found about him, that 
Ijis trade was so large, that he paid 150l. per annum for 
bleaching only. Finding his dissolution rapidly ap- 
proaching, he sent for a tradesmaii, at whose house he 
had frequently received donations; to him he disclosed 
his mind, and told him, that he was possessed of a great 
deal of cash, as well as several packs of linen, in w-hicli 
his money was concealed, in a warehouse on the quay 
in Glouctster, as well as some goods that were in the 
ciry of Chester. On opening the packs at the former 
place, in the presence of the gentleman, who was accom- 
panied by a clergyman and several others, a considerable 
quantity of gold nnd silver was found, very curiously tied 



MOVEMENT OF THE EARTH. Q79 

v.p in rags and old stockings, in small parcels, and in a 
variety of covers. The whole was intended to be dis- 
tributed among his poor relations in Ireland : it appears 
thai he never was married. 



>rOVEMENT OF THE EARTH. 



TO THE EDITOn OF THE SCIENTIFIC MUSEUM. 

Sin, 
A most oxtraord'mary occurrence having taken i)Iace in our ntighbcurliood, 
1 take tlie earliest opjiortunity of transmitting j'ou the particulars, and 
shall be hitrhly gratified in finding it inserted in the next number of your 
Ocigiiial and Entertaining Work, 

And am, your obedient servant, 
}imtol,Muii'2l, 1604. ISAAC J AMES- 

On Triday May 4th, 1804, about 4 o'clock in the after- 
tcrnoon, came on at Bristol, a lieavy storm of thunder, 
lightning, hail, and rain, during which the following- 
singular occurrence happened behind Brislington Turn- 
pike, about half a mile from Temple-Gate, in this city, 
and between the Bath and Wells roads« About half an 
acre of land, situated on the declivity, between two hills, 
removed into the field below, carrying with it about 36 
yards of the hedge, which is mostly overwhelmed in the 
ruins. From the uppermost part of the breach to where 
the hedge stood is about 50 yards: this body of earth 
(which in some places is nearly ten feet thick) for at least 
three parts out of four is precipitated into another field; 
about a fourth part remaining, in a great measure un- 
broken, in the station from which the foremost part ad- 
vanced, the progress of which lias been about 56 yards. 
The bed of earth left bare is of a clay te.xture, and that 
which lay upon it more inclining to mould, and probably^ 

from 



280 MOVEMENT OF THF EARTH. 

from its sltaation might have some deep sissures. The 
rain fell in torrents, insomuch, that fit Knowle, on the 
summit of the hill, the people tell me the Wells road re- 
sembled a river. Thus the earth being full of water, and 
perhaps raised from tlie bed of clay, would require a great 
projectile force: and it seems it did, for the bulk of the 
removed ground lias passed over about 30 yards of the 
field below, leaving the grass (already subricated b}' the 
rain) comparatively clean behind it. Its pi'ogress must 
have resembled that of a ship going off the stocks ; but 
I believe no person saw it. Mr. Fletcher, at the turn- j 
-pike, tells me he perceived nothing of it though it ad- \ 
vanccd directly behind his house, towards which, ! 
he says, it thundred most tremendously. The fore- 1 
most body of earth is about 36 yards in length, and j 
part of the hedge remains about 8 yards behind the front | 
of it. Another great body has not advanced quite s6 far, j 
and lies in broken fragments of a pyramidical form. The ^ 
separation of these two bodies resembles aditch in astraight 
line. The hedge has advanced about 48 yards, and the whole 
length from the-topof the breach to the foremost ground 
is about 106 yards. There is no appearance of the 
lightning having stiuck the ground, as was at first sup- ' 
posed. Many thousands of people have been to visit the 
spot, and still continue to go ; and on Sunday, May l.Sth, 
two sermons were preached there to several hundred ' 
spectators, from the laudable design of making so unusual 
an occurrence truly beneficial. You have doubtless seen, 
the accounts of the damage done by the lightening at 
Westover House near Kitton, in the upper road hence 
10 Bath, near which city an occurrence similar to the 
above took place ; at Keynsham also, and other places ia 
this neighbourhood, its effects were severely felt. 

• 

BXTBAOKDINARY 



V ( 281 ) 

EXTRAORDINARY MARRIAGE. 

On April 1st. 1804, was married at Portieu, Citizen 
Jean Mossequin, aged 105, to his ninth wife, Maria 
Vascois, aged 19. He died the night after his wedding, 
leaving behind him 29 children, 49 grand children, and 
69 great grand children. 

TO THE EDITOR OF THE SCIENTIFIC MUSEUM, 
Sir, 
In looking over some curious old books in tny possession, 1 found a singularly 
rare tract, which as I think, will suit the purpose of your undertaking, I 
have transci'ibed, and enclosed for your use. 

Yours, 3ic. S. D. 

The miraculous preservation and deliverance of Eight 
Englishmen, left bi/ mischance in Greenland, Anno, 
1630; zcere they continued nine months and tzcclvt daj/s, 
suffering great hardship for Kant of food, 6;c. 

Greenland is a country very far northward, situated 
in 77 degrees and 40 minutes, that is, within 12 degrees 
and 20 minutes of the North Pole itself. The land is 
wonderfully mountainous; and the mountains all the 
vcar, covered Avith ice and snow ; the plains in part, are 
bare in summer, there grows neither tree nor herb, except 
scurvy-grass and sorrel. The sea is as barren as the 
land, affording no fish but whales, sea-horses, scales, 
and another small fish. The Muscovie merchants of 
London, sent a fleet of small vessels yearly to this place, 
to catch the whales and sea horses, for the advantage dc' 
rived by the oil. On the 1st of May, lt)30, wc, William 
Ji'akely, as gunner; luUvard Pclham, gunncr's-mate ; 
Jolin Wise and Robert (joodfellow, seamen; Tliomas 
Ayers, vvhalc-cuiteri ilcnry Bett?, cooper; John Dawes 
J-yj,, IL > n and 



282 MIRACIJLOrs ptifservatiow. 

and Richard Kellet, landsmen^ sailed in a ship called 
the Salutation, from the port of London ; and hav- 
ing a fair gale, we quickly left the fertile banks of 
England's pleasant shores behind us. After which, 
setting our comely sails to the supposed prosperous gale, 
and ranging through the boisterous billows of the rugged 
seas, by the help and gracious assistance of Almighty 
God, we safely arrived at our destined port in Greenland, 
the Jlthof June following: whereupon having moored 
our ships, and carried our casks on shore, we, with all 
expedition fell to the fitting up of our shallops, with all 
things necessary for our intended voyage; we were in 
company three ships, all of which were then appointed, 
by the order of our Captain, William Goodler, to stay at 
tlie Foreland until the 15th of July ; with resolution^ 
that if we could not by that time make a vova";e to our 
expectation, then to send one ship to the eastward, unto 
a fishing place some lourscore leagues from hence, whi- 
ther at the latter end of the year the whales use more fre- 
quently to resort. A second of the three ships was de- 
signed fur Green-Harbour, (a place some fifteen leagues 
distant to the southward) and was appointed to stay at the 
Foreland until the 20th of August; but the Captain 
having made a great voyage at Bell-Sound, dispatches 
a Shallop towards our ship, with a com.mand unto us to 
come to him at Bell-Sound aforesaid : his purpose being, 
both to have us take in some of his train oil, as also by 
joining our forces together, to make the fleet so much 
the stronger for the defence of the merchants goods 
homeward bound; the Dunkirkers being ver}' strong and 
rife at sea in those days. Upon the 8tli of August leav- 
ing the Foreland, we directed our course to the south- 
ward, towards Green-Harbour, there to take in twenty 
of our men, which had out of our ship's company been 

sent 



Miraculous Preservation*.- £83 

sent into the lesser ship^ for the furtherance of her 
Voyage. 

But the wind being now contrary^ our ship could no 
way lie our course^ the Ijth day being calm and clear^ 
and our ship now in the offing, some leagues from Blacks- 
Point, and about five from tlie Maydens happes, (which 
is a famous place for good and great store of venison) our 
master sent eight men of us together in a shallop, for 
the hunting and killing some venison, for the ship's; 
provision ; we thus leaving the ship, and having a brace 
of dogs along with us, and furnished ourselves with asnap- 
hance, two lances, and a tinder-box, we directed our 
course towards the shore, where in four hours we ar- 
rived, the weather being at that time fair, clear, and every 
way seasonable to our intention. That day we laid four- 
teen tall and ninlble deer aloiig> and being very weary 
and throughly tired, first with rowing) and now with 
hunting) we fell to eat such provisions as we had brought 
with lis, agreeing to take our rest for that night, and the 
next day to make an end of our hunting, and so return to 
the ship again. But the next day, as it pleased God, the 
weather falling out something thick, and much ice in the 
offing betwixt iIkt shore and the ship (by reason of a 
southerly wind drivinj^ ahmg the coast), our ship was 
forced so far off to sea to be clear of the ice, thatweliad 
quite lost sight of her; neither could we assure ourselves 
whether she were inclosisd in the drift ice or not; and 
the weather growing thickci' and thicker, we thought it 
our best course to hunt along the shore> and so to go lor 
Green-Haibour, there to stay aboard the ship with the 
rest of our men, until our own ship, should come into 
the port. 

Coastinn thus alon^ tov/ards Green-harbour, w^e killed 
eight deer more, and at last having laden our shallop 

N n 9, with 



284 MiRACrlous fTxEservatioN'.' 

\*ith venison, we kept on our course for Grcen-Harbonr : 
where arriving on the Ifcith day, we found, to our great 
surprise, that the ship was departed thence, together with 
cur twenty men aforesaid ; that which increased oin- ad- 
miration was, we knew they had not victuals sufficient 
aboard, to serve them by proportion, homeward bound ; 
which made us again to wonder what sliould be the rea- 
son of their so sudden departure. 

Perceiving ourselves thus frustrated of our expectation 
and having now but three bare da3-s (according to ap- 
pointment) to the uttermost expiration of our limited 
time for departure out of the country, wc thought it our 
best course to make all possible speed to get to Bell- 
sound, unto our Captain. Fearing a little delay might 
bring a great deal of danger, for the lightening therefor^ 
of our shallop, that she might make the better way 
through the waters, we heaved our venison over-board, 
and cast it all into the sea. Having thus forsaken Green- 
Harbour, with a Ion2;in'j[ desire to recover bell-Son nd. 
(from thence distant some sixteen leagues to the south- 
ward) that night we got half way about the point of the 
Nesse, or point of Land, called Low-Nesse, but the 
darkness or misty fog increasing so fast upon wi^, that it 
was impossible for u,s to get further; and there between 
two rocks we coved from the 17t)i day at night, until 
the !8th day at noon; at which time the weather being 
something clearer (though very thick still) we left the 
Nesse behind us, still desirous to recover Bell-Sound ; 
ibut having never a compass, to direct our course by., nor 
any of our company that was pilot suflicient to know the 
laud. \\ hen we saw it, we were fain to grabble in the 
daik> as it were, like a blind nuui for his way; and so 
'over-bhat Bell-Point, at least ten leagues to the southward, 
toward^ Hond-Sound. 

Some 



MIRACULOUS PRESERVATION. ^S.'i 

■ Some of us in the mean time, knowing that it was im- 
possible to be so long a rowing and sailing of eight 
leagues (for we did both row and sail) made enquiry of 
©ne another, how tiie harbour lay ; most of us judging 
that it coukl not possibly be further to the southward, 
our reason being our observation of the lands rounding 
axcay aud trenthv^^ towards the eastward. AVe re.'^olved 
thereupon to rov/ no further on that course, for the find- 
ing of Bell-Sound ; and though we were persuaded by 
William Fakely our gunner, (a proper seaman, thouglino 
skilful mariner, who had been in the eountry five or i«ix 
times before, which none of our seamen had been), tliat 
it was farther to the southward, vet we, trustins: better 
to our own reasons than unto his persuasions, agaiii 
returned towards the northward, which was our best and 
direct course indeed, for the finding the Bell-Soiind. 
Steering of which course, we were now come within two 
miles of Bell-Poiut, and the weather being fair and 
clear, we presently descried the tops of the lofty moun- 
tains; William I'akely thereupon looking about him, 
presently cries out unto us, '^ that zee rcere all this Zi-hiU 
upon a zcrong cuiirsc.^' Upon hearing which words, some 
of our company, yea the most, were persuudtd to turn 
about the boat's head a second time, linto the southward; 
which one action, was the main and only cause of our 
too late repentance ; though for my own part, as it is weil 
known, T never gave con.ent to their counsel. 

And thus upon the fatal £Oth day of August, which 
was the utmost day of our limited time for staying in the 
country; we again returned the quite contrary wav, ' 
namely to the southv/ard, utterly uncertain when, and 
where to find the sound ; a thousand sad in)agination3 
overtaking our perplexed mind j all of us assuredly know-^ 
ing, that a million of miseries would of necessity ensue, 
if we fuuud not the ships to save our passage. In this 

diitractcd 



28^ MfRACULOUS PKESEHVATlON. 

distracted time of our thoughls, we were now the second 
time running as far to the southward as at the first; bufe 
finding there was no likehhood of finding any such a, 
place further to the south, we turned the shallop again to 
the northward ; William Fakel}' hereupon, being unwil- 
ling to condescend unto our agreement, still sai/ing it 
could not be our course : but we not trusting longer to his 
opinion (though all in him was out of good will and con- 
ceit of being in the right), and he not consenting to steer 
any longei", I took the oar out of his hand to steer the 
boat withal. The weather all this while continued faic 
and clear, and it pleased God at the very instant to send 
the wind easterly ; which advantage we thankfully em- 
braced, and presently set sail. The wind increasing fresh 
and large, and our shallop swiftl}' running, we arrived 
the 21st da}' at Bell-Point, where we found the wind 
right out of the sound, at East North East, so fiercely 
blowing, that wc could not possibly row to windward ; 
but being forced to take in our sail, we were fain to be-« 
take ourselves unto our oars, by help of which we re- 
covered some two miles within the shore, where we were 
constrained for that time to cove, or else to drive to lee- 
ward. 

binding this to be the place we had all this while 
sought for (he now also agreeing thereunto) we forthwith 
sought out and found an harbour for our shallop ; and 
having brought her into it, two of our men were presently 
dispatched over-land, unto the tent at Bell-Sound, to sec 
if the ships were still there; of which, by reason of the 
time being expired, and the opportunity of the present 
high wind, we v/ere much afraid. The tent being distant 
ten miles at least from our shallop, our men at their com- 
ing thither, and finding the ships to be departed out of 
the road, and not being certain, whether or not they 
might be at Bottle-Cove, three Icfigues distant on the 

other 



MIRACULOUS PRESKHVATIOTI. 28? 

Other side the sound, riding there under the loom of the 
Jand ; again returned to us with their sad news. The 
storm of wind continuing till about midnight^ it fell to a 
stark calm ; wtiereupon we, unwilling to lose the oppor- 
tunity, departed towards Bottle-Cove, betwixt hope and 
fear of finding the ships there. Whither coming the 22d 
and finding the ships departed, we having neither pilot 
or compass for our directors to the eastward, found our- 
selves (God he knoweth) to have little hope of any deli- 
very out of this apparent danger. Our fears increased 
upon us, even whilst we consulted together, whether it 
were safest to go or stay : if to go, then we thought of the 
dangers in sailing, by reason of the ice in our wayj as 
also of the difficulty in finding the place, when we should 
come thereabout. If we resolved still to remain at Bell- 
Sound, then we thought that no other thing could be 
looked for, but a miserable and pining death, seeing 
there appeared no possibility of inhabiting there, or to 
endure so long, so darksome a winter. 

And thus were our thoughts at that time distracted, 
thus were our fears increased ; nor were they careless 
fears. Well we knew that neither Christian or Heathen 
people, had evt-r before inhabited those desolate and in- 
temperate climates. This also, to increase our fears, had 
we certainly heard, how that the merchants having in 
former times much desired, and that with proffer of great 
rewards for the hazarding of their lives, and of suf- 
ficient furniture and provision of all things that might be 
thought necessary for such an undertaking, to any that 
would adventure to winter in those parts; could never 
yet find any so hardy, as to expose their lives unto so 
hazardous an undertaking; yea, notwithstanding these 
proffers had been made, both unto mariners of good ex- 
perience and noble resolutions, and also unto divers other 

bold 



€88 MIRACULOUS PRESERVATICN. 

bold spirits ; yet had the action of wintering in those 
parts, never by any been hitherto nndcrtakoii. This alsQ 
had we heard, how that the company <'>f MuscoXie 
merchants, having once procured the reprieve of some 
malefactors, that had at home been convicted by 
law, for some heinous crimes committed ; and that both 
promise of pardon for their faults, with addition of re- 
wards also, if so be they would undertake to remain in 
Greenland but one whole year, and that every way pro-, 
vidcd for too, both of clothes, victuals, and all thing? 
else, that might be any way needful for their preserva-; 
tion. These poor wretches hearing of this large proft"cr> 
and fearing present execution at home^ resolved to make 
trial of the adventure. The time of the year being 
come, and the ships ready to depart, these condemned 
creatures were embarked, who, after a certain space ar- 
riving, and taking a view of the desohitcness of the 
place, they conceived such a horror and inward fear in 
tlieir hearts, that they resolved rather ro return tQ 
England to make satisfaction with their lives, for their 
former faults committed, than there to remain, though 
with assured hope of pardon. Insomuch as the time o£ 
year being come that the ships were to depart from these 
barren shores, thty made known their full intent to the 
Captain ; wlio being a pit^'ing and merciful gentleman, 
Avould not by force constrain tfeem to stay in that place, 
which was contrary to their minds; but iiaving made 
his voyage and the time expired, he again embarked and 
brought them over with him to England ; where, through 
the intercession and means of the worshipful company 
of ^luscovie Merchants, they escaped that death, whicU 
they had before been condeinned unto. The r< niembran<e 
of these two stories, as also a third, (more teirihle thaqt 
bolh the former); lur tliut was likelv to be our ouu casCj 

nj(.irc 



MIFACULOUS PRESERVATION. 'C!89 

more miserably now affrighted us; and that Avas the la- 
mentable and unmanly ends, of nine good and able men, 
left in the same place heretofore, by the self samemaster 
that now left us behind ; who all died miserably upori 
the place, beingcruelly disfigured after their deaths, by the 
savage bears, and hungry foxes, which are not only the 
civilest, but also the only inhabitants of that comfortless 
COuntr}' : (he lamentable ends and miscarriage of which 
Inen, had been enough indeed to have daunted the spirits 
t)f the most noble resolution. 

- All these fearful examples presenting themselves be- 
fore our eyes, at this place of Bottle-Cove aforesaid, 
made us like amazed m'eii, to stand looking 6ne upon 
another, all of us, as it were beholding in the present,' the 
future calamities, both of himself, and of his fellows ji 
arid thus, like men already metamorphosed into the icel 
of the counti-y, and already past both our seuic and rea- 
son, we stood with eyes of pity beholding oiie another. 

Nor was- it other men's examples and niiscarriages, and 
fears alone, that made us amazed; but it was the consi- 
deration of our want of all necessary provision for the 
life of man, that already struck us to the heart, for we 
were not only unprovided both of clothes to keep u« 
warm, and of food to prevent the wrath of cruel famine, 
but utterly destitute also of a sufficient house, wherein to 
shrowd and shelter ourselves from the chilling cold. 
Thus for a space, standing all mute and silent, weighing 
with ourselves the misery we were alread}-^ fallen in, and' 
knowing that delay in these extremities to be the mo- 
ther of all dangers ; we began to conceive hope, even out 
of the depth of despair. Rousing up our benumbed 
senses therefore, we now lay our heads and counsel to- 
gether, to bethink of the likeliest course for our preserva* 
tion in that place, seeing that all hopes of gaining out 
passage to England were then quite frustrated. Shaking 

Vol. II. o © off 



290 MlHAGULOtS 1>RESERVATION,- 

off therefore, all childish fear, it pleased God to give ui 
hearts like men, to arm ourseUes with a resolution to do 
cur best for the resisting, of that monster of desperation'. 
An agreement thereupon, by agencral consent of the whole 
company, we then entered into, to take the opportunity 
of the next fair weather, and go for Green-Harbour, 
to hunt and kill venison_, for part of our winter provision. 
Having thus agreed among ourselves, the 25th of 
August, the wind and weather being both fair, we di' 
reeled our course towards Green-Harbour, some sixteen 
leagues, as I before said, distant from Bell-Sound ; and 
the wind being fresh and fair, within the space of twelve 
hours we there arrived ; upon which place being now 
landed^ the first thing we did, was to make us a tent with 
the sail of our shallop, pitched up and spread upon our 
oars; under this shelter we resolved to rest ourselves 
that night, and to refresh our bodies with such food as we 
there had ; and the next day to return to our hunting. 
The weather that night proving fair and clear, we made 
our sleep the shorter, and fitting ourselves and shallop 
the best way we could, proceeded to Coles-Park, some 
two leagues di&tant from us, and well known to Thomas 
Ayres, to be well stored with venison. Coming onshore 
here, w^e found not so many deer as we expected from 
his report ^ but killed seven that da}', and four bears be- 
iide, which we also intended to eat. 

The weather beginning now to overcast, and not likely 
to continue good ior hunting, we that 'night returned 
again to Green-Harbour ; Avherc making us a tent of our 
sfiils and oars as before, we fell to eat of such meat as 
God had sent us, and betook ourselves to rest upon it ; 
and now finding the weather to clear up, we broke ofl'our 
sleep for that time, fitting ourselves and two dogs to go a 
hunting, leaving William Fakely and John Dawes, be- 
hind usj in the teat at Grecn-Hai hour, to dress some 
meat for refrc»4une;it ut our return. 

Departing 



MIRACULOUS PRESERVATION'.* ¥91 

Departing from the tent, we rowed towards Coles- 
park; in the way, upon the side of a hill, by the sea 
side, we espied seven deer feeding, on which wc rowed 
to the place, and with the help of our dogs killed six of 
them ; after \vhich the weather again overcasting, we 
thought it to little purpose to go any farther at that 
time, but resolved to hunt all along the side of that hill, 
and so at night to return to our tent: going thus along 
we killed six deer more, which he had no sooner 
done, but it began to blow and rain, and to be very dark'; 
whereupon we hasted towards the tent, there intending to 
refresh ourselves with victuals, and with rest for thaj 
night, and the next day to renew our hunting. This pur- 
pose of ours, was by the foul weather the next day pre* 
vented, for it fell so black, so cold, and so windy, that wg 
judged it no way fitting for our purpose. Lading our 
own shallop, with the bears and venison we had killed, 
and finding another shallop left by some other ship'a 
company, we loaded that with the graves of the whale*', 
that had been boiled this present year, which we found 
in great quantities strewed upon the ground, and divided 
ourselves into two equal companies; William Fakely with 
one seaman, and two landmen with him, taking charge 
cf one shallop, and myself, another seaman, and two 
landmen, taking charge of tlic other : we thus com- 
mitted ourselves to the sea, intending with the next fair 
weather to go to Bell-Sound to our tent, which was the 
place we intended to remain at during the winter. 

To Bell-sound therefore we went, with a purpose there 
to lay up the store of what provision we had already got 
together, and with the ne^t fair wind lo come back again 
to the place we now left, to try if it wore possible to pro- 
vide ourselves with some more venibun for our winter 
provision. 

Jtluving thus lado);i both our shallops, appointed our 

o o 2 company 



&9t MIRA€1710^'S PRESERVATION. 

^ompany^ and all ready for departure, we were over- 
taken with darkness^ and there forced to stay for that 
tiight. The next day was Sunday; wheaefore we thought 
it fit to sanctify the rest of it, and to continue there till 
Monday, and to make the best use we could of that good 
day, taking the beat course we could for the serving God 
Almighty ; although we had not a book among us all, or 
found one the whole time we staid in the country. 

The sabbath day being shut up by the approaching 
night, we betook ourselves to rest, sleeping till the sun 
awakened us, by beginning to shew himself upon the 
jMonday morning. The day was no sooner peeped, but 
we got up, fitting ourselves and business for departure; 
the weather was fair and clear at first, but after four 
bours rowing, the sky began to be overcast, and the wind 
blew so hard, that we could not possibly get to BelU 
^und that night, but coved half way, until the next 
jnorning, at which time we recovered Bottle-Cove. To 
which place, when we were once come, we found.ihe wind^ 
then at south-west, to blow so hard, that it was impossible 
to reach Bell-Sound, but were forced to stay at Bottle- 
Cove for that night. Our shallops we made fast one to 
the other, with a rope fastening the head of one to the 
stern of the other, and so casting ourgrabnell or anchor 
overboard, we left them riding in the cove. 
• But see now what a mischance, for the trial of our 
patience, and for the making us to rely more upon his 
providence, than upon any outward means of our own, 
God now sufteved to befall us. We were all now on shore, 
the south-west wind now blew so hard and right into the 
cove, that it made the sea go so high ; our anchor also 
coming home at the same time, both our shallops castjng 
along the shore, sunk presently in the sea, wetting by this 
means our whole provision ; the weather withal beating 
some of It out of the boats, which we fo\md swimming up 

♦ind 



MIRACULOUS PRESEIIVATION.. CQS 

and down the shore; for coming out of onr tent in the 
mean time, judge what a sight this was to us, to see by 
jnischunce, the best part of our provision (the only hope 
of our lives) to be in danger utterly to belost^ or at least 
spoiled with the sea water, and for which we had taken 
such pains, and run such adventures in the getting. In 
this distress we saw no way but one, and that very 
desperate, namely, to run presently into the high- 
tcroiight sea, getting by that means into our shallops, 
to save the remainder of our provisions, ready now 
to be washed away by the billows. A Halser there- 
upon we got, which fastening unto our shallops, we 
with a crabbe, or capstan, by main force of hand heaved 
them out of the water upon the shore, this done, along 
the sea side we go, seeking and taking up such of our 
provision, as were swam away from our shallops. Having 
by this means gleaned up all that could be gotten together, 
we resolved from thenceforth to let our boats lie upon 
the shore, till such time as the weather should prove fair 
and better, and then go over to Bell-Sound. 

The third of September, the weather proving favorable, 
we forthwith launched our shallops into the water, and 
got that day to Bell-Sound, thither as soon as we came, 
our first business was, to take our provision out of our 
shallops into the tent; our next, to take a particular view 
of the place, and of the great tent especially, as being 
the place of our intended habitation for the ensuing win- 
ter. This which we called the great tent, was a kind of 
house, built of timber very substantial, and covered with 
Flemish tiles : by the men of which nation it had in the 
time of their trading hither been built; itwas four score feet 
in length, and fifty in breadth; its use was for the coopers, 
employed for the service of the company to work, lodge, 
and live in, during the time they are making the casks for 
the barrelling up the train oil. Our view being taken, 
we found the weather beginning to alter strangely, and 

the 



CfH MIRACULOUS PRESERVATION. 

tlie nightSj and frosts, so to grow on us, that we durst not 
adventure upon another voyage to Green-Harbour; tear- 
ing the sound would be frozen, and that we should never 
be able to get back to our tent again. By land it was, 
v,e knew iu vain for us to think of returning, for the 
country is so very mountainous, that there is no travelling 
that way. 

Things being at this pass with us, we bethought our- 
selves of building another small lent with all expedition, 
theplacemust of necessity be within the greatcrtent; with 
our best wits therefore taking a view of the place, we re- 
solved upon the southside, and began with taking down 
another lesser tent (built for the use of the landmen hard 
by the other, wherein they lodged whilst they made 
the oil) from thence we brought the materials, which 
furnished us with 150 deal boards, besides posts or 
iitancheons 'and rafters; from three chimneys of the 
furnaces, wherein they used to boil their oils, we brought 
a thousand bricks, there also we found three hogsheads 
or very fine lime, ofwhich we likewise fetched another hogs- 
head from Bottle-Cove, on the other side of the sound, some 
three leagues distant : minglino: this lime with the sand 
of the sea shore, wc made very excellent mortar for the 
laying of our bricks ; falling to work whereon, the wea- 
ther was so extreme cold, as that we were fain to make 
two fires to keep our mortar from freezing. AVilliani 
Fakely and myself undertaking the masonry part, began 
to raise a wall of one brick thickness, against the inner 
planks of the side of the tent ; whilst we were laying the 
bricks, the rest of our company were otherwise employed, 
sonie in taking them down, others in making them clean, 
and bringing them in baskets to the tent; some in making 
mortar, and hewing of boards to build the other side, others 
too in flaying our venison. Having built the two outer- 
most sides of the tent with bricks and mortar, and our 

bricks 



MIRACULOUS PRESERVATION. £f>5 

bricks now almost spent, we were enforced to build the 
ether two sides with boards, in the following manner. 
First we nailed our deal-boards on one side of the poster 
stancheon, to the thickness of one foot, and on the other 
side in like manner ; and so filling up the hollow plact.*, 
between with sand, it became so tight and warm, as not 
the least breath of air could penetrate : our chimnev's 
vent was into the greater tent, being the breadth of one 
deal board, about four foot long. The length of this, 
our tent was twenty foot, and the breadth sixteen ; the 
height ten; our ceiling being deal boards five or six limes 
double, the middle of one joining so close to the close of 
the other, that no wind could possibly get between. As 
for our door, besides our making it so close as possiblv 
it would shut, we lined it with a bed which we found 
lying there, and came over both the opening and shutting 
of it ; for windows, we made none at all, so that our light 
we brought in through the greater tent, b}' removing two 
or three tiles in the eaves, which light came to us through 
the vent of our chimney. Our next work was to set up 
£our cabins, billetting ourselves two and two in a cabin ; 
our beds were the deer's skins dried, which we found to be 
extraordinary warm, and a very comfortable lodging to 
us in our distress. Our next care then was for firing to 
xlrcss our meat, and for keeping away the cold. Ex- 
aming therefore, all the shallops that had been left ashore 
there by the slii[)s, we found se\^n of them very crazy, 
^nd not serviceable for the next year. Those we made- 
bold with, broke them up, and carried them into our. 
house, stowing them over the beams in manner of a floor ; 
intending also to stow the rest of our firing over them 
so to make the outer tent the warmer, and to keep the 
snow from drifting through the tiles into the tent ; which 
snow would otherwise have covered every thing, and have 
hindered us from coining to what we wanted. 

When 



igG MlRACrLOUS PRESERVATtO*,' 

When the weather was now grown cold, and the days 
short, (or rather no days at all) we began to stave some 
empt}^ casks that were left there the year before, to the 
quantityof one hundred ton at least; we also made use of 
Some planks and of two old coolers, (wherein they cooled 
their oil), and whatever we thought might be spared 
without damnifying the next year's voyage. Having got 
together all the firing that we possibly could make, ex- 
cept we should make spoil of the shallops and cooler^ 
that were there, which might easily have overthrown the 
next year's voyage, to the great liinderance of the wor- 
shipful company, whose servants we being, were every 
way careful of their profit. Comparing therefore thd 
small quantity of our wood, together with the coldness 
of the weather, and the length of time that we were like- 
ly to abide, we cast about to husband our stock as thriftily 
as we could, devising to try a new conclusion : onr trial 
was this, when we raked up our fire at night, with a good 
quantity of ashes and embers, we put into the midst of it 
a piece of elm-wood, where after it had lain about six-' 
teen hours, we at our opening of it found great store 
of fire upon it, whereupon we made a common practice 
of it ever after. It never went out in eight months to-* 
gether, or thereabouts. 

Having thus provided both our house and firing, uport- 
the l'2th of September a small quantity of drift ice came 
driving to and fro in the sound. Karly in the morn* 
iug therefore we arose, and looking every where abroad^ 
we at last espied t\?o sea-horses lying asleep upon a 
piece of ice ; presently thereupon taking up an old 
harping iron that lay in the tent, and fastening a grapnel, 
rope to it, we launched out our boat to row towards them ; 
and coming something near, we perceived them still 
isleep, and 1 steering, bid the rowers to hold still their 
oarS;, for feai. ef awaking them wfith the crashing of the 

ice J' 



MIRACULOUS PRESERVATION. GO}' 

ice; and I skulling the boat easily along, came so near at 
length to them, that the shallops even touched one , at 
which instant William Fakely being ready with his harp- 
ing iron, heaved it so strongly into the old one, that he 
quite disturbed her of her rest; after which she receiving 
five or six thrusts with our lances, fell into a sounder 
sleep of Death. Thus having dispatched the old one, 
the younger being loath to leave her dam, continued 
swimming so long about our boat, that with our lances 
we killed her also. Hauling them both alter this into the 
boat, we rowed ashore, flayed our sea-horses, cut them 
in pieces, to roast and eat them; the J 9th of the same 
month; we saw other sea-horses, sleeping in like manner 
upon several pieces of ice, but the weather being cold, 
they designed not to sleep so much as before; and there- 
fore we could kill but one of them, of which being right 
glad, we returned again to our tent. 

The nights at this time, and the cold weather increased 
50 fast upon us, that we were out of all hope of getting 
any more food, before the next spring; our only hopes 
where, to kill a bear now and then, that might by chance 
wander that way. The next day therefore taking an ex- 
acter survey of our stock of provision, and finding our 
proportion too small by half, for our time and company, 
we agreed among ourselves to come to allowance, that is, 
to stint oui'Selves to one reasonable meal a day, and to 
keep Wednesdays, and Fridays fasting days, excepting 
from the frittars or graves of the whale, (a very loathsome 
meat) of which we allowed ourselves sufiicient to satisfy 
our present hunger; and at this diet we continued some 
three months, or thereabouts. 

Having by this time finisheil v, hatcver we possibly could 
invent for our preservation in that desolate place, our 
clothes and shoes also, were worn and tore to pieces ; 

\ <jl. H. J" P and 



§98 MIRACULCUS PKESERVATION. 

and we must of necessity invent some new device for their 
reparation. Of rope-yarn therefore, we made us thread, 
and of whale-bones needles to sew our clothes and shoes. 
The nights began to be very long, and by the 10th of Octo- 
ber the cold so violent, that the sea was frozen ovci^ 
which had been enough to have daunted the most assured 
resolution. At which time our business being over, and 
nothing now to exercise our minds upon; our heads began 
then to be troubled with a thousand sorts of imaginations. 
Tlien had we leisure (more than enoi^gh) to complain 
ourselves of our present most miserable condition. Then 
had we time to bewail our Avives and children at home; 
jind to imagine what news our unfortunate miscarriages 
must needs be to them. Then thought we of our parents 
also, and what a cutting corrosive it would be to them, to 
hear of the untimely death? of their children. Other 
times again, we revive ourselves with some comfort, that 
our iViends might take, in hoping it would please God to 
preserve us, untill the next year. Sometimes did we vary 
our griefs; complaining one while of the cruelly of our 
master, that would leave us to these distresses; and then 
presently again we fell, not only to excuse him, but to 
lament both \ntx\ and his company, fearing they had been 
overtaken by t:he ice, .^nd miser?ibly that wa}' perished. 

Thus tormented in mind with our doubts, our fears, 
and our griefs, and iri our bodies with hunge% cold, and 
wants, that hideous monster of desperation, began no^v 
to present his ugliest shape unto us; he now pursued us 
— he now laboured to seize upon iis. Thus finding our- 
selves in a labyrinth, as it were, of a perpetual misery, 
we tliought it not best to give too much way to our griefs ; 
fearing they also would, most of all, have wrought upon 
©ur weakness. Our prayers we now redoubled unto the 

Almighty 



Miraculous preservation?. 29<J 

Almighty, for strength and patience, in these our mise- 
ries; and the Lord graciously listened unto us, and granted 
these our petitions. By his assistance therefore, we shook 
off these thoughts, and cheered up ourselves again, to use 
the best means for our preservation. Now therefore, we 
began to think of our venison, and of preserving it; and 
how to order our firing in this cold weather : for fear 
therefore our firing should fail us at the end of" the year, 
we thought it best, to roast every day half a deer, and to 
stow it in hogsheads, which we now put in practice, and 
soon filled three hogsheads,leaving so much raw, as would 
serve to roast every sabbath-day a quarter ; and ao for 
Christmas-day and the like. This conclusion being made 
among us, then fell we again to bethink us of our miseries 
both passed and to come : and how, though it pleased 
God to give us life, yet we lived as banished men, not 
only from our friends, but from all other company. Next 
we thouglit of the pinching cold, and of the pining hun- 
ger : these were our thoughts, this our discourse to pnss 
away the time, but as if all this misery had been too lit- 
tle, we presently found another increase of it ; for examin- 
ing our provision once more, we found that all our Frit- 
tars of the whale were almost spoilt with the wet they had 
taken; after which by lying so close together, they were 
now grown mouldy: and our bear and veuison we per- 
ceived again not to amount to ^uch a quantity, as to allow 
ns five meals a week ; whereupon we were fain to shorten 
Our stomachs of one meal more; so that for the space of 
three months after that, we for four days in the week fed 
upon the unsavory and mouldy frittars, and the other 
three, we feasted it with bear and venison. Birt as if it 
were not enough for us to want meat, we now began to 
want light also, all our meals proved suppers now; for 
Utile light could we ;ee; even the glorious sun, (as if un- 

p p 2 willing 



300 MIRACULOUS PRESERVATION. 

willing to behold our miseries) masking his lovely face 
from us, under the sable veil of coal-black night. Thus 
frona the 14th of October, till the 3d of February, we 
never saw the sun; nor did he all that time, so much as 
ever peep above the horizon. But the moon we saw at 
all times, day and night (when the clouds obscured her 
not,) shining as bright as in England. The sky, tis true 
is very much troubled with thick and black weather all 
the winter time; so that we could not see the moon so 
well at all times, or discern, what point of the compass 
she bore upon us. A kind of day-light we had indeed, 
which glimmered some eight hours a day unto us; in Oc- 
tober time I mean; for from thence until the 1st of De- 
cember, even that light was shortened ten or twelve mi- 
nutes a day constantly: so that from the 1st of December 
till the 20th there appeared no light at all, but all was 
one continued night. AW that we could perceive was, 
that in a clear season now and then, there appeared a lit- 
tle glare of white, like some show of day towards the 
south ; but no light at all. And this continued till the 
1st of January, by which time we might perceive the day 
a little to increase. All this darksome time, no certainty 
could we have when it should be day, or when night; 
only myself out of my own little judgment, kept the ob- 
servation of it thus. First bearing in mind the number 
of the epact, I made my addition by a day supposed, 
(though not absolutely to be known by reason of the 
darkness) by this [judged the age of the moon ; and this 
gave me my rule of passing the time; so that at the com- 
ing. of the ships into the port, T told them the day of the 
month as directly as ihey themselves could tell me. At 
the beginning of this darksome, irksome time, we sought 
some means of preservinsr lioht amonii; us : findins: there- 
fore a piece of sheet-lead over a seam of one of the 

coolers. 



MIRACULOUS PEESEEYATION. 301 

coolers^ we rirpt it off and made three lamps of it; which 
maintaining with oil that we found in the coopers tent 
and rope yarn serving us instead of candleuicks, we kept 
them continually burning; and this was a great comfort 
to us in our extremity. Thus did we our best to preserve 
ourselves; but all this could not secure us: for we in our 
own thoughts, accounted ourselves but dead men; and 
that our tent was then our darksome dungeon, and we 
did but wait our trial by our Judge, to know whether we 
should live or die. Our extremities being so many, made 
us in impatient speeches to break forth against the causers 
of our miseries: but then again, our consciences telling 
us of our own evil deservings, we took it either for a 
punishment upon us, for our former wicked lives, or else 
for an example of God's mercy, in our wonderful deliver 
ranee; and humbling ourselves therefore under the migh- 
ty hand of God, we cast down ourselves in prayer, two 
or three times a day, which course we constantly held all 
the time of our misery. 

The new year now begun, and as the dai/s hegan to 
hngtJitn, so the cold began to strengthen ; which cold 
came at last to that extremity, as that it would raise blisters 
in our flesh, as if we had been burnt with fire; and if we 
touched iron at any time, it would stick to our fingers 
like bird-lime. Sometimes if we went but out of tlie 
door to fetch in a little water, the cold would nip us in 
such sort, that it made us as sore as if we had been beaten 
in some cruel manner. All the first part of the vvinter 
we found water under the ice, that lay upon the bacht 
on the sea-shore. Which water issued out of a high bay, 
or cliff of ice, and ran into the hollow of the bache, there 
remaining with a thick ice over it; which ice, we at one 
certain place daily digging through with pick-axes, took 
as much water as served for our drinking. 

This continued until the 10th of January, and then 
we were fain to make shift with snow-water, which we 

melted 



502 MIRACULOUS PRESERVATION. 

melted by putting hot irons into it; and this was onr 
drink until the 20th of May following. By the end of 
January the days were grown to seven or eight hours 
long; and then we again took another view of our vic- 
tuals, which we now found to grow so short, that it would 
no way last us above six weeks longer. And this bred a 
further fear of famine among us. But our recourse was 
in this, as in other extremities, unto Almighty God, 
who had helps we knew, though we saw no hopes ; and 
thus spent we our time until the 3d of February, which 
proved a marvellous cold day; yet a fair and clear one, 
about the middle whereof, all clouds now quite dispersed, 
and night's sable curtain drawn; Aurora with her golden 
face smiled once again upon us, at her rising out of her 
bed ; for now the glorious Sun with his glittering beams, 
began to gild the highest tops of the lofty mountains. 
The brightness of the sun, and the whiteness of the 
snow, both together was such, as that it was able to have 
revived even a dying spirit. But to make a new addition 
to our new joy, we perceived two bears (a she one with her 
cub) now coming towards our tent; whereupon we 
straight arming ourselves with our lances, issued out of 
the tent to await her coming; she soon cast her greedy 
eyes upon us ; and with full hope of devouring us, she 
made the more haste unto us; but with our hearty lances 
we gave her such a welcome, as that she fell down on the 
ground, tumbling up and down, biting the snow for very 
anger. Her cub seeing this, by flight escaped us. The 
weather now was so cold, that longer we were not able 
to stay abroad ; retiring therefore into our tent, we first 
warmed ourselves, and then out again to draw the dead 
bear in unto us. We flayed her, cut her into pieces of a 
stone weight or thereabouts, one of which served us for 
our dinner; and upon this hear we fed some twenty days, 
for ihe was very good ilcsh, and better than our venison 

This 



MIRACULOUS PRESERVATION. oOS 

This only mischance we had with her, that upon the 
eating of her Hver, our skins peeled off. For mine own 
pari, I being sick before, by eating of that liver, though I 
lostmy skin, yet recovered I my health upon it. She being 
spent, either we must seek some other meat, or else fall 
aboard with our roast venison in the cask, which we were 
very loth to do, for fear of famishing, lest that should 
he exhausted before tlie fleet arrived from England. 
Amidst these our fears, it pleased God to send divers bears 
into our tent; some forty at least, as we accounted. Of 
which number we killed seven ; on the 2d of March one, 
the 4th another; and on the 10th a wonderful great bear, 
six foot high at least. All which we flayed, and roasted 
upon wooden spits (having no better kitchen furniture 
than that, and a frying-pan which we found in the tent.) 
They were as good savoury meat, as any beef could be. 
Having thus gotten good store of such food, we kept 
not ourselves now to such straight allowance ; but eat fre- 
quently two or three meals a-day, which began to in- 
crease strength and ability of body in all of us. 

By this, the chearful days so fast increased, that tlie 
several sorts oflbwls, which had all the winter time avoid- 
ed those quarters, began now again to resort thither, unto 
their summer-abiding. The l6th of March, one of our two 
mastiff" dogs went out of the tent from us in the morn- 
ing ; but from that da^^ he never rcmrnod to us, nor 
could we hear what was become of him. The fowls llmt 
1 before spoke of, constantly use every spring time to re- 
sort into that coast, being used to breed there most abun- 
dantly. Their food is a certain kijid of small fish. Year- 
ly upon the abuiuhmt coining of these fowls, tlie foxes 
which had all the winter kept their burrows under the 
rocks, begin to come abroad, and seek for their livings. 
For them we set up three traps, like rat-traps, and bailed 
theiii witli tli<j skins of these fowls, which we had found 

upon 



S04 MIRACULOUS PRESERVATION. 

upon tlie snow^ they falling their in there flight from the 
hill, wheieupon they breed, towards the sea; for this 
fowl being about the size of a duck, hath her legs placed 
so close unto her rump, as that when they alight once 
npon the land, they are very rarely (if ever) able to get 
up again, by reason of the misplacing of their legs, and 
the weight of their bodies; but being in the water, they 
raise themselves with their pinions well enough. After 
we had made these traps, and set them apart one from 
another, in the snow, we naught fifty foxes in them ; all 
which we roasted, and found very good meat of them ; 
then took we a bear's skin, and laj'ing the flesh-side up- 
ward, we made springs of whale-bone, wherewith we 
caught about sixty of those fowls, about the size of a 
pigeon. 

Thus continued we until the 1st of May, and the wea- 
ther then growing warm, we were now pretty able to go 
abroad to seek for more provision. Every day therefore 
abroad we went, but nothing could we encounter until the 
24lb, whenespyinga buck, we thought to have killed him 
with our dog; but he was grown so fat and lazy, that he 
could not pull down the deer. Seeking further out therefore, 
we found abundance of zcillock's eggs ; (which is a fowl 
about the bigness of a duck) of which eggs though there 
were great store, yei we being but two of us together, 
brought but thirty of them to the ten that day, thinking 
the next day to fetch a thousand more of them ; but the 
day proved so cold, with an easterly wind, that we could 
not stir out of our tent. 

Staying al home therefore upon the 25ih of May, we 
for that day omitted our ordinary custom, our order of 
late (since the lair weather) was, every day or every se- 
cond day, to go up to the top of u mountain, to spie if 
we could discern the water in the sea, break the main ice 
rtitliin the Sound, which until the day -before, we had 

not 



MTRACLLOUS PRESERVATION. 305 

not seen. At which time, a storm of wind coming out 
of the sea broke the ice^ and the wind coming easterly, 
carried all the ice into the sea, and cleared the Sound a 
great way ; although not near the shore at firsts seeing 
the clear water came not near our tent by three miles at 
least. 

This 25th of Ma}' therefore, we all day staying in the 
lent, there came two ships of Hull into the Sound; who 
knowing that there had been men left there the year bt— 
fore, the master (full oi" desire to know whether we were 
alive or dead) manned out a shallop from the ship, with 
order to row as far up the sound as they could, and then 
to hawl up their shallop, and travel over-land upon the 
snow unto the tent. These men at their cominp- ashore, 
found the shallop which we had hauled from our tent into 
the water, with a purpose to go seek s6uie sea-horses the 
next fair weather ; the shallop being then already fitted 
with all necessaries for that e'nterprize. This sight 
brought them into a quandary; and though this encoun- 
ter made them hope, yet their admiration made them 
doubt, that it was not possible for us to remain alive 

Taking therefore our lances out of the boat, towards 
the tent they come; we never so much as perceiving of 
them, for we were all gathered together, now about to 
go to prayers in the inner tent, only Thomas Ayers wa5 
not yet come in to us out of the greater tent; the Hull men 
now coming near our tent, hailed it with the usual word 
of the sea, crying Hey! he answered again with Ho! 
which sudden answer almost amazed them all, causing 
them to stand still, half afraid at the matter. But we with- 
in hearing of them, Jovfully came out of the tent; all 
black as we were with the smoak, and with our clothes all 
tattered with wearing so long. This uncouth sight made 
them further amazed at us; but perceiving us to be the 
very men left there, all the year, with jayfi<ii hearts they 

Vol. H. q q embraced 



S06 MIRACULOUS PRESERVATION. 

embraced us ; and we thera in return : they came into 
our tent where we shewed them the courtesy of the house, 
and gave tlieni such victuals as we liad ; which was veni- 
son roasted four months before^ and a cup of cold water, 
which for novelt3''s sake they kindly accepted of us. 

