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(late 0. M. 8AXT0N & 00.,) 

18 5 8. 

ib 7 1 


** The Young Gardener's Assistant " having been ex 
tended to five times its original size, by the introduction of 
various additional subjects connected with Horticulture, I 
have been induced to publish that part which relates to the 
cultivation of Culinary Vegetables, Pot Herbs, &c., in a 
separate form, under the title of " The Kitchen Gardener's 
Instructor." This has been done with a view, to enable our 
respectable seedsmen to afford instruction, at a trifling ex- 
pense, to those of their customers whose attention may be 
directed wholly to that branch of Horticulture, and thereby 
prevent themselves being blamed by those who may not 
have given their seed a fair trial, from not knowing how to 
dispose of it in the ground. 

Having had twenty-four years' experience as a gardener 
and seedsman, in the vicinity of New- York, I am aware of 
the importance of correct information on the subject of gar- 
dening; and, from a conviction that the reputation of many 
honest seedsmen is often unjustly attacked in consequence 
of the failure of seed, when the fault lies not with them, but 
with the gardener, I have endeavoured, in my humble way, 
to render myself useful both to the seedsman and gardener, 
by giving brief directions for the management of a Kitchen 
Garden, in such a way as is calculated to insure success. 

But, as much depends on minute attention to points appa- 
rently trifling, I would remind my readers that the products 
of the garden are natives of various soils and climates, and 
that while some vegetables can only be raised in cool and 
temperate weather, others require the heat of the summer 
to bring them to perfection. This consideration should 
induce gardeners to watch the seasons as they pass, and also 



to plant their seed at suitable depths and distances, accord- 
ing to their nature and dimensions, as an opportunity of 
raising some of the luxui'ies of the garden being lost for the 
season, may occasion more anxiety and trouble, than it 
would cost to acquire a correct knowledge of the art of Gar- 

It is, however, of the utmost importance to a gardener 
that he obtain such seed as will grow freely, and produce 
vegetables calculated to suit the market. As I value my 
reputation above all things upon earth, charity forbids me to 
believe that any man of standing would wilfully sell bad seed. 
It is true, tl>at the most careful may at times be deceived, 
especially in seasons when a full supply of fresh seed can- 
not be obtained from their regular growers ; but, in general, our 
established seedsman may be supposed to know the true cha- 
racter of his stock; and if he studies his interest, he will not 
knowingly sell an article that is not calculated to do him 
credit. It must, however, be admitted, that knowledge is as 
necessary to a seedsman as to a gardener, and therefore the 
above remarks cannot apply to every storekeeper who may 
sell seed, because many, being mere agents, do not pretend 
to know one kind of seed from another ; and from its not 
being a primary object with them, it cannot be expected 
that they will take the same interest in the traffic as a regu- 
lar seedsman, and therefore such agents may not consider 
their reputation at stake. 

The experience of old and skilful gardeners wdll bear 
witness to the fact, that failures often occur even with good 
seed, and with the very best attention on the part of the 
gardener. It often happens that insects so infest the land, 
as to devour the seed while sprouting, and before a plant is 
seen above ground. Sometimes a serious drought succeed- 
ing a heavy rain will cause seed to perish thiough incrusta- 
tion of the soil ; and very frequently seed will fail to vegetate 
in dry soils and seasons, for want of pressure. I was once 
called upon by a neighbour to examine his garden, in which 


he had sown several sorts of seed a month previous, v\^hich 
he had condemned as barren and unfruitful. On looking 
over his land, I perceived a horse track : the animal had 
broken his halter, and traversed the garden in different 
directions. On tracing the horse's footsteps, I perceived 
plants coming up thic-k in the tracks, which convinced me 
that if the seed had been planted deeper, or the ground 
rolled at the time of depositing the seed therein, the gardener 
would have had no cause to complain either of the seedsman 
or his seed. 

The above instance of loss, occasioned by want of attention 
to points apparently of trifling importance, not being a soli- 
tary one, I would urge the gardener to precision and dili- 
gence in his undertaking; and, as my object has been to 
impart useful knowledge in the following pages, they who 
are in pursuit of information on the subject of gardening, 
are invited to a perusal before they deposit their seed in the 

As in all the former editions of this work, it was my 
earnest care to confine my attention to the most important 
practical subjects, I may be allowed here to remind the 
reader, that every article in the book contains ample direc- 
tions for the cultivation of whatever it has reference to ; but, 
as the inexperienced are apt to imbibe very erroneous ideas 
on some points of culture, I have, in this edition, introduced 
various notes, many of which are designed to point out the 
evil which it is intended to remedy ; — for instance, a novice 
in gardening undertakes to cultivate a piece of ground, and 
having been informed that manure is a very important arti- 
cle in the cultivation of his vegetables, procures, perhaps, 
ten times as much as is necessary ; this he applies to his 
beds in such extravagant quantities as to prevent the seed 
from germinating, and in some cases it renders the ground 
sterile, until time and exposure to the atmosphere reclaim 
it. (See note page 15.) 

Another very prevalent error is evinced by persons de 

▼111 PREFACE. 

laying to sow their seed until a period when they ought to 
be preparing to gather a crop ; hence it frequently happens 
that such, on the appearance of any rare vegetable in mar- 
ket, are induced to visit the store for some seed, which, al- 
though they sow it out of the ordinary season, they expect 
to gather perfect specimens of vegetables. (See notes pages 
52 and 72.) Others, again, are so inattentive to their seed 
beds, after depositing seed therein, that they neglect all 
precautions of preserving their crops from the attacks of in- 
sects, which often make clean work before they are disco- 
vered. (See notes in pages 19, 55 and 104.) As such cus- 
tomers are generally loudest in their exclamations against 
seedsmen, I have been induced to discuss the most impor- 
tant points connected with the subjects, with a view to strike 
at the root of the most fatal errors attending the cultivation 
of a garden, and I flatter myself that my labours will be duly 

As it is not intended in this Preface to give directions, 
but merely to show the object of the work, I would here 
inform the reader, that the general remarks for the manage- 
ment of the Kitchen Garden, pages 13 to 30, explain the 
method of destroying insects; of drilling, rolling, planting, 
and managing the various soils; together with some useful 
tables calculated to make the attentive reader thoroughly 
acquainted with the ait of gardening. 





■ Page. 

- 13 

- 14 

- 15 

3n laying out the ground, ------ 

A blank-book recommended, - - - - - 

Method of using manure, [note) - - - - - 

Observations on improving various soils — and on sowing 

seed early, -------- 

The drilling system recommended, - - - - 

Remedies for the destruction of insects, (no/e, 19) 

On the most proper rotation of crops, - - - 

A table showdng the number of plants that may be 

raised on an acre of land, at given distances, which 

table may also be applied to other objects, 
On the durability of the germinative properties of seed, 
A table or classification of such species and varieties of 

seed as are usually cultivated in the Kitchen Garden, 
Explication of the above table, - - - - 
Adaptation of the directions in this book to all climates. 






[The Notes are chiefly calculated to guard against error in cultivation,] 

Artichoke, - - - 31 

Asparagus, {note, 36) - 34 

Beans, (Enghsh Dwarfs) 39 
Beans, (Kidney Dwarfs) 

{note) - - - 41 

Beans, (Pole or Running) 42 

Beets, (note) - - 44 

Borecole or Kale, - 46 

Brussels Sprouts, - 47 

Broccoli, {note, 49) - 48 

Cauliflower, {note, 52) - 51 

. Cabbage, {note, 55) - 54 

Colewort or Collards, - 57 

Cardoons, - - - 58 

CaiTot, - - - 58 

Celery, {note, 61) - - 60 

Corn Salad, or Fetticus, 63 

Cress, - - - - 64 

Cucumber, (rto/e) - - 65 

Chives, or Cives, - - 66 


Egg-plant, (note, 67) 



Indian Corn, 

Jerusalem Artichoke, 

Leek, - - - 

Lettuce, {note) 


Mebn, (Water) - 



Okra, - - - 

Onion, {note, 78) - 

Parsley, {note, 80) 

Parsnip, [note) 




Peas, - - - 


Potato, (Sweet,) - 


Radish, {note) 








Spinach, or Spinage, 



Turnip, [note, 104) 

A Catalogue of Aromatic, Pot, and Sweet Herbs, 
Annual, Biennial, and Perennial Plants defined, - 
Plants cultivated for Medicinal purposes, - - - 

Directions for the cultivation and preservation of Herbs 

in general, ___-._. 

Illustrations of drills, to be used for various kinds of seed, 
Representation of a Hot-bed with four sashes, - 
Observations on Forcing Vegetables, - - - . 

Forcing Asparagus in Hot-beds, . . - - 

Forwarding Broad Beans, or English Dwarfs, 
Forcing Kidney Beans, ------ 

Forwarding Broccoli and Cauliflower, ... 

Forcing Cucumbers at an early season, - - - 
Forwarding Cucumbers in Apnl and May, - - - 
Forwarding Lettuce for use in the winter, - - - 

Forcing Mushrooms at all seasons, .... 

Forwarding Melons on ridges under hand-glasses. 
Forcing Peas in Hot-beds, - - . . . 

Forcing Potatoes in Hot-beds, . . . - 

Forwarding Radishes and other vegetables. 
Forwarding Rhubarb for use through the winter, 
Forwarding Salad, Herbs, Small Plants, &c.. 
Forwarding Tomatoes, .-..-. 

Forcing various kinds of vegetables, - - - - 

Method of cultivating the Hop, - - - - - 

Observations on the weather, as influenced by changes 

of the moon, ....._- 144 





A table for prognosticating the weather through all the ^**^ 
lunations of the year, --.--. 146 

Introduction to the Monthly Calendar, with directions 

how to apply it to different climates, ... 147 

Tanuary. — Suggestions for the improvement of time in 
reference to gardening — By collecting information 
on the subject — By procuiing fencing materials — 
Manure and ingredients for the destruction of insects. 
— Drilling machines and garden implements in 
general, preparatory for the work to be performed 
as the season progresses, - - - - - 148 

February. — Directions for providing hot-bed frames, 
forcing pits, and materials to be used for forcing and 
forwarding vegetables, towards the end of the month 
— Also, for sowing seed, - - - - - 1 49 

March. — Recommendations on various subjects — As at- 
tending to the hot-beds — regulating their tempera- 
ture — sowing such kinds of seed as are adapted 
to the season — Also, in manuring and digging the 
soil generally, preparatory to sowing and planting 
it nf!Xt month, ------- 151 

April. — The importance of this month to an industrious 
gardener exemplified — who is recommended to sow 
all the various kinds of seed enumerated in the 
Calendar — to attend to the spring dressing of his 
beds of Artichoke, AsjDaragus, Rhubarb, Sea-Kale, 
&c. — and to the Trans23lanting of various kinds of 
plants in due season, ------ 152 

May. — Directions for destroying insects — and weeds — 
to prevent their seeding in the ground — Also, for 
sowing the various kinds of seed intended for 
summer crops; including the Bene-plant, with a 
view to have it for use in July. — This is also a 
good season to spawn Mushroom beds, and to form 
new ones, &c., ------- 154 

June. — The principal sowing season being nearly over, 
the gardener is reminded of the necessity of ascer- 
taining the success of former plantings, with a view 
to make up deficiencies before the month is too far 
advanced — Also, to hoe or plough between early 
vegetables in general, in order to mature them — 
and to destroy weeds — Directions for the manage- 
ment of Artichokes, Cauliflower, Herbs, Hop 
Vines. &c., - _ - - . 155 

xn. cc/n'ENTs. 


July. — Directions for transplanting of Cabbage, Car- 
doons, Celery, Endive, Leeks, Peppei Plants, &c., 
— Also, for the gathering and preserving of Aro- 
matic, Pot, and Medicinal Herbs, as they come into 
blossom — and for the cultivation of various sorts 
of vegetables described in the Calendar, - - 157 

August. — The planting season being nearly over, the 
gardener is recommended to manure, dig, and 
plough vacant ground for autumn crops — to attend 
to Artichokes, Hops, Mushrooms, Onions, Shallots, 
Turnips, &c., as directed, - - - - - 158 

September. — The business of this month consists in 
finishing the sowing of seed of the season — in ma- 
turing various kinds of vegetables, by hoeing and 
earthing — and in the gathering of Herbs, Hops, 
&c., as they arrive at maturity, - - - - 159 

October. — Directions for preserving various plants and 
vegetables — by planting Parsley, Lettuce, Cab- 
bage, Cauliflower, &c., in frames — by providing pits 
to contain Beets, Potatoes, &c., — and by laying 
away Winter Squashes, Pumpkins, and other vege- 
tables designated, for use through the winter, - 161 

November. — The best methods described, of stowing 
away for the winter; Broccoli, Cauliflower, Cab- 
bage, Cardoons, Carrots, Celery, Horse-radish, 
Leeks, Turnips, and such other vegetables as need 
protection — Also, directions for the winter dressing 
of the beds of Artichoke, Asparagus, Rhubarb, 
and Sea-Kale, - -- - -- - 162 

December. — Hints on various subjects connected wdth 
the preservation of plants, vegetables, and imple-. 
ments — and for collecting suitable manures, com- 
post, &c., for use next spring — Also, suggestions 
for ploughing or trenching particular kinds of soil, 
in order that it may be benefited by winter frost, 163 




Before commencing the Catalogue, it may be necessary 
to direct the reader's attention to some important matters, 
essential to the good management of a Kitchen Garden. 

The mode of laying out the ground is a matter of taste, 
and may be left to the gardener himself, the form being a 
thing of trifling importance in the production of useful vege- 
tables; and it matters not whether the ground be laid out in 
oeds of four or ten feet wide, provided it be well worked, 
and the garden kept neat and free from weeds. 

Those who have not a garden already formed, should, 
nowever, fix on a level spot where the soil is deep ; but as 
we have not always a choice, 1 would recommend the reader 
to that which is within his reach, and ought to be the object 
of every man, namely, to make the most of what he has. 

To this end, he may form a border round the whole gar- 
den, from five to ten feet wide, according to the size of the 
piece of land ; next to this border, a walk may be made from 
three to six feet wide ; the centre part of the garden may be 
divided into squares, on the sides of which a border may be 
laid out three or four feet wide, in which the various kinds 
of herbs may be raised, and also Goosebenies, CuiTants, 
fJaspberries, Strawbemes, &c. The centre beds may be 
planted with all the various kinds of vegetables. The outside 
Dorders, facing the east, south, and west, will be useful for 
raising the earliest fruits and vegetables; and the no7lh bor- 
der, being shady and cool, will serve for raising and pricking 


out such young plants, herbs, and cuttings, as require to bt 
screened from the intense heat of the sun. 

It may be necessary to state farther, that though shady 
situations are useful for the purpose of raising Celery, Cab- 
bage, and other small plants, slips, &c., in the summer season, 
all standard trees should be excluded from a Kitchen Garden 
for the following reasons : First, their roots spread so widely, 
and imbibe so much moisture from the ground, that little is 
left for the nourishment of any plant within the range of 
their influence ; secondly, when in full leaf, they shade a 
large space, and obstruct the free circulation of the air, so 
essential to the well-being of all plants ; and, thirdly, the 
droppings from trees ai-e particularly injurious to whatever 
vegetation they fall upon. 

Previous to enteiing on the work of a garden, the gar- 
dener should lay dowii rules for his future government. In 
order to this, he should provide himself with a blanlv book, 
in which he should first lay out a plan of his garden, allot- 
ting a place for all the different kinds of vegetables he intends 
to cultivate. As he proceeds in the business of planting his 
grounds, if he should keep an account of every thing he does 
relative to his garden, he would soon obtain some knowledge 
of the art. This the writer has done for more than twenty 
years, and he flatters himself that a publication of the results 
of his practice will be interesting and useful to his readers. 

If gardeners would accustom themselves to record the 
dates and particulars of their transactions relative to tillage, 
planting, &c., they would always know when to expect their 
seed to come up, and how to regulate their crops for suc- 
cession ; and, when it is considered that plants of the Bras- 
sica, or Cabbage tribe, are apt to get infected at the roots, if 
too frequently planted in the same ground, and that a rota- 
tion of crops in general is beneficial, it will appear evident 
that a complete register .of every thing relative to culture is 
essential to the well-being of a garden. 

One important point to be attended to, is to have a supply 


of good old manure, and other composts, ready to incorpo- 
rate witli the earth ; and also a portion of ashes, soot, tobacco 
dust, and lime, for the purpose of sowing over seed beds in 
diy weather, to destroy insects, which sometimes cut off 
young plants as fast as they come up. 

If the ground cannot be all manured every year, as it 
should be, it is of piimary importance that those vegetables 
be provided for which most need manure. A perusal of the 
Catalogue will enable the young gardener to judge of the 
kinds of garden products which require it most. Lest I 
should not have been explicit enough in this paiticular, I 
would inform him that good rich manure is indispensably ne- 
cessaiy for the production of Broccoli, Cauliflower, Cabbage, 
Lettuce, Spinage, Onions, Radishes, and Salads in general. 

In the event of a scanty supply of manure, those kinds of 
vegetables which are raised in hills or drills, may be pro- 
vided for by disposing of the manure immediately under the 
seed or plants.* 

The next important matter is to have the ground in suita- 
ble condition to receive the seed. I wish it to be understood 

* As some cultivators, by their method of using manure, show that they 
have very erroneous ideas as to its real object or utihty, I would remind 
such, that manure should be applied with a view to renovate and strengthen 
the natural soil, and not as a receptacle for seed. In order that manure 
may have a salutary effect, it sliould be thoroughly incorporated with the 
earth, by the operation of digging or ploughing. When it is used in hills 
or on a given spot, it should be well pulverized and mixed with the earth 
so as to form a compost. These remarks apply especially to strong ani- 
mal manures, the excrements of fowls, as also to soaper's, tanner's, and 
glue manufacturer's manure, rags, &c. Lime, ashes, bone dust, poudrette, 
urate, salt, sulphur, gypsum, nitrate of potash, and oilier portable manures, 
may be sown over the land previous to harrowing or raking it, or such 
manures may be formed into a compost when used in hills or drills. They 
sliould in every case be used with caution, as an indiscreet use of them 
will destroy tlie seed or plants, and thus defeat the cultivator's object. 
Many gardeners can corroborate these facts, from having used strong com- 
post as a mould for their hot-beds, thereby poisoning the germs of the seed, 
and causing the plants to die off prematurely ; and it is notorious that a 
great proportion of failing crops is occasioned by an injuuicious mode of 
using manure 


that I am an advocate for early sowing and planting, even at 
the risk of losing a little seed, provided the ground be fit to 
receive it. A light, sandy soil will be benefited if worked 
when moist, as such treatment will have a tendency to make 
it more compact ; on the contrary, if a clayey soil be worked 
when too wet, it kneads like dough, and never fails to bind 
when drought follows ; and this not only prevents the seed 
from rising, but injures the plants materially in their subse- 
quent growth, by its becoming impervious to moderate rains, 
dews, air, and the influence of the sun, all of which are 
necessary to the promotion of vegetation. 

Some gardeners, as well as some writers, recommend 
certain fixed days for sowing and planting particular kinds 
of seed; I think it necessary to guard my readers against being 
misled. The failure of crops may be often attributed to the 
obsei'vance of certain days for sowing. If some kinds of seed 
be sown when the ground is wet and cold, they will become 
chilled in the ground, and seldom vegetate. If they be sown 
in very dry weather, the germinative parts of the seed may 
become injui^ed by the burning rays of the sun, or the young 
plants may get devoured by insects as fast as they come up. 
To obviate these difficulties, I have generally allowed a week 
or ten days for sowing the seed, intending the medium as the 
proper time for the vicinity of New- York. With this clearly 
borne in mind, the reader who observes the difference in the 
degrees of heat and cold in the different paits of the country, 
will know how to apply these instructions accordingly. 

Much depends on the manures used on particular kinda 
of soil. The gi'eat art of improving sandy and clayey soils, 
consists in gi'V'ing the former such dressings of clay, cow 
dung, and other kinds of manure, as will have a tendency to 
bind and make them more compact, and consequently, more 
retentive of moisture ; and to the latter, coats of horse dung, 
ashes, sand, and such other composts as may tend to sepa- 
rate the particles and open the pores of the clay, so as to 
cause it to approach as nearly as possible to a loam. 


The nearer the ground approaches to a sandy soil, the less 
retentive will it be of moisture ; the more to a clayey, the 
longer will it retain it ; and the finer the particles of which 
the clay is composed, the more tenacious will it be of water, 
and, consequently, the longer in drying, and the harder when 
diy ; but earth of a consistence that will hold water the long- 
est, 2vithout becoming hard when dry, is, of all others, the best 
adapted for raising the generality of plants in the greatest 
perfection. This last described soil is called loam, and is a 
medium earth, between the extremes of clay and sand. 

I have, in most cases, recommended drills to be made at 
certain depths for the different kinds of seed ; and when I 
have stated that the drills should be two inches deep, it is 
intended that the seed should be covered only one inch, 
which it will be when planted in these drills, and covered ; 
and so in proportion for any other depth required. This 
may serve as a guide to the young gardener, but circum- 
stances alter cases ; if, for instance, some particular crops 
should fail, this would render it necessary, if the season be 
far advanced, to risk a farther planting of seed, even if the 
weather be hot and the ground dry. If this be planted a 
little deeper, it may escape the violent heat of the sun, and 
in the event of a shower, the ground would become suffi- 
ciently moist to bring it up ; whereas it sometimes happens 
that seed sown after a shower does not vegetate until after the 
season is too far advanced to bring the crop to perfection. 

The work of drilling by those who have no machine, may 
be performed in various ways ; in some cases a plough is 
used, in others a small hoe, or a dibble drawni along the edge 
of a board or line ; it is of Httle consequence which way the 
work is done, if it be well done. While I leave the gardener 
to make his ovm choice of tools, I would suggest that he be 
provided with two or three drilling machines ; these, every 
handy man can make for himself; they should be in the 
form of a garden rake, vidth a stout, heavy back, and five 
teeth, about two inches broad, and tapered so as to enter the 

2* 2 


ground, and leave drills two inches deep. If one be made 
with the teeth eight inches apart, another twelve, and another 
fourteen, they will be useful in making drills for the various 
kinds of seed ; and drills thus made sev\e instead of strain- 
ino- a line when transplanting Cabbage, Lettuce, Leek plants, 
&c. ; the line being stretched at one edge of the bed, and 
the drilling machine drawn straight by the line, makes five 
drills at once. If they are straight, they may be kept so, by 
keeping one drill open for the outside tooth to work in, until 
the gi'ound be all drilled. 

Gardeners practice different methods of covering up seed; 
some do it with a hoe, others with a rake or harrow ; some 
draw a portion of the earth to the side of the bed, and after 
sowing the seed, return it regularly over the bed ; in some 
particular cases a sieve is used, in others a roller. Rolling 
or treading in seed is necessary in dry seasons, but it should 
never be done when the ground is wet. 

There is nothing that protects young crops of Turnips, 
Cabbage, and other small plants, from the depredations of the 
fly, so well as rolling ; for Avhen the surface is rendered com- 
pletely smooth, these insects are deprived of the haiboui 
they would otherwise have under the clods and small lumps 
of earth. This method vrill be found more effectual than 
soaking the seed in any preparation, or dusting the plants 
with any composition whatever ; but as the roller must only 
be used previous to or at the time of sowing the seed, and 
not even then if the ground be wet, it is necessary that the 
gardener should have a hogshead always at hand in dry 
weather, containing infusions made of waste tobacco, lime, 
FOOt, cowdung, elder, burdock leaves, &c. A portion of these 
ingredients, or any other preparation that is pernicious or 
poisonous to insects, without injuring the plants, thrown into 
a hogshead kept fiUed up with water, if used moderately over 
beds of young plants in dry weather, would, in almost eveiy 
case, insure a successful crop. 

Saltpetre is pernicious to many species of insects ; it is 


also an excellent manure, and may be used to gicat advan- 
tage when dissolved in the proportion of one pound to four 
gallons of water. This liquid, applied to plants through the 
rose of a watering-pot, will preserve health and vigour. 
Soapsuds are equally beneficial, if used occasionally in the 
same manner — say once a week. These remedies, applied 
alternately, have been known to preserve Melon and Cucum- 
ber vines from the ravages of the yellow fly, bugs, blight, 
&c., and to keep the plants in a thriving condition. 

As liquid, however, cannot be conveniently used on a large 
piece of land, it may be necessary, if insects are numerous, 
to sow tobacco dust, mixed with road dust, soot, ashes, lime, 
or the dust of charcoal, in the proportion of half a bushel per 
acre, every morning, unt'il the plants are free or secure frooi 
their attacks. Turnip seed will sometimes sprout in forty- 
eight hours. Cabbage seed ought to come up within a week 
after it is sown ; but it sometimes happens that the whole is 
destroyed before a plant is seen above ground ; the seeds- 
man, in this case, is often blamed, but without cause.* 

A correspondent has communicated the result of an exper- 
iment he has tried for jireventing the attacks of flies or fleas 
on Turnips. Pie says, " Steep your seed in a pint of warm 
water for two hours, in which is infused one ounce of salt- 
petre ; then dry the seed, and add currier's oil suflicient to 
wet the whole ; after which mix it with plaster of Paris, so 
as to separate and render it fit for sowing." Fish oil is 

* As the truth of the old adage, That one ounce of prevention is of more 
value than a pound of cure, is very generally admitted, I would recom- 
mend the following method of preparing a bed for the purpose of raising 
Cabbage, Cauliflower, Broccoli, and such other plants as are subject to the 
attacks of insects : After digging or ploughing the ground in the usual 
way, collect any combustibles that are attainable, as dried weed:?, sedge, 
turf, brushwood, leaves, stubble, corn-stalks, sawdust, or even litter from 
the dung-heap, which should be placed in heaps on the seed-beds and 
burned to ashes ; then rake the ground over and sow the seed, which will 
not be attacked by insects while the effects of the fire remain. In the 
event of extremely dry weather, water the beds every evening until the 
plants arc in full leaf. This is an infallible remedy. 


known to be destructive to ants and various other small 
insects, but it is difficult to apply to plants. 

In the summer season, Broccoli, Cabbage, Cauliflovrer, 
&c., are particularly subject to the ravages of grubs and 
caterpillars ; to prevjnt this wholly, is perhaps impossible, 
but it is not difficult to check these troublesome ^dsitors ; this 
may be done by searching for them on their first appearance, 
and destroying them. Early in the morning, grubs may be 
collected from the earth, wdthin two or three inches of such 
tjlauts as they may have attacked the night previous. 

The approach of caterpillars is discoverable on the leaves 
of Cabbages, many of which are reduced to a thin white skin 
by the minute insects which emerge from the eggs placed on 
them ; these leaves being gathered and thrown into the fire, 
a whole host of enemies may be destroyed at once ; whereas, 
if they are suffered to remain, they will increase so rapidly, 
that in a few days the plantation, however extensive, may 
become infested ; and, when once these anive at the butterfly 
or moth stage of existence, they become capable of perpetu- 
ating their destructive race to an almost unlimited extent. 
The same remarks apply to all other insects in a torpid state. 

Worms, maggots, snails, or slugs, may be driven away by 
sowing salt or lime in the spring, in the proportion of two to 
three bushels per acre, or by watering the soil occasionally 
wdth salt and water, using about two pounds of salt to four 
gallons of water ; or the slug kind may be easily entrapped 
on small beds of plants, by strewing slices of turnip on them 
late in the evening ; the slug or snail will readily crowd on 
them, and may be gathered up early in the morning (before 
sunrise) and destroyed. 

Moles may be annoyed and driven away, by obstructing 
the passage in their burrows wdth sticks smeared with tar. 
First insert a clean stick from the surface through the bur- 
rows ; then dip others in tar, and pass them through into the 
floor of the burrows, being careful not to rub off the tar in 
the operation. Tar is also an effectual remedy against smut 


in wheat : after being heated in a kettle until it becomes 
thin, it may be stirred in among the grain until it becomes 
saturated. The wheat should afterward be mixed with a 
sufficient quantity of wood ashes to dry and render it fit for 

To prevent depredations from crows, steep com in strong 
saltpeti'e brine, sow it over the land, or steep your seed com ; 
and if the crows once get a taste, they will forsake the field. 

Perhaps the next important point to be attended to is the 
most proper rotation of crops. Virgil, who was a philoso- 
pher as well as a poet, very justly observes, that " the true 


It is a curious fact, that a plant may be killed by the 
poison which it has itself secreted, as a viper may be de- 
stroyed by its own venom. Hence it has been very gene- 
rally noticed, that the soil in which some particular vege- 
tables have grown, and into which they have discharged the 
excretions of their roots, is rendered noxious to the prosperity 
of plants of the same or allied species, though it be well 
adapted to the growth and support of other distinct species 
of vegetables. 

It is proved by experience, that fall Spinach is an excellent 
preparative for Beets, Carrots, Radishes, Salsify, and all other 
tap, as well as tuberous rooted vegetables. 

Celery or Potatoes constitute a suitable preparative for 
Cabbage, Cauliflower, and all other plants of the Brassica 
tribe ; as also Artichokes, Asparagus, Lettuce, and Onions, 
provided such ground be well situated, which is a circum- 
stance always to be duly considered in laying out a garden. 

Lands that have long lain in pasture are, for the first three 
or four years after being tilled, superior for Cabbage, Tui- 
uip? Potatoes, &c., and afterward for culinary vegetables in 

The following rules are subjoined for farther government : 

Fibrous rooted plants may be alternated with tap or 
tubeious rooted, and vice versa. 


Plants wliicli produce kixuiiant tops, so as to shade the 
land, to be succeeded by such as yield small tops, or narrow 

Plants which during their growth require the operation of 
Stirling the earth, to precede such as do not admit of such 

Ground which has been occupied by Artichokes, Aspara- 
gus, Rhubarb, Sea Kale, or such other crops as remain long 
on a given spot, should be subjected to a regular rotation of 
crops, for at least as long a period as it remained under such 
permanent crops. Hence, in all gardens judiciously man- 
aged, the Strawberry bed is changed every three or four 
years, till it has gone the circuit of ail the compartments ; 
and Asparagus beds, &c., should be renewed on the same 
principle, as often as they fail to produce luxuriantly. In- 
deed, no two crops should be allowed to ripen their seed in 
succession in the same soil, if it can be avoided ; because, if 
it be not exhausted by such crops, weeds will accumulate 
more than on beds frequently cultivated. 

Manure should be applied to the most profitable and ex- 
hausting crops ; and the succession of crops should be so 
ari^anged, that the ground may be occupied by plants either 
valuable in themselves, or which may contribute to the in- 
creased value of those which are to follow ; and the value of 
the labour required to mature vegetables, and prepare them 
for market, should be always taken into consideration. 

Many kinds of seed, such as Asparagus, Capsicum, Celery, 
Fetticus, Leek, Lettuce, Onion, Parsnip, Parsley, Rhubarb, 
Salsify, Spinach, &c., will not vegetate freely in diy weather, 
unless the ground be watered or rolled ; where there is no 
roller on the premises, the following contrivance may answer 
for small beds as a substitute : after the seed is sown, and the 
ground well raked, take a board the whole length of the bed, 
lay it flat on the gi'ound, begin at one edge of the bed, and walk 
the whole length of it ; this will press the soil on the seed, 
then shift the board till you have gone over the whole bed. 



Tn I he absence of boards, tread in the seed with your feet, 
or stiike on the bed with the back of your spade or shovel ; 
but this should not be done when the ground is wet. 

If it be necessary at any time to sow seed in extremely dry 
weather, it is recommended to soak the seed in water, and 
dry it with sulphur. This practice, with attentive water- 
ing, will cause the seed to vegetate speedily. 

If it should be requisite to transplant any thing when the 
gi'ound is dry, the transplanting should always be done as 
Boon as the earth is turned over, and the roots of the plants, 
before they are set out, should be steeped in mud made 
of rich compost. 

I have, in most cases, recommended seed to be sown in 
drills drawn from eight to twelve inches apart, in preference 
to sowing broadcast, because the weeds can be more easily 
destroyed by means of a small hoe, which, if properly used« 
greatly promotes the growth of young plants. 

The following table may be useful to the gardener, in 
showing the number of plants or trees that may be raised on 
an acre of ground, when planted at any of the under-men- 
tioned distances : 

Diitance apart. No. of Plants. 

1 foot 43,560 

1^ feet 19,360 

2 ' feet 10,890 

2* feet 6,969 

3 feet 4,840 

4 feet 2,722 

5 feet 1,742 

6 feet 1,210 

Distance apart No. of Plants. 

9 feet 537 

12 feet 302 

15 feet 193 

18 feet 134 

21 feet 98 

24 feet 75 

27 feet 59 

30 feet 48 

The preceding table may serve as a guide to such as are 
not expert in arithmetic, in laying out a garden, as it shows 
&t one view many proportions of an acre of land, in squares 


of different dimensions. The last line, for instance, siiows 
that, if forty-eight trees be planted on an acre, each thirty 
feet apart, there may be forty-eight beds of thirty feet square, 
or thirty beds of forty-eight feet square, formed from the 
same quantity of land. An allowance of about one-eighth 
must, however, be made from the above calculation for walks 
and paths. 

The table may also serve to show the gardener how to 
dispose of any given quantity of manure, that may be allotted 
for an acre of ground. If, for instance, it requires three 
hundred and two trees to plant an acre when placed twelve 
feet from each other, it vdll require as many heaps of manure 
to cover the same quantity of groundj if dropped the same 
distance apart. It therefore follows, that if one hundred 
loads be allowed to the acre, each load must be divided into 
three heaps. If seventy-five loads only be allowed, every 
load must be divided into four heaps, and so on in proportion 
to the quantity allowed. But if the gardener should choose 
to drop his heaps five paces or fifteen feet apart, he may 
make such distribution of his loads as to have one hundred 
and ninety-three heaps on the acre of land; in which case 
by dividing each load into four heaps, he will require only 
forty-eight loads to cover the acre, and he may decrease the 
quantity still more, by allowing greater distances from heap 
to heap, or by di\ading his loads into smaller proportions, so 
as to accommodate himself to whatever quantity of manure 
he may allot to any given quantity of ground. 

As it may not be generally known that some kinds of 
seed are apt to lose their vegetative qualities much sooner 
than others, the following hints are subjoined as some rule for 
the (jardener's government, provided the seed is carefully 
preseived, and not exposed to excess of heat, air, or damp 


Parsnip, Rhubarb, and other light, scale-like seeds, cannot 
oe safely tmsted after they are a year old. 

Beans and Peas of different species, Capsicum, CaiTot, 
Cress, Leek, Nasturtium, Okra, Onion, Salsify, Scorzonera, 
and small Herb seed in general, may be kept two years. 

Artichoke, Asparagus, Egg-plant, Endive, Fetticus, Let- 
tuce, Mustard, Parsley, Skirret, and Spinach seed, may with 
care be preserved three years. 

Broccoli, Cauliflower, Cabbage, Celery, Kale, Radish, and 
Turnip seed, will keep four years, if properly attended to. 

Beet, Cucumber, Gourd, Melon, Pumpkin, and Squash, 
also, Bumet, Chervil, and Sorrel seed, have been kno"\vn to 
grow freely when five and even seven years old ; but it is not 
prudent to venture seed in the garden, of the soundness of 
which we are not certain. 

In order to put such on their guard as may attempt to raise 
seed either for their own use or for the market, I would 
observe that great care is necessary, as it is an indubitable 
fact, that if seed of similar species be raised near each other, 
degeneracy will be the consequence ; it is, therefore, difficult 
for any one man to raise all sorts of seed, good and true to 
their kind, in any one garden. 

If roots of any kind become defective, they are unfit for 
seed, as the annexed fact v^U show. I once planted for seed 
some beautiful orange-coloured roots of Carrots, but as they 
had been previously grown with some of a lemon-colour, 
they produced seed of a mixed and spurious breed ; and as 
this is not a solitaiy instance of degeneracy from the like 
cause, I have come to the conclusion, that as in the animal 
frame, so it is in the vegetable system — disorders very fre- 
quently lay dormant from one generation to another, and at 
length break out with all their vigour; I would therefore 
ad\'ise seed growers not to attempt to " bring a clean thing 
out of an unclean," but if they find a mixture of varieties 
among their seed roots, to reject the whole, or they vnll in- 
fallibly have spurious seed. 





*^* In order to aid the novice in gardening, the following 
brief classification of such species and varieties as comprise 
our catalogue of vegetable seed is submitted, and it is pre- 
sumed that the connecting links, and explication of this table, 
•\vill not be altogether uninteresting to the experienced gar- 
dener and seedsman. 




'5 S 

- a 
~ c 


-a c 
ri S 

- OJ 



c . 













. .0.. 

. .0. . 




. .0. . 

. .0 . 

. . . . 



Beans (English Dwarfs) 


. .0. . 




Beans ( pole ) ............... 

. 0. . 

. .0. . 




. .0. . 


Borecole, or Kale, &c 


, 0.. 





. .0. . 





. .0. . 





