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KIRKCUDBRIGHTSHIRE 



AND 



WIGTOWNSHIRE 



W.LE 






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Ailsa CraieV, 







Tlf: Ca/TLbrvittfc University Press 



PHYSICAL MAP OF 

KIRKCUDBRIGHT 

AND 

WIGTOWN 

English Mies 




Parishes iu Wigtown 
1 Eirkcolm. 1 Eirkcowan 



.'- ■ 



2 LeswalL 

3 Stranraer. 

4 ^or« Patrick 

5 Stoneykirk. 

6 Eirkmaiden. 

7 Inch. 

8 -Veif iwce. 

9 Oid Luce. 



1 1 Penninghame. 
1 2 Mochrum. 
1 3 Uptown. 
1 4 Eirkinner. 
1 5 Sorbie. 
1 6 Glasserton. 
17 WAieAwn. 



Parislies in Kirkcudbright. 

1 Carsphairn. -[4 New Abbey. 

2 Minnigaff. 1 5 Eirkbean. 

3 £"e/Z*. 1 6 Colvend. 
4- -Dafrj/. 1 7 Buittle. 

5 Balmaclellan. 1 8 Crossmichael 

6 Parton. 1 9 Balmaghie. 

7 Eirkpatrick 20 Girthon. 
Durham. 21 Eirkmabreck 

8 Eirkpatrick 



Irongray. 
9 Terregles. 

I Traqueer 

I I Lochrutton. 
12 0>r. 

1 3 Eirkgunzeon. 



22 Anwoth. 

23 Twynholm. 

24 Borgve. 

25 Eirkcudbright. 

26 Tongueland. 

27 Kelton. 

28 Merrick. 



Copyright Seofiffe Fhillp £ S.tn 1* 



KIRKCUDBRIGHTSHIRE 

AND 

WIGTOWNSHIRE 



CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS 

fonbon: FETTER LANE, E.C.4 

C. F. CLAY, Manager 



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Sombsj?, Calcutta, anD ^Habras : MACM1LLAN AND CO., Ltd. 

Toronto: J. M. DENT & SONS, Ltd. 

^okvo: MARUZEN-KABUSHIKI-KAISHA 






KIRKCUDBRIGHTSHIRE 

AND 

WIGTOWNSHIRE 



by 
WILLIAM LEARMONTH, F.R.P.S., F.B.S.E. 

Girthon Public School, Gatehouse-of-Fleet 



With Maps, Diagrams, and Illustrations 




CAMBRIDGE 

AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS 

1920 



Printed in Great Britain 
hy Turnbull &> Spears, Edinburgh 





CONTENTS 


PAGE 


I. 


County and Shire. The Origin of Galloway 






Kirkcudbright, Wigtown . 


I 


2. 


General Characteristics . 


2 


3- 


Size. Shape. Boundaries . 


6 


4- 


Surface and General Features 


8 


5- 


Rivers and Lakes .... 


15 


6. 


Geology ...... 


28 


7- 


Natural History ..... 


36 


8. 


Along the Coast ..... 


42 


9- 


Raised Beaches.- Coastal Gains and Losses 






Lighthouses ..... 


57 


IO. 


Climate ...... 


61 


ii. 


People — Race, Dialect, Population . 


66 


12. 


Agriculture ....... 


70 


13- 


Manufactures, Mines and Minerals . 


77 


14. 


Fisheries, Shipping and Trade . . , 


81 


15- 


History ....... 


87 


16. 


Antiquities ....... 


92 



VI 



CONTENTS 



17. Architecture — (a) Ecclesiastical 

18. Architecture — (b) Military 

iq. Architecture — (c) Domestic and Municipal 

20. Communications ..... 

21. Administration and Divisions . 

22. Roll of Honour ..... 

23. The Chief Towns and Villages 



FACE 
IOI 

107 

117 
123 

127 

131 

136 



ILLUSTRATIONS 



Glenluce Abbey . 

Portpatrick, looking South 

Rocks near Loch Enoch 

Loch Enoch and Merrick 

Head of Loch Trool 

The Cree at Machermore 

Carlingwark Loch, Castle Douglas 

The Murder Hole, Loch Neldricken 

One of the Buchan Falls, Glen Trool 

Loch Valley 

Medallion of Paul Jones 

Facsimile of Letter of Paul Jones 

The Needle's Eye, Douglas Hall 

Cave, Rascarrel . 

Rutherford's Church, Anwoth 

The Gateway, Baldoon Castle 

Remains of Cruggleton Castle 

St Medan's Chapel 

Dunskey Castle . 

Mull of Galloway 

Yews, Lochryan . 

Diagram showing Rise and Fall of Population 

Belted Galloway Cattle 



PAGE 

5 

6 

10 

ii 

J 7 

22 

25 
26 

27 
35 
43 
44 
45 
47 
50 
5i 
52 
54 
56 
60 

64 
69 
74 



VII 



VU1 



ILLUSTRATIONS 



Newton Stewart . 

The Harbour, Stranraer 

Martyrs' Graves, Wigtown 

Mote of Urr 

Sculptured Stones, Kirkmadritu- 

Canoe and Paddle 

Horned Mask of Bronze 

Bronze Bracelet . 

St Ninian's Chapel 

Norman Arch, Whithorn Priory 

Dundrennan Abbey 

Tomb of the Duchess of Touraine 

Glasserton Church 

Threave Castle 

Cardoness Castle . 

Rusco Castle 

Hills Tower, Lochanhead 

Round Tower of Orchardton 

Castle Kennedy . 

Lochnaw Castle . 

Lochinch Castle . 

Old Place of Mochrum 

The Tolbooth, Kirkcudbright 

< )ld and New Market Crosses, Wigtown 

Sir John Ross 

Balsarroch .... 

Rev. Alexander Murray, D.D. 

Dairy .... 



ILLUSTRATIONS 



IX 



Lincluden College 


PAGE 
I4O 


Sweetheart Abbey 


I 4 I 


Gold Penannular Ornament . 


142 


Creamery, Drummore . 


143 


Creamery, Sandhead 


145 


Ancient Sculptured Stones, Whithorn . . . 146 


Diagrams .... 


147 



MAPS 

Geographical Map of Kirkcudbrightshire and 

Wigtownshire ..... Front Cover 

Geological Map of Kirkcudbrightshire and Wigtown- 
shire ....... Back Cover 



Rainfall Map of Scotland 
Map of Dowalton Loch 



62 

97 



The illustrations on pp. 10, 11, 17, 22, 25, 26, 27, 35, 45, 47, 50, 51, 52, 
54, 60, 64, 78, 95, 102, 104, 106, 107, 109, in, 112, 113, 114, 118, 119, 
120, 121, 122, 132, 133, 138, 140, 141, 146 are reproduced from photo- 
graphs by the Rev. C. H. Dick ; those on pp. 6, 56, 84, 91, 103, 116 from 
photographs supplied by Messrs Valentine & Son, Ltd. ; that on p. 5 is 
reproduced by kind permission of The Courier and Herald, Dumfries ; 
that on p. 134 from a print kindly supplied by T. Fraser, Esq. ; those on 
pp. 143 and 145 from photographs supplied by The Wigtownshire 
Creamery Company. 



i. County and Shire. The Origin of 
Galloway, Kirkcudbright, Wigtown 

The word shire is of Old English origin and meant 
office, charge, administration. The Norman Conquest 
introduced the word county — through French from the 
Latin comitatus, which in mediaeval documents desig- 
nates the shire. County is the district ruled by a count, 
the king's comes, the equivalent of the older English 
term earl. This system of local administration entered 
Scotland as part of the Anglo-Norman influence that 
strongly affected our country after the year 1100. 

Galloway to-day, the Grey Galloway of literature, 
comprises the counties of Wigtown and Kirkcudbright. 
From east to west it extends from the " Brig en' o' 
Dumfries to the Braes o' Glenapp," or almost to the 
Braes, the western boundary of Wigtownshire at this 
part being, in point of fact, the Galloway Burn. In 
ancient times the Province of Galloway is said to have 
extended also over parts of the adjacent counties. 
But for hundreds of years the name has been identified 
solely with the " Stewartry " of Kirkcudbright and the 
" Shire " of Wigtown. 

The origin of these terms dates back to 1369, when 
Archibald the Grim, third Earl of Douglas, received the 
lordship of Galloway, and the whole of the Crown lands 

A 1 



2 KIRKCUDBRIGHT AND WIGTOWN 

between the Nith and the Cree. Archibald appointed, 
a steward to collect his revenues and administer justice, 
whence the name Stewartry. In the following year he 
obtained Wigtownshire by purchase from the Earl of 
Wigtown. This district continued to be administered 
by the King's Sheriff, and has been known ever since 
as the Shire. According to Skene in his Celtic Scotland 
the word Galloway is formed by the combination of the 
two words Gall, a stranger, and Gaidhel, the Gaels. 
Gallgaidhel was the name given to the mixed Norse and 
Gaels in the Hebrides, Man, Kintyre and Galloway. 
To the last district the designation came latterly to be 
restricted. The word Gallgaidhel appears in Welsh as 
Galhvyddel (where dd is pronounced as th), whence arose 
the forms Gallwitheia, Gallwitha, Gallovidia, and Galloway. 

The name Kirkcudbright means Cuthbert's Kirk. The 
same meaning belongs to the Gaelic term Kilcudbrit. 
Bede records a visit of St Cuthbert to the Niduari, the 
men of the region of the Nith. 

Wigtown means bay-town, the first syllable being 
from the Scandinavian vik, a bay, a creek. 

Wigtownshire and Kirkcudbrightshire were two of the 
three counties on whose boundaries, county and parish, 
no change was made by the Commissioners under the 
Act of 1889. 

2. General Characteristics 

Geographically, Galloway may be viewed as falling 
into three divisions— Upper Galloway, the hilly northern 



GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS 3 

portions of both counties ; Lower Galloway, the lower 
and more open southern sections of both divisions east 
of Luce Bay ; and the Rhinns, the double peninsula to 
the south-west of Luce Bay and Loch Ryan. There is 
a quaint Latin description of Galloway written by John 
MacLellan in 1665 for Blaeu's atlas, which may be thus 
translated : " The whole region is very healthy in 
climate and soil ; it rarely ascends into mountains, but 
rises in many hills. Galloway as a whole recalls the 
figure of an elephant ; the Rhinns form the head, the 
Mull the proboscis ; the headlands jutting into the sea 
the feet ; the mountains above-named the shoulders ; 
rocks and moors the spine ; the remainder of the district 
the rest of the body." 

With a coastline of over 170 miles, its fishing is of 
comparatively little importance ; its harbours are few, 
and the bulk of its commerce is railway-borne ; while 
the absence of coal and iron has reduced its manufactur- 
ing industries to a minimum. Its wealth lies in its 
agriculture. In the uplands sheep-rearing, in the low- 
lands dairying and mixed farming give Kirkcudbright- 
shire and Wigtownshire a high place among the counties 
of Scotland. Certain districts — Twynholm, Kirkcud- 
bright, Borgue, Glenluce — pay much attention to bee- 
keeping, and there the honey is not excelled by any 
produced elsewhere in the British Isles. 

Galloway offers many a bid for the outside world. 
Its manifold beauty of storm-scarped mountain and 
quiet loch ; its rivers, here brawling torrents, there 
smooth-flowing streams ; its long seaboard of frowning 



4 KIRKCUDBRIGHT AND WIGTOWN . 

cliff relieved by sandy beach, woo the lover of nature 
with charms that will not be gainsaid. In many a fort 
and cairn, in many a mote and sculptured stone, the 
antiquary finds exposed the unwritten record of the 
storied past. Its once stately abbeys, whose ruins to-day 
invite the ecclesiologist, were centres of missionary 
effort which kept alive the torch of religion in the dark 
ages. Monuments on its whaup-haunted moors and 
tombstones in its " Auld Kirkyards " tell of the dour 
westland whigs and their part in Scotland's fight for 
religious freedom. Broken castle walls speak of long 
generations of " Neighbour Weir," as the feuds of the 
petty chiefs were oddly called. The charm of letters is not 
wanting. In Gatehouse-of-Fleet Burns is said to have 
committed to paper the flaming battle-ode which had sung 
itself into his soul to the accompaniment of a thunder- 
storm on the moor. Crockett's novels derive from the 
soil which gave him birth, and will long hold their place 
as typical of Galloway — its scenery, its people ; and their 
homely hospitable ways. But a greater than Crockett 
has been here ; Scott found subjects in Galloway for 
Guy Mannering, Old Mortality, and The Bride of Lammer- 
moor, while Jeanie Deans, the heroine of The Heart of 
Midlothian, had her prototype in Helen Walker, the 
daughter of a small farmer in the parish of Irongray. 

Galloway affords ample scope for the labours of the 
geologist and the botanist, and presents varied and un- 
numbered subjects for the canvas of the artist. Add 
to this the possession of a climate so mild and equable 
that " the tulip tree flourishes and flowers at St Mary's 




>> 

0) 
.Q 

< 

0) 
(J 

3 




6 KIRKCUDBRIGHT AND WIGTOWN 

Isle, and the arbutus bears fruit at Kirkdale " ; and it 
will be readily conceded that " there is no district in 
Scotland better worth knowing." 

Dairy, New Galloway and Carsphairn among the hills, 




Portpatrick, looking South 

and Stranraer, Portpatrick and Rockcliffe by the sea 
are but a few of the holiday haunts for which the district 
is noted. 



3. Size. Shape. Boundaries 

The longest straight line which can be measured 
across Kirkcudbrightshire is from Arbigland to a point 
on the Cree where the river separates the county from 



SIZE— SHAPE— BOUNDARIES 7 

Ayrshire. This runs, roughly speaking, from south- 
east to north-west, and is 44^ miles long. From a point 
a mile and a half north of Maxwelltown due west to the 
same river the length is 40J miles, while a line due north 
from the Ross promontory to the Dumfriesshire boundary 
is 37 miles. The area of the county is 575,832 acres. 
Among the counties in Scotland it is ninth in size. It 
is iith times the size of Wigtownshire, while it is only 
xo-ths that of Ayrshire and T 8 oths the size of Dumfries- 
shire. The shape of Kirkcudbrightshire is very irregular, 
but is approximately trapezoidal. 

On the south Kirkcudbrightshire is bounded by the 
Solway Firth and Wigtown Bay. On the west the Cree 
separates it first from Wigtownshire, and then from 
Ayrshire as far as Loch Moan. The dividing line runs 
east by the Merrick, to be continued by Eglin Lane, 
Loch Enoch, and Gala Lane to Loch Doon. For about 
half its length this loch is the county boundary. North- 
wards and then eastwards as far as Blacklarg, where the 
Stewartry meets Dumfriesshire, and southwards to the 
parish of Irongray, the boundary is mostly artificial. 
The Cairn Water, sweeping round Irongray and Terregles 
to its confluence with the Nith, about a mile and a quarter 
north of Dumfries, forms once more a natural boundary, 
which is continued by the Nith to the sea. 

From Grange of Cree westwards through Stranraer 
to the North Channel, the extreme length of Wigtown- 
shire is 30 miles ; its breadth from Burrow Head to the 
Ayrshire boundary is 31 miles. Thus were it not for 
Luce Bay and Loch Ryan the outline of the county 



8 KIRKCUDBRIGHT AND WIGTOWN 

would be approximately a rhombus. Exclusive of 
water, its area is 311,984 acres, and this is seventeenth 
in size among the counties of Scotland. It is barely half 
the size of Ayrshire, while it is rather more than half 
that of the Stewartry. From Carrick Mill Burn, where 
the three counties of Ayr, Kirkcudbright and Wigtown 
meet, the River Cree, with its estuary broadening into 
Wigtown Bay, forms the eastern boundary of Wigtown- 
shire. On the north the boundary runs eastward from 
Galloway Burn to the Main Water of Luce. Then bend- 
ing for a short distance to the north, it cuts the 
Cross Water of Luce and, sweeping round Benbrake 
Hill, passes along Pulganny Burn, Loch Maberry and 
Loch Dornal to Carrick Mill Burn, where it meets the 
Cree. 

Elsewhere, Wigtownshire is washed by the sea. 

4. Surface and General Features 

If a straight line be drawn from the middle of the 
parish of Irongray to the middle of Anwoth, it will be 
found that the land to the south-east is, on the whole, 
lowland in character ; that to the north-west is high- 
land. Yet the former is lowland only by contrast. An 
elevated tract of ground stretches from Criffel (1867) 
north-west by the Cuil Hill (1377) and the Long Fell 
to the Lotus Hill (1050). West of this the land gradually 
decreases in height towards the plain of the Urr. Again 
it rises in a ridge of rugged hills strewn with boulders to 
culminate in the Screel (1120) and Bengairn (1250). 



SURFACE AND GENERAL FEATURES 9 

Twynholm may be looked on as an elevated plain, so 
high in general does the surface of the parish lie. In 
the northern part of the parish is Fuffock Hill (iooo), 
and Ben Gray (1200), which slopes down to Loch Whin- 
yeon. The rest of this southern division, from the valley 
of the Dee eastwards to Terregles, while here and there 
hilly, is marked as a rule by an unbroken surface. 
Girthon parish is mostly bleak, heathery upland, con- 
sisting of broad irregular masses of hills intersected by 
water courses. These reach their greatest altitude in 
Craigronald (1684). 

The highland district of Kirkcudbrightshire forms 
part of the wide table-land extending from St Abbs 
Head to Portpatrick, and known as the southern up- 
lands of Scotland. It rises into a cluster of moun- 
tains with smooth tops, and sides scarped with precipices 
or deeply cut into with glens, presenting everywhere 
scenes of naked and rugged grandeur. Here are few 
trees ; here is but little trace of man. Nature is every- 
where stern ; no cultivation is possible, and the region 
forms one vast sheep-walk, clad with heath and moss, 
relieved by stretches of eagerly sought-for grass. The 
interior of Kirkmabreck is a congeries of hills, of 
which the highest is Cairnsmore of Fleet (2331), partly 
in Minnigaff. The surface of this parish is everywhere 
mountainous. From south to north are Cairnsmore of 
Fleet, Larg Hill (2216), Lamachan (2349), Benyellary 
(2360), Merrick (2764) and Kirriereoch (2562). Merrick 
is the loftiest summit south of the Grampains. ' Ony 
shauchle," was Crockett's inscription in one of his novels 



10 KIRKCUDBRIGHT AND WIGTOWN 

presented to a shepherd, " Ony shauchle can write a 




Rocks near Loch Enoch 

book, but it takes a man to herd the Merrick." An 
undulating line connects the tops of these hills in one 



SURFACE AND GENERAL FEATURES 11 

wide sweep of tableland. Sir Archibald Geikie describes 
the surface of this parish as " one wild expanse of 
mountain and moorland roughened with thousands of 
heaps of glacial detritus, and dotted with lakes enclosed 
within these rubbish mounds." The heathy summits 
of the Rhinns of Kells command a magnificent view. 
From Little Millyea (1898) the range runs N.N.W. 




Loch Enoch and Merrick 



through Meikle Millyea (2446), Millfire (2350), and Cor- 
scrine (2668) to Coran of Portmark (2042). In Cars- 
phairn, with its lofty hills green almost to the top, 
rearing every year no fewer than 30,000 Cheviot and 
blackfaced sheep, the highest is Cairnsmore, the third 
peak in the well-known lines : 

" Cairnsmore of Fleet, and Cairnsmore of Dee, 
Cairnsmore of Carsphairn, the highest o' the three." 



12 KIRKCUDBRIGHT AND WIGTOWN 

The second of these is in Kells, and is 1616 feet 
high. 

No county in Scotland rises so little in the aggregate 
above the level of the sea as Wigtownshire, yet as a 
whole it is undulating and hillocky. The higher grounds 
in general are arranged in no regular order, the most 
important of them occurring as solitary eminences. 
The peninsula which stretches from Corsewall Point to 
Mull of Galloway is known as the Rhinns (Celtic, rinn, 
a point, with English plural) ; the bluntly triangular 
peninsula terminating in Burrow Head is called the 
Machers (Celtic, mahair, a plain, with English plural) ; 
the rest of the county stretching from the Cree to Loch 
Ryan and including a large part of the parishes of 
Penninghame, Kirkcowan, Mochrum, Inch, Old Luce 
and New Luce, bears the name of the Moors. Wild, 
and for the most part uncultivated, the moors, to which 
the name is due, are the chief feature in its scenery. 
They are well stocked with game, but except for sheep- 
farming are of no value industrially. It is possible to 
travel from Glenhapple Moor, near the Cree, westwards 
through Urrall, Dirneark, Airieglasson, Laggangairn, 
Glenkitten, Dalnyap, Mark and Laight to Loch Ryan, 
in some cases over " flows " (as the peat mosses are 
called) from eight to ten miles long, without crossing a 
single ploughed field. Where there is cultivation it is 
confined almost^ entirely to narrow strips along the 
courses of some of the streams. In the north of the 
Moors are the highest hills of the county— Midmoile 
(844), Craigairie and Benbrake (each 1000). 



SURFACE AND GENERAL FEATURES 13 

Lying south of the Moors, from which it is separated 
by no well-defined boundary, is the peninsula called the 
Machers. It comprises the parishes of Wigtown, 
Kirkinner, Sorbie, Whithorn, Glasserton, most of 
Mochrum, and parts of Old Luce. The surface as a rule 
is low and flat, but the general flatness is relieved here 
and there by gently sloping ridges running with a fairly 
uniform trend from north-east to south-west, and rising 
as a whole towards the south-west. The highest 
elevations, all near the coast on that side, are Fell of 
Carleton (475), Fell of Barhullion (450), East Bar 
(450), Bennan Hill (500), Mochrum Fell (646), Doon 
of May (457) ; and, on account of its position and 
configuration more conspicuous than hills which are 
higher, Knock of Luce (513). The district is well 
watered. Of the numerous streams it is noteworthy 
that the larger, e.g. the Ket and the Drummullin Burn, 
run transversely to the general trend of ridges and 
hollows, while the smaller flow between the ridges. A 
feature of the district is the manner in which the boulder 
clay is scattered over the ground. The large, nearly 
oblong, smooth ridges of this deposit, known locally as 
; ' drums," are invariably cultivated, and the contrast 
between them and the surrounding lower and unculti- 
vated ground is very striking. 

