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Full text of "Kámilarói, and other Australian languages"

I j I Kli ABLY 

III' Till. 

IWttmsUu oi ^ctliftri;uta. 



Ao. 

/)/'/•/ si o//, 
Ramgc 
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University of California. 



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■ ■■' .■'•-■■..■■■.••'••- ■■ 





L I B R A K V 

UNIVKKSJTV of 

CALIFORNIA. 



KAMILABOI, 



AND OTHEB 



AUSTRALIAN LANGUAGES, 



ZB"3T ttETT. WILLIAM HILLEY. 

B.A. OF THE UNIVERSITY OF LONDON, AND M.A. OF THE UNIVERSITY OF SYDNEY. 



SECOND EDITION, REVISED AND ENLARGED BY THE AUTHOR; WITH COMPARATIVE 
TABLES OF WORDS FROM TWENTY AUSTRALIAN LANGUAGES, 



SONGS, TRADITIONS, 

LAWS AND CUSTOMS OF THE AUSTRALIAN RACE. 

LI B R A \{ Y 

\ X-LX KKS1T Y oi 

CALIFORNIA 

THOMAS RICHARDS, GOVERNMENT PRINTER, PHILLIP-STREET, SYDNEY. 

i8 7 5- 



s>7 #< 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE. 

Prefatory Note v 

Kamilaroi — 

Grammar 3 

Vocabulary 17 

Phrases 39 

Paraphrases 40 

"Wailwun 47 

Phrases 51 

Kogai 55 

Pikumbul 59 

Dippil — 

Vocabulary 63 

Dialogues 70 

TURRUBUL — 

Grammar 77 

Vocabulary 80 

Dialogue r 88 

Paraphrases 89 

Turuwul — 

Vocabulary 99 

Phrases 101 

George's Eiver Language 103 

"Wodi-wodi Ill 

"Words used at Twofold Bat 115 

The Names of Australia and its Inhabitants 117 

Comparative Tables of "Words in Twenty Languages 119 

Traditions 135 

Tales in Tharumba and Thurawal 143 

Bao-illi — Songs ... 148 

Habits and Manners of the People 151 

Institutions and Laws... 153 

Laws of Marriage and Descent 161 

Bandom Illustrations of Aboriginal Life and Character 166 

A Parting "Word for the Bace of Murri 171 



ILLXJSTR^lTIONS. 

PAGE. 

Telopea speciosissima ( Waratah, or Native Tulip) 2 

Maesilea ptjbescens (Nardoo) 62 

Clianthus dampieeii (Sturfs Desert Pea) 76 

Steeculia eupesteis {Bottle Tree) 116 




1 6 f 
i 



I .IB1/A U\ 

I VKHS1TY OF 

CALI FORNIA, j 

PEEFATOEY NOTE. 



HE information presented in the following pages, on the 
Kamilar6i, Dippil, and Turrubul languages, was chiefly 
obtained by the author during three years' missionary effort 
among the Aborigines of Australia, including journeys over 
Liverpool Plains, the Barwan or Darling, and its tributaries, 
the Namoi, the Bundarra, the Macintyre, and the Mooni ; also, along 
the Balonne or Condamine, across Darling Downs, by the Brisbane 
Biver, and in a circuit about Moreton Bay. In the year 1871 the 
author again visited the Namoi and the Barwan, for a few weeks, at the 
request of the Government, in order to obtain further information on 
the language and traditions of the Aborigines. The shortness of the 
time spent in the research will account for the fragmentary character 
of this contribution to the Philology of Australia. In seeking 
knowledge of the languages, with a view to the communication of 
instruction to the Aborigines, the author gladly accepted the aid of 
colonists who, during many years' residence among that people, had 
learned to converse with them in their own tongue. He was especially 
indebted for instruction in the Kamilaroi to the Bev. Charles G. 
Greenway, now of Bundarra, who had lived in his youth at Colle- 
mungool (a Kamilaroi name, meaning, Broadwater), on the Barwan; 
to James Davies, blacksmith, Brisbane, who lived thirteen years with 
the blacks near "Wide Bay, Queensland, for instruction in Dippil ; and 



VI PREFATORY NOTE. 



to Mr. Petrie, of Brisbane, for instruction in Turrubul. Both before 
and after receiving this help, the author communicated with the 
Aborigines in the districts where these three languages are spoken ; 
and verified and extended, by his own observations, the information 
thus supplied. Limited as is the author's acquaintance with the 
several languages referred to, he has met with abundant evidence of 
their remarkable regularity, and of the exactness with which they 
express various shades of thought. The inflections of verbs and nouns, 
the derivation and composition of words, the arrangement of sentences, 
and the methods of imparting emphasis, indicate an accuracy of 
thought, and a force of expression, surpassing all that is commonly 
supposed to be attainable by a savage race. 

Their tradition concerning Baia-me (the Maker of All) as a ray 
of true light which has passed down through many generations, may 
well suggest to their Christian fellow-countrymen that this branch of 
the family of Man has been from the beginning an object of our 
Heavenly Father's preserving mercy. And for what purpose have 
they been thus preserved ? 

A practical answer to that question, as far as regards a small 
number of the race, has been given by the unequivocal success of the 
Christian missions at Poonindie and at Port Macleay in South 
Australia, at Coranderrk, Bamahyuk, and Wimmera in Victoria. 
At those and other places, where Australian Aborigines have been 
instructed by word and example in the Gospel which was designed for 
all mankind, some of them have by consistent adherence to the rule 
of Christian life, and by the words of rejoicing hope in death, proved 
the reality of their conversion to God. 



KAMILAEOI: 

The Language of the Aborigines of the Hamoi, Barwan, Bundarra, 

and Balonne Riuers, and of Liverpool Plains 

and the Upper Hunter. 



OF 

JALIFi 



l^amtlarot Grammar. 




HE Aborigines of Australia having no written language, the 
use of European letters to express their vocables is to some 
extent arbitrary. In accordance with the practice of those 
who have reduced to writing the Polynesian languages, five 
English vowels and sixteen consonants are used in this 
grammar, to represent the sounds hereunder attached to them. 
Throughout this work, in adopting the words in other Australian 
languages which have been furnished by the several writers to whom 
I am indebted for information, I have taken the liberty of spelling 
them according to this system, so as to compare them with Kamilaroi. 
a, as a, in father 



a as a in mat 
e as ey in obey 

e as e in net 

\ as i in ravine 

i as i in it 

o as o in tone 

b as in bad 

d as in do 

g as in goose 

h as in hat 



as o in on 

ii as oo in moon 

u as u in tun 

ai as i in wine 

ao as ow in how 

oi as oi in noise 

j as in James 
k as in kin 

1 as in lot 
mas in me 



4 KAMILAROI GRAMMAR. 



n as in no 
g as ng in sing 
p as in pin 
r as in rate 



t as in to 
v as in vain 
w «s in way 
y as m ye 



It is pronounced with more force than in English. So sharp and 
forcible is the native pronunciation of r in the names Yarr and 
Wolgerr, that those who reduced these names to writing spelt them 
" Yass" and " Walgett," and so they will probably be written in our 
maps and books to the end of the world. There is no sound of s. 
The nasal », written n, or TJ, occurs often at the beginning of a 
syllable. 

The letters dh are used to represent the sound of th in than. 
Instead of /, the sound of dy- or ty- (y being always a consonant) is 
often used ; that is, in words where some aborigines distinctly utter 
the/ sound, others soften it to ty, or even t or d. They also frequently 
give an aspiration after the initial consonant : thus " baia" is some- 
times sounded " b-h-aia." There are many words in which the sound 
of h and that of y are sometimes inserted. 

In Kamilaroi, every syllable ends in a vowel or a liquid. They 
avoid the sound of two consonants together, even though one is a liquid. 
Thus, Doctor Milner is called by the blacks " Docketer Milener." In 
many words the vowel interposed between two consonants is very short. 
Some who have reduced this language to writing call it Kamilroi, some 
Gummilroy ; but the aborigines insert a short sound between the I and 
the r. It is about equal to the sheva or half-vowel, as pronounced by 
Hebrew scholars; and, following the method of expressing the composite 



sheva in the Hebrew grammars, this word may be written thus — 
" Kamil a roi." The tendency of the aborigines to attach a vowel to 
every consonant is known to all who have observed their pronunciation 
of English words. 

They habitually soften the sound of the thin mutes, so that it is 
difficult to determine, in many instances, whether the consonant they 
sound is b or p, d or t, g or k. This accounts for the divergencies in 
spelling. Again, between the short vowel sounds of a and u it is often 
difficult to determine. "When it is remembered that miscellany, servant, 
banana, abundance, are pronounced by many English people as if they 
were spelt " miscelluny, servunt, bunana, abun dunce," or, at least, so 
that no stranger to the language could decide whether the vowel sound 
in each case was a or u, it will not appear surprising that the short 
vowels, and especially the half-vowels, of Kamil a roi should be 
differently rendered by different observers. In support of the spelling 
" KamiProi" in preference to " Gumilroi," it may be here added that, 
when pronouncing the word "kamil" (no) emphatically, the blacks 
give the first syllable a prolonged sound, as of a in father. 

NOUNS. 

Nouns are declined by suffixes. 

There are two nominative cases ; the first simply naming the 
object of attention, the second indicating the agent of the act described 
in a verb. 

Often, however, the agent suffix is omitted, even before an active 
verb. 



KAMILAROI GRAMMAR. 



The suffixes are -du. {the sign of the agent) ; -nu. {of or belonging to) ; 
-go {to) ; -di {from) ; -da {in); -kunda {with, i.e., remaining at rest with; 
this suffix is related to kundi, a house) ; -gunda or -kale {going ivith). 

Example. 

1st Nom. : mullion, an eagle. mullionda, in an eagle. 

C with an eagle 
2nd Nom. : mulliondu, an eagle as agent, mullioukunda, < 

( at rest. 

( icith an eagle 
Possessive: mullion nil, of an eagle. mullionkale, ] . 

( m motion. 

Objective : mullion, an eagle. 

mulliongo, to an eagle. 

mullioudi, from an eagle. 



PRONOUNS. 
Pronouns are declined in some respects like nouns. They have 
distinct dual and plural forms. All the personal pronouns begin with 
the nasal n. 

I. — Personal Pronouns. 
1. naia, I. 2. ljinda, thou. 

nai, my. yinnu, thy. 

ljunna, me. ljinnuna, thee. 

ijulle, we two — thou and I. yindfile, ye two. 

nullina, we two — he and I. 

neane, we. nindai, ye. 

neanenu, our. 



3. ijernia, he or she. 

gergu or gundi, his or her. 

ljarma, they. 

guyuggun, my own or our own. 

The nasal at the beginning is sometimes softened down very much, 
especially in the second person, which is often pronounced inda. 

II. — Demonstrative Pronouns. 

])ubbo or numma, this. 

ljuruma, that by you (iste). 

nerma or rjutta, that yonder (ille). 

III. — Interrogative Pronouns. 

andi? who? [hence the verb "anduma," tell who.] 
minima? which? 

minna ? or minya ? what ? [hence minyago ? why ?~\ 
minyuijgai ? how many ? 

IV. — Indefinite Pronouns. 

kanugo, all ; guno, all. 
minnaminnahul, all things whatever. 

ljarage, other; ljaragedul, another (hence ijarageduli, at (mother 
time). 



8 KAMILAROI GRAMMAR. 

VERBS. 

The modifications of verbs are very numerous and exact. There 
are causative, permissive, reflective, reciprocal, and other conjugations. 
Eor example, from the root nummil {see) comes nummilmulle {cause to 
see or show) ; frombuma {beat) comes bumanabille {alloiv to be beaten). 

" Gir" (verily), an adverb of emphatic affirmation, is frequently 
used with the past indicative. " Yeal" {merely) is commonly used with 
the same tense, when the intention is to give assurance that the speaker 
having told the truth, will add nothing more as a reason or excuse for 
the fact. In answer to the question, Why did you come ? a black- 
fellow may say, "yeal yanani," I just came ; that's all. 

Example. 
{ Root) goal speak. 

INDICATIVE. 

Past : goald°ne {contracted) goe spoke. 

gir goe did speak. 

Past in small degree : goahjain or goalne spoke to-day. 

gir goahjain did speak to-day. 

Past in greater degree : goalmien {or gir goalmien) spoke yesterday. 

Past still more : golillen spoke long ago. 

Present : goalda speaks. 

Euture : goalie will speak. 

" Yila" and "yerala," "soon" and "by-and-by" are often used 
before this tense of the verb. 

goahjari or goabjurri icill speak to-morrow. 

Sometimes "nuruko," to-morrow, is used with this tense. It is 
not necessary. 



IMPERATIVE. 

go'alla speak. 

goallawa speak ; you must and shall ! 

The emphasis and urgency of the command is measured by the 
prolongation of the syllable -wa. 

go'almia speak, if you can, or if you dare. 

This ironical imperative mood is common to all verbs. It is 
remarkably indicative of the character of the race — scornful and 
jocular ; irony is ingrained in their nature. 

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

golildai speak. 

Ex. : yelle ljinda go'aldai if you speak. 

Eor the potential they use a compound of the indicative future 
with an adjective : thus, — 

murru nai goalie 



I can speak. 
able (good) I will speak 

yamma ninda murru goalie ? ) 

> can yoit speak ? 
(icord of interrogation) you able will speak ) 



PARTICIPLES. 

Imperfect : go'aldendai speaking. 

Perfect: goalnendai having spoken. 

goalmiendai having spoken yesterday. 

goallendai having spoken long ago. 



10 



KAMILAROI GRAMMAR. 



Past : 



Present 
Future : 



Past 



Present 
Future : 



wimi put, or put dozen. 

INDICATIVE. 

wimi or gir wimi did put. 

wimulije or wimulgain put down to-day. 

wimulmien put dozen yesterday. 

wimullen put down long ago. 

wimulda puts. 

wirrmlle will put. 

wimulgari will put to-morrow. 

IMPERATIVE. 

wimulla put down. 

wimullawa put dozen ; yozi must ! 

wimulmiaor wimunnumia... put dozen, if you dare. 

kage take. 

INDICATIVE. 

kane took. 

kfuje took to-day. 

kamien took yesterday. 

kaijen took some days ago. 

kabaniu took long ago. 

kagila or kawa is taking. 

kage zeill take. 

kayari zcill take to-morrow. 



VERBS. 



11 



IMPERATIVE. 

kfuja take. 

kSnawS take ; you must and shall ! 

kilnamia take, if you dare. 



PARTICIPLE. 

kagillendai taking. 

Tai (Wither) prefixed to kane makes it mean bring : taikaga — bring. 
Prom yanani (icent) is derived in the same way taiyanani (came). 



Past : 



Present 
Puture : 



winun hear, understand. 

INDICATIVE. 

winurji heard. 

winunanain heard to-day. 

Avinuijulmien lieard yesterday. 

wmurjullain heard long ago. 

wmmjulda hears. 

winmjulle will hear. 

wmmjulijari will hear to-morrow. 



IMPERATIVE. 

wiimijulla hear. 

winmjullawa hear ; you must ! 

winui)ulmia hear, if you can. 

yamma gincla gunna wimnjulda ? {interrog.) you me understand t 
gir winuiji yes, I understand. 

gimbi or gim°bi make. 

INDICATIVE. 

Past : gim°bi made. 

gim bilijen made {to-day) . 

gim°bilmien made {yesterday) . 

gimbillen made {long ago). 

Present : ginibildona makes. 

Euture : gim°billc will make. 

gim°bili)ari icill make to-morrow. 

IMPERATIVE. 

gimbilla or gim°bildi make. 

gimbillawa make ! you must ! 

gim°bilmia make it yourself {I icon't) . 

SUBJUNCTIVE. 

gimbildai make. 



PARTICIPLES. 

gimbildendai making. 

gimbilgendai having made. 

gimbilmiendai having made yesterday. 

gimbillendai having made long ago. 



Past : 



Present : 
Future : 



L i n /.' 



ginya be, become. 

INDICATIVE. 

ginyi or gir ginyi was. 

gir gigge was to-day. 

gir gimmien was yesterday. 

gir gig gen was long ago. 

gigila or gilla is, becomes. 

gigi will be. 

gig-gari will be to-morrow . 

IMPERATIVE. 

ginya, gia, or kia be. 



'-V; 



•v li 



c 4Lii 






Oj 



'o/. v/ . 



SUBJUNCTIVE. 



gindai , be 



( yelle ginda yili gindai 
I if V ou angry be. 



PARTICIPLES. 

gindai, ginyendai, gimmiendai. 



DERIVATION AND COMPOSITION. 

Adjectives and nouns are combined for the formation of new 
epithets. Thus "rnuga" means blind or stupid ; " miigabinna" (blind 
ears) signifies deaf. Adjectives are also formed by adding suffixes to 
nouns. From "yul" (food) come "yiilarai" (full, satisfied) and "yulnin" 
(hungry)) from "kolle" (water) "kollenin" (thirsty). Prom "yinar" 
comes "yinararai" (having a loife) ; from " giwir" conies " giwirarai" 
(having a husband) ; from " gulir" comes " gulirarai" (having a 
spouse) — three terms for married. The suffix -arai (having) is 
applied by the blacks to the English word milk, to make " milimbrai" 
(milkers, i.e., cows giving milk). Erom "bul" (jealousy) comes 
"biilarai" (jealous). " -dul" is an adjective suffix; as "yaruL" a 
stone, " yaruldul" stony, -dul is used with a diminutive meaning ; 
thus, "warurjgul" mighty, "waruijguldul" somewhat mighty or strong, 
"narage" other, " naragedul" another; " birradul" (youth) and 
"miedul" (maiden), meaning having something of the boy, and 
having something (not much) of the girl left. 

Verbs are formed from nouns, pronouns, and adverbs. Thus, from 
"mil" (the eye) comes " milmil" (to see) ; from "andi" (who?) comes 
"anduma" (say who). 

Erom the particle "yeal" (merely ovjust so) come "yealo" (also) 
"yealokwai" (like) " yealokwaima" (likewise). 

The noun giru (truth) is evidently from the particle gir, meaning 
yes, or indeed. 



SYNTAX. 15 

The names of this and the neighbouring languages are derived 
from the negative adverb ; thus " kamil a roi" from " Kami!" {no) ; 
" wol a roi" from " wol" {no) ; " wailwun" from " wail" {no) ; both 
"wiraiarai" and "wiradhuri" are from "wira" {no). "Plkumbul," the 
language spoken on the "Weir River, to the north-west of New England, 
is named from its affirmative, u pika" (yes). Cf. Langue d'oc and 
Langue d'oil, or d'oui, in France. " Pika" is the name of one of the 
languages of Central Africa. 

SYNTAX. 

The usual order of words in a sentence is this, — nominative, 
accusative, verb. Adverbs are placed before the verbs, often also before 
the nominative. Ex. gr. — 

^yamma rjinda ijunna gummi? 
< {adv. of interrog.) you me saw ? 
\ did you see me ? 
gir rjai uinnuna ijummi, 
verily I you saw. 
kamil ijaia ginnuna ijummi, 
not I you saw. 

rjinda gai yaraman gummilmulla, 
you my horse show {make to see). 

After "kurria," cease, the verb indicating the action to be 
abandoned is in the imperative. Thus "kurria goalla," cease talking ! 



VOCABULARY OF KAMILAROI. 



I.— NOUNS. 

1. Deity. 

God Baia-me or B-haia-me. 

In Wiradhuri the word is pronounced Baiamai. This name of 
Deity is known among many tribes on the Narran, the Darling and 
its tributaries. It is evidently derived, as Bev. C. C. Greenway has 
pointed out, from " baia," to make or build. In the ancient and still 
preserved creed of the Mum — " He who built all things is Baia-me." 

The Kamilaroi blacks say that Baia-me made all things ; that he 
is resting away in the far west. They never saw him, but regard thunder 
as his voice. 

Spirit, ghost, or subordinate deity wunda. 

In all parts of Eastern Australia the aborigines apply the word 
which commonly signifies spirit, demon, or angel, to the white man. 
About Moreton Bay " makoron" and " mudhere" signify ghost, and 
each of these words is applied to white men. So the Namoi and 
Barwan blacks call white men " wunda." 



18 



VOCABULARY OF KAMILAROI. 



2. Man : his distinctive and relative names. 



man (vir) giwir 

woman yinar or mar 

{They have no word for "homo.") 
Australian 



aboriginal 



mum 



white man wunda 

full man borba 

young man who 

has attended i^kubura 

a bora 
young man not 

yet admitted ibiribirai 

to the bora J 

young man yiramurrun 

boy birri 

boy {youth) birridul 

boy (very small) kiriga 

girl mie 

girUSSftSSo misdul 

voung woman "j 

mamurawuri 

(whose breasts begin V 



baby kahjalorkaindul 

father buba 

mother rumba 

spouse (hu ti a f") dor gulir 

child, offspring kai 

son wurume 

daughter gumuna 

elder brother daiadi 

younger brother gulami or colami 

elder sister boadi or bukandi 

younger sister bure or boriandi 



uncle 
uncle's wife 

nephew 



karodi or kurugi 
pamandi 
wurumuijadi or 
kurugandi 



niece numunadi 

childless woman maredul 
spouseless JS^ gulir-taliba 



old (grey) 
old woman 
chief 



diria 

yambuli 

durunmi 



to appear) 

Children call their mother gum ! or gunidi ! 

Family names of men ippai, murri (or baia), kubbi, kumbo. 

Corresponding names of women ippata, mata, kapota, biltii ; 

sometimes pronounced ippatha, matha (or madtha), kubbothii, and 
budha (or budtha). 





NOUNS HUMAN BODY. 


19 




The human body : — 




head 


( ga, or gha, or 
(kaoga 


shoulder 


( walor, wullar, or 
I wolar 


hair 


tegul 


arm 


bunun 


brains 
forehead 


kombiri 
ljulu 


great muscle of) 

?-pupa 
the humerus ) 


eye 


mil 


elbow 


dm 


eye-brow 


ljuyin or neare 


wrist 


nunuga 


eye-lash 


dinm.il 


hand 


murra 


nose 


muru 


right-hand side turial 


nostrils 


muyuda 


left-hand side 


warragal 


cheek 


wa or kwati 


thumb 


gunederba 


lips 


ille or kumai 


little finger 


bumbugal 


teeth 


yira or Ira 


knuckle 


biel 


tongue 


tulle 


finger-nails 


yiilu 


ear 


binna 


side 


numun 


chin 


tal • 


loins, waist 


gulur 


beard 


yare 


ribs 


turrur 


moustache 


but! 


heart 


ki or gi 


throat 


wuru or dildil 


lungs 


kaogi 


neck 


nun 


liver 


kanna 


breast 


birri 


kidneys 


mukar or mogur 


breast (ofivoman)qximmu. 


belly 


mubal or mobal 


back 


guria or bao-a 


[hence "mubalyal" pregnant.~\ 


[Prom biri (breast) and bao-a (bach) come " birrije" 
(in front) and"bao-»je" (behind).] 


hip 


mila 


shoulder-blade 


pilara 


thigh 


durra 



20 



VOCABULARY OF KAMILABOI. 



knee 

loo* 


dinblr 
(buiyo or 
( po'iyu 


great toe (see 
thumb) 


{ guncderba 


lc o 


blood 




gue 


calf 


wuruka 


vein 




buran 


ankle 


nor 


bone 




bura or burar 


foot 


dinna 


fat 




ghori 


heel 


tag a 


skin 




yuli 



3. Animals. 

{Many animals, especially birds, are named from the sounds they utter."] 



adder 



miindar 



animal <g££Sf di or dhi 
ant dunu 

ant (great red) burudha 
ant (black) gijil 



ant (green) 

ant (sugar) 

bandicoot 

bee 

bird 

busr 



muun 

karlin 

kuru 

warrul or gunni 

tighara 

butta 



bustard (turkey) burowa 

butcher bird burenjin 

cat (wild) 

centipede 

cockatoo 

cod 



bugundi 



kian 

biloela or moral 

guddii or kuddii 



crane (white) 
crane (blue) 

crow 

cuckoo 

diver (duck) 

dog 

dog (wild) 

duck 



karasra 

bunabaru 
(waru, waim, or 
I dumbal 

murgii 
(urunaoa or 
I gunundal 

biiruma 
( murren, oryuggi, 
( or maiai 

karaiji 



duck (whistling) thip-ai-yu 
rijurapala, 



duck (wood) 



duck (musk) 



guminbai, 



gunambi, kaoai, 

nunumbi 
berlila 



I g" 

Lor 



NOUNS — 


ANIMALS. 


21 


eagle rnullion 


insects kao 


(dfno-un or 




^gorraworra, 
kukuburra, 


emu ] 

( dhina-wan 


laughing 


[From dhina (foot) wan {strong.)'] 


< 

jackass 


ghukughagha, 


fish o Iu ya 




<~or kukuraka 


(a certain species)dukkai 


jew-fish kaikai 


flea biriji 


kangaroo bundar 


flies burulu 


kangaroo (red) ganur 


fowl (bla ^ r li f ^i b ) am ' kulgoi 


kangaroo (rat) turwai or gimur 


frog gin durra or yuria 


fwano'i or 
kangaroo SB ) 

( murriira 

leeches gurman 


( kaodiil or 
grasshopper < 

( dubbibaiala 


grub biriTi 


lizard (edible) murjgai 


(miujaran or 
hawk < 

(palSna 


lizard tari 


lizard (ruffled) bullawhakur 


/"tulletula, or 


lobster kurai or kerai 


hedgehog < murrowol, or 


magpie burugabu katalu 


V.butta 


mole Sg^, pupo-mor 


herring (freshwater) bheringa. 


mosquito mug in 


horned cattle nulkanulka 


mussel kunbi or ginbi 


horse yaraman* 


mussel 0««e species) turjghal 


iguana dull 


mussel shell wollu 


iguana (large) urundiali 


native ( b ll ralga or 


iguana (striped) nuliali 


companion ( buralgha 

[bural (great or high) glia (head).} 


*A11 the Australians use this name — prol 


ably from the neighing of the horse, or, as 


some think, from " yira" or " } 

D 


'•era" (teeth) and " man" (with). 



opossum 


mute 


! 


owl 


( bukuta or 
( bukutakuta 




paiTOt (small green) 


gijoriga 




parrot 


korugan 




parrot 


kobado 




parrot 


bunbunbului 




perch 


kumbal 
'"garumbon, or 


i 
i 


pelican 


guleale, or 
gulamboli 

<^(from guli. net or flsh-bag.) 


i 
i 
i 


pigeOllC^rottze-winged 


) tamur 
(gulawulil, or 


t 


pigeon (topknot) 


[ guluwalll 


1 


■mo»Prm (squatter, or 
pigtJUIl white-cheeked 


momumbai 


i 


pigeon S2S5J 


wirria 


i 


pigeon 


kollemurramurra 


1 


plover 


birumba 




rat 


kimma 





( iimba 
sheep j J 

V (a corruption of " jump-up.'") 

snake (black) nurai 
snake (brown) kaleboi 
snake (carpet) yubba or yebba 
snake (gray) nibi 
snake^ 6 ^^)"" 11 gundoba 
snake (diamond)yapati 
spider gurra 

squirrel kuliya 

squirrel (flying) bagor 



swallow 


millimumul 


swan 


( burunda, or 
(barrianmul 


teal (red) 


tibiu 


turtle 


warraba 


wallaby 


burrai 


wallaroo 


yuluma 



whitethroat (bird) mulujgal 



4. Miscellaneous Nouns. 



acacia pendula burl or maial 
acacia (bastard) kawi 
anger yiili 

apple-tree bulumin 



ashes kerran 

axe yundu 

axe mark (chop) bail 

bag bulba or mitta 



bark tura 

bark (inner skin)bo war 
beak (of bird) mum 
beginning Ilambial 

Twill (worn with pendants f nKnL-o 
UtJll round the waist) L U UllJid. 

blaze tnrri or nalun 

boat (canoe) kumbilgal 

Sburran, burrigul, 
barun, or 
burunba 
boomerangwood giddir 
box (tree) kulaba or birri 

box (white) bibil 
box (black) kiiburu 
branch iigan 

branch (main arm) durra 

[The same icord serves for the thigh of a 
man and the arm of a tree.] 

briglow 
broom-like 

shrub on V n 
flooded land 

( wolbun, buril, or 
(bhjgui 
bush karui 

cloth baia 



biirigul 



bucket 



nimm 



cloud gundar, yuro 

cross nanbir 

crown kabai or bur 
currajong 

(tree, and rope made of it) 

darkness nurii 

day yeradha 

daylight ljurran 

door girinil 

down (of sedge) munabuda 

dust yu 

earth taon 

edge nirrin or yiribrai 

egg ko or kao 

j / • xx (B 513 * muru, or 
end (point) 1 

( kaburun 



end (butt) 


warun 


evening 




bulului 


feathers 




gundir 


feathers 


(quills) 


wirll 


feathers 


(down) 


yudara 


fire 




Wl 


flood 




ugoa or wukawa 


flower 




giiren 


fog 




giia 


foot 




dinna 



u 


VOCABULARY OF KAMILAROI. 




forefoot 


ma 


honey 


wadel or warul 


frUlt (gooseberry-like) 


rjaiban 


house 


kundi 


fruit * 


1 goadtha 


hook 


yinab 


(Like a Siberian crab, j 
tasting like tamarind, j 


or 


jealousy 


bid 


with a spherical stone 
used for ornament.) J 


' worrobS 


leaves 


karril or kurril 


fur 


baoa or baia 


light 


tun or burian 


friendship 
frost 


ncrundama 
tundar 


lightning 


Tmi, ljurumi or 
(bundur 


girdle 


bor or bur 


love (sexual) 


kaiai 


(Hence Bora, the ceremony of initiation into manhood, 


meat 


di 


where the candidate 
manhood.) 


is invested with the belt of 


marsh 


walowa 


grave 


taonma 


mist 


dhiiber 


grass 


f gorar, or yindal, 
{or goaror 


mistletoe 
moon 


bhan 
gillc 


graSS (long species) 


yeremuda 


morning 


niiruko 


grass-tree 


taplan 


mountain 


kubba 


gum (tree) 


yeran 


mud 


minun 


gun 


murgun 


net 


kule 


hail 
halo 


terian 
gunurima 


night 


(r\ uru or 
(bului (black) 


head-band 
(see forehead) 


) ij uliighet or 
) ljiilugair 


nulla nulla 
(club) 


> murulil or pundi 


herbs 


gian 


oak (swamp) 


bilfir 


herb (like dock)nurigul 


oak (forest) 


kubu 


herb ("ke mallow cdible)beran 


orange (wild) 


pumbul 


hill 


taiyul 


Orion («* consteiutionjberai-berai 



MISCELLANEOUS NOUNS. 25 


X leiaCleS stellation) 


( miai-miai or 
I murun-muran 


scrub (twck jungk) yiirul 
sedge burara 


path 


turabul 


seed kiilu 


path (short cut) wobbu 
pine (tree) gorari 


seed vessel or) 

> kuluman 
basket ) 


pipe-clay 


millamilla 


shrub (jciiow flower) durimaogal 


plain 


f kunil, kfmial, 


shrub (prickly) bindea 


lor gunyal 


shield bumai or burin 


plain (small) 


kunildul 


skin yuli 


plain (long ) 

\ gorarnan 
marshy) ) 


(gunakuUa or 
sky ] 

( gunagulla 


play (sport) 


yuluge 


sleep nurarra 


post (straight) 


waragil 


smoke du 


potato (wild) 


melan 


spear pilar 


pennyroyal 


boiyoi 


stars mirri 


quietness 


tubbia 


stem (of a tree) worrain 


rain 


yuro or kollebari 


stone yarul 


rain how 


Tyulowirri or 


StOOl (wood for sitting on) tulu UUmligO 


X CIJLJJ. KJ\J IT 


I yulubirgi 


sun yarai, yiiroka 


river (large) 


biikhai 


sword gadelan 


rivulet 


mai-an 


tail tubilga 


sand 


rkumbogan or 


thorn bindea 


I gerai 


thunder tulumi 


sandalwood 


Tbumbal or 


tree (wood of) 

[tulu. 