Then fell we to ask them, whatnefti's? and of the state 
of the land at home? and when the London fleet would 
come ? to all which, they returned us the best answers 
they could. 

Agreeing then to leave the lent, witii tliem we went to 
their shallop, and so a-board the ship; where we were 
welcomed after the heartiest and kindest English manner; 
and there we stayed ourselves until the coming of the 
London fleet, which we much longed for: hoping b}' theni 
to hear from our friends in Englund. We were told that 
they would be there next day ; but it was full throe days 
ere they came, which seemed to us as tedious 'a three 
da3^s as any we had yet endured ; so much we now de* 
sired to hear from our friends, our wives, and children. 

The-GSth of May, the London fleet came into the port 
lQ;Onr great comfort, a-board the admiral we went, unto 
the right noble Captain \'\'illiam Goodler, who is worth\' 
to be honoured b}' every sciiman for his courtesy and 
bounty. This is the gentleman that is every year chief 
cO'mmander of thii> fleet; and right worthy feo to be, being 
a wise man, and an expert mariner as any in England. 

Utito this gentleiman right welcbme we were; and joy- 
fully by him received: he giving order, that we should 
have any thing that was in the ship, that might do us 
go6^d, and increase our strength; of his own charge giv- 
ing us appaVel also, to the value of twenty pounds. 

Thus after fourteen da3-s of refreshment, we grew per- 
fectly V. ell all of us ; whereupon'the noble captain sent 
William Fakely , and John Wyse, (Mason's own appren- 
tice) and Thomas Ayers the whale cutter, with Kobert 

Goodfellow, 



MIRACULOUS PRESERVATION. 307 

Goodfellow, unto Master INlasoii's ship, according as them- 
selves desired. But thinking there to be as kindlj wel- 
comed as tlie lost prodigal, these poor men, after their 
enduring so much misery, (which through his means part- 
ly tliey had undergone) no sooner came they on board 
his shij), but he most unkindly called them ^' RunaKni/s," 
with other harsh unchristian terms, far enough from the 
civility of an honest man. — Noble Captain Goodler un- 
derstanding all these passages, was right sorry for them, 
resolving to send for them again, but that the weather 
proved so bad and uncertain. I for my own part remained 
with the Captain still at Bottle Cove, according to my 
own desire : as for the rest that staid with him, he prefer- 
red the landsmen to row in the shallops for the killing of 
the wdiales; freeing them thereby from their toilsome la- 
bour on shore, bettering their means besides, and all these 
favours did this worthy gentleman for us. 

Thus were we well contented now to stay there till the 
COth of August, hoping then to return to our native coun- 
try : which day of departure being come, and we embark- 
ed, with joyful hearts we set sail through the foaming 
ocean, and though crossed sometimes with contrary winds 
homeward bound ; yet olu" proper ships at last came safely 
to an anchor in the River Thames, to our great joy and 
comfort, and the merchants benefit. And thus by the 
blessing of God came we all eigiit of us well home, safe 
and sound; where the Vvorshiplul company our masters, 
the Muscovic merchants, have since dealt wonderi'iilly 
well by us.. For ail which most merciful preservation, 
and most wonderfully powerful deliverance, all honor, 
praise, and glory be unto ttie ■ijreat God, the sole a^;thor 
of it, and grant us to make the right use of it. 

Amen ! 

Q q Q Extraordinary' 



( 308 ) 

'Extraordinary Execution of the Mayor of Bodmin, iti 
Cornwall, by Sir William Kingston, in the Reign 
of Edward /Ae Vlf^. 

A REBELLION happening in the reign of King 
Edward VL upon the alteration of reliii:ion, and the 
rebels being defeated, what shameful spwt did Sir Wil- 
liam Kingston make with men in misery, by virtue of his 
office of Provost Marshal ! One Bovvyer, Mayor of Bod- 
win, in Cornwall, had been amon^;; the rebels not wil- 
lingly, but by constraint. Sir William sent him word he 
would dine with him on such a day, for whom the Mayor 
made a hospitable entertainment. A little before dinner, 
the Provost took the Mayor aside, and whispered in his 
ear, ' That there must be an execution that afternoon ;' 
and therefore ordered him to cause a gallows to be set up 
over against his own door. The Mayor obeyed his 
command ; and, after dinner, the Provost took the AJayor 
by the hand, and desired him to Itad him to the place of 
execution ; which, when he beheld, he asked the Mayor, 
" If he thought it was strong enough." ' '^ Yes," says the 
INIayor, " doubtless it is." " Well then,'"' said Sir Wil- 
liain, "^ get up and try, for it is provided for you." " I 
hope. Sir/' said the Mayor, "■ you are not in earnest ?' 
" By luy troth," says the Provost, " there is no remedy, 
for \'ou have been a busy rebel ;" and so, without delay 
or liberty to make his defence, the poor Mayor was exe- 
cuted. Near that place also lived a miller, who had been 
very active in the rebellion, and, fearing the Provost's 
coming, told a stout young fellow, his servant, that he 
had occasion to go from home, and therefore willed him, 
if any gentleman should come a fishing in his absence^ 
and inquire for him, " He should tell them himself was 
the miller, and ready to serve them." The Provosl not 
long after came, and, asking for the miller^ out came the 

servant. 



DESCRIPTION OF THE DEATH-WATCH. 309 

servant, saying, " Sir^ I am the miller ;" upon which the 
Provost commanded his servants to seize him, " and hang 
him upon the next tree." The poor fellow hearing this, 
cried out, '* I am not thd miller, but the miller's ser- 
vant." " Nay, friend," says the Provost, " I will take 
thee at thy word. If thou art the miller, thou art a busy- 
knave and a rebel, and deservest to be hanged. If thou 
art not the miller, thou art a false lyi<'.g knave, and canst 
not do thy master better service than to hang for him j** 
pnd so, without more edo, he was executed. 

^ curious Description and Explanation of the Death 
Watch, so comnionlij listened to zcith such dread. 

Among the many natural causes that operate on weak 
minds, nothing is more common tlian what is generally 
called a death walch ; and is vulgarly believed wherever it 
is heard, that some of the family must die in a short time 
after, which is a ridiculous fancy, crept into vulgar heads, 
and employed to terrify and aftVight people, as a monitor 
of approaching death ; and, therefore, to prevent such 
causeless fears, I shall take this opportunity to undeceive 
the world, by showing what it is, and that no such thing is 
intended by it. Ithas obtained thenameof adeath watch, 
by making a little clinking noise, like a watch ; which 
giving some dibturbance to a gtntlcman in his chamber, 
who was not to be alTnghied with vulgar errors, it tempted 
him to a diligent search after the true cause of this noise, 
which be pleased to take in his own words. " I have 
been," says he, *' some time since accompanied with this 
litlle noise. One evening above the rest I sat down by a 
table from whence the noise proceeded, and laid my 
watch upon the same, and perceived, to my admiration, 
that the sound made by this invisible automaton was 
louder than that of the artificial machine. Its vibrations 

would 



510 DESCRIPTION OF THE DEATH-WATCH. 

would fall as regular, but withal quicker, which, upon a 
strict inquiry, was found to be nothing but a little beetle 
or spider in the wood of the box. Sometimes they are 
found in the plastering of a wall, and at other times in a 
rotten post, or in some old chest or trunk, and the noise 
is made by beating its head on the subject that it finds 
fit for sound." The little animal that I found in August, 
3695, says Mr. Benjamin Allen, was about two lines and 
a half long, calling a line the eighth part of an inch ; tlie 
colour was a dark brown, with spots, some lighter, irre- 
gularly placed, which could not easily be rubbed off, 
which the gentleman above named observed, with its 
whole composure and shape, by a microscope, and sent 
the whole relation of it to the publisher of the Philoso- 
phical Transactions of the Royal Societ3\ Some people, 
governed by common reports, have fancied this petit 
animal a spirit, sent to admonish them of their deaths ; 
and, to uphold the fancy, tell you of other strange moni- 
tors altogether as ridiculous ; for, though I do not deny 
but that, in some particular cases, God Almighty may 
employ unusual methods to warn us of our approaching 
ends, yet ordinarily such common and unaccountable 
talk is nonsense, and depends more upon the fancy, kept 
up by a delight in telling strange things than any thing 
else. It is all one to a good man, whether he has a 
summons or not, for he is always ready either with or 
without it. 



TO THE EDITOR OF KIRBY S SCIENTIFIC MUSEUM. 

Sir, 
"Reading a very remarkable trial that took place in the King's Bench, page 
2*7, of your second volume, resjjecting Mr. Robert Booty, at Stromboli, 
though so very singular, is not the only occurrence that happened at 
that place. I here send you a well-authenticated history of a circum- 
stance, respecting a Mr. Gresliam, a Merchant, of London, whjo 

touched 



REMARKABLE TRIAL IN THE KINg's BENCH. 311 

touched at Stromboli, in his passage from Palermo, this being so nearly 
connected with your foimer account, I make no doubt will find an early 
insertion, and remain , 

Sir, 

Your constant reader, 
St. James's Street, \V, R. 

June 8, .1804. 

JVlR. GRESHAM, an eminent merchant in London, 
being homeward bound from Palermo in Sicily, where at 
that time lived tiie rich Antonio, who had 1 wo kingdoms 
in Spain mortgaged to him at one time by his Catholic 
Majesty, the wind being against them, the ship in which 
Mr. Gresham sailed came to an anchor to leeward of 
Stromboli, one of the Lipari Islands in the Tyrrhenian 
Sea, on the north of Sicily, where is a mountain that 
casts forth flames of sulphur in some places of it con- 
tinually. About noon, the mountain generally ceasing 
to throw out flames, Mr, Gresham, accompanied with 
eight sailors, ascended it, and went as near the orifice as 
danger would permit them, where, among other frightful 
noises, they heard a loud voice pronounce the following 
words, " Make haste, make haste, the rich Antonio is 
coming ;" at which, being in a great consternation, they 
hastened a-board, and the mountain beginning, in a 
horrible manner, to vomit fire, they weighed ; and the 
wind continuing in the same quarter, made the best of 
their way back again to Palermo, and enquiring after 
Antonio, they found that he died, as near as they could 
calculate, at the same instant they heard the voice at 
Stromboli say, " he was coming." Mr. Gresham, safely 
arriving in England, made this surprising accident known 
to King Henry VIII. and the seamen being called before 
him, attested the truth of it by their oaths; whicii made 
such a sensible impression upon Mr. Gresham's mind, 
that he quickly gave over merchandizing, made a distri- 
bution of his estate, which was verv considerable, among 

hi.s 



gi2 EXTRAORDINARY CLOCK AT STRASBOURG. 

his relations, and to pious and generous uses, reserving 
only a competency for himself, and then spent the re- 
mainder of his days in the exercise of piety and de- 
votion. 

EXTRAORDINARY CLOCK AT STRASBOURG. 

Coryat, the celebrated traveller, in the reign of James the First, when at 
Strasbourg, in Germany, was particnlaily sm"prised with the extra- 
oidinary Workmanship of the Clock th^t ornaments the Cathedral of 
that place, and has taken great care in the Description, as well as to 
procure a correct representation, of so singrular a curiosity. Some 
abridged and inaccurate accounts of this Wonderful Piece of Mechanism, 
having been obtruded on the public, we shall deliver its true description, 
in the words of Coryat himself. The accompanying plate is an accurate 
copy, from the dravfring Coryat procured to ornametit hrs account. 

IHIS curious Piece of Workmanship stahdeth at the 
south side of the church, near to the door.' A true figure 
or representation whereof, made according to — form itself, 
as it htandeth at this day in the church, I have expressed 
in tliis place. Trul}' it is a fabric so extraordinary rare 
and artificial, that I am confidently persuaded it is the 
most exquisite piece of work of that kind in all Europe. 
I think I should not commit any great error, if I should 
sa}', in all the world. The bolder I am to affirm it, be- 
cause I have heard very famous travellers (such as have 
seen this clock, and most of the principal things of 
Cliristendom) report the same. It was begun to be built 
in the year 1.571, in the month of June, by a most ex- 
cellent Architect and Mathematician, of the cit}' of 
.Strasbourg, who was then alive when I was there ; his 
name is Conradus Dasjpodius, once the ordinary pro- 
fessor of the Mathematics in the University of this city. 
A man that, for his excellent art, may very fitly be called 
the Archimedes of Strasbourg; and it was ended about, 
three years after, even in the year 15/4, in the i>anie 
month of June^p-abont the feast of St. John Baptist. This 

work 




WcOtt ^ 






EXTRAORDINARY CLOCK AT STRASBOURG. 313 

work containeth^ by my estimation, about fifty foot ia 
height, betwixt the bottom and the top. It is compassed 
in with three several rails, to the end to exclude all per- 
sons, that none may approach near it to disfigure any 
part of it, whereof the two outmost are made of timber, 
the third of iron, about three yards liigh. On the left 
hand of it there is a very ingenious and methodical ob- 
servation for the knowing of the eclipses of the sun and 
moon, for thirty-two years. At the top whereof is writ- 
ten, in fair Roman letters : 

Tj/pl Ec/ipsium 

So I is ft J AUKS, 

Jd Annos xxxii. 

On the same hand ascendeth a very fair architectorical 
machine, made of wainscot, with great curiosity, the 
sides being adorned with [)retty little pillars of marble, 
of divers colours, in which are three degrees, whereof 
each containeth a fair statue of carved wainscot : the 
first, the statue of Urania, one of the nine Muses, about 
which her name is written in gold letters ; and, by the 
sides, these two words, in the like golden letters, Arith- 
metica and Gcometria. The second, the picture of a 
certain King, with a regal sceptre in his hand. But 
what King it is, [ know not: above him is written 
Daniel, '2 chap. The last is the picture of Nicholaus 
Copernicus, that rare vXstronomcr, under whom is written, 
in fair Roman letters : 'Skholui Copcrn'ui vera cjjigks ex 
ipsius yJutographo dcpicta. 

At the very top of this row, or series of work, is erected 
a most excellent eiiigie of a cotk, which doth, passing 
curiosity, represent the living sh;»pe of Lliat vocal crea- 
ture ; and it crowcth at certain hour-, yielding as shrill 
and loud ;i voice as a natural cock. Yea, and such a 
Yiud of s(Hnul (whicli in;iki th it n\orc admirable) as 

Vui ][. IX r cuunterfoiteiU 



314 EXTRAORDINARY CLOCK AT STRASBOURG. 

counterfeiteth very near the true voice of that bird; the 
hours of which are eleven of the clock in the morning, 
and three in the afternoon. It was my chance to hear 
him at the third hour in the afternoon, whereat I won- 
dered as much as I should have done, if I had seen that 
famous wooden pigeon o^ Jrckitas Tarentimts, the Philo- 
s(5pher, (so much celebrated by the ancient historians,) 
fly in the air. On the right hand also of this goodly 
Architect, there is another row of building, correspondent 
to the foresaid in height, but differing from it in form. — 
For the principal part thereof consisteth of a pair of 
winding stairs, made of free stone, and most delicately 
composed. I could not perc<^ive for what use they serve, 
so that I conjecture they are made especially for orna- 
ment. Again, in the middle work, betwixt these two 
notable rows that I have now described, is erected that 
incomparable fabrick wherein the clock standeth. At 
the lower end whereof, just about the middle, I observed 
the greatest astronomical globe that ever I saw, whxh is 
supported with an artificial pelican, W'ounding his breast 
with his beak ; wherewith they typically represent Christ, 
who was wounded for the salvation and redemption of 
the world; and about the midst, goeth a compass of 
brass, which is sustained with very elegant little turned 
pillars. Opposite unto which is a very large sphere, 
beautified with many cunning conveyances and witty 
inventions. .Directly above that standeth another orb, 
which, with a needle, (this is a mathematical term, 
signifying a certain instrument about a clock,) pointeth 
at four hours onl}', that are figured at the four corners, 
thus : 1. 2. 3. 4. each figure at a sevenil corner. At the 
sides of the orb, two angels are represented, whereof the 
one holdeth a mace in his liand, with which he striketh 
a brjisen serpent every hour; and iuird by flic same 
standeth a death's head, finely resembled : the other, 

an 



EXTRAORDINAKY CLOCK AT STRASBOURG. 315 

«ri hour-glass, which he moveth likewise hourly. Nota- 
able objects tending to mortification. Both the lower 
ends of this middle engine are very excellently grticed 
with the portraiture ol two huge lions, carved in marble. 
This part of the third fabrick, wherein standeth the 
clock, is illustrated with many notable sentences of the 
Holy Scripture, written in Latin. As In principio creuit 
Deus calumet tcrram. Gene. 1. cap. Oynnis caro /ie- 
vum, Pet. 1. cap. 1. Peccati Uipeiidium mors est, Rom. 6. 
Dei doHiim vita eteniaper Christum. Rom. 6. Ascoidisti 
in altum, cepisti captiutatem. Psal. 68. Again, under 
the same_, are written these sentences, in a lower de^-ree : 
JEcce ego creo calos Jioxos et terrain novam. Esaice 65. 
ILx pergriscimifii et Icztamird qui habitat is in palv&re. 
Esa. 26. Venite baicdicti patris mci, possidcte regnum 
vobis paration. Discedite a rne maledicti in i<rncm atur- 
inim. Math. 25. Above thesie sentences divers goodly 
arms are advanced, and beautified with fair escutchens. 
Under the same many curious pictures are drawn, which 
present only histories of the Bible. Again, above that 
orb which I have already mentioned, there is erected 
another orb, or sphere, wherein are figured the hours 
distinguishing time, and a great company of Mathema- 
tical conceits, which do decypher some of the most ab- 
struse and secret mysteries of the noble science of Astro- 
nomy. Likewise, another orb standeth above this that I 
last speak of, within the which is expressed the fjo-ure of 
an half moon, and many glittering stars, set forth most 
gloriously in gold; and again, without are formed four 
half moons, and two full moons. Above the higher part 
of this orb this impress is written : Qua est tarn illustris, 
similes aurora pulera ut Lu?ia, purd lit Sol. At the sides 
■of it, beneath this pocsie, is vaitten, which is thus dis- 
tributed : — Dominus lux tnea, on the left hand ; and, on 
the right hand. Quern timtbo '/ Also, above the same orb, 

R r I observed 



3] 5 extraordinahy clock at strAsbouegt. 

I observed another exquisite device, even seven little 
pretty bells of brass, (as I conceived it) standing together 
in one rank, and another little bell, severally by itself, 
above the rest. Within the same is contrived a certain 
vacant, or hollow place, wherein stand certain artificial 
men, so ingeniously made that I have not seen the like. 
These do come forth at every quarter of an hour, with a 
very delightful and pleasant grace, holding small ham- 
mers in iheir hands, wherewith they strike these foresaid 
bells, every one in order, altcrnh vicibaSj, and supply each 
other with a pretty diligence and decorum, in this quar- 
terly function. Under the place where these two men 
do strike those foresaid bells, these two sacred emblems 
are written : Ecc/esia Christl exulans : and, Serptns An- 
iiquiis Antichrist us. The highest top of tliis fabrick is 
framed with such surpassing curiosity, that it yieldeth a 
wonderful ornament to the whole engine, having many 
excellent little portraitures and fine devices contrived 
therein, of free stone, and garnished with borders and 
works of singular art. Moreover, the corners of this 
.middle work arc decked with very beautiful little pillars, 
c<i£ .ash-coloured marble, whereof there stand two in a 
-place; those above square, those beneath round. Thus 
iiavc I, something superficial!}', described unto thee this 
-fsimous Clock of Strasbourg, being the Phoenix of all the 
iCio.cJvS of Christendom. For it doth as far excel all 
-jQ^hef Clocks that ever I saw before, as of the Piazza of 
^St. Mark's, in Venice, which I have already mentioned, 
that of Middleborough, in Zekuid, which I after saw, and 
all others, generally as far (I say) as a fair young lady, 
of the age of eighteen years, that hath been very elejjantly 
;bfought up. in the trimming of her beauty, doth a homely 
.and coarse trull of the country, or a rich orient pearl, 
>,rueau piece of amber. 

... J. curious 



C 317 ) " 

-4 curious Receipt and Expenditure on the Exhibition of 

a Pla?/ taken from an old Churchaarden's Book belonif- 

ing to the Parish of Basingborne, Cambridgeshire. 
Memorandum. Received at the Play held ou St, 
Margarets-day A. D. MDXI in Basingborn of the holy 
Martyr St. George. 

Received of the Township of Royston I2s. TharfieM 
6s. Sd. Melton 5s. 4d. Llllington lOs. 6'd. Whaddon 4s. 
4d. Steeplemenden 4s. Barly 4s. id. Ashwell 4s. Abinodoii 
r,s. 4d. Orwell 3s. Wendy Cs. gd. Wimpole '2s. 7d. Mel- 
dreth 2s. 4d. Arlington Gs. 4d. Shepreth 2s. 4d. Kelsey Ss. 
5d. Willington Is. lOd. Fulmer Is. 8d. Gilden Mordeii 
Is* Tadlow is. Croydon Is. id. Hattey lOd. W'ratlino-. 
>vorth Qd. Hastingfield 9d. Barkney 8d. Poxten 4d. 
Kneesworth 6d. 

item received of the Town of Baslngborn on the Mon- 
day and Friday after the play together with other comers 
on the Monday 14s. 5d. 

Item received on the Wednesday after the play with a 
pot of ale at Kneesworth all costs deducted Is. 7d. 
Expences of the said play 

First paid to the Garnement Man for Garncments and 
Propyrts and playbooks 20s. 

To a Mynstrel and three Waits of Cambridge for the 
Wednesday, Satnrday and Monday Two of them the first 
day and Three the other days 5s, 1 id. 

Item in expences on the Players, when the Plav wa-i 
shewed, in bread and ale and for other Viitails at Rov- 
ston for those Players 3s. 2d. 

Item in expences on the Playday for the bodies of six 
Sheep 22d. each ys. 2d. 

Item for tlirec Calves and half a Lamb Ss. 2d. 

Item paid five days board of one Pyke Propyrte 
making for himself and his servant one day and fur his 
horses pasture si.x days is. 4d. 

Item* 



SIS A^JCIENT SPOtlTSj SCC. 

Item paid to Turners of Spits and for Salt 9d. 

Item for four Chickens for the Gentlemen 4d. 

Item for fish and bread and setting up the Stages 4d. 

Item to John Becher for painting of three Fanchoms 
and four Tormentors. 

Item to Giles Ashwell for easement of his Croft to play 
in Is. 

Item to John Hobarde Brotherhood Priest for the 
playbook 2s. 8d. 

ANCIENT SPORTS, 

AND PASTIMES OF THE LOXDONEKS, 

JBy William Stcphanidcs, or Fitzsteplien, a Monk of Can- 
tcrharrj, horn in London in the Reign of King Stephen ; 
Ziirote this Account in the Reign of Henri/ the Second, 
and died Anno 1191^ in the Reign of Richard the 
First. 

JxT the Shrovetide in every year, the boys of ea^h 
school in the Metropolis bring lighting-cocks to their 
masters, and the whole of the forenoon is spent in the 
school, to see these cocks fight together. After dinner 
the youth of the city go to play at ball in the fields; 
every bo}'^ being provided with a separate ball, the prac- 
tisers also of the trades are each in possession of a ball, 
with which they join in the sport, the ancienter sort 
come, on this occasion, on horseback, to witness the 
agility of their children and friends. 

By this account the barbarous custom of killing the 
cocks, by throwing sticks at them, while tied to a stake, 
was not known or practised in the time of this writer, as 
he would certainly have noticed it. 

SrORTS IN LENT, 

EVERY Sunday in Lent, after dinner, a company of 
young men ride into the fields on horses v/hich arc fit 

for 



ANCIENT SPORTS,, &G. 319 

for war, and principal runners : every one among them is 
tausht to run the rounds with his horse. I'he citizen's 
sons issue out through the gates by troops^ furnished with 
lances and warlike shields : the younger sort have their 
pikes not headed with iron, where they make a represen- 
tation of battle, and exercise a skirmish. There resort 
to this exercise many cotirtiers, when the King lies near 
thecity,and young striplings out of the family's of Barons 
and great persons, which have not yet attained the war- 
like girdle, to train and skirmish. 

Hope of victory infxaraes every one: the neighing and 
i^erce horses bestir their joints, and chew their bridles, 
and cannot endure to stand still: at last they bc;T,in their 
race, and then the young men divide their troops; some 
labour to out-strip their leaders, and cannot reach them; 
Others fling down their fellows, and get beyond tijem. 

SEA FIGHTS. 

IN Easter holidays thev counterfeit a sea fi«ht' a 
pole is set up in the middle of the river, with a target ivell 
fastened thereon, and a young man, stands upright in a 
boat, which goes swiftly by help of the oars and tide, who 
with his spear hits the target in his pjissage, with which 
blow, if he break the spear, and continues upright, 
begets th(^prize, if any is contended for: but if his spear 
continues unbroken, he seldom fails of being precipitated 
irjto the river, to the no small entertainment of the nu- 
merous spectators assembled on the occasion. And in 
order to prevent any accident, if lie is not an oxpeit 
swimmer, two vessels, with many young men on board^ 
are in readiness to take him up, the n)oment he nuikes 
l)is appearance from the aqiuitic plunge. 

su^r^rKR si'onrs. 

UPON the hollidays all summer, the youth is exercised 
in leaping, shooting, v.restlingj, casting of stones, and 

throwing 



520 ANCIENT SPORTS, SCC. 

throwing of Javelins fitted vnth loops for the purpose, 
which they strive to fling beyond the mark : they also 
use bucklers., like fighting men. The robust exercise* 
besides, consist in baiting and hunting with dogs, bulls, 
boars, and bears. 

Many citizens take delight in birds, as sparrow-hawks, 
gos-hawks, and suchlike; and in dogs to hunt in thi» 
woody ground, to which end they have authority to hunt 
or course in Middlesex, Hertfordshire, all the Chillerns, 
and in Kent, as far as Gray- Water. 

SPORTS ON THE ICF,, 

WHEN the great moor, which washes Moorflelds, at 
the north wall of the city, is frozen over^ great compa- 
nies of young men go to sport upon the ice; then taking 
a run, and setting their feet at a distance, and placing 
their bodies sideways, they slide a great way. Otlicrs 
take heaps of ice, as if they were great mill-stones, and 
make scats; many, going before, drawing the party who 
are seated, holding one another by the hand; in going so 
fast, some slipping with their feet, all fall down toge- 
ther. Some are better practised to the, ice, and bind to 
their shoes, bones, as the legs of some beasts, and hold 
stakes in their hands, headed with sharp iron, which 
sometimes they strike against the ice; and these men go 
<5a with speed, as doth a bird in the air, or darts shot 
from some warlike engine. Sometimes two men set them-r 
selves at a distance, and run one against another, as it 
were at a tilt, with these two stakes, wdierewith one or 
both parlies are thrown down, not without some hurt to 
their bodies; and after their fall, by reason of the violent 
mofion, arc carried a great distance from one another ; 
and wheresoever the ice touches their heads, it rubs off 
the skin, and lays it bare; nor is it unusual to have a 
leg or an arm broken in the frolic. But our youth, 
grtf.'uy of honour and desirous of vietory, do thus e.\cr- 

ci.-'- 



EXTUAORDINAKT MURDER. 321 

cise themselves in counterfeit battles, that they may bear 
the brunt more strongly, when they come to it in 
earnest. 

Lucan, speaking of Caesar's attempt on the Trinobantes, 
or Britons, says. 

He was afraid, and fall'd by Britons' hand, 
That first presumed to invade their land. 



Extraordinary case of Jonathan Bradford, zlJio teas 
executed at Oxford, for the Murder of Cristopiier 
Hayes, E&q. in the year 173G. 

Jonathan Bradford kept an inn in Oxford- 
shire, on the London road to Oxford ; he bore an unex- 
ceptionable character. Mr. Hayes, a gentleman of for- 
tune, being on his way to Oxford, on a visit to a relation, 
put up at Bradford's; he there joined company with two 
gentlemen, with whom he supped, and in conversation 
unguardedly mentioned that he had then about him a 
large sum of money. In due time they retired to their 
respective chambers ; the gentlemen to a two-bedded 
room, leaving, as is customary with many, a candle 
burning in the chimney corner. Some hours after they 
were in bed, one of the gentlemen being awake, thought 
he heard a deep groan in the adjoining chamber; and 
this being repeated, he softly awaked his friend. They 
listened together, and the groans increasing as of one 
dying, they botli instantly arose, and proceeded silently 
to the door of the next chamber, from whence they heard 
the groans ; and the door being ajar, saw a light in the 
room; they entered, but it is impossible to paint their 
consternation, on perceiving a person weltering in his 
blood in the bed, and a man standing over him, with a 
dark lainhorn in one hand and a knife in the other. The 
man seemed as petrified as themselves, but his terror 
Vol. n. s s carried 



S23 EXTRAORDINARY MURDER. 

carried with it all the terror of guilt ! The gentlemen 
soon discovered the person was the stranger with whom 
they had that night supped, and that the man who was 
standing over him was their host. They seized Bradford 
directly, disarmed him of his knife, and charged him with 
being the murderer: he assumed by lliis time the air of 
innocence, positively denied the crime, and asserted that 
became there with the same humane intentions as them- 
selves ; for that, hearing a noise, which was succeeded by 
a groaning, be got out of bed, struck a light, armed 
himself with a knife for his defence, and was but that 
minute entered the room before them. 

These assertions were of little avail, he was kept in 
close custody till the morning, and then taken before a 
neighbouring justice of the peace. Bradford still denied 
the murder, but nevertheless, with such an apparent in- 
dication of guilt, that the justice hesitated not to make 
use of this extraordinary expression, on writing out hi;? 
mittimus ; " iVlr. Bradford, either you or myself com- 
jiiitted this^ murder.'* 

This extraordinary affair was the conversation of the 
whole county; Bradford was tried and condemned over and 
over again, in every company. In the midst of all this 
predetermination came on the assizes at Oxford ; Brad- 
ford was brought to trial, he pleaded not guilty. Nothing 
could be more strong than the evidence of the two gen- 
tlemen ; they testified to the linding Mr. Hayes murder- 
ed in his bed ; Bradford at the side of the Body with a 
lio;ht and a knife ; that knife and the hand which held 
it bloody ; that on their entering the room he betrayed 
all the signs of a guilty man, and tliat a few moments 
preceding, they had heard the groans of the deceased. 

Bradford's defence on' his trial was the s;tme as before 
the gentlemen : he had heard a noise ; he suspected 
some villainy transacting; hestruck a light; he snatched 

a knife 



EXTRAORDINARY MURDER. 32a 

a Icnlfe (the only weapon near him) to defend himself; 
ami the terrors he discovered, were merely the terrors of 
humanity, the natural effects of innocence as well as 
guilt, on beholding such a horrid scene ! 

This defence, however, could be considered but as 
tvealc, contrasted with the several powerful circumstances 
asainst him. Never was circumstantial evidence more 
strong ! There was little need left of comment, from the 
judge in summing up the evidence! j\o room appeared 
for extenuation ! And the jury brought in the prisoner 
Guilty, even without going out of the box. 

Bradfoid was executed shortly after, still declaring he 
was not the murderer, nor privy to the murder of Mr. 
Hayes; but he died disbelieved by all. 

Yet were those assertions not untrue ! The murder was 
actually coniinitted by Mr. Hayes's footman; who, im- 
niediatelv on stabbing his master, rifled his breeches of 
his mone}^, gold watch and snuff-box, and escaped to his 
own room ; wliich could have been, from the after cir- 
cumstances, scarcely tv,o seconds before Bradford's en- 
tering the unfortunate gentleman's chamber. The world 
owes this knowledge to a remorse of conscience in the 
footman (eighteen monihs after the execution of Brad- 
ford) on a bed of sickness ; it was a death-bed re- 
pentance, and by that death the law lost its victim ! 

It is much to be wished, thiit this account could close 
here; but it cannot! Bradford, though innocent, and 
not privy to the murder, was, nevertheless, the murderer 
in design. He had heard, as well as the footman, what 
Mr. Hayes had declared at su])per, as to his having a 
large sum of money about him, and he went to the cham- 
ber with the same diabolical intentions as the servant. 
He was struck with amazement ! — he could not believe 
his senses ! — and in turning back the bed-clothes, to 
assure luiiisclf of tlie fact, he, in his agitation, dropped 

s s <Z his 



SG-i MELANCHOLY EVENT IN BEEKSHIKE. 

bis knife on the bleeding body, by which both his hand 
and the knife became bloody. These circumstances 
Bradford aciviiowledged to the clergyman who attended 
him alter his sentence. 



TO THE EDITOR OF KIRBY S SCIENTIFIC MUSEUM. 

Sir, 
Having rnet with an otJginal accnnni of a melancholy event in Berkshire, 
I have transcribed it for your Musewni, nothing being oniitted but a fe-*- 
redundant words. It was printed bj' John Harding, at the Bible and 
Anchor, Newport-Street, n<;ar Leicester-Fields, 1680. I suppose sliooi 
and shut arc, provincial Berkshire terms. 

Yours, &c. 
Bristol, June ISlJi, 1804. ISAAC JAMES- 



On Thursday, Sept. 2d, loSO, John Sawyer, a farmer, 
with his son Richard, a youth of 13 years of age, 
went with four horses half a mile, to a Held in the parish 
of Cookham, called Ham Field, to plough, about ten in 
the forenoon, it bemg then fair. About eleven the sky 
began to lour, the clouds grew thick, and soon it 
lightened and thundered, and some showers of rain fell, 
]t thundered several times very loud, sharp, and shrill, 
to the amazement of several persons. Two other ploughs 
were at work in the same field ; tlieir cattle being affrighted 
and unruly, they shoot off and go home, and leave 
John Sawyer in the liijd. About one the tempest began 
to give off"; four hours after a neighbouring labourer, one 
Francis Deli, passing from the wood side down to Cook- 
ham, sees Sawyer, with his son Uichard, and the four 
horses all dead on the around. Knowinu: the man, he 
came into Cookham, and acquaints the inhabitants; im- 
mechately the m;ijor part of the towns folks flocked up 
into tlie fields to see this sad spectacle, and with the rest, 
the wife of the said JofinSawyer ; where, to her exceeding 
grief, she 5aw her husband, son, and lour horses dead. ]\o 

impression 



MEtANCHOL-y EVENT IN BERKSHIRE. 3Q5 

impression or bruise on the man, but the boy's clothes 
were most part of them rent from his body, and his hat 
torn into tuo or three pieees ; one shoe, all the upper 
k-ather torn tVoin the sole and heel; and his whip broke 
into two or three pieces ; his shirt beaten to lint, and 
strewed on the horse he was snpposed to ride, except 
I one narrow slip from his neck to the fore-part, remain- 
ing from his neck downward before. He was observed 
to be naked, and from the neck dow^n his back burnt, or 
singed, as is supposed with the lightening, likewise scorch- 
ed or singed on the belly ; some part of his hair singed, 
and the C3'e biows. The horse he was supposed to ride 
was singed from the neck to the flank. It was judged by 
those ploughmen that shot out and came home safe, that 
it migtit be the last clap of thunder and ligh.tening that 
afforded tliat latal stroke. John Sawyer and his son had 
shot out IVom plough and vveje about six poles from it, sup- 
posed to be ridinghomeward.each having his left leg undet 
the near side of the horse he was supposed to ride. I'he 
horses falling all one way, it is judged they were struck 
immediately dead in their walk, none of ihem having so 
much as one leg stretched out, or any reason to conclude 
they strove for life, iiawyer was a man of good repute 
among hi^ neighbours, that lived soberly and honestly. 
On Saturday the 4th, the Coroner came and called ii 
jury for enquiry, and they gave their verdict that it uas 
the immediate providence of Alniitrhty God ; and so the 
Coroner gave order for the burial of the man and his 
son, which the same evening was pnfornied. 

We who'je names are here under written, do testiiy the 
truth of this relation : 

Jo. Whitjicld, Eaq. Justice of Quorum for Berkshire, 

Franch Craiclei/, Vic. de Cool:ham, 

Robert Ben tut, "j 

John Rr^e, / Clunchwardens of Cookham, 

John Chcrij, of Maidenhead, Warden of the Town. 



50.6 EXTRARODINARY PRESERVATION. 

Thomas Bird, apprentice at Mr. King's^, a fishmonger in 
JNewgate Market,, whose father liveth at Cookham, 
was likewise at Cookham when this sad accident hap- 
pened, and saw the man, boy, and horses in the field. 
Jofm Hardiyig, being ver}' near the place the next day. 

The same day at Norwich, and for six miles round, 
happened a terrible thunder and lightening ; where 
eight persons that were at harvest work, retiring into a 
church porch, a great clap of thunder and lightening 
came and struck them all dead. 



EXTRAOKDINARY PRESERVATION. 

1 HE Terrace of Berne, in Switzerland, is a promenade 
close to the Cathedral, where the shade of venerable 
chesnut- trees, affords a refreshing coolness, even on the 
hottest day in summer. From this terrace, which is be- 
between six and seven hundred feet high, and is the Avork 
of human indystr}', is seen a range of lofty mountains, 
whose summits are buried beneyth everlasting snows, 
and, when illumined by the sun, appear like beautiful, 
delicate clouds. Underneath runs the river Aar, which 
precipitates itself with great noise from a considerable 
height. In the wall surrounding this j)romenade^ is the 
following inscription : 

" In honour of the Almighty and Miraculous Provi- 
dence of God, and as a memorial for posterity, this stone 
was erected on this spot, from which Mr. Theobald 
Wenzapfli, when a student, fell on the 25th of May, 
1654; after which accident he lived .'^O years as Minister 
of Kerzersee, and died in an advanced age on the 25th 
of November, I694." 

However, extraordinary it may appear, that a man 
precipitated from such a height should remain alive, yet 

the 



MOVEMENT OF THE EARTH. 3\t7 

the circumstance, according to the inhabitants of Berne 
has never been called in question. The student, it is 
said, wore a wide gown, which being inflated by the air, 
acted like a parachute, so that he fell quite gently to the 
ground. 



MOVEMENT OF THE EARTH. 



TO THE EDITOR OF THE SCIENTIFIC MUSEUM, 

Sir, 
An ocourr«;iice perhaps not less extraordinary tlian that recorded in ycwr 
last Number (page 279) is related by Sir Richard Baker, in spcakiuj of 
the wonderful events in Queen Elizabeth's reigu, that writer gives the 
following account of Manley-Hill. 



INlier 13th year, a prodigious earthquake happened 
in the east part of Herefordshire, in a little town called 
Kynaston. On the 17th of February, at six o'clock in 
the evening, the earth began to open, and an hill, with a 
rock under it, niakinjj^ first a 2:reat bcUowinq; noise, lifted 
ifself up, and began to travel, bearing with it the trees 
that grew upon it, the sheepfolds and flocks ; sheep abid- 
ing there at the same time. In the place from whence 
it first moved, it left a chasm 40 feet broad, and fourscore 
ells long. The whole field w'as about 2 acres only. 
Passing along, it overthrew a chapel standing in the way ^ 
removed a yew-tree, })lanted in the church-yard, from 
the west to the east: with the same force it thrust before 
it high^vays, hedges, and trees ; made tilled land into 
pasture; and again turned pasture into tillage. Having 
walked in this manner from Saturday evening till Mon- 
day noon, it then stood still." 

. This was probably one of those slips of land which arc 
very common in hilly countries after a wet season, as 
happened lately to Becchen-clifl^, near the Old Bri'lgo at 

Bath. 



32S A MAN BORN WITHOITT ATMS OR LEGS. 

Biith. — Tlie yew-tree in Kynaston churcb-vard is still ta 
be seen ; and the bell of tbe cbapel was dug up a few 
years siuce. Yoiu's &c. 

A. C. 



Account of a Man horn zcithout Jrms or Legs,zvho lately 
died at Poris, aged aixtif-tzco yean. 



TO THE EDITOR Ob* THE SCIENTIFIC MUSEUM, 

Sin, 
If the fullawLii? particulars relative to a remarkable instance of Ixims 
naturT in the human species, should be considered worthy of a place in 
your amusing Miscellany, they may, perhaps, possess some interest for 
those of your readers who are fond of studying the varieties of figure and 
disposition among maakimd. 

I am, your's, &c. 

J. C. N. 

Marc CATOZZE, called tbe Little Bzcarf, was born at j 
Venice, in tbe ye^ir 1741, of tall and robust parents. He 
hud several brothers, all of whom were tall and well made ; 
bis body was not deformcfl, and appeared to belong to a 
man of live feet six inches ; he had neither arms nor legs, 
tiie pectoral nienilKM-s consi^ted of a ver}' prominent 
shoulder, and a perfect hand ; the lower part of the body 
was very flat, terminating in a mis-shapen foot, but com- 
plete in all its parts. 

This man was well known ; he had spent the greatest 
part of his life in traversing almost all the states of 
Europe exliibiting himself to the public curiosity. He 
attracted the multitude, not only b}' the singularity of 
his form, but likewise by the astonishing strength of his 
jaws, and the dexterity with which he threw up into the 
air, sticks and other things with one of liis hands, and 
rcaught ihcni with the other. 

As he Qould scarcely reach his mouth with the ends of 

his 



A JiAN feOEN WITHOUT ARMS OR lEGS. S29 

■fingers, his greatest difficult}' would have been to feed 
himself TVithout assistance, if ;natu«e had not furnished 
him with the extraordinary power of protruding, and 
at the same time lowering his under jaw^ as was discover* 
ed in dissecting his body after his death. 

Though CatOzze could walk and stand upright on his 
feet, yet he would have experienced great difficulty in 
reaching objects situated above, or at a certain distance 
from his bauds. He had therefore contrived to lengthen 
them, as it were, by a very simple instrument which was 
to him of the utmost utility. This was a hollow piece of 
elder, about three feet in length, through which passed 
a cylindrical iron rod, fixed so as to slide up and down, 
and terminating in a very sharp hook. If he wished to 
lay hold of an object at some distance from his hand; 
for instance^ to button his clothes, to take up or set down 
his metal goblet ; to pull the clothes upon him in bed> 
he took his tube (which he always kept near him) in one 
hand and pushed it between his fingers, till he brought 
the hooked end towards the hand that was at liberty ; 
then seizing the object that he wanted with the hook, he 
drew it towards him> turning it any way he pleased, 
without letting go the stick, but drawing back the hooked 
piece of iron, as into a sheath. The habit of using this 
rnstrument had rendered him so dexterous, that, by 
means of it he has frequently been seen Lo take up a 
piece of money from a table, or from the ground. 

It will scarcely be credited, that a man of this descrip- 
tion should have met with several women whose affections 
he had the art to gain; at least, he frequently boasted to 
that effect. 

In his youth, Catozze travelled on horseback; for this 
purpose, he had procured a particular kind of saddle, 
and usually appeared in public, holding the reins, beat- 
ing a drum, performing his exercise with a musket, writ* 
^- Vol. II. T t inj^, 



530 BBMARXABLB INSJAWCE OF INTREPIDITT. 

ing, winding up his watch, cutting his victuals, &:c. He 
possessed a very robust constitution ; he was gay, and 
even merry, and took a pleasure in relating his travels 
and adventures; he spoke very well, and wrote English, 
German, French, and Italian, The vivacity of his dis- 
position rendered his conversation very interesting ; but 
he was addicted to wine and spiritous liquors, and was 
fond of good living. He was very obstinate, had mucli: 
self'^love, and a ridiculous haughtiness. When he went 
abroad for instance, he Avas drawn in a small vehicle, by 
^ man whom he called his horse, and to whom he gave 
a few half-pence; but he never suffertd this man, whom 
he considered as bis servant, to eat with him. 

The lower extremities, as has been already observed, 
consisted only of his feet ; yet he could use them for walk- 
ing in an upright position. ISIore than once he has 
been seen walking in the court of his abode, and even to 
go nearly three quarters of a mile on foot. In order to 
rest himself, he turned out his toes as far as he could, 
supported himself before on his stick, and behind against 
any place that he happened to be near; and thus re- 
mained whole hours conversing with strangers who 
called to see him. 

He expired at the age of 62, of an inflammation of 
the bowels; having for two years previous to his death, 
complained of violent pains of the cholic. 



RKMAIIKABLE INSTANCE OF INTHEPIDITY. 

On the celebration of the anniversary of his Majesty'* 
birth at Jersey, June 4th, 1 804, the public joy experienced 
a sudden interruption by a dreadful accident, which, but 
for the signal intervention of Providence, would have prov- 
ed the destruction of the whole town. At noon, the forts on 
»hc island, and th« artillery in the new fort on the larg^ 

. . kill, 



REMARKABLE INSTANCE OF INTREPIDITY. 331 

hill, fired a Royal Salute, by order of the Governor. 
After the ceremony, a corporal of the Invalid Company 
of Artillery received the matches, and locked them in the 
paagazine at the top of the hill, which is bomb-proof; it 
contained 209 barrels of povrder, a quantity of loaded 
bombs, caissons full of cartridges, and other combustibles. 
About six ill the evening the sentries observed a smoke 
issuing from an air-hole at the end of the magazine, and 
immediately ran from the fort to give the alarm of fire, 
when Mr. P. Lys, the Signal Officer on the hill, also observ- 
ing the smoke, came towards it, and meeting two bro- 
tliers, named Touzel, who were employed by him a; 
carpenters, endeavoured to prevail on them to break 
open the door. One of them, however, refused, and went 
in search of the keys ; but the other, named Edward, 
having requested a soldier, named Pontsney, to assist 
him^ he acquiesced, and they agreed to sacrifice their 
lives. Touzel then proceeded to break open the door 
with an axe and a wooden bat, when, finding the magazine 
on fire, he rushed into the flames, and threw out heaps of 
burning matches. At length, by tlie intrepidity of this 
man in particular, the fire was subdued before the soldiers 
or inhabitants could reach the top of the hill. Captain 
Lciih, and the soldiers of the Slst regiment, then pro- 
ceeded to inspect and empty the magazine, lest any 
sparks should remain undiscovered, when, wonderful to 
relate, they found that two wooden caissons filled with 
ammunition had been attacked by the fire, and that one, 
containing powder-horns, cartridges, &,c. was nearly half 
burnt through : an open barrel of powder was also 
situated under some of the beams which were on fire, and 
supported the roof! — The constable of the town sum- 
moned the inhabitants to meet, for the purpose of testify- 
ing their gratitude towards the two brave men whose in- 
trepidity preserved them from destruction. 



