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T/^^ Lewis Carroll Society of North America 

Summer 2009 

Volume II Issue 12 

Number 82 

Knight Letter is the official magazine of the Lewis Carroll Society of North America. 

It is published twice a year and is distributed free to all members. 

Editorial correspondence should be sent to the 

Editor in Chief at 


Submissions for The Rectory Umbrella should be sent to 

Submissions for Mischmasch should be sent to or 

Submissions for All Must Have Prizes should be sent 

© 2009 The Lewis Carroll Society of North America 

ISSN 0193-886X 

Andrew Sellon, Editor in Chief 

August 8c Clare Imholtz, Editors, The Rectory Umbrella 

Sarah Adams-Kiddy 8c Ray Kiddy, Editors, Mischmasch 

Mark Burstein, Production Editor 

Andrew H. Ogus, Designer 



Andrew Sellon, 


Cindy Watter, 


Clare Imholtz, 

Annual membership dues are U.S. $35 (regular), 

$50 (international), and $100 (sustaining). 

Subscriptions, correspondence, and inquiries should be addressed to: 

Clare Imholtz, LCSNA Secretary 

11935 Beltsville Dr. 

Beltsville, Maryland 20705 


Angelica Carpenter, Alice Berkey, Sharin' Schroeder, Nancy Willard, Devra Kunin 

Knight Letter is printed on 30% post-consumer waste recycled paper 
using vegetable inks. 

Cover. Theater drawing by Jonathan Dixon 
adapted from La Guida di Bragia (LCSNA, 2007) 

Photo Credits: Production stills from La Guida di Bragia (cover; p. 3 C; 

p. 5 upper L and R, lower C) courtesy of Theaterwork (; 

© 2009 by Petr Jerabek ( 

Portraits (/;. 3) © 2009 Mark Burstein 

Production stills (p. 4, p 5 lower L and R) © 2009 Jonathan Dixon 




Alice, Mooney, & Spooney in Enchantmentland 



Furniss Blasts: Caricaturing Carroll 


Contemporary Sylvie and Bruno Reviews, Installment 


One Snark, Two Snark, Real Snark ? or Boo-Snark ? 


The Hunting of the Butcher 








Nores S^ QusRies 







Amanda McKittrick Ros 


The Lesson Books 


Alice in Wartime 


Sic, Sic, Sic 


Alice in Washington 


Jabberwocky at Lincoln Center 


Lewis Carroll in Numberland 




Alicia Scavino 's Alice 


Under His Hat 





Art — Articles 6f Academia — Books — Cyberspace 

Events, Exhibits &" Places — Movies & Television 

Performing Arts — Things 

"^^^^^ hoy, members! Gather round the mainmast, 
^^^^ I have news for you. As you know, for the 
X m.past three years I have served as your Editor 

in Chief, having taken charge when our former long- 
standing captain understandably found the duties 
too time-consuming on top of a thriving personal and 
professional life. I now find myself in the selfsame po- 
sition, and am delighted to report that as of the next 
issue, Mark Burstein will be back at the helm, which 
will allow me to focus on my presidential duties. So, 
welcome back, Mark! In addition, crew members 
Clare and August Imholtz have requested permanent 
shore leave due to their own commitments. Please 
join me in extending to them our heartiest thanks for 
maintaining the Rectory Umbrella so beautifully for 
the past three years. I'm delighted to announce that 
the Umbrella will now be carried by member Mahen- 
dra Singh, who charmed our membership with his 
mysterious Snark-hunting wit at the fall 2008 meet- 
ing. I'm also very pleased to report that Sarah Adams- 
Kiddy, Ray Kiddy, Joel Birenbavim, Andrew Ogus, and 
Devra Kunin will remain on the ship's roster in their 
current capacities; they deserve our thanks as well, 
even though they are not going ashore. 

It's been a singular pleasure working with this 
lively crew. My profound thanks to all for what has 
been a remarkable three-year tour of duty. I hope 
that you readers are enjoying the changes and addi- 
tions we've made to the magazine, and that you will 
continue to provide the new crew with your sugges- 
tions and feedback, so that our magazine will always 
yield a varied, thought-provoking and entertaining 
catch. Thank you all in advance for that. 

So, what's in this issue? Another hold of gold, just 
for you: the Santa Fe spring meeting recap, more con- 
temporary reviews of Sylvie and Bruno by Clare, a col- 
laborative essay by Mark and Andrew Ogus on Harry 
Furniss's drawings of Mr. Dodgson, a delightful Snark 
poem from Alison Tannenbaum, and a fascinating 
examination of depictions of the Butcher (along with 
other Snarkiana) by Doug Howick. Not to mention 
the booty below deck in Mischmasch! Once more, set 
sail, noble reader. And enjoy. 




"^^C ^^^^ost of the dozen or so LCSNA mem- 
m \# % bers — including the Natsumes from the 
M. IlLCS Japan — who attended our all-day 

meeting on May 9, 2009, flew into Albuquerque and 
then drove up to Santa Fe, with mountains and mesas 
on each side of the highway, a distance of about sixty 
miles through the sometimes rolling country, barren 
except for the sagebrush, which seem to exist on a 
teaspoon of water a month. 

Our meeting began at Theaterwork's headquar- 
ters (offices, studio, rehearsal space, costume shop, 
etc.) with introductory remarks by president Andrew 
Sellon, and the reading of a greeting {p. 2) from Bill 
Richardson, governor of New Mexico, followed by a 
warm welcome to us all by Theaterwork's artistic di- 
rector, David Olson. 

David is a fine raconteur, and talked about the 
performance we would see in the evening and how 
it came to Santa Fe. He gave us a gripping account 
of the evolution of Theaterwork from its founding in 
1966 as Teatro Laboratorio de Bogota in Colombia, 
where he had gone as a United Nations representa- 
tive on a cultural mission. His early experiences there 
affected him enormously and taught him how theater 
could be a force for political change — "to transform 
the world" — as well as entertainment ("Knock 'em 
alive" being his motto). The military government did 
not appreciate the liberating and dignifying works 

David produced and he was forced to leave the coun- 
try. After taking a year to return to the United States, 
he and his wife spent sixteen years in Minnesota be- 
fore coming to Santa Fe. In the fourteen years since 
then he has staged more than eighty plays and operas 
including works by Chekhov, Moliere, Miller, Wilde, 
Menotti, Humperdinck, and of course now Lewis 

The LCSNA's own multitalented Jonathan Dixon 
(illustrator, narrator, voice actor [Mooney], arranger 
and composer of the music for the performance of 
La Guida di Bragia, and organizer of what turned out 
to be an absolutely superb program all around) then 
explained how he came to bring the play to David's 
attention. Dixon's interest in Lewis Carroll's early 
work, especially this curiously titled "ballad opera," 
dates from his 1992 visit as a young man to Croft 
Rectory, where he met the current owners and saw 
the initials CLD that the young Charles Lutwidge 
Dodgson had scratched on a window pane. He feels 
that Dodgson's years at Croft were warm, secure, and 
cozy, a welcome change from both the cold dwell- 
ing his family had lived in at Daresbury and his dif- 
ficult school years at Rugby; this time shortly before 
he went to Oxford was a comfortable family respite, 
which informs our appreciation of this play. Jonathan 
illustrated the LCSNA's edition of The Hunting of the 
Snark (1992) while studying at the University of Iowa, 


Bill Richardson 

then moved to Santa Fe, where he became involved 
with Theaterwork. In 2006, Olson wanted to stage a 
pixppet play and Jonathan suggested La Guida di Bra- 
gia, which he also had illustrated brilliantly — first for 
KL 61 (1999) and then with some additional drawings 
for the splendid hardcover edition that the LCSNA 
published in 2007. 

Olson became interested in Carroll and his only 
surviving play. Jonathan next put together a "study 
book" (a thick three-ring binder in fact) on Carroll 
for the members of the Theaterwork company, who 
took to the challenge of 
staging such a work as La 
Guida with remarkable 
enthusiasm and creativ- 
ity. Although the play 
may have been originally 
written for marionettes 
or stick puppets, the com- 
pany decided that to pre- 
serve the intimacy and 
feel of Dodgson's home- 
spun theatrics they would 
instead use dolls, the 
challenge of animating 
which was met with great 
aplomb. Mooney and 
Spooney, for example, 
were created from cast-off 
baby dolls retrieved from 
a bin at a thrift store, then 
altered in the gender 
sense, transformed with 
prosthetics, and clad first 
in nondescript dress and 
then in blue railway uni- 
forms that looked quite 
authentic and fitted the 
bill perfectly. The entire 
"cast," in fact, was made of 

similarly rescued dolls, who were costumed and given 
new lives on stage. 

David also discussed the play in terms of the- 
ater — would it have passed a scriptwriting class? 
(It would have been suggested that Mooney and 
Spooney's issues should be resolved at the end.) 
What were its weaknesses and strengths? (The now 
indecipherable inside family jokes; its sheer exu- 
berance.) Should the puppeteers be hidden or in 
plain view? (Theaterworks cleverly chose the latter, 
costuming them as Victorian servants, who because 
of their station would themselves have been "invis- 
ible in plain view.") Should the voices be taped or 
live? (The former, making for a smoother run, less 
crowding, and a cast that could include true opera 
singers.) Who should speak the prologue and epi- 
logue? (The puppeteers.) 

State of New Mexico 

office of the governor 

A Welcome Message from Governor Bill Richardson 

As Governor of New Mexico, I would like to extend a warm welcome to the members of the 
Lewis Carroll Societ\> of North America and their guests to Santa he as the time of its 400th 
Anniversary Celebration approaches. Surely the stories and poems of Lewis Carroll have been 
spoken countless times over those years, mionishing and delighting people of all ages. 

Let me congratulate you on your work of preserving, the works of Lewis Carroll, extending 
research into his life and exploring the impact of his words and images on the cultural life of 
the world. IVe are honored to have you here, f am sure your days with us wilt he good ones. It is 
especially gratifying to know that the play LA OVUM DI BRA 01 A will he presented for the first time 
in more than one hundred and fifty years in New Mexico. 

Perhaps, had he had the chance. Charles Dodgson (Lewis Carroll) might have found a 
special delight of his own in a visit to New Mexico in its early days. He could have followed his 
own thought across our landscape, "And we 'II wander through the wide world, and chase the 
buffalo " He would have been most welcome - as arevou 

With warmest regards. 

Bill Ricltardson 
Governor of New Mexico 

Stale Capitol • Room 400 • Sariia Fo, New Mexico 87501 • 505-476-2200 

The stage, in a Victorian color palette, was a min- 
iature theater, actually not so miniature: about nine 
feet tall with the stage window itself about three feet 
high and four feet wide. Envision a free-standing the- 
ater in Victorian music hall fashion, in front of which 
is a re-creation, with many Carrollian allusions, of 
a sitting room on the floor of which can be found 
photographs, a cracked handbell, a looking-glass, a 
stuffed rabbit, a white glove, and so on, even a minia- 
ture tool set much like the one young Charlie Dodg- 
son had made for his sisters. (The performance itself 

is reviewed below.) 

After a deli- 
cious and very New 
Mexican lunch at 
nearby Tortilla Flats, 
we reassembled at 
Theaterwork for a 
live performance 
of Gerald Fried's 
chamber piece The 
Chess Game (for nar- 
rator, flute/piccolo, 
oboe, violin, cello, 
and piano) with the 
composer himself 
as oboist. It was a 
magical musical en- 
deavor with narra- 
tion of three scenes 
from Through the 
Looking-Glass: the 
scene, the garden 
of talking flowers, 
and the two bum- 
bling knights. De- 
lightfully melodic, 
it reminded one 
of us of the early 
1950s Omnibus performance of Peter and the Wolf and 
the other of the Alec Wilder accompaniment to the 
Cyril Ritchard recordings of the A/ic^ books. Jonathan 
Dixon vividly read the text passages introducing and 
separating the music, which itself was simply wonder- 
ful — its perky leitmotifs and sequences capturing in 
another kind of language the quirkiness and beauty of 
Carroll's text in a musical landscape by turns charm- 
ing, exhilarating, whimsical, cacophonous, and poi- 
gnant. At times the woodwinds were just this side of 
madness: in finale of the flower garden sequence, as 
Fried explained to us after the performance, all five 
instruments, in five different keys, join in sequentially 
one beat apart to drive Alice from the garden. 

The Chess Game premiered with the New York 
Chamber Soloists in 2006 and one hopes a digital 
recording of that performance will become available 

David Olson 

Jonathan Dixon 

Gerald Fried 

(or perhaps a new one featuring Jonathan and the 
musicians we heard). Fried, a composer of four sym- 
phonies and three operas, is perhaps best known for 
his works for film and television, which have garnered 
one Oscar and five Emmy nominations (one win, for 
Roots), including the scores for Stanley Kubrick's 
Paths of Glory, many of the original Star Trek television 
episodes (including the Alice-themed "Shore Leave," 
wherein McCoy spots the White Rabbit), The Man 
from U.N.C.L.E., Mission: Impossible, etc. Gerald gra- 
ciously spent more than a few minutes talking about 
his music, his view of Carroll ("Beckett by way of 
Adorno"), and answering our appreciative questions. 
Fried said he found Loohing-Glass "simply irresistible" 
as a subject. The same description could apply to his 
charming composition. 

Following a short break we again took our seats 
and were treated to the tale of how the LCSNA book 
publication of La Guida di Bragia came to be. It all 
started, or at least the LCSNA's involvement with 
this curious operetta by the young Dodgson, with 

a conversation Jonathan Dixon had with Professor 
Morton N. Cohen in 1992 — a busy and seminal year 
for Dixon. Morton suggested that the Society pub- 
lish the playscript, which had only been published 
once before, in the Christmas 1931 number of the 
British magazine The Queen. (The original manu- 
script had been sold at Sotheby's from a lot identi- 
fied as "the property of Major C. H. W. Dodgson" on 
February 14, 1929 and much later was bought by the 
American pencil magnate Alfred Berol, who gave it 
to the Fales Library of New York Universit)' with the 
rest of his magnificent Carroll collection.) 

Former LCSNA president Peter Heath wrote an 
introduction to the text that, with a transcription of 
the play and illustrations by Jonathan Dixon, was pub- 
lished in the Knight Letter in 1999, permission having 
been obtained both from executor Philip Dodgson 
Jacques and the Fales Library. A note in the magazine 
promised "A separate publication, doing better jus- 
tice to the illustrations and with ancillary material, is 
being planned"; a mere eight years later found it so. 


Left: Orlando (before); right: Orlando (after); opposite, clockwise 
from UL: Orlando, Sophonisba, Mooney and Spooney, Kaffir, 
Mrs. Muddle, Huntsman 

The Fales Library gave us digital copies of the pages 
of Carroll's original text, which were included in our 
hardcover publication. Jonathan Dixon expanded 
some of his existing illustrations, added some new 
ones, and worked very closely with designer Andrew 
Ogus throughout. Mark Burstein added a note on 
the possibility that Carroll was parodying not only the 
great Bradshaiv's Railway Guide hut John Maddison 
Morton's 1851 play Grimshaiu, Bagshaxu and Bradshaw, 
and read to us a portion of Punch's review of that play. 
Andrew Ogus then explained how he worked on the 
selection of the color of the endpapers and joyfully 
collaborated with Jonathan on the design, and much 
about the principles and rationale for the selection 
of the fonts [e.g., Fairfield] used in printing this new 
edition of the work. Andrew illustrated what he meant 
by showing alternative fonts and explaining why they 
simply could not work for the book in hand. His com- 
ments provided an enlightening insight into how a 

book designer works not only with the text but with 
the illustrations and, in certain fortunate cases, their 
creator. With that we repaired to the Santa Fe Hotel, 
where we enjoyed another excellent meal punctuated 
by lively conversation. It went on so long that some of 
us arrived back at Theaterwork just in time for the 
special 8:00 p.m. private performance. 

The performance, the first production since 
young Charles Dodgson was behind the curtain, was 
nothing short of brilliant. Angela Janda Goldstein 
and Larry Lee, both members of the Theaterwork 
company, were the puppeteers, who deftly commu- 
nicated much emotion and drama by manipulating 
the bodies and limbs of Mooney and Spooney, So- 
phonisba and her husband Orlando, Mrs. Muddle, 
and other cleverly and appropriately attired dolls. 
The upper-class characters spoke in verse, often sing- 
ing to operatic melodies, and the lower-class, newly 
employed railway officials in prose. Every word in 

the original text was spoken, plus some that were not 
there — Jonathan and David created lines in some 
mock-African language, Zulu perhaps, for the char- 
acter of the Kaffir. 

The dialog was played from a recording made 
by Adam Harvey, Angela Janda Goldstein, Larry Lee, 
Jonathan Dixon, soprano Elizabeth Calvert, tenor 
Tim Willson, Jack Sherman, and 83-year-old British 
actor David Frankham (the cat Sgt. Tibbs in 101 Dal- 
matians; Star Trek, et al, and a man who remembered 
using Bradshaw's Guide in his younger days!) as 
Bradshaw himself. The three acts, to much laughter 
and applause, went by all too quickly and the audi- 
ence gave a ringing ovation at the conclusion. After 
the play we wanted to send "electric diagrams" (as 
Mrs. Muddle would say) to those who were not able 
to join us to let them know what a wonderful time 
they had missed. On behalf of the LCSNA, Andrew 
Sellon closed the meeting by thankingjonathan and 

David Olson for their extraordinary efforts, accom- 
plishments, and hospitality. Before leaving, we had 
an opportunity to socialize with David Olson and his 
Theaterwork company. 

We should note here that the public perfor- 
mances which had taken place over the three pre- 
ceding evenings in a beautiful recreation of a nine- 
teenth-century theater also featured as a prelude 
Jonathan's rendition of Carroll's "Rules and Regula- 
tions" followed by a soprano, Marilyn Barnes, clad as 
Sophonisba and accompanied by Glen Smerage on 
piano, singing four songs written by Walter Slaughter 
for the 1886 Saville Clark adaptation, Alice in Wonder- 
land: A Dream Play. The entire evening was videotaped, 
and we are discussing the possibility of a D\T) release 
with Theaterwork. 

New Mexico bills itself as "the Land of Enchant- 
ment"; on this day that may even have been an under- 

Furniss Blasts: Caricaturing Carroll 


The following is a joint critical venture: Part III was 
penned by Andrew Ogus, the rest by Mark Burstein. 


Harry (born Henry) Furniss (1854-1925) is mainly 
known to Carrollians for his ninety-two whimsical il- 
lustrations to the Sylvie and Bruno duad, although he 
also applied his talents equally well to Alice's Adventures 
in Wonderland, and contributed, by his own count, 
over twenty-six hundred drawings to Punch from 1880 
to 1894. His twenty Won(i^r/awrf illustrations (the origi- 
nals of sixteen of which now reside in the Berol Col- 
lection, and examples of which can be seen in KLs, 
59:15 and 74:50) were first published in fortnightly 
issues of The Children's Encyclopedia,^ and reprinted in 
several other publications in the succeeding years, in- 
cluding The Book of Knowledge in the U.S. and transla- 
tions into Russian (1909) and Hebrew (1950).^ They 
have been quite hard to find; fortunately for us all, 
the LCS Canada is planning to publish a new edition 
of WbwrfCT'/aw(i featuring all of Furniss's AZic^ drawings, 
with related articles, sometime in 2009. 

Other minor Furnissian-Carrollian connections 
abound. Some are discussed by Ruth Berman in 
"Harry Furniss in Wonderland," KL 74:14, and in Goo- 
dacre and Wakeling's 1999 article for The Carrollian. 

Furniss's troubled up-and-down relationship with 
Mr. Dodgson is well-mined territory in Carrollian 
literature, but his own eminently humorous, anec- 
dotal reminiscences can be found in his two-volume 
autobiography, The Confessions of a Caricaturist,^ in his 
article "Recollections of Lewis Carroll" in The Strand 
Magazine, No. 205, January 1908, which also features 
a caricature of Tenniel, two of Alice, one of Humpty, 
and one of Phoebe Carlo, the young actress who first 
played Alice (the article will be included in the LCS 
Canada publication) ; and in Dodgson's profile in Some 
Victorian Men.^ Readers preferring to draw their own 
conclusions are encouraged to read their occasion- 
ally volatile correspondence in Lewis Carroll and His 
Illustrators? His second autobiography, Harry Furniss 
at Home, contains several parodies of Tenniel's Alice 
drawings (and Carroll's style) in his lampoon "Frag- 
ments of a Fiscal Wonderland: Advice from a Chan- 
clawyerpillar."'' One more, a near-miss: In 1912, at the 
age of fifty-eight, Furniss visited the United States, 

where he worked in the studios of Thomas Alva Edi- 
son, writing and acting in early film shorts. Regret- 
tably, he was two years too late for Edison's Alice in 
Wonderland (1910). Harry Furniss was an ebullient, 
larger-than-life figure, and I for one look forward to 
Edward Wakeling's article, "An Uncomfortable Col- 
laboration," in the forthcoming LCS Canada book. 

Furniss was first and foremost, as can be gleaned 
from the title of his autobiography, a superb carica- 
turist, primarily of the politicians and other celebri- 
ties of his day. He spent many of his later years as a 
popular lecturer and raconteur, touring England, 
America, Canada, and Australia, giving talks (he 
called them "Popular Entertainments") during which 
he often sketched. 


My research (some, it must be said, rather serendipi- 
tous; some due to the wisdom of Messrs. Wakeling 
and Goodacre) has turned up seven Furniss carica- 
tures of Dodgson, all reproduced here together for 
the first time. The original 1931 edition of the Hand- 
book lists but three, as it only catalogs the Strand ar- 
ticle and misses those published in Furniss's books. ^ 
As there is no mention in Dodgson's Diaries of his sit- 
ting for Furniss, we can assume they were all drawn 
from memory or photographs, some possibly serving 
as visual fodder for his one-man shows, others for his 
books and articles. 

♦Figure 1 is a drop-cap used to introduce his remi- 
niscences of Dodgson in his Confessions. 

♦Figure 2 was published in Some Victorian Men. 

♦Figure 3 also comes from the Confessions and 
depicts Dodgson's puzzlement at Furniss's 
feigned madness, in a tale he relates therein. 
The original is in the National Portrait Gallery 
in London. 

♦Figure 4 {Handbook #678) was printed in the Strand 
article. The original is also at the National Por- 
trait Gallery. 

♦Figure 5, "Lewis Carroll at the Play," resides in the 
Berol collection at New York University; the date 
is unknown. 

