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The Lewis Carroll Society of North America 

Winter 2010 

Volume II Issue 15 

Number 85 

Knight Letter is the official magazine of the Lewis Carroll Society of North America. 

It is published twice a year and is distributed free to all members. 

Editorial correspondence should be sent to the Editor in Chief at 


Submissions for The Rectory Umbrella and Mischmasch 
should be sent to 

Submissions and suggestions for Serendipity and Sic Sic Sic 
should be sent to 

Submissions and suggestions for From OurFar-Flung Correspondents 
should be sent to 

© 2010 The Lewis Carroll Society of North America 

ISSN 0193-886X 

Sarah Adams-Kiddy, Editor in Chief 

Mahendra Singh, Editor, The Rectory Umbrella 

Sarah Adams-Kiddy ^ Ray Kiddy, Editors, Mischmasch 

James Welsch 6^ Rachel Eley, Editors, From Our Far-Rung Correspondents 

Mark Burstein, Production Editor 

Andrew H. Ogus, Designer 


Mark Burstein, 


Cindy Watte r, 


Clare Imholtz, 

www.LewisCarroll . org 

Annual membership dues are U.S. $35 (regular), 
$50 (international), and $100 (sustaining). 

Subscriptions, correspondence, and inquiries should be addressed to: 

Clare Imholtz, LCSNA Secretary 

11935 Beltsville Dr. 

Beltsville, Maryland 20705 

Additional Contributors to This Issue 

Barbara Adams, Ruth Berman, Angelica Carpenter, Bonnie Hagerman, 

Alan Tannenbaum, Cindy Watter 

On the cover: Secret Garden, digital collage by Adriana Peliano. Seepage 21. 








^ i^"^^^ 



Live from Lincoln Center 


Meeting Mr. Dodgson 


Contemporary Sylvie and Bruno Reviews: 
A Further Concatenation 


Alice Under Skies 


A Carrollian in Brazil: Adraina Peliano, Part One 


Am L Blue? 








Evermore Everson 's Every type! 45 


Keith Shepard's Wonderland Revisited, 

and the Games Alice Played There 46 


J. T. Holden 's Alice in Verse: 
The Lost Rhymes of Wonderland 46 


Mahendra Singh's The Hunting of the Snark 47 


C. M. Rubin 's The Real Alice in Wonderland 48 


Nancy Wiley 's Alice's Adventures in Wonderland 48 




Leaves from the Deanery Garden — Sic, Sic, Sic 

Serendipity — Ravings from the Writing Desk 31 

What 's a Snark ? 35 


Lewis Carroll Tests Outfabberwocky 3® 




The Antipathies, I Think — 


Alice Speaks 



Guildford: A Lewis Carroll Society Study Weekend 40 


The Oxford Experience: 

Edward Wakeling at Christ Church 43 


Katherine Neville's "En Passant" 49 


Jan Susina 's The Place of Lewis Carroll 

in Children's Literature 49 


Maxim Mitrofanov 's Alisa v Zazerkale 5 1 


Gavin O 'Keefe 's Through the Looking-Glass 5 1 


11th Hour Ensemble 's Alice 5 * 




Art & Illustration — Articles (sf Academia 
Books — Cyberspace — Events, Exhibits, (sf Places 
Movies 6f Television — Performing Arts — Things 




» "* r\^f^J>^ ^^-^ 




''his issue takes us all over the world . . . from 
Brazil, where we interview Adriana Peliano, 
artist and president of the Sociedade Lewis 
Carroll do Brasil, to England, where Ann Buki de- 
scribes Edward Wakeling's class and August Imholtz, 
Jr., reports on LCS (UK) activities in Guildford, to 
Russia for a review of a new version of Through the 
Looking-Glass illustrated by Maxim Mitrofanov and, 
finally, Lester Dickey's article takes us to the Antipa- 

Next, Andrew Sellon expands the talk he gave 
at the fall meeting to explain how he grew up with 
Lewis Carroll, rediscovered him in acting school, and 
ultimately became the president of the LCSNA. This 
is the first in what we hope will be an ongoing series 
of articles written by members about how they first 
discovered or were introduced to the works of Lewis 
Carroll. Do you have a story you'd like to share? 

We also have for you "Alice Under Skies," Chris 
Matheson's thoughts on Looking-Glass, a companion 
to his article on Wonderland, "Lewis Carroll: The King 
of Comedy," in our previous issue. Two short fiction 
pieces, "What's a Snark?" and "Lewis Carroll Tests Out 
'Jabberwocky'" come to us from Mark Jarmon and 
Jenn Thorson, respectively. Clare Imholtz provides 
us with further Sylvie and Bruno reviews, and David 
Schaefer adds to our knowledge of Alice filmography 

with "Alice Speaks." 

Perhaps the most interesting aspect of this is- 
sue is that for the first time we have color pictures! 
New LCSNA president Mark Burstein's article "Am I 
Blue?" discusses the changing colors of Alice's dress 
in various early editions of Wonderland. While we did 
consider sending each member a box of crayons with 
which to fill in the colors (but only after we'd realized 
that the Knight L^ff^- staff just didn't have time to wa- 
tercolor every issue, sorry!), we finally settled on hav- 
ing our printer include a small color section. Please 
do let us know if you like it! 

On a personal note, having taken on the editor- 
in-chief position last issue, I must temporarily hand it 
off again. As some of you already know, Ray and I are 
expecting Tweedles, I mean twins, in February. Fortu- 
nately, the capable hands of Mahendra Singh, editor 
of the Rectory Umbrella section and Snark illustrator 
extraordinaire, are available, and our excellent staff 
of Andrew Ogus, Mark Burstein, James Welch, and 
Rachel Eley, as well as our miscellany of reviewers and 
Far-Flung contributors, are there to back him up. But 
this team can always use a little extra help, if you'd 
like to volunteer. 

Like the Cheshire Cat, I will return when you 
least expect it, but for now, I disappear, leaving only 
a grin. 




Our fabulous Fall 2010 meeting in New York 
City began in the traditional manner. Here 
is that story, in the words of Mary Schaefer: 
"The Maxine Schaefer Memorial Children's 
Reading was held Friday morning, November 5, at 
the Earth School on Manhattan's Lower East Side. 
Twenty-five fourth- and fifth-grade students and their 
teachers were present, as were several LCSNA mem- 
bers who were not direcdy involved in the reading, 
but whose presence and participation are always a big 
plus. Patt Griffin did the reading (the tea party). The 
kids loved it — and they loved Patt's rendition! All of 
them were familiar with Alice in movie or book form, 
and a couple of them brought along copies that had 
belonged to their grandparents or parents. A ques- 
tion-and-answer period followed the reading, and the 
questions were many and varied. (So Alice was a real 
person? That was interesting news! And how about 
Mr. Dodgson, who had two names! When did this take 
place?) It was a fun reading for all of us." 

For the main meeting on Saturday, Dr. Edward 
Guiliano, a former president of our Society who is 
now the president and CEO of the New York Insti- 
tute of Technology, kindly provided us with the per- 
fect meeting space, located within their Lincoln Cen- 
ter campus. The technology, as one might expect, 
was first-rate, with a number of wall-mounted video 
flatscreens in flawless synch with the main one for our 

After being introduced by our president, An- 
drew Sellon, Edward first welcomed the audience of 
around 70, which included eight former or current 
LCSNA presidents, Morton Cohen, and other lumi- 
naries. The NYIT has about 15,000 students, repre- 
senting 106 countries, with about half grad and half 
undergrads. It is a "global university," with other cam- 
puses in Canada, China, and the Middle East. 

Edward's talk was entitled "Greetings, and a Few 
Wise Words about Martin Gardner." Dr. Guiliano feels 
that there were three pivotal events that accounted 
for our presence there — a certain boat ride on July 4, 
1862; the publication of The Annotated Alice in 1960, 
which garnered academic acceptance of Carroll stud- 
ies; and the founding of the LCSNA in 1974. Martin 
Gardner was fully or partially responsible for two of 
the three. 

Edward is a renowned expert on Victorian litera- 
ture, and he first regaled us with tales of what was read 
back in those days, such as the bestselling, voluminous 
The Last of the Mortimers by Mrs. Oliphant or Mary Eliz- 
abeth Braddon's sensationalistic Lady Audley's Secret. 
Both are now forgotten, but they were long consid- 
ered suitable subjects for academic study, an honor 
not accorded Mr. Carroll's works until 1964 (!) — and 
only then thanks to the work of Martin Gardner. Ed- 
ward described meeting Martin at the first LCSNA 
gathering in 1974 and several other meetings over the 

next five years, working with him a bit on Lewis Car- 
roll Observed, and working together more substantively 
on The Wasp in a Wig. Guiliano's tale of the discovery 
of the manuscript and its purchase from Sotheby's by 
Norman Armour was fascinating. Armour bought it as 
an investment and didn't want to see it published — as 
he thought that would diminish its value! Edward's 
account of the negotiations between Clark(son) Pot- 
ter and the Dodgson estate, in the person of Philip 
Dodgson Jaques, over copyright issues, made it clear 
that only by Martin's intervention and support (and 
his eventual Introduction 
to the volume) were things 
resolved to everyone's satis- 

Edward's talk will be the 
basis for his contribution to 
^^j^^BPP*' A Bouquet for the Gardner, a 

^^^^ ^x^^^ Festschrift and collection of 

^^^^■ffC^^^^ reminiscences that is slated 

^^^^Hj^^ ^^^^ to be published by the LCS- 

^^^HI^flH J^ NA and the LCS(U.K.) next 
Edward Guiliano ygar. Its editor, the present 

writer, then said a few more 
words on that subject. 

Our second speaker was the enormously talent- 
ed, Toronto-based artist Oleg Lipchenko. His spec- 
tacular illustrations to Alice's Adventures in Wonderland 
won the coveted Elizabeth Mrazik-Cleaver Award last 
year, and he spoke about his current project in a talk 
entided "Butcher in the Ruff: Rendering the Snark (A 
Work in Progress)." He said that for hired illustrators, 
"ignorance of the text" is one of the familiar publish- 
ing customs. However, contrary to that philosophy, 
he actually first read the Snark in the equivalent of 
a plain text version, one with illustrations that had 
"nothing to do with the text." Lipchenko feels that "a 
dream is still a dream even if retold with a scientific 
tongue." The poem's meaning is, of course, obscure, 
with many possible interpre- 
tations, none particularly 
more truthful than the oth- 
ers: "the game of Could Be." 
Oleg thought of the Bell- 
man as God, moving in mys- 
terious ways, his intentions 
inscrutable (and hence he 
was given Dali's mustache). 
His Banker is a bewhiskered 

nineteenth-century capital- 

• . .1 T> • * • J Olee Lipchencko 

ist; the Barnster is gowned * ^ 

and bewigged, drawn from 

life; the Broker a "young man in spats"; Boots a mys- 
terious Wild West villain. He speculated that the po- 
em's line "the ominous words 'It's a Boo — '" could 
also be completed as "It's a Boo . . . ts" or "It's a Boo 
. . . tcher." We very much look forward to seeing his 

completed rendition in print. He has kindly given us 
a preview; see inside back cover. 

Adam Gopnik, the famed New Kwife^writer and es- 
sayist {Paris to the Moon) last honored us with his witty 
presence in 2006, when he discussed his introduc- 
tion to Martin Gardner's new edition of The Annotated 
Snark. Here he gave us "Looking-Glass and Broken 
Mirror: Honoring the Spirit of Lewis Carroll." His far- 
reaching mind took in a spectacularly wide variety of 
topics, to say the least: nineteenth-century polar expe- 
ditions (the Snark of discovering the North Pole, the 
Boojum of the Great White Winter) ; his discovery as a 
child of S. W. Erdnase's 1902 close-up magic "bible," 
The Expert at the Card Table, and the revelation in a pulp 
magazine in 1949 of its (purported) true author in an 
article by . . . Martin Gardner; how The Annotated Alice 
grew "viral" and "infected other literature," including 
the Beatles' "Cry Baby Cry" and "Lucy in the Sky with 
Diamonds"; Nabokov's use of a chess puzzle in Speak, 
Memory. Calling Disney's 1951 film "the work of the 
devil, which should be quarantined from humankind" 
due to its "saccharine betrayal," Gopnik also decried 
the recent "surrealist/sentimental, bad reading" film 
by Tim Burton with its "sublimation of sex." 

Carroll, he said, must be seen as a comic writer, a 
post-Renaissance poet of a realm that Gopnik calls "a 
marvelous that knows itself as myth," the formal inves- 
tigation of a "rule-bound imaginary world" that is cel- 
ebrated in two domains: children's literature and the 
usually dystopian science-fiction. "Comic" does not 
mean just funny; it is the "vernacular of rationality." 
Gopnik uses the term "comic" in an academic, struc- 
tural sense: initially one finds the realm in order, it is 
disrupted by an outside force ("common sense sent 
dancing"), and in the end they are reconciled, a con- 
struction that appears in everything from A Midsum- 
mer Night's Dream to episodes of Seinfeld. Citing works 
as seemingly diverse as Babar, From the Mixed-Up Files of 
Mrs. Basil E. Frankweiler, The Wind in the Willows, and 
Mary Poppins, he called the Alice books their "tonic 
note, basis, genesis, and exodus." 

Citing the work of his sister, Alison Gopnik, an 
expert in cognitive and language development and 
the author of The Scientist in the Crib: What Early Learn- 
ing Tells Us About the Mind and "The Real Reason Chil- 
dren Love Fantasy" on, he noted that what 
Alice tested in Wonderland was "not normal order, 
but consciousness." Her courage and common sense 
were on trial, and she ended up with a new appre- 
ciation for her own talents. "We genuinely have more 
consciousness, curiosity, and are more aware as chil- 
dren than we are ever again." 

Speaking of the limits of pure reason, Gopnik 
noted that in the course of Dodgson 's stay at Oxford, 
the intellectual life of the university was changed 
more profoundly than ever before or since. Begin- 
ning as a finishing school for clergymen, Oxford 
during these years saw an infusion of German philo- 

Adam Gopnik 

sophical idealism and the 
need for pure research 
that led to an enormous 
turnabout in priorities. 
Alice poked fun at the 
follies of the "wise," meet- 
ing characters who were 
"dysfunctional intellectu- 
als" spouting chains of 
abstract reasoning, let- 
ting the mind go as it will. 
Gopnik concluded with a 
reading from his new novel. 

The Steps Across the Water, in which a young girl, Rose, 
finds herself in a topsy-turvy, looking-glass world 
called U Nork. 

A break and feeding frenzy followed, with Alice 
films showing on the flat screen televisions in the 
main hall, while just outside it Messrs. Gopnik and 
Lipchenko signed their books: Adam his The Steps 
Across the Water (which he kindly arranged to have 
available for sale and signing two weeks prior to the 
book's release!) and Oleg his Wonderland ^.nd his new 
Humpty Dumpty and Friends. A total of five books by 
four of our speakers were available to attendees at a 
discount, and all book sales were experdy handled 
by NYIT's internal Barnes & Noble bookseller Shawn 
Wiggans, and his amiable staff. 

Next up was Jenny Woolf, author of Lewis Car- 
roll in His Own Account: The Complete Bank Account of 
the Reu. C. L. Dodgson (2005) and a recent biography, 
The Mystery of Lewis Carroll: Discovering the Whimsical, 
Thoughtful, and Sometimes Lonely Man Who Created Al- 
ice in Wonderland, who gave a talk entitled "Viewing 
Lewis Carroll as a Real Person." She said her main 
ambition in writing it was to give a picture of Charles 
Dodgson as a person in the context of his time and, to 
a lesser degree, to counter the "unsatisfactory biog- 
raphies in which ideas were presented as fact" — for 
example, did Alice Liddell really have a "gentle na- 
ture"? Could Dodgson be thought of as a foster fa- 
ther? (she already had a perfectly good one). Woolf 
believes that many of these books were "pictures of 
biographers' agendas, but not of Dodgson the human 
being"; there was no need for them to fill in gaps with 
pure conjecture. 

Ms. Woolf gave a fine example of cultural con- 
text: Suppose a nineteenth-century gendeman were 
to walk into this very meeting; he would be scandal- 
ized! Free fraternizing among men and women who 
had not been properly introduced, the women wear- 
ing skirts showing their legs, some above the knees: 
clearly these were prostitutes gearing up for an orgy! 
Similarly, we can be shocked by something they took 
for granted, such as the artistic depletion of naked 
children. It's all relative. 

She described Dodgson as a "complex personage 

with a tendency to joke about difficult things and who 
loved to 'perform' for children and intimates." There 
are certainly dark and disturbing moments in the Al- 
tc^ books; his genius was in transforming feelings such 
as these into entertainment. She spoke of the time 
around the composition of the Snark, when he was 
nursing his nephew and godson.Charlie Wilcox, who 
was suffering from tuberculosis. Jenny speculated 
that a "crew of eight" (Dodgson, his six sisters, and 
his nephew) in search of the ineffable may have been 
the inspiration for the poem, pointing out that TB 
creates agony, and comes in fits and starts, leaving its 
victim to softiy and suddenly vanish away. 

Woolf then discussed the time around the com- 
position of Looking-Glass. It was written in a colder, 
more isolated time, when a warm audience of chil- 
dren existed only in his imagination. It was a sad time 
for Carroll: he had lost contact with the Liddells, and 
his beloved father had died in 1868. The family had 
to leave Croft-on-Tees, and Dodgson was now respon- 
sible for his ten siblings. 

She discussed other aspects of his personality: 
For instance, was he a control freak or laid-back? She 
said there was an "element of caricature in his fussi- 
ness," and called him "a bit of a blonde." From her 
breakthrough studies of his bank accounts, she noted 
both carelessness and meticulousness, with lots of red 
ink. He was uninsured, not the "reliable old codger" 
we sometimes assume him to be but a "careless, emo- 
tional man who kept himself in order by rules and 
regulations." Jenny then read excerpts from his let- 
ter to Mrs. Liddell on 
the occasion of the 
dean's retirement, 
suggesting that it had 
a "tongue-in-cheek 
quality" that is often 

She reminded E^^^^^^^H ^^i 

us that Dodgson was 
"realistic, raised on a 
farm, had a practical 
medical library, and y^„„^ Woolf 
never shrank away 
from the physical." As a child, he was "clever to the 
point of being devious," but was offered moral guid- 
ance by his family. His sense of personal identity was 
very much tied in to his family, especially his father's 
deUght in his children (unusual for the time). In con- 
clusion, Woolf felt Dodgson was "complex, individual- 
istic, with a need to entertain, to be involved. He was 
lucky in life, free of tribulation, a happy and success- 
ful human being; boxing him into his conventional, 
dreary role is a disservice." 

Next, "The Real Alice Liddell: A Conversation 
with Pictures" took the form of an interview, with An- 
drew Sellon taking the moderator's stance and the 

delightful Cathy Rubin, author of The Real Alice in 
Wonderland: A Role Model far the Ages, as the subject. 
Describing herself as a "distant relative," she first 
talked about her youthful tea parties with her great- 
aunt Phil, a child of Lionel, Alice Liddell's brother, as 
well as with Mary-Jean St. Clair (Alice's granddaugh- 
ter) and Mary-Jean's daughter, Vanessa St. Clair, all of 
whom were "part of the fabric of her [Cathy's] life." 
Inspired in part by the 2001 Sotheby's auction {KL 
66:16), she and her daughter Gabriella traveled to 
Oxford, where they were given a personal tour by the 
Dean of Christ Church. Cathy treated us to a slide 
show of these events, and of July 4th "Alice Day"s in 
both Oxford and Lyndhurst. 

Mrs. Rubin 

e -^^^■^■i noted that, contrary 

to popular myth, 
.§ ^^^^H^^ * Mrs. Hargreaves cel- 

ebrated having been 
the original Alice. 
She owned a total 
of 370 copies of the 
book, half of which 
were sent to her by 
Dodgson, and many 
Cathy Rubin of which she signed 

"Alice in Wonder- 
land." Alice Hargreaves was a humanitarian, a muse, 
and, primarily, an artist, a visual thinker: hence Cathy 
and Gabriella's highly illustrated book, which Cathy 
called "documentary storytelling," incorporating the 
taste and look of Victorian England. Her many stories 
about its composition — including how Annie Leibo- 
vitz was inspired by Dodgson 's being a photographer, 
how she and Gabriella found a period designer to re- 
create the dress Alice wore to her wedding at West- 
minster Abbey, and the curse of the Cuffnells fire- 
place — ^were all warmly and generously spliced with 
anecdotes about the artists, auctioneers, and collec- 
tors she met along the way. 

Our second feeding frenzy featured book signings 
by Mmes. Rubin and Woolf, as well as by Mahendra 

Singh, signing his delightful, just published Snark {see 
review on page 47) . 

The chairman of the nominating committee, 
August A. Imholtz, Jr., next ascended the podium to 
present the slate for officers for the next two years 
(incumbents are asterisked): 

President: Mark Burstein 
Vice-President: Cindy Watter* 
Secretary: Clare Imholtz* 
Treasurer: Fran Abeles* 

Elected Directors: Matt Demakos,* Ellie Schaefer- 
Salins,* Germaine Weaver, James Welsch 

(Anyone curious about the difference between 
the governing board, the advisory board, and the di- 
rectors is referred to our Constitution, which is under 
"About Us" on our website and was most recentiy pub- 
lished in XL 52:6.) 

The slate was elected by acclamation. The new 
president took the stand to say a few words, thank- 
ing Andrew for his outstanding service, and manag- 
ing to slip in a reference to his beloved San Francisco 
Giants, who had just won the World Series earlier in 
the week. He reintroduced August, who presented 
Andrew with a lovely fountain pen and a botde of ink 
(purple, of course) as tokens of our gratitude. 

"Meeting Mr. Dodgson: One CarroUian's Jour- 
ney," which followed, was Andrew Sellon's warm, very 
witty, and occasionally poignant account of his life as 
an actor and how he came to be a Carrollian. Fortu- 
nately for us, his talk immediately follows this article, 
so is not recapped here. 

A fine dinner at the nearby Josephina restaurant 
was followed by a convivial after-party at Janet Jurist's. 
The next day many of us found ourselves on strange, 
convoluted journeys trying to reach airports despite 
the New York City Marathon, which effectively shut 
down the East Side of Manhattan — as if New York (or 
were we actually in U Nork?) needed any further cha- 
os. Happily, we had new books and heads full of new 
ideas to pass the time. 

Rhymes With Orange Hilary B. Price 

r n 








gecAHe... Auce 

IN V^0NI>t(^9eAD. 

0- WIV«P*«»M(' •* 

V- 4 


jWeetms JMt. Bobss^on 




"W 'While I've been a member of this Society 

\ #% # for many years now, it occurs to me that 
Ji^C Jfc^very few of you know much of anything 
about me. In this age of social networking and business 
transparency, I feel it my duty to point out that, for all 
you know, for the last four years you 
left the Society in the hands of a smil- 
ing avatar that masks a raving lunatic. 
While you were all cheerfully read- 
ing your issues of the Knight Letter, 
I might have been quietly draining 
the coffers and taking private jets to 
clandestine tea parties at the Binsey 
Well. Well in, indeed! Now, many of 
you do know that I'm a professional 
actor. You all have some idea of the 
romance of being an actor, I suppose. 
It's very exciting. Just a few days be- 
fore our fall meeting, I was one of 
many middle-aged actors called in to 
audition for the role of a nerdy ac- 
countant whose life is transformed by 
drinking a certain brand of orange 
juice. Each of us auditioning was told 
to show up in mismatched clothing, 
and when we arrived, we were cov- 
ered with plastic kisses and asked to 
make faces shamelessly for the cam- 
era. I'm so glad I invested in an MFA. 
Anyway, with true looking-glass logic, 
it occurs to me that now that my pres- 
idency is over, it's time we met prop- 
erly. There are too many of you out 
there for me to travel around the globe to say "How 
d'ye do," and shake hands in person, but we'll con- 
sider that done. And please do keep in mind: Once 
we've been formally introduced, you can't eat me. 

So first of all, what ^af^I been doing the past four 
years? I've done a lot of the Maxine Schaefer read- 
ings. I've done Q&A talkbacks after performances of 
Carroll-themed plays, and I recently gave the keynote 
lecture for a CarroUian symposium at Saint Peter's 
College English Club. I've negotiated and rewritten 
hotel contracts, lobbied for meeting spaces (aided by 
Janet Jurist and the gang), charmed potential speak- 

Andrew Sellon as Lewis Carroll in Through 
the Looking-Glass Darkly 

ers with smiles and soap, and haggled with restau- 
rants about what we want to eat, what we don't want 
to eat, and what we're willing to pay. I've arranged 
for book signings, and membership and meeting me- 
mentos, and other things that begin with an "m." I've 

answered lots of questions 
on a mind-boggling array 
of Carroll-related topics, 
some of them really out 
there. I'm still puzzling 
over the request for us 
to file an amicus brief on 
behalf of an artist in Cali- 
fornia who makes art in- 
stallations out of junked 
cars, because, according 
to the requestor, "Lewis 
Carroll also wasn't appre- 
ciated until much later." 
Thanks for writing, and 
good luck with those 
wrecks. I mean artworks. 
I also provided an expert 
answer on the origin of 
the word "snark" (guess 
who) to the good folks 
at Who Wants to Be a Mil- 
lionaire, but I don't know 
if they ever stumped any- 
one with the answer. And 
of course, I've done count- 
less interviews over the 
past four years, including 
a bumper crop leading up to the Tim Burton film. 
I've been quoted, paraphrased, and in that greatjour- 
nalistic tradition, misquoted. 

One question has come up time after time (aside 
from the relentless bleat of the great unread: "Was 
Lewis Carroll really a drug-addled pedophile?"). Sim- 
ply put: How did I get here? How did I fall down the figu- 
rative rabbit-hole and end up a Lewis Carroll fan, and 
president of this organization? Reporters evidently 
felt my personal experience would be a "way in" for 
their readers. Or perhaps they were hoping I'd pro- 
duce a scandalous back story that would blow their 

readers away and make them overnight rock stars. No 
such luck. But it occurs to me that sharing my story 
may prompt you all to look back on, and perhaps in 
future share, your own stories, possibly for the Knight 
Letter and our website (more on this soon). I urge you 
to share your story, most especially with the genera- 
tions that follow us, since they're the ones who will 
need to carry the banner for Mr. Dodgson and for 
literacy after we've all softly and suddenly vanished 
away. So yes, I'm freely confessing an ulterior motive 
here. As you'll learn, my association with the Carroll 
Society has been fraught with ulterior motives, a mas- 
sive conspiracy, and a truly insidious cover-up. Now, 
at long last, I will unmask the 
people behind it all. 

"Begin at the beginning 
. . ." Hmmm. Do you remem- I 
ber your first exposure to the 
Alice books? I have no idea. I 
remember having the litde Dis- 
ney Golden Books in hardcover, 
well-thumbed by my three older i 
siblings. I also recall having an 
old vinyl LP of performers read- 
ing segments of Wonderland to 
classical music themes. I did 
a quick search on our global 
cultural archive (also known as 
eBay) , and of course pulled up 
a copy of the Talespinners LP, 
which I promptly bought in a fit 
of sheer nostalgia. I remember 
thinking as a child that the cov- 
er was very adult and trippy. I 
would listen to that LP over and 
over with the volume turned 
up, mouthing the words, and feel- 
ing as though I a;a5 Alice. Gender has never really been 
a bother for me. I was unquestionably m Wonderland, 
because the sound of it was all around me. So my first 
sense of being in Wonderland actually may have been 
an auditory one. But as to when I first sat down and 
read (or had read to me) the two original books, I draw 
a perfect and absolute blank. 

That part of my background hardly qualified me 
for the presidency of the LCSNA. I'm just another 
one of the millions for whom the Alice books and 
characters seem to have always been present, as if we 
were all born with a deluxe two-volume slipcased edi- 
tion beside our bassinets. As a side note: I also don't 
remember when I first encountered The Hunting of the 
Snark, I just remember it was love at first reading. To 
this day I remain puzzled as to it isn't as widely known 
and loved as the Alices. Must be that less-than-happy 
ending. I imagine that if Disney and/or Tim Bur- 
ton made a film of it, the landscape would change. 
In this existentially inclined age, perhaps the Snark 's 

Andrew Sellon as Humpty-Dumpty in Looking-Glass 

hour has come 'round at last, and even as I speak, 
it's slouching toward Hollywood, a star waiting to be 
born. Oleg Lipchenko and Mahendra Singh are cer- 
tainly doing their part to promote it. 

So, what was it about the man himself? Why did 
I go looking for him, and how did that lead to my 
becoming president? My parents were good about 
teaching me the importance of reeling and writhing, 
and respect for authors, so I was aware early on that 
some magician named Lewis Carroll wrote my favorite 
books. (I was also aware that the Disney studio couldn't 
spell very well.) Anyway, I knew that Lewis Carroll had 
been at Oxford, and that it was a pen name, and all 

the other basic 
information and/ 
or misinformation 
and myth that we 
all first absorb 
about Mr. Dodg- 
son without even 

But maybe it's 
appropriate that 
acting is what led 
me to meet the 
man himself and 
to be writing this 
now. I've been on 
stage regularly 
since the age of 
fourteen, when I 
played the role of 
Malvolio in our 
high school's pro- 
duction of Twelfth 
Night. I'm not 
counting my actu- 
al stage debut: a single performance of an original play 
in my sister's friend's basement when I was about 9; I 
appeared for one scene as a litde girl suspected of her 
father's murder. My sister and her friend couldn't find 
anyone to play the role, and I campaigned mightily for 
it, saying I didn't care about wearing the dress, I just 
wanted to be onstage. I haven't changed. Over 30-plus 
years, I've been onstage in and out of some very bizarre 
costumes, including that of a three-headed mouse 
prince, a unicorn, and a certain irritable egg — both 
of the latter in member Rick Lake's musical Looking- 
Glass! 2Lt Harvard (with music by Michael Levine). But 
at some point in my career, after I'd graduated from 
Harvard and had been landing some non-union act- 
ing work around the country, I realized I needed some 
formal training. So at the rather late age of 30, 1 audi- 
tioned for graduate acting programs, never suspecting 
that I was, in fact, actually going down the rabbit-hole. 
At most of the grad school auditions I attended, 
I was viewed as something of an anomaly, or to be 

more blunt, a fossil; I remember waiting at Juilliard 
beside another hopeful, a fresh-faced 17-year-old who 
had come directly from her cheerleading practice. 
I landed in a demanding three-year master's degree 
program down at the University of North Carolina at 
Chapel Hill, a place where they thought being out in 
the world a few years was actually a good credential for 
graduate studies. Imagine. At the end of my second 
year, just before summer break, we were assigned our 
"senior project" for the coming year. We had to write, 
direct, design, and perform a one-person show on 
our choice of topic. A couple of my classmates went 
into complete panic mode. I was actually excited; I 
had written a number of plays and musicals over the 
years, including a Hasty Pudding show at Harvard. 
And although I hadn't read the Alice books in some 
time, I knew immediately that I wanted to spend my 
summer vacation with the man behind the name 
"Lewis Carroll." 