( 332 ) 
PATRICK O'BRIEN, 

The celebrated Irish Giant, zcith a striking likeness^ 

taken from Life. 
IVIR O'BRIEN is one of those extraordinary pheno- 
mena that, perhaps once in a century appear to the won- 
der and astonishment of mankind. In an accurate 
survey of this singular character, our surprize is ac- 
companied with pity and regret, as every movement ap- 
pears to be attended with trouble and a degree of pain. 
In the action of rising to salute or surprise his visitors, he 
places both his hands on the small of his back, and 
bowing his body forward, rises with considerable difficulty 
from his seat, generally consisting of a common sized 
table, on which is placed the cushion of a carriage. 
Mr. O'Brien has exhibited himself in London at different 
periods during the last eighteen years ; and for four ox 
five successive Bartholomew Fairs, he was to be seen in 
Smithfield. His declining, however, this mode of ex- 
hibition, gave rise to the report of his death, and it was 
not until his appearance was announced in the Hay- 
Market, that the rumour was contradicted. Many could 
not, even then, be satisfied that he was the same person 
they had formerly seen, before they paid him a visit for 
the purpose of indulging their curiosity. About fifteen 
years since, during the time he was to be seen at Bar- 
tholomew Fair, he used frequently to walk about the 
streets, for the sake of air and exercise, at two or three 
o'clock ill the morning. In one of these nocturnal ex- 
cursions it was my chance to overtake him ; when he was 
accompanied by two genteel looking men of the com- 
mon size ; oh whose shoulders he supported himself in the 
same manner we sometimes see a well grown man rest- 
ing his hands on the shoulders of children of eight or 
ten years of oge. Though I had frequently seen him in a 
room, I v/as so much struck with his appearance and man- 
ner 




1" rarTly UK 






The Celcbratoa IRISH GlANT. 

S Feet " Lu/i cs /liq/i . AQ|ed .S 8 Years. 

Piih'^ .r„,t,- -tri. 1,101. I'll R.S . KhOii II. f,rn,i,'„ Il.-iu,: Vtnt A l..f,rii 4,l'y,.ftrnitt1 . 



VanAfttn <fcitlfi 



PATRICK O BRIEN, THE IRISH GIANT. SSS 

Tier in the street^ that I observed him with much attention. 
Walking up Holborn he appeared to be greatly fatigued ; 
and rather might be said to shuffle along than walk; as 
he never moved either of his feet from the stones. In 
proceeding along the more level pavement^ his body 
appeared more erect, and his head would have struck 
against many of the laraps_, if he had not avoided them. 
In this manner he pursued his widk as far as Staples Inn,,^ 
when he turned back in his way to SmithField (as I sup- 
pose) for I followed him no farther than the corner of 
Hiitton Garden. 

Mr. O'Brien, is at this time (1804) in his 3Sth year, is 
eight feet seven inches in height, and proportionably 
lusty; his hand, from the commencement of the palm lo 
the end of the middle iinger, measures tvv^elve inches; 
and his face, from the chin to the top of his forehead 
precisely the same, so that his hand exactly covers his 
face (this by artists is deemed just proportion) ; his thumb 
is about the size of a moderate man's wrist; and his shoe 
is seventeen inches long, Upon the whole, Mr. O'Brien^ 
though possessing every claim to our attention^ on ac- 
count of his extraordinary magnitude, is not entitled to 
the denomination of a well made m^n. His limbs, it is 
true, are not strikingly disproportioned ; but his figure 
wants that general symmetry which more commonly dis- 
tinguishes a man of ordinary dimensions. 

It is an unhappiness too general among such as make 
a practice of exposing their persons to public view, that 
all the rest of mankind are alike indiilerent to them. 
Hence neither connection nor friendship can possibly be 
established with such men ; every endeavour to obtain 
information that might be proper to elucidate the history 
of their' lives, is regarded with jealousy, as they imagine 
that it proceeds from impertinent or mischievous cu- 
riosity. 

Among 



334 PATRICK OBRIEN, THE IRISH GIANT. 

Among those with whom Mr. O'Brien is most familial', 
he sometimes relates the following anecdote: travelling 
in a carriage, peculiarly adapted to his use, by sinking 
the foundation some feec, so as to hold his legs con- 
veniently, he was stopped by a highwayman; putting his 
head fo rAvard to observe the cause that impeded his pro- 
gress, the highwayman was struck with such a panic 
that he clapped spurs to his horse and made a precipitate 
retreat. 

It has been asserted, with what degree of truth I can- 
not say, that Mr. O'Brien is passionately fond of cards, 
and that he eagerly embraces every opportunity that 
offers of engaging in that amusement, but that he can- 
not bear to lose with patience; not from a principle of 
parsimony, but from the disgrace (as he conceives it) of 
being beat. 

The bill which announced his return to London this 
year (1804) runs thus : Just arrived in Town, and to be 
seen in a commodious room, at No, II, Haymarket, 
nearly opposite the Opera House, the celebrated IrishGiani, 
Mr. O'Brien, of the Kingdom of Ireland, indisputabli/ 
the tallest man ever shown ; is a lineal descendant of the 
old and puissant King Brien Boreau, and has, in person 
and appearance, all the similitudes of that great and 
grand potentate. It is remarkable of this familj/, that 
hozcever various the revolutions in point of fortune or 
alliance, the lineal descendants thereof, have beenfavoured 
by Providence zcith the original size and stature tchichhavt 
beenso peculiar to their familif.— The gentleman alluded 
to measures near Nine Feet High. Admittance On& 
Shilling. 

Mr. O'Brien, when not in London, resides at a house 
in Essex, formerly the mansion of a noble family,' 
but now converted into an inn. This place he has 
very properly pitched upon for his residence ; being- 
built 



PATRICK o'bEIENj THE IRISH GIANT* 335 

liuilt in the ancient style^ with very lofty door-ways and 
apartments, it is particularly calculated for the reception 
of one who may justly be denominated the greatest 
man in the [Jnited Kingdom. The house is, at present, 
kept by a widow, for whom Mr. O'Brien is said to per- 
form all transactions relative to the purchase or dis- 
posal of her horses, &c. 

O'Brien and Byrne, are names peculiar to gigantic per- 
sons of the Irish Nation. In the year 1780, a Mr. 
Byrne was to be seen at Charing-Cross, where he died, 
and was buried in St. Martin's Church yard. He was 
within two inches of eight feet at his death; and it was 
thought that the continuance of his growth proved fatal 
to him^ as he had not attained the 20th year of his age 
when he died. — The following particulars have recently 
been received from Ireland, relative to a man equally 
singular with the Great O'Brien, though we are not 
made acquainted with his height. I should rather 
imagine that he more resembles Bright, our fat man of 
Essex, than his countryman O'Brien, from the circum- 
stance of his being suffocated through fat. 

'* The remains of the hirgest person ever known in Ire- 
land, at least since the days of Phil Macoul, the famous 
Irish Giant, were lately interred in the church-yard of 
Roseunallis, in the Qeeen's County. The coffin, with it*, 
contents, weighed 52 stone, which amounts exactly to six 
bundred. It was borne on a very long bier, by thirty 
strong men, who were relieved at intervals. The name of 
this extraordinary person was Roger Byrne. He lived at 
or near Borros, in Ossory, and is reported to have died 
, of no other disease but a suffocation, occasioned by an 
extremity of fat, that stopped the play of the lungs, and 
put a period to his life, in the 54th year of his age. He 
was \3 stone heavier than the noted Bright, of Maldon, 
who«e waistcoat inclosed seven large ii)«n. Byrne was a 

married 



336 PATRICK 0*BRlfiN, TrfE tRISl! GIANt* 

married man, and it is remarkable his widow is a very 
small woman, by whom he has left four boys, the eldest 
not seven j^ears old^" 

It was the custom with many of our Kings to keep 
gigantic porters, among whom the following are parti- 
cularly worthy of notice4 Walter Parsons, born in the 
county of Stafford, was porter to King James I. and 
might be truly called one of the >vonders of his age, for 
be was not only two yards and a half, wanting but two 
inches high, but had a due symmetry and proportion in 
all parts of his body; his strength was equal to hia 
height, courage to his strength^ and temper to his courage ; 
he would neither boast nor sneak to any man, but would 
often take two of the tallest yeomen of the guard under 
his arms at once, and order them as he pleased* 

William Evans, a native of Monmouthshire, in Wales, 
■was porter to King Charles I. immediately after Walter 
Parsons, and may be called the giant of his time ; for he 
was two yards and a half complete, exceeding Parsons 
two inches in height, but no way equalling him in pro^ 
portion of body ; for his knees knocked together, he went 
shuffling with his feet, and was somewhat lame ; yet hfe 
once danced in an antimasque at Whitehall, and after 
scampering a while, he drew Jeffery Hudson, the Queen's 
dwarf out of his pocket, to the wonder and merriment of 
all the spectators. 

The stature of Daniel, the lunatic porter of Oliver 
Cromwell, is preserved by a circle marked on the terrace 
at Windsor Castle, by which it appears he was con- 
siderably taller than the common race of men. 

His Royal Highness the Prince of Wales, retained for 
some time in his service as porter, a native of Scotland, 
commonly called Big Sam, who was nearly eight feet 
liigh, lusty and extremely well made. This man's size 
was. in no wise inconvenieut to him, he being as agile 

as 



PERNICIOUS EFFECTS OF SPIRiTUOUS LIQUORS. 337 

as any man of six feet. He performed as a giant in the 
Romance of Cymon, at the Opera House, in the Hay- 
niarketj while the Drury-Lane company had the use of 
that house, till their own was rebuilt. His health de- 
clinhig in London he obtained permission of his Royal 
Highness to return to his native country, where he con- 
I tinned for some time in the capacity of a serjeantin the 
army. A report was propagated of his having been 
drowned in crossing some lake in Scotland, which has 
however been since contradicted. 

Having, as far as came within my knowledge, noticed 
the most remarkable of the modern giants, I shall at a 
future period, draw up from several memdraridums in my 
possession an account of the earlier ones. 

JAMES CAULFIELD. 



Wonderful effects of the immoderate use of Spirituous 

LlOUORS. 

V-'OULD any consideration have weight with the deluded 
votaries of the odious vice of excessive drinking, surely 

I the following facts must prevail upon them to abandon 
that pernicious habit. If it does not undermine their 
constitutions by slow degrees, it may probably produce 
sudden deatl), and that attended with circumstances of 
horror, capable of alarming the most indifferent. 

Howerer v.'onderful the accounts contained in the 
subsequent pages may appear, they are given on such 
authority as must remove all doubts respecting their 
truth from the minds of the most incredulous. If but 
one: victim should be rescued from the jaws of destruc- 
tion, by the perusal of t4iem, it will afford us the most 
sincere gratification. 

At Copenhagen, ia the year IG92, a woman of the 
lower class, who, for three j^ear?, had used spirituous 

ToL. H, T) u liquors 



558 PtRJJ'IClWUS EFFECTS OF SPIRITUOUS LIgtOKS. 

liquors to such an excess that she would take no other 
nourishment, having sat clown one evening on a straw 
chair to sleep, was consumed in the night-time, so that 
next morning no part of her was found, but the skull and 
the extreme joints of her fingers; all the rest of her 
body being reduced to ashes. 

The Countess Cornelia Bandi, who resided at the 
town of Cesena in Italy, aged 62, enjoyed a good state of 
health. One evening, having experienced a sort of 
drowsiness, she retired to bed, and her maid remained 
with her till she fell asleep. Next morning, when the 
girl entered to awaken her, she found nothing but the 
remains of her mistress in a most horrid condition. At 
the distance of four feet from the bed, was a heap of 
ashes, in wliich could be distinguished the legs and 
arms untouched. Between the legs lay the head, the 
brain of which, together with half of the posterior part of 
the cranium, and the whole chin had been consumed. 
Three fingers were found in the state of a coal ; the rest 
of the body was reduced to ashes, and contained no oil; 
the taliow of two candles was melted on a table, but 
the wicks still remained, and the feet of the candlesticks 
were covered with a certain moisture. The bed was not 
damaged; the bed-clothes and coverlid were thrown on 
one side, as is the case when a person gets op. The 
furniture and tapestry were covered with a moist kind 
of soot of the colour of ashes, which had penetrated into 
the drawers and dirtied the linen. This soot, having 
been conveyed to a neighbouring kitchen, adhered to the 
walls and utensils. A piece of bread in the cup-board 
was covered with it, and no dog would touch it. The in- 
fectious odour had been communicated to other apart- 
ments. It is said that the Countess Bandi had been ac- 
customed to bathe her body in camphorated spirit of 
wine. 

An 



PETINICIOUS EFFECTS OF SPIRITUOUS LIQUORS. 339 

An instance of the same kind is recorded in a letter 
of Mr. Wilmer, surgeon: — Mary Clues, aged 50, \yas 
much addicted to intoxication. Iler propensity, to this 
vice had increased after the death of her husband, which 
happened a year and a half before. For about a yciu, 
scarcely a day had passed in the course of which she did 
not drink at least half a pint of rum or aniseed ^v■ater. 
Her healtli gradually declined, and in the beginning c«f 
February she was attacked by the jaundice, and conHncd 
to her bed. Though she was incapable of much action, 
and was not in a condition to work, she still continued 
her old habit of drinking every day, and smoking a 
pipe of tobacco. The bed in which ahe lay stood paral- 
lel to the chimney of the apartment, at the distance of 
about three feet. On Saturday morning tlwi 1st. of 
^larch, she fell on the floor, and her extreme weakness 
having prevented her from getting up, she remained in 
that state till some one entered and put her to bed. The 
following night she wished to be left alone; a woman 
quitted her at half past eleven, and according to custom, 
shut the door and locked it. She had put in thehre two 
large pieces of coal, and placed a light in a candle- 
stick on a chair at the head of the bed. At half after 
five in the morning a smoke was seen issuing through the 
window, and the door being speedily broken open, some 
flames which were in the room were soon extinguished. 
Between the bed and the chimney were found the re- 
mains of the unfortunate Clues; one leg and a thigh 
Were still entire, but there remained nothing of the skin, 
the muscles and the viscera. The bones of the cranium, 
the breast, the spine, and the upper extremities were en- 
tirely calcined, and covered with a whitish efflorescence. 
The people were much surprized that the furniture had 
sustained so little injury. The side of the bed which was 
next to the chimney had suffered the most; the wood of 

u u a it. 



S40 PERNICIOUS EFFECT? OF SPIRITUOUS HQUQ?^S. 

it was slightly burnt, but the feather-bed, the ■ clothes, 
and covering \vere safe. Mr. Wilmer entered the apart- 
ineiits about two hours after it had been opened, and obr 
served that the walls and every thing in it were blacken- 
ed; that it was filled with a very disagreeable yapour, 
' but that nothing excepting the body exhibited any strong 
trace's of fire. 

The transactions of the Royal Society of London, like- 
wise furnish an instance of human combustion equally 
extraordinary. — Grace Pitt, the wife of a fishmonger in 
*£he parish of St. Clement, Ipswich, aged j^bput ,60, h,Q,d_ 
contracted a habit, which she continued for several 
'■'years, of coming down every night from her bedrroom^ 
half-dressed, to smoke a pipe. On the night of the 9tih 
of April, 1744, she got up frqm bed as usual. Her 
(laughter who slept with her did not perceive that she was 
' absent till next morning, when she awoke ; soon after 
>\^hich she put on her clothes, and going down into the 
"kitchen fourid her mother stretched out on the right side, 
with her head near the grate; the body extended on the 
*hearth, with her legs on the floor, which was of deal, 
*ii'£iving the appearance of a log of wood, consumed by a 
'ii're without apparent flame. On beholding this specta- 
'cl6, the girl ran in great haste, and poured over her 
"!Ai"bther's body sorne water contained in two large vessels 
'i*A' order to extinguish the fire ; while the foetid odour and 
*^nioke which exhaled from the body almost suffocated 
"some of the neighbours who had hastened to the girl's 
assistance. Th/g trunk was^ in sorne measure, incinerat- 
ed, and resembled a heap of coals .covered with white 
ashes. The head, the arms, the legs and the thighs had 
also participated in tlfip burning. This woman it is said 
had drank a large quantity of spirituous liquor inconse- 
quence of being overjoyed to hear that one of her daugh- 
ters" had returned from Gibraltar. There was no fire in 

the 



ACCOUNT OF THE CAMELEON. S41 

the gvate^ and the candle had burned entirely out in the 
socket of the candlestick, which was close to ber. Be- 
sides, tlicre were found, near the consumed bod}^ the 
clothes of a child, and a paper screen, which had sus- 
tained no injury by the iire. The dreas of tliis woman 
consisted of a cotton gown. 



.' j4n Account of that wonderful Animal the Cameleon, 
described hi/ 6//- George Wheeler. 

i\ EAR SMYRNA, are a great number of Cameleons, 
an animal which has some resemblance to a lizard^ but 
■, hath its back gibbous, or crooked, like a hog, and its 
•feet have two claws before and three behind, which are 
not separated from each other till near the ends. It has 
along tail like a rat, and is commonly as big, but it has 
very little or no motion with its head. The Cameleons 
are in great abundance about the old walls of the Castle, 
where they breed and lie in holes, or upon heaps of ruins. 
:,Sir George V/ heeler says, I kept two of them twenty 
•.days, durjng which he made the folhivving observations: 
"their colpur was usually green, darker towards tlie back, 
and lighter towards tlie belly, where it inclined to a yel- 
low, with spots that were sometimes rcddish_, and at 
'Others whitish 5 but the green often changed into a dark 
>colour like that of earth, without any appearance of 
green, and tlie whitish spots often vanished, but sometimes 
-turned into the same dirt colour, and at others into a 
flark purple. Sometimes, from being green all over, 
•they would be spotted with black; and when they slept 
imder a white woollen cap, they would commonly, when 
uncovered, be of a whit>^ or a cream colour; but they 
-would also turn white under a re(' cap, for they never 
turned either red or blue, though they often lay under 
those colours; but being placed upon green, they would 

become 



342 ACCOUNt OF THE CAMELEO.V. 

become green, and upon the dark earth would change so 
as exactly to resemble it. 

As our author was walking by the side of the hill near 
the old castle, he saw many that had changed themselves 
so as to resemble the colour of the speckled stone wall, 
and were grey with spots like moss. He found one on 
the top of a green bush, which, when he first observed 
it, was of a bright green; but it no sooner perceived 
that he saw it, but searching, he observed it creeping 
awav to a hole in the rock, it being changed to a dark 
brown, exactly like the earth, which was then, after a 
shower of rain, of that colour. 

The power of thus changing its colour, is given it by 
nature for its preservation; for it moves very slowly, lift- 
ing up its legs high, and not quick, as if it searched for 
hold to climb upward, which it can do very well on a 
tree, a bush, or wall. When it saw itself in danger of 
being caught, it opened its mouth, and hissed like a 
snake. 

The eyes of the Camelcon are no less wonderful than 
the variation of the colours of the body: they are large 
in proportion to the size of its head, being generally 
bigger than a pea, and covered all over with a skin of the 
same substance with the body, the grain being in circles 
just to the centre, Avhere there is an hole no bigger than 
a small pin's head, by which it receives light, which 
must make the angle of its vision very acute. The head 
being immoveable, it cannot immediately turn to ob- 
jects; but to remedy this inconvenience, it can not only- 
move its eyes backward and forward, upward and down- 
ward, but one forward, and the other backward, or one 
upward and the other downward. 

The tongue is a kind of little trunk, of a gristly sub- 
stance, about half an inch long, and hollow, joined to 
its throat by a strong membranous and fleshy substance, 

ia 



FIRST IRRUPTION OF MOUNT VESUVIUS... S4r3 

in whicl) it is sheathed when in the mouth. It will dart 
this above an inch out of its mouth, smeared with a slu- 
tinous substance, to catch flies, which stick fast to it as 
to birdlime, and so arc brought into the mouth. These 
flies are the ordinary known food of the Cameleon; but 
like other animals of a cold nature, as lizards and ser- 
pents, they will live a long time without sustenance. 

Its tail is of very great use in climbing, for it will twine 
about any thing so fast, that if its feet slip, it will sus- 
tain and recover its whole body by it. Our author put 
one which he had caught into a glass, so deep that it 
could not reach near the brim Mith its fore-feet, nor 
could take any hold with its claws, and yet it got out, 
and almost escaped from him, as he afterwards saw, by 
standing upon its forc-fcet, and raising itself up back- 
ward, till it caught hold of the brim of the glass with its 
tail, by the help of which it lifted out its whole body. 

In Guinea are many cameleons, and they are far from, 
living on air alone. 

[In our next number we shall present our readers with 
further particulars of this curious animal.] 

TO THE EBITOR Ol KIRBY's SCIENTIFIC MUSEUM. 
Sill, 
There is sometiiiag so awful and strikingly terrific, in the Younger Pliny's 
relation of the first irrruption of Vesuvius, in which the Elder Pliny was 
sulfocatcd, that 1 imagine it may be acceptable to most readers of your 
entertaining publication, particularly m ttiis description is not generally 
known. 

Yours, &c. 

S. D. 

X LINY at the time of the Irruption of Vesuvius, was 
with a fleet under his command, at Misenum, in the 
Gulf of Naples; his sister and her son, the Younger 
Pliny, being with him. On the C4th of August, in the 
year 79, about one in the afternoon, his sister desired 
biin to observe a cloud of a very unusual size and shape. 

He 



S44 FTT5ST IRHUPTIOV OF MOUNT VESUVIUS. 

He was in his stud}'; but immediately arose, and went 
out upon an eminence to view it more distinct!}'. It was 
not at that distance discernable from what mountain this 
cloud issued, but it was found afterwards to ascend from 
jNIount Vesuvius. Its figure resembled that of a pine- 
tree; for it shot up a great height in the form of a trunk, 
which extended itself at the top into a sort of branches, 
and it appeared sometimes bright, and sometimes dark 
and spotted, as it was more or less impregnated with 
earth and cinders. This was a noble phenomenon for 
the philosophic Pliny, who immediately ordered a light 
vessel to be got ready; but as he was coming out of the 
house, with his tablets for his observations, he received a 
note from Ilectina, a lady of quality, earnestly entreat- 
ing him to come to her assistance, since her villa being 
situate at the foot of Mount Vesuvius, there was no way 
for her escape, but by sea. He therefore ordered the 
gallies to put to sea, and went hi'mself on board, with 
intention of assisting not only Rectina, but others: for 
the villas stood extremely thick upon that beautiful coast. 
He steered directly to the point of danger, whence others 
fled with the utmost terror; and with so much calmness 
and presence of mind, as to be able to make and dictate 
his observations upon the motion and figure of that 
dreadful scene. He went so nigh the mountain, that 
the cinders, which grew thicker and hotter the nearer he 
approached, fell into the sliijis, together with pumice- 
stones and black pieces of burning rock: they were like- 
wise in danger, not only of being aground by the sud- 
den retreat of the sea, but also from the vast fragments 
which rolled down from the mountain, and obstructed all 
the shore. Here he stopped to consider, whether he 
should return? to which the pilot advising him, " For- 
tune," said he, *' befriends the brave ; carry me to Pompo- 
nianus." Pomponianus was then at Stabia?, a town sepa- 
rated 



FiKST IRRLPTION OF MOUNT VESUVIUS. $45 

letted by a gulf, which the sea after several windings, 
forms 'Upon that shore. He found him in the greatest 
consternation> he exhorted him to keep up his" spirits ; and 
the more to dissipate his fears, lie-ordered^ with an air 
of unconcern, the baths to be got ready; when^ aftei* 
having bathed, he sat down to supper with an apparent 
chearfulness. In the mean while the irruption from 
Vesuvius flamed out in several places wuth much vio- 
lence, which the darkness of the night contributed to? 
render still more visible and dreadful. Plin}'^ to soothe 
the apprehensions of his friend, assured him it was only, 
the burning of the villages, which the country people 
had abandoned to the flames: after this, he retired, and 
had some sleep. The Court which led to his apartment 
being in some time almost filled with stones and ashes, if 
he had ccntinued there any longer, it would have been 
impossible for him to have made his way out; it was 
therefore thought proper to awaken him. He got up, 
and went to Pomponianus and the rest of his company, 
who were not unconcerned enough to think of going to 
bed ; they consulted together, whether it would be most 
prudent to trust to the houses, which now shook from 
side to side with frequent and violent rockings ; or to fly 
to the open fields, where the calcined stones and cinders, 
tliough light indeed, yet fell in large showers, and 
threatened destruction. In this distress they resolved for 
the fields, as the less dangerous situation of the two ; 
and went out, having pillows tied upon then- heads with 
napkins, .whrch was all their defence against the storms 
of 'stones that fell around diem. It was now day every 
where else, but there a deeper-darkness prevailed than in 
the most obscure night; which, .however, was. in some 
degree dissipated by torches, and other lights of various 
kinds. 
Vol. II, X K . They 



S46 riRst iRRUptioN or mount Vesuvius. 

They thought proper to go down farther upon tho" 
^hore, to observe if they might safely put out to sea; but 
they found that the waves still ran extremely high and 
boisterous. There Pliny, taking a draught or two of wa* 
ter, threw himself down upon a cloth that was spread for 
him; when immediately the flames and a strong smell of 
sulphur, which was the forerunner of them, dispersed 
the rest of the company, and obliged him to arise. He 
raised himself, with the assistance of two of his servants, 
for he was pretty fat, and instantly fell down dead :-^ 
Suffocated, as his nephew conjectures, by some gross and 
and noxious vapour; for he had always weak lungs, and 
was frequently subject to a difficulty of breathing. As 
soon as it was light again, which was not till the third 
day after, his body was found entire, and without any. 
marks of violence upon it; exactly in the same posture 
that he fell, and looking more like a man asleep than 
dead. The sister and nephew, whom the uncle left at 
Misenum, continued there that night, but had their rest 
extremely broken and disturbed. There had been for 
many days before some shocks of an earthquake, 
which was the less surprizing, as they were always ex- 
tremely frequent in Campania; but they were so particu- 
larly violent that night, that they not only shook every- 
thing, but seemed to threaten a total destruction. When 
the morning came, the light was exceedingly faint and 
languid, and the buildings continued to totter; so that 
Pliny and his mother resolved to quit the town, and the 
people followed them in the utmost consternation. Having 
got to a convenient distance from the houses, they stood 
still, in fthe midst of a. most dangerous and dreadful 
scene. The chariots they had ordered to be drawn out, 
were soAgitated backv/ards and forwards, though upon 
the most level ground, that they could not keep them 
itedt^ct, even by supporting them with large stones. 
'"* The 



FUST IRRUPTION OF MOUNT VESUVIUS. 347 

The sea seemed to roll back upon itself, and to be driven 
from its banks by tlie convulsive motion of the earth ; it 
was certain at least, that the shore was considerably en- 
larged, and several sea animals were left upon it. On 
the other side, a black and dreadful cloud, bursting with 
an igneous serpentine vapour, darted out a long train of 
fire, resembling flashes of lightning, but much larger. 
Soon afterwards, the cloud seemed to descend, and cover 
the whole ocean ; as indeed, it entirely had the island of 
Caprea;, and the promontory of Misenum. Pliny's 
mother conjured him strongly to make his escape, which, 
being young, for he was only eighteen 3ears of age, he 
might easily do ; as for herself, her age and corpulency, 
rendered all attempts of that sort impossible: but he re- 
fused to leave her, and taking her by the hand, led her 
on. The ashes began to fall upon them, though in no 
great quantity ; but a thick smoke, like a torrent, came 
rolling after them. Pliny proposed, while they had anj^- 
light, to turn out of the high road, lest his mother should 
be pressed to death in the dark, by the crowd that followed 
them ; and they had scarcely stepped out of the path when 
utt,er darkness entirely overspread them. Nothing then 
was to be heard, says Pliny, but the shrieks of women, the 
screams of children, and the cries of men : some callin<'' 
for their children, others for their parents, others for 
their husbands, and only distinguishing each other by 
their voices ; one lamenting his own fate, another that of 
his family, some wishing to die from the very fear of 
dying, some lifting up their hands to the Gods, but the 
greater part imagining, that the last and eternal night 
was come, which was to destroy both the Gods and the 
world together. At length a glimmering light appeared, 
which however was not the return of day, but only the 
forerunner of an approaching burst of flames. The fire 
luckily fell at a distance from them ; then again Ihey 

X X 2 were 



54S PIP.ST IRRUPTION OF MOUNT VESUVIUS. 

were immerged in thick darkness, and a heavy shower of 
ashes rained upon tliem, which they were obhged every 
now and then to shak^ off to prevent being crushed and 
bruised in the heap. At length this dreadful darkness 
was dissipated by degrees, like a cloud of smoke : the real 
day returned, and even the Sun appeared, thoug'h very 
faintly, and as when an eclipse is coming on; and every 
object seemed changed, being covered over with white 
ashes, as with a deep snow. Pliny owns very frankly, 
that his support, during this terrible phicnomenon, was 
chiefly founded in that miserable, though strong conso-; 
lation, that all mankind ^yere involved in the same cala- 
mity, arid that the world itself was perishing. They re-. 
turned to Misenum, but without yel getting rid of their 
fears ; foj" the earthquake still continued, while, as was 
extremely naturj^l in such a situation, several enthusias-r 
tic people ran up and down, heightening their own and 
their friends calamities by terrible predictions. 

This event ha[)pened A. D. 79, in the first year of the 
Emperor Titus; and was probably the first irruption of 
Mount Vesuvius, at least of any consequence, as it is 
certain we have no particular accounts of any preceding 
irruption. Dio, indeed, and other nncient authors, speak 
of this as burning before; but still they describe it as co- 
vered with trees and vines, so that the irruptions must 
have been inconsiderable. Martial has an epigram upon 
this subject, in which he gives us a view of Vesuvius, as 
it appeared before this terrible conflagration broke out. 
Mr. Melmpth's translation runs thu^ : 

" Here verdant Vines o'erspreiul "\'c-invinb' Side?:, 
The (ienernu> Grape here pour'd her purple Tides; 
This Bacchus IdvM beyond his nati\e Scpne, 
Here dancins: Satyrs joy'd to trip tlie Green. 
Far more than Sparta this in A'enus' Grace, 
And great Alrides once renowu'd the place; 
Now tlaminsi embers spread dire waste iironnd. 
And gods regret that god? can thub confound." 

LOCAL , 



( 349 ) 

LOCAL SINGULARITIES OF A DISTRICT IN YORKSHIRE. 

The following Particulars are extracted from a Manuscript of John Wat- 
son, Esq. who, about the Year 1730, resided at Malton, in Yorkshire. 

, U PON the middle of Bramham Moor, a man may 
see ten miles romid him; within those ten miles^ there 
is as much freestone as wiU build ten cities as large as 
York, and York is supposed to be as large as London 
within the walls. — Within those ten miles is as much 
good oak-t'mber as will build those ten cities — within 
those ten miles there is as much limestone, and coals to 
burn it into lime, as will build those ten cities. There 
is also as much clay and sand, and coals to burn them 

tnto bricks and tile, as will build those ten cities 

Within those ten miles, there are two iron forges, suffi- 
cient to furnish iron to build those ten cities, and 10,000 
tons to spare. — Within those ten miles, there is lead suf- 
ficient, and 10,000 fodder to spare. — Within those ten 
miles, there is a good coal seam, sufficient to furnish 
those ten cities with firing for 10,000 years, — Within those 
ten miles, are three navigable rivers, Ouse, Ware, antf 
Wharfe, at the foot of which a man may take shipping 
and sail to any part of the world. — Vv^ithin those ton 
miles, are seventy gentlemens'iiouscs, ail keeping coaches, 
and the least of them an esquire; and ten parks and fo- 
rests well stocked with deer. — Within those ten miles, 
there are ten maiket-towns, each of which may be sup- 
posed to return 10,(X)0/. per week." 



EXTRAORDINARY CHARACTER. 

IN the month of March, 1803, died, at her house in 
St. Petei's-itreet, Canterburv, Mrs. Celestina Collins^ 

widow. 



S50 EXTRAORDINARY CHAEACTEE. 

widow, aged 70 years. Although possessing an inconie 
of 70l. per annum, her habits of Hfe were singularly 
disgusting; her disposition and peculiarities were so ec- 
centric, that she may be truly said to have verified the 
old adage, " De gustibus nil dhputandum.*' During 
many years, her constant companions were from l6 to 
20 fowls, whose excrements defiled not only her bed^ 
and every article of her furniture, but even the plate out 
of which she ate. A favorite cock, whose age might 
be calculated from his spurs, which were three inches 
long, and an equally favoured rat, were, for a length of 
time, constant attendants at her table, each partaking of 
the fragments which even her penury shared with them; 
till, one day, the rat, not preserving due decorum to- 
wards his rival, met his death from the hands of his mis- 
tress. Her predilection for vermin was such, that, at 
her death, a nest of mice was found in her bed. The 
house, in v/hich she re-sided, contained, besides the room 
in which she constantly lived and slept, two others, that 
had not been permitted to be opened for man^jr years. 
Among the bequests in her will, were 50/. to the Kent 
and Canterbury hospital; the same sum to the parish of 
St. Peter ; ol. to the Minister of the parish, for a funeral 
sermon, and one guinea to each of the persons who 
should carry her to the grave, besides many other lega- 
cies, generally to persons in no degree related to her. 
•^-^••^••^^^-^^.^.^^ 

De&cription of a remarkabiT/ savage T'RI'bEj inhabiting 
the Valley of Slosella, in Dalmatia. 

1 HE scenery of the valley of Slosella is frightful, on 
account of the aridity of the mountains, their deep clefts 
and the sterility of the soil, or rather dust, which collects 
in thejf crevices. In this corner of the earth, vegetates 
a Tribe, the most brutalized and destitute of understand- 

in» 



SAVAGE TRIBE IN DALMATIA. S51 

ing of any in all Dalmatia, or perhaps on the whole con- 
tinent. This truly degraded tribe possesses no instinct 
but that of destruction. In the district inhabited by it, 
not a blade of corn, not a fruit tree, shrub or useful 
plant of any description is to be seen ; these senseless 
and improvident wretches tear up every thing that the 
earth is inclined to produce for their nourishment. As an 
instance of their inconceivable imbecility, while they 
destroy trees, grain, und even grass, they shew respect 
to thorns, thistles and briars, so that, having madly de- 
prived themselves of every vegetable capable of furnish- 
ing the means of protracting their deplorable existence, 
they are obliged to feed upon insects, fish, or muscles, 
which the sea casts on their shores, or which the compas- 
sion of the fishermen of the neighbouring paits bestows 
upon their disgusting indigence. Without industry, 
care, energy, aii^d probably even ideas, they sit the whole 
day at the doors of their miserable huts or on the rock* 
which surround them. Their features are haggard, their 
complexions tanned by the Sun, and darkened with mi- 
sery. Their looks are expressive of fear; their hair 
black and flowing, their habits of body meagre, their 
limbs slender and proportioned. They are more timid 
than wicked, more brutal than ferocious; the most simple 
ideas never reach their minds! they are incapable alike of 
comprehending, recollecting, or imitating, and do notseem 
to imagine that any thing in the world can be either useful, 
convenient, or agreeable. It would be aninsult to human 
nature to call them savages ; they possess neither their 
candour, simplicity, courage, nor spirit of independence. 
Savages are the first link in the grand chain of man- 
kind, and these people appear to be the last. Their origin 
is unknown, but they are said to have been at one time 
formidable to the Turks. They may probably be 
some wretched remnant of the Uscoques, who being held' 

in 



352 ACCOUNT CF THE MAN WITH THE IRON MASK» 

in general detestation, aud being reduced by the change 
of war, or other calamities, have lost for ever, under 
the lash of of terror, botli the sensation of their misfor- 
tunes and of their misery ; in whom not only the dignity 
of human nature, but likewise the faculties of the under- 
tlandinc:. toijether with reason itself are cxtin2;uished. 

Such are the observations of M. Cassas ; and they agree 
with those made on these people by the Abbe Fortis, who 
says: "Notwithstanding the abundance and variety of 
the fish cast in various seasons of the year on the strand 
of Slosella, the indolent inhabitants neglect every me- 
thod by which they might be turned to advantage. They 
are contented to live from hand to mouth, and devour 
without bread, and frequently without any kind of pre- 
paration all the fish they take. In spring these silly 
peasants live entirely upon cuttle-fish. They catch them 
bv immersing in the water branches of trees, to ^^hich 
tiiis fish adheres for the purpose of depositing its spawn; 
and if, to procure even this sustenance, a more compli- 
cated contrivance were necessary, I believe thev'^ would 
starve, rather than take the trouble to employ it. They 
arc equally enemies to their own weliare, and that of 
others; so that to prevent the introduction of large fish- 
ing nets by their lord, they rolled large stones into all 
the deep waters near the shore, where they would have 
been of infinite advantage to them." 



A71 Accou7it of the Birth aud Education of the unfortu" 
note Prince, zc'ho zcas secluded from Society hi) Cardi" 
?uih Richelieu cr^t/MAZARiN ; aud afterwards impri-^ 
soncd hij order of Lewis tlic xi\th. 

[From Memoircs du Slarcchal Due de Richelieu, Stc] 

1- HE unfortunate Prince whom I have brought up, and 
taken care of till the close of my life, was born Septem- 
ber 



ACCOUNT OF THE MAN WITH THE IRON MASK. 35S 

ber 5, l638^ at half past eight. His brother, the present 
sovereign, was born in the morning of the same day, 
about twelve o'clock. But the births of these princes 
presented a striking contrast, for the eldest's was as splen- 
did and brilliant as the ^^ouugcst's was melanchol}' and 
private. 

The King, soon after the queen was safely delivered of 
the first prince, was informed by the midwife, that her 
majesty was still in labour. This intelligence alarmed 
him greatly, and he ordered the chancellor of France, 
the fiist almoner, the queen's confessor, and myself, to 
remain in her a[)artment till she was delivered, as he 
wished us to be witnesses of the steps which he meant to 
take, if she gave birth to another dauphin; for it had 
been foretold by some shepherds, that the queen was 
pregnant with two sons ; they also reported, that they 
had obtained this knowledge by divine inspiration. This 
report was soon circulated through Paris, and the people, 
alarmed by it, loudly asserted, that if this prediction 
should be verified, it would eause the total ruin of the 
state. The archbishop of Paris was soon informed of 
these transactions, and after conversing with the divines, 
ordered the shepherds to be closely confined in the pri- 
son of Lazarus; for the serious effect their prophecy 
had produced in tlie minds of the people, had given the 
king some uneasiness, because it made him reflect on the 
disturbances he had to fear in his kingdom.. He inform- 
ed the cardinal of this prediction, who in his answer said, 
that the birth of two dauphins was not impossible, and 
that if the peasants' prophecy should be realized, the 
last-born must be concealed with the greatest care, as he 
might, when he grew up, conceive that he had a right to 
the crown, and cause another league in the kingdom. 

During the queen's second labour, which lasted seve- 
ral hours, the king was tormented by bis appreliensions. 
Vol. II. Y Y for 



S54 ACCOUNT OF THE MAN WITH THE IRON MASK. 

for he felt a strong presentiment, that he should soon be 
the father of two dauphins. He desired the bishop of 
Meaux not to leave the queen till she was delivered, and 
afterwards turning to us all, said, sufficiently loud to be 
beard by the queen, that if another dauphin should be 
born, and any of us should divulge the secret, our heads 
should answer for it: for, added he, his birth must be a, 
secret of state, to prevent the misfortunes which would 
evidently follow the disclosure; as the salic law has 
been silent concerning the inheritance of a kingdom, oh 
the birth of male twins. 

The event, which had been foretold, soon after arrived, 
for the queen, whilst the king was at supper, gave birth 
to a second son much smaller and handsomer than the 
first ; and the poor infant, by his incessant cries, seemed 
to lament his entrance into a world where so much misery 
was in store for him. The chancellor then drew up the 
verbal-process of this cxtraordary event, but the king 
not approving of the first, it was burnt in our presence, 
and it was not till after he liad written a great many that 
his majesty was satisfied. The first almoner endea- 
voured to persuade the king, that he ought not to conceal 
the. birth of a prince; to which his majesty replied, that 
a reason of .-^tate absolutely required the most inviolable 
.secrecy. 

The king soon after dictated the oath of secrecy 
which he desired us all to sign; when this important 
business was concluded, lie sealed the oath to the verbal 
process, and took possession of it. The royal infant was 
then given into the hands of the midwife; but, to deter 
her from revealing the secret of its birth, she was me- 
naced with death if she ever gave the least hint of it; 
we were all, likewise, strictly charged not even \o con- 
verse with each other on the subject. 

His majesty drcadfd notiiing so much as a civil war, 

«.nd 



ACCOUNT OF THE MAN WITH THE IRON MASK. 355 

and he thought that the dissentions which would cer- 
tainly occur between the two brothers, if they were 
brought up as such, would certainly occasion one; the 
cardinal, also, when he was invested with the superinten- 
dence of the prince's education, did every thing in his 
power to keep this apprehension alive. 

The king ordered us to examine carefully the poor 
child's body, to see if he had any marks by which he 
might hereafter be known, if his brother should die ; for 
the king always purposed, in that case, to put the royal 
infant in possession of his rights ; for this reason, after 
having made us all sign the verbal-process, he sealed it 
with the royal seal. 

During the infancy of the young prince, Madame Pe- 
ronnette, the midwife, treated him as if he were hei- own 
son; but from her great care and manner of living, 
every one suspected that he was the illegitimate son of 
some rich nobleman. 

As soon as the prince's infancy was over. Cardinal 
Mazarin, on whom his education had devolved, con- 
signed him to my care, with orders to educate him in a 
manner suitable to the dignity of his birth, but in private. 
Mad. Peronnette continued to attend him, in my house 
in Burgundy, till her death ; and they were warmly at- 
tached to each other. 

I had frequent conversations with the queen during 
the subsequent disturbances in this kingdom; and her 
majesty has often said to me, that if the prince's birth 
should be discovered during the life of the young king, 
his brother, the mal-contents would, she feared, take 
advantage of it to raise a revolt among the people; ior, 
she added, that it was the opinion of many able physi 
cians, that the last-born of twins was the first conceived," 
and of course the eldest. This fear did not, however, 
prevent the queen from preserving, with the greatest 

y V <Z care. 



556 ACCOUNT OF THE MAN WITH THE IRON MASK. 

care, the written testimonies of the prince's birth; for 
she intended, if any accident had befallen his brother, 
to have recognised him, though she had another son. ' 

The young prince received as good an education, as I 
could have wished to have received mj'self in similar 
circumstances; and a better one than was bestowed on 
the acknowledged princes. 

When he was about nineteen, his desire to know who 
he was increased to a great degree, and he tormented 
me with continual solicitations to make him acquainted 
with the author of his existence ; the more earnest 
he was, the more resolute ^^ere my refusals ; and when 
he saw that his entreaties did not avail, he endeavoured 
to persuade me that he thought he was my son. Often 
when he called me by the tender name of father, did 1 
tell him that he deceived himself; but, at length, seeing 
that he persevered in this opinion, I ceased to contra- 
dict him, and gave him reason to believe that he was 
really my son. He appeared to credit this, with a view, 
no doubt, of forcing me by these means to reveal the 
truth to him; as I afterwards learned that he was, at 
that very time doing all in his power to discover who he 
was.' 

Two years elapsed in this manner, when an imprudent 
«ction, for which I shall ever reproach myself, revealed 
to him the important secret of his birth. He knew that 
I had received, at that time, mciny expresses from the 
king; and this circumstance, probabi}'', raised some 
doubts in his mind, which he sought to clear up by 
opening my scrutoirc, in which I had imprudently left 
many letters from the queen and the cardinal. He read 
them; and their contents, aided by his natural penetra- 
tion, discovered the whole secret to him. 

I observed about this time, that his manners were 
quite changed, for instead of treating me with that affec- 
tion 



ACCOUNT OF THE MAN WITH THE lEON MASK. 35? 

tion and respect which I was accustomed to receive from 
him, he became surly and reserved. This alteration at 
first surprised me, but I too soon learnt the cause. 

My suspicions were first roused by his asking me, with 
great earnestness, to procure him the portraits of the 
late and present king, I told him in answer, that there 
had been no good resemblances of cither drawn yet; 
and that I would wait till some eminent painter should 
execute their pictures. 

This reply, which he appeared extremely dissatisfied 
with, was followed by a request to go to Dijon: the ex- 
treme disappointment he expressed on being refused, 
alarmed me, and from that moment I watched his mo- 
tions more closely. I afterwards learnt that his motive 
for wishing to visit Dijon was, to see the king's picture; 
he had an intention also of going from ihence to the 
court, that was then kept at St. Jean-de-Luz, to see, and 
compare himself with his brother. 

The young prince was then extremely beautiful; and 
he inspired such an affection in the breast of a young 
chambermaid, that, in defiance of the strict orders which 
all the domesticks had received, net to give the prince 
anything he required without my permission, she pro- 
cured him the king's portrait, 

As soon as the unhappy prince glanced his eye on it, 
he was forcibly struck by its resemblance to himself; and 
well he might, for one portrait would have served for 
them both. — This sight confirmed all his doubts, and 
made him furious. lie instantly flew to me, exclaim- 
jng, in the most violent passion. This is the king! and I 
am his brother: here is an undeniable proof of it. He 
then shewed me a letter from Cardinal Mazarin that he 
had stolen out of my scrutoirc, in which his birth was 
mentioned. 

I now feared that he would contrive means to escape to 

the 



558 ACCOUNT or the man ■with TItE IRON MASK. 

the court duifing the celebration of his brother's nup- 
tials ; and to prevent this meeting, which I greatly dread- 
ed, 1 soon after seni a messenger to the king to inform 
him of the prince's having broken open my scrutoire; by 
ivhich means he bad discovered the secret of his birth ; 
1 also informed hi in the effect this discovery had pro- 
duced in ills mind. On the receipt of this ^Mter, his 
Majesty instantly ordered us both to be imprisoned. The 
cardinal was charged witli this order ; and at the Sxime 
lime acquainted the prince, t'nat his improper conduct 
•was the cause of our common misfortune. 

I Inive continued from that time till this moment a 
fellow prisoner with the priu'-e ; and now feeling that the 
awful sentence to depart this life has been pronounced by 
my heavenly Judge, I can no longer refuse to <;alm both 
my own mind and my pupil's, by a candid declaration of 
this important fact, which may enable him to extricate 
himself from his present ignominious state, if the king 
should die without issue. Ought I to be obliged by a 
forced oath to keep a secret inviolably, with which poste- 
rity ought to be acquainted ■ 

This is the historical memoir which the regent delivered 
to the princess : it does not, indeed, certify that this prince 
was the prisoner known by the name of the iron-mask, 
but all the foregoing facts agree so well with the extra- 
ordinary anecdotes related of this mysterious pca'sonage, 
that it appears beyond contradiction, that this memoir 
fills up the vacuum relative to the beginning of his life. 
I will therefore sulyoinsome of the authentick anecdotes 
which have been given to the publick of the Iron Mask, 
since he arrived with Mr. de Saint-Mars at the state pri- 
son in the Lde Sainte Marguerite. 