♦Figure 6 (Handbook #679) is also from the Strand 

Figure i (igoi) 

Figure 2 {ig2^) 

♦Figure 7 {Handbook #677) is a 
caricature of Dodgson at a 
lectern, his body in three- 
quarter view and his face in 

The last-named was seen for 
the first time by most LCSNA 
members as the cover illustration 
to Elizabeth Sewell's Lewis Carroll: 
Voices from France, the 2008 mem- 
bers-only publication, although 
it had been reproduced in The 
Carrollian} The original pen-and- 
ink drawing (c. 1888) has been 
in the Burstein Collection for 
many years; it was once owned 
by Sidney Herbert Williams of 
Handbook fame, who, in June of 
1925, issued a series of twenty- 
five photolithographic facsimiles, 
which he signed and, presumably, 
distributed to his friends, whose 
names — e.g., Carroll scholars 
Flodden Heron (#3) and Harold 
Hartley (#14) — were hand-writ- 
ten in as part of the inscription.^ 
As the Sewell book cover only 
shows the top half of the drawing, 
we thought it only right to reproduce the whole of it, 
from the original, in the Knight Letter. It is certainly 
the friendliest of the lot. 

"'This here young lady,' said the Gryphon, 'she 
wants for to know [its] history, she do.'" 


Examining these drawings with the relatively inno- 
cent eyes of someone largely unfamiliar with Furniss 
was a fascinating task. 

Figure ^ (igoi) 

The caricaturist's af- 
fectionate shorthand is 
clearly at work, reducing 
his subject to a familiar 
profile, from the entrap- 
ping initial cap to the be- 
wildered visitor in Figure 
3, to the sharp, deft shapes 
on the arms in Figure 6, 
and on to the formal por- 
trait of Figure 7. Look 
how the always sloping 
brush strokes stop and 
start in Figure 7, how the 
dark areas under his coat 
give stature to the now 
dignified Dodgson. And 
Figure 3 provides a witty 
summation of Dodgson's 
difficult and demanding 
relationships with his il- 
lustrators: the author, 
who only means well by 
his suggestions, versus the 
maddened and frustrated 
artist! Almost every line of 
the bewildered Dodgson 
drives toward the haplessly 
split Furniss, whose upper 
half is trying in vain to force his visitor away, while 
his bottom half is in flight. The tall and lanky figure, 
towering over the maddened artist, is rendered with 
rapid, sloping lines, rich blacks, and lively whites. Was 
Furniss struck by the magnificent Dodgsonian nose, 
softened though it is in Figure 4? 

Note that three of these pictures include the 
writer's attributes of books or papers; Figure 7, with 
its invisible lectern, contributes to his professorial au- 
thority. Figures 3 and 6 contain what must have been 

Figure 4 (igo8) 

Figure ^ (n.d.) 

a familiar gesture of his lengthy fingers: 
the diffident, dubious reassurance of 
touching his chin. In Figures 4, 5, and 6, 
Dodgson tenderly holds books and pa- 
pers between thumb and forefinger, his 
other fingers doubled below for support. 

Figure 1, published in Furniss's Con- 
fessions in 1901, appears to have been re- 
drawn or copied to be printed at a larger 
size in Some Victorian Men in 1924 (Figure 
2). The similarities are so strong it seems 
clear that either Furniss had a remark- 
ably specific memory or, more likely, he 
chose to re-render his earlier drawing. 

We can imagine Furniss's hand al- 
most automatically flickering over the 
paper, with, first, the addition of shad- 
ing lines behind Figure 2, replacing the 
"T" and giving the drawing depth and 
dignity. The face is less angled, more self- 
conscious. Look closely at the rendering 
of the omnipresent bow tie: its pattern- 
ing seems virtually unchanged. The oval 
treatment of the eyes; the long, deep in- 
dent near the mouth; the wisps of hair fi^^^f, 5 (jgo8) 
floating mullet-like above the neck are 
barely different. Even the rapid lines de- 
lineating the cheek almost match. The lively touches 
of white under the ear are gone, while the lines de- 
fining the cheek and slanting down from the mouth, 
and the vigorous curve below the nose in Figure 1 
have solidified a bit twenty years later. 

Taken as a whole. Figure 1 is a brighter drawing, 
sparkling in a way that Figure 2 does not. Twenty-two 
years later the accentuated angles and the lively eager- 
ness of the figure are gone. Is this merely the result of 
copying? The loss of Furniss's abilities as he aged? Or 
is it that Furniss's vision of Dodgson has settled into 
the stodgy characterization by which the Victorians 
are still perceived today? 


One of the side-effects of 
researching this article was 
the discovery of one Harold 
Furniss, also an English il- 
lustrator, born just two years 
after "our" Harry. They were, 
and are, often confused, a 
fact mentioned in Harry's 
Confessions, and detailed in 
an article, "Harry and Harold 
Furniss" by John Adcock.^'' 
The problem continues to 
this day: I had to correct Wiki- 
pedia, which had conflated 
them. Harold was, in the 
main, an editor, writer, and 
illustrator of police/crime 
"penny dreadfuls." 

v: dodgson's 


Falconer Madan (1851-1935), 
who was well acquainted with 
Dodgson, comments in the 
Introductory Notes to the 
Handbook, "Dodgson's height has been exaggerated 
in some reminiscences, which describe him as tall. 
The error may be due to Harry Furniss's drawing of 
him. As a fact he was of medium height, about 5 ft. 9 
in. A personal friend writes 'he was of middle height, 
and always wore a long black coat, with a rather strag- 
gling white tie,' another 'he was not tall,' another 
'he was of moderate height.'" Morton Cohen's Bi- 
ography proffers several different opinions from his 
child friends and relatives, e.g., Ethel Hatch, Isa Bow- 
man, and niece Irene Dodgson Jaques, whose guesses 
go from "medium height" to six-feet-tall." A pair of 
full-length "assisted self-portraits" (that is, Dodgson 


Figure 8(1898) 

Figure 7 (c. i 

would set it up and then have someone remove the 
lens cap) taken together in Christ Church circa 1856 
perhaps would provide evidence: one can be seen on 
p. 196 of Cohen's Biography; the second greets one on 
the portal page of Wakeling's website, www.lewiscar-, and was the basis for Figure 8, an etch- 
ing from The Strand Magazine.^^ I suppose an expert 
in forensic photogrammetry could be called upon to 
resolve this issue once and for all, assuming that the 
doorway, desk, or chair (or, for that matter, any ob- 
ject) in or near which he was photographed is still in 
existence and can be located and measured. Perhaps 
a benevolent Carrollian would be so kind as to take 
along a measuring tape on his or her next trip to Ox- 
ford and put the issue to rest. 

' London: Educational Book Company, 1908-09. 
^ See ''Alice Illustrated by Harry Furniss: A Brief 

Biographical Study and a Checklist of Editions" 

by Selwyn H. Goodacre and Edward Wakeling in 

The Carrollian, No. 3, Spring 1999. 
' London: T. Fisher Unwin, 1901; New York: Harper 8c 

Brothers, 1902. 

London: John Lane, The Bodley Head; New York: Dodd, 

Mead and Co., 1924. 

Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press, 2003, 

Morton Cohen and Edward Wakeling, eds. 

London: T. Fisher Unwin, 1904. 

A Handbook of the Literature of the Rev. C. L. Dodgson 

by Sidney Herbert Williams and Falconer Madan 

(London: Oxford University Press, 1931), revised by 

Roger Lancelyn Green and reissued as The Lewis Carroll 

Handbook'm 1962. 

No. 13, Spring 2004, in Selwyn Goodacre's article 

"Bibliographical Notes." 

The reproduction in The Carrollian is of the latter. Any 

collector possessing other copies is encouraged to 

contact me. 


Cohen, Morton, l^ewis Carroll: A Biography (New York: 

Alfred A. Knopf; London: Macmillan, 1995). 

Vol. 15 No. 88, April 1898 in an article, "Portraits of 

Celebrities," immediately preceding "Lewis Carroll" by 

Beatrice Hatch. 

Contemporary Sylvie and Bruno Reviews^ Installment 8 




Reprinted here are ten contemporary reviews 
of Sylvie and Bruno. I am deeply indebted to 
Sharin' Schroeder, who kindly forwarded 
me most of these reviews. 

Dodgson, rather famously, says in the Preface to 
Sylvie and Bruno Concluded, "Let me also here assure 
them [reviewers of SB] that it is not from any want of 
respect for their criticisms, that I have carefully for- 
borne from reading any of them." However, my re- 
search in the Macmillan & Company letterbooks of 
correspondence, held at the British Library, shows 
that Dodgson was not without interest in reviews. On 
December 16, 1889, four days after publication of SB, 
Macmillan & Co. wrote to Dodgson, "Your instruc- 
tions as to review copies [presumably, where to send 
them] were all carried out." On December 23, Mac- 
millan wrote to a press-cutting agency in High Hol- 
burn, "We have been requested to send you a guinea, 
and to ask you to send to Miss Dodgson, The Chest- 
nuts, Guildford, notices of 'Sylvie & Bruno' . . . till the 
guinea is worked out." So perhaps, if Dodgson did 
not read reviews, his sisters read them to him? Well, 
it is fair to speculate thus. In fact, he soon admits in 
the Preface that "Criticisms have, however, reached 
me from private sources. ..." 

If Dodgson was aware of the reviews reprinted 
below, we have to wonder how difficult it must have 
been for him to hear again and again that SB — which 
he believed to be his most important work — in no way 
measured up to the Alices. While the reviewers here 
are mostly appreciative and show great respect for 
Lewis Carroll as author of the Alicehooks, even the 
most positive cannot quite bring themselves to give 
full-throated approval to SB; there is always at least 
a bit of puzzlement and regret about the moralizing 
aspects of the new book. It will probably surprise to- 
day's readers to see that several of the reviewers seem 
quite taken with Sylvie and Bruno as characters. 

The Daily News, December 13, 1889, p. 5 
The author of "Alice in Wonderland" has written a 
new book, "Sylvie and Bruno" (Macmillan and Co.). 
Mr. Harr)' Furniss has illustrated the book abundantly, 
and in his quaint drawings, and the still quainter text, 
we seem to have all the elements of the old delight 
that people found in the most successful child's book 

of the Victorian age. Here be monsters in plenty, gro- 
tesque men and women, beautiful children and ugly 
children, and the whole machinery of imaginative ex- 
travagance. Yet the author will not have it that he is in 
any way repeating himself. He is seeking a new path. 
To repeat himself he feels sure would be to court 
disaster, and why should he attempt it, since he has 
been repeated in the old line by others something 
like a dozen times? So "Sylvie and Bruno" is to in- 
clude, along with "acceptable nonsense for children," 
"some of the graver thoughts of human life." Did not 
"Alice" include the latter too? — at least by the clearest 
implication — and we need ask for no more in a work 
of this kind. "Sylvie and Bruno," therefore, is not new, 
as to that "departure"; it is only a pleasant road that 
we seemed to have traveled before. The narrator, a 
sort of impersonal first person pronoun, has to fade 
off into fairyland, without a shock to his nerves, or 
to ours, whenever the subject requires it. He accom- 
plishes this in no small part by the familiar device of 
the dream. We are at one moment with him, and an 
unknown lady companion, in a railway carriage on 
the way to Fayfield (suggestive name), and at another 
in the palace of a Warden of a sort of undiscovered 
country, where all happens according to the fairies' 
law. When we are to come back again, it is but halt- 
ing the train at a junction, and the shock wakes our 
narrator up, and releases us from the experiences 
of every-day life. The Warden's country is, after all, 
but the vestibule of Fairyland. We must go down the 
marble stairs (not Down the Snow Stairs,* this time), 
which run from beneath a bush, before we can fairly 
say that we are within the precious confines. 

But as soon as we pass the threshold of sense 
with the dozing gentleman, we are with very strange 
people. The "Warden" is one of them — the ruler of 
the country, with Bruno and Sylvie, boy and girl, 
his delightful children. These are some of the good 
characters and they have three perfect contrasts on 
the shady side in the Sub- Warden, the Sub- Warden's 
wife, and Uggug, their most abominable offspring. 
The Sub-Warden might be a Brazilian, f for the ease 
in which he plots the Warden out of his office. He 
is assisted by a villainous "Lord Chancellor," whose 
face, as pictured by Mr. Harry Furniss sometimes 
suggests unconscious cerebration working on memo- 


ries of Mr. Punch. "The Professor" and "The Other 
Professor" form dehghtful corner-men| to this long 
hne of eccentricity in innocence or in crime. The 
Professor is a particularly learned doctor who has 
"actually invented three new diseases, besides a new 
way of breaking your collar bone." "My Lady," the odi- 
ous Sub-Warden's wife, suggests in her portly frame 
and severe expression, a haystack out of temper. It 
is the old pleasant nonsense in a new setting, and if 
any man could doubt it for one moment let him pick 
at random among the verse: [the "Buffalo" stanza of 
the Gardener's Song is quoted here]. The more seri- 
ous purpose is didactic in the execution, and it has 
a happy tendency to reserve itself for the end of the 
book. If there is anything of it at the beginning, it 
is in the preface. This should take high rank among 
compositions of this kind for the originality of its 
treatment. We shall all read "Sylvie and Bruno," as we 
shall read "The Hunting of the Snark," because we 
have read "Alice in Wonderland," and we shall like it, 
because taste is apt to be as faithful to old friendships 
as character itself. 

* Down the Snow Stairs by Alice Corkran (d. 1916) was an early 
A/z'c^ imitation, published by Blackie and Son in 1887. 

t Reference uncertain. 

X According to the Oxford English Dictionary, "Corner-men 
are the grotesques of a minstrel company." 

"CHRISTMAS books" 

There is no publication of the season which will be 
welcomed with more delight than Mr. Lewis Carroll's 
new fantasy, for it is something more than a fairy-tale. 
It is published by Messrs Macmillan & Co., and al- 
though three or four times the thickness of the two 
"Alice" books, is uniform with them in binding, paper, 
and general get-up. There is a difference in the case 
of the illustrations, which in the former works were 
from the wonderful pencil of Mr. John Tenniel. This 
time Mr. Harry Furniss is the favoured artist, and 
his drawings are marvellously good. As for the plot 
or movement of "Sylvie and Bruno" it is difficult to 
describe. The movement, indeed, is a duplex one — a 
real alongside a fanciful drama. This curious melange 
of realism and fairyism is one of Lewis Carroll's favou- 
rite devices. In "Sylvie" the transitions and complica- 
tions are so rapid that a delicious state of bewilder- 
ment is the result. Anything more charming, however, 
than the two dream children, Sylvie and Bruno, was 
never dreamed even by Lewis Carroll; and if the hu- 
mours of Outland are not quite so irresistible as those 
of Wonderland and Looking-Glassland, they are still 
very funny. The nonsense-verses of the Gardener, are 
as cleverly ridiculous as one can desire, while Bruno's 
invention of the "Phlizz" is as puzzling as the abid- 
ing smile of the Cheshire Cat in Wonderland. There 
is, however, a more serious tone and purpose about 

this book than about its predecessors, although the 
moral is never allowed to interfere with the fun. In a 
lengthy preface the author is almost solemn as he lays 
down his opinions as to the provision of literature for 
children. We need not discuss these opinions here, 
and as to child-literature one can only hope for a con- 
tinued supply of such thoroughly delightful matter as 
the author of "Sylvie and Bruno" provides. 

UNDER "gift books" 

Any new book from the pen of the author of "Alice's 
Adventures in Wonderland" is sure of a hearty wel- 
come from old and young. It has been assumed that 
in the series of remarkable books of which that which 
we have named was the first the author was writing 
for children, but probably as many adults as children 
have read them, and with as keen relish. For what 
class "Sylvie and Bruno" was intended it would be 
hard to say: we have a story of real life, and one in 
which children can hardly take much interest, inex- 
tricably woven with the experiences of "Outland" and 
"Fairyland" — most delectable nonsense, such as grave 
readers may consider almost too childish for them; 
and we pass from one to another, and back again, 
often in the same sentence. For an adult who is not 
superior to "gracious fooling" the book is delightful: 
we do not know where more absolutely charming and 
fascinating figures are to be found than Sylvie and 
Bruno; but in the human part of the strange book 
there is much which would weary children, much 
which would be unintelligible to them, and much 
which it would be neither prudent nor wise to place 
before them. The silly girl who gushingly pretends to 
be learned and profound is very well caricatured in 
such a passage as the following, but it is above the 
heads of the nursery: — 

"Talking of Herbert Spencer," he began, "do 
you really find no logical difficulty in regard- 
ing Nature as a process of involution, passing 
from definite coherent homiogeneity to indefi- 
nite incoherent heterogeneity?" 

Amused as I was at the ingenious jumble he 
had made of Spencer's words, I kept as grave a 
face as I could. 

"No physical difhcuhy," she confidently re- 
plied; "but I haven't studied logic much. Would 
you state the difficulty?" 

"Well," said Arthur, "do you accept it as 
self-evident? Is it as obvious, for instance, as 
that 'things that are greater than the same are 
greater than one another'?" 

"To my mind," she modestly replied, "it 
seems quite as obvious. I grasp both truths by 
intuition: But other minds may need some logi- 
cal — I forget the technical terms." 


"For a complete logical argument," Arthur 
began with admirable solemnity, "we need two 
prim Misses ." 

"Of course!" she interrupted. "I remember 
that word now. And they produce ?" 

"A Delusion," said Arthur. 

'Ye — es?" she said dubiously. "I don't seem 
to remember that so well. But what is the 
whole argument called?" 

"A Sillygism." 

"Oh, yes! I remember now. But I don't need 
a Sillygism, you know, to prove that mathemat- 
ical axiom you mentioned." 

"Nor to prove that 'all angles are equal,' I 

"Why, of course not! One takes such a sim- 
ple truth as that for granted!" &c., &c.. 

This, in its way, is admirable; but the children 
whose silver laughters were wakened by "Alice's Ad- 
ventures" and "Through the Looking-glass" would 
probably find it as bewildering as it is said a certain 
august lady, who had desired to see any new work by 
Lewis Carroll, found a book of abstruse mathematics 
by him. And who would care to place before a child 
the suggestions of a passage such as this: — 

"Would you — would you mind my telling you 
something he said about prayer^ It had never 
struck me in that light before." 

"In what light?" said Arthur. 

"Why, that all Nature goes by fixed, regular 
laws — Science has proved that. So that asking 

God to do anything (except of course praying 
for 5j&mfwa/ blessings) is to expect a miracle, 
and we've no right to do that. I've not put it 
as well as he did: but that was the outcome of 
it, and it has confused me. Please tell me what 
you can say in answer to it." 

"Well, let us see how far the result is produced 
by fixed laws. The cup moves because certain 
mechanical forces are impressed on it by my 
hand. My hand moves because certain forces — 
electric, magnetic, or whatever 'nerve-force' 
may prove to be — are impressed on it by my 
brain. This nerve-force, stored in the brain, 
would probably be traceable, if Science were 
complete, to chemical forces supplied to the 
brain by the blood, and ultimately derived 
from the food I eat and the air I breathe." 

"But would not that be Fatalism? Where 
would free-will come in?" 

"In choice of nerves," replied Arthur. "The 
nerve-force in the brain may flowjust as nat- 
urally down one nerve as down another. We 
need something more than a fixed Law of Na- 
ture to settle ivhich nerve shall carry it. That 
'something' is Freewill." 

And so on deepening into a tone of grave solem- 
nity and dealing with the subtlest of mysteries. But 
there is much of laughter-compelling nonsense and 
the most witching prettiness, which might well be 
read aloud to children, of which we may quote one of 
many examples: — 

"What's the matter, darling?" said Sylvie, with 
her arms round his neck. 

"Hurted mineself loelly much!" sobbed the 
poor little fellow. 

"I am so sorry, darling! How ever did you 
manage to hurt yourself so?" 

"Course I managed it!" said Bruno, laugh- 
ing through his tears. "Doos oo think nobody 
else but oo can't manage things?" 

Matters were looking distinctly brighter, 
now Bruno had begun to argue. "Come, let's 
hear all about it!" I said. 

"My foot took it into its head to slip " 

Bruno began. 

"A foot hasn't got a head!" Sylvie put in, but 
all in vain. 

"I slipted down the bank. And I tripted over 
a stone. And the stone hurted my foot! And I 
trod on a Bee. And the Bee stinged my finger!" 
Poor Brimo sobbed again. The complete list 
of woes was too much for his feelings. "And it 


knewed I didn't ynean to trod on it!" he added, 
as the climax. 

"That Bee should be ashamed of itself!" I 
said severely, and Sylvie hugged and kissed the 
wounded hero till all tears were dried. 

"My finger's quite unstung now!" said 
Bruno. "Why doos there be stones? Mister Sir, 
doos oo know?" 

"They're good for something,'" I said: "even 
if we don't know what. What's the good of dan- 
delions, now?" 

"Dindledums?" said Bruno. "Oh, they're 
ever so pretty! And stones aren't pretty, one bit. 
Would oo like some dindledums. Mister Sir?" 

"Bruno!" Sylvie murmured reproachfully. 
"You mustn't say 'Mister' and 'Sir,' both at 
once! Remember what I told you!" 

"You telled me I were to say 'Mister' when I 
spoked abo^it him, and I were to say 'Sir' when 
I spoked to him!" 

"Well, you're not doing both, you know." 

"Ah, but I is doing bofe. Miss Praticular!" 
Bruno exclaimed triumphantly. "I wishted to 
speak about the Gemplun — and I wishted to 
speak to the Gemplun. So a course I said 'Mis- 
ter Sir'!" 

"That's all right, Bruno," I said. 

"Cowrie it's all right!" said Bruno. "Sylvie just 
knows nuffin at all!" 

"There never if as an impertinenter boy!" 
said Sylvie, frowning till her bright eyes were 
nearly invisible. 

"And there never was an ignoranter girl!" 
retorted Bruno. "Come along and pick some 
dindledums. That's all she's fit forr he added in 
a very loud whisper to me. 

"But why do you say 'Dindledums,' Bruno? 
Dandelions is the right word." 

"It's because he jumps about so," Sylvie 
said, laughing. 

'Yes, that's it," Bruno assented. "Sylvie tells 
me the words, and then, when I jump about, 
they get shooken up in my head — till they're 
all froth!" 

I expressed myself as perfectly satisfied with 
this explanation. "But aren't you going to pick 
me any dindledums, after all?" 

"Course we will!" cried Bruno. "Come 
along, Sylvie!" And the happy children raced 
away, bounding over the turf with the fleet- 
ness and grace of young antelopes. 