I discovered that the UNC libraries had a frab- 
jous selection of scholarly Carroll books. I walked 
into my favorite used bookstore on Chapel Hill's 
Franklin Street, and found a copy of Morton Co- 
hen's two-volume Letters of Lewis Carroll, a copy of 
Stuart Dodgson Collingwood's biography (I mean, 
what were the chances?), and the Dover paperback 
of Helmut Gernsheim's Lewis Carroll, Photographer. 
Photography is my hobby, too, so I was blown away 
to discover this additional connection between myself 
and Mr. Dodgson. It just seemed like fate. I contacted 
the Ackland Art Museum on campus and learned 
that they had coincidentally just acquired their first 
Dodgson photograph, an image titled "Xie Kitchen 
Seated in a Turner's Chair." To my astonishment, the 
kind curator invited me over to see the photograph, 
even though it was not yet officially on display. When 
I arrived for my appointment, she conducted me to a 
conference room. She noted that I shouldn't touch 
the image, but invited me to take as long as I wanted 
viewing it, and said she thought I might want to have 
time with it alone. I walked into the old room with 
its elegant moldings and endless white bookshelves. 
At the other end of a long, polished mahogany ta- 
ble was a single photograph placed on a small easel. 
It wasn't under glass or anything. It was just sitting 
there. And I was alone with it. If the windows in that 
room had been the kind you could open, this might 
have been a crime story. As it was, I contented my- 
self with viewing the image. It was remarkable: crisp, 
specific, intriguing — and smelly. To my astonishment, 
as I leaned in for a closer look, I recognized the un- 
mistakable aroma of darkroom chemicals! If you've 
ever printed photographs by hand, you know that 
smell. I think I stopped breathing for a moment. It 
was as if the image had just come from the darkroom, 
as if the photographer himself might be just on the 
other side of the door working on another print and 

might come through, shirtsleeves rolled up to the el- 
bows, brandishing another still-damp print with a pair 
of wooden tongs. I don't remember how long I was 
there; I know I was immensely grateful, reluctant to 
leave, and somehow converted in some way. I felt that 
I had come very close to meeting the man himself 

That summer, the more I read about Mr. Dodg- 
son, the more fascinated I became. Especially by the 
contradictions! Those were theatrical gold. A complex 
portrait of a man was beginning to appear before me, 
a man about whom it seemed many nonsensical things 
had been said and written, at least given the facts avail- 
able. Then one day I was in the hallway between grad 
school classes, and a big, black crow flew overhead: A 
couple of the students a year behind me asked whom 
I'd chosen as the subject of my play. I told them that 
I was having a wonderful time exploring the life of 
Lewis Carroll. One of them, whom I will call Barbara 
(because that's her name), was an outspoken feminist 
with a hair-trigger sense of moral outrage. She imme- 
diately said, "How could you write a play about him? 
You know what he was, what he did? How could you 
write a play about that pervert??" I said to her: "I'm 
writing this play in part because I think he deserves a 
fair hearing. How much do you know about his life, 
really?" She admitted she knew nothing. "Then how 
can you be so sure of what he did or didn't do?" She's 
a very bright woman; I had her there. I said: "Wait and 
see my play. Then you can decide." 

In the course of my questing, I came across an 
organization called the Lewis Carroll Society of North 
America. This was back in 1992, so somehow I found 
out about the group without the aid of the now-ubiq- 
uitous Internet. It must have involved pieces of paper 
and stamps, or telephones, or something else terribly 
antiquated. I also learned that the Society's then-pres- 
ident, Charlie Lovett, lived in nearby Winston-Salem. 
Again, it seemed like fate. But one of the incongruities 
of my being an actor is that I had a very traditional, 
Harold Pinter-esque New England upbringing, and 
I'm actually a very private person. I have simply never 
been good about getting out there and networking. 
But I was sure that this Charlie Lovett person must 
have some crucial guidance to offer, must know it all. 
So, I summoned up all my nerve and wrote a letter to 
explain my project and ask what resources I should be 
consulting. I received a charming, chatty, handwritten 
note back from Stephanie Lovett, decorated with Car- 
rollian rubber stamp images. I collect rubber stamps. 
Again, fate was whispering in my ear. It seemed that 
they actually had a massive world-class collection in 
their hom£. Stephanie said I should just plan to come 
and have a look. In fact, she added, there was so much 
to look at that I'd probably better plan to come visit 
them on a weekend and spend the night. 

I'm from Boston; I simply wasn't prepared for 
this. My first thought was: How do they know I'm not 

an axe murderer? My second thought was: Maybe 
they're axe murderers. I mean, maybe this "society" 
of theirs was a cover for some kind of poetry-spouting 
sacrificial cult or something! My mind really does 
work that way — ask my long-suffering partner, Tim 
Sheahan. But in her reply, Stephanie had mentioned 
having herbal tea together. I collect rubber stamps. 
I drink herbal tea. I decided to risk it, even if their 
cups might say "Drink Me." I descended on Winston- 
Salem. I have no idea what they must have thought of 
me, and I hope they won't tell me or anyone else now! 
But to say that I was bowled over by their generosity 
and kindness would be to grossly understate the mat- 
ter. Charlie showed me so many books, so many won- 
derful objects, including a camera just like the one 
Mr. Dodgson used. I had herbal tea with Stephanie, 
and we compared rubber stamp collections. I was in 
some new kind of Wonderland, with adults every bit 
as odd as me, eager to discuss and delight in the world 
of Lewis Carroll over a cup of chamomile tea. These 
people were fans, like me. I left there feeling as if I'd 
just had a crash course in Charles Dodgson, and that 
I'd made two new friends. And not for a minute did I 
suspect their ulterior motive, their utterly subversive 
agenda. Or that they were not working alone. 

Back at school, I wrote and rewrote my little one- 
act play, piecing together Mr. Dodgson 's own words 
from all the various sources to tell the story of the 
extraordinary relationship between a young Oxford 
don and his even younger muse, and of the social con- 
straints that shaped it. That winter, when the five of us 
in my graduate class presented our solo shows at the 
old PlayMakers theatre, Charlie and Stephanie were 
in the audience. The play was very well received, and 
Charlie and Stephanie couldn't have been more sup- 
portive and encouraging. That meant a lot, because 
I figured they knew. My fellow grad student Barbara 
was there, too, of course. She came up to me after the 
performance and said simply: 'You were right. I'm 
sorry; I didn't know anything." I felt as if somehow 
Mr. Dodgson and I had both been vindicated in the 
face of a young, latter-day Mrs. Grundy. I also felt that 
maybe my play had a positive impact on the people 
who saw it. 

After grad school, I moved back to New York City, 
and stayed in touch with Charlie and Stephanie. I was 
invited to attend LCSNA meetings, and I did so when 
they were held in Manhattan. Again, I never for a mo- 
ment heard the secret cogs and wheels churning un- 
der the surface the whole time, never felt the invisible 
net that was slowly and inexorably tightening around 
me. Naive fellow that I was, I was content to meet cool 
people like Morton Cohen, Hugues Lebailly, Nina 
Demurova, Linda Sunshine, and Robert Sabuda, and 
just enjoy the ride. In 1995, 1 performed a slightly al- 
tered version of my play for the Society in a school- 
room at Columbia University. To this day, I regret that 

I was not able to stay and talk about it with members 
afterward. I really wanted to hear feedback from the 
experts, but fate in that case was not kind. My child- 
hood best friend, Walter Hughes, had just died of 
AIDS at the age of 34, and I had to take a cab from 
that performance direcdy down to his memorial ser- 
vice in midtown. I had so looked forward to giving 
that play for a room full of Carrollians, but when the 
day came, I had a very hard time getting through the 
performance. In 2003, with help from Tim and my 
friend Elizabeth London, and with your collective in- 
dulgence, I presented a full-length, three-actor script 
on the same theme, but with a lot more content than 
the original one-act, trying to give equal weight to the 
after-Alice years. But while we're all glad Dodgson had 
a nice time at the beach, it seems it's the Alice years 
and the Alice connection that still hold the magic for 
audiences. That's where the drama is. I'm still tinker- 
ing in my head, and after doing a production of the 
play I Am My Own Wife, in which I played 35 different 
characters of both sexes from all over the world in 
two hours, I've decided to go back and write a full- 
length solo version of my Carroll play, maybe in time 
for 2012 or 2015. 

In 1998, 1 went to the Carroll Centenary week at 
Oxford, and found myself meeting amazing people 
like Edward Wakeling, Selwyn Goodacre, Mark and 
Catherine Richards, Anne Clarke Amor, Alan White, 
artist Adriana Peliano, and, well, the list is almost end- 
less. That week-long conference was incredible. We 
all learned a lot. We stayed in Oxford rooms. We ate 
in the Great Hall every day, long before Harry Potter 
did. I also made a visit out to the nearby town of Bla- 
don to visit artist Graham Piggott and his wife Corri. 
I had loved the bust of Mr. Dodgson that the Soci- 
ety commissioned Graham to make for presentation 
to Morton Cohen (trivia fans may remember that I 
appeared as Lewis Carroll to honor Morton at that 
meeting) . I had written ahead and asked Graham to 
make one for me. Of course, despite the fragility of his 
porcelain works, I ended up going home with more 
than one sculpture. And on a later trip, I went back 
for more. So before I knew it, I was not only a scholar 
in training, I was becoming a collector as well. Like a 
cheerful Mephistopheles, Charlie Lovett reappeared 
around that time, and sold me a first edition Looking- 
Glass and Snark. The net was tightening again, and 
I was now officially ensnared — or is that ensnarked? 

I went to more Society meetings and found the 
members to be helpful, clear-eyed, opinionated, and 
fun. August and Clare Imholtz were always there, ready 
with good ideas. Janet Jurist always had a few wise and 
supportive words for me — and still does. Patt Griffin 
Miller always got me smiling, and between us we've 
ended up doing most of the readings for the Max- 
ine Schaefer Memorial Outreach program. I can't say 
enough about that program. If you haven't yet come 


with us to one of the classrooms, seen and heard Car- 
roll's words work their magic all over again for a new 
generation, and listened to the children's remarkable 
questions and comments afterward, then you owe it 
to yourself to go to the next one you possibly can. It 
will do your heart good. Not to put too fine a point 
on it, the pundits who say, "The Alice books weren't 
really written for children" have their heads up their 
well-read posteriors. My favorite child question so far 
came from our Aurora, IL visit, when an eight-year- 
old boy wondered aloud: "But if the Cheshire Cat 
can make himself invisible, how do we know he's not 
watching Alice the whole time?" Doctoral students, 
start your engines. 

Somewhere along 
the way, I was invited 
to join the Society's 
Board. I guess in those 
days I was still consid- 
ered "young blood." 
I had never been on 
a board of anything; 
I imagined people 
in dark suits at a very 
long table with a well- 
sharpened pencil and 
small white Dixie cup 
in front of each seat — 
sort of a corporate 
mad tea party. But I 
agreed, and dutifully 
went to the board 
meetings. I've said I'm 
a private person, but if 
you ask me to give my 
opinion it's like invit- Andrew Sellon as the Unicom in Lookin 

ing a vampire into your 

home. For better or worse, I will always say exactly what 
I think. So I spoke up if I had ideas, agreed or dis- 
agreed, and no one laughed at me or booted me off 
the Board. Again, I thought: Maybe I'm being help- 
ful; I'll keep doing this for a bit. 

And then it happened. A day came that seemed 
like any other day until I received a phone call that 
evening from August. He told me that he and Janet 
were the nominating committee for officers, and that 
they both felt I would make a good candidate to put 
forth for president at the upcoming meeting. Char- 
lie and Stephanie's wildly ingenious and utterly dia- 
bolical plan suddenly unfurled itself in all its wicked 
splendor. Or . . . wait. Perhaps, I realized too late, they 
were merely the agents, and it was really August and 
Clare all along. Charlie and Stephanie had delivered 
me right into their waiting hands. I know, it really is al- 
ways the innocent-looking ones. Anyway, I sure hadn't 
seen it coming. But then I realized that most of the 
people on the Board had already been president. So 

I began to feel that it was perhaps my responsibility to 
take a tour of duty for two years. 

Almost immediately after the election, Mark 
Burstein, who had partnered with the talented An- 
drew Ogus to turn our newsletter into a beautiful 
magazine, alerted me that, due to the recent birth 
of his son, he needed to step down from his post as 
editor in chief of the Knight Letter immediately. We 
simply couldn't find anyone who both had the proper 
credentials and was willing to shoulder the consid- 
erable workload, so I ended up taking on that post, 
too, and did that for three years. Now, Charlie Lovett 
might say, "Oh, that's nothing, I did both when /was 

president!" But he would 
do it with tongue in cheek, 
because he knows that the 
Knight Letter is no longer a 
few pages cut-and-pasted 
together. It's now a 50-plus- 
page, soul-consuming le- 
viathan. Twice a year, like 
clockwork, Tim would 
begin circling around my 
computer asking, "Is that 
thing done yet?" 

As we were approach- 
ing the end of my two-year 
term, I told August I hoped 
he was lining up a suitable 
replacement. He looked at 
me with that quiet, genteel 
horror of his, and said, "But 
traditionally, our presidents 
always serve two terms!" 
They hadn't mentioned 
that. But my respect for Au- 
gust and Clare is so great, and 
my Bostonian desire to be polite so strong, that I al- 
lowed myself to be put forth again. I thought Tim was 
going to kill me. But his love of Henry Irving and El- 
len Terry, and me, and the fact that his father used 
to quote Lewis Carroll regularly, all helped him sur- 
vive my second term with his customary good humor. 
Thank you for four years of patience, Tim! 

Last fall, it became clear that we could no lon- 
ger put off overhauling our wonderful old website, 
created and maintained faithfully for many years by 
Joel Birenbaum. Many members had wanted h to hap- 
pen, but it hadn't. So, I stepped down as editor of 
the Knight Letter and became leader of the website 
project. I ended up becoming the main developer as 
well. Volunteering can be difficult and time-consum- 
ing, as many of you know. Ask Mark Richards over in 
England. And of course, volunteering isn't ]ust about 
doing the bits you like, it's about doing what you're 
asked to do, and what needs to be done, when it needs 
to be done. Happily, the vast majority of our volun- 


teers came through in a big way. Sometimes it was 
people I've never met, and may never meet. That's 
what I love about this Society. I was so impressed by 
the generosity of effort, and I was grateful, too. The 
new website, complete with our updated blog, is truly 
a collaborative project, just as it should be. I'm proud 
that in addition to classic illustrations, our new site 
displays beautiful Alice-themed artworks by our own 
members. Their art is so gorgeous that I wish I could 
afford to buy it all and create a gallery in my house! 
But in a way, our site is that gallery, and this way we're 
sharing it with the world, and I'm not broke. 

So in closing, here's the crucial thing you need to 
understand about the effect Mr. Dodgson has had on 
my life: I'm not by nature a selfless person. I'm also 
no one special; I'm just someone who used to sit in 
the very seats you sit in when you come to one of our 
meetings. Yet for the last four years, I have had before 
me a larger goal: to do right by all of you, and most 
importantly to do right by Mr. Dodgson. I genuinely 
appreciate all the opportunities for learning that I've 
had over the last four years. Looking back, I could 
point to the frustrations and challenges, but I would 
prefer to point to the triumphs, and most of all to the 
fact that, as a group, we made it past many challenges 
to arrive at where we are today. I feel that by working 
together over the past four years, we've all come a few 
steps closer to meeting Mr. Dodgson. And in a mor- 
dant way, he would no doubt agree! But then, I also 
don't kid myself; one way or another, most of it would 
probably have happened without me, because you're 
a good bunch. So I will just say that while I've been 
president, we've gotten somewhere. As the Cheshire 
Cat says, "you're sure to do that, if you only walk long 

I can also share something with you now that I 
could not share with all the good folks who were able 
to attend our fall meeting. In the weeks leading up 
to the meeting, my beloved 88-year-old father was in 
failing health. By the day of the meeting, I was await- 
ing news from my sister that would simply go one way 
or the other. He passed away peacefully in his sleep 
two days after the meeting. But I realized that his last 
illness may have been one of the reasons I chose to 
share my story with you all, just as Charlie Wilcox's ill- 
ness so affected Mr. Dodgson that he had to put pen 
to paper and acknowledge the possible existence of 
Boojums. My father was the man who gave me that 
Talespinners LP. He was the man who used to quote 
Lewis Carroll freely to us children with a twinkle in 
his eye. Who was always putting a good book in my 
path, under the correct assumption that I would de- 
vour it. Who loved a good story as much as anyone 
I've ever known. What message did he leave behind? 
Don't just sit in the chair. Participate, volunteer, share 
your own stories, and mentor the next generation in 
the love of great writing. Don't assume that someone 
else will. Do it today. 

The King of Hearts gave even more helpful ad- 
vice than the Cheshire Cat, of course: "go on till you 
come to the end: then stop." For, whatever this four- 
year dream has meant, I've walked long enough, and 
it's my time to stop. Mr. Dodgson once wrote that 
"There is a sadness at coming to the end of anything 
in life." I would add that there is also peace. And grati- 
tude. Thank you all. I wouldn't have missed it for all 
the tea in Wonderland. 

Rhymes With Orange Hilary B. Price 





'^ ^ ' li^ 


Contemporary Sylvie and Bruno Reviews: 


^ ^■^V, 



Continuing a series begun in KL 62, present- 
ed here are nine contemporary reviews of 
Sylvie and Bruno (SB), ten of SB Concluded, 
two of both books, two of the People's edition (1898), 
and five of The Story of Sylvie and Bruno (1904), an 
abridged version prepared by Carroll's brother Wil- 
fred. The reviews are lively, for the most part, and the 
writers' comments show a vast divide, from ecstatic to 
withering. It is interesting that the characters of Sylvie 
and Bruno, particularly Bruno, are appreciated, even 
when the books as a whole are not. 

publishers' circular (U.K.) DECEMBER 31, 1889, 

p. 58 

SB is listed under New Works, with a sort of mini-re- 
view: Odd ideas and fragments of dialogue made into 
a kind of story, the scene oscillating between fairy- 
land and this world of ours, upon the many weak- 
nesses and conceits of which the author is somewhat 
severe. [What a fascinating little review this is: it focuses 
on oddity and morals and doesn't even attempt to describe 
the book's narrative ("a kind of story"), characters, intended 
audience, poems, humor, etc.] 

P. 30 

"I do not know if 'Alice in Wonderland' was an original 
story — I was, at least, no conscious imitator in writing 
it — but I do know that, since it came out, something 
like a dozen storybooks have appeared on identically 
the same pattern. The path I timidly explored — be- 
lieving myself to be 'the first that ever burst into that 
silent sea' — is now a beaten high-road: all the wayside 
flowers have long ago been trampled into the dust: 
and it would be courting disaster for me to attempt 
that style again." 

"Stokes hints blue, straight he turde eats: 
"Nokes prints blue, champagne crowns his feasts" 
"Flower in the crannied wall." 

Tennyson, Browning, Lewis Carroll,* one queru- 
lously high, one deeply, sadly low, all echo the same 
complaint. It is a world of imitators, copyists, plagia- 
rists. But if we may borrow a CarroUian turn, because 
another has borrowed your skin, it is none the easier 
for that to leap out of your own skin. Our author has 

tried to doff the sock and don the buskin; but except 
in the Preface, which seems modelled on A.K.H.B.,** 
and treats, among other things, of expurgated edi- 
tions of Shakespeare, the morality of field sports, in- 
spiration and dreams, and the ancient ideas of the 
afterworld, he has fortunately failed, and Sylvie and 
Bruno move in the same mad world, the world of top- 
sy-turvydom governed by the logic of Dreamland, as 
"Alice." Who but the author of "Alice," or a plagiarist, 
would have written? — 

"He thought he saw an elephant. 

That practiced on a fife ; 
He looked again and found it was 

A letter from his wife ; 
At length I realize, he said. 

The bitterness of life." 

Even in "Alice" there was an undertone of mel- 
ancholy, and "Sylvie and Bruno" is composed almost 
wholly in the minor key; but there are flashes of the 
same delightful humour — "'Remember,' says Sylvie, 
'it's the early bird that picks up the worm.' 'It may, if it 
likes!' Bruno said, with a slight yawn; 'I don't like eat- 
ing worms one bit. I always stop in bed until the early 
bird has picked them up!'" Mr. Tenniel's mantle has 
fallen on Mr. Furniss, and the illustrations are not the 
least charming part of the book. 
* The quotations are from (1) Carroll, Preface to SB; (2) 
Browning, "Popularity" (except that the last half of the last 
line should read "claret crowns his cup"); (3) Tennyson, 
from his poem tlius titled. 
** A reference to Arthur Kennedy Hutchison Boyd, a Scottish 
cleric and author oi Recreations of a Country Parson (1862), a 
book filled with serious and moralistic reflections, which 
he contributed serially to Eraser's Magazine •m\h his initials 

PUNCH (U.K.) JANUARY 4, 189O, VOL. 98, P. lO 

Once upon a time Mr. Lewis Carroll wrote a mar- 
velously grotesque, fantastic, and humorous book 
called Alice in Wonderland, and on another occasion 
he wrote Through the Looking-Glass, in which Alice reap- 
peared, and then the spring of Mr. Lewis Carroll's 
fanciful humour apparendy dried up, for he has 
done nothing since worth mentioning in the same 
breath with his first two works; and if his writings 


have been by comparison watery; unlike water, they 
have never risen by inherent quality to their original 
level. Of his latest book, called Sylvie and Bruno, I can 
make neither head nor tale. It seems a muddle of all 
sorts, including a little bit of Bible thrown in. It will be 
bought, because Lewis Carroll's name is to it, and 
it will be enjoyed for the sake of Mr. Furniss's excel- 
lent illustrations, but for no other reason that I can 
see. I feel inclined to carol to Carroll, "O don't you 
remember sweet Alice?" and, if so, please be good 
enough to wake her up again, if you can. 

VOL. 42, NO. 2151, P. 21 

Whether or not this book will delight children is de- 
pendent on the fashion with children when it comes 
to their hands; for we all know how amusement runs 
in epidemics among the bright little ones; but it 
seems to us that there must be a sort of perennial and 
universal fascination in pages so filled with admiring 
oddities, mirth-provoking incidents and engaging 
drollery. Lewis Carroll is a name beloved of children, 
and grown-up folks as well, and this hotch-potch en- 
tided Sylvie and Bruno is not the least amusing of his 
works. Nor is it merely amusing; the receptive young 
mind will take many valuable impressions from its pag- 
es and catch vivid glimpses of things worth knowing, 
along with kaleidoscopic combinations of the most 
brilliant absurdities of humor. The book is beautifully 
printed, attractively bound, and contains forty-six il- 
lustrations by Harry Furniss; but no beauty of print 
or of binding or of pictures can leave so deliciously 
pure and lasting an impression as comes with reading 
such a sketch as that where Sylvie chooses between 
the jewel hearts offered her by the old King. 


P. 65. [Includes illustration, "The Professor's Explanation" 
(from p. 24)] . 

Lewis Carroll, the author of the famous "Alice in Won- 
derland," gives us in Sylvie and Bruno another book 
that will delight the young folks. Mr. Carroll has made 
a new departure in his story writing, feeling that so 
many books have appeared on the same pattern as 
"Alice in Wonderland," that it would be courting disas- 
ter to attempt that style again. There are some droll 
characters in the book, a musical gardener among 
them, who supplies funny verses. The little girl and 
boy, Sylvie and Bruno, have some strange adventures 
while on their way to Fairyland. They met the King of 
Dogland — an enormous New-Foundland — surround- 
ed by his entire court. What a grand dog-show that 
must be! The book will never have it so. The illustra- 
tions by Harry Furniss are humorous and entertain- 
ing. (Macmillan, 12mo, $L50). 

P. 266 

Spider Isn't it delightful? Here's another of the Lewis 
Caroll [sic] books, Sylvie and Bruno. 

Arachne. Is it as quaintly droll as the rest? I suppose we 
have yet to prove whether there are comicalities 
that stick in one's memory like 'The Mock Turtle,' 
or the Jabberwock on the Conventional signs in 
the Map. 

S. There is a gardener given to singing rhymes that 
give one a vehement inclination to parody, as for 
instance — [The reviewer quotes the "He thought he 
saw a banker's clerk " stanza.] 

And the picture, by Harry Furniss, is such a 
delightful mixture of banker's clerk and hippo — 
The story is an odd mixture, the wild, droll, fairy 
part coming as a dream before a more matter- 
of-fact set of scenes with a young doctor, who is 
hopelessly in love with a Lady Muriel, bringing in 
some graver thoughts. There is a preface in which 
some other thoughts and wishes are brought in, 
one for a Children's Shakespeare, which is all 
very well, but another for a Children's Bible, leav- 
ing out all the Judgments, such as the Flood. You 
don't think that's right, do you? 

A. Certainly not! A child will not love God the more 
truly or nobly for not knowing the fear of Him. 
It is not the parent who never punishes who is 
most respected or loved, and even for a child the 
outlook is very imperfect that does not include 
the doom and guilt of sin. Indeed, without that, 
where would be the need of any redemption. I 
am sorry that should be in the book which is sure 
to be everywhere read and loved. 


"Here's richness," indeed, for the little folk, and big 
folk too, for that matter Sylvie and Bruno are the most 
delightful child-fairies or fairy children that ever were 
seen and are bound to be loved as, perhaps, never 
were fairies loved before. As in "Alice in Wonderland," 
Mr Carroll strikes a new vein in this story, which is a 
trifle puzzling at the first plunge into its absurdities, 
but the author's fancy once caught, the charm of the 
idea increases with every page, till one is ready to wish 
that the droll conceits and flights of pure unadulter- 
ated nonsense might, like Tennyson's brook, "go on 
forever." That there is much more of the same sort in 
that fertile brain of Lewis Carroll, we cannot doubt, 
and we hope that he will not long keep us out of the 
enjoyment of it. It is hard work to write books, we are 
told, but we find it difficult to believe this of anything 
that flows as easily, as gracefully, and so infectiously as 
these felicitous phantasies seem to flow from Mr. Car- 
roll's pen, and we may consequently be excused for 
teasing for "more" as soon as we have fairly devoured 
the one before us. A true child always loves fairies. 


and these particular fairies are, as we have said, such 
unique specimens, so perfectly adorable, that every 
child will be moved to sympathize with them and to 
desire to emulate them in their little experiences and 
Sylvie's sweet example will no doubt give courage to 
many a wayward heart. 

THE BOOKMAN (U.K.) FEBRUARY 1893, VOL. 3, NO. 17, 
PP. 151-153 

"Recollections of Lewis Carroll." [An overview ofDodg- 
son (there is no attempt to shield his identify) apparently 
written by someone personally familiar with him and even 
more so with the Liddells; it includes thoughts on the Alices, 
Snark, and SB; and on Dodgson 's relationships with chil- 
dren. Here are the comments on SB.] 

'Sylvie and Bruno' has been illustrated with Harry 
Furniss's usual grace and charm. In this last work, 
which has proceeded within recent years from Mr. 
Dodgson's pen, the humour of his earUer writings is 
rather wanting. A certain amount of refreshing non- 
sense is still to be found, but distinctly inferior to what 
he has given us before 

"He thought he saw a Buffalo 
Upon the chimney-piece ; 
He looked again, and saw it was 

His sister's husband's niece," etc., 

with the variations upon the same refrain which 
run through the story, are scarcely to be compared to 
any four lines out of the 'Snark,' or to any of the dit- 
ties in either of the books of 'Alice.' 

From a literary point of view, moreover, it is to be 
questioned whether a story which combines a fairy 
tale with a quite grown-up romance as well as more 
serious matter can ever be a complete success, since it 
must always remain doubtful whether it was intended 
for little ones or their elders. The fairy-land portion 
of 'Sylvie and Bruno,' woven in in the form of dreams, 
is as charming as anything that the author has yet writ- 
ten, but none the less this latest story is never likely to 
be as popular with the children, at any rate, as 'Alice.' 
At the same time, it must be remembered that 'Sylvie 
and Bruno' is a more serious undertaking, and writ- 
ten with a deeper purpose than anything which Mr. 
Dodgson has before attempted. The real interest of 
the book, indeed, lies in the fact that it is the work 
of his later years, and gives us some idea of the man 
of whom so litde is now known. In the long preface, 
he gives us his views upon many things in life, and 
upon the possible nearness of death, and the story is 
throughout largely influenced by the deep religious 
feeling which has always been one of Mr. Dodgson's 
strongest characteristics. . . 


[prepublication notice] 

The author of "Alice's Adventures" has written a new 

book, but we can hardly hope for a repetition of his 

early success. The forthcoming volume is a sequel or 
second part to "Sylvie and Bruno" — a story which had 
its merits, but which was not to be compared in any 
way with that of the charming Alice. 

NOVEMBER 1893, NO. 6, P. 554 

Fortunately, a few books stand out from the flood of 
commonplace. Lewis Carroll, for example, has given 
us "Sylvie and Bruno, Concluded," a delightful med- 
ley of nonsense and wisdom. The first is perhaps less 
conspicuous than in former books from the same 
pen, and the last rather more. There is nothing in 
the new volume quite equal in ridiculousness to "The 
Walrus and the Carpenter," but it contains much that 
will make people of all ages laugh; and a hearty laugh 
in this age of grim seriousness is a thing for which all 
sane folks will be genuinely grateful. — John A. Steuart 


Another new story by Lewis Carroll, being part sec- 
ond of "Sylvie and Bruno," has been published by 
Macmillan & Co. It is a charming book, with many 
illustrations. It is a work intended for children, but it 
can be read with equal pleasure by older people. 

LITERARY ERA ( U.S.) JANUARY 1894, VOL. 1, NO. 1, 

[ This review is reprinted from the Literary World (Lon- 
don). A review from the Literary World (Boston) was re- 
published in KL 78.] 