I'he first person who inentions the Iron-mask is an 
anon^'mons author, in a work entitled, Memoirs ol the 
Court of Persia; he related many authei\liek anecdotes, 

respect u\i^ 



ACCOtINT OF THE MAN WITH THE IRON MASK. 359 

respecting the prisoner, but is totally mistaken in his 
conjectures concerning his r^nk. These memoirs no 
sooner appeared, than a crowd of literary men endea- 
voured to prove who this prisoner was whose extraordi- 
nary treatment had excited such universal curiosity. One 
asserted that he was the Duke of Beaufort, who was cer- 
tainly killed by the Turks whilst he was defending Can- 
dia, in the year 1699. For in the first place it is well 
known that the Iron-mask was in confinement at Pigne- 
jol belbre he came to the Isle Saint JNlarguerite, in the 
year l6G2: besides, how was it possible for the duke to 
be stolen from his army so secretly as to escape disco- 
very? For what reason also was he imprisoned? and why 
was it necessary for him to be constantly masked ? Others 
contested, that the prisoner was the Count Vermandois, 
a natural son of Louis the XlVth, who died publicly of 
the small-pox in \6SS. Another author contended, that 
he was the duke of Monmouth, v.ho was beheaded at 
London in l67o : even allowing it possible that Louis 
would have consented to imprison the Duke to oblige 
king James, is it probable that he would have continued 
the pleasing office of jailor, after his death, to oblige a 
sovereign with whom he was at war ? 

All these chijneras are now dissipated by this impor- 
tant relation ; and the uncommon precautions whicli 
were used to conceal the face of the man in the iron- 
mask, is a further proof that he was the identical prince 
mentioned in tlie memoirs; for he was never permitted 
to walk in the court of the Bastille without his mask : 
which he was forbiddcR to take off, even in the presence 
of his physicians. Would this precaution have been 
taken, if his face hud not been a striking likeness of one 
well known throughout all France ? and what face could 
this be but that of his brother, Louis the XlV'fh, to 
whom this unfortunate prince bore so great a resemblance 

that 



360 ACCOUNT OF THE MAN WITH THE IRON MASK. 

that a slight glance of hhn, it was feared, would have 
Letrayed the secret which was so ardently wished to be 
concealed? Wh}', also, had he an Italian name given 
-him, though he had no foreign accent? for in the regis- 
ter of his burial at St. Paul's church he is called Marchi- 
ali. Voltaire seems to have been the only writer who 
was acquainted with the mystery of this extraordinary 
prisoner's birth ; though, notwithstanding he related 
manv autheritick anecdotes of him, he carefully concealed 
it. 

We will now give the reader a succinct account of the 
man in the iron mask, extracted from the writings of 
Voltaire, and many other eminent authors. A few 
months after the death of cardinal Mazarin, a young 
prisoner arrived at the Isle of Sainte Marguerite, 
whose appearance excited universal curiosity; his man- 
ners were graceful and dignified, his person above the 
middle size, and his face extremely handsome. On the 
way thither he constantly wore a mask made with iron 
springs, to enable him to eat without taking it off. It 
was, at first, believed that this mask was made entirely 
of iron, from whence he acquired the name of the man 
with the iron mask. His attendants had received orders 
to kill him, if he attempted to take off his mask, or dis- 
cover himself. 

The prisoner remained in this isle till the year 169O, 
when the governor of Pignerol being promoted to the 
government of the Bastille, conducted him to that for- 
tress. In his way thither, he stopped with him at his 
estate near Palteau. Tiie prisoner arrived there in a 
iitier, surrounded by a numerous guard on horseback. 
Mr. de Saint Mars ate at the same table with him 
all the time they resided at Palteau; but the latter 
was always placed with his back towards the win- 
dows ; and the peasants, w horn curiosity kept con- 
stantly 



AN' ACCOUNt OF THE MAN WITH THE IKON MASK. SGl 

stantlv on the watch, observed that Mr. de Saint Mars 
always sat apposite him with two pistols by the side 
of his plate. They were waited on by one servant 
only^ who received the dishes in the anti-chamber_, and 
always shut the dining-room door carefully after him 
when he went out. The prisoner was always masked, 
even when he passed through the court; the governor 
also slept in a bed in the same room with him. In the 
course of their journey, the iron-mask vas, one day, 
heard to ask his keeper, whether the king had any de- 
sign on his life? No, my prince, he replied, provided 
that you allow yourself to be conducted without oppo- 
sition, your life is perfectly secure. The s: ranger was ac- 
commodated as well as it was possible to be in the Bas- 
tile; and every thing he expressed a desire for waa in- 
stantly procured him. He was particularly partial to 
fine linen, which did not proceed from vanity, for he 
was really in want of it; because his constant confine- 
ment, and sedentary life, had rendered his skin so deli- 
cate, that, unless his linen Avas extremely fine, it incom- 
moded him, 

He was also fond of playing on the guitar. He never 
complained of his confinement, nor gave a hint of his 
rank. The tones of his voice were uncommonly pleas- 
ing and interesting. 

He was served constantly in plate; and the governor 
always placed his dishes on the table himself} and when 
he entered, or retired, he locked the door after him. He 
tutoiyoit (theed and thoued) the governor, who, on the 
contraiy, treated him with the greatest respect, and 
never wore his hat, or sat down in his presence, unless 
he was desired. 

Whilst he resided at Sainte Marguerite, he wrote his 
name on a plate, and threw it out of his window towards 
a. boat lying at the foot of the tower. A fisherman picked 

Vol. H. 2 2 it 



SGQ. an account of the man ^ITIl-AN IRON MASK. 

it up, and carried it to the governor. He was alarmed 
at the sight of it; and asked the man with great anxiety, 
whether he could read, and whether any one else had 
seen the plate? I cannot read, rephed the fisherman; 
and no one else has seen the plate, as I have this instant 
found it. The man was, however, kept till the governor 
was well assured of the truth of his assertions. 

He made another attempt to make himself known^ 
which was e(;ually unsuccessful. A young man, who 
lived in the isle, one day perceived something floating 
under the prisoner's window, and on picking it up, he 
discovered it to be a very fine shirt, written all over. He 
carrried it immediately to the governor, who, after un- 
folding it, appeared in the greatest consternation. He 
enquired of the young man whether he had had the 
curiosity to read what was written on it? He answejcd 
no; but notwithstanding this reply, he was found, a few 
days after, dead in his bed. 

The fate of the Iron^mask excited great curiosity; and 
i. young officer, who visited Mr. de Saint Mars, when 
he resided at Sainte Marguerite, was so desirous to see 
him, that he bribed a sentinel, who was stationed in a 
gallery under the prisoner's window, to let him take his 
place for a shorf time. — He had a perfect view of him 
from thence, as he was then without his mask. His face 
was fair and handsome; and his person tall, and finel/ 
formed. His hair was perfectly grey, though he wasonl^ 
in the flower of his age. He bpent the whole night if 
walking up and down the room. 

Father Griflet, in his Journal of the Bastile, sfiys, 
that on the 8th of September, I698, INlr. de Saint Mars, 
newly-created governor of that fortress, made his first 
entrance into it, bringing with him an ancient pri- 
soner, whom he had taken care of at Pigncrol, and at 
the lale Sainte Marguerite. His ua*ue was not meutioned, 

aad 



AN ACCOUNT O' Till: MAN WITH AN IIJON MASK. ."O.) 

and 1)0 \\as kept coiislaiitlv masked. Au aparliruiit uas 
pr('[>aied (or liiiii, bv ortlcr of the govcMior, Lxlore liis 
arrival, litted up in the iu(i>l coiivciiieiit style. V\ hen 
he was allowed to jjo to iiia^s, he was strictly lorbiddcii 
to s[)eak', (jr uiienver lii-> lace; and orders were liiveii to 
the suldieis to lire upon hin» il" he attempted cither. A:i 
lie passeil t!iroiii;li the (.•oiut^ their jiieccs were aiwavs 
pointed towards iiiin. 

'iliis nnrortiniatc [)rinee died the I'llhot" Novcmher, 
17():Jj alter a short illness, and was buried in St. Patd's 
rhurch. The ex[)eiicc «jf hi^ fmieral amounted onh' to 
forty livrcs. His real natne and iiij;c wcne concerded IVoiii 
the priests who buried him; <"(>r, in the r<>t;ister made 
ol" his Juneral^ it was mentione<l, that he was about (orty 
years old; and he luul told his aj^j'. becary, .some time 
bf^fore his death, that he thought he must be sixty. 

It is a well-kii<nvn iael, that every thinq which he liad 
r.sed was, aiter his tie. ■th, burnt and destroyed ; even to 
llie donrs ct" his prison. Ills plate was iiK.'lted down; 
and the walls ol his chamber wtfre scrapi^d and wliito 
wa>lied. Nay, such was the I'ear ol" his having left a 
letter or any mark, wliicdi might lead to discover wiio he 
was, that the vei v Moor of his room was taken up, and 
the ceiling taken down. In short, every corner was 
searched into, that no trace might remain of him. 

The result of these extraordinary accounts is, that the 
iron-mask must havr" been a person of great consequence; 
and what i)erson enuld have been of suflicicnt consr- 
quence, excepting this prince, to give rise to the above- 
mentioned precautions to prevent any discovery of 
his face and rank. Tor, on the slightest piobabilitv of 
a, dis(M)very, the governor expressed the greatest con- 
sternation; and the eHeelual steps which he took to 
silence all thosi- who were so unfortunate as in liiul am- 
Vhing on which the poor prisoner had writteu, wai ano- 

z z ii fh,:^ 



:3t»t ACCOl'NT OF A MURDER I.N r 1;1P1M,E.C, ATE PARISH. 

ther stiiking proof thai his beiiiL^ oonrcalod u:is oi' the. 
iitinosi coiiso<pic:icc to the king and the minir,tiy. 



jln Accuunf, 6)C. of <t Mvkder, conDnlitcd in CiIipple- 
GATE pAiusii, Dec. 1'), Kifjo, related by Mr, Smi- 
iiiiES, Curat < nj thai Pari^/i, and attested h\j jJk. 

rO"WLr.K, iiu-.l }l,':://Cp .''/■ G LOVC>:5.TEU. 

i. IlRl-.r. nw/A I iiiiic to aMr. Slockcicn's house in tlio 
fvouinu, aiiu c.'.llod jor urii:k, and staid kite, thouuU 
JNJr. Stoc'kd'ju cK.-iird thom lo be gone. As lie s.it in hi^ 
I hail", cue of thcr.i cried come, and imnicdiaiely seized 
him, and i\Iary Footman hii kinswoman and house- 
kee[)er, l)Ound her, and thrust a handkcMchiel' into her 
mouth ; two ul" liiem .-;tr::nglcd ^ir. Sloekden with a iin- 
iicn cloth, si ruck him willi tlie lock of a pistol on tlic 
forehead, and kilUd him. They took what money and 
{date they could Hml. 

Soon after .Mr. Stockden appeared to IVIrs Greenwood^ 
a neighbour (in a drtum) and shewed her a Imuse in 
Thames Street, where Mriynaid one of the murderers 
■was ; the next morning slie went and en([uired for iiim, 
and was inlonnt.d he was just gone out. Mr. Stockdeu 
appeared again, and described him, and told her a AVire- 
drawcr must take him; one of thiu trade, and his inti- 
mate, was ;ic eordingly I'ound, w ho lur a rewaYd of Ten 
Pounds wTij [ne ailed upon to umlertake it: uj)on which 
he v/as taken, .\;id c;;.. . • > Newgate, confessed the 
fact, and impeached t... others. Marsh, Bcvil, and 
Mercer. jViarsh, though ;.ot present at the murder, was 

lie setter on, and liaila share of the booty; antl hearing 
of the iiifurmatioii against him, ran auay. 

.Mr. Stoekden a[)j)earc'd again to Mr.-*. Greenwood, and 
led her to a lioiu-c in Old ^irt^ J, hewed lier a.})air of 

ttairs. 



P1.K20NS Dr.SlUOYEU B V INTERNAL FinE. 305 

-Uiif'^.^ ;tiul lohl her one of tlicm Iodised tluTc. Thithcc 
tlie iicxL moniiiiijj she went, lie;inl of liiiiij and hy [)ur- 
i;uiiii)- IVoni phiu'.' b) |>hice, M;ii.-;h was lukcii, 

Jievi! \v;is d;'^e!,•\\M^ '. in '.I'-.c I/Uiiiijc i \>\ Mrs. Ci'kx iiwo.i'i 
t]ic;ui)i!)^- tiiat Ml. S :,' Kcica hud her ovei' the bridL^e, up 
f lie Ijoroi;::!) i.;Lo a y;u<i. 'rhereii|>()n she went the nexi (]dj 
io llrj Mi\.i>\:\.\y"a, \vh(,i',' siu; found him, heln^- l)i()ii;j,ht 
liiilh^r fur eulni;!^'; lie was reiuovc ! io 2Se\V'.;aLf, and 
<:oiii"cs:'>ed lite iaet, 

?»lereer d I not. consenL to llie niurdiT of Mr. Stoek- 
den, aiiJ ■:■. a\ the lile of Mrs FooUnan ; jk.-i did 

lS\i>.. "'.ccnw.. .1 dream a.nv thini; eoneerninq, him. lie 
beeame evidenee and escaped ; tlu oihij" three were exe- 
cuted. xMu-r this ^[r. Stoek I. ii came lo licr and said, 
" ClizabeLh, 1 ihank ihce, the (Jod of Heaven reward 
thce, for what thou hast dune!" alter whieh bho rep'jsed 
(|uiet. 



rAniiii;R accl>\ nt or i'lk^ons uEsiuoviiD hy init.i..- 

N \1. !■ IKK. 

ICojicluilt'ilfrom Page 341.] 

IN a ^leuioir on spontaneous burnin'^, Le Cat mcntion.5 
several otlier instances of condjustion of the huuKiii 
body. Having, says he, spent several months at llheinis 
in tlic years J7'24, and 17-J, 1 lodged at the house of 
Sieur Millet, whcse wile got inloxieated every day. 
Tiie domestic concerns of the family were managed by a 
pretty liandsoine young girl, Wj[iieh 1 must not omit lo 
remark, in order tiiat all the circumstances wiiich I am 
about to reiale mav be betit r undeisiood. 'lliis woman 
V. aa found consnmed (ju the 'iOih of l'e!)iiiary, 17 --"i, ^it 
the distance ci" a foot and a lialllrs^i:! the hearth in her 
kitcix.'M. A pair of her head only, uilh a portion ol the 
lower <'x;iemities. and a lew of liie verlebrx. hail cse.i])- 



ed combustion. A fowL and a half ol" tlic flooriug under 
the bodv had bceu consumed ; but a kneading-trough 
find a tlour-tnli wnich ucre very near tlic body su^Tuincd. 
no injiirv. M. Chiiteen, a surgeon, examined the re- 
main? ot' the body with every judicial formahty, Jeaji 
]\liUet, tb.c husband, being interrogated ])y tlie Judges, 
who instituted the enquiry into the affair, deehnred, that 
about ci'jht in the evening of the jfjih of Tebruary, he 
had retired lo rest with his wife, who not being able to 
slcpp, had gone into the kitchen, where he thought she 
\v;!S warming herself; that having fallen asleep, he was 
wakcn*'d ulxmt two o'clock by an infectious odour, and 
tiiat having run to the kitchen, he found the remains of 
his >\ife in the state described in the re[)ort of the physi- 
cians and surgeons. The judges having no suspicion of 
the real cause of this event, prosecuted the all air with 
the utmost diligence. It was very unfoitunate for Mil- 
let, that he had a handsome servant maid, lor neither 
]]is [irobitj- nor innocence was able to save hiui fiom the 
.'^iis^ncion of having got rid of his wife by a concerted 
plot, and of having arranged the circumstances in such 
a manner as to give it th(" appearance of an acculent. 
lie experienced, therefore, the whole severity of the 
hiwi and though by an appeal to a superior and very en- 
lightened court, which discovered the cause of ihe com- 
bustion, he came ofl' vicloritnis, he suffered so much 
iioia uneasiness of mind that he was obliged to ^ass the 
remainder of his melancholy days in a hospital. 

Another instanc'e almost exactly similar to the preced- 
ing is also related by Le Cat. M. Boineau, cure of 
l'ler(pier Tiear Dol, bays he, wrote to me the following 
letter, dated Tv-hruary 22, 1749. — Allow me to commu- 
nicate tu you a fact which took place here about a fort- 
nigl'.t ago, Madame de Boiseon, eighty years of age, 
exceedingly meagre, who luul d/unk nothing but spirits 

for 



PERSONS Di^TUOTM; UY INTT-RNAL fJltr, 5^)7 

f<>r several years, wassittinu in lur elbow cliair luforL' tlie 
lire, .vhile licr wailin^-inaicl unit out of llie loom a lew 
moiiifiits. ()\i liei leLiini, seeing lier ini>lre>s on lire, slu.' 
iinincdiaU'lygave an alarui,aiKl scjiuc j)eo|)le havhiLJi; come 
lolier assistance, one of them enrleavourefl to ext;ii^uis|i 
the Haiues with liia hands, but they adhered to it as it" ihcy 
had been di[)()ed in brandy or oil on lire. AV'aler was 
Lruught and thrown on the lady in abundance, yet thti 
fire ajipeared more violent, and was not extinguishcrl liU 
she was all eonsiuned. lier skeleton, exeee<lin^ly b!a<;k, 
remained entire in the chair, which was onl\' a lift'e 
■jcorelied,- one leu; onlv mul the two isands (letaeh':-d 
themselves Irom the rest of the bones. It is not kn(j\\ a 
whether lier clothes cauL;ht fire by a()[)roaelMni; the 
gra*v.. The lady was in the same place in which she saL 
eve.v day; there was no extraordinary lire, and r,he had 
Hot tallen. What makes me su[)pose that the u<e of 
spirits might I'.ave prcniuced this effect, is that 1 Jiave 
been assuied, tliat at the gate of Dinan an accident of 
the like kind iia]>pcned to another woinan^ under similar 
circumstances. 

To the above wc shall add two other faet^ of the same 
kind published in the Journal dc MctUcine (Vol. Oy. p. 
440.) The first took j)laee at Aix in Provence, and i-; 
thus related by Mnraire a sur^^eon : In the month of Fe- 
bruary 1770, Mary JaulFrct, widow of Nicholas Gravicr, 
shoemaker, a short woman, but exceedingly corpulent, 
and addicted to drinking, having been buined iu her 
tipartment, my colleague, M. Hocas, who was com- 
missioned to make h re])ort respecting her body, found 
nothing but a mass of ashes and a few bones, calcincc* 
in such a manner, that on the least pressure tliey we* 
reduced to dust. The bones of the craniunj, one Ir'*^ 
ajid a foot Lad in part ticaped th(j acLiou oi" djf ^'^^' 

Ne*<r 



)GH 



I'lajsoNs ur.5Ti;ovr.D wv i :> t l iiN a i. riRK, 



Xcur llicsc remains stood a tai>le iiiitouclu-clj and iuh'lv-:r 
tlic li.!>!e u ^niall wcKnlen stove, ilie cfratinc^ of whieii 
liaving been long burni'd, allordcd an a])Cilure tlHOiig'u 
wliieh piolta'oly, Lhc lire whieh occasioned (lie n^elan- 
clioly accident was eoniuiiia'..nlcd : one chiv,'- wl-iich 
stood t(n) near liic flames luid the seat and ibrc-fect 
hui iied. In otlier rcs[)ects there was no appearance of 
(ire, either in the chimney or thii nj;artnient ; so that, 
excepting the loic-parl of the eliair, it aj)pears to mc 
that, no other comb'.istil/ie matter conliibnted to tl.'is 
speedy incineraiion whieh was efleeted in the .-pace oi 
seven or eight hotns. 

'I'hc second iiiilant'C took phice at Caen, and is tlius 
lokited by MerilK^ ;i surgeon of that city. Iking ix-^- 
<]U(sled on ihe .";d ol" Jur.e, 17SC, by llie king's olliccrs to 
thaw np a report of the state in which 1 found Made- 
moiselle Tiiiiars, vvlio is said to have been burned, I 
made llic lollou imj; observations. — The body la}' with the 
crow n of the head resting against one of the and.rons, 
at the distance i)f cighieen inches iVom the 'Ire; the re- 
in. under of the lujdy was placed eblicpiely 'ocforc the 
chimney, the whole being nothing but a niass of a.shcs. 
liven the most solid bones had lost their form and con- 
sistence ; none ol" ihem could l)C distinguished, except- 
ing the eoron;d, the two parietal bones, the tv.o lumbar 
Vertebra", a [mrtion of the tibia, and a })art of 4he om- 
bplate : a.id these were so calcined that they became 
dust by the least [)ressiu"e. The right foot was found en- 
tire, and seorelietl at its upper junction ; the left was 
more burned. The day was cold, but there was nothing 
'ii Llie grate cxcej)llng two or three bits t>f wood about an 
^'"h in diameler, burnt in the middle. None of the 
^^" iiure in the ai)artment was damaged. The chair in 
^■"'^> Mademoisene Thuars h;;d been >ltting was iuund 
^^ '•"<•' distance of a i'ooi. from lu'i, a;ul ubiolulclv un- 
touched 



ANECDOTES OF JAMES BURNS. SGQ 

touched. I must here observe that this lady was exceed- 
ingly corpulent, that she was above sixty years of age, 
and much addicted to spirituous liquors ; that on the day 
of her death, she had drank three bottles of wine, and 
about a bottle of brandy ; and that the consumption of 
the body took place in less than seven hours, though ac- 
cording to appearance, nothing round the body was burnt 
but the clothes. 



TO^THE EDITOR OF THE SCIENTIFIC MUSEUM, OR MAGA- 
ZINE OF REMARKABLE CHARACTERS. 

Sir, 

On perusing the Account of the Ventriloquist, James Borss, (in the §rst 
Vol. of your Museum, i>age 230) given by j-our Correspondent Veritas, I 
was reminded of some Anecdotes of him which I had in my possession, as 
well as his Portrait, taken in the year 1794, both of which you will find, 
inclosed. I should hare transmitted them to you before your first Volum« 
Was concluded, to follow the Account of Veritas, had I then known his 
real name, but j'ou will be pleased to observe, that lie alwaj's went by th« 
name of" Shelford Tommy," or " Squeaking Tommy," while he resided in 
Nottinghamshire, and his real name was unknown to the generality of the 
people. There has not aS yet been any regular history of him published 
down to his death : the fellowing Anecdotes are selected from Throsby's 
History of Nottinghamshire, and other authorities, or communicated by 
persons of respectability, whose veracity I could depend upon. If you 
think they are worthy of being classed among the many remarkable Cha- 
racters in your Repository, by allowing them, with the plate, a place la 
some of the future numbers of the same, it will confer an obligation oa 
Your Humble Servant, 
Nottingham, ^pril 1804. D. B L. 

Anecdotes q/" James Burns, formerly a conspicuous Cha" 
racter in the Counti/ of Nottingham, with his Portrait. 
(Never before published.) 

1 HAT eccentric and well known Character, James 
Burns, (more generally known by the appellations of 
*' Shelford Tommy," or "^ Squeaking Tommy,)" the cele- 
brated Ventriloquist, was a native of Ireland, butre- 
V'oL. II. A A u sided 



370 ANECDOTES OF JAMES Bt'RNS. 

sided several years in this kingdom. Having marrieS a 
wife at Shelford, he always afterwards considered that vil- 
lage as his home, whenever his inclination led^ or eccen- 
tricity suffered him to desist, for short intervals, from his 
perambulations through different parts of this country. 
He had several liberal offers from different companies of 
Itinerants to induce him to engage with them for limited 
periods, in the exercise of his wonderful and extraordi- 
nary faculty; but as Tommy's mind could not brook the 
idea of confinement, he never thought proper to accede 
to their proposals. Although he was a bird of passage, 
he was most frequently to be seen at Nottingham, where 
^y his extraordinary natural powers he, in a great mea- 
sure, subsisted for some years. He always carried in 
his pocket, an ill-shaped doll with a broad face, wrapped 
up in a piece of linen cloth, which he exhibited at pub- 
lic houses on race-days, fair-dnys, market-days. See. as 
giving utterance to his own childish jargon. The gaz- 
ing crowd gathered around him to see this wooden baby, 
and hear as they supposed its speeches. 

Among the many ludicrous, but well attested and sin- 
gular anecdotes related of this extraordinary man, the 
following are not the least v.orthy of recording : 

Tommy was one day in the month of June, 1789, at 
rhe week-day cross, at Nottingham, and there so muck 
sur])rized a country girl in a frolicsome moment, by her 
hearing as she thought, a child speak to her, and seeing 
none, that her Jistonishment w as wrought up to such s 
pitch, as to bring on a succession of alarming fits, by 
which the poor girl suffered for some time. This wan- 
ton exercise of his talents got Tommy a lodging for 
a short time in the House of Correction by order of the 
magistrates; William Smith, Esq- then mayor of the 
town. 

Some tune in the month of March 1790^ ^^^ writer of 

this 



ANECDOTES OF .TAMES BUR^'S. 371 

this sketch was in the shop of the late Mr. Barton, a 
respectable grocer, who lived at the bottom of Hollow- 
stone, which is the south entrance into the town of Not- 
tingham, when Tommy entered and purchased an ounce 
of tobacco, and turning himself round apparently 
as if going out, he observed a young man belong- 
ing to the shop, with his hand in a large cannistcr (which 
stood on the opposite side of the shop, getting tea out of 
it into a smaller one. Tommy immediately threw a 
sound to the bottom of the cannister, and imitated the 
groans of an animal as if at the point of death so natu- 
rally, that the young man as well as Mr. Barton stood 
aghast at the noise, and were preparing to search the 
cannister, when 1 undeceived them, by informing them 
of the real cause, as I had several times before been 
witness to his extraordinary powers as a Ventriloquist. 

Another of his jokes is told thus: In August 179-^ 
following John Badderly, (who was then servant to a 
respectable farmer at Car-(>olston; upon the public high- 
way between Bingham and Newark, driving a waggon 
top laden with trusses of hay, he so artfully imitated the 
crying of a child, as proceeding from the middle of the 
hay, that tlie waggoner stopped his horses several times 
on the road, to examine the waggon, conceiving that 
the cries of the child came from within his carriage. 
But on examining the hoy at the tail of the waggon, he 
could discover no child, and consequently proceeded on 
his journey, with the wily Ventriloquist by his side. The 
noise was several times repeated, and the waggoner was 
induced through motives of humanity, seconded by the 
earnest entreaties of Tommy {he kindly offering his as- 
sistance) to unlade the waggon, expecting on the remo- 
val of each truss to find the fiarmless infant, particularly 
as the cries became louder and more frequent. — Tommy 
having thus succeeded in getting the hay of the waggon, 

A A a 2 aftej 



372 ANECDOTES OF JAMES BURNS. 

after laughing heartily at the countryman's simpUcity, 
left him to replace the same in the best manner he could, 
the poor fellow bestowing on him in return a volley of 
heart}' curses. 

Our Ventriloquist was at anotber time in the house of 
"Mr. Hogg, who kept the Milton's-head Inn, Cow-lane, 
Nottingham, and who at that time was a stranger to his 
extraordinary powers, where a servant girl in the kitchen 
was about to dress some fish, not long taken from the 
river Trent, but apparently dead. — When she was about 
to cut off the head of one of them. Tommy at the instant 
she laid the knife on the fish's neck, uttered in a plain- 
tive voice, " don't cut my head off" The^irl upon this 
being much alarmed, and knowing not whence the voice 
proceeded, hastily drew the knife from the little fish and 
stood for sometime in motionless amazement. At length, 
however, recovering herself, and not seeing the fish stir, 
she hud courage to proceed to her business, and took up 
her knife the second time, to sever the head from the 
body. Tommy at that moment uttered rather sharply, 
but mournfully, '' zchat r/ou zcill cut my head offT' Upon 
which the frightened female threw down the knife, and 
positively refused to dress the fish. 

The following is another anecdote of him. — In Sep' 
tember ] 795, going to a fish stall, in Shefiield, he asked 
the price of a tench, which being lold him, he took the 
fish in his hand, and crammed a finger into its gills, 
opened its mouth, at the same time asking " zchether it 
Tcas fresJiT' to which the fish-woman replied, '< I vow 
to God it zcas in the tcatcr yesterday." Tommy imme- 
diately threw a sound into the fish's mouth, which arti- 
culated, " It is a d d lie, I have not been in the water 

this zceek, and you know it very well." The woman con- 
scious that she had been telling an untruth, was struck 
with the utmost consternation. She felt the reproof 

with 



OBSERVATIONS ON GIANT3. S73 

V, ith all the force of a miracle, and such TV'cre its whole- 
some effects^ that she is said to liave been more cautious 
in her assertions concerning her fish ever since. 

This singular character died on Thursday the 7th of 
January, 179^, at SheUbrd, near Bingham, in the Coun- 
ty of Nottingham. 



Observations on Giants, with an Jccoimt of some Fcr^ovs 
zcho have exceeded the ordinary Stature, and a Ijcscrip- 
tion of the gigantic Inhabitants of Patagonia. 

V HAT there exist men of a stature considerably above 
the ordinary standard, ^Yith more or less regularity of 
proportion, the celebrated O'Brien affords ocular demon- 
stration. It is but natural to suppose, and indeed it i» 
confirmed by the concurrent testimony of numerous wri- 
ters, that such instances have been seen in every age. 
Respecting the stature of ditfercnt individuals, as re- 
corded by various authors, it is necessary to make a few 
remarks before I proceed to the proposed subject of the 
present paper. 

In all the accounts of giants that have been handed 
down to us from the most remote period of antiquity, we 
find none of any living individual, who arrived .at a 
greater height than nine, or at most ten feet, whence it 
may be fairly inferred, that these dimensions are the nc 
plus ultra of human growth. Supposing this to be the 
case, (and of this opinion I must profess myself to be) 
the pretended discoveries of immense human skeletons, 
related by many respectable writers, must be regarded as 
altogether fabulous. 

Numbers of incidents of this kind are to be met with, 
for the authenticity of which we have no other voucher 
ihan the confidence due to first rate historians, but who 

mi2:ht 



S74. OBSERVATIONS ON GIANTS. 

might themselves have been deceived in the credit they 
gave to the relations of others from whom they borrowed 
the facts. In order to gratify the curiosity of our rea- 
ders, we shall introduce a few incidents of this nature. 

During the Cretan war, the rivers and waters are said 
to have risen to an unusual height, making various 
breaches in the earth. When the floods had retired, in a 
deep cleft and great fall of the earth, was found the 
body of a man, measuring thirty-three cubits, or forty- 
nine feet and a half. Metellus the Roman general, and 
his lieutenant Lucius Flacius, allured by the novelty of 
the report, went on purpose to view it, and were con- 
vinced of the truth of what they had before regarded as 
a fable. 

Pliny, in his natural histor\', speaks of a mountain in 
Crete, that had been overturned by an'earthquake, where 
a body was found standing upright, sixty -nine feet in 
height; and Plutarch says, that upon opening a se- 
pulchre in jNIauritania, a carcase was found of the enor- 
mous length of seventy cubits, or one hundred and five 
feet ! 

Philostrato informs us, that by the falling in of one of 
the banks of the Orontes, a body forty-six feet in length 
was discovered in the sepulchre belonging to the Ethio- 
pian Ariadnes. He adds that in a cavern of Mount 
Sigea, the body of a giant was found measuring upwards 
of thirty icet. 

In the 58th Olympiad, by the admonition of the oracle, 
the body of Orestes was found at Tegica by the Spartans, 
and its length was exactly seven cubits or above ten feet. 

In the description of Sicily by the historian, Thomas 
Tasellus, we read, that in the year 1.S42, some rustics 
having been digging at the foot of Mount Erix, noW 
called Monte de Tripani, they discovered a large ca- 
vern. 



OBSERVATIONS ON GIANTS. 37-5 

vern, known by the appellation of the giant's cavern, in 
which they saw the body of a colossal figure seated. He 
had in his hand, says the historian, the mast of a vessel 
for a stick, in which was enclosed a mass of lead weiirh- 
ing 1500 pounds. 

The same writer tells us, that in 1516, John Franci- 
forte. Count of Mazarine, having caused a pit to be 
dug, in a plain about a mile distant from the village of 
i^hich he was the lord, found in a sepulchre, the body 
of a Gfiant measurinsr thirtv feet. - 

In 1547, Paul Lcontino, examining the soil at the 
foot of a mountain in the territory of Palermo, prepara- 
tory to the erection of saltpetre works, met with the bod^' 
©f a giant twenty-seven feet in length. 

Tasellus likewise says, that in a small villa'ge between 
Syracuse and Lcontium, a great number of sepulchres, 
and gigantic skeletons were discovered, and that many 
more of the like kind were met with near the ancient 
village of Hicara, which the Sicilians call Carini, in an 
immense cavern situated at the foot of a mountain. 

But Sicily is not the only place where mighty carcases 
and enormous skeletons are said to have been found. 
Phlegenitral assures us, that in the famous cavern of 
Diana, in Dalmatia, many bodies were discovered of the 
length of six yards. He likewise tells us that the Car- 
thaginians when sinking their trenches, met with two 
coffins, each containing the skeleton of a giant. The 
length of the one was twenty-three, and of the other 
twenty-four cubits. He adds, that in the Cimmerian 
Bosphorus, an earthquake having thrown down a hill, se- 
veral huge bones were found, which being arranged ac- 
cording to the disposition of the human body, formed an 
enormous skeleton twenty-four cubits in length. 

Saxo the grammarian relates, that the giant Harte- 
benunf was thirteen feet and a half high, but that he had 
twelve companions who were each twenty eight feet. 



S?6 OBSERVATIONS ON GIAKTS* 

Pioafetta says, that he met with men amons: the can- 
nibals twice the size of an European ; and that in the 
sti'aights of Magellan there exist men of prodigious sta- 
ture. 

Melchior Nugnez, in his letters from India, speaks of 
soldiers who guarded the gates of the imperial city of 
Pekin, in China, of the formidable size of fifteen feet. 

The history of tlie giant Pallas is related by a number 
of giave authors^ who all assure us that in the reign of 
the Emperor Henry II. the body of a giant was found in 
a stone sepulchre near Berne, which^ when standing up- 
right, might have overlooked the walls of the city. 
This body was as entire as if it had been deposited there 
onl}' a short time before. A wound was discovered on 
the breast, four feet and a half wide, and on the se- 
pulchre the following epitaph was legible: 

Filius Evimdri, Pallits, quem laiicea Tumi 
Militis occidit, mortc sua jacct liic, 

Sigibert relates, that in the year 177 1^ an overflowing 
of the water in England, discovered the body of a giant 
fifty feet in length. 

Eulgesius says, that in the reign of Charles VII, king 
of France, a sepulchre, with the bones of a giant thirty 
feet long, was to be seen, which the Rhone in its exca- 
vations had exposed to view in the hills of Vivarais, op- 
posite \ alence. 

Coelius Rhodiginus soys, that during the reign of Louis 
XI. the body of a giant eighteen feet in length, was dis- 
covered upon the banks of a river which flows through 
the village of St, Peray, opposite Valence in Dauphine. 

According to the rcliiiion of Pather Jerome de Mon- 
ceaux, the skeleton of a giant ninety-six feet long, was 
found in a wall, in. a village named Chailliot, six leagues 
from Thcssalouica, in Macedonia. This fact v,as com- 
municated 



OBSERVATIONS ON GIANT^. 377 

municated to him by Father Jerome de Rhetel, mis- 
sionary in the Levant, who in a letter written from the 
island of Scio^, adds that this giant's skull was found en- 
tire, and was so capacious as to contain 210 pounds of 
corn ; that a tooth belonging to the under jaw, when 
drawn, weighed fifteen pounds, and was seven inches 
two lines in length ; that the smallest bone of the little 
toe of one of his feet was equal to it in size; that the 
arm bone from the elbow to the v;rist, was two feet four 
inches, eight lines round ; and that two soldiers with their 
jackets and coats with large sleeves, found no difficulty 
in running their arms thus covered through the cvity of 
this stupendous bone. Qaenel, French Consul at Thes- 
salonica, ordered an account of this monstrous skeleton 
to be drawn up and deposited among other public acts in 
Chancery. He received from the Pacha, the principal 
bones, and purchased the remainder from other persons 
who had taken them into their possession. 

In digging at the foot of a great oak, commonly call- 
ed the Giant's Oak near Ancona, in Italy, v/as found an 
entire skeleton of prodigious size. Near this skeleton. 
were discovered eleven entire bodies, all nearly of the 
same size. These eleven bodies were laid on the back, 
with the face turned towards the sky, but the first was 
the only one that lay stretched on the belly, and his size 
exceeded that of the other eleven, for he measured tea 
Roman palms in length, and liis teeth were exactly like 
those of a large horse. 

Thomas Cornelio relates, that at Triolo, a castle of 
Upper Calabria, some labourers discovered in a garden 
an entire skeleton measuring eighteen Roman feet in 
length i the head was two feet and a half long ; each mo- 
lar tooth weighed about an ounce and one third, sopie 
more, others less ; and each of <hc other- teeth weighed 
upwards of three quarters of an ounc<;. The bones 
. ypL, II. B B B were 



578 OBSERVATIONS ON GIANTS. 

were become extremely brittle, and easily crumbled int» 
dust; but the teorh were much harder. The skeleton 
lay stretched upon a mass of bituminous matter like 
pitch. 

Thus we are not without numerous authorities to prove 
that giants have existed in all ages ; but it must likewise 
be allowed, that the improbable size attributed to those 
above-mentionpd can scarcely engage our confidence in 
behalf of the truth of those tacts. I shall now proceed 
to such accounts of persons of extraordinary stature, a? 
rest upon undeniable authority, or at least are free from 
those circumstances by which the foregoing statement^ 
are rendered absolutely incredible. 

In the Scripture we read of giants who were produced 
by the marriages of the sons of God, with the daughters 
of men. This passage has, however, been variously in- 
terpreted ; so that it is doubtful whether the word there 
translated giants, implies any extraordinary stature. In 
other parts of Scripture, giants with their dimensions are 
spoken of in such a manner as to admit of no doubt; 
as in the case of Og, king of Bashan and Goliah. 

Og, we are told, was " of the remnant of the giants," 
fcis bed-stead was of iron, nine cubits in length, and four in 
breadth ; that is about thirteen feet by six. The height 
of the champion of Gath was six cubits and a span, 
'which is equal to about nine feet three inches. He had 
a. helmet of brass, and was armed with a coat of mail, 
the wei<rlit of which was five thousand shekels of brass; 
*' and the staff* of his spear was like a weaver's beam, and 
his spear's head weighed six hundred shekels of iron." 

The Roman En)peror Maximin, equally remarkable 
for his extraordinary stature and uncommon strength, 
has already been mentioned in yoiu- first volume. 

An Arabian, named Gabara, brought to Rome during 
th« i"«i^n of th« Eiaptror Claudius, was esteemed the 

t^est 



OBSERVATIONS ON GIANTS. 379 

tallest man of that age, being nine feet nine inches in 
height. 

ViteJlius sent Darius ihe son of Aitabanus an hostage 
to Rome, with various presents, which were accompa- 
nied by a Jew named Eleazur, of the height of seven 
cubits, or ten feet two inches- 

. Antonius, born in Syria during the reign of Theodo- 
sius, was seven feet seven inches high, but his fe-t were 
not proportionate to the magnitude of his body. We 
are informed by Nicephorus that he died at the age of 
twenty-five. 

Aventine," an historian very deserving of credit, a*- 
eures us in his work entitled Annals of Bavaria, tluit the 
Emperor Cliarleracigne, had in his army a giant named 
JEnotherus. a native of Turgau, near the lake of Con- 
stance, who threw down whole battaUons with the s ime 
case thaf. he would have mowed a field ; but he is iilent 
with respect to his dimensions. 

I Thuanus, in his account of the incursion made by the 
Tartars into the Polish territories, in the year 157j, 
speaks of a Tartar of prodigious bulk, who was killecl by 
a Pole, " His forehead," he says, *' was twenty-four 
fingers broad, and liis body of such magnitude, that the 
carcase, as it lay upon the ground, would reach to the 
navel of any ordinary person who stood by it." 

In the year l6l,3, a young man named Jacobus Dam- 
man, then twenty-two years old, was brought to Basil, 
and exhibited as a shew on account of his extraordinary 
stature. He had then no beard, his body and limbs 
being strong built, but rather lean. He was eight feet 
high complete, and his hand measured one foot four 
inches. 

About the middle of December 1671, one Thomas 
Birtles, a native of Cheshire, living near Macclesfield, 
arfived at Coventry. He had been at London, and on 

B B B 2 his 



580 OBSERVATIONS ON GIANT'S, 

his journey homewards, made a public shew of himself 
for his extraordinary stature. His heignt was about 
seven feet. His father was a man of rnoderaie stature, 
and his mother iie:::ily six feet. He himself, at that 
time, liad a daughter, about sixteen years of age, who 
had aheady arrived at the height of six feet complete. 

Iri the anatomical room of Trinity College, Dublin, 
is preserved the skeleton of one Magrath, who was horn 
near Cloyne. It measures between seven and eight feet. 
This man was carried through various parts of Lurope, 
and exhibited as the prodigious Irish giant; but such was 
his e.^rly imbecility, both of body and mind, that he 
died pf old age in his twentieth year. Concerning this 
liiari, the following parciculavs are given by a very intel- 
ligent writer. ^' In his infancy he became an orphan, 
and was provided for by the fanious Berkeley, then 
Bishop of Cloyne. This acute philosopher, who denie4 
the existence of matter, was as inquisitive in his physi- 
cal researches as he was whimsical in his metaphysical 
speculations. When I tell you that he had well-nigh 
put an end to his own existence, by experimenting what 
are the sensations of a person dying on the gallows, you 
will be the more ready to forgive him for his treatment 
of this orphan. The Bishop had a strange fancy to 
know whether it was not in the power of art to increase 
the human stature, and this unhappy infant appeared to 
him to be a fit subject for the trial. He made his essay 
according to his pre-conceived theory, whatever it might 
be, and the conscqueL)t;e was, that he became seven feet 
high in his sixt^eptii ye^r." 

Coricer.-;!- , the existence of a race of giants, the 
learned h vc been greatly divided. Ferdinand Magel- 
lan was the first who annoimced the discovery of such a 
race of people on the coast towards the extremity of 
South America. It appears that during one hundred 

years. 



OBSERVATIONS ON GIANTS. 381 

5«ears, almost all succeeding navigators agreed in affirm- 
ing the. existence of a race of giants upon this coast ; 
but during another century, a much greater number 
agreed in de lying ttje iVxt, and treating their predeces- 
sors as idle laDulists. Some time before the voyage of 
Gomniodore Byron, in 1764, it v/as the subject of a 
warm contest among men of science, whether a race of 
mankind above the common stature did really exist oij 
Ithe coast of Patagonia, and the contradictory reports 
made by eye-witnesses terided greatly to perplex the 
questioii. 

M. de Bougainville who visited part of this coast, in 
1767, asserts that the Patagonians are not gigantic, and 
that what makes taeai appear so, is their prodigious 
broad s'loulders, the great size of their heads, and the 
thickn' -:ij of all their limbs. 

Tha'. some giants inhabit these regions can, however, 
no longer be doubted; since the fact is established by 
the concurrenL tesriuioiiy of several English navigators, 
particularly Commodore Byron, and Captains Wallis and 
Carteret, the two latter of whom saw, conversed with, 
and even measured tin.se people. Mr. Clarke who sailed 
with (Jommodore Byruii, and who in the last voyage of 
discovery succeeded, on the death of Captain Cook, to 
the command of the two ships, addressed a paper to the 
Secretary of the Ptoyal Society, confirming the gigantic 
height of the Patagonians. 

Byron gives the following account of this monstrous 
people: — 

** Just as we came to an anchor, I saw with my glass 
a number of horsemen riding backwards and forwards.— 
As I was very desirous to know what these people were, 
-1 ordered out my boat, and went towards the beach with 
Mr. Marshall, my second lieutenant, aiul a parly of men; 
Mr. Cumming, my first lieutenant, following in the 

six 



382 OBSERVATIONS ON GIANTS. 

six-oared cutter. When we came near the shore, we saw 
about five hundred people, the far greater part of whom 
M'ere on horsebaek. The}' drew up on a stony spot, and 
kept waving and hallooing, which we understood to be 
invitations to land. When we landed I drew up my peo- 
ple on the beach, with my officers at their head, and or- 
dered that none should move from that station, till I 
should call or beckon to tbem. I then went forward 
alone towards the Indians. I made signs that one of 
them should come near, was understood, and one, who 
as it afterwards appeared was a chief, came towards me. 
He was of a gigantic stature, and seemed to realize the 
tales of monsters in human shape. He had the skin of 
some wild beast thrown over his shoiildcrs, and was 
painted so as to make the most hideous appearance I 
had ever beheld. Round one eye was a large qircle of 
white, a circle of black surrounded the other, and the 
rest of his face was streaked with ditTerent colours. I 
did not measure him, but if I may judge of his stature 
by my own, he could not be less than seven feet high. 
When this frightful colossus came up, we muttered 
somewhat to each other as a salutation, and I then 
walked with him towards his companions. There wer« 
among them many women; who seemed to be proportion- 
ably large; and few of the men were less than the chief 
who had come forward to meet me. 

" Mr. Gumming then came up witlisome tobacco, and 
I could not but smile at the astonishment which I saw ex- 
pressed in his countenance, upon perceiving himself, 
though six feet two inches high, become at once a pig- 
my among giants. Our sensations upon seeing five hun- 
dred people, the shortest of whom were at least six feet 
six iii( lies high, and bulky in proportion, may easily be 
imagined." 

Mr. Clarlw, in the letter above alluded to, says, " We 

were 



©BSEKVATIONS ON «IAKTS. 3^5 

were with tkem near two hours at noon day, though none 
had the honour of shaking hands but Mr. Bvron and Mr. 
Gumming; however, we were near enough and long enough 
with them to convince our senses so far, as not to be ca- 
villed out of the very existence of those senses at that 
time, which some of our countrymen and friends would 
■ absolutely attempt to do. They are of a copper colour, 
with long black hair, and some of them are certainly nine 
feet, if they do not exceed it. The Commodore, who 
is very near six feet, could but just reach the top of one 
•f their heads, which he attempted ou tiptoes, and there 
were several taller than he on whom the experiment 
was made. They are prodigiously stout, and as propor- 
tionably made as ever I saw people in my life. Tlie wo- 
jQien I think bear much the same proportion to the men 
as our Europeans do. There w^as scarcely a man among 
ihem less than eight feet, most of them considrrably 
more ; Uie women I believe, run from seven and a half 
to eight." 

Notwithstanding these concurring testimonies, M. de 
Buffon would not admit the existence of a race of giants, 
which point is strenuously contended for by Lord Mon- 
))oddo. That nobleman relates, that M. Guyot, Captain 
«f a French ship trading to the South Sea, brought from 
the coast of Patagonia, a skeleton of one of these giants, 
measuring between twelve and thirteen feet, purposing 
to bring it to Europe; but happening to be overtaken by 
a violent storm, and having tlie Spanish archbishop of 
Lima on board, the ecclesiastic declared that the storra 
was caused by the bones of the pagan then on board, 
and insisted on having the bkiKton thrown into the sea. 
** The archbishop," adds his lordship, '' died soon after- 
wards, and was thrown overboard in his turn. I could 
bave wished that he had been thrown overboard sooner, 
and then the bones of the Patagonian w wuld have ar- 
rived 



384 ADVENTURES OP JOHN METCALF. 

rived safe in France, though I am persuaded they would 
not have made BufFon alter his opinion^ but he would 
have still maintained, that it was only ira accidental va- 
riety of the individual, not any difference of the race." 