We should like to quote a bit of the wild para- 
doxical nonsense, but we have gone as far as we are 
justified in giving a sample of Mr. Carroll's wares; and 
who when he cries them and asks QuisJWiW not an- 
swer Ego'? 

"CHRISTMAS books" 

A new story by the author of "Alice in Wonderland" 
is safe to be //«<? children's book of the season so there 
is little doubt of a warm reception for "Sylvie and 
Bruno" (Macmillan). This time Mr. Lewis Carroll's 
contribution is not all fun and frolic. A solemn tone 
and meaning mingle with the humorous fancies, as 
if to illustrate the theory of ideal juvenile literature 
which the writer unfolds in the preface. From the 
youngsters' point of view, it may be somewhat tanta- 
lising to find the adventures of the bewitching little 
brother and sister interrupted suddenly by moral 
and religious arguments and a "grown-up" love-story, 
but older readers must admire the art with which the 
materials are blended. In his lighter vein, Mr. Carroll 
pursues his old happy style. Sylvie and Bruno move in 
a quaint world, peopled with odd characters, like the 
two professors or the poet-gardener, always indulging 
in delightfully inconsequent rhymes. The ballad of 
"The Badgers and their Herrings" is another first-rate 
piece of nonsense-verse, ludicrously illustrated by 
Mr. Harry Furniss, who is just the right artist to carry 
out Mr. Carroll's ideas, and who furnishes a host of 
comical drawings. Undoubtedly, "Sylvie and Bruno" 
supplies the answer to all perplexed people inquiring 
what book to get for their small friends and relatives. 

Murray's magazine, v. 7, no. 38, February 1890, 
wp. 288, under "our library list" 
The author of "Alice in Wonderland" breaks new 
ground in the present volume, for, interspersed with 
packages of the old inimitably humorous nonsense, 
an ordinary love-story pursues its hum-drum course 
while distressingly obtrusive "morals" seem to hover 
in the air. We cannot think that the change is an im- 
provement. Tales with a ptirpose are "as plenty as 
blackberries," love-stories are far from uncommon, 
but books which keep the reader amused by pure 
whimsicality, wit without sting and fancy without 
emotion, are as rare as they are charming. Sylvie and 
Bruno are the two children of "the Warden," a ruler 
of Outland, plotted against by his wicked brother 
and brutally stupid sister-in-law; they are only seen 
in visions by the author, whose waking hotirs are oc- 
cupied with the affairs of a certain Arthur Forester, 
M.D., and Lady Muriel Orme. The subjects treated 
of range from deep religious problems to the wild- 
est nonsense. Flashes of humour in the old delight- 
ful vein are not uncommon, but the general effect of 
the story is rather confused and the jokes are often 
fetched from far. Perhaps no one but Mr. Carrol [sic] 
could have conceived a watch "which has the peculiar 
property that, instead of its going with the time, the 
time goes with it," or have written the mad gardener's 
song: of which the following is a stanza: . . . [The re- 
view concludes with the "Banker's Clerk" stanza.] 


FEBRUARY I5, 1 89O, P. 4 

"The Dreamland of Fiction " 

A quarter of a century has elapsed since English chil- 
dren welcomed with delight Mr. Lewis Carroll's 
"Alice in Wonderland." The book hit the mark of the 
child's fancy and became a classic of the nursery. It 
contained just that admixture of real and unreal, of 
the waking and dreaming world, of sense and non- 
sense, which captivates the humour of little readers — 
and of a good many grown readers besides. Its queer 
paradoxes and odd surprises, its serious absurdities 
and absurd gravities, its topsy-turveydom — these, 
together with its memorable poems and still more 
memorable illustrations combined to make "Alice's 
Adventures" one of the most delightful and extraor- 
dinary books of the generation. Nor did "Through 
the Looking Glass," which followed half a dozen years 
later, share the fate usually reserved for sequels to 
an original 7>M d'esprit. It lacked, perhaps, the spon- 
taneous fresh humour of its predecessor; and had 
the appearance of too careful an elaboration of the 
most popular features of "Alice in Wonderland." Still 
children welcomed it heartily for the sake of its little 
heroine, and have accorded it a share of their favour 
almost equal to that won by the book which created 

It is difficult to augur an equal popularity for the 
latest work from the pen of our veteran child's au- 
thor. "Sylvie and Bruno" is a bigger book than either 
of the other two; it is certainly more ambitious; the 
thread of a story runs more clearly through it, and 
Mr. Harry Furniss's illustrations are not unworthy 
to be compared with those of the yet greater master 
who first gave Alice and her queer companions vis- 
ible form. But as a child's book, "Sylvie and Bruno" 
will prove disappointing and perplexing — even to 
the more sophisticated nursery readers of our day. 
The adventures of the delightful little hero and hero- 
ine in Dogland and Fairyland lack the surprises and 
thrilling encounters which took place in Wonderland 
and behind the Looking Glass. The clever talk of the 
children and their Professor is often too clever to be 
laughable; and the continuity of the incongruities 
is sadly broken up for the impatient young student. 
If, however, he will persevere he will reach the ac- 
count of Bruno's entertainment to the frogs, which 
will reward him for much patience; and the freaks of 
the Outlandish Watch, reversing the incidents of an 
ordinary nursery dinner, which is worthy of the au- 
thor of the "March Hare's Tea Party." On the child's 
mind the melancholy undertone of the book, with 
its story of unrequited love weaving itself in and out 
of the other story of the fairy brother and sister will 
be thrown away. Mr. Carroll, no doubt, expects as 
much. He knows that children care very little about 

the love affairs of dukes' daughters with officers and 
doctors. That part of "Sylvie and Bruno" is intended 
for us adults, to whom a tale of a broken heart always 
appeals. To our mind, the most interesting feature of 
Mr. Carroll's work is the dream suggestion which 
runs through them. In his present story this is more 
evident than in either of the others, since we are con- 
stantly encountering the dreamer himself. . . . [The 
review concludes with several paragraphs on the rel- 
evance of dreams in literature and life.] 


[Following directly upon a review of Jerome K.Je- 
rome's Three Men in a Boat]. . . Forced wit bears the 
same analogy to the real article as does the pale pea 
of February as seen in Convent [sic] Garden to the 
emerald marrow-fat of June seen at a country vicar- 
age on a Sunday. But why has the supply become so 
scanty? Why does even the author of "The Walrus 
and the Carpenter" adhere but half-heartedly to his 
vocation to cause dull care to flee away, and in his 
new book, "Sylvie and Bruno," make us pay for the 
rapture of the mad gardener's song with maundering 
dissertations on Sunday observance? 

THE THEATRE, MARCH 1, 189O, P. 178 

In the preface to his latest book Mr. Carroll wails over 
the difficulty of being original. This he need not do, 
for he has made one odd line of humour peculiarly 
his own, and in it, if he has many imitators, he has no 
peers. The greater part of "Sylvie and Bruno" no one 
but its author could have written. Through its pages 
we are constantly called up halting with little spurts 
of laughter over such whimsical tricks of speech and 
fancy as became a type of household jest near twenty- 
five years ago. Think of that, my good men! A quarter 
of a century, with its revelations and revolutions in 
literature, has passed over our whitening heads since 
Alice, and the Duchess, and the little crowd of card- 
courtiers stepped into print and our most close affec- 
tions simultaneously. And we see by the publishers' 
list that the nursery is still faithful to a favourite that 
has become traditional, and that Alice has entered 
upon her eight-hundred-and-third century,* and is, 
we have no doubt, hale and hearty yet. But the little 
lady's huge popularity is her father's worst confusion, 
for how may he devise a rival to her daintyship that 
may hope to compare with the quaint child of her 
younger fancy? Sylvie, Bruno and Co. are charming 
little creations, but they lack the utter sweetness of 
inconsequence that characterized their progeni- 
tors. And then we resent being treated to moral dis- 
quisitions in fairy tales, even when Alice's parent is 
the preacher. Sincerity, charity, piety — what excel- 
lent qualities are these, yet how out of place if made 
obtrusively prominent in a story of nonsense! And 


what do we want with Lady Muriel and the sick cast 
of an unhappy love-tale in Carroll-land? What do we 

want Oh, beloved jester, that you should commit 

that grievous error of taking the public into your con- 
fidence as to the creations of your brain! An author, 
as reviewed through his works, should ever be a mys- 
tery, an unknown quantity, 2l Junius in nuce — 

"For a ticket, apply to the Publisher." 

No: thanking the public, I must decline. 

A peep through my window if folks prefer: 

But please you, no foot over threshold of mine."t 

Think of Poe and his "Philosophy of Composi- 
tion" and weep. But if there is a mistake or two ap- 
parent in this new volume of yours, there is yet more 
that makes us shake hands again with the ghost of 
thine old self over that quarter century of years. Hail 
the gardener, and the Chancellor, and the Professor 
most of any! And, if the declining sun at the finis of 
the book is meant to typify the laying down for good 
and all of thine own eventful pen, we should like to 
press amongst the childish world that crowd about 
the doors of thine fancy, to cry a last heartfelt fare- 
well to one who has enriched our baby literature with 
dowry of more pure, harmless, and delicious fun than 
ever were its gain before. But one word as to the il- 
lustrations. Handicapped by illustrious tradition, Mr. 
Furniss has yet succeeded in imbuing his little per- 
sonalities with a grace and charm that are all their 
own; and indeed one or two of his vignettes are quite 
models of exquisite prettiness. 
* Eighty-third thousand. 

t Junius was a pseudonymous contributor to The Public Adver- 
tiser, an eighteenth-century newspaper. "In nuce": in a nut- 
shell. The stanza of poetry is from "House" by Robert 

society v. 9 no. 1 15, march 189o, p. 252, under 
"bow bells" 

The mixture of the dream and the story is dread- 
fully bewildering, and though the love affairs of Lady 
Muriel are pretty reading enough, we feel conscious 
that we expected something very much more thrill- 
ing from the originator of our dear friend, "Alice." As 
to the dissertations on death, on Sunday observance, 
and many another kindred topic, they are wholly un- 
welcome and irrelevant. Mr. Carrol [sic] tells us that 
this stout volume is the work of ten years, but really 
it is a little surprising that he should care to append 
such a confession to so disappointing a farrago. 

the graphic, again, in a column entitled "the 

reader,"april 5, 1890 
"Sylvie and Bruno," Lewis Carroll's new book (Mac- 
millan), is a disappointment. It is a pity to have to 
say so, but that, we are sure, must be the opinion of 
all readers. Mr. Carroll touched high-water mark in 

"Alice in Wonderland," for nothing else he has done 
since has been quite so good as that immortal piece 
of nonsense. Were "Sylvie and Bruno" his first work, it 
would be hailed as something new and rare. But Mr. 
Carroll has himself set up previously the standard by 
which we must judge him; and tried by that standard, 
his last book must, unfortunately, be pronounced not 
up to his reputation. Of course there are many beau- 
tiful and funny things in "Sylvie and Bruno." The 
two children themselves are delightful creatures; the 
Lord Chancellor, the Professor, and the Sub-Warden 
of the early chapters are conceptions as whimsical as 
some in "Alice in Wonderland." The Gardener, too, 
is a character almost worthy to rank with the Hatter 
of the earlier book; but about the whole there is an 
air of effort, a conscious attempt at fun, a laying bare 
of the inner springs which move the machine. Even 
the Gardener's song, inconsequent and curious as it 
is, lacks the spontaneity and reckless humour of the 
lyrics in "Alice." Still, those who have not enjoyed 
the other books (and no doubt there are benighted 
persons who have never read them) may well extract 
amusement from this. Children will certainly be fas- 
cinated by the curious adventures of the brother and 
sister in Fairyland, and there are grave passages of 
reflection in which Lewis Carroll touched a solemn 
and religious note. Mr. Harry Furniss has supplied 
many illustrations to the volume; and these we can 
scarcely praise more highly than by saying that they 
are among the most dainty and imaginative products 
of his pen. 





While all boojums are snarks; the reverse is untrue; 
Only some snarks are boojums, but who is who? 
Most snarks are harmless, the Bellman will say, 
But a boojum will cause you to vanish away! 

Let us review what we know of the snark; 

It has five distinct traits, which here we remark: 

Its taste is unique; its sleep cycle shifted; 

It can't take ajoke; with ambition, it's gifted. 

Old bathing machines carried hither and thither 
Could frighten some beachgoers into a dither. 
These are five signs of a genuine snark; 
But with only these facts, we are still in the dark. 

There are different batches, the Bellman explains. 
One kind has feathers, and bites, causing pains; 
The other has whiskers, and scratches — a curse! 
But is either a boojum, and which one is worse? 

Identity, snarkwise, is complex and weird. 
It makes a taxonomist twiddle his beard. 
Snarks vary a lot, and there aren't any "norms," 
So a "key" can't be made, with all of those forms! 

At the time of the writing the tale of the snark. 
Science was younger, and much in the dark. 
Now we have methods and techniques galore 
To investigate, analyze species, and more. 

Is it boojum or snark? To make a decision. 
We must look at blood, genes, and hair, with 

Do they have the same chromosomes, livers, and 

Did they come from the birds, or from mammals, or 


But samples are needed, from blood or from bone, 
From the shaft of a feather, or hair root, alone. 
How to reach many snarks was the problem at hand. 
Scratching their heads, famous scientists planned. 

A field expedition was duly dispatched. 
With all new equipment; nothing was patched. 
A centrifuge, test tubes, pipettes, all in store; 
Electrophoresis devices, and more. 

No thimbles were taken, no railway shares packed. 
But forks for their meals, and soap, were not lacked. 
A lab ship was fitted, with all needs afforded. 
With hope in their hearts, elite scientists boarded. 

The tale offered only one sensible thought. 
Thus, a "tropical clime" destination was sought. 
The voyage began, the prestigious team ready 
To sample all snarks, within forest or eddy. 

The journey was perilous; strange things they saw. 
Their weird observations recorded with awe. 
Dodging the jub-jubs, and bandersnatch claws. 
They stuck to their mission without any pause. 



real snark? 

The snarks they encountered were fierce to the core, 
Some had teeth, some had claws; they all raised a roar. 
They were darted with sedative, measured, 

and tagged. 
Their blood was collected; hair labeled and bagged. 

Many months passed, and the scientists tired, 
But accomplished the task for which they were hired. 
Forty-two snarks' parts were in their collection. 
Boojum or snark? They worked on detection. 

Testing was done, and the data accrued. 

A pattern emerged, and wild theories subdued. 

The snark genome was mapped (as for humans, 

you know) , 
Every characteristic, right down to the toe. 

Three methods were tried, and results were 

the same; 
The maps overlapped, and the press agents came. 
Like the adage the Bellman maintained to the crew, 
What's demo-ed three times must surely be true! 

It was no surprise for Carrollians (you!) 
That snark chromosome count was a firm 42! 
The pattern, however, varied with type. 
And support was thus gained for the "snark 
batches" hype. 

The gene for the feathers (the biting-snark form), 
Was on pair 21, and looked like a worm. 
The teeth were on 30, a dominant gene, 
The better to chew on a don or a dean. 

The whiskers and scratching emerged far away. 
On pairs 10 and 11, adjacent they lay. 
Long claws were recessive; the whiskers were, too; 
Thus, it's less likely this snark will harm you. 

But what makes a boojum depart from the snarks? 
Is it deep and obscure, like neutrinos and quarks? 
No; the transform is right there on pair 42: 
A defect that generates eyes of light blue! 

This momentous report should be taken to heart. 
Beware of the boojum, in whole or in part. 
A snark with blue eyes, whether toothed or 

with claws. 
Is a danger to all, and abides by no laws. 

The experts developed a new Latin name 
For the terrible Boojum, of frightening fame. 
In the Snarxidae family, there is only one 
Fouquieria horridentis, a species to shun! 

Snarks can be scary, and oftentimes are; 
They can injure and maim, and might leave a scar. 
But a Boojum will eat anything it can chew. 
And what it likes best are collectors, like YOU. 

Please note that the texture of the title font is genuine Snarkskin, 
supplied by Alison, which she was able to obtain, but only great risk. 





Before we embark on yet another Carrollian 
hunting escapade, it may be interesting for 
readers to learn the reason for my original 
interest in The Snark. It has to do with a forest indus- 
try service organization known as Hoo-Hoo Interna- 
tional, which was founded in Gurdon, Arkansas, in 
1892, at the peak of the lumber boom that revital- 
ized the "New South" of the United States after the 
Civil War. 

It seems that six gentlemen involved in that in- 
dustry had been at a meeting of the Arkansas Yellow 
Pine Manufacturer's Association. While waiting for 
a train on the way home, they realized that a lot of 
their time was wasted traveling from one meeting to 
another. They decided to form an umbrella organiza- 
tion to "support the health, happiness, and long life 
of its members." 

Beyond that, the founders had no rigid rules or 
regimentation. In fact, they appear to have made con- 
siderable effort to be unconventional. When deciding 
what to call their first president, one of their number 
who was familiar with the works of Lewis Carroll, sug- 
gested that the office be known as "The Snark of the 
Universe" — and so it is to this day. Now 115 years old, 
Hoo-Hoo International is a service organization that is 
open to all individuals in the forest products industry 
in many countries, and dedicated to the welfare and 
promotion of that industry. (See 

As a forest products researcher, I became a Hoo- 
Hoo member in 1972 and being an entomologist 
with etymological interests, I soon found out why the 
international president was called the Snark, bought 
my first copy of Martin Gardner's The Annotated 
Snark — and from then on, I was hooked! 

What began as a subject of fascination gradually 
became a hobby and a profound interest. I began to 
quietly and privately research all matters to do with 
the Snark. My predominant interest developed into 
comparing the interpretations of the various Snark- 
hunting crew members by a wide range of illustrators. 
Originally, I collected lower-priced copies (even ex- 
library books) to see the interpretations of as many 
illustrators as were obtainable. My hunting led me to 
many bookshops in many countries, sometimes with 
excitingly fortunate discoveries such as my first first 

edition in a London bookshop in 1985. Later and 
more recently, with the help of the Internet and eBay 
as well as the indulgence of other "Snarkophiles," I 
have become reasonably successful in obtaining a 
wider range of better-quality editions. 

Some Carrollian scholars such as John Tufail 
think there is little value in considering any illustra- 
tions other than the original ones by Henry Holiday. 
While I concede Tufail 's thesis (2003) that Holiday re- 
ceived his instructions from Carroll and created his 
illustrations to reflect Carroll's cryptic messages and 
allusions, I contend that the interpretations given to 
the words we know so well by so many illustrators over 
a period in excess of 130 years continue to keep the 
Snark alive. Furthermore, it is my personal belief that 
Holiday managed to slip in a few interpretations of his 
own even though Carroll approved of the end result. 

Since Holiday, more than sixty other illustrators 
(see Andresen) have shown us some sixty different 
ways to interpret Carroll's fable — for a fable it surely 
is! These talented illustrators communicate to us not 
only their own interpretations of Carroll's creation 
but also their own innovative adaptations, and ex- 
tensions of the story, without in any way detracting 
from Carroll's words. Holiday's illustrations, or any 
of the hidden meanings they may have worked out 
between them. And as Selwyn Goodacre (2006b) has 
observed, "It is fascinating to see which scenes appeal 
to a particular illustrator." New illustrated editions 
of the Snark now appear at the rate of about two or 
three per year. May there be many more! 


Many may know of the notorious Tichborne Trial at 
the Old Bailey in England but some may not. It was 
a fascinating case and attracted the interest of mil- 
lions — including Lewis Carroll. 

One of the world's most audacious impostors, a 
man named Arthur Orton (also known as Thomas 
Castro), was the subject of one of England's longest- 
running trials in 1873-74. Orton was a butcher in 
Wagga Wagga, Australia, and had seen an advertise- 
ment placed in the press by the Dowager Lady Tich- 
borne seeking news about her son. Sir Roger Charles 
Doughty Tichborne, who in 1853 had set sail in a ship 


Figure i . Left, The Tichborne Claimant i Collection 
Print, i8y^, charcoal and chalk. Dr. Edward 
Kenealy, barrister for the Claimant, standing, 
wearing legal dress ivith his robes puffed out 
behind him, by Spy, circa iSy^—iSy^. 

Right, The Barrister by Henry Holiday in Fit the 
Fourth, The Hunting of the Snark. 

y Figure 2. Left, The Tichborne Claimant. Right, 
/"^^^ The Butcher by Henry Holiday. 

called The Bella that then foundered, and was pre- 
sumed drowned. Lady Tichborne refused to believe 
that her son was dead and advertised for any news 
about him in all the newspapers of the time. 

Orton saw the advertisement and wrote to Lady 
Tichborne claiming to be her son. Lady Tichborne 
was delighted and sent money for Orton and his fam- 
ily to come to Europe. Orton met Lady Tichborne 
in Paris and she was considerably surprised by his 
appearance! Her son had been slim with a long thin 
face when he left England and the man who had re- 
turned was a middle-aged very fat man!! 

Several members of the family were not so eas- 
ily duped and voiced their misgivings, but Lady Tich- 
borne took no heed of their doubts. After a trial that 
lasted 102 days, a jury determined that the "Tich- 
borne Claimant" was an impostor. In a subsequent 
trial for perjury lasting 188 days, Arthur Orton was 
convicted and sentenced to 14 years in prison. He was 
released in 1884 and confessed in 1885. 

Lewis Carroll's interest in the trial is well docu- 
mented (Collingwood, 2004) and a book on the case 

was in his library (Gardner, 2006). Suggestions that 
the trial had varying degrees of influence on The Snark 
have been made by Paull (1989), Bowern (1997b), 
and others. There is little doubt that the form of Hol- 
iday's Barrister was drawn from Edward Kenealy, the 
barrister in the Tichborne Case (see Fig. 1). 


Whilst accepting the above origins of the Barrister, I 
have developed the hypothesis that Carroll instructed 
Holiday to depict the Butcher according to his (Car- 
roll's) own concept. I am therefore in agreement 
with John Paull (1989) that Carroll's Butcher is based 
upon the Tichborne Claimant, Arthur Orton, the 
butcher from Wagga Wagga in Australia. 

Whether there is illustrative proof of this is open 
to conjecture. Paull opines that "there is a striking 
resemblance between Butcher Orton and Holiday's 
Butcher." Photographs and caricatures of Orton 
alongside images of Holiday's Butcher do not, in 
my opinion, demonstrate this beyond reasonable 


I would suggest however, that there may be suf- 
ficient references within the poem itself to form the 
basis of textual likelihood — if not proof. 