It is difficult to decide whether most to be delighted 
that Lewis Carroll — as the author of "Alice in Won- 
derland" chooses to be called — has given us another 
book, or to regret that he has loaded it with so much 
that harmonizes not at all with clever nonsense and 
the pretty story of the two little fairies. There was a 
story about Lewis Carroll, some time ago, which may 
or may not be entirely apocryphal, that when com- 
manded by the Queen to send a copy of his next 
book, as "Alice in Wonderland" was so delightful, he 
complied, and sent a mathematical treatise! That is 
what he does to us throughout the Sylvie and Bruno 
volumes. Those who remember the first volume will 
know what to expect. All the old characters re-appear 
with their charming oddities, the Professor, the Other 
Professor, the disagreeable Uggug, and all the others. 
The gardener gives us only one more of his "second 
sights." [The reviewer quotes the "Argument" stanza of 
"The Gardener's Song. "] 

But the Other Professor recites a most amusing 
"Pig-tale" — a ballad of the death of a pig who imitates 
the jump of a frog, and the "Introductory Verses," 
which come at the end, have something like the clev- 
er touch which has made the Snark so famous. [ The 
reviewer quotes three stanzas of "Pig-Tale. "\ 

But we miss the former brilliance of these jingles, 
the longest piece in the book is distinctly a failure, 


and it is a pity that Lewis Carroll should have taken 
the old timeworn mother-in-law joke for his subject. 
The Professor's lecture is very amusing, though we 
doubt if children will quite appreciate all the humor, 
which is often, as in the theory of ever-running trains, 
somewhat mathematical and scholastic. But our fault 
with the book is that it is compounded of so many 

publishers' circular (U.K.) JANUARY I3, 1894, 

pp. 54—55 [Includes illustration "Her Imperial Highness 
is Surprised, "p. 326.] 

Those readers who were children when 'Alice in Won- 
derland' and 'Through the Looking-Glass' first came 
out look with peculiar interest for later work from the 
pen of Mr. Lewis Carroll. They have recollections of 
such hours of unalloyed delight that even the chance 
of renewed pleasure of the same sort stirs up eager 

It is therefore with lively anticipations that the 
handsome volume which has just been issued by 
Messrs. Macmillan under the title of 'Sylvie and Bru- 
no Concluded,' will be taken up. Before commencing 
to read it we turn over the leaves wondering if we shall 
light upon any verses half as good as 'The Walrus and 
the Carpenter.' Almost at once we open at page 14, 
where there is a delicious song in Mr. Carroll's best 
vein — 'a very peculiar song: seeing the chorus to each 
verse comes in the middle, instead of at the end.' 

It tells how 

'King Fisher courted Lady Bird — 

Sing Beans, sing Bones, sing Butterflies,' 

and how he draws attention to his 'noble head,' 
his 'beard as white as curd,' his 'expressive eyes.' She 
then replies in three verses that have perhaps a wee 
bit too much point in them. Let us quote one verse: — 

'"Oysters have beards," said Lady Bird — 
Sing Flies, sing Frogs, sing Fiddle-strings! 

"I love them, for I know 
They never chatter so: 

They would not say one single word — 
Not if you crowned them kings!"' 

Further on in the book we find a 'Pig-Tale' in 
rhyme with, characteristically enough, 'introductory 
verses' at the beginning, in the middle, and at the end. 

Having thus tasted casually, as it were, we settle 
down to the quiet enjoyment of the book. And let us 
say at once that on the whole the reading of it has de- 
lighted us, though in a fairy story we could dispense 
with discussions on ethics, on charity, on 'fate, free- 
will, foreknowledge absolute,' and similar topics. 

Mr. Carroll's earlier books, it is probable, owe 
their very great success to the fact that they are real 
children's books. In his later work he is perhaps a 
trifle too deep and satirical for childish understand- 
ings; yet the didactic and ironical parts are so mixed 


up with bits of pure fun that when we would protest 
we find ourselves unexpectedly in a burst of laugh- 
ter. The present volume resumes the story of 'Sylvie 
and Bruno,' where the first volume, published four 
or five years' ago, left it off. The author, wandering in 
Kensington Gardens, passes into the 'eerie' state and 
meets with Sylvie and Bruno, and the first chapter is 
devoted to talks with them. Bruno with his comical, 
yet sharp and shrewd remarks, is a fascinating litde 
fellow. His 'lessons' may be quoted as serving to show 
what he is like. 

'There's only three lessons to do,' said Syl- 
vie, 'Spelling and Geography, and Singing.' 

'Not Arithmetic?' I said. 

'No, he hasn't a head for Arithmetic ' 

'Course I haven't,' said Bruno. 'Mine 
head's for hair I haven't got a lot of heads!' 

' and he can't learn his Multiplication- 
table — "I like History ever so much better,' 
Bruno remarked. 

'Oo has to repeat the Muddlecome table — ' 
'Well, and you have to repeat ' 

'No, 00 hasn't!' Bruno interrupted. 'His- 
tory repeats itself, the Professor said so!' 

Sylvie was arranging some letters on a 
board — E-V-I-L. 'Now, Bruno,' she said, 'what 
does that speW}' 

Bruno looked at it, in solemn silence, for 
a minute. 'I knows what it doosn't spell!' he 
said at last. 

'That's no good,' said Sylvie. 'What does it 

Bruno took another look at the mysteri- 
ous letters. 'Why, it's "LIVE" backwards!' he 
exclaimed. (I thought it was, indeed.) 

'How didyou manage to see thaL^' said Sylvie. 

'I just twiddled my eyes,' said Bruno, 'and 
then I saw directly. Now may I sing "The King- 
Fisher's Song"?' 

'Geography next,' said Sylvie, 'Don't you 
know the Rules?' 

'I thinks that there oughtn't to be such a 
lot of Rules, Sylvie. I thinks ' 

Then comes the song which we quoted at the 
beginning of this notice, and the chapter ends with 
the statement that 'human life seems on the whole to 
contain more of sorrow than of joy.' This reflection 
might on the whole have been omitted. Proceeding, 
we follow for a time the fortunes of the Lady Muri- 
el and her lover, the argumentative doctor. Most of 
the chapters are, however, lightened and made truly 
enjoyable by the introduction of the fairy children, 
Sylvie and Bruno. 'Mein Herr,' too, is an extremely 
pleasant old fellow despite the satirical observations 
on men and things which Mr. Carroll has put into his 
mouth. 'Bruno's Picnic' is an extremely taking piece 
of writing; the tale of the three foxes that eat one an- 

other until there is only a mouth left, out of which 
Bruno draws the three foxes again, is told in Mr. Car- 
roll's pleasantest fashion — that is to say, in the true 
vein of 'faery.' The cat that disappeared in one of the 
earlier stories until nothing was left but its grin has a 
parallel in this book, where a dog is made invisible all 
but his tail. That in itself is sufficient to indicate the 
charm of 'Sylvie and Bruno Concluded.' Sequels are 
notoriously wr^successful, but perhaps that is as much 
the fault of the readers as of the writers. If the reader 
be inclined to resent the long discussions on human 
conduct in the present volume, it is only because he 
or she is anxious to hear more from Mr. Carroll about 
fairyland, more about Sylvie and Bruno, to have more 
of those nonsense verses like 'The Kingfisher's Song' 
and the 'Pig-Tale.' With one stanza from the latter we 
must close. [The reviewer quotes the stanza "Little birds 
are feeding / Justices with jam. "\ 

Mr. Harry Furniss's illustrations are truly delight- 
ful, those around the 'Pig-Tale' being indeed, as the 
author calls them, 'Triumphs of artistic ingenuity." 


We happen to know quite a company of little folk and 
they are only representative of a great many larger 
companies who will not welcome the last word of the 
above caption [i.e., "Concluded"]. Sylvie and Bruno 
have become household words, veritable realities 
in thousands of homes. The little people have been 
waiting eagerly for what wzis coming, and they have 
in the present volume by Lewis Carroll a rare treat, 
but it is a treat coupled with a disappointment which 
is expressed in this one word "concluded." Mr. Car- 
roll, we take it, has by no means written himself out, 
but Mr. Carroll is an artist, and he has now finished 
the picture which was in his mind when, 20 years ago, 
he published, under the title, "Bruno's Revenge," a 
little story for "Aunt Judy's Magazine." The picture, 
with the delightful volume now brought out by the 
Macmillans, is complete, and we can give it no high- 
er praise, than to say it is, in every sense, a finished 

one. Perhaps some philosopher can tell us why chil- 
dren love fairy stories. The single word imagination 
does not quite answer the question. Are we indeed of 
— "Such stuff as dreams are made of?" 


P. 1 1 [Some of the quotations are not quite right; strangest 
is: "the human mind is a sausage, and all we ask is, how 
much indigestible stuff can be crammed into death!" This 
should read "crammed into it!"] 

Lewis Carroll is an artist in appreciation and an art- 
ist in style, a student of nature, a student of char- 
acter, and an incisive critic. The fairies Sylvie and 
Bruno, and Mein Herr, and the Professor serve the 
author in giving play to the most whimsical fancies 
and grotesque suggestions, which, however, always 
point a moral, and are the framework of some gem 
of thought, and are frequently brought into contrast 
with pathos and sharp realism. We fall in love imme- 
diately with Sylvie and Bruno. They are real children 
to us. The one fascinates by her sweetness and the 
other captivates by his child wisdom and philosophy. 
Mr. Carroll says that some of the phrases he has put 
into the mouths of Sylvie and Bruno were caught 
from children, and we can well believe him. 

The manner in which Sylvie and Bruno, unseen, 
save by the author, bring Muriel and Arthur together 
is a most happy conceit, and nothing could be more 
touching than their reformation of Willie. Mein Herr 
says for us things we have often thought and felt but 
could not put into words, and satirizes in an inimita- 
ble way some of the "fads," foibles, and humbuggery 
of the age. 

The theory on which the story is constructed is 
very interesting, and, as given in the preface, is an 
index to the range of fancy indulged. Mr. Carroll says, 
"the story is an attempt to show what might possibly 
happen, supposing that fairies really existed and that 
they were sometimes visible to us and we to them, 
and that they were sometimes able to assume human 
form, and supposing also that human beings some- 
times become conscious of what goes on in the fairy 


world — by actual transference of their immaterial es- 
sence such as we meet with in Esoteric Buddhism. 

"I have supposed a human being capable of 
various psychical states, with varying degrees of con- 
sciousness, as follows: (a) the ordinary state, with 
no consciousness of the presence of fairies; (b) the 
"eerie" state, in which, while conscious of actual sur- 
roundings, he is also conscious of the presence of fair- 
ies; (c) a form of trance, in which, while unconscious 
of actual surroundings, and apparently asleep, his 
immaterial essence migrates to other scenes, in the 
actual world, or in fairyland, and is conscious of the 
presence of fairies. 

"I have also supposed a fairy to be capable of mi- 
grating from fairyland into the actual world, and of 
assuming, at pleasure, a human form; and also to be 
capable of various psychical states — viz: (a) the ordi- 
nary state, with no consciousness of the presence of 
Human beings; (b) a sort of "eerie" state, in which he 
is conscious, if in the actual world, of the presence of 
actual human beings; if in fairyland, of the presence 
of the immaterial essences of human beings. 

"I believe that there is life everywhere — not mate- 
rial only, not merely what is palpable to our senses — 
but immaterial and invisible as well. We believe in 
our own immaterial essence — call it soul, or spirit, or 
what you will. Why should not other similar essences 
exist around us, not linked on to a visible and mate- 
rial body? Did not God make this swarm of happy in- 
sects, to dance in this sunbeam for one hour of bliss, 
for no other object, that we can imagine, than to swell 
the sum of conscious happiness? And where shall we 
dare to draw the line, and say 'He has made all these 
and no more?'" 

The difference between perfect mechanical cor- 
rectness in a musical rendition and the soul of music 
is brought out to its fullest in the chapter in which the 
performance of the brilliant society player is followed 
by that of Sylvie. 

Here is a characteristic outburst from Mein Herr: 
"Mein Herr threw up his hands wildly. 'What, again?' 
he cried. 'I thought it was dead, fifty years ago! Oh 
this Upas tree of Competitive Examinations! Beneath 
whose deadly shade all the original genius, all the ex- 
haustive research, all the untiring life-long diligence 
by which our fore-fathers have so advanced human 
knowledge, must slowly but surely wither away, and 
give place to a system of cookery, in which the human 
mind is a sausage, and all we ask is, how much indi- 
gestible stuff can be crammed into death!'" 

This and much more Mein Herr says about "cram- 
ming" and kindred evils connected with the conduct 
of institutions of learning might be studied to advan- 
tage by college authorities. 

Bits of the book here and there may be read to 
children with the assurance that they will give the lit- 

de ones the greatest delight, and at the same time the 
reader, assuming he is one of mature years, will find 
food for reflection in every phrase. The illustrations 
are as fantastic, but as suggestive as the text, and with- 
al as artistic as is Mr. Carroll's literary workmanship. 

BOOK NEWS (U.S.) MARCH 1894, NO. I39, P. 288 

"Apres I'Agesilas, Helas! Mais apres I'Attila, Hola!"* 
This epigram befits the "Sylvie and Bruno" and, now, 
the "Sylvie and Bruno Concluded" of Lewis Carroll, 
madder and madder of the productions of the author 
of "Alice in Wonderland." The decline in humor is 
positively melancholy, and to read either of these vol- 
umes is nothing short of a penance. They are really 
sermons, or speculations about life and conduct and 
the hereafter, aimed at grown folks, and are most un- 
fit reading for children. The nonsense verse in the 
concluding part is, with scarcely an exception, in- 
capable of exciting a smile. Mr. Furniss, though his 
task as an illustrator was harder, has fallen far short 
of Tenniel in the immortal Alices. In this final volume 
of "Sylvie and Bruno" many questions of the day are 
discussed, and those who are curious to know what 
views Mr. Carroll takes of them may consult it for 
themselves. They will probably agree that in his hands 
the thing does not become a trumpet. 

In quoting Boileau's epigram upon Corneille's late plays, 
the reviewer suggests that Carroll's powers are failing as 
Corneille's supposedly had. 


It is for many young people and some children of 
older growth a happy day which brings forth a new 
book by Lewis Carroll. Sylvie and Bruno Concluded is 
the second part of a work projected by Mr. Carroll 
in 1873, and the first installment published in 1889, 
the concluding part being that now to hand. It is 
a charmingly-presented volume of more than 400 
pages, illustrated out of Mr. Harry Furniss 's wealth of 
quaint laughter-making draughtsmanship. But still 
it is not the Carroll that we knew, not the creator of 
Alice. There are things in the book delightful, and 
some of the nonsense verses are as good as of old — 
"The Pig and the Pump," "What Tottles Meant," "The 
Little Man that had a Little Gun," a capital parody of 
Swinburne, and a final verse of the gardener's song. 
But Mr. Lewis Carroll has now taken himself very 
seriously indeed. He is convinced that Mr. Ruskin's 
mantle is on the point of falling upon him, so that 
Sylvie and Bruno become priggish and the voice of 
the preacher is heard, as much apropos as it would 
be in an interlude of Punch and Judy. The preface is 
amazing and amusing, both unintended. 




eJ2^^i?^ C^9^l€i^e^ ^S/j^^d^ti^ 





hrough the Looking-Glass begins with pain. 
There is an aching quality to Lewis Carroll's 

Though time be fleet, and I and thou 

Are half a life asunder, 
Thy loving smile will surely hail 

The love-gift of a fairy tale. 

I have not seen thy sunny face, 

Nor heard thy silver laughter. 
No thought of me shall find a place 

In thy young life's hereafter — 

Carroll misses Alice desperately. He knew that 
this would happen. But still ... it hurts. And so he 
does the only thing he can do; he returns to the "Tale 
begun in other days, /When summer suns were glow- 
ing — " But this second book will be steeped in melan- 
choly and profound loneliness. 

The story begins with Alice's cat, Dinah, who has 
had kittens now. Clearly time has passed, yet Alice 
herself does not seem to have aged. Alice rambles on 
to Dinah and her kittens for a while, but the impa- 
tient, sharp-tongued litde girl we knew so well in Won- 
derland is gone, replaced by a tender, chatty little dear. 
It's evident that Carroll does not actually know Alice 
anymore; he is writing a gauzy, sentimental memory 
of her. 

It's not a promising start. You find yourself won- 
dering: Is this even a good idea? 

Then Alice enters Looking-Glass world, climb- 
ing right through the mirror, and the book suddenly 
erupts to life as she reads "Jabberwocky." The poem 
is violent, playful, ridiculous. In a split second, we are 
back in the joyful presence of Lewis Carroll. It's un- 
canny, thrilling, deeply moving — even the language 
itself is transformed. What had been cautious and tep- 
id instandy becomes wild, mad, and beautiful. Alice 
starts to talk to the flowers, who are extremely rude. 
"I wish you could talk," Alice says. "We can talk," says a 
Tiger-lily, "when there's anybody worth talking to." 

It's starding — it happens so fast. (I wonder 
whether it startied Carroll himself.) Even Alice is sur- 

Chris Matheson is a film writer and director whose credits 
include the Bill ijf Ted movies. This is a companion to his article 
in KL 84. 

prised: "It quite seemed to take her breath away." But 
it doesn't take long; a few more completely gratuitous 
insults from the flowers, and Alice's back starts to go 
up. All of the sticky sweetness she's been coated with 
up to this point suddenly burns off, and she's right 
back to being that steely, unsentimental little girl we 
loved so much in the first book. Within seconds, Alice 
is threatening to kill the flowers. The insults fly for a 
while more and it's hugely funny, a little girl and a 
bunch of flowers insulting each other. In truth, Alice 
is more polite to these flowers than they deserve. 

Alice then notices that Looking-Glass world is es- 
sentially a giant chessboard interspersed with trees, 
hedges, and brooks, a perfect blend of the mathemat- 
ical and the organic — of Dodgson and Carroll, you 
might say. The rest of the book will revolve around 
the chess match that is occurring and Alice's some- 
what surprising announcement that she wishes to be 
a Queen. 

The announcement feels odd at first, but then 
you think, well, of course that's what Alice wants. 
Haven't all her experiences in both books on some 
level been leading to this? Hasn't this desire to be a 
Queen been implicit from the very start of Wonder- 
land^ Why did Alice go down the rabbit-hole, if not to 
discover something about herself? Why did she enter 
Looking-Glass world if not to keep searching? Hasn't 
this wish been the subtext of everything we've read so 
far? From this point on, the drama of the book will be 
clear: Alice wants to grow up, and the book essentially 
tries to talk her out of it. Don't do it, one character 
after another will say to her. But it won't work; Alice 
will not be deterred. 

At certain moments, Looking-Glass is far more 
surreal than Wonderland. Here, for instance, with no 
explanation — and I mean none — the Red Queen is 
suddenly gone and Alice is on a train. A little voice 
starts speaking in Alice's ear, and now, suddenly, we 
are under a tree, speaking to the Gnat. Carroll writes 
these startling transitions with a loose, easy certainty. 
The tentative quality of the first 25 pages is long gone. 
Carroll is rolling now, a virtuoso of dark, absurd po- 
etry; the great explorer is back in the land that he 
discovered, seeking out new regions. 


The Gnat is generally friendly but, like almost ev- 
eryone else in Carroll-land, is also prickly, defensive, 
and borderline rude. It works every time: cute, whim- 
sical characters who don't act cute or whimsical at all, 
who act, in fact, like vaguely unpleasant relatives or 
coworkers. Almost every single conversation Alice 
has in the two books is essentially a failure. People 
talk past each other, exchange insults, threaten each 
other, and it's comedy gold every damn time. 

In Tenniel's drawing, Tweedledee and Tweedle- 
dum look surly, suspicious, worried, like two odd little 
boys — ^which is what they are, I think. Alice has pro- 
claimed a desire to grow up; now it's time that she 
meets, essentially, a couple of "boys her own age." 
All the male characters she's met so far have been 
"adults": the Hatter, the Caterpillar, the Cheshire 
Cat, even the White Rabbit. Dum and Dee hug, then 
shake Alice's hands, and, in a second, they are all 
dancing around in a circle. Suddenly there's music 
being played by a nearby tree, and they're all singing, 
"Here we go round the mulberry bush." 

It's a glorious, intoxicating moment, Alice and 
these two fat boys spinning in a circle together, sing- 
ing. The carefree joys of childhood are apparently 
still available to Alice. Dum and Dee get out of breath 
and, as quickly as they started dancing, they stop and 
just stand there looking at each other. This is another 
of Carroll's signature comedic moves: focus on the 
weird, stilted pauses that occur when none of the 
characters knows what to say. 

Having danced together, the three children have 
warmed up to each other and decide next to recite 
poetry. This is another classic Carroll move: stop the 
story and have the characters recite a poem or sing a 
song. The poem the boys recite, "The Walrus and the 
Carpenter," is one of Carroll's greatest. It seems, at 
first, to be inspired nonsense: "The sun was shining 
on the sea . . . And this was odd, because it was/The 
middle of the night." But like all the greatest non- 
sense (and there isn't much, by the way: Un Chien An- 
dalou, Duck Soup, etc.), it's not, of course, nonsense 
at all. 

The Walrus and the Carpenter pretend to be 
kindly and sympathetic figures but are, in truth, insa- 
tiable gluttons who kill and eat children. To call this 
poem the strongest warning to Alice so far — beware of 
adult men, go back! — would be an understatement. 

"The Walrus and the Carpenter" is startling — dark 
and brutal and utterly unsentimental. Alice's reaction 
to it is equally fascinating. She seems not to have got- 
ten the point. If she did, then she is an unusual girl, 
because her sympathies, amazingly, lie not with the 
poor little oyster children, but rather with the Walrus 
and Carpenter. "I like the Walrus best," is her immedi- 
ate response, followed shortly by "I like the Carpenter 
best." (Never "I like the oysters best.") 

As the monstrous crow frightens off the Tweedles, 
the White Queen arrives, chasing her shawl. A mov- 
ing moment occurs when Alice, feeling lonely, starts 
to cry, and the Queen is genuinely concerned. "Oh, 
don't go on like that! . . . Consider what a great girl 
you are. Consider what a long way you've come to- 
day." Clearly, Carroll would love for Alice not to grow 
up, to stay a child, his Alice. But he knows that's not 
possible. He knows that this child must, like all chil- 
dren, grow up. Isn't this what the White Queen is tell- 
ing Alice? You can't go back, it doesn't work. You're 
a wonderful girl, you're doing great, keep going. It 
must have been hard for Carroll to write this; that he 
did so speaks to the genuine love he felt for Alice and 
the true inner grace he possessed. 

The surreal transformations in Looking-Glass 
continue, even more effortless and poetic than the 
ones in Wonderland. Maybe the difference is this: Won- 
derland, for all its astounding beauty and laugh-out- 
loud humor, did not have the same thematic drive 
that Looking-Glass has. Looking-Glass, from the start, is 
built around the struggle between two competing im- 
pulses: "don't grow up, stay as you are" versus "I know 
you have to grow up, and you will do so beautifully, 
my dear." It's this thematic grounding, this absolute 
clarity of purpose, that allows Carroll to make creative 
leaps the likes of which no one had ever made be- 
fore — or has made since, when you think of it. Only 
a great genius could make these strange bounds for- 
ward without any trace of the arbitrary or random, 
but rather with a sort of mysterious inexorability. 

Humpty Dumpty is yet another dazzling come- 
dic creation. He is pompous, rude, smug, suspicious, 
foolish. Carroll has the recipe down now; mix bom- 
bastic ego with pathetic weakness, and you get come- 
dy. You'd think these blustery buffoons would get old, 
but they never do. 

Right off the bat, Dumpty brisdes at being called 
an egg. He finds it "very provoking" (which is much 
funnier to me than "provocative," though I can't hon- 
estly say why) . Alice tries to be nice to him, but Dumpty 
is dismissive. We get another one of those wonderfully 
awkward pauses and then, as happens periodically, Al- 
ice's acid tongue returns (she is a tad bit nicer than 
she was in Wonderland, but not much). She whispers 
to herself the famous poem, "Humpty Dumpty sat on 
a wall:/Humpty Dumpty had a great fall." 

This gets Dumpty's attention. He demands to 
know Alice's name, then tells her it's a "stupid name." 
He then brags about his own name and "handsome 
shape." This is wonderful. Here we have a fat, obnox- 
ious egg-man sitting fecklessly on a high wall (that he 
will soon fall off!) and, for no apparent reason, insult- 
ing Alice. This, I find myself thinking, is what's actu- 
ally, truly, deeply funny. 

Alice is concerned for Dumpty, sitting up there 
on that narrow wall. Is the subtext here that Alice 

is starting to act like a mother with this belligerent, 
bragging little boy, just as she did with Dum and Dee? 
Dumpty, always full of himself, ignores her anxious, 
"Don't you think you'd be safer on the ground?" "Of 
course I don't think so! Why, if ever I did fall off — 
which there's no chance of — but ifl did — " he brags, 
the King has promised to help him. 

There have been many wonderful/ terrible con- 
versations in the two books, but this is perhaps the 
greatest, most ridiculously bad of them all. 

Humpty Dumpty launches into a poem that he 
tells Alice was "written entirely for your amusement." 
Alice tries to get away, but Dumpty is insistent. His 
poem is strange, enigmatic, but with a clearly ominous 
undertone. It is, I think, yet another warning to Alice. 

I sent a message to the fish: 

I told them "This is what I wish." 

Who exactly is the "I" here? Remember, Dumpty 
said only that the poem was written for Alice's amuse- 
ment, not that he had written it. Beyond that, what is 
it that this "I" wishes for from the little fish that can- 
not even be spoken of? It's quite obvious that Carroll 
was in love with Alice — both books revolve around 
that fact — but this poem clearly suggests that that 
love had an "unspeakable" aspect to it as well. 

I sent to them again to say 
"It will be better to obey." 

But the fish "would not listen to advice." 

I took a kettle large and new, 
Fit for the deed I had to do. 

We are back with the Walrus and the Carpenter, 
but this time, the homicidal impulses are more na- 
ked; they are not whimsical in the least. 

My heart went hop, my heart went thump: 
I filled the kettle at the pump. 

Then some one came to me and said 
"The little fishes are in bed." 

Can there be any doubt what "I" is thinking of? Is 
he going to kill the little sleeping fishes and eat them? 
Or does he have something else in mind? 

For a moment, the poem's "narrator" seems to 
reconsider. "Wake the fishes up!" the poem shouts. 
Humpty Dumpty literally screams this line at Alice. 
He obviously wants her to hear this. But she doesn't. 
As usual, Alice misses the warning — or chooses to 
miss the warning — completely. 

I took a corkscrew from the shelf: 
I went to wake them up myself. 

And when I found the door was locked, 

I pulled and pushed and kicked and knocked. 

And when I found the door was shut, 
I tried to turn the handle, but — 

Here's another comment on how these books, 
specifically the comedy within them, have been read. 
A great deal of energy has gone into discussing the 
logic and wordplay and historical references the 
books are so full of. And certainly, this is one perfectly 
legitimate way to read the Alice books. The problem 
is that focusing so much on these cerebral aspects ig- 
nores almost completely the overpowering emotional 
intensity of the books. It's true, Humpty Dumpty 's 
song is not funny or playful or clever; it is, however, 
stunningly dramatic. The veil drops for a moment, 
and we get a glimpse — opaque for sure, but discern- 
ible — of the true stakes of the story. Dumpty's poem 
is disturbing, yet also quite moving. Carroll is not, in 
any way, trying to "seduce" Alice here. He is, rather, 
telling her to stay away from him. 

Carroll has made various veiled appearances in 
the two books: As the White Rabbit, the unnamed 
letter writer at the Knave's trial, the unnamed older 
sister, the gentleman dressed in white paper, the un- 
named "I" in Humpty Dumpty's poem. But some of 
those were perhaps unintentional. Carroll knew he 
was writing himself as the White Knight. It's his self- 
portrait. The scene, therefore, is highly significant: 
Alice and her creator together on the page at last. 

But it's a strange scene. It feels like something 
the book has been building up to for a long time, but 
now that it's happening — nothing really happens. Al- 
ice and the White Knight walk along, chatting about 
his inventions, with him falling off his horse, and her 
helping him back on, and this goes on for several pag- 
es, until they are just about to part. "And here I must 
leave you," the White Knight says. 

And you think: Why did Carroll even bother? 

But then, just before they part, the White Knight 
decides to sing Alice a song because "you are sad." Al- 
ice doesn't really want to hear it. (She almost never 
does; it's another one of the great jokes of the books — 
characters are constantly reciting poems or singing 
songs to Alice that she doesn't even want to hear.) 

The song is "very, very beautiful," according to 
the White Knight. It's called — among other things — 
"The Aged Aged Man," and when the White Knight 
begins to sing, Alice is struck by it. In fact, Carroll 
tells us, this scene is the most memorable thing Al- 
ice experiences on her entire journey, the thing that 
she will never forget. She stands there, "Ustening, in a 
half-dream, to the melancholy music." 

The White Knight sings about meeting an old 
man, much older than himself, and asking him, "How 
is it you live?" The old man's answer: 

"... I look for butterflies 

That sleep among the wheat: 
I make them into mutton-pies, 
And sell them in the street." 


The White Knight is not satisfied. "Come, tell me 
how you live!" he says and thumps the old man on the 
head. The old man tries to explain once again: 

". . . when I find a mountain-rill, 
I set it in a blaze;" 

The White Knight shakes the old man until his 
face is blue. 

"Come, tell me how you live," I cried, 
"And what it is you do!" 

The old man's response: 

He said "I hunt for haddock's eyes 

Among the heather bright, 
And work them into waistcoat-buttons 

In the silent night." 

And suddenly the White Knight understands 
what's being said to him. The old man, of course, is 
the White Knight himself. In Tenniel's drawing, he is 
faceless, slumped over, but look at the hair. Carroll 
has been talking to himself: 

How will I live? 

You will make nonsense. 

No, but how will I live? 

You will present that nonsense to the world. 

In the end, the White Knight is doing absurd, vio- 
lent things to himself. The old man, he now under- 
stands, was in agony, rocking his body back and forth 
in misery. Carroll has seen his own future, and it is 
lonely and full of anguish. 

The story is effectively over; the book could end 
at this moment and be completely satisfying. There 
are a few intriguing moments remaining, however. 
First, there's the odd revelation of Humpty Dumpty 
appearing "with a corkscrew in his hand." Does this 
suggest that the "I" in Dumpty's song was himself? ("I 
took a corkscrew from the shelf:/I went to wake them 
up myself") Alice seems to think so. "I know what 
he came for," she says; "he wanted to punish the fish 
because — " 

It would be fascinating if Carroll had allowed her 
to finish her sentence. What would she have said? For 
not giving him what he wanted? For not obeying? For 
locking him out? 

Not long after that, Alice tells the banquet table 
that she finds it very strange that all the poems she's 

heard today have "been about fishes in some way." In 
truth, the only one that was about fish was Humpty 
Dumpty's, so we may infer that Alice is still thinking 
about that one — especially given her recent remark. 