. .0. . 





• .0 . 




..0. . 


, n 

Corn S&lad 


. .0.. 




. .0. . 


Cucumber. ................. 

. 0, . 


. . .. 


Egg Plant 

..0. . 

. . 






Indian Corn 

. ,0. • 

. .0. . 




. .0. • 





. .0. 



Melon (musk) 

. 0.. 

. 0. . 


Melon (water) 

..0. . 

. .0 . 




. .0. , 












. 0.. 

. 0.. 


. .0.. 






.0 . 

. 0.. 







. .0. . 

0, . 



. .0. . 



. .0.. 



. .0.. 


. .0. . 


. .0. . 

. .0. . 



..0. . 

0. . 

Herb3Jn general 


: :: ■: ;■ 


. .0.. 

..0. . 


In explication of the table, it may be necessary first to 
premise, that in the classification, as regards the germinating 
powers of different kinds of seed, it is conceded that if some 
of those denominated medium were put upon an e({iial foot- 
ing with some of the class denominated quick-growing, tliey 
would vegetate in about the same time. For instance, Peas 


would sprout as quick as Kidney Beans, with the same tem- 
perature ; but Peas, being hardy, are generally planted a 
month earlier in the season. If Beans were planted at the 
same time, they would rot for want of genial heat necessary 
to their germination. 

Many of the species denominated medium and tardy, re- 
quire considerable moisture to produce vegetation ; when not 
attainable, tardiness of gi'owth, and sometimes total failure, are 
the consequence ; judicious gardeners, however, generally 
obviate difficulties of this nature, by sowing such seed at the 
most favourable seasons. Those who delay sowing Carrot, 
Celery, Leek, Parsley, Onion, Parsnip, Spinach, &c., until 
dry summer weather, render themselves liable to disappoint- 
ment and loss thereby. * 

As some gardeners are apt to attribute all failures of seed 
to its defectiveness, I shall, in the hope of convincing such 
of their error, offer a few obseiTations under each head of 
the table. 

The first and second classes, denominated hardy and half- 
haixly, are subject to risk in unpropitious seasons, from un- 
fitness of the soil to promote vegetation, rendered so by cold 
rains and variable weather. If sprouted seed survive a 
severe chill, it is the more susceptible of frost, to which it is 

* As the matter relative to the first seven columns vpas in type previous 
to the introduction of the last two columns, I would here offer a fpw ob- 
servations illustrative of their object. People in general, from not con- 
sidering that the products of our gardens, being natives of the various cli- 
mates of the earth, have each its peculiar aliment, expect to raise whatever 
they may wish for at almost any season. By referring to the classification 
in the eighth and ninth columns, they will be at once convinced of their 
error, as it will appear evident that such vegetables as require heat will 
grow best in summer, while those whose most essential nutriment is 
moisture, must be raised either in spring or autumn. It may be necessary 
to remind the gardener that, from the American spring being short, little 
can be done before the approach of warm weather ; it should therefore be 
our object to improve the autumn months in the cultivation of such vege- 
tables as can be brought to maturity before the setting in of winter. Having 
under each head of the Calendar recommended the most appropriate seasons 
for the different articles, it is unnecessary to dilate fai ther here, except to 
invoke my readers to adhere strictly thereto. 


frequently subjected early in the season. Some species of 
plants that, in an advanced stage of gi'owth, will stand a hard 
winter, are often cut off by very slight frost while germinating, 
especially if exposed to the heat of the sun after a frosty 
night, or while in a frozen state. Cabbage, Carrot, Celery, 
Turnip, and many other growing plants, which survive the 
ordinary winters of England, are here classed as half-hardy, 
foi the reasons above stated. 

The third class, or most tender species, frequently perish 
from excess of rain. Lima Beans, for instance, have often 
to be replanted three or four times in the month of May, 
before any will stand. Melons, Cucumbers, Egg-plants, 
Tomato plants, &c., are also often cut off by variableness of 
the weather ; indeed, it is unreasonable to expect natives of 
tropical climates to thrive or even live in a climate adverse 
to that in which nature first produced them, unless protected 
or nursed in unpropitious seasons, as recommended under 
the head forcing vegetables. Those who plant tender things 
in open gardens early in the season, must reconcile them- 
selves to loss in the event of unfavourable weather, instead 
of thromng blame on the seedsman. 

The fourth class, embracing such species and varieties as, 
from their nature, are apt to vegetate quickly, are very liable 
to be devoured by insects before they make any show on the 
surface. Turnip seed, for instance, will sprout within forty- 
eight hours after being sown ; and under favourable circum- 
stances, most of the species of this class will come up within 
a week ; but if insects attack the seed beds in dry weather, 
a total loss of crops will be the consequence. Every expe- 
rienced farmer is convinced of this fact, by having frequently 
to sow his Turnip ground three or four times before he can 
get any to stand. 

Sometimes a sudden shower of rain will cause plants to 
gro^v out of the reach of insects, but every good gardenei 
should have his remedies at hand to apply to seed beds in 


general, and especially to those in which plants aie raised 
for the purpose of being transplanted. 

Those species and varieties embraced in the fifth and sixth 
columns, often take from two to three or four weeks to vege- 
tate in unfavourable seasons. Some plants are retarded by 
cold, others by excess of dry weather ; and at such times, 
seed may fail to vegetate for want of pressure. In the 
event of drought after neavy rains, seed and young plants 
often perish through incrustation of the soil, and from other 
untoward circumstances, which can neither be controlled or 
accounted for, even by the most assiduous and precise gar- 
dener. It must, however, be conceded, that failures often 
occur, through seed being deposited too deep in the ground, 
or left too near the surface ; sometimes, for want of suffi- 
ciency of seed in a given spot, solitary plants will perish, 
they not having sufficient strength to open the pores of the 
earth, and very frequently injudicious management in ma- 
nuring and preparing the soil vdll cause defeat. 

T have been induced to expatiate, and to designate, in the 
seventh range of the preceding talyle, such plants as are gene- 
rally cultivated first in seed beds, and afterward transplanted 
for the purpose of being accommodated with space to mature 
in, v/ith a view to answer at once the thousand and one 
questions asked by inexperienced cultivators, at my counter. 
Some persons, from ignorance of the nature and object of 
raising plants for transplanting, ask for pounds of seed, when 
an ounce is amply sufficient for their purpose. For example, 
an ounce of Celery seed will produce ten thousand plants' 
An ounce of Cabbage seed will produce from three to four 
thousand, sufficient, when transplanted, to cover nearly half 
an acre of land, which land, if sown with Spinach, for 
instance, would require from four to six pounds of seed. 

To prevent any altercation on this subject, I would observe, 
in conclusion, that many other vegetables will admit of 
being transplanted besides those designated in our table ; 
but as there is considerable risk and trouble inseparable from 



the operation, it is needless to apply it, unless there are para- 
mount advantages to be gained, the reverse of which would 
be the case, under ordinary circumstances, with the gene- 
rality of those plants not thus designated. 

Instead of answering any more queiies, I think I shall for 
the future follow the example of the truly eccentric Aber- 
nethy, and refer all enquirers for information to my books, 
which contain an answer to every important question that 
has been put to me on the subject of gardening since I 
became an author. 


*^* Previous to the commencement of our Catalogue, it 
may be necessary to remind the reader, that the directions 
which follow are founded on the results of practical experi- 
ence in the vicinity of New- York City, where the soil is 
generally susceptible of gardening operations toward the 
end of March. These directions may, however, be applied 
to all other parts of the United States, by a minute observ- 
ance of the difference in temperature. 

In the exti'eme northern parts of the State of New- York, 
as well as in all other places similarly situated, the directions 
for the beginning of Apiil will apply to the latter end of 
the same month, with very few exceptions. 

In our Southern States, the directions for APRIL, 
which may be considered as the first gardening month in the 
Eastern, WesteRxN, and Middle States, will apply to Janu- 
ary, February, or to whatever season gardening operations 
may commence in the respective States. 

In the varied climates of each particular State, if the same 
rule of application be pursued in accordance with the Calen- 
dai, Succ^s IS certam. 


&C., &C' 

Artichaut. Cynara. 

Cyiiara Scolymus, or French. I Cynara Hortensis, or Globe. 

The garden Artichoke is a native of the South of Europe, 
and much cultivated for the London and Paris markets. It 
is a perennial plant, producing from the root annually its 
large squamose heads, in full growth, from June or July, 
until October or November. The Globe Artichoke, w^hich 
produces large globular heads, is best for general culture, 
the heads being considerably larger, and the eatable parts 
more thick and plump. 

Both sorts may be raised from seed,* or young suckers 
taken from old plants in the spring. A plantation of Arti- 
chokes will produce good heads six or seven years, and 
sometimes longer ; but it must be obser\''ed, that if a supply 
of this delicious vegetable be required throughout the season, 
a small plantation should be made from suckers every spring, 
for a successive crop, as the young plants will continue to 
produce their heads in perfection, after the crops of the old 
standing ones are over. 

The most likely way to obtain a supply of Artichokes 
from seed, is to sow the seed in the latter end of March, or 
at any time in April, in a bed of good rich earth, or it may 
be planted in di'JUs one inch deep, and about twelve inches 
apart. The ground should be light and moist, not such as is 
apt to become bound up by heat, or that, in consequence of 

* One ounce of seed will produce about six hundred plants 


containing too large a proportion of sand, is liable to becv^me 
violently hot in summer, for this is extremely injurious to 
these plants. After the plants are up, they should be kept 
free from weeds, and the earth often loosened around them 

The business of transplanting may be done in cloudy Dr 
wet weather, at any time after the plants are from nine to 
twelve inches high. Having fixed upon a proper soil and 
situation, lay on it a good quantity of rotten dung, and trench 
the ground one good spade or eighteen inches deep, incor- 
porating the manure there^vith ; this being done, take up 
the plants, and after shortening their tap roots a little, and 
dressing their leaves, plant them with a dibble, in rows five 
feet asunder, and two feet from plant to plant, leaving part 
of their green tops above gi^ound, and the hearts of the plants 
free from any earth over them, and give each plant a little 
water to settle the roots. 

The winter dressing of Artichokes is an important opera- 
tion ; on it depends much of their future success. This 
shoidd not be given them as long as the season continues 
mild, that they may have all possible advantage of growth, 
and be gradually inured to the increasing cold weather ; but 
it should not be deferred too late, lest by the sudden setting 
in of hard frost, to which we are subject in the Northern 
States, the work be neglected, and the plants consequently 
exposed to devastation and loss. 

In the first place, cut all the large leaves close tt> the 
ground, leaving the small ones which rise from the hearts 
of the plants ; after this, line and mark out a trench in the 
middle, between each row, from fourteen to sixteen inches 
wide, presuming that the rows are five feet apart, as directed. 
Then dig the surface of the beds lightly from trench to 
trench, burying the weeds, and as you proceed, gather ihe 
earth around the crowns of the plants to the height of about 
six inches, placing it in gently between the young risin r leaves, 
without burying them entirely under it ; this done dig the 
trenches one spade deep, and distiibute the earth >qually 


between and on each side of the plants, so as to level the 

ridges, giving them, at the same time, a neat rounding form ; 
finish by casting uj) v^dth a shovel the loose earth out of the 
bottom of the trenches evenly over the ridges, in order that 
the water occasioned by heavy rains, &c., may immediately 
run off; on which account the trenches ought to have a gen- 
tle decUvity, as the lodgment of water about the roots 'n 
winter is the greatest evil and danger to which they are expos- 
ed, even gi-eater than the most severe frosts to which we are 

The beds are to Remain so, until there is an appearance 
of hard frost, when they should be covered with hght dung, 
litter, leaves of trees, or the like, the better to preserve the 
crowns and roots from its rigour. In this manner, the roots 
will remain in perfect safety all the winter. As soon as the 
very severe frosts are over, the beds must be uncovered, and 
when you perceive the young shoots begin to appear above 
gi'ound, or rather when they are one or two inches up, then, 
and not till then, proceed to level down the beds, throwing 
the earth into the alleys or trenches, and round them in a 
neat .manner ; then dig in the short manure, and loosen all 
the earth around the plants. At the same time, examine the 
number of shoots arising on each stool, and select three of 
the strongest and heaUhiest looking on every stool, which are 
to remain ; all above that number are to be slipped off close 
to the roots vdth the hand, unless you want some to make 
new plantations with, in which case an extra number for that 
purpose are to remain on the parent plants, until they are 
about eight or ten inches high from their roots, or junction 
with the old plants, when they are to be slipped off, and 
planted in a bed prepared in the same manner as directed 
for the young plants, taking care, at the same time, to close 
the earth about the crowns of the roots, and draw it up a 
little to the remaining suckers. 

Observe, the spring dressing is to be given when the plants 
are in the above-described state, whether that happens in 



February, March, or April, occasioned by the difference of 
chmate, in the respective States, or by the earliness or late- 
ness of the spring. 

The gardeners near London generally take off the side 
suckers, or small Artichokes, when they are about the size 
of a hen's egg. These meet with a ready sale in the mar- 
kets, and the principal heads that are left are always larger 
and more handsome. The maturity of a full-grown Arti- 
choke is apparent by the opening of the scales ; and it should 
always be cut off before the flower appears in the centre ; 
the stem should be cut close to the ground at the same 

Artichokes are esteemed a luxury by epicures. To have 
them in perfection, they should be thrown into cold water 
as soon as gathered, and after having been soaked and well 
washed, put into the boiler when the water is hot, with 
a little salt, and kept boiling until tender, which generally 
requires, for full-grown Artichokes, from an hour and a half 
to two hours. When taken up, drain and trim them ; then 
eer^'^e them up with melted butter, pepper, salt, and such 
other condiment as may best suit the palate. 

AsPERGE. Asparagus officinalis. 

Gravesend. i Large Batterseau 

Large White Reading. 1 Large Green, or Giant. 

This plant is a native of cold climates, and is found grow- 
ing wild in Russia and Poland, where it is eaten by the 
cattle the same as grass. It will enduie the severity of our 
winters, and produce its buds, when the weather gets mild ; 
but as garden products are generally scarce after a hard 


winter, the gardener wlio studies his interest will make the 
most of the spiing season, and raise all he can before the 
market becomes ghitted ; to this end, he is recommended to 
prepare for forcing this vegetable, as soon as the coldest of 
the winter is past. [See article on Forcing' Vegetables.) 

Asparagus may be raised by sowing .he seed in the fall 
as soon as ripe, or in March and the early part of April. 
One ounce of seed will produce about a thousand plants. It 
requires some of the best ground in the garden. The seed 
may be sown in drills, ten or twelve inches asunder, and 
covered about an inch with light earth. When the plants 
are up, they will need a careful hoeing, and if well culti- 
vated, and kept free from weeds, they will be large enough 
to transplant when they are a year old. Some keep them in 
the nursery bed until they are two years old. 

A plantation of Asparagus, if the beds are properly dressed 
every year, will produce good buds for twenty years or more. 

New plantations of Asparagus may be made in autumn, 
or before the buds get far advanced in spring, say in Febru- 
ary, March, or April, according to situation and circum- 
stances. The ground for the bed must not be wet, nor too 
strong or stubborn, but such as is moderately light and plia- 
ble, so that it will readily fall to pieces in digging or raking, 
and in a situation that enjoys the full rays of the sun. It 
should have a large supply of well rotted dung, three or four 
inches thick, and then be regularly trenched two spades 
deep, and the dung buried equally in each trench twelve or 
fifteen inches below the surface. When this trenching is 
done, lay two or three inches of thoroughly rotted manure 
over the whole surface, and dig the ground over again eight 
or ten inches deep, mixing this top dressing, and incorpo- 
rating it well with the earth. 

In family gardens, it is customary to divide the gi'ound 
thus prepared into beds, allowing four feet for every four 
rows of plants, with alleys two feet and a half wide between 
each bed. Strain your line along the bed six inches from 


the edge ; then, with a spade, cut out a small trench or drill 
close to the line, about six inches deep, making that side 
next the line nearly upright ; when one trench is 02:)ened, 
plant that before you open another, placing the plants upright 
ten or twelve inches distant in the row, and let every row 
be twelve inches apart. 

The plants must not be placed flat in the bottom of the 
trench, but nearly upright against the back of it, and so that 
the crown of the plants may also stand upright, and two or 
three inches below the surface of the ground, spreading their 
roots somewhat regularly against the back of the trench, and 
at the same time drawing a little earth up against them with 
the hand as you place them, just to fix the plants in their due 
position until the row is planted ; when one row is thus 
placed, with a rake or hoe draw the earth into the trench 
over the plants, and then proceed to open another drill or 
trench, as before directed ; and fill and cover it in the same 
manner, and so on till the whole is planted ; then let the sur- 
face of the beds be' raked smooth and clear fiom stones, &c. 

Some gardeners, with a view to have extra large heads, 
place their plants sixteen inches apart in the rows, instead of 
twelve ; and by planting them in the quincunx manner, that 
is, by commencing the second row eight inches from the end 
of the first, and the fourth even with the second, the plants 
will form rhomboidal squares, instead of reclangular ones, 
and every plant will thus have room to expand its roots and 
leaves luxuriantly.* 

*The above directions are intended for famUy gardens. Those who 
may wish to raise Asparagus in large quantities for market, should prepare 
the ground with a plough, and plant two rows in each bod, which may he 
carried to any length required. If several beds are wanted, they may be 
planted in single rows four or five feet apart, in order that the plough may 
be worl^ed freely between them. Frequent ploughing will cause tlie roots 
to spread, so as to widen the beds, and the winter dressing may be per- 
formed in a great measure with the plough. After the Asparagus is cut, 
the ground between the beds may be ploughed, and planted witli Cabbage, 
Potatoes, or any other vegetable usually cultivated in rows 



About the beginning of November, if the stalks of Aspar- 
agus turn yellow, which is a sign of their having finished 
their growth for the season, cut them down close to the 
earth, carry them off the ground, and clear the beds care- 
fully from weeds. 

Asparagus beds must have an annual dressing of gooa 
manure ; let it be laid equally over the beds, two or three 
inches thick, after which, with a fork made for the purpose, 
(which should have three flat tines,) dig in the dung quite 
down to the crowns of the plants, by which means the roots 
will be greatly benefited ; as the wdnter rains will wash the 
manure down among them. It is the practice with some 
gardeners to dig the alleys at every autumn dressing, and 
cover the beds with the soil taken out ; this may be done for 
the first two years after the beds are made, but not afterward ; 
as, when the plants are in full growth, their roots and crowns 
extend into the alleys, and digging them up frequently de- 
stroys plants, or renders them too weak to produce buds in 
perfection. The beds will be greatly benefited if covered 
to the depth of several inches with leaves, sea- weed, or long 
litter from the livery stables. 

The seedling Asparagus should also have a slight dressing, 
that is, clear the bed from weeds, and then spread light dung 
over it, to the depth of one or two inches, to defend the 
crown of the plants from frost. 


This work sh(mld be done from about the latter end ol 
March to the middle of April, or just before the buds begin 
to lise. After clearing away all long litter, or whatever may 
encumber the ground, spread the short dung over the whole 
surface, and dig it in : if the alleys be dug at the same time, 
it will be very beneficial to the plants. Care must be taken 
at this season not to wound the crowns with the tines of the 
fork, but forking the beds should not be neglected, as admit- 



ting the sun and rain into the ground, induces the plants to 
throw up buds of superior size ; to promote such a desirable 
object, the ground should be kept clear of weeds at all sea- 
sons, as these greatly impoverish the soil, and frequently 
smother the plants. 

The gardeners of England raise Asparagus in great per- 
fection, and sometimes have buds weighing from three to 
five ounces each. Loudon says, in his Encyclopaedia of 
Gardening, that one grower alone has eighty acres entirely 
under this crop for the London market. 

Asparagus plants will not produce buds large enough to 
cut for general use, in less than three years from the time of 
planting, but in the fourth year, when the shoots are three 
or four inches high, j:hey will bear extensive cutting, which 
should, however, be discontinued when no large buds are 
thrown up. The best way of cutting is to slip the knife 
down perpendicularly close to each shoot, and cut it off slan- 
tingly, about three or four inches beneath the gi'ound, taking 
care not to wound any young buds proceeding from the 
same root, for there are always several shoots advancing in 
different stages of growth. 

Asparagus is considered a wholesome vegetable, and 
should not be kept long after it is gathered ; after being well 
washed, it may be tied in bundles of about a dozen buds 
each, and boiled in water slightly seasoned with salt, until 
tender, which will be in about twenty minute s ; take it up 
before it loses its true colour and flavour, and serve it up on 
toasted bread, with melted butter, &c. 


BEANS. (English Dwaifs.) 
Feve de marais. Vicia faba. 


Early Mazagan. 
Early Lisbon. 
Early Long Pod. 
Large Windsor. 
Large Toker. 
Broad Spanish. 

Sandwich Bean. 
Green Genoa. 
Dwarf Cluster. 
White Blossom. 
Green Nonpareil. 
Sword Long Pod. 

The principal cause of these garden Beans not succeed- 
ing well in this country, is the summer heat overtaking them 
before they are podded, which causes the blossom to drop 
off prematurely ; to obviate this difficulty, they should be 
planted as early in the year as possible ; as recommended 
in the article, " Forwarding Broad Beans." They are 
generally planted in England, fi*om October to April, for 
early crops, and from that time to July, for late crops. It 
sometimes happens that autumn plantings are injured by the 
coldness of their winters, but an average crop is generally 

In the Eastern, Western, and Middle States, if a few of 
the best varieties of these Beans be planted in the open 
ground, as soon in the season as it can be brought into good 
condition, they will come into bearing in regular succession, 
according to their different degrees of earliness, and plant- 
ings may be repeated every ten days of the first spring 
month ; but it is only from those that are planted early that 
any tolerable produce can be expected, as they become defi- 
cient in quality, as well as in quantity, on the approach of 
extreme warm weather. 

In the Southern States they may be planted in succession 
throughout the autumn and vdnter months, which will cause 
them to bear early in the ensuing season. 

The best mode of planting is in drills, drawn two inches 
deet), in which the seed Beans may be dropped two or three 

40 BEANS. 

inches apart, according to their size, and the drills may be 
from two to three feet asunder. A strong clayey soil is the 
most suitable ; but they often do well in moderately light 
ground, provided it be well trodden, or rolled, after the 
Beans are planted. 

As soon as the Beans are three or four inches high, they 
will need a careful hoeing; aad if some earth be drawn up 
to their stems, three or four times in the course of theii 
growth, it will greatly refresh and strengthen them 

When they airive at full bloom, and the lower pods begin 
to set, the tops may be broken off. If this be done at the 
proper time, it will promote the swelling of the pods, as 
well as tlieir early maturity ; for having no advancing tops 
to nourish, the wliole effort of the root will go to the support 
of the fruit. 

Broad Beans are particularly subject to green bugs. To- 
bacco water, or salt water, will sometimes destroy them , 
but the most certain way is to watch their first appearance, 
and pick off that part on which they first settle, and bum it ; 
or if such plants be cut down close to the ground, they vvill 
produce fresh shoots, which may bear a good crop. 

One quart of -seed Beans will be required for every siacty 
feet of row, allowing the smallest sorts to be planted about 
two inches apait, and the largest four inches. 

The beans should be gathered young, and shelled while 
fresh. After having been washed, let them be boiled in 
plenty of water with a little salt and a bunch of gi-een parsley. 
They take from thirty to forty minutes to boil, according to 
age, and may be served up with melted butter, gravy, &c. ; 
but they are very good when cooked and eaten with fat pork, 
or good old-fashioned Hampshiie bacon 



BEANS. (Kidney Dwarfs.) 
Haricot. Phaseohis vulgaris, etc. 


Early Denmark. 

Early Mohawk, 

Early Valentine. 

Early Yellow Six Weeks. 

Early Dun-coloured, or Quaker. 

Early China Dwarf. 

Early Rachel, or Quail's Head. 

Early Rob Roy. 

Early Black Dwarf. 

Large White Kidney Dwarf. 

White Cranberry Dwarf. 

Red Cranberry Dwarf. 

Yellow Cranberry Dwarf. 

Refugee, or Thousand to One. 

Marble Swiss Bean. 

Royal Dwarf Kidney, or French. 

These varieties of Beans, being natives of India, South 
America, and other vv^arm climates, vnll not endure the least 
cold, and it is therefore always hazardous to plant them in 
the open ground until settled warm weather. The earliest 
varieties, if planted toward the end of April or the first week 
in May, will come to perfection in from six to eight weeks 
after planting. Some of the later varieties "\vill keep longer 
in bearing, and are esteemed by some on that account. 
These, with some of the early varieties, may be planted in 
the months of May and June ; and if a regular succession 
of young beans be required throughout the summer, some 
of the varieties should be planted every two weeks, from the 
last week in April until the beginning of August.* 

These Beans require a light, rich soil, in which they should 
be planted in hills, three or four in a hill, or drills about two 
inches deep, and the Beans two or three inches from each 
other ; the drills may be from two to three feet apart. The 
Refugees do best when planted in hills. As the Beans pro- 
gi'ess in growth, let them be carefully hoed, drawing some 

* Some gardeners, anxious to have Beans early, are apt to begin planting 
too soon in the season, and very frequently lose their first crops. It should 
be recollected, that these Beans are next to Cucumbers and Melons as re- 
gards tenderness, and will always grow quicker and yield better, if the 
planting be delayed until settled warm weather. The Early Mohawk is 
the hardiest, and may sometimes succeed well, if planted about the middle 
of April, but it is much safer to delay the planting of any quantity until 
towards ihe end ^f the month. 

42 BEANS. 

eaith up to their stems at the same time, which will causo 
them soon to be fit for the table. 

One quart of Kidney Beans will plant from three hundred 
and fifty to four hundred hills, according to the size of the 
Beans, allowdng four Beans to each hill, or from two hundi'ed 
and thirty to two hundred and sixty feet of row, allowing 
six Beans to every foot. 

These Beans should not be suffered to get old and tough 
before they are gathered ; be careful in tiimming them, to 
strip off the strings. To effect this desirable object, break 
them across ; and, in order to presei've their greenness, soak 
them in salted water for a short time, then put them into the 
water while boiling, which should be jreviously seasoned 
with salt. When they are tender, which will be in from fif- 
teen to twenty minutes, take them up and drain them through 
a collander, in order to render them capable of absorbing a 
due share of gravy, melted butter, &c. 

BEANS. (Pole or Running.) 
Haricots a rames. 

Phaseolns Limensis. 

Large White Lima. I Speckled Lima 

Phaseolus JVlultiflorus 

Scarlet Runners. 
White Dutch Runners. 
Dutch Case Knife, or Princess 
Asparagus, or Yard Long, 

London Horticultural. 
French Bicolour, 
Red Cranberry. 
White Cranberry. 

These species and varieties of Beans may be planted 
early in the month of May and in June, either in liills three 
feet distant from each other, or in drills about two inches 
deep, and the Beans two or three inches apart in the drills. 

BEANS. 43 

The poles should be eight or ten feet long, and may be fixed 
in the ground before the Beans are planted. 

The varieties of Lima Beans should not be planted in the 
open groumd until the second week in May, unless the sea- 
son be very favourable, and the ground warm. As these 
Beans are apt to get rotten by cold and damp weather, let 
six or eight be planted half an inch deep round each pole, 
and afterward thinned, leaving three or four good plants in 
a hill, which hills should be fiill four feet distant from each 
other every way. 

The soil for Running Beans should be the same as for 
Dwarfs, except the Lima, which require richer ground than 
any of the other sorts. A shovelful of rich light compost, 
mixed with the earth in each hill, would be beneficial. 

If any varieties are wanted before the ordinary seasons, 
they may be planted in flower-pots, in April, and placed in 
a greenhouse or garden frame, and being transplanted in 
May, wdth the balls of earth entire, will come into bearing ten 
or fourteen days earlier than those which, in the first instance, 
are planted in the open ground. 

It wnll require about a quart of Lima Beans to plant one 
hundred hills. A quart of the smallest-sized Pole Beans will 
plant three hundred hills and upward, or about two hundred 
and fifty feet of row, and the largest runners will go about 
as far as the Lima Beans. 

Lima Beans should be shelled while fresh, and boiled in 
plenty of water until tender, which generally takes from fif- 
teen to twenty minutes. The mode of cooking and prepar- 
ing the other sorts, is the same as for Kidney Dwarfs 

44 BEET. 

Betterave. Beta vuls:ciris. 


Early Scarcity. 
Mangel Wurtzel. 
French Sugar, or Silesia. 
Sir John Sinclair's. 

Early Blood Turnip-rooted. 
Early Long Blood. 
Extra Dark Blood. 
Yellow Turnip-rooted. 

Beets, in their several varieties, are biennial, and the best 
blood-coloured are much cultivated for the sake of their 
roots, which are excellent when cooked, and very suitable 
for pickling after being boiled tender ; they also, when sliced, 
make a beautiful garnish for the dish, and the young plants 
are an excellent substitute for Spinach. 

The Manorel Wurtzel and Sugrar Beets are cultivated for 

o o 

cattle. Domestic animals eat the leaves and roots wdth great 
avidity. They are excellent food for swine, and also for 
milch cows ; and possess the quality of making them give a 
large quantity of the best-flavoured milk. The roots are 
equally fit for oxen and horses, after being cut up into small 
pieces and mixed with cut straw, hay, or other dry feed.* 

A small bed of the earliest Turnip-rooted, and other es- 
teemed Jiinds of Beets, may be planted in good rich early 
ground the first week in April, which, being well attended 
to, will produce good roots in June. 

Draw drills a foot apart, and from one to two inches deep ; 
drop the seed along the drills one or two inches from each 

* An acre of good, rich, loamy soil has been known to yield two thou- 
sand bushels of beet-roots, some of whiph weighed from fifteen to twenty 
pounds each. To produce such enormously large roots, they should be 
cultivated in drills from two to three feet apart, and the plants thinned to 
ten or twelve inches in the rows. It is generally conceded, however, that 
moderate-sized roots contain more saccharine matter, in proportion to their 
bulk, than extra large roots, and that twenty tons, or about seven hundred 
bushels, are a very profitable crop for an acre of land, and would be amply 
sufficient to feed ten cows for three or four months of the year. A gen- 
tleman in Connecticut computes the products of one-fourth of an acre of 
good land, a*, eight tons, which, he says, wWl support a cow the whole 
year. He allows five tons to feed on for nine months, and the other three 
tons to be sold, and the proceeds applied to the purchase of other food, to 
be given from the time the roots fail in the spring, until new roots are 


Other, and cover them with earth. When the plants are up 
strong, thin them to the distance of six or eight inches fiom 
each other in the rows. The ground should be afterward 
hoed deep round the plants, and kept free from weeds. 

If the planting of Beet seed, for general crops, be delayed 
until May or June, the roots will be much larger and bettei 
than those from earlier planting, which, from being frequently 
stunted in growth by the various changes of weather, become 
tough, str'jigy, and of unhandsome shape. In case of the 
failure of crops, or of unfavourable weather in June, Beet 
seed planted the first week in July will sometimes produce 
large, handsome roots, which may be preserved for winter use. 

The most suitable gi^ound for Beets is that which has been 
well manured for previous crops, and requires no fresh ma- 
nure, provided it be well pulverized. 

It is always best to thin Beets while young. If the tops 
aie used as a vegetable, they should not be left too long for 
this purpose, or they will greatly injure the roots of those 
that are to stand. Beds that are to stand through the sum- 
mer, should be kept clean by repeated hoeings ; and the roots 
intended for winter use should be taken up in October, or 
early in November, and stowed away, as directed in the 
calendar for those months. 

Allo^ving Beet seed to be planted on the gardening plan, 
it will require at the rate of ten pounds for an acre of land, 
which is two pounds and a half for a rood, and one ounce 
for every perch, pole, or rod. If cultivated on the field sys- 
tem, that is, by planting them a sufiicient distance apart to 
admit of ploughing between each row, one half the quantity 
of seed will be sufficient, or even less, if sown regular. If 
it be an object with the cultivator to save his seed, he may 
drop some in each spot where a plant is required, and thin 
them as before directed. 

It may be necessary to add, that one pound of Beet seed 
will measure about two quarts, and as each capsule contains 
four or five small seed, thinning out the surplus plants is in- 
dispensable to the production of good roots. 


Chou Frise Vert. Brassica oleracea, etc. 


Green Cviiled, or Scotch. 
Dwarf Brown, or German. 
Purple Fringed. 

Jerusalem, or Buda. 
Cesarean Kale. 
Thousand-headed Cabbage 

There are several sub-varieties of this genus of plants 
besides those above specified, most of which have large open 
heads, with curled wrinkled leaves. The Dwarf Curled, or 
Finely Fiinged sorts, are much cultivated in Europe for the 
table ; and the coarse and tall-growing are considered pro- 
fitable for cattle. The Thousand-headed Cabbage, and Ce- 
sarean Kale, grow from three to five feet high, and branch 
out from the stem, yielding an abundant supply of leaves 
and sprouts in the winter and spring. 

For the garden, these several varieties may be treated in 
every respect as Winter Cabbage. The seed may be sown 
from about the middle of May to the first week in June, and 
the plants set out in the month of July, in good rich ground 
They are never so delicious as when rendered tender by 
smart frosts ; they are valuable plants to cultivate, particu- 
larly in the more Southerly States, as they will there be in 
the greatest perfection during the winter months ; they will 
also, if planted in a gravelly soil, and in a sheltered warm 
situation, bear the winter of the Western States ; and may 
be kept in great perfection in the Eastern States, if taken 
up before the frost sets in with much severity, and placed in 
trenches, up to their lower leaves, and then covered with 
straw or other light covering : the heads may be cut ofl* 
as they are required for use ; and in the spring, the stems 
being raised up, will produce an abundance of delicious 

One ounce of good Borecole seed will produce about four 
thousand plants, and may be sovni in a border four feet by 
ten, or thereabout. 


Chou de Bruxelles agets. Brassica oleracea. 

This plant frequently grows from three to five feet high, 
and produces from the stem small heads resembling cabbages 
in miniature, each being from one to two inches in diameter. 
The top of the plant resembles the Savoy, when planted late. 
The sprouts are used as winter greens, and they become 
very tender when touched by the frost. 

The seed may be sown about the middle of May, in th© 
same manner as Borecole, and the plants set out with a dib- 
ble early in July. The subsequent treatment must be in 
every respect as for Borecole. 

Some gardeners, with a view to furnish the New- York 
markets with greens early in the spring season, when vege- 
tables in general are scarce, cultivate the common Rape, 
[Brassica Rajms ;) it being a good substitute for Brussels 
Sprouts, which are not always attainable after a hard winter. 
If Rape seed be sown early in September, the plants will 
survive an ordinary winter, and produce top shoots or sprouts 
early ; but it is best sown as soon as the gi-ound is suscepti- 
ble of cultivation in the spring, say the last week in March. 
The sprouts should be cut while young, as such greens then 
command the best prices, and are more palatable than when 
far advanced in growth. 

It may be necessary to add that, in cooking these sprouts, 
as also Kale, Colewort, and greens in general, they should 
be put into hot water, seasoned with salt, and kejDt boiling 
briskly until tender. If it be an object to presei'\'e their 
natural colour, put a small lump of pearlash into the water, 
which also makes the coarser Idnds of cabbage more tendei 
in the absence of meat. 


Chou Brocoli. Brassica oleracea Italica. 


Early White. 
Early Dwarf Purple. 
Early Green. 
Dwarf Brown. 
Large Late Purple. 

Large Purple Cape, 
White Cape, or Cauliflower 
Sulphur-coloured Cape 
Branching Purple. 
Large Late Green. 

The several varieties of Broccoli and Cauliflower may be 
justly ranked among the greatest luxuries of the garden. 
They need only be known in order to be esteemed. The 
Broccoli produces heads, consisting of a lump of rich, seedy 
pulp like the Cauliflower, only that some are of a green 
wlour, some purple, some brown, &c., and the white kinds 
60 exactly resemble the true Cauliflower, as to be scarcely 
distinguishable, either in colour or taste. 

Broccoli is quite plentiful throughout England the greater 
part of the year, and it is raised wdth as little trouble as 
Cabbages are here. The mode of raising the purple Cape 
Broccoli is now generally understood in this part of America j 
but the cultivation of the other kinds has been nearly aban- 
doned, on account of the ill success attending former attempts 
to bring them to perfection. 

In some of the Southern States, where the winters are not 
more severe than in England, they will stand in the open 
ground, and continue to produce their fine heads from No- 
vember to April. In the Eastern, Western, and Middle 
States, if the seed of the late kinds be sowti in April, and 
the earlier kinds in May, in the open ground, and treated 
in the same manner as Cauliflower, it would be the most 
certain method of obtaining large and early flowers ; but as 
only a part of these crops can be expected to come to per- 
fection before the approach of winter, the remainder mil 
have to be taken up, laid in by the roots, and covered up 
with earth to the lower leaves, in some sheltered situation, 
to promote the finishing of their grovi1;h. 