I shall just observe, that if the ^^iccounts.of the English 1 
navigators are at all to be depended upon, the opinions of 
his lordship must undoubtedly be adopted in preference 
to that of tl\2 celebrated French philosopher. 



Interesting Particulars, and zconderfal ^idventures of that 
extraordinary and eccentric character John Metcalf, 
commonly called Blind Jack of Knaresboroughf xeith a 
striking Likeness. 

It has been jusHy remarked, that those who have the Misfortune to le 
deprived of one sense, generally enjoy the others in greater perfection than 
those who do not labour under such a deficiency. This we find strikingly 
exemplified in the subject of the present article,, who, notwithstanding hia 
eccentricities, has, during a great part of his long life, been an active and 
useful member of society. 

John metcalf was bom at Knaresborough in York- 
shire, on the 15th of August 1717. At the age of four 
years, his parents, who were labouring people, put hiin 
to school, where he continued two years, when he was 
seized with the small-pox, which deprived him of his 
sight in spite of all the means that were employed for its- 
preservation. 

About six months after his recovery, he was able to go 
from his father's house to the end of the street, and to 
return without a guides and in about three years he 
could find his way to any part of Knaresboiough. About 
this period he begun to associate with boys of his own 
age, among whom he acted a distinguished part in the 
juvenile pranks of taking birds nests, robbing orchards, 
&c. 

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AbVEKtURES OF JOHN METCALP. S85 

His father keeping horses_, he learned to ride, and 'm 
a short time became a good horseman, a gallop being 
his favourite pace. At the age of thirteen he was taught 
music, in which he made great proficiency, though th« 
cry of a hound or a harrier was more congenial to his 
taste than the sound of any instrument. He kept a cou- 
ple and a half of hounds of his own, ahd frequently 
hunted with a Mr. Woodburn of Knaresborough, who 
kept a pack, and was always very desirous of Metcalf's 
company in the chace. 

AVhen about fourteen years old, his activity, and the 
success with which his exploits were usually attended, 
led him to imagine that he might undertake any thing 
without danger, and consoled him greatly for the want 
of sight; but he was taught to regret that infirmity by a 
severe wound he received in the face in consequence of 
a fall into a gravel pit, while making his retreat from a 
plumb-tree in which he had been surprized by the owner. 

About this period, 1731, he learned to swim, and soon 
became so very expert, that his companions did not 
chuse to come near him in the water, it being his custom 
to seize, plunge them to the bottom, and swim over 
them by wa}' of diversion. In this year two men being 
drowned in the deeps of the river Nidd, Metcalf was 
employed to seek for their bodies, and succeeded ia 
bringing up one of them. 

A friend oF his named B-irker, having carried two 
packs of yarn to Avash at that river, they were swept 
away by a sudden swelling of the current, and carried 
through the arches of the bridge, which stands on a 
rock. A little below there is a piece of still water, sup- 
posed to be ubout twenty-one feet in depth : as soon as 
the yarn came to this place it sunk. Metcalf promised 
his friend to recover his yarn, but the latter smiled at the 
supposed absurdity of the attempt. He, however, pro- 

VoL. H. c c c cured 



S8^ ADVENTCKES OF JOHN MEtCAtf* 

cured some long cart-ropes, fixed a hook at one en^^ 
and leaving the other to be held by some persons on the 
High Bridge, he descended, and by degrees recovered 
the whole of the yarn. 

He continued to practise on the violin, till he was able 
to play country dances. During the winter season he 
performed as a wait at Knaresborough, with three 
©thers; he likewise constantly attended the assemblies 
which were held every fortnight, and went, be&ides, to 
jiuiny other places where there was public dancing. 

Notwithstanding this application, he found opportu- 
nity for playing his neighbours a number of mischievoua 
tricks, and for a long lime escaped suspicion. At length, 
however, his expertne.ss became known, and when any 
arch trick had been played, the first enquiry always was, 
>vhere Metcalf was at the time, 

Though his time was pretty well engaged, he still re- 
tained his fondness for hunting, and also began to keep 
game-cocks. Whenever he went to a cock-pit, it was 
his custom to place himself on the lowest seat, near som« 
friend wiio v»as a good judge, and who, by certain mo- 
tions enabled him to bet, hedge, &c. 

In 1732, he was invited to Harrowgate to play at the 
assembly, as successor to a poor old man who had played 
there for twenty years, and who, being borne down by 
the weight of one hundred years, began to play too 
slow for country dances. Here he was well received by 
the visiting nobility and gentry. In this employment 
he passed his evenings, and the mornings he spent in 
cocking, hunting, and coursing. About tl)is period, also, 
he bougiit a horse, and often ran him for small plates; 
and his engagements increasing, he took a partner who 
was likewise a good performer. 

lu summer he often played at bowls, and singular as 
it may seem, wa« frequently the winner j curds likewise- 

begau 



ADVENTURES OF JOHN METCALF. SS7 

began to engage his attention, and he generally won tlie 
majority of the games. But these atchievemepts were 
far from being the hmits of his ambition or capacity, 
for he now began to attend the races at York, and other 
places ; at the race ground he commonly rode in among 
the crowd, and was often successful in his bets, in which 
he was however assisted by several gentlemen to whom 
he was known. 

Having once matched one of his horses to run three 
miles for a considerable wager, and the parties agreeing 
each to ride his own horse, they set up posts at certain 
distances on the Forest Moor, describing a circle of one 
mile; having consequently to go three times round the 
course. From the supposition that Metcalf would be 
unable tc. keep the course, great odds were laid against 
him. His ingenuity furnished him with an expedient in 
this dilemma. He procured a* many bells as possible, 
and placing a man with one of them at each post, 
was enabled by this ringing to Judge when to turn. By 
these means, and the superior speed of his horse, he 
came in winner, amidst the applause of all present, ex- 
cepting those who had betted against him. 

At different times he bought horses to sell them aa,ain, 
which he often did with a large profit, so accurate was 
his judgment. 

In 1738, Metcalf attained the age of twenty-one; 
he was then extremely robust, and six feet one inch and 
a half in height. He about this time acquiicd consider- 
able celebrity as a pugilist from the following circum- 
stance. A friend of his being insulted in a public-house, 
by a man of the name of Bake, who, from his ferocious 
temper and great strength, was the general dread of the 
neighbourhood, Metcalf bestowed on iuii; such discipline 
as soon extorted a cry of mercy. 

c c c iJ Retufn*rij 



388 ADVENTURES OF JOHN METCALE. 

Returning one day on foot from Harrowgate, he had 
proceeded about a mile, when he wab overtaken by a 
Knaresborough man on horseback, who proposed for two 
shilHngs worth of punch to let him ride in turn, dividing 
the distances equally. To this Metcalf agreed, upon 
condition that he should have the first ride, which his 
townsman assented to, on these terms: that he should 
ride a little beyond Poppleton Field, where on his right 
hand he would see a gate, to which he should fasten the 
horse. Metcalf however rode on to Knareshorough, 
which was seventeen miles from the place where he left 
his fellow-traveller. The latter was greatly enraged at 
being obIi2;ed to vviilk so far, but Metcalf pleading in ex- 
cuse that he never saw the gate, he found it his interest 
to join in the laugh. 

He was now in the prime of life, and possessed a pe- 
culiar archness of disposition, with an uncommon flow of 
spirits, and an unparalleled contempt of danger; and 
though his conduct was long marked by a variety of si- 
milar tricks, yet he afterwards planned and brought to 
perfection several schemes, both of private and public 
utility. 

When the Harrowgate season was over, Metcalf always 
remained a few days, and passed his evenings at one or 
other of the different inns. At the Royal Oak, now the 
Granby, he attracted the notice of the landlady's daugh- 
ters, whose constant attention and kindness soon inspired 
him with a reciprocal affection. Knowing, however, 
that her mother would oppose their union, various suc- 
cessful devices were employed to conceal their mutual 
partiality, and frequent meetings. An event however 
occurred which obliged Metcalf to quit not only the ob- 
ject of his attachment, but likewise that part of the 
country. 

Among Metcalfs acquaintances were two young men, 

whose 



ADVENTURES OF JOHN METCALF* 389 

whose sister lived with them as housekeeper. One even- 
ing in her usual jocular way, she apprised Metcalf of her 
intention to pay him a visit in the night, desiring him to 
leave his door unlocked. Knowing the mirthful propen- 
sity of this female, he was inclined to consider this i\s a 
joke, but on the other hand he thought it possible that a 
real assignation might be intended, and being too gallant 
to disappoint a lady, he told her he would obey her or- 
ders. The lady was punctual to her appointment, and 
the consequence of her imprudence was evident in a few 
months. She intreated Metcalf to marry her, but she 
having made the first advances, he did not feel his con- 
science interested, and refused. Her only resource was 
to apply to the parish, which finding she had done, he 
with some difficulty obtained a meeting with Miss Ben- 
son of the Royal Oak, proceeded to Whitby, and went 
on board an alum-ship bound to London. 

After an absence of seven months, he retiu'ned to 
Knaresborough, where he found the woman who had 
been the cause of his journey comfortably situated, and 
not inclined to trouble him; and he was also affectionate- 
ly received by Miss Benson. During his absence a IMr. 
Dickinson had paid his addresses to Miss Benson, and 
now urged his suit with such ardour, that the banns were 
published, and the wedding-day appointed to the no 
small mortification of Metcalf, who thought himself se- 
cure of her aflcction. Though he loved her tenderly, 
his pride prevented him from manifesting his feelings, 
or attempting to prevent the match. 

On the day jMcceding that on which the nuptials were 
to be solemnized, Metcalf riding past the Royal Oak, 
was accosted with, " One wants to speak with you." 
He immediately turned towards the stables of the Oak, 
and there to his joyful surprize, he found the object of 
]xi% love, who had sent her mother's servant to call him. 

After 



S90 ADVENTURES OP JOHN METCALF. 

After some explanation, an elopement was resolved npon, 
which Metcalf with the assistance of a friend, cft'ected 
that night, and the next morning they were united. — ^The. 
confusion of his rival, who had provided an entertain- 
ment for two hundred people may easil}"^ he conceived. 

Mrs. Benson being much enraged at her daughter's 
conduct, refused either to see her or to give up her 
clothes; nor was she reconciled to her till she was deli- 
vered of her second child, on which occasion she stood 
sponsor to it, and presented INIetcalf with twenty gui- 
neas. 

He now purchased a house at Knaresborough, and 
continued to play at Harrowgate during the season. He 
likewise set up a four-wheel chaise, and a one-horse 
chair, for public accommodation, which were the first 
of the kind kept there. These vehicles he kept two sum- 
mers, but the innkeepers beginning to run chaises, he 
relinquished that scheme, and with it racing and hunt- 
ing. He then bought horses and went to the coast for 
fish, wiiich he took to Leeds and Manchester, and was 
BO indefatigable, that he would frequently walk for two 
nights and a day, with little or no rest. But the profits 
of this business being small, and the fatigue excessive, 
he soon abandoned that likewise. 

At the commencement of the rebellion in 1745, he ex- 
changed his situation as violin player at Harrowgate, for 
the profession of arms. This singular event was brought 
about in the followinsr singular manner: — 

William Thornton, Esq. of Thornville, having re^ 
solved to raise a company at his own expence, asked 
Metcalf, who was well known to him, whether he would 
join the company about to be raised, and whether he 
knew of any spirited fellows likely to make good sol- 
diers. Upon his replying in the affirmative, he was ap- 
pointed assistant to aseijeant; aiul in two da}'s raised 

one 



Adventures of john metcali". SQi 

one hundred and forty men, out of whom the Captain 
drafted sixty-four, the number of privates he wanted. 
^ With this compan}^, among whom was Metcaif as mu- 
sician. Captain Thornton joined the army under Gene- 
ral Wade. The first battle in which they were engaged, 
twenty of the men, the lieutenant and ensign were made 
prisoners, nnd Captain Thornton very narrowly escaped 
\)y the kindness of the woman in whose house he had 
taken refuge. 

Metcaif, after a variety of adventures rejoined his pa- 
tron, and was always in the field during the different en- 
gagements which afterwards occurred, and after the bat- 
lie of Culloden, returned to his family at Knaresborough, 

Being again at liberty to chuse his occupation, he at- 
tended Ilarrowgate as usual ; and having, during his 
Scotch expedition, become acquainted with the various 
articles manufactured in that country, and judging that 
he might dispose of some of them to advantage in Eng- 
land, he repaired in the spring to Scotland, and fur- 
nished himself with a variety of cotton and worsted arti- 
cles, for whicli he found a ready sale in his native coun- 
try. Among a thousand articles he knew what each cost 
him, from a particular mode of marking them. He alsp 
dealt in horses, directing his choice, b}' feeling the ani- 
mals ; and engaged pretty deeply in the contraband 
trade, the profits of which were at that time much more 
considerable than the risk. 

In the year 17ol, he commenced a^ new employ, he 
set up a stage-wuggon between York and Knaresborough, 
being the first on that road, and conducted it himself 
twice a week in the summer, and once in winter ; and 
this business, with the occasional conveyance of army 
baggage, employed his attention till the period for his 
first Gonuacting for the making of roads; which suiting 
fhim better, he relinquished every other pursuit. 
:/■ . During 



592 ADVENTURES OF JOHN METCALP* 

During his leisure hours, he had studied measurement 
in a way peculiar to himself; and when certain of the 
girth and length of any piece of timber, he was able 
accurately to reduce its contents to feet and inches, and 
could bring the dimensions of any building into yards 
and feet. 

The first piece of road he made was about three miles, 
of that between Fearnsby and Minskip. The materials 
for the wliole were to be procured from one gravel-pit ;. 
he therefore provided deal boards, and erected a tempo- 
rary house at the pit, took a dozen horses to the place, 
fixed racks and mancrcrs, and hired a house for his men 
at Minskip. He often walked from Knaresborough in 
the morning with four or five stone of meat on his 
shoulders, and Joined liis men by six o'clock. He com- 
pleted the road much sooner than was expected to the 
entire satisfaction of the surveyor and trustees. 

Soon after this lie contracted for building abridge at Bo- 
rough-bridge, which he completed with great credit to his 
abilities. This business of making roads, and building 
and repairing bridges in Yorkshire, Lancashire, Derby- 
shire, and Cheshire, he continued, with great success till 
the year 1792, when he returned to Yorkshire. 

In the summer of 1788, he lost his wife in the sixty- 
first year of her age, and the fortieth of their union, 
leaving four children. She was interred in the church- 
yard of Stockport, in Cheshire, where she then resided. 

In his treatment of his wife, Metcalf never forgot the 
original difference in their circumstances, always in- 
dulging her to the utmost that his ability would allow ; 
but she had no wish beyond his power to gratify. 

After some unsuccessful speculations in the cotton 
trade, Metcalf returned to his native county, and for 
want of other engagements, he bought hay to sell again, 
measuring the stacks with his arms, and having learned 

the 



ADVENTURES OF JOHN METCALF. 393 

tlie height^ he could readily tell what number of square 
yards were contained in a stack of any value between 
five and one hundred pounds. Sometimes he bought a 
little wood standing, and if he could get the girth and 
height, would calculate the solid contents. 

In addition to the anecdotes already ^ivenof this sin2:u- 
lar character, the reader will not be displeased to find the 
following, which are of a nature equally extraordinary. 

JNIetcalf had learned to walk and ride very readily 
through most of the streets of York; and being once in 
that city, as he was riding past the George, the landlord 
called to him to stop, and informed him that a gentleman 
in the house wanted a guide to Harrowgate, adding, '' I 
know you can do as well as any one." To this proposal 
Metcalf agreed, upon condition that his situation should 
be kept secret from the gentleman who might otherwise 
be afraid to trust him. The stranger was soon ready, 
and they setoff, Metcalf taking the lead. When they 
came to Allenton-Mauleverer, the gentleman enquired 
whose large house that was on the right, to which Met- 
calf replied without the least hesitation. A little farther 
the road is crossed by that from Wetherby to Borough- 
bridge, and runs along by the lofty brick wall of Aller- 
ton Park. A road led out of the park opposite to the 
gate upon the Knaresborough road, which Metcalf was 
lifraid of missing; but perceiving the current of wind 
that came through the park gate, he readily turned his 
horse towards the opposite one. Here he was under 
some difficulty to open the gate, in consequence, as he 
imagined, of some alteration that had been made in the 
hanging of it, as he had not been that way for several 
months. Therefore, backing his horse, he exclaimed, 
*' Confound thee, thou al\va3's goes to the heel of the 
gate instead of the head." The gentleman observed 
that his horse was rather aukward, but tkat his own 

Vol. II. D D D " own 



304 ADVENTURES OF JOHN METCALF. 

mare was good at coming up to a gate, upon vhich 
Metcalf cheerfully permitted hiin to perform that office. 
Passing through Knaresborough, they entered the Forest 
which was then uniuclosed, nor was there as yet any 
turnpike road upon it. Having proceeded a little way 
upon the forest, the gentleman saw a light, and asked 
what it was. Metcalf took it for granted that his com- 
panion had seen what is called a Will-o'-the-Wisp, 
which frequently appear in a low and swampy spot, near 
the road ; but fearful of betraying himself, did not ask 
in what direction the light lay. To divert his attention 
from this object, he asked him if he did not see two 
lights, one to the right, the other to the left. The 
stranger replied that he saw but one, on the right. — 
*' Well then. Sir," says ]Metcalf, " that is Harrowgate." 

Having arrived at their journey's end, they stopped at 
the house now called the Granby, where Metcalf, being 
well acquainted with the place, led both horses into the 
stable, and then went into the house, where he found 
his fellow traveller comfortably seated over a tankard of 
negus, in which he pledged his guide. Metcalf tooj: it 
of him very readily the first time, but the second time 
he was rather wide of his mark. He therefore withdrew, 
leaving the landlord to explain what his companion was 
yet ignorant of. 

The latter hinted to the landlord his suspicion that hi» 
guide must have taken a great quantity of spirits since 
their arrival, upon which the landlord enquired his rea- 
son for entertaining such an opinion — " I judge so," re- 
plied the traveller, '' from the appearance of his eyes" — 
Eyes ! bless you Sir ! do not you know that he is blind r" 
" What do you mean by that?" — ^^ I mean Sir, that he 
cannot see?" — "Blind! gracious God!!" — "Yes, Sir, 
as blind as a stone, by heaven!" — Tiie stranger desired 
Metcalf to be called, and upon his confirming the land- 
lord's 



ADVENTURES OF JOHN METCALF. SQj 

lord's account : " Had T known that," said he, ^' I would 
nothave ventured with you for ahundved pounds." — ''And 
I, Sir," said Metcalf, " would not have lost my way for 
a thousand." — The services of the evening were reward- 
ed with two guineas, and a plentiful entertainment the 
next day by the gentleman, who considered this circum- 
stance as the most extraordinary adventure he had ever 
met with. 

During Metcalfs residence in London, he found out 
several gentlemen who were in the habit of visiting Har- 
rowgate, and among the rest Colonel Liddell, Member of 
Parliament for Berwick, who gave him a general invita- 
tion to his house. This gentleman on his return from 
London to the North, was accustomed to make a slay of 
a h\y weeks at Harrowgate, and before his departure he 
proposed to Metcalf to take him down, either on the 
the top of his carriage, or behind it. Metcalf declined 
the offer with thanks, assuring the Colonel, that he 
could with ease walk as far in a day as he would chuse to 
travel. They accordingly started on Monday at noon, 
and he actually arrived at the end of every stage before 
the Colonel, with whom he stopped during the night. 
On coming to Wetherby, he, as usual, arrived at the Inn 
before the Colonel, informing the landlord that he might 
expect the latter. This being Saturday night, the Colo- 
nel proposed halting at Wetherby till Monday, but 
Metcalf continued his route to KnaresborouQ-h that 
night, and on the Monday he met him, according to 
promise, at Harrowgate. 

Our hero happened once to be at Scriven, at the house 
of one Green, an innkeeper, where two persons had a dis- 
pute concerning some sheep, which one of them had put 
into the penfold. The owner of the sheep, a townsman of 
Metcalfs, appeared to be ill-treated by the other party, 
who wished to take an unfair advantage. Metcalf per- 

D D D 2 - ceiving 



ceiving that they were not likeh' to agree about the da- 
mages, departed. It being about midnight^ he resolved 
■to do his friend a good turn before he got home. The 
penfold being walled round, he climbed over, and laying 
hold of the shee]) one after the other, he fairly threw 
them over the wall. The difliculty of the undertaking 
encreased as the number diminished, as they were not 
so ready to catch ; but not deterred by that circumstance, 
he fully completed the business. On the return of day, 
when the penfold was found untenanted, though the 
door was fast locked, a considerable degree of surprize 
was excited, and various conjectures formed relative to 
the rogues who had liberated the sheep, but Metcalf 
passed unsuspected, and enjoyed the joke in silence. 

Parsing once througli Hahfax, he stopped at an Inn 
called the Broad Stone. The landlord's son, and some 
others who frequented Horrowgate, having heard of 
Metcalf's exploits, expressed a wish to play at cards whh 
him. He complied, and a pack was accordingly sent 
for, which he requested permission to examine; but as 
the landlord was his friend, he could rely upon him, to 
prevent any deceptioii. They began, and -Nletcalf beat 
four of them in turn, playing for liquor only. Not satis- 
fied with this, some of the company proposed to play 
for money, and at shilling-wliist, Metcalf won fifteen 
shillings. The losing party then proposed to pay double 
or quit, but he declined playing for more than hali-a- 
guinea points. At length yielding to their iinportuniry, 
he engaged for guineas, and being favoured by fortune, 
he won ten, and a shilling for liquor each game. The 
loser taking up the cards, went out, and soon returned 
with eight guineas more, which soon followed the other 
ten. 

Among the numerous roads which Metcalf contracted 
to miike, was part of the Manchester road from Black- 
Moor 



ADVENTURES OF JOHN METCALF. 397 

Moor to Standish-Foot. As it was not marked out, the 
surveyor, contrary to his expectation, took it over deep 
marshes, out oi" which it was tlie opinion of the trustees, 
that it would he necessaiy to dig the earth till they 
came to a solid hottom: This plan appeared to Metcalf 
extremely tedious and expensive, and liable to other dis- 
advantages. He therefore argued the point privately 
with the surveyor, and several other gentlemen, but they 
were all immoveable in their former opinion. At their 
next meeting Metcalf attended, and addressed them in 
the following manner: "^ Gentlemen, I propose to make 
the road over the marshes after my own plan, and if it 
does not answer, I will be at the expence of making it 
over again after your's." — ^This proposal was agreed to. 
Having engaged to complete nine miles in ten months, 
he began in six different parts, having nearly four hun- 
dred men employed. One of tiie places was Pule and 
Standish Common, which was a deep bog, and over 
which it was thought impracticable to make any road. 
This he cast fourteen yards wide, and raised in a circu- 
lar form. The water, which in many places ran across 
the road, he carried olf by drains ; but he found th^ 
greatest difficulty in conveying stones to the spot on ac- 
count of the softness of ihc ground. Those who passed 
that way to Huddersfield Market, were not sparing of 
their censure of the undertaking, and even doubted 
whether it would ever be completed. Having, however, 
got the piece levelled to the end, he ordered his men to 
collect heather or ling, and bind it in round bundles that 
they could span with their bauds. These bundles were 
placed close together, and another row laid over them, 
which they were well pressed down, and covered with 
stone and gravel. This piece, being about half a mile 
in length when compleated, was so remarkably fine, that 
any person might have gone over in winter unshod without 

being 



) PERSONS RESTORED FROM DEATH. 

being wet; and though other parts of the road soon af- 
terwards wanted repairing, this needed no repairs for 
twelve years. 

Since his return to his native county, this extraordi- 
nary man has resided at Spofforth, near Wetherby, Nvith 
a daughter and son-in-law who keep his house. 

In perusing the above account, we are at a loss whether 
most to admire the wonderful versatihty of INIetcalfs ge- 
nius, or the apparent facility with which he executed un- 
dertakings, for which the faculty he was bereft of seems 
absolutely indispensible. It is however probable, that, 
had he possessed the blessing of sight, his intellectual 
** powers would never have attained that degree of perfec- 
tion, which the abstraction from external objects has 
doubtless tended to promote. 



Hxtr a ordinary and interesting Accounts of the Reiloration 
to Life of Persons supposed to be dead. 

M, MISSON, a French traveller, upon occasion of a 
picture in the Church of the Aposiles at C|ologne, gives 
the following account of the circumstance commemo- 
rated in it: Reichmuth Adolch, the wife of a Counsellor 
of Ccilogne, was supposed to have died of the plague, 
which^ in 1571, swept away the greatest pare of the inha- 
bitants of that city. She was therefore interred, with a 
rina: of considerable value on her tino;er. The niirlit 
flfter the funeral, the sexton opened the grave, with the 
design of taking away the ring. His astonishment may 
be more easily conceived than described, when he felt 
something grasp his hand, and when the good lady laid 
fast hold of him, and exerted herself to get out of the 
coffin. He however disengaged himself, and fled with 
the utmost precipitation. Tlie woman thus providcn- 

tialiv 



PERSONS restohed from death. 399 

tially raised from the dead, quitted her disagreeahle 
mansion, and proceeding to her own home, knocked at 
the door. She called one of the servants by his name, 
and related the circumstance as briefly as possible, that 
she might not be suliered to languish at the door ; but 
the servant treated her as a phantom. He however run 
in a fright to acquaint his master, who, equally incredu- 
lous, called him a madman. The poor woman, mean- 
while, stood shivering in her shroud, waiting for admit- 
tance. At length the door was opened for her, and by 
means of proper treatment, she was restored to perfect 
health, and afterwards had three sons who were clergy- 
man. She lived with her husband in great credit seve- 
ral years after this deliverance, and at her death, was in- 
terred near the gate of the church of the Apostles, where 
a monument was erected to her. In memory of the 
above extraordinary event, a large picture was placed 
over her grave, on which the stor}' is pourtrayed, and a 
relation of it annexed in German. 

It is evident that this story has given rise to the popular 
tradition relative to a monument near the Communion 
Table, in St. Giles's Cripplcgate, which, however is 
merely the monument of a young female half out of her 
coffin, intended to represent the resurrection. 

Among other circumstances of a similar nature, the 
same author introduces the history of Frangois de Ci- 
ville, a Norman gentleman, who, according to his own 
expression, was " thrice dead, thrice interred, and thrice 
by the grace of God restored to life." The mother of 
Civille having died during pregnancy, in the absence of 
her husband, was interred without any means being em- 
ployed to save the child. The day after tlie funeral her 
husband arrived ; he heard with surprize of his wife's 
death, and the little care that had been taken to preserve 
his offspring. He had her taken up, and by means of 

tbe 



400 I»ERSONS RESTORED FROM DEATH* 

t\xe Caesarean operation, a living child was extracted 
from her. This child was Francois de Civille, who at 
the age of twenty-six years, was captain of a company 
of one hundred men in the city of Rouen when it was 
besieged by Charles IX. Being mortally wounded at 
the conclusion of an assault, and having fallen from the 
rampart into the ditch, some pioneers after stripping him 
of his clothes, threw him into a grave, together with 
another dead body, and covered him slightly with earth. 
Here he remained from eleven o'clock in the morning 
till half past six in the evening, when his servant came 
and dug him up. This faithful domestic, embracing the 
body of his master, perceived some signs of remaining 
life, and carried him to the house in which he used to 
lodge. There he lay five days and five nights without 
speaking, stirring, or shewing any sign of sense, but as hot 
from a fever as he had before been cold in the grave. 
The city being taken by assault, the servants of an officer 
of the victorious army who was to lodge in the house 
where Civille was, threw him on a bundle of straw in a 
back room, where being found by some of his enemies, 
they threw him out of the window. He fortunately fell 
upon a dunghill, where he lay in his shirt more than 
three days and nights. Being then discovered by one of 
his relations, who was surprized to find him alive, he re- 
moved him to a place of safety about a league from 
Rouen, where he perfectly recovered from the injuries 
he had received. 

The following cxtraordinar}' narrative is related by M. 
Bruhier, in his '^ Dissertation on the Uncertainty of 
the signs of Death." 

Two tradesmen of the Rue St. Honore at Paris, con- 
nected by the most intimate friendship, of equal fortune, 
and following the same business, had each a child, one a 
son, and the other a daughter, nearly of the same age. 

The 



PERSONS RESTORED TO I.irE* 401 

The first sentiments that taught the girl that slie had a 
heart, convinced her at tlie same time th;it it helcnged 
to the youth, who was equally attached to her. This re- 
ciprocal inclination was strengthened hy their frequent 
mutual visits with the approbation of their parents, who 
observed with pleasure that the sentiments of their chil- 
dren accorded so completely with their own intentions. 
Their marriage was on the pointof being celebrated, when 
tiie whdle plan was destroyed by a rich banker, who de- 
manded the young lady for his Vv'ile. The temptation of 
a much more brilliant fortune, suddenly changed the sen- 
timents of her parents. Notwithstanding the repugnance 
to the match which their daughter testified, she, how- 
ever, yielded to the intreatiesof those to whom she owed 
her existence, married the banker, and, like a virtuous 
woman, forbade the young man whom she loved, licr pre- 
sence for ever. The melancholy into which she was 
plunged by the fatal engagement she had contracted, 
brought on a disorder which overpowered her senses in 
such a manner, that she was supposed to be dead, and was 
accordingly interred. 

The lover was not the lust to be informed of the me- 
lancholy fate of his mistress. Recollecting that she had 
formerly experienced a violent attack of lethargy, he flat- 
tered himself that her present situation might be nothing 
more, and this idea not only suspended his grief, but 
made liim resolve to bribe the sexton, with wliose assist- 
ance he took the deceased from her tomb, and carried 
her to his own house. lie instantly employed every kind 
of means to restore her to life, and had the inexpressible 
happiness to find thejn attended with success. 

It is easy to conceive how great was the astonishment 
of the lady, when she I'ound herself in a strange house, 
when she beheld her lover by the side of her bed, and 
was acquainted with all that happened during hgr lethar- 

Vol. II. E E E gic 



402 PERSONS RESTORED TO LII E. 

gic Stupor. She felt the magiiitiide of the debt she owed 
to her deliverer; the love she had continued to entertain 
for him was the most powerful advocate. She recovered, 
and thinking that her life belonged by right to him who 
had preserved it, they went to England, where they 
lived several years in the most affectionate union. 

Being inspired, at the end of ten years, with a desire of 
revisiting their native land, they returned to Paris, and 
took no precaution to disguise themselves, under the per- 
suasion that no one could possibly suspect what had hap- 
pened. By mere accident the banker met his wife in a 
public promenade. The sight of her made such a power- 
ful impression on him, that the persuasion of her death 
could not erase it. He contrived to join her, and not- 
withstandinjj the lanijnafje she held in order to deceive 
liim, he left her more than })ersuaded that she was really 
the woman whose loss he had mourned. 

The strangeness of the circumstances having given the 
woman charms which she had never before had m the 
eyes of the banker, he discovered her residence at Paris, 
in s})ite of the precautions she had taken to conceal it^ 
and preferred a judicial claim to her person. 

In vain the lover urged the rights which he had ac- 
quired b^' his cares to his mistress, in vain he represented 
that had it not been for him, she must have died ; that 
his opponent had divested himself of all his rights bj 
interring her, that he might even be accused of homi- 
cide for having neglected to take proper precautions to 
ascertain her death; in vain he advanced a thousand other 
reasons furnished by ingenious love. Finding that the, 
court inclined to the opposite side, he resolved not to 
wait for the termination of the cause, but repaired with 
his mistress to a foreign country, where they ended iheir 
lilays in peace. 

C'esaricusis relates a story of a rohber who had been 

hanged, 



PERSONS RESTORED TO LITE. 403 

hanged; soon after \vr\icb, the servant of a Canon of 
Cologne passed by the gallows. Perceiving a palpita- 
tion, lie was toueiied with compassion, cut the cord, and 
Revived his patient wich some cold water procured from a 
neighbouring brook. The robber gradually recovered his 
strength, accompanied his deliverer, who was going to 
the next town, and, while conversing with him, he caught 
hold of the bridle of his horse, crying out the horse 
belonged to him, and that the servant had stolen the 
beast from him. This dispute attracted a great crowd, 
who in the indignation with which they were inspired, 
without hearing what the young man had to say in his 
justification, dragged him towards the gallows from 
which he had so lately released his accuser. Fortunate- 
ly some of the inhabitants of the next town observing 
the concourse of people proceeding towards the place of 
execution, which belonged in common to both towns, 
approached to see what was the matter. The servant be- 
ing then allowed to speak, related his adventure, and the 
manner in which he was rewarded for his kindness to the 
robber. The latter being recognised, was again tied up 
to the gallows, v/here hd paid the just forfeit for his 
crimes. 

About the year l683, a miller in the vicinity of Abbe- 
ville, passing near the place where a robber, who had 
been hanged the preceding day, was exposed, imagiaed 
that he was not dead. An emotion of compassion pro- 
duced a desire of ascertaining the truth of his suspicion, 
which was well founded; he took him down with the as- 
sistance of his carman, put him into his cart, and took 
him home. His endeavours to restore him to life were 
crowned with such success, that in a fortnight his new 
guest had recovered his perfect health. He intended to 
dismiss him with a sum of money, but unfortunately he 
neglected too long to execute this design, and one Sun- 

E E E 2 day 



404 DREADFUL ACCIDENT, 

dny left him alone in the house. The wrcrcli forgetting 
what he owed to his deliverer, took advantage of the op- 
portunitv, broke open a chest of drawers, and carried 
oif all the plate and cash he could find. The miller 
upon his return perceived that lie was robbed, and had 
no great difficult}' to guess by whom, when he discovered 
that his patient had disappeared. He pursued the robber 
with his two sons and his carman. They overtook him 
about a league from the spot, and immediately carrying 
him back to the gibbet from which he had been released, 
they hung him up again, and pulled his legs with such 
violence as to prevent the repetition of similar crimes. 
The king's attorney for the bailiwick of Ab!)cville being 
inYormed of the circumstance, directed the miller and 
his accomplices to be taken into custody. They were 
however advised to abscond, till they should obtain 
the king's 'permission to return. The letters of rccal 
granting this permission were prepared by M. Guiiain, 
secretary to the king, by whose son and grandson this 
circumstance was communicated to M. Bruhier. 



DREADFUL ACCIDENT, AND WONDERFUL PFvLSERV ATION 
AT MILE-END. 

A CALAMITY threatening more dreadful consequences 
to the lives of those involved in it, and yet productive of 
less personal injury than that which on the \6ih. of July 
1804 happened in Duke Street, Mile F.nd New Town, ^ 
has rarely occurred. The foundation of two very old 
houses. No. So and 34, gave way, and the wretched in- 
habitants, consisting of eight poor families, were buried 
in the ruins. The time rendered this event more awful 
and distressing; jt was about half past six in the morn- 
ing, and the individuals were only awoke from sleep by 
the destructive crash of both houses, which, falling at 

the 



-AND MONDElirUL r RESER V ATIOX. 405 

iV.e same time, thiecUeiicd to cover them in one 2;rave. 
*riie fronts of both houses fell into tlic; street, but the p'ar- 
ty wall between remained standing; the beams which 
supported the floors likewise remained without falling; 
but the roofs, floors, joists, &c. lell into the cellar. The 
alarm in the neighbourhood, occasioned by the tremen- 
dous noise of the descending ruin, was sudden, and those 
who rushed to the spot at first imagined the premises to 
be on fire, as clouds of dust, which had the appearance 
of smoke, veiled the true calamity. A scene, however, 
soon presented itself that left no time for delay. The 
unfortunate victims were heard to utter the most doleful 
groans, and supplicate for assistance from beneath 
the ruins, and the neighbours with the utmost ala- 
crity flew to their relief. They began by removing the 
upper beams and heavy timber, and listening with atten- 
tion whence the voices issued, they released no less than 
thirty-six persons from their painful siluations; niost of 
them were naked, and many of them bruised in a dread- 
ful manner; but, astonishing as it may ap[>car, not one 
life was lost, nor any bones broken. 

The following is a list of the sufferers : 

No. 33. — Groundfloor, Mrs. Jones and her twochildren. 

In the one pair front, Mr. Foster and two children. — 
Back room ditto, ]SIrs. Lambert and daughter. 

Second floor front, Mrs. Lonnon and child. — Ditto 
back, Mrs. Shepherd and daughter. 

Third floor, lloyston, Vv-ife, and son. 

No. 34. — Ground floor, William Box, wife, and tliroe 
children. 

One pair front. Tiffin, wife, and three children. 

Ditto back. Nightingale and wife. 

Two pair, Eagle (a sailor with one arm) and wife. 

Ditto back, Mrs. Dormer, aged 95 years, being seven 
months bedridden, who was also taken to the workhouse, 

without 



405 DrxT-ADFrL AcncENx, &:c. 

without receiving tlie smallest injury; and a Mrs. Har;- 
kins, aged 74, who hved with her in the same room, like- 
wise unhurt. The wife of Eagle, a sailor, had her hreast 
and shoulder much torn. 

It was nearly twelve o'clock hefore the last was dug 
out of the ruins. One very remarkable circumstance 
was^ a child of about six months old, after beiug above 
three hours buried in the rubbish, when taken out naked, 
and cleaned from the dust, smiled in the face of his de- 
Jiver. — The feelings of nature manifested by different in- 
dividuals on the occasion, are not unworthy of notice: 
One woman when rescued, exclaimed, " A\'hcre are my 
three children:" Box, the tenant of one of the houses, 
on being taken out, asked for his wife atid children ; and 
being told they were missing, resolutely rescued them 
himself though much wounded. Anotlier person named 
Tsicholson, after having escaped, supported a piece of tim- 
ber in the most perilous situation, until his wife got out; 
after which the whole mass again gave way, and he was 
dreadfully wounded about the head and breast before he 
couldbe extricated. A woman who was delivered of a child 
the da}- before, received very little injur3\ The unfor- 
tunate sufferers were conveyed, within one hour after the 
accident, to the London Hospital and parish work-house. 
The bruises experienced by these poor people were but a 
part of their misfortunes: their small stock of cloaths 
and property, was either pillaged or destroyed, and many 
of them were scarcely left in possession of sufficient to 
cover them. 

The volunteers remained on duty the whole of the day. 
A Colonel of the ninth Loyal London Volunteers arrived 
there about eleven, and set a laudable example, by 
making a collection for the unhappy sufferers. He put 
ll. 8s. fid. into the hands of Mr. John Gilbert, landlord 
of the Halifax Head, who is one of the churchwardens 

of 



REMARKABLE TREESj &C. 407 

f the parish, for their use and coniForc. Jones, who is 
a Custom-house officer, was out on duty, and arrived in 
sight ot" liis house just in time to see it iall. 

The houses were originally huilt of" old materials, and 
had stood thirty-eight years. The surveyor of the district 
as well as the landlord of the premises, gave notice to the 
inhabitants, some weeks before to quit, as their lives 
were not thought safe; and several of the poor sufi'crers, 
in consequence of that advice, had looked out for dwel- 
lings to remove to; but, failing of success, were under 
the necessity of remaining where they were. 

TO THE EDITOR OF THE SCIENTIFIC AND WONDERFUL,. 
MUSEUM. 
Sir, 
I have transmitted you the following- Memorandums of remarkable Trees, 
the produce of tliis Country, wliich I think merit preservation in j-our Mis- 
cellany; and as I have not seen any descriptions of the like nature in it, 
they will (I flatter myself) add to tiie pleasing variety of your very interest- 
ing Museum, and at the same time prove acceptable to the admirers of 
the singular productions of nature. If agreeable, I purpose sending a con 
tinuation of them for some future number of the Scientific Magazine. 
Your Humble Servant, 
Nottingham, Juhj 1S04. D. B L. 

1 HERE is not perhaps at present, in this country, such 
an elm as was, in the year 1674, cut down in the park of 
Sir Walter Bagot in Staffordshire. The particulars re- 
corded in the family are, that two men were five days in 
felling it; it measured 40 yards to the top in length; the 
st©ol was 15 yards 2 feet in circumference ; 14 loads were 
broken in the fall, 48 loads were contai;ied in the top ; 
there were made out of it 80 pair of naves for wheels, 
and 8660 feet of boards and planks. It cost, at a time 
when labour was much lower rated than at present, lOl. 
7s. for sawing. The whole substance was computed to 
weigh 97 tons. In May 176O, an oak was felled near 
Ludlow in Shropshire,, the contents of which were as fol- 
low: 



408 ACCOUN'T or MR. DANIEL LAMBERT. 

low : viz. SG tons of timber, 42 cords of wood, 200 park- 
pales, and four cords and a half of brackets. A bough 
broke off before the treC was felled, which wtighed 
seven tons and a half. Two men were employed a 
month in stocking it. Tiie treee was valued at 250l. 

In March 1800, an ash-tree was cut down at Brough- 
ton-llall, near iJliipton, which contained upwards of oOO 
feet of sound wood. The bole was IS feet long, squared 
3 feet 9 inches, and contained 1,S2 feet of wood. 

Dimensions of a iir tree called the Duke, cut down in 

Sej)tembcr 1801, in his Grace the Duke of Gordon's 

wood, of Glenniore, by the Kingston Port Company ; — 

Length in bole 52 feet. 

Fec-t. 
Measured at jiine feet from the root, 09^ square inches, is 931 

Ditto at 33 foet from ditto, 28^ ditto 182^ 
I)itto at 42 feet, 19 ditto 25 

Ditto one branch, 15 by 19 inches square 5~^ 

Ditto, ditto 12 by li ditto Ifii 

Fi-ct 337 

or, 9 tons, at 5l. per ton, is 4il. The tree was 370 
years old, wa^ perfectly sound, excepting a little at the 
top, and at the small end of the branches. It was cut 
down in three hours, by two Hi^ghland lads 18 ye(M*s of 
age. 

Some Account of Mr. Daniel Lambekt, o/Leicestef, 

supposed to be the heaviest Man in England. j^ 

Mr. DANIEL LAMBERT, of wh6m we have annex- 
ed an engraved Representation, taken from life, may 
justly be considered one of the greatest prodigies at pre- 
sent existing in this country. He is about thirty-six 
years of age, of the common stature, being about five 
ieet, seven or eight inches in height, and has attained 
the enormous weight of forty-nine stone twelve pounds, 
which is about half a hundred weight heavier than the 

celebrated 



i 




M^I])AMI]E]L I^AIMjBjEMT of Leicestoj'. 



AGCOUNTOF MU. DANIEL LAMBERT. 409 

celebrated Bright of Maiden in Essex, whose waistcoat 
was so capacious, that seven men might be buttoned up in 
it. When seated, his thighs are so covered by his bell}'', 
that nothing but his knees are to be seen ; while the flesh 
of his legs, which resemble staffed pillows, projects in 
such a manner as nearly to bury his feet. Notwithstand- 
ing his extreme obesity, liowever, those who have seen 
this remarkable man, declarethat his body and hinbs 
from head to feet bear a very exact proportion to each 
other. 

In his situation of keeper of the Bridewell at Leices- 
ter, Mr. Lambert evinces a humane and benevolent dis- 
position. He is an intelligent man, reads much, and 
possesses great vivacity. 

Till within the last three years, Mr. Lambert was very 
active in all the sports of the field, and though his exces- 
sive corpulence now prevents him from partaking in them, 
he still keeps dogs to which he is extremely attached. 
He was likewise noted as an excellent swimmer, and as a 
celebrated feeder of cocks. 

The following anecdote is related of ^im : — Some 
time since a man with a dancing bear, going througli 
the town, one of Mr. Lambert's dogs taking a dis- 
like to his shaggy appearance, made a violent attack 
upon the defenceless animal. Bruin's master did not fail 
to take the part of his companion, and, in his turn, begaa 
to belabor the dog. Lambert being a witness of the tiay, 
hastened with all possible expedition from the seat or 
settle (on which ho makes a practice of sitting at his own 
door,) to rescue his dog. At this moment the bear, turn- 
ing round suddenly, threw down hisimwieldy antagonist, 
who from terror, and his own weight, was absolutely 
unable to rise again, and with difficulty got rid of his 
formidable opponent. 

Mr. Lambert much dishked to let his weight be known. 
Vol. IL f r f and 



410 FARTHER ACCOUNT OF THE CAMELEdN. 

and frequently objected to being weighed for that pur- 
pose. Going, however, onedayto a cocking match at 
Loughborough in a carriage, into which he was obhged 
to get sideways ; by a preconcerted plan of some of 
his friends, he was taken o\ier a weighing machine^ and 
thus, to his no small mortificatioHj it was ascertained 
with the utmost facility. 

We understand that, as it has lately been resolved to 
transfer the business of the Bridewell to the county goal, 
Mr. Lambert is about to retire from a situation in which 
he has given such satisfaction, that the tovvn of Leicester 
has voted him a pension. 

Farther Account of the Cameleo.v, coyitaining a Correc- 
tion of several vulgar Hrrors; zcith Experiments on the 
Zi^onderful Properties of that animal, hy M. Golbery. 

1 OWARDS the end of the year 1786, I made a collec- 
tion of several cameleons, of all sizes and ages, and I 
derived pleasure from observing them with attention. 

The first object of my curiosity was the nature and va- 
riety of colours whicli this animal was capable of assum- 
ing; and I soon convinced myself that the cameleon 
does not adopt the colours of the objects which surround 
or cover it; that the changes to which its natural colour 
is subject, are owing only to the painful affections which 
this animal internally experiences, and of which it is 
susceptible in a singular degree. 

Its natural colour is that of the finest green emerald; 
and this hue I always observed it to possess when in a 
state of liberty, and perched like a parrot on the branch 
of some young tree, ornamented with beautiful foliage, 
among which it cannot be perceived or distinguished 
without difficulty, no more than when it creeps or lies 
carelessly among the verdant herbage. 

At 



FARTHER ACCOUNT OF THE CAMELEON. 411 

At this time it is not only of the finest emerald green, 
but it is likewise most healthy and corpulent. A state of 
liberty, and the privilege of living among grass, or flou- 
rishing trees, appeared to me two indispensable circum = 
stances for maintaining the beautiful green colour of the 
cameleon, as well as its general healthy appearance. 

From the moment that the liberty and security of this 
reptile were troubled or restricted, I could perceive alte- 
rations in the freshness and brilliancy of its colour, and 
in the plumpness of its whole body. W^hen I kept my 
cameleons in a cage, and plagued or tormented them, 
I saw that they laboured under anguish and rage, which 
they expressed by expiring the air so strongly, that its 
force became audible, soon after which these animals 
grew lean, and their fine colour was tarnished. On con ! 
tinning to torment them, the dull green became a yellow 
green and afterwards a yellow, spotted with red ; then 
a yellow-brown, spotted with red-brown; next a brown- 
grey, marked with hiack : at lehgth my cameleons adopt- 
ed different shades, and became gradually thinner. These 
were the only colours I could make them assume. 