I think Alice is on to Carroll now; I think she's fig- 
ured out what's going on. Suddenly the banquet starts 
to descend into chaos. There is drinking, screaming; 
dishes and bottles are knocked over. Alice needs to 
take charge. The White Queen grabs Alice's hair. 
"Something's going to happen!" she screams. 

Phallic imagery abounds. The candles suddenly 
grow hugely tall, the bottles turn into birds — and 
strangest of all, the White Queen's place is taken by a 
piece of meat that hoarsely laughs at Alice. 

"I can't stand this any longer!" Alice cries. She 
grabs the now doll-sized Red Queen and shakes her 
violently back and forth "with all her might." She is 
clearly enraged at this woman — but why? Has Alice, 
in growing up, become a woman like the Duchess, 
shaking her baby until it became a pig? 

It's a strange and disturbing exit from Looking- 
Glass world — ^violent, angry, and seemingly irrational. 
Alice has grown up and become a queen, but what 
she has become in order to do so is unsettling. 

As Alice wakes up, she is shaking a kitten. (What 
if she didn't wake up? Would she shake the kitten to 

The fascinating thing about the final moments of 
the book: Alice, acting as a sort of "mother cat" to the 
two kittens, clearly identifies with them, and not with 
the fishes she heard so much poetry about. Tomor- 
row, she tells the kittens, she'll recite "The Walrus and 
the Carpenter" to them while they eat — and they can 
pretend they're eating oysters. 

In the end, then, it wasn't Alice who was an oys- 
ter being led to its demise. It was Carroll himself. 
The book ends in agony. Carroll can't stop thinking 
of Alice. 

Still she haunts me, phantomwise, 
Alice moving under skies 

The greatest comedy book ever written ends in 
heartbreak and anguish (which is perhaps as good a 
lesson in true comedy as there is). No one has come 
close to topping Carroll's achievement in nearly a 
century and a half since. His uncanny mixture of bril- 
liant, imaginative play, deep silliness, and profound 
longing and pain has never been equaled. 









Part I 


'he last decade has seen a growing Brazilian 
influence in academia, business, geopolitics, 
and now it seems, the world of Lewis Car- 
roll. Brazil's heterogeneous and youthful culture may 
prove a positive influence upon CarroUian studies 
and art globally — and one young Brazilian in partic- 
ular, Adriana Peliano, seems to be the driving force 
behind this. Not only has she produced a staggering 
abundance of wonderful CarroUian art, she has also 
founded the Sociedade Lewis Carroll do Brasil (Lewis 
Carroll Society of Brazil), a critical step for Brazil and 
South America in general. 

We have already published some of Adriana 's 
writings and artwork {KL 83, "Alice's Ad- 
ventures on the Woodpecker Ranch"), 
and recently Andrew Sellon, president of 
the LCSNA, and Mahendra Singh, editor 
of the Rectory Umbrella, conducted the 
following two-part interview with her, to 
be concluded in the next issue. 

kl: Could you give us a brief account of your 
background, your stay in the U.K., and 
your current professional activities ? 

ap: I was born in Brasilia in 1974. I stud- 
ied architecture and graduated in 
communication with postgraduate 
studies in design and the visual arts. 
I first went to England in 1998 for 
the centenary year of Lewis Carroll's 
death in Oxford. After that I studied 
design in London for a month and 
lived in Kent for a year while I did an 
MA in new media arts. 

I'm a designer, illustrator, visual 
artist, and art teacher. I mainly work 

kl: What first interested you in Lewis Carroll? 
ap: My interest in Carroll began when I was a little 
child and watched Hanna-Barbera's animated 
version of Alice hundreds of times. When I was 
nine, I received Wonderland as a gift, with beau- 
tiful illustrations that had a big impact on my 
imagination. This Alice of Nicolas Gilbert was 
similar to a real, brunette girl, while the other 
characters were more like cartoons. It made me 
feel closer to Alice and her adventures. When 
I was 12, I went to Disney World and bought a 
Cheshire Cat, still my mascot and my first Alice 
collectible. At the age of 14, I received a trans- 
lated adult edition with a seri- 
ous preface that opened my 
mind to the huge possibilities 
of understanding the book in 
unsuspected ways. After that, 
Alice grew inside me; I began 
to read more and more about 
CarroUian topics and other 
works of Carroll such as Sylvie 
and Bruno and the Snark, and 
I collected memorabilia and 
different Alice editions and 
movies. I must not forget to 
mention my love for Carroll's 
photographs of little girls; 
Alice Liddell and Xie Kitchin 
are my favorites. 

kl: You have done so many 
Carroll-related things, several ver- 
sions of the Alice books, the music 
An unnamed image from Adriana 's first col- with your husband, the exhibition 
lage series, entitled Metamorphosis. She was collage art — could you give us a 

brief resume? 

promoting dialogues between arts such 15 at the time and had just read an "adult" 
as literature, the visual arts, music, and edition of Alice that provided som^phihsophi- 
theater, creating covers, posters, books, cat and psychoanalytical analyses of Carroll's 
and other graphic stuff. I work as a 

work, ideas which interacted powerfully with 

,. . , . , . her simultaneous discovery of the works of 

freelancer, usmg digital manipulation, 

photography, collage, and assemblage, 

mixing different techniques to create hybrid 

characters, puzzles, visual games, and labyrinths 

ap: In my graduate course I did 
my first photographic study rep- 
resenting Alice in her search 
for identity and her attendant 
inner crisis. I manipulated 
the images in the laboratory — this was before 
learning Photoshop! Then I began an enor- 

of dreams such as my Alice illustrations. 

mous research process, both theoretical and 
iconographic, to produce my own illustrations. 


I created the characters as assemblages, with a 
plethora of symbolic objects, and then digitally 
manipulated these illustrations. 

During that time I also made an Alician 
sound collage with my husband, the composer 
and sound designer Paulo Beto (it was around 
1996, 1 think). I illustrated a book based on 
Carroll's life and the Alicehooks in 2010, and 
I have just finished another project I began 
ten years ago, to translate the original Alice's 
Adventures under Ground manuscript and then rec- 
reate it in Portuguese, using Carroll's digitized 
handwriting, drawings, and even the same page 
design. It will be published at the 
end of this year by Scipione. 

I have also written three tales 
inspired by Alice, in which I 
mixed her into the literary uni- 
verse of different authors, such 
as the Dadaist Kurt Schwitters 
(the tale "Dreamchild"), and the 
amazing Brazilian writer Clarice 
Lispector (the tale "ClaHce"). 
One of these tales became a 
multimedia performance with 
reading, music, and projections. 
I wouldn't call these stories 
parodies but literary montages, 
intertextual sewing. They are not 
published yet. 

I also presented an art installa- 
tion in a recent collective exhibi- 
tion inspired by Alice, Alicidades 
(a portmanteau corresponding 
in English to Alicities) , where I 
created a large montage titled 
Butterfly Tears in which Alice is 
inside an anatomical illustration 
of a human head (a hollow skull 
representing the rabbit hole), 
crying butterflies which drift 
through space to land upon a 
blue cocoon. I imagined it as a 
process about inner transformations. 

Recently I finished a series of collages using a 
rare vintage Alice from the 1930s illustrated by 
the first Brazilian y4/2V^ illustrator, John Fahrion. 
Some of these collages were sent to the interna- 
tional members of our Society. 

I maintain two Carrollian blogs and also 
conduct workshops where people can create 
subjective metamorphic and kaleidoscopic Alices 
through collages, and surrealist games like 
the Exquisite Corpse — all of this to answer the 
question: Who is Alice for you? You can see the 
results online. 

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The first chapter ofAdriana 's Portuguese 
version of the Under Ground manuscript. 
Carroll's handwriting had been recreated in a digi 
tal typeface. Adriana began this project in 1998 
and it should be finished and available 
to the public shortly. 

That's the most important. Wow, it's too much, 
isn't it? Right now I'm planning a big exhibition 
connecting Carroll and Edward Lear. It will be a 
cabinet of wonders! 

kl: In your earlier article for the Knight Letter, you 
explained the works ofMonteiro Lobato and how 
he introduced Lewis Carroll to Brazil. How popular 
is Lewis Carroll and his style of nonsense in Brazil 
today ? 
ap: Monteiro Lobato was the first translator of Alice 
into Brazilian Portuguese. He noted in his intro- 
duction that it was very hard to translate this 
book, since it had been written for the English 
mind. Lobato created an impor- 
tant literary adventure series 
for Brazilian children, 17 books 
where the children had adven- 
tures with many characters of 
the cinema, mythology, folklore, 
and literature. So he translated 
Carroll's book and also invited 
Alice to visit Brazil in his own 

Some translators have recre- 
ated Carroll's puns, parodies, 
and word games into Portuguese. 
They didn't try to make literal 
translations but used, for exam- 
ple, popular Brazilian children's 
songs. They thought it would be 
closer to Carroll's playfulness 
if people could understand the 
game. I think these translations 
bring the spirit of the book 
closer to children, but of course 
adults usually prefer more fidel- 
ity, which sometimes loses the 
humor and the complexity of 
the text. For example, last week, 
while observing Maggie Taylor's 
illustration of the three sisters 
who lived in the well, I found 
the drawings on the wall rather 
strange. Then I realized that the word "draw" 
had a double meaning, but in Portuguese that 

But we have some important Brazilian Alice 
translators, and their works are very significant. 
"Jabberwocky" has had some creative and auda- 
cious translations that are very exciting. Since 
the seventies we have had some more sophis- 
ticated translations, and some years ago the 
Annotated Alice vr2LS published here. We also have 
some free adaptations that adapt Alice's refer- 
ences to our popular culture, as I noted before. 
Alice is the biggest Carrollian reference here; 
his photographs are also famous. We had one 


good Sylvie and Bruno translation and one of the 
Snark, which is rare and almost impossible to 
find. At our blog people can find more Brazilian 
editions of Carroll. 

The Brazilian public reception is a complex 
answer. I will base it upon my own experiences 
talking to people and giving workshops about 
the subject. For many people Alice is still a crazy, 
sometimes scary, sometimes funny Disney movie. 
Many went recently to see the Tim Burton 
movie; some went more for Tim Burton than for 
Alice. Others just ask me if Carroll used drugs 
and are suspicious of his love for girls. But some 
publishers have presented 
gorgeous and serious editions 
that help people to love the 
book in a less superficial way. 
I receive many e-mails from 
students preparing scholarly 
works inspired by Alice, look- 
ing for a deeper understand- 
ing. Tim Burton stimulated 
this market and the interest in 
the book. We don't know yet 
to what extent it is a transitory 
fever or if it vnW last. Alice is 
also a cult among people with 
an open mind and literary 
background, but unfortunately 
Brazilian people are not very 
literate in general. 

At the same time I have no 
doubt that the interest in the 
subject here is very different 
from England. Alice is mostly a 
general notion of a nonsensical 
and psychedelic universe that 
stimulates the imagination, the 
humor, and the surreal. The 
Annotated Alice made a good 
impression; people now usually 
mention aspects of that. But I 
still know very few people who 
are interested in discussing spe- 
cific passages of the texts or different analytical 

kl: How do Brazilians react to your Carrollian art, espe- 
cially the surrealist element? Do they prefer a more 
literal approach (like North American visual culture 
and mass media), or is your culture more open to such 
intuitive visual/linguistic thinking? 

ap: My Alice illustrations for both books were never 
published. When I did them 12 years ago the 
publishers told me they were amazing but they 
weren't commercial. Now the situation has 
changed. We have more experimental illustra- 
tions published here, thanks in great extent to 

Salvador Dalis mouth serves as a surrealist's hookah, demanding 
Alice's identity and asking us to explain its own nature. An im- 
age from the 5m^5 Alicinations, 1996-1998. More images from 
this series are available on-line in Adriana's Alicinations blog. 

one publishing house in special, Cosac & Naify, 
that has recently published a very artistic and 
metalinguistic Alice illustrated by Luiz Zerbini. 
I have done some exhibitions with my work 
in galleries, museums, and the Internet. Many 
people who saw the photographs of my char- 
acters created by assemblages (I didn't exhibit 
the illustrations) find them very intriguing and 
exciting but don't know enough of the book to 
understand the linguistic aspects and the refer- 
ences to the text; they have just my explanations 
as a guide. The people who know Alice better 
or who are more intimately familiar with art 

usually love them, 
since they propose 
games of language 
and labyrinths of 
possibilities and do 
not permit a passive 

kl: You have several 
strong motifs in your 
Carrollian work; we'll 
start with the feminine 
motif. It's common 
amongst Carrollian 
artists to use Alice as 
a symbol of feminine 
independence and 
growth, but when you 
use this motif you 
ofien incorporate cer- 
tain sexual tensions 
within it, although 
with great taste 
and skill. Is this a 
Brazilian reaction or 
an Adriana reaction? 
ap: I think it is 
more an Adriana 
reaction. Alice's sexu- 
ality is rarely explored 
here, since it's con- 
sidered more a book 
for children. I need to mention one important 
artist that explores the sexuality in Alice, Arlindo 
Daibert, but his work is very radical, and is still 
almost unknovm. 

In my case I was always intrigued by the 
corporal feelings of Alice, her metamorphic 
identity, her bodily transformations. If we think 
of a growing girl becoming a woman, her grow- 
ing consciousness of her own body is significant. 
I imagine that at some level it has to do with 
Carroll's anxieties about women's bodies and his 
own body. I didn't study any deeply sexual analy- 
ses of the book; I followed my intuition. Since 


Alice moves me in her sensuous way of dealing 
with foods and drink, doors and keys. I'm deeply 
interested in her metamorphic body and iden- 
tity. I think Alice's identity cannot be fixed; is a 
constant becoming, she flows in her own tears, 
mixes with mushrooms and animals, is mistaken 
for flowers and snakes, faces vertigo, and is then 
threatened with decapitation. Despite all the dif- 
ficulties, she conquers with her inner strength; 
she is my heroine. 

It is not just an intellectual 
connection, it involves the whole 
being. Maybe her sexuality is 
close to children's sexuality, 
inhabiting her whole body, and 
like a child, she fears and cannot 
understand it. I love the Alice 
of Jan Svankmajer since it deals 
with Alice's "basements" and 
"attics," her unconscious, facing 
fear, sexuality, and rites of pas- 

There are many symbols in 
the books that point to sexual 
suggestions. I'm attracted to 
the unreachable garden; it's an 
image of desire and its dissatis- 
faction. In Freudian terms, it also 
suggests a conflict between the 
principles of reality and pleasure. 
Alice is close to a phallic symbol, 
in a flux between potency and 

For me Alice's sexuality has 
more to do with a jump into 
the inner caves of the body, 
beyond fixed identities, than 
with specific psychoanalytic argu- 
ments. I avoid making the image 
an example of the theory that 
may be schematic. I want to be 
psychologically touched by the 
symbols more than by intellectual 
ideas; I'm an artist more than a theorist. But of 
course I'm familiar with psychology and psycho- 
analysis. I've read more Jung than Freud, mainly 
in connection with art and fairy tales. 

KL: Is such an open feminism important to your vision 
of Alice? Is the sexual aspect important? What do you 
think of other popular Alices, such as the Disney film, 
which avoid such issues or make them trivial? Does it 

ap: I'm interested in feminist and sexual explora- 
tions when they are not obvious or those of a 
pamphleteer. I've recently read a beautiful and 
sensitive feminist andjungian analysis of Tim 
Burton's Alice. The arguments were gorgeous but 

I didn't connect it to the movie. Many critics try 
to fit art in their schemas; I have an open dia- 
logue with theories to avoid that. 

Disney's Alice is herself too conservative and 
superficial, to my taste; I like the movie more for 
the other characters, and also some of the visual 
solutions like the Cheshire Cat disappearing, the 
caterpillar smoking, and the hybrid and nonsen- 
sical characters that live in the woods, like the 
bread and butterfly which I love. But the movie 

is more Disney 
than Carroll; we 
shouldn't compare 
them too much 
or ask for fidelity. 
The worst aspect of 
Disney's Alice is that 
people confuse it 
with the book. In 
fact I like every- 
thing connected 
to Alice, including 
what I don't like 

I believe the 
sexual aspects are 
important because 
they go deeper into 
Alice's corporal 
conflicts and her 
frustrated desires. 
Her body is in con- 
tinuous metamor- 
phoses and fluxes 
that sometimes fit, 
sometimes don't, 
which is sexual in 
a broader way. I 
identify with these 
aspects in particu- 

The idea of the 
rite of passage is 
also very intriguing in a more feminist approach. 
In a way Alice faces her identity and the obsta- 
cles of society to become closer to her inner 
strength. This point of view interests me, of 
course. Alice stimulates us to defy power, to defy 
the nonsense of social constraints. She opens 
new possibilities for children and woman as well. 
In this way it is a political book, showing that lit- 
erature is not made to domesticate with morals, 
but to stimulate the independence of thought. 

KL: / would also say that a certain Freudian language of 
images is in your work, similar to Hans Bellmer. Is 
this deliberate? 

ap: I love Hans Bellmer. I believe he had a deep 

From the 2010 series, Clalice, collages for a tale Adriana is writing 
in which she mixes Alice with the texts of the wonderful Brazilian 
writer Clarice Lispector. The collages include pictures based on Car- 
roll's photographs, fulia Margaret Cameron 's photographs and Rene 
Bour's drawings for a vintage French Alice edition. 


impact on my work, as did other artists and 
many surrealists and also Dadaists like Raoul 
Hausmann and Hannah Hoch. I'm also 
very influenced by contemporary artists like 
Svankmajer and the Brothers Quay. As I told you 
I'm open to psychoanalytic analyses, but I don't 
go further into Freudian theories. I just read 
Freud's own texts after my Alice project and 
became engaged in particular with the idea of 
the uncanny, which also connects me to Bellmer. 
I have affinities with his dismembered dolls and 
reassembled bodies that 
point to an anguish 
related to the crisis of 
the body image and the 
identity as an integrated 
whole. I also identify 
with his conception of 
the body as an anagram 
that can be rewritten. 
Psychoanalytic con- 
cepts were not the main 
point during my creative 
process, but I'm sure 
that what I read influ- 
enced me, as did my 
analytical personal pro- 
cess, which drew upon 
the influence of my own 
unconscious mind. I was 
also influenced by psy- 
choanalysis through the 
surrealist movement. 

kl: Surrealist and even proto- 
surrealist influences seem so 
important in your work, but 
is this fair to Lewis Carroll? 
We know that he and his 
contemporaries visualized 
his work in a very literal, 
charming manner. The 
surrealist philosophy would 
probably have horrified him. 
Can we excuse ourselves 

from this "translator's betrayal"? Do you think that 
surrealism is within Lewis Carroll or have we imposed 
it, looking back from the twenty-first and twentieth 
centuries ? 

ap: These are all big questions. I'm interested in 
what Carroll inspired after him as much as in 
what he proposed in his own time. I don't think 
he really was a surrealist but surrealism had an 
open mind to all manifestations that broke with 
a strict rational mind, opening it to other states 
of consciousness and a broader understanding 
of reality and language. I think Carroll's works 
fits in this universe. So he is in fact a very fertile 
surrealist inspiration. 

Humpty Dumpty says Bosch to all that. One ofAdriana 's illustra- 
tions/or the book: Lewis Carroll era victoriana by Kdtia Canton 
(2010). The book explores the Mice books along with Carroll's life 
and the historical context of the Victorian age. These are digital 
collages mixing Tenniel's illustrations with various famoiis paint- 
ings of art history, in this instance, Hieronymus Bosch's Garden of 
Earthly Delights. 

I give lectures about the Alice transformations 
in the story of visual arts, the evolution of her 
visual representations in art and illustration. I 
love how she can change and become incorpo- 
rated in the transformations of culture and the 
imaginary. I like to emphasize her plasticity, the 
way she grows, twists and turns, and is always 
becoming, from surrealism, psychedelic, gothic, 
steampunk, etc. I don't think it is a betrayal; it 
shows how deep her presence is in our culture 
and collective unconscious. In this way, I think 
that her doubts about her- 
self after several transfor- 
mations continue during 
history. I don't know any 
literary character that has 
been represented in so 
many radically different 

As a collage artist, in- 
spired by surrealism but not 
a surrealist, what interests 
me is the possibility to cre- 
ate new connections, pro- 
pose displacements, freely 
appropriate. I intend to 
open new ways to see Car- 
roll's works instead of be- 
coming fixed in Victorian 
references. Whoever works 
with collage is always look- 
ing for new possibilities to 
play with the same images; 
it is like a semiotic game, 
a machine to re-signify. I 
learned to admire Tenniel's 
Alice, but I've spent a long 
time being disappointed 
by how many illustrators 
were fixated on his example 
instead of liberating the 
imagination. Alice liberates 
my imagination, that's why I 
still follow the white rabbit. 
I love to subvert Tenniel, and I will dare to recon- 
figure him as much as I can. 

Carroll knew that his works had a broader 
meaning, bigger than his own understanding. I 
think his illustrations are more intriguing than 
he himself understood. I'm publishing his manu- 
script of Alice's Adventures under Ground and have 
written a text about his illustrations. I believe 
that in a way they are opposite to Tenniel's. I 
think Tenniel's were adequate to the common 
Victorian taste, more conventional, formal, 
and rigid; Carroll's drawings are an invitation 
to strangeness, the unknown, and the under- 


ground. That's why I feel they have connections 
with Hieronymus Bosch and the surrealist besti- 
aries, creating monstrous, hybrid creatures like 
the gryphon and the mock turtle. Their illustra- 
tions are my favorites among all. 

kl: You seem interested in various literary/philosophical 
theories and systems. How is theory useful for a work- 
ing artist such as you, when so many other artists 
(and readers) happily ignore 

ap: I look for ideas that pro- 
pose new understandings 
of language, culture, and 
art. When I'm engaged in 
a work of illustration or 
art, I can read all kinds 
of texts that stimulate me 
to present the literary 
text in a more disturbing, 
provocative, and unusual 
way. I'm interested in 
everything that opens 
news doors in my imagina- 
tion and way of thinking. 
What I read influences 
me a lot, but many times 
when I create I forget the 
theory, although it may 
still be working in the 

For my Wonderland and 
Looking-Glass illustrations 
I read many articles and 
theories, then I chose two 
main references. One 
was the approach of the 
Annotated Alice (which 
wasn't known in Brazil at 
that time) to show that 
the book was not a silly 

Messrs. Carroll and Dodgson subsumed by the Brothers Dum! 
Another illustration Jrom Kdtia Canton's book, in this case utili 
zing Giuseppe Arcimboldo's painting. The Librarian. 

party, as Disney suggested. I wanted to demon- 
strate how it was grounded in the reality of its 
time, the author's life, mathematics, logic, and 
scientific references, etc. It gave multiple levels 
to my work since I was always mixing my char- 
acters and the linguistic inventions with photo- 
graphs of Carroll, Alice, and other references. 
It presented a possibility to operate inside and 
outside the story, to sew in 
references, play with real- 
ity and imagination, etc. 

I also became fascinated 
by Gilles Deleuze and his 
The Logic of Sense. This is 
a very complex work but 
also very powerful, decon- 
structing the whole system 
of occidental logic and 
recreating our understand- 
ing of language, sense, and 
reality. When I did the 
Wonderland characters and 
illustrations I was thinking 
of Deleuze 's concepts of 
the division of bodies and 
"surface events," of the bod- 
ies in their deep, logical 
attributes and the surface 
events that flow on the sur- 
face of the sense. It's diffi- 
cult to explain even in my 
own language, so I won't 
go further in English, to 
avoid misunderstandings. 
The point is that Carroll, 
for Deleuze, proposes a 
series of paradoxes ques- 
tioning both good sense 
and common sense. I also 
followed this path. 


The logo of the Lewis Carroll Society of Brazil, a key that opens doors 
into other dimensions, designed by Adriana Peliano. (2009) 






Am I Blue? 





Msk anyone what color Alice's dress is and 
they'll undoubtedly reply, "Why, blue, of 
course." Unless you happen to be talking to 
a CarroUian who knows that the only authorized color 
edition, The Nursery Alice in 1890, which was colored 
by Tenniel and featured a cover by E. Gertrude Thom- 

son, depicts her wearing a corn yellow frock through- 
out, though the apron is trimmed with blue and sports 
a large blue bow. The equally authorized Wonderland 
Postage-stamp Case (1889) and De La Rue card game 
(1894) also show her in a yellow dress. End of story. 

^ Find the *Rabbit runnina away* 


The' Fan'. 

Postage-Stamp Case 


Above, left: The Nursery Alice, 

Above, right: De La Rue card game, 

Left: The Wonderland Postage- 
Stamp Case, 1889 


Top left: McKay, 1912 

Tap right: Crowell, 1893 (Wonderland) 

Below right: Crowell, 1893 (Looking-Glass) 

\ '^' 


Not quite. American publisher Thomas Crowell 
published a fine edition in 1893 with one color fron- 
tispiece, depicting her in a blue frock, in each of the 
two books. Randomly looking through editions, au- 
thorized or un-, that appeared around that time and 
feature at least one color plate, I notice, for example, 
a McLoughlin Brothers edition of Wonderland from 
1903 in which her dress is red on the cover yet char- 
treuse in the frontispiece. Many other pictorial covers 
from that period have her in red, and frontispieces 
or interior illustrations dress her in either red, dark 
orange, or yellow (I am just looking at the Tenniels 
and Tenniel knock-offs, not those by other artists such 
as Rackham). 


Above, left: Macmillan Little Folks, 1903 
Above, right: Macmillan Little Folks, 1907 
Left: Hurst, 1904 
Below: Donohue, c. 1901 

In 1903, Macmillan issued "The Little Folks' Edi- 
tion" of Wonderland and Looking-Glass "adapted for 
very little folks from the original story," in which the 
32 Tenniel illustrations in them had been simplified, 
redrawn, and then colored. Alice wears a blue dress 
throughout, which is likely to have been the origin 
of this particular canard. However, fascinatingly, in 
the second Litde Folks' Edition (1907), her dress is 
consistently red! The illustrations had reverted to the 
original Tenniels, but now were colored. Was it a mar- 
keter's decision? A printer's? Mrs. Hargreaves's? 


Then, in 1911, Macmillan released a combined 
Wonderland/Looking-Glass "with sixteen new colour 
plates" (Harry Theaker did the honors) — and there 
her dress is, once again, blue. Despite an American 
release of the "Little Folks" red-dress edition as "Wee 
Books for Wee Folks" by Altemus in 1926, blue was 
pretty much ingrained. Certainly the 1946 Random 
House boxed set with the Fritz Kredel coloring and a 
few years later, Mary Blair's characteristic hue for her 
dress in Disney's 1951 film sealed the deal, at least as 
far as popular culture goes. 
Curiouser and curiouser. 

Disney, 1951 

I am indebted to Selwyn Goodacre, Frankie Morris, 
Brian Sibley, Gary Sternick, and Edward Wake- 
ling for assistance. Goodacre's article "So What 
Should Alice Wear?" (Dodo News No. 12, August 
1992, from the Daresbury Dodo Glubfor children) 
informs this as well. 

Random House, 1 946 


Zits by Jerry Scott and Jim Borgman 






leaves fKoo) 
The Deaneny Ganden 

What is the current copyright state 
of Lewis Carroll's Alice in Wonder- 
land, Through the Looking-Glass, and 
The Hunting of the Snark books? 
More-or-less trustworthy sources 
on the Internet (Project Guten- 
berg and Wikipedia), indicate 
that these books are in the public 
domain. I'm asking this because I 
am trying to create a comic where 
Alice is a character and Won- 
derland and the Looking-Glass 
world are part of the settings. I 
have been told that as long as my 
sources are the books, I can quote 
Carroll's work with no fear. How- 
ever, I have also been told that 
Disney is apparendy the current 
"owner" of Alice in Wonderland in 
North America. I find that hard to 
believe, especially since ABC just 
released a mini-series about Alice 
as well. 

So, are the books truly in the 
public domain? Are there adapta- 
tion rights that belong to some- 
one? Or does Disney only have 
rights on their "version" of the 

story? My project only references 
the original books. Should there 
be problems? 

Thank you so much for shed- 
ding light on this litde shadow in 
my mind. 

Isabelle Melangon 

LCSNA President Andrew Sellon re- 

You are correct that all three of 
Charles Dodgson's (Lewis Carroll's) 
greatest literary works are now in the 
public domain. In fact, they have been 
for many years now. You are also cor- 
rect that Disney can only copyright 
their own original content. By the way, 
a few years ago Disney actually part- 
nered with Slave Labor Graphics to 
produce a Tommy Kovac/Sonny Liew 
comic series called Wonderland (origi- 
nally in six issues, now in a single 
hardcover volume as well), which in 
part pokes fun at the visual style of 
their animated Alice from 1 93 L You 
might want to have a look at that; it 's 
quite good. You might also want to 
browse our website a bit more, as it has 
a lot of information that might provide 

you with additional ideas for your own 

While the works are in public do- 
main, it would of course be only ap- 
propriate for you to cite that your own 
work is "inspired by the works of Lewis 
Carroll, " or something like that, to give 
Lewis Carroll his fair due. Send us the 
link when you post your work, and we 
can note it on our blog, in our Face- 
book group, etc., to help generate some 
more interest in your work. Good luck 
with your project! 

A follow-up to letters in KL 84: 
Mr. Sellon, 

Thank you so much for your time. 
I like your idea about reliable 
sources and research. 

I have just shared your letter 
with my 11th grade students. They 
listened intentiy. What happened 
next was that one student said, 
"We should read the book," and 
another said, "Why don't we have 
a party and wear costumes?" so 
we decided that we will be having 


an end-of-the-year "Wonderland 
Costume Party." I'm thinking that 
they can recite some of their own 
poems and some of Carroll's. "Bril- 
lig" idea! 

Of course, all the computers in 
the classroom will be showing your 

Monie Rude-Scrivner 
Stockton, CA 

LCSNA's website is dynamic 
and friendly and conveys unrelent- 
ing enthusiasm for all things 

Liz Ainley ofStorypods Audio- 
Oxford, England 


I have a simple question . . . well, 
one that would seem simple but 
has exhausted me the past few 
days trying to answer. I remember 
a line from the 1951 Disney's Alice 
in Wonderland. The line is Alice 
saying, "If I had a world of my 
own, everything would be non- 
sense. Nothing would be what it 
is because everything would be 
what it isn't. And contrary-wise; 
what it is it wouldn't be, and 
what it wouldn't be, it would. You 
see?" However, I have recently 

purchased a new version of Al- 
ice's Adventures in Wonderland 
with illustrations by Camille Rose 
Garcia, and upon re-reading the 
childhood classic I realized that 
quote from Alice was nowhere to 
be found. I took further steps to 
try to find the quote in Carroll's 
literature but have been unsuc- 
cessful in every attempt, yet all 
over the Internet it is cited as a 
Lewis Carroll quote. Am I missing 
a reading, or is this just a Disney- 
added quote which Carroll is now 
credited with? Thank you so much 
if you're able to shed any light on 
this for me. 