Connected with the rest of the county by an 
isthmus six miles broad at its narrowest part, the 
double peninsula of the Rhinns measures 28^ miles 
from Corsewall Point to Mull of Galloway ; its 
extreme breadth is about 5 J miles. The isthmus 



14 KIRKCUDBRIGHT AND WIGTOWN 

consists of a low, flat plain lying between Loch Ryan 
and Luce Bay. It has an average height of 70 to 
100 feet above sea-level, sloping gradually to either 
beach. Piltanton Burn, which cuts this plain near its 
centre, forms a broad alluvial flat at Genoch House. 
Numerous hollows occur, most of which contain deep 
lochs. 

As in the Machers, the highest land is on the west 
side. Indeed the whole peninsula may be looked on 
as exhibiting a long range of precipitous cliffs on the 
west, and sloping gradually to the sea on the east. 
Several peaks range about 500 feet, the highest being 
Craigenlee (592) in Leswalt, and Cairn Pyot (593), in 
Portpatrick, the greatest elevation in the Rhinns. 
With the exception of these rocky hills and the Moors 
of Galdenoch and Larbrax, most of the northern half 
of the peninsula is under cultivation. Towards Port- 
patrick the surface consists largely of drained land 
reclaimed from moor. In the southern half Barn- 
corkrie Moor and Grennan Moor are still in a state of 
nature ; but with these exceptions most of the district 
has been brought under the plough. A prominent 
depression extends across the peninsula from Port Logan 
Bay to Terally Bay ; another forms a hollow between 
Clanyard Bay and Kilstay Bay ; a third connects the 
headland of the Mull of Galloway with the rest of the 
peninsula. 



RIVERS AND LAKES 15 



5. Rivers and Lakes 

The main river system flows from N.W. to S.E. in 
long straight courses, with unimportant deflections. 
The chief streams are the Nith, the Urr, the Dee, the 
Fleet and the Cree. These are the oldest streams of 
the district, and an extraordinary fact is that some flow 
right across the elevations of the land. In some cases 
the valleys are longer than the streams. For example, 
the Dee rises near Loch Doon and flows S.E. past Castle 
Douglas, but the Dee valley is continued north towards 
Ayrshire, where it is occupied by the Doon, a river 
flowing to the N.W. Another remarkable point is that 
these streams run across the grain of the rocks. So it 
cannot be that the presence of soft belts of rock has 
determined their present channels. The vaUeys have a 
number of tributaries which converge towards them 
from opposite sides. The Black Water of Dee is one 
of those tributaries which are oblique to the course of 
the main stream ; the Palnure Burn is another ; and the 
Bladnoch also comes in as a tributary stream. A second 
class of streams has a course at right angles to the first 
group. They flow as a rule in accordance with the main 
slopes of the country, and follow the strike of the rocks. 
The Solway Firth, which is a drowned valley, has the 
same inclination, namely, from N.E. to S.W. 

The main watershed is from N.E. to S.W., the highest 
ground running from Craigarie Fell to Mount Merrick, 
the Kells range, and on to the Windy Standard. But 



16 KIRKCUDBRIGHT AND WIGTOWN 

owing to the peculiar history of the river systems, the 
main valleys are cut right across this, and the actual 
watersheds more or less closely follow the same direction. 
The county margin from Darngarroch Hill runs for a 
considerable distance approximately on the watershed 
between the Nith (which receives a comparatively small 
part of the drainage of the county) and the Dee. From 
the Windy Standard the county border crosses to the 
Doon Valley, and the eastern part of Kirkcudbrightshire 
belongs to the basin of the Urr. The watershed between 
the Nith and the Urr starting on the shore near Souther- 
ners runs through Criffel, crosses the railway near Hills 
Tower, and swings to the west to the Nine Mile Bar, 
and thence to Darngarroch Hill, after which it follows 
the county line. The watershed between the Urr and 
the Dee begins near Barcloy Hill, north of Dundrennan, 
and passes to the east of Castle Douglas, where the 
streams are only about four miles apart. Then it runs 
N.W. towards Black Craig, reaching the county boundary 
about Trostan Hill. The Dee valley is separated from 
the valley of the Doon at the county margin. The 
watershed between the Dee and the Fleet is low and 
irregular. In the S.E. it passes Fuffock Hill and Loch 
Whinyeon, goes through the White Top of Culreoch, 
past Loch Grannoch to Cairnsmore, by Gatehouse-of- 
Fleet Station, down Pibble Hill and Cairnharrow. The 
watershed bit ween the Black Water of Dee and the 
< ree is well defined. Loch Dee drains to the Dee, Loch 
Enoch to the Doon, and Loch Trool to the Cree ; so that 
the watershed runs in an irregular manner among these 




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o 
u 

H 

o 
o 



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18 KIRKCUDBRIGHT AND WIGTOWN 

lochs. It ascends the Merrick and is continued north 
through Kirriereoch Hill. 

The valley between the west side of the Cree and the 
Bladnoch is low and flat. On the west side of the Blad- 
noch valley there is a broad range of flatfish ground 
occupied by numerous lochs and by large peat mosses. 
The watershed here winds out and in between the heads 
of the stream, passes through Carsecreugh Fell, and 
sweeps round to Quarter Fell. The N.W. side of the 
Luce valley is formed by a well characterised group of 
hills, of which Mid Moile is the most prominent. 
Towards the west this watershed passes through Glen- 
whan Moor. The Piltanton Burn, the only important 
stream in the Rhinns, rises to the west of Loch Ryan, 
flows parallel to its shores as far as Lochan, then swings 
to the east to break through the sandhills flanking the 
Sands of Luce at their eastern extremity. 

The Nith, which rises in Ayrshire some nine miles south 
of Cumnock, is joined by the Cluden Water at Lincluden, 
a mile and a half from Dumfries. " Lonely Cluden 's 
hermit stream " is formed by the union of the Cairn 
Water and the Old Water of Cluden. The Cargen issues 
from Lochrutton Loch to join the Nith 2^ miles south 
of Dumfries, and New Abbey Pow, after an eastward 
course of six miles, falls into it where the parishes of 
Troqueer and New Abbey march. 

Issuing from Loch Urr, the river Urr is at first un- 
interesting and flows over an irregular channel. Its 
course from the Old Bridge of Urr is among level and 
well-cultivated grounds with a rich sward of grass. It 



RIVERS AND LAKES 19 

enters Rough Firth at Palnackie, almost midway 
between Nith and Dee. Of its numerous feeders the 
only one of any importance is Kirkgunzeon Lane, 
which rises at Lang Fell and after a run of eight miles 
through lands largely alluvial, falls into it as Dalbeattie 
Burn, about a mile south of Dalbeattie. 

The Water of Ken rises between Blacklorg Hill and 
Lorg Hill, and 17 miles nearer the sea enters Loch Ken 
— no loch at all, but merely an expansion of a sluggish 
river dreaming along between widespread lonely banks. 
At the southern extremity of the parish of Kells, 21 miles, 
from its source, the Ken is joined from the west by the 
Dee. From this point to the sea it passes under the 
name of its usurping tributary. The streams which 
feed the Ken are numerous but, severally, inconsiderable. 
On the left bank, midway between Dairy and New 
Galloway, it receives the romantic Garpel Burn, with its 
picturesque waterfall, the Holy Linn. Its principal 
tributary is the Deugh on the right bank, which, rising 
in three headwaters in Ayrshire, almost bisects Cars- 
phairn, draining in two main divisions the whole of that 
extensive parish. Joined by the Polmaddy Burn, 
which has flowed eastwards from the slopes of the Carlin's 
Cairn, it pours the united waters into the Ken. 

Of the ten or twelve rills which form the source of the 
Dee, the principal is the March Burn, which rises on the 
south-west slopes of Corscrine Hill (2668), changes its 
name to Sauch Burn, and then as Cooran Lane receives 
the surplus waters of Loch Dee. Thenceforward it is 
known as the Dee — the dark stream — or by its duplicate 



20 KIRKCUDBRIGHT AND WIGTOWN 

name, the Black Water of Dee. The dark colour of its 
waters is due to the mosses among which it has its origin 
and through which in its upper reaches it flows. It is 
worthy of note in passing that its salmon are said to be 
of a darker colour than those of other rivers in the south 
of Scotland. Its course for 19 miles is in the main 
south-eastwards. It traverses Stroan Loch two miles 
before its union with the Ken ; and from the con- 
fluence for five miles it expands into what is sometimes 
called a second Loch Dee, a series of three successive 
lakes with an average breadth of a quarter of a mile. 
Its couise now is rapid : a turbulent mill-race, it rushes 
over a rocky bottom and between steep copse-clad 
banks past Threave Castle Isle and Lodge Isle to Tong- 
land, where at the Doachs it pours over a declivity of 
rocks in an impetuous cataract. Immediately below 
Tongland Bridge, according to tradition, is the spot 
described by the Scottish poet Alexander Montgomerie 
(born about 1545) in the lines : 

" 13ot, as I mussit myne alane, 
I saw ane river rin 
Out ouir ane craggie rock of stane, 
Syne lichtit in ane lin, 

With tumbling and rumbling 

Amang the rockis round, 
Dewalling and falling 
Into that pit profound." 

Three miles farther down it sweeps past Kirkcudbright, 
and after five miles loses itself in the Solway. Mussels 
containing pearls of considerable value are occasionally 
got in this river. Anstool Burn from Balmaghie and 



RIVERS AND LAKES 21 

Glengap Burn, flowing out of Loch Whinyeon unite to 
form Tarff Water, the chief tributary of the Dee ; which, 
after a run of eight miles, it joins near Compstone House. 
About the middle of its course there is a picturesque 
succession of waterfalls, the Linn of Lairdmannoch, 
between 50 and 60 feet in height. 

The Fleet, throughout a boundary river, is formed 
by the junction of two main streams, the Big and the 
Little Water of Fleet. The former has its head waters 
in three burns which rise on the eastern slopes of Cairns- 
more of Fleet. One of these, the Carrouch Burn, divides 
Anwoth from Kirkmabreck; the Big Water, and 
thereafter the united streams, divide Anwoth parish 
from Girthon. Issuing from Loch Fleet, the Little 
Water flows south to join the Big Water just above 
Castramont. Wild, heath-clad hills overlook the upper 
part of its course, while its middle and lower reaches 
are flanked by declivities and plains, here richly wooded 
and there stretching backwards in well-tilled fields. 
A mile below Gatehouse the river suddenly expands 
into an estuary 3 J miles long and a mile in average 
breadth. 

The Cree is a boundary river. It has its source in 
Loch Moan, and for several miles flows through a bleak 
moorland district separating the Stewartry from Ayr- 
shire. Opposite the north end of Loch Ochiltree it 
bends sharply to the east for over a mile, and then, for 
the remainder of its course, flows south-eastwards 
between the Stewartry and the Shire. Near the farm of 
Brigton it is joined by its chief tributary, the Minnoch, 



22 KIRKCUDBRIGHT AND WIGTOWN 

reinforced by the Water of Trool. For three or four 
miles below this it flows with an almost imperceptible 
current through a broad channel known as the Loch 
of Dee. On the left bank, through the beautiful Linn 
of Cadorcan, the waters of Cadorcan Burn fling them- 
selves in a lovely cascade into the Cree over a cliff 





The Cree at Machermore 



some fifty feet high in the Wood of Cree, one of the few 
remaining fragments of the ancient forests of Galloway. 
Right across were the Cruives of Cree, where salmon 
used to be caught in traps formed of stakes and wattles 
fixed to a chain stretched across the river. The Cruives 
of Cree find a place in what is probably the oldest form 
of the lines proverbial of the power of the Kennedy 
family in the sixteenth century. 



RIVERS AND LAKES 23 

" 'Twixt Wigtoune and the Toune of Aire, 
And laigh down by the Cruives of Cree, 
Ye shall not get a lodging there, 
Except ye court a Kennedie." 

Augmented by the Penkill Burn, which joins it just 
above Newton Stewart and by the Palnure Burn, which 
falls into it three miles above Creetown, the " crystal 
Cree " makes its way by a broadening estuary into Wig- 
town Bay. This is one of the very few Scottish rivers 
visited by that delicate (ish, the sparling. 

The Bladnoch flows out of Loch Maberry and, though 
with many windings, maintains on the whole a south- 
east direction to its mouth. Its main feeder, Tarff 
Water, rises on the slopes of Benbrake Hill, and flows 
almost parallel to it between New Luce and Old Luce 
on the west and Kirkcowan on the east, till six miles 
from the confluence of the two streams it swings to the 
north-east across the last-named parish. 

Till within seven miles of the sea the Luce consists of 
two streams, the Main Water and the Cross Water of Luce. 
Both rise in Ayrshire ; in their higher reaches both flow 
through bleak moorlands, and both are augmented, by 
numerous brawling burns. At the village of New Luce 
the Cross Water strikes the Main Water at right angles, 
and from this point the Water of Luce makes for Luce 
Bay, which it enters through a small estuary, dry at 
low water. 

Galloway yields to no district in Scotland in the 
number and beauty of its inland waters. The glaciers- 
which streamed southwards scooped out hollows in the 



24 KIRKCUDBRIGHT AND WIGTOWN 

Silurian rocks, many of which remain to-day as lochs. 
As a rule they are small, and nearly all contain islands. 
Of over forty in Wigtownshire and thirty in Kirkcud- 
brightshire, the largest is only two miles long. They 
occur singly and in groups ; they are met with at almost 
the level of the sea and at elevations ranging to 1700 feet. 
They are in general well supplied with fish ; Lochs 
Grannoch, Doon and Dungeon contain char ; while 
tailless trout are the boast of silver-sanded Loch Enoch. 

Loch Rutton, 325 feet above sea-level, supplies 
Dumfries with water. Near Craigend Hill are the 
romantic loch of Lochaber and Loch Arthur, so named 
from the tradition of King Arthur's sojourn in the 
vicinity. A mile from the Solway, Loch Kinder, blue 
in the hollow of Criffel, no longer supplies chairmakers 
with bulrushes and weavers with reeds. Loch Urr is a 
picturesque sheet of 106 acres lying in the moorland. 
Between the parishes of Kirkpatrick-Durham and Urr 
is Loch Auchenreoch, and a mile to the east, Loch 
Milton. Loch Dee, 253 acres, is an irregularly shaped 
lonely mountain lake in a treeless waste near the Dungeon 
of Buchan. About a fifth larger, embosomed among 
rugged hills and solitary moorlands, is Loch Grannoch, 
the best trouting loch in Galloway. Loch Skerrow, 
125 acres, has five or six islets wooded with birch and 
alder. The lochlet of Lochanbrek, at an altitude of 
650 feet, is near a spa formerly much resorted to. 
Loch Dungeon, at a height of 1025 feet, is flanked by 
steep hills on the south and rugged crags on the west. 

Loch Ken, 4! miles long, and from 200 to 800 yards 



RIVERS AND LAKES 



25 



wide, is the largest loch in the Dee basin. Flanked on 
the west side by a range of hills, which on the north and 
centre press close upon its edge, and at its southern 
corner terminate in a huge rock, its shores are here and 
there fringed and tufted with plantations. Its surface 
is broken by four beautifully wooded islets. Carling- 
wark Loch, 105 acres, formerly much larger, was partially 





Carlingwark Loch, Castle Douglas 



drained in 1765 for the purpose of procuring marl for 
manure. Near it stood the Three Thorns of Carlingwark, 
for ages a trysting-place of laird and yeoman in Galloway. 
Loch Whinyeon, 700 feet above sea-level, had its waters 
diverted about a hundred years ago from the basin of 
the Dee, to which it belongs, to drive the cotton mills 
of Gatehouse-of-Fleet. From the south-east corner of 
Loch Fleet, about a mile east of Loch Grannoch, issues 
the Little Water of Fleet. Loch Enoch (said to be a 
corruption of Loch in Loch, from one of its islands having 



2G KIRKCUDBRIGHT AND WIGTOWN 

a loch in it), at an elevation of 1650 feet is a veritable 
lake in cloud-land. Loch Neldricken has at its edge an 
emerald stretch of reeds, in the middle of which is a 
circular expanse of deep black water. It never freezes, 
say the natives, not even in the bitterest winters ; and 
it bears the significant name of the Murder Hole. 

Loch Valley is a fine example of a moraine-formed 



The Murder Hole, Loch Neldricken 

lake ; it is surrounded by numberless boulders and 
perched blocks, and rocking stones, many of them so 
exquisitely poised that a light breeze disturbs their 
equilibrium. Among the highest mountains of Galloway, 
its shores steep, rugged, and wooded, lies Loch Trool 
with an undulating beach which, by two constrictions, 
divides it into three distinct basins. Its extensive 
drainage area includes the southern slope of the Merrick 



RIVERS AND LOCHS 



27 



and the northern of Lamachan. At the end of the loch 
is the finest waterfall in Galloway. Buchan Linns 




One of the Buchan Falls, Glen Trool 



have been formed by Buchan Burn cutting a deep gorge 
between two hills. Through this it hurls itself by a 



28 KIRKCUDBRIGHT AND WIGTOWN 

succession of leaps into the lake 120 feet beneath. The 
district is rich historically. It witnessed stirring scenes 
in the Brucian struggle for Scottish independence, and 
its lulls and corries were familiar with the struggles of 
the Covenanters. 

On the county march are Lochs Maberry, Ochiltree 
and Dornal— the last belonging more properly to Ayr- 
shire. On one of the eight islets of Maberry are the 
remains of an old castle. The lochs of Mochrum are 
seven in number ; Castle Loch drains into Mochrum 
Loch, the largest in the basin. Lochs Magillie and 
Soulseat are within easy access of Stranraer. The latter, 
surrounded by trees, is almost bisected by a peninsula 
which projects into it. Here stood the now-vanished 
Monastery of Soulseat. Other lochs in the basin of 
the Luce, all near the eastern shore of the bay, are White- 
field, Eldrig, and the White Loch of Myrton. In Loch 
Ryan basin are the White and Black Lochs of Inch, 
connected by a canal. The space between them — the 
" dressed grounds " of Castle Kennedy — is laid out in 
formal terraces and alleys. Avenues of coniferous 
trees, beds of flowering plants and shrubs, ponds 
bedecked with waterlilies, are features of a piece of 
landscape-gardening unexcelled in the south of 
Scotland. 



6. Geology 

Geology is the science that deals with the solid crust 
of the earth ; in other words, with the rocks. By rocks, 



GEOLOGY 20 

however, the geologist means loose sand and soft clay 
as well as the hardest granite. Rocks are divided into 
two great classes — igneous and sedimentary. Igneous 
rocks have resulted from the cooling and solidifying of 
molten matter, whether rushing forth as lava from a 
volcano, or, like granite, forced into and between other 
rocks that lie below the surface. Sometimes pre- 
existing rocks waste away under the influence of natural 
agents as frost and rain. When the waste is carried by 
running water and deposited in a lake or a sea in the 
form of sediment, one kind of sedimentary rock may 
be formed — often termed aqueous. Other sedimentary 
rocks are accumulations of blown sand : others are of 
chemical origin, like stalactites : others, as coal and 
coral, originate in the decay of vegetable and animal 
life. Heat, again, or pressure, or both combined, may 
so transform rocks that their original character is com- 
pletely lost. Such rocks, of which marble is an example, 
are called metamorphic. 

Examining the order in which rocks occur, the 
materials which compose them, and the fossils or petri- 
fied remains of plants and animals which they contain, 
geologists have arranged groups of rocks according to 
their relative age. Lowest of all are the Archaean rocks. 
Then in order come (i) rocks of ancient life, or Palaeozoic ; 
(2) rocks of middle life or Mesozoic ; and (3) rocks of 
recent life, or Cainozoic. The following table shows 
the usual classification of Palaeozoic stratified rocks, 
the youngest on top. 



30 KIRKCUDBRIGHT AND WIGTOWN 

Permian System. 

Carboniferous 

Old Red Sandstone 

Silurian 

Ordovician 

Cambrian 

The oldest rocks exposed in Galloway are Lower 
Silurian or Ordovician. These form a broad strip of 
country from Sanquhar past the Merrick into Loch 
Ryan and the Rhinns. The Upper Silurian rests upon 
these conformably ; its outcrop lies to the south-east, 
forming the whole of the country from the Mull of 
Galloway to Dumfries, with the exception of a narrow 
coastal belt. The outcrop of the Upper Silurian is 
about 21 miles broad from Dairy to Kirkcudbright, and 
the outcrop of the Lower is about 16 miles broad from 
Dairy to the foot of Loch Doon. One striking feature 
of these rocks is that the beds of strata are very steep. 
This is due to disturbances which the rocks have under- 
gone. Careful observation proves that the same beds 
are repeated many times in any good natural section 
such as a stream-side or road-side. This is a natural 
consequence of folding. The beds were deposited as 
flat sheets of mud and sediment. The folding is like 
what takes place when the bellows of a camera are shut 
up. The individual folds are sometimes vertical, 
though very often inclined. When the folding is in- 
clined and the two sides of the arches and troughs are 
parallel it is said to be isoclinal. This is the great 



GEOLOGY 31 

characteristic of the whole of the district. The folds 
have a common extension or strike, which in the whole 
Southern Uplands of Scotland points from S.W. to 
N.E. The main streams, which run from N.W. 
to S.E., cut across the folding structure of the 
country. The present system of the ground depends 
upon erosion. In all arches or anticlines the lowest 
rocks form the interior or core ; while conversely, 
in the troughs the lowest rocks form the exterior. When 
an arch has had its top cut away by denudation the 
underlying rocks are exposed in the centre of the arch. 
In many places the Lower Siluriar? rocks, one of which 
is a very characteristic hard radiolarian chert, have been 
exposed in this manner in the midst of Upper Silurian 
rocks. On the map these show as boat-shaped outcrops. 