After I had thus tormented them, and kept them priso- 
ners for several days, I used to set thcjn at liberty. I 
conveyed them to the grass, or a tree, and notwithstand- 
ing their black and meagre appearance, they resumed 
their green colour and their corpulence. 

I often wrapped my cameleons, in while, red, blue, 
violet, purple, and green stufi's, in which 1 left them 
whole days together, and on visiung my jMjor prisoners, 
I found that they had assumed none of those colours, but 
were always of a yellow green, dull yellow, or hlackish 
grey, which are those they always assume when in dis- 
tress or pain. 

The skin of the cameleon is of a very fine and delicate 
texture; it is extremely soft and cold to the touch, and 

¥ I- V 'Z when 



412 FARTHER ACCOUNT OF THE CAMELEO". 

wlicn observed with a magnifying glass of considerable 
power, on tlie living animal, it appeared like a shagreen. 
But though so very tine and supple, it is not glossy; yet 
the little points or eminences upon it may be said to be 
imperceptible, as tliey can scarcely be distingvishcd by 
the naked e^'C. it is exceedingly tenacious, and posse.->se3 
a great portion of elasticity as well as the faculty of ex- 
panding and contracting to a considerable degree. 

It is doubtless to this contexture of the skin, that we 
must attribute the faciUty with which the cameleon 
changes its colour, according to the degree of dilatation 
or contraction which it undergoes ; and it is equally cer- 
tain that those sudden ch;ingcs in the animal which asto- 
nish us so much, are derived from the same cause. 

The cameleon however possesses a much more extraor- 
dinary faculty than the changing of colour, that of di- 
lating and contracting itself at pleasure, I'he cause of 
its expansion is the air wiiieh it inspires: for this air does 
not remain in its breast, stomach, or intestines, but pe- 
netrates through every gart of its bod}' so generally and 
completely that its whole frame is filled, even to the ex- 
tremities of its feet and tail, as well as its eyes, which are 
then more full and projecting. 

This facility of imbing air must be very great, be- 
cause I observed my cameleons, after being several di^ys 
in a declining or decaying state, recover their flesh, and 
re-expand to the utmost degree in a short space of time ; 
and I have likewise seen them remain fat and bloated for 
a fortnight together, soon after which they become so 
contracted, as apparcnil}' to be nothing but skin and 
bones. 

But it must not be imagined, that in its state of health 

the eamcloon merely resembles a skin filled with air; on 

the contrary, it appears fat, and its flesh is naturally dis- 

tj-ibuted over cverv part of its bodv. 

in 



f ARTKER ACCOUNT OF THE CAMELEON. 413 

In its last degree of contrac tion, when tl.is ai)inuil has 
ahuost entirely voided its air, and retains only the c|uan- 
tit}^ necessary for tlie preservation of its vital faculties, 
the extreme leaiincs;- of its hudy is astonishing; and it 
appears extraordinary, that when the animal moves, or 
in particular ulien it turns, it resembles an empty sack 
that has been twisted up. 

\V'^ishing to ascertain to what degree the cameleon is 
capable of carrying the laeulty attributed to it, of living 
upon air, and existing a length of time without eating; 
at the end of the year 17S6, at Isle St. Louis, in the Se 
negal, I subjected my cameleons, being seven in number, 
and in a state of perfect health, to the experiments which 
I \Yished to make and describe. 

I inclosed five of these animals in separate cages of 
iron wire, which were covered with a very fine gauze, 
hilt of such a close texture, that no insect could pass 
through it. I suspended my cages by means of cords 
and pullies to the ceiling of my chamber ; the cords of all 
these little prisons being tied together, and phiccd in a 
wooden box that was fixed to the wall and locked. With 
this precaution, 1 was sure that nobody could let down 
my cages, that my cameleons could receive no food, and 
that they were condemned to the most perfect abstinence. 
I numbered my cages with the figures 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5. 

,It was on the first of November that 1 began my expe- 
riments ; I visited my unfortunate prisoners, who were 
destined to perish of hunger, four times in every twenty- 
four hours. In a few days they became meagre, and 
turned to a blackish grey colour, which was a certain 
sign of their distress; but having arrived at a great degree 
of leanness, they renuiined in the same state for the space 
of a month, without my being able to perceive that they 
sulfered any very evident diminution of their strength. 

The cages in which I had confined them were fifteen 

inches 



414 FARTHER ACCOUNT OF THE CAMELEON. 

inches high, and were crossed by little sticks in the mid- 
dle, like the perches in bird-cages. 

Whenever I letdown my cages, for fbe purpose of ob- 
serring ray cameleons, they opened their mouths, and 
expired the air strongly at me ; these expirations were 
Yery perceptible, and could be distinctly heard. 

During the first six weeks, my prisoners moved about 
their cages, from the top to the bottom. In the morning 
I generally found them at the top, but after the abovc- 
joentioned period, I remarked that they did not ascend 
so high ; and in short, at the end of two months, they 
no longer quitted the bottoms of their cages ; their lean- 
ness became extreme, their weakness and languor were 
very perceptible, their skin was almost black, and I ob- 
served a heaviness in the motion of their eyes. They, 
however, retained the faculty of swelhng themselves up, 
but only to about half their usual size; their bodies were 
never filled, and speedily became contracted. 

Ky the hrst daj' of January, they had arrived at such 
a degree of leanness, that they were nothing more than 
animiitcd skeletons, and I was convinced they could not 
long exist. Nevertheless No. 3 which died first, did not 
expire till the CBth of January; No. 1, died on the SOih 
of the same month ; No. 4, expired in the night of the 
33th of February, and No. o withstood the punishment 
of hunger till the 23d of February, on the morning of 
which day it fell a victim. No. 2, continued alive on the 
24th of February, but was so feeble and exhausted, that 
I believed it to be near the period of its existence ; I was 
then inclined to release it, without, however, hoping tluit 
it could live. It had subsisted upon air three months, 
and twenty-four days at the lime I delivered it from im- 
prisonment. I took it to the garden, where 1 set it at li- 
bertv, and in a fortnight it had acquired colour and 
strength, and even beG:un to re-fill itself. 



SfArthkr account of the cameleon* 41-5 

On the 30th of March, it was of a green colour, but 
still pale, and had perfectly recovered the faculty of ex- 
|>ansion. Its health and strength appeared to me to be 
entirely restored in the month of April; but towards the 
end of that month it escaped, and my endeavours to find 
it were unsuccessful, so that I was not able to ascertain 
whether the health of my cameleon was really and com- 
pletely re-established ; but doubtless the long abstinence 
which it underwent must have abridged the duration of 
its life. 

It now remains for me to notice the eyes of the came- 
leon, which arc covered with a membrane, that serves 
instead of eye-lids. This membrane is like a case, perfo- 
rated in the middle by a longitudinal hole, about a line 
wide in the largest part. Through this orifice the ani- 
mal sees and exposes to view a brown pupil, bordered by 
a small gxDld circle, and extremely biiglit and shining. — 
This case possesses the faculty of following all the mo- 
tions of the eye, in wbieh respect it differs entirely from 
the common organization of the eye-lids of otlier ani- 
mals, in the present case the motions of the eye-lid so 
exactly correspond with those of the eye, that they are ab- 
solutely one, and the same ; and in all the motions tlie 
little aperture of the eye-lid answers in every rcr.pect to 
the central point of the pupil. But what is still more 
singular, and I believe peculiar to this animal is the fa- 
culty of moving its «yes> in every possible direction, and 
wholly independent of each other. The cameleon moves 
one of its eyes, while the other remains motionless; with 
one he looks before, and with the other behind, or one 
is turned up towards the sky, while the other looks down 
at the ground. These contrary motions are executed to- 
gether with a prodigious rapidity, or alternately with still 
more astonishing quickness ; and they are carried to such 
a degree, that the pupil even passes under the projection 

whicli 



416 



DESCRTFTtON OF THE TERMITr:. 



which serves for the eye-brow, and likewise buries itself 
suddenly in the corner of the of bit; so that the animal 
readily, and at the same time, discovers objects situated 
both behind and before, widiuut in the least degree mov- 
ing his head, v/hicli is oloselv confined to his shoulders. 

These rapid evolutions give the animal the facility of 
secinii; at once in every direction, and of constantly ob- 
serving whatever passes around. The object of this con- 
formation is doubtless the securify of the camcleon, and 
to enable it to catch the small iusects and flies upon 
•which it heds. 



Description o/'//ic Termite, a curious J frican insect, and 
Account of the wondei^fal Nests it constructs. 

\Vf Lave lonj been taught to rca;aiil with adtniration the extraordinary 
Industry, the amazing ingenuity, and the internal regulations and cccono- 
my of the cominunwealtli of hees; but liere we find an insect whose labours 
are not only far more wonderful than theirs, but compared with which the 
tiiost celebrated laoauuicnts of human industry dwindle into insignificance. 

1 HE Termite is found in almost all the western reorion* 
of the African Continent, between Cape Bojador, and 
Cape Blanco. Linnaeus describes this insect by the name 
of Termcs, but it is commonly known by the denomina- 
tion of the white ant. These little animals afford the ob- 
server many subjects of astonishment. They effect, in a 
moment, inconceival>le destruction, and erect monu- 
ments of such prodigious magnitude and solidit}'^, that, 
if compared with the extreme sinallness of the insects by 
which they are constructed, thc}^ appear far more won- 
derful than the proudest productions of human industry. 

Of this kind of insects naturalists are acquainted with 
four sjx'cies. The first is distinguished by the name of 
the Belligerent Termite, and is the largest species. The 
ncst3 of these animals are large handsome pyramids, fif- 
teen or sixteen feet in height above the surface of the 

earth 



DESCRIPTION OF THE TERMITE. 41? 

earth, and as many below it. The second species is the 
Atrocious Termite, whose nests are likewise of a pyrami- 
dal form, but neither so lofty nor extensive as the for- 
mer. Its ravages, however, are more fatal, and its punc- 
tures more painful and dangerous. The Biting Termite 
forms the third species, and constructs its nest in the 
form of a cylindrical turret, four feet high, and one in 
diameter. The turret is covered with a conical roof 
which projects some inches over, and beyond the build- 
ing, the object of which is doubtless to prevent it from 
being injured by rain. The fourth species is termed by 
naturalists the Destroying Termite, and constructs sphe- 
rical nests round the branch of a tree, which passes in- 
tirely through them. 

As the manners of all these species are nearly the 
same, we shall confine ourselves to a more particular ac- 
count of the first, which is in every respect the most 
lemarkable. 

The termites are divided into societies, each society 
builds a nest, and each nest belongs to an innumerable 
quantity of these insec>ts, who are subject to a king and 
queen. These, like many other insects pass through se- 
veral stages of existence before they arrive at the state of 
a perfect animal. 

The first state of the life of the termites, is that of 
larvae, when the insect is not more than two jaus in 
length. It is then of a white colour, has six ]eiis, three 
on each side, a small head without eyes, antennae com- 
posed of small globules joined together, and tapering to 
the extremity, with small jaws. The larva; are chained 
Tvith all the labour of building, and with the care of the 
provisions, and it is they that reduce to an impalpable 
powder the most enormous trees, and the strongest 
pieces of timber. In tiiis state of the termite insect, it 
would be the plague of Africa, if those extraordinary 

Vol. II. o G c powers 



418 ©ESCRIPTION OF THE TEKMITE, 

powers of devastation with which these larvae are indued, 
were not directed to a useful end. 

These blind animals never attack green and healthy 
woodj but only that which being in a state of decay, 
tends but to impede vegetation, and the circulation of 
the air in the vast forests of Africa. It is these larvae 
which likewise devour the enormous animals that die in 
the centre of those solitary forests, either of old age, by 
accident, or of the wounds they receive in the battles that 
continually take place between them. The putrid exha- 
lations of these large carcases would probably infect the 
continent of Africa, if the instinct of the termites did not 
speedily effect their destruction. 

The second state is that of the chrysalis. In this, as 
in the former state, the insects are blind; the head is 
larger, and is provided with long pointed jaws without 
teeth. It is the chrysalids that are charged with all the 
labour and the oeconomy of the nests ; it is they that 
compel the larvae to work, and that construct all the in- 
terior recesses in which the eggs are deposited. They 
are likewise the nurses and the warriors of the commu- 
nity. The larvae do not fight, nor are they armed for 
battle; the chrysalids are therefore charged with the de- 
fence of the state ; they repel external attacks, and op- 
po^ic the daring invader of their peaceful habitations, 
biting him with the utmost fury. 

The termites, at length arrive at their perfect state, 
when they have wings and fly off in innumerable quan- 
tities. It is only in this third state that they are of diffe- 
rent sexes, and are capable of propagating their species. 
After the last transformation into winged insects, they 
ure pursued with great avidity by the birds. Their wings 
soon become dr}', they drop down, and cover the surface 
both of the earth and waters. In some pans they are 
collected by the negroes and eaten. 

We 



DESCRIPTION OF THE TERMITE. 419 

We are not acquainted with the duration of the whole 
life of the termite ; in its winged state it does not live 
more than two days. Towards the evening of the second 
da\' they lose their strength, and these little animals, so 
active and industrious in the state of larva? and chrysa- 
lids, hecome feeble, stupid, and incaptible of resisting 
the s;nallest insects ; they suffer themselves to betaken 
even by the ants, and to be dragged to their nests without 
opposition. 

All the winged termites however do not perish in this 
dreadful destruction. The king and queen, whose busi- 
ness it is to propagate their species are winged termites, 
and some pairs of them, at the moment of the universal 
ruin of the third class, are found by the larva?, and car- 
ried off for the purpose of founduig new colonies. Be- 
ing conveyed either to an old or newly constructed nrst, 
they are there inclosed in a large cell, which is the royal 
chamber or nuptial prison. They are fed by the larvae 
and chrysalids, lose their wings, and pass their lives in 
perfect indolence, being apparently destined only for the 
propagation of their species. The length of the king 
iiever exceeds four lines, but the queen grows to the com- 
paratively enormous size of live inches. 

Sparman asserts, that the queen lays sixty eggs in a 
minute, which makes eighty-six thousand^ four hundred 
eggs in twenty-four hours. Whether this process be 
continued has not yet been ascertained ; but the infinite 
multitude of termites that are every where seen in Africa, 
, arc sufficient to induce a belief that the laying is perpe- 
• tual. 

The following is the account of the p^'ramids or nests 
constructed by the belligerent termites, as given by a late 
intelligent traveller, M. Golbery. 

*' I took a ride," says he, " ©ne morning at sun-rise, 
followed by my black servant and interpreter, and ao- 

<J G G 3 comoanicd 



420 DESCRIPTION OF TUB TBRMIT«. 

coinpanied by Sonkoary, a relation of the king of Barra, 
(on the river Gambia), and presumptive heir of that lit-* 
tie kingdom. The object of my ride was to visit the 
wood Lamaya, situated to the west of Albreda, and about 
two miles from that village. 

" This wood, which is above two leagues in circumfe-- 
rence, is composed of trees of tlie largest species, the 
leaves of which resemble those of the plane-tree. They 
are all very old, and upvva:ds of fifty feet distant from each 
other. Their superb heads touch and intermix, forming 
a dome, which is the more beautiful, because the trunks 
heing free from branches to the height of sixty feet, havQ 
the appearance of noble columns. 

" On approaching this vvood, I was much astonished to 
perceive a number of pyramids, ten, fifteen, and even 
sixteen feet high, of a red colour, exactly similar to that 
of well-burned brick. 

" The size and form of these constructions caused me 
to imagine that they were sepulchral monuments erected 
to the meiuory of tlie ancient Manding warriors at Barra, 
till i eacjuiifcd of my interpreter. Sonkoury replied that 
these edificeii were the work of the termites, and the 
ncst3 of those insects which swarmed in every part of the 
forest. 1 quickened my pace, and arrived at the wood 
of Lamaya, being anxious to observe with attention the 
astonishing labours of au insect with which I was unac- 
quainted till I resided in Africa^ 

''■ I could scarcely conceive how these diminutive ani- 
mals were capable of erecting such extraordinary edifit 
ces; there were upwards of forty pyramids, three hun- 
dred, and in some instances five hundred paces distant 
from each other, rising ten, twelve and even sixteen 
feet above the soil; their bases were all from one hun- 
dred to one hundred and twenty feet square. These mo- 
liiiiueuts appeared to me as surprising as the pyramids of | 

Memphis^ 



1>ES€RIPT10N OF THE TERMITE. 4^| 

Memphis, and even more so, because they were the work 
of ail insect. 

" Theje are long galleries leading to the interior of 
these pyramids, and these galleries contain an immense 
number of cells in fonn resembling the inside of half of 
a very small nut-shell. These cells, are wainscotted, being 
internally lined with small filaments of wood, about the 
thickness of a hair, which are joined and fixed with 
great art by the side of each other. These when viewed 
through a magnifying glass, have the appearance of a 
floor formed of small rushes glued and dove-tailed to each 
other. In this manner the whole interior surface of each 
cell is covered ; and it can only be by means of a sub- 
stance perfectly glutinous, that the insect can unite with 
such neatness and solidity the minute filaments it employs 
to line the inside of its nurseries. 

" It would be both curious and philosophical to com- 
pare the pyramids of the wood of Lamaya, the admira- 
ble work of very small insects, to the pyramids of Eg\"pt, 
the boasted productions of human industry. 

*' From this comparison, it is evident that the Egyptian 
pyramids are far inferior in njagnitude to those of the 
wood of Lamaya, when we consider the relative propor- 
tions of their respective architects. The highest of the 
pyramids of Ghiza is not above four hundred and filty 
feet in height, and supposing the stature of the Egyp- 
tians to be only five feet (which is far below the ordinary 
height of man) the proportion of the largest of the Egyp- 
tian pyramids to a man of five feet, would only be as four 
hundit'd and fifty to five, or ninety to one. 

'^ It has been already observed, that the termite lar- 
vie are the builders and masons of their empire, and that 
their length is not more than three lines. Consequently 
the highest of the pyramids in the wood of Lamaya, 
which was seventeen feet above the ground, when com- 
pared 



4et 



eVRiaVS PRODUCTIONS OF ARt. 



pared to the termite larvae, will be as two thousand four 
hundred and forty-eight to three, or eight hundred and 
sixteen to one. 

** The pyramids of Lamaya are, therefore, in a rela- 
tive proportion, infinitely higher than those of Egypt, 
and if we consider the masses, and the time respectively 
employed in the constructions, together with the great 
Bumber of these pyramids of the termites, that exist in 
Africa, we shall be compelled to admire the powers 
which the Creator has granted to one of the smallest of 
insects, and to view with a more modest eye, those cele- 
brated monuments of ancient Egypt, the description of 
which is so flattering to the pride of man." 



CURIOUS PRODUCTIONS OF ART. 

1 HE great bell in Lincoln cathedral, called Tom of 
Lincoln, measures twenty-two feet eight inches in cir- 
cumference, weighs nearly five tons, and will hold four 
hundred and twenty-four gallons, ale measure. 



At Erfurt in Germany, there is a bell, reckoned one of 
the Uirgest in Europe. It weighs upwards of twelve tons, 
is nearly eleven feet in height, and as many yards in cir- 
cumference. It is said that its sound may be heard at tiie 
distance of twenty-four miles. 



Among the curiosities of Slrasburg cathedral, are tw(y 
large bells, one of which is of brass, and weighs ten 
tons; the other is of silver, and is said to weigh above 
two tons. 



In the Aradcm}' of Sciences at Petersburg, is a repeat- 
ing watch, about the size of an e^g; wiihin is repre"scnt- 
cd our Saviour's tomb, with the slonc nt the entrance, 

and 



CUmOUS PRODUCTIONS OF AST". 433 

^nd the centinels guarding it. While the spectator is 
admiring this curious piece of mechanism, the stone 
4s suddenly removed, the angels appear, the women enter 
the sepulchre, and the same chant is heard which is per- 
formed in the Greek church on Easter Eve. 



At Lucern in Switzerland, is to be seen a topographi- 
cal representation of the most mountainous part of that 
country, the workmanship of General Pfiffer, a native 
of the above town. It is a model twelve feet in length, 
and nine and a half in breadth. The materials of which 
it is made are principally a composition of charcoal, 
lime, cla}', and pitch, with a thin coat of wax. It is so 
hard, that it may be trodden upon without sustaining 
any injury. Tiie whole is painted with different colour*, 
representing the objects as they appear in nature, and it 
is particularly worthy of observation, that not only the 
woods of oak, beech, pine, and other trees, are accurately 
distinguished, but the figures of the rocks are likewise 
preserved, each being shaped upon tht^ spot, and formed 
of granite, gravel, calcareous stone, or such other sub- 
stance as compose the original mountains. The eieva* 
tions a)-e taken from the level of the lake of Lueern, and 
the plan is so minutely exact, that it comprehends not 
only alith<e mountains, lakes, towns, villages, and forests^ 
but likewise every cottage, stream, road, and even foot- 
path, is distinctly represented. In 1791, when this mo- 
nument of patient ingenuity was examined liy Count 
Stollberg, it coniained a miniature of an extent of coun- 
try equal to two hundred and twenty square leagues. 



Dr. Oliver informs us, that in Holland an English gen- 
tleman oixes hewed him a cherry-sione, with one hun- 
dred and twenty-four heads engraven upon it, and all so 
perfect that the naked eye might distinguish those of 

kin^, 



424 HORRID MURDER AT PETERSBURG. 

kings, popes, cardinals, &c. by their crowns and mitres. 
This curiosity was bought in Prussia, for three hundred 
pounds, and is said to have been the workmanship of a 
poor wretch in prison at Dantzick. 

In the Royal Museum at Copenhagen, a stone of the 
same kind is preserved, on which are engraved two hun- 
dred and twenty heads, but they are so small as to appear 
imperfect aiid confused. 



Account of the horrid Murder of a lohoh Famili/ at P^- 
tcrsburgh, and Description of the cruel Punishment z«- 
fictcd on the Ferpeirator. 

About the beginning of the winter of 1803 — 4, the 
public attention at Petersburg!! was much engaged by onp 
of the most atrocious murders ever heard of: a whole fa- 
mily were found massacred in their sleep, in the suburbs 
of Petersburgh. A map and his wife lay in bed with 
tlieir headsnearly cutoff, a subaltern officer lay stretched 
on the floor in the same state; near the door was a boy 
_about twelve years of age, who probably having attempt- 
ed to escape^ Mas beheaded and cruelly mangled; in a 
cradle was found a child nearly frozen to death, and upon 
a table in the room were seen a pack of cards, an empty 
brandy botlle,, and a few pieces of copper. 

It was about four d^iys after the niuriJer before the dis- 
covery was made, when his Imperial I\Jajesty attended 
in person, and saw the horrid spectacle, frozen into one 
mass of ice; he threatened the police with severe conse- 
quences if the assassins were not apprehended in 48 
hours, gave 100 rubles for the relief of the infant, and 
promised a thousand for the discovery of the offenders. 

B}' the fclh-wing day, 147 pcrs>'ns were taiicn into 
cust( dy, and among them the villain who had been guil- 
ty 



HORRID MURDER AT PETERSBURG. 425 

ty of the crime. He was a carpenter, who had worked 
in the neighbourhood, and having heard that the people 
possessed a small sum of money, went one evening to 
beo: a lodEcins:, when, after havino; resraled them with 
brandy, he took an opportunity when they were all 
asleep, to treat them in the manner above related, robbed 
the house of about one hundred rubles, fastened the win- 
dows, having fixed a padlock on the door, and \yalkea 
oft' unnoticed. On the Saturday morning following, 
about ten o'clock, he was conducted to the place of exe- 
cution. First went the police master, then a posse of 
police officers on horseback, two and two, four ranks of 
foot soldiers, twelve deep, behind the last rank was the 
murderer, on each side of him marched a soldier with a 
drawn sabre; on his right and left twelve others with 
fixed baN'onets, 

He was a tall handsome young man, about twenty-six 
years of age, about six feet high, dressed in a blue coat, 
resembling that of a blue-coat boy; he was accompanied 
by two others, who were to suffer for forgery, with the 
executioner carrying the knoots tied up in canvas, and 
about six ranks of loot soldiers closed the rear. The phy- 
siognomy of the murderer was such as would have stag- 
gered even Lavater himself; his countenance was open 
and honest, nor had he the least appearance of possess 
ing so base a heart. 

The stake prepared for him was a strong block of 
■' wood, fixed in the ground, with three grooves at the top, 
and two rings near the bottom : the middle groove was for 
the neck, and the two others for the arm pits, tJiie rings 
below to lock round the ancles; about the stakes were 
laid coarse skins, especially where the knoot-raaster trod, 
upon which lay his whips) marking-irons, pincers, &c. 
An officer then read a paper to the people, signifying that 
forgery upon the Imperial bank being a capital crime. 

Vol. n, II n If and 



425 



HOURID MURDER AT PETtRSBURG. 



and two of the prisoners convicted of it_, were condem- 
ned to receive eleven blows of the knoot, to have their 
nostrils pulled out, and be banished for life to Siberia : 
the murderer of so many persons to receive 399 blows, to 
be branded three times in the face, have his nostrils pulled 
out, and (if thou alive) be banished for life to the mints 
of Siberia. 

The executioner and his assistants then stripped him, 
tied his hands across, and led him to the post; after fix- 
ing his ankles, they bent his neck and arms over it, and 
drew the rope with which his hands were tied through the 
ring on the opposite side, which seemed to stretch all the 
muscles of the back. He then retired about four or five 
yards from him, and taking up one of the knoots, work- 
ed it with his hand to give it a proper elasticity. Walk- 
ing towards the criminal with four or five steady steps, 
then taking a spring, he struck a perpendicular stroke 
with a heavy, loud crack. Tlie first stroke cut from the 
right side of the bottom of the neck to the left arm-pit. 
The effect was visible in a moment, and by the violence 
of his screams afforded reason to suppose that the pain 
was very great; the second was about half an inch below 
the first, and so on till ^15, when changing the whip, the 
operator erased the former wounds, striking from the left 
side to the right, and afterwards quite perpendicular. 
The strokes were given with the greatest regularity; be- 
tween each a person might deliberately count eight, the 
executioner always walking slowly to and from the stake. 
His cries were now so terrible, that some of the spec- 
tators were obliged to turn their backs, and put their fin- 
gers in their ears. All were quiet and silent, and the 
crack of the knoot was heard to a great distance. After 
receiving 300 lashes the culprit's voice grew faint, and 
during the last 100 he shewed no signs of life whatever, 
the whole of the upper part of the back being beaten to 

a black 



ORIGIN OF THE NAME OF-PEDLAR's ACSE. 427 

a black mummy. After the last blow the assistants lift- 
ed up the face by the hair^ and the executioner struck 
him forcibly three times with an instrument that left the 
initial of murderer, throwing each time an handful of 
black dust into the wound ; after which;, at two pulls, he 
tore the gristle of his nose, and loosened him from the 
block. The whole lasted about three quarters of an hour, 
and it was generally thought that he had been dead some 
time; however, he made a feeble attempt to put on his 
coat, and recovered sufficiently to be able to make some 
reparation to society by working the iron mines. 



ORIGIN OF THE NAME OF PEDLAR's ACRE. 

On the Surry side of Westminster bridge, opposite 
Stangate, is a place called Pedlar's Acre, traditionally 
Said to take its name from the following extraordinary 
circumstance: A travelling Pedlar accompanied by a 
favourite dog, seated himself on this spot to take some 
rest and refreshment. At this period there were no houses 
on the place, nor any nearer than the neighbourhood of 
Lambeth, which was a more considerable place of trade 
than at present, in consequence of the ferry from West- 
minster for passengers, carriages, horses, &c. tlie name 
on the Middlesex side still retaining that of the Horse- 
ferry Road. The pedlar during his repast observed his 
dog busily employed in scratching up the eartii near 
where he sat, nor could he by any means withdraw the 
animal's attention from his pursuit, until he discovered a 
treasure in gold and silver to a considerable amount, 
which when the man had secured, he satisfied his brute 
attendant. The pedlar proceeded to the first house he 
could find, and enquired out the owner of the land, 
to whom he soon introduced himself, and made a 

H H H $ bargain 



425 ORIGIN OF THS NAME OF FEDLAr's ACRE. 

bargain for the ground, which from that time he called 
Pedlar's Acre. With the remainder of his money he 
built several houses on the place, and from a pedlar be- 
came a considerable merchant. Tradition adds, that on 
several occasions he was a liberal benefactor to the poor 
and parish of Lambeth, and that the memory of so sin- 
gular an event might be known to posterity, he by will , 
left the land called after him to Lambeth parish, on con- 
dition they should perpetuate his story, by placing in 
one of t!)c v.'indows of their- church, his effigy in his 
pedlar's dress, attended by his faithful dog painted on 
glass, which remain to the present hour in the soutii east 
window. 

Whether or not the legend is fabulous, it is impossible 
after such a lapse of time to ascertain. — Success in ped- 
dling might have enabled the man to have accomplished 
an independence ; but it is certain, however he obtained 
it, whether by industry or chance, he himself conceived 
his success extraordinary. Thus far goes the popular 
story, handed about by tradition in the neigiibourhood. — 
A very difl'ereut account is given by a celebrated antiqua- 
rian, though we should by no means discredit on every 
occasion popular tradition, because an inquisitive mind 
cannot always lind authentic documents to establish or 
contradict it. The Church authority and antiquarian 
opinion says: — 

At the bottom of the middle compartment of the 
south east window, over the pulpit, is painled, on a pane 
24 inches by l6, the portrait of a pedlar and his dog. 
This is first mentioned by Mr. Aubrey, and copied from 
him into Maitland's London. The tradition of the pa 
rish, that the pedlar gave them Pedlar's Acl'e, in Lam 
beth Marsh, for leave to bury his dog in their church- 
yard> is too idle to be repeated. Bishop Gibson, who 
was rector of the parish at the time he was collecting 

materials 



OPcIGINf OP THE NAME OF TEDLAK S ACRE. 4'2f> 

nialerials for his edition of" Camden's Britannia, takes 
no notice of this painting, though he mentions the stoiy 
of Dog Smith, who died 1627^ aged 79, and left nothing 
to Latnbetn parish till 1626. There is no obligation on 
the parish to repair this pane, though it appears to have 
been repaired by orders of Vestry in 1()10.- Tlie piece of 
ground called Pedlar's Acre adjoins to the river, and lies 
ne;ir the cast end of the-Hiftry, abutment of Westminster 
bridge; . ■. Tt;contaijis\byj admeasurern'ent one acre 1 7 poles^ 
and was held in. 1773j of the parish by Mr. Wells. It 
does not appear among the benefactions in i.ny of the 
registers. The parish were in possession of it 1504, at 
which time the rent arising from it was applied to the re- 
pairs of the churcli ; and in the churchwardens' accounts of 
that year, it is called the church hoopys, or hope, which 
name it retained till lti'2.{, when it assumed that of the 
church oziers; though sometimes, and more frc(pKntly, 
it went by that of the church hope, tiil l6j;0, when in a 
lease of it, dated August G, it is for the first time.called 
Pedlar's Acre, Hope, or Hcope, signifies an isthmus or 
neck of land projecting into the river, or an inxrlosod 
piece of low mcadou' or marsh land. The different rents 
which this piece of ground has let for, are as follow: 

/. s. d. I 
1505 - - 2 8 1564 - 
1516 - - 4 1581 - 

1520 - - 6 I 1651 

1521 - - 5 I 1705 - 
1556 - - 6 8 j 

Some years since it was demised for a term of years in 
consideration of a tine of 8OOI. and the yearly rent of lOOl. 
and it is expected at the expiration of the term to produce 
more than double. 

Contiguous to Pedlar's Acre there were formerly two 
other pieces of land called the Maidens' and Archbishops* 

Acres, 



/. 


s. 


(I 





13 


4 


1 


6 


S 


4 








4 









430 ACCOUNT OF THE LIFE OF HANNAH SNELL. 

Acres, whence it is presumed that Pedlars' Acre was so 
called only to distinguish it from the others; but the 
conjecture is certainly strained, and far-fetched. At the 
Royal Circus, St. George's Fields, has recently been 
produced, an excellent pantomine onthis story, in which 
the subject is founded entirely on the traditional ac- 
count. 



Account of the Life and extraordinary Jdventures of 
Hannah Snell, with her Fort rait. 

If, in the course of the following" narrative, the reader should meet with 
eircumstaiices which appear to trespass on the limits of credibility, \vc 
trust he will not impute it to any desire on our part to mislead. The parti- 
culars here recorded are compiled from the most authentic materials that 
could be procured, and each is at liberty to attach tliat degree of credit to 
them which he may think they deserve. 

-llANNAII SNELL was born in Fryers Street, in the 
city of Worcester, on the 23d of April 1723. Her grand- 
father embracing the military profession, served under 
William HL and Queen Anne, and terminated his career 
at the battle of Malplaquet, where he received a mortal 
wound. — Ker father was a hosier and dyer, and had a fa- 
mily of three sons and six daughters, of whom our 
lieroine was the youngest but one. 

In the year 1740, having lost her father and mother, 
ILinnah removed to London, where s]ie for some time re- 
sided with one of her sisters, married to a Mr. Graj^, car- 
penter, in Ship Street, Wapping.. Soon after her arrival 
in the metropolis, she became acquainted with a Dutch 
seaman, named James Summs, who paid his addresses to 
her, and they were married on the 6th of January^ 1743. 
It was not long, however, before she found herself mise- 
rably deceived in the opinion she had formed of her hus- 
band. He abandoned her company for that of women 
ot the lowest description, with whom he squandered the 

litllo 



■ACCOUNT OF THE LTFE OF HANNAH SXELt. 431 

little property which his wife possessed, and having in- 
volved himself deeply in debt, he deserted her entirely, 
leaving her pregnant, to struggle with all the horrors of 
povert\\ Two months after his departure, she was deli- 
vered of a girl, who died at the early age of seven months. 

From the time her husband abandoned her, she had 
again resided with her sister; but being by the death of 
her child, released from every tie, she resolved to set out 
in quest of the man, whom, notwithstanding his ill usage, 
ehe still continued to love. In order to execute this design 
\yith a better grace, and more chance of success, she put 
on a suit of her brother in law's clothes, assumed his name, 
James Gray, and set off on the 23d of November, 1745. 
Having travelled to Coventry, and being unable 'to pro- 
cure any intelligence of her husband, she, on the 27th 
of the same month, inlisted into General Guise's regi- 
ment, and in the company belonging to Captain Miller. 

She remained at Coventry about three weeks, during 
which time she made m.any fruitless enquiries after her 
husband. The north being then the seat of war, and her 
regiment being at Carlisle, she, with seventeen other re- 
cruits, left Coventry, and joined the regiment after a 
march of three weeks, which she performed witli as much 
ease as any of her comrades. 

On her arrival at Carlisle, she was instructed in the 
military exercise, and was soon able to perlorm it with 
great skill and dexterity. She had not been long in this 
place, when her serjeanl, whose name was Davis, having 
a criminal passion for a young woman in the town, and 
considering our adventurer as a proper person for pro- 
moting his design, applied to her to assist him in exe- 
cuting it. She appeared to acquiesce in his desire, but 
privately disclosed the whole matter to the intended vic- 
tim, and warned her of her danger. By this conduct she 
gained the young woman's confidence and esteem, and 

being 



432, ACCOUNT OF THE LIFL OF HANNAH SNELL^ 

being frequently in each other's company, the jealons/ 
of Davis was excited^, and gave birth to the desire of re- 
venge. He accordingly seized an early opportunity of 
charging his supposed rival before the comma! ding offi- 
cer with neglect of duty; and she was sentenced to re- 
ceive six hundred lashes. Five hundred, we are told, were 
inflicted, but the remaining hundred were remitted in 
consequence of tlic intercession of some of the officers. 

This cruel punishment was not suffi< ient to satisfy the 
resentment of the jealous Davis; he omitted no opportu* 
nity to mortify her, and to put her on such duties as he 
knew to be disatjrceable or difficult. For this ill usa^e 
she iiowever found some compensation in the increased 
affection of her female friend. 

Kot long after the above unhappy occurrence, another 
cause of uneasiness appeared. A fresh recruit, a native 
of Worcestci-, b\' trade a carpenter, and who had lodged 
in the house of her brother-in-law, having joined the re- 
giment, she became justly apprehensive of a discovery 
of her sex, and her uneasiness increased to such a degree> 
that she at length resolved to desert. Having taken eve- 
ry possible precaution, she repaired to her female ac- 
quaintance, and informed her of her design. The latter 
endeavoured to dissuade her from such a dangerous en- 
terprize; but finding that her resolution was fixed, she 
furnished her with monc}'; and Hannah having taken 
leave of her affectionate friend, immediately commenced 
her journey on foot for Portsmouth. About a mile from 
Carlisle, perceiving some people employed in picking 
peas, and their clothes lying at some distance, she ex- 
changed her regimental coat for one of the old coats be- 
longing to the men, and proceeded on her journey. 

Arriving at Liverpool, Hannah stopped at a small pub- 
lic house, where she acted the gallant, and rendered Bo^ 
aiface "ealous of bis wife. A battle was the consequence^ 

ia 



AceOUNT OF THE LIFE OF HANNAH SNELL. 433 

HI which the supposed gallant so completely drubbed her 
host, that he was obliged to keep his bed next day. From 
this place she suddenly decamped, and proceeded to 
Chester, where what she had obtained from the landlady 
at Liverpool enabled her to appear in a more genteel 
style* 

At Chester she took lodgings in a private house, in 
which likewise resided a young mantua-maker, with whom 
* she soon contrived to ingratiate herself. She pushed her 
suit with much ardour, till at length on some pretence 
she obtained five guineas of the unsuspecting female, and 
then thought it time to leave Chester. 

In an intrigue in which she engaged with a widow at 
Winchester, our galhmt was not quite so successful. 
Here she met for once, with her match ; the widow had 
the art to empty her pockets, leaving her lover to rumi- 
nate on her folly, and to finish her journey on foot with 
the few shillings she had remaining. 

Hannah was about a month in travelling from Carlisle 
to Portsmouth, where she soon inlisted as a marine in 
Colonel Fraser's regiment. Three weeks afterwards a 
draft was made from the regiment, for the East Indies, 
and Hannah among the rest was ordered to repair on 
board the Swallow sloop, one of the ships of Admiral 
Boscawen's fleet. She soon made herself remarkable 
on board by her dexterity and address in washing 
mending, and cooking for her messmates; and these lit- 
tle good offices obtained her the particular notice of Mr. 
Wyegate, one of the lieutenants of the marines, who, in 
a very friendly manner, requested her to become one of 
their mess. This offer she readily accepted, and soon 
became a great favourite wirh the crew of the sloop. 

The Swallow having sustained considerable damage in 
a storm, was obliged to nut into the port of Lisbon to 
refit. A month having been occupied with the necessary 

Vol. II. Ill repairs. 



434 ACCOUNT or the tlFfi OF HANNAH SNEtt, 

repairs, the Swallovv again put to sea, to rejoin the fleet ; 
but, the night after her departure, another tempest equally 
violent with the former, destroyed the greatest part oi 
the new rigging, so that she was reduced to a state very 
little better than a wreck. Hannah took her turn at the 
pump, which was kept constantly going, declined no 
office however dangerous, and established her character 
for courage, skill and intrepidity. 

The ship was a second time repaired at Gibraltar, and 
having touched at the Madeiras, made the best of her 
way to the Cape of Good Hope, where having joined the 
rest of the squadron, they proceeded to make an attack 
on the Mauritius, which, however, proved unsuccessful. 
The Admiral then bore away for Fort St. David, on the 
coast of Coromandel, where the fleet soon afterwards ar- 
rived. 

The marines being disembarked, joined the English 
army; encamping before Areacopong, they laid siege to 
the place, which on the 10th day surrendered. This ad- 
venture gave our heroine fresh spirits, and afforded her 
an opportunity of displaying her intrepidity, which she 
omitted no opportunity of doing, so that her conduct 
acquired the commendation of all her officers. 

The army then proceeded to the attack of Pondicherry, 
and after lying before that place eleven weeks, and suf- 
fering very great hardships, they were obliged by the 
rainy season to abandon the siege. Our heroine was in 
the first party of English foot, who forded the river breast 
high, under an incessant fire from a French battery. She 
was likewise on the picket guard, continued on that duty 
seven nights successively, and laboured very hard about 
fourteen days at throwing up the trenches. 

During this time she maintained her usnal firmness, 
and her conduct was perfectly consistent with the cha- 
racter of bravery which has ever distinguished the Bri* 

tisb 



ACCOUNT OF THE LIFE OF HANNAH SNELL. 435 

tish soldier. In one of the attacks, however, her career 
was well nigh terminated. She fired thirty-seven rounds 
during the engagement, and received, according to 
her account, six shots in her right leg, five in the left, 
and what was still more painful, a dangerous wound in 
the groin. The latter gave her great uneasiness, as she 
feared lest it might lead to a discovery of her sex, which, 
even at the hazard of her life, she was determined to con- 
ceal. It was therefore necessary, that she should con- 
ceal the knowledge of her wound from the surgeons, and 
this she knew it would be in vain to attempt without as- 
sistance. Intrusting; her secret to a black woman who at- 
tended her, and who had access to the surgeon's medi- 
cines, the latter procured lint, salve, and other necessa- 
ries. The pain became extremely acute, and she endea- 
voured to extract the ball, which she at length accom- 
plished with no other instrument than her finger and 
thumb. Notwithstanding this painful and dangerous 
operation, she soon made a perfect cure. 

Being removed to the hospital of Cuddalore, during 
her residence there, the greater part of the fleet sailed. 
As soon as she was completely cured, she was sent on 
board the Tartar pink, and continued to do the duty of a 
sailor till the return of the fleet from Madras. She was 
soon afterwards turned over to the Eltham man of war. 
Captain Lloyd, and sailed with that ship to Bombay. 
Here the vessel which had sprung a leak on the passage, 
w^as heaved down to have her bottom thoroughly cleaned 
and repaired. 

This operation lasted five weeks; the Captain remained 
on shore, while Hannah, in common with the rest of the 
crew, had her turn on the watch. On one of these occa- 
sions, the lieutenant who commanded in the captain's ab- 
sence, desired her to sing a song, but she excused herself, 
saying she was very unwell. The oflicer, however, being 

1 I I 'i of 



436 ACCOUNT or the life of hannah snell. 

of a haughty and imperious disposition peremptorily in-, 
sisled that she should comph', which she as resolutely re- 
fused to do. She soon afterwards had occasion to regret 
her non-compliance, for being suspected of making free 
with a shirt belonging to one of her comrades, though 
no proof could be adduced, the lieutenant ordered her to 
be put in irons. After remaining in this situation five 
days, she was ordered to the gang-way, and received 
twelve lashes. The shirt was found in the chest of the 
man who complained that he had lost it. 

From Bombay the Eltham returned to Fort St. David, 
and on the 19th of November, 1749, that ship, together 
■with the rest of the fleet, set sail for the Cape of Good 
Hope. Lieutenant Wyegate who has been mentioned 
before in this narrative, died the day after their depar- 
ture. His loss was a severe stroke to our heroine, as she 
was greatly attached to him, and he was one of her most 
sincere friends. 

Soon after the death of Mr. Wyegate, the second 
lieutenant of the ship took her into his service, in which 
she remained about two months, when having engaged a 
boy to attend him, he recommended her to Mr. Wallace, 
third lieutenant of the ship, who received her into his 
service, and treated her with distinguished kindness dur^ 
ing the whole voyage. 

About this time the sailors began to rally her, because 
she had no beard, and they soon aftervvardsjocosely chris- 
ened her Miss Molly Gray. This sneering appellation 
occasioned her considerable alarm, as she feared lest 
some of the crew might suspect that she was a female, 
and avail themselves of some favoijrable opportunity to 
ascertain the truth of their suspicions. Instead therefore 
of resenting this treatment, she resolved to take part in 
all their 'fecenes of dissipation, and endeavour to pass for 
as good a man as any oi) board. Accordingly when the 

ship 



Account of the life of hannah snell. 437 

sliip arrived at Lisbon, she joined the crew in every party 
of pleasure on shore, and was one of the foremost to pro^- 
mote every species of joviality. She acted her part so 
naturally that her success far exceeded her expectation, 
so that the name of Miss Molli/ was here buried in obli- 
vion, and Heart!/ Jeinmi/ was substituted in its stead. 

While the vessel remained at Lisbon, Hannah being 
in company with some of her shipmates, chanced to en- 
ter a house of entertainment, where they met with an 
English sailor v/ho had been at Genoa in a Dutch vessel. 
She took the opportunity of enquiring after iier long lost 
husband, and was informed that he had been confined at 
Genoa, for murdering a native of that place, who was a 
gentleman of some distinction, and that, to expiate his 
crime, he had been put into a bag with a quantity of 
stones, and thus thrown into the sea. Distressing as this 
information must have been, Hannah had, however, suf- 
ficient command over herself to conceal her emotions. 

Leaving Lisbon, our female adventurer arrived in safe- 
ty at Spithead, and proceeded to London to the house of 
her sister, who, notwithstanding her disguise and long 
absence, immediately recognized her, and gave her a 
hearty welcome. 

Having, when the story became known, acquired a 
considerable degree of popularity, she was advised, as 
she possessed a good voice, to apply for an engai^ement 
to the Managers of the Royalty Theatre, Welldose 
Square. As they closed with her offer, she appeared 
before the public in the character of Bill Bobstay, a sailor. 
She likewise represented Firelock a military character, 
and in a most masterly and correct manner went through 
the manual and platoon exercises, &,c. 

In this capacity she did not, however continue many 
months, but quitted the stage, ami as she preferred male 
j?.ttire, she resolved to continue to wear it during the re- 
mainder 



438 ACCOUNT OF THE LIFE OF HANNAH SNELL. 

mainder of her life. In consideration of the hardships she 
had endured in the service of her country, government 
granted her a pension of 20L whh the assistance of which 
she took a pubhc house in the neighbourhood of Wapping. 
On one side of the sign was painted, the figure of a jol- 
ly British tar, and on the other the valiant Marine, un- 
derneath which was inscribed, the Widow in Masquerade, 
or the Female ffarrior. 

These attractive signs produced the desired effect; her 
house was well frequented, and she lived many years in 
the enjoyment of prosperity, which compensated, in some 
measure, for the distresses she had experienced in the 
eariy period of her life. 

Though the above account states that Hannah Snell 
succeeded in concealing her sex, yet we have been m- 
formed, by very respectable authority, that the wound in 
her groin led to a discovery of it. By the same person 
we have likewise been favoured with the following parti- 
culars: After her recovery from the above mentioned 
wound, she became acquainted with an Irish officer who 
took her under his protection. By this gentleman she 
had two sons, one of whom, still living, was articled to 
Mr. Greenland, an attorney, residing in Newman Street, 
Oxford Road, and was afterwards married to a young 
lady of the name of Simpson. A decent provision was 
left by the father for the two children, but on the death 
of the youngest, the whole devolved to the elder brother. 
This however proving inadequate to the support of a 
large family, he some years since published by subscrip- 
tion, a portrait of his mother, underneath which were a 
few particulars of her history. 



t 439 ] 



Curious and Interesting Narrative of the Sufferings and 
Adventures of part of the Crew of the Wager on the 
East Coast of South America, in the Year J 741, iy 
Isaac Morris, Midshipman, 

(Communicated by D. B. L.) 