Fit the First in describing the Butcher, says The 
last of the crew needs especial remark (because he's not 
what he seems to be) and he looked an incredible dunce. 
Historians dismissed Orton as almost illiterate and an 
ignoramus. He could only kill Beavers: Bowern (1997b) 
suggests that "Beavers" is surely a pun on "beeves," 
which is the plural of beef and means oxen, cows, or 
bulls regarded as fit for food. So of course he would 
kill beeves because he was a butcher. What is more, 
Orton, using the assumed name of Thomas Castro in 
Australia, had been in the employment of a Mr. Hig- 
gins who kept a hotel and butcher shop, and his dex- 
terity as a slaughter man was legendary. He could kill 
and butcher a bovine in a remarkably short period of 
time. In Fit the Fourth, the Butcher dressed himself fine, 
with yelloiv kid gloves and a ruff which, together with 
his physical size and shape, would have made Orton 
resemble a Beefeater. 

Fit the Fifth says that the Butcher thought of his 
childhood, left far behind possibly because Orton denied 
his own childhood while masquerading as Tichborne. 
Although his education was rudimentary, he was a fast 
learner and made up for scholastic deficiencies with a 
cunning intellect and natural talent for rhetoric. Dur- 
ing his years as the Tichborne Claimant, he demon- 
strated his ability to learn the rules quickly (such as the 
Rule of Three). When explaining this Rule to the Bea- 
ver, the Butcher xvrote ivith a pen in each hand indicating 
that he was ambidextrous, the alternative definition 
of which is to be duplicitous or marked by deliberate 
deceptiveness. That deceptiveness continues with the 
Butcher's offer to give a lesson in Natural History. Orton 
had learned that when traveling in South America 
prior to his disappearance, the real Roger Tichborne, 
being a prolific letter writer, was in almost constant 
contact with his overly possessive mother, sending her 
and other relatives full details of his travels, hunting, 
fishing, and natural history expeditions. 

Fit the Sixth details the Barrister's dream in which 
the Judge declares that the xohole question depends on an 
ancient manorial right, possibly referring to the (then) 
recently contested right to the ancient manorial Tich- 
borne Hall, before sentencing the pig to transporta- 
tion for life to where but Australia? 

Finally, of course, Arthur Orton was a butcher 
and the son of a butcher. 


I have collated the Butchers of 42 different illustrators. 
Details are given in order of publication date and 
illustrations of each are reproduced in the following 
pages. The source of each illustration is provided in 
the caption; the great majority have been taken from 
editions of the Snark in my personal collection. The 

omission of examples by certain illustrators implies 
no criticism of their work, but may rather be due to 
my inability to interpret it (for example, I am still un- 
sure which of the illustrations by eminent surrealist 
artist Max Ernst is, in fact, the Butcher!). 

1. Peter Newell, 1903: in sepia monochrome, 
Newell's Butcher is very much a butcher's boy 
and in his depiction of the Beaver's Lesson, is 
appropriately "dressed fine" in kid gloves and a 
ruff, writing with a pen in each hand. 

2. Edward A. Wilson, 1932: A line drawing rear 
view on green paper, highlighted with splashes 
of yellow color. 

3. Cobbledick, 1939: Possibly in deference to 
Henry Holiday, Cobbledick's illustrations have 
the appearance of woodcuts. Each member of 
the crew is a different animal and the Butcher is 
a pig! 

4. Malcolm Easton, 1939: The only illustration 
shows seven of the crew marching across the 
book's front endpapers, with the Butcher hold- 
ing a paw of the Beaver in one hand and a carv- 
ing knife in the other. 

5. Mervyn Peake, 1941: Peake is one of the most 
popular and acclaimed illustrators of the Snark. 
His Butcher looks both baffled and enlightened 
as he explains the Rule of Three while scribbling 
away on dozens of sheets of paper. 

6. Aldren Watson, 1952: Woodblock illustrations 
contain interesting posers. The Butcher stands 
behind his cutting block (which has a "B" on 
one side) and a black cat prances by as the Bea- 
ver places a pen behind his left ear. 

7. Tove Jansson, 1959: Swedish artist Tove Jansson 
enjoyed international acclaim for her Moomin 
books well before illustrating the Snark and 
Alicehooks. Her Butcher sits on a barrel labeled 
''Sdpa" looking rather as though he is at the 
wrong fancy-dress party! 

8. Kelly Oechsli, 1966: This illustrator is one of 
my personal favorites. I continue to look for a 
copy in really good condition but to date I have 
located only ex-library editions of this book. The 
line pen-and-ink drawings with added color wash 
are very delicate and interpret Carroll's char- 
acters delightfully. The Butcher carries a small 
sack across the deck while the poor little Beaver 
struggles with a very large sea-chest. 

9. Peter Vos, 1966: All characters are sketched and 
labeled in case the reader has any doubts about 
who is who. The Butcher has a vague but threat- 
ening look about him. 

10. Helen Oxenbury, 1970: Oxenbury's Butcher is 
older than those of many other illustrators, and 
has quite a competent air about him. 


11. Byron Sewell, 1974: The elaborate edition by 
which Sewell burst upon the Snark scene is well 
known. The ship and its crew stretch out in con- 
certina form and the back pocket holds cards 
by which the top, middle, and bottom parts of 
each crew member may be interchanged. The 
Butcher is styled very much on Holiday's, com- 
plete with beaver cap, carefully combed hair and 
quizzical expression — but no ruff. 

12. Harold Jones, 1975: This Butcher gives the 
impression of being industrious and anxious 
to please. The illustrator follows the detail of 
Carroll's text in an appealing understated way. 

13. Ralph Steadman, 1975: Some of Steadman's inky 
illustrations "with innumerable lines" may be 
considered a bit extreme but his no-nonsense 
Butcher is traditional and competent. 

14. Quentin Blake, 1976: The grey line-drawing 
shows a rather unsure Butcher, waiting for a 
chance to use the cleaver dangling from his 
right hand. 

15. John Minnion, 1976: A magnificent Butcher, 
testing the sharpness of his cleaver and eagerly 
anticipating its effect on whatever he is able to 
chop up. Minnion based his Butcher on a British 
television personality who used to present a pro- 
gram called The Old Grey Whistle Test (Minnion, 
2007, pers. comm.). Having seen a 1976 photo- 
graph, I am able to say that Minnion captured 
the persona which, given his renown as a politi- 
cal caricaturist, is not surprising. 

16. Frits van der Waa, 1976: The illustrator pro- 
duced several Snark illustrations in 1976, four of 
which he subsequently posted on his website. He 
has since been kind enough to send me copies 
of others. The rear view of the Butcher walk- 
ing hand-in-hand with the Beaver is a part of a 
larger scene and does not do sufficient justice to 
the artist but I particularly wanted to include his 

17. Evert Geradts, 1977: This rendition from the 
Netherlands shows the Butcher enthusiastically 
sharpening a knife while the Beaver ignores him 
and gets on with the lace-making. 

18. Inge Vogel, 1977: Another Dutch version, with a 
very bored Butcher who looks thoroughly fed up 
with what's going on around him. 

19. Annie-Claude Martin, 1981: This French artist 
published a set of 32 pencil drawings with an- 
notated text in French. All link up to form an 
enormous collage. The Butcher is young and 
industrious as he works away with quill pens 
looking more like a printer than a butcher. 

20. Patrick Woodroffe, 1983: This prolific artist 
worked closely with Mike Batt on the designs for 
the stage and television version of his musical 

Snark. He created the record cover and theater 
programs and also produced a large number of 
illustrations intended for a book, also in collabo- 
ration with Batt. The book never was finished, 
but the artist kindly made available to me his 
concept of the Butcher — complete with helmet, 
boots, and spurs. 

21. Frank Hinder, 1989: Australian Frank Hinder's 
work was first presented to the First Interna- 
tional Lewis Carroll Conference. His characters 
were given faces indicative of their occupation. 
The Butcher is therefore hatchet-faced — and 

22. Danny Kerman, 1989: This Hebrew version of 
the Snark has rich color illustrations and the 
Butcher clutches a blood-stained knife as the 
moon rises over the ship's rail. 

23. Michael Sporn, 1989: A well-known and accom- 
plished animator, Sporn completed a film of the 
Snark over the span of several years which was 
animated entirely by him in between other proj- 
ects. It is now available on DVD. His Butcher is 
endearingly unsure of himself. 

24. Leonid Tishkov, 1991: Illustrating a Russian 
translation of the Snark, Tishkov depicts all crew 
members without clothes and personalizes them 
according to the Russian word for their occupa- 
tion. I am advised (Moskotelnilov, pers. comm.) 
that the Butcher can be only a poacher in Rus- 
sian translation and is thus shown holding a rifle 
rather than the customary meat cleaver. 

25. Jonathan Dixon, 1992: The wonderfully imagi- 
native illustrations by this artist include a cross- 
eyed Butcher who is tip to no good. 

26. Axel Torgard, 1994: I don't profess to under- 
stand the Faroese language, although the pub- 
lication also has text in English. However, I well 
understand the nefarious looking Butcher who 
almost seems to be testing the sharpness of his 
knife on his own moustache. 

27. Gavin O'Keefe, 1995: The second Australian 
contribution is from a prolific artist specializing 
in book illustrations and covers. His Butcher 
wears a small dunce's cap and a ruff as wide as 
his shoulders. 

28. Paul Stanish, 1996: A hypothetical second Snark 
hunting expedition was created for distribution 
to schools but was not successful (Wesley-Smith, 
pers. comm.). Although wearing a traditional 
butcher's apron, the Butcher also sports a bow 

29. Gregory L'Homme, 1997: This French illustrator 
has the Butcher looking rather like a dentist as 
he explains the Rule of Three to the Beaver. 

30. Brian Puttock, 1997: Puttock has produced a 
traditional Butcher who appears to have been 
inspired by that of Ralph Steadman. 


31. Julio Pomar, 1999: This artist's color pictures 
illustrated a French publication of the Snark 
and were also the subject of an extensive exhibi- 
tion in Paris the same year. Some aspects of his 
Butcher are a little indistinct but there is no 
doubt that he wears a large ruff as he writes with 
a pen in each hand. 

32. Ami Rubinger, 2000: The book, published in 
Hebrew, has been difficult to locate but fortu- 
nately, the illustrations are published on the 
artist's website. His fearsome Butcher, clad only 
in underpants and a top hat, clutches an enor- 
mous carving knife. 

33. Trudi Castle, 2005: This illustrator is currently a 
storyboard and concept artist working in 
Europe. Her stunning Snark collection has not 
yet been published in a book but is available on 
her website. Her Butcher is a luridly evil charac- 
ter dreaming of the Beaver and brandishing a 
knife which bears the inscription "He could only 
kill beavers." 

34. Janusz Stanny, 2005: Taken from a recent Polish 
translation of the Snark, this Butcher sits on deck 
holding a knife and slobbering in anticipation of 
future butchery. 

35. Allan P. Williams, 2005: Although many of his 
illustrations are far from conventional, his 
Butcher is an effective character. 

36. David Elliot, 2006: Elliot is an award-winning 
writer and illustrator of children's books. His 
Snark illustrations have been published in a fine 
press edition and on his website. His pensive 
Butcher writes with a pen in each hand and 
wears a ruff. 

37. Peggy Guest, 2006: This artist has shown her il- 
lustrations at an LCSNA meeting, and her inspir- 
ing Snark collection is published on her website. 
Her Butcher is a careful artisan, with patched 
trousers but a sharp and shiny cleaver. 

38. Charlotte Lambert, 2006: Complementing a 
bilingual French/English edition of the Snark, 
this artist's unusual style maintains many of 
Carroll's concepts. Her Butcher is obviously 
involved with the Rule of Three although other 
aspects are more difficult to interpret. 

39. John Vernon Lord, 2006: This artist, wise in the 
ways of Lewis Carroll and in his Snark work, has 
produced some really interesting interpreta- 
tions. His 2006 Butcher could be a brother to 
Helen Oxenbury's 1970 version! 

40. Geneva Rossett-Hafter, 2007: I first discovered 
this illustrator's Snark project on a website but 
fortunately it was soon published in book form. 
The Butcher, again in dunce's cap and ruff, 
explains the Rule of Three while perched on a 
rock on Snark Island. 

41. Robert Saunders, 2008: This English artist col- 
laborated with the translator of the latest (and 
only) Norwegian publication of the Snark. The 
Butcher has long side whiskers which seem to be 
in danger of straggling into the almost obliga- 
tory ruff. 

42. Mahendra Singh, 2008: I'm delighted that the 
significant number 42 in this collection of 
illustrations is by an artist who describes himself 
as "an illustrator busily fitting Lewis Carroll into 
a proto-surrealist straitjacket...." Mahendra's 
weekly Snark blog attracts an increasing number 
of followers and he has recently spoken about 
his Snark to the LCSNA. His illustrations are 
respectful of the original text while offering 
new insights and levels of humor. He has gener- 
ously produced the (as yet) unpublished illustra- 
tion of "The Major-General Butcher" especially 
for this article. Note that the Illustrious Order 
of the Beaver takes pride of place on the Major- 
General's chest! 


It has been an enormous pleasure to have had the 
opportunity to share my interest in and enthusiasm 
for the Snark with many like-minded people, most of 
whom are far more erudite and expert than I. Many 
have been most helpful and patient in sharing their 
knowledge and imderstanding of both Carroll and 
the Snarkwith me and readily acceding to my requests 
for advice. Some have even sent me copies of books I 
had previously been unable to locate. 

I gratefully acknowledge them all and particu- 
larly the following, who constitute a virtual "Snarkote- 
rie" of cooperation: Selwyn Goodacre, Peggy Guest, 
John Howick, August Imholtz, Clare Imholtz, Norton 
Ladkin, Manny Litvin, Andrei Moskotelnilov, John 
Minnion, Gavin O'Keefe, Reg Ramsey, Mark Rich- 
ards, Mahendra Singh, John Tufail, Frits van der Waa, 
Peter Wesley-Smith, and Patrick Woodroffe. 


Andresen, H. (2008). Illustrators of the Snark. 

Atlay,J. B. (1899). "The Tichborne Trial," in: Famous 
Trials of the Century. Grant Richards, London. 

Bowern, C. (1997a). The Hunting of the Snark Con- 
cluded. Angerona Press, Ryde. 28 illustrations 
and illustrated dust wrapper by Brian Puttock. 

Bowern, C. (1997b) . The Hunting of the Snark Decoded. 
Angerona Press, Ryde. 

Collingwood, S. D. (1898). The Life and Letters 
of Lewis Carroll, T. Fisher Unwin, London. 

Gardner, M. (1974). The Annotated Snark, Penguin 
Books, Harmondsworth. 


Gardner, M. (2006). The Annotated Hunting of 
the Snark: The Definitive Edition. W. W. Norton 
& Company, New York. 

Goodacre, S. H. (2006a). "The Listing of the Snark" 
in: Gardner, M. (2006). The Annotated Hunting of 
the Snark - The Definitive Edition. W. W. Norton & 
Company, New York. 

Goodacre, S. H. (2006b). All the Snarks. Inky Parrot 
Press, Oxford. 

Holiday, H. (1898). The Snark's Significance. The 
Academy 53. 

Paull,J. (1989). "Why a Snark?" in: The Hunting of the 
Snark. Carroll Foundation, Flemington, 
Australia. 15 illustrations by Frank Hinder. 

Tufail,J. (2003). The Illuminated Snark. lnteina.tiona\ 
Carroll Conference, University of Rennes 2, 
October 17-18. http://contrariwise.wild-reality. 

Where not given, the title is The Hunting of the Snark. 

I. Peter Newell. The Hunting of the Snark 
and Other Poems and Verses. Harper 
df Brothers, New York and London, 190^. 

2. Edward A. Wilson. Peter Pauper 
Press, New Rochelle, 1932. 

5. Cobbledick. Peter Pauper Press, Mount 
Vernon, New York, ig^g. 

Malcolm Easton. The Hunting of the 
Snark &: Other Verses, Oxford Univer- 
sity Press, London, ig^g. 

5. Mervyn Peake. Lighthouse Books, 
Chatto & Windus, London, ip^i. 

6. Aldren Watson. The Hundng of the 
Snark and Other Nonsense Verse. 
Peter Pauper Press, Mount Vernon, New 
York, 7952. 


7- Tovejansson, Snarkjakten. Holger 
Scholdts Forlag, Helsingfors, icf^p. 

Kelly Oechsli. Pantheon Books, 
New York, ig66. 

' S 

( ' 

9. Peter Vos. De Roos, Utrecht, ig66. 

10. Helen Oxenbury. Heinemann, 
London, igyo. 

1 1 . Byron Sewell. Catalpa Press, 
London, 1974. 

1 2 . Harold Jones. The Whittington Press, 
Andoversford. igj^. 

73. Ralph Steadman. Michael Dempsey, 
London, igj^. 

14. Qiientin Blake. Folio Society, London, 

75. John Minnion. John Minnion, London, 


1 6. Frits van der Waa. www.xs^ 
-fudwaa/ strips/ snarke.htm, ic)j6. 

1 7. Evert Geradts. De Jacht op de Strok, 18. Inge Vogel. De Jacht op de Trek, 

Drukwerk, Amsterdam, igjj, UitgeverijJ. Couvreur, The Hague, igyj- 

ig. Annie-Claude Martin. La Chasse au 
Snark, Garance, Paris et Geneve, igSi. 

20. Patrick Woodroffe. ivww.patnckwoodrofje- 21. Frank Hinder. Carroll Foundation,, I g8^. Flemington, Australia, igSg. 

'?. iTj. 

22. Danny Kerman. Shva Publishers, Israel, 23. Michael Sporn. Michael Spom 
igSg. Animation, New York, igSg. 

24. Leonid Tishkov. Ohota na Snarka. 
Rukitis, Moscow, iggi. 


2^. Jonathan Dixon. Lewis Carroll Society of 26. Axel Torgard. Eftir Snarki. Forlagio 
North America, New York, 7992. Sprotin, igg4. 

"^^ j^^fj^ 

27. Gavin O'Keefe. Victoria, Australia, igg^. 

28. Paul Stanish. Second Expedition, 
by Peter Wesley-Smith, Cherry Books, 
Camperdown, NSW, Australia, igg6. 


*'*^ ^^Hiii^^ e!'^ 


29. Gregory L'Homme. Le Snark. Collection 50. Brian Puttock. The Hunting of the 
Theatre, France, i()9y. Snark Concluded, by Cathy Bowern, 

Angerona Press, Ryde, iggj- 

^i. Julio Pomar. La Cihasse au Snark. Edi- 32. Ami Rubinger, 
tion de la Galerie PILT7ER Paris, iggg. 2000. 

35. Trudi Castle, 
2oo^art.htm, 2005. 


^4-Jo-nusz Stanny. Wyprawa na amirlacza. 
Oficyna Naukowa, Warszawa, 200^. 

35. Allan P. Williams. iUniverse, Inc, Neio 
York, Lincoln and Shanghai, 200^. 

56. David Elliot. University ofOtago, 

privately printed, Dunedin, New Zealand, 
xvww. davidelliot. org/ gallery _results. 
php ?book=2^ &submit_book= 1 , 2 006. 

37- Peggy Guest, 
illustration. htmL 2006. 

3 5. Charlotte Lambert. La Chasse au Snark. 
Lux Editeur, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, 

^g.John V. Lord. Inky Parrot Press, Artists' 
Choice Editions, Church Hanborough, 
England, 2006. 

40. Geneva Rosett-Hafter. Bell Books, London, 41. Robert Saunders. ]^kten pa Snarken. 
2007. Askerforlaget, Norway, 2008. 

42. Mahendra Singh, wivzv.justtheplacefor, 2008. 




Leaves /troo? 
r/^e Deaneny Ganden 


How wonderful to receive this 
book on Elizabeth Sewell's work 
today; I was looking for a box from 
Amazon with studies on Rilke, 
whom I seem to be encounter- 
ing a lot lately, and now have to 
go in search of Sewell, Mallarme, 
and Rimbaud. ..not a bad thing as 
I start my eighth decade. Thank 

Mary DeYoung, Pine River, 


I was up late last night reading 
the latest Knight Letter. I thought 
I would relate a few incidents 
regarding it: I was glad to get 
my pin and I wear it proudly. I 
was standing in line at the coffee 
counter at my local bookstore, and 
the beverage manager asked me 
where to get a Society pin. I told 
her to become a miember of our 
Societ)'...hope she did. While I was 
there, the book manager asked me 
to come to the back room. "We 
have something for you." It turned 
out to be a salesmen's sample of 

the Scieszka/Blair Alice. I was de- 
lighted to get it, even though the 
pages are unbound. 

R. Steven Terry Jr., 

Traverse City, Michigan 

My cover illustrations and the ac- 
companying interior illustrations 
and article in the latest Knight 
Letter [KL 81] turned out so well. 
I am very grateful to the LCSNA 
members who made all of this pos- 
sible. Going to the meeting and 
imbibing the CarroUian ambience 
was a real morale booster for me, 
and now this wonderful exposure 
in the Knight Letter, well, I am semi- 

My family was suitably im- 
pressed by this forensic proof- 
positive of my appearance at the 
LCSNA meeting! Can you believe 
it, they scoffed when I told them 
of the Carrollian cabal lurking 
in the heart of Gotham. ..they are 
scoffless now, I can assure you! 
Please give my compliments to 
Andrew Ogus; the layouts and 

illustrations were perfectly crisp 
and dark. 

Mahendra Singh, 
Montreal, Quebec 

I have seen many photos of last 
year's spring meeting in the 
homepage of LCSNA. Everyone 
is so cheerful and looks to be hav- 
ing a very good time. I remember 
Kimie [Kusumoto] had talked 
to us at our summer meeting in 
Tokyo about the nice atmosphere 
and good auction of the meeting. 
That was it! 

Yasuko and Hiroacki Natsume, 
Tokyo, Japan [explaining why 
they came to our 2009 spring 

Really pleased with the magazine. 
Please look me up on 
for THREE NEW finished Alice 
paintings! I'm kinda proud of 
the continued variations that I've 
been able to squeeze out. But then 


again, I have great subject matter 
to riff on, don't I ? 

Jett Jackson, 

Los Angeles, California 

Thank you for welcoming me to 
the Society. I just received my first 
issue of the Knight Letter and en- 
joyed it so much, I'd Uke to read 

Yes, pictures and conversations 
make all the difference! 

Raine Szramski, 

Phoenix, Arizona 

Hello from the Queen of Hearts' 
dungeon. I'd like to take this op- 
portunity to share with you an 
example of the depth and breadth 
of influence Carroll and his Alice% 
have on a demographic least likely 
to embrace our heroine. I'm talk- 
ing about prisoners, real tough 
guys who do mean things for a liv- 
ing (myself included, though I'm 
decidedly reformed). 