The Silurian rocks are probably several thousand feet 
thick. A traveller crossing the Uplands would obtain 
the impression that they were much thicker than they 
really are. This is misleading : the rocks are being 
repeated every few hundred yards. The Lower Silurian 
comprises a series of volcanic rocks or lavas belonging 
to the Arenig sub-division. These, which cover no 
large area within the counties, appear only here and 
there in the cores of folds. Over them lie black mud- 
stones and radiolarian cherts. The latter, which are 
flinty grey-green or red rocks, very hard and splintery, 
when examined under the microscope are seen to con- 
sist of the shells of radiolaria. Outcrops of the Chert 
series are comparatively frequent, but nowhere large. 

The next sub-division of the Lower Silurian is called 



32 KIRKCUDBRIGHT AND WIGTOWN 

the Llandeilo-Caradoc. It includes greywackes and 
shales, some of which are black and contain many 
graptolites. Two of the best known of these bands 
are the Glenkiln Shale and the Hartfell Shale. The 
Upper Silurian lowest division is known as the Llan- 
dovery Taranion. It consists also of greywackes, mud- 
stones and shales, und it contains one well-known 
graptolite-bearing band, the Birkhill black shale. The 
highest rocks, the Wenlock and Ludlow, form a narrow 
belt to the south of Kirkcudbright (also the south end 
of Burrow Head), and on to the mouth of the Nith. 
While these rocks were being deposited this district 
was occupied by a compact shallow sea, in which grap- 
tolites flourished together with molluscs and brachio- 
pods ; but no fish remains and no plant remains are 
preserved in these strata, and it is doubtful whether 
as yet fishes were in existence. The sequence of the 
Silurian rocks in Kirkcudbrightshire and Wigtownshire 
is not yet complete, the topmost members, the Down- 
tonian, being missing. Then followed the folding and 
crumpling of the Silurian strata which, up to that time, 
had been flat. This folding was the result of great earth 
movements which took place over a very large part of 
the west of Europe. The compression took place in a 
N.W. to S.E. direction, and hence the uniform strike 
of the folds. After the folding was completed the sea 
bottom was upheaved and formed into dry land, and 
the process of erosion began, which has continued 
unbroken ever since. 

The epoch of folding was followed by intrusions of 



GEOLOGY 33 

granite. These are generally assigned to the Lower 
Old Red Sandstone period. During this time there 
were great chains of volcanic mountains over the south 
of Scotland, of which the Cheviots and the Carrick Hills 
are well-preserved fragments. The granite masses of 
Galloway include the Merrick mass, the Cairnsmore of 
Fleet mass, and the Dalbeattie mass, each of which is 
10 to 12 square miles in area. Smaller masses occur at 
Creetown, at Crummag Head and elsewhere. Several 
small patches of dark-coloured granite containing horn- 
blende (diorite) are to be met with, as at Ardwell, at 
Fldrig village and at Culvennan, some 3 miles north of 
Kirkcowan. The granite masses rose into position in a 
state of fusion, intensely hot, and the rocks in contact 
with the granite were profoundly altered and re-crystal- 
lized. For example, at New Galloway the Silurian 
shales and grits have been changed into mica schists, 
which contain sillimanite and other contact minerals 
produced by high temperatures. The granite when in 
a liquid state had burst through the rocks, sending 
veins and dikes into their fissures. The granite never 
reached the surface, but consolidated under a great 
overlying mass of rock, which has now been swept 
away. It is possible, however, that the granite formed 
the centre of volcanoes of which no trace now remains. 
Even at great distances from the granite numerous 
dikes are found cutting through the Silurians. A swarm 
of these occurs between Castle Douglas and Kirkcud- 
bright. Though not broad, many of them run for a 
long distance. 



34 KIRKCUDBRIGHT AND WIGTOWN 

It is likely that during the Old Red Sandstone period 
all Galloway was dry land ; there are no Old Red Sand- 
stone deposits now preserved anywhere in it. In the 
next succeeding period, the Carboniferous, Galloway was 
at first a range of hills, while the centre of Scotland 
and the north of England were covered by the sea. 
In course of time Galloway became an island, which 
gradually sank lower and lower. The sea finally rose 
and flooded its valleys, in some of which deposits of 
carboniferous rock were formed. A strip of such rock 
occurs at Abbeyhead and again at Kirkbean. These 
belong to the lowest part of the Carboniferous deposits 
and are known as calciferous sandstones. On the west 
side of Loch Ryan also there is a belt of Carboniferous 
rocks ; these are of considerably later age and belong to 
the Coal Measures period. After the Carboniferous 
period ended, dry land again supervened, and the red 
sandstones of Maxwelltown and the breccias of Loch 
Ryan were subsequently deposited, possibly in desert 
lakes. These sandstones contain the footprints of 
reptiles, but no other trace of life. At Loch Ryan 
they rest on Carboniferous, but at Maxwelltown they 
rest directly on the Upper Silurian. 

For a very long period the geological history of 
Galloway is a blank. In early tertiary times many long 
dikes of basalt were injected into the Silurian rocks. A 
few instances occur in Galloway, e.g. at Kirkcolm. 
During the glacial period Galloway was buried under a 
deep layer of ice. Great masses of snow accumulated 
on the high hills and formed a moving ice-sheet, which 



GEOLOGY 



35 



streamed southwards into the Solway, carrying with it 
numerous blocks of rock, which were deposited along 
its course. Blocks of Criffel granite are found near 
Birmingham and in South Wales. The Firth of Clyde 
was filled by a great ice-stream coming down from the 
Highlands, and this passed into the Rhinns. After the 




Loch Valley 

(A moraine-foi - med lake) 



main ice-sheet melted, local glaciers existed in the high 
hills, where glacial moraines are still conspicuous features 
of the landscape. Abundant evidence of the Ice Age in 
Galloway is to be met with in scratched rock surfaces, 
boulder clays, sands and gravels and the erratic blocks 
just mentioned. A very striking feature all over 
Galloway is the manner in which the boulder clay has 
been deposited. It is found in large, smooth ridges, 
oblong or rounded in shape, locally known as " drums." 



36 KIRKCUDBRIGHT AND WIGTOWN 

A small patch of blown sand occurs beside Port Logan ; 
another at the Point of Lag, where it rises into a hill 
75 feet above the sea ; and a larger strip at the head of 
Luce Bay, stretching from Sandhead to the mouth of 
Piltanton Burn. 

In the Stewartry parts of Irongray, Terregles and 
Troqueer have the soil a sandy loam. A belt stretching 
from Maxwelltown along the shores of New Abbey and 
Kirkbean has a soil either of carse or rich loam with a 
subsoil of gravel or limestone. In the south-east of the 
country and in the valleys of the Ken, the Fleet and the 
Cree, a dry loam of a hazel colour is met with. In the 
upland districts the soil, as a rule, is thin and mossy. 

In Wigtownshire along the side of the lower reaches 
of the Cree and at the head of Wigtown Bay the soil is 
alluvial. In much of the Machers and a large portion 
of the Rhinns it is a dry hazelly loam, as also in the 
cultivated part of the moors. In the centre and north 
of this division great tracts are covered with peat moss 
resting sometimes on a bed of marl, though frequently 
on a substratum of clay. 

7. Natural History 

In recent times — recent, that is, geologically — no sea 
separated Britain from the Continent. The present bed 
of the North Sea was a low plain intersected by streams. 
At that period the plants and the animals of our 
country were identical with those of Western Europe. 
But the Ice Age came and crushed out life in this region. 



NATURAL HISTORY 37 

In time, as the ice melted, the flora and fauna gradually 
returned, for the land-bridge still existed. Had it 
continued to exist, our plants and animals would have 
been the same as in Northern France and the Nether- 
lands. But the sea drowned the land and cut off 
Britain from the Continent before all the species found 
a home here. Consequently, on the east of the North 
Sea all our mammals and reptiles, for example, are 
found along with many which are not indigenous to 
Britain. In Scotland, however, we are proud to possess 
in the red grouse a bird not belonging to the fauna of 
the Continent. 

While displaying the general flora of Scotland, 
Galloway, from its position, shares in the plants char- 
acteristic of the west and the south. 

Of flowering plants there are over 900 species in 
Galloway ; of ferns over 20 species. The moss flora is 
exceedingly well represented, especially in Kirkcud- 
brightshire ; liverworts, lichens and fungi flourish 
wherever the conditions are favourable. 

In the farthest-out rock pools at the lowest of low 
water one finds the edible Alaria esculenta or honey ware, 
and the familiar Laminar ia digitata or tangle. Some- 
what nearer the shore in some localities may be met 
with Odonthalia dentata and Chondrus crispus, or Irish 
moss. These are red algae. Still nearer the shore are 
several species of Fucus or bladder wrack and of Poly- 
siphonia, and here and there Himanthalia lorea or sea 
thongs, all of which are olive algae. In the pools nearest 
the shore one gathers the beautiful grass-green Ulva 



38 KIRKCUDBRIGHT AND WIGTOWN 

latissima or laver, Enteromorpha compressa and various 
species of Cladophora, all green algae. 

The flora of the coast is determined largely by the 
nature of the soil. On rocks one finds, but rarely, 
Crithmum maritimum or sea samphire, and sea campion 
and michaelmas daisy in abundance. On sandy shores, 
but very rare, are purple sea-rocket and sea holly ; and 
halberd-leaved orache, prickly sea-weed, sea kale, 
thyme-leaved sandwort and sea purslane. Further 
inland rest-harrow, bird's-foot trefoil, yellow bedstraw 
and others occur ; while still further from the sea 
there are marsh arrowgrass, seaside arrowgrass, seaside 
plantain, sea milkwort, and scurvygrass. On muddy 
shores, and entirely submerged at high water one meets 
with broad-leaved grasswrack and glasswort. 

Plants usual to river valleys are very numerous, and 
the lake-side flora is also rich and varied. In mosses 
cross-leaved heath, common ling, bog myrtle, bog 
asphodel, cranberry and sundew are abundant. In 
sub-alpine districts are to be found large-flowered bitter 
cress, giant bell flower, and many others. Higher up 
the mountain sides are alpine meadow rue, least willow, 
wild thyme, cotton grass and juniper. Parsley fern is 
plentiful on the higher hills, Wilson's filmy fern is 
common in sub-alpine glens, and moonwort, adder's 
tongue, hart's tongue and, very rarely, the royal fern 
are also to be got. 

In 1905 Kirkcudbrightshire had 19,708 acres in woods 
and plantations, or roughly ^th of the area, but at one 
time the greater part of the county was covered with 



NATURAL HISTORY 39 

wood, largely oak. This is shown by place names, 
remains of natural timber on the sides of hills and banks 
of rivers, and by the numerous peat mosses out of which 
trunks of trees are still dug in good preservation. Of 
ancient forests may be named the forest of Minnigaff, 
the Free Forest of Cree, the Forest of Buchan in Kells, 
the Forest of Kenmure, the (small) Forest of Rerwick, 
the Forest of Colvend and the Bishop's Forest in Iron- 
gray. In those days wood was the common fuel ; and, 
in addition, much was consumed by the saltpans along 
the coast. Wigtownshire had, in 1905, 8526 acres of 
woodland. 

The littoral fauna of Galloway comprises those animals 
which are to be met with from high water mark to a 
depth of, say, 25 fathoms, though denizens of the further 
deep now and then visit the coast. Many causes com- 
bine to make the shore life of Galloway varied and 
abundant. The Nith, the Urr, the Dee, the Cree and 
the Luce have estuaries with extensive mud flats. Here 
are long stretches of sand, and there the bottom is rocky. 
Currents coming south through the North Channel and 
sweeping north through St George's Channel and the 
Irish Sea, bring with them animals from the Boreal and 
the Lusitanian regions. The abundance of fresh- water 
organic matter brought down by the rivers and smaller 
streams helps to swell the supply of food. 

The crumb-of-bread sponge is common on the stems 
of oarweed, and in crevices of rocks. Zoophytes and 
sea firs are plentiful. Several species of sea anemone 
flourish between tide marks where the shore is rocky. 



40 KIRKCUDBRIGHT AND WIGTOWN 

On sandy stretches one comes upon terebella, or the 
sand mason, its long tentacles and containing-tube 
plastered with sand and shell and stone. Where the 
sand holds much organic matter, the lob-worm is usually 
present in numbers. The common starfish and the 
common brittle star are abundant ; the sea urchin is 
frequent far out among the oarweeds ; and in some 
places after a storm the shore is white with the tests of 
the heart urchin. The shrimp, the lobster, the edible 
crab and the shore crab are found, as is also the hermit 
crab with its companion the beautiful Nereis worm 
within its protecting whelk or buckie shell. Whelks and 
mussels form articles of commerce. The Bay of Luce is 
noted for its razor-shells, and the oysters of Loch Ryan 
have more than local fame. Of fishes, the saithe, the 
lythe and the skate are plentiful at certain seasons. At 
times the coast is visited by shoals of mackerel. The 
father lasher and the grey gurnard are common, and 
in spring the lumpsucker comes to the shore to 
spawn. 

Cod is plentiful, haddock somewhat less so ; while 
halibut, though occasionally got, is not common. The 
plaice, the dab and the sole are very numerous, and the 
sparling is a valuable fishery in certain tidal rivers in 
winter and spring. Anchovies are not unknown ; in 
1889 the Bay of Fleet was alive with shoals of them. 
The principal fresh-water fish are the salmon, the trout, 
the perch and the pike. Of aquatic mammals the 
porpoise and the grampus are frequent visitors ; a 
dolphin is now and then captured by stranding or 



NATURAL HISTORY 41 

otherwise, and sometimes a school of whales is driven 
ashore. 

Of reptiles one may name the adder, the lizard and 
the slow-worm ; of amphibians the frog, the toad, the 
smooth newt, the crested newt, and up on the hills 
among moss hags the palmated newt. 

Where there are suitable woods the roe-deer is frequent 
in the Stewartry, less so in Wigtownshire ; and fallow- 
deer are to be seen in parks in a more or less domesticated 
state. On the upper hills the alpine hare is well estab- 
lished, and everywhere the rabbit, the brown rat and 
the house mouse are more numerous than is to be desired. 
The watervole is frequent ; and the ravages of the 
short-tailed field vole some twenty-one years ago are 
matter of history. The fox issues from thick copses or 
descends from the higher hills to pursue the depredations 
which render him offensive to shepherd and game- 
keeper. In stream and lake the otter carries on his 
fishing. Weasel and ermine, mole and hedgehog are 
very general. 

Galloway is not rich in bats, but bird life is very 
abundant. The rook, the raven and the carrion crow 
occur in considerable numbers. The magpie is not 
common. The starling, the green-finch and chaffinch 
are in great profusion. The goldfinch is not nearly so 
numerous as it used to be, though of recent years there 
is a tendency to increase ; the bullfinch is common 
enough in woods and gardens. Several species of 
buntings and of wagtails are found. The skylark 
showers down floods of silver melody as it soars over 



42 KIRKCUDBRIGHT AND WIGTOWN 

fell and moor and green mountain. Robins, pipits and 
tits are common. The blackbird whistles in many a 
garden croft, and on many a bush the wise thrush sings 
each song twice over. Owls are plentiful. The barnacle 
goose occurs in immense numbers, and the wild duck is 
very abundant. The grouse moors of Wigtownshire 
are among the best in Scotland ; while black cock and 
snipe, partridge and pheasant afford sport to many a 
gun. Of the numerous shore birds we must note the 
oyster-catcher, the golden plover, the dunlin and the 
ubiquitous gull. 

8. Along the Coast 

From Cargen Pow at the head of the long and gradu- 
ally broadening estuary of the Nith to Creetown at the 
head of Wigtown Bay, the coast of Kirkcudbrightshire 
is about 60 miles in length. It is broken into by four 
expansions of considerable size, the Rough Firth, 
Auchencairn Bay, Kirkcudbright Bay and Fleet Bay. 
At Aird Point, 4 miles south of Cargen, the Nith enters 
the Solway Firth, and here the sea-board begins. Rather 
more than a mile inland are the picturesque ruins of 
Sweetheart Abbey. Clayey and low, the New Abbey 
shore is flanked by merseland which forms excellent 
pasture. Bending slightly to the west the shore passes 
the mouth of Abbey Pow, and for a little over 3 miles 
runs almost due south as far as the village of Carsethorn. 
Rounding Borron Point and passing the ruins of 
M'Culloch's Castle, we reach Arbigland, where in 1747 



ALONG THE COAST 



43 



John Paul, better known as Paul Jones, the famous 
sailor, was born. The coast at this point is precipitous, 
and there are some very singular rocks, notably a natural 
Gothic arch called the "Thirl Stane." But with the 
exception of these and a few low rocks at Satterness, 




Medallion of Paul Jones 



the shore as far as Southwick Burn is low and sandy, 
with here and there belts of links gained slowly from the 
sea. At Satterness is the oldest lighthouse in Galloway. 
At one time there were salt pits here, and from these 
comes the name Satterness, the etymology of which is 
lost in the present-day Southerness. 

A sharp turn westward and 4 miles bring us to the 
mouth of Southwick Burn, beyond which begin the 



44 KIRKCUDBRIGHT AND WIGTOWN 

" wild shores of caverned Col vend." Chief of the 




Facsimile of Letter of Paul Jones 



caverns is the Piper's Cove, 120 yards in length, with 
a well in the middle 22 feet deep. Here too is the 



ALONG THE COAST 



45 



singular arch in the cliff known as the Needle's Eye. 
Between Douglas Hall and Urr Waterfoot, at the 




The Needle's Eye, Douglas Hall 



entrance to Rough Firth, a range of reddish-lichened 
copse-clothed cliffs rises to a height of 200 feet at Castle 
Hill of Barcloy and 400 feet at White Hill. 



4G KIRKCUDBRIGHT AND WIGTOWN 

At Rockcliffe the shore is rocky with wide stretches 
of hard, smooth sand. Kippford, locally known as the 
Scaur, is a fine watering-place. The seaboard of Buittle 
consists of a peninsula running o,\ miles down to Almor- 
ness Point, washed on the east side by Rough Firth and 
on the west by the bays of Orchardton and Auchencairn. 
Near the former is Orchardton Round Tower, the only 
one of its kind in Galloway. It was generally supposed 
to have been built as a stronghold by Uchtred, Lord of 
Galloway, in the twelfth century, but Train recognised 
in it " a fine specimen of the Danish rath," while modern 
experts attribute it to the fifteenth century. Lying 
about midway between Almorness Point and the Point 
of Balcary is Hestan Island, the Isle Rathan of Crockett's 
Raiders. From Balcary to the mouth of Dunrod Burn 
the trend of the coast is roughly W.S.W. For the 
most part bold and ironbound, it presents a series of 
abrupt headlands, ioo to 350 feet high, and is inter- 
sected by the baylets of Rascarrel, Barlocco, Orroland, 
Port Mary, Burnfoot and Mullock. At various points 
occur caves which have been drilled in the cliffs by the 
ceaseless action of the sea. At Barlocco the Black Cove, 
265 feet long, 90 wide and 40 in height, and the White 
Cove, 252 feet by 90 (at its widest) by 60, are particu- 
larly noteworthy. In recent years they have gained an 
added interest from the use made of them in Crockett's 
Raiders. At Port Mary is shown a granite boulder from 
which Queen Mary of Scots is said to have stepped into 
the boat which was to carry her to the Cumberland 
coast. 



ALONG THE COAST 



47 



From Mullock Bay to Torrs Point the coast is on 
the whole rocky. In a precipice on the Balmae shore is 
a remarkable cavern, Torrs Cove, running some 60 feet 




Cave, Rascarrel 



into the rock. Narrow at the entrance and then gradu- 
ally widening, it rises near the middle to a height of 
fully 12 feet, after which it contracts towards the 
farthest end. Kirkcudbright Bay, which may be said 



48 KIRKCUDBRIGHT AND WIGTOWN 

to begin with the precipitous cliffs of Torrs Point, runs 
northwards for about 4 miles, with a breadth varying 
from 1 mile at the entrance to 2 miles at its widest. 
The well-wooded peninsula of St Mary's Isle divides 
the upper part of the Bay into two, forming on its 
eastern side the Manxman's Lake, the principal anchor- 
age in the Bay. On the western side is the estuary 
of the Dee, 

" King of all the streams 
That roll to Scotland's southern sea." 

On St Mary's Isle stood a priory founded in the reign 
of David I by Fergus, Lord of Galloway. A beautiful 
walk down the west side of the Bay leads past the " Auld 
Kirkyard of Kirkchrist," the Nunmill, where an old 
archway indicates the side of an ancient nunnery, and 
the old churchyard of Senwick, the burial place of 
MacTaggart, author of the Gallovidian Encyclopaedia. 
Past Balmangan Bay the Peninsula of Meikle Ross is 
reached, opposite which, and separated by a narrow 
strait, is the Little Ross Island. Rounding the Ross, 
we come to the wide expanse of Wigtown Bay. Fall- 
bogue Bay and Brighouse Bay are passed in turn ; 
then Borness Point, with its wave-worn cliffs crowned 
by the remains of an ancient fort, known as Borness 
Batteries, and its Bone Cave, the exploration of which 
has proved of great archaeological interest. For the 
rest of its length the trend of the coast is to the north- 
west, the only break of any size being Fleet Bay. In 
the little churchyard of Kirkandrews is buried William 



ALONG THE COAST 49 

Nicholson, the greatest Galloway poet, and author of 
the Brownie of Blednoch. 

The Isles of Fleet, Barlocco Isle, Ardwall Isle and 
Murray's Isle, lead up to the mouth of Fleet Bay. The 
bay is flat and sandy, and the shores low. Rather more 
than a mile from the mouth of the Fleet is Gatehouse, 
picturesquely situated on both banks of the river. 
From Gatehouse to Creetown has been described as 
" perhaps the most beautiful shore-road in Britain." 
And indeed for beauty of scenery, hill and valley, 
moorland and shore, " Fair Anwoth by the Solway " is 
unrivalled in the south of Scotland. Just after passing 
Cardoness Castle, on the west shore of the bay, we catch 
sight of Rutherford's Monument. Then comes Ardwall 
House, and next Skyreburn Bridge. The water in 
Skyreburn and similar streams often rises with sur- 
prising and unexpected suddenness. Hence the pro- 
verb, " A Skyreburn warning," that is, no warning 
at all. 