I gar-wi 


any kind) ) 


salt-hush 


ninil 


tree (likemyal) medir 



26 



VOCABULAKY OF KAMILAROI. 



tree (another 


> K flTMIl 


water 


kolle or wollun 


species) 


( IV til HI 


water-lily 


turilawa 


tree (another 
species) 


j yurar 


watercourse 
waterhole 


warumbul 
maian 


trunk or stem 


warrun 


whirlwind 


bull 


to-morrow 


ijuruko 


wind. 


f maier, yaragi, 


truth 


giru. or kiraol 




(. or biiriar 




'"TiJaije-kindamawa 


window 


barrie 




or "RJindi-kin- 


wing (see arm 


) bunun 


Venus 


dawa (the star 


wing (pinion) 


yutar 




that laughs at 


word 


gurre 




^ me or at you) 


yam 


kubbiai or guweai 


war 


Ilane 


yard (or enclosure) 


whunmul 



NAMES OF PLACES (Stations on or near the Namoi). 
Kollenrnngul Broad water 

Kurug gora Long water 

Wollon gora Long water 

Tarlldul (commonly called Drilldool) Having reeds 
Tarllarai Having reeds 

Yarrularai (commonly called Yalaroi) Having stones 

place of the leopard tree (Austra- 
lian ash) 

Murkudul place of oaks (murku) 

Wi-wha (Wee Waa) fire cast away 

Wolger (Walgett) high hill 



Buk-kulla 



Gundiuiaian (Gundamaine) 
Biridja (Breeza) 
Bukkitaro (Pokataroo) 
Bilagha (Piliga) 
Goraman (Graman) 
Worra (Warrah) 
Bawun (Barwan) 

Burl Warina (Breewarrina) 

Buriagal 
Buriagala, (Briglow) 

"RJamai (Namoi) 

Guida (Gwydir) 
Guniwaraldai 
Bukkiberai (Boggabry) 

Giinida (Gunnedah) 

Kulgoa (Culgoa) 
Kobada (Cobbedah) 

Munlla (Manilla Biver) 

Milli 



house on the stream 

place of fleas 

river going wide 

head (gha) of scrub oak (Bila) 

long plain, or glade 

On the left hand (** from Murrurundi) 

great, wide, awful (River) 
f trees (scrub acacia, commonly 
X called briglow) standing up (in 
V. clumps) 

related to the burl 

place of the burl 

^"place of the ljamai tree (a variety 
of the acacia) or from rjamii 
breast (the river curving like a 

. woman's breast) 

place or river of red (banks) 

lime or white stone (guni) spread 

place of creeks 

place of white stone (others say 
place of the destitute) 

running through or returning 

place of a hill 
( round about (this river forms 
( almost a circle) 

white pipeclay (silicate of magnesia) 



\ 



28 • VOCABULARY 


OF KAMILAROI. 


Kaghil (Coghill) 


bad, nasty (water) 


Balal (Pallal) 


bare 


Guligal 


long grass seed 


Tuluduna 


made or chiselled ont of wood 


Burburgate 


place of belts (burr) 


Bundarra 


place of kangaroos 


Murrowolarai (Molroy) 


having hedgehogs (murrowol) 


Inariendrai (Henriendry) 


the sale of the inar (woman) 


Nurraburai (Narrabry) 


Porks 


Duijgalia (Dungalea) 


little piece of wood 




^why weepest thou ? (the name of a 




fountain on the mountain side 




about forty miles from the 


Minyilgo yugila 


Namoi). The blackfellow who 




told me the name described it as 




" kolle waimul," water bubbling 




s. U P« 


Bulerawa 


( place of the bulera (a tree — bastard 
(. myal) 


Wolobrai 


stony (in Wiraiarai) 


Yaruldfd 


stony (in Kamilaroi) 


Deran 


dry ground 


Guigola 


red ground 


Teluba or Ktiluba 


native clover 


Warian 


native onion — a poisonous plant 


Mobbo 


beef wood 



NOUNS — NAMES OF PLACES. 



29 



Wuriga 


clear ground 


Miat (in Wiraiarai) 


a well 


Tinai 


ironbark 


Tmwai 


string 


Burran 


a boomerang 


Bulgari (in Wugai dialect) 


a boomerang 


Ginne (in Wugai) 


wood 


"Wurai or Wirai (in Wiraiarai) 


No! 



Yuriyuri 

Kolormbrai 

launder 

Wiragungal 

"Wangun (Wiraiarai) 

Dungun (Kamilaroi) 

Kumal 

Geribila 

Piririgul 

Mukai (Mooki) 

Turi 
Yulaigul 



*^ 



a kind of parrot which abounds at 
this place (on the Barwan) 

abounding in kolorin, the flowers 
af the kuluba tree 

deep bank 

long tooth — a place on the Biver 
Bugaira (Bokhara) 

crooked bark 

a place where a blackfellow died 

a place where twins were born 

a place of salt bush 

"Flinty ; a river which near its junc- 
tion with the Namoi is dangerous 
for its soft mud, but higher up 
runs over a rocky bed. 

a water- weed 

a sapling 



30 


VOCABULARY 


OF KA.MILAROI. 


Kumbal 




a turkey buzzard 


Milkomai 




eye dropt out 


Kubbo 




a grub 


Maianbar 




a deep tank or waterhole 




II.— PRONOUNS. {Seep. 6.) 




III.— ADJECTIVES. 


afraid 


( gial or ghilghil 


clear (shining) killu 


J (from ghi, the heart) 


clever, sensible binal or binnal 


alive 


moron or narilon 


(from binna — ear) 


alone 


ljandil 


cold karil 


angry 


yili 


cowardly gurrl gurri 


asleep 


babl or rjiiraru 


dead balun 


awake 


warria 


deaf mugabinna 


bad 


kagil or kuggil 


deep birii 


bare 


V»o1n1 (as balal kaogha, 
UcUcll bald-headed) 


destitute taliba 


bitter 


butta 


[used as a suffix, as in wi-taliba, without fire, kolle 
taliba, without water.] . 


blind 


muga 


distant urribu 


blue (light) 


kaoaraoa 


dry ballal 


black or dark 


► bului 


expansive muggul 


blue or brown 


fasting wanal 


brown (bay) 


duda 


[as yai wanal kudu, I am abstaining 
religiously from kudu, a choice fish ; — 


bay ("of redder hue) 


yutta 


rjai wanal bundar, I am abstaining from 
kangaroo.] 


chief 


wuraia 


fat wommo 


clean 


bullar 


full (satisfied) yularai 



ADJECTIVES. 



31 



glad guiye 

good or beautiful murruba 

green gian 

green (dull) bulum bului 

grey diri or diria 

heavy munan 

high bao-irra 

hollow beruo-e 

honest (or sweet) kuppa 

hot kuduai^na 

hungry yulrjin 

jealous bularai 

lame bain 

large burul 

light (in weight) kubonba 

( yealokwai or 
(-keart (suffix)* 

long gurar 

mighty waruijgul 

near kuinbu 

old (grey) diria 

(nandll or 
(muijgal 

own guiyuuun 



like 



only 



outrageous 


rjuriella 


piebald 


guloliba 


pregnant 


mubalyal 


quick (eager, fervent) 


kaiabur 


red 


koimburra 


red (blood) 


gue 


red (light) 


koiko'i 


roan 


gundgundi 


round 


(guru, or 
\ gurugal 


short 


bungudul 


sick 


wibil 




/"bullo, or 


slow 


< bullowa, or 




Imalo 


small 


C kai or kaidul, 
[also butl 


sorry 


budda 


stinking 


nui 


stout 


biirel 



fwaruijgul or 
strong A waruijguldul (in 

Jess degree) 
straight waragil or gura 



Thus pukadi-keart is like a pookadi (squirrel), bhan-geart, like bhan (mistletoe). 



32 



VOCABULARY OF KAMILAROI. 



stupid 


(womba, wur 
( or mor 


Igor, 


white 


( pullar or 
(burjgoba 


sweet 


kuppa 




wicked 


milburadil 


tall 


kudiikudu 




wide 


murjamurja 


thin 
thirsty 


woladul 
kollerjin 




yellow 


(gerlr or 
( gunaguna 


weary 


igg 11 




young 


kubura 






Numerals. 




one 


mal 




four 


bularbular 


two 


bular 




five 


bularguliba 


three 


guliba 




six 


gulibaguliba 



A blackfellow from the Balonne Eiver, whom I met on the Barvvan in 1871, gave 
the numbers in use among his countrymen up to 20, as follows : — 



1. mal 

2. bular 

3. guliba 

4. bularbular 

5. mulanbu 

G. mal mulanbu mummi 

7. bularmulambu mummi 

8. gulibamulambu mummi 

9. bularbularmulambu mummi 
10. bulariu murra 



11. mal dinna mummi 

12. bular dinna mummi 

13. guliba dinna mummi 

14. bularbular dinna mummi 

15. mulanbu dinna 

16. mal dinna mulanbu 

17. bular dinna mulanbu 

18. guliba dinna mulanbu 

19. bularbular dinna mulanbu 

20. bulariu dinna 



bulariu is the possessive case of bular : ten is the belongings of the two hands ; 
eleven is one, from the feet, added ; twenty is the (toes) of the two feet (with the fingers). 



VERBS. 



33 



allay 


tubbiamulle 


answer 


korielle 


appear 


taibu 


appoint 


baiald°na 


arouse 


kirulle 


ask 


taialle 


barter 


wmlunni 


be 


ginya 


bind 


yulale 


bite 


yild°na 



IV.— VERBS. 

climb kolie or kullial 

come taiyanani 

cover or shut up kundowi 

cry aloud kakuld°ne 

cut (as with a saw) karile or kurrila 

cut (with a) 

> bhi or bhlni 
knife) or skin ; 



bl0W(as in smokiiigapipe)bubilli 

boil giitala 

break gunni 

bring taikane 

rkagine or 
(.kainani (sec "baby) 
baia or wurrimi 
( wombail°na 
( {past wombi 

carry off kagillina 

catch, lay hold on kunmulli 

catch with vio- ) 
_ \ karamulli 

lence, rob J 

catch with a) 

ii a A y enabmi 

hook, as fish ; 



bring forth 

build 

carry 



( baliini or 
(balii baiane 
morgi 



die 

dig 

draw out with) 

[ nfinmulli 
the hands ) 

drink garugi 

drop {intrans^) dulirri 

eat tali, tald°na 

enquire taiald°na 

fall bundane 

fear guriguri 

feed niira-uri 

frighten karaoele 

fly parane 

give wune 

hang (intrans.) pindele 

hang (trans.) pindemulle 

hear winuni 



34 


VOCABULARY OF KAMILAROI. 


hold 
jump 


fkummi or 
\ kunmulta 
pari 


pleased be kuia durule 

( kai^mille 
plunder ] 

((past) karami 


keep 
kick 


wlmuldi 
( duduna or 
I gigirma 


( yari or 
pour •] 

(yeremulle 

praise baoillona 


kill {dead-strike) balubuma 


prepare bukanmulle 


kiss 


rjaikaiala 


put maiabia 


know 


(tirune or 
(wmunailun 


put up maiald°na 
put down wiald°na 


laugh 


gindami 


quiet maiala 


learn 


yirabaiane 


rejoice yugali 


leave off 


tubilun 


remember wmunail°na 


let go (don't) 


tubbia or kurria 


rend baraine 


lift 


tiome 


return (trans.) kar a bille 


lose 


(wuijguriml or 
I murgin 


return (intrans. )t&r&oelc 
rise warren 


make 


gim°bi 


run (imjperative)huYvai 


make (by hand) murramulle 
make (by chopping) baia or baialda 


rbunnaijunne or 

run ] 

(punagai 


make (by splitting) 


rbaraile, bliaruni, 
( or marubild°na 


save yulon waragil 
see rjummi 


make (constitute) 


mugille 


seek kirumegu 


paint 
pierce 


karuldai 
diini or durilli 


send wiiala 
sew (with needle) ijiijije 


pinch 


nimmolli 


shake bulunibula 



ADVERBS. 35 


shine 


bui]gatail°na 


talk goalda 


sing 


bao-ill°na 


taste . tatule, yirabaine 


sit 


• 
ij uddela or n urria 


teach (make to see) i) umniilmulle 


sleep 


( babi, babil°na or 
( baubi 


teach (make 10 know) uruunbulle 
touch tamulle 




( warm or 


turn away taraoele 


spread 


I warumailun 


twist wiri 


stand 


warine 


wash wurgunbumulle 


strip 


dumale 


fyiigila (present) 


strike 


bumale 


weep X yuni (past) 


SUCk (see breast) 


fijamughi or 
(nummughi 


V^yiina (impera.) 
wonder {Grange!" ijipai goalla 


sweep 


burunbula 


work burunbailun 


swim 


kubl 


wound nimmi 




Y.— ADVERBS. 




1. Of Time. 


nOW (immediately) 


yeladu 


to-day ilanu 


then (at once) 


yila 


to-morrow nuriiko 


[yila or ila denotes any near time, past or future.] 


for one day malo or nerido 


long ago 


f Ilambo or 
I ghibailindi 


always yalwurja 
again ye'alo 


very long ago 


nuribu 


after nurra 


hereafter 


yerala 


then (at another time) rjaraegduli 


yesterday 


(gimiandi, or 
(naribu, or aoane 


, when ? wirii ? 



36 


VOCABULARY ( 


3F KAMILAROI. 


• 




2. Of 


Place. 




here 

here (beside me 


nowo or naialle 
) nabu. 


on this side 


( uriellona or 
(niiriellona 


there (in front) 


nurri 


on the other 


furrigalina or 


there (on the right) 


nutta 


side 


I narrikolinya 


there (ontheleft) 


nurriba 


on the far side 


miilanda 


there (at your hand) 


murra 


hither 


tai 


there 


arrigo 


from above 


nurribatai 


np there 


nurriba 


near 


ku'inbu 


down there 


nutta 


far 


urribii or beru 


outside 


nam 


where ? 


tulla ? 


in the midst 


bigundi 








3. Of Comparison. 




as 
so 


yealima 
na 


very much 
indeed 


> murramurra 


merely 


yeal 


also 


ljellibu or yellibu 


furthermore 


ye'alo 


together 


aielle 


very 


murra 






4. Of Affirmation and Negation, and Interrogation. 


yes 


y° 


no 


kamil 




'gir or giraol, 


note of 


) 


verily 


I sometimes kir 
^and kiraol 


interrogation 


^ yamma 


"yo" is used as a verb of ai 


hrmation : thus ' 


ljaia yo" (I yes) 


means I assert it to be so. 






" yamma" 


is placed at the bee 


'inning of a quest 


ion. 



INTERJECTIONS. 



37 



VI.— INTERJECTIONS. 

alas ! (in sorrow) nil ! onward ! 

alas! (in pity) guraga ! 
avaunt ! kurria ! 

far be it ! wunna ! 



strange ! 
wonderful ! 



kaoai ! 
ljipai ! 
kuttabul ! 



Intensity is given to any expression of thought or feeling by 
prolonging the last syllable. Thus, the longer they dwell on the u in 
" beru" the greater the idea of distance ; the longer the ga in "guraga" 
the deeper the pity. 



''' BRA KT 

I'M VEB8ITY OF 

California! 



phrases. 



I go to catcli fish 

I am splitting wood 

Truly I have got honey 

We two belong one to another (or 
are friends) 

Friendly blackfellows 

Hostile blackfellows 

I sing 

I am smoking 

I hear (or understand) 

I am sleeping 

I have well slept 

I have well drunk, or drunk of nice 
drink 

I am worn out 

The fire is gone out (dead) 

The day is coming 

Catch hold ! Let go ! 

Go back, my friend 

You and I hate one another 

T'is true ! T'is only lies ! 

It is my own 

The water runs over the stones 

I shall be there on an early day . 

I do not know where he is 

I was not there this morning 

I think he is at the camp 

You are my love 

He is a wicked man ; have nothing 
to do with him 

I hope 

You are good (thanks !) 



Grui'ya rjaia yenabilli 

Tulu nai bharuni 

Warul glr [or klr] ljai bai-aldina 

Guiyungun i) alii 

Gui'yungundul inurri 
Yili-an murri 
TJaia baoillini 
TJaia bubillini 
TJai winmj-gailun 
TJaia baubillani 
Glr nai baubillina 
Murrii nai ijurugalani 

Malo nai giul (or ghinni) 

~WT baliini 

TJurran durl 

Kunmulla ! Wunnabilla ! 

Turruwulla, nai dhurudi 

Thai inda wuna bulanbarana 

Glru ! Yeal gunial ! 

TJaii guinun 

Kolle bunnagella yarula 

Yerala nai a germa dhurali gurri 

TJerma nuriluna kamil ijaia 

TJerma wariijene 

Wolla ya ljurrilona 

TJa rjinda gullrdul 

Gun murruba ; wunna guma 

TJaia barabai daraoela 
Murruba inda 



40 GTJRRE KAMILAROI. 


GURRE KAMILAROI. 


(Extracts from a Missionary Primer, prepared for the Kamilaroi-spcaTcinr/ People.) 




[ Verbatim translation.'] 


Baiame gir giwlr gimobi ; mal giwir 


God verily man made ; first man Adam. 


Adam. Baiame goe : " Kamil murruba 


God said, " Not it is good for man alone 


giwlr gandil ijuddelago ; gaia giwlrgo 


to dwell ; I for man woman will make." 


Inar gimbille." Ila Baiame inar gimobi ; 


Then God woman made ; first woman 


mal inar Iva ; Iva gullr Adamu. 


Eve ; Eve wife of Adam. 


Adam buba murrigu, buba wondagu, 


Adam father of blackfellow, — father of 


buba kanugo ; Iva gumba murrigu, gumba 


whitefellow, — father of all. Eve mother 


wundagu, gumba kanugo. 


of blackfellow, — mother of whitefellow, — 




mother of all. 


Adam Iva ellibu warawara yanani. 


Adam, Eve also astray went. All men, 


Kanugo giwir kanugo inar warawara 


all women astray went ; all bad became. 


yanani; kanugo kagil ginyi. Baiame yili 


God angry became, said, "All men, all 


ginyi, goe, ""Kanugo giwir kanugo inar 


women astray went, all bad became ; I 


. warawara yanani, kanugo kagil ginyi ; gaia 


them dead will strike." Immanuel, son 


garma balu bumale." Immanuel, "Wurume 


of God, said, " No ! not thou them smite ; 


Baiamegu, goe, "Kamil! Kamil ginda 


thou me smite ; I will die, men, women 


garma bumala, ginda gunna bumala, gaia 


alive to be." 


balugi, giwir inar moron gigigo." 




Murruba Immanuel ; kamil garagedul 


Good is Immanuel ; not another is 


murruba yealokwai genua. 


good like Him. 


Ilambo Immanuel taongo taiyanani, 


Long ago Immanuel to earth came, 


giwir ginyi. 


man he became. 


Giwlr kair Layaru. Uergu bular boadi, 


A man named Lazarus. Belonging to 


mari, mata. Layaru wibil ginyi bular 


him two sisters, Mary, Martha. Lazarus 


boadi gurre waala immanuel go, goaldendai, 


sick became. The two sisters word sent 


" TJai daiadi, ginnu layaru, wibil." 


to Immanuel, saying, " My brother, Thy 




Lazarus is sick." 



GTJRRE KAMILAROI. 



41 



Kamil yanani Immanuel. yerala Layaru 
baluni. bularbularo babine balun taonda. 
Ila Immanuel taiyanani. mari mata ellibu 
yugillona. Immanuel goe, " TJinnu daiadi 
yealo moron gigi." Burula giwir burula 
inar yugillona. Immanuel daonmago 
yanani. yarul daonma kundawi ; Im- 
manuel goe " TJindai yarul diomulla." 
TJarma gir yarul diome. Immanuel kakul- 
done ; " Layaru taiyanuna !" Ila Layaru 
moron ginyi, taiyanani. bular boadi 
burul guiye". 



TJarageduli miedul wibil ginyi ; numba 
boiyoi wune ; kamil miedul murruba 
ginyi ; murru ginyi wibil, rjullimun baluni. 

Yaairu buba yanani Immanuel rjum- 
millego ; gir rjuinmi : goe, " inda barai 
taiyanuija, murruba gimbildi ijai miedul. 
TJai miedul burul wibil rjullimun baluni ; 
inda taiyanuija ijai kundigo." Immanuel 
goe, " TJulle yanoai kundigo." Ila yanani 
bular kundigo. TJumba duri, yugillona, 
goe " TJii ! rjii ! rjai miedul baluni." 

Burula Inar yugillona, goe " TJii ! 
miedul baluni." Immanuel goe "kurria 
yurja. kamil miedul baluni ; yeal babi- 
lona." burulabu gindami ; rjarma gir 
balundai wlnurji. Immanuel murra 
kawani miedul, goe, " miedul waria." Ila 
miedul moron ginyi, warine, gurre goe. 
TJumba, buba ellibu, burul guiye. 



Not went Immanuel. By and by 
Lazarus died. Four days be lay dead 
in the ground. Then Immanuel came. 
Mary, Martha also, were weeping. Im- 
manuel said, " Your brother again alive 
shall be." Many men, many women, 
were weeping. Immanuel to the grave 
went ; a stone the grave covered ; Im- 
manuel said, " Ye the stone take away." 
They the stone lifted up. Immanuel 
cried aloud, " Lazarus, come forth !" 
Then Lazarus alive became, he came forth. 
The two sisters were very glad. 

At another time a little girl sick 
became ; the mother pennyroyal gave ; 
not the little girl well became ; much she 
grew sick, almost dead. 

Jairus, the father, went Immanuel to 
see ; truly he found him ; he said, " Thou 
quickly come, well make my little girl. 
My little girl is very sick, almost dead. 
You come to my house." Immanuel said, 
" We two will go to the house." Then 
went the two to the house. The mother 
came, she wept, said, " Alas ! alas ! my 
little girl is dead." 

Many women were weeping, said, "Alas ! 
the little girl is dead." Immanuel said, 
" Cease weeping. Not the girl is dead ; 
only she is asleep." All of them laughed; 
they verily her to be dead knew. Im- 
manuel by hand took the girl, said, 
" Damsel, arise." Then the girl alive 
became, arose, words spoke. The mother, 
father also, very glad. 



Uarageduli bular glvvir muga nuddelona 
turrubulda. Irnrnanuel aro yanani ; bular 
muga winuni. kakuldono, " Immanuel, 
durunmi, wurume davidu rjuinmilla ! 
nurraga neane." burula giwir goe 
" kurria ! kurria nindai kakullego." giwir 
mugayealo kakuldone " durunmi, wurume 
Davidu, nummilla ! nurraga neane." Ila 
Immanuel warine, goe "minna ljindai 
goalie ? minna naia murramulle ?" ljarma 
goe, " Durunmi, wuna neane nummildai." 
ila Immanuel narrna mil tainfilda : baianbu 
narma murru nummillego." 

Burula kagil giwir Immanuel kun- 
multa. TJarma kaogo bindea yulalle. 
TJarma glr tulu wimi, naragedul tulu 
nanblr wimi. TJarina gir Immanuel wimi; 
murra blrudiini, dinna biruduni ; tului 
wirri. Uarma tulu Home, Immanuel 
tului pindelundai. Terala Immanuel 
baluni. Terala giwir pilari turrur diini ; 
gue dulirri. 



Bullului narma gir Immanuel taonda 
wimi; kundawi. Immanuel ijuru babine 
baliin taonda ; yealo malo babine balun 
taonda ; yealo naragedul guru babine 
baliin taonda; naragedul ljuruko moron 
ginyi, warine. 

Terala Immanuel gir gunagulla-go 
yanani. . 

Giwir ijuddolona littraga : bain dinna 
tuijgor, ijurribu bainge bain ; kamil 
yanelina. Paul, Barnaba ellibu, aro 
yanani. Paul goaldonc ; baiiuliil yerma 



Another time two men blind sat by the 
way. Immanuel there came ; the two 
blind heard, they cried aloud, " Im- 
manuel, King, Son of David, look ! pity 
us." Many people said, " Have done ! 
cease ye to cry aloud." The men blind 
again cried aloud, " King, Son of David, 
look ! pity us !" Then Immanuel stood 
still, said, "What you will say? ~\\ r hat 
I shall do ?" They said, " King, grant 
us to see." Then Immanuel them eyes 
touches ; instantly they are able to see. 

Many bad men Immanuel seized. 
They on his head thorns bound. They 
verily a log laid, another log across they 
laid. They verily Immanuel laid ; hands 
they pierced ; feet they pierced ; on log 
fastened. They the log lifted up, 
Immanuel on the log hanging. After- 
wards Immanuel died. Afterward* a 
man with spear his side pierced ; blood 
flowed forth. 

In the evening they verily Immanuel 
in ground laid ; covered up. Immanuel 
the night lay dead in ground : also one 
day he lay dead in ground ; also another 
night he lay dead in ground ; another 
morning he alive became, rose up. 

Afterwards Immanuel verily to heaven 
went. 

A man dwelt at Lystra ; with sick 
foot diseased, very ill indeed ; not he 
could walk. Paul, Barnabas, also there 
came. Paul was speaking ; the lame man 



GURRE KAMILAHOI. 



43 



wlnugailone. Paul kaia ljuminildone, 
kakuldone, " waria rjurriba dinnaga." 
Turjgordul parine, yanani ellebu. 

Burulabu giwir rjumrni, goe " ljipai !" 
kakudone " Baimae bular yarine yealok- 
wai giwir." Paul, Baraba ellibu, bunna- 
rjunne, kakuldone, " kurria ! karnil neane 
baiame ; neane giwir yealokwai nindai. 
ljeane guiye duri ; neane budda ginyi ; 
neane yili ginyi, yealo geane murru rjurri- 
nillone. ljeane murru goalda burulabu ; 
kurria rjindai yealo kagil gigile: berudi 
warraia, ljummilla Baiame moron. Baiame 
gir gunagulla, taon, burul kolle, kanuno 
minnaminnabul gimobi. Baiame yalwuna 
Baiame." 



him was hearing. Paul earnestly looked, 
he cried aloud, " Stand upright on feet." 
The lame man leapt, walked also. 

Many people saw, they wondered, they 
cried aloud " Gods two are come down 
like men." Paul, Barnabas also ran, cried 
aloud " Have done ! not we gods ; we men 
like you. "We glad become, we sorry 
become, we angry become, again we are 
reconciled. "We good tell to all ; cease ye 
anymore evil to be ; turn ye, look to God 
the living. God, verily, heaven, earth, the 
great water, all, everything made. God 
always is God" (the same ever). 



¥AIL¥UN: 

The Language of the Aborigines on the Barwan, below the 
junction of the Namoi. 




atlfotm, 



LANGUAGE spoken on the Barwan, below the junction 
of the Namoi. It is called " wailwun," from the negative 
" wail."* It is also called " niumba," from " nia" (speak). 



man 

woman 

father 

boy 

girl 

maiden 

mother 

young woman 

child 

chief 

little baby 

blackfellow 

white man 

TYinlp ( man or °ther 
IllcHc creatures) 

brother (grown man) 

brother (child) 



NOUNS. 




tdhur 


sister (grown) 


kati 


'wiriingar 


sister (young) 


gidurai 


(plural) 


spouse 


nuan 


^wlriingai 


uncle 


kani 


buba 


aunt 


mama 


murrukunga 


cousin 


nulungan 


mariyurjga 


truant wife 


yanawe 


kuma-dhilia 


head 


kuboga 


gimni 


hair 


wulla 


nikimikai 


forehead 


nulii 


worm or wuru 


beard 


kir 


durunmi 


whiskers 


narma 


wurudhul 


moustache 


mulajin 


mai-i 


cheek 


tdukkal 


wunda 


chin 


kir 


mundawa 


poll 


nan 


kukka 


eye 


mil 


kukkamin 


nose 


muru 



* This word " wail" is pronounced like the English word " wile" — according to the rule 
at the beginning: of the Kamilaroi Grammar. 



48 


WAILWUN. 




mouth 


ijundal 


great toe 


guni 


lips 


willi 


adder (deadly) 


murai 


teeth 


wira 


bandicoot 


guru 


tongue 


tulle 


bat 


wibulla-bulJa 


ear 


kurig-gera 


cockatoo 


murai 


throat 


nuggi 


crab 


ijulaga 


neck 


nirrimirri 


cray-fish 


keri or win gar 


shoulders 


wurru 


crow 


waru 


arm 


nuru 


cod (fish) 


kuddu 


forearm 


P 1 


diver (mna**k) 


tirmum 


elbow 


nunuka 


diver (large) 


duguru 


hand 


murra 


dog 


mirri 


fingers 


worria 


duck 


wiruwurra 


thumb 


( gunendlr or 

( gimi (mother of fingers) 


duck (black) 

duck (whistling) 


budunba 
thipaiyu 


thigh 


durra or dhurra 


duck (red) 


gurao-er 


knee 


bunde 


duck (blue winged) 


ululu 


foot 


dinna 


duck (teal) 


daraoer or bu'iga 


arm-pit 


kilkulbiiri 


duck (wood) 


kunambi 


breast (woman's) 


nummu 


duck (spoonbill) wilidubai 


chest 


wirri 


duck (musk) 


kumogumar 


belly 


burl 


emu 


rjfiri 


navel 


gindyur 


eagle 


mullion 


leg (below knee) 


piyu 


fish (bream) 


kumbal 


calf 


kaia 


fish (black bream) 


bunuidla 


toe 


wirria 


fisll (email bream) 


berije 



NOUNS. 


49 


fish (best bream) duggai 


Venus (emu) 


nuri 


fisll (cat-fish or jew-fish) dungUT 


sky 


gunagulla 


iguana duli 


ground 


tagun 


kangaroo muru'i 


fire 


wi 


opossum kuragi 


water 


kolle 


padymelon wiru 


tree 


kogur 


( wirea or 
pelican I 

( gulamboli 


gum 
ironbark 


guara 
bigur 


pigeon (squatter) mimumbi 


pine 


guraba 


pigeon (crested) tao-ilgera 


yellow box 


mulli 


pigeon (bronze) yamur 


acacia pendula 


bri 


porcupine bigabilla 


bastard myal 


yimmu 


shrimp tugale 
snake (boa) munun 


yam* 


r gunawa or 
(kunowa 


snake (black), yuki 


fish-ponds 


nunnii 


snake (brown) tdhuru 


boomerang 


bier 


snake (carpet) yubba 


sacred stone 


) 


snake (whip) murai 


in the chief's 


> wiar 


swallow millimaru 


possession 


) 


turtle waienber 


death 


giirinl 


swan (black) burrima 


enmity 


kulgiurun 


wagtail dirijiri 


anger 


gulgi 


sun duni or dhiini 
moon giwur 


astonishment 


rnudii-wundu- 
( baigu 


stars girila 


friendship 


maindyul 

[t grows in sand ridges. 


* The yam found near the Barwan is sweet, juic 


y, and most refreshing. 



50 


WAILWUN. 






PRONOUNS. 




I 


nattu 


ye two 


nindula 


we 


ljeene 


ye 


nindugul 


thou 


ijindu 


he 


mundewa 




ADJECTIVES. 




alive 


muun 


white 


bunoba 


bad 


wurai 


black 


bului 


cold 


gunundai 


blue 


bului 


good 


yiada 


red 


girawil 


hot 


girru 


yellow 


giinainguna 


old 


bugaia 


green 


gldyungidyun 


sick 


wogin 


brown 


dhugungulia 


young 


dhulunaimba 








ADVERBS. 




Yes 


ijaru 


above 


ijunaowa 


No 


wail 


below 


nunadhur 




VERBS. 




Lite 


kutulli 


sing 


biiga 


catch 


mumulli 


sneeze 


tiga 


cough 


gununguna 


weep 


yurjani 


laugh 


gindani 







PHRASES. 