Jarrod Medlen 

LCSNA President Andrew Sellon re- 

Trust your eyes. If it's not in the books, 
Carroll didn 't unite it. The lines you 
cite were created by Disney 's scriptwrit- 
ers. While occasionally you might 
see a stage or TV/film adaptation of 
the Alice books that tries to use large 
chunks of Carroll's own words, it's 
typical in adaptations for the produc- 
ers/writers to attempt to go their own 
way with dialogue. Some attempts 

evoke the spirit of Carroll more success- 
fully than others, but frankly none of 
the adaptations can hold a candle to 
Carroll's own witty wordplay. You may 
have missed that in the opening credits 
of the 1951 Disney film, they actually 
misspell "Carroll"! So that gives you 
some warning that their focus in that 
charming film was not primarily on 

It's also not unusual to find mis- 
information about Lewis Carroll and 
his works (and just about any other 
subject under the sun) on the Internet. 
You had the good instincts to go to the 
original source material. That's always 
the best way to find out the truth of the 
matter. Our website and that of our 
sister organization in the U.K. contain 
a wealth of information and commen- 
tary on Carroll's life and works, so you 
might want to browse both a bit more, 
as well as check out our site's blogfor a 
more pop culture angle. If you enjoyed 
reading the original book, I encourage 
you to pick up an unexpurgated copy 
o/Through the Looking-Glass and 
What Alice Found There, as well 
as the brilliantThe Hunting of the 
Snark. The writing in both books is 
remarkable, and both offer some fasci- 
nating authorial colors not shown in 
the first Mice book. 

"She watched with curiosity as I 
picked up a battered old Alice in 
Wonderland. With shaking hands 
I groped for a synchronicity in 
the pages and as I greedily read 
through the passage I had chosen, 
she asked me what it said. Sur- 
prised and embarrassed, I read it 
out to her: 

'She was getting a little giddy 
with so much floating in the air 
and was rather glad to find herself 
walking again in the natural way.'" 
From The First Verse by 
Barry McCrea, Carroll &' Graf 
Publishers, New York, 2005. 


"Mr. Patel . . . concluded that Mr. 
Creme was 'a sweet, pleasant old 
man' who ultimately 'was like the 
Red Queen in Alice in Wonderland 
who said she could believe 

six impossible things before 


From "Meeting the Man Who 
Made Him the (Mistaken) 
Messiah" by Scott fames. New 
York Times, August 20, 2010, 
about the meeting between author 
and economist Raj Patel and 
mystic Benjamin Creme of Share 
International, who had identified 
Patel as the messiah. 


"Tess the chambermaid had been 
left behind in the bedchamber, 
curled up with Alice in Wonderland, 
murmuring 'BHmey!' each time an 
amazing thing happened, which 
was every other paragraph." 
From The Birthday Ball by Lois 
Lowry, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt 
Publishing, New York, 2010. 

"Somewhere near the top in the 
fantasy section [of the list of 
recently published books for 
children] comes Alice in Orchestra 
Land (cobenden-sanderson, 
3/6) , a partial parody which sets 
out to let small people know about 
odd things such as tubas and 
double-bassoons, and does this 
very entertainingly. I say 'partial' 
because Mr. ernest la prade has 
borrowed Carroll's framework 
without trying to imitate his magic 
lunacy which mitigates the heresy 
of his act." 

From an anonymous review, 
Punch, December 12, 1934. 

While visiting Bohemia, the author 
comments, "Bohemia had been a 
Protestant country at the outset of 
the Thirty Years' War. It was Catho- 
lic once more at its close and as 
free of heresy as . . . the sea-shore 
of oyster-response at the end of 
'The Walrus and the Carpenter.'" 
Later, while visiting Slovakia, he 
finds a cache of his host's daugh- 
ters' childhood books. The Alice 
books are there; he begins to read 
them, and that launches a discus- 

sion about his habit of thinking 
backwards — imagining words as 
they would be spelled in reverse 
order — and reciting poetry to him- 
self with all the words backwards. 
From A Time of Gifts by Patrick 
Leigh Fermor, John Murray Ltd, 
1977; reprinted by New York Review 
of Books Classics, 2005. 

'He had a pile of English books, 
some from the British Council 
Library, some with USIS stickers. 
I remember a thin one, Shane, 
about an American village much 
like Punjab, and Alice in Wonder- 
land, which gave me nightmares." 
ircwi Jasmine by Bharati Mukherjee, 
Grove Weidenfield, 1 989; reprinted 
by Fawcett (pb), 1991. 

"A fortunate arrival, Bea thought, 
as Jane and Al hugged Shimmer 
and introduced Coral. Now they 
could talk of something else. Ships 
or shoes or sealing wax. Anything." 
From In the Family Way by Lynne 
Sharon Schwartz, William Morrow 
and Company, Inc., New York, 

"The only solo child in any such 
adventure that ever showed up in 
these old books was stolid aproned 
Alice, who wandered through 
Wonderland more or less alone, 
with only her own hydroencepha- 
litic head to keep her company. 
That is: Alice slowly going mad. 
Who could blame her?" 

From "Puz_le" by Gregory Maguire, 
a short story collected in The 
Dragon Book, Jack Dann and 
Gardner Dozois, editors. Ace Books, 
New York, 2009. 

After encountering a young 
woman crying a "rolling flood of 
gummy tears," the main character 
notes that, "Lower down the steps, 
a mouse was swimming to safety." 
The book also includes a chapter 
titled "The Duchess and the Cook." 
From I Shall Wear Midnight by 
Terry Pratchett, HarperColliins, 
New York, 2010. 

While browsing the book sellers at 
the Edinburgh Book Fair, restora- 
tion expert Brooklyn Wainwright 
"spied an illustrated Alice In Wonder- 
land and rushed over to examine 
it. It was a 1927 edition in spring 
green leather, mint condition, 
with heavy gilding around the 
edges and on the spine. Ornate 
dentelles decorated the inside 
front and back covers. There was a 
wonderful gilt-tooled White Rab- 
bit on the center of the front cover, 
checking his pocket watch, and a 
scolding Queen of Hearts on the 
back. It was delightful. Expensive, 
but worth it." There is only one 
other reference to the book after 
its purchase — "that it isn't really a 
children's story!" 

From If Books Could Kill: A 
Bibliophile Mystery by Kate 
Carlisle, Signet, 2010. 


WRiTinq Desk 


'Oh, how glad I am to get here! And what is this on my head!' she exclaimed in a tone of dismay, 
as she put her hands up to something very heavy, that fitted tight all round her head. " 

I suppose I'll now just have to get used to the pri- 
vate jet, the luxury yacht, the bodyguards, and all 
the other perks that come with being an LCSNA 
president. Oh, right. Reality. In all seriousness, I am 
pleased with, humbled by, and a bit terrified of as- 
suming the mantle of Society president. As the first 
(but undoubtedly not the last) president whose par- 
ent also served in this vaunted office (Sandor having 
done so from 1983-84) — a dynasty I'd rather asso- 
ciate with John and John Quincy than George and 
George W — and also as the former Warden of Out- 
land, a title bestowed upon me by Peter Heath when 
I functioned in a similar capacity for the West Coast 
Chapter of the LCSNA (1979-87), I hope that I may 
live up to the amazing precedents (pun unavoidable) 
that our eleven former presidents have set in a leader- 
ship tradition going back to Stan Marx. 

I cannot say enough, nor ever fully express our 
thanks to Andrew Sellon for his stalwart and exempla- 
ry guidance over these last four years, in which he has 
produced excellent meetings, helped to design and 
manifest a wonderful new incarnation of the website, 
and even run the Knight Letter for five issues, but let 
me try: thank you very much, Andrew. 

Enormous thanks are also due to Edward Guilia- 
no, who kindly arranged for superb facilities for our 
New York meeting, and to him and the other speakers 
who made it so memorable. 

Some big shout-outs are due to our Knight Let- 
ter staff. Our fearless leader for the past two and 
this present issue, Sarah Adams-Kiddy, is expecting 
twins in February! Hence she is resigning from most 
editorial duties until her time is once again, more or 
less, her own. The dashing Mahendra Singh, who has 
edited the Rectory Umbrella for that same period, is 
taking over as editor in chief, beginning next issue. 
And we also very much want to acknowledge former 
president Alan Tannenbaum, who has been supplying 
our magazine with the photographs of speakers at 
our meetings for many a year. 


Our next meeting will be in Everybody's Favorite 
City, San Francisco, at the headquarters of Archive, 
org, whose mission is to digitize the world. Their facili- 
ties include a lovely desanctified church, where we will 
hold the meeting, and one of their digitizing centers 
(worldwide, they average a thousand books a day, not 
to mention making an accessible backup of the entire 
Internet every two weeks!). The next day will feature 
an open house at my ranch in Petaluma, a town once 
known for its chicken farms run by Yiddish-speaking 
farmers (poultry was replaced by dairy a half-century 
ago), and famed as the birthplace of Snoopy. It is in 
scenic Sonoma County, the heart of California's wine 
country, and a 45-minute drive from San Francisco. 
The Burstein Collection is housed in a three-story 
tower, and selected highlights will be on display. As 
we go to press, not much else, even the exact date, is 
known, but I promise you an unforgettable inaugural 

What's a Snark? 




for Lewis Carroll 

"What's a Snark?" I must ask you 
Please answer me this if you can. 
Or should I ask you, who? 
Is it bird, or fish, or man? 

"What's a Snark?" I have asked it twice 
That alone should perk up your ears. 

"What's a Snark?" I have asked it thrice 
This puzzle has had me for years. 

I've been planning a quest for months now 
On the back of an old railway stub 
But I can't seem to find any answers 
And, aye, isn't that just the rub! 

I've checked Cook's maps from his journeys 
I've read Cousteau's logs from his dives 
A sea hag munched "hurlyburly" 
I avoided a Mariner's eye. 

I then had the notion to travel the ocean 
(for that's where Snarks live, you see) 
But I hadn't a boat, nor nothing to float 
So I never did push out to sea. 

So back to the books for a couple of looks 
To see where this Snark may keep rest 
But King James and Webster and Britannica too 
Were also dead ends in my quest. 

You can see of this quest I was somewhat obsessed 
And the time it had gotten away here 
I started at quarter to five in October 
And now it was going on New Year. 

I needed some rest, (oh I needed some rest!) 
So I rested my eyes for a minute 
Then wouldn't you know, down a hole I did go 
With cupboards of marmalade in it. 

I was falling so long, I was falling so slow 
But the bottom it finally came 
And there stood a man with a bell in his hand 
And a book of celestial names. 

He said with a grin, "Hello Mr. Jim. 
I can show you that thing which you seek." 
So he opened his book and gave me a look 
Saying "Careful-nowjim-just-one-peek!" 

"A Snark" (it read) "is a creature that lives 
In the dreams of little ones' heads, 
But as you grow older and sights get much colder 
The poor Snark goes belly up dead!" 

So keep a young soul, whenever you go 
For a stroll through the midsummer park 
'Cause you never will know, oh the places you'll go! 
When you'll get to be, so to speak, snarked. 

Mr farmon is a high-school English teacher in Newfersey. 
His poem was originally published in the Canadian chil- 
dren 's magazine Crow Toes Quarterly, Vol. 3, Issue 1, 
No. 9, fanuary 2009. 





urns Carroll Tests Out ]ahkrwoc\y 






'he woman was packed into her black Victori- 
an dress, her hair piled high, bearing plumes 
that bobbed like an exotic bird looking to at- 
tract another exotic bird for an afternoon of passion 
and seed. 

As the audience before her clapped, she an- 
nounced, ". . . And next, we will have a reading from 
Rev. Charles Dodgson, who plans 
quite a treat for us. He says he's been 
writing a bit in his spare time, and to- 
day will recite a poem of his very own 
creation. I haven't heard it yet myself, 
so we'll all be surprised and delighted 
together. Welcome, Rev. Dodgson. I 
expect your poetry to enlighten and 
inspire us all." 

Young Charles Lutwidge Dodg- 
son stepped to the podium, and felt 
the sweat bead up around his starched 
collar. He hadn't shared this with any- 
one yet, and he knew it was a little risky. 

Normally, at these sorts of functions, he just stood 
up and read Tennyson's Lady of Shalott and was 
done with it. But there had already been three Lady 
of Shalotts today. The lady could only die so many 
times in one afternoon. The moment begged variety. 

And variety he would give them. 

"Um, thank . . . thank you," he said. "It's a pleasure 
to be with you all today. I ... I've been working on 

something new. Er, different, I think. And I . . . Um, , . 
I'm not sure how . . . Well, you see, this piece was . . . was 
. . . Well, maybe it's just best I begin." 

The room grew quiet. He cleared his throat. 

"Twas brillig, and the slithy toves 
Did gyre and gimble in the wabe: 

All mimsy were the borogoves. 
And the mome raths outgrabe." 

He paused for effect, but could 
hear the murmurs in the crowd. "What 
language is that?" whispered one. 

"Native Australian. They've boro- 
goves in the Outback," responded an- 
other, more informed gentleman. 

"I had slithy toves in my garden 
once," mumbled someone near the 
back. "Dreadful pests. Had to use lime 
on them." 

"What part of the Bible is this?" 
murmured a lady in gray flannel, flip- 
ping unsettled through her pocket Bible. "Book of 

The Bird of Paradise at the front of the room 
flushed, looking like the pressure building up might 
shoot her clear from corset and all. "Shhh, everyone. 
Please. . . Oh, I am sorry, Rev. Dodgson, please do 
go on." 

Deborah Brody 

Jerome Bump 

Don Charney 

Jim Domiano 

Michael Dupler 

Cary Elza 
David C.Jones 

*^ Tk^ J*-^ *^ 

Robert Kass 

Jane Masterson 

Robert Mitchell 

Amy Plummer 

Cathy Rubin 

Thomas Schrack 

Valerie Taricco 

Ricardo Jaramillo Sarah Jardine-Willoughby 

^ \\//^ 
-^A^ *— 

John Tyo 

*^ Jl-^ *^ *^ 




Charles Dodgson gave her a tight smile and cleared 
his throat again. 

"Beware thejabberwock, my son! 
The jaws that bite, the claws that catch! 
Beware the jubjub bird and shun 
The frumious Bandersnatch!" 

In the crowd eyebrows were raised. Cheeks were 
pale. Eyes were wide. He caught a vague, "What did 
he say?" 

"Gloomius band of snatch, I think." 

"Well, that hardly sounds appropriate for mixed 
company! And from a clergyman, too." 

An old lady who'd only heard half of it, shouted, 
"Is this not The Lady of Shalott, then?" 

Dodgson tugged at his collar, which was damp 
and wilting now, but he determined to proceed on. 
Perhaps the problem was he just needed to give it a 
bit more energy for it to really grip: 

"He took his vorpal sword in 
Long time the manxome foe he 

sought — 

So rested he by the Tumtum tree, 

And stood awhile in thought." 

"Who's the fellow with the purple 
sword again?" hissed a lady in the 
front row to her sister. 

"I don't know. But he's fighting 
someone who speaks Manx." 

Dodgson decided that maybe 
louder was the way to go, now, and 
upped the volume. 

"But, as in uffish thought he stood, 
Thejabberwock with eyes of flame 
Came whiffling through the tulgey wood 
And burbled as it came!" 

"Isn't Tulgey somewhere near Cheshire?" 
"Devon, I think. Is this fellow quite all right?" 
"Always heard he was a bit strange." 
Desperate to get through the poem with any de- 
gree of success, Dodgson grabbed up a nearby lady's 
parasol and swept it aloft like a mighty broadsword. 
He knew he should have brought some props, but 
this would just have to do. 

"One, two! One, two! And through and through, 
The vorpal blade went snicker-snack!" 

"He's having a fit!" a woman cried, standing up in 
her concern. 

"Someone help the poor man!" 
The lady with all the plumes had gone complete- 
ly crimson now, and rushed to his side — just as the 
parasol accidentally popped open, sending a second 
potential assistant backwards into the front row 

The Bird of Paradise took his arm 
and made soothing sounds, patting 
him. "There, there. Rev. Dodgson." 
She was leading him from the podium 
now, while someone picked up Mr. Ev- 
ans from row one. 

"I'm fine, honestly," the young 
clergyman insisted. "It . . . It's just a bit 
of nonsense, really, I — " 

"Alice, dear, fetch Rev. Dodgson a 
Glass of water, would you? . . . There's 
a good girl." 

"It's for children, you know," he 
persisted. "There were just so terribly 
many Shalotts and — " 
"Mad as a hatter, that one," someone whispered. 
"Mad as a March hare," agreed someone else sadly. 
"Completely off of his head." 

It is with great sadness that we report the passing of 
Deborah Epstein. A member of the society for over 20 years, 
she attended and contributed to many meetings. 


I THINK — " 

Lester R. Dickey 

On page 28 of Martin Gardner's 
The Annotated Alice, Alice is falling 
down the rabbit-hole, and as the 
trip is taking so long, she begins 
to speculate as to how far she has 
fallen. Of special interest to her is 
whether she will "'fall right through 
the earth! How funny it'll seem to 
come out among the people that 
walk with their heads downwards! 
The Antipathies, I think — ' (she 
was rather glad that there was no 
one listening, this time, as it didn't 
sound at all like the right word) 
' — but I shall have to ask them 
what the name of the country is, 
you know. Please, Ma'am, is this 
New Zealand or Australia?'" Gard- 
ner lets this stand without annota- 
tion in both The Annotated Alice 
and More Annotated Alice. 

Obviously, "antipathies" is 
not "at all the right word." She 
meant "Antipodes." The Oxford 
Companion to the English Language 
(Oxford University Press, 1992) 
gives the etymology as "through 
Latin from Greek antipodes plural 
of antipous/antipodos having the 
foot opposite. ... A term first 
applied in English to the people 
of Ethiopia, once thought to live 
on the opposite side of the globe; 
by the 16c, applied to places di- 

Carrollian Notes 

rectly opposite one another on 
the surface of the earth and to 
that place directly 'under' one's 
own location. A group of islands 
opposite Greenwich in England to 
the south-east of New Zealand was 
named the Antipodes in 1800. From 
the 1830s, British travelers to Aus- 
tralia and New Zealand (but espe- 
cially Australia) were encouraged 
by the reversal of the seasons and 
the unusualness of the flora and 
fauna to see an antipodean 'world 
turned upside down', in which 
'everything goes by contraries'." 

Alice is extremely accurate, 
given the knowledge and custom 
of the time, in her definition of 
"antipodes." Even the unattributed 
quotes in the Oxford Companion, 
"world turned upside down" and 
"everything goes by contraries" 
seem particularly appropriate to 
Alice's Adventures in Wonderland. 

In retrospect, Alice's use of the 
word "antipathies" seems strangely 
well chosen: "Contrariety of feeling, 
disposition or nature (between per- 
sons or things); natural contrariety 
or incompatibility," according to 
the Oxford English Dictionary. There 
is certainly enough "contrariety of 
feeling, disposition or nature" in 
Wonderland to justify her use of the 

The Antipodes are an uninhab- 
ited group of islands, part of New 
Zealand, encompassing 24 square 
miles. Since the Lory, mentioned 
in Wonderland, is a parrot native to 
Australia and surrounding areas, 
possibly it is also a denizen of the 

"World turned upside down" is 
from Robert Burton's Anatomy of 
Melancholy (1621). It also is found 
in the King James Bible, Acts 17:6. 
I was not able to find an contem- 
porary attribution for "everything 
goes by contraries" except for a 
similar phrase in David Copperfield, 
Chapter 3, "everythink goes con- 
trairy with me." Incidentally, Acts 
17:7, the verse following the "world 
turned upside down," uses the 
word "contrary." "Contrariwise," 
the favorite word of Tweedledee 
in Through the Looking-Glass, ap- 
pears three times in the King fames 
Bible. 2 Corinthians 2:7, Galatians 
2:7, and 1 Peter 3:9. Since Car- 
roll (Dodgson) was a minister, he, 
consciously or otherwise, may have 
picked up some of the unusual 
words and phrases in Wonderland 
from the Bible. 


David Schaefer 

Alice has always been a challenge 
for motion picture producers. 
Whenever an advance in film 
techniques has occurred, an Alice 
sporting these improvements has 
appeared. Even though many of 
the productions have not been 
considered outstanding examples 
of film art, they have provided a 
powerful stimulus to continued 
interest in the Alice stories. 

In 1931, Alice entered the 
sound motion picture era with, 
as the ads at the time stated, "the 
first articulated Alice." For many 
years this film version of Wonder- 
land, the "Bud Pollard Alice," was 
considered "lost," even though 
there were some copies around, 
including one in my own Alice film 
closet. It shed its lost distinction 
at the October 17, 2009, LCSNA 
meeting (KL 83:5) at the Fort 
Lee, New Jersey, Historical Center, 
where it was screened mere blocks 
away from where it had been pro- 
duced 78 years earlier. Included 
in the audience were the daughter 
and the grandchildren of Ruth 


Gilbert, the film's star. They had 
never before seen the film. 

A direct result of the meeting is 
that today the film is widely men- 
tioned on the Internet, including 
a clip from the film along with 
individual frames on YouTube. 

My 16mm copy of the film was 
purchased around 1970, after my 
wife had found an Alice in Wonder- 
landMsted (without annotation) in 
a magazine called The Big Reel. We 
took a chance that the advertised 
film might be an Alice that we did 
not already have in our Lewis Car- 
roll film collection, and ordered it. 
What arrived in the mail was this 
primitive sound film — the "lost" 

Unlike other Alice productions, 
this version is basically true to the 
book — except for the love interest 
between the White Rabbit and the 
Duchess! Evidently the producers 
felt that even for a child's movie, 
there had to be some romance 
and decided on this most unlikely 

The opening and closing cred- 
its of the film are accompanied 
by a full-orchestra rendition of 
Irving Berlin's "Come Along with 
Alice," a song written for the 1916 
Broadway musical Century Girl. 
There is no indication that Irving 
Berlin gave permission for use of 
his song, and there is no identifi- 
cation of the orchestra or of the 
male vocalist. 

This Alice -wzs filmed at the Met- 
ropolitan Studios in Fort Lee, New 
Jersey, with Bud Pollard directing. 
Pollard worked with marginal 
groups at the fringes of the mo- 
tion picture industry, producing 
and directing B-minus motion pic- 
tures. Many times he simply added 
the new technology of sound to 
silent films in the public domain. 
His films were aimed at niche 
audiences, audiences that Holly- 
wood ignored. He produced films 
in Italian and Yiddish, and "race 
films" for the black population. In 
1931, Pollard felt he had found 
another niche audience with his 
Alice — children. 

Ruth Gilbert's employment as 
Alice must have been her first job 
after graduation from the Ameri- 
can Academy of Dramatic Arts in 
1930. Subsequently, she worked in 
live theater, up to 1952, when she 
became a regular on The Milton 
Berle Show. She later taught at the 
Lee Strasberg acting school in 
New York. 

The supporting cast had varied 
backgrounds. The Duchess and 
Mock Turtle had silent careers 
starting in 1911, and the Cook, 
King of Hearts, and Hatter had 
live stage experience. The Gry- 
phon and Caterpillar continued 
to work in sound films (they were 
both munchkins in The Wizard 
ofOz), while the White Rabbit's 
career included silent, sound, and 
stage productions. 

The first published mention of 
the film is a news item from the 
June 21, 1931, edition of the New 
York Times reporting that ''Alice in 
Wonderland is the first production 
in a series of four talking pictures 
planned especially for child audi- 
ences by an independent cinema 
group known as Unique-Cosmos 
Pictures with offices in the Film 
Centre Building in this city. The 
features are to be produced at the 
Metropolitan Studios in Fort Lee, 
N.J., where Alice in Wonderland is, 
now before the cameras." 

The initial review of the film 
(well before its release) in the 
trade magazine Film Daily was not 
complimentary. It considered the 
film to be a "mildly entertaining 
adaptation of a fairy tale good 
only for kids and non-theatrical 
trade." Later on it opined that 
"even the kiddies may be consider- 
ably bored due to lack of action or 
interesting talk." Ninety percent 
of the uninteresting talk was Lewis 
Carroll's own words. 

The first theatrical showing was 
a "special children's performance" 
at the Roxy Theater in Manhattan 
on the morning of Saturday, De- 
cember 5, 1931. In its notice about 
this presentation, Film Daily iden- 

tified the film only as "recently 
made here (in an eastern studio) 
with Charles Levine as chief cam- 

The film had its official pre- 
miere at the Warner Theater, the 
same theater where The Jazz Singer 
had premiered four years earlier. 
Billed as "The First Children's 
Talkie to reach the screen," Alice 
started its run at 9:30 a.m. on 
Christmas day of 1931. During 
its stay at the Warner there were 
"FREE toys for the Children" on 
the 25th, 26th, and 27th. On the 
28th, 29th, and 30th, this was 
reduced to "FREE candy." New 
Year's Day saw Alice replaced by 
Safe in Hell. There is some specula- 
tion as to how the film ever got 
booked into such a prestigious 
venue as the Warner in the first 

New York Times critic Mordaunt 
Hall reviewed the film on Decem- 
ber 28, and was kinder than the 
Film Daily review mentioned ear- 
lier, noting that "There is an ear- 
nestness about the direction and 
the acting that elicits sympathy, for 
poor litde Alice had to go through 
the ordeal of coming to shadow 
life in an old studio in Fort Lee, 
N.J., instead of enjoying the mani- 
fold advantages of her rich cousins 
who hop from printed pages to 
the screen amid the comforts of a 
well-equipped Hollywood studio 
. . . although it will probably meet 
with favor from youngsters who go 
to see an articulate Alice on the 

Aside from the New York show- 
ings, only six other presentations 
in U.S. theatres can be docu- 
mented. Five of these occurred 
during the Christmas season of 
1931. In 1934, there was a showing 
in Atianta. 

But what about showings in 
locations other than theaters? In 
August of 1931, Film Daily had the 
news that the Alice film would be 
"reduced to a 16mm film for re- 
lease simultaneously with the regu- 
lar theatrical release." The move, 


they claimed, was made necessary 
"by the demand for the series by 
non-theatrical users throughout 
the country." Educational Screen \^zs> 
more specific, stating that the film 
would be "available in 35mm film 
with sound and in 16mm versions 
either sound or silent." 

In what format were the 16mm 
films to be issued? The sound was 
probably on a phonograph record. 
It was not until 1933 that the Amer- 
ican Standards Association adopted 
a standard for 16mm sound on 
film production. The film shown 
at the Fort Lee meeting was pro- 
duced from my film (16mm sound 
on film on DuPont-manufactured 
film base). DuPont data indicates 
that this film stock was produced 
sometime before 1940. 

Showings of the film in schools 
or churches would have provided 
the greatest impact on continuing 
interest in Alice's Adventures in Won- 
derland. 16mm sound films could 
be shown in schools, churches, 
factories, and other non-theatrical 
locations. During and after World 
War II, 16mm sound projectors 
became very popular. Whether par- 
tial 16mm versions of the film were 
ever produced is not known, but 
if they were, they would have been 
very suitable for classroom use. 

On December 22, 1933, Para- 
mount released their expensive 
Hollywood version of Alice that 
starred Charlotte Henry and in- 
cluded practically every one of 
their big stars. 

On May 19, 1933 Motion Picture 
Daily gave a tongue-in-cheek "Tip 
to Paramount." The tip: "Competi- 
tion looms on Alice in Wonderland. 
The independent who made the 
same story in Jersey three years 
ago and didn't get much of a play 
at the time is figuring on a reis- 
sue, 25 prints strong." Perhaps the 
print shown in Atlanta was one of 
these 25. 

In any case, Mop Head Alice (as 
my family referred to the film, 
because of Alice's unbecoming 
wig) may have had its troubles, but 
Alice did speak, and in October 

of 2009, the northern New Jersey 
press proudly proclaimed that 
"Alice was originally a Jersey girl!" 

Thanks to August Imholtzfor aid 
in locating theater showings, and to 
Richard Koszarski, Tom Myers, and 
Nelson Page for their assistance in 
setting up the Fort Lee meeting, and 
providing valuable information. 





JULY 15-18, 2010 

August A. Imholtz, fr. 

After Archdeacon Charles Dodg- 
son's death on June 21, 1868, his 
oldest son, Charles Lutwidge 
Dodgson, was responsible for his 
seven unmarried sisters and three 
younger brothers. One of the 
pressing tasks he confronted was 
moving out of the rural rectory of 
Croft, where they had lived for al- 
most 25 years, so it could be made 
ready for the next incumbent. 
After some deliberation, the family 
settled on the town of Guildford 
in Surrey, and in October of 1868 
they let at £73 per annum the 
very first house they looked at, 
the Chestnuts — a Victorian villa 
adjacent to the grounds and ruins 
of Guildford Castle, whose origins 
are said to go back to the eleventh 

And so we found ourselves in 
Guildford and its environs this 
past July for a splendid long week- 
end of lectures, tours, and dinners, 
all brilliantly organized by Mark 
and Catherine Richards and ably 
assisted by Matthew and Margaret 
Heaton. Our first two days of lec- 
tures were held at the University 
of Surrey's School of Management. 
The delegates to the weekend 
meeting came from America, Fin- 
land, France, Japan, and of course 

But why did Dodgson choose 
Guildford? Why not Oxford, 
or London, or elsewhere in or 
beyond Surrey? That was the 
question to which Roger Allen 

provided some very convincing, if 
in the end unavoidably specula- 
tive, answers in the introductory 
lecture of the weekend program, 
"The Dodgson Family at Guildford." 
The Dodgson's family's presence 
in Oxford could have made more 
demands on his time than he 
could in conscience satisfy, and 
although Roger did not say it, one 
might suspect they could have felt 
slightly out of place there, aca- 
demically and socially. Why not 
London? Their presence might 
well have restricted Dodgson's 
social life, and London certainly 
would have been more expensive 
than rural Guildford. Still, why 
Guildford? In addition to the 
attractiveness of the town and the 
charm of the Surrey Downs, Guild- 
ford was easily accessible by train 
from London as well as from Ox- 
ford. Also, Dodgson had several 
friends in the neighboring villages, 
such as George Portal, vicar of Al- 
bury, and he later made acquain- 
tances of people of his social class 
and varied interests. 