The coast near Ravenshall and Kirkdale is rugged 
with steep cliffs rising to a considerable height, in some 
cases perpendicular to the sea. But with this exception 
the Kirkmabreck shore is flat, sandy and shelly. Here 
and there the cliffs are pierced with caverns, the most 
notable of which is known as Dirk Hatteraick's Cave. 
About a mile from Ravenshall is Kirkdale House, near 
a romantic glen of the same name, while a short distance 
along on the opposite side of the road are the ruins of 
Carsluith Castle. A mile before entering Creetown, the 
western extremity of the county coast, is the Mansion 

D 



50 KIRKCUDBRIGHT AND WIGTOWN 

House of Cassencary " finely situated in a level holm 
studded with trees." 

At high water vessels of sixty tons ascend the Cree as 




Rutherford's^Church, Anwoth 



far as Carty, some 3J miles above Creetown ; but it is 
at Balsalloch, opposite the " Ferry Toon " that the 
coast of Wigtownshire may be said to begin. Here 
the receding tide leaves bare a stretch of sand a mile 
broad, which increases to a breadth of a mile and three 
quarters at the mouth of the Water of Bladnoch, and 



ALONG THE COAST 



51 



then gradually narrows to its southern limit in Orchard- 
ton Bay, 5 miles further down the coast. Just before 
we reach the Bladnoch, Wigtown is passed, ' the 
quaintest, auld farrantest county village in Scotland." 
A little south of the Bladnoch are the remains of the 





■ ■ * .....-.-. 



- .. . ■■■¥:*•■ v-;., 






The Gateway, Baldoon Castle 




old mansion house of Baldoon, the scene of the death 
of the Bride of Lammermoor, ' ' The dear, mad bride 
who stabbed her bridegroom on her bridal night." 

From Orchardton Bay the coast trends eastward 
past Innerwell Point, and then south past the ruins 
of Eggerness Castle, where the shore becomes rocky, 
rugged, and picturesque. Eggerness (Edgar's Ness) 
Point overlooks Garlieston Bay with its trim little 



52 KIRKCUDBRIGHT AND WIGTOWN 

village. Near the village is Galloway House, long the 
principal seat of the Earls of Galloway. The trend is 
now almost due south, and creek and cove, foreland 
and cape, carry a bold and precipitous coast, pierced 
here and there by deep caves, to the Isle of Whithorn, 
and then south-west to Burrow Head. About 2\ miles 




Remains of Cruggleton Castle 



south of Garlieston Bay is the site of what was once the 
famous Castle of Cruggleton. All that now remains is 
an arch 10 feet high by 13 feet wide ; but from early 
days to the close of the sixteenth century it was one of 
the chief castles of note in Galloway. At the Isle of 
Whithorn in 396 St Ninian began his mission. Two 
miles to the south is the bold promontory of Burrow 
Head, on the top of which are traces of a small fort 
or cairn, an outlook station of the old sea-rovers- 



ALONG THE COAST 58 

Rounding this, we come in sight of Luce Bay. This 
huge sheet of water, covering an area of about 160 square 
miles, is 1 8 miles wide at the mouth and narrows to 
7 miles along its northern shore, where the Sands of 
Luce run out for half a mile at low water. 

After Burrow Head we pass the ruins of Castle 
Feather and of Port Castle, and reach Port Counan Bay, 
on the south side of which is St Ninian's cave. Here, 
tradition has it, the saint was wont to retire for medita- 
tion and prayer. The cave is 27 feet long and about 
10 high. For the greater part of its length the Glasser- 
ton shore is backed by a chain of green-topped hills. 
Then a mile of steep cliffs is succeeded by an old raised 
sea-margin of smooth gravel with high grassy cliffs 
beyond. Monreith Bay with its beautiful scenery is 
followed by Barnsalloch Point, crowned by the remains 
of a fort, Danish or Anglo-Saxon according to the 
antiquary one consults. A mile and a half north of 
this is Port William. Sweeping round Auchenmalg Bay 
at a distance of 9 miles from Port William, we come upon 
the headland of Sinniness (Sweyn's Ness), not far from 
which are the ruins of Sinniness Castle. Farther on is 
the mouth of the Water of Luce, and Glenluce village 
with its stately Abbey ruins. The river mouth is 
flanked by level lands, while a broad fringe of sands, 
dry at low water, stretches right across the head of the 
bay. Here is the fishing village of Sandhead. Broken by 
a number of small bays, Chapel Rossan, New England 
and Drummore, the shore reaches East Tarbet about 
9 miles farther south. Drummore village stands on 



54 KIRKCUDBRIGHT AND WIGTOWN 

Drummore Bay. At Tarbet (Tarbert) two bays run 
inland from opposite sides till they nearly meet. Tarbet 
means r ' drawboat," and in bygone days it was the 




]St Medan's -Chapel 
(Near the Mull of Galloway) 



custom to draw vessels across this narrow isthmus in 
order to avoid the dangerous tides of the Mull. From 
Tarbet the headland of the Mull stretches eastwards 
for a mile ; its extremity 210 feet high is crowned by 
a lighthouse. Its southern shore rises in cliffs over 



ALONG THE COAST 55 

200 feet high. From one of these, so the legend goes, 
the brave old Galloway chief was flung — Ultimus 
Pictorum — carrying with him the secret of heather 
ale. 

With the exception of the Bays of Clanyard, Killan- 
tringan, Port Logan, Ardwell and Dally with their sandy 
beaches, the western coast of the Rhinns — the Back 
Shore — is bold and rocky ; the cliffs here rising pre- 
cipitously, and there ascending by grassy slopes. Fis- 
sures in the cliffs are numerous, and in many places 
there are caves with narrow openings but roomy 
interiors. Clanyard Bay is flanked by the ruins of 
Clanyard Castle ; Port Logan Bay has on its north side 
a circular tidal fish-pond, one of the wonders of Galloway. 
Tradition says that a ship of the Spanish Armada was 
wrecked at Port Float. Port Spital suggests the former 
existence of a hospital or hospice. By the ruins of 
Dunskey Castle, we reach Portpatrick, the most popular 
holiday resort in Galloway. North of Killantringan 
Bay is the Kemp's Wark, name reminiscent of the 
days of the Northmen. At Saltpans Bay salt is no 
longer extracted from sea water, though the name 
persists. 

From Dally Bay the land inclines to the north-east 
as far as Corsewall Point, which carries the ruins of 
the old Castle of Corsewall or Cross well. Two and a 
half miles east of this Milleur Point is reached, and Loch 
Ryan is entered. The loch runs inland for eight miles, 
with a breadth varying from a mile and a quarter within 
the entrance to two miles and a half. For about three 



56 KIRKCUDBRIGHT AND WIGTOWN 

miles from Milleur Point the coast resembles that of 
the Back Shore, but opposite Kirkcolm village its 
character changes. A shelving bank of sand, the Scar, 
projects south-east into the Loch for a mile and a half. 




Dunskey Castle 



Beyond this is The Wig, a fine natural basin, and thence 
to Stranraer at the head of the Loch the shore is low 
and sandy. Stranraer is the chief centre of population 
and commercial activity in the county. The eastern 
shore of the Loch is fiat to Cairnryan village, and there- 
after rocky and cave-pierced to the Galloway Burn, 
where the Wigtownshire coast ends. 



RAISED BEACHES, ETC. 57 



9. Raised Beaches. Coastal Gains and 
Losses. Lighthouses 

At various elevations — from 10 to 150 feet — above 
the present lea-sevel there occur tracts of ground which 
have been sea-beaches in former ages. These terraces, 
known as raised beaches, have originated through 
successive slow risings of the land with long pauses 
between. The 25-foot beach can be seen with fair 
continuity along the western shore of the Bay of Luce, 
but never extending very far inland. On the opposite 
side of the Bay there is evidence of a terrace cut out of 
the boulder clay at a time when the land was 40 to 50 feet 
lower than it is now. Two fragments may be mentioned : 
one extending some three miles from Port Counan to 
Cairndoon, the greater part shingly, but cultivated at 
its north-west end ; and the other running northwards 
from Monreith. The low-lying undulating ground 
between Luce Bay and Loch Ryan for the most part is 
covered with sand and gravel deposited in terraces, the 
most noticeable of which forms the 25-foot beach. 
Along the shore of Luce Bay from Auchenmalg to Port 
William the 25-foot beach is distinctly traceable as a 
shelf of gravel extending inland from the present beach 
for 50 to 100 yards. It is seen at Garlieston Bay, at 
Orchardton and Baldoon, is well marked from Macher- 
more to Wigtown sands, and is easily traced from 
Creetown to Ravenshall, where it forms a belt of level 
ground between high- water mark and an older sea-cliff. 



58 KIRKCUDBRIGHT AND WIGTOWN 

Indeed this 25-foot beach forms a prominent feature 
all along the southern shores. On the Fleet below 
Gatehouse, on the Dee between Tongland and St Mary's 
Isle, past Auchencairn, below Kirkennan on the banks 
of the Urr, from Caulkerbush to Southerness as a tract 
of carse land, past Carsethorn on to Ingleston and up 
to Kirkconnel, the terrace may be traced. From the 
flats of Cargen the land slopes gradually up to the 
50-foot beach, which stretches from Cargenholm north- 
wards to Park near Maxwelltown. 

Along a great part of the coast there is a constant 
loss of land from the action of the sea. This loss is 
greatest where the sea-board is composed of boulder 
clay and other deposits, and the erosion is most rapid 
during severe storms blowing inshore. The material 
removed is not wholly lost ; some of it is carried inwards 
by the flood-tide and laid down as sediment on the fore- 
shore. Thus there is a twofold process continually at 
work : here and there the sea is gaining upon the land ; 
here and there land is being reclaimed from the sea. 
The shores of Loch Ryan have suffered considerably 
within the last hundred years. The Scar Ridge at one 
time extended about half a mile into the sea and cattle 
used to graze on it. So too on the western shore of 
Luce Bay, between Sandhead and Drummore, the sea 
has at several points gained upon the land ; while at 
the same time there has been an increase of the sandy 
foreshore at the head of the Bay. The estuary of the 
Cree shows both loss and gain. In some places many 
acres have been lost ; in others extensive reclamation 



RAISED BEACHES, ETC. 50 

has taken place, much of what was at one time soft 
marsh or sand being now grazing links. In Auchen- 
cairn Bay, a strip of merse-land on both sides and much 
land at the head of the Bay have been washed away 
within the last fifty years. The coast at the head of 
Orchardton Bay is specially subject to erosion. Along 
the low sandy shores of Kirkbean there are belts of 
links which have been slowly wrested from the sea. 

All round our shores, wherever navigation is danger- 
ous, are built lighthouses for the guidance of mariners. 
On Cairn Ryan Point, on the eastern shore of the loch, 
is a lighthouse showing a fixed light, visible twelve miles. 
On the east pier of Stranraer is another fixed white light, 
and on the west pier a fixed red light. Corsewall light 
is familiar to all who cross the North Channel. Its 
gleams of white and red light, visible sixteen miles, 
increase to intense brilliance and gradually fade away 
into darkness. From the top of the lighthouse on a 
clear day Ailsa Craig is conspicuous on the north, with 
the hills of Arran beyond ; Argyll and Ireland lie to 
the west ; while eastwards the eye sweeps the coast of 
Ayrshire from the Galloway Burn to beyond Ardrossan. 
Near Portpatrick is Killantringan light, which with its 
flash and eclipse may be seen for nearly twenty miles. 
At the extreme end of the headland, close to the edge 
of a cliff 210 feet high stands the Mull of Galloway light- 
house, with an occulting light visible twenty-five miles. 
Here the view is magnificent. From the Dumfriesshire 
heights in the north-east the eye circles by Kirkcud- 
brightshire and Ayrshire over Kintyre to the Paps of 



60 KIRKCUDBRIGHT AND WIGTOWN 

Jura in the north-west ; twenty miles to the south the 




Mull of Galloway 

outline of the Isle of Man cuts the sky ; in the west are 
seen the Mountains of Mourne ; while far away on the 



CLIMATE 61 

eastern horizon loom the giant peaks of the Cumbrian 
Mountains. From Hestan Isle with its cave-riddled 
cliffs a white flash warns the sailor off the deadly stretch 
of Barnhourie Sands, and from Satterness a fixed white 
light repeats the tale. 

10. Climate 

By climate is meant the general tendency of a district 
towards mild or severe, average or extreme atmospheric 
pressure, temperature and moisture. Weather is the 
variation from time to time of all or any of these con- 
ditions. Thus climate is the mean of weather, and the 
two terms are symbols of different quantities of the 
same thing. Weather depends primarily on atmospheric 
pressure. This is measured by the barometer, which 
rises or falls as the weight increases or diminishes. In 
Britain in fine weather the barometer is usually above 
30 inches, and is below this when there is rain or storm. 
For any given number of days on which the barometer 
stands at 30 inches, there are as many fine as rainy days. 

The prevailing winds of Galloway are westerly and 
south-westerly. What is at once an effect and a demon- 
stration of the cause is to be seen in trees grown in 
exposed situations. Their branches grow in an easterly 
direction. The south-west winds, by far the most 
common in winter, blowing from lower and warmer 
latitudes across the Atlantic, are the dominant factor in 
the climate of Galloway. Laden with aqueous vapour 
with which it has become impregnated in its passage 




Rainfall Map of Scotland 

(By Andrew Watt, M.A.) 



Camhrhifje Univ. iVCMM 



CLIMATE 



G3 



over the ocean, the air on striking the land is forced 
upwards wherever it meets with rising ground. Thus, 
reaching a region of diminished pressure, it expands, 
and has now a lessened capacity for holding water- 
vapour, a portion of which is precipitated as rain. A 
comparison of the rainfall map with the physical map 
shows a marked correspondence between elevation and 
rainfall ; the hilly regions are the wettest. The western 
and lower part of Wigtownshire shows a yearly rainfall 
of less than 40 inches ; the rest of the Shire with nearly 
all the Stewartry is above that figure. Again nearly 
all the northern portion of Kirkcudbrightshire is within 
the 50-inch contour, and in the rugged mountainous 
region in the north-west of the county there is a rain- 
fall of over 60 inches. The influence of orographical 
features upon amount and distribution of rainfall is well 
shown by the following figures extracted, by permission, 
from Mr Andrew Watt's Mean Annual Rainfall of 
Scotland, 1871-1910. 





Height 


No. 


Mean 


Station. 


above 


of 


Average 




Sea. 


Years. 


Rainfall. 




Feet 




Inches 


Galloway House, Garlieston 


20 


30 


3973 


Auchencairn 


50 


30 


47.41 


Gatehouse (Cally) 


120 


40 


4943 


Glenlee, New Galloway 


208 


30 


57-27 


Carsphairn 


574 


10 


61.17 


Carsphairn, Shiel 


850 


5 


77-54 



64 KIRKCUDBRIGHT AND WIGTOWN 

A rainfall record kept at twenty-one stations in 
Kirkcudbrightshire for periods varying from five to 




Yews, Lochryan 



forty years (ending 1910) shows the mean annual rain- 
fall for that time to have been 53.68 inches. In Wig- 



CLIMATE 65 

townshire the stations are not so numerous. The mean 
for seven stations, ranging from a five- to a forty-year 
period, was 38.83 inches. This is about fifteen inches 
less than that of Kirkcudbrightshire, and is in accord- 
ance with the relief of the counties. 

A temperature record kept at Cargen, Slogarie, Glen- 
lee, Cally and Little Ross in Kirkcudbrightshire shows, 
for the forty years ending December 1895, a mean 
temperature of 32 F. for January and 48 F. for July — 
a mean annual range of 16 F. A similar record for 
Wigtownshire kept at Corsewall, Loch Ryan, Ardwell, 
Kirkcowan, and Mull of Galloway gives a mean January 
temperature of 40 F. with 57 F. for July — a mean 
annual range of 17 F. For Edinburgh the mean annual 
range is 21 F. and for London 26 F. 

On the whole the climate of Galloway is favourable 
to health and longevity and to the agricultural pursuits 
upon which the province depends. Thanks to the 
south-west winds from the warm southern regions of 
the Atlantic, the winters are as a rule mild. Vegetation 
commences earlier in the spring and continues later in 
the fall than on the eastern coast of Scotland. Long 
continued frosts occur but rarely, and snow seldom lies 
long, at least in the lower districts. According to a 
work on the agriculture of Galloway published a hun- 
dred years ago, " It is generally calculated that in 
December and January the industrious farmer can 
plough on an average four days per week, and in Nov- 
ember and February five." The statement holds good 
to-day. 



66 KIRKCUDBRIGHT AND WIGTOWN 



ii. People — Race, Dialect, Population 

It is almost certain that the earliest inhabitants 
arrived in Britain when it was simply the west end of 
the Continent of Europe. They were small-boned, 
long-skulled and dark-haired, and they spoke a dialect 
of Iverian, a language whose descendant lives to-day 
on the lips of the Basques. After a time they were 
driven out or extirpated by invading Celtic tribes, who 
were long-boned, broad-skulled and fair-haired. To 
these the greater number of the place-names of Galloway 
are due, though the invaders would probably adopt and 
hand down to posterity at least some of the names of 
physical features as given by the conquered race. The 
name of the river Urr is practically identical with ur, 
the Basque word for water. In the first centuries a.d. 
the men of south-west Scotland were Brythonic — like 
the modern Welsh. Some of the best representatives 
of the Brythonic race, according to Dr Beddoe, are found 
among the tall hillmen of Galloway. But since most 
of the Celtic place-names in Galloway are not of Welsh 
but of Gaelic origin, it seems certain that there had been 
a large immigration of Gaelic speakers, perhaps from 
Ireland. Gaelic, indeed, continued to be spoken in 
Galloway to the end of the sixteenth century. The 
advent of Christianity introduced Latin words descrip- 
tive of Church offices and rites. " Sagart, the priest 
(sacerdos) built himself a cill, a cell (L. cella) : so to this 
day Altaggart (AM Shaggairt, the priest's stream) flows 



PEOPLE— RACE, DIALECT, POPULATION 07 

past the site of Kilfeather (CM Pheaduir, Peter's 
Cell)." 

Words of English origin passed in by way of North- 
umbria from the sixth century to the ninth. These in 
turn were supplemented by Scandinavian names brought 
by Norse marauders of the eighth to the tenth century. 
After the Norman Conquest a stream of Anglo-Normans 
poured northwards, bringing a further contribution to 
the language of Galloway, increased subsequently by 
English-speaking immigrants at the time of the Brucian 
settlement. 

Such place-names as Bladnoch, Caitans, Kispain, 
Rotchell, Syllodioch date back to fable-shaded eras 
and their meaning is unknown. But the etymology of 
the great bulk of the place-names is fairly easy to make 
out. Cnoc, representing an isolated or precipitous hill, 
appears in over 220 place-names as prefix Knock ; and 
this is closely run by drum (druim), denoting the low 
glaciated ridge so frequently met with in the lower 
districts of Galloway. Bar, the top of anything, is a 
very common prefix. Achadh, arable land, is frequent 
as auch. Names of animals enter largely into the topo- 
graphy of both counties. Auchengower is the field of 
the goat ; Auchenlarie, the field of the mare ; Aucheness, 
the field of the horse ; Auchenshinnoch, the field of the 
foxes. Pol, pal, fiil, pul, denote water, either flowing or 
at rest. Darach, the oak, and beith, the birch, give rise 
to scores of names ending in darroch and bae. Old 
English burh, burg, fortress, city, appears in Burrow 
Head ; tun, town, in Myreton, Broughton, Carleton ; 



68 KIRKCUDBRIGHT AND WIGTOWN 

wic, village, in Rerwick, Senwick, Southwick ; law, hill, 
in Netherlaw, Wardlaw ; Norse borg, fort, occurs in 
Borgue, Borness ; botl, house, in Buittle ; by, dwelling, 
in Crosbie and Sorbie. Both syllables of Fairgirth are 
from Norse, and mean sheep-fold. So with Cogarth, 
enclosure for cattle, and Godgarth, enclosure for goats. 
Knoits, rocky hillocks, and dints, precipitous rocks, are 
characteristic of Galloway, as the Knoits of Bentudor 
and the Clints of Dromore. 

To-day the vernacular of Galloway is a variety of 
Lowland Scots, and is most akin to that of south Ayr- 
shire and west Dumfriesshire. Its written form, with 
its peculiar vocabulary and idiom, is very faithfully 
reflected in the novels of Crockett and in the works of 
several local poets. 

Kirkcudbrightshire is ninth among the counties of 
Scotland in size : in population it is twenty- first. The 
actual figures from the census of 1911 are 38,367— 
18,069 males and 20,298 females — for Kirkcudbrightshire, 
out of the total population of Scotland — 4,759,445. 
This is 43 to the square mile, and gives about 14 acres 
to every man, woman and child in the county. Of the 
inhabitants above fourteen years 11,531 males and 
4648 females were returned as engaged in one or other 
of the chief industries, while 1166 males and 10,390 
females had no specified employment. Agriculture 
occupied 4870, and domestic service 2950. Connected 
with the building trades there were 875, including 
354 joiners. There were 475 quarrymen and 365 metal 
workers. The textile industries employed 625, while 



PEOPLE— RACE, DIALECT, POPULATION 09 

drapers numbered 168 and tailors, dressmakers and 
milliners 1177. Nine hundred and fifty-six were 
engaged in the preparation and sale of provisions, 525 
in railway service and road transit. The professional 



O m 
00 00 



50,000 



45,000 



40,000 



35,000V 



30,000 



25,000 



20,0001 





























J& 


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t,y 




, - - - 


.-.j 


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t 
/ 


















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/ 

/ 
/ 
f 


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Diagram showing Rise and Fall of Population in 
Kirkcudbright and Wigtown since 1801 



classes numbered 480, and 740 were engaged in Civil and 
Local Government Service. 