Those who are desirous of obtaining Broccoli and Cauli- 
flower in any quantity, so as to have all the different varieties 
in succession throughout the vnnter months, should have 
places erected similar to some of our greenhouses : the back 
and roof may be made of refuse lumber, which being after- 
ward covered with fresh stable dung, will keep out the frost. 
The place allotted for Cape Broccoli and Cauliflower should 
have a glazed, roof to face the south ; the sashes must be 
made to take off in mild weatht r, but they should be always 
kept shut in severe cold weathei , and covered with mats, or 
boards, litter, &c., so effectually as to keep out the frost. 

The hardy kinds of Broccoli may be preserved without 
glass, by having shutters provided to slide over the front in 
extreme cold weather, which may be covered over with fresh 
stable dung or other litter. If these plants get frozen, it 
will be necessary to shade them from the full rays of the sun 
until they are thawed ; this may be done by shaking a little 
straw on the bed as they lay. 

It may not, perhaps, be generally understood, that the sud- 
den transition from cold to heat is more destructive to vege- 
tables than the cold itself. If plants of any kind get frozen, 
and cannot be screened from the full rays of the sun, they 
should be well watered as the air gets warm, and before they 
begin to thaw ; this will draw out the frost, and may be the 
means of saving the plants. 

The proper time for sowing the seed of Purple Cape 
Broccoli is from the tenth to the twenty-fourth of May : * 
tho! e who intend to provide a place for the winter keeping 

* It has been proved by repeated experiments, that the Purple Cape 
Broccoli succeeds better in our climate than any other variety ; and, also, 
that if Broccoli or Cauliflower plants be retarded in g:rowth by extreme 
heat, they seldom arrive at full perfection. It is, therefore, important that 
the time of sowing the seed of Cape Broccoli be so regulated as to allow, 
gay six weeks of the summer, for the plants to grow in, previous to their 
being transplanted, and about seven or eight weeks between that and the 
commencement of cool autumn weather, which is essential to mature them. 

If seed be sown much before the middle of May, or so early that the 
plants arrive at full growth in the heat of summer, and thereby become 

5 4 


of the other kinds, may sow seed of the most esteemed varie- 
ties at the same time, or in two or three separate sowings, a 
week apart. 

In order to insure good stout plants, let the seed at this 
season be sown in a moderately shaded border. It is best 
to sow it in shallow drills, drawn three or four inches apart, 
in which case, one ounce of seed will occupy a border of 
about four feet in width by twelve in length, and produce 
about four thousand strong plants {See article Cabbage.) 

In the beginning of July, or v hen the plants are of suffi- 
cient size, they should be transplanted into extraordinarily rid 
ground, which should be previously brought into good con- 
dition. This being done, plant them in rows two feet and a 
half apart, and two feet distant in the rows. As soon as 
they have taken root, give the ground a deep hoeing, and 
repeat this two or three times in the course of their growth, 
drawing some earth around their stems. 

Some of the Cape Broccoli, if attended to as directed, 
will come to perfection early in September and in October ; 
the other kinds will produce their heads in regular succes- 
sion throughout the winter and spring months, according to 
their different degrees of earliness, provided an artificial cli- 
mate be provided for them. These, of course, with what- 
ever may remain of the Cape Broccoli, will have to be taken 
up early in October, and laid in carefully, with the roots and 
stems covered with earth as far as their lower leaves. Those 
who have not a place provided, may keep a few in frames, 
or in a light cellar ; but every gardener and country gentle- 
man should have suitable places erected for a vegetable that 
yields such a delicious repast, at a time when other luxuries 
of the garden are comparatively out of our reach. 

stunted, thej' generally button, instead of forming perfect heads of flowers, 
and are consequently of no use but for cattle- 

In some of the Southern States, late planting of Broccoli and Cauliflower 
succeeds better than early, because the winters are calculated to mature 
these vegetables, from their not being subject to injury from slight frost, ir. 
a late stage of their growth. 


Choufleur. Brassica oleracea botryiis. 


Early White. I Late Wh.te. 

Hardy Red, or Purple Cauliflower 

This is a first rate vegetable, to obtain which, great pains 
must be taken in every stage of its growth, the extremes of 
heat and cold being very much against it : which circum- 
stance accounts for good Cauliflowers being scarcely attain- 
able in unpropitious seasons, and which the novice falsely 
attributes to defectiveness of the seed. 

To produce early Cauliflower, the seed should be sown be- ^i 
:ween the sixteenth and twenty-fourth of September, in a 
oed of clean, rich earth. In about four or five weeks after- 
ward, the plants should be pricked out into another bed, at 
the distance of four inches from each other every way ; this 
bed should be encompassed with garden frames, covered 
vtdth glazed sashes, and boards or shutters ; the plants should 
be watered and shaded a few days till they have taken root ; 
they wall afterward require light and air every mild day 
throughout the vdnter ; but the outsides of the frames must 
be so lined and secured, and the tops of the beds so covered, 
as to keep out all frost. 

The plants should be well attended to until the time of 
transplanting in the spring ; and those who have not hand or 
bell glasses, so as to enable them to set some out by the latter 
end of March, should have a frame ready about the last week 
in February, in order that they may be transplanted to the 
distance of eight or nine inches apart ; this would prevent 
them from buttoning or growing up weak ; if this be not 
done, some of the strongest plants should be taken out ol the 
beds and planted in flower pots, which may afterward be 
placed in a frame or greenhouse, until the weather be warm 
and settled, which may be expected soon after the middle of 


April. They should then be turned out with the balls of 
eaith entire, and transplanted into a bed of the richest earth 
in the garden, at the distance of two feet and a half from 
each other every way ; the residue may be taken up from the 
frame the last week in April, or earlier, if the season proves 
mild, by means of a garden trowel, and transplanted as 

The plants should afterward be well cultivated, by hoeing 
the ground deep around them, and bringing some earth grad- 
ually up to their stem, so as to push them forward before the 
approach of warm weather. When the soil has been drawn 
up to the plants some little time, fork the ground between the 
rows lightly over, which will promote their growth. They 
should be liberally supplied wdth water in dry weather; those 
out of flower twice a week, and those in, every other day, 
which will contribute to their producing very large heads. As 
the flower heads appear, the larger leaves should be broken 
down over them, to defend them from the sun and rain, in 
)rder that the heads or pulps may be close, and of their nat- 
ural colour. 

Plants from the autumn sowing are generally allowed to 
succeed best ; but good Cauliflowers are sometimes produced 
from seed sown in a hot-bed toward the end of January, or 
early in February. Great pains must be taken to have the 
bed in good condition to receive the seed ; when the plants 
are up, they must have air every mild day, and as they pro- 

* Many persons are apt to forget, that the successful cultivation of Cau- 
liflovrer depends on the particular seasons in which the plants are raised 
and set out ; and, consequently, instead of raising their own plants in the 
right seasons, apply for them at the seed-stores and gardens, in May and 
June. Now, it should be recollected, that if early Cauliflower do not ar- 
rive at, or near perfection, by the end of June, the plants get stunted by 
the heat, and seldom yield any thins but leaves, except the summer should 
prove mild, in which case, some of the early plants may flower in autumn 
but it is needless to risk the setting out of early Cauliflower plants later 
than April for the sake of such chance, because plants raised from seed 
Bown about the middle of May, and transplanted in July, are by far tha 
most likely to produce good fall Cauliflower 


gress in growth, they should have as much air as possible, 
consistent with their preservation ; but the beds must be kept 
covered up every night, as long as there is any danger of 
frost. Wlien the plants are three or four inches high, they 
must be pricked out three or four inches apart into another 
bed, and by the latter end of April they may be transplanted 
into the ground, and treated in every respect the same as 
the other. 

In the early part of May, Cauliflower seed may be sown 
in the open border, in drills, as recommended for Broccoli, 
and one ounce of seed will produce about four thousand 
plants. These plants should be pricked out in June, and 
transplanted into good ground early in July, to flower in 
Autumn : those that are not likely to flower by the last of 
October, should be taken up and provided for in the manner 
recomnlfended for Broccoli. 

Cauliflower, and also Broccoli, should be gathered while 
the pulp is close and perfect. After having trimmed off* some 
of the outside leaves, let them be boiled in plenty of water 
seasoned with salt, taking care to skim it, and also to ease the 
cover of the pot so as not to confine the steam. Take them 
up as soon as the fork will enter the stems easily, which will 
be in from ten to twenty minutes, according to their size 
and age ; drain them so as to make them susceptible of ab- 
sorbing a due proportion of gravy, melted butter, &c. This 
renders them a palatable and dainty dish 



Chou. Brassica oleracea, etc. 


Early Imperial. 
Early Dwarf Dutch. 
Early York. 
Early Sugarloaf. 
Early Emperor. 
Early Wellington. 
Early Heart-shaped. 
Early London Market. 
Early London Battersea. 

Large Bergen, or Amenxan. 
Late Flat German. 
Large Green Glazed. 
Large Late Drumhead. 
Red Dutch, for pickling. 
Green Globe Savoy. 
Large Cape Savoy. 
Green Curled Savoy. 
Turnip -rooted, in varieties 

The early sorts of spring Cabbage may be raised in vari- 
ous ways. Some sow the seed between the tenth and twenty- 
fourth of September, pricked out and managed the same as 
Cauliflower plants, only that they are more hardy, and may 
sometimes be kept through the winter, without sashes. 

Some prefer sowing the seed in a cold-bed, covered by a 
garden frame with sashes. If this frame be placed on a 
warm border, and kept free from frost, and the seed of the 
early kinds sown the latter end of Januaiy, or early in Feb 
ruary, these plants will be better than those raised in the 
fall ; as they will not be so liable to run to seed, and they 
will be more hardy, and full as early as those raised in hot- 
beds in the spring. 

Or, if a heap of fresh horse manure be deposited on the 
ground intended for the raising of early plants before the 
fi'ost sets in, the same may be removed some mild day in 
January or February, and temporary frames made by driving 
stakes in the ground, and nailing planks or slabs thereto. 
The ground being then dug, the seed sown, and covered up 
with sashes, will soon produce plants in perfection. The 
frames should be well protected, by placing the manure 
around them, and covering the tops with mats, boards, &c., 
as directed for hot-beds in the Calendar for February and 


It is customary with gardeners about New- York to raise 
their plants in hot-beds. In order to do this, the beds should 
be prepared, as directed in a future page of this book, (see 
Index,) so as to be ready to receive the seed by the latter 
end of February, or early in March. Plants thus produced, 
as well as those raised as before directed, will be fit to trans- 
plant about the middle of April, and should be carefully 
planted, with a suitable dibble, in good gi'ound, from sixteen 
inches to two feet apart, according to size and kind : these 
by being hoed often, will produce good Cabbages in June. 
If seed of the large early kinds be sown in a warm border, 
early in April, they will produce plants fit to transplant in 
May, which will make good Cabbages for summer use.* 

The seed of Red Cabbage may be sown toward the end 
of April or early in May, and that of Savoys and late Cab- 
bage in general, may be sown at two or three different times, 
between the middle and the end of May, in fresh rich ground. 

The most certain way of raising good strong plants in the 
summer season, is to sow the seed in a moderately shaded 
border, in shallow drills drawn three or four inches apart. 
One ounce of seed sown in this manner, will occupy a bor- 
der of about four feet in width by twelve in length, and pro- 
duce about four thousand stout plants ; whereas, if seed be 
sown broad-cast, as is the usual custom, two ounces of seed 

* As numerous species of insects attack plants of ttie Brassica or Cal> 
bage tribe, in every stage of tlieir growth, great caution is necessary in their 
cultivation. For a prevention to the attacks of fleas or flies, see page 19 
of the General Remarks. Perhaps the most effectual way of saving plants 
from grub-worms, is not to transplant any, during the month of June. 
Seed beds are very seldom attacked ; but if they should be, they may be 
protected by digging trenches around them, and throwing in lime, salt, oi 
ashes, sufficient to prevent the ingress of the worms. If seed of the vari- 
ous kinds be sown at the times recommended, the early varieties will be so 
far advanced in growth before the grub-worms prevail, as to be out of their 
reach ; and by the time the late sown plants are ready to transplant, the 
worms will be harmless, because they turn gray toward the end of June, 
and by the middle of July, the time recommended for general transplanting, 
the danger from grub-worms is over. For the destruction of caterpillars, 
see General Remarks, page 20. 


may not produce so many good plants, as the one ounce on 
the plan recommended. 

The Bergen, and other large kinds, should be transplanted 
the second and third week in July, in rows thirty inches 
asunder, and the plants about two feet apart in the rows : 
the Savoys and smaller sorts may be planted about the same 
time, but from four to six inches nearer every way. Cabbage 
succeeds best in a fresh rich soil, and the ground should be 
deeply hoed or ploughed, at least three times, during their 

The Brassica Rapa, or Turnip Cabbage, produces its bulb, 
or protuberance, on the stems above ground, immediately 
under the leaves. It is eatable when young, or about the 
size of a garden Turnip. 

The seed may be sown in April or May, and the plants 
afterward treated the same as Cabbage, only that in earthing 
up the plants you must be careful not to cover the globular 

They are much more hardy than Turnips. In England 
the bulbs often grow to upward of twenty inches in circum- 
ference, and weigh from ten to twelve pounds. They are 
cultivated for the feeding of cows and sheep, as well as for 
table use ; in either case they treat them as they do Cabbage, 
or sow tliem like Turnips, and afterward hoe them out to 
proper distances. 

The Brassica JVapus, or Turnip-rooted Cabbage, has an 
oblong thick root in the form of a winter Radish ; it is ex- 
tremely hardy, and will survive very hard frosts ; the seed 
should be sown in rich ground, and treated in every respect 
as Turnips, observing to thin the plants with a hoe to the dis 
tance of sixteen inches apart. Their roots will be much 
larger and better when treated in this way, than if trans- 

The Brassica JVapvs, variety escnlenta, is sometimes culti- 
vated as a salad herb. It is held in gi'eat esteem by the 
French as a culinary vegetable, and is called the Naret, or 


Frencli Turnip. In France, as well as in Germany, few 
great dinners are seiTed up without it, in some shape or 

Chou vert. Brassica oleracea. 

This is a species of Cabbage which is eaten when young; 
it so nearly resembles the early kinds of Cabbage, that it is 
seldom cultivated. The English frequently sow the seed of 
early heading kinds of Cabbage as a substitute, which being 
done at different seasons, enables them to procure a supply 
of fresh gi'eens from their gardens every day in the year. 
This is not attainable here, on account of the extremes of 
heat and cold ; but Collards would prove very valuable and 
acceptable, in the event of an unfavourable season for fall 

If the seed of Early York, Early Dutch, or other early 
kinds of Cabbage, be sown in June, July, and August, and 
transplanted as they become fit, into good gi'ound, from fif- 
teen to eighteen inches apart, the first planting would make 
good heads for fall use ; and the plants of late sowings, if 
transplanted in September and October, in a warm border, 
would produce tender, sweet-eating greens for use in the 
early part of winter ; the latter plantings may be placed ten 
or twelve inches from plant to plant. These could be easily 
sheltered on the approach of severe weather, without being 
laken up. The cultivation of Collards is well adapted to our 
Southern States, as there they need no protection in winter 


Cardon. Cynara cardunculus. 

The Cardoor. Artichoke, a native of Candia, is much cul- 
tivated in Europe for cuHnary purposes, such as for salads, 
60ups, stew^s, &c. 

The stems of the leaves being thick and crisp, are the eat- 
able parts, after being blanched They are in perfection in 
autumn and wdnter. 

The seed may be sow i in a bed of rich earth in the month 
of April ; and one ounce will produce about six hundred 
plants : when the plants are up strong, they should be thin- 
ned so as to leave them four or five inches apart, to prevent 
them from becoming weak. They may be transplanted in 
June, at the distance of four feet from each other every way ; 
observe, before planting, to dress their tops and roots the 
same as Celery. As they advance in growth, they are to be 
earthed up for blanching, keeping the leaves close together; 
this may be done with bass or matting, as practised with En- 
dive ; they are afterward to be earthed up gi'adually from 
time to time, until whitened to a sufficient height. As win- 
ter approaches, Cardoons must be taken up and laid away 
like Celery, or they may be presei-ved wdth sand in a cellar. 

Garotte. Daucus carota, 


Early Orange. 
Long Orange. 

Long Lemon- colon red. 
Blood Red. 
Long White. 

The Carrot is a native of Britain, and gi'ows by the road- 
side in many parts. As a culinary vegetable, it is much 
used in soups and stews, and forms a dish with boiled beef, 
&c. The coarse sorts are cultivated as fodder for cows, 
sheep, oxen, and horses, and are considered profitable, as 


they frequently yield upward of four hundre >l bushels to an 
acre, when cultivated on the field system. 

For the garden, the Early Orange should be cultivated for 
spring and summer use ; but the Long Orange is more suit- 
able for main crops, on account of its bright orange colour, 
as well as for its great size and length. Carrots grow to 
gi'eat perfection in a rich loamy soil, and may be raised in 
drills drawn about one inch deep, and twelve inches asunder. 
A small bed may be planted at the latter end of March for 
an early crop, and from that time to the end of May for suc- 
cessive crops ,• but the principal crop should not be sovni too 
soon, as the early plantings are apt to produce seed-stalks, 
and, consequently, stringy and useless roots. 

The most suitable ground for late Carrots, is that which 
has been well manured for previous crops, and requires no 
fresh manure. If the seed be sown in June, and the plants 
thinned out to the distance of five or six inches from each 
other when young, and kept hoed, they will yield an abun- 
dance of fine roots for winter and spring use, by being taken 
up in autumn, and preserved either in sand in a cellar, or 
covered up in pits in a garden, as directed in the Calendar 
for November. 

Although Carrot seed is naturally small and light, it seldom 
fails to vegetate in favourable seasons ; it, therefore, need not 
be sown too thick in gi'ound not apt to produce weeds. If 
a root could be insured to grow unmolested in every instance 
where a seed may be deposited, two pounds would be more 
than sufficient for an acre of land ; but gardeners generally 
use four or five pounds to the acre, in order that the rows 
may be more easily traced in the event of a luxuriant gi'owth 
of weeds. To avoid risking an unequal crop in small gar- 
dens, half an ounce of seed should be allotted for every pole, 
perch, or rod, or twenty ounces for a rood of land. On Jight 
ground, the use of a roller would be beneficial in dry weather, 
excess of which is detrimental to the germination of CaiTOt, 
as well as of all other light seed. 


Celeri. Jlpium graveolens. 

White Solid. ; New White Lion's Paw. 

Red-coloured Solid. j North's Red Giant 

Celeriac, or Turnip-rooted. 

This vegetable, so much esteemed as a salad, is known in 
its wild state by the name of Smallage ; and is found in great 
abundance by the sides of ditches, and near the seacoast of 
Britain. The effects of cultivation are here strikingly exhi- 
bited, in producing from a rank, coarse weed, the mild and 
sweet stalks of the Celery. This circumstance should stimu- 
late the young gardener to aim at improvement in the culti- 
vation of plants in general. 

It is customary with some gardeners to raise their early 
plants in hot-beds ; but as plants thus raised are apt to pro- 
duce seed-stalks, it is much safer to cultivate them in cold- 
beds, prepared as directed for the raising of early Cabbage 
plants. The seed for a general crop may be sown the last 
week in March, or early in April, in rich, mellow ground, 
and in a situation where the plants can be protected from the 
parching heat of a summer sun (a border against a north 
aspect is the most suitable). Some sow the seed broad-cast, 
but the plants will be much stouter if raised in drills. The 
drills may be half an inch deep, and six inches apart, so that 
a small hoe can be worked between the rows ; and if j)ro- 
perly attended to, every ounce of seed so sown will produce 
ten thousand strong plants or more. 

The early sown plants should be pricked out in a nursei" 
bed of cool rich earth, as soon as they are two or three inchc 
high, there to remain about a month, after which they wi 
be fit to transplant into the trenches. 

Choose for this purpose a piece of rich ground, in an oper 
exposure ; mark out the trenches by line, ten or twelve inchea 
wide, and allow the space of three feet between them, which 


will be sufficient for the early plantations. Dig eacn trench 
a moderate spade deep, laying the dug-out earth equally on 
each side, between the trenches ; put three inches deep of 
very rotten dung in the bottom of each ti'ench, then pare the 
sides, and dig the dung and parings with an inch or two of 
the loose mould at the bottom, incorj)orating all well together 
and put in the plants.* 

Previous to planting, trim the plants, by cutting off the 
long straggling leaves, and also the ends of the roots. Let 
them be planted with a dibble, in single rows, along the mid- 
dle of each trench, five or six inches between plant and plant ; 
as soon as they are planted, give them a plentiful watering, 
and let them be shaded until they strike root and begin to 

The main crops may be planted in the same way, but m 
trenches four feet distant from each other, and an inch or 
two farther from plant to plant ; or in beds made in the fol- 
lowing manner, which, for the ease of presei-v'ing the plants 
in winter, will be found extremely convenient, besides a 
greater quantity can be raised on a given piece of ground. 

Lay out the ground into beds four feet wide, with alleys 
between, three feet ; dig the beds a spade deep, throwing the 
earth on the alleys : when done, lay four or five inches #f 
good, well-rotted dung all over the bottom of the beds, dig 
and incorporate it with the loose earth, and cov^r the whole 
with an inch or two of earth from the alleys ; plant four rows 

* Some gardeners are accustomed to cultivate Celery on the level ground ; 
others, after making their trenches in the usual way, go to the expense of 
carting peculiar soil from a distance, viith which they replenish their 
trenches until nearly full. Those who have pursued the latter plan, say 
that they are rewarded for their trouble by gathering roots of superior size 
and quality ; but it is doubtful whether it would prove profitable to prac- 
tice this plan on an extensive scale. It may, however, be judicious in those 
gardeners, whose subsoil, or under stratum, is inferior, or ill-adapted for 
the growth of Celery, to cultivate it in sliallow drills, or furrows worked 
out v/ith a plough, by wiiich means they may secure good soil to plant in, 
and also to earth up with. In such cases the rows must be from four to 
five feet apart, and frequent ploughing between them would x)romote the 
growth of the plants. 



in each bed at equal distances, and from six tu eight inches 
apart in the rows; after which, give them a plentiful water 
ing, and shade them. 

The plants must be hoed occasionally, until grown of suf- 
ficient size for earthing, which is done with the assistance of 
boards, by laying them along the rows, to support the leaves 
while you are putting in the aarth from the alleys, and le- 
moving them as you progress in the business. 

The earthing should never be done when the plants are 
wet, as this is apt to make the Celery nisty, but should be 
performed gradually in fine weather as the plants progress 
in growth, repeating the earthing every two weeks ; at which 
time care should be taken to gather up all the leaves neatly, 
and not to bury the hearts of the plants. When they are 
grown two feet high, and well blanched, they are fit for the 

As Celery will gi'ow three or four feet high in one season, 
it will be necessary to delay the planting of that which is in- 
tended for mnter use until the latter end of July, but the 
trenches should always be got ready soon enough to avoid a 
serious drought, which often delays the planting till too late 
in the season. The blanching of Celery for winter use may 
be delayed until October. 

By market gardeners who raise Celery on a large scale, 
the trenches may be worked out with a plough, and finished 
with a spade or hoe. The ground may also be ploughed 
between each row of Celery previous to earthing it up ; tliis 
will save much labour. 

The Celeriac, or Turnip-rooted, may be planted either on 
level ground or in shallow drills ; the root of it swells like 
Turnip, anc may be preserved in sand through the wintei. 
The French and Germans cut it in slices, and soak it a few 
hours in vinegar ; by such simple preparation, it becomes 
mellow as a pineapple, and affords a delicious and very nour 
ishing repast. 



Mache ou doucette. Valeriana locustc. 

VARIETY. — Olitoria. 

This plant grows spontaneously in the corn-fields of Eng- 
land, hence it is called Corn Salad ; and from its being suf 
ficiently hardy to stand the winter, and affording an early 
pasturage, it has acquired the appellation of Lamb's Lettuce 
It is cultivated as a salad for winter and early spring use. 
The seed may be sown in rich, clean ground, the latter end 
of August or early in September. 

Some sfardeners sow the seed in beds four or live feet 
wide, with paths between each bed, just sufficient to admit 
of room for hand-weeding ; but it will vegetate more freely 
if sown in drills half an inch deep, provided it be carefully 
covered. The drills may be about six inches apart, or just 
sufficient to admit a small hoe to work between the rows ; 
for if the plants are not cleared of all weeds while young, 
they will be more plague than profit. 

Fetticiis must be covered up with straw at the approach 
of severe weather, to preserve it in good condition for use ill 
the early part of the ensuing spring, as that is the season 
which most amply remunerates the cultivator. 

The seed of Fetticus is small and fight, but it will admit 
of being sown thick, say at the rate of from four to six 
pounds to an aerie of land. 

64 CRESS. 

Cresson. Lepidium sativum. 


Curled, or Peppergrass. I Broad-leaved Garden. 

Cress is a small salad herb, and is generally used with 
Lettuce, White JMustard, Rape, Chersdl, &c. It may be 
ftown very thick in little drills, as should salad seed in gene- 
ral, and cut before it comes into rough leaf. A small quan- 
tity in the salad season, which is spring and autumn, may be 
Bown every week in rich ground, free from weeds. 

CRESS, (Water.) 

Cresson de fontaine. Sisymbr.ium nasturtium. 

The Water Cress is a creeping, amphibious perennial, and 
is grown very extensively for the London Markets. Loudon 
says, in his Encyclopoedia of Gardening, that " The most 
suitable description of water is a clear stream, not more than 
an inch and a half deep, running over sand or gi'avel ; the 
least favourable, deep, still water, or a muddy bottom. It is 
highly advantageous to make the plantations in newly-risen 
spring water, as the plants do not only thnve better in it, but, 
^n consequence of its being rarely frozen, they generally con 
tinue in vegetation, and in a good state for gathering, through 
the whole winter season. The plants are disposed in rows 
parallel with the course of the stream, about eighteen inches 
apart. When these plants begin to grow in water one inch 
and a half deep, they soon check the current so as to raise 
the water to the height of three inches above the plants, 
which is considered the most favourable circumstance in 
which they can be placed. It is absolutely necessary to have 
a constant current, as where there is any obstruction to the 
stream, the plants cease to thrive. After they have been cut 
about three times, they begin to stock, and then the oftenej 
they are cut the better. 


CoNCOMBRE. Cucumis sativus, etc. 

Early Frame. 
Early Green Cluster. 
Early Green Table. 
Long Prickly. 
Short Prickly. 

Long Green. 
Extra Long Green. 
Long White Turkey. 
White Spined. 
West India, or Gherkin 

The Cucumis sativus, or common Cucumber, is a native of 
the East Indies, and of nearly as great antiquity as the vine 
It was introduced into England in 1573, and is extensively 
cultivated in forcing frames, and in the open air. In March, 
they are sold in the London Markets for a guinea a dozen ; 
and in August and September for one penny per dozen. 

As Cucumbers are much used in New- York, it should be 
an object with gardeners to have them in the market early ; 
directions for raising them out of the ordinary season, are 
therefore given in a future page, under the head Forcing 
Vegetables; to which the reader is referred. Cucumbers 
may be raised in the open ground by planting seed the first 
week of May, in hills four feet apart ; or if the ground be 
light, basins formed an inch below the level of the surface 
would be beneficial.* Previous to planting, the ground should 
be prepared by incorporating a shovelful of rotten dung with 
the earth in each hill, after which four or five seed may be 
planted half an inch deep. One ounce of good seed is suf- 
ficient for two hundred hills and upward. 

C ucumbers are liable to be attacked by a yellow fly, which 
sometimes devours young plants ; these and other insects 
may be killed by sowing tobacco dust, soot, powdered char- 

* The term hill is frequently made use of by gardeners and farmers, to 
designate a situation allotted for a given number of seed, whereas, such 
seed are more frequently deposited below the level of the surface than 
above it ; yet, as the plants progress in growth, hills are frequently formed 
around them, which makes the term applicable, or rather reconciles the 
appaient contradiction- 

6* 5 


coal, and the like, round about the vines when ttey first 
come up, or by applying the liquid recommended in page 
19 of the General Remarks. After this is done, plants 
raay be thinned to two or three in a hill, and the ground 
caiefully hoed, drawing a little earth round them at the same 
time. The vines should be kept free from weeds, and if the 
weather proves dry, a gentle watering now and then, given 
in the evening, will be of considerable service. 

Picklers may be raised by planting the seed at any time 
in July. When the -sdnes begin to bear, they should be looked 
over, and the fruit gathered as soon as it becomes fit, as the 
plant will cease to bear much if the fruit be permitted to ge* 


CiVETTE. Allium schcenoprasum. 

This is a small species of Onion, and grows in large tufts , 
it is propagated by offsets from the roots, and may be 
planted either in spring or autumn, in rows ten or twelve 
inches apart, and the bulbs three or four inches apart /n the 
rows ; they will soon take root, and increase very fast, form- 
ing large bunches of bulbs. They make handsome edging 
for beds or borders. 

Melongene au aubergine. S ilaniim melongenn 

Purple, for cooking. I White, far ornament. 

The seed of the Purple Egg-plant may be souti in a hoi 
oed about the first of March ; and the sashes must be Kept 
*iowa close until the plants come up, after which a 'ittle air 


may be given in the heat of the day.* Toward the middle 
of May, if the weather be warm and settled, the plants 
should be set out from twenty-four to thirty inches apart, in 
a rich, warm piece of ground; and if kept clean, and a little 
earth be drawn up to their stems when about a foot high, 
they will produce plenty of fruit. 

Plants of the white variety may be riased in the same man 
ner, and n'ansplanted into pots in May; or if some of the 
seed be sown in a warm situation the first week in May, these 
may come to perfection in the course of the summer. This 
variety, though generally cultivated for ornament, is good 
when cooked. 

As Egg plants will not grow in the open ground until set- 
tled warm weather, and are apt to perish from being trans- 
planted too early, the gardener should be provided with small 
pots, in order that the plants may be transplanted therein 
early in May, and placed in a frame, there to remain until 
the first week in June, at which time, if they are turned out 
and planted, with the balls of earth entire, they will soon take 
root and grow freely. 

Select the fruit when at maturity; cut it into slices, and 
parboil it in a stewpan ; when softened, drain off the water ; 
it may then be fried in batter made with wheaten flour and 
an egg, or in fresh butter with bread grated fine and sea- 
soned before it is put in the pan, with pepper, salt, thyme, 
and such other herbs as may best suit the palate. Some use 
Marjoram, Summer Savory, Parsley, Onion, &c. 

* Esg-plant seed will not vegetate freely without substantial heat ; but with 
proper management, upward of four thousand plants may be raised from 
an ounce of seed. If these plants get the least chilled in the earlier stages 
of growth, they seldom recover ; it is, thei-efore, important that the frame 
allotted for them be placed over a well-regulated hot-bed, and partitioned 
otT, so that the sash can be kept down over the plants in cool weather. 

Some gardeners raise Egg-plants in the same frame with Cabbage, and 
such other half-hardy plants as require air every mild day ; by such man- 
agement, one or the other must suffer for want of suitable aliment, heat 
being the principal food of tender plants, and air that of the more hardy 


Chicoree des jardins. Cichorium endivay etc 


Green Curled. I Golden Yellow. 

White Curled. I Broad-leaved, or ScaroUe. 

The Cichorium endiva is a native of China and Japan, and ia 

uch used in salads and stews, and as a garnish for the table. 

The proper kind of seed for early sowing is the Green 
Curled. A small quantity of this may be sown at different 
times in April and May, by those who would have it early. 
These crops will be very apt to run to seed ; for this reason, 
it wall be best to delay the sowing of seed for general crops 
until June, or July. If a small quantity of each esteemed 
variety be sown two or three times in these months, they 
will produce a plentiful supply for use in Autumn and the 
early part of Winter. One ounce of good Endive seed will 
produce about five thousand plants. 

When the plants are three or four inches high, they should 
be transplanted into good ground, at the distance of a foot 
from each other, and immediately watered ; or if they are 
set out in cloudy or wet weather, it will save this trouble. 
The plants will requrie to be hoed and attended to in the 
same manner as Lettuce, until grown to a moderate size, when 
they must be blanched. Select the large and full-hearted 
plants, and with bass or other strings, tie them a little above 
the middle, not too tight, previously gathering up the leaves 
regularly in the hand. This must be done when the leaves 
are very dry, otherwise the plants will rot. The Cichorium 
intybus grows spontaneuosly in many parts of Europe and 
America. In France it is much cultivated ; the tops of the 
plants are considered profitable for cattle, and the roots are 
taken up in Autumn, and dried. The aromatic and volatile 
qualities of coffee are, by the combination of this root, ren- 
dered more mellow and full upon the palate, and its fragrance 
greatly increased, producing an agreeable tonic, and most 
exhilarating beverag-e. 


Sow the seed in April in drills half an inch deep, and about 
eighteen inches apart ; thin out the plants to six or eight 
inches in the row. The plant produces beautiful blue flowers, 
and is worthy of a place in the flower garden. The roots when 
dried, roasted as coffee, and ground, may be mixed in the 
oroj^ortion of two ounces of the powder to a pound of coffee. 

Raifort. CocJilearia armoracia. 

This plant is propagated by cuttings from the root, either 
cut from the top about two inches long, or by offsets, or 
otherwise useless parts, from the sides of the main root, re- 
taining the crowns or top shoots in as many parts as possible. 
These should be planted as early in the spring as practicable, 
in rows two feet apart, and six or eight inches from each 
other in the rows. 

Select for the bed a good depth of soil, wnd such as will 
retain moisture, manure it with well-rotted dung, plough or 
dig it deep, and with a drilling machine or other convenient 
implement, draw drills a foot apart ; then plant with a dibble, 
cuttings as above described, in every alternate drill, from two 
to three inches deep. The intermediate drills may be planted 
with Beet or Carrot seed, or that of any other root, but Tur- 
nip Beets are the most suitable to cultivate between the rov/s, 
as they will grow quick, and can be pulled out without dis- 
turbing the Horse-radish. 

The Beets must of course be thinned out while young, and 
kept cultivated by hoeing between the rows, which will also 
benefit the Horse-radish. After the Beets are pulled, hoe 
the ground again, and keep it clear of weeds, by which 
method the bed may be cleared every year. 

Some cultivate Horse-radish in a permanent bed, in which 
case, if, in taking up the roots, some offsets be left in the 
ground, they will produce a successive supply for future } ears. 


Mais. Zea mayz. 

Early Dutton. Gobbet's Early Normandy 

Early Tuscarora. Southern Horsetooth. 

Early Canadian. Early Golden Sioux. 

Sweet, or Sugar. Mottled and Curious Pearl. 

The different varieties of early Com intended for boiling 
when young, or others as curiosities, may be planted in the 
garden the last vyeek in April, or early in May, in hills four 
feet apart, or in drills. If some of each esteemed variety be 
planted in separate beds at the same time, they v^dll come in 
for the table one after the other in reg-ular succession. After 
this, if any particular variety be preferred, it may be planted 
at different times in the month of May and June. If the 
ground be poor, mix a shovelful of old manure vvdth the 
earth in each hill before the seed are planted, and after the 
plants are up strong, scatter a tea-cup full of wood ashes 
around each hill. This, with attentive hoeing and hilling, 
will cause it to produce ears early. Deep digging or plough- 
ing between the hills is very beneficial when the com is about 
eighteen inches high. 


PoMME DE TERRE. Heliaiithus tuberosom. 

This plant is a native of America. The tubers of the 
root, which are generally abundant, were, before Potatoes 
became improved by cultivation, in great esteem, and are 
yet considered a fine flavoured and nutritious food, when 
boiled and mashed with butter. They may be easily propa- 
gated by cutting the roots into sets, with two eyes in each, 
and planting them in the same manner as Potatoes, in March 
and April. To have them in perfection, they should be hoed 

LEER. 71 

frequently , and the ground kept loose around them. In dig 
ging them for use, care should be taken to gather them out 
clean, as the' least particle left will grow the year following, 
and encumber the ground, without producing a crop worth 

PoiRREAU. Allium porrum, 


Scotch, or Flag. | Large London 

This is a wholesome and useful herb, and is so hardy as 
to endure the extremes of heat and cold without injury. The 
seed may be sown in March, or early in April, in a bed of 
rich earth, in drills about an inch deep, and a sufficient dis 
tance apart to admit of a small hoe being worked between 
the rows, allowing one ounce of seed for every three thou- 
sand plants that may be required. 

If the ground be kept loose and clean around the plants, 
they will be fit to transplant in June, or early in July, and 
should be set out in good ground, in rows twelve inches 
asunder, and the plants five or six inches apart in the rows. 
They will grow well in a warm border, which at this season 
is useless for many kinds of vegetables. After the plants have 
taken root, they should be frequently hoed, and kept free 
from weeds. 

Those who wish to have Leeks blanched, may plant them 
in trenches three or four inches deep, and as the jDlants in- 
crease in growth, the earth should be drawn by a hoe into 
the trenches. 