We visited the Guildford Mu- 
seum, which had on display varied 
materials ranging from such rari- 
ties as Alice's own copy of Through 
the Looking-Glass, to Dodgson's 
surplice with its oversized sleeves, 
to Victorian toys and Wonderland 
artifacts. The ebullient Maijorie 
Williams then led us on a walk- 
ing tour of the town, including a 
descent into a crypt, now below 
office flats, where King Henry Ill's 
men may have stored their beer 
while the King stayed at Guild- 
ford Casde; the White Hart Inn, 
where Dodgson sometimes stayed 
when the Chestnuts became too 
crowded; Archbishop Abbot's Hos- 
pital of the Blessed Trinity; and 
the splendid Guildhall — its bar 
looking like the illustration of the 
courtroom bar in the Wonderland 
trial chapter. 

Back at the university, I gave 
a brief after-dinner talk on the 
true identity of Lewis Carroll as 
revealed in nineteenth-century 
American newspaper accounts 


[KL 84: 8] . I also answered some 
questions on how access to mas- 
sive full-text databases is changing 
research techniques. 

If Roger Allen had provided 
the beginning of the Dodgson- 
Guildford story, Charlie Lovett 
discussed its end. Friday morn- 
ing began with his excellent il- 
lustrated lecture entitled "Thy 
Will Be Done: Charles Dodgson, 
Death, and Afterlife." He placed 
Dodgson 's attitude toward death 
in its Victorian context, discuss- 
ing both the religious and social 
aspects, which are not always 
easy to distinguish at this remove. 
Charlie quoted Michael Wheeler's 
Death and the Future Life in Vic- 
torian Literature and Theology on 
the typical Victorian protocol of 
death. Dodgson used faith, logic, 
and scholarship to approach his 
death, yet death seemed to remain 
for him the final bending toward 
divine will. Charlie supported his 
thesis with quotations from Dodg- 
son 's letters and even from Sylvie 
and Bruno. By the late nineteenth 
century, a cult of pastoral, in the 
bucolic sense, burial developed. 
Dodgson had insisted that his 
funeral be simple, with no pomp 
or circumstance. Dodgson 's grave 
in Guildford's Mount Cemetery 
is marked by a simple white cross 
atop three steps, signifying that he 
was a churchman. 

Charlie generously provided 
a booklet he had put together to 
each delegate, "The Funeral and 
Burial of Charles Lutwidge Dodg- 
son: A Reconstruction Based on 
Contemporary Sources," which 
included a CD-ROM of the music 
from Dodgson 's funeral, sung by 
Janice Lovett. Our conference 
packets already included a marvel- 
ous assortment of things: copies 
of the 1871 and 1881 Census 
pages listing the inhabitants of 
the Chestnuts, a version of the 
"Guildford Gazette Extraordinary" 
(a very rare Dodgson piece) faith- 
fully recreated by Mark Richards, 
a postcard of an 1868 view of the 
Chestnuts, and more. 

Next, Selwyn Goodacre, in 
"The Incomplete Works of Charles 
Dodgson," discussed what Dodg- 
son was working on before he 
died, and what we might have 
been given had he lived longer. 
These included a proposed geom- 
etry-for-boys book, a collection of 
theological essays (mentioned in 
a June 1885 letter to Macmillan), 
various Bible collections for the 
young, including selections to be 
memorized (surely not from Le- 
viticus!), letters to an unidentified 
agnostic, a "family Shakespeare," 
possible further merchandizing 
of themes and things based on 
the Alicehooks, more items like 
his "Guildford Gazette Extraordi- 
nary," which Selwyn saw as a good 
example of Dodgson's proto-Saki 
adult humor, additional puzzles 
like those published in Vanity Fair, 
and something called "transcen- 
dental logic." 

Mark Richards spoke briefly 
about "Drummond, Percy, Portal, 
and Albury." Henry Drummond 
(1786-1860) was a very successful 
banker (King George III was his 
mzyor client), with a profound 
interest in religion, especially 
Christ's Second Coming. After 
Drummond's purchase of Albury 
Estate, the small village of Albury 
became, under his influence, "an 
incubator of radical thought" — not 
how one thinks of bankers today. 
Henry Drummond's daughter 
married Algernon George Percy, 
sixth Duke of Northumberland, 
and settled at Albury Hall. Their 
son, Henry George Percy, was at 
Christ Church and knew Dodgson. 
The Rev. George Raymond Portal, 
vicar of nearby Albury, had been 
at Rugby, though a bit earher than 
Dodgson. Portal, like many of the 
Albury citizens, interested himself 
in social welfare. He founded the 
National Deposit Society — a kind 
of credit union prototype. Portal, 
like Dr. Munsell — rector of St. 
Mary's — became part of Dodgson's 
not-at-all-small circle of friends in 
the Guildford area. 

In the afternoon, we journeyed 
over the Surrey Downs, seeing 
some of the beautiful country- 
side, including Newland's Corner, 
where Dodgson took so many 
walks. We stopped at the Silent 
Pool, and wandered from its 
quiet, extremely clear water to the 
nearby Church of the Apostles, 
the headquarters of the curi- 
ous Catholic Apostolic Church 
founded by Henry Drummond 
and a small coterie of other men 
attracted to the millennialist mes- 
sage of Edward Irving. A short 
ride brought us to Albury village, 
where we enjoyed tea at St. Peter 
and Paul Church and heard a talk 
by a local historian on the history 
of the church, which Drummond 
built for the villagers to use as a 
substitute for the ancient Saxon 
church on the grounds of his 
estate. We drove to Drummond's 
country mansion (now being 
refurbished into luxury flats) 
and the old Saxon church with 
its nineteenth-century Augustus 
Pugin crypt — a fascinating juxta- 
position of artistic styles — ^where 
Drummond's remains reside. 

On Friday evening, we gathered 
again at the School of Manage- 
ment, where Edward Wakeling 
spoke on "The Personal Effects of 
Charles Lutwidge Dodgson, 1898 
and Onwards." Dodgson died 
at 2:30 in the afternoon of Janu- 
ary 14, 1898. When his brother 
Wilfred, his executor, went to the 
rooms at Christ Church, he was 
appalled by the mass of material 
he found: a personal library of 
2,050 titles arranged by subject, 
photograph albums, diaries, letter 
register, lecture notes, texts and 
working papers, paintings, chil- 
dren's toys, and much else. Many 
of these effects were sold at auc- 
tion over the following months, 
much was burned, and of course 
much was retained by members 
of the Dodgson family. Wilfred 
kept the diaries, but sometime 
later four of the thirteen volumes 
disappeared, and some pages were 
removed from surviving volumes. 


Most of the current descendants, 
however distant, have some of 
Dodgson's materials. In 1965, 
Phihp Dodgson Jaques, "the custo- 
dian of Lewis Carroll papers and 
relics in their possession," in the 
words of the old Guildford Muni- 
ment catalogue, offered to donate 
the materials to the Guildford 
Muniment Room. The first part of 
the materials arrived in October 
of 1965, and over the years other 
members of the family have added 
to the original deposit. This is 
known as "The Dodgson Family 
Collection of Letters, Papers and 
Other Materials." The family, how- 
ever, still holds materials that, in 
the aggregate, might be called the 
Dodgson family deutero collection. 

On Saturday, we traveled to 
the Surrey History Centre in Wok- 
ing, which contains the holdings 
of the old Guildford Muniment 
Room. A catalog, produced almost 
twenty years ago by Shirley Corke, 
listed their Carroll holdings up 
to that time, and is now available 
online. The Surrey History Centre 
is truly a state-of-the-art facility, as 
was demonstrated by its learned 
archivists Julian Pooley and Mike 
Page. After a tour of the Centre, 
we examined an exhibition of 
its impressive Dodgson holdings, 
augmented by materials from the 
Dodgson Family Collection. We 
saw the famous letter from Dr. 
Tait, headmaster of Richmond 
School, to the Rev. Charles Dodg- 
son expressing his high opinion 
of the genius of young Charles, 
drafts of Dodgson's letter to an 
agnostic, the infamous note on 
the removed pages from the diary, 
and the standard reply to writers 
addressing letters to Lewis Carroll 
at Christ Church. 

The afternoon was devoted to 
public lectures on the legacy of 
Lewis Carroll. Mark Richards wel- 
comed the guests, offered some 
general reflections on the depth 
and extent of Carroll's legacy, and 
introduced Selwyn Goodacre, who 
gave a very brief biography of 

Carroll as background to the after- 
noon's talks. 

Clare Imholtz delivered a talk 
on Carroll's nonsense and word- 
play, tided "Did You Say PIG or 
FIG?" Carroll's words display his 
sense of humor, and his neolo- 
gisms had a great influence on 

James Joyce, whom Clare quoted 
briefly, and on the surrealists. 
Many of his "Jabberwocky" non- 
sense words are still in use. "Chor- 
de" entered the Oxford English Dic- 
tionary in the 1890s. Kipling used 
four words from "Jabberwocky" 
in his story "Stalky & Co." Denis 
Crutch, writing \n Jabberwocky, 
offered some brilliant possible 
definitions for "vorpal," "tulgey," 
and "frabjous," viewing them as 
sort of super portmanteaus. To 
him, "vorpal" suggested voracious, 
formidable, awful, mortal, fateful; 

"tulgey": turgid, bulgey, bosky, ugly 
(Clare thinks he borrowed some 
of this from Eric Partridge); and 

"frabjous": frantic, fabulous, raptur- 
ous, joyous, and juicy. Agreeing 
with Crutch, Elizabeth Sewell 
stated in The Field of Nonsense that 
the words of "Jabberwocky" often 
function by reminding us of other 
words. However, Sewell felt some 
of the words that Carroll made 
up — one can hardly pronounce 
them — such as "mhruxian" and 

"grurmstipth" from A Tangled Tale 
and "hjckrrh" from the Mock 
Turtle's story, "do not interest the 
mind." She said that the mind 

"can enjoy itself with words like 

"tove," which look strangely famil- 
iar. Clare agreed. 

Selwyn then spoke on the many 
parodies of the Alice books. Avoid- 
ing an overly strict construction 
of the term "parody," he showed a 
cavalcade of slides of the covers of 
numerous parodies and pastiches 
(political, advertising, religious, 
and other), all drawn from his 
own collection, accompanied by 
a delightful running commentary. 
Some of the fascinating items he 
showed were: Clara in Blunderland 
(many Carroll collectors have a 
copy of this, but how many collec- 

tors have all ten reprints?), Alice in 
Motorland, Through a Peer Glass (a 
Winston Churchill parody) , Alice 
in Holidayland, the Guinness Al- 
ices of course, Alice's Adventures in 
Railwayland, and Wilson in Wonder- 
land (about former Prime Minister 
Harold Wilson). 

After a short tea break that 
included a surrealistic slide show 
to the strains of Grace Slick's 
"White Rabbit," I gave a brief talk 
on unpublished Alice plays, an- 
other aspect of Carroll's legacy. 
Concentrating on plays from the 
copyright deposit collection of 
the Library of Congress, plays not 
listed in Charlie Lovett's excellent 
monograph Alice on Stage, I read 
brief excerpts from two of them: 
a short passage from Deborah 
Mitchell's 1976 NAACP play Alice 
in Ghetto-Land, in which a "Top 
Cat" substitutes for the Cheshire 
Cat, and the delightful prologue 
from Thomas Patrick McNamara's 
1976 Alice — a Modern Adaptation. 

Jenny Woolf followed me with 
an interesting talk on Dodgson's 
physical appearance. She com- 
mented on his stiff posture, his 
slightly asymmetrical left eye with 
its drooping eyelid, his dreamy 
grey eyes, and his firm belief in 
mens sana in corpore sano, demon- 
strated by his ability to walk eigh- 
teen miles in four and three-quar- 
ters hours! She wondered how 
much of Dodgson himself there 
might be in his story "Wilhelm von 

The younger, in whom the 
sagacious reader already 
recognizes the hero of my 
tale, possessed a form which, 
once seen, could scarcely 
be forgotten: a slight ten- 
dency to obesity proved but 
a trifling drawback to the 
manly grace of its contour, 
and though the strict laws 
of beauty might perhaps 
have required a somewhat 
longer pair of legs to make 
up the proportion of his 
figure, and that his eyes 


should match rather more 
exactly than they chanced 
to do, yet to those critics 
who are untrammeled with 
any laws of taste, and there 
are many such, to those 
who could close their eyes 
to the faults in his shape, 
and single out its beau- 
ties, though few were ever 
found capable of the task, 
to those above all who knew 
and esteemed his personal 
character, and believed that 
the powers of his mind tran- 
scended those of the age he 
lived in, though alas! None 
such has yet turned up — to 
those he was an Apollo. . . 

Jenny noted that the young 
Dodgson looked quite dapper in 
an early photograph, but unfortu- 
nately no photograph of him after 
the age of forty apparently exists. 
He was sensitive about his appear- 
ance, as Isa Bowman's story of 
her attempt to sketch him makes 
frightfully, almost unsettlingly, 
clear. Here is Isa's account, how- 
ever believable it may be, of this 
particular torn page episode: 

I had an idle trick of draw- 
ing caricatures when I was 
a child, and one day when 
he was writing some letters, 
I began to make a picture 
of him on the back of an 
envelope . . . but suddenly 
he turned around and saw 
what I was doing. He got up 
from his seat and turned 
very red, frightening me 
very much. Then he took 
my poor little drawing, and 
tearing it into small pieces, 
threw it into the fire with- 
out a word. 

And speaking of pages being 
torn out and perhaps up, Edward 
Wakeling concluded the afternoon 
lectures with a talk on the missing 
pages from Carroll's diary. With a 
brilliantly worked out and surely 
Agatha Christie-inspired talk (for 
she vanished from her nearby 

Surrey Downs home in 1926 only 
to appear eleven days later — quite 
unlike the cut diary pages, at 
least so far), Edward sketched the 
scene, presented the characters, 
reviewed motives, eliminated the 
innocent suspects, and announced 
that, with the aid of his "little grey 
cells," he has identified the culprit, 
whose identity he will reveal in a 
fully demonstrated argument in 
published form. 

A "Pistrinum Dinner" on Satur- 
day evening was held at Gomshall 
Mill. Roger Allen led us in the tra- 
ditional LCS Latin grace, chosen 
for the dinners by the late Canon 
Ivor Davies, though I had a passel 
of Cambridge College graces at 
the ready, ranging from two words 
to too many words, just in case 
one was needed. Maybe next time. 

Sunday morning began with a 
visit to Millfield Park beside the 
quiet River Wey to see Edwin Rus- 
sell's bronze statues of the rabbit 
heading for his rabbit hole while 
Alice sits beside her sister, who 
is reading, in a most proleptic 
manner, Alice's Adventures in Won- 
derland] After a peaceful few min- 
utes there with photographs duly 
digitally shot, we walked up to St. 
Mary's church for a special Matins 
service. Mary Alexander spoke to 
us about Dodgson 's preaching at 
St. Mary's. Selwyn Goodacre de- 
livered a brief sermon honoring 
his father, the late Rev. Norman 
W. Goodacre, whose views he 
intertwined with Carroll's "Easter 
Greeting," commenting on how 
both clergymen saw religion in 
children's lives. After the service, 
we were offered sherry and crisps 
as we viewed photographs Maijo- 
rie Williams had brought of the 
Dodgson family graves, before and 
after their restoration — ^which had 
been organized and supported 
by Prof. Katsuko Kasai of Japan, a 
member of the Guildford Study 
Weekend group. 

On the way to lunch, Marjorie 
Williams pointed out Mrs. Carter's 
house on Quarry Street across 
from St. Mary's church, where 

Dodgson stayed while in Guildford 
to help nurse his dying nephew 
Charlie Wilcox. It was July 18, 
1874, that the famous final Une of 
The Hunting of the Snark suddenly 
occurred to Dodgson as he took a 
solitary walk on the Surrey Downs. 

After lunch, we were fortunate 
to be able to visit the Chestnuts 
itself, courtesy of Mr. and Mrs. 
Baker, who now own the property. 
A number of us toured the base- 
ment where their daughter now 
lives in what had been in Dodg- 
son 's day the servants' quarters. 
The upper stories were undergo- 
ing careful renovation so that the 
original structures could later be 
revealed if necessary. 

The bronze and glass statue of 
Alice passing through the looking- 
glass, a Palladian glass without 
frame, in the little park to the side 
of the hill just a few hundred feet 
above the rear of the house was 
delightful to see. 

Unfortunately, our coach was 
not able to go up the steep hill to 
the Mount Cemetery to see the 
Dodgson graves. An express train 
brought us swiftly back to London, 
a little faster surely than Dodg- 
son 's trip had been, but no less 


Ann Buki 

"And in a very short time 
the room was full of Alice: 
just in the same way as a 
jar is full of jam! There 
was Alice all the way up to 
the ceiling: and Alice in 
every corner of the room!" 
— The Nursery Alice 

The time I spent in Edward Wakel- 
ing's Alice course at the Oxford 
Experience (a residential summer 
program of one-week courses 
for nonspecialists, July 25-30) 
was worth a thousand pounds a 
minute. En tided Alice's Adventures 
in Oxford: The Origin of Lewis Car- 


roll's Immortal Story, the class was 
international and enthusiastic, the 
atmosphere friendly and collegial, 
and our tutor brilliant, generous, 
and humorous. There was much 
of a muchness in the course; it 
provided prizes to all Carrollians, 
from novices to the well versed. It 
would not surprise me if everyone 
in the class has joined the LCSNA 
and/or the LCS. 

Each day began with Mr. Wakel- 
ing's presentation. Some of the 
topics covered in detail included 
the lives of Lewis Carroll and Alice 
Liddell, Carroll's (and Dodgson's) 
photographic and mathemati- 
cal careers, and a few of the un- 
founded assumptions made about 
Carroll. After hearing some of 
these misconceptions, it occurred 
to me that Carroll's life and works 
have at times been, as was said of 
Shakespeare's in Ulysses, a "happy 
hunting ground of . . . minds that 
have lost their balance." 

We had homework assignments, 
but our tutor provided us with ev- 
erything we needed to succeed in 
our subsequent class presentations. 
It was fun to work with a partner, a 
different one for each of the two 
assignments. Some worked very 

diligently on the homework, but 
I was a bit of a slouch. The same 
was true of the croquet match 
that a few of us played on a free 
afternoon in the gorgeous Masters' 
Garden — I finished last. 

In the afternoons Mr. Wakeling 
took us on excursions to Alice and 
Carroll-related sites, guided tours 
of Christ Church, museums, and 
areas of interest in Oxford. We 
also visited the places where the 
boat trip that gave birth to the 
A/zc^ stories took place. 

On most evenings we were 
invited back to the classroom to 
watch Alice films and programs. 
One night we gathered to read 
The Hunting of the Snark, and by 
evening's end were transformed 
from baffled beginners into sanc- 
tioned snarkophiles. On another 
evening, Mr. Wakeling gave a pre- 
sentation on Dodgson's puzzles 
and games that was open to all Ox- 
ford Experience attendees. Judg- 
ing by the large crowd's enthusi- 
asm (and the number of people 
who bought his books afterwards), 
all were dazzled. 

Mr. Wakeling was generous in 
sharing his remarkably extensive 
knowledge and precious collec- 
tion of resources. He brought with 
him, among other treasures, the 
copy of Alice that was presented to 

Alice Hargreaves during her visit 
to the U.S. It was a thrill to touch 
the page in the book that bore her 
signature. And he did not have to 
tell us three times that we would 
graciously be allowed to handle 
any of his books. 

The week was filled with math- 
ematical, musical, and magical 
moments that brought the spirit of 
Lewis Carroll alive. From the pub 
visit on the evening before our 
class began to the farewell dinner 
where we received our certificates, 
I did not skip a single event. Both 
the course and the entire Oxford 
Experience week gave me (and my 
classmates, I'm sure) more knowl- 
edge and enjoyment than a year 
of unbirthday presents. I mark 
each of the days spent there with a 
white stone. 

The cost of the course include 
accommodations in comfortable 
student housing, three meals 
(with vegetarian, gluten-free, 
and vegan choices), and a daily 
break for tea and biscuits in mid- 
morning. Each student had the 
opportunity to sit at the high table 
for an evening meal. For more 
information on registering for 
future courses, see The Oxford 
Experience website. 




Mark Burstein 

Borges and others have spoken 
of a universal Hbrary; for our 
purposes, let us imagine an enor- 
mous set of the two canonical 
Alicehooks., all with matching 
covers and identically formatted, 
with the Tenniel illustrations, and 
each in one of the ninety or more 
languages into which they have 
been translated. Michael Everson, 
under his Evertype imprint, is, in 
fact, moving in that direction, with 
matching editions of Wonderland 
in English as well as Eachtrai Eiltse i 
dTir na niontas (Irish) , Alys in Pow 
an Anethow (Cornish) , La Aventuroj 
de Alicio en Mirlando (Esperanto), 
Alice's Abenteuer im Wunderland 
(German), Contoyrtyssyn Ealish 
ayns Qheerny Yindyssyn (Manx), 
Les aventures d' Alice au pays des 
merveilles (French), Anturiaethau 
Alys yng Ngwlad Hud (Welsh) ; Al- 
ices Aventyr i Sagolandet (Swedish) 
and Looking-Glass in English and 
Lastall den Scdthdn agus a bhFuair 
Eilis Ann Roimpi (Irish). He is cur- 
rently working on Italian, Danish, 
Low German, and Scots. New 
translations into the constructed 
languages Volapiik, Lojban, and 
Neo have begun, and Clive Car- 
ruthers' classical Latin translations 
will be reset and republished in 
20n. In addition to commission- 
ing brand-new translations (Irish, 
Cornish, Low German, Scots, and 
Volapiik), Everson is creating new 
editions of the texts in European 
languages (he is fluent in six) that 
are taken from the first editions, 
but Romanized (in the case of the 
German Fraktur) and modernized 
in terms of spelling and, occa- 
sionally, vocabulary, in 
order to provide thor- 
oughly readable texts 
for today's readers. 

Born and raised 
in America, Everson 
moved to Ireland at 
the age of twenty-six, 
receiving a Fulbright 
scholarship soon after. 
Sometimes called "al- 

0^ ^'^cJ 

phabetician to the world," he is 
a linguist, typographer, and font 
designer; was one of the principal 
editors and authors of Unicode 
(a computer character-encoding 
system presently incorporating 
96,000 letters and symbols and 54 
writing systems, from Mongolian 
to Thai to Gothic to Cyrillic); and 
is presently the Irish National 
Representative to the ISO com- 
mittee responsible for the Uni- 
versal Character Set. He is active 
in supporting minority-language 
communities, including the Celtic 
and Finnish language families, 
Balinese, and N'Ko (West Africa) . 
Simply put, his love of languages 
has put him in the forefront of 
a scholarly movement to encode 
the writing systems of every single 
language ever spoken into com- 
puter form. 

One can understand his fasci- 
nation for Carroll, likewise a lover 
of language who was fascinated by 
machines and once even devised 
his own alphabet (the "Square 
Alphabet" for his Nyctograph, 
KL 75.8-9). Beginning with his 
publication of new translations of 
them into the Irish tongue — the 
first since Padraig O Cadhla's 
in 1922 — Michael became "en- 
amored" of the Alice books, and 
soon published standard English 
versions to match. All the cover 

designs are identical (save for the 
text, of course), and their interior 
design was inspired by The Anno- 
tated Alice: The Definitive Edition, in 
terms of the text fonts (DeVinne), 
display fonts (Mona Lisa, Engrav- 
ers Roman), Victorian flower 
ornaments, and drop caps. He ran 
into all the usual problems with 
translations, but noted that in Irish 
the Mouse's Tale/Tail pun worked 
perfectly {parabal: parable, tale; 
earball: tail). Even Tenniel's illus- 
trations have been modified, so 
that, for example, the label on the 
bottle reads "OLTAR ME" instead 
of "DRINK ME." 

Everson 's friend and col- 
league Nicholas Williams (Profes- 
sor of Irish at University College 
Dublin), the translator into Irish, 
then gave the world a new Cornish 
Wonderland (the first since Ray 
Edwards's Alysy'n Vro a Varthsusyon 
in 1994), and the dam was burst, 
soon resulting in a reset Esperanto 
edition in the 1910 Elfric Leofwine 
Kearney translation, and an Alice's 
Adventures under Ground, the first 
typeset version with the Carroll 
illustrations. Everson set himself a 
challenge of laying out an entire 
book in one day, and succeeded 
with The Hunting of the Snark. A 
Nursery Alice followed (in color) , 
and he recently began work on a 
new omnibus edition of Sylvie and 
Bruno (a difficult book in many 
ways, he says) . 

He has since branched out 
into the world of Alice imitations, 
parodies, and spinoffs, releasing 
Wonderland Revisited and the Games 
Alice Played There (2009: Keith 
Sheppard, ill. Cynthia Brownell, 
reviewed on p. 46), A New Alice in 
the Old Wonderland (orig. 
1895: Anna Matlack Rich- 
ards, ill. by the author's 
daughter Anna Richards 
Brewster) , Alice in Wonder- 
land in Words of One Syllable 
(orig. 1905: retold by Mrs. 
J. C. Gorham), Clara in 
Blunderland (orig. 1902: 
"Caroline Lewis" [Edward 
H. Begbie], ill. J. Stafford 


Ransome), Lost in Blunderland 
(orig. 1903: dxlio) , John Bull's 
Adventures in the Fiscal Wonderland 
(orig. 1904: Charles Geake and 
Francis Carruthers Gould, ill. F. 
C. Gould), Alice in Blunderland: An 
Iridescent Dream (orig. 1907: John 
Kendrick Bangs, ill. Albert Lever- 
ing), The Westminster Alice (orig. 
1922: "Saki" [H. H. Munro], ill. F 
C. Gould) , New Adventures of Alice 
(orig. 1917: John Rae, ill. by the 
author) , Rollo in Emblemland (orig. 
1902: John Kendrick Bangs and 
Charles Raymond Macauley, ill. C. 
R. Macauley) , and a single volume 
containing both Gladys in Gram- 
marland (orig. c. 1897: Audrey 
Mayhew Allen, ill. "Claudine") and 
Alice in Grammarland (orig. 1923: 
Louise Franklin Bache, ill. Henry 
Clarence Pitz) . 

In preparation are Eileen 's 
Adventures in Wordland (orig. 1920: 
Zillah K, Macdonald, ill. Stuart 
Hay), Davy and the Goblin (orig. 
1884: Charles E. Carryl, ill. E. B. 
Bensell), Alice in Plunderland (orig. 
1910: "Loris Carllew," ill. Linton 
Jehne), and some portmanteaux 
of shorter pieces written between 
1878 and today 

And more translations. And 
more. At the rate Evertype is 
going, perhaps we can look for- 
ward to the Universal Carroll Li- 
brary being completed in a decade 
or two! 

When asked what he thinks 
about his progress so far, Michael 
replied, in Irish, "7w5 maith, leath na 
hoibre" ("Well begun is half done"). 

Wonderland Revisited, and the 

Games Alice Played There 

Keith Sheppard, illustrated 

by Cynthia Brownell 

Evertype, 2009 
ISBN 978-194808343 

Reviewd by Sarah Adams-Kiddy 

One night after going to bed, 
Alice wakes up to find her bed has 
turned into a small boat, bobbing 
along a river on a warm summer's 
day. The dog rowing the bed/ 
boat is only the first of the many 

characters she meets that speak 
nonsense to her in true Wonder- 
land fashion. When she asks if 
she might ask what he is doing in 
her bed, he, after some quibbling 
about whether she may or may not 
ask, responds by asking what she is 
doing in his boat! These conversa- 
tions are amusing, but the reader 
does feel that Sheppard is trying 
a bit too hard with the CarroUian- 
style twists of logic and grammar. 
(To his credit, I've never encoun- 
tered a CarroUian pastiche that 

Instead of joining a deck of 
cards to play croquet with hedge- 
hogs and flamingoes, or becoming 
a pawn on a massive chessboard, 
in Wonderland Revisited Alice and 
the characters she encounters act 
as the pieces of various games, in- 
cluding bridge, euchre, darts, fox 
and geese, mah^ong, and snakes 
and ladders. The Red Queen ap- 
pears several times to play croquet 
and draughts, a group of morris 
dancers plays nine men's mor- 
ris, and Alice caddies for the Red 
King. New characters include a 
talking tree, the Jack of Diamonds, 
a gameskeeper who keeps track 
of the games but then turns into 
a goat, and aggressive geese that 
want to eat Alice, dragons that 
don't, and a snake that does. And 
of course, none of the paths leads 
to where Alice wants to go! 

Many of the games mentioned 
in the book, such as bridge and 
mah-jong, may be unfamiliar to a 
child reader, and many use names 
and terms unfamiliar to Ameri- 
can readers, such as draughts 
(checkers) and snakes and ladders 
(chutes and ladders). But Shep- 
pard's introduction kindly in- 
cludes a paragraph on most of the 
games, giving enough of an over- 
view of each to allow the reader to 
understand what is happening in 
the action and "get" any jokes that 
might otherwise be missed. 

Speaking of jokes, Sheppard 
plays with words, grammar, logic, 
and numbers, as did Carroll. Ana- 
grammatic poems appear, and sev- 

eral characters insist on referring 
to Alice as "Celia." In addition, 
Sheppard makes some fun refer- 
ences to the original Alice books, 
academia (You knew that the capi- 
tal of France is "F," didn't you?), 
and also to twentieth-century cul- 
ture. Sometimes these are spelled 
out for the reader, and sometimes 
not — surely the pelican with a bill 
full of ink is a reference to Pelikan 
fountain pens? 

Despite the many clever and 
interesting ideas in this book, it 
unfortunately did not hold my 
interest for much more than a 
chapter at a time. Brownell's line 
illustrations are a bit clunky, as 
well. I suspect that, true to the au- 
thor's stated intention, this book 
would be much more amusing to 
read aloud to a child. 

Alice in Verse: The Lost 

Rhymes of Wonderland 
J. T. Holden, illustrated 

by Andrew Johnson 
Candleshoe Books, 2009 

ISBN 978-0982508992 

Reviewed by Hayley Rushing 

Don't let the tide fool you. Alice in 
Verse: The Lost Rhymes of Wonderland, 
by J. T Holden, is not a volume 
of Carroll's forgotten poetry. 
Rather it is Holden's experiment 
in exploring his own childhood 
imagination, sparked by the tales 
his grandfather once told him of 
mythical, lost poetry that shed light 
on the mysteries of Wonderland. 
Holden's Lost Rhymes, illustrated 
by Chicago-based artist Andrew 
Johnson, is a volume of nineteen 
CarroUian-style poems that are 
actually a quite convincing pas- 
tiche, befitting the misleading title. 
The poems are more akin to fan 
fiction than traditional pastiche as 
they follow Alice's journey through 
Wonderland and Looking-Glass 
Land, because they fill in blanks 
rather than create new adventures 
for her As if taking cues from 
the many movie adaptations that 
combine the two books, the poems 
travel through both Wonderland 


and Looking-Glass, starting (as 
always) with the rabbit-hole and 
ending with the trial over the tarts, 
with smatterings of tea parties, 
caterpillars, Tweedles, and live 
flowers mixed in. Indeed, unlike 
other modern retellings, Holden's 
Lost Rhymes must follow the origi- 
nal story, for while the rhymes are 
clever and the meter is fun to read 
(especially aloud), they're not 
much for autonomous storytelling; 
they don't carry the story on their 
own, but merely remind us of what 
we already know. 

In terms of imitative style, the 
clever rhymes are very CarroUian, 
my current favorite being "elocu- 
tion" and "execution" during the 
trial scene, where Holden writes. 

Whilst Hare and Hatter plied 

the Mouse 

With soothing elocution. 
There rose a voice in bold dissent 

To halt the execution... 

Also, the incorporation of what 
Martin Gardner called a "figured" 
poem, recited here at the tea- 
party, is an excellent nod to the 
Mouse's Tale, though without the 
pun. The meter varies by poem, 
creating an individual tone for 
every piece, which was a surprise 
for me. I'd expected solely the 
iambic quatrains that are typical of 
Carroll's poems (mosdy parodies 
of popular poetry of the time); 
instead, though the tone remains 
distincdy CarroUian, each poem 
has a unique vitality that helps cre- 
ate a dynamic whole. 

Johnson's spooky illustrations 
are striking and oddly morose in 
smudged blacks and grays. More 
scary than odd, the art seems typi- 
cal of the "Alice is the new black" 
trend of the modern, Goth-fashion 
Alice. Rather than curiously pon- 
dering as she leisurely descends 
the rabbit-hole, Alice looks genu- 
inely terrified as she falls with what 
appears to be a speed that would 
likely impede introverted thought 

(as when Alice wildly hurtles down 
the rabbit-hole in the Burton 
film). In terms of imaginative style, 
I particularly love the Hatter's 
bulging, tumorous, turban-like hat 
and the White Rabbit's long, gaunt 
face and haunted eyes, for who 
hasn't felt haunted by lateness? 
With such grim artwork, it's 
fitting that the author's upcom- 
ing book is O the Dark Things You 'II 
See!, again illustrated by Johnson, 
which is an ominous parody of Dr. 
Seuss's Oh The Places You 'II Go!, set 
to hit the shelves in March, ac- 
cording to Holden's page on Ama- 
zon, though Candleshoe Books' 
site says it'll be May. Holden has 
also reported in interviews that he 
has more rhyming poetry books in 
the works, Bedtime Tales for Naughty 
Children and Gothic Tales for the 
Wicked Soul, though their release 
dates are yet to be determined. 

The Hunting of the Snark: 
An Agony in Eight Fits 

Lewis Carroll, illustrated 

by Mahendra Singh 

Melville House, 2010 

ISBN 978-1935554240 

Reviewed by Stephanie Lovett 

If you would like to know what 
you are getting before you order 
a copy of Mahendra Singh's new 
The Hunting of The Snark, imagine 
the results if Edward Gorey were 
to draw a dream Rene Magritte 
had about Hieronymus Bosch. 
Entertaining and provocative, 
Singh's deadpan pen-and-ink 
"engravings" — a style that pays 
homage to Tenniel and Holiday — 
conjure a variety of sources, not 
so much to illustrate the text as to 
create a parallel text, a visual Snark 
joining the verbal Snark. 

Winning at "spot the reference" 
is always gratifying, and readers 
will hugely enjoy the walk-ons 
by Alice characters, allusions to 
Dodgson's photography and mi- 
lieu, joyful plunderings of surreal- 
ism 's vast iconography, and a myr- 
iad of jokes that ring the bells of 

your knowledge of, inter alia, his- 
torical personages, Victorian Eng- 
land, and things Indian (though 
I must say I got that last one via 
Kipling). Rather than spoil your 
fun by enumerating these finds, I 
will instead reassure you that, far 
from being a superficial show of 
cleverness, these visual jokes serve 
the artist's larger purpose of tak- 
ing us deeper into the world of the 
Snark. This great depth (perhaps 
so great as to be a chasm . . . and 
so can we say that these illustra- 
tions are abysmal, in a good way?) 
results from the fact that these 
images and ideas bring along with 
them the entirety of the worlds 
they come from, and from the 
necessity of active participation by 
the reader. You are creating depth 
by being there yourself. 

Of the many devices at work in 
these illustrations, one that re- 
ally drives their functioning is the 
constant play between realism and 
staginess. Scenes dissolve back and 
forth between a theater setdng and 
a (strange and dreamy) realism. 
Characters are sometimes them- 
selves and sometimes performing; 
they are figures in a theater, in a 
shadowbox, in an 11-circuit laby- 
rinth, in a picture within a picture. 
This play-fulness emphasizes the 
storytelling process and invites us 
to see the characters as more than 
themselves — as exemplars, meta- 
phors, personae for the ages. 

Like the Beaver and the 
Butcher, the story of the Snark and 
these illustrations walk hand in 
hand, each filling our heads with 
ideas through its own particular 
means. Your attention to Mahen- 
dra Singh's work will be amply 
repaid; you will learn more about 
a book you thought you knew, and 
you may even weep with delight. 



The Real Alice in Wonderland: 

A Role Model for the Ages 

C. M. Rubin with Gabriella Rubin 

AuthorHouse, 2010 

ISBN 978-1449081317 

Reviewed by Ray Kiddy 

I was prepared to be unimpressed 
with The Real Alice in Wonderland, 
but I was pleasantly surprised. Not 
impressed, mind you, but I found 
that it does have a bit to say. The 
completist will want to own this, of 
course, but most Carrollians may 
want to read through the book 
before buying it. It could be an 
approachable book for the rela- 
tive of a collector, someone who 
vaguely wonders what all the fuss 
is about and does not need to be 
very rigorous about getting an 
answer. Plus, I have a soft spot for 
my relatives who scrapbook. And 
if this book seems very much like 
a scrapbook, its origins, indeed, 
are a project the author's daugh- 
ter Gabriella did in high school. 
Just as a scrapbook can record the 
details of a day, perhaps a child's 
first day at school, and make it 
interesting, so this book records 
an "incredible journey" described 
on the book flap as encompass- 
ing London, Oxford, Lyndhurst, 
Guildford, and Llandudno. This 
is a small geographical span for 
an "incredible journey," but of 
course, one does not have to go to 
the ends of the earth to find some- 
thing exotic or interesting, and 
the British Isles do pack rather a 
lot into a small space. If you enjoy 
a lighthearted visual presentation, 
something perhaps akin to a web- 
log in book form, and if you can 
overlook text being overwritten by 
ornate clusters of roses that oc- 
cupy a rather large space in each 
corner of many pages, or the use 
of public-domain clip art, you will 
enjoy the visual effect that this 
book achieves. 

A Carrollian who wants to take 
this book seriously will probably 
be frustrated. This is the not the 
first book to claim to present new 
information, and then provide 

absolutely no specifics, citations, 
or provenance for any of it, or to 
claim that Lewis Carroll was less 
than wholly responsible for his 
book. The author makes the claim 
here that, after Dodgson stopped 
spending time with the Liddells, 
he and Alice Liddell corresponded 
in secret, and that Alice's advocacy 
was necessary for the publication 
oi Alice's Adventures in Wonderland. 
I am not sure how one would go 
about providing corroboration for 
these goings-on. The author does 
not even attempt it, so where does 
one go with this? 

This book does speak about the 
middle part of Alice Liddell 's life, 
which is often overlooked. Alice 
usually shows up in our conscious- 
ness either as the young girl on 
the river Thames, or as the older 
woman who had to sell her manu- 
script and who later came to New 
York to be honored at Columbia 
University. The middle of her life 
as Alice Hargreaves is much less 
familiar to most people, and it is 
good to see a picture of her as she 
was for much of her life, a wife, 
mother, and, even an artist. What 
one does mostly see is a picture, 
and another picture, and a mirror 
image of the picture to fit on the 
facing page. . . . But most of Alice's 
story has been better documented, 
just as we have other books (such 
as Linda Sunshine's) that collect 
art about Lewis Carroll and Alice 
from many sources. There may be 
new information here, but if that 
is so, it will have to be republished 
with citations and sources to be 

Yet again Alice is presented as 
the true source of the creativity or 
the stories in Lewis Carroll's most 
famous work. Of course, at first 
glance we see this puckish young 
girl, fetchingly posed, an artist in 
her own right, and then we see 
Reverend Dodgson, a church- 
man and, even worse, a teacher 
of mathematics. Which of these 
figures seems lighthearted, which 
creative, which clever? The au- 
thor even suggests here that, after 

their estrangement, "who knows 
going forward what other creative 
projects Alice might have inspired 
him to create?" And yet collectors 
have entire rooms filled with his 
later works. Why is it so difficult to 
credit Lewis Carroll with creativ- 
ity? A poem may be inspired by a 
flower, but we don't suggest that 
the flower lobbied for the poem 
to be published and sent letters to 
the editor about it. 

This book could have been 
better, and more informative. It 
is good for what it is and as far as 
it goes, but more diligence and 
effort might have made it a more 
important one. 

Alice's Adventures in Wonderland 

Lewis Carroll, illustrated 

by Nancy Wiley 

Wiley O'Brien 

Workspace, Inc., 2009 

ISBN 978-0615294926 

Reviewed by Ray Kiddy 

Nancy Wiley has done an admi- 
rable job illustrating Alice's Adven- 
tures in Wonderland with dolls, dolls 
that she rightly calls "sculptural." 
Obviously, certain tableaux are 
going to be more fun to do, but 
she executes different sculptures 
for almost all of the "Tenniel 42" 
and adds many extras. These in- 
clude Dodgson reading in a chair, 
the boat ride on the Thames, the 
raven and the writing desk, many 
versions of Father William, and 
more than a few Crustacea and 
other sea creatures. Of course, cats 
and pigs and grins and teacups 
abound. I cannot decide which is 
my favorite figure. There is some- 
thing to appeal to every Carrol- 
lian, whether it be the frustrated 
expressions of the card soldiers, 
the three-masted-ship hat of the 
Duchess at the Queen's party, the 
sleeping Gryphon, the dancing 
lobsters, or all of the different at- 
titudes on display at the trial. 

Reinterpretations of Alice often 
try to shock, but Wiley's figures 
do not stoop to that. Neither are 
they twee. They are childlike, with 


some fluffiness evident in most of 
the creatures portrayed. But they 
are also complex. Some of the 
scenes might have become self-car- 
icatures, but Wiley's faces are ex- 
pressive, and her use of cloth, hair, 
and body positioning makes them 
amusing in a straightforward way, 
while also layered with suggested 
meanings. For exmaple, the house 
of the White Rabbit looks like a 
traditional dollhouse, with its side 
wall cut away. It seems an obvi- 
ous effect when you are working 
with dolls, but I cannot remember 
a drawing that sliced the house 
open in this way. The use of the 
dollhouse almost seems to show 
Wiley laughing at herself. Yes, it 
is a doll's house, but it also works 
to illustrate the story very well, 
and she is not afraid to use it. The 
Queen is, of course, shouting, but 
being a card, she has an upside- 
down face on the front of her 
dress. Again, a simple effect, but 
the differing expressions make it 
more than just a simple trick. 

When I spoke with Nancy Wiley 
at the Philadelphia meeting this 
past spring, she did not seem to 
be ready to attempt Through the 
Looking-Glass, but I hope she con- 
siders it. Some of the darker ele- 
ments of that story will be a chal- 
lenge, but that is why I hope she 
will do it. Her dolls are complex 
enough to model the ambiguities 
and darkness in that story, and 
the characters would not be flat 
cutouts. I very much look forward 
to her vision of the Jabberwock in 


"En Passant" 

Katherine Neville, in 

Masters of Technique, edited 

by Howard Goldowsky, 

Boston: Mongoose Press, 2010 

286 pp., ISBN 978-0970148262 

Reviewed by August A. Imholtz, Jr. 

Chess fiction, a genre that of 
course has its own Library of Con- 
gress subject heading, is not an 
area in which Charles Lutwidge 
Dodgson has figured too promi- 

nently, in spite of his own chess 
creation. Through the Looking-Glass. 
Is he featured in mystery stories? 
Yes indeed — ^you only have to think 
of works by Peter Lovesey, John 
Dickson Carr, Donald Thomas, 
and many others. Science fiction? 
Of course; think of Jose Farmer 
and the rest. But chess stories? 
Strangely less so. Yes, there are a 
few; perhaps one could mention 
Massimo Bontempelli's The Chess Set 
in the Mirror, but Katherine Neville 
has changed the chess landscape 
with her engaging, multilevel short 
story "En Passant." The tide refers 
to a move in chess, a sort of penalty 
or compensatory maneuver on the 
part of a pawn, which — ^when it has 
advanced to the second rank — can 
be captured, in a peculiar way, by 
a pawn on the fifth rank. Here is 
a more technical definition drawn 
from the Wikipedia entry: 

En passant (from the French: 
in passing) ... is a special form of 
capture made immediately after a 
player moves a pawn two squares 
forward from its starting position, 
and an opposing pawn could have 
captured it as if it had moved 
only one square forward. In this 
situation, the opposing pawn may 
capture the pawn as if taking it "as 
it passes" through the first square. 
The resulting position is the same 
as if the pawn had only moved one 
square forward and the opposing 

pawn had captured normally. The 
en passant capture must be done 
on the very next turn, or the right 
to do so is lost. Such a move is the 
only occasion in chess in which a 
piece captures but does not move 
to the square of the captured piece. 

The latter exception is not 
unimportant to the way the mean- 
ing of "en passant" plays out in 
the story. Without completely 
giving away the whole plot and 
conclusion, one can say that 
Charles Lutwidge Dodgson, John 
Ruskin, Prince Leopold, Dean 
Henry George Liddell, and of 
course Alice Pleasance Liddell 
are all ensnared in a situation — a 
chess match, actually — at Alice's 
contrivance, in the garden of the 
deanery of Christ Church. Each 
character is represented by a chess 
figure: Dodgson a knight, Liddell 
a bishop, Ruskin a rook ("What 
else?" one might ask), and Alice, 
of course, a pawn and then a 
queen. This Alice is not the little 
girl of Wonderland but a young 
woman of twenty-one, who simply 
wishes to "live an ordinary, simple 
life, as others did, a life of sched- 
ules and rules and plans, a life 
with a husband and children." At 
the end of the chess match, Alice 
is freed from a captured state, 
captured en passant, in which she 
was almost imprisoned forever. Or 
was she? Corpus Christi College, 
perhaps by poetic license or for 
some other reason, has become 
Corpus Christie; otherwise, Kath- 
erine Neville proves herself here a 
master of technique. 


The Place of Lewis Carroll 

in Children 's Literature 

Jan Susina 

Roudedge, 2010 

ISBN 978-0415936293 

Reviewed by Clare Imholtz 

Jan Susina explores the central- 
ity of Lewis Carroll to children's 
literature from many angles, chap- 
ter by chapter unveiling multiple 
Alices: inter alia, a book for adults, 
a book for children, a book for 


upper-middle-class children, and 
a book that has found its way 
(with Carroll's blessing during his 
lifetime) into every niche market, 
from biscuit tins to multimedia 
games. He also examines Carroll's 
letters, photography, and late 
novel, Sylvie and Bruno. 

Susina, a professor of literature 
at Illinois State University, has 
read widely and deeply on Lewis 
Carroll, children's literature in 
general, and Victorian mores. He 
guides us like a sensible, though 
never stodgy, uncle through the 
pitfalls of Alice scholarship, but 
also presents lively new insights 
and throws welcome light into the 
comers, all in lucid and accessible 
prose. He makes no bones about 
one issue: Some recent scholar- 
ship is "surprisingly ugly." Susina 
defends Carroll as "a proper Vic- 
torian," and the victim of a double 
standard when compared to certain 
of his contemporaries (e.g., Hawar- 
den and Cameron) whose photos 
of children are every bit as open 
to sexual interpretation. He also 
addresses other common misper- 
ceptions. For example, he does 
not totally accept the theory, now a 
truism, that Carroll revolutionized 
children's literature, though he 
grants that Wonderland did move 
the genre away from didacticism 
and toward entertainment. 

At times, Susina may be too 
accepting of time-honored views 
of Carroll. He mentions, but 
does not challenge, Carroll's dis- 
sembling claim in the Preface to 
Sylvie and Bruno Concluded that he 
did not read reviews, despite the 
ample evidence in his letters that 
Carroll — like virtually every other 
author in history — ^was very inter- 
ested in reviews of his books. Su- 
sina also repeats the chestnut that 
Carroll was painfully shy, the Alice 
books being a way to transform 
himself from Dodgson to Carroll. 

The first, wonderful chapter 
discusses Carroll's often over- 
looked juvenilia and highlights 
some little known aspects of it, 
relating the author's youthful 
writing practices to his adult work. 
Readers will enjoy the samples 
Susina provides. Chapter Two 
demonstrates that Wonderland 
was a part of the already flourish- 
ing tradition of the literary fairy 
tale. Here Susina examines and 
responds to the arguments of 
critics such as Ruth Berman and 
John Goldthwaite. Chapter Three 
considers Carroll's obsession with 
letters, arguing that it is in letters 
that the two seemingly distinctive 
personalities of Carroll and Dodg- 
son are trulyjoined. Susina pres- 
ents his own solution to the raven 
and writing-desk riddle, a solution 
based on Carroll's letter writing. 
He also suggests, incorrectly I 
believe (given what we know about 
the 1863 break with the Liddells, 
which he never mentions in this 
very nonbiographical tome), that 
the handwritten manuscript of 
Under Ground can be viewed as a 
"love letter" to Alice Liddell. 

Chapter Four covers the "Alice 
industry" and the rise of chil- 
dren's consumer culture, which 
are, in fact, major themes of this 
book. Carroll's interest in Alice 
repackagings was notable, but is 
perhaps slightly overstated here. 
For example, I don't believe that 
Carroll was actively involved with, 
beyond giving permission for, E. 
Stanley Leathes's Alice in Wonder- 
land Birthday Book (1884). Nor 
should he be credited or blamed 
for the Looking-Glass Biscuit Tin 
nor those ivory-carved Wonderland 
and Looking-Glass figure parasol 

Chapter Five presents an inci- 
sive analysis of Carroll's interest in 
his imitators, and his own anxiety 
lest he himself be accused of hav- 
ing imitated other authors. Susina 
also notes that in some cases imi- 
tations of Carroll appear to have 
influenced his own later work. A 
long analysis of Carroll's attacks 

on Edward Salmon establishes 
indubitably that Carroll cared very 
much about his public image. 

Chapter Six, a detailed look 
at The Nursery Alice, is particularly 
rewarding, and is a good example 
of Susina's ability throughout this 
book to thoroughly examine and 
synthesize not only the critical 
evidence but the textual and para- 
textual evidence, and to see fresh 
connections between different 
facets of Carroll's writing. Chapter 
Seven examines the photograph 
of Alice Liddell as The Beggar-Maid, 
setting it firmly within both the so- 
cial context of the period and the 
development of art photography, 
such as O. G. Rej lander's work, 
which Carroll much admired. 
Chapter Eight focuses on class 
issues, contrasting Carroll's lack of 
novelistic concern about poor chil- 
dren with other popular writers of 
the time, such as Charles Kingsley 
and the now virtually unknown 
Hesba Stretton, \^hose Jessica's First 
Prayer sold vastly more copies in its 
day than did Wonderland. 

Chapter Nine discusses Sylvie 
and Bruno both as a self-revelatory 
text and an example of Carroll's 
desire to write for both children 
and adults. In Chapter Ten we 
are back to marketing, and in 
particular the role of book jackets 
and other paratextual materials. 
Susina deconstructs the design of 
fourteen Alice paperback covers 
and dust jackets, but unfortu- 
nately, illustrations of them are 
not included. (The handsome, 
restrained cover of Susina's own 
book, we can note here, authorita- 
tively conveys that this is a serious 
book about a fun and imagina- 
tive topic.) Continuing the same 
theme. Chapter Eleven moves us 
along to explore how Wonderland 
has been transformed by technol- 
ogy. It is one of the most trans- 
lated texts into hypertext (perhaps 
because it jumps from place to 
place itself) . 


In the final chapter, Jon Sci- 
eszka's "well-intentioned" but 
"wrong-headed" and "exceed- 
ingly strange" book — Walt Dis- 
ney's Alice in Wonderland (Disney 
Press, 2008) — comes in for heavy 
criticism because, Susina says, it is 
based on the wrong pictures (Mary 
Blair's rather than Tenniel's) and 
omits the conversations. 

Because the chapters of Su- 
sina's book originally appeared 
separately ("have accumulated 
over time"), they are sometimes 
repetitive; the book would have 
benefited from more editing. This, 
as well as the inadequate index — 
which has huge gaps and does not 
follow standard practices — may 
reflect publishing economics (as 
does the sky-high price of this vol- 
ume, enough to pick up a couple 
of nice Alices). The meager index 
is a true shame in a book so rich 
in detail and broad in thought. 
There also are a few small errors 
of fact. For example, Blackburn 
and White used Wilfred Dodgson's 
abridgment of Sylvie, not one of 
their own devising, in Logical Non- 
sense, and Wonderland went out of 
copyright in 1907, not 1911. But 
these are of minor concern in this 
most informative, enlightening, 
and highly recommended book, 
an important addition to the 
literature for general Carrollian 
readers as well as academics. 

Alisa V Zazerkale 

Lewis Carroll, translated by 

Nina M. Demurova, illustrated 

by Maxim Mitrofanov 

Moscow: Rosman, 2010 

ISBN 978-5-353-04505-2 

Reviewed by August A. Imholtz, Jr. 

This is a beautifully printed new 
Russian edition of Through the 
Looking-Glass illustrated by Maxim 
Mitrofanov and translated by 
Nina Demurova, who adds an 
afterword on the problems of 
translating Alice into Russian. 
And how delightfully different 
this book — like Mitrofanov's ear- 
lier Alisa V Stranye Chudes (ISBN: 

978-5-353-0388-7), published last 
year by the same press — is from 
so many of the Russian books, 
including Alice translations, of the 
Soviet years of the 1950s and later. 
The paper is good, and the type 
clear, well spaced, and very read- 
able. The illustrations, of which 
there are some 96 (42 of them 
full-page illustrations) are all in 
color — again a marked departure 
from the Alices of the Soviet era. 
Not as simplistic as Greg Hildeb- 
randt's or as threateningly adult 
as Barry Moser's, the illustrations 
are gently playful, of the sort that 
would appeal to young readers, 
who were of course the main au- 
dience for Lewis Carroll's Alice 
books from the very beginning. 
Especially charming are the il- 
lustrations of the Red Queen with 
her chess figure accoutrements, 
including a scepter consisting of a 
fireplace poker with a chess king 
fixed at the tip like a finial (p. 29); 
the contrasting pair of a dapper 
Walrus in a red coat and striped 
morning trousers, surely from 
beyond the North Sea, and a very 
Russian-looking but unusually thin 
Carpenter (pp. 56-57); and the 
crow from Chapter Four making 
off with the White Queen's shawl 
in his long beak at the begin- 
ning of Chapter Five (pp. 66-67). 
Humpty Dumpy is portrayed 
with a most bemused grin and a 
face suggestive of one of the late 
Roman emperors, as he perches 
on a folded chessboard (of the 
sort in which the pieces are stored 
when not in play), instead of being 
shown balanced on his usual dull 
wall (p. 80). Mitrofanov sometimes 
follows Tenniel, with modification, 
but more often departs from him 
with some charming results. The 
concluding acrostic poem, nicely 
worked out in its Russian text (no 
mean feat) , is framed with little 
figures from the story, chess pieces 
included, and the half-visible head 
of Dinah at the bottom of the page 
looking up to see what she started. 

Through the Looking —Glass 

and What Alice Found There 

Lewis Carroll, illustrated 

by Gavin L. O'Keefe 

Ramble House 

ISBN 978-1-60543-432-2 

ISBN 978-1-65043-432-9 

Reviewed by Andrew Ogus 

It must be difficult to resist the 
urge to outdo Lewis Carroll's 
imagination when illustrating his 
books. In this simple edition of 
Looking-Glass, the wasp-waisted 
Red Queen literally, though merci- 
fully briefly, makes Alice an actual 
Pawn. Unlike the other White 
Pawns that appear in the back- 
ground of another illustration, 
she has retained her human head. 
Some charming ideas: like Mer- 
cury, the elephants have winged 
feet, and the Rocking-horse-fly's 
hind legs become his own rockers. 
The curling ribbons and chains 
that recur throughout are a pleas- 
ant touch, but the skeletons and 
skulls are not, nor is the literal 
interpretation of Humpty Dump- 
ty's suggestions for Alice's face. 
The bewildering array of sizes and 
shapes in the illustrations makes 
for an inconsistent layout. A para- 
graph of type brilliantly reversing 
to white out of the black crow is 
sadly marred by not bleeding off 
the page. One wishes for a similar 
use of imagination and greater 
skill throughout. 



11th Hour Ensemble, 

Theatre of Yugen 

San Francisco, September 9-19 

Reviewed by James Welsch 

A new theater piece called Alice 
at the Theatre of Yugen in San 
Francisco ran from September 9 
through 19, directed and "imag- 
ined" by Allison Combs. As a work 
of "movement theatre," it's about 
60% interpretive dance and 40% 
dialogue, easily juggling different 
genres of theater with different 
types of music (from techno to 


folk rock) , and varying levels of 
seriousness and silliness. 

Alice, in her traditional blue 
outfit but played by a leggy adult 
actor/ dancer (Megan Trout), is al- 
ready exhausted on the stage when 
the audience is let in the theater. 
("Is that Alice?" asks a young girl 
behind me, Alice having already 
silendy begun her opening num- 
ber while an usher noisily hobbles 
past her to turn off a loud fan, 
and the audience settles in.) This 
Alice starts out with grown-up 
anxieties, obsessive-compulsively 
counting numbers, and reassur- 
ing herself repeatedly, "okay, okay, 
okay." In contrast to the wildness 
she's about to encounter, we real- 
ize that her troubled state of mind 
at the beginning is her supposed 

Then, instead of a white rabbit, 
she is shaken from her routine by 
a single playing card falling from 
the sky. A tribe of five strange 
savages in rags starts to tease her 
and mess with her mind, taking 

her through the mind-and-body- 
changing adventures of Wonder- 
land, loosely inspired by Carroll's 
book. (While Alice is exploring 
the corridor, before it really gets 
going, the child behind me de- 
clares "This is upsetting because 
it's boring.") Growing, shrinking, 
falling, mushrooms, being stuck in 
a house, scary forests, and all man- 
ner of psychedelic abstractions 
are created by the weird tribe with 
their flexible interlocking limbs, 
in extremely creative ways. Only 
using their bodies, they show us a 
caterpillar sitting on a mushroom, 
and when he sucks on his hookah 
(one of their fingers) , the whole 
mushroom inhales and exhales. 
It's most fun during the wild 
dance numbers with their very 
cool choreography; it drags a little 
during the dialogue, which, as in 
so many Wonderland adaptations, 

is always a lot less clever than Car- 
roll's original. For some reason, 
their amazing Cheshire Cat, very 
feline and Kabuki-ish, sticks closer 
to Carroll's words, and is conse- 
quently much more powerful. 
After Alice has gone native, 
becoming one of the weird savages 
herself, a new square peg (named 
Lewis) also finds himself lost in 
Wonderland. Lewis's unhappy 
anal-lretentiveness makes us real- 
ize what Wonderland is to these 
folks: everything "other" in Ameri- 
can society. Their Wonderland 
is part hippie, part hipster, part 
Burning Man, part mushroom 
trip, totally gay, multicultural, and 
sexy. It has games with no rules, 
self-examination, community, 
humor, and, of course, lots of 
dancing and singing. It's also dirty. 
Uptight Lewis rejects it outright, 
and even Alice eventually wakes 
up. But she's definitely dirtier than 
before her trip to Wonderland. 
("Is she dripping sweat?" asks the 
child behind me.) 


It was inevitable that a connection 
between the Tea Party moveme^ 
and the Mad Tea Party (both 
which were all over the zeitgei 
2010) would be utilized in poHt' 
cartoons, and a few high-profile 
ones should be mentioned. Dr 
Friedman's illustration in the April 
12 issue of the Nation (for Richard 
Kim's article "The Mad Tea Party") 
chose Sarah Palin as the Hare, 
Glenn Beck as the Hatter, and 
Rush Limbaugh in the distance as 
the Cheshire Cat. Edward Sorel's 
stylish illustration in the May 2010 
Vanity Fair (for Richard Linge- 
man's article "The Maddest of 
Mad Tea Parties") went with Lim- 
baugh as Humpty Dumpty, Palin as 
a pink-frocked Alice, Bill O'Riley 
as the Hare, and again Beck as 
the Hatter with a Fox News label 
on his hat. And is that supposed 
to be John McCain as the jowly 
and consternated Caterpillar? The 
Economist put theirs on their cover: 
Palin now as a Kalashnikov-wield- 
ing Alice, Limbaugh as the Hare, 
and a weeping Beck's hat tag now 
reading "Nonsense 24/7." Garry 
Trudeau also made the joke in 
his April 1, 2010, Doonesbury strip, 
when Zonker tells a teabagger, 
"I thought I saw a Mad Hatter," 
and gets the reply, "Different tea 
party. That's Uncle Sam." Alice was 
elsewhere politicized in a cartoon 
by Tom Meyer in the San Francisco 
Chronicle on July 25, with a canna- 
bis-smoking caterpillar discussing 
California's Prop 19 with an obese 

This year the Silver Eye Center 
for Photography in Pittsburgh, 
PA, exhibited two digital photo 
artists inspired by Alice. "These 
Strange Adventures: The Art of 
Maggie Taylor" ran from May 14 
to August 21 and included digital 
images that illustrate the hard-to- 
find Modernbook Editions' AATW 
(2008). Photo montages based 
on Tenniel's AA/W illustrations by 

t> on*esh on a en /,^ 

Abelardo Morell were shown from 
May 7 to June 25. 

The Tinman Gallery in Spokane, 
WA, hosted an "Alice in Wonder- 
land Invitational" from July 30 to 
August 21, 2010. Over thirty local 
artists provided original pieces 
based on AAFW. 

Under the web page heading 
"Tributes and Parodies," artist Jus- 
tin Hillgrove presents an array of 
original cartoon-gothic paintings 
of tea parties, Cheshire Cats, and 
Jabberwocks. The acrylic paintings 
are also available as prints, t-shirts, 
and jigsaws from linked websites. 

Kit Carson, jeweler to the stars and 
creator of a popular and almost 
affordable line of Alice pendants, 
appeared at an exhibition of his 
work held at the Craft in America 
Study Center in Los Angeles on 
June 19, 2010. Carson discussed 
his artistic inspirations, which 
include cowboys, art nouveau, 
desert animals, dragonflies, and, 
of course, Lewis Carroll. 

The British Library 
owns the archive of 
Mervyn Peake's Alice W- 
lustrations, which were 
on display at the West- 
ern Bank Library in 
London from June 30 
to September 29, 2010. 
The British Guardian 
(April 4, 2010) ran 
an article by Vanessa 
Thorpe about Peake's 
surreal Alice art and 
some "previously un- 
seen private letters," called "How 
the devastation caused by war 
came to inspire an artist's dark im- 
ages of Alice." 

Also in London, Wonderland 
Gallery's "Alice Underground Art 
Collection," a preview collection 
by artists Paul Skellett and Pokey 
Pola, was on display October 20 
and 21. As the London Evening 
Standard reported, "The collection 
includes 12 brand new and never 
seen before mixed media images, 
mounted in hand made, hand 
painted baroque frames, a signa- 
ture of both artists." 



The New Kwifea' contained many 
curious references to our man and 
his work during this Carrollian 
bonanza year. Anthony Gottlieb's 
article "Win or Lose: No voting 
system is flawless. But some are 
less democratic than others" (July 
26, 2010) gave Dodgson praise for 
considering voting systems that 
are more fair than, for instance, 
the U.S.'s current winner-take-all 
method, and even brought the 
Liddell family into the discussion. 
Rebecca Mead's article about the 
play Gatz (September 27, 2010) 
included a nice quip from one of 
the director's colleagues in r*? Alice 
adaptations: "Every experimental 
director has to go through an Alice 
in Wonderland thing, and John was 
very lucky to have gotten his out 
very early." Over in the classical 


music department in the August 9 
issue, Alex Ross used the word "ga- 
lumphs" to describe pianist Lang 
Lang's Chopin interpretation. Even 
one of their famously ambiguous 
cartoons had Tweedledum saying 
to Alice, "If it's all right, I prefer 
the name Dave." After some e-mails 
to the blog discussing what the joke 
meant, Clare Imholtz posed the 
classic question, "But is it funny?" 

An ad for whiskey in Harper's 
Magazine (May 2010, pp. 42-43) 
featured an excerpt from Lewis 
Carroll's rare text "Feeding the 
Mind," first published in the same 
magazine in May 1906. 

In conjunction with the release of 
her biography The Mystery of Lewis 
Carroll (St Martin's Press, 2010), 
Jenny Woolf also published a great 
article in the April 2010 Smithson- 
ian, "Lewis Carroll's Shifting Repu- 
tation: Why has popular opinion 
of the author of Alice's Adventures 
in Wonderland undergone such a 
dramatic reversal?" We enjoyed 
the letter to the editor published 
later from a lawyer in California: 
"As an attorney, I think [the ar- 
ticle] did a good job of document- 
ing the modern-day habit of judg- 
ing or casting spurious allegations 
based on hearsay and innuendoes. 
[. . .] Dodgson, unfortunately, can- 
not defend himself, and to smear 
his reputation in such a manner is 
unpardonable' (emphasis added). 

On May 30, 2010, LCSNA member 
Dr. Francine Abeles gave a paper 
on the early development of quasi- 
determinants at Concordia Uni- 
versity. Although not specifically 
on Dodgson, the paper included 
a discussion of his condensation 
method as an algorithm for com- 
puting them. 

Niraj Chokshi, writing for the 
Atlantic online (July 31, 2010) used 
TTLG to demonstrate the inadver- 
tently poetic capacities of Micro- 
soft Word's autosummarize fea- 
ture. ("Alice asked. Alice laughed. 
Alice laughed. Alice pleaded. Alice 
explained.") He was inspired by 
new media artist Jason Huff, who 

has autosummarized the 100 most 
downloaded copyright-free books. 
Ten years ago we did the same 
with AAm^ (XL 63:20). 

Issue 48 (Fall 2010) of Bitch Maga- 
zine, "The Make-Believe Issue," 
included "Alice in Adaptation- 
Land — How wanderer Alice be- 
came warrior Alice, and why." In 
the well-written article, Kristina 
Aikens made the interesting point 
that Carroll's curious Alice is more 
of a feminist icon than Burton's 
Alice, who puts on armor, kills the 
Jabberwock, and seeks to colonize 

The April 2010 edition of The 
Lion and the Unicorn (Volume 34, 
Number 2) contained two book 
reviews that mentioned Lewis Car- 
roll. Anne Lundin reviewed Marah 
Gubar's Artful Dodgers: Reconceiving 
the Golden Age of Children's Literature 
(Oxford University Press, 2009), 
and Dorothy Clark reviewed Jan 
Susina's The Place of Lewis Carroll 
in Children's Literature (Routledge, 
2010). Clark described the latter 
book as "a rich analysis that inte- 
grates a prodigious understand- 
ing of Carrollian scholarship and 
cultural history." See our review 
on p. 49. 

Both poems in the September 
2010 edition oi Asimov's Science 
Fiction used AA/W themes as their 
central metaphors. "The Now We 
Almost Inhabit" by Roger Dutcher 
and Robert Frazier used the 
Cheshire Cat and Alice's changing 
size "as images of changeable reali- 
ties," and LCSNA member Ruth 
Berman's poem "Egg Protection" 
(mistakenly called "Egg Produc- 
tion" in the table of contents) 
used "the pigeon's opinion of 
long-necked Alice as a predatory 
serpent as the opinion of birds in 
general regarding humans." 

Sen Wong's unpublished manu- 
script, "Hijacking Alice: Under- 
ground Logic and Mirror-Image 
Language," described as "a chap- 
ter-by-chapter interpretation of 
the logico-philosophical ideas" in 
the Alice books, is now available 

online. The manuscript contains 
the depressing disclaimer that it 
was rejected by publishers in the 
U.S. and U.K. in 2003, and that 
a book containing research very 
similar to his was later released 
by one of those publishers. He is 
making the manuscript available 
online to "protect the authorship 
of [his] ideas." 

Leigh Van Valen, whom the New 
York Times called an "Evolutionary 
Revolutionary" in their obituary 
on October 30, died on October 
16 this year at age 76. His most 
famous hypothesis, which explains 
why some organisms develop two 
sexes, was named after the Red 
Queen from TTLG. See "The Red 
Queen Principle" in AL 55:11. 

Speaking of Looking-Glass, Book 
and Magazine Collector for Decem- 
ber 2010 has named it one of 
the Top 50 Funniest Books of All 
Time, listed chronologically at #6 
between The Life of Samuel Johnson 
and Three Men in a Boat. This must 
mean TTLG is at least fifty spots 
ahead of AAIW'in the official rank- 
ings of funniest books. Perhaps 
the comedinati are still puzzling 
over the Hatter's riddle? 



A few copies of Burton in Under- 
land: Carrollian Reviews, collected 
and edited by Clare Imholtz and 
Byron Sewell (Force 5 Press: Hur- 
ricane, WV), a 28-page booklet 
published in an edition of 42 
copies, are available from Byron 
Sewell, P.O. Box 425, Hurricane 
WV 25526, for $5.00 each post- 
paid. This privately published 
booklet includes reviews of and 
reflections on Tim Burton's Alice 
in Wonderland by thirty members 
of the LCSNA. 

For those who like their cook- 
books macabre and strikingly 
illustrated. Recipe for Murder: Fright- 
fully Good Food Inspired by Fiction 
by Esterelle Payany (Flammarion, 
ISBN 978-2080301642) will be 


perfect. Thirty-two literary villains, 
including the Queen of Hearts, 
inspire sinister recipes. Three little 
pigs in a blanket accompanied by 
Brutus 's Caesar salad? Yum. 

One of the fanciest computer- 
animated trailers for a book we've 
ever seen is for French illustra- 
tor Benjamin Lacombe's pop-up 
children's stories (including A/e'c^) 
called R etait unefois. It's available 
from French publisher Seuil, and 
is also being published in Italian as 
Cera Una Volta. 

Campfire Graphic Novels, a pub- 
lishing house out of New Delhi, 
India, released an AA/Was part of 
their large and expanding series of 
comic versions of classics, myths, 
biographies, and originals. The 
adaptation ($9.99, 72 pages, full 
color) is by Lewis Helfand, with 
art by Rajesh Nagulakonda (who 
has previously illustrated their 
Joan of Arc, The Time Machine, and 
Oliver Twist). Campfire 's mission 
statement: "It is night-time in the 
forest. A campfire is crackling, and 
the storytelling has begun. In the 
warm, cheerful radiance of the 
campfire, the storyteller's audi- 
ence is captivated. Inspired by this 
enduring relationship between a 
campfire and gripping storytell- 
ing, we bring you four series of 
Campfire Graphic Novels. . ." A 
noble cause, but isn't reading 
comic books by firelight a bit hard 
on the eyes? 

The Folio Society has published 
a facsimile of the original manu- 
script oi Alice's Adventures under 
Ground. The print run will be 
limited to 3,750 hand-numbered 
copies, each clad in goatskin and 
gold and priced at $179.95. 

Safely confined in Arkham Asy- 
lum, the Joker has plenty of time 
to recount scurrilous stories of Bat- 
man's greatest enemies. That's the 
premise of DC Qormc\ Joker's Asy- 
lum, a series of month-long weekly 
"one-shots," which in August 
featured the Mad Hatter, a creepy, 
buck-toothed weirdo obsessed with 
hats, tea, 2ir\d Alxct. Joker's Asylum 

II: Mad Hatter #1 was written by 
Landry Quinn Walker and drawn 
by Keith Giffen. The consolidated 
Joker's Asylum: Volume II (ISBN 978- 
1401229801) will be published in 
January 2011. 

Volume 1 of a new zine from 
Oakland and Berkeley writers. The 
Benevolent Otherhood, contains a 
nonsense poem by S. Sandrigon 
mentioning Tweedledee and Twee- 
dledum. The poem, "Sacred Mas- 
sacre," took some inspiration from 
Jon A. Lindseth's article \n_KL 83, 
"A Tale of Two Tweedles." 

The opening of AA/Wwas featured 
in magazine ads for "100 Classic 
Books" for Nintendo DS. That's 
right, you can now read Lewis Car- 
roll's classic book on your small 
portable gaming device. 

Inevitably, a graphic novelization 
of Burton's Alice in Wonderland was 
released this summer by Disney 
and Boom Studios, with stylish art 
by the suavely monikered Massi- 
miliano Narcisco. 

Los Angeles author Mel Gilden re- 
leased his middle-grade children's 
book The Jabberwock Came Whiffling 
directly as an e-book for the Ama- 
zon Kindle ($3.99). In the story, 
Albert finds himself in the Tulgey 
Wood amongst borogoves, snarks, 
Alice, et al., on a quest to slay the 
title's monster. 

Another new self-published novel 
found in the endless catalogues of has the amusing title 
Straight out of Lewis Carroll's Trash 
Can: A Jonathan Tollhausler Adven- 
ture, by Michael J. Rumpf (ISBN 
978-0615398082, $15.99). 

Our spies have found several Lewis 
Carroll references in Barbara Clev- 
erly 's 2008 mystery novel Folly du 
Jour (ISBN 978-1569475133). Mr. 
Dodgson, a cafe named LeLapin 
Blanc, the Red Queen, Alice, and 
a hole into Wonderland all make 


An impressive 66 "Celebration of 
Mind" parties were organized by 
Gathering4Gardner, to honor the 
CarroUian giant Martin Gardner 
(October 21, 1914-May 22, 2010) 
on what would have been his 96th 
birthday this year. The website used Google maps 
to help people find the celebra- 
tion nearest them, from Buenos 
Aires to Aurangabad, India. And 
@g4g-com was always a-twitter with 
updates on the preparations. 

What would Dickens blog? There 
have been rumors that serializa- 
tion, which flourished in the Victo- 
rian era, will be burbling back into 
the mainstream because of the way 
people digest media in the post- 
blogging age. In the vanguard, a 
graphic novel called Namesake is 
being serialized on the Web every 
Tuesday, Thursday, and Saturday. 
Its creator, Isabelle Melan^on, 
promises that Alice and other 
Lewis Carroll characters will fea- 
ture prominently. "" Namesake is the 
story of Emma Crewe, a woman 
who discovers she can visit other 
worlds. She finds out that these 
are places she already knows — fan- 
tasy and fairy lands made famous 
through the spoken word, litera- 
ture, and cinema." 

At the other end of the webcomics 
spectrum is a series called Here We 
Come A-Carrollinghy Doctor Ran- 
domness at Webcomics Nation. It 
seems inspired by David Rees's style 
of cut-and-paste Web strips {My New 
Fighting Technique Is Unstoppable and 
Get Your War On) , except that it uses 
Tenniel's illustrations as the stock 
images to which irreverent text 
bubbles are added. 

Geoff Martin from the UK Lewis 
Carroll Society has a new website 
called Lewis Carroll 1st Editions. It 
contains many pictures and ex- 
panding encyclopedic information 
on the subject. 

NewsBiscuit, an online Onion- 
esque gazette with the motto 
"the news before it happens. . ." 
published an article titled "Mad 
Hatter, Dormouse Elected to Con- 


gress in Tea Party Landslide" on 
November 3. Taking the joke to 
the nth degree before it gets old, 
the article quoted the Red Queen 
and Mock Turtle, and referenced 
the Lobster Quadrille. Illustrating 
the article was a picture of Johnny 
Depp's Hatter with new Republi- 
can House Majority Leader John 
Boehner's orange face photo- 
shopped beneath the famous hat. 


Please Ma 'am, is this New Zealand ? 
If Alice really had fallen right 
through the earth, the owners of 
Larnach Castle, New Zealand's 
only casde, like to think she 
might just have ended up in their 
garden. Since the 1930s, an in- 
creasing number of Wonderland 
touches have been added to the 
35-acre grounds, which are open 
daily to the public. 

Oxford Storypods, creators of an 
AA/Waudiobook, held a com- 
petition for nonsense poetry in 
the CarroUian vein. The winning 
poems, "Wishful Thinking" by 
Ruth Smith and "The Ffrig of 
Frogimar" by Hugh Timothy, have 
been professionally recorded by 
former LCSNA president Andrew 
Sellon and are available as a free 
download from the Oxford Story- 
pods website. 

Kathryn Beaumont, voice of both 
Disney's Alice and Wendy from 
Peter Pan, appeared at the Walt 
Disney Family Museum in San 
Francisco on May 22, 2010, to 
share her memories as a voice-over 
artist. The actress, who turned 72 
this year, was recently heard in 
the video game "Kingdom Hearts 
Birth by Sleep" as the voice of 
"Kairi's Grandma." She will also 
be introducing the special feature 
"Through the Keyhole: A Com- 
panion's Guide to Wonderland" in 
the digital remastering of the 1951 
film to be re-re-re-released in Feb- 
ruary 2011.. 

If you like to talk about cabbages 
and kings with your meal before 
you eat it, you might investigate 
The Walrus and the Carpenter 
Oyster Bar in Seattle. According 
to the website, the new restaurant 
is "located at the South end of 
Seattle's Historic Ballard Avenue 
in the newly renovated Kolstrand 
building," which "will be the 
perfect home for this rustic, light- 
filled, oyster haven." We hope 
every dining experience will also 
include ruminations on innocence 
and death. 

There was an exhibit at the Veluws 
Museum Nairac in Barneveld, 
Netherlands, from June 12 
through October 30. It celebrated 
the many looks of Alice, featuring 
illustrations from Tenniel through 
Camille Rose Garcia. They also 
claimed to have had "een bijzon- 
dere Aboriginal uitgave" (an Ab- 
original special edition?) . In addition 
to the art, visitors were invited to 
make "a journey through Wonder- 
land, where a number of themes 
and life-size figures are depicted. 
See yourself in the strange mir- 
rors, sliding into the perpetual tea 
party celebration with the Mad 
Hatter and the March Hare and 
take a look at the animal room" 
(translated from the Dutch using 
Google Translate). 

The Mayor of Aliso Viejo in Or- 
ange County, CA, is happy to be 
accused of living in an "Alice in 
Wonderland" world. In his State 
of the City address on October 
13, he declared, "Aliso w Won- 
derland" before holding a staged 
conversation with a dubbed video 
of Johnny Depp as the Mad Hatter. 
City dignitaries then posed for pic- 
tures with Wonderland characters 
hired for the occasion. 

From June 5 through July 23, 
there was an exhibition at Lon- 
don's East Central Gallery called 
"Memoria Technica," with some 
thematic connection to the 
memory device Carroll helped to 
develop. The show featured art by 
David Adika, Zadok Ben-David, 

Clarissa Cestari, Carlos Garaicoa, 
and Vivienne Koorland. 

A la Bibliotheque Frontenac in 
Montreal, as part of Festival litteraire 
international de Montreal Metropolis 
bleu, there was an exhibit called 
''Alices et merveilles'' from April 21 
through 25. The ''festival dans le 
festivaV featured many children's 
activities in addition to the library's 
collection of some of Carroll's 
letters. The 27th Annual Montreal 
Antiquarian Book Fair, held at 
Concordia University on Septem- 
ber 25 and 26, also had a Lewis 
Carroll theme. Noted Carroll col- 
lector Luc Gauvreau opened the 
event and displayed items from his 
extensive collection. 

LCSNA member Sue Welsch dis- 
played highlights from her Lewis 
Carroll collection at the Incline 
Village Public Library in Incline 
Village, Nevada, on Lake Tahoe, 
from November 3 until December 
30. Welsch, who used to teach 
a class at Sierra Nevada College 
called "The Logic and Literature 
of Lewis Carroll," also delivered a 
talk at the library on December 18. 

Jon Stewart and Stephen Colbert's 
Rally to Restore Sanity and/or 
Fear in Washington, DC, on Oc- 
tober 30, attracted a crowd about 
250,000 strong, with many of the 
postmodern protesters wielding 
witty, apolitical, and/or absurd 
signage. Riffling through the 
archives, we found a few Carroll- 
related ones, including "Humpty 
Dumpty Was Pushed!"; "We're All 
MAD Here" beneath a picture of 
Disney's 1951 Cheshire Cat; "Dodo 
Never Feared Anything (Now 
Extinct)"; "The Mad Hatter Wants 
His Tea Party Back!" and "Don't 
Believe Everything You Think!" 

On November 15, the Leonard 
Joel Auction House in Sydney, Aus- 
tralia, attempted to sell a facsimile 
of Under Ground, along with what 
was described as "part of a poem 
about bats," written on a single 
sheet of paper in Carroll's unmis- 
takable scrawl. The sale was not 
successful, but LCSNA-member 


efforts to decipher the poem were. 
Visit our blog Far-Flung Knight to 
read the poem. 

Could this be the last time the 
Knight Letter reports on goth 
rocker Marilyn Manson's long- 
dreaded naughty Charles Dodgson 
project? With necessary hesitation, 
perhaps yes? Phantasmagoria: The 
Visions of Lewis Carroll was to star 
ginger-haired 22-year-old model 
Lily Cole as the often-naked Alice 
Liddell, alongside Tilda Swinton. 
Manson was also psyched to an- 
nounce that he was using "pos- 
sibly illegal" editing techniques 
to flash graphic images into the 
audience's subconscious. Now the 
studio claims to have permanendy 
shelved the project after a leaked 
R-rated trailer repulsed YouTube 
viewers, and it is widely believed 
that this tantalizing movie will 
never see the light of day (unless, 
as we think is possible, repressing 
it is all part of the plan) . 

Speaking of pornography, this 
was definitely a cash-cow year for 
Alice in the adult film industry, 
with at least three major hardcore 
Wonderlands. One of the more 
creative ones to date appeared to 
be Cal Vista's Alice starring Sunny 
Lane, set in a nightclub called 
"The Hole." 

The DVD of Tim Burton's Alice in 
Wonderland W2LS released on June 1, 
2010. And if you hadn't heard, Dis- 
ney did quite well from this flick, 
now their third biggest hit, behind 
only that other Johnny Depp ve- 
hicle Pirates of the Caribbean: Dead 
Man 's Chest and Toy Story 3. It cur- 
rently is the sixth highest-grossing 
film of all time worldwide {Avatar, 
Titanic, and The Lord of the Rings: 
The Return of the King complete 
places one to five), and has earned 
more than a billion dollars. 

The magazine Cinefex, "the fine- 
qualityjournal documenting 
cinematic special effects" (not to 
be confused with Sinefex, which is 

about the videogame version of 
Dante's Inferno) had a thirty-page 
spread about the special effects in 
Tim Burton's Alice in Wonderland. 
The article, "Down the Rabbit 
Hole" by Joe Fordham, featured 
33 color photographs, "many 
showing how scenes were staged 
and visually processed." 

The Hunting of the Snark, 2l new film 
directed by Michael McNeff and 
narrated by the great Christopher 
Lee, is in post-production and set 
to be released in 2011 by Vorpal 
Pictures. It's billed as an "adapta- 
tion of Lewis Carol's (sic) The 
Hunting of the Snark [using] cutting 
edge technology to successfully 
capture the story's enchanting 
world on the big screen." So far, 
information about this movie and 
the mysterious McNeff himself has 
been about as difficult to research 
as, well, a you-know-what. 

It may interest you to know that 
there are many things called "Mal- 
ice in Wonderland," including a 
1985 Elizabeth Taylor movie, a 
2009 Snoop Dogg hip-hop album 
(technically Malice N Wonderland), 
and a "Malice in Wonderland 
Adult Dark Goth" Halloween cos- 
tume. One Malice in Wonderland 
that seems to have fallen through 
the cracks, though, is a 2009 film 
with Maggie Grace (from Lost) and 
Danny Dyer, directed by Simon 
Fellows and released May 2010 
on DVD. In this "Modern Twist 
on a Classic Tale," Grace's Alice 
is an heiress living in London, 
the White Rabbit becomes Dyer's 
Cockney cab driver named Whitey, 
and the tarts are prostitutes. 

In the July 4, 2010, New York Times, 
there was an article on the History 
Channel television program "Pawn 
Stars," which is about a Las Vegas 
pawn shop. The article featured 
the following titillating anecdote: 
"Shelby Tashlin of Las Vegas 
walked to the counter clutching a 
boxed edition of Alice in Wonder- 
land containing an etching and 12 
lithographs by Salvador Dali. Ms. 
Tashlin 's opening thrust: the Dali 

prints were limited in number. Mr. 
Harrison's parry: 'He's pretty well 
known for fudging numbers.' . . . 
Ms. Tashlin wanted $10,000. Mr. 
Harrison asked if she had taken a 
httle blue pill, and offered $5,000. 
She politely declined and walked 
away still clutching Alice in Wonder- 
land. 'I was hoping it would go the 
other way, but I'm not surprised,' 
she would tell a reporter later." We 
recommend Ms. Tashlin pursue 
other avenues to sell her Dali Alice. 

In Chicago, a "crew of motley ec- 
centrics (including Alice)" hunted 
the Snark in the United States pre- 
miere of a play called Boojum! Non- 
sense, Truth, and Lewis Carroll. (We 
understand the "Nonsense" and 
the "Lewis Carroll," but will with- 
hold judgment on the "Truth.") 
Described as "part existential 
musical theater and part fantasy 
adventure story," it was created by 
Australian play-writing and com- 
posing team Martin Wesley-Smith 
and Peter Wesley-Smith (whose 
identical last names are either 
an extraordinary coincidence, 
or else not a coincidence at all). 
Co-presented by Caffeine Theatre 
and Chicago Opera Vanguard, 
the show ran from November 18 
through December 19, 2010, at the 
Chicago Department of Cultural 
Affairs Storefront Theater. In con- 
junction with the show, Caffeine 
Theatre hosted"01d Father Wil- 
liam's Frabjous and Curious Poetry 
Contest"; the winning poems were 
performed at the Lewis Carroll 
Coffeehouse in the Storefront 
Theater on November 29. 
Snarks were also hunted in New 
York at the Manhattan Repertory 
Theater's Fall Fest, September 16 
through 19, in an adaptation by 
Katie Dickinson. That production 
of The Hunting of the Snark prom- 
ised "all the zaniness one can an- 
ticipate from Carroll's world." 

Atmos Theatre, a volunteer-run 
theater company in San Francisco, 


CA, adapted AAIW for its ninth 
season of "Theatre in the Woods." 
The show was performed as part of 
a guided hike through a redwood 
forest and ran every Saturday and 
Sunday in August and through 
September 19 in Woodside (a few 
cities south of San Francisco). The 
adaptation was written by Brian 
Markley and directed by Amy 
Clare Tasker. 

An update on Wonderland: The 
Musical, from Jekyll df Hyde com- 
poser Frank Wildhorn: It's coming 
to Broadway! After another run in 
Tampa Bay in January 201 1, it will 
move to New York City, and start 
previews on March 21 at the Mar- 
quis Theatre. The "heartwarming 
and spectacular" (heartwacular?) 
new musical is about an adult 
modern-day Alice who journeys 
"to Wonderland and the Looking- 
Glass World where she must find 
her daughter, defeat the Queen 
and learn to follow her heart. . ." 

The Yale Dramatic Association 
(Dramat) staged underclassman 
Oren Stevens's new play Phantom- 
wise, which weaves together the life 
of Alice Liddell with her fictional 
adventures. It ran October 7-9 at 
the Yale Repertory Theatre. Appar- 
endy, it is only the second time in 
modem memory that Dramat has 
produced a student-written work, 
so, congratulations Mr. Stevens! 

The first American production of 
Ron Nicol's Beware the Jabberwock 
was at the Playhouse Children's 
Theater Company in Belfast, ME, 
in April, and the work was subse- 
quently staged at the Wean Per- 
forming Arts Center in Danbury, 
CT, in May. The nonsensically fun 
and whole-family-friendly play has 
been published by Baker's Plays, a 
subsidiary of Samuel French, Inc. 


Bloomsbury Auctions generated 
a considerable amount of hype 

around their sale of "the long-lost 
Wasp in the Wig letter" on May 
27 this year, and it paid off hand- 
somely: The letter sold for £51,240 
(around $81,800)— the world re- 
cord for a Tenniel letter and well 
over double the £20,000 estimate. 
But who bought it? 

If you weren't the lucky bidder, 
you could craft your own more 
affordable CarroUian correspon- 
dence with Graphic 45 's "Hallow- 
een in Wonderland" paper collec- 
tion. The paper designs feature 
"spooky" modifications of Tenn- 
iel's illustrations, including becob- 
webbed mushrooms and Tweedle 
twins jack-o'-lanterns. 

Prospero Art's AA/Wembossed 
collector's tin is possibly the first 
tin ever to have its own promo- 
tional YouTube video. The limited 
edition tin is sold as a package ei- 
ther with two decks of Alice playing 
cards, a jigsaw puzzle, or both. 

A husband-and-wife artistic duo, 
collectively known as Cart Before 
the Horse, creates "fine folk art" in 
the form of quirky hand-painted 
posable figurines. "Cirque du 
Wonderland," a cool commission 
featured on their website, includes 
a Mad Hatter strongman lifting 
teapot dumbbells and a Cheshire 
Cat acrobat standing on its head 
(literally) . 

The Victorian Trading Company 
sells a variety of AA/Wthemed 
Victoriana, including garden 
statues and jewelry. To this range 
they have added theater-quality 
costumes, including an elaborate 
Queen of Hearts gown, complete 
with hoop and tulle petticoat, 
and, for around $250, "Alice's 
Blue Dress," a detailed replica of a 
Victorian girl's dress, available in 
three adult sizes. 

The Black Apple 's Paper Doll Primer 
by Emily Martin is a paperback 
book filled with paper dolls, paper 
clothes, and creative cut-and-play 
projects, including a paper the- 
ater. Alice is there too. (Potter 
Craft, ISBN 978-0307586568) 

Toy maker Funko has added 
Alice, the Mad Hatter, the 
Cheshire Cat, and the White 
Rabbit to its range of Wacky Wob- 
bler bobble-heads. Remember to 
brake smoothly, or it really will 
be "off with their heads. . ." They 
also have a line of "Plush" soft 
toys, now including a button-eyed 
Alice, Mad Hatter, Cheshire Cat, 
and White Rabbit. All look accept- 
ably cuddly and just a little creepy. 
Between $9 and $15 from 

Dollmasters is an online treasury 
of artist-made toys for collectors 
and very, very good children. 
Recent additions to their catalog 
include two finely dressed Alice 
dolls, an "Alice and the Pink Fla- 
mingo" hanging ornament, and 
mechanical music boxes in which 
Tweedledum and Tweedledee 
dance to "Tea for Two" when 
wound with a little key. 

Classico San Francisco has created 
a range of magnets, postcards, 
and mugs using Angel Domin- 
guez's watercolor illustrations for 
the 1996 Artisan edition of AAIW 
(available only through resellers). 

Finally: Were you looking for a 
place to buy life-sized cardboard 
cutouts of Tim Burton's Alice, Hat- 
ter, Red Queen, and the Tweedles? 
Try Advanced Graphics, "The 
Home of Cardboard People." 

Checkmate Chess Sets sell five 
AAIW-xhemed chess sets. The 
crushed marble and resin pieces 
are made in England but can be 
purchased in dollars online. $157 
and up. 

Gump's of San Francisco went 
all-out on Alice-related gifts in 
this year's winter catalog. Two full 
pages of merchandise include 
Glass ornaments, puzzles, and sofa 



"The method employed I would gl&dly explain, 
While I have it so clear m my head, 
If I had but the time and you had but the brain - 
but much yet remains to be said. 
"In one moment I've sttn what has hitherto been 
Enveloped In absolute mystery, 
And without extra charge I will give you at large 
A Lesson In Natural History." 

Two extraordinary, and quite differ- 
ent, interpretations of "The Hunting 
of the Snark. "Above: Thanks go to 
Oleg Lipchenkofor a preview of his 
not yet published interpretation; some 
o/" Aw Wonderland illustrations can 
be seen in KL 80 (cover, article on pp. 
16-19). Left: A sampling ofMahen- 
dra Singh 's illustrations can also 
be seen in KL 81 (cover, pp. 4, 37), 
and his recent book is the subject of a 
review on p. 47.