Wigtownshire, ranking seventeenth in size, is twenty- 
third in population, the numbers being 15,078 males and 
16,920 females — 31,998 in all. This is 66 to the square 
miles, with 9 acres to each person. Above fourteen 
years of age there were 9338 males and 3672 females 
employed in one or other of the principal industries and 
services, while 1009 males and 8497 females had no 
specified employment. Agriculture engaged 5235 per- 



70 KIRKCUDBRIGHT AND WIGTOWN 

sons, and domestic service 1826. Including 241 joiners 
there were 565 connected with the building trade. 
Metal workers numbered 305 ; those engaged in textile 
industries 144. There were 155 drapers and 683 tailors, 
dressmakers and milliners. The preparation and sale 
of provisions occupied 998, while 533 found work in 
railway service and road transit. There were 325 
members of the learned professions, and 541 attached 
to Civil and Local Government Service. 

In both counties the alien element in 191 1 was small. 
Kirkcudbrightshire had 85 foreigners, Wigtownshire 33. 

12. Agriculture 

The two counties are almost exclusively devoted to 
farming in one or other of its branches, sheep-rearing, 
dairying or mixed farming. Down to the middle of the 
eighteenth century the agriculture of Galloway was in 
the rude and barbarous condition common to Scotland. 
The farms were invariably over-cropped, and the methods 
of husbandry such that ten or twelve horses were 
required for the work now undertaken by two or three. 
Implements were often heavy and clumsy, always 
miserably inefficient. The soil was hopelessly impover- 
ished by the practice of taking the same crop off 
it year after year as long as it would repay the seed 
and labour. The poor return of straw was inadequate 
for the needs of the always overstocked farm during 
the winter, and by spring the cattle were often so weak 
that they could not rise of themselves. Housing was 



AGRICULTURE 71 

poor beyond belief : wretched hovels built of stone and 
mud, thatched with fern and straw, unglazed holes for 
windows, no chimneys to give egress to the smoke, 
which found a tardy escape as best it could, were shared 
in common by the people and the cows of the farm, 
often without an intervening partition. But about 
1750, with Mr Craik of Abigland (1703-98) and the 
school of farmers which subsequently formed them- 
selves on his model, began the series of improvements 
in agriculture which have raised the Stewartry to its 
present high position among the counties of Scotland. 
Enclosing and draining the land, a regular system of 
fallowing, the use of calcareous manures as well as the 
liberal application of farmyard manures to fallows and 
fallow crops, the introduction of greatly improved 
implements, the establishment of a regular system of 
rotation of crops into which was introduced the use 
of sown grasses — these were the chief features of the 
new school. 

Proprietors in Wigtownshire were no less eager to 
encourage and assist then tenants in the improvement 
and management of their farms, and this produced little 
short of a revolution in agriculture. 

The arable part of Kirkcudbrightshire is found chiefly 
in the parishes which fringe the coast, in the eastern 
slope of the country, along the valleys of the Urr, Dee, 
Ken, and Fleet, and in the table-lands between these 
valleys. In Wigtownshire the line of railway from 
Newton Stewart to Glenluce may be taken approxi- 
mately as the boundary between the high and low 



72 KIRKCUDBRIGHT AND WIGTOWN 

grounds, the cultivated area lying to the south of this 
line. Arable farms run from 60 to 600 acres and are 
rented from £80 to £700 a year, few exceeding £1000. 
Hill or stock farms are, on the whole, much larger, few 
being rented under £200, while several exceed £1000. 
The rotation of crops is almost uniform. The five-year 
course is — oats ; green crop ; oats (in Wigtownshire, 
barley or wheat) sown out with grasses and clover seeds ; 
hay, cut green, or seeded or pasture ; pasture. The 
six-year course is the same with the addition of another 
year in pasture. Wheat was extensively grown from 
1815 to 1830. As late as 1855 wheat in Wigtownshire 
covered 7343 acres ; in 1913 it covered only 71. 

Galloway is earlier than most of Scotland. Sowing 
of oats begins about the third week of March, and 
finishes as a rule by the middle of April. Harvest, 
begun by the 12th or 15th of August, is finished in 
from three to five weeks, though some districts are two 
or three weeks later. 

In 1913 of the 575,832 acres in the Stewartry, 92,458 
were of arable land, 96,670 of permanent grass and 
343,500 of mountain and heath land used for grazing. 
25,293 acres under oats yielded an average per acre 
of 30.08 bushels ; 1709 acres of potatoes, 6.04 tons ; 
11,166 acres of turnips and swedes, 16.17 tons ; 9465 
acres of hay grown from rye-grass, 30.02 cwts. ; 12,670 
acres of hay from permanent grass, 28.34 cwt. In 
the same year the figures for Wigtownshire were : total 
area, 311,984 acres ; arable land, 110,722 acres ; per- 
manent grass, 8753, and mountain and heath-land used 



AGRICULTURE 73 

for grazing, 107,814. The 30,535 acres under oats gave 
a return of 36.79 bushels per acre ; 1234 acres of 
potatoes, 7.5 tons ; 14,167 acres of turnips and swedes, 
16.5 tons ; 4950 acres of hay grown from rye-grass 
produced 41.05 cwts., and 4731 acres of hay from 
permanent grass, 36.24 cwts. 

Galloway cattle form one of the oldest and most 
characteristic of British breeds. They are essentially a 
beef-producing class. They are polled, and a coat of 
shaggy or curled black hair with an under coat of fine 
short wool fits them for the moist climate of the district. 
The picturesque Belted Galloways form one of the most 
valuable strains of this ancient breed. They are 
described as "exceptionally thick, blocky, nice-haired 
animals, and so hardy that they can winter and calve 
outside and ail nothing." One of the most interesting 
herds of Belties in Galloway belongs to Mr G. G. B. 
Sproat, Gatehouse-of- Fleet, the foundation of which 
was laid by his father in the Glenkens, early in last 
century. A two-year-old bull belonging to this herd 
scaled 15 cwts. in store order. A fine dairy of pure- 
bred Belted Galloways is owned by Mr James Brown 
of Knockbrex. A large and important branch of farm- 
ing in Galloway is the rearing of polled store cattle for 
the markets of the south. These are bought for the 
most part as two-year-olds and are sent direct south to 
" gentlemen's grazings," the blue-grey shorthorn 
Galloway cross being a particular favourite in England. 
On dairying farms the stock used consists entirely of 
the Ayrshire breed of cattle. 



74 KIRKCUDBRIGHT AND WIGTOWN 

In Kirkcudbrightshire few dairies have under 30 cows 
and few more than 70 or 80 : in Wigtownshire the 
numbers range from 20 to 350. The produce of the 
dairies is sold in various forms. Some send milk into 




■ 



Belted Galloway Cattle 

(Part of a fine herd belonging to James Brown, Esq. 
of Knockbrex, Borgue) 



the surrounding towns. Many send their milk to one 
or other of the creameries, while many make it into 
cheese on the Cheddar system. The returns vary with 
the nature and amount of the food. In the southern half 
of the Rhinns, that Goshen for cheese-making, a dairy 
of 80 cows has averaged 19 stones of cheese per cow for 



AGRICULTURE 75 

six months. But over all 17I stones per cow may be 
taken as the figure for Galloway dairies. This repre- 
sents about 3400 pints of milk, or 1 lb. of cheese per 
gallon of milk. 

A great many of the dairies are managed on either 
the bowing or the kaneing system. The farmer provides 
and keeps up the cows, buildings and dairy utensils, 
allows a certain area of pasture, a fixed quantity of 
roots and artificial food, with hay and straw ad lib. 
The bower pays his rent in money from £10 to £15 per 
cow, and does all the labour connected with the dairy, 
and receives all the produce in calves, cheese and pigs 
fed on the whey. The kaner pays rent in kind, about 
19 or 20 stones (of 24 lbs.) of cheese per cow. The rent 
varies according to the quality of the pasture, and the 
amount and kind of the roots and artificial food supplied 
by the farmer. 

The United Creameries, Ltd. has its headquarters at 
Dunragit, six miles from Stranraer, with branch factories 
at Sorbie, Wigtownshire, and Tarff, Kircudbrightshire. 
All milk is weighed and sampled on delivery and paid 
for on the basis of the butterfat contained. This is 
extracted by separators, the cream and the separated 
milk being delivered in different directions. Part of 
the cream is chilled to 35 or 40 F. and then put up in 
jars or cans for sale as required. The remainder, by 
far the larger part, is made into butter. The latest 
type of churn — a combined churn and butter-worker — 
is in use, in which not only is the cream churned into 
butter, but the butter is worked ready for packing. In 



76 KIRKCUDBRIGHT AND WIGTOWN 

the whole of the process neither cream nor butter is 
touched with the hand, the utmost cleanliness in manu- 
facture being thus attained. The buttermilk with a 
very large proportion of the skim-milk is used for pig- 
feeding. A regular stock of from 2500 to 3000 pigs is 
kept, and the fat pigs are killed every week. Perhaps 
the most important branch of the business is the 
manufacture of margarine, for which large and 
thoroughly equipped premises are established at Dun- 
ragit. The margarine plant is capable of handling 
about 50 tons per week. 

The Wigtownshire Creamery Co. has its central 
creamery at Stranraer, with branches at Sandhead and 
Drummore, Wigtownshire, and at Ballymoney, Ireland, 
all equipped with the most modern machinery. The 
Company handles milk from 9000 to 10,000 cows during 
the year, and manufactures cheese, butter and cream. 
It also sterilizes a quantity of milk and cream to be 
put up in air-tight stoppered bottles. A creamery at 
Bladnoch (with a branch at Whithorn), belonging to 
the Scottish Co-operative Wholesale Society, produces 
butter, margarine and margarine cheese. 

Of the 55,398 cattle in the Stewartry in 1913 cows 
and heifers numbered 19,166, the remainder being two 
years and under. The corresponding figures for the 
Shire were 56,800 and 26,883. 

Cheviot and black-faced sheep are almost the only 
stocks bred or fed in Galloway, and by far the greater 
number are black-faced. The class used depends on 
the produce of the land : where there is plenty of grass, 



MANUFACTURES— MINES—MINERALS 77 

even though poor, the Cheviot is the more profitable ; 
on land producing chiefly heather the black-faced is 
preferable. While equally hardy, the two breeds differ 
in quality of wool and mutton, the Cheviot possessing 
the finer wool, the black-faced the finer mutton. 

In 1913 the Stewartry had 163,754 breeding ewes, with 
219,145 other sheep ; the Shire had 48,552 and 62,339. 

Brood sows numbered in the Stewartry 763, with 
9989 other pigs ; in the Shire 840 and 15,443. 

The old race of Galloway horses — " Know we not 
Galloway nags ? " asks Ancient Pistol in Shakespeare, 
2 Henry IV. — strong, rough-legged hardy cobs about 
14! hands high, and much esteemed for pluck and 
endurance, is now extinct. The whole attention of 
breeders has been turned to Clydesdales, the Scottish 
type of agricultural horse. Many of the best Clydes- 
dales have been bred in Galloway. Little attention is 
paid to the breeding of saddle and driving horses, which 
in 1913 numbered 1104 in the Stewartry and 810 in the 
Shire. Of horses used for agricultural purposes, in- 
cluding brood mares, there were 3309 in the former 
county and 3498 in the latter ; of unbroken horses 
1520 and 1642 respectively. 

13. Manufactures, Mines and Minerals 

The manufactures of Galloway are few and unim- 
portant. Attempts made at various places to establish 
seats of manufacture have not met with lasting success, 
and to-day existing works do little more than supply 



78 KIRKCUDBRIGHT AND WIGTOWN 

local needs. About 1778 a large factory for cotton 
spinning was erected at Newton Stewart. But by 1826 
the scheme, which for a few years had worked well, 
proved a failure, and the factory ceased work. Hand 
looms, which in 1818 numbered 311 and whose products 
found a ready market with the merchants of Glasgow, 
had fallen in 1828 to a third of that number, and in 




Newton Stewart 



a few years the industry dwindled to extinction. In 
1790 Gatehouse-of-Fleet had two cotton factories, 
which gave employment to upwards of 200 hands, 
with a yearly output of nearly a million and a half 
yards of cloth. But distance from the centres of 
population and the want of facilities for transport 
added greatly to the price of both the raw material 
and the manufactured article. About 1815 decline set 
in, and by the middle of the century the works had 
shut down. Part of the buildings is now occupied by 



MANUFACTURES— MINES— MINERALS 79 

a bobbin mill, employing about twenty men and boys. 
To-day woollen and tweed mills at Maxwelltown, at 
Twynholm, at Newton Stewart and at Kirkcowan give 
employment to 625 men and women in Kirkcudbright- 
shire and 144 in Wigtownshire. 

Galloway is not a mining country. Laborious and 
expensive searches for coal have met with no practical 
success, as what was found in Kirkbean was in too small 
quantity to pay the expense of working. Veins of iron 
occur at various places in the Stewartry. One, to the 
west of Auchencairn, was worked for some time but 
was abandoned owing to the small returns and to the 
distance from a supply of coal. There used to be a 
copper mine in operation at Enrick, near Gatehouse-of- 
Fleet. the ores of which, green carbonate of copper and 
sulphate of copper with iron pyrites, are said to have 
yielded a rich percentage of the metal. An attempt to 
re-work this mine, made a few years ago, has been 
unsuccessful financially. In Colvend a copper mine 
for a brief period yielded a fairly rich ore from a toler- 
ably thick seam. A vein of copper pyrites was formerly 
worked at Waukmill, near Kirkcowan ; two veins of 
barytes occur at Barlocco, Auchencairn, and one at 
Tonderghie near Whithorn. Galena has been mined at 
Blackcraig near Newton Stewart, in the Wood of Cree, 
at the Cairnsmore Mines, at the Pibble Hill Mines 
east of Creetown, at Woodhead near Carsphairn, and 
at Knockibae near Glenluce. But all these mines have 
been abandoned owing to scarcity of the mineral and 
expense of working. 



80 KIRKCUDBRIGHT AND WIGTOWN 

Limestone of excellent quality is obtainable at Kirk- 
bean. Certain dark clays occurring at Brickhouse near 
Carsethorn have been worked for brick making, and 
there are brick and tile works at Dalbeattie and near 
Carty. Building material is obtained from the large 
quarries of the Queensberry grit group near Glenluce ; 
from the quarries near Newton Stewart and Wigtown ; 
from the porphyrites and micro-granites of Tongland 
and Loch Dougan ; from the granite quarries of Cree- 
town and Dalbeattie ; and from the beds of greywacke 
at Portpatrick. Wherever beds of greywacke are met 
with they are used for road metal, and Dalbeattie 
granite is largely used for the manufacture of grano- 
lithic pavement. At Cairnryan a band of grey shales 
and flags is worked for roofing purposes. The chief 
mineral wealth of Kirkcudbrightshire is its granite, and 
the quarries of Creetown and Dalbeattie are widely 
known. The Mersey Dock Board owned and worked 
one of the Creetown quarries and of its granite most 
of the Liverpool Docks were built. For eighty years 
this quarry employed from 180 to 300 men and had 
an average yearly output of 10,000 tons, half of which 
went for dock building purposes and half for setts. 
Much of the granite is crushed for use in pavements, 
garden paths, and such like. In Dalbeattie Messrs 
Fraser & Young make a specialty of the crushed 
granite trade. Their mills crush the stone and run it 
into railway waggons alongside. At their mill at Old 
Lands Quarry on the Urr vessels are loaded directly 
from the machine. The Craignair quarries have sent 



FISHERIES, SHIPPING AND TRADE 81 

granite all over the world. Lighthouses at Ceylon, 
the lower portion of the Eddystone Lighthouse, part 
of the Thames Embankment and of the Liverpool 
Docks, and the Albert Bridge, Belfast, for which more 
than 40,000 cubic feet of wrought granite were pro- 
vided, are constructed of its stone. Banks in London 
and Liverpool, the Town Halls of Manchester and 
Birkenhead, insurance buildings in London, Liverpool 
and other cities owe their structural beauty to the 
Granite City of the South. 

Other industries are bone works and flour mills at 
Dalbeattie ; iron foundries and implement works, motor, 
and coach works, cabinet-making works at Castle 
Douglas ; mills and dye works at Maxwelltown. 

The extraction of salt from sea-water by evaporation 
was formerly carried on at several places on the coast. 
Satterness, now Southerness, and Saltpans Bay remind 
us of this industry by their names. But with the repeal 
of the salt tax and the production of finer and cheaper 
salt in the " 'wich " towns of England the industry 
disappeared. 

14. Fisheries, Shipping and Trade 

Little has been done to develop and conserve the 
fishing industry of Galloway. Symson's words in his 
Large Description, written in 1684, might be used to-day : 
" our sea is better stored with good fish than our shoare 
is furnished with good fishers." Fishing is, of course, 
carried on at a number of places in Kirkcudbrightshire ; 

F 



82 KIRKCUDBRIGHT AND WIGTOWN 

but only two " creeks " are recognised by the Fishery 
Board for Scotland — Kirkcudbright and Creetown. In 
Wigtownshire there are ten — Stranraer, Kirkcolm, Port- 
patrick, Port Logan, Drummore, Sandhead, Glenluce, 
Port William, Isle of Whithorn and Garlieston. 

Pelagic fish, including herring, mackerel and sparlings 
— the last got principally in the Cree — are taken by nets. 
Such demersal fish as cod, haddocks, skate, plaice and 
flounders are taken by trawl, lines and nets. Salmon 
are caught in fixed or " stake " nets. The principal 
shell-fish obtained are lobsters and crabs caught in 
dome-shaped cages of net stretched over a strong frame ; 
oysters taken by the dredge ; shrimps in specially 
constructed nets ; and mussels and whelks picked from 
the rocks to which they are found clinging. Recently 
whelks have been much over-gathered ; and the same is 
true of other shell-fish. In the estuary of the Cree 
hundreds of acres of mud cover to-day what' forty years 
ago produced huge quantities of mussels. In former 
years thirty smacks at a time might have been seen 
dredging oysters in Wigtown Bay : this too is a thing 
of the past. 

In 1913 there were 8991 fishing boats in Scotland, 
manned by crews amounting to 38,262. Of these Wig- 
townshire supplied 127 boats, none over 30 feet of keel, 
and 193 fishermen ; Kirkcudbrightshire boats numbered 
21, all under 30 feet of keel, manned by 29 men. The 
total quantity of sea-fish of all kinds (exclusive of shell- 
fish) landed within the year was 7,828,350 cwts. of the 
value of {3,997,717. Of this amount Wigtownshire 



FISHERIES, SHIPPING AND TRADE 83 

contributed 45,723 cwts. — 32,354 cwts. being herring, 
valued at £14,321 — which realised £19,647, and Kirk- 
cudbrightshire 178 cwts., valued at £300. The total 
value of the shell-fish landed was £72,354. Of the 
1,316,100 oysters included in this return, 1,305,400 
oysters dredged from, the beds in Loch Ryan sold for 
£4757. The shell-fish returns for Kirkcudbrightshire 
amounted to £537. 

Salmon frequent the Cree, the Dee, the Fleet, the 
Nith and the Urr. The numerous lochs, well stocked 
as a rule with trout, and in many cases with perch and 
pike, offer excellent sport to the angler, while the burns 
and lanes of both counties contain sea-trout, herling, 
river-trout, pike and perch. 

We must not omit reference to the Solway Hatchery, 
situated at Kinharvie, two miles from the village of 
New Abbey. It is one of the oldest and largest hatcheries 
in the kingdom, and from it large quantities of ova and 
fish are yearly dispatched to all parts of the world. 

Notwithstanding the favourable length of seaboard, 
the commerce of Galloway is inconsiderable. There are 
few good harbours. 

Portpatrick owed its early importance to its proximity 
to Ireland. In addition to mails and passengers, there 
were landed on its pier in 181 2 no fewer than 20,000 
Irish cattle. In 1821 operations were begun for the 
construction of a harbour on a large scale. Over 
£500,000 was spent in erecting sea-walls, deepening 
basins, and otherwise attempting to make it a safe 
haven. But the experience of a few winters with their 



84 KIRKCUDBRIGHT AND WIGTOWN 

tremendous gales from the south-west was sufficient to 
show that in the contest between man and the elements 
victory was to lie with the latter. The harbour was 
found unsafe, the mail-route was transferred to Stran- 



■^■i i 



r £ffi 







ljk| J 


r% 


yi4^«'™ 




Srv* T,,; 'i».' 


ii^Atkl 






Xp*7q~2m 




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HB 









The Harbour, Stranraer 



raer and Larne, and to-day the sole shipping of this 
costly harbour consists of a few fishing boats. 

Stranraer has a large and commodious, harbour 
situated at the head of Loch Ryan. The loch itself is 
almost land-locked, and, except in the case of a gale from 
the north, the anchorage is all that could be desired. 
The harbour consists of a breastwork and an east and 
west pier. From the east pier steamers carrying mails, 
passengers and goods sail for Larne (39 miles) once a day 
in winter, and twice a day in summer. There is also 



FISHERIES, SHIPPING AND TRADE 85 

regular steam communication with Glasgow and Liver- 
pool. 

The harbour of Kirkcudbright is well sheltered, of 
considerable extent, and of easy approach. But pier 
accommodation is very small, and tidal conditions make 
it suitable for small vessels only. Dalbeattie is served 
by a harbour on the river Urr, called Dub o' Hass, some 
five miles from the Solway, and vessels of 150 tons burden 
can come up thus far. At Old Land Wharf vessels of 
200 tons can be handled, while Palnackie can be taken 
by vessels of 300 tons. The nature of the Solway beach 
and the phenomena of its careering tides render naviga- 
tion precarious, and limit it on the whole to vessels of 
comparatively small tonnage. 