51 



PHRASES. 



I love you 

I hate you 

I do not like you 

I think 

Did you see me ? 

Yes, I saw you 

Ippai built a house 

Murri pulled it down 

Kubbi killed Kumbo 

Kumbo killed Kubbi 

What for ? 

The greatest of enemies 



kurridu ninundun inda 
gadunu gumalago 
wail du ninunda ginda 
wmiujunni 
ljanandu dhi rjani ? 
narti, gudhu gani 
Ippandu wune gunnu 
Murrlggu wlrime 
Kubbiggu gurne kumbunii 
Kumbuggu kubbiiju gume 
minyango ? 
kulkiwunwungan 



KOGAI: 

The Language of the Aborigines to the Westward of the Baton ne, 
on the Maranoa and the Cogoon. 




Hflffat, 



§. LANGUAGE spoken to the westward of the Balonne, on 
the Maranoa and the Cogoon. 



NOUNS. 



father 


yabunii 


eyebrow 


milgul 


mother 


yarjanu 


eye 


dilli 


son 


andii 


nose 





daughter 


burgul 


ear 


muna 


grandson 


yambiru 


mouth 


biggi 


elder brother 


tagiindilla 


teeth 


yira 


younger brother maiandilla 


beard 


mug gar 


elder sister 


mungunnu 


throat 


aoar 


younger sister 


babunnu 


neck 


ljugun 


man (aborigina 


l)murdin 


shoulder 


bira 


woman 


murendin 


arm 


duru 


youth 


aola 


ribs 


bibun 


boy 


andiin 


hand 


murra 


little girl 


ambi 


fingers 


murda 


baby 


tiiru 


thigh 


durra 


head 


biibwa 


leg 


olburr 


forehead 


bulga 


cockatoo 


digurri 



56 


KOGAI. 




dog 


nurun 


boomerang 


wunal 


eagle 


otella 


camp 


yambai-eder 


emu 


rjuruin 


hut 


kundi 


kangaroo 


gargu 


spear 


bugga 


native companion urriir 


water 


amu 


snake (brown) 


btimburra 








PRONOUNS. 




I 


rjaia 


thy 


yunu 


my 


rjaidhu 


he 


yeraggo 


thou 


inda 








ADJECTIVES. 




asleep 


okarhjgo 


dead 


uladirri or ulala 


hungry 


abir 


thirsty 


amu-gin 


weary 


iggil 


[from auiu, water, with suffix-rjin, 
wanting, as in Kamilaroi.] 




VERBS. 




beat 


onimeala 


lose 


wombomulla 


break 


unilgo 


put down 


iderburra 


come 


iiguara 


pick up 


punder 


eat 


watidalulla 


run 


unbermelgo 


go 


undawaralgo 


see 


wottiijagulla 


hear 


imbulloaddi 


sing 


waralgo 


know 


imbulgo 


smell 


ljutulla 


jump 


diimbaia 


throw away 


undubidi-ir 


lift 


bundalla 







PIKTJMBTJL: 

The Language of the Aborigines about Calandoon, in Queensland, 
on the Weir and the Macintyre. 







- 




PftumM, 




<0$^l 




Mfllm^ LANGUAGE spoken about Calandoon, in Queensland, on 


sZgf&fifff the Weir and the Macintyre. 




tIt nouns. 




i 

God Anambu or Minumbu. 




man (white) gun 


arm 


yama 


man (aboriginal) mial 


hand 


mara 


woman tamar 


thigh 


mabun 


youth mollumi 


leg 


buiyu 


maiden migedul 


cockatoo 


giabun 


boy kaa 


cuckoo 


nugu 


girl mie 


dog 


mirri 


baby kagul 


eagle 


due 


head kabui 


emu 


nurun 


forehead wenda 


flies 


kulunan 


eye mil 


frog 


durra 


nose muru 


hawk 


kagun 


ear bidna 


laughing jackass kaguran 


mouth yunda 


mosquito 


buri 


teeth tira 


opossum 


kubi 


beard yarun 


pelican 


gulegali 


throat kuruijgara 


snake (black) 


mindar 


neck bimbi 


swan 


bibu 



60 




PIKTTMBUL. 








PRONOUNS. 




I 


gutta 




my 


ijie 


thou 


ijinda 








- 




ADJECTIVES. 




bad 


wombo 




hungry 


dilgi 


black 


kumba 




thirsty 


kollerjin 


fuU 


buijun 




white 


kao-un 


good 


wlumba 












ADVEEBS. 




yes 


pika 




truly 


galo 


no 


yuga 




hither 


yurri 






VEEBS. 




bring 


yurri kaija 


sit 


rjinne 


catch 


yalumul 




speak 


guagga 


give 


yere iira 




stand 


kuraga 


go 


yaboga 




stand still 


mobia 


put down 


tirra 




take up 


kandimulla 


see 


naiya 






• 



DIPPIL: 

The Language of the Aborigines about Durundurun, on the north 

side of Moreton Bay, and thence towards Wide Bay and 

the Burnett District, in Queensland. 



UipptL 




HE Aborigines about Durundurun, on the north side of Moreton 
Bay, and thence towards "Wide Bay and the Burnett District, 
speak Dippil. The following words and sentences were taken 
down from the lips of Davies or Darumboys, a blacksmith, 
at Brisbane, who spent thirteen years with the blacks, and 
whose history is narrated by the Kev. Dr. Lang, in his " Cooksland." 

I.— NOUNS. 

1. Man (aboriginal) — dan. 



head 


kam 


hair 


dhella 


forehead 


nului) 


brow 


dipinji 


eye 


mi 


nose 


muru 


mouth 


tunka 


lips 


tambur 


tongue 


dunnum 


ear 


binung 


cheek 


wag gum 



chin 


yikul 


beard 


yeran 


neck 


guna 


breast 


amun 


shoulder 


kora 


right hand 


( duruin or 

( ginning duruin 


left hand 


wottugga 


back 


pondur 


fingers 


biddi 


thumb 


biddi winwor 



64 


DIPPIL. 


little finger 


biddi diirumai 


hole through ( murumburri or 


belly 


duguu 


nose ( kagarabaoin 


hips 


kondun 


marks on chest mulkar 


thigh 


durran 


old man winyagun 


knee 


bon 


young man kippa 


leg 


puiyu 


a crowd of men miller 


foot 


jinmuj 


boy iikhuun 


heart 


dukku 


young boy birwain 


liver and bowels gunnun 


baby methindum 


flesh 
blood 


baowin 
kukki 


(yirkun, winya- 
old woman \ c 

(.gun 


skin 

* 


brabra 


married woman yirum 


spittle 


nuin 






Relationships. 


father 


bobbin 


brother (younger) wudhun 


mother 


navan 


sister yaobfm 


- 


( yimmu or muki- 


uncle immo 


son 


Cver or kumma 


aunt martin 


daughter 


naiber 


cousin yimudheme 


brother (elder) 


nun 


cousin (female) kumedheme 




2. An 


IMALS. 


animal 


murar) 


bee (small) dibbin 


bat 


girrama 


bee (large) turbain 


bear 


kulla 


centipede girowa muraij 



NOUNS — 


ANIMALS. 65 


cockatoo kiggum 


kangaroo (female) niigal kuttuwain 


black cockatoo kulverwa 


do. (scrub k.)kulembi 


cod dokko 


do. barrel 


crane kwowol 


do. female bao-i 


dog wutta 
duck nar 


do. (female ) 

> kumaij 
kulembi) ) 


eagle wurama 


do. (common)murri 


eel yulu 


locust yilla 


emu nuruin 


mosquito bumba 


fisb (flat tail) billa 


mouse mobur 


fly tibin 

goose rjirrii) ormulgaoi 


(kirbibbaor 
mullet < 

( undaiya 


grub puiyim 


opossum narambi 


hawk kigum 


opossum (black) kabbila 


iguana warui 


owl kuggu 


iguana (yellow") 

> kutyi 
bellied) ) J 


parrot per 
pelican nirringa 


jackass bird kaggu 


pigeon konkelum 


kangaroo (old) 

> kroman 
man) ) 


pigeon (bronze-winged) tamUT 

porpoise yullu 


do. young durwun 


porpoise (small) yuijun 


do. female yimmer 


quail murrindum 


do. (young } . 
y wulbai 


rat kogkolai 


in pouch) j 


scorpion merinda 


do. wallaby boal 


shell fish yimar 


do. (do. big) kuttiiwain 


shell fish yuin 



66 


DIPPIL. 






shell fish 


wurui) 


deaf adder 


munulgum 




shell (oyster) 


dibir 


stingaree (fish) 


winwaba 




shark 


kullo'i 


swan 


nirrin 




snake (black) 


mullfi 


tarantula 


thiwa 




Snake (black deadly) 


murriglr 


turkey buzzard 


wagun 




snake (carpet) 


wiujgai 


turtle 


mebir 




snake (whip) 


wirrawa 








- 


3. Miscellaneous. 






apple-tree, a*" 


) 


clothes 


bumblr 




species of 


> yulayiilo or popa 


cloud 


mirrin 




gum j 


) 


coast 


bukkan 




axe 


muyim 


creek 


durrai) 




axe (of stone) 


yemar-yemar 


(See thigh mid arm of tree in 




axe-handle 


womboi 


Dippil and 


in Kamilaroi .) 




beginning 


uriunkin 


egg 


bam 




boat 


kumba 


end 


torn 




blossom 


nerida 


end (point) 


muur 




basket 


warn, warum 


end (butt) 


turbai 




bark 


kumba 


enmity 


winderu 




box-tree 


muij gamungara 


fire 


glra 




branch 


deraij 


fig 


kabura or bimer 




bucket 


P 1 


flat (plain) 


biru 




bread-fruit 


winnum 


ground 


daoer 




boomerang 


berkan 


grease 


mfiron 




cloak 


hella 


gum (flooded) 


yerra 





NOUNS — MISCELLANEOUS. 67 


gum (forest) tambir 


( udhumbil or 
path ] 

( guan 


gum (blue) murjgar 


honey (white, ) . 

from small bee) ) 


pine gunum 
Pleiades miirrinmurrin 


honey (dark, ) 

I gilla 

from large bee) ) 

hill waikerdummai 


pole pundai 

poison-bark ~) 
r [ dilkai 
(brush -wood) ) 


hut dfirabunnu 


poison-bark tree tummapurba 


ironbark tobun or tandor 


rain yurui) or yuron 


interior of country dunba 


reed kaga 


leaves wururj 


river niiken 


lightning billibira 


root terbai 


lemon (native) tarum 


smell kabelliman 


mark (notch) tindai 


thunder miimba 


mountain waiker 


taste kagillanor 


mountain range pondur 


to-morrow bunyirki 


mountain ridge diinba 


shadow of a tree tuunurakalim 


middle nirrim 


scrub (jungle) duri 


milky way muin or muun 


shield (light) gudmurri 


morning star dirai yirki 


shield (heavy) yaoun 


nest wldhun 


smoke wiilui 


net merburj 


song yaoiir 


netting (act of) duppi or kupera 


spear (light) kunnai 


oak billai 


spear (heavy) billar 


Orion's belt ) 

\ kunnai 
(a spear) ) 


spear point nor 

spear wound kunnuthum 



68 DIPPIL. 


stick (throwing) kutha 


victuals 


pintja 


stick (heavy) binba 


water 


kon 


stick (curved) nulawa 


water (salt) 


tin-nir* 


stick (fire) giradunka 


waterhole 


nullakongor 


stem dokko 


waterspring 


kongowurrain 


stone (free stone) kitta 


waves 


buriman 


stone (black) nmllu 


waves (breakers) bokankuriman 


stone (flint) kunkum 
summer nfirunan 


winter 


Twulladha or 
(wiggin 


swamp tlkumbi 


yam 


tarn 


track (of feet) jinun daoer 


yesterday 


nambura 


II.— ADJECTIVES. 




bad wuran 


many 


murrin 


black mulu 


new 


dulliba 


fast gillawa 


old 


wurubain 


good gilangiir 


round 


duruin 


heavy tankinbul 


short 


talbur 


hungry kandu. 


slow 


dhimpe 


large winwor 


small 


dummai 


light nundi 


tall 


kuran 


long kuran 


white 


kukkul 


Comparatives are formed by doubling, as talburtalbur — too short or 


very short. 




* In Turrubul, at Moreton Bay, water is " tabbil" — salt water " 


tabbilbon, i.e., dead water. 





VERBS. 


69 


bend 


III.— T 

kumaggali 


^EE,BS. 




ttiaVp 


( yunkaorboberen 


build 


(bunnin or 
t duriyankin 


11 Lev JVC 

run 


{.or durianker 
bitelle 


call 


buialle 


see 


nunyin 


come 


bain 


sharpen 


kurigeyer 


come back 


bumgai 


sit 


ninnai 


convey 


dandinna 


sleep 


mibon 


fight (with sticks) 
fight (by pulling hair' 


kudhera baiyi 
tella baiyi 


spear (to throw 
the kunnai) 


^ bonkog 


fasten together 


bunurrin 


spear (to throw 


? - • 


give 


wa 


the billar) 


> nurvam 


go 


yannin 


stop 


yiinmigo 


hang 


duggillina 


spit 


nuinbirra 


jump 


burrain 


taste 


kabundinna 


kill 


baigin 


thrust out 


birra 


kneel 


bondabumi 


touch 


budyia 


laugh 


wedhewedha 


walk 


yenna 


lie (recline) 


yunmlgo 


weep 


dungin 


lie (tell lies) 


yupillime 








IV.— A] 


)VERBS. 




back again 


buiya 


not 


ba 


here 


gai 


where ? 


wunti ? or winta ? 


long ago 


wurukiirubra 


yes 


yoai 


no 


kabbi 







70 



DIPPIL. 



V.— PRONOUNS. 



I, nai, or ai, or ljutta 

me, unna 

to mc, enna 

we two, alien, or nullin 

thou, ljin, ninna, inta, indu 

ye, gindai 

he, unda 



that (pointing to it) numhain 
that (in front) mittenda 

that (behind) kutyenda 

that (on the right) durumya 
that (on the left) wudlmngeru 
that (above or below) minda 



TiJin wunti yanin ? 

Wai yowai yanin. 

TiTin winta bain ? 

Mai barin bain. 

Ttfai kandu ; enna wa. 

Mai baliin koijgo ; enna wa. 

Winyo Magilpi ? Minda bobain 

Makoron. indu nunyin ? 

Yoai. 

Makoron wunti yanin ? 

Dalle winta makoron yanin ? 

Nambur wurri yanin. 

Dan murriyu yanin. 

Dan winta bunna bumgai ? 

Bunni yirki bumgai. 



DIALOGUES IN DIPPIL. 

You where going ? 
I northward am going. 
You whence come ? 
I from the south come. 
I am hungry ; to me give. 
I am dying for icater ; to me give. 
Where's Magilpi ? There he stands. 
White men have you seen ? 
Yes. 

White men whither went t 
Sow long since white men went ? 
The day before yesterday they went. 
The aborigines after kangaroo icent. 
The aborigines when will come back? 
To-morrow morning they come back. 



"Wunda kurbunta bumgaigo. 



In three days they come back. 



DIALOGUES. 



71 



"RTullin kroigo yengo Boppilkurri. 

T<Iulle winta bunna mara bago ? 

Banna nundara. 

"EXulle dher murrin na merban. 

Allin bunna duppigo yango ? 

Nulla winta kam bunna-ungo ? 

Murrinda bunna watungarimjgo. 

Ket yenka kankulli. 

Ba bitulle ; dhimper ; kankulle. 

Minya dhurra buter ? 

Murrinmurrin, 

Kroman kurabunta, 

Tharuain budela,. 

Yimera boppa, 

Bo'all budela, 

Wutta bullana, 

TiToron kalim. 

Urru dan bumgain bobbinkurri ba 

baigingo. 
Bobbin bundu yunmigo, 
Bobbin kammi bunnaginmain. 
Dan di yowai baigin dan barringa ; 

dan barringa bitellin. 

Budela gira budela balun. 
Kumbakabbi, dan di Bimba, 



Let us for opossum go to Boppil. 

We where them shall roast ? 

By and by, on the other side. 

We have plenty of nets. 

Shall we to set nets go ? 

Which way are heads to turn ? 

Very much to the left. 

On meeting call out. 

Don't run ; take time ; shout. 

Sow many did they kill ? 

Very many, 

Old men kangaroos three, 

Bucks two, 

Does three, 

Wallabies two, 

Native dogs two, 

Emu one. 

Some blackfellows came here my 

father to kill. 
Father asleep lay. 
Father uncle him awoke. 
The men of the north beat the men 

of the south ; the men of the 

south ran aicay. 
Four died. 
Kumbakabbi, a man of Bimba, 



72 DIPPIL. 


Kam baigin dan di Toun. 


Head cut from a man of To-un. 


Dan kerbona durrai) burin. 


Man another thigh, was broken. 


Dan da Boppil burain, 


A man at Boppil was mad, 


Ba unda Dankurri ninnain, 


Not he with men dwelt, 


Unda burain durigo, 


He went mad in to the scrub, 


Unda murrinda buiyallin, 


He often cried out, 


Undaru dukkira kaowin. 


Himself with knives he cut. 


Wa dan bumgain, 


If men came, 


Undaru tankaru kaigin. 


He ivith teeth bit. 


Magilpi Boppilkurri yanin yirki, 


Magilpi to Boppil went next day, 


Unda na burain nunyin ; 


He the madman saw ; 


Undaru bunman. 


Him he cured, i.e., (< bunman" drew 




out (the evil). 


^Tallin mebirgo gu inyago. 


Let us for turtles go out. 


Wunti nummulligo ? 


JjThere shall we look ? 


Tom karango yango. 


To Sandy Flat let us go. 


Kumba nattu, ljindu, 


Canoe my, yours, 


Yikki kerbana. 


Also another. 


TiTa wunna budyigo, 


And ivhen you find, 


J6in kwivT. 


You whistle. 


"RTutta wunna budyigo, 


I when I find, 


Ttfutta kwivi. 


I'll whistle. 


Kai ! budyin ! 


Here ! found ! 


Wuraka murrin ; kai, 


Dive plenty ; here 


Kamwurrin. 


Headfirst dive. 


Kai unda bumgain kuruburu. 


Here he comes another. 



DIALOGUES. 



73 



Uradummain. 

Ponderuna wundina. 

Kai mebir baigin. 

Morbaingo, 

Timdar baigi ; gunai) bunma. 

Dukkin mohar, 

Wuruma buggo. 

Dan buialle mebirgo. 



He's caught. 

On his back turn him up. 

Sere's a turtle caught. 

Hoast him, 

Shell break ; inside take out. 

Red hot stones lay, 

Put it on the fire. 

The men call to the turtle. 



TTJEEUBTJL: 

The Language of the Aborigines on the Brisbane Riuer. 




CALIFORNIA. 

CttrrufruL 

<X>K*iCM> 

HIS language is spoken on the Brisbane River. It does not 
?w* extend nearly so far as Dippil. 

>ft£» There are in Turrubul, nouns, pronouns, adjectives, verbs, 

i adverbs, and conjunctions. Instead of prepositions, suffixes 

are employed. 

I.— NOUNS. 

-du (suffix) signifies agency, and distinguishes the nominative 
which has a verb from the simple name. 

Example : — 

1st Nominative : duggai a man 

2nd Nominative : duggaidu a man (followed by a verb) . 

Genitive : duggainubba ... of a man. 

Dative : dugganu ............ for or to a man. 

Accusative : duggana a man. 

Ablative : duggaibuddi . . . with a man. 

duggaiti at a man. 

duggaida from a man. 

Plural : , duggatin men, people. 



78 TURRUBTJL GRAMMAR. 



Gender. 

Difference of gender is expressed sometimes by using different 
words ; as kruman, a male kangaroo (largest species) ; yimma, female 
kangaroo. 

Sometimes the suffix -gun or -un, gives a feminine signification, 
as in the proper family names, e.g., derwain, derwaingun; bundar, 
bundargun, bandur, bandurun ; also nurrig (son) ; nurringun 
(daughter). 

II.— PRONOUNS. 
The Turrubul has personal, possessive, interrogative, demonstra- 
tive, and indefinite pronouns. 

(1.) Personal. 

Singular : 1. nutta, atta, gai, ai, naia I. 

2. ijinta, inda thou. 

3. wunnal he, she. 

Dual: 1. rjullin you and I. 

2. nilpug ye two. 

Plural: 1. nulle we. 

2. gilpulla ye. 

3. wunnalina, wunnale, orwunyale they. 

(2.) Possessive. 

1. ijurriba my. 

2. ninnuba thy. 



VERBS. 79 

(3.) Interrogative. 

Masculine and feminine : gandu ? who ? 

Neuter : minna ? what T 

(4.) Demonstrative. 

This duga. 

That guruga. 

(5.) Indefinite. 

All gambille. 

Another kurruba. 

Many millen, millenkulle. 

III.— VERBS. 

The most remarkable feature in the grammar of the Australian 
languages is the very extensive inflection of the verbs. The voices, 
active, reciprocal, causative, permissive, &c, are numerous ; and the 
tenses are adapted to express various slight modifications of past and 
future. Here is one specimen, taken down in the hope, not yet 
realised, of having opportunity to add many more. 

bulkurri to come. 

bulkairi bring, i.e., cause to come. 

Indicative past : bulkurri came. 

future : bulkulliba will come. 

Imperative: bulka come. 



VOCABULARY. 

( Words in brackets are used at Durimdurun, near the Glass-house Mountains.) 



I.— NOUNS. 

Names of most important Objects. 



God 



man 



woman 



•I 



-Mumbal,* 
Mirir 
Burrai 
^Burrani 
duggai 

Jjundal (njgurun) 
(iijaran) 

ghost, spirit, "\ 

/ magu*i,makoron, 
also white > 

V mudhar 
man J 

{guru, nurul, 
tungin 
f maowi, 
(maiyi 

Sbigi (bulubar), 
(kuiyar) 



soul 



devil 



sun 



moon 



stars 



Skillen, babun, 
kakurri (rjaitj urj- 
gil) (guddui)) 



f mirregm 



earth 
sky 

man (white) 



( (mirrhjgim) 
tar or dar 
birra 

{makoron, 
makurrag 
woman (white) tjerran 

Sty an j dan, 
dumban, 
kurringum 
aboriginal man dan 



aboriginal 
woman 



! 



yeran 



* "Mumbal" signifies thunder. It is also used as the name of the Great Being 
who speaks in thunder. So did the Britons, before the introduction of Christianity, 
worship Taranis (Thunder) as one of the three deities they acknowledged. At Point 
Macleay, in South Australia, the aborigines speak of " Nurundee " as the supreme God. 
" Mirir" or " Mirirul" is used in this sense far along the coast to the south, and 
" Dhurumbulum " has the same meaning at Twofold Bay. 





NOTTNS- 


—MAN. 81 




2. Man : parts of his body. 


head 


magul (kom) 


arm (fore-arm) taron (wiyebbi) 


hair 


kabui (kum) 


hand murra (dukkur) 


forehead 


yilim (guliig) 


finger killin 


eyebrow 


( mithiltin 
( (dippinjun) 


finger-nails mukkura 

belly tiggeri (kuddur) 


eye 


mil, mia 


thigh durra (durrug) 


nose 


muro 


knee bon (budn) 


lips 


tamburu 


leg puiyo 


teeth 


tier (dug gal) 


foot tidna (dinnag) 


cheek 


(turgor) 


blood kaoun, giwvir 


ear 


pidna (piniag) 


( tirben or tjirben, 


beard 


yeren (yeya) 


(geralgeral, dig 


throat 


(diinug) 


vein kaiyug 


neck 


(gurrun) 


breath or spirit gar, guru 


breast 


tundera (guggur) 


flesh paigulpaigul 


back 


toggul 


flesh and blood budelum 


side 
shoulder 


kutta 
kikka 


marks in the ) 

J- mulwarra 
flesh ) 


arm (humerus) 


yumma (gumig) 






3. Man: h 


is relations. 


father 


big, babiin, buba 


f nuridmun, 


mother 


pujag, bfidag 


son "j 

(nurrig 


child 


nammul 


daughter nuringun, kin 



82 


TURRUBUL — 


VOCABULARY. 




wife 


( mirru 

( (dual) mirruij 


grandmother 
girl 


(kuminun) 
kin, yurumkun 


brother 


(nubbin) a, aban, 
( (wuntjimun) 


little girl 
boy 


killalan 
( mualum, 
(. duandin, buiy Ir 


brother (younger) 


duaijal 


sister 


daddi,mui)ur)kul 


baby 


moalam 


friend (comrade) u'njun 


young man 


kippa 


grandfather 


(yuguinpin) 


full man 


mutta 




4. Animai 


US — Daoiin. 




bird 


mirrun,daounpin 


flies 


dudunburra 


bream 


nullun 


jackass bird 


kakowan 


butterfly 


balumbir 


kangaroo 


(murri) 


catfish 


gamerikurra 


kangaroo (old 


") kuruman, 
) g u ruman 


cockatoo 


kaiyar 


man) 


black cockatoo 


karara, karer 


locust 


dinplr 


cock of wood 


kao-al 


mosquito 


tibig 


crow 


wowul, wowa 


mussel 


bukkaoa 


dog 


meye, mirri 


HlUSSei beautiful) 


dullin 


dog (wild) 


nulgul 


opossum 


kubbi 


duck 


ija, nar 


pelican 


bulualum(ijirrir)) 


eagle 


dibbil (budhar) 


sea pigs 


yunun 


eel 


tagun 


shark 


poai 


emu 
fish 


guyi (ijurun) 
( gandakul, 


snake 


( kabuljbui, yuun, 
( (yuwun, wmjai) 


(kuiyur (gundaya) 


whales 


talubilla 



MISCELLANEOUS NOUNS. 



83 



5. Miscellaneous Nouns. 



ant-hill tanmurrin 

basket yirimbin 

basket (small) bui)gug,bui)gom 

boat kundu 

boat's deck kurragutta 

boomerang barrakadan 
boots (feet, belonging to) dinnaguba 

bread-fruit tiungul 

bucket yuppar 

bushes kuddal 

charcoal kuro'in 

clay (pipe) dullan 

clay (red) guiyin 

club tabbir 

corobbary yowar 

day bigi 

dung kudena 

dung (man's) bandiko 

dung (ox's) gunan 

dung (dog's) dungul, dual 

dust yarun 

of dust y aruntiber 

C girar, yarun, 

( durrun 

evening bigibirpi 



earth (dry) 



fire 



fern durvin 

fig noana 

fig (little) kunnin 

^talu, kuddum, 

( or ku'iyim 

( bungil pungil, 
grass < 

( bon 

grass (long coarse) walli wallin gar an 

grass (similar) wugarpin 

graSS (another variety) tukka 

grass (rushes) yikibbin 

hat (head, belonging to) magulkuba 

hilaman (shield) kuntan 

herb kegirelpin 

herb (creeping) dam 

herb muttanuntunbin 

herb ( water-weed)y err a 

herb do. nambur 

herb (fern-like) yugai 

hole mir 

leaf (withered) wuij 

light kittibilla 

light (of candle) telija 

(tudnagain or 
lightning < 

( tug gain or tjil 



84 



TURRTJBUL VOCABULARY. 



master 


bundur 


river 




warril 


morning 


nunnunubbu 


road 




Tkulgun or 
(gulwun, tumbar 


mud 


wobum 






mug 


bunduin 


sand 




yarun 


name 


nurri 






( pamirrikiri'i 
(tabbilbon 


necklace or 


) 


sea 




headband of 


> kaiirbin 


shape 




nor 


yellow reeds 


) 


shield 




kuntan 


net 


baial 


smoke 




duun 


large fish net 


mundin, tumma 


spear 




bilan, gunnai 


kangaroo net 


merbun 


stone 




nullungirra 


night 


nunnu 


things 




nunantjin 


nulla nulla (club) taberi 


thundei 




mumbal, miigara 


potato 


gua, gulwal 


trousers 


5 (thi fugto!) ng " derra 9 UDa 


quartz pebble 


dakki 


water 




ljaraoin, tabbil 


rainbow 


kai-ao-ur 


wharf 




mumpa 




Various spec 


ies of Trees. 




tree 


Cpaggum, bagur 
(du (wilaij) 


gum (another 


bulortum 


gum 


do. 


kundibar 


fig 


gurai, goana 


gum 


do. 


mungar 




( burutlia, 
( tabilpulla 


oak (sw 


r amp) 


bundlbar 


myrtle 


stringy- 


■bark 


ti 


gum 


gillumbir 


tree blossom 


bumbar 


gum (another) yurra 


log 




bural, mulliij 


gum do. 


buneri 


dry and 


dead ti 


•ee dulgai 



ADJECTIVES. 



85 



brushwood darum, dillar 

small tree *\ 

bearing a > bundai 
black berry J 
another species kidnabullum 
do. birjper 

do. bundugumbin 

do. wungo 



guran tuanpin 



another species burabi 
stump billayir 

a red-leaved 

shrub 

another shrub dirbag 
another shrub durri 
another(water shrub) duntibbin 

anotheroikeras P berry)kubbukubburan 



II.— ADJECTIVES. 



alive 


milbulpu 


good 


murrumba 


black 


kurun 


great 


kuriimba 


blind 


milwaddeli 


hungry 


waiara 


cold 


igil 


like 


gamba 


dark 


kurun 


red 


kaoinkao'in 


darling 


kunman 


useless 


waddeli 


eldest 


nawudenmun 


white 


buppa 



NUMEKALS. 

1 Kunnar. 2 budela. 3 muddan. 

4 budela budela. 5 muddanbudela. 



first 



Ordinal Numbers. 
yutta. 



second kurruga. 



86 


TURRUBTJL — VOCABULARY. 






III.— PRONOUNS— (See Grammar.) 




IV.— VERBS. 




appear 


numbani 


meet 


dandiiri 


break 


bug ui) din 


name 


nai-iburri 


breathe 


pui 


pity 


tugul 


brillff (cause to 


30 me) bulkairi 


run 


buaraoa ; Igere 


close up 


dulluguntumurri 


say 


yari 


come 


bulkurri ; ba 


see 


nanni 


come back 


wirepi 


send 


waiari 


covered 


kunkamurri 


separate 


punmangillin 


cut 


( kaii ; kabari ; 
( kulkurri 


set (set) ; 
will set 


} kurrai ; 

) kurraipuggu 


draw out 


punman 


sit 


ijinnen 


fly 


yuruduija 


shine ; 


") numbai ; 


give 


wudda 


will shine 


) numbaipuggu 


go 


yadeni ; yennan 


sleep 


bugan 


grow 


C durun, 


sleep, put to 


buganmurri 


(duruthuga 


stop 


kagalom 


kiss 


dandildelaima 


swim 


yuruduga 


lose 


balloteriari 


want 


yaneri 


make 


yugari 


work 


yakka 



ADVERBS. 87 


V.— ADVERBS. 


afar yunpag 


long ago kaloma 


afterwards burm or paru 


not yugar (wukka) 


also ikki 


now, at once berren 


altogether ") 
completely ) 


quickly banka 
there nam 


first berren 


there (very far off) na-m 


here goggum 


yes yoai 


Adverb of interrogation eko. 


Unlike " yamma" in Kamilaroi, " eko" is put at the end of the question. 



88 TURRUBUL. 


NAMES OP ABORIGINES ON THE BRISBANE. 


[The first is the proper personal name ; the second, the family name.] 


Bippinerra (bundar). 




Dugalantin (bundar) ) 

> old men, brothers, uncles to Bippinerra. 
Berali (bundar) ; 


Burrul (derwain) a very tall 


man. 


Durur (derwain). 




Dulluwunna (derwain) son of Birumbirra (bandur) . 


Wudnarjga (derwain) his wife Bumerum (derwain gun). 


Baiiba (derwaingun). 




DIALOGUE. 


minya inta yuggari ? 