Laitue. Lactuca saliva crispa. 

Large Green Head. 
Dutch, or Cabbage. 
Tennis Ball, or Rose 
Madeira, or Passion. ( ^ « 
Large Green Curled. 
Loco Foco. 


Early Silesia. 
Imperial, or Sugar Loaf 
Pale Green, or Butter 
Grand Admiral. 
Large Summer Silesia. 
Paris Loaf Coss. 

3 p 

It would be easy to furnish a more extensive catalogue of 
Lettuce, as the varieties are numerous ; but as this is one of 
those kinds of vegetables that can only be raised in perfec 
tion during mild and temperate weather, it is needless foi 
the gardener to plant any in the open ground, but such as 
have been tested, and found to stand a tolerable degree of 
warm weather, which generally prevails in May and June, 
and consequently cuts short the salad season. Those who 
nave been accustomed to raise head Lettuce in any quantity, 
know the trouble of preparing the ground and planting, and 
the loss they would sustain if several thousand plants should 
run to seed just as they appeared to be perfecting for market. 
As this is often the case, even vrith the very best attention, I 
would caution gardeners to test such plants as they are not 
acquainted with, before they set out any quantity with a view 
to their heading.* 

The six varieties inserted in the first column of our cata- 

* It may be necessary here to remind the gardener, that moisture is the 
most essential nutriment of Lettuce, and that the very best varieties may 
run to seed without forming heads, in the event of extreme warm weather. 
Those who put oflf the sowing of seed until May and June, instead of 
sowing it in March and April, as directed, may procure head Lettuce from 
some of their strongest plants, by transplanting them into rich ground as 
soon as they are an inch or two in height, and the remainder, if left thin in 
the beds, may produce small heads, bj'^ stirring the earth around them with 
a small hoe, or weeding hook ; these are as good for family use as larger 
heads, and those persons who are fond of Lettuce may raise such through- 
out the summer ; but market gardeners seldom attempt it, unless they 
have a tract of moist, loamy soil, peculiarly adapted to the growth of head 
Lettuce, in any thing like a propitious season 


logue have been known to stand our winters, and may be 
sown fiom the first to the middle of September, in rich 
ground, free from weeds ; they answer very well when sown 
with Spinach, and should be covered with straw at the ap- 
proach of severe weather. These plants, if transplanted into 
warm borders, or in the open ground, as early in March as 
tlie weather will permit, will produce fine heads early in the 
month of May. 

The best of the tender kinds of Lettuce should be sown in 
moderate hot-beds early in March, aud if transplanted into 
good ground by the middle of April, will produce their heads 
before the approach of warm weather. Such kinds as are 
known to produce heads in hot weather, and also such as are 
intended to be cut as a small salad while young, maybe sown 
in warm borders in March and April ; but those designed for 
heading should be transplanted as soon as they are an inch 
or two in height, and kept in a growing state by frequent 
hoeing, or they may run up to seed as the season advances. 

If it be an object with the gardener to have good strong 
Lettuce plants for transplanting, the seed should be sovm 
very thin. One ounce of good seed is sufficient for a border 
of six feet in vddth by eighteen feet in length, and will pro- 
duce from ten to twelve thousand plants. 

All kinds of Lettuce intended for heading should be plant- 
ed in good ground, twelve inches distant from each other 
every way ; the plants should be carefully hoed every other 
week during their growth ; the first hoeing should be done 
in about two weeks after they are transplanted. 

The Coss Lettuce requires to be blanched ; this is done 
by gathering up the leaves of the plants and tying bass round 
them, when grown to perfection. 

If Head Lettuce be required at other seasons than the 
spring, it may be obtained in autumn by sowing seed in Au- 
gust, or in the winter by means of garden frames and glazed 
sashes. \See article on Forcing Vegetables.] 


Melon. Cucumis melo. 

Green-fleshed Citron. 
Murray's Pineapple. 
Green-fleshed Persian. 
Green-fleshed Nutm^. 


Large Yellow Cantcleupe. 
Pomegranate, or Musk Scented 
Skillman's Fine Netted. 
Snake, (curious.) 

The Melon is an exotic plant, growing wild in Asia. It 
is cultivated in all the warm countries of Europe, and also 
in Africa and America, where its salubrious and cooling fruit 
is generally esteemed. 

For the varieties of the Musk or Canteleupe Melons, pre- 
pare a piece of rich ground early in May ; manure it and 
give it a good digging ; then mark it out into squares of six 
feet every way ; at the angle of each square, dig a hole 
twelve inches deep and eighteen over, into which put about 
six inches deep of old rotten dung ; throw thereon about four 
inches of earth, and mix the dung and earth well wdth the 
spade ; after which draw more earth over the mixture, so as 
to form a- circular hill about a foot broad at top. (For a de- 
finition of the term " hill," see article Cucumber.) When 
jrour hills are all prepared, plant in each, toward the centre, 
six or eight grains of seed, distant two inches from each 
other, and cover them about half an inch deep. One ounce 
of good Melon seed wall plant about one hundred and twenty 

When the plants are in a state of forwardness, producing 
their rough leaves, they must be thinned to two or three in 
each hill ; draw earth from time to time round the hills, and 
about the roots of the plants. As soon as the plants have 
spread into branches, stop them by pinching off the "an ^i' 
the first runner bud ; this ^vill strengthen the plants, and pro. 
mote their perfecting the fruit early ; after which keep the 
ground perfectly free from weeds by frequent hoeing. 

There are many varieties of the Melon, highly esteemed 


in Europe, which do not succeed in this country ; the gar- 
dener should, therefore, plant only such as have been tested 
and found to produce good fruit here, or our superior old 
sorts may become degenerate. After a judicious selection 
is made, if caution be not used to plant the different sorts 
remote from each other, and from Cucumbers, Squashes, and 
Gourds, degeneracy will infallibly be the consequence. To 
prevent the ravages of flies, &c., see General Remarks, pages 
19 and 20. 

Melon d'eau. Cucurbita citrullus. 


New Jersey. I Goodwin's Imperial. 

Carolina. 1 Citron, for preserves. 

The Water Melon, though by some considered a species 
of the former, is a distinct genus of exotic plants. They 
afford a very refreshing article of luxury in our warm sum- 
mers. Dr. Pallas, in the account of his journey to the 
southern provinces of Russia, in 1793 and '94, speaking of a 
colony of Moravians in Sarepta, or Sapa, on the River Volga, 
says, " The ingenious inhabitants of this town brew a kind 
of beer from their very abundant and cheap Water Melons, 
with the addition of Hops ; they also prepare a conserve or 
marmalade from this fruit, which is a good substitute for 
syrup or treacle." 

In order to have Water Melons in perfection, you must 
fix upon a piece of very rich light soil ; prepare, plant and 
manage it in every respect as is directed for Musk Melon, 
only, let the hills be seven or eight feet distant every way. 
One ounce of seed will plant from forty to fifty hills. 


MouTARDE. Siiiapis. 

White. I Black. 

The Alba, or White Mustard, grows spontaneously in the 
fields of England; it is also cultivated as a small salad, as well 
as for seed. The seed yields from every hundred pounds, 
from thirty-three to thirty-six pounds of sweet mUd oil. 

White Mustard Seed is much used as a medicine, and per- 
sons subject to disordered stomachs often derive great benefit 
by taking a spoonful of the dry seed, two or three times a day 
Some use it in pickles, to which it imparts an agreeable fla- 
vour, and renders Cucumbers in particular more salutary. 
The jyigra or Common Mustard, is also a native of England. 
The condiment called Mustard, and in daily use at our table 
is prepared from the seed of this species. 

The seed, of each variety, may be sown in clean rich 
ground in April and May ; and for a fall salad in September 
in shallow drills. 

Capucine. Tropceolum. 

This is an annual plant, a native of Peru, and is highly 
deserving of cultivation for the sake of its brilliant orange 
and crimson coloured flower, as well as for the berries, 
which, if gathered while green and pickled in vinegar, make 
a good substiute for capers, and are used in melted butter, 
with boiled mutton, &c. 

Tfie seed should be sown in April, or early in May, in 
drills about an inch deep, near fences or pales ; or trellises 
should be constructed, on which they can climb and have 
support, for they will always be more productive in this way 
than when suffered to trail on the ground. 

ONION. 77 

GoMBO. Hibiscus escnlenius. 

The green capsules of this plant are used in soups, stews, 
&c., to which they impart a rich flavour, and are considered 
nutritious. Its ripe seed, if burned and ground like coffee, 
can scarcely be distinguished therefrom. 

The seed should be planted in good rich ground, the first 
or second week in May, if settled warm weather, but not 
otherwise, as it is a very tender vegetable. Draw drills about 
an inch deep, and three or four feet asunder, into which drop 
the seed at the distance of six or eisfht inches from each 
other, or rather drop two or three in each place, lest the one 
should not grow and cover them nearly an inch deep. As the 
plants advance in growth, thin them out, earth them up two 
or three times, and they will produce abundantly. 

OiGNON. Allium cepa, etc. etc, 


New England White. | Yellow Dutch. 

Large Red. Strasburgh, or Flanders. 

Yellow, or Silver Skinned. I Madeira. 

Of the several varieties of Onions, the Yellow or Silver 
Skinned, and Large Red, are the best for a general crop. The 
bulbs are handsome, of firm growth, and keep well through 
the winter. The New England White are handsome for the 
table, and very suitable for pickling, as well as to pull while 
young, and generally prove a very profitable c-^^- 

Previous to solving Onion seed for a general crup, mw 
gi'ound should be well prepared by digging in some of the 
oldest and strongest manure that can be got. The earlier 
this be done in the spnng, the better, and the planting should 


78 ONION. 

not be delayed longer than the middle of April. The seed 
may be sown moderately thick, in diills one inch deep and 
twelve inches apart * 

Those who cultivate Onions for the sake of their bulbs, 
may use at the rate of four or five pounds of seed per acre. 

As market gardeners, in the vicinity of large cities, find it 
most profitable to pull a great proportion of their Onions 
while young, they generally require at the rate of from eight 
to ten pounds of seed to an acre of land. 

When the plants are up strong, they should be hoed. Those 
beds that are to stand for ripening, should be thinned out while 
young, to the distance of two or three inches from each other. 
If a few should be required for use after this, those can be 
taken which incline more to tops than roots ; and if the beds 
be frequently looked over, and the small and stalky plants 
taken away where they stand thickest, the remaining bulbs 
will grow to a larger size. The plants should be hoed at least 
three times in the early part of their growth; but if the season 
prove damp, and weeds vegetate luxuriantly, they must be 
removed by the hand, because after the Onions have begun to 
bulb, it would injure them to stir xhem with a hoe. 

When the greenness is gone out of the tops of Onions, it 
is time to take them up ; for from this time the fibrous roots 
decay. After they are pulled, they should be laid out to dry, 
and when dry, removed to a place of shelter. 

The small Onions may be planted in the following spring. 
Even an Onion which is partly rotten will produce good bulbs, 
if the seed stems be taken ofi" as soon as they appear. 

* Onion seed may be sown at any time from March to September, but 
those only can be depended upon for ripening:, which are sown in the first 
and second spring months. It is a singular fact, that Onions will not ripen 
later than August or the early part of September, however warm the 
weather may be ; they can, however, be preserved in the place where they 
grow, by spreading some short dung over them in autumn, just sufficient 
to prevent their purging out of the ground in winter. Onions thus pre- 
served, often prove more profitable to market gardeners in the spring, than 
firops which ripen ; because ripe Onions are then scarce, and green ones 
prove a good substitute for Shallots, Welsh Onions, Leeks, &c. 


The JlUium fislulosimiy or Welsh Onion, is cultivated for 
spring salad ; it forms no bulbs, but is very hardy. If the 
seed be sown early in September in rich gi'ound, although 
the tops may die down in the winter, yet the roots will con- 
tinue sound, and put up new leaves early in the spring. 

The Allium cepa, or common White and Red Onions, are 
most generally cultivated by market gardeners as a substitute 
for the AUium fishdosum ; they sdw the seed in the spring 
and autumn months, the product of which is pulled and sent 
to the market while young, and generally meets with a ready 

The Jlllium proliferiim, or Tree Onion, is propagated by 
planting the bulbs in spring or autumn, either the root bulbs, 
or those produced on the top of the stalks ; the latter, if 
planted in the spring, will produce fine Onions. These may 
be planted in rows with a dibble, the same as Shallots. 

The Potato Onion, Allium tuberosum^ does not produce 
seed as other Onions, but it increases by the root. One sin- 
gle Onion, slightly covered, will produce six or seven in a 
clump, partly under ground. 

The bulbs are generally planted in the spring, from twelve 
to eighteen inches apart, but they will yield better when 
planted in autumn, as they will survive the winter if slightly 
covered with dung, litter, or leaves of trees, &c. 

Persil. Apium petroselinum. 

Dwarf Curled. j Single, or Common. 

Extra Curled. | Large Rooted Hamburg. 

Parsley is a hardy biennial plant, and grows wild in moist 
climates, but has been greatly improved by cultivation. The 
^eaves of the Common Parsley are used as a pot herb, and 


those of the Extra Curled kinds make a fine garnish. TLo 
Large Rooted are generally cooked for the table in autumn 
and winter, like Parsnips. 

As Parsley seed, sown late in the season, is apt to .ay in 
the ground some time before it vegetates, and often fails in 
dry weather, the general crop should be sown in a cool 
situation by the early part of April, in drills an inch deep, 
and one foot asunder, allowing at the rate of about six or 
seven pounds of seed to the acre, or two ounces for every 
three perches of Isind.* 

After the plants are up, let them be kept clean by frequent 
hoeing. The Large Ro(jted Parsley should be thinned out 
while young, and managed the same as Carrots and Parsnips. 

In order to have Parsley green through the winter, the 
old leaves should be picked off in September. If some of 
the roots be taken up early in November, and laid in a 
frame, or light cellar, the leaves will keep green a long time ; 
tne remainder may be covered up with straw in the place 
where it grows. 

If Parsley seed be sown in frames in spring or summer, 
it may be pieserved for winter use without the trouble ot 
removing it. 

* It frequently happens that Parsley seed will remain in the ground 
three or four weeks, without showing any signs of vegetation, and in the 
event of extreme dry weather, is apt to decay for want of its most essen- 
tial aliment — moistuhe. A few grains of Long Radish seed, sown about 
an inch apart in each drill, are well adapted to promote the growth of 
Parsley ; because Radish seed being quick in germinating, will open the 
pores of the earth ; and the plants, as they progress in growth, will create 
• shade, sufficient to protect the Parslev from the full rays of the sun. 


Panais. Pasimaca saliva. 

Long Guernsey Cup. I Large Dutch, or Common. 

This is a hardy biennial plant, common in calcareous 
soils ; it has long been an inmate of the garden, and forms a 
vegetable dish in the winter, with salt meat, salted fish, &c. 

Parsnip seed may be planted from the middle of March 
till the middle of May, in drills one inch deep and fourteen 
inches apart ; and as this vegetable requires a long season 
to grow in, the sooner the seed is planted the better. Pars- 
nips grow best in a deep soil, which has been well manured 
the preceding fall. Sow the seed thick along the drills, at the 
rate of five or six pounds per acre, and rake them in evenly.* 

When the plants are two or three inches high, thin them 
to the distance of six or eight inches in the rows. They 
should be kept free from v/eeds, by regular hoeing through 
the summer, and in autumn they will be fit for use ; but they 
improve in flavour after having been frozen, and will endure 
the severity of a hard winter. See Calendar for November. 

Parsnips require from thirty to forty minutes boiling, ac- 
cording to their size and age. Some boil them in water 
seasoned with salt, until tender ; but they are better when 
boiled with salt pork, and afterward mashed and fried in 

* The Parsnip, although when in full growth it will endure the extreme* 
of neat and cold, requires peculiar management to promote and preserve 
germination in an early stage of culture. In order to give the seed a fair 
chance, it should be planted in ground susceptible of moisture, and not 
apt to encrust when dry. The seed should be dropped thick along the 
drills and well covered, as single or solitary plants are apt to perish, from 
not having sufficient strength to open the pores of the earth, and in the 
event of drought such plants die off prematurely. If cultivated in light 
ground, it should be rolled or pressed immediately after depositing the seed 
therein, but this should not be done while the earth is wet. A few grains 
of Long Radish seed, sown in each drill as directed for Parsley, will also 
prove beneficial to ParBnips. ^ 


PoivRE Qu piMENT. Capsicum. 

Grossum, or Bell Pepper. i Long Red, or Bird's Bill. 

Tomato-shaped, or Squash. | Cherry, or West Indian. 

Sweet Spanish ; used as a salad, has a very delicate taste 

This family of plants are natives of the East and West 
Indies ^ some of their capsules, or pods, are yellow, and 
others red, when at maturity ; they are much used for pick- 
ling, and should be gatljered for that purpose before they are 
fully ripe. 

The seed of the different kinds of Capsicums may be sown 
in a hot-bed in March, or on a warm border, early in May. 
One ounce of seed will produce about three thousand plants. 
When the plants arrive at the height of from one to two 
inches, they should be transplanted into good rich ground, 
from eighteen inches to two feet distant from each other. 

Those who do not want Peppers early in the season, may 
sow seed in the open ground in May, in diills two feet asun- 
der, and half an inch deep. When the plants are gi'own an 
inch or two high, thin them to tlie distance of fifteen or 
eighteen inches in the rows. The ground should be after- 
ward hoed deep round the plants, and kept free from weeds 
by repeated hoeings. 

The Capsicum Grossum, or Bell Pepper, is perennial, and 
will keep in perpetual bearing in warai climates. In Eng- 
land this species is considered superior to all others, on ac- 
count of its skin being thick, and also pulpy and tender ; the 
plants are therefore frequently preser\^ed in hot-houses dur- 
ing the winter and spring, and kept in the open air in settled 
warm weather. 

PEA. ®3 

Pois Pisum sativum. 

Early Cedo NuUi, or Race Horse, 3 ft 
Early Frame, 2 to 3 feet. 
Early Warwick, 3 feet. 
Early Washington, 3 feet. 
Early Charlton, 3 feet. 
Double Blossom Frame, 3 feet. 
Bishop's Early Dwarf, 2 feet. 
Dwarf Prolific, or Strawberry, 2 feet. 
Dwarf Spanish, or Fan, 1 to 2 feet. 
Early Nimble Dick, 3 feet. 
Dwarf Blue Imperial, 2 to 3 feet. 
Waterloo Blue, 4 feet. 


Groom's Dwarf Blue Prolific, 4 fl 
Dwarf Blue, Prussian, 2 to 3 feet 
Dwarf Marrowfat, 3 to 4 feet. 
Ladies' Finger Marrows, 4 feet 
Matchless Marrowfat, 6 feet 
Knight's Tall Marrow, 6 feet 
Knight's Dwarf Marrow, 3 feet 
Woodford's Green Prolific, 6 feet 
Large Grey Rouncival, 4 feet 
Dwarf Sugar, (eatable pods,) 3 feet 
Tall Crooked Pod Sugar, 6 feet. 
French Bouquet, or Sugar, 3 to 4 ft 

Albany Field, in varieties. 

The above list and description of the most esteemed kinds 
of Pea are taken from the catalogue of Mr. G. C. Thorburn. 
If they are rightly described, they will grow to different 
heights, according to soil and season. This description, 
however, may serve as a guide for the gardener in planting. 
The Dwarf Pea require less distance between row and row, 
and shorter sticks than the tall kinds. 

Planting the early kinds of Pea should commence as soon 
in the spring as the ground can be brought into good condi- 
tion; all the other sorts, as well as the early, will answer for 
successive crops ; to obtain which, a few of the most esteemed 
varieties should be planted at the same time every two weeks, 
from March until the end of May. Persons desirous of 
having Peas tliroughout the summer and autumn, may plant 
a few°in June, July, and August. In dry weather the Peas 
should be soaked in soft water five or six hours before plant- 
ing, and if the ground be very dry, it should be watered in 

the drills. 

Gardeners practice different modes of planting Peas. 
Some plant them in ridges, others in diiUs, some in single 
rows, others in double ; some use sticks for the dwarf kmds, 
and others not ; those who study neatr:ess should however, 

84 ' PEA. 

have them all rodded, though the most dwarfish may do 

All the different sorts of Pea may be planted in double or 
single rows, from four to six feet apart, according to the 
different heights they may be expected to grow. If two 
drills be made three inches deep, and about nine inches 
apart, and the seed dropped along each drill moderately 
thick, they will yield better than single rows, and will save 
sticks. When the plants are two or three inches high, let 
them be hoed, drawing, at the same time, a little earth up to 
their stems ; when they get to double that height, let them 
be hoed again ; at the same time, place a low of sticks in the 
middle of your double rows, and a few^ shorter and smaller 
ones on the outside of each row, to assist the Peas in climb- 
ing to their main support. You must be goveAed as to the 
length of your sticks by the description of your Peas. There 
is great advantage in having sticks of a suitable height to 
the various kinds of Peas ; the sticks should not only be suf- 
ficiently tall, but also branchy, that the plants may readily 
take hold ; and they should be prepared fan fashion, so that 
the side branches may extend only along the lows As the 
plants progress in growth, let them be repeatedly hoed and 
earthed up ; this will promote a plentiful bearing. 

One quart of Peas will plant from one hundred and fifty 
to two hundred feet of row, allowing the largest kinds to 
average one inch apart, and the smallest, two peas to the 
inch. If cultivated on the field system, one bushel will plant 
an acre of land, and produce about a hundred bushels of 
green Peas. 

To have green Peas in perfection, they should be gathered 
while young, and cooked immediately after they are shelled, 
or they will soon lose their colour and sweetness. Let the 
water be slightly seasoned with salt, and boiled ; then put in 
the Peas with a small bunch of Spear IN lint, and ease the 
cover so as to let off the steam ; they require about fifteen 
minutes boiling, or five minutes more or less, according to 


the age and care bestowed. Taste and try in time, so as to 
have them done to a nicety. 

The Sugar Peas have no inner tough film, or skin, to the 
pods, Hke the common sorts ; they should therefore be boiled 
without shelling, and served up the same as Kidney Beans. 

PoMME DE TERRE. Solanum Tuberosuiti, 

The Potato is known to be a native of the southern parts 
of America, but has been greatly improved by cultivation. 

The varieties being very numerous, it is unnecessary for 
me to point out any particular kinds ; some of the earliest 
should, however, be planted first in the spring, to produce 
young Potatoes in due season ; but they are not so suitable 
for a full crop as the late varieties. 

Potatoes being of such extensive utility, various expedients 
have been contrived with a view to find out the best method 
of preparing the seed. In many parts of England, (where 
Potatoes equal to any in the world are raised,) the farmers 
seldom plant them whole ; they take the Potatoes as they 
come to hand, and in cutting them, take care to have two 
good eyes in each set ; the small Potatoes are deprived of 
the sprout or nose end, as it is generally considered that a 
redundancy of eyes exhausts the set, and produces weak 
plants, which are not calculated to yield a full crop. I have 
frequently known from five to six hundred bushels raised 
from an acre with small Potatoes alone cut in this way. 
Some prefer planting the sets immediately after they are 
cut; the better way is to get them cut a week before the 
time of planting, and to lay them out on a bam, or garret 
floor, to dry. 

Tt will require from twelve to sixteen bushels of Potatoes 
to plant an acre of ground, according to the size and naturo 



of the seed 'roots, me /nanner of preparing, and mode of 
planting the same. 

Potatoes may be jjlanted from the first week in April until 
July, either in hills or drills ; the best way for a garden is to 
plant them in drills four or five inches deep, and about thirty 
inches asunder ; the sets may be dropj^ed six or eight inches 
apart; and if a small quantity of combmaker's horn shavings 
or sea weed be used as a manure for the early kinds, it will 
expedite their growth ; the gi'ound should be hoed as soon 
as the plants come up, and as they progress in growth it 
will be proper to mould or earth them up twice. 

POTATO, (Sweet.) 
PoMME DE TERRE DOUCE. Convolvulus batattts. 

Sweet Potatoes are grown to great perfection in the 
Southern States, and may be raised in the vicinity of New- 
York, by means of a moderate hot-bed, in which they should 
be planted whole, early in April, three or four inches deep, 
and about the same distance apart. In. about a month they 
will throw up sprouts. When these are three inches above 
ground, part them off from the Potato, which, if suffered to 
remain, \vill produce more sprouts for a successive planting ; 
transplant them into rich light soil, in rows four feet apart, 
and the plants about a foot apart in the rows, or in hills four 
feet apart. Keep them clear of weeds until the vines begin 
to cover the gi'ound, after which they will grow freely. In 
sandy ground, it is well to put a shovelful of rotten manure 
lo each plant. 

A moderate' hot-bed, five feet square, put down early in 
the month of April, with half a peck of good sound Sweet 
Potatoesplaced therein, will produce a succession of sprouts 
in May and June, which if planted and managed as directed, 
will yield about fifteen bushels of good roots. 


CiTROuiLLE ou PoTiRON. CucurhUa pepo, 


Finest Cheese, or Family. 1 Connecticut Field. 

Mammoth, or Spanish. j White Bell. 

This plant is highly deserving of cultivation, particularly 
in new settlements ; the large sorts are profitable for cattle, 
as some of the mammoth tribe have been knovv^n to v^^eigh 
upward of two hundred pounds each ; the other kinds are 
also very productive, and may be raised on any waste land, 
provided it will admit of digging small spots, of the dimen- 
sions of one or two feet, every ten oi twelve feet, for the 
hills, and the residue of the ground be unencumbered for 
the plants to run on. They are generally raised, on culti- 
vated farms, between hills of Indian Com, and may be 
planted in the garden or open field, in May and June, in hills 
eight or ten feet apart, with three or four seed in each hill. 

One quart of Field Pumpkin seed will plant from five to 
six hundred hills. An ounce of the finer kinds will plant from 
fifty to eighty hills. 

Pumpkins are not so tenacious of a particular soil as either 
Melons or Cucumbers, but in other respects are cultivated in 
the same manner, only that in raising them on a large scale 
the ground may be prepared with a plough, and afterward, 
as the weeds advance, the plough and harrow may be used 
between the plants until they begin to run, which will save 
much labour. 

The finest quality of Pumpkins are known to make good 
pies, and may also, after being boiled, be worked up with 
wheaten flour into bread, for which purpose they are fully 
equal to Indian meal. The knowledge of this fact may prove 
advantageous to farmers living at a distance from cities, a3 
they may find a market for their grain or meal readier than 
for their Pumpkins. 


Radis ou Rave. Raphanus sativus. 


Long Scarlet. 
Long Purple. 
Scarlet Pear-shape. 
Scarlet Turnip. 
White Turnip-rooted. 

Long White Naples 
Purple Turnip. 
Yellow Turnip. 
White Spanish. 
Black Spanish. 

The different varieties of Radish are extensively cultivated 
near large cities, chiefly for their roots, which are considered 
a luxury after a hard winter, and prove acceptable as warm 
weather approaches, provided they can be obtained in per- 
fection. The plant is also cultivated for the sake of the seed 
leaves, which are used as a small salad ; and even the seed 
pods, if pickled while young and green, are considered by 
some a good substitute for Capers. 

Those who may be desirous of having good Radishes 
early in the spring, should have a warm border prepared in 
the very best manner, so as to be ready to sow some of the 
Short Top Scarlet by the middle of March. If the ground 
should not be in good condition to receive the seed at this 
time, let it be delayed a few days ; and by the first of April, 
have another bed prepared in the open groimd, by digging 
in some good strong manure. The seed may be sown broad- 
cast, and raked in evenly, or in drills drawn about one inch 
deep, and a foot apart.* 

If you wish to have Radishes in regular succession, sow 
seed of the most esteemed varieties every two weeks, untii 
the middle of May : if any be sown after this, it should be 
the kinds described in the second column of our Catalogue. 

* In the seasons for planting Carrot, Parsnip, Parsley, Leek, Celery, and 
such other seed as are tardy in germinating, a few grains of Radish sei^d 
dropped in each drill will produce good roots, and this crop will prove 
beneficial to those above enumerated, because the rows can be traced by 
the Radishes, which being of quick growth, may be pulled by the time the 
other plants are in full leaf. 


These will endure the heat better than the others, and may 
be sown in drills, in small quantities, throughout the summer, 
until the latter end of August, when all the varieties may be 
sown in regular succession till the first of October. Market 


gardeners may prepare the ground with a plough, and cover 
such seed as may be sown broad-cast with a harrow. ~ 

For early spring crops, the seed may be sown broad-cast, 
at the rate of from twelve to fourteen pounds to the acre, 
and about half that quantity will be sufficient, in drills dravni 
a foot apart. Of the large late kinds, five pounds to the acre 
will be enough, if sown regularly in drills, as directed. 

It may be necessary here to remind the gardener of the 
necessity of sowing tobacco dust, soot, ashes, &c., over his 
seed beds, in hot, dry weather, or he will find it difficult to 
raise Radishes in unpropitious seasons. [See article Turnipi 
also page 19 of the General Remarks J] 

Ail d'Espagne. Jlllmm scorodoprassum. 

This and the Allium sativum, or common Garlic, are raised 
in some gardens. Many people consider the Rocambole to 
be of a milder and better flavour than Garlic, but the bulbs 
are not so large. 

The plants are very hardy, and will grow in almost a.ny 
soil or situation. They may be propagated either by the 
roots or seed ; the former ought to be separated and planted 
at the same time, and in the same manner, as Shallots. 

If raised from seed, they may be sown in drills, either 
shortly after the seed is ripe, or in the succeeding spring ; 
they require only to be kept clear of weeds, and in the fol- 
lowing autumn may be taken up, the bulbs parted, and 
planted as before. 





Rhubarb is a genus of exotic plants, comprising seven 
species, of which the following are the principal : 

1. Rhaponticum, or Common Rhubarb, a native of Thrace 
and Syiia, has long been cultivated in British gardens for 
the footsalks'of the leaves, which are frequently used in pies 
and tarts. 

2. Rheum undulatum is also cultivated for the sane use. 

3. The Palmatum, or true Officinale Rhubarb, is a native 
of China and the East Indies, whence its culture has been 
introduced into Europe : it produces a thick, fleshy root, 
externally yellowish brown, but internally of a bright yellow 
colour, streaked with red veins. It grows to gi'eat perfection 
in Scotland, as far north as Perthshire, (lat. 56,) and in Eng- 
land, Turkey, and various other parts of Europe. When 
the importance of this root as a medicine is considered, it is 
a matter of astonishment that it has not been more generally 
introduced into the United States. 

The several kinds of Rhubarb may be propagated by off- 
sets taken from the roots early in the spring, or from seed 
sown late in autumn, or in March and April, in drills one 
inch deep and a foot apart. The indispensable points to the 
production of good roots of the Palmatum, are depth and 
richness of soil, which should be well pulverized before the 
plants are set out. Prepare beds of fine mould eighteen 
inches deep ; in these put in the plants from the seed-bed, 
ten or twelve inches apart; this must be done when they 
liave attained the height of four or five inches, and have 
thrown out as many leaves. 

The first season is the most critical, and much care is ne- 
cessaiy. If the weather be hot, the nursery must be shaded, 
and at all events frequently watered; for water, tlioagh 
hurtful to old plants, is now of the first importance. Vv'et 
weather is the most proper time in which to plant. The 


beds must be kept free from weeds during the summer, and 
on the approach of severe weather, covered up wdth Hght 
litter. In the early part of spring, this must be taken off, 
and in the beginning of April the plants must be transplanted 
into ground dug and prepared as directed for Asparagus. 

Those who cultivate the Palmaium for the sake of the 
roots, should dig the ground two or three spades deep, and 
place the plants three feet apart every way. As to the other 
varieties, it is not so particular, only the plants must have 
room in which to grow. In the early part of November, the 
leaves being then decayed, the beds should be covered with 
dry litter ; before this is done, a little earth should be drawn 
round the crowns of the plants. If there be any danger of 
water lodging, make trenches to carry it off. In the month 
of March, the beds should be stripped of their covering, and 
the ground well hoed and cleared of weeds. 

The roots of the Palmaium, must not be taken up until six 
or seven years old. The stalks of the other kinds may be 
cut every spring, as soon as the leaves are expanded. 

If Rhubarb stalks be required for use early in the spring, 
they may be obtained by placing flour barrels or deep tubs 
over some of the plants, and covering them up with fresh 
stable dung, or by any of the methods pointed out in the 
article under the head of Forcing Vegetables. 

The stalks of this plant are used for pies and tarts. After 
being stripped of the skin, or outer covering, and divested 
of the small fibres, or stringiness to which the plant is liable, 
in an advanced stage of growth, the stalks should be cut 
transversely into very small pieces, and then parboiled with 
sugar, and such spices as best suit the palate. Rhubarb will 
keep this way the same as other preserves, and may be used 
not only in pies and tarts, but it makes an excellent pudding, 
which is done by flattening a suety crust with a rolling-pin, 
then spreading on the fruit, rolling it up in an oval shape 
and boiling it in a cloth. Prepared in this way, the fi'uit 
retains its virtues, and the pudding may be served up hot, in 


slices of from half an inch to an inch thick, with butter and 
sugar spread between the layers. 

Some boil the stalks to a juice, which being strained 
through a colander, will keep for years, if well spiced and 
seasoned with sugar. 

In England, large drying houses have been erected for the 
purpose of curing tlie roots of the Palmaium ; but this busi- 
ness may be done in this country as it is done in China : by 
the heat of the sun. After the roots have been well washed, 
and the small fibres cut off, they are to be cut transversely 
into pieces about two inches thick, and dried on boards, turn- 
ing them several times a day, in order to prevent the escape 
of the yellow juice, on which its medicinal qualities depend. 
In four or five days they may be strung upon strings, and 
suspended in a shady but airy and dry situation, and in two 
months afterward they will be fit for the market. 

Salsifis ou Cercifis. Tragopogon porrifolius. 

This plant grows spontaneously in the open fields of Eng- 
land, and is by some highly valued for its white edible root, 
and for the young shoots rising in the spring from plants a 
year old ; these, when gathered while green and tender, are 
good to boil and eat in the same manner as Asparagus. 
Some have carried their fondness for this plant so far as to 
call it Vegetable Oyster. It requires the same kind of soil 
and management as Carrots and Parsnips. 

The seed maybe sowti at anytime in April and May, an inch 
deep, in drills twelve inches apart. When the plants are two 
or three inches high, they should be thinned to the distance of 
six inches from each other, and afterward hoed. The ground 
should be kept clean and loose round the plants, by re23eated 
hoeing ; in the autumn they will be fit for use. The ro )ta 


may b*' .aken up late in autumn, and secured in moist sanu 
from the air ; or suffered to remain out, and dug up when 

As the seed of Salsify do not all ripen uniformly, it should 
be sown moderately thick. To insure a regular crop, five 
or six pounds may be allowed for an acre of ground, or two 
ounces for every three perches. 

The mode of cooking recommended by an Ameiican au- 
thor is, " To cut the roots transversely into thin pieces ; boil 
them in water, or milk and water; when boiled soft, mash 
them, and thicken the whole with flour to some degree of 
stiffness ; then fry them in the fat of salt pork, or butter , 
they are a luxury." 

In England the tops are considered excellent food when 
boiled tender, and served up with poached eggs and melted 
butter. They are by some considered salutary for persons 
inclined to consumption. Those afflicted with any symp- 
toms indicating the approach of that complaint, cannot harm 
themselves by eating the tops, when they are to be got, which 
is in the month of April ; and if the roots are eaten when 
attainable, they may, perhaps, answer a still better purpose, 
and even the liquor in which they are briled may possess 
some of the most valuable properties of the plant. 

ScoRSONERE. Scovzoneva Hispanica. 

This plant has long been raised in British gardens, for 
culinary purposes, and especially as an ingredient in soups, 
on account of its palatable and nourishing roots. Some boil 
and eat them like Carrots, &c. ; in which case they should 
be deprived of their rind, and immersed in cold water for 
half an hour, or they will be bitter. They are raised pre- 
cisely in the same manner as Salsify. If the seed be sown in 


Apnl, in a good deep soil, the roots will attain perfection in 
autumn, and continue good all the winter. They last from 
tnree to four years, according to the quality of the earth and 
the care bestowed upon them ; but it is better to raise a few 
from seed every year. 

Chou MARIN. Crambe maritima. 

This plant is found on the sea-shore, in the southern parti 
of England, where it grows spontaneously. As soon as it 
appears above ground, the inhabitants remove the pebbles 
or sand with which it is usually covered, to the depth of sev- 
eral inches, and cut off the young and tender leaves and 
stalks, as yet unexpanded and in a blanched state, close to 
the crowTi of the root ; it is then in its greatest perfection. 
When the leaves are full grown, they become hard and bit- 
ter, and the plant is not eatable. 

It is cultivated in private gardens, and for sale, in various 
parts of England. Cultivators have differed widely respect- 
ing the mode of treating this plant ; many conceiving that 
stones, gravel, and sea sand are essential to its gi'ow^h, have 
gone to the expense of providing them ; but it has been dis- 
covered that it will grow much more luxuriantly in a rich 
sandy loam, where the roots can penetrate to a great depth. 