From about the middle of the eighteenth century to 
that of the nineteenth, the story of the commerce of 
Galloway is in the main one of increase. Thus Kirk- 
cudbright, which in 1801 had 37 vessels on its register, 
with an aggregate of 1648 tons, had in 1846 54 vessels, 
totalling 2069 tons. Wigtown, which had 25 ships with 
a burden of 984 tons in 1801, had in 1845 an aggregate 
tonnage of 3892. Stranraer, with 44 vessels capable 
of carrying 1732 tons in 1801, had in 1868 a tonnage of 
2969. But with the introduction of railway facilities 
there came a sharp decline of sea-borne commerce. In 
1 913 Stranraer had only 8 vessels, aggregating 1886 
tons ; Wigtown had 6, with a cargo capacity of 356 tons ; 
Kirkcudbright is now a creek under Dumfries, and the 
combined returns of port and sub-port showed for the 
same year a register of 14 vessels, with a tonnage of 



86 KIRKCUDBRIGHT AND WIGTOWN 

770. The trade of these ports is largely coastwise, and 
for the most part with towns on the west of England and 
Scotland, and east of Ireland. It consists mainly of 
the import of coal, lime, and manures, and the export of 
agricultural produce. The values of the imports from 
foreign countries for the year named were ; — Dumfries 
(including Kirkcudbright), manures of all kinds £4519, 
oil-seed cake £852, all other articles £771 ; Wigtown (in- 
cluding Garlieston, Port William, and Isle of Whithorn), 
manures of all kinds £1320, all other articles £405 ; 
Stranraer, manures of all kinds £1639, sawn wood and 
timber £1091, all other articles £1633. 



Other Statistics of Galloway Sea-Trade 

Vessels Engaged in General Coasting Trade in 191 3 





Entered. 


Cargo 
in Tons. 


Left. . C ^g° 
in Ions. 


Stranraer . 
Wigtown . 
Kirkcudbright 


7£>3 
213 
336" 


285,925 
16,468 
21,020 


764 286,400 
212 16,674 
358 22,845 



Vessels Engaged in Foreign Trade 





Entered. 


Cargo 
in Tons. 


Left. 


Cargo 

in Tons. 


Stranraer . 
Wigtown . 
Kirkcudbright 


5 

10 


2138 

399 
1106 


I 

Nil. 
Nil. 


140 

Nil. 
Nil. 



HISTORY 87 



15 History 

Before the Roman general, Agricola, invaded North 
Britain in a.d. 80, our knowledge of the history of the 
country is scanty and untrustworthy. In the course of 
Agricola's campaigns, the Romans were in the south- 
west corner in 82, looking out upon Ireland. The district 
afterwards to be known as Galloway, became, nominally 
at least, part of the Roman Empire. But the absence 
of the remains of Roman camps and stations, and of any 
Roman road west of the Nith, and the infrequency of 
articles of Roman manufacture, show that the Roman 
occupation was never very thorough, and was at most of 
interrupted duration. 

Towards the end of the fourth century, the first 
Christian missionary (so says Bede, following tradition), 
arrived in North Britain. The most indubitable part 
of the tradition is that St Ninian, landing at the 
Isle of Whithorn, built a church of stone, which the 
Latin writers knew as Candida Casa, in Old English 
Hwilcern — both names meaning " White House." St 
Ninian converted the Southern Picts, as the men of the 
region came later to be called ; but the new faith was 
submerged in the old paganism, when early in the fifth 
century the Roman power vanished in Britain. Who 
these Picts of Galloway exactly were is obscure. 
Ptolemy had designated the inhabitants of the south- 
west Novantae, and afterwards we hear of the district 
as the home of the Attacotti. These were distinct from 



88 KIRKCUDBRIGHT AND WIGTOWN 

the Scots, and were absurdly credited with being 
cannibals. 

Early in the seventh century Galloway fell into the 
hands of the kings of Northumbria, under whom the 
native chief ruled. Anglians from. Northumbria over- 
ran the district in considerable numbers, yet without 
effecting any great change in the district either in civil 
polity or in knowledge and practice of the arts. Towards 
the close of the eighth century Northumbria was faced 
with the grim fury of the Northmen, and its suzerainty 
over Galloway had to be given up. Galloway then sub- 
mitted to the sway of the Northmen, till freed from their 
domination by Malcolm Canmore about the middle of 
the eleventh century. In 1124. on the accession of 
David I, Galloway became merged in Scotland. 

When David interfered in the Civil War in England, 
the men of Galloway were prominent for their fierceness 
and their cruelty to the conquered. In 1138, at the 
Battle of the Standard, they turned a probable victory 
into a defeat. Their leaders claimed an ancient privilege 
of forming the van of the Scottish host, and though 
David knew the risk of exposing undisciplined troops, 
with no defensive armour, to the mail-clad Norman 
knights, he had to concede the claim. All that stubborn 
courage could do, the Picts of Galloway did ; but the 
English arrows shot them down, and the Normans 
remained unbroken. After two hours of grim conflict, 
the Galwegians lost their last chief, and on the cry that 
the king was killed, they turned in flight. Then 
followed a general scattering of the Scots, though Prince 



HISTORY 89 

Henry's knights were winning in another part of the 
field. Only David's reserves prevented the English 
pursuit from annihilating the Scots. 

In Malcolm IV's reign, Galloway rebelled, and was 
again subdued, only to break away when William the 
Lyon was taken prisoner in England. For eleven years 
Gilbert and his son were practically independent rulers. 
But after Gilbert's death in 1185, Roland, son of Uchtred, 
who had been murdered by his brother Gilbert, regained 
the lordship. By residence at the Scottish Court, and 
by marriage with de Moreville's daughter, Roland had 
become a Scoto-Norman, and was on friendly terms with 
King William. But even so, the men of Galloway, in 
the next century, more than once displayed their in- 
vincible love of independence, and their detestation of 
Norman ways. 

When the Maid of Norway died, 1290, one half of the 
lordship of Galloway belonged to John Balliol, while a 
third of the remainder was owned by Alexander Comyn. 
In the war of succession which ensued, Galloway followed 
the banners of its lords and suffered accordingly. In 
1300 Edward I overran Galloway as far as the Fleet, 
and reduced the Stewartry to subjection. It suffered 
again at the hands of Robert the Bruce, who invaded it 
because the inhabitants refused to follow his standard ; 
and the struggles of Edward Balliol to regain his father's 
throne once more plunged it into the horrors of war. 

About 1370 Galloway came into the hands of the House 
of Douglas, and from then to 1455 the history of Galloway 
is a story of ravage and oppressive tyranny by the 



90 KIRKCUDBRIGHT AND WIGTOWN 

turbulent and ambitious family of Threave. On the 
fall of the Douglases the lordship of Galloway, with the 
earldom of Wigtown, passed to the Crown. Intestine 
strife, the consequence of frequent quarrels between 
petty chiefs, brings the history of the Province down 
to 1513, when many Galloway men of note fell beside 
their king on " Flodden's fatal field." 

The doctrines of the Reformation were warmly 
espoused in Galloway. The attempts of the Stuart 
kings to establish Prelacy were resisted by none more 
strenuously than by the Westland Whigs. The Pentland 
Rising of 1666, the prelude to the " Killing Time," had 
its origin in Dairy, in the north of the Stewartry. At 
the battle of Bothwell Bridge (1679) a band of Galloway 
men in the Covenanting Army gallantly held the bridge 
against the Royalists till their ammunition was exhausted 
and they were ordered to retire. In the last years of 
Charles IPs reign, and throughout James IPs, the 
lonely moors and hillsides of Galloway were scoured 
by dragoons in search of Covenanters. Many a grave 
testifies to the steadfastness of the wild Westland Whigs, 
whom the troopers of Claverhouse and Grierson might 
kill but could not subdue. In May 1685 occurred the 
terrible drowning of the Wigtown Martyrs, Margaret 
M'Pauchlan, aged 63, and Margaret Wilson, aged 18, 
who were " by unjust law sentenced to die . . . and tyed 
to a stake within the Flood for adherence to Scotland's 
Reformation Covenants, National and Solemn League." 

The Revolution settlement of 1689 was accepted 
quietly in Galloway. When the cry " The Auld Stuarts 



HISTORY 



91 



back again " rang through Scotland in 1715, only two 
Galloway gentlemen mounted the White Cockade- 
Hamilton of Baldoon and Gordon of Earlston — and as 
little interest was taken in the " 'Forty-five." In 1724 
Galloway was thrown into confusion by the action of 




Martyrs' Graves, Wigtown 

the Levellers and Haughers, secret societies formed 
against the Parking Lairds, who were endeavouring to 
improve their system of husbandry by the erection of 
march dykes and fences. But with the exception of 
this episode the history of Galloway for the last two 
hundred years has been one with that of the rest of 
Scotland — material progress and general advancement, 
social, educational and political. 



92 KIRKCUDBRIGHT AND WIGTOWN 



16. Antiquities 

In regard to early civilisations it is usual to speak of 
three epochs, the Stone, the Bronze, and the Iron. In 
the first, stone was the material used for those tools and 
weapons which, in a later and higher degree of culture, 
were made of metals. It is questionable whether 
palaeolithic man ever reached Scotland, but of the 
presence of neolithic man the evidence is ample. His 
weapons were of fine form, often highly polished, made 
of other stones than the flint of his palaeolithic pre- 
decessor, and are found associated with existing fauna. 

In Galloway, cairns and hut circles, cliff forts and hill 
forts, mote-hills and doons indicate his distribution, 
and mark his activities. The stone circles and rock- 
sculpturings met with are referable probably to the 
bronze period. Cairns are classified as chambered or 
cisted. Of the former, which had within them a burial 
chamber capable of being used for repeated interments, 
there are eleven in Kirkcudbrightshire. Those which 
have long chambers lie in the valley of the Cree, east of 
which none is to be found south of Carsphairn. In 
Wigtownshire there are four, three in New Luce and one 
in Old Luce. Of cairns with round chambers there are 
four in the Stewartry, and three in Wigtownshire. Cisted 
cairns, containing a stone coffin intended for a single 
act of burial, are more numerous, and are widely dis- 
tributed. 

There are thirteen stone circles in the Stewartry, 



ANTIQUITIES 93 

three of which surround a central boulder. The only 
stone circle in Wigtownshire, with the outer ring of stones 
(19 in number) complete, is at Torhouskie near Wigtown. 
It is popularly believed to be the burial place of King 
Galdus. A stone at Laicht near Cairnryan, known as 
the Taxing Stone, is said to mark the tomb of Alpin, 
King of Scots, who was slain in Glenapp, 741 a.d. When 
circles are found in proximity to a cairn, they appear to 
have formed part of an original plan. A notable 
instance is the group of associated remains at Cauldside , 
Anwoth. 

In Kirkcudbrightshire the area in which rock sculptures 
are found is restricted, but within this they are in con- 
siderable numbers. One group is found between the 
Cree and the Fleet, and another eastward from the 
estuary of the Dee to an imaginary line running north 
and south through Dundrennan. There is also a small 
group on the west side of Kirkcudbright. The greater 
number lie near the coast. In Wigtownshire such 
sculpturings have been recorded in ten places, most of 
these being in the Machers. The remains of ancient 
defensive constructions are very numerous in the 
Province. The Deil's Dyke was a rampart raised by 
the Galloway Picts as a defence against their neighbours 
to the north, the Brigantes of Strathclyde. According 
to Train " it commences at the farm of Beoch, and 
extends through the farms of Braid, Auchenvane, 
Kirnearven, and Kilfedder ; passes the north end of 
Loch Maberry, along Glenvernoch, and in Knockville 
runs into the Loch of Cree, to continue through Kirk- 



94 KIRKCUDBRIGHT AND WIGTOWN 

cudbrightshire and Dumfriesshire as far as Hightae Flow 
in Loch Maben parish." 

Not infrequently advantage has been taken of natural 
topographical situations, such as cliffs or promontories, 
or hills. Thus at Kemp's Wark, Larbrax, may be 
noted " the adaptation of its defensive lines to suit the 
altering requirements of the position as they pass from 
the narrow level of the front to the steeply sloping flank 
where they give place to a terrace." As a rule they are 
earth works, and consist of a single rampart and trench. 
But Borness Batteries, Borgue, is defended by two 
trenches and three ramparts, and the Doon, Twynholm, 
has double fosse and ramparts. The fort at Castle Hill 
Point, Colvend and Southwick, has for its main line of 
defence a stone wall some ten feet thick. Three hill 
forts in the Stewartry have been more or less vitrified, 
and one in the sister county. 

Of mote hills, flat-topped mounds of earth and stone, 
in part natural, though sometimes wholly artificial, there 
are eleven in Wigtownshire and twenty-six in the 
Stewartry. The typical form is a truncated cone with 
an average height of 20 to 30 feet, surrounded at its base 
by a ditch. But the shape varies : at Boreland and 
Drummore, the mound is oval ; at Skaith it is almost a 
square. The most important in the Stewartry is the 
Mote of Urr. A simple truncated cone, it rises to a 
height of 33 feet, with a level top, 91 feet by 76, and 
comprises citadel, trenches, and base court on an ex- 
tensive and well-preserved scale. The largest and best 
preserved in the Shire is the Mote of Innermessan. A 




o 
o 



OG KIRKCUDBRIGHT AND WIGTOWN 

perfect circle, it has a circumference at the base of 336 
feet, while from foundation to top it measures 78 feet. 



mm 






m 



mm 






■-'■ < 



*:, 



«W 






I 2 

Sculptured Stones, Kirkmadrine 

It is generally believed that motes were used as courts of 
justice and places of public assembly, and in some places 



ANTIQUITIES 



97 



they are still known as court-hills. A curious broch- 
like structure at Castle Haven, Borgue, has had its 
details laid bare by excavation, and its construction 




restored. Of the many caves with which the shores are 
pierced, none is more deserving of notice than Borness 
Cave. It is situated at the head of an inlet below 
precipitous cliffs, about 27 feet above present high-water 
level. Systematically explored in 1872, it yielded 
abundant evidence of human habitation. The finds 



98 KIRKCUDBRIGHT AND WIGTOWN 

included charred vegetable remains, remains of animals, 
polishers, whetstones, needles of bone, and a small cup 
of Samian ware, probably of the first century. 

Early sculptured stones are very numerous in Wigtown- 
shire. Two now in a porch of the Church of Kirk- 
madrine, where they have been placed within recent 




Canoe from Dowalton Loch, and Paddle from Ravenstone 
Moss, to the east of the Loch 



years, are probably the earliest Christian monuments to 
the dead known in Scotland. Both bear the monogram 
of Christ within a circle, while a Latin inscription on 
one shows that it had originally indicated the last resting 
place of " two holy and pre-eminent priests." A long 
lost third inscribed stone was recently discovered acci- 
dentally. A sketch made a hundred years ago showed 
the inscription, " Initium. et Finis, Alpha et Omega," 
with the Cross inside a ring, and the labarum, of Con- 



ANTIQUITIES 



99 



stantine on the top arm of the Cross. A stone of high 
antiquity is housed with other sculptured stones and old 




Horned Mask of Bronze 
(From Torrs, Kelton) 



crosses in a crypt at Whithorn. It probably marked 
the position of a church dedicated to St Peter. 

From the Glenluce Sands there have been recovered 
; ' more objects of antiquity than from any area of similar 
extent in Scotland." The relics range from neolithic to 



100 KIRKCUDBRIGHT AND WIGTOWN 

mediaeval times. The group of crannogs exposed by 
the drainage of Dowalton Loch in 1863, the first to be 
discovered of the unusually large number of these 
primitive dwellings in Wigtownshire, has done much to 
increase our knowledge of the manner of life and degree 
of civilisation of the ancient inhabitants of the country. 




Bronze Bracelet 
(Found near Plunton Castle) 



The number of superimposed floors and the nature of the 
relics found embedded in the crannogs show that these 
lake-dwellings continued from neolithic times well into 
the Christian era. 

Of miscellaneous objects of antiquity found in Kirk- 
cudbrightshire, the rarest is a small urn of the incense- 
cup shape, unearthed from an interment at Whinnyliggate. 
A horned mask of bronze was found at Torrs, Kelton ; 
a bronze mirror in a bog, Balmaclellan; and a bronze 



ARCHITECTURE— ECCLESIASTICAL 101 

bracelet near Plunton Castle. In Wigtownshire there fall 
to be noted a bronze axe, Glasserton ; a broad bronze 
dagger, near Stranraer ; and a gold penannular orna- 
ment, with ends terminating in cup-shaped discs, found 
on High Drummore, Kirkmaiden. 

From time to time are unearthed flint-knives and 
arrowheads, discs, stone-hammers and axes, and finger- 
rings, which throw a dim and uncertain light on the life 
and customs of the by-gone races who roamed along the 
shores of the storm-bitten Solway, or trod the wind- 
swept moors of the interior. 

17. Architecture — (a) Ecclesiastical 

No trace now remains of the Candida Casa, the church 
built by St Ninian to the east of the Isle of Whithorn. 
But on its site stand roofless walls, part of a sacred 
edifice belonging, it is thought, to the thirteenth century, 
and probably a Chapel of Ease of the Priory of Whithorn. 
The Priory was founded in the twelfth century by Fergus, 
Lord of Galloway, who handed it over to Premon- 
stratensian Monks. The church of the Priory became 
the cathedral of the diocese of Galloway, and remained 
so for 500 years. Here were deposited relics of the patron 
saint, and hither flocked crowds of pilgrims, of whom were 
kings and queens of Scotland, " For the dear grace to 
kiss St Ninian's bones." The nave of the Priory church, 
and a low fragment of a wall of the west tower are all 
that is left of the once stately pile. Recent excavations 
show that the total length of the church, from the west 



102 KIRKCUDBRIGHT AND WIGTOWN 

tower to the Lady Chapel, was 250 feet. In the south 
wall is a splendid Norman doorway, dating back to the 
foundation of the Priory, the rich carving on which has 
bid defiance to the winds* and rains of the centuries. 
Of Wigtown Priory, a monastery of the Dominicans, 
founded in 1267, and of Soulseat Monastery, no trace 




St Ninian's Chapel 



now exists. By the end of the thirteenth century there 
were in Scotland eight abbeys belonging to the Cistercian 
Order, three of these being in Galloway — Glenluce, Dun- 
drennan, and Sweetheart. Glenluce Abbey, founded in 
1190, was peopled with monks from Melrose. Of the 
church itself, Early English in style, there remains now 
but the south transept gable, with eastern side chapels. 
The cloister walls are fairly entire to the height of 16 



ARCHITECTURE— ECCLESIASTICAL 103 

feet, and the Decorated chapter house is well preserved, 
its arched roof supported by an octagonal pillar, 18 feet 
high. 

The oldest religious house in the Stewartry is Dun- 




Norman Arch, Whithorn Priory 



drennan Abbey, founded 1142. Its church was cruciform 
with a six-bayed nave, side aisles, transept and chancel, 
and central tower and spire, 200 feet high. Built partly 
in the Transition Norman style, but belonging principally 
to the First Pointed, the chief portions extant are the 




>> 

0) 
.O 

< 

c 

C 

c 

u 
■o 
C 

3 

Q 



ARCHITECTURE— ECCLESIASTICAL 105 

north and south walls of the chancel, the east aisle of 
the south transept, a few feet of the piers of the central 
tower, and the doorway of the chapter house, flanked on 
each side by a double window. Interesting monumental 
stones are those known as the Abbot, the Cellarer, the 
Nun, the Prior, and the Belted Knight. 

In contrast to Dundrennan, the Old Abbey, Sweet- 
heart is often called the New Abbey, because built 130 
years later. New Abbey was founded by Devorgilla, 
widow of the founder of Balliol College, Oxford. When 
her husband died she had his heart embalmed and 
placed in a casket, which she carried with her wherever 
she went. She was buried near the high altar, the heart 
of her husband being laid upon her breast. Hence the 
romantic name, Dalce Cor, Sweet Heart. The abbey was 
colonised by monks from Dundrennan, and was richly 
endowed. The remains consist chiefly of the nave and 
aisles of the conventual church. The mullions and 
tracery of the western rose-window are fairly complete, 
as also are the side windows of the choir, the clerestory, 
and the upper windows of the north transept. 

One other religious house falls to be mentioned, Lin- 
cluden Abbey, founded 1161 by Uchtred, son of Fergus, 
Lord of Galloway, for nuns of the order of St Benedict. 
Towards the close of the fourteenth century the nuns 
became " insolent," and were expelled by Archibald the 
Grim, who converted the foundation into an ecclesiastical 
college. Of small extent, the Old College of Lincluden 
is a very fine specimen of Gothic architecture. Tin- 
remains of the Collegiate church embrace the chancel, 



106 KIRKCUDBRIGHT AND WIGTOWN 

south transept, south aisle and sacristy, and two vaulted 
chambers north of the sacristy. In the middle wall of 
the choir is a magnificent tomb, canopied by a richly 




Tomb of the Duchess of Touraine 

ornamented semi-circular arch, in which was buried 
Margaret, wife of Archibald, fourth Earl of Douglas, who 
received the Dukedom of Touraine 

From the Reformation to the opening of the nine- 
teenth century ecclesiastical architecture was practically 
dead in Scotland. The eighteenth century churches 



ARC HITECTURE— MILITARY 



107 



were " mean, incommodious, and comfortless." Since 
then, however, a notable change has taken place, and 
many a stately church has been reared in the country. 




Glasserton Church 



In Galloway we may take Glasserton as an example of 
an eighteenth century building, repaired and ennobled 
in the nineteenth century. 



18. Architecture — (b) Military 

Under the influence of Norman architecture, the old 
single keeps of the Scottish landowners gave place to 
stately piles of massive masonry, consisting of walled 
enclosures, with towers of defence along the line of wall. 
Of this, the Edwardian or First Period type of castle, 



108 KIRKCUDBRIGHT AND WIGTOWN 

there are two examples in the Stewartry, and these are 
but fragmentary ruins — Castledykes, as the ancient 
castle of the Lords of Galloway is now called, at Kirk- 
cudbright ; and Buittle Castle, about ii miles from 
Dalbeattie, which was also a stronghold of the Lords of 
Galloway, and which figured largely in the Wars of 
Independence, during the thirteenth and fourteenth 
centuries. 