What you have done ? 


minya inta berren yuggaliba 


? What you now are doing ? 


kahu ! nutta kulkulliba 


Stop (just now) ! I am cutting 


diranum bagur 


This tree 


tagoba or jakoba 


Altogether. 


nutta yuggari berren. 


I have finished now. 


nam ljandu ? 


There, who ? 


nurri bulkai minyalun ? 


To me bring that thing — what d'ye 




call ? 


wunyalu yaraman bulkairi. 


He the horse brought. 


wunyalu nurrii) waiari 


He (his) son sent. 


(weari) 





:pj^:r ajphk ases. 



From Genesis 

Mumbal rjambillebu nunantjin yugari. 

Kaloma blgi yugar, rja killen yugar 
rja mirregin ; rja daoun yugar milbulpu. 
Ikki tar, rjulpa rjinedu, tar yugar. 

Kurumba Mumbal gambillebu yugari. 
Tar berren kiirun, yugar nor rjinedu. 
Kurunkurun wungunti tabbil rjinne. 
Bagul yugar duruthurja tarti, kuddal 
yugar, duggatin yugar, yaraman yugar rja 
murri yugar, rjurun yugar. 

Mumbal rjambillebu yugari, muddan rja 
muddan blgi. Tutta blgi ; Mumbal yari; 
"Kittibilla bulka!" Berren kittibilla 
bulkurri. Mumbal kittibilla nanni ; kitti- 
billa murrumba ; Mumbal kittibilla pun- 
mangillin kurunkurunti. Mumbal kitti- 
billa naiiburri Bigi ; wunnal kurunkurun 
naiiburri rjunnu. Blgiblrpi rja rjunnu- 
rjubbu bigi kunnar. 

Bigi kurruga ; Mumbal birra yugari. 
Bigi muddan ; Mumbal yari ; " TJam- 
billebu tabbil kunnarti wuni ; rja durrun 
numbani." Burru wunnal tabbil naiiburri 
Tabbilbon ; "RTa durrun naiiburri Tar. 
"Wunnal bagur yugari rja bungil ; bungil 
dvirun, tar kiinkamurri. 

Budela rja biidela blgi; Mumbal bigi 
rja killen yugari ; Wunnal yari ; bigi 
nfimbaipuggu ; burru wunnal kurraipuggu. 
Ikki Wunnal mirregin yugari. 



i., ii., and hi. 

God all things made. 

Long ago sun not, and moon not, or 
stars ; and creature not living. Also earth, 
we upon it, earth (was) not. 

Great God all made. Earth at first dark, 
not shape in it. Darkness upon water sat. 
Trees not growing on earth, bushes not, 
men not, horses not, and kangaroo not, 
emu not. 



God all made three and three 
First day ; God said ; " Light come !" 
Instantly light came. God the light saw ; 
the light was good ; God light separated 
from darkness. God the light named 
day ; He darkness named night. Evening 
and morning, day one. 



Day second ; God the sky made. Day 
three ; God said ; " All waters to one 
bring; and dry land appear." Afterwards 
He water named sea ; and dry land 
named earth ; He trees made and grass ; 
grass grew, earth it covered. 

Two and two day ; God sun and moon 
made ; He said ; sun shall shine ; after- 
wards it shall set. Also he stars made. 



90 



TTJRRUBTJL. 



Budela ga muddan bigi ; Mumbal 
taounpin yugari ; taounpin wungunti 
yurudunga. Wunnal kurumba tallubilla 
yugari, ga baoai ga yungun ga gambille 
kuiyiir yugari ; kui'yur yurudunga tabbilti. 

Muddan ga muddan bigi ; Mumbal 
yaraman, bulla, murri, yuwun, kuppi, 
mirri, gulgul, munkimunki, gambillebu 
milbulpu tarti ginedu yugari. Burru 
Mumbal yari ; " guile yugale duggaigamba 
ijulle ; ga Wunnal bundur gambillebu 
tarti, ga gambillebu nanantjin ginedu." 
Berren Mumbal duggai yugari gamba 
"Wunnal murrumba. Ikki Mumbal jundal 
yugari gamba Wunnal murrumba. Mum- 
bal yaruntiber duggana yugari. Wunnal 
guru pu'i kurribunmurri murudi ; berren 
duggai milbulpubun; Mumbal duggana 
naiiburri " Adam." 

Mumbal yari " Tugar murrumba duggai 
kunnar ginnen. Tutta jundal wunnaun 
yuggale." Mumbal Adam bugganmurri 
pu'iyala dai'n. Mumbal tirben (tjirben) 
kuttadiber p unman ; Wunnal bankapaigul- 
paigul dulluguntumurri. Berren Wunnal 
tjirben kuttadiber punmaniber jundana 
yugari. Burru Mumbal jundana bul- 
kairi dugganu. Adam yari " Ka jundal 
tjirben tjirbenti gurribati, gapaigulpaigul 
paigulpaigulti gurribati ; wunnal jundal 
gurriba." 

Nurri duggai Adam ; nurri jundal Iva. 
Mumbal duggana ga jundana yari : "TJmta 
tjungul, goaga, kunnin, boinyi boinyi, 
gambillebu bagulti tulla : gundu kunnar 
bagur gurti jillerdu inta wunna dungama 



Two and three day ; God birds made ; 
birds upward were flying. He great 
whales made, and sharks, and sea-pigs, 
and all fish, made ; fish swim in water. 

Three and three day ; God horse, bul- 
lock, kangaroo, snake, opossum, dog, wild 
dog, sheep, all living creatures on earth 
dwelling made. Afterwards - God said ; 
" We will make man like us ; and he 
master of all the earth, and of all things 
in it." At once God man made like Him 
good. Also God woman made like him 
good. God of dust man made. He a 
soul breathed into nostrils ; at once man 
was alive ; God man named " Adam." 



God said " Not good man alone to be." 
I woman for him will make. God Adam 
sleep made long lying down. God a bone 
out of side pulled ; He quickly the flesh 
closed up again. At once He the bone 
out of side pulled out a woman formed. 
Afterwards God the woman brought to 
the man. Adam said " This woman bone 
of bone mine, and flesh of flesh mine ; 
she wife my." 



Name man Adam ; name woman Eve. 
God to man and woman said : "Ye bread- 
fruit, fig, little fig, bunya bunya, all trees 
eat ; only one tree in midst standing you 
do not of that tree eat. Te when that 



PARAPHRASES. 



91 



bagurna tulla. kfinta winna dungama 
bagurna tulli, ga ginta ljundu balluia 
bigibu." 

"Waddeli magu'i yuunti bulkurri ; wun- 
nal yari " Mumbal yari, ginta wunna 
gambillebu bagulti tulla ?" Iva yari : 
" Mumbal yari gullegunna ; ginta tjun- 
gul, goaga, kunnin, boinyiboinyi, ijam- 
billebu bagulti tulla ; gundii kunnar bagur 
gurti jillerdu iuta wunnaduugama bagurna 
tulla. TJinta winna dungama bagurna tulli, 
ninta gundu balluia bigibu. Bagur gurti 
jillerdu tunbul." 

Magu'i yuunti ginedu yari, " Uinta 
yugar ballui. Burra ginta winna bagur- 
na gurti jillerdu tulli, mil ginta yuggaipa; 
ginta gamba Mumbal." Jundalguipunang 
yuun winujigurri ; kudna muiya dunga 
bagurnu. Burru wunnal piinman ; ga 
turn, ga dugganu widdan ; duggaidu 
turri. "Wunnale mil yuggan ; wunnale 
miiginpunni ; wunnale guruman kuddalti 
Mumbalnundi, naiya gundu gullinga. 

Mumbal kungain : " Adam, winna 
inta?" Adam yari, " gutta yundum ; 
gutta muginpunni, gutta guruman." 
Mumbal yari : " Inta minninji mugin- 
punna ? Inta bagurna gurti jillerdu 
turri ?" Duggai yari : " Jundal Inta 
gurri widdaniber, wunnal jundal gurri 
bagurti mddan ; ga gutta turri." Mumbal 
jundana yari : " Inta minya yugari ?" 
Jundal yari : " Tuundu gunna nullug- 
murri yari; ga gutta turri." Mumbal 
duggana ga jundana yari : " Hpug 
budelabu ballui. Ilpug yarung kumbal, 
ga yarung kumbal ilpung wirre.' 



tree eat, even you surely will die that day." 



A bad demon into serpent came ; he said, 
" Has God said, ye must not all trees 
eat?" Eve said: "God said to us, ye 
breadfruit, fig, little fig, bunya bunya, all 
trees eat ; only one tree in midst standing 
ye must not that tree eat. Te when that 
tree eat, ye surely will die that day. Tree 
in midst standing forbidden." 



The demon in serpent dwelling said "Te 
not will die. After you when tree in midst 
standing eat, eyes your will be well ; you 
like God." The woman believing the ser- 
pent heard ; heart was longing for the tree. 
Then she plucked ; and ate and to man 
gave ; the man ate. Their eyes saw well ; 
they were ashamed ; they hid themselves 
in bushes from God, see lest us two. 

Godcried out: "Adam, where art thou?" 
Adam said : " I was afraid ; I was ashamed, 
I hid myself." God said: " You wherefore 
ashamed ? You the tree in midst standing 
have eaten?" The man said: "The 
woman Thou me gavest to be with, that 
woman to me of the tree gave; and I ate." 
God to woman said : " Thou what hast 
done ?" The woman said : " The serpent 
me lies told ; and I ate." God man and 
woman said : " Ye two both shall die. Ye 
dust only, and dust only ye return. 



92 TTJRRTJBTJL. 


"RTunna bukki winunga ; gutta ilpullana 


Me a little listen to ; I to you will 


yali; gutta yugar mudyeri punna; ya 


speak ; I not lies tell ; talk good for all. 


murrumba gambillegu. 




Tmmanuel wunnal Mumbal-nubba 


Immanuel he is Q-od's son; He man 


nurrig ; "Wunnal duggai punni ; wunnal 


became ; he died for us. 


ballun gulpunna. 




"RTulle gambillebu waddeli; Mumbal 


"We all are bad ; God angry with us. 


bandugullegunna. Mumbal yari: ""RJam- 


God said : " All men are bad ; I will 


billebu duggatin waddeli ; gutta kalimurri 


punish them." 


wunnalina." 




Immanuel yari : " "Wunna ginta kali- 


Immanuel said : " Do not Thou punish 


mul wunnalina ; gunna ginta kalimul ; 


them ; me do Thou punish ; me do Thou 


gunna ginta bumma, gutta ballupa." 


smite, that I may die." 


Immanuel wunnal murrumba ; "Wunnal 


Immanuel he is good ; He died for 


ballun gullegunnu ; guile nambillebu 


us ; we all are bad ; we are alive ; us not 


waddeli ; guile mibulpubun ; gullegunna 


he punishes. 


yugar kalimunna. 




Immanuel murrumba; yugar waddeli 


Immanuel was good ; no evil within him 


wunalpuddi ginedu. "Wunnal paiimbiladin 


dwelt. He sick people healed ; He eyes 


yuggan : Wunnal mil wullimbadin yuggan ; 


of blind healed ; He also deaf healed ; He 


"Wunnal ga pidnaguntu. yuggan; "Wunnal 


dead raised up, and alive made. 


kunglr bulgunmurri, ga milbulpumurri. 




Burru waddeli duggatin Immanuel mani, 


Afterwards bad men Immanuel seized 


ga kungirmurri. "Wunuale bagur tubui 


and killed. They a tree straight cut down ; 


kulkurri ; wunnale kurruba bagur kulkurri 


they another tree cut down, and laid 


ga wunkamurri; wunnale budelabo bagur- 


along ; they the two trees fastened. They 


nanunni. "Wunnale Immanuel mani ; mir 


Immanuel seized; holes in hands they 


murradi bimberri ; ga mir tjidnendi bim- 


pierced ; and holes in feet they pierced. 


berri. T^Ta wunnale Immanuel bagurti 


And they Immanuel on tree put : and He 


wune : l^Ja "Wunnal duran bagurti : "RTa 


was hung on the tree : and He died. 


"Wunnal kungirpun. 




"Wunnale bulgunmurri bagurubba ; tarti 


They took him down from tree; in 


dai-emurri. 


ground laid him. 



PARAPHRASES. 



93 



Immanuel guaumbo kunglr daieduga ; 
mudelago Wunnal kunglr daieduga ; ga 
gunnu kurruba kunglr daieduga : kurruba 
mudelago Wunnal bulkurrun milbulpu- 
bun. Burru Immanuel birradi wundare ; 
berren Wunnal birradi ginnenna. Wun- 
nalu gulpana nanna. 

From Luke vii. 
Immanuel millendu yana ; ga Wunnal 
yeatuga Kapernailm; Kapernaum miant- 
jun; guruga Kommandant : wunnanubu 
duggai paingo daina; wunnal tjigenti 
balluni. Kommandant Immanuel wma- 
gurri miantjun glnadu : wunnal duggatin 
moyumko waiari : "Duggai gurriba pain- 
go ; inta bulka ; paii yagulliba." Duggai 
bulkurri ; tiggen yali Immanuel bulkullibi. 
Wunnale yali, " Kommandant murrumba 
duggai." Immanuel yeatuga guile bugga. 
Wunnale tjigenti bulkurri umpigga. 

Kommandant wunnaniiba gubbuga wai- 
ari ; wunnal yalibe, " Wunna bulkul ; 
gutta yugar murrumba; wunna ginta 
bulkultu umpi gurriba. kTinta wulla 
kunnar ya ; ginta ya, ' Wunnal yaraipa'; 
berren wunnal murrumba bai. Uutta 
baigal kaiabunda: millen duggatin gunna 
gurpigga ka wunna : kTutta kunnar ya, 
1 ginta yerra'; berren wunnal yerri : TJutta 
kurruba yali, 'ginta bulka'; berren wunnal 
bulkurri ; gutta kurruba yali, 'ginta duga 
yuggali'; berren wunnal yuggari." Im- 
manuel duga pinag. Birribug bugguru 
buddai : gillugin unal ; yari, " gutta 
yugarpo nanni duggai gamba wunnal. 
TJundin gunna yugar winugunna. Kar 
Kommandant gunna winugunna." 



Immanuel tbat night dead lay ; next 
day He dead lay ; and night another dead 
He lay ; next to-morrow He came up alive. 
Afterwards Immanuel to heaven went up. 
now He in heaven dwells. He us sees. 



and viii. 

Immanuel long spoke ; and He came to 
Capernaum. Capernaum, a town. There 
was the chief man : his man sick lay ; he 
almost dead. The Commandant Immanuel 
heard in town to be ; he men on message 
sent, " Man my is sick ; you come ! the 
sick heal." The men came ; earnestly 
asked Immanuel to come. They said, 
" The Commandant is a good man." Im- 
manuel went them with. They near came 
to house. 

Commandant his brother sent ; he said, 
" Do not come ; I not am good ; do not 
thou come to house my. Thou word one 
speak ; Thou say, ' Let him be well'; at 
once he well will be. I am a man of 
power : many men me behind follow : 
I to one say, ' Thou go'; at once he goes : 
I to another say, ' Thou come'; at once 
he comes : I another tell, ' Thou this 
do'; at once he does it." Immanuel 
this heard. He greatly wondered : He 
turned round ; He said, " 1 never saw a 
man like him. Any besides (him) me 
not believes. Only the Commandant me 
believes." 



94 



TURRUBUL. 



Duggatin Kommandantnubba wirreni 
umpirja ; nanna duggana paingo daiida 
murrumba wunnal yuggan. 

Immanuel tarti bulkurri,Gadara tjigenti, 
Galili. Duggai bulkurri mianjunti wun- 
nana gadun. Magui'ku barkil wunnal- 
puddi ginedu ; wunnal pidna-wuddeli ; 
gerag gerag yugarpowumbaduga; umpigga 
yugarpo ginnen ; wunnal kuggirti ginne 
dug a. Wunnal Immanuel nanni ; kuggai'n 
karan wunnalpuddi ; yari, " Minyago 
gunna ginta, Immanuel nurrig Mumbal- 
nubba ? Inta wunna, gutta muian, inta 
wunna gunna kalimul." Immanuel yari, 
" Magu'i, bulkurri duggai puddi." 

Tjigen wunnana mani, wunnanuba 
gubbug tjidne ga murra nunni ; wunnal 
biigguru kamari. TJa magui'du wunnana 
kawane kudnigulti. Immanuel yari, "Naii 
ginta minya"? Maguidu yari, " Kurumba 
mulla." Milieu magu'i wunnal-puddi kur- 
rin. TJambille magu'i mu'i-an, " Wunna 
gullegunna waialta wunku." 

Pigpig millenkolle bippudi tanmunna. 
Magu'i mui'an, yari " guile yerra pigpig, 
eko"? Wunnal yari "Terra." Berren 
gambille magu'i yeatunga duggaipa pigpigti 
kurrin ; berren gambille pigpig tubborpun 
Igcren tubburti bipudi bunkin, ga tabbilti 
wunugin. 

Duggatin pigpig inelta Igeren mient- 
jinti; gambilla yari. Duggaitin mient- 
jintiber yeatuga, nanniber minna yugari. 
Wunnal bulkurri ; Immanuel nanni ; 
duggai magu'i ineltu nanni jidnendi Im- 
manuel-nubba ginedu, gerang gerang pilla, 



The men of the Commandant returned 
to the house ; they see the man sick lying ; 
well him become. 

Immanuel to land came, Gadara near 
in Galilee. A man came from town him 
to meet. A demon long time in him dwelt ; 
he was mad ; clothes not wore ; in house 
not dwelt ; he with the dead dwelt con- 
stantly. He Jesus saw ; he cried out ; 
he fell him before, said " What me thou, 
Immanuel son of God ? Thou do not, I 
beseech, thou do not me torment." Jesus 
said, " Demon, come from the man." 



Often him it seized ; his brother feet 
and hands tied ; he the rope broke. And 
the demon him drove to the forest. Im- 
manuel said, " Name your what ?" the 
demon said " A multitude." Many demons 
him into entered. All the demons en- 
treated " Do not us send to the deep." 

Pigs many on mountain were feeding. 
The demons besought, said " We may go 
to pigs, may we ?" He said " Go." At 
once all demons came, man from the pigs 
into ; at once all the pigs quickly went 
steep hill tumbled ; and in sea were 
drowned. 

The men pigs keeping went to the 
town : all they told. The men belonging 
to the town came, they saw what he did. 
They came, Immanuel they saw ; the man 
the demon had been in they saw at feet of 
Immanuel sitting, clothes wearing, minp 



PARAPHRASES. 



95 



pidna yuggan wunnal. Wunnale yandain. 
Duggatin Immanuel-puddi glnedo yari 
gambilla. TJambille duggatin tartiber 
Gadara bulkurri Immanuel ga mui'an ; yari 
M Terra ginta, yerra ginta" ; wunnal 
kurumba yandain. Immanuel yeatuga 
kundulti, klrgumti wirren. 

Burru duggai, magui' wunnalpuddi ya- 
deni, bulkurri Immanuel ; yari, " gutta 
gintapuddi ginne." Immanuel wunnalu 
yari, "yerra; wirrer umpiggo ginnuba; 
numpa duggaitin taoun ginnu yugariba." 
Wunnal yeatuga, ga duggatin gambillaba 
yari toun kurumba wunnalu Immanuel 
yugari. Burru Immanuel klrgumti wire 
nebu ; duggatin diitin nanningo ; gam- 
billabu wunnana undaltugga. 

Duggai, nail Taairu, bulkurri ; wunnal 
bunkin tjidna wunnalpuddi ; mui'an, yari; 
"ginta bulka umpigga gurriba: gurriba 
nuriggun kunnar kumbal, berpi kin; 
wunnal barumpa baluni." Immanuel 
yari " gutta gintaba yurri." 

Duggatin kiirukabari wunnana. Jundal 
paii'mbila; yugar wunnana murrumbayug- 
gali ; wunnal gurpinje bulkurri ; gadiin 
gera ggerag Immanuel-nubba. Berren 
kao-un dullan; jundal murrumba bain. 
Immanuel yari "gandu gunna gadun? " 
TJambille yari "yugar gutta." Peter yari ; 
" Bunjeru duggatin ginta kurukabari ga 
ginta mumma : TJinta yari gandu gunna 
gadun ?" Immanuel yari ; " Kunnara 
gunna gadun ; kaia guttabuddi Igeren." 



healed he. They were afraid. The men 
Immanuel with abiding told all. All the 
men of the land of Gadara came to Im- 
manuel and besought ; they said, "Go thou, 
go thou." They much feared. Immanuel 
came to boat, to other side went across. 



Afterwards the man, demon him within, 
went out, came to Immanuel ; said, " I 
thee with would abide." Immanuel to 
him said ; Go ; return to house thine ; 
show to the men things to thee done." He 
went, and to men all said things great to 
him Immanuel did. Afterwards Im- 
manuel to shore returned, men glad to 
see Him, all Him were waiting on. 



A man, named Jairus, came ; he fell 
down at feet before him ; besought, said ; 
" You come to house, my daughter one 
only, little girl ; she almost dead." Im- 
manuel said, " I with you will go." 



Men nocked around Him. A woman 
was sick ; not her well can they make ; 
she behind came ; touched clothes of 
Immanuel. Instantly blood stayed ; wo- 
man was well of her disease. Immanuel 
said "Who me touched?" All said 
" Not I." Peter said ; Master, men thee 
flock round and thee press : do you say 
who me touched?" Immanuel said; 
" Some one me touched ; virtue from me 
is gone." 



96 



TURRUBUL. 



Jundal nSnni yugar wunnal murrumba 
gurumun ; wunnal jikkebele bulkurri ; 
karan tjidnendi wunnalpuddi ; ga duggatin 
buddi gambillabo yari ; " gutta ginnuba 
geraggeran gadun, berren gutta paii yug- 
gan. Iinmanuel yari ; " gurriba nuriggun 
murrumba ginta ! Uinta gunna guipuna 
gwlneugga; dujinna inta murrumba." 

Berren duggatin umpigga Yaairiinubba 
bulkurri; yari " nurixjgunrjinnubabaluni; 
wunna gundin yaldu." Immanuel wlna- 
gurri; yari; "yandai wunna; gundu gunna 
guipunag wlneiigga; nuriggun ginnuba 
murrumba paii yugaipa." Burru wunnale 
umpigga bulkurri. Immanuel wunna 
duggatina bulgutu umpigga ; gundu Peter 
ga Takoba ga Toban, ga big pudjag kin- 
nixbba. TJambilladu dug inna ; yari ; "kin 
balluni ; kin balluni." Immanuel yari 
" wunna diigidu : yugar wunnal ballun, 
gundu bugankumbal." gambilladu ginden ; 
wineugari baluniber. Immanuel gambil- 
lebu kawane ; wunnal kin murradi mani; 
wunnal yambari wunnana; yari; "kin! 
bulkurai ! " guru wlrepinebu ; wunnal 
banka dulpain. Immanuel yari ; " talkiiba 
wunnanu widda." Big ga pujag kurrii. 



The woman saw not she able to hide 
herself ; she shaking came ; threw herself 
at feet him before, and to the men all said 
"I your clothes touched, at once I of 
sickness was cured." Immanuel said ; 
"My daughter good you ; you me believing 
heard ; enjoy thou good." 



Then men of the house of Jairus came ; 
they said, " Daughter your is dead, do not 
more say." Immanuel heard ; he said ; 
" Fear do not, only me believing hear : 
daughter thy well of disease shall be 
made." Afterwards they to house came. 
Immanuel would not let people come into 
house ; only Peter and James and John, 
and father and mother of the girl. All 
were weeping; they said, "The girl is 
dead ; the girl is dead." Immanuel said 
" Do not weep ; not she dead ; only asleep 
only." All laughed; they knew to be 
dead. Immanuel all put out ; He the 
girl by hand took ; He called her, said, 
" Damsel ! come ! " the soul returned, 
she soon sat up. Immanuel said " Food 
to her give." The father and mother 
wondered. 



TUEUWIIL: 

The Language spoken by the now extinct Tribe of Port Jackson. 



i j 1 l> 1 1 . . : i i 


• 


"'NIVKKS1TY OF 




^ CALIFOltNIA.. 






/ ^ttrufoitl 




^SS||p.HE Language spoken by the now extinct tribe of Port 


SSwSS Jackson and Botany Bay. These words 


were obtained from 


^v^fff 3 Mrs. Lizzie Malone, a half-caste, and were learnt by her 


c^dpr from her husband, John Malone, a half-caste, whose mother 


i was of that tribe. 




NOUNS. 




1. Man tdhulla. 


' 


father babuna, babunna 


old man 


bangug 


mother gubug 


old woman 


mulda 


children chajug 


head 


kabura 


son babug 


eyes 


me 


daughter gudjeruij 


nose 


nugulbundi 


(midjan or 
sister ] 

(mitjun 


mouth 


kommi 






tongue 


tullug 


your father's ) 

> babmunderug 
children ) 


hand 


murramul 


foot 


dunna 


you are mine ) 

. ' > rjaiawulli 

(my daughter) ) 


knee 


rjumun 







100 


TURUWUL. 


. 




2. Animals. 




kangaroo 
opossum 


burral 
kuruera 


crow 


Tmetiba or 
\ warnug 


dog 


jugug 


duck 


kundyeri 


magpie 


gurugun 


black snake 


yugga 






adder 


nyumbutsh 




3. Miscellaneous. 




earth 


murrurj 


smoke 


kurun gerij 


water 


batu 


dew 


kiblr 


fire 


we 


night 


purra 


sun 


wirri 


food 


dunminun 


sunshine 


wirringulla 


creek 


turagun 


sky 


dulka 


sand 


wetyut 


sea 


kulnura 


grass 


bumbur 


clouds 


kurrii 


wind 


kumgiima 


rain 


bunna 


boat 


yernera 


hut 


kunje 


bora (initiatory rite) 


wuriigul 




ADJEC 


TIVES. 




bad 


wirra 


red or yellow 


kubur 


black 


nuncla 


small 


murruwulun 


good 


kuller 


white 


tibiura 


large 


kaiun 







PHRASES. 



I see a kangaroo. 

"Where ? 

There he is. 

He has caught some schnapper. 

He killed a snake. 

Eun! 

Come here quick ! 

Go away ! 

Take the dog away ; 

Bring it here again. 

Give me some water. 

I will give you some water. 

Over the river. 

Tou must ! 

No. 

"What do you want ? 

Why do you look sulky ? 

Tou must be 

So disagreeable. 

Our father here will pray for us. 

He brought his sister home. 



"RJandagu burru. 
Wutta ? 

"RTo, go, i) a gullai. 
Manma wtilimai. 
Bunma miinda. 
Chawa ! 
Ye ye chobug ! 
Yunda ! 

TJaindina mirigug ; 
TiTaigulug ga mirigug. 
Binigug batu or gaityug. 
TiTai gai pindwagug batu. 
Wagu yanbagal. 
TJindigug mulli ! 
Meira. 

Unijerunbi minku ? 
Punmakuno wottowiye ? 
TiJullai rumka 
wirimigunin. 
Kuraguluk tualene. 
TUaigulai la mitjungun. 



LANGUAGE OF GEORGE'S RIVER, COWPASTURE, AND APPIN. 




^o 



HIS Language was spoken from the mouth of George's River, 
Botany Bay, and for about fifty miles to the south-west. 
Very few of the tribe speaking this language are left. The 
information was obtained by the author from Mr. John 
Rowley; formerly resident at Cook's Biver (Botany Bay), son 



of Lieutenant Bowley. 

man (aboriginal) dullai 
man (white) jibaguluij 



woman 


wirawi 


boy 


fwongerra or 
(wugara 


girl 


werowi 


father 


biana 


mother 


waiana 


child 


gurorj 


husband 


mollimin 


wife 


jinman 


brother 


bobbina 


sister 


wian 



brother-in-law jambi 
sister-in-law jambin 
comrade mittigan 



re. 

namesake 


C damolai or 
(. damili 


stranger 


mai-al 


doctor (sorcerer) karraji 


head 


kobra or kobbera 


forehead 


kobbina 


eye 


mai 


nose 


nogra 


mouth 


midyea 


teeth 


terra 


ear 


kurra 


breast 


nabun 


back 


glli 


stomach 


bindi 


arm 


minniij 


hand 


buril 



104 LANGUAGE OF GEORGE'S RIVER, COWPASTTJRE, AND APPIN. 



finger berril 

leg mundao-i 

foot tunna 

blood mula 

kangaroo biirru 

kangaroo (ow man) kao-walgoij 
kangaroo (mountain) wolaru 
kangaroo (b bS£n) wolaba 
kangaroo (red) gorea 
kangaroo (rock) wirain 
kangaroo (rat) karnimin 
opossum wai-ali 

opossum (nngtaiied) bukari 
bear kula 

bear (ground) wombat 
iguana jindaola 

jungho" 



dog 



horse 



horned cattle 
cockatoo 



emu 



Tyaraman 

< [from "yara" 
V. throw fast.] 

kumbakuluk 
tarramue 
karabl 
^birabain or 

< biriabain or 
V.murrion 



crow 


wargon 


duck (black) 


yuranyi 


hawk 


bunda 


laughing 
jackass 


> kogunda 


parrot (rosella) 


bundeluk 


pigeon (blue) 


wonga-wonga 


pigeon (crested) mirral 


pigeon (green) 


bao-ma 


pigeon (bronze} 


gotgag 


egg- 


karbin 


fish 


mogra 


bream 


yerrermurra 


shark (blue) 


kon 


shark (ground) 


kwibito 


schnapper 


wallami 


kingfish 


wollogul 


flathead 


kaoari 


mullet 


worrijal 


blackfish 


kururma 


eel 


burra 


oyster 


bittongi 


mud oyster 


danya 


black snake 


cherribit 


mosquito 


dubiij 


sun 


kyun 





NOUNS. 


105 


moon 


iulluk 


itch 


gaibal 


stars 


kimberwalli 


fly-blow 


tullibilorj 


morning 


winbin 


small-pox 


gulgul 


night 


minni 


hoarseness 


kurak 


earth 


bimmal 


house 


gunya 


water 


bardo or naijun 


canoe 


nao-i 


fire 


goyon 


ship 


murri nao-i 


sea 


barrawal 


club 


Tnullanulla and 


rain 


wal-lan 


\ woddi 


thunder 


murongal 


spear 


karmai 


lightning 


manga manga. 


spear (small) 


dual 


dust 


durir 


fish-spear p ( r ^ } 


muttin 


frost 
wind 


talara 
gura 


throwing-stick 
for spear 


> womra 


grass 


durawoi 


boomerang 


biimarin 


smoke 


kudjel 


shield 


hilaman 


hill 


bulga 


gun 


jererburra 


path 


miiru 


net 


rao-rao 


lvi'-n oil (thick wood about i~» ^ 
U1U.&I1 a watercourse) tUgi* 


fish-line 


kurrajog 


SCmb (dry jungle) 


jerematta 


oar 


narrawan 


south wind 


tugra gora 


■na-rvQ-M (the inner bark 

papei of a tree) 


kurunderiirj 


north wind 


yuroka gora 


cooking 


kunnima 


bulrush 


wollogolin 


opossum rug 


budbilli 


opossum rug 


budbilli 


the bora 


yellabi daialorj 


sore 


gigi 


name 


nanti 


boil 


buka 


pity or sympathy mu dj eru 



106 LANGUAGE OF GEORGE'S RIVER, COWPASTTJRE, 


AND APPIN. 




PRONOUNS. 