My interest in Carroll the man 
and in his better known works 
began a few years back. Alice and 
Carroll kept popping up every- 
where around me: in a legal brief 
I read, in a book ad in the New 
Yorker, in the bibliography of a 

novel, jvist to name a few. Finally 
I heeded the call and ordered 
Martin Gardner's The Annotated 
Alice. My interest exploded after 
that. I began a delightful corre- 
spondence with Mr. Gardner after 
I spotted an inaccuracy printed 
on the dustjacket of which he was 
unaware. It was with his assistance 
that I found the LCSNA and later 
became a member. Since then, 
I've collected a few more related 
books, which have all filled my 
personal "Wonderland" journey 
with untold hours of happiness. 
And the Knight Letter?, have been 
essential in my ongoing education 
about things Carroll. 

Incidentally, I've found myself 
Wonderland's de facto ambassador 
to prisoners. Among my associates, 
there has sprung up an interest 
in reading my small but precious 
collection. I receive nothing but 
positive responses from these most 
unlikely fans. 

Also of interest, my prison pro- 
hibits trade cloth-bound books, 
but will allow them if the staff 
slices off the covers. Blasphemy! 
However, I must have my books. 
So with a little ingenuity and a 
modicum of artistic talent, I've 
managed to produce a facsimile 
Alice in Sunderland by painting 

the entire cover to look like the 
original, rendered in acrylic paint 
on a now cloth (bedsheet-) bound 
hardback book. My Annotated Alice 
came with a stunning dustjacket, 
so I used chipboard and a leather 
hide (purloined from the boot fac- 
tory) . Voices From France sports the 
cover artwork photocopied, cut, 
and posted onto a sheet painted 
red, white, and blue. 

I hope you have enjoyed my 
letter and I thank all involved 
for producing the Knight Letter. 
Your service to the enjoyment 
and scholarship of Carroll and his 
works is sincerely appreciated. 

The Knave of Hearts/ 

Jason Duran, 

San Luis Obispo, 


I enjoyed Professor Hallett's 
Hortulanus Insanus very much, 
and I am sure that CLD would 
have too. Still reading Voices from 
France — ^very much up my street! 

John Christie, Blackhills, Elgin, 

Moray, Scotland 

Through History with J. Wesley Smith 

"As yoar friend. Reverend Dodgson, I feel bound to point out that 
the publication of this chiltlish drivel will do your reputation great 
harm. People will be sure to find out who Lewis Carroll really is." 



A hearty welcome to our new 
members: Jack Buckley, Mary 
Burford, Andrew Edison, Cynthia 
Ferry, David Frankham, Lonnie 
Hanzon, Wendy Ice, Jett Jack- 
son, Yasuko Natsume, Katherine 
Neville, Nobuko Niwano, Selkie 
O'Meara, Maurice Saylor, John 
Schilke, Kerri Shadid, Raine Sz- 
ramski, and Sarah Young. 

noTes ifKoof) ihe lcsna secneiany 


ANB JAM .^■: 

The LCSNA now has close to 300 
members. (If anyone is dubious 
about continuing their member- 
ship due to the economic down- 
turn, they should drop me a note.) 

There seems to be a mini-boomlet 
(a precise term of measurement) 
in new memberships of late, and I 
wonder if some of this might not 
be due to our very popular new 
LCSNA Facebook page, which was 
created and is maintained by for- 
mer president Alan Tannenbaum. 
You can view it and read the wall 
group.php?gid=98241035511 . 

There can never be too many 
Lewis Carroll Facebook pages, so 
you may also want to take a look 
at Joel Birenbaum's Alice in Won- 
derland Collectors page, which is 
(Joel is also a former LCSNA presi- 
dent.) Both of these pages are ex- 
cellent ways for LCSNA members 
to find other members and even 
nonmembers with shared Carrol- 
lian interests. 

And, speak of an embarrassment 
of riches, don't forget regular visits 
to the LCSNA blog: http://lcsna., which keeps us 
up to date with all things Carrol- 
lian. When you add to all this the 
fact that LCSNA's own web page is 
being refurbished, the mind reels. 


Another older, but equally cool 
form of social networking is to 
wear your LCSNA cameo pin (or 
your old one, or both) wherever 
you go. You never know what good 
fortune this might bring. Doubt- 
ers, see Steve Terry's letter in this 
issue's "Leaves." 
The new pins were mailed to all 
members early this year. I appreci- 
ated the many nice notes of thanks 
I received, but I may as well fess 
up: they should have gone to Patt 
Griffin, who coordinated pin 
selection and ordering, and to 
Alison and Alan Tannenbaum, 
who did the mailing — both gargan- 
tuan tasks. 

Jam Tomorrow? I was just jabber- 
ing (via e-mail) with Mark Rich- 
ards, the chairman of the Lewis 
Carroll Society (UK). Mark writes, 
"We have just started planning a 
meeting for Summer 2010. This 
will be based in Guildford, with 
one day spent at the Surrey His- 
tory Centre in Woking (where a 
lot of the Dodgson family archives 
are held). We hope to make it a 
packed 3+ days — exploring the 
Guildford area in more detail 
than we have done before — and 
having a sort of mini-conference 
as part of it, looking at the later 
years of Lewis Carroll's life (plus 
his funeral, dispersion of his pos- 
sessions, etc.). It is very early in 
the planning at the moment, but 
I have already made a provisional 
arrangement with the Surrey His- 
tory Centre. I'm hoping the trip 
will attract a number of overseas 
visitors, and specifically I am hop- 
ing for some contributions from 
overseas members. 



Ravings ynom ihe Wmring Desk 


Our spring meeting in Santa Fe was such a 
grand experience that I don't know where 
to begin. Ah, yes, at the beginning: Jona 
than Dixon. Our excursion to New Mexico would 
simply not have happened without Jonathan. He 
proposed his town as the meeting location, and 
partnered with Theaterwork's artistic director David 
Olson to present the first fully staged performance 
of La Guida di Bragia since young Charles Dodgson's 
own. Members present were treated to a 
private performance after the main meet- 
ing; something we will not soon forget. 
(Some of us had the extra treat of seeing 
it performed in front of a local audience 
on Friday night, in a beautiful Masonic the- 
ater.) Jonathan also enlisted distinguished 
and award-winning composer Gerald Fried 
to present a live performance of his Look- 
mg--G/a55-themed chamber suite. The piece 
was exquisite, and well played by all. Mark 
Burstein, Andrew Ogus, and members of 
the theater contributed greatly to the panel 
discussions. Theaterwork further honored 
us by kindly acting as host site for our meet- 
ing, complete with an after-show reception 
and a welcome message from Governor 
Bill Richardson! Live theater, live music, 
and lively conversation: the result was very, 
very Guida indeed! I only wish that more members 
could have joined us. Thank you, one and all, espe- 
cially Jonathan and David, for a true Southwestern 
treat. To learn more about the delightful production 
of La Guida, visit Theaterwork 
hopes to tour the production across New Mexico, 
and we are also encouraging them to produce a DVD 
for those unable to attend. 

I'm also going to rave in advance about our up- 
coming fall 2009 meeting. Just as Jonathan spear- 
headed efforts for the spring meeting, David Schaefer 
is heading up the charge for our fall session in Fort 
Lee, New Jersey, just across the George Washington 
Bridge from New York City, which will center on rare 
and early film versions of the Alice stories. The com- 
bination of screenings and lectures promises to be a 

reel treat in every sense, so make your plans now to 
join us! 

We're also working on plans for a redesign of our 
beloved LCSNA web site, to bring it more in step with 
the times. The web committee is meeting regularly 
and diligently to brainstorm about needed features, 
look and feel, and of course, content. If you have sug- 
gestions for enhancements to the site, by all means 
email them to me. We have a lot of ideas of our own, 
but eagerly welcome your input and sup- 
port for this ambitious project. Our focus 
is on providing quality content that is regu- 
larly updated, in an attractive and easy-to- 
navigate format, to a site that you'll want to 
visit for updates at least a couple of times 
a month. No excessive flashiness, just the 
real goods, delivered fresh to your browser. 
Stay tuned! 




In this final appearance of the 
"Notes 8c Queries" column, we are 
pleased to present several reflec- 
tions on the Alice books by XL's 
own designer par excellence, 
Andrew Ogus, and one woolly 
observation by Mischmasch editor 
Sarah Adams-Kiddy. 

In More Annotated Alice, Martin 
Gardner cites Robert Sutherland's 
Language and Lewis Carroll as que- 
rying the presence of the Anglo- 
Saxon attitudes of the White King's 
messengers ( TTLG, Chapter VII, 
note 2). Clearly they are a reflec- 
tion of the Mouse's tale of the 
Earls Edwin and Morcar, Anglo- 
Saxons who submitted to the 
French William the Conqueror. 

Also in More Annotated Alice (Chap- 
ter rV, Note 5), Gardner writes 
"Carrollians have noticed that" the 
picture of the White Rabbit's fall 
into the cucumber frames shows 
him wearing a checked waist- 
coat, unlike the original white of 
Chapter I." Rather than an error 
on Tenniel's part, this alteration 
reflects a close reading of the text: 
In Chapter II the tardy Rabbit 
returns to the hall of doors "splen- 
didly dressed." He has rushed 
home to prepare for his engage- 
ment with the Duchess, to change 
his clothes into a surprisingly 
modern mix-and-match of pat- 
terns, and to gather up his fan and 
gloves, further delaying his arrival. 
The loss of the latter items forces 
him to return once more in search 
of the errant Mary Ann, finding 
instead another enormous Alice. 
The Rabbit's reappearance in the 
hall also suggests that the doors 

function as a series of shortcuts 
between the various areas of 
Wonderland; as one of its impor- 
tant denizens he would, of course, 
have such access. 

No one enjoys being stood up; 
perhaps it is disappointment as 
much as pepper that enrages the 

Readers of La Guida di Bragia will 
recall the heroes of the piece, 
Mooney and Spooney. Mooney's 
name may be taken to refer to 
the kmacy caused by the moon; 
"spooney" as an epithet for foolish- 
ness is found in chapter twenty of 
Great Expectations, the work of an- 
other great CD. 

Curiously, the avidly listening owl 
in Tenniel's illustration of the 
Mouse's tale does not appear to 
concern the squeaker. The Mouse 
is so carried away by the sound 
of his (her?) own voice that the 
presence of a predator goes un- 

Do the trees and flowers of Won- 
derland maintain a constant size, 
comparable to that of flowers and 
trees in our world (with perhaps 
the exception of the rose trees, 
but perhaps they are miniature 
roses)? The fauna seem to main- 
tain what they would consider 
"proper" sizes; it is Alice who ad- 
justs to them. 

The Pigeon says she has "taken 
the highest tree in the wood." So 
this tree is always taller than the 
other trees. Furthermore, plants 
are not able to ingest substances 
such as mushrooms or little cakes 

unless the latter are composted 
(thus presumably losing their 
magical properties). 

What is the geography through 
the Looking-Glass? Alice proceeds 
straight across the board, leaving 
one to wonder what fabulous mon- 
sters live on the rest of the squares. 

If the ways around Looking-Glass 
house belong to the Red Queen, 
does she somehow control the 
country outside the board? Or 
only at that side? But it is the 
"White" side, appropriately con- 
trariwise to expectation. 

Why is mock turtle soup green if 
"real" turtle soup is brown? Is it 
mock Mock Turtle Soup? Assum- 
ing the Mock Turtle is singing 
about Mock Turtle soup and not 
some other flavor. 

Having recently learned to knit 
socks using four (sometimes five) 
needles, I noticed that while one 
only ever is working with two nee- 
dles at a time, all of the needles 
move as part of the process. In ad- 
dition, the active stitches are trans- 
ferred continuously from one nee- 
dle to another, in a way that an 
observer might think that more 
needles are being added. While 
we are never told what the sheep 
is knitting in "Wool and Water," 
perhaps its knitting with more 
and more needles simultaneously 
is a parody of the sock-making 
process. It seems likely that, due 
to the times and the number of 
his sisters, Dodgson would have 
seen socks being made. 


Many aspects of [the story of 
Basilius] pull us into the world of 
Roman late antiquity: clashing reli- 
gious practices, legal interference 
in religion, the brutality of the 
laws, and the willingness of all par- 
ties to believe a very great many 
impossible things before breakfast. 
From The Ruin of the Roman 
Empire by James J. O'Donnell, 
HarperCollins Publishers, Nexv York, 
New York, 2008. 


somerset: Prick not your finger 

as you pluck it off, 
Lest, bleeding, you do paint the 

white rose red, 
And fall on my side so, against 

your will. 

From King Henry VI, Part I, 


Molly would be about seventy now, 
which makes me feel that Miss 
Budd must be well over a hundred. 
If so, she will not mind my saying 
that she looked like the Duchess 
in Alice in Wonderland. 

From Autobiography by A. A. 

Milne, Atlantic Monthly Company 

and E.P. Button &" Co., Inc, Nexu 

York, 1939. 


Gorg drew himself up to his full 
height. His body uncurled like a 
centipede's, and it made me think 
of the caterpillar from Alice in 
Wonderland, though not in a way 
that made my heart pound any 

"WHO ARE YOU," Gorg said, as 
if he'd read the same book. 
From The True Meaning of 
Smekday by Adam Rex, Hyperion 
Books, 2007. 

'Goats," said Maxwell Hyde, "are a 
special case. Mad as hatters, all of 

From The Merlin Conspiracy 
by Diana Wynne Jones, 2003, 
Greenwillow Books. 

l love pussy cats," he said once 
more, and demonstrated his af- 
fection by reaching down to give 
Raffles a little scratch behind the 
ear. The little devil purred, and 
the fat man scratched him some 
more, and Raffles purred some 
more, and then trotted off and 
leapt onto an open spot in the 
cookbooks section, on the fourth 
shelf from the bottom. From there 
he gazed at us, and if he'd had a 
grandparent from Cheshire in- 
stead of the Isle of Man, I do be- 
lieve he'd have been smiling. 
From The Burglar on the Prowl 
by Lawrence Block, William 
Morrow, an Imprint of Harper 
Collins publishers, 2004. 

But I was scheming to devise 

A wheeze to catch the spanner 

With magnets of uncommon size 
And sell it for a tanner 

etc., etc. 

From Five Red Herrings by 
Dorothy Sayers, 1931. Lord 
Peter Wimsey, whom Sayer has 
quote Alice in many of her books, 
composes a parody while looking for 
a spanner (wrench) that was used 
to bash in someone 's head. Also 
of note is that Lord Peter buys his 
luife a first edition of Alice in one 
of Sayers 's posthumously published 

Then she slowly melted in her 
chair and was replaced by a hoo- 
kah-smoking caterpillar that said 
nothing but "Wah, wah, wah, wah, 
wah," but did pay for breakfast. 

From Fool by Christopher Moore, 

William Morrow, 2009. 

If Victor and the Mad Hatter and 
other people had been involved in 
some kind of swindle and went to 
prison, would it help her? 
From Something Like a 
Love Affair by Julian Symons, 
Mysterious Press Books, Warner 
Books, Inc. 1992 

Carroll — 'a wit, a gentleman, a 
bore and an egotist' — was con- 
demned by nature to be an irritat- 
ing patron. 

From English Masters of Black 
and White: Sir John Tenniel 
by Frances Sarzano (quoting 
Harry Furniss), Pelligrini 
& Cuday, New York. 



Confessions of an Alice Doll Collector 


No, I am not admitting to collecting dolls, 
although I do have more than a few in my 
closet. The story here is based on discus- 
sions with Alice Berkey, a premier Alice doll collector 
and charter member of the LCSNA. Akin to the Mock 
Turtle, Alice used to be a "real" collector, in that 
she collected illustrated Alice books, but somewhere 
along the way, she was diverted to collecting Alice 
dolls as well. I guess it is true, if you don't 
know where you are going, any path will 
take you there. 

Berkey remembers seeing an Alice 
doll used as an accent piece in an ex- 
hibition of Alice books belonging to 
Stan Marx, founder of the LCSNA. 
It was a Madame Alexander doll, and 
Berkey thought that was a lovely way to 
present A/?r^ books. Logically, I guessed 
that this was when she went astray, but 
collecting defies logic, and this was not the 
case. No doubt this planted a seed that took 
seven years to germinate, when a bookseller asked if 
she collected Alice dolls. It was at this point that Alice 
realized that she needed to collect Alice dolls. That 
is the way collectors think; they don't collect because 
they desire to, they actually yieed to. 

Armed with this new imperative, she followed 
her passion with an omnivorous hunger. After all, 
she had to make up for lost time, and bought almost 
every Alice doll she could find, without regard to con- 
dition or type. In this way, she built up quite a large 
collection. In 1982, the sesquicentenary of Carroll's 
birth, she attended an exhibit at the Pierpont Mor- 
gan Library in New York, where she was shocked to 
see so many Alice items that she had been totally 
unaware of. That's when she had her epiphany: She 
would never be able to attain all things Alice, and she 
was okay with that. I envy her for the peace that must 
bring. I am still among the unenlightened. 

Suddenly, it became incredibly easy to pass up 
buying every Alice doll she saw. The condition of the 
doll became much more important, and she realized 
there were dolls she liked and some she didn't. When 
I asked what quality of an Alice doll made it desirable, 
she replied, "dolls that warm my heart." She found 

that dolls that were made to be played with generally 
appeal to her more than artist dolls. At first I assumed 
that this was due to some anti-snobbishness or a rejec- 
tion of targeted collectibles, but again I was wrong. 
She simply finds these dolls to be more sincere. 

This being the case, she is fond of her Effanbee, 
American Character, and Nancy Ann Storybook Alice 
dolls. These are common, popular dolls that were 
inexpensive when they were new. Her Barbie 
Alices made by Mattel also bring a smile 
to her face. She has many Madame Al- 
exander Alices, probably because they 
made so many. There are different 
styles, named for the face they have — 
Wendy, Mary Ann, Margaret, Maggie, 
and Lissy — and various sizes. So a doll 
doesn't have to be expensive to hold a 
place of honor in Alice's collection. 
When Alice asks young girls which 
doll they like best, nine out of ten choose 
the Grimm's Fairy Tale Alice from the late 70s 
or early 80s. She has no idea why. Adults are reluctant 
to choose, but if they do, they often pick the Shirley 
Temple Alice by Ideal. Perhaps this is because Shirley 
Temple is someone they recognize. 

The collection also contains dolls that are one of 
a kind, such as a wooden doll made by Helen Bul- 
lard of Holly Dolls of Ozone, Tennessee, which has 
mohair hair and a pretty painted face. Although Alice 
is partial to classic Alice dolls with long blonde hair, a 
blue dress, and white pinafore, every once in a while 
an odd one gains entrance to the collection. One 
such example is a cloth Alice with a Tennielesque 
face, in a floral print dress and a clashing red and 
white check pinafore. It is a doll she bought in Eng- 
land at a store that specialized in English crafts. Alice 
admits she has no hard and fast rules, yet she does 
think that an Alice doll should be recognizable with- 
out the accompaniment of a white rabbit, pig-baby, or 
other accessory. 

Equally interesting was listening to Alice reflect 
on how she built her doll collection. She subscribed 
to Collectors United newspaper, and she used to pore 
over ads endlessly. They were not arranged in any log- 
ical order, so this was quite a chore, only undertaken 


by the most avid collectors. She progressed to placing 
ads for Alice dolls wanted, and chasing leads given 
to her by her friends. She said it was touching to see 
how many people cared about her collection and 
tried to help. She has a special connection to dolls 
she acquired in this way. Looking back on this, she 
feels like a pioneer women, who did it the hard way, 
hunting and gathering, whereas today all you need 

to do is connect to the Internet. When asked if there 
was anything special she still wanted, she replied that 
she is happy with what she has, but that doesn't mean 
she has stopped looking and buying. She did intimate 
that a complete Alice doll reference book would be 
the perfect addition to her collection, which now 
numbers 199 Alice dolls. 

American Character Dolls 

Left to right: Valentine, ig^os; Madame Alexander 196^; Grimm's 
Fairy Tale Dolls igyos; Effanbee ig^o 

Madame Alexnder, ig^J. 1930 

Nancy Ann, ip^os 

t^«-> -■"' ^ 



Ideal Shirley Temple, 1962 

Anne Wilkinson, 19JOS 


3n iHemoriam 

We note the deaths of three men who made important contributions to perpetu- 
ating Lewis Carroll's literary and cultural legacy. 



Adrian Mitchell 

(October 24, 1932 - December 20, 2008) 
Michael Rosen, the children's laureate of Britain, wrote in The Times (London) 
on February 17, 2009, about Mitchell's A/ir^play, which was performed at the 
National Theatre a few years ago, "Watching the play, I got the impression that he 
had become irritated by how Lewis Carroll had been posthumously demonised for 
alleged paedophilia. In the play, Carroll was a dreamer, who cherished Alice Lid- 
dell's imaginative powers." Mitchell's play was published in England by Oberon 
Books in 2001, in their Plays for Young People series, and was reprinted in 2005. 



Christian Enzensberger 

(December 24, 1931 -January 27, 2009) 
The Times (London) led its notice (February 12, 2009) thus: "It was Christian 
Enzensberger who made Lewis Carroll's Alice in Wonderland and Alice Through the 
Looking Glass available to German readers in scintillating translations." 

► ^>)"<<C - * 

PhUip Jose Farmer 

(Januar)' 26, 1918 - February 25, 2009) 
Nexu York Times (February 26, 2009): "A prolific and popular science fiction writer 
who shocked readers in the 1950s by depicting sex with aliens and challenged 
conventional pieties of the genre with caustic fables set on bizarre worlds of his 
own devising, died Wednesday. He was 91 and lived in Peoria." Alice Liddell, along 
with other "real life" people, such as Sir Richard Burton (the explorer), Samuel 
Clemens, and Baron von Richthofen, was an important character in his Riverivorld 


Carrollm Notes 





Mark Burstein 

Opera has its Florence Foster 
Jenkins, cinema its Edward Wood, 
but among the hterati one name 
stands above all others in the sin- 
cere wretchedness of her prose. 
The bloviated and often allitera- 
tive purple-osity of the oeuvre of 
Irishwoman Amanda McKittrick 
Ros (1860-1939) first came to 
my attention in college as I was 
studying the Oxfordian world of 
the Inklings (J. R. R. Tolkien, C. 
S. Lewis, et al.), who were said 
to have ended many an evening 
with a contest to see who could 
read Mrs. Ros's work out loud for 
the longest time without dissolv- 
ing into laughter. Her "admirers" 
eventually included such lumi- 
naries as Aldous Huxley, D. B. 
Wyndham-Lewis, and Mark Twain 
himself, who called her novel Irene 
Iddesleigh ".. .enchanting. . .a wor- 
thy rival to Julia Moore... in the 
realms of 'Hogwash' literature."* 
Connoisseurs of the ludicrous 
formed societies devoted to her, 
corresponded with her, and often 
visited her. Fortunately, she never 
once caught on to the joke. 