The seed of Sea-Kale may be sown in October, or as early 
in the spring as the ground can be brought into good condi- 
tion, in drills an inch and a half deep, and fourteen or six- 
teen inches asunder ; the plants should afterward be thinned 
out to the distance of six or eight inches from each other in 
the rows, and kept clear of weeds by frequent hoeing through 
the summer. When the plants are a year old, every third 
row may be taken up, and also every other plant in each 
row, leaving them fourteen or sixteen inches apai't ; these 


may be transplanted into good ground prepared as directed 
for Asparagus. Plant two rows in each bed, about eighteen 
inches apart ; the best way is to make two drills three inches 
deep, and with a dibble set in the plants fifteen or sixteen 
inches from each other; when these drills are filled, the 
crowns of the plants will be covered nearly two inches, but 
they will soon push through the earth. The plants left in 
the seed-bed may forai a permanent bed, which should be 
forked or dug between the rows ; previous to this being done, 
lay onan inch or two of good rotten manure, and incorporate 
it with the earth around the plants. 

Some make new plantations of the old roots, which should 
be cut up into pieces of about two inches in length, and 
planted in March or April, three or four inches deep, at the 
distance before directed for the plants. 

At the approach of winter the leaves will die away, and 
disappear. The beds should then be thickly covered with 
dung, leaves, or sea-weed ; this will not only protect the 
plants from frost, but will cause them to shoot up early in 
the spring. As soon as the frost is out of the ground, this 
may be taken off, or, if well rotted, it may be mixed up with 
the earth ; the crowns of the plants should then be covered 
to the depth of ten or twelve inches for blanching. 

Some blanch it by heaping on it sea sand ; some common 
sand and gravel ; and others with large garden pots, inverted 
and placed immediately over the plants. If these pots be 
covered up with fresh horse dung, it will forward the shoots 
in growth, and make them sweeter and more tender. 

When your plants have been covered in either method 
three or four weeks, examine them, and if you find that the 
stalks have shot up three or four inches, you may begin cut- 
ting ; should you wait till all the shoots are of considerable 
length, your crop will come in too much at once, for in this 
plant there is not that successsive gi'owth which there is in 
Asparagus ; you may continue cutting until you see the heads 
of flowers begin to form j and if at this time you uncover it 


ciifiiely, and let it proceed to that state in which Broccoli is 
usually cut, and use it as such, you will find it an excellent 
substitute ; and this gi'eatly enhances the value of the plant; 
as Broccoli does not stand our winter frosts, and can only be 
had when carefully protected, as recommended when treat- 
ing of that vegetable ; but Sea-Kale is sufficiently hardy to 
bear our winter frosts, without much injury. You are not 
to weaken the roots too much by over-cutting, for in that case 
it would injure their next year's bearing : some of the shoots 
should be allowed to grow, to carry on a proper vegetation, 
and strengthen and enlarge the roots. Great care should be 
taken in cutting, not to injure the crowns of the roots by cut- 
ting the shoots too close to them. Sea-Kale should be dressed 
soon after it is cut, as the goodness of the article greatly de- 
pends on its not being long exposed to the air. 

If you choose to force Sea-Kale, dig a trench all round a 
small bed, about three feet wide, and thirty inches deep ; fill 
it wdth hot dung, and as it sinks, raise it. This will make 
the plants grow ; and if hand lights are set over them, it 
will accelerate their growth. 

To have this rare vegetable in perfection, it should be 
cooked as soon as gathered. Let it be first soaked in water, 
seasoned with salt, for half an hour ; then wash it in fresh 
water, and put it into the cooking utensil ; keep it boiling 
briskly, skim clean, and let off* steam. When the stalks are 
tender, which may be expected in from fifteen to twenty-five 
minutes, according to size and age, take it up, dish it, and 
serve it up with melted butter, gravy, and such condiments 
as are most agreeable to the palate. 


Chervis, ou Gyrole. Sium sisarum. 

This plant is first cultivated by seed, and afterward by off- 
sets taken from the old roots, and planted very early in the 
spring, before they begin to shoot ; but it is best to raise a 
small bed from seed every year, as the roots grovv^ longei 
than those raised from slips, and are less liable to be sticky. 
The seed may be sov\^n in drills the latter part of March, 
or early in April, and managed the same as Salsify, Parsnip, 
&c. In autumn, when the leaves begin to decay, the roots are 
fit to use, and continue so till they begin to shoot in the spiing. 

Skirrets should be planted in a light, moist soil, for in dry 
land the roots are generally small, unless the season proves wet. 

The root of the Skirret is composed of several fleshy 
tubers as large as a man's finger, and joined together at the 
top. They are eaten boiled, and stewed with butter, pepper, 
and salt, or rolled in flour and fried, or else cold, with oil 
and vinegar, being first boiled. They have much of the taste 
and flavour of a Parsnip, and are by some considered a great 
deal more palatable. 

EcHALOTE. Allium ascalonicum. 

The true Shallot is a native of Palestine, and is considered 
to possess the most agreeable flavour of any of the Allium 
genus ; it is consequently highly deserving of cultivation. 

It is propagated by planting bulbs, or offsets, in the fall of 
the year, which may be set out with a dibble, in rows twelve 
inches apart, and from four to six inches distant in the rows ; 
or they may be placed in drills, two or three inches deep, 
and covered up with a trowel or hoe. 

The gardeners about New- York plant krge quantities of 
the bulbs toward the end of August, and early in Septem- 

9 7 


oer ; by this means they are enabled to supply the market 
m April and May with a mild Allium, which while green 
meets a ready sale. 

Those intended for seed may remain in the ground until 
June or July ; after the tops have decayed, the bulbs must 
be taken up, and the offsets divided : these should be kept in 
a dry place to plant the ensuing autumn. 

It will require at least four bushels of bulbs, if measured 
when first taken from the ground, to plant a quarter of an 
acre ; because after they are trimmed and deprived of their 
seed stalks, the bulk will be reduced one half. 

Epinard. Spinacia. 

Large Round-leaved. I Holland, or Lamb's Quarter 

Broad-leaved Savoy. | New Zealand. 

The Spinacia oler'acea, or common Spinach, is very hardy, 
and consequently a very important vegetable for cold cli- 
mates. It merits attention from its being extremely whole- 
some and palatable, and from its keeping green even after 
having been cooked. It makes a delicious dish when served 
up with the gravy of roast meat, melted butter, &c. 

As Spinach is the only vegetable that can be raised to ad- 
vantage the latter end of the year, the gardener should, to- 
wards the end of August, prepare such ground as may have 
been occupied by summer crops, and by having it well ma- 
nured for this crop, it will be in good condition for Beets, 
Carrots, Parsnips, Turnips, ifcc, the spring following. 

If the gi-ound be got ready, so as to have several beds 
sown in succession, from the first to the end of September, 
the most forward of these, if covered up with straw at the 
approach of cold weather, will furnish greens for the table 
w"Hen other vegetables are scarce, and tlie later croi)s will 


recover the effects of a hard winter, and produce a whole- 
some vegetable early in the spring. 

If Spinach seed be sown in rich ground in March and 
April, it will grow freely, but it must be cut before the ap- 
proach of hot weather, or it will run to seed. To raise it in 
perfection at this season, it should be sovni in drills about a 
foot apart, and be frequently hoed ; this will keep it in a 
growing state, and, consequently, prevent its running up to 
seed as quick as it otherwise would. 

It is altogether useless to sow Spinach seed in poor ground; 
let the ground be well manured with good strong dung, and it 
will well reward you for your trouble by its abundant produce. 

If Spinach be cultivated in drills a foot apart, it will re- 
quire from seven to eight pounds of seed to plant an acre 
of ground. Some gardeners use more than double that 
quantity in sowing broad-cast. 

Be careful to pick Spinach exceedingly clean, and wash 
it in five or six waters previous to cooking it. Some cook 
Spinach in a steamer over boiling water, others boil it in 
water ; but the best way is to put it into a saucepan that will 
just hold it, without water, then strew a little salt upon it, 
and cover it close. Put your saucepan on a clear quick fire; 
and when you find the Spinach shrunk and fallen to the bot- 
tom, and the juice which comes from it boil up, it is done. 
In order that it may be rendered capable of absorbing a 
moderate quantity of gravy, melted butter, &c., which are 
indispensable with green vegetables, let it be well drained 
in a sieve, or colander, before it is dished. 

The New Zealand Spinach, or Tetragona expansa, is not 
much cultivated in this country ; its nature seems to be op- 
posite to the common Spinach, as it will endure the heat 
better than the cold. It may be obtained in the summer, 
by planting the seed in April and May. Being of luxuriant 
growth, it should be planted in hills three feet apart, and 
about two seed in a hill. The leaves will be fit for use dur 
ing the summer, and until late in the autumn. 

100 SQUASH. 

GrouRDE GiRAUMON ou PoTiRON. Cucurbita metopepa, 


Early Bush Scollop. I Vegetable Marrow. 

Green Striped Bush. Winter Crookneck. 

Early Crookneck. I Lima Cocoanut. 

Large Cushaw. I Acorn, or California. 

The several varieties of Squash are very useful in this and 
other warm climates, as they can be grown in perfection in 
the summer, and therefore prove a good substitute for Tur 
nips, which cannot be raised in perfection in hot weather 
They should be planted in May and June, in hills, prepared 
in the same manner as for Cucumbers and Melons, and theii 
subsequent management is the same in every respect. The 
bush kinds should be planted three or four feet apart, and 
the running kinds from six to nine, according to their nature, 
as some will run more than others. It is always best to 
plant five or six seed in a hill, to guard against accidents ; as 
when the plants are past danger, they can be thinned to two 
or three in a hill. One ounce of Squash seed will plant from 
fifty to a hundred hills, according to the sorts and size of the 

The fruit of the Early Summer Squash is generally gath 
ered for use before the skin gets hard, and while it is so ten 
ler as to give way to a moderate pressure of the thumb nail. 
The Winter Squashes should be suffered to ripen, and collect- 
ed together in October, in the manner recommended in the 
Calendar for that month. 

All kinds of Squashes should, after having been boiled 
tender, be pressed as close as possible between two wooden 
trenchers, or by means of a slice or skimmer, made of the 
same material, until dry, and then prepared for the table in 
the same manner as Turnips. 

TOMATO. 101 

ToMATE, ou PoMME d'amour. Solanum lycopersicum, 


Large Red. 1 Pear-shaped. 

Large Yellow. | Cherry-shaped. 

The Tomato, or Love Apple, is much cultivated for its 
fruit, which is used, in soups and sauces, to which it imparts 
an agreeable acid flavour ; it is also stewed and dressed in 
various ways, and is considered very wholesome. 

The seed should be sown early in March, in a slight hot- 
bed, and the plants set out in the open ground, if settled 
warm weather, in the early part of May. In private gar- 
dens it will be necessary to plant them near a fence, or to 
provide trellises for them to be trained to, in the manner 
recommended for Nasturtiums ; they will, however, do very 
well, if planted four feet distant from each other every way. 

Tomatoes may be brought to perfection late in the sum ■ 
mer, by sowing the seed in the open ground the first week 
in May ; these plants will be fit to transplant early in June, 
and the fruit may ripen in time for preserves, or for catsup. 

One ounce of good Tomato seed will produce upward of 
four thousand plants ; and a single plant has been known to 
yield upward of a bushel of fruit. 

Tomatoes may be preserved in a stone or glazed earthen 
pot, for use in the winter, by covering them with water in 
which a sufficient quantity of salt has been dissolved to make 
it strong enough to bear an egg. Select perfectly ripe ber- 
ries, and cover the pot with a plate in such a manner that it 
presses upon the fruit without biuising it. Previous to cook- 
ing these Tomatoes, they should be soaked in fresh water 
for several hours. 

Besides the various modes of preparing this delicious ve- 
getable for the table, it may be preserved in sugar, and used 
either as a dessert, or on the tea-table, as a substitute for 
Peaches or other sweetmeats. It also makes exqusite pies 
an/i tarts, and excellent catsup. 



A celebrated writer observes, that ** the common Tom»ato 
made into a gravy, by stewing over the fire, and used as a 
sauce for meat, has been known to quicken the action of the 
liver and of the bowels, better than any medicine he ever 
made use of." He states farther, that " when afflicted with 
inaction of the bowels, headache, a bad taste of the mouth, 
straitness of the chest, and a dull and painful heaviness of 
the region of the liver, the whole of these symptoms are 
removed by Tomato sauce, and the mind, in the course of 
some few hours, is put in perfect tune." 

To make them into catsup, use one pint of salt to one 
peck of Tomatoes ; bruise them, and let them stand two 
days ; then strain them diy, and boil the juice until the scum 
ceases to rise, with two ounces of black pepper, the same 
quantity of pimento or allspice, one ounce of ginger, one of 
cloves, and half an ounce of mace. 

Navet. Brassica rapa. 


Early Garden Stone. 
Early White Dutch. 
Early Snow Bali. 
Early Red Top 
Strap Leaved Red Top. 
Early Green Top 
Yellow Aberdeen. 
Long White. 

Large English Norfolk. 

Long Tankard, or Hanover. 

White Flat, or Globe. 

Yellow Maltese. 

Yellow Stone. 

Dale's Yellow Hybrid. 

Long Yellow. 

Russia, Swedish, or Ruta Baga. 

This is a wholesome and useful plant, both for man and 
beast, and highly desei-ving of cultivation. It being the last 
esculent vegetable in our catalogue, that is raised from seed 
sold at the various seed stores, I shall endeavour to stimulate 
those of our yeomanry who have hitherto neglected the cul- 
ture of this field as well as garden production, to exertirn 
and diligence, by inserting a few extracts from a paper that 
now lies before me. 

ruRNip. 103 **" 

" Cudure of Turnips. — Until the beginning of the eigh- 
teenth century, this valuable root was cultivated only in gar- 
dens, or other small spots, for culinary purposes ; but Lord 
Townsend, who attended King George the First in one of 
his excursions to Germany, in the quality of Secretary of 
State, observing the Turnip cultivated in open and extensive 
fields, as fodder for cattle, and spreading fertility over lands 
naturally barren, on his return to England brought over some 
of the seed, and strongly recommended the practice which^ .. 
he had witnessed, to the adoption of his own tenants, who 
occupied a soil similar to that of Hanover. The experiment 
succeeded ; the cultivation of Field Turnips gradually spread 
over the whole county of Norfolk, and has made its way into 
every other district of England. Some of the finest grain 
crops in the world are now growing upon land, which be- 
fore the introduction of the Turnip husbandry, produced a 
very scanty supply of grass for a few lean and half-starved 

Mr. Colquhoun, in his * Statistical Researches,'' estimated 
the value of the Turnip crop annually gi'owing in the United 
Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, at fourteen million 
pounds sterling, (equal to upward of sixty millions of dol- 
lars.) But when we farther recollect, that it enables the 
agriculturist to reclaim and cultivate land, which, without its 
aid, would remain in a hopeless state of natural barrenness ; 
that it leaves the land clean and in fine condition, and also 
insures a good crop of Barley, and a kind plant of Clover ; 
and that this Clover is found a most excellent preparative 
for Wheat, it will appear that the subsequent advantages 
derived from a crop of Turnips must infinitely exceed its 
estimated value as fodder for cattle. 

The preceding remarks show the kind of land that may 
be made capable of producing not only Turnips, but other 
things of equal vakie. It must, however, be granted, that 
some soils naturally suit particular kinds of vegetables better 
than others, and that, in general, exotic plants will succeed 

104 TURNIP. 

best in such soils as are nearest like their own native soil. 
As we have not always a choice, I would inform the Young 
Gardener, if he has a very light soil, which is not suitable 
for vegetables in general, he may sometimes get two crops of 
Turnips from it in one year, by sowing seed for the first crop 
in March, and that for his second about the middle of August, 
For general crops, it will be better to have ground manured 
with short rotten dung, or compost containing a considerable 
proportion of coal, wood, peat, or soapers' ashes. Ground 
that has been well manured for preceding crops, and also 
ground fresh broken up, will do well for Turnips. 

It is important that particular attention be paid to the time 
of sowing the seed ; for if the first crop be not sown soon 
enough to be gathered early in July, they are seldom fit for 
the table, being hot, stringy, and woraiy ; and if the crop in- 
tended for autumn and winter use is sown before August, 
unless it be a very favourable season, if they even escape 
the attacks of insects and reptiles, they often get so defective, 
that they seldom keep through the winter.* 

To have Turnips in perfection, they should be hoed in 
about a month after they are sown, or by the time the plants 
have spread to a circle of about four inches, and again about 
a month from the first hoeing, leaving them from six to nine 
inches aj^art. They will yield the cultivator more profit 
when treated in this way, than when left to nature, as is too 
frequently done. 

♦ Previous to sowing Turnip seed, the gardener should procure a suitable 
quantity of lime, soot, or tobacco dust, so as to be prepared for the attacks 
of insects. It should be recollected that Turnip seed will sometimes sprout 
withm forty-eight hours after it is sown, and that very frequentlj whole 
crops are devoured before a plant is seen aUve grouni. A j^ck of either 
of these ingredients, mixed with about an equal quantity of asnes, or even 
dry road dust, scattered over the ground, morning and evening, for the first 
week after sowing the seed, would secure an acre of ground, provided the 
composition be used in such a way that the wind carry it over the whole 
plot ; and as the wind often changes, this end may be effected by crossing 
the land in a different direction each time, according as the wind may serve. 
If gardeners who raise Radishes, Cabbage, and such other vegetables as are 
subject to the attacks of insects, were to pursue this course, they would 
save themselves from considerable loss 

TURNIP. 105 

It is generally admitted that one pound of Turnip seed is 
amply sufficient for an acre of ground, yet some will use 
considerably more, because of the difficulty of distributing so 
small a quantity of seed regularly broad-cast. This difficulty 
is, however, obviated by sowing the seed in drills ; and al- 
though it may seem a tedious process to those who have no 
other means of doing it than by hand, the facilities thus af- 
forded of hoeing between the rows, more than compensate 
for the extra labour. 

I once induced a friend of mine to sow four ounces of 
Turnip seed, in August, in drills a foot apart, by which 
means he made it extend over more than half an acre of 
land ; and by hoeing the plants twice, he had the gi'atifica- 
tion of pulling four hundred bushels of handsome Turnips, 
which is more than is generally taken from an acre of land 
cultivated in the oordinary way. 

If seed of the Russia or Swedish Turnip be sown in drills, 
any time in the month of July, or even early in August, they 
will produce fine roots toward the end of October, pro- 
vided the land be good, and well worked. When the plants 
are uj) strong, they must be hoed and thinned to the distance 
of twelve or fifteen inches from each other ; another hoeing 
will be necessary in five or six weeks afterward. This will 
make them grow freely. If cultivated in the field, frequent 
ploughing between the rows will be beneficial. 

The Turnip is a favourite vegetable with some, and in 
England, a leg of mutton and caper sauce is considered by 
epicures as but half a dish without mashed Turnips. To 
have them in perfection, they should, after having been de- 
prived of their rind, be equalized by cutting the largest trans- 
versely in the centre, and then, after being boiled tender, let 
them be taken up, and pressed as dry as possible ; at the same 
time, let a lump of butter and a due proportion of Cayenne 
pepper and salt be added, and be beaten up with the Turnips 
until properly mixed. Use the natural gi'avy from the meat 
unadulterated, and such condiment as may be most esteemed 



Graines d'Herbes Aromatiques, odoriferantes et a 
l'usage de la cuisine. 

Angelica, Garden, Angelica atropurpurea- 

Anise, Pimpinella anisum. 

Basil, Sweet, Ocymum basilicum. 

Borage, Borago officinalis. 

Burnet, Garden, Poturium sanguisorha. 

Caraway, Carum carui. 

Chervil, or Cicely the Sweet, Scandix odorata cerefolium. 

Clary, Salvia sclara. 

Coriander, Coriandrum sativum^ 

Dill, Anethum graveolens. 

* Fennel, Common, Anethum fceJiiculum. 

* Fennel, Sweet, Anethum dulce. 
Marigold, Pot, Calendula officinalis. 

* Marjoram, Sweet, Origanum marjorana. 

* Mint, Spear, Mentha virides. 

* Mint, Pepper, Mentha piperita. 

* Mint, Pennyroyal, Mentha pulegium. 

* Sage, Common, Salvia officinalis. 

* Sage, Red, Salvia clandestinoides. 
Savory, Summer, Satureja hortensis. 

* Savory, Winter, Satureja montana. 

* Tarragon, Artemisia dracunculu^. 

* Thyme, Common, Thymus vulgaris. 

* Thyme, Lemon, Thymus serpyllum. 

Aromatic Herbs are such as impart a strong spicy odour 
and savoury taste ; many of them are used as small pot herbs, 
and for sauces, stuffings, and other uses in cooking. As only 
a small quantity of these are necessary in private gardens, a 
by-corner may be allotted for them, and such medicinal herbs 
as may be wanted in a family. 

It may be necessary to explain, as we go along, that there 
are three principal descriptive names given to plants, namely, 
Annuals, Biennials, and Perennials. The Annuals being but 
of one season's duration, are raised every year from seed. 
The Biennials are raised from seed one year, continue till 
the second, then perfect their seed, and soon after die; some 
ot these should also be raised every year from seed. The 
Perennials may be raised from seed, but when once raised, 
they will continue on the same roots many years. Those 



marked * are of the latter description, and may be propagated 
by suckers, offsets, cuttings, or parting the roots. Those 
who have not already a plantation of these herbs, may sow 
the seed of any of the different kinds in April or May, in 
drills about half an inch deep, and twelve inches apart, each 
kind by itself The plants may afterward be transplanted 
into separate beds ; or, if a drill for each kind be drawn two 
feet apart, the seed may be sown in them, and the plants 
afterward thinned out to proper distances, according to the 
natural growth of the different kinds of plants. 


Graines de Plantes Medicinal. 


Boneset, or Thoroughwort, 

• Balm, 

Bean, Castor Oil, 

• Chamomile, 

• Corafrey, 

• Elecampane, 

• Horehound, 

• Horsemint, 

• Hyssop, 

• Lavender, 

• Mallow, Marsh, 

• Motherwort, 

• Patience Dock, 

• Pinkroot, Carolina, 
Poppy Opium, (annual,) 

• Rosemary, 

• Rue, Garden, 
Saffron, Bastard, 
Skullcap, or Mad Dog Plant. 
Snakeroot, Virginian, 

• Sorrel, 

Sesamum orientale. 
Kupatorium perfoliatum. 
Melissa officinalis. 
Ricinus communis- 
Arctium lappa- 
Nepeta cat aria. 
Chelidonum majus. 
Anthemis nobilis- 
Symphyfum officinale 
Inula helenium- 
Chrysanthemum parthenium% 
Marubiam vulgare. 
Monarda punctata' 
Hyssupus officinalis' 
Lavendula spictt' 
Ligusticum levisticum. 
Althea officinalis. 
Leonurus cardiaca' 
Rum,ex patientia. 
Spigelia Marylandica. 
Papaver somniferum,' 
Rosmarinus officinalis' 
Ruta graveolenS' 
Carthamus tinctorius. 
Scutellaria lateriflora. 
Aristolochia serpentaria, 
Rumex acetoaa. 


* Southernwood, Artemisia abrotanum. 

* Speedwell, Virginian, Veronica Virginica. 

* Spikenard, Aralia rucemosa. 

* Tansy, Tanace/um vulgare. 

* Wormwood, Artemisia absinthi^im. 

The generality of Aromatic, Sweet, and Medicinal Herbs 
may be raised from seed sown in Apiil and May. The 
greater part of the above-mentioned plants are Perennial, 
and "will multiply from the seed they drop, or from paitings 
from the roots. The offsets, roots, or young plants thus 
raised, should be planted at suitable distances from each other 
early in the spring. 

The beds should afterward be kept free from weeds, and 
as the herbs come into flower, they should be cut on a dry 
day, and spread in a shady place to dry, for winter use. The 
best way to preserve them after they are dried, is to rub 
them so as to pass them through a sieve, then pack them in 
bottles or boxes, each kind by itself; they should be after- 
ward kept in a dry place. 

In the month of October, the heib beds should be exam- 
ined. Lavender, Rosemary, and other tender plants, should 
be taken up, potted, and placed in a frame or greenhouse 
for the winter. Thyme, Hyssop, Winter Savory, Southern- 
wood, Sage, Rue, and the like, will require their tops to be 
neatly dressed ; and Pot Marjoram, Burnet, Tarragon, Tansy, 
Pennyroyal, Sorrel, Chamomile, Fennel, Hcnehound, Mint, 
Lovage, and other kinds of hardy Perennial Herbs, should 
be cut down close to the ground. 

After this is done, it will be proper to dig lightly, and 
loosen the ground between the roots of the shrubby ])lant.s ; 
but the beds of close-growing running plants, such as Mint, 
Running Thyme, and all other creeping herbs, will not well 
admit of digging; therefore, after the stalks are cut down, 
and the beds cleared of weeds, dig the alleys, and strew some 
of the loose earth evenly over the beds ; and if the ground 
be rather poor or light, a top dressing of very rotten dung 
will be of considerable service. 


This dressing- will give proper nurture and protection to 
the roots of the j^lants, a neat appearance to the garden, and 
in spring the shoots will rise with renewed vigour. 

Having finished the Catalogue, I will now proceed to give 
directions for making the most of a piece of ground well 
manured for early crops. In the general directions at the 
commencement, I observed that good lich manure was indis- 
pensably necessary to the production of some particular 
kinds of vegetables ; it may be farther observed, that rich 
ground will produce two or three valuable crops, but it re 
quires some attention, to make use of it to the best advan 
tage. If the gardener has leisure to dig such ground in 
March or April, as he intends for Beans, Cucumbers, Toma- 
toes, Egg-plants, or other tender plants, he may raise Ra- 
dishes, Spinach, Lettuce, or other small salads on it, by leav- 
ing a space for his hills or drills ; or Radish seed may be 
sown lightly over the beds of Beets, Carrots, Parsnips, &rc., but 
they must not be suffered to run to seed, as this would injure 
the other plants. When the first crops are gathered, it requires 
a little consideration before a second is planted, in order that 
a sufficient quantity of the best ground may be reserved for 
the most particular and valuable varieties of vegetables. 

That 1 may be understood, I have adopted the following 
plans, representing beds of earth ; this will answer the same 
pui'pose as bringing my readers on the ground. 

No. 1. The following lines represent drills six inches apart. 

March 25.- 


Parsley, Onion, or other small seed. 

March 25.- 


Radish seed. 

March 25 - 

— Sow 

rarsley. Onion, or other small seed. 

The Radishes being pulled early in May, leaves the inter- 
mediate ground for the other plants. 



No. 2. Drills ten inches apart. 

April I.- 



or Radish seed. 

April 1 S.- 

— Plant early Cabbage Plants. 

April 1 .- 



or Radish seed. 

By the time the Cabbage requires the whole of the ground, 
the Spinach or Radishes may be gathered. 

If this bed be cleared of the second crop by the middle 
of July, it may be planted with Celery, Turnip, or Black 
Radish seed. If the Cabbage be of the late-heading kinds, 
the ground may be reserved for the first sowing of Spinach, 
Fetticus, Lettuce, &c., in which case it will require a fresh 
coat of manure 