I 


naiya 


you 


ninda 


we 


junna 


that 


mungan 




ADJECTIVES. 




afraid 


jerron 


hot 


yuruka 


angry 


kulara 


lean 


waraij 


bad 


werl 


large 


murri 


bald 


kombrukno 


small 


nararj 


big-bellied 


bindimari 


old 


kaian 


brave 


mutton 


stammering 


kurukabundi 


cold 


tugra 


stupid 


binnin-garai 


deaf 


kurakabunni 


stinking (bad) 


kuji 


fat 


gorai 


toothless 


tarabundi 


grey-headed 


warringi kobbera 


young 


mud-di 


greedy 


tullinyun 


nearsighted 


kuji mai 


good 


budjeri 


cross-eyed 


kuragain 




Numerals. 




one 
two 


wagul 

buler or blao-eri 


four 


( blaoeri-blaoeri 
( or bulla bulla 


three 


blaoeri-wagul 


five 


bullabulla wagul 



VERBS AND ADVERBS. 



107 



VERBS. 



burn 


kunnet 


sleep 


nangri 


dance 


korobra 


strike 


paibao 


die 


bo'i 


take 


mahan 


dive 


nallabogi 


throw 


yana 


fight 


durella 


tell 


paialla 


fish 


mogra 


weep 


yunga 


give 


toga 


look out ! 


kwark ! 


go 


yan 


stop here ! 


wallawa ! 


hunt 


wolbunga 


sit down ! 


nallawalli ! 


hide 


tuabilli 


let us go ! 


nalla yan ! 


laugh 


winna 


make haste ! 


barrao ! 


shout 


kumba 


come here 


kwai bidja 


sing 


beria 


run away 


whu karndi 


spear 


turret 


run 


wii 


steal 


karama 











ADVERBS. 




yes 


yu'in 




away 


kaundi 


no 


beal 




far away 


warawara 


here 


bija 




by and by 


karbo 


close by 


winnima 









108 LANGUAGE OF GEORGE'S RIVER, COWPASTTJRE, AND APPIN. 



PHRASES. 



tell me your name 
your brother 
my brother 
strike me 

the baby is burnt ; make 
haste 



paialla gaia nanti 

nindi bobina 

gaia bobina 

paibao rjaia 

gurug kunut ; kuai bija 



WODI-WODI: 

The Language of lllawarra, from Wollongong to the Shoa/hauen. 



Wofct^Eotri 




HE language of Illawarra, from Wollongong to the Shoal- 
haven. These words were taken from Lizzie (half-caste), 
daughter of a woman of the Illawarra Tribe, and wife of 
John Malone. 



NOUNS. 



God 



Mirirul 

[from " Mirir," sky] 



spirit or ghost guun 
white man jirurjgalun 

old man 



young man 

young woman 

boy 

child 

little child 

head 

forehead 

hair 

eyes 

nose 

ear 



beuggun 

yurun or baijguij 

yirawlun 

bunbari 

kudjaguij 

murrakaiggui) 

wollar 

niilu 

jura 

mobura or mer 

nugiir 

kuii 



mouth 


kommi 


throat 


kuru 


chin 


wullu 


teeth 


Irra 


tongue 


tullun 


shoulder 


kogo 


arm 


niirun 


hand 


murrurmur 


nails 


birrinul 


thigh 


turra 


leg 


nurri 


knee 


nummu 


ancle 


wutaota 


foot 


dunna 


kangaroo 


burru 


emu 


birribain 



112 


WODI-WODI. 




opossum 


kiiraora 


Pleiades 


mullamulluT) 


padymelon 


buluwa 


fire 


kanbi 


dog 


mirrigun 


water 


naityun 


horse 


yaraman 


earth 


murun 


iguana 
laughing 
jackass 


gindaola 
f kukara 


sea 
sky 


(kaiun or 
(nurrowun 
mirir 


cockatoo 


yambai-imba 


cloud 


kurru 


black cockatoo 


naoara 


rain 


yewi 


pelican 


kurunaba 


smoke 


kuruijgurij 


pigeon 


wongawonga 


hut 


nurra, kundi 


topknot pigeon 
native com- 
panion 


giiralga 
► guraclawak 


canoe 
tree 


(mudyeri or 
(. yanaoera 
kiindu 


black snake 


mundar 


bark 


kuninda 


brown snake 


gubalan 


book (tea-tree bark; 


gurrinduruij 


diamond snake 


mokka 


road 


yowun 


deaf adder 


mujuwich 


boomerang 


wurarjain 


lizard (small) 


dillun 


spear 


maiagun 


fish 


dun 


fish spear 


kullar 


sun 


bukurun 


trees (tea-tree) 


banban 


moon 


tedjuij 


do. (ironbark' 


1 barima 


stflTK 


rjinjinnurui) 


do. (swamp oak) 


mumbara 


O I .IL kj 


( (sparkling) 


do. (forest oak) 


wiraluij 


Venus 


burara 


do. (honeysuckle) 


kurlja 


Sirius 

I 


kurumul 


do. (pigeonberry) 


wulununda 



PRONOUNS AND ADJECTIVES. 



113 





PRONOUNS. 




I 


rjaiagui) 


he 


dulla 


we 


nilgui) 


that one 


naiadulla 


you 


rjindigmj 








ADJECTIVES. 




alive 


murungulla 


grey 


yerurj gada 


asleep 


nun gun 


good 


nukkurj 


awake 


baitba 


high 


worn 


bad 


bullin 


hot 


bukurhj 


black 
blue 


[ gundur 


large 
red 


kaiyug 
wurugurui) 


cold 


maiiij 


small 


murruwailuij 


dead 


bulier or bulyar 


true 


kubya 


false 


murii 


white 


tao-erurj 


green 


nurmrjuruij 

NUM] 


]RALS. 




one 
two 


mitturj 
bular 


six 


C wowulli bo 
(wowulli 


three 


wowulli 




( wowulli bo 


four 


bularbular 


seven 


( wowulli mittuij 


five 


( bularbular bo 






( niitturj 







Ill 



WODI-WODI. 



VERBS. 



beat 
go down 
jump up 
leave off 
lie down 
lift up 



bulmugan 

irriba 

baitba 

nawalinna 

nun gun 

kaitbava 



run 


jowa 


make to run 


jomunja 


sing 


yungamun 


speak 


kamun 


throw down 


vurrer 



yes 
no 



naiyun 



ADVERBS, 
here 



yai 



SENTENCES IN WODI-WODI. 



Sit down quietly. 

Go and play. 

Don't fight, play quietly. 

Let us go. 

Give me a drink. 

Give me some food. 

I hate you. 

I will tell you the truth. 

He will come soon. 

He stayed a long time. 



TJullari jungiri. 

Yunda wariiri. 

Jumbunya wariiri. 

Nilgun yandiniun. 

Wundumaia ljummi. 

Dunman dieri. 

Kunnundlgu, or wirrunmlgun. 

TJutbai egu. 

Yunula nulimun. 

Dimug alle. 



LI B UAii 

WORDS USED AT TWOFOLD BAY. 



(From Johnny Wyman, an Eden black, in gaol, 14 October, 1864^ 

In the language spoken about Twofold Bay, 200 miles south of 
Sydney, the word for God is " Dhurumbulum." 

I gaiadha. 

Thou indiga. 

I and thou ljaiawung. 

We three uaiowing. 

Sin kurnina. 

Pardon wurnuga. 

I shall forgive him Igindaga murada. 

I shall not forget it warindmjambada. 

I shall think of it winduga. 

Father baba. 

Mother miga. 

A man courting one's sister . . . kubbo. 

A man married to one's sister tembi. 

Proper names of a family : — 

Waiaman father. 

Dadun and Maiada brothers. 

Mamui) sister. 



tj B IV A 11 y 
PKIYEKSITY 6f 

CALIFORNIA. 

THE NAMES OF AUSTRALIA AND ITS INHABITANTS. 




HE Aborigines of Australia are called, by Kamilaroi-speaking 
blacks and neighbouring tribes, " Murri "; westward of the 
Balonne they are called " Murdin," and about the Weir 
River, "Mial" (Mee-al) ; along the coast about Moreton 
Bay the name of the race is " Djan " or " Dan." As they 
have no knowledge of the extent of the country they inhabit, the 
names given to the land can only be regarded as the names of small 
districts. At Cape York, Australia as known to the inhabitants of 
that coast is called " Kai Dowdai" (which I suppose to mean "Little 
Country"), in contradistinction to "Muggi Dowdai" ("Great Country"), 
that is, New Guinea. Mr. M'Gillivray, in his narrative of the 
Expedition of the " Rattlesnake," gives the above as the names used 
by the Aborigines for Australia and New Guinea. He renders " Kai 
Dowdai" Great Dowdai, and " Muggi Dowdai" Little Dowdai. But 
" Kai" means little in Kamilaroi ; and muggi looks like a modification 
of " murri," great. To those who live near Cape York, and pass to 
and fro across the Strait, without any means of knowing the real 
extent of Australia or New Guinea, the low narrow point of land 
which terminates in Cape York must appear very small, compared 
with the great mountain ranges of New Guinea. Regarding "dowdai" 
as a variation of "towrai," a country, I think it probable that "Little 
Country" was the name given by the Aborigines to Australia. It may 



118 THE NAMES OF AUSTRALIA AND ITS INHABITANTS. 

be that those of the race of Murri who first came into this land, 
passing from island to island, until they reached the low narrow point 
which forms the north-eastern extremity of this island continent, gave 
the name Kai Towrai (Little Country) to the newly- discovered land ; 
and as they passed onward to the south and west, and found out some- 
what of the vast extent of the country, the necessities and jealousies 
of the numerous families that followed them forbade their return. 
The current of migration was ever onward towards the south and 
west; and, therefore, the north-eastern corner of Australia was always 
the dwelling-place of a people ignorant of the vast expanse beyond 
them, and willing to call it still " Kai Dowdai," the Little Country. 

This is, of course, only a conjecture. And from the wide difference 
between the various languages it is not safe to assume that kai and 
towrai have the same meaning at Cape York as in Kamilaroi. But, 
as shown in a former part of the work, Kamilaroi is known, in some 
measure, far to the north of Brisbane. On the other hand, the 
Aborigines in various parts of the continent point to the north-west as 
the quarter from which their tribes came. And some travellers' tales 
have made public a tradition about the first landing of man on the 
north-west coast of Australia, from Java. 



COMPARATIVE TABLES OF WORDS IN TWENTY LANGUAGES. 




ITHIN the country intersected by the tributaries of the 
Darling many languages are spoken, though Kainilaroi is 
understood by all the tribes. In fact, natives of Port Curtis, 
to the north, and of Twofold Bay, to the south, with others 
from various intermediate localities, know enough of Kami- 
laroi to understand and answer, in that language, such questions as 
this : — " Yamma ginda Kamilaroi winugulda ? " (Do you understand 
Kainilaroi ?) Their answer is, the Kamilaroi negative, " kamil." 

" Ko'inberri" is spoken on part of Liverpool Plains and the Castle- 
reagh River ; — " Wiradhuri " lower down the Castlereagh, and over 
the Wellington District; — "Wailwun" or "Tdmmba" on the Barwan 
for about forty miles below the junction of the Namoi; " Burrunbinya" 
and "Kuno" and "Wiraiarai" lower down the Barwan; "Muru- 
wurri" is spoken on the Bree, the Culgoa, the Bugaira (Bokhara), and 
the Narran (tributaries of the Barwan below the Namoi) ; "Yualarai" 
is spoken on the Balonne, " Kogai " on the Maranoa and Cogoon (tri- 
butaries of the Balonne, coming in from the west and north-west) ; 
the "Wogaibun" is also spoken on the Narran ; " Wolaroi " (in 
which " wol " is no) on the Bundarra or Gwydir ; " Pikumbul " on 
the Weir and Macintyre ; " Khjki " and "Paiamba" on Darling 
Downs. 



120 COMPARATIVE TABLES. 



In the first of the following tables seven of the above-mentioned 
languages of Queensland and the North-west of this Colony are 
compared, in a few examples, with Turuwul, the language of the 
extinct Botany Bay and Sydney tribe, with Wodi-Wodi,. the language of 
Illawarra, with that of George's Biver, with that spoken about the 
Lower Hunter and Lake Macquarie (from the Grammar of the Bev. 
L. E. Threlkeld), with l)ippil and Turrubul (spoken at Wide Bay 
and More ton Bay, in Queensland), with one of the many languages of 
Victoria (from a work of D. Bunce, Esq.), and with that of the North- 
western Coast (as given by Andrew Hume.) The words of Wiradhuri 
are from a manuscript work by the Bev. James Giinther, of Mudgee. 
The places where some of these languages are spoken are five hundred 
miles apart, and in the extreme instances about two thousand miles 
apart. There are many intermediate dialects — probably some hundreds 
in Australia. The dialects differ so widely that it seems proper to call 
them, as is done generally in this work, " languages"; but these tables 
afford evidence that all the dialects spoken in Eastern Australia are 
either derived from one language or are widely intermingled ; and, 
considering the jealous isolation of the tribes, it is impossible to 
account for the existence of the same words in Queensland and 
Victoria by any recent intercourse. 

While the preceding pages have been going through the press, 
my attention has been called by a friend to some information of great 
interest, contained in a Beport by Mr. Edward S. Parker, Protector 
of Aborigines in the Port Phillip District (now Victoria), printed and 
bound up with the Votes and Proceedings of the Legislative Council 



COMPARATIVE TABLES. 121 



of New South Wales for 1843. On the 5th January 1843 Mr. Parker 
wrote thus : — " I have found not less than eight different dialects pre- 
valent among this people, viz. : the Witowro in the neighbourhood 
of Buninyong and Barumbeel, the Jajowrong in the country between 
the Loddon and the Pyrenees, the Knenknemourro in the vicinity of 
the Pyrenees and to the westward, the Burapper among the Malle- 
goondeet, the Taoungurong among the petty tribes north of Mount 
Alexander and on the Campaspe, the Nindakkedoivrong to the west- 
ward of the Pyrenees, and at least two other dialects, respecting which 
I do not at present possess definite information, among the Bolokepar 
and the tribes of the "Wimmera. The Jajoiorong is generally under- 
stood by the majority of the Aborigines frequenting the stations. The 
Knenknenwurro prevails among the tribes between the Pyrenees and 
the Grampians. The Burapper is, I have reason to believe, spoken 
on some parts of the Murray." 

The district thus referred to comprises about one-fourth of the 
Colony of Victoria, toward the north and west boundaries. Mr. 
Parker gives specimens of five of these dialects. Of the words he 
gives, forty are subjoined in the second Table for comparison with 
those in the first Table. Their sound is represented by the mode of 
spelling used throughout this work. 



122 



COMPARATIVE TABLE OF WORDS IN FIFTEEN LANGUAGES. 



NOUNS. 

Man , 

woman 

young man 

boy 

girl 

baby 

Australian abo- ") 
riginal ) 

white man 

father 

mother 

son 

brother < 

sister < 

husband... 

wife 

head 

forehead 

eye 

nose 

mouth 

teeth 

tongue 

chin 

ear 

hiiir 

beard 

neck 



NEW SOUTH WALES. 



giwir 

inar 

kubura 

birri 

mie 
kahjal 

murri 

wunda 

buba 

ljumba 

wurume 



daiadi 
gullami 



and ") 

» J 



boadi and ~) 
buri J 

giilir 

guiir 

ga or kaoga 

nulu 

mil 

muru 
ille 

yira 

tulla 
tal 

bimia 

tegul 

yare 
nun 



Wiradhnri. 



gibbir 



birrin 

inargaij 
wangai 



babbin 
gunnibaij 



kagaij 



muagan 



ballaij 



mil 



utha 



yaran 



Wailwun. 



tdhur 
wiriinga 



nurrukuijga 

mariyunga 
worrii07 - wuru 

mail 

wunda 

buba 
guuni 



kukka (grown 

up) 
kukkamin 
(boy brother) 

kati or 
gidurai 



guan 

kuboga 

nulu 

mil 

mum 
ljundal 

wira 

tulle 
kir 

kuriijgera 

wulla 

kir 

nirrimirri 



Lower Hunter. 



kore 
nukuij 



biyunbai 
tunkan 



binnai 



wolluij 

naikun 

niikoro 
kurrurka 

tira 

wattun 

ijureui) or ") 
turrurkurri ) 

kittuij or ~) 
burruij ) 

yarrei 

kulleny 



Turuwul. 



tdhulla 



babunna 

nubun 

babuij 



mitjun 



kabura 



m6 

nugulbundi 
kommi 



tullun 



George's River. 



dullai 



wunara or 
wongerra 

werowi 

guroij 



biana 
waiana 



bobbina 

wiaij 

mollimiij 

jinman 

kobra or 
kobera 

kobina 



nogra 
midyea 

terra 



kurra 



K 



COMPARATIVE TABLE. 



123 



QUEENSLAND. 



Kogai. 



Pikumbul. KUJki. Paiamba, 



Dippil. 



Turrubul. 



VICTORIA. 



NORTH-WEST 
COAST. 



tamar 
mollunii 

kaa 

nrige 
kagul 

mial 

gun 



kabui 

wenda 

mil 

muru 
ljunda 

tira 



bidna 



yarun 
bimbi 



kabui 



mil 

murtu 

mulindin 

tyitta or \ 
jitta ) 



binna 



dunguin 



tyan 
kidn 



dan 
Yirum 



duggai 
jundal 



kulinth 



birrarja 

numoangan 
tjuku 

tyan 

karabi 



ukhuun 



yorogun 



metbindum 

dan 

makoron X 

bobbin 
rjavaij 



nun and 
wudhug 

yaobun 



kam 



muru 
tunka 



yikul 
binun, 

dhella 

yeran 
guna 



mualum 

yurumkun 
namul 

tyan 

magui or 
mudhar 

biij and buba 

pujaij 



nubuija and ~) 
duarjal ) 

dadi and *) 
muijuijkul ) 



yanyian 

miinmundik 
bubtip 

kulinth 

niarmunth 
parbine 

wunthuloij 
mollokin 



magul 



kowon 



mil, inia 

muro 
tamburii 

tier 



pidna 

kabui 

yeren 
nurrun 



coijatba 
woronatha 

leorjatha 



nondiik 
kidnogatha 

yarragoijatha 

yarragondok 
koorn 



giul 
ginaia 



bunia 
yiradiul 



buben 
milkawina 



burgun 



wingren 



balgun 



aiyua 



ljilun 
mulu 

tilua 



kunuka 
wuta 

giddon 

garginj 
galgua 



124 



COMPARATIVE TABLE. 



NEW SOUTH WALES. 



Kamilaroi. 



Wiradhuri. 



NOUNS. 

throat 

shoulder 

arm 

hand 

belly 

thigh 

leg 

foot 

(animals.) 
adder (deadly) 

cockatoo \ 

crow 

duck 

emu 

grub 

kangaroo 

magpie 

opossum 

padymelon . . . , 

pelican 

pigeon 

snake (brown) 

turkey (buzzard) ... 

(elements, etc.) 
earth 

fire 

water 

sun 

moon 



wuru 
wolar 

buijun 

murra 

miibal 
durra 

puiyu 

dinna 

mundar 

biloela or' 
morai 

waru 

ijunumbi 

dinoiin 

birra 
bundar 

mutg 

murriira 

gulamboli 

tamur 

kaleboi 



taon 

wi 

kolle 

yarai 

gille 



urru 
kanna 



;ur 

marra 

biirbin 
tharraij 

buyu 

dhinnaij 



wagan or 
wsiudvu 

thullur 
rjurain 
birgarj 

karru 
willai 



wabba 

yarrhjgarj 

gambal 



guyaij 

kalhj 

yurruga 
yuroka 

giway 



Wailwun. Lover Hunter. 



nuggl 
wiirru 

nurii 

murra 

buri 
duiTa 

piyu 

dinna 

murai 
murai 

waru 

kunambi 
ljuri 



kuragi 
wiru 
wirea 
munumbi 

tdliuru 



tagun 

wi 

kolle 

duni or 
dhuni 

giwiir 



mirriuj 

kopa and ") 
turrun, ) 

purraij 

biilloinkoro 

wolloma and 
turra 

yullo 

tembiribe-en 
kearapai 

wakun \ 

pirama 

koijkororj 



willai 
karoijkarorj 



purrai 
koiyurj 
kokoi'n 



> I punnul 



Turuwul. 



murramul 



dunna 



nyumbutsh 



metiba or 
warnui) 

kundyeri 



burral 

gurugug 

kuriiera 



muruij 

we 

batu 

wirri 



George's River. 



minniy 
buril 



mundao-i 
tunna 



karibi 

wargon 

yurami 

birabain or~\ 
murrion * j 



burru 



wai-ali 



gotgaij 



luminal 

goyoy 

bardo or 
naijoij 

kefin and 
yiluk 

julluk 



Wodi-wodi. 



kurii 



nurrun 
murramur 

durrmj 

rjurri 

dunna 

mujuwich 
yambai-imba 



biribain 

burru 

kuraora 
biiliiwa 

gubaluij 

nuiruij 
kaubi 

ljailyuij 

bukunuj ") 
and wfirri J 

tedjmj 



COMPARATIVE TABLE. 



125 



QUEENSLAND. 



Kogai. 



Kirjki. 



Paiamba. 



Dippil. 



Turrubul. 



VICTORIA. 



NORTH-WEST 
COAST. 



kurijgara 

yama 
mara 

mabun 
buiyu 



giabun 

ljurun 

bunbiil 
kubi 



duruijul 



bunna 



bukur 



gille 



kora 



duruin and ") 
wothinga j 

dmjun 

durran 

puiyu 

jinnug 

manulgum 
kiggiim 

nar 

ljurum 

puiyim 
kroman 

narambi 

nirrirjga 
tamur 

wagun 

daofii" 

gira | 



korj 



dunuij 
kika 

taron 



tiggeri 
durra 

puiyu 

tidna 



wowul 
13a 

1JU1 



kuruman 
kubbi * 
bulualum 
yuun 



tar 

kuddum or ' 
kuiyim 

tabbil 



bigi 

killen and 
kakurri 



thirrok 



thoroni 
thirroij 

thirroijatha 

geenongatha or \ 
jinonatha j 



nayuk 

wa'ag 
tulome 

patheron 
barroworn 



mungubera 
kurnniil 



bik 

winth 

kalliyi 

yarrh and no- 
winth {see five) 

meniyan 



kimbika 
buger 



gilinta 
dabir 

tburrug * 

dimar 

wurrulorj 
qwaulir 

wugglr 

wumbilug 

murruuntbulu 

gurbun 

kondula 

kurwar 

wille 

kunar 

guluijkun 

dibijoloij 

jerun 

gumbal 

dargum 
niriala 
kolinutuw a 



gugarun 



126 




COMPARATIVE TABLE. 




NOUNS. 

(elements, etc.) — 
continued. 

stars 


NEW SOUTH WALES. 


Kamilaroi. 


Wiradhuri. 


Waihvun. 


Lower Hunter. 


Turuwul. 


George's Kiver. 


TVodi-wodi. 


mini 

gunagulla 
or yuru 

tun and 

burian 

ijuru 
tulumi 
mi 
maier 


} 

i 

■1 


girralan 
murrubir 

nallanawcZyirrin 

nurrun 

murrubarrai 

miggi 

girrar 

gwoij and igurra 

kallandar 

murrian 

yurrun 

dhirran 


girila 
gunagulla 






kimberwalU < 


jinjinnurun ") 
(sparkling) j 


sk 7 { 

light { 

night 




dulka 

wiriijgulla 
purra 












minni 
murongal 
mangamaijga 
gura 




thunder 




mulo 

pinkun and 
wottol 




lichtniner 


( 


) 




wind 


I 


) 

kumguma 
kibir 




dew 








frost , 


tundar 






talari 

barrawal 




sea 






kuhjura 
kurru 


jjurrowun *) 
and kaimj ) 


cloud 


yuro 

kubba 
taorai 
tura 
goaror 

wadel 


( 


yareil and *) 
yura ) 


mountain 


I 






district 












bark 


dhurraij 
gurruijgal 

ljarru 

gurroij 
dhin 
nubbun 
burguin 

gullur 

thallai 


nunumba 










grass 


woiyo 


bumbur 


durawoi 










milk 












meat 


di 

tulu 

yundu 

kundi 

yi-ili 




karai 








wood 














baibai 








hut 




kunga 


guny. ( kundi 




gulgi 




• I 


ana yura ) 














bul 
kaiai 












North 


ljarruin 
ballima 




















South .. 
















thirrangal or "^ 
girraij-gan ) 












West . . 












r 









COMPABATIVE TABLE. 127 


QUEENSLAND. 


VICTORIA. 


NORTH-WEST 
COAST. 


Kogai. Pikumbul. 


Kiljki. 


Paiamba. 


DippiL 


Turrubul. 












mirrigin 
birra 

( 


whycurl 

burura 

durran durran "1 
and nowinth J 

buronthuith 

murndell and ~\ 
drumbullabuU ) 

mornmut 

wyibuba'anth 

dumbalk 

warrain 

lark 

rjorak 
miram-bikbik 


jeraloij 
narroij 

mugara 

murrunj 

wurumbarai 

wimije 

mibian 

barduga 

bar 

thiijgun 

kaloara 

tburun 
mingunka 
turaij 
pargun 

naraij 

wilbian 
din 

bulduna 
burguun 

gurrbar 

guriinduer 

giunda 

kiliumpaka 

nunaina 

dunigilina 

kiwuntawali 

dhinukala 

jinkiuialowa 




yuru 
























I 
rjunnu 

mugara < 

tudnagain 










mumba 
billibira 






























































mirrin 
waiker 
































kumba 

* 












bungil 


poath 








( 


kobbai and ") 
gilla j 








I 




brimbrim 
bulgana 



































muyim 
durabunnu 






kiindi 




















porkwaddirj 
mulloko-monomith 






































quinki monomith 






































■ / 


carmuggy no- ") 
winth (see sun) j 










C 








128 



COMPARATIVE TABLE. 



NOUNS. 

(elements, etc.)- 
continued. 



North-west 
North wind 
South wind 



ADJECTIVES. 

alive , 

bad 

dead 

good , 

htingry 

thirsty , 



ADVERBS. 



yes.... 
verily . 



VERBS. 



beat , 

drink 

eat ... 

find 

hate 

hear 

kill... 

love 

run 



see 



sleep 
stand , 



NEW SOUTII WALES. 



Kamilaroi. Wiradhuri. 



moron 

kagil 

balun 

murruba 

yuhjin 

kolle-rjin 



yo 

gir 
kamil 



murndhurei 
balluiu 



ijawa 



bumala or ") 
buma ) 


biimara 


narugi 


thalmarra 


tali 


widyarra 




ljamminya 
waimbillinya 




w'inuiji 


winnaijgarra 


balubuina 


ballubunmarra 




ljarruimharra 
bunbunna 


bunnaijunne 


ijummi 


ljanna 


babi 


yurrrai-wirinya 


warine 


warranna 



Wailwun. 



miriiraka 
or murala 



muun 
wurai 

yiada 



gam 



wail 



Lower Hunter. 



e-e and 
kau-wa 



keawaran 



pittulhko 
tukkilliko 
bummilliko 



nakilliko 

ljarabo 
qarokilliko 



Turuwul. 



George's River. 



Wodi-wodL 



kuller 



yiiroka gora 
tugra g5ra 



wen 

bo'i 

budgeri 



miirungulla 

bullin 
bulyar 
nukkuij 



yuin 



bel or b^al 



durella 



ije 



naiyuij 



bulmiigan 



jowa 



nangri 



♦ There are several instances of the samo word being used with different meanings by separate tribes. Thus " biraban" is eaglo on tin- 
the other word used for emu on George's River, is apparently of the same root as " mullion," which means eagle in Kamilaroi and Wnilwun. 
thigh all over Eastern Australia. " Kubbi," a class name— not an animal name— amoug the tribes speaking Kamilaroi and AVailwun, means 



COMPARATIVE TABLE. 



129 



QUEENSLAND. 



Kogai. 



Pikumbul. Kiljki. Paiamba. Dippil. Turrubul. 



VICTORIA. 



NORTH-WEST 
COAST. 



uladirri 



abir 
amu-gin 



onimeala 



watidalulla 

imbiilloaddi 

unbermelgo 
wottigagulla 



dilgi 
kolle-gin 



pika 

galo 

yuga 



naiya 



kuraga 



ambu 



yoai 



kabbi 



baigin 



bitelle 
nunyin 
mibon 



milbulpu 
bog 



yoai 



yugar 



buarao-a 

nanni 

bugan 



murmbull 



n'uther 



ja'alburt 

liubuk 

thai) garth 

brimbinthon 

bullarto n'ud'lara 

mirrig 

ja'alburt 

githo-yuarrabuk 

mirambiak nanO 
gufch j 



yiun 



yilug 



gara 



ta-wupan 
kulinua 



talu wununda 

niltuwa 

akwian 

kalkuna 

maiwia 

kilteruna 

tinua 

nitalbi 
taiwult 



Lower Hunter ; " birabain" is emu in the language of George's River and Botany Bay ; and " biribain" is emu in Illawarra ; " JIurrion," 
So " thurrug," giyeu by A. Hume as the word for leg on the North-west Coast, is probably the same as " durrug " or " durra," which means 
opossum, in Turrubul (Moreton Bay), and " kubi" is opossum in Pikumbul. 



130 



COMPARATIVE TABLE OF WORDS IN FIVE LANGUAGES. 



father 

mother ... 

son 

daughter . . . 
brother ... 

sister 

husband ... 

wife 

man 

woman . . 
black man 
white man 

eyes 

ears 

tongue 

hand 

thigh 



foot .. 

fire .. 

water 

earth 

stone 

sun .. 

moon 

stars 

great 

little.. 

alive.. 

dead 

good.. 

bad .. 

long .. 

short 

one .. 

two .. 

three 

four . . 

yes .. 

no 



VICTORIA. 



Witaoro. 



Jajaoron. J/femjenwurro. Burapper. Ta-uijguron 



pedvirinettuk 

nardon rjettuk 

boran 

bagoriik 

warnuij 

wairrja nettuk 

warringur tannu 

nannapunguranuk 

gole 

bagoriik 

bangondeduk 

amigit 

mirruk 

winguk 

tallanyuk 

munangin 

karrlmnuk 

lurtamniik 

tinnanuk 

wing 

moabit 

dar 

lar 

mirri 

minyan 

turb baram 

detarbul 

nani akoru 

muron 

detarwa 

ko-enebanyuk 

nulam 

nerrim 

mo-ert 

koenmo-et 

bullait 

bullait par koenmoet 

bullait bullait 

yiyi 

borak 



marmuk 

barbiik 

bobiili 

tor-roi 

warwuk 

kotuk 

nannetuk 

marrarbuk 

gole 

ture 

bangodeduk 

amigit 

minniik 

wimbuluk 

talhjuk 

munnar 

karrepiik 

burapiik 

tinnanyuk 

wi 

wonyeram 

dar 

lar 

nao-i 

yern 

tiirt 

nuribabuk 

wanimuk] 

muron 

deryuij 

talkuk 

yurroij 

karpul 

mo-et 

kiarp 

bullait 

bullait par kiarp 

bullait bullait 

yiyi 
lo-wurrug 



marmak 

barpanoriik 

watyepuk 

mangapuk 

warwuk 

kotugan garuk 

nannetiik 

nettargoruk 

gole 

bienbiengu bullar 

bangodeduk 

amigit 

minnuk 

wimbuluk 

talhjuk 

munnenuk 

karrepiik 

burapiik 

tinnanjowuk 

wi 

katyin 

dar 

lar 

nao-i 

yern 

turt 

murtyowuk 

wardibiik 

miiron 

detyurj 

talkuk 

yartinyar 

tuwurnge 

mo-et 

kiarp 

bullait 

bullait par kiarp 

bullaityewubullait 

yiji 

nullunyer 



marmuk 
barbiik 



layuruk 

warwuk 

kotuk menniik 

nannetuk 

matermenniik 

woitu bullar 

layuruk 

bangodeyuk 

moandit 

minnuk 

wimbuluk 

talleijuk 

munnaijuk 

karrebii 

burapiik 

tinnanuk 

wannap 

kartln 

dar 

lar 

nao-I 

wiyingwil 

tiirt 

kuriiinanduk 

murtuk 

muron 

wlkin 

talkuk 

yettowarndiik 

tuwarnanduk 

tuluwanduk 

kiarp 

bullait 

bullait kiarp 

bullait bullait 

ljaar 

burapper 



warredii 

bai'bauuk 

bobup 

bagurii 

parngannu 

bainbainu 

nangoronu 

bimbanml 

golln 

badyuru * 

marramgondegu 

amigl 

mingu 

wirringii 

tallanu 

munangu 

tarramjii 

gurambu 

tinnanu 

wl-iu 

parn 

bi-ik 

moidyerre 

nummi 

minnun 

turt 

wurtabuk 

wikoruk 

miiron 

werregi 

wan wan gu 

niilam 

yurobot 

mo-ert 

kuptyu 

bullarbil 

bullarbil barbup 

bullarbil bullarbil 

yari-ia 

targun 



*It is evident that four of the words given for " woman" are the same, with very slight variations, as those given for 
" daughter." Probably the relation was not clearly understood by those who supplied the words; it may be supposed that 
these words mean simply " woman." 