It is beyond the scope of this 
article to supply readers with the 
jaw-dropping inaniloquence of 
her work, but since original vol- 
umes of her works {Delina Delaney, 
Helen Huddleston, Poems of Puncture, 
Fumes of Formation, etc.) today go 
for hundreds of dollars, you are 
recommended to seek out Thine 
in Storm and Calm: An Amanda 

McKittrick Ros Reader ( Blacks taff, 
1988) from which the letters below 
were excerpted, or In Search of 
the World's Worst Writers (Harper 
Collins, 2000), in which author 
Nick Page calls her "the greatest 
bad writer who ever lived. A mas- 
ter — or rather mistress, for she was 
nothing if not female — of both 
poetry and prose, a gloriously 
over-the-top writer who was utterly 
convinced of her own greatness 
and of the merits of her work." 
I will content myself with two 
quotes, one from Irene Iddesleigh: 
"Speak! Irene! Wife! Woman! Do 
not sit in silence and allow the 
blood that now boils in my veins 
to ooze through cavities of unre- 
strained passion and trickle down 
to drench me with its crimson 
hue!" and the opening lines of 
her poem "Visiting Westminster 
Abbey," to wit: "Holy Moses! Have 
a look! / Flesh decayed in every 

Herewith, sans comment and 
verbatim, is some of her corre- 
spondence of interest to Carrol- 
lians. T S. Mercer was her editor 
and publisher, and a great admirer 
of her work; (Edward) Norman 
Carrothers, a botanist and friend. 

To T S. Mercer 
6 April 1928 

I was reading recently of a very- 
appetising price Dr Rosenbach 
paid for the mss of 'Alice in Won- 
derland' (Mrs Hargreaves). I think 
this personality still lives. 

Under Heaven, I ask in all sin- 
cerity, do you really think this Work 
worth £15,400? What think you of 
this money-producing Magnet of 

literature? Have you read 'Alice in 
Wonderland'? I never did. Do you 
know if it is still procurable? 

Do you conscientiously con- 
sider it is worth such a fabulous 
price? It knocked me into 'Won- 
derland' right away and am still 
seriously 'wondering' if I should 
ever attain this golden goal! by a 
freak of fortune! If so, ))om would 
certainly come in for a goodly por- 
tion of the spoil. 

Don't for a moment think I 
shall overlook all your thoughtful- 
ness re my Works. 

I think 'Six Months in Hell' wd 
come near this mark — should I 
meet with a twin Dr Rosenbach 
but of a more stable temperament 
than this example of 'Egregious 
Outre Monsieur'. 

15 April 1928 

About 'Alice in Wonderland'. I 
have made enquiries about it but 
none seem to have thought it 
worth reading. I should indeed be 
glad if you cd allow me to see it. I 
will return it safely to you. 

It is strongly suggested that Car- 
roll is an assumed name and that 
the person who wrote it first was 
a German named 'Heiner', but I 
doubt if there is a single person 
mentioned who is genuine. 

It seems Mrs Hargreaves was 
a little foundling found tied to a 
doorhandle on a poor Welshman's 
cottage. Whether or not there is 
any truth in the matter, I don't 

However it was and is a good 
financial asset. 


4 May 1928 

I thank you once again for your 
very nice detailed letter, also for 
'Alice in Wonderland' with its 
lovely little gold and ruby cover. 

You may rest assured I shall 
never part with your precious little 
gift, while Hfe's lamp burns within 
me. I have said 'gift', but I will be 
very glad to pay you for it on hear- 
ing its price. I really feel so deeply 
in your debt already. 

Don't be angry however at 
expressions of opinion, I consider 
this little Vol. apart altogether 
from my great appreciation of 
being possessor of such a largely- 
read work of an idiot for I hold 
any man wearing a clerical coat, 
especially, for a hundred and 
one reasons, should receive 100 
strokes of the Birch to celebrate 
him into that region he best de- 
serves for writing such an idiotic, 
nonsensical, whimsical, disjointed 
piece of abject happenings burst- 
ing with Stygian Style Expressions 
lined throughout with a pricky- 
patterned policy the gods would 
grunt at and decent-minded 

I hold there isn't a child (be 
that child young, middle-aged 
or old, born since Noah was, by 
Godly Command, appointed Cap- 
tain of that Divine Yacht shaped as 
an oblong meal-store into which 
were huddled seven other crea- 
tures, six of whom were genuine 
plaster-casts of Nature and from 
whom we virtually descend) who, 
in its first or second degree of 
childhood, could understand one 
solitary page of this book as it 

I have read hundreds of beauti- 
ful children's books by sublime 
Authors, but this one excels them 
in point of deficiency and want of 
efficacy. It certainly deserves the 
price paid for the ms inasmuch as 
its enormity goes to prove what 

most Authors practise, viz. 'gulling 
the majority'. 

It may be I have raced over 
its parts too hastily to arrive at a 
proper estimate of its worth, but I 
fear further impressions are use- 

I should have liked it auto- 
graphed by you. Depend however 
upon the fact that I appreciate 
none the less for forwarding it to 
me, and hope one day I shall be 
the proud writer of a Work that 
will yield me equally. 

To Norman Carrothers 
14 April 1932 

...I have numerous gifts of books 
given personally to me. Quite 
recently a gentleman friend in 
London sent me a specially got-up 
volume, 'Alice in Wonderland', 
garbed in maroon and gold. I 
read it every line and my opinion 
about it is its beautiful garb is 
absolutely lost cloaking its idiotic 
pages, and that 'hogwashing' critic 
who found time to whiff its pages 
with the wind of irony should be 
stoned to death for trying to de- 
ceive the public with such lines of 
drunken bluff. When I finished 
its perusal I could not recall one 
redeeming feature of elegance 
from cover to cover. It is so de- 
scriptive of some old clergyman 
in his smallest of years trying to 
make up a sermon of very irregu- 
lar infantisms. Enough of 'Alice in 
Wonderland', save that the gulled 
American who paid £15,000 for 
such rubbish must have been a 
warder over a gang of weaklings 
for an indefinite period, when he 
too became infected with their 

But on the other hand if this 
purchaser had handed me this 
sum, I would have criticised him 
as a first-class exhibitor of brainful- 

Julia Ann Moore "Sweet Singer 
of Michigan," (1847-1920) is in 
the good company of William 
McGonagall and perhaps a stray 
Vogon or two in a competition for 
the worst poetaster of all time. 



Mark Burstein 

La chatte. 

Ou est ma chatte? 

Jc lie sals pas. 

Je lui ap-por-tais du lait.* 

EUe aime beau-coup le lait.f 

* I was bringing some milk to her. 
t She is very fond of milk. 

As Alice was swimming about in 
the Pool of Tears, she "remem- 
bered having seen, in her broth- 
er's Latin Grammar, 'A mouse — of 
a mouse — to a mouse — a mouse — 
O mouse!'" Soon thereafter she 
"began again: 'Oil est ma chatteT , 
which was the first sentence in 
her French lesson-book." Then, 
as the "queer-looking party ... as- 
sembled on the bank," the Mouse 
recited "the driest thing I know . 
. . 'William the Conqueror, whose 
cause was favoured by the Pope 
. . .'" The latter two quotations 
come from well-known (at least to 
Carrollians) nineteenth-century 
schoolbooks, presumably owned 
by the Misses Liddell, but the first? 
Good question. 

"Ou est ma chatte?" is indeed 
the first sentence of the first lesson 
in La Bagatelle, intended to introduce 
children of three or four years old to 
some knowledge of the French language, 
first published in London in 1804 
by John Marshall and by many 
other publishers since, including 
a revision by "Madame N. L." in 
1841, in which the age of children 


addressed has become "four or 
five years old."' It was first so 
identified by Hugh O'Brien in the 
Irish Times, April 5, 1963, and then 
noted in the Oxford Journal Notes 
&' Queries, December 1963. Mr. 
O'Brien also believes (quite er- 
roneously, I fear) that Mr. Carroll 
based much more of Wonderland 
on that little volume, citing similar 
French passages about cakes, gar- 
dens, children falling asleep, and 
so on, and positing, "Lewis Carroll 
juggled the order of these and 
made up round them the story 
familiar to us," committing the 
hoary post hoc ergo propter hoc fallacy, 
and finding meaning where there 
is only low-level coincidence.^ 

Similarly, the "William the 
Conqueror" passage is known to 
come from A Short Course of His- 
tory First Series: I. Greece. 11. Rome. 
III. England, published in London 
by Whittaker and Co. in 1848 (see 
"What the Archbishop Found," KL 
70:26), and was first identified as 
such by Roger Lancelyn Green 
in his edition of Carroll's Diaries 
(London: Cassell, 1953, p. 2). 

But is there a similar ur-text 
for the declension of "a mouse"? 
Probably not, but the possibil- 
ity exists and there are, for the 
nonce, two fine theories in, as the 
Mock Turtle would put it. Laugh- 
ing and Grief. The spokesman for 
a Latin referent is Dr. Selwyn H. 
Goodacre; for a Greek, August A. 

Goodacre 's "In Search of Al- 
ice's Brother's Latin Grammar" in 
Jabberwocky Issue 22, Spring 1975, 
presents an ingenious theory. The 
Latin for mouse, mus, is a third-de- 
clension noun with many irregu- 
larities, which would disqualify it 
from being the chosen exemplar 
for any textbook, even though 
Carroll's case order — nomina- 
tive, genitive, dative, accusative, 
vocative — is correct for its day 
(it changed in the 1870s). After 
dismissing several likely candi- 
dates of Latin textbooks of that 
era, Goodacre lands upon Punch 
writer Percival Leigh's The Comic 

Latin Grammar; A New and Face- 
tious Introduction to the Latin Tongue 
(London: Charles Tilt, 1840), a 
copy of which Dodgson owned. ^ In 
it, only one noun is fully declined, 
albeit in verse form, namely musa, 
a muse. Could Alice, he asks, look- 
ing over her brother's shoulder, 
have mistaken mus for musa? 

Imholtz first published his 
speculations as a response letter 
in Issue 30, Spring 1977.^ Noting 
that Dodgson was a careful clas- 
sicist, he feels the absence of the 
ablative case (by, with, or from 
a mouse) may not have been a 
mistake, but rather a clue that 
the subject was, in fact, a Greek 
noun, whose five-case declension 
would be consistent with Carroll's 
translation (Latin has six cases). 
In the pre-1865 Greek grammars 
Imholtz could find, the standard 
first declension feminine exem- 
plar was, in fact, [jouoa, "mousa," 
again meaning a muse. Imholtz 
suggests, then, that Alice was 
seeing a standard declension in 
a standard Greek grammar of 
a word, "mousa," that more re- 
sembles "mouse" than does the 
Latin mus. In the Classical Greek 
of Dodgson's day at Oxford (still 
true today), the diphthong ou is 
pronounced like the "o" in coiv, 
so "mousa" also sounds very much 
like the English "mouse." And he 
finds it rather appropriate that a 
daughter of Henry George Liddell 
would have a Greek grammar to 

So, was Carroll referring, as 
he did in the two other cases, to 
a genuine schoolbook, albeit one 
which in this case has simply not 
yet been identified? Possibly. Was 
he making a pun on, or misdirec- 
tion or misperception of, a word 
in an actual Latin or Greek text- 
book? Possibly. Or perhaps he was 
just making a joke. 


I would be remiss in not mention- 
ing another nineteenth-century 
children's book, albeit one con- 
taining a lesson of a different kind. 

Seumas Stewart, in his Book Col- 
lecting: A Beginners Guide,^ argues 
that the Queens' catechizing Alice, 
particularly in regards to flour, 
in Chapter IX of Looking-Glass 
is a direct parody of "one of the 
grimmest children's books of all 
time," The Child's Guide to Knoiol- 
edge; Being a collection of useful and 
familiar questions and answers on 
every-day subjects, adapted for young 
persons, and arranged in the most 
simple and easy language, by A Lady 
(Fanny Umphelby, 1788-1852). 
First published in London by 
Hurst, Chance, and Co. in 1828, 
this "unhappily popular book" 
went though at least 63 editions 
through 1913. 

I would very much like to thank 
Selwyn Goodacre and August Im- 
holtz for their erudite cooperation 
on this article. 

' Dr. Selwyn Goodacre has 14 editions 
in his collection, dating from 1822 
to 1882. Publishers include Baldwin, 
Cradock, and Joy; Baldwin and 
Cradock; Robert Baldwin; Simpkin, 
Marshall, and Co. (their 1858 edition 
was addressed to children "five and 
six years old") ; and Crosby Lockwood 
and Co. Many were "revised" and/or 
"embellished with new cuts." 
^ Fallacious or not, I have suggested 
to the editors of this fine journal 
that it be republished in its entirety 
as a curiosity, if nothing else. 
^ Lovett, Leiuis Carroll Among His Books 

'' The article was later revised and 
published as "The Absent Ablative 
and the Search for Alice's Brother's 
Latin Grammar" in The Classical 
Bulletin, Vol. 55, January 1979. 
^ London: David & Chades, 1972; 
New York: E. P. Dutton, 1973. 




Mrs. Miniver and Journey's End 

Andreio Sellon &' Sarah L. Adams 

Any of us could probably cite a 
long list of A/k^inspired books, 
movies, and plays with little dif- 
ficult)'. Most of these are light- 
hearted in nature. But two pieces 
come to mind on a more serious 
topic: using Carroll's nonsense 
to hold off the very real and im- 
mediate horrors of war. Below 
are segments from the 1928 stage 
Av2Lm2L Journey's Endhy R. C. Sher- 
iff (made into a film in 1933 and 
adapted for television in 1988) 
and from the well-known 1942 
film Mrs. Miniver (based on the 
1937 book of the same name by 
Jan Struther) starring Greer Gar- 
son. In both pieces, the characters 
read from Wonderland to escape 
the death and destruction just 
outside their shelters. \n Journey's 
End, set in a British trench on the 
front lines during World War I, 
Lieutenant Osborne, fully appre- 
ciating the nonsense of war, and 
sensing all too accurately his im- 
minent death, quotes from it not 
once, but twice. In the stunning 
2007 Broadway revival, before he 
goes off on his final mission he 
carefully leaves behind not just his 
wedding ring, but the precious 
book as well. In Mrs. Miniver, the 
title character and her husband 
read from the book while waiting 
out a World War II air raid with 
their sleeping children in their 
bomb shelter. 

Journey's End: Act II, Scene ii: 

[A quiet spell in the trenches; no activ- 
ity on the front above.] 
trotter: What are you reading? 
OSBORNE (zvearily): Oh, just a book. 
trotter: What's the tide? 
OSBORNE (showing him the 

cover): Ever read it? 
trotter: Alice's Adventures in 

Wonderland — why, that's a kid's 


trotter: You aren't reading it? 

trotter: What — a kid's book? 
OSBORNE: Haven't you read it? 
TROTTER (scornfully): No! 
OSBORNE: You ought to. (He reads:) 
How doth the little crocodile 

Improve his shining tail 
And pour the waters of the Nile 

On every golden scale? 
How cheerfully he seems to grin 
And neatly spread his claws, 

And welcomes little fishes in 
With gently smilingjaws! 
TROTTER (after a moment 's thought): 

I don't see no point in that. 
OSBORNE (wearily): Exactly. That's 

just the point. 
TROTTER: You are a funny chap! 
Act III, Scene i 


RALEIGH try to pass the time 
before the two of them attempt an 
assigned raid on the German camp 
which Osborne knows will almost 
certainly prove fatal.] 

RALEIGH: I'm sorry, I don't mean 
to keep talking about the raid. 
It's so difficult to — to talk about 
anything else. I was just wonder- 
ing — will the Bosche retaliate in 
any way after the raid? 

OSBORNE: Bound to — a bit. 

RALEIGH: Shelling? 

OSBORNE: "The time has come," 
the Walrus said, 
"To talk of many things: 

Of shoes — and ships — and 
Of cabbages — and kings." 

RALEIGH: "And why the sea is boil- 
ing hot — 

And whether pigs have wings." 
OSBORNE: Now we're off! Quick, 

let's talk about pigs! Black pigs 

or white pigs? 
RALEIGH: Black pigs. In the New 

forest, you find them quite 

(RALEIGH notices Osborne's ring 

on the table; he picks it up.) I say, 

here's your ring. 
OSBORNE: Yes. I'm — I'm leaving it 

here. I don't want the risk of 

losing it. (Osborne does not look 

at Rcdeigh. ) 

RALEIGH: Oh! (There is silence. He 
puts the ring slowly down; we hear 
it clatter on the table.) 

OSBORNE (rising): Well, I think per- 
haps we ought to get ready. 

RALEIGH: Yes. Righto. (He also rises.) 

Mrs. Miniver 

clem: That's a bomb. 

MRS. miniver: They are going for 
the aerodrome again. 

clem: Have you finished with this, 

MRS. Miniver: Yes. 

clem: It's a lovely story. I wonder 
if Lewis Carroll ever dreamed 
it would live forever. You know, 
it's the first story I read. 

MRS. miniver: Mine too. 

clem: Really? "How she would 
keep, through all her riper 
years, the simple and loving 
heart of her childhood: and 
how she would gather about her 
other little children, and make 
their eyes bright and eager with 
many a strange tale — " 

MRS. miniver: "Perhaps even with 
the dream of Wonderland of 
long-ago: and how she would 
feel with all their simple sor- 
rows, and find a pleasure in all 
their simple joys, remember- 
ing her own child-life and the 
happy summer days." 

clem: The happy summer days. 


"Like Lewis Carroll's White Queen, 
who famously declared that hav- 
ing jam and toast every other day 
meant 'jam yesterday and jam 
tomorrow, but never ever [sic] 
jam today,' the court seemed to 
be suggesting that trading with 
the enemy could only have been a 
crime if the enemy had won." 
From The Man Who Made 
Vermeers, Unvarnishing the 
Legend of Han van Meegeren 
by Jonathan Lopez, Houghton 
Mifflin Publishing Company, 2008. 


"There's a large mustard-machine 
near here. And the moral of that 
is — 'The more there is of mine, 
the less there is of yours.'" 

Alice's Adventures in Wonderland, 
Random House, 1946. 

"The well-known sinologist and 
linguist Sir Angus Peacock has 
pointed out that whilst 'tempus 
fugit' undoubtedly has its origins 
in the quotation from Virgil, the 
first time that the two words ever 
appear in literature in that form, 
is when the White Rabbit (Cunicu- 
lus Albus) in Alice in Wonderland 
uses the phrase." This discussion 
of "Tempus fugit" on Wikipedia 
Tempus_fugit) later was marked 
as a possible hoax, then removed 

Rare Book Review, Oct./Nov. 2008, 
has an article on page 70 en- 
tided "NUMBERS UP: The White 
Rabbit's obsession with time was 
merely a reflection of his creator's 
love affair with numbers, discovers 
Charlotte Luxford." This review 
of Robin Wilson's Lewis Carroll in 
Numberland includes two uncap- 
tioned illustrations. One seems to 
be a diagram, the other is a photo- 
graph of Lewis Carroll's father! 

'From a medieval Book of Hours 
to a 19th-century version o^ Alice 
in Wonderland, many illustrations 
in these books were intended as a 
religious education." 

From '"The Illustrated Book ': 
When Text Meets Image" by Emily 
Tartanella, The Bi-College Nexus, 
January 29, 2009. http://www. 
biconews. com/lp=13790 


"[Alice] was both their inspira- 
tion and their recipient during 
a particularly wet boating trip 
with Gerald Duckworth and her 
younger sisters, who were given bit- 
parts as the Duck, the Dodo, and 
Slow Loris." 

irow Julia Margaret Cameron by 
Amanda Hopkinson, Virago, 1 986. 

In an interview in the April issue 
of Teen Vogue, Miley Cyrus tells how 
she loves Disney animation, partic- 
ularly Alice in Wonderland, because 
"It's such a perverted movie.... It's 
all about Ecstasy. I swear! Look it 
up online." 


Alice in Washington 
by Ellie Schaefer-Salins 


Adapted and directed 

by Mary Hall Surface 

Performed by Roundhouse 

Theatre Bethesda 

Bethesda, Maryland 

November 26 - December 

28, 2008 


Created by Nick Olcott 

and Tim McCarty 

Performed by Quest Productions 

Gallaudet University's 

Elstad Auditorium 

March 7-8, 2009 

Alice in Wonderland invaded Wash- 
ington, DC, in the winter of 2008/ 
2009. There were two productions 
of the story at two very different 
theaters with two very different 
interpretations. I decided to go 
and check them both out to see 
how other people view the works 
of Lewis Carroll. They were both 
very curious indeed! 

First, Roundhouse Theatre in 
Bethesda put on a production 
oi Alice duung November and 
December of 2008. Roundhouse 
Theatre is a local professional 
theater company that has been in 
the area a long time and uses local 
talent in their shows. Their new 
400-seat theater was built in 2002 
and was a cozy place for the show. 
Unfortunately, the theater was less 
than half full on the Friday night 
that we were there. I went to see 
the show with other Carrollians, 
David and Mary Schaefer and my 
seven-year-old daughter, Eva. 

Alice ■wTiS, an interesting show. 
There was one actor for Alice 
and another as the white rabbit, 
and then about six more actors 
who changed roles with each new 
scene. The set of large windows 
and doors never changed, but 
props were used to show different 
scenes. One of my favorite parts 
was when Alice was in the hall of 
doors. There was a normal-sized 
table with a key and bottle on it. 
When Alice grew big, the normal- 

0^ ^''d X, 

sized table was taken from the 
stage and a small dollhouse-sized 
table replaced it. When she grew 
small, the regular table reap- 
peared, but this time it was held 
up in the air by four actors. These 
changes were very good, as were 
the actors. The actor who played 
Alice was also good, but she said 
Alice's lines as well as the narra- 
tion from the book: She would say 
a line, then follow it with, "Alice 
said." I found this very awkward 
and unnecessary. But overall, the 
play was done well and was fun to 
see. I thought it was a little slow 
but this is a problem for people 
like me who know the story so well. 