But the ravages of these wars impoverished the country 
and made buildings of such extent henceforward im- 
possible. From the middle of the fourteenth century 
strongholds reverted to the simple keep, oblong in plan, 
with plain, massive walls, 8 to 10 feet thick. Gradually, 
however, they became more elaborate. They were once 
more built round a central courtyard, but the defensive 
features began to give way to domestic needs, while in 
some cases they were turned into ornaments. 

The sixteenth century was a time of great activity in 
castle-building, the L plan being characteristic of the 
period. In this type a square wing, containing the 
wheel stair and small upper rooms, projects at right 
angles to the main building. Examples of this in the 
Stewartry are numerous, as the castles of Drumcoltran, 
Barholm, Carsluith, Kenmure, and Plunton. Of castles 
built on the Z plan Auchenskeoch is the only example in 
the county. 

Threave Castle possesses unusual interest, because of 
its style of architecture, its association with many note- 
worthy incidents in Scottish history, and its ownership 
by the Douglases for nearly a century. It is built on 



ARCHITECTURE- --M1LITAR V 



101) 



an island of about 20 acres in extent, formed by two 
branches of the River Dee, about 2| miles west of Castle 
Douglas. It is protected by the main stream of the 
river on the west front ; on the other sides by a wall, 





Threave Castle 



5 feet thick, with round towers at the east angles and at 
the terminus of the south wall. The tower at the south- 
east angle is still entire. Its internal diameter is 9 feet, 
and it is surrounded by walls 4! feet in thickness. It is 
three stories in height, with three loopholes in each 
story. A ditch, with a rampart outside the wall, en- 
closed an outer court, about 150 feet square, while 



110 KIRKCUDBRIGHT AND WIGTOWN 

a gateway, defended by a drawbridge, but without a 
portcullis, led through the east wall to the inner court, 
and was opposite the entrance to the castle. The 
keep measured 45 feet by 24 feet, within walls 8 feet 
thick, which were pierced with windows on every side. 
From the ground to the top of the ruined parapet on the 
east side is fully 70 feet in height. The castle was built 
by Archibald the Grim in the fourteenth century, and 
is said to occupy the site of an earlier fortalice, of which 
however, no traces now exist. Threave was the last 
fortress to hold out for the Douglases, and the opera- 
tions attending its reduction were superintended by 
James II in person. The story of the siege, with the 
part played by Mons Meg and her maker Brawny Kim is 
firmly fixed in popular tradition, but does not bear close 
scrutiny. After the castle became royal property, it 
was entrusted to different powerful families in succession. 
In 1526 it was vested in the Lords Maxwell as hereditary 
keepers, who became Earls of Nithsdale and Stewards 
of Kirkcudbright, and it remained in their hands till the 
attainder of the Earl of Nithsdale in 1716. 

Kirkcudbright Castle, standing on the left bank of 
the Dee, belongs to the L type, with certain modifica- 
tions. It is a strong, massive building, four stories in 
height, its walls still almost entire. It was built in 1582 
by Sir Thomas M'Lellan of Bombie, in whose family it 
remained to the middle of the eighteenth century, when 
it passed into the hands of Sir Robert Maxwell of 
Orchardton : it is now the property of the St Mary's 
Isle family. 



ARCHITECTURE— MILITARY 



111 



Cardoness Castle, near Gatehouse, on the right bank 
of the Fleet, is a simple oblong, 43 by 22 feet. It was 




Cardoness Castle 



built probably in the latter half of the fifteenth century. 
For centuries a seat of the powerful M'Cullochs, it is 
to-day owned by Sir Wm. Maxwell, Bart. Three miles 



112 KIRKCUDBRIGHT AND WIGTOWN 

north of Gatehouse, also on the right bank of the Fleet, 
is Rusco Castle. An oblong, 38 by 29 feet, it rises to a 
height of 50 feet, and is divided into three stories and 




Rusco Castle 



attics. It dates from the close of the fifteenth century 
and was for long owned by the Gordons of Lochinvar. 

Plunton Castle, Borgue, now in ruins, was built about 
the middle of the sixteenth century. Cumstoun Castle, 



ARCHITECTURE— MILITARY 113 

Twynholm, also in ruins, is another sixteenth century 
building. The ruins of Wreaths Tower, Kirkbean, 
indicate the same period. Drumcoltran Castle, near 
Kirkgunzeon, is a sixteenth century erection. Midway 
between Gatehouse-of-Fleet and Creetown, and about 
a quarter mile from the coast are the ruins of Barholm 




Hills Tower Lochanhead 

Castle. It is of the L type, and dates probably from the 
early years of the seventeenth century. With Carsluith 
Castle and several others, it claims to be the Ellangowan 
of Guy Mannering. Carsluith Castle stands on a pro- 
montory overlooking Wigtown Bay, about 3^ miles from 
Creetown. It is of L shape, with windows on the first 
floor. From time to time the building has been altered, 
the original part dating probably from the end of the 
fifteenth century. Hills Tower, Lochanhead, in Loch- 

H 



114 KIRKCUDBRIGHT AND WIGTOWN 

rutton parish, is an ancient building, with a later 
entrance lodge bearing date 1598. 

The Round Tower of Orchardton, situated about 6 




Round Tower of Orchardton 



miles south-east of Castle Douglas, is the only one of its 
form in the province, and in some respects is said to be 
without parallel among the castles of Scotland. The 
tower is about 40 feet high, with an inside diameter of 
15 feet, and consists of three stories. The second story 
appears to have been used as the principal apartment. A 



ARCHITECTURE— MILITARY 115 

circular piscina in this indicates its use at times as a 
private chapel. It dates probably from the latter half 
of the fifteenth century. 

Of the Edwardian type of castle there appear to 
have been two in Wigtownshire, Cruggleton, of which 
there remains but a single arch, and Wigtown, of which 
there is now no trace. 

The majority of castles in the county were erected 
between the fifteenth and seventeenth centuries ; and of 
these the Old Place of Mochrum, belonging successively 
to the Dunbars, the M 'Do walls, and the Bute family, 
is the most remarkable. It has been carefully restored, 
and is to-day an excellent reproduction of a late fifteenth 
or an early sixteenth century castle. Dunskey, Myrton, 
and Killaser belong to the same period ; Lochnaw and 
Craigcaffie date some fifty years later. Dunskey, a 
weather-beaten ruin, on an almost inaccessible headland 
overhanging the sea, with an immense ditch on the land- 
ward side, must have been impregnable. It was of the L 
type. Others of this type in the county are SorbieTower, 
Stranraer Castle, Myrton, Galdenoch, Castle Wigg, and 
Isle of Whithorn Castle. Castle Park, Glenluce, is the 
most complete example of the L castles built about the 
close of the century. 

Craigcaffie, a fine old ruin, is another example of the 
square keep. Long the property of the Neilson family, 
it has formed part of the Stair estates since 1791. Stran- 
raer Castle, built by Adair of Kinhilt, passed into ^he 
hands of the Kennedys, and thereafter to the Dalrymples 
of Stair. For a time it was used as a prison, and to-day 



116 KIRKCUDBRIGHT AND WIGTOWN 

most of it is occupied by merchants' stores. Castle 
Kennedy, built in the beginning of the seventeenth 
century, was destroyed by fire in 1716, and has never been 
rebuilt. A dormer window, with a beautiful head, is the 




Castle Kennedy 



only architectural ornament remaining to the ivy-clad 
ruins. On the shores of the White Loch of Myrton are the 
ruins of Myrton Castle, the keep of which was erected 
on a mote-hill. From the end of the eighteenth century 
it has belonged to the Maxwells of Monreith. 



ARCHITECTURE— DOMESTIC, ETC. 117 

10. Architecture — (c) Domestic and 
(Municipal 

The venerable mansion of Kirkconnell is said to be 
one of the oldest inhabited houses in Scotland. It 
contains many interesting objects associated with the 
life of Mary Queen of Scots, and her descendants, 
James II and the Old Pretender. 

Finely situated on a conspicuous knoll at the head 
of Loch Ken, stands Kenmure Castle, for centuries the 
principal seat of the Gordons of Lochinvar. The present 
building, which appears to have been built on the E 
plan, is said to occupy the site of one of the seats of the 
Lords of Galloway. Tradition says that John Balliol 
was born in the old fortalice, and that it became his 
favourite residence. In 1715 Viscount Kenmure, " the 
bravest lord that ever Galloway saw," threw in his lot 
with the Jacobites. Taken prisoner at Preston, he 
was executed, and the estates and title were forfeited. 
In 1824 these were restored to his grandson, but the 
title became extinct in 1847. The Castle is now a 
commodious and handsome residence. The stately 
beech-hedges and the avenue of fine lime trees are 
specially noteworthy. Among the family heirlooms 
are several old pictures and Jacobite relics. 

Erected in 1763 but greatly altered in 1835, Cally 
House, with its spacious gardens and extensive policies, 
is situated amid picturesque surroundings. The columns 
of the portico are massive granite monoliths. The 



118 KIRKCUDBRIGHT AND WIGTOWN 

entrance hall is built of marble and contains some fine 
pieces of sculpture. 

Among the many other mansion houses of the 
Stewartry may be mentioned Ardwall, Cardoness, 
Cassencarie, Goldielea, Kirkdale, Kirroughtree, Cairns- 
more, Cumloden and Shambellie. 

Lochnaw Castle has been in the possession of the 




Lochnaw Castle 



Agnew family for nearly six hundred years. It is de- 
lightfully situated on a green eminence surrounded by 
woods and overlooking a romantic loch. The line of 
buildings runs east and west and fronts the south. 
A central square tower five stories high, a portion of 
the " New " castle built in 1426 still remains and forms 
part of the modern building. The grounds contain 
many fine specimens of foreign coniferous trees. 



ARCHITECTURE DOMESTIC, ETC. 119 

Galloway House, built about the middle of the 
eighteenth century, stands in a beautifully timbered 
park. It consists of a central block with two projecting 
wings of the same height, its handsome front facing 
the west and overlooking Cruggleton Bay. 

Lochinch Castle, the residence of the Earl of Stair, 




Lochinch Castle 



is built- in the old Scottish Baronial style, exhibiting 
pepper-box turrets, rope mouldings, crow-stepped 
gables and carved projecting gargoyles. Its terraced 
gardens are of singular beauty. There is also a splendid 
pinetum, the principal feature of which is the great 
Araucaria Avenue, said to be the finest of its kind in 
the British Isles. 



120 KIRKCUDBRIGHT AND WIGTOWN 

Other residences of note in Wigtownshire are the Old 
Place of Mochrum, Monreith House, Lochryan House., 
Logan House, Glasserton House, Physgill, Dunragit. 
Corsewall House, Penninghame House and Dunskey. 

Dalbeattie has a Town Hall built of native granite, 
with a square tower and illuminated clock. The New 
Town Hall of Castle Douglas, built in 1862 to supersede 




Old Place of Mochrum 



the Old Town Hall of 1790, is of red free-stone. In 
Kirkcudbright there is a quaint Mercat Cross, dating 
from 1504. Behind it is the Old Tolbooth, an erection 
of Tudor times, with tower and spire built of stones 
taken from the ruins of Dundrennan Abbey. 

The Court House in Wigtown is a handsome building 
of red and white freestone with a lofty clock tower. 
Flanking the Old Cross, a monolith about 10 feet high 
and 18 inches in diameter, stands the New Market 
Cross, an octagonal pillar about 20 feet high, rising from 



ARCHITECTURE— DOMESTIC, ETC. 121 

a circular flight of steps. The Old Cross is a fine speci- 
men of the pillar crosses characteristic of many Scottish 
burghs. In Stranraer the New Town Hall, built of 




The Tolbooth. Kirkcudbright 



red and white freestone, owes its architectural effect 
to its lantern spire and crow-stepped gables. The 
Macmillan Hall in Newton-Stewart is the largest public 
hall in the county, and houses the municipal offices of 
the burgh. 




Old and New Market Crosses, Wigtown 



COMMUNICATIONS 128 



20. Communications 

Prior to 1780 there was scarcely a road in the two 
counties worthy of the name. The original trackways 
had been largely due to horsemen, whose anxiety to 
avoid bogs and morasses had led them to beat out paths 
over hills of, in many cases, very steep gradient. These 
roads were kept in supposed repair by statute labour, 
parishioners being bound to give six days' work every 
year upon the parish roads. The old " military " road 
from Dumfries to Portpatrick (so-called because soldiers 
were employed in its construction) followed the original 
tracks and was carried from height to height, with no 
ostensible object. Fragments of this road may yet be 
made out as far west as Glenluce, where all further 
trace ceases. 

About 1780 Parliament imposed an assessment for 
making and maintaining roads in Galloway. Roads 
subsequently constructed were upon more approved 
principles, and repairs were more systematically effected. 
Traffic was kept as low down as possible, since it was 
found to be easier and cheaper to carry a road round a 
hill than over it. 

Many of the old moor roads owe their origin to the 
ling-tow-men or smugglers. One of these ran from 
Portpatrick to Clydesdale by way of Loch Inch, New 
Luce, The House of the Hill and the Nick of Balloch. 
From The House of the Hill a road ran to Edinburgh 
by Glentrool and another to Ayrshire by the Nick of 



124 KIRKCUDBRIGHT AND WIGTOWN 

Balloch. The routes from several landing-places con- 
verged at Kirkcowan, which thus formed a convenient 
halting-place on the way to Glasgow by Minnigaff, 
northwards by Loch Trool, Loch Enoch, Loch Doon 
and Dalmellington ; and to Edinburgh by Curriedon, 
Moniaive and Penpont, through the Dalveen Pass and 
past Elvanfoot. We must remember that the Galloway 
coast afforded unrivalled opportunities for smuggling, 
and in the eighteenth century and the first part of the 
nineteenth the " free-traders " plied a busy trade in 
brandy, silks and lace from the Isle of Man. Scott in 
a note to Guy Mannering mentions the statement of a 
smuggler " that he had frequently seen upwards of 
two hundred Lingtow-men assemble at one time, and 
go off into the interior of the country, fully laden with 
contraband goods." 

Galloway now possesses excellent roads. We begin 
with Wigtownshire. At Challoch, 2,\ miles from New- 
ton Stewart, the road to Ayrshire divides. The right 
fork goes through the valley of the Cree as far as Bar- 
grennan Church and thence across the north-west of 
Kirkcudbrightshire to Straiton. The left fork passes 
Glassoch and the Snap, crosses Fyntalloch Moor, and, 
leaving the county by the isthmus between Loch 
Maberry and Loch Dornal, makes for Barrhill. The 
road from Newton Stewart to Portpatrick follows in 
the main the railway line. At Glenluce it is joined by 
a road which left the road to Barrhill at Glassoch, and 
by one which has come from Girvan down the valley 
of the Luce. A road from Glenluce strikes Luce Bay 



COMMUNICATIONS 125 

at Auchenmalg and follows the coast as far as Port 
William. Thereafter it passes through Monreith and 
goes by way of Glasserton to Isle of Whithorn. About 
half a mile from this village it connects with a road 
which comes from Newton Stewart through Wigtown 
and Kirkinner to Sorbie. Soon after passing Glenluce 
the main road to Portpatrick forks at West and East 
Challoch, one branch crossing the Rhinns to its terminus 
on the North Channel, the other going by way of Stran- 
raer along the eastern shore of Loch Ryan to the 
Galloway Burn, where it enters Ayrshire. Good roads 
also connect Stranraer with Corsewall Point and the 
Mull of Galloway. 

Wigtownshire has three lines of railways. The 
Portpatrick and Wigtownshire Joint- Railway, branch- 
ing off the G. and S.W. system at Castle Douglas, 
traverses the county by Newton Stewart and Glenluce 
to Stranraer and Portpatrick. The Wigtownshire 
Railway runs from Newton Stewart, by Wigtown and 
Garlieston, to Whithorn. The Girvan and Portpatrick 
Railway enters the county in the north of New Luce 
parish, and, following closely the valley of the main 
Water of Luce, joins the Portpatrick Railway at East 
Challoch near Dunragit. 

Let us now turn to Kirkcudbrightshire. An ex- 
cellent road leads from Maxwelltown to Newton Stewart 
by Crocketford. Skirting Auchenreoch Loch, it goes 
through Springburn on its way to Castle Douglas. It 
passes through Bridge of Dee, Ringford and Twynholm 
to strike the coast near Gatehouse-of-Fleet. From this 



126 KIRKCUDBRIGHT AND WIGTOWN 

point on to Creetown is often spoken of as the most 
beautiful shore-drive in Britain, there being in Carlyle's 
opinion only one to equal it — -the drive back. Crossing 
the railway near Palnure Station, the road enters 
Newton Stewart through its picturesque suburb, Cree- 
bridge. From Maxwelltown the road to Dalbeattie 
follows in the main the railway, crossing at Kirkgunzeon 
Station from the south to the north side of the line. 
Starting once more from Maxwelltown, one may follow 
a good road south through New Abbey and Kirkbean 
and thence west to Rockcliffe. A branch connects 
this popular watering place with Dalbeattie. From 
Dalbeattie Kirkcudbright may be reached either by 
Castle Douglas, or by Palnackie, Auchencairn and 
Dundrennan. At Crocketford a branch from the main 
road makes for the north of the county through Corsock 
Bridge (where it is joined by one from Dalbeattie) 
past Balmaclellan to New Galloway. From Castle 
Douglas a road skirts the railway through Crossmichael 
to Parton. It leans upon the shore of Loch Ken for 
about a mile, and keeps within half a mile of the Loch 
till opposite Kenmure Castle. Near Dalbeattie it joins 
the road from Maxwelltown, and then, flanked by the 
grand hills guarding the Glenkens, it makes by way of 
Dairy and Carsphairn for Dalmellington and Ayrshire. 
From Kirkcudbright through Ringford and Laurieston a 
road which skirts the beautiful Woodhall Loch, crosses 
the railway at New Galloway Station. After hugging 
the western shore of Loch Ken for nearly three miles, 
it passes through New Galloway, and at Allangibbon 



ADMINISTRATION AND DIVISIONS 127 

Bridge connects with the road coming through Dairy 
on its way north. A little frequented but highly 
picturesque hill road connects New Galloway with 
Newton Stewart. Many inferior roads and rough hill 
tracks cross the county and link up parishes and hamlets 
and farms with the more important centres. 

From Dumfries the G. and S.W. Railway sends off 
a branch, which passes by Maxwelltown and Dalbeattie 
to Castle Douglas. It is continued to Creetown and 
Palnure, near which it enters Wigtownshire. From 
Castle Douglas the line to Kirkcudbright passes through 
Bridge of Dee and Tarff stations. 

21. Administration and Divisions 

When Galloway came under the dominion of the King 
of Scots, the inhabitants were allowed to retain their 
old laws, and this continued for a long time. These 
laws were to some extent modified by WiUiam the 
Lyon. When Archibald the Grim obtained the 
Stewartry and the Shire, he managed to secure the 
suppression of some of the old laws, but others remained 
till, by Act of Parliament in 1426, Galloway was brought 
under the general law of Scotland. But for long, 
indeed down to 1747, when heritable jurisdictions 
were abolished, the powers of both Steward and Sheriff 
were confused and overlapped by independent juris- 
dictions held by the great families and the great 
churchmen. 

The custom of handing down responsible judicial 



128 KIRKCUDBRIGHT AND WIGTOWN 

offices from father to son without respect to qualifica- 
tion for the position was perhaps vicious, but in actual 
practice it worked out not so badly. It was compara- 
tively seldom that justice was perverted, seldom that 
decisions were partial, or that oppression was sustained. 
For long the Wild Scots of Galloway preferred " gentle- 
man's law," the law of the heritable functionary to 
whom they instinctively yielded deference, to that of 
the more learned stipendiaries whose law not infrequently 
seemed at singular variance with native ideas of justice 
and equity. 

In addition to jurisdictions of a baronial or feudal 
character there was and still is that of the burgh. There 
is the royal burgh, a corporate body erected to be holden 
of the Sovereign. The burgh of barony holds its 
charter from the feudal superior of the lands. Of more 
recent creation is the police burgh, a town or place of 
more than 700 inhabitants, made a corporation by Act 
of Parliament. There are six burghs in the Stewartry, 
Castle Douglas, Dalbeattie, Gatehouse, Kirkcudbright, 
Maxwelltown and New Galloway. The royal burghs 
are Kirkcudbright, since 1455, and New Galloway, 
since 1630. In the Shire, the royal burghs, in order of 
creation, are : Wigtown, 1457, Whithorn, 151 1, Stranraer, 
1617. Newton. Stewart, originally a burgh of barony, 
is now a police burgh. 

Burghs are managed by Town Councils. The 
Councillors regulate the trade of the burgh and the 
conduct of the inhabitants, and from their own number 
elect magistrates, who act as judges in the police courts. 



ADMINISTRATION AND DIVISIONS 129 

County matters were formerly administered by Com- 
missioners of Supply, but are now in the hands of the 
County Council. It levies rates for county purposes, 
it makes by-laws for the government of the county, it 
administers the Food and Drug Acts, and the Diseases 
of Animals Act, it maintains roads and bridges, it 
controls the police, it appoints officers of health, 
manages lunatic asylums and hospitals, and exercises 
general supervision over matters relating to public 
health. 

The two chief authorities in a Scottish county are the 
Lord- Lieutenant, who is at the head of the magistracy 
and is the highest executive authority, and the Sheriff, 
who is the chief local judge of the county. The Sheriff 
is assisted by a Sheriff-substitute, or by Sheriffs- 
substitute. Kirkcudbrightshire has a Lord-Lieutenant, 
twenty-five Deputy-Lieutenants, and over 160 Justices 
of the Peace. Wigtownshire has a Lord-Lieutenant, 
thirteen Deputy-Lieutenants, and some eighty Justices 
of the Peace. Both counties have the same Sheriff- 
principal, each has a Sheriff-substitute. Kirkcudbright- 
shire has three Honorary Sheriffs-substitute, Wigtown- 
shire five. 

Kirkcudbrightshire and^Wigtownshire are united for 
Parliamentary Representation into the Constituency of 
Galloway. 

The parishes in Kirkcudbrightshire are : Anwoth, 

Balmaclellan, Balmaghie, Borgue, Buittle, Carsphairn, 

Colvend, Crossmichael, Dairy, Girthon, Irongray, Kells, 

Kelton, Kirkbean, Kirkcudbright, Kirkgunzeon, Kirk- 

i 



130 KIRKCUDBRIGHT AND WIGTOWN 

mabreck, Kirkpatrick-Durham, Lochrutton, Minnigaff, 
New Abbey, Parton, Rerrick, Terregles, Tongland, 
Troqueer, Tywnholm, Urr. The parishes of Carsphairn, 
Kells, Dairy and Balmaclellan are often spoken of 
collectively as " the Glenkens." 

The Wigtownshire parishes are : Glasserton, Inch, 
Kirkcolm, Kirkcowan, Kirkinner, Kirkmaiden, Leswalt, 
Mochrum, New Luce, Old Luce or Glenluce, Penning- 
hame, Portpatrick, Sorbie, Stoneykirk, Stranraer, 
Whithorn, Wigtown. 

Till 1894 Parochial Boards looked after the affairs 
of the parishes, but were then superseded by Parish 
Councils. These administer the Poor Law, appoint 
registrars, provide burial grounds, and levy rates for 
education. 

The Education Act of 1872 set up a new and homo- 
geneous system of education in Scotland. School 
Boards were created in every parish and burgh in 
Scotland, and to them was entrusted the management 
of education within their bounds. Under the Munro 
Act of 1918 the School Board gives place to the 
Education Authority, and the parish as administrative 
unit of education to the county with its electoral 
divisions. The Act virtuallv recasts the whole of the 
Scottish educational system outside the Universities. 
Nursery schools may be instituted for children between 
the ages of two and five, and the age for leaving school 
has been raised to fifteen, with conditional exemption. 
Continuation classes, compulsory to the age of eighteen 
for those who are not receiving suitable instruction in 



ROLL OF HONOUR 131 

other ways, are to give due attention to physical exer- 
cises, cultural subjects, and such vocational training as 
is suitable to the requirements of the locality ; and the 
pupils are to have the benefit of medical examination 
and supervision. Higher education up to Training 
College and University is to be made possible, by 
adequate financial assistance, for every child who can 
profit thereby. Thus extensively and intensively the 
Act is far-reaching, providing for the full educational 
development of the community, with equal opportunity 
for all. 



22. Roll of Honour 

The sons of Galloway have distinguished themselves 
in many walks in life. Brave men of action, learned 
jurists, pious and scholarly churchmen, philosophers, 
poets, novelists and artists have shed lustre on the 
Province which gave them birth. 

Admiral Sir John Dalrymple Hay who was born in 
1821 and died in his 91st year, could look back on a 
naval career of fifty years full of adventure and honour. 
Rear-Admiral Sir John Ross, a native of Inch, made 
several voyages of discovery in Arctic regions and pub- 
lished books and pamphlets on the results. Paul 
Jones, born at Arbigland in 1747 and known, till he 
transformed his name, as John Paul, was a famous 
seaman. When the American Colonies rebelled against 
Britain, he became head of their first naval force and 
made a descent on the Solway. He raided St Mary's 



132 KIRKCUDBRIGHT AND WIGTOWN 



Isle, carrying off Lord Selkirk's plate, which he after- 
wards restored. Subsequently he served as rear- 
admiral of the Russian Black Sea Fleet. Sir Andrew 
Agnew, the last of the Hereditary Sheriffs of Galloway, 




Sir John Ross 

was in early life a skilful officer under the Duke of Marl- 
borough and noted for deeds of great personal daring. 
John Dalrymple, second Earl of Stair, distinguished 
himself at Malplaquet and Ramilies. Sir William 
Gordon of Earlston, an officer in the 17th Lancers, was 
one of the " Noble Six Hundred." 



: 



ROLL OF HONOUR 133 

Andrew Symson, who died in 1712, minister of 
Kirkinner for twenty years prior to the Revolution, 
though not a native, is closely identified with the Pro- 
vince by his Large Description of Galloway. Samuel 
Rutherford, covenanting hero and divine, was for nine 
years minister of Anwoth. John Macmillan, the founder 
of the Cameronian Church, was a native of Minnigaff. 




Balsarroch 

(At one time the property of the ancestors of Sir John Ross) 

Dr Alexander Murray, a shepherd's son born at Dun- 
kitterick, in the brief thirty-seven years of his life rose 
to be the most eminent linguist and Oriental scholar 
of his day. Dr Henry Duncan, a son of the manse of 
Lochrutton, minister of Ruthwell, was the founder of 
Savings Banks. Wm. Maxwell Hetherington, D.D., a 
native of Troqueer, church historian and poet, was 
Professor of Apologetics and Systematic Theology in 



134 KIRKCUDBRIGHT AND WIGTOWN 

the University of Glasgow. Alexander Raleigh, D.D., 
born in the parish of Buittle, was a prominent Congre- 
gational minister. 

Professor Thomas Brown, who succeeded Dugald 




* ^■**&&'^f* 

Rev. Alexander Murray, D.D. 

Stewart in the chair of Moral Philosophy, Edinburgh 
University, was born in Kirkmabreck manse. David 
Landsborough, the Gilbert White of Arran and the 
Cumbraes, was a native of Dairy. John Ramsay 
M'Culloch, born in Whithorn, in his day a noted writer 
on political economy, edited the Scotsman, 1818-1820. 



ROLL OF HONOUR 135 

Another journalist, William M'Dowall, published a 
valuable history of Dumfries as well as other works of 
a more or less antiquarian cast. The quaint Gallovidian 
Encyclopedia of John Mactaggart is a classic authority 
on Galloway customs and speech. With this work 
must be conjoined The Seasons by David Davidson, 
another Stewartry man. Will Nicholson, the author 
of the Brownie of Blednoch, is the Galloway poet. After 
him may be mentioned John Lowe, whose Mary's Dream 
was long a popular song in the district ; and Robert 
Kerr, best known by My First Fee, and The Widow's ae 
Coo. The Rev. William Mackenzie, a native of Kirk- 
cudbright, wrote a laborious and minute History of 
Galloway. The Literary History of Galloway is from 
the pen of Dr Thomas Murray, a native of Girthon. 
In a series of Galloway stories embodying the spirit 
of the Province, Samuel Rutherford Crockett has fixed 
much of its folk-lore and legend, and a wealth of its 
old-world words and phrases. Several of the Trotter 
family, descendants of the famous " muir doctor " of 
Galloway, have won distinction as writers. His son 
Robert published tales founded upon local traditions. 
His daughter, Isabella, wrote memoirs of her father. 
Alexander Trotter, a grandson, was the author of East 
Galloway Sketches, and Robert de Bruce Trotter of two 
delightful volumes of Galloway Gossip. 

The legal profession is represented by the first 
Viscount Stair, Lord President of the Court of Session, 
whose work, the Institutions of the Law of Scotland, is 
the greatest of the complete treatises on Scots Law ; 



136 KIRKCUDBRIGHT AND WIGTOWN 

and by his son the first Earl of Stair, who succeeded 
" Bluidy Mackenzie " as Lord Advocate. Of recent 
years, Lord Ardwall was a Stewartrj? man in all but the 
accident of birth and early life. The same may be said 
of the great physicist, James Clerk Maxwell. 

In art the Faed brothers have a reputation that is 
world-wide. John, the eldest, for many years was a 
noted miniature portrait painter. He was elected 
R.S.A. in 1851. Thomas, Royal Academician in 1864, 
excelled like his brother in subjects dealing with pathetic 
or sentimental incidents in humble Scottish life. A 
third brother, James, achieved high artistic success in 
line engraving. 



23. The Chief Towns and Villages 

(The figures in brackets after each name give the population 
in 191 1, and those at the end of each section are refer- 
ences to pages in the text.) 

A .—KIRKCUDBRIGHTSHIRE 

Auchencairn (235), a village beautifully situated on bay 
of same name, about 10 miles east of Kirkcudbright, has 
good sea-bathing. Near it is Auchencairn House, with a 
fine collection of modern British paintings, (pp. 58, 63, 79, 
126.) 

Balmaclellan (pa. 559), a village in the N.E. of the 
county. Robert Paterson, Scott's " Old Mortality," lived 
here in 1768 ; and here his wife taught a small school for 
twenty years, (p. 126.) 



CHIEF TOWNS AND VILLAGES 137 

Borgue (pa. 1023), a village 6 miles S.W. of Kirkcud- 
bright. Near it is Earlston House. The parish has long 
been famous for its honey, (pp. 3, 68.) 

Carsphairn (pa. 360), a village in extreme north of 
county, is a health resort, (pp. 6, 63, 79, 92, 126.) 

Castle Douglas (3016), the commercial capital of the 
Stewartry, is a railway junction. It has a large well- 
equipped and highly successful Academy, has iron foundry, 
motor works, coach works, sawmills, cabinet-making 
works, aerated-water manufactories, a tannery and large 
grain stores. Castle Douglas is one of the most important 
market-towns in the south of Scotland, with busy sales of 
live stock every week, while hiring, horse and other fairs 
are held periodically, (pp. 15, 16, 33, 81, 109, 114, 120, 
125.. 126, 127, 128.) 

Creebridge (366), a small village on Stewartry side of 
Bridge over the Cree at Newton Stewart, (p. 126.) 

Creetown (873), a burgh of barony, seaport and fishing 
village, at head of Wigtown Bay, has large granite quarries, 
(pp. 23, 33, 42, 49, 50, 57» 79, 80, 82, 113, 126, 127.) 

Dalbeattie (3357), the Granite City of the South, 14 J miles 
S.W. of Dumfries, has bone works, flour mills, dye works, 
brick and tile works, an iron forge, concrete works, wood- 
turning works, bobbin mill, saw mill, paper mill, and 
creamery. Its quarries, which employ several hundreds 
of men, yield very fine granite, (pp. 19, 33, 80, 81, 85, 108, 
120, 126, 127, 128.) 

Dairy (490), " The Clachan," " St John's Town," a 
village beautifully situated on the left bank of the River 
Ken, 16 miles N.W. of Castle Douglas, has good golfing, 
(pp. 6, 19, 30, 126, 127, 134.) 




>1 

1- 

Q 



CHIEF TOWNS AND VILLAGES 139 

Dundrennan (101), a village 5 miles S.S.E. of Kirkcud- 
bright, charmingly situated in a narrow valley on the right 
bank of Abbey Burn, has ruins of a fine Abbey, (pp. 16, 
93, 102, 103, 105, 126.) 

Gatehouse-of -Fleet (1032), picturesquely situated on 
River Fleet about 9 miles from Kirkcudbright. A bobbin 
mill employs about twenty hands. Near it is Barlay Mill, 
the birthplace of the Faeds, the noted family of artists, 
(pp. 4, 16, 2i, 25, 49, 58, 63, 73, 78, in, 112, 113, 125, 128.) 

Kirkcudbright (2205), the county town, royal and 
parliamentary burgh, on left bank of River Dee, 6 miles 
from the mouth of its estuary, has a very good museum, 
especially rich in flora and fauna of district. The Academy 
is a very successful secondary school and centre for junior 
students, (pp. 2, 3, 20, 30, 32, 33, 82, 85, 86, 93, 108, 120, 
126, 127, 128, 135.) 

Kirkpatrick-Durham (277), a village 5 miles N.N.E. of 
Castle Douglas. 

Kippford (pa. 696), 4 miles south of Dalbeattie, the most 
important of the Colvend watering-places ; headquarters of 
Urr Yacht Club. Kippford does a large trade in mussels, 
and has good golfing, (p. 46.) 

Maxwelltown (6200), formerly the " Brig En'," on the 
right bank of the Nith, directly opposite Dumfries, has 
tweed mills, hosiery manufactures, dyeworks, saw mills 
and nursery grounds. H.M. General Prison for Dumfries 
and Galloway is situated in the town. The Observatory 
Museum contains many relics of Burns, and a fine collec- 
tion of minerals. There is also a camera obscura with 
regular suite of Claude Lorraine glasses. About a mile 
from Maxwelltown are the ruins of Lincluden College. 
(PP- 7. 34. 36, 5 8 - 79, 81, 125, 126, 127, 128.) 



140 KIRKCUDBRIGHT AND WIGTOWN 

New Abbey (178), a village 7 miles south of Dumfries. 
The ruins of Sweetheart Abbey are close to the village. 
Near it is the Solway Fishery, one of the largest hatcheries 
in the kingdom, (p. 83.) 

New Galloway (352), a royal and parliamentary burgh at 
head of Loch Ken, has good golfing. Near it is Kenmure 
Castle, (pp. 6, 19, 33, 63, 126, 127, 128.) 






#^ 






.* ••;-.- ... -/,- 



Lincluden College 

Palnackie (pa. 825), a village in Buittle, on right bank 
of Urr Water, 3J miles S.S.W. of Dalbeattie, has a good 
natural harbour ; and, till the introduction of the railway 
in 1861 diverted its trade, was the port of Castle Douglas, 
(pp. 19, 85, 126.) 

Rhonehouse, a village i\ miles from Castle Douglas, 
formerly noted for its fairs, one of which was the most 
important in the south of Scotland. 



CHIEF TOWNS AND VILLAGES 141 

Rockcliffe (72), a hamlet in Colvend, 7 miles S.E. of 
Dalbeattie, an excellent watering-place, (pp. 6, 46, 126.) 

Southerness Village, in Kirkbean parish (711), 10 miles 
S.E. of Dalbeattie, a favourite resort of sea-bathers and 
summer visitors, (pp. 43, 58, 81.) 




■HBHHI 



Sweetheart Abbey 

Twynholm, a village 3 miles N.N.W. of Kirkcudbright, 
has an old established woollen mill, where tweeds and 
blankets are manufactured, (pp. 3, 9, 79, 125.) 



B.— WIGTOWNSHIRE 

Bladnoch (pa. 1369), a village on river of same name, 
1 J miles from Wigtown, has a large distillery and a creamery. 
The Wigtown Martyrs were drowned in the river, 1685. 
(pp. 07, 70.) 



142 KIRKCUDBRIGHT AND WIGTOWN 

Cairnryan (pa. i860), formerly Macherie, a seaport village 
on eastern shore of Loch Ryan, has a good harbour, (pp. 
56, 93-) 

Drummore (401), a seaport village on the west side of 
Luce Bay, has a small harbour with good anchorage. In 
the immediate vicinity there is splendid bathing ground. 
(PP- 53, 58. 7°. 82, 94.) 




Gold Penannular Ornament 

(Found on High Drummore) 

Garlieston (482), a village about 9 miles S.E. of Wigtown, 
has boat building, fishing, chemical manufactures, grain 
mill, saw mill, and considerable export of whelks, (pp. 63, 
82, 86, 125.) 

Glenluce (774), a village 8 miles east of Stranraer. Two 
miles north are the ruins of Glenluce Abbey, (pp. 3, 53, 71, 
79, 80, 82, 102, 115, 123, 124, 125.) 

Isle of Whithorn (261), a seaport village 3! miles S.E. of 
Whithorn; popular summer resort, (pp. 52, 82, 86 87 101 
125.) 



CHIEF TOWNS AND VILLAGES 143 

Kirkcowan (pa. 1244), a village on left bank of Tarff 
Water, 6 J miles from Newton Stewart, has woollen mills. 
(PP- 33. 65, 79, 124.) 

Kirkinner (pa. 1206), a village about 3 miles south of 
Wigtown, noted for its fine scenery, (p. 125.) 




Creamery, Drummore 

New Luce (pa. 481), a village on left bank of Water of 
Luce. ' Prophet " Peden was minister of the parish for 
three years prior to his ejection in 1662. (pp. 23, 92, 123.) 



Newton Stewart (2063), finely situated on right bank 
of River Cree. A tannery, a brewery and tweed mills 
give employment to a number of hands. Wool furnished 



144 KIRKCUDBRIGHT AND WIGTOWN 

from the surrounding country and purchased for the 
English markets has for long been a staple branch of its 
trade. The Douglas High School for girls and the Ewart 
Institute for boys are successful secondary schools, (pp. 23, 
7 1 - 7 8 > 79, 80, 121, 124, 125, 126, 127, 128.) 

Port Logan (pa. 1792), a fishing village at the head of 
Portnessock Bay, 14 miles from Stranraer : is the station 
of a lifeboat which serves the Bay of Luce and the Irish 
Channel. Near it is the Logan fish pond, constructed in 
1800, into which the sea washes at every tide through a 
narrow crevice. It is visited annually by hundreds to 
see the tame fish, cod and saithe, which are kept in it. 
(pp. 36, 82.) 

Port William (645), a seaport on east side of Luce Bay, 
24 miles S.E. of Stranraer, (pp. 53, 82, 86, 125.) 

Portpatrick (517), a village picturesquely situated amid 
fine cliffs on the west coast of the Rhinns, is a very popular 
holiday resort. The town owed its early importance to 
its nearness to Ireland. As far back as 1677 a boat carried 
mails twice a week to and from Donaghadee, 21 miles 
distant, (pp. 6, 9, 55, 59, 82, 83, 123, 124, 125.) 

Sandhead (pa. 2279), a village on Luce Bay, 7 miles 
south of Stranraer, has considerable fishing, (pp. 5^ 58 
76, 82.) 

Sorbie (pa. 1354), a village 6£ miles south of Wigtown. 
Two miles west was Dowalton Loch, now drained, famous 
for its crannogs. (pp. 68, 75, 125.) 

Stoneykirk (pa. 2279), a village in the Rhinns, 6 miles 
S.S.E. of Stranraer. The name is derived from St Stephen, 
in Scots, Steenie. This word was by mistake regarded as 
coming from stane, Scots for stone. 



CHIEF TOWNS AND VILLAGES 145 

Stranraer (6444), a royal and police burgh at the head of 
Loch Ryan, is the herring-fishing headquarters for boats 
on the Ballantrae banks and a centre and market for a 
large agricultural district, with cattle, horse and hiring 
fairs. It has flour mills, creameries, and a noted oyster 
fishery. Its castle was the residence of Claverhouse when 




Creamery, Sandhead 



Sheriff of Galloway. Stranraer is in direct communication 
by rail with Carlisle and Glasgow, and by sea with Lame 
and the north of Ireland, (pp. 6, 7, 28, 56, 59, 75, 76, 82, 
84, 85, 121, 125, 128.) 

Whithorn (1170), a royal and police burgh, 11 miles south 
of Wigtown, an ancient ecclesiastical centre, was one of 
the most celebrated places of pilgrimage in the country. 
K 



14f> KIRKCUDBRIGHT AND WIGTOWN 

It owes its business prosperity to its rich agricultural 
surroundings. Its name is a corruption of the Old English 
word Hwitcern, " White House," i.e. St Ninian's Candida 
Casa. (pp. 79, 99, 101, 125, 128, 134.) 




Ancient Sculptured Stones, Whithorn 



Wigtown (1369), a royal burgh and seaport on the west 
side of Wigtown Bay, was one of the chief stations of the 
Norsemen from the eighth to the eleventh century. Its 
commercial importance arises from its position as centre 
of an agricultural district, (pp. 2, 5, 80, 85, 86, 93, 115, 
J20, 125, 128.) 



DIAGRAMS 



147 



Scotland 
29,798 sq. miles 



Kirkcudbright 



Wigtown 



Fig. 1. Areas of Kirkcudbright (900 square miles) 
and Wigtown (487 square miles) compared 
with that of Scotland 



Scotland 
4.759.445 



Kirkcudbright 



Wigtown 



Fig. 2. Population of Kirkcudbright (38,363) and 
of Wigtown (31,990) compared with that of 
Scotland in 191 1 



148 KIRKCUDBRIGHT AND WIGTOWN 



9 • 



O ■ 



Wigtown 66 



Kirkcudbright 43 



Scotland 157 



Lanarkshire 1633 



Sutherland 10 



Fig. 3. Comparative density of Population to the square 

mile in 191 1 

(Each dot represents 10 persons) 




Fig. 4. Proportionate area under Corn Crops com- 
pared with that of other cultivated land in 
Kirkcudbright and Wigtown in 19 16 



DIAGRAMS 



149 




Fig. 5. Proportionate areas of Chief Cereals in 
Kirkcudbright and Wigtown in 19 16 



Turnips & Swedes 
24,257 acres 




Fig. 6. Proportionate areas of land in 
Kirkcudbright and Wigtown in 1916 



149 KIRKCUDBRIGHT AND WIGTOWN 




Fig. 7. Proportionate numbers of Live Stock 
in Kirkcudbright and Wigtown in 1916 



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GEOLOGICAL MAP OF 

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Parishes in Wigtown. 

1 Kirkcolm. 1 .Ktnfccowan. 

2 Leswa.lt. \ 1 Penninghame. 

3 Stranraer. 1 2 Mochrum. 

4 -Port Patrick. 1 3 Wigtoion. 

5 Stoneykirk. 1 4 JTwvfc inner. 

6 Kirkrkaiden. 1 5 Sorbie. 

7 /»»cn. 1 6 Glasscrttm. 

8 JT«w 2>wce. 1 7' IFnitnorn. 

9 OW iuce. 



Parishes in Kirkcudbright. 

1 Carsphaim. 1 4 ^ew Abbey. 

2 Minnigaff. 1 5 Kirkbean. 

3 KWi*. 1 6 Colvend. 

4 Dairy. 1 7 Buittle. 

5 Balmaclcllan. 1 8 Crossmichael. 

6 Parton. 1 9 Balmaghie. 

7 Kirkpatrick 20 Oirthon. 



Durham. 

8 Kirkpatrick 

Irongray. 

9 Terregles. 

1 Trdqueer. 

1 1 Lo'chrntton. 

12 Prr. 



21 Kirkmabreck. 

22 ^InwotA. 

23 Twynholm. 

24 Borgve. 

25 Kirkcudbright. 

26 TongueUmd. 

27 Kelton. 



1 3 Kirkguvzeon. 28. Rerriok. 



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