No. 3. Drills twelve inches apart. 

~~~ March 20. — Plant slips or cuttings of Horse-radish. ~~" 

March 20. — Plant Turnip-rooted Beet seed. 

■ March 20. — Plant slips or cuttings of Horse-radish. 

If required, a light crop of Radishes may be raised on 
this bed, which should be pulled while young. 

Hoe and thin out the Beets as they progress in growth, and 
when full grown, they may be gathered, without disturbing 
the Horse-radish. [See article Horse-radish.] 


No 4. Rows, or drills, fourteen inches apart. 

March 20. — Plant hardy Lettuce plants. 

March 20. — Pant hardy Lettuce plants. 

Hoe them the first week in April ; previous to hoeing the 
second time, draw a drill between each row of plants, and 
plant Beet or Carrot seed ; this may be covered up in hoe- 
ing the Lettuce, and by the time the plants are up strong, 
the Lettuce will be fit to cut. If these roots are well attended 
to, they may be cleared off soon enough to produce fall Cab- 
bage, Leeks, Celery, Tuinips, Black Radishes, &c. 

No. 5. Rows, or drills, sixteen inches apart. 

March 25. — Plant hardy Lettuce plants. 

March 25. — Plant hardy Lettuce plants. 

April 20.— Plant Early York Cabbage plants, either between the rows or 
between the Lettuce. 

As soon as the Lettuce is oiF, hoe the Cabbage, and it vnll 
Boon cover the ground. 

This gi'ound will be suitable for a crop of any of the va- 
rieties above mentioned, except Cabbage, the roots of which 
are apt to get defective, if the same giound be planted with 
Cabbage twice in succession. 

The above, or preceding plans, present a fair specimen of 
what may be done on a small piece of good ground. If the 



young gardener takes the trouble to keep an account of his 
transactions, he will soon make discoveries of still greater 
importance. If not sufficiently acquainted with the different 
varieties of Cabbage plants, for instance, so as to distinguish 
the one from the other, by making a memorandum at the 
time of sowing the seed he will soon get acquainted with the 
different varieties of plants ; he will also discover the differ- 
ence in the growing of his seed, and know who to blame if 
any particular kind should not come up. 

The following represents a Hot-bed with four sashp^, sown 
March 1 : 

Early Dwarf, 

Early York, 

or other spring 

Cabbage Seed. 

Early Battersea, 

Drumhead, or 

other summer 

Cabbage Seed. 

Early Lettuce, 
Tomato Seed, 


&c. in shallow 



Seed. &c. 

partitioned ofT 

as directed in 

note to article 


It may be necessary to remind my readers of the neces 
sity of being always prepared to sow Cabbage, Lettuce, To- 
mato, and Egg-plant seed in hot-beds the last week in Feb- 
ruary, or early in March ; for this purpose, let some fresh 
stable dung and rich compost be engaged beforehand. Some 
gardeners make their beds on the level ground, but it is 
always safest to make them in pits from eighteen inches to 
two feet deep ;* in order to do this, the pits should be dug 

* When durable heat is required for forcing vegetables, the beds should 
be made on level ground, in order that linings may be applied to the out- 
side of the frame, which, by frequent renewal, will enliven the heat of the 
bed, and thus bring tender vegetables to maturity, which would otherwise 
suffer from a decline of the heat. For particular directions, see Observa* 
tions on Forcing Vegetables } also, article on Forcing Asparagus. 

HOT-BEDS. 113 

in autumn, or a heap of dung may be deposited on the 
gi'ound intended for the beds before the frost sets in, and 
good earth may be obtained from the pits without any diffi- 

The frames should be made of good sound planks ; the 
back plank may be two feet wide, and the end ones may be 
so sloped as to make a fifteen-inch plank do for the front. 
A frame calculated for four sashes, of three feet in width by 
six in length, as above described, should be nearly thirteen 
feet long, and about six broad at the top. 

The frame being set over the pit, and properly fastened, 
the fresh dung should be spread regularly in the pit to the 
depth of twenty to twenty-four inches ; if the dung be in a 
good heating condition, cover it six or eight inches deep 
with mould, then lay on the sashes, and protect the beds 
from the inclemency of the weather. In two or three days 
the rank steam will pass off; it will then be necessary to stir 
the mould before tlie seed be sown, to prevent the growth 
of young weeds that may be germinating ; then sow the 
seed either in shallow drills or broad-cast, as equally as pos- 
sible, reserving a small quantity of the warm mould to be 
sovm lightly over the seed. The beds should afterward 
be attended to, as directed for Broccoli and Cauliflower. 
This description of a hot-bed is intended expressly for the 
raising of Spring Cabbage, Lettuce, Tomatoes, and such 
other plants as may be required for early planting. Beds 
made earlier in the season, or for forcing, will require a 
greater quantity of manure [See Calendar for January, 
February, and March.] 





Before I commenced preparing this work for the press, 
I intended to have written largely on the subject of forcing 
fruits as well as vegetables ; but when I considered my 
motto, and that I was writing for young gardeners, I con- 
cluded to occupy my pages in such a manner as to effect the 
greatest possible good at the smallest expense. Of the seve- 
ral branches of Horticulture, some are of greater importance 
than others ; and as the products of the kitchen garden form 
important articles of food for the bulk of mankind, it should 
be our first care to treat largely on the subject of this most 
useful part of gardening. Next to this is the cultivation of 
fruits, and the production of ornamental plants and flowers, 
each of which will be noticed in their respective departments. 

As I stand pledged to offer some remarks on forcing, or 
rather forwarding vegetables, by artificial means, I shall en- 
deavour to confine my observations to such points as are of 
piimary importance ; and in order to convince my readers 
of the importance of this subject, I shall first endeavour to 
show the utility of an artificial climate suited to the vaiioua 
species of useful plants. In England, a regular succession 
of vegetables can be obtained from the natural ground every 
month in the year, and the fruits of that country, from the 
summer heat being moderate, are of longer continuance 
than with us, and yet the English make gEirdening a science, 
and employ the elements, as well as the ingenuity of man, 
in the production of fruits and vegetables out of the ordinary 


I shall not attempt to treat of the cultivation of Pine- 
apples, Grapes, Chemes, or other fruits grown in forcing- 
houses ; nor would it be advisable with us to undertake to 
raise Cucumbers, Melons, &c., in frames throughout the se- 
vere winters of our Northern States ; but it must be acknow- 
ledged, that the extreme heat of our summers is as detri- 
mental to the cultivation of some of the most valuable kinds 
of fruits and vegetables, as the coldness of our winters, and 
for these reasons, artificial aid is more necessary here in the 
winter and spring of the year than in Engknd. The inhabi- 
tants of tliat country obtain a supply of the different varieties 
of Artichokes, Broad Beans, Borecole, BroccoH, Cauliflower, 
Kale, Lettuce, Radishes, Rhubarb, Spinach, Turnips, and 
salads in general, a great part of the year from their kitchen 
gardens, whereas, if we were to attempt to supply our mar- 
kets vdth culinary vegetables at all times, in any thing hke 
the abundance that they have them there, we must, out of the 
ordinary season for gardening operations, turn our attention to 
the protecting and forwarding, as well as the forcing system. 

Before I proceed to show the method of forcing vegeta- 
bles, it may be necessary for me to remind my readers, that 
in providing an artificial climate, they should consider the 
nature of the plants they intend to cultivate, and endeavour 
to supply them with that which is best calculated to nourish 
and support them. I have, in another part of this work, 
endeavoured to show, that heat, light, air, and moisture, are 
each essential to vegetation, and that these should be sup- 
plied in a judicious manner, according to circumstances. 

In the midst of our Northern winter, which is the usual 
time for forcing in England, we are subject to north-west 
winds, which produce extreme freezing. Now, as we have 
not yet discovered how to make an artificial air, it will not 
be safe for the gardener to raise a bottom heat under any 
kind of vegetable, until such time as he can impart a tole- 
rable share of salubrious air, as the heat without air will 
soon destroy the fruits of his labour. 


Perhaps the safest time to commence forcing in frames, 
is soon after the middle of February, and the early part o( 
March. I before hinted, that the depth of heating materials 
must be regulated by the season of the year at which the 
work is commenced, and also to the puiposes for which the 
hot-beds are intended. Beds used for the purpose of raising 
half-hardy plants, or for procuring seedling plants late in the 
spring, may be made in the manner recommended for the 
common hot-bed ; but if substantial heat is required to be 
kept up, the beds must be so contrived as to admit of linings 
as the heat decreases ; and the dung should undergo a regu- 
lar process of preparation, according to the use it is intended 
for. Compost heaps should also be pro\4ded, in order to 
furnish suitable mould to the different species of plants ; for 
this purpose, all the old hot-bed dung and mould, leaves, tan, 
turf, sand, and other light manures and decayed animal dung, 
should be collected tosrether. 


In some cases, when a slight hot-bed is recommended for 
forwarding hardy plants, if it should happen that a seedling 
Cucumber bed be at liberty, it may answer every purpose 
for Radishes, Lettuce, or other hardy plants ; or such a bed 
may be spawned for Mu&hroons, if required. 

If the forcing be commenced before the coldest of the 
winter is past, great precaution must be used, lest the plants 
be injured by cold cutting winds, or destroyed by heat for 
want of air. To prevent the former accident, warm dung 
should be placed around the frames, and the sashes covered 
with mats and boards every night. If full air cannot be ad- 
mitted in the day time, the sashes must be slid den down to 
let off the steam ; at the same time mats may be laid over 
the aperture, to prevent cold air entering to the plants. 

If the bottom heat in a bed be too violent, which is some- 
times the case, means must be used to decrease it. This is 
generally effected by making holes in the bed with a stake 
sharpened at the end, or with a crow-bar ; which holes should 
be filled ip when the heat is sufficiently reduced. In lining 


hot-beds, if the heat is reduced in the body of the beds, holes 
may be Carefully made to admit heat from the fresh Hiiings, 
BO as to enliven the heat of the bed. 

A Fahrenheit thermometer should always be at hand at 
the time of forcing, to be used, when necessary, to regulate 
the heat in the beds ; and the water that is used in cultiva- 
ting plants in frames, should be warmed to the temperature 
of the air, or according to the heat requii-'ed for the various 
kinds of plants, which will be showTi in the annexed articles. 


As Asparagus is apt to grow weak and slender by extreme 
bottom heat, it is forced with greater success, and with less 
trouble, in flued pits in a hot-house, than in dung hot-beds, 
because the heat from tan is more regular ; but a very suita- 
ble bed may be formed in a deep hot-bed frame, made in the 
usual way. If dung alone, or a mixture of dung and leaves, 
be used, it should be in a state past heating \dolently before 
it is made into a bed ; but if the gardener has no choice of 
materials, he may make his hot-bed in the usual way, and if 
the depth of heating materials be two feet, he may lay on a 
foot of old hot-bed dung, tan, or any light compost, that will 
admit of the heat passing through it. 

It may be necessary to state farther, that though too much 
bottom heat should be avoided, heat is necessary to the pro- 
duction of the vegetable in a moderate time, which is gene- 
rally effected in a month or six weeks after the commence- 
ment of the operations. For the purpose of keeping up a 
regular heat, a lining of hot dung should be applied around 
the frame, and changed as occasion requires. 

Provide plants from two to four, or even six years old, 
trim their roots, and place them in rows on the beds ; when 
one row is laid, strew.a little mould among the roots, then 
proceed in the same way with one row after another, keej)- 


ing th(3m on a level, as the surface of the bed at first lay, 
till you have finished planting them ; then lay aftiong the 
buds and roots some fine vegetable or other rich mould, vv^ork 
it in among them w^ith your fingers, and cover the beds over 
about an inch thick; and upon that, lay three inches in 
depth of vegetable mould not very rotten, old tan, or any 
other light compost that vsdll admit the water to run quickly 

If there be a strong heat in the bed, slide down the sashes 
till it begins to decline. The temperature at night should 
never be under 50°, and it may rise to 65° without injury ; 
when the buds begin to appear, as much air must be daily 
admitted as the weather will permit. In two or three days 
after the beds are planted, the heat will begin to rise : the 
beds should then have a moderate supply of water, applied 
from a watering-pot with the rose attached ; repeat such 
watering every three or four days. 

When the buds are up three inches above the surface, 
they ai'e fit to gather for use, as they will then be six or seven 
inches in length. In gathering them, draw aside a little of 
the mould, slip down the finger and thumb, and twist them 
off from the crown : this is a better method than to cut them ; 
at least, it is less dangerous to the rising buds, which come 
up thick in succession. 

An ordinary -sized frame calculated for three sashes will 
hold from three to five hundred plants, according to their age 
and size, and will, if properly managed, yield a dish every 
day for about three weeks. On the above estimate, if a con- 
stant succession of Asparagus be required, it will be neces- 
sary to plant a bed every eighteen or twenty days. 

Rhubarb and Sea-Kale may be, and sometimes are, forced 
in the same manner as Asparagus ; but the most general 
mode is to excite them where they stand in the open garden, 
by the application of warm dung. 




In the article Broad Beans, {Vicia faba,) I have already 
urged the necessity of early planting, in order that a, full 
crop may be insured before the approach of warm weather ; 
but as the gi'ound is often frozen at the time they ought to 
be planted, some of the best kinds may be planted in boxes, 
and placed in a moderate hot-bed in February, or early in 
March. If the plants thus raised be not made too tender, 
they may be transplanted into the open ground the latter end 
of March ; this will enable them to produce their fruit early 
in June. 

Or if a heap of manure be spread thick on a piece of 
ground late in autumn, it will keep the earth from freezing ; 
and if this manure be removed in February, and a frame 
placed over the spot and protected from extreme cold, the 
seedlings may be raised therein, and tiansplanted into the 
garden, as directed in article, page 39. 

Those who have not the convenience of hot-beds or frames, 
may, in the month of February, plant some of the seed about 
two inches deep in boxes kept in the cellar, or in earth on 
the floor, which will produce plants fit to transplant in the 
open garden toward the latter end of March or early in April. 


The most dwarfish kinds of Kidney Beans may be raised 
in hot-beds ; but they require a substantial heat to mature 
them. The temperature within the frames should be kept 
up to 60% and may rise to 70^ or 75°, provided the steam be 
let off. In order to insure sufficient heat to brins: them into 
a bearing state, the plants may be first raised in small pots 
plunged into a hot-bed, or a small bed may be prepared. 


earthed over with light rich compost, six inches deep, and 
the Beans planted therein, and covered one inch. 

The second hot-bed should be earthed over to the depth 
of eight or nine inches, and the Beans transjDlanted as soon 
as they are two or three inches high, in cross rows twelve 
or fifteen inches apart, by three or four inches in the rows, 
or in clumps a foot apart. When the season is so far advanced 
that one bed, vsdth the help of linings, will bring the plants 
well into fruit, the seed may be planted at once to remain 
for podding ; or if the gardener should choose to mature his 
crop in the open ground, he may raise his plants in boxes or 
pots in the month of April, and plant them out in a warm 
border early in May. 

Beans raised in hot-beds will require considerable atten- 
tion. Cover the glasses every night with mats and boards ; 
admit fresh air every mild day, give occasional gentle water- 
ings, and earth them up carefully as they progress ingrowth, 
to strengthen them. 


In treating of the method of cultivating this family of 
plants, in the articles under each head, I recommended an 
artificial climate to be provided for them, so as to induce 
them to arrive at full perfection in the winter and early part 
of the spring. Gardeners who have provided frames for the 
purpose of making hot-beds, in the spring, may make use 
of them through the vrinter, in protecting Broccoli and Cau- 
liflower ; and as tne frames will not be wanted until the se- 
verity of the winter is past, such plants as are left at that 
season may be protected by a covering of boards, straw, or 
litter, aft occasion may require. 

If Cauliflower be required early in the summer, the plants 
raised in the preceding autumn should be transplanted from 
the beds into the open ground, in ihe month of March, and 


be protected by hand glasses. This would insure their heading 
before the approach of extreme warm weather, which is 
very injurious to Cauliflower. 


To produce Cucumbers at an early season, should be an 
object of emulation with every gardener. The business of 
forcing them should commence about eight or ten week^ 
before the fruit is desired, and a succession of plants should 
be raised to provide for accidents. Some choose the Short 
Prickly, others the Long Green and Wliite Spined ; and seed 
two or three years old is generally preferred, as it is not so apt 
to run to vines. 

The seed is generally sown in pots or boxes of light rich 
mould, and placed in a hot-bed ; and some sow the seed in 
the earth of a small bed prepared for the purpose. In either 
case, as soon as the plants have fully expanded their two 
seed leaves, they may be transplanted into pots, putting 
three plants in each pot ; when this is done, apply water 
warmed to the temperature of the bed, and shut down the 
glasses, keeping them a little shaded by throwing a mat over 
the glass, till the plants have taken root. When they are 
about a month old, they will be fit to transplant into the fruit- 
ing bed. 

To prepare the dung properly, is of the greatest impor- 
tance in forcing the Cucumber, and if not done before it is 
made into a bed, it cannot be done afterward, as it requires 
turning and managing to cause it to fennent freely and 
sweetly. Fresh dung from the stable should be laid in a heap, 
turned three times, and well mixed with a fork ; if any ap- 
pears dry, it should be made wet, always keeping it between 
the two extremes of wet and dry, that the whole may have 
a regular fermentation. 

A dry situation should be chosen on which to foim beds, 



SO that no water can settle under the dung. Tne substance 
of duno- from the bottom of the bed should be from three to 
four feet, according to the season of planting, and the mould 
should be laid on as soon as the bed is settled, and has a 
lively, regular-tempered heat. Lay the earth evenly over 
the dung, about six inches deep ; after it has lain a few days 
examine it, and if no traces of a burning effect are disco- 
vered, by the mould turning of a whitish colour and caking, 
it will be fit to receive the plants; but if the earth appears 
burned, or has a rank smell, some fresh sweet mould should 
be provided for the hills, and placed in the frame to get 
warm ; at the same time, vacancies should be made to give 
vent to the steam, by running do^vn stakes. 

After the situation of the bed has been ascertained, and 
the heat regulated, the hole should be closed, and the earth 
formed into hills ; raise one hill in the centre under each 
Bash, so that the earth is brought to within nine inches of 
the glass ; in these hills, plant three seedlings, or turn out 
such as may be in pots, with the balls of earth about their 
roots, and thus insert one patch of three plants in the mid- 
dle of each hill. The plants should be immediately watered 
with water heated to the temperature of the bed, and kept 
shaded till they have taken root. 

The temperature should be kept up to 60^, and may rise 
to 80*^ v^dthout injury, provided the rank steam be allowed 
to pass off; therefore, as the heat begins to decline, timely 
linings of well-prepared dung must be applied all round the 
frame. Begin by lining the back part first ; cut away the 
old dung perpendicularly by the frame, and form a bank two 
feet broad, to the height of a foot, against the back of the 
frames ; as it sinks, add more ; renew the linings round the 
remainder of the bed as it becomes necessary, and be care- 
ful to let off* the steam, and give air to the plants at all op- 

Give necessary waterings, mostly in the morning of a mild 
day, in early forcing ; and in the afternoon, in the advanced 


season of hot sunny weather. Some use water impregnated 
with sheep or pigeon dung. As the roots begin to spread, 
and the vines to run, the hills should be enlarged by gather- 
ing up the earth around them, for which purpose a supply 
of good mould should be kept ready at hand, to be used as 

When the plants have made one or two joints, stop them, 
by pinching off the tops, after which they generally put forth 
two shoots, each of which let run till they have made one or 
two clear joints, and then stop them also ; and afterward con- 
tinue throughout the season to stop them at every joint; this 
will strengthen the plants, and promote their perfecting the 
fruit early. 

The following artificial operation is recommended by 
Abercrombie, Phial, and other waiters, as essential to the 
production of a full crop of Cucumbers under glass. In 
plants more freely exposed to the open air, the impregnation 
is effected by nature. Those which some call false blossoms 
are the male flowers, and are indispensable in this operation. 

*' The Cucumber," Abercrombie observes, ** bears male 
and female blossoms distinctly on the same plant. I'he lat- 
ter only produce the fruit, which appears first in miniature, 
close under the base, even before the flower expands. There 
is never any in the males ; but these are placed in the vici- 
nity of the females, and are absolutely necessary, by the dis- 
persion of their farina, to impregnate the female blossom ; 
the fruit of which will not otherwise swell to its full size, 
anil the seed will be abortive. The early plants under glass, 
not having the full current of natural air, nor the assistance 
o£ bees and other wdnged insects to convey the farina, the 
artificial aid of the cultivator is necessary to effect the im- 
pregnation. At the time of fructification, watch the plai'ts 
daily ; and as soon as the female flowers and some male 
blossoms are fully expanded, proceed to set the fruit the 
same day, or next morning at farthest. Take off a male 
blossom, detaching it with part of the footstalk. Hold this 


between the finger and thumb ; pull away the flower leases 
or petals, close to the stamens and antherae, or central part, 
which apply close to the pistil in the bosom of the female 
flower, twirling it a little about, to discharge thereon some 
particles of the fertilizing jiowder. Proceed thus to set 
every fruit, as the flowers of both sorts open, while of a lively 
full expansion ; and generally perform it in the early part of 
the day, using a fresh male, if possible, for every impregna 
tion, as the males are usually more abundant than the female 
blossoms. By this management, the young fruit will soon be 
obseiTed to swell freely." 

Cucumbers attain the proper size for gathering in from 
fifteen to twenty days after the time of setting ; and often 
in succession for two or three months or more, in the same 
beds, by good culture. 


If it be desired to have Cucumbers in the open garden at 
an early season, the plants may be raised in pots as before 
directed, and planted in a warm border either in the earth, 
or in hot-bed ridges. A hand-glass should be pro\dded for 
each hill, which must be kept close down every night and in 
cool days, taking care to admit air when practicable. The 
plants may be hardened by degrees, by taking off" the glass 
in the heat of the day, and as the weather gets warm they 
may be left to nature. 


Head Lettuce may be cultivated for use in the winter 
season by means of gentle hot-beds, or in cold-beds made 
in the manner recommended for the raising of early Cabbage 


plants, &c. (See article Cabbage.) For such Head Lettuce 
as may be wanted for use before Christmas, the Hardy Green, 
the Loco Foco, and Coss, are the most suitable kinds to 
sow; and plants may be raised in the open border by sow- 
ing seed two or three times between the middle of Au .rust 
and the first week in September. The plants from these 
sowmgs may be set out, about six inches apart, in cold-beds 
when they are one or two inches high. 

In September and early in October, some of the Silesia 
Sugar Loaf, Butter Lettuce, or any other esteemed sorts' 
may be sown in a cold-bed frame, which, with the aid of 
sashes, will produce plants in from a month to six weeks- 
these bemg planted in gentle hot-beds in November and 
December, will produce Head Lettuce until a plentiful sup- 
ply can be obtained from the open borders. The same at- 
tention is necessary, as respects the protection of these beds 
as for other half-hardy plants. 


The Agaricus is said to be the most extensive genus in 
the vegetable kingdom. The species are determined upon 
various principles. As some of the kinds are poisonous it 
is necessary to describe the eatable Mushroom. Loudon 
says, it is most readily distinguished when of a middle size 
by Its fine pink or flesh-coloured gills, and pleasant smell' 
In a more advanced age, the gills become of a chocolate 
colour, and it is then more apt to be confounded with other 
kinds of dubious quality; but that species which most nearly 
resembles it, is slimy to the touch, destitute of fine odour, 
and has a disagreeable smell. 

Again ; the noxious kinds grow in woods, while the true 
Mushroom springs up chiefly in open pastures, and should 
be gathered only in such places. 

Unwholesome /«;i,g-i will sometimes spring up on artificial 



beds in gardens ; thus, when the spawn beghis to run, a 
Bpurious breed is often found to precede a crop of genuine 
Mushrooms. The poisonous toad-stool, Jlgaricus cirocuSf 
raay generally be detected by the presence of a sickly, nau- 
seous smell, though some hurtful kinds are so free from any 
thing disagreeable in the smell, as to make any criterion, 
drawn from that alone, very unsafe. The wholesome kinds, 
however, invariably emit a grateful, rich odour. The Jlga- 
ricus campestris is most generally cultivated. Dr. Withering 
mentions other eatable varieties, which grow considerably 
larger, but are inferior in flavour ; he says " that a plant of 
the variety Georgia was gathered in an old hot-bed at Bir- 
mingham, which weighed fourteen pounds ; and Mr. Stack- 
house found one fifty-four inches in circumference, having a 
stem as thick as a man's wrist." 

Mushrooms may be obtained at any season of the year, 
by a proper regulation of the time and manner of forming 
the beds. A good crop is sometimes collected without ma- 
king a bed on purpose, by introducing lumps of spawTi into 
the top mould of old hot-beds. 

The methods of pi^ocuring and propagating spavni, and 
of forming Mushroom beds, are numerous. Indigenous 
spawn may be collected in pasture lands in September and 
October, or it may be found in its strength and purity in the 
paths of mills worked by horses, or in any other horse-walks 
under shelter; it is frequently found in old hot-beds and 
dunghills in the summer season, and Mushrooms of good 
quality may often be seen beginning to form on the surface, 
like large peas ; when these are absorbed, it is time to take 
out the spawn, which is generally in hard, dry lumps of dung, 
the spawn having the appearance of whitish coarse pieces 
of thread. The true sort has exactly the smell of a Mush- 
room. If spawn thus collected be required for immediate 
use, it 7nay be planted in the beds at once, or it will keej) 
three or four years, if laid to dry with the earth adhering to 
it, and afterward placed in a warm, dry shed, where there 


is a current of air ; but if it be not completely dried, the 
Bpawn will exhaust itself or perish, as it will not bear the 
extremes of heat, cold, or moisture. 

Such of my readers as may have hitherto been unac- 
quainted with the cultivation of Mushrooms, must perceive, 
from the preceding remarks, that a Mushroom bed is simply 
a heap of animal dung and earth, so tempered as to be ca- 
pable of producing and preserving spawn ; but in order to 
have fruitful spawn at all times, it should be so formed as 
to be always at command. To this end, a quantity of fresh 
horse droppings mixed with short litter, should be collected ; 
add to this one third of cow dung, and a small portion of 
good earth, to cement it together; mash the whole into a 
thin compost, fike grafting clay ; then form it in the shape 
of bricks ; which being done, set them on edge, and frequent- 
ly turn them until half dry ; then with a dibble make one or 
two holes in each brick, and insert in each hole a piece of 
spawn the size of an egg : the bricks should then be laid 
where they can dry gradually. When dry, lay dry horse 
dung on a level floor, six or eight inches thick ; on this, pile 
the bricks, the spawn side uppermost. When the pile is 
,snugly formed, cover it with a small portion of fresh warm 
horse dung, sufficient in quantity to produce a gentle glow 
through the whole. When the spawn has spread itself 
through every part of the bricks, the process is ended, and 
they may be laid up in any dry place for use. Mushroom 
spawn, made according to this receipt, will preserve its ve- 
getating powers for many years, if well dried before it is laid 
up ; if moist, it will grow, and soon exhaust itself. 

Mushroom beds are often formed in ridges in the open 
air, covered with litter and mats, so as to prevent heavy 
rains exciting a fermentation ; and sometimes in ridges of the 
same sort under cover, as in the open sheds of hot-houses. 
They are also made in close sheds behind hot-houses, or in 
h<^uses built on purpose, called Mushroom-houses. A mo- 
derately warm, light cellar is peculiarly suited for the pur- 


pose in the winter season, as no fire is necessary, and but 
little water, tlie application of wliicli frequently proves inju- 
rious, when not judiciously managed. Mushrooms may also 
be raised in pots, boxes, hampers, &c., placed in warm situa- 
tions ; in old-beds, in pits with glazed frames, and in dark 
frames or pits. 

The general way of making Mushroom beds, is to prepare 
a body of stable dung, moderately fermented, about a yard 
in thickness, more or less, according to the size and situa- 
tion in which the bed is to be formed ; when the strong heat 
has subsided, an inch of good mould may be laid over it, 
and the spawn planted therein in rows five or six inches 
apart ; after this is done, another layer of mould, an inch 
thick, may be added, and then a coat of straw. Beds well 
constructed will produce Mushrooms in five or six weeks, 
and will continue to produce for several months, if care be 
taken in gathering, not to destroy the young ones. As 
Mushrooms are gathered, from time to time, the straw should 
be spread carefully over the bed. 

Beds made in a convenient place, where there is space all 
around, may be formed so as to make four sloping surfaces, 
similar to the roof of a house ; this, by being spawned on 
the four sides, will yield abundantly. The celebrated Mr.* 
Nichol makes his beds without spawn. The following are 
his directions, taken from Loudon's Encyclopoedia of Gar- 
dening : 

" After having laid a floor of ashes, stones> chips, gravel, 
or brick-bats, so as to keep the bed quite dry and free from . 
under damp, lay a course of horse-droppings six inches thick. 
These should be new from the stables, and must not be 
broken, and the drier the better. They may be collected 
every day until the whole floor or sole be covered to the 
above thickness ; but they must not be allowed to ferment 
or heat. In the whole process of making up, the bed should 
be as much exposed to the air as possible ; and it should be 
carefully defended from wet, if out of doors. "WTien this 


course is qiike dry, and judged to be past a state of fennen- 
tation, cover it to the thickness of two inches with light, dry 
earth ; if sandy, so much the better. It is immaterial whe- 
ther it be rich or not, the only use of earth here being for 
spawn to run and mass in. Now lay another course of drop- 
pings, and earth them over as above, when past a state of 
fermentation : then a third course, which, in like manner, 
earth all over. This finishes the bed, which will be a very 
strong and productive one, if properly managed afterward. 

" Observe, that in forming the bed, it should be a little 
rounded, in order that the centre may not be more wet ol 
moist than the sides. This may be done iiv forming the sole 
or floor at first, and the bed would then be of equal strength 
in all parts. If it be made up against a wall in a cellar, 
stable, or shed, it may have a slope of a fevi^ inches from the 
back to the front, less or more, according to its breadth. I 
have sometimes been contented with two courses as above, 
instead of three ; and often, when materials were scarce, 
have made them up slighter, thus : three four-inch courses 
of droppings, with one inch of earth between each, and a 
two-inch covering at top. Such a bed as this, I have had 
produce for ten or twelve months together ; but very much 
depends on the state of the materials, and on the care taken 
in making it up, also on the after management. 

** The droppings of hard-fed horses only are useful. Those 
of horses kept on green food will, of themselves, produce 
few or no mushrooms. I have made up beds from farm 
horses, fed partly on hard and partly on green food, and 
from carriage or saddle horses, fed entirely on corn and hay ; 
treated thsm in the same way in every respect; and have 
found, not once, but always, those made from the latter most 
productive. Droppings from hard-fed horses may be pro- 
cured at the public stables in towns, or at inns in tne coun- 
try, any time of the year ; and if the supply be plentiful, a 
bed of considerable dimensions may be made and finished 
within five or six weeks. In as many more weeks, if in « 



Stable or dry cellar, or a flued shed, it will begin to produce 
and often sooner ; but if the situation of the bed be cold, it 
will sometimes be two or three months in producing Mush- 

It may be necessary to state farther, that extremes of heat, 
cold, drought, and moisture, should be avoided in the culti- 
vation of Mushrooms, If the temperature keeps up to 50° in 
the winter, the beds will be safe, and the heat in the beds 
may rise to 60'' or even 70° without injury. Air also must 
be admitted in proportion to the heat, and 60° should be 
aimed at as a medium temperature. Water, when given a 
little at a time, is better than too much at once, after the 
spawn has begun to spread ; and the water for this pui-pose 
should always be made blood warm. A light covering of 
straw may be used to preserve moisture on the surface ; and 
if the beds are made in open frames, or otherwise subject to 
exposure, the straw may be laid thicker than on beds made 
in a cellar. 

Should beds fail in producing Mushrooms after ha\4ng 
been kept over hot or wet, it may be inferred that the spawn 
is injured or destroyed ; but if, on the contrary, a bed that 
has been kept moderately warm and dry, should happen to 
be unproductive, such bed may be well replenished with 
warm water, and a coat of warm dung may be laid over the 
whole. If this does not enliven the bed after having lain a 
month, take oif the earth ; and if, on examination, there is 
no appearance of spawn, the whole may be destroyed ; but 
if, on the contrary, the bed should contain spawn, it may be 
renovated by covering it again, especially if any small tuber- 
cles be discernible ; if the heat should have declined, the 
epawn may be taken out and nseS m a fresh bed. If beds 
De formed in hot-bed frames und^^- glass, some mats or straw 
must be laid over the glass to br-^ak off the intense heat of 
the sun. 

Although only one species oi dible fungi has yet been 
introduced into the garden, there are several eatable kinds 


In Poland and Russia there are above thirty kinds in com- 
mon use among the peasantry. They are gathered at diffe- 
rent stages of their growth, and used in various ways ; raw, 
boiled, stewed, roasted ; and being hung up, and dried in 
their stoves and chimneys, form a part of their winter stock 
of provisions. Great caution is necessary in collecting 
Mushrooms for food, and none but the botanist should gather 
any but the kinds we have described.* Physicians say, 
** That all the edible species should be thoroughly masticated 
before they are taken into the stomach, as this greatly lessens 
the effect of poisons. When accidents of the sort happen, 
vomiting should be immediately excited,* and then the vege 
table acids should be given, either vinegar, lemon juice, or 
that of apples ; after which, give ether and anti-spasmodic 
remedies, to stop the excessive vomiting. Infusions of gall- 
nut, oak bark, and Peruvian bark, are recommended as capa- 
ble of neutralizing the poisonous principle of Mushrooms." 
It is, however, the safest way not to eat any but the well- 
known kinds. 


Although our citizens have an opportunity of procuring 
Melons without artificial aid, yet, as their continuance is short, 
it may not be amiss to remind the gardener that the direc- 
tions already given for maturing Cucumbers under glass will 
apply to Melons, with very few exceptions ; care, however, 
must be taken that they be kept away from each other at the 
time of fruiting, as instances often occur of whole crops 
being entirely ruined, by plants of the same genus being 

* In order to ascertain whether what appear to be Mushrooms are of the 
true edible kinds, sprinkle a little salt over the inner or spongy part ; if, in 
a short time after, they turn yellow, they are unwholesome ; but if black, 
they may be considered as genuine Mushrooms. 


raised too near each other. Those who wish to forward 
Melons, may prepare a hot-bed in March or April, to raise 
plants in ; the beds may be formed and the plants managed 
in precisely th« same manner as is directed for Cucumbers. 
If the ridging system be adopted, and a hand-glass applied 
to each hill. Melons may be obtained one month earlier than 
the usual time. 

Gardeners raising Melons for the supply of city markets, 
may gratify the public taste early in the season, by pursuing 
the forwarding, if not the forcing system. Ridges may be 
prepared in the following manner : In April or May, a trench 
may be dug in a warm border, about two feet deep and 
three 'vvide, and of sufficient length for as many hand-glasses 
as are intended to be employed, allowing three feet for every 
hill. Some good heating manure should be laid in the pits, 
managed the same as a common hot-bed ; to this must be 
added good rich mould to the depth of eight or ten inches 
for the plants to grow in ; as soon as the mould is warm, the 
seedlings may be planted, three plants in each hill, after 
which the hand-glasses should be set on, and shaded. After 
the plants have taken root and began to grow, the glasses 
should be raised in fine days, and propped up £o as to admit 
fresh air ; and as the warm weather progresses, they may be 
taken off in the middle of fine days so as to harden the 
plants gradually to the weather ;, and by the latter end of 
May they may be left to nature. 


The best kinds of Peas to force, are those that are the 
most dwarfish, and the seed is better for being two or three 
years old, as they will bear earlier, and make less straw. 
Peas run less to vine by being transplanted, than when they 
axe sown whei-e they are to remain ; the plants may be raised 
in a gentle hot-bed, either in the earth of the bed, or in pots 


or boxes. They do not require excessive heat; the tempe- 
rature must be progressive ; beginning at about 50° for the 
nursery-bed, and from that to 60° or 65" for fruiting. 

When the leaves of the plants are fairly expanded, they 
may be transplanted into rows from twelve to eighteen inches 
apart ; observe, the earth in the fruiting bed should be from 
twelve to eighteen inches in depth. 

As the Peas piogress in growth, the earth should be stir- 
red ; and when six inches high, small sticks may be applied, 
80 that the tendrills of the Peas may easily take hold ; and 
they should be moulded at the bottom to enable them to sup- 
port themselves. 

When they are in blossom, nip the top off; this greatly 
promotes the forming and filling of the pods ; they will re- 
quire to be regularly watered, and as the spring advances 
they may be exposed to the weather, taking care lo sneiiei 
them in the event of a sudden change. 


Potatoes may be forced in a great variety of ways. Those 
who attempt to mature Potatoes in frames, will of course 
provide such of the earliest kinds as are not inclined to pro- 
duce large tops ; the Broughton Dwarf, Early Mule, Nonpa- 
reil, the Oak, and the Ash-leaved, are of this descnption. 

Potatoes may be forwarded in giowth 2:)revious to being 
planted in the beds, by placing them in a warm, damp cellar. 
Some forward them in pots and boxes, and afterward mature 
them in a hot-bed ; others plant them in the bed at once, in 
which case the bed should be moulded from fifteen to twenty 
inches deep, and the heating materials should be sufficient 
to keep up a moderate heat for two or three months. 

J'erhaps the most convenient way to force Potatoes in this 
climate, is to provide pots for the purpose ; })lant one set in 
each pot in January, and set them in a warm cellar, till a l)ed 



can be prepared in February, in which put the pots. While 
the tuberous roots are forming, and before they fill the pots, 
prepare the beds for maturing them, and then bury them in 
the mould with the balls of earth attached to them. 

The beds should be kept free from frost, and air should 
be given at every opportunity. The common round Potatoes 
may be forwarded, by laying them thick together in a slight 
hot-bed in March, and when they are planted in the borders, 
a quantity of comb-maker's shavings may be deposited in 
each hill ; this vdll greatly promote their growth. 


Radishes may be obtained early in the spring by means 
of a moderate hot-bed. The earth in the frame should be 
a foot in depth, and air should be admitted every day after 
they are up, or they will incline more to tops than roots. If 
they come up too thick, they should be thinned to one or 
two inches apart. Give gentle waterings as occasion le- 
quires, and keep them well covered in cold nights. 

For raising early Radishes without frames, hot-beds may 
be made in ridges, and arched over with hoop bends, or 
pliant rods, which should be covered with mats at night, and 
during the day in very cold weather. In moderate days, 
turn up the mats at the warmest side ; and on fine mild days, 
take them wholly off, and harden the plants gi^adually to the 

Turnips, CaiTOts, Onions, or any kind of salads or pot 
herbs, may be raised in the same way, by sowing the seed in 
drills and keeping the ground clear of weeds. 



Those who may desire to have this excell'ent substitute for 
fruit at an early season, may procure it without much trouble. 
It is customary with some persons in the southern parts of 
England, to keep this plant growing in their kitchens, so that 
they may have it for use at any time. They have strong 
neat boxes, made for the purpose, about three feet deep and 
two wide, and in length according to the demand, from four 
to eight feet ; these being kept clean, have the appearance 
of flour-bins, and they are sometimes so contrived as to have 
shelves over them in imitation of a kitchen dresser. The 
plants being taken up out of the garden towards winter, are 
placed as close at the bottom of the box as they can be, with 
their crowns level : and some sand being thrown over, suf- 
ficient to fill up the interstices, and to cover the crowns 
about half an inch, finishes the operation. No farther 
trouble is necessary, except to give a little water, just to keep 
the roots moist, as they need no light at all ; and if the roots 
be planted in the garden when spring opens, they will, after 
having taken root, vegetate as strongly as before they were 

Roots of Rhubarb taken up in the autumn packed in sand, 
and deposited in a warm cellar, will produce e talks earlier 
than if kept in the garden; and if placed in htJ-beds they 
will yield abundantly, and that at a very early season. 

The consumption of this plant in the British metropolis 
may be judged of by the following extract from the London 
Gardener's Magazine : *' Rhubarb, which has for some years 
been cultivated, is still a subject of increasing interest, and 
more extensively in demand than ever. On the fifth of May, 
no less than eight wagon loads, each weighing at le^st a ton, 
with an equal quantity in smaller proportions, were sold in 
Covent Gai"den market alone. One cultivator, Mr. Myatt, 
of New Cross, Deptford, had three wagon loads ; he has, I 
believe, nearly twenty acres of it under culture." This plant 


contains an acid as fine as the Gooseberry, for pies and tarts j 
a' square rod of ground will supply a family ; and it may be 
used till midsummer or later. [For fuller explanations y see 
m^ticle Rhubarb.] 


For the purpose of raising Mustard, Cress, and other salad 
herbs, also Egg-plants, Tomato plants, &c., in small quanti- 
ties, a hot-bed may be made, early in the spring, of good 
heating materials, on the top of which may be laid leaf mould, 
old tan, or light compost, to the depth of about nine inches. 
The various kinds of seed may be s»wn in boxes or flower- 
pots, and plunged in the top mould up to their rims, and by 
being well attended to, a supply of small salads, as well as 
small seedling plants, may be raised without much labour or 
difficulty. This method is also well calculated for raising 
annual flower plants at an early season. 


As this vegetable has become highly appreciated of late 
years for its excellent qualities, it may be necessary here to 
observe, that plants raised from seed sown in hot-beds the lat- 
ter end of February, or early in March, as directed in former 
pages, will giow to the length of four inches and upward by 
the first of April, which is one month earlier than they can 
with safety be trusted in the open garden. If a few of these 
be pulled from the hot-bed, and transplanted into flower-pots, 
they may be kept growing therein until settled warm weather, 
and then turned out and deposited in the ground with tlie 
balls of (3arth entire ; or a fruiting-bed may be prepared by 
the first of April, in the manner recommended for Bush 


Beans, Cucumoers, &c., and the plants inserted in the earth 
at once ; these will produce ripe fruit a month or six weeks 
earlier than those cultivated in the ordinary way. 


The following simple method of forcing vegetables on a 
small scale is recommended by a correspondent of a London 
magazine : 

" Mushrooms in winter I obtain by a very simple, though 
not a new process. Provide boxes three feet long, and one 
foot eight inches deep ; a quantity of horse droppings, per- 
fectly dry; some spawn and some light dry soil. Fill the 
boxes by layers of droppings, spawn, and soil, which must 
be trodden perfectly tight ; repeat these triple layers till the 
boxes are full, and all trodden firmly together. 

" Four such boxes at work are sufficient for a moderate 
demand ; and of a dozen, four brought in at a time, and 
placed upon a flue of a green-house stove, will produce a 
fine supply. The surface of these portable beds may be 
covered with a little hay, and occasionally, though sparingly, 
watered. It is not absolutely necessary that they be set on 
the flue of a green-house ; a warm stable, cellar, or any other 
similar place, will suit equally well. This plan is also con- 
venient for aflbrding a plentiful stock of superior spawn. 

" The same sized boxes will also do for Asparagus ; but 
for this purpose a sufficient stock of three-year-old plants 
must be at hand ; also eighteen boxes, four of which are the 
necessary set to be forced at one time for a middling family. 
Half fill the boxes with decayed tanner's bark, leaf mould, 
or any similar mould ; on this, pack the roots as thickly as 
possible, and fill up the boxes with the bark, &:c. Any place 
in a forcing-house will suit them : on the flue, under the 
Btago, or, in short, any place where they can enjoy the ne- 



cessary degree of heat. Besides Asparagus and Mush- 
roomSj Sea-Kale, Buda-Kale, Angelica, small salad, as also 
various pot herbs, may be raised in the same manner." 

Those who have not the conveniences recommended in a 
green-house, &c., may place the boxes in a hot-bed. The 
glasses being laid on, and the beds covered at night, will soon 
promote the growth of the plants, and produce vegetable 
luxuries at a season when garden products in general are 
comparatively scarce. 

It is unnecessary to show of how much value such pro- 
cesses may be in minor establishments, or in a young country. 
I wish it to be understood, that in order to the successful 
cultivation of some of the rare vegetables I have treated of, 
great pains must be taken in every stage of their gi'owth. 
If the advice I have given be attended to, I flatter myself 
we shall soon obtain a supply of many of these luxuries of 
the garden. My directions are founded on the success 
attending the practice of some of the best gardeners in this 
country. I have also had sufficient experience to wan'ant 
rae in this attempt to contribute my mite toward the attam* 
ment of this kind of useful knowledge. 


HouBLON. Hnmulus hipuhis. 

Although the Hop is not a culinary vegetable, yet, as it 
is more or less msed in every part of our country, it may not 
be amiss to treat of its culture. It is presumed, that, in pro- 
portion as habits of temperance are inculcated, our citizens 
vs^ill have recourse to beer as a v\^holesome beverage ; and as 
a great deal depends on the manner in v/hich Hops are 
cured, I propose giving directions for their management 
throughout, so as to enable those who choose, to prepare 
their ov;^n. My information is collected chiefly from Loudon's 
Encyclopaedia of Plants. 

" The Hop has been cultivated in Europe an unknown 
length of time for its flowers, which are used for preserving 
beer. Its culture was introduced from Flanders in the reign 
of Henry the Eighth ; though indigenous both in Scotland 
and Ireland, it is little cultivated in those countries, owing to 
the humidity of their autumnal season. Like other plants 
of this sort, the Hop bears its flowers on different individuals ; 
the female plants, therefore, are alone cultivated. There 
are several varieties grown in Kent and SuiTey, under the 
name of Flemish, Canterbury, Groldings, &c. ; the first is the 
most hardy, differing little from the Wild or Hedge Hop ; 
the Golding is an improved and highly productive variety, 
but more subject to blight than the other.* 

" The Hop prefers a deep loamy soil on a dry bottom ; a 
sheltered situation, but at the same time not so confined as 
to prevent a free circulation of air. The soil requires to be 
well pulverized and manured previous to planting. In Hop 
districts, the ground is generally trenched either with a 

* Besides these are the Farnham, or Golden Grape, which is cultivated 
for an early crop ; and for late picking, the Mayfield Grape, or Ruffler, is 
esteemed, which is a dwarfish variety. Great caution is necessary, lest the 
varieties get mixed, as they will not ripen or dry equally, and consequently 
cannot be of one uniform colour and quality. 


plough or spade. The mode of planting is generally in rows 
six feet apart, and the same distance in the row. By some, 
five, six, or seven plants, are placed in a circular form, vv^hich 
circles are distant five or six feet from each other. The 
plants or cuttings are procured from the most healthy of the 
old stools ; each should have two joints or buds : from the 
one which is placed in the ground springs the root, and from 
the other the stalk. Some plant the cuttings at once where 
they are to remain, and by others they are nursed a year in 
a garden. An interval crop of Beans or Cabbage is gene- 
rally taken the first year. Sometimes no poles are placed 
at the plants till the second year, and then only short ones 
of six or seven feet. The third year the Hop generally 
comes into full bearing, and then from four to six poles, 
from fourteen to sixteen feet in length, are placed to each 
circle, or one pole to each plant, if cultivated in straight 
rows. The most durable timber for poles is that of the Span- 
ish Chesnut. 

" The after culture of the Hop consists in stimng the soil, 
and keeping it free from weeds ; in guiding the shoots to the 
poles, and sometimes tying them for that purpose with bass 
or withered rushes ; in eradicating superfluous shoots which 
may rise from the root, and in raising a small heap of earth 
over the root to nourish the plant. 

" Hops are known to be ready for gathering when the 
chaffy capsules acquire a brown colour, and a firm consist- 
ence. Each chaffy capsule, or leaf calyx, contains one seed. 
Before these are picked, the stalks are detached, and the 
poles pulled up, and placed horizontally on frames of wood, 
two or three poles at a time. The Hops are then picked off 
by women and children. After being carefully separated 
from the leaves and stalks, they are dropped into a large 
cloth hung all round within the frame on tenter hooks. 
When the cloth is full, the Hops are emptied into a large 
sack, which is carried home, and the Hops laid on a kiln to 
be dried. This is always to be done as soon as possible after 


the} are picked, or they are apt to sustain considerable 
damttge, both in colour and flavour, if allowed to remain 
long in the green state in which they are picked. In very 
warm weather, and when they are picked in a moist state, 
they will often heat in five or six hours ; for this reason, the 
kilns are kept constantly at work, both night and day, from the 
commencement to the conclusion of the Hop-picking season. 

'* The operation of drying Hops is not materially different 
fiom that of drying malt, and the kilns are of the same con^ 
struction. The Hops are spread on a hair cloth, from eight 
to twelve inches deep, according as the season is dry or wet, 
or the Hops ripe or immature. When the ends of the Hop 
stalks become quite shrivelled and dry, they are taken off 
the kiln, and laid on a boarded floor till they become quite 
cool, when they are put into bags. . 

" The bagging of Hops is thus performed : in the floor of 
the room where Hops are laid to cool, there is a round hole 
or trap, equal in size to the mouth of a Hop-bag. After 
tying a handful of Hops in each of the lower comers of a 
large bag, which serve after for handles, the mouth of the 
bag is fixed securely to a strong hoop, which is made to rest 
on the edge of the hole or trap ; and the bag itself being 
then dropped through the hole, the packers go into it, when 
a person who attends for the purpose, puts in the Hops in 
small quantities, in order to give the packer an opportunity 
of packing and trampling them as hard as possible. When 
the bag is filled, and the Hops trampled in so hard that it 
will hold no more, it is drawn up, unloosed from the hoop, 
and the end sewed up, two other handles having been pre- 
viously formed in the comers in the manner mentioned above. 
The brightest and finest coloured Hops are put into j^ockets 
or fine bagging, and the brown into coarse or heavy bagging. 
The former are chiefly used for brewing fine ale, and the 
latter by the porter brewers. But when Hops are intended 
to be kept two or three years, they are put into bags of strong 
cloth, and firmly pressed so as to exclude the air. 


" The stripping and stacking of the poles succeed to the 
operation of picking. The shoot or bind being stripped off, 
such poles as are not decayed, are set up together in a coni- 
cal pile of three or four hundred, the centre of which is 
formed by three stout poles bound together a few feet from 
their tops, and their lower ends spread out. 

" The produce of no crop is so liable to variation as that 
)f the Hop ; in good seasons an acre will produce 20 cwt., 
but from 10 to 12 cwt. is considered a tolerable average crop 
The quality of Hops is estimated by the abundance or scarcity 
of an unctuous clammy powder which adheres to them, and 
by their bright yellow colour. The expenses of forming a 
Hop plantation are considerable ; but once in bearings it will 
continue so for ten or fifteen years before it requires to be 
renewed. The Hop is peculiarly liable to diseases ; when 
young it is devoured by fleas of different kinds ; at a more 
advanced stage, it is attacked by the green fly, red spider, 
and ottermoth, the larvae of which prey even upon their roots. 
The honey-dew often materially injures the Hop crop ; and 
the mould, the fire-blast, and other blights, injure it at differ- 
ent times toward the latter period of the growth of the plant." 

It appears from an article in the ' Genesee Farmer,' that 
the culture of Hops is becoming an important branch of hus- 
bandry in the State of New- York. A correspondent observes, 
that " as fine samples have been grown in Orange and Ma- 
dison counties as in any part of the world. The Hop is con- 
sidered somewhat precarious ; but when the season is good, 
the profit is very great. The average product may be stated 
at 700 lbs., though it has reached 1,600 lbs. to the acre ; and 
in the latter case the expenses amounted to sixty dollars. 
The ordinary, or average price, may be stated at eighteen 
cents per pound. The profits on an ordinary crop, accord- 
ing to these assumed data, would be about seventy dollars to 
the acre. It often falls materially short of this, however, 
from the want of knowledge and care in gathering and dry- 
ing the crop. 


" The quantity of Hops taken to Albany and the neigh- 
D.Dunng towns on the Hudson, this year (1834), has been 
estimated at 2,300 bales, or 50,000 lbs., which, had not many 
of them been prematurely gathered, or badly cured, would 
have yielded to the gi-owers ninety or a hundred thousand 
dollars. But of the 2,300 bales there was not more than 
200 bales, we are informed, that ought to have received the 
denomination of first sorts. Many of them were picked too 
early, before the matter that imparts to them their value was 
fiufficiently developed; and others were scorched or smoked 
m curing. This carelessness has seriously affected the char- 
acter of our Hops abroad, and they are no longer purchased 
by the Philadelphia brewers. They would soon form an im- 
portant article of export, if their character was raised by 
care m their culture and drying, and a rigid inspection." 

The young shoots of both wild and cultivated Hops ai-e 
considered by some as very wholesome, and are frequently 
gathered in the spring, boiled, and eaten as Asparagus. The 
stalks and leaves will dye wool yellow. From the stalk a 
strong cloth is made in Sweden, the mode of preparing which 
IS described by Linnaeus in his Flora Suecica. A decoction 
of the roots is said to be as good a sudorific as Sarsaparilla ; 
and the smell of the flowers is soporific. A pillow filled with 
Hop flowers will induce sleep, unattended with the bad effecte 
of soporifics, which require to be taken internally. 



Lest the reader should judge, from my introducing this 
subject, that I am an advocate for moon-planting, in any 
other sense than in ascribing the various changes of the 
weather to the influence of that great luminary, I would here 
offer a few observations in reference to the practice and 
prejudices of many' persons in choosing the first quarter of 
the moon for planting such vegetables as yield their produce 
above the surface, as Cabbage, &c., and the last quarter or 
wane of the moon for such as grow and yield their produce 
chiefly in the earth, and below the surface, as Potatoes, &c. 
I would first obsei've, that if the moon has any direct in- 
fluence over vegetable productions, it must operate in many 
cases quite the reverse to what these theorists generally ex- 
pect ; for instance, if the earth and weather should happen 
to be dry in the first week after planting certain species of 
seed, such would fail to germinate, for want of its most 
essential nutriment, moislure; and in consequence of such 
seed lying dormant in the earth, until after another change of 
the moon, if that luminary influences the seed at all, in such 
case it must be contrary to the objects of the honest planter. 
As I deem this argument alone sufficient to shake the 
foundation of moon-planting, in the sense I have described, 
I shall at once submit to the reader's attention the following 
observations and table, from the pen of the justly celebrated 
Dr. Adam Clarke. Some exceptions, however, may be taken 
to his rules, with regard to the wind, which does not operate 
in all places alike. For example, in rainy seasons with us, 
the wind is generally east, northeast, or southeast, and cold 
weather is attended by a northwest wind. In England, where 
these calculations were made, it is in some respects different : 
** From my earliest childhood I was bred up on a little 
farm, which I was taught to care for and culti^wate ever since 
I was able to spring the rattle, use the whip, manage the 


sickle, or handle the spade ; and as I found that much of our 
success depended on a proper knowledge and management 
of the weather, I was led to study it ever since I was eight 
years of age. I believe meteorology is a natural science, 
and one of the first that is studied ; and that every child in 
the country makes, untaught, some progress in it ; at least, so 
it was with me. I had actually learned, by silent obseiTa- 
tion,to form good conjectures concerning the coming weather, 
and on this head, to teach wisdom to those who were imper- 
fect, especially among those who had not been obliged, like 
me, to watch earnestly, that what was so necessary to the 
family support should not be spoiled by the weather before 
it was housed. 

" Many a time, even in tender youth, I have watched the 
heavens with anxiety, examined the different appearances of 
the morning and evening sun, the phases of the moon, the 
scintillation of the stars, the course and colour of the clouds, 
the flight of the crow and swallow, the gambols of the colt, 
the fluttering of the ducks, and the loud screams of the 
6eamew, not forgetting the hue and croaking of the frogs. 
From the little knowledge I had derived from close observa- 
tion, I often ventured to direct our agricultural operations in 
reference to the coming days, and was seldom much mistaken 
in my reckoning. 

" About twenty years ago, a table purporting to be the 
work of the late Dr. Herschel, was variously published, pro- 
fessing to perform prognostics of the weather, by the times 
of change, full, and quarters of the moon. T have carefully 
consulted this table for years, and was amazed at his general 
accuracy : for though long, as you have seen, engaged in the 
study of the weather, I never thought that any rules could be 
devised, liable to so few exceptions. I have made a little al- 
teration in the arrangements, illustrated it wdth further ob- 
servations, and have sent it to you that you may insert it, as 
it has hitherto been confined generally to a few almanacs." 

13 10 




For telling the Weather through all the Lunations of each Year^ for ever» 

This table and the accompanying remarks are the result of many years' 
actual observation ; the whole being constructed on a due consideration of 
the attraction of the sun and moon, in their several positions respecting 
the earth, and will, by simple inspection, show the observer what kind of 
weathflir will most probably follow the entrance of the moon into any of its 
quarters, and that so near the truth as to be seldom or never found to fail. 

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The object of this Calendar is to assist the memory oi 
the gardener, and to show him, at one glance, that he may 
find em23loyment in some of the departments of gardenincr 
in every month of the year. The figures refer to the pages 
in which farther directions may be found, relative to the 
operations adverted to. 

In page 30 it has been shown, that the directions accom- 
panying our Catalogue may be applied to all the climates of 
the United States, by a minute observance of the difference 
of temperature. 

It may be here observed, that the soil is susceptible of cul- 
tivation three months earlier in the remotest South, than in 
the coldest part of our Northern tenitory; the Calendar, 
therefore, for March, maybe applied to the middle of Janu- 
ary in the warmest climates, and to the middle of April in 
the coldest ; some exceptions to this rule must, however, be 
taken in the Southern States after the three spiing months, 
for the following reasons : 

1. As warm weather at the South is of longer continuance 
than in the North, plantations of those species of vegetables 
denominated tender in the table, page 26, may be made in 
the open garden from March to August. 

2. Extreme heat being detrimental to the cultivation of 
many half-hardy vegetables, such as Broccoli, Cauliflower, 
Cabbage, Celery, Lettuce, Radish, Turnips, &c., these can 
only be cultivated in perfection in spring and autumn, the 
latter crops, therefore, should not be planted till August or 
September. [See note to article Broccoli, page 49 ; also 52, 
72. and 104.' 


3. Many of the half-hardy class, as also those designated 
hard]! in our table, may be cultivated throughout the winter 
months, by forwarding such as are required for early spring 
use, after the summer crops are taken off. [See table, expli- 
cation, &c., page 26 to 29 ; also page 115. 

In the Eastern, Western, and Middle States, the annexed 
Calendar will answer in the order it stands, by applying tlie 
directions to the beginning of the first spring month in the 
warmest climates, and to the latter end in the coldest cli- 
mates, bearing in mind that where summer is short, the main 
crops must follow the early in quick succession, with a view 
to their maturity before winter. 


" Prognostics foretoken most truly some things. 
Of summers, and autumns, and winters, and springs ; 
By them from the past we may all ascertain 
The future, respecting the winds and the rain." 

It is customary, at this season of the year, with all prudent 
men, to look around them, and endeavour to ascertain the 
results of their industry thn^ughout the past year, in order to 
make improved arrangements for the future. The mere 
gardener, having no complicated accounts to adjust, may 
occupy his time to valuable purposes. If he be not a book- 
reader, he should be a book-keeper, (see page 14,) and he 
should frequently take a survey of his former practises and 
those of his acquaintances, with a view to improve on every 
thing he has done, or seen done. If he consults wiiters on 
Horticulture, he should do as the author has endeavoured to 
do in preparing this little work for the press ; not adopt the 
mere theory of a subject, nor indulge in speculative ideas, 
nor even tread in the steps of others, but endeavour to erect 
his edifice of kuowledsfe u])0!i a g-ood settled foundation. In 
all his pursuits, whether he attempt^ to follow the example 


of piactical and exemplary men, hear lectures, or consult 
authors on the subject, he should do as every sensible man 
does at his daily meals, take that which suits him best, and 
leave the residue for others. If this little work should be 
considered worth an annual perusal, he may read the Gene- 
ral Remarks, in this month, (January,) and make a memo- 
randum of such things as may be obtained in moments of 
leisure, in preference to putting it off till it is wanted. I 
shall endeavour to make my Calendar serve as an index to 
the book, and in pursuit of my object, shall begin at the 
General Remarks, page 13, which suggest, that if a man has 
a garden to form, he v^dll require fencing materials. If these 
should be already at hand, every gardener should provide 
manures, ingredients for the destruction of insects, drilling 
machines, and other tools ; poles or rods for the support of 
Peas, Beans, or other cHmbing plants he may intend to cul- 
tivate ; and if he intends to use hot-beds, or forcino-.frames, 
he should make arrangements to get compost and heating 
materials, in time for the work to be performed in the next 
month. If he depends on this book for information, he may 
read the General Remarks, from page 13 to 30 ; and also 
from page 112 to 122, on Forcing Vegetables. 


"A cold, sour autumn, they sternly maintain, 
A long, severe winter will bring in its train ; 
If summer and autumn be both dry and warm, 
Calm opens the winter, it closes in storm." 

Although stern winter, with its ice-bound chains, exerts 
its influence over the soil, the gardener may find employment 
preparatory to commencing his operations of ploughing and 
planting, as the year progresses. Perhaps the most import- 
ant business at this season is to collect plenty of manure ; 
next to this, the gardener, who intends to raise early plant* 



for forcing: or otherwise, should see that his hot-bed frames 
are in good repair and ready for use ; he should also repair 
his sashes, and make straw mats with which to cover them. 
In preparing dung or other heating materials for hot-beds or 
forcing-pits, let it be kept secure from heavy falls of snow or 
lain, and frequently turned over preparatory to its being 
made into a bed. With a view to give all attention to cul- 
ture as the season advances, the gardener should look over 
his hardy fruit trees and hardy vines, and commence pruning 
them, by cutting off all dead and superfluous branches ; he 
may also clean trees from moss and canker, and search for 
the nests of insects, with a view to destroy them while in a 
torpid state, to prevent their spreading. If he has trellises, 
or any implement of husbandry out of repair, he should em- 
brace the most favourable opportunities of putting them in 
good condition, and of repairing his fences, &c. 

Previous to making hot-beds, select a situation that is well 
protected by a close fence or wall, and not in any w^ay con- 
nected with any building calculated to harbour rats, mice, 
moles, &c., which are very apt to take up their abode in 
waiTTi duug, to the great injury, and sometimes the destruc- 
tion, of the beds. It is necessary that the foundation for the 
beds be dryly situated, and not liable to be inundated wdth 
water from melted snow, &c. When all is prepared as di- 
rected in pages 112 and 113, begin to sow Cabbage, Egg- 
plant, Lettuce, and Tomato seed, 112 ; force Asparagus, 117 ; 
Kidney Beans, 119; Cucumbers, 121; plant Peas, 132; 
Potatoes, 133; sow Radish seed, 134. In cold-beds, well 
protected, plant Broad Beans, 119 ; sow Cabbage seed, 54. 

After the seed is sown, the beds will require constant 
attention ; cover them up well in cold nights, and give air at 
all opportunities, taking care to regulate the heat in the beds, 
as directed under the different heads, from page 112 to 138. 
If the heat be excessive, it must be decreased as directed in 
page 116 ; and if it should become necessary to let oif steam 
in cold weather, care must be taken to cover the anertuiea 


sufficiently to keep out frosty air. Give air at all opportu- 
nities to Cabbage, Cauliflower, Lettuce, and such other plants 
as may be in frames, of last year's sowing. 

MARCH. '' 

' It the sun appear dim, surrounded with haze, 
And his disk ill-defined, and foded his rays ; 
If white at his setting, of power if shorn, 
The signs are all certain, there'll soon be a storm." 

This month affords considerable employment to an indus- 
trious gardener. Manure may be drawn on the ground and 
distributed in heaps, ready to spread, page 24 ; and the hot- 
beds and forcing-frames will require constant attention. 
Cover them up warm in cold nights, and give additional air 
as the season progresses, to prevent the plants growing weak, 
taking care to regulate the heat as directed for the different 
kinds of vegetables. If any additional frames are to be put 
down this month, either for forcing or forwarding vegetables, 
they should be attended to in time, as directed. 

In order to afford time for cultivating the soil as the 
weather moderates, the gardener should proceed with his 
business of pruning and cleaning fruit trees, shrubs, &c., at 
all opportunities ; and if any removal be necessary, or fresh 
trees, shrubs, vines, &c., are required, these things should be 
obtained and planted this month, if possible. Begin the 
work of the kitchen garden as soon as the earth can be 
brought into good condition, and transplant hardy Lettuce 
plants, 73 ; dress Artichoke beds, 33 ; Asparagus, 37 ; Rhu- 
barb, 91 ; Sea-Kale, 95 ; and prepare to make new planta- 
tions of these vegetables. Plant Broad Beans, 39 ; Beet 
seed, 44 ; Rape, 47 ; plant Cauliflower plants under hand- 
glasses, 51 and 120; sow Cabbage seed, 55 and 112; Car- 
rot, 59 ; Celery, 60 ; plant Chives, 66 ; Cucumber, in frames, 
121 ; sow Egg-plant seed, 66; plant Horse-radish, 69; Leek, 


71 ; Lettuce, 72 ; plant Melon seed in hot-beds, 132 ; sow 
Onion, 78; Parsley, SO; Parsnip, 81; Pepper, 82; plant 
Peas, 83 ; Potatoes, in frames, 133 ; sow Radish seed, 88 and 
134; plant Rocambole, 89; Rhubarb, 90; Sea-Kale, 95; Skir- 
ret, 97 ; sow Spinach seed, 99; Tomato, 101 and 112; Turnip 
seed, 104; prepare to make Hop plantations, 139; sow Herb 
geed, 106 to 108. Plant esculents for seed, beginning with 
the hardiest kinds ; raise up and plant Cabbage stumps, &c., 
to produce greens early for the table. In the course of this 
month, every thing should be forwarded relative to the cul- 
tivation and preparation of the ground, by levelling such as 
may have lain in ridges through the winter, and by manuring 
and digging the soil generally, preparatory to sowing and 
planting it early in next month. 

In the event of unfavourable weather in March, the plant- 
ing of some of the articles above enumerated may be de- 
layed until the early part of April ; but it should be borne 
in mind that if the hardiest kinds can be planted early, more 
time will be afforded to other important business, as the sea- 
son progresses. 


«' The state of the ivind augurs rain, as they say. 
When restless in changes, now this, now tliat way. 
Or hollow, comes whistling plaintively by. 
The rain it betokens is probably nigh." 

This is certainly the most important month in the yeai 
for gardening operations. Finish as early as possible the 
planting of esculents for seed, and see that all plants of the 
same o-enus are remote from each other, or they will adul 
temte. All the soil of a garden should be dug or ploughed 
this month if possible, and some of the eaily crops sown 
last month will require hoeing and weeding. 

Great care should be taken to have good sound seed, as 


this is a matter of the utmost importance, and for want of 
which, many are disappointed in their principal crops when 
too late to sow again. It is also a material consideration to 
have the best varieties Loth of seed and plants of their re- 
spective kinds. See page 25. 

If not done last month, make plantations of Artichokes, 
31 ; Asparagus, 35 ; Beans, Vicia faba, 39 ; towards the end 
of the month, plant Beans, Phaseohis, 41 and 42 ; Beet seed, 
44 ; sow late kinds of Broccoli seed, 48 ; not Cape Broccoli 
until May ; seed of Cabbage for summer use, 55 ; Cardoon, 
58 ; Carrot, 59 ; Celery, 60 ; sow Cress seed, 64 ; plant Cu- 
cumber in frames, 124 ; sow Endive, 68 ; plant Horse Radish, 
69 ; Indian Corn, 70 ; Jerusalem Artichokes, 70 ; sow Leek 
seed, 71 ; Lettuce seed, 72 ; plant Melon in hot-beds, 132 ; 
sow Mustard seed, 76 ; plant Nasturtium, 76 ; sow Onion 
seed, 78 ; Parsley, 80 ; Parsnip, 81 ; plant Peas, 83 ; Pota- 
toes, 85 ; Sweet Potatoes, 86 ; sow Radish seed, 88 ; plant 
Rocambole, 89 ; Rhubarb, 90 ; Salsify, 92 ; Scorzonera, 93 ; 
Sea Kale, 94 ; sow SkiiTet, 97 ; Spinach, 99 ; Tomato, 101, 
112, and 136 ; Turnip seed, 104 ; Turnip-rooted Cabbage 
in varieties, 56 ; make Hop plantations, 139. Sow the 
seed of Angelica, Anise, Basil, Burnet, Bore age. Caraway, 
Chervil, Clary, Coriander, Dill, Fennel, Pot Marigold, Sweet 
Marjoram, Patience, Dock, Sorrel, Summer Savory, Small- 
age, Thyme, Bene, Boneset, Catnep, Celandine, Saffron, and 
such other Aromatic, Sweet, and Medicinal Herbs as may 
be required. Also separate and transplant all kinds of Pe- 
rennial Herb roots, such as Mint, Pennyroyal, Sage, Winter 
Savory, Tarragon, and Medicinal Herbs in general, as de- 
scribed page 106 to 108. If not done last month, attend to 
the spring dressing of Artichoke beds, 33 ; Asparagus, 37 ; 
Rhubarb, 91 ; Sea Kale, 95. 

Besides the W(^rk of sowing and planting the various kinds 
of seed above enumerated, all the strongest plants of Cab- 
bage, Cauliflower, and Lettuce, must be taken from the hot- 
beds and frames, and transplanted into the regular beds in 


the open garden. iVttend to such other business in this da- 
partment as may have been left undone last month, and see 
that the gai'den be kept neat and free from weeds. 


" Mudi dew on the grass portends, as all say, 
That day which succeeds will be a clear day ; 
But when no dew moistens the grass on the plain, 
Kind Heaven requites it by sending it rain." 

As the warm weather progresses, the gardener should be 
on the alert, in order to conquer the various kinds of insects. 
Bum damp litter, stubble, leaves, weeds, &c., near fi-uit trees, 
and sow ashes over the gi'ound. Attend to plantations of 
Cabbages, Cauliflower, &c. ; hoe them frequently, and draw 
earth to their stems ; look out for and destroy grub worms, 
caterpillars, and other insects, 18 to 21 ; thin out the early 
plantings of Beets, Carrots, Parsnips, Salsify, &c., and de- 
stroy weeds, to prevent their seeding the ground. Plant 
and sow such kinds of seed as were omitted last month ; the 
sowing of Celery, Leek, Onion, Parsley, Parsnip, Salsify 
seed, &c., should be attended to without farther delay. 
Transplant Cabbage, Lettuce, Tomato, Egg-plants, &c., from 
the hot-beds and warm borders. Plant Beans, 41 and 42 ; 
Beet, 44 ; Borecole, 46 ; Brussels Sprout seed, 47 ; Cape 
Broccoli, 49 ; Cauliflower, 53 ; Cabbage, 55 and 56 ; Car- 
rot, 59 ; Cress, 64 ; plant Cucumber, 65 ; sow Endive, 
68 ; plant Indian Corn, 70 ; Melon, 74 ; Water Melon, 75 ; 
sow Mustard seed, 76 ; plant Nasturtium, 76 ; Okra, 77 ; 
Pepper, 82 ; Peas, 83 ; Potatoes, 85 ; Potatoes, Sweet, 86 ; 
Pumpkins, 87 ; sow Radish seed, 88 ; Squash, 100 ; Tomato, 
101 ; early in this month finish sowing all kinds of Aromatic, 
Pot, Sweet, and Medicinal Herbs, 106 to 108. Some of the 
old hot-beds may be spawned for Mushrooms, but it is best 
to form nev/ ones. Uncover productive beds once a week, 


and gather the produce ; clear them of weeds and wet litter, 
and put a httle dry hay or straw next the bed. Prepare 
fresh spawn, &c., 125 to 130. 

Watering will now frequently be required for newly planted 
vegetables, both at the time of transplanting, and occasion- 
ally afterward, in dry weather, until the roots are estabhshed 
in the soil. Likewise seed-beds recently sown, till the young 
plants become vigorous. 

Weeding must be veiy dihgently attended to, both by hand 
and hoe ; for as weeds grow luxuriantly, it is necessary to 
eradicate them before they spread too far, as, by neglect, 
they will not only impede the growth, but eventually smother 
the plants. 

Toward the end of the month, top such of the English 
Broad Beans as may be in blossom, to promote the swelhng 
of the pods, as well as their early maturity. [See page 40.J 

Those who have young famiUes should not fail sowing 
some Bene-plant seed, as the plant, by being steeped in a 
glass of water, produces a glutinous liquid, which is an effi- 
cacious remedy for the summer complaint. It may be sown 
in drills and managed the same as salad or Parsley. [See 
Herbs, 107.] 


" The sky dress'd in placid soft redness at night 
Portends the next day will be cloudless and bright , 
A fierce angry redness that shoots up at morn, 
And tinges the clouds, is a token of storm." 

The principal sowing seasons for general crops may be 
considered as past, but there are many kinds of seed which 
may be sown this month ; and the gardener should ascertain 
the success of his former plantings, in order to make up any 
deficiencies from failures, before the season be too far ad- 
vanced. ]3y this time some of the early crops will be cleared 
off, and such ground as was manured for the early crops of 


Lettuce, Radishes, Spinach, &:c., will be excellent foi late 
Beets and CaiTOts. Hoe and thin out all standing crops, 
and clean vacant ground, to prevent weeds from running to 
seed. If the ground be dry, frec^uent hoeing will be bene- 
ficial. Use means to d&stroy insects ; read pages 18 to 21 
for information on this subject. Plant Kidney Beans, 41 and 
42 ; Beet seed, 44. If the seedling plants of Broccoli, Cau- 
liflower, Cabbage, &c., failed last month, sow again early 
this month. Water the beds frequently, and sow tobacco 
dust, soot, ashes, &c., or use the liquid recommended, page 
19. Transplant Cabbage, Celery, &c., for summer use ; 
transplant Cardoons, 58 ; sow Carrot seed in drills, 59 ; plant 
Cucumber seed in hills, 65 ; sow Endive, 68 ; plant Indian 
Com, 70; transplant Leeks, 71 ; Okra seed may be planted 
early in this mouth, 77 ; plant Peas, if dry weather, soak 
them five or six hours in water, 83 ; plant Potatoes, 85 ; 
Potatoes, Sweet, 86 ; Pumpkin seed, 87 ; sow summer Radish 
seed, 89 ; plant Squash, 100. 

As the herbs come into flower, they should be cut on a 
dry day, and spread in a shady place to dry for winter use, 
108. Conduct Hop vines to the poles, and when they have 
reached the top, nip ofl'the tops to strengthen the stems, 140. 

Hoe between the Artichokes, and in order to have the 
main top fruit attain its full size, detach the small suckers, 
or lateral heads. [See page 34.] 

Early Cauliflowers, which v/ill now be progressing toward 
maturity, must be watered in dry weather ; and as the heads 
begin to exhibit themselves, break down some of the largo 
leaves over them to protect them from the rays of the sun, 
and from rain, 52. 

Keep Asparagus clear of weeds, and also Onions ; and 
give those beds that are to stand for ripening, a final thin- 
ning, as suggested in page 78. 



♦* When Jiowers toward evening their blossoms expand 
And bask in the sunbeams, there's no rain at hand ; 
But when they close up as if conscious of fear, 
They augur its coming — it no doubt is near." 

This is a very important month for transplanting Cabbage, 
Cardoons, Celery, Endive, Leeks, Pepper plants, &c., for 
full autumn crops. Prepare trenches for the Celery plants 
beforehand, in order that they may be ready to catch the 
rain. Leeks may be transplanted in dry weather, by first 
steeping the roots in mud, and Cabbage plants too, if there 
be the least moisture in the ground when it is freshly turned 
over. As grub-worms are apt to devour Cabbage plants early 
in this month, those persons anxious to transplant any quantity, 
may dip the roots in fish oil, and then dry them in plaster of 
Paris, which will not only annoy the worms, but prove bene- 
ficial as manures, 19 and 20. If transplanting in general be 
delayed to the middle of the month, grub-worms will be 
harmless, 55. 

If Beets and Carrots have failed, the seed may produce 
good roots by autumn, if planted early in the month ; plant 
Beans, 41 ; Cabbage seed may be sown now for Collards, 
57 ; plant Cucumber seed for picklers, 60 ; sow Endive*^ 
seed, and transplant the former sowing, 68 ; if Peas be 
planted now, they should be soaked in soft water five or six 
hours, 83 ; Potatoes may be planted early in this month, 85 ; 
and Pumpkins, if not done last month, 87. Sow summer 
Radish seed in drills, 89 ; sow Turnip-rooted Cabbage seed, 
m vaiieties, 56 ; this is a good season for Ruta Baga, or Rus- 
fiian Turnip, 105; and the common kinds of Turnip seed 
may be sown toward the end of this m.onth, 104. Attend 
to plantations of Hops, 140 ; whatever herbs may be required 
for winter use, should be cut off and dried as they come into 
flower ; Euniet, Chervil, Fennel, Mint, Parsley, Sweet Mar 
joram, Tarragon, Thyme, Winter and Summer Savory, may 
month, 106 to 108. 


The business of sowing and transplanting will be mote 
Buccessful if done in moist or sliowery weather, or on the 
approach of rain, or immediately after, especially for preca- 
rious seed, and young seedling plants. Attend to the Mush- 
room beds, and give light waterings, or expose them to warm 
moderate showers occasionally, 130. 


" When clouds slow dissolve, as if turned into air, 
And vanish from sight, the next day will be fair ; 
But when, in succession, they darker appear, 
With watery aspect, then know rain is near." 

The planting season being nearly over, now is the time to 
hoe around the plants and clear the ground ©f weeds and 
6tubble. Dig or plough vacant ground ready for fall Tur- 
nips, Spinach, Shallots, Fetticus, &c. As the ground for the 
latter crops may require manure, it will be greatly improved 
if ploughed before the manure is drawn on, which should be 
afterward spread and ploughed under. 

Plant Beans for picklers, 41 ; sow Cabbage seed for Col- 
lards, 57 ; earth up Cardoons, 58 ; do. Celery, Q2 ; sow Com 
Salad, or Fetticus seed, 63 ; the early kinds of Cucumber 
may produce picklers if planted early in this month, Q>Q ; 
transplant Endive, and prepare to blanch the early plantings, 
68 ; sow Lettuce for autumn use, 73 and 125 ; sow Onion 
seed to stand the winter, 78 ; Peas may be planted thus late, 
if desired, 83 ; sow summer Radish seed, 89 ; prepare for 
planting Shallots by the end of this month, 97 ; sow Turnip 
seed for full crops, 104 ; attend to such herbs as were not 
gathered last month ; cut off and dry Sage, and other lato 
herbs, 106 to 108. Hops will be ripe this month ; choose a 
diy season for gathering them, and attend to them as direct- 
ed, page 140 ; this is a good season for preparing to make 
Mushroom beds, in close sheds, cellars, or pits ; if the mate 


rials be gathered this month, indigenous spawn may be col- 
lected next, but those that can procure spawn may make 
the beds at any time, or they may pursue Mr. Nichol's plan, 

Artichokes will be in perfection this month, and should be 
cut for use as soon as the scales of the head expand, and 
before they open in the heart for flowering ; and as you cut 
them, break down the stems to promote the growth of root 
offsets, 34. In diy weather hoe and plough between such 
vegetables as may have been planted in rows, which will not 
only destroy weeds, but encourage the growtli of the plaiits. 
Frequent hoeing ia dry weather will be more beneficial than 
the watering-pot. 

Early sown Onions, being now of mature growth, and full 
bulbed, should be pulled up in dry weather and exposed to 
the sun to ripen ; frequently turning them, that they may 
harden equally for keeping ; then clear them from the gross 
part of the stalks, and loose outer skins, earth, &c,, and re- 
move them to a place of shelter, 78. 

Continue to gather seed of all kinds as they ripen, and 
prepare vacant ground for late crops ; such as Spinach, Shal 
lot, Onion, Fetticu5, &c., 98. 


" Light vapours o'er valleys and riTers at mght, 
Foretoken the next day salubrious and bright i- 
Especially when they at morning appear 
To rise up the hill side*, and vaaiish in air." 

Although the sowing season is nearly over, the crops on 
the gi'ound require attention constantly. Endive may still 
be transplanted for winter use. Hoe Cabbage and other 
vegetables, and attend to the earthing of Celery as it pro- 
gresses in growth. Tie up Endive plants for blanching, 68 ; 
BOW Rape, 47; Cauliflower seed, 51; Cabbage^ 54; Corn 


Salad, or Fetticus, 63 ; Cress, Rape, &c., every ton days, for 
a salad, 64; sow Mustard, for the same purpose, 76; sow 
Lettuce, 73 and 125 ; Onion, to stand the winter, 78 ; Radish, 
for fall use, 89 ; plant Shallots, 97 ; sow Spinach seed every 
week or ten days, 98 ; Turnips will sometimes come to ma- 
turity if the seed be sown the early part of this month, and 
those sown last month will need hoeing as they progress in 
growth, 104. 

Continue to gather, dry, and pack Hops as they ripen, 140 ; 
also all Aromatic, Sweet, and Medicinal Herbs, 108 ; this is 
a good season to make Mushroom beds in sheltered situa- 
tions ; they may be spawned with indigenous or artificial 
spawTi, as may be most convenient. [For directions to pre- 
serve spawn, &c., see pages 126 and 127.] 

Toward the end of this month, or early m the next, is a 
good season to increase all kinds of herbaceous plants, by 
parting the roots, but it should be done in cloudy or wet 
weather ; at the same time, such herbs as were raised from 
seed sown in the spring, may be transplanted into separate 
beds or borders, 106 to 108. 

In this month must be finished all the principal sowdngs 
and plantings necessary this year; on this account such 
ground as is intended for principal crops next year, should 
be well manured previous to planting it. [See Spinach, 98.] 

Cucumber vines should be looked over, and the fruit 
gathered as it becomes fit for pickling, as a very slight frost 
will destroy Cucumbers, 66. 



" A warm, open winter dotb often succeed 
A hot and dry summer, by all 'tis agreed ; 
A hard, frosty winter its rigour retains, 
And holds gentle spring in its cold icy chains." 

The piincipal winter crops being planted, it will be! neces- 
sary to prepare for maturing and gathering some of the fall 
crops. Weed out Fetticus, Spinach, &c. Hoe and earth 
up Celery ; do it hi dry weather, and not even while the 
dew is on it, 62. Toward the end of the month, frames 
must be provided for the protection of Parsley, Lettuce, and 
of such Cabbage and Cauliflower plants as were raised from 
seed sown last month. Begin to dig and secure all kinds 
of vegetables soon enough to get the whole placed away be- 
fore the end of the next month. Take up Potatoes and bury 
them in pits, so as to secure them from wet and frost, or put 
them in a warm cellar. Proceed to take up other roots; 
begin with the most tender kinds, or do that which is re- 
quired to be done in dry weather, while it is so. Collect 
Pumpkins and winter Squashes, and expose them to the 
wind and air on a dry bench, or ledge, before they are stowed 
away. Dig up Beets, and secure them in pits, or pack them 
in sand in a cellar. 

Aromatic, Pot, and Medicinal Herbs, should now have a 
thorough cleaning and dressing ; by desti'oying all weeds, 
cutting away all decayed stalks, digging between such plants 
as will admit of it, and spreading earth over others, as sug- 
gested, page 108. 

Tie up full-grown plants of Endive every week In dry 
weather, for blanching in succession, as required, 68. 

Horse-radish may now be dug for use as wanted, by 
trenching along each row to the bottom of the upright roots, 
leaving the old stools for future production, 69. Jerusalem 
Artichokes may be dug up for use, or to preserve for winter 
consumption, 71. 

14* U 



"When nuts are but few, and they small and hollow, 
A cold and wet harvest, there's no doubt, will follow \ 
But when they are plenty, and ^ood, 'tis agreed, 
A rich, golden harvest is sure to succeed." 

Endeavour to avoid having your garden products frozen 
fast in the ground. Begin in good earnest to secure them ; 
in fine weather dig up Beets, CaiTots, and as many Skirret, 
Salsify, and other hardy roots as will be required for winter 
use, and pack them close together in pits ; give them a coat 
of straw, and afterward heap on as much earth as will keep 
out the frost, or stow them in a cellar. Toward the end of 
the month. Turnips may be secured in the same way. Take 
up Celery in dry weather, and strike it in close together 
against a ndge, which should be previously formed in a 
straight line, about a foot above the level of the surface ; 
throw up earth from the trench sufficient to cover them about 
an inch, and then plant row after row as close and upright 
as it can be placed, with just sufficient earth between every 
row to keep the roots and stalks from touching each other. 
The whole being covered up with earth, some long dung or 
litter may be thrown over it, sufficient to keep out the frost ; 
and by heaping a good layer of manure against the last row 
of Celery, it may be taken out at any time in the winter for 
use. Some erect a board shed over to protect it from wet ; 
a small quantity may be kept in a cellar. Cabbage must be 
taken up and laid in rows against a ridge, so as to form a 
square, compact, close-growing bed, the roots and stems 
being buried up to the lower leaves of the Cabbages. The 
beds may afterward be covered with straw, or a temporary 
shed may be erected over them. Cabbage will keep for 
some months in a cellar, if connected with their roots. For 
the management of Broccoli and Cauliflower, see articles, 
pages 48, 51, and 120. Borecole, Brussels Sprouts, and Col- 
lards, may be taken up and stowed away like Cabbages. 


Cardoons may be laid in like Celery, or preserved in sand 
m a cellar. Leeks may be taken up and laid in rows close 
together against a ridge, and covered up as far as the lower 
leaves. If the last row be protected from frost by a coat of 
stable dung, they can be taken out when required for use. 
Corn Salad, Spinach, and Lettuce, may be protected by a 
covering of straw, salt hay, or cedar brush. For the man- 
agement of Artichoke beds, see page 32; Asparagus, 37; 
Rhubarb 91 ; Sea-Kale, 95. 

Dig up roots of Horse-radish in the manner recommended 
last month, to preserve in sand or pits, for use when the 
ground is frozen or ice-bound. Do the like by Jerusalem 
Artichokes, which are now in their full perfection. At the 
same time take up as many Parsnips and other hardy roots, 
as will be required for use the next three months. Spread 
short horse dung over the Onions that were sown in August 
and September, which will protect them through the winter. 


" A wet, sultry summer, prognostic! affirm, 
A boist'rous autumn will bring in its turn j 
A cold, sour autumn and summer portend 
A winter severe from beginning to end. " 

If all was not done as directed last month, there is no 
time to be lost. Every thing that needs protection should 
now be attended to, and if the weather continues open, some 
of the ground may be ploughed or trenched, to receive the 
benefit of winter frosts. Collect all your Pea-sticks and 
Bean-poles together, and place them under cover to prevent 
their rotting. Turn over compost heaps, and provide manure 
for another year. 

Those who are desirous of having Cucumbers or Melons 
early in the ensuing spring, and have not the convenience 


for forcing tliern in the ordinary way, may dig a few grasa 
Bods or turfs, before it freezes hard, and stow them away out 
of the reach of frost, through the winter. These being 
placed on the top of a hot-bed, in March, or early in April, 
with the grass downward, and Cucumber or Melon seed 
|)lanted in the earthy part thereof, early plants may be pro- 
duced, which can be removed with the turfs without dis- 
turbing their growth, and cultivated either on the ridge sys- 
tem, as recommended in page 132, or in the open ground, 
provided they can be kept growing in frames until settled 
warm weather. This is also an excellent plan in early 
forcing, as it saves trouble as well as risk in transplanting 
seedling plants into the fruiting beds. 

If not done last month, dress your Artichoke beds, and 
cover them as recommended in page 32. Defend Mushroom 
beds with dry straw, or long stable litter, and cover such as 
may be exposed, with mats, as security against cold. In all 
moderate weather duiing the winter, give air to Cabbage, 
Cauliflower, Lettuce, and such other plants as may be in 
frames, being careful to cover them every night with mats, 
boards, litter, &c., as necessity may require. 

As the year is drawing to a close, I would solicit the gar- 
dener to review the results of his practice throughout the 
past season, that he may be able to judge how to act for the 

In sketching a plan of his garden for the next year, he 
ought to make provision for a full supply of such vegetables as 
are best calculated to sell, and yield a fair profit; with this 
object in view, I would suggest that he take a retrospective 
view of his previous ma?iagement, and also of the directions 
given in the preceding chapter relative to the preparation of 
the soil, by ploughing, trenching, pulverizing, manuring, &c., 
as circumstances may require ; bearing in mind, that although 
clayey soils may be benefited by fall ridging, light sandy 
ground should lay flat through the winter. 

Established, 1828. Rebuilt and Enlarged, 1S56. 

No. S7G & 878 BI£®AI>1^AY, 


Always on hand a Large and Choice Selection of 








Imported Annaallf. 

Every article appertaining to the business furnished at reasonable rates, and warranted 
a« rep'esented. All seeds fully tested before beingoffered. Orders by mail will bo at- 
tended to v/ith scrupulous exactness and prompt iiude. 


Ail the Books on this Catalogue sent by mail, 1,0 any pan of the, Umonyfra 
of postage, upon receipt of Price, 





A., O. MOO HE, 





Embracing all the Recent Discoveries in Agriultural Chem- 

iBtry, an-1 the use of Mineral, Vegetable and Animal Manures, with Descriptions and 
Figures of American Insects injurious to Vegetation. Being a Complete Guide for the 
cultivation of every variety of Garden and Field Crops. Illustrated by numerous En- 

f-avings of Grasses, Grains, Animals, Implements, Insects, &c. By Gofverneuk 
MBR60N, of Pennsylvania, upon the basis of Johnson's Farmer's Encyclopedia. 


A Treatise on the Theory and Practioi- ^ "■' ^NDsCi\PE Gar- 
dening. Adapted to North America, with a Aiew to the Impiuvement of Country 
Eesidences ; comprising Historical Notices and General Principles of the Art, direc- 
tions for Laying out Grounds and Arranging Plantations, the Description and Cultiva- 
tion of Hardy Trees, Decorative Accompaniments to the House and Grounds, the 
Formation of Pieces of Artificial Waters, Flower Gardens, «fec., with Kemarks on 
Eural Architecture. Elegantly Illustrated, with a Portrait of the Author. By A. J. 

DOWNING'S (A. J.) RURAL ESSAYS, .... 3 00 

On Horticulture, Landscape Gardening, Rural Architecture, 

Trees, Agriculture, Fruit, with his Letters from England, Edited, with a Memoir of 
the Author, by George Wm. Cuetis, and a letter to his friends, by Feederika Beb- 
mcB, and an elegant steel Portrait of the Author. 

Do. Do. Do. Do. Colored Plates, 4 GO 

With Anatomical and Questional Illustrations ; Contain inir. 
also, a Series of Examinations on Equine Anatomy and Philosophy, with Instnictidna 
in reference to Dissection, and the mode of making Anatomical Preparations ; to wliicL 
is added a Glossary of Veterinary Technicalities, Toxicological Chart, and Dictioiuiiy 
of Veterinary Science. 


Containing Practical Observations on the Causes, Nature 

and Treatment of Disease and Lameness of Horses, embracing the most recent and ap^ 
proved methods, according to an enlightened system of veterinary therapeutics, fu^ 
the preservation and restoration r health. With Illustration&. 

Boohs Puhlislied hy A. 0. Moore. 


Containing the Necessary Information for Preserving the 

He&lth and Curing the Diseases of Oxen, Cows, Sheep, and Swine, with a great variety 
of Original Eecipes and Valuable Informatioii in reference to Farm and Dairy manage- 
ment, whereby every man can be his own Cattle Doctor. The principles taught in 
this work are, that all Medication shall be subservient to Nature — that all Medicines 
must be sanative in their operation, and administered with a view of aiding the vital 
powers, instead of depressing, as heretofore, with the lancet or by pcisoB. By G H. 
Dadd, M. D., Veterinary Practitioner. 


A Few Loose Chapters on Shooting, among wliich will be found 

some Anecdotes and Incidents ; also, instructions for Dog Breaking, and interesting let- 
ters from Sportsmen. By A Bad Shot. 


A Premium Essay on the Origin, History, and Characteristics 

of this remarkable American Breed of Horses; tracing the Pedigree from the original 
Justin Morgan, through the most noted of his progeny, down to the present time. 
With numerous portraits. To which are added hints for Breeding, Breaking, and 
General Use and Management of Hojses, with practical Directions for training them for 
exhibition at Agricultural Fati>r,^'By D. C. Linslky. 


CANES. - 1 00 

A Co:mplete Treatjce upon their Origin and Varieties, Culture 

and Uses, their value as a Foi-age Crop, and directions for making Sugar, Molasses, 
Alcohol, Sparkling and Still Wines, Beer, Cider, Vinegar, Paper, Starch, and Dye 
Stuflfs. Fully Illustrated with Drawings of Approved Machinery ; With an Appendix 
by Leonard Wrat, of Caffraria, and a description of his patented process of crystalliz- 
ing the juice of the Imphee ; with the latest American experiments, inchiding those of 
18.57, in the South. By Henry S. Olcott. To which are added translations of valu- 
able French Pamphlets, received from the Hon. John T. Mason, American Minister * 
at Paris. 


A Treatise on the Management of Horses, in Relation to 

Stabling, Groom^- " t-ding, Watering and Working, Construction of Stables, Ventila- 
tion, Appendagco ^j. eatables, Management of the Feet, and of Diseased and Defective 
Horses. By John Stewart, Veterinary Surgeon. With Notes and Additions, adapt- 
ing it to American Food and Climate. By A. B. Allen, JEditor of the American 


With Cuts, Illustrating the Anatomy of the Foot, and contaln- 
fcg valuable Hints on Shoeing and Stable Management, in Health and In Disease. By 
WiLLLAii Miles. 


A Treatise, intended to Explain and Illustrate the Physi- 

ology of Fruit Trees, the Theory and Practice of all Operations connected with the 
Propagatiou, Transplanting, Pruning and Training of Orchard and Garden Trees, as 
Standards, Dwarfs, PjTamids, Espalier, &c. The Laying out and Arranging different 
kinds of Orchards and Gardens, the selection of suitable varieties for different purposes 
and localities, Gathering and Preserving Fruits, Treatment of Diseases, Destruction of 
Insects, Description and Uses of Implements, &c. Illustrated with upwards of 150 
Figures, representing Different Parts of Trees, all Practical Operations, forms of Trees, 
Designs for Plantations, Implements, &c. By P. Babbt, of the Mount Hope Nurseries, 
Rochester, N. Y, 


The Pear Garden ; or, a Treatise on the Propagation and 
Cultivation of the Pear Tree, with Instructions for its Management from the Seedling 
to the Bearing Tree. By Thomab W. Field. 

i Cloth, 




i Cloth, 




i Cloth>. 






Books Puhlished by A. 0. Moore. 


In Three ParTvS, Contaimng Catalogues of Garden ami Flower 
Seed, wiih Practical Directions under each head for the Cultivation of Culinary Yege- 
tables and Flowers. Also directions for Cultivating Fruit Trees, the Grape Vine, &c. ; 
t'j which is idded, a Calendar to each part, showing the work necessary to be done in 
the various departments each month of the year. One volume octavo. 


(i (( >( u 



(' (I (( (( 


Containing Directions for Raising, PnorAGAXiNG and Manag- 
ing Fruit Trees, Shrnbs and Plants ; with a description of the Best Varieties of FriJt 
Including New and Valuable Kinds. 


Containing Diseases op Domestic Animals, their Causes, 
Symptoms and Kemedies ; with Eules for Eestoring and Preserving Health by good 
management ; also for Training and Breeding. 


Containing Directions for the Formation and Management 

of the Kitchen Garden, the Culture and Use of Vegetables, Fruits and Medicinal Herbs. 


The American Architect, Comprising original Designs of Cheap 
Country and Village Eesidences, with Details, Specifications, Plans and Directions, 
and an Estimate of the Cost of Each Design. By John W. Eitch, Architect. First 
and Second Series, 4to, bound in 1 ''^ol, 


Containing Practical Directions for the Culture of Plants, 

In the Flower-Garden, Hot-House, Green-House, Eooms or Parlor Windows, for every 
Month in the Year ; with a Description of the Plants most desirable in each, the nature 
of the Soil and Situation best adapted to their Growth, the Proper Season for Trans- 
planting, &c. ; with Instructions for Erecting a Hot-House, Green-House, and Laying 
out a Flower Garden ; the whole adapted to either Large or Small Gardens, with In- 
structions for Preparing the Soil, Propagating, Planting, Pruning, Training and Fruit- 
ing the Grape Vine. 


Considered with reference to the Breeding, Rearing, Feed- 
ing. Management and Peculiarities of Cage and House Birds. Illustrated with Engrav- 
ings. By D. Jay Browne. 


An Illustrated Treatise on Vineyards and Wine-Making, 

containing Full Instructions as to Location and Soil, Preparation ot Ground, Selection 
and Propagation of Vines, the Treatment of Young Vineyards, Trimming and Training 
the Vines, Manures, and the Making of "Wine. 


A I'reatise on the Physical and Chemical Properties op 
Boils and Chemistry of Manures ; including, also, the subject of Composts, Artificial 
Manures and Irrigation. A new edition, with a Chapter on Bones and Superphos- 


By Dr. Julius Adolphus Stockhaedt, Professor in the Royal 
Academy of Agriculture at Tharant Translated from the German. Ecllted, with 
botes, by Jam b E. Teohemacheb. 

1 Books Publislied by A. 0. Moorp. 

Containing Plain and Accurate Desceiptionp of \i7. the Dif- 

ferent Species and Varieties of Culinary Vegetables, with their Botanical, English, 
French and German names, alphabetically arranged, with the Best Mode of Oult'^ivating 
them in the Garden or under Glass; also Descriptions and Character of the most Select 
Fruits their Management, Propagation, &c. By Eobebt Buist, author of the " Am- 
erican Flower Garden Directory," &c. 


Do. Do. Do. Colored Plates, - 2 CO 

A Treatise ox the History and Mangement of Ornamental 

^ and Domestic Poultry. By Rev. Edmttnd Satjx Dixon, A.M., with large sidditiona b.» 

J. J. Kerr, M.D. Illustrated with sixty -five Original Portraits, engraved expresc ly fol 

tbis work. Fourth edition revised. 


A Practical Treatise on the Construction, Heating and 

Ventilation of Hot-Houses, including Conservatories, Green-Houses, Graperies an4 
other kinds of Horticultural Structures, with Practical Directions for their Mansige 
ment, in regard to Light, Heat and Air. Illustrated with numerous engravings. By 
P. B. Leuohaes, Garden Architect. 

Intended Especially for the American Climate. Being- a 
Practical Treatise on the Cultivation of the Grape Vine in each department of Hot 
House, Cold Grapery, Retarding House and Out-door Culture. "With Plans for tl'< 
CoriBtruction of the Kequisite Buildings, and giving the best methods for Heating the 
same. Every department being fully illustrated- By William Choklton. 


Or, the Connection between Science and the Art of Practical 

Farming. Prize Essay of the New York State Agricultural Society. By John P. 
Norton, M.A., Professor of Scientific Agriculture in Yale College. Adapted to the 
use of Schools. 


By James F. W. Johnston, M.A., F.R.SS.L. and E., Honorary 
Member of the Eoyal Agricultural Society of England, and author of "Lectures on 
Agricultural Chemistry and Geology." "With an Introduction by John Pitkik Nor- 
ton, M.A., late Professor of Scientific in Yale College. With notes and 
additions by the author, prepared expressly for this coition, and an Appendix compiled 
by the Superintendent oi Education in Nova Scotia. Adapted to the use ol Schools. 



With a Complete Analytical and Alphabetical Index and an 

American Preface. By Hon. Simon Brown, Editor of the "New England Farmer.' 


Lectures on the Application of Chemistry and Geology to 
Agriculture. New edition, with an Appendix, containing the Author's Experiments 
In Practical Agriculture. 


EuRAL Economist and New American Gardener ; Confa' 

a Compendious Epitome of the most Important Branches of Aericulture and Knrai 
Economy ; with Practical Directions on the Cultivation of Fruits and Vegetables, in- 
cluding Landscape and Ornamental Gardening. By Thosiab G. Fessenbek. 2 vols. 
In one. 

Containing Directions for the Cultivation of Vegetables and 
Garden Fruits Cl->th. 

Books FuhUsJied by A. 0. Moore. 


A Scientific Treatise on Agricultural Chemistry, the Ge- 

ology of Agriculture, on Plants and Animals, Manures and Soils, applied to Practical 
Agriculture ; -nith a Catechism of Scientific and Practical Agriculture. By J. A. Nabu 


In which are Described all the Various Hardy Herbaceous 
Perennials, Annuals, Shrubs, Plants and Evergreen Trees, with Directions for their 

GEOUNDS. 1 25 

With Practical Notes on Country Residences, Villas, Public 
Parks and Gardens. By Chakles H. J. Smith, Landscape Gardener and Garden 
Architect, &c. With Notes and Additions by Lewis F. Allen, author of " Eural 


Being a Compilation of Facts from the Best Authorities on 

the Culture of Cotton, its Natural History, Chemical Analysis, Trade and Consumption, 
and embracing a History of Cotton and the Cotton Gin. By J. A. Tueneb. 


A Treatise on the Situation, Soil, and Laying-out of Gardens, 
and the making and managing of Hot-Beds and Green-Houses, and on the Propagation 
and Cultivation of the several sorts of Vegetables, Herbs, Fruits and Flowers. 


A Practical Treatise on the Culture and Treatment of the 
Grape Yine, embracing Its History, with Directions for its Treatment in the United 
States of America, in the Open Air and under Glass Structures, with and without 
Artificial Heat. By J. Fisk Allen. 


Being m History and Description of the Horse, Mule, Cattle, 
Sheep, Swine, Poultry, and Farm Dogs, with Directions for their Management, Breed- 
ing, Crossing, Bearing, Feeding, and Preparation for a Profitable Market ; also, their 
Diseases and Kemedies, together with full Directions for the Management of the Dairy, 
and the comparative Economy and Advantages of \N orking Animals, the Horse, Mule, 
Oxen, &c. By E. L. Allen. 


The American Farm Book ; or, a Compond of American Agricul- 
ture, being a Practical Treatise on Soils, Manures, Draining, Irrigation, Grasses, Grain, 
RoolB, Fruits, Cotton, Tobacco, Sugar Cane, Kice, and every Staple Product of the 
United States; with the Best Methods of Planting, Cultivating and Preparation for 
Market. Illustrated with more than 100 engravings. By li. L. Allen. 


Being a Complete Description of Farm Houses, Cottages, and 

Out Buildings, comprising "Wood Houses, Workshops, Tool Houses, Carriage &ivi 
Wagon Houses, Stables, Smoke and Ash Houses, Ice Houses, Apiaries or Bee Houses. 
Poultry Houses, Babbitry, Dovecote, Piggery. Barns, and Sheds for Cattle, &«., &c, 
together with Lawns, Pleasure Grounds, and Parks; the Flower, Fruit, and Vege- 
table Garden; also useful and ornamental domestic Animals for the Country Ecsident, 
Sic, &-c Also, the best method of conducting water into Cattle Yards and liousea. 
Beautifully illustrated. 


A Book for Young Farmers, with Questions for the use of 


Books Published by A. 0. Moore. 


A Complete Manual for the Cultivation of the Strawbekry ; 
with a description of the best varieties. 

Also, notkes of the Kaspberry, Blackberry, Currant, Gooseberry, and Grape ; with 
directions for their cultivation, and the selection of the best varieties. "Every process 
here recommended has been proved, the plans of others tried, and the result is her« 
given." With a valuable appendix, containing the observations and experience ol 
some of the most successful cultivators of these fruits in our country. 


A Treatise on Milch Cows, whereby the Quality aud Quantity of 
Milk which any Cow will give may be accurately determined by observing Natura' 
Marks or External Indications alone ; the length of time she will continue to give 
Milk, &c., &c. By M. Francis Gcenon, of Libourne, France. Translated by Nicho- 
LAB P. Trist, Esq. ; with Int oduction, Eemarks, and Observations on the Cow and 
the Dairy, by John S. Skinner. Illustrated with numerous engravings. Neatly 
done up in paper covers, 37 cts. 

AMERICAN POULTRY YARD ; - - - - - 1 00 

Comprising the Origin, History and Description of the different 
Breeds of Domestic Poultry, with complete directions for their Breeding, Crossing, 
Rearing, Fattening, and Preparation for Market ; including specific directions for 
Caponizing Fowls, and for the Treatment of the Principal Diseases to which they are 
subject, drawn from authentic sources and personal observation. Illustrated wiih 
numerous engravings. By D. J. Browne. 


Or, AiMerican Muck Book ; Treating of the Nature, Properties, 
Sources, History, and Operations of all the Principal Fertilizers and Manures in Com- 
mon Use, with specific directions for their Preservation, and Application to the Soil 
and to Crops ; drawn from authentic sources, actual experience, and personal observa- 
tion, as combined with the Leading Principles of Practical and Scientific Agriculture- 
By D. Jay Browne. 


With an Account of the Different Breeds, and general direc- 
tions in regard to Summer and Winter Management, Breeding, and the Treatment of 
Diseases, with Portraits and other Engravings. By Henry S. Randall. 


With an Account of the Different Breeds, Diseases and Man- 
agement of Sheep, and General Directions in regard to Summer and Winter Man- 
agement, Breeding, and the Treatment of Diseases ; with Illustrative Engrav ngs, by 
YoCATT & Eandall ; embracing Skinner's Notes on the Breed and Management of 
i-heep in the United ^tates, and on the Culture of Fine Wool. 


Their Breed, JS|£nagement and Diseases, with Illustrative En- 
gravings ; to which are added Eemarks on the Breeds and Management of Sheep in 
the United t>tates, and on the Culture of Fine Wool in Silesia. By William Youatt. 


, Being a Treatise on their Breeds, Management, and Diseases, 
comprising a full History of the Various Eaces; their Origin, Breeding, and Merits; 
their capacity for Beef and Milk. By W. Youatt and W. C. L. Martin. The whole 
forming a Complete Guide for the Farmer, the Amateur, and the Veterinary Surgeon, 
with 100 Illustrations. Edited by Ambrose Stevens. 


Youatt on the Structure and Diseases of the Horse, with 

their Eemedies. Also, Practical Eules for Buyers, Breeders, Smiths, &c. Edited by 
W. C. Spooner, M.E.O V S. With an account of the Breeds in the United States, by 
HiafRT S. Eandall. 

Books Published by A. 0. Moore. 7 

you ATT AND MARTIN ON THE HOG ; - - - - -^0 75 

A Treatise on the Breeds, Management, and Medical Theat- 

meut of Swine, with Directions for Salting Pork, and Curing Paeon and Hams. I y 
Wm. Youatt, V.S , and W. C. L.Mautik. Edited by Ajtibrose Stevens. Illustrated 
with Engravings drawn from life 


A Family Text Book for the Country ; being a Cy eloped iu at 
Agricultural Implements and Productions, and of the more important topics in Do- 
mestic Economy, r cience, and Literature, adapted to Bural Life. By Kev. Joun L. 



Being a Treatise on Draining Land, in whicli the most approved 
systems of Drainage are explained, and their differences and comparative merits dis- 
cussed; with full Directions for the Cutting and Making of Drains, with PiCmarks upon 
the various mateiials of which they may be constructed. "With many illustrations, i y 
B. MuNN, Landscape Gardener. 


AND GARDEN ; 1 25 

Being a Compend of the History, Modes of Propagation, Cul- 

nire, &c., of Fruit Trees and Sh ubs, with descriptions of nearly all the varieties of 
l-ruits cultivated in this country ; and Notes of their adaptation to localities, soi's, and 
a complete list of t ruits worthy of cultivation. 1 y F. R. Elliott, Pomologist. 

PANION; - . - 1 00 

With a Calendar. By Patrick Neill, LL.l)., F.R.S.E., Secre- 
tary of the Eoyal Caledonian Horticultural Society. Adapted to the United States 
from the fourth edition, revised and improved by the author. Edited by G. Emerson, 
M D., Editor of "Tlie American Farmer's Encyclopedia." With Notes and Additions 
by E. G Pardee, author of '"Manual of the Strawberry Culture." "With illustrations 


A Complete Guide to the Farmer, Steward, Plowman, Cat- 
tleman, Shepherd, Field Worker, and Dairy Maid. By Henry Stephens. With Four 
Hundred and Fifty Illustrations ; to which are added Explanatory Notes, Kemarks, 
&c., by J- S. Skinner. Eeally one of the best books a farmer can possess. 


Or, Pocket Companion ; Showing at one view the Contents of any 
Piece of Land from Dimensions taken in Yards. With a set of Useful Agriculturi. 


Or, the Kitchen and Fruit Garden, with the best methods lor 

their Cultivation ; together with hints upon Landscape and Flower Gardening; con- 
taining modes of culture and descriptions of the species and varieties of the Culinary 
Vegetables, Fruit Trees, and Fruits, and a select list of Ornamental Trees and Plants, 
found by trial adapted to the States of the Union south of Pennsylvania, with Garden- 
ing Calendars tor the same. By Wm, N. Whitb, of Athens, Georgia. 


With a Description of the best Yarieties. By B. Eastwood, 
"Septimus" of the New York Tribune. 


Being a Practical Treatise on the History and Domeptio 
Economy of the Honey Bee, embracing a full illustration of the whole subject, with 
the most approved methods of managing this Insect, through every branch of it* 
Cultu e ; the resiH of many years' experience. Illustrated with maiy engravings 
By T. B. Mines. 

Boohs Published by A. 0. Moore. 


The Principles of Agriculture, Dy Albert D. Thaer ; trans- 
lated by William Shaw and Cuthbeet W. Johkson, Esq., F.E.S. "With a Memoir 
of the Author. 1 vol 8vo. 

This work is regarded by those who are competent to judge as one of the most 
beautiful works that has ever appeared on the subject of Agriculture At the same 
time that it is eminently practical, it is philoso; hlcal, and, even to the general reader, 
remarkably entertainmg. 


In its Relations to Chemistry, Physics, and Meteorology : 

or, Chemistry applied to Agriculture. By J. B. Bottssingault. Translated, with 
notes, etc., by Geoege Law, Agriculturist. 

" The work is the fruit of a long life of study and expenment, and its perusal will 
Aid the farmer greatly in obtaining a practical and scientific knowledge of his profes • 


Being a Complete Analysis of the Whole Subject, consisting 
of the Natural History of Bees; Directions for obtaining the greatest amount of Pure 
Surplus Honey with the least possible expense; Remedies for losses given, and the 
Science of Luck fully illustrated; the result of more than twenty years' experience in 
extensive .Apiaries. ByM Quinb^. 

A Practical Work, by a Country Curate. 

Or, an Easy Method of ^.Ianaging Bees in the most profitable 
manner to their owner; with infallible rules to prevent their destruction by the Moth. 
With an appendix, by Woostbe A. Flandbbs. 

THE ROSE ; - 50 

Being a Practical Treatise on the Propagation, Cultivation, 
and Management «f the Eose in all Seasons; with a H'^t of Choice and Approved Varie- 
ties, adapted to the Climate of the United States; to which is added full directions for 
the Treatment of the Dahlia. Illustrated by Engravings. 


First Series, containing Treatises nn — 

The Hoese, The Pests of the Farm, 

The Hog, Domestic Fowls, and 

The Honey Bee, The Cow, 

Second Series, containing — .... 1 25 

£vekt Lady heb oww Flowee Gaedenee, Essay ox Manttees, 
jClemexts of Ageiottltuee, American Kitchen Gaedeneb, 

•JiED Fancise, American Eose Ctjltueist. 

Third Series, containing — 1 25 

Miles on the Horse's Foot, Vine Dresseb's Manual, 

The Eabbit Fancieb, Bbe-Keepte's Chart, 

Weeks on Bees, Chemistry made Easy. 

Fourth Series, containing— - ... 1 25 

Peksoz on the V^ne, Hooper's Dog and Gtth, 

LiEBiG 8 Familiar Letters, Skillful Housewife, 

Browne's Memoibs of Indian Corn. 


Directions as to their General jNIanagement. With numerous 
original anecdotes. Also. Complete Instructions as to Treatment under Disease. By 
H D EiCHAEDSON. Illustrated with numerous wood engravings. 
This is not only a cheap work, but one of the best ev«r published on the Dog. 

Boohs Published by A. 0. Moore. 9 


And its Eelation to Commerce, Physiology, and Agriculture. 

Edited by John Gabdener, M.D. 

A Treatise on the Breeding, Rearing, Feeding, and General 

Management of Eabbits, with remarks upon their diseases and ! emedies, to which are 
added full directions for the construction of Hutches, Babbitries, &c., together with 
recipes for cooking and dressing for the Table. Beautifully illustrated. 


Experimental Researches on the Food of Animals and the 

Fattening of Cattle ; with remarks on the Food of Man. Based upon Experimeuts 
undertaken by order of the British Government, by Kobebt Dtjkdas Thompson, M.D., 
Lecturer on Practical Chemistry, University of Glasgow. 


Being a Compend of the History, Modes 01-' Propagation, Cul- 
ture, &c., of Fruit Trees and Shrubs, Ac, &c By F. R. Elliott. 


Or Complete Guide to Domestic Cookery, Taste, Comfort, and 
Economy, embracing 659 recipes pertaining to Household Duties, the ewe of Health, 
Gardening, Birds, Education of Children, Ac. , &c By Mrs L. G. Abell, 


Comprising the American Rose Culturist and Every Lady her 
own Flower Gardener. 


Addressed to the Industrious and Economical only ; contaiuing 
simple and practical Directions for Cultivating Plants and Flowers ; also, Hints for the 
Management of Flowers in Rooms, with brief Botanical Descriptions of Plants and 
Flowers. The whole In plain and simple language. By LoxnsA Johnson. 


A Trk.mise on the Artificial Propagation of certain kinds op 
Fish, with the description and habits of such kinds as are most suitable for pisciculture. 
Also directions for the most successful methods of Anglino:, illustrated with numerous 
engraviuEcs By Theodatus Gaeliok, M.D., Vice President of Cleveland Academy 
of Natural Science. 


A Practical Treatise on Grasses and Forage Plants, compris- 
inz their natural history, comparative nutritive value, methods of cultivating, cutting, 
and curina;, and the management of grass lands. By Chas. L. Flint, A.M, Secretary 
of Mass. State Board of Agriculture. 


A Manual on Live Fences, with particular directions for their 
planting, culture and trimming, especially with regard to the Madura hedges, and 
how to make it. Also an essay on Evergreens, their varieties, propagation, transplant- 
ing and culture in the United States. By John A. Wabdbr, M.D., President ot 
Cincinnati Horticultural Society. 

1& Books Published by A. 0. Moore. 


All arranged and adapted to the Use of American Farmers 


HOGS ; \ 

Their Origin, v arieties and Management, with a View to Pro- 
fit, and Treatment und?r Disease; also Plain Directions relative to the most approved 
modes of preserving their Flesh. By H. D. Eichakdson, author of "The Hive and the 
Honey Bee," (fec^ &c. With illustrations — 12mo. 


With Plain Directions for Obtaining a Considerable Annual 

Income from this branch of Rural Economy ; also an Account of the Diseases of Bees 
"ind their Remedies, and Remarks as to theii- Enemies, and the best mode of protecting 
the Hives from their attacks. By H. D. Eichakdson. With illustrations. 


Their Natural History, Breeding, Eearing, and General 
ManM;«ment By H. D. RiOHAKDSoir, author of " The Natural History of the Fossil 
Deer,^ &c. With illufitratlons. 


Their Origin and Varieties ; with Plain Directions as to the 
Breeding . Eearing, and General Manasrement, with Instructions as to the Treatment of 
Disease. Handsomely illustrated— 12mo. By H. D. Eichaedson. 


The American Rose Culturist ; being a Practical Treatise on the 
Propagation, Cultivation, and Management In all Seasons, <kc With full directions for 
the Treat7Qent of the Dahlia. 


With Instrucions for their Extirpation ; being a Manual of 
Plain Dfivictions for the certain Destruction of every description of Vermin. With 
numeroHB Illustrations on Wood. 


Submitted to the Trustees of the Massachusetts Society for 

Promoting Agriculture, for their Premium. By Samttel H. Daka. 

Considered with Reference to the Breeding, Rearing, Feed- 

ing, Management, and Peculiarities of Cage and House Birds. Illustrated %vith Engrav.' 
ings. By D. Jay Bkovtne. 


For the Use of Farmers. By J. Topham. 

Translated from the French, and Adapted to the use of American 

Farmers. By F. 6. Skinnbb. 

Boohs Publislied by A. 0. Moore. 11 



With Cuts, illustrating: the Anatomy of the Ft)C)t, arid containing 
valuable hiiits on shoeing and stable management, both in health and disease. By Wiii* 
UAM Miles. 


Or, Complete Guide to Domestic Cookery, Taste, Comfort, and Econ- 
omy, embracing 659 recipes pertaining to Honsehol'd Duties, the care of Health, Gar- 
dening, Birds, Education of Children, &c., &c. By Mrs, L. G. Abell. 


Containing Directions for the Cultivation op Yegetables aiitj 
Garden Fruits. By T. G. Fessenden. 


Its History, Culture, and Adaptation to the Soil, Climate, 
and Economy of the United States, with an account of various processes of Manufac- 
turing Sugar. Drawn from authentic sources by Charles F. Stansbuky, A.M., late 
Commissioner at the Exhibition of all Nations at London. 


A New Process for the Culture of the Yine, by Persoz, Pro- 
fessor to the Faculty of Sciences of Strasbourg; directing Professor of the School 
of Pharmacy of the same city. Translated by J. O'C. Barclay, Surgeon U.S. N. 


Being a Brief Practical Treatise on the Instinct, Habits, and 

Management of the Honey Bee, in all its various branches, the result of many years' 
practical experience, whereby the author has been enab'ad to divest the subject oi 
much that has been consideed mysterious and diflBcult ^ overcome, and render il 
more sure, profitable, and interesting to every one, thatt^ has heretofore been. By 



Addressed to the Industrious and Economical only ; containing 
Simple and Practical Directions for Cultivating Plants and Flowers ; also, Hinta for 
the Management of Flowers in Kooms, with brief Botanical Descriptions of Plants and 
Flowers. The whole in plain and simple language. By LoirisA JonNSON. 


By M. M. MiLBURN, and revised by H. D. Eichardson and Ambposb 

Stevens. "With Illustrations. 

Its Treatment, Agricultural and Technical ; delivered before 
the New York State Agricultural Society, at the Annual Fair at Saratoga, in Septem- 
ber last, by John Wilson, late President of the Royal Agricultural College at Ciren- 
cester, England. 


Or, an Easy Method of Managing Bees in the most profit a- 
ble manner to their owner, with infallible rules to prevent their destruction by th# 
Moth ; with an Appendix by Woostee A. Flandees. 


Containing full Instructions as to Location and Soil ; Prepara- 
tion of Ground; Selection and Propagation of Vinns; the Treatment of a Young 
Vineyard ; trimming and training the vines ; manures and the making of \flne. Every 
department illustrated. 


Containing its History, Mode of Culture, Manufacture of the 
Sugar, &c ; with Reports of its success in different parts of the United States. 

1^ Books Puhlislied by A. 0. Moore. 


A Treatise on the Breeding, Rearing, Feeding, and General 

Management of Eabbits, with remarks upon their diseases and remedies; to which 
are added fall directions for the construction of Hutches, Eabbitries, &c., together with 
recipes for cooking and dressing for the table. 


Directions as to their General Management. With numeroua 
original anecdotes. Also Complete Instructions as to Treatment under Disease. By 
H. D. EiCHARDSON. Illustrated with numerous wood engravings. 
This is not only a cheap, but one of the best works ever published on the Dog. 


And its relation to Commerce, Physiology, and Agriculture 

Edited by John Gabdenbs, M.D. 


A FEW Loose Chapters on Shooting, among which will be found 
fH)me anecdotes and incidents. Also instructions for Dog Breaking, and lpt«resting 
letters torn Sportsmen. By a B^d Suot. 


The VARiors methods of preserying Meats, Fruits, Vegetables, 

Milk, Butter, Grain, &c., by drying, smoking, pickling, and other processes. By E, 

©©ODEicu Smith.