The second rendition of Alice 
was performed by the Quest act- 
ing troupe. This group has mostly 
deaf actors and the show was put 
on at Gallaudet University's Elstad 
Auditorium, so was a very different 
adaptation. In my career, I work 
with people who are deaf and I am 
fluent in American Sign Language 
(ASL) , so I thought that this would 
be the perfect play for me. Again, 
Eva came with me to see the play 
and I thought I would have to in- 
terpret parts of it for her, but very 
little interpretation was needed. 
The performance was based more 
on movement and modern dance, 
with little signing done at all. 

The six dancers were very tal- 
ented. One of the best scenes was 
when five of the dancers formed 
the arms and body of the caterpil- 
lar while Alice "talked" to it. An- 
other scene used flashlights that 
were spinning around and then 
suddenly stopped to form a large 
face and smile of the Cheshire 
Cat. The audience gasped when 

this happened! However, the rest 
of the show was extremely confus- 
ing as to which scene was occur- 
ring, and I was not always sure just 
what was happening. If I could 
have just sat back, enjoyed the 
dancing, and stopped wondering 
about what was happening in the 
play, then it would have been quite 
interesting. But instead I left feel- 
ing confused about the produc- 
tion as an Alice &\.ory. 

Washington, DC, should be 
happy that Alice invaded the town. 
Both productions had great talent 
and interesting interpretations. 
Things are always very curious 
here. Is it possible that next we will 
see Obama in Wonderland with 
the pig and pepper scene repre- 
senting the swine flu? Who knows? 
This Carrollian will report on the 
important shows in town when 
they happen next! 



Family Musik with Rob Kapilow 

Saturday, April 25 

Lincoln Center 

for the Performing Arts: 

Alice Tully Hall, New York, NY 

Reviewed by Janet Jurist 

"Jabberwocky" was commissioned 
by Lincoln Center for the Per- 
forming Arts, and this was its New 
York premiere. Frankly, I did not 
think much of it. The entire pro- 
gram was one hour long, and was 
filled with many things to amuse 
the children. "Jabberwocky" 
took only about 20 minutes. Rob 
Kapilow's music was pleasant but 
nothing very great. The singing, 
by the Young People's Chorus of 
New York City, was very nice but 
it was difficult for me to make out 
the words even though I know 
them. I doubt if any of the many 
kiddies that attended could either. 
There were four dancers, from 
the Pickle Shoes Dance Theatre, 
who acted out the plot and they 
were good. Nothing too elaborate, 
however. Kapilow did talk about 
"suitcase" words and explained a 
few. I guess that he was afraid to 


use the word "portmanteau." I was 
hoping to talk to Kapilow after the 
performance, but could not make 


Lewis Carroll in Numberland 
A Dramatic Presentation 

by Robin Wilson 

Mathematical Association 

of America 

January 6, 2009, Washington DC 

Clare Imholtz 

To our surprise, Wilson's presen- 
tation was not pure mathematics 
but included dramatic readings of 
all sorts from Carroll's letters and 
books. Wilson himself, dressed in 
frock coat and top hat, enthusi- 
astically took the part of Carroll, 
and other roles were taken by 
Mrs. Wilson and some 30 of his 
colleagues. The presentation was 
divided, fittingly, into eight fits. Fit 

1 included readings of letters to 
child-friends and to Mrs. Liddell, 
along with a demonstration that 

2 X 2 = 5 (as Carroll proved in a 
letter to Wilton Rix). Fit 2 focused 
on Wonderland readings, and Fit 3 
on the Snark and Sylvie and Bruno. 
While the material from the latter 
book (Fortunatus' purse, the 1:1 
map, the gravity train) was sound, 
it proved not to dramatize well. Fit 
4 covered Carroll's early days and 
letters from Oxford, while Fit the 
Fifth included not only several of 
Carroll's puzzles, but our favorite 
bit — a dramatization (utilizing 
the entire auditorium space) of 
the story of an Oxford tutor who 
would only deign to speak to his 
student through several intermedi- 
aries, leading inevitably to humor- 
ous miscommunication. The fit 
concluded with a symmetric poem 
which could be read both verti- 
cally and horizontally (for the lat- 
ter, the readers lay across chairs). 
Fit 6 presented scenes from the 
rarely dramatized Euclid and his 
Modern Rivals and The Dynamics of 
a Particle, while the seventh and 
eighth fits finished up with Car- 
roll's work on equations, elections, 
and symbolic logic. All in all, this 

was a highly entertaining hour, 
leaving us with a new apprecia- 
tion of both Lewis Carroll's rec- 
reational mathematics and Robin 
Wilson's showmanship. 


Clare and August Imholtz 

Princyclopedia, an annual book 
event sponsored by Princeton 
University's Cotsen Children's 
Library, is a five-hour extravaganza 
that tries to present the many fac- 
ets of a single book to the children 
of Princeton and the surrounding 
communities. This year the event, 
held March 28, celebrated Alice in 
Wonderland through a variety of 
hands-on projects, activities, and 
demonstrations. The LCSNA was 
one of about thirty organizations 
and businesses to participate. We 
watched children, and often their 
parents, engage in Snark hunts 
and life-size chess games, view per- 
formances of "Jabberwocky" by the 
Princeton drama club, build multi- 
colored models of the bridge over 
the Firth of Forth with the help of 
the engineering department, de- 
sign Mad Hatter hats, explore opti- 
cal toys, take rides in horse-drawn 
Victorian carriages, and even taste 
tea-flavored ice cream (a mixture 
of Earl Grey and chocolate). 

The LCSNA table focused on 
several aspects of Carrolliana. We 
had examples from a math puzzle 
(the "1089" puzzle) on a white- 
board (unfortunately, the Princ- 
eton math club had decided not 
to participate), which was a big hit. 
One 12-year-old even wrote out a 
complex algebraic formula for us 
on how it worked! Next time we'll 
definitely bring more math puz- 
zles. We provided kids with lots of 
handouts, demonstrating mirror 
writing (plus a mirror where kids 
could try it themselves; some kids 
were quite quick at it, others not), 
mazes, and rebus letters. In addi- 
tion, we had several Alice transla- 
tions to look at (people especially 
enjoyed the Hebrew and Russian 

translations), and biographical 
information on two posters. 

All in all, some 4,000 kids and 
parents visited Princyclopedia 2009. 
Your LCSNA representatives had 
a great time, and strongly recom- 
mend other members to partici- 
pate in similar community events, 
should the chance come your way. 
We also want to commend Dana 
Sheridan of the Cotsen, who did 
a frabjous job in making it all 


Alice in Wonderland 

Buenos Aires: Ediciones 

Dos Amigos (2006) 

111. by Alicia Scavino, Facundo Ali 

12X9 inches, 185 pages 

Mark Burstein 

Sadly, talented Argentine painter 
and printmaker Alicia Scavino (b. 
1937) passed away in 2006 before 
completing the planned etchings 
for the last two chapters of a phe- 
nomenally beautiful Alice's Adven- 
tures in Wonderland for Ediciones 
Dos Amigos of Buenos Aires (an 
edition of 25 copies, 20 of which 
were for sale). With boxed but 
unbound pages (in cork clamshell 
and red-cloth lined covers by 
Samuel Garbarino and Mariano 
Romero) and text in English, this 
sumptuous hand-set letterpress 
edition is imaginatively illtxmi- 
nated with ten double-page color 
intaglio etchings (plus title page) 
by Scavino. The last two chapters 
were illustrated by Facundo Ali, 
who also completed Scavino's 
designs for the paper wrappers, 
and there are ten smaller (ap- 
proximately 4 by 3 inches) hand- 
colored cliche-verre prints within. 
Bookseller Priscilla Juvelis of 
Kennebunkport, Maine, the exclu- 
sive distributor for Ediciones Dos 
Amigos in North America, sold 
out the run of the entire regular 
edition (listed at $5,000), each 
of which contained two original 
watercolors by Facundo Ali. One 
copy, in a beautiful burgundy 
French Levant binding with inlays 
and gold morocco onlays by James 


The original edition 

Brockman of England, sold for 
$35,000 at the New York Antiquar- 
ian Book Fair in April. Juvelis also 
carries a small (4 by 6!/^ inch) 
20-page artist's book, one of 20 
copies, containing a Wonderland 
excerpt in Spanish and a double- 
page aquatint by Alicia Scavino, 
hand-bound by Sol Rebora, for 
$3,000. It is still available. 

I ran into Alicia's Wonderland 
at the (ahem) 42nd California 
International Antiquarian Book 
Fair in February, attracted by the 
spectacular binding by Michael 
Wilcox, which expresses, among 
other things, a tribute to Ms. Scav- 
ino. The binding — black morocco 
centered by inlays of a large blue 
and green (Cheshire Cat — also 
depicts several other characters, 
playing cards, and so on. Housed 
in a beige cloth box lined with 
black velvet, whose additional pull- 
out tray contains the original cork 
covers, Scavino's watercolors of 
the Mock Turtle and her illustra- 
tions for the stiff paper wrappers, 
and copies of Wilcox's concept 

sketches for the binding, the book 
was recently sold for $50,000 by 
Bromer Booksellers of Boston 
and can be viewed at www.bromer. 
com/onlinecatl 0_alice.html. 

Under His Hat 

Robert H. Batey 

Strategic Book Publishing, 

2009, ISBN 9781606934623 

Reviewed by Ray Kiddy 

For someone who has not studied 
his life, it might be possible to 
theorize that the Reverend Dodg- 
son did not come up with the Alice 
stories. They are rather fanciful, 
and on the surface he does seem 
somewhat understated in charac- 
ter. Perhaps a particularly active 
childhood imagination, such as 
Alice Liddell's, could come up 
with these ideas. If these stories 
were told to a competent chroni- 
cler, one can see them becoming 
the two Alice books attributed to 
Lewis Carroll. If one imagines how 
this might occur, and is very cre- 
ative about it, this would be one 

of the central pillars of the book 
before us, called Under His Hat, by 
Robert Batey. 

Another pillar of this book is 
the relationship between Alice 
Liddell and Coffee Johnny, a char- 
acter who is in the habit of wear- 
ing large top hats and who ends 
up being a familial, though wholly 
undocumented, link between the 
Liddell family and the Batey fam- 
ily. According to Batey, this comes 
from a purported misadventure of 
the young Henry Liddell, Alice's 
father, with a German au pair that 
supposedly led to a quiet trip to an 
orphanage and a quick boat back 
to Germany. The book begins near 
the time of Coffee Johnny's birth 
and follows him and then Alice 
Liddell through their many ad- 
ventures. Alice's "hatter" is often a 
deus ex machina, and his adventures 
with the young Alice parallel many 
scenes in the Alice canon. The 
story follows Alice into her later 
years, where the connections be- 
tween her and the members of the 
Batey family become more clear. 


This is all amusing enough. 
The book is engagingly written 
and it moves along. And while the 
cover and the introduction sug- 
gest that the story is historical fact, 
nothing else really does. There 
are some Carrollians we have seen 
who might be a bit too fond of a 
footnote to support their theories. 
But Robert Batey writes an entire 
book, includes conversations held 
in private, and describes many 
other events that would be diffi- 
cult indeed to discover, and does 
it all without a single citation of 
any kind! In the Introduction, he 
claims the books of Mavis Batey 
as sources, and coyly suggests he 
might know things that she has 
not published. But he never de- 
scribes his relationship to Mavis 
Batey, or even says whether they 
have ever communicated. It leaps 
to mind that there might be a rela- 
tionship, being that they have the 
same last name, but he is never 
specific about it. Yet he knows 
things. How he knows these things 

is a mystery and he says, in other 
fora, that he wishes he could say. 
Perhaps he could say. Perhaps he 
could say, even, in a book. So why 
has he not? 

Robert Batey says he was told 
these stories by family members 
who would never lie. But many 
families have fanciful stories of 
this type that they believe to be 
true. My family claims kinship with 
a certain pirate, and you might 
even be able to guess which one. 
But these stories cannot be taken 
at face value. They need at least 
some documentation before they 
can be reported as fact. 

Ultimately, whether intended as 
fact or fancy, it must be argued that 
this story does a serious disservice 
to Lewis Carroll. It would be shock- 
ingly clever for a four-year-old child 
to see a rabbit and imagine him in 
a waistcoat, and one might laugh 
at the precociousness of it. But is it 
really so wrong to give Lewis Car- 
roll his due? He did not write just 
the Alice books. He told stories to 

groups of children all his life. He 
wrote and staged performances 
of plays for his family while he was 
still a child. Even his mathemati- 
cal puzzles have that trademark 
bit of the absurd. And The Hunting 
of the Snark was not created by any 
child. We may see him as a staid 
Victorian, but it is not easy for us 
to appreciate the complexities and 
passions of those times. It seems 
ungracious and ungenerous to 
judge Lewis Carroll as so dull that 
he just wrote down stories he'd 
heard from someone else. 

Lewis Carroll gave us not 
merely books, but a world that has 
become a canvas on which many 
artists have drawn. That Robert 
Batey chose to paint his family's 
picture on that canvas is not neces- 
sarily a problem. But it is a shame 
that he felt the need to try to 
obscure the signature of the artist 
whose imagination first created 
that world. It is a jolly effort, but 
not to a joyful effect. 

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Jenny Portlock has created 
a lovely little accordion- 
fold book (approx. 3"X4") 
entitled The Alice Collection, 
Five Illustrations Taken 
From Her Original Wood 
Engravings (see KL 78) . 
It is available for £20 by 
contacting Ms. Portlock at 

Since 2005, University of 
Southern California stu- 
dents have created every- 
thing from poems, essays, 
and novels to films, paintings, and 
sculptures in pursuit of the Won- 
derland Award, a multidisciplinary 
competition inspired by the work 
of Lewis Carroll. The goal of the 
award is to promote the use of 
the G. Edward Cassady, M.D., and 
Margaret Elizabeth Cassady, R.N., 
Lewis Carroll Collection, held in 
use's Doheny Memorial Library. 
These artworks were on display at 
the library and online from Janu- 
ary 30 to May 1 6. 

Artist Ellen Kahn's exhibit of 
paintings and works on paper, 
"Alice Revisited," references the 
hall of doors in AA/W and the 
garden of live flowers in TTLG 
to "focus on the psychological 
struggle that is involved with trying 
to break free from childhood and 
move out into the world to dis- 
cover one's own identity." Kahn's 
works were shown at the 440 Gal- 
lery in Brooklyn, New York, from 
February 19 to March 29. 

Disney Dossiers: Files of Character from 
the Walt Disney Studios by Jeff Kurtti 
(Disney Editions, 2006) includes 
studies of Alice and the White 


The February 22 New York Times 
women's spring fashion supple- 
ment has a feature on aprons and 
pinafores ("Wrap Star," page 74). 
It states that "Alice in Wonder- 
land may well be the most famous 
apron wearer ever." Purists note: 


the accompanying illustration is 
Disney, not Tenniel. 

At the "Place and Space in Chil- 
dren's Literature" conference at 
Keble College, Oxford, in March, 
the talks included "Assigning the 
Reader's Space: Interplay of the 
Verbal and the Visual in the Alice 
Books" by Mou-Lan Wong of Ox- 
ford University. On the event's 
website is a comment of interest to 
Carrollians: "This conference will 
also help set the stage for a 2011 
Bodleian Exhibition on Oxford- 
based children's fantasy, which 
v^ll be accompanied by a further 
academic conference and possible 
publication." We will keep you 

In "In the Blood" (p. 103), a re- 
view of Annotated Draculas in the 
March 16 Neto Yorker, ]o2Ln Acocella 
writes, "One could say that Drac- 
ula, like certain other works — Alice 
in Wonderland, the Sherlock Hol- 
mes stories... — is a cult favorite." 

The Editors of the Knight Letter 

are pleased to announce that, 

beginning with this issue, all 

URLs (links) in "Far-Flung," 

which up to now have been 

printed, are now online 

and clickable! Go to 

and by using the alphabetical 

list or, better, the "tags" at the 

right, you can find the item(s) 

you want. 

Hmm. How then would 
Ms. Acocella define a "pop- 
ular favorite"? 

Keith Wright, a member 
oftheLCS (U.K.) and 
the Daresbury Lewis Car- 
roll Society, publishes the 
Daresbury Chronicle, a very 
fine addition to the world 
of Lewis Carroll periodi- 
cals. Keith will be happy to 
e-mail anyone interested 
a PDF of the journal at 
no charge. You may reach 
him at keith@cheshire46. 

"Lewis Carroll and Alice Play Call 
Our Bluff by Alan Lance Ander- 
sen and Rebecca Ann Edwards 
appeared in the July 2009 issue 
of GAMES magazine. This nicely 
illustrated piece is a feature ar- 
ticle/puzzle in which the reader 
tries to solve the puzzle in the 
text — by determining which of the 
many tidbits of Alice history are 
true and which the authors made 
up — based on, to quote Mr. An- 
dersen, "quirky trivia" about Lewis 
Carroll and Alice Liddell. There 
is a "Hidden Contest Puzzle" in 
the article as well, with prizes for 
the first people to figure it out. 
The fact that there is a contest is 
not known to general subscribers 
— part of the contest is to find the 

On June 15, The Oxford Chil- 
dren's Literature and Youth Cul- 
ture Colloquium presented a talk 
on "Disney's Alice, Hello Kitty's 
Alice, and Carroll's Alice: An 
Aspect of Children's Cultures 
in the U.S., U.K., and Japan" by 
LCSNA member Yasuko Natsume 
of Tsuda College, Tokyo. This talk 
examines American and Japa- 
nese animated film adaptations 
of AA/W as a means of accessing 
children's cultures in the U.S., 
U.K., and Japan. Natsume's paper 
focuses on Disney's self-support- 
ing, independent Alice (who 
stands in contrast to the majority 
of early Disney princesses) and 

Sanrio's 1993 Hello KittyTw ver- 
sion, in which Kitty, a Japanese 
symbol of cuteness, plays the part 
of Alice. 

The February 2009 issue of Book 
and Magazine Collector includes a 
well-illustrated and researched 
article on illustrated editions of 
AA/W with a bibhography. 

On January 12, the Oxford Mail 
reported that "An amateur histo- 
rian from the U.S. believes he has 
discovered a connection between 
the court of King Henry II in 
Woodstock and classic children's 
book Alice in Wonderland." Inter- 
esting that he went to Oxford to 
consult a historian, but doesn't 
seem to have talked to any Alice 
experts, several of whom live in his 
hometown of San Francisco. 

Although the Tenniel illustration 
of Alice and the Duchess appears 
at the top of the Guardian 's article 
"British Library mislays 9,000 
books" (by Anil Dawar and Maev 
Kennedy, March 17), the 1876 
AA/Wlisted is one of the lesser of 
the missing treasures. 



A new book, Tales for Little Rebels: A 
Collection of Radical Children '5 Litera- 
ture, edited by Julia L. Mickenberg 
and Philip Nel (NYU Press, 2008, 
ISBN 9780814757208), includes 
"Who Stole the Tarts?" from The 
Togo Stepmother Goose (1954) , 
adapted and illustrated by Walt 

Before Tommy Kovac scripted the 
six-issue Wonderland comic for Dis- 
ney (AX 80: 1-2, 41 ) , he wrote and 
drew the darker, edgier AALW-\n- 
spired "Antipathies" story in Skel- 
ebunnies for Slave Labor Graphics, 
which has just released the com- 
plete tales as a 120-page graphic 
novel (SLG Press, 2009, ISBN 
9781593621513). Not for kids! 

What would happen if Alice left 
Wonderland and opted for a 
trip down the Red Line? You can 
find out by reading Alice s Adven- 

tures in Cambridge (2008, ISBN 
9781596296053), a 1913 parody 
reprinted for the first time by The 
History Press. Harvard Lampoon 
staffers have updated the book 
with a new introduction. 

The Mad Tea Party and Other 
Festival Skits by Alan Lance 
Andersen (, 2009, ISBN 
9780557040032) offers schools 
and small theater groups short 
humorous scripts that have been 
performed by Palladian Interactive 
Theatre at Renaissance Faires and 
street festivals. In "The Mad Tea 
Party," author Lewis Carroll invites 
the fictional Alice and some of her 
mad friends from Wonderland to 
re-create the notorious tea party 
while he attempts to explain a 
few of his little inside jokes — ^with 
unexpected results when his own 
characters don't exactly go along 
with the plan. There is also a "Mad 
Croquet Party" component with 
the Wonderland characters inter- 
acting with festival attendees. 

Katherine Neville's thriller The 
Eight (Ballantine Books, ISBN: 
9780345419088), first published in 
1989, has just had its 20th anniver- 
sary on the bestseller lists. It is in 
part a tribute to chess and to Alice. 
A forthcoming book on chess 
stories [details in the next KL] will 
include a new story by Neville, "set 
at Oxford during the high Alice 

The Magician 's Book, A Skeptic 's 
Adventures in Narnia by Laura 
Miller (Little, Brown and Com- 
pany, New York, 2008, ISBN 
9780316017633) discusses C. S. 
Lewis's works by comparing them 
with earlier children's fantasy 
books: "Men like J. M. Barrie 
and Lewis Carroll preferred the 
company of children not (as the 
jaded modern mind sometimes 
presumes) because they were pe- 
dophiles seeking adult pleasure 
from children, but because they 
longed for childlike pleasures they 
couldn't share with adults. What 
they really wanted, what they tried 
to regain in playing pirates or 

planning outings with little boys 
and girls, was something truly 
impossible: they wanted their own 
childhood back." 

Brian Lies's Bats at the Library 
(Houghton Mifflin, 2008, ISBN 
9780618999231), a follow-up to 
2006's Bats at the Beach, includes a 
series of creative illustrations that 
parody classic children's books. 
Each is done in the style of the 
original illustrator, such as Ten- 
niel, but features bats as the main 
characters, so Alice is shown talk- 
ing to the Cheshire Bat, upside 
down in the tree, of course! 

The Big Book of Little: A Classic Il- 
lustrated Edition (Chronicle, 2006, 
ISBN 9780811850858), compiled 
by Cooper Edens, a "garden of 
beloved children's stories full of 
small characters," has a short illus- 
trated excerpt from AALW. 

The British Library has released a 
new facsimile edition of Lewis Car- 
roll's original manuscript, Alice's 
Adventures under Ground, accom- 
panied by commentary by Sally 
Brown, British Library Curator of 
Modern Literary Manuscripts. 

David Denby's new book, Snark 
(Simon & Schuster, 2009, ISBN 
9781416599456), is "'a polemic 
in seven fits' and places his obser- 
vations of contemporary culture 
against a history of satire and 
invective. After introducing the 
current state of snark and its prac- 
titioners, he returns to the earliest 
dabblers in snark, first citing the 
origin of the word. For that, he 
credits the Rev. Charles Lutwidge 
Dodgson, aka Lewis Carroll, who 
first used the word in a mock epic 
called The Hunting of the Snark: 
An Agony in Eight Fits. While Car- 
roll hunted the snark (a creature 
that, among other things, 'has no 
sense of humor and can't stand 
puns') he was no writer of snark 
himself." (Review from "Of seethe, 
snarl and glinting malice" by Carol 
Herman of the Washington Times.) 
[ With all due respect to Ms. Herman, 
while Mr. Dodgson may not have envi- 


sioned the current usage of the word he 
coined, anyone xvho has read certain of 
his pamphlets (king-fishers, anyone"?) 
knows that he was, in fact, capable 
of the occasional snarky observation. 

Diego Olmos's graphic novel 
H20ctopus is the story of the great- 
est detective in the imaginary 
world of AA/Wand TTLG. In 
H20ctopus #1: La cabeza del gato 
(Public Square Books, 2007, ISBN 
9781594974014), H20ctopus finds 
himself employed in the search 
for the Cheshire Cat, an animal 
of great power that evil forces are 
seeking to control. But when the 
cat's head mysteriously disappears, 
the clues will lead him into the 
real world of nineteenth century 
Europe. Unfortunately, this and 
later books are available only in 
Spanish at this time. 

In her book Enchanted Hunters: 
The Power of Stories in Childhood 
(W.W. Norton & Co., 2009, ISBN 
9780393066012), Maria Tatar 
focuses extensively on AA/Wand 
Peter Pan, two books that she ar- 
gues marked a "seismic shift in 
our understanding of children's 

Gerrard Wilson's Alice on Top of 
the World (, 2009, ISBN 
9780956155306) is set some four- 
teen years after TTLG. Alice sud- 
denly finds herself in a strange 
place, wondering how she could 
have got there, let alone why she is 
a child again. She meets the White 
Rabbit and they set off to find 
his new house at the top of the 
world. Alice soon falls far behind 
the fast-hopping Rabbit, but she 
endeavors to find her way without 
him. While on her strange journey 
Alice comes across hungry aspi- 
distras that beg her to find them 
some fertilizer, an incredibly old 
Elf called Fie, who, living in a fer- 
tilizer mine, has plenty, but is not 
disposed to giving her any, a white 
sea lion called King Tut, who gives 
her some extremely confusing 
directions, and a magical escalator 

that finally transports her to the 
very top of the world. 

The most recent publication from 
Juvenilia Press is The ftectory Maga- 
zine (2009, ISBN 9780733426810) 
written (largely) by thirteen-year- 
old Charles Lutwidge Dodgson 
with contributions from other 
members of the Croft Rectory. The 
Rectory Magazine displays the young 
professional at work — as poet, 
short-story writer, journalist, artist, 
and editor. The confident self- 
mocking style, comic verse, word 
puzzles, nonsense games, and 
parody we associate with AA/W are 
clearly exhibited in this delight- 
fully whimsical early family maga- 
zine. (The original can be found 
in the Harry Ransom Humanities 
Research Center at the University 
of Texas, Austin.) 

Evolution, 2L textbook by zoologist 
Mark Ridley (Wiley-Blackwell, 
2004, ISBN 9781405103459) de- 
scribes dynamic equilibrium or 
"the Red Queen mode of coevolu- 
tion, [where] natural selection 
continually operates on each spe- 
cies to keep up with improvements 
made by competing species..." Rid- 
ley is not to be confused with Matt 
Ridley, science writer and author 
of The Red Queen: Sex and the Evolu- 
tion of Human Nature (Penguin, 
1993, ISBN 9780140245486). 

In this unique approach to inter- 
preting Alice, The Logic of Alice: 
Clear Thinking in Wonderland 
(Prometheus Books, 2008, ISBN 
9781591026754), LCSNA mem- 
ber Dr. Bernard M. Patten shows 
that Lewis Carroll fused his pas- 
sion for logic, mathematics, and 
games with his love of words and 
nonsense stories to produce a 
multifaceted, intricately structured 
work of literature. Patten provides 
a chapter-by-chapter skeleton key 
to AALW, which meticulously dem- 
onstrates how its various episodes 
reveal Dodgson 's profound knowl- 
edge of the rules of clear thinking, 
informal and formal logic, sym- 
bolic logic, and human nature. 

The second edition of Karoline 
Leach's In the Shadow of the Dream- 
child: The Myth and Reality of Lewis 
Carroll (Peter Owen Ltd., 2009, 
ISBN 9780720613186) includes 
updated and revised material. 

Usually books on mathematics or 
logic reference AA/W However, 
chapter 7 of Making Mathematics 
With Needlework: Ten Papers and 
Ten Projects (edited by Sarah-Marie 
Belcastro and Carolyn Yackel, 
AK Peters, Ltd., 2008, ISBN 
9781568813318), references SBC. 
Susan Goldstine uses the "Mein 
Herr" chapter to explain the con- 
cept of Fortunatus's Purse, a bag 
where the inside is also the out- 
side. She goes on to explain the 
mathematics of the idea, and then 
how to actually create one. 


The Macintosh's first game was 
called Through the Looking Glass. 
Sometimes referred to as "Alice," 
it featured pieces that looked like 
Lewis Carroll's characters (Ten- 
niel style). Some 25 years later, the 
game has returned as AliceX, a 
version to be played on the Apple 
iPhone or iTouch. The concept is 
to maneuver Alice around a chess- 
board, with the goal of capturing 
all the pieces on the board. This 
isn't a strict game of chess, though. 
Alice plays with the capabilities of 
one of the chess pieces, starting 
out as the queen but eventually, 
at higher levels, restricted to the 
moves only a pawn can make. 
AliceX features 96 levels in four 
speed groups (lazy, late, flying, 
and insane) ; there are also differ- 
ent piece designs, including "Alice 
Classic," "Hip Hop," and "Bush Me- 
morial." If you want to get a sense 
of the game before spending your 
US$2, or you don't have an iPhone 
or iTouch, you can try a "lite" ver- 
sion on the AliceX website. 

Electronic Arts Inc. and Spicy 
Horse Games announced Febru- 
ary 19 that they have signed a 
publishing deal for a new title 


based on EA's 2000 classic, Ameri- 
can McGee's Alice^'^. 

One of the great things about 
modern poetry is that we can listen 
to or watch recordings of the poets 
themselves reading their works. 
Perhaps using a modified Waybac 
Machine, Jim Clark (YouTube user 
poetryanimations) has made it pos- 
sible now to watch poets of the past 
"read" their works, including Lewis 
Carroll reading "Jabberwocky!" 

On February 5, Google introduced 
a mobile version of its Google 
Book Search, giving iPhone and 
Android users instant access to 
more than 1.5 million public do- 
main books. The development 
team presented the hand-written 
AAUG 2iS an "extreme case" of 
problems in using optical char- 
acter recognition to extract text 
from page images, which had to 
be overcome before the project 
could be completed. 

Did you know that AAIWis an 
official British icon? Developed 
by the British Department for 
Culture, Media, and Sport, ICONS 
worked with the public to identify 
and explore 100 uniquely British 
items and ideas as a way of explor- 
ing the cultural landscape. Not 
surprisingly, AA/W was one of the 
first ten identified, and the website 
provides quite a bit of background 
on the book. 


According to the April 20 issue of 
the Yorkshire Post, the Old Chapel 
in Ripon is up for sale. Used for 
background in several of Charles 
Dodgson's photographs while his 
father was canon at Ripon Cathe- 
dral, and featuring stone carvings 
that may have inspired some of 
the characters in AA/Wand TTLG, 
the Old Chapel was converted to a 
home 1 1 years ago. 

New York's Museum of Modern 
Art will present a major career 
retrospective on film director Tim 
Burton from November 22, 2009, 
to May 26, 2010. With his Alice 

in Wonderland to be released on 
March 5, 2010, it seems logical to 
expect that there will be related 
events and pieces. 

Wheels of Wonderland is an inter- 
active theatrical spectacle — a 
production of Alice in Wonderland 
performed entirely on bicycles — 
celebrating human-powered magic 
of all shapes and sizes. Featuring 
the Austin (Texas) Bike Zoo, a va- 
riety of local performers and many 
creative cycling characters, this 
free event takes place May 2, 3, 9, 
and 10 in various Austin parks. 

The March Hare Restaurant in 
Poughkeepsie, New York, has its 
address, fortuitously, on Dutchess 
(sic) Turnpike. 

The Falkirk Cultural Center of San 
Rafael, California, held its annual 
Alice in Wonderland Spring Faire 
on Saturday, April 4, as well as 
Mad Hatter's Tea Parties on Satur- 
day and Sunday, April 18 and 19. 

On March 28, guests of the Okizu 
Foundation went Through the 
Looking Glass and experienced 
Wonderland in living color. The 
15th annual "Art Inspiring Hope" 
gala was held at the Festival Pa- 
vilion at Fort Mason Center in 
San Francisco, where many of 
the 460 guests chose to show off 
their whimsical attire. Millennia 
the Robot greeted guests as they 
arrived and, expressing compli- 
ments on their handsome ap- 
parel, guided them through to a 
topsy-turvy world, where they were 
alternately too small or too big, 
and were perplexed by important 
questions such as which side of 
the stuffed mushrooms to bite 
first or whether the Walrus and 
the Carpenter had left any oysters 
to slurp. The Mad Hatter Bar 
anchored the room, with wildly 
colored specialty cocktails to set 
the mood. The purchase of 'Drink 
Me' raffle botdes offered the 
chance to win a wall-size personal 
looking glass, a fabulous tea party 
for eight (mad or otherwise), or 
a royal outing package fit for a 

Red Queen. After scooping up 
treats and prizes in the silent auc- 
tion, petting white rabbits, and 
dancing with the robot, the whole 
ensemble proceeded through a 
hedge filled with roses painted 
red to the Queen's Castle garden 
and a meal fit for a king (oops — a 
Queen or it's off with your head). 
After a rousing live auction and 
an incredibly enthusiastic show of 
support for "Send-a-Kid to Camp," 
there was dancing to the sounds of 
Rock 'n' Roll Hall of Famer Dave 
Mason, to round out the Wonder- 
land adventure. 

Sponsored by Los Angeles Japa- 
nese-style doll shop The Valley of 
the Dolls, a Mad Tea Party took 
place at Royal/T Cafe ("LA's first 
Japanese-style cosplay [costume 
roleplay] cafe") in Culver City, 
California, on March 21. 

In New Orleans on Sunday, Feb- 
ruary 22, Mardi Gras marchers 
"Krewe Do Craft" presented Alice 
in Craftyland. Their handmade 
throws were designed to delight 
Alice in Wonderland lovers and 
all who came. Krewe Do Craft is 
a New Orleans-based marching 
Krewe that focuses on creating 
unique, handmade, and environ- 
mentally conscious throws. 

From May to December 2009, the 
Parish of Lyndhurst, New Forest, 
England, where Alice Hargreaves 
and her husband lived for nearly 
50 years, will celebrate "Alice in 
Lyndhurst" with tea parties, cricket, 
walks, festivals, plays, and exhibits. 

"Artifacts of Childhood: 700 Years 
of Children's Books" (September 
27, 2008, to January 17, 2009) 
explored the Newberry Library's 
little-known collection of books 
and manuscripts created for and 
by children. The exhibition fea- 
tured such treasures as the first 
illustrated edition oi Aesop's Fables 
(1485); the first edition of AA/W; 
a nineteenth-century collect- 
ible story. La Fille de L'Exile, that 
is similar in format to Pokemon 
cards; and ABCs from 1544 to 


1992. These and other materials 
allowed exhibit visitors to traverse 
time, space, and cultures to trace 
continuity and change within the 
history of children's books, to ex- 
amine changing attitudes towards 
children and childhood, and to 
understand the importance of the 
study of the history of childhood 
through children's books. 

Celebrating children's poetry 
from the seventeenth century to 
the present day, "Twinkle Twinkle 
Litde Bat: 400 Years of Children's 
Poetry" (April 1 to June 28) at the 
British Library featured key poets 
and poems from the library's col- 

As part of the festivities and events 
celebrating Charles Darwin's 
200th birthday this year is "Endless 
Forms: Charles Darwin, Natural 
Science and the Visual Arts" at the 
Yale Center for British Art (Febru- 
ary 12 to May 3) and The Fitzwil- 
liam Museum (June 16 to October 
4) . Among the photographs on 
display will be Lewis Carroll's 
1859 portrait of his Oxford friend 
Reginald Southey, posing with the 
skulls and skeletons of a man and 
a monkey, inspired by Darwin's 
theories of evolution. 


A young girl follows a white rodent 
through a tiny door down a long 
tunnel to a distorted mirror-land 
of wonders, including flowers that 
come alive, her only companion 
there being a wise talking cat who 
can disappear, leaving only his tail. 
She is there to rescue her parents, 
who are trapped on the other side 
of a looking-glass. Hmm. Based on 
Neil Caiman's eponymous novel, 
the new animated movie Coraline 
is far darker than Carroll's similar 
journey, yet very much enjoyable 
(for 8 and up), and references 

On The Simpsons episode "Krusty 
Gets Kancelled," originally aired 
on May 13, 1993, Krusty the 
Clown, in a bid for ratings, gets a 

ventriloquist's dummy, to whom 
he says, "Hey, Alphonse, I've got 
a riddle for you: Why is a raven 
like a writing desk?" Regrettably, 
the dummy is destroyed before we 
find out the answer. 

Did you know Scooby-Doo had 
cousins named Scooby-Dum and 

Euan Ferguson's "The lost art of 
thinking on your feet" in April 19's 
The Guardian/ Observer reviews the 
BBC television show The Speaker, 
2l reality-TV show based on the 
art of public speaking. Unfortu- 
nately even the winners were not 
all that good: "As for poor, sweet 
Fahmida, who in the playoff had 
to talk about Alice in Wonderland 
(again, much preparation time, 
with books and pamphlets)... she 
ended a tale which could have 
been told by a toddler with 'And 
so that is the lovely lovely lovely 
story of Alice in the Wonderland. By 
Lewis Calwell.'" 

On BBC's Channel 4, Chef Heston 
Blumethal's new series recreates 
famous dishes of the past and 
adapts them for the 21st century. 
On March 3, he created some 
Victorian dishes and set up a mad 
tea-party inspired by AA/W 

The Flog It television program 
about collecting, antiques, etc. on 
March 10 on England's BBC2 in- 
cluded a feature on Carroll's child- 
hood home at Croft-on-Tees with 
reference to his photographs. 

Disney's Academy Award-nomi- 
nated Donald in Mathmagic Land 
(1959) is now out on DVD. While 
members of the Disney Movie 
Club (or savvy online shoppers) 
have been able to get the regular 
version for a year or so, a "Class- 
room Edition" has just been re- 
leased to the public. One amusing 
sequence has Donald — on a chess- 
board — dressed (and bewigged) 
as Alice. 

"Inspired by Lewis Carroll's classic 
tale, Daniel Diaz Torres's Alice in 
Wondertown (First Run Features, 

1990 [now on DVD] ) is an ab- 
surdist comedy and an allegory 
with a dark political undercurrent. 
Alice is a drama teacher who goes 
on a cultural mission to a small 
town where the most bizarre oc- 
currences are commonplace. Mir- 
rors become doors, circus animals 
walk the streets, and it seems any- 
thing could happen — but every- 
one except Alicia seems resigned 
to the situation. She discovers 
before long that the town's popu- 
lation is made up of officials and 
workers who have been fired for 
violating rules minor or illusion- 
ary, and now cannot find their way 
out of this strange town." 

Alice meets Hello Kitty meets MAC 
Cosmetics. Or something... In the 
commercial for MAC Cosmetics 's 
Hello Kitty collection, directed by 
artist/photographer/ director Floria 
Sigismondi, Alice wakes up in a giant 
pile of pink fluff, follows a black cat 
down a winding path, through a 
garden of roses and red jewels, and 
down a fuzzy pink hole to a dark 
place where she cavorts with bare- 
chested male dancers wearing tight- 
leather pants and large black Hello 
Kitty heads. Yes, really. 


Pages 56-57 of the January 2009 
issue oi American Theatre shovj two 
color photographs from a new 
adaptation of AA/Wpresented in 
fall 2008 at the PlayGround The- 
atre in Miami Shores, FL. There is 
also brief commentary from three 
members of the production team. 

"The Cheshire Cat Walk," a ten- 
minute disco-tinged jazz improvi- 
sation written by Chick Corea and 
played by him (on synthesizer) 
and trumpeter Maynard Ferguson 
on Ferguson's hard-to-find 1976 
Columbia LP Primal Scream (re- 
leased on CD in 2007), now also 
can be heard on YouTube. 

"A tea party and theatrical review 
in honor of the new queen of 
Wonderland depicts her legend- 
ary adventures with a cast of the 


finest acrobats, jugglers, danc- 
ers, and musicians any world has 
ever known!" Wanderlust Circus's 
performance of Wonderland Circus 
took place April 24 and 25, and 
May 1 and 2 at Portland's Bos- 
sanova Ballroom. 

April 24 through May 30, "Alice of 
the House of Carroll grabs you by the 
throat and kicks you down the rab- 
bit hole into a wonderland filled 
with maniacs and thieves and 
where love melds with aggression. 
...The National Pastime Theater 
lifts Alice out of her comfortable 
place in children's theater and 
thrusts her onto the city streets of 
late 19th century Chicago. Like 
our world today, Chicago at that 
time was a world that needed to 
rebuild. Alice, a pleasant little girl, 
pulses with an instability that is 
common to everyone and, in par- 
ticular, to a world, like ours, that 
seems to be disappearing down a 
rabbit hole. THIS SHOW IS NOT 

"Alice's adventures in Wonderland 
have never before been told like 
this... with clowns, acrobats, jug- 
glers, and musicians. When Alice 
searches for a way back home, 
she will meet the caterpillar, the 
white rabbit, and she will have to 
escape from the dreaded Queen 
of Hearts. You may think you know 
this classic story, but hold on to 
your hats, because this world pre- 
miere created by master clown Jeff 
Raz of Cirque Du Soleil for the 
Advanced Training Program of the 
Clown Conservatory and produced 
by Active Arts will be the wildest, 
craziest trip to Wonderland you've 
ever taken!" The show was per- 
formed from April 18 to May 3 at 
the Julia Morgan Center in Berke- 
ley, California, and from May 9 to 
May 17 at the Front Row Theater 
in San Ramon, California. 

"Shrug off the squareness of reality 
and fall into a swingin' re-imagina- 
tion of Lewis Carroll's classic tale 
of nonsense and fantasy. Come 
along with Alice as she discovers 
what wonders lie behind the velvet 

rope at Wonderland's nightclub, 
The Looking Glass." An explora- 
tion of divergent art influences, 
Through The Looking Glass: The 
Burlesque Alice In Wonderland mixed 
jazz with classical, Indian, and 
exotic music to set the mood as 
dancers mixed ballet, tap, contem- 
porary, and jazz dance into a whirl- 
wind of whimsy and bawdy beauty, 
performed at Seattle's The Triple 
Door, March 24, 25, and 26. 

"...A post-modern trip through 
the worlds of Wonderland and 
quantum mechanics. ...[it] follows 
Alice through the ten-dimensions 
of time and space as she searches 
for identity in an uncertain world. 
With help from characters such as 
the Schizophrenic Cat, the Syphi- 
litic Worm and Tofurky, Alice finds 
her place in a post-9/11 world by 
learning to understand quantum 
physics, human sexuality, and the 
power of choice." Wonderland In 
Alice: The Uncertainty Principle ran 
February 4-28 at the Dionysus 
Theatre Complex's L'il Peach 
Theatre in New York City. 

"Tumble down the rabbit hole into 
a nonsensical world of riddle and 
rhyme, using two uniquely Ameri- 
can artistic styles: musical theater 
and jazz! Alice's journey into 
Wonderland features favorites like 
the Mad Hatter, Caterpillar and 
Queen of Hearts, reborn through 
jazz styles from Davis to Monk." 
Portland's Northwest Children's 
Theater and School performed 
this original musical adaptation 
from January 23 to February 15. 

The Texas Radio Theatre Com- 
pany performed an audio adapta- 
tion of AA/Win November 2008 
at the Dallas Public Library. The 
Mad Tea Party scene can be viewed 
online, with Shannon Atkinson 
as Alice, David Grant as the Door- 
Mouse [sic], Clark Hackney (who 
seems to be channeling Ed Wynn) 
as the Hatter, and Reg Piatt as the 
March Hare. Live sound effects, 
a la old-time radio, added to the 

A dramatization oi AAIW, perform- 
ed by Sarah Jane Holm and Roy 
Hudd, was broadcast on the U.K.'s 
BBC Radio 7 on April 9 and 10. 

Wonderland: Alice's New Musical Ad- 
venture WvW have its world premiere 
at the Tampa Bay Performing Arts 
Center, November 24, 2009, to Jan- 
uary 3, 2010. "With a chaotic Won- 
derland in danger of disappearing 
into nothingness, only a modern- 
day Alice can restore balance and 
joy. Journey with her from NYC to 
a strange-yet-familiar place where 
she must reclaim her daughter and 
defeat the Queen of Hearts." 


Potter Style has put out an AATW 
500-piece jigsaw puzzle designed 
to look like a book. The illustra- 
don, based on Linda Sunshine's All 
Things Alice, is a collage of images 
by Tenniel, Jessie Wilcox Smith, 
and Margaret Tarrant ($15). 

Bad Monkey Productions offers 
greeting cards featuring new il- 
lustrations by David Delamare of 
"The Caterpillar," "The Tea Party," 
and "Presenting the Thimble," 
as well as limited edition prints 
of these and other Alice-inspired 
images. Bad Monkey offers a 
10% retail discount on all print 
and card orders (not just AATW- 
themed items) made by members 
of LCSNA. To claim your discount, 
place a shopping cart order at and when 
checking out, type "my prize" 
(without quotation marks) in the 
customer code box. 

Available in several bright colors. 
Mocha's giant plastic teacup stool 
is perfect for indoor or outdoor 
mad tea parties. 

Folli FoUie's website displays their 
cute but oh-so-pricey "Alice" and 
"Wonderland" collections of de- 
signer purses. 

If you look carefully at the crowd 
of zombie-like authors in Joshua 
Kemble's very clever "Attack of 
Literacy" t-shirt, you can see Lewis