1 HE Wager, our readers will recollect, was a storeshlp 
attached to the squadron sent under the command of 
Lord Anson, to annoy the Spanish possessions in Ame- 
rica. Among the fatal circumstances, tending to frus- 
trate, in some degree, the object of that expedition, was 
the loss of the Wager, which was wrecked on a desert 
island on the west coast of Patagonia. Here the captain 
and the officers, who had resolved to proceed northward 
to some Spanish settlement, were deserted by the greatest 
part of the crew, whose adventures are the subject of Mr, 
Morris's narrative. 

October 12, 1741, being eighty in number, we put to 
sea in the long boat and cutter, leaving Capt. Cheap 
and 19 others on Wager Island, (lat. 47. S.) on the west 
coast of America, where we remained about five months. 
Our design was to steer along shore through the streights 
of Magellan to the Brazil coast. In the passage some of 
us were starved, and the survivors so reduced as to have 
scarcely strength for duty, except 15 that continued to- 
lerably healthy. I will omit the detail of our misfor- 
tunes in this passage; suffice it to say that on January 
10, 1741-42, being fourteen days without sight of land, 
and almost destitute of provisions, we were blessed with 
its agreeable prospect, distant about 7 leagues. We 
stood directly in, and anchored in eight fathoms water. 
Next morning we steered N.E. by E. o^ mile from 
shore; saw numerou:i wild hordes, and some dogs; found 

ourselves 



440 ADVENTURES OF THE eREV? OF THE WAGE*. 

ourselves in lat. 38. 40. S. and steered N.E. into a large 
sandy bay. 

January 12. — Our provisions being out,, and but one 
cask of water left, we ran as nigh in as we safely could, 
and fourteen of the healthiest, of whom I was one, 
swam ashore to procure a fresh supply, and all landed 
safe except one mariner, who was drowned. Four water 
casks were thrown overboard, to which some muskets 
and ammunition were lashed, which we received. Hav- 
ing walked about one mile from the beach, we saw num- 
bers of wild horses and dogs; the first small, the latter 
of a large mongrel breed. Numerous flocks of parrots 
appeared about the rocks, and near the water side were a 
lew seals. Near the shore we found a good spring of 
water issuing from a trench. We shot a wild horse and 
some seals, and tilled three casks, which were towed 
aboard by five of our party. The sea-breeze blowing 
strong, the schooner stood farther off. 

January 14. — The wind fresh at S.E. we saw our vessel 
stretching farther off, and soon received in a scuttled 
cask a few necessaries, with ammunition, and a letter to 
acquaint us they were obliged to stand farther off till the 
weather was more favourable. Next morning wind N.N.W. 
fair weather, we expected them to stretch in for laud ; 
but saw the schooner with the ensign at the topping-lift, 
and under sail from us. The most probable reason I 
could give for such inhuman treatment was, that by les- 
sening the numbers, they might be better accommodated 
with room and provisions. 

Our apprehensions at such an unexpected stroke, are 
more easily imagined than described. We were in a de- 
solate part of the world, fatigued, sickly, and destitute of 
provisions. It is true we had arms, and whilst ammuni- 
tion lasted, nuulc shift for a livelihood. The nearest in- 
habited place we knew was Buenos-Ayrcs, -about 300 

miles 



4.DVENTURES OF THE CREW OF THE WAGER. 441 

miles to N.W. but we were in poor condition for such 9. 
hazardous journey. Nothing therefore remained but to 
commit ourselves to provirlence_, and for the present to 
make the best of our meUmcholy situation. Our names 
were Guy Broadwater, Samuel Cooper, Benjamin Smith, 
John Duck, Joseph Clinch, John Andrews, John Allen, 
and myself Isaac Morris, 

We resolved to take up our quarters on the beach, 
where we landed, till strong enough to undergo a jour- 
ney to Buenos Ayres : so took lodging in a trench near 
the sea side, with no covering but the heavens. Plere 
we staid about a month, living on seal, which were very 
plentiful; we knocked them down with stones, after 
cutting off their retreat by getting between them and 
the sea; so that in a month we were pretty well reco* 
■vered, and resolved on laying in provisions for our jour- 
ney. Having each of us provided a sealr-skin knapsack, 
we put in as much dried seal as we could Ciirry, filling 
their bladders instead of bottles, with water, and set 
out about the middle of February. To proceed with 
more certainty, we determined to keep close to the sea- 
side till we attained the mouth of the vivcr Plate (Rio 
del Plata). The hrst two days we travelled about sixty 
miles, but met with no fresh water, the country being 
corched, and the ruins not set in. Ouv water being 
jie;jrly expended, we were afraid to proceed ; so agreed 
to return to our old quarters, and wait the rainy season. 

On our return we built a hut under a cliit' adjoining 
the sea side, and tarried there three months : seals and 
armadillos being our only provision except sea-weed, 
which we now and then used witli our meat. The male 
seals here are as big as a good calf; their necks shaggy^ 
and the head and face like a lion's. The females are like 
lionesses in the fore part, but their hair is smooth all 
over, whereas the male is so only on his hinder parts. 
Vol. IL k k k froia 



442 ADVENTURES OF THE CREW OP THE WAGElt. 

from whence grow two large fiQs like feet, and two out 
of the breast, by means of which they climb rocks and 
precipices, though they delight to sleep near the shore. 
Some were fourteen feet long, and very fat; but their 
ordinary length is eight feet. The flesh of the young 
ones is almost as white as lamb, and tolerable eating. — • 
Prom shoulder to tail they taper like a fish; and when 
the females give suck they sit on their hinder fins. Their 
hair is of different colourp, and very sleek when they 
come out of the sea. 

Our provisions were not very difficult to be had, and 
we were supplied with wood from a coppice about seven 
miles off. We generally had a hot supper, and passed 
the time as cheerfully as fellows in our circumstances 
could expect; but we knew we could not take a settled 
abode in ti.is place, and could perceive no trace of in- 
habitants having ever been there; for the bay being 
deep, and shoal water, no ships probably ever put into 
it, unless forced by stress of weather, and then they 
must have been inevitably wrecked. Nothing in short, 
remained but to make a second attempt for the river Plate. 

Having therefore laid in a proper stock, we set out 
again towards the latter end of May. Ji) three days we 
travelled about seventy miles, when a violent storm came 
on, accompanied with rain, thunder, and lightning, 
Avhich continued all night, ^^'e found no place ofshel- 
ter, and had nothing to cover us but a seal-skin jacket ; 
■we were half dead with cold. We feared that our pro- 
visions would not hold out, having met wjth no kind of 
supply by the way, and that to proceed farther would 
only be lengthening our journey baqk again. Now foip 
the first time we had like to have disagreed, even to part- 
ing; some being for pushing on at all events. However, 
we jointly at last, concluded on making the best of our 
\iay back again once more. 

Bein2 



ADVENTURES OF TIlE CREW OF THE WA6ER. 448 

Being arrived, we fixed upon measures to secure us 
from the inclemency of the weather, and to procure 
sustenance. To avoid disputes about the laborious part 
of getting provisions, we agreed to divide into t^o par- 
ties, alternately to provide for all, four to scour the 
country one day, and four the next. We had killed so 
many seals that they grew shy of us, and we lived on 
them so long that we were almost surfeited. We saw 
numbers of wild doc^s, but could never come near enouo^li 

■CD ' O 

to kill any, though now and then we shot a puppy, which 
proved delicious fare. We saw some deer, but could 
not contrive to take one. One day we met with- a litter 
of three puppies about two months old, which had taken 
shelter in a hole in one of the sand hills; we took them, 
home. Finding these puppies were whelped in holes, 
we all went out next day, and had the good luck to find 
three litters, in all thirteen, which we carried to our ha- 
bitation, to bring up tame: we fed them with seal broth 
and minced flesh, and they became very serviceable. 
Each of us had a brace, brought up under command like 
spaniels ; nor would they leave us to associate with the 
wild ones; they often supplied us with armadillos, and 
one killed a deer. Hunting one day we saw some wild 
hogs with their young, which our dogs pursued, and 
took two of the latter ; we saved them alive, and shot 
one of the old ones, which afforded many dainty sup- 
pers. The young proved a boar and sow, which we de 
signed to rear for breeding, and brought them up so' 
tame, that they would follow our dogs a hunting; and 
at night all of us took up our lodging together. 

We now wanted nothing; and could we have confined 
our thoughts to present enjoyments, our situation had 
been agreeable enough; but the fears of what might 
hap}>en, frequently struck a damp. Winter was ap- 
proaching; wo had the season to guard against, a stock 

K K K 2 of 



H44 ADVENTURES OF THE CREW OF THE WAGER, 

of provisions to lay up, but had no salt to cure them. 
We resolved to put Our habitation in order, and to secure 
our hut in the best manner possible. Six were to stay at 
home next da}' to procure materials, and two to go out. 
That lot fell on me and Duck. It was so dark before we re- 
turned, that we were near being obliged to lie in the open 
plaiuj had not our comrades by making a fire, directed 
us. About twelve we went to sleep, and about two in 
the morning a violent storm threw down part of the 
Cliff on us, which was very near proving fatal to us all; 
providentially none were hurt. 

At day-light, the weather being tolerable, the first 
thing we did was to re-build. We went to the coppice to 
fell some poles : having but one hatchet, one person only 
could fell them, while the rest brought them out and bun- 
dled them. We were bundling when we saw Clinch run out 
of the wood, crying, " Lord have mercy upon us, here's 
a great tyger !" We were astonished, having come out 
without arms, suspecting no such danger. We took to 
our heels and saw him in pursuit of us: when within 
twenty yards of us, finding it impossible to escape him, 
we all turned clasping our hands, and hallooing to fright 
him; he imttiediately fell back on his tail, gazing at us; 
so we walked off without his pursuing. With our poles 
We fitted up our hut sufficiently to guard us from rain. 

Three weeks afterwards, on the plain, about four miles 
from home, we perceived a lion couchant, watching his 
prey, as we imagined, it being close by a wild cat's hole. 
We joined in a body with our musquets ready, but missed 
him. The lion took no notice, nor stirred from bis pos- 
ture. We'fired again, and shot him in the shoulder : he 
fell on his back, and we ran and knocked him on tli« 
head with the bones of a dead horse that lay near him. 
We dressed his heart and part of his ribs ; but it was 
Tery indifferent eating. 

Findinc: 



ADVENTURES OF THE CREW OF THE WAGER. 44Z!' 

Finding ourselves to be in continual danger^ we de- 
termined to make another push for Buenos Ayres, and 
-provided stores, jackets, and knapsacks of seal skins. 
The weather was set in fair. We divided therefore imp 
two parties, four to kill ,sea1, and four to hunt. It was 
iny lot witli Cooper, Andrews and Duck, to go to the 
rocks. Seal being generally killed with stones or clubs, ' 
we never carried musquets. We had killed three, and 
in the evening, within a stone's cast of our hut, I per- 
ceived our doffs very busv at a small distance wacra:ins: 
their tails in a very fondlirig manner. I passed on with- 
out much regarding it, thinking they had lighted on a 
dead colt. But when I came to the hut, I was quite 
confounded, it being rifled, and all our necessaries gone, 
I run back to my comrades, where I left the dogs. They 
cried out, '^ what's the matter Isaac?" I told them, "Ay,"' 
said they, '^ and something worse has happened ; for yon- 
der lie poor Guy Broadwater and Ben. Smith murdered!'"' 
It'was a most shocking sight ; one had his throat cut, the 
43thcr was stabbed, and tliey were hardly cold ; so we 
thought the murderers could not be far off. At the hut 
we found our powder, ball, musquets, and all gone, 
and the fire extinguished. Whither to go or what to do 
%e knew not. — At last we came to a resolution of going 
•to the next sandy bay, about a mile distant, and to take 
up our quarters there for that night. There we found 
.not so much as a cliff to lie under, so were obliged to 
return to our old abode. 

Next morning the dogs of our comrades stood on the 
■top of the cliff barking at as, nor would they come down 
tliough we called them by their names, and with difficul- 
ty called them down in the evening, it seemed most 
probable that the Indians had carried off Clinch and 
■Allen. We buried the other two bodies in tlie sand. — 
The only expqdient now was immediately to quit this 

place. 



446 ADVENTURES OF THE CREW OF THE "«(*AGtA, 

place, and make one attempt more for Buenos-Ayres. 
We instantly set about tearing raw seal in small pieces> 
■with which we filled our knapsacks, &c. and set forward 
with our sixteen dogs and two pigs, keeping close along 
the coast, which all along is a plain sandy beach. On 
the land side here and there were high sand-hills, in the 
vallies of which we reposed at night. We sometimes 
found cockles washed in; a great dainty! and met with 
a part of a wreck on the beach, particularly a man of 
war's gang-board, and a piece of plank marked 15 feet. 
In the above mentioned vallies was plenty of water 
ponded after rain, and we met with fish thrown in on the 
beach. 

At ten days end we made the river's cape, but found a 
multitude of small rivers and swamps to obstruct us. We 
swam several with our knapsacks across our shoulders 
and at night covered ourselves with rushes, being almost 
devoured by mosquitos. ISext day we made several at- 
tempts to proceed ; but the further we went, the greater 
difficulties we met with, so had no remedy but to tread 
back the melancholy path to our old place, which we 
did in less than ten days. 

We were then afraid to ramble far, having no arras> 
&.C. Our two pigs maintained us near a fortnight^ as did 
afterwards some of our trusty dogs; but in about three 
months this raw feeding brought us into an ill state of 
health. A little way from our hut we found a dead horse, 
of which now and then we took a morsel ; and necessity 
obliging us to go abroad, we sometimes had the good 
fortune to take an armadillo. Finding the trunk of a 
large tree, we imagined it not impossible, with the l*elp, 
of skins, to mnke it into a sort of boat, to convey ui 
along shore to the river; but having no tool, Diick re- 
collected that at the end of our first attempt he threw 
away his musquet, being very indllferent^and we having 

then 



I 



ADVENTURES OF THE CREW OF THE WAGER. 4i7 

dien enough besides ; we therefore went and found it. 
On our return we found ostrich eggs half buried in the 
sand. We beat half the length of the gun barrel flat 
with stones, and whetted it against a rock, the other 
half serving for a handle, and it made a tolerable hatchet. 

Two days after we had finished it, being my turn to 
stay at home, towards evening I walked ou,t to see if my 
^companions were returning, and shortly after perceived 
a dozen horsemen galloping down the sandy beach to- 
wards our hut, whom I soon knew to be Indians. I ran 
towards them, fell on my knees, begging life with all 
the signs I could, when I heard, " Don't* be afraid 
Isaac, we are all here." This revived me. — The Indians 
alighted, and whilst some examined the hut, others 
stood with knives ready to dispatch us if we resisted. 
When they had satisfied their curiosity, they gave three 
^confused shouts, and made us gel up behind them. 
They carried us a few miles into the country towards the 
S.W. and joined about twelve more, who had in care 
about four hundred horses, taken in hunting. They 
treated us with humanity, killed a horse, and roasted a 
part, which was to us a delicious entertainment. They 
gave us also a piece of old blanket to cover our naked- 
Bess. 

We decamped next day, driving the horses before 
us, and travelled nineteen days before we reached their 
next rendezvous, which might be about two hundred 
miles S.W. from our hut, in a valley, where was fine 
pasture and small rivers, but very little wood to be seen 
for many miles round. Here were about twelve Indian 
huts, built with poles and horse skins, inhabited by 
j^nother party, with their wives and children, who gazed 
(.-arnestly on us, as though they iiad never seen while 
people before. We were bought and sold four times for 

a paiy 



448 ADVENtURES OF THE CREW OF THE WAGBR. 

a pair of spnrs^ a brass pan, ostrich feathers, &c. and 
sometimes played away at dice. 

We remained here near a month, when the several 
parties returned from hunting, and joined us, each 
l>ringing the horses they had taken into the common 
stock, amounting to about 1500, some of which were 
scarcely inferior to the best of our European breed. We 
set out for their chief town, where their king lived, being 
about a thousand miles from our hut, and were four 
inonths on our journey. Our food was horse-flesh, which 
some chose raw, others boiled or roasted, and never 
wanted water, the Indians being acquainted with every 
sniall rivulet, which by strangers could not easily be 
found. 

At the end of our journey, after our captors had dis- 
patched their affairs, they were carrying us with them 
to their own houses, and had proceeded some miles, 
when we were overtaken by a party of horse, who 
brought us back ; the king claiming us as his property. 
This town consists of about thirty huts, built low and ir- 
regular, with poles and horse skins^ surrounded with 
pallisadcs about three feet from each other, and con- 
taining about four score inhabitants. His Majesty re- 
ceived us in his hut sitting on the ground, with a javelin 
on one side, and a bow and arrow on the other: he had 
a loose mantle round his waist, a sort of turret of feathers 
on his head, and a long reed pipe in his mouth smoak- 
ing. He asked us proper questions in b,ad Spanish, of 
which we understood a little. We told him we were 
Englishmen, wrecked in the South Sea, in an English 
man of war, going to fight our enemies the Spaniards, 
together with the rest of our history. — When he found 
we were at v/ar with the Spaniards, he expressed great; 
joy, and askc>d if we were great men in our country. — - 
We answered in the affirmative. — He said the Spaniards 

were 



ADVENTURES OF THE CREW OF tHE WAGER. 44|^ 

t^ere their great enemies, and had taken away their 
country, and driven them to the mountains. — When he 
had examined us, he ordered a horse to be killed and 
dressed, and lodged us in his own hut that night, till 
next day we had one built for us. Here we staid eight 
months. Our work was chiefly to fetch wood arid water, 
to skin all the horses which they killed, and the slaves 
^ere treated humanely. Here were four Spanish women 
whom the king told us with a smile, he would give us 
for wives. 

Patagonia is ver}" fruitful in pasture, and abounds with 
horses and a few black cattle, which last are quite neg- 
lected by the Indians, horse-flesh being there preferred 
to all others. The climate is very healthy, and if th« 
soil were cultivated, it would produce all kinds of grain, 
&c. They have plenty of wood, though but few timber 
trees, coppices growing all about, though near the sea, 
we sav/ nothing but a plain open sandy coast. The Pa- 
tagonians, at least those in that part where we resided, 
are tall and well made, generally from five to six fe'et 
high, good naturcd and obliging, and never see each 
other want, The king is only the chief of a party; for 
as they live scattered in little towns, each party seems to 
have such a chief. At drinking-bouts the king and his 
subjects are all equal. He is distinguished by being the 
biggest man, and by a kind of sash round his waist. It 
is true he has deference paid him, and whatever he or- 
ders, is immediately performed; but I never saw any 
punishment, nor any quarrels except at drinking, and 
then their wives always took care to put all weapons out 
of the way. Their feasting is thus: They have in sum- 
mer plenty of sweet berries, like our wortle-berries ; 
having got sufficient, they dig a pit about four feet 
square, lining the sides and bottom with hides. This 
they half fill with berries, and fill it up with water^ stir 

Vol. II. L L L M 



450 AtrVENTUIlES OF THE CEEW OF THE WAGE!i« 

it, and leave it lo ferment forty-eight hours. They s^t 
rounH it afterwards smoakingand drinkiisga whole nighty 
vvoinen and men, singing or rather shrieking; and when 
drunk oi'tt^n fall to blows. When their horses have cat 
down the pasture in one place, they remove their town 
to another, and this several times in a year. They seem 
to have some notion of a deity, and pay a sort of wor- 
ship to the sun and moon — When any of them is sick,^ 
or dying, a flannel cloth is hung up before the person; 
a man with a hoop, round which are tied little bells_, ge- 
nerally a relation comes, and after a few minutes conver- 
sation, walks to the hut, jingling his bells, and talking 
in various accents, dis gned as spells or prayers. They 
roll up a dead b oy m a hisle, with every thing belong-, 
ing to it, and throw it into a large round pit, which they 
fill up with earth. They are afraid of apparitions, for 
none of them vs ill stir out in the dark without company. 
Each Indian has but one wife, and they live in a very 
loving mant'er. The entrance of the hut, which at other 
times is always open, is slmt up with skins as soon as a 
woman falls m labour ; and no one enters till she comes 
out with her child in her arms, which is immediately 
wrapped up in a skin, and laid on a machine somewhat 
like a wheelbarrow; this being hung up by the corners, 
the child swings instead of being rocked ; its arms and 
legs are fastened to prevent its falling. Every morning 
they plunge all theii childr.n in the next brook, even 
when the ground is covered with snow, by which means 
they are hardened to run naked in winter. The men 
wear beads and little bells round their necks, wrists and 
legs; and the women adorn their hair with the same. 
For such trifles, and knives, brass pans, bcc. they traffic 
th^ir hides with the Spaniards when at peace. Their 
liunting season is the spring, and they generally spend 
the summer in taking horses. We made great interces- 
sion 



AbVENTlJltES OF THE CREW OF THE WAGER, 451 

siou to go with them, and at last prevailed, by assuring 
the chief the Enghsh had friends at Buenos Ayres, who 
woukl make him very handsome satisfaction for us, and 
redeem us at any price. 

We were a thousand mileS from Buenos Ayres, and 
their route extended to the east coast of Patagonia^ 
quite to the sea, being about a hundred miles south of 
Buenos Ayres. They carry with them every thing they 
have, women, children, and houses. These last, slung across 
the horses, are nightly taken down to shelter them. They 
take a Few more liorses than they ride to maintain them 
till the hunting begins, which seldom happens till they 
have travelled seven or eight days. We all set out in a 
body except Duck, (a Mulatto born in London) who 
being nearly of a complexion with those Indians, was 
therefore sold up the country. We travelled ten or 
twelve days before we saw any horses, but soon after se- 
veral stragglers fell victims to their ingenuity. Their as- 
tonishing method of taking them desei^ves particular des- 
cription. — Being excellent horsemen, and their horses 
as fleet as the wind, they seldom miss their mark. They 
have two methods; the first is with a lash of horse skins^ 
about two inches broad, and fifty feet long, having a 
running noose at one end. This noose they hold in the 
right hand, and the other end in their left, till they come 
withm a few yards of the beast, when they throw the 
noose over his head, even on full speed, and hold the 
other end fast in their left hand, by which contrivance 
the beast is soon stopped and taken. The other method 
is with a narrow strap of horse-skin about twelve feet 
long, to each end of which is fastened a ball of iron, 
about two pounds weight. VV^hcn* withiij distance of 
game, they hurl one of the balls several times round 
their head till they have got the proper swing, and then 
throw it at the horse's legs, parting with the ball in their 

h h h^ i*-It 



456 DEATH OP PATRICK o'bRIE!^, 

left hand at the same time. This seldom fails cntang*^ 
ling their legs, and throwing them to the ground. The 
horses thus take- n are secured by some of the pursuers, 
whose business is chiefly to tie them in a string, and 
guard them. In a few days they become tame. They 
are dextrous in killing birds with these balls, which they 
throw to a prodigious height. They are trained to this 
from their infancy, and are very expert at it even in 
youth. These iron balls so fastened, are their chief wea* 
pons, next to bow ahd arrows. 

Being now within 100 miles of Buenos Ayres, we beg- 
ged our head conductor to dispatch a man to the gover- 
nor, and acquaint him that he had three English prisoners, 
and enquire if he would redeem us, which request he 
granted. The messenger brought back a gold laced 
Tvaistcoat as a pledge for fulfilling his promise. Next 
day we were desired to get ready to go to Buenos Ayres, 
We soon arrived there, and were immediately brought 
before the Governor, who satisfied our Indian prince 
with ninety dollars, and a few trifles, and then dismissed 
him. 

After remaining at Buenos Ayres a short time, we took 
shipping for England, where Ave safely arrived after ai 
•absence of filtceu months I'rom our native land. 



<i^v^>^'^S^.^-,^,^ 



Death of Patrick O'Brien, the Irish Giant. 

An anon5-mous letter having reached us, stating tJie death of Mr, O'BneUj, 
for particulars of whom see No. 17. p. 352) we think it our duty to laj' it 
before our readers, though w« have net yet ascertained th« accuracy of the 

iotclliu-ence it conveys. 

Cork, Julif SI, 1804. 
O'BIUEN, the Irish Giant, died here last Friday, and 
this day was interred at the church of St. Finbar; thp 
totiiri was of an iraujciii-e matjnitude, and the concour?^ 

of 



f ATAL ACCIDENT CAUSJlt) JJY SUFfOCAtlO:?. 455 

Df people which attended the funeval was so great, and 
■so clamorous, as to oblige the mayor to have the at- 
tendance of several of the peace officers. O'Brien had 
a small property in the county of Kerry, of about 150l. 
a year, which had been mortgaged, to clear which he 
had exhibited himself as a show for some years back; 
the property was nearly cleared, and he had determined 
to retire to his native place after exhibiting himself at 
Kinsale, to which place he was about to have gone at 
the time he was taken ill here. He is reported to have 
ijiade a special bequest in his will, that his skeleton 
might be exhibited in the Museum of the College at 
Dublin. 

PINE-APPLES OF REMARKABLE MAGNITUDE. 

In July, 1804, Mr. Griffin, gardener to J. C. Girardot;, 
Esq. of Kelham near Newark, cut a pine-apple of the 
New Providence kind, weighing seven pounds two 
ounces; and on the 8th of August another of the same 
kind, which weighed nine pounds three ounces. The 
plants from which they were taken produced fruit wbeL- 
©nly two years old. 

In 1803, Mr. Griffin cut a common queen pine, weigh- 
ing five pounds three ounces ; and in ^802, he cut twenty 
queen pines, which together weighed eighty-seven pounds 
three ounces. It is presumed the above are the largesf. 
pine apples of the kind ever grovvn in this country. 



FATAL ACCIDENT CAUSED BY SUFFOCATION. 

A VERY extraordinary and fatal accident occurred oit 
Sunday, August ICth, at the house of Mr. Hoffman;, 
confectioner, in Bishopsgate Street. About two o'clock 
in the afternoon, one of the shopmen having occasion 
to go down to the ice-well to fetch up ice, by some meana 

set 



4t4> FATAL ACCIDENT CAtrSEt) BY SUtFOCATIOT*. 

set fire to a quanrity of straw, which covered it. 'ThS 
straw being damp, it did not burst forth into a flame, but 
continued to burn in a smothefed state; the man made 
every exertion to extinguish the fire, but without effect; 
and it extended itself all over the well. By this time 
the man became so ill and faint, from the stench arising 
from the damp straw, that it was with difficulty he 
esc;iped suffocation. When he reached the top of the 
■well he was still exceedingly ill, and went to bed, but 
without mentioning to any one what had happened. 

After some time, being considerably recovered, he got 
up, communicated the whole affair to his fellow servant, 
and mentioned his determination to go down into the 
well again, to make a second effort to extinguish the fire. 
He accordingly went, and having remained there a con- 
siderable time, his feilow servant called him from the 
top of the well, and not receiving any answer, became 
extremely alarmed, and imparted his fears to a porter 
belonging to the London Tavern, which is directly oppo- 
site to Mr. Hoffman's. The porter immediately went 
down into the well to see what had become of the shop- 
man, whom he found to all appearance dead; and though 
he himself was greatly affected by the smoke, he thought 
he should be able to bring the deeeased to the top of the 
ladder, upon his shoulders. The poor fellow had nearly 
succeeded in his humane intention, and was within a 
short distance of the top, when he was obliged to throvr 
the corpse from his shoulders, and it fell to the bottom 
of the well. The porter himself was so completely over- 
come by the stench, that he was not able to keep his hold 
of the ladder, and almost at the same moment dropped 
down himself. The man at the top was dreadfully agi- 
tated, and alarmed the whole house. 

As it was now supposed that the fire had nearly spent 
itself, and taat there was less danger, a person was found, 

who 



PERSONS RESTORED TO LIFE- ^ijS 

Vlio oiFered to venture down into the well, to save, if 
possible, the life oi' tlie porter who fell from the ladder; 
I' it was, however, too late ; the man was found to be dead. 
Tliis person was down only a short time before he began 
to experience the etfects of the foul air; and notwith- 
standing he made the best of his way to the ladder, he 
was so compicteJy overpouerexl by the stench as to be 
vnable to reach it. Jn a sliort time he also/becan^ in- 
sensible, and unable to answer when called. Mr. Hofl- 
man's livery servant, with the ^leuiest promptitude and 
resolution, then determined to vcutiire down to save the 
life of the tiiird man, who had so courageously gone 
down to preserve the others: but he had the precaution 
to fasten a rope round him, and he desired the person* 
above to pull him up the moment tiiey found hiui unable 
to answer them. This last eifort happily succeeded; he 
brought up the man out of tlie well, who was all but 
dead, and has been since, with much difficulty, restored. 
During the whole of the succeeding night he was in a 
delirious state. 

The two dead bodies were brought up out of the well, 
and carried to St. Peter's church, where they lay till the 
coroner's inquest was held on them, at the London Ta- 
vern. The jury brought in a verdict, that the deceased 
persons, named Rolfe and Robinson, died by suffocation. 

Extraordinary and interesting Jccount of the Restoration 
to Life of Persons snpj)oscd to be dead. 

XN the month of Februarv, I74f), says M. Lonis, a 
celebrated French surgeon, a young woman iVom the 
country, of a very robust constitution, about twenty-five 
^ears of age, setoff on foot from the Hotel Dieu at Paris, 
where she had been brought to bod two days before, and 
went to the Salpetrierc. She was apprehensive of being 

attacked 



45^ YEHSONS RESTORED TO tlft* 

attacked with a disorder which then prevailed among th# 
]ying-in women at the Hotel Dieu, and had carried off 
great niliiibers of them. The fatigue of the tvalk so ex- 
liausted the poor creature, that upon her arnvul she ini- 
mediatel}'' s^v'ooned awa}', arid was put to bed. Hot 
cloths were applied t6 Warm her, and by means of cor- 
dials she was at lerigth revived. In about an hour, she 
relapsed into the same state, and was supposed to be 
dead. The keeper of the ward sent me word that she had 
a subject which I might make use of for my anatomical 
and chirurgical lectures. My pupils lost no time iu 
fetching away the body, which was simply covered with 
a cloth, and had already been exposed two hours on a 
hand-barrow to the inclemency of the weather. With- 
out examining the body, they removed it into the am- 
phitheatre. The following morning, before I went to 
see my patients, a young surgeon told me that during 
the night he had heard plaintive sounds in the amphi- 
theatre, like some person moaning and fetching deep 
sighs; but that fear had prevented him from getting up 
and informing me of the circumstance. I instantly went 
fo examine the body, atid found, with extreme concern^ 
that the poor young woman, who was then actually dead, 
had endeavoured to disengage herself from the cloth in 
which she was enveloped. One of her legs was off the 
hand-barrow on the ground, and one of her arms was 
placed on the bar of a dissecting table, beside which the 
harrow had been placed, I still recollect the sentiments 
of horror and compassion which at that moment filled 
my bosom; and I doubt whether there can be a more 
melancholy or affecting spectacle. 

In the year 1568, Burgundy and the town of Difon m 
particular were ravaged by such a destructive pestilence^ 
that there was not time to dig a separate grave for each 
■corpse. Vast holes were therefore made,, which were 

filled 



PERSONS RESTCVRED TO LIFE. 457 

filled with dead bodies. A woman named Nicole Len- 
tillct, shared the general fate, and after several days ill- 
ness she fell into such a swoon that she was judged to be 
dead, and was buried in one of the general graves. The 
morning after her interment she revived^ and endea- 
voured to release herself from that disagreeable situation; 
but her weakness, and the weight of the bodies with 
which she was covered, prevented her. In this horrible 
condition she remained four days, till she was disengaged 
by the people who brought some more dead bodies, and 
who carried her back to lier own house, where she per- 
fectly recovered. 

The city of Thoulouse furnishes several examples of 
precipitate interment: among the rest the following is 
particularly remarkable. A lady having been buried in 
the church of the Jacobins, with a diamond ring on her 
finger, one of her servants concealed himself in the 
church, and at night went down into the vault where 
the coffin had been deposited. Having opened it, and 
the finger being so swelled as to prevent the removal of 
the ring, he fell to work to cut it off. The violence of 
the pain caused the supposed corpse to shriek out vio- 
lently; the servant, terrified to death, fell down in a state 
of insensibility. The lady, meanwhile, continued to 
moan. The time of matins fortunately arriving, some 
of the monks heard the sound, went down into the 
vault, where they found the lady sitting up, and the ser- 
vant half dead. A messenger was dispatched to call up 
the husband, who carried iiis wife home. She recovered; 
but the servant experienced such a violent shock, that 
after languisliing twenty-four hours, he made a compen- 
sation to death for the victim which he snatched from his 
clutches. 

Gentil Carisccndi, a gentleman of Bologna, having 
b.ecome enamoured of the wife of Nicolas Chassennemi, 

Vol. If. M M M and 



438 PERSOICS RESTORED TO tltl. 

and being unable to inspire his mistress with a similar 
passion, accepted in despair the office of podestat of 
Modena, which was offered him. During a journey 
vliich Chassennemi was obhged to make, the lady re- 
tired to a country house, where she was surprized by 
such a sudden accident that even the physicians judged 
her to he dead. As she was supposed to be not far ad- 
vanced in her pregnancy, she was interred without any 
method being employed to save the child. Cariscendi 
being informed of the death of his mistress, flew to the 
place where she was buried. He opened the coffin and 
embraced her. After some time he felt that her heart 
still palpitated. Convinced that she was not dead, he 
put her on his horse, and secretly conveyed her to his 
house at Bologna, where she was restored to life. After 
she had perfectly recovered, she was delivered of a living 
child; after which Cariscendi went back to Modena to 
complete the term of his magistracy. Upon his return 
he gave a grand entertainment, to which Chassennemi 
was invited. During the dessert, he introduced his mis- 
tress with her child in her arms, and restored them to 
the husband, who was doubly rejoiced, at having reco- 
vered his wife, and having become a father. 

The following fact was related to M. Bruhier, by a 
friend on whose veracity lie could rely, and who was 
acquainted with all the parties concerned. At the be- 
ginning of the last century, a young and handsome lady, 
wife of one of the principal inhabitants of Pont Saint 
Esprit in Languedoc, having been interred in the morn- 
ing, a young man of the town, who had been deeply in 
love with her, resolved to enjoy the following night the 
satisfaction of seeing her once more. It was the less 
difficult for him to execute this design, as the supposed 
corpse had been deposited in a cemetery inclosed by a 
wall only three feet high. The lover, with the assistance 

of 



PERSONS RESTORED TO LIFE. 45f> 

of a friend, took the lady out of her grave, and removed 
her beneath a kind of porch, which concealed them from 
the looks of inquisitive persons who might be passing 
that way. There the dejected lover tore open the sheet 
which covered the face of his mistress, and while he 
pressed her tenderly in his arms, he thought he perceived 
some symptoms of life. In the transports of the most 
lively joy, he exclaimed that she was not dead. The 
friend, who at first feared that it was the illusion of love, 
was soon convinced of the reality of her revival by a sigh 
which the lady uttered. A bottle of mint-water, which 
the lover had fortunately taken with him, recovered her so 
far that she could be carried home ; where it was not 
without considerable difficulty that she could prevail on 
the servants to inform her husband she was alive and re- 
quired immediate assistance. She was at length admit- 
ted, and by proper treatment perfectly recovered her 
health, which she enjoyed a great number of years. 

The French army, after the taking of St. Sebastian in 
the year 1719> marching to lay siege to Rose, passed 
through Paw, where the Marquis de Briquemau, aid-de- 
camp to she Prince of Conti, was obliged to stop, being 
attacked by a disease equally violent and sudden. He 
was soon overtaken by a lethargic affection, of such a 
nature that every one supposed him to be dead. The 
mistress of the house where he was being deeply affected, 
and perhaps still more frightened at the presence of a 
corpse, endeavoured to persuade the minister of the pa- 
rish to bury hiui the same day, but without success. All 
she could obtain was, that the body should be placed in 
the church till the expiration of twenty-four hours. The 
imarquis having come to himself during llie night, strug- 
gled with such force that he broke out of his prison. 
Aftrighted at tlie situation in which he found himself, 
he took refuge on the steps qf an altar, where he was 
M M M '2 discovered 



4'60 re^soNS restored to lite. 

discovered the next morning ■when the church was 
opened. He was removed as cold as ice to his former 
lodging, where his hindlady, with a view to warm him 
as speedily as possible, placed l)im near a large liic, 
which causing a sudden rarefaction of the fluids, soon 
extinguished the small remnant of life that was left in 
him. 

Nymman, in his Treatise on Apoplexy, relates, that 
in his time there was living in Wirlemberg a widow 
named live Meggers, who when she was a young woman, 
and resided with one of her aunts at the neighbouring 
town of Acken, where the plague was then making dread- 
ful ravages, was attacked by it, alter several other per- 
sons had died in the same house of that disease. She 
was then twenty-three years old, and the disorder took 
such a turn that every one thought her dead. From a 
warm place she was removed to a cold situation, where 
she was laid upon straw till the time of interment, that 
is, till two o'clock in the afbernoou, for she was sup- 
posed to have died about midnight; otherwise she would 
have been interred at noon, according to the custom 
then established in that place. A short time before the 
arrival of tliose who were to carry her to the grave, the 
s»pposed corpse began to stir, striving to raise her head 
and even to rise up. The aunt, who was then in the 
house with another woman, was frightened, and imagin- 
ing that it was a spirit, seized a stick, with which she 
would have dispatx^hed her niece, had not her compa- 
nion interfered ; but tlie latter could not prevent her 
from using it in rudely driving biick the poor girl. At 
length she ran away, and shut herself into another room. 
The patient meeting with this harsh treatment, remained 
on the spot as if insensible, though she could be per- 
ceived to breathe. The interment was put ojfi^ and 
twelve hours afterward? she was tiuirel}' revived. 

M. de 



PEt^SONS RESTOTtEC TO llYfi. 46l^ 

M. de St. Andre, ia a work printed at Koiicn in tbe 
year 1700, and entitled, Rejkctions on the }\uture of 
Remedies, their Ejfects and manner of acting, relates a 
circumstanee wbieh took place in the presence of his 
father, to whom the patient was indebted for his life. 
A gentleman aged sixt}' years, being ill of a fever, fell 
into a swoon, and, as it was sir.posed, expired. Every 
preparation was made for iiis luneral, and oven for open- 
ing bis body, according to the desire of his children. 
Two clergymen ba-ing remained by the corpse to say 
tbe usual prayers, disputed who should perform that office; 
which obliged my father to enter the room, to prevent 
them from conii'.ig to blows. iSIy father having after- 
wards approached tbe bed, and from curiosity or acci- 
dent having uncovered tbe face, be thought he disco- 
vered a movement in it ; at the same time be lield the 
candle to the nose and mouth v.itbout perceiving any 
respiration or pulsation of the arteries. Supposing him 
to be absolutely dead, be was leaving him, when he' 
thought he again saw the same movement j and upon 
touching his temples, be imagined that he felt a feeble 
pulsation. He called for wine, rubbed the nose, lips, 
and temples, and several times poured a little into the 
mouth, without observing any signs of animation. My 
father, convinced thathe was entirely destitute of life, was 
just going to leave him, when be began to taste the wine 
which had been poured into his mcnith. After swallow- 
ing a few spoonfuls, he opened his eyes, and recovering 
from his weakness, related all that bad passed between 
tbe two clergymen, without oniiuing tbe most minute 
circumstance. Within a short time afterwards he was 
perfectly cured. 

The following incidents, with whieb we shall conclude 
this article, are of such a nature as to appear almost in- 
credible ; but as they iire related by writers of respect- 
ability, 



4tJ3 J»ERSONE RESTORED TO LIFE, 

al>ilit}', we cannot forbear submitting them to our 
readers. 

Feclilin, in the tenth chapter of his Treatise De A'tr, 
tt Alhrt, defect, says:-— Eighteen years ago, a gardener 
of TroBningholm (in Sweden), who is now sixty-five years 
©Id, and Tery heahhy and robust for his age, was en- 
deavouring to assist a person who had fallen into the 
water. Walking without sufficient precaution upon the 
ice, it broke under him, and he himself fell into the 
vatcr, which in that place was eighteen ells in depth. 
He went down feet foremost, and s'jnk in a perpendicu- 
lar posture to the bottom; in this state he remained six- 
teen hours before he was taken out. He said, that ai 
Ijoon as he was under the water, his whole body grew 
stiif, and lost all motion and sensation, excepting that 
he thowght be heard indistinctly the sound of the bells 
^bicb were then ringing at Stockholm. He likewise 
felt at first as if there was a bladder before his mouth, 
which prevented the vrater from entering that way; he, 
however, felt it come in at his ears, which produced yx 
hardness of hearing that did not leave liim for a consi- 
derable time afterwards. He was sought every where in 
vaijj during sixteen hours; at length, a hook being struck 
into his head, which he said he felt, he was found and 
drawn op. Either through custom or popular persuasion, 
if was still hoped that he would recover ; he was, there- 
i'ore, wrapped in cloths, for fear the air, by entering 
too suddenly into the lungs, might prove fatal. Being 
ihus secured from the air, he was taken to a house, and 
warmed by degrees; he was then wrapped in warm linen 
tlolhis, and rubbed till his blood was put in motion. i\t 
length he was perfectly recovered by means of cordials 
Kiui draughts usually given in cases of jipoplexy. He 
»he\v<^d the scars on his head from -the wounds he had 
lictivevl from the hook, and complained that iie was 

oceasiouallj^ 






PERSONS RESTOKEt) TO LlFC. i(H 

Occasionally subject to violent head-ache. In conse- 
quence of an accident so singular, and attested upon 
oath by eye witnesses, the queen mother granted him a 
pension. 

A short time since, (says Dr. Kunclcel, in the Miscel- 
lanies of the Academy of the Observers of Nature) about 
four leagues from the town of Fahlun, where there is a 
celebrated mountain from which great quantities of cop- 
per are extracted, a dauber, who knew just sufficient of 
painting to sketch some rude figures on the stoves of tiie 
peasants, fell out of a vessel into the water, so as to 
reach the bottom on his legs. A fruitless search was, 
made for him, during eight days; after which he iis- 
cended to the surface, and appeared full of life. The 
judge and minister of the place put the following ques- 
tions to him: — if he had breathed the whole time; he 
replied that he did not know — if he had thought of God, 
and recommended his soul to him; to which he answered, 
frequently — if he could see and hear ; he replied, yes, 
and that he misht even have laid hold of the hooks with 

O 

which ihev were seeking for him, if he could have ex- 
tended his arms. He added, that the fishes had made 
incessant war upon his eyes, which gave him great un- 
easiness. Being asked how he defended himself against 
them, he replied, by moving his eye-lids. As to hear- 
ing, he related that nothing was more painful to hiin 
than when any thing struck upon the surface of the 
water; and that he felt excessive pain in his ears in par-- 
licular, and 'which was communicated to his whole body, 
whenever any person came to fetch water with a pail. 
He was asked whether he ever felt hungry; he replied, 
no — if he had slept ; he said he did not know, because he 
had sometimes been insensible ; but that all hi^ thoughts, 
as far as he recollected, had no other object than God 
and Lia deliverance. 

Kunclcel 



4G4 A MAN DEPRIVED OF SENSE AND MOTIOW, 

Kunckel received this history from an e3'e- witness, 
whose son chanced to tall overboard into the water. He 
sunk to the bottom, upon which he proceeded about 
Hfteen hundred paces towards the shore. This young 
man told him, that in taking the steps necessary for his 
preservation he had thought of God, and did not re- 
collect that he had any other idea i that the voice of his 
sister, who v>a:> shrieking on tlie i-itore, had served to 
direct him towards the phice it proceeded from; that 
blows upon the sunace of the water, and the cries which 
he iieard very distinctly, had greatly incommoded him ; 
that he had been two hours in going from the place 
where he fell in to the shore ; that he had breathed 
without knowing liow ; that the water had not entered 
into his body, and that he had been hot instead of cold. 
Dr. Kunckel adds, that he interrogated a fisherman 
who fell into the water at the same place 'with the last- 
mentioned person, and wa^ prevented from getting out 
again by the ice. He remained three daN's in that situa- 
tion, and vvas brought up in good health. The only re- 
mark he made, was, that a large bladder appeared to be 
tbrmed round his head. 7'hc author concludes his ob- 
servations by declaring, that he is not astonished that 
this fisherman should remain alive, but that he cannot 
comprehend how the others could have recovered. 



Astonhhing Account of a Man deprived of Sense and 
Motion for Tzcelxe \cars^ 

The foHowtng wonderful case is described by M. Anid Fave, in the Me- 
ir.airs of the Royal Academy of Stockholm, for October, 1784. 

OLUF Olufson, a pe;!s:int, in the parish of Ra^nneby, 
in the province of Bktting, now aged forty-one, had 
been a sailor in his youth, v.as of a strong constitution, 

and 



A MAN DEPRIVED OF SENSE AND MOTION. 465 

dnd had once nearly perished in a storm. He was 
seized with fever in June 177 1> which appeared by pains 
in his body, great heats, and violent head-ache j he 
soon lost his speech, and shortly after, his internal and 
external senses. 

About a month afterwards, the fever and heats abated; 
bait he had become so lean during this maladv, that it 
\vas difficult to discover in him a fleshy fibre. His body 
resembled that of a skeleton covered by a slight skin. 

He remained lying on his back constant!}', and im- 
moveable ; his hands on his breast, his legs stretched 
out, and his eyes generally closed. He passed eleven 
years m this helpless state, till the summer of 1782. Ex- 
cept a little milk insinuated between his lips, and some- 
times a spoonful of wine or brandy, and at the same time 
a pinch of snufi", he absolutely took no other food. No 
01)0 can recollect, during all this time, that he ever ex- 
pressed a wish for food. He could pass over four days, 
and sometimes a week, without taking^milk. As he had 
neither flesh nor fat, this constant position did not occa- 
sion him any ulcers in his back. 

His brother, Anders Olufson, shewed every fraternal 
affection for him, and during these tedious and melan- 
choly years, he sought every means to restore him to life, 
(for his present state could scarcely be called life,) which 
the most tender friendship suggested. He boiled some 
plants, with which he fomented his head frequently. 
Okrf appeared to recover a certain degree of sensation, 
regain a little strength, and seemed gradually restored, 
but he gave no mark of perception nor reason. He 
appeared in a restless state, and full of alarm, in the 
prc'seiice of any person. 

In this state he remained a considerable time before 
he would suffer himself to be observed stepping out of 
his bed, which, therefore, he generally did in the night. 

Vol. H. n n n or 



466 A MAN DEPRIVED OF SENSE AND MOTION. 

©r when the family were out. in the fields ; then would he 
drag himself to the spot where he could take a little 
milk ; but frequently, by the unexpected entrance of any 
one, he was seized with great trepidations, and frequently 
remained stretched out on the ground, without the least 
capability of motion. At length his brother, resolved to 
make him quit his usual abode, would take him out, 
give other nourishment, (though he ever preferred milk,) 
adding some strengthening substances, bathed his head 
with cold water, by a spring at some distance from the 
house. Although the patient had recovered bis heaving 
and feeling, he still remained extremely feeble and 
meagre, without powers of articulation, and with scarcely 
any trace of reason : habit, however, made him capable 
of going himself to draw water from the spring to bathe 
his head. 

Twelve years had passed since the commencement of 
this malady; and he astonished the village, when they 
saw him suddenly recover the use of his physical facul- 
ties. This happened on the 8th of August 1783, when 
he returned with water, in the presence of his brother, 
of his two sisters, and the servants, as they were pre- 
paring to dress for church. It was then he was seized 
with shiverings, tremors in his arms and legs, and said, 
in a hurrying voice, '' Lord God ! this is amazing! where , 
have I been all this time ?" 

At this moment a vein in the crown of his head opened 
of itself, and there fell out about six drops of blood; 
another vein opened at the extremity of the right nostril; 
another at the chin ; and there ran, as if from both ears, 
nearly as much blood. 

Nearly about this time he also recovered his speech, 
apoke what he wished, had his perfect understanding, 
called by their names all those who were in or out of the 
house, and whom he hud known before his malady, and 

was 



A MAN DEPRIVED OF SENSE AND MOTION. 46? 

was astonished to find them grown so old ; but he did 
not recognize one of those whom he had not known be- 
fore his disorder, although they had appeared daily before 
him during its prolonged state. 

Oluf considered this accident as fi mere dream, with* 
out knowing whether it had lasted a long or a short time. 
But what is more remarkable is, that he did not seem 
sensibly to have lost his memory during these twelve 
years, and did not recollect any tiling which had passed 
during his malady. 

The people of the house seating themselves at table 
for supper, he desired to read the ordinary prayers and 
grace, and he performed it without much hesitation. 
Some days after, he desired to perform his devotions, 
and according to the account of Dr. Henschens, he ap-* 
peared to have a perfect knowledge of the articles of his 
faith. 

The opening of the veins mentioned, were followed 
by slight scars on the crown of his head, as also on the 
nose, and by a red spot on his chin ; the wound in the 
middle remained open a longer time, and the scar gave 
the nose an obliquity it had not before. 

When the patient Imd recovered the use of his speech, 
be spoke for some time with precipitation ; but at th^ 
present moment in the most orderly manner. His eyes 
appear somewhat disfigured, but that arises from his 
squinting. In all otiier respects he is in good health, 
■ gains corpuleric}', and performs his daily labour. 

Scarcely had Oluf Olufson recovered his health, than 
I was informed of his extraordinary malady; but its sin- 
gularity induced mc to take the most minute and well- 
authenticated information ere I laid it before the Royal 
Academy. Tlicse details, therefore, are equally remark-^ 
able and true, 

N N N (2 WitHAM 



i 468 ] 

William Powell, the Highgate Prophet. 
With a Portrait. 

William POWELL wasoiie of the many melan- 
choly instances of methodical lunacy that beget a parti-r 
ciilar enquiry as to the primary caqse of unaccountable 
s^ciionsj luid as the object is more or less interesting, 
their riotoriety is confined to a single spot, or extended 
beyond the limits of their own neighbourhood. The 
memories of mad writers, mad preachers, and mad 
actors, are mostl}' perpt tuuted ; while the actions of 
lunatics, in a more private Walk of life, for want of 
similar advantages, sink into obscurity. 

The subject of these observations was a man of some 
respectability and connection, and held a place in the 
Treasury. But being so unfortunat^/i/ hiikj/ as to gain 
a prize of 500l. in the Lottery, he fondly imagined he 
had found a mote ready way to future riches, than if he 
had discovered, the philosopher's stone. From the time 
he came into possession of the above sum, he neglected 
the duty of his place in the Treasury, and never ceased 
wandering, like a fVi/i o' th' fi isp, after lottery specula- 
tions, until he had lost not only the 5()0l. he had before 
gained, but every guinea in the world he besides pos- 
sessed. The consequent disappointment and vexation 
affected his mind in a way that rendered him unfit for 
the situtition he had before too much neglected, and he 
was permitted to resign it on a pension of twenty pounds 
a year ; which from some unknown cause was disconti- 
nued for about three years prior to his death. His bro- 
ther, a man in alHiient circumstances, had occasionally 
contributed towards his ne<^essities ,• but not in a sufficient 
manner to prevent his applying to the parish for relief, 

and 



i 




JiiJ>i'r/:'ie,tr,byA.S.KvhrLr,ulc,iKnu,YardirJ.Smn Str:,„,f . 



fVlLLIAM POWELL, THE HIGHOATE PROPHET. 4^9 

.^■nd he must have ended his days in the vvoikhouse he 
>vas necessitated to enter, had it not been for the libe- 
raJity of the person with wliooi he lodged, Mr. Cock, 
baker, in Sloane Street, Pimlico; who, induced through 
porapassion, gave him a garret in his house, and furnished 
him with necessaries, to the hour of PowelTs death, 
which happened a few months afterwards, August 15, 
1803, in the sixty-fourth year of his age. He was bu- 
ried in the Burying-ground King's Road, Chelsea.' 

It was the constant practice of this unfortunate man, 
for several years, in all seasons and weathers, to walk 
.early in the morning from Sloane Street to Highgate, 
preserving an equal pace until he arrived at the foot of 
the hill, \yhen he would take off his gloves, carefully 
fold them, and put them in his pocket; then raising his 
hands to heaven, as in the act of devotion, he would 
suddenly set off in a gentle run, never stopping or look- 
ing back till he had ^-cached the top. If he was stopped, 
as it often happened by persons from an inquisitive mo- 
tive, he would return no answer to their questions, but 
indignantly turning back, return to the spot whence he 
started, and re-commence his running till he had ac- 
complished his purpose. He never walked with a stick, 
or wore a great coat, and stated himself to be between 
sixty and seventy years of age. He sometimes continued 
his route as Far as Barnet Hill, which he ascended in the 
same manner as that of Highgate. From London to 
Barnet is twelve miles from St. Giles's Pound, conse- 
quently this man some mornings must have walked and 
run tvventyreight miles before breakfast; a performance 
that few young men would undertake, particularly that 
of running from the bottom to the top of the hills with- 
out stopping. 

The singulariU' of this practice induced several persons 
to enquire the cause. He answered, \yhen they did not 

impede 



470 EQUESTRIAN PERFORMANCE. 

impede him while running, " That when he ceased to 
ascend tlie hill in that manner, the world would be no 
more." This gained him the appelhition of the Prophet, 
by which name he is still remembered at Highgate. 

The person in Sloane Street, with whom he lodged for 
several years, speaks of him as a man of unblemished 
reputation for honesty and sobrietj', and it is generally 
thonght his morning visit to Highgate, and running up 
the hill, was a penance he had imposed on himself for 
the folly of dissipating hi? property in the lottery. 

Powell is by no means a singular instance of lottery 
infatuation, nor the only man deceived in sanguine ex- 
pectations. A respectable and well known person, near 
Pentonville, in the year 1793, was so much elated with 
gaining a considerable sum by insurance, that he gave a 
public breakfast on the occasion, at White Conduit 
House. But the following year he was stripped of all 
that he possessed, by that destructive practice. It was 
confidently asserted he had dissipated no less a sum in 
this manner than 15,000/. and was reduced to the ne- 
cessity of v:orking as a day labourer on the roads for 
support. He died of a broken heart two years after \ih 
loss, in Islington workhouse. 

EXTRAORDINARY EQUESTRIAN PERTORMANCE, 

VV E are informed by Drake, in his History of York, 
that in the year 1606, John Leyton, groom to King 
James I. rode between London and York in one dav, 
for six days together. He set out from Aldersgatc on 
the GOth of May, and performed the journey each dav 
before it was dark. The days at that time of the year 
are about sixteen hours long, so that he rode upwards 
pf twelve miles an hour for sixteen hours each day, for 
»ix days togrther. 

S^NC^VLAB 



t 4-1 ] 



SINGULAR CIIAEACTER. 

On the 12th of July, 1804, died, aged eightj'-tfl-o, 
Henry Lee Warner, Esq. of Walsingham Abbey iu Nor- 
folk, the lineal descendant and representative of the 
eminent John Warner, formerly bishop of Rochester, 
whose estates he possessed, as well as those of Sir Jame> 
Howe, Bart, of Berwick, Wilts; and of Henrj' Lee, Esq. 
of Dane John, in Kent. He was the polite scholar, the 
complete geiuleiuan, and the sincere friend; and al- 
though, from a series of ill health, and a natural love of 
retirement, he early withdrew from filling those public 
stations, in which, with his ability, fortune, and integrity, 
he would have made a very distinguished figure, yet in 
private life he was universally respected for his steady 
adherence to the rules of justice and moderation, and 
his constant practice of those leading duties of the Chris- 
tian — humanity and benevolence. Of the various traits 
which marked the character of this extraordinary but 
truly amiable man, his mode of life, and his conduct 
towards those who abused his confidence and generosity, 
were the most remarkable. With him the common dis- 
tribution of time was completely reversed, and night was 
literally turned into day. His time of rising was always 
late in the evening, he generally breakfasted at midnight, 
and dined at four or five in the morning. The dress, in, 
which it was his custom to appear, was precisely that of 
the English gentleman of the last age ; a gold laced coat 
and waistcoat, with deep slash worked sleeves, and richly 
embossed buttons, a deep chitterlin of rich yellow lace, 
curve-toed shoes, and oblong buckles. From a principle 
of lenity and forbearance, and an extreme tenderness of 
disposition, he permitted the most injurious depredations 
to be committed on his property with impunity; and 

notwithstanding 



473 SINGULAR CHAHACTER; 

notwithstanding the system of depredation was carriea 
to such a height, as almost to render his extensive woods, 
and even young plantations, a scene of desolation, yet 
when during his walk by midnight any of the ofFendels 
were perceived by him, he would mildly exclaim, " Take 
care how you get down that tree, or you may hurt your- 
self.'* 

ihe character of this gentleman, as drawn by Mr. 
Pratt, in his gleanings in England, we understand from 
viirious testimony, is certainly not exaggerated. " At- 
the Abbey here resides,'^ says the above writer, " a gen- 
tleman in the possession of a once finely w^ooded domain, 
of great politeness and urbanity, much reading, of sound ■ 
understanding, who, nevertheless, has allowed almost 
every tree which his domain had to boast, to be delibe- 
rately cut down, and carried away, without so much as 
making any manner of enquiry after the offenders, or 
entering into any remonstrance as to their past; present, 
or future depredations, though this went to the loss of 
20,000/. I suppose," says Mr. Pratt, " you would think 
I must be fibbing, were 1 to inform you that Mboever has 
a mind to it goes into his stable, saddles or harnesses a' 
horse, and rides, or ploughs with him, brings him home 
at nightj or keeps him a week or a fortnight together, 
without so much as a question being asked by the squire; 
and what is worse, they not only steal wheat, barley, and 
other graiii, from the field where it is sheaved, to save 
rhcm the trouble of cutting it, but they are wicked 
enough to cut off the corn-eare, by whole acres, before 
they are ripe.'* 

jSIr. \Varner, Avith all his peculiarities, was endowed 
with a thousand qualities which do honour to the heart 
cf man; and with all his shades of character, in which, 
however, there was no mixture of vi^e or imm-orality, he 
will long be remembered as a man of very tender feelings, 

a scholar. 



ACCOUNT OF WHITE SPARKOWS. 473 

a scholar, and a gentleman. Notv/itlistanding all the 
deep drawbacks upon his property, Mr. Warner died ex- 
tremely rich. He never went to church; but the report 
of his havino; been of the Roman Catholic relisrion has 
been contradicted by the authority of his friends. 

His remains were conveyed in a hearse from his vene- 
rable mansion to the parish church for interment, pre- 
ceded by a number of his tenants on horseback, and fol- 
lowed by several of the most distinguished gentlemen in 
the neighbourhood in their carriages, and bv a G;reat 
concourse of spectators. The pall was supported by 
Henry Styleman, Esq. high sheriff of the county. Sir 
George Chadd, Bart. Sir Jacob Astley, Bart. T. W. 
Coke, Esq. Henr}-^ Jodrell, Esq. and the Rev. W. Astley. 
The chief mourners were Mr. Woodward, one of Mr. 
Warner's nephews, and Dr. Bragge of Lynn, to wh.mi 
the principal part of his extensive property is bequeathed. 



Singular Account of some White Sparrows. 
TO the editor of the wonderful and scientific 

MUSLUM. 
Sir, 

liV Saint George's Fields, and its neighbourhood, wliite 
sparrows are frequently seen; they are very shy; various 
but ineffectual attempts having been made to take them 
alive. 

1 have often seen them associating with the common 
sparrow; when flying they appear entirely of a snow 
white, but a nearer view of ihcm upon the ground disco- 
vers a very small portion of a dusky brow^i colour upon 
the covert of the wings: they have made their appear- 
ance during the last half year. 1 have also seen this 
kind of white parrous (probably the same I have just 
mentioned) in Bloomsbury and Russtl Squares, and their 

Vol. U. o o o vicinity. 



474 ANECDOTES OF JOSEPH CAPPER, ESQ. 

vicinity. I hf^ve been informed that the hke were seen 
two or three years since in Devonshire, and some other 
counties. 

Thinking this communication adapted to your pleasing 
and curious publication, I have given you this brief ac- 
count, which may tend to induce your ornithological 
readers to make some critical, useful, and agreeable en- 
quiries; for undoubtedly an investigation relative to this 
apparently new species of sparrows, will gratify every 
lover of natural history. 

I am. Sir, 

Your humble servant, 
Sept. 2, 1804. N. Collyer, 

19, Garden Row, near West Square, 
St. George's Fields. 

Anecdotes o/* Joseph Capper, £sg^. an txtraor dinar y 

Character. 

On Thursday, September 6, at half past twelve o'clock, 

died Joseph Capper, Esq. many years an inmate at the 

Horns, Kennington. 

He was born in Cheshire, of humble parents; his fa- 
mily being numerous, he came to London at an early 
age, to shift for himself, as he used to say, and was bound 
apprentice to a grocer. Mr. Capper soon manifested 
great quickness and industry, and proved a most valuable 
servant to his master. It was one of the chief boasts of 
his life, -that he had gained the confidence of his em- 
ployer, and never betrayed it. 

Being of an enterprising spirit, Mr. Capper commenced 
business as soon as he was out of his apprenticeship, in 
the neighbourhood of Rosemary-lane. His old master 
was his only friend, and recommended him so strongly 
to the dealers in his line, that credit to a very large 
amount was given him. In proportion as he became 

successful;, 



ANECDOTES OF JOSEPH CAPPER, ESQ. 475 

successful, he embarked in various speculations, but in 
none was so fortunate as in the funds. He at length 
amassed a sum sufficient to decline all business whatever. 
Mr. Capper therefore resolved to retire from the bustle 
of life. This best suited his disposition ; for although 
he possessed many amiable qualities, yet he was the most 
tyrannical and overbearing man living, and never seemed 
so happy as when placed by the side of a churlish com- 
panion. For several days he walked about the vicinity 
of London, searching for lodgings, without being able to 
please himself. Being one day much fatigued, he called 
at the Horns, at Kennington, took a chop and spent the 
day, and asked for a bed in his usual blunt manner, when 
he was answered in the same churlish style by the land- 
lord, that he could not have one. ]\lr. Capper was re- 
solved to stop, if he could, all his life, to plague the 
growling fe How, and refused to retire. After some alter- 
cation, however, he was accommodated with a bed, and 
never slept out of it for twenty-five years. During that 
time he made no agreement for lodging or eating, but 
wished to be considered a customer only for the day. 
For many years he talked about quitting this residence 
the next day. His manner of living was so methodical, 
that he would not drink his tea out of any other than a 
favourite cup. He was equally particular with respect 
to his knives and forks, plates, &,c. In winter and sum- 
mer he rose at the same hour, and when the mornings 
were dark, he was so accustomed to the house, that he 
walked about the apartments without the, assistance of 
any light. At breakiast he arranged, in a peculiar way, 
the parapharnalia of the tea-table, but first of all he 
would read the news-papers. At dinner he also observed 
a general rule, and invariably drank his pint of wine. 
His supper was uniformly a gill of rum, with sugar, 
Icn^on-peelj and porter, mixed together; the latter he 

© o 5 saved 



476 ANECDOTES OF JOSEPH CAPPET?, ESg. 

saved from the pint he had at dinner. From this ceco- 
nomical plan he never deviated. His bill ibr a fortnight 
amounted regularly to 4I. 18s. He called himself the 
Champion of Government, and his greatest glory uas 
certainly his Country and King. He joined in all sub- 
scriptions which tended to the aid of Government. He 
was exceedingly choleric, and nothing raised his anger 
so soon as declaiming against the British Constitution. 
In the parlour he kept his favourite chair, and there he 
would often amuse himself with satirising the customers 
or the landlord, if he could make his jokes tell better. 
It was his maxim never to join in general conversation, 
but to interrupt it whenever he could say any thing ill- 
natured. Mr. Capper's conduct to his relations was ex- 
ceedingly capricious; he never would see any of them. 
As they were chiefly in indigent circumstances, he had 
frequent applications from them to borrow money. " Are 
they industrious:" he would enquire; when being an- 
swered in the affirmative, he would add, '* Tell them I 
have been deceived already, and never will advance a 
sixpence b}^ way of loan, but I will give them the sum 
they want; and if ever I hear the}' make known the cir- 
cumstance, I will cut them off with a shilling." 

Soon after Mr. Townsend became landlord of the 
Horns, he had an opportunity of making a few good 
ready money purchases, and applied to the old man for 
a temporary loan : — " I wish," said he, " to serve you, 
Townsend; you seem an industrious fellow; but how is 
it to be done, Mr. Townsend ? 1 have sworn never to 
lend, I must therefore give it thee;" which he accord- 
ingly did the following day. ]Mr. Townsend proved 
giateful for this mark of liberality, and never ceased to 
administer to him every comfort the house would afford; 
and what was, perhaps, more gratilying to the old man, 
he indulged him in his eccentricities. 

Mr. 



ANECDOTES OF JOSEPH CAPPEIT;, ESQ. 477 

Mr. Capper was elected steward of the parlour fire, 
and if any persons were daring enough to put a poker in 
it without his permission, they stood a fair chance of 
feehng the weight of his cane. In summer time, a fa- 
vourite diversion of his was kilhng flies in the parlour 
■with his cane: but as he was sensible of the ill opinion 
this would produce among the by-standers, he would 
with great ingenuity introduce a story about the rascality 
of all Frenchmen, "^ whom," says he, '^ I hate and detest, 
and would knock down just the same as these flies." 
This was the signal for attack, and presentl}' the killed 
and wounded were scattered about in all quarters of the 
room. 

This truly eccentric character lived to the age of se- 
venty-seven, in excellent health, and it v/as not until the 
Tuesday morning before his decease that a visible altera- 
tion was perceived in him. Having risen at an earlier 
period than usual, he was observed to walk about the 
house, exceedingly agitated and convulsed. INI r. Towns- 
end pressed him to suffer niedical assistance to be sent 
for, which Mr. Capper then, and at all times, had a great 
aversion to. He asked for a pen and ink, evinced great 
anxiety to write, but could not. Mr. Townsend, appre- 
hending his dissolution nigh, endeavoured, but in vain, 
to g'et permission to send for Mr. Capper's relations, and 
tried to obtain their address for that purpose. He re- 
fused, saying that he should be bettor. On the second 
day, seeing no hopes of recovery, Mr. Townsend called 
in four respectable gentlemen of the neighbourhood, and 
had seals put upon all Mr. Capper's jiroperty. One of 
the four gentlemen recollected the address of Mr. Cap- 
per's two nephews, of the nanu- of Dutton, who were 
immediately sent ibr. They resided in the neighbour- 
hood of lloseniary-lane. 

As soon as the old gentleman's dissolution had taken 



pii 



lace. 



478 DESCRIPTION OF REMARKABLE OAKS. 

place, his desks^ trunks, and boxes were openied by the 
Messrs. Dutrons and their lawyer ; when they found 
lOOl. in Bank notes, a few guineas, a great many govern- 
ment securities, and a will; which the parties present 
proceeded to read. It was curiously worded, and made 
on the back of a sheet of bankers checks. It was dated 
five years back, and the bulk of his property, which was 
then upwards of 30,0001. he left equally amongst his poor 
relations. The two nephews were nominated executors, 
and were bequeathed between them 8,000l. in the 3 per 
cents. What has become of all the property which has 
been accumulating since the will was made, does not 
appear. From Mr. Capper's declaration in his life-time, 
there was reason to suppose he had made another will, 
as the one found did not appear to be witnessed. 

The remains of the old gentleman were to be deposited 
in Aldgate church-yard, where his deceased sister is 
likewise laid. 

Description of some remarkable oaks, nozc standing in 
fVclbeck-park in the County of ISiOttingham, the seat of 
his Grace the Duke of Portland. 
1 ilE GREEN DALE OAK is Said to be upwards of 700 
years old ; and from its appearance there is every reason 
to suppose it has attained to that age at least. The cir- 
cumference of the trunk in the thickest part is 36 feet 10 
inches; the height of the passage or arcli-way through 
the body of the tree 10 feet S inches; the width about 
the middle G l^et 3 inches; through which it is said a 
coach and horses have been driven; and the height to 
the top branch 54 feet. This aged decrepid tree is prop- 
ped, in some places capped with lead, and in others 
barred to hold its limbs together; only one solitary 
branch shews signs of life, it has been for centuries ex- 
piring; and now seemingly in its last stage of declining 

vears. 



DESCRIPTION OF REMARKABLE OAKS. 479 

years, braves the storms and tempests of each revolving 
winter: while the winds of heaven blow down tottering 
edifices of stone, and tear up by the roots many a lofty 
tree, this stands firmly rooted on the propitious soil that 
gave it birth. The Countess of Oxford, grandmother of 
the present Duke, had several cabinets made of the 
branches, and ornamented with inlaid representations of 
the oak, with the following inscriptions : 

** Snepe, sub hac Dryades festas duxere choeras; 
Sxpe etiam maiiibus nexis ex ordine tiunci 
Circuiere uiodum mensuraque roboris ulnas 
Quiiiqtie ter iinplebat, nee non et ccetera tanto 
Sjlva sub hac, sylva quanto jacet heiba sub omni." 

0\r. Met* 

** Where all the woodland nymphs their revels play'd. 

And fouled sportive rings around its shade ; 

Not fifteen cubits could encompass round 

The ample trunk on consecrated ground ; 

As muc h its height the other trees exceeds, 

As they o'ertop the grass and humbler weeds." B^ 

" Lo the oake that hath so long a norishing. 

Fro the time that it ginneth first to spring. 

And hath so long a life as we may see. 

Yet at the last wasted is the tree." 

ClfAt;CER. 

The duke's walking stick, so called from its height 
and straightness. Its height to the top is 111 feet G 
inches, solid content 440 feet, and it is calculated to 
weigh 11 tons. It may be doubted whether this admira- 
ble tree can be matched by an}"^ other in the kingdom. 

The TWO PORTERS, received that appellation from 
there having been a gate between them. The height of 
one is 98 feet, the other 88 ; circumference of the for- 
mer at bottom 38 feet, the latter 34. 

The SEVEN SISTERS is so called from its having seven 
stems or trunks issuing out of one stool in a perpendi- 
cular direction. Its height is SS feet, and its circumfe- 
rence at the bottom 30 feet. 



480 DESCRIPTION ©F REMARKABLE OAKS. 

Not far from the latter is a tree whose bod}'^ is hollo^V 
from the bottom to the top, and is only iliree inches 
thick, where the bark has been stripped off. In this 
tree the Duke's game-keeper conceals himself when he 
shoots the deer, and tliere are small apertures for his gun. 
Its circumference near tlie ground is 00 feet 9 inches. It 
is supposed to be nearly 300 years old. Setting aside its 
hollow trunk, it has every appearance of a young flou- 
rishing tree. 

An ash grows out at the bottom of a large oak, to which 
it adheres to the height of 6 feet; it there separates, 
and leaves its companion for a space of nearly 3 feet in 
lieight, here, as if unwilling to be disunited, it stretches 
out an arm to coalesce again with the fostering oak. 

The PARLIAMENT OAK, about 5 miles south-east of 
Welbeck, is vers' old, and so called by the common 
people from an idea that a parliament was once held un- 
der it; but there is not any good authority for this tra- 
dition. It is however certain that a parliament was held 
by Edward I. at Clipstone palace, the ruins of which 
are now to be seen, not a mile and a half from the oak, 
which stands in Clipstone Park, Nottinghamshire. 

There is about 5 miles froiii Welbeck, on Sherwood 
Forest, a beautiful wood, consisting of above ten thou- 
sand old oaks. On the north side of the great riding, is 
a Kiost curious ancient oak, which before the depreda- 
tions made by time might almost have vied with the ce- 
lebrated Cavvthorpe oak, for size. Its circumference 
near the ground is 34 feet 4 inches. The inside is de- 
cayed and hollowed out by age. The a[)erture with the 
assistance of the axe, might be made wide enough to ad- 
mit a carriage. This tree is thought to be nearly 600 
years old. 

In August ISO], was growing on the estate of Arthur 
Bush Baker, Esq. of Giyn Cetriog, near Chirk-castle, in 

the 



EXTRAORDINARY TINKER. 481 

\he County of Denbigh, an oak tree, that measured as 
follows: 

Feet. 

The length to the crown - ... 23 

The Circumference at bottom two feet from the ground 51 
Ditto in the middle - - - - 32 

Making a total of no less than 1472 cubical feet, which 
at 5s. per foot, the commori trade price, aiiioUnts to the 
smh of 36Sl. 

BODY OF A MAN DISCOVERED UNDER GROUND IN AN 
ERECT POSTURE. 

On the 20th of August 1778, as some labourers were 
cutting turf in a bog near Einpor Lodge, in the couhty 
of Westmeath, Ireland, they found at the depth of 13 
feet the body of a very tall man, in an erect posture, 
where, in all ptobability, it had been for many centuries. 
Every part was perfect. His skin was in colour and con- 
sistence, like a half tanned calf skin, arid almost impe- 
netrable; not the smallest remains of clothes were 
found, nor could any mark of violence be discovered ; 
from this circumstance it was conjectured, that he was 
drowned at a time when the bog was a qUagraire, and, 
having sunk to the gravel, remainfed in that erect pos- 
ture he was found in. The quagmire in the coufse of 
many centuries, became consolidated into a bog, and thus 
preserved thebodymbre perfectly than if it wasembalmed. 

EXTRAORDINARY TINKER. 

A short time since died, at Hornchurch, in Essex, Ed- 
rtiimd Nokes, aged 56, by trade a tinker, which he fjl- 
l^owed assiduously till about six Weeks before his death. 
Hi^ apartments exhibited symptoms of the most abject 
poveky, thdugh he was found to possess property to the 
amount of five or six thousand pounds. He had a wife 
and several children,, which he brought up in the most 
" Vol.. II. p p p parsimonious 



482 EXTRAORDINARY TINKER. 

parsimonious manner, often feeding them on grains 
and ofFul of meat, wiiich he purchased at reduced 
prices. He was no less remarkable in person and 
dress; for in order to save the expense of shaving, 
he would encourage the dirt to gather on his face, to 
hide in some measure the length of his beard. He never 
suffered his shirt to be washed in water; but after wear- 
ing it till it became intolerably black, he used to wash it 
in urine, to save the expense of soap. It would have 
puzzled the wisest philosopher to make out the original 
colour of his coat, which time had transformed into a 
jacket, so covered was it with threads and patches of dif- 
ferent colours. 

The interest of the money, together with all he could 
heap up from his penurious mode of living, he used to 
deposit in a bag, which bag was covered up in a tin pot, 
and then conveyed tp a brick kitchen; one of the bricks 
was taken up, and a hole made just large enough to hold 
the pot; the brick was then carefully marked, and a 
tally kept behind the door of the sum deposited. One 
day his wife discovered this hoard, and resolving to pro- 
fit by the discovery, took from the pot one out of fifteen 
guineas that were then placed there. Her husband soon 
discovered the trick, for when he came to count his mo- 
ney, and finding it not agree with the tally behind the 
door, which his wife did not know of, he taxed her with 
it, and to the day of his death, even on his death bed, 
he never spoke to her without adding Thief to every ex- 
pression. 

In his yodnger days, he used at the death of any of 
his children, to have a little deal box made to put them 
in, and without undergoing the solemn regular funeral, 
he would take them to the place appropriated for their 
leception. 

A short time before his death, which he evidently. has- 
tened 



DESCRIPTION OF THE PIKE OF TENERIFFE. 483 

t€ned by the daily use of nearly a quait of spirits, he 
gave strict charge that his coffin should not have a nail 
in it, which was actually the case, the lid being fastened 
with hinges made of cord; there was no plute on the 
coffin, but barely the initials E. N. cut out of the lid. 
His shroud was made of a pound of wool ; the coffin 
was covered with a sheet instead of a pall, and was car- 
ried by six men, to whom he left half-a-crown; and at his 
particular desire, not one who followed him to the grave 
wore mourning; but on the contrary each of the mourn- 
ers seemed to try whose dress should be the most strik- 
ing, the undertaker even being habited in a blue coat 
and scarlet waistcoat. He died without a will, and his 
fortune was equally divided between his wife and family. 

Description of that extraordiuary Mountain the Pike 
of Teneriffe, and Account of an Expedition to its 
Summit. 

In the beginning of the month of September, 17f)l, at 
about four in the afternoon, Mr. Glas sat out on horse- 
back, in company with the master o[ a ship to visit the 
pike. They had with them a servant, a muleteer, and a 
guide; and, after ascending about six miles, arrived to- 
ward sun-set at the most distant habitation from the sea, 
which is in a hollow: here finding an aqueduct of open 
troughs, that convey water down from the head of the 
hollow, their servants watered the cattle, and filled 
some small barrels to serve them in tiicir expedition. 
The gentlemen ahghtcd, and walking into the hollow, 
found it very pleasant, abounding with manv trees that 
sent forth an odoriferous smell; and near the houses 
were some fields of maize, or Indian corn. 

Mounting again, they travelled for some timr up a 
steep road, and reached the v.'oods and clouds just as it 
grew dark. They could not miss their way, the road 
being bounded on both sides with trees or bushes, which 

V V P <a were 



484 DESCRIPT)[ON pF THE piKE OF TENERirFE. 

were chiefly laurel, savine, and brush-^vood. Having 
travelled about a mile, they came to the upper edge of 
the wood, above the clouds, where alighting, they made 
a fire, and supped ; soon after which they lay down to 
sleep under the buslies. 

About half an hour after ten, tlje moon shining bright, 
they mounted again, travelling slowly two hours, through 
an exceeding bad road, rescuibling the ruins of some 
stone buildings, scattered over the fields. After they 
had got out of this road,, they came upon small light 
pumice-stone, like shingle; upon which they rode at a 
pretty good pace for near an hour. The air now began 
to be very sharp, cold, and piercing. Their guide ad- 
vised them to alight here, as the place was convenient, 
and rest till four or five in the morning. To this they 
agreed, and entered a cave, the mouth of which was 
bui.t up to a man's height, to exclude the cold. Here 
they found some dry withered retamas, which was the 
only shrub or vegetable ; with these they made a great 
fire, and then fell asleep; but were soon awaked by an 
itching occasioned by a cold thin air, want of comforta- 
ble lodgment, and sleeping in their clothes; but al- 
though they lay so near the fire that one side was almost 
scorched, yet the other was benumbed with cold. 

At about five in the morning they mounted again, and 
travelled slowly about a mile,- for the road was rather 
too steep for travelling quick on horseback, and their 
beasts were become fatigued. At last thev came amons: 
some great loose rocks, where was a kind of cottage 
built of loose stones, called La Estajitia de los Ingkses, 
or the English baiting-place, probably from some of the 
English resting here on their way to visit the pike; for 
none take that journey but foreigners, and some poor 
people who earn their bread by gathering brimstone. 
Here they again alighted, the remainder of their way 

being 



I, 



PESCRIPTION OF THE PIKE OF TENERIFFE, 4S5 

being too steep for riding, and left the servant to look 
after the horses, while they proceeded on their journey. 
They walked hard to get themselves a heat;, but w^ere 
soon fatigued by the steepness of the road, which was 
loose and sandy. On their reaching the top of this hill, 
they came to a prodigious number of large and loose 
rocks, or stones, whose surfaces were flat, and each of 
them on a medium about ten feet every way. This road 
was less steep than the other; but thpy were obliged to 
make many circuits to avoid the rocks. 

Here is the famous cave of Teijch, which i:j surrounded, 
or rather buried, on all sides by large volcanic rocks, 
which the Spaniards call mal-payses. The cave is about 
fifteen feet wide at the entrance, but its extremity Dr. 
Heberden says he could not discover. Here is the grand 
reservoir of snow, whence these islanders arc supplied, 
when their common reservoirs, winch furnish snow for 
cooling their liquors, fail them. M. Glas and his com- 
pany entered it. They found the water so excessively 
cold that it could not be drank. After travelling about 
a cjiuuter or half a mile upon the great stones, they 
reached the botlom of the real pike or sugar-loaf, which 
is exceeding steep, and the difficulty of ascending 
was increased, and rendered more fatiguing, by the 
ground being loose, and giving way under their feet; for 
though this eminence is not above half a mile in height,- 
they were obliged to stop and take breath near thirty 
times; and when they at last reached the top, being 
quite spent with fatigue, they lay about a quarter of aa 
hour to rest themselves and recover their breath. 

The top of the pike is about an hundred and forty 
yards in length, and an hundred and ten in breadth. It 
is hollow, and shaped like a bell with the mouth upward, 
says Mr. Glas. I)r. Heberden describes it as resembling 
a truncated cone with its base uppermost. These two 
travellers difl'er widely as to the depth of the crater, 

which 



485 DEsCRinioN of the pike of teneriffe. 

which the natives call caldera, the first calling it forty 
yards to the bottom, the latter saying it is about twelve 
or fifteen feet deep. This caldera or cauldron is nearly 
circular, its diameter about forty fathom. The ground 
is very hot, and frona near twenty spiracula, as from so 
many chimnies, a smoke or vapour arises, which is of a 
strong sulphureous smell. The whole soil seemed mixed 
or powdered with brimstone, which formed a beautifully 
coloured surface. There is one of the rocks which forms 
a kind of vault, or niche, against which the vapours con- 
densing, produce what the inhabitants call azufre de gola, 
or drop-brimstone. On observing some spots of earth, or 
soft clay, ]\Ir. Glas's company tried the heat with their 
fingers, but could not thrust them in farther than half an 
inch, for the deeper they penetrated the hotter they felt 
it. They then took their guide's staff, and thrust it 
^bout three inches deep into a hole or porous substance, 
where the smoke seemed thickest, and having held it 
there about a minute, drew it out, and found it burned to 
charcoal. 

From this spot the clouds beneath them, which were 
at a great distance, made a very extraordinary appear- 
ance : they seemed like the ocean, only the surface 
was not quite so blue and smooth, but had the resem- 
blance of white wool; and where this cloudy ocean, as 
it may be called, touched the mountain, it seemed to 
foam like billows breaking on the shore. When they as- 
cended through the clouds it was dark ; but when they 
(afterward mounted again, between ten and eleven o'clock, 
iand the moon shone bright, the clouds were then below 
jlhem, and about a mile distant. They then mistook 
them for the ocean, and wondered to see it so near, nor 
did they discover iheir mistake till the sun arose. When 
in descending from the pike, they passed through the 
clouds, they appeared as a thick fog or mist, resembling 
jhose frequently seen in England '. all the trees of tl^ 
wood, anO. their clothes, were wet with them, 

SNI) OF VOL. 11. 



INDEX 

10 THE 

SECOND VOLUME, 



PAGK 

ACT.5;0N, ship, wonderful pre- 
servation of - - - 62 

Action for damages, a remarka- 
ble one - . _ 247 

Alnwick, remarkable custom on 
making a new freeman of 
that place - . - 245 

Anello Thomas, the fisherman 
of Naples, history of 236 

Animals, account of, found in 
solid substances - - 12'3 

Antiquities, curious, discover- 
ed in Leadenhall Street 

— in Africa 



Art, curious proJuctions of 
Attachment, singular instance 

of 

Aurora Borealis, remarkable 



B 



61 

8-2 
42-2 



58 
7,38 



Balloon, uncommon elevation 

of one - - - - 2 
Barker John, death of 89 

Birds and iieasts, account of 

some uncommon ones 275 

Bleeding, singular disposition tp 26 
Blood Col. Thomas, wIjo stole 

the Crown, account of 105 

Bois-Rose M. daring exploit of 143 
Bones, liuman, discoveiy of 2~4 
Bottle Conjuror, history of the 1 1 
Bradford Jonathan, executed 
for rnurJer, his extraordina- 
ry case - - - G21 
Buchinger Matthew, account 

of 1 

Burns James, the ventriloquist, 
anecdotes of - - • 369 



Cx'Sarian operation, extraordi 
uvkfy acoouui of 



rAct 

Cameleon, account of that won- 
derful animal 341 

Cameleon, farther account of ex- 
periments on it - - 410 

Capper Joseph, Esq. account of 474 

Catoze Marc, a dwarf with- 
out arms or legs, account of 323 

Cats, surprising instinct in Ijl 

Cheapside Cross, ac(?ount of 129 

Clarke Mrs. her singular mur- 
der - - - - 257 

Clarke , his providential 

escape from death 120 

Clench John, hanged by a 
whip ... - 226 

Clock, description of that of 
the Cathedral of Strasburg .312 

Coal-pit, accident in one at 
Renfrew - - - 133 

Colebrook, extraordinary move- 
ment of the earth there 229 

Collins Mrs. an eccentric cha- 
racter, her death 3^9 

Crank George, a singular cha- 
racter 31 

Cries of London - - 2j3 



D 



Deatliwatch, description of the 
insect >.o called - - 309 

De Cou! cy, i£ar! of Ulster, his 
extraordinary strength 44 

Desert, remarkable, in Negro- 
land ... - 155 

Dog mastiff, brutal treatment 
of One - - - - 4, 

Dog'-', instances of sagac'ty in 93 

Dragon wingtd, i>rocession of 
one, at Troyes in France 149 

Dunn John, account of 278 

Dwarfs, account of two 95 



Earth, movementof near Bristol 279 



INDEX. 



Earth, movement of in Here- 
fordshire ... 327 

Earthquake remarkable, in Ja- 
maica . . - 41,53 

■ extraordinary, in 

China - "- 112 

in Holland 139 

Ednam, account of a person 
there, born without legs 64 

Edwards, Mr. an eccentric cha- 
racter, death of 89 

Equestrian performance, extra- 
ordinary - - - 470 

Escape, wonderful of a Dutch 
seaman - - - 116 

Ewe, instance of fecundity of 
one ----- 7 

Executions, extraordinary, of 
the Mayor of Bodmin and a 
Miller - - - 30B 

F 

Fccnndity, instances of 6,58,118,226 

Ferguson J. who iived eighteen 
years on water, account of 113 

Fire, wonderful accounts of per- 
sons destroyed by it without 
any visible cause 337,365 

Fish, a remarkable one at Gui- 
ana - - 156 

Fit2v\iHiam Sir William, his 
gratitude to Cardigial Wolsey 116 

Flowers extraordinary, daily 
renovation of 155 

Fortitude female, extraordinary 
instance of 07 

Foxes mad, in Switzerland 88 

Franklin Dr. Benj. letter on 
the prevailing doctrines of 
life and death 12! 

Frosts, chronological account of 
remarkable ones in England 272 

Fruit, extraordinary in Guiana 155 

G 

Galvanism, experiments in 3,81 

Geysers, orboiling water spouts 
of Iceland, account of 84 

Ghosts, account of those at 
Hammersmith 65,87 

Giants, account of some re- 
markable ones 373 

GvK)sc Canada, remarkable his- 
tory of the - 8 

Orahn Theodora, original ac- 
count of 47 

Gresiiam Mr. his extraordinary 
ad\cnturc at Stromboli 311 

Guineas, discovery of, in the ri- 
ver Trent - 154 



H 



Hastings Mr. particular ac- 
count of - 258 

Hog, a remarkable one 141 

Horned Man, account of 46 

Houses, on the ancient mode of 
building them in England 102 

Hubbard, Isicholas, particulars 
concerning him 276 

Hurricane, a remarkable one at 
Worksop 277 

Hutton's History of Derby, 
anecdote from - - 10 



I 



Ice, singular phenomenon of 121 
Impostor, a remarkable one 261 
Inoculation of a whole army 156 
Insanity, singular instance of 29 
Intrepidity, remarkable iii- 

stance of - - 330 

Inundation, sudden, at Broms- 

grove - - 60 

Islands, floating - 59,155 

J 
John of Kent, account of 62 



Lake, a boiling one 156 

Lambert Mr. Daniel, the hea- 
viest man in England, ac- 
count of - 408 
Lantern Fly, account of 151 
Lead, discovery of an ancient 

pig of - - 8 

Lightning, dnpadful accident 

occasioned by it 321. 

Longevitj-, instances of 31,62,138 

M 

Man with the iron mask, his- 
tory of the - - 352 

Madeira, inundation at 23 

Mammoth, Skeleton of, foundin 
Essex - - 22 

Marriage, an extraordinary 
one - - 281 

Masters Col. liis remarkable 
cure of an asthma 225 

Matilda, queen of William the 
Conqueror, account of her 
tapestry - 159 

Metcalf John, or Blind Jack of 
Knaresborough, his life and 
adventures - 554 

^Icteor, a remarkable one 277 



tNDEX, 



Midwife, cniolty and punish- 
me/it <>f one at Paris 114 

Migaola, a tree of Guinea, 
whicli furnishes liquor 155 

Mile-end, dieadful accidentand 
; wouderful preservation there 404 

Moore Mr. remarkable sub- 
stance discovered in his cof- 
iin - - 153 

Morris Mr. his narrative of 
the sufferings of part of the 
crew of the \\\'iger 439 

Murder, horrid, at Petersburgh, 
and punishment of the crimi- 
nal - - 424 

•Murderers, atrocious at Paris 2 . 



N 



Neerro, a surprisincr one 95 

Norkett Joan, wonderful dis- 
covery of htr murder 90 
Northumberland household book, 
extracts from the 250 



O 



Oak tree, V cripion of a won- 
derful larpe one 200 

Oaks, account of some remarka- 
ble ones ill Welbeck Pack 47S 

O'Brien Patrick, the Irish giant, 
account of - 332 

— Ins death - 4j> 

Olufson Oluf, a^tonishina: ac- 
count of his being depri\ cd 
of .sense and motion 464 

Qrlow Count, iiis uncommon 
strength - . 30 



Packer J. depth of 137 

Parker John, his death 138 

Pasteboard incombustible 150 
Pedlar's-Atrc, origin of the 

ji^nic of - - . 407- 

Percy, origin of the name «C 117 
Peru, extraordinary mountain 

in that country l.ifi 

Petrifaction, a remarkable one l.»l 
152,157 
Pine Apples, some remarkably 

large: ones 4.53 
Potter Mr. his providential 

escape from death 120 
I'ow.I! WjlliaiH, the Highgate 

prophet, account of 468 



Preservation, miraculous 140 

of 

eight Englishmen in Greenlaijd28J 

: of a 

person who fell from a height 
of "00 feet - - 326 



Restoration to life of persons 
supposed t» be dead 398,455 



Sparrows white, singular ac- 
count of 473 
Sports ancient, of the Lon- 
doners - - - 318 
Salsette, extraordinary works 

of art there 154 

Selkirk Alexander, the origi- 
nal of Robinson Crusoe, his 
adventures 96 

Sheej), extraordinary account of 

one - - 57 

Sliells found under a solid stra- 
tum of rock - - 7 
Shipton Mother, account of 145 
Sidney M. Esq. an eccentric 

character, his death 137 

Sight, instances of the recovery 

of - - 113,*;76 

Sleepwalker, anecdote of one 141. 
Slosclla, a valley of Dalmatia, 
descriptioti of a remarkably 
savage tribe by which it is 
inhabited 350 

.Smith Francis, tried and con- 
victed of murder 65 

his j)ardon 7 

Snell Hannah, lier life and ex- 
traordinary adventures 430 
Sow, instance of fecundity of 
one - - - 7 

a remarkable one 14l 

Spelinore Mary, her recovery 

aftei- swallowing eighty pins 119 
Stage exhibition, curious ac- 
count of the receipts and cx- 

jHiiditure for one 317 

Stewart Lord William, his 

wonderful escape 39 

Stones, fall of, frunithe air 37 

Storms, C^e'. in France 1 jji 

Stromboli, one of the Lipari 

islands, account of 249 

Strong Mr. a blind man of 
Carlisle, account of 141 



INDEX. 



Subst^nres strange, extracted 
frum the human body, and 
that of animals - - 39,44 

Suffcication, fatal accident 

caused by it - - 453 



Talbot Mairy Anne, surpris- 
ing adventures of 16'^ 

Taylor Jemmy, the Southwark 
'Miser - - - 334 

Tnylov John, See Talbot 

Tinierity, extraordinary in- 
stance of, in a child 32 

TiMieriffe, discoveries on the 
pike of - - 87 

Termite, a otirious African in- 
' sect, description of 416 

Tcrmr, sinoridar t-tYect of 150 

Thames, desciiplionof the fair 
held on it in the winter of 
1683 - - - 268 

Thunder-storm, remarkable 29,118, 

13.5 

Towel, a boy hanged in one SQft 

Trees, remarkable account of 407 



V 

Vcrdion Bavi^n De. See Grahn 
Vesuvius, description of its 

first irruption hy Pliny 343 

Viper, remarkable instance of 

fecundity of one - 6 

W 

\Vag:er, narrative of the suffer- 
ings of part of the crew of 
that ship - - 439 

"Wasrcr Pedestrian - - 140 
Walsli Ann, her remarkable 

abstinence from food 120 

Warner He.iry Lee, Esq. ac- 
count of - - - 471 
Waterspout, extraordinary one 94 
Wen, an enurmous one 137 
Wheat, astonishmg produce of 

a single grain - - 59 

White, Mrs. fecundity of 59 



Yorkshire, local singularities of 
a district of that county 3^ 



DIRECTIONS FOR PLACING THE PLATES. 



Frontispiece to face the Title 
Mathrw Buchinger Page 1 

Miss De Verdion, 48 

The Hammersmith Ghost 65 

Col. Thomas Blood 103 

Cheapside Cross 129 

Mother Shiptoii 145 

Alary Anne Talbot, as a Sailor 100 
Ditto in her Female Dr< iS 188 
The WhinficW Oak Ji30 



Thomas Anello 


Page 23C 


Fair on the Thames 


26S 


Clock of Strasburg 


31S 


O'Biien, tlie Irish Giant 


332 


James Burns 


369 


John Metcalf 


384 


Daniel Lambert 


408 


Hannah Snell 


4£0 


William Powell 


466 



Barnard and SuUicr, rrintcrs, Water Lane, FUct-Bireet^ 



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