COMPARISON OF WORDS IN VARIOUS LANGUAGES. 131 

In this list we find some of the roots that are used in Queens- 
land and New South Wales. " Gole" may be a variation of "kore" 
(man) in the language of Lake Macquarie. " Wi" (with the variations 
"wing" and "wi-in"), meaning fire, connects these languages south 
of the Murray with Kamilaroi. " Dar" (the earth) is found north of 
Brisbane, in Queensland. " Tallanyuk" (the tongue) is evidently the 
same in origin as "tulle" and "tullun." "Tarrannu" (thigh) in 
Taungurorj is of the root " durra" heard in many northern languages. 
"Tinnanuk" (the foot) is a variety of the root "tinna," " dinna," or 
" tidna" ; both these extend over a very large portion of this Colony 
and of Queensland. " Muron" (alive) is the same root as " morun" 
or " moron" in Kamilaroi and neighbouring languages. And yet the 
words for dead are quite different. 

The most remarkable root that re-appears in Victoria is " bullait" 
(favo). As in the name Wolger and other words, the European ear has 
taken the very sharp sound of r to be that of t ; it may be that this 
word is truly " bullair" ; and in one case Mr. Parker gives " bullarbil." 
It is evidently the "bular" of Kamilaroi and the "budela" of Queens- 
land. The words for " one" in Victoria (" kiarp" and " koenmoet") I 
never heard in any part of this or the northern Colony ; but here is 
the root for two (" bular") extending over all Eastern Australia. 

Like the languages on the Upper Darling and its tributaries, 
" Burapper," south of the Murray, is named from its negative adverb. 
The most striking difference between these Victorian words and those 
of more northerly tongues is the frequency with which the thin mutes 
(p, t, and especially k) end a word. In Kamilaroi every word and 
every syllable ends with a vowel or a liquid. 



132 COMPARISON OF WORDS IN VARIOUS LANGUAGES. 

The above specimens illustrate this fact, — that the languages of 
neighbouring tribes differ very much, and yet are connected by words 
common to both. Wiradhuri and Kamilaroi are very similar, and 
both are widely spread. I suppose that one word in fifty is the same in 
Kamilaroi and Pikumbul, and one in eighty the same in Kamilaroi 
and Kogai. The suffixes are more frequently found the same in 
several languages. 

The words for " the head" differ in almost every language ; but 
" mil," the eye, and " muru " the nose, are found in many languages. 

I believe " durra," varying only as durrung and durrun, is found 
all over Australia for the thigh, arm of a tree, or arm of a creek ; 
" puiyu," the leg, and " dinna," the foot, are also widely spread, but 
not so general as durra ; while for the arm the words differ in almost 
every language. 

" Murra " or " mara," the hand, is another very wide- spread 
word. 

The names of some animals, derived from the noises they make, 
are of course much alike. 

The pronouns of the first and second person are nearly the same 
all over Australia ; those of the third person differ much. 

I. In Kamilaroi " ijaia " (I) ; in Wiradhuri " naddu" ; in 
Wailwun "nattu"; in Kogai "naia"; in Pikumbul 
" nutta " ; in Dippil " nai " ; in Turrubul " ljutta," 
" natti " ; South Australia (West), by Captain, now Sir 



George Grey, "ganya" and " nadjo " ; South Australia, 
by Taihleman, " gaii " ; at Newcastle, by Rev. L. E. 
Threlkeld, "gatoa"; at George's River "naiya"; in 
Wodi-wodi (the language of Illawarra) "gaiagug." 

II. In Kamilaroi "ginda" {thou) ; in Wiradhuri and Wailwun 

•• gindu" ; in Kogai w inda" ; in Pikumbul " ginda" ; in 
Dippil "gin" "inta" ; in Turrubul " ginta" ; S. Australia 
"ginnei" and "ninna"; Newcastle "gintoa"; at George's 
River "nindi"; in Wodi-wodi "gindigug." 

III. He in the above languages is " genua," " yeraggo," 
"nila" or "guia," " unda," " wunnal," "bountoa," and 
"dulla," 

A comparison of the numeral adjectives in various languages 
shows this remarkable fact, — that while in every tribe the words for 
one and three are different, the root word for two is the same in almost 
all the languages of the eastern portion of Australia. Many of them 
have no separate word for 4 and higher numbers : but make up those 
numbers by combinations of 1, 2, and 3. 

The languages from "Kamilaroi" to "Wodi-wodi" extend over 
districts in the N.W. and S.E. of New South Wales more than 600 
miles apart ; and from the " Kigki" to the other side of the "Dippil" 
is at least 300 miles of Queensland. 





Kamilaroi. 


Wailwun. 


Lower Hunter. 


Kirjki. 


Paiamba. 


1. 


..mal 


nagu 


wakol 


pieya 


kabuin 


2. 


..biilar 


bulugur 


buloara 


bud e la 


purayu 


3. 


. . guliba 

s 


kuliba 


goro 


kunnun 


guruamda 



134 



COMPARISON OF WORDS IN VARIOUS LANGUAGES. 



Turrubul. 


Dippil. 


Turuwul. Wodi-wodi. 


l...kunnar 


kalim 


wakul mittug 


2...bud e la 


bular 


wakulwakul* bular 


3...muddan 


(boppa or 
( kurbunta 


[ dugul wowulli 



* Wakulwakul (one-one) is evidently a substitute for the forgotten numeral of the 
extinct Sydney tribe. And as the next language on the south has " bular," and all to 
the north and north-west the same root, it is almost certain that the former inhabitants 
of Port Jackson had also the same root for two. At Portland Bay, on the south coast 
of Victoria, two hundred and fifty miles west of Melbourne, I found " bular" used for 
two, while the other numerals were words I had never heard before. 



TRADITIONS. 

I.— THE CEEATOE. 

J^ItlHE greatest of the Australian traditions — that there is one Maker of all things in 
heaven and earth, who sustains and provides for us all — has been already spoken of. 
Baia-me (from " baia" to make or build) is the name, in Kamilaroi, of the Maker, who 
created and preserves all things. Generally invisible, he has sometimes (they believe) 
appeared in human form, he has bestowed on their race various gifts, and he will bring 
them before him for judgment, and reward the good with endless happiness. 

The Rev. James Gunther (of Mudgee), who was many years engaged on a mission 
to the Aborigines of the Wellington District in this Colony, where the Wiradhuri 
language is spoken, has recorded in his Grammar of that language this conclusion: — 
" There is no doubt in my mind that the name Baia-mai (so it is pronounced in 
Wiradhuri) refers to the Supreme Being ; and the ideas held concerning Him by some 
of the more thoughtful Aborigines are a remnant of original traditions prevalent among 
the ancients about the Deity." Mr. Gunther states that he has found in what the 
Aborigines said to him about Baia-mai " traces of three attributes of the God of the 
the Bible, viz. : — eternity, omnipotence and goodness." He also says " the idea of a 
future state of existence is not quite extinct among the aborigines." Some of the more 
thoughtful expressed to him their belief that " good natives will go to Baia-mai when 
they die." 

It may be thought strange that the Bev. L. E. Threlkeld, who laboured zealously 
for years among the Aborigines at Lake Macquarie, near Newcastle, and who has recorded 
many of their traditions concerning various spirits, has made no mention of any belief 
entertained by them concerning one Supreme Being. If the blacks of Lake Macquarie 
had held any such belief as that of the Kamilaroi people in Baia-me, surely Mr. Threlkeld 
would have heard and recorded it. But as the result of an extensive observation, I 
believe that the natives of some parts of the interior are superior to those on the coast. 
The Wiradhuri, Kamilaroi, Wolaroi, Pikumbul, and Kogai tribes may have retained a 
tradition of this kind, after it had been obscured and utterly lost among the tribes 
on the coast. 



136 



TRADITIONS. 



The Eev. C. C. Greenway, who lived some years at Collemungool, in the district of 
the Kamilaroi-speaking tribes, and made himself conversant with their language and 
traditions, says, in a letter to the author — " Bhaia-mi is regarded as the Maker of all 
things, the name signifying maker, cutter out. He is regarded as the rewarder and 
punisher of men, according to their conduct. He is said to have been on the earth. He 
sees all ; he knows all, if not directly, through Turramiilan a subordinate deity. Turra- 
mulan is mediator for all the operations of Bhaia-mi to man, and from man to Bhaia-mi." 

For my own part, before seeing what Mr. Gttnther and Mr. Greenway had written, 
I heard of Baia-me from the Aborigines on the Namoi and Barwan. Many of them, 
when asked concerning any object, such as as the river, trees, sun, stars, &c, — who made 
these ? uniformly and readily replied " Baiame." And many of them have said to me in 
answer to questions about him, — as old King Bory of Gingi did in 1871, — " Kamil naia 
nummi Baiame ; naia winunulda (I have not seen Baiame ; I hear him)." 

In Pikumbul, Baiame is called Anambu, and by some Minumbu. 

The Wailwun blacks, according to Mr. Thomas Honery, of the Upper Hunter, who 
was brought up on the Barwan, and was familiarly acquainted with the tribe, relate the 
following ancient traditions : — 

Baiame first made man at Murula, a mountain between the Barwan and the Narran 
Bivers. He formerly lived among men. And in the stony ridges between those two 
rivers there is a bole in the rock, shaped like a man, two or three times as large as a 
common man. In this, it is said, Baiame used to rest himself. He had a large tribe 
round him, whom he fed at a place called Mldul. Suddenly he vanished from them, and 
went up to heaven. Still, though unseen, he provides them food, making the grass to 
grow for them. And they believe he will come back at a future time. 

There was formerly an evil spirit called " Mullion" (eagle) who lived in a very high 
tree, at Girra on the Barwan, and used to come down and seize men and devour them. 
The people often tried to drive away Mullion, by piling wood at the foot of the tree and 
setting fire to it. But the wood was always pushed away by an invisible hand ; and the 
fire was of no avail. Baiame, seeing their trouble, told a blackfellow to get a " murru- 
wunda" (red mouse) and put a lighted straw in its mouth, and let it run up the tree. 
This set fire to the tree : and as it blazed up, they saw Mullion fly away in the smoke. 
He never returned. The smoke from the burning of that tree was so dense that for some 
days they could see nothing. 

Similar traditions have been found in widely distant parts of Australia. In Illawarra 
from 30 to 100 miles south of Sydney, the supreme Ruler is called " Mirirul." 



TRADITIONS. 137 



Mirirul, whose name is apparently derived from "mirir" the sky, whom therefore we 
venture to call the Australian Zeus, — is said by the blacks of Illawarra to have made all 
things. When people die they are brought up to a large tree, where Mirirul examines 
and judges them. The good he takes up to the sky. The bad he sends to another place 
to be punished. The women say to their children, when they are naughty, " Mirirul 
wirrin munin," (Mirirul will not allow it.) 

A " Colonial Magistrate," the author of " Remarks on the probable origin and 
antiquity of the Aboriginal Natives of New South Wales," published at Melbourne, by 
J. Pullar & Co., says " The Murray [River] natives believe in a Being with supreme 
attributes, whom they call Nourelle. Nourelle never dies ; and blackfellows go to him, 
and never die again." From the same writer we learn that the natives of the Loddon 
ascribe the creation of man and of all things to Binbeal. They say that Binbeal subjects 
the spirits of deceased persons to an ordeal of fire, to try whether they are good or bad. 
The good he liberates at once ; the bad are confined and punished. 

At Western Port, in Victoria, there was a tradition that Bonjil, or Pundyil, created 
men. He formerly lived at the falls of Lallal on the Marabool River ; and is now in the 
sky. Pundyil seeing the earth overrun with serpents, sent his good daughter Karakarok 
with a long staff to destroy these tormentors of men. Karakarok killed many ; but this 
good work was stopped by the breaking of her staff. As the staff snapped in two, fire 
came from it, the first fire ever given to man. Presently, however, Wang, an evil spirit 
in the form of a crow, flew away with the fire ; but the good Karakarok restored it. 

Mr. Beveridge, in the evidence he gave before the Select Committee of the Legis- 
lative Council of Victoria, in 1858, said of the Aborigines " They believe in one all- 
presiding good Spirit," whom they call " Grnowdenont"; and "they have an idea of a very 
wicked spirit named Guambucootchaly." 

II.— GOOD AND EVIL SPIRITS. 

The Aborigines believe in many spirits. " Wunda"is the common name for these among 
the Kamilaroi and neighbouring tribes. Anything mysterious or supernatural is called 
" wunda." One of the chief of these is Turramulan, who acts as the agent of Baiame. 
In some places, however, Turramulan is spoken of as an evil being, or an enemy of man. 
His name signifies " leg-only-on-one-side" or lame. He has a wife called " Muni Burre- 
bean" (egg-like, nourishing-with-milk.") She has the duty of instructing women ; for 
they may not see Turramulan on pain of death. And even when mention is made of 
Turramulan, or of the Bora at which he presides, the women slink away, knowing that it 
it unlawful for them so much as to hear anything about such matters. 



138 TRADITIONS. 



" Tohi" is the name for the spirit of man ; "bunna" is that part of him which dies. 
"When the bunna returns to dust the " tohi," may become a wunda. The wunda may 
enter some other body. "Wicked men are punished by the degradation of their souls. 
Their " tohi" may be condemned to animate a beast. But the good are rewarded by 
their spirits passing into beings of superior condition. And the Aborigines generally 
acknowledge the superiority of white men by saying that some of the good Murri, after 
their decease, arise as white-fellows. 

Among the Wailwun tribes " Kinirkinlr" are the spirits of the departed, wandering 
over the face of the earth. " Yo-wl" is a spirit that roams over the earth at night. 
" Wawi" is a snake or a monster, as large as a gum-tree (30 to 40 feet high), with a 
small head and a neck like a snake. It lives in a waterhole 30 miles from the Barwan ; 
and used to eat blackfellows. They could never slay it. " Murriula" is a dog-like 
monster, formerly in the water between the Barwan and the Narran. " Buba" (father) 
is the name of the first great kangaroo, progenitor of the whole race of kangaroos. His 
thigh-bone — 4 feet long, 7 or 8 inches in diameter, and tapering in form — is carried about 
by one of the tribes. It was found in the ridges of Murula. The Murui of the tribe 
(select men) have charge of it. 

According to Mr. J. M.Allan, (examined before the Select Committee above mentioned) 
the Aborigines " believe in the existence of evil spirits, whom they seek to propitiate by 
offerings. Water spirits are called " Turong" ; land spirits " pot-koorok" ; another is 
" tambora," inhabiting caves. These they suppose to be females without heads. The 
sun (yarh) and moon (unnung) they suppose to be spirits. " Why churl" is their name 
for a star. They are much afraid of thunder and lightning, calling the former — " Mum- 
dell." Mr. M'Kellar, on the same occasion, said " They do, according to their manner, 
worship the host of heaven, and believe particular constellations rule natural causes. 
For such they have names ; and sing and dance to gain the favour of the Pleiades, 
" Mormodellik," the constellation worshipped by one body as the giver of rain ; but if it 
should be deferred, instead of blessings curses are apt to be bestowed upon it." 

Andrew Hume (who stated that he had gone from Queensland across the continent 
to the north-western coast, and who lost his life early in the summer of 1874, in an 
attempt to verify his narrative by recovering some relics of Leichhardt, which he said he 
had seen, — whose statements, though marked by the uncertainty of a man never trained 
to the habit of accurate report, are certainly entitled to some credit), gave to the writer 
the following account of the belief held by the natives of the north-western part of 
Australia. They believe in four deities,— Munnuninuala, the chief god in the highest 
heaven, Thalinkiawun, his wife, Mulgianun, her sister, and Munduala, also called 
Thilkuma, the fire-god, who will burn up the earth and destroy the bad. He is also the 
author of plagues and other penal visitations. 



III.— TKADTTIONS OF THE PAST, AND OF THE FUTUEE STATE. 

According to Andrew Hume the Aborigines near the north-western coast say that the 
first people who ever settled on this land were four men (brothers) and their four wives, 
who came in a canoe from the eastward. After they had been here some time, two of 
the women expressed a wish to return to their native land. The men strongly opposed 
them ; and the two Avomen secretly took the canoe and went out to sea by themselves. 
The god, Thilkuma, punished them by throwing a large piece of rock on the canoe, and 
thus destroyed them. The two men who had thus lost their wives were advised by the 
other two to go back to their native country and get other wives there. But this they 
would not do ; and some years after, when the daughters of the women who remained 
were grown up, their uncles (the widowers) seized them and made them their wives. 

This was a flagrant breach of a law known to be maintained in this Colony and 
probably established over all Australia. For this transgression they were driven south- 
ward, into a cold and barren country. After some years the Inyao-a (righteous people) 
of the north-west, being grieved at the misery of their kindred, prayed that they might 
be forgiven. They were forgiven and were allowed to settle in peace all over the country, 
on condition that they re-established the law of descent and marriage which they and 
their fathers had violated. But as a mark of their guilt they were not allowed to speak 
the same language as the Inyao-a. Hence arose the division of tongues among the 
Australians. To this day the people in the north-west call themselves Inyao-a, and speak 
of all the rest of the aborigines as Karnivual (bastards). 

To this legend may be added the fact that, both on the Barwan and at Scone, in the 
Hunter Biver District, old blackfellows point to the north-west as the quarter from 
which their ancestors came long ago. 

Another legend related by Hume is this, which was told in explanation of the 
division of the territory among the tribes. Two brothers came and settled in the country. 
One was good, the other bad. The bad one got up a conspiracy to drive out his good 
brother ; but Thilkuma, the fire-god, came to the help of the latter, and burnt up part of 
the army of evil-doers. Thilkuma then advised the man to whom he had given the vic- 
tory to be content with his own territory and live in peace. But the man was greedy of 
power, and invaded the land of others to the north and the west. After many days 
fighting, this man fell sick. In his sleep Thilkuma appeared to him, and threatened to 
destroy him unless he ceased from killing men. Still he persisted in attacking his 
neighbours. They cried to their god, Dhaigugan, who helped them, and drove back the 
invader. 



140 TRADITIONS. 



Thereupon, to prevent future aggressions, the several tribes received distinctive 
marks on their breasts and arms, and their boundaries were fixed by rocks, trees, rivers, 
and mountains. 

The " Colonial Magistrate," above quoted, gives the following legend concerning the 
beginning of the Human Eace : — " The natives of Western Australia say that when men 
first began to exist, there were two beings, male and female, — -Wallinyup (the father), 
and Dovanyup (the mother) ; that they had a son named Bindinwor, who received a 
deadly wound, which they carefully endeavoured to heal, but without success ; where- 
upon it was declared that Wallinyup should also die, as his son had died. If Bindinwor's 
wound could have been healed, the natives think death could have had no power over 
them. Bindinwor, though deprived of life and buried, did not remain in the grave, but 
rose and went to the west, across the sea, to the unknown land of spirits, whither his 
father and mother followed him, and there they have ever since remained." 

Bony, the Murri from the Balonne, who gave me the table of numbers up to twenty, 
declared this as his belief: — "Murruba murri (good men), when they die go up to guna- 
gulla (sky), to be with Baiame. Kagil murri (bad men) never come up any more. He 
is murruba who speaks glrii (truth) and is kind to his fellow-men. He is kagil who tells 
gunial (lies) and kills men by striking them secretly. It is no harm to kill a man in fair 
fight." 

Billy, a very old blackfellow of Burburgate, whose proper names are Murri Bundar, 
with the surname "RJumera Gunaga, spoke Guinberai (or Koinberi). He told me he 
received his surname from the place where his father was buried ; and that it was a 
general custom for a Murri to get a name from the place where his father was buried. 
His father was Ippai Mute, and lived near Wunduba, on Liverpool Plains. In his tribe 
Murri Duli Wagiira was a chief man. He took the lead in fights, and laid down the 
law to the tribe. But Billy could not tell how he got his authority. When Billy was a 
little boy, a Burburgate blackfellow, Charley, was killed by one of the Wee Waa tribe. 
On this, Grun-guele (Charcoal), whose inherited names were Murri Ganur (red kangaroo), 
called on the Burburgate blacks to go and punish the tribe guilty of the murder. Natty 
(as the whites call him), now an old man, whose proper names are Murri Ganur 
Yawlrawiri, was one of the leaders in the fight. They met about fifteen miles above 
Narrabri. After a great talk they fought till many were killed on both sides. The 
combatants were painted red and yellow. Their weapons were spears, boomerangs — bundi 
and berambu, (different clubs) — and shields. 

This old man, Billy, told me, as a great favour, what other blacks had withheld, as 
a mystery too sacred to be disclosed to a white man, that " dhiirumbulum," a stick or 



TRADITIONS. 141 



wand, is exhibited at the bora (to be explained hereafter), and that the sight of it inspires 
the initiated with manhood. This sacred wand was the gift of Baiarne. The ground on 
which the bora is celebrated is Baiame's ground. Billy believes the bora will be kept up 
always all over the country. Such is the command of Baiame. 

The milky way, as King Bory told me, is a worrumbul, or grove with a watercourse 
running through it, abounding in ail pleasant things, where Baiame welcomes the good 
to a happy life, where they walk up and down in the enjoyment of peace and plenty. It 
is " the inside," he said, that goes up to the sky — not the bones and flesh. Sometimes 
the good come down again to visit the earth. Colonists who have for many years 
observed the Aborigines, say that it is a common thing for these people, in the prospect 
of death, to express a cheerful hope of being better off hereafter. 



IV.— TEADITIONS OF STAES. 

Venus is called TiTindigindoer (you are laughing), or "RTaijikindimawa (laughing at 
me). Among the squatters occupying the part of the country where these names of 
Venus are used are some gentlemen of classical attainments ; and possibly the idea of 
the laughing goddess may have been suggested by them. Orion is called Berai-berai 
(a young man). This young man was said to have been "burul wlnunailun miai-miai" 
(much thinking, or desirous of young women), when Baiame caught him up to the 
sky, near to the " miai-miai" (the Pleiades), whose beauty had attracted him. He has a 
boomerang in his hand, and a ghuliir (belt) round his waist. One of the miai-miai (the 
Pleiad which is barely visible) is supposed to hide behind the rest, on account of her 
defective appearance, and is called gurri-gurri (afraid or ashamed). 

King Bory, on a beautiful starry night, in June, 1871, gave me the name 
" "RTindigindoer " for Venus. He also gave the following information : — " Mars is 
" Gumba " (fat) ; Saturn is " wungal " (a small bird) ; Arcturus is " guembila (red)_ 
At Gundamaine, far away up the Namoi, an old blackfellow called it " Guebilla." 

Canopus, he called wumba (stupid or deaf) ; I suppose because this beautiful star, 
while it looks so fair, is deaf to their prayers. 

Benemasch and the star next to it, in the tail of the Great Bear, which rise about 
N.N.E. and set N.N.W., not rising high, but apparently gliding along under the 
branches of the tall trees like owls, are called nun-gu. (white owls). 

The Northern Crown is " mullion wollai" (the eagle's camp or nest), with its six 
young eaglets. "When this constellation is about on the meridian, Altair (chief star in 
Aquila) rises in the N.E., and is called by the Wailwun people "mullion" (eagle). 



Shortly after this Vega rises to the N.N.E., and is also called " mullion." These are the 
parent eagles, springing up from the earth to watch their nest. King Bory used the word 
" mullion ga " of them both, signifying eagles in action. The Pleiades he called worrul 
(bees' nest). Bungula and Agenor (the pointers to the Southern Cross) he called 
murai (cockatoos). The three principal stars of the Southern Cross are ^Tuu (a tea-tree). 
The dark space in the sky at the foot of the cross is gao-ergi (an emu) couching. 

The Magellan clouds are two buralga (native companions). 

Antares is gudda (a lizard). 

Two stars across the Milky Way, near Scorpio, are gijeri ga (small green parrots). 

The dark space between two branches of the Milky Way, near Scorpio, is 
Wurrawilburu (a dreadful demon). 

The S-shaped line of stars in Serpentarius, between the Northern Crown and 
Scorpio, is called Mundewur (the notches cut in the bark of a tree to enable a black- 
fellow to climb it) . 

Spica Virginis is giirie (a crested parrot). 

Eomalhaut is ganl (a small iguana) . 

Corvus (the four stars) is bundar (a kangaroo). 

The Peacock's Eye is murgu (a night cuckoo). 

On the Murray a beautiful legend has been ascribed to the Aborigines, concerning 
the two pointers, Bungula and Agenor. A flock of turkey -buzzards (commonly called 
plain-turkeys), used to sport every evening on a plain ; but an old cannibal bird 
watching them, when he saw one weary with the dance, or race, pounced upon it and 
devoured it. Grieved at the loss of their young birds, the flock met, and took counsel 
together to remove to another plain. But when they were about to leave, two birds of 
the same species, from a distance, came up and encouraged them to stay, promising to 
save them from their persecutor. When evening came, one of these two birds hid himself 
in the bushes near the old cannibal : the other joined the ring. After a while, this last 
bird, pretending to be weary, fell down in front of the persecutor, who at once sprang 
forth to kill him. But the second stranger came to his help, and the two soon despatched 
the old bird. AVbile the whole flock were applauding the deed, the two deliverers rose 
up from their midst, and flew higher and higher, until they reached the sky, where they 
now shine for ever. 



TALES IN THARUMBA AND THURAWAL. 



J-^Ml H AEUMB A is spoken on the Shoalhaven Eiver, in the south-eastern part of this 
Colony, by the Wandandian Tribe, Thurawal in another part of the same district, south 
of Illawarra where Wodi-wodi is spoken. Thurawal appears to be the same word as 
Turrubul and Turuwul, the names of the languages spoken at Moreton Bay and Port 
Jackson. 

The following tales in Tharumba were supplied to the Government by Mr. Andrew 
Mackenzie, of the Shoalhaven District, for transmission to Professor Max Muller. The 
first was related by Hugany, an Aboriginal of the Wandandian Tribe ; the second by 
Noleman, of the same tribe. 



Jerra Tharumba. 
Tutawa, Puluggul. 
"Wunna puru minilla, wanekundi Tuta- 
wanyella ; kuritjabunjlla ililla thogunko ; 
kunamimbulilla ; gubija mirigambila ; 
jukundai murrundohila Puluggul. Uarin- 
madthai jambinuro mundija kunda 
bundilla. " Bu ! Puluggul garinmagarao- 
undtha." " Mundija yandthaono binyaro." 
Uurawunko bungailuwa thaorumbrao ; 
bungaluwa gurawun. 

Tutawa pururuggala, pururururu. Bu- 
thulala Tutawai thulinyo ; thitbulo wakara 
guia, gurawan, kurru. Kiiru gama 
yanaila. Taukuga, "Kuwai-ai-ai! Pulug- 
gul, kunugaluni yai waukarag, garinma 
kunnumbaithali mundijain purajain. 
Niruna bunna, kuruguma ! " 

Bithaigala karugandthilla Puluggul, — 
" Puluggul wunnamakoin yaawe." " Bu ! 
indigaga bundugan jinna." 



Puluggul karamblla. 
" Wunnama narugga 



Wunnama 



narugga 



! " 



Tharumba Story. 
Tootawa and Pooloongool. 

Out of the oven-hole brought the 
kangaroo ; Tootawa carried it on his 
shoulder, took it to the camp, roasted it, 
gave a little to his dog, and carried the 
biggest part to Pooloongool. Brought 
stinking meat to his father-in-law and 
brother-in-law. "Hush! Pooloongool, your 
son-in-law will hear you." " Por meat 
go, Binyara." To the sea they paddled, 
the whole party; they paddled to the sea. 

Tootawa jumped about with rage, jump, 
jump, jump. Split Tootawa his tongue ; 
he spat the blood west, east, south, north. 
The west wind came. They said, " Oh 
dear ! Pooloongool, you must try to get 
ashore with us ; you said a bad word to 
your father-in-law this morning about the 
meat. Look at the rain and the wind ! " 

The pelican said to Pooloongool, " Poo- 
loongool, come here, I'll put you in my 
canoe." Get along ! I'll put you in my 
canoe." 

Pooloongool was getting drowned. 

" Put me into the canoe ! " Put me into 
the canoe! " 



144 TALES. 


Tanilowa yakuna waukao. 


Those went to the shore. 


Yerrimbulo jella, jella, jella, jella, jiik, 


The musk duck bailed the water out of 


jiik, jiik, jiik, yapoilla warri wakarain ; 


his own canoe, dip, dip, dip, dip, drip, 


jellajellunkawedthu. kudjiir wurrakain. 


drip, drip, drip, went that way to the 




shore ; flapped the lake all the way. 


Taowalli purapiindo, kunyu, bethaigal, 


They dived and came up again ; the 


pa kuna pa tora, pa munda, pa mara. Jura- 


black shag, the white-breasted shag. They 


bawulara birura, birrimbaimin Jurabai- 


dive now for the fish ; they fish ; they feed 


wunnaora mara, numbulo jeriwan taora 


in the water all day long. There was no 


yakunjo waoari. Kumari yenna thukia 


wind in former times ; all was calm. 


Kaor. 

Bumbilla nurawan Tutawai punyiri- 


Tootawa brought all that wind that's 


mula kumariwaindo yakunjo waoari, 


blowing now all the time from the west, 


bimira, guia, n urawundakurru ; yibundaido 


south, east, north ; it blows now all the 


yakunjo waoari. 


while. 


Jerra Thdrumba. 


Tharumba Story. 


"Wunbula. 


"Wunbula (a man's name ; also, three 




stars in Canis Major). 


Nadjirjajon, Murrumbul, Mundtha. 


The bat, the brown snake, the black 




snake. 


Tanilla Kolumbri, yetbunillawa Kolll- 


He went away from Columbri, passed 


jaga Munai ; thogun yenna. Yanillawa 


Collijaga to Monga ; camped there. He 


bunguto. "Nyeniinya, maiirro ; irribaoga 


went to look for wombat. " There it is ; 


mirigandtha wenkinbra Murrumbul 


you stay here ; I'll go in with my dog, my 


Mundtha." 


women, Murrumbool (Mrs. Brown Snake) 




and Moondtha (Mrs. Black Snake)." 


"Thunnamagali kunjawogtunala; tukao- 


" Our husband makes us tired taking us 


na yaniuna warri thogundtha." 


about ; we'll shut him up ; we'll go to the 




camp." 


Jin a yaninjoana warri ; jig a tharar. 


That fellow went in far ; that fellow 


" Ijella tukalinga, Murrumbula pa Mund- 


came back. "Those have shut me up, 


tba. kTirilla munduga mungala; mand- 


Murrumbool and Moondtha." He heard 


thilla jirai kumirgurirjo minilla mirigano 


the fly buzz ; waited for him to go out at 


wurri punanjiwona; mijilla jerai tharar; 


the little hole, took the dog a long way 


yanilla nurri thogundtha. 


under his arm ; went outside ; went right 




away to the camp. 



TALES. 



145 



" Yanaonyi gaiunko wenkinbra." 


" Let's go for ants' larvae, women." 


" Pukerigji, jurabaonyi." Tanillawa 


"It's hot, let's bathe." They went 


wurrigala. "Ma! jurabaona gatenwalla 


close to the bank. " Come on ! let's 


yaoalia naiaga tulunya." 


bathe — you on one side, and you on the 




other, I in the middle." 


Kulala jerabaddi yaoalia ijatenwalla; 


The barbed-spears spear them on this 


jerumbaddi murrilaora merero. 


side and that; the barbed-spears were 




sticking up. 


Munaoraggarila ; yaoalia yuinyumbulo 


They went to join the Munowra (con- 


Wunbuleriba. 


stellation) Wunbula, their husband, on 




the other side. 


Jerra Thurawaldhery. 


A Thuraioal Story. 


Yirrama Karwer. 


The Spirit of the Fig Tree. 


Tandi gai karwerullago. 


" I am going for wild figs." 


TJai, yannig kainandha yandhanai. 


" Very well ; go ; go on ; start away." 


Kurmunnu, biagaly. 


Net, basket. 


"Wunnomainbala kurwery ; kurma 


He picked the figs ; filled net and 


biagaly gobimata. 


basket. 


Kullymirgaia, biagaly wal, gobimata 


Cut more bangaly for basket, and filled 


kurwery. 


them with figs. 


Yandhanai inumbaianai, kubaia yirra- 


The spirit comes ; catches him ; swal- 


main. 


lows him. 


TiTaindhanai wurri nadjongo, undhumaia 


Takes him to the water, drinks, spits 


dhurawaia. 


out again. 


Jellunjiiranadthanai ; yangundaianai ; 


Looks back ; tickles him ; looks at him, 


nanyinajellanai, yallumbunyainoi yangun- 


comes back and tickles him again. 


dibbala. 




Jauagunalaia, yallumbunga, yangun- 


Goes away ; comes back and tickles 


dabillajaia. Jauia warry jaulajilaia, 


him again. A long way goes, comes back 


yangundibbala jella. 


and tickles him again. 


Jaugunalaia war-ry bobaradha. Ya 


Groes a very long way to the mountains. 


jauianabulgo thobararalunbilla,ye maunda 


He gets up, runs to the sea, and jumps 


wunanye. 


in ; the spirit very near catches him. 



146 TALES. 


Kaiugoyia yangaruya ya wudjut yendag . 


Into the sea he goes, the spirit along 




the beach walks. 


Barungaga thallybunbila ya kurubun 


Upon an island he got ; to the rocks went 


juya yirraina. Karrugaia " yuinya ya-a-i ! " 


the spirit. He shouted — " Come here !" 


Karuganbilla. 


Shouted again. 


Gummagaimathauakulwaiona. " Yirra- 


They fetch spears ; walk round him. 


ma na pulla! " Mudgerypurria. Parrilan- 


" The spirit is this way !" The man got 


kanaia, yerrauaga, yirribalaia. 


into a canoe. The spirit could not be 




found ; he went into the rocks ; he got 




into the hole. 


Mullimula. 


The Plea ides. 


Thurawaldheri Kurialla. 


A Thurawal Story. 


Tenda Jeju mulliwauthama Jejugko 


Came the Moon ; was enamoured the 


mullimula mega yandthannug. 


Moon, to the Mullymoola damsels came 
he. 


Thullimalaoa kaiuggo kundthumaiaoa 


They were catching kyoong (a kind of 


paiamingagga kaiugga Pulinjirugga 


fish) : were roasting (with hot stones) 


Kanda. Yangao ana Jindaola Uurund- 


piaming (a bulbous reed), and kyoong, 


thilanai Guiaiin. "Wudthawaiin. yaggai? 


at Poolinjirunga, near Kan. They went 


tburaodamurra yagganai gurumbagganda ; 


to Jindowla. Heard them the Southron. 


kubbutgailagganda; piailinuradtha yagga- 


" Where are they singing about me ? I 


naoraniirdtbundtha. Kulinaianumai thuri- 


hear them about me, singing in the gully ; 


naianai mobarudthu." 


let me have pipeclay to corrobaree ; sing 




that song ; let me dance. " I'll spear 




you in the eye." 


Kulabimaianai ; meriruggo yenaiuwa 


They go under the ground ; up to the 


Kuranaiuwa inamrudtbana. 


sky they went. The sisters became stone. 


Jerra Bundula. 


The Story of Bundoola. 


[Told by Bimmoon, o 


f the Ulladulla tribe.] 


Yanaoya maranji : kulambaroga ina- 


I go fishing ; I am going to spear fish ; 


ranji; mujeri, yirraganji. Kuttbu kawa 


my canoe, my fish spear. What a fine 


kuruaolan ! bungaoga jilluggo ; kuroa 


calm sea. I'll paddle over there to the 


kalandthun ! yanaoga tbaogulivvollun 


surf at the rocks ; I'll go to the bush, the 


kaorai'li ; bungayuga kutthugo. 


sea is too rough ; I'll paddle out to sea 


i. — — 


again. 



TALES. 147 


Tariuunye, ma mara nombimunnolo. 


Let us run away, because nasty fish 


Tanuunye, wurruga, wunnianye, bangun- 


(are what he gives you). Let us run 


adtha. Yandthaojina : 


away, children, let us leave him when he 




goes out far. He follows them. 


" Wudthaolono, ka-u ! 


" Where are you ? holloa ! 


TJaiuraga gaila. Yanaga. 


I hear them over there. I must go 




there. 


Yakullli guiangal," yaparanu, "jambin- 


There they are, the Southerners," he 


yuna. 


says, " Our brother-in-law coming. 


Tanaonye, gumma ginnamaraya ; 


Let us go, let us make the spear ready ; 


kurairi kulagiyema, ny-ao-umboni, ma 


all ready ; you are a good marksman ; you 


nainjiwanna buttunu murriba. 


wait here, because this is the path the 




kangaroo takes — his road. 


Tanaonye, jambi, nyaonidtha thun- 


Let us go, brother-in-law; you'll see 


bugaruga wullugaranya, irrininagaor- 


your wife's country ; you'll see the great 


anna." 


precipice," 


Bundilli wenkinoji gundigura, wurri- 


Bundoola's wife belonged to that place. 


galla na, mai-iraji jellowigallu yirrimula 


" You come close to the edge ; you stop 


warrinowarri, kabutsh niiri, minirra guri, 


here." They shove him over a good way, 


bungoi'n ; yanilla wurriji meriro ; " jergara 


kill him dead. " Rope (vine) ; you catch 


juwe wurraora indai." Banboro-gundo. 


hold of the rope." He comes up a long 




way to the top. " Cut the rope : serve you 




right: you dead now." This was at 




Banboro. 


Murraoga nenji thogunda, kumiranyl 


I'll go home to my place ; this place is 


kunnin-yekumba, murrai-oga nenji naia 


too rough ; I'll go a little further. This 


thogunda nyaimbioga Bundarwai. 


is the good habitation. I'll stop here at 




Bundarwa. 


In these Thurumba and Thurawal tales, 


it is easy to see some of the root words which 


are used on the Namoi and in Queensland 


. There are " thulin" or " tullun" (tongue), 


"yan" (go), "nanyi" (see), "naia" (I), "i 


ndai" (thou) ; " merir" or " mirir" is sky or 


top, as in Wodi-wodi; "bul" means jealoi 


lsy in Kamilaroi, and the sea in Thurawal. 


" Nadjog" (water) is the same root as in W 


odi-wodi. 





-SONG-S. 


J^MlHB first six of the following songs, in Kamilaroi and "Wolaroi, with the explana- 


tions, were kindly furnished to me by the Bev. 

I. 

This song was composed in derision of so 


C. C. Greenway. 


>me one of the same tribe, and is a speci- 


men of their sarcastic style. 




TJandunago ? 


Who comes ? 


three ghilliana, 


large head of hair, 


bunun mulliago, 


arms crooked, 


naighin bular. 


like two cockle shells. 


"RTai murrin ? 


Is it one of my people ? 


naia warrambria 


on the road he is. 


nirri go ma 




toh dirraldia. 

II. 
This song was composed to ridicule the c 


Smoke comes out. 


onduct of those who frequent the public- 


house. It shows how the Aborigines adopt English words, and give them their own 


inflections. 




Publikaor wirithea, ^ 


Public-house screaming, 


djeamillia mlr mir, 


seizing hips, 


nummildeago kamiweandi, 


he appears, tripped up by a stick, 


^jKj-i> *& drungilla, tiunal a duni. '-■ 


drunken, stricken with fists. * 


III. 




This song is called a Ugal, or dancing song, to be sung to the dancers on a warlike 


or festive occasion. 




Burran, burin, bilar bundl, 


Shield of buree (wood), spear and club, 


Murala berar karnl ! 


Throwing stick of berar, bring ! 


Wakara waroi tubilka bundln 


The broad boomerang of Waroee, waist- 




belts and pendants of boondin, 


Tumbu ! yumbu ! gumil 


Jump ! jump ! use your eyes, 


"Warakel munan. 


With the straight emu spear. 


IV. 




The following Ugal is'for a more peaceful 


occasion. 


Murri goriah, 

Yeraman buraldi, \, 


Blackfellow very fat, 


Horses driving, 


Wi wi kurral-ah, 


Firewood sawing, 


Millimbrai kakullah, 


Milking cows crying out, 


Kirawa ! 


Looking for them. 



BAO-ILLI — SONGS. 149 



V. 

This baoilli (in the "Wolaroi dialect) is in derision of one belonging to another tribe. 
His slightness is contemptuously described. 

Mulla mulla gha ibbelean bull A spirit like an emu, as a whirlwind, 

Bunnakunni bunnakunni, hastens, hastens, 

Kirami gunman lays violent hold on travelling 

Dhuddl gaia ! Uncle of mine ! 

Inghil nunmalinni exhausts with fatigue, 

Bunda "Wahnl. Then throws him down (helpless). 

VI. 
Some of their songs are called " ghiribal" (imitation of the notes or actions of animals). 
This one represents the cry of the black musk duck, or diver (in Kamilaroi — berala.) 

Ta gaia garinga. 

(repeat ad libitum.) 

Puanbu gl go 

(repeat and transpose, ad lib.) 

Mingo ahikarai 

(repeat). 

Ibbi-rl-bi ta-wagg-ah ! 

Whoogh ! 

(At this last word the cheeks are filled out with the breath, and a sudden explosion ends 

the " song of the duck.") 

VII. 
The' following " ugal " was sung at various stages along the banks of the Barwan, in 
1854, by a travelling band of Aborigines, under the guidance of their Dhurumi. The 
song and the dramatic performance which accompanied it, were designed to disenchant 
the places visited, — in other words, as I was told by one of the company, " to drive away 
dead blackfellows." Most of the performers were marked with red and yellow clay. 
One was decorated from head to foot. A troop waving boughs in the air, seemed to be 
charging some invisible foe. And to the tramp of their feet, and the beating of sticks 
and of hands, a band of women and girls sang all night long these words : — 

" Turu dhari ne, yurii dhari ge, 
Dula rag a burula, yuru dhari ne ! 
(This is not one of the languages I am acquainted with. As far as I can judge it means 
— Come and sing with me ; there are plenty ; come and sing.) 

VIII. 

The next ugal was apparently composed for the chase. 

Diga diga burula, Plenty of wild dogs. 

Murrinj, dibura. The blackfellows are spearing them. 



150 BAO-ILLI — SONGS. 



IX. 

The following bao-illi was new and fashionable on the Namoi, in 1871. 
Bukkamulli mullimulli, The ghost was skinning him, 

duburrjer wine. he doubled him up and let him fall. 

They sing these short songs to simple and pleasant melodies. Sometimes they repeat 
the first line six or eight times, sometimes the last ; and as they repeat they let their 
voices fall to a lower key, and then some of them begin again at a high pitch. They 
keep exact time, and make the different parts, from the lowest bass up to counter-tenor, 
combine with perfect harmony. Sometimes the effect of such a chorus, by night, on 
the banks of the river, was wonderfully impressive. To themselves the music appeared 
to be most exhilarating. 

X. 

The following is a "Wailwun song of defiance, denouncing the black police, on their 
first appearance at the Barwan. 

Murago muginga dhi, Go on, blind, all of ye, 

Guria baigo, Go on for ever, I hope ; 

Dhini-ligo, Dhini-gandhu To Sydney, to Sydney, 

Mini gurago. For ever, Good bye. 

XI. 

This is a hunting song, in the language of George's Kiver, shouting after the 
wallaby, bandicoot, kangaroos, and pigeons. 

Wolba, wolba, minya, munde. 

An awe, yukole, biron, 

Mule, mulle, wire, 

Wungor ! wungor ! 

Kolle miron 

Ato mulle ! 

XII. 

A song sung at corrobarees at the junction of the Hunter and the Isis, and describing 

the knocking down of some one upon the ground, and a word of sorrow for an afflicted 

wife. 

Murrabadai bunmilde, 

TiJa dinga dingai, 

Daon dimi woldina 

Gulir bain de ne. 



HABITS AND MANNERS OF THE PEOPLE. 



FOOD. 

J^il£lO a European almost every part of the continent of Australia, as seen before the 
work of civilisation has transformed it, bears an inhospitable aspect. To a sportsman 
well provided with ammunition, indeed, many a river and lagoon, with its countless swarms 
of teal and other water-fowl, and its unnumbered fish, offers a perpetual feast. But, 
compared with other countries, Australia is singularly deficient in fruits, grain, and 
edible roots. 

The problem of sustaining life, which had to be solved by the Australian race, was, 
therefore, the very opposite of that which was presented to the Polynesian tribes, for 
whom the islands have brought forth abundantly yams, cocoa-nuts, and many nourishing 
and delicious fruits. This people had to provide themselves sustenance in a country 
where many Europeans have perished for want of food and water. And they have 
managed to subsist, to multiply, and to spread over the whole continent, without any 
supplies or help from abroad, without any knowledge of the use of tillage, or of the 
materials under their feet awaiting the appliances of civilization to yield abundant 
wealth. How have they lived ? 

The staff of life in nearly all parts of Australia is the opossum, which abounds more 
than any other mammal. The emu and the kangaroo furnish the most valued meat for the 
men, and to women and children the use of these is allowed only to a limited extent. 
Iguanas and native bears supply them with substantial meals. Snakes are eaten by them, 
and they are very careful in the mode of killing them, to prevent the poisoning of the 
flesh. Grubs, especially a white fat kind, about three inches long and nearly two inches 
in diameter, are regarded as choice morsels. Eish constitute an important part of the 
food of those who live near the sea or upon the rivers. The Darling and its tributaries 
abound with fine fish. There are various kinds of vegetable food in use. The yam 
of the country, about the Barwan, is a large root, in flavour and substance something 
like a water-melon 7 and though very juicy it grows in dry sand-hills. There is a 
clover-like plant, the beran, the roots of which (some three or four inches long and 
half an inch in diameter) they grind between stones and make up into palatable and 
nourishing cakes. The nardoo, found in central Australia, yields small seeds, which are 
ground and made into cakes. This was the chief food of the Aborigines on Cooper's 



152 HABITS AND MANNERS OP THE PEOPLE. 



Creek, who kept alive King, the survivor of the Burke and Wills expedition. There are 
also several kinds of fruit, the waraba, the wild gooseberry, the wild cherry, &c. The 
most productive fruit-tree in Australia is the bunyabunya. This is a large and very beauti- 
ful species of pine, the cones of which grow to the length of eight inches, and are composed 
of nuts resembling in form, size, and flavour the English chestnut. This tree is found only 
in a comparatively small part of Queensland, where it grows in thick forests. 

They have many exact rules as to the different species of animals that may be 
eaten at different stages of life. 

The most common implements by which the natives get their food are the boomerang, 
various kinds of clubs, spears of different size and form adapted to the several uses to 
which they are put, and fishing nets. All these display considerable ingenuity and 
industry. The boomerang is unquestionably a marvellous invention for a people who 
are reputed to be the least intelligent on the face of the earth. Its peculiar curve, 
which gives it the property of returning from a distance of several hundred feet to the 
hand of the thrower has furnished a very interesting problem to mathematicians, and has 
suggested a modification of the steam-ship acrew propeller. 



INSTITUTIONS AND LAWS. 



I.— THE BOEA. 

J^OiHE great national institution of the Australian Aborigines is the Bora — by some 
pronounced Boor-rah, — the rite of initiation into the duties and privileges of manhood. 
The sacredness of this immemorial rite, and the indispensable obligation to submit to it 
are most deeply impressed on the minds of the young Aborigines. Even when they 
enter the service of the squatters or the settlers, and so in great measure break off from 
association with their own people, they seem to be bound by an irresistible spell to sub- 
mit, at the prescribed time, in spite of all that can be done to dissuade them, to their 
national rite. 

The Bora is held whenever there is a considerable number of youths of an age to be 
admitted to the rank of manhood. Old Billy MurrI Bundar, at Burburgate, told me 
that the Creator, " Baiame," long ago, commanded the people to keep the Bora, and gave 
them the Dhurumbulum, or sacred wand, for this purpose. He said any one of the men 
might demand that a Bora be held. Then they consult as to the place, and choose one 
of their number to be the dictator or manager of the solemnity. This dictator sends a man 
round to all the tribes who are expected to join in the ceremony. This herald bears in his 
hand a boomerang and a spear with a murriira (padymelon) skin hanging upon it. Sometimes 
all the men within twenty miles are summoned ; sometimes a much larger circuit is included. 
And, as my venerable informant, Billy, told me, every one that is summoned must attend 
the Bora, even if he have to travel a hundred miles to it. It is so done, he said, all over 
the country, and always will be. The dictator chooses a suitable spot for the purpose, 
and fixes the day for the opening of the ceremony. The ground is regarded as conse- 
crated to Baiame, and his will is obeyed in carrying out the service. Notice is given 
three weeks at least, sometimes three months before the ceremony begins. During the 
interval the trees on the chosen ground are ornamented with figures of snakes and birds 
cut with the tomahawk. 

When the appointed time is come, the men leave their camps, where the women and 
youths and children remain. The men assemble at the selected spot, clear away all 
bushes, and make a semi-circular embankment, or fence. This being done, some of the 
men go to the camps, pretending to make a hostile attack, on which the women run 
away, with the children. The young men, and boys over thirteen, go back with the men 
to the Bora. 



154 INSTITUTIONS AND LAWS. 



Very few Europeans have been allowed to witness the proceedings at the Bora. 
One who was permitted to be present, Mr. Thomas Honery, of the Upper Hunter, 
described the whole process to me. In the year 1862, Mr. Honery, then a boy, was pre- 
sent at a Bora, held between the Barwan and the Lower Castle reagh. There he found a 
place cleared and surrounded with bushes, laid as a fence, like a sheepyard. "Within the 
enclosure were three old men. About twelve youths were waiting to be " made men." 
These youths had been seven or eight months under strict rule,- eating only certain pre- 
scribed food, and partially secluded from social intercourse. When they came up to the 
scene of the Bora, they lay down flat upon their faces, and were covered with a cloak. 
Two of the old men then came outside, one remaining within. 

Then the youths were called up, one at a time ; and each of them, when called, 
leapt over the fence, and took up a piece of string with a bit of wood at the end, which 
he whirled round with a whizzing sound, three times. He then jumped out and another 
was called upon by the old men, and jumped in. "While one was within the enclosure 
the others remained lying on the ground, covered with the cloak ; and as soon as one 
came out he fell on his face, and was covered up again. This preliminary ceremony 
ended, they were allowed to go about, but not to leave the neighbourhood, for a week. 
The old men kept a strict watch over them, to prevent their going off, or eating any for- 
biden food. At the end of the week they assembled again, and all the three old men 
went inside the enclosure, and again called in the youths one by one. As each came in 
one of the old men flogged him as hard as he could with a strip of bark two feet long and 
six or eight inches wide. Then, with two stones, one used as a peg the other as a hammer, 
they broke off and knocked out one of his front teeth, leaving the roots of the tooth in 
his jaw. All this time the youth uttered not a sound. When it was over he went out 
and was covered with the cloak as before, while another was called in. 

During the next four days they were allowed to walk about within a short distance, 
and to eat a very little bit of opossum, but nothing more. At the end of that time they 
were again brought, one by one, into the enclosure. There they were compelled to eat 
the most revolting food that it ever entered the mind of man to eat, or to offer to a 
fellow creature, — such as the prophet Ezekiel heard, in a vision, a command to eat 
(chapter 4, verse 12). The cruelty of this rule is somewhat tempered by mixing this 
nauseous food with "tao," (the root of a plant called by the colonists "pigwood"). 
Basins of bark are used for the mixture. 

Mr. Honery is a man of unimpeached veracity, and his account was given with an 
explicitness that leaves no room to doubt of the fact. But it is only fair to mention that 
some of the Aborigines have vehemently protested that no such custom is practised in 
their tribes. On the reliable authority of honest old Billy Murri Bundar TJumera Gunaga, 



INSTITUTIONS AND LAWS. 155 



who gave the important information about the sacred wand, Dhurumbulum, the revolting 
practice is unknown to his tribe. White men have stated that this custom was observed 
in several parts. From all I have heard, I conclude that it is actually observed by some 
tribes, but not by all. It is a mystery of wickedness and folly that such an unnatural 
custom could be introduced, even among a savage people. It is still more mysterious that 
the thought of such an act could be suggested in vision to the holy prophet Ezekiel. In 
the Aborigines it seems to be one mode — the most degrading mode that ever entered 
the mind of man — of carrying out the impulses of the spirit, common in all ages, which 
animated the pagan stoic and the christian ascetic. By the flogging and the knocking out of 
the tooth, the young men are taught to glory in suffering anguish, and to believe that it 
is manly to endure pain without a cry or a groan. On the same principle it may be held 
to be meritorious to inflict on themselves, without wincing, the utmost conceivable 
violation of the sense of taste. The more repugnant the process they pass through, the 
greater the virtue they exhibit, in their own estimation. 

After the last ceremony the young men were allowed to go away. For three or four 
months they were not allowed to come within three hundred yards of a woman. But 
once in the course of that time a great smoke was made with burning boughs, and the 
young men were brought up on one side of it, while women appeared, at a distance, on 
the other side. Then the young men went away for another month, or so. At the end 
of that time they assembled again and took part in a sham fight. This completed the 
long process of initiation, From that time they were free to exercise all the privileges 
of men, among which are the eating of the flesh of kangaroos and emus, and the taking 
of wives. This long course of alternate fasting and suffering is a very severe ordeal. It 
has often been observed that young men come out of it exhausted and sometimes half dead. 

During the intervals between the ceremonies of the Bora, the candidates are care- 
fully instructed by the old men in their traditions, in the very exact laws of consanguinity 
and marriage, hereafter set forth, in the rules concerning the use of particular kinds of 
food, and other things. They are truly a law-abiding people. Probably no community in 
Christendom observes the laws deemed most sacred so exactly as the Australian tribes 
observe their traditional rules. That kind and measure of moral purity which their un- 
written law enjoins is maintained with the utmost vigilance. A breach of morality, in 
regard to the relation between the sexes, exposes the offender to the risk of death. He 
must stand as a mark for the spears of his tribe, which in many cases have cut short the 
life of the culprit. 

The ceremonial of the Bora is the great educational system by which this exact 
observance of the laws is inculcated. 



156 INSTITUTIONS AND LAWS. 



The name " Bora" is derived from the " bor" or " boorr," the belt of manhood is 
there conferred upon the candidate. This "bor" is supposed to be endowed with 
magical power, so that by throwing it at an enemy sickness can be injected. 

According to some, Baia-me is supposed to be present at the Bora, and is personated 
by one of the old men ; others say it is Turramulan, the agent of Baia-me, or mediator, 
who appears. As above mentioned, in some of the tribes a sacred wand, "Dhurumbulum," 
given them by Baiame is exhibited, and the sight of this wand as waved by the old men 
in sight of the candidates imparts manly qualities. Before I heard of this wand, a black- 
fellow from Twofold Bay, near the south-east corner of this Colony, at a distance of full 
600 miles from the Namoi, told me that in his country " Dhurumbulum" was the name 
of the Creator of all things. 

Near the junction of the Hunter and the Isis, a few miles from Aberdeen, is the 
consecrated spot where, for generations, the blacks have held their Bora. To this spot I 
was taken by Mr. M'Donald, a squatter residing in the neighbourhood. It is a pleasant 
well-wooded glen at the foot of a high hill. On the ground is the horizontal figure of a 
man, roughly modelled by laying down sticks and covering them with earth so as to 
raise it from four to seven inches above the grouud. The arms and legs of the figure are 
stretched out as in the attitude assumed by a blackfellow in dancing, the hands being 
about on a level with the ears. The figure is 22 feet long and 12 feet wide from 
hand to hand. The body is 4 feet wide, and if the knees were straightened it would be 
25 feet from head to foot. Hough as the work is, there can be no mistake about it ; 
and though, of course, no features are distinguishable, the attitude has a lifelike expression 
to those who have seen an Aboriginal dance. Around this spot are 100 or 120 trees 
marked with the tomahawk in various regular patterns, some with concentric curves, 
some with simple angles. In some the marks reached as high as 15 feet from the ground 
Near the head of the human figure is a tree naturally bent, as is not uncommon in this 
country, into an almost horizontal position ; and along this tree the blacks have cut 
marks like the footprints of an emu. 

"While the young men are awaiting the ceremony, they are made to lie flat on the 
ground just in the posture of the figure above described. Then a stuffed emu is carried 
along the bending tree over the footprints, as if it were walking on them, and on coming 
down to the ground walks round the scene by a path of 150 yards. The candidates are 
made to pass through an ordeal of pain. But there is no knocking out of a tooth ; nor 
is the revolting practice mentioned by Mr. Honery practised here. The account the 
blacks give of this ordeal is that their god comes down through the trees with a great 
noise, and tosses each of the candidates up in the air, to see if he is good for anything ; 
and if they are bad he tears them to pieces. They say this deity is very good and very 
powerful. He can pull up trees by the roots and remove mountains. 



INSTITUTIONS AND LAWS. 157 



II.— MAERIAGE. 

The law of selection in marriage is set forth in a subsequent chapter ; but here, as a 
sequel to the Bora, it seems proper to mention the manner in which the privilege of 
taking a wife, conferred at that ceremony, is exercised. In some parts of Queensland an 
old man takes charge of the damsels in a tree, and as the candidates for matrimony come 
up he presents each of them with a bride. On the Hunter, when a man seeks a wife he 
goes to a camp where men and women are sitting together round a fire, and throws in a 
boomerang. If one of the men throws back a boomerang at him he has to fight for the 
privilege sought ; but if no one challenges him, he quietly steps in and takes one of the 
young women for his wife. „ 

In some tribes it is a custom, as soon as a girl is born, for her father or mother to 
betroth her to some man. Among the Wailwun it is common for old men to get young 
girls for wives, and for old women to become the wives of young men. There is no law 
restricting a man to one wife. It oftens happens that those who are strong enough to 
insist on having their own way have three and sometimes four wives — some have none at 
all. But in whatever manner a man becomes possessed of a wife, or whatever the 
number he can secure, he must take only those who, according to the laws of genealogy 
and marriage, are eligible for him. 

III.— SECLUSION OF WOMEN. 

It might be supposed that a people who do not wear any clothes must be utterly 
devoid of modesty ; but in their own way, within the limits of traditional rule, the 
Aborigines are very strict in the observance of the dictates of natural modesty. Their 
rules as to the seclusion of women correspond remarkably with the law of Moses in 
Leviticus (12th and 15th chapters) ; but the seclusion observed by the Australian women 
is even more strict and prolonged than that which is commanded in Leviticus. On the 
approach of childbirth the expectant mother is given into the charge of two elderly 
women, who take her to a sheltered spot, attend to her wants, and watch over her for 
many days, until she returns with her child to the camp. During the other period, 
referred to in Leviticus 15th, a woman must not be seen by a man — must not touch any- 
thing whatever that is used by the other natives, nor even walk upon a path frequented 
by them. 

A more singular rule in force among them is this — that a woman must not speak 
with or look upon the husband of her daughter. This rule is rigidly observed. If a man 
meets his mother-in-law by any chance, they instantly turn round, back to back, and 
remain at a distance. If one of them has a desire to communicate any message to the 
other it is done through a third party. They appear to think it would be indelicate in 



158 INSTITUTIONS AND LAWS. 



the extreme for a rnother-in-law and son-in-law to speak together. So far does this 
notion prevail, that even when an infant is betrothed, by the promise of her parents, the 
man to whom she is betrothed, from that hour, strictly avoids the sight of his future 
mother-in-law. 

I V.— CIRCUMCISION. 

Another part of the Mosaic Law — circumcision — is observed by some of the tribes. 
Dr. Leichhardt and other travellers have recorded this fact. The practice, however, is 
not in vogue over the whole of Australia. It is, as far as my information goes, in some 
of the northern parts only that it has been observed. 

V.— MEDICINE AND SORCERY. 

The medical properties of various herbs are known to the blacks. One common 
medicine is "boiyoi" (pennyroyal), a tonic. The people are strongly endowed with the 
self-restoring force, and recover from the ghastly wounds often inflicted in their fights with 
wonderful rapidity. Their usual surgical treatment of a wound is to rub earth into it. 

But the chief business of the medicine-man (krodgee or kuradyi) is to disenchant 
the afflicted. All kinds of pain and disease are ascribed to the magic of enemies ; and 
the usual way in which that magic is supposed to be exercised is by injecting stones into 
the body of the sufferer. Accordingly the kuradyi is provided with a number of stones, 
secreted in his belt ; and on visiting a patient sucks the part where the pain is felt until he 
has convinced the sufferer that the cure is in a fair way of being effected, and then 
produces stones, which he declares that he has extracted from the seat of pain. The 
kuradyis exercise a strong spell over the minds of their people, and are believed to have 
power to inflict plagues as well as to cure patients. 

VI.— PROPERTY. 

In regard to individual property, they appear to have no other law than that one 
should use for his own sustenance and enjoyment what he has in his own hands. Between 
the members of the same camp or tribe something like communism prevails. At all 
events, presents given to one of a tribe are speedily divided as far as possible among the 
rest ; but on tribal territorial property their rules are exact. Each tribe has its " taorai" 
or district marked off with minute accuracy, by watercourses, rocks, trees, and other 
natural land-marks ; and one cannot go upon the territory of another tribe without risk 
of losing his life. In some cases when individual blackfellows have gone in the company 
of white men into the " toarai" of another tribe, they have been waylaid and speared for 
the intrusion. 



INSTITUTIONS AND LAWS. 159 



But this jealous maintenance of tribal property has sometimes yielded to the con- 
siderations of a wider policy. For instance, the tribe whioh occupies the bunya-bunya 
district in Queensland have a law by which they admit other tribes to enter their territory 
in peace, at the time when the fruit ripens — once in three or four years. Whether the 
neighbouring tribes originally acquired this right by war, or whether it was conceded of 
good will, does not appear ; but certainly the law exists. "When, however, the other 
tribes enter the district they are not allowed to take anything but the bunya-bunya fruit. 
The opossums and other common sources of food supply they must not touch. Their 
visit lasts six weeks or more. And so strong is the hold which this traditional rule has 
upon their minds, that when urged by an intense craving for animal food, rather than 
transgress the law by killing an opossum, they have been known (it is said) to kill one of 
their own boys or girls, and devour the flesh. 

VII.— LEX TALIONIS. 

The Australian Aborigines carry out the principle of retaliation, not only as a 
dictate of passion, but as an ancient and fixed law. The relatives of a slain man are 
bound to avenge his death by killing some one of the tribe to which the slayer belongs. 
In some parts of the country a belief prevails that death, through disease, is, in many, 
if not in all cases, the result of an enemy's malice. It is a common saying, when illness 
or death comes, that some one has thrown his belt (boor) at the victim. There are 
various modes of fixing upon the murderer. One is to let an insect fly from the body 
of the deceased and see towards whom it goes. The person thus singled out is doomed. 

VIII.— BUKIAL AND MOUNKINQ EOE. THE DEAD. 

In all parts of the country the Aborigines show a great regard for their dead. They 
diifer much in the mode of so doing. Some bury the dead in the earth, and raise a 
circular mound over the grave. And of those who do this, some dig the grave so deep 
as to place the deceased in a standing position ; others place them sitting, and with the 
head higher than the surface of the ground but covered with a heap. They carefully 
preserve the graves, guarding them with boughs against wild animals. There are some- 
times as many as a hundred graves in one of their cemeteries ; and they present a sight 
that cannot fail to convince a stranger that the resting-places of the departed are sacred 
in the eyes of their friends and descendants. Sir Thomas Mitchell has given a sketch of 
the graves of two chiefs, on the top of a hill. It seems as if they had been buried with 
a hope of resurrection, that on rising from the dead they might at once survey the terri- 
tory over which they had ruled. 



160 INSTITUTIONS AND LAWS. 



Among the "Wailwun people a chief, or person regarded with unusual respect, is 
buried in a hollow tree. They first enclose the body in a wrapper, or coffin, of bark. 
The size of this coffin is an indication of the honor due to the deceased. Mr. E. J. 
Sparke, of Grinji, saw one chief buried in a coffin 13 feet long. 

As they drop the body thus enclosed into the hollow tree, the bearers and those who 
stand round them, join in aloud " whirr," like the rushing upwards of a wind. This, 
they say, represents the upward flight of the soul (" tohi") to the sky. 

In other places they deposit the dead body on the forks of a tree, and sometimes 
they light a fire under it, and sit down, so as to catch the droppings of the fat, hoping 
thus to obtain the courage and strength for which the dead man was distinguished. In 
some parts they eat the heart and liver of the dead for the same purpose. This is, in 
their view, no dishonor to the dead. And they do not eat enemies slain in battle. 
When the flesh is gone, they take down the bones from the trees and carry them about 
in baskets. 

Affection sometimes induces them to carry about the bones in this manner for a 
long time. It is no uncommon thing for a woman to carry the body or bones of her 
child for years. 

"When a death occurs they make great wailing. All night long I have heard their 
bitter lamentations. In some cases the wailing is renewed year after year ; and in spite 
of the cruelty of some of their practices, none who have heard their lamentations and 
seen their tears can doubt the sincerity of their grief. The fashion of their mourning 
is to plaster their heads and faces with white clay, and then to cut themselves with axes. 
I have seen a party of mourning women sitting on the ground, thus plastered over ; and 
blood running from gashes in their heads, over the clay, down to their shoulders. 



LAWS OF MARRIAGE AND DESCENT. 

■ 7t3®2@QQQG®= 

J/H.LL Kamilaroi blacks, and many other tribes, as far at least as Wide Bay in Queens- 
land and tbe Maranoa, are from their birth divided into four classes, distinguished in 
Kamilaroi by the following names. In some families all the children are " ippai" and 
"ippatha"; in others they are " murri" (not "mum," the general name for Australian 
Aborigines) and "matha"; in others " kubbi" and " kubbotha"; and in a fourth class of 
families "kumbo" and "biitha." The families take rank in this order : — Murri, Kumbo, 
Ippai, Kubbi. Besides this division into four classes, there is another division, founded 
on the names of animals, as bundar (kangaroo), dinoun (emu), dull (iguana), nurai 
(black snake), mute (opossum), murriira (padymelon), bilba (bandicoot). 

In the four classes there are on the Namoi ten divisions. They are — I (1), Murri 
and Matha Duli, (2) M. and M. murriira; II (3), Kumbo and Biitha Dinoun, (4) K. 
and B. Nurai ; III (5), Ippai and Ippatha Dinoun, (6) I. and I. Nurai, (7) I. and I. 
Bilba ; IV (8) Kubbi and Kubbotha Mute, (9) K. and K. Murriira, (10) K. and K. Duli. 
(In some parts there are additional subdivisions.) Ten rules of marriage are established 
in relation to these divisions : — 

I. Murri Duli may marry Matha Murriira, and any Butha. 
II. Murri Murriira may marry Matha Duli, and any Butha. 

III. Kumbo Dinoun may marry Butha Nurai, and any Matha. 

IV. Kumbo Nurai may marry Butha Dinoun, and any Matha. 

V. Ippai Dinoun may marry Ippatha Nurai, Kubbotha Duli, and Kubbotha 
Murriira. 
VI. Ippai Nurai may marry Ippatha Dinoun and Kubbotha Mute. 
VII. Ippai Bilba may marry Ippatha Nurai and Kubbotha Murriira. 
VIII. Kubbi Mute may marry Kubbotha Duli and Ippatha Dinoun. 
IX. Kubbi Murriira may marry Kubbotha Mute and Ippatha Nurai. 
X. Kubbi Duli may marry Kubbotha Murriira and Ippatha Bilba. 
The rules of descent are these : — 

I. The second name, or the totem, of the sons and daughters is always the same 
as their mother's. 
II. The children of a Matha are Kubbi and Kubbotha. 

III. The children of a Butha are Ippai and Ippatha. 

IV. The children of an Ippatha are Kumbo and Butha. 
V. The children of a Kubbotha are Murri and Matha. 

Thus the mother's names, not the father's, determine the names of the child in every case. 



162 LAWS OF MARRIAGE AND DESCENT. 



The children in no case take the first names of their parents, yet their names are 
determined invariably by the names of their parents. 

The effects of these rules, in passing every family through each of the four classes 
in as many generations, and in preventing the intermarriage of near relations, will appear 
on inspection of this pedigree : — 

1st gen. : Kubbi marries Ippatha. 

(their children are all) 



2nd gen. : Kumbo and Butha 

Kumbo marries Matha Butha is married to Murri 

(their children are) (their children are) 



3rd gen. : Kubbi Kubbotha Ippai Ippatha 

marries Ippatha married to Ippai marries Kubbotha married to Kubbi 



Mhgen.: Kumbo Butha Murri Matha Murri Matha Kumbo Butha 

If ippai in the third generation chose to marry ippatha, of a different totem, instead 
of kubbotha, three families out of the four descended from the first kubbi in the fourth 
generation would be kumbo and buta ; but if, as above, ippai marries kubbotha, then the 
third generation being equally divided between two classes, the children of the fourth 
generation are equally divided between the other two. 

The principles of equality and caste are combined in a most singular manner. "With 
regard to intermarriage, the effect of the above rules is to prevent marriage with either 
a sister, a half-sister, an aunt, a niece, or a first cousin related both by the father's and 
the mother's side. 

The foregoing names, with the classification and law founded upon them, extend far 
beyond the Kamilaroi tribes. In the Balonne River District there are four divisions 
of Kubbi, namely K. muriira, K. mute, K. duli, and K. giilu (bandicoot) ; the Kumbo are 
K. dinoun and K. burrowun (a kind of kangaroo) ; the Murri are M. mute and M. 
maieri (padymelon) ; and the Ippai are I, bundar and I. nurai. Among the Wailwun 
there are four divisions of Murri, — M. murrira, M. mute, M. guru, and M. duli ; three 
of Kumbo, — K. dinoun, K. nurai, and K. bundar ; three of Ippai, — I. dinoun, I. nurai, 
and I. bundar ; four of Kubbi, — K. murrira, K. mute, K. guru, and K. duli. Others 
among the Wailwun tribes have sixteen subdivisions, four iu each class, with the totems 
(the same for each of the four classes), muriiwi (kangaroo), rjuri (emu), tdhuru (brown 
snake), and kuraki (opossum). 



LAWS OF MARRIAGE AND DESCENT. 163 



And even where the names " ippai," &c, are unknown, the same system prevails. 
Over a large portion of Queensland, between Moreton Bay and Wide Bay, the following 
names are used for a similar purpose : — barag and baraggun ; bundar and bundarun ; 
bandur and bandurun ; derwain and derwaiggun ; the name in -gun or -un, being in each 
case the feminine of the foregoing. Many, if not all, of the Aborigines have other names 
in addition to those they take by descent. Thus, on the Barwan, one " Ippai nurai" is 
called also " Kurai bruddhin muniye " (duck's feather). An " Ippatha dinoun" is called 
" yaddai yunderi" (opossum cloak). A Wiraiarai man is surnamed " tarratalu" (speared 
in the shoulder) ; his son is " Tippummele" (an eagle looking all round) ; another is 
" Thugerwun" (a turtle). They give names to Englishmen who become known to them. 
Thus they call one gentleman " Dungumbir" (the rain-maker) ; another " Wolumbiddi" 
(large head); another "Tarunderai" (great legs and arms). .Billy, Mr. Dangar's shep- 
herd, is " Kumbo dinoun," with the surname " Bunberuge," meaning broke his leg by a 
fall from his horse. Among the "Wailwun tribes one Kubbi tdhuru is also called 
" Kuakumboan," another is "Ttfulurnan" (bald), from the bald hill where he was born. 
An Ippai tdhuru is " Dhlnawurai " (crooked foot). A King, a MurrI, is also called 
" Dinabukul." A woman — Butha tdhuru — is " Mugumilla " (blind) ; another is called 
" Winaliwurai " (lame) ; another is " Wullubungubia " (grey-headed). 

Among the Kogai blacks to the westward of the Balonne Eiver, the names are — 
Instead of ippai and ippata — urgilla and urgillagun. 
Instead of murri and mata — wuggo and wuggogun. 
Instead of kubbi and kubbotha — obur and oburugun. 
Instead of kumbo and buta — unburri and unburrigun. 

There are five names in use among the men about "Wide Bay, viz., bundar, derwain, 
balkoi'n, tandor, barag. 

At Moreton Bay, the wife (not the sister) of a " derwain" is " derwaingun ;" the 
son of a " bandur" is " derwain " ; the son of a " barag" also is " derwain." Sometimes 
the son of a "derwain" is "bundar." Sometimes the son of a "derwain" is called 
" barag." Brothers bear the same name. 

Among the Pikumbul tribe, on the Macintyre, " Tuluma " (black kangaroo) is a 
totem. Henry Bose, for twenty-two years a faithful servant of Mr. Christian, on the 
Mooki, is Ippai yuluma ; his father and mother were MurrI and Kubbotha yuluma. 

On the Narran the divisions are— I. (1) Murri and Matha duli, (2) M. and 
M. mute, (3) M. and M. maieri ; II. (4) Kumbo and Butha bundar, (5) K. and B. 
nurai, (6) K. and B. kugugalu (bandicoot) ; III. (7) Ippai and Ippatha bundar, (8) 
I. and I. nurai ; IV. (9) Kubbi and Kubbotha duli, (10) K. and K. maieri. 



164 LAWS OF MARRIAGE AND DESCENT. 



The relative position of brothers and of sisters is marked by a singular nomenclature. 
There is no word in Kamilaroi meaning simply " brother," but one for " elder brother," 
another for "younger brother." Daiadi is elder brother ; gullami is younger brother. Of 
six brothers the eldest has five gullami and no daiadi ; the youngest has five daiadi and 
no gullami ; the fourth has three daiadi and two gullami. Of eight sisters the eldest 
(who is boadi to all the rest) has seven burl and no boadi ; the youngest has seven boadi 
and no burl ; the third has two boadi and five buri. 

The Rev. Lorimer Fison, Missionary of the Wesleyan Church in Fiji, on seeing 
these rules of marriage, descent, and relationship, said they contained the principles of 
the "Tamil," a system which prevails among the Tamil tribes of India, among the 
Fijians, and among the North American Indians. 

Subjoined are the eight characteristics of " Tamil," compared severally with illustra- 
tions of the Australian system. 

I. In Tamil, A being a male, his brother's children are considered as his own children, 
his sister's children are his nephews and nieces ; his sister's grandchildren, as well 
as his brothers, are considered as his grandchildren. So in the above system, Kumbo 
Nurai's brother is also Kumbo nurai. They marry women of the same name. Each 
marries a Matha ; each Matha's children are Kubbi and Kubbotha ; so that each man's 
brother's sons and daughters have the same names as his own sons and daughters. But 
Kumbo's sisters are Butha, and their children are Ippai and Ippatha. And, as seen in 
the genealogy, the grandchildren of Kumbo and Butha, brothers and sisters, have the 
same names. 

II. In Tamil, A being a female, her sister's children are her sons and daughters. 
Her brother's children are her nephews and nieces. Her brother's grandchildren, as 
well as her sister's grandchildren, are her grandchildren. Taking Butha nurai, instead 
of Kumbo nurai, in the above rule I, it will be seen that her sister's children have the 
same names as her own, while her brother's children have different names, and the same 
names return in the grandchildren. 

III. All A's father's brothers are A's fathers. All A's mother's sisters are A's 
mothers. So Kumbo's father's brothers are, like his father, Kubbi ; and Kumbo's 
mother's sisters, like his mother herself, are all Ippatha. 

IV. All A's father's sisters are A's aunts, and A's mother's brothers are his uncles. 
So Kumbo's father's sisters are Kubbotha, while his mother is Ippatha. His mother's 
brothers are Ippai, his father is Kubbi. 



V. The children of A's father's brothers, and of his mother's sisters, are A's 
brothers and sisters. The children of A's father's sisters, and of his mother's brothers, 
are his cousins. So in the Australian system, the children of two or more brothers have 
the same names ; and the children of two or more sisters have the same names ; but the 
children of a brother and a sister must have different names. Thus the children of 
several Ippais are all Murri and Matha ; the children of several Ippathas are all Kumbo 
and Butha. But the children of an Ippai have not the same names as the children of 
his sister Ippatha. 

VI. A being a male, the children of his male cousins are his nephews and nieces, 
the children of his female cousins are his sons and daughters. This rule and the Aus- 
tralian rule coincide at some points. Thus, in the pedigree given above, Ippai and 
Ippatha are the cousins of Kubbi. Ippai's children have different names to those of 
Kubbi ; and Ippatha's children, like her cousin Kubbi' s, are all Kumbo and Butha. 

VII. All brothers of A's grandfathers and grandmothers, are his grandmothers. All 
sisters of his grandfather and grandmothers are his grandmothers. So Kumbo's grand- 
father by the father's side is Kumbo, and all brothers of that grandfather are Kumbo. 
Kumbo's maternal grandfather is Murri, so are that grandfather's brothers. Kumbo's 
paternal grandmother and her sisters are all Matha ; his maternal grandmother and her 
sisters are all Butha. 

VIII. In Tamil the elder brother is distinguished from all the rest by the title 
" brother." The Australian rule as to the use of the terms " daiadi " and " gullami " 
for brothers, and of " boadi " and " buri " for sisters, is more complex, but indicates some 
similarity of thought as to the distinction. 

In reference to the above remarkable system of classification, marriage, descent, and 
relationship, I have been careful to test the accuracy of the rules, by obtaining inde- 
pendent statements from many Aborigines and half-castes, and comparing them together. 
Thus I am now able, with unhesitating certainty, to state that the system is as above 
described ; and, while there are local variations in names and divisions, the rules are sub- 
stantially the same all over the north-western parts of this Colony, and in a large por- 
tion of Queensland. And in the absence of any architectural monuments of antiquity 
among the Australian race, this all-comprehensive social classification and conservative 
marriage law may be regarded as constituting a memorial of the most significant 
character. 



RANDOM ILLUSTRATIONS OF ABORIGINAL LIFE AND CHARACTER. 



JB{OR the most part, the blackfellows who have not come under the pernicious influence 
of the lazy and drunken habits which generally prevail over those that live near the 
towns are well formed and agile. On the Barwan I have seen some of the race of Murri 
over 6 feet high. As a rule, the stnallness of the calf of the leg, especially when con- 
trasted with a fine muscular development about the shoulders, detracts from their 
appearance ; but some are really splendid models of symmetry and strength. The aspect 
of a troop of them on the march, armed, and coloured with red and yellow ochre, recalls 
the designation of the "noble savage." The portrait which forms the frontispiece to this 
work is a true picture of the aboriginal man of Australia. Some more intellectual and 
prepossessing countenances are to be found among them. But this man is an average 
specimen of thousands, without a touch of European culture or a scrap of adornment ; 
but with muscular frames, and faces expressive both of energy and of some measure of 
thought. 

There is a great variety in their countenances ; some remind one of the Hindoo 
physiognomy ; some are like the African negro ; and it is no uncommon thing to find 
among the blackfellows at a station some bearing the names " Paddy" and " Sandy," 
given them in consequence of the characteristics of Irishmen and Scotchmen having been 
traced or fancied in their countenances. At Durundurun, near the Glass-house 
Mountains, Moreton Bay, I found a family with decidedly Hebrew physiognomy. It is 
a curious coincideuce that these men call their race by the name " Dan." At the Bora 
Station, belonging to Mr. Orr, between the Namoi and the Castlereagh, a blackfellow 
came up, among others, whom I at once declared to be a good representative of the Jack 
Tars of OlcUEngland. There was certainly as much of the thorough English expression 
in his frank and daring countenance as of the Irish and Scotch expression in others. 
And Mr. Orr told me of a feat done by this blackfellow worthy of a British seaman. He 
was in the service of two white men at a solitary hut, when a band of hostile natives 
came up to kill them. This brave fellow stood in the doorway, and declared that they 
should never kill the white men till they had first killed him ; and his firmness defeated 
their attempt. 



ILLUSTRATIONS OF ABORIGINAL LIFE AND CHARACTER. 167 



There is a blackfellow on the Narran called among the whites " Peter," of whose 
power over his tribe the following example was told me, in 1871, by a squatter on 
the Barwan. A few weeks before my visit to Bundarbarina, two young men of the 
Narran Biver were condemned to death by the tribe for a violation of the marriage 
law, in taking women whose names marked them as not open to the choice of these 
men. The women who shared their crime were condemned to die also. But the two 
young men were in the service of squatters ; and, as Peter wished to commend 
himself to the confidence and patronage of the white people, he resolved to save them. 
He therefore stood forward with his shield to meet the spears thrown at them by a 
number of the men of the tribe. The two women aided him in his defence ; but the 
young men left him in the midst of the danger. Such were the skill and prowess of 
Peter that he came out unscathed. He warned the two cowards that if ever they 
offended again he would leave them to their fate. 

Some time ago a blackfellow died on the Barwan, below Bourke ; he was buried for 
two days. Then Tommy- Tommy and other blacks dug up the body, and skinned it. 
King Rory, who told me about it, though an old man, declared that he never heard of 
any other man being thus treated ; he thought it was infamous. The wicked Tommy- 
Tommy keeps a bone of the dead man, and believes that he can kill any one by throwing 
this bone towards him. 

A few years ago Bory being desirous to go with Mr. Sparke to the Races, was told 
that they could not go if it continued to rain ; it was then raining heavily, with no 
prospect of fine weather. Bory cut bark here and there, and threw it on the ground, 
calling "pu-a! pu-a!" according to a custom he had learnt of his father. The rain 
ceased in time for him to go to the Eaces ; and he told me that the blackfellows up in the 
Worrumbul (Milky Way) had stopped the rain for him. 

Bory was a young man, living on a plain 50 miles from the Barwan, when he first 
saw white men ; he thought they were wunda (ghosts) ; he ran away when he first saw 
a horse. After that a white man came and lived a long time among the blacks ; Bory 
made fishing-nets for him. This white man had very long hair and beard ; he returned 
up the Namoi for Sydney. 

Henry Bose, by birth Ippai Tuluma, the son of MurrI and Kubbotha Yuluma, of 
the Pikumbul tribe, on the Macintyre Biver (in Queensland, near the border of this 
Colony), has been twenty -five years in the service of Mr. Christian, on Liverpool Plains, 
and a good trustworthy servant he has proved himself. This man told me that, when he 
was a very little boy, some of his tribe having committed robbery, the black police were 



168 ILLUSTRATIONS OF ABORIGINAL LIFE AND CHARACTER. 



sent to " disperse" them. Poor little Ippai hid himself in the prickly scrub ; and from 
his hiding-place saw the black police cut off with their swords the heads of men and 
women ; he did not then know what the swords were, having never seen anything like 
them ; he also saw these policemen take up little children by their feet and dash their 
brains out against the trees. That is the way British authority has been enforced in 
many cases by the black police — a force armed for the maintenance of the peace. 

As an instance of the way in which power is sometimes transferred among the tribes, 
Mr. Honery related the following incident : — A king or chief on the Barwan having sent 
his wife away for a time, when she came back with a baby he said it was not his, and 
beat her ; he then killed the baby by driving a tomahawk into its head. The woman's 
brother coming up, and seeing what was done, speared the chief and killed him. Then 
the tribe, finding their chief killed, attacked the slayer ; but on his telling what had 
taken place, some took part with him. In a fight, he and his partisans overpowered the 
avengers of the late chief; and having thus shown his superior prowess, he was recog- 
nised by the tribe as their king. He was well known to the colonists as " Wyaburra 
Jackey." 

The people about the junction of the Hunter and the Iris give this account of the 
origin of Rivers : — Some blackfellows were travelling in search of water, and were very 
thirsty. One of them, with a tomahawk, cut a tree, in which there was a gulagur 
(opossum's hole), and a stream flowed out which became a river. 

The same people tell of a chief who sent some of his men to strip bark. They came 
back and told him they could not get any. These men had broken the laws, and for their 
sin a terrible storm came down upon them. The chief then took a tomahawk and stripped 
off a sheet of bark ; he told his men to get under it. They said it was not large enough. 
Then he stretched it, and made it longer and broader. A t last they all consented to go 
under it ; he threw it down and killed them all. 

The following vision of an aboriginal woman of the Wodi-wodi tribe was related to 
me by her niece, Mrs. Malone (half-caste) : — Mary Ann (by that name the aboriginal 
woman was known to the colonists) fell into a trance and remained for three days 
motionless. At the end of that time Mrs. Malone's uncle let off a gun which awoke her 
out of the trance. She then told her friends that she had seen a long path, with fire on 
both sides of it. At the end of this path stood her father and mother, waiting for her. 
As she went on they said to her " Mary Ann, what brought you here ? " She said " I 
don't know ; I was dead." Her mother, whom she saw quite plain, said "You go back." 
And she woke. 



ILLUSTRATIONS OP ABORIGINAL LIFE AND CHARACTER. 169 



When I first went down the jSTamoi, in 1853, I saw there an old blackfellow named 
Charley, of whom the early settlers told this narrative : — On the first occupation of that 
part of the country by squatters, Charley was the leader of a set of blackfellows who 
greatly annoyed them by spearing cattle. Many attempts were made to cut short 
Charley's career with a bullet ; but he was too active to be overtaken, and too nimble to 
be made a target of. One day a stockman pursued him a long way with a pistol, but 
could not get a successful shot at him. Shortly afterwards the same stockman was 
travelling unarmed through the bush when his horse was knocked up, and he had to 
dismount and try to drag the weary brute after him. "While he was in this plight a 
number of blackfellows suddenly sprang out of the bushes and surrounded him. At their 
head was Charley. The stockman thought he was now to die ; but instead of spearing 
him, Charley addressed him in this manner : "You 'member blackfellow, you chase'm with 
pistol, you try shoot him. I that blackfellow, Charley ! Now me say I kill you ; then 
me say bel (not) I kill you; bel blackfellow any more coola (anger) 'gainst whitefellow ; 
bel whitefellow any more coola 'gainst blackfellow ! You give me 'bacca." So he made 
friends with the white men ; and from that time was a useful neighbour and often servant 
to them — protecting their cattle and minding their sheep. Like many a blackfellow who 
was at first an enemy and afterwards a steady friend, Charley made the settlers know 
that his word could be relied on. 

One common characteristic of the Aborigines of Australia, which ought not to be 
unnoticed, is their tender care for the blind, and especially for the aged blind. Dr. 
Creed (now of Scone) and other travellers on the northern coast of Australia have 
related instances of the care taken of the blind. They say that these afflicted people 
were the fattest of the company, being supplied with the best of everything. I also saw 
an old blind Murri, on the Balonne, who was treated with great attention by his tribe. 
He held a spear in his hand, and when he wanted guidance stretched it out for some one 
to take. Seeing him signalling for a guide I took the end of the spear for him ; and all 
his friends joined in an approving laugh as the old man said to me "murruba inda" 
(good are you). 

Many reminiscences of a higher kind might be produced from the several Mission 
Stations. When the present Bishop of Brisbane, Dr. Hale, then Bishop of Perth, in 
Western Australia, was coming to attend the General Conference, and to assist in 
forming the General Synod for the Church of England in Australia and Tasmania, he 
visited the Mission which he had established more than twenty years ago at Poonindie, 
Port Lincoln, and gave public and solemn expression to his confidence in the christian 
character of twenty-nine Aborigines there by administering to them the Communion of 
the Lord's Supper. The aboriginal congregation testified their gratitude to the Bishop, 
as the Founder of the Mission, by presenting to him a service of plate, which had cost 
them over £13. 



170 ILLUSTRATIONS OF ABORIGINAL LIFE AND CHARACTER. 



One of the first-fruits of that mission was Daniel Tudhku, a native of the Murray 
River, who was for years a diligent workmen, a devout worshipper, and a zealous pro- 
moter of the Gospel. The last character he fulfilled by visiting his countrymen, and 
bringing in all whom he could persuade to come and receive instruction at the station. 
When that man was on his death-bed, the ruling passion of his life was strongly ex- 
pressed in his prayer that a mission might be established on the Murray, for the benefit of 
his tribe. At the last he gave a remarkable proof of his faith and patience : — As he was 
evidently in great pain, those who stood by expressed their concern for him, on which he 
said — " Oh ! there's no cause for impatience ; this is the Lord's doing ; let him do what 
seemeth him good." 

Poor Harry ! I must not end this chapter without a word or two about him. "When 
I was preaching on the Upper Paterson, in 1851, he was working as a boy for Mr. 
Alexander Cameron, a highland farmer, then tenant of Gruygallon, now cultivating his 
own property on the Dingo Creek, Manning River. Harry had been brought down from 
the Namoi to Maitland, about 400 miles, by some carriers ; and found his way from 
Maitland up the Paterson. Cameron and his wife treated him very kindly, and he was 
content to stay with them and make himself useful. He used to come in with the small 
congregation that gathered in their house, to the evening service, once a fortnight. He 
was pleased at being recognised as one for whom the minister cared : and I found that 
by merely acting on the rule — " honour all men" — treating him as a fellow-creature, I 
had won his friendship. About four years afterwards I met him in the district of his 
tribe, at Bungulgully, near the Namoi. He had heard of my coming and went out on the 
track to meet me. His countenance expressed his joy. He gave me help in learning 
Kamilaroi, and listened with earnest attention to my endeavours to express, in his native 
tongue, the thought, " murruba Immanuel ; kamil naragedul murruba yealokwai nerma" 
(good is Immanuel; there is not another good like him), and the facts that prove the 
truth of that assertion to a simple mind. 

"When I went down the Namoi in 1871, there was no one else of whom I thought 
so much as Harry of Bungulgully, my first and most hopeful friend among the Australian 
Aborigines. When I came to the place, I found that he had been accidentally killed. 
The curse of Aborigines, and settlers too, in many instances — rum — was the occasion of 
the accident. After drinking at a public-house till his brain was confused, he leapt on 
his horse and rode full gallop under a tree, with the arm of which his head came in con- 
tact. Poor Harry ! it shall be more tolerable for thee in the day of judgment than for 
many who have abused greater advantages. 



A PARTING WORD FOR THE RACE OF MURRI. 



J^ltlHE recent history of the race into whose life and thoughts some glimpses are 
offered in the preceding pages is so entwined with that of the progress of the British 
people in Australia that it should not be difficult to awaken an interest in their behalf. 

It has been the misfortune of the Murri and kindred tribes, as it was of the 
Carribee, the Delaware, and the Hottentot, to be found in the way of European 
colonization ; and the Murri have not seen the white man take possession of their territory 
without many an attempt (by deeds of cunning and of blood) to stop the invasion and 
to avenge the injury. It would be easy to gather from the records of British colonization 
in Australia many instances of horrid crimes committed by the Aborigines. They are, in 
fact, partakers of the worst passions of human nature. But it must not be forgotten 
that among the people of British origin who have come to settle upon the land formerly 
occupied by Murri alone, have been some whose crimes against the Aborigines were at 
least equal in atrocity to theirs. In short, there has been war, and along certain Hues of 
Australian territory there is still war, between the Colonists and the Aborigines. In this 
warfare cunning and ferocity have been developed j and the remembrance of what cunning 
and ferocity have done tends to make the Colonists slow to recognize any characteristics 
of an opposite kind in the blacks. There has been a tendency to seek reasons for 
believing that these people are not of the same species as ourselves. And even in a 
volume of Gospel Sermons the assertion has been, somewhat oracularly, published to the 
world, that for the Aborigines there is no immortality, that they have no idea of God, 
no devout feeling, nor any capacity for such thoughts and feelings. 

It has, however been shown, in this book, out of their own mouths, from their songs 
and their cherished traditions, that they are by no means destitute of some qualities in which 
civilized men glory — such as the power of inventing tragic and sarcastic fiction, the thirst 
for religious mystery, stoical contempt of pain, and reverence for departed friends and 
ancestors. It may even be affirmed, with some reason, that they have handed down with 
reverential care, through many generations, a fragment of primeval revelation. The 
manner in which they have displayed these characteristics presents to us such a strange 
mixture of wisdom and folly, of elevating and degrading thoughts, of interesting and of 
repulsive traditions, of pathetic and grotesque observances, — that, in order to account for 
the apparent contradictions, we must have recourse to the supposition of an ancient 
civilization from which this race has fallen, but of which they have retained some 
memorials. 



172 A PARTING WORD FOR THE RACE OF MURRI. 



The dark side of this people has not been concealed in this book. Their degrading 
customs and their brutal crimes have been spoken of. A very large book might be filled 
with instances in which Australian Aborigines have exercised the nobler qualities of 
man, as faithful servants and true friends of Europeans. In no branch of the Human 
Family can there be found more convincing proofs of gratitude and affection. Many a 
settler and traveller could relate instances of blacks who, when once assured that a 
white man was their friend indeed, held to him in danger and distress with unalterable 
attachment. The faithfulness with which Jacky Jacky attended the explorer Kennedy 
in his last hours, which has been commemorated by the Muses of History and Painting, 
is by no means a solitary case of devoted attachment. 

Many a lost English child has been saved from a miserable end in the bush by the 
earnest and clever search of aboriginal trackers ; many a colonist has been rescued from 
the floods by aboriginal swimmers ; and many a time has the poison injected by a snake- 
bite been sucked from a wounded settler by a blackfellow. There have been instances 
at different mission stations, of Aborigines who manifested in their lives a good under- 
standing of the principles of the Christian Eaith, and a conscientious resolution to fulfil 
its obligations. As for the artistic part of worship, a congregation assembled in St. 
Phillip's, one of the episcopal churches of Sydney, has heard approvingly the sacred 
music of the service, without knowing until afterwards the fact that an aboriginal 
organist was leading their devotions. 

Hitherto, it must be confessed, British colonization has done much to destroy, and 
British Christianity has done little to save, the Aborigines of Australia. Sometimes 
effort for their good is discouraged by the anticipation of their speedy extinction. 
But this too popular theory of the speedy extinction of the Aboriginal race must be 
modified, if not negatived by such a sight as I have seen, and as may still be seen in 
some parts of New South Wales, — an assembly of hundreds of them, including dozens of 
hoary heads, and dozens of infants at the breast. 

When the Christianity we profess has become a living and a ruling power in the 
British Australian community, — when the questions concerning different ecclesiastical 
traditions and rules, which at present engross too .large a proportion of our zeal, have 
given place to a supreme desire that the will of God may be done upon earth, — it will be 
one of the objects which the Australian Church will seek with the most intense earnest- 
ness, to convey to the remnant of the race of Murri and to their kindred, from Cape York 
to Cape Leuwin, the knowledge of the love of Him who gave himself a ransom for all. 



Sydney : Thomas Richards, Government Printer.— 1875. 




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