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Silver Linings on a Cloudy Day 

It is of great credit to the membership of our 
Society, and in particular our President, Stephanie Stoffel, 
that on a cool Spring day in New York, not only Tax Day 
(April 15) and one day after the stock market suffered its 
greatest dive in recent memory, but having had three of our 
scheduled speakers forced to cancel for various reasons with 
very little notice, we were able to put on such an engaging 
and memorable program. (For the record, the scheduled 
speakers had been Karoline Leach, Hugues Lebailly, and 
Abelardo Morrel, and we hope to hear from them at later 

After a publications committee meeting, a board 
meeting, and a nice lunch at the Cornell Club, we began with 
a few announcements and a cheery 
report by Lena and Mickey Salins on 
the Maxine Schaeffer reading. 

First up was a live (and 
exhiliarating) performance of songs 
— in their first public presentation — 
from the musical "Dreams for Alice" 
by its composer, Gilbert Hetherwick, 
accompanying himself on synthesized 
acoustic guitar and harmonica. Louis- 
iana native Hetherwick is from a 
musical family and although he has a 
degree in architecture, has chosen 
music as his life's work, both as a 
performer in clubs around the South and 
eventually an executive in the business 
end, currently serving as the Senior 
Vice President and General Manager of 
Angel Records. 

Eleven years ago, living in "an 
English Gothic gate house", he 
happened to be reading a biography of 
John Lennon and "awoke to find the television on with a 
BBC broadcast of AW\ managing to watch only the "down 
the rabbit-hole" scene before falling back asleep. In the 
morning, he had an epiphany and began writing "as if Lennon 
were collaborating with Carroll" - morphing the Lennon 
style and texture from his "psychedelic" period with 
Carroll's life and writings - and described to us how in the 
next few months he would sit in a park with "a tablet, a pen, 
and a copy of A W" to draft the work. (A subsequent question 
period made it clear this was a writing tablet.) 

He has written and re-written the work several 
times, incorporating scenes from the book into an extended 
musical which moves in and out of Carroll's life and the 
Alice books, and the loving friendship of Dodgson and Alice. 
The songs have been recorded on a non-commercial CD 
intended to demo the show to anyone interested in backing 
a stage production or film. 

Gilbert brought along two performers from his CD 
to accompany him - the talented Irish folksinger Sheila 
Noonan and the fine actor who portrayed Lewis Carroll, 

David Foil. The voices he has chosen were a mixture of 
singing actors and the musically very gifted. Gilbert, 
portraying the White Rabbit, tends toward a "blues holler" 
style, with Nixonian timbre and heartfelt growls, groans, 
and histrionics; David to a more recitativo mode; with 
Sheila's lovely, liltingly youthful soprano tying it all together 
as Alice. 

Words cannot do justice to a live performance; 
fortunately the next best thing is available. Gilbert 
generously distributed copies of his CD to those in 
attendance, and is happy to make them available to the rest 
of us. 1 Incidentally, another result of his joining us is that 
Thea Connors, the young woman who is producing and 
directing "AW\ A Nice Madness" (see Far-flung, p. 22) 
decided to use his "Cheshire Cat" 
song as a curtain call piece. 

Henry George Liddell is 
known to popular culture as Alice's 
father, but his immortality in the 
scholastic world resides in his 
Greek-English Lexicon, written 
with Robert Scott. August Imholtz, 
in our first lecture, added liveliness 
and humor to what could have been 
a dry dissertation on the history of 
lexicons and the position and 
importance of the Liddell-Scott. 

Beginning in the first 
century B.C. with the Alexandrian 
grammarian Didymus, nicknamed 
Chalkenteros (roughly, "buns of 
bronze" for his prolific output), 
August got as far as Anticlides when 
a Bellman's shout of "Stop all that!" 
- Charlie Lovett was the "shill" - took us forward 1600 
years to Henri Estienne, or Stephanus, whose Thesaurus 
Grcecce Linguce (1572) of definitions (in Latin, of course) 
was a monument in the renaissance of Greek learning to the 
Western world. Johann Scapula's pirated abridgement, 
published seven years later, became for centuries the 
standard student text (it was referred to twice in Carroll's 

August led us through a "delicatessen" of German 
lexicographers and a few American and English, bringing 
us to David Talboy's proposition to Robert Scott that he 
write a lexicon, to which he agreed as long as Liddell was 
brought into it. Lexicons do not rise Athena-like from the 
brows of their authors, but are based upon others' work, in 
this case mainly Franz Passow's. From the early 1830s to 
its 1843 publication, the Liddell and Scott worked in 
"monastic" regimen. (After Talboy's death in 1840, the 
Oxford University Press took over the publishing 

In 1846, an American Classics Professor at 
Columbia named Henry Drisler edited Harper Brothers' first 

American printing of the work, and this went through eight 
subsequent editions. An example of one of Drisler's 
voluminous revisions, marked with obelisks, is "ayrcvXr] is 
not the leash, but something on it". 

So "why was it found necessary and economically 
feasible to issue revisions of a dictionary of a dead, ancient 
language?" inquired August. He answered by demonstrating 
how it was not the language, but our knowledge of it which 
was changing radically. New methods of textual criticism, 
new inscriptions and discoveries of papyri yielded new 
words or new examples of their usage. Furthermore, 
lexigraphical standards were becoming more scientific, 
under the leadership of the Brothers Grimm (yes, them). 
Their Deutsches Worterbuch, attempting to show each 
word's variants, etymology, and development, began in 1 838, 
and was not considered complete until 1960[!]. Before their 
time, etymology had been called by Voltaire an inexact 
exercise "in which the consonants are of very little 
importance and the vowels of none at all." 

Imholtz demonstrated that the innovations of the 
Liddell-Scott lexicon went far beyond the fact that the 
definitions were in English instead of Latin or German; 
rather that, in the words of Liddell's biographer, "the uses 
of each word were traced from its simplest and most 
rudimentary meaning to its various derivative and 
metaphorical applications, the steps which connected these 
different shades of meaning were clearly marked; and each 
gradation was illustrated as far as possible historically by 
apt quotations from authors of successive dates." 

August has set himself the task of investigating the 
incorporation of Drisler's revisions back into the British 
printings, and believes he will have access to the Drisler- 
Liddell correspondence, hoping not to "get too carried away 
by the excitement of it all." We wish him well. 

A short intermezzo was provided by ^-generation 
Carrollian Lena Salins {aet. 9 l A, granddaughter of the Schae- 
fers) and 2 nd -generation Lucy Lovett, aet. 8, who performed 
a jaunty skit of Alice and the White Rabbit. 

Four years ago, Charlie Lovett purchased the 
collection of Philip Blackburn, which led him to investigate 
the nature and character of this little-known Carrollian, who 
is only familiar to us as one of the editors of Logical 
Nonsense (1934), a compendium of Carroll's works. This 
was the subject of his fascinating and well-received talk. 

The collection of nearly five hundred items which 
was put together in the late 1920s and throughout the 1930s 
appears to be intact. Blackburn's Carrollian career can only 
be described as "short and brilliant". During the same years, 
he published biographies of Washington Irving and James 
Fenimore Cooper, but Charlie has been unable to ferret out 
any details of his earlier, or subsequent, life. But in those 
few years, Blackburn's activities brought him close to many 
well-known Carrollians, such as Morris Parrish, Arthur 
Houghton, Enrique Zanetti, Falconer Madan, Florence 

Becker Lennon, and even Alice Hargreaves herself. 

He apparently helped Lennon on her biography and 
also lent material to the Centenary celebrations at Columbia 
in 1932, where he sat on the speaker's platform with Mrs. 
Hargreaves and presumably met her at one or more of the 
private ceremonies, invitations to which remain in the 
collection. It must have been an unimaginable thrill for a 
young man, only three or four years after having begun a 
Carroll collection. 

"Alice has probably had more astonishing experiences 
than any other heroine in the English language. She has 
tripped her way blithely around the world ignoring 
immigration laws, tariffs, and the complexes of unrea- 
soned nationalism. She has become the heritage and 
property of the world." 

~ Philip Conklin Blackburn 

Blackburn probably met Morris Parrish at one of 
these gatherings as well, eventually living in Parrish 's house 
in Pine Valley, New Jersey, and collaborating with him on A 
Supplementary List of the Writings of Lewis Carroll, 
describing additions to the Parrish collection since his 1928 

The List was published in an edition of 66 copies 
intended to go with the subscribers to the first volume - 
leaving Blackburn himself no copy of the 1928 predecessor. 
Eventually, with Parrish's help, he made a deal with the 
Library of Congress, and acquired a copy in 1934. Charlie's 
research has uncovered that, in fact, there was a total of 73 

"These give one a certain feeling of intimacy with the 
author; he here, so to speak, grants us a private audience 
before making his public bow. As a collection of an author 
nears some semblance of completeness, there is a certain 
satisfaction in seeing the body literary whole and perfect 
before us: there stands a man whose life in print is 
displayed in unity. But there is also the joy of knowing that 
always some new shading and growth is possible, and in 
the perpetual rounding out of the picture is continuing 

- Morris Parrish, in manuscript 

Blackburn apparently then moved on to work with 
the Houghton collection, but there have been no results of 
that collaboration uncovered. In 1934, he signed a contract 
with Putnam to put out a one-volume compendium of the 
works of Lewis Carroll, and thus Logical Nonsense came 
out in 1934 in both a trade and a deluxe edition, with 
Blackburn's introduction, bibliography, and notes. 

Much of Blackburn's passion for collecting was 
for the translations, and he had nearly fifty volumes in 
fourteen foreign tongues. He had clearly intended to 
compile a bibliography of all translations, as his collection 
contains a manuscript titled "Introduction" dealing with the 

nuances of idiomatic translation, and investigating how this 
"cultural chameleon" can be appreciated by minds as 
different as the French and the Chinese. His book promised 
to provide commentary on the various translations, 
something even the excellent works by Warren Weaver and 
Nina Demurova have not done. 

Charlie then shared with us (via slides) examples 
of rarities and highlights from the Blackburn collection. One 
of the more interesting was a collection of commemorative 
envelopes which he sent to postmasters of towns with 
Carroll-related names, and asked them cancel them "neatly 
and lightly" and send back to him, dated July 3, 1935, the 
70 th anniversary of the publication of AW. Postmarks 
("cachets") were received from, among other places, Mock, 
MT; Turtle, MI; Cheshire, MA; Alice, ND; both Lewis and 
Carroll, IA; Wonderland, CA; and Looking-Glass OR. Lovett 
has not been able to fmd any trace of Blackburn after 1936. 
Perhaps he met up with a Boo-... 

We then made our way uptown to Janet Jurist's 
apartment, where much schmoozing, networking, and old- 
fashioned chatting took place in an atmosphere of great 
bonhomie. Charlie shared a scrapbook from the Blackburn 
collection, and Mickey Salins, aet.WA, delivered a 
"Jabberwocky" in a reading in which, he reported, he "scared 
himself. Janet's legendary hospitality was much 

1. Gilbert Hetherwick can be reached at 350 West 50th St #17F, 
New York NY 100 19; 2 12.58 1.42 10; or The 
CD is $ 1 5, including p&h. He expects 
to be up and running "within a month or so". 

Mystery Illustrator 

Can you tell from the style of this unpublished drawing 
the name of the artist? Another hint appears on p. 1 1 . 

For the Snark Was a EyaeM, You See 
Charles W. Johnson and Louise A. Griffiths 

A solitary line of verse, "For the Snark was a 
Boojum, you see." popped into Lewis Carroll's head while 
he went for a walk on July 1 8, 1 874 in Guildford. He had 
just left the bedside of a cousin, who was very ill. Carroll 
later insisted, "I knew not what it meant then: I know not 
what it means, now; but I wrote it down. . . ." ' This was seven 
years after his tour of Russia in 1867. Carroll anticipated 
Anthony Burgess' Nadsat slang language in A Clockwork 
Orange, most of which consists of Russian derivatives. 
'Boojum' may also be derived from a Russian word which 
means 'we will be'. 

When Carroll toured Russia in 1 867, he took some 
interest in the Russian language. While he did not study 
Russian, he had a tourist's acquaintance with Russian words 
to the extent that he made lists of them and included En- 
glish transcriptions in his Russian Journal. His interest 
continued more than twenty years later. In a letter written 
to Maud Standen in 1 890, apparently when she was making 
a trip to Russia, Carroll asked her to write him some girl's 

In Russ - (in printed capitals, please: the written Russ bothers 
me) with the pronunciation. I used to know the alphabet pretty 
well, but that was when I went to Russia in 1867, and I'm 
beginning to forget now. 2 

Though his proficiency in languages other than 
English may have been minimal, Russian pronunciation and 
parts of speech interested Carroll. In his Russian Journal, 
he mentioned a conversation with an English gentleman who 
knew Russian: 

The other gentleman we found to be an Englishman, who had 
lived in Petersburg for 1 5 years, & was returning from a visit 
to Paris & London. He was most kind in answering our ques- 
tions, & in giving us a great many hints as to seeing Peters- 
burg, pronouncing the language, &c. but gave us rather dismal 
prospects of what is before us, as he says very few speak any 
language but Russian. As an instance of the extraordinary long 
words which the language contains, he spelt for me the follow- 
ing: - 3AIIIHIIUIOIIIKXC5I - which, written in English let- 
ters is Zashtsheeshtshayoushtsheekhsya:-this alarming word 
is the genitive plural of a participle, and means "of persons 
defending themselves." 3 

Carroll was interested in (and able to identify) the 
grammar of this Russian word. In spite of his limited pro- 
nunciation skills Carroll made some attempts to communi- 
cate orally with Russians. Consider, for example, his play- 
ful bartering with a taxi driver: 

JULY 29. (M.)[1867] I began the day by buying a map of 
Petersburg, & a little dictionary & vocabulary. The latter seems 
pretty sure to be of great use to us-in the course of a day (a 
good deal of which went in ineffectual calls) we took 4 in 
droshkies-2 of them from the hotel, when we got the hall- 
porter to arrange with the driver for us, but the other 2 we had 
to arrange for ourselves. I give one of the preliminary conver- 
sations as a specimen :- 
MYSELF. Gostonitia Klee-(KIees Hotel) 
DRIVER, (utters a sentence rapidly of which we can only 
catch the words) Tri groshen-(Three groshen-30 kopecks?) 

M. Doatzat kopecki? (20 kopecks?) 

D. (indignantly) Trizat! (30). 

M. (resolutely) Doazat. 

D. (Coaxingly) Doazat pait? (25?) 

M. (with the air of one who has said his say, & wishes to be rid 

of the thing) Doatzat. (Here I take Liddon's arm, & we walk 

off together, entirely disregarding the shouts of the driver. When 

we have gone a few yards, we hear the droshky lumbering 

after us: he draws up alongside, & hails us). 

M. (gravely) Doatzat? 

D. (with a delighted grin). Da! Da! Doatzat! (and in we get). 

This sort of thing is amusing for once in a way, but if it were a 

necessary process in hiring cabs in London, it would become a 

little tedious in time. 4 

Carroll had considerable interest in the Russian 
names for objects; this is evident from his journal entry 
concerning a meal he had while on tour: 

AUG. 14. (W.)[l 867] The morning went in a visit to the Bank 
& the Dvor. We dined at the "Moskow Traktir" on a genuine 
Russian dinner, with Russian wine. . .Here is the bill of fare. 

Cym> h nHpouiKH (soop ee pirashkee) 

nopoceHoicb (parasainok) 

AceTpHHa (acetrina) 

KoTneTbi (kotletee) 

MopoaceHoe (marojenoi) 

KpbiMCKoe (krimskoe) 

Kocpe (kofe) 5 

Carroll's Russian Journal reveals that he learned 
some Russian vocabulary (at least enough for the purposes 
of touring), he was able to understand the grammar of words 
he learned, and he took pleasure in being able to engage in 
simple conversations. His nonsense verse reveals that he 
listened to phonetic language sounds and amused himself 
by playing with them. While in Russia, Carroll must have 
learned, or at least heard, the Russian equivalent to the En- 
glish verb, 'to be,' and learned how to conjugate it. So, it is 
likely that he encountered the first-person, plural, indica- 
tive, future tense form of 'to be' in Russian; the English 
counterpart is "we will be." For example, he was probably 
acquainted with the Russian equivalent of "We will be re- 
turning to our hotel after supper this evening." 

In the Cyrillic alphabet, the Russian verb 'we will 
be' is EyneM. The pronunciation of this verb can be repre- 
sented as follows: 


B b in bit 

y oo in boot 

n d in do 

e ye in yet 

m m in men 

Carroll probably heard the word 'EyneM' during his 
Russian tour. Thereafter he could have (consciously or un- 
consciously) used it creatively in his work. His transfor- 
mation of the Russian word, 'EyneM', into the nonsense 
word, 'boojum', could have been the result of his hearing 
impairment, or it may simply have been that, as a native 
English speaker, he naturally heard the palatal consonant "d" 

phoneme in Russian as a "j". Our colleague, Professor 
Suprunowitz, conducted an experiment in a German language 
class, which consisted of native English speakers. She spoke 
the unfamiliar Russian word 'EyneM' and asked the students 
to spell it phonetically as they heard it. Most of the stu- 
dents produced a spelling similar to Carroll's 'boojum'; they 
generally used a "j" to represent the Russian soft "d". 

Carroll's misconstrual of some Russian phonemes 
is evident from his diary entries: 

English Russian Carroll Transliteration 

twenty HBannaTb doazat dvatsat 

ice cream Mopo)KeHoe marojenoi marozhinaye 
cutlets KoTneTbi kotletee katlyety 
sturgeon AceTpHHa acetrina acitrina 
pork nopoceHoicb parasainok parasyonak 

we will be EyneM Boojum boodyem 

If he was consistent, he probably made a similar 
pronunciation error with 'EyneM': 

Considering Carroll's pronunciations of Russian 
consonants, the similarity between his word, 'Boojum,' and 
the Russian verb, 'EyneM' is probably not coincidental. Most 
likely Carroll simply heard this interesting-sounding Rus- 
sian word, and retained it subliminally. If there is any se- 
mantic significance to his poetic invention of Boojums, it 
could be related to both his interest in grammar (Russian 
grammar, in this case) and his concerns about death (the 
cessation of being). While walking on that hillside in 
Guildford after sitting with a very sick cousin, Lewis Carroll 
may have thought about death, invented his line of poetry 
concerning Boojum Snarks, and wondered whether "we will 
be". 6 

1. Lewis Carroll. The Annotated Snark. Introduction and notes by 
Martin Gardner. Simon and Schuster. New York: 1 962. p. 1 2. 

2. Florence Becker Lennon, The Life of Lewis Carroll [1962], p. 

3. Lewis Carroll. The Russian Journal. John Francis McDermott 
(ed.) E.P. Durron & Co., Inc. New York: 1935. p. 85. 

4. Lewis Carroll. The Russian Journal, loc. cit. p. 88. 

5. Lewis Carroll. The Russian Journal, loc. cit. pp. 102-103. 

6. We must thank our good friend, Professor Valentine Suprunowitz, 
for her generous help with Russian translation and phonetics. We are 
grateful to Ms. Stacey Patchett for her assistance. We also thank 
our friend and colleague, Professor John Lackstrom, for his help re- 
garding phonetics. 

Dr. Charles W Johnson is Professor of Philosophy at Utah State 
University in Logan, UT. Louise A. Griffiths is currently a Master's 
candidate in Geography at U.S.U. 

Contemporary Reviews of Sylvie and Bruno and Sylvie 
and Bruno Concluded, continued 

In the last issue, August Imholtz collected and 
introduced five contemporary reviews of S&B. He has 
since uncovered two more which are reprinted here, 
followed by those of S&B Concluded. 

New York Daily Tribune , Mar. 15, 1890 

Lewis Carroll's "Sylvie and Bruno" is a sad 
disappointment to the lovers of the Alice in Wonderland. 
Here are reminders of the two books that made Mr. 
Dodgson's fame - two irresistible children as winning in 
their way as Alice; a fantastic Gardener; a blundering old 
bumble-bee of a Professor; and a verse or two almost as 
whimsical as the Jabberwock rhyme, or that of the "Walrus 
and the Carpenter." But alas! these faint suggestions of its 
predecessors only serve to deepen the disappointment with 
which the book is read. The author intimates in his preface 
that his work has been done with serious intentions in the 
way of setting forth morals for youngsters; but he does not 
explain why he blends with his fairy fantasies a grown up 
love story. Mr. Harry Furniss's forty-six illustrations are 
delicately beautiful. 

New York Times , Feb. 3, 1890 

It is quite certain that "Alice in Wonderland" 
appeared to the world some years ago and yet it seems that 
Mr. Carroll must have employed one of his elfish 
contrivances and managed to grow younger with his years. 
Youth is overready to explain sentiment and so we fear is 
Mr. Carroll. It is this that makes his new book less delightful 
reading than the ones that preceded it. He has not been so 
content with suggestion - with allowing his motives to be 
inferred. The grown people in "Sylvie and Bruno" are such 
earnest, simple-minded folk that one feels half reluctant to 
regret their presence. Still they are supernumeraries. If they 
are introduced to give weight to the reader's enjoyment of 
the book, they accompany their object by dragging it down 
to the level of depression. Take them as creations, they are 
so much younger than the children (who are always just the 
right age) that they have about them a disturbing suggestion 
that perhaps they are infant prodigies - which the children 
never are. Yet they preach some practical sermons with a 
confiding affectionateness that disarms criticism, and there 
is a genuine charm in the daring of their almost unrelieved 
sentimentality, for the reason that brave and honest 
sentimentality is as much a rarity as Christian charity under 
the sun. There are also happy passages, such as one in which 
Arthur parries the March of Mind, that are wholly blithe 
and clever. 

The double sentiment in the book is very obvious 
and is indicated in the preface, where the author says: 
Hence it is that in 'Sylvie and Bruno' I have striven - with I 
know not what success - to strike out yet another path; be it 
bad or good. It is the best that I can do. It is written not for 
money and not for fame, but in the hope of supplying for the 
children whom I love, some thoughts that may suit those hours 
of innocent merriment which are the very life of childhood, and 

also in the hope of suggesting to them and to others some 
thoughts that may prove, I would fain hope, not wholly of 
harmony with the graver cadences of life. 

In this sincere spirit the book has been written, and 
is certainly partially successful, though it appears at times 
that the success lies in hidden recesses, the grave within 
the gay, rather than where the flags are set to mark it. 

Were the whole of the undreamed portion cut out, 
leaving only the child element, the wild caprice, the tender 
subtle suggestions that one is very proud to catch in the net 
of intuition, it would be all the more a work for the middle- 
aged, for the sick, for the sad, for every one who through 
experience or nature can appreciate a pathos that finds its 
honored kin in King Lear's Jester sobbing in cap and bells 
over the dethroned reason of his dethroned master. Not that 
Mr. Carroll by any means continually sobs in cap and bells, 
his infectious laughter fills the joyous pages, but through 
the innocent eyes of the fanciful children is seen an older 
tenant's vision of the world. The reader forgets and laughs, 
and remembers and would weep, all the time loving the fond, 
protecting little sister and the sweet, perverse baby brother 
as he loves the memory of his own child self upon his 
father's knee, or of those lost children whose playhouse 
stands in garret dust and whose dolls have mouse-benibbled 

He thought he saw an elephant 

That practiced on a fife; 
He looked again and found it was 

A letter from his wife. 

'At length I realize,' he said 

'The bitterness of life.' 

Mr. Carroll rides lightly on the crest of such mad 
nonsense as this, but we feel there are sober depths beneath 
without his saying so. 

Bruno speaks it out with a franker grace than his 
elders can command, asserting: "Sometimes when I's too 
happy I wants to be a little miserable," and the chiefest beauty 
of Mr. Carroll's delicious appreciative humor is the quiet 
background of older thought that does not gain by 
impersonation in the characters of Muriel, Arthur, and Eric. 
In the chapter called "Bruno's Revenge," where, in a storm 
of passion, the fairy child has tried to spoil his sister's 
garden, and is persuaded by the "Human" to sweeten his 
revenge by building it up more than ever with fresh flowers 
and colored pebbles, no written text is needed to demand 
the reader's reminiscent sympathy as he waits with Bruno 
for Sylvie's surprise and dear approval. His heart lightens 
with Bruno's at sight of her joy; he feels with Bruno that all 
is incomplete till the sobbing confession is made to claim 
her fond forgiveness, and with the "Human" he is sure "it 
must be raining a little" to account for the drop or two upon 
his cheek. 

What matter if Mr. Carroll does not very deeply 
know his men and women when he so surely knows his 
children! The illustrations through the book - the designer 
having caught the swing of the author's style - help the 
imagination rather than hinder it, which is a rare merit. 

Sylvie and Bruno Concluded 

The Critic , vol. 21, no. 633. Apr. 7, 1894 

"Sylvie and Bruno Concluded" leaves the reader in 
a conflicting state of mind after he has finished it. To be 
sure, there are the Professor, Mein Herr, the Gardener's 
song and the nonsense that means so much, but yet, this is 
no longer the Lewis Carroll of "Alice in Wonderland." He 
has grown more serious in his attacks on what in his opinion 
are abuses, and he discusses them with less disguise. There 
are pages of dinner-table conversation that is cleverer and 
much more brilliant than anything found in "Dodo," but the 
book does not even pretend to appeal to children, if we 
except "Bruno's Picnic," and the ballad of "The little Man 
that had a little Gun." Mein Herr's government with many 
kings and one subject - "you see the Kings would be sure to 
make laws contradicting each other, so the Subject could 
never be punished" - and all the paradoxical cleverness are 
meant for grown folks only. Mr. Harry Furniss's illustrations 
are remarkably good, even for that accomplished artist. The 
frontispiece is one of the most delicate things he has ever 
The Athenaeum , No. 3457, Jan. 27, 1894 

Topsy-turvyness was always the main feature in 
every story of Mr. Lewis Carroll's, and so it is in Sylvie 
and Bruno Concluded. Where is the wit; where the "flashes 
of merriment"? The story — if story "it can be called which 
shape has none" — has, however, been constructed on a 
theory, and is "an attempt to show what might possibly 
happen supposing that fairies really existed." The various 
psychical states, with varying degrees of consciousness, of 
"human beings" are carefully set forth and differentiated, 
and the various psychical states of fairies have had the same 
service performed for them. That done, the passages in 
which abnormal states occur in vols. i. and ii. of 'Sylvie and 
Bruno' are tabulated, and an account of the "origination" of 
some of the ideas embodied in these two books is given in 
a long preface. Surely this is taking a child's book very 
seriously! Query, is 'Sylvie and Bruno' intended as a child's 
book? If so, will any child ever read the long preface or 
require the index? There are many good things in the book, 
of course, but it is much too long. That was, perhaps, 
inevitable when so many questions of the day are discussed 
in it, even though the author had the power, and has 
sometimes used it, of cutting discussion short by a sudden 
irruption from fairyland. Among the amusing features of 
the story is a learned foreign professor, who explains how 
in his country, by means of artificial selection practised for 
centuries, not only has a race of men been obtained who, 
being lighter than water, can never be drowned, but also 
'We have gone on selecting cotton-wool till we have got 
some lighter than air! You've no idea what a useful material 
it is! We call it'imponderal."' 
'What do you use it for?' 

'Well, chiefly for packing articles, to go by Parcel-Post. It 
makes them weigh less than nothing, you know.' 

'And how do the Post-Office people know what you have to 


'That's the beauty of the new system!' Mein Herr cried, 

exultingly. 'They pay us: we don't pay them! I've often got 

as much as five shillings for sending a parcel!' 

'But doesn't your Government object?' 

'Well, they do object, a little. They say it comes so 

expensive, in the long run. But the thing's as clear as 

daylight, by their own rules. If I send a parcel that weighs a 

pound more than nothing, I pay threepence; so, of course, if 

it weighs a pound less than nothing, I ought to receive 


The next extract is less satisfactory: — 
'"Don't-care" came to a bad end,' Sylvie whispered to 
Bruno. 'I'm not sure, but I believe he was hanged.' 
The Professor overheard her. 'That result,' he blandly 
remarked, 'was merely a case of mistaken identity.' 
Both children looked puzzled. 'Permit me to explain. "Don't- 
care" and "Care" were twin-brothers. "Care," you know, 
killed the Cat. And they caught "Don't-care" by mistake, 
and hanged him instead. And so "Care" is alive still. But he's 
very unhappy without his brother. That's why they say 
"Begone, dull Care!'" 

The Spectator , March 24, 1894 

What a loss the world had when Lewis Carroll 
took to writing sense! That is a reflection which must have 
been made a hundred times by all persons capable of forming 
an opinion on the subject. The author of Alice in 
Wonderland writes nonsense supremely well. His sense is 
but indifferent. Who then will fail to regret that his new 
book is more than half sense? If the power of writing 
nonsense had finally departed from him, those who owe an 
infinity of pleasure to Alice's creator would offer no 
complaint. A man is not to be blamed because inspiration 
deserts him, and gratitude for past services demands that 
the fact shall not be flung in his face. But Lewis Carroll 
shows us that the power of saying wise and witty things 
without sense is still his, and that the filling of half his two 
last books with the trivialities of reason and convention was 
deliberate. That being so, we have a good ground for a 
grievance. He has still the power of making good nonsense, 
but he has not chosen to use it to the full, or rather, he has 
chosen so to mingle and dilute his nonsense with sense that 
the mixture is, for the most part, stale, flat, and we should 
also fear, unprofitable; though this would, we are well aware, 
be the last thing which Lewis Carroll would consider. There 
is a story that a Magistrate once addressed a criminal as 
follows: — "Prisoner, a bountiful Providence has endowed 
you with health and strength, instead of which you go about 
the country stealing hens!" That is how we should like to 
address Lewis Carroll. Providence has given him grace and 
imagination, humour and fancy, the power of fluent verse 
and unequalled felicity in the language of nonsense, "instead 
of which he goes about fairyland giving us disquisitions fit 
for a tract or a sermon." 

In noticing Sylvie and Bruno Concluded, we 
propose to ignore altogether that portion of the book which 

is not nonsense. Let it be as if it were not. Let a cloud rest 
upon it, and blot it out forever. In the new volume, Sylvie 
and Bruno, the fairy children, act much the same parts that 
they acted in the first volume, and the Professor, the other 
Professor, and the Gardener also appear. There is besides a 
new wonderland character — "Mein Herr" — a University 
Professor, who comes from a land where they have the habit 
of pressing things to their logical conclusion. In this land 
they have done away with the evils of drowning by 
"constantly selecting the lightest people, so that now 
everybody is lighter than water." The same method was 
pursued with walking-sticks: — 

'We have gone on selecting walking-sticks — always keeping 
those that walked best — till we have obtained some that can 
walk by themselves! We have gone on selecting cotton-wool, 
till we have got some lighter than air! You've no idea what a 
useful material it is! We call it "Imponderal."' — 'What do 
you use it for?' — 'Well, chiefly for packing articles, to go by 
Parcel-Post. It makes them weigh less than nothing, you 
know.' — 'And how do the Post-Office people know what 
you have to pay?' — 'That's the beauty of the new system!' 
Mein Herr cried exultingly. 'They pay us: we don't pay 
them! I've often got as much as five shillings for sending a 
parcel.' — 'But doesn'tyour Government object?' — 'Well, 
they do object, a little. They say it comes so expensive, in the 
long run. But the thing's as clear as daylight, by their own 
rules. If I send a parcel, that weighs a pound more than 
nothing, I pay three-pence: so, of course, if it weighs a pound 
less than nothing, I ought to receive three-pence.' — 'It is 
indeed a useful article,' I said. — 'Yet even "Imponderal" has 
its disadvantages,' he resumed. T bought some, a few days 
ago, and put it into my hat, to carry it home, and the hat 
simply floated away! ' 

As delightful is the account of the map on a scale 
of a mile to a mile, and of the application of the system of 
party and of an opposition not only to Government, but to 
all the operations of life: — 

'The next step (after reducing our Government to impotence, 
and putting a stop to all useful legislation, which did not take 
us long to do) was to introduce what we called "the glorious 
British Principle of Dichotomy" into Agriculture. We 
persuaded many of the well-to-do farmers to divide their 
staff of labourers into two Parties, and to set them one 
against the other. They were called, like our political Parties, 
the "Ins" and the "Outs": the business of the "Ins" was to do 
as much of ploughing, sowing, or whatever might be needed, 
as they could manage in a day, and at night they were paid 
according to the amount they had done: the business of the 
"Outs" was to hinder them, and they were paid for the 
amount they had hindered. The farmers found they had to 
pay only half as much wages as they did before, and they 
didn't observe that the amount of work done was only a 
quarter as much as was done before: so they took it up quite 
enthusiastically, at first.' — 'And afterwards — ?' I 
inquired. — 'Well, afterwards they didn't like it quite so well. 
In a very short time, things settled down into a regular 
routine. No work at all was done. So the "Ins" got no wages, 
and the "Outs" got full pay. And the farmers never 
discovered, till most of them were ruined, that the rascals 
had agreed to manage it so, and had shared the pay between 
them! While the thing lasted, there were funny sights to be 

seen! Why, I've often watched a ploughman, with two 
horses harnessed to the plough, doing his best to get it 
forwards; while the opposition-ploughman, with three 
donkeys harnessed at the other end, was doing his best to 
get it backwards! And the plough never moving an inch, 
either way! ' . . . ' Did the Dichotomy-Principle succeed in any 
direction?' I inquired. — 'In none,' Mein Herr candidly 
confessed. 'It had a very short trial in Commerce. The shop- 
keepers wouldn't take it up, after once trying the plan of 
having half the attendants busy in folding up and carrying 
away the goods which the other half were trying to spread 
out upon the counters. They said the Public didn't like it! ' 
There is a great deal of verse scattered up and down 
the pages of Sylvie and Bruno; but though all is pleasant to 
read, and some quite good, none of it is up to the Alice 
level. Perhaps the best is a poem called "To the Rescue," 
which is a variant of the nursery rhyme, "There was a little 
man and he had a little gun." The best thing is the account of 
the man of whom "they" said, "let us drench him from toplet 
to toelet with nursery rhymes": — 

He shall muse upon 'Hey! Diddle! Diddle!' 

On the Cow that surmounted the Moon: 

He shall rave of the Cat and the Fiddle, 

And the Dish that eloped with the Spoon: 

And his soul shall be sad for the Spider, 

When Miss Muffet was sipping her whey, 

That so tenderly sat down beside her, 

And scared her away! 

The music of Midsummer-madness 

Shall sting him with many a bite, 

Till, in rapture of rollicking sadness, 

He shall groan with a gloomy delight: 

He shall swathe him, like mists of the morning, 

In platitudes luscious and limp, 

Such as deck, with a deathless adorning, 

The Song of the Shrimp! 

Another excellent piece of fooling is the 
Professor's lecture, illustrated by experiments, in making 
"black light," and in getting a weight so used to being held 
up that it cannot fall any more. Here is a taste of its 
quality: — '"For this concluding Experiment, I will take a 
certain Alkali, or Acid — I forget which. Now you'll see what 
will happen when I mix it with Some — ' here he took up a 
bottle, and looked at it doubtfully, — 'when I mix it with— 
with Something — .'" 

We must not leave Mr. Lewis Carroll's book 
without saying a word or two about Mr. Harry Furniss's 
illustrations. As in the first part, the characterisations of 
the grown-up and ordinary people are disgusting. There is 
no other word for them. The pictures of Lady Muriel — as 
the books of domestic medicine put it — "produce nausea." 
The male characters are persons one would "kick at sight." 
On the other hand, it would be difficult to give too much 
credit to Mr. Harry Furniss for the fantastic portion of his 
work. The picture of Mein Herr on p. 163 is, in its kind, 
quite perfect. Admirable, too, in their way are the silhouettes 
illustrating "The Pig Tale;" while the pictures of the elephant 
and the porcupine are also full of imagination, and drawn 
with very great skill. Let us hope that Mr. Lewis Carroll's 


next book will be all fancy and nonsense, and that he will 
not by writing sense lure Mr. Furniss into such vulgarities 
as his Lady Muriel and "the old man." That is a sin which 
ought to lie heavy on his conscience, and make him repent 
that he was ever unwise enough to stoop to real people. 

New York Times . Feb. 11, 1894 

There are no works more realistic than those which 
Lewis Carroll writes, with the care, the love, and the fidelity 
of an artist to whom men, women, and scenes of nature are 
not merely pretexts for symphonies in color. 

The exterior and the picturesque aspect of manners 
is essentially absurd and caricatural, and Lewis Carroll 
reflects them in his style; but the complex modern life has 
its flights of science, of poetry, of genius, and Lewis Carroll 
conveys their subtle impression. 

His works are emblems of our time, which is too 
wise for an epopee, and the lyrism of which has heavy, 
grimacing, and astonishingly incisive bits of prose. The veil 
has been lifted which covers in the sand, the earth, a drop of 
water, the bark of trees, or the lineaments of leaves, an 
infinity of living creatures, horned monsters, dragons, hydras 
with ferocious teeth, and, above them, thoughts, souls, and 
minds, mixed with all atoms and, higher still, a graded ladder 
of creatures more and more perfect. 

Vivian, Nimue, Titania, Morgana, the great 
Melusine, and all the world of elfs, spirits, gnomes, 
hobgoblins, and fairies have doubtless protested against their 
revelation. They were formerly permitted to talk and 
murmur, but in the flow of crystal springs; to smile, but within 
the sunrays; to be confounded with the tremor of foliage, 
but never to appear in their eerie forms. Lewis Carroll has 
simply followed in his very personal description of Sylvie, 
Bruno, Mein Herr, and the Professors, the naturalistic 
tendencies of the age. 

If men knew they were living under the constant 
examination of so many eyes, they could not think of doing 
many things that they do. Perhaps it is necessary to the 
established order that they should think themselves isolated 
in creation, as is the obelisk in Central Park, and imagine 
that lions and doves are for their personal use. This is 
probably the reason for the following explanation which Mr. 
Carroll gives of his work: 

It may interest some of my readers to know the theory on 
which this story is constructed. It is an attempt to show what 
might possibly happen, supposing that fairies really existed; 
and that they were sometime visible to us and we to them; 
and that they were sometimes able to assume human form; 
and supposing, also, that human beings might sometimes 
become conscious of what goes on in the fairy world by 
actual transference of their immaterial essence, such as we 
meet with in Esoteric Buddhism. 

I have supposed a human being capable of various psychical 
states with varying degrees of consciousness, as follows: (a) 
the ordinary state, with no consciousness of the presence of 
fairies; (b) the eerie state, in which, while conscious of actual 
surroundings, he is also conscious of the presence of fairies; 
(c) a form of trance in which, while unconscious of actual 

surroundings, and apparently asleep, his immaterial essence 
migrates to other scenes in the actual world or in Fairyland, 
and is conscious of the presence of fairies. 
I have also supposed a fairy to be capable of migrating from 
Fairyland into the actual world and of assuming at pleasure a 
human form, and also to be capable of various psychical 
states, viz.: (a) the ordinary state with no consciousness of 
the presence of human beings; (b) a sort of eerie state in 
which he is conscious, if in the actual world, of the presence 
of actual human beings; if in Fairyland, of the presence of 
the immaterial essences of human beings. 

Of course, this is only an apparent concession to 
skepticism. The author walked into Kensington Gardens, and 

Cautiously kneeling down, and making an extempore cage of 

my two hands, I imprisoned the little wanderer and felt a 

sudden thrill of surprise and delight on discovering that my 

prisoner was no other than Bruno himself. 

'Does oo know what the rule is?' he inquired, 'when oo 

catches a fairy withouten it's having told oo where it was?' 

(Bruno's notions of English grammar had certainly not 

improved since our last meeting.) 

'No,' I said, 'I didn't know there was any rule about it. ' 

'I think oo've got a right to eat me,' said the little fellow, 

looking up into my face with a winning smile. 'But Em not 

pruffickly sure. Oo'd better not doe it without asking.' 

It did seem reasonable not to take so irrevocable a step as 

that without due inquiry. 'I'll certainly ask about it first,' I 

said, 'besides, I don't know yet whether you will be worth 


'I guess I'm deliciously good to eat,' Bruno remarked in a 

satisfied tone, as if it were something to be rather proud of 

This is undoubtedly absolutely faithful. In 
conversation with Sylvie: 

'Well, anyhow you needn't got to sleep over them, you lazy- 
lazy! ' for Bruno had curled himself up on the largest lesson 
and was arranging another as a pillow. 
'If I wasn't asleep,' said Bruno, in a deeply-injured tone. 
'When I shuts mine eyes it's to show that I'm awake.' 
'Well, how much have you learned then?' 
'I've learned a little, tiny bit,' said Bruno, modestly, being 
evidently afraid of overstating his achievement. 'Can't learn 
no more. ' 

'Oh, Bruno! You know you can if you like. ' 
'Course I can if I like,' the pale student replied; 'but I can't 
if I don't like.' 

The puns are new and interesting. 
'He went more far than he'd never been before,' said 

'You should never say "more far,'" Sylvia [sic] corrected 
him. 'you should say farther.' 

'Then you shouldn't say more broth when we are at dinner,' 
Bruno retorted; 'oo should say brother.' 

The moral economy is orthodox but not 

'Then what is your test of a good act?' 
'That it shall be our best,' Arthur confidently replied, 'and 
even then we are unprofitable servants. But let me illustrate 
the two fallacies. Nothing illustrates a fallacy so well as an 
extreme case which fairly comes under it. Suppose I find 

two children drowning in a pond. I rush in and save one of 
the children and then walk away, leaving the other to drown. 
Clearly I have done good in saving a child's life. But, again, 
supposing I meet an inoffensive stranger and knock him 
down and walk on. Clearly that is better than if I had 
proceeded to trap upon him and break his ribs. But - ' 
'Those buts are quite unanswerable,' I said. 'But I should 
like an instance from real life. ' 

The fantasy is profoundly thoughtful: 
Sylvie hastily pulled me out of his way. 'Thanks, child,' I 
said. T had forgotten he couldn't see us. What would have 
happened if I had staid in his way?' 

T don't know.' Sylvie said, gravely. 'It wouldn't matter to us, 
but you may be different.' She said this in her usual voice, 
but the man took no sort of notice, though she was standing 
close in front of him and looking up into his face as she 

The satire is penetrating: 
'In your country,' Mein Herr began with a startling 
abruptness, 'what becomes of all the wasted time?' 
Lady Muriel looked grave, 'Who can tell?' she half 
whispered to herself, 'All one knows is that it is gone -past 

'Well, in my- 1 mean in a country I have visited,' said the 
old man, 'they store it up, and it comes in very useful years 
afterward. For example, suppose you have a long, tedious 
evening before you - nobody to talk to, nothing you care to 
do, and yet hours too soon to go to bed. How do you behave 

T get very cross,' she frankly admitted, 'and I want to throw 
things about the room.' 

' When that happens to - the people I have visited - they 
never get so. By a short and simple process - which I 
cannot explain to you -they store up the useless hours, and 
on some other occasion when they happen to need extra 
time they get them out again. ' 

The Earl was listening with a slightly incredulous smile, 'Why 
cannot you explain the process?' he inquired. 
Mein Herr was ready with a quite unanswerable reason: 
'Because you have no words in your language to convey the 
ideas which are needed. I could explain it in - in - but you 
would not understand it.' 

Arthur became serious again. 'I'm afraid I can't take that 
view,' he said. T consider that the introduction of small 
stakes for card playing was one of the most moral acts 
society ever did as society.' 
'How is it so?' asked Lady Muriel. 

'Because it once and for all took cards out of the category of 
games at which cheating is impossible. Look at the way 
croquet is demoralizing society. Ladies are beginning to cheat 
at it terribly, and if they are found out they only laugh and call 
it fun. But when there is money at stake, that is out of the 
question. The swindler is not accounted as a wit. When a 
man sits down to cards and cheats his friends out of their 
money he doesn't get much fun out of it - unless he thinks it 
fun to be kicked down stairs.' 

If we seek a fine example of the relative spirit of 
moral criticism, about which Mr. Le Gallienne has written 
an enchanting chapter, we may consider the following: 

The red-faced man scowled, but evidently considered Arthur 

beneath his notice, so Lady Muriel took up the cudgels. 'Do 
you hold the theory,' she inquired, 'that people can preach 
teetotalism more effectually by being teetotalers 

'Certainly I do,' replied the red-faced man. 'Now here is a 
case in point,' unfolding a newspaper cutting. 'Let me read 
you this letter from a teetotaler: "To the editor — Sir: I was 
once a moderate drinker and knew a man who drank to 
excess. I went to him. 'Give up this drink,' I said; 'it will ruin 
your health.' 'You drink,' he said, 'why shouldn't I?' 'Yes,' I 
said, 'but I know when to leave off.' He turned away from 
me. 'You drink in your way,' he said; 'let me drink in mine. 
Be off! ' Then I saw that to do any good with him I must 
forswear drink. From that hour I haven't touched a drop.'" 
'There, what do you say to that?' He looked triumphantly 
while the cutting was handed around for inspection. 
'How very curious,' exclaimed Arthur, when it had reached 
him. 'Did you happen to see a letter last week about early 
rising: It was strangely like this one.' 
The red-faced man's curiosity was aroused. 'Where did it 
appear?' he asked. 

'Let me read it to you,' said Arthur. He took some papers 
from his pocket, opened one of them, and read as follows: 
"To the editor— Sir: I was once a moderate sleeper, and 
knew a man who slept to excess. I pleaded with him. 'Give 
up this lying in bed.' I said: 'it will ruin your health.'. 'You go 
to bed,' he said, 'why shouldn't I?' 'Yes,' I said, 'but I know 
when to get up in the morning.' He turned away from me. 
'You sleep in your way,' he said, 'let me sleep in mine. Be 
off! ' Then I saw that to do any good with him I must 
forswear sleep. From that hour I haven't been to bed.'" 
Arthur folded and pocketed his paper, and passed on the 
newspaper cutting. None of us dared to laugh, the red-faced 
man was evidently so angry. 'Your parallel doesn't run on all 
fours,' he snarled. 

'Moderate drinkers never do so,' Arthur quietly replied. 
Even the stern old lady laughed at this. 

Musical criticism is at its best in the following: 
She was one of those players whom society talks of as ' 
brilliant and she dashed into the loveliest of Haydn's 
symphonies in a style that was clearly the outcome of years 
of patient study under the best masters. At first it seemed to 
be the perfection of piano-forte playing, but in a few minutes 
I began to ask myself wearily what is it that is wanting; why 
does one get no pleasure from it? Then I set myself to listen 
intently to every note, and the mystery explained itself. There 
was an almost perfect mechanical correctness, and there 
was nothing else. 

Lady Muriel joined us for a moment. 'Isn't it beautiful?' she 
whispered to Arthur, with a mischievous smile. 'Such 
execution, you know,' she persisted. 
'That's what she deserves,' Arthur doggedly replied, 'but 
people are so prejudiced against capital -' 

In this book there are double plays upon words 
without a suggestion of artifice. There are pretty, charming 
phrases that are fresh as dew and strikingly natural. The 
author explains that he has heard some of them from 
children, and it would be miraculous if he had not; but, 
between his observation and his expression, there were a 
quantity of thoughts, an accumulation of experiences, a 
training in the absorption of ideas in his environment, and 


an artistic workmanship in their application, which defy 
analysis. At times he is in pure fantasy, wherein the intrusion 
of phrases of plain sense would have ordinarily the 
incongruous effect of wildly-enthusiastic lyrism in a 
lawyer's brief- yet the plain sense follows the extravagance 
without a sign of artificiality. 

Everybody who has thought on the subject has felt, 
but nobody has expressed as clearly, the following 

i felt obliged to admit that we generally admired most the 
teachers we couldn't quite understand.' 
'Just so,' said Mein Herr, 'That's the way it begins. Well, we 
were at that stage some eighty year ago — or was it ninety? 
Our favorite teacher got more obscure every year, and every 
year we admired him more, just as your art fanciers call mist 
the fairest feature in a landscape, and admire a view with 
frantic delight when they can see nothing. Now, I'll tell you 
how it ended. It was moral philosophy that our idol lectured 
on. Well, his pupils couldn't make head or tail of it, but they 
got it all by heart, and when examination time came they 
wrote it down, and the examiners said: "Beautiful! What 

'But what good was it to the young men afterward?' 
'Why don't you see?' replied Mein Herr, 'they became 
teachers in their turn, and they said all these things over 
again, and their pupils wrote it all down and the examiners 
accepted it, and nobody had the ghost of an idea what it all 

The chapter devoted to "Bruno's Picnic" is, in itself, 
a masterpiece. The author says: 

One story in this volume I can vouch for as suitable for 
telling to children, having tested it again and again; and, whether my 
audience has been a dozen little girls in a village school or some thirty 
or forty in a London drawing room, or a hundred in a high school, I 
have always found them earnestly attentive and keenly appreciative 
of such fun as the story supplied. 

The author's faith is not obtrusively, but not the 
less persuasively, declared in direct words: 

I believe that there is life everywhere, not material only, not 
merely what is palpable to our senses, but immaterial and 
invisible as well. We believe in our own immaterial 
essence — call it soul, or spirit, or what you will. Why should 
not other similar essences exist around us, not linked on to a 
visible and material body? Did not God make the swarm of 
happy insects to dance in the sunbeam for one hour of bliss 
for no other object that we can imagine than to swell the sum 
or conscious happiness? And where shall we dare to draw 
the line and say: 'He has made all these and no more'? 
There are no more dramatic situations in Lewis 
Carroll's book than there are in life. The world is full of 
conscious writers of phrases. They write them as Mr. Carroll 
writes his nonsense rhymes for the pleasure of it, to force 
words to tintinnabulate like golden bells, to sport like 
colored bits of glass in a kaleidoscope. These phrases are 
learned, complicated, labored, and inspired by the wish not 
to be natural; they give the illusion of reality because they 
are palpitating with life. Common nouns in revolution, 
turbulent adjectives, verbs bitten by tarantulas, obstinate 
prepositions, interjections that are like marks and 

buffoons— all this folly regulated and made rhythmical in 
Lewis Carroll's work becomes nature to its readers. The 
poets of the epoch of Romanticism could produce the same 
exultation. But Lewis Carroll is a greater realist. 
Notes and Queries . No. 107, Jan. 13, 1894 

The only part of this book we do not like is the 
preface. This may, perhaps, be described as vapouring. After 
thanking his critics, who have noticed, either favourably or 
unfavourably, his previous volume, Lewis Carroll declares 
that he has carefully forborne from reading any. He holds 
that in the case of an author unfavourable criticisms are 
almost certain to make him cross and the favourable ones 
conceited. In the case of Lewis Carroll this alternative 
scarcely seems to present itself. Very much of the new 
volume is delightful. There are passages that excite 
cheerfulness, and there are others that elicit tears. Again 
and again the writer's witchery has asserted itself, and a 
delighted response has been accorded to his demands upon 
us. There are long quasi-controversial passages, however, 
which should be skipped, and there are periods when the 
humour appears forced and the sentiment jejune. The writer 
seems, indeed, to have substituted appeals to sentimentality 
for the frank drollery of his early work, and to be less anxious 
to amuse than to instruct. Here is a lamentable decadence. 
Lewis Carroll has always been fortunate in his artists. Mr. 
Furniss's designs are marvels of ingenuity and humour. 

Mystery Illustrator, part II 

Hint: this is not the only well-known Rabbit she has 
drawn. Answer on p.2 1 . 



Received a delightful package from the LCSNA this week 
and have absolutely enjoyed reading the various recollec- 
tions and pieces in the 25th Anniversary book. Very well 
done. I really like the cover art! And for a newcomer like 
me, it gives me a wider and quite endearing view of what the 
society is about and a great appreciation for what founding 
and succeeding officers and members have contributed. Very 
glad that I joined! The pin is very lovely. I shall treasure it 
and wear it. 

All the best, 

Julie Weiler 

What a wonderful writeup on the Toronto weekend in Knight 

Letter #62. It was like being 

there all over. I really enjoyed 

meeting so many people and 

seeing friends again. I had a 

great time. 

I have one correction to your 
report - Christina was [Dante 
Gabriel] Rossetti's sister, not 
his daughter as I mentioned. I 
was a bit (OK, very) nervous and 
hopefully I made no other 

Happy Anniversary to the 
Society and many, many more^ 

Dayna (McCausland) 

Pm sure the slip was 

inadvertent, and mea culpa for 

not noticing the error or 

checking up on it before 

publishing. When someone 

called Gabriele names his son 

Gabriel confusion is bound to 

ensue. (Dante was one of the son 's middle names, which 

he later adopted as his first.) And a nod to Bea Sidaway, 

Sandor Burstein, Peter Heath, etc. for also observing the 


You may have already posted this fact, but I'm only now 
processing my notes from autumn in London. For sale at 
the National Gallery gift shop I saw a mask of Matsys' "The 
Ugly Duchess", Tenniel's supposed model for the "Pig and 
Pepper" Duchess. The portrait is in the museum's collection. 

Gary Brockman 

If you're not in London, mail order enquiries can be 
placed by telephoning +44.20.7747.2870 or mailorder@ 
nationalgallery. co. uk. There 's also a great soft sculpture 
doll of the Duchess by Dawn Albright available. See Far- 
flung, p. 23. 

Many thanks for the write-up of my video in KL 62. Too 
flattering by half, but the final reference to poor Mrs. 
Johnston was just right, and fully deserved, since the whole 
thing was her idea. The 42-minute running-time is, so far as 
I know, a pure coincidence, as I dare say also is the double 
occurrence of that fateful figure in Francine's article on 

By way of a quid pro quo, I offer you the following: 

1 . In addition to the Edmund Wilson references supplied 
by your correspondents on p. 12, there is also a page- 
long disquisition on Alice in his Europe without 
Baedeker, pp. 24-5 - mostly quotation in fact. 

2. The statement on p. 5 
that Christina Rossetti was the 
daughter of Dante Gabriel 
Rossetti, is mistaken. She was 
his sister, a shy spinster poetess 
and friend of Carroll's, and her 
Speaking Likenesses - as she 
freely acknowledged - is an 
imitation of Alice, not a parody. 

3. The BBC Antiques 

Road Show, on PBS, January 
24 th , was set in the Deanery 
Garden at Christ Church, and 
began with a brief but quite 
well-done introductory seq- 
uence on Carroll. More 
remarkable still was the 
appearance among the patrons 
of an elderly geezer, who had 
brought along a dozen or so 
obviously authentic Carroll 
photographs of children - 
signed and dated, and at least 
one of them a nude - which he 
claimed to have inherited from two uncles. He seemed 
stunned to hear that they were worth about £5000 
apiece. The appraiser - pretty stunned himself, I think 
- got most of his facts right, though he wrongly said 
that Carroll had requested all nude studies to be 
returned, at his death, to the subject's relatives. (The 
truth, of course, is that he wanted them destroyed.) No 
names were given in all this, and the showing went by 
so rapidly that little detail could be made out; but it 
looks like the accidental discovery of a private hoard, 
naively preserved by the owner, and till now unknown 
to the experts. Since the cat was let out of the bag on 
TV, it is public property, I suppose, and no breach of 
confidence would be involved in recording these facts, 
which are certainly of interest to the likes of us. 

I should before now have expressed appreciation of the way 
La Guida di Bragia was presented in KL 6 1 . Quite a surprise 
to me to see it there, and a relief to find it virtually mistake- 


The Tumtum Tree 

(For young Lewis Carroll Enthusiasts) 

And rested he by the Tumtum Tree and stood awhile in thought 
What did he think about? 


How to play: The rule of this Lewis 
Carroll game, is to change one letter at a 

time of the starting word. Leave all 

other letters in their same position. Each 

change should be a real word. 






Now you try these: 


to to 



Please e-mail your answers to 
TumtumTree42@aol. com. 

• R T T A t 
(T tyl ' 

1) Who talks about an • , un-bi^thday ,, ? 

2) Which one of the following was 

a) Mad Hatter 

NOT a character from Alice's 

b) Humpty Dumpty 

Adventures in Wonderland? 

c) Dormouse 

a) Mock Turtle 

d) March Hare 

b) TweedleDee 

c) Fish Footman 

d) Alice 





From Alice in Wonde rland Pnry\e. and Game Ifook by Edward Wakeling. 

Alice followed the White Rabbit to his hole. When she followed him inside she found this puzzle in his 
burrow! Lewis Carroll made this puzzle too. Go through the burrow and find words you can make by 

using letters along the way. For example: DISH 



What ? s The Difference? 

By Mickey Salins 

Carroll, Dodgson, I don't care 

In my house they're everywhere. 

Rabbit, Humpty, either book 

They are everywhere you look. 

In Wonderland or through a mirror 

Carroll's books are very queer. 

Growing, Shrinking, any size 

All this stuff I've memorized. 

I know the characters and events 

Although none of it makes much sense 

NOTE: Feel free to send any puzzles, poems, word games or any other things that are 

fun and relate to Lewis Carroll in any way. Also I am looking for a picture for the top of 

this page. Please send a Tumtum Tree in, if you have one. My e-mail is 


Editor: Mickey Salins 

free, and intelligently laid out. The illustrations, too, of high 
quality, and well-matched to the text, without any cuteness, 
silliness or showing-off. Considering how many ways there 
were of coming to grief on this one, I think all concerned 
deserve a pat on the back. 

As ever, 

Peter Heath 

I have in the past published several volumes of Sherlockiana 
with the Canadian publisher Dr. George Vanderburgh's 
Battered Silicon Dispatch Box. I was surprised to note that 
he also puts out several items of interest to Carrollians. 
While there has been some report of these in the pages of 
KL, I thought an update on the available items might be of 
interest to your readers. 

Meanwhile, KL just keeps getting better. Congratulations. 

Pat Accardo 

See "Of Books and Things", p. 18 for the full report. 

I'm in the middle of reading Martin Gardner's new 
"Definitive Edition" of his Annotated Alice, and I heartily 
concur with Morton Cohen and other reviewers on the 
handsome volume. May I point out one small factual error 
on the back flap of the dust jacket? The date of death for 
Dodgson is stated as "July 14, 1898"; all good Carrollians 
know it was actually January 14, 1 898. (Apologies for being 
a compulsive proofreader!) 

By the way, thank you, thank you, thank you for the absolutely 
beautiful LCSNA pin - I shall treasure it always. 


Margaret Quiett 

I'm sure Mr. Gardner had no chance to review the jacket 
copy prior to publication, so an "Off with their heads! " 
to the anonymous copywriter and editor. 

In AW, Lewis Carroll created a wonderful story for Alice 
Liddell, who spent her childhood summers here in 
Llandudno. She first visited in the summer of 1861. Alice's 
father built a house, Penmorfa, here and Alice spent the next 
11 summers there until the house was sold in 1872. 

We have many items of treasured memorabilia and 
collectibles in our Victorian town, much of it housed in 'The 
Rabbit Hole', a walk through Wonderland with life-size 
tableaux of scenes from the book. On our West Shore there 
is a statute of The White Rabbit - forever late - and each 
springtime, a little girl is chosen from our town to be 'Alice' 
for a year. 

Here at the All Seasons Hotel we carry on the theme of 
Alice in Wonderland throughout all our public rooms, having 
a Looking Glass Lounge, The Rabbit Hole Bar (complete 
with carrots peeping through the ceiling), The Alice Lounge 
and the Mad Hatter's Restaurant. 

If you would like to stay in the hotel or would like to know 
more information about the area or have any suggestions 
you would like to make, please do not hesitate to get in 
touch. Visit us on our virtual brochure / website at 

We would love to hear from you. 


Ann & Neville Yates, Proprietors 

All Seasons Hotel, Hill Terrace, Llandudno, 

North Wales, LL30 2LS, U.K. 

I am a LCSNA member, and an artist. I have done a unique 
portrait of Lewis Carroll that I would like you to see. The 
image is an anamorphosis made of a collage of images from 
Lewis Carroll's life. 

When a cylindrical mirror is placed on the Cheshire cat in 
the center of the picture, Lewis Carroll's image appears in 
the reflection. I have attached a link to this piece including 
details with and without the mirror in place. 

My idea is to have a set of lithographs made of this piece, 
and offer them for sale. You can find more information at 

Thank you for your wonderful work. 

Kelly M. Houle 

I have seen this piece and it is truly fabulous and will be 
staying in touch with Ms. Houle. 

I was reading Thrones, Dominations, a Lord Peter Wimsey 
novel that was put together with bits of stuff left behind by 
the deceased Dorothy Sayers. In it, the wonderful Bunter 
tells his boss that he has "secured the Alice in Wonderland 
first edition." For £945! The only thing is, Bunter was always 
very precise, and I am sure he would have referred to the 
book as "Alice's Adventures in Wonderland". 

Meanwhile, KL 62 just came today, and it's a hoot. Britney 
Spears as Alice! As if popular culture isn't bad enough! She 
goes from one disreputable triumph to another - implants, 
jail bait music videos, and a date with Prince William on 
Valentine's Day. Yecch! I think I will send my daughter to a 
convent school. 

In France. 

So I can visit. 


Cindy Watters 



Please Touch Museum®, the Children's Museum of 
Philadelphia, is seeking donations of objects relating to 
Alice's Adventures in Wonderland for its permanent 
collections. The museum's Alice exhibit has been a roaring 
success since its opening in June, 1999. [AX 61, p.22] 

Through the generosity of a loan made by Philadelphia's 
own Kitty Minehart, the museum has complemented its 
hands-on exhibit with display cases of wonderful Wonderland 
material. The White Rabbit, March Hare, Queen of Hearts, 
Cheshire Cat and others are represented in stacking dolls, 
tea pots, pillows, ornaments, pewter figures, "jack-in-the- 
box"es, card games, puzzlers, books, costumes, theatrical 
props, mirrors, tins, plush toys, banners and stained glass 

The exhibit has been so warmly received that Please Touch 
has decided to reinstall another version when the museum 
relocates to its expanded site in 2002. To prepare for that 
Alice exhibit, we need your help to acquire new materials 
as part of our permanent collections. 

It is very easy, I have been told, to have more than nothing. 
Right now, the museum has no Alice objects of its own. With 
your help, we can have more. If you have duplicates in your 
collection, or other items which you would care to donate 
or have questions about the exhibit, please contact 

Matthew Rowley 
Curator of Collections 
Please Touch Museum 
210 N. 21 st Street 
Philadelphia, PA 19147 
215.963.0667 x 3114 

Dayna McCausland has asked me to do a chapbook for 
LCSCanada, an anthology of parodies of Jabberwocky, and 
to that end I'm scouting the files of collectors hoping to 
turn up some unknown gems. Do you have anything you 
would care to share? Do you think an appeal in the Knight 
Letter would be productive? 


Hilda (Bohem) 

Readers - please contact Hilda at phoebe@ucla. edu or 
1629 N. Crescent Heights, Los Angeles, CA 90069. 

Illustration by our cover artist, Mixt Villars 
"Of Books" p. 18 


Pop Quiz 

Carroll's Alice's Adventures under Ground, his 
handwritten Christmas present to young Miss Liddell, 
is about half the length of the expanded version 
published as Alice's Adventures in Wonderland, which 
contained many revisions, "important and un-". Can you 
name the underGround equivalents of these 
Wonderland notions? 

1 . The White Rabbit's fan 

2. Ada and Mabel 

3 . A caucus race 

4. One side and the other side of the mushroom 

5 . The Duchess and the Queen of Hearts 

6. Flamingoes 

Answers on p. 21 



The house seemed fairly pleasant with its well kept 
garden and budding chestnut trees.... The hotel 
manager was a grey-haired man with a trimmed 
beard and velvet black eyes. I proceeded very 
carefully. ... 

"Let me be frank," I said off-handedly, "I am trying 
to find the address of a lady, my brother's friend, 
who had stayed here at the same time as he." 

The hotel manager lifted his eyebrows slightly, and I 
had the uneasy feeling that I had committed some 

"Why?" he said. . . . 

"I was wondering," I went on patiently, "whether 
you would be so very, very kind as to help me to 
find the address of a lady who stayed here at the 
same time as Mr. Knight, that is in June, 1929?" 

"What lady?" he asked in the elenctic tones of 
Lewis Carroll's caterpillar. 

"I'm not sure of her name," I said nervously. 

"Then how do you expect me to find her?" he said 
with a shrug. 

"She was Russian," I said. "Perhaps you remember a 
Russian lady, — a young lady, — and well . . . good 

"Nous avons eu beaucoup de jo lies dames" he replied 
getting more and more distant. "How should I 

"Well," said I, "the simplest way would be to have a 
look at your books and sort out the Russian names 
for June, 1929." 

"There are sure to be several," he said. "How will 
you pick out the one you need, if you do not know 

"Give me the names and addresses," I said desper- 
ately, "and leave the rest to me." 

He sighed deeply and shook his head. 

"No," he said. 

"Do you mean to say you don't keep books?" I asked 
trying to speak quietly. 

"Oh, I keep them all right," he said. "My business 
requires great order in these matters. Oh, yes, I have 
got the names all right..." 

He wandered away to the back of the room and 
produced a large black volume. 

"Here," he said. "First week of July, 1935... 
Professor Ott with his wife, Colonel Samain. 

"Look here," I said, "I'm not interested in July, 
1935. What I want..." He shut his book and 

carried it away. 

"I only wanted to show you," he said with his back 
turned to me, — "to show you [a lock clicked] that 
I keep my books in good order." 

He came back to his desk and folded a letter that 
was lying on the blotting-pad. 

"Summer, 1929," I pleaded. "Why don't you want 
to show me the pages I want?" 

"Well," he said, "the thing is not done. Firstly, 
because I don't want a person who is a complete 
stranger to me to bother people who were and will 
be my clients. Secondly, because I cannot under- 
stand why you should be so eager to find a woman 
whom you do not want to name. And thirdly - I 
do not want to get into any kind of trouble. "... 
"Is that your last word?" I asked. 

He nodded and looked at his watch. I turned on 
my heel and slammed the door after me. 

~ from Chapter 13 

The Real Life of Sebastian Knight 

Vladimir Nabokov, 1941 

* Adj. of elenchus: a refutation, particularly in syllogistic 
form (Gk: eXeyxog) 

S. Zalshupin's illustration for Aha bt> cTpaHb 
Hyztecb: AW, translated by B. CnpHH "VSirin" 
{pseud. V Nabokov), Berlin, 1923 



^IpyandfZF §|alla£ ^ainwright 

It is with great sadness that I pass this 
along. Alexander Wainwright was from a class 
of gentlemen that seems of an age gone by. He 
was a great resource to all Carrollians who 
visited Princeton. He is a friend who will be 
missed, but I think a la Lou Gehrig he would 
have stood in the middle of the Firestone 
Library and said, "I am the luckiest man in the 
world". ~ Joel Birenbaum 

On January 5, 2000, Alexander Dallas 
Wainwright died at the age of 82 and the 
Lewis Carroll Society of North America sadly 
mourned another of its founding members. 
The Society's inaugural meeting was held at 
Princeton in 1 974, owing to Mr. Wainwright's 
generous hospitality. During the following 
quarter of a century Alec Wainwright became 
a friend to many of us. As Curator of the 
Morris Parrish Collection of Victorian 
Novelists at Princeton, he offered invaluable 
assistance to the Society in a number of its 
publishing projects, hosted our three formal 
meetings at Princeton (including our tenth and 
twentieth anniversary meetings), and always 
most graciously offered bibliographical 
assistance to those of us who traveled to 
Princeton for research. 

Alexander Wainwright (I almost 
wrote "Dr." because he impressed all who 
knew him with his lightly worn but deep 
learning) was born in Ventnor, New Jersey on 
June 26, 1917. He was graduated from 
Princeton University with a B.A. in 1939 and 
received his B.S. in librarianship from 
Columbia University in 1941. After four years 
of service with the U.S. Army, he returned to 
Princeton where he remained for the rest of 
his life, indeed working at his desk in 
Princeton's Firestone up till the day before he 

He began his career as a cataloguer 
but in 1948 assumed responsibility for the 
Parrish Collection. From 1949-62 he edited 
the Princeton Library Chronicle, and in 1962 
he was appointed Assistant University Library 
for Acquisitions with the rank of Associate 
Professor. As a former University Librarian 
wrote in 1981: "Perhaps no other university 

library in this country manages to thank 
every donor of a gift with as much care and 
warmth as does Princeton under Mr. 
Wainwright's general supervision. He 
formally retired in 1982 but continued 
working on what would become his all but 
completed magnum opus, a new 700-page 
catalog of the Parrish Collection. 

To Mr. Wainwright's lasting credit, 
he saw to it that under his curatorship the 
Parrish Collection continued to grow - 
quite a rarity among collections deposited 
in academic libraries. And he was 
thoroughly catholic in his tastes. Not only 
was an 1 865 Alice added to the collection 
thanks to the generosity of Mr. Scheide, but 
also things like the original art for the Mad 
Tea Party scene from Wallace Tripp's 
Marguerite, Go Wash Your Feet. I 
remember Mr. Wainwright gleefully 
showing it to me. 

Joel Birenbaum had it just right 
when he wrote that he could imagine Alec 
Wainwright standing in the middle of the 
Firestone Library and saying, "I am the 
luckiest man in the world." He loved what 
he did. 

Often during my visits with him, 
Mr. Wainwright would speak of Morris 
Parrish as though he were still just beyond 
the door. As future generations come to 
Princeton to admire and study the treasures 
of the Parrish Collection, I am sure its 
curator will speak of Alexander Wainwright 
as if he were just on the other side of the 
door. -August A. Imholtz, Jr. 

gap arc f|lavi£ 
Animator Marc Davis (19 14- Jan 
13), one of the "Nine Old Men", designed 
many characters for Disney's films, includ- 
ing Alice herself. 

^Sdward spongy 

Author and artist of the macabre 
Edward Gorey (1925-Apr 15), according to 
his obituary in the New York Times on 1 7 
April, read AW as a very young child and 
credits Alice with "hauntjwg] his dreams 
and dominating his art." 



A Subcontinental Parody 
August A. Imholtz, Jr. 

The annual meeting of the foreign ministers of the 
Association of Southeast Asian Nations does not usually 
attract my attention, but the headline of the Associated Press 
wire story following the July 1999 conference in Singapore 
caught my eye: "The Russians sing only Russian songs and 
India's top diplomat recites a mock poem in tribute to Lewis 
Carroll." [KL 61, p.21] 

According to the AP story, after Madeleine 
Albright departed the conference for Kosovo, thereby 
missing the concluding formal dinner and entertainment, 
the ministers, as is their custom, spent the late after-dinner 
hours in songs and political skits. This has become something 
of a conference tradition: in the previous year's meeting 
Mrs. Albright and Russia's Yevgeny Primakov teamed up to 
sing their rendition of "West Side Story"-"East- West Story." 
In any event, last July at the conference India's 
Foreign Minister, Mr. Jaswant Singh, parodied Lewis 
Carroll's "You are old, father William." After reading the 
AP piece, I wrote to Mr. Singh in New Delhi requesting a 
copy of his parody. About a month later the Under Secretary 
of the Ministry of External Affairs kindly sent me a copy of 
Mr. Singh's parody, which is titled "A Dialogue Partnership 
with an Indian Minister." The parody is a little better than 
the title. Here is a sample: 

You are moderate and peaceful, Sir 

With no great taste for a fight 

Yet you chewed up the northern intruder 

Pray, what gave you such appetite? 

In my youth, I had learnt me 

That war is the diplomacy that some seek. 

And I knew that the mighty Indian army 

Will recapture, our land, peak by peak! 

One presumes delivery also played a role in the 
success of Mr. Singh's verses. 

It is a pity that the Russians, presumably bowing to 
a nationalist mood, sang only Russian folk songs. I would 
like to have heard from Mr. Primakov's successor a Russian 
parody of a Carroll poem, say "How doth the little 

The New Theory of Relativity 

A review in The Times (London), February 1 , 2000 
by Hilary Finch of a CD of piano sonatas by the distinguished 
English composer Stephen Dodgson contained the 
remarkable sentence "Not for nothing, it seems, is this 
composer - a descendant of Lewis Carroll - best known 
for his guitar and harpsichord music." 

In a fit of curiosity, I wrote to Mr. Dodgson, who 
was kind enough to reply. His letter reads, in part, 
"...expressing your surprise (and no wonder) at my being 
styled a 'descendant' of Lewis Carroll. Even the 'distant 

relative' which you suggested as a more accurate description 
is stretching things a bit. It is necessary to go back to the 
end of the 17 th century to arrive at a common ancestor. He 
was John Dodgson, of Paythorne, Gisburn, Yorkshire, born 
circa 1643. 

This was going back five generations in the case of 
Lewis Carroll, as against seven in my case. That branch of 
the family moved through the generations faster than did 
mine evidently; perhaps it was the habit of marriage between 
cousins. When Lewis Carroll's mother - a Lutwidge by birth 
- married a Dodgson, it was only restoring what an earlier 
marriage between cousins had upset. He was descended from 
John Dodgson of Gisburn twice over. 

I would not know anything about all this if it hadn't 
been for an amateur geneaologist I met at a concert a few 
years back. She'd been doing research on behalf of a close 
friend of hers, a genuine distant relation (whom I'd never 
heard of) and involved me in her comprehensive family tree 
and in return provided me with a copy. 

My father used to claim (for simplicity's sake, I 
now perceive) that he was no relation whatever. Somehow 
or other I always knew there was a link, but remote, and 
have had the rash habit of saying so sometimes. 

Hilary Finch did not invent it. She'd read the 
programme booklet for the first volume of the piano sonatas 
she'd been listening to, written with tremendous enthusiasm 
by the well known English composer and musicologist, 
Wilfrid Mellers, whose imagination had taken wing. Very 
effectively, it turns out; for it keeps generating the same 
fiction. I deny it when I get the chance, but the chance doesn't 
come my way often enough." 


'"What is the use of a book,' ihought Alice, 'without 
pictures or conversation?' Thome's book had plenty of 
pictures and conversation. In fact, it's very good reading. 
But this Alice is a mathematician and my thought was, 'What 
is the use of a book in science without equations or 
formulas?'" - Catherine Synge Morawets in "Variations on 
Conservation Laws for the Wave Equation ", Bulletin of the 
American Mathematical Society, Vol. 37 No. 2. 

"Replying to Martin Davis's query whether 
Wittgenstein was the first to define and use truth tables, 
John Conway wrote on 20 April that Lewis Carroll had a 
logic game that employed similar ideas. The reference is to 
The Game of Logic (1886) in which Carroll used counter 
diagrams. More recently, A. Macula, author of 'Lewis 
Carroll and the Enumeration of Minimal Covers' in 
Mathematics Magazine (68) 1995, 269-74, showed that 
these diagrams can be used to draw all possible intersections 
in Venn diagrams involving 10 or more sets. (Conway also 
remarked that Venn diagrams are essentially equivalent to 
truth tables.) Carroll explicitly used truth tables, but in 
incomplete form, in 'A Logical Puzzle' (1894), a version 
of his 'Barber-Shop Paradox', reprinted in W.W. Bartley, 
Lewis Carroll's Symbolic Logic (1977), 460-5." - Fran 
Abeles, in eMail correspondence 


(©je ]!&®m^ & 

Hellflre and Dalmatians 

From Dear Dodie, The Life of Dodie Smith by 
Valerie Grove (Chatto & Windus, 1996): "Meanwhile in 
Hollywood, the filming of [Smith's] The Hundred and One 
Dalmatians was completed. In July [1959], Walt Disney 
and his wife, who happened to be in England, drove over for 
lunch.. .He assured her that he had really had to change and 
cut very little of her story - 'You should have seen what we 
did to Peter Pan and Alice in Wonderland.'''''' 

A Joyous "Mixf'ure 

One of the most delightful sets of illustrations I 
have seen in a very long time is from a generously talented 
artist named Michel (a.k.a. "Mixt") Villars. This issue's 
cover (and p. 14) are graced with his drawings, which always 
are from Alice's perspective - quite literally seeing through 
her eyes. 

Michel was the director and designer of a 
"spectacle" called "Alice, ou le miroir des merveilles" 
involving musicians, dancers, and comediens created for the 
Theatre de Bienne (Switzerland) in 1988. An oversize 
hardcover of his and other participants' reflections on the 
world of Lewis Carroll, based in part on the show and mixing 
in photography, quotations, descriptions and these fabulous 
illustrations is available for U.S. $40 (incl. p&h, cash 
preferred) from Michel Villars / 58, rue Basse / CH - 2502 
Bienne / Switzerland. He can also be reached by eMail 
through his friend Catherine Fayant (fayant@uni2a. Some of his original drawings for this work are 
also available, at very reasonable prices ($200-500). 

On the Holmes Front 

The Battered Silicon Dispatch Box is a Canadian 
publishing venture that specializes in Sherlockiana, including 
the collected works of the famous Canadian Sherlockian 
and bookman Vincent Starrett. Volume 7 in the Vincent 
Starrett Memorial Library Series is The Escape of Alice 
and Other Fantasies (collected and introduced by Peter 
Ruber, Metropolitan Toronto Reference Library, 1995). This 
volume's opening and title story is a 13 page tale of Alice's 
escape from a copy of Alice in Wonderland into the Toyland 
of a Christmas shopping season circa 1919, when the tale 
was first written. [s ic] The story identifies the book as "Alice 
- the ageless child! It is one of the greatest compendiums 
of wit and sense in our literature. There are only two books 
in the world to match it." The other two are later identified 
as Don Quixote and The Pickwick Papers. 

In 1997 the story was reprinted by BSDB as a 
separate chapbook for the new Lewis Carroll Society of 

Canada in honour of their first 
meeting on May 4 of that year 
(KL 55, KL 56). This edition had 
an introduction by Dayna 
McCausland, (modified) illus- 
trations by Tenniel, and reprinted Starrett's "Alice, Where 
Art Thou?" from his Brillig Sonnets and Other Verse 
(Chicago: The Dierkes Press, 1949). 

In 1998 BSDB printed for the Lewis Carroll 
Society of Canada Portraits of Alice, a chapbook edition of 
selected poems from Stephanie Bolster's White Stone: the 
Alice poems (KL 54, 57, etc.), and one poem, "Where's 
Alice?" not in that collection. There are six full page 
illustrations by Craig Burnett to highlight the text. 

In 1999 we printed "The Walrus and the Carpenter" 
edited by Dayna McCausland, with a foreword by Charles 
Lovett, an introduction by Joel Birenbaum and an afterword 
by Fernando Soto. The text is an alternate version of the 
poem written by Carroll for the play Alice in Wonderland 
- A Dream Play for Children by Henry Savile Clarke. The 
changes were to reduce the quantity of oysters to a number 
that could be managed on stage and to allow one survivor to 
narrate the punishment that follows. This edition, published 
in celebration of the 25th anniversary of the Lewis Carroll 
Society of North America, includes 9 full page illustrations 
by Gene King and additional decorations. 

All these items are available through The Battered 
Silicon Dispatch Box, George A. Vanderburgh, Publisher; 
420 Owen Sound Street; P.O. Box 204, Shelburne, Ontario 
Canada, L0N ISO, Canada;; fax: 519.925. 

Save the Wales 

An article in The Times (London) on 1 April (but 
presumably serious) details the "Welsh Wonderland Wars" 
for tourist dollars between Llandudno, with which our 
readers are quite familiar, and Whitby, 150 miles to the 
north-east, which CLD visited half a dozen times between 
1854 and 1871. "His first published work, a poem 
unpromisingly called "The Lady of the Ladle", was set in 
Whitby and appeared in the Whitby Gazette. With those 
minimal facts, The White Rabbit Trail weaves its fanciful 
way round winding back streets and steep cobbled alleys." 
The house where he stayed, described as "blue-plaqued, 
solidly 1840s and with grand views over the harbour", is 
now Barnards Hotel (+01947 606167). A brochure on the 
White Rabbit Trail costs £1.50 from Whitby Tourist 
Information Centre (+01947 602674). 


Everything that Begins with an M 

Orders are now being accepted for The Mad 
Hatter 's Tea Book, written and illustrated by Matt Ceolin 
(a student of George Walker and the Cheshire Cat Press). 
It's a handbound edition of 25 from the Corosae Vespes 
Press, taking the form of the Hatter's journal and containing 
recipes, anecdotes and observations plus 10 full page colour 
illustrations, It should be available by late June, 2000. $60 
Canadian plus postage, RR#2 
Desbarets ON POR 1E0 Canada. 
A Tiny Treasure: AjiHca B CTpaHe Hy^ec 

Collectors will not want to miss the fine miniature 
book of Nina Demourova's superb Russian translation of 
A W with color illustrations by E. Shishlova (Tomsk, Tomsk 
Souvenir, 1998). Measuring a diminutive 5!4 by 7 cm, but 
containing 319 pages in hardcover (black with gold) with a 
pink paper jacket, and limited to 500 copies, it can be 
purchased from Janet Jurist, 5 10 E. 86th St., New York, NY 
10028; The price is $40. 

Ravings from the Writing Desk 
Of Stephanie Stoffel 

The goal of any parent or administrator is to make 
oneself superfluous, and so David Schaefer, Ellie Schaefer- 
Salins, and I are happy to find ourselves de trop. This spring's 
Maxine Schaefer Memorial Outreach Fund reading was a 
great success without us, "one of the very best" to date, says 
Mickey Salins. Young Mickey and Lena Salins very ably took 
David's and Ellie's place to introduce the program, and my 
reading was replaced to enormous advantage by Patt 
Griffin's and Paul Hamilton's performance of the Humpty 
Dumpty scene. Happy to be there as the "brawn" behind the 
maneuvering of a cart full of giveaway books six blocks to 
PS. 290, I was privileged to meet Judy Davis, a dynamic 
and creative fifth-grade teacher and friend of Janet Jurist, 
whose classroom was the site of our event. 

We gave away 59 copies of Through the Looking- 
Glass to a group of bright, interested, and well-prepared 
students, as well as twelve more copies for classrooms. I 
am sure all of you can imagine the paths these books might 
wend through many people's lives over future decades, and 
I also wish you could see the thank-you note I received from 
children in Toronto who received books last fall and followed 
up with a study unit on Alice. If you haven't yet sent in your 
dues and want to include a donation, if there's someone you 
want to honor or memorialize, or if you simply want to be 
part of the Johnny-Appleseed effect as we travel around 
seeding the country with Alice books, the Maxine Schaefer 
Fund will be available for your contributions indefinitely. 

As you know from reading the meeting report in 
this issue (and print certainly cannot replicate the experience 
of meeting composer Gilbert Hetherwick and hearing his 
songs), we had a marvelously entertaining and informative 
program in New York this spring, but not entirely the 
program expected. Please join me in thanking August 
Imholtz and Charlie Lovett for preparing on short notice 
two talks that our British friends had heard but we had not. 

How wonderful for us all that we have so many 
people with so many talents in the Society. It seems that at 
every gathering I learn something astonishing about someone 
I already knew, as well as meeting new people with 
fascinating abilities and interests. Thanks from all of us are 
also due Stan Bershod, who has undertaken mailing out books 
ordered from us; Bea Sidaway, who bravely plunged into 
the Carroll world at someone else's behest and now mails 
out the Knight Letter; and Mark Burstein, under whose hand 
the KL has only gotten better and better. Those of you who 
did not make it to New York have much to regret, I assure 
you, in not being able to join me in thanking Janet Jurist for 
yet another stellar evening at her apartment after the meeting. 
When I joined the LCSNA in 1985, the first 
meeting I heard about was to be held in Austin, Texas. Why, 
oh why would I want to go to Austin, I asked myself, and did 
not go. This choice I shortly came to regret, as have many 
Carrollians who did not avail themselves of the opportunity 
to visit the famous Harry Ransom Humanities Center and 
its storied Carroll holdings. We are all fortunate to have 
now a second chance: the fall meeting will be on October 
28 in Austin at the HRHC. We have a full day's program 
lined up, so be sure to make arrangements to arrive the day 
before. We expect to welcome as speakers Edward 
Wakeling; Roy Flukinger, curator of the Gernsheim archive 
of Carroll photographs; and the distinguished poet William 
Jay Smith. As Texas has the Warren Weaver collection and 
Byron Sewell's archive, we will also have a presentation on 
the achievements of Warren Weaver, brought to us by Fran 
Abeles, August Imholtz, and Charlie Lovett, and some 
remarks on Byron Sewell and keepsake bibliographies of 
these two Carrollian writers. So by all means, redeem your 
past negligence as I shall do, and save yourself a lifetime of 
regret, and make plans now to be with us in Austin in 

Pillow Problem 

(given to me by my niece, Anna Gersten, aet. 10) 

Find a ten-digit number in which: 

• The first digit is evenly divisible by 1, the first two by 
2, the first three by 3, etc. 

• Each digit is used only once. 

A solution is available from the editor 


Fun with Microsoft Word 97 

The text of the first edition of A W (not counting introduc- 
tory poems, titles and without the extra verses in two of the 
poems) contains 929 paragraphs, 26,449 words, 115,095 
characters and 25,310 spaces. The text of TTLG contains 
1,189 paragraphs, 29,359 words, 127,964 characters and 
28,526 spaces. Total: 2,118 paragraphs; 55,808 words; 
243,059 letters; 53,836 spaces. 

I next ran "Autosummarize" choosing "100 words or less" 
and got the following Zen synopses: 

Alice's Adventures in Wonderland 


Poor Alice! Alice folded her hands, and began: — 

'Exactly so,' said Alice. 

Alice felt dreadfully puzzled. Alice sighed wearily. Alice 

Alice ventured to ask. 

Alice was silent. 

'Yes!' shouted Alice. 

'What for?' said Alice. 

Alice gave a little scream of laughter. Alice thought to 

'No,' said Alice. Alice asked. 

Alice went on eagerly. 

'No, indeed,' said Alice. Alice was thoroughly puzzled. 
Alice whispered to the Gryphon. 'Nothing,' said Alice. 

'Nothing whatever,' said Alice. 

Everybody looked at Alice. 

'I won't!' said Alice. 

Through the Looking-Glass 

Alice began. Alice asked. 

Alice did so. Alice said rather impatiently. Alice inquired 
a little anxiously. Alice asked. Alice - Alice - 1 won't 
forget it again. Alice said indignantly. Alice exclaimed 
indignantly. Alice laughed. Alice remarked. Alice 
ventured to ask. 

Alice laughed. Alice pleaded. Alice asked doubtfully. 

Alice said very gently. Alice explained. 

Alice suddenly remarked. 

Alice considered a little. Alice interrupted. 

Alice was silent. 

Alice timidly asked. 

Alice ventured to remark. 

Alice shook her head. 

Alice enquired. 

Alice corrected herself. 

Alice considered. Alice cried eagerly. Alice was puzzled. 
Alice said impatiently. 'Alice - Mutton; Mutton - Alice.' 

Dormouse Corner 

British animal lovers have launched a "save the 
dormouse" campaign as they struggle to survive. The tiny 
mammals, once common in the South of England, are now 
endangered as their natural woodland habitat is being 
destroyed for building. They have been especially hard hit 
in Kent, where fields have been cleared to make way for the 
Channel Tunnel route. 

Campaigner Ken West, chairman of the Kent 
Mammals charity, said: "Children know about them because 
of Alice In Wonderland. They think they are terrific and we 
should do everything to protect them." 

Campaigners hope to increase the number of 
woodland sites where nesting boxes for the elusive animals 
can live free from fear of predators, theft or vandalism. See 

A fine writeup on dormice can be found at 

In honor of the little creatures and their human 
friends, we present two verses: 

Olympia lap in slumber so profound, 
No sheltered bear or dormouse sleeps more 

~ Orlando Furioso, Canto 10. XVIII 

Ludovico Ariosto (1474 - 1533) 

translation by William Stewart Rose 

There once was a Dormouse who lived in a bed 
Of delphiniums (blue) and geraniums (red), 

And all day long he'd a wonderful view 
Of geraniums (red) and delphiniums (blue) 

~ "The Dormouse and the Doctor" 

A.A.Milne in "Merry-Go-Round" (1923), 

reprinted in When We Were Very Young 


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The Mystery Illustrator 

Our Mystery Illustrator is none other than Beatrix Potter 
(1866-1943). In 1893-5, she tried her hand at a half- 
dozen "designs" for A W, producing some lovely drawings 
in which, characteristically, no humans appear. Four of 
these illustrations appear in full color in Beatrix Potter: 
The Artist and Her World, a spectacular 222-page catalog 
for the eponymous 1987/8 exhibition at the Tate Gallery. 
A 1995 reprint, published by F.Warne/The National Trust, 
is still available ($23). 0-7232-3561-9. 

Answers to Pop Quiz, p.14 

1 . The White Rabbit was carrying a nosegay (a small 
bunch of flowers) along with his white kid gloves. 

2. Gertrude and Florence 

3. They dried off by a fire in a nearby house 

4. The top and stalk of the mushroom 

5 . They were one character, the "Queen of Hearts and 
Marchioness of Mock Turtles" 

6. Croquet mallets were ostriches 


From Oar rar-fflunp 


Oxford Figures: 800 Years of the 
Mathematical Sciences, Oxford 
University Press, 0-19-852309-2, 
£35, celebrates eight centuries of 
mathematics at Oxford, including a 
chapter by Keith Hannabuss positively 
re-evaluating Dodgson's contributions. 
(U.S.) or (U.K.) 

Underground by Tobias Hill (Faber, 
2000, £9.99) portrays London's "tube" 
as a refuge for ragged people on the 
edges of society. Its alcoves are the 
grounds of a murderer and a strange 
tunnel dwelling girl called Alice. Many 
other Carrollian references. Available 
from, but not yet from 
the American one. 0571194508. 

Alice in Wonderland Jigsaw Book, 
Macmillan $35. A gorgeous hardback 
featuring seven excerpts with one 
illustration (Theaker/Wallis-colored 
Tenniels) from each enlarged and made 
into a 48-piece jigsaw puzzle. 333 
76291 6. 

Tagebuch einer Reise nach Rufiland 
(A Russian Journal in German) with 
contemporary lithographic illustra- 
tions, in paperback by Insel Verlag. 3- 

A different copy of the mimeographed 
storyboard/screenplay for the 1933 
Paramount Pictures movie with 642 
drawings by William Cameron Menzies 
described by Hilda Bohem [KL 59, p.5] 
was offered for sale for $3,500 by 
George Robert Minkoff Rare Books, 
413.528.4575; 26 Rowe Road, Alford, 
MA 01230. 

A Town Like Alice 's by Michael Bute, 
Heritage Publications, 953111504, 
£10, a nicely illustrated oversize 
paperback posits that Sunderland, its 
sites and citizens, greatly influenced 

Alice in Many Tongues by Warren 
Weaver (1964) has been reprinted by 
Martino Fine Books and is available 
through Oak Knoll, whose catalog is a 
treasure-trove for bibliophiles. Get on 
their mailing list, and you will also 
receive a catalog from their antiquarian 


books division. 3 10 Delaware St., New 
Castle DE 19720; 800.996.2556;;www.oak 


French director Marc Caro (City of 
Lost Children) is filming a new sci-fi 
adventure film Snark for Pathe 
Pictures, according to Variety. The 
film is "loosely based on the poem" 
and reportedly uses some new 3-D 
technology for its special effects. 

The "Mentors" program on the Family 
Channel [KL 62, p. 20] presented 
"Lewis in Wonderland" on February 
20 th and 25 th . 

Exhibitions and Events 

A Very Happy Birthday to our older 
sibling, the Lewis Carroll Society of 
the U.K., whose annual Christmas party 
(12/17/99) was also the 30 ,h 
anniversary of their founding. 

Visitors to Thermopolis, Wyoming, 
should not miss a stop at the Dancing 
Bear Folk Center, which includes a 
Teddy Bear Museum featuring two 
scenes from Wonderland. 20" tall 
bears in Tenniel-based costumes and 
backdrops make up the dioramas, and 
the center (several educational 
museums for children) includes some 
600 "artist bears". 119 S. 6th Street, 
P.O. Box 71, Thermopolis, WY 82443; 

A panel discussion, "Reflecting on the 
Life and Art of Lewis Carroll", 
moderated by Dianne Waggoner of the 
Yale University Art Gallery was 
offered Feb. 27 th in conjunction with 
the "Reflections in a Looking-Glass" 
exhibition, which ran through March 26 
in the Hyde Collection in Glen Falls, 


"Lobster Alice" December '99 - 
January '00 (a "highly literary affair" - 
Vince Lanza) in which Alice 


(Horowitz) is in Hollywood in 1946, 
assistant to an animator working on 
Disney's film. Salvador Dali is in the 
next office. 

Helena Walmann's multimedia AW 
dance presentation in Hamburg, 
Germany, January 19-23; AW at Stage 
West in Toronto Jan. 22; AW at Little 
General Playhouse, Marietta GA, Jan. 
29.; Festival Ballet's "Dance Me a 
Classic: AW", Rhode Island School of 
Design, Jan. 30 - Feb. 13; Bits 'N 
Pieces Puppet Theater, Tampa FL, Feb. 
2-4 (nine-foot puppets!); English 
National Ballet, touring through 18 
March, choreography by Derek Deane 
to music by Tchaikovsky; AW at the 
Luther Burbank Center, Santa Rosa CA, 
February 17 th ; "Alice in Cyberland" at 
Young Performers Theatre, San 
Francisco, March 4 - April 2, 2000 
("When young web designer Alice 
Liddell falls down a manhole in New 
York's Silicon Alley, she finds herself 
in Cyberland, a place of magical 
internet fantasies and technological 
flights of fancy") - www.aliceincyber; AW on the weekend of March 
24 th at La Guardia Community College, 
Queens, NY; "Alice" at the Young 
Peoples Theatre in Toronto March 23 
through May 1 5 ("Actor David Jansen 
performs the role of scat-singing, jazz 
bunny Louie Rabbit, etc.)"; AWat U.C. 
Irvine School of the Arts April 21-29 
(multimedia, interweaving live theater 
with computer-generated animation); 
AW: A Nice Madness produced and 
directed by Thea Connors at the 
Musical Theatre Works in New York, 
May 5 -6. 

Maria Bodmann's Balinese shadow- 
puppet "Alice in the Shadows", June 3 rd 
in San Pedro CA. http://www. html 

The Rich Forum, part of the Stamford 
Center for the Arts, presented a work- 
in-progress staged reading (by member 
Andrew Sellon, among others) of 
"Elephant & Castle" by Society 
member Rick Lake, on April 17th. 
"Elephant & Castle" is a new musical 
inspired by TTLG but set during the blitz 
in WWII London. 

Merchant House Museum (New York 
city) hosted a CLD birthday celebra- 
tion Jan 27. 

Graham Kostic, a Senior, is producing 
AW for Neuqua Valley High School 
(Naperville IL) this spring, and is 
looking for support. See www.angel 

Circle Players will present a non- 
musical stage adaptation in November, 
2000 at the Tennessee Performing 
Arts Center. P.O. Box 190592, 
Nashville, TN 37219; 


"He spoke their language" by 
J. Venkateswaran in The Hindu, January 
29, 2000. 

"Child's Play: With Her Eerie Rework- 
ings of AW, Anna Gaskell is One of the 
Hottest Contenders for This Year's 
Citibank Prize" by Robin Muir in The 
Independent (London), February 12, 
2000, discusses photographer 
Gaskell's "By Proxy", her third series 
devoted to Alice (the first two were 
"Wonder" and "Hide"). They could be 
seen at The Photographers' Gallery 
through 25 March. 

"Shashthi's land: folk nursery rhyme in 
Abanindranath Tagore's The condensed 
-milk doll" by Sanjay Sircar, Asian 
Folklore Studies v. 57 no. 1 (1998) 
suggests that Tagore may have learned 
his technique of incorporating tra- 
ditional nursery rhymes into this tale 
from Carroll. 

"Gangsters in Wonderland: Rene 
Clement's And Hope To Die as a 
reading of Lewis Carroll's Alice 
stories" by Guy Austin. Literature Film 
Quarterly, 1998, Vol. 26 Issue 4. 

"Adventuring with Alice" by Monica 
Edinger was "the teacher's art" column 
in Riverbank Review, Spring 2000. 

"A Literary Examination of Electronic 
Meeting System Use in Everyday 
Organizational Life" by Poppy Lauretta 
McLeod. Journal of Applied Behav- 
ioral Science, June '99, Vol. 35 Issue 
2 examines the Mad Hatter's Tea Party 
as a case study of group dynamics. 

"Mirror writing: Allen's self 
observations, Lewis Carroll's 'looking- 
glass' letters, and Leonardo da Vinci's 
maps" by G.D. Schott. Lancet, Vol. 354 
Issue 9196, 12/1 8/- 12/25/99. 

"Plato in Wonderland, or 'Beautiful 
Soup' and Other More Philosophical 
Ideas" by August A. Imholtz, Jr. in 
Classics Ireland 2000, Volume 7. 

"The history of the future" in 
International Defense Review, 
February 1 , 2000, reminds us that "the 
USAF [U.S. Air Force]' s only opera- 
tional intercontinental cruise missile 
was called the Snark, and talks about 
DARPA [Department of Defense 
Advanced Research Projects 
Agency] 's plan for the next generation 
of cruise missiles, which never got 
funded and therefore "ought to have 
been called the Boojum." 

"First Loves: From 'Jabberwocky' to 
'After Apple-Picking'" by Joyce Carol 
Oates. American Poetry Review, Nov/ 
Dec 99, Vol. 28 Issue 6. 

Doll Crofters magazine, March 2000, 
features as its cover story "Alice & 
Friends" by Gwen Ross and Mary 

Contemporary Doll Collector, 
January 2000 features as its cover 
story "Dollmakers in Wonderland" by 
Jill Sanders. 

"19 th Century Logic Between 
Philosophy and Mathematics" by Vol- 
ker Peckhaus in The Bulletin of Sym- 
bolic Logic, Vol. 5, No. 4, Dec. '99. 

"Systems get an English lesson" in The 
Irish Times, November 15, 1999, 
discusses Dr. Julie Berndsen (Univer- 
sity College Dublin) and her compu- 
tational linguistics research team's new 
directions in speech recognition with 
references to interpreting "Jabber- 
wocky". "This could mean that the 
frumious Bandersnatch will be treated 
no differently from the indigenous 
boarfish in speech recognitions 
systems of the future." 

"Talking to Strangers" by Steve 
Silberman in Wired, May 2000 
contains a long section on the "father 
of machine translation", Warren 
Weaver, author of the classic Alice in 
Many Tongues. 

The Lion and the Unicorn, Vol. 24, 
No.l, reviews The Red King's Dream, 
The Alice Companion, and Lewis 
Carroll in Wonderland. 

Kevin Sweeney's "Alice's Discrim- 
inating Palate" in Philosophy and 
Literature 23. 1, April 1999. E-text for 
"Project Muse" subscribers: http:// 
and_literature/toc/phl23 . 1 .html. Or 
order a printed version from Johns 
Hopkins University Press, 800.548. 


On March 12th in Santa Barbara at a 
meeting of the American Mathematical 
Society, Dr. Fran Abeles presented a 
paper in a special session on the History 
of Mathematics titled "Fair Repre- 
sentation, Apportionment, and 
Proportional Representation: Charles 
L. Dodgson's Approach". 

Art and Artifacts 

"There is a new Limoges Alice series 
if you have money to burn. The Queen 
of Hearts is truly hideous." -Joel B. 
$ 1 50 - $265 at 
limoges/dubarry/ldubarry.html - the 
"Myth and Legends" section or 
html. A much more affordable set of 
three Cheshire Cat boxes can be seen 
html. These are Grinski boxes which 
are considerably larger than the pricey 

The site for Alice jewelry based on 
Tenniel (KL 61, p.23) has moved to 

Naxos AudioBooks presents abridged 
readings of AW by Fiona Shaw (2!/ 2 hrs 
on two cassettes, $14, or two CDs, 
$16), music by Delius, Parry, Quilter, 
and Bruckner. Ditto TTLG. 

A set of figurines based on the Angel 
Dominguez illustrations will be 
manufactured in England later this year. 
The set includes Alice, the Queen of 
Hearts holding a flamingo, the 
Cheshire Cat, the White Rabbit, and the 
Mad Hatter. As of yet the company has 
no US distributor, so Joel Birenbaum 
has taken on that role, and will be 
selling them for about $25, but he has 


to buy in lots of 10. Contact him at or 2765 
Shellingham Drive, Lisle, IL 60532. 

A set of 1 candle snuffers by Bronte 
of England is shown at www.english- 
These are porcelain and $125 each from 
Joel, above. 

Dawn Albright's fabulous handmade 
soft-sculpture doll (7", $300) of Mar- 
garethe Maultasch "Margaret Pocket 
Mouth", Duchess of Tyrol and Princess 
of Carinthia (1318-1369), the purpor- 
ted model for the Ugly Duchess, from; 
Zelgstrasse 2, Adliswil 8134 Switz- 
erland; +41.1.7090837. She is also 
working on a doll based on Alice Pleas- 
ance Liddell. 

Eight 3" figurines ($28 the set), card 
games, etc. from Gypsy Rose, 1.888. 

Lawn ornaments, a "bas-relief Mad 
Hatter's Tea Party Wall Plaque ($30) 
"a hoot" - Andrew Sellon, 12" high 
polyresin figures ($35), and the book 
Arthur Rackham: A Life with 
Illustration ($30) from Past Times, 

Tiffany's is selling an 1 8 karat hedge- 
hog with ruby eyes for a mere $1,850 
according to their latest catalogue. "It's 
very dowager-y." - Cindy Watter 

A lovely set of porcelain figurines (2 
WRs, 1 Alice, 1 "book"; $180 - 200 
each) from Rochard is available in 
selected stores. Contact Carol 
Mauriello, Rochard, Inc., 225 Fifth 
Ave., New York NY 10010; 
212.679.4615 for local retailers; or 
digital pictures via eMail (cmauriello 

The Metropolitan Museum of Art in 
New York has some new scarves with 
multicolored-squares containing 
Tenniel characters, based on an 
American design circa 1900. $65. 

A set of six "fantastic rabbits", 
including the White Rabbit, rather 
crudely drawn on "collector plates", 
can be had for $400 the set from the 
Good Catalog,; 

"Lewis Carroll's Guildford. A centen- 
ary fantasy" by Jonathan Tatlow. A 
charming 12 x 16 inches matted 
original print with figures from Alice 
in the trees, out of the window and 
chimney and on the ground. Limited to 
1000 numbered copies. "Well worth 
the $40" - Janet Jurist. Orders and 
checks should be sent to Paul Garner, 
P.O. Box 147, Roslyn, NY 11576. 


The home page of the Lewis Carroll 
Society (U.K.) has moved to www. Join their eMail list 
while you're there! 

Welcome Deborah Caputo's Lewis 
Carroll Society of Australia to cyber- 
space! A fine website is at www.the 
Carroll/Carroll. html; pigbaby@big 

Alice's Shop Oxford has moved to 

Graham Piggott's wonderful character 
sculptures (KL 57 p. 16; 58 p. 11) have 
their own website now: http://www. 

The Looking Glass cybermagazine 
from The Toronto Centre for the Study 
of Children's Literature provides "new 
perspectives on children's books" in an 
academic, yet often humorous setting 
with an Alice motif, http://gopher.fis. 

A short film of "Jabberwocky" by 1 5- 
year-old Tom Hulse can be viewed at 
film_id= 104487 

Join the Wonderland eGroup: http:// 
promoting Wonderland Press http:// 

For help in preparing this issue thanks are due to Fran Abeles, Earl Abbe, Gary Brockman, Sandor Burstein, Llisa 
Demetrios Burstein, Angelica Carpenter, Matt Demakos, Eames Demetrios, Sarah Ellis, Johanna Hurwitz, August 
Imholtz, Clare Imholtz, Janet Jurist, Vince Lanza, Dayna McCausland, Horst Miiggenburg, Lucille Posner, Andrew 
Sellon, Bea Sidaway, Stephanie Stoffel, Alan Tannenbaum, and Cindy Watter. 

Knight Letter is the official newsletter of the Lewis Carroll Society of North America. It is published several times 
a year and is distributed free to all members. Subscriptions, business correspondence, and inquiries should be ad- 
dressed to the Secretary, 18 Fitzharding Place, Owing Mills MD 21117. Annual membership dues are U.S. $20 
(regular) and $50 (sustaining). Submissions and editorial correspondence should be sent to the Editor, Box 2006, 
Mill Valley CA 94942. 

President: Stephanie Stoffel, Secretary: Ellie Luchinsky, 

Editor: Mark Burstein, 

Lewis Carroll Society of North America Home Page: 

The Lewis Carroll